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CLARK, L. PIERCE: A Study of Primary Somatic 

Factors in Compulsive and Obsessive Neuroses . 150 

DAVIES-JONES, C W. S.: A Case of War Shock Re- 
sulting from Sex-Inversion 240 

FARNELL, FREDERIC J.: Erotism as Portrayed in 

Literature " 396 

FLOURNOY, H.: Dreams on the Symbolism of Water 

and Fire . 245 

FLOGEL, J. C: On the Character and Married Life of 

Henry VIII 24 

FREUD, SIGM.: One of the Difficulties of Psycho- Ana- 
lysis 17 

FREUD, SIGM. : The Psychogenesis of a Case of Female 

Homosexuality 125 

FREUD, SIGM.: "A ChUd is Being Beaten" 3.71 

JONES, ERNEST: Recent Advances in Psycho- Analysis 161 

JONES, ERNEST : A Linguistic Factor in English Character- 

ology 256 

MARTIN, L. C: A Note on Hazlitt 414 

MASON-THOMPSON, E. R.: The Relation of the Elder 

Sister to the Development of the Electra Complex 186 

OBERNDORF, C. P.: Reaction to Personal Names . . 223 

OPHUIJSEN. J. H. W. VAN: On the Origin of the 

Feeling of Persecution 235 

SACHS, HANNS: The Wish to be a Man 262 

STARCKE, AUG.: The Reversal of the Libido-Sign in 

Delusions of Persecution 231 


BRYAN, DOUGLAS: Freud's Psychology 56 

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BRYAN, DOUGLAS: An Instance of the Care Needed 

in Drawing Conclusions 268 

BRYAN, DOUGLAS: Word-Play in Dreams 423 

JONES, ERNEST: The Symbolism of Being Run Over 203 

JONES; ERNEST: A Substitutive Memory 273 

LOW, BARBARA: A Revived Sensation-Memory ... 271 
OBERNDORF, C. P.: Ambivalence in a Slip of the 

Tongue 204 

PREGER, J. W.: A Note on William Blake's Lyrics. . 196 

RIVIERE, MRS. JOAN: Three Notes 200 

X.: A Trivial Incident 420 



LITERATURE IN ENGLISH, by C. Stanford Read 68 

PSYCHO-ANALYSIS, by Estelle Maude Cole . . 205 

Hitschmann 275 


NEUROSES AND PSYCHOSES, by Karl Abraham 280 

Ophuijsen 285 


Ferenczi 294 


Hug-Hellmuth 316 

LITTERATURE FRANCAISE, par Raymond de Saus- 

sure 424 

THE LITERATURE IN DUTCH, by A. Starcke ... 445 
ITALIAN LITERATURE, by Edoardo Weiss .... 455 


ARNOLD-FOSTER, H. O.: Studies in Dreams .... 483 

BOUSFIELD, PAUL: The Elements of Practical Psycho- 

Analysis 324 

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BRADBY, M. K.: Psycho-Analysis and its Place in 

Life 205 

CLODD, EDWARD: Magic in Names 334 

COBB, IVO GEIKIE: A Manual of Neurasthenia (Ner- 
vous Elxhaustion) 330 

HEALY, WILLIAM: The Individual Delinquent ... 337 
HOLLINGWORTH, H. L.: The Psychology of Functional 

Neuroses 487 

KAPLAN, LEO: Grundzflge der Psychoanalyse .... 328 

KIMMINS, C. W.: ChUdren's Dreams 481 

LAY, WILFRID: Man's Unconscious Conflict 205 

LAY, WILFRID: The Child's Unconscious Mind ... 205 
LOW, BARBARA: Psycho- Analysis, A Brief Account of 

the Freudian Theory 205 

MARETT, R. R.: Psychology and Folk-Lore 485 

MILLER, H. CRICHTON: Functional Nerve Disease . . 332 
MORDELL, ALBERT: The Erotic Motive in Litera- 
ture 477 

PUTNAM, J. J.: Human Motives 328 

RALPH, JOSEPH: Psychical Surgery 487 

READ, C. STANFORD: Military Psychiatry in Peace and 

War 329 

RIVERS, W. H. R.: Dreams and Primitive Culture . . 333 
RIVERS, W. H. R.: Instinct and the Unconscious . . 470 
SCHLEITER, FREDERICK: Religion and Culture. . . 336 
TANSLEY, A. G.: The New Psychology and its Rela- 
tion to Life 478 

TRIDON, ANDRE: Psycho-Analysis, Its History, Theory 

and Practice 476 

WALLIN, J. E. WALLACE: Problems of Subnor- 

mality 338 

WALSH, WILLIAM S.: The Psychology of Dreams . 480 
WHITE, WILLIAM A.: Mechanisms of Character For- 
mation 205 









OPEN LETTER, by S. Fercnczi 1 



NOTES 340 






Inaugural and Business Meetings 208 

Dr. K. ABRAHAM: Forms of Expression of the Female 

Castration Complex 342 

Dr. HELENE DEUTSCH: On the Psychology of Suspicion 343 

Dr. a. STARCKE: The Castration Complex 345 

Dr. von HATTINGBERG: Transference and Object 
Choice; their Significance as regards the Theory of 

Instinct 346 

J. C. FLOGEL, B. a.: On the Biological Basis of Sexual 

Repression 347 

Prof. G. JELGERSMA: A Psycho- Analytical Contribu- 
tion to the Theory of Feeling 349 

Dr. HANNS SACHS: Day-Dreams in Common. ... 349 
Dr. THEODOR REIK: The strange God and one's own 

God 350 

Dr. GltZA r6HEIM: Central Australian Totemism . . 351 
Dr. ERNST SIMMEL: Psycho- Analysis of the Gambler 352 
Prof. SIGM. FREUD: Supplements to the Theory of 

Dreams .-.,.,., 354 

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Dr. S. FERENCZI: Further Extension of the Active 

Technique in Psycho-Analysis 354 

EUGENIA SOKOLNICKA: On the Diagnosis and Symp- 
tomatology of the Psycho-Analytical Theory of 
the Neuroses 355 

Dr. GEORG GRODDECK: On the Psycho-Analytic treat- 
ment of Organic Illnesses 356 

Dr. L. BINSWANGER: Psycho-Analysis and Clinical 

Psychiatry 357 

Dr. a. STARCKE: The Relations between Neuroses and 

Psychoses 357 

O. PFISTER: The Significance of Psycho-Analysis for 

Constitutional Law and Political Economy. . . . 358 

Dr. SABINA SPIELREIN: On the Question of the Origin 

and Development of Speech 359 

Dr. MARGARETE STEGMANN: Form and Content in 

Psycho-Analysis 360 

Dr. HERMINE HUG-HELLMUTH: On the Technique of 

the Analysis of Children 361 

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Among the many reconstructive problems awaiting the "Inter- 
national Psycho-Analytical Association** after its long period of 
enforced inactivity I judge none to be more urgent or important 
than the reconsideration of the position of our literary organs. It 
has become evident that, in view especially of the remarkable in- 
crease of interest in Psycho-Analysis in America and England 
during the past few years, the Internationale Zetschrijt fiir drzt- 
liche Psychoanalyse can no longer be expected satisfactorily to 
fulfil its function as the international organ, at least on its former 
lines. Various possibilities of re-organization suggest themselves, 
such as, for instance, the publishing of a duplicate organ in Ger- 
man and English, but, after having been able at last to communicate 
again and consult with my presidential colleagues, I have decided that 
the most satisfactory method would be to found a distinct Journal in 
the English language, in close contact with the Zeitschrift, and if 
possible under a similar editorship. The new Journal would rank 
equally with the Zeitschrift and Imago as an official organ of the 
^'International Psycho-Analytical Association'', with special reference 
to the English-speaking public, and would contain the official Reports 
of the Association. As — with the present difficulties and delays in 
communication and arrangements — it will take many months 
work to issue the first number, I have considered it my duty not 
to wait for the next Congress before making a start in the matter, 
but to set this in motion at once, leaving it then to the Congress 
to make any suggestion it may think desirable. I have therefore 


asked one of our present editors, Dr. Ernest Jones, who from his 
central geographical position and knowledge of the conditions in 
different directions seemed the most suitable person, to undertake 
this task, and he has consented to do so, as also to act for me 
as President of the "International Psycho-Analytical Association" 
until the next Congress. I shall leave in his hands, in collaboration 
with Dr. Otto Rank, the working out of the technical details, and 
conclude what I have to say here with expressing my warmest 
wishes for the success of the new venture, on the future of which 
so much will depend. 

Budapest. October 1919 S. FERENCZI, M. D. 

President of the International Psycho- 
Analytical Association. 

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We propose to say here something about the history and aims 
of the new Journal. In the past two years it has been repeatedly 
suggested, by workers in both America and England, that the time 
was ripe for the establishment of a special Journal in English de- 
voted to Psycho-Analysis and this was also independently recog- 
nised by the editors of the Internationale Zeitschrift fiir drztliche 
Psychoanalyse. The question was discussed, indeed, but postponed, 
at the last International Congress, at Munich in 1913. The main 
consideration, though not the only one, that has made this 
increasingly imperative is the unexpectedly great progress in recent 
years of the interest taken in our Science by readers not familiar 
with the German language, and the desirability of making accessible 
to them the latest researches in the subject It has long been evi- 
dent that a periodical published mainly in German could not in- 
definitely subserve the function of an official international organ, 
and, since interest in Psycho-Analysis has extended from German- 
speaking countries to English-speaking countries far more than to 
any other, it was only a question of time when such a Journal 
as the present one would have to be founded : with the cessation 
of the war, the resumption of scientific activities, and the re- 
establishment of contact between different countries, that time may 
be judged to have now arrived. 

Of the suggestions referred to above, more than one were to 
the effect that a Psycho-Analytical Journal be founded as a private 
venture. The present Editor and others have advanced against this 
idea the following considerations. The multiplying of independent 
journals in the same subject, wasteful in its duplication of reviews 
and other editorial work, correspondingly restricted in circulation, 
and productive of much unnecessary trouble to readers who wish 
to search the literature, is in general one of the banes of scientific 
work ; a strongly supported central organ, systematically and 
comprehensively codifying all that is published on the given sub- 
jects, is in every way preferable to inchoate dissipation of effort 
and dispersal of material. With Psycho-Analysis, however, there 


are, in addition to these general reasons, special ones why con- 
centration is highly desirable. The history of Psycho-Analysis has 
once more shewn, as might have been anticipated from a know- 
ledge of human nature, that mankind has two main methods of 
defence against disagreeable truths : the first, more obvious, and 
therefore less dangerous one is direct opposition, the new truths 
being denied as false and decried as obnoxious; the second, more 
insidious, and much more formidable one is to acquiesce in the 
new ideas on condition that their value is discounted, the logical 
consequences not drawn from them, and their meaning dQuted until 
it may be regarded as "harmless'\ The opposition to Psycho- 
Analysis, particularly in America, is assuming more and more the 
second of these forms, under all sorts of specious guises and by 
the aid of various seductive catchwords that appeal to attitudes 
or principles entirely legitimate in themselves, such as "resistance 
to dogma*', "freedom of thought'*, "widening of vision", "re-adjust- 
ment of perspective**, and so on. That this opposition may not 
only be displayed by outside antagonists, but may assume subtle 
forms also amongst those having a nearer acquaintance with the 
subject, has been shewn on two or three notable occasions already 
and will doubtless be shewn again in the future. A notable, and 
perhaps unique, feature of this second form of defence against 
Psycho-Analysis is that it conceals its negative antagonistic nature 
by pretending to develop a more positive attitude towards Psycho- 
Analysis; it makes use of its technical terms. Libido, "repression", 
etc, but in such a way as to rob them of their intrinsic meaning. 
From the standpoint of Psycho-Analysis, therefore, the two forms 
of defence, open opposition and what has been well called "wild 
Psycho-Analysis", must be regarded as fundamentally identical in 
tendency, and will be so treated in this Journal. Psycho-Analysis 
is in quite a different position from other departments of Science, 
such as chemistry, physics, etc, the main principles of which are 
securely based. It follows that those interested in countering these 
disruptive and reactionary tendencies which necessarily accompany 
Psycho-Analysis, and in maintaining and developing hardly-won 
truths so long as these are not contravened by fresh evidence, have 
special motives, no longer requisite or operative elsewhere in Science, 
in cooperating towards a common end; it was indeed because of 
these considerations that the "International Psycho-Analytical 
Association" with its official organs, was founded. It is hoped, 



therefore, that this Journal, like its companion journals the Zeitschrift 
and ImaqOy will serve the purpose of combining and focussing all 
activities for the common aim of the Science of Psycho-Analysis. 
The Journal will not only concern itself with psycho-analytical 
material, but will also critically review all publications dealing 
with the lines of research that diverge from Freud's original work. 
The status of the Journal will be as follows. It will be published 
by the "International Psycho-Analytical Press'', with private financial 
help ; the definite editorship and organization of the "Journal** will 
be arranged at the Congress of the "International Psycho-Analytical 
Association", of which it will rank, equally with the Internationale 
Zeitschrift fiir arztliche Psychoanalyse^ as the official organ. 

It is proposed that the contents of the Journal will be on the 
following lines. They will be confined to the subject of Psycho- 
Analysis and kindred studies having a bearing on Psycho-Analysis. 
They will thus not attempt to cover the whole field of psycho- 
pathology, especially as this is being already done by two journals 
in America, the Journal of Abnormal Psychology and the Psycho- 
analytic Review^ and two in England, the British Journal of 
Psychology (Medical Section) and the Journal oj Neurology and 
Psychopathology. On the other hand, the contents will go beyond 
the clinical sphere and will embrace as well pure Psycho-Analysis 
and the other branches of applied Psycho-Analysis, e. g. its re- 
lation and application to literature, education, mythology, philology, 
sociology, anthropology, and so on. An arrangement has been made 
whereby a mutual exchange of articles, abstracts and other ma- 
terial may be effected between the Journal on the one hand and 
the Zeitschrift and Imago on the other whenever this is found 
suitable. Whenever possible one article in each number will be of 
an elementary and didactic nature. In the first three numbers the 
abstracts and reviews will mainly take the form of collective 
reviews of the psycho-analytical literature published in different 
countries during the past six years ; afterwards they will of course 
be current ones. The official "Reports of the International Psycho- 
Analytical Association" will be published verbatim in both the 
Journal and the Zeitschrift. It is intended to make a complete 
index of the Journal from the beginning, to be published perhaps 
every five years, which will constitute a reference book to sub- 
jects and contents as well as of titles of papers. 

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One of the greatest blows that the young science of psycho- 
analysis has suffered has been the death of Dr. J. J. Putnam, who 
was amongst the staunchest of its supporters. It is our mournful 
duty here to relate a record of his life and career, especially in 
so far as the latter concerns our science. 

Dr. Putnam was born in Boston on October 3, 1846, and was 
therefore just over 72 when he died on November 4, 1918. He 
had a distinguished ancestry from some of the most notable 
families of New England. His father was a well-known physician in 
Boston, and his grandfather was for many years Judge of the 
Supreme Court of the State of Massachusetts. His mothers father, 
who married a Cabot, was Dr. James Jackson, one of the most 
notable figures of his time in American medicine ; Dr. Putnam 
published a memoir of his life in 1905. 

Dr. Putnam graduated at Harvard University in 1866, at the 
early age of 20. Soon afterwards he continued his medical 
education abroad, studying at Leipsic, Vienna, and London under 
Rokitansky, Meynert, and Hughlings Jackson respectively. His 
decision to specialise in neurology was thus early evident, and 
on his return to America he was appointed Lecturer on Nervous 
Diseases at the Harvard Medical School, in 1872. In 1893 he was 
made the first Professor of Diseases of the Nervous System at 
that University, and held the appointment until 1912, when he 
was made Professor Emeritus. The other institution with which 
he was most prominently connected was the Massachusetts General 
Hospital, where he established a neurological clinic and was its 
chief from 1874 to 1909. In the earlier years he maintained a 
neuropathological laboratory in his own house, the forerunner of 
the present Department of Neuropathology at the Harvard Medical 
School. As a teacher of elementary students he was perhaps not 

at his best. The subject was an optional one, Wtis not considered 

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of great practical value, and Dr. Putnam perhaps lacked the 
ability to present complex subjects in an elementary way, the very 
richness of his knowledge and the scrupulous conscientiousness with 
which he attempted to communicate all of it militating against 
complete success. Those very qualities, however, made his teaching 
all the more valuable to more advanced students of the subject. 

Dr. Putnam was the last surviver of a group of men who 
founded the American Neurological Association, in 1874, and 
was also a founder of the Boston Society of Psychiatry and 
Neurology. He took an active share in the work and discussions 
of these societies, as well as of several other medical ones, e. g. 
the Association of American Physicians, the American Psycho- 
pathological Association, and the American Psychoanalytical Asso- 
ciation, throughout his medical career, becoming in turn President 
of most of them. He was undoubtedly one of the pioneers of 
American Neurology, and the lack of sympathy or help with 
which this branch of medicine was at first regarded only served 
to bring out his determination and persistence, both prominent 
traits in his character. He did an enormous amount of original 
research in clinical and pathological neurology and published over 
a hundred papers on it. Perhaps the most notable were his con- 
tributions to the study of neuritis, especially the lead and arsenical 
varieties, and other affections of the peripheral nerves ; he did 
more work on the cord and nerves than on the brain. He wrote 
extensively, but always with painstaking care. He was a master 
of English, and his work would be worth reading if only for the 
language in which it is expressed. 

In the earlier years his professional interests centered around 
the problems of organic neurology, but in the last fifteen years 
of his Hfe they shifted to those of clinical psychology. As will be 
seen from the subjoined bibliography, nine tenths of his writings 
in this field belong to this latter period. The transition seems to 
have been made via the subject of the traumatic neuroses. Both 
because of his commanding position in neurology and because 
of his remarkable uprightness and impartial honesty he was 
extensively called upon to give evidence in medico-legal cases of 
this nature, and his unfailing sympathy, especially with the badly 
understood sufferings of others, soon led him to take a special 
interest in the traumatic neiu^oses. 

The first real contribution to clinical psychfjlpgjr ^stj^s from 1904, 




and, as it is of interest to us in several respects, a short account 
may be given of it With characteristic modesty, the author reviews 
the latest work done in psychotherapy "by special Students of 
the Subject". The opening sentence strikes the note of sympathy 
with neurotic suffering, which at that time was much rarer even 
than at present It runs : "There are but few kinds of disorders 
which interfere more with the happiness of the community than 
those which cause a painful and hampered action of the mind 
though without implying the presence of serious mental derange- 
ment (i. e. insanity)". He goes on to say : "It frequently happens 
that the question of happiness or unhappiness of patients with 
severe forms of neurasthenia (i. e. neurosis) depends largely on 
influences which would ordinarily be classed as social rather than 
medical, though, in fact, the physician can help greatly in 
determining what the outcome of these influences shall be . . . 
The time must surely come when nervousness and even serious 
mental derangements will be regarded in much the same light as 
other forms of illness, and with the growth of such a sentiment 
as this there will be great mitigation of individual suffering," The 
stress here laid on the social aspects of the neuroses was typical 
of his permanent attitude, in sharp contrast to the then prevailing 
narrower medical view of them as a "functional" disorder of the 
brain, and it adumbrated his subsequent activity in widening the 
famous Social Service of the Massachusetts General Hospital to 
include the social care of neurotics, a work which has now become 
a national movement in America, under the name of "Mental 
Hygiene" The best account of the social service movement is 
given in a later article entitled : "The Treatment of Psychasthenia 
from the Standpoint of the Social Consciousness," (No. 10 in 
bibliography), Afler this introduction he reviews the latest work 
of Janet, Prince, and Sidis on the subconscious, and remarks : 
"These studies have taught us that, while we regard ourselves as 
free agents and our mental life as forming one harmonious 
mechanism, no one is really as free, no one's life is so complete 
a unity as he would like to think." He comments on the renewed 
wave of interest in hypnotism with the shrewd remark that "There 
has been, I think, a clearer recognition of the fact that one cannot 
deal satisfactorily with "suggestion" until a great deal more has 
been learned of the nature of the diseases in the treatment of 

which "suggestion" sometimes proves a partial aid." 

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Thus equipped, with insight into the social nature of neurotic 
disorders, with some knowledge of subconscious activities and a 
restless desire to know more about them, with an unusual sympathy 
for neurotic suffering and a remarkable aptitude for opening his 
mind to the ideas of other workers, he approached the works of 
Freud. He seems to have read them attentively in the following 
year, and, although it was about three years before he entirely 
accepted the new theories, he published early in 1906 a paper of 
remarkable interest in more than one respect. In the first place, 
apart from a few reviews of the "Studien'' — amongst which one 
by Mitchell Clarke in Brain in 1898 is always worthy of memory 
— this paper may be said to be the first one on psycho-analysis 
in English, and the first adequate account of it in that tongue. 
He gives an excellent, though brief, summary of the "Studien", 
"Traumdeutung'', and "Psychopathologie des AUtagslebens", and 
comments on them as follows with characteristic generosity : "All 
of the publications are written in a fluent style and with an 
abundance of illustration which give evidence of wide reading, 
general cultivation, and imaginative ability, and have secured for 
him (i. e. Freud) an attentive audience, as well among professional 
psychologists as among neurologists of his own stamp." He relates 
three cases in which he has attempted to apply the psycho-analytic 
method ; as is to be expected, the analyses would rank as quite 
elementary, though by no means devoid of interest He then 
summarises his attitude towards the matter. His criticism is not 
at all of the usual kind, but mainly relates to his doubt, on 
philosophical grounds, whether what is revived from ancient 
memories and emotions constitutes the original ones or rather an 
after-effect of them. On the practical psychotherapeutic side he 
doubts whether the method is necessary except in extreme cases, 
and tries to coordinate it with other methods of substitution 
with which he is more familiar. His "side-tracking'* method of 
treatment was evidently an attempt to increase sublimation, to 
replace the neurotic symptoms by social activities. To sum up, at 
this point he was deeply interested in psycho-analysis, but as yet 

In December 1908 Dr. Morton Prince invited me to be his 
guest in Boston, when I first met Dr. Putnam. On arriving I found 
that I was expected to discuss psycho-analysis before a private 
gathering of distinguished psychologists and neurologists, and 



immediately perceived that Dr. Putnam stood out from the rest 
in his open-minded attitude and the serious desire for knowledge 
with which he plied question after question. These were, as well 
as the almost embarrassing attitude of modesty towards a man 
more than thirty years his junior, the main features of the im- 
pression he produced on me on this first meeting, and the friendship 
thus begun was continuous and close until his death. In the 
following May we collaborated in a symposium on psychotherapy 
held by the American Therapeutic Society at New Haven, and 
by that time I could definitely regard him as a psycho-analytical 
colleague. In August of the same year came the visit of Professor 
Freud, accompanied by Drs. Jung and Ferenczi, to America. He 
joined our company — Dr. Brill was also there — and, like the 
rest of us, derived great benefit both from the lectures and the 
advantages of personal intercourse with Professor Freud. He enter- 
tained the latter afterwards at his summer camp in the Adirondack 
mountains, and I have no doubt that the impressions of that 
stay formed an abidingly pleasant memory for both. 

These events made a turning-point in Dr. Putnam s attitude 
towards psycho-analysis. From that time on he remained a con- 
vinced and enthusiastic adherent, and the greater part of his 
activities in the remaining ten years of his life was devoted to 
extending the knowledge of the new science. In the same year 
he wrote a long essay entitled "Personal Impressions of Sigmund 
Freud and his Work*\ which excited widespread attention in 
America, and from then on he never ceased to expound the 
principles of psycho-analysis before congresses, medical and 
psychological societies, in addresses and courses of lectures, besides 
in voluminous writings. In 1911 he came to Europe, visited 
Dr. Jung at Ziirich — Professor Freud was dso there — 
and read a paper at the Weimar congress, where European 
colleagues had the opportunity of becoming acquainted with 
his personality. 

Although some of his psycho-analytical writings are of con- 
siderable technical interest (especially, for example, Nos. 24, 25, 
30, 43) most of them are of an expository nature. In presenting 
the principles of psycho-analysis, and in discussing the many ob- 
jections that have been raised against it, he excelled, and I do 
not know any one who has matched him in this field. Written in 
a charmingly easy and fluent style, tlie . combination of clear 



conviction with tolerant considerateness for even the most annoying 
of opponents had a peculiarly persuasive effect, and it is to be 
hoped that they will find a more permanent home than in the various 
journals where they are at present scattered. 

His attitude towards the psycho-analytical theory had the 
following special feature, to omit mention of which would be to 
give a very one-sided view of his relationship to psycho-analysis. 
On the one hand he was fully convinced from personal experience 
both of the truths of the individual conclusions reached by the 
application of this method and of their general social importance. 
On the other hand, however, he maintained that it was highly 
desirable, if not absolutely essential, to widen the basis of psycho- 
analytical principles by incorporating into them certain philosophical 
views especially concerning the relationship of the individual to 
the community at large and to the universe in general. He regarded 
this not as a criticism of psycho-analysis, but as a proposed 
enrichment of it ; indeed it was rather a quarrel with science as 
a whole than with psycho-analysis, though for obvious reasons it 
came more to the front in the case of the latter. On this matter 
alone, which evidently meant a great deal to him personally, he 
was really obstinate, and he could never be brought to see how 
it could be possible to take the results of psycho-analytical in- 
vestigations quite empirically without feeling the need to commit 
oneself to any particular philosophical system. For years he 
maintained a steady correspondence with me on this question, 
and I fear it was a genuine disappointment to him that his views 
made so little impression on his psycho-analytical colleagues. To 
me the most remarkable point in the whole affair was that the 
strength with which he held his views made no difference to his 
conviction as to the truth of the details of psycho-analysis ; in 
spite of his desire to fuse science and philosophy, in practice he 
had no difficulty in keeping them apart. I do not know of any 
other example in which philosophical views have not become 
placed in the service of some or other unconscious resistance, 
manifesting themselves in the guise of a sceptical opposition to 
some aspect of psycho-analysis. 

He behaved characteristically as regards the various attempts 
to read another meaning into the results of psycho-analysis. 
Jung^s renunciation of these frankly puzzled him. He could sym- 
pathize with what he called Jung's desire for a broader formulation 


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of psycho-analysis, having a similar tendency himself, but he wrote 
unequivocally : "I cannot in the least sympathize with the rejection 
by Jung of Freud's theories of repression, infantile sexuality, and 
fixation" (No. 42, 1917). Adler's views, which have obtained a wider 
vogue in America — where they count among their adherents no 
less a man than Stanley Hall — gave him more trouble, possibly 
because he had himself many traits in common with Adler's chief 
character-type. He gave his work a very sympathetic hearing and 
discussed it at length before the New York Psychoanalytic 
Society in 1915 (Nr. 40). He gave Adler high credit for his earlier 
ideas on Organminderwertigkeit, etc., but insisted that these were 
in no sense incompatible with the psycho-analytical theory and 
greatly regretted Adler's subsequent rejection of the latter. 

When I put together my personal impressions of Dr. Putnam, 
the following attributes strike me as the most prominent in his 
character. First of all his extraordinarily high ethical standard of 
uprightness, honour, fairness and loyalty. Absolutely correct 
conduct and attitude were to him so natural and obvious that he 
was more bewildered than disapproving when he heard of the 
opposite. He had no trace of the "puritanicaF' intolerance that so 
often goes with a strict moral code. His quite extraordinary 
tolerance extended as much to views as to behaviour. Audi alteram 
partem was a first maxim with him, and the degree of his 
singular open-mindedness, receptivity, and liberality of thought may 
be measured from the fact alone that he became an enthusiastic 
adherent of such revolutionary ideas as those of psycho-analysis 
with which he first entered into close relationship when he was 
over sixty years of age. Equally natural to him was an innate 
modesty of both thought and manner ; so marked was this, indeed, 
that at times it bordered on a slightly morbid self-depreciation. 
He always regarded himself as a beginner, a learner, as primarily 
a student, an attitude much fortified by a restless striving for 

Dr. Putnam was further characterised by a charming amiability 
which was also innate. His considerateness and kindness for others 
were complete, and he could always be relied on to help some 
one else, as I know from my own experience (I may mention 
only one example, how he came to Toronto to support me in a 
symposium on psychotherapy held by the Canadian Medical 
Association, before which a couple of well-known neurologists 

:3y \^:i^ 

•.| I I I Ml I I '.' I I I 



had planned to discredit me). There remains to be mentioned a 
valuable character trait, namely, persistence and determination, one 
which stood him in good stead in many periods of his life, not 
least during the fight to obtain a hearing for psycho-analysis in 
America, Tenacious adherence to convictions won by close thought 
and direct experience, combined with a benevolent tolerance for 
the views of others and a readiness to open his mind at all 
times, make a rare combination in actual life — in spite of the 
fact that most people think they possess them to the full — and 
these Dr. Putnam had in the highest degree. 

Of the place he won in his private circle, in the American 
medical profession, in the development of neurology, in widely 
ramifying social services, it does not become us to speak here. 
To us it is only too clear that we have lost a loyal and gifted 
friend and co-worker, whose name will always be remembered with 
honour and gratitude in the history of psycho-analysis. 


1. "Neurasthenia." In Buck's "Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences", 
1887, vol. V, p. 160. 

2. "Remarks on the Psychical Treatment of Neurasthenia.** Boston Medicaf 
and Surgicaf JournaC 1895, vol. CXXXII, p. 505. 

3. "On the Etiology and Pathogenesis of the Post-Traumatic Psychoses and 
Neuroses", Journaf of Nervous and Mentaf Disease, 1898, vol. XXV, 
p. 769. 

4. "Neurasthenia." In Loomis and Thompson's "American System of Practical 
Medicine", 1898, vol. IV, p. 649. 

5. "The Traumatic Neuroses." In Warren and Gould's "International Text- 
Book of Surgery", 1900, vol. II, p. 979. 

6. "A Consideration of Mental Therapeutics as Employed by special Students 
of the Subject". Boston Medicaf and Surgicaf Journaf, 1904, vol. CLI, 
p. 179. 

7. (With G. A. Waterman). •*Certain Aspects of the Differential Diagnosis 
between Epilepsy and Hysteria", Boston Medicaf and Surgicaf Journaf, 

1905, vol. CLllI, p. 76. 

8. "Recent Experiences in the Study and Treatment of Hysteria at the 
Massachusetts General Hospital ; with Remarks on Freud's Method of Treat- 
ment by *Psycho- Analysis.' " Journaf of ASnormaf PsycBofogy, February, 

1906, vol. I, p. 26. 

9. **The Bearing of Philosophy on Psychiatry, with Special Reference to the 
Treatment of Psychasthenia", Britisfi Medicaf Journaf, October 20, 1906, 
p. 1021. 

C nr^n \i^ Origlnaf from 



10. "The Treatment of Psychasthenia from the Standpoint of the Social Con- 
sciousness.** American Joumaf of t6e Medicaf Sciences, January 1908, 
vol. CXXXV, p. 77. 

11. *The Philosophy of Psychotherapy". PsycBotSerapy, 1908, vol. I, No. 1 ; 
vol III, No. 3, 4. 

12. "The Psychology of Health/* Psy<6ot6erapy, 1908—1909, vol. I, No. 2, 3, 4 ; 
vol. II, No. 1. 

13. "The Service to Nervous Invalids of the Physician and the Minister'*, 
Harvard TSeofogicaf Review, April 1909, vol. I. 

14. "The Nervous Breakdown**, PsycBotSerapy, 1909, vol. Ill, No. 2, and 
Tfie Boston Home and ScBoof News Letters, January 1913, vol. IV, 
No. 2. 

15. "Personal Impressions of Sigmund Freud and his Work, with Special Re- 
ference to his recent Lectures at Clark University'*. Joumaf of ABnormaf 
PsycBofogy, December 1909 and February 1910, vol. IV, p. 293, 372. 

16. "The Relation of Character Formation to Psychotherapy'*, Part of a 
Symposium on Psychotherapy held by the American Therapeutic Society, 
May 6, 1909. Published in a volume entitled '*Psychotherapeutics** by various 
authors (Badger, Boston, 1910). 

17. Introduction to Brill's Translation of Freud's, "Drei Abhandlungen zur 
Sexualtheorie." (Nervous and Mental Disease Monograph Series, New 
York, 1910.) 

18. "On the Etiology and Treatment of the Psychoneuroses**, Boston Medicaf 
and Surg tea f Joumaf, July 21. 1910, vol. CLXIII, p. 75. Read before the 
Canadian Medical Association, June 1910. A Translation appeared in the 
ZentrafBfatt far Psydioanafyse, 1911, Jahrg. I, Heft 4, S. 137, under the 
title "Ober Atiologie und Behandlung der Psychoneurosen'*. 

19. "Personal Experience with Freud's Psychoanalytic Method", Joumaf of 
Nervous and Mentaf Disease, November 1910, vol. XXXVII, p. 657. Read 
before the American Neurological Association, May 3, 1910. A Translation 
appeared in the ZentrafBfatt fUr PsySoanafyse, 1911, Jahrg. I, Heft 12, 
S. 533, under the title "PersOnliche Erfahrungen mit Freuds psychoana- 
lytischer Methode". 

20. '*A Plea for the Study of Philosophic Methods in Preparation for Psycho- 
analytic ^oxV!\ Joumaf of ABnormaf PsycBofogy, October 1911, vol. VI, 
p. 249. Read before the American Psychopathological Association, 
May 10, 1911. 

21. "Uber die Bedeutung philosophischer Anschauungen und Ausbildung fOr 
weitere Entwicklung der psychoanalytischen Bewegung", Vortrag gehalten 
am III. Kongrefi der Internationalen Psychoanalytischen Vereinigung zu 
Weimar, September 22, 1911. Imago, 1912, Jahrg. I, Heft 2, S. 101. 

22. "On Freud's Psychoanalytic Method and its Evolution", Boston Medicaf 
and Surgicaf Joumaf, January 1912, vol. CLXVI, p. 115, 122. Harvey 
Lectures delivered at Philadelphia in 1912. 

23. "Aus der Analyse zweier Treppentraume", ZentrafBfatt fur PsySoanafyse, 
Marz 1912, Jahrg. II, Heft 6, S. 264. 

24. "Ein charakteristischer Kindertraum*', ZentrafBfatt fUr PsySoanafyse, t<^r\\ 
1912, Jahrg. II, Heft 6, S. 328. 

r I « Orrgmaffnonn 



25. "A Clinical Study of a Case of Phobia", Joumaf of ABnormaf PsySo- 
fogy, October 1912, vol. VII, No. 4, p. 277. Contribution to a Sym- 
posium held by the American Psychopathological Association, May 29, 

26. ** Comments on Sex Issues, from the Freudian Standpoint", New Yori 
MedicafJournaC June 15, 1912, p. 1249 and June 22. p. 1306. Reprinted 
in brochure form as No. 2 A of the Boston Medical Library, New York, 
1912. (Pp. 26.). 

27. **Antwort auf die Erwiderung des Herm Dr. Ferenczi" ("Philosophie und 
Psychoanalyse"), Imago, 1912, Jahrg. I., Heft 6, S. 527. 

28. "Physics and Metaphysics", Boston Medicaf and Surgicaf Journal 
January 16, 1913, vol. CLXVIII, No. 3, p. 106. 

29. **Psychoanalyse und Philosophie" (Erwiderung auf das Referat von 
Dr. Thcodor Reik), ZentratBfatt far PsySoanafyse, MSLrz 1913, Jahrg. Ill, 
Heft 6, S. 265. 

30. **Bemerkungen Qber einen Krankheitsfall mit Griselda-Phantasien, Inter" 
nationafe ZeitsdirtftfSr drztfiSe Psydoanafyse, MSLrx 1913, Jahrg. I, Heft 3, 
S. 205. 

31. **Presidential Address", delivered before the American Psychopathological 
Association, May 1913, Journal of ABnormaf PsySofogy, August 1913, 
vol. VIII, p. 168. 

32. "On Some of the Broader Issues of the Psychoanalytic Movement", 
American Joumaf of tSe Medicaf Sciences, March 1914, vol. CXLVII, 
No. 3, p. 389. 

33. **Dream Interpretation and the Theory of Psychoanalysis" (Answer to 
Dr. Meyer Solomon), Joumaf of ABnormaf Psy<£ofogy, April 1914, vol.LK* 
p. 36. 

34. **The Present Status of Psychoanalysis", Boston Medicaf and Surgicaf 
Joumaf, June 11, 1914, vol. CLXX, No. 24, p. 897. Read at a Joint 
Meeting of the Medical Section of the Boston Medical Library with the 
Suffolk District Medical Society, April 1, 1914. 

35. **Serviccs to be Expected from the Psychoanalytic Movement in the Pre- 
vention of Insanity", Joumaf of tBe American Medicaf Association, Novem- 
ber 1914, vol. LXIII, p. 1891. 

36. **Psychoanalysis considered as a Phase of Education", Journ. of Nerv. 
and Ment. Dis., 1914, vol. XLI, No. 666. 

37. Human motives, (p. 179. Little, Brown and Co., Boston, 1915.). 

38. "The Necessity of Metaphysics", Joumaf of ABnormaf PsySofogy^ June 
1915, vol. X, No. 2, p. 88. 

39. "Mental Preparedness." (Massachusetts Society for Mental Hygiene, No. 14, 
Boston, 1916). 

40. "The Work of Alfred Adler, considered with Special Reference to that of 
Freud", PsySoanafytic Review, April 1916, vol. Ill, No. 2. Read before 
the New York Psychoanalytic Society, November 1915. 

41. "On the Utilitation of Psychoanalytic Principles in the Study of the 

l^tmMts\ Joumaf of ABnormaf PsySofogy, August 1916, vol. XI, No. 3, 

p. 172. 

C^ nonl^ OrFginaf from 



42. **Thc Work of Sigmund Freud", Joumaf of ABnormaf Ps^ctofogy, August 

1917, vol. XII, No. 3» p. 145. Read before the American Psychopathological 
Association, May 24, 1917. 

43. "Sketch for a Study of New England Character"* Joumaf of ABnormaf 
PsySofogy, June 1917, vol. XH, No. 2, p. 73. 

44. Introduction to H. W. Frink's "Morbid Fears and Compulsions", 1918. 

45. "The Interpretation of Certain Symbolisms", PsySoanafyttc Review^ April 

1918, vol. V, No. 2. 

46. *Two Cases of Psycholepsy of Emotional Origin, in which Psychoanalysb 
proved of Service in inducing Social Re- Adjustment", American Medicine^ 
February 1918, New Series, vol. XIII, No. 2, p. 105. 

47. "Elements of Strength and Elements ot Weakness in Psychoanalytic 
doctrines*', PsySoanafyttc Review, April 1919. 

Of the foregoing, Numbers 6, 7, 8, 10, 15, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, and 26 
were reprinted in the first five volumes of the Reports of the Harvard De- 
partment of Neurology. Doubtless others were reprinted in the later volumes, 
but I have no means of access to them at the moment. 

C^ €\r\cA{? Orrgmaf from 



SIGM. FREUD, M. D., LL.D., Vienna. 

I may say at the outset that in my title, "One ol the Diffi- 
culties of Psycho- Analysis", I refer not to an intellectual difficulty 
that makes Psycho -Analysis hard to understand, but to an affective 
one which estranges the feelings of those to whom it is introduced, 
and makes them less inclined to accept or be interested in it As 
will be noticed, both difficulties come to the same thing, for it is 
not so easy to understand a subject which one approaches with 
insufficient sympathy. 

As some of my readers may still be strangers to the subject, 
it will be well for me to retrace some of the first steps. In Psycho- 
Analysis, from a great number of individual observations and im- 
pressions, something that may be called a theory has at last been 
formed, known as the Libido Theory. Psycho-Analysis, as is well 
known, occupies itself with the explanation and cure of what 
are called nervous disorders. A mode of approach to this problem 
had to be found, and it was decided to seek for this in the life- 
history of the instinctive tendencies of the mind. Propositions 
concerning these tendencies became, therefore, the basis of our 
conception of nervous disorder. 

The psychology that is taught in the schools gives us little 
satisfaction in answer to questions about the problems of feeling, 
and its information is never more doleful than it is on this 
question of the instincts. 

It was left for us to discover a starting point Hunger and love 
are popularly distinguished as the representatives of the instincts 
which ensure self-preservation and propagation respectively. In 
acknowledging this obvious division, we distinguish in Psycho- 
Analysis also between instincts of self-preservation or Ego-tenden- 
cies on the one hand, and sexual impulses on the other. We call 
the mental aspect of the sexual instinct Libido (sexual hunger), 
this being analogous to hunger, desire for power, etc., in the sphere 
of the Ego-tendencies. 



Starting on this basis, we then make our first significant dis- 
covery. We find that for the understanding of neurotic disorders 
we learn nnore from a study of the sexual impulses than from 
that of any others; in fact, that neuroses are, so to speak, the 
specific diseases of the sexual function. We leam that the quan- 
tity of Libido and the possibility of satisfying it and of disposing 
of it through satisfaction are the factors which decide whether 
a person develops a neurosis or not: that, further, the form of 
the disorder is determined by the particular path of development 
which the sexual function of the individual patient has traversed, 
or — as we put it — by the fixations his Libido has undergone 
in the course of its development: that, lastly, we are able, by 
means of a rather technical form of psychical manipulation, to 
throw hght on the nature of several groups of neuroses, and at 
the same time to resolve them. The greatest success of our 
therapeutic efforts has been with a certain class of neuroses that 
arise from the conflict between the Ego-tendencies and the sexual 
impulses. For, in mankind, it may happen that the demands of 
the sexual impulses, which extend far beyond the individual, appear 
to the Ego as dangers threatening its self-preservation or self- 
respect. When that is so the Ego takes up the defensive, denies 
the sexual impulses the wished-for satisfaction, and forces them 
into those by-paths of a substitutive gratification which constitute 
nervous symptoms. 

The psycho-analytic method of treatment then manages to 
revise the process of repression and to find a better solution of 
the conflict, one compatible with health. Uninformed opponents 
accuse us of being one-sided in our estimation of the sexual im- 
pulses, and call our attention to the fact that there are other 
interests in the human mind beside sexual ones. This, however, 
we have not for a moment forgotten or denied. Our one-sidedness 
is like that of the chemist who traces all compositions to the 
force of chemical attraction: he does not thereby deny the force 
of gravitation; he merely leaves the evaluation of it to the 

During therapeutic work we have to concern ourselves with 
the distribution of the patient's Libido\ we try to discover to which 
ideational objects his Libido has been attached, and to make it free 
so as to place it at the disposal of the Ego. In this way it has 
come about that we have formed a very curious picture of the 



original distribution of human Libido. We have had good grounds 
for inferring that at the beginning of individual development all 
Libido (all erotic impulses, the whole capacity for love) is attached 
to one's own person; as we say, it "engages'' one's own Ego. It 
is only later that, in conjunction with the satisfaction of the main 
natural functions, the Libido reaches out from the Ego to external 
objects, and it is not till then that we are able to recognise the 
libidinous impulses as such and to distinguish them from the Ego- 
impulses. The Libido can be later released from its attachment to 
these objects and again withdrawn into the Ego. The state in which the 
Libido is bound up with the Ego we call Narcissism, after the Greek 
myth of the young Narcissus who was in love with his own image. 

We thus regard the course of individual development as an 
advance from Narcissism to Object-love, but we do not believe 
that the whole Libido ever passes over from the Ego to the objects 
of the outer world A certain amount of it always remains bound 
to the Ego, so that Narcissism survives in a certain degree even 
when Object-love is highly developed. The Ego is a great reservoir 
out of which the Libido streams towards its destined objects and 
into which it flows back again from those objects. The "Object- 
Libido'' was, to begin with, ^'l^gO'Libido'\ and may become so 
again. For complete health it is essential that the Libido should 
retain its full mobility. In picturing this reciprocal relationship 
(between love of others and self-love) we may think of an amoeba, 
whose protoplasma sends out pseudopodia, projections into which 
the substance of the body pours, but which can at any time be 
again retracted so that the form of the protoplasmic mass is once 
more restored. 

What I have tried to indicate by the foregoing is the Libido 
Theory of the neuroses, on which are founded all our conceptions 
of the nature of these morbid states, together with our therapeutic 
methods of dealing with them. We naturally regard the premises 
of the Libido Theory as valid also for the normal We speak of 
the Narcissism of the infant, and it is to the excessive Narcissism 
of primitive man that we ascribe his belief in the omnipotence of 
his thoughts and therefore his attempts to influence the course of 
events in the outer world by the apparatus of magic. 

After this introduction I want to show how universal Narcissism, 
mankind's self-love, has up to now been three times badly wounded 

by the results of scientific research. ^ . , . . 

^ r I . Ungmaf fnonn 



a) In his first thoughts about his dwelling place, the earth, man 
believed that it was the stationary centre of the universe, with the 
sun, moon, and planets circling around it. In doing so he naively 
accepted the impressions of his sense perceptions, for he could 
feel no movement of the earth, and wherever he looked he found 
himself in the centre of a circle that encompassed the world of 
his vision. He took the central position of the earth to be a visible 
mark of its dominance in the universe, and this appeared to be 
in good accord with his proclivity to feel himself lord of this world. 

We connect the destruction of this narcissistic illusion with the 
name and work of Copernicus in the sixteenth century. Long before 
him the Pythagoreans had already questioned the privileged position 
of the earth, and Aristarchos of Samos, in the third century B. C, 
had stated that the earth was much smaller than the sun and 
moved around it Even the great discovery of Copernicus, therefore, 
had already been made before. But when it achieved general recogni- 
tion, human self-love suffered its first blow, the Cosmological one. 

b) In the course of his cultural development man achieved a 
dominating position over his animal fellow-creatures, but, not 
content with this supremacy, he began to place a gulf between 
their nature and his own. He denied to them all reasoning power, 
arrogated to himself an immortal soul, and pretended to a divine 
descent, which allowed him to sever all bonds of community with 
the animal world. It is curious that this conceit is still as foreign 
to the child as to the savage or to primitive man; it is the outcome 
of a later pretentious development. The savage, on the level of 
Totemism, has not found it repugnant to trace back his stock to 
an animal ancestor. Myth, which contains the deposit of this old 
mode of thought, gives the gods animal shape, and the art of the 
earliest times pictures them with the heads of animals. The child 
perceives no difference between his own nature and that of the 
animals. He is not astonished at animals thinking and talking in 
fairy tales. A feeling of fear that applies to his human father he 
displaces on to a dog or a horse, without thereby intending to 
depreciate his father. Only when he is grown-up has he become 
so far estranged from animals that he can use their names to 
insult people. 

We all know that, only a little more than half a century ago, 
the research of Charles Darwin, his collaborators and predecessors, 

put an end to this presumption of mankind. Man is not different 

r I.. .-...M...-3lfrom 



from, or better than, the animals; he is himself the outcome of 
an animal series, related more closely to some, more distantly to 
others. His later acquirements have not been able to efface the 
evidences, in both his physical structure and his mental dispositions, 
of his equality with them. This is the second, the Biological^ blow 
to human Narcissism. 

c) The third blow, which is of a psychological nature, is the 
most painful. 

However humbled he may be externally, man feels himself to 
be sovereign in his own soul. Somewhere in the heart of his Ego 
he has set up an organ of observation which watches over his own 
impulses and actions, to see whether they accord with his demands. 
If they do not so accord they are inexorably restrained and 
withdrawn. His inner perception, consciousness, gives the Ego news 
of all important occurrences in the working of the mind, and the 
Will, guided by these reports, carries out what the Ego directs, 
modifies what is prone to accomphsh itself independently. For this 
soul is not a simple thing, being rather a hierarchy of superordinated 
and subordinated agents, a labyrinth of impulses urging to action 
independently of one another, corresponding with the multiplicity 
of instincts and of relations to the outer world, many of the 
impulses being opposites and incompatible with one another. For 
satisfactory functioning it is requisite that the highest agent should 
know all that is preparing, and that its Will can penetrate 
everywhere to exert its influence. But the Ego feels itself certain 
both of the completeness and trustworthiness of the reports and 
of the capacity of his commands to reach their destination. 

In certain disorders, in the very neiu^oses that have been 
studied by us, it is otherwise. The Ego feels itself uneasy; it comes 
across limits to its power in its own house, the soul. Thoughts 
suddenly emerge, the source of which one does not know, and one 
can do nothing to drive them away. These foreign guests seem 
to be even more powerful than those subordinated to the Ego; 
they resist all the well-tried powers of the Will, remain unmoved 
by logical refutation, untouched by the contradictions of reality. 
Or there come impulses which are like those of a stranger, so 
that the Ego disowns them; but it has to fear them and to take 
precautions against them. The Ego says to itself: This is a disease, 
a foreign invasion. It intensifies its watchfulness, but it cannot 
understand why it feels so strangely paralysed^rjginaffrQrn 




Psychiatry denies, it is true, that such occurrences mean a 
penetration of evil foreign spirits into the mind, but for the rest 
it only says with a shrug: Degeneration, hereditary disposition, 
constitutional inferiority! Psycho-analysis, on the other hand, under- 
takes to throw light on these uncanny disturbances, engages in 
careful and laborious investigations, devises auxiliary conceptions 
and scientific constructions, and finally it can say to the Ego: 
"Nothing foreign has entered into you; a part of your own mind 
has withdrawn from your knowledge and from the command of 
your Will, That is why you are so weak in defending yourself. 
You are fighting with one part of your strength against the other 
part, and cannot gather up your whole force as you would against 
an outer enemy. And it is not even the worst or the less important 
part of your mental forces that have become so opposed to you 
and independent of you. The blame, I have to say, rests on you 
yourself. You overestimated your strength when you thought that 
you could do what you liked with your sexual impulses and that 
you did not need to take the least notice of their aims. Then they 
have rebelled and have gone their own dark ways to free them- 
selves from oppression. They have claimed their rights in a manner 
that you can no longer sanction. How they have brought this 
about and along what paths they have gone you have not learned; 
only the results of their work, the symptom that you feel as 
suffering, has come to your knowledge. You do not recognise it 
then as a product of your own banished impulses, and you do not 
know that it is a substitutive gratification of them. 

"The whole process, however, is only made possible through 
one circumstance, namely that you are mistaken on another point. 
You are assured that you learn of all that goes on in your mind, 
if it is only important enough, because your consciousness then 
reports it to you. And if no news has reached you about something 
in your mind, you confidently assume that it cannot exist there. 
Indeed, you regard "mental" as identical with "conscious", i. e. 
known to you, in spite of the most evident proofs that there must 
constantly be much more going on in your mental life than can 
be known to your consciousness. Come, let yourself be taught on 
this one point. What is mental in you does not coincide with 
what you are conscious of; whether something goes on in your 
mind, and whether you hear of it, are two different things. Usually, 
I will admit, the news service to your consciousness is enough for 


your needs, and you may nurse the illusion that you will learn 
of all the more important things. But in some cases, for instance 
in the case of such a conflict of impulses as I have mentioned, 
the service fails, and your Will then does not reach further than 
the extent of your knowledge. But the news received by your 
consciousness is in all cases incomplete and often not to be relied 
on; often enough, also, it happens that you get news of the events 
only when they are over and when you can no longer alter them. 
Even if you are not ill, who can estimate what is stirring in your 
soul whereof you learn nothing, or are wrongly informed? You demean 
yourself like an absolute ruler who contents himself with the infor* 
mation given by his highest officials, and does not go down to the 
people to hear their voice. Look into the depths of your own being 
and learn first to know yourself, then you will understand why 
you had to fall ill, and perhaps you will avoid falling ill." 

Thus Psycho-Analysis has wanted to teach the Ego. But both 
the explanations — that the life of the sexual impulses cannot be 
wholly confined; that mental processes are in themselves unconscious 
and can only reach the Ego and become subordinated to it through 
incomplete and untrustworthy perception — amount to saying that 
the Ego is not master in its oivn house. They represent jointly the 
third injury suffered by mankind's self-love, which I should like to 
call the Psychological one. No wonder, therefore, that the Ego does 
not favour Psycho-Analysis, and obstinately refuses to believe in it. 

Probably very few have realised with what momentous import 
for Science and Life the recognition of unconscious mental processes 
is fraught. It was not Psycho-Analysis however, let us hasten to 
add, that was the first to make this step. Renowned philosophers 
may be cited as predecessors, above all the great thinker Schopen- 
hauer, whose unconscious **Wiir* may be equated with the "mental 
impulses" of Psycho-Analysis. It was the same thinker, by the way, 
who in words of unforgettable force reminded men of the 
significance of their sexual straining, so invariably underestimated. 
Only that Psycho-Analysis does not stay at abstractly affirming 
the two theses so painful to Narcissism — the psychical significance 
of sexuality and the unconsciousness of mental life — but rather 
proves them by means of a material that touches every individual 
personally and forces him to face these problems. And that is just 
why it brings on itself the aversion and opposition which still spare 
diffidendy the names of the great philosophe^.j '^^^^^^^1^ 


VOL, 1—2 


I. C FLOGEL, B.A., London 

It is doubtful whether the married life of any monarch in the 
world^s history has aroused such interest and attained such notoriety 
as that of Henry VIII. In popular estimation the relations of 
King Henry to his wives probably outweigh in fascination all 
other features of a lengthy and momentous reign ; while even to the 
professed historian the study of Henry's six marriages — closely 
connected as they are with events of great importance occurring 
at a particularly critical period in the cultural and political deve- 
lopment of Europe — must also be of very considerable impor- 
tance. No apology is needed therefore for attempting a further 
treatment of this theme — even in brief and summary fashion — 
if by so doing we can throw a few fresh rays of hght upon the 
factors which were at work in producing the events recorded in 
this page of history ^ 

A well known historian, commenting on the long series of 
Henry's matrimonial experiences, has justly remarked that "a single 
misadventure of such a kind might have been explained by acci- 
dent or by moral infirmity. For such a combination of disasters 
some common cause must have existed, which may be, or ought 
to be, discoverable''*. It has seemed to the present writer that 
the common cause in question is to be found largely in certain 
constant features of Henry's mental hfe and character, the proper 
understanding of which concerns the psychologist as much as the 
historian* It is in the hope of indicating the nature of some of 
the more important of these constant features that the present 
short essay has been written. The conclusions at which it arrives are 

* I am indebted to my wife for first proposing a psycho-analytic treat- 
ment of this subject and for valuable suggestions during the work. My 
thanks are also due to Miss N. Niemeyer for much kind advice as regards 
the historical works to be consulted. 

» J. A. Froude, History of England, II, p. 469. 

3y Google 



tentative only, and are put forward with all the diffidence that is 
due to the circumstance that the writer is very well aware of the 
shortcomings of his historical knowledge and training. The histo- 
rical materials bearing on the reign of Henry VIII are now very 
numerous, and would require years of patient study for their ade- 
quate assimilation : indeed it is evident that their complete eluci- 
dation and evaluation at the hands of historians are as yet far 
from being accomplished. Much that is here suggested may there- 
fore have to be revised, both as the result of expert historical 
criticism and of an increased understanding of the relevant facts. 
The application of psychological knowledge to the task of inter- 
preting the events of history will however certainly constitute a 
very necessary piece of work for future scholarship, and as a 
small addition to the relatively few attempts that have been made 
in this direction, the following suggestions as to the nature of the 
psychological influences at work in the married life of Henry VIII 
may perhaps be of some interest both to psychologists and to 

It is unfortunate that, in spite of the many known facts which 
bear upon the adult life of Henry VIII, our knowledge of his 
early life is very slender. The researches of Freud and of the wor- 
kers of his school have shown that a knowledge of the events of 
childhood and of youth is a very valuable aid to the interpre- 
tation of the mental characteristics of later years. In the case of 
Henry VIII however we have to be content with few facts and 
those mostly connected with affairs of state but little calculated to 
throw light on questions of Psychology. 

Henry was bom in June, 1491, and was the fourth of his pa- 
rents' five children, the earlier children being Arthur (Henry's 
only brother), Margaret (^afterwards Queen of Scotland), and Eli- 
zabeth (who died in infancy), while the single younger child was 
Mary (afterwards Queen of France and, later. Duchess of Suffolk). 
Henry's father (Henry VII) had ascended the throne of England 
as the result of his triumph over Richard III in the last battle of 
the War of the Roses, and by his able and successful rule of 
24 years had definitely put an end to that bloody and disastrous 
struggle. He had claimed the throne by right of inheritance and 
conquest ; but to add to the strength of his position he had 
married Elizabeth of York, eldest daughter of Edward IV, uniting 
thus the rival houses whose dissensions had devastated England 



for the preceding thirty years. There was indeed a difficulty in 
the match, inasmuch as Henry and Elizabeth were within the pro- 
hibited degrees of affinity (both being descended from Catherine, 
wife of Henry V), a papal dispensation being necessary before the 
marriage could legally be made. Henry however, anxious no 
doubt for the additional security of title which the marriage would 
provide, did not wait to receive the dispensation, and the wed- 
ding was celebrated a few months after he ascended the throne — 
the dispensation fortunately arriving shortly afterwards. 

Throughout the reign there were not wanting efforts of rival 
claimants to the throne to displace Henry from the position he 
had won, nor uprisings on the part of a people grown ill used to 
long periods of settled government. The long conflict between the 
rival roses did not give place suddenly to an era of assured inter- 
nal peace, but,. in dying, continued for many years to manifest 
itself in minor upheavals which formed a continual menace to 
the sovereignty of the first of the Tudors. Henry, it is true, suc- 
cessfully weathered every storm that threatened to engulf him, 
and was in the main upheld by the great majority of his subjects, 
who realised that his rule was the only alternative to a return of 
anarchy and civil war. Nevertheless, we cannot but suppose that 
the difficulties and dangers which surrounded his father^s throne 
must have exercised a powerful influence over the younger Henry's 
mind. The envy with which, even in ordinary families, a son is 
apt to look upon the superior powers and privileges of a father, 
is liable to be intensified when the father enjoys the exceptional 
influence and honour appertaining to a king. Under these circum- 
stances any threat to the father's authority almost inevitably arouses 
in the son the idea of superseding the father. 

In the present case such ideas were liable to be still further 
reinforced by the following facts: — first, that the mother s claim 
to the throne (and therefore of course that of her children) was 
regarded by confirmed Yorkists as superior to that of the father; 
and, secondly, that the marriage of the parents was not a happy 
one; the behaviour of the elder Henry being in general much 
wanting in warmth and affection towards his consort, in spite of 
the good looks, piety and learning by which die latter is reported 
to have been distinguished. 

The conditions were thus favourable 1) for the arousal in 
young Henry's mind of the hope and the desire to succeed to his 

C^ nf^nlr' Orrginaf from 



father's place of authority (tendencies which may have been still 
further strengthened by the fact that he was invested at a tender 
age with various high offices — a device of his father's for con- 
centrating as much power as possible in his own hands). 2) for 
the development of a powerful Oedipus complex, i. e. the desire 
to get rid of the father and possess the mother in his stead: the 
cold relations between mother and father and the beauty and 
goodness of the mother both constituting strong incentives to 
that desire. 

The hostile feelings towards the father which may well have 
arisen under these circumstances were however, in the case of 
young Prince Henry, fated to suffer to a large extent a process 
of displacement on to the person of his elder brother Arthur. To 
ambitious younger sons the privileges of primogeniture are always 
irksome; particularly so, it would seem, in the case of royal 
families, where the privileges in question are so exceptional in 
nature. In the present case young Henry's title to succeed his 
father was of course barred by the presence of Arthur — a prince 
who seems to have possessed qualities and abilities not inferior 
to those of his younger brother, and whose future reign was 
destined, in the hopes of many persons, to mark the opening of 
a new period of peace and prosperity, free from tlie unhappy 
dissensions of the immediate past*. 

In 1501, when Henry was ten years old, Arthur, himself then 
only just fifteen, was married to Catherine of Aragon, daughter 
of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile. Henry himselt 
was no mere spectator at the wedding ceremony, but led his 
sister-in-law and future wife to the altar. At her formal reception 
into England six weeks earlier, he had already played an equally 
important part. It is not improbable that these events induced in 
Henry some degree of jealousy towards his brother, thus adding 
a sexual element to the more purely personal envy which may 
well already have existed. To meet a comely girl and to hand 
her over with much ceremony to a brother — a brother who 
already appears to possess more than a fair share of the good 
things of life — is a procedure which is well calculated to arouse 

* This hope was indicated in the very choice of the name of the young Prince 
of Wales — a name which aroused no painful or exciting memories of the 
period of civil war, but which was associated with noble traditions of remoter 
BritUh history. ^^ Original from 

■:>y<j>^ _\\^ 


28 I. C. FLUGEL 

an emotion of this kind. Students of folklore and legend are 
familiar with the not infrequent type of story in which a situation 
of this sort is represented — the young hero being despatched 
to welcome, and escort to her new home, the bride destined for 
the prince or king — stories which usually end with the awakening 
of illicit love between the hero and the lady, whose hand is 
already promised to another. In the light of later events we may 
perhaps be permitted to suppose that Henry, in spite of his youth 
did not altogether escape the temptations to which his legendary 
predecessors in the same office had succumbed, and that the sex- 
ual elements of the Oedipus complex (which, as we know, are 
present in every child, and which, as is abundantly clear to the 
psycho-analyst, find expression in the legends in question) received 
in this way an additional motive for the transference on to brother 
and sister-in-law respectively of the feelings originally directed 
on to father and mother. 

Arthur and Catherine had but litde time in which to enjoy 
their married life. For a few months they kept a merry court as 
Prince and Princess of Wales at Ludlow Castle, and then Arthur 
succumbed to an attack of the sweating sickness which was 
ravaging the Welsh borders, leaving Henry therefore as the 
legitimate successor to the throne^. 

Immediately on the receipt of the tragic news, Catherine's pa- 
rents — unwilling to abandon the diplomatic advantages offered 
by the marriage of their daughter to the English heir-apparent — 
started negotiations for the marriage of the young widow to her 
still younger brother-in-law. A marriage of this kind was of course 
forbidden both by earthly law and heavenly injunction ; but fortu- 
nately a dispensation from the Pope was capable of overcoming 
both these obstacles. Henry's father too was not imwilling for the 
match : but a dispute arose over Catherine's dowry, part only of 
which had been paid. Ferdinand not only refused to pay theba- 

* In later life Henry showed a very lively fear of the sweating sickness 
— a fear which has exposed him to a charge of cowardice at the hands of 
unfavourable historians. If, as seems to be the case, this fear was a some- 
what isolated and unusual feature of his character, it would seem not un- 
reasonable to suppose that its abnomial strength was due to the notion of 
a talion punishment — an idea often found in the unconscious levels of the 
mind: in other words, that Henry was afraid lest the same sickness which 
had unexpectedly swept away his rival (thus gratifying his desires of greatness) 

would in turn prove the means of his own undoing. 

r . V i.,.i. ^ ...I. y... II from 



lance, but even demanded the return of the part already paid, 
while Henry VII on his side required the whole of the dowry as 
originally contemplated. 

While the dispute was still in progress, Henry VII became a 
widower and thereupon proposed, as a fresh solution of the problem 
that he himself should marry Catherine. Whether this proposal was 
an earnest one or not, it was certainly calculated to stir the 
Oedipus complex in young Henry^s mind, by bringing him into a 
situation of such a kind that he could scarcely but regard him- 
self as in some sense a sexual rival of his father, while at the 
same time it was likely to reinforce the transference of the mother- 
regarding feelings on to Catherine. 

Whatever its ultimate psychological effects may have been, the 
proposal was undoubtedly successful as an immediate diplomatic 
measure. Ferdinand and Isabella moderated their terms with regard 
to the dowry : the marriage of brother and sister-in-law appeared 
eminently respectable as compared with the more shocking union 
of father and daughter-in-law, and the marriage treaty between 
young Henry and Catherine was definitely settled, it being arranged 
that the wedding should be celebrated as soon as Henry should 
have attained his fourteenth year. 

But the death of Isabella shortly afterwards induced Henry VII 
to repent of this arrangement There were various claimants for 
the crown of Castile and the whole political situation became for a 
time uncertain and obscure. The alliance with Ferdinand lost much 
of its attractiveness, a variety of fresh schemes for the marriage 
of young Henry were freely discussed and on the eve of his 
fifteenth birthday he solemnly repudiated the marriage contract 
which he had previously signed. 

Three years later however, in spite of various projects, no 
further betrothal had been made. Meanwhile Henry VII had reached 
the end of his career, and on his deathbed seems to have rever- 
ted to his original plan as regards the younger Henry's marriage. 
The dying king exhorted his son to complete the long projected 
and much delayed union with his sister-in-law, and gave at the 
same time sundry other pieces of advice, most of which Henry 
took well to heart Indeed there can be but little doubt that a 
tendency to follow the repressed wishes of his dead father — a "post- 
poned obedience" of the kind with which psycho-analysts are 
familiar — formed a by no means unimportant element in Henry's 

30 I. C. FLUGEL 

character during the earlier years of his reign. Among his other 
deathbed wishes Henry VII expressed the desire that his son 
should defend the Church, make war upon the Infidel, pay good 
heed to his faithful councillors and (perhaps also) that he should 
put out of the way Edmund de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, the 
nearest White Rose claimant to the throne. The troubled state of 
European politics prevented young Henry from making war on an 
extensive scale upon the Turk\ but the other behests he truly 
carried out Henry, throughout his early years (and indeed in some 
sense throughout his life) was much concerned to preserve the 
true religion and the institution of the Church ; both by his deeds 
and by his written words he fought against all doctrines and ten- 
dencies which he regarded as heretical. So great indeed was his 
ardour in this direction that he won from the spiritual head 
of Christendom the title of Defender of the Faith — a title 
borne by his successors to this day. With regard to councillors, 
his dependence on their approval and advice (and especially on 
that of Wolsey) in the first half of his reign is notorious ; while de 
la Pole, imprisoned from the first, was executed four years after- 

If in these matters Henry obeyed the dying wishes of his father, 
he was no less willing to follow the latter 's instructions as regards 
marriage, especially perhaps, in this case, because these instructions 
coincided with the tendencies emanating from his own unconscious 
Oedipus complex ; enabling him in this way to combine a 
conscious obedience to the behests of filial piety with a reali- 
sation of unconscious desires connected with hostility and jealousy 
towards his father and brother. The marriage was indeed hurried for- 
ward with almost indecent haste, being celebrated in a little over 
a month after the elder Henry's death. A few days later the young 
couple were crowned King and Queen with much splendour and 
ceremony in Westminster Abbey. 

Henry having now succeeded to the throne in his eighteenth 
year, a variety of circumstances combined to make his position in 
some ways an exceptional one in the whole history of English 

^ It should be noted however: — 1) that his very first military under- 
taking was of this kind (the expedition of 1511 to co-operate with his/atSer- 
in-faw Ferdinand against the Moors ; 2) that Henry declared that **he 
cherished like an heirloom the ardour against the Infidel which he inherited 
from his father" (A. F. Pollard. Henry VIII, p. 54). 

(^ i\i\tMi^ -■■ginaffrcinn 



monarchy. He was the only surviving son of his father and 
it was generally recognised that in his person were bound up 
all hopes of freedom from internal discord. The Wars of 
the Roses were by now sufficiently distant to make the claims 
of other possible aspirants to the throne appear unsubstantial 
as compared with the firm de facto rights of the Tudor family, 
while at the same time the memory of those wars was still 
strong enough to make even a tyrannous exercise of royal 
power seem preferable to the alternative of civil war or anar- 
chy. Added to these circumstances tending to make Henry's 
power as King more than usually absolute were other factors 
of a more personal nature. Henry possessed abilities and qualities 
xmusual in degree and number and of such a kind as to 
make him as a prince intensely popular. All contemporary 
authorities agree in describing him as exceptionally handsome, 
tall, strong, skilful and talented in arts and letters, with a very 
special degree of aptitude for all the manly sports and 
exercises of his age. Englishmen of the sixteenth century had in 
their way as much affection for a true "sportsman'' as those of 
the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and Henry's popularity 
with many of his subjects was, as one historian suggests*, pro- 
bably not less than that which would at the present time fall to 
the lot of a young monarch who was a hero ofthe athletic world, 
"the finest oar, the best bat, the crack marksman of his day". 
Henry moreover was very fond of all kind of social festivity and 
merriment, delighting in sumptuous display and courtly ceremony 
— qualities which, though they eventually led to difficulties through 
the extravagance which they engendered, yet appeared at first 
a welcome contrast to the somewhat austere and parsimonious, 
regime of his father. 

This combination of happy circumstances may well have 
fostered in the young King an undue development of the positive 
*self-regarding" and self-seeking motives, the tendencies calculated 
to lead to such development being in his case greater even than 
are those to which most youthful rulers are exposed. Nevertheless, 
although fully conscious both of the prerogatives due to his 
circumstances and station and of his own personal abilities, he 
seldom (especially during the early part of his reign) became harsh, 
overbearing tyrannous, or disrespectful of the advice or opinions 

» Pollard, op. cit. pag. ^1- i OrFgmaffrom 



of others. His self-reliance and self-will were happily tem- 
pered by a sound appreciation of the nature and extent of 
the forces — psychological and sociological — with which he 
had to deal, and by a certain piety and regard for persons 
or bodies carrying the weight of constitutional or traditional 

Psycho-analysts will be inclined to regard this last characteristic 
as a displacement of tendencies and feelings originally directed 
to the person of his father. We have already seen some evidence 
of this in connection with the carrying out of his father's deathbed 
wishes. Henry's reliance on his councillors — Warham, Wolsey, 
Cromwell and others — , his persistent desire to proceed in 
accordance with, rather than against, legal and constitutional 
authority, his anxiety to gain the approval of, and — later — to 
conciliate, the Pope, may all very probably be correctly regarded 
as further manifestations of this side of his character — a side 
which is of great importance for a true appreciation of his 
personality, and one which may easily be overlooked on a first 
casual view of his career. 

These two sets of motives — the egoistic and the venerative 
we may perhaps, for the sake of brevity, be allowed to call 
them — through their conflicts, interactions and combinations 
probably played a very weighty r61e in determining Henry's 
conduct, and through this, of producing many of the outstanding 
features — political and domestic — of his reign. We shall have 
occasion to refer to them more than once in our examination 
of the subsequent events of his life. 

To return now to the history of Henry's married life : — The 
early years with Catherine seem to have been gay and happy. 
Only very gradually did Henry become dissatisfied and super- 
stitious as regards the union with his sister-in-law. No doubt a 
variety of causes contributed to the eventual rupture, which did 
not begin till 1527 — 18 years after the celebration of the 
marriage. Catherine, in spite of some excellent qualities, was 
tactless, obstinate and narrow-minded, and had not that (real or 
apparent) pliability and subservience which Henry, in virtue of his 
egoistic tendencies demanded in a consort. Worse than this, 
Catherine appears to have suffered from a father-fixation of some 
strength, in virtue of which she was unable to transfer adequately 
her loyalty and affection from her parents and the land of her 



birth to her husband and the land of her adoption^ For many 
years she wrote to her father in the most pious and obedient 
terms, and regularly acted as his ambassador and the supporter 
of his interests — interests that often did not coincide with, 
and were sometimes in direct opposition to, those of her husband ; 
— while even in purely English affairs, she sometimes acted in a 
manner prejudicial to Henry's influence and desires. 

The most important factor was however, beyond doubt, 
Catherine's inability to produce a male heir to the throne and the 
general unfruitfulness ol the marriage, which from the point of 
view of issue was a long and almost unbroken series of disasters 
(due to miscarriages, premature and still births), the only surviving 
child being the Princess Mary, bom in 1516. Henry's need of a 
legitimate son was a very real one. Without a recognised successor, 
the security of the throne and the kingdom was in danger, as there 
could be no doubt that in such a case there would arise at Henry's 
death many claimants for the supreme power. Henry moreover 
was peculiarly sensitive on this point. There can be little doubt 
that, like many others, he saw in his heirs a continuation of his 
own life and power — an immortalisation of himself, without which 
his egoistic impulses could find no complete satisfaction. 

Furthermore, this failure in the fertility of his marriage aroused 
superstitious fears connected with Henry's Oedipus complex. The 
idea of sterility as a pimishment for incest is one that is deeply 
rooted in the human mind^ and in the case of a union such as that 
of Henry's and Catherine's, there was scriptural authority for the 
infliction of a penalty of this description.* The scruples of con- 
science which were originally urged as a reason for the delay in 
the marriage may have been a mere diplomatic move on the part 
of Henry VII, but in the case of the younger Henry in view of 
his genuine respect for religion and of the nature of the un- 
conscious feelings he entertained towards his brother, they may 

* It must be said however in Catherine's defence that the circumstances 
of Arthur's early death and of the none too flattering or considerate treatment 
that she received in England during the period of her young widowhood 
were certainly calculated to produce a regression of feeling in favour of her 
own family and home. 

• See, for instance, Sir J. G. Frazer, Totemism and Elxogamy, vol. IV, 
p. 106 ft. 

' *if a man shall take his brother's wife, it is an unclean thing. He hath 
uncovered his brother's nakedness. They shall be chiWlq^?,u LA^i^icus XX, 21. 


34 I. C. FLUGFX 

well have had some real psychological foundation. Quieted for a 
time as the result of his father's deathbed wishes and Henry's 
own inclinations, these scruples gradually rose again when the 
course of events seemed to be bringing the divine prophecy very 
near to fulfilment and beyond all reasonable doubt, they constituted 
a genuine and all-important factor in Henry's desire for a divorce 
from Catherine. Brewer, as the result of a prolonged study of 
contemporary documents, tells us that Henry's doubts and fears 
upon this subject rose slowly in his mind as the result of more 
or less imconscious processes. "The exact date at which Henry 
began to entertain these scruples and their precise shape at the 
first, can never be determined with accuracy ; for the most 
sufficient of all reasons : they were not known to the king himself 
They sprung up unconsciously from a combination of causes, 
and took definite form and colour in his breast by insensible 
degrees. They must have brooded in his mind some time before 
he would acknowledge them to himself, still less confess them to 
others."* Such gradual growth of feelings of this kind is totally 
opposed to the popular view that Henry's desire to divorce 
Catherine was merely an outcome of his sensual longing for Anne 
Boleyn, and indicates the operation of more deep lying mental 
processes, such as those we have suggested, i. e. the arousal of 
fears resting on the repression of incestuous desires — desires in 
all probability originally connected with his parents (Oedipus 
complex), but, through the force of circumstances, transferred to 
his brotlier and sister-in-law. 

This is not to say, of course, that Henry's attachment for Anne 
did not also play an important part in his desire to be rid of 
Catherine. Probably nothing else but a genuine passion for Anne 
would have kept him constant and inflexible during the long and 
difficult period of the divorce. Catherine was six years older than 
Henry, and the mental and physical strain attendant on her long 
and unsuccessful series of attempts at childbearing had no doubt 
considerably diminished her attractiveness. Before his infatuation 
with Anne Boleyn, Henry had enjoyed the favours of two 
mistresses : — Elizabeth Blount, by whom he had, so far as we know, 
his only illegitimate child — a boy, whom, with the failure of male 
heirs, he afterwards thought seriously of raising to the position of 
successor to the throne; and Mary Boleyn, sister of Anne Boleyn. 

1 Op. cit. vol. II, p. 162. r,' ' i^ 

r L-j Ungmaf fnonn 



We know comparatively little of these affairs and the very 
existence of the second liaison has been sometimes doubted^. 

By psycho-analysts, accustomed as they are to attach importance 
to apparently inessential details of this kind, it may not be 
considered unworthy of notice that the Christian names of the 
two ladies in question are the same as those held by important 
members of Henry's own family — his mother and younger sister 
respectively. The suspicion thus raised that the name may have 
been of some importance in determining Henry's choice in these 
two cases is strengthened by three further facts, which may be 
briefly mentioned here: 1) Henry's two daughters were also called 
by the same two names, viz. Mary and Elizabeth respectively ; 

2) his only other female favourite, whom we know by name, was 
Margaret Shelton, the Christian name being here identical with 
Henry's elder sister (afterwards wife of James V of Scotland) ; 

3) Mary Boleyn's mother was Lady Elizabeth Boleyn, and there 
existed a curious rumour that Henry had indulged in improper 
relations with the mother, as well as with the daughter*. 

It is true that Henry is reported to have himself denied the 
truth of this; but even if (as is very possibly the case) the 
rumour itself is exaggerated, it may well have been founded on 
some genuine attraction which Henry may have felt for the Lady 
Elizabeth. If this is so, in the light of psycho-analytic knowledge, 
it would appear not overbold to suggest that the mother and 
daughter, Elizabeth and Mary Blount, were, to Henry's unconscious 
mind, substitutes for Elizabeth and Mary Tudor — his mother 
and his sister respectively. This would at once constitute additional 
evidence in favour of the existence in Henry of incest tendencies 
and family fixations and fit in with certain important features of 
Henry's relationship to Anne Boleyn, which are as follows. 

One of the most inconsistent facts about the divorce of 
Catherine and subsequent marriage with Anne is that, although the 
incestuous relationship between Henry and Catherine was made 
the sole and all-important ground for claiming the divorce, the 
immediately succeeding second marriage involved the consummation 
of a relationship extremely similar to that which was supposed 

* Though the proofs of its existence seem quite adequate. See Paul 
Kriedmann, Anne Boleyn, vol. II, Appendix B. 

* Brewer, Letters and Papers, IV, CCCXXIX, footnote ; also Reign of 
Henry VIII, vol. II, p. 170 ; Frjedmann, op. cit. voI...IIy,fun32^Mii 


36 I. C. FLOGEL 

to invalidate the first. Catherine was Henry's sister in virtue of 
her previous marriage with his brother Arthur : Anne was his 
sister in virtue of his own (illicit) relationship to her sister Mary. 
He was therefore only giving up one sister in order to take on 
another ; and the very same (papal) powers that had to be invoked 
to grant the dissolution of the first marriage on the ground of 
incest had to be approached with a view to granting a dispensation 
because of the incestuous nature of the second union. Viewed in 
the light of sound diplomacy or of reasonable moral sense, the 
inconsistency involved in this procedure is absurdly evident. It 
cannot in fact be accounted for on either of these planes of 
thought. Such inconsistency however is quite a characteristic 
feature of conduct determined — partly or wholly — by un- 
conscious complexes, and as such, probably, it has to be regarded 
and explained. 

It is not necessary here to enter into the long and tedious 
history of the proceedings for divorce, which extended over a 
period of six years, from 1527 to 1533. These proceedings derive 
their great historical importance from the fact that they were the 
occasion of the breach with Rome (the breach that opened the 
way to the Reformation in England). Their importance for the 
development of Henry's mind and character is due to a similar 
reason. The main original difficulty in the granting of the divorce 
(apart from the very strong popular feeling in England in favour 
of Catherine) was due to the following facts : — first, it involved 
the annulling of the previous papal dispensation — a procedure 
which might seem liable to bring future papal dispensations (and 
indeed the papal power generally) into disrepute ; secondly and 
chiefly, the Pope was at that time in the power of Charles V, 
who, both for political and family reasons — he was of course 
Catherine's nephew — was opposed to the divorce. 

The Pope being thus, by the force of circumstances, brought 
into opposition with Henry's policy and unable to grant the 
divorce, as he had done recently in the case of other highly 
placed persons (notably in the case of Louis XII before he married 
Henry's sister Mary, in that of Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, previous 
to his marriage to the same sister after Louis's death and in that 
of Henry's other sister Margaret — cases which were certainly in 
Henry's mind as precedents), obstacles of one kind or another 
were continually placed in the way of Henry's desire. The con- 


sequent long delay in the realisation of his wishes brought up in 
Henry's mind a conflict between the two aspects of his character 
to which we have previously referred — the egoistic and 
venerative aspects — with results of great importance, both for his 
future married life and his career in general. In virtue probably 
of the feelings of love and respect which he held towards his 
father^ Henry was in his early years most anxious to win and 
retain the approval of the Pope^ He had ever been willing to 
defend the Pope and the Church in word and deed, both against 
armed force and spiritual heresy, in fact "his championship of the 
Holy See had been the most unselfish part of Henry's policy"* ; 
and there was no doubt that he was most anxious to obtain the 
quasi-paternal sanction of the divorce and remarriage which a 
papal edict would afford. 

But as time passed, and the inability to obtain the fulfilment 
of his desires with the Pope's consent and approval became more 
and more apparent, Henry's egoistic motives began to gain the 
mastery and to overwhelm the venerative tendencies, which had 
hitherto formed such an important element in his character. So 
far indeed did the former motives eventually prevail that Henry 
ultimately brought himself, not only to arrange for the divorce to 
be carried out at home without the Pope's authority, to defy at 
once the Pope, the Emperor and his own people and to brave 
the terrors of the papal excommunication, but even to set himself 
in the Pope's place by becoming the head of the Church in 
England and to assume a power, temporal and spiritual, which 
has never perhaps been equalled by any other British sovereign. 
This splendid triumph of self-assertion, in the face of severe 
obstacles* can only have been achieved by a very complete victory 
of the egoistic over the venerative tendencies. That such a victory 

* The Pope of course, as his very title signifies, is one of the most 
regular and normal father substitutes, 

■ Pollard, op. cit. p. 107. 

• Cp. the words of Pollard, op. cit. p. 306. "It was the King and the 
King alone, who kept England on the course which he had mapped out. Pope 
and Emperor were defied ; Europe was shocked ; Francis himself disapproved 
of the breach with the Church ; Ireland was in revolt ; Scotland, as ever, was 
hostile ; legislation had been thrust down the throats of a recalcitrant Church, 
and, we are asked to believe, of a no less unwilling House of Commons, 
while the people at large were seething with indignation at the insults heaped 
upon the injured Queen and her daughter/* Original from 


38 I. C. FLOGEL 

took place is indicated by Henry's contempt of the power which 
he had formerly exalted, as when he said that "if the Pope issued 
ten thousand excommunications, he would not care a straw for 
them,'* that "he would show the Princes how small was really 
the power of the Pope" and "that when the Pope had done what 
he liked on his side, he (Henry) would da what he liked here". 
In such an attitude of defiance psycho-analysts will immediately 
recognize a displacement of the desire to overthrow the rule of 
the father and usurp his authority — ■ a desire based on the primi- 
tive Oedipus complex. 

From the time of his split with Rome, Henry's character 
imderwent a marked transformation. He became vastly more 
despotic, determined to rule as well as to reign ; more intolerant 
of any kind of limitation of his power, and dependent on his 
own decisions in all matters, great and small, instead of .sub- 
mitting to the advice of councillors, as he had hitherto so 
largely done. 

The most significant and important step in this last direction 
was of course that which brought about the fall of Wolsey. It 
is fairly certain that, in the day of his power, Wolsey too was 
regarded by Henry with feelings originally connected with his 
father-venerative tendencies. These feelings may have flowed more 
freely and more consistently on to Wolsey's person because, as 
Friedmann well suggests ^ Wolsey, as an ecclesiastic, was not 
brought into such direct competition with Henry's claims to 
manly qualities, as a layman would have been. The fields of war, 
sport and sex were, for instance, excluded, and the sphere of 
politics, in which Wolsey so excelled was one in which Henry 
only gradually began to take a lively interest. However, when 
this interest reached a certain degree of intensity, as it did under 
the stimulus of the proceedings for divorce, Henry became in- 
tolerant of Wolsey's guidance, with the inevitable result of 
Wolsey's fall* 

* Op. cit. vol. I, p. 34. 

• Though other important influences were also of course at work, 
notably : — 1) Wolsey's connection with the Church ; 2) the well-founded 
suspicion that Wolsey was not too favourably disposed to the projected 
marriage with Anne Boleyn, Wolsey thus becoming an obstacle to the con- 
summation of Henry's sexual desires, and in this way bringing upon himself 
the hostile elements of Henry's Oedipus complex. 

r i-^%\ii'- -...ginaffnonn 



After Wolsey's fall none other attained his utiique position ; 
even Cromwell, in the height of his power, occupying a far inferior 
place. As regards religion too, Henry moved on a consistent road 
to power. In creating himself head of the Church, he not only 
took unto himself the paternal authority of the Pope, but became 
to some extend a sharer of the divine power of which the Pope 
had been the earthly representative. As Luther declared "J^^^^^^ 
Henry meant to be God, and to do as pleased himself"^. 

This identification of himself with God — the Gottmensch- 
komplex, as Ernest Jones has called it* — found further expression 
in his breaking up of the monasteries, his prohibitions against the 
worship of saints and images, the consistent exclusion of clerics 
from the higher posts of state which they had hitherto occupied 
and the endeavours to define the orthodox faith and produce — 
by force if necessary — a general uniformity of religious belief 
within his dominions ; all measures tending to prevent the 
possibility of opposition or rivalry to his quasi — omnipotent 
power in the religious sphere. 

Throughout all this magnificent triumph of the egoistic ten- 
dencies, Henry steered his course with a level head. His success 
in the face of circumstances which would have been the un- 
doing of most other monarchs was due partly to the unique 
conditions of his time, which, as we have seen, made possible 
and even agreeable a degree of despotism which at other periods 
would have been resented; pardy, to the exceeding strength of 
will and self-reliance that Henry developed after the overthrow of 
the father-regarding venerative attitude, in the course of his struggle 
with the Pope; partly too, to his firm grasp of reality in the field 
of politics. Few men have been able to reconcile, as he did, an 

In his later dealings with Wolsey and with Warham, Archbishop of 
Canterbury, Henry would seem sometimes to have had in mind a comparison 
between his own relations to the Cardinal and the Archbishop and those of 
his predecessor, Henry U, to Thomas i Becket (c. g. Pollard, op. cit. p. 271). 
It is noteworthy in this connection that, whereas during the early part of 
his career, Henry was in the habit of showing his respect for the murdered 
archbishop by making a yeaily offering at his shrine, in 1538 he added to 
his offences against the Church by despoiling the same shrine and burning 
the saintly bones, and is even said to have held a mock trial of the saint, 
who was condemned as a traitor. 

« Letters and Papers, XVI, 106. 

> Der Gottmenschkomplex, ZeitsSn/t/ar drztfiSe J^^^^Qa^mfM^^^ I, p. 313. 


intense egotism and an enormous lust for power with an undistorted 
vision of forces and events; and in the unique degree to which 
he achieved this combination is probably to be sought the secret 
of his political success. 

The divorce of Catherine, which had provided the occasion for 
this gradual but momentous change in Henry's character, was 
after many delays and vicissitudes, eventually hurried forward to 
a rapid conclusion by the fact of Anne having become pregnant 
and the consequent necessity of legalising her relationship to 
Henry, if her child (supposing it should be a son) was to become 
the recognised heir to the throne. In spite of Henry's long 
infatuation for Anne, he had not succeeded in making her his 
mistress till towards the end of 1532. Warned perhaps by the 
somewhat fickle nature of Henry's affection for his previous 
mistresses, Anne determined to avoid the consummation of her 
intimacy with the King, and kept her resolution until the success 
of the divorce seemed certain. 

Subsequent events amply demonstrated the wisdom of her conduct 
She was married to Henry in January, 1533, and in the following 
May Henry was already beginning to grow tired of hen Though 
steadfast in his affections for years in the face of difficulties, as 
soon as all obstacles were removed and he had full and un- 
questioned possession of her whom he had so long desired, 
Henry's love began to cool and he became conscious of defects 
in Anne of which he had previously been unobservant Here we 
see clearly for the first time the manifestation of what seems to 
have been a very important trait of Henry's sexual life, viz. that 
there was usually some impediment in the way of the free ex- 
pression of his love towards the women of his choice. In Anne's 
case the impediment lay doubtless to some extent in her refusal 
to give herself up fully to her royal lover, until she became 
certain that she would be his consort rather than his mistress, 
But there were deeper underlying factors connected with the very 
circumstance of the love having been previously illicit — a 
circumstance which gave it an attraction that a legalised union 
failed to possess. 

In an illuminating paper on the varieties of the love life^ 

Freud has shown that the need for an obstacle to be present as 

* BeitrSLge zur Psychologie des lA^h^sXthtns, JaBrSuS fur psySoanafytisSe 
und psycBopatBoCogiscBe TorscBungen^ II, 1910, p. 389. 

r 1^. ......,...alfrDm 



a condition for the arousal of love can be traced back to the 
operation of the Oedipus complex. In the earliest love of a boy 
to his mother such an obstacle is constituted by the incestuous 
nature of the relationship, which, because of this nature, is a 
forbidden one. Furthermore, the mother, as the object of the 
boy*s love, is already bound by ties of law and affection to a 
third person, the father. In a number of cases where the psycho- 
sexual development has not been carried far enough to ensure 
adequate freedom from the infantile fixation on the parents, the 
continued existence of the Oedipus complex manifests itself in 
the choice of a love-object, between whom and the lover there 
is an impediment of the kind that existed in the original in- 
cestuous love ; i. e. either the love itself is unlawful or the loved 
object is already bound elsewhere, or else (as often happens) 
both conditions are present. Now there can be little doubt that 
Henry was a person whose Oedipus complex found expression in 
such a way. On this hypothesis it becomes possible to explain 
two very constant features of his love life ; his fickleness (which 
tended to make him unable to love a woman, once his possession 
of her was assured) and the desire for some obstacle between 
him and the object of his choice. We shall come across sufficient 
examples of these, as we study the further course of his chequered 
conjugal career. 

The facts connected with the fall of Anne Boleyn show more 
clearly than any other event not only the existence of a desire 
for an impediment of this kind, but the foundation of this desire 
in an incestuous fixation. At the same time they give the key to 
a true understanding of the central conflict involved in Henry's 
sexual life — that "common cause'' of Henry's matrimonial diffi- 
culties, which, as Froude says, "ought to be discoverable". Henry 
as we saw, soon tired of Anne after his marriage with her. The 
fact that her child, bom in 1533, was a daughter (the future 
Queen Elizabeth), instead of the long desired male heir, only 
served still further to alienate Henr>^'s affections. During the three 
years of his married life with Anne, Henry consoled himself, first 
with some lady whose name does not seem to have come down 
to us, then with Margaret Shelton, and finally with Jane Seymour, 
his future wife, who appears to have aroused his genuine love. 
The thought of putting Anne aside seems to have been present 
for some considerable period before it was pt3i^irtBltft..,?;<ecution, 


42 I. C. FLOGEL 

matters being delayed for a time by the fact that a repudiation 
of Anne might have necessitated a return to Catherine. 

Catherine's death in January 1536 (hurried on, as some think, 
by means of poison) removed this difficulty, and Anne's mis- 
carriage (probably her second) in the same month served to revive 
the scruples with regard to incest that Henry had already ex- 
perienced in relation to his first marriage. These scruples, which 
on their first arousal had grown slowly and by insensible degrees, 
now quickly regained their mastery over Henry's mind. The union 
with his second sister-representative (Anne) was now as repellent 
to him, on account of its incestuous flavour, as had been that 
with his first sister-representative (Catherine). Anne was accused 
of having been unfaithful to her husband, quite a number ot 
persons being charged as her accomplices, and of having been 
repeatedly guilty of incest with her brother. Lord Rochford. She 
was further accused of having conspired with her lovers to bring 
about the death of the King and of having, through her treasonable 
behaviour, so injured his health as to put his life, in danger. All 
the more important male prisoners concerned in these charges were 
found guilty of high treason and were put to death, Anne herself 
following them to the scaffold a few days later. 

At the same time her marriage with Henry was declared 
invalid, probably on one or more of the following grounds:* — 
1) the existence of an alleged precontract with the Earl ol 
Northumberland ; 2) the affinity between Anne and Henry arising 
from the latter's relations with Mary Boleyn. The very day after 
Anne's death, Henry was married to Jane Seymour. 

Historians are pretty generally agreed that (although Anne was 
far from being incapable of loose living or even of more serious 
offences) there was as a matter of fact little or no truth in 
any of the long series of grave charges brought against her. In 
particular there seems to be no satisfactory evidence at all in 
favour of the charges of incest and of treason. We are therefore 
free to regard these accusations as for the most part reflections 
of Henry's own mental state, for although Cromwell and others 
were responsible for the details of the matter, "Henry was regularly 
informed of every step taken against Anne and her associates 
and interfered a good deal with the proceedings'', and "his wishes 
probably influenced the form in which the indictments were drawn 

» See Pollard, op. cit. p. 344. OrFgmaffrom 



up^'^. His interest in the proceedings and their psychological signi- 
ficance for him is further shown by the fact that he composed a 
tragedy on the subject, which he showed to the Bishop of Carlisle 
at a gay supper very shortly after Anne's execution ^ 

In accusing Anne of incest with her brother, Henry produced 
with reference to his brother-in-law a repetition of the situation 
which had formerly existed as between himself and his own 
brother in the case of Catherine. In both cases he was (in reality 
or in imagination) brought into competition with his brother over 
the person of his sister. The circumstances under which he had 
first been brought, as it were, into rivalry with his brother Arthur 
(calculated, as these were, to arouse in a sHghtly altered form 
the original Oedipus complex)' had, it would appear, made so firm 
an impression on his psycho-sexual tendencies and dispositions, 
that he continued to desire a repetition of the situation under 
which his sexual impulses had first been aroused. 

But the feelings called forth by his relations to Arthur and 
Catherine were ambivalent in character, as is almost invariably 
the case with those connected with the Oedipus complex and its 
displacements. On the one hand there was the desire to kill his 
brother (father substitute) and marry his sister (mother substitute) 
while at the same time there was also present a horror of these 
things. At the time of Catherine's divorce, it was of course the 
horror that was uppermost in Henry's conscious mind ; but at 
the same time the attractiveness of incest manifested itself in the 
choice of a fresh sister substitute in the person of Anne ; giving 
rise to that strange contradiction in Henry's behaviour of which 
we have already spoken. After a time (shortened, it would appear, 
by Anne's miscarriages, which aroused Henry's previous super- 
stitions) the negative attitude to incest was transferred in turn to 
his relations with Anne. In the hatred of Anne which was thus 
occasioned Henry projected on to her his own incestuous desires ; 

• Friedmann, op. cit. vol. II, p. 268. 
« Friedmann, op. cit. vol. II, p. 267. 

• It must not be forgotten that the facts of his parents being within the 
forbidden degrees of affinity and of their requiring a papal dispensation, just 
as he himself did later on, were doubtless known to Henry and thus pro- 
bably constituted a strong associative link between his parents' marriage and 
his own union with Catherine ; another link being formed probably by his 
father's proposal to marry Catherine, after Arthur's deatlAk.miMi n . m 


44 I. C. FLUGEL 

i. e. she was accused of incestuous relations with her brother, 
whereas the real fact was that Henry himself desired incestuous 
relations with his sister. In this way Henry was able to enjoy by 
proxy the fulfilment of his own repressed desires, while at the 
same time giving expression to his horror and disgust at the 
relationship concerned. 

By the same means too he was able to provide an outlet 
for the jealousy, fear and hatred he felt towards his brotlier Just 
as Henry himself had, through the accident of Arthur's death, 
inherited the throne in place of his brother, so now he seems to 
have feared that his own place in turn would be usurped by a 
brother. Hence the charge of treason, for which there seems to be 
even less evidence than for the supposed sexual offences, and which 
therefore, to the psycho-analyst, reveals clearly enough the 
circumstance that, although Henry was not in fact guilty of 
Arthur's death, he nevertheless felt guilty on the subject, since 
the death constituted a realisation of his own repressed desires^ 

By a process familiar to the student of unconscious mental 
life, the brother r61e seems to have been filled in Henry's phantasy 
by more than one person at this time. The sexual aspects of the 
part were of course taken principally (but not entirely) by Anne's 
brother, Rochford ; but the accusations of treason were directed 
more especially against one, Henry Noreys, who was supposed 
to have arranged to marry Anne after Henry's death. Noreys 
appears to have been the only one of the accused whom Henry 
honoured with a personal interview on the subject of his misdemeanours 
and whom he privately urged to confession*. Now it is suggestive 
that shortly before this incident Noreys has acquired a quasi- 
personal relationship to Henry by becoming betrothed to Margaret 
Shelton, who had quite recently been Henry's favourite and 
probably his mistress. In view of the fact that much emphasis was 
laid on Anne's becoming a sister of Henry's in virtue of his 
relations to Mary Boleyn, it would seem not unlikely that, by a 
similar process of thought, Noreys might be regarded as Henry's 
brother in virtue of his betrothal to Margaret, If any such process 
did take place in Henry's mind, the reason for the special charges 

* Here again the brother enmity was probably only a displacement of 
the earlier father enmity, for, as we have seen above, Henry had in some 
respects, special grounds for imagining himself in his father's place. 

' Friedmann, op. cit. vol. II, p. 251. 

r I . OKginaffnonn 



against Noreys and the special attention paid to him by Henry 
is to a great extent explained ^ 

In order to prevent tlie recurrence ot such schemes as had 
been attributed to Anne and Noreys, Henry had resort to legis- 
lation. By a clause in the Act of Succession (an act passed 
primarily to declare Anne^s daughter Elizabeth a bastard and to 
settle the crown on Henry^s prospective issue by Jane) it was 
made high treason for anyone to marry a King's daughter, sister 
or aunt without royal permission — a measure by which Henry 
would appear to have made an endeavour to do away for ever 
with the fear of sexual rivals in his own family. 

We have seen how, during the divorce of Catherine, while the 
negative (horror) aspect of the incest complex was in the ascendant 
towards Catherine herself, the positive (love) aspects were at the 
same time active in respect of Anne, so that, while Henry was 
getting rid of an incestuous relation with one sister, he was 
actually engaged in starting a fresh relation of the same kind 
with another sister. A very similar state of affairs seems to have 
arisen just before the fall of Anne. Undeterred by the result of 
his two preceding incestuous adventures, Henry was again con- 
templating marriage with a woman who was within the forbidden 
degrees of blood relationship. Jane Seymour "was descended on 
her mother's side from Edward III, and Cranmer had to dispense 
with a canonical bar to the marriage arising from her consanguinity 
to the King in the third and fourth degrees"*. Although the actual 
relationship between Henry and Jane was thus relatively remote, 
it is probable that Henry's fancy saw in Jane a relative of a 
nearer kind ; for, shortly before their marriage, he was in the 
habit of meeting her in the rooms ot her brother, Sir Edward 
Seymour, whom he thus made as it were, a participant in the 
affair* — in this way endeavouring once more to re-establish the 
original brother-sister triangle*. 

* It is just possible too that, as perhaps in other cases, the name Henry 
may have been of some importance, referring of course to the Oedipus 
complex in its original (parent-regarding) form. 

■ Pollard, op. cit. p. 346. 

* And who, it appears, had moved into these rooms (to which Henry 
had access by a secret passage) expressly for this purpose, the rooms 
having been previously occupied by Cromwell. 

* Fricdmann, op. cit. vol. U p. 222. Qrfgfnaf from 


46 I. C. FLOGEL 

The circumstances connected with the fall of Anne Boleyn 
thus afford very clear evidence of two leading "tendencies in 
Henry s psycho-sexual life — both of them being conditioned by 
the facts of Henry's early love experiences, and through them by 
the still earlier Oedipus complex. These tendencies are: — 1) the 
desire for (and hatred of) a sexual rival ; 2) the attraction towards 
(and at the same time the horror of) an incestuous relationship. 

The same period gives us the first unmistakable indications of a 
third tendency (one intimately connected with the other two) 
which was henceforward to be of great importance, viz. Henry^s 
insistence on chastity in his consort. We have already seen that 
his passion tor Anne Boleyn seemed to be maintained in its 
original strength over a considerable number of years, to some 
extent at least because she refused to allow Henry the intimate 
privileges of her person. The same means were employed with 
equal effect by her successor Jane Seymour in the early days of 
her intimacy with Henry. So great was her assumption of virtue 
that she even refused presents from the king, because of their 
possible implication — a course which called forth much approval 
and admiration from Henry himself While she thus made great 
show of chastity to Henry, there is reason to believe that she 
was not always as careful of her honour as she professed to be. 
Indeed some of Henry's contemporaries seem to have taken the 
view that Henry was morb or less wilfully shutting his eyes to 
certain (probably well known) facts in Jane's past history, facts of 
which he might afterwards become well aware, should it suit 
his purpose. Thus Chapuys, the ambassador of Charles V and 
a friend of Jane's, says in a letter written in May 1536: *'She 
(Jane) is a little over 25. You may imagine whether, being an 
Englishwoman, and having been so long at court, she would not 
hold it a sin to be still a maid. At which the king will perhaps 
be ratlier pleased . . . for he may marry her on condition that 
she is a virgin, and when he wants a divorce he will find plenty 
of witnesses to the contrary"^ 

In the light both of psychological knowledge and ol later 
events (particularly those connected with Catherine Howard), it is 
probable that the inconsistency here involved was not altogether 
wilful or deliberate. It is more likely that we have to do with 
the manifestations of a conflict in Henry's mind — a conflict 

* Quoted in Fricdmann, op. cit. vol. II, p. 200. 

r 1 . .....ginaffnonn 



similar to those connected with the desire for a sexual rival 
and for an incestuous relationship, and leading, as in their case, 
to an inconsistent, fluctuating and ambivalent attitude. In fact 
there would appear to have existed two opposing motives ; in 
virtue of the first of which Henry desired the most scrupulous 
chastity on the part of his wives, while at the same time, in 
virtue of the second, he secretly (and probably unconsciously) 
delighted in a partner who had already enjoyed sexual experience 
with other men, or who was actually unfaithful after marriage. 

The explanation of this attitude is to be found, as before, in 
the facts connected with the Oedipus complex I To the young boy 
the idea of sexual relations between the parents is apt to be a 
very disagreeable one. Jealousy of the father, the necessity of 
dissociating the parents from sexual thoughts (in order to sur- 
mount the stage of incestuous fixation) and a number of other 
potent factors, into which it is unnecessary to enter here, fre- 
quently give rise to the phantasy that no sexual relations exist or 
have existed between the parents — a phantasy that finds its supreme 
expression in the notion of the Virgin Mother and the Virgin 
Birth which plays such a prominent part in Religion, Myth and 
Legend. Now since, in later life, the wife is often unconsciously 
identified with the mother, it is not surprising that the ideas 
concerning chastity, originally aroused in connection with the latter 
should be displaced on to the former : hence, in large measure 
the attraction which virginity exercises over many men. 

On the other hand, the boy may soon discover or suspect the 
occurrence of sexual relations between his parents ; and the having 
of such relations (in the past or in the present) may come to be 
regarded as an essential characteristic of the mother ; and therefore 
any substitute for her in later life may be expected to exhibit 
the same characteristic, so that, in so far as the wife represents 
a mother surrogate, only women who have already enjoyed sexual 
experience are eligible for the position : hence, to some extent 
the fascination of widows^ 

Now it would seem probable that in Henry's unconscious mind 

* Cp. Freud, op. cit. 

^ By a further peculiar mental process, the mother will not infrecjuently 
come to be regarded as a prostitute, or at least as one whu is very free 
with her favours. (Cp. Freud, op. cit.) Such an extension of the pliantasy may 
very well have taken place in Henry's case, and would hcl[> to. account for 


48 I. C. FLCGEL 

both these (mutually incompatible) notions of the mother had found 
a place, and that in the conflict between them we have the key 
to the inconsistency of his conduct in this respects 

Having now arrived at a definite conception of the nature ol 
the chief unconscious mental factors wich were operative in 
Henry^s married life, we may content ourselves with a rapid 
examination of their influence on the remaining part of his career. 
His union with Jane Seymour was not destined to be of long 
duration. Jane died in October 1537, one year and four months 
after her marriage, and a few days after she had given birth to 
a son (afterwards Edward VI). Henry seems to have had through- 
out some genuine attachment to her, and she and Catherine Parr 
share the honour of being the only two of Henry's six wives 
who completed their conjugal career without a rupture. Possibly 
the brevity of this career in Jane's case may have prevented the 
occurrence of an alienation of Henry's affections such as Chapuys 
had anticipated (in the letter quoted above). Furthermore the fact 
that she had presented him with the long wished for male heir 
probably added considerably to the warmth of Henry's feelings 
towards her. At any rate Henry seems to have cherished her 
memory for some considerable time, and at his own death, ten 
years after Jane's, accorded her the signal honour of being laid to 
rest in her tomb at Windsor. 

During the period between Jane's death and Henry's eventual 
marriage with Anne of Cleves, his fourth wife, in 1539, various 
projects of marriage were discussed, none of which were destined 
to come to fruition, but in which the workings of Henry's un- 
conscious tendencies can still to some extent be traced. The most 
important of these projects was connected with Mary^ Duchess of 

the numerous accusations of infidelity in the case of Anne Boleyn (only one 
of the accused men subsequently pleaded guilty and even the fact of his 
guilt has been doubted) and for the overlooking for so long a time of the 
rather openly promiscuous life led by Catherine Ho wardboth before and after 
marriage. Cp, below p. 

* To the existence of these notions in Henry's mind was probably due 
much of the importance that was attached (during the divorce proceedings 
against Catherine of Aragon) to the question as to whether Catherine's 
marriage with Arthur had or had not been consummated. Catherine herselt 
stated at a comparatively late stage of the proceedings that there had been 
no consummation, and in so doing she may have hoped to touch Henry at a 
point on which she knew him to be sensitive. 

r i\ % \ii^ Orrgmaffnonn 



Longueville, better known as Mary of Guise. Mary was already 
affianced to Henry's nephew, James V of Scotland, (the desire for 
a rival and the tendency to incest — cp. too the name in this con- 
nection — both therefore being manifested in this case) ; but 
Henry insisted that the importance of his own proposal ought to 
outweigh that of the previous arrangement Francis I refused how- 
ever to offend his ally James by acceding to Henry's demand, 
and proposed as a substitute Mary of Bourbon daughter of the 
Duke of Vend6me. Henry however rejected her forthwith, on 
hearing that her hand had already been refused by James (ab- 
sence of attraction where there is no rivalry) ; the two younger 
sisters of Mary of Guise were then suggested, together with a 
number of other ladies at the French court ; and Henry, growing 
impatient and irritated, demanded that a selection of the hand- 
somest available beauties should be sent to Calais for his personal 
inspection and eventual choice. Francis however rebelled against 
this scheme for "trotting out the young ladies like hackneys'', and 
the whole idea of a French marriage was thereupon abandoned. 

Meanwhile negotiations of a similar kind had been started in 
the Netherlands. The lady here selected was Christina, daughter 
of the deposed king of Denmark. Christina had been married at 
a very early age to the Duke of Milan and after a brief married 
life was now a widow of sixteen — circumstances that recall 
vividly those of Catherine of Aragon after Arthur's death. For 
political reasons however the match was not concluded and Henry 
was still without a wife. 

Francis I and Charles V were at this time united in friendship 
and their alliance made Henry look for support elsewhere, as a 
means of counterbalancing their power. The Protestant princes of 
Germany suggested themselves for this purpose. Religious diffi- 
culties for some time barred the way, but in the person of the 
Duke of Cleves Henry encountered one whose policy was a com- 
promise between Protestantism and Romanism rather similar to • 
that which he himself adopted ^ A match between Henry and 
Anne, the daughter of the Duke, was arranged, largely through 
Cromwell's influence, though an obstacle was present in the fact 
that Anne had been already promised to the son of the Duke of 
Lorraine. Though this fact may, here as elsewhere, have been an 
attraction to Henry, he seems on the whole to have behaved with 
. Cp. Pollard op cit. p. 383 OrFgfnaffrom 


50 I. C. FLCGEL 

remarkable passivity as regards the marriage. But a short time 
before, he had said with reference to his contemplated French 
marriage, "I trust to no one but myself. The thing touches me too 
near. I wish to see them and know them some time before decid- 
ing". Now however he agreed to accept Anne on no better assur- 
ances than Cromwell's praises of her beauty and Holbein's none too 
flattering portrait. Perhaps he was willing to put an end at any 
cost to the worries of wife-hunting ; perhaps too he was genuinely 
alarmed at the threatening political situation, for the Pope, the 
Emperor, and the Kings of France and Scotland were all arrayed 
against him and an invasion of England seemed not unlikely. 
Whatever the reason, he was very pliable in CromwelPs hands 
and even after he had seen and disapproved of Anne (whose 
appearance was homely, whose accomplishments were small when 
judged by the standard of the English and French courts and 
who could speak no language but her own), he nevertheless con- 
sented to proceed with the marriage, distasteful as it was to him. 
It was destined however to be the shortest of all his matri- 
monial ventures. In a few months the political situation had 
changed. Henry no longer needed the Protestant alliance, and lost 
no time in freeing himself from the mariage de convenance which 
had been entered into with that end in view. In the summer ot 
1540 Cromwell, who had engineered the match and the alliance 
was arrested and beheaded; while at the same time Henry's marriage 
with Anne was declared null and void, Henry pleading that he 
had not been a free agent in the matter, that Anne had never 
been released from her contract with the son of the Duke ol 
Lorraine, that he (Henry) had only gone through the ceremony 
on the assumption that a release would be forthcoming and that 
consequently, actuated by a conscientious scruple, he had refrained 
from consummating the marriage. 

Superficial as these reasons may well seem (for there is no 
doubt that Henry really wished to dissolve the match because 
Anne was unattractive to him — of which fact indeed he made 
no secret — and because the alliance for which the marriage stood 
was no longer necessary), it will be observed that they never- 
theless bear unmistakable traces of Henry's unconscious ten- 
dencies, showing that these tendencies were active in this case also^ 

* Henry had previously complained to Cromwell that he suspected Anne 
/gioundlcssly, so far as we kow) of being **no true maid" — thus showing 

r I . .=.iyMiiidl from 



Anne of Cleves being thus put out of the way, Henry immed- 
iately entered into a fifth marriage, with a lady to whose charms 
he had already fallen a victim — Catherine Howard, a niece ot 
the Duke of Norfolk. For about a year and a half Henry lived 
with his new bride more happily perhaps than with any other of 
his consorts. He congratulated himself that "after sundry troubles 
of mind which had happened to him by marriage'' he had at last 
found a blissful solution of his matrimonial difficulties; and in his 
chapel he returned solemn thanks to Heaven for the felicity which 
his conjugal state afforded him, directing his confessor, the Bishop 
of Lincoln, to compose a special form of prayer for that purpose 

This spell of happiness however was built on a delusion 
Catherine Howard had lived anything but a chaste life before her 
marriage, though the king seems to have closed his eyes to the 
fact, as he had probably done before on a similar occasion. Even 
after her marriage, Catherine continued to receive her former lovers, 
particularly one Culpepper, to whom she had been previously 
affianced. Reports of the Queen's misconduct reached the ears of 
Cranmer who with much trepidation brought the facts to Henry's 
knowledge. The latter at first refused to believe the charges, but 
on the evidence becoming too strong to be resisted, was over- 
whelmed with surprise, grief, shame and anger, wept bitterly in 
public and generally manifested such emotion that "it was thought 
he had gone mad". He at first contemplated granting Catherine 
a pardon, but on further proofs of quite recent misdemeanours 
coming to light, she was executed, together with her lovers and all 
those who had been her accomplices in one way or another. 

We have here another very clear example of the working of 
Henry's unconscious complexes. Bearing in mind the great import- 
ance which he was wont to attach to virginity and chastity, 
together with the marked dissoluteness of Catherine's life and the 
comparatively little care she took to conceal it, it would seem that 
Henry was guilty of an almost pathological blindness in remaining 
ignorant of the true circumstances for so long. That there was 
indeed some definite repression at work is indicated too by his 
inability or unwillingness to believe the facts when they were first 
brought to his notice, and by his very great emotion on finally 
reaUsing the truth. 

the operation of the chastity complex as well as that connected with the 
presence of a rival. ^ Original from 


62 I. C. FLOGEL 

The mental forces here at work are of course those with which 
we are akeady familiar. On the one hand, Henry, as we have 
seen, desired a woman who had other lovers besides himself, while 
on the other hand he ardently desired her exclusive possession 
and her chastity. The conflict between these incompatible longings 
produced a temporary dissociation. For a time Henry was able to 
enjoy Catherine as if her dissoluteness and her infidelity did not 
exist — his enjoyment being indeed probably heightened by the 
very fact of her loose living, though the knowledge of this loose 
living was excluded from his conscious mind. When this know- 
ledge did at length enter consciousness, he was overcome by his 
feelings, in much the same way as the bringing to light of un- 
conscious factors in the course of psycho-analysis will often give 
rise to an emotional crisis^. 

As he had done after the fall of Anne Boleyn, so now also, 
Henry resorted to legislative measures to prevent a recurrence of 
the disaster that had befallen him. On the previous occasion it 
had been made high treason to marry any woman nearly related 
to the King without the King's consent. The present enactments 
were primarily directed against female, rather than against male^ 
offenders (following perhaps a development of Henry's mind, in 
virtue of which the chastity motif had been for some time increas- 
ing in importance), and it was declared treason for any woman 
to marry the King, if her previous life had not been strictly virtuous. 

The new measure seems to have aroused considerable interest 
and amusement both in court and country, for the long series of 
Henry's matrimonial misadventures had now assumed to his con- 
temporaries much the same laughable and yet tragic aspect which 
they still possess for us. In view of the strictness of the qualifi- 
cations now required for the post of Queen, Chapuys suggested 
that "few, if any, ladies now at court will henceforth aspire to such 

* The emotion itself was probably complex both in nature and origin. 
From the accounts we have of his conduct, we may surmise that there were 
present, among other constituents: — 1) grief, at the breakdown of his delu- 
sion — his happy life with Catherine being brought to a sudden and disa- 
strous end; 2) shame, both because he dimly realised that in the past his 
enjoyment had been largely due to gratification of forbidden desires (con- 
nected with the Oedipus complex) and because he had been made to look 
foolish before others; 3) anger, directed both against Catherine and her 
accomphces for having deceived him and against himself for having allowed 
himself to be deceived. 

r . V . J^ Orrgmaffrcinn 



an honour'*^; while Henry's subjects, with a true appreciation bothot 
his psychological needs and of the course of action to which 
these needs would impel him, jokingly remarked that only a 
widow would be able to meet the king's demands, as no reputed 
maid would ever be persuaded to incur the penalty of the statute*. 

So indeed it actually turned out. In the early summer of 1543 
Henry married Catherine Parr, his sixth and last wife. Although only 
31 years of age, Catherine was then in her second widowhood — 
her second husband Lord Latimer having died at the end of 1542. 
In thus espousing one the fact of whose widowhood was especially 
striking, Henry was adopting the best compromise between his 
own conflicting tendencies and emotions. Catherine was chaste 
(her moral character was beyond reproach) and yet she had un- 
doubtedly enjoyed previous sexual experience — . a circumstance 
which, as we have seen, was necessary for the gratification of Henry^s 
unconscious desires. At the same time another circumstance con- 
nected with Catherine Parr enabled Henry to satisfy to a large 
extent his other complexes. After the death of her second hus- 
band, Catherine's hand was sought by Sir Thomas Seymour, 
Henry's brother-in-law (younger brother of Jane Seymour) to whom 
she appears to have been sincerely attached (and whom she 
eventually married after Henry's death — thus being, as Pollard 
says, "almost as much married as Henry himself). Henry however 
overruled the engagement — in much the same way as he had 
attempted to do in the case of Mary of Guise — and compelled 
Catherine to abandon her lover in favour of himself. 

The circumstances of Henry's last marriage thus strongly recall 
those connected with his first. The name of his bride was the 
same in both cases*, and in both cases he took the place which 
would otherwise have been filled by a brother. We thus see how 
the unconscious jealousy of Arthur (a jealousy which was itself 
probably only a displacement of that originally directed against 

« Letters and Papers, XVII. 124. 

* And certainly, as we are now in a position to see, no sagacious 
woman would have done so; for however pure her past life might in reality 
have been, Henry would probably sooner or later have been impelled by 
his unconscious complexes to rake up some accusation of unchastity 
against her. 

* The name may of course very well have been significant in the case 
of Catherine Howard also. ^ Original from 


64 I. C. FLOGEL 

his father) operated to the end of Henry's matrimonial career and 
acted as the determining factor in the choice of a wife more 
than 40 years after Arthur's death. At the same time Catherine 
Howard's betrothal to Seymour in one sense constituted her a sister 
to Henry, so that the desire for an incestuous union was also satisfied. 

A marriage entered into, as this one was, as the result of a 
satisfactory compromise between the opposing forces of Henry's 
mind (all Henry's primitive unconscious desires rooted in the 
Oedipus complex finding gratification, but none of them too bla- 
tantly) gave promise of greater permanency and stability than had 
been exhibited by most of his previous ventures in matrimony : 
nor was this promise belied by the course of subsequent events. 
On one occasion, it is true, Catherine was in danger through havinj; 
come into conflict with Henry's egoistic tendencies (which had 
become less and less restrained, as he grew older), but her tact 
enabled her to surmount all difficulties arising from this source, 
and the marriage seems to have remained a happy one until 
Henry's death three and a half years later, in January 1547. 

We have now traced the operation of certain unconscious 
motives throughout the whole of Henry's sexual life. For the sake 
of clearness we have distinguished three principal such motives : 

1) the desire for opposition and the presence of a sexual rival, 

2) a desire for incest, 3) a desire for chastity in his sexual partner. 
All these motives are closely interconnected, and they are all 
dependent on and derived from, the primitive Oedipus complex; 
each motive, moreover, is present both in a positive and in a 
negative form. That which Henry was impelled to do by the 
operation of his unconscious desires he was equally impelled to 
oppose, by the operation of (an often equally unconscious) resist- 
ance to these desires. Regarded as the outcome of the interaction 
of these various conflicting forces, the abnormal features of 
Henry's married life can, it would appear, very largely be explained. 

The importance of studies such as that upon which we have 
been here engaged, apart from such value as they may have for 
the elucidation of historical problems, lies in the confirmation which 
they afford of results obtained by the process of psycho-analysis 
carried on with living individuals. These results are often so 
opposed to what we are accustomed to regard both as common 
sense and common decency, that their acceptance is a matter of 

very considerable difficulty in the case of all persons who have 

r I.. Original fi'..... 

:3y ^:-^ ^. 1 1 UNIVERSITY OF MIC-HIGAN 


not themselves extensively employed the psycho-analytic method. 
Even by psycho-analysts themselves additional evidence for the 
validity of their conclusions from a fresh field of inquiry must al- 
ways be most welcome. As such a source of additional evidence, 
the data of history would seem in some respects to be peculiarly 
acceptable. Although these data must always be inferior in scope 
and detail to evidence obtained from living persons, they present 
the following two great advantages: first, that the full data are open 
to investigation and verification by others, whereas in most psycho- 
analytic investigations the complete material on which conclusions 
are based are available only to the analyst himself; and secondly, 
that in the case of persons long since dead there can be no 
question of the influence either of direct suggestion or of the 
more subtle effects of psycho-analytic training and tradition. The 
actions and sayings of historical personages can have no possible 
reference to Freud's theories, whereas the patient in the phy- 
sician's consulting room is, it may be said, necessarily to some 
extent affected by the atmosphere of belief in psycho-analytic doc- 
trine in which he finds himself 

Thus it would appear that the application of the psycho-analytic 
findings to historical material* should furnish in general a most 
necessary and desirable test of the validity of the psycho-analytic 
method itself. If the psychic mechanisms revealed by the process 
of psycho-analysis upon the living subject are to be regarded as 
fundamental features of the human mind, and not as mere arti- 
facts or pathological conditions occurring only in neurotic persons, 
they should be discoverable as factors operating in the lives of 
men and women of the past, wherever the available data bearing 
on these lives are adequate in quantity and quality. A certain 
number of studies directed to this end have already been made, 
and by their demonstration of the fact that the behaviour of 
individuals long since dead can be satisfactorily accounted for 
on psycho-analytic theories (and perhaps in no other way)^ 
have afforded very valuable corroboration of the utility and vali- 
dity of the psycho-analytic method. In the present paper we 
have endeavoured, it is hoped not altogether fruitlessly, to bring 
to light some further evidence pointing to the same conclusion. 

* As of course to all records of human life and labour which have 
come about independently of the work of psycho-analysts themselves; 
such a myths, legends, customs, literary and artistic productions etc. 


VOL. 1—3 



The publication of Freud's views on mental functioning marks 
the beginning of a new era in psychology. It was impossible to 
read the older psychologies and at the same time really to feel 
that there existed a sound knowledge of the nature of the mind, 
or that its mechanisms had been fully grasped. There remained, 
on the contrary, a sense of voidness which could not be removed 
by simply memorising long words and involved sentences, and 
the gropings after enlightenment would usually end either in 
despair or in metaphysical speculations, Freud's psychology has 
altered all this, for although it necessitates our adopting a new 
attitude to the functioning of the mind, yet its principles are so 
intelligible, its hypotheses so demonstrably true, that the general 
acceptance of it can only be a matter of time. 

There is no doubt that if Freud^s views arc in the future 
confirmed many old concepts in the realm of psychology will have 
to be revised, and the principles which he has enunciated will be 
made the bed-rock upon which psychology of the future will be 
built. Already we are finding that certain psychologists of to-day^ 
who will not subscribe to the Freudian principles, are making 
covert use of these to describe mental mechanisms, and one can 
see that they feel deep within themselves the truth of his views, 
though they are loath to admit it Those who have set themselves 
the task of investigating this new psychology in an unbiassed 
manner are unanimous in their opinion as to the truth of Freud's 
concepts. Still there is much work to be done, for if the Freudian 
psychology is to be the foundation of psychology of the future, 
no stone must be left unturned that might help in proving or 
disproving, as the case may be, the accuracy of Freud's individual 

« This is the first of a series of elementary didactic articles on psycho- 
analysis. (Ed.) 

3y Google 



Freud has not built up his psychological system on preconceived 
ideas ; this system is simply the formulation of conclusions that 
were forced upon him. After great experience both with normal 
as well as abnormal mental states, he was assailed with a 
constant recurrence of facts which could not be denied, and so 
he formulated his psychological principles which constitute the 
foundation on which his psycho-analytical procedure is based. 

Freud divides mental functioning into two parts: 

1. Conscious. 

2. Unconscious. 

By the term conscious he denotes all mental processes of 
which a person is aware at a given moment. In contradistinction 
to this, all other mental processes are termed unconscious. 

The essential criterion of consciousness is awareness ; the mental 
process may be quite distinct or on the other hand it may be 
very indistinct, still if the person is aware of it the term conscious 
must be applied. 

This definition is exceedingly important, but if fully appreciated 
it is quite simple. One has only to apply the test of asking a 
person if at a given moment he was aware of what was taking 
place in his mind, to have an infallible proof as to whether a 
process was conscious or not. Freud is not concerned with such 
terms as 'fringe of consciousness", "threshold of consciousness" 
etc., his definition is clear and precise. Nothing more than he says 
is included in it and nothing less. 

Further, Freud compares consciousness with a sense organ, in 
that it perceives and differentiates or renders aware psychical 
processes and qualities. It is not only concerned with the perception 
of stimuli produced externally, but also with internal psychical 
processes. I believe that Freud was the first to point out the 
comparison of consciousness with a sense organ. The practical 
importance of this concept is very great, for it gives to psycho- 
logical problems quite another outlook. 

Another important attribute of consciousness is its power of 
selection ; although its capacity in this direction is to a certain 
extent limited, yet it is able to exercise a good deal of choice. 
In general it may be said that consciousness chooses what is 
pleasurable and avoids what is painful. In other words, the 
awareness of mental processes of a painful nature is avoided as 
much as possible. The truth of this statemem ^ip^^.^y,^^^^^ ^^ ^ 


moment's reflection. Everyone must recognise that we do our best 
to avoid thinking about disagreeable things, and if such do appear 
in consciousness we endeavour to put them away. This particular 
attribute of consciousness is of great service to us, for if it did 
not exist and painful thoughts were allowed to appear in con- 
sciousness indiscriminately we should be in a constant state of 
distress, such as we see in so many neurotic persons. 

This is all that need be said at present regarding consciousness, 
and I will pass on to the more important subject, the unconscious. 

The unconscious, as I have mentioned above, consists of all 
mental processes which are not conscious, i. e. of which the person 
is unaware at a given moment. Under the term mental processes 
are included thoughts, ideas, trends and wishes, in short, all forms 
of mental activity. 

In forming an idea of the unconscious the usual difficulty lies 
in recognising the fact that mental activity can take place un- 
consciously. Mental activity is so apt to be conceived only from 
a conscious point of view, but it should be evident that it is all 
the time going on unconsciously. The mental processes that are 
conscious, i. e. those of which we are aware, are simply end- 
products. They may be likened to the articles in a shop window, 
about the manufacture of which from raw materials we know 
practically nothing, though these articles could not be there 
unless a whole series of complicated processes had been previously 
carried out. It is just the same in the mental sphere. The un- 
conscious is the factory in which the raw material is hidden from 
view, but in which a ceaseless activity is taking place, producing 
thoughts, etc., which eventually may appear in consciousness as 
end-products, like the finished goods we see in the shop windows. 
The analogy goes still further, for as everyone knows, the 
articles in the shop windows are only a fraction of those produced 
in the factories; in the same way the conscious mental processes 
are only a fraction of what are in the unconscious. And again, as 
the goods produced in the factories can influence our conduct in 
life without our seeing them in the shop windows or even being 
aware of their existence, so unconscious mental processes can 
affect our lives without our being in any way cognisant of them. 

The unconscious is also the storehouse of our memories and 
the place whence our feelings and emotions originate. It contains 
the whole of our life's history, nothing that has at any time 




entered the unconscious is lost, neither has anything that has ever 
originated within the unconscious itself and remained unconscious 
become extinct. These facts are being proved over and over again 
by psycho-analysis and cannot be too strongly insisted upon, 
Freud divides the unconscious into two parts : 

1. The preconscious, 

2. The true unconscious or the unconscious proper. 

The preconscious may be defined as that part of the un- 
conscious whose contents are able to enter consciousness in 
undisguised form and from which memories can be recalled 

The true unconscious, on the other hand, is that part of the 
unconscious whose contents are quite unable to enter consciousness 
undisguised and from which memories cannot be spontaneously 
recalled, unless a special technique like psycho-analysis is adopted; 
however, some contents of the true unconscious can at times . 
enter consciousness provided that their primary form has been so 
altered or disguised that consciousness can no longer recognise them. 

The definition of the preconscious requires to be somewhat 
amplified, lest misconceptions arise. The essential point is that a 
potentiality exists for its contents to enter consciousness in their 
primary undisguised form, but this does not necessarily mean that 
they can at any given moment be consciously produced. It is 
perfectly well known that very often one wishes to recall some- 
thing, but try as hard as one can, it is quite impossible to 
become conscious of it, however, later, the idea or memory 
enters consciousness practically without effort. The fact of the 
inability to recall a thing at a given moment in no way detracts 
from the definition, for though the idea would not come into 
consciousness just when required, eventually it was able to appear 

The preconscious forms by far the greater part of the un- 
conscious. It consists of the majority of our thoughts, ideas, wishes 
and memories. In it there is a ceaseless mental activity going on, 
and it is linked up with the true unconscious by means of paths 
of association between ideas, etc. 

From a schematic point of view I consider it useful to look 
upon the preconscious as having depth. If this idea is adopted, 
though Freud himself does not do so, then it can be said that 
those ideas nearest to consciousness will in general be the easiest 



to recall, while those ideas in its deepest part will be the most 
difficult. The further removed from consciousness the greater the 
task of recall. Still this statement is not always borne out One 
often feels that a memory is "on the tip of the tongue'', therefore 
it cannot be far removed from consciousness, but still one cannot 
remember it. The reason for this is that it is very strongly 
associated with an idea which is much further removed from 
consciousness and one which for some reason or other conscious- 
ness is very chary about admitting, and so the more superficial 
idea is held back. 

It must also be remembered that preconscious ideas can become 
associated with ideas in the true unconscious, and the firmer the 
union between such ideas the more unlikely are they to be able 
to enter consciousness easily. 

It must be borne in mind that there are numbers of ideas, 
wishes, etc. formed in the preconscious that never enter conscious- 
ness at all, but nevertheless they can exert a marked influence 
upon our conduct by virtue of their effect upon those thou^ts 
which become conscious. 

I will now pass on to consider the true unconscious. As I have 
said, the contents of the true unconscious are not able to enter 
consciousness in their primary form. Most of them are "repressed". 

Before proceeding further I should like to say a few words 
concerning the use of the word "repressed". It has a precise 
meaning in Freud's psychology and this should be strictly adhered 
to. It is very apt to be used loosely and thus misconceptions 
often occur. Freud uses the word solely with reference to the 
contents of the true unconscious, and in this sense only should 
it be employed when it has any relation to his psychological 
conceptions. When he says that an idea is repressed it is im- 
mediately recognised that that idea is in the true unconscious ; in 
other words, it is in a state of repression and therefore unable 
to enter consciousness in its primary form. 

The words repressed and suppressed are not used synonymously 
by psycho-analytical writers, the former being always used in a 
special technical sense, the latter in its usual one. Repression has 
only to do with the true unconscious. The term is used solely 
with reference to those mental processes in the true unconscious 
which are prevented by the barrier, to be mentioned later, from 
entering consciousness ; they are said to be repressed. Repression 
r I . Origin^. ,.-.•.., 



is a purely unconscious condition. Suppression, on the other hand, 
may be carried out either consciously or unconsciously. An ex- 
penditure of energy is ceaselessly taking place to keep up the 
state of repression, whereas the expenditure of energy for the 
purpose of suppression is very variable, depending entirely upon 
the intensity of the thing to be suppressed. The energy expended 
in repression is preconscious, but that with regard to suppression 
may be a conscious expenditure. A thought can be suppressed 
and if it reaches the true unconscious it has been repressed or is 
in a state of repression. 

After this digression I will return to the consideration of the 
true unconscious. This part of the unconscious is formed mainly 
during the first five or six years of life. It consists of thoughts, 
ideas, trends, wishes and memories which in their primary form 
are wholly repugnant to consciousness, being for the most part 
infantile, primitive, egocentric and crude. During these early years 
of life the primitive impulses and interests have more or less 
full play, but very soon the effects of education, teaching and 
morals place an interdict upon the manifestation of such impulses, 
and constitute a strong barrier against them. This is the barrier 
to which I referred in the last paragraph. Now this barrier is 
a repressing force, which is constantly exerting itself to prevent 
the contents of the true unconscious from reaching consciousness, 
— these contents striving as they do in order to obtain an outlet 
through consciousness to discharge the energy with which they 
are invested. 

Besides acting as a repressing force this barrier also acts as 
an obstruction against attempts from without to penetrate into the 
true unconscious. To this aspect of the barrier a special term is 
applied, namely, "resistance''. This resistance is easily demonstrable. 
When a person is being psycho-analysed and he is giving free 
associations to some idea or memory, he may suddenly come to 
a stop, hesitate or begin talking about irrelevant matters. If now 
he is requested to continue from where the breaking off took 
place, signs of annoyance or even anger may be the result, or he 
will tell you that his mind is a blank, no thoughts will come, and 
all kinds of subterfuges are adopted to avoid continuing from 
this point. If he is asked why he does not go on, he will as often 
as not say that he cannot explain it but that something seems to 
prevent him from continuing. He may even add that his thoughts 



seem to be blocked. The more he is urged to express his thoughts, 
the more disturbed does he become. It is perfectly obvious to 
anyone seeing this condition that some obstacle has been met 
with which resists further penetration. This obstacle is the barrier 
which if penetrated would allow something to appear in conscious- 
ness that would be repugnant to the personality; therefore to 
avoid this Contingency the resistance acts in the way indicated. 
The barrier acting as a repressing force and as resistance is a 
very useful asset to the individual. If it were not present then the 
most primitive impulses would be constantly in evidence, and the 
mind would be filled with all manner of disagreeable and repugnant 
thoughts, ideas and wishes ; in short, we should be purely selfish 
egoists of an entirely asocial character. The existence of this barrier 
is therefore of fundamental importance for the individual and the 
community in general. 

There is still another function performed by this barrier, and 
that is one of censoring, hence in this respect Freud has named 
it the "censorship'*. I have mentioned that the contents of the true 
unconscious are constantly striving to enter consciousness, and 
also in defining this true unconscious I stated that the ideas in it 
could not reach consciousness in their primary form, but might 
do so if they were so changed and altered that their original 
form was no longer recognisable. The barrier, or censorship as it 
is called from this aspect, standing as it does between the true 
unconscious and the preconscious, will not allow the contents of 
the true unconscious to enter consciousness unless they have been 
so disguised that consciousness can see nothing offensive in them. 
The censorship acts just like the editor who will not allow the 
unvarnished truth to appear in his paper for fear of offending his 
readers, and therefore draws his blue pencil through the dis- 
agreeable passages and returns the article to the writer. If now 
the author again presents the same subject, but has concealed the 
plain truth in symbolical or allegorical language, so that its real 
meaning is disguised, then the editor will publish it. 

Freud also considers that there is a censorship situated 
between the preconscious and consciousness, but its activity is 
nothing like so marked as the censorship I have just mentioned ; 
it acts mainly on those preconscious ideas that have associations 
in the unconscious. 

Freud considers that there originally exist in every human 



mind two separate systems of mental activity, which may be 
looked upon as the precursors of unconscious and conscious 
thinking. These two systems he terms the primary and secondary 
psychic systems. 

He views the mind as a complex reflex apparatus which can 
be stimulated from within or without. The stimulus acts upon 
the sensorial end of the apparatus and sets up a movement which 
tends to discharge itself through the other, the motor end. Now 
the fact that a movement is set up in the apparatus indicates 
that energy is involved. This psychical energy is capable of 
increase, diminution and displacement, and also of being dissipated. 
It is technically termed affect, which corresponds with what we 
popularly call "feeling'\ To every mental process there is a 
certain amount of energy or affect attached, but the quantity is 
very variable. This is perfectly well known, for everyone recog- 
nises how much more feeling is attached to certain ideas than 
to others, and also that att different periods the affect associated 
with the same idea varies considerably. For instance, on the 
death of a beloved person all the thoughts concerning him will 
arouse very strong emotion, whereas when time has elapsed 
there will not be anything like the same display of affect on 
thinking or speaking about him. This variability of the amount of 
affect attached to ideas applies also to unconscious ones. 

There is a condition with regard to the psychical energy which 
may produce far-reaching effects ; it is known as "displacement 
of affect^ By this is meant that the affect originally attached to 
a certain idea may move from it and become attached to another 
idea which is in some way associated with the primary one, so 
that the second idea may be said to be representative of the first 
This process of displacement usually takes place unconsciously, 
but its recognition has been of the greatest significance in aiding 
our understanding of the mechanisms of the neuroses as well as 
of normal mental functioning. It is this process, for instance, that 
underlies the attitude of the spinster towards her pet animal, also 
that of the person who is afraid of perfectly harmless things, such 
as spiders or worms, closed rooms or tunnels. These things have 
in such cases been invested with affect out of all proportion to 
their value. The affect does not really belong to them but has been 
displaced from a much more significant idea in the person's un- 
conscious, one in regard to which the affect was fully justified. 



The reasons for this displacement I cannot enter into here except 
to say that the original idea which is entirely repugnant to the 
personality of the individual concerned, is by means of this dis- 
placement rendered practically incapable of obtruding on conscious- 
ness, though indirectly it is represented and discharged through 
consciousness by means of the second idea, which does not arouse 
such intense feelings of repugnancy. 

The next point to be noted about this psychical energy is 
that excessive accumulation of it results in a tension which is 
perceived as discomfort, and there is a constant tendency towards 
its discharge. This discharge is experienced as pleasure, relief or 

In the primary system relief of the discomfort is probably 
attained by what is known as the process of "regression^ By this 
is meant that in the infant, for instance, the recurrence of a need, 
such as hunger, gives rise to the desire to reproduce the per- 
ception associated with the satisfaction of it, i. e. a hallucinatory 
perception is produced, and for the moment the need is stilled. 
However, sooner or later this regression is found inadequate for 
bringing about the relief of the tension, and so the psychical 
energy sets in motion further groups of mental processes. The 
function of these latter processes is to modify the environment, 
so as to occasion an externally evoked perception. The excitation 
now acts therefore upon the motor end of the apparatus, the infant 
cries and gets fed ; thus the environment is changed, the per- 
ception is externally evoked and gratification is attained. This is 
brought about by means of the secondary system. 

Throughout life there always exists the tendency to regression 
in the mental functioning of every individual, but some people 
show it very much more than others. The difference between the 
two systems in allaying excitation may be compared to that 
between day-dreaming and action, which are two methods of 
attaining relief from psychical tension. The one is an imaginary 
gratification, the other a real one. 

In the primary system the freest possible movement takes 
place, associations between ideas are most easily formed and in it 
logical thought is entirely lacking. On the other hand the secondary 
system tends to inhibit this freedom of movement, i. e., to act 
as a control over the primary system. This control is never a 
complete one, for in numerous instances our logical tliinkin^ 


succumbs to the influence of the first system, an occurrence most 
clearly seen in delirium, insanity and ordinary night dreams. 

The primary system remains unaltered throughout life and goes 
to make up the true unconscious. The secondary system becomes 
the preconscious and conscious. 

One of the effects of the control and inhibitory action of the 
secondary system over the primary one is to bring about the 
highly important state of psychical repression. The primary system 
is constantly striving for pleasure, which is the outcome of relict 
from psychical tension. Now certain of these strivings are inhibited 
by the secondary system, because their appearance in conscious- 
ness would be repugnant to the conscious personality of the 
individual. The active inhibiting forces are those obtained through 
teaching, education, morals and social tradition, all of which from 
an early date begin to exercise an increasing influence on the 
small child. These forces I have previously mentioned as constituting 
the barrier between the true unconscious and the preconscious. 
When for some reason or other one of these primary strivings 
urges for gratification, the energy attached to the idea is inhibited. 
As a result of this an intrapsychical conflict is set up. The conflict 
is xisually solved by the primary idea being shut off or dissociated, 
and the energy which was attached to it flowing off along other 
paths of association and becoming attached to ideas which are 
psychically related to the primary one, but which are no longer 
inhibited by the secondary system ; in this way the energy is 
discharged. These dissociated strivings are eventually the contents 
of the true unconscious, which are kept in a state of repression 
by virtue of the continuous activity of the inhibitory or re- 
pressing forces. 

The question of psychical repression is a highly important one, 
for not only is it the most active agent underlying the various 
manifestations of the neuroses, but it also enables us to obtain a 
more precise understanding of human conduct in general. It shows 
us that the motives which we give as reasons for our behaviour 
are generally untenable, since the essential cause lies hidden in 
the true unconscious, and what we assign as the cause is only a 
representative of the true cause, which has become dissociated. 
The process by which a spurious cause is thus substituted for the 
real (unconscious) cause, is usually termed rationalisation. 

There is another part of Freud's psychology to which I must 


■ Ml I I '.' I I I 



allude, namely, the significance he attaches to the psycho-sexual 

Freud considers that when the infant comes into the world it 
brings with it the sexual impulse, though certainly not in the 
form in which it is manifested in later life, but still in forms that 
are demonstrable. The misconceptions that have arisen with regard 
to this point are partly due to the fact that this has by some 
been taken to mean that the infant shows the same manifestations 
of the impulse as those seen in the adult. These obviously could 
not be altogether the same, for physiological reasons alone. There 
are, however, notable similarities on the physiological side between 
these phenomena in the infant and the adult ; and when the 
psychological side of the impulse is carefully studied, striking 
analogies are found there also, so that an unbiassed observer 
can only come to the conclusion that the same impulse is active 
at both periods, Freud, having recognised this, simply widened 
the concept of the word sexual so as to include all manifestations 
of the impulse whether they occurred in the adult or in the child. 

Now many of these psycho-sexual trends in the infant very 
soon become incompatible with the child's environment ; they 
are crude, egoistic, a- moral and ofttimes repugnant, so that very 
soon they are shut off and form the greater part of the true 
unconscious. However, they have a great amount of energy 
attached to them and they are constantly striving for gratification. 
This energy works itself off through other associations, as was 
explained above. A certain amount of this energy is used up in 
aims which are of a non-sexual character and which are of use 
in the social life of the individual. This process is termed sublimation. 
It may be more clearly defined by saying that sublimation is an 
unconscious process in which psychical energy is displaced from 
a primitive and infantile sexual aim on to a non-sexual one, the 
latter aim being at the same time psychically related to tlie 
former. Sublimation takes place chiefly in the early years of life. 
The influence of the psycho-sexual trends in both normal and 
abnormal mental states is very great, for all the energy attached 
to them is not used up in sublimation, but works itself off in 
ways that are often detrimental to the individual. Much of our 
conduct and many of our various attitudes are conditioned through 
the primitive and infantile activities of the sexual impulse, and 
the more we know about its mode of functioning the better rea 



we able to guide its energies into proper and useful channels, and 
at the same time gain a more precise knowledge of normal and 
abnormal mental conditions. 

After these few remarks on Freud^s psychology it will readily 
be seen that he postulates a rigid determinism in the whole of 
the mental sphere. He leaves nothing to "chance" where mental 
activity is concerned. His method of psycho-analysis is based on 
this fundamental concept, which has been substantiated over and 
over again by his co-workers. 

The principles of Freud's psychology can be applied in fields 
both numerous and diverse. Not only are they applicable in the 
sphere of medicine, especially as regards our understanding of the 
neuroses and psychoses, but they also provide us with a fresh 
point of view in such subjects as mythology, folk-lore, superstition, 
dreams and wit In all these fields, and many others that could 
be mentioned, there is a vast amount of work still to be done ; 
much has been accomplished by Freud and the other leading 
psycho-analysts, but the work is urgently in need of extension at 
the hands of other investigators. This work cannot be carried out 
until Freud's psychological principles have been fully assimilated, 
and it is hoped that the few points that I have brought forward 
will stimulate those interested in his work to obtain from his 
own writings a fuller and more precise understanding of his 

C^ nonl^ Orrgmaf from 





STANFORD READ, M. D., Salisbury 


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(39). IBID. The genesis and meaning of homosexuality and its relation to 
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(40). IBID. The psychanalyst and the community. J. of Amer. Med. Assoc. 
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(41). IBID. Philology of hysteria. The neuroses in the light of Freudian 
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(51). IBID, Clinical studies in Epilepsy. Psychiatric Bull. Jan. 1916. April 
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(52). IBID. A further study of mental content in Epilepsy. Psychiatric 
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(53). IBID. A personality study of the Epileptic Constitution. Amer. J. of 
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(54). IBID. The true Epileptic. New Yoik Med. Journ. May 41h. 1918. P. 817. 

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(56). IBID. The psychological and therapeutic value of studying mental 
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(58). IBID. The psychologic treatment of retarded depressions. Amer. Journ. 
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(61). IBID. Some of the newer methods of treatment in nervous and mental 
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(63). IBID. A further study upon mental torticollis as a psychoneurosls. 

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(65) IBID. The nature and pathogenesis of epilepsy. New York Med. Journ. 
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(66). IBID. Some therapeutic suggestions derived from the newer psycho- 
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(67). IBID. A psychologic study of some alcoholics. Psychoanalyt. Rev. Vol, VI. 
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(68). IBID. Some practical remarks upon the use of modified psychoanalysis 
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(76). IBID. The treatment of Dementia Praccox by psychoanalysis. J. of Abn. 

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(82). IBID. Dream Interpretation. New. York Med. Journ. Vol. XCIX. 
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(83). CULPIN, M. Dreams and their value in treatment. The Practitioner. 
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(88). IBID. Analysis of a case of Manic-Depressive psychosis showing 
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(92). EDER, M. D. War Shock. The psychoneuroses in war. Wm. Heine- 
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(93). IBID, (with Mrs. Eder). The conflicts in the unconscious of the child. 
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(94). IBID. The psychoneuroses of the war. Lancet. Aug. 12th. 1916. 

(95). IBID. Psychological perspectives. The New Age. July 20th. 1916. 

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(98). IBID. The mechanism of sexual deviation. Psychoanalyt. Rev. Vol. VI. 
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(101). IBID. Some psychoanalytic studies of character. J. of Abn. Psych. 
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(102). IBID. Psychoanalysis and hospitals. Psychoanalyt. Rev. Vol. I. No. 3. 

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(112). FEDERN, P. The principles of paln-pleasure and of reality. Psjfchoanalyt. 
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(113). IBID. The infantile roots of masochism. New. York. Med. Journ. Vol. 
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(114). FLOGEL, J. C. Freudian mechanisms as factors in moral development. 
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(115). FORSYTH, D, Functional nerve disease and the shock of battle. Lancet. 
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(116). FRINK, H. W. Morbid fears and compulsions. Their psychology and 
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(117). IBID. Three examples of name forgetting. J. of Abn. Psych. Vol. VIII. 
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(118). IBID. Some analyses in the psychopathology of everyday life. J. of 
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(119). IBID. A psychoanalytic study of a severe case of Compulsion Neurosis. 
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(120). IBID. Dream and neurosis. Interstate Med. Journ. 1915. 

(121). IBID. What is a complex? J. of Amer. Med. Assoc. Vol. LXII. 1914. 

(122). FRY, F. R. The anxiety neuroses. Med. Press and Circular. Dec. 26th. 

(123). GLUECK, B. The malingerer. Internat. Clinics. Vol. III. Series 25. 1915. 
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(125). IBID. Adier's conception of the neurotic constitution. A critical Review. 
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(126). IBID. The God man or Jehovah complex. New Yoric Med. Journ. Vol 
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(127). GORDON, A. Obsessive hallucinations and psychoanalysis. J. of Abn. 

Psych. Vol. XII. No. 6. P. 423. 
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(131). GROVES, E. R. Freud and Sociology. Psychoanalyt. Rev. Vol. IE. No. 3. 
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(132). IBID. Freudian elements in the animism of the Niger Delta. Psycho- 
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(133). IBID. Sociology and psychoanalytic psychology: an interpretation of 
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(134). HALL, STANLEY. The Freudian methods applied to anger. Amer. J. 
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(135). HART, B. The psychology of rumour. Proc. Royal Soc. of Med. (Sect, 
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(136). IBID. The psychology of Freud and his school. J. of Ment Sc. 1914. No. 234. 

(137). IBID. Psychotherapy. Proc. R. Soc. of Med. 1918. 

(138). HASSALL, J. C. ROle of sexual complex in dementia praecox. Psycho- 
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(139). IBID. The serpent as a symbol. Psychoanalyt. Rev. Vol. VI. No. 3. 
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(140). HAY, J. (Jnr). Mrs. Marden's ordeal. Little, Brown A Co. Boston. 

1918. Pp. 307. rA noveO- 
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(142). IBID. Mental conflicts and misconduct. Little, Brown & Co. 1917. 
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(143). HILL, M. C. (With C. S. Yoakum). Persistent complexes derived through 
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(144). IBID. (With C. S. Yoakum). Genetic antecedents of free association 
materials. Miss Z's case. J. of Abn. Psych. Vol. XI. No. 6. P. 396. 

(145). HILL. O. B. Psychoanalysis. Indian Med. Gazette. Calcutta. 1914. 
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(146). HINKLE, B. M. Jung's libido theory and the Bergsonian philosophy. 
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(147). HOCH, A. Precipitating causes in dementia praecox. Atner. J. of 
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(148). IBID. A study of tlie benign psychoses. John Hopkins Hosp. Bull. 
Vol. XXVI. No. 291. May 1915.. 

(149). HOLT, E. B. The Freudian wish and its place in Ethics. Holt. 
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(150). HULL. H. R. The long handicap. Psychoanalyt. Rev. Vol. IV. No. 4. 
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(151). HYSLOPP, G. H. Analysis and discussion of 225 personal dreams. 
Proc. of Amer. Soc. for Psych. Research. Vol. VUI. Aug. 1914. 

(152). ISHAM, M. K. Some Implications of psychoanalysis. New York Med. 
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(153). JELLIFFE, S. E. (with W. A. White). Diseases of the nervous system; 
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(154). IBID. Some notes on transference. J. of Abn. Psych. Vol. VIIL No. 5. 
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(155). IBID. The technique of psychoanalysis. Psychoanalyt. Rev. Vol. L 
Nos. 1—4; Vol. n. Nos. 1-4; Vol. HL Nos. 1 -4 ; Vol. IV. Nos. 1 and 2. 

(156). IBID. Compulsion neurosis and primitive culture. Psychoanalyt. Rev. 
Vol. I. No. 4. P. 361. 

(157). IBID, (with L. Brink). The r61e of animals in the unconscious. Psycho- 
analyt. Rev. Vol. IV. No. 3. P. 253. 

(158). IBID, (with L. Brink) Compulsion and Freedom: the phantasy of the 
Willow Tree. Psychoanalyt. Rev. Vol. V. No. 3. P. 255. 

(159). IBID. Contributions to psychotherapeutic technic through psycho- 
analysis. Psychoanalyt. Rev. Vol. VI. No. 1. P. 1. 

(160). IBID, (with E. Evans). Psoriasis as an hysterical conversion symbollzation. 
New York Med. J. Vol. CIV. No. 23. Dec. 2nd. 1916. 

(161). IBID. Psychotherapy and the drama. New York Med. J. Vol. CVL 
No. 10. Sept. 8 th. 1917. 

(162). IBID. The epileptic attack in dynamic psychology. New York. Med. J. 
Vol. CVIII. No. 4. July 27 th. 1918. 

(168). IBID. Psychoanalysis. Ref. Hand. Med. Sc. New York. 1917. Vol. VU. 
P. 353. 

(164). JONES, ERNEST. Papers on Psycho-Analysis. Revised and enlarged 
edition. 1918. 715 pp. Bailli^re, Tindall & Cox. London. 

(Those papers in this book which were written and published elsewhere 
subsequently to January 1914 are noted separately below and marked a.) 

(166). a IBID. The repression theory in its relation to memory. Brit. J. of Psych. 
Vol. VIII. Part. 1. Oct. 1915. Pp. 33—47. 

(166). a IBID. The unconscious and its significance for psychopathology. Rev. 
of Neur. and Psychiatry. Vol. XII. No. 11. 1914^ 



(167). a IBID. The theory of symbolism. Brit. J. of Psych. Vol. IX. Part 2. 

P. 181. 
(168). a IBID. Psychosexual impotence and anaesthesia. J. of Abn. Psych. 

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(21). IBID. The myth of the birth of the hero. Transl. by F. Robbins and S. 
E. Jelliffe. J. of Nerv. and Ment. Dis. Publ. Co. New York. Mono- 
graph Series. No. 18, 

(22), RICKLIN, F. Wish-fulfillment and symbolism in fairy tales. Author. 
Trans, by W. A. White, The Nerv. and Ment. Dis. Publ. Co. New 
York 1915. Monograph Series No. 21. 

(23). SADGER, J. Sleep walking and moon walking. Transl. by L. Brink. 
Psychoanalyt. Rev. Vol. VI. Nos: 2 and 3. (To be continued.) 

(24). SILBERER, H. Problems of mysticism and its symbolism. Transl. by 
S. E. Jelliffe. Moffat. Yard & Co. New York 1916. P. 449. 

(25). STEKEL, W. The technique of dream interpretation. Transl. by J. E, 
Lind. Psychoanalyt. Rev. Vol. IV. No. 1. P. 84. 

(26), IBID. Sleep, the will to sleep and insomnia. Transl. by S. A. 
Tannenbaum. The Amer. J. of Urology and Sexology. Vol. XIV. 
No. 9. Sept. 1918. 

(27). IBID. On suicide. Transl. by S. A. Tannenbaum. Amer. J. of Urology 
and Sexology. August. 1918. 

(28). IBID. The psychology of kleptomania. Transl. by S, A. Tannenbaum. 
Amer. J. of Urology. Feb. 1818. 

(29). IBID. Obsessions: their cause and treatment. Transl. by S. A. 
Tannenbaum. Amer. J. of Urology. April 1918. 

(30). Some Freudian contributions to the paranoia problem. (A translated 
digest of various articles from the pen of foreign authors.) By C. R. 
Payne. Psychoanalytic Rev. Vol. I. Nos: 1—4. Vol. II. Nos: 1 and 2. 

C^ nonl^ OrFginaf from 



Those who have faith in the scientific truth of psycho-analytical principles, 
and who see in their study and application a vast field for the general enhan- 
cing of human happiness directly and indirectly, will realize with rightful satis- 
faction that in England and America substantial progress has been achieved in 
this psychological sphere during the past six years, in the latter country it has 
been specially marked (reference to the Bibliography will show how great the 
preponderance of American psycho-analytical literature has been as compared 
with British) perhaps because of a greater aptitude there for adopting new 
conceptions, thouijh in Great Britain, undoubtedly, the investigation of neurotic 
disease arising through war experiences has forced the medical profession to cast 
away as useless old materialistic ideas and adopt psychological theories as a 
more rational explanation of its pathological basis. Mostly through the medical 
profession, psychologists have had to review their static conceptions with a 
more critical eye, with the result that slowly but surely "ttiey are seeing that 
their principles have in the past savoured too much of the armchair and have 
lacked that essentially humanistic element which Freud has made such an im- 
portant factor. Great opposition though has continued to be evinced by many 
neurologists, psychiatrists, and psychologists. Nevertheless it is interesting to 
note that in much of the literature these opponents have penned, psycho-analytical 
terms are by no means sparsely found, though doubtless they would extensively 
rationalize their use. The concept of "repression" is freely spoken of, while the 
importance of dream life has become more or less universally recognized by 
those who have had dealings with war anxiety states. All this augurs well for 
the future of psycho-analytic progress. That such eminent psychologists as Stanley 
Hall and Putnam have so largely become adherents to these doctrines is grati- 
fying. In America many distinguished medical and psychological authorities 
have devoted much energy to the dissemination of Freudian knowledge; the 
names of Brill, Burrow, Clark, Coriat, Emerson, Frink, Glueck, Kempf. MacCurdy, 
Obendorf, Stern, Tannenbaum. and White must be specially meniioned in this 
connection. The American Journals contain much psycho-analytic work. The 
Psychoanalytic Review is devoted entirely to such, and within its pages the 
reader often finds material by writers the worth of whose contributions is un- 
disputed. Herein, too, appear abstracts from '*Imago'* and the '*Zeitschrift filr ftrzt- 
liche Psychoanalyse", which render it of still greater interest. The Journal of 
Abnormal Psychology is another publication through which American and English 
readers may learn of psycho-analytic theory and practice, while the late advent 
of the Journal of Mental Hygiene, published by The National Comittee of Mental 
Hygiene, is in full sympathy with psycho-analytic tenets and deals often with 
social problems from this point of view. To America we are also indebted for 
the translations of so many Continental works which have been of great value 



in the propagation of Freudian ideas. In Englnnd the psycho-analytic work has 
been mainly stimulated by the work of Ernest Jones who has a world wide 
reputation and to whose enthusiasm and erudition many students owe much. 
Psycho-analytical literature in English journals is largely conspicuous by its 
absence, though the British Journal of Psychology has of late contained many 
interesting articles of this nature. 

I. Pure Psycho^Analysis 

The number of books devoted to the subject by American and British authors 
is comparatively small and the great majority of the literature is to be found 
in the many American journals. The main books in England dealing with 
psycho-analysis are Ernest Jones, ''Papers on Psycho-Analysis*' (164), Bradby's 
•'Psycho-analysis and its place in life" (10), Nicoll's "Dream Psychology" (225). 
and Trotter's "Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War" (318). American authors 
have been more prolific though many only deal indirectly with psycho-analytical 

(a). General. 

Generaf psyc6o'anafyticaf pnncipfes have been put forth In several works 
apart from translations. A simple exposition of the subject is rendered by Coriat 
(71) and Lay (196), the latter of whom is a secondary teacher of much experience 
who has found psycho-analysis useful and undertakes to tell others its essentials 
in his book which is an interesting manual for the beginner. White of Washington 
writes in his-somewhat popular but very attractive style and deals thoroughly 
(327) with the subject and orients the reader well. He is particularly happy in 
his dealings with the Oedipus and Electra complexes in his chapter on 'The 
Family Romance". In his other work — "The principles of mental hygiene" (328) 
he applies many psycho-analytical principles to the domain of the feebleminded, 
the insane, and problems connected with society. Brill has published a second 
edition of his well-known book **P5ychanalysis" (14) which though a useful 
work is somewhat too condensed for the average reader to gain an adequate 
insight into the Freudian principles involved. It is, of course, by no means an 
easy matter to place before a student the bulk of psycho-analytical conceptions 
within a comparatively small compass, but in the opinion of the reviewer this 
object has been most fully attained by Frink in his "Morbid fears and compulsions" 
(116) where he is most lucid, not diffuse, and leads up logically to the clinical 
issues involved in the neuroses. In his endeavours, however, to clarify the 
meaning of the term "sexual" as used in the Freudian sense he makes some 
important mistakes. Bradby in her recent work on psycho-analysis (10) introduces 
terms and conceptions which detract greatly from the scientific value of her 
book, though her enthusiasm and writing may do much to dispel prejudice 
among a certain class of readers. The bias of ethical ideas and morality has no 
place in scientific psychology and one must deplore such statements as — ''In 

the unconscious are spiritual values each has God in him as well as 

Devil". Her view that there is a fundamental, innate moral impulse in man 
which may be imperfectly developed or repressed, and which she finds evidence 
o( In her analyses of dreams, requires no comment here. Nevertheless there is 


VOL. 1—4 


worth In her alms and she has done well to include the relation of psycho- 
analysis to art, religion and biography, as well as to individual psychology. 

One must refer here to several works of importance which either deal with 
certain Freudian concepts or contain matter which is largely built up on psycho- 
analytical doctrines. In this category special place must be given to Holt's 
book "The Freudian wish and its place in ethics" (149). There is no mysticism 
here. He is enthusiastic, says that the Freudian key is "the first key which 
psychology ever had which fitted" and that Freud is making "comfortably 
established professors look hopelessly incompetent". For Holt a wish is "any 
purpose or object for a course of action whether it is being merely entertained 
by the mind or is being actually executed". The wish depends on physical 
motor attitude which goes over into action and conduct when the wish is 
carried over into execution. Hence Freudian psychology Is essentially dynamic. 
This wish — of which he gives many interesting examples in Freudian stories 
and interpretations — "becomes the unit of psychology, replacing the old unit 
commonly called sensation". For some reason he uses the term "suppression". 
Instead of '^repression" and only attacks human problems at a somewhat super- 
ficial level. He, too, does not give sufficient due to the emotional factor as a 
dynamic agent and over-emphasizes the intellectual, which is curious when we 
note the title of his book. Nevertheless the contents stimulate thought and the 
ethical considerations brought forward are of undoubted value. 

Those motivations of conduct which recent psycho-analytical investigations 
have revealed are dealt with briefly by Putnam in his little work "Human 
Motives" (246). The doctrines of Freud are here left free from philosophical 
conceptions and in essentials the author*s ideas are suggestive of those of Holt. 
He finds that the conflict of our rational and emotional impulses resolves itself 
into an interaction of two motives, the constructive and the adaptive. Psycho- 
analysis shows the presence of unconscious tendencies, which, if not properly 
controlled and guided, often militate against natural aspirations and the possi- 
bilities of individual achievement. 

There is some truth in the statement that in the study of repression, not 
sufficient light has been thrown on the social and biological repressing forces. 
Trotter in his classical work — "Instincts of the herd in peace and war" (318) 
particularly deals with these factors and with their relationship to mental conflict. 
He says that the Freudian school have made comparatively little use of the 
broader aspects of biological reactions as found in the behaviour of animals. He 
deals with social repressive influences and shows how man's mind is specially 
sensitive to herd suggestion which renders the repressing forces so potent. Thus 
a conflict Is universally found between egoistic impulses on the one hand and 
sensitiveness to herd suggestion on the other. Sensitiveness to the herd is thus 
looked upon as necessary for true conflict. The normal mind is therefore far 
from being psychologically healthy and repressions are at times of value 
because of their social restraint though they are also the origination of our fears, 
our weaknesses, and our subordination to tribal customs. Trotter's way of dealing 
with these questions is very stimulating and undoubtedly gives a broader view 
to many psycho-analytical principles. 

Psycho-analytical concepts and mechanisms are dealt with generally in a 
book by the psychologist Lyman Wells, viz: "Mental Adjustments" (323) where 



he rovers a wide field and gives much information in an attractive way. Here 
his chapter on ''Balancing factors'' is specially of value and one which should 
be read by every intelligent layman. He says — "First, that men achieve 
adaptation to life in proportion to their happiness in it; second, that happiness 
consists in the balanced expenditure of energy for the realization of desires; and 
third, that the underlying motive in voluntary human conduct is the pursuit of 
a conscious happiness. Psycho-analytical work has shown more and more the great im- 
portance of the conception of mental regression as an explanation of many psycho- 
pathological disturbances** (p. 226). Mainly on Freudian lines Wells (324) (325) 
contributes an interesting study on this conception, though perhaps without 
materially advancing the subject. He lays stress on the point that the great 
factor in all regression is negation of effort and a turn towards the child state, 
thus a return to protection and an atmosphere of safety. White in fact speaks 
of this mainly as the 'safety motive* (328). Introversion is of course intimately 
connected with this concept where thought is more or less satisfactorily sub- 
stituted for conduct. White (334) also deals with this subject which has become 
of vast importance in psycho-pathology. Extroversion is a conception of much 
more doubtful meaning and to a large extent is the natural human trend. Jung, 
who coined the term, deals with this point at some length (Transl. 16). but 
British and American authors have touched but little on the theme. Jung too in 
English gives a lengthy dissertation on the theory of psycho-analysis (175). His 
different standpoint from Freud's is well known and need not be dilated upon here. 

Though theory may be thoroughly learnt, its practical applications are by no 
means easy and it is to be hoped that Jelliffe's article on the technique of 
psychoanalysis (155) will be the precursor of others. Transference is so subtle in 
many ways and difficult for the non-experienced to handle that more literature 
might have been devoted to this factor (154). Frink (116) discusses the question 
in his book, but Ferenczi (Transl. 4) has done most original work here and 
coins the word 'introjection' for the psychological mechanism involved. 

As before stated, the great bulk of the English literature of any importance 
emanates from the pen of Ernest Jones, who in his papers collected into book 
form (164) covers most of the psycho-analytical ground, but the majority of his 
writing presupposes some previous knowledge. Hart deals more popularly with 
the broad issues involved (136) and Solomon who differs in many respects 
from Freud pleads for a broader standpoint in psycho-analysis (291). 

Anal-erotism either in reaction form, or substituted, sublimated form has with 
late study been seen to take a very great share in character formation. Jones has 
thrown much light on this subject (171). Psychologists, too, have been impressed 
with his views on the repression theory in its relation to memory, for this 
author has brought much evidence to bear to show that all defects in memory 
are mainly dependent upon faulty reproduction (1(55) from associative pleasure- 
pain principle (see p. 104). An interesting symposium on this question took place 
at a British Psychological Congress, where the views of various psychologists 
(205), (219), (240), (343) were duly set forth. We here again see how psycho- 
analytical principles are slowly but surely eating their way into and moulding 
the old faculty psychology. 

For long it has been seen that the great good that will ensue from psycho- 
analysis in the future will come about from a safeguarding of the child's early 




formative years, since according to Freud it is in the first five years of life that 
the foundations of character are laid, later traits being but persistences or 
transformations of dynamic forces existing at this period. The unconscious mental 
life of the child with all the necessarily involved conflicts has become of prime 
importance and to which study contributions have been made by Jones (170), 
Eder (93), Lay (197), and Stern (301). It has been truly stated that not sufficient 
guidance has been given on such a vital question, but this has been recently 
supplied to some extent by Lay (197) and White's latest work — The Mental 
Hygiene of Childhood. (338). The former's work is somewhat too diffuse and 
technical in parts for the average lay reader, but White strikes just the right 
note and is always readable. 

There is still a good deal of individual conception as to what the uncart' 
scious involves and interesting views were given from different points of 
view in a symposium on the question — ''Why is the Unconscious' unconscious?" 
taken part in by Jones (173). Rivers (271) and Nicoll (2.4) and published later. 
The last-named, who favours the ideas of Jung, regards the 'unconscious* as 
a part of the mentality not yet fully adapted to reality, and believes it "coniains 
nascent thought — thought that has not yet been fashioned into the form that 
is useful to consciousness". He adopts a teleological view partly and herein 
sees "the forces of progression as well as the forces of regression'*. He sums 
up as follows — **The 'unconscious' is unconscious because life is a process 
of progressive evolution and requires to be closely adapted to reality if the 
individual is to be successful. Therefore the progressive transmutations of 
psychic energy are carried out at levels beneath consciousness, just as the trans- 
mutations of the embryo are carried out in the womb of the mother, and it is only the 
comparatively adapted form that is born into waking life. Thus from this point 
of view we must regard the unconscious as the inexhaustible source of our 
psychic life, and not only as a cage containing strange and wild beasts"* In 
some ways this idea savours of Myers* 'subliminal consciousness' and can 
only be described as more philosophical than scientific. Nicoll, too, interprets 
Freud wrongly in more than one instance. 

Rivers* view (271) is more utilitarian and he holds that the unconscious is 
no longer adapted to reality, though -at some earlier period of development 
it was so. He thinks that repression had taken place because the activiiy of 
this functioning was becoming disadvantageous to the organism which 
required a more modifiable guidance, and dwells on processes of dissociation 
in the lower animals in support of his contention, as well as on supposed 
similar phenomena in the sensory reactions worked out by Head and himself 
which he regards as analogous. He therefore also regards the problem from 
the evolutionary standpoint. Ernest Jones would term his view 'hedonic* 
and regards the unconscious as sometimes better adapted to reality than 
consciousness and sometimes not. He would meet the question with the 
answer that the ^unconscious* is unconscious because of the inhibiting presence 
of ttic affective factors grouped under the name ^repression*. He would trace 
the following order of events — "First the growth of the utilitarian principle 
which gradually comes to control and even in a large measure to supplant the 
more primitive hedonic pleasure-pain principle. Later a change in affective 
values, whereby what was originally plcasureablc and which remains so in the 



unconscious, becomes 'displeasureable' and highly distasteful to the more 
rapidly developing conscious system, the one more in contact with external 
reality; and it is at this point that the secondary conscious mentality has 
recourse to the hedonic and non-utilitarian mechanism of repression, which 
results in the constituting of the true unconscious." 

The British psychologist Carveth Read (259) has been stimulated by the 
psycho-analytical atmosphere to ponder on the ccnceptlon of the unconscious 
and, though by no means a Freudian, he is to some extent imbibing some of 
the principles and sees that the old psychology must broaden out and recon- 
struct many of its old ideas in the light of modern work. White in his 
interesting and useful works (327) (328) introducing psycho-analysis defines the 
unconscious in very general and wide terms and regards it simply as our 
historical past. Though his definition is lacking in many ways and can be 
adversely criticized, he tends to strike the right note for the more uninitiated. 
He states that the unconscious 'is that portion of the psyche which has been 
built up and organized in the process of development and upon which reality 
plays in the form of new and hitherto unreacted to situations, and in the 
friction resulting strikes forth the spark of consciousness". He likens the 
unconscious to the tail of a kite which, while it drags down and holds back, 
nevertheless steadies its flight and at once prevents it from dashing itself to 
pieces by a sudden dart downwards and makes it possible for it even to reach 
greater heights. Morton Prince's views are well known from his papers in the 
Journal of Abnormal Psychology which later formed the substance of his book 
on "The Unconscious" (244). Though hi& views are by no means widely 
accepted, the merit of the book undoubtedly lies in the wealth of observation 
obtained irom his great clinical experience. The contents are based on the 
assumption that the "field of conscious states*' contains (a) an inner form of 
attention surrounded by (b) a marginal area of attention, external to which is 
(c) an area of co-conscious ideas "not entering into conscious awareness", 
beyond which again lies (d) the region of unconscious processes comprising (1) 
conserved dormant neural dispositions (the physiological basis of memory) and 
(2) active neural (e. g. spinal) processes. He regards (c) and (d) as divisions 
of the subconscious. It will be seen that all this has little correlation with 
psycho-analytical conceptions, but, since in many directions Prince has worked 
on such lines, his views on the unconscious are given. The Jungian note is 
struck by the author of the last English work on psycho-analysis (10) and here 
Bradby states that psycho-analysts have overlooked important factors in the 
unconscious. Her objections are by no means new and one must deplore the 
unscientific statements she makes — "They are too much inclined to interpret 
the higher in terms of the lower, to explain the advanced by a reference to 
the rudimentary. They have found man's repressed appetites and the conflict 
between conventional morality and sexual desire, but they have not yet devoted 
equal attention to his higher interests which are also to be found in the 
unconscious mind — interests which man does not share with the animals — 
to the longing after knowledge and beauty and power for their own >akes, and 
the desire for moral goodness apart from any particular system of morality. 
Since man became aware of his own aims these things have been recognized 
as amongst the ruling passions of humanity and thev ate not sexuality, 




important though sexuality may be." This philosophical and religious element 
should certainly not be allowed to creep into any scientific conception of the 
unconscious, and we will leave criticism at that. 

SymBofism is such an important factor in psycho-analytical work that 
a correct insight into its meaning is vital. In White's book on Character For- 
mation (327) symbolism is dealt with, but in a very general way. He shows 
its relation to the unconscious and sexuality, speaks of its interpretation, phylo- 
genetic meaning and energic value. The special advantage in the course of 
development that the symbol has, he says is due to its wide usefulness as a 
carrier and transmuter of energy and also because it can be used as a vehicle 
to transmit energy from a lower to a higher level. (327. p. 112) (333). Wells (323) 
in discussing symbolic association only touches the fringe of the matter. Thus 
the only important reference to the theory of symbolism is Jones' article (167) 
where the question is scientifically and deeply entered into. He differentiates 
the various meanings the word 'symbol' may connote and abstracts their 
common attributes, commenting on these at some length. From the study of 
the genesis of symbols he concludes that the touchstone of the psycho-analy- 
tical theory of symbolism is that only what is repressed is symbolized; 
only what is repressed needs to be symbolized. In dealing with functional 
symbolism he critically tears to pieces the conceptions of what he terms 
the post-psycho-analytical school of writers — Adler, Jung, Silberer, Maeder, 
Stekel, and their English followers Eder and Nicoll. He sums up when he 
states that "all symbolism betokens a relative incapacity lor either apprehension 
or presentation, primarily the former; this may be either affective or intellectual 
in origin, the first of these two factors being by far the most important. As a 
result of this relative incapacity, the mind reverts to a simpler type of mental 
process and the greater the incapacity the more primitive is the type of mental 

process reverted to For the same reason symbolism is always concrete 

because concrete mental processes are both easier and more primitive than 
any other. Most forms of symbolism therefore may be described as the auto- 
matic substituting of a concrete idea, characteristically in the foim of its sensorial 
image, for another idea which is more or less difficult of access, which may 
be hidden or even quite unconscious, and which has one or more attributes in 
common with the symbolising idea". Every student of psycho-analysis should 
read this original article. 

Colours have become symbols to us, symbols of well nigh every emotion 
and aspiration. Evarts (107) gives us an interesting study of this with a survey 
of the symbolic meanings of colours in mythology, poetry, art, etc., in different 
countries and peoples that is of great value from a psycho-analytic standpoint. 
*The symbolism for colour has so many roots that it appears as if any colour 
might symbolize anything, and yet if carefully studied it will be seen that the 
symbolism takes fairly well-marked lines. Briefly, white Is the colour of the 
Godhead, of purity, of unity, of immortality; black is the colour of sin; red 
that of passion and the creative forces; blue, of coldness, passivity, truth; 
green, of activity or active reproduction; yellow, of religious aspiration and 
beneficience; purple, of controlled passion". An analysis of colour symbolism 
in a patient is added. 

The symbol of the serpent is frequent enough in dreams and abnormal 


mental symptoms and evidently the choice of such a symbol is not accidental. 
Hassall devotes a monograph to this important symbol (139) and traces its 
meaning in religions, where it has been given the qualities of wisdom, 
guardianship and protection, paternity and transmigration, the command over 
fertility and hostility, and has been worshipped because of these. He also shows 
that mythology and folk-lore throw a flood of light upon this symbol which, 
too, is so often sexual as demonstrated in the analyses of neurotic and psychotic 
cases which he quotes. In the interpretation of dreams theriomorphic symbols 
are specially frequent and of vast import. Jung suggests here the release of 
repressed incestuous libido by transference to animal forms, for he says 'The 
theriomorphic symbols, in so far as they do not symbolize merely the libido in 
general, have a tendency to represent father and mother . . . father by a bull, 
mother by a cow". The relation of such symbpls to primitive thought, dreams, 
neurotic disease, etc., has been discurscd by Jelliffe and Brink. (157). The 
symbolism of primitive races and sex worship is discussed by Sanger Brown, 
where a parallel is drawn between the history of the sex worship (30) in the 
collective mind of the race and the influence of the sex motive in the life of 
the normal individual. Little light, if any, is here thrown on symbolism itself. 
Riklin's work on ''Wishfulfillmcnt and symbolism in fairy tales" (Transl. 22) and 
Silberer's ••Problems of mysticism and its symbolism" (Transl. 24) have both 
been translated and are interesting in these wider spheres. 

The literature relating to dreams is by no means extensive. The mechanisms 
of dream work and the interpretations of dreams is dealt with by Jones (164), 
Frink (116), and Brill (14) in their works. Coriat devotes a small volume (75) 
to the meaning of dreams without adding any specially new matter, and Nicoll 
has published a small work (225) where he mainly adopts Jung's theory of 
interpretation and regards the dream as largely **constructive" and teleological. 
Eder has translated Freud's small book on dreams (Transl. 5). Small literary 
contributions in Journals have of course appeared, mainly on Freudian lines. 
Though some authors take some exceptions to the Freudian interpretation, no 
serious upsetting of the psycho-analytic theory has been formulated (82) (83) 
(120) (239) (248) (310). Solomon has contributed a good deal on dreams, but 
is much opposed to sexual factors therein and endeavours to find different 
basic factors (290) (291) (293) (294), Hyslopp (151) and Watson (320) give 
analyses of many personal dreams and Kimmins states some interesting findings 
in children's dreams (189), which however are merely confirmatory of our 
previous ideas. 

Though, as has already been stated, war medical experiences have given 
such a fillip to the psychogenic factor in disease being recognized, and the 
dreams of soldiers suffering from anxiety neuroses more especially have brought 
such to the notice of their medical officers, little has been written about dreams 
in connection with war disorders. Culpin briefly writes on the subject (83) and 
MacCurdy touches on the topic in his ''War Neuroses" (207). Little work has 
been done in the interpretation of dreams in lower races of mankind, but Lind 
devotes an interesting article on the dream as a wish-fulfillment in the Negro 
(201) Coriat writes on hermaphroditic dreams (80). Psycho-analytic investigations 
have shown that the best evidence of bisexuality in human beings is furnished 
by the dreams of conscious or unconscious homosexuaJ}ij;,,r;c;i;!aJ,, discusses and 



quotes dreams which are essentially bisexunl in their blurrings or blendlngs, a 
sort of dream condensation, in either a symbolized or literal form. Where 
unconscious homosexuality may occur as in certain paranoid states or in the 
compulsion or anxiety neuroses, this type of dream has been found. This author 
thinks that psycho-analysis can actually change the unconscious bisexual 
tendency of man, in the same way that it can raise our primitive unconscious 
trails to a higher level. He regards this type of dream as merely a transitional 
product in the unconscious of homosexual individuals, although it must be 
admitted that such dreams are an evidence of the bisexuality of the entire 
human consciousness. Crenshaw would make a special class of 'retaliation 
dreams' (81) which though allied in function to the dreams of successful 
competition mentioned by Freud, he thinks are more or less distinct and 
deserve some special consideration. He quotes spite dreams in support of his 
contention. *Night terrors' though touched on in some works, are only specially 
dealt with by Stern (298). It is established that the intense morbid dread and 
apprehension are due to the fear of underlying desires and impulses becoming 
conscious, since these are contrary to the personality. 

In the analysis of patients where no dream life is manifested, the useful 
method of getting the subject artificially to create supposed dreams has been 
found to be very successful in thus getting at buried complexes. Brill (13) 
shows how the unconscious factors work In much the same way as in ordinary 
dreams and he traces the similarity to the factors met with in pathological lying. 
Mention here must specially be made of an excellent study of dreams from a 
wider standpoint by Rivers in his monograph ''Dreams and Primitive Culture". 
(272). His purpose here has been first "to consider the psychological mechanism 
by n cans of whicli the dream is produced and then to compare this mechanism 
with the psychological characters of the social behaviour of those rude peoples 
who are our nearest representatives of the early stages of human progress*\ 
After describing the mechanisms of the dream-work. Rivers proceeds to show 
the existence of these same processes in the imagery, magical and sodal 
customs, dramatic and pictorial art, and in the general culture of various 
primitive peoples. The book is pregnant with interest in its attempt to demon- 
strate parallels between the psychology of dreams and that of primitive man. 

As ever, discussion as to the prevalence and importance of the sexuaf 
jactor in psySo^anafyticaf theories has been rampant and opponents of psycho- 
analysis ha eagerly pointed to the widely accepted doctrine that the 
war neuroses centred round a self-preservation complex, as a confirmation 
of their previous contention. Nevertheless all serious investigation has largely 
helped to establish the validity of Freud's sexual theory, more especially 
from analytical studies of abnormal mental states. Havelock Ellis seems now to 
find less difference with Freud (97) as his latest contribution (98) plainly shows. 
There are many, however, still who regard the term 'sexual' (denoting the large 
group of phenomena to which Freud applies it) as not particularly happy. Frink 
(116) has suggested and adopted ihe word 'holophilic', from 6}vo;, whole, and 
(TuKKa, love, thus meaning all kinds of sexual or love phenomena, which he 
thinks would be a convenient synonym for the word sexi^al in Freud's sense, 
and its judicious use would serve^ to avoid some possible misunderstandings. 

This hardly appeals to the reviewer as any advance. r„^hi„_ 
r t\\\\t^ -...gmaffrDm 



The general psycho-analytical theory of sex is described in the works of Jones 
(164). BrlH (14), Frink (116), and White (327). while Robie in a small work 
(278) is superficially imbued with some of its ideas. The conflicts of childhood 
in this realm Is adequately dealt with by Jones (170), Lay (197), Eder (93), 
and White (338). Attention, too, should here be drawn to the translated works 
of Hu?-Hellmulh (Transl. 13) and Pfister (Transl. 18). The former though 
speculates far too freely and makes such exaggerated deductions from small 
premises that only tend to militate against the scientific acceptance of psycho- 
anniysis. For instance, this author boldly states that it is quite likely that sexual 
precocity may be brought about in the child through a highly developed skin 
and muscle erotism developed from disturbance in utero by the coitus of 
parents. Pfistefs work is the more valuable as his primary interests radiate 
from the points of view of a pastor und pedagogue, his cases therefore being 
largely drawn from among school children and young adults He therein finds 
sexual conflict as the main basis for mental deviations from health. Nothing 
has been written which seriously in any way invalidates Freud's theory of the 
Oedipus and Elcctra complexes. Burrow has endeavoured to show the origin 
of Incesl-Awe (36), though his reasoning seems by no means patent. Frazer, 
as well as others have regarded the origin of incest as a mystery but Burrow 
believes this biological phenomenon as not beyond the range of comprehension. 
He slates that there is no incest but thinking makes it so, and describes incest 
revolt as "The conflict embodied in the opposition between love as aspiration 
and liic on the one hand and stx as covctousness and self on the other''. In 
his interpretation "the incest-awe is the subjective reaction resulting from an 
affront to an inherent psycho-biological principle of unity. It is the revulsion 
due to the Impact of an organic contradiction". This verbiage and his wordy 
support seems in no way convincing. Federn contributes an article on the 
infantile roots of masochism (113), while mention must be made of Ferenczi's 
(Transl. 4) addition to our ideas of hypnotic suggestion which he traces to the 
masochistic component of sexuality. Much work has been done in showing how 
the early fixations and exaggerations of early sexual components will mould the 
character for after life and Jones (171) deals in a highly interesting way with 
anal-erotic character traits. He has greatly expanded the previous work of Freud 
on this subject and carries the well recognized triad of characteristics — 
economy, obstinacy and neatness — still further. 

Of late years fiomosexuafity has been found thiough analyses to be a 
much more important factor in the human psyrhe than was ever dreamt of. 
Its influences in society generally, in the army and especially in periods of 
war (172) (260) (262) (264) apart from its import in the production of abnormal 
mental states, render its study specially needful. Burrow's monograph (39) on 
the genesis and meaning of homosexuality is the more welcome. The psycho- 
analytical idea has been that homosexuality was based upon the two com- 
ponents of the mother complex and narcissism. The individual rids himself of 
the mother image as object by identifying himself with the mother and re- 
placing her with his own person as the sexual object. Later through an 
association of similarity the object is extended to include other persons of a 
sex like his own. Homosexuality has also been at times explained by the 
adoption of the same sex as a refuge from the opposite sex. Burrow lays great 

:3y^i^ .le 

>.| I I I K\ I I I '.' I I I 



stress on the principle of original unity or identity of the offspring with the 
mother and regards this as having great significance in later mental develop- 
ment upon the determination of homosexuality and holds the opinion that auto- 
erotism itself is the psychological correlate of mater-erotism or of primary 
identification with the mother. This auto-erotism being the love of one's own 
body and the love of that sex to which one's body belongs, is precisely homo- 
sexuality. Burrow cannot therefore accept Sadgcr's view that repression of love 
for the mother is a factor or that an intermediate narcissism is needed and In 
the same way denies that in the female homosexuality has any basis in the 
repression of a father-ideal. These latter mechanisms he regards as only secondary 
in the production of a neurosis. Ferenczi in an article on *'The nosology of 
Male Homosexuality" (Transl. 4) follows Freud and Sadger but throws some 
added light on the question. The relation of homosexuality to the neuroses 
and psychoses will be dealt with elsewhere. One must not omit to mention 
the advent of a distinctly welcome work by Menzies (217) on that much mis- 
understood question of onanism (which term the author points out is not strictly 
speaking synonymous with masturbation). In this book "Auto-erotic phenomena 
in adolescence" an introduction is given on psycho-analysis in a few pages 
and his treatment of the psychology of masturbation does much to clarify the 
ideas usually held. The popular ignorance that exists on such a vital subject 
even amongst medical men is deplorable and here we have a small volume 
which is accessible to the general public and from which valuable knowledge 
can be gained. In his preface Menzies states **It alms at collecting and pre- 
senting the results obtained and recorded by the leaders of the analytical school 
of clinical psychology in special reference to a matter of intimate individual 
concern both do adolescents and those charged with their care and education." 

II. Clinical Psydio-rAnalysis 

A. Pathology 

CO Genera f T/Jeory 

As previously stated, the experience of the late war greatly stimulated 
the pathological study of mental disorders, so that the psychogenic factor has 
become widely accepted where hitherto it was almost an unknown quantity. It is 
indeed a sign of the times in England when the President of the Neurological 
Section of the Royal Society of Medicine, Aldren Turner, takes as his subject 
for his Presidential address *The psychogenic factor in nervous disease" and 
this he has just done. During the past six years no important psycho-analytical 
principle has been demonstrated as untenable, and further investigation and 
study have linked up the various correlated factors in the norm, neurotic and 
psychotic disease, biology, anthropology, and mythology (15) (74) (85) (120) 
(15G) (202). In the light of modern psychological knowledj^e Frazer's "Golden 
Bough" takes on a much enhanced value and attraction. The theories of general 
patholoj:jy will be found well stated in the works of Brill (14), Frink (IIB). and 
Jones (1G4). Time has shown that the various so-called disease entities are 
never sharply divided and that clear cut clinical pictures must seldom be 
expected. The biogenetic psychoses are seen to be curiously inter-related (164U 
The theory of unconscious defense in the psychcj!o|^ica! mechanisms seen has 


been much confirmed (286) and our previous ideas with regard to regression 
(226) (324), and introversion (334) distinctly clarified. In the light of adult work 
child life has been more studied and their conflicts appreciated (170) (338) and 
so their abnormal mental manifestations far better understood (42) i72) (301). 
The child's relation in early life to the parents and home circle which Freud 
laid stress on, has been found to be full of truth, so that 'the family romance* 
(327) has been shown for various reasons to be provocative of later mental 
disturbance (99) (193), The significance of the grandfather (164 p. 652) and 
the relationship of nephew and maternal uncle (322) have also been dwelt upon, 
and mark progress. In general psychiatry our advance of knowledge through 
psycho-analysis has been marked (43) (44) (164) (209) (304) and insight largely 
gained into the inherent meaning and purpose of delusions and other symptoms 
(210) (316) (85). Homosexual factors have been found to be of great importance 
in psychopathology, since much mental conflict is bound to arise because of 
the intense resistance mankind shows to the awareness of such a complex. 
Homosexuality is by no means the simple problem that was once thought and 
ii is found to be intimate y connected with other pathological factors such as 
excessive alcohol, narcotic drugs, exaggerated narcissism, introversion and 
regression (39) (50). Though the social question of alcohol has been specially 
prominent through war legislation, the psychology involved is seldom if ever 
considered in this respect. The psycho-analytical study of alcoholism has borne 
much fruit and we now see more plainly than ever its uses in psychic defense, 
its great compensations, and how it inhibits the later acquired characteristics, 
aids mental regression and tends to destroy sublimation. Though much is 
referred to in clinical articles, I can only trace one monograph on the subject 
by Clark (67) who deals interestingly with it from a psycho-analytic point of 
view. He very wisely says "At one time alcohol may serve as a paralyzant 
to the repressing forces of social customs and make an otherwise difficult social 
grouping free and natural. At another, it may furnish an extended pleasure 
wand to reach a goal or state of rapport not tangible to the foreshortened grasp 
of an individual who lacks the capacity to create a proper degree of self-produced 
pleasure; while at another time it may make easy for free egress the deeper 
and illy adjusted unconscious motives". He, too, tends to think that the prohi- 
bition of alcohol would only provide another refuge into other retreats of 
nervous ills and here agrees with Ferenczi (Transl. 4. p. 139). It is pointed 
out how the conscious reasons given for drinking are only rationalizations and 
the real reasons are due to unconscious motivation. The relation of alcohol 
to the psychological mechanism of projection, homosexuality, fear and suicide 
arc dealt with, while atavistic tendencies and mythological factors are also 
spoken of. The article is of considerable value. 

One must not conclude the subject under this heading without drawing 
attention to the literature devoted to Adler's theory of organic inferiority and 
its psychical compensation. Adler's work on the neurotic constitution has been 
translated (Transl. 1) and represents the great schism led by the author, who 
substitutes the horror of inferiority, the ambition to do something and be of 
importance in the world, for the sex theory of Freud. The previous irreconcilable 
differences between the functionalists and the organicists find in Adier's theories 
the first hopeful sign of a rapprochement, as White .poiii,u&. out- .^336). Some 



critical articles have been devoted to Adler's work (37) (125). Another effort 
to correlate psychological symptoms with definite physiological and anatomical 
data is made by Kempf in his work on "The autonomic functions and the 
personality" (188) and of which White has mndc a critical review (336). Kempf s 
thesis is that the autonomic system registers the organic needs of the organisrn, 
the psychological aspects of which are the affects. As White puts it, ''In phy- 
siological terms conflict represents the strivings of the cravings of the parts of 
the organism for the control of the final common (projicieni) motor path for 
adjustment. Fixation, expressed in similar physiological terms is the result of 
conditioning the autonomic reflex, but the subject of repression is most illuminated 
by this physiological view-point. The energy of the repressed affects is bound 
up in certain visceral and postural tensions and the affects are the psychological 
reverberations, so to speak, of the autonomic conditioned visceral and postural 
tonicities which thus become the physiological aspects of the emotions, more 
specifically of the unconscious/* Kempf*s monograph should certainly be closely 
studied by all psycho-analysts. 

A few articles appear on the psychopathology of everyday life confirming 
Freud's work. (117) (118) (218) (229). 

C2J Speciaf Disorders 

The psychoneuroses are amply dealt with in the books by Brill (14), Frink 
(116) and Jones (164). Frink*s treatment of this subject is particularly suitable 
to those who find some difficulty In understanding psycho-analytical mechanisms 
and theories, and his lengthy case examples with analyses are specially helpful. 
His psychoanalytic study of a severe case of compulsion neurosis embodied in 
his book was previously published in the Psychoanalytic Review (119). Jones'^ 
clinical studies in his work cover most of the ground. The psycho-analytic 
literature during the past six years has demonstrated no departure of any worth 
from previous conceptions, but greater insight has been gained as a whole into 
the psychological mechanisms underlying psychoneurotic disorders. Jones* paper 
on Morbid Anxiety (164 p. 474) is specially valuable from an historical and 
pathological point of view; he believes that this anxiety depends not only 
upon ungratificd sexuality but lays stress upon the factor of the fear of desires 
incompatible with the ego-ideal, which factor, loo, is the cause of night 
terrors (298) and nightmares. The anxiety neurosis is not now considered as 
commonly existing in a pure form but as a single symptom of anxiety hysteria, 
the latter being the wider conception (164 p. 507). Though the alternations of 
the affects of love and hate for long have been recognized as being the predo- 
minating influence in the development of the obsessional neurosis, the psycho- 
genesis of these affects has been put on a firmer basis, and anal-erotism — 
which is extending its import in modern psychopathology — is also now seen to 
play a prominent part in the production of this psychoneurosis (164 p. 540). 
Many disorders of children have been looked upon with a more psychological 
eye with consequent change and betterment in treatment. (42) (298) (302). 
Psychosexual impotence in the light of modern knowledge has become better 
understood and therefore more liable to cure (168) (Transl. 4 p. 9). The psychic 
element has been recognized in torticollis (57) (62) (63). speech inhibition and 
stammering (9) (73). Coriat (73) looks upon the psychogcnesis of stammering 



as one of the protean forms of an anxiety neurosis or anxiety hysteria, and 
regards as the chief mechanism in its production the attempt to repress from 
consciousness into the unconscious certain trends of thought or emotion, usually 
of a sexual nature; in this he has StekePs support. Clark (57) (62) (63) states 
that in all cases of mental torticollis he found that the condition was a defense 
mechanism, a turning away from an adult adaptation and farther analysis showed 
that the type of movement was even more dynamic than a regressive one alone. 
In psycho-analyiic phraseology his cases were all muscularly auto-erotic and 
evinced a reversion or regression to a type of movement that had the deepest 
pleasureable content in the infantile life. As he says, we do not yet know why 
this particular type of individual uses a torticollis rather than any other 
regression and infantile mechanism. Tics, too, are often, if not always, found 
to be psychoneurotic, though little literature exists on the subject (227). Little 
too has been said on the condition known as mental infantilism, which is 
usually hysterical in character. Clark devotes one article (64) to the subject, 
while Stanford Read speaks of some cases he met with in his war work (260). 
Any other work done on the psychoneuroses calls for no special mention here 
but Evan? reports a case showing psoriasis as an hysterical conversion sym- 
bolization (105). Under the heading of war disorders the psychoneuroses will 
be dealt with again. 

The work on the pathogenesis of Eptfepsy marks a special advance In psycho- 
analytical investigations. Though psychopathological contributions have been 
made by Ames and MacRobert (1) (215), MacCurdy (212) (213), Jelliffe (162), 
Jones (164 p. 455), and Stanford Read (261) (264), the work and writings of 
Qark are the most productive and fruitful (51) (52) (53) (54) (55) (56) (65) 
(66). Hitherto the study of epilepsy has been almost solely confined to the 
'fit' which really is the least essential factor while the mentality of the 
sufferer has received no attention. Clark summarizes his results of study when 
he states that there is a more or less definite constitutional make-up in the 
epileptic which accounts largely for the so-called predisposition to the disease. 
The essential defects are egocentricity, supersensitiveness, emotional poverty 
and an inherent defect of adaptability to normal life. The make-up is accentuated 
by the further advance of the disease only when seizures develop and epileptic 
deterioration has little if any relationship with these seizures. The precipitating 
factors that tend to bring about epileptic reactions are types of stress and 
annoyance, causing a loss of spontaneous interest and an Intensive regression 
to day-dreaming, lethargies and somnolence. The attack occurs when tension 
becomes very severe and may be looked upon psychologically as an intense 
reaction away from the intolerable irritation, a regression to a primitive 
mentality comparable to that of infancy or intra-uterlne life. Treatment would 
therefore be directed to the early overcoming of the defective instincts by 
training and education, and later by giving the patient a spontaneous otitlet 
for his keen individualistic desires, and thus adapt himself to a healthy 
environment. Clark thus shows how emotional and mental dilapidation may be 
restored, great improvement in the convulsive symptoms take place, with a 
more or less permanent arrest of the disorder in not a few cases. Clark*s study 
of the mental content of the epileptic made while In twilight states Is specially 
helpful and his charts for recording the various daily mtntal^sU^^ 



to the epileptic reactions show how thoroughly and scientifically his investigations 
have been carried out. No neurologist can afford to leave this work of Clark's 
unstudied. MacCurdy has progressed somewhat on the same lines and his 
clinical study of epileptic deterioration (212) is well worth reading. He regards 
the grand maf attack as a sudden rraction of the same type as the chronic 
one of deterioration and he cannot accept the attempt of Clark and Ferenczi 
to account for the convulsive fit on Freudian lines as a symbolic outlet for 
unconscious wishes. Stanford Read (261) (264) has given some analyses of 
epileptoid cases where he shows that the attacks had intimate relationship with 
repressed affects. Jones contributes an interesting article (164 p. 455) on the 
mental characteristics of chronic epilepsy and herein he dwells largely on the 
abnormal sexuality that is found. He states that the sexual activities of chronic 
epileptics are often turbulent and perverse and manifest a marked infantilism, 
and that the mental features become much more intelligible when they are 
correlated with the various sexual processes. 

Two other subjects of psycho-analytic Interest have been contributed to. 
A study of pollutions is made by Tannenbaum (308) in a brief article wherein 
he shows that a repressed sexual complex is the important aetlological factor. 
Somnambulism Is an interesting subject upon which only psycho-analysis has 
thrown any light. Hitherto it has simply been explained as a morbid condition 
excited during sleep and due to an unknown and abnormal cerebral activity. 
Grimberg (130) gives briefly the history and interpretation of one of Sadgefs 
cases where it appeared from psycho-analysis that the subconscious element 
was the desire for the mother and sexual satisfaction with the mother. The 
pathology of masturbation has been hitherto sadly cloaked In Ignorance. 
Menzies deals with this (217) and the sources of the masturbatic Impulses are 
well traced out from the ps ychogenetic standpoint. 

In psySiatry though the psycho-analytical school have mainly devoted 
their attention to the many problems of individual psychology, certain general 
conceptions of a nosological character have gradually crystallised out from their 
work and this is done by Jones in his article on "The Inter-relations of the 
biogenetic psychoses" (164 p. 466). Here light is thrown on the distinctions 
and inter-relations between several of the individual psychoses and on the 
relation of the neuroses to the psychoses in general. The unconscious psycho- 
genetic mechanisms in dementia praecox are referred to and the manifestations 
representing an introversion of interest accompanying a regression of mental 
Processes towards a more infantile type — the *autism' of Bleuler. The close 
connection between pure paranoia, dementia paranoides, and paraphrenia, each 
representing an increasing regression towards more and more primitive stages 
of ontogenetic development is pointed out, while the fundamental cause of the 
differences between the neuroses and psychoses is thought to be that the intro- 
version or turning away of interest from the outer world, which is the most 
characteristic feature of both, has preceded to a further degree In the case 
of the psychoses, carrying with it a loss, absolute or relative, of the 'feeling 
for reality'. This distinction however between the two groups is less sharp 
than is usually thought, and the intimate psychological study of cases shows that 
differentiation is often very difficult and may be impossible except through 
psycho-analysis. Jones also points out that psychogenetic epileptiform fits occur 



and that the obsessional neurosis may at times be exceedingly difficult to 
distinguish from paranoid conditions. Doubts regarding the status of manic- 
depressive insanity are dwelt upon, and how various psychiatrists differ from 
each other in their conceptions of this diagnosis; Brill (14) has shown that 
cases occur, clinically indistinguishable from manic-depressive insanity, but 
which prove to be of the nature of anxiety hysteria on psycho-analysis. Modem 
knowledge, therefore, through psycho-analysis tends to show that we have to 
deal in these different diseases only with various types of reaction to a 
fundamentally allied group of difficulties — namely, intrapsychical conflicts of 
a biological nature. 

Apart from some of the contents of Jones' (164) and Brill's (14) books comp- 
aratively little literary matter has been devoted to any problems of dementia 
praecox. Osnato (236) gives a critical review of the various pathological 
theories of this disease and shows a leaning towards the psychogenic ideas of 
the psycho-analytical school. He strongly repudiates Adler's views and believes 
that the only method available is to apply the therapeutic test to the principles 
laid down by psycho-analysts. Evarts mainly deals with this disease in an 
article on the psychoses of the coloured races (106) where he comes to the 
conclusion that the products of the unconscious in the insane of the coloured 
race are influenced not only by the fact that these patients are but a few 
generations removed from an earlier world, but they are also expressions of the 
actual beliefs and practices of their everyday lives ; that is they are ontogenetic 
as well as phylogenetic in origin. Karpas devotes an article to dementia praecox 
(181) and Wholey contributes a case of a psychosis presenting schizophrenic and 
Freudian mechanisms with schematic clearness (339). Greenacre gives a super- 
ficial account (129) of the content of the schizophrenic characteristics occuring 
in affective disorders. The sexual factor has long been recognized as of great 
pathological import in dementia praecox and Hassall devotes a valuable article 
to this theme. After a short psycho-analytical discourse on sexuality he traces 
its relations to the various signs and symptoms commonly seen in a praecox 
case, i. e. the sublimation into religious feeling and symbols, onanism, feeling 
of guilt, distorted incestuous desires in delusions, hallucinations and dreams, 
homosexuality, identification, symbolic acts, etc. Kempf gives an analysis of a 
case of dementia praecox (187) and remarks in conclusion that every functional 
psychosis or psychoneurosis is at least a biological maladaptation to the 
repressive influence of the individuars intimate associates, and that this influence 
Is usually unknowingly and innocently exercised as an implication of the 
pursuit of selfish interests. This is evidently rather a wide and sweeping 
generalization from the analysis of the one case he presents and one would 
certainly doubt that a patient's intimate associates were so solely the repressive 
fons et origo*, though of course always a factor to be dealt wiih. The main, 
bulk of the article is devoted to treatment and will be referred to again under 
that heading. 

What work has been done in mamcdepressive insanity though meagre, 
has only tended to confirm psycho-analytical theories. Jones (164) and Brill 
both touch the subject and some interesting analyses of cases have also 
been published. Reed reports a case (266) where a manic-depressive presented 
a reversion to infantilism as a flight from reality. He states that the patient 



after recovery was more nearly a mentally normal person than she had ever 
been before and he wonders whether this could be accounted for by the fact 
that her psychosis gave her the opportunity for a free catharsis and expression 
in acts or words of practically a life-time of unconscious or repressed wishes 
and impulses. This author contributes another case (265) in which he could 
trace the wish-realization construction. During the patient's depressed phase his 
thoughts returned to a love fancy, forgotten or scarcely thought of for twenty 
years. With this memory as a nucleus she constructed a systematized wish- 
realization phantasy involving a change in her personal appearance, wealth, the 
return to life of her father and mother, the marriage of her sister, good position 
for her nephews, union in marriage with the object of her early fancy, his accession 
to the Presidency of the United States, travel, high position, and children. 

Freudian mechanisms in a manic-like state are demonstrated by MacCurdy 
(208) and Dooley in an interesting analysis (88) shows well-marked regressive 
stages and concludes that cases of the manic-depressive type of reaction may 
have the same complex of causes, the core of which is failure at successive 
points of psychosexual development, that is found to underly the praecox 
group and the hysterias. Hoch has contributed also in his study of the benign 
psychoses (148) and Chapman deals with the aetiology of anxious depressions (49), 

One very special advance made through Freud is our conception of 
oaranoia and paranoid states, and this has been amply confirmed and 
extended, Payne's translations of the contributions of foreign authors (Transl. 
30) is the best literature that exists on the subject in the English language, 
but White and Jelliffe also dilate on these psycho-analytic conceptions in 
their text book of Neurology and Psychiatry (153j. Jones (164) and Brill 
(14) in their books deal with the point as well. The former did good service 
in translating Ferenczi*s ^'Contributions to Psycho-Analysis" wherein Freud's 
conception of the homosexual origin of paranoia is well supported. (Transl. 4). 
Shockley has given us an historical review of the growth of Freud's views and 
discusses the projection mechanisms involved (287). That the factor of latent 
homosexuality is more to be reckoned with in the production of neurotic and 
psychotic manifestations is certainly being forced upon us. Read tends to confirm 
this in his war psychiatric studies (260) (262) (264) to be mentioned later. 

With regard to the refation Between aCcoBof and mentaf disease, and 
paranoid states, modern psychiatrists, recognizing the importance of the 
psychogenic factor, agree that the alcohol only acts in a contributory way, 
and that it is by no means the real *fons et origo' of the abnormal mental 
state except in those cases where a toxic element is obviously present. Quite 
lately Clark has given us a psychological study of some alcoholics (67); 
this has already been referred to under the heading of "General Theorj^*'. 
Wholey (340) gives an analysis of an alcoholic psychosis revealing unconscious 
complexes. He says "the psychosis presents a culminating chapter in a lifelong 
conflict in which inherent moral, or ethical forces, have been struggling for 
supremacy, and it is probable that the patient's alcohol has been but a 
commanding instrument which has served to make possible the repressions 
characterizing his career". He believes, too, that the psychotic episode would 
eventuate in the establishment of the individual upon a saner and more 
adequately balanced plane of activity. We see. therefore, that here alcohol has 


-=,- ( \'-,\\\ \ U I 



not been a destructive element. Wholey introduces a point in his article 
concerning alcoholism and suicide which the reviewer quite fails to understand 
when the author says — "The regularity with which we find the alcoholic 
attempting suicide by throat laceration, lends confirmation to the theory that 
a *blrth phantasy' determines the manner of suicide. Such an interpretation 
of the psychology of the alcoholic is in keeping with the theory of his homo- 
sexual fixation". No less an authority than White supports this idea and it is 
therefore regrettable that no explanation of this bald statement is forthcoming. 
Further references to alcohol and mental disease are found in some war 
literature (260) (262) (264). 

Very little work has been done on the psycSogenic defiria but Levin 
devotes an article to this subject (199). It must not be forgotten that 
Glueck at Sing Sing Prison in New York has done most valuable work which 
will be mainly alluded to under another heading, but in his work on Forensic 
Psychiatry (124) he speaks of prison psychoses and how many of the stuporous 
states met with in prison are defense reactions and psychic negation of the 
situation and environment. Elsewhere he demonstrates the defense reactions of 
the malingerer (123). 

B. Treatment 

Psycho-analytic treatment is fairly amply discussed in the works of Jones 
(164), Brill (14), and Frink (116), the last named giving long histories and 
analyses of a case of anxiety hysteria and compulsion neurosis to act as para- 
digms. JelHffe has written a series of articles entitled **The Technique of Psycho- 
Analysis'' (155), (159), which, unfortunately, are very discursive and ill-informed. He 
thinks that the sex of the analyst may be so important a factor that great care 
should be exercised In following the course of treatment with a change of 
analyst according to sex. In this category he refers to male cases with a possible 
unconscious homosexual tendency whom he thinks would respond better, at 
least at the beginning, to a woman. The compulsive neurotic, too, may because 
of the strong aggressive tendencies, improve more at a certain stage in the 
hands of a woman. Those with a special conscious defense of shyness, and the 
excitable hysteric and manic may also at times be treated better by a change of 
sex in the analyst. Gosline points out (128) some special ways in which he 
thinks psycho-analysis might be useful clinically but his statements are not very 
convincing. Both Taylor and Clark devote articles upon the use of modified 
psycho-analysis In treatment. The former (315) after quoting some hysterical 
cases, thinks that by an incomplete analysis the technique may be so modified 
that "we may escape the pitfalls of transference and the time-consuming method 
of free association". This idea he states '*has a far wider applicability and is 
beset with few of the dangers of the complete method'*. All mystery too, he 
says, is laid aside. One would think that the danger would lie far more in 
thus playing with the surface of the psyche and shirking responsibilities because 
of the difficulties ahead. A physician who feels thus had much better leave 
psycho-analysis alone. Clark deals with the point in a different way (68). After 
speaking of his experiences he truly states ''If one employs psychoanalysis or 
psychoanalytic methods in the borderline neuroses and psychoses, it ought to 
be used with the greatest of care, but may be employed jreelybjr the physician 


:3y C^^ 


to enlighten his own mind upon the exact problems he really has to help the 
patient to meet and thus make clearer the principles of wide guidance the 
physician wishes consciously to arrange for his patient's betterment or cure". 
Elsewhere he publishes some of his personal results (60). The general relation 
of psycho-analysis to the practice of medicine is surveyed by White (337). 

A useful point might be noted here which Brill introduces (13), and that is the 
use of the analysis of artificial dreams, if during treatment dream life seems absent. 
Brill shows that there is little if any difference between the artificial and the 
real dream, and his analyses always showed the person's difficulties and were 
just as helpful in the treatment as the real dream. Stekel has already expressed 
similar views. 

That many so-called epileptic states are psychogenic in origin has been 
already referred to and Emerson has published some cases (100) of what he 
terms ^hystero-epilepsy' which were psycho-analysed by him and thus treated. 
He suggests that the epileptiform seizure is of the nature of an orgasm and 
is a substitute for the relief of sexual tension. He thinks that this conception 
does not contradict Stekel's or Clark's ideas, but rather supplements them, and 
that the therapeutic effectof an analysis depends on the possibility of sublimation. 
Statistical results are not frequently published, but Coiiat gives us some in 
his psycho-analytical treatment of the psychoneuroses (78). His results were 
obtained from a series of ninety-three cases, but included some psychoses. They 
varied in severity and the majority of them had been previously treated in 
other ways but in vain. Out of the ninety-three, forty-six recovered, twenty- 
seven were much improved, eleven improved and nine were not improved. This 
author, too, speaks here of the types of cases which best lend themselves 
to psycho-analysis; what constitutes recovery in the various diseases; the 
duration of treatment ; the determination of the progress of a case ; and 
concludes with a discussion of the statistical results. 

In the psychiatric sphere psycho-analytic work has been mainly directed 
to manic-depressive insanity, especially during the normal period, paranoia and 
paranoid states, dementia praecox, and to borderland and anomalous conditions. 
Clark gives us much encouragement in his article on the psychologic treatment 
of retarded depressions (58) (59) and concludes that **an intensive analysis 
should be made in every carefully selected case of retarded depression and by 
so doing, such individuals will make a sounder recovery from the specilic 
attack and recurrence in the after-life will often be avoided**. He states, too, 
that in no case did he fail to find Hoch's general principles of the mechanisms 
for retarded depressions which the latter laid down in his *'Study of the benign 
psychoses*' (148). A preliminary report on the treatment of dementia praecox 
by psycho-analysis is published by Coriat (76) who feels that every such case 
especially the mild ones or those in the early stage, should be given the benefit 
of a psycho-analysis. He quotes Bertschinger's three types of spontaneous re- 
adjustment!, e. correction of the delusions, resymbolization, and evasion of the 
complex, but adds a fourth brought about by psycho-analysis which is the 
most important of all, the return to reality. Some cases are then recorded. 
Coriat thinks that the first sign of improvement in dementia praecox under 
psycho-analytic treatment is a change in the nature of the dreams; they slowly 
become less primitive and infantile. Then follows^a^^change in the social re- 


actions of the patient, that is, a diminution of the autistic and negativistic 
tendencies. A long report of a case of dementia praecox treated by psycho- 
analysis is given by Kempf (187) who also makes some pertinent remarks on 
the question of transference. Jelliffe (159) points out that in dementia praecox 
the libido has enmeshed itself in a phantasy world where it is bound in the 
accumulated affectivity which tUj original complex situation has gathered to 
itself. An ordinary transference is therefore often impossible as the affectivity 
guards itself too jealously. He suggests, therefore, a special form of personal 
approach which in some minor instances has been successfully tried. This is 
the establishment of a triangular transference situation. With one person alone 
the affectivity is too much on the defensive but by utilizing the psychical 
principle of the threefold family relationship (cp. the Trinity of religions) a 
different approach might be made on an earlier level and a transference 
accomplished, not towards one person but towards two. Hart in a psycho- 
therapeutic article has discussed the relation between suggestion, persuasion 
and psycho-analytic treatment (137). 

III. War Literature 

Though clinical war experience has given a great stimulus to psycho- 
analytical theories, because the vast importance of the psychogenic factor had 
to be recognized when the military neuroses were studied, comparatively little 
psycho-analytical literature has been published on the subject in England and 
America. The psychology of the soldier himself in the light of modern views, 
his adaptation to enlistment, training and active service has been dealt with 
by Bird (7), Read i264) and Rivers (273). Read dwells on latent homosexuality 
as a possible factor in voluntary enlistment and suggests that many of the 
anxiety states not uncommonly met with, might have had relationship with 
repression of this tendency. Rivers thinks that military training tends to raise 
the suggestibility of the soldier and advocates some modification of it, so that 
thereby there may be less tendency for many neurotic disturbances to arise. In 
fact he thinks that the term 'suggestion neurosis* is an improvement on conversion 
hysteria, and similarly would prefer 'repression neurosis* to anxiety hysteria. 
He thereby would like to get away from Freudian terminology (273). 

Whether or not the neuroses of war can be explained by Freudian 
mechanisms is very scientifically dealt with by Jones (164 p. 564) (169) who 
frankly confesses that not sufficient investigation has been made on the point 
to speak with any dogmatism, but states that there is every reason to believe 
that the same psychological mechanisms are at work, as in the civil neuroses. 
He suggests that in the narcissistic part of the sexual hunger that is attached 
to the ego we have the key to the states of terror with which we have been 
so familiar in the war neuroses. He doubts that fear of death in the literal 
sense or a desire for death is by any means the fundamental attitude and 
points out how impossible is the conception of the death of the ego to the 
conscious or unconscious mind. Freud dwells on this in his **Reflections on 
War and Death* (Transl. II) where he explains that fear of death only 
arises from an unconscious sense of guilt. The first it'Qftiui)iuUu# to appear 



on the neuroses was by Eder (92) (94) who coined the term *war shock\ a 
distinct advance on that hackneyed phrase 'shell shock'. Hypnotism was solely 
used by Eder in his treatment but his suggestions were framed from a previous 
superficial psycho-analytical study of the case and he devotes some pages to 
explaining the psychological mechanisms that were being made use of. Forsyth 
(115) and Farrar (111) both deal with war neuroses and the article by the 
latter author is specially helpful. Farrar deals very sensibly with the psychogenic 
factor in the causation of the war neuroses and points out that there is evidence 
to show that exhaustion is practically a negligible quantity per se as an 
aetiological factor. Here he is strongly supported by Stanford Read (260) who 
had a wide experience of war psychical disorders. This latter author in his 
survey of war neuro-psychiatry strongly criticizes that all-embracing nosological 
term 'neurasthenia*, speaks briefly of the various neurotic disorders seriatim, 
and mentions two cases of mental infantilism from war shock. This clinical 
picture as far as the reviewer knows has not been recorded elsewhere in any 
English or American war literature. Brown (28) deals superficially with the 
question of repression in the neuroses, Prideaux (242) gives us an article on 
stammering in these conditions from the psychogenic standpoint, and Dillon 
(86) sketches an analysis of a composite neurosis he met with. 

The mechanism of repression is the psycho-analytical principle which has 
through clinical war experience been most widely discussed and accepted. The 
term is now bandied about by many without their having any scientific 
conception of what it really involves. Rivers' article on the "Repression of war 
experience'* (270) Is interesting and he also contributes an account of a case 
of claustrophobia of which he superficially analyses the psychic origin (276). 
By far the best descriptive work on the war neuroses has been given us by 
MacCurdy (207) who traces the gradual evolution of trie individual mental 
conflict in the soldier until some accidental trauma such as a shell explosion 
suddenly brings to light the fully developed anxiety state. The reviewer doubts 
whether MacCurdy is right in speaking of the neuroses as a 'failure of 
sublimation', but he has criticized this point elsewhere (260) (264), It is 
evidently true for various reasons that the officer is most liable to anxiety 
hysteria while the soldier maladapts through a conversion hysteria. Many cases 
are quoted and valuable additional pages are those where heart disorders are 
spoken of and the efiects of concussion compared with similar conditions but 
purely of psychic origin. This monograph has been widely read and has done 
much to convince the materialistic school of neurologists that after all there 
may be something in the Freudian school of psychopathology. 

In the sphere of the psychoses of war there has been very little literature 
of any type and hardly anything in English has been contributed. In his 
survey of war neuro-psychiatry (260) Stanford Read briefly gives his views 
and criticizes the various contributors on the subject. The study of two 
epileptoid cases are published elsewhere (261) where he shows by a superficial 
psychological analysis the evident causative psychogenic factors and thus 
confirms the idea of Jung, Clark and Stekel. An interesting case of pseudologia 
phantastica in a soldier appears where it is seen to what an extent a patho* 
logical liar will go for the glorification of his ego. Read has also just published 
a work "Military Psychiatry in peace and v//?|,'.^,,(?64),. where great stress is 


;:iy v.T^ 


laid upon the psychogenic origin of the so-called functional psychoses. He 
combats the supposition that any pure exhaustion psychosis exists though such 
a nosological term was introduced by the army medical authorities. The most 
Interesting chapter is upon the paranoid states which he found specially 
prevalent among his cases and he makes suggestions as to their possible 
pathology. Alcohol is only looked upon as a contributory cause and its relation 
to psychotic disease is discussed at some length. His charts and analysis of 
3000 consecutive cases of mental disease admitted under his care add greatly 
to the interest of the book. A short article recording the experience and views 
of a psychiatrist in France is given us by Chambers (48) who evidently well 
appreciates the value of the psychic factor. 

IV. Applied Psydio^rAnalysis 

The flood of light that psychoanalytic theories have thrown on various 
departments of knowledge previously thought to be so far outside their sphere, 
shows plainly the veridity of its basic principles. The growth of civilization, 
religion, philosophy and ethics; the productions of literature and art; the 
meaning of fairy tales and mythology and folk-lore, all have taken on a new 
and clearer aspect. One notes happily that a good deal of literature has been 
devoted to this department of psycho-analysis which will now be briefly reviewed- 

Though only a translation one must draw attention here to the excellent work 
of Rank and Sachs that Payne has given to English readers (Transl. 20). These 
authors take up the applicability and significance of psychoanalysis for the 
mental sciences, and deal very lucidly and adequately with the following wide 
field — The unconscious and its forms of expression; myth and legend investigation; 
religion; ethnology and linguistics; aesthetics and the psychology of artists; 
philosophy; ethics and law; pedagogy and charactcrology. The material is too 
great to comment upon and should be read by all interested in the subject. 

There is little doubt that psycho-analytical principles will in the future 
be a great weapon for the advancement of education. Jones (164) gives us 
some interesting papers on this question. He points out that mental life must 
be regarded in a dynamic way as a stream of desires striving for gratification 
and that new desires and interests depend for their intensity and existence on 
older trends. The direction taken by those of childhood life is of predominant 
Importance for the whole future of the individual and it follows that satis- 
factory mental functioning must be attained by inducing harmony between the 
early driving forces of mental life. Future education will be more human than 
more or less purely intellectual. The success that Pfister (Transl. 18. 19) has 
met with in his psycho-analytical work done as pastor and teacher proves 
conclusively what hope there is for the future in this respect. Payne (2381 
has also helped to show us the right path. Perhaps no single work better 
illustrates the modern tendency of pedagogy to recognize and stress individuality 
than Lay's work on the child's unconscious mind (197) (198) where lie more 
or less popularly brings psyclio-analylical conceptions of childhood and youth 
to bear in the schoolroom and home. White (338) has quite lately published a 
book for the same purpose. The fact that teachers and.,p|3'p,^,is,,c:5^.,not hope to 



become psycho-analysts, but that they may study ways in which the main 
propositions of the method can be applied to children at large in the schoolroom 
and at home is pointed out by Putnam (246). A thoughtful contribution is 
made by Fliigel (114), who traces moral development through Freudian mecha- 
nisms. He sees in sublimation the most potent mechanism of mental development 
both in the individual and the race, and manifestly a great advance upon mere 
repression, since energy is thus set free which otherwise would be uselessly 
penned up. The tendency of evolution seems to be towards a more thorough 
conscious control of thought and action and an abandonment of the more 
primitive attitude involved in repression, but this latter mechanism is an essential 
instrument of progress in the early stages of development. In virtue of this the 
extent to which any belief or institution is correlated with conscious control 
may afford a useful and interesting indication of the cultural status of that 
belief or institution. Herein, the author thinks we possess a guide of great 
value for the study and direction of moral and social phenomena. Putnam also 
deals briefly with the relation of psycho-analysis to education (254). 

This leads us on to what has been written as an aid to the understanding 
of raciaf psycfiofogy. Brill's translation of Freud's **Totem and Taboo" 
(Transl. 7) is highly welcome to English readers. It is a very valuable contri- 
bution to mass psychology in its developmental and evolutional aspects. It 
consists of four essays, viz: 1. The savage dread of incest. 2. Taboo and the 
ambivalence of emotions. 3. Animism, magic and the omnipotence of thought. 
4. The infantile recurrence of Totemism. The conception is developed in a 
fascinating way that the totem is a father image and a whole host of Interesting 
conclusions follow upon it. Rivers' discussion of the psychological factors in 
the customs, art and magic of various primitive peoples and their relation to 
the psychology of dreams has already been noted elsewhere (272). Jelliffc 
publishes an interesting autobiography of a case of compulsion neurosis (156) 
where, through the analysis and the study of two of Frazer's works, the patient's 
infantile phantasies were seen to be closely correlated with the animistic ideas 
of primitive peoples. 

In the region of mythofogy Frazer's "Golden Bough" is a gem of litera- 
ture, and Brink has given us a critical review and comparison as well as a 
study of man's evolution with special reference to his grasp of the reality 
principle and the resulting formation of an unconscious racial heritage (23). 
Brink too, with Jelliffe contributes a psycho- analytic interpretation of the 
"Willow Tree" — A Fantasy of old Japan, in which are embodied so many 
mythological characteristics (25) (158). The article is titled "Compulsion and 
Freedom" because the analysis of this play brings a sympathetic insight into 
the compulsion which is at work to a greater or less extent in evefy psyche 
preventing the complete exercise of one's powers. An essay in comparative 
mythology and partly too in the history of medicine from a psycho-analytic 
point of view, comes from the pen of White (330) where he discusses the moon 
as "libido symbol", and traces the importance of the moon in the thinking 
of all peoples long before the dawn of history. Other mythological contributions 
are only found in translations (Transl. 21, 22, 24). 

Analytic studies dealing with various aspects of refigion are contributed 
by one or two authors. A study in the erotogeoc^45ii<ilf iJ^<^Ugion is given by 



Schroeder (280) who here analyses an historical Swiss girl, the Wildebuch 
crucified Saint. He comes to the conclusion that in this case the very essence 
of religion as manifested in the ''supernatural" powers was merely supernormal 
sexualism, psycho-erotism spiritualized, transcendentalized, apotheosized, and 
that with more complete data derived from numerous cases of religious fana- 
ticisms and enthusiasms, it will appear that this is but one of many similar 
Instances requiring the same erotogenic interpretation. Schroeder regards all 
religion, at all times, and everywhere, in its differential essence, as only a sex 
ecstasy, seldom so recognized and therefore easily and actually misinterpreted 
as mysterious and transcendental. Another essay on the same subject is given 
us by this author (281). Groves, in his article "Freudian elements in the animism 
of the Niger Delta" (132) analyses the life history of the Western African tribes 
of the lower Niger and endeavours to dissect out the meaning of their primi- 
tive philosophy and religion. He shows that the entire animistic system of 
these people serves a subjective purpose and represents the control of wish- 
motive, how they are dominated by the pleasure-pain principle, and the very 
great significance of their dream life. Freud's "Totem and Taboo** (Transl. 7) 
of course also throws light on many primitive religious customs and he 
states here that the compulsion neurosis may be looked upon as a caricature 
of religion. In a little book of contributions to social and religious psychology (246), 
Putnam turns his attention to those motivations of human conduct which 
years of keen observation and recent psycho-analytical investigations have 
revealed. He finds that the conflict of our rational and emotional impulses 
resolves itself into an interaction of two motives, the constructive and the 
adaptive, which have an historical development in the individual and race. 
While religious faith points to ideals towards which man is striving and in so 
doing acknowledging an obligation to a deity, psycho-analysis shows the 
presence of unconscious tendencies which if not properly controlled and guided, 
often militate against these natural aspirations. Mention should be made here 
again of Holt's volume (149) which endeavours to indicate some of the relation 
of Freud's work to the problem of ethics and behavioristic psychology. Though 
somewhat narrow in scope, it reveals many avenues of interesting thought and 

In the same way as the study of primitive races is helpful for the understanding 
of present mental problems, we find aid in the deductions drawn from the 
investigation of lower animals. In this department of comparative psydSofogy 
Kempf has published a paper on the social and sexual behavior of monkeys 
and compared these with facts in human behavior (184). Six macasus monkeys 
were observed for a period of eight months and the author finds in this animal 
man's phylogcnctic determinants completely exposed. Homosexuality is compared 
and it is seen that submission as a homosexual object is implicated with 
biological inferiority in the infrahuman primate. As in man, also, sexual sub- 
mission is practiced in order to procure food and protection. It is highly 
interesting to note that catatonic adaptations are rcflexly practiced by these 
monkeys as well as by the human primates as a defence. 

Psycho-analytic contributions in relation to fiteraturc have been of great 
interest in showing forth the mysterious ways of the unconscious. Coriat (77) 
traces out the sadism in Oscar Wilde's play of Salome, and remarks that Wilde 


:3y t^:i^ 


with his insight into sexual perversions and into the polymorphous sexual 
instinct of man, because he was himself a sufferer, made an innovation in his 
dramatic treatment of the legend as a sadistic episode. The author sees traces 
of the same impulse in Wildes "Picture of Dorian Grey" and in the "Ballad 
of Reading goal". White has pointed out how psycho-analytic ideas are filtering 
through the social fabric, how it is mentioned on the stage, and referred to 
in short stories and magazines. We have a novel incorporating it. A story with 
an artistic and literary license and dealing with psycho-analytical principles is 
found in Hay's "Mrs. Marden's ordeal" (140), It is worth reading. Full of 
material for thought and reflection is the psychology of "The Yellow Jacket", 
a Chinese poem which was dramatized for the stage (185). The poem with its 
mine of symbolism is the product of countless individuals who peopled Eastern 
Asia for thousand of years and is therefore a synthetic arrangement of the most 
pertinent expression of feeling of those people. Kempfs analysis and interpretation 
of the poem is full of interest, (185), and herein the psycho-analyst finds a 
valuable guide for working with the male psychopath. Weinberg (321), among 
the archives of philolpgy has unearthed much early literary material wherein, in 
the light of Freudian psychology, he sees the tendency to emphasize and glorify 
the relation between the nephew and the uncle on the maternal side. He asks 
what is the basis of this phenomenon which at first glance affords certainly no 
clue to its import, and endeavours to answer the question in a short monograph 
(322). Herein he has data to show the significant accentuation of the nephew- 
uncle attachment, accompanied by a depreciation of the bond between son and 
father, he traces and discusses the father complex and regards heroism In a sense 
as a revolt against father domination. Much that Weinberg writes is helpful in 
the understanding of neurotic problems. The analysis of more modern literature 
appears in the psycho-analytical reading of Francis Thompson's great poem "The 
Hound of Heaven" which Moore views as the autobiography of the author (221). 
Therein is the story of the strivings of the libido, at first unchecked, un- 
compensated and without any sublimation, later efforts are seen to direct it 
through one channel and another, until finally we witness the triumph of the 
individual over libido in a religious sublimation. Somewhat similarly Kuttner 
analyses D. H. Lawrence's novel — "Sons and Lovers", and draws highly 
interesting psychological deductions (194). Shakespeare of course abounds in 
opportunities for the psycho-analytic dissection of various characters. This 
Tannenbaum points out (309) and gives an illustration of this in an article (307). 
Mac Curdy takes the characters of Hamlet and Orestes and from them draws 
psychiatric parallels (211). It would seem that there has always existed a semi- 
conscious realization of the dream's significance and the literary artist not 
infrequently, whenever he has constructed the dreams of his characters, has 
unconsciously shown that the dream is a product full of meaning and so con- 
firming Freud's thesis. Freud himself has given us a fine example of this in 
his "Delusion and Dream" (Transl. 7) where he presents an analysis of a novel 
"Gradiva". Strewn through the analysis are invaluable comments, more 
particularly between delusions and dreams and upon the mechanism of recovery 
from delusions. Another contribution is from the pen of Weinberg (321) where 
the analysis appears of the dream in "Jean Christophc". Highly welcome 
is the last addition to works under this heading which is an endeavour to supply 




some of the methods of psycho-analysis to literature and an attempt to read 
closely behind the lines of an author's work. This book by Mordell (223) — 
"The erotic motive in literature" is a mine of information, and evinces a keen 
psychological insight on ihe part of the author. To attempt a review of its 
contents is not feasible here. 

Though the relation of the unconscious to art is full of interest, little has 
been written on the subject of late. Mac Curdy has done work with Hoch on 
the psychology of the benign psychoses and in a paper on the precipiting 
causes of these he traces the relation to art (209). A study of these factors 
explains the elusive source of our feelings and it is demonstrated that art has 
grown from crudity to refinement /7^/'//7^.y.y//, as the race has developed from 
barbarism to civilization, while all artists, no matter what their medium of 
expression is, are quite unconscious of the source of their inspiration. His 
theory is, then, that one of the secrets of art has been laid bare by the re- 
actions of the mentally unsound. Art makes a conscious appeal but beneath 
the surface, which is only a symbol, is the hidden meaning which speaks to 
the unconscious. In a psychological note on a photo-play, Last gives an illu- 
stration of this (195), and Burr analyses out the complexes portrayed pictorially 
by the insane (31). Highly interesting, too, in this respect is tvarl's article, 
where In a lace creation by a psychotic female patient is revealed an incest 
phantasy. Bit by bit he analyses out the various figures on this curious lace 
production (of which he gives an excellent photograph) and traces their symbolic 
meaning in the life history of the individual. 

Excellent and stimulating reading is provided in the psycho-analytic 
character studies of historical personages, by means of which their life's work 
and adult traits are traced to early experiences, and the sublimation or reaction 
to infantile trends. Such studies as these throw a flood of light upon what 
otherwise would have been regarded as due more or less to chance causation. 
Dooley gives us some psycho-analytic studies of genius (89) which is a col- 
lection of epitomes or abstracts of essays on the psychology of great men, 
which have appeared from time to time during the last decade, for the most 
part in German psycho-analytical periodicals. Freud's study -^f Leonardo da 
Vinci (Transl. 7) is abstracted, where so much in the life of this great artist 
is traced to an early vulture phantasy, and other highly inteicsling points 
discussed. Besides, the life histories of the following personages are similarly 
treated — Giovanni Segantini, Andrea del Sarto, Hamlet, Dante, Nicolaus 
Lenau, Heinrich von Kleist, Gogol, Wagner, Napoleon I, Louis Bonaparte King 
of Holland (174), Amenhotep IV of Egypt, Count Ludwig von Zinzendorf, 
Margaret Ebner, Ignatius Loyola, and Schopenhauer. Viereck contributes a very 
subjective monograph on Roosevelt which he terms a study in ambivalence 
(319), Karpas publishes an article on Socrates in the light of modern psycho- 
pathology (179), and Blanchard pens a psycho-analytic study of Auguste 
Comte (8). Kempf, who is always illuminating, is specially so when he treats 
of Charles Darwin*s personality, the affective sources of his inspiration and his 
anxiety neurosis (186). Darwin's interest in the expression of emotions and 
his early investigation of flower life had their origin in parental influences 
^vhich also moulded his character and career. The origin of his anxiety neurosis 
Kempf attributes to a complete father submission, but all disconcerting affective 



reactions were successfully repressed by his adroitly selecting conversions and 
thus Darwin had only the inconvenience of nutritional disturbances, uncom- 
fortable cardiac and vasomotor reactions, vertigo, tremor and insomnia. Putnam 
analyses the life of a lady to illustrate conflicts and throws light on certain 
undesirable effects of a strict **old fashioned** religious training (250), the results 
of which every psychopathologist not infrequently meets with clinically. A 
somewhat superficial study of the Kaiser is published by Prince (243) in book 
form and in which he discusses the Kaiser's divine right delusion and his 
self-regarding sentiment, and regards his ideas on demoaacy as a subconscious 
phobia, a iear of democracy because of the danger to himself and his House 
of Hohenzollern. Following upon this the Kaiser's antipathy must be looked 
upon as a defense reaction of an intensely emotional character which aims to 
direct his activities in a direction that will protect him against the dangers of 
democracy. However, the psychological dissection goes little below the surface. 
We now come to the literature that has been devoted lo psycho-analysis in 
its manifold sociofogicaf aspects. In his book *The principles of mental 
hygiene" (328) White briefly but thoughtfully speaks of the psychological side 
of the insane, the neurotic, the feebleminded, and miscellaneous problems of 
society. To the student in such matters this work is highly to be recommended. 
The sociologic importance of Freudian teaching as a basis for the interpretation 
of the motives and actions of man, is sensibly dwelt on by Groves (131) (133) 
and Burrow dilates upon the relation of the psycho-analyst to the community 
(40) Jones* interesting essay on '*War and individual psychology" (172) shows 
so plainly how psycho-analysis can help to throw light on one of the greatest 
of social problems. He dwells on the effect of emotional factors on decision 
and judgment and asks whether man does not tend to prefer war in the solution 
of socio-political problems. It is pointed out that there is a constant tendency 
to regress to primitive manifestations of repressed impulses and it is possible that 
he terrible events of war cruelties, etc. are not unconnected with the underlying, 
causes of war itself. The interesting query is put as to whether we are not 
nearly reaching the limits of sublimation? If repression is carried too far, the 
energies revert to their unconscious sources and lead to some outbreak. A 
lessening of repression may allow better sublimation. War perhaps furnishes the 
monst potet stimulus to mankind, good and bad. Brill, in his study of the 
adjustment of the Jew to the American environment (20) illustrates another 
side of psycho-analytical sociology. Karpas writes on civilizaticn and insanliy (180) 
and attacks the vital social problem of prostitution (182) from the point of 
view of the psychopathologist. That the spread of psycho-analytical principles 
in the sphere of education more especially, will in time tend to decrease the 
incidence of insanity is a rightful hope, and Putnam deals with this point (256). 
In America largely through the influence of the National Committee for Mental 
Hygiene, a great advance has been made in the application of modern psycho- 
pathological knowledge to questions pertaining to the (any. Though, strictly 
speaking, his work is not psycho-analytical, Healey's work should be referred 
to. In his dealing with juvenile offenders of all types, he has found by simple 
observation and psychological insight that the great majority of these delinquencies 
can be traced to sexual conflicts, and in so many respects he has amply con- 
firmed Freud's teaching. His Invaluable work (141) (142) should certainly be read 



by all psycho-analysts. Qlueck has done excellent work at Sing-Sing prison, 
In his psychopathological studies of tSe criminaf. He sees in the so-called 
'prison psychoses*, defence reactions and shows the large proportion of the 
mentally abnormal among the admissions to his prison. In his book on **Forensic 
Psychiatry" (124) he gives an analysis of a case of kleptomania, which he 
traces to a sexual conflict. 

A fresh and interesting note is struck by Hull in an article entitled '*The 
Long Handicap" (150) where she draws attention to the racial history of woman 
and the present day development of a female individual, and wherein she sees 
more causes for suppression than in the life of the male. This is thought to be 
related to whole bodies of conventions, of taboos, etc. which prevent woman from 
achieving an integrated development. The points are discussed from a psycho- 
analytic standpoint and Adler's theory of compensation. Schroeder deals with similar 
topics in speaking of the psychogenetics of androcratic evolution (282) which he 
thinks is obviously founded on the differences in the visible mechanism of sex. He 
supposes that androcracy was a natural consequense of that mysticism of ignorance 
which synchronously produced phallic worship, and proposes certain remedies. 

It only remains to refer to Brill's little contribution on the psychopathology 
of the new modern dances (16). He discusses the connections of the movement 
and rhythm with sexuality. 

One of the special social applications of psycho-analytical principles in the 
future will be the superficial investigation of individual mentalities in order to 
judge as far as possible what special direction in life's work should be under- 
taken. That such an undertaking at the budding age, will both enhance the 
good of the social unit and the general prosperity of society, is patent. Brill 
has made a preliminary communication on the psychopathology of sefections 
of vocations (21) and future contributions on this important problem will be 
highly welcome. 

C^ €\r\cA{? Orrgmaf from 





To the Presidents of the Constituent Societies. 

When I accepted the election to the Presidency of the Inter- 
national Psycho- Analytical Association in September 1918 I did so 
on the supposition that normal conditions would soon be restored 
and would enable me to enter into communication with the indi- 
vidual constituent groups. 

It has turned out otherwise, Budapest was for months quite 
cut off from all communication with the outer world and is even 
now accessible postally only with extraordinary difficulty. Under 
these circumstances I have been unable not only to carry out the 
programme I had intended as President, but even to continue the 
normal presidential business, and that in spite of the arduous efforts 
of our General Secretary, Dr von Freund. 

I was thus recently compelled to confide the Presidency to the 
charge of the Vienna Society [vide Zeitschrijt, p. 230). Since, 
however, Vienna also was by no means free from the disturbances 
in communication which had led me to transfer the Presidency 
there, I had to decide on a more radical solution if important 
interests of the Association were not to suffer from this state of 

I have therefore asked Dr Ernest Jones (111 Harley St, London, 
W. L), the President of the British Society, whom I met in Vienna, 
to conduct temporarily the affairs of the International Psycho-Ana- 
lytical Association, and begged him to choose a General Secre- 
tary from the members of his Society. Jones accepted the trust, and 
selected Mr. J. C. FlQgel (1 1 Albert Road, London, N. W. I.) as General 

Until the next Congress, therefore, Dr. Jones undertakes all 
the rights and duties constitutionally pertaining to the Presidency, 
including the editing of the Reports of the Association and the 
collecting of the members' subscriptions. The subscriptions and 



Other business concerning the Zeitschrift and Imago, the two 
official organs in German, continue to be the affair of the Inter- 
nationaler Psychoanalytischer Verlag (Wien L, Griinangergasse 3). 

I beg that the Presidents of the constituent societies will 
enter into relations with the temporary President, Dr Ernest Jones, 
as soon as possible, and offer him all the support which unfa- 
vourable circumstances have prevented them from giving to me. 

I reserve for myself the conducting of the next Congress, at 
which the new President will be elected. 

Vienna, October 3rd, 1919. S. FERENCZI. 

To the Secretaries of the Constituent Societies. 

January 24 th, 1920. 
Dear Sir, I beg to inform you that I am now acting as General 
Secretary of the International Psycho-Analytical Association, and I 
take this opportunity of confirming the informal message sent to you 
a few days ago to the effect that the 6th International Psycho- Ana- 
lytical Congress will be held at the Hague on September 8 th, 9 th 
and 10th, 1920. I shall be greatly obliged if you will be kind 
enough to ask those ot your members who hope to attend the 
Congress to communicate with Dr. J. H. W. van Ophuijsen, the 
Hague, Prinse Vinkenpark, 5, who is acting as Secretary of the 
local Reception Committee and who will advise as regards accommo- 
dation at the Hague, visa formalities etc. 

I shall be glad if those who wish to present communications 
to the Congress will kindly send particulars of the proposed com- 
munications to me at my address. 

Assuring you, dear Sir, of my best consideration, 

1 remain. 

Yours faithfully, 

11 Albert Road, London, N. W. 1. 


The British Psycho-Analytical Society was inaugurated at a 
Meeting held at Dr. Ernest Jones', 69, Portland Court, London W. 1, 
on February 20th, 1919, to which he had invited Dn Douglas 



Bryan^ Dr. Devine, Mr. J. C Fliigel, Dr. D. Forsyth, Mr. Eric Hiller, 
Miss Barbara Low, Dr. Stanford Read, and Dr. W. H. B. Stoddart. 
All the above were present except Mr. FlQgel. 

Dr. Jones then explained the objects of the meeting. He men- 
tioned that about two years ago a Society called the London 
Psycho-Analytical Society had been formed, of which he had been 
the President Owing to the fact that certain members of that 
Society had adopted views which were in contradiction to the 
principles of Psycho-Analysis the objects of that Society were 
negatived. As some members of the London Psycho-Analytical 
Society were present it was decided that the following resolution 
should be sent to the Secretary of that Society. Resolution that 
some members of the London Psycho-Analytical Society suggest 
that the Society exist no longer, unless any other members make 
a contrary suggestion. 

It was then resolved that a British Psycho-Analytical Society be 
formed, that application be made for affiliation to the International 
Psycho-Analytical Association, and that the Society be governed 
by the rules of the Association. Officers of the Society were then 
duly elected. 

It was resolved that the membership should be a limited one 
and for the present should consist of those present, with Mr. Fliigel, 
but that the number of members should at any time be increased 
according to the opinion of the meeting of the members. Future 
membership should take place by election by ballot after nomination 
by the committee. 

It was further resolved to admit Associate Members of the 
Society for one year after nomination by the committee. Such 
members should enjoy all the other privileges of the Society but 
should have no vote in the business affairs of the Society. 

It was resolved that the subscription should be two guineas 
per annum, which should include the Journal and the Subscription 
to the International Psycho-Analytical Association. 

Since this meeting it has been decided to form a library 
of the Society and Mr. Eric Hiller has been elected as Hon. 

There have been up to the present ten meetings of the Society. 

At a meeting held on April 10th, 1919, Mr. Flugel presented 
a psycho-analytical study of King Henry VIII. At a meeting held 
on May I5th, 1919, Dr. Forsyth read a paper on *The Psychology 
r . .......,iii-^l from 



of the New-born Infant"*. This interesting paper was discussed also 
at the next meeting held on June 12 th, 1919. At this meeting Miss 
Barbara Low opened a discussion on Note-taking and Reporting 
of Psycho-analytical Cases. 

At a meeting held on July 10 th, 1919, Dr. Douglas Bryan read 
a translation of Dr. Karl Abraham^s article on "Ejaculatio Praecox"; 
this was followed by a discussion of the subject. 

On November 6th, 1919, Dr. Bryan opened a discussion on 
"Street Anxiety'\ also reading a translation of Dr. Karl Abraham's 
remarks on this subject 

At a meeting held on December, 11th, 1919, the Society had 
the privilege of welcoming Dr. Otto Rank of Vienna. 

Tlie last four meetings, on December 11th, 1919, and 
January 15 th, February 11th, March 11th, 1920, have been given 
up to a general discussion on various points brought forward by 
members. Among the various subjects that have been discussed are 
the following: 

Matters of theory dealing with the question of the repression 
of emotion during psycho-analysis. 

Some points arising out of a case oi masochism and homo- 

The question of transference in Hypnosis and Psycho-Analysis, 

Points with regard to the Ethics of Psycho-Analysis, including 
the question of secrecy. 

The difference, if any, between obsessional fears and phobias. 

The question of the advisability of psycho-analysing artists. 

Points arising out of cases have been discussed, with questions 
of technique and methods of procedure. 

At the meetings held on April 10th and July 10th, 1919, 
Dr. Ernest Jones consulted the Society regarding various propo- 
sals that had been made for the establishment of a Journal ot 
Psycho-Analysis in English. He reported that the International 
Psycho-Analytical Press was prepared to consider the possibility of 
publishing such a Journal in conjunction with the official Zeitschrift, 
provided that sulHcient financial support was forthcoming from 
America and Great Britain, and a circular appealing for promises 
ol support for this purpose, signed by Drs. Bryan, Forsyth, Ernest 
Jones, Stoddart, and Vaughan Sawyer, was laid before the Society. 
Various points were raised and suggestions made by diflferent 
members. At the meeting held on November 6th Dr. Jones gave 



an account ol his visit to Switzerland and Vienna. The Executive 
of the International Association, Dr. Ferenczi and v. Freund, after 
consultation with the Presidents of the various constituent Societies 
had decided to inaugurate an official organ of the Association in 
English, and the Directors of the International Press had accepted 
the proposal that they publish it on the same lines as the Zeit- 
schrift under the direction of Professor Freud. Dr. Ernest Jones had 
been asked to edit the new Journal pending the meeting of the 
Congress in September. 


(1). Major Owen Berkeley-Hill, I. M. S., European Hospital, Ranchi, India. 

(2). Dr. Douglas Bryan, (Hon. Secretary), 72 Wimpole Street, London W. 1. 

(3). Mr. Cyril Burt, 1 Park Villas, Highgate, London N. 6. 

(4). Dr. H. Devine, Corporation Mental Hospital, Portsmouth. 

(5). Mr. J. C. FlQgd, 11 Albert Road, Regent's Park, London, N. W. 1. 

(6). Dr. D. Forsyth (Member of the Committee), 74 Wimpole Street^ 
London W. 1. 

(7). Mr. Eric Hiller, 7 Mecklenburgh Street, London W. C. 1. 

(8). Dr. Ernest Jones (President), 111, Harley Street, London W. 1. 

(9). Miss Barbara Low, 13, Guilford Street, Russell Square, London W. C. 1. 
(10). Dr. William Mackenzie, Piazza Meridiana, Genoa. 
(11). Dr. Stanford Read, Fisherton House, Salisbury. 
(12). Dr. R. M. Riggall, Wimpole Street, London W. 1. 
(13). Mrs. Riviere, 10 Nottingham Terrace, London N. W. 1. 
(14). Dr. Vaughan Sawyer, 131 Harley Street, London W. 1. 
(15). Colonel Sutherland, I. M. S., United Service Club, Calcutta. 
(16). Dr. W. H. B. Stoddart, (Hon. Treasurer), Harcourt House, Cavendish Square, 
London W. 1. 

Associate Members. 

(1). Mr. P. B. Ballard, M. A., Divisional Office, Peckham Road, London S. £• 

(2). Dr. Brend, 14, Bolinbroke Grove, Wandsworth Common, London S. W. 

(3). Dr. Estelle Maud Cole, 30 New Cavendish St., London W. 1. 

(4). Dr. Davison, Special Medical Board, 78, Lancaster Gate, London W. 2. 

(5). Dr. Bernard Hart, 81 Wimpole Street, London W. 1. 

(6). Dr. W. J. Jago, 63, Park Hill, Clapham, London S. W. 

(7). Dr. Norman Lavers, Bailbrock House, Bath. 

(8). Dr. T. W. Mitchell, Hadlow, near Tonbridge, Kent. 

(9). Professor Percy Nunn, D. Sc., Training College, Southampton Row, 

(10). Mrs. Porter, 28 Ashbum Place, London, S. W. 7. 
(11). Dr. W. H. R. Rivers, St. Johns College, Cambridge. 
(12). Major R. B. Ryan, 4 Milverton Street, Moonee Ponds, Melbourne, 

(14). E>r. Maurice Wright, 118, Harley Street, London W. 1. 
r I . ......liiial from 



List of Members. 

Dr. A. A. Brill (Secretary). 1 West Seventieth St., New York. 

Dr. Sanger Brown. 37 West 54 th St., New York. 

Dr. Leonard Blumgart. 57 West 58 th St., New York, 

Dr. H. W. Frink. 17 East 38 th St., New York. 

Dr. F. J. Farnell. 59 Blackstone Boulevard, Providence, R. I. 

Dr. Bernard Glueck. 44 East 60 th St., New York. 

Dr. Mary K. Isham. 135 West 79 th St., New York. 

Dr. Josephine Jackson. 1971 Morton Ave., Pasadena, Cal. 

Dr. M. A. Meyer. 53 East 95th St., New York. 

Dr. C. P. Obemdorf (President). 249 West 74th St., New York. 

Dr. B. Onuf. 208 Montrose Ave., Rutherford, New York. 

Dr. AdolfStem(Corresp. Secret.). 40 West 84 th St., New York. 

Dr. Joseph Smith. 697 Eastern Parkway, Brooklyn, New York* 

Dr. Skcvirsky. 640 Madison Ave., New York. 

Dr. Walter M. Kraus. 141 West 75th St., New York. 

Dr. Edith Spaulding. 418 West 20 th St., New York. 

Dr. Frank wood Williams. c/o Mental Hygiene, 50 Union Square, New York. 

Dr. I. S. Wechsler. 1291 Madison Ave., New Vork. 

Dr. Marion Kenworthy. No Address. 

Dr. Thomas K. Davis. 20 West 50 th St., New-York. 

The following papers were read before the Society between Oc- 
tober 1914 and December 1919. 
Oct. 29, 1914. Dr. Morris Karpas: *'Socrates in the light of modern 

Nov. 24, 1914. Dr. A. A. Brill: "Abnormal Artistic Productions". 
Dec. 22, 1914. Dr. F. M. Hallock: "Outline of an Ancient System 

of Psychology". 
Jan. 26, 1915. Dr. H. W. Frink: "The Analysis of a Severe Case 

of Compulsion Neurosis'*. 
Oct 22, 1915. Dr. A. A. Brill: "Psychoanalysis and Mental Pro- 
Nov. 23, 1915. Dr. J. J. Putnam, by invitation: "The Adler 

Mar. 28, 1916. Dr. C P. Oberndorf: "The Analysis of Symptoms". 
April 26, 1916. Dr. A. A. Brill: "The Psychopathology of Noise". 
Oct. 24, 1916. Dr. H. W. Frink: "A Case of Anxiety Hysteria \ 
Nov. 28, 1916. Symposium on "Resistance'^ Opened by Dr. 

C. P. Obemdorf, participated in by the members 

of the Society. 
Jan. 23, 1917. Dr. F. M. Hallock: "A Case of _ Mix e^^ 


VOL, 1—5 


Mar. 27, 1917. Dr. Adolph Stem: **Counter Transference". 

Apr. 29, 1917. Dr. A. A. Brill: "The Psychopathology oi the 
Selection of a Vocation". 

May 29, 1917. Dr. Bernard Glueck, by inviution: "Adler's Con- 
tribution to the Psychoanalytic Literature". 

Dec. 17, 1917. Dr. Mary K. Isham: **A Case of Hysteria". 

Jan. 29, 1918. Symposium on •Transference". By the members 
of the Society. 

Mar. 25, 1919. Dr. A. A. Brill. "The Empathic Index". 

Apr. 26, 1919. Dr. Adolph Stem: ^'Extracts from the Analysis of 
an Eight Year Old Boy". 

Oct 29, 1919. Dr. C. P. Oberndorf: **Reaction to Personal 

Nov. 25, 1919: Dr. A, A. Brill: **Sex and Sex Weaklings^ 

Dec. 23, 1919. Dr. A. Stern: "Some Factors in Character Deve- 


At the instigation of Dr. Eitingon a Policlinic was founded and 
opened on February 14 th, 1920. 

The following papers were read before the Society and business 

Tuly 19th, 1919. Dr. Eitingon proposes the foundation of a Poli- 
clinic. The resolution is carried unanimously. 

July 26th, 1919. Discussion on practical questions regarding the 


Sept 5 th, 1919. Dr. Simmel: **Some points regarding propaganda 
in the interest of the Policlinic. 

Sept. 26th, 1919. Business meeting: Drs, Eitingon, Simmel, Abra- 
ham are constituted as the Directing Committee ol 
the Policlinic. 

Oct. 14th, 1919. Dr. Simmel: "Psycho- Analysis of Gambling''. 

Oct. 24th, 1919. Dr. Koerber: "Egotism and Narcissism^ 

Nov. 6th, 1919. Dr. Abraham: "Prognosis of Psycho-Analytic Treat- 
ment in Advanced Age**. 

Nov. 20th, 1919. Dr. Eitingon: "Report on Freud's paper: *Ein 
Kind wird geschlagen' (*A child is beaten')''. 

"^ec, 4th, 1919. Dr. Liebermann: "A Case of Anxiety Hysteria". 



Dec 18th, 1919. Dr. Abraham: **The Narcissistic Estimation of the 

Excretory Function in Dreams and Neuroses**. 

Jan. 22th, 1920. Mrs. Dn phil. Baumgarten (by invitation): "Freud*s 

Interpretation of Dreams". 

Febr 14th, 1920. Inauguration of the Policlinic. 

Mar. 11th, 1920. Dr. Boehm: "Homosexuality and Polygamy''. 

All the members of the Society subscribe for the books pub- 
lished by the "Psychoanalytischer Verlag'\ 

Dr. Abraham is commissioned by the Society to give a series 
of lectures on selected topics of Psycho-Analysis at the Policlinic, 
followed by discussions. 

Annual Report for 1919. 

In the previous report only two scientific meetings were men- 
tioned; five meetings were held in 1919- 

1st meeting on February 2nd. 1) Dr. Stflrcke: **Demonstration 
of Drawings and Clay-Statuettes by a Sculptor suffering from a mild 
Hebephrenia, produced during his Stay in the Asylum'*. 2) Dr. Starcke : 
**Influenza and Psychosis'*. 3) Dr. v. Renterghem: "Part of the Life- 
Story of an Hysterical Patient**. 

II nd meeting on March 30th. 1) Dr. v. Renterghem: **The 
Case of the Hysterical Patient'', concluded. 2) Dr. Starcke: 
'•Complementary Notes to theDemonstrationof the Art-Productions 
of the Hebephrenic Sculptor**. 3) Dr. Starcke: **The Negative 
Turning of the Libido in the Paranoia of Persecution"; Dr. v. 
Ophuijsen: "Psycho- Analytical Remarks on the Contents of the 
Paranoia of Persecution". These two lectures dealing with the same 
subject and leading to identical results were conceived quite inde- 
pendently of one another (published in the Intemat. Zeitschrift, 
Vol. V, No. 4 und Vol. VI, No. 1). 

Ilird meeting on May 18th. 1) Dr. Starcke: ^^Introduction to a 
Discussion on Ferenczi's Modification of Therapeutic Technique in 
Psycho-Analysis" (see Intemat. Zeitschrift, Vol. V., No. 1). 
2) Discussion on the same. 3) Dr. Starcke: 'The Castration- 

IVth meeting on October 26th. 1) Dr. v. d. Chijs: "Some Short 
Examples of Symptom-Actions". 2) Dr. v. d. Hoop: '^Homosexuality 
and Paranoia Persecutoria'* , , Original from 



Vth meeting on December 14th. 1) Dr. Tuyt: "On Remorse''. 
2) Dr. V. Ophuijsen: "Progress in the Technique of Psycho-Ana- 
lytic Treatment'' (from the Annual Report for 1915—1919). 

The Hon. Librarian, of the Society is Prof Bouman in Amsterdam. 


The following papers were read before the Society in 1919 and 
business transacted. 

A. Scientific meetings. 

Jan. 12 th. Dr. B. Felszeghy: **The Psycho-Analysis of Panic" 
(appeared in Imago VI, 1920, No. 1). 

Jan. 28th. Dr. J. Hermann: '•On the Depth-Dimensions of 

Febr. 9 th. Dr. J. Eisler: **0n Pathological Shame'' (see Intetnat. 
Zeitschrift, V, No. 3). 

Febr. 16th. Dr. G. R6heim: **0n Witches and Fairies." 

Febr. 23rd. Dr. J. Hirnik and Dr. S. Rad6: ^•Notes on Cases''. 

Mar. 9 th. Dr. J. Holl6s: "Extracts from the Analysis of a Case 
of Hystero-Epilepsy". 

Mar. 23rd. Dr. Elisabeth R6v6sz: *Tsycho-Analysis of a Case ol 

May 4 th. Dr. S. Ferenczi: "Notes on Cases". 

June 8 th. Dr. S. Feldmann: "Neurotic Character -Traits of the 

June 22 nd. Dr. S. Pfeifer: "On the importance of Dreams related 
in the beginning of treatment''. 

July 13th. Mrs. M. Klein: ''Remarks on the Intellectual Develop- 
ment of a Child". 

Dec. 7 th. Dr. J. Holl6s: •'Notes on Cases". 

Dec. 21 rst. Dr. S. Rad6: "Repon on Freud's "History of an In- 
fantile Neurosis" (see ''Sammlung Kleiner Schriften*\ 

Part. IV). 
Dec. 28 th. Dr. J. Holl6s: "On the Development of Paranoic Ideas". 

B. Business meetings. 

Jan. 12 th. The subscription to the Society was raised to 
Kronen 1 20. ^ Ori g i n a I f ro m 



Mar. 9 th- (General meeting) : The annual report was read and the 
officers of the Society were re-elected. 

In May 1918 Dr. G6za R6heim read a paper on "Inversion and 
Ambivalence'* before the Hungarian Ethnological Society. 

In February and March 1919 Dr. Ferenczi was commissioned 
by the Committee for Popular Instruction to give a series of popular 
lectures on Psycho-Analysis. 


In the winter 1919/1920 the following papers were read before the Society 

and business transacted. 

Nov. 2nd, 1919. Dr. Th. Reik: "Oedipus and the Sphinx*' (ap- 
peared in Imago VI, 1920, No. 2). 

Nov. 30th, 1919. General meeting: The annual report was read. The 

Hon. Treasurer, Dr. Steiner, who resigned his office 
was formally thanked by the Society, and Dr. Ne- 
pallek elected in his stead. The other members 
of the Committee are re-elected. Subscription for 
the Society raised to Kronen 100 for a half-year. 
Dr. Bemfeld: "Psycho-Analytic Problems in the 
History of Peda|[ogics*'. 

Dec. 21st, 1920. Dr. W. Fockschaner: "A Case of Paranoial 

Jan. 2nd, 1920. Discussion on the Foundation of a Society for 

the Cultivation of Psycho-Analysis. Report ot 
Dr. Bemfeld on the tendencies and organisation 
of such a society. 

Jan. 18th, 1920. Discussion continued. 

Feb. 1 St, 1920. Reports and Communications. 

1) Dr. Hitschmann: **On the r61e of urethral 
eroticism in obsessional neurosis'*. 

2) Dr. Hug-Hellmuth: "On colour-hearing in 
children''. "A wish-fulfilling dream". 

3) Dr. Federa: Report on Th. Zells book "Die 
Diktatur der Liebe im Tierreich". 

4) Dr. Nunberg: *'Left and Right in Dreaming''. 
**The Connection of Sadism with the Function 
of Eating". 

5) Dr. Helene Deutsch: **Report on Patients". 



6) W. Schmidebcrg: '•The Marksmanship of 
Unconscious Action". 
Febr.22n(l,1920. Dr. Nunberg: 'The course of the libido-conflict 

in schizophrenia". 
Mar. 7 th, 1920, Dr. P. Schilder: '^On Identification". 

A Swiss Psycho-Analytical Society was inaugurated inZOrich on March 21st, 
1919 on the instigation of Dr. Emil Oberhoher, Mrs. Dr. Mira Oberholzer, 
and Pastor Dr. Oskar Pfister. The new Society consists of 27 members. Six 
meetings were held in 1919. 

In the first meeting on March 24 th, 1919 it was resolved that application 
be made for affiliation to the International Psycho-Analytical Association. The 
formal acknowledgment of the new Society will take place at the next meeting 
of the Congress. 

C^ nonl^ Orrgmaf from