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Full text of "The International Journal of Psycho-Analysis I 1920 Part 3"

THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL 

OF 

PSYCHO-ANALYSIS 

VOLUME I 1920 NUMBER 3 

REACTION TO PERSONAL. NAMES 

by 
C. P. OBERNDORF, New York. 

In a previous communication^ I cited several examples which 
demonstrated how unpleasant emotional reaction to personal names 
may result from an unconscious feeling on the part of the indi- 
vidual bearing that name that it in some way revealed an inherent 
weakness in personality which the individual wished to conceal. 
It was also pointed out that such persons through the alteration 
of their names secured an unconscious outlet for the desire to 
rectify these deficiencies which they had in some way come to 
identify with their names. 

This view is the reverse of theories commonly advanced that 
the name is really an influencial factor which operates as a con- 
siderable stimulus or detriment to the accomplishments of its 
bearer. Such a general conception is exemplified by the follo- 
wing quotation from Walsh's "Handbook of Literary Curiosities** 
— "The names that have become famous are those which have 
a sonorous and stately ring. — One can understand how an ob- 
scure Corsican with such a name as Napoleon Bonaparte might 
have conquered the world. Herbert Lythe becomes famous as 
Maurice Barrymore — and John Rowlandson would never have 
become a great explorer unless he had first changed his name 
to Henry M. Stanley.'* 

In order to test the validity of this theory, I asked my humble 

* Ps^cBoanafytic Review. Vol. V. No. 1, p. 47. 

Orrgmaffnom 



:3y\^ji 223 



UNIVERSITYOF MICHIGAN 



224 C. P. OBERNDORF 

boot-black, who usually responds to the name of Joe, for his real 
name and I discovered it to be sufficiently resounding, namely, 
Salvatore Botta. So, too, Edwin Booth, bearing a simple name, 
achieved a fame histrionically quite equal to that of Henry Irving 
who changed his name from that of John H. Brodribb. Few 
persons would contend Booth's brother, John Wilkes Booth, who 
assassinated President Lincoln was in any way influenced by his 
name to his infamous act 

Probably Captain John Smith of Virginia and plain Henry 
Hudson will live in the annals of history quite as long as Henry 
M. Stanley. Moreover, Stanley's own name, Rowlandson, is not 
without recognition in the world of art. 

Even the psycho-analytical investigators have, it seems to me, 
quite overestimated the importance which the name may lend in 
the selection of a profession, when they call attention to such 
coincidences as a lawyer being named Sharp or an ice-man, 
Frost, and intimate that the choice resulted from the name.^ Cer- 
tainly innumerable examples to the contrary also exist. Doctors 
by the name of 111, Sour, etc. come to mind, and the fact that 
we occasionally encounter a Dr. Sweet or Dr. Cutter cannot be 
considered very convincing proof of the relationship of profession 
and name. Some more potent reason than that of a name must 
exist, which influences a man called Ford to become an auto- 
mobile manufacturer instead of a bridge builder. Reference to 
the classified telephone directory reveals a very moderate coin- 
cidence of any connection between name and profession. 

I appreciate that in many cases the mental mechanism insti- 
gating a change of names is actually simpler than in the examples 
I shall present In some instances the change may invoke favo- 
rable comment* At times the object is very evident to the ordi- 
nary observer and is interpreted by him as an attempt to conceal 
a personal infirmity reflected by the name. Thus, it was noticed 
that when Germany and German names became unpopular in 
the United States during the world war, the opportunity of em- 

^ H. Silberer, Mensch und Name, Z^ntrafBfatt fur PsySoanafyse, Jahrg. IIL 
S. 460. 

• The following extract from Les Lettres (Paris, April 1, 1920) illustrates 
this view : 

Sir Charles Walston ou le Wilsonien optimiste. 

Sir Charles Walston est un enfant de la gurrre, 11 est n6, en 1918, dc Six 
Charles Waldstcin, par unc operation spirituelle, identique a b transmutatioQ 

:3y^ii _ie UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



REACTION TO PERSONAL NAMES 225 

bracing this excuse to change the name was utilised almost 
exclusively by Jews, and not exclusively by those with names of 
German origin. Moreover, they showed scant inclination to adopt 
other names than those of Puritanic origin. Very few selected 
new names of Russian, Italian, French or Hebraic origin. Surely 
the latter would have precluded any identification with the German 
quite as conclusively as those which it was fashionable to assume. 

However, even in the adoption of new names, where the 
unconscious motive is not identical with the conscious, those chosen 
are apt to reflect a compromise reaction, so that very rarely does 
the new name differ completely from the former one, in other 
words John Smith would very rarely become Tom Brown, but 
possibly James Smithers or something similar- 
While it would be futile to conjecture what the underlying 
forces in each case were which impelled the well-known persons 
previously mentioned to choose pseudo-names, the following 
examples may throw some light on the mechanisms in general. 

In the course of the analysis of patients the following instances 
of clinging to the maiden name after marriage, and of the adop- 
tion of a fanciful name have come to my notice and all seem to 
substantiate the point of view which I expressed in my previous 
paper. 

L 

A patient, aged thirty, under analysis for a compulsion neu- 
rosis, whose name before marriage was Irma B. Frank married a 
distant cousin by the name of Frank. Instead of changing her 
name as is customary under such circumstances to Irma F. Frank, 
she continued to call herself Irma B. Frank, because, according 
to her explanation, she possessed a very pretty silver-mounted 
monogram belt-buckle on which it would have been very incon- 
venient to change the initials. Besides she saw no reason why 
she should **burden herself with the name Frank twice." 

des Saxe-Cobourg et Gotha en Windsor du britannisme le plus pur. Cos 
aflfirmations symbollques de nationalit^s, cette prise plus rigoureuse de con- 
science collective, cette Election volontariste d'un id^al qui s*exteriorise par 
dc nouveaux sons patronymiques, n'a rien que de trfcs legitime et de naturel. 
Aussi bicn, I'originc allemande de Sir Charles Walston 6tait-elle dijk filtr^e, 
$i je puis hasardcr cette image saugrenue, par une implantation solide en 
terre americaine. ^ Original ffpom 

:3y^:-^ ^.It UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



226 C. P. OBERNDORF 

An investigation of the mental life of Mrs. Frank disclosed that 
she had never quite succeeded in attaining her conceptions of 
frank dealing. As a matter of fact, especially in the sexual field 
and in her animosity to her parents, her thoughts were far from 
the ethical standard which she felt it incumbent upon herself to 
maintain. In spite of her regard for the truth, Irma could never 
be quite as open or honorable as she desired to be. 

At times when puns were made, such as the name Irma 
B. Frank inevitably invites, e. g. "Irma, B. Frank in thought and 
action" she felt both uncomfortable and complimented. 

Furthermore, there is an ambivalence to her name which was 
early discovered. Her initials, I.B.F., if transposed spelt F.LB. (Fib). 
So, after all, the name reflected the contradictory elements in her 
personality. 

The "F.LB.^* which lay well concealed in the name (as in 
the personality) afforded a certain unconscious satisfaction in 
actually revealing the truth if the outsider were clever enough to 
detect it (which was very unlikely). On the other hand the sup- 
portive qualities associated with the appelation "Irma B. Frank'^ 
acted as a constant prop and also as a warning, not to deviate 
from frank action. Thus an unconscious desire for reassurance in 
her struggle to live according to her ideals of sincerity and to 
overcome her feeling of inherent deceit, found expression in her 
maiden name, and unconsciously induced her to cling to it, quite 
in contradistinction to her usual tendency to conform strictly to 
established conventions. Being constantly reminded through her 
name, Irma B. Frank, she thereby received a certain compensatory 
solace for her repeated failures in personal probity. Of course, 
the obvious play on words in this instance attains a determining 
importance only because of its unconscious personal valuation to 
the patient 

11. 

One day a patient whose name I had entered in my card 
index as Nellie Hochstein (this is an equivalent name) had 
occasion to write to me and I was surprised to find that she 
signed herself Nelye Hochstein. When I took occasion to inquire 
why she had adopted such an unusual spelling for her given 
name, she replied that she had originally done so as a girlish 

:3y^:-^ ^.le UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



RE CTION TO PERSONAL NAMES 227 

prank and had retained the custom. The palpable attempt to 
disguise the perfectly good name of Nellie, while the Hochstein, 
which because of its German origin did not stand in great esteem 
with the American public about that time (during the great war), 
remained intact, caused me to investigate. 

The patient was born in Wisconsin of a family which had 
attained a considerable local esteem and social position. In fact 
during her youth, her father had been one of the prominent and 
wealthy men of the community. Later unfortunate business reverses 
caused a loss of his fortune but at a great personal financial 
sacrifice he had retained his good name. 

The patient had dwelt repeatedly on the nobleness of her 
father's action at the time of his financial misfortime and though 
her emotions toward him were violently ambivalent, her love 
took the form of reverence and pride in him. Her personal regard 
for him and his position caused her to be proud of being a 
Hochstein notwithstanding the fact that here in New York the 
name of Hochstein carried with it no semblance of prestige. 

This regard for her last name made the fantastic spelling ot 
her first name all the more striking. It is not an uncommon 
occurrence for the spelling of common names, such as Mamie 
and Catherine, to be altered to Mayme or Katheryne and in most 
cases it is probably done with the idea of lending distinction to 
persons of those names who feel that they lack it. The patient 
in question, Nelye, had been, since the age of four or five, a 
constant and frequent masturbator. In the household, the tyrannical 
though righteous father, had ruled with uncompromising severity 
and had allowed his daughters little social freedom, especially 
with men. Sex had been regarded in the home as something 
ordinary and vulgar, and my patient, through her indulgence in 
masturbation, identified herself with such a class of people. Nellie, 
to her, signified a name bome by ordinary persons and those who 
are sexually freeS such as, "Nellie, the Beautiful Cloak ModeP. 
The patient could not tolerate being associated even in name 

* As an example of the desire to have the name harmonize with the 
characteristics of its bearer, the following from the New York Wor/if is 
illustrative. Here, however, the parents are taking the unwonted precaution 
of deferring in their choice for the sake of accuracy: — 

SHE IS *ITSA HERR'. 

A baby girl was bom to Mr., and Mrs. Dougal..JJ^?T,i|qFfd6*ldwcIl, N. J., 



Dqm to Mr., and Mrs. uougai. M?;?T^^I<?rtA*ldwcll 
)yV.:-Ul)^l^ UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



228 C. P. OBERNDORF 

with anything which connoted to her mind the ordinary (the 
sexual). She thought that even through the association by name, 
what she considered to be her depravity might be revealed to 
the minds of others. Hence, she became Nelye. It was not sur- 
prising that suddenly during the course of the analysis she reverted 
to plain Nellie Hochstein, inasmuch as with the acquisition of 
tolerance for sex the necessity for the mask disappeared. 



III. 

A French artist who had achieved considerable fame under 
the name which he now bears, informed me during the course ot 
an analysis for a compulsion neurosis that he had changed his 
surname, which was originally Thomas, because of the ridicule to 
which that name exposed him. He had retained his original given 
Christian name. Inasmuch as Thomas, as surname, is not with- 
out lustre (compare Rowlandson — Stanley) even in his own field 
and in his own country, e. g. Ambrose Thomas the composer, 
this reaction seemed to be incongruous. In order to interpret this 
aversion to Thomas it is necessary to trace briefly the patient^s 
previous history. 

He was born in one of the large French cities where his father 
conducted a small jewelry store. He describes his father as an 
indolent and autocratic, though incompetent man, who continually 
made excuses for his own short-comings and procrasti- 
nations. The patient, who was intimately attached to his mother, 
began, while still a boy, to resent the abusive attitude of his father 
toward his mother during their frequent domestic wrangles. 

After years of discord with his father, the patient left home 
at nineteen years, following a violent quarrel. His virulent anta- 
gonism to his father persisted up to the time of the latter*s death 
many years later, and, in my opinion, may have formed an 
auxiliary motive for not wishing to bear his father's name, but 
not the primary one. As is usual, in such cases, a more potent 

three weeks ago. The parents were unable to decide on a name so they 
concluded to wait several years and name the child according to her traits 
and temperament. In filing the birth certificate with the Town Clerk they 
gave the name of the child temporal ily, as Itsa Heir (It's a Herr). Mr. Hen- 
is a lioboken attorney. His wife is the daughter of Supreme Court Justice- 
Garrison, rs^ ' \iL 

:3yV_:-UUgH^ UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



REACTION TO PERSONAL NAMES 229 

personal reason appears to have been the determininfj factor. It 
seems to me that this interpretation is supported by the fact that 
the patient did not change his name immediately on severing 
connections with his father's household but five years later. 

Quite aside from the patient's antagonism to his father, he 
developed a feeling of inferiority determined in part by the fact 
that he had certain girlish traits. At least he thought that he 
exhibited them. Moreover, in primary school through comparing 
his genitals with those of the other boys, he recognised that his 
penis differed in shape from their's. This defect was later recogni- 
sed as a phimosis. Because of the pain caused by his phimosis 
he was extremely slow and at times actually unsuccessful in 
obtaining an ejaculation when he masturbated. He lived in hopes, 
however, that the physical deformity would in some vague way be 
rectified with increasing years and at about the age of eighteen, 
he formed the conclusion that intercourse would cure his phimosis. 
However, his frequent attempts at intercourse (for unconscious 
reasons, namely, fear of the father and intolerable maternal incest 
fancies ^ were unsatisfactory and he reverted to masturbation. 
Later he indulged in both active and passive homosexual mastur- 
bation with boys at the military academy to which he had been 
assigned as instructor during his service in the French Army. About 
this time of his life he changed his name from Thomas. 

In the F'rench slang, Thoma is equivalent of our word "pot'' 
or chamber. Already during his college days some of the students 
had called him ''Thoma" with some derision. While this had 
annoyed him, when he entered the army his name became 
unendurable to him, for his comrades would jocularly greet him 
with the chant: 

'*Vide, Thoma(s), vide latus 
Vide pedes, vide manus 
Alleluia, alleluia.*' 

The old Latin biblical chant is literally translated, "See, O 
Thomas, see his flanks, see his feet, see his hands, hallelulia, 
hallelulia^ 

However, in French vide is the imperative of the verb meaning 

* Patient once remarked: **I often dream of my mother and she is the 
woman beside mc that my wife oujjht to be. This woman has the characte- 
ristics of my mother but it is in the r61e of ray wife' , , , _ 

r i\\\{t^ Original fnom 

:3yV_:-UU^IA:: UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



230 C P. OBERNDORF 

to empty. Thus, Vide Thomas signifies *Vo^ ™ust empty Thomas*". 
(Thoma) /. e., the chamber. 

While the rest of the phrase had little significance, apparently^ 
the idea of emptying of the cBamBer (Thomas) seemed to be 
sufficient to annoy the patient intolerably. 

However, the secret of the annoyance could not rest entirely 
in the connotation of Thomas with chamber. The patient readily 
acquiesced to the fact when I pointed out to him that the English 
names equivalent of the French slang Thoma (chamber) such as 
Chamberlain or Chambers or even Potts are respected and give 
their bearers no cause for shame. The real reason of the aversion 
seemed to be more closely associated with the '*Vide'* than the 
"Thoma^ This was corroborated by a curious slip of the pen 
which the patient made. 

Inasmuch as I was not familiar with the Latin chant, I reque- 
sted that my patient write it which he did as follows: 

Vide Thomas, vide latus 
Vide pedes, vide manu 
Alleluia, alleluia. 

Now manu is the ablative in the declension of manus, meaning 
by hand. When I pointed out to the patient that he had written 
the ablative singular, manu, instead of the accusative plural, manus, 
he concurred that it could surely not be through ignorance as 
his Latin had always been exceptionally good but, that it must 
have been a slip of the pen. 

In other words, the disagreeable implication in the taunt rests 
in *^ou must empty Thomas" (himself) reflected by "Vide manu*^ 
(you must empty by hand) which brought to his mind the mor- 
tifying habit of masturbation. 

He had constantly feared during his student days that his 
masturbation might be discovered. At the military academy he 
lived in dread that the cadets might reveal his practices with 
them to his superior officers. Thus, the whole idea of emptying 
by hand had become extremely repugnant The association of the 
Thoma was secondary but it was far easier to rectify the secon- 
dary association than the fundamental habit. Curiously enough the 
new name he selected when he changed his name is best trans- 
lated by the English word "Alter^ Original from 

:iy\^:-UU^tt UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



THE REVERSAL OF THE LIBIDO-SIGN i IN DELUSIONS OF 

PERSECUTION 

by 

AUG. STARCKE, Den Dolder, Holland. 

It is well known that in delusions of persecution the figure ot 
the loved one reappears as the "persecutor**. As a rule it is more 
or less disguised: for instance, instead of the beloved father there 
emerges the persecuting superior. Freud has called this phenomenon 
the return of the repressed libido, and more especially its return 
with a reversal of the sign; that is to say that what was repressed 
in the shape of love returns as hatred. This hatred is projected, 
and represents the content of the delusion. 

The essential condition that must be fulfilled before such a 
reversal of sign can take place is naturally to be found in some 
attitude of ambivalency. But the question of its particular deter- 
minants remains to be discussed. 

According to my observations, the content of the delusion is 
frequently anal persecution* Patients often complain of all sorts 
of other tortures, of radiations, etc., or simply of being teased or 
injured by some particular person. But even in these cases, if their 
confidence can be won, they may unexpectedly confess, with every 
sign of their surrendering some important secret, that, apart from 
all this, the essence of the matter consists in an inconceivable 
piece of villainy, which cannot even be spoken of, and can only 
be indicated by hints and gestures. Here are one or two in- 
stances : 

An elderly female patient (a clinical mixed type, with features 
of manic-depressive insanity and hypochondriacal and nihilistic 
delusions of persecution) complained among other things that they 
had ^turned her the wrong way round**. On being asked the 

* [Sign CVorzeiden) is used in the mathematical sense of a plus or minus 
prefix. Trans!.] 

• My colleague. Dr. van Ophuijsen, informs me that he has independently 
pointed out the connection bet^^yeen persecution z!upi,4.,?».?il,^Q^»xn. 

231 



>*^>^i^' UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



232 AUG- STARCKE 

meaning of this expression, she replied, apparently in an absent- 
minded way and without reference to the question: "They have 
taken me through the little door; people go through the big door, 
though. People stay with their own husbands and at the big door. 
People don't go through the little door with neck-twisters". (What 
do you mean by the little door.?) "The back door". Here she hit 
herself on the buttocks. "No real husband does this with his wife'\ 
"People don't let themselves be turned the wrong way" 

The second case is that of a male patient who collected corks 
with great assiduity. He had already been through several attacks 
of mania and one phase of melancholia, but in the meantime had 
' vfloped clearly systematized ideas of persecution; these were as 
^ rule dissimulated, but occasionally broke out during his emo- 
tional attacks. One day, after shutting the door and looking round 
to sor that no one v/as there, he explained in a whisper that the 
purpose of the corks was to protect him "against it"; there were 
some very strange persons; people didn^t want him to have anything 
to io with women; so that in case of necessity he could shut 
up the opening with the corks, so that people shouldn't un- 
awares — he completed the words with an unambiguous 

gesture. 

In very many cases patients complain that people want to turn 
them into '^homosexuals" or want to commit "sodomy" with them. 
By this they do not mean the choice of an object of the same sex, 
but paederastia. 

This core of the delusion which is kept so secret is as a rule 
concerned with anal acts of lust and violence. After having spoken 
openly about it the patients often feel relieved, but unfortunately 
they also often effect a transference of the delusion, as a result 
of which the physician appears as the persecutor, or is even honoured 
with an unremitting attachment. 

The circumstances which accompany the appearance of this 
transference (or, clinically speaking, this extension of the delusional 
system to the recent environment) make it extremely probable 
that an unconscious identification of tBe foved oBject ivitB tBe 
sBySafum (faeces) was present in the first instance, and that this 
identification provides the more precise basis for the special 
ambivalency of the paranoic constitution. 

The 5/'^-^^/////Ms the primary (real) persecutor; it commits anal 
acts of violencf ch are often at the same time acts of pleasure. 

:3yt.:-UU^i\: UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



REVERSAL OF THE LIBIDO-SIGN IN DELUSIONS OF PERSECUTION 233 

It is responsible for one of the most primitive attitudes ot ambi- 
valency, for in regard to it pain and pleasure often make their 
appearance in very rapid succession. This primary ambivalency is 
subsequently strengthened (secondary ambivalency) by the people 
in charge of the child in connection with the process of 
cleaning; since punishment for dirtiness or praise for orderliness 
in evacuation results automatically in hatred or love as the case 
may be. 

According to the fundamental laws ot memory, the attitude ot 
the libido, positive and negative by turns, holds good for the 
imagines of the whole situation, that is to say, to the relevant 
part of the child's body (or more accurately to its excrement) 
as well as to the person who is actively looking after the child. 

The ambivalency of feeling directed towards the latter is bound 
to exercise an important influence on the later development of 
object love, and it will no doubt determine further conditions for 
the production of the delusion. The study of the subject is, 
however, rendered difficult, owing to the circumstance that for this 
purpose it is absolutely necessary to take into account the "normal'' 
delusional phenomena or systematic constructions (science, re- 
ligion, etc.), w^hich are psychologically closely related to delusions 
or identical with them. 

The later effects in memory of the events connected with de- 
faecation in earliest childhood result in a predisposition to a sub- 
sequent identification with the s^^Bafum of (1) the child's own body 
and (2) the person in charge of it The character of those com- 
ponents of narcissism which are derived from anal-erotism will be 
positive or negative according as the child receives more praise 
or more blame in this connection. Negative narcissism finds its 
pathological application in delusions of inferiority, which often 
show a trace of anal-erotism. 

According to Freud^s biological formula, delusions of grandeur 
are the regression of sublimated homosexuality to narcissism. The 
above considerations may lead to an additional requirement, na- 
mely, that this narcissism should have an anal-erotic origin. They 
are strengthened by particular experience, which shows that de- 
lusions of persecution are as often accompanied by delusions ot 
inferiority as by delusions of grandeur, and even by extraordinary 
mixtures of the two. This would be explicable by the inherent 
ambivalency of anal-erotic narcissism. Original from 

■"*^'8'^ UNIVERSITYOF MICHIGAN 



234 AUG. STARCKE 

Freud's formula might then be amplified in this way: Part at 
least of the sublimated homosexuality regresses to anal-erotism. 
In so far as the latter is positive it is used for reconstruction in 
the shape of delusions of grandeur, and in so far as it is ne- 
gative it is diverted by being projected as a delusion of per- 
secution. 

The second phase appearing by itself would be responsible for 
building up a suspicious character. 

In all this I take no account of any fundamental distinction 
between melancholic, schizophrenic, and paranoic delusions of per- 
secution. Conditions are frequently met with which can as easily 
be classified in one group as in another. Since Freud has enabled 
us to study the elementary syndrome analytically, we no longer 
have any excuse for the game of pouring cases out of one 
diagnostical pot into another. There is only this to be said of the 
systematic division of the psychoses: all actual cases are highly 
variegated mixtures of every sort of syndrome in every sort of 
relation. The recognized clinical types or "diseases** only represent 
a series of typical combinations. 



C^ nonl^ Orrgmaf from 

:3yV_:-UUglt UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



ON THE ORIGIN OF THE FEELING OF PERSECUTION ^ 

by 
J. H. W. VAN OPHUIJSEN. The Hague. 

In the course of his practice the psycho-analyst is brought into 
constant touch with the problem of delusions of persecution. Either 
he has occasion to examine a paranoic patient or his mental pro- 
ducts, or he is obliged to recognize that the pathological pheno- 
mena which he observes in his neurotic patients are more or less 
completely analogous to paranoic symptoms. Indeed, psycho- 
analytical literature already includes a considerable number of 
contributions to the solution of this problem, Freud*s papers being 
the most important among them. In these the person of the per- 
secutor, the origin of the delusion, and the nature of the persecution, 
have been the subject of enquiry; nor has there been any lack of 
allusions to the question which I wish to discuss here, namely the 
origin of the feeling of being persecuted. 

This feeling is a symptom which, in a mitigated form, is never 
absent from a case of psychoneurosis, but which must of course 
be distinguished from the delusion of being persecuted. With this 
feeling I include the neurotic's ideas of reference, his common fear 
of being attacked from behind, his not being able to bear anyone 
walking behind him in the street or on the stairs, his dreams of 
persecution, etc. All these symptoms have in common the un- 
canny feeling of which the paranoic also complains, or to which 
he reacts in some other way. 

Experience has brought me to the view that this feeling can 
be traced back to the anal complex, and has led me to expect 
that psychiatrists will be able to confirm this theory of its origin 
in the case of their patients. I give below some accounts of 
cases which may serve as specimens of my observations on 
this point. 

* Lecture delivered at a meeting of the Dutch Psycho- Analytical Society 
on March 30 th., 1919, and before the Congress of Medicine and Natural 
Philosophy at Leyden on April 26th., 1919. Original from 

:3y ^:-UU^ 236 UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



236 J. H. W. VAN OPHUIJSEN 

A young man who was suffering from attacks of morbid anxiety, 
which were chiefly of a hypochondriacal character, one day told 
me the following dream: He was waiting for the steam tram near 
the corner of a street which he knew quite well. Although it was 
very late at night, the tram was to take him to a neighbouring 
health resort While he was waiting there, he suddenly became 
aware that some object had been thrown at him — he did not 
know from where — and had hit him in the back. He looked 
round, but could not catch sight of any one. He then went round 
the corner, and found himself face to face with two men. They 
were dressed Hke athletes, and approached him menacingly with 
sticks in their hands. One of them put his arm round him, and he 
begged for mercy. 

When he woke up it occurred to him that the affect which 
accompanied the dream had been noticeably less disagreeable than 
might have been expected from its content; he was only very much 
annoyed at his unmanly behaviour. He had behaved almost like a 
girl who was being sexually assaulted. The half affectionate way 
in which the arm was put round him made him think of a homo- 
sexual assault, and he accordingly interpreted the sticks as a male 
genital. In addition to this, it turned out that he thought that 
what had been thrown at him must have been something dirty — 
dung, perhaps — , so that no possible doubt remained as to the 
form of the assault. 

I must also explain that the question of what people said about 
him was of great importance to the patient. This peculiarity pro- 
vided the occasion for the dream. The evening before, he had 
been annoyed at his behaviour at a large gathering in exacdy 
the same way as he was after the dream. People might have said 
disparaging things about him "behind his back" — ("might have 
thrown mud [dung] at him"). 

A second patient declared of himself that people were nothing 
to him: he was quite different from ordinary people, and did not 
have to bother about them. In consequence of this he was re- 
latively lonely, and yet his sense of his own importance was not 
quite enough to help him over his loneliness. One day he had the 
following dream: 

He was standing on some rising ground, which gave him a clear 
view all round him. While he stood there, a number of dogs came 
at him and pressed up against him and caressed him with signs 
:3yt.:-UUgte UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



ON THE ORIGIN OF THE FEELING OF PERSECUTION 237 

of friendliness. When this began to inconvenience him he drew a 
revolver and shot some of the animals down. In this way he re- 
lieved himself from the situation. 

I will proceed at once to the heart of the matter, and quote 
from his associations to the effect that the dogs reminded him of 
wolves, and that his father, who died when he was still a small 
boy, used to tell him a great many enthralling stories about wolves. 
He called wolves father-animals, just as he used to call snakes 
mother-animals. The conduct of the animals in the dream reminded 
him of the behaviour of a number of people, both men and women, 
whom he had snubbed off from his acquaintance. The phrase in 
the dream "to press up against him" called up the associations 
"press of people" [crowd] and "pressure". He now mentioned that 
on the day before the dream, or on the day before that, he had 
had to collect his stool for the purpose of a blood-examination. 
This association showed exactly what sort of "press" was meant in 
the dream; and this was confirmed by the next part of the dream, 
in which he relieved himself from his oppressive situation by 
shooting some of the animals down. It was evidently a question 
of an evacuation of the bowels, and this would fit in with the 
occasion of the dream. The occasion of the dream may also 
sufficiently explain why the "persecutors" were visible in this case. 
The ambivalency of the "persecutor'* is clearer, too, than in the 
first dream. The most important point, however, is that 'persecutor" 
and s^yBafum are simpfy treated as equivafent tBings. I pass over 
a large number of important details in the dream, but I must 
mention in this connection that the functioning of his bowels was 
a subject of the greatest interest to the patient in his early youth, 
and to his parents as well. I have already hinted in the case ol 
the first patient that he was very much occupied with his physical 
health, and it is naturally not surprising that his motions played 
a specially important part in this preoccupation. 

In the second dream the figure of the father came toligli. ijn .,.:i 
the dreamer's association. Although it is not strictly relevant, I 
cannot omit to mention that a reference to the father inevitably 
came up in the analysis of the first dream too. The first patient's 
father was also dead; a Dutch expression for dying is "going round 
the corner" (het hoekje omgaan). Moreover the patient was a con- 
vinced spiritualist, but had not recently ventured to attend a seance 
because he was afraid it might do him harm.- ;-^^f^„^ 

:3yv_:-uijgiv UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



238 J. H. W. VAN OPHUIJSEN 

The first example has suggested to us that the persecution may 
be an assault from behind (directed at the anus) on the part of 
persons (fathers) with (homo)sexual intentions, who are at first in- 
visible because they are localized behind the back. The second 
example points to the possibility that the feeling of being 
assaulted (persecuted) may be a displacement outwards of the 
feeling of being disturbed by the sensations called up by the 
s^yBafum. In tSat case tSe persecutor woufd Be tBe personi- 
fication of tBe s^yBafum. 

A third example ought to make the matter still more clear. 
This time the patient really had grounds for being concerned as 
to what people were saying about him; but apart from this he ex- 
hibited something not unlike delusions of reference. From his youth 
upwards he had suffered from every sort of morbid anxiety and 
had very often had anxiety dreams. One day he described some 
hypnagogic visions, of which only the third is of interest to us. 
In these visions he appeared to himself to be a boy. It seemed 
at first as though he heard his parents going into their bedroom, 
and saw the light of the candle shining into his room through the 
crack of the door. (This appearance of the light played a part in 
his fear of burglars). Then it seemed as though he went into a 
room, no doubt his parents' bedroom, or as though he was 
standing on the threshold, and saw something that had to do with 
blood. Finally, he was looking into a dark place, out of which all 
sorts of terrible shapes appeared. 

This dark place seemed to him at first to be a cupboard; and 
he saw coming out at him all the hideous forms which had so 
often persecuted him in his dreams and which had always changed 
with the circumstances of his life. I need not name them all, and 
I will only mention that at this point it again occurred to the 
patient — for the recollection had appeared before — that when 
he was a child he had seen his father's genitals as his father 
was getting out of bed. He had been very much frightened at the 
sight, and overcome with terror had asked his mother what the 
thing could be. 

The dark cupboard turned into a W. C, and the W. C. into 
the opening of the wastepipe. Then followed the series of anxiety 
ideas connected with this subject (such as the fear of falling in, etc.) 
which are so familiar to every analyst But in the same sitting the 
patient went a step further and explained that Bis morBidfy anxious 



3ytjUOgie 



•.| I I I Ul I I '.' I I I 



UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



ox THE ORIGIN OF THE FEELING OF PERSECUTION 239 

interest in the W. C. was a furtSer devefopment of Bis interest in 
Bis own waste-tuBe and in wBat migBt come out of it. I do not 
know whether he ever made use of a looking-glass to gratify this 
interest Even without any such intermediate step it is easy to 
assume that a projection of his rectal and anal sensations took 
place. The most remarkable feature of the projection was the emer- 
gence of anxiety. 

I have no doubt that these facts have found many other ob- 
servers. And if these observations turn out to be correct, it will 
be the task of the psychiatrist ^ to discover whether the anal per- 
secution is not also the primary fact in the case of those who 
suffer from delusions of persecution. 

* Meanwhile Dr. Starcke (Den Dolder, Holland) has confirmed my sus- 
picion, and has informed me that he expressed this view some years ago at 
a meeting of Dutch analysts. (Cf. the article bearing upon the subject in the 
present number of this Journal). 



C^ €\r\cA{? Orrgmaf from 

:3yV_:-UUglt UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



A CASE OF WAR SHOCK RESULTING FROM SEX- 
INVERSION 

by 
C.W.S. DAVIES-JONES. Ashhurst Hospital, Littlcmorc, Near Oxford. 

I propose to quote from the notes of a case — not so much 
from the point of view of discussing the actual conditions present, 
as of a means of putting before you some of the main points in 
the technique of Psycho- Analysis, which I consider to be fairly 
well illustrated therein. 

The patient is a young man of twenty-six years of age, of 
more than average intelligence, and distinctly showing a well- 
marked degree of the "Artistic Temperament". He complains of 
a terror of ^'Something'' lurking in the dark, especially in his 
bedroom, from which he has been compelled, at times, to rush 
out in a state bordering upon panic. He has never been able to 
sleep without a light on for more than two years. Subsidiary 
symptoms are forgetfulness and inability to concentrate. 

In treating the case, I resolved to begin with an analysis — 
the patient proving to be unsuitable for approach by hypnosis. In 
the preliminary discussion, the patient connected the occurrence 
of the symptoms, somewhat vaguely, with the following war 
experience : — 

During the Somme Battle, while near Delville Wood, he 
remembered noticing the unburied head of a soldier which he 
had frequently to pass. In doing so, he always avoided looking at 
the face which— to quote his own words — "Bore an expression 
of extreme horror and disgust", and thereby greatly impressed 
him. One night, however, despite his usual precautions not to 
approach the head too closely, he felt his foot tread upon it, and 
was instantly filled with a great revulsion of feeling, as he felt what 
he imagined to be the brains "Squelching" around his foot. 

At the outset, the case would appear to present the ordinary 
features of "War Shock*'. In a very short while, however, it bc- 

:3y^:-^ , '^^ ^^^ UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



A CASE OF WAR SHOCK RESULTING FROM SEX-INVERSION 241 

came evident to me that the symptoms sprang from a previous 
experience, and were founded upon a truly ^'Freudian'* basis. 

In commencing the analysis, the word-association test was 
applied. The patient was instructed to give without criticism, the 
first word or thought which came to his mind in response to a 
given word. The "Reaction-time" was noted with a stop-watch, 
the average working out at 5 to 7 seconds, exceptions being noted 
to be as long as 30 seconds, or more. 

Here, I should like to point out the necessity on the part of 
the analyst of allowing no preconceived idea as to the condition 
present in the patient to bias him, and, also, of being cautious in 
giving hard and fast interpretations or specific meanings to any symbols 
which may be brought to Ught during the process of analysis. If 
the analyst will always bear in mind the fact that it is the 
patient's duty to provide the material, and the analyst^s duty 
to examine that material in the light of the patient's associations, 
these pitfalls will be avoided. 

It is, obviously, useless to attempt to work in any meaning 
other than that present in the patient's associations. Let the 
patient be so guided and led by the analyst that he provides the 
interpretations, and let the analyst always be very much alive to 
his own "Repressions" and "Complexes'' (Upon this latter necessity 
depends the whole reason why those who intend to use this 
method should themselves be analysed). 

But, with the best intentions, this danger is often with diffi- 
culty avoided. Frequently* one is tempted to shorten the work by 
jumping to conclusions. This is well instanced in the following 
details of part of the word-association test The point will be more 
easily understood, I think, if I tabulate as follows: — 



riMULUS 


TIME 


RESPONSE 


ANALYST'S INFER 


Dear 


15 


Love letters. 


He treasures some 
love-letters 


To kiss 


7 


The dreamt-ot 


In some way kisses 






kisses 


are idealized 


Pure 


15 


It's the "Gal" 
I had. 


He has been jilted. 



Relying upon the apparent soundness of my own inferences 
(and not then realizing that the words were, in reality, touching 

upon a repression in my own unconscious) I, later on, asked the 

r I . Origin^. ..".-.ii 

:3y^:-^ J^ UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



242 C. W. S- DAVIES-JONES 

patient if he could recall his reply to "Pure*\ I was interested to 
note that he had developed a complete Amnesia for the word. 
This clinched the matter to my mind — not only had he been 
jilted, but the episode was so painful, that he was still making 
efforts, with success, to forget it. 

I then told him that I thought his trouble had an important 
relation to the fact that his engagement had been broken off. His 
reply was startling in his denial of ever having had a love-affair 
at all ! Moreover, he now remembered, in a flash, that his reply 
to "Pure*\ had been "Sir Galahad''. I then realized the unconscious 
play upon words which my inferences had led me to make. 

This tendency has already been pointed out by Freud. It was 
/who had changed "'Sir Galahad'* into the "Gal I had". Later on, 
this word proved to be the main key to the whole situation. 
Proceeding with the work, the patient "blocked" for 27 seconds 
upon the word "Head". His resistance, in other words, became 
distressingly evident At last he said "R. B.'s head", and as a recall 
word gave "the head in the trench''; I then urged him to associate 
freely upon the latter. 

After a long time spent in overcoming his resistance, and with 
marked emotional stress, he cried out "My head!" Urged to 
continue, he proceeded to tell the following story — not without 
frequent pauses and considerable difficulty. Briefly stated, it amounts 
to this: — 

As a boy of sixteen or seventeen, a lady staying at his home, 
as the guest of his mother, entered his bedroom one night, while 
he slept. The first thing he remembered was that he could feel 
her hand touching his body. She then attempted to induce him 
to perform the act of coitus. He, however, drew the bed-clothes 
around him, and, whispering, told her to go away. 

Goaded to frenzy by his refusal, and springing upon the bed in 
such a way as to pinion him down with her knees, she forcibly 
performed the act of Cunnilingus upon fiim. 

Fear, and the knowledge that this outrage was being committed 
upon him by a guest of the house, prevented his crying out. To 
struggle was impossible on account of the bed-clothes and his 
position. The effect of such a trauma substantiated well the 
emotional storm which accompanied his association "My head". 
Furthermore, it was soon possible to link up, by the patient's 
associations, the similarity between his own head and that of the 

::^y<jM^ ^.le UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



A CASE OF WAR SHOCK RESULTING FROM SEX-INVERSION 245 

soldier (so full of the expression of horrified disgust, down-trodden, 
and with the "Squelching" sound). In reality, this latter head had 
acted like the stimulus word "Head'* in the test. It had recalled 
a painful nremory, hitherto repressed. 

Later on, another trauma was brought to light m a similar, 
though less dramatic fashion. 

About a year afterwards, the patient began to draw a certain 
amount of attention to himself on account of his poetic talent. 
He was brought into close touch with artists and poets in London, 
and during this period, he formed close attachments with men 
one of whom stood foremost in his estimation. On one occasion, 
this man invited him to his house and endeavoured to induce him 
to indulge in homosexual practices. This the patient objected to, 
and his friend, imlike the woman recently quoted — and this is 
important — desisted from his advances. (They remained good 
friends, however.) 

Now, let us try to use the information provided by the patient^ 
so as to gain an insight into the processes at work to produce 
the symptoms. Before so doing, however, I must state that shortness 
of time and other considerations have compelled me to abridge 
or cut out completely a great deal of the case material. 

Here we have the case of a young boy of, hitherto, fairly 
normal type. His sex evolution has just reached the point where 
he is passing from the homosexual stage of "hero worship** to 
the heterosexual — the ultimate point. 

At the critical moment, he is oBfiged to experience not only 
his first but a very terrible sexual trauma. His sense of self- 
assertion, now developing as it progresses towards a more extro- 
verted form, is rudely abashed. His sexual energy can no longer 
progress along the heterosexual channel, because the repression 
has now completely dammed it up, so to speak. But the force of 
that energy must find an outlet, and to do so, a regression must 
take place. A more than normal amount of it now passes along 
the homosexual channel. 

True, a trauma is experienced in this channel, but the damming 
up is not complete in this case. The circumstances show well that 
the patient*s self-assertion was allowed to predominate. His 
repression here consisted of a dislike for the sexual act with, but 
not in a rooted hatred for, men. 

This results in ^ the patient developing %.,^^f^pg^ly,, morbid state 

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



AH CXI W, 

:3y V.:i^ 



244 C W. S. DAVIES-JONES 

of mind. Woman cannot be loved in any way sexually or other- 
wise (if I can be understood), man is loved but not in a grossly 
sexual way. The patient now wastes much energy in looking for 
the hero-man— a perfect man, full of sympathy and under- 
standing, a "Sir Galahad'' (according to his own associations). 

Here, the question of "breaking the transference" had to be 
tackled. It was not long before it became evident that the patient 
had begun to project upon the analyst his idealization of the perfect 
man. Nor was this anything surprising, if one bears in mind that 
no analysis can be at all complete, unless there exists between 
patient and analyst a sensible and very real degree of sympathy. 

My duty was clear. By this time, the symptoms had cleared 
up. The patient knew why he had been afraid to sleep in the 
dark. With the knowledge the fear vanished. The treatment had 
reached its logical conclusion. It was therefore necessary to pro- 
vide the patient with a full explanation of the condition of the 
transference, and, tactfully, to show that such a projection now 
would only provide a nidus for the formation of new repressions. 

In conclusion, I should like to add that I became convinced 
that the sexual inversion was so complete that an attempt to place 
the patient upon the heterosexual road, once more, would now 
be impossible. It may be satisfactory or salutary to find the cause 
of any condition, but it is not always possible to restore full 
function. This was a case where "Sublimation" of the sexual 
energy was the only way likely to bring peace of mind to the 
patient. Hetero-sexuality was a closed channel. Homo-sexuality was 
open from an idealistic point of view. 

This outlet — the only one — must be broadened, and the 
emerging force brought into play in such a manner as to serve 
the highest and most altruistic purposes. 

The patient was advised to follow the "Way of the spirit". It 
is a hard way, fraught with much difficulty, but even in these ma- 
terialistic days it exists — and that is the way of "Sublimation". 

Finally I should like to draw attention to the fact that this 
case would appear to confirm the view expressed by Dr. Ernest 
Jones in that portion of his article dealing with war shock in 
Volume I, page 174 of this Journal, namely, "That repressed homo- 
sexuality plays a prominent, and perhaps essential, part in the 
aetiology of this neurosis". 

f^nonl^ Orrgmaffnonn 

:3yV_:-UUglt UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



DREAMS ON THE SYMBOLISM OF WATER AND FIRE 

by 
H. FLOUR NOY, Geneva.^ 

I give here a brief summary of the history of a patient who 
has been under my treatment: 

Madame C. aged 45, married and mother of three children, was 
towards the end of February attacked suddenly with complete 
retention of urine. Some days before she had lost her purse con- 
taining a good deal of money, and her husband had reproached 
her on the subject. As the retention persisted for more than 
a week, and as the patient was only able to pass urine with the 
help of a catheter, she was admitted on March 11th to a gynae- 
cological clinic. Catheterisation relieved her of three to four litres 
of urine. Catheterisation was subsequently carried out three or four 
times daily. On one occasion when the nurse suddenly entered 
the patient's room, she was startled and involuntarily passed urine; 
this effect however had no lasting result. 

At the end of March her medical attendant asked me to give 
her psychotherapeutic treatment, as her functional condition 
resisted all other medical measures. On March 31st. I gave her 
suggestive treatment. On the following day the patient was very 
discouraged and doubted the efficiency of this treatment; she also 
told me of a dream on the previous night: "There was no more 
water in the Rhone, and she much regretted that her husband, who 
was very fond of fishing, had gone to bed and was unable to 
take advantage of taking the fish out of the dry river/' 

On April 2nd. in the afternoon, she involuntarily wet herself, 
but in the evening, shortly after the third sitting, she passed urine 
normally for the first time for five weeks. After this she con- 
tinued to urinate in a regular and spontaneous manner. On the 
third of April I gave her a fourth and last sitting. Some days 
after Madame C. left the home. I have made certain after several 
months that she has not had a return of her symptoms. 

^ Translated by R M. Riggall Orfginaffrom 

:3y K^^-UU^ I 245 UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



246 H. FLOURNOY 

Certain organic signs might lead one to say that there is in 
this patient a medullary lesion, but the sudden appearance of bladder 
trouble following an emotional shock strongly makes one presume 
in favour of the functional nature of these symptoms. Anyhow 
this was not a matter of importance from the point of view of 
the symbolic significance of the dream. 

She had the dream the day after the first sitting, of which no 
other result was experienced. The patient, prc-occupied by this new 
treatment, and always feeling herself incapable of urinating, saw 
that the Rhone was dry. The urinary symbolism of dreams of 
rivers is well known. Everybody recalls the inference drawn by 
Ferenczi from a humorous Hungarian article entitled, "The dream 
of a French nurse", which has become classical by its re- 
production in so many psycho-analytical works. I may add that 
Madame C. had never thought of this, having never seen it, al- 
though she had been a bookseller. 

What interests us more are the sexual themes which the dream 
reveals. Some data from the history of the case will supplement 
the absence of associations. Madame C, whose children were by 
her first marriage, feared having conjugal relations with her second 
husband because they made her suffer, and she took minutest pre- 
cautions to avoid the risk of again becoming pregnant 

We know from Freud's work * that dreams of water and of the 
bladder are associated in women with pregnancy and fertility. 
Rank has supported this subject by one of the most interesting 
versions of the legend of the birth of Kyros. When Mandane, the 
mother of the hero, was just about to give him births she saw in 
her dream an enormous river which flowed out of her and inundated 
Asia.* The vision of the dry river to our patient, like the retention 
of urine, came after a conjugal quarrel. On the other hand it 
might mean her desire to remain sterile. 

What does Madame C afterwards do in her dream? She de- 
plores the fact that her husband being already in bed was unable 
to go and catch fish as he was very fond of fishing. It is dan- 
gerous to make too much of suppositions, but I wonder if our 
patient did not in her dream phantasy express the desire to 
escape from her husband and to see him look for satisfaction 

* Freud, Die Traumdcutung. 4. Aufl. S. 271. 

* Rank, Die Symbolschichtung im Wccktraum und ihrc Wiederkchr im 
mythischen Dmken. JaSrS. d. PsySoanaf., 19f2^,S._,J,l,^,..,,,, 

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 






DREAMS ON THE SYMBOLISM OF WATER AND FIRE 247 

elsewhere than in the conjugal bed It is not necessary to insist 
on the symbolism of fish. 

Another point seems to confirm the hypothesis that the river ^ 
running water, represents to her the idea of fertility. When 
on April 2nd*, in the evening after the third sitting of suggestion, 
Madame C commenced to her great surprise to urinate, she dreamed 
on the following night that she was nursing a baby. 



The eight following dreams are extracts from a series given 
me by a medical student who was impotent, and has never tried 
to approach a v/oman. These dreams are spread over a period oi 
several months. They have not been analysed by the association 
method so that their study remains very incomplete. Nevertheless 
their symbolism is so transparent that they appear to me to be 
worthy of publication. The order in which I give them is not that 
of their chronological succession but each one is numbered. 

Independently of these dreams many symptoms show that 
the patient is the victim of a violent CEdipus complex, and that 
he has marked homosexual tendencies. In his childhood until 
nearly twelve years of age he constantly wet his bed during sleep. 
Amongst some of his infantile phantasies he used to wonder 
whether in order to have children, women ought not to drink 
their husbands' urine. Towards the age of seven he remembers 
amusing himself by urinating on all fours to imitate horses, as he ad- 
mired the force used by these animals in the exercise of the act 

Amongst these dreams there were at first a number in which 
the patient experienced the sensation of urinating but found on 
waking that he had had an emission of semen. These urinary dreams 
of the adult covered, then, an erotic activity as Rank has shown 
by a series of examples.* In looking through the work of Freud 
Jung, Sadger, and others, we see that the nocturnal incontinence 
of urine, so closely related to the infantile phantasies in our case, 
had an analogous signification and only expressed the desire for 
incest with the mother.* 

« Rank, Loc. cit, S. 95. 

• Concerning this see: Jung, Die Bedeutung dcs Vaters fQr das Schicksal 

des Einzelnen, JaSrB. d. PsySoanaf.^ 1909, S. 168, and Sadger, Ober Urethral- 

erotik. IBid. 1910. S. 409. -> . ^ 

^vpuii^ ^^#0. *«w, ^ ^w. ^ Original from 

VOL. 1-9 '^^ - UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



248 H. FLOURNOY 

The subjective connection between the urinary and genital 
functions is apparent in the dream fragment following, where sexual 
ambition is still prominent 

I. DREAM No 6 

I climb a slight undulation in open country, following Mr. X., 
who is supposed to be about to make a speech. I hold under 
my arm an immense cylindrical object, many metres long and 
as large as a chimney pot; it is at one and the same time a 
flag staff and a sheaf of immense dandelions.^ 

Mr. X. represents the father in his capacity of a public speaker, 
he actually does make speeches in contradistinction to the real 
Mr. X. who does not. The latter has the reputation of being an 
excellent horseman; he thus has frequently between his legs an 
organism of which our patient envies the urinary capacity, one 
recalls his childish games of urinating like horses. The picture ot 
Mr. X. which the dreamer follows, tallies with the attributes of 
the father and thus with uro-genital power. One can understand 
without difficulty, the significance of the voluminous cylindrical 
object and the sheaf of immense flowers which are usually asso- 
ciated with bed wetting. On the same night the patient experienced 
a pollution whilst having the impression of urinating. 

II. DREAM No. 1 

I took out my sexual organs and placed them in a glass 
specimen jar with physiological solution for treatment. 

At first sight it seems as though the patient was in this way 
only expre>sing his desire to be treated from the sexual point of 
view. The picture of the glass jar and the physiological solution, an 
indispensable liquid to all cellular life, would easily present itself 
to the mind of the medical student. But there is also the question 
of exhibitionism and above all of castration; in order to restore them 
the patient has taken out his sexual organs in order to plunge 
them into a saline solution. The symbolic significance of this act 
becomes clear if we study the following dream, in which the 

* [*Tisscnlits*\ literal translation *^Wet in bed", is the common French word 
for Dandelion. It is interesting lo observe that the association of dandelions 
with bed-wetting is to be found in countries other than Great Britain. (Transl.)) 

:)y^ii _le UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



DREAMS ON THE SYMBOLISM OF WATER AND FIRE 249 

manifest content is quite diflferent^ but in which the latent content 
is comparable. 

III. DREAM No. 5 

I ascend a small, narrow, and dark staircase. Arriving at 
the top I am obliged to stoop and flatten myself as though 
trying to force my way through a hole; this causes me a 
slight feeling of anxiety. On passing out I then find myself in the 
south of Sweden, where I notice the pretty fields, woods, and 
houses of the country. From here I see in the distance the 
Swedish coast, and notice a peculiar railway line going to- 
wards the north. At the same time I notice that there are three 
countries Norway is not to be found as in reality on the 
outside but is wedged in between the two others, — an image 
the sexual symbolism of which was apparent to me immediately 
on waking. 

The patient subsequently added that he had seen nothing 
recently which would remind him of the Scandinavian peninsular, 
he drew a plan as it appeared to him in his dream. 

The passing up the narrow and dark stairs followed by 
anxiety, represents coitus; the woods, houses, and mysterious rail- 
way often figure in our patient's dreams as feminine symbols. But 
what strikes us most is the imaginary joining up of a third 
country, which gives to the whole a form of which the dreamer 
has immediately grasped the meaning, and of the fact that it is 
a peninsular, the coasts of which are bathed in the sea. Taking 
into consideration its geographical distortion, this picture has the 
same significance as that of the preceding dream; in both cases 
we see the virile parts immersed in a salt liquid, the physiological 
solution or the sea water. The rich symbolism of salt, to which 
Jones has drawn attention*, is not irrelevant in the choice of these 
liquids. In the first of the two dreams the castration and the bath 
of the organs has a therapeutic objective: — to give to the 
patient his sexual capacity. In the second of the two dreams the 
sexual act endeavours to assert itself in a symbolic form: the 
passage up the stairs, and the image of the immense peninsular 
made up of a penis and two testicles which are sunk in the ocean. 

* Jones, Die Bedeutung des Salzes in Sitte und Brauch der Volker^ 

Imago, 1912, B. I, S. 361 & 454. ^ _ ^^ 

r L^ Ungmaf fnonn 

:3y^:-^ J^ UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



260 H. FLOURNOY 

I have no need to draw attention to the significance of water 
and the ocean in order to show that these phantasies of im- 
mersion mean in the case of our patient the desire to return to 
the maternal womb. The infantile enuresis which expressed itself 
in the bathing of the organs in saline solution, was already the 
expression of the incest complex. Also there is the adult sym- 
bolism which shows the virile parts renewed in the nourishing 
liquid of the reviving water. ^ 

But there is still more. In the case of an impotent person 
strongly entangled in maternal attachments, this castration picture 
in view of a future rebirth, offers particular interest Without doubt 
it can therefore be considered as a defence reaction, an instinctive 
reaction against the incest idea itself, and should be placed in the 
same category as certain initiation rites practised by savage 
tribes. At puberty, the initiate before coming to man*s estate has 
to submit to a ceremonial accompanied by bodily mutilations 
similar to circumcision; according to Freud this merely symbolises 
castration. Studied in the light of Psycho-Analysis, the idea con- 
veyed by these rites performed on the young candidate by his 
father or his elders, should be that of a forewarning, or perhaps 
also an atonement for incest and parricidal tendencies*. 

IV. DREAM No. 4 

On a strip of coast bordering the sea are three houses at 
the edge of the water. My mother, who happened to be there, 
saw that the front of my shirt was quite wet; I have the feeling 
of having urinated on it, but my mother remarked that it 
must have been a pollution. The middle house is probably 
a bathing establishment. Sitting quite close to me at the edge 

^ Infantile origins or phantasies of the same kind are probably asso- 
ciated with the flood myth — or better with exposure on the waves — 
which in* the hero myths precede the rebirth. (See Rank, Der Mythus von 
der Geburt des Helden, 1909. Spielrein, Die Etestniktion als Ursache dcs 
Werdens, JaBrB. d. PsySoanaC, 1912, S.465.). Fire has the same symbolism 
as that of water: to destroy in order to revive^ The Phoenix is consumed 
and bom again from the cinders; hence to his funeral pyre is given the name 
of immortality by the students of heraldry. 

* On the Castration Complex^ see: Rank, Das Inzestmotiv in Dichtung 
und Sage, 1912, S. 283. Reik, Die Pubertitsriten der Wilden. Imago, 1915. 

B. rV., S. 126 & 189. ^ _ ,^ 

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DREAMS ON THE SYMBOLISM OF WATER AND FIRE 251 

of the water, are two enormous ostriches. As I approach them 
they get up, and under each one I find a little ostrich. They 
are not then a pair, but two females; I try to touch the fluff 
on the tip of the wing of one of them, but she escaped. 
Both entered the water and made magnificent dives. I 
have a very vague impression that Madame T,, or my mother, 
who was in the house, scolded me for having caused the 
ostriches to go away. At the end of this dream I felt as ii 
one of my teeth had come out; applying my finger I found 
that the whole enamel coat had become detached without 
otherwise doing any harm. 

The significant number of three houses at the edge of the 
water, one of which is a bathing establishment, without doubt has 
the same sexual significance as the three Scandinavian countries; 
this is confirmed by the incident of urinating or of pollution in the 
presence of the mother, an incident, interposed at this moment of 
the dream, which betrays the incest complex. The huge ostriches 
each covering a smaller one, in view of bisexual symbolism, represent 
at the same time feminine fertility and probably the two testicles. 
(Compare the two huge birds with the immense cylindrical object 
which symbolised the penis in the first dream.) The plunging of 
the ostriches into the water symbolises the immersion of the 
organs in the maternal womb. The mother's reproaches and the 
incident of the finger and detached tooth are connected with 
onanistic phantasies and the pollution. This was actually referred 
to in a dream occurring on the same night, but which I cannot 
enter into here as it would unduly lengthen the subject.^ 



V. DREAM No. 3 

I am in a room with some other people, one of whom is a 
lady (Madame T. ?). She and I arrange a sort of brush, and in 
order to soften the bristles, I am applying glycerine and collodium 
to it with a small paint brush. Then all the lights are put out. 
When the lights are turned on again, the lady finds that she 

• On the symbolism of numbers and teeth dreams, see: Freud, Traum- 
deutung* Stekel, Die Sprache des Traumcs, 1911. — On that of birds: 
Maeder, Interpretation of a few Dreams. Archives de PsycBofogie, 1907, Vol. VI, 
p. 372. Rank, **Traum und Mylhus'* in Freud, Traumdeutung, 4. Aufl., S. 399. 

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252 H. FLOURNOY 

has polished the brush in such a way as to have transformed 
it into a rectangular object striped with alternate bands of green 
and black — like the ribbon of 1870. 

Madame T. is the same person who was confounded with the 
mother in the preceding dream. In her company, the application 
of a slimy liquid (glycerine or collodium) to the bristles of the brush 
may pass without comment. We find here the disguised motive of 
incest. As a reward for this act performed by a young man who 
is ashamed of impotence, we have the symbolism of the insignia 
of the brave in the ribbon of 1870. The part played by the ex- 
tinction of the light affords a dividing line between this first series 
of dreams and those following, in which the sexual meaning of fire 
is apparent. 

VI, DREAM No. 8 

My uncle, aunt, and I alight from a tram at the terminus 
station to go for a walk in the woods. It is an uncultivated 
part. The beautiful woods remind me of the place where I saw 
a house burning in a preceding dream. There must also 
be a fire in some part of this wood. Scarcely had I left the 
tram with these two people, when I asked them why their son 
had not come, and my aunt replied: "He has not come because 
he practises voluntary denial." 

The fire in the wood in which the uncle and aunt are walking, 
(/. e. the father and the mother) can be at once seen to symbolise 
their marriage relations. If their son, with whom the patient 
identifies himself, has not come, it is because he practises self- 
denial. This expression in a clearly sexual sense means that the 
continence of our patient quite deprives him of the gratification 
of fire. 

VII. DREAM No. 2 

I find myself at the edge of a sort of well, at the side ot 
a house. On the top of this well which is perhaps five metres 
deep there are poised two or three windows. I notice that 
smoke is emerging from the small windows like the commence- 
ment of a fire; I warn the people who are standing 
near me, one of whom is a servant — a virgin. She des- 
cends into the well and disappears without having stopped the 

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DREAMS ON THE SYMBOLISM OF WATER AND FIRE 253 

smoke. I become uneasy, and see coming out of one of the 
windows a girl completely naked, and apparently an idiot 
I find on my left two little watering cans full of water, 
which I pour over the girl She comes out of the well as 
if she were in the air, and I notice that her back is wet 
wiih the water which I have poured over her; I am struck 
with the beauty of her black hair, thickly spread over her white 
shoulders, and I cannot refrain from lightly patting her shoulders 
with my hand; at that instant I ejaculate against the wall ot 
the well and wake up. 

In this erotic dream — the dream pollution is in fact pro- 
duced simultaneously — the water has a double meaning. Shut 
up at the bottom of the well, it probably symbolises the female 
genital organs. The two watering cans which the patient holds 
(the testicles) represent the natural sprinkling which the male 
delivers to the female. As for the other elements of the dream — 
the idiot girl down whose back the water runs, the black hair, 
the tap on the shoulders — unfortunately the lack of associations 
will not allow an interpretation. The essential characteristics of this 
passionate dream are the coexistence of fire and water destined 
to extinguish it 

Fire and water are opposites having mutual relations and often 
figuring in erotic symbolism, as Freud has shown us in his analysis 
of the case of **Dora'* and elsewhere ^ This association is seen in the 
form of symbolic actions found in certain incendiaries. In one case 
an impotent man seemed to find a substitute for his genital 
functions in incendiary acts, having without any conscious motive 
set on fire a dozen farms in a few years Each time he com- 
mitted the crime he seemed to be possessed by an irresistible 
compulsion to extinguish the fire of which he was the cause, and 
his zeal gave him certain rewards of which he was afterwards 
ashamed *• 

We end with an anxiety dream, which undoubtedly arises frqm 
certain onanistic phantasies, and shows still very clearly the as- 
sociation between water and fire. 

* Freud, BruchstockeinerHysterieanalyse.Neurosenlebre, 1909,2. Folge,S.63. 

* I have published this case in **Notes on four cases of Obsessions and 
Compulsions of sudden onset." Read before the Medical Society of Geneva, 
Feb. 1917. 



3y Google 



OrFgfrTaffrom 
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



264 H. FLOURNOY 



VIII. DREAM No. 7 



I am at the side of a fountain and just going to speak to 
someone who is opposite to me. At the same time I hold in 
my hand my erect penis which assumes enormous proportions. 
It expels some liquid in a continuous jet, and I certainly have 
a feeling of strength and virility although there is no actual 
voluptuous sensation. The organ assumes such proportions that 
I begin to get uneasy, and its extremity is transformed into the 
head of a serpent; it squirms about in every direction and I begin 
to be afraid because it tries to bite my hand; also I am under 
the impression that it is no longer liquid but fire which it spits 
out of its mouth. I awake, and instinctively see the image of 
the head of a certain woman whose coiffure is composed of 
serpents. (No pollution took place.) 

The longing for sexual power and virile propensities could not 
be expressed in a more forcible way. Besides, the symbolical 
similitude of fire and water as generative elements could not have 
received a clearer demonstration. 

In conclusion permit me to digress, and to compare the con- 
tents of this dream with certain emblazoned figures which are 
sometimes found on very ancient armour: A serpent which vomits 
flame or swallows a child. I think the students of heraldry are 
mistaken in their interpretation of this last figure; the animal does 
not swallow the little creature as they believe, but vomits it This 
seems to me to be the simplest explanation; also it is preferable 
to the one which compares the serpent to the monstrous beast 
whose r61e, according to mythological legends, is to devour the 
hero. If the serpent vomiting fire represents the idea of creative 
power, one can understand that this idea can be symbolised still 
better by the picture of the serpent vomiting the child. 

* -)^ ^ 

In these dreams there are sometimes sentiments of inferiority (II) 
or of sexual ambition (I, VIII), sometimes erotic tendencies (III, VII) 
or plain incestuous feelings (IV, V), which display themselves in a 
symbolic way by borrowing the images of water, liquid, or fire. 
In several of them pollution confirms in an objective manner the 
special nature of the unconscious tendencies Under their apparent 
diversity, dreams only express the fundamental complexes which 
are the basis of the psychoneurosis; but we must be careful to 

f^nonl^ Orrgmaffnonn 

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DREAMS ON THE SYMBOLISM OF WATER AND FIRE 265 

guard against saying that these complexes of infantile origin, should 
be regarded as the "causes** of the dreams of the adult and of 
his other morbid symptoms. It is sufficient for us to have demon- 
strated that these diverse psychological manifestations present in 
themselves certain connections which can be fitted together ^ 

Many readers will not be convinced; they will regard these 
interpretations as exaggerated, or even absurd. But this article is 
not intended to convince; it is addressed solely to those who may 
have observed analogical symbols among the same kind of patients. 
The dreams which form the basis of this work should appear 
sufficiently clear, in spite of the absence of associations which, 
alone, would have given all the scientific rigour necessary for their 
study. 

* We make this remark because of Jaspers* criticism that Freud confounds in- 
telligible with purely causal relations. This criticism, which perhaps is the strongest 
addressed to the Freudian school, should be taken into consideration ; it is 
itself open to serious objections which have been exposed by Binswanger, 
amongst others (Kausale und verst&ndliche Zusammenh&nge etc. Internaf. 
ZtttsSr. f. PsySoanaC, 1913, B. I, S. 383.). 



C^ nonl^ Orrgmaf from 

:3yV_:-UUglt UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



A LINGUISTIC FACTOR IN ENGLISH CHARACTEROLOGYi 

by 
ERNEST JONES, London. 

The definiton of national character traits is notoriously treach- 
erous ground, but in all attempts to describe those most typical 
or general among English people one is always mentioned with 
such unvarying emphasis that it is hard to resist the con- 
clusion that it must relate, however roughly, to some group ol 
observable phenomena. I refer to the striking insistence of the 
English on propriety, which is commented on not only by practi- 
cally all foreign observers, but also by Americans and our fellow- 
subjects from overseas, not to speak of the "Keltic fringe'' in our 
own islands. That it degenerates into prudishness here more often 
than in any other country, at least in the Old World, will also, 
I think, be widely admitted. The trait is probably to be correlated 
in some degree with the proneness to reserve, the absence of 
social gifts, the dislike of betraying emotion of any kind, and the 
horror of self-display, vaunting, braggadocio, gasconade, rodomon- 
tade — one sees that we have to use foreign terms to indicate 
attitudes so foreign to us — which also belong to the judgements 
passed on the English by foreigners. Psychologically the group in 
question might perhaps be described in McDougairs language as a 
deficiency in the self-regarding instinct Psycho-analysts would call 
attention to the secondary nature of the phenomena as indicating 
the existence of what is called a reaction-formation, and indeed 
that something is being actively controlled or avoided is fairly 
evident; they would probably ascribe the traits to a reaction against 
more than one complex, repressed exhibitionism being perhaps 
the most prominent. However this may be, it has occurred to me 
that there is possibly a connection between this group of character 
traits — which, for convenience, might be referred to as the 
propriety trait — and a peculiar historical feature in the deve- 
lopment of the English language, bat before submitting this idea 

« Read before the British Psychological Society, March 14th, 1920. 

r . 256 Original from 

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A LINGUISTIC FACTOR IN ENGLISH CHARACTEROLOGY 257 

for your consideration I shall have to make a few remarks on 
some general psychological aspects of speech. 

There are good grounds for believing that speech originally 
was a far more concrete activity than it now is, and it has indeed 
been maintained that all speech represents pretermitted action.^ 
Plain indications of this are to be observed among less cultivated 
human beings, especially children and savages. Freud ^ for instance, 
following Groos, points out that children treat words as objects in 
the various games they play with them, while Frazer', in his 
section on Tabooed Words, brings forward a mass of evidence 
illustrating the extraordinary significance attached by primitive 
races to words and especially to names. He says, following Tylor : 
"Unable to discriminate clearly between words and things, the 
savage commonly fancies that the link between a name and the 
person or thing denominated by it is not a mere arbitrary and 
ideal association, but a real and substantial bond which unites the 
two in such a way that magic may be wrought on a man just as 
easily through his name as through his hair, his nails, or any other 
material part of his person. In fact, primitive man regards his 
name as a vital portion of himself and takes care of it accor- 
dingly." He cites* the example of the Sulka of New Britain 
who when near their enemies speak of them as "rotten tree- 
trunks'\ "and they imagine that by calling them that they make 
the limbs of their dreaded enemies ponderous and clumsy like 
logs. This example illustrates the extremely materialistic view 
which these savages take of the nature of words; they suppose 
that the mere utterance of an expression signifying clumsiness 
will homceopathically affect with clumsiness the limbs of their 
distant foemen. Another illustration of this curious misconception 
is furnished by a Caffre superstition that the character of a young 
thief can be reformed by shouting his name over a boiling kettle 
of medicated water, then clapping a lid on the kettle and leaving 
the name to steep in the water for several days.'' Of the innu- 
merable examples from the field of taboo one may be quoted:* 
the Alfoors of Poso are not only not allowed to mention the 

* Ferenczi, Contributions to Psycho-Analysis. (Engl. Transl.) 1916. p. 120. 

* Freud, Der Witz und seine Beziehung zum UnbewuCten. 1905, S. 105, 

* Frazer, Taboo and the Perils of the Soul. 1911. Chapter VI. 

* I£/(f. Op. cit p. 331. 
IBiJ. Op. cit. p. 340. 

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268 ERNEST JONES 

names of their parents-in-law, a common enough prohibition, but 
if such a name happens to be the same as that of a thing — 
e. g. in English a Mr. Lake — then they may not mention 
even this thing by its own name, only by a borrowed one. Even 
with us the use of bad language by children is treated as a sin 
of no mean order, and the law of England can still condemn a 
man to imprisonment for making use in public of certain for- 
bidden (obscene) words, the utterance aloud of the heinous words 
being in both cases regarded as equivalent to a nefarious deed. 

The nature of this primitive material conception of words and 
speech can be described more exacdy. One of the conclusions 
emerging from Freud*s work on the psychology of wit and of 
dreams is that all words originally possessed distinct motor and 
perceptual qualities, which they gradually lose more or less com- 
pletely in the course of mental development As has been interest- 
ingly expounded by FerencziS there is a class of words, namely, 
obscene words, which, probably because of their being excluded 
from the usual course of development, still retain these qualities 
in a full measure. On the perceptual side Ferenczi* remarks that 
a word of this kind "has a peculiar power of compelling the hearer 
to imagine the object it denotes in substantial actuality'', and adds 
^one may therefore infer that these worcjs as such possess the 
capacity of compelling the hearer to revive memory pictures in a 
regressive and hallucinatory manner*'; he calls attention to the fact 
that delicate allusions to the same ideas, and scientific or foreign 
designations for them, do not have this effect, or at least not to 
the same extent as the words taken from the original, popular, 
erotic vocabulary of one's mother-tongue. On the motor side the 
following three illustrations may be mentioned: the aggressive 
tendency which Freud has shewn to underlie the uttering of ob- 
scene jokes — this being a substitute for a sexual aggression; 
the curious perversion of coprophemia in which the sexual act 
consists solely of uttering indecent words to women; and the 
obsessional neurosis, where the act itself of thinking is curiously 
sexualised in the preconscious in such a way that the impulsion 
to think certain thoughts comes as a substitute for forbidden acts. 
In all these cases the act of thought or speech is psychologically 
the full equivalent of an actual deed. 

* Fcrcnczi. Op. est. Chapter IV. 
■ Fcrcnczi. Op. eft p. 116. 

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A LINGUISTIC FACTOR IN ENGLISH CHARACTEROLOGY 269 

As was remarked above, in the course of mental development 
the motor and perceptual elements become more and more elimi- 
nated from words, and in purely abstract thought they disappear 
altogether. It may be recalled that Galton many years ago pointed 
out how much less capable of abstract thought are as a rule 
persons of a pronouncedly visual or auditory type as contrasted 
with those whose thought processes contain only feeble percep- 
tual elements. One may also in this connection refer to Freud's 
latest conclusion on the unconscious,* namely, that the essential 
difference between unconscious and conscious ideas is that the 
former consist only of ideas (which easily regress to images) of 
the object or process, whereas the latter contain as well the idea 
of the corresponding word. Thus unconscious mentation and 
abstract thought stand at the two opposite ends of the scale in this 
respect, the ideas of the former being near to perceptual imagery, 
those of the latter being almost completely divested of it 

It is evident that this process of gradual abstraction effects a 
great economy of thought ; indeed, without it none of the higher 
forms of thought could occur. It is probable that this economical 
(factor is of prime importance in bringing about the process in question, 
but it has to be remarked that this is accompanied by other 
important psychical changes as well, which probably also stand in) 
a causal relation to it I refer to the inhibition in feeling that 
goes with the progress from the motor-perceptual stage to the 
abstract one, and the valuable saving in expenditure of emotional 
energy that this signifies. There is thus a double economy, an 
intellectual and an affective one. The affective economy, to which 
I wish to draw special attention, may be illustrated from two 
sides. On the one hand, when there is a need to express unusually 
strong feeling recourse is commonly had, through regression, to 
the use of just those words which have retained their motor and 
perceptual elements, as in oaths and obscene language, a proce- 
dure much more manifest in the male sex because of their having 
been to a less extent the subject of repression in this sex. The desire for 
expression combined with a sense of incapacity for it, so common 
in the young, similarly results in the phenomenon of slang. On 
the other hand, when there is a special need to inhibit feeling 
recourse is had to the use of abstract, or at all events less 
familiar words. It is well known that an otherwise forbidden idea 

» Freud, Sammlung kleiner Schri|ften. Vierte Folg(2^.,itSi&, 3--S34. 

HJ^Iv UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



260 ERNEST JONES 

can be readily expressed if only it is veiled in a euphemism or 
translated into a foreign tongue. Most books on sexology, for 
instance, contain whole passages written in Latin. The reason is 
that the vulgar, familiar words would tend to arouse embarrass- 
ing feelings, in both speaker and hearer, which can be avoided 
by the use of foreign, unfamiliar, or abstract words which have 
been acquired only in later years. 

After this long digression I now return to the theme of English 
characterology. Without entering on a discussion of the numerous 
mdividual, social, or racial forces making for repression and in- 
hibition, I can only think that such a process must be favoured 
if one of the main instruments by means of which it is carried 
out is peculiarly accessible. Thus, if it is unusually easy to give 
vocal expression to forbidden ideas in a way that inhibits the 
development of feeling it seems to me to follow that in such 
circumstances feeling will be more readily and extensively inhi- 
bited. Now it is clear that this is just the situation in which the 
English race has been placed for nearly a thousand years. The 
Saxon and Norman languages, after living side by side for about 
two centuries, gradually coalesced to form English, but to this 
day there is in most cases an obvious difference in the "feeP of 
the words belonging to each, and still more between words ot 
Saxon origin and Latin words more recently introduced than 
their Norman-French precursors. All literary men recognise the 
distinction clearly, and every text-book dealing with style in 
writing urges the student to choose the Saxon words wherever 
it is possible without being precious, as being more vivid, robust 
and virile, /'. e. because of their greater capacity to arouse plastic 
images and feeling-tone. Our store of synonyms is unequalled by 
that of any other European language, and the difference in the 
respects I have mentioned between such pairs as house and domi- 
cile, fatherly and paternal, book and volume, is quite patent. The 
existence of this double stratum of words enables us to indulge 
in fastidiousness to a degree not open to any other nation. Most 
culinary terms are, for historical reasons, of Romance origin, and the 
difference between being invited to a dish of veal or pork and 
one of calves' flesh or swine flesh is very perceptible. No other 
nation is unable to use its native word for belly if need be, but 
we have to say '*abdomen'\ and that only with circumspection. 
In English a lady is gravid, pregnant, or enceinte, there being no 

:3yi_:-^ J^ UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



A LINGUISTIC FACTOR IN ENGLISH CHARACTEROLOGY 261 

single native word to describe the phenomenon. The process in 
question can often be followed in its stages, such as when the 
Saxon word "gut*' gets replaced first by the Norman-French 
"bower, and then, when this is found too coarse, by the Latin 
"intestine". 

The suggestion I make, therefore, is that the development ot 
the outstanding English character trait of propriety has been 
fostered by the peculiar nature of the English language, one 
resulting from the success of a Norman adventurer some thousand 
years ago. 



C^ nonl^ Orrgmaf from 

:3yV_:-UUglt UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



THE WISH TO BE A MAN 

by 

HANNS SACHS, Berlin.* 

The patient whose case I am presenting was a very intelligent 
young girl aged about twenty, belonging to a refined and religious 
family. She came for Analysis not on account of any strongly- 
marked neurotic symptoms, but because she was burdened by 
uncertainty and anxiety, and was unable to concentrate her 
thoughts or form plans for the future, although her difficulties 
were not sufficiently great completely to prevent her carrying out 
her duties. It was only later on, after the analysis had progressed 
considerably, that she recalled a marked neurotic symptom which 
had appeared after puberty (at about the age of fourteen), and 
had become repressed again, namely, the obsessional idea, (which 
had caused her much suffering), that when she walked out of 
doors all the passers-by could see her genital organs. At the very 
beginning, when I asked her to tell freely all her thoughts, she 
declared, after some hesitation and with all the signs of an inward 
struggle, that she felt unable to comply with the fundamental 
principle of Psycho- Analysis {i.e. to utter everything which came 
into her mind) until she had made a full confession of something 
that had oppressed her ever since her youth. When she was aged 
twelve and a half she had spent some months in the house of 
an aunt, and a boy cousin, about a year older than herself, had 
been her playmate. In those games which had a sexual background, 
the kind common among children of this age, these two had gone 
rather far \:t overt action. Beginning with merely viewing and 
touching each other's genitals, they had arrived finally very near 
to the act of sexual intercourse. I was obliged to piece together 
all this from the hints she dropped, for though my patient was 
too intelligent to be a prude in the ordinary sense, nevertheless 
she could not bring herself to relate these incidents clearly and 
coherently. I surmised, and my guess was confirmed by the patient 
herself, that she was oppressed by the fear of having lost her 

^ Translated by Barbara Low. 

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THE WISH TO BE A MAN 263 

virginity at this time. After this episode she had experienced great 
depression, feeling herself morally depraved and unworthy to mix 
with her sisters and comrades. She had never confided in anyone, 
and her mother was the only person who knew anything about 
the matter When I asked how her mother, who had not been 
present at the time, came to know about it, she replied in an 
astonished way that she really did not know — it had never occurred 
to her before to consider that question, hi addition, she told me 
that since her early childhood she had not been on very con- 
fidential terms with her parents who were too pious and narrow- 
minded for her. As a result of these wrongdoings in childhood 
she developed an abhorrence of sexuality in actual life and in Art, 
and an intense dislike to being touched, still more to being kissed, 
by a man. At her sister's wedding she hid herself immediately 
after the ceremony to avoid kissing her new brother-in-law. She 
could never listen when her comrades spoke of sexual matters, 
and she declared that she was eighteen when she learned for the 
first time, at college, of the difference between the male and 
female genitals, of the facts of procreation, and of childbirth. At 
this stage I interrupted her with the remark that her experiences 
with her cousin should have sufficed to open her eyes as to the 
difference between the two sexes. She still, nevertheless, firmly 
maintained that she had remained ignorant of these facts until 
her eighteenth year, although she could not herself reconcile this 
with her earlier experiences. 

I wish to point out here that this is a typical instance of a 
repression which did not completely succeed. The traumatic 
occurrence itself remained in consciousness, but all connecting 
associations with the rest of the conscious mind were completely 
eradicated, and the tendency to throw off this memory had thereby 
hindered her from profiting by it to obtain knowledge on sexual 
matters. Further we shall see shortly that her memory of this 
significant occurrence was far from being complete, but as regards 
some important points had failed her owing to the repressing 
tendency. 

During the first interview, which lasted two hours, I was struck 
by a peculiarity of my patient — one which made rather large 
demands upon my self-control. This was her quite extraordinary 
restlessness: sometimes she would throw herself to the right side, 
then to the lefl ; or, lying on her back, she would draw her feet 

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



264 HANNS SACHS 

Upwards and throw them straight out again suddenly; sometimes 
she sat up to straighten her dress^ or fidgetted along the wall 
with her hands, or played with her handkerchief, or fumbled in 
her hair, and so forth. I finished this sitting with some quieting 
explanations which made some impression upon her, but neither 
then, nor later, was her general condition changed, nor her 
unrest. During this first interview she related to me her earliest 
remembrance : a stranger (a man) had taken her on his knee and 
she had bitten his ear. In every way she had been a wild child. 
She would never play with dolls, and for playfellows she chose, 
not girls, but the wildest and most unruly boys with whom she 
tried to compete. After this narration she gave vent to complaints — 
often repeated in subsequent sittings — concerning her feeling of 
inferiority as a woman. She thought that the best and cleverest 
of the young men with whom she was acquainted would refuse 
to accept a girl as a real comrade, or to let her share in their 
serious masculine interests. A superficial observer would have 
deduced that this inferiority-feeling was the core of her depressed 
condition. 

The second interview brought about two important communi- 
cations. Since the previous sitting, the patient had — without any 
orders from me, naturally — enquired of her mother how she had 
come to know about the episode with the cousin. The mother 
had given the surprising answer that my patient herself had con- 
fessed all, apparently without external reason, shortly after the 
occurrence, when the family moved to a new residence. A second 
communication made to me by my patient was that although she 
was accustomcci to sleep long hours and deeply, she was very 
restless, sometimes tossing about, talking, and even getting up in 
her sleep without knowing it. Further that the night after our first 
interview a very curious thing had occurred. When she was called 
in the morning, it was found that she had got up during the night 
in her sleep and had bolted the door. This was easily interpreted 
as a transference, by way of unconscious phantasies, of her youth- 
ful sexual experiences on to the person of the Analyst, and the 
matter of the transference having thus started favourably, the work 
of Analysis proceeded quickly. 

After three months of Analysis we reached a phase in which 
the patient always told her dreams (which she remembered very 
clearly) without being able to give any useful associations, so that 
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THE WISH TO BE A MAN 265 

the interpretation remained very incomplete. The theme of these 
dreams was always some forbidden act carried out by the dreamer: 
once she dreamed that she entered a house against the will of 
the owner, and another time that she stole flowers from someone^s 
garden. After some time had been spent in endeavouring to 
interpret her dreams, there suddenly came to the surface a remem- 
brance, repressed hitherto, which contained a most important part 
of the patient's sexual life. She now quite clearly remembered 
that about the age of fifteen or sixteen every night in bed she 
had a vision that Christ lay at her side and repeated with her 
the sexual acts she had experienced with her cousin, so that she 
felt a very vivid sexual excitation. Although this phantasy was so 
repulsive to her that she dreaded to go to sleep, she gave way to 
it for some time. Such a phantasy is a typical offspring of infantile 
masturbation, and very likely in the course of the phantasy mastur- 
bation was actually carried out unconsciously by pressing together 
the thighs, although of this the patient had no recollection. 

After having produced this remembrance, she at once came 
to another theme which seemed closely associated with the former. 
She related that her first menstruation had taken place a short 
time after her return home from the visit to her aunt ; she knew 
no details about the occurrence, only that somehow she had been 
very much surprised by it. She remembered also that her elder 
sister had told her that she had been on a visit when the first 
menstruation suddenly appeared, and had been so much taken by 
surprise that she had called for help. 

The Christ-phantasy was the first instance of masturbation 
which came back to the patient's consciousness, and now the 
connexion between the different facts, hitherto so obscure, became 
quite clear. By means of the erotic scenes with her cousin her 
sexuality had been prematurely aroused in a high degree. After 
separation from her companion there was no other way open to 
her to satisfy her roused desires save by masturbation. When the 
first menstruation appeared, she saw in the sudden flow of blood 
a punishment for her misuse of her genital organs, and in her 
terror and contrition was impelled to confess to her mother her 
secret misdeeds with her cousin. The remembrance of her sister's 
great fright over her first menstruation was a so-called *'cover- 
memory" for the since-repressed disturbances in her own mind 
over the similar experience of her own. There remained only one 

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266 HANNS SACHS 

Open question, and others, more definite, followed later on. Why 
was it that the terror roused by the bleeding genital had been 
so strong and remained unmitigated, although without doubt the 
mother had explained that this was quite a normal occurrence? 

The material I had previously obtained allowed a conjecture 
on the question. I knew already that she had a vague remembrance 
of something that had happened in the days of her early child- 
hood when she was about four or five years old. She knew that 
she had done something of a forbidden and sexual character with 
a boy playmate of the same age. In telling about this she dis- 
covered in her memory — without the slightest idea of its meaning, 
or where she had picked it up — the vulgar word for the sexual 
act in the language of the country where she had lived from her 
birth until her tenth year. I thought it justifiable to assume that 
at this time (of the forbidden act) she had seen her playfellow's 
genital organ and this had caused her envy. She had naturally 
asked herself why she was lacking in this important part, and had 
given herself the answer that it had been somehow taken away 
from her as a punishment for misusing it This experience, there- 
fore, would have been the prototype of the later sexual acts with 
her cousin, and the source of her anxiety. It tallied well with my 
conjecture that she had (as I heard later on), about the same 
time, tried by every means in her power to annoy her nursemaid; 
although ordinarily very kind-hearted, she had behaved most 
cruelly to this person, without any conscious motive. Probably a 
threat used by the nurse in connexion with the patient's infantile 
onanism had aroused this hatred. This conjecture I communicated 
to her with all possible caution. She remained silent for a long 
time, and then asked suddenly: **What is the meaning of biting 
one's own hand?'* I answered her by another question, namely, 
whether in this case, "one" did not stand for *T\ I added : "If you 
have this habit you will understand it now, without my help." In 
reply she gave the interpretation to be as follows : She had 
believed earlier that her male genital organ had been bitten off 

I will point out here that this belief, curious as it may seem, 
must once have been very widespread. Numerous ethnological 
parallels exist : a great majority among primitive peoples hold that 
a woman in menstruation has been bitten in the genital organs 
by some demon. 

The earliest remembrance from her childhood is therefore a 
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THE WISH TO BE A MAN 267 

"cover-memory**, serving to obliterate from her memory the most 
painful impression, and substituting for the idea of being bitten 
the opposite idea of biting. This turning of passivity into activity 
became an important character-trait Henceforward biting was an 
unconscious outcome of her repressed tendencies, and in satisfying 
these she punished herself by hurting the hand — the instrument 
of her early guilt This, too, was the reason why she was imable 
to kiss, even on such a formal occasion as her sister^s wedding. 
From all this, the envy regarding men and inferiority-feeling 
of the patient and her desire to be a man are revealed in quite 
a new light That we had discovered the truth was demonstrated 
by the result: from this moment her restlessness entirely 
disappeared. Without having formed any plan, without struggle 
or exertion, she was able to lie motionless and continued to do 
so, excepting on certain occasions of great emotional stress, during 
the remainder of the Analysis. 



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AN INSTANCE OF THE CARE NEEDED IN DRAWING 

CONCLUSIONS 

by 

DOUGLAS BRYAN, London. 

A patient whom I am treating by psycho-analysis came the 
other day for her usual sitting. She was wearing a long fur coat 
which a few days previously she had received back from the 
makers after it had been renovated with a new silk lining. She 
took it off and placed it folded inside out over the back of the 
couch upon which she settled herself. She then related a dream 
she had had the night before. After telling me the dream she 
asked if she might refer to a little book in which she had made 
some notes of the dream. She said the book was in the pocket 
of her coat. I agreed to her request, and she reached up and 
placed her hand in the pocket of the coat which was situated in 
the lining and on the left side of the coat; the pocket was quite 
obvious as the coat was lying across the back of the couch. She 
felt in the pocket and immediately exclaimed, "Why, the book is 
not here^ She said that she was certain she had placed it in the 
pocket just before she came out and now it had disappeared. She 
was very much disturbed and felt that there was something un- 
canny about its disappearance. She got up from the couch and 
looked about the room to see if she had dropped it. As she could 
not find it she sat down again still very distressed, and assured 
me that she had placed the book in the pocket. In despair she 
snatched the coat off the back of the couch on to her knees and 
again placed her hand in the pocket, when she suddenly ex- 
claimed, "Why, here it is", and she brought out the book from 
the pocket The book was a very thin one about four inches long 
by two and a half wide and covered in cretonne; it had only 
two or three pages in it for notes. I might add that when she 
first placed her hand in the pocket she found in it a small hole, 
but this was too small for the book to have slipped through. 

The note she had made in the book and which she at first 

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AN INSTANCE OF THE CARE NEEDED IN DRAWING CONCLUSIONS 269 

had assured me was quite unimportant eventually turned out to be 
of great importance and had decidedly unpleasant associations. 

I consider that one was perfectly justified in concluding that 
the patient's failure to find the book in her pocket when she first 
felt for it was motivated by the unconscious desire not to pro- 
duce the book on account of the impleasant things that would arise 
from the notes it contained. Further, I see no reason from the 
above description why one should not quote this case as an in- 
stance of what one might call "obliteration of the sense of touch 
due to unconscious motives" However the sequel to this story 
will show that an apparently justifiable conclusion falls to the 
ground when certain other factors are known, and a pretty in- 
stance of "obliteration of touch'* is negatived. 

This is the sequel. Three days later the patient came for her 
usual daily sitting and again appeared in her fur coat. She re- 
moved it and placed it in the same position as before. Again she 
wanted to refer to the little book, and laughingly said, "I hope I 
shall find it this time all right". She put her hand into the pocket 
just as she had done before and exclaimed in a horrified voice, 
"Good gracious, it's not here". Her distress was most marked. 
I immediately asked her to hand the coat to me so that I could 
feel in the pocket, for it struck me as extraordinary for the same 
thing to happen on two occasions so close together. I felt in the 
pocket and told her the book was not in it, but that there was a 
large hole through which the book could pass. She said that evi- 
dently the hole had got much bigger. I suggested that the book 
had worked its way down in the lining of the coat and felt about 
for it, but I could not feel it anywhere near the pocket. I then 
thought it might have travelled round the coat through her move- 
ments in walking to my rooms and therefore felt all round the 
coat. At last I felt it and said, "Here it is, right round the other 
side''; she seized the coat and immediately remarked, "Why, there 
are two pockets in it, I did not know that before'', and pulled out 
the book. 

Now for the explanation. Before coming to my rooms she had 
placed the book in the pocket in the lining in the feft hand side 
of the coat* She had only had this one pocket in the original 
lining of the coat. On removing her coat in my rooms she had 
folded it so that the right hand lining pocket was uppermost and 
this she had first of all put her hand in when she failed to find 

:3yi_:-^ J^ UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



270 DOUGLAS BRYAN 

the book on both occasions. When she pulled the coat on to ho* 
knees she, apparently unknown to herself, turned it so that the left 
hand pocket was uppermost and the same thing occurred when 
she took the coat from me, and now of course she found the 
book which had been in that pocket all the time. Thus her touch 
had not been obliterated^ for there was no book in the second 
pocket 

The patient's apparent ignorance of the presence of the second 
pocket of course needs some explanation, for it is hardly con- 
ceivable that a lady would miss seeing the pocket in looking over 
the renovated lining. But this point is outside the scope of 
this note. These few remarks teach the lesson that entirely 
unforeseen factors may easily render an assumption valueless, and 
further that it is often dangerous to come to hasty conclusions. 



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A REVIVED SENSATION-MEMORY 

by 
BARBARA LOW 

The Patient was a woman of thirty-five, who came to analysis 
on account ef an obsessional phobia, namely, that she might hurt 
or kill persons with whom she came into contact. 

One day, while waiting to begin the analysis hour (in my 
absence), she took a book from the shelves. When I came in, she 
put back the book (the title of which I did not see) without any 
comment. On her arrival about four days after this episode she 
began at once very eager, to relate a memory which had 
come to mind the evening before for the first time since child- 
hood, and seemed to spring from thinking over, on that evening, 
the book she had glanced at four days previously in my room. 
The book was a volume of poems entitled "Look ! We have come 
through", by D. H. Lawrence, a book which she had not heard of 
before this occasion. On the paper wrapper of the cover was a 
**cubist" representation of curves and rectilineal planes, in black 
and white. 

My patient began by telling me that on the previous evening 
she was sitting idly meditating, and this book came into her mind : 
she had not seen the contents when glancing at it in my room, 
merely the cover. Thinking over it, she was much interested 
in the 7itfe ("Look ! We have come through") which she assumed 
was meant in Ber sense of the words, namely, that some force 
or element striving in a human being — most likely a violent or 
evU force — had succeeded in emerging. She added that this was 
always the situation she felt in herself — some sort of evil spirit 
was perpetually struggling to "get through" and forcing her into 
her evil actions (or desires) of hurting and killing. She then went 
on to record that the drawing on the cover had returned to memory 
at the same time, but she felt no interest in it — it was meaningless 

her — and she dismissed it from her mind. 

Soon after this revery she went to bed, and before she fell 

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272 BARBARA LOW 

asleep, there came to her mind the memory which she now 
related. 

Between the ages of four and six years, she had two or three 
times over a very vivid image, usually in the morning, upon 
waking. This image was one of herself coming through a long 
passage of tubular shape, its sides a yellowish-brown in colour, 
at the end of which was a small round hole through which a 
bright white light streamed. She herself seemed to be moving up 
this tube towards the light, and when the revived image came to 
her that night she felt distinctly, so she said, that "it was very 
like the words of the title, "Look ! We have come through", and 
also that she "was moving with a rhythmic motion similar to that 
suggested by the curves and lines on the wrapper of the book^. 
She added that she had some sensation of pleasure in remembering 
this image, and she had a feeling that there was something sexual 
about the sensation. This image, she now remembered, had been 
identical in all details each time (two or three in all) it had 
appeared in this childhood stage : since the age of six, till that 
night, it had never recurred. 

Some points of interest in this revived memory would seem 
to be as follows : 

(1) The question as to whether this is a birth-fantasy evolved 
from fantasy proper, or whether it can be founded on sensations 
actually experienced in the birth-process. 

(2) The interpretation given to the title "Look ! We have come 
through". For days preceding the day on which she glanced at 
the book in my room, she had been considering her own problem, 
and how she should resolve it, and "come through" to a more 
harmonious situation (she herself actually used the phrase "come 
through"). Yet when the book came to memory four days later, 
this association was entirely absent (she commented on this with 
surprise in the following analysis, saying, "How strange that I never 
thought of the more ordinary meaning of the title — to come 
through some experience or difficulty") and the one directly 
connected with her own phobia was present 

(3) The repetition of the image in childhood in identical form 
as far as she remembered. 

(4) The physical sensation revived by the "cubist" cover-design. 
This suggests that possibly some explanation of the dislike of 
cubist forms may be found in the sexual suggestion they convey. 

r I . Original from 

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A SUBSTITUTIVE MEMORY 

by 
ERNEST JONES, London. 

A patient was temporarUy unable to recollect the word "sepia^ 
and while he was trying to do so four substitutive words^ ob- 
viously incorrect, came to his mind instead. Two of these were 
the words "bastard** and "Lebanon", and I propose to describe 
only the analysis of the latter. 

His first association after ultimately recalling the word "sepia** 
was the curious feeling that the last two letters ought to be 
separated from each other, /. e. that "P* (which he interpreted as 
meaning himself) should not be in contact with "A**. This was 
followed by a series of associations all of a feminine connotation, 
indicating that the word "sepia** was connected with the idea ot 
femininity. His first knowledge of the word dated from childhood 
from a tube of what he called "brown sticky stufT* in his sister*s 
paint-box, and I surmised that it was probably related at that time, 
as is almost invariably the case in childhood, to some forbidden 
smearing impulse. 

The word "Lebanon** brought the following associations: 
Cedars of Lebanon — cedar-wood oil — the use of this for 
the high-power oil-immersion lens — the memory that on the 
previous day he has spent several hours examining his own 
semen microscopically to find out how long spermatozoa could 
remain alive — his current interest in this topic because of his 
wish not to impregnate a girl with whom he was just entering 
into an intimate relationship {cp. the other substitutive word 
"bastard'*, and his first association that he was not to be brought 
into too close contact with something feminine) — a passage he 
had once read to the effect that recurrent masturbation (from 
which he suffered) led to the emission of a brown fluid instead 
of semen^ a state of affairs to be avoided. 

It is known that the idea of impregnation is often unconsciously 
equated to that of contamination with other bodily material, an 

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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



■y^^^ 



274 ERNEST JONES 

association doubtless dating from early childhood theories and one 
which persists in its crude form in the perversions of throwing 
ink, defiling statues, etc., and it is probable that the inhibition 
responsible for the forgetting of the word •*sepia'' emanated from 
the group of fears and prohibitions indicated above. But the main 
interest of the example is the truly extraordinary displacement 
from these ideas to the word '•Lebanon**, one evidently facilitated 
by the identity of the first syllable in the three words "sepia**, 
**semen'*, **cedar**. 



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COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 



EDITORIAL NOTE 



As was indicated in the first number, we propose to publish 
in each of the numbers of the first Volume collective reviews 
dealing with the progress of the past six years. Reviews and 
abstracts of current work will begin only with the second volume. 
The collective reviews of the present and next numbers are trans- 
lated from the **Bericht Ober die Fortschritte der Psychoanalyse 
in den Jahren 1914— 1919'\ but it should be noted that they are 
greatly condensed, so that readers who wish fuller accounts, and 
also more complete bibliographies, are advised to procure the 
original review^. 



THEORY OF INSTINCT AND SEXUALITY 

by 
ED. HITSCHMANN, Vienna." 

BIBLIOGRAPHY^ 

1. ASraBam, K. / Ober Einschrtnkungen und Umwandlungen der Schaulust 

bci den Psychoneurotikern nebst Bemerkungen Qber ana- 
loge Erscheinungen in der Volkerpsychologie. JaBrB. 
B. VI, S. 25. 

2. IBid.: (Jntersuchungen Ober die frOheste pr^enitale Entwick- 

lunjjsstufe der Libido. Zeit. B. IV, S. 71. 

3. IBid.: Ober eine konstitutioneile Grundlage der lokomotorischen 

Angst Zeit. B. II, S. 143. 

4. IBid.: Ohnnuschel und GehOrgang als erogene Zone. Zeit. B. II, 

S. 27. 

» Published as "Beihcft" Nr. II of the Intemaf. ZeitsSr. f. PsySoanaf. 

• Translated by J. C FlQgel. 

• In the following Bibliographies JaBrB. stands for JaBrBuS der PsySo- 
anafysf, Zeit. for Internationale ZeitsS rift far Ps^Soanafyse and ZB(. for 

ZentrafBfatt fUr PsydSoanafyse. 

r ' Orrgmaffnonn 

:3y^:ii ^ 275 UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



276 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

6. IBid.: Ober Ejaculatio praecox, Zeit. B. IV, S. 171. 

6. AndreaS'Safome.L.: ''Anal" und "Sexual". Imago, B. IV, S. 249. 

7. IBid.t Psychosexualitat. Z.f. SexuafwissensSafi, B. IV, S. 1 u. 49. 

8. Treudt S.: Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie. 3. Aufl. 1915. 

9. I6fd: Triebe und Tricbschicksale. Ze/t B. Ill, S. 84. 

10. I6id. : Ober Triebumsctzungen insbesondere der Analerotik. Zeif. 

B. IV, S. 125. 

11. IS/d: Aus der Geschichte einer infantilen Neurose. Kl. Schriften 

zur Neurosenlehre. IV. Folgc, 1918. 

12. J£/d: "Ein Kind wird geschlagen," 2>/A B. V, S. 161. 

13. IBid,: Vorlesungen zur EinfQhrung in die Psychoanalyse. Teil 111: 

Allgemeine Neurosenlehre, 1917. 

14. IBid: Das Tabu der Virginitat. Kl. Schriften zur Neurosenlehre. 

IV. Folge. 

15. IBid,: Zur EinfQhrung des Narzifimus. JaBrB. B. VI, S. 1. 

16. Terenczi, S.: Von Krankheits- oder Pathoneurosen. Zeit. B. IV, S. 219. 

17. GaCant, S,t Sexualleben im SSugl ngs- und Kindesalter. Neurofog, 

ZentrafBCatt Nr. 20, 1919. 

18. HattingBerg^ Hv: Analerotik, Angstlust und Eigensinn. Zeit. II, S, 244. 

19. Jones, E,: Ober analerotische Charaktei zQge. Zeit. B. V, S. 69. 

20. LieBermann, H.: Die erogenen Zonen. Z./. SexuafwissensSaft, B. I, S. 383 

u. 424. 

21. NaSmansoBn, M.: Freuds Libidotheorie verglichen mit der Eroslehre 

Platos. Zeit. B. Ill, S. 65. 

22. OpBuijsen, J H, W, van: Beitrige zura MSlnnlichkeitskomplex der Frau. 

Zeit. B, IV, S. 241. 

23. RanB, O.: Die Nacktheit in Sage und Dichtung. Imago, B. II, 

S. 267 u. 409. 

24. Various: Zur Psychoanalyse der Kriegsneurosen. Int. psychoanalyt. 

Bib. iNr. 1, 1919. 

25. Weijifefd, M.: Ober die Urawandlungen des Aflfektlebens. Zeit, B. II, 

S. 419. 



Libido : Narcissism The Taboo of Virginity 

Psycho-Analysis continues to conceive of the Libido (Sexual Hunger) as 
distinct from other souices of psychic energy, as possessing its own peculiar 
chemical characteristics and as constituting a quantitatively variable force, 
in terras of which processes and changes in the field of sexuality can con- 
veniently be measured (8). The direct psychic equivalent of the Libido related 
to the activity of the various bodily organs is termed Ego-LiBido; when this 
energy is directed to an outer object, or is transferred from one outer object 
to another, it is called Object- LiBido- When it is withdrawn from an outer 
object and turned once more upon the Self, it again becomes Ego-Libido or 
Narcissistic Libido. This narcissistic direction of the Libido to the Self 
corresponds to the original condition found in early childhood {Primary 
Narcissism), but when, as in Schizophrenia (the study of which has proved 



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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



THEORY OF INSTINCT AND SEXUALITY 277 

of the greatest value in this connection) the Libido is withdrawn from persons 
and things in the outer world and redirected towards the Self (in so doing 
giving rise to Megalomania), we speak of Secondary Narcissism. The sexual 
activity of the Narcissistic stage of childhood is auto-erotic. Narcissism may 
be regarded as corresponding on the side of the Libido to what Egoism 
is on the side of the Ego impulses; Narcissism being thus the libidinous 
complement of Egoism (13); The self becoming in fact an object of libidinous 
desire. The recognition of this condition is of the greatest importance 
for the understanding of the Narcissistic neuroses (Dementia Praecox, Paranoia, 
Melancholia). In these diseases the Libido regresses to the Narcissistic stage, 
just as in the Transference neuroses (Hysteria and Obsessional Neurosis) it 
regresses to early objects of love or to the objects of the various partial impulses 
or pre-genital stages of organization. The War Neuroses (24) and the disorders 
called by Ferenczi (16) Patho-Neuroses likewise exhibit connections with 
Narcissism. A Narcissistic withdrawal of the Libido also takes place in organic 
disease, in sleep and iu Hypochondria. Further material for the study of 
Narcissism is provided by the love-life. The state of being in love involves 
a concentration of almost the whole available Libido upon the loved ol ject 

There are two main types of object-love : first, the Dependence Type, 
in which the object represents ultimately the mother or nurse who provides 
food or the father who provides protection ; secondly, the Narcissistic type 
in which the object represents : (a) the lover, as he actually is, (b) as he was, 
(c) as he would like to be, or (d) a part of himself {e. g. his child). The 
Narcissistic type of object-love is of importance in Pathology, e. g. in 
certain forms of Melancholia, Homosexuality etc. 

As a substitute for the lost Narcissism of childhood an Ego-ideal may be 
erected, which then becomes the object of self-love. For the sake of this 
ideal^ everything is repressed which is not worthy of the Self. Conscience is 
a mechanism which is constantly engaged in observing and criticizing our 
actual Self and comparing it with the ideal Self ; the same mechanism being 
responsible for the critical or abusive voices heard in Paranoia, and also for 
the dream censor. (15). The existence of Narcissism in childhood constitutes 
the strongest argument against Alfred Adler's assumption of a primary feeling 
of inferiority in the child. Psycho- Analysis has indeed recognised the existence 
and significance of the ^'masculine protest" but has regarded it as originating 
from the Castration Compfex^ This complex, which is of great importance 
for the development of the Self, is intimately connected with the breaking up 
of primary Narcissism and with the establishment of the early sexual inhibitions. 

The Castration Complex means, for the boy, pride in his penis or anxiety 

about it as a result of feelings of guilt or threats of punishment; for the 

girl feelings of bitterness or envy together with the idea of having suffered 

some infantile injury or humiliation. The desire to be a boy leads to the 

*• masculinity complex", to the tendency to imitate men (22). Many boys and 

girls start with the infantile theory that both sexes originally possessed a 

penis. The Castration Complex, which plays a most important r61e in the 

Unconscious, and therefore also in dreams, seems also to have a phylogenetic 

origin; it is of great significance for the development of character as well 

as for Neurosis. ^^ , ^ ^ - vn 

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278 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

In a new contribution to the Psychology of Love Life entitled *^T6e TaBoo 
of Virginity*' (14) Freud discusses the not unuraal case of frigidity (and 
occasional hostility) on the part of the wife at the beginning of marriage, 
the chief factors being found in the injury to Narcissism caused by defloration, 
disappointment at lack of the expected gratification at the first coitus, fixation 
on the father or brother, and the penis envy connected with the Castration 
Complex. 

Pregenitkl Organizations 

/'. e, organizations of the sexual life in which the genital rone has not 
yet assumed a predominant position (8). The Oraf or CanniBafistic stage 
corresponds to the first of these organizations. The sexual aim at this stage 
consists in the incorporation or eating of the object (the prototype of the 
subsequent process of Identification) The process o^ pfeasure-sucBing. »n which 
the sexual activity is dissociated from the function of nutrition and finds its 
gratification through the individual's own body, may be regarded as a relic 
of this stage. 

A second pre-genital phase corresponds to the Jij^j//ir--Aif<i/ Organization, 
in which is already contained a polarity which may be called, if not masculine 
and feminine, at least active and passive ; the activity arising through the 
"impulse to mastery*' connected with the forceful use of the musculature, 
while the anal region is chiefly connected with passivity. 

The neurotic disturbances of eating which arise in connection with the 
Oral organization have been described by Abraham with great wealth of 
illustration (2) and also by Freud (11). A striking proof of the sexual nature 
of sucking (concerning which so much doubt has been expressed by critics) 
is furnished by the characteristic record of a healthy girl (17). As is well 
known, in Obsessional Neurosis there is a regression to the stage of Anal- 
Sadistic organization. 

The Development and History of the Sexual Instincts 

is discussed by Freud in connection with a theoretical consideration of the 
nature of Instinct (9). The sexual instincts may undergo changes of the 
following kind : — conversion into their opposites, direction on to the Self, 
Repression, Sublimation. In the first of these cases there is a change from 
activity to passivity {e. g. from Sadism to Masochism or from Obscrvationism 
to Exhibitionism); a reversal of content occurs only in the conversion of 
love into hate. In the second case there is a change of object without 
change in the nature of the desire^ as for instance in Obsessional Neurosis, 
where Sadism is converted into Self-punishment. (Sympathy is not a conversion 
of, but a reaction against, Sadism). The fact that throughout later life the 
passive component of an instinct is always found to co-exi«t with its active 
complement finds expression in the general AmBivafency of the instincts. 
The conversion from active to passive and the. direction of instincts on to 
the Self are intimately connected with the Narcissistic stage of development. 



3yt^:i OU^te 



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THEORY OF INSTINCT AND SEXUALITY 279 

Instinct Conversions in Anal-erotism 

A certain variable portion of the energy of the Anal- erotic instinct is 
lost to the sexual hfe through Repression, Sublimation or conversion into 
character traits ; the remainder is taken up into the new organization (10). 

Faeces (Money, Gift), Child and Penis are mutually convertible terms in 
the Unconscious. In neurotic women the infantile desire for a penis is 
sometimes transformed into a desire for a child (cf. the symbol of the 
•'little one" used in both cases), or sometimes also into the desire for a 
husband in favourable cases of which Narcissistic self-love will be converted 
into object-love, a masculine attitude into a feminine one. 

In virtue of the infantile cloacal theory of birth, the child also becomes 
an object of anal-erotic interr^t. The faeces represent the first present that 
the child gives as a sign of love. Defiance is connected with postponement 
of the act of defaecation, which at first occurs ;is a means of auto-erotic 
gratification, later on as means of self-assertion. 

The interest in faeces passes, via the idea of gift, to the interest in gold 
and money. Phantasies originally conceived in genital terms (the Penis in the 
Vagina) may be translated into anal terms (Penis= Faeces, Vagina = Rectum). 

Anaf defiance may be taken over into the Castration compfex the 
absence of the penis in women being taken to mean thdt the penis is — 
like faeces — removable from the body, 

Jones deals very exhaustively with the subject of anal-erotic character 
traits (19). 

Observationism, together with its inhibitions and transformations, is fully 
treated by Abraham (I) who describes examples of analogous phenomena 
from Folk Psychology. Rank (23) deals with the subject of Nakedness in 
Myth and Legend in connection with Observationism and Exhibitionism. 

The infantile pleasure in movement and locomotion (muscle erotism) is 
the ultimate constitutional basisof the tendency to locomotor anxiety (including 
Agora hobia) (3). 

Very early sadistic and masochistic phantasies in which "a child is beaten" 
are shown by Freud (12) to have their origin in the Oedipus complex, a fact 
which maUcs it probable that a similar origin could be demonstrated in the 
case of the other perve sions. Incidentally the results are shown to be 
incompatible with Adler's theory of the origin of neuroses and perversions 
through the "masculine protest". 

The ^^masculinity complex" of certain women originates in the (Zastrat ion 
complex (22), though it also shows connections with infantile clitoris mastur- 
bation and with urethral erotism, as in the case of frigidity in women where 
the glans clitoridis has so to speak drawn away all excitability to itself. 
Abraham (6) finds in men who suffer from ejaculatio praecox that genital 
sensitivity is centred on the perinaeum, the penis being relatively unexcitable. 
This region corresponds developmentally to the Introitus Vaginae. The relation 
between ejaculatio praecox and female frigidity may be formulated as follows: 
— that erogenous zone, which (in virtue of the sex of the individual) should 
properly be predominant has abdicated in favour of the region corresponding 

the opposite se:t (EiXu ,, . .u 

UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 

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280 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

Our views on infantile sexual investigation and sexual knowledge have 
been enriched by the assumption of common fiuman pfiantasies of phylogen^tic 
origin concerning seduction in childhood, observation of parental coitus and 
the threat of castration (13), the effect of the past history of human culture 
thus manifesting itself in the psychology of the individual child (11). 



SPECIAL PATHOLOGY AND THERAPY OF THE NEUROSES 

AND PSYCHOSES 

by 

KARL ABRAHAM, Berlin.* 

BTBUOGRAPHY 

1. ABraham, K.: Uber eine konstitutionel'e Grandlage der lokomotorischen 

Angst. Zeit. B. II, S. 143. 

2. IBid.: Das Geldaasgeben im Angst7.ustand. Zeit. B. IV, S. 252. 

3. IBid.: tJber Ejacalatio praecox. Zeit. B. IV, S. 171. 

4. IBid.: Bcmcrkun^en zu Ferenczis Mitteilung Qber **Sonnta!:js- 

ncurosen*'. Zeit. B. V, S. 203. 

5. DeutscB,Hefene:YAXi kasuistischer Beiirag zur Kenntnis des Mechanismus 

der Regression bei Schizophrenic, Zeit. B. V, S. 41. 

6. Eisfer, J,: Ein Fall von krankhafter ^'Schamsucht". Zeit. B. V,S. 193. 

7. Terenczi, S.: Einige klinischc IJeobachtungen bei der Paranoia und Para- 

phrenic. Zeit. B. II, S. 11. 
8 IBid.: Psychogene Anomalien der Stimmlagc. Zeit. B. Ill, S. 25. 

9. IBid.: Uber zwei Typen der Kriegsnuurose. Zeit. B. IV, S. 13 1. 

10. IBid: Sonntatjsneurosen. Zeit. B. V, S. 46. 

11. Treud, S.: Mitteilung eines der psychoanalytischen Thcorie wiJer- 

hprechendcn Falles von Paranoia. Zeit. B. Ill, S. 321. 

12. IBid: Trauer und Melancholic. Zeit. B. IV, S. 288. 

13. Treud, Terenczi, ABraBam, Simmef und Jones: Zur Psychoanalyse der 

Krieg>neurosen. Int. Psychoanalyt, Bib., Nr. 1, 1919. 

14. Hoffos, L.: Psychoanalytische ISelcuchtung eines Falles von Dementia 

praecox. Zeit. B. II, S 367. 

15. Kapfan, M.: Der Beginn eines Verfolgungswahnes. Z^it. B. IV, S. 330. 

16. Landauer, K.: Spontanheilung einer Katatonie. Zeit. B. II, S. 441. 

17. ReiB, TB.: Zur lokomotorischen An^jst. Zeit. B. II, S. 515. 

18. Sadger, J.: Ein Beiirag zum Verstindnis des Tic. Zeit. B. II, S. 354. 

19. IBid.: Ein merkwtlrdiger Fall von Nachtwandeln und Mondsucht. 

Zeit B. IV, S. 254. 

20. Simmef, E.: Kriegsneurosen und psychisches Trauma. Ihre gcgcnsciti- 

gen Be^iehungen, dargestellt auf Grund psychoanalytischer, 
hypnotischer Studien. 1918. 

' Translated by Douglas Bryan. 

r . Orrgmaffnonn 

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SPECIAL PATHOLOGY AND THERAPY 281 

21. Stdrdfe^ A.: Rechts und links in der Wahnidee. Zeit B. II. S. 431. 

22. I6id.: Ein einfacher Lach- und Weinkrampf. ZeiL B. V, S. 199. 

23. TausH^ v.: Zur Psychologic des alkoholischen Bcschaftigungsdelirs. 

Zeit B. Ill, S. 204. 

24. IBid.: Uber eine besondere Form von Zwangsphantasien. Zeit. 

B. IV, S. 62. 

25. IBid.: Bemerkungen zu Abrahams Aufsatz "Ober Ejaculatio prac- 

cox." Zeit. B. IV, S. 315. 

26. IBid.: Ober die Entstehung des '^Beeinflussungsapparates" in der 

Schizophrenie. Zeit. B. V, S. 1. 

27. }X>uCff, M.: Simulation oder Hysteric? Zeit. B. II, S. 259. 



A. Conversion and Anxiety Hysteria 

Startle (22) demonstrates the combined action of opposite repressed 
impulses in the symptoms of a rare hysterical case, and discusses the relation 
of the symptoms to narcissism and to different erotogenic zones. 

Wuffif {21) points out that simulated symptoms in a hysterical patient 
of his were determined by unconscious factors similar to those in ge- 
nuine cases. 

Sadger (19) in a case of sleep-walking and ^'moonstruckness** traces back 
this condition to the longing of the son for the mother, the son having 
frequently observed sexual intercourse between the parents. (The moon 
serves as a symbol for the mother, jjst as the sun commonly represents the 
father.) 

Terenczi (8) describes a diflference observed in two young men between 
higher and lower voice pitch according to the homosexual (female) ur hetero- 
sexual attitude of the impulse. 

Terenczi {\^) has noted temporary neuroses or exacerbations of existing 
nervous troubles which regularly took place on Sundays or holidays He traces 
back the phenomenon to the cessation of the pressure of work carried out 
on other days. The neurotic cannot deal with the free libido which periodi- 
cally accumulates and which is one of the reasons for the institution of 
"holidays", it becomes repressed and converted into nervous symptoms 
(Cyclothymia), 

ABraBam (4) supplements Ferenczi's views by alluding to the frequent 
cases in which those disposed to neuroses, or neurotics, can only keep well 
while at their daily work, this signifying to them a substitute-gratification. 
As soo 1 as this activity is interrupted they are at the mercy of the neurosis. 

Eisfer{t) points out the connection between morbid blu5.hing and onanism. 
He looks upon the blushing as a conversion symptom (displacement from 
below upwards). There originally existed with the masturbation a tendency 
to exhibit which was transferred from the genitals to that part of the body 
that is permanently uncovered. 

ABraBam (1) shows that the recognised factors, fixation on definite per- 
sons, cvadmg of temptation, etc., do not suffice for the explanation of the 

anxiety relating to active and passive going about, but that one has to assume 

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282 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

that there is a particular sexual constitution with an abnormally strong plea- 
sure in active and passive movement This pleasure on account of its in* 
cestuous connections becomes repressed and then furnishes the anxiety^ 
and during treatment the re- conversion of this into pleasure can be ob* 
served. 

Reii (17) comes to similar conclusions, specially referring to the signi- 
ficance of the vibration of the genitals in passive movement. 

A£ra6am (3) in his article on ejaculatio praecox points out that in these 
cases the glans peuis is not the leading erotogenic tone; on the other hand 
the perineal portion of the urethra has an abnormally strong erotogenic signi- 
ficance. He shows that ejaculatio praecox is a partly pleasurable, partly un- 
comfortable flowing away of seminal fluid, and is a direct derivative of the 
infantile form of passing urine. The sexuality of these men has lost the active 
male character. Ejaculatio praecox is quite analogous to frigidity in the fe- 
male sex. In these men the urethra and perinaeum are markedly erotogenic. 
They are either weak and without energy or alway in a hurry and over- 
active. Psycho-analysis reveals in them a high degree of repressed sadism. 
The occurrence of ejaculatio praecox makes them safe for the woman; the 
penis has lost its power as the sadistic weapon. These patients constantly 
have pronounced dread of castration; fear to lose the penis is one of the 
factors that makes them incapable of coitus. A great part of the sexual re- 
sistances of these men is explained by their narcissism. Exhibitionislic im- 
pulses cooperate in the tendency to disappoint, degrade and soil the ivoman. 

Tausi (26) thinks that Abraham has under-estimated the significance of 
onanism and repressed homosexuality in the aetiology of ejaculatio praecox; 
and further that the analogy between ejaculatio praecox and female Irigidity 
has not been sufficiently proved. 



B. Obsessional States 

TausK (24) alludes to the fact that many neurotics have the compulsion 
to utter a single and apparently senseless word, and points out that in these 
compulsive words lie the remains of thought processes which had been at one 
time char-^'ed with reproach. 

Sacfger (18) shows that tic serves as a defence against forbidden impulses^ 
and that it originates in repressed **muscle erotism". 

ABrafiam (2) recognises in the compulsive spending of money found in 
many neurotics, especially in anxiety states, an equivalent to the giving out 
of their libido that is impossible to them along normal paths. (Regression to 
the anal zone). 

C. War Neuroses 

Terenczt (9) defines two types out of the complicated phenomenology of 
the war neuroses. In the one type, which corresponds with the Breuer-Freudian 
conversion hysteria, there is a peripheral paralysis, contracture or other local 
phenomena. The most important manifestation af, Jibe of licr is anxiety, with 

IVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



SPECIAL PATHOLOGY AND THERAPY 283 

which may be associated different kinds of physical symptoms. He points out 
the connection of the symptoms with the repressed memories of a definite 
situation from which they started. 

Stmmef{20) ha^ made use of the cathartic method of Breuer and Freud 
as a therapeutic measure in the war neuroses, and refers to the unconscious 
roots of the neurotic symptoms; he reports some notewori hy cures. The author, 
however, expressly alludes to the Rreat importance of psycho-analysis proper 
for the understanding and cure of the war neuroses. 

The first volume of the Initmattomafe Psydoanafytisd^ BfS/totSeM (13) 
contams the symposium on the war neuroses held «.t the Congress m Buda- 
pest (1918) and also a contribution by Jones and an introduction by Freud. 
Freud's introduction gives some of the chief points of view for the psycho- 
analytical consideration of the war neuroses, calling attention to the signi- 
ficance of the unconscious, narcisMsm, etc., and expressly states that the libido 
theory oF the neuroses is in no way refuted by the experiences of tht? war. 

Ferencxi conclusively shows that in many respects the schools of neuro- 
logy have in th^ it conception of the war neuroses come nearer to the psycho- 
analytical standpoint. After a full survey of the literature on the war neu- 
roses he gives a brief account of his own opinion on the subject He lays 
stress on the increased ^^e;>o-sensitiveness*' of the war neurotic and ascribes 
great significance to the (ar-going regression of their libido to narcissism. 
The patients conduct themselves like little, helpless children, who can do 
nothing by themselves, but are completely dependent on the care and attention 
of others. 

Abraham takes up the point of view of narcissism and refers to its pre- 
sence in many men before they fall ill with a war neurosis. In many such 
predisposed cases a psychic trauma acts harmfully when it deeply affects the 
narcissistic attitude of their own invulnerability and immortality. Organic 
traumata, by heighteuing selMove, tend to protect against neujosis. The 
relap^e into narcissism is an essential cause of the loss of the capacity to 
follow military discipline and for the abundance of anal character traits (pension 
conflicts I). 

Simmel attributes great value to abreaction during hypnosis, but aUo 
particullrly emphasises the value of dream interpretation and makes use of 
hypnosis for this purpose allowing the patients to dream in his presence. 
He points out that hysterical attacks represent the discharge of repressed 
affects which could not be expressed under military discipline. With regard to 
his therapeutic results Simmel reports very favourably. 

Jones discusses the question as to how far the experiences of the war 
refute or support Freud's theories. He finds in the war neuroses the motive 
of the flight into illness, the fulfilment of repress d wishes, etc. He also comes 
to the conclusion that the war neuroses are a reaction against the ego-libido, 
/. #. against narcissism. 

D. Mental Disturbances 

7>r«^(ll) discusses a case which at first sight seems to contradict the 
theory of paranoia. The ''persecutor* of the paranoiac female patient is a 



C^ nonl^ OrFginaf from 

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284 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

man. whereas according to the theory of paranoiac projection it should be 
of the same sex as the patient. However, he shows that the delusion was 
originally directed against a female person (representative of the mother), and 
that it was only in the paranoia itself that the patient progressed from the 
woman to the man. 

Kapfan (16) was able to observe in a young man a delusion of persecution 
in statu nascendi. The outbreak was the result of the paternal prohibition of 
heterosexual practice which drove the libido into narcissistic-homosexual paths. 
Stdrdle (21) found in the delusions of a mental patient the significance of 
right and left which is familiar to us from dreams. He gives the interesting 
explanation that left represents the more deeply repressed tendency. In his 
case he shows that probably before and behind (genital and anal zone) had 
originally the significance which is later taken over by right and left. 

Terenczi (7) makes some observations on latent homosexuality, repressed 
incest wishes, etc. in mental patients, and also some remarks on the paranoiac 
system formation and the connection of catatonic phenomena with sexual 
sensations. 

Hoffos (14) obtained useful insic^ht into the building up of the psychosis 
in an acute mental disturbance. Besides the almost undisguised incest impulses 
the repressed pleasure in smell was remarkable. 

Landauers (16) found in a catatonic patient a homosexual attitude towards 
her step-mother and a hostile attitude towards her father with whom she at 
the same time unconsciously identified herself. The spontaneous cure took 
place with the reversal of this attitude, which was rendered possible through 
transference of the libido on to a somewhat masculine nurse in the institution. 
The author discusses at length the narcissistic object-choice and identification. 

Tatisi (26) in his work on the delusions of being influenced by an 
apparatus furnishes a psycho-analytical contribution which deals exhaustively 
with the problem. The apparatus represents in the first place the genitals of 
the patient, just as in the dreams of machinery. However, on deeper pene- 
tration it appears that the whole body is conceived by the unconscious as a 
single genital organ. The author discusses the process of projection by means 
of which alterations in the genitals (erection, etc.) are attributed to an ex- 
ternal influence. He relates this to narcissism. In the early narcissistic period 
the child cannot definitely distinguish between his own bodily impulses (desire 
to defaecate, etc.) and the interferences with him on the part of other pers- 
ons. The schizophrenic process consists in a regression to this early stage of 
the development of the libido. 

DfutsS (5) observed a mental patient who had been blind since two 
years of age. She became mentally affected in adult age and then had visual 
dreams for the first time. The author assumes that the schisophrenia re- 
gressed in the dream to deeper mental layers than is possible in normal 
dreams. 

Treud (12) deals with the little investigated sphere of melancholia. He 
distinguishes between this melancholy and that of sorrow, with which it has 
many traits in common, in that the former relates to a lost object which has 
been withdrawn from consciousness. Freud shows that the self-accusations 
really refer to the love object by whom the patient has been disappointed. 

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SPEQAL PATHOLOGY AND THERAPY 285 

The intimate relation with the object is deeply aflfected by this disappoint- 
ment and the ego now takes the place of the object, becoming identified with 
it. The self-torture of the melancholic and his tendencies to suicide is com- 
prehensible from the ambivalency of the feelings. Hate and revenge gratify 
themselves on his own ego. Melancholy is really a regression of the libido 
into the ego* The change from depression into mania still awaits explanation. 
However, the mania certainly contains a feeling of triumph in having overcome 
the loss of the object. 

E. Alcoholism 

TausH (23) for the understanding of alcoholic delirium of occupation 
refers to a form of dream occurring in neurotic persons, the dream of being 
busily occupied. This is similar to the delirium in that the dreamer is actively 
occupied with daily affairs and at the same time tormented by the anxiety of 
never getting ready. This dream expresses the wish for coitus, concealing the 
dread of impotence or other sexual inhibitions. The impulse to onanism 
appears in conflict with the coitus wish. The delirium of occupation serves 
to present the same tendencies. The alcoholic is heterosexually inhibited. He 
resists the homosexuality, likewise auto-erotism; his libido remains therefore 
at the object stage. It is of particular interest that doing tasks and work in 
the language of the dream, and of the unconscious in general has the meaning 
of sexual performance. 



PSYCHO-ANALYTIC THERAPY 

by 
T. H, W. VAN OPHUIJSEN, The Hague.* 

BIBUOGRAPHY 

1. ABraBam, K.: Ober cine bcsondere Form des neurotischen Widerstandes 

gegen die psychoanalytische Methodik. Zeit. B. V, S. 173. 

2. Tertnczi, S.: Schwindelempfindung nach Schlufi der Analysenstunde. 

Zeit. B. II, S. 272. 

3. IBid.: Einschlafen der Patienten wlhrcnd der Analyse. Zeit. 

B. II, S. 274. 

4. IBid.: Diskontinuierliche Analyscn. 2V/A B. II, S. 514. 

5. IBid.: Technischc Schwierigkeiten einer Hysterieanalyse. Zeit. 

B. V. S. 34. 

6. IBid.: Zur psychoanalytischen Technik. 2Leit. B. V, S. 181. 

7. Trtud, S.: Ober fausse reconnaissance ("d^ji racont6") w&hrend der 

psychoanalytischen Arbeit. Ze/t B. II, S. 1. 

8. /Bid: Weitere Ratschlage zur Technik der Psychoanalyse (2). Z^A 

B. II, S. 485. 

* Translated by J. C FlQgel. , r, - - n 

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COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 



9. I6id.: 

10. IBid.: 

11. IBid.: 

12. IBid: 

13. Homey, K.: 

14 Jung, C. C?./ 

16. Kapfan, L.: 

16. Z^^, ^ / 

17. Maeder, A.: 

18. ^^/>e 7B.: 

19. Jfl5iif/i/> 



20, SimmeC E,: 

21. J/^^fi^iT K?., 



Weitere RatschlSge zur Technik der Psychoanalyse (3). Zeit. 
B V. S. 1. 

Wege der psychoanalytischen Therapie. Zeit B. V, S, 61. 
Vorlesungen zur EinfOhrung in die Psychoanaly::>e. 1918. 
**Ein Kind wird geschlagen." Zeit. B. V, S. 161. 
Die Techntk der psychoanalytischen Therapie. ZeitsSr. 
f. SexuafwissenscBafi. B. IV, S. 186. 

Die Pdyctiologie de: unbewufiten Prozesse. Schweizer 
Schriften fdr allgemeines Wissen. Heft 1. 
GrundzQge der Psychoanalyse. 
Psychotherapeutische Streitfragen. 

Hcilung und Entwicklung im Seelenleben. Schweizer 
Schriften fOr allgemeincs Wissen. Heft 7. 
Einifje Bemerkungen zur Lehre vom Wid«rstande. Zeit. 
B.III, S. 12. 

Die neuestfn Entwicklungsstadien der Psychoanalyse und 
ihre therapeutische Bedeutung. DeutscBe mediziniscBe 
WocBenscBrifi. 1914. S.518. 
Kriegsneurosen und psychisches Trauma. 
Die verschiedenen Formen des Widerstandes in der psycho- 
analytischen Kur. ZentraCBCatt fur PsycBoanafyse. B IV, 
S. 610. 



The contention of Jung and his followers that they have arrived at their 
new view^ through the use of the same method as that employed by Freud 
has misled many into speaking of Jung's school of Psycho- Analysis, The 
most recent work of Junij (14) brings with it a justification of the suspicion 
to which Jones had given expres^on in the Jahrbuch that *^the practice of 
the strict rules of psycho-analytic technique has been as half-hearted as has 
been the acceptance of psycho-analytic theory and that in the future the 
abandonment of tl e former will follow the renunciation of the latter** This is 
now admitted by Jung, who uses an example of a dream analysis to explain 
his use of a new method. Unfortunately his ^interpretation" has very little 
resemblance to what we are accustomed to regard as such, so that the 
great difference between his technique and that of Freud is not sufficiently 
apparent. As Maeder (17) has in the meantime also adopted a new "psych- 
oloj^y'*, it would seem that we are justified in raising an energetic protest 
against the use of the expression : — Jung's school of Psycho-Analysis. 

For F'^reud and his pupils there has — with one exception — been no 
occa-ion to depart from the fundamental rule of Psycho- Analytic procedure 
and from the technique resulting therefrom, since this procedure continuefl 
to prove the only fruitful method of penetrating into the depths of the 
Unconscious. Homey (18) has devoted a very useful review to this subject, 
in the course of which she also discusses the usual forms of Resistance and 
Transference. It is of course only to be expected that Freud's Introductory 
Lectures on Psycho-Analysis (11) should in more than one connection 
emphasize the great significance of this fundamental rule. Thus we find iha^ 



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he refers to it in the course of his treatment of symptomatic acts, of dreams 
and dream interpretation, and of psycho-analytic therapy. Oar critics have 
sometimes objected to this kind of repetition. B it those who are practically 
acquainted with Psycho- Analysis will know from their own experience that 
the (greatest difficulty of the work lies in the consistent application of this 
rule and that nothing is more important than to keep this rule in mind, 
especially in those moments in which our therapeutic ambitions might induce 
OS to attempt to heal without understanding I 

Kaplan's work (15) is less calculated than its title might lead us to expect to 
produce in the beginner a conviction that satisfactory results, both from the 
therapeutic and scientific points of view, can only be obtained by the con- 
sistent use of the principle of free association. 

Very welcome in this respect are Fre id's articles on the practical aspects 
of Psvcho-Analysis in the course of which he repeatedly asks us to consider 
the aim and method of our treatment. His advice on the subject of technique 
deserves therefore to be given the chief place of honour in the<>e considerations. 
Thus» for instance, he writes (8): — **At first, daring the phase of Breuer's 
cathartic method, we concentrated on the factor of the symptom formation, 
and our efforts were therefore directed towards the reproduction of the 
psychic accompaniments of the traumatic situation, in order that they might 
then be worked off through conscious activity. Recall and abre iction con- 
stituted the end which we endeavoured to attain with the help of hypnosis. 
Later on, after the abandonment of hypnosis, our chief task consisted in 
reconstructing from the free associations of the patient the events which he 
refused to remember. Through the work of interpretation and the communi- 
cation of the results of this work to th patient we sought to circumvent the 
resistance. We continued to concentrate on the situitions responsible for the 
symptom formation and on those connected with the onset of the disease, 
while abreaction full into the background and seemed to be replaced by trie 
expenditure of energy involved in the overcoming of the resistance opposed 
to free a.^sociation (/. e. in the process of following the psycho-analytic rule) 
Finally there has been evolved the modem technique, which represents the 
logical outcome of previous developments. Here the analyst reframs from 
concentrating upon any particular factor or problem and contents himself 
with the study of the surface of the patient's mind as it presents itself from 
moment to moment, in order to discover the resistances that may be mani- 
festioi; themselves therein and to make the patient conscious of the nature 
of these resistances. In this way there comes about a new division of labour: 
the analyst discovers for the patient the nature of the (hitherto unknown) 
resistances ; as soon as these are overcome, the patient will often supply 
without any further difTiculty the forgotten situations and connections. The 
aim of these different procedures has of course remained unchanged : — from 
the descriptive point of view, the filling up of the gaps in the patient's 
memory ; from the dynamic point of view, the overcoming of the resistances 
dtie to repression." In this connection Freud also says: *'The patient does 
not remember anything of what he has repressed or forgotten, he acts 
it instead. He does not reproduce it as a memory but as an act; he repeats 

it, of course without knowing that he is doing so." k could not have been 

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288 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

more clearly expressed in what way we have to understand the phenomena 
of transference and what position we have to adopt with regard to them. 
The following exposition deserves also to be quoted in full in this connection: 
«*VVe have said that the patient repeats instead of remembering, that he 
repeats under the conditions of the resistance. We nnay now ask the question: 
What is it really that he repeats or acts? The answer is^ that he repeats all 
those aspects of his repressed mentality which have already manifested 
themselves openly in his life, his inhibitions, his ill-adapted attitudes towards 
persons or things, his pathological character traits. During treatment he 
repeats also all his symptoms. And now we are in a position to note that 
in laying emphasis on this compulsive repetition, we have not brought to 
light any new fact but have only succeeded in obtaining a more com- 
prehensive point of view — a point of view which makes it clear that the 
l^atient's illness cannot come to a sudden stop at the beginning of the 
analysis and that we must not look upon his illness as a historical event but 
as an active force. Bit by bit the illness comes within our ken and within the 
sphere of our therapeutic influence and while the patient experiences each 
bit as it comes up as something real and actual, we on our part have to 
perform our therapeutic functions with reference to this bit — a task that 
consists in great part in establishing connections with the past The calling 
up of memories under the influence of hypnosis conveyed the impression of 
an experiment in the laboratory. In the process of repetition durmg analytic 
treatment according to the new technique, we are, as it were, conjuring up 
a piece of real life itself . . . ." 

Before we go on to consider from this point of view the publications 
dealing with the special difficulties connected with the accurate employment 
of psycho-analytic technique, it will be well to deal with Ferencsi's article 
(5), which, as already indicated, points to an exception as regards the rigid 
adherence to the psycho-analytic rule. The writer describes the case of a 
female hysteric, who in the course of her treatment — which was several 
times interrupted — always arrived at a certain point and then failed to 
progress farther. **In the course of her constantly repeated love phantasies, 
which were always concerned with the person of the physician, she sometimes 
made the apparently casnal remark that she 'had feelings down below* i\ r 
had erotic sensations in the genitals. Only after some time did I happen to 
notice that she kept her legs crossed during the whole hour that she wa3 
lying on the sofa. This led us — not for the first time — to the subject 
of onanism, which is most frequently performed in the case of women and 
girls by rubbing together the legs. As she had done on previous occasions, 
she vigorously denied ever having indulged in such practices." **I must 
confess . . . that some further time passed before I hit upon the idea of 
forbidding her to adopt this position. I explained to her that it represented 
a disguised form of onanism, which unostentatiously drained off the un- 
conscious impulses, leaving only useless fragments to appear in the 
material of the associations. The result of this step I can only describe 
as foudroyant. The accustomed channel for draining off energy into 
genital paths being now closed, that patient was tormented during 
treatment hours by an almost intolerable restlessness of mind and body; she 

:3yt.:-UU^tl:: UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



PSYCHO-ANALYTIC THERAPY 289 

was no longer able to lie still but had to be continually changing her pos* 
ition. Her phantasies resembled the delirium of fever in which long buried 
memory fragments reappeared and gradually grouped themselves around cer- 
tain events of childhood and allowed one to discover the principal traumatic 
sources of the illness." After the writer had forbidden the patient to indulge 
in unconscious onanism even outside treatment hours (which enabled him to 
discover that the most varied symptomatic acts were used as equivalents of 
onanism)* after he had also forbidden her to indulge a desire for frequent 
micturition which had then appeared, and after the patient had for a time 
indulged in real masturbation in order to allevjate her tension, she was 
eventually able to enjoy normal sexual life, of which she had before been 
incapable. The succesful result which the writer was able to achieve with 
the help of his prohibition in a case in which no permanent effect would 
otherwise have been obtained enables him to establish the following new 
rule: during treatment we must keep in mind the possibility of disguised 
onanism or onanism equivalents, and where we notu e igns of them, we must 
abolish them. After further discussion of disguised onanism and the difference 
between this and actively practised masturbation, he continues: ''We owe to 
Freud himself the first example of ^^active therapy*'. When a similar stagnation 
had come about during the analysis of cases of Anxiety Hysteria, he re:>orted 
to the expedient of asking patients to put themselves in just those critical 
situations which were calculated to arouse their fear, not indeed in order to 
make the patients ^'get used*' to the things that alarmed them, but to free 
the affect from its false associations. In this case we work under the assumption 
that the increased amount of unsatisfied free-fioating affect thus produced will 
be directed principally to more '*adequatc" ideas /. e. those which are most 
naturally connected with it in the course of the development of the individual. 
Here also, therefore, as in our case, the procedure consists in closing certain 
acquired unconscious paths along which energy has been drained off and in 
thus bringing about a preconscious occupation and unconscious translation of 
the repressed material." We may here reproduce the passage from Freud's 
article (lo) that Ferenczi has in mind: **Our technique has developed in 
connection with the treatment of hysteria and is still adapted in the first 
place to the requirements of this disorder. But we need go no further than 
the phobias in order to realize that as regards procedure we must make an 
advance beyond our previous standpoint: for wc shall scarcely gain the mastery 
over a phobia by simply waiting until the patient is induced to give up his 
phobia as a result of the analysis; under these circumstances he will never 
bring into the analysis the material that is essential for a convincing solution 
of the phobia. We must proceed diflferently. Let us take the exjmple of an 
agoraphobia. There are two degrees of this trouble, a lighter and a more severe 
form. Patients suffering from the lighter form always experience fear when they 
walk alone in the streets, but they have not for this reason given up going 
out alone; those sufTering from the more severe form protect themselves from 
fear by never going out alone. With these latter we can only be successful^ 
if we can in Juce them as a result of the analysis to behave like patients of 
the first class, /. #. to walk in the street and while so doing to battle with 
their fear. We have therefore in the first place to reduce the phobia suffi- 

'^')S UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



290 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

ciently to make this possible; only when, at the doctor's request, the patient 
has taken this step, will he be able to produce those associations which can 
bring about the solution of the phobia**. From this it is clearly apparent that 
Ferenczi is justified in asserting that he is only following the example set 
by Freud. 

In the case of Obsessional Neurosis also, an active therapy is suggested 
by Freud, who sayj: *There seems to me little doubt that the only correct 
proceduie in these cases is to waic until the tieatment has itself become a 
compul>ion, and then to use this counter- compulsion as a means of forably 
suppressing the compuKi. n due to the disease." 

In the paper to which we have already referred (8) Freud considers 
further the dangets to which the process oi "repetition" may give rise. The 
analyst must aim as far as possible at actual reproduction and contcious re* 
collection. He must prepare himself for a continuous conflict with the patient 
in order to retain in psychic territory all those impulses which the pati«'nt 
would like to drain off into motility; he may indeed regard it as a successful 
piece of treatment, whenever something has been worked off in memory that 
the patient would otherwise mirely have expressed in action . . . We can 
best protect the patient from the harm that may re<:ult to him from the 
carrying out of his impulses, by pledgmg him not to make any definite de- 
cision that may affect his whcle life (^. g. the choice of a career or of a 
permanent love-object) while he is under treatment but to postpone any such 
decisions until he has recovered. . . . But the principal means of controlling 
the patient's tendency to repetition and of converting this into a motive for 
remembering lies in the manipulation of the Translerence. We render this 
tendency hannl<^s, even useful, hy allowing it to have full play within a given 
field. The transference is open to the patient as a tumbling ground in which 
he may develop in almost complete freedom and in which he is enjoin* d to 
exhibit to us all the pathological impulses that may be buried in his mind, 
if the patient will only show us such consideration as will cause him to 
respect the essential conditions of the treatment, we succeed regularly in 
bringing his symptoms into a new connection (/« e. a connection with the 
Transference) and in substituting for his previous neurosis a new Trans- 
ference- Neurosis, which can then be cured by our therapeutic work. The 
transference constitutes thus an intermediate state between disease and 
healthy life, a state drough which the patient has to travel in passing from the 
former condition to the latter. This new state takes on all the characteristics 
of the disease, but it represents an artifical diseas , which is everywhere open 
to our attacks. It is at the same time a piece of real experience, but one 
that is made possible only through peculiarly favourable conditions and ia 
prov sional in nature. Well known paths lead from the "repetition" actions, 
as they show themselves in the Transference, to the awakening of the ne- 
cessary memories — memories that appear without eflort as soon as the re- 
sistance is overcome." 

It seemed to the reviewer essential to give these extraordinarily important 
considerations in extenso, since they are able to explain the present position 
in psycho- analytical science in a way that would otherwise be impossible, and 
are of unusual importance for the guidance of the piactical psycho-analyst. 



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PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY 291 

The following sentences may serve to conclude this section of our 
review: (8) ^As is well known, the process of overcoming the resistances is 
begun by the phy ician's discovering the resi tance — which is never re- 
cognised by the patient — and then communicating it to the patient. It 
seems that beginners in Psycho-Analysis are inclined to regard this intro* 
ductory process as constituting ihe whole of the work . . . We must allow 
the patient time to immerse himself in this resistance (of which he is now 
conscious), to work through it and to overcome it — by cairying on the 
work according to the psycho-analytic rule in spite of it. Only when they* 
have reached the point of most intense resistance do patient and doctor 
through their combined work discover the repressed tendencies which are 
feeding the resistan es — tendencies as regards the existence and strength of 
which the patient would otherwise have failed to becon vinced. In this the physician 
can do nothing but await the completion of the process — a piocess that 
cannot be avoided and that cannot always be hurried. If he keeps this point 
of view in mind, he will often save himself irom the mistake of thinking that 
he has failed in cases where he is really conducting the treatment on per* 
fectly correct lines. •' 

Abraham (1) describes a special form of neurotic resistance against the 
psycho-analytic technique, which consists in a refusal of the patient to follow 
the rule of free association, not only — as happens in every case — on 
certain special occasions, but throughout the whole course of the treatment 
'The patients here referred to will hardly ever spontaneously admit that no 
associations have occurred to them. They indulge rather in a continuous, 
uninterrupted, logical discourse, some of them refusing even to allow their 
flow of words to be interrupted by any observations made by the physician. 
But they do not give themselves up to free association. They do not speak 
spontaneously, but according to a programme • . . The analyst whose eyes 
have not yet been opened to the form of resistance presented by these 
patients is apt to be deceived by their apparently willing and u tiring co- 
operation in the analysis. Their resistance hides itself behind a false amen- 
ability.'* Abraham has been able to show that in all these cases there exists a 
process of Identification with the analyst, on the pattern of an identification 
with the father, and that an unusually stiong development of Narcissism 
constitutes the ground from which the form of resi b tance springs. 1 he 
patients manifest an unusual degree of defiance; they grudge the analyst his 
r6le of father, they submit themselves to htm unwillingly or not at all, 
they think they know everything better than he does. They desire the 
analyst to take no part in their treatment and want to do everything alone 
by their own efforts. An element of envy is unmistakably present in their 
behaviour. Well marked sadistic- anal traits were manifested in all the cases 
that were treated or examined. In apparent contradiction with the well-known 
frugality of anal-erotics is the Fact ihat the^e patients willingly make material 
sacrifices in order to continue the treatment, which naturally requires much 
time. This is to be explained by the circumstance that they enjoy making 
sacrifices, if only their Narcissism fi ds satisfaction thereby. Abraham lays 
great weight on an exhaustive analysis of this Narcissism, particularly in its 
reUtiOD. to the father-complex. ^ ^^-^-^^^ f^^ 

:3y \^UU^It UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



292 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

Fcrencii discusses a number of ways in which the resistance of the 
patient may lead him to depart from a strict adherence to the psycho- 
analytic rule (6). There are some obsessional neurotics who, as though 
purposely misunderstanding the instructions of the analyst, produce onfy 
senseless associations. Sometimes indeed they will go a step further and 
will ask the analyst what they are to do if their associations do not consist 
of words but take the form of inarticulate sounds, melodies or the cries of 
animals. Sometimes the analyst may be able to extract from the senseless 
associations the meaning that the patient desires to hide, but in every case 
we may recognise the evil intention that causes the patient to behave in 
this way. Another way in which this "association resistance*' may show itself 
is the familiar assertion that the patient can think of "nothing'*. It often 
happens that patients do not interpret the psycho-analytic rule literally 
enough. In all these cases it appears that there is something that they wish 
to conceal. If further explanations are of no avail, it is often best to answer 
the silence of the patient with a corresponding silence on the part of the 
analyst. Nor need we be alarmed if, as sometimes happens, the patient 
threatens to fall asleep during the analysis. Even if this actually happens, 
the sleep is as a rule of very short duration. The analyst is occasionally 
asked what is to happen if it suddenly occurs to the patient to carry out 
some action, e. g. to run away, to attack the analyst or to destroy some- 
thing. The answer to this question is of course that the patient is instructed 
to say and not to do everything that occurs to him. His fear lest the 
thought should prove too strong for him is to be traced back to its infantile 
roots. In a few cases the patient may indeed resort to action of various 
kinds. The best technique in these circumstances is to allow the patient to 
fulfil his impulse; if the analyst is patient, the impulse to action is in 
most cases soon over. In all cases the analyst must insist that the patient 
must not spare himself the trouble that may be necessary before he can 
pronounce certain (obscene) words. 

Reik (18) and Stckel (21) are also concerned with the problem of 
resistance, particularly in so far as it springs from feelings of a negative 
character. Both authors give a series of examples from psycho-analytic 
practice which are well calculated to impress the student with the difTicultics 
that may be encountered in the course of psycho-analytic work. The short 
and somewhat sketchy paper of Stekel does not afford much help in the 
face of these difficulties. Reik has made an attempt to analyse the resistance 
into its constituents and comes to the conclusion that three principal com- 
ponents arc at work: narcissistic tendencies, hostile tendencies (and the 
homosexual trends that are intimately associated therewith) and anal-erotic 
tendencies. It would carry us too far, were we to reproduce his views in 
ext^nso here. 

The interesting theme of the transference on the part of the analyst 
towards his patient — the so called counter-transference — is discussed by 
Freud (9), Ferencii (6) and Reik (18). The essential condition for the 
control of the counter-transference is to be found of course in the previous 
analysis of the analyst himself; but even those who have been subjected to 
a previous analysis are not so independent of peculiarities of character or 



:3y^il .le 



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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



PSYCHO-ANALYTIC THERAPY >9S 

fluctnatioDs of mood as do away with the necessity for keeping a careful watch 
upon the counter-transference. Only gradually does the analyst become able 
to avoid the dangers involved in showing too much or too little interest, in 
identifying the patient's interests with his own on the one hand or in treat- 
ing them roughly, unsympathetically or impatiently on the other (Reik's 
Counter-Resistance). This ability when acquired allows the analyst to permit 
the free working of his own Unconscious, a procedure which makes possible 
an intuitive understanding of the expressions of the patient's Unconscious 
which are concealed beneath his manifest words and gestures. As Freud 
says '*The technique consists simply in refraining from making any special 
cfTort to note particular facts and in devoting the same 'even flowing' 

attention to everything that one hears This attitude is the necessary 

counterpart to that which the patient is instructed to adopt, /. r. to say 
everything that occurs to him without criticism or selection. The rule as 
regards the analyst may be formulated thus: he should exclude all conscious 
influences from his attention and give himself up entirely to this 'uncon- 
scious memory*, or (expressed purely from the point of view of technique) 
he should listen to what is said without troubling himself as to whether he 
is noting anything**. In this connection reference should be made to what 
is described by Freud as **fausse reconnaissance** during psycho-analysis (7). 
**It happens not infrequently that the patient accompanies the communi- 
cation of some memory with the words *But I have told you about that 
before', although the analyst on his part feels certain that he has never 
before heard of the communicated fact. If the analyst then denies that he 
has previously been told about it, the patient will reply that he is certain 
that he has told it, is ready to swear that this is the case etc., the analyst's 
own conviction of the contrary becoming in the meantime all the stronger. 
It would of course be quite unpsychological to attempt to settle this dif- 
ference by mere strength of assuramce or violence of protestation. Such 
feelings of confidence in the accuracy of one's memory have, as we arc well 
aware, no objective value, and since one of the two persons must necessarily 
be in error, it may just as well be the analyst as the patient who is guilty 
of the paramnesia. The analyst must admit this, break ofl* the discussion and 
wait till a later occasion for an opportunity of settling the matter. 

*'In a minority of cases the analyst will then remember to have heard 
the communication in question and will discover at the same time the sub- 
jective, often far-fetched, motive responsible for his temporary forgetfulness. 
In the great majority of cases, however, it is the patient who was mistaken 
and who can also be brought to recognise his mistake. The explanation of 
this frequent occurrence seems to be that the patient has in reality had 
the intention of making the communication in question, that he has on one or 
more occasions actually made some preparatory remarks for this purpose, 
but has then been prevented by the resistance from carrying out his intent- 
ion, and at a later date confuses the intention with the execution of what 
be had intended". 

Further, mention should be made in this review of a work, which as 
regards the technique described therein, cannot properly be considered as 
constituting an advance; this is Simmel's treatise on War Neuroses and 

r x|,i\i.^ Original fix..... 

:3y^.:-UUglC UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



294 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

Psychic Trauma (20). The treatment here used may be regarded as equi- 
valent to the cathartic method, and, like this latter, involves the use of 
hypnosis. SimmeKs results, however, are in complete agreement with the 
psycho-analytic theory of the neuroses, his little book being therefore of 
special interest to the psycho-analyst. 

With regard to the activity of the physician in charge of an analysis, 
Freud (12) considers it an important fundamental rule that the treatment be 
carried out as far as possible in a state of abstinence or deprivation; pre* 
mature attempts at substitute-gratification must not be permitted. So far as 
his relation to the analyst is concemtd, the patient must be content to 
remain with many of his desires unfulfilled Freud considers it probable that 
in the future less wealthy patients will be treated by psycho-analytic 
methods in special clinics established for this purpose; though the pure gold 
of analysis may have to be frei ly adulterated with the dross of suggestion, 
hypnosis being also resorted to in this connection. 

A strict analysis, and one calculated to be of service in the advance of 
our theoretical knowledge, cannot however be regarded as correctly finished 
(14) until the amnesia whi^ h conceals the early experiences of childhood 
(from about the second to the fifth year of life) has been removed. 



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by 
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• Translated by Sybil C, Porter. 



3y Google 



OrfgfrTaffrom 
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



GENERAL THEORY OF THE NEUROSES 



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60. IBid: 



The third part of the Introductory Lectures on Psycho-Analysis by Freud 
under the title Allgemeine Neurosenlehre (15) is the most comprehensive 
work on the Psycho-Analytical method of dealing with the neuroses that has 
yet appeared. The paper on Psycho-Analysis and Psychiatry deals with the 
apparent contradiction conveyed in the fact that while psychiatry refers the 
aetiology of the psychoses almost entirely to inherited impulses and Psycho- 
Analysis includes and lays stress on the importance of experience, and shows 



3y Google 



Orfginaffrom 
UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



GENERAL THEORY OF THE NEUROSES 297 

that these views are not contradictory, as might appear, but are comple- 
mentary one to the other. And Freud predicts that in the near future a 
scientific psychiatry will not be tenable without a knowledge of the unconscious 
mental processes. 

The significance of the symptom stands in relation to the experience of 
the patient and must therefore be proved historically. The task of Psycho- 
Analysis is therefore to find the past experiences in which the senseless idea 
acquires meaning and the purposeless action an aim. This holds good with 
''individual symptoms" but there are also **typical symptoms" in all cases 
that are so similar that it is not possible to refer them back to a single per- 
sonal experience; the personal historical meaning is in such cases insufficient. 
For instance all sufferers from compulsion neuroses show the same 
tendencies to repetition, to perform rhythmical actions, and to isolate 
themselves. The same features appear in wearisome monotony in anxiety 
neuroses: /. e. fear of enclosed places, open spaces and long streets. It i« 
remarkable that the analysis of the same hysterical symptom in different 
cuses uncovers such a complete dissimilarity of affective experience. 

We are forced to consider that the basis of the typical symptom is only 
to be explained in reference to an experience that is common to all men. 
The next lecture describes the fixation as an attachment to a definite part 
of the past and as incapacity to get released. This is a general and a very 
important feature of every neurosis; the traumatic neuroses demonstrate this 
nature of the fixation, sufferers from neuroses being unable to free them- 
selves from the impulse active at the moment that the shock was experien- 
ced; it is as though they had **not finished" with the traumatic situation 
and were under an obligation to carry it to a conclusion. An experience is 
traumatic when the mind receives suddenly so violent a stimulus that a dis- 
charge or reaction is unsuccessful by the usual normal methods, the result 
being that the affect is stored and persists. The traumatic moment can be 
discovered in every neurosis by analysis. For a fixation to function neuroti- 
cally, it is essential that the trauma causing the disease become "unconscious". 
Merely to communicate the meaning of the symptom to the patient very 
rarely results in a cure; the knowledge must be experienced by the patient 
himself during the treatment together with the affect belonging to it. Un- 
consciousness of the meaning of the neurotic symptom is safeguarded by 
amnesia (hysteria) or by the destruction of the connecting links between the 
retained memories (compulsion neurosis). The **whence" of the symptom 
disappears in the first case and remains conscious in the latter; the ''where- 
fore" of the symptom, its tendency and the purpose that it serves, remain 
unconscious in both cases. The resistance of the patient to the cure is an 
unexpected and improbable fact which nevertheless is revealed by Psycho- 
Analysis. The whole purpose of analysis is to overcome this resistance. Since 
Hypnosis has dropped out of the psycho-analytic technique, the dynamic 
conception of the formation of the neurotic symptom has come to be accepted. 
The resistance shows a fluctuation during the cure running parallel to the 
fluctuation of the reaction to the emergence of new problems. This is de- 
monstrated in the most remarkable way in the vacillation of the intellectual 
cooperation of the patient. We only get a clear concept of the theory of 

r 1^. —.qinalfi"..... 

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298 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

repression when we proceed from the purely descriptive meaning of the 
word "unconscious" to the systematic (topical) unconscious (ubw.). An idea 
is **repressed** when the censor prohibits the- progress from the system **un- 
conscious'* (ubw.), to the system "preconscious" (vbw.). The "censor** is identi- 
cal with that power which as "resistance" attempted to hinder the progress 
of the cure. The neurotic symptom is a substitute for something that has 
been hindered by repression. This something is in every single instance, as 
the analysis of numberless cases shows, sexual gratification; that is to say, 
symptoms are disguised fulfilments of sexual impulses. All suflTerers from 
transference neuroses, hysteria and compulsion, are ill because gratification 
of their sexual desires is denied them in reality. Part of the symptom acts 
as a defence against these sexual efforts, so that in hysteria the positive 
wish-fulfilling character predominates and in compulsion neurosis the negative 
and ascetic. Another part of the symptom is the compromise formation, the 
issue of two opposing forces; this symptom occurs frequently in hysteriat 
in compulsion neurosis the two parts are separated and appear in the dual 
action of positive and negative. 

The next lecture is on human sex life and deals with the sexual theory 
of Freud, giving amongst other things, an explanation of the so-called per- 
versions. Paranoia proceeds regularly from the defence against over-strong 
homosexual desires. All perverse desires find expression in hysteria, which 
endeavours to substitute other organs for the genitalia, these organs then bc^ 
have as substitute genitalia, particularly the organs of nourishment and 
excretion. 

The compulsion neurotic symptoms have for their aim a sadistic gratifi- 
cation, which is sometimes directed against the self (self-torture), or certain 
activities are over-strongly sexualised which would normally belong to the 
fore-pleasure (seeing, touching, peeping and particularly masturbation). 

The sexual need, denied its normal path, is thrown upon abnormal ways. 
The importance of perversions in neuroses is easy to explain when we learn 
that they are only a return to infantile gratifications, the memory of which 
is hidden from the majority by the veil of amnesia. 

The following chapter deals with the concept of sexual organisation, 
consolidated with that early infantile sexuality organ-erotism (auto-erotism) 
namely the oral and the sadistic-anal pregenital organisation, then with the 
processes of object finding and the (Edipus Complex of the child, this im- 
portant source of the sense of guilt in the neurotic. Reference is made hero 
to "Totem and Taboo'* where Freud has enlarged upon his theory that the 
(Edipus Complex is not only of importance as the nuclear complex of the 
neurotic but that perhaps humanity as a whole drew its sense of guilt, that 
ultimate source of religion and morality, from the (Edipus Complex. 

The infantile love-object is the prototype of the valid love-object in 
puberty when the release from the parents should take place. The neurotic 
cannot effect this release: the son remains under the authority of the father 
the whole of his life and cannot transfer his Libido from his mother to a 
strange sex-object. 

The lecture that follows opens up fresh points of view on development 
and regression. There are two dangers that beset the path of the developing 

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GENERAL THEORY OF THE NEUROSES 299 

Libido, obstruction and regression. The obstructed development is frequently 
only the consequence of normal organic variations in individuals which retard 
progress in the early stages. If a partial sexual impulse remains at an earlier 
stage it is termed fixation in psycho-analytical nomenclature. The second 
danger is that the parts that have developed further are easily turned back 
to one of the earlier stages; this is the danger of regression. The stronger 
the fixation the sooner will the function give way before outside difficulties 
and regress to the stage of the fixation; strong fixations also denote au 
enfeebled power of adaptability. 

There are two kinds of regression, the reoccupation of the Libido with 
the first (incestuous) love-object and the retxim of the entire sexual organi- 
sation to an earlier stage. It is important not to confuse the concepts of 
regression and repression. The concept of repression is purely psychologi- 
cal (topical, dynamic), and independent of sexuality in principle. Regression, 
on the contrary, is biological and descriptive. 

Among the transference neuroses hysteria shows the repression of the 
Libido to the primary incestuous love-object, but practically no regression to 
an earlier sexual organisation; the part that repression plays in this mechanism 
is all the more important. In other words the sexual organisation of the 
hysteric continues undisturbed to the full development of the genital zone, 
but this last function is repressed, which gives an appearance of an imper- 
fectly developed genital organisation. In compulsion neuroses, on the con- 
trary, the Libido regresses to the anal-sadistic organisation and at the same 
time regression of the love-object takes place, therefore the anal-sadistic 
desire is incestuous. It goes without saying that repression alone gives these 
desires a neurotic character; regression of Libido without repression is per- 
version without neurosis. 

After this theoretical introduction and the definitions of concepts, Freud 
proceeds to unravel the problem of the aetiology of the neuroses. He refers 
first to the denial of gratification and remarks that this is not a cause of 
disease in all men, and that many ways of escape stand open for the healthy 
(substitute-gratification, sublimation). The amount of ungratified Libido that 
a man can endure has its limits; the more incomplete the normal sexual or- 
ganisation is, the stronger and more numerous will the Libido fixations be 
on earlier organisations or love-objects, and all the sooner will the amount 
of ungratified Libido show evidences of a pathological condition. The fixation 
of the Libido represents the disposing internal factor and the denial of grati- 
fication the accidental external factor in the aetiology of the neuroses. As a 
third, quantitatively indefinite factor, Freud cites the adhesive quality of the 
Libido, L #. the difficulty with which a method of gratification is given up 
or exchanged for another; this factor is however not specifically neurotic, it 
plays a large part in normality and particularly in perversions. 

A further complication of the problem arises from the psychical conflict 
of opposing wish-impulses; without such a conflict there would be no neu- 
rosis. This conflict may, under certain circumstances, result in the formation 
of symptoms, which are nothing else but discredited forms of gratification 
returned by indirect paths in disguised forms. The psychical conflict repre- 
sents the inner "deniar* and onlv when it is associated with an outer 

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300 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

"refusar* docs the latter become pathogenic. Freud thinks it probable that in 
the earlier days of man's development the inner "denial" sprang originally 
from outer actual impediments. The powers that occasion these refusals arc 
the non-sexual instinctive tendencies, which Freud calls collectively the 
Ego-impulses, the pathogenic conflict is waged between these and the sexual 
impulses. 

Particular emphasis is laid here on the significance that Psycho-Analysis 
attaches to the non-sexual tendencies in the aetiology of the neuroses, 
although it must be allowed that Psycho-Analysis has not been able to 
investigate the stages of development of the Ego so narrowly as has been 
done with those of Libido. The little we know of it we owe to research into 
the mechanism of the so-called narcissistic neuroses (paranoia, schizo- 
phrenia) except for an attempt at the reconstruction of the Ego development, 
which is, however, purely theoretical. Normally there exists a certain parallelism 
between the phases of development of the Ego and the Libido; this corre- 
spondence could be destroyed by a pathogenic force when the Ego would 
react with repression and fixation upon the non-corresponding organisation or 
Libido stage. The third factor of the aetiology of the neuroses, i. e. the 
tendency to conflict, is as dependent upon the Ego as upon the Libido. 

The complete formula of the aetiology runs, therefore, as follows: the 
most general condition of development of neuroses is the denial which 
witholds the aim and love object from the Libido; the fixation collects the 
detached Libido into certain primitive levels; the conflict bias of the Ego 
development tends to draw jiway from these archaic tendencies so that they 
can only appear in disguised forms as symptoms. One can guess the ••ways 
of symptom formation". Because of outer and inner denial the Libido meets 
with regression, the Ego, striving against this regression, takes away every 
possibility of gratification, and the Libido flows back to the fixation levels 
of earlier happier times. The memory traces of these primitive fixated 
methods of gratification belong to the unconscious system and are governed by 
its psychical processes (displacement, condensation): nevertheless, the oppo- 
sition raised by the Ego against the expression of Libido activities continues 
in the unconscious as **counter-charge" and forces it to choose such ex- 
pression as is compatible with the aims of the Libido and the Ego-ideal. 
•'The symptom appears as a many-sided disguised issue of unconscious 
libidinous wish-fulfilment; an ingeniously selected double meaning, with two 
widely dissimilar interpretations." The censorship of wish-fulfilment is much 
more powerful in the symptom than in the dream. 

The significance of childhood is twofold: on the one tide wc have the 
innate tendencies of inherited instincts and on the other the first experiences 
at the most impressionable age. 

The factors involved are sexual constitution and infantile experience, 
which form, one with the other, a •'complementary whole". As, however, the 
infantile experiences act regressively in neuroses one might come to the 
conclusion that at the time they held no real meaning. This is incorrect. 
The careful study of childhood neuroses, ''the infantile neuroses", shows 
these experiences in full activity. Such infantile neuroses arc absent in the 
minority of adult neurotics, they appear usually L7,.^l;i,9.Xci^,9f anxiety-hysteria 
:)yi.:-UOgk- UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



GENERAL THEORY OF THE NEUROSES 301 

and cither gradually merge into the "greater neurosis'* or arc separated 
from it by a period of mental health. 

Symptoms are, as stated above, substitute gratifications, "they recall in 
some manner early infantile forms of gratification disguised by the censor 
during previous conflict tuned as a rule to the sensibility of the malady and 
mingled with elements from the inducing cause of the illness." They lose sight 
of the object and thereby get out of touch with reality, turning back at 
the same time to a form of enlarged auto-erotism, retreating to an earlier 
phylogenetic stage, and adapting themselves to the alteration of their own 
bodies in place of the alterations of the outside world, finally bringing the 
aims of the Libido under the sway of the displacement and condensation 
processes of the unconscious. 

The infantile sexual experiences produced by patients under analysis arc 
in great part phantasy; reality and phantasy are of equal value according 
to the neurotic standard, the psychic reality only being of worth. Some of 
these phantasies appear with surprising frequency, such as phantasies of witnessing 
parental coitus, threats of castration, or of seduction. In many cases the reality 
of these remembrances can, with every probability, be discredited, which fact 
is immaterial to the pathogenic significance of the phantasies. These primitive 
phantasies are phylogenetic, the imaginative child fills up the gaps of indi- 
vidual truth with prehistoric truth; in the primitive history of mankind these 
experiences (castration, witnessing coitus, and seduction) were realities. 
Unconscious phantasies and day-dreams are the source of the nciirotic 
symptom as well as of the night dream. The Libido only needs to draw back 
the phantasy in order to find the path to the repressed fixations. The Ego is 
much more tolerant in phantasy than in reality and endures otherwise forbidden 
sexual qualities if they do not take the upper hand quantitatively. 

The over-charging of the phantasy world by the quantity of Libido is 
termed "introversion" and is the threshold of symptom formation. A purely 
dynamic (qualitative) conception of the mental processes during symptom- 
formation is insufficient to complete the picture; it needs the introduction 
of the quantity of the energy, i. e. the economic point of view. 

Regarded from the economic standpoint neurotic symptom formation is 
a failure, mental effort and incentive is so overpowered that the accumulated 
"pain" (UnfusO is piled up. 

The difference between the neurotic and the artist is as follows: the artist 
is an invert but not so far as to be neurotic. He possesses the puzzling 
capabihty of moulding material so that it becomes a representation of his 
phantasy; thus he fmds a way back to reality and to some extent at least 
he is saved from neurosis. 

The lecture on "General Nervousness" is in opposition to the theory 
of Adler who holds that "nervous character" is the origin and not the result 
of neurosis. The behaviour of the nervous led Adler to overlook the great 
significance of the Libido and he judged of the circumstances as they appeared 
to the Ego of the patient. As the Ego is the power that represses sexuality 
and denies the unconscious its gratification, the issue on those points is 
a negative one. It is as though one installed the victorious faction as judge 

in a dispute. As a matter of fact wc can leiim i).otbing,-Q(. -the. "nervous 

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302 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

character'* from the study of the symptom formation of the Ego> but from 
the study of the "narcissistic" neuroses. However, the observation of cases 
of traumatic neuroses shows us a self-seeking Ego-motive striving after pro- 
tection and gain; this motive does not induce the malady but acquiesces in it 
and accepts it when it has come to pass. Every non-traumatic neurotic 
symptom is also bound up with the Ego because it has an aspect which 
affords satisfaction to the repressed Ego instincts; furthermore, every symptom 
formation is only too convenient to egotism in that it is a pain-sparing 
process. These are examples of the "inner gain" for the Ego obtained from 
the neuroses. There are also cases in which the "flight into sickness*' means 
the mildest form of relieving the conflict, so that even the physician shrinks 
from interference. However, in most cases the advantages of the so-called 
exterior gain from sickness are much too small when one compares them 
with the suff'ering entailed and the inherent disadvantages. At any rate 
a neurosis of long standing acquires a secondary functioning that strengthens 
its stability and presents stronger resistances to its cure. 

In the following exposition we find a short summary of all that Freud has 
added to the elucidation of the actual-neuroses (neurasthenia, anxiety-neurosis, 
hypochondria). These are described as being the direct somatic results of 
sexual disturbances and the analogy of poisoning is suggested. It is repeatedly 
stated that the "system of Psycho-Analysis is in reality a superstructure that 
should always be traced back to its organic basis". The symptom of actual- 
neurosis is often the nucleus and the first stage of psycho-n<.\irotic symptoms. 
The foundation of anxiety-hysteria is usually anxiety-neurosis, that of con- 
version-hysteria is neurasthenia, and that of paraphrenia is hypochondria. 

The lecture on "Anxiety" presents a whole series of highly important 
explanations. Psycho-Analysis diff"erentiates between real anxiety, which is 
both a rational reaction to an exterior danger and an expression of the 
instinct of self-preservation (flight-reflex), and neurotic anxiety that appears 
either with no motive or an insufficient one. On further consideration the 
judgement on the suitability of real anxiety must be revised. Only the motor 
reaction, the flight from danger, is rational; the condition of anxiety itself 
is inappropriate, particularly when it acts as an inhibition. The condition of 
anxiety is only appropriate so long as it confines itself to a single action, 
a signal to "be prepared"; each demonstration of anxiety is, to tpso^ 
inappropriate. This inappropriate aff"ect is, according to Freud's view, a 
repetition of a significant traumatic experience phylogenetically fixed from 
infantile days. The birth act combines this group of unpleasurable sensations, 
feelings of being carried away and other physical sensations that form an 
eff^ectual prototype for being in peril of one's life, and is repeated as 
a condition of anxiety. (In connection with this Freud refers to the signi* 
ficant analogy between aff'ect and conversion hysteria. The hysterical attack 
is newly formed individual afl^ect, the normal aflective expression of a general 
hysteria, which has become an inheritance; both depend upon reminiscence.) 

Neurotic anxiety takes three forms: 1. General nervous anxiety (anxious 
expectancy, anxiety-neurosis); 2. Phobia; 3. An attack of anxiety. 

The anxious expectancy is the result of frustrated sexual excitement or 
1 hindered sexual satisfaction and appears wiiii liie heaping up of Libido* 

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GENERAL THEORY OF THE NEUROSES 303 

We learn by the analysis of hysterics that affect, hindered in its normal 
reaction, is converted into anxiety. "Anxiety is the common currency against 
which all emotional aff^ect is, or can be, exchanged when the ideational 
content which belongs to it has been interdicted by repression." The symptoms 
of obsessional neuroses, as well as of the hysterical phobias, are instrumental 
in avoiding an anxiety condition that would otherwise be unavoidable. All 
neurotic anxiety symbolises physiological sexual emotion abnormally con- 
verted (anxiety-neurosis) or the repression of psycho-sexual emotion (anxiety- 
hysteria). It is very difficult to discover the relations between actual and 
neurot c anxiety. The idea is forcibly presented to us that in neurotic 
anxiety the ego attempts to flee from its L bido in a manner similar to the 
effort of actual anxiety to flee from external danger. While according to 
Adler's theory of "inferiority" a child is nervous because it brings with it 
at birth an enhanced degree of helpless anxiety before external danger, the 
lib do theory of anxiety holds that these children have an innate tendency 
to libidinous demands to an enhanced degree or in consequence of being 
over-indulged possess Libido that is unrealisable and becomes converted into 
anxiety. In the case of phobias a very small external danger will represent 
demands of the Libido. In the development of anxiety it is necessary in 
every case that the demands of the Libido be repressed (unconscious) or 
unsatisfied (free-floating); Libido is never converted into anxiety so long as 
its claims remain in the conscious mind. 

"The Libido Theory of Narcissism" stands in opposition to that of Jung 
who generalises the term Libido and confounds the concept with that of energy. 
Freud has regard to the biological duality of the essence of life and draws 
a strict dividing line between the ego-instincts and sexual instincts (Libido). 
The researches of Freud and Abraham on the psychology of Dementia 
Praecox and later the research of Freud on Paranoia, have made it possible 
to formulate an Ego psychology psycho-analytically, while the transference 
neuroses only allow of the opportunity to analyse the Libido psychology. 
It is now accepted that the later object-love has always a threshold stage, 
the narcissistic, when all Libido (bodily and mental) belongs to the Ego, 
and where the Elgo is itself the object. In physical sickness and in sleep 
(which is only a nightly reproduction of the intra- uterine state) this narcissistic 
stage recurs. On falling in love, on the contrary, nearly all the transferable 
Libido is directed on the object so that the Ego is practically emptied of Libido. 
The Ego can be free of libidinous charge without losing its function of 
usefulness. The Ego projects its (narcissistic) Libido in order that it may 
not fall sick from storing it unduly. The process of withdrawing the Libido 
from the object into the Ego and barring the way of its return, as in 
hypochondria and paraphrenia, is similar to the process of repression; 
the fixations of which the narcissistic neuroses make use by this method of 
"repression" are much earlier stages of development than in hysteria or 
obsessional neurosis. The most obvious symptoms of Dementia Praecox 
symbolise the endeavour to get back to the object /. e. the representation 
of the object The only thing they succeed in doing is to arrive at the 
unconscious "word" while the unconscious "thing" that belongs to it 
remains beyond their reach. With the narcissistic neuroses the resistance 

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304 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

ap^ainst the healing tendencies are irresistible, because transference is either 
lacking or is too dangerous. 

In spite of this the symptoms can be unravelled on the basis of psycho* 
analytical experience gained from the transference neuroses. 

A short statement of the psycho-analytical theory of paranoia and 
melancholia closes the clinical section of this lecture which concludes with 
the assertion that all neurotic maladies, from the simplest actual neurosis 
to the most severe psychic estrangement of the individual, can be traced back 
to a heaping up of the libidinous factor of mental life. 

The lecture on "Transference** commences with some severe criticism 
on "wild psycho-analysts** who erroneously identify the doctrine of "free 
living** and Psycho-Analysis. They forget that the pathological conflict of the 
neurotic takes place between two impulses that are not localised on the 
same (psychic) levels; a comparison between them and any connection by 
the aid of reason is not possible without previously bringing the repressed 
thoughts to consciousness; a decision on the conduct of life of a neurotic can 
never precede a course of psycho-analysis but follows after it and comes 
about during the analysis by itself without any particular advice from the 
doctor. The patient can then decide upon a sublimation of the impulse or 
upon a possible substitute gratification. 

Everyone who would understand or practice Psycho-Analysis should study 
these lectures of Freud*s with the most careful attention. 



Another work of Freud's entitled "The History of the Psycho-Analytical 
Movement** (16) is so enlightening that some of the points must be quoted. 
The question of what is Psycho-Analysis and what has no right to the name 
receives here a definite reply that cannot be misunderstood. "Every branch 
of research which acknowledges the two facts of transference and resistance 
and takes them as a nucleus of their work is entitled to the name of Psycho- 
Analysis'*. Regarded from this standpoint a judgement can be formed on the 
two dissentient movements that have developed within the ranks of Psycho- 
Analysis. 

While Psycho-Analysis only intends to stand as an augmentation and 
supplement to knowledge gained by others, Alfred Adler lays claim to a 
complete theory of human mental life; he endeavours to explain neuroses 
and the character and behaviour of man under the same heading. His theory 
was a finished system from the first, whereas Psycho-Analysis has always 
explicitly disclaimed such finality for itself. Adler's theory consists of three 
elements of unequal value: 1. Valuable additions on the psychology of the 
Ego. 2. Translation of analytical facts into a new jargon. 3. Misrepresentation 
and perversion of the true meaning of these facts. 

The good material deals with the egoistical adjunct to the libidinous 

instinctive impulses as they are valued by Psycho-Analysis. While, however, 

Psycho-Analysis has always acknowledged in principle the actuality and the 

'crnificance of egoistical impulses and has taken them into individual account 

f^nonl^ Orrgmaffnonn 

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GENERAL THEORY OF THE NEUROSES 305 

whenever possible, Adler denies whenever he can all connection between 
the Libido and the Ego-impulses, and this to such an extent that he finally 
maintains that the desire to be superior is the strongest incentive to the 
sex act, and states that the psycho-analyst is so easily deceived as to be 
taken in by the deliriums of neuj-otics, believing their sexual phantasies to be 
the real thing. The Adler theory, founded entirely on the impulse of aggres- 
sion, leaves no room for love. The stimulus of the persc*i al gain from sick- 
ness that has been given its proper place in Psycho-Analysis plays the chief 
part in Adler's teaching on the neuroses. 

Another part of his teaching is nothing else but a kind of ''secondary 
elaboration" of pure psycho-analytical doctrines. Instead of the phrase 
"protective measures" he uses "security"; instead of "phantasy", "fiction". 
The "masculine protest" of Adler is nothing else but repression released 
from psychological mechanism and considered in sexual terms, in remarkable 
opposition to the previous assertions of asexuality. At the same time the 
passive and feminine impulsive activities, which certainly cannot be 
explained by the aggressive instinct, are disregarded, and the biological, social 
and psychological senses of the masculine are confounded. Then follows mis- 
representation and perversion of psycho-analytical facts conveyed in conclusions 
which have no therapeutic value. In the light of Adler's concept, neurosis is 
only a side-issue of the general disease of organ inferiority, while daily 
observation teaches us that malformations may be accompanied by complete 
mental health. The unconscious plays an unimportant part with Adler. He 
does not refer to the system and cites the "nervous temperament" as a 
psychological peculiarity. The infantile impulses which are such an important 
part of psycho-analytical doctrine appear as the inferior feeling of the child. 
The mechanism of the symptom and phenomena, the basis of the many- 
sidedness of the symptom, receive no attention whatsoever. From all this 
it is clear that this form of teaching has nothing to do with Psycho-Analysis. 
In consequence the title Psycho-Analysis has been dropped and that of 
"Individual Psychology" adopted. Although radically false, the Adler doctrine 
is consequent, coherent and based upon a theory of instinct. Jung*s modi- 
fication, on the contrary, has confounded the connection of the phenomena and 
the instinctive life. Jung and his followers join issue with Psycho-Analysis 
on a fresh count. They state that in individuals the materials of sexual 
concepts can be changed to represent the highest religious and ethical 
interests; in other words, they describe special cases of sublimation. They 
do not say, however, that sexual impulses can be changed into asexual 
ones, but that these complexes contain from the start something "higher" 
and have an anagogic meaning; this links on easily to abstract thought- 
processes which are more allied to ethics and religious mysticism than to 
natural science. Even the CEdipus complex is not real but only to be con- 
sidered "symbolically". The Mother stands for the "unattainable" which has 
to be renounced in the interests of the progress of civilisation; the Father, 
who is murdered in the myth, is the "internal father" from whom one must 
free oneself in order to gain independence. The conflict between the Ego 
and the Libido takes place according to Jung between the ''Life Task" and 
"Psychic Inertia". Individual inquiry is rcpressed^by. Jungs technique: it 

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306 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

prescribes that as little time as possible be devoted to the past and that 
the chief stress be laid upon the actual conflict. This turning away from the 
past is an admission by Jung and his followers that the sexual represen- 
tations in drt* ams and in neuroses are nothing but archaic methods of expression 
of higher thought and that they no longer carry libidinous elements. 

Jung's modification appears as such a misrepresentation of Freudian 
doctrines that in bearing the title of Psycho-Analysis it is guilty of a 
kind of mimicry. The fact that Adler and Jung were for so long ardent 
followers of Freud and have since seceded from him, finds its explanation 
in analogous phenomena in analysis. Experience shows that the total rejec- 
tion of analytical knowledge does not proceed only from the surface but 
also from every deeper level in which a particularly strong resistance is 
found. 



A communication of clinical psychiatry (18) gives the important fact that 
the development of the Libido can proceed in a normal direction even from 
the basis of a pathological fixation. A female paranoiac whose feelings have 
been aroused by her own sex» and whose halluc.natory ideas were first in 
connection with female persons, can Sv ek and find the way to the male with 
that portion of Libido which has kept sane, namely the developed unfixated 
portion, so that the hallucinatory ideas would be projected on to a man* 
Also the so-called neurasthenic can be kept from the incestuous love-object 
by his unconscious ties, and take a strange woman as love-object, his sexual 
activities being confined to the phantasy. He can carry out his desires on 
the basis of phantasy and substitute a strange object for the mother or 
sister. The conflict between the creative instincts does not cease after the 
symptom that forms a compromise has been established, but continues in 
connection with the symptom itself. The progressive tendency tries to free 
the individual from the symptom, the regressive to hold fast to it. This 
latter tendency which Jung designates simply as "Psychic Inertia'* is nothing 
short of what Psycho-Analysis calls a fixation: that is, the expression of 
instinctive practices that have been followed in earlier years and which are 
very hard to get free from, together with impressions and the objects con- 
tained in them which have brought the further dev«.lopment of this part of 
the instinct to a standstill. 



The most important article in Freud's series on Meta-Psychology Is that 
on "Repression" (20). We learn from it that this process consists of two 
acts chronologically separated. The first condition of the repressive process 
is that at some time a primal repression must have occurred, that is to say, 
the ideational representation of an mstinct must have denied the acceptance 
into consciousness. This results in a fixation. The second phase is repvession. 
Properly speaking, it is an after-repression that concerns the issue of a 

r I . Orfgmaffnom 

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GENERAL THEORY OF THE NEUROSES 807 

repressed idea that has escaped into consciousness or such thought-traces 
so closely associated to it that they incur the same fate with which the 
primally repressed idea has met. It concerns, therefore, hot only a thrusting out 
from consciousness but also the attractive force of the primal repression. The 
repressive process only nullifies the consciousness of the ideas, they continue 
their organising qualities and form fresh associations. If the associations are 
■ufTiciently distant from the n pressed idea th<y can enter consciousness in 
spite of tiieir connection. During psycho-analysis these connected ideas are 
produced by free association. Neurotic symptoms are also to be understood 
as issuing from the same repressed ideas but in transformed and distant guise. 
The repressed material heaps up a continual pressure towards consciousness 
which must be balanced by an equal pressure in the opposite direition, 
entailing an expenditure of energy the release of which constitutes an 
economic saving. Repression concerns the representation of an instinct, and 
the adherent affect will either be completely repressed or changed into 
anxiety. In the latter event the repression has failed The neurotic symptom 
is not caused by repression but by the return of the repressed which thwarts 
the motive of the repression /. 0. the avoidance of "pain**. In anxiety- 
hysteria (Animal Phobia, lor instance) the substitute formation occurs on the 
part of the displacement (Father- Animal), but the "pain" is first guarded 
against by another process of repression, an avoidance (Phobia). In conversion- 
hysteria the ideal content ot the instinct representation is completely hidden 
from consciousness, the symptom consists of a purely somatic innervation, 
an over-strung emotion or inhibition which has drawn the entire "charge** 
on to itself by condensation. This process of repression puts an end to its 
activity; in hysteria there is no second phase as in phobia. In compulsion- 
neurosis the repression works as always by the withdrawal of the Libido belong- 
ing to the sadistic-anal-erotic impulses; the substitute consists of a reaction- 
formation, the increase of conscientiousness, that is the displacement of 
interest on to the opposite of what had been the aim of the Libido. This 
repression, however, also fails and symptoms form, social anxiety, scruples 
and self-reproach, in which the repressed affect returns; the rejected idea 
adso returns in a displacement-substitute (often as a displacement on to a 
diminutive). Finally there is the reaction of flight by taboo and prohibition 
as in hysterical phobia which continues in a never-ending and purposeless 
cycle. The one thing that every activity of repression has in common is the 
warding off ot ideas from consciousness which prevents the motor-activity 
of the impulses and the possibility of their coming into action. 

Freud's treatise on the Unconscious (21) deals with the repressive pro- 
cesses from the topical, dynamic, and economic aspects. The question when 
and how affect can become unconscious is answered by Freud that this is 
only possible by inhibiting its discharge. All the forces at the command of 
repression are exhausted in causing an idea to become unconscious and in 
inhibiting the discharge of the affect connected with it. By the act of 
repression the affect is severed Irom the idea and both go their several 
ways independently; thus stands the definition of repression. Actually the 
affect never comes to expression until it can break through to a fresh sub* 
stitute in the conscious system. For .repression to take dfeciitiis necessary 

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308 COLLECnVE REVIEWS 

that a counter-charge is exercised by the pre-conscious which protects this 
system against pressure from the unconscious idea. The primal repression is 
nothing but counter-charge, the actual repression comes from the with- 
drawal of the pre-conscious charge. 

In anxiety-hysteria an unconscious love-impulse strives to enter the fore- 
conscious; the pre-conscious charge draws back as though in flight before 
it; whereupon the Libido remaining in the unconscious is converted into 
anxiety. On the repetition of the anxiety development the fleeing charge 
links on to the displacement substitute which takes up the position of 
counter-charge. Hereafter the anxiety proceeds from the substitute idea, and 
develops all the stronger from that point. The further task of stemming the 
anxiety development falls to an outpost formed from the associated ideas of 
the substitute idea: this is charged with a peculiar intensity and possesses 
a high degree of sensitivity against excitation: the excitation of the most 
distant part of this outpost acts as an anxiety signal that serves to stem the 
pressure of the charge towards the substitute idea. In this way the idea is 
practically isolated from other, unconscious ideational contents. The more 
strongly the impulse presses from the unconscious, the larger must be the 
circle of anxiety signal ideas round about the substitute idea to bar the way 
to the phobia taboo. The substitute idea acts as counter-charge in opposition 
to the (repressed) unconscious idea, the phobia outpost as counter-charge to 
the substitute idea. This mechanism of defence projects the mner danger in- 
stinct outwards, in that the menace is changed into an external one. 

In conversion-hysteria the entire impulse-charge is condensed from the 
unconscious into a somatic symptom that at the same time acts as counter- 
charge to the defence or punishment efforts of the conscious system. In 
compulsion neuroses the counter-charge appears most significantly in the 
foreground of the reaction formation. 

Repression acts most successfully in hysteria, perhaps because the de- 
fence system also provides a path of discharge, while in anxiety-hysteria and 
compulsion neuroses the defence only consists of counter-charge which pro- 
vides but small opportunity for discharge, an inferior protection against the 
anxiety development. 

The abstraction of the conscious charge, the attempt at flight by the 
Ego, succeeds much better in the so-called narcissistic neuroses (dementia- 
praecox, paranoia) than with the transference neuroses, as the instinct-charge 
is completely withdrawn from the spots that lepresetat the unconscious 
object-idea* 



In the •* 'Metapsychological* Supplement to the Theory of Dreams** (22) 
Freud gives fresh information on that important problem, the genesis of 
hallucination. From the general part of his "Interpretation of Dreams** we 
learnt that when psychical excitation is inhibited by an interruption from that 
pursuing a normal course from the unconscious to the conscious, and affect 
is in consequence dammed up so that regression takes place, it can enter 
perception as counter-charge of the raw material of unconscious memory 

r . Original from 

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GENERAL THEORY OF THE NEUROSES 309 

traces; this would be hallucination. As there are, however, other methods of 
re-experiencing these memory-traces (as for instance recollection) Freud was 
obliged to take into consideration that for hallucination to come a specific 
interruption was necessary in the capacity for reality tests. The organ by 
which the test can be applied is in the conscious (perceptual) system; it 
holds the function of giving information as to whether a psychical stimulus 
comes from within (/. r. from the psychical memory system) or from without 
(from perception). Our whole relationship with the outside world depends 
upon this capacity. Hallucination therefore consists of a charge from the 
conscious system (perception) not as normally from the outside world but 
from the inside, in that it escapes the reality test by regression. For a 
reality test the conscious system must arrange for a motor innervation from 
which a signal will be received as to whether the stimulus can be actively 
avoided (outside stimulus) or not (inside stimulus). In hallucinatory wish- 
psychoses the Ego breaks off all connection with painful reality; thereby 
a path is opened up for the wish-phantasy away from any reality test. In 
hallucinatory psychosis, in Dementia-Praecox, the Ego of the patient is so 
split up that no reality test can hinder the hallucinations. Hallucination in the 
latter psychosis is a secondary symptom and usually appears later when the 
Libido endeavours to reach the memory-traces of the object by means of 
counter-charge. The verbigeration of Schizophrenia (charge of the residue 
of word-memories) and the projection symptoms of paranoia (persecutory 
delusions) are similar "restitution efforts" in the service of the tendency to 
dissociation. Even in the latter case it is a question of an interruption of 
the reality test: the paranoiac strives to project on to the outer world the 
internal stimulus that has become intolerable to him. Finally a glance is 
thrown at the significance that the subject of the **organ of repression" has 
for our view into the mechanism of psychical disturbances. In the dream the 
withdrawal of the charge (Libido) touches all systems equally, in the tran- 
fcrence neuroses the pre-conscious charge is withdrawn, in Schizophrenia 
that of the unconscious, in Amentia that of consciousness. 

Freud's article on ''Depression and Melancholia" (23) brings to a close 
the series of his metapsychological essays. We learn that the disposition to 
melancholia predominates in the narcissistic type of love-object, and that the 
refusal of food that is a charactenstic of the complaint can be traced back 
to a regression to the oral stage of the Libido. The self-reproaches of the 
melancholic are in reality reproaches against persons with whom the patient 
has identified himself. The (undoubtedly) pleasurable self-torture in melan- 
cholia is a gratification of sadistic and hate impulses against an object, but 
these by inversion get directed against the person of the patient. 

This sadism furnishes us with an answer to that most difficult psycho- 
pathological riddle, the suicidal tendency. We have long known that suicidal 
impulses are reversed murder impulses. The analyses of melancholia teach 
us that the Ego only desires to kill itself when it takes itself as object by 
reason of the return of the object-charge. The Ego is completely overcome 
by the object in suicide and in falling in love, though in quite different ways. 
The Ego is completely emptied of Libido by the process and the perception of 
the self in this condition explains thp delusions of poverty of the: melancholic. 



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310 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

The closing chapters discuss the psycho-analysis of Cyklothymia and Mania 
in particular, and should be read in the original. 

Freud's "One of the Difficulties of Psycho- Analysis'* (26) puts bcf« re us 
a psychological explanation of the opposition that meets psycho-analytical 
doctrine on every side (See Vol. I, p. 17 of this Journal.). 



The following notes have been gathered from Freud's work "The History 
of an Infantile Neurosis" (26). 

The analyses of children's neuroses command a special theoretical in- 
terest. They furnish proof of the uselessness of superficial interpretation of 
analytical material. The analysis of children shows "in flagrante" the enor- 
mous part that libidinous impulses play in the formation of neuroses, and 
demonstrates the absence of the aims of civilisation of which the child knows 
nothing and which therefore can have no significance for him. The profound 
analysis of the case detailed in this paper proves that a child at the tender 
age of one and a half years is actually in a condition to receive an impression 
of such a complicated process as the observation of parental c* itus, tu preserve 
the impression faithfully in the unconscious, and to reproduce the material (as 
in this case) in the fourth year, and it also proves that Psycho-Analysis is a 
procedure by means of which it is possible to bring the details of such a 
scene to consciousness in a consecutive and convincing manner decades after 
the actual occurrence. An analysis such as the preceding one is an eloquent 
argument against undervaluing the impressions of infancy. The case is fresh 
proof how necessary it is to uncover all unconscious thought processes in 
the course of an analysis without any regard as to whether they are phanta- 
sies or memories of actual experiences. 

A "curtailed procedure" would have missed the necessary connecting 
links and in consequence the correct understanding of the case. Scenes from 
such early days are not as a rule reproduced as memories but must be re- 
constructed step by step from associations. The opposers of Pschyo- Analysis 
maintain that these reconstructions are formed by the analyst and forced 
upon the patient. No decisions can be arrived at on this point so long as 
these opponents refuse to form these reconstructions themselves strictly after 
Freud's methods. Jung places the actual conflict in the foreground at the 
expense of the infantile, Freud maintains on the contrary that the influences 
from childhood make themselves felt in the very earliest stages in neuroses 
in that they determine whether and at what point the individual fails to face 
the real problems of life. 

The fact that a child can develop a neurotic condition in the fourth or 
fifth year is a proof that infantile experiences are able alone to produce a 
neurosis and one finds the cause rests with primitive instincts and not with 
higher ideals. 

The "primitive scenes" reconstructed in analysis (observation of parental 
coitus, castration threats, seduction) may be either actual experiences or 
phylogenetic inheritance. The child reaches after phylogenctic experience 
where his individual experience fails; it is, however, wrong to attempt a 
phylogenetic explanation before one has exhiiuat^,<dj,^^^p. pj^togenetic material 

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GENERAL THEORY OF THE NEUROSES 311 

(Jung has fallen into this error). The inherited phylogenctic systems, like 
the philosophical **categories*\ provide for the disposal of life impressions. 
Freud advances the theory that they are **precipitates** of the history of 
human civilisation. The system can, however, rise superior to individual ex- 
perience and take its place. An instinctive knowledge, a presage of 
approaching experience corresponding to animal instinct, operates in reaction 
to the earliest sexual impressions. This instinctive knowledge would be the 
nucleus of the unconscious, a primitive mental activity that would be over- 
shadowed by human reasoning powers but retaining the power to draw higher 
mental processes down to its own level. Repression would be the return to 
this instinctive level and man pays for his progress with the liability to neu- 
rosis, giving evidence of the existence of the earlier stage by the very possi- 
bility ol it. The significance of the early dreams of childhood lies in the 
fact that they furnish material for the unconscious that protects it from being 
absorbed by the later developments. 



Freud's work **A Child is being Beaten** (27) gives his views on the origin 
of sexual perversions. After a searching enquiry into the rise of masochistic 
perversion from the (Edipus complex, he takes the opportunity to restate 
that the motive of repression must not be sexualised as Adler asserts in his 
•*Masculine Protest**. 

'The nucleus of the unconscious mind is formed by the archaic inheri- 
tance of man and whatever is unserviceable to the furtherance of later phases 
of development or is incompatible with, and would injuriously hinder, pro- 
gress falls under the processes of repression. 

•'This selection is more successful in one group of impulses than with 
others. It is in the power of the latter, the sexual impulses, by virtue of 
particular conditions to frustrate the intentions of the repression and to en- 
force its subjugation by disturbing substitute-formations. Therefore infantile 
sexuality underlying repression is the chief impulsive force of symptom- 
formation and the essential part of its content is the CEdipus complex, 
the nuclear complex of neuroses.** 

Freud maintains that the sexual aberrations of childhood, as well as 
those of adult life, branch off from the masculine complex. 

In these sentences we find the most important of Freud's discoveries of 
the last few years. 



Abraham's enquiry into the earliest pregcnital stages of the develop- 
ment of the Libido (1) casts a cursory glance at the Freudian pregenital or- 
ganisation and then concentrates upon the study of the cannibalistic im- 
pulses in Schizophrenia. In this illness the oral zone is of greater significance 
than any other erotogenic tone. The sexual function and the taking of 
nourishment are closely associated in the act of sucking, the desire for in- 
corporation stands in conjunction with the sex-object. Then follows a general 

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312 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

characterisation of similar appetites in normal persons and in neurotics; 
attacks of ravenous appetite are often the expression of libidinous impulses. 
In many of these cases a persistent desire to suck obtains a strong influence 
in adult life, it reacts upon the behaviour and interferes with the other 
functions of the oral zone (eating and speaking). All neurotics suffer from 
ill-humour when they have to renounce an accustomed gratification of the 
oral zone and on the other hand their ill-humour is dispelled by a pleasurable 
oral gratification. Ill-humoured or excited neurotics are favourably influenced 
by the mere swallowing of some neutral medicine. The suggestive action of 
a medicine bottle lies in the fact that the unconscious retuims in the act to 
the earliest source of gratification. This is also the explanation why neu- 
rotics are so happily occupied with their diet and the art of taking food. 
The regression to the earliest stage of sexual organisation shows us the 
meaning of the refusal to eat and the fear of starvation of so many mental 
patients. Traces of this regression are also apparent in normal persons in 
declining years. In melancholia an unconscious sadistic wish is dominant in 
annihilating the love-object by devouring it. The severe self-reproach of the 
melancholic is in part due to this impulse. The so-called "lycanthropic** de- 
lusions which have for content the devouring of human beings, are yet 
clearer examples. 

The same impulses are represented in the insane in a negative 
form, /. #. the refusal of all food. The fear of starvation is the result of re- 
pression when the cannibalistic desire is converted into fear. Accounts of 
"dismemberment" in the sagas and the mythological accounts of the god 
who devoured his own children are psychological folk-lore parallels to the 
cannibalistic period of the individual to which, as we see, the neurotic so 
easily reverts. 



Abraham*s article on "Neurotic Exogamy*' (2) deals with the fact that 
many neurotics, obeying an inner urge, incline towards persons of another 
race. This inner urge has the same effect on these individuals as the open 
law of primitive people. The ethnological law and the neuro-psychological 
fact have a common basis in the dread of incest 



V. Tausk (a pupil of Freud whose valuable work has been cut short by 
an unfortunately premature death) draws our attention to the economy of the 
Psychical Processes (68). The overcoming of resistance in the course of 
a psycho-analytical cure is due to a relative depreciation in the value of the 
motive. The gain in psychical adaptability is the reward for overcoming 
resistance. The "pain" which would make for resistance becomes a means of 
profit to pleasure. The edacity of ideas for entering consciousness is decided 
according to their quality for pleasure or "pain" consequent upon the 
psychical development of the individual. According to Tausk a series of 
r 1^. ...,,M...dlfronn 

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GENERAL THEORY OF THE NEUROSES SIS 

pleasurable thoughts springs up immediately before the reproduction of an 
erotogenic conception which recompences the subject for the depreciation 
of the consciousness of self. This recompense reduces the value of the re- 
pression motive. 



A. van der Chijs* work on "Hallucination and Psycho-Analysis'* (6) de- 
scribes a case of paraphrenic hallucination that was considerably benefitted 
by a course of analysis, corroborating Freud's views on the subject, and it 
presents a theory on the modern expressionistic school of art and the psycho- 
analytical doctrine of neurosis and psychosis. These phenomena in the 
world of art, the increasing comprehension of the public, and the displace- 
ment of the old moral ideas (**not unconnected with the discoveries and 
teaching of Freud") are to a certain extent pathological excess and partly 
perhaps the "normal development" of the human mind. In consequence of 
this displacement the boundaries between sane and neurotic must be shifted 
towards the pathological. 



Leo Kaplan's book ''Psychological Problems" (39) is a collection of im- 
portant papers on general psychology in the light of Psycho-Analysis. "Re- 
pression and Psychical Polarity" connects the idea of ambi valency 
with that as expressed by Pikler — that no representation is thinkable 
without the simultaneous presence of its opposite and that it can only be 
represented by the abstraction of its opposite. 



Wc are indebted to Groddeck (29) for the first courageous endeavour to 
make use of Freudian teaching in organic medicine. The compiler suggests 
that purely organic maladies such as inflammation, tumours etc. are somatic 
reactions to psychical conflicts. However unexpected and improbable such 
suggestions may sound, they should not be cast aside ''a priori": no one who 
is convinced of the reciprocal interaction of the psychical and the physio- 
logical in psycho-analysis will consider them as impossible, though certainly 
such assurances require further and more convincing proof than is given here. 



Ortvay in a small pamphlet (61) draws attention to the remarkable 
resemblance between the laws of inheritance according to Mendel and the 
Freudian mechanism of repression. The supression of an inherited charac- 
teristic (recession) is analagous to repression. In both cases a characteristic 
is reduced to a latent condition and if it gains expression at all it is only in 
minor traits of character. Instead of ^'dominant" and "recessive" one could 
use the term "compromise formation": the latent disposition can overpower 
the dominant one (analagous with psychosis). It appears as though inherited 
entities stood in the same relation to each other as complexes do with their 

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S14 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

attendant affect. The author believes that when repression and psychical 
conflict is met with, one may presume a conflict between inherited entities. 
He invites the co-operation of psycho-analysts on the problems of inheritance. 
The psychical character traits are to be regarded as belonging to the inherited 
entities. 



Eitingon (7) points out in some detail that Jung has mistaken a biological 
ethical philosophy for psychology. 



Dr. Weissfeld (60) also blames Jung for confusing biology and psychology, 
while Freud insists upon a distinct differentiation. Weissfeld occupies himself 
with the boundary line between affect and vegetative phenomena. Jung, instead 
of explaining the irrefutable fact of the metamorphosis of affect, evades the 
question ; his **Libido" or **Wiir' is not sufficiently powerful to justify the 
transformation. The author substitutes the principles of his theory of affect 
metamorphosis. 



Adolf F. Meyer (47) presents the best criticism that has yet appeared 
on the errors of Jung's school, which is all the more noteworthy as previous 
to the latest publication of Jung Meyer could distinguish no essential difference 
between the opinions of the former and Freud. Meyer now writes of Jung that 
he lacks insight into the idea of repression and has a confused misconcep- 
tion of the unconscious, while he lacks perception for the dynamic and economic 
relations. 



Professor Janet (Paris) delivered an address before the International 
Congress in London criticising Psycho-Analysis. Ernest Jones (33) points out 
that Janet^s errors and misrepresentations are due partly to a lack of know- 
ledge of the subject and partly to resistance. 



At the end of the review comes a summary of the works of the writer 
(Dr. Ferenczi). 

After relating the history of the illness of a young man who be- 
came a paranoidal dement after a surgical castration, the writer asks the 
question whether a narcissistic neurosis can be traumatically induced and 
replies in the affirmative. Physical disease or an injury can cause a trau- 
matic regression to narcissism, / e* induce a narcissistic neurosis. These are 
the ''patho-neuroses" (12). Another part of the body can take on the qua- 
lities of the genitalia in consequence of the original stimulus being displaced 
by illness. This theory is supported by observations on diseased organs. 
There occurs not only a pleasurable excitability in the diseased organ, but 
it also monopolises the entire interest aind Libido of the subject. The 
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GENERAL THEORY OF THE NEUROSES 315 

erotogenic zones arc the most susceptible in this respect, but no part of 
the body is entirely free of erotogenic qualities and the possibility of 
pathoneurotic disease lies everywhere. Among these zones the skin, 
the mouth, the anus and the genitalia are severally considered in 
this connection, particularly the latter. Puerperal psychosis, for instance, 
is the result of patho-neurotic disturbances caused by genital trauma 
in the act of giving birth; in consequence of a pathological increase 
the Libido is partly transfered from the genitalia on to the child (in the same 
manner from the bowels on to their contents). The impulse in insane persons 
to castrate themselves is a brutal attempt to rid the ego from a local 
heaping-up of Libido. It is possible that this increase of libido plays a useful 
part in organic healing processes. The problem of masochism cannot be 
unravelled without the help of patho-neurotic "pleasure-pain". From this 
idea we also gain some light on the female (passive) sex-aim and genital 
system. The physical injury in defloration which was in the origin painful, 
acquires a secondary characteristic of pleasure in consequence of the patho- 
neurotic increase of Libido, the injury results in a transferance of **erotogenicity** 
from the clitoris to the vagina, on to the instrument that has caused the 
wound and on to the wielder of the weapon. 

"Materialisation Phenomena** is the term applied by the writer of the 
Review to those psycho-physical conditions when a wish is plastically 
represented as though by magic from the disposable materials in the body. 
These conditions are the foundations of conversion hysteria and indicate a 
regression to the "proto-psyche**, the reflex stage of psychical phenomena. 
The stimulating power of the materialisation emanates in hysteria from genital 
sexuality. The normal differentiation of the functioning of the actual organ and the 
prime erotic organs (genitalia) is in abeyance in hysteria and in consequence 
of this confusion hysterics are liable to "multi-rendering**, to jump from the 
psychical into the physical, revealing a part of the organic foundations upon 
which symbolism is built up in the mind. The hysterical symptom is a 
"hctcrotype genital function**. The materialisation phenomena also throw a 
light on the physiological correlate to artistic talent. 

The writer mentions that in one of the first attempts at "Active Tech- 
nique'* (14) in Psycho- Analysis he almost suceeded in experimentally reuni- 
ting released afi^ect to its historical symbol. For instance, the barring of 
unconscious reaction-paths of stimulation often succeeds in breaking down 
resistance by means of the increased pressure of energy. This form of 
experimental psychology is well qualified to convince us of the stability of 
the Freudian doctrine of the neuroses. 

One sentence from the article on "Hysterical Hypochondria*' may be 
quoted: "It seems as though the same heaping-up of Libido in an organ 
could result in either a purely hypochondriacal, or else in a conversion- 
hysterical, superstructure according to the sexual constitution of the patient." 

The writer came to the conclusion, on the basis of the analysis of a 
transitory conversion symptom, that the explanation of every psychogenic 
physical symptom and every conversion phenomenon demanded the accept- 
ation of a "tertium comparationis'* between the above mentioned psychical 
and physical processes, possessing the identity of a subtle mechanism. 

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316 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION 

by 
H. HUG-HELLMUTH, Vienna.' 

BIBUOGRAPHY 

1. ASraBam, K.: Untersuchungen tJber die frtlheste priLgenitale Entwick- 

lungsstufe der Libido. Zeit. B. IV, S. 71. 

2. AndreaS'5afome% L: "Anal" und "Sexual". Imago. B. IV, S. 249. 

3. IBid.: Zum Typus Weib. Imago. B. m, S. 1. 

4. IBid.: Drei Briefe an eincn Knaben. 1917. 

6. Bemfefd, S.: Zur Psychologie des Unmusikalischen. Nebst Bemerkungen 
Qbcr ^Psychologie und Psychoanalyse. ArSive /. d. ges, 
PsySof. B. XXXIV, H. 2. 

6. IBid.: Die Psychoanalyse in der Jugendbewegung* Imago. B. V, 

S. 283. 

7. BfiJBer, H.: Gattenwahl und Ehe. Imago. B. m. S. 477. 

8. BraBn^ P.: Psychoanalyse und Kind. 1. Teil: Die pSd Praxis. AnB.f. 

Pad. B. U, H. 3, 1916. 

9. DiettriS: Was kOnnen wir aus der Psychotherapie der S. Freud- 

schen Schulc fUr die Therapie unserer Seclsorge lemen ? 
MonatssSrift f. PastoraftBeof. 1916, Febr., 17. (Kriegsbeft). 

10. Treud^ S.: Drei Abhandlungen zur Sexualtheorie. HI, Aufl., 1916. 

11. IBtd.: Vorlesungen zur Einfllhrung in die Psychoanalyse. 1917. 

12. IBtd.: Aus der Geschichte einer infantilen Neurose. Sammlung 

klciner Schriften zur Neurosenlehre. IV. Folge, 1918. 

13. IBtd.: Eine Kindheitserinnerung aus "Dichtung und Wahrheit" mit 

zwei Beobachtungen vonHug-Hellmuth:"ZumHinauswerfen 
von Gegenstanden aus dem Fenster von kleinen Kindem". 
Imago. B. V, S. 49. 

14. IBid.r "Ein Kind wird geschlagen". Beitrag zur Kenntnis der 

Entstehung der Perversionen. Zeit. B. V, S. 161. 

15. Triedjung^ Josef K.: Die Erziehung der Eltem. 1916. 

16. IBtd.: Die Sonderstellung der Kinderheilkunde. GmndsStzliches 

zum padiatr. Unterricht. Med. Kfin. 1917, H. 6. 

17. IBid: Arztliche Winke fllr die Cberwachung der kindl. Scxualitlt 

Med. Kfin. 1918, H. 14. 

18. IBtd.: Die Pathologie des einzigen Kindes. ErgeBn. d. inneren 

Med. und KinderBeiCBunde. B. XVI, 1919. 

19. IBtd: Erlebte Kinderheilkunde. 1919. 

20. IBtd.: tJber die sexuclle Aufklaning unserer Schuljugcnd. Mit- 

teilungen des d.-O. Volksgesundheitsamtes. Mai 1920. 

21. HdBerdn^ P.: Psychoanalyse und Erziehung. ^rritrr^i/if i^ 1917, Soon tags- 

blatt 9 und 10. 

Translated by Barbara Low. 

r . OrFginaffnom 

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CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION 317 

22. IBuf.: Psychoanalyse und Eniehung. ZHt. B. II, S. 213. 

23. IBid.: Das Zicl der Eniehung. 1917. 

24. Von HattingBerg, H., Analcrotik, Angstlust und Eigcnsinn. Zeft. B. H, 

S. 244, 
26. IB/dii Zur Psychologie dcs kindlichcn Eigcnsinnes. ZeitsSr. fur 

PatBopsyeBof. ErgJLnz.-B. 1914, I. 

26. Vom wahren Wesen der Kinderseele. Edtd. by H. v. Hug^HelTmutB. 

Imago, HI, 1914, with contributions by Eitingon S., Gott 
undVater; S. 89; Hug^HeffmutB, L. Andreas-Salom^ "Im 
Zwischenland*\S.86;^r/Vt TB., Kindl.Gottesvorstellung,S.93, 
Vaterkomplex, S. 94, Kind und Tod, S.94; Hug^HeffmutB. 
Kinderbriefe, S. 462; Imago. V, 1917, Hug^HeHmutB, Vom 
frflhen Hassen und Lieben, S. 121, Mutter— Sohn, 
Vater— Tochtcr, S. 129; Muftaretufi, Einc Kinderbeobach- 
tung, S. 123; SaSs, H., Kinderszene, S. 124; HdrniB, K. 
Anatole France "Ober die Seelc des Kindes", S. 126; 
RfiB, TB.f Eine Kindheitserinnerung von Alex. Dumas, 
S, 128; ABraBam, K, Drcikisehoch, S. 294; ReiB, 7B., 
Infantile WortbrOcken, S. 295, Gegensinn ^der infantilen 
Worte, S. 295. 

27. Hug^HedmutB, H.: Die Kriegsneurose dcs Kindes. Pester Lfo^d. 1915, 

16. Mftrz. 

28. Lazar, Erwin, Die nosologische und die kriminologische Bedeutung des 

Eltemkonfliktes der Jugendlichen. ZtSiBr. /. KindtrBeifB. 
B. XI, H. 5 u. 6. 

29. LindworsBU H. : Die Psychoanalyse, eine neue Eniehungsmethode ? Stimmen 

der Zeit 46, 1916, 2. Heft. 

30. MarcinowsBi, J.: Zum Kapitel Liebeswahl und Charakterbildung. Imago^ 

B. v., S. 196. 

31. Mensemd/edi, O.: Zur Technik des Unterrichtes und der Erziehimg 

w&hrend der psychoanalytischen Behandlung. JaBrB. 
B. V, S. 466; 

32. Maffer, Hermann p.: Psychoanalyse und Pldagogik. 1917. 

S3. Pfeiferf S.: Aufierungen infantilerotischer Triebe im Spiele. Imago. 

V, S. 243. 
34. Pfister, O.: Das Kinderspiel als Frflhsymptom krankhafter Elntwicklung, 

zugleich ein Beitrag zur Wissenschaftspsychologie. SSuf^ 

reform. Jahrg. X, 1917. 
36, IBid. : Psychoanalyse und Jugendforschung. Bemer SeminarBfdtter. 

B. Vm, H. 11—13, 1914. 

36. IBid,$ Was bietet die Psychoanalyse dem Erzieher? 1917. 

37. IBid: Gefahrdete Kinder und ihre psychoanalytische Behand- 

lung. '^JugendwoB(faBrt'\ Beilage zur SSweizer LeBrer^ 
teitung. 1918, H. 1. 

38. Putnamt J* J*: Allgemeine Gesichtspunkte zur psychoanalyt. Bewegung. 

Zeit. B. IV, S. 1. 

39. Sadger^ J.: Vom ungeliebten Kinde. TortsSritte der Medizin. 34. Jahrg., 

^'^V^^- I . Original from 

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318 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

41. Tagebuch eines halbwQchsigen M^dchens. Quellenschriften zur seclischea 

Entwicklung. Nr. 1, 1919. 

42. Smaller contributions may further be found in the Mitteifungen der ZeitseBHft 

fur drztf. Ps.'A., Bd. II, 1914: BfSSer, H., Der sogenanntc 
natUrliche Beschaftigungstrieb, S, 29; TerenczC S., Zur 
Ontogenese des Geldinteresses. S. 607 ; Spielrtin, J^ Tier- 
symbolik und Phobic bei einem Knaben, S. 376; — B. HI, 
1916: Triediung, J AT^ Typische Eifersucht auf jQngere 
Geschwister und Ahnliches, S. 154; Weifi^ Ed., Beobach- 
tungen infantiler Sexualaufierungen, S. 106; — B. IV, 1916: 
ABraSam, K,, Einige Belege zur Gefnhlseinstellung weib- 
licher Kinder gegenQber den Ellcm, S. I.'i4; Terenczi\ S., 
Symmetr. BerQhrungszwang, S, 266; ReiH, TB., Aus dcm 
Seclenleben eines zweijahrigen Knaben, S. 329; — im 
Abschnitte ^Aus dem infantifen SeefenfeBen': 2Leit, Bd. V, 
1919; von B . . . ., Zur infantilen Sexualitat, S. 115; IBid., 
Zur Idiosynkrasie gegen Speisen, S. 117; DeufsS, H., Der 
erste Liebeskummer eines zweijahrigen Knaben, S. Ill; 
7tott Aus dem Kinderleben, S. 109; Terenczi, S., Ekel 
vor dem FrilhstUck, S. 117; HitsSmann, E., Ober einen 
sporadischen Rtlckfall ins BettnSLsse bei einem vierjahrigen 
Kinde, S. 115; v, Raafte, 7>. f Aufierungen von Sexualitat 
bei Kindom, S. 103; — im Abschnitte ^^Beitrdge zur Traum* 
deutung*'f Zeit, II, 1914: Spi^freirt, S.: Zwei Mensestraume, 
S. 32. 



Unperturbed by the cries of indignation and warning raised continually, 
since the appearance of Freud^s Analysis of "Little Hans" and "From the 
Psychic Life of a Child*' (Hug-Hellmuth), by the opponents of the Freudian 
school who believe that Psycho^Analysis is dangerous to children and robs 
them of their innocence, psycho-analytic science has continued its investi- 
gation of the subject of child psychology and has estimated the value for 
education of the knowledge acquired in this field. 

From the analysis of the grown person we reap important facts as to 
the psychic occurrences of childhood and their results in later life; the imme- 
diate observation of children makes possible not only the corroboration of 
these revealed facts, but also an insight into the mechanism of the psychic 
phenomena of infancy and youth, into the preparation and the incidence of 
neuroses in infancy and into the development of character as dependent 
upon experience. Finally, the criticism of the personal writings of other than 
psycho-analytic authors, such as memories of childhood, the voluntary con- 
fessions of poets, diaries and letters of young people and mothers* daily 
memoranda of the spiritual development of their children, affords a valuable 
addition to the methods of research already specified. 

Foremost in the first group are the works of Freud (10, 11) in which is 
once more set forth the role of sexuality in children and (10) the oral phase 
shown to be the earliest stage in the development of the Libido; next wc 

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CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION 319 

would place Abraham's invaluable investigation (2) of the pregenital stage 
of the development of the Libido, (1) of the way in which they appear in 
the analysis of adults and how the observation of children confirms their 
existence. Abraham draws thence important conclusions as to the origin of 
certain symptoms of neurosis, of nervous craving for food, refusal of food, 
especially milk, or a morbid desire for only liquid nourishment or sweet 
stuff. The equation "food-loving" Abraham traces through the analysis of 
a case of dementia praecox to the deepest roots of the oral or cannibalistic 
phase of the infantile Libido. 

Of the greatest significance for the understanding of the incidence of 
perversions, and especially of masochism, is Freud's investigation in **A Child 
is Being Beaten" (4). He reveals there three forms of neurotic phantasy: the 
earliest •*father beats a child* he describes as "not masochistic", for the phantasy- 
maker is not the whipped child but one who is hated by him; the second 
phantasy, which, unlike the first, and the third as represented in the title of 
the treatise, is never remembered and therefore remains unconscious and to 
be reconstructed by analysis, is pronouncedly masochistic, for it runs: "Father 
beats me"; the third has the generalised indefinite form a *'child is beaten", 
and brings with it strong sexual excitement, leading, at its height, to genital 
onanism; it is apparently sadistic. At the base of these phantasies lie the 
early incestuous choice of objects, their displacement and the feeling of guilt 
whose origin is unknown. In his explanation of the genesis of perversions, 
of masochism in particular, and in his substantiation of the part played in 
the dynamics of neurosis by the differentiation of the sexes, Freud makes 
use of his observation of six cases. In his opinion, the relationship between 
perversions and the (Edipus complex is that the latter, in breaking down, 
leaves perversion the sole inheritor of the libidinous attraction and the sense 
of guilt that accompanies it. He suggests "that the sexual aberrations of 
children, as well as those of adults, derive from the same complex", which 
may be described as the root-complex of neurosis. 

Of equally fundamental significance is the essay "From the History of an 
Infantile Neurosis" (13). In this work, Freud has undertaken an investigation 
"which carries research into earlier phases and into deeper strata ot the 
psychic life than any previous attempt has done". The results are extra- 
ordinarily valuable, not only for the building up of neurological science, and 
for the convincing demonstration of the agreement between psycho-analytic 
and biological findings, but also for educational purposes. The lasting effects 
of the earliest impressions of childhood, the primordial scenes, whether actually 
experienced or only imagined, are here indicated in a concrete case, 
illustrating the way in which the neuroses of the adult are built up from 
those of the infant; how the food irregularities of children have, amongst other 
causes, a psychic cause; the significance to be attached to the child's re- 
lapse from "naughtiness" to anxiety and what is to be looked for behind the 
religious broodings and pious ceremonials of children. To recognise the 
difference between consciousness and the unconscious of children and of 
adults is, to my mind, of the greatest importance for the curative educatio- 
nal psycho-analysis; for the perception of this difference is one of the factors 
which demands that analytic technique for children and for adults shall not 

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320 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

be quite identical. In setting forth the problem, which forms the conclusion 
of this classic, Freud oflTers the hypothesis of the "given schemata** and 
''a species of knowledge, difficult to define, that operates in children as a 
preparation for understanding'*, and that is comparable to "the instinctive 
knowledge of animals**, "This instinctive knowledge'*, which naturally in- 
cludes the sexual, "is the core of the Unconscious, a primitive psychic acti- 
vity which . . . perhaps has, in everyone, the power of drawing to itself 
higher psychic processes." Upon this assumption Freud founds his belief 
in repression as a return to this instinctive stage; "thus man pays for his new 
and great acquisitions by his susceptibility to neurosis, and by the very 
possibility of neurosis witnesses to the existence of earlier instinctive stages.'* 
The dreams of early childhood may thus be described as "bringing, to the 
Unconscious, material which protects it from being wasted by subsequent 
development." 

A work which is an excellent condensation and summary of the know- 
ledge acquired in the field of psycho-analytic investigation of children, comes 
from the hand of our lately deceased colleague Professor Putnam (38), To- 
wards the circulation of our findings in other than psycho-analytic journals, 
there are articles by Diettrich (9). Friedjung (15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 42), 
H^beriin (21,23), Hug-Hellmuth (27), Pfister (35), and Sadger (39, 40). Sadger, 
in his article on *'Unloved Children", discusses the influence on the later 
development of the individual of the lack of affection in early years and 
comes to the same conclusion as that expressed by the present writer in 
1913, namely: that the unloved child, because it has never been taught to 
love, has in later years the greatest difficulty in finding itself. 

An outstanding contribution to the subject of the connection between 
character and infantile sexuality is that of Hattingberg (24, 25), tracing the 
relationship between anal-erotism and obstinacy; he infers from his ob- 
servations that childish obstinacy springs from the enjoyment of fear, and 
from this causative connection he extracts noteworthy educational con- 
clusions. 

The works of Marcinowski (30) and Bltlher (7) are also concerned with 
the enormous significance of the experiences and the suspensions of feeling 
which in early childhood **make impressions so powerful that they are de- 
cisive for the remainder of life and form the totality of the individual 
character, in which is included his sexual character." 

Of singular interest are the works of Bemfeld (5, 6). Whilst in his short 
essay "On the Psychology of the Unmusical" in which he explains the 
apparent lack of musical endowment by strong **feeling-motives" he frankly 
iidmits his continued attitude of suspension towards Psycho- Analysis in the 
statement "here the psycho-analyst would speak of death-wishes towards 
the sister, but we will be more cautious"; at the same time, in his treatise 
on "Psycho-Analysis in the Movement for Educational Reform" he stands 
quite unmistakably on psycho-analytical ground. This treatise is an attempt to 
scatter the prejudices of those educationalists who consider that the spiritual 
and ethical in youth can, through the medium of Psycho-Analysis, be ren- 
dered **unspiritual" and "^unethical", that a section of our youth repudiates 
Psycho-Analysis "from motives of self-preservation against dangerous 

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CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION 821 

knowledge'*, another is under the sway of a form of "Spiritualisation'* now so 
frequently to be met, and that a third, the group about BlOher, bases its 
philosophy of life, and its conduct, upon the existence, so clearly defined 
by Psycho-Analysis, of homosexuality, and in ''Men Associations, that is of 
Youth concentrated on Manhood" find the satisfactionof their erotic instincts; 
a tendency for which Psycho-Analysis is not responsible. 

The two important essays of Pfeifer (33), and Pfister (34) treat of the 
significance for maturity of the games of childhood. Pfeifer analyses cer- 
tain games of "catch" and traces in them the part played by infantile erotic 
impulses: sado-masochistic desires, anal-erotic interests, uterine and birth 
phantasies and the desire for omnipotence are all realised in the game; Pfeifer 
sees in the reproduction of the play period by certain games of hide-and- 
seek a reversal of the power of the father over the child, a displacement, 
as it were, of the incest-desire. The products of the repression of infantile 
and erotic impulses and of their objects seem to him to determine the 
character of the game. According to him the originating cause and the form 
of the game lie in a striving of the suppressed sexual impulses towards 
activity and satisfaction. He concludes with a discussion, from the psycho- 
analytic standpoint, of the game theories of Spencer-Schiller and of Groos, 

Pfister demonstrates in an analysis as pastor the way in which the child's 
inclination to games may yield valuable indications of his psychic develop- 
ment, in betraying the existence of unhealthy tendencies, and how, through 
careful supervision, he may be protected from many future psychic injuries. 

To these two essays may be added BlOher's little sketch (42) on the 
subject of "The So-Called Natxu^l Impulse towards Activity", though its 
source is not analysis, but the immediate observation of children. We meet 
therein the fact, so well-known to analysts, though still denied by the laity, 
that the motive forces in the games of children are very frequently grossly 
sexual, and tend to derive especially from anal-erotic interests, which the 
unrestrained child expresses, without shame, in words. 

Lou Andreas-Salom6 illuminates with poetic power the obscure relation- 
ships between the sexual curiosity of children, anal-erotism and the veto that 
suppresses them (2). She endeavours (3), plunging deeply into the memories 
of her own childhood, to explain the development of feminine types by the 
infantile erotic focus upon the father, and the Ego- cult of small children by 
the indestructible first impressions of childhood. 

Andreas-Salome's writings (2 — 4) with their rich material, drawn from 
the writer's personal memories and fr&m her observations of other children 
form, as it were, a connecting link between the theoretical studies of 
authors who draw upon their psycho-analytic practice upon adults and those 
which are the results of direct observation of the child's mind. 

In this last connection there are a considerable number of smaller con- 
tributions: on the emotional focus of the child upon its father and mother 
[Abraham (42), Deutsch (42), Hug-Hellmuth (26), Reik (26)], upon its brothers 
and sisters [Friedjung (42)], the childish idea of God [Eitingon (26), 
Reik (26)], upon infantile sexual expression [v. Raalte (42), Spielrein (42), 
Weiss (42), Frost (42). BlQhcr (42)], the animal symbolism and phobias of 
children [Spielrein (42)1. The psycho-analytic interpretation by Freud (13) of 

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322 COLLECTIVE REVIEWS 

one of Goethe's childhood memories is supported by some illustrations from 
child-life [Hug-Hellmuth (13)]. Reik (26) treats the subject of the deve- 
lopment of word meanings amongst children. Abraham (26) deals with the 
emotional values which help to form the words of children. Hitschmann (42) 
and Ferenczi (42) supply interesting contributions on the subject of childish 
anal and urethral eroticism, and on the more or less difiicult accomodation 
of children to the demands of civilisation and their occasional relapses into 
early infantile phases. The children's letters supplied by Hug^HeUmath (26) 
afford us a clear glimpse into the centres of interest of developing youth, 
so well-concealed from the adult. On the subject of the dream^life ol 
children there is only Spielrein's single communication (42). A valuable con- 
tribution to the study of children who arc difficult to educate comes from 
Laxar (28), the director of the Department of Curative Education of the 
Vienna Children's Clinic. The work is a fine testimonial to the fact that 
even those scientists who stand far apart from psycho-analytic circles, cannot, 
if they are honest, escape the influence of Psycho-Analysis. 

The most valuable document on the subject of psychic development is 
the recently published "Young Girl's Diary" (41), the record first of a child 
and then of a girl at the beginnings of maturity. It gives us, as nothing be- 
fore had done, a clear vision of the joy and sorrow and of the innocent 
guilt*laden desires of a half-fledged soul. The hate and love-filled relation- 
ships to the brothers and sisters, the already libidinous sentiment towards the 
father, the characteristic wavering, in the period preceding puberty, in the 
choice between one and the other sex, the shuddering of fear and desire at 
the first contact with sensual reality, the profound efl'ect of the illness and 
death of the beloved mother, the self-reproach and the religious doubts 
which arise thence in the young soul — all these experiences are set down so 
naively and palpably that the diary afl*ords to those parents and teachers who 
are aware of the greatness of their task and to all psychologists, a rich 
source of incitement to plumb the depths of the problem of the developing 
soul. From no educational library should this book be missing. 

Side by side with this "practical pedagogy" from the hand of a child, 
we may place the excellent contributions to the subject of education 
published by the Swiss analysts during the last few years. Foremost among 
these are Pfister's •^Imperilled Children" (37) and "What Psycho-Analysis 
Off'ers to the Teacher" (36). His activities as pastor bring within his reach 
an extraordinarily rich material, the possession of which both justifies him 
in giving, and pledges him assiduously to give, advice in the matter of edu- 
cation that is based upon psycho-analytic foundations. But there is one re- 
monstrance, already voiced by me elsewhere and that I cannot here withold. 
To whatever extent his father-authority as spiritual advisor may facrlitate 
his psycho-analytic work, he is not well-advised in giving such excessive 
prominence to the ease and rapidity with which, in so many cases, hi^ 
sufl'erers have been cured. Every prcatising analyst knows how protractedly 
laborious and wearisome are both medical and curative-educational analyses. 
In my opinion Pfister ppejudices both himself and the method by continued 
pronouncements upon this so variable factor. Mensendieck in his essay (31) 
makes some useful suggestions as to the arrangement of the school-life of 

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CHILD PSYCHOLOGY AND EDUCATION 323 

young people during the course of psycho-analytic treatment with a view to 
its adaptation thereto. The re-education of the pupil in the fulfilment of duty 
and in the duty of obedience, anJ the self-knowledge of the teacher are, in 
Mensendieck's opinion, together with the harmonious cooperation of the 
analyst and the teacher, of prime importance for the success of the treatment. 

The third group of essays on child psychology deals with the psycho- 
analytic value of poetical writings and of autobiographies, voluntary con- 
fessions, short stories and novels, in so far as they treat of the development 
of the youthful souL We may learn how authors such as, for instance, Dumas 
and W. Humboldt, whose writings date from past decades, even from past 
centuries, intuitively perceived the interdependency of psychic processes with 
which psycho-analytic science has made us familiar. 

It does not surprise either Reik (26), Sachs (26) or myself to find in 
the work of certain contemporary authors, for example, in that of Lou 
Andreaa-Salomd, Meta^SchoepP) Geijerstam and Anatole France, the conscious 
or unconscious influence of psycho-analytic modes of thought [Hug-Hell- 
muth (26), Hirnik (26)]. 



C^ nonl^ Orrgmaf from 

:3yV_:-UUglt UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



BOOK REVIEWS 



Thb Elements of Practical Psycho -Analysis. By Paul Bousfield, 
M.R.C.S. (Eng.), L.R.C-P. (Lond.), (Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. 
Ltd., London, 1920. Pp. 272. Price 10s. 6d.). 

This book purports to be a presentation of psycho-analysis for 
the instruction of practitioners and students. We have therefore 
to examine the author's qualifications for teaching the subject, and 
primarily, of course, his own knowledge of it 

In the preface already we are astonished to read of Freud s 
"theory that sexual desire is the fundamental desire underlying aff 
other desires and emotions" (author's italics), a view with which 
the author repeatedly disagrees (pp. vii, 31, 34). He proposes to 
better it by grouping impulses under the two headings of self- 
preservation and self-propagation. He evidently does not know that 
this division has always been made by Freud, who is never tired 
of insisting on it As Freud's whole theory of the psychoneuroses 
is based on the conception of conflict between the sexual and the 
non-sexual (ego) impulses, this is rather a fundamental mis- 
representation, one that we usually expect to find in writers whose 
knowledge of the subject is gleaned from distant hearsay. The 
author more especially objects to Freud's supposed belief that 
nutritional impulses are a part of sex (pp. 2^, 30); Freud's actual 
belief, of course, is merely that certain nutritional impulses are often 
accompanied hy sexual sensations. 

The novel view is put forward that no shifting of excitability 
from the clitoris to the vagina takes place as a rule in normal 
women; when it occurs it is to be regarded as a regression to 
cloacal erotism. In 150 cases of apparently normal women, three 
were completely anaesthetic, fourteen felt pleasure chiefly referred 
to the vagina but without orgasm, and in the remainder, without 
exception, the glans clitoris was the essential seat of sensation 
(pp. 88, 8&). This is^ of course, the opposite of the psycho-analytical 
theory of sexual development 

In contrast with Freud, who has discovered only one type of 



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UNIVERSITYOF MICHIGAN 



BOOK REVIEWS 325 

dream, the author recognises three (p. 105). One of these "refers 
always to incidents in which the actual preservation of life itself 
appeared threatened". The second, rarer type is the telepathic 
dream. Then comes the Freudian dream, which is said to com- 
prise over 99 per cent of dreams. (Incidentally, the author holds that 
over99percent of our actions are determined by past experiences, free 
will being an exceptional occurrence (p. 256), a statement which 
reminds one of the *iast-ditchers" who used to hold that G. P. L 
was due to syphilis in over 99 per cent of the cases, but not always). 
As to the function of dreams, the author disagrees with both Freud 
and Jung and is *4nclined to a third and more or less intermediate 
idea" (p. 114). This is that the dream contains both a repressed 
wish and the sublimation of this. 

In the section on psychopathology Freud's classification is **varied 
slightly in order to simplify it from the point of view of the 
student" (p. 131, 132). Psychoneurosis is declared to be synony- 
mous with hysteria, and this is subdivided into five : 1. Conversion 
hysteria, 2. Anxiety hysteria. 3. Compulsion hysteria (compulsion 
neurosis). 4. Paranoid hysteria (early paranoia). 5. Dementia prae- 
cox (certain cases of). We are not told when or how the hysteria 
passes over into paranoia or dementia praecox, but, quite apart 
from this detail, to describe this classification as a slight variation 
from that used by Freud is a considerable stretch of language. 
The pathogenesis of the obsessional neurosis is given as follows: 
**The conflict in a compulsion hysteria is generally between a re- 
pressed wish and repressing forces which are not true inhibitions, 
and the condition always reveals a purely erotic basis ... It thus 
differs slightly from the conversion hysteria in its primitive 
origin ... In the compulsion neuroses the actual mechanism of 
formation is much the same as in the conversion hysteria" (p. 155). 
The ignorance here displayed is hardly excusable when there 
exists in English such an excellent account of the subject in 
Hitschmann's book. The complexes present in the obsessional neu- 
rosis are said to be the QEdipus one, the homosexual, anal-erotic, 
and exhibitionistic (p. 159), /' e. practically all the sexual com- 
plexes with the exception of the one actually most characteristic 
of the disease, sadism. Automatic writing and "many cases of 
alcoholism and drug-taking" are included in the obsessional neu- 
rosis, on the curious ground that they are acts not under the 
patient's control, a feature one would have thought they shared 

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326 BOOK REVIEWS 

with all neurotic symptoms. The author has successfully treated 
six cases of paranoia^ with only one relapse, but it may be that 
he means by this cases of **paranoid hysteria" Dementia praecox 
is dismissed in a few words, for the author "has not yet attempted 
to analyse a case of this kind, nor has he been satisfied that any 
of the cases that have been reported to him as being cases of 
dementia praecox have in fact been such" (p. 166). This statement 
is followed by the cryptic remark: **I therefore include this disease 
in this chapter with some misgiving, and more because several 
well-known analysts abroad have vouched for it than because I am 
as yet convinced". 

Still more remarkable, however, is the chapter on "the tech- 
nique of psycho-analysis". Nearly a half of it is taken up with an 
account of the word-association test, which is a rarely-used adjunct 
rather than a part of the regular technique. The rest contains al- 
most as many errors in technique as the space could well hold. Ignoring 
the unrivalled value of the first hour, the author advises not to 
start with free associations, but with asking questions about the 
development of the symptoms. In the next hours the history of 
the patient's life is inquired into, and if he is intelligent this is 
followed by "an explanation of the nature of analysis and of the 
constitution of the unconscious mind, it being pointed out what 
we mean by repressed conflicts and by infantile sexuality". Then 
begins "the analysis proper", usually with the word association 
test, after which the patient's attention is directed (!) on to any- 
thing that the physician thinks will serve as a starting-point The 
patient is not merely allowed to write down his dreams (which is 
assuredly bad technique), but is asked to take a pencil and paper 
with him to bed for the express purpose. Transference is thus 
defined: "The ideas that come to the surface will be projected (!) 
upon the physician: for instance, the physician may replace the 
father in the patient's dream, etc" One sees that the author is 
careless about the meaning of the simplest terms. We learn that 
the period of transference "will generally be found to be quite 
short". The practitioner is advised to vary the length of the inter- 
view, making it longer or shorter according to the patient's mood^ 
a procedure highly detrimental to the patient's interests. The author 
often cures cases in less than three months, and quotes one of 
sixteen years' standing that "cleared up completely in two 
months" 



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The most astonishing part of the book is reserved for the last 
section, that on education. Here an ardent plea is entered for a 
reform of society on an extensive scale with the aim of reducing 
the present differentiation of the two sexes. The author states that 
the world devotes nine-tenths of its whole energy to artificially 
increasing the difference between the sexes "with the appalling 
result that while it teaches morality it breeds most potent forms 
of perversion and immorality as fast as it can'' (p. 265). He in- 
dulges in a tirade against these harmful differences, such as 
clothing, the use of different prefixes (Mr. and Mrs.) for male and 
female, the alternation of the sexes at dinner parties, and so on. 
The lengths to which his feminism goes must be read to be be- 
lieved. In fact, the only difference to which he gives assent is the 
curious one that women analysts should be analysed before under- 
taking work. Now this is not the place to discuss or criticise the 
views held by the author, which are purely his personal affair, but 
the strongest protest must be made against his putting them forth 
in the name of psycho-analysis. To inculcate in a self-styled text- 
book of psycho-analysis, as part of the teachings of that science, 
views that would be repudiated as bizarre by every psycho- 
analyst is a procedure for which it is not easy to find a suitable 
epithet 

The style in which the book is written is slovenly, and the 
bibliographical references are always incomplete and most often 
inaccurate. The more fundamental errors in its contents have al- 
ready been noted. The following are a few of the less important 
ones. A voyeur is defined as a form of erotic gratification (p. XII). 
Peeping is described as the active form of exhibitionism (p. 57), 
whereas really the two activities in question represent the active 
and passive forms of a single impulse. Reaction-formations are 
confounded with sublimations (pp. 61, 66), narcissism with omni- 
potence of thought (pp. 100, 101), and repression with suppression 
(pp. 107, 108). Freud is said to use the term "Electra-complex** 
(p. 77), which he has never done — for reasons he has given. 
Freud's formula for the mechanism ofparanoia is ascribed to Stoddart 
(p. 163). 

There is thus much to be said of the book on the negative 
side. On the positive side we can only say that the author dis- 
plays a considerable talent for elementary presentation, one which 
would be useful in dealing with a subject ot which he had first 
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328 BOOK REVIEWS 

made an adequate study. As it is, we can only designate the book 
as wholly superfluous and exceedingly misleading. 

We wish to comment, in concluding, on the fashion that some 
publishers have of writing advertisements of books without con- 
sulting their authors. We are sure that Mr. Bousfield would never 
have sanctioned the pretentious announcement of his book as 
"The first English treatise, by a practising Physician, to furnish 
an account of the Theory, Technique, and Scope of Psycho- 
Analysis". E. J. 

GrundzOge der Psychoanalyse. By Leo Kaplan, (Deuticke,Vienna, 
Pp. 306.). 

This book purports to give a systematical account of psycho- 
analysis. One therefore has to compare it with the only two other 
books having the same aim, namely Hitschmann's and Pfister's 
(those by Brill and the reviewer are not quite comparable, being 
rather expositions of special aspects of the subject). Of the three, 
Hitschmann's is certainly the most accurate and authentic, its chiei 
defect being its condensed nature and its baldness. Pfister's has 
the advantage over both the others of containing a large number 
of examples of analytical work taken from actual cases, but this 
is more than counterbalanced by the confused and sometimes 
inaccurate presentation. The principal value of the present book lies 
in the large amount of material extracted from non-medical sources, 
the author having evidently an extensive knowledge of folk-lore 
and allied subjects. The fresh analytical material he contributes 
consists mainly of dream analyses. A prominent striking feature is 
the author*s agreeable and interesting style. From the point ol 
view of accuracy there is nothing left to be desired. The book^ 
therefore, can be cordially recommended as a valuable pendant 
to Hitschmann's work, and as a trustworthy introduction to 
psycho-analysis. It should be mentioned further that the author 
makes some interesting contributions of his own, notably on the 

subjects of suicide and narcissism. 

E. J. 

* 

Human Motives. By J. J. Putnam, M.D., (Little, Brown & Co., 
Boston, 1915. Pp. 175.). 

This little volume is one of a series designed to extend popular 
knowledge on the relation of psychology to individual and social 
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BOOK REVIEWS 329 

welfare, a matter in which, as is known, the author was specially 
interested. The six chapters are entitled respectively: Main sources 
of motives; The rational basis of religion; The psycho-analytic 
movement; Educational bearings of psycho-analysis; Instincts and 
ideals; An attempt at synthesis. 

In the first chapter Putnam points out the complexity of most 
motives, and states: **It usually happens that men are moved by 
broader and better motives than they are consciously aware of, 
and that to be so moved is, virtually, to acknowledge obligations 
of which the final implication can be expressed only in ideal 
terms*\ This sentence gives the keynote to the whole book. There 
are two sorts of motives, constructive and adaptive, and to the 
study of these there are two corresponding modes of approach, 
that of philosophy and religion on the one hand, and that of 
genetic psychology (psycho-analysis) on the other. Both are indis- 
pensable methods of study, but if forced to choose between them 
Putnam would prefer the former because it deals with man at his 
best and highest. 

An excellent and accurate general account of psycho-analysis 
is given, including its history, though for Putnam it "like all 
scientific doctrines is valid only within certain definite limits". 
The chapter on the bearings of psycho-analysis on education, 
though charmingly written, is perhaps open to the criticism of 
not being precise and concrete enough, especially in regard to 
sexuality. 

It is not necessary here to describe Putnam's views on philo- 
sophic ideals and the relation of the individual to the universe, 
with which the readers of this Journal are already familiar. The 
book as a whole, though perhaps rather too general and vague, 
is an admirable exposition both of these views and of psycho- 
analysis, written in the author's most seductive style. 

E. J. 

Military Psychiatry in Peace and War. By C. Stanford Read, 
M.D., (H. K. Lewis & Sons, London. Pp. 168. Price 10s. 6d.). 

The opening chapter traces in an interesting way the psycho- 
logy of the soldier from the recruiting office to the firing line and 
the second chapter gives an account of military psychiatry previous 
to 1914 so that a comparison may be made with the prevalence 
of mental disorders during the war. ^ _ , , 

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The rest of the book is a review of the war from a psychiatric 
standpoint and few are more capable of performing this task than 
Dn Read^ for he was Officer in charge of D Block, Netley^ for the 
greater part of the war, and in peace time he had had much experience 
as medical officer to a large institution for the insane. Moreover, 
he is up to date and a strict Freudian, as will be seen by reading 
his book. 

The organization for dealing with mental cases in the army is 
described in detail and he gives the number of such cases received 
at Netley in the form of a chart, which demonstrates a steady rise 
during the five years of the war As the author points out, this 
is partly due to the gradually increasing size of the army but also 
to careless methods of recruiting. 

The various mental disorders (dementia praecox, paranoia, 
general paralysis, etc) are then systematically described, especially 
in their relationship to war and war conditions, and 32 cases are 
more or less fully described. 

The book is well written and well got up and it contains sound 
criticisms, which should be taken to hearty of several military and civilian 
customs in the treatment of the insane. 

W. R B. StoddarL 

A Manual of Neurasthenia (Nervous Exhaustion). By Ivo Geikie 
Cobb, M.D., (Bailli^re, Tindall & Cox, London 1920. Denry 8vo. 
Pp. 366, Price 12s. 6d.). 

This is a full text-book of neurasthenia, where the subject is 
treated at length from every point of view, aetiology, symptomato- 
logy, and treatment. It contains an interesting historical review 
of the subject, and is indeed mainly a compilation from other 
writers. The author's attitude is a catholic one on most points. 
He regards neurasthenia as having a mixed origin, and is willing 
to concede aetiological significance to almost all factors that have 
ever been suggested, from pyorrhoea to mental conflict, and thera- 
peutic value to a similarly extensive list of measures, from dieting 
and administration of inorganic phosphates to psycho-analysis. 
Following most modern writers he excludes from the conception 
of neurasthenia, not only psychoneurotic symptoms such as obses- 
sions and phobias, but also the anxiety states, so that his definition 
of the disease would cover much the same ground as that given 
by a psycho-analyst , Orfgmaffrom 

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BOOK REVIEWS S3l 

We regret to note a number of important errors in the work 
of historical compilation. The common mistake is made of ascribing 
the first conception of neurasthenia to Beard, instead of to Van 
Deusen. He gives a diagram to illustrate the evolution of noso- 
logical views on the subject (pp. 195, 196) and writes **The later 
writers (who are not indicated) have again subdivided the symptoms 
originally included in this latter term (/. e. psychasthenia), under 
such names as 'obsessional or compulsion neurosis*, *anxiety neu- 
rosis', etc.** He does not seem to be aware that the obsessional 
neurosis was differentiated thirty-nine years, and the anxiety neu- 
rosis seven years, before the appearance of Janet's work on 
psychasthenia. Ferenczi*s important work, which is the chief con- 
tribution made to our knowledge of neurasthenia in the past 
twenty years, is not mentioned. 

As no other psycho-analytical writings are quoted, one must 
assume that the author has culled his knowledge of psycho-ana- 
lysis exclusively from Stoddart*s "Mind and its Disorders", a book 
which no one, least of all its author, will maintain is an authorita- 
tive work on psycho-analysis, for it primarily reflects Dr. Stoddart*s 
own general experience and views. Whatever may be the source 
of his impressions. Dr. Cobb is under a serious misapprehension 
when he states that according to the psycho-analytic school 
(pp. 296, 354) neurasthenia is purely of mental origin, and that 
the difference between the actual neuroses and the psychoneuroses 
is that the former are due to a recent mental disturbance and the 
latter to an older one. As is well known, we hold, on the contrary, 
that neurasthenia is a purely physical disease: in the reviewer's 
"Papers**, for instance, occurs the passage, *Tut simply, the actual 
neuroses (under which neurasthenia is grouped) are of physical, 
psychoneuroses of mental origin It is probable that the distur- 
bances in the physical sphere are ultimately of a toxic nature**. 
Nor is the author's further statement any truer, that **the analytic 
school claim that analysis is the only real cure'*. It is equally 
misleading for him to say (p. 14) that this school believes auto- 
er<Jtism to be the *'sole cause" of neurasthenia (of which supposed 
view, by the way, he adds the only criticism that "in this volume 
we cannot confine ourselves to an etiology of this kind ; but must 
collect the views held by different schools of thought and offer 
them for the consideration of the reader**). Apart from the fact 
that it is necessary first to define the kind and degree of auto-erotism, 

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332 BCM3K REVIEWS 

it is evident that the author is confounding the words "sole^ and 
"specific" ; we consider, of course, that many factors are operative 
in most cases of neurasthenia, but that no primary cases occur 
except in the presence of auto-erotic functioning. 

In these circumstances the author's conclusion that he is unable 
to give complete adherence to what he conceives to be Freud's 
views on neurasthenia is a matter of no great importance. 

E. J. 

Functional Nerve Disease. Edited by H. Crichton Miller, M.D., 
(Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1920. Price 10s. 6d.). 

This is a symposium written by eleven authors. 

Dr. Miller in his chapter on PSysicaf Aetiofogy points out 
the importance of taking into consideration the physical as well 
as the psychical as a causative factor and visa versa. 

Dr. Riddoch deals with Differentia f Diagnosis ; this is the best 
chapter in the book. 

Dr. Edwin Bramwell on Pfyysicaf Treatment is inconclusive 
since in his conclusion he states that "most physical symptoms 
in functional nervous disease demand psycho-therapeutic care'\ 

Dr. Prideaux on the Mechanism of Hysteria gives his and 
other views on the subject. He states on page fifty-two that "Freud's 
view is that the hysteric has inherited a psychosexual constitution 
with an excessive development of the sexual instinct". This is 
certainly incorrect, Freud has never expressed such an opinion. 
When a writer quotes other people's views he should give the re- 
ference to that author's statement. 

Dr. Hadfield on Treatment By Suggestion and Persuasion does 
not bring forward anything new on the subject, but deals with it 
very well on the old lines. 

Dr. W. H. R. Rivers in his chapter on Repression and Suppression 
somewhat confuses the reader by assigning definitions to the words 
which for the most part reverse their generally accepted meanings. 
It is difficult to see Dr. Rivers' motive for adopting this unusual 
procedure. 

Dr. Maurice NicoU writes on Regression which he deals with 
from Jung's point of view. 

Dr. Miller has written a chapter on The Mother Compfex. 
This is the most loosely written and unsatisfactory chapter in the 
:)ook. Dr. Miller states that the normal method by which emotional 
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BOOK REVIEWS 333 

interest of the boy travels through a definite rotation of phases is 
called "fixation of libido" in Freudian terminology. Freud has 
never been guilty of stating that rotation of phases or movement 
is fixation. He makes this further extraordinary statement (p. 119) 
and prefaces it by saying that it is one so few medical men grasp that 
**The boy's life of phantasy and romance throughout these twelve 
years (six to eighteen) dwells entirely with the male sex". This 
statement is entirely opposed to all known facts. It can only be 
supposed that for some reason or other Dr. Miller's power of ob- 
servation in this direction has been very decidedly obscured. His 
further remarks on the connection between the military neuropath 
and the inebriate father are wholly unconvincing. 

The chapter on Psyc£o'Anafysis by Dr. Nicoll and Dr. Young 
is simply built up on the Ziirich teachings and therefore should 
not be called Psycho-Analysis. In support of this last remark I 
quote from Dr. McDougall's Summary of the chapters of this book 
in which he states (p. 197), ^'Psycho-analysis, as commonly under- 
stood, implies that these procedures are undertaken by a physician 
who accepts a mass of highly speculative doctrine emanating from 
Vienna; and, since the founder and followers of this school have 
an indisputable claim to this term, it is only fair and expedient 
to avoid the use of it where it is not intended to imply the 
acceptance of these esoteric doctrines^'. This pronouncement, 
coming from such an authority as Dr. McDougall,is the most illumi- 
nating statement in the whole book and it is hoped that it will be 
universally adopted. 

The last two chapters in the book on 7Se Management oftBe 
Neurotic, Institutionaf by Dr. Bryce and Individuaf by Dr. Culpin 

contain some useful points. 

Douglas Bryan. 

Dreams and Primitive Culture. By W. H. R. Rivers, M.D., F.R.S., 
(Longmans, Green & Co., London, 1918. Pp. 26. Is.). 

This is a lecture delivered at the John Rylands Library, Manche- 
ster, in April 191 8. The object of the lecturer is to point out 
that the resemblances which Abraham and others have remarked 
on between dreams and myths are also to be observed between 
dreams and primitive culture, /. e. that the principles of psycho- 
analysis have a wide validity in this field. He gives first an account 
of Freud^s theory of dreams, which he seernSj^t^ ^(accept as true 
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334 BOOK REVIEWS 

with certain reservations, notably as regards the formulation of 
the censorship concept He then takes it point by point, 
distortion, symbolism, dramatization, displacement, condensation, 
secondary elaboration, wish-fulfilment, and so on, and illustrates 
all these processes by parallels drawn from his own experience in 
Melanesia. He meets the possible objection that such parallels can 
be found if only one searches widely enough, first by confining 
his examples to one single island two miles wide, and then by laying 
stress on the closeness of the parallels cited. 

As this is a book distinctly to be read by psycho-analysts, only 
one or two features will be noticed here. Dr. Rivers considers 
that sensorial imagery is much more vivid in savage peoples than 
in civilised, even going so far as to speak of their **almost ex- 
clusive interest in the concrete", and suggests that the prominence 
of this feature in the primitive mind accounts for the strikingly 
dramatic nature of most of their rites and ceremonies, as it does 
in the case of dreams. His chief departure, and an ominous one, 
from the views held by psycho-analysts, concerns the importance 
of sex. He holds that '*the emotions based on the instinct of self- 
preservation take a far more important place as motives for rite 
and custom", and, indeed, that **there is reason to suppose that 
when sexual motives are found in apparently primitive culture, 
they are the result of an influence from without, a product perhaps 
of degeneration rather than a sign of infancy" The question of 
how greatly primitive races differ from civilised ones is a much 
disputed one, but we had never suspected that the difference 
could be so great as this seems to indicate. If it is true it may 
explain why the sexual life of savages is passed over so hurriedly 
in most works of description, but we had always supposed that 
there were other reasons for this. 

Dr. Rivers, the President of the Royal Anthropological Institute 
and of the Folk-Lore Society, is the first eminent ethnologist to 
display a serious interest in psycho-analysis, and he is to be con- 
gratulated on the beginning he has made. 

E. J. 

* 

Magic in Names. By Edward Clodd, (Chapman & Hall, London, 
1920. Pp. 238. Price 12s. 6d.). 

It can be said at once of this book that it should be in every 
psycho-analytical library. It is an exceedingly valuable collection 
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BOOK REVIEWS 336 

of material, well ordered and clearly expounded. The author wisely 
confines himself mainly to the presentation of this material^ adding 
but little in the way of comment or explanation. 

He begins with a description of the wide-spread belief in mana, 
in the power of influencing the world by non-natural processes, 
one probably identical with what in psycho-analysis is termed 
"^the belief in the omnipotence of thought" (Affmac£t der Ge^ 
dan^en). How astonished anthropologists would be to know what 
a ma/fa-Vike attitude is shown by the unconscious mind of the 
normal civilised adult! 

The author describes how this belief is attached, first to con- 
crete parts of the person such as the blood, hair, teeth, saliva, 
and so on, then to less material objects like the portrait, shadow, 
reflection, echo, and so leads up to the main theme of his 
work, the ideas and feelings of magic attaching to names of all 
sorts. This is subdivided into sections on personal names, names 
of relatives, birth names, initiation names, euphemisms, names 
of kings and priests, names of the dead, and names of gods. It 
becomes clear that the primitive mind attaches a perfectly extra- 
ordinary significance to names, and treats them on the one hand 
as concrete things in themselves and on the other as integral 
representatives of the personality. The belief, for instance, that 
it is safer to conceal one's name, and that possession of it by an 
enemy gives him complete power over one, is to be met with in 
all parts of the world. The author, whose life's work has lain in 
anthropology and folk-lore, confines himself, it is true, mainly to 
savage races and peasants, but illustrations could be drawn from 
the most sophisticated classes and nations : he might, for instance, 
have commented on the dread thrill that passes through our House 
of Commons when the Speaker, on desperate occasions, has 
recourse to the last resort of threatening to '*name" the recalcitrant 
member, one that rarely fails in its aim! It is thus far from true 
to say, as Mr. Clodd does, that "to the civilized man, his name 
is only a necessary label''. Every medical practitioner knows that 
in a case of unconsciousness the patient's own name is the last 
sound to which he will fail to respond, and through Stekers work 
on NamenverpffiStung * we know to what an extraordinary extent 
a person^s character and interests can be unconsciously influenced 
by the meaning of his name. 

* Sec, for instance, Dr. Oberndorf s paper on page 223 above. 

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336 BOOK REVIEWS 

We see thus yet another field waiting to be fertilised by psycho- 
analysis, and in the meantime are grateful to Mr. Clodd lor grouping 
the necessary material hi such a useful and presentable form. 

E.J. 



Religion and Culture. A Critical Survey of Methods of Approach 
to Religious Phenomena. By Frederick Schleiter, (Columbia Uni- 
versity Press, New York, 1919. Pp. 193 and Bibliography). 

As the title indicates, this volume is intended rather as a critical 
review than as an original contribution to this extensive subject, 
one covered by such terms as comparative religion, social psycho- 
logy, anthropology and ethnology. The author is mainly concerned with 
the difficult question of methodology ; he discusses the criteria we 
possess for the interpretation of anthropological data, the principles 
underlying the various modes of approach, and the most suitable 
starting points for investigation. These are very complex problems, 
which can only be discussed in an appropriate place and at con- 
siderable length, so that the reviewer will confine himself here to 
giving his impression of the book as a whole. 

One feels that the author, doubtless in the endeavour to be 
objective, has refrained too much from constructive criticism of 
the methods he deals with, so that the book consists too much 
of a series of quotations of one theory and method after another, 
and fails to present the organic relations between them in an 
imaginative way. It serves the purpose excellently well of orienting 
students as to the main trends of work in these fields, and pro- 
vides a useful and well-chosen bibliography. That his presentation 
of these, however, is not always to be depended on may be 
illustrated to the readers of this Journal familiar with the dynamic 
psychology of Freud, by the following passage, where they will 
be astonished to read that Freud "considers that they (i\ e. the 
traditional principles of associationism — contiguity in space and 
time, cause and effect, and similarity) constitute a satisfactory ex- 
planation of the juxtaposition of psychic content involved in magia 
The support of this position by Freud is nothing short of a curious 
anachronism''. As it is mainly Freud's work which has made such 
a position an anachronism, the comment is distinctly entertaining. 
'Tie absurdity of a further passage "Freud states that he was led 

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BCX)K REVIEWS 337 

to the use of the term ^ASmacBt der Gedanken by means of 

the psycho-analysis of a man who seemed to possess it in a striking 

way** may be due merely to careless writing, but the author's grasp 

of the subject is not such as to encourage one to give him the 

benefit of the doubt on the point The usefulness of the book 

is unfortunately marred by its being written in a barbarous 

German-American which makes it very trying to read. 

E. J. 



Thb IsDnaouAL Delinquent. A Text-book of Diagnosis and Pro- 
gnosis for all concerned in understanding Offenders. By William 
Healy, B.A., M.D, (Heinemann^ London. Pp.830. Price21s.net.). 

Although this book purports to deal with the subject of crimi- 
nology in general its main concern is with juvenile delinquency. 
This is probably due to two considerations: a personal one, that 
the author has had his attention specially directed to this aspect 
of criminology through having spent the last five years as Director 
of the Psychopathic Institute at the Juvenile Court, Chicago; the 
other a wider one, namely, that anyone who, like the author, 
makes a scientific study of criminology must soon see that the 
main problems, particularly the all-important ones of genesis, relate 
to childhood and its development 

The volume is divided into two books. In the first, entitled 
^'General Data*^, there are four preliminary chapters, then four on 
'^working methods" and statistics, with two on general conclusions 
as to treatment The methods of investigation described are 
especially fully dealt with, and this section is exceedingly valuable. 
The second book, entided "Cases, Types, Causative Factors'^ com- 
prises the larger part of the whole volume. The questions of here- 
dity, antenatal and natal factors, and physical abnormalities in de- 
velopment are first discussed. Then follow a number of chapters 
on psychological factors, environmental and intrinsic; the subjects of 
mental conflicts and "repress! ons** are considered at length, special 
stress being laid on the all-important matter of sexual develop- 
ment and experiences. There are several chapters on the various 
kinds of mental deficiency and inferiority, ranging from dulness to 
actual idiocy. The influence of epilepsy and alcoholism is discussed, 
and an interesting account given of special mental peculiarities, 
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338 BOOK REVIEWS 

such as pathological lyings love of excitement, abnormal social 
suggestibility, etc. An imposing bibliography and a full index con- 
clude the volume. 

The book is one of a series dealing with different aspects of 
criminology, and it is qu?te one of the best of the series. It will, 
indeed, easily take rank as one of the few works on the subject 
that really count. The auth< ^r s enthusiasm, erudition, and level jud- 
gement are stamped on every page. His views, though very 
sympathetic, err, if at all, on the conservative side, and his special 
talents are rather social than psychological. But, as the reviewer knows 
from first-hand experience, h^: has been at the centre of the band 
of devoted workers that in the past few years have revolutionised 
the treatment of juvenile delinquents in Chicago, and his influence 
has radiated over the whole of the United States. A work of this 
extent from his hand, therefore, is one that will necessarily arouse 
the strongest interest on the part of all those who have to deal with 
such problems. E. J. 



Problems of Subnormality. By J. E. Wallace Wallin, (World Book 
Co., New York, 1917. Pp. 285). 

This volume is concerned with the problems of the feeble- 
minded, the group between normal children on the one hand and 
imbeciles on the other. It is divided essentially into four parts 
dealing respectively with: the exact diagnosis of the presence and 
degree of feeble-mindedness, the differential modes of education 
needed for such children, the questions of after-care and the use 
to which the feeble-minded can be put, and the social and pre- 
ventive problems concerned. In addition there are chapters on the 
general question of the changing attitude towards the feeble-minded, 
epilepsy, State provision for defective children, and the hygiene 
of eugenic generation. 

The most valuable portions of the book would seem to be the 
first section, which gives an interestingly written historical review 
of the development of our knowledge on the subject, and the 
second one, dealing with the problems of psychological diagnosis. 
Wallin rightly insists that this diagnosis and exact grading can 
only be made by specially trained experts. "A few years ago die 
assumption was made that practically any intelligent person could 

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determine whether or not a child or adult was feeble-minded by 
a few minutes examination by means of the Binet-Simon scale, 
with the aid of certain arbitrary quantitative standards of mental 
retardation^, whereas "it is not probable that it (this assumption) 
is now entertained by any considerable number of clinical psycho- 
logists**. He gives a detailed and convincing criticism of the fallacies 
of the Binet-Simon scale, though he omits to mention what in the 
reviewer's opinion is the chief one — namely, that it makes no allow- 
ance for the varying affective, and often unconscious, attitude of 
different children towards the individual tasks comprising the exa- 
mination. Wallin's own methods of examination lead him to define 
feeble-mindedness in a much narrower sense than is usually done, 
particularly in its upward direction, and he would not class any 
child as being feeble-minded or as needing special education unless 
there was reason to conclude that in the future he would not be 
able to earn his living independently. 

The chapter on epilepsy is conventionally written, and the only 
contribution it makes is the description given of the characteristic 
reactions of the epileptic child to various intelligence tests. Most 
noteworthy is the omission of any account of Pierce Clark's re- 
cent remarkable work on the psychology of epilepsy. Indeed, one 
notes throughout an unfortunate failure to take advantage of the 
medical work done in the allied field of the neuroses, 

Wallin has an unusually rich experience of most of the problems 
directly concerning feeble-minded children, and his book contains 
a mass of detailed and original observations and statistics. For 
those working in this field the book will be of very great value, 
but it is too diffusely written and too voluminous to be of much 
service to non-specialists. E. J. 



C^ nonl^ OrFginaf from 

:3yV_:-UUglt UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



NOTES 



A Washington Psychoanalytic Society has been inaugurated^ 
under the Presidency of Dn William A. White. 

In the current session Mr. J, C FlQgel delivered a course ot 
ten lectures on Psycho-Analysis as part of the regular course in 
Psychology at University College, University of London. This is 
the first time that the subject has received official recognition in 
any University in England. 

In October and November Mr. Cyril Burt delivered ten lectures 
on "Psycho-Analysis and Education** as part of the courses orga- 
nised for the teachers of the London County Council Education 
Department The enrolment had to be limited to 200, for lack of 
further accomodation. 

On October 13th. Professor A. G. Tansley, University of Cam- 
bridge, gave an address on **Freud's Theory of Sex considered 
from the Biological Standpoint** before the British Society for 
the Study of Sex-Psychology. The speaker expressed his opinion 
that the theory was throughout well founded biologically. 

On January the 7th. 1921 Dr. S. Herbert of Manchester addressed 
the same Society on the subject of "Sex and the Unconscious^, 
speaking entirely from the psycho-analytical point of view. 

On February the 2nd. 1921 Dr. Ernest Jones gave an address on 
"Some Unconscious Mental Mechanisms** before the University of 
London Psychological Society. 

At the examination in Psychology for the Cambridge Diploma 
of Psychological Medicine, October 1920, two of the six questions 
were on Psycho-Analysis, 

In July 1920 a Discussion on Psychotherapy took place before 
the Section of Neurology and Psychiatry of the British Medical 
Association. Psycho-Analysis was not well represented there, and 
the meeting was chiefly noteworthy for a violent diatribe against 
it on the part of Dr. Gordon Holmes. 

There was a Discussion on Psychotherapy at the Australasian 
Medical Congress held in Brisbane, 1920. Papers were read on treat- 



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^^° UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



NOTES 341 

mcnt of the war neuroses by Drs. Godfrey, Rowden White, Garnet 
Leary, and Ralph Noble, describing the methods in use in England^ 
and dealing largely with psycho-analysis. 

The Presenter devoted a special number in December to 
Psycho- Analysis. The main articles were by Dr. Henry SomerviUe and 
Mr. Cecil Owen. The editorial article insists strongly on the necessity 
of practitioners acquiring at least some knowledge of the subject 

In December and January there appeared in several London 
newspapers a flood of articles and letters purporting to refer to 
Psycho- Analysis. The general tone was that of alarmed denunciation 
of the occult and immoral tendencies supposed to be associated 
with it The only facts cited were that some persons advertise in 
occult magazines pretending to employ Psycho-Analysis, whereupon 
the fear was vividly expressed that they might, telepathically or 
otherwise, obtain access to personal secrets and exploit these from 
either sexual or mercenary motives. After a while it became re- 
cognised in the better-class papers that these alleged practices, 
which by the way there is no reason to think had ever taken 
place, had nothing to do with Psycho- Analysis itself, and emphasis 
was laid on this obvious consideration in a leading article of the 
British Medical Journal of January the 22nd. entitled **Quack Psycho- 
Analysis'*. 

OBITUARY 

We regret to have to announce the loss through death of one 
of the members of the British Psycho-Analytical Society, Colonel 
W. D. Sutherland, I. M. S. Though his life's work lay in other 
fields, those of medical jurisprudence, patholc^, and bacteriology, 
he took a very considerable interest in the more human aspects 
of psychology. He had a remarkable knowledge of Indian Folk- 
Lore and made a number of contributions to Krauss's Anthropo- 
phyteia. He never practised psycho-analysis, but always took a 
lively interest in the subject and maintained a regular corres- 
pondence on it with several of its exponents. In 1911 he visited 
Professor Freud in Vienna and in 1920 was present at one of the 
meetings of the British Psycho- Analytical Society, of which he was 
one of the original members. 

We regret also to announce the death of Dr.Skevirsky ofNew 
York, a member of the New York Psychoanalytic Society. 

:3y^:-^ J^ UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



REPORTS OF THE INTERNATIONAL PSYCHO- 
ANALYTICAL ASSOCIATION 



ABSTRACTS OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE SIXTH INTERNATIONAL 
PSYCHO-ANALYTICAL CONGRESS 

Held at The Hague, September 8th to 12th., 1920. 

Dr. K. Abraham, Berlin. Forms of Expression of the Female 
Castration Complex. 

There are various possible outcomes of the female castration 
complex. The normal or cultural form, as Freud calls it, is that 
the woman is reconciled to her femininity; the desire to possess 
a male genital organ is given up and in its place appears the wish 
to have a child (really as a gift from her father). This enables the 
woman to obtain gratification from the female sexual r61e and to 
develop maternal feelings. 

The ambivalent (archaic) attitude is opposed to this outcome. 
Besides the love for the man to whom she at first belonged, the 
woman produces feelings of hate in connection with her defloration, 
because the injury to her physical integrity re-awakens the castration 
complex. Traces of this form of reaction can still be observed in 
civilised conditions. 

A third outcome is the turning to homosexuality. This possi- 
bility is based on the bisexual disposition of human beings. In 
some of the cases the homosexuality is principally expressed in a 
sublimated form. 

The neurotic outcomes, which are really the object of this 
paper, are extremely multiform, and many of them up to the present 
have hardly been noticed. 

These neurotic symptoms partly express the wish to be male 
and partly are directed against the man in the sense of revenge 
(castration, killing). A number of symptoms and dreams, which 
agree in content with the symptoms, were discussed. In those 
mentioned first the patient unconsciously plays the male r61e or 
she expects to become male. Certain of the neurotic symptoms 

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REPORTS 34S 

manifest themselves in parts of the body, which are made use of 
as surrogates for the male genital. Other symptoms represent the 
complete refusal of the male, but at the same time they have an 
active castration purpose (vaginismus, etc.); or they contain a dread 
of such an action. Again other symptoms serve for the disparage* 
ment or disappointment of the man. 

Certain women, who can only accustom themselves with great 
difficulty to the disadvantage with which they were born, under 
no circumstances wish to be reminded of the painful thing, they 
avoid with over-sensitiveness anything that could have this effect 
Horror of wounds is a particularly marked symptom of this kind 
(wound = female genital). 

The tendency to compromise formation is also met with here 
as throughout in the psychology of the neuroses. Many women are 
quite satisfied in their female r61e provided they are the most 
beautiful and most desired of all others, or if a man who puts all 
other men in the shade as regards manliness desire them. Another 
expression of the female castration complex is that the man in 
his male (that is to say genital) function is acknowledged, only her 
own genital is withdrawn from use and the libido is displaced to 
the oral or anal zone. Then perversions or conversion phenomena 
take place in connection with these erotogenic zones. 

Women with such an attitude transplant their castration com- 
plex to their children. They make it more difficult for girls to 
accept their femininity, and they permanently injure the boy's 
narcissistic pride in manliness. The castration complex in the 
mother, in particular her anal-erotism, is an important factor 
aetiologically as regards the pathological expressions of the castration 
complex in the children. The treatment of the woman therefore 
offers a possibility of guarding the descendants against the risk of 
a neurosis; here lies a particularly fruitful field of work for psycho- 
analysis. 



Dr. Hblenk Deutsch, Vienna, On the Psychology of Su- 
spicion. 

The lecturer deals with the psychic mechanisms of suspicion 
as a neurotic symptom, as a character trait, as a psychic pheno- 
menon in deafness, and as a phenomenon of mass psychology. 

VOL. 1-12 ■3y^^^>0^i^^ UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



344 REPORTS 

The conduct of the suspicious person towards his environment 
shows that he is in constant expectancy of a hostile attack, and 
that he seeks to protect himself from this. Since this danger 
threatening him is not real, or observed in the external world, 
psycho-analysis considers that it has its origin m the iinconscious. 
The mechanisms concerned with suspicion as a pathological symptom 
are discussed in four analysed cases. In the first case the suspicion 
corresponded with the projection of the endopsychic perception 
of an impulse of danger threatening the ego from the unconscious. 
Allusion was made to certain analogies between this mechanism 
of projection and the mechanism acting in anxiety hysteria. 

In the second case the symptom was explained by the conflict 
of ambi valency, in that the suspicion represented the projection 
of repressed hate tendencies into the external world. The relations 
existing between suspicion and doubt were discussed. 

The suspicion in the third case had its cause in the continual 
oscillation of the libido between heterosexual and homosexual 
object choice. This psychic formation showed that every attempt 
at object choice was accompanied by strong negative tendencies. 
The endopsychic perception of tendencies hostile to the ego ol 
homosexual and incestuous love was projected externally, likewise 
hate directed against the woman or the man succumbed to pro- 
jection and was apperceived as suspicion. 

The fourth case, a beginning paranoia, showed great suspicion 
before the outbreak of the psychosis, in which nevertheless hysterical 
mechanisms could be demonstrated. The relations of suspicion to 
paranoia were discussed with especial reference to the differences 
and analogies. 

Suspicion makes use of projection like the delusion of perse* 
cution, but in distinction from paranoia it does not always have 
homosexuality as its basis; also there is lacking the characteristic 
change of affect seen in paranoia. 

In the origin of suspicion as a character trait the same me- 
chanisms of projection hold good, the endopsychic perception of 
an impulse of danger, with the exception that here the individual 
has definitely freed himself from the danger in this manner. The 
constitutional strengthening of the anal-sadistic impulses oflTers 
particularly favourable conditions for the origin of suspicion, whereby 
one^s own hostility is projected externally and produces the feeling 

of the threatening danger. 

r ... . L_-j OrFgrnaffnom 

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REPORTS 346 

In the origin of suspicion in deafness it is assumed that the 
strengthening of the sadism present in everybody comes about 
through the weakening of the ego; also human beings apparently 
need the control of all their senses in order to resist the feeling 
of uncertainty in the external world arising from their own 
hostility. 

It was also noted that suspicion after the war had become 
a general phenomenon, and this goes back to the sadism 
released through the war, of which suspicion forms the last 
trace. 

Another important cause of suspicion is seen in the disappoint- 
ments which the child has experienced in his first love objects. 
These disappointments leave behind the scar which contributes to 
the deformity of character in the sense of suspicion, or under 
suitable conditions can lead to the appearance of this symptom in 
the neuroses. 



Dr. a. StArcke, Den Dolder, Holland, The Castration 
Complex. 

The Castration Complex is one part of a disposition towards 
ambivalency, the other part of which — namely, wishes and tendencies 
of various kinds and the infantile theory of the woman with the 
penis — shows the same origin. 

The infant acquires this disposition towards ambivalency while 
sucking at the mother's breast or the bottle; the excremental 
functions are also factors concerned, as has been described by 
Prof Freud, and perhaps the act of divesting the infant of other 
things, as for instance clothes, may play a part 

Attention is directed towards deviations from the normal 
nursing, as these must exercise an influence on the budding psyche 
which cannot be overrated. It is suggested that the pains the 
mother suffers while nursing may be of importance for arousing 
or fixing sadistic tendencies, and also that the situation at the 
breast introduces the process of projection The nipple in the 
baby's mouth is, in accordance with his degree of development 
a part of his own body. The withdrawing of the nipple and the 
excremental functions engender the first traces of the conception 

of a separate outer world. The wish to reunite the Ego and the 

4 i\ \ Mi" -..qinalfix.M. 

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346 REPORTS 

outer world, a desire which is equated with the striving after 
happiness, means the wishing of the sucking situation back again. 
The formation of the outer world is the original castration; the 
withdrawal of the nipple forms the root-conception of this. 



Dr. v. Hattingberg, Munich. Transference and Object Choice; 
their Significance as regards the Theory of Instinct 

The theory of transference like that of object choice is based 
on the idea that feeling and impulse are independent of their 
object This statement of Freud, in support of which are brought 
forward many examples from the instinctive life of animals, is a 
central point for the whole theory of instinct. From the various 
possible conceptions of instinctive actions are eliminated all those 
that consider the object as essential for the instinct whether as 
a stimulus as in the Tropism theory and the reflex theory ol 
the instincts, or as aim or idea of purpose as in the psychology 
of consciousness. There remain only two possible conceptions, one 
that claims a condition of the individual himself as point of re- 
lation as regards **direction*\ the essential thing in instinctive 
actions. Instinct actions are alterations of the entire conduct which 
appear in typical situations. They are connections of functions and 
alterations of functions which originate in a typical initial state ot 
the individual (craving) and which lead to a typical final state 
(gratification). Impulses are then directions of such sources. The 
second point of view is the dynamic one. Its value for represen- 
tation is undoubtedly very great if the instinct occurrence is to be 
described in itself and in its various forms. It fails in the presence 
of the multiplicity of the instinct life in its various directions. 
Every dynamic conception compels us to assume necessarily a 
single force, that ol "a libido** (Jung's desexualised libido). If, 
however, it is the same libido that is expressed in all instincts, 
then a more precise definition of its particular direction becomes 
necessary, if we wish to understand not only that there is such a 
thing as once hating, once loving, but also that hostile tendencies 
may be expressed in friendly actions. If affects and impulses are 
not directed by means of ideas, but on the contrary, ideas by 
affects and impulses, if therefore impulses determine the direction 

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REPORTS 347 

of the course of the association, then they must above all be 
characterised by means of a particular direction. This, however, 
can be represented better through the reference to the final con- 
ditions typical for each part than through the libido theory that 
refers everything to the fundamental comparison of a fluid. 



J. C.FlCgel, B.A., London. On the Biological Basis of Sexual 
Repression. 

The psychological contrast that is expressed in sexual repression 
may be considered as a special case of a more general biological 
contrast. 

This contrast permits of two points of view that are closely 
related to one another. 1. The psychological. There necessarily 
exists a reverse relation between the degree of higher organisation 
and activity of the individual organism on the one hand and of 
its reproductive energy on the other. 2. The economic. In con- 
sequence of the limited quantity of available nourishment a high 
level of the individual life results in the control of the number 
of individual beings, and thereby of the tendencies of repro- 
duction. 

Natural selection determined in the course of development the 
relation of the energy made use of for individuation and for 
genesis. In the main, development has brought with it a continual 
increase of individuation at the cost of genesis ; nevertheless there 
are important influences that have made the advance in that direction 
slow and difficult. 

In mental life the contrast between sexuality and work 
(sublimation) corresponds with this biological contrast between 
genesis and individuation. 

The sexual impulses up to a certain degree represent an older 
and more primitive form of the forces of life. Mankind is con- 
stantly endeavouring to adapt itself to a condition in whtch 
sublimation plays a greater and the sexual impulses a lesser part. 
However, at present a very serious "disharmony" exists in this 
respect, since the sexual impulses of the human being absorb a 
greater portion oi' their entire energy than their present environment 
requires. ^ ^ Original from 

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348 REPORTS 

The relation between sexuality and sublimation (that is to say 
between the psychological aspects of genesis and individuation) is 
complicated; the same energy is in the last instance made use 
of for both, so that there is no adequate sublimation without strong 
libido. Further complications arise through certain factors which 
render necessary the utilising of certain portions of libidinous energy 
for sexual purposes throughout life: 1. The actual necessity of re- 
production. 2. The slow and gradual construction of the sublimation 
process. 3. Definite relations between sexual and individual de- 
velopment, in consequence of which a satisfactory adaptation to 
the non-sexual sides of existence is impossible, as long as a cor- 
responding degree of sexual development is lacking. 

The physiological and biological method of consideration of the 
contrasts between individuation and genesis can only be applied 
directly in regard to the sexual impulses in so far as these stand 
in the service of reproduction, but from the psychological point of 
view the contrast is expressed also in reference to elements of 
sexuality not serving reproduction, since their energy stands in re- 
verse relationship to the energy given up to sublimation. Never- 
theless the allo-erotic elements succumb in many respects to a 
greater degree of repression than the auto-erotic ones, with the 
result that the latter become strengthened at the cost of the former. 
The higher stages of individuation are closely bound up with 
the process of socialisation. It seems therefore that the sexual re- 
pression up to a certain degree can be traced back to the influence 
of social forces. 

A certain degree of inhibition seems to have become a part ol 
the human sexual instinct. Two important factors are distinguishable. 
1. The fact that a strong sexual repression cannot be overcome at 
once, but only slowly and gradually. 2. The secondary gain of 
pleasure that can be obtained through the relief of greater tension 
which repression brings with it. 

The general recognition of the facts that are associated with 
the biological aspect of sexual repression would considerably con- 
tribute in removing the greatest difficulties of human existence, as 
well in the psychological sphere (the sexual conflict) as in the 
economic sphere (the relation ot population to the means o! 
subsistence). 

f^nonl^ Orrgmaffnonn 

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REPORTS 349 

Prof. G. Jelgersma, Leyden. A Psycho- Analytical Contribution 
to the Theory of Feeling. 

So far psycho-analysis has supplied few contributions to the 
theory of feeling. Freud has briefly alluded to it in a work on a 
different subject, otherwise there is nothing to be found The 
investigation of the theory of feeling has a large place in the 
scientific psychological literature. 

However, psycho-analysis can also render valuable contributions. 
The lecturer gave a short sketch of his theory which approximated 
to that of Ebbinghaus, and he explained his views from the symptoms 
of the transference neuroses and schizophrenia. 



Dr. Hanns Sachs, Vienna. Day-Dreams in Common. 

That the day-dream is a preliminary stage of poetry is one ol 
the most familiar statements of psycho-analysis. So far it has 
remained unexplained where one is to look for the cause of the 
transition from the strict egocentric day-dream, bound to no 
formal principle, to the work of art that renders enjoyment possible 
to outsiders through the force of attraction of the aesthetic form. 
One had to be satisfied with the psychologically inaccessible factor 
of the hereditary disposition. 

As a stage of transition between day-dream and poetry the 
"day-dreams in common" come into consideration in which two 
or more persons cooperate, therefore giving up the limitation to 
the closest ego-interests. The analysis of two such cases showed 
that it was a common feeling of guilt that sought relief and found 
it in the working out of the day-dream, since in it lay an un- 
conscious admission of the same guilt of the other party. The 
feeling of guilt caused the individual personality to appear less 
prominently in the foreground. 

That is the root in the day-dreams in common that in the 
work of art is the aim unconsciously striven for. The artistic 
illusion does not rest on deception ol the senses, but in the fact 
that the receptive person experiences also the affects of the work 
— consciously as well as unconsciously. If the poet achieves this 
illusion, that is to say, if he succeeds in getting the public to 
regard his work as a work of art, then the p!|bli^i ??ys to him: 

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350 REPORTS 

"Yes, your forbidden wishes are ours ; we desire the same as you 
desire and have carried out in phantasy''; the public therefore 
declares itself as being guilty and softens the artist's feeling 
of guilt. 

The artist's own person has to step into the background for 
the sake of the effect of his work. The narcissism sacrificed 
thereby is displaced from the author to the work — an ideal fragment 
of his self — and returns as beauty of form. In this round-about 
way the narcissism returns to its original gratification, for the 
artist now finds personal recognition and interest which otherwise 
remained denied to the man of phantasy who keeps aloof from 
action. 

It is a postulate of psycho-analysis that at the basis of every 
great advance of civilisation must lie the repetition of the primitive 
crime. This postulate is fulfilled by the above sketched hypothesis. 
The day-dream as we know, is built up, in the last instance on 
the CEdipus complex. The day-dreamer by yielding to his phantasies 
repeats the primitive crime — but alone, and this is an offence 
against the oldest law of mankind, according to which this may 
be committed only by the whole community of brothers acting 
together. The artist finds the way from the insupportable isolation 
to the brothers and their common guilt. 



Dr. Tiieodor Reik, Vienna. The strange god and one's own 
god. 

The lecturer began with the point that strange deities and their 
cult frequently give an uncanny impression. He endeavoured to 
explain this effect through the continuity of animistic convictions 
and for comparison drew parallel cases from the symptomatology 
of the obsessional neuroses- The history of religions gives the 
final explanation of these peculiar reactions of feelings. The 
henotheism of the brother clan knew only one god ; through the 
differentiation and local dissemination of mankind it happened that 
each clan had its own god which was equal to that of the other 
clan, and like that one was represented as active and effective. 
It was only later that the identity of the strange god and one's 
own god was no longer recognised. The strange god appeared as 

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REPORTS 361 

a caricatured double of one^s own god through the advance of 
civilisation of the one tribe and the falling back of another. The 
uncanniness is therefore brought about by means of a returning 
to individual phases in the developmental history of mankind- As 
a second source of the feeling of uncanniness was cited the 
excitation of feelings from analogy with the infantile complexes 
arising out of impressions and occurrences of primaeval history. The 
uncanniness arising from the primary complexes in the history of 
mankind proves to be more obstinate than that connected with 
overcome complexes. Here for example belong the castration and 
incest complexes, as well as those feelings originating from the 
repressed revolutionary impulses. The pre-existence of the guilty 
conscience towards one's own god is a determinant for religious 
persecution (Jewish pogroms, Armenian massacres). The strange 
god was once one's own god that was alienated from the masses 
through the pressure of development and advance of civilisation, 
and which appears in its cruder and more primitive form now as 
uncanny* 



Dr. GtzK R6HEIM, Budapest Central Australian Totemism. 

Alcheringa as dream period. A primitive phase of totemism, 
as pure wish-fulfilment, is reflected in the traditions of the Arunta. 
Eating of the totem and totemistic incest. The Inapertwa as mythical 
embryos, the Alcheringa hero as a projection of the omnipotence 
in the mother's body on to the father's image. 

The ignorance of procreation on the part of the Arunta : a crucial 
question of social anthropology and an experiment for the psycho- 
analytic methods of investigation. Unconscious sexual knowledge 
that is shown in myths concerning procreation. Eating as a marriage 
ceremony and as cause of pregnancy. The boomerang in the myths 
of procreation and love magic as penis. The pre-natal single 
combat with the father as a cause of birth. In other words, every 
birth is unconsciously traced back to incest. The cause of the 
ignorance of the Arunta is repression. This is directed against 
sexuality in general, because this is unconsciously identified with 
the CEdipus complex. The centre of the totem as projection of 
the body of the mother into the external world. The Churinga as 
**another body*^ or "external soul" — a symbol of the embryo in 



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UNIVERSITYOF MICHIGAN 



3C2 REPORTS 

the body of the mother; on account of this is ascribed to it the 
procreation of children, (As already noted the Qiuringa also 
signifies the penis). The Arunta theory of the procreation of 
children is an unconscious infantile wish fulfilment; through it 
the child becomes its own father and supernatural husband of 
the mother. 

The ceremonial of the Central Australian totemism^thelntichiuma 
rites. Their performance at the approach of the time of general 
fruitfulness in nature figures in the traditions as representation and 
equivalent of coition. The magic (procreation) and imitative 
element in the Intichiuma is analysed. The anthropic significance 
of the Intichiuma is the Alcheringa: original aim the propagation 
of human not animal members of the totem clan. Intichiumas of 
the totem of children. The Intichiuma is the continuation of a pre- 
human rutting period. Young men as spectators in the Intichiuma 
instead of women: the commencement of repression and homo- 
erotic element in the Intichiuma. The rutting period is also the 
time of combat: the struggle between young and old males must 
have taken place in the rutting period. The eating of the totem 
as a propagation rite is a symbol of the rebellion, but also a symbol 
of the compact between young and old males. The connection 
between the origin of repression and the disappearance of the 
ruttings periods. Repression originally directed against the CEdipus 
complex. An attempt to determine the phase of development that 
is represented in the Intichiuma. Continuation of the analysis of 
the procreation rites. The beating of the rock of the Alcheringa 
hero, a symbolic repetition of the father murder. Unconscious 
association between parricide and procreation, since each sexual 
intercourse occurs with the mother it cannot be completed without 
first killing the father. Tearing to pieces and procreation : parallel 
characteristics in initiation rites. The ego and the libido both add 
their contribution to the development of the Intichiuma rites. 



Dr. Ernst Simmel, Berlin. Psycho- Analysis of the Gambler. 

The treatment of a young man, who in consequence of his 
passion for gambling was in danger of complete demoralisation 
and who had several times been in conflict with the police and 
:3y i_:-UU^Il:: UNIVERSITY oV MICHIGAN 



REPORTS 3SS 

had been sentenced to imprisonment, g^ve, besides the cure that 
resulted, a characteristic insight into the genesis and unconscious 
structure of the passion for gambling itself 

It serves the unfolding or the substitute formation of the 
exceedingly active pre-genital anal-sadistic libido in the un- 
conscious. 

The fortune gained and lost at play proved to be much over- 
determined. 

The insatiable inordinate desire that will not rest in the endless 
vicious circle until the loss becomes gain and the gain once more 
loss, originates in the narcissistic desire of the anal birth phan- 
tasies, to fructify himself, to devour his own excrement, gold, and 
to give birth to himself out of himselt in immeasurable increase, 
replacing and surpassing his father and mother. The passion for 
gambling therefore gratifies ultimately the inclination for the bi- 
sexual idea, which the narcissist finds in himself; it serves the 
compromise formed of man and woman — active and passive — 
sadism and masochism — and finally the unsettled decision 
between genital and anal libido, for which the gambler battles 
in the well known colour symbol, *'rouge et noir'\ The 
passion for gambling thus serves auto-erotic gratification, whereby 
the playing is fore-pleasure, the gaining orgasm, and the loss 
ejaculation, defecation and castration. 

In a brief survey of the historical development of games ol 
chance it was shown that in the individual development of the 
gamester is repeated, as it were ontogenetically, the phylogenetic 
formation of the game of chance; that is to say, that on the deve- 
lopmental path of mankind games of chance are a reservoir for 
the anal-sadistic impulses held in the state of repression. 

In conclusion a brief retrospect concerning the psychogenesis 
of the criminality of the patient was given; and, proceeding from 
the well known impulse of the criminal to defecate at the place 
of his misdeed, it was pointed out that the anal-sadistic impulses 
were effective here in the same sense, whereby the narcissist who 
is rejected and avoided by the father becomes **Herostratus'\ It is 
then no longer the CEdipus complex of the perpetrator that de- 
termines the tendency to criminality, but the Laios complex of the 
revenging and punishing father and his imagines, for example, the 
pubhc prosecutor. 

C^ nonlpit OrFginaf from 

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354 REPORTS 

Prof. Sigm. Freud, Vienna, Supplements to the Theory of 
Dreams. 

The lecturer in his brief remarks dealt with three points in 
the theory of dreams. The first two concerned the theory that the 
dream is a wish-fulfilment, and certain modifications of this were 
advanced; the third point referred to a complete corroboration of 
his rejection of the so-called prospective tendency of the dream. 
It was put forward that one had grounds for recognising, besides 
the well-known wish and anxiety dreams which lent themselves 
easily to the theory, a third category which he called "punishment 
dreams^'. If one takes into consideration the justified assumption 
of a special self-observing critical factor in the ego (ego-ideal, 
censorship, conscience) then these punishment dreams are also to 
be subsumed under the wish- fulfilment theory, since they represent 
the wish-fulfilment of this criticising factor. They have the same 
relation to the ordinary wish dreams as the symptoms that have 
arisen from reaction formations in the obsessional neuroses have 
to hysterical symptoms. A more serious exception to the rule that 
the dream is a wish-fulfilment is found in the so-called •'traumatic^ 
dreams, as found in patients after accidents, or in the 
reproductions of forgotten psychic traumata of childhood 
in the psycho-analysis of neurotics. In reference to their 
connection with the wish-fulfilment theory, allusion was made 
to a work soon to be published called **Jenseits des Lust- 
prinzips". 

The mention of an unpublished investigation of Dr. Varendonck 
of Ghent formed the third point. Varendonck had found that he 
was able to bring in a great measure to his conscious observation 
the unconscious phantasying when half-asleep (called by him 
"autistic thinking"). It was established that the seeing beforehand 
of the possibilities of the next day, the preparation of attempts at 
solution and adaptation, etc., fall quite within the realm of the 
pre-conscious activity, which produces the latent dream thoughts 
and as the lecturer had always maintained has nothing to do with 
the dream work. 



Dr. S. Ferknczi. Budapest. Further Extension of the Active 
Technique in Psycho-Analysis. 

OrFginaffnom 
UNIVERSITYOF MICHIGAN 



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REPORTS 366 

••Active technique^ is only a new name for something that 
has been constantly used in psycho-analysis. The cathartic therapy 
iM^as pronouncedly active; the Freudian psycho-analysis demands 
from the doctor and the patient before everything else a passive 
giving up to free associations. But the interpretation is already an 
active interference on the part of the doctor. The only activity 
that we hitherto demanded from the patient was the overcoming 
of resistances to ideas. Another kind of activity was used in certain 
cases of hysterical phobias. The patients were urged to re-experience 
the situation causing the phobia and anxiety and this resulted in 
advancing the analysis (reminiscences, etc.). According to Freud 
the chief rule of the activity is that the cure has to be carried 
through in abstinence. In many cases the activity was used in the 
form of orders and prohibitions, always against the direction of 
pleasure. He caused the patients to seek situations that produced 
discomfort; finally when they became pleasurable to them they 
were prohibited. The therapeutic effect in producing further associa- 
tions was striking. 

The indication for the active technique is limited to certain 
exceptional cases, or to those showing stoppages in the analysis, 
and its method of use was separately discussed in particular neu- 
roses, character analyses, and at the end of the psycho-analytic 
cures. In conclusion attention was drawn to the difference between 
this activity and the therapeutic measures of others ijung, Adler, 
Bjerre), and an attempt was made to construct the theoretical bases 
of this technique. 

EucBNiA SoKOLNicKA, Warsaw. On the Diagnosis and Symp- 
tomatology of the Psycho-Analytical Theory of the Neuroses. 

Comparison between the pre-analytic and analytic diagnosis 
and symptomatology. A case was discussed which appeared 
particularly to justify such a comparison. The significance 
of the correct diagnosis for the therapy of the functional neu- 
roses. 

A brief survey of the method of how the diagnosis and symto- 
matology was carried out before psycho-analysis. As an example: 
Hysteria and the so-called neurasthenia. The earlier theories of 
the neuroses. Uniformity of the remedies applied.^ Criticism of the 

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366 REPORTS 

concepts on which the earlier functional theory of the neuroses was 
founded. Want of precise psychological concepts. 

Freud's theories of instinct. Creation of a new psychology that 
does not rest on the artificial analyses of the laboratory^ but investi- 
gates the elementary phenomena of the mind in its work in reality. 
Creation oi newer concepts on which can be founded the new 
diagnosis and symptomatology. Transferring of the main impor- 
tance to the investigation of the ontogenesis instead of as previously 
phylogenesis (heredity). Creation of objective psychological methods 
of investigation for the functional neuroses in place of the earlier 
apparently exact physical ones. Therefore for the petty description 
of separate symptoms is substituted an extremely fine shading ol 
diagnosis and symptomatology, which enables one to see into the 
structure of the patient's mind 

Three examples that show the difficulties of an immediately 
correct and complete diagnosis in many cases, and at the same 
time the solution of these difficulties by means of psycho-analysts. 
Borderline cases with symptoms not quite defined in the earlier 
sense, are made clear and also capable of cure by psycho-analysis. 
Example. An analysis is from beginning to end the progressive 
uncovering and interpretation of symptoms. Examples. The new 
conception of the word "symptom^'. Character as a symptom. An 
example that can serve as a contribution to the question of the 
r61e of the ego impulses in the formation of symptoms. 

General conclusions from the material. Theoretical and practical 
value of the new views arrived at through analysis concerning 
symptomatology and diagnosis. 



Dr. Gkorg Groddeck. Baden-Baden. On the Psycho-Analytic 
Treatment of Organic Illnesses. 

The lecturer sought to prove that factors of censorship exist 
which permit organic troubles to develop in order to keep repressed 
material from consciousness. One invites healthy or sick people 
to look at the objects on their writing table, to close their eyes 
and then to name the objects; this or that object will be omitted, 
and also things that are associated with something repressed. If the 
repressed material is too powerful then the censorship is increased 
rendering the person short-sighted and eventually limits the possi- 

::^y<jM^ ^.le UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



REPORTS 357 

bility of seeing through congestion of the blood vessels of the 
eyes. The process is the same in the visceral sphere as the formation 
of antitoxine by the organism through intoxication or of fever and 
suppuration through infection. 

If the repressed material is produced or its affective content 
set free, then the congestion is unnecessary and can be given up. 
They can; they need not The same thing is valid for all spheres 
of life of the organism. Examples were quoted 



Dr. L. Binswangkr, Kreuzlingen. Psycho-Analysis and Clinical 
Psychiatry. 

An attempt to compare the two directions of investigation with 
each other in their fundamental concepts. This is done at first by 
means of the individual disease concepts of psychiatry with more 
especial consideration of the most recent views in the sphere of 
characterology (Kretschmer), and that by means of the three con- 
ceptual layers which form the system of psycho-analysis, namely, 
the pure psychological investigation or that of the personality, the 
dynamic-qualitative, and the biological-teleological methods of con- 
sideration. The differences were then examined that exist between 
psycho-analysis and psychiatry with respect to the concept of disease 
and health, the concept of cure and diagnosis. In conclusion the 
psycho-analytical direction of investigation as a system moulding 
mental and psychical phenomena into a unitary entity from the 
point of view of performance was contrasted with psychiatry as a 
conglomerate connected together only by its practical tasks. 



Dr. a. StArock, Den Dolder, Holland. The Relations between 
Neuroses and Psychoses. 

Both categories have their root in the relative damming up of 
the libido, infantile fixations, and ambivalency, as Freud has shown 
in the case of the neuroses. The difference between the two 
groups is a quantitative one. The boundary is dependent on the 
stage of development or regression of the social civilisation. 



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UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



368 REPORTS 

The criterion of the lay conception ot mental disease lies in 
the over-development of behaviour (including speech) on the part 
of those who are mentally ill, which destroys the normal repression. 
In both groups the regression of the libido and ^o impulses can 
extend to the lowest stages. The regression in the neuroses concerns 
in general small quantities. The reconstruction in the neuroses is 
a compromise; its result in the psychoses stands in general on a 
lower level both for the libido and ego impulses. 

The obsessional neurosis takes a medial-position between 
psychosis and neurosis. The regression of the ego impulses proceeds 
parallel to that of the libido. It is not the narcissistic r^ression 
in itself that determines the constitutional disposition in the 
psychoses, but the fixation of the lower level. This fixation often 
goes together with some libidinous gratification of the lower level. 

The differences between the symptoms are conditioned, apart 
from the depth of regression, also by the distribution of the libido 
over parts of the body. The psychotic breaking through of the 
censorship is conditioned by abnormally strong pleasure in thinking. 
Organic increase of libido plays a greater part in the psychoses. 
Organic inpoverishment of the libido is responsible for the schizo- 
phrenic pseudo-dementia. The four Freudian types of neurotic 
sickness occur also in the psychoses. In addition psychoses often 
follow infantile wish-fulfilments (for example, death of a relative^ 
perverse practice rendered possible). 

A guiding influence in the reconstruction of society belongs to 
Freudianism. 



O. Pfistbr, Ztirich. The Significance of Psycho-Analysis for 
Constitutional Law and Political Economy. 

The lecturer showed how the prevailing folk psychology, since 
it recognises totemism as the point of departure of the formation 
of the state, was forced to face a riddle that was insoluble by its 
means, while Freud through his studies on living people was able 
to make intelligible from a unitary point of view the different 
characteristics of totemism, namely, the ambivalent treatment ol 
the totem as an object of anxiety and as a protecting spirit, the 
prohibition of killing, the sacramental meal, and the connection 
with exogamy. The choice of plants as totem was illustrated by 

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REPORTS 369 

aversions to the use of vegetable foods, by means of a phobia 
against plucking flowers, and by the drawings of a boy fourteen 
years old who expressed unconsciously his sexual wishes in drawings 
of plants. 

Unconsdous roots of the different constitutions of a state were 
shown in the day-dreams of two brothers, of whom one resembled 
his father and was a monarchist, while the other took after his 
mother and preferred republicanism. The father complexes ot 
Bismarck and Bebel expressed themselves in monarchism and state 
socialism, and also the anarchist remains attached to the father. 
The Irishman often hates in England the father, as he loves in 
Ireland the mother. In a patient ot Ernst Schneider the separation 
of church and state became the centre of his interest as soon as 
the divorce of his parents became acute. 

The importance of psychology of the unconscious for the normal 
life of the state, for war and revolution, was only touched upon. 
In the second part the life of society was referred to and 
especially the psychology of capitalism. Max Weber finds the 
sources of capitalism chiefly explained in the doctrinal thought ot 
Calvin, but did not explain how this theory could be maintained 
in contradiction to the New Testament and its prohibition ot 
riches, and how also Calvin's demand to place gold in the 
service of God was abandoned. From the analyses of living 
people it is proved that the spirit of capitalism everywhere, and 
also in Calvinism, presupposes repression of love. Thereby may 
be discovered analytically in pathological capitalistic predispositions 
the CEdipus attitude against the father, narcissism, anal-erotism, 
castration reactions or sadistic masochistic impulses. The results 
as regards religion, ethics and society correspond with the processes 
in the obsessional neuroses. Capitalism without religion, frequently 
to be understood as desublimation, bears in itself the germ of the 
struggle of all against all, as does political imperialism. 

Thus in consequence of the despising of the law of love, the 
tragedy of Peer Gynt is repeated in the life of society, and the 
curse of the Nibelung is fulfilled. 



Dr. Sabina Spielkein, Lausanne. On the Question of the Origin 
and Development of Speech^ .^^ Orfgmaffrom 



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360 REPORTS 

Autistic speech which is not intended for communication and 
understanding of other people is distinguished from "^social speaking^ 
Autistic speech is the primary one. Spielrein considers that singing 
and words^ /. e. speaking aloud, essentially belong to social 
speech. Likewise there are the "social" or ^^sociable** arts, such as 
music and poetry, which explains their high popularity. Theories 
of the origin of speech were analysed The question was especially 
considered whether the child itself invents language and to what 
are traced back the childish **alteration of words". The mechanisms 
that are supposed to be the origin of the first words, Mama and 
Papa, were investigated and supported by observations of others; 
the lecturer traced them back to the act of sucking. These words 
are the bearers of pleasure which the child experiences in the act 
of sucking, and to them may be attributed the enormous signi- 
ficance of the first wish-fulfilment in phantasy, because here 
the wish, directed on to an external object, cannot be gratified 
whenever desired. In consequence of the pleasurable sensation com- 
municated at first in the act of suckmg by means of another 
living being, the child perceives the idea of an external and 
pleasure-bringing object, for which one longs and which can be 
fetched by the calling out of the wish word derived from the act 
of sucking. In this way originated the first forms of social speech^ 
which at the same time are signs of communication between the 
ego and the external world, therefore signs of expression of the 
germinating hetero-erotism. 

The relations between word-formation and memory of the 
childish feelings were discussed and examples given showing that 
the childish formation of words and sentences or an alteration ot 
both could be explained, amongst other ways, from the adaption 
to the new psychological phase of development, assimilation to the 
old and decay corresponding with subconscious elaboration. 



Dr. Margaretb Stkgmann, Dresden. Form and Content in Psycho- 
Analysis. 

Content is the complex, the substance of the occiurcnce, the ••What^ 
of the neurosis. Under form is to be understood the nature, the ^How** 
of the occurrence, the mental structure that is expressed in it 

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REPORTS 361 

The contents are not only the same in all neuroses, they can 
be constantly demonstrated in the healthy. The form is typically 
dififerent and within the bounds of certain types individually 
distinct, so that in spite of the similarity of the contents each case 
for analysis is something new and peculiar to itself 

Besides tho content it is also important to pay full attention 
to the form and the principle of mental activity in the patient 
Freud, who is not only the father but also the classic of analysis, 
has dealt in a masterly manner with these two aspects of the 
subject of the analysis. Though observation of the contents, the 
grouping of complexes, is important and necessary for scientific 
investigation, for the further extension of the system of Freud's 
theories the lecturer has found very fruitful for therapeutic practice 
a closer consideration of the individual law of form. A few examples 
from analyses were quoted. 

The uncovering of the contents by means of the bringing up 
of complexes from the unconscious, from the spheres of feeling 
and of the irrational, aims at making them accessible to the in- 
fluence of reason and conviction. What effects this is consciousness. 

The recognising and making conscious of the law of form 
raises the forces (impulses) from the lower stage of their objectivation 
to the higher one of conscious formation. The analysis has to 
deliver the patient from the material state of bondage to a spiritual 
state in which the contents, the material, is not denied and forced 
(suppressed), but was further in organisation. 



Dr. Herminb Hug-Hellmuth, Vienna. On the technique of the 
analysis of children. 

The peculiarity of the childish mind and its relation to the 
environment needs a special technique of analysis. Such an analysis 
can only be carried out in children over six to seven years of 
age; in younger ones only a psycho-analytical education can take 
place. 

It is advisable to treat children in their home and accustomed 
surroundings^ and not to have them lying down, as this position 
is connected by the child with phantasies of being overpowered 
or seduced 



C^ nonl^ OrFgmaf from 

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362 REPORTS 

From seven to eight years of age play has often to form the 
bridge for treatment; in older children it is useful to tell of the 
tricks of other children as a good introduction to analysis. Since 
the analyst is oriented by the parents concerning the **naughtiness*^ 
of the child one need not be afraid of "corrupting** the patient 
through such communications. 

Positive transference is brought about as a rule in the very 
first hours, and is immediately played off against the parents; 
hence it is necessary to explain to the parents the significance of 
the transference, so that the parental love does not suffer too 
much from the apparent turning away of their child. The negative 
transference is clothed in the form of constant fear of betrayal by 
the analyst to the parents. The discussion of sexual questions 
requires special tact; here besides a strong and trustful attachment 
of the child there frequently appear tendencies arising out of an 
over-great repression, namely, the impulse to humiliate the analyst 

Great use can be made of free associations in youthful patients ; 
dreams also furnish valuable material from the unconscious. The 
analysis of children leads to the knowledge that in the child there 
exists another layer in the unconscious, another distribution of 
the systems conscious and pre-conscious, than in adults. 

The felation of the analyst to the parents is a difficult chapter 
in the analysis of youthful patients. His chief task towards them 
is to keep them from actively participating in the treatment, and 
to get them to recognise that their only cooperation lies in patience 
and toleration. The parents have to recognise that they ought to 
demand of their mentally sick child just as little as regards lear- 
ning as in a child suffering physically. 

I have not yet seen an analysis of children fail on account of 
the resistance of the young patient, but more than one on account 
of the resistance of the parents. 



THE BRITISH PSYCHO-ANALYTICAL SOCIETY. 

There have been nine Meetings of the British Psycho*AnalyticaJ 
Society since the last report. 

The Meetings held on May 13th., June 10th., July Stlu, and 
July 19th. were devoted to an exposition by Mr. J. C Flttgel of 

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REPORTS 363 

Frcud*s articles in the "Sammlung kleiner Schriften zur Neurosen- 
lehre^, fourth volume, on "Triebe und Triebschicksale", "Die Ver- 
drangung^ and "Das UnbewuCte", 

On May 27th a Special Meeting of Members was convened 
to consider and adopt the revised rules of the Society, 

The General Annual Meeting of the Society was held on 
October 11th., Dr. Ernest Jones was re-elected President, Dr. Douglas 
Bryan Honorary Secretary, and Dr. W. H. B. Stoddart Honorary 
Treasurer. All the Associate Members were re-elected, and 
Dr. Estelle Maude Cole was elected a Member. The Secretary 
reported that one Member, Col. Sutherland, L M. S. had died, and 
that one Member, Dr. Devine, and two Associate Members, 
Dr. Lavers and Mr. Ballard, had resigned. Fifteen Members and 
Associate Members attended the Congress at The Hague. 
Seven new Associate Members have been elected: 
Dr. O. H. Bowen, Gwynant, Peaks Hill, Purley. 
Dr. Chuckerbutty, c/o Grindley*s, Calcutta, India. 
Dn M. Culpin, Slydersgate, Loughton, Essex. 
Dr. J. Rickman, 18 A, Elsham Road, Kensington, W. 14. 
Dr. T. Waddelow Smith, City Asylum, Nottingham. 
Dr. Snowden, 21, New Cavendish Street, W. 1. 
Dr. C R. A. Thacker, Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. 
Affiliation of the Society to the International Psycho- Analytical 
Association was confirmed at the Congress. 

At a Meeting held on October 15th. Mrs. Riviere gave the 
chief points from Prof. Freud's address to the Congress, and a 
discussion followed 

At a Meeting held on November 11th. a discussion took place 
on War or Battle Dreams, with special reference to the content 
of the dream in as far as it was an exact replica of an actual 
experience, and also its relation to the pathogenic trauma. 

Dr. WrigSt said that in the cases he had examined soon after 
return from the front the war dreams were frequently repetitions 
of pure experiences, but after a short while these soon had in- 
different matter added. 

Dr. Cufpin thought that only a very small percentage were 
pure battle dreams, and even these might not have been pure it 
they had been more carefully investigated. 

Dr. Brend said that he had noted very few pure battle 
dreams. r . Original fro m 

:3y^:-^ J^ UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



364 REPORTS 

ZV. Riggair had noted only one case of a pure battle dream 
and he was even inclined to doubt this. 

Dr. Devine (a visitor) could only recall one case of a pure 
battle dream. 

Dr. Davison quoted a case of a pure battle dream which was 
associated with a very similar occurrence that the patient experienced 
at seven years of age. 

Dr. Bowen considered there was only a very small percentage 
of pure battle dreams. 

Dr. Bryan said that he had not met a case of a pure battle 
dream, but the cases he had examined had been some time in 
hospital and away from the front An occasional auditory dream 
of bursting shells appeared to be a pure battle dream. He con- 
sidered that very few so-called battle dreams referred to the 
pathogenic trauma. 

Dr. Eder (a visitor) could give no instance of a pure battle 
dream even in cases seen soon after the trauma, and only a very 
small percentage of the dreams referred to the pathogenic trauma. 

Dr. 7itzgerafd {^^ visitor) considered that about 15 per cent of 
battle dr« ams were pure representations but they did not necessarily 
refer to the pathogenic trauma. 

Dr. Harper (a visitor) considered th^t the pure battle dream 
was rare. He mentioned the case of a man who dreamed a battle 
dream which he did not immediately recollect as such until he 
had definitely thought about it 

Dr. Ernest Jones summed up the discussion, and said it was 
not yet proved that unaltered reality dreams occurred. He expounded 
Freud's views on the primitiveness of the tendency to live traumatic 
experiences over again as developed in "J^tiseits des Lustprinzips**. 

At a Meeting held on December 9th. Dr. R. M. Riggall read 
a paper on **Some Recent Cases of Impotence^. 

Author's Abstract : 

Cases requiring a lengthy analysis contrasted with those clearing 
up with extreme ease. Impotence a very common symptom in the 
war neuroses. Cases of Ejaculatio Praecox illustrating Abraham's con- 
clusions. Comments on the general impotence of every day life with 
some original views on the effect of the female on the male. 

The reading of the paper was followed by a discussion. 

Douglas Bryan* Hon. Secretary. 

r^nnnl^ * Original from 

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REPORTS 365 

SWISS PSYCHO-ANALYTICAL SOCIETY 

On February 10th. 1919 a circular letter was sent to a number 
of persons by the Rev. Dr. Oskar Pfister, Mrs. Mira Oberholzer, M.D^ 
and Dr. Emil Oberholzer in Zttrich, inviting them to a meeting in 
Ztirich on February 21st The object of this meeting was the 
foundation of a Swiss Psycho- Analytical Society embracing all those 
adherents of Psycho-Analysis who had not accepted the theories 
of Adler and Jung. The Swiss Psycho*AnalyticaI Society was then 
to apply to the International Psycho-Analytical Association for affi- 
liation. Its meetings were to be held not only in ZOrich but from 
time to time in some centrally situated place which would make 
it easy for all members to attend. 

Of the fifty persons invited twenty-one (among these twelve 
medical men, three of them psychiatrists in public asylums) pro- 
mised to be present at the meeting or to join as members after 
the forming of the Society. A number of others hesitated to declare 
their membership though they regarded the project favourably; 
some of these asked to be received as guests of the Society. Three 
of the members were from French Switzerland. 

Inauguraf meeting on March 21st 1919. 

In the course of the discussion on the rules of the society it 
was resolved that each member be obliged to adhere strictly to 
the state medical regulations concerning the treatment of patients 
by non-medical men. In view of "wild analysis'' it was resolved 
that those analysts who are not medical men should work in co- 
operation with a doctor to avoid diagnostic errors. 

In the discussion about the terms of admission it was resolved 
to draw up the rules free from all sense of illiberality and 
intolerance but to exclude all those applying for membership whose 
personality would render a misuse of the psycho-analytic technique 
not improbable. The officers of the Society were then duly elected. 
Practical reasons made it necessary for the President Dr. Emil 
Oberholrer, living in ZQrich, to accept at the same time the offices 
of Treasurer^ Secretary and Librarian. 

It was decided to hold the meetings only once in a month. 

1st. meeting, March 24th. 1919. 

Dr. H. Sachs, Dr. O. Rank and Dr. Ernest Jones, as guests: 
**Psycho-Analysis as an Intellectual Movement''. After the reading 
of the papers which gave a survey of the psycho*ana!ytical move- 

'8'^ UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



366 REPORTS 

ment it was formally and unanimously resolved to apply 
to the International Psycho-Analytical Association for affiliation. 
The rules of the Society were finally drawn up. It was resolved 
to admit guests as liberally as possible, especially to papers of 
universal interest It was resolved that the subscription for the 
year should be 10 francs to furnish the means for the library. 

Rules of the Swiss Society for Psycho-Analysis. 

1 

The Swiss Society for Psycho-Analysis, which shall constitute 
an autonomous National Branch Society of the International Psycho- 
Analytical Association, shall have as its object the theoretical and 
practical exercise and encouragement of the psycho-analytic 
method founded by Freud. 

2 

This object shall be attained : 

(1) By means of scientific discussions, so far as possible with 
the participation of all the Members; 

(2) By the foundation of a library, by the circulation of 
periodicals, and by the opportunity for a written interchange ol 
views; 

(3) By giving information to non-Members on matters connected 
with psycho-analysis. 

3 

Any person desiring to be elected to the Society must be pro- 
posed by two Members, who must communicate directly with the 
President. The latter shall lay the application for Membership, which 
must be made in writing, before the Executive Committee, and 
shall communicate the result of their deliberations to the next 
Ordinary Meeting. The election shall take place at the next sub- 
sequent Meeting, voting being by ballot; a two-thirds majority shall 
be required, and all non-resident Members shall receive notice and 
have an opportunity of recording their opinions. The result shall 
not be communicated to the candidate until after the Meeting, and 
in the event of a postponement or rejection of his candidature no 
grounds shall be stated. 

The Members of the Society shall be pledged to a strict ob- 
servance of the laws governing the practice of medicine in the 

locality in which they reside, 

r I . Orrgmaffnonn 

:3yK.:-^ ^.It UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



REPORTS 367 

Guests shall be admitted to Meetings only if notice has pre- 
viously been given by a Member to the President and his consent 
obtained. Guests may be excluded from lectures and discussions 
which are not suitable for a wider audience. 



Members may attend and vote at all Meetings, and shall have 
the right of electing and of being elected. 

The amoimt of the Annual Subscription shall be determined 
each year at the General Meeting in accordance with the actual 
requirements. 

Members shall have the right of attendance at the Meetings 
of all Branch Societies. They shall be entitled to receive regularly 
the organ of the Society, and to be invited to the Congress of 
the International Psycho-Analytical Association. At the Congress 
they shall have the power of electing and of being elected. 

5 
Membership shall cease: 

(1) On voluntary resignation, which must be notified in writing 
to the Executive Committee; 

(2) If a Member fails to fulfil his obligations; 

(3) In case of a gross injury to the interests of the Society, on 

the proposal of the Executive Committee, by the resolution of a 

three-quarters' majority of the Members present at an Ordinary 

Meeting. 

6 

The functions of the Society shall be carried out by : 

(1) The Ordinary Meeting; 

(2) The Elxecutive Committee, consisting of the President, the 
Vice-President, and three other Members (one of the Members 
of the Committee discharging the offices of Secretary and 
Treasurer), 

The Executive Committee shall be elected by ballot for a period 
of one year by an absolute majority of the Ordinary Meeting. 
Every Member of the Executive Committee may be re-elected to 
the same Office for a period not exceeding three years in all. The 
Executive Committee shall represent the Society in all external 
relations, and shall be entrusted with the conduct of its affairs. It 
shall present an Annual Report to the General Meeting. 

:3y^:-UU^i\: UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



368 REPORTS 

The first Officers of the Society shall be nominated by the 
Constituent Meeting after the Rules have been approved. 

7 

The dissolution of the Society shall only be effected by the 

Greneral Meeting with an attendance of at least two thirds of the 

total number of Members and by a three-quarters* majority. The 

Meeting which resolves upon the dissolution shall also determine 

the disposal of the Society's property. Should there be no quorum, 

the decision shall be made at a second Meeting by an absolute 

majority of those present 

Zurich, March 24th. 1919. 

2nd meeting. May 16th. 1919. 

Dr. O. Pfister: The biological and psychological foundations 
of ExpressionisnfL 

3rd. meeting, June 20th. 1919. 

Dr. A. Kielholz: Jakob BShme, a pathographical contribution to 
the psychology of mysticism. (An essay on this theme appeared as 
No. 17. of the Schriften zur Angewandten Seelenkunde). 

4tB. meeting, July 11th. 1919. 

Dr. H. Rorschach: Studies of Sectarians. Part. 1: ^Johannes 
Binggeli, the founder of the Sylvestrian brotherhood in Schwarzen- 
burg^\ 

5tB. Meeting, September 19th. 1919. 

Dr. H. Rorschach: Studies of sectarians Part 2: Anton Unter- 
nahrer, the founder of the sect of the Antonians. 

Dr. R. de Saussure: Les Antoniens k Genfeve. 

Dr. E. Oberholzer: Presentation of a case of Glossolalia. 

6tB. meeting, November 7th. 1919. 

Dr. F. Morel: "A propos de quelques manifestations infantiles 
de Tintroversion chez les mystiques". 

List of Members, December, 1920. 

1. Prof. Dr. phil. P. Bovet, Geneva, Dir. de Tinstitut J. J. Rousseau, 
Taconnerie 5. 

2. Priv.-Dozent Dr. phil. F. Morel, Geneva, 57 Route de Chftnc. 

3. Dr. med. R. de Saussure, Geneva, Tertasse 2. 

4. G. de Gontaut-Biron, Warsaw, Aleja Ujazdowska 19. 

5. Dr. med. Hans Jakob Schmid, Leysin, Vaudois. 

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REPORTS 369 

6. Dr. phil. E. Schneider, Bern, Erlachstrafie 5. 

7. Dr. jur. Paul Dubi, Redakteur, Basel, Mittlere Strafie 127. 

8. Emil Liithy, Basel, NeubadstraCe 49. 

9. Dr. med. A. Kielholz, II. Arzt, KOnigsfelden, Kantonale Irren- 
anstalt. 

10. Frl Dr. med. S. Kempner, Ass.- Arzt, Rheinau, Kantonale Irren- 
anstalt 

11. Dr. med. PhilippSarasinOberarzt, Rheinau, Kantonale Irrenanstalt 

12. Dn med. L. Binswanger, Kreuzlingen, Sanatorium Belle-Vue. 

13. Dr. med. H. Rorschach, 11. Arzt, Herisau, Kantonale Irrenanstalt. 

14. Dr. med. F. Kommann, Dir. Arzt, Lugano, Kurhaus Monte Br^. 

15. Dr. med. Dorian Feigenbaum, Jerusalem. 

16. Dr. med. Max Geiser, Dir. Arzt, Unter-Aegeri, Sanatorium 
Adelheid. 

17. Albert Furrer, Bezirkssekretar pro Juventute, Zurich, SUd- 
straCe 78. 

18. Frl. Dr. med. Emma FQrst, Zurich, Apollostrafie 21. 

19. Dr. phil. Ulrich Griininger, Zurich, Stfldtisches Knabenheim, 
Amtsvormundschaft, Selnau 9. 

20. Walter Hofmann, Lehrer, Zurich, Russenweg 9. 

21. Dn phil. et cand. med. M. Nachmansohn, Zurich, Herbartstrafie 1. 

22. Ernst Neuenhofer, Zurich, Bellerivestrafie 20, 

23. Frau Dr. med. Mira Oberholzer, Zurich, Ramistrafie 39. 

24. Dr. med. Emil Oberholzer, Zurich, Ramistrafie 39. 

25. Dr. theol. Oskar Pfister^ Pfarrer, Zurich, Schienhutgasse 6. 

26. Dr. med. Gust. Ad. Wehrli, Zurich, Leonhardstrafie 1. 

27. Frl. med. pract. H. Etter, Zurich. 

28. Dr. phil. W. Mackenzie, Genoa. 

29. Med. pract. Hans Behn-Eschenburg,Herisan, Kantonale Irrenanstalt. 

30. Albert Peter, Lehrer, Zurich. 

31. Dr. phil. Jean Piaget, NeuchAtel. 

32. Hermann Tobler, Leiter des Landeserziehungsheimes Hof- 
Oberkirch. 

Executive Committee 

President: E. Oberholzer. Vice-President: H. Rorschach. 

Ph. Sarasin. 
F. Morel. 
O. Pfister. 



C^ non L^ Orrginaf from 

:3yV_:-UUglt UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 



Jan. 


4. 


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Feb. 


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March 4. 



370 REPORTS 

HUNGARIAN PSYCHO-ANALYTICAL SOCIETY (FREUD SOCIETY) 
Report of the Society from Jan. 1st. to Dec. 31st, 1920. 

Scientific meetings; 

Dr. B. V. Felszeghy: Janus. 

Dr. I. Holl6s: Relations to Psycho-Analysis in the 

Psychiatry before Freud. 

Case Reports. 

Dr. G. R6heini: On Totemism in Australia. 

Dr. G. R6heim: Second Part of his Paper. 

Eugenia Sokolnicka: On the Analysis of an Infantile 

Obsessional Neurosis. 
March 28. Dr. S. Ferenczi: On Active Therapy. 
April IL Discussion of Dr. Ferenczi's Paper. 
April 18. A. Kolnai: Psycho-Analysis and Sociology. 
April 25. Discussion of Dr. Ferenczi*s Paper continued. 
May 9. Dr. S. Feldmann: Analysis of Blushing. 
May 30. Dr. J. Eisler: An Unconscious Phantasy of Pregnancy 

in a Man in the Guise of a Traumatic Hysteria. 
Sept 26. Dr. S. Ferenczi: Report of the VI th. International 

Psycho-Analytical Congress at the Hague. 
Oct. 10. Dr. S. Ferenczi: Psycho-Analytical Observations on Tic. 
Oct 24. Dr. J. Eisler: Desire for and Disturbed Capacity for Sleep. 
Nov. 7. Dr. S. Feldmann: On Traumatic Psychoses. 
Nov. 21. Eugenia Sokolnicka: Selma LagerlOf's Herrenhof Myth 
Dec. 5. M. Klein: Contribution to Analysis in Early Childhood. 
Dec. 19. Dr. Hermann: On the Psychological Conditions of 

Psycho-Analysis. 

Business meeting: 

Feb. 1st. (Annual Meeting) The annual Report was read and 
accepted, the Officiers re-elected, and the annual sub- 
scription raised to 220 crowns. 

April 18. A. Kolnai (Budapest VI. Ar^na utca 32 a) was elected 
to membership. 
Note: At the end of the year Dr. J. H^nik leaves our Society 

and enters the Berlin Society. 

Dr. RadO, Secretary 

f^nonl^ Orrgmaffnonn 

:3yV_:-UUglt UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN