280 JOUENEYS IN KURDISTAN LETTER xxvm driven off in spite of the guards, who dare not fire. I was awakened "by the disturbance, and as it was a light night I saw that the Kurds who attacked the sheepfold were armed with modern guns. The reis of that village and this man's brother have both been shot by the Kurds. Testimony concurred in stating that the insecurity of life and property has enormously increased this summer, especially since the reduction of the Diza garrison; that " things have grown very much worse since the Erzerum troubles;" that the Kurds have been more audacious in their demands and more reckless of human life; and that of late they have threatened the Christians as such, saying that the Government would approve of " their getting rid of them." Very little of any value, the people said, was left to them, and the extreme bareness of their dwellings, and the emptiness of their stables and sheepfolds, while surrounded with possibilities of pastoral and agricultural wealth, tend to sustain their statements. " The men of Government," they all said, " are in partnership with the Kurds, and receive of their gains. This is our curse." Many women and girls, especially at Charviva andVasi- vawa, have been maltreated by the Kurds. A fortnight ago a girl, ten years old, going out from-------, to carry bread to the reapers, was abducted. It became known that two girls in-------were to be carried off, and they were hidden at first in a hole near-------. Their hiding- place last week was known only to their father, who carried them food and water every second night. He came to me in the dark secretly, and asked me to bring them up here, where they might find a temporary asylum. Daily and nightly during the week of my visit Gawar was harried by the Kurds, who in two instances burned what they could not carry away, the glare of the blazing sheaves lighting up the plain.