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LETTER xvn               THE KUH-I-KANG                            35

north-west of this most important group of peaks, only
just under 13,000 feet, which passes under the general
Elaine Kuh-i-Eang.

A prominent geographical feature of this region is that
from this point south-eastwards the valleys run parallel
with the great ranges, and are tolerably wide and level,
carrying the drainage easily and smoothly, with plenty
of room for the fairly easy tracks which usually run on
both banks of the rivers.

The reader who has followed the geographical part of
my narrative will, I hope, have perceived that the open-
ings through the Outer and Inner ranges in the region
previously traversed are few and remarkable, the Tang-i-
-Ghezi and the Tang-i-Darkash Warkash piercing the Outer,
and the Tang-i-Dupulan the Inner range.

The Kuh-i-Eang is the definite water-parting and the
originating cause of two drainage systems, and it may
be seen from the map, as was beautifully obvious from
the summit of one of the peaks over 11,000 feet in
height, that it marks a singular change in the " lie of the
land," inasmuch as the main drainage no1 longer runs
parallel to the main ranges, but cuts them across, break-
ing up Upper Elam into a wild and confused sea of
mountains, riven and gashed, without any attempt at

This cutting through the ranges at right angles by
rivers which somehow must reach the sea, probably
through channels formed by some tremendous operations
of nature, presents serious obstacles to the traveller,
and must effectually prevent commerce flowing in
that direction. The aspect of Upper Elam as seen
from the Kuh-i-Eang is of huge walls of naked rock,
occasionally opening out so as to give space for such a
noble mountain as the Kuh-i-Shahan, with tremendous
gorges or canons among them, with sheer precipices 4000