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LETTER xxvin         VISITS TO OFFICIALS                        277

been driven off from the Gawar Christian villages between
the middle of June and the 17th of October, partly by
the nomad Herkis. There are now sixty soldiers at
Diza, and the Mutessarif of Julamerik is there, having
come down to capture Abdurrahman Bey, one of the
great oppressors of the Christians,—an attempt rendered
abortive (it is said) by a bribe given by the Bey to the
commanding officer of the troops.

I was interested in my first visit to a Turkish official.
His room was above a stable, with a dark and difficult
access, and the passages above were crowded with soldiers.
The Mutessarif sat on a divan at the upper end of a
shabby room, an elderly man much like Mr. Gladstone,
very courteous and gentlemanly, with plenty of conversa-
tion and savoir-faire. He said that the letter I carry is
" a very powerful document," that it supersedes all the
usual formalities, that my baggage would not even be
looked at, and that I should not require a teskcvreli or
permit. By his advice I called on the Kaimakam, and
in each room a soldier brought in delicious coffee. The
Kaimakam was also very courteous, and talked agreeably
and intelligently, both taking the initiative, as etiquette

In this and in the general tone there was a marked
difference between Persian and Turkish officialdom. The
Persian Governor is surrounded by civilians, the Turkish
by soldiers, and in the latter case the manner assumed
by subordinates is one of the most profound respect.

of Diza before His Highness Kiamil Pasha, then Grand Vizier. He
appeared deeply interested, and said that it was the purpose of his Govern-
ment to send troops up to the region as soon as the roads were open.
Since then I have heard nothing of these people, but to-day, as this sheet
is going to press, I have received the following news from Dr. Shedd
of Urmi: " You will be glad to know that Gawar is very much changed
for the better. The Turkish Governor has been removed, and another of far
better character and ability has the post. The Kurdish robbers have been
arrested, and their leader, Abdurrahman Bey, killed."—November 2, 1890.