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Jud^hm and h\tim compare l>eoiti$e rhey cottcur rharGitKi cares deeply not 
odyabouianitLidcEbuiJCEions^noL only ibout what one says TO Gcrilhurhc^ 
one condLicts af^ir's 2.1 hoiiie ^nd in ihe vihjLgc 

la lb is sourcebo-ok, iht aurhorshavcsc!t;ctt;J key pasiagcs frum thclaws 
or Juda-I^m and [slam ^hich ahow j. close CKaminarion of cheir ni^^de of 

eiprei^iop and medium of ihoiighi a^ v^dl asihcsuh^iiinctotttif lawi: rbtm- 
w|v<:ti The icWwl pi4:f^ii^e5 wncmtratc ^n areas cdrkaJ co the liEc of piciy 
and fajth 2s actually prictiscd wjihjn :he rwf> fetth-cflmmnitnies - ?he rek- 
tiojxship bet^^ccn cht btlit^tr and God, bcrwcrcn ind among believers, at 
home in inarTLage, oulside thehonie in die cf^mnunily ^ndbcrwe^n ilie ^^^A^- 
ftil dnd rhe Mdeb (fuilsluni) or idolaters fforjudahm). 

/wfljir^w anti Islam fw /Wrfif^ presenis aji invaluable eolleciioii oFsourctsof 
Je^v^sh and Mamk la^v and provides a unique jnal>'sii of the similarLtits and 
conTFasts between rhe cwo ralrlns. 


A Sourcebook 

Jacob Neusner, 

Tamara Sonn 


Jonathan E. Brockopp 


London and New York 

FiHipuhlidicd ?DnO 

by RiHitlcdgc 

1 1 Nl« TL-t^ LjnLH UjHlL-n EC4r 4E"E 

-S-imulH^nLUJ^Lv pLibliLnLxl uh ul^ \JjA jilJ (.jiu^ 
by l<H?LALl«lg^ 

pdcniiFiod ^^ [he Aijthi^r 4^F [biL^ W^rk hu hcun ^uircod by ilirrri in 3.ccyhJci^nK 
h^'ich ctt C^pyrjghc, LXibLgn^ a nd Paccni'f Act I?SS 

Printed jju! hniiifrd in f anzflr Bnhain 

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nnv pnfn rmacicin ^t^^ran nr nzcncvnl Ny^icin, wlHifniE ncrTni^i^n ii^ wntirw 

from [li; publishers . 

A ca[^lL4^ic rcLzunJ Viu iIli^ Ijuuk ee ^^jJiblc Ecuro du. BntLsh Ejlnraiy 
JuJaiNrh a ncf ] jJam Bn PrajLUiiE j bJuj4:£bmFk ^ |Lditt»J b^| 

Jacob Ncusncr TBmHra Sn^nn ^rnj fonR^har F. Rrofltopp. 

2^2pp - 2}A s I ^,6 cm. 

JndudcF biWjognpliiiinl ft^i^rrv^^ ^nd iFurlff 

IS.CNCUL5-7I6"^^7^5 0k.1- — JiBNMl5-?lCj74-5y*AJ 

3-Jud^iun Rflaiinnf^-r^JKlafn-^-SanrcE-x 

2m Islain — RtJarioiu — ludaism — Source. 

li (cmshlavr — Suurtet 4 IjIuhil la-A- — S(lurLti 

^. CnrnpaffiiiTe Iitat — ^ jcuii 

][|_BK^toppH Jonathan E n I9ij2- 
BP173jajS3 MOO Ljg.j^Toa 






1 InrrmJiLCfjoji ' 

2 l^raycr inlsbm ^ 

3 Pravcrm Judjl^m ^^ 

5 Fasting in Judaiim 3* 

6 AbLuriti-ns in I Jam "^ 

7 AhLmions ir Judaism *> 

8 Ct>iicliiiiori5 ^ 

II Ajnoiig tlit^ Filthiul (11- BecrodiJ, Mdfruific, InhcnbuiCH. DivoKc: 

Huw the Family is Rfgulaicd ^? 

1 Intradncriofl 5* 

Z EkrrocEialin JucUism "* 

3 BEcroihal in Islam ® 

4 Marriage in judaiiiVL S7 

5 Mardige in isUm *5 

6 Inhericancc in JiidaiSiii "" 

7 Inhencance m Hani '"' 
B Divorce in Judaism ^" 
5 Divorct-in l^Um ^^'^ 
10 Conclusions ^25 

111 Among ihcFaithfd [J IJ: Almi^vin^ and Charity 129 

I InnrodLiCEiori ^" 

1 CharilVLii Islam 130 

3 Almi^^'ingin Judaism l^O 

4 Supportlbf [he PoorinJuJjiim 1^ 

5 Concisions ^7S 


IV BtTween ihe Faidifti! and the Outsider. Dcrining tht Communii)' 

andthcOthci I8t> 

1 IntrOiiikCiio™ '8C» 

2 E>cfining ilic Cnminunlcy In rhc Law 01 Judainm I8l 

3 Hitw rhc OutfiidTi h Tn^kied in the Law of Judaism 3^0 

4 E^tfinJng [he Community in Lbmk -SnufCK: 
TbcQiirWH^dnli.Flqh 210 

5 Hn^iheOuiiidcris Trcactil irf [hcLawot'Iilain 225 

6 Condusioiis 233 



Juuaism and Eslam arc: compa.rablc in diat ilicy concur chaL i^od cirt-s cleep-E}^ 
jiotQnly abouERKiitidc&butaaium, not only ibom what one saysro Gi>dbui 
h-ovp' one condiLCH affe.jrs ai home and in ihe vjll^g^- C^£>(| »im^ g^ iajattElyinE 
the social Older, noT oaiy private I [fe. Btirh religions agret tTiat God jimsatthc 
recomimciionofsodeiy inaccofdwithiiortnsofhdEncssand that God has in 
so many wora^^ thcrtiigh rtvcaltd writings to tLc prophets, specified precisely 
ihe chjrjcier of iho^e nejrmSr So the two grcai traditions brar jnuch an 
C"?mEJioni Tb^t t^ct permit? ODinparisDn - therefore al&c comrasi. Why do sfi 
jiL5tnow? Because chis isana^c in ^hich, in ihe U^A, Europe^ and ih* Middle 
Easi, the monorhcasms of law in che wrvice of rhe All Mercilijl (as both call 
God) Iniersecc once more, a5 they did j thoiuuiid ytari bcfor-c. Ho^ the reli- 
girtriS cXsMparC and co-n(ra5c when, WLlh]ii the shared framcworlc of etp]lv^e* 
tions abaui the sociai, therefore legal HdimensJons of iheolng)^ ihqr ijjok in 
the same way about the same practieai subjccus d-efiaes che proWem of this 

Out goal :s te^ provide readers with a direerencoutiter not only with the sub- 
stance of the la^^-ft bur also their language- That [^ v^hy wc ict loith a 
iwiircebookjn which ktigthysbhTrqttsailo^^ dose csaminatio II of Isla^^ 
JudiLi^ iiiod» vf cxpni^ivr i^nd m^di^ ?f thought as muei^ as thf mciisage oi 
the religions concerning a subject rhcy regard as crttical to ilieir respective 
accounts of the social order. We shall see that wheai we CKan^Jne liowjutlaisfii 
and Islam portray the ericical rel^tion.^ltip^ that p^^ple maintain - between 
themsel^f ? ut^d God^ainotigthemselvKin theeommunityofihe-feithhiLand 
between that comTTiunity and the outsider - wc find a sinking fact. It ls thji 
Judaism and Jslam concur on. a greai manv puctical matters, u^ing diflFerecit 
language with the same result time and a^in. That does net mean thr tv-^aic 
rcalf}^ saying the same thjng and form a single religious tr^dirioil^ divide ih 
dttajJ and perhaps in distinctive idiom- rhati_s fjf frotn fhe facfr It docs mean 
that Judaism and Islam, by reason of iheircoiiccjitrk Lhnrattcr and their con- 
cvrrijig jiidgmenrj^ :^b*«l what matters between God and tiumaiiil>i may 
undeft^ike j sustained dialogue on issues of common concern. Outof theclas- 
ii-eal Soiircci of each, we mean to -ron-stract rhe wherewithal rtf one such 



dLalogiiCT th-c one concerning the practicalities of the rcligiojs lilc lived ^ith 
God» condacuetl ar honien and sustained in the ^cc ol diFFcrcncc beyond ihc 
circle of faiLliH lionie^nd family. 

Thsr ^pi f Jfion to corLiribmem the common g[>ode>LpLirLS [h* plan of [he 
bouk. The ihrtcayibtH^ have ctiown foij"^i*rea*ja1lof ih^m^niicil ruihclift 
of piety and Ikith as actually prjcticed ^vithin the two feitJi-coinmiinitieSr 
They fall Into three catcgt>ries, define! by rclatlonsiiipa one coi^ercd by Chap- 
ler I-, ihc secondn hy Chapters 2 and 3i and the ihird by Chaptei 4: bccwecn 
iJie b^liETvcr andGod^bciwccnandamoiij^bclic^TrsTat homcinmarriaj^^oLJc- 
sidethehotTieinrhf cftmmuniLysandftnillyibciwecnLhcfaJchful and[heLnfi- 
dchllot lilam) or idolaters (Tot Judaism). 

Thelirst areiof lawaddresici the life of the faithful with God and entoiti- 
passcs acts of piery in prayern nisting, and ablutions. The second tak^^s tip the 
life of die ^cbFul widiin cheii own communicyn both at home and ui ihe fel- 
lowship of the faithfld OQLSidcihcwalh of the household. ThcformcMnvoWc 
[f]a[^pn^ip^ \vi[hin ch^ ^mily - becr^Ehal^ marriage^ inhcrii^nce-and divorce 
-as theMirttopLCS deemed critical to tKe holy -way of life under God'^bw by 
btith Islam and Judaism in their classical, formafivc wtirLngs. The latter 
address chelaws for the support of the poor, almsgiving and eharity The thixd 
cai^ry cncornpasscs die lawE reflating the irktionshlpoltht" holy coifimii- 
nitytDOLJtsidcrSiiiirwoa^pecif:fir^tid':fin]ng>vho belongs to [hL'-«?mmuni[y 
of (he faithfu]; secoiidn [he- marrerof 'die Qiher' in Judaii^m and I^lain. In eKls 
Wniy ise oHeran encompassing poar^it of ihepracnc^hijes of d^e cwo religion-s 
of law atid show their numerous points of concLLrrence^ also und^fscorlng 
where and how they dinirr. 

Wc deal only wuh rhc instiaL and everywhere authoritative, siacements of 
die cwo religionsT their classic^ formtilacions- So wt portr-ay the religions 
within ihe ideal Type sei forth in their respective bcndie-s of classical law. Scrip- 
cure as set f<^^^K by the Mi^rah ajid Talmud, c. 2(H)-<jOO CE, for Judaism^ 
and the Quran Slid Sunna ofrhePtoph^asset forth hyrheda^ichitidk^^^its 
oflslamicitirispnidcnc^, t. 700-1 000 CE for Llam, We propose ro scale mai- 
lers in ihcir initial, canonical presentations, with v^hidi alL later authorities 
eoncLirn and to which all subsequent rheoiogians and lawyers turn for norma- 
cjve rules. Since we claim to scik rhc generative norms af ihe rwo cheologi- 
tsl-lcgalrradifiomando>mpureuiidcoinrjst d"Len^ in their id^allorm 
we do not rake up questions of vamtiun over time or space and among diverge 
interpreters oftbecommon tradition. What we compare are rhc Fomiuladons 
of Judaism and islam by rheir classical audiorities: Gt>d's revelarlon to Moses 
as porcrayed in Scripture and recapitulated in Oral Tradition by the rabbis 
who produced die Ivfishnah and chelalniudj Gods revelation ro IvIidianrLmad 
3S p^rcr^yed ]n nhe Qar^an aiid the practice of his ProphcCs and explained by 
rhc k^\ ichol^i^ who ptcwluced the davsic hantlboob of Islamic law. We 
intend ic provide ^ ptt^urc that dL sut^cquent ^ncR^lun^ uf Judaism lUid 



Islam to the presei^t day ^^il! Hii-d iccuraie and faniiLir, even while laking 
account of later dcvclci-pjn<:ntSr 

Forjti-daisnii spccificallyn ^"c portray the law j,nd tlitobg^ aiscr forth lauhe 
Hebrew scnpiLires of ancieni Israel, with emphasis upon tht PcFltaneucha UA 
those ^ctipciiret are interpreced and recapitulated by the Mishnahn a philo- 
50phiul kwi^od^of £^. 20OCF'9 (hcToscrfu, a con)pLlaiiL>n of supplementary 
laws of Tr 300 CKp the Talmud- of the L^nd of IsraeL a comniencary on 
thirty-nine of fheMiihn^'ssiKty-fiV[>r[>picsl iractarK, of ^^ ^[MKltn and rhe 
'laimiid of Babylonia, a commentary on thtrty-icvc-n oi tlit Mashrmns rrac- 
caie^^ of c. (i^a CE_ The abstracts take cwo forms. In some casct-T the law is s^t 
fuitli in itjt Eflgli^h iramlaiJofi of rhe on^nal Hcbrj^wlorAramak^aB the text 

dittatcs). In tnhcrs^ thcljwispresfihcsd inadLfTercniway, here the Miivhnah's 
scatcment ii givxn, followed l>y the Tbsefu's complement (or irs ] ndependcnt 

rulinj^T amplifying the same topit but nothing that the Mi^hiiah Mys 3brtiit 
rhat lopk), then by the discijsaion of the Talmud of the Lifid of Israel^ and 
finally; by thai of The Talmud of Babylonia. Wliat wc have is a reprise, in the 
wijPceB'<iwn language^ but no: a verbaiimabicraccofrverything thcdasiital 
soijrcciiHvin their way of presenting. inacEcrs, The former prcscncation brings 
rcadcri into dimt coritatt with t!^e languaee as well ai the substance of ihc 
sources. The latter provides a repTise of che .-^ource^^ cruverEng more ground in 
9n eff]C]cnr mannci. Each typ^ or presentation nas iti ndvantagei- 

Fo-F Istam "wc draw upon the ulassical sources, fhc autnonty pof ^luch all 
Mufliaiu aifirni- fhe absolacc foundanon of l^lam is the Quran [which uicd 
to be spoiled piioneiicatly as Koran) ^ lalani'^s sacred strripturc. The Qufan ia 
bclirved tobc thclitetjlword of God^ revealed through Prophci Muham mad^ 
in thecaHy i^rventb century CE in Arabia. {The Arabic word ^wr'sfl nneans 
*rcdtation.> But the Quran is not a bw b[>ok-Cf its ] 14 chipiers (kjiown as 
suras]^ only a few deal with specific [c^gislutiorin such as tho^e prohibinng 
female in^ticidc. u&ury. and gamblings thuw imputing dieijr^ re^rricrinnt 
(the pmhihhinn ofalcohoi and porit); and those spccHying family W on 
issuer iuch [^^ inheffiiance^ dowern and arbttraiion in di^Tjrce. The majority' ol 
the Qur art's vefsesdeaL with cheoLc^italieac hi ngs, such as the oneness of Godi 
and moral themes^ establishing gtcier-ll 5tandard^ for virtue and |LLstLcc- Wha: 
Is more, they w^re revealed graduailyn over some tir^'cnty-two vejri. Over rh:jr 
period, manyofthethemc&dcvelopcdH some made more specific, some exem- 
plified by rlif Pto-pher's ^vords and exampicL Those Avordi and esamplcsT 
though not part of the Qur'a [5. itself, are considered essennal to a full under- 
standingof Scripture, -since the Qiir^^ci itself repeacedly says thai :he Prophet 
Muhammadset th<:bcst txariipleof how tci follow ics teachings Colleciivc^ly 
knownastbeSunnar^-ay'or normative pfictice^ 3 Iso spelled ^Sunnjh^) ofrine 
l^phi^t, reports [j^jiir^, ^ingukrr Ajrfsr/jl ofeheseewiitTiples were originally 
cran-^imiLted orally from one g,cncraiionrD a Jiothcr, ButmEhinatcnitiry after 
the Prophet s death m 631 CE^ scholars began to rccoenize che need to record 
them. They collected as many indiw]Qil treporcs as possible, chen carefiilly 


screened iheni for 3inheni.LCLi,^| o^iiiKd, jnd tiodilicd them. Bv :hc third 
ctn cury after rhe Ptopher Clate nimh/caily tenth ccnttiry CE)h nhcre Here si^ 
iTbafor collections <jf hadith rcporis for Sunnj MLi^lims. (ih.'i or ^ViVht Miis- 
limi, A minority who dtflrr fromilic Sunn ion issues nfco mm urtify Itadtrship, 
compiled older c-Dllwrions ofhidJirh repon^^ Wljy tlietWndi century CE 
had idcnnfied rhrct ma|ntr boolcs of SunnO Two of ilic Surim collccdons 
iihoac of mmh «n,iury sdifiJars Muhitmnmd aL-Bukhari and Muilim ibn 
al-HaJiaiil-Njy^buriJ were d-esign^tcd by thr jnajority of scholars acchciim* 
35 "most JisthotitJtivc. The hadith collections-, and especially those of 
EU-Biikhari and MushrRn arc the basis of coniniencarLes ptjrpocting to ampli^ 
the meaning of Quraiilc verses U^fiir)^ and provide tsicntial precedents in 
Islamic ligiskrion (fi^^). hl^irtic kw {collectively knovi-n as Shari'a; also 
spelled ihati'jli) h chc basis (jf liljmit life -personal and public. There are 
four mgjof schools yf^Jamit h^f^i Sunni Musliniin and anochtr fiir .Shi'i 
Muslirni, Other, smaller groups of Muslims rely onotber formulaiLorLSof^tior- 
itiJtjve behavior. But all Muslims agree cha: :hc sources for Ictiowledgc- of nor- 
mative behavior arc the Qur^an and rbe Sunna oi iht Pn^phct. Thev arc, 
chereforCn chc sotjrces used in ihe treat mertr of issuts presented in this volume. 

Whiii chit iOurwbflnkiiAfcid^ Oi^ ili<>isn and<.an be read In its own terms 
and friniewofkH it jJjiO jierveh a a supplement to anorhcr book produced by 
the fjrjiiw<>^>fttictbma"Hh^rs<:jf this one (N-cusnerandSonn-f. h\ iheajm- 
pftniodj Cortp^n?^ Rrlf^i^Gris 7^^roug!? Ljiw,- J^i^isK c?>j^ IjjLim {l-Oftdon: 
Routled^j l^jy^^a the authors spoil ouc sheir tJicory of how to compact: islam 
and Judais-m as religions oFlaw- "J here chey inrfoduc*; the atithoritativedocu- 
rnentsofchefiLths, [he intellectual 5i>ur«s that ahiniatcchecaLploradon 
law and jtt Ic^ic m parctckik^ the mtFJturiom that (in cheoryj administer ihc 
law, and [he kinds <if rtligtoiis authority that bear primary rc5pon5ibj|][y for 
admin L^[r^(it>n, In ti^ pryt^iaiyftunlras^, they identify areas ofrheJaw LrcaLcd 
by both religions but frmphai-izedn in proportion^ by ojic more ibaji by tht 
othcrn^nd they point to cate^oucs un ique to the one and [griN^redby theothcir 
But In their cxposinonT chey deal &nly lightly with areiS of law treated in 
common and m roughly cojiipafahleproportJom by Judaism and Islam; in the 
present soiircetwsok, th^ cr^nTra^t betwwn the systems of law and rh^^ology 
haviig been hi^ligbtttli and joined by the rbirdaLi[hor(ro whom checirigin^ I 
idea of the entire project bclorigs), they curn to the areas of cflmmrsbilily and 
commensurate im porta nee. 

One poLn: i-ccniires c^arifiation. Our intent ii to deal solely with Judaism 
and Islam a^reh^ioti^, with 4Kci;^l refer-entt to the ciasstcal writinj^ ofcachn 
representing Judaism dirnugh to the seventL and Islam through the icnch 
csniujy- WedoiLOCJjmerirLroaintemporajyproblHnBofpoUiicL 
rime^ the Ungujge of Judaism and lilam includes words bearing, meanings 
today that did not exist in the formative ages of die two faith:^. A prLnc^Pfll ont 
ofthcscisMsracl/whick in the licur^ of Judaism atid Jh the laws rc(ers to the 
holy people called into bemg hy God to tectj^-e the Torah at Sinai. That 


represents a ^upern at uril entity. Members of that holy pcopk-, in |ii>e with the 

i4_s^geftf StJTJptLirej are call^ 'Israelites/ 'I'iic territory they receis'cd Irom Gtxi 
Is cjllcd ^the Liiid onsroel-* These represent formtiktions that have no bear- 
ing upon prcsciii-day polirjcs dfiiHrtg wjfh fhf Siareonsfid. i^raelisiicjci- 

icns of the Stale of Israel anti other tonttmporiir)^ subjects of cnntenTiatL So 
'Israel' in che liiui^ of judaisnii cited at sortit kdgthi ipe^ks of rhe hoiy 
people of Codn noc rhc ^rate of Israel oFoiir own times, 

Professor Brockopp expresses hjs thanks :o Bard Colicgc For the opportu- 
nity to pursue T^i^ scholarly career under splendid, condiclons, a_n<l Professor 
Ncu&ncr. hoidingprof-esitjrships^l Sard- Cr^tk^i aiid ihe Univ^rsJT}' &f South 
Fkirlda, expresses chanbto Ixjth center* of liightr kartiLngand^holatship- 

Jacob Ncusncr 
University of South Florida and Bard C^iiicge 

Tjmarft Soiin 
G:hilcg.e of William, and Miry 

Jgn^thjji Brotk^pp 




PjayciT ^Tingn 2nd ablmlans consry to God the aspliatjon of the feichful :o 
rebce 10 him. In ptrayer, ch.^y ^pe^lc chrotigK l^iigiiage^ m fa^Ling, dhiY^u^ 
ab^fLiitfnce, andmiblufjon>!rhmugh acL-^ofpurifLi^fLhn- In l»i-h Judaism and 
IhJjm. rhesc aaloiis - prayer rhrougliout liit n^.\y, failing m spedfitd [imcs. 
faithful want, bucab expressions of ^ubmi^ ion and icrvicc: routine, nor charis- 
matic rcspons^T in iccniar ciicgorics. To many in ihc WcsCt diai concept ^^'ili 
prcrt'e puzzling. 

While iti rhe ProiKrini parcK of fh* Wesr prayer rakes place lit ^pnnraneouj 
resfwnyew the working of ThtiHoJy Spiritn in Judaism a.r<l in Lilam prayer is 
liturgy in chcdaEic sense of the ^onJ^ thai is^ labor it is work to be done ibr 
God. P-copIc recirc prayers hcciusc they are commanded to do -so^ out of reli' 
eiou5 duty, in Judaism. And 10 that conception^ the ncdon chac one prays 
when the spirii moves rhe per&on» or one jn"vencs or fabricacei a prayei" for ch-e 
occasion H a alien. 

syncfatic prayet, even for individual prayer, iiutiaide the tramew-ork of Lh-e 
quorLun irprcscniing the holy tommLinicyokhcBichtijL But both [alam and 
Judaism concur that fixed oblieanons govern the rccication of praycii and 
much law encases ch-e nerfarm^nce ofchoj^e ohlieaiions in £er rule^^nd defini- 
tjons. Pfij^f conforms to a fised text. It is carefully choreographed, bodj 
inovcmtnti being sped ficd^ Ic takes plice at stt timcbi not merely whenever 
and wherever the raLthbilare movcd>or, ind^zed, whether they a re moved acall. 
Ins an obhjTation rLacGod ha&sec^bccaLisc God wants the prayert of human- 
ity. And whik Protestant spiritualiry jtidgcs iJiai th^ iccter convicts bac [he 
spirit rcvLveSj iMoshni and Judaic fenhfui aEtest 10 ihc concrarv^ che reauire- 
mcni of regular^ obhgacDry prayer provokes plcrv dcs-pirc: the rccalcirranr 
bumat^ jpini. 



Rjrnal prayer is fhc most visible manifcsDiiion of IsUm. FiKuancs aday, Mut- 
Ijms dcmonsiriH: cheir subnii^ion to (h^J hy mal^ii^g fv^y yr more lyll pres- 
mtions ro hiirij touch me iheir fbrehead-s to the sr-oundr I'hii prav^r may be 
perform^ anywhere - homfn uffice^ or on the street - except For noon on 
Ftiaay, wJicn Muslims gjtncr at a itioH|uc for communal prayer, ^hen ih^ 
l&L-^r^hC itgsS h^jidboolcH icldiCis prflycTn they usually refer co this nmal prayer, 
bill [he prayer [>hhea>m[riuniiyL5al SO impoEtamaioihcrorcDrs.ddicrai^ 
two g^AC fcstivali [at the end of Ramadan and rhc end of ihe pilgrimage ro 
Mtcca) CI at times of d]sasicr. Muslims also cnfiafic \n vajtoii^ form.s ofpei:- 
5onal prayer, including rhe m]H^Eical repeciriCNiiof tAxi'^ nmic^khowri ^ f/hik^i 
the Qur^an often rcfcn eo die power of per.soniill pr^iye^ rtt^urding; specific 
praycrsbyNoaKZeehariahanJ^lh^rt BuJ f^trsonal- votive- prayer is noi a 
religious: dLic)'JorLC in Gail's wtvice, obligatory prayer is. 

A^ JE^J^di^i^m, ntijt^l prayer has bt^^hpubli^andprlY-atcdemenxsin [lilamic 
law_ Eich prayer, for infftancen musi: begin wirh a publk call, eveti jf ojie i$ 
^lone in die dcvcrl- Ornc jxithorttativc legal handbook devores Twelve chaprejs 
to tlie -s^ibjett <A praytr, inten^Taving public and prlvaic clemeiiis: che [five) 
times of prayer" thrcaJJ to prayer; ihtd^^ripiion ^f ffqiiEred icti in prtycr^ 
leading prayer; misccLlancou^ injunciioji^^ prottricmg dicring Qur'an rcdca- 
ci£>n; prayer whiJe [rav^lli^gj Friday COJiimunal prayrr^ the Ecarprayen prayer 
on chc fwo fesfi"valss praytr at the lunar eclipscj and prayer for rajn_ The order 
oH^ chese cFupcers is? in descending importance of char which ev<^ry ML^Iii:[i 
should Krtow: TA-'tien aad h-ow to priy is absolutely essenciaL while the precise 
nietKcxi of praying in times ohroublc is fir l5S5\niaL Br far thfJohgeit of ihese 
chap-Eefi isrhct>ntrdcscribingthc actual bodily movcmcna [obe^^f^felt■mtdirt 
prayer, down to the positioii of hands and fe?^j &irn;e pTiy^^I ii a physical 
symbol of a Mujhnn's absoluTe-suhmissKin ic^ tht'Lotd of the v^orids/ there is 
nornwm for innov^nvesi^^le. These twelve diaptcrb arc then followed hy chap- 
lers on funeial rite?, in whJcb ptayei-plniys a major role. The Talmud prcscncs, 
for Jud^i^i^i count*i|>ar[ Fulci on ihc phj'sical conduct of a persoji ^% prayer: 
whcccoacknccls^ho^ oncenanchaEcs. and [he like. 

In prayer, ihe Quran lakeg n^ rnle aj a Jlliirgi^^J document- Quran [n 
Arabic liceraJly means rcciiacion, ^nd. Muslims must recite at least part of ihc 
Quran, in ArabJCn during chcir piaycr. ivfLuilim^i fr^jm dll <>vct tbc wcNrJd have 
mcniorizcd the firet chaprer for this ritual use, and it kj^ometiiTici referred to 
as the Mother of rhf Booti 

In the Name of Godn the Merciful^ the Compasiionaiie. 
Praise belong to God, Lord of the vrorlds^ 
the Merciful, tlie CompaMionaccT 


Master of the day Njf foitU, 

I( i^ yoj chaE wc serve and to you wt pfiy tot aid, 

Gtiide us 111 [he sEraigtiE path, 

the path of ihrise for wham vo^i have made rhc way itnoolh^ 
not of tliost Againsi whom you are ^^g^y^ 
nor of chose v^ho art ait ray, 

(TheQjr'an, 1:1-^) 

TTif mevciafte of rhis ehapEcr cjxmpiiEit:^ the focus of Mii^hm prayer. After 
invt>l?:irtg (iod's name and his ctLaraaeHitic n^ercy and cf>nipissJ3n, it 
ddjLribci him iS bfl^h Crearor and iudgc of ercation. Jt then prodaims the 
riEhiful position o^Muilims a^ ucterly dtpcndcnc on Cod for hclpn gjuio^nce^ 
and proceclion from hell. 

ThcQuf-an consranrly rcfeti lo pfivcr, iiid along wiih ibt ^vingof alnu 
[he command to pray isth-cin|iLnuiati most commonly found in Et. Bui^vhile 
rifu^l prayer is described in ihc Quran, Fidrher rhe number of daily prayers 
nor the ordti' ol niovemenis arc ^pcirlncd. For cAjn^pIc^ th^ following verses 
mention pti^ijtriiifin and srandln^, cwo of ihe key dements in riru^l prayer 
biiE rhtre is no svittinaui; iii|unccJon: 

The servanHof cheMcrtiRil are ihose who walk rhc cartli in rranquili^-, 
and who, when the ignorant iiptjlt to rhem^ saVn ^Peacei' 

who [visK ihe iiighr piosiraringind standing iMrfijreihi^if Lord; 

who 5ay, 'O uur i-i>rdi turn iway ch^ to-riure c^J hdl irom uij ^yj^ly ics 
roriure Kcms inevitables 

[r would be evil as a hoitsc or re^cing-place/ 

([bid,, lS'£i-66) 

This verse LJitlu-des ekmcnts frt>m ritual prjycrt flOEfl l]^e5^ipti'erDgaTOIy njgb: 

vigils and ftorti ptfj^onai prayer apainic chchorrori of hell. Another example is 
simiLariy iind ear, though refeirenceis made :o a common ritual pcrfijtm^d by 
dhe liNrlie^'crs: 

Mul^aramad ls Gods messenger^ and lho5e wlifj are wjrh him are hard 

on unbtlievcrs-j hut compasiLonacc among chemsclvci. You un see thetn 
bowing, prostratLng^ and desiru^g char Cod bless thctn and be plej^d 
wth chcm. Their mairk on rbeir faecs is from the trace of prOiti'JILcVn^ 

(Ibid,, 48:2^) 

The mark mentioned in this ver-^e is an impression vhsibie on th^ forehead -of 
(hos£ who have spent their lives ptrformEng rhepraytr pLve tcmesa day^ Buf 
alihou^i ihe specific cnovcmenrs and (iifl« of pi^aycfc^ jre noc in the Qnran, 
neither ;irc ihey dtfintd merely on Prophetic authority: Vitxhtr^ Islam holds 
thai thi5 rttual "w^s esubl^jhed by God. Twxj hadith aK of kc^ jn^por lance in 


dciliiJLig ilie parameier^ of ricojl pnvcr [he firs: occurred during iht 
Prupkci's night purncyinmrhc presence oft ird and e^fabl].^^^^ 

five tiiDcs a day; th-c scxond citiiWibhes the specific times of thew pravers md 
wasscnt doi^TiaJonpchc same pack ai the Qur'an itidf, through the inif rmt- 
djary of ihe Angel Gabriel. 

Whedi Cjabriel iodL [MuhajrimadJ up :q each of the heavens and askird 
pcrrThiision CO enFct", i^e had ro _say wlioin he hjd broughi and wheiher 
htihid rettivtdn mis^iui) and thfy wnuld m 'Godgrani him hfe, 
brother 2nd Ericnd!' until they reached the seventh heaven and hii lord. 
There [he dury of fifty prayers a day was laid upor h im- The a|?osdc 
5a id: ^On my r^rurn I pj^sed by Mosk and whar a fine friend of yours 
he was! Ht iS^ed me how many prayers had been laid upon jue and 
when I told hi^ri fiftj- h^ said^ "Ptayer i^ a weighry m^rter and your 
pct>plea.rc weak, io gt> back to your Lord atid asU him to reduce the 
number for yon and your oommiLnity." I did &0 and ht look off ttJlr 
Again 1 passed hy Moses and herald the same again^ and ^o it went on 
LinEil only Fiy€ prayer^s for the whole day and nij^: w^re left. Moms 
a^in give me :he ^ame advjee I replied iha: 1 had been biek lo niy 
[j>rd and asked him m reduce the niimher unril I %vj^ a.'^hamed, and I 
w-uuldnotduitiipLn. He of you who pccforms them m faah ^nd trosi 
will have the regard of fifty pravcrs/' 

Qi^ce the number of prayers wa_s Rscd av RvCn ic ncmained lo dcccrminc ihe 
dmcs of thcK praycts, Iciten^stitigly, Islamic law does not designjce specific 
times fct tach prayer {6a-ni.j 1 p-JTi-n jnd sooti), bur richer defines i^eriods 

vKJthin which eich prayer may be performed- Naturally, the es^act nmeof'ihes*; 
periods changes with the iiea^unii. In fhis ^tund hadith, Gabriel makes thi^ 
di^iinciion clear: 

When prayer was laid upon the aposile^ Gabrie] caiTue to him and 
prayed the Jiood prayer when rhe _sun deehiied. Then he prayed ihe 
evening prjycrwheii his ibadow equaled his own length. Thtii he 
prayed the iLin.set prayer when the sun set. Then he prayed the last 
nighi prayer when ihe rwilighc had disappeared. Then he prayed "with 
him ihe moriiing prayer when chc dawn rojc. Thtn he caiiie lo him and 
prayed the Jiooii prayer oi\ the morrow -when 1^]^ .shadow e<|iialed his 
h^ght. Then he prayed the ev^nipig prayer when hi^ ^hjido\^" eqiiifll^^d 
thchciglitofbothof thciTi. Then he prsytd the sun^i prayer when [he 
iuiiKtai thciimt it had the dsiy before. Then he prayed wirh him the 
lasr night praytr when the first rhird t>f fhe night had parsed. Then he 
prayed ibe dawn prayer when it was clear but the sun was not shining. 
'I hen he taid: 'O Muhammad^ prayer is in whar js btcween yoiir prayer 
nxli^y .and ycmr prayer yesterday/' 


Ai dttaikd as these Ujidith Ate, chcy ^^te becii as oj-jI^ some amt>j^g man^ 
auth-ori:Jc5 as to ihc proper cjcncs and lorma of prayer. Typically, coUcctioris of 
liadivh were- more cojiccrncdwirh includin^allsoiindT auchoritativc iraditiuns 
rh^n WLiK provLciing a. single source of aurhonry for btrlic^Tr&a and ehoosLiig 
uue or iwo ^or demojiiiranon purposes would mi^reprewrn [he variccy of 
vMit&l^untliTi ihciTi-Thijgslstuoft frorriotieflf The eiarJLesctX]Jlei:i"L[>n:v makes 
this variety of opinion quirt jpp^ircnt, 

Aia' b. Yasarsaid chai a man came to ihc Messenger of God - may Allah 
bletq hmi aiid grjiic l^im pe^cc ^ and asked him about the iime of the 
morning pTHyer: 'TheM^scfiger ofGod wasquiecanddid not answer 
him, buiin ihcm.orDing he prayed when chc-duwn hsitijust broken. On 
the iollovHiiE morninE he pcrfoTmcd tbt^ pray tr when the iky wgi 
already yellow. Then he said y 'Where is the one ^ho "wa^-^ iisking ab<jut 
the time of :hc prayer?' 'Here 1 am, O Messenger of Godn' he iaid; so 
the Prophet rephed^ ' fhc :ime is between ihese two.^ 

AJiha, ihe -wifr of the Prophet, sjiid^ 'The Messenger of Ciod - may God 
blesi him jnd grjjit him pcjt,c - uw:d co pray (he tiiorning prater while 
it was still so dark the worncn could not Ijt r&cogriiTtd tvhen thty would 
leave wrapped in their garmencs.' 

Umarb.J-Khattflh wrote lohls govemor^^ saying- The most 
important ol yxsiir af&iri in my view b prayer, Wtioever hrols chi^ and 
inai mains the prayer maincains his Ikitti^ but^vhaevcr i^ negligent Eibout 
ir wiil be even more ncEligent about other things-' |...] He aho wre»Ec: 
'Pray ihe jnoniing prayer when the scafs are just beginning to &dc/^ 

Ally one of these hadiih jnighi beriak^J^ by rh^ commumry as atichoriiaLive; 
but what is imponam her^is [he way in which srorin ahour key figures in [he 
carlv community — the Prophctj his wifc^ hii c~onip[iiiion Uciidr - pr<jvidc jti 
ezcpianation for regional diftercnce& in selection of time for prjy^r and ith the 
riru^] movem^nis. In general, the classical handbooks Dflawdisca.rd this ambi- 
guity ^s too confusing for rhe average believer, so instead of quoting all rele- 
vant Quran and hqdirh, they merely sratt the faci^ of |irayer in iheir common 
interpretation. This selection from Ibn Abi Tayri al-Qayrnwsm Cdied in y^6) 
represtnrs one of ihe four orthodox interpretatioris for prayer time. 

As for the jub^or mornjjig pravefn it is- the middle pra>x:r according to 

(lie peiiple of Medina^ ic is the prayer of dawn. The dmc at "which it 
may befii'sr perforniadisir the br^akingof ihedawnon the horizon 
with light ill [he rascctntnosi poin^^ runnuigfmni [he direction of 
pravcr westward and mating the wh^ile horizon clcrar. The end of rhe 
prayer lime is when the clear yellow of the tip of the sun ii seen by 


rhosc who arc coinplcting their prayer. There is a long period between 
iliese TWO ciiiiesj but It I5 preferred ro pr^y at the beguKtHigO" rhis 

The time of ihc mid-da/ prayer, ^iif?r, Ehcgins when chesuiahas reached 
thj center of the iky and shadows jta^c sxan to lengrhen. I: 15 desirable to 
delay rhis prayer in tEiciummcrr unljl ^Ujdov/fi i^a^h a qniner ofihe 
kngchofrhiiigs above the DornLa] shjduivcaif by the sun Ji mid-day. 
^[>me say? howevern ihai it is preferred for the mosques to delay a hic 
wheal ihey are waning For people ct> come w prayct, bui whe^i A nun is 
hv hiinself, liie beginning of the prayer time is better. Others sayj 

however, that in theheucofihe^iay iiisberier for him 10 wait lilf iris 
cooleii even if by himself. This Is aetordin£ to chc sayine of ih-c PropKec 
- may God bless him anil grant him pc^e- 'lie i;rto[ in prayer^ for 
blasii of hear are from the lijmateb of HelL' The end of chc mid-day 
pFi^^t j^ when rhfkn^rh of shadmvii equals the height of iliings Iveyond 
ikc normal mid-day shadow^ 

Note that altlaough the acrual rimei of prayer are FtKedn and r^o debate ton- 
ctrning rhese tlm^^s is considered, iliere i^ some quesiian ahout when -ivithiil 
thusc [imcs ii is bcsc to pray, A Trophccic hadith is used w address [his dis- 
puted prtincj bur the dispure h allo^vcd to stand without resolving rhe jssue. 
Al-Qjvriwanj cotitinues wJEh the ren^aining times of prayer: 

The beginning of the 4fr or afternoon prayer U the end ofihc zahr 
prayers iheendof LhcafttrnuoJi prayer Ls^vhcli Lhelen-gih ofahad-ow^ is 
rwLcc the hcighr cf chingi bcyofLd rht normal rtiid-day shadow: Some 
Siyi if yoj can gaze direcdy into the \iun while fatii^g m ihe sun's 
direcnon^ while standing straight witheMul your hfcid wiw&d aOWii or 
tilled up, rlie rime has come_ But if you. do not see chc sun, the timchai 
not yet come. If the Sun enters )'Our field of vi^ion^ rhe ume of prayer 
has certainly come. Ai for the wjy Malik- may Ciod show him compas- 
sion - described the time, it is ^hilc the 5un is still ^o hi^ :ha: k is noE 
yer yellmv^ 

As for the time of the evenitig prayer m^ghnii, i: \s the prayer of the 
settled, meaning that the traveler may no: shonen ir aa with other 
prayeis. Rather, che traveler pr^i^^ it jusi litie ihe prayer of one seeded at 
home. Jt5< period bfrofti [he sercingoFchcsun^s soon as chc sun is 
hidden, k is required that thii ptayer noi b* delayed, as there Li only 
one time for it which may n-ot be dtlettred. 

The time of che eT/eniJig prayer ■■ also called /iftrmfl, bu.t tht ptiCfcrred 
name \% fjj^fl^ - it 31 'hf tjij^appearance of rwiiJehti thai is the redness 

remaining m the vvcst from chc last rays of the sun. iFtherc is nc yellow 
or red remaitiiii^ jn rh€ west, then the cimc h^ com^, but do not wait 
fi>r all ligl^t fO dj54ppear frftm the wesc_ Tliis is che iinie Liniil ikc Hfse 

third of the njghr for diotewh^? wjihtowair for pri)rfr until after work 
Di ^omc oilier ckoi^Cf butU^mgiEct^ili^iit b^ncir Th^rf J^nofAul^m 
dclajin^ the prayer a bsE in order for the pcopk to gather at a moimie. 
Sleeping before rhe evening prayrr is rcprehcnsEblea as is en^ging in 
idle go^ip afierwardi.' 

In ihis pais^gf. dt^cnr from wdl-knoivn h.idirhh antl with oiher schools n^" 
law, :s not mentioncdT rather the tinnes are laitJ out as if they weit appl]C^t>k 
for all Muslims. In lact> however, al-Qayrawani speaks abotit cor^cerns 
^vell-knowji m his Norch African srudents: how lo deal wirh the hcac of the 
n^lJ-day ^un^ and chaf che sun rt«^ in same direccEon as Mecca, whi^ih 12 rme 
for choic in \"or[K Africa but nn: for other parts of the world. Unally, 
al-QniyravKflnr$ cyrtt:crri with the e^acr rJo^^^ of prai^i; den^on^rf^teg [h^way 
that prayer forms ii Tnatrix of tiire for Miiflliins atound whicli ochcf eveniSj 
such asworkandslcep, must revolve. The same (orm ih adopted for the ruJe^ -of 
movement durtJig prajTr which are for more detailed than Gabriels demon- 
^tranon jh^ve. This is al-<^™iAr3ni5 lojige&t chapter, and it tnclude-s spKific 
fomiiiilas ^nd prjyer^ for ^^ih of Hk fiv^ daily p^a't^dsn the- scciioi^ for che 
morning prayer is inehded h^re. 

At die beginning of praycrn ii is required chat you say, 'God is most 
gfi?3t {Allaffii akf^rYi no othtr formula is acceptable. Raise vour hands- 

Eorhekvel ofyoufihouldcr^or below and chcn recite verses from chc 

If you ate praying the morningptj^cr reciee the fifSf Sura of thf Quran, 
Do not begin ^vith 4n the name of Codn the iMettilul, the Compas- 
sionate/ nor should VTiuiific this formula wich the second sura. When 
yoLi K^^h the La^i tanen'norof ihosc- who aicasirayn'^ay 'Amtn ifyQU 

^t^ by j'ourwJf or pr^j^ing behind 3 praytr kad^f- However, ytm should 
Dtnit theatnenifthcltader does not say It aJoud, or ifhesjys icTO 
himsdf 'lliere is a difference of opinion as to what the leradcr ii 
suppo^^ u) ii^elude lji whit ht ^y^ iioud. 

Thtreaftctf fccttc a surft tht tengtK of A -seetionj if yoii reccre n^ore, char 

is tummccidabit, dep::ndiiig on how much time ts left hefore mnrist- 
Recjte the sura aloud, and wneri yoii complete the sura^ say^ 'Allarui 
akbat as you bow ]n pra>'crr Plate your handle on yot£t knco a[]-d keep 

your hack 5itaightwiihouc raisingyout heador diiin^it^anddu not 
kLUiich youf ^houlder^' Byyi^ur bowing and prosLrationH yQu demon- 
stcaK j^our obedience to God. 


Do tiot make IndLvidiia] prayer while bowingn but if you vish, say: 
^Glory be to my l^n\, th^ AJimi^Tyn and c[> him be praise/ There is no 
liinc limit for chest stjtenienti, rtor 15 there a fixed, period, for this cypc 
ofdfflay in the prayer Then raiw youi titad.aisd if youarehyvrturself, 
say: God Ji&Kn£ro the qh-c who piEUbK him' and'OGodi ywr lj>rdr[0 
you be praise.' The prayer lea^r and iho&c prayiiiE with a Leader do iicjc 
say; ""Gtrti lisrens ro the one who praises him/ bui Bic does say: 'O God, 
our Lordt to you b< praise/ 

You [hen 5[raighKD to aiCandingposEiion Lna ierene and ^ubniissLve 
sra^ej^ ihen to down lo a RjU pnMtra.cion, without iitting in between, 
Prosct^te v<>ut^elf again while saying 'Allahu akbar' as you m^yc down 
in prostrAtitjci and tOLKl^ >'Our Forehead -and nose to chc ground. Yzrnr 
hands ^liould \yt direcdy on r-he groLind wnh your fingers spread otii^ 
pointing ttJi^drd Mcaa, s^jid placed 10 either side of your cars or below. 
These diret^icn? arc to be int^i^prctcd Jt gtme^al advic^^ Ijlic do noc kse 
your forearm on die ground and do not sqiiccii ycjur upper ^^rrcis 
again^c your bchd/n rather hold them in th^ middle as ivings. 

Yuur feer should remain pcrpendicQlarcoihc ground in yoLirpn^tia- 
Cion with tJitlHmom of your big ifles^angihe ground. Ifyouwishi 
you may say: 'Glory be to yon, my Lord- 1 have wronged mvself and 
done evil, so forgii'c mc' or something simjlsr ctj tJsis ici v<iur j>insira- 
rhon. Vou may also make pergonal prayer whik proitrating, :ltld ihei^ 3^ 
no ume lin^Jc for ihis portion. It shouldn however, be a( least long 
enough for yoiLf body lo resc calmly- 

Then rrfisc ^uut lic:^ wliile saying: Aliahu akbar' and man^c ro 3 seated 
position. Bctvveen the mo prosrration^H fold your icfi leg under you 
wbik sicilngand cover it with y<jur right otie, wjch the bottom of your 
hig toe pointed ro rhc ground. Lift your hands from tho ground ni ya\Jt 
kne». You then prostrate yourself once a^in ^^yuu did ihciir?^ dm?. 

Then lift yt>uridf up from tlie gFOund on your hands and knees^ witUoui 
rciurning coa sitring position so as tt?ita.nd up Irorii Ihere^ rachet a.s I 
hjve ju^r df-scribcd to you. Say'Allahu Akbar ;u:yoiiar-t: rising youmw 
debet reciie from dieQur an jui: as you recited in thcbcgLnningofyour 
prayert or sonieihina less dian fhis recinacton.. You continue with rhc 
prayer direcdy^ wjchouv standing in submission afiier this cycle of 
movements. If you wi^h, vou diiay stand in submisiLon before bowing, but 
aitcr completing tl^e recitation. The ^tarenienE said while standing in 
submission is as folbwi" 'O GtxL iurclyive lequest your help W your 
forgivcncs.s"Wi: trust in you, depend on yt^Up5ubnlil w >'Ouj w^denoutice 
ind sliuii chose who do ncrn believe in you. O God, you ^ve serve and to 



yoQwc pray and proEiratcouraclvcii we ^erveyou readily. Wc hopciyr 
your conipassinn ^nd fear yc[i\: earn&T ing^fj Slirfly yf}W S'lgfr is 
descended a^ainsc the utibeKe^'Cfi-' 

ThtEi ytNiL continue ^ith th-c prtHtration and ihc cEtting as described 
prcvioiLslyr If y-ou 5it do^'n after rwo prosrracJonEs cover VTitir rigliL leg 
widi your Icrc onc^ ^adi rhc boriojn of your toe^ potJiisd coward ihe 
ground; fold yoLir leFr l^g ^nd ^ni^ wUhyour buf rocks CO th* groiirtd. 
Do no: sit dci your left leg-^ 

Tlic^? iilIc5 Eire r^inwed Jrum (heir rhc^i^gic^i contcKKi and £^m almoivc 
mechanical in their rJEidiry. Yec jn following these niovemenr^^ j Muslim is 
concinuiriE a pracii-ceof some MOO year^j ^^^^^ badt lo iht Ptcjphcf and iiiti- 
rnacelv :o ihc y^gel Gabriel him^lf Srill, it is irripi>rcani nut to focus too 
heavily on [he actions of ritual praytr to dit cAclu^ion of the wordi iaid by 
Musliims -during this time; the ACtioni, after all^ arc scion memorized leaving 
the mind free tw racus on God. 

Ritual prav^r also has an inccnssly corrimuna! a^pKt, horh in th^ w^klv 
prayer on Friday and in ihc vciy call w pra^^r iii^lf, which rings out froin 
cvc rymoaqucL In nla|orcLucs^ [he cffes^ of hundi^s of niLie7jJn^ chanting [h^ 
same woidi from hLindn?ds of^ "^"Mqwe* is a cIhi vymLrol ^f a v^hdc dty 
moving thro^igh the cycles of prayer. Here is ho-^a]-Qayra\vani describes ihc 
HsIJ to praytr: 

The call [o prayer is required ofFfidsy mosquft aJlJ ottict pJjMS of 
prayer As for a mjn who prays jlonean-d by tilmstlf, Ifiie givts the call 
ro prayer, chai l^ pHJ^iewflffhy, bul iht calJ of ilafling is lequlird of hlni- 
As far J wmtaii who t^prjying alone, if ihe gives thr calJofsiarting, 
ihai is prabc worthy^ if nut, then there is naob|ec(it>n. The call lo 
prayer should not be bctbrc chciimc of prayer, {:3{ccp( for ihs mormng 
pra^^n there is no- l^uk in calling for ih? jnorniiig pr.aycr iti ih^ UsL 
sjKth of the nichi. 

The call Is: ""God i^ moit gttat^ God is most ^rcat^ I bear witncst that 
there Is no god but God. I bear wirncis chac ihere li no god biic CJod. 1 
bcar^iiness ihai Muiianunad 3ji che Prophet of Clod, 1 be-ir wLtne&s that 
Muhamrcidd ls the Pfoph^t ort^od' Youthant ihas in your loudcsE 
vi>[ce on* tijTte Jdd repeat [he word& of icitimany, sayingr T bear wicneis 
rhai there i% no god bui Godh [ wiincbs that chcrr is no god bur 
Qtfii I Kear wiinpss thai Myhammadl is the Prophet of Godi 1 bear 
wicncis that Muhammad is the Prophet of God. Come co prayrrn -come 
to prayer^ come to salvacionn come to salvation/ If you are callinc tor 
the morning prayer add heie: "Prayer is bt^ter ihan ^leepj ptayer is 
bercer dian .sleep/ Do not include rhls for any timt otliet tfian morning. 


AiiJ then; 'Gtwi ls most greacp Cod is mosc greats thcic is no g<Kl hut 
God' jij5t oncCr 

The call of signing is aliA^ys she same: God is mosi grcai^ God is most 
greai; I beai wnncss that there Ls no- tpjd but God:; ] bear witnchi ttiJt 
Muhammid is :hc Prophet of Gcnds come to praj'cr; come to salvaiion; 
prayer i^ ^boui m ^uri_ God Li most grcai, God is mos: greats there is 
nog[>d Utt God-' 

Rirtial prayer is ihe same every d^y cKccpt FrLdayf whcti Muslims gather in 
mosques [ihe word h from Arabicn m^sjid, the place of prostration) for the 
mid^a>" prgver This shori ser\1cc includes a honaiive address by the prayer 
le^ader ^s we]l a^ the nonnal niid^da^ prayer Euc as nuencioiied abor^T, nnial 
prayer is only out form of Muslim prayet- Muslim rtiy^ncs invoke a special 
fbnn of pra^ern known as tlic d^ikr and ijivol-ving repetition of a phrase or 
^vord. Dhikr means both rctnemb ranee and ttpetiflon. ivhile the mysTic 
adepts were repeat inj^ the name o( God (Allah) or chc itateiricnt ^incre is no 
g^biicGod' {h iL^ha }ild Ail^}}, thcywcfed^ remembering God &gocKlness 
ind mercy, according CO [he QuranJccomrnand, A! -Qayra^aai accepts a ]im- 
ittd usage ofth-edhikrwichiii daily prayer; 

It IS desirable to pcrfarm dhikr directly after titual prayer in the 
follekwing rrianner: siy the formula ^Glory bf Co C4>d^ rhirty-thr-tf tinit^s^ 
jhen Tiaise be [t> God' [hirry-thrcc ^inlcs^ [hen 'God is most gr-cai' 
ihirty-tJirtecimti- Oae com|>letes che hundred by .sayings rhere Lino 
god but God alone^ and he has no cojupanioji His i^ ihc kingdom and 
his Ls the piiuiiej iOid he L£ above all things nio^c powerful/' 

This formotrcpcticiyc prayer ii very common, aiidMuiliJiiSHjJienciury losa- 
ries wich thirrv-chrcc beads for counting off these formulas. 

The p-ray^r^ar limes of parvicular ceiebrarion or despair are all variacions of 
ritual pt^yer^ altKougK the role of che prayer leader ls increasingly important. 
In the praye^r^ for tomnmnal celebrariotiii ihtrt h no separate call lo prayer, 
and [he pra^^r leader gi^^s a special mc^Ki^c In ^sc ?f nil edjp$?i ilieptayft 
leader makes an e^cepcional reciution of one ot the longeit suras; fbr tihe 
p-raycr for r^iLi^ the prayer leader may take ofF his cloak and puc in on back- 
wards. Tn all tb.^s^ E^se^H fhe tiorn^al rictial prayer i$ also performed as a 

The thcoJog>'OrpMyp[ m [?li*m can tbtrfforeb* ?een as having rwo main 
components. On the ont hand each individual Muslim engages in recogLiiz- 
ablc submission to God - just as EtII ccKitio-n submits nacuraJly lO his wilj^ so 
kumankjnd mjstdosoinrcntionally. Not only is the bo w]ng and prostration a 
visible sign of [h]-S^ubniLss:ion,rhe&c[ihir these com plexjTiovcmenisbecoriic 
^Wwnd PSfW"^^ O^ff lime is a svnibol of hLimaniry re-leamins Ics naiLiral 


PRAYER l[VjU[lAl^\t 

rcl^tif^tiship with GchI. On the other ha]id» rinu^ pt^vef i J Itsdf a pawcrfuL 
reprc^cnE^ciDn of the whole Muslim cotnmuiikv ^nti <ji GcJ'i Interaction 
withrhai com niuniTy. Though ortcpcriun may err. the ^holcrornmum^^ 
never be led 3SCtay_ Ii^ this wa.y, prj^r re prcKnts submission of the LridividMal 
lo the commanity ^ submission to God. 


The halakhah., or la^k^ tncoinpatfleK The E^irtumt^tjnce, liminE, languafrc, ind 
gesturciofpraycfi rtnd J^^p■rt^kt cKplkitly' about the obligaiion^ ampflstd upon 
thefauhfiil to pray, Thc]awo-lpra)Tr JnJudaJsm presents rheiiiaccetr foJIo^vittg 
obligatioRs triggered through the natural iequcnce of rlie daift from fcrmal 
T^TJrshDpnCocondact in con nccijon with siting, ronr her otca\ii>n^ 
!n Miahnah-iraeraie lie raidioi/h-iess Lngs/ sucuioty pray« covers five conip^^ 
nenis: (I) rccjcacjon nfrheeree^l, (2) the Praj^tr (alio tailed the Eightecr^ Bene- 
dicriocis)^ {3) blessings 5aid be^rt and iiftcr c^itinj^ focul f4) other mle^ for 
puNic worship at tht tahk and (5) blessings said oe other occa^JoiiE- ^o thai 
orgarii"£i[]g category t>f the laWn thenn sets fonh a hardhook of pracrical pierv- 

The trccdn called the 5he?^a'froTa ihc opening wotd^ "fi^^^r^ O Israel, chc 
Lord i£ our God, the one God/ i^ mide upof Deui- 6'^9 [^Vou ihall love the 
Lord y-our God with ah)'our ht^arts with iW your souL -with all your mighT), 
Deu[_ I 1:13-21 ('If you will ejrnntly hctd thr cu-nunandnienEs char 1 give 
you this day tfl love the Lord your God and ro serve ham wuli all jour hcjrt 
ar-d ^"ith all ycur soul, rhen J will io-vcr your land wirh rain at the pn>ptr st^- 
5on), and Num. I^i^Z^l ('Tdl the: children o-f J&r^el ihat througiiuiit their 
generations they shall make fringes on [he corners t>ft]ldr g^ltmcnts r.- ^hcn 
you look upon these fringe^n you will be reminded of all the commandments 
of die LonJ and fulfil them')_ The creed i:^ K*t forth, ftirthermortr, ^ch pua^ 
graph? fore and afti which pertain to creation and rcveiaiicsn (fore) and 
redenipcioT] lafter)j so the entire iheologLcaJ system of Judaism is ser fnreli in 
that part ol the daily "worship^ recited twice -daily, luorning and- nightr 

^cnthcla^vofJudaJimrctejETo [he Frjyer/ it s^pejb of the shank of wor- 
ship private and puhliCf a sec ofblessingi, recited silently and then Jn public 
worship, repealed by rhe ptiycr icadct. The Prayet^ also called 'the Ei^ceen 
Eienedictions/ or ^thc prayer said standing^^ is Trade up (tJi hci] of nineteen 
bksiJLigii, the shank of which shifts in accord with theocca-sjnn: an ordinary 
dajjaSabbathn a fcsti^'al, and the like. Each individual priy^by and for himself 
or [icticrif, but together ^ith oth-er silenc^ praying individual^- The Ei^tcct] 
BcncdLccions arc chen repeated aloud hy rhc prayer leader^ for prayer is both 
private and public individual and calleccive. To- cotucmpJjtc the meaning of 
these praycr^onc should imagine a room full of j>coplc, all standing by them- 
selves yet in ijlosc proximity, i^^jme swaying this w-ay and that^ all addressing 
fhetTiKdves directly and intimately to Godinawhiipcror maiowt&ne-TKey 



do noi mo^T: ihcir fectn for they arc now icanding before cbt King of Kings, 
ard kc \i (IOC meec iti shift ind stiufUc. If spoken to^ theyiviJI not ansTA-cr. Their 
siiearion i&fi^d^pnrLihewfird^ of tupplicaiion^ praise, EiEdgram^ 
ibcy tNf^n? rhgy hcnd rhtirknc^^ - »[o<? toward the end- ^i^daithr ^conclu- 
sion thcv ficep haclc ind witiidraw froaii the preMntc. On ordinary days^ 
fhnugh (lot Sahh^ihsp fesnvals or 3ther spcciFicd holy times, chcit arc chc 
tvrtn^i tl^ty say: 

You graciously c[d<]W fdjn wich inrdhgence; 
You Ki'ch him kiiij^ltd^ artd jcidcritandiilg, 
Grani qs kno^cdgc, discernment, and wisdorti. 
Praised arc you, OLord, for the gift of Itnowlcdgc, 
Our fajf?frj f^rsng us fFtiJck ^ycur 7b^^/?: 
Our Kingn draw ui near co your scr^'icc; 
Lead us back eo you rruiy rcpenvanc. 
PfiL^d are you, O Lord who welcomes repenranre. 

Our Fathers forgive us, for wc have -sinned: 
Our Kingj pardon us^ for wc have cransgrc-ssed^ 
You l^rgive sm And panJoji iran^gres^iftn. 
Praised arc you, gtacioilB afld fo^cving Lflpd. 

Redeem ui ioon for rlie sake fNf^'our name, 

For yoiiare the mcghty Redeemer, 

Praised arc y<yu. O l-<jrd, ReJeem^f ofl^ra^h 

Hcd lui, O L^rdi aiid we sh^ll ^>v kakdi 
Help U5 and sa^T us, for ^xm ste our glory. 
Grant perfect healing lor all our aiHictiom^ 
O Ea][hRjl and nicrciftji God of healing. 
Praistd arc you, O Lord^ healer of his people. 
O Lord our Godl Make rhis a blessed ycar^ 
Mfty ii^ varied produce hring u^ happuiess- 
Briug ble^i-ang upon iLe ^vWe earth- 
Bless the year ^Ith y^ixt ahoUndirtg gtKidfl*^?- 
Praised arc you. O Ltird, ^ho bles^s our ytikt^. 

Sound the great shofar a? herald [c^url freedorrts 
Raise high the bacinerto gaclier Jl ei^clc:.^^ 
Garhcr rhc di^per^d-frnm rhe c^^irrttr'? i^f (lie aarrh- 
Praised rtre yyu, Q Lcjr;f, ^vhn gatlLcfi^iJUrexJlc^. 
Fescorc our judges l^s in days of old^ 
Restore oui counsellors ±s in. former tin>es; 



Remove from u5 sorrow jnd iiiguLsh. 

Reign cjvcr us al-jnc with Icjving kindness; 

With justice A ^d 772^7^ sitj^in t^iir i'^ms^. 

Fraiscd. arc vdu, O Lord, King who lovt^ jmrice- 

Humblc ihe ;irro^ajit-susMin \hi righteftii^ 

FfLLSiriK chc hopes ol those who TTia.ljgnij*i 

Li^t ail^l ver>'^c)ndifappca.n 

Let all joLir enemies be speedily destroyed. 

May )>iii qnJckly uproot and trosh ihe arrogant; 

May yov SLibilue and humble them in our tim.c. 

Praised are yoUj O Lj>rd. who humbles ihe arro^nt 

for the righteous, [he p\o\i% rhe leaders of Israch 

Toward devoted stholftTi AJid fiiirhful proselyiea. 

Be iDcrdFul tu us of the house of Israel; 

Reward all who trust in yu-u; 

Cast our lot wctli those wtio are ftirhful ro you 

M^y we ncvcj come lo des-pair, tot t>ur Ifu^t h Jrt y^ll. 

Frai.'ied are you, O Lord, who nittaini [he righreniLS- 

Have lllerc^^ O Lordn and return to Jcrusaltmi y€>ureiry^ 

May vour Prewj^cc dwell chore as you pronniscd, 

Rc-build it now, in our days and for ail time; 

Rc-cstabllsh rberc the niajescy oi David-, your servant. 

Praised arc you. O Lord. wh<> febuild^ J^msalem. 

BrtTig Tv^mi^rr ihf shmt s^fy&^r stfMyir Dsii^id 

Hasten the ad^'C'^l t>f (he Me^^iaiiic redciiipuon; 

£ach ajid every day wc hope Tor y&n.r deliveranec- 

Prajsed arc you^ O Lord, who assures our deliverance. 

O Lond, our Coa^ Afsr ^t^ur r r^/ 

Haveeonipassjon upon us and p]ty "uS; 

AftzepL OLir prayer with loving fivor. 

You, O tiod, hscen lo entrcaiy and pmycr. 

O Kingj do ™ot luin us away unanswered^ 

for you mercifully heed your peoples supplication. 

Praised aicyou, O I-ord, who is ^Etenuve lo prayer. 

O Lor^, Our G^J, _^vtrr jw^r p^&pk /jn^^i- 

Aceepc wlrh love hracrs olfering of praver; 

Miy our worship bt f ver jiccepcible lo you. 

Ma.y our eyes witncsh your return In mercy lo Zton- 

Praised are you, O LorU^ who^e Presence returns lo Zioiir 

We ihank you, O Lord our God and God <^f our ^ihers, 
Delfender of our livesn shield of our Mretyi 



Through all generations we ch^nLyou and praise you. 
Out lives arc ift youc K^tids^ out gotils in your charge. 
Wc fhankyou for The mirade^ whkh diily aiiend m. 
For yt}Lirwt>Jitlcr5 and tavurmurnitigj nc>un»3nd ni^t 
You arc bcncliccnr with litJuniH1^5S mercy and IiTjvc- 
Fromof old wc have alv-'ays plated our hope iti you- 
For all thi:5c blc^^ing^, O uur Klng^ 
Wc sha.ll ever praise a.nd exjlc you- 
Evcry Hving ccmurc ^h^nlu yciJi ^^^d praised you in trurb. 
O God-T yoLi areour deliverance and our liclp. Sclah! 
Praised are you, O Lord, for your gjsodncss and your gJory. 

Gcanc p*^e and weH-^hcing lo the whok house of Israel; 

Give u^of your grace n yaur loven and >"our mercy. 

Bless u$ all^ O out Father widi ihe Icj^ioJ^yDur presence. 

Ii if yoiir light chit revealed co us your l]fe-giving.Torih, 

And taiighi u5 Ifivf arid ctud^Mesi, ili^ul^^, *n-ercy, andpiics. 
Mayii please jou robltssyoiir people irLCvet7freii^rjs 
ToHcK tticm at jll ficne^ with your light of peace- 
Praised art: youn O Lord^ w!uj blc5$4;^ Urdcl wi^h peatx-^ 

The Prayer is rcelicd rhrce times aday mornings duKk, and ft ightrOrher^ur- 
^ip take? place before and after mc^h- 

So much for obligatory prayer ViTiac about the recLtition of bkssifigs? 
When ihe i^JthfuE irai^ they are required co mcLtc blessings over ih^ir food, 
rtclting a further blessing afcerv/ards- for the cncire mcalrThe grace afier mt^Js 
il&o reviews ih^ main poinii of the crtcd^ crearlon, revelaiiun, and rcdemp- 
non, no^in the setting of nourishment vri^hspe^iiLl rcJcrcntet? ^hcpr?du« 
of rhe Holy Land. Finally other oecasjcins for red tine blessing are specified. 

How -do ihe wtjelng-s of formal Lvc Judaism sec forth dicc^positconof tlielaw 
4>f p-r^ivlng? In th^ i\iish]iali and che lalniuds, halaktiah^ or la^ defines rhe 
coirca vj}^ 10 rnice ihe5heina\ the Prayer, the grace afrer mah, and ocher 
iitip4^tt3-nr dijlly HtLifgLt^s- Theieare the five principal topics of the h^akhah of 
prayer. An outline of the ^vJy m which the Mtshnah ptes^nis the tiiarTer, 
toj^ther with the opening line or each [hissage, loU<>wt:d by the Tosenascom- 
plementt to the Mishnahs rulei, provid-cs a peispcxtive on mc vvay ill whith 
norm^iLvc Judaism defines obligatory praj^er. We ihcn [urn to [he fir^t lal- 
mud^s aniplLfieacian of^thc safnc macLer. In che follov^ingn M. = Mishnah; T. = 
losefu; Y. - Verushalmi, and B. = ESavli - then come number:? blgnijyicigthc 
chapier and paragraph of the entry, ^e presenr che opening sentence <jr each 
rule^ioshow theflowofthecvposicJonand ihc topics thatAFtcovcrcdnanin jt 
Ic];^^ and systematic manner, 



I The Decliration of the Creed [tJie ShefTia'] 

A fi^iiitMgtif^Slr^mjt': Eif^nmg and Morning 

M_l :1 From whic lime do ihcy recite the Shcma'" In the rvcnlii_g? 

M,l;2 TtfltTiwhicunfLf do ihey retire the Shcma'" in the m^ining^ 

M.l:3 Tlic position in which otie r-eclKS die Shema'. 

MA A In [hcinomingoji^ recimtwo Ible^irig^] hefiiw irfl.nd one 
blessing after it. And in the evening twcj bJ<:5iicigs before i^ and [wo- 
blessings afci:! ie. 

Ml 5 A derail in ihe same rcgaidr The>' mcntiftrt ih.^ etrtdil^ fr^m 
Egypt ar night. 

T.?: 1 A, One who recices tht Shema' most mention the exodus from 
E^pi [cR M, Bet- 1:3-1 ^^ r^be bcncdietion followmg the Shcnia" ^hldn 
begins] Trutf artd film/ 

H^K is how the Ycmshalmi, t>r Talmud of the Land of Israel, explains :he 
choice of the passages of Scripture that coit^ticute th^^ Shenij', die creed of 

Yl1:5 1:2 Wh^do chcy rccirc fh^K twa passitgci [ Dcuu 6.^9 iiid 
r>eu.i I h 13-21] each diyi" R. Levi and R^ Strnon |di$ptKed rhis 
qtiesrioTil- R. Simon s:a]d„ 'Because in them we find rntnfiort of lying 
do^n artd iri-sii'ig up |in Deuc. 6:7 and Uent. 1 1:1 ^J. These are allusions 
Co the btgi lining and end of eich day when thcShcma' is recited]/ R^ 
L^vi ai-dr *Bct3yi^ tht ceji commandmcnis arc embodied in the [para- 
graphs cf the Shcma' as fo]low5.]' |lj 1 am :hc Lord yotir God' [Exod. 
20:2], lis implied by the phnuel, 'Heat^ O T^tael qhe Lord our God^ 
[DeuE. 6AY [2] 'You shall have no other Gods bdflte me' |E\od- 20^3], 
[is implied by ihc phrasch 'One Lord' [Dent, 6:4]. |3l Vou shjll noi 
^ke che name of che Lord vaur God in vain (EKwir 20:7|f [Is implied 
by che phrase), "And you shall love the l_^rd ytmr GimlV lOeut- 6:5|- 
[How so^] On* who loves the king doci nut swear falsely in hi-^ nanie. 
[4] 'Remember che Sabbath day. co keep il ho]/ |F-^<>J 20:Sl, \i^ 
imphfd by ihephrise]^ 'Soihai you shall remember [and do jll tny 
coitirrtAndra^efLisJ^ [Num. 13::40]_ {^] 'Honor your father and your 
mother Ithjt )^urdaxs ni thelajid maybe longl' [Exod. 20:]2h Jit 



[miilii^d {yy the phravf], 'Tha: your da.y5 and the days of vour children 
[nsj.y be mdriplifll"' IDcqi- f h21]. [The KfLirtnti; to^ long life is an 
alluiian to th^ rcsv^rd for honorinG one's p^r^rti^^l 1^1 'Yvii ^halL noi 
murder' [Exod. 20:131, U^ impLed t>y the phtase], 'Ajid you Lshallf 
perish qLiicldy"" [Dcuc- 11:17). [TL]-^ ijiiplits riiatl whoever niurdcri^ will 
be kiliKt. 1 7] 'You ^hall noicrtmmit adulr^ry^ |E^od. 2[):14]> lisimp-ii^^ 
by chc phrascj, '[Aod remember ..,] nyt ly ivi W afcci ™ur swnhean 
andyourowncyK |Ntim_ 15:391- |8rYuiL shall noi si^ |C^od. 20: 
15ji is impfied by ihe |]hrjsejj That you raa^ gather in your gram (and 
your wine and oill' IDeiif. ll:14f. [Yj^ur^rain iraplk:;i]iityr>u ^^y 
gacher^pnly ^O^r^l jjid nt^^ the grain of your fdJow. [?] 'Yi>|j ^hall not 
beat (jibt witncsb against your neighbor' |E:N:od 20;ltlj lis impli-cd by 
ihephfaic] 'T am the Lord your God^ [Ntini 15:411. [Thii is Ibilovrcd 
(Ti the Lrur^ of th-c bi«&inj^ of th^ ihinii' hy the wOrd (rue/ Jusi as 
Gi>d ii rniCj st> ihouid a person rell ihe cruihj |J0| 'Vyu ihaJt ny-t co-vcr 
your ncighbor^a housc^ [Exod. 20^ ITl^ Jj5 im^licrd hy the phrase], 'And 
you ihali ^rite them on ihc drforpcvst^ of yotit house' |Deut. 6:9L 

[Write then] on. Your hr^u^e ^nd nnr on fhtHe 4>f your friend's house- 
Do not covet your neighbor's hij^45C^] 

The emphasjs upon recictftg nae^s pr^ytfi with the proper atritude ihoulid be 
Linder&iiood- Wlien an individLLal reciFe^ cbe v/ordi of rh^ .Shimi', ir niufli ht 
^viih [heincent ofcarryjLgoiil his-^biigatlc^n to do fO» JTicrmuig^Jid nights as 
God requires m the Torahr If one recites those woids wEili i^o intention of hon- 
oring rne obligation, then the obligatoq^ prayer has nc^ Seen tarried oue. 

C^rry fJwi ()ir/s ObU^iion w Do So 

M_2M As 10 one who was reading rhc ver&ei of rhe ^Sliettia' in chtTorah 

and die lime for the recitation of liieShcma arj[ved^ if he directt^l his 
hcirtiorcad in onjcr to carry our his ohliganon co recite ihr Shcma', he 
fulfiied hi:^ ot>liEation to recite the Shema"_ And if he did riot-, he has 
n^jt fiilfiied his oblijytion. 

M-2:Z Said R Joshua b Qorha, '^i^/hy does Shcma^ precede ^And ic 
sha]leome lo pass"" in the order of this HtQ^!" So thar one should Itr^t 
aectprnpon hi mseif the j-oJte of the kingdom ofheav-en and afctrwards 

accept che voice of (he conimirLdmenti., I^^^docs] "And i: shall come 
to pais" [precede]. ""And rheljjrd said"? For "And ir ihali come [opas^" 
is cnsioniarily recited h^ hotli Jav anj nigh:. And "And :he L^rd said" 
iscLisromarily trecitedonly by day/ 



M_2^3 On* who recites che-Shema^ but did not rccicc ji atidjbly - (stjllj 
has fulfileU his obligaiioti- iine "ivho recjred and did not articulaic chc 
Utters precisel^^ -Out who i-ecites in improper order has not fulfilcd his 
obligacion, Onowho fa:ired jnderied |]n [he rcck^cionHlatcr realizing 
his CIP??:] i^iyw-'d ■^lu=^'i to r^c t>\^^ where he erred [-and concinue 
reciting from then; ccn the (-Oiidusic^LiI, 

M.2:4-5 Craftsmen recite the Shema^ while atop a tree or a scafFold, 
somcthmg which [heyarcnocpcrmiticti todo wi[h rnpH^t to the 
I'rayer [i^c^ the- cip^iccn bcncdiciioni] ■ A brids^groom ib-tscnpcfrum 
rhe lecicacion of the Shcma' on the firsc Jii^t [alter the wcJdingJ until 
after the S^bbach (following chc wedding], if he did not yet constim- 
mate tlie marriage. 

T.l:3 Brid-egrcionisandalf chost engaged in |ihe performance of] 
coitrniandtiiCEi-ts are eaeitipc from [the oblicatjon of] reciting die 
SheiM^ and the Player \cf. M [!er_ 2^^A], 

T2:-6 Thoiei^h^j write ITc^r&b] icrolb, phyUcierJes, and m^ziuzoi 
interrupt |thcirworkl to teciiethe5heirLa\bijrdo not interrupt for the 

C Th<?i^ Iv^ff}p^ ^'P^ ^f^ QifiMtiOTi Is Recite the Sfi£77xd^ jiu^ ceT'^OiTP 

M.^:l-2 He whose decMKiJ rcljtive is lying helVife Intn [helotre burial 
ofthebcdy] is escmpt from |1| the recitation of the Shenia', |2| firom 
chc Prayer, [3] and (jom |wcaring] phylacterlcij LindfrHtn iJI religiouiv 

duties Ikied in the Torali. 

M 3^3 WonieHn and -slaves^ and minors arc exempt trom the recitation 
of thc.^h^ma' [and from |th-c obligation of wearing phylaeferi*:s,biit 
are obligated [[orecLtel [he Prayer and (arcobligaced co po5t| chc 
n]tiuijh dtid 1.0 ["eeue Gi"ace after meals. 

No^ we come to the Prayer, also tncjwn as cheFJghreen Benedieijons, ind^ve 
see ho^^- the halakhah defines the pfopet manner of reciting that silent 



il ICecitLng the ^ayet 

A R^'iting Pifrf ^flypt; Miming ^nd F.v^mng 

M,4:l Tht Prayet [Eighteen. Bcjiedi-ciionsf to b^ offered in the 
motning |may be recited] urtiil inid-day. The atterncon rttifjtLc>E^ i>i iht^ 
Piaycrr[miy b?di?nc| uiml ihc cvcni cig. The- rcciiati-on ofthcPr^/c^in 
the evenir^ has no fi:tcd .rule- And Ichc rciiJEQcioji] of ihc addiclDnal 

Pji/ers Ion Sabbjth and festival days] [may be done] [hjoughout the 

}AA:3 ThePra>'cra3nsisCsc>fFightcen BtnedidtionSn or an ahhreviacjon 

MA:6 One should rrcitc the Praytt &ctng ihe Holy of Holies of ihc 
Temple in Jcrusaterfi. 

M.4;7 [TJlte the Pr^yern] rhe Addicianal Prayer [on Sabbaths an-d 
fcsti^'als] itijy bt 5iid in privaKn noi necessarily in a quoriim. 

B i^ Correct A^ittu^Jh^ He^itif^g Tfir Prayer 

M,5"l One trisei lo reciic 'The Prayer' Dnly in a wlctnn framt of mmd 
[if one w^ pjayingj, even i/ the TtJng greets him ^ he m^y not rej;pona_ 
And even if a. serpenn is entwined around his heel ^l<^ ^^SLy not iiiLCffLpc 
]l^]s prayer], 

T.3:2lA. OnedoK notri^ to rcdif rhe PpiycfwhilccoEvrrsiDg, while 
laudiine^ nor out of kvacy^ htac rather after words of \visdom. And so 
one shoiJd E-ot take kavt uf his fdJow while- conversing, wbde laughing, 
nor outoHevity, bui: rather after word^ of wisdom. 

The Prayer encom passes special paihages rfor vari^ui cxrasiorts such as chesM' 
sorii t>f the vtar, and che law specjiies wberen in the liturgy, tbcst special pas- 
sages -art in^ried. 

M-5:2 The}^ mennoji thc'po^crof rht rain' in (the bltshirig 
concerning;] ^the resurrection oJ the dead/ |rhe second ble^^mg in che 



Eight^fti B€jiedic[i<]n$]. And iKey ask for r^in in [hf biasing aFdie 

j^^&rs ftlit naiul^ blessiitgl And ftlie^^ insei'tl Pruyei' i^fDivisioft 
(HabJaljK, le. the hleisirtgtkai i^arks ihetridofihe Sabtaih oi' 
frscival] in Ithc blessing tx^ndudmgj Vho graciously gi^ci knowktlgfi' 

[the lijiijfh bkssingj, 

T,3:9A. [fonc did not mcnrlon the mlghllncH or [Gods deeds in. 
taosing] chr rains |to feJI] in [rhesfcond bcnedicrbnol thr Prayer 
which deals with] [hcrcsurrccrionof the dead, or if one did not pcticion 
for rainfall in ihc bcnetfiiccion for :he [viz., ihc ninth bcncdjcrion 
of che Priyer :he piecLElon for -a fruitfiil and prosperous ycarln ihey make 
hini begin [reel ring the eniire Prayer] again. Tf he did n-oc recire 
H^hJiifih I'u^p^r^Mc^n/ a^kntiwI^d^ii^^eLedii^rincriv^ne^s ^nd ^nciir}^ 
yftkcpCflpl^ Israel and lli^ 54bb3|h J4yl ni fihp f[>yr[h be^iedicii^nj 
which concludes J "gracious giver of kno^viedge/ he may recite it over a 
cup (of wintscfr M", Ber. yj]. If kedid not recire it |even at th^t timely 
fhev rnaike hirn bcgj-n [the Prayer] agam^ 

There also ii ipa-tr forthc individui^] and his or her votive praycr-h. The law has 
no intent of creating robots, who simply go throti^ motions. 

G IftflufioT^W^ibti^ Pr^wrs ift thr Recir^tiau ^fJi^ Prayer awi J 

Err&n in i^ ft^itatiof^ 

M.^:3 Bfc whosaySi 'May }rour mercy rstead lo the ncit of a "bird/ or 
^For goodness fnay yoar uEimc be invoke*d/ [orj 'Wc^vc rhanlii, wc 
give thanks' [two times] - they silence hi_in. 

M.5^3-4 Hr i^ho ^imc hi^f&re the ark [ro r^rcirc tht prayrn] and err^d 
- they replace btm WLih another. And one may not lie ^[ubbDrii ai rhis 
cinic |if .a^kcd lo serve as rtplaccinenc for ihe one who errs] . t)jie who 
goej before rhe ark (to lead rhe prayex] shall not answer ^Amen' afcer rhe 
Iblcssingof lire] priests because of Iposiibie] confusjon [which niiglu 

In addition to the statutory, obrigatory Shcma' andPraycin chel^ithRilIsraclite 
is required to say a blessing (ticbrew: l?erakhaf^ on the occasion of enfoying 
bcncEcs of creation, for e:iamplep cacing food or dr]nking Vi^tec, These bless- 
mgs arc recited prior eo the cnioymeni of the Ibod, 



111 Ble^singj Recited oa the Occasiori of Fnjrtying rhe Benelits 

ol" Creatiun 

TA\\ One may not fAsie irt/f"hirtg umll hif^ciiis ibl«;ing. Ii iS 

wrkicn, Thccarrh andalJ ihfrcin i^chc IjjrdV |Pfi- 24:1]. One who 
d^zriv^M ajiy benefit from the worid v^ichout firit rcciricig a bltssJug^ ha^ 

ccunniLrred a sacrilege. [Ic may not dcrri^'c arty lM:ncfit until he fulAls ^H 
the obligations Jiac pcrtnlc hini [co derive bcncht, l-c. rccim tnc projKt 

M.6:7 Th]_s Js The general rule: as :o any primary [food] acc^mpEinicd. 
by a secotid^r^ [foodj^ one siys a blessing over due primary and exempts 
the secondary [If] rhey broLight before him asalicd relish first and with 
it, a loaf [t}i brtndl, he ^y^ i bk-^^ing ova rhe aired relish ind {thereby] 
cxcmpti Lht lyiif> il»r ihc Jy^f is i^^i^4^ry to h. 

Y'.6:4 1:5 If nnc had before him several fcodsof rhe ^vcn kinds, t>ver 
whiehdnihTs he recite the blessing? (WVijt is rhe^rdtr ofprioncy among 
rhe foods of chr seven kindsf] There [in Babylooial liiey said/ Uliich- 
fv^r a.L>p*ars- llr&i in Scripcure [in Dent. 8:8^ 'A land of v^heac and barlej^j 
of ^Tries iiid fig rrecs and pomegranates, a tand of olive trees and 
honey'] calces priority [wuh regard ro the rule] for reciting n blcsSirig 
lover ihest foods]/ And |ihe fcllo^iiig exception applies h? (hii rule;! 
ihose food^ nienrioned after the word land' in the veric |i-Cr whcsii dJid 
olivesj cake prLarny over the other foods/ [Wheat and Dli^TibT takt 
ptiorlty r>vetf foods made from barley. gra.pes^ fig^, and pomegranatci.J 

B Appr&priar^ Bhssm^^r Various E^Up^s 

M,fr I "What blessing--^ do rhcvrccicc over producer Overproduce of the 
tree ht:43y6, '[Bks^dari [bou^O Lord our G^^kIi EGng cf tbe Universe J 
Creator N^f the fruit of rhe "Cr^e/ E:a:epc for winc> for over wine he says^ 
[Blessed art thoui OTj>rd uur God, Kingof che Universe] Creator of 
die fruh of the vine. O^^^ x^e^ul^les Iprcidtiee vt^hich grows in ground] 
hesa.y5. "IBI&wtlan [hou, O Lord oLir God, KJngof [hcUnivcric] 
CreaWr<]f the f^wi^ nf the groLind-' Eseepr for bicadf for over bread he 
soys, '[Blebscdart th^ju^ O Lord otir God, KLngof che Universe] who 
brin^ forth br^:ad from tlic c^-rtl].' Atjd [>"er Is^ladJ greens he sayS:, 
^Creaior of the fru]c of the ground. 



TA:3 O^-cr^in*; whtn ici^ in irs rtitur^il ^wte [tHict:, nndiliii^d| tiiey 
recite. "Blpi^ed Liii thou. O lurd our Gvil King yf rhe UnLvecw] 
Creator o1 the fruit o-f iSc trcx/' And they may not wash their li^nd^ 

^ith it. Once- the wine has been diluted, they say over it, "Etlcit-cd [art 
thou, O l_ord our Cod, King of rhc Univcrscj Creator of rhc iri:it ol the 
vine." An<itlic^ may wash their hands with it/ rhc wurdsof R^ Elieicr. 
And sageif sa^, 'Both t^xr natuTni] [thick wintj and OvcrijiJucai [wine] 

they say, "^Blessed |arc thou, O Lfird our Cod, King -of the Univtric] 
Creat-or of the Frjito-E (he vine." And ihcy may wash their handi ivlJi 


T_4;l 5 iWl^ert several kmds of breads uff are eaien ai rhe unie meal], 
one redte^ a henerfjciirtti rt^^cf rhar bread srulTwhifh is ohhebesi 
quality- How ^{^^ [If] a whole fine ioaf [J-e. ojie tirade froan fine flour} 
arbj H* whob homemade ioaf Iwere ie> be eatenf^ he recices the benedic- 
tion ftwt tht wL^ie fine ^oaf- \\f] a p-itce of fine loaf and a whole 
hoinemjdcl^jaf Iwere to bcearenj, he rectres rhcbi^nedj-ctiorLOver rhe 
Trvholt: hurncmade Joaf [Iff a loaf of wheat bread anti a loaf of by He j 
bread [were tij be eaienja he fetUci the Uet]ediction ovet the one of 

M_6j2 If one has recited the blessing ovcf the produce f>f the trCciiT 
^Who crearei rhe fruit of the ground,' he has fulllkd his obligacion [to 
ay a blessing]. But if he said the blessing ov« tho prodiicr of rhe 
^roQndi ''Whi?^r^a(cs [hc^frLiii of (he tree/ he has nQthaJfiicd hhobli- 
gallon [ro say a blessing over rhe Iruir ofrhi: ground, since rhe produce 
of chc ground by dcfinirion does noi jyo-w on irccsj. And as ro every- 
rhingc. if one ha^ rcdccd rhc blessings 'By whose word all rhings come 
inro beingn' he has in any evcnr carnnd oui hisobh^tion. 

M_6:3 And Over son^ething ihat doej not grow from rhe ground one 
Sflys, ^By whfHc ^vord a\1 ihin^s come ini:-t> hemg/ Over vinfgan unripe 
friut, and edible Incu^t^ oric say^, 'Ry whose wor^l all rhings come anrrt 

M.6\5 If one said a blcisin^ over chcis'ine before rh-r meal, he thereby 
cvcanpts rhc wme afrcT :he meal [ihat is, need nor say anorhtr blessingh 
If one said a b]css]ng over ihe appeciacr before che nicafn he cxcnaprs- ihe 
appeEizcr aiicTihe meal. If one said a blessing over rhe loaf [of bread], 
he eKcntprs the appecizer_ [fl one sard a blessine] over the appeti"zcri he 
does HOC erxempt rhe loaf. 

Whcnadulr Israclirei have earen together, chcy recite thence after rrcal&a5 a 

ajx3up_ The principa] pares of rhe lirurey ire as follow;: 



BlCiSC^ ai ll^OUi ^flt'-c) t>iit Goclj Kine oF rhe Uaiverse^ who nourishes ill 
the world by hii goodneis^ in gtJt*;^ in ciicrcj^^ nind in t>t]tTipa5SioJi; J^e 
gives bread to all flesh, for }iih met-ty i^ everlasting- And because of Ms 
greaE goodTicss vp^ have never tacked, ^.nd st> may vrc n^vet laL^h Su:>ft- 
nance — for (he sake ot his gml Kamc, For he irouriihes and feeds 
cvervonCi is good co alL and providH food for each one orrhc ^rfatisr^ 
he c reared. 

Blessed an rhou, O Lord^ w'ho Feeds everyone. 

We rh^nlt rhee^ Lord our God^ for ha^ng given our Others as a heriiage 
;i plcai.3-n(. ag<>[>daiidipiciflii4hnds fct- having Tjkff^ u^ nur flfche bnd 
ofE^[f[, !<>[ having redeemed mfrom ihc house of bond-ige; Worthy 
ct^ycniUlt, whkh l^ow li^tl^eiilia «al b ^U' fle^K for rhyTori^i which 
thou has taught ui, fof thy ^tatutn which x\w\x ha5( itijde known w us^ 
for the lite ofgratr and mcrty thou hatt grAClouilv bestowed upon uSs 
and for the nourifhnicnt with v^hich thou d^j^c nourish LUi dnd feed us 
aJwaySn every ndayn in evcjy scasonn and cv-cry hour. 

For all ihcscrhings. Lord oar God, wr [hank and praise thee; ma>"thy 
praisci coniinuaily be In the mouth of ev-cry living ihingi ^ it is "^ritien^ 
and [hciu ^hili car and he ^icisPied. and bless rhc Lord diy God (oi che 
good land which he hach given rhee. 

Blessed art thou* O Lotd^ lot the Und and nsftxid. 

O l^rd our Ciod» hnvepiry on ihy peopk Israel, on [hy d[y Jeru-salgin^ 
on Zion the plate of thy glory^ on tb*; lOy^l house ol^ David thy 
Mex-iah, and on the grtai and hol^ houst which is called by thy N^me. 
Our Godp our Father, feed ut and iipc^:d us, nourish us and make us 
floLirishn unsdndngly, O Lord our Go-d, speedily Iree us h-om all 

And k[ 02 noL^ O Lord our Gcrd, Und ou.rseIyc& in need af gifts Irom 
flesh a]id hiatHl, i^r of a loaji frtun anvone save fronn :hy RiIIt ccncrou-Sn 
abundant^ wide-open hamdn 50 we m^y npever be him^iLiated, or pm to 

O rtj-huild Jerii^akmn rhe h^ly dty. ^pa^dily in our day Rle£.-^e^ arc 
thous LordhWjio in mercy will n^hijiM Jemiiletn, Amen. 

Blessed art thou. Lord our God, King of the Ujiivtitie, ihouGod, who 
art our Facher, our powcrlul king^ our Creator and redeemern v-tio made 

uSt our holy ouCt ihc holy &ne of Jacob, our shephrrdn shepherd o( 



Isradn tl]cgut>^l king, wh<j vL^Hf his gooJ^css upon 4II; for ever/ JiJigb 
da^ he has l>rau^t g<j[>d., lie does bnnggooJi he will bring good upon 
us; hchai rewarded ui, dws J¥g;ardH artJ will jlwjyi r^ewji'd ul^ with 
grace, mercy and tompasiion, ompliiudc, dcli-vcrancv and proipctity, 
blcuin^ and ialvation^ cumfcrt^ and a livings suitcnana.-^ pity and 
pcacCn and all good - let us not ^ani any manner oFgood whatever."^ 

Grace aficr meals is rctitcd whcrhcr one ls aJonc or in a group. But il three or 
moi"e Isrselues are garhertd^ [hen one of thcni calls on all prc&cnt [o Form a 
pra^^ingcnLiiy for LheiecicaLJonQhtifgrde^^ and (he orhei^ respond; [h^com- 
inunity that ha$ h^^ti bt'f>uchE inin being f{^r [hecommoji meal chen recices it> 
very often out louJ attid in unison, 

IV CojTUQimal Meals aitd thcii Protoco] 

A Est^^ikhing the C^mnjunal ChartKtfr 9/^ Mwj^' Prit^rr and 

M.6:6 ^lien ihry arc sitting L'^ogt'thcr prior to a. meal], each permn 
rcciKS ihe blessings for himself. When they ha^T reclined [on couches ai 
the meal Logeiher|, one person recitei ihe blessings foraJi of chem. 
When ihey have brought lo rhem wine during ihe nicai-, eath person 
retites the hlessmg for hnnsu^lf [because rhe\' drmk hy rliem_selve^]_ 
[When [he> have broughi [O ih^m winej afteir thcmpjl, oriepefwti 
IKPtTSChe bk5iillgfoiall<>f'h?(n Ikc^ysie [h-t^dnnk [ggecherj- And 
tihai person] sa^s (he blessing Oiver ihe incensej fven though they bring 
cut the incense only flfterdintaer. 

T4:8A- What is chc order of the meal iat a communal mcnl]? A^thj^ 
gnesES cnrcii diey arc seated on bcnthci or t-hairi while <ill (the guc:5Ui] 
assemble [and are seated together]. Once all have assembled [and] they 
[the attendants] have given them (water] For cheir hands, caeh [guest] 
washes one hand. 1^'hen] they [rhe arrendanis] hav^e jnixed for rhcm 
rhe cup lofwiirte]. Cich^i^c recuM ch^ heiledi£ti^:^n [i^vec wine] ft>r 
himself, IWhcn] ihcy have btoughi before ihcin appeiLLer^j eacli o-ne 
recites the bcnicdictii>n (over appetisers] for himself- 'When] they have 
arisen |from the bend^es or sears] and reelined fm the ^eeocid ^ragtf nf 
the meall^ and they |rhc attenJamsl have fa^in] given thLim f^aiet] for 
(heir hantli, rvch ihou^i ca<h hjs dkid>^ washed fltie hjnj. lie nflw 
muii waih bo(h h:indi- When [hey |ihe aitendaim] have |a^in] mixed 
for them the cup, even though each has reeitc^S a benedi alori over die 
(irst |cqp]t he recites a hcncdict:<]n over the second |alst>]. When they 
|the attendants] have broughi befoic them appetizer-s, e^xn tho-ugh each 



has rccirc^ia hcncdktiun over the first |a|^pc[iy-er5] ^ he recire^a benedk- 
tiojiover ihc seconds andoncpcrwn rccitts ihebencdjmon for aLlof 
chem (acihi&^ragc of the mcaJ]- On? -^-hvafrivcialtei^ three [coLirses -f>f] 
appeiizcrs [have bcrcn scr^cdj ia not allowed to enter (to jolti rhe rrieal|. 

MJil Three who areiognUr are ob-'igSl^d to |appf>inc one] m mviic 
(tkc others to recite chc tilessing^ -j-vct the mejl], Otie who ^te produtzc 
ahour which rhcrc ii a d^ubc whether o£ not It was tithed^ ot fitsr ttilie 
from which heave ofFerJne |of chc licfe] was taken, or who ate sct^nd 
tithe Or Iproduce which had becjij dcidicaicd jto thcTcmpleJ and then 
tedtemcd. ^r a servani who ik an ohvcs bulk [of (oodjn or ^ SamEintELn 
- thesN^ may jnvite odiers [lo say chc blessings over the meal] on their 
accounc- Bui one who aie produce which is subject lo tkc separation oJ 
tithei: hut not >'^i [iihcd, or vvho ace firsc ruhc from which ticave 
offering [of (he lidicl has not yei been raken, or Iwhoaic] second cithc 
or Iprcdjcc which had btcn] dedicactd |to rhc Temple] "bu: whjch^vas 
not rc<ltem^, or 51, wtvdcit whu art Ils.s chati an olives buJkj, or ihc 
Gentile- thi:y cn^y not invite otber-^ [10 say che blessing afccc chc mcalj 
on iheir account. 

M_7:? WomciiH slaves or minors J"who ate tN^gfther with adtiU I^Fi^dne 
tn^^l - ihey may Jiov invite others to recite grace on cnc:ir ±Kxoiiiit. 

M_7 3 How dci ch-cy invite |othcrs to join m the blessing after the 
m^^]]^ Fc^F chfw [whci aiff togCTh^A the leader] says, 'I CT ilh bh'-ys/ For 
rhnw lochLTf^i and hinaseLf [i .e. four]^ Iic5ay5/[AII of you] blcis.' For ten 
he iaj'^j "Lfi Ui bles-sour God/ For icn and hiniiic] t he says, 'fAllufyiJuJ 
blf:^/ The s^tttric (ruk appLleiv fr>rj kh and fDf ccn ihou^nd. 

M-7:-i-5 There wjio n-^te (Ogeiher maj noi divide -up. And so coo foiir> 
and so too Eive, Sis to- ten may di^^idc up lic^io iwo or chree g^roupsj. 
And ten may not divi-de up— up to twenty. Two tating a5S0<iati^^nii 
which were eating in one room - vi'hcn some [membcrij of eacri gromp 
face one anacher, lon they may combine as an invited ^oup |iXr j sln^C 
group wliich logecher says ihe ble&s]ngovcr ihc meal}. And if not, each 
iflviii^ Imembei'Siif irsown group to bitss] for thciriKlve^, 



M.S:1 In reciting chc sequence of blessings lor "winc and ihc SaLbach, 

ant blesses ovetr cht^ wiiie^ and. afterward one blc^sc^ over the day. 

T5r25 The rejwjci i^ iKac je i$ Ithe presence of chc cup ofl viine [at the 
lablt;] Thar pnj^idts iheocci^ion for cheSanaJficaiiontif iheDay lobe 
recited. The benediction (jv^t the iwii^e is usiialj while ihc bencdiccjoji 
for che day is not usual |and that which is usual rskes precedejice over 
(haE which is infreiiLicnt]. 

M-S::^ The sequence of blessings at the tnd t>f (he Sabliih i&: Ijghtj jnd 

spLce$H ajid food, and Habdalah. 

M-8:6 In r^icing ihe Habdalah prayefn they do not blest over die lipit 
ur the spices orCienEdeSn nor the ligh: or rhc spices of the dead, nor the 

liSjht or the spices which are before an idob And they d-o not blew- Over 
the light un^il ch^y make lose of ks illunimaciiDn. 

M.S:7r Hr whoatc and fo^r arid did nor blest [say grace] - ihould 
bks5 in the place inwhichhe [crrfceiTib^r^ci- Urinlwhcn docs he bless? 
Uncil Ehc fbod has been digested in his Iwwels. 

In addjcion to che rouiLnc occasions orpj^yci: -suciriinc jrtJ S4i\^<5t fofc'EnSl'Ki- 
tacioji of [he Shcma', the Prayci, and praycri ar mcali, ble^^ings JECilso recned 
on special oceasionj, and those occasions arc d^Hnt^l flOT by i^aEing buE by 
othef evenLs alce^cher The halakhah describes these in the folluwmg wjy, 

V Blessings on. E:i.ecptLonalCki:jjii>n$ 

A fiwj-^rPJJJ For ii^iZ-iF jWj^jtAiep lyor Go^ 

M.^:^ One h obligated io say a Wc^sing ^^ (he <KCflSLOi^ of evil js one 
5ay5 a blessine on the occa_sion of good. 

fl_ Btiffji^ in f^smiii€rjf^r£itJon ofMir^ri^Us tf?" Other Exr^rional 

Mb9;l One vho $e»a place whcr^ miraciefi v^ere peEformN^d foe Israel 
saysn Blessed if he who pcEformetl Enirjde^ for out faiKtts in diis pbce.' 


arrtttc^ the fai e'hhul and cod 

(Onc^ho 5CC5] Ji pla<.c from whkK id[>brry ^vi^ Liprooied sayi^ 'Blessed 
is he who uprooccd idolati:^ Troiii our land/ 

T/r.2 He who iccs a siatuc of Mercury savs, ^Blcsitd is he who has 
g_rartteti paiLcnce ro chose who vi-olaccliis wilL He who stw a place 
ffftrti^hi^har idol hii b«:n uprcoifd ^y^, "BI«s«J is he who apwoTtxl 
idflbtfy from our lajid. And jij&c as it has been uprcwrcd Irom rbis pbtTn 
^ tn^y^ ir b« Liprooccd from all ofihc places in ^hidi Israel dwclJ^i And 
rtturn ch*; he^rcs of those wlio serve rhcm :o jour service/ And abrcad 
it ii not necessary tt> sjv. 'And rexurn die hearrs of tho&c rhac serve rhcm 
toycur scrvKc/bctJuw: die roajoric)^ of cKe people iherearc idokrcrs 

H^K is howTheTalmndoFtht: Lind of Ismtl evprr^stisihe ^amenmrer- 

Y.9: 1 II: I Ifido]a:ry>va£ijpr«Kd from one l-jt:atiyn snj^^isb'ished in 
anoiher when one comes ro the place to which it was locaredh he s-flVii, 
^Blej^sed [an rhou, O Lord^ oar God, King of :ht LTnisxrsc^l ^ho is 
paiJcnt-' A_nd when one comes ro rhe place From which It was uprotitcd, 
lie S3ys> ^Blesised |ari ihoun O Loidn our God^ King or the UnivciscJ 
who uproored idolatry from rhis place. May ic Lk: chy will-, Lord our 
Gc(l^ Cod of our fjirherj^n rhii just is yon uprooced ir from itiis placc^ so 
shaJI y[>u iiprcH^i it fTum all oiher pUces, Aiid you shall return rhe hearts 
ofthMCVplio worship 'H, Ww^ithlp [tiee^ »^^^0 more shall ihere be 
found [in ihe I^Jid] any worshipper of idolatry' [outside of the I^iidof 
Israel one need not say ihi^ prayer btxauic the majorlcy of the trihibit- 
anis are GcntJlesJ. 

Y.9:\ I:Z On-cwhosc« Bibyloma muEit recite fivt bleesir^gs: WliEn he 
fiee^ rhe EuphriWi river he says^ "Blcsscxi [art thtju, O l-Ord, our GtKJ^ 
King of [he Universel who carries o ui the works of ereacion/ Whtn he 
sees ihe sr-^rue of Mercurj^ he says, 'Ble«ed [art thoun O Lord, our God, 
KiiiEof the Univefiel who is paricr^r/ When he sees [rhe juins ot] the 
p^dacf of Nebiicli^idtie^Tar he saySf 'Bltssed (arr ihou, O Lord, our God^ 
Kingofche Universe] who descroyed thj5 wicked ones house.' When he 
sees the place of the flurry furnace 3nd the Hon^s den [4£S0cijred wirh the 
narracii-'es in Dan. ^ and 6] h-c say-;, Biessi^ [nrt thou, O l-ned, rmr 
God, TGngof the Universe] who pcrlbrmed mir:idr:^fbrour [flrtfarhert 
in this place-' "Wlicn he icr& iht fIi^c,-^ fr^jr^? ^hi^h they q\iaf7 gravel 
[for idolatrous pnrposcsj, hesajs, 'BIc^scJ Is he -who spealt^ and aeti; 
Blessed is he who decrees and upholds his word/ When one sees 
Babylonia he [further) savs, I willsiArep it with fhe broom ofdestruc- 
tJoa^lka. M::23]. 



Phenomena yfDJturt nirc -covered as wA\: 

M.9j2 For jnctctNri, earth trvrnuri, Ughmij^g^ rhundefn 3Ji J wind, on^ 
says, 'Blrsscd ... whose power and lni_ght till die wor]ti_' For ETi^^untains^ 
hills^ teas, rivers, and -dcscTc^^ Kc sa^'s, ^Rlcsstd ___ the maker of |ijl t^f 1 
crcarion/ For chc rain and for g™d ridings, lie says, 'B[c_^std „. who is 
good and docsgo^jd.' AncJ fijrbad tidings he uy^, 'E^Je^td -.- iht irue 

T.irA One whc^sfcsanriciiv-c people or -at[rac[ivcrr"cCii 5ay5/FrH»icd br 
he who ha$ [n^^ide] such aEtraetivc creacians/ 

T-^:5 Ont wht> «t^ 5 I'jLjibi'w iii chc dii-Lids savs^ 'Pt-aiscd |b& ihou^ O 
I tjrd 1 - ) ^'ho 15 rajfhfyl en hi^ ecwenani, who rcmember-s cher L_"ovcnanc/ 
6:6A. One wj^o wa\ w^lkang between graves |jn a cemcicry] says-n 
Tiaiscd [be thoun O Lx^rd ---] ,-. who krtowiyour number. HcwilS 
judge you and hp will rKiirnxi yo\} lo ludgmenL Frjiscd [be thou, O 
T^rd .r,] whose word '\z ituitworthy^ who re^urrecrs the dead-' One who 
sees chc 5jn, or the moon. Or the s^J^s^ or the coiiicell^Lioiis says, 
^Praised |bc chou, O E_ord r,.] wht> made cre^^tion. 

Y9-1 IF3 One who sees a crowd says, 'B-Icsstd lart thoii^ O Loixi oiif 

Gcdfc King of ihe UnLversea] who knows the iccrcts- jubt as their faces 
are diffcre-ni one from ihc oihcr so arc (heir opinions difirrc-nc <>rtc 
from theorher/ 

B.9^1— ^ 11.^ -One who sees Israelite sages says^ 'Bles^ied cs he: who has 
givoii ^ share afhiEwisdrhm to ihost ^ho fcai him/ iHc whosewl 
(.^n[ile 5aftK i^ySi 'Blessed is he who has given some- ol his wisdom to 

thoiC "wlirtm he h^^ created.' He who sees Israelite km^ sayS:, 'Blessed be* 
he who has givert ^-^ome of his hoJKpf 10 cbo^e whrt fear him.^ |lf he sees] 
Gencilc klngj. hf says. "Blessed is he who h,ts given srimc of hii honor co 
those who ftar hitn,' 

M.9^3 One who buili a new hojse, or bouglit new dttfnes sayfin 
'B Jetted..- [Who kcp[ us alive- and] brought ui corhistxtasion/ One 
[v^hot blesses nvcr evil [with ihe blessing used] for poodn or [who 
blessesi over gfjod [wich the blessing used] for evil [or] one^ho cries 
^tic ^hc^Qi the piii \^, cli]5 Ls a vain prayer. ]f one wai eotninp alotig 
[hcroada.nd Ei£ h^rd anoifcof cryingin the city and he saidi 'Hi^y it 
be thy will d\at those [who are cryiT^] are not monbccs ol nny house- 
hold^ — lon rhes Is a vain prayer 



bA.9:4 Onewho^nicrsa^Oivn pray:, two [prayers] - one upon his cnrry 

and oiK Upon his ^\iv 

M.^ifiOne^liould nut act h^tlicaf]cdlyivhi[c fating :hc Eaictrn Gik 
for thi,* TtolpJe In Jcrusdcm] for it faces toward :hc Chamber od^rh-e 
Holy or Holies. One -shoiild not enter ihc Tcreiplc Moujic wirh hij 
lAalkingitLckn has -shoes, tiis money bag.H or wjeK du-sr tin his feetr Ajid 
one should noE uk (ihe Icniple MounL] for i ^hrtrrcm. And ^pittiag 
[there likewise is forbiddern^ as is proven by ^>i i''gul^3^;Jirl ^ ^^'Jf^ W 

Here wc see ihe Fole of law in ihe P-^rmLihrLt^n of tho religious liie. 'I'he 
halakhah lake^ up the cojidiiioni of [jrdiiuiT)' life and d^^Hacs in detail where 
and ht>w kraei nieeu Gfwi in us everyday CAiiStntcr it doti not define rhc 
mcdiaoKdiccntotinierrhestate tak^n fbrgrantcd- Rathe r^ the halakhah con- 
ctrns jcsdfwJchdicmodeanJmtrhtKJofthjit samtcncoiJiitej. A massive [he- 
ft togy is encompj.^s^d within the topic. The Shcma^ ihe r^raj-crn che gja^^ 
meaU - jhoii^ "blig^tt^^ry prayers contain the cre«ial prineiplK of rh^ faiili: 

God^s unity anddo-minion^ihcTorahaa Gc>d5plail^[hccarego^iR-cJta[ion, 
revelation, redemption - as these oreanize holy Urael^ eKi_qrence, Tlie Prayer 
then brings about diroct a>Jdr-es^ co Ciod condiicKd in hi^ cortCfete prwenwr. 
TEie Uw bclf-cvidently servcsasa pr[nci[>al niediuni oftli^ologicsl discourse 
in classical Judaism. W^at^ rhcn^ itc the main ch^^^lr^gLCial (voittii tontaincd 
Avithin [hchalakhah? Within The dc[^lofdiek\v^ is eitibedd"i* major stacc- 
inent about the rekiionship berween Cii^d ^nd kFUi^l. 

K God takts a comiaj^c and mien^c inc^jtesr iji Israelite attitudes and opin- 
ions. E[ccar*sihai Jsrielafhrro^ his Urtity and declares his dominion, rhrou^ 
ihemciianonofcheShtnii'^nJ related acts of prayer. He -^-aits for ihe expres- 
sion flfiove, he heaf^, and he responds. That is why hcpays Jo^acLcncion m 
(hf m^nn^r in "^hidi th^ ^bligadcn to do so L^c3.medo-u[, noLing th^i li l;^ 
dont in ;i correct and rcspt^iful way. [low dse lia merely formal gWLutt to be 
distinguished from a truly sinccrcn inieniional one? What is importjnt is that 
when the corrcci words ire spnkcn, ihey are .^poteri with the attitude of 
acknowj-cdgang God':; dominion, as an ei^plicii it:i cif atc^^^ptmg. pht^ g^r/em- 
mcni ^f H^iLvcn and the di^ipiinc (yt^k^'J of [h^ i:^]nit^jtiii[n?iU3=. Thdt i^ 
what is meant in the laws covering rcciiinc che ble^singji^ for instaMtc, S/fjirW 

jsWrflWffj/jKdt^r^j ta .. Ciod values thtse words of Acknowledgement and 



The ha^akJiah rescf f>n [Ke premLife char God further hcir^ and responds lo 
the praiKj iupplit^tion, and ihanb of l^rad^ as thcso axe s^;t fortii In the 
PR-ytr- "Recicing iht Fra^tr ^hilt fi*ctng Jtro^Alem's Tempk and the Holy of 
Holicij rhc Israelite dirc^ct^ the Prayer to the plate in v-'hich God'b prc-scncc 
ciTitctainc and will one day -come again to rest. The atcmudcol the Israclirc :n 
raciring the Pra>'cr ^.cuwJy -concerns Ccd^ and rhar most he ah atritudc of 
solemnity; the one who says the Prayer nni5t conduct himself or hcrjclf ai in 
the very presence of Gadj in che mode] of the rules cf conduci before ihe 

How docs God respond to Israeli acknowlcdgcmcnij thanks^ ind ^bove ai!^ 
a-cceprance of his dominion? C3od sees co h :hi: life- J5 -susiainedj wirh £pee]^| 
Mfcr^nce to (oody and prayers ch^t jeUncxwtedge rhe gilt €>nj+^ throvigh food 
muse respnnd wiih precisiun [o ihe tpecificirift of the gift: what partiuilar 
diss of fW i.s ifivolv^? When isiacl iscmWlcd in ji quomm of Jsradijcs, 
<Tod'^ presenee, (lor c^cily hig gifts^ h to h^ noted propedy in d call to attend 

iipi>rt (he ihared titt, "Finally* God inter\T:nesafa3| times, past^ present, iuture^ 
md in iiJi circuni^tances^ however humble: and perionai^ and Gods interv^cn- 
tioji Is to be watched for and acknowledged. So^vhcn the aggadah insists that 
all Israel -everyone ^ho accepts the ruie of the one and oniy God- will rise 
&om tht grave 10 eternal lilc^ while thcGcniilcs, defined by thtir idolatry and 
rcjcaion of G-odn arc dc^ ^q dc^ihn thai poinr &f in^]^n:nce bcar^ mor^ 
tlian abstract intcresr. God \s intimately Envolved in Eheongoijic tife of IsraeL 
sListainiJigiJiac [jfe in rlie liereasid noWf nor^tily acjudgiTLtritand in the world 
to ccme- Ac evei^- ac? of brejthing, on every oct^sion of nourishtnenc, God 
Knewi. the pn>miscyttnr cnratmo -uf JiJe^nd contims the promise ol restora- 

Z- If God Lmmeddately engages with Israel, then for its part Israel ail together 
)od t^ne bi^ [jnc, sf^l^ ihifli ^-ng^gc/nn^in Tbflt ia-betaiHc Israel li-^es and atw 
under God "^ pctpctu^l gai;^. In the mo^ngthcl^raclitt accepts Gods domin- 
ion in an act of persona] iubmJision, then expiititly undertakes to carry onr 
God 5 commandments, in all th-clrconcrece specificity. In exchange^ the Israel- 
ite recognizes chat v4i,aEever happens cxprcsse-s a chapter in GoJ's plan for ere- 
a.[ioa a paragraph -perhaps only a sentence, ai^^ndna mereltirer- ofCiod'"^ 
inceriLinnforrhat pamcijiar person. Ihai facr forms [he- premise ofdiePrayets 
with tts systemarLcj personal program o-f pr^i^tf j^upnlccation^ and rbnclks- 
MorehroidLyjcill, rhever^ hicr thm the i ndivtdud IK-es atceitJ tt» God's wili, 
by wliich every perso-n Itveh or dies that i^ery moment tiirougji the course cf 

yfe cUpeftdfl nn fo*d, [he poiflt of iftiei'&pfCtttJil, then, between God and 
htimaniiy-H the moment of special and apprtjpriatc actcnowledgcmeni uf the 
gift of life: nourishmtnt by this mcnn* provokes (hcic -words, by that mcanss 
tho^Cr Sinw: Gt>d p,tvs 3uth duse and oontinuing atcention to what each 
person says and how Et is saidn wbatan individual dcn:s and "why he or she docs 
itn n-onc need find surprising Gni^d s intcrver^tion oi humanlry's specific and 



appropHite drespoii^e- TJ^^i is why ihe correct formula ftfankftowledcemear 
alsu gukici rcbpynst to ^\l niEr^des, both ihe toutiaie an<] Jieeiit^aotrdinaiy, 
rfiP-t crtibwdv God's intetventiori, Throiighoutn there is no dij^Tiiig:ui^ing 
Israel the holy people frdm the Istaeliif: -wh-at affects the whole obligates cKe 
ohCh "pvhat happens tD the unc k>rmb the destiny oJ <i]l. In the liiUiikli^i ^^ff^ 
jnmucclsrad on ^^ar it mcEin^ Fo take God pe-rsonaily. 


F^ifLJtig u\ []^e maaih ofR^midian is one of che- c^jiira! cheats of eIic Tvluslim 
calcrtJar T^or an entire months Ml^^Il^j ul^e tieiiher Fftrni nor dfjnk durijig 
thchour^ ofd:(vhghc_ iiiferc4r>Lir^^tid fckid-ldke -itib-siancessuizh iscig^- 
rctieii^re aisc fi>rbkldai-Tht!disdpJiT3ec>r denying c>iuw]fsu^^^ 
rhcduy hdpiMuiliirii tE>fi>cui on God a^ the treal source of char ^tistenihce. 
N^rnhclK5-p this denial h to tx ^ept w»hLn crrtjirt ht^yriijftries, and rho^e 
whoaie sick^ travelliag 0-r pregnaat are not re^^tiiiftJ to fisc- The rheologic^l 
focius of lasting is itatc^d d irectly In the Qur'an: it is the mDnth when th-c Strip- 
tur-cs ^erc first revealed to MuhammadT thererore Muslims are ini^njttcd to 
&st In order to Upraise Cod for that to whlcb he has gitlded you' (2:185), 

[n fslamEC counEncsT lifes rhythms adjust to this rigor, and people rest 
during ctn? day and feast during the nEjJii. Ir is also common [o recite chc 
Quram DF lisKn [oreciDanon, during thss monch^ and the Quran has bcm 
S^^paratcd i"tC thiriy ^cci^^S fof ju^t chi$ purpose. By denying tliem^e-ives che 
bask food arid ivar-er needed to survive, helitver^ ire reaninded of their ^bsio- 
luK dtpejidenct; on G^d- Nightfall brings life lo ihe cities ftnce a^aiii, how- 
evetr After die breaking of' die Tasi ^k ^unseTj [.he streets iili wuh shippers and 
shops te-operi- RamaJan is al^o considered a dme co rerciemher (lod^s: merq^ 
shopketipers set up rubles on rhesrr^T.inviringRTrisnger-^roh-reatfhefe^iwith 
them, and people make a. ipc:cial cflbrt [» iec that no one goch bun^ Thus, 
night becomes day and day bcccmci night in Ilnimctddn, an invasion of time 
which changes the beLicvrrs Focus from the mundane to the divine. 

The chapters on festing in the legal handbooiks are uncharacteristically 
short; al-Qayrawani£ tcKt contains only two chapcers: one on festm^ in 
R^n^^dan and ajiocl^er on fasnng during spLnnial retreac. a discincTLon which 
coffesponds to the cwo types of fasting jn Judajsm — obligatoiy and vouve. 
The cumjry treatmenr in the iawboolts may be :i ra^uh f>f rhe eKwaofdinary 
detail on fiii(ing found in [ht Qiir'^n itjidf- Pairing in H^eQur^n al-ui fiw in 
rwu ^ategoti^j bv-Z ihe^C ar? nc^i the saane as those addressed in legal hand- 
books: d^e ptescnpiioris Ibf the ritual I^t in Ramadam ^nd fai^tint i^ acont' 
ment for a sin. The first category is covered in fiveversesi rhe first th^ee of these 
cover the main pfOivtsions in some detail: 



Q tho«of j'OLJ who believe^ ch^lisi ls prescribed for j^oa^ even as it wafi 
pre^crihtiJ lot ttiose that wttt before yOLi; p^erhjps you will lie 


Thcic arc chc numbered dayi^ rhuugh for ihosc ^imoag >xiu v^ho ^rc sick 
^r triLvcJJing, ihcna number c^t ochcr diy?; andfor thcK wh^ vp^uld 
ha^'c been able co fast^ rcdcmpcion by gi'i'ing focxl to a poor person- As 
for the one who willingly docs good^ that is better^ but btttei yci is rhar 

yoLishj3ul-d ^tn if ycu only kncw- 

Themonffhof ELamadan is [hir in which rh^Q^ur'an wa^ sear down, as 
A guide ftir the p-sopile and ^S cde^r ?igns ^f ggidsrict fltid ^rt'^aiiotir Th^ 
one wlio w](nei$<^ ih\^ inniiEk mu^i l^^c itn hut rhec^nc^ ^vhr^ U ^[ok or 
on jjourney^ shc*ulJ fjsr a numbtir of other d^yi- G<jd dcslrcj cv^sc for 
youf n<]t h&nishLp- Vou mu^t complete tW nutnbtr, jnd prjl^c God for 
[hattowhlth ht hj^gnldeJ ^ou^ ptrhapiyou will be tbnkruL 

iTIicQuffln. ^:iS5-lS5} 

These verses stipulate thr month of the ftsi, the reasons for fasting, and also 
distinguish between those "who n^annot ^t throu^ no fault of their tswn 
(bKau5*rtsf!]ln«sorthe n^ed to travd}indihflic whf> do nm^^t^en though 
rhey could have. I^rscns [nbothcatcgoriesaremEtracted asm how they arc [0 
piake up f[ir their Upe^- Qf p jrticiil^r irLi^re^ii; |he rer^renct iti the firsrverjc 
ro'rho^pJth^rwert before you h' ^sthe Qtir'aa is erpliddy modilyirig the reli- 
gjOLJS pr^ciicei ofocher peoples- This- scries of L^J prescription ^-^ cootinu^s^ 
separactJ by verse 1S6 which tnak^s an imporiarn iheol<^ical scacttncnt; 

When my servants Hik yotj. about mc: Surt\yy 1 am near, I. answer the tiy 
of the one^ho tries oiiti when they try unto mcr Thty must seek 
ansv^rs Irom mc^ and believe in men perhaps then they will be riehtly 

During the nigh^of ihf Ji'hriT J5 allriw^d for you ci^goin ^^^yoLl^ 
womciiii [lic>^ arc a vcfltmcnt for you and you are a vestment for thcni- 
tSod know^ rb^t you h^d bee™ betraying yo^r^elves, Jtid l^ai now turned 
to you and forgiven yon. Now you may make love to them ^nd in M 
doing -seeh what C<hI has pn^scriti^J for voii. Fat ?.nd drink, until you 
Clin Jigunguish the white thrc^^d frorf] the blatk thread at the dawn; 
then com|ileioi}ie fastunii] niglniitne. Oo-moi mi^ke lovtto thtm while 
you jrt cakingspiHtuiil retreat in the mosquo, ITiuk arc Gods bounds 
- d-o not Transgress them, Tn tliis v/ay Cod makes his s^na clear to 
pcopitt perhaps they will be godfearing. 

(Tbid.. ZilSt-IST) 



Of py rTituUr imporrj net iiul^ispj^^gc is rherjicn don of Spiritual 
Muilim vcr^i<jn ufvtitivc fiisting] this vent will bcrtfeircd to by al-Qt/r-awant 
in hc3 cliaptN:r t>ii the iiibj<:cCr TLr uthtr occainjn mr tascing nccording to the 
Qui Ein isin acaiicnieiiEfc^rsfwcificrraiisgr^KiDDS, Th^pr-CKripiLons air^horn 
and ^omcwhai inransistcnt. For example, ihc foLlo^Lii^ vcr^ addressee (he 
recompense required for breaking an oirh which is used to seal aconrractr 

God will not hold, you accoantablc for chau^tlizssncss in your oachs^ 
but He Will hold you acoouncahk for ihai which yoj cnniiFacr by mein^ 
of anoarh- Theespianon ls [of^d Kn prK}r persons wirh the same 
amouiK of food you serw to- yotir &tn] lies^ or to clot he t hem, or lo see 
free aildvt. A5 for someone whofind^ not the means. Siting fi>r three 
days- That ii chttxpiatK>nol^tht oaths which y<ju sivear - but Itcp 
youroalhs! In this way Goa muicj hii iigns dtar (o /ouj perhaps you 
■will be thankful 

Aj with fasEing in Ramadan, f^tin^ineKpistion^ia cransgressJDn js seen a^ a 
means oFap pealing co Go-d for foi^Lvencss and of reimrmbcrmg his characier- 
istic mercy. In (his way^ ihc rwo cypcs of dicing art iniimaicly connected in 
their ihcoloeical implicacion^. The Islamic Iceal handbookf do nor fail eo 
address ^scine^s a way ofaroninc forfipecific rran^re^sirnLSn bnc: they tend co 
do sn in separate chapLers devoted [o :ho£e craiisgres^ioii^^ w tl^f prci^cciption 
oKs^tingLn atonemeiH for osing a reprehensible cur^e In the divorce formijla 
is found in the fhapf^ron divtkrce Simikrly, fmfing during the pilgrimage is 
addrfi;b5td in rht thapn^run pilj^rimagt, 

With the iiia][i -ourlicm of the R^n].3ddn feit made clear Sn the Quran, 
al-Qayrawani limits his diapter w addrcst-ing itimc ,Hpccilic problems whitii 
may arlbc tn tarrying out rhe fast, Ai with the sages nf Judaism, Islamic legal 
scholars Hnd to brinfi; rheir r\vn agenda t^> bear on Eh«e qu«iions. In che 
beginning of his chapter en chc Ramadan fast-, al-Qayrawani urns LmmcdiT 
ately ro rhc old -question of excernal Faciors prc^Trniina the heflever from tarry- 
ing ou: wcli-jnccndcd accjons. FiFic, wha: if you cannoc sec ihc new niooji 
which ^Lgnah the beginning of rhe (^^l? 

Fitstitig in the month of R^LrajdaLi Lh j rcEigioiis duty. One Iksix at the 
Hghi vf ihcn^v^mw.n^ ««^?iiii^nd brc^lu (^si ^i the ^i^t ^f (he 
crescent of the next new moon, v^hrther this ennds up being thirty or 

only twenty-nine day-t.- If the new moon [5 hidden by cloud* when the 
fast Li to begin, tn-cn one counts thirty djys hoJn the tirit day o( the laiE 
month and beginji I^^Eingon that day; [he,^ame is dune ]f the moon k 
hidden >^h^n the fk^t is to be bif^keiir ' 


llic pracnca] contcrjis mcnnoQcd in the Quran are-no:ad.dres£^d here, nor ii 
rhd Qui^an cited. RiThei'T al-Qayrawan] corLcinues wich his own ngencU CO-n- 
ccrnjng Epccjflc ta_scs where ihc ngli: acm-rtn ls nor enrirel)' clear- 
One may intend rofa^t during the fim [iighr<>f R^mud^n. Wh^t the 
remjining nighii. The fail is mmplcicd ai [liglicfall. It is tymrnuniy 
3C«prcd (^w>ajifl} TO br?aJt vh? f^^t in |hc evening ^^ w^H fls pwsibk and 
dchy rlic final mtd ol^tKc nigV- liefore beginning the daily i^t^ uniil 
tht lait moment. If there is doubt ai ct> exactly when sunrise ii, cnc 
jncNiild not rat; nor doci odc i^st on a day if there is doubt as ro 
whether jc is part of Ramaidan - tliES ]5 tn order :o prevcjir Ramadan 
from encompassing douh:. Ai for on-c who fa^ts on such a day, ii do^s 
noccoLinr for him a3 fastitigin Kamadan, even if he rhoLigh! it waji patt 
of Eiaj¥iad-aji. If someone icill wishes lo fast on such a dav volumiriivj 
[his LS -accepted. 

BuE a^ for che person who irLs<y fn rlie niomingj ajid doe^ r^ot e^r and 
dfl^fl OH^tdfinL. hut rtnl> [hefe^fi^r 1^ it made tltarihat d^iii -wgi jdiyof 
Ra][ijdin, udoei [loiccunc- Suchapytion muu rcfram frorrafbod for 
chc remainder of [he m^mh ind complete Jji addiriorialday of fasting 

If the traveler arrives hiving broken the faitn or the menstruatinp 
woman clean-scs herself on chc day when hei period is ovcr^ they arc 
given fooel for che rcma-Iningparr of chat day_ As for soineoiie who 
briiks the fiic m^cnri^^nilly, or whi^ triv^f; during RAm^JarL iJid bif^ki; 
ihc l^[for ihedLirarioiiof the trip, ihe dav s missed niusL he mitie up 
on anorhcr occasioji. If one bt^aks die ^sr Jnadvercendy, those day^ are 
tioE made up for this lapse in one^s relig]mis ducy. 

ThtK is tiiofauh jnihe Liitof :^ toorhpkk during rhe entire EifT> [lor is 
cupping JiHipprovedi ijnlc:5i one Kars it w<j^LJd render a pcr^^n coo 
weakt-oraminue fiistin^. As for one who is ov^rcom^ by vomiting 
during Ramndan, it 15 not ret^uircd that 5uch a day be made up jncrcly 
because of food being in the mouth. Buc 11 one purposefully indimes 
^^miiLncH and [hen vomirs, rhis day miist b^ made up. If a preenanr 
woman l5 concerned about tha: v^hich ls in her womb, then she breaks 
ihe fast bur is not required ro feed sixcy poor p£r_srtns in competts^tLon 
for purpoficfoilly breaking the f^u Otln;rs _qay she t^ required to fetd 

As m the Qur'anj aUQivrawani disci ngrj-ishes hecween rhose who break the 
fa^r rhrougj^ n-o fauir of cheir own and thc^e "who hre.^k th^ l^st intentio-nuHy. 
The ]jst Civ^TtoiCi iJiii^riitcthis point ti]«:ly. In chetjrit, someone v^ho vumita 
during the day, perhaps bctiubc they ate their da^n meal too q"ULclidyp could be 



toniidcrcrd to have food i Ji chcir jnourlu, thereby breaking ihcfest. As always^ 
an indivjdud'^iiitcncif^nsarcl^hac-HaiidLhcdi&Lmctionber^cenYoi^^ 
and involuntary vDmitine clarifies niartcrs. Biii in rhc case of :hc pregnant 
womann ihc breaks her fasi volunrarilYk and al'Qayra^^nL feck compelled lo 
include a dESJcncJng opinion chat^hcnnusEatAiicfoTthJ^]^]?:^, even il^ou^^ Ke 
feek [hac hei acicjon ls nf>[ etiiirely voluncaty. 'I'liecdi^i^i^tLi^g Opinion apptatrs 
H> be ba^ed on a Qiir^anic verse [5S:4), ^hjoli dematidj^ the f&^di-n^ of sisty 
poor per;/Prt5 iP fa^Ting fof fw^ rivi^nrh^ iii eitpl^hot^ f^t i fijl^ ^nh. 

AswkhThemle^fth prater. j!-Q:iyrjwini'cili^i of required aai on? rniiyseern 
like d Loid nicJunbcJc view uf ihc Isiw^ cbpcdally in wjinparison ^vith ihc 
Qiji^E^nk vt^cT^ wtiich indudc rcfcuin:^ iibvui being gLKlfcarlng and thankful. 
Bmal-Qayrawa-ni is also aware of the importance of main cainlng a woishipful 
frame of mind during, this month. 

It is appropriate for chase ^ho are faecing to guard rheir longues and 
control chclr gcsruics in order to magjii^ during :hc monih of 
Ramadan rhat which God - Glory he lo him; he is jiicmi hjgh - 
magnified. rhos£ who fast do noi approanh women, either far ^y., 
flircing or amorous Icisscidurmgihe daysof Kanudan, LhrtLigh theic 
[hin^arcnot forbidden di night. Tht^rei.s no fau-lc in ^rj^iii^c^rly in 
the morning in a scare of riiual inipuntj^ due lo sexual inrtrcourse At 
night, '^ 

The scct>rd cat-cgory for rasting in the legai handbooks concerns a pracrice 
only bricflv mentioned in :hc Quran: spiricual rcircai. Such a reireai isajnong 
the aciions performed by the Prophet, buc noiscen as an^hsaliice requireavLetii 
of all MueIIjtis. The rules for ^stirig arc ihc same as m Ramadan, and in ha^ 
spiiitja] retreat h oiicn performed in conjuncaon wich che Kaniidjji fa^r. 
Since ^hc person undcr^(>ii]g such ^ rcrreai lemaiiu in [hi: ccniraJ mo^^utr far 
rhc duracion, no sexual inrercoLirsc ls allt^wed, cnher during cheday or nighr. 
Al'<Jayfa-^vafiibeeiji5 his chapter on ihi^nractictwich reference lothettymol- 
ogyof the v^oad j^t^pn ivhich suggesis Jin^m^ <jrt ay GlkIoi to the m^squt: 
irself- Moiiof rheQuiWsrefcrcnces^o this prjai^iipcak ofsuth retreats in 
conntccion ivairh prc-fslamlc pfilytherstic piacclec^ o^ clinging to Idols and 
th^^ir places of wor&hjp. 

Spiniual retrcir is- among workt of supererogaTion dojif for ilie ^od of 
[he believer The ^vordnsclfdcnoies clinging to 5om£ihing: There can 
be no spiritual retreat wnhout ^s[ing^ withour a specifm pcricKi of 
eonaccucive days^ and withour reireacing to a mosque, iusi as Clod - 
Glor5^ be to him; he is mosr high - says in (he Quran. \__ while you Jfi; 
taldng spiri[tial retreat in tnosques/ (2:183) If reijear 15 taken in j town 
where [here arc speeihc dno.sqaes designated for Fridilv prayer, then 
re^teat mo-s* be i^en in on^iyf dLHc iil^jhjucs^ <:K-u:pE If the one 


reircanng vow^ thar ihc daymen whidi recreat is lakcii will nor indndc hI 
tnday. We prefer ^ ho wo-er^ lLiji rhc Jnammmn number uFJa^^ be ten. 
These rules are tJicumbent on somcont who vow;, lo undertake j rccreiE 
For one nr more da^s. Aj for iorrtc^one who vyv^i^ zi rctrMt fcr a night, 
hmh rlied^/ jnd the rii^ht arc anLiimbcnt upon them. 

A_j h>r sotneonc who InetntlonalJy breaks raitv^hilc in r-ctrcat, chcy mus-t 
hegitl mt rclrcal cjiim: Jgain^ fhrsarne apphcis ror someone who cngaj;c5 
in sexual intercourse during chc day or nighi^ whciht^F inrcniionaily or 
out ot forgctliibcss. If [he one in rctreiibccomciSLckH (hey return m 
their houK. When ihcy axe wdiagamHihey continue ihe ri;ue:j[ ^vhi^tc 
thev Icfc ofF; the same applies to che "womidi who h^ins tneo^truaciiig 
durine reirta:. For b^^tli rhese tiiefl, *he bodily r^l^oai of spiritual retreat 
remain incumhenc upon [hem, wherh^r sJckormenscruJtirig. Ab i«>n 
as die mens[rLj^tLiig\vo mail Hjiishcs lier tnofithly coiirwjnd tita.nscs 
hcRelf-orihesklt person is reliabilitated -they nrtum (-> the moaque 
m thjT ueiy hour, whethtr Jay or night, 

Thcpcrwn undei^ing rcimidoei not leave the place ofrcireac cxcepi 
feir human net-e^siiies. On ihc fir^iday -of refrcatp one cnrcrii ihc place af 
tctreac before sundown en the: cvcninE of the fir&c days -oFrccrcai. 

One dcNTS noE visit the sick, pray ovci the dead ac funerals or Itave rhe 
mosque :o engage in trade during ihis :ime_ No cntudiLions may be 
made on a vov^' of retrear. 

There as Jio faulc in the prayer leader ofa mos<|ue xinden^oing rerrtac- 
a perwn m retr^iE may sLilL niarry and engage i tmrrl^g^ iJincr^ct for 

A-s for someone who undertakes spiritual rctreiat during thcmonrhof 
Rarn^dan, v'hcthcrat the beginntng or middle of II they Icavt their 
retreat ifter tht setting ol the sun on the lasc day of che monih, even if 
the time fox Vi^hich ihey vov^ed retreat wou.ld have ineladed char day on 
^hich [he Fasi of Ramadan is brol^en ^ueh a person stays in the jnosque 
on the fiLghi when ihc Iks: has ended up lei the pi^jnr when alt rh-e 
Muslim:^ go 1ft th^pRyergfc^tind:? rc^ieiehHitt ch^trtdftf rhe fasi, 

rhts la-St paragraph 5hf;w% the inipgriflntx vi [he pious individual joining the 
entire comjnLiniry of believers on rhe d.avi of bre^iking the ffl^[_ A^ tjn^ yf th? 

twomo^t imporEaracfesje day^ in Islam, this moment of celebrjtfon muit take 

precedence o^^er indivLdual acts orieif-JcprLvjitiofi, This etnphasia on fasting 

asascxial act thu^ pervades the hbmie perspective. From the very beginning 

of the hist, inJii-lduals arc urged to refrain from fasting before the official dco 

iarattein of the beginning c»( the monch en order to keep che conimLinicy 



c-c^ihcr^Mjtiaily^ spirEtual retreat [5 ttj be underrjkto inrhe publjc mosques, 
and noc ii home or in isolaiion. FJnallvT the fast is broken \n ^^nin^Hh v^ilh 
the coiTiJTiuniry joining iog.cihcr ai die pra>Tr grounds wlitn the t\&t new 

mocm Ls Sidled- 


In Judaism, l^ts— meirting^ absrin.€ncefr-om foddn drjnkn scxn andorhirr plea- 
sures tor a specified period of rlme^ usuilly a day— are of cwokindsj obhgacory 
and vocivc. The Day of Atonement, Y^iu Kippur^inds fVif [he ibrmer; hst' 
bigis required as a form of repentant f^r:^]n. TKchd^i^d^ftn^ihtrvk^s 

A. On the [>ayof Aionemcnc it Lsfl>rbldd^n to fllcac, (2) Jrijik 
(3) baihcj (4) pui on any sort of oil, (5) put on a aiinJal. ^6) or ciig:ig^ 
m sexual rebiion^. 

br Butakinginda brJde waihdMJr ^ccs. 

(Mishnah-iraeratcYOMA. «:1) 

Ingcncial, (he rhcori' of fasting inihehaJ^khahtrafl^tongai a mode of sac- 
rifice on^'&Q^vn Jnihcpr^^tv-arLdch^^^- 
fore, given [he rhcoiy of Lhe sacrifice chat predoniinatcs in judaLSfn^ ai a 
nicdiunn of aroncment for sin. 

The governing thcolopy docs not permit ui to prfdict, ho^everj Fh^enar^c^ 
r^f of ihi: halakhih rhac wilJ define the ma.tHr, Rather as we already have 
nored, ihe haLakhah "brings to a given topic a fixtxl a^nda ot qutJtiijni, TTic 
r^^uli i^ thjTf t^nce atopic comes into vjc^t thchalakJiah ccjidstofind the same 
thing to A2y about anany issues. Here, for CKampkn a recurrent iatercst in tbc 
joitiirig ofquattijcies ihaLconsciLQie a forbidden amouncof anamcd subnanee 
lb ^ven exptessioXiH ai in ihe following: 

A. Hcwhocais a large date's butk |offood|s inclusive of its pit — 

B. JorJ be who drinks che equivalent \n liquids to a mouchiiil 

C is liable. 

D- AlJ sojtsofibods join together to form the volume of the date'^i 



B. andaJIsc^raofhi^uid&jcin together Ed form ihc volume ii^f a 

F_ He who eais and he wh-odrLJik-s — 

G- ffhe« prf^hihJKd wiltiine^l do Ei«r p[t\ mgefher fr^ impo^ liahiliry 
for effing or foi" dtinkitig^ rc^pcttivcJyl, 


Another familiar issuc^ taisc^d here as in numcr-cjus other contcKcSn concerns 
intci^tionallcy^ if one pcrfbrins many actl-ons within 2. finglc spell o£ Inadvcr- 
ccncCp the cnt]rcsc: af acnons ls deemed ro forn^ one sein requiring one aer of 
i[oncniciiE(a5]noffcrmgHbroiJghEon accoun[j>f inadvcricntsm). If one per- 
formed accf of cVh^caLogonc^, cheiie are vroaicd 32 dLsjchined: 

A_ |lf ] one aie and drank in a sjjigle aei of Jnadverrence^ he is liable 

ojily lT>r 2 Jiingle sin oFfering. 

B- |Tf 1 Ns iie and did a piv>htbired ki of kboi", he i^ iiahk (ot nvrt jirt 

C. [If] he ate fbodi which, arc not suitable for eating, 

D. dr drank liquids whith arc not suitable lor drinking — 

E. [if] he drank brine or fish brine — 

F. Jie is exempt. 

(Ibid.. 8:3) 

I'he-la^', ^ is its way, acc^tid^ also co special cases^ chaii^, no i^sLies pariiculat' eo 
Ehf t6p3^ jnd^r di^ciiLi^Lfm: 

A. As \o children, [hey do noi impose: ^ fail on them on iht Day of 

B. But ihey cdu-caic ihcm a vcar or two in adv-ance, so tliat chey will l>c 

used CO doing die religious duties. 

(Ibid,. ii:4) 

A. A pregnant w^jnan who &mc[kd food land grcwfainr] - rhey feed 
her until her spirits ire reiEored. 

B_ A ?ick person - chey feed him on che instrucEJo]! nf eMpetris. 


C. If [here ai-e no KcperinS avitlable^ rhcry frcd iiimon hiicvpTL 

(Ibid. R:5) 

So [nuth ^w obligjrory fering. The calcDdar cncompisses oritur oblLgjinry 
h^K Jay^i ^i^^tjnmcin^nLting hi^iDiical (lagcdic^; far cxanipJ-e, ih^ "^ch of Ah 
(carl^ Auhusi)h marking the dfs-injciion of ihe (ir^si Teinnle Jii 3^6 BCii^ jnd 
tbcKcon-din 7UCE. The halakliah requires such fajijugforithc specified pur- 
pose, part of ihc habkliaJi's larger coimrucLiOfl of the iacrifidal ayitcm <xn- 
ccrcd on culiic riie^. 

Voidve fisiiiig trt the hjlAhah t^f flaSbk^al Ju-dalsm cakc5 place in dmc5 of 
crifik, J? an acAnfpeciiteny^fcr the iiin That hEii: brought abctucdro^ 
od^er calami [y by way nf^ punishment VbehTf^i5tmEi5corT]inunaland foctiicd 
Li[wn ihe pwtbci4ttt>f wllcciiv^pcnitcatCr 

A, Tl^e rtituiiicr iA Histing: how |wai it donc]^ 

B, They hringTOJth chc ark Inco the sircc: of ihe town and ptic wo<^d 
ashei on (he ark, on the head of (he pacrcarchT and on che head of fhe 
head of [he coun- 

C, And each persfln pi|KS Iflsli^^l 0" hli h?sd. 

D-. The eldesc amoo:g them makes a i-pctch oFadmanJtion: 'Our 
broihers-, conciem tng ihe pa>plt of Niftcrn:!! it ii not iaid, "And God 
5a-w diei r iiackclotb urd the-ir tisdjig/^ W, "And Cod saw chcir d«ds, 
forttiey Fe|Ma^fed frum thdr wilwa/' ^ (Jf>nab3:l0). 

Ep And in prophetic EradJEJon ir is said, ""Kcnd your heatE jjid nor >\]ur 
garnKinti" ' (Joel 2:13). 

(Mishnah-rraoateTaanit, 2;U 

K 1 hey arise for prayer 

G- Thej' bring down before rhcarkan o:|>cncncrdddcr who ha5 
children^ ^nd whc"jsr cupboard [house] is cmpizy, so thai his hcaii should 
be wholly Jti [he prayet- 

H And he ^y^ Sefore them t^Arenty-four blessings: 

Ir die eighteen SaJd every day, and he adds six more lo rheni. 



J. And chese are chey: 

K. Rcmcinbrjiite vctseSt shofaf verseSn 

L Inniy distress [ cried ro ihcLord griJ ht jntwcfnl mt -' (1\- 120), 

M. and Twill lift up mvcvci to the hilltH„/ (IS^ 121)^ 

N_ ancFn ^Our of the depths I have- crl-cd co ^ii, O Lord ...' (Ps. I50)h 

O- and A pny^r of the afflicied^^henhe i& overwhelmed' (Ps. 102). 

[Ib[d., 2:Z) 

P Arid he condjdcs e^ch t>f them whh irs ippropriace ending." 

(Ibid., 2:3) 

Q. For the first lending.! heiajs/Hc who uns^tred Abnhamor 
Mcijin MonahwiJ I answer >'viiflrid hcjr ihp ^ountluf y<>ur«y rhls day 
Blessed arc yoii^ O Lord^ red^^tmtr <ji" [tniacl/ 

abid,H 14) 

R Fflr the si^cfind he ijavSi "He- whc answered oar lathers at The Red Sm 
wJ] ai^w^r you idid hear the w^und of your cry this day. Blessed arc 

(IbJd-, 2:5) 

S. Fot tbt fhifd he tiy^j ^He wLo ans^vered Joshua at Gilgal wiJl antwei 
y-ou and hear the soaud ofyour cry thus -day. Bk^ed are }ThU, O Lard 
who hc4irs the btjund of ihc ihofar. 

(Ibid-, ?t6) 

T For the fourcK he says^ 'He whc ans^^crcd Sanitic] at Mizpah will 
answer you and hear the sound of your ctv this day. Blessed Arc you, O 
Lfyrdy who heari a cry/ 

(Ibid., 2^7) 

U. for the fifth ht sayi, 'Hci^^ho Jiiswcrcxi Elijah it Mouiu Carmd 
T^ill answer you and hcax the sound t]"f yaur cry this dly- Blcj^^d are 

youp O Lojd, -who lie^ts praytr.' 

(Ihid. 2:8) 

V For the sixth he says^ 'Hfii^o answered Jonah m chebeUjoFrhe 
fish will answer yxju and hear the sound of ycur cry this day. Bleshcd are 
yoUj O Loxd^ -who answers prayer in a time oE troubler' 



"W. R>r [he.sevenrh hesaysp 'He when answered Davjd andfolym^nnkis 
j<jrij n^ jerusaleiitj will answer yoj and hear chesoiind of your cry chis 
-da)^. BLcssed are you^ O Loidj ^ho has mercy on zhc land/ 

Whilf <:i>mmuniri«y. ^dminccfrom Vil Israel' Ln the Temple, may fasi. ih^ 
arcQorrcqiLirtxllodti5C, IndividuabJiny also itcepi upon theniselves ihe dis- 
cipline of a t^st, for cxampki hytakinga vovH-Tht KalaHiahcrtnraitiiirMle-Kon 
carrying olii a vov^ orabstincntt of t>nr sort of ariOfher Fasting rep-re>^air$ a 
means of atoncmcnr lor sinn in which the faithfol give up ftxjd nitd drink as a 
facfifice and as a gesture Qfuncocriicd. submission to Cods will. 


Jn the I^lai'clic kgul h^ndboots> ahlutio]! usually has pride of place is ihfC first 
chapter^ ju^t bef&rt prayer. This arrangenienc ls sen.siblCf since- prayer wiihout 
being TLtually -titan ha$ no effect A^ with nrher acrion_s jn ktamtc law^ }\ow- 
cver. (he. pumtuf;^Wntion Is bat jClufl-l ckaiilinets. but d^tinc^ntion r& bejin 
prayer in the right irate of uhnd. In ihe caseof ablurioti in connrrie^ whcje 
pure water is a scartr Hsmmydity, *llijwi|ii«iai^ n^adc fi^rsymbc^Lc wa.shifig 
widi pure dirt or pebbles. As in Jewish law, ablution i5 a cultjc praecipe which 
leads to a state of ritual cleanliness. Al-Qayrawanii handbook a-cparatt^ tht 
practice of ab] Lition [iico the following six chapters: ihat^hich requires ritual 
abltj-tlotJ and wasbjugi the purity of water j ched^senpnon of niLial cleansing^ 
wgyhingi la dtftcriptit^n [>f cbansing with ^^ndi and die wipinj^oFshoK. 

Asiji<heea-sc with prayer iheQur'ansavslictkon [he subject of ritual ablu- 
IJ^llj a^^J do^5 '^Ot even concaiji reference :o rhe r^zcbnical icrni Mwa^H; rwo 
brief passa,ees mention wa-shinc before prayern however and jetcrer^ce to 
wonntn waihihg after mensrrLiaticjn is jIso found, (see 2^222). It is ^voidi 
noting chat the larger l-Ssuc of purity- receipts jlg^iificam treacment iii the 
Quran^ but not aa a practicj] tontcrc] or scparaMc?^ (^urC ffcji'rt ii^^pdi^ EO^? 
forin&tancc. S^TVcrEdrcfcrcncreamnadetoGodpurilyiiJgbii prophets, or the 
hcarts&fbclicvers.forinjranccTinspcakingctirecdy rathe Prophet's vsivfB, the 
Quran sa^^s- 

Wt>iiicri u-f ibe Prophet ^ yiwu ^I'e noc like any orher women. If you are in 
jwc ij^Godh do HOC humble o-rhers with your words^ so ihat Kc in whose 

begirt h .^liikiw^^ d«ifH you; but ^pc^ik honorable wor-ds. 

Abid^ in youi jparLfngnui^ and do n^^c display your^lycs in the ignorai^c 
fashion of old. Arise for prjyei^ give alni.s and obey God and his 



Ptopic of the houK, God only d&sire^ lo pui: jw4y" fr^m ¥*>« abomina- 
tion and to purily you. 

Although thf o&mar ftfth^ye LY]mmdridi is quitt different Troni dicsimple 

commind lo perform ricua] iblLirjon, rhr thctj|i>gkd baEi-^ fCod desires .- [o 
purify you"*) is :he same: 

t) helievefs^ when you siajld up to pray wash your ^ccin and your 
h^nos up Co the tfbowi-, and ^ipcyour headsn and your feec up to the 
H^iikleb. If yoLi arc dtnlcdT purijy yourselves^ but if you are ^iclt i>t ori a 
joLirncy, or W aiiyofyouMm« from rhs j^rivy, rtf ^u have touched 
v^mcn, and you can fifid no water thtn ha^'e rtcourst to wholesome 
dust and wipe your faces and your hand-i^ with Jt- GoJ d^K? ntH dc&irr K 
make any impcdjmcnr for youL hue Ik desires K> purity y<ju, and that he 
may complcichjs hk^jng upon you> |Vcrliapiyou will bn: thankful 

(Ibid. ^:6) 

This sirapk 5iarenient h remarkably compaa. dEstiaguishjng. between wash- 
LJig for prayer and pitrc-Fjaitg after specific dcfilcmcnrs: bojna sicki ci>niint 
fromi :i journeyt and having se]cual intercourse. Provision for ruual cleansing 
witlioitt wdfer ]s also inciud-cd. 

There arc nMny hadirh on che suhieec of ricuji ablation, fdnny of v^'hich 
address minute questLon^ which are left LLnurswercd In the Quran, Some -of 
these h^Lih also include further ihcologicjl *ej:p] an jt ion of the purpose of 
Ablution before prayer, t'lrsi, a.s with ih? Llnit^ of daiJy pray^r^ one lamoua 
hadithsho^vs chcv\nEel Gabriel denionsir^iui^ the prcxiise movement of ablu- 
tion and prayer lo ihe l^Fophcc^ whon in tiifn^ shoiva hi-s ^iJi; Khadija. 

A learned pet^oauiJd me that when prayer -was lal-d on :he aposile 
Gahrideime io him w6iik ht wason thehrtghrsof MKcaajiddugi 
hok Ibrhditi ■wiclihiiihcel in the side ofihc vaJtcy from which i 
^Lpm^in gushed forth, and Gabnd performed ihe rlcu^l ^Muiion iis (he 
apt>4tlc watched him. 'ITiis was in order co _sliow liLm how to purify 
hiniscif before prayer. 'I hen the apostle |>etfrtrmed the rifuaJ abiution as 
he had seen Gabriei do ti Then Gabriel i-aid a prayer with him^vhile 
rhe aposik prayed witli hb prayer. Thtt] Gabriel left him. The aposde 
came to Khadjja and perfofined che ritual for htr as Gabriel bid dcin^i 
for him^andshe topied him. Then Jic prayed with hriM Gabrid had 
praj^ed wich hinij and ^e prayed ht^ prayer'' 

Orhn^r hadith r^re inor^ e^LpliCJt ibout the salviHc cf^tsofabiutjon. Here are 


r\</osepat^iehjdiih, tfartSrnlHedbytwodiflH;rentc<>tTiparLionsoft^^ Prophtt, 

Abd AilaU al-Sanabilii said that the Messenger -or God - may God bless 
him and gram him fHzacc-saidj 'When ihc believing ^^orshippcr 
performs rjioal abbtLonand ^Ln5cs^Ihc5Jns leave thf mouihL When the 
worshipper e^ecis waicr from his nosirils-, ihe sini leave the aose. When 
ihc worshipper waihei the fact^ ihe iins leave che faee, even from under- ihe lashes of che eyes. When che worshipper washes ihe liaaids^ 
[he ^itis leive chem^ even frojii Linderjieath the n^il^ of th-e fingej_s_ 
Wliflh [ht worth ipp^r wipe? rhe}iej<|, rhtiiids kuv^ rht bti^d.^v^i from 
riic cjri, ^ft^cn iJic wor^hippci washes the feet, the iins lt;avc iheiHi 
even from, underneath the naib of the t^cs/ He said: 'Thereafter, 
"walkiiLg to the mosque and pr-aycr arc like a supererogatory action for 
the ^ThTihJpptr/ 

Abu Hurayra said chai che Messenger of God - may God bless him and 
grant him peace -said: When the Muslim "worihippcri, or rhe 
believing worsh]ppcjs, perform ritual ablution, as vhey wiash iheir l^ees 
e^Tiy sin rhey ha"ve seen wjih their eyes leaves wiih ihe waieror wjrh ihe 
lasi drop af wa:er_ ^Tien :hey wash ihejr hands^ every sin whieU cheic 
hatids have d^jie leaver wjch the wacer oj" wirh ihe lasr drop of warer+ 
When rhey wa^h [heir feei^ ever^r ^in which rheiffser have walked leavt^ 
with tilt wjicr or with cht laii dropufwuttT, until they gu our Jcjnic^j 
of their sini,"^ 

Nott that iilihoughtl^e specific par f5 of tli-e body meritiontdict thetwohadidi 
arcd]ncrent, the order or ablution — ftiL"e, harKli, head, Iwt— is (he same as that 
t^iund in the Quranic verse. Such an order would seem to 5uggesc that the 
hands ai^ not ihc primary source of undcanJin^^ in Lslam^sinu: they arc used 
to w^ash che fece before ihcy chemseivcs arc washed. 'I'hc le^al handl>ooks, 
however insist on the wash iJig of hands three nnnes before beginmng.ihe pro- 
cess of ricual ablunon. ^inoe die order of abluiion is fixed ii^ che Qur an, ic 
should nor he .sutpri^ing chac aUQ^yr^u'anL b^in^^ ^i$ discu^^ion of ricu^l 
ibiutioii with oth^rqucttioni, only turning ro the process oF :hc niaual aa of 
ibhiipyr^ iri ih? third [>f hit i^^ t^-Liprer^i In thai chapter ht -will distinguish 
bctwcxn riciiat ablution bclorc prater (wudu ) and fu]l washing after defile^ 
mcnt (^i^ftf/Jp a distinction intimated, but no-t cKprcssedn in the Qur an. 

Firsts however, at-QayraiA'^nl aJdre55esthe'qucstion t>l precisely what causes 
a perion to lose a slate of punly and thereby requjrc ablution: 

Ritual ablation is re<]uired when uiine^ FcceSi or air is exeicrcd from one 
■of rhc two places of excretion^ when jwa:/.^? is excreted from che penis Lc 
miLst be washed t'niirely in addition co ablucion. Madhi i.s [he iijnpid 



wliitc flunl whicli li sctTctcd at the cnjoymcnc of ics.ual cxciicrnicnt 
while tarcising t>r while rcmciFbcririE such caresses. As for w^y, it U 
ttic vistoiL5 ^vhitc ftuid s^crcccd when urinating and "which is categorized 
as iirLnc for the purposes of ablution. As fox rT^nfiiy it is the fluid of ejac- 
ulation which Ls secreted ac af|^sm during se\^ its odor is likf the ^mcll 
of chepalm floTA^r Vh^ fluid si^cr^rodby w&men is a limpid y^tlnwjsh 
flaid which requires puriflcaiion of the entire bodyn |us[ 21 required for 
the mi:ns[ruai cycle. Ai for (he blood which corner from meiisLrujtLoii^ 
ricual ab-iurion is leqaired. Due to [he p-otsLble release of utrit^eor blood 
of meiuim^iioi^, m isr^cotnmerKttd to per^rm ritual abltttion for each 

Watb iiv<^ dasly prayersn the tiine bct^'cen one prayer and anothei Tiii^bt be 
very ihorr, and a person whu doH n-ot have an r mis^icvn csf the sorrs lisTed 
above would noi need Co perform riiual abludoin before the ncKt prayer^ 
ih?ughEil-Q:[LyTaw^n] rc^c^mincndf itfu^t to be^urc. HccDntmiJcs wirb other 
situations which rn.ighE necessitate ricual ablution. 

Ritual abtuTLon is required ar the lots of consciousness lh d^ep sleep^ oj' 

Wincing, or drunkenness^ or insanii^. Ablurion is also re:quired fci 
amor^^us couchangj anioTom fondluig of th* hody^ oe jmorou^ kissitigj 

also fbf Louehingof Lh^e |>eni^- There [^3 difference of opinioft on 
vdieiher a wonia^ is reqdied 10 pcrfvmi ritusil dhluiiun for ihc 
tviithing yf h?r ^i^gina. 

As wc hjvc mtnfioned, deansing is reqi.Eired when one ejacLjlaies duiing 
slcrp or while awake - both men and wom-cn — or: at the end of rhe 
menstrual period^ of dudngmcnatniatlon; or postnatal bleedings or 
hidingoJ th^glan.5 of The pcnii by che vagina. Even if there is no cjacu- 
laiion, [he hidingr of the j^ns by (he vagina necessitates full washing; 
1^«JJ)^ |U5i 35 ir ncccssLcatea: punBshmeni in che case of unlawful jnier- 
course; repayment of che bridal dower m coiisummauon orni^rriaee^ 
and marital status:. It also enable^ davoree bv threefold siiieinenr for the 
one whrtWLshejro divorce his wife^ further Ft renders the state of purity- 
in pilgriPiageaEid the f^st invalid.'^ 

[nihis hsTseedon, al-Qayrawani is explieit about v^hiehaet of sex rend<!rs on-e 
in reed of jbJution and is also concerned to draw rhe analog}' with the other 
kgi^l ?f[Wi) L^l (hi) 53m? ACi. Jn th? JicKt^ccti^Ji, he curn^ bisaucntioi] ra th-e 
identification of TA'atcf as pure enough to effect ablution. In this short CKCcrpCa 
the- main concern is with standing "watcfT since rnnnine water is nnders-iood to 
be pure. 

Those who pray confide in iheir Lordn and it is necessary ft>r thern tt> bt 



prepared for this cither by ritual i^blutlori or pu rill catiori Ifpurifitacion 
is required. This ii don^r with piirt water, ntm mixtd i^ith filth nor ^ith 
water Tft'hich has )ust changed its color because oFsomcching which 
miKcd wich lCt wlicihcr filthy' or purCy ccccpi for ^^rcr which has 
cha_ngcd ctiloi because of [he carchfiQin thcni^rsh, urchemud^ or 
souieihing Lke ihis. WaLcr fio-m ain^ springs, wclh or iiom (he ^c± i^ 
fine; it is borh pure and purifiti.'^ 

As tliis chapter concinueSj ^UQayiawani covers cKe procet^ of purifyiftg the 
place of prayer and dec-iils minii-oLim cEorKing requicetnerLrs for men and 
women in o-idci w perform chf prayer Finilly, after beveral pages, 
ai-QayriiWEin] give? Lisde^iiption. ^fth^ ablution it^cll in the same- carder a^ 
the Quran: fecc, hands, head, lect. The first nvo ot these arc covered in the 
following CKCcrpt: 

Among the [i:adi[]onal acrs oF r][ual abluiion are: washing oFrhc hands 
before inscrtijig (hem inio the basin of water [o be U5cd for abluaon; 
[he ringing of the moutiiH die ^j^uifing of waicr up ihc nosirib and (he 
forcefal expulsion of rh,ar wiKr; and the wLpinc oFihe eaj's. "I'htse atts 
are nadicLonally required (ju/^j2^}, while ihe rest of [he ac-CLOii^ ar^ 
req^iremeni^ of ^ai[h. 

As for homtotie who arista from ^lecp^ or from ckcwhtrc, lu perform 
LhCiibJuii^nH si^^jncQfthe LcEimcd fay ihai he bcgi n^ by invoking God:, 
while orhcrs say that th:s invocation is noi amone the accepted acrs. 
The basin is placed co tlie right, within reacli> and he begins by washing 
his hands thrre times before inserting them in the basin — ]£ he had. |qsi 
urinaHd or deferared, rhai is washed aw^y first and then the Ablation is 
begun. Hciascrts his hands in the basin, gathers jpsomc waccr and 
rinses his n^outh three cjmtSf cither wuh asincie handhil of "wacer or 
chrce separate handfui^ Ifbc cleans chc mouch wiih hi^ ftJi^rs, ih^t is 

Th*resfiet. he siiiifts wsitr up hi^ no*ttib snd fon^fuhy cKpcls it ihret 
timo, coircnnghis noicas if biowingit. It i5 dlo^vrd to rinse or snuff 
less than thre^ times^ and al] of this may be doncAVLch a. single handful 
of water. Flo^evcrp more is- betccr- 

Thrn he talics water In both hands, or If he wishes with the right hand 
firsT and thf n spreading the w^ter co boch hands, and bring!^ chc^ wa^r 
up to his face^ dousing ][ and i^ashin^ Jt with both bands beginning ^r 
the cop of the forehead to ihe haiilijie^ co the side hi^ beardr all around 
his face froan hh jawbone to Ins temples. He pa.t^e-s his h&nds o^-er ihe 
hollows of hi^ eyeSj tfiver rhe ri-dge- tyi hi_s forehead jnd under the flexible 



part of his no5c. Hc^vashcshis fact three Pines in. this fasJiicin, bHitging 
up waier each time. He shakn his beard ^viih his hands when washing 
his face- in order eo allo^ water to cntcj Ie, since water n^jrcnally rolls 
fighcfiffd hiirrfi bur aKording lo Md.ik'5 dicta he is nor rcqui red » 
comh i[ during abluiiorii. only 10 runs his hands over k upct? thrcnd. 

Then lie iv3£he£ hii righr hand chrcc :iiTic5T or n%4ce, pouring ^vatcrovcr 
it Jtid rubbing wich liii lef: hajidi lie Lnicriacci his fingers and passes 
One N^Tid througl^ rli^^rh^r and th 4^11 vv^i^hffi hi^ leh hand in rhcs^mc 
manner He lAriishts up to tkc[:llx}VLS, insefung the elbows inm chc 

^vaterashc ii^aibing, S^mc ii^-v dlt d bows are the litnjiand it is noi 
necessary to mscrctheni into thcivatcr, btit Itaserting them is tnore 
prudent co- alltrviate the burden of determining the c^^ct limit-'^ 

The instriictioni itrcnding Co washing of the head ;ind feet an: evtn more 
dcLaUed, ^ aJ-Qayiawani sctrks to provide :3n caact d^Kriptit>ii<if ih<^ proper 
aetsofablurion for hii disciples. The remaining chapters roveradctcription of 

the full wa_shiiig required after nia|ord€filemeniST s-ueh as sexual mtercourac or 
nie[]-St ruction H ^i\d rirual eleansing using wholesome dust when no w^tcr is 

It ibpHr[i^tiUrl^-[h[^b^rcaieg^r>'whLL:hnrLakciekar [ha.[ ablution Ln I&lam is 
primarily a CuUic act in which tbe prtit^t ls noi 10 he h)^ienic, btir to be pre- 
pared for aets -uf worship, Tlie reason ihai 5uch rjinal actions can. have die 
effect of making a person clean beJ^irc Gt.>d es ftsitnd in che Quranic verse 
which clarifies tha< God is (he one who is purjiying the bfJiCvOr Irt ihiS W^y^ 
hunian action scrvci as God 5 initrumcnt.Tlic power of thLs,syjTib[tlj<dCti^^ 
espinded in the ima^e of sins billing a"'^ay Irum vari-uLu- parti of ihe bod^ — 
hands, face^ feet - as chc ^~aii:r af atilutLon njns ofl^ 


Ablutions form ,3 cf^nrjl concern for die halakhah of classical (udaism. 
[mmersion in a>uLlAbitbod/of ■^vater^ which hafi beeneollccicd naiuratlyand 

no: chrough human activity, li decJjttd by Scripture en ihe prrwzesj of 
removing Lmcleanncss^ with stinset jyiarking the reco^tiry of ckjimuiS, But 
bodily lmmcr3ion^ for c]taniplc, after the advent of an excrctj^n iignifying 
death or :he incervencionofwhai is not going to propagate iifclT-cv^ 1 5)* Is not 
the only form of purifieacion;. one ma}^ pour water on the hsndi- t^^k^atl (htm^ 
and they are deemed an area or the body distinct, fi^t the present purp<>se, 
fromrh-c rest of the body. 

Ablutions arc rcquEied for divcrw occasions aid take various fiirina. The 
mjin points ire rwo_ FirsT, hcfore earing breads chc hands are washed (or rea- 
sons of pitrificaticinr That slioald not he cojifused with hand^washing for 



|i>^enic ptirpoies Second, ii Scripture ipccLlles a: LtvJnciii 15^ after htr 
men^tfii^l periods wftman h^ rn Lmmerse to re-encer the tcmis oFcleajiness^ 
iirtd onlywli^n Ir Is dc^r Omt her period hi^s ended .^nd she I143 inimerstd mgy 
she rciuinc: scjiiiaJ rckciorts. Mat tuilyitj, but it is cusfomary co lis^mtt-se ^lt*t 
s^minAl cmi^yions, Bcc:aiJK Islam rakes iiptdaliTiTtiTSJ in whji Judaism wijuld 
rcrrnhand-^a5liing,hawcvrr,Tpirihanit}nn:ntraictj[i ihc lavrihaiptnainiio 
thai aspect ot purillcatioji rhroiigh ablutions^ thai 15^ hand-WniEhiTi^ bt^ojc 

Whar is ac issue- is v-^shing rh-c hands jusc as chc priests e^f the Temple arc 
required :o wash rticir haods before chc conduci of die sacred rites. TLe hands 
lKde^^tr1!d.p^^fpetLJally undcan, ar«lm&fiirL^leanfiK5 fingertips co wrisr ~ 
di^cincr frn^ti ihe t-e^c tjfihebody That is ivhv ihe Jiuid-s ate seen is a rfis[t!n:[ 
s^jut^tofunclearitiessamongihe^nirii^KsoufceSjandalso wh^ihehar^^ 
subj-ea tc> their Own tlk orputificitiocif the area frotsi the wrisisro rtie Eingep 
tip; IbtTtiing:^ ^ep^nc^^res not c^nly^ Ic»rcnnrr^cringuii<:l£aiii3es^ [mi ^l^ty For 
rtrntivlng it- In jtLditu^n 10 ijnjncrdoh for ktiown cncouticrr^ wiih undtan- 

n«s that have taken pla;:t= during rhtd^bV- h and- washing is r«|ui red forcjultk 
dcannrss piior to eating a mc4ii; and lha( has no iKaring on whctlicr or not ihc 
sun has set or "when tlic mcai uIecs place. The hards arc deemed c:onstantly 
active, ^'hetbcr or noi the person is aware ofihar activity, and so a.rc awiigjit^ a 
po&]:ion in the second remove or uncleanness. That is tosay, even chotigh the 
person may know what he or sLc mavor may nor couched, the person 
canno: l[noiv wjrti wha: the thjngi ihc hands have [otjchcd iiave themselves 
had coniacr - [htis the second remove. Accordi^giy^ the hands form a discin-ct 
ralmofui3de3nnrtS4nd require thtir own rite af puiiticaiion- 

}\x$t as th^ uneleaiiness of hands derives from the desigtiated tource^ of 
uncleanne_^Sj which anav or m^y not he dirry mi the convejitional sensSn so 
pL]t'ilyi]ig rtie Liand^ha^ no heating nn whether or tior they at^ actual i^ free of 
diri. Wr\3i Es required LsacnlcLcallvpreft:ribcdiCiirtntrtn5fN^rdinai:uiiically 
duignatd ^urt? uf untkaiitic^s, Auuixljngjy, ihc rcq^ilred hdnd-M^A^bng in 
the halakhah has no bearing on hj'gicnic cieanliness. Ta state rnatters simply: it 
is performed in accord with ciiltic rules. It cunstituvesanactofcuitic purifica- 
tion of a demarcated part of the body. Thchandsn up to the wrist, are restored 
CO cleanness noE throj^ ]nimer5ion in an Lmmcrsion pool hut through nns' 
ing. The vriTei that Kirs the handi -ifiimts but ii affected by ihcmn and thai 
water roo rcqult^^ a rini^ing - hencen is we shail se^^ 1 i:ul[ic punficannn 
chtough A itpeatoil .ic^t cNf tin-siiig Further^ how rhe water is collecced and 
administered Jefinci ^ nx^ cjf puraDtititm fijr j tompynciit (jf chcpn^on chat 
be3r$ it^ Own tr^ts nf^Lihic[eannes£. The human beings hands rheia con- 
^t itLi re i^n cremate source of nncieinne^-^'^ripturei^ explicit thatpnests mthe 
tahernjcle ^iaTLCti!^' 1= wa^h) their hjnd^ ji^ feet before perlflrniijig pnesily 
funciivn5^tih^jlm(Eft<i4lr30r]9-2lj40:U, 31-32}= CtJin^^^ 
that they shaJl wash their hdndf and fcet Lest they die (Esod. 50:2lJ. 
Hand-washings ptiJictuate the high priest's conduct of the rite on the l^^y of 



vXmruimcnLlLcv. L6}_ Buc chcab-lLiii-ons with wh]ch wc nosv deal arc rcq'uircd 
ev^t^dav oi ordinary people. H^re are the principal lulcs as lud one in ctic 
Mijlni^h and (h^ Tosefta. 

I ^^hing i lands: A Jtepertnire ot RuLes 

M.lzl |To render hands cleiaii] a qnarccr-l-op of ^^^ccrdo chcy pour for 
haii-JSj for nnff, also for nvo. A half-log |ji (o be uicd] for [hnc or tour. 
A log I IS 10 be used] for five and far kh and for a hundred- They add 
icu th^-wjicru^d) fj;>r [h^ s?Wi"Ld (poy-ringlfbLiT rhcy^^o noi add [nj 
die water uicd] for die fitsi [pouring of wafer over che handfll- 

"1^1:1 [To render liands dcanl^ a quartcr-lygof w^ter do t^ty poiif lor 
one, bul noc for rwo. A qitartcr-log of water dti fl^c)' ptjut fot h^ridl^ 
even for rwOi and aliaJtaloglbr [hrcc, e^Tinlbrfijur, a log for five^md 
Ten and a hundred. 

ThS They add :d die second bu: ihcv do not add lo the first— How 
so^ |lfl on-c pnurcd ihcfirsi [waKij and rubbed otf |his hands} and 
wen jnd pnuied rhe i^cond^ and ii |:he w^irr] ls noi sulTici-rni: v.y reach 
[he wrisT, lOj [his one addifc> jt. All chesamt Jionewho wash« one of 
his hands jnd one whowjihesrwoofhis hind^, [all die ^niei^l rhc 
hand of a large person aid ihc hand ofa smjU ijt^c - he pnur ouc 
aquarcer-lo^ [of^varcr]. How so? [If J two people w^isheJ rheir rwo 
hands T^jih a quarcer-log-, die second one ihould nof go n^nd wai-h his 
hands '^Jth vdiat is left of rhc qunirtcr-log. 

T.1^5 He v^o washes He E hands [for unconsccr5.rfd fowl prepared in 
^eord wjrlicEcanncss required for] KolyThiogsmuscpour out aquar- 
^r^log ^f warer. And as lo rhe sanccificarjckn [^hvashin^ ofhands and 
Jeetn t^ere i^ eio fixed mc^uic- 

M.h2 With all sons of itrensds do chey pi^ur [water] foi: hands:, even 
with utcns-jh maJc of dung, utdiails tnjdt ofiione, men^ili niade of 
[unbaked] day. They do nocpoiir [water] for hands oiihurwiih [he 
sides of [broken] "licensils, oriheho[tomola ladling jar, or wiih ihc 
plu^of a barrel- Nor should a man pour [^^atcr] for his t-cllow with hii 
cupped hands, hor rhey draw, and thep mis [water with the ash ^if the 
red caw]T and chey sprjnllc purification w^iccr^ and they pou-r |wdrer| 
for hands only with a utensIL And cnly iircnslls alrord ptoteftion with a 
righidy fmtxi co^^eTT and norhing afl-ordE prcn:rcl]on from iht powi:r ol a 
chy utensil [in rhe leni of a corpse] excq?r ULcnsils. 



T.liS A stopper which one made for a utensil they pour outw'acer 
From it for hands. The ivaier^ilin and :he lubn even rhougli dtfty 2.v^ 
broken down - chcv pour oui from ikem warer for kajids. The sacJt md 
dichaikcii even [haugh dicy hold [liq^Liid] -chevdo nnc potirouf wjier 
From :hcm for :he hands. A che^ij I^jok, and euplyrtjrd, when tk^ hylj 
[requiiiien^easureiobt; niiuicepiiblt to uiidcani5ew|, tven dioiigh ttic^ 
are tioc deemed at ittiis - ihey do not pour<njt wuttrfrom tbcir far 

Th1j7 PritsiiHaiiaiiy inihcsanciLLaryonly ^"iih aurrnsN. And chcy 

[i>rLC-thc:5iisf«x;tcd"wift to drink, and thcj purEly a person afflicted wuh 
thcskin-atlmcnt of Lev. 1> [only ^nh i Jtcnsil]. The sides of a VF^ooden 
jten&il and a bo-ne ucensiland gla&s ucensil - idiey do- noi pour out ^rr>m 
rhem waE^r for hind5- Ifonesmwjchfd chem^^and^ rh^m, ind mad^ 
them inro UTensds^nd [heycajiholdaqjatKr-logofwiter ihey do 
piour ouE ivaier ^om Ehem for h^ixds^ 

T hS Sherds of^anKenware iLtetisils wKjch o^in hold A quArfct-log^jf 

wjter-ihej pour out rroirnhiim ^nv^ttt Ixjr KanJ^- ShcrJi tif metal 

aieiiSJk even ihougji ihty cjn hotd 3 ^ujricr-iug uf ^atct - they do not 
j>our out from thetn water for hands. 

T, 1:9 He wlio ht:w^ out a ivatrr-channcl and made in it a rcceptaclcn 
even ihoLjgh chcwarcr uprcKsrcd ]r and aiiaebed n - ^heydo Jiordraw 
with Jiwaccrfor thcpurificatlon-riccand ihey donorniiKin ii, and 
they d<? noL-sprinklcfrom j[ IpunficaLJon water anixr i^om^onein^dc 
unclean by rhc corpse] n and icdoes no: requjre a rididy sealed covets 
and ihcy do noc pour out VF^arer for hands- from ii [If] njie uprooted h 
and affiKcd it and gave rhou^v lo ic :o m,ake use of ic a^ a mens 11 afier 
irauprooring-ihcy do dnwwith ir, jnd rhevd^^miii in itj and rhj^vdo 
^prinklt From itj and ii doc^rajuitt a c[g||[!y ^cafrd cover (in the tern of 
iK^corpel, and the)- do pour water fur hiind^ frum it. 

M.l:3 ^^Kr which was unfit ktr caitle to drink [when ir is located! i^ 

utcns]ls, ]s unlit. [When m is located! on che ground,, jr ts Fec- [Ifj there 
fdl into it J ik> gum, or copper-as, and its co!or changed, ii L-^ unfiL [[f] 
one idid v^ork wiih Jt^ or jf he soaked his bread in ii^ ][ i^ unfit, 

T. 1:10 Water which has been made unfic for cacde todtrink - [Iff ir Ls 
on the ground, rhey immerse |in ie!, buc chey do not pour from it water 
forh^nds.'Warer which is before die baker, even -[!ioLLgh ii^tolor ha^ 
not chanced - ihcy do Jioc pour from it warec fotr Ji^Jid^- A^^d w^h^n hf 
rake^ j[ with hi^ hands jnd pmir^ it oci lt>A^i> if itJ color diaflftci. It is 
itnfic. AndifiKjCHit hiiir 



M.1:4 [lf| he riiis^ uiciislIs lh di, nr scrublKHi in£utLFe.s in ir^ ir L; 
LinHi. (If] he rinsed ii\ h v^^s^h which li^d^lre^dy h^n rin^ed^ E>ir nc^t^ 
[ve^selsl^ jn ts Et 

M-1:^ Thewirtr [riivhlch ihtKi^lcirr Jl pi Uavc:> office bread is unfl. 
And when he rinv^ his hands in iijtis fit All Jir^fii to pour warn on 
hamk^^r^H^ Jcctf-miJicrian jmb^ik. on^inor. On^ pki:<:5 [he jar 

between his knees Jind pours [out v^atcF on his hands] . One sees the jar 
on its side and pours [cue ^vatcrj. And the ape pouis water for h^nds. 

T. 1: 1 1 Waccr which ij before chesmichT ev-en chough iis colftr has n-i^t 
t:hiiiged - ih^ d<^ iwt pf>Lii-frfltw tt witef Tfii^hjiijA, Pop it L^N:ei-uii^ 
that work lia> hfend4>nein ic. Warer w'hjch i^hefoft Theft:nh£, \i"\K 
color has chan^ed^ is uiillii a(id if ftO^i i? ft^- 

Tl:!2 All ure fij ro pour our ^^aiet for hsnds, ever a pefsoti undcjn b>- 
reason ftf corpse contiminatiori, even a -man wko h^s l^ad inrsnxiuric 
v^Eth a menstnjating wtjinan, Who^-vtr d«b ntNc impart midcanuess to 
water ^heji he: artits itkfit topourour wiiKrfor hEmdii- 

Ti;l3 |lfj the unc>v!hc> lakt^ the v^atcr intends and the one who pours 

out the "water does noi intend |:hal: bv his ic: :hc water svill clean die 
handsln |jf] the one who pouis out the waicr jniendsn and the one who 
cakes rhe wacer does noc iniend f rhai rhe waiej should clean the h^nii'^l 
his tiands are d-eenied clean 

1.1:1^ [li] onebrob open the cauldron dnd poured ^ue w^icr Ivr 
hands froiTi a pipe whicli contain^ i place capable orconi^ining a 
quarter-log of water - his hands i/e clea_n_ 

U Wa&hmg Handj: The Status and G^ikUuoq of the Wiater 
(First and Scfoikd Pnuritigs) 

M-2;l lltl i>tic pouted water tor onchAi]d with a single rinsings his 
hand i^dein. L'fhepnured waKr] fur twohand^ witKasgnglcrirjing- 
Iif] a kiaf oi hc^vc offering ftll [on thr water a -quarler-log in qnancity 
'ivhichh^f been poured Qn the hands in a single nn^in^i k'li dean. 

Tl:3 One whc pour^ water en liif> bands must rub his hands off [If] 

he ruhbcd one hand on the other, ic is unctcan. flf he rubbed it] -on his 
head or on the wail, it is clean. [If] he weni and touched thenip ic is 



M I^J/Kh.N the f^lTHfUHMD GOD 

M.2:2 [If] one poured L^Lii iheHrsc [wjC4;fj jn cjcie pl^t^j^nd the bc:^nd 
ill ino [her place, ajid aloaf of hf^ve offering fell <jr the fiiic, it is 
Lincloan. And |if ic ie\]\ tiw dit second, it ii dean, [If] he poured out the 
first [wa.rer] and tKe mnrtd m ont pbcc, and a Joal ot heave offering fdl 
|ini i:K k Ls miclejiJ. |lf] ht paiird uur th: fir^t l^atei], and a iplinnr 
or pcbbk "pvahfiiundon hib hands, his hinds arc undcari, for ihc second 
wj(e[c|taitf cjnlj- [he water whithi? (?n rhc hand. 

T I;4 Whatcvc:r interposes in the case of the body jnrerposes in the ose 
ciftlic haudsi with reference eo che sancnfLcarLoii of ch« hiJids ^nd fctt 
fcr the Temple House- 

T2:3 He who pour.souisviteron hishnndi, ifhc had prapcr 
intenrionphjsUand^ are clean, W ifnot^ hi\ hard? art unclean. But he 
who wj.^ or theulticr- his hands are Jean. 

T-2:5 |iri one poured ciui tK*; fifinvattr, and wne oF his hands ^vas 
rwflat urtdcJiij ioj this ont pt>urs out the second waicr on rhc seoond 
lund jrwj doe^ not stniple in the ma.ncr (IFI h^ poured ou: chc firsr 
witCTj J ndatflij^xd beyond the wn5t^andlht■nhc pounrdoucLhc 
second water oti it^ and a loal of bread fell from the wusc and inward^ le 
is undeaUr [Jf it frill from the wrisi and our^'ard, n is dein_ 

T.2:fi |lrl he poured out the firsi water anj che second water liej-Tjnd 
rhewriirindi loaf of hrfVti offering br^ f^l. ilisunciean. Bur logic 
r^uirfs rhint iKcleiniNow if dieCfitic) [ainj water- whicKdocs noi 
inpar: cleanness to sparer whicii Ji on [h? h^oJj Jnipprtt d^aJin^H ig 
water which Ji on ihe ground^ rlit second wster, which does impart 
cleanness ic* :hc waKr which is on the hflfid^ logically should impajr 
deannwi to w^LCfwhkh jjon tkegrouad, 

Mr2:3 TTit bandi arc 5U5ccptibfe to unclcanntss and arc rcndcri?d clean 
up 10 [ht wrist, How5or |[f] one- poured first [TA'aicrl iipco [he 
wriitj and the second br>TDnd die wrisi and it wen: hick rn rbt; h^nj - ir 
is dean, [[fj he poured ou: the fijsr and the se4;t?nd IpciUriogof waterl 
beyond rhc wn^rand it wenr baclt c<p the hand, it ]iundean. [Efl he 
poured our d^e first water onto one hand^ and w-as reminded and 
poured out die ^etand |wacerj on fo both hands, they arc unclean. |ifl 
Lc poured out rhe first water on to Jnjth hundi. and was reminded and 
poured out die sfii:ond |waier] on [<? one Lund, Iii5 hand |which has 
l>cen washed :wicej is clea n. \Jf\ lit poured out water on fo one hand 
and ruhhed ic nn the ^rhet, it ii unckan. |lf he rubbed his handf on his 
hend or on (he-wgJI, it isdean. "The)- pour out | water on idie hands ofj 



tour or five p-eople side b^ side, nr abflvt one anoiher, J_ on conditio^ 

tliir du^' Iche hands] he lt>t>sely so thai ihe watet^'^^ilL Ho-w Atrtotig ilietUr 

Tr2-1 TKt pri^-w^ sinccily in ihc saocru^rvH in t^rd ro tlie hand^ up m 
rhf^risc, ^ndin tegnirJ lu dir Ivut, up ttuhf cal£ He wlio pours out 
i^ater i>n h]5 handi: should not say, 'Sine? The fir^T |watcr| i^ ijncl»n 
[anywayli b, I^hall pouroui unclean [water lo begin wLch]/ If he dtd 
K, b] bcmi^idr^^ulfhi^liEUidEi Hca-Hd pc^ui^ c^ui ^^^Et r ^n tiia tiands 
muEl: dry his hands. Bui he who tmnicTscs his huid^ don not have m 
dry olThLs hands. 

T_?:i He who j^nurt water oii his hands inu_sr raise his h^nds so rhat 
the witer dn^ ii-ot flow lKryt>r:d die wrisr acid go h^ck^ud render hli 
hands unclean- Bui he who inime^fKe? hiw hiarsJs duey not hii-^ to raii*= 
his hands- 

T.?^4 He who prmr^warer on his hands- If the water go^ up to the 
wri^t, hj^ lutnd^ ^c tlcan^ end if not-, hi^ hands arr undcanr [if] he 
poured Out die fir^r wjifer^^n this Ihiindl hy icscJr and changed his mirei 
and poured <jiji: the second water on both bands almultajicoLislyn ihey 
reridfr OncanOlhcr uncleaji. [Ill he poured, ojt die hrst"W3scron boili 
hands and changed his mind and. p&ured om the second [wiierK [his on 
rhishand hy Ir^irandihaTonihathandby jiscif, ]f he had proper 
iniencion in ihe maccer^ his hand^ ^r^cl^an^ 3ii4 ^^n^i^, lii^ Iijn4s ^t*^ 
unclean r 

T.2^7 The}? pour ouc water fc>r four or live people? one l>^i-de ihe otiieta 
and ihey do nor scruple on aeeoiini of ^ur thing;, lest it be~ truide 
undean; Ike "work have heendofLfiLlrh ic;le^r irnor he poured From .a 
wcnsiliandkhtaquurccr-lug i»orbc poured om una hand. But be who 
tid^-chand hc"wht>pouriout [brhi5fcllo>i'Yid(h hiscupprd lianda-his 
[the £cllt>w'sl hands are unclean. For an the first place the warer has nor 
been poured fix^cn a utcnsiL 

T.2^8 Iwo who poured one warei for two hand^H rhi^one firorrt |j 
me-^ure o-ff an ejghth of ^ log> .^nd dii$ one &om an e^ghdi of A Io^h 
even though \ij^^ and i.-^ mived rogfrh^rin a ^pour - rhecr h^rds are 

undean. For hi the firhi place |rhr warcr| wn rot poured from a 

M.2^4 llFlc ii in] douhc [hat "vvoik ha^ nr has not be&n done with it^ |if 

it ii in] dftuhr rh^r th^^y cotitiin [>r do not contain tht rcquJ-Sitc mt^ure, 
fif it is Jtij doubt whether it is unclean orctcan- a matter o( doubt 
concerning it is dean. For dicy ka^'c said: A malccr or doubt c&nctming 



the haTitlb, wliether [ih-c^ .*rej untlcsri. ^^i wfictlict [tJicv ^fcr Jcc:tiitdJ U} 
hjvt ijinpartfti uncivilness. Or ^iittlitt libeyare decmedl ic liavt bisen 
ma.dc cIca^Qp i^ rciokcd ai dca.i]. HotviO^ |lf ] his liandi w^;Je clean, atid 
before him were two unitltran loaves orbread, liFit is inj doiLbt whetritt 
or Jior he touched them - |ilj his hajids were unJean, ^nd before him 
wcrerwo dear loav-c5 of br«d li-fl one of his hands t^k unclean a.nd 
oncofhis- hands W15 clean and before h im wcic iwo clean loaves ot 
brcadi [and if) he touted Dncci~(hcnii (if iibmldDubi v^hcih^rhe 
Touched with the unclean or ^hecher he mucbcd wich the clean [handl 
- jif Hls hands u^ere dean, and before hjni were cwo loaves of breadn 
oneofdi^m uncleaji and one of chem clean^ l^nd if] he mujihed one of 
tlienih |lf it is in| dri>u1>t whethec he couched rbe u-ncliisn or wlicfher he 
touched t"ke clean [Loafof hfead| -[tfl ont of^^s h^ndt was uade^irt 
mdonewaj. dtan. ^nJ he+orthirn wtrerwoliw^'CK lofbreadL one of 
ihcm undtan 5j:d (jnc ofLhcmdciins |if| keiouchal builiof [hem, [if 
it h inl Joubc ^Itethfc ih^ iinclefln [hand i<]uchtdl ihf u^clft^rt [loaf <^f 
bmidl and the dean {hand tt>xK-bed] tbt clean [loaf of bread jn or 
[wheiherl the clean [hand touchedl the undcan |]oaf <jf brcadl and the 
unclean |han,d couched] the clean [toafof biradl —the hands remain ^ 
ihcy were before [in ihcir former status], and the loaves o£ bread as they 
were before [in their former scaiosl- 

Tl:15 II n rherewere before him rv^oglasK5 [of waierl -wirhoncof 
iKtm W4>fk h^ b^€>^ d^n^^ ^tid with one of diem work had noi been 
doTie — [If I he wiired I'wateT-) from one of «hem ftiiro hc^rh of his hjn<l3 
and prepured fwds re<niii"ing cleanness - they ure held iis j^LLS|ieiiie_ [If 
he paLifcJ out wate^ froan ch^ second aod prepared [foods requmng 
cleatinessL they are de^n- [If he poured out wiied from che firsc and 
didnnr prepare fnod^ requiring deannfij^, [jiidifh^ then poured ou[ 
v^am] from the iecynd and prcfi3ral [foodi icquhing cJciinrLCSsl. ihty 
are dean- [II he poured oui >v-a(erl from ihc line and prepared from the 
second [if] these and thoac arc lying [before him] diese and those ^re 

T. l^lfi [if] one poured out [waterl from one of chem on ro one oifhis 
hands and pt^pjred foc^ds requiring cleanness, rhey are held in suspense. 
[If he did ^1 frnn^fhe wi^ond and prepaid [food-'i requiring dean iim^I^ 
th^vsff t le.iri- [Ifht did w| ftoin [he first :iii{l did nor prej^nre iami Hie 
W^[]nd and d'd prepare [food^ requirjjigcleandiei^f]^ they aro clean. [IF 
he pouted ollc warex froni rhe fir^r and prepared &oni ibe second and 
prepared |if] rheseand. cho^e are lying [before hinih ^^se and vhu^ ^re 



TJ:17 [irj tKcre were bdor-e him t^-o gl^isscs [of watcrj, one unclean 

and t>nc cLciui, and he pouKd oi-t [water] from one of [hem for one of 
his }i;inds and prepared Foodj^ roquirin^ c]c:anac5s they arc held i n 
suspense. [If iKrdid so] rrom. the second and prepared [foods requiring 
clca_nncss)> ihcj' arc cEcarL |lfhc didso, from EhcfiriEanddtdfLCt 
prepare from rhc second andprepairfd [ihc-yairckan]. (If he did ^n-) 
from [he iirsi and prepared, &om rhe second a.nd prcrat«l] — |ifj ih^e 
and [hose are lyin^ before him io^ ihey derermin^ |thtii3tu3 of one 
ajiD-diex]_ [i{\ he jTt rhe firit [foods which he preparedly or i\\ty ivcte 
made (indrafts or the J wtte lost ^ before the second [foods requiring 
dciLriiieu:] H'tfV prcp^rt:d^ ihpy irc dean, |lf ihis [oak place] aftci thr 
-&«?nd >^'cic prepared, the ^cc^mdaKbcpt in a^utetifsjspcnK- [if] he 
pDur<xi out ivater from oneof chcm. on m one of his hands and 
prepared things requiring IockIs requiring deanness, they are kepi in 
-suspense. [If he poured out] che second and prepared {focJi rcquLring 
dca.nncss]T die^" arecLcan. |lf he djd soj wich che fl:sr and did noi 
prepare^ wich rhe -second and did prepare, [if] chcie and ihott are \y\\\^ 
|bcrorehj[ii]i [supply: io, [hcydeietrmine^ihe SLacLiivofaneanoTh!::^-! 

r_l:i3 flfl ^^J"Le <^f his hajids wai uncieaji, ^nd one ofhici liand-^ was 
dean, and before him were cwo glasses, one unJein ^nd one dean, and 

he fvoiit^d odi wjier frort^ otie <>f theirt <>ii lo Isoih hi; haftd^ and 
pttpired foodn n:quiring cleannrsa^ ihcj arc iccpc ]n a stale of suspense. 
|If] (>nccFhi& hand^^-v^ unciea-niand-Qnewa^dcannandbefcrf htm 
"wer-c two loaves of bread, one unclean and one clean, and [if] his rwo 
hands couched orteloafn vhcihei simulvancously or in su-ccessioriT oj 
one o( his hands touched borh of che loaves. In succession che hajid± 
and ihe loaves irt kepi in aicaie of suspense. |[f| oneof hui hands 

couchcid che rwo loaves SLmukaicousiVn the hands mmaina^ [he^were, 
and [he io3\'es of bread are ro he burned. 

The hsjidt are-rleeiT^ed ^ cogenr areA^ ^ char whar dFFeetsparr ofth^tii affecti 
f he entirety- of them- Wliataffcois ftie ha ndt dyes noftontam-inatcfhc rest of 
Irhe Oody and vlu: vcj^ (M-3rl). The unclearness atTecl]ng them cxhihila 
ochcr diaiinaivc trails as well. The hands never enter the first remove of 
uncleanncss. Thevare maide unclean oniv by a Father of unclean ness, not bj^ 
an Ofl^prine, such as food and utensds diac have beeji n^ade Lincileaii by lu- 
liids. I'hey arc deemed unclean in che second rejuovenafFec ring heave offering. 
The hands are suiccpciblc ro- uncicanncss and arc rendered clca.n up co die 
wrj5T. 'Ihii rheoi>' of pLiryfieaticui is iion^trueced Ln che nindcl of The ojit iha! 
j^ovcrni in che "lemple: die priescs'sancELly'-chacjs. wash hands mihesanc- 
cnarynin regard Tocheliand^ npco chewr^sCnand inrt^rd co [he fonc, up [othe 
calf CoiLsequendy, when pouring wacer on rheh^fL-dsforcukiccleinciess, one 
ha^ ro hold che haaidi iip^ sn fhf w^rer will nor Elo^ beyond the wrist and 



chcci flew btick EUid r^'iJ^' tTip hifi-ds unclean ig^n. So too tbc ijiala^ ii 

iiKpJLCJtJy cfrawn: whatcvrr inCcJpu^^ ift i^ [Z^Mof ihe body interposes in the 
cas^ofihchandEi wlthrefcrcnKiothe^anciufiCAQQnDfiiichaiidsand 
che Temple House. 

Then, in [he TWO ^v^hin^. water rtSy [rtiic!^ ^^fi^ pifi flf rhe hands ic the 
fiRCsinmhtraEihHZ second a.nd chc pruccbs is fully vshd- ThLsconcepnon is 
expressed iji the following langu^; if one poured yui the Eirs^ wdE^r, and&iac 
of lu^ hands was made umika-n, lo, chis one pours Out i he s^co-nd water on rhe 
S^Ortd hflnd and does nocs^Fupk in the matter. The result is jsftrillowt if one 
pourtdout rh^ fir.^r ^-^ler in one place and che second in another pu^ti fxr^d a 
loaf ofhcavc ufieritig fell on rhefirsi^ iris unclean. And If li hell on mtbecond. 
iciidean.ButifthefLr^lnJ^dsec^fc^dpiLWLn^fiJlon chc- ground cogethcr. a b:if 
of bread in rKc status ofhavcfiffering rhii afic] ward felh t>n rhe puddle is 
unclean > ihe 5cwn.d >vjKr fJ«TLS the fir.siwarer -only ^vhen che thst wa.ttr is 
locaKrd on the I]and5j but firsr water situaced elsewhere ihan on the hands is 
noc deancd b>' the second water Whit imerposes on ihe handi prevents (hem 
frorci being cleaned: for the scmndwAKrde^fisonli'ihe water which is on the 
hanil- Ijnerposition involves uncleanntis of rl^e ^-arer lemoved by die 
^^Cfrndwawp/i^c- second waccrdoi^nmdtiTi ihe iniefpoiiiigobjeci or the 
firsi water chat i^ located on it. 

WaTer used for sanctificatton involves human agency and intenttonaliry, 
and waftri;_«d fnr pmrtHc^rici-n From unclcanncas [but not sartttifLCatioj^} d^^ 
not— ^ huge difterence Signaled by a small discinctioRr Since the hands are not 
immtrs^ in w^acer hue rather warcr is poured out an m the hands^ hunian 
agency is n^iiired m ihe use, no: only ihe preparation or the wlltr'r Hucrt^t^ 
agfntv, byc!rtn(riLi,wflu]dipoLldiewariirEorthciiTimcriionpouJ v^hith niu« 
bcwiJc^Lcdn^^ufiJJy, human agency js demanded for ^sil^f^i??d 1^0' ^hcp^rt- 
ficaiion rite. WKat ipiejn^nc-enicrees from the fects now adduced: (0 tliacthe 
handi ^ft deemed alwa^ fus: one remove away from corpse confatninatEOti^ 
and (2) it is thfOu^h v/i\,ia fliialogoiis :o cha: used For preparing punncati^n 
waicrfor the removal of corpse und^anness thai the hands aresanctij^ed Inot 
merely cltinscd of un-cliannfty, with ^iinwt requiwd to complcre die process 
of j>urificacion|c^n forating Flwd in the ^um^ nfpncsEly racwns^ Whail 
heai fwim ihe halakhahis the statement tbsi Jc^th- die pn ncipal source of 
tind^nness in rhe halakhah - ]s cvcr-prcscnt, iPnot in wL]^r is ifluehedn then 
i[i wh-ii ha^ Louclifd vvhai is touched. So the hands are always in the s^ond 
removt af imckartnesSn meaning.^ dcarh is always jiist a step or fwoAway frotn 
contact with whar i^mie^iu to he kept holyn clear of death. An^ that li-in th<; 
tontfiitr "f the hajidsind when Tficy arc sancctficd -food far the nouriJunpm 
of ]-^r?d- Biic death and all ihai deadi ovcrspieads can be kept beyond jht 
boi^ndatv Ul" ihe household table bv deliberate action defined b^ pcfpenul 
concern; tht tight inrenrionn especially "for the meal. So Vh'ith that first bite of 
bread at the rtieal^ the stakes are vet>" hi_^i j ndeed. 

Whai about ablutions l!^^r bud-ilv i^nizUinnets^ as diaiincu from ablutions or 



the hanilsP For purifying [ihehLini^ti beij^grhe prljicipal medjiim is the jscdF 
water - bif[ water m dLfferejic ttriucs served diJl^rcFit purposes. The ideal 
venue wa5 che imniertum pWi rftHiiring sufliucjit waicr to covtr the f nctrc 
bod^H Tony seah-n^eaturt-s. The water c^juld not be drasvn buc had lo have 
been collecretl naaiJilly, m cxsmplt;. lain water collect^ in j. pond. The 
hjn£Ji4rcrtiiJtr^^ul[it3Jly<kE*nprivr l^ mcd& by pQurtngd small quantiq' 
of diT^wn- water tjvct thcln, so Mishnah-tracratc Yadayim 1:1-2: ^|T-o render 
hinds clftml ft <^urtrter-li:^ of water ^o they pour for handsn for one, also Ibt 
rivo. A haU-log f is to be uaedl tor three or four. A log fis lo be used] fi^rfiinearid 
for ten and for ahundrud. Wiih all sorrs of utensils di> tkcy ]."jour I^Mtcr] for 
hands^ even with ticcnsili made of dunn, Licen^ilinudeofsron^.inensikmadc 
of [unh^kcd] day/ pLitchetmor^j ihfls?- wh<> 5LEJT?mI m involonlaiy 5CKud 
emission had co imniiitw in i r^ulit imirttrilun ptHjh 

A A man who ha^ prodneed 3 fiux fin line with I^v. HJivhoihen had 

B. d ii*&^i-p"uattng "womiri who diahatgcd Kcccn, 

C_ dnd ^ w^nnan v-^ during sauaJ relations produoed mej^icrual 

hlooa [all uf whom bj detLnition art uncft:an v^lthoui respecT to the 
prcetncf ol5fmen]H 

D. must iiDTHfr^e [in a proper ritual pool] 

(ME^n.ah-fra€:taTe BeraWiotn 3:6) 

On (he othcrhand, after KSLual relatione on-senuld not reoitt the Shema'an-d 
other piayers righi away; he was restored to danneis iHtough having nine 
qabs-of "hvater poured over hLs-bodv: 

C* One who had j semnul ijjschjrgc [on account of illness] upon 
■whomN^ne poiireJ nirt qnibs of water is dean. 

Sehuld he retires fcf M, Btr 3:4] for wiiac purpose? 

D. For himself Buc he cannoc eKempr others Trotrt thtir tjbhgatdon |to 
lecLcc iheShema'] unless he first inimctr^ts hintsdf in [a pool of\ forty 

sealns "of waicrj. 

E, R, Judah ays, '[He mus: immerse htmself in] fony ^e3.hj in ill cases 

Iwhjdicr CO rctiie the Shtm^' for himselfor to exempt others from the 

{Tosefra-ttactate Berakhoi, 2:12J 



As tltf clftssitfll staftmenf f>f Judaisim defines manict'Sj i: follo'^'i rhar abliiEJoiu 
form a principal part uf fhc Icfc^ithGcxl thdlis lived by the pioui IsraeliLe. 


Prayer, ^tingand^blution^ fonn adistincri^TrCatcgtiryinthcb^s cjfJijds.isrTL 
a_nd l^kma^ chcy concern act? which dclinc the bclicvcfj rclati^jnihipto God. 
Through wnrshipn s^nHcc and purification, die practicLoncr siih-niLti lo- a 
coin|>leK ser of mieih which funcijon 5}Tnbolic^]von a nurnl^^ 

Hb]pll\l^LK^ bv('i lhcpcr<fliia] relarionshjp wich God bu: atso chccojinctnons 
bctwi:cn the indivLdull ^i\d thecomniunity- F^cins ls j]i LnteniionaL denial of 

daily 5u^=:tcnajicc tti ord^r to reirn;rrt|>t:r Gild's gifts, but also lo acono fox sins. 
Finally, abhitloTi lb undertaken not for hygieMttclcans-ing^buc forcuLcic pi-epa- 
raiEOJi. Thub ihe ac^;^u^it:s yre defined, jnd ihew siruciural sLniilaricLe^ dem- 
on5ciRttthatihc5t:rdi£ionfc5hare£\LnJflmcrual noiiftnst^fhtrtvihdiever is w 
rclitcM God. ](i5 in tlic v^ay:? thatJt-wiiEl jrid Isl^fctnic l;t\i^ diverge, however, 
tiiar wc ^in :h^: most from our work c^f compariiO-n. This ii tnie horh for 
undcrsiandi ng chc impon of ^'hat each r<:li^on describes fur it£ own ^idhet^ 
c^n^H Ai "^'^11 ^ For rbc c:antribLitioTis t\\ii compatji^oi] makts hm the vriuJy of 
religion a& a wholc^ 

Both reli&Lons acrcc ihat prayer is a linnc for petitions to God^ and on tiac 
person^ levd. one might well iniagjne rhat these pctiilDns arc -quLEc similar: 
liCilch, lotJg lit^^ succeti- 1"hc dLiT^jrenc^s in ptcnions on ihe communal level, 
tiowfvcr, arc strikm^r Iti judiasm, petitions are replece wiiJi specific hisiorical 
and instiiutitjria] rcfcrcxicc^ (Jf rusjleni. jLjdge:^, esilcSn ecc), bo[h defining ihc 
comrrmnity inti ir_s rehiTiiJiiship lo God. As we noieds prayer ]n Judadsnt is 
public and com Jimnjl TJit; da of prayer Lt-sclfisvaltdaced h^Godsievelachzm 
to Jsiacl: without thai revelation, prajtr hw no more -standing chan Icained 
mumbling. In cantrasd Isbmie pciitlons are n^udi less -speciPc, app-eahng 
rjthcr for general concepts: likcgiiidanceandcarripa^hionr Bui thi^differeacp 
is fixK^J and ^'indiaiactcHLC curlier «(cgoric'5ir?3.ccd in thcxp^^^^ 
che reheion of chaE aroup in humanity ihai knoivs Godr The ToiRh dues not 
cor^templace ihe possib-Lliiiv cha: tlod if made kno^n other than thioi^h the 
lorih, .^nd iheTnrah'^ leachin^ ihcn form inc con:c\rand ihc model for all 
Rilarbn^hip^ wiph tliij- Ldam. for iE^pirucotvies n tIie end -of a long process, 
cnco-mpasiing nat only Judaism lim Chrisuaniu, h> which God has made 
himselfkno^n toh-imnanity. lilatn aCCi>rd$ full rta^^nimn to dio^ thaLcame 
bcfyrtj findirtgJn the Prophet the st?a] of prophecy and meeiinj^no difficuli^^ 
met God ifnotiO rflubly c>r irtily Iwfo^f- Ji^dii^ii^. FiVNfrt thi pefip^cnvc af 
Scripture, 5pc^b to A hi]ma[litY[h?tiii^[rtuws only hcrestrieeistio^ That dif- 
ference helps U5 to undcrscand the specificity of lii^<:late prayer lit Jiidfl IS m. t"he 
uni\^r5al reference poinc oFIslamic prayer then forming a ^triki ng contrast. 



A second conrrast retarding pfiver concerns ilic conu^Lun^l^LiidiviJiLEal 
dLJa]E[>^ whmh boili relEgi^ni sha.t¥- TKe comtnunil asp«t <jf [>raycr in JudEi- 

jsm h rcflccicd. jn ihe redul -of rlie Eighteen Beneiiicti&nt^ bv the leader, but 
ciieconiniiindisptciofprayeriril^laitiiiRTimdlrt the tall to pta^^cr broadcast 
from iKe iniruieiX")ii4^ ii^&igii^n Kfei ct>n][iiiiniry prim^^^ 
tyna^gue, whtlcihtothcriccsOTmrnunity atcndin^bq^ondLhcwaJIsofilic 
p^oi<|ne. refl^aa^ig^ petbipSp Iskim't greater -TomTnicmcni B pic^cly^iz^LtoD. 
TTit^ 'ca]\ T^w^Orinhip' then travels thiou^h thcstrcccs and marketplaces of a cor- 
porate communicv". But wirhir the framework of synaj^o^ae^FVorship, Judaism 
too knoTvsacallto worshipn addressed rorhecommunit^^ac pr^iyer Thcdiffef- 
cnt Circumstances ]n which tach tcIj^lous conimuntry livej om Jti life — the 
oncmastcr oftialf [hi] worlds die nther ti^aj^ply h^rudged^pW anvwherc- 
aceounrs foi [he s-rriking dJArdnf:^ ]n hnw rht faithfuJ ait csiliwi ra prayer. 
Wherejewslis^jrt large numbers itid ici ct>herenr ndghUorhwJs, injcrusa- 
Jcm for cKaJllple^^headvem of che Sabbath is aririounc^iti a public w-aj^an-d 
th£^e^LntLmt^ofpeat:e,^h^]T^u^-coftKe two (^Lthi h^r^ Ln the air forming a 
jCNng thsc Illy tWnuy hear 

ft ^E>Liltl be nofj:d tiiat bol^ rcligitma insist that Cod's name be mcncKuicd 
liver food lai well li many other timcsK but the law of Judaism clasHfLc^chJsas 
pin of prayer, while rhc la-w fif Islam docs no(. This difference can be 
accoiinf-cd for by the disrlnct place of the name ot Cud within Judaisn^_ 
Whereas Muslims arc commanded :o invoke Gcrii's name throiighoui ilicday 
(using Qur^a nit phrases siich as 'jf God so wjIIs* aaid 'praise belongs LO GodOn 
Jews taLc die 1:0m nnajidmenciiac cotake (jod^ tutrix; in vain to mcann utic-may 
r^^noGftJ^^^iistandy, hue Invoke hbnflfti^(>hly-wi[h great ttepidatian. 

"lheieisovetnvhelniJngigrc:enii?nt,sijiiilarly. jnictimofEbt tatcgoriciand 
Icffijc of ^stinc in the law <jf Iwthjudai&ti^ jnd l^lam_ FprLhci^ reljd^nt? fajt- 
jjic can he undtrsrood. as ^ typenf lacrafjce, and cb^refbre it d.oes the work of 
atnnem^nr for ccriain sinj_ The di^ipline of fasting Over a longer period of 
rime-wn days in Judaism] rf nn>ntb in Dkm- helps to focus die believer on 
God Sgrtai gifc-bor lire, H^tid and water. Llam extends ^cin^ ro anorher realmn 
howe^crjn lumingrimeoniCEhcadi nighi in Raniadan is for caring and retir- 
ing the Quran^ while day is coniigned to tho rcsiticcioni of the feit Tliis 
invcfiiojioltijneisadiviaelv-orda]nedincerjupi]on f>f norniii human aenvify 
andisa ficcina sv'm bol for remembering rhe inoyirh m which fJod intefrupfod 
Kluhammad's Mfe by revealing ihe Qur'aai. 

^]na[[y^a^3[ucions play a central role in thi; laws t^f both Judaism and Islam. 
Boch tradinnns ha^^ j^tf iidtr-lwsed roles, sangllngouttbc bleeding otmenstni- 
aljon and childbirth a^ requiring ^pi^ia[-w^hingfoJ~'Xi;][iien3i]dche emission 
ufscmcn requiring abliiitftn for men. Thi^fotUfftn bloiidrind semen duci not 
mean chac Judaism and Islam see diildl^irth and sexual inrerujur^c ^^ sinlu!; 
n^rher, it ha.y to do wlrh ^ fim-dAmcriital jwe onifc, shared b>'borh traditions. 
A^^nochere^Aiinipkhi^^nsider that chcla'rv ol bothjiidaism and islam explicitly 
Jc^ttu.ndstliat tLcbleod oia slau^cered anim^ run dirccdv into che ground. 


6kl WI:i:N TUt fA[THi=LiL AND tOD 

In this wav the life-blood of ihe animal ia relumed m JtsCreaEor and 15 not 
consumed by Musljjiis aiidJewf.Jii^E as blood Ls^syinboIaMife^so hktdingi^ 
relaxed CO dyint- Thjs dien £Kp]iins Judaism's focu^ 011 washing is 2. wf^ibol 
fbr £epar3Tjng[h£ living person froiti dearli^ .since deacili isi^eet] Si^rhepfindpal 
sourc:^ of uncba.tinesSr 

I^rKipstkemost imp[jrrantd3srincnoiil>tiween tKer^^jreli^^^ 
i^tl^fjcr tlijtwiiilcablunort iji^coiTimendedbcrortMthpra^^^ 
nyrrtquiredj. irupuj^i-blf K mairLHin a Klatt^-of riTital p'uril}' tcjr houis> evrn 
djyi. Judaiim, liowc:\c:r dtinandsabluiioQ before-each caring of breads since 
rtir hards aiTdwnicdprr7cmallyundcari, This d]5iincnfln poijiis lo a differ- 
ence in tKc Qkimacc: goal df abluiEons in ihcse-m'o roligioni: where-as J udaisni 
is primarily in i^icsccd in ahlunon eo cam freedom frojii ujicleanness^ Jsl^n J5 
piiinajLly interesLed in ablution 2^ an jnfEriiinciit of Cjnd^s de^t^ 10 purify- the 
bearcs of his believers. Iji [bisdeT.^il a lar^ dilTi^t'ene^ ratiy lurk: Idaiti u^ts as 
symbolic -what for Judaism h immediaDe and praccjeal. For tbe on^^ the b^re 
and nfrtv 3^ a meraphftr; fisr ibe otKeth che jmniediace fitnhoc^ks rhe divine 





1 INTRO DucrroM 

Both [he l^taiiiic and Judaic systems oF W raka forgramad [h^i ihf! fi^mil^ 

ofs^nccilioEion, tlit-wonn^fL rothe mjri In partitijbT,5.Qd5cxu;ilitj'i5a princi- 
pjl medium fi>rthc Siinctifj^utiijn or]ifi:..^rangcincnts made by man accord 
W3rh Cod's wLshc^or vioLiie cheni. God cojifirnis and susLjiii^ tlie rigLroneSj 
condemns ihc wrong. Cenipal tn die^a ■lysierris ts [he kisiuk of it woman, who 
ordLaanlvLsnn: Jell oLicoFteliirionship with ?i man bin b aligned co ihc pro- 
fottion (jl^hcr lather (and brcihcr^) before marna^CT her husband -afccrward. 
Plxpvii.i<jn t>fvdidritc5taf bctrofhal, marriage-, anddi"vorccT as ihccase rcquir-^j 
valia3.K in rh^tycs <jfGod arrangements that, lacking sLch provision, would 
ochcmsccDnstiiurc sin. Specifically, when a woman passes from rha domain 
orhcr ^rhcr {ou lacking a Faihcfi her wjdowcd n^mhei andbrorh^r^) iolKc 
domain o f he rbiishandfparcEcLikt" riTe^^ [for etimpk^ docitrtitnts) mustmark 
[htchangt in hct ytfttuihthtJjugh its ttagcs. In :he absence of such rices or doC' 
umentij the v/tjfnaiii actLons const]tLJtc- license. The same accicfns-, prepeily 
^aJidictdnJCCord with God5 will and plan. So rircsnfbccrorhal and marrug^j 
on rht one hand, and divorce, an th? oiKctj -f l^tily a gi^cn acdun involving i 
woman's scaius; properly dont these ate an occasion C^rcclebrstion^ improp- 
erly done, for Mncuon^ That oth^rdaniemii:Hnofihefkjnilv'-thcpreiicrvation 
aiad tr^iiintiiibHjn urp]Tjptrty from generation to generauon -ejiieri inio iJiii 
un^effjniewrtct InthcOiCuflxilh framci a chfology 
of family life chac fits wn^ intt> the la^r leli^i^jus system set fonh b^ the 
reipct^tivc revelations. 




The i:ransfot"rtiatioiioft-Ki;5tdtus<jfaw<jnian from daughter to takes pbcc 

in wfi--^ijget hert"orM,atw^kKpOLnithcworiiaiii5d«ign^i:^ 

IC J pai-tLtulir [iWlij jnd n\aTn^^. St whitb p^Jinl the rclanonship js sexually 

Cfltis^iJiiJiutcd ijndrrrhc marriage canopy, thr^;>^^^^^^ 

rhc ercirc irransaction), [r ihc law of Judaism a i&rhcr may l>ci:rorh and marry 

tifFhi5 da.u^tcriEshc is aminor, bur when she reaches nianirLc^^nic cheage of 

cwclvc^shc may wuh-our penalty rc|ecr[heai^nLigcjnen: and leai^e ike arranged 

marriage. From maiurirv, dnor^vc^ ^ yt^ung injiiun may truer into a 

betrothal on her own account. Eecrochal has the Icg^l force ^frr.^rnagCr in that 

shouLd :hc arrangcniejiT fall aparCf a proper nte of^divorte it- required. 

'lkechang,e in the woman j^scicuSf frotn fi<:e agei^r t^ d^SigTiat^ fVn"S p^irtk- 
ulaf man. tales pla*]^ ihri^ugh i rue ihif rr^nvfi^ri: htr - by which ii: ntanc. 

responsibiJit}^ fne ihs w^nnjri - from h^;r failicr hj htr prt^pcttEvc husband. 
T\\k tiuy be doftt ihrti^igh the pnjipcttivc hushand giving her - and chc 

wotjwd Willi tsgly actt|>tirig-a token monc>'-payn]cni:; through rhc provision 
of jwrir ofbefKjihaL pm|>crly wllrl^^iftd and deli vercd; or through a sexual 
SCI. The law af Judiism ta!hc5 for granted that a man docs not ^vanmnly 
toJmritsuch an action, lo which the woman acquic-sccs [orhcnviscach.ar2eof 
rape would t»c entered), bur or>!y WLih the Jiircncof aajiiinng die womaji for 
h:mid£ and therefore assumes that chc Inrcni of horh parties it to effect a 
hcirochal. Thcsr ihrcc media for rhc transfer of [ide hardly compre; the 
woman's (or bier lathers in th-ccascof a minorj acccpcanccofi token brinadif- 
fcrent fr^jm che provision of a legal docum^nc, and a legal document hardfy 
comparLng to a change in ihe physical relationship o-fche couple. AlMinwe^'erj 
produce [he sam-c cffccL The same passage covers the dis^sluij^n ofihe rela- 
il-on^hlp. Thi: wom-an acquires herself/ n^-^aning, rqfalrui [he ^liWii <rf W 
agent H no longer sajictified co a given nians Sy rec^ivicig a writ of divorce - 
matching ihedcH=nnien[ thai izi^nguiraces che rebtiomhjp-ur by reason of nhe 
lance of j lo-kfn or [hcaa a\ sctuaJ rrlarionan produce noccniniNzrparcH for 
cxampJcp returning the token or se^xring thescnual bojid. The paragraphing 
d<:Jincatc5 secondary amplification of the niatn pojnc: 

A. A woman is acouircd |aj=abcrFothedwLfe] in [ht^ wa}^s, ard 
acquJies |Jre«lom for] herself [to be a free agent] in two w^ys. 

B. She !5 acquired through money^ a wrhn and sexual intercou.rse. 

C Through mnncy: 



D. Tlic HouicofSlLammai iAy, 'For a denar ot ivha: isworth a 

E. And ihe Hdii5£ of Hillcl iiy, Tof j perutah or whji [y worth 2 

E And hcufr" much \b a p<:riLtah^ 

G Oni ci^ih &Far halian issir 

H. And she acqisir^s he^ritff (hrQuah a ^m oF divorce and chroueh tht 
husband'^ death. 

(Mishnah-tficiiic Qi-ddushin, 1:1} 

The HoiQ5Ci arc law-schouls Msuroed to hiw llouriiheiJ in the firsr century 
bCtandCE, Shanimai jndHiJkltKtng lisld inUKcli^jn ofcradicn^from 
Sinai foiward. That the bcfrotlialtakcicffixi: only wheri the wnmin agrees to 

accept the token of betrothal or lc5 coiinrcrparts actords rhe VF-onun equalicy 
in the crinaaction. Tha.t m-canSn just as a man mjj" seiKl :A[^ a^tii^iaa woman 
may parucJpaH- thr-ough her[oJ tcpFcsenntivCr 

A. A man effects becrothal on hisov^n or cb rough his a^nt. 

B. A w^jtnan becomes 1>c:Cf^>ched on her own or rhrough her agent. 

C Arnan bcirochs his daughKr "when ihc ts a girl on hjs o-wn o; 
through his isgent- 

(Ibid.. 2:1} 

The W. further takes 4cLoun( oS^ ihi^ iitipli«riofti -ftf brtg^iag^; ihji i£ Lis&^. 
dccjVLing :hr ianguagt:, likca documcnr. tht cficccivc insctiinicnt of transftir- 
niatLon of the woman's status. lnIhctx^^tl^uJltLy^l€Jf the ruleithand^^enoce 
the d I ffif rente between language ihat is part]ti"i'c that is^that di^tingiilinhrfsnne 
thing froiti another^ ^ndJarguage diat ii inclusive, that is^ that fuins one fning 
to another- Ar D-F, the language treferito one rhing or to another, at f— C, che 
bngua^c implies thai aheiAvrjJ ihings that jre handed over aic rrcaLcd aja 
single entity, and ihc t»[ RalJi?w5. 

D. Ht who sajb to ^ woman^ 'BcbeLroilied to cne for ih:i daw, be 
becrotnud ty rnc VF-(th tnlSh 

E, if [either] o-neofrhem iii of [be valui^ ofapemiahi^ht is betrothed, 
and if Tiotn ahc is not lietroThcd 



f. 'By thi^H and b/ thiSn and by ihis' — 

G- if all of them toucher are ^vnjcii a pcrLHahn she is bcEruthcd, iind It 
noCn ihc is n-oc bctrt>tiittl- 

H. |lf] the ^vas earing ihcfTi onebvone, theisnoibciroihcd, 

] unfeitone of [hem is worth a pcnuah/ 


Finall}^, wtdeal wuh conditional l3Cfro:lials. If chc man ipcclfles the rnLiig Jiai 
he intends to serve ai tKe colten of bciroihaJ, what he says is inttrprrttd is a 

condiiion that, inlhtv-c^inAJ^'sn^irtdJsoperacLVC" ifthatrandition iy not rner, 
^h^]■ betrothal is null. 

A^ 'Be betrothed to me fnr ihh cup of wine/ andic turns out to be 
honey — 

&. '.-. of honey/ and ic tiirns O^Jt m be ofwinc, 

C_ '- -wirhthhsilvcrderiar/ andit rLirnsnunftb* gold. 

D. ', -- with this gold c^ni^n'md it tu^^5c^uIrob^lilvc^ — 

E. '.,. on condifiott fli^t 1 am rich^' and he curns our to be poor* 

E "r. . on tusiditloi^ iKac I am poof:,' and he turni outt^j be rich — 
G. shcisnoibcttorhed 

K. F^Simrou My^p'Jfhcdw^i^d herm [herl advancagCT she is 

2:3 A, '.-- oncriidiijoii thai I am a priest/ and he lUJTW our m be a 

B. '... ou condition ih^i J an a Leviic/ ind he turns out (o he J pri^, 

C. *. r. a necifi/ and he curns out to be a mamztJa 

D. '. r, a man^Kfj^ ar>d he lums ou.t to be a neriti^ 

k. '... a-towndivcitet/aiidlieLurnscujimb^a viilager^ 



R \.r ^ ^ill^cr/ and he turn^ out to be i rown dweller^ 

Gr ',.r on condjcLon that my house is near tl^e bitK/ and h turns out t-o 
w Far away, 

H. "... ^in'andiiiurniiour Lobc tiar: 

L \.. on condkion ihac I have a (laughter Or 4 5«vant gid who ts a 
hairdresser' and he ha^ none^ 

J- \-- on condition (hac I hnvc none/ and he has one; 

K. 'r-. on condhLon ihac 1 have no children/ acid he has; 

Tjr -.r ut\ condition that he has-,^ and he ha_s non^? — 

M in rhc cascof aJlofdicmnCvcn ihongh she sg^n 'In mv heart [ 
^EiTiicd lu bccume bciro^hed lo hiii3 dtLS[>Lri^ th^t f^tt/ sh^ h no[ 

N. And so is the rule if_she de€:ei^^ hliii. 

(Ihid-, 2-?) 

Whai we see jr ihj^ ^Igbot^K passage i^ hew ihc IcgaJ system ifinsfofins a 
given ropid into :^r» exercise in a broader principle of [he law In thistase*, the 
iawjn general tikes jf^vuri: a P deceit ui contracis and washes cosivdi-if if one 
party hai deceived the othci:> rhc agreement is null. 'Thai principle is dien 
rran^kcGdjtic^ the OiiKeat "hand, and inanclibofact wa.yacchacThai ita-fint 

e^arnpkftfwhat hflEipens^hrnairligiou^canYiaion^i^Kngi^narh^ 
pnncipl^^ is set Ibrlh in lawiathcidian in a jehgious nieojevcii q ihwlt^ical 
stacecictit. The ia^nowmahe^ihc pnneEple cflJi-O^Lc jntl inhtiv-i how the prin- 
ciple relay apply to a broad vaiicrj of cises_ 


Islamic law diLiirtglilsli 1^3 betvF-cen ihrec acK ^vi Jiin ihc process orgeuing mar- 
rjed: beirorhj^ rhe marriage concracLn and eonsummaiiftn of ch^ marriage. 
However [he legal enecti uf betrothal arc difputed, and ic may he dnncawav 
mih cniiirely. Miirajver, h^rrothaJ is not a legal ohligauon. ind ^i> a. dn*^ noi 
receive a sparaiechapcrr in [he legal handbooks. A: ihcbeginniiig ofhiit-Jiap- 
ceron marriage. -il-Qftyrawani iimpl^sarcs: "I'hcrc ts noniarri_agt; without, an 
agenc, ni^rriagc present, and u^'o cruscworrhy wiinesies-' His tooN^ern is viih 
issues central to the conEracr, and betrothal i^ hjndly addfe^cd. Nor is 



bcirochal eHc subjccc of crfcniiint: diinaissinti in t^eQur'an. In Ikci, when l^ 
corner ID martcrh of preparation For marri^Cn the Qurati'spfitTiarv concern ls 
wEik iho&c Ji:icn svho may Dcm ha"vc aulti-dcnt runtis w pifc}' (nc m^^rnage ptes' 
fft^r^ ^aggacinjdih^rchac they remain ab^TinMt (4: JS^nd 24:30) or thai rhey 
Sihould marry sJaves (2:221 J 4"2^, ai:idi^r32)i for^vhomny fwnkuljrgili b 

Alcho-u^herjothali^ nor a legal aci, jt mayha^TLCgal effects, including pcr- 
nirring the prmpeccjue groom co sec hit fianct^^ and fii'-'inj^ the pirjsfK'ctivt' 
groom prujntv c^ver orhet suicoe"?. Eiihcr pariy may brtakofFchccngagementa 
bur any prcKtrtts given ro rht hH^ie are coiisJdered gifra and not recarned. N"o 
staKiDCEtofdivoriLC l3. howcvcj, mjuirci ^ number nrbadich denwrnscraic 
boih rhc process and princ]pa]s of bctrothaL: 

Yahya cold jne-on Maliks authoricy rruTD Nari trom AUlulJHiii iljn Uni&t- 
[hai ih^ Messenger of God, ma^ God blcH him a:]J ^i^it lum peace? 
^aid. 'One of v'ou should no( matcanengagcineDt upon the vt\^^- 

M^|]k said: The cxplanaijon of ihe sracrmcnt ol the Vlesatngerof Gtxl, 

may God bless him and gtani him peace, according ;o what wc think — 
but Gtxl ltno\i^ h^c— IS rhac 'Owe of you shoidd noi make an e-ngape- 
mcDt jpati ihceogagenieiir c^fhii btochcr/ This means rJiar when a. 
maD i5 cnEagfi-x] [^Javi^J[^Jn, fliidib^tr^ishim, ind they have agreed 
on an honorable marriage picscnt^ >virb which they a^e satisfied, and sht 
has made ihis a condicion Fo-f hcT^cLI, that this is tiiat wkich h 
^rbiddcn: ihat aQodierman makes an cng3g4:metitijporL this engage' 
mcni of his brodicr. 

kdoc^ no[ mem [hat when a man has madcancngE^gtmenL wiffm 
womaRf aiid hii snu does no: agreF wiih her and she docs not trust hiin, 
chat nooneeLse may seek an engagement with her. ThaE would be a 
J<]<i[' KO -mnioraliiy for ihe people. 

Tahva told mcon MflliV^authotiry firim Ahd 2t-RjhnianibnaU(^im 
ihat his father said aLwui GlkJ's wy^Ji he i* hl^^^d ^n-J "tiy^^t higb^ 
'"["here h no harm in the berrothal you ofFcr to womcn^ of hide in youf- 
selve5_ God knowi tbacyou^ill remember them; but do not make 

secrei promises ro- dicm v^itbout honorable words^ {Qur'acin ^^?35)r 
This Ls when a man says (o a^womann while she wgs "^^iH u^ licr wjitliig 
period aficr the death of her husband/Yuu arc praicjui tome, yJid I 
am des-i TOLLS of you. May God ^usc g^K^dncs 5 ^nd ^^ih ^u Jlo^ (^ 

yoLi?' and wordisuch as theic." 

The first two hadilh nicely dejnon^Eraie rhe earefui reasoning of islamic 



jurists. Taken literal jy^ the words of the PrcHphci could be jncerprereitt&roHjid 
both concur rcnc SUITS and consccuiivc ones! The secinnd hadifh (i^inisa com- 
Tiienlary t>n one of the few Quranic verses oji ihe subjet-T of propOiaJs. In the 
clasjicaJ handbooks ofrslamiclaw. thj^siciry i^Kiniplv!Lmsmj;dTjp3jfolJowst 
'A woman may jioe be b£[ro[h^ during her ^v^iring pcjiod, bur ihcrc u no 
feuli inhonorab!eeiL[M^ssioii--^of imem-'''"TTiiSHiniii<:t, is thconl^statcmcm 
o-n berrothal in d] oral-Qa.ymw^c]iS fi&ndbook. 

One imporcam ispeci of ihc Uw yf betrothal however, is th^t an enga^- 
mem ^^y qjiI^ he airangd berwj;cn two |>Mplc who would rioimilly b^ 
aJlo^^ to miatrj. Fulloiving the Qur'an, die Muslim furiiEs icgjslne ei^ten- 
sivdj/ on wliom a man may niarry in che finr place, forhiddjjig marrl-^ge to 
dose fkiTiLly. Interestin^yn boih blood and milk form [he lies rh^t bind the 
MueLliti fein]]y cogeiher Thai ts lo say^ if a bcfj- and a girl a^ bu<AdK^ by chc 
same woman -even if :hcy are Jio: relaied byhloo^d- they m:^y not marry one 
ajiorhcL The Quran begins w'jih rhjs Jisl 

Do noi jnarrj' v^onicn such as those vx>ut' f^iher^ mairicd, uTiless it "was a 
marriage from hefcpic; such a marriiige \a ^n fthomi nation and abhoirenc, 

an e^^l pach . 

Fod>idden for you to m^rrv s(i^ your nifllh^ra anJ daughtciSn siSKrSn 
aunr^ on both sides, thedaughKraof your brothers and sisrerrs, 
i-nilk-mochcrij rnilk-si^tcr^* mothcrs-in-laTV, srepdaughrers wiio are ifl 
youc caK- that Ish bom or^vcs with v^hom you have had :^e\ual idiiet- 
coufw, but if you have nor yet eonsummace J chsmat-riig^, [he^ ihetc h 
no Ji itrnt - or wumtn brionging to your accuai sonai i: is aiii3 fbrbidd*^n 
w hjvc iiatcjtoursc mdi two sisters ro^ eihefn unless diis was frcriti 

{Th^ Quran, ^,22-23) 

fnhishitfidbooLal-Qiyrawani quoces [hispashjgt ^nd tHcncvtcndsthc same 
patteiJi of rcason]ngH referjjng co a liaditJi froin che Prophet. Hen: the la^v 
rtiakcs espiict: whar rhe Qur'an innpla-es, that aU mariral relations fedsiddcr^ 
because nfbloodriei are also forbidden if connect ed by rriilk. 

The FrophcE-may GodbtcBS himandgranr hiiti peace - forbade 
J^lfltJvns by milik sJl who were forbidden by blood. He tJsfl lefumc J to 
nnarrj^a w'oman due to her relationshtp ae aji amii [f^Fthe sr\NOiji]_ As 
frtr -sociwon*; who rnarrics 3 ivoman, Les ^ther, grand^Lher and snns are 
forbidden frc^m marryiJigher by the contiacu itself, even before she is 
loudipd Iby sciual intercourse]^ and her mocher and gfandi"cirt[her are 
fijcbi^d^n ^o thcgTf^m. However her dau^E^r^ (froiri pre^bu^ 
marria^l arc not Forbidden w him unLiL lie has sexual inrercourse with 
their modicr, or cnjoyt se3:iiil plo-sare whechw by right of marr iagc^ 



ownership [in iht case of co3icubiii£sJ, or sDm^ihLne simj]af_ The 
woni3Ji nnrmalEy per^Jti^ lo a man is ti4>L rendered impernik^Lbl^ by 
adulcery [witUj for inzEE^rLce, her SL^cer].^ 

Thjir milt ^h^Mild fbrm i ferriil^hflnd in kljimic bw ^nggi^^n rhar rrtorher's 

c^^n^jdcrcd a part <jf tlit family, -t-a v/hilc a man may have sexual itittrrcaunsc 
with tht frmalc slave that he pcr^anally ovi^ni^ he may hoc have intercourse 

with hla 1VIIC5 female slave. Nor may he ta_kc as concubines his female &lavc 
and her d-aughtcr even though he owns chem horh. In rh]s manner 
ai-Q^yna wani f]tiends [helogJcofhLsdi^us^iontojndnde foFbidden fekcion- 
ships wj[h fcnialcslavtSi unbclje\er3iandjewi and Cht■isELans^ known collec- 
EiveLy as Itopleof ihe BooL' 

God - may he he praised - forhade sexual incercourse, wherher hy trighr 
O^i^n^rrlage or ownership^ mch Liiihelie:\^rE who are jwitof rhe PenpU of 

rh^ Bo^^k Buh h^ did ill^w ^i^viwl liir^c-t^rtuii'it wifh feihjia [>f ihe People 
of ihe BiM>k by righi yf i>wr]?rJiip, at]d he did jilow tnarrying free 
women of [ht Pcopk ufthc; BooLHov^-ocnhtdid ricnuJWri^i of 
stxual DdteccourSc ivith their female iicrvanti, myr did he -allc^^ marriage 
to them, whether Irctor slave. 

A free woman miy noi marry her ilai^n or the ilave oFhcr child. Nor 
may a majt fnarry his FsnTidls sliv^^ ncjr the feni^e slav^ af his child. He 
niaVn however, niirry rhc female- slave c^f hjj faihcr or [he kvnAc ^ive of 
his morher; he niav also marry the dauphier of one of his ^ihei^s 
women who was born of another fnhei. SimJlariyj a wom^n may marry 
the son of her fadncrt wife who wa5 born of another fadier 

In^p^rmicteJ tor horh t^Le fr« maUandrheiUiHC to mirry up to ^u^z 
for the fr«; tiiak fiju r ff ee woLnen, wlwthcr Muslim urt>fthc People of 
tlic Bouki for the male sbvc^ four fcmalc Mndim slaves, A free mai 
may alio marry female skves if he fcars- Ichmication [beciuse he cannot 

marry a free v^oman and he cannot remain abstjncn:]."' 

This lasT senKnce oFcrs some eziplanacion for rhe bund of Jtiarnage wichlii 
[slacn. The ordering of [he fimjly is the very basis of che ordering ofscKZieLyj 
and fomiacion sex Duuide rhe legal boLindanes cif marriage - l5 cmblemacic 
of a dewrdcr^d »tic[>'. Yet Islamic law doe^ noE^e^ marna^becw^eii a free 
man and a Female slave as a compa:rahle crxannple of disorder; Furd^er^ 
al-Qayrawam makes elear diairhe only way a man m^y marry 3 temple sbve ij 
fbrrhi^ilave co helN^ngni afLOfKerin:in_Th]ji]iimfl.rnige of lowly srarui^ yet it 
Jsmore WEidudvcr fy a wcli-^rdcred iociety dun the al^rriitLve, 



This tontern wirh order is reflecrcd in other Qur'anic LniunciJons on mai- 
rjace, for while the legil h^ndl>0DkG coiicLiJiifice ^okl>' 0^ clie negative com- 

maads— whom one js doi allowed co tnarry— theQuj^^n alsopcovidcs positive 
cor[iiii^nd.-(^hidJingMLj^[m^ rn r^srry^-idciwg, slaves find orpliathS in ordtrCt> 

MflrF)'tiiy5caniijn^yTju"whtjhHtvi;ntihut.Uii]J5paiid ihoK of your male 
-and. fcma!c5la"^« thaf arc righteous; if they arr poor, God will cnricii 
dicm by his gracr; God is gcfKrous^ wise. 

(The Qiiran. 24:32) 

G ive th^ ofphiJis rheirat^eis, md d^ iii^ »ehin^ fh^ h^r^ fill for [he 
^od^and do not Lonmme their is£et:j^ypou[' ^sets, diiii^a gteit 

Ifjwu fear you will rayz act |u£tly tfiward tKe oiphians. then m^rry 

"won^fi who sccni gned co vou: rwc^, three, or four. 

(bid-. 4:2-3} 

Inthijwsiy, matmgecanbciccn [ssanitis[icuiioinobrii]gihncjiiji^na.liicd 

perionSj widows Atd oq>hjinSj baok into rhc family structure. 


Marriage laics place liiroLi^ise-cnndriK, after rhatoFherrothal {In-cotitetiv 
p^^ry Judaism the ric£ c^fbeu^thd. and ihat ofmartiag^ take piston eIic 
s^jne oecasLonn rhe whole rite under the marriage eajio-py orhuppah-J lltAi ij 
[he point aLwhtch rhe couple live ri}^etheris jwin ^nd wtfe_ The rite tn valves 
tNepn>vi\i[^tiof aerititialdocurienr^c^lled^ it^/w^^Th^r docLitiient 5pwifies 
the settJemcot that wJJI take place JF the husband (IJvorcti. the wit and pro- 
^\Aa fi>r ^r k^t a yt-nti of alimony, during whic^ rime it ii: Eisiiumcd the 
divo rccc will rcma.rrf. It i:akc5 cHmc whm witncscd arnJ attests to the hus- 
band's coif] jnhnicnt CD suppoti rhc wi£c even at the cost of ihe shirt an hi^ 
back, without that protettLon the marrLaec cajinoi take piacn:. The furKis co 
which the ketuhah a:ceirs- vacy: 2. virgin at marriage ]>eing allowed two hun- 
dred luZn a widow or divorc^ej one hundred The law ihtn provides for the 
hu^band^s clajim thac Itjs new wafe, far whom the iceiuhah of- a virgin lus l>ei;n 
provided, was not jh ^t a i^rgin: 

LI A. A virgin is married on Wednesday, ^nd a widinw nn Thiir^^v, 

R- "Rof rx^Hcie weekly are the -coumtn session hfi the townj, o-n Monday 
-ilia oji Tliiii^ay, 



ro court. 

(MishuLih-tractacc Kctuboi, 1:1) 

1:2 A_ A vir^n - her marriage conrrac: is uwo hundred |ziiz]. 

B. Ajid 2 v^doWi a. maneli [one hundred auz), 

C, A virgin, wiJoWj ^fivorc^j ^nd one who ha£ severed the Levtrate 
connection Jdescribed irOeiLC- 25 1^| rhrough ,\ rite ofh^li^^h (which 

scvtri the Lcvjratt -LOnnctfwn as doc3<^ writ ufdiinurcj; in ^n ordinary 

D- at ih*: stage of bciroll^al — 

E. [heir marria^c&ntratiis two hundred Isjil- 

E And they ik- subject to th-c claim a^nsc ihcEr vimnity. 

G- A converCj a woman c^en caprL\^H and a servant girl who^vere 

redeemed or who converwd or who were freed aran ageof leis chin 

rhTeeyeaRiindniieday — 

H- their marri^^-tortiraci is two hundred [zut], 

I. And they arc subiccrto the claim ^ain5E their i'lrginity. 


Oicc again^ v.'c &w ihc re^iilc of a. li^Lijpon making in iiatcmcnc ihrou|gh law. 
The iisucs dia[ ari5c arc drnsc rhar conorrn lawyers, even though die principles 
derive fi-ora leligjous convjccions- ahour che nacure of relanonships henveen 
tlie $ex^a$(iod hai^ arranwdthem. The ha^ic point j^ ihac niairia^^ is ± public 
ttam^aion, arebct&nshipofiatitiJIica^JOftj inwhichCodhaiahavysr^lcea^ 
jn jdi a5 the partidpanti. 

Because at the nattir^ of the traniattlon, hnjwevcr, Invcjlvlng ab It does 
exchanges of property and not only the acquisition of pci^oni, wc should not 
bc5urpriH?d CO find a variety of concerns that ^vc inthc \(^est shoultl dassity as 
\Xsnvcnlionally legal, for raanihpk, rules tit -cvidcnw and [tistimonv, "Wc pro- 
ceed to the issue of rvidencr: what kind of claims a rr pcrmitiredf and whit sort 
ofrviience is required to suscain them^ 

l:i> A. He who marries a woman and did not find token ioF%ifj^n:ty'^ 


li- she Mp, 'Arieryoah^LroihednieJ vi-siMapcJs ^tidyour Hdd li»s 

C and ht sa^^i^ ^Not w^ but it was bcwrc 1 betrothed y^u^ and my 
purcihas^waiiflbargMnrTuid-ciEicrTor — 

D. RabbEin ^Lmc^n b. G^malid nnd R. Qiczci fayi 'She if bclio'cd/ 

E. R- ]o&}iuasavsT 'We do aoT depend on iier lesrimony- Bui lo, she 
remains in rhe^sumpEionof hsvij^g Jiad s^xui] rdaiions before sbe w^^ 
becroched and of having d^eived l^itn^ until jhe bfing; evid^nc^ to back 

Up her Iftimrafy] daim/ 

{Ibid, 1:6) 

1:7 A, 5h* saySp ^1 was injured by a. piece of vf-chkI/ 

B. and he say^H 'Nor io^ but you have been laid by a man - 

C RabbajiSimcDnb. Gamdidan-d R- Eliczcrsa^/Shc isbelicved," 

D. And K. Joshua saySn 'Wcdo noc<lcpend on her icscimony. Bur lo^ 

she remains jn cher as^umpiicn af having been laid bv a man, unnl she 
brings evidence to back up her tiLaini/ 


Arissucinche|XJSJdorajnHbutcdr[>[hesagQwhonouri5bL:d atthccndofihe 
fir^l ti^ncyrf ii ^h? v^igl^i oriwomari^t^^rinivliyai tv h^r^i^n 5talU5r}u5^^^ 
dentsndi evidence c<i susain the woman's da irti^ GaoialieUnd EHcmf accept 
chedaiiTi Aifjce v^lue-]cishujjpo5ifion invokes t-biepjintiplN:of comm-crcLal 
laWj 'H* who wishts lo exatt pif^mcnt of a claim fVum another bears dne 
burden of proof/ and since ac issue here js che difference of one hundred zjz^ 
chc^vomai is In [hcposicion of such a daimanL 

The 5imt dispute extends Eo a woman i allcgatioji as [0 ihc parentage oFher 
unborn childm i ca^ in -^hi-ch sh£ is nor wed. Ar^srake is rhcchild^ ^z^itii dti 
the hierarchy cif calces, prjesi^Uviie,lsraehte,nerin(orj^t^dLj' ill inderttiired 
Temple w^rkei), andmamie^rU p^r^oti Peking a cleat lincsgc:). iClhr woman 
claims the diild to be the offspring uf a pric^tn then rht child enjoys the status 
of a prie.^t anj mrty eat K>oa that is reserved For pricbtly cansumption and 
enjoy niher perquisites of iltf prinrbocMiorthcTempk Icib a valuable daim. 
encs ire not wedj if tKey are le^lj^ frte to marty - rhc ^vtijnan not be]ng 
bisttorhiiid or married to wme other ma-fi, for exampk - the child enjoys ihe 
SCatui ccinferred upon him b}' the lather s gcncaiogy, and no siigma denies ihe 
diltd that status: 


1:Q A |If| ihcy sawhcr^&c:^iLalJy}cQnv?mn^~^(liii nif^nm ctif 

Bh [and] chey said to her ^Wliac is the chuactcr of tills anc?"^ 

C [and t-he said J 1f [■iWr-So-and-io. and he- is a pricsf - 

r>r Rahban Simeon b- C-amaliel and B_ EJiczcj say, 'ihe is believed/ 

£. |And] R Joshua iays, 'Wc do not depend on her leitimory Bui lo, 
she remains in. the ^issumptiun t>t having had ^xu^l tcliltiotis wiih a 

nccin Q-r a raamzcr, until -she bnngs evidence to back up hcn^l^um/ 

(Ibid,, m 

1 :9 A. [If] she ^vas pregnantn and thcj" said to her '^Tiat is the 
-chancner of diis feint?' 

B- [and shi siidj Ic t^ hy Mr So-and^-sOn ind he is i pri«t' — 

C- l^btiii ^Jtnfnn h_ (isanihcl and R. Elic^i" savi 'She is hclicved/ 

D. lAnd] R. Joshuas^yi/Wcdtinut Jcprtidonher lescimoriy- Bui lo> 

-she remains in theassumpcian orhaving b^cn made pi^narltby a necin 
or a mamzCTa 

h-L ^Liiitihhcbrij^cvicicntciobackuphcrtiaiin/ 

(Ibid-, 1:9) 

Jo^ua's posicion in hadi cases remains cons-isiejitn ev^en ihough here, the pro- 
spective eFuni of ihe offcpring co :Eie emoluntcnis of rhe pFicschood ls not 
sddrt^iedcosn-t^ipwtfi^pifry- IffKo^nJMdaj a prieiCnChe child will get his 
ishntcofchepriesily aiionSn wLih Eheresuh [hat dieresiof dicpricsisgc: less, 
and thaisufliccj [O requirs the mocha to prove rhe siatus- of ihe child. 

What about lai^ coven ng the duratioji uf the rnnrflage. between inattiage 
and cither che dcach of oncofthcparfiK or the divtirtc by the husband oJ rhc 
wife^Thc lai^' of Judaism legislates mainly for the point at which the wf»inaiis 
staiLis changeSn that is, the bc^nnmgand the end oE the marringe: bdrrothaln 
marnaE^ ImarriiEeconrracr), and divorcer But "ill two aypt:t-t5 the bwijfjuda- 
iim li explicit in defiJiing r«|UiTcd txjndoct dtiring rhc martii^r First, [he 
womin musi pcifDrm. ccriEun duties for her hjsbE^nd, ^nd iKcfc c:?nc;m the 
maintenance ofdic household and the care of children. Second^ the husband 
i^nd [he wilf musi conduct a rej^tilai sexual life, neithet denyjng the other a 
norniii iexiial Telatiori^hip; that j£ a dury of marriagen not a favor as we shall 


see. The basic ph]]o5f>phy that ihc law emhodjes is^ how^veri iliai a woman 
must [lot b< left iJIt irid v^iilKiui i^utpo^cful, lascful Ubor lo perform. 

5;5 A, TheK are the Un-ds of labor taKicK a woman perf-nrn-bs Er>r Ker 

Bi 5hc (1) grinds flour, {2) bakcii brtad, (3-1 doc? LriLindf^, (4) prcpura 
mcaUp {5J feeds her cJiilA (&) makci the bcd> ^7) ^orks in wtxiI. 

C]. |lf} she brought wicli her a aingje serva.nt girL she docs no: 
(1) griiiJ. (1) Lake bread, or (3) do laundry. 

Dr fif shi^ hrOLj^r] twf}, ^hd dries noi (4) prepre meals ajiddoes 
(5) not JW htr child- 

E. {If ilic brought] three, ihe doK not {6) tnjke the bed for him and 
docs tiot (7) work In wool 

R Ifiiht bjaughc foiir, yhe sirs 4>n a rWntr 

G. Rx Eliczcr sa^'Sf 'Even iPshc broughr him a hujifLrcd servant girbp he 
torcL^ her to work io wool, 

H_ Tot" idlene^q lead-i lo linchaicicy:^ 

1. Rabban iSirTLponh-Ciajnihel u^/Aiw: hewhn prohibits hk wifcbv 
a vt?^v ffL^in pcrfoftncng my labor pLi[£ htr a^vay ajid p^y^ cif hti 

J. 'Foridkntsskads tobotedom/ 

The sgc5 at the aiDC lime propose to take acconjni ofdaisdiftcrcucn-rhoK 
wiihor WLLhouL^rvani^H bui s^bismatLLOpiuiQniscj^piicit that under alUii- 

cujn^cajiff^ [hc\\'omaLi mu^c enjoys tiscfiil role in liFc. 

Iti rliLh ecmiieaioji we .qhi^uld recall thai [he la'vv' nf Judajsr^i presupposies 
polygaJiija io tlic provi^ioti is LinporiaiiL in providj ng each wife t^ularaece^ 
tohcrhiisbanj^ i^cxu jl ^ervLCcs. and tKat jcxount^ for^hat follows. R^st, n^^ 
ther purtv rTki^y Mkejuflv^^ io H^ven hoc to -engage Lnsauilrobtjons wjrh the 
othci. Suck a vtiw would violate che given of the tiiarriage, ind neither parrner 
lifiddivithijia britf period- 

5:6 A. He ^ho takes avow not to have icxual relationi witli bis wife — 



B. Th^ ii-oiiscof ShaniTnai say, '[He mayJlow chii siiuiuon to 
coniiniic] for twxn w&cks/ 

C_ And [he House oiHillcl sav-, 'For oncwccfc.' 

On liientherhind, [he k^makciprovisioi for ihc husbands (uabicnichcrrr- 
ficlv*?^ fmm hnmf ff>r rcquLrcd perjods of nine, even chough that deprives tht 
wifir [>f rhe hiuh^nd^s seKual services. Ulic provisLon takes iccount uf N^thcr 
phviiuil obl^nons incuriibenr on che mann for c>:amplc, ^orktri on tarms 
and In Jnclds provide leSr those who Jn no[ engage in heavy liftings [nocc; 
chose who isvc at homci [^&re, those who Jtiujt rrivel, tess: 

D. Di^iplcs ^ forrh fo J ToTJih iiudy -wiihtjut |tt]cwiti;'i| a>ii5ciiiibr 

E. Workers go ou: for one week. 

P n"}i-esf¥Ljal dutyof^hjch rkcTorah speaks lEsod. 21:101: (1) thotu 
withoji work |of LndcpcndcninEini] -every day; (2) worker^ -twice 
a week; (3) ass-drivers- cncca ^"crk; (4) Cvund-drivcrt-onwin diiny 
days] <"^] s&Llor^s - onct in iiK months,' the words of R. ElicTcr. 


^Tiic hippjfns if rfii v'oman dtnicK h^ir Husband acttw rn htr h^? She is 
pcnali^ by a finCn deducted frtun the [narrijgc sctckmcnii of one denar a 
davii:ha[firiCOTntinursujitil the incite smlem^nc has heen used [ip. The hus- 
band has to pay a half^cnar a day in tht Mme circyri^^tance 

^j7 a. She who rebels against her husband [dK:linhgt<> perform rifely 
jKf^ces [M _ 3:5Jl — 

Br they dediic[ from her niarriagetoncracTicvcn dinars av^^idL. 

C. EL Judahsayss'Scvcci tftipaJN:*/ 

D. How long docs one continue to deduct? 

E. Until her c[H3icmiT[[agcujn[rjci] has bett^ wiidedl- 

F. R. Vosc sa)-s/He continues to d^lu-ci [e^^en htyfjtid the valueof [he 

maxriage conriacr^, for an inhcritaTitf may come {tcj litfj tron^ some 
ocher source^ from which he will colle^it what is due him. 



Gr And 50 is the rule for the man who rcbdsa^^n^c kjs wi^c Idcclaning 
Id da the husband s iduiLcs (M. 5:4)] — 

H. they add dir^rc dinars a week id her jnarnage oi^nEracc. 

[. R. Judih sayt» ^Three rropaicj-' 

(Ibid. 5:71 

CUearly^ ihe marriage mmracr forms tKc legal contract, including provi^ion^ 
rorenfofCtniiinf ijf fl]tcuntratr, that defines thtmarita] relaiJonsliLp Ies pur- 
pOiCj to ptohrct a wamar from divorce on a mans whim by niakii^ dEvorcfi 
co5tly^andto providefora womandmngsuchiimcasslie i^nonnjmcdio^ 
oan, i5tothc^vomanladva^^a^c. Biics^hai if die womin forfcitsher rlehc to 
thatadvantagebpvio^aiingthc^^'ens of the mirriag^T h^^iides [hes«iui] onc^ 
Then she loses her marriage secilemcnE entirely, making it e±^y for (he hus- 
band [0 divorce her. 

Sucha woss penaic}' applieSf in pardeular^ when a w<»E^jn vicUlCt the laiv t>f 
die Ibrahp andihis is defined widi $omepreei$L[^n: 

7:6 A- And chote women go frnh without rhe (ii/cntnr of rhe mamige 
con [race aiaJl: 

&_ She v^ho transgresses againsc the law of Moses and Jewish law. 

C .AjidivhatisThckw of Moses |which she ha5 transgressed]? {If] (1) 
^ tccds him Tood which has not been iithkcd, or (2) has ^fxuai r^lacLons 
t^tth hiili while Stic 35 mcnatruadng^ or |if] (3) she does not cut oEf her 
oflugn orreringp ox {4] [it] she vow^s and dtxzs noc c^rrj" out her vow 

D. And "what is The Jewish law^ If (') ^egoes out mfh her hnjr floiviiig 
iocssc-, or (2) she spins in the markecpijct, t^r (3) ih< talks with iu5t 

F- Abha SanS siyi, "AJhij ifihc curves hu parents m his presencn/ 

E R. Gallon says, 'Also: if she is a loudmouth.' 

G, Wbat i& a loudmouTh? Ulicn ^c ra[ki in her nwn hrtinen 

her nca^bors can hear her voice. 


The law of MosR involves four principal provietnns- tiphin^focid, rt^raintng 
from sexual relations dunng th^ nifn^iryil |h?riyd (U^r 15), i^Hmg apart 
dough offering, ajid not observing v-ows vol-unutil^ undcitakcn. Jewish Ia3v' 



concerns fcjnininc mod^ity^thcwijrnari musta^aidjny appearance ol at^cssi- 
bility laany man orhcr than her hii^bind.Hic sages add matters of conduct of 
another th^n sexual natuic. 

Ncn^' wc connc to a cnucal jssuc, rhc v^ih: accused of adtiliciy and hoi^ the 
law ded^ WL[h sucK a ai€. How docs Judaism in its dasskd staicmcnc d?^l 
widi iiifidelicyr""lhe answer begins ^"kh Nmnbers^, which lays our rhc rite of 
the drinkineof biCKi waicr bva ivifc wtiosc husband accuses her ofinfidcliry. 
In [hLsc-oimecidon^hov^v-erthiilialakhahof [hcMishiiah^nd Tal muds malus 
^stifi^menron fiinTiLly life [hji we should laot nid^s. ii isnhacche injuscice done 
to the innocent wiic, requited b}^ the husband's whim lo uiidergc^ the !- 
ating ordeal of the b]ttcr "wit-cr, icrvcs as the luilaldidrL^ ocuti]oti to [hake its 
definitive iTatcmcnt that God's just]« is perfect: the wicked get their -cxacr 
punishmcnr and the righicoui their prcdsr reward. For the sagc5 ihai aratr- 
mcuE becomes possible only here, for in ihcir view it is not enough to sho^w 
rhat sin or crime provokes divine rcs-ponse.and that God pcnali'zea e\-"il-doerS. 
jusdceindichcrcand nowcouncs only when the righteous also receive what is 
coming to them. Scrlptiire's casuai remadt chat che woman loiind innournt 
will bar more chtldren provokw eiaboraw dcmomriarion, outof the«iab- 
Isshcd&cus of hisTory thacSciipmrc supplier chac both righteous and wicked 
are s-ubj^r [o God^s Hawksa and c\^-cc |u&tic^. 

Thepenaicy muse He chccrimc^ measure n.iust match measure, and rhemore 
c<scr rh^rejulr ro rhet^uKe, iJie mor-eeampellingihc proofofim mediate and 
conuretc )u^tic:c ns the buLkling blotkc^fw'odd ordet trut the Siges w-oula [>lh 
ronh out of Scripture. That is the point at whitli justLLCis trunsioimcd fn>m a 
ir^uc gcncraiity - a mere semimcnt- tea precise and mcasurabl-c dimension 
ofchc actual 5iKial order ot moral it>": howrhin^hold tt^iha vvher su-bjeit 
to tc-nsiun, at the prew-ure points ofstmt^urci Jiotmetcsjf ho^' they arc arrav'cd 
in general. "Here, in fiici, is howGoJ Txinide the"wor]d: what is good a.bcnit the 
creation that God pronourcedgood. An d i:[> make chat point, the iagea select a 
rite rhac retks of injustice^ liie case oFthe svlfr accused of adultery and the 
ordeal ro which she is sub|-cciKi. Ihcirprcseracion ofrhernCn ]n chcseinngof 
home and ^mily, it framed so ai lo dernonHrare Gods perfecc piisricc - not 
oniv-inihepubhclife-ofl^raerssociaiorderLbuiiii rhe here and now of home 
j.nd l^n^ily. It is haird ro tinda less; likely Candida re iT>t$erv[££indemonsTrjrinp 
that proposition thah the subject before -Its, Puts for teasoristhst axe now dear^ 
rhc 5ages idcnti ficd the topic as the ideal occ^isionfotsa^^ing just that, Hcfeaie 
rhc main points of rhc halakhah or the MLshnah ^!nd!cai:ea by M,) and the 
Toscfta (marked by T} on (he ri(ethal tests ihc wile accused of adultery. 

I Itivokii^ the Crdleal 

M. 1:1-2 He wh^tcsptts^sjealou^iohiswifclcoriccftiitighet 

relations Hih anuihcj m^n (Nunir ?i]^)l ho^i'dwshe ?^ptcs^ j«l->ijij 



m her^ [If] Ke suced w Ker beFl>re rw&wifcicsses/OtN not sp<ak witJi 
Mr-Sd-in-d-so/atidihe iridced spyke tvlch hitu^ t-htitill is permitted t-o 
hive seztuAlrebtioniViithhtr husband and ii permitted ta cat priestly 
rati-ons, [li\ snc went with him to some pnvatr place and remained with 
him for suftlcicrr Nmf to become unclean^ ihc ii prohibited from 
having scsoal rclaiiom ^"irii her husband a_nd [\[ the liuiband js i 
pMC?[p| she it prohibited (tqih eating prLesdyrantm^. A^d if hi: |her 
huibajid] should dicn she performs :hc rin oi J^lisah |rcmovjnE dic- 
5hoc>^huih 5cveriher rciaiiorLship lo rLc childless husband's iurvi^^ing 
hrodier in hne with ?he U^of DeuL 25^3-101 bvr as not taken hito 
Uvirace niarri jge- 

Tl:2 "filial h [hei:haracterofEhtfiiittnEimon>'[M 5oiJ:21^Thi5 is 

the leaimori}' concernirtg be r going olFabne [with iDUfh find such 3 
person I. The sec<>nd [ccsrim<t[i/]?Thi3 iittstimociy concerning her 
having been [njdc icntlcan. Atid how long ii tlietimt reqii]red For 
bcoomjng unclcjn^ ^Limdeni: time ta bavc-serual relations. j^nJ hoyi 
much is^iimcienttinic for bavEng s;c:(iLaJ [elatcons^ SuRicient urae for 
^»ual tont^t. 

M.l:3 And dicse women [marned ro pnests and accused oFLinfaiEhful' 

ncss| arcprohibjEcd From eating priji^stlj" raiionA^ ( 1) She who says^ ^l am 
unclean ceNyoti/ ^nd {1} ^he ag^in^c whom wLTiie^^ej^ terrified that fhe JS 
unclean; and C3) she '^^/ho saysn 'I ^lull not drink the bitter vrjtcr/ acid 
(4) &he whObf bu^b^nd will tiol force her to drmk it^ -and J5J she whose 
hiish^rid hi-iWKuyl reUciorKwiEh heron [hcwiy |up to Jerusalem for 
[he r];eofdrinkingtktwaftt|- Whsc should he do itL re:ip<:^^lo btr? Ht 
brings her to tht cjjurt ita that pLite (in whith thc;^ livej, and [the 
judgesi handover to bii:n two distipics of sages, lest he have ieKual 
relations with her on the way. 

Thc^e&a.mpliJy ibckwof rhcToraharN'umbcrs S by invoking a vaFJety of 
juridical proiecrioiu for ihc wife. Formal rcscimon^ ls required beForc die 
woman is [bre^KiiedwLih die loss fifiwr property intin-pjymefiL cFlK^^ iRflf- 
rkage seidei-nent]. A ^^taecv of sdruiEinns rtiult tn fhe mjllificatioti of^the ritCr 
Jnihenarcjuvecjf rbefJtil^tiKdfjWehejtalso frorn theTdnmdoF&abyJoiiia 
(maiked ^ BO , which. ampllFics the rite and cfihanu:^ its di^ina. 

II Nanratjve of th-e Ordeal 

M.L4 T}h\iy i^ou-ld bring her up lo :hc high courc which ls in 
Jenisikm^nd admoni^ hera^ [hev jdmoriE^b wiin^f^ imapiraJ 
aitvie. Tlieysa) loher, 'My daLig;hterj much]* dune by wlncj much is 



dpncbj^r^kingaround, mudjiJ dynvb/ kidding iirvuridj rriijcb Is done 
by bad friends. For thi: bate of cht greairNaTnc which ]i written Lh 
holiness^ do ic so that ic will rot be blotted out by v^atcr [Num. "5:23}' 
and dicy tc-ll her Jiing^ whldi neither ^c nor the family -of her hiihcr's 
house sliDLiild \k hcaung. 

Tl1?(] And jnacas ihc court idmonishcs her to repent [M, Sor, l;4]^ao 
ehep adnwnisti her ncpt m repeLm TherefoTe chtysay zo her ^Ncw my 
d^Ughi^r^ ]f Lf ]£ perfectly clear to ya^ thai ynu at^ clc^n, si^nd your 
ground And dtinfc- For th-ese wireri are N^nly lifct a dty s^ive which is puc 
on living il-csh ana docs no harm- If there li A wouEid. iT pcnetrACcs and 
goes through |the ikinn and ]£ there ]s n-o vround, it has noerhxl]. TWo 
accjscd wives are not made m drink iimulcaneously, so that one not be 

B.l:4lin 7D And Jicy tell her diings...[M. 1:4C1: He telh her 
[fsson^ of nan^civi: and events that took place |and ar-c reHTorded] in die 
earlier wnunj^s [of rhc Pc-Jitateuch] . For example ^Which wise men hast 

cold andhav^ ncic hid irom Ehi^rfechcrs [by eanfesingtfieir iir]' [Job 
13:1: 3) Specificillj': Judih confessed and VTiinoT ashamed TO dthsa 
Wl^ai *aj hi^ds^Lny? He inherited che world ro coni-e_ Reuben 
confessed and -w-ai iKit Ashamed to do so^ Wh^i wns li is destiny? He 
inherited the world tt> eome- \(^hat T^as chtirrc^jrd? Wh^t wjj their 
leward^I Rather, \^liat was their reward in thisvix^rld^ 'To them alone 
the land waigi^rn, and rvo stranger passed among thcni^ {]^^ 1^:19)- 

M.l;^ [Now] ]f5t]C5aid^ 1am unclean/ shr gives a quittance fcir her 
marriage coniracT [which Ls noi paid overio hcr]^ and goes forth [with a 
writ ofdivorcej. And if fhe^aid, 'I am clean/ they hnng her up to the 
Eastern Gare^ H'hich ij at the entrance of Micanor's Care. There ii ls thar 
ihey force licensed wlve^ to drink the bluer water^ and ihey purify 
iv<^rntn ifttr i:hildh!rchand [vit^Lfykpii-^. And a pri^^t gi^^bi h^p tlc^thet 
-ifthcy(c5i[. [hey teiir, und if ihey jrerippp?dup, ihey jre ripped tif> - 
untLI he ba_rc5licrbKti5t. And hcicars her hair apart [Num. 5;]8|, 

T_l:7 Pricsrs cast lots amons themselves. WTiocvei won the lottcrj^T 
ever^ a high priest, gtKS out and stands nest to the acctised wife. And a 
priesrgiabs her cloches - if dwy teat, they tean and if rhej^are ripped 

lip. They iw ripped up - until he baiei her breast. And }\c rears her hair 

M I :(} |lf| she wa£ tloched in white ciothiiig, he pars black clothes on 
her. |lfl she HmI g<>ld jewelry, ckaansn nost-ringin and finger rings on^ 
thcj^ rate tlierri awjy from her to put liej cft shinie_ Tlien he brings^ 



Iflpe jnide ftkic of rwjgs aod ilcs h abc>vchcr hrca^tSr And wfn>c^\"r wants 
to itart S-t her comes and jE^ref, excepr for her hoy-slavc& and drl-slavcs, 
since iri ^ny case she hii no ihanic before chcm And all womrn arr 

allowed to SC5i^ sr Jier^ since jc is^ald, diac all women may be tau^hr 
rwr to do silt^r ynitr lewdness JEzek. ?3;^S). 

Now comtt (he prirtipn] ]ttSon [hat ihc sages wLih ed draw from rbc ntc - 

vKhich ibcydc5cribwloui of their itnagLjLuion tn h^mwiih. icmnccrm the 

Theological piincipk chat animates J udaistn {;^tid Ulam a^ well), ^^^od is | use,. 

whan happens comci about by tiis will^ and the punlflimeni chai J person 
r^eives niaKzhes ihc crime thai has hern commictod. FiriEthc cxpoiJtioi^ desds 
with the <jse at hand, uid ihcn ii gencialiaK. 

Mrli7 By rhatidmerrLeaiureb^whirfiamai mctcivoiu [toothcisl do 

rhcy mcieoui lohijn. she primped herself for sin, rhcOmniprcscnr 
m^dt htr repLil&L^^..Stie expand htraelf for ^ini [beOmniprcKnc 
cKpowd hef_ Wdrh the chieh she h^^n ro sin^ and afccrvKard with the 
bclly^ tlicitlbre ihe thigh safters the curse fuscT and aherwardEhc belly. 
But the rcit of tiae boiiy d^^e£ not escape [punishmenil. 

T.3:2 And so you find tK:it with regard ici rhe accus^id wjfc: with rhc 
measure with ^^hkhsh^ m^Euredouii with thjr me-iitire do die/ mere 
mir ro her. She srood before him so A5 i:ol>cpmry bcfiitchim, ihcrefofe 
jprLt^LfiLand^her upinfioniofcvci^^body (odispli^hcr^h^ui?, ^icb 
saidh And the priesc will sec ihe woman, before the Lord (Num. 5^ I8)r 

T_3:3 Slii^ wrapped a beauiiful scarf for him, thcjchjrc ^ pncit takes licr 
cap frorrt lier head and pjis ii urder ir^oc. She braided herhali iot hem. 
iKerefort ipfL^f loK^ns jr. She painted her fccc for him, thercbrt: h er 
fawisfrttide 10 tutn yellow. She put blLLeonherej^esforhim^ rhcictcirc 
her cyci bulge out^ 

T. 3:4 SheiignaJed to hirel wich her ijnMr^ ihereFore her finccrnails fall 
out. She showed him her fleshy rhercfort i priesr ce^r^ her cloak and 
show&her shame in publi-c. Sbc tied on a belt (vr him, therelx^fe i prLesi 
bnngsa jope of cwigs and ncs lc ^jovc her breast 5^ and "^vhocvcr w.^antt 
w ^Ufecrtivife-h Atid £r^rK^iher |M. &ot. 1:6C-D]. She pushed her 
thigh at hicn, rlietefore her rhi^ falh. She cook him on her bdly, 
cher^corc her bdly swi^ih. She fed h^ni goodies, ihcrcEvrc her mi^i 
offerijig is fir for a cffw. She cave hlni die bcsi wines to drink in elegant 
eoh]ec5j ilieretbre ihe pnesi tives her ihe birter iv^tcr ro drink in a day 



T.4:l I know only wdth leeard lo rhe mi?a£iit^ nf rerHbution rhaf by 
that fame mcaiure bv'whLi:h a mm nieKS out, fhcy mere out to him 
[M. Sot. 1 :7A_. How do 1 kjioin^ chac the satne h so with the inKiiurr of 
goodness |M- !>oi_ 1-9A]? Thus do tou i^y: 'The measure of goodness is 
five bundled Times greater rhin rh* mofthureofrctribuiion/Wch regard 
10 the measure of teinbucioii ii iS writicn, Yiiidng ch-r sin ofihc faiher^ 
on the sons and on iKe ^t^ndst^ns to rh^; third and founli ecneraiion 
{Esod. 20:51- -And with regard to the mcasiirc of goodness J: is wrjEren^ 
Andcioirigmercv for fh<>usandi ;Exod. 20:6). You m-usi oherefore 
COcK^ludc that the mKiiUK otgo-odoess is five huadred cime^ gJfijter 
jbm the me^urc ofrclribLJUon. 

The discuiijon now ukc£ up odierci-tes in wlai-th j^mnetijrc punished jiisdva 
and in a prcponionace manner, for dieii sin. 

M. 1:8 Samson toltowed his eyes |whet¥ (hey led him], thcr-cfcrc the 

Ph[]istinci pu: oui his eyes, since ir \s raid, And the Philistines liid hold 

on him and putoui hi.scy^:^ U'^g^ 16:21), Ab^Edomivas proud cFhi^ 
hair, therefott he was hun^ bj Kishiit JT Sam,r J 4:25-26]. And sinte 

he had soLual jeiicions with \tn contubinK oPhis ^ther, ihcrcforc ihey 
diruicien spear heads into liis tody, since it is said, And icn young men 
rh^r C^tlicd J^tOo s jmlilr su iround^ a.nd rSmoce Ahsaloni and kiilt^^ 
him' [I] Sj.Jn- ltt:l5}. And^incc he sioie three heant-hi^faiher'sHthe 
<cun'^f Etnd the IsiiiciiEcf -since ithaaidH/VndAb^lnm ^loleih^hCrirE 
of the men ol hrviV iU Sam. 1^:6) - Therefore ihree darts were thruit 
inro him ^incc ir ts S3]d. And he lo-ok rhree dares m his h^nd w^ thnist 
cheni through the heart of Absalom^ {II Sam. 18:14)- 

Thc luklihjh itvcm toa dcscripdonof ihc riLc, v^hidifrom heic onward is 

M. 11 He lihc husband (hTom. 5-l^}f ^'<pM bring her mea! offering 
in abaskcr ofpalm-rwigs anil lay i( Into her hands to tire hcrout. A]l 
itteiUferLJi^ ir rhe cjiiT::ef aod allheend are In a uiensilof scrvEce. 
"BuL this one III ihcouiicc ii in basket of palm-Twi^^ ind [only] i[ die 
ttid is In a utei]sil of sendee. All mca] ofFcrinns- require oil and (rankjji- 
cen^^ Rut thi^ one m|uircs neither oi] nor frankmeer^^. Alt meal 
ofteringsdrrivf from whcar. Bui this one d-crives from hariey As to the 
ime^l olha"LngoJ the first ^hcaf (omcrin evers rhou^ ic liom] Jerivcs frr^m 
Iwrley. it wuuld derive from siltffli fl-our Bjt chii ar*^ derives ftvn^ 
uniihcd flour Jusiasshe acted i ike icow so her offetrin^ iilflodflira 



M.2:2 lie |thc hu^bsTid] 'wouEd brin^ Ackv bowl and put in it a 
half-log of water firom ihe laver. And he [the priest] goes inio ch*? h^khal 
and Qirns co bis ngbt. Now there W3S a plane, an ainali by an amaliH 
widi a marble ftagstone, and 2. ring was anachcd to it. And when he 
rjjs^ ii [ftie^i^ne-hh^ tookche dim Fmm uiidi^ricandpiitirliitcoche 
bnwiof waKrli-SufRcietiT m be visible nn [lie watcrj sirice i[savs^ v\n.d of 
tihc du^ that Lj ori the (loi^rof tKe tabernaele the priest shall take and 
pucit Liitu the-vi-arcr'CNLiiti, 5A7h 

M.2:3 He came to ivnte the acruUr Prain"whaC passage |iil St^jlptuit] 
did he write? From 'If no man has lain with rhw... but ifthciuhajr 
gone aside ^Lchanorhcrinsrnd of ihy husband ■■/ (Muni, Sil^f h ^^^ 
he does noc write> And chc pilcsT shall cause chc^voman co swear' 
tNufn. 5^21 J. vVid be ThvriteSn The Lord make thee a curse and an c>atb 
anioiij;ihy people... and dus ^aier chat causeth thf cui^e shall ^ into 
idty bowels and make ihy belly to si^^ell and thy thigh to ^11 away.' B-ut 
hedo^s noEWJJte^ 'And rhc\^onian shall sa>";A_menH Amen!' 

W_i^4 He writes (I) neither on a LahleCj {1} nor on papyrus, (3) nor on 

unpKpjn: J hidci biit orsJ v oai Ipatchnitm] scroll, ^ince it 15 wncten, jna 
bmjk [Nuni, 5:23K And he writes (U neither with gum, [2) nor wich 
coppcra^ (3) nor^di anythlr^ vi'Wh makes a lasting aiflprtiijon |on. 
d^c writing material] H but only with ink.sinffit ii wriitenrAndhc will 
blo[ iroQ[- writiij^whidicanbc blotrcdout, 

T_2: 1 He would cake her scroll and biing jc inio due Temple plaza. Now 
dierc was a ^old flagstone set up dierc by chc wall of the hddial 
[santTuaiy proper] . And it wa£ visible from the ulam. At diai point he 
see It, and hewricesH-nejdier leavmg otiL iiytLmg nor adding anything. 
He goes ou t and 5ijnd,s by [he jccusfid wjft. H^ reads it iloud ajid 
cxpliiris ir and sptllsc^ut ev^erv derail of the pericope. Aa^d he says it to 
her in whatever language she under^uridsH so that she will kiuw hr 
whatshrisdrinkingfhcbictcrwatcr and ft>r what Jridderi sht \^ 
drinking it, on ^bat account she is accused or being undcran^ and undc:~ 
wha^ circumscancci she is accused ofbcingunclcanr And he says 10 her, 
'[ Ln~vok-c an oa.Lh upn you - And may it CDmc upon yoj/ 'And may 
ihev cnane upo-n you' - this is [he etuse. '1 invoAtfi an each upon you" - 
l.hU u ^ oath. 

M_?:3 To wh^t dncs she say, Amen> Anoen? [1] Amen w the curse' 
[Num. 5:21] (?) "Amen to th* cath iNum. 3:1 yj. 13) Amen chai Ji^ras 
n^; -ivi^h ;his p^rtj^ul^r man. (4) Anien rhar it wa^^vich no other man."" 
(3) 'Amen that I ho^*; nor e^^t^ a^ide while betFotlied^ married^ awaning 
LeviraccmarriagCi or wholly taken m 1 -evirate rna mage/ W Amen dur 



I was noi ma-dc Linclcan, and il I >va5 made undrs-nj nia^ ir (the biiitr 
water] encec Ifilo me.' 

M ?'6 All connui iJiar he [ihc hioshand] may make nosupulation with 
her aiwmi anything whjch happened before- she waibciroihcd orafccr 
she may he davanzed- [If aficr ihe wa_s puc iwayln shfwen: aside wich 
som* orhfi- c^iti and beanie urtcl^n, iiidifi^rwaid h^ Irhefifsr 
husbiftidl icxifc Kcr bjck, he[nakeiino>iLipLdaiioii"wnli her Iconcerntng 
iKh an event |. Til i?^b [h? gcnerjJ pt'ini;jpJ€^Coni:^mingjinv£iTU3TJoii 
in which she ma^^ have bc^xual relations in sucEi wise A5 nof i<i be pn>hib- 
Etcd |n> h^r }iii5t>and| , he |thc husband] may make no stipuJadc>n what- 
soever wich her 

M. 3:1 HcvFT>uld lake her meal offering from the basket made of t^ngs 
and pui i[ jmoa uicnsji afscrvicc and layit into her Laids. ^^da piirsi 
puis hjs hand aider hers and waves lc [the meal offering]. 

M 3'2 He waved ji [N"Ljm_ S:?^] and hn>Ei£hr i: near chc: alrar He rook 
ahaiidFid |nf the meal offerjrigl and burned ir up [on the aJi^rl . J\inA 
(he residue 15 e^t^n hv rhe pije^ri- He would ^Lve her rhe warer 10 drink. 
An-d lonlyl aAerivard he would offer up lier meal offering* 

M.3:3 [If] before rhc scrt>ll k blotted our. ^he said, 'I am nut going lo 
dnnk rhc warcr^ hcr5£roil is put a^^ay and hrr meal offering is acicKred 

on rhe ashes. Gut her scroll is not^^alid for che water flrdta] of anorhcr 
aeeused wife. |lf] hcrstroLI was hlomed out and ihen ^esaid. 1 am ncnt 
goj ng TO drink it/ they for-ce her and make her drink ic againsc her vdl[. 

L2:2 He goes in and wnres chc scrolln corner ou: and hlors it aut. It 
heF<ifi ihc scioli ]l h[o««l ^m, she i^yi, 'I am noc going ro drink it' [M. 
Soc 3"3A^orif the^ajdi '] am unclean /or if wirnctscs came and 
[Lsiified Lb^[ ^\\t i.s ani:le^nH the \vaiei is- poui*^ oul And nn ^anciJiy 
jdlactcs tt» it. And ihc sct<jl1 ^'riuen Jbr her ls h]dden under ".he hefchal^ 
jnd htrr meal ofTcring is sciicered |M, Sot. i3A]r 

T.Z:3 (Ifl the icrolL is blotted qui and she saidn ^I am unclean/ the 
waEer is poured out, and her meal oEtenng js scacc-cred on the ashes. And 
hericroli i^ not valid forrhev^'ater CHrd«[ of another accused wife [M- 
Sol3:3C B|- Ifiicr scroJ] h bbtucd cue and then fihc s^i^, '] am not 
goin^ 10 drink it/ thcv foKC her and md^e her diLnk k E^iinst her will 

M_3'4 She hard^v suffLced 10 drink it before her face turns ydlow, her 
ty^^ bulge nur^ and her veins swell- And ihcy ^y, 'Take her awa^'^ Take 


h^ra-wayrsoihat the Tcrnple Court wiJl not be titade iin clean [by her 
ccrpsej. [Hue jf ncmhing happened], if she Kid rl1erdL^ slie ^voultl 
«mbuK Ihcigoodforrjnt] mir. There is the po^-^jhiliry thiTinerk 
suspends rhc-cursfforonc vx-ar, andihcrcih thepOiiibiHt)^ihnnicrii 
fusnends- ihc- curse for two j^ars, an.dthcrt ii the p(>isibiJicy rhat rrttrti 
i^iipcndf ihe-cufse for ihrcc ycais. 

T2:S |lf) wLmesw5 came igainsihcuo testify thai she waiundran^ 
(}nr ^^y or tJi^ ^cher fhe meal oUefin^ js pr^hitiicd. |If| ihev luFncd 
out to b<_' tonspiting w-^ifnessci^ c>ne way or the orhcr her meal <}Hrring is 
TTcaccdasurwxinsctratcd, Jn iKe astof any vjoman married ro a priesi^ 
whether she is a prleat-gid ora Lc^ire-gifl or ^n Israel iLc-gtrl, her meal 
otferrngisnoreaicn, forhcJiai asKaitf in it Bur [henfTt^ritfigisnchL 
wholly consumed in the lire, bctauKiht has j share in it. Whar sfiould 
he do? "iTie handful is ofivrcd bj iticif, and the re^ue l5 offered by 
jLself- A pritsT srands and mak« <jfrcrirLgs at the dra^ which is noc rhe 
caie of a prjcsc'girl [cf. M. Sof. J:7j. 

The lijl-^khah pnicefdsio a varjety of secondary |]<jiiitST but itsporrrayalof ohe 
rite ii deiffrotii "whac hai been given. 

The Writren Torah ai I^iinihers ^ appears superticlally to have ser torrh che 
piogram of the Grjl Trt^^h"^ halakl^ah, buc in J^e^ sages have che 
CDiirc program of tht topic. Fiisi of ill ihe haiakhali rakes rhc ordcd and 
encases k En|Liridica] prooaJures hucL as mlesof evidentzcngmdchnesmtant to 
piforeec :hc woman from ncc<l]e^s csLpOSure to rhe ordeal ro bc^tn wirh. The 
haJakhah radically revises rh-c entire traFiS-ialon wl^cn it sa^-s. ihhe hiisband 
^presKS jealousy b}'insrmet]ng his witetiouo^peakwtdiasptcifjttlpcnon. 
and rhc wjfc spoke wirh the mrin, [hctc linnjiLndii^i resuLi - ahc sclII is pcr- 
n-ilHedrohavcMrsual relations with her hiid^and- Butjf ^e-wem wiifi him lo 
some prjvace place and rcmain-cd with him k^ sufftdent rime to become 
uridtirLj jl^e isprohibir^d from having sr:cua] rclatiimi with h^i hij^batid aiid 
if the huijbartd i^ J ptiesi, she is piohlbEEcd from eating pricidy raiionh- 

Th^ haUlchah -EhtJicor^eeiveiofacwo-stagc process, t^vokind-Sof ttstiniony. 
In the first kind, she iswartied J^fit ro gei jnvolvcdnbuc she Is not chcn prohib- 
ited w :hc husband. In tne -Second, witJiessesartesrihai ihc can havecommir- 
red adultery. Not only 50h but the Julakhih wanes valid evidence if it is eo 
deprive [he wife of her marFiagcseulcineni. If a uiigle w-iincss lo [heacr of 
ij-irercDursc is available^ that docs not Suffice- Tenple whf] ocdinardy tannot 
r^IiulyaJ^Lnsl:he^donot have thep<NWcr to di^j>rive her of her prof>crcy rights 
in ihe niarnage^ for example^ hct mother-in-law and che daughter of her 
of her huiband. She 5iill collects her iCtilcmcnt- Rtjr because of rhcir mci- 
nionv. ^he diie^ Jiot undereo the nie; she i^ divorced in due course a^^d die 
trdiiiaanjJi t-oticlude& dieie. 



Ek^rc the ordeal is invokcdn ihc Oral 'Ibrah ihcrefore wanes some son of 
solid evidence {!) af unEovrard seruaJ acuLvJcy and aJso (2) of d^ar aciLoii on 

rhe pan of rhc wafc: ai lease die possibjlicy^ corfirjiicJ ihrough a spfcificciaej 
rha[ adultery hai caken place. Scripriirc Icatrci ci-erj'ihing ro [he hushaiid'^ 
whim, rhe tpirJT ofjeaiousv/ So here if iKe hu-^band gives hji scarement cif jtal- 
ousjr and di-e wife lesponds b» ipiortiig iKe icaitment, die oidedl does rtot 
apply. By lier specific ^ctjan the wife hiii lo indicaK ihc; p<,-»i5]bilLfy th^r rlic 
tiusliand is nghi- Thi.s i^ a far cry from Scripture"'s 'spirit of jcaJouiy,' For the 
WrirMfLTnr:ih.iheord«l^etritulfqii«[ion^. Ft>riii-eOr3]Tor;ih. (he ordeal 
tdkc^Ntin^Eunly in tard^ulh"dcJ]nL^tiiiQYdit;rc(l)iulHdenr evidence cjLigD 
W inv<>kc die rite, biLt f2) inaufTicicnr evidence co malic it unnecessary: 
wdl- established doubc, so to speak. 

The halakJialiofirheOralTorah introduces [he fumher clarifLcaiLoii ihai che 
mrrisprmjsTbcavaltdone; JfThcmarnageviolatM thekw^ffrheTc^FiLfor 
CMHipic, the marriage of a ^"ido^v toahighpnc3[, iifie rice of die ocdeal does 
not apply. The rice docs nor apply ai che becrochaJ siate^ only to ;i Fully con- 
sumniaicd marriage. If the Fianc^ exprc^^ italnusy lo (he berinrhed or the 
icvir lo rhe deceased childless :irncher'^ widnv/, Jio rite is inflicred.The sugfci 
sevef-ely i[mi:ed m range of applicabiLcy. iiol onl>^ scj^ hui the ni^rnagt mav 

wcl] be scared wLihou: the ofd-ealbeLfLgJnfliciedj ifihciviltixrLlthsesJfihcrc 
arc wiinesses [o rhe acr^. if che wife declines r^ undergo the ordeal, if tht hiis- 

kind declines to detiifliid ir^or tfrhe husbjrtd hs^^xud rekdona wJthheren 
TOure fO tl]c |3crformancc of the ordeal -all these are reasons for not lEnposiog 
mente. In such tascsthe!ta] bond ]scailcd Lnroqiiesijon^so rhe wife loses 
hcrsHinsas wifcofapricstH^hoddrhehusbandbca prjcii. If Ln[h*pFeljmt- 
Ill^ic?l^lhec»rdcd£hccvr]Ecffc&, ^ci^grTeniwrLt^fdivorcCiioun^hc^ 
ris^ setilcrrjcnt. Only il she concEnucs to plead puncy i^ the ordeal imposed. 
TTie details of tlie rite are aieant to match due sequence of actions thac :he 
unkithfij] wife has taken ivirh the para_moujT beaucLfuilycxpoLincied ar M. 1:7 
and its accompanyLJig To^efta-conipo&iK, cited ifi rhe in^rpreiivi? ^ecd^ii of 
lliis accounlj 

The halakhah. jii3:kes proivision for the c^c^c^mnoti ofihe rice> dcjwn to the 
poinr ar which die ^roll i^ hIacLed out. with th^ divisie riuriief inscribed 
therein. Ac char |wint. rhe accused wife Cftii no longer draiv back from ihc 
O-rdeaL ThatlTiOine ril i^atohej, in effect, the momenlofdealh for :he sacrl- 
Hccr, ivhcn wi have to dhpose of the anrmals that he has aancufied for hii 
o-ffering. But if at that point she conlxsses, rhc warcr is poured out, and she 
loses her marriage s^ttlcmcnr, but is otherwise left alone. So loOn if wirnesse^ 
CNjm cor if she refuses fo drink, or i( rhc husband pulls out^ :he meal offering is 
burn<:d. I( we hjd to suinmar]ze in a smgle sentence (he main chrmr of che 
hakldiah of Sc«ah> it is to crcaie rhc condirioos of perfccin unresolved douht^ 
solar as chehushand isconcernedi alongside perteccccrrajnr)" of inncrcencej^o 
for as rhe wife is conceined. Despire rhehujniliarion [liic awjic^^ she i^ii'illtng 
rQ place her niarFriag£seErLenien[ Oil rhe lifkepjo suit ii she rlidt die hi Luni^jai^ 



Hibilaubt i3wdl-loun-dcd,biiE remains a mattcrofdoubcnSounceii^LrLLslieof 
Kcr^tatu5. Then, and tinly chcji, the ordca] inicrvcnesio resolve iheexqujsjcety 
balanced scale i?f her certainty a^jnst his doubt. 

As thr sages ic-prcM-nt the ordeal unposed on die accuitd wifcn [hey ujider- 
5corcrhrcKacl iiiiciccihai [heordealei:ecLi:e5-"l"hecxposiLLnnof [he ropic jn 
die MJihnah and rhe loselia^ iherefoxealso inrK^ lilniudsi tav^h^avy'cniphtt- 
sis LipoQ hcl^^^ mcaiure for measure, rhe pLifiJskmenr fits ihe ciinie - but tl^e 
r^r^'ard rvLaithes :hevLr[Lie as welL Wha[ Theguilcywife hai dc^ne, rhtl Aw pun- 
ishes ippmpriaiely^ hue rhey alsr? poinr cruzas^ \n %vliich acf£ of^mtrit ret'eis'fi 
^ppi^>pt■i.i^ti¥C*g[lLUOLUn[^fewa.K^.lIlEhibway (he lages makt (he point that, 
with ill [he wslls cf [he hou5cht>ld, rule* of jiLsucc proail wh rcwird for 
gocdness [tnd punishment fcr cvij th?st±n<iardiii ctte household as much as in 
public lile. ''^'Tiy the siges have chos<:n thehdakhahor rhe accused wife a.-(die 
vxnue tor their sysE^matkcsposit ion of riie divine iawof jusiic-^ is no: difFiculi 
t-o explain. 

Here is the fflg«'ae-roiint of Gods iuiticc,whifhi& always eommMSjrar^, 
bccti lor reward and puntshmcni, [nconscquenccoFy^ich d^c prcscnc pcrmEia 
us to peer into ihefucure with ceriaiJir}'ofiviiar jsecungio happ^r^ {M_ Soc. 1: 
7ff). What is striking is ihc sages' identifiiiation ofrheprecisi&n of iLis[icej die 
cxacc match of accion and rcacciQn_H each siep in the sin^ each st^p in the 
response, and^ ahovcalij the immediacy of CiO[l's pre£enee in cheencire trani- 
action/lhcydrawgentnlcoticlusiomfftsm rhe ^ped^Ec^uf [he law rhat Scrip- 
ture leis lonJis diid ih^i i> whcrr jyiicmaiic thinking about ^vemin^ 
ptinciplcs takes over from e]ceget]cd learning about cajieSfOif inouro^n cate- 
gories, philc^sophy from history, noted earlier. 

A. By that sjme measure by which a man met-es aut lioothersjn do 
(hj;y mere i?ut [ohim: 

B. She primped herscll fcrsin, rhe OmnLpresenr made her Kpuhive. 

C 5he exposed htrseJf for sEn, dieOmnipresenc expose J her 

(Mishnsih-iractateSoTah 1:7) 

Wc begin VF-]th the sages CN>vn geaeral ob-ser^'ations based on die facQ sec Eorrh 
in Sctjpture. Tlie course cnF response of thevi^oman accused of aduircry ro her 
drinking ot the bitter water thai is supposty] co produce one re^nk for rhe 
guilty, atotlier for the innocent, is described in Scrcpcure in rhjs languages 'If 
10 man ha^lain with vou .„ be free from this warcr of bLttcrncssrharbrrngs 
thtcursc, ESutifyouhHiAT;gone:a5rray ... Ehcnlht Lord make you an i:]{ecra[]on 
. .. when the Lord makes your diigh ^1 away and your body swciii may [his 
v^'iter ... pass in[o^~ou.r bo^vels and mak£ yourbod^? svwiil and yntir [Jiigli fail 
a.w'ay^ [Num. 5-2U-22). "ihis is ampliii^d aiid ^^paruJed? e;ttenJed t[j clic 



enciieriiej whert che womiii ts d-islieveled; flien [he^rder, thiahj bellv^ sfiow^ 
ciie perfect pfeciiioncifthe|ji^iM]c>-- Whyt Si^Rprurc tran-^ ^^-^ s c^aw:, the agrs 
Lf^nsform LntfN j gefierjlliation, io miking Scripture yiiAd g<>vcfnirg ruJes^ 
The same pa^sa^ proceeds to further tavci. -which prove chc same polat: 
where [he ^in begins, (JifrrEhcpijnijlim.fnr alsommmcntcii; but abo, where 
f^n a-vft^fyiiiu^Bkjs its point, there divine rcvr^d focuses as vrtlJ, kisenvu^ 
merely to list the follov-jng FiJimcs, ^ithoiEc spelling ouc deciils ^ the coeno- 
Kent] of Scripture ^tII h^vc und^rrstood that poinr: Sajnionn Absalom^ 
Miriam, Jcxsq?ti>ard Moies. Knowing iiow Samson and Absaloni much, aiid 
also Miriamjoscpk and Wos?s^Wl^ldlh^!n suffice w^iabli^ die paired arid 
marched general princjples. 

Jif^lce rc^jjj re? n^^ WjpunJ^htnitrn ofihesinntiortheguiliybmrcvFard 
ohheri^ht£OLJ3i]idrUegoodi^nd£t>rlie5agtslindamp.c systematic evidence 
in Striprure fi^t both ^ides of rhe eqLiati<?ri oFjuicicer 

Br MJiiajTi^icdawhikJbr^VlwHi sauce it Lsssid/Andhissisici 
iCutxl afcr (jff" lExcxI, 2A)i therefore, Israel waircd on hci seven days in 
the ^vilderres^ since it ts said, 'And the pcaplc-nlid nor rr^vcl on undl 
Miriam was broughc in a^^in [E^Jum. 12:15)- 

[Ibid J:91 

A. Jowph hid [h^mtrji t^f biitying hit faili^N and none cfhisWiheis 

wj^greaccrch^nhe, smc^ cc iiaaid, "And Juaeph i^enr up to bury his 
fertier __ And there went up with hJrn botN chariots and hor-scmcn 

B We have none so s^dt a^ Joscpk fo r an]y Mo5C5 rook care of his 


Cr Moses had chr mcrli of burj-'in^ [he bones of Joseph, and aotie tn 

hraci was greater thao he^ since ir is said^ 'And Mosei rotit: ilie h^^jies of 
Joseph with him' (EKod. 13- 19}^ 

U. Wehairenntitw gre^r iis Monies , forortly the Holy One blessed be 
lie rook c^rcofhi^lbocie^J.finu: it is saidn 'An-d he buried him in the 

valley^ [Dem. 34:^1 

E. And not of Mows alftne kiw the^ stntd [fhiK tuIc], hut of all 
rigbreoui people, iiJ^cc ii i^ 5aids 'And your righttyuincsi shall gc before 
^-Tteglorvortke Lord ihail gather pu [in death] ' {Lsa. 58:8). 

(Ibid. MO) 


Scripture pro^^idcs :hc main probacivc evidence for rhc anticipation diar ^'hcn 
God.|Qdges-Hhc will niaicii [hcacioFincrirv^ith an appiopjiatc reward and [he 
sin wid^ an approprLiic pLinjshincnc. The prtjposLiion bcginsT howcvern with 

gC^^^^I obs^rvatiori.s a^ la how ihings are, M 1 :7i aJid noi widi spec]Fic allu' 
Kbnsio proof-ievi£;ihechjfactePof thf law wrforih mScripmrei^ j^flecied 
upori-TlicacCLjrriuJaiedcas^ yield [he geneTalizjtioiL What we iee ivich grear 
cL^rii^ir [hcl3.wyf[h^jtcu^t;lwi»e kthe hisicmewAge cif rheTc^rahaS 

propound it: God'i perfean pfopofrlotiitt j-iLSTi<K- 


l^hmklaw assumes a world iti which people inariy, and so re^uktc^ihcinsEi' 
tuijon without explaining its origin or raiianalc. In rlic classical sharia hand^ 
books, law& on maniagc aic crniiped roecther before laws on btisine^ 
transact ions and alier laws on oaths. This placcmcni i^ instructive as to thi: 
defitiicionof ctiecaKgorv 'marriage^ v^irhin Islam. Marriage is nor a sacrament 
«wr wKich ji^kglhi^ii^ jutho^dty iriLj^t pb^^id^, aj irkCjrhalLeJSETL^ r^th^r jci^a 
contraci between iwo parries, ihe itian's family make^ an otfcn which the 
v^uman'^ ffitnilT i^iih^r accc^pr-s f^r reFuse^. Fiirrher it ]^ an oath h^th hct^veen 
husband and wift and tN:hjre Gods itcfifajls pfomi^sesof fiddit}' Jfid supporr^ 
which may noc be broken ligjid^r But ju^t bfi:atuc hkmic marriage is brrtcr 
described as a tontracc ravhcr than a sacramcniT ]t docs not Killow that mar- 
riage in Islam is ]io[ ^ rtligiotis.^ Rather, as in fuda-lsni, Islam sees all human 
Jni^Kecic^n, in^luJin^ pt^f^nil ^nd cc^ru^mie ^ph^rc^n ^ ffgukred bv G^A 
through the reLipious 6a W- By gemngmarricdHiman and a woman enter mco 
God's intended onder. 

Jmh^ classical siatcmer^c oF Islamic la Wh ieils assumed that marriage is a rcla^ 
non beiTft'een unecjnal beings: men and womeji are differenr and have panicu- 
\at rolts wifhin tht marriage- ^<> men may hgve multiple- wives, bur women 
can hji^c unly t>nc KubUinJ. Modcn] inii^rpttters of bUnnc Uw^ however, 
argue that men ind women are morally equul. difltring only m righri and 
ri:apon5ibiliiir5,an<l5amc modernists have done ai^aywiih^ndcr-b^itd priv- 
ileges. NevrrthelesSj in the followii^^ verges frori^ the Quran, diifcrcncrs 
bervp^en nitn and women arc emphasized rhroueh the example of menat^ua- 
[ion:Ha]ldthisbiolc^eal n^odel l^ads cowcHnien being compared ro ferule fields 
plowed by che husband. 

They wjU question you abournicntrruanon. Say: "It is a rrojblc^o 
withdraw frDnn women during [hcii pcj[odi ^ud do n.ot ^o; [hem 
uncil diey have purifitd chcmselvcs. XtTien chey ha^T purified them- 
sdveSj -rhen eom^ to them jusc ajs ti-od commanded you/ Ciod ioves 
thostwhtj repent And hclflves those i^ho purify ihemselvei. 



Your v-"(>m-cii arc fidds h>r jqu n? pW, w ^t>nw w yvur li^ldj as y^v 

(The Qur^an. 2:222-223) 

This piisageieemsio emphasize awomans lece-puve role, boili in terms of her 
l^udyjiiiii iiuemi^ nfher husLan^sdesifeEiDr sex. Another verse a&^utn nioic 

dirccuii-Kldrt-i^ing the dd Ft tringsiaTusflf women -and men] 

Men Art in c^L^rge of women^ in rh^c C^od has preferred sonie ov^er 
otl>crs, and in thit men havt^^xpend^d rheir w^ahhr ^ nghLcoui 
wDuien arc obedient, guarding che^co^t ill tke ^vay tlut Gad gtUiU^- 

{\b\d. A-M] 

Again, these vt-rses are open robrsMclintcrprctatioiia but rules of marriage and 
LnheritanararediHTcrtdtoThvard mcn> who are seen m rhc rok of providing for 
wotTLcn and prorenring rhcm_ Men alio make ihe orter of the marriage con- 
Lf^rHwhjehrhf^vofnan mayaeeeprorreicctnandmen mav divoroc at will ■ tur- 
thefn ihe/ may rak^ tip co four wiv« in addition co an unJimind number of 
concubines. Wichin rhii framc^orlcH borh men and VpX>mcn have specific 
Cighu iinj re^p^^n^ibLhties-Al-Qayrawani'i rules on ihc role of a woman's voice 
in the marrijge cornraa rrflecr rhis imeveii pnsicion. 

Thcrc :s no marriage wnthout: an agcntn mB-rrlagt preKntr and t^o 
truscvF^rdiy w]:ncssc&- if chcy did not witness ch-c actual contract tiicil 
he mau nor have inrercoursc wi(h her unrJ the> do witness the cjinir^a^ 

The minimum marriage present is ijnc-quarterdinar- 

Thc ^vherma^ many ofE his vjigiQ dai^terivtthoul her permission* 
evcji jf she has reached the age of reason. If he wisHcSt he mav consult 
her. Aj: for AO]"[ieorLe odier ihan ihe ^[her^ ^jicrhcr authorized by ctic 
fathfi'fli'ftor hemai^n&rmarrvh^jflff ufttilshe rcirh« rhi^agcof 
reason andgLue^h^rpetmitEJon. If she i^sileniHthar ispcrniL^on. As 
fot ihf ivumdn whois nor J virgin [due: to apievious marriage], neiTher 
the father nor anvotlicr pcr^ori maj mftrtj-'her ofi'excep<( ^^ith htr 
conser^ta and she elves her permission by v^ml |noi ^Ichcel. A w&inah 
may nor marry herselFofreKH:epr with the permission of iiei gu3_rdian <jr 
someone of importance ^iihin her femily, such as a man oEiicr dan or 
the sul'Un/' 

^ftTicnal-QayravF^uiircfer-s to ihc-«niraa, this docs ni?imra^ 

demands a writtcn.eonira<:tof marriaee. Unlike Judaism^ both an oral contract 
oF nnainage and an oral oath of divorce arc seen as surti-cient in Islam- The 
agent trbeniioned above ls rhe wo-mans icprcseniativc in concluding the 



concricr^ ihis je normally Jier fichec or brfjilier Th<- irtarrjagc present is a &lt 
from ihe maai id ihe wojiiifl, ^CLXNrding t-cj tht Qur'anLc iticcmcai^ '-Give 
women ihtir inarriage presftiL as i gift' (QurW 4-A)r U Is not paid to her 
ftlhcf iLld 5fl i£ fl^C 1 'hfide pi'ke/ Finally, ihc wllncascs arc proof of rtie 
autTieftriciryof rhiscoiur-icis whkhnia^'bc aisimplraiCHhangmg^vordsof 
ofF^r^nd^ccepfincc^ihdroral ti:itimony to this oral even: i& acctprahie evi- 
dence wiihtn a M^t-licn t.<>uri: of [awr Not inciudcd in ihis handbook cs \\k 
assumption that mcn^ whcrhcr f>f age oi not^ ivhcidicr previous!}^ married or 
not, ai^ assumed crJthc-r :o- represent dicmsclvcs at ihc coiiiracr^sr en liavt tke 
r]ghlof<:onsmtir an arranged mairiagi^- 

Odcc the conEracr is completed, rhe coLiple i^ married mid fl^Kual inrcr- 
coune Ls now considered JieiEs biji both ihe COnti^tt and chc act of scKud 
jjiicrcourse havcspedPie legit efteer_s_ TNariitOSay. av^n^an who only signed 
a coniract of niaiTlage is divn-reed dJffer^ndy fb^n a woth^ -who had both a 
coniraetandsrauaiinrercoijrse- Al-Q^yrawijni tovcisthcbe rules in the follo^v- 
ijig nianiii^f. 

A^for ihe wnmiM whtJLS djvorc<d before wnsumjnarion of the 
jiiarriage^ sht retains bylfof the nurriagc pKient, unless she is a woman 
vno hifl been previously mnTiricd Lind she forgoes Lr. [fshe is a^i^in^ 
an^^ decision ta hjrtgo rhc mairtage gih is Lip ro her ^Lhcr. SimjUrlvj tf 
the ii 3 [fmalc slave, the decision belongs lo her niisrer. 

As for sorti-mne who div^rcesn hcotiehi to grant his divorced ivifeicjmc 
gift. He is HOC forced m ^ivc a gift roa ^voiwin wiih wht>tn he Ins nut 
had seK.; he allocacrs a share of inheritance to her ^ut does notgd^ her 
a gihi nor docs he giv-c a gift ro rhe v^oman divoK^ed by khul^U speciEd 

IFht dies and Ls sjrvjved by a woanan rn wlioni ht; h«d rieithcr allocated 
a share of inhencaiice nor had JftLCtcOursc^ she rct.-civei an inhericance 
bu: noi rhe marriage gjft. if lie had "had icitcr«jijrw with her she also 
rcec-jvesan appropriate nisrriftg^- gilt, unless she Is satisfied wjth some 
orhet Tiling of value ' 

The specifics of these rules are addressed tn cht ^niifNn on divorce, but ir Lh 
worth nodng char when ihe maruagt his been eansuitimaied the Injiband Li 
considered to have ^rearer finaneial rcsponsLbilit^^j commetiitui^te with hij 
greater personal Envolvcmeni- In praericCn conrracr and con^-uniinaiion [nay 
occur in the same -rvening or year&iparc^ l]]tiL^"Lie, on-s may b^iUeiroihed in 
marriage mfiny ycar^ bcEurc actually ^arryjng. 

In hj^ section on marriage, al-Qa_yrawan l hit made ara exposition of th-c 
ma|or rules of marnage, but tn cojoprehend the logic yf the [slamie la^ of 
marriage, vre mujc ruriMt> 5io-ne5 ortxemplary individuals. Ai a religion chaa 



5eesiJielLfcof Prf>phd[ MuJiaitunidio be a paradjpm for all Muslimi co cmu- 
ktCh W^m uj^i^^ hus niarria^ as a model lor al] believers. For instance, rhc 
Prop l^ei's wives, aiidparricularlyhiil^vorHcwLfc Aishi, arc addressed directly 
in rhe Qur'an, sepa^red oq: from the ksi of chc bclick^crs and made inio 
uartiplcs. Kruwn^jrhe'morhcrioj [JicbdLc^rsH^MLihdriiin^d'^wiv^ivpJay^ 
iniportanl roles in rhec:ldv cotiiinuaiii"v- When ilieQiir'ati addresses the wives 
of thcPnjpl^tt, thtauglij it jdiiic>tiisbe5 tlittii f^^riioi Lxkin^Elieir roles seriou^y 

Women of "[he Prophet you are noc like any arhcr women, Jf^otiatf in 
awe of Godn do noi humble others "with your^'ordiH 50 that he in whcisc 
hean i^ sickness desires you^ buc spca!k honorable 'words. 

Abide in y^ut ipanniejiTs^ and da Jiot display yourselves in :he i^oianl 
faihion ofold. Arise for prayer giveilms and ohc>' Go J and his 

CThc Quran. J3:32-J3) 

III ni JdirwTityScrviJig 34 ti^ampl^ of piouj^ obedience coGodn chcsc wives have 
aneuraordinar^ n>lpin KiahlishingdiekwnfLnamage in Islam Inpariicular, 
ihc r^pphcl^5 fa'i^riTc wife? ^i^ha tirt^ Afci Bjl^r^ is referred rna^ an auEhorLcy 

b^-thecl^sicaJ sources bMh1bTtri^nirniiring(nfc>riTiatiorijU^^^ rhe Prophm 
acrions and alsa for her own judguienta on mati:-cr5 of marriage and tivorct 
The following seleccic^ns from MaUksc^/^^V/i^uj/i^riall ref^rtoAisha'sautliorlty 

Yahyarold JtieonMalLksaLnhoriry fiom Yahyaibn Said from al-Qaiim 
ibn Muhammad itiai Aishin ihe wife of the Prophet-, may God biess hiiin 
^nd gram him peace, \if2s asked about a man who had divorced his^vife 
coJic-liisively- Anoihci man had iken mariLcd herafc-ci him and divorced 
h^t" wirhflui ftiLiching her- wWdii be am^rabL^ for her firir husband 
TO inariy licj" ^[[1^ AlsIu iiuwcred: 'Nnc unidhehasEMred her hoiiey.'"^ 

Yabya twid inc on Walik'i authority frotn Abd jURahrtian ihn 
al-Qasim from his father that Aisha, rht jnothe-r of the believ^r^, 
proposed ro Qurjyba bmt Abi Umajya on bchalr or Abd ^l-R^man 
ihn Ab] Bakr. "["hey marrjird her 10 kim^ but then rhcy found l^uLr 
WL(h Abdal-Kahmani savcng: 'V!^conly married fur Ai:fh3^53lhC/ So 
Aj^hi se]ii for Abd al'Rabman and rcild him abour irn and he put the 
riarrer in Quraybas hand. She chose her hiisbajid and thtre was ro 

YahvaLold jnccnMalik'-s^LJihority fiom Abdal-Rabman ibnai-Q^im 
froju hiz^ rather rhar Aksha^ die wjfeof the Propher, jnoy fiod bless hjm 
und gt;iJit him [>e^hcCH niarrjed H^f^ bini Abdal^Rabman re 



d'Mundhir it>n il-Zuhayr while Abd al-RaNrnan ivas away in Svria- 

When Ahd il-R^hiiun .arrivi;dH he said^ T^utis iomconrlikc mc have 
dijfi done m him? 1^ ^mi^t^ue lik^ n^c: U] be undcrmincdr' Sa Aisha 
spoke mil- W-undKir ibn Ell-Zubayr, and il-Mundhir ^ald 'II !■= in rhc 

hartdhofAbd al-Ruhniiin/ Bun Abdal- Rahman &aid. 1will noiiakc 
back htjint tiling whicliii cil:ndy parsed,' So rtafeawai confirmed wirh 
al-Mucidtiir, ^nd rhcrc weu no divorce.'^ 

YaKya told mc- on MaJiki authojjiy from Rahji jbn Abj AKd ^URjhtnjfi 
from al-Qasimi ibn Muhammad chii Ai^h^s the n^nihtr^^} tKe l>e!ievcr53 
saidr 'Ihere were rhiw ruleE {au^^ft) ^tMhM in uor.nfcrim wirh 

Danra. "Hit ijraLfhfthcihfcc itiidiiiuni wis rharwhcnihr^bvajcmanci- 

ptcd^ie was given the choice conceFJiing her husbandr Also^ ibc 

Messer-gei of Clods JO^y God ble££ hirn and giant him pcacc^ said: 

^Clienrage belongs to :ht on^who smajicipatci/ Al5t>, th-c Messenger of 
God. jway tioJ bless rnni an-J grant him peatCn entered when dicrc was 
apotwirli mtif on th^liTe^bui brradand food^ircrc broiighrio him 

frani the food of the house, fe the McsKngcr of God, miy God bless 
hull Add gr^cit him jjca-j;, M.dr "Did I not icca mjt widi mcar in ei?^ 
Tbe^ Said, Tce, Messenger cNfCodn but this mcac ivas };i%'m as ilnis for 
Barira, and you do not ^at Jms. ' But ihc Messenger of God^ miy CJod 
bless him and ^ranc hini peace, sud: 'h is alms far hef^ but tt i^ a gift fi>r 

Tn die each ofrhescaccountSs AishaafEiollyde^n^s Th^^ la^vcJiraugh her words 
and actaons. In ihc Ursr ease^ Aitha Is relVrring lo a ["ule fli^ir a mnin ttihI^ ntJt 
a Imply divorce and remarry a "woman a: wilL 4[ i_s possibfej however, fhirifshe 
marries someone else after the divofe^H ^nd chen dtv&rcis ihii olhcr pctsort, 
ihai ihe firsc husband can mirry her nnce again. Tfiprtv^nrchumifrmwliacc 
niarriagefL-om merely MJngorie of ct3rtvenieTi«,bov.v^ thiuhc 

niarria^musilia^eb[>ih cone fa<.c and C[>n5ummadonJn the second and rhir-d 
accounni, Ajihaaciijischejgcrir of both a man and another ivoman in secur-^ 
wg macdagess xht third tait is pafticulady Impressive^ as she acts while ihe 
Eml^trol ih-c bride is [ml otthc couairv- 

The final case is more comphcaEcdH as Aiiha summarizes [hree corr^pki; mi- 
nes by lelarinG die rule [juKfiij) which resulied iiQm [h^^iD- In ihc firslj ihc 
fcmale slave Baiira had been mariied lo aainther sloven bur she was then eman- 
cipated "^hilc her husband temajned ui bondage. S^mc^ her new sterns might 
mak-c her fonncr marriajije lo a slave onerouSn die was given tlie cKolce of 
broking che marrjagt or rimainin^ married icy i\\h ^avtf Tlic sct^cjnd rule 
rdcrs to the fett ihai aJthough Barira was owned by another family, it wji 
Aisha who pump the money for heren^ancipitiori; thi; rule then declares that 
BarJras ikmily loyalcies are ^^^irh Aisha^ no: het former owners. Finahyn the 
Prophe: declarer ihat chariubic gifti tart scrvt more than -one Riiicuon. 



But Aisha's most tim-oiis lx^k in-cstablishiiigthc hbmk Iswof tnjnii^E^ W 
to do ^iih a st-ory known as The Aftiir of the Licn' whtJi inhc wai falsely 
axicuscd or an adulccrous arrair. As in JudEu^m, adulrcrv is die iiit>st llfl^nf 
transgression agamsirhckws of jnarriagCi ajidsin-KinarriageibChee-jnblemof 
an ordered sucLctynic IS noLsurprifing tha^ ihc punishment uf ^hc addt-cnrr b 
harah; jji al'C^ayrawams words: 

Someone who iionimiES ^iJtci}^ with a iicc. ihclaTcd^ womartn is 

sron^unEiIhe dies. 'Sheltered' is dEfin^di^ iwnnian who leih jn 
actiuJ marriugc Jiid anoilitr man aau^lly hnise^ with lier. If she is nnt 
shciccrKl, hcisgivtnunchun-Jtcd Lishes n^nd ihe jultin banJili-es Nini k 
another counrr;y where he is imprisoned (or one vear- Ai fat tht slive 
v^ho commits adultery: fitty ]:^hes; the sarjie goes (or the lemalc slave^ 
even if one of them was marr]cd at tliclLme, Banishment is not required 

forsiavcs, lorforawomar.^ 

Hosv'evej, these hanh ru!c5 aie -somewhat micigattxl by the£a-ct that an ntcaisa- 
rion of adultery is aimost impossible to provCn unlcsis, of coursCa a "woman is 
SLiddcnly, inc^pJicably prc^ant. 

The adahcrer is only pLmishcd if proven guilrvby confc^jau^ visible 
pr^nat^cvor Lesiimoniy of four free, malCh injsD^vnrchy ^'ewicnesses 
who sec thcrat-t juntas ont sees the kohl-stick inside of tin; Mi l-boulcn 
They must alJ ^'Itncss thtr act at the same time. If oncof tntm -dtniS dOE 
Fulfil this dBcriptioii, the other rhrec men who made tht acatsarbn air 

These strict rules of evidence oomccirectly from a sctof Qii-rsn i^erscb whi-th 
ajT TTadicionally associated with ^Thc Aiiair of the Lier' ft seems that wh^cn 
Aisha Wis about fiheen, she fell behind a caiavan returning to Ai^NJijia and 
became lost. When ahc cvcncuaily gor back m Tovrnjt was in rhe company of a 
handsonne ^Tuing man_ "fojicuNrs bcpan cowsEf and many people oucsiioncd 
lier bonor. An tarly iource relates the scory in Ajshas own VQice. 

1 lltlr tJit CAra^ari] foe s ctttftin purpose. hA^lng $ ^rdngof Z^fer I>t4d3 
on my nak. When 1 had linLshcd, it slipped Jrom my rjak wjciioui f^^ 
hnowlcdg?, and when I returned lo^he^anKl I vn-entfeding my nc^vl^ 
for it bjT could not hnd it. Meanwhile the main btKly had already moved 
ofT I went back, to the place wTicre I ha^l been ^ikI looked fi>r die ricxUntCC 
until I lound it. The men v/ho were sauting rlic «^tnel lOr tne ciitnc up to 
cheplacci had juBi left and having finidicd the y-ddling rheyiook hold of 
che howd^ thiiikir^ that I w^u ii] ic a^ I normdiy wa^, pi^d ii up ^d 
bound icon diecarnei, not doubEin^ that 1 was in k. Then they took the 
camel by rhe head and went off wich ic. I lerurncdio die place [where 


ihe caravan hadbcciil ^nd itief^ was noi a ^oilI [hcrc-TJit men had 

j;one. S& I wrapped jny^lf^n my ini[K;k sn^l ihc^Tl U^ Jv^n where I 
wai, kjicpwjng cltac ir I wtre missed the^ wuuld tJ^mc back for nK^and 

by Cod I had W |i^i lain down when Saiwjn b^ al-Mti'accaJ al-Sulami 

pass£tl trie -_ - He saw my fbrm ai>d camt and stood over mc ... .He 
asktd frie what [iad kept mt; "behind bjt [ dJd not 5pcak ro him. Then 
he br^mgiu ii[] hii i;~aEni:l ;ind wid mc i-o ndc it wh]lc he kcp: behind. ^ 

AuKii point Saltan Kaishrr on hiiCimdindw'albdcEcrcncLd^^^ hef_ 

Knowing ihii she had done nor^ing wfoag^ rtisha dnes noc give tlie miiict 
furthei th-onghrj bin soon die-c&ssjp reaches h^r eatSi 

Then wecaine eo fv1edin.a and irrtJtiedi.nel> T bccam-c vcrv ill and so 

r ^ 

heard iioThJiig of ihe mat ter TT^e irot)- had reached the 3.pv5tlc and my 
parcnis, ye: ihey told jne iiothitig oHr tKdugti J w\^^ fb^- apoatlcs 
aceu^mnied kindnevi (o n^. \i1icn [ w^ ill he u^ed to sho-^ compas- 
5iorLind kindne^ rft me, hucift ihiiiJIilcS&hedid nuiand I missed his 
anejujons ._. Now wt ^wre an Argb people: we did noi have those 
privies >^h]ch foreigners lidvc in ditir houses; vpt loathe and deles: 
rhen^_ Qor pcactifi? wji tg g^ ^?ul into ihe open spa^s of Medina. 
Tlie viocVLtn uicd to go out e^'ery nighl: and one niehi I wcni oui wL:h 
UiTirn Mt^tah ... - She [told mc] 'Hav-cnc yon heard d^e newtn O 
daughter ol Abu Bakr?' and when I said :ha: J had noi lieard ^he ^vedt 
on to :ell me of wliar rhe liars htid said^ atid when I ihowed my aaton- 
idimcnt ihe :o]d me that all [Jiis re^ly h^d luppcncd- By AJlali, I ivas 
unabb ro dn what i had co Ac^ and w^nc h^ik. ] could noi 5iop crying 
uniil 1 :tiou|^i ihiiilieTA'eepjng would bufsi my Hvtt I^dtomy 

m-oih-cr/God fo^re yoQ? Men hdvcspoktnill<>f mtandvoLJ hayt 
knosvn af it and have not cold rjne 3. fhing jbClUt 11."^ 

FinallyHcheFrophtt catne ca visit Aisha, and asked hex to confess co :h<: crime 
whidi others accused lacf of i^mmittrng. She :efusedn knowing ihai the had 
dotLt no wrongr 

He sar dcwn and afirr pramng God he said^ ^^ha^ vou kno^- what 
pcopJcsay abojiyflU- AweL^od and if you kavt^dori^ wrong :fcb"mt:n say 
rficn rcpcnr :o^i'ards God. for he iixtpii rcpciiuiitc froTH his scrvanis.' 
A± he said [hiSi mr itai^ ce^ed jnd 1 cijuld n^L f^l them. I availed for 
my parents 10 answer [he anc^[le hu: ihey said tiorhirtg -■ .Wl^n they 
remained iileni my weeping bn>k^ out afresh and then lis id: ^Kcvcr 
will I :cpenr :owards God of v^hji y^u mention, Bv Allah, I knov^ that 
if I were :o confess whaMtieti sa j of me, Goc knowing :har 1 am 
iniiDcenrof ir^ I should admit iirhat did not happen; and if I dicnicd 
whit ih^yflikidvtVii WAiij^Cno^be-llCvcTne .... IWIsay whai :hefediej 



of Joseph said: ^M^ diLty l5 to show tMMominp patience and God's aid ii 

CD bea^Led agaLnsi what you describe/' 

And, by God^ [he aposilc lud noi mnvcd from whcci.^ he was suting 
whiTii [ticrc am^ over htE^ [r^^ni (.lod wbat L^i^oi lo come over hsm ^nd 
he w^ wrapped in lijt garment ^nd .^ le^cbei' [lushion w^ pur under hts 
head .-- Then ih* apo^de recovered uid sal up and d^ei-e fell from 
him ^ it i^^re drop^of ^var^r on a wircer day; and he h^an tn ^pe die 
sivestfroiTi Ki^broiv. ^avmg. 'Good n^w^^ Aa^ha! t;j>d h^^nrdo'^m 
^vord about your innocence. liaul^ Tr»iiclK:ro G4>d/aiid he ^cutout 
CO die men and aJdrcsscd them and rcc]tpi:d to them >vhatGod had icnt 
down concerning chat- Then he g^vc ordcn about Mistah b. Uthatha 
and Hassan b. Thabit and Hamna b. Jahsh ivho were the mo^c rxpheit 
in dieir slaiKJcF and ihey were flogged wirh the prescribed number of 

In Islamic law^ che accusation of adukery i^ caken as seriously asthcadulieroti^ 

act ii:$eir. ajid false accusacjon i:^ punished nnlyslighdy lessihan a proven case 
of ^Jult^rv. Hids equacion jnakes sense since a false accusaciofi oradulu-ry 
bnng^ nsarly js mtich disorder Lnt^^ihewcDrld as fornkarwn itself [n this case, 
Aisha is'i^'wd W ^friji:" ^clud^d in her lin use wllile£04■?Jp^^es^^nved her rep- 
utation and that of her busbEindr 

TheQuranic verse whi<.hwai revealed on thisoa^aiion jjfFcri mi explana- 
tion for rhe equation of accusation and adultery in a more cheologlcii 

'Jhe aduherer and the adulteress - lash each -one of them one hundred 
lashes, and do not Jc: tenderness for chem take over you in Gods 
rehgion^ if you believe in Cod and die last day. A group oFthe believers 
^rhuld ivJTJi^;:^ rhdr punifhm^nc. 

Asfijrtbe-^dulteftirfheorily rriitriefian^ukete^orapolyiheisc. andas 
fbt die adulteress^ she only marries an adiilteret ot a poLydieistj such 
pcopie are fod?idden to th-c believers. 

As for dioK who cast aspersions on sheltered wooKn, bur did not bring 
£bur wicn^ssetn they aicla^ed with cighrylsshe^. Their tcsdniDny i^ 
jiever acccpied again. Such people arc an abominaticn. 

Ei^:ep[ cht}se wJio repent ifter^vards arnl make amen<l5, for Gtid is 

forgrvin^ and compassionate. 

As Gif rho,se who ca_st a.sner^orLS on their mves, having 

no Witnesses 


Gud tuur rimc^ tEuc be i^ tdling the truth. 

The firth time he bears ^itncis rhat the airie or Cod v^ill be upon bLm 
if be ^hoiiid be lying. 

IFslie bears witness b^ God lour limes rhat he is lyings ihcn she avoids 
pun Lshincnt. 

She bears v^iiti^i a firch timcj dui God^ ingcr wiLI be upon Jief iJ'he is 
telling the trutK- 

Wharif it were nt>[ tbrG^xl'5 grutrraywt, hii fummiijifliij and that 
Cud is intjst Jurgiving, wbc^ 

T.105C who brought the slamier are rckccd to you\ do not reckon it as 
crvl] t&]rOU3 biic goi>d. Evcrj mjin of them will have die sin that he h-ii 
acquired. And the one who tooL upon rhc greiccr pcntionof ic, hewili 
have a mi^iy punishmtJit 

Wha: jFj wlicn ^ou heard ]:, chc bcliNrvirig men and bclJcvinE women 

Jiad ihoughi good ilif^ughL^ sj^iiig: "rh^& is cileariy i he ^ 

What if they had brought rour ^vitncssei? But they did not bring 
v;itne£5C5, so they ars Jinn before God. 

Whac if it were no^t t^r God's ^r^tc to yuu^ h]s tJjupaiiitui- in fhis 
vnorld jrd the hereafter- a mighty punishmcnc wuuld have sciicd you 
for your JDUtterings. 

When yoQ met ic wniiyour lonj^ues-, aad spoke with your mourhs dnar 
ofwhich you had Jio feno"^^ledge^yo"ii reckoned JcinsjgnLfKiani, bu! 
before God. k was mighiy 

Whatif, wlicn you heard IfnVOU hftd said: 'It is ttot forus tospeik 
about this; glory be la youl This is a m^ty Jic? 

God admoiiLshes you to never rtpearsi^ch words ^^in, l( you are 

God makes the signs dear to you; GcwJ is krowing, wise. 

Those who lovr abominarioTL to bcapread about rhose who bche^^e - 



ihcy will have apajtihil p4nfc?hniet^( jn fhis wt>fld and tIw htr^lt^rn 
God kno^^^j you kiio^ hol 

(ThtQurasi. 24:2-19) 

It^lMmtb^tHH^r-bldlKuSilOnofadullcry, (he Qjr'an t^r bt bcrn (o address the 
ins(JiuiH»n of mamagcin JU Jicgjiiiscfo:n!. Dclinsd ihus, marriage prrvcnrs 
wflfitun iCKual behavior rind limicb dEswrdcrcd h^uman cuncau, Pui mofr posi- 
tivcLjp Enatrlt^ is aa>ntract bdnA'ccn a man aad a ^oman in wl^ich hr i^vcs 
hcra^ifi andslic leaves her parcnc' home no join thai of her husband. SciuaJ 
JTitcrcDursc ls a^iimcd aad [he consummaiion oF rhe marriage donEr^ciT li^ 
5pec:fie le^l eFEecK Kurrhers feilure to pKK'ide Tor ihe ic^iuil needs oftitJiQ 

huibiJid nf Wife Ji J caiut fnf dLv<>^t:c. 


the conquest iird divi-^ion <jf the I-and of Ist^cI^ v^hidn Cod has prtnn]scd to 
Jjrwl jx aannpLiiLenrnHily t:c]vcnLtnt\^irh ththdy pK^pIt^ formed ar Sinai by 
tlic aucpdUitc of the Toiah. The Land, ideally; corrc5pandi rci Eden, and 
Israel to Ad^mand Evc^ and ilic perfection at the Landf tended in aceord with 
the rules of sanctiFieat]on, maichcithatof PaiadJse- Thus, fortiampi^j jllst li 
LheSahbaih m^k^d rheclEma:{ ajid perf^tii^n orereacLoii, $o di^ [asid ^^^s rr> 
hegivcji its Sabhatiif Lu unie of" report and restj-ust as matiWdi and fhtji 
Israel, wtre w t^eivi; che sanctiHcation of Sftbljath rtiC. For the Land, that 
Sahhath [onk.[he tofmof rhe cettatifinnfall work -on The Ijnd that i^^ ified 
i^wn^F^hipby cK^^mern ail Lhe ifrriiory of iht L^nd oflAr^d ^nh ev hclcli 
^low in the S^hh^tical or seventh vtir. Thai faci;. Jrtiyng riMn^, ^ignn!? the 
ifnporcance <>f th^; LaLtdin ch^^aal order of holy Israel forwhidi thcTorah 
kgis laredr 

Trint brln^ us to the; matttjr ox inheritance, for principal among rhc Issues 
in^'oiv^ is the: diviaior of the re^l estate of thr d«:«5ed, Hck ch^ pnndp^l 
concern focused upon the prcicrvationofthc fines ofrhe division of rhc land 
sjnon^ die original ^wcivc mbcsofhraci^TheRjbbjnLcugeimainiained fom 
dme cha: the rrLhes coaid noitr^cninternnatTy, Itsrrhe share in chc I^rtd nfojie 
cribe increase Vf-KlIc that of another decrease f in c^^nft^cjiicrice nf the mjrJtirigof 
rhenaiurdl^wsofe^iiies^nd inhcricance-TtibaJ affiliatit?]i fijllo^-ed the rn^iLe 
line: Jorevan^ple, the son of a pnesc (i(Jvfl) is i prleist, but the son of the 
daughcer of a pric^T" who ha£ niiimed a nrtn-prii^^t j^ no[- That eiLpbim why 
Smprure, con linked h-y the halaith ah of ^he Oral Tijrjh^want-iinhericjn^^ 
remain in [he male ijn^- The righ|c>rih?d4y6h(?r to iplh^^ritj Iivw(;vctj i^ a!w 
explicit, even rhou^^ when ciroirr stances fiermit. inheritances pass through 
them^ie. not the l^malc firjt That rnatirer is so anomalous, gi"ven the govern- 
ing tneOfyi that fhcTorahtclU ho^' Moses brought chc (juescioii of rhc ng hi of 



diu^htcn CO inherit land in chc l^JLd oflsncl v^hcn no sons were picscnt to 

claim the inhcritincc. ][ took a special rcvclaiion by God to Moses to stcuK 
that right to th-c daughters audio legitimate- wliatrhc basic logic of the i^iccn 
EoLnd dubioLis: 

'Iffi man dies ^nd h^sncr^Qr.i then you.slullii^ui^f hl^inhemanLC k 
pass TO his daughi^r. And \fhc his tie daughte-rs rhen you sh^l spve his 
inh^rir^ncf tn his bradiexs. And if he hai ]^a hiy^rtiers-. rh-en you >^lulJ 
give his inht^t'Lr^nc:e ro his firhers Kr^chers- And if lijs father li:is no 
btodieif, th™ y[>ij shrill give hii inhetitance fo hii kiminaii that ii nest 
m him of his E^miJy, and tie ^hajj pmscss it. 

(Num. 27:3-113 

The haiakliah spells oucihe prior claim of ihc 50 ns^nrr ihc daughcersn and Rjt- 
thcr ^vorks out the derails of gifts as against inhcrlcancei, gjfrs ii^ conicjnpla- 
tion of deaths and related mailers. 

Scripture contriburcs further bai. First comes the law dia: chc firtrhorn 
receives t^-4 shares in ihe-»rac£i ih^ oih^r heir^i ane e^ch. i hus if iherc are 
fourhejrspthccsiareis divided in m FivcpansT two ro rhe firscbom^ one to each 
of chc o-iherSj and so chnMjghouc The law fnriKer has co adjLidicate tlie pa^^- 
mencof ihcdecei.sed\ dehc^and nrliernhligarinn^^ for fK^mpU, tT^e estate has 
compprit'rfhft^^[^fhiiwji^whfl^efi:>jrna£*i:ftn[trtaij^rn^ sup- 

purr aiin the husband i death, A person Tiiai^ dispose af hii property in his lifb^ 
tinic^hcv^i$hc:f,VKhidirTi?an&, ^ncmayinakcgi^aendrcJyciLuidci^f^^^ 
oE inheritance. The law of inheritance ihcn takes over only for cHn: di"VJsion of 
the tstate. 

Here arc the prlndpal texts or the Mishruah, Toscfia, andTalmuds: 

MS: I There are ihoiewho inhcri: and bequeathe rhcre are (hoic who 
inherii bur do not bcqueiachj beoiLcarh bu: do no: inheFJif do jidc 
inheric and do noi bequeaih. "Ihese Enherir uid l>eou£ai]i: the fa.[her as 
to ihe sons, ihe sons as lo rhe fachet; and brochets fjv>m [_hc same fathet 
[hui 1 different niodierl^ |as Totjjie an^^thet] inherit From and Ijcqut^icla 
[rfl rtfisitti^rhef^ Them3ttaMt>hi&ittoiher [h^man aS Cohis^-iEe. and 
the win^ ofij^ib inherit from, but do not bcqueaih |to, one ancihcr]. 
The woman m to her sonSi the woman as to her hushandi and rhe 
brothers of the mother bequeath to-, but do not Jnhcnc Ifrom one 
anj>ther|, Broiher^ Fmrn the same mother do no: inhcri: fronin and do 
not bcquejtli |to out: another], 

T7":l Soever is closer |in rcktionship] than hisfcUo^v cakes prece- 
dence over his telLow. And an inheritance goes on upward, even :o 
Reuben lihai is^ rhe uktmaE proj^enin>r oF[h<? in be] Aa^d hmihcrs _«> 

fer 3S on^ another are coticeineds sisters so far a.s one another lite 



^unccriiftS, brotJicrsaof^r j^ thesLS-KfS are wnttrHcdi did i^rtriiu hr 
^ the brothers ^rtrcom-cmcdHbuth itikciit and bcqucarh -MrE^B. S: 
IB-C]. Ainamzcicauseshisrdativesioiiilicfit. AG^ntikflndftih^^ 
"whu had intercom rsc vittiiQ lirnclitc girlnCvcn though thcrrcaftcr the 
Centilt 1^'ent and cnnvmed, rhei:ia.vt! wemand%t'a5 tmajidpated- his 
csiirci^in ihc saiusofrhcciiatcofa pro5d>Tc, o-rhisanre ismrhc 
:scaiuora freed ilavc. Sc^ ^hooxr a^uired pt^^^cisionorihcmfirst 
gairkstftlc to th^m. 

Now o>mei the matter nf rhe prioriry of ihe ioji but cKe possibiliiy of the 
djughteri sliaring m ciie Latiied estite: 

M.8:2 Tlicordcryf |ihe pawing of anj inheritance b thus: 'If a ma^ 
die^ ^nd had no ^cjn. then you bhjiJ ciuschi^ icihcrituTicx H) p^vs ta lllb 
dau^Kr [Num. 27:8)- thestNti tidies precedence ov-er the daughter, 
dnd all rhc uffipn ng of^ fhc son caize puTtcdenoe over the tijtJ_ghtc:r_ The 
daugKcertatespfccedtricf o^tf |jiirvi\ing] brxatliei^. The alTsprl n^ of 
the daughter cake prccxxknct over (he brotheri- The Ideccdents] 
broihciBtS-kf precedence over the fathers brt>[bcR,Tliroffeprmg of the 
bioihcffs like precedence over the lathers broihcR, This is die 
™vcrninE prindp-le: Wbccvcr cakes prcccdcnc-c ia Jnhcriuncc- his 
olTspring [al^o] cake precedence. "I"hc ^:her takes preiredencc over all 
(the fjiher^j) oflspring |jf none as :i direct rtf^pnug cifilie deceosed)- 

M,SA All [hti3rteaitf[h*gc>n At\d ihedaugKiet a^iomjttfrtofiiihcr- 
itaticc. cxct^pc thj< ihcMiJLtjkth j dotiWc ponirtn jtichccsiutcofihr 

filher [Pevl. ^1:171. |Thcwn| doei n<Hlwltf ad^yl^ltpyriiyci ittihc 
pestateoftht tnotherThedau^teTsare^upponed h^ the Tather's estate 

and itenocsuppcirtedby themothtrststarer 

T7:10 And just as the son takes precedence o"vcr the datighter in die 
eiircofthe^rhei, so the son takes prKedcncc over chc daughter in the 
cstirc of the mother 

As we saWn [he firschorn geis 3 double porcton. Here is how :hac roarter is 
sipcJIed i^ut ih detsJlr From our pctvpcctive^ the nnp4>rtaiit pi^int ]s hi can ;t 
pcrsonstipwhiteavalidconditionchat contridias the JiivofthcTot^LhrCfe 
htj for example:, h^^-e the power to srlpuUte that a son^ rnay tn- Hijlnherltcd? 
Tht Jiisw'ci is iM;^:nivc, The Ijw yfthfTcftah takes ^sriorityand dktaieiihe 
tlioi-tci thjt t3« [|]c ij]divjjtuli Hifrtcvcrj if ihe diviii^M] -of die BUtt is 
through donation^ that Is, gifei jni not through inheritance (fot eKamplcp if 
the division take^ placx in tht man's hletime), then ttic free i-vill of the actor 
takes over and he may do as he likes : 



1M.S:5 He ivho aays^ 'StHEmd-sa, my firitborn son, is no-r to rccrivca 
double fiorvionH' 'So-md-stj, ray son,, is nof cf> inhcrir along wiiii his 
brotlicrB/ lias said absolutely nothing. Foi he has made: a atipulacion 
contrary ro what is wnltcn in (he Tarali. H-c who djvidci his csmic 
amonjr hij 3on2 by a vabal |dana[ion|H |and|g;aYe 2 la^cr pomon ro 
one and a sjiialler poruoii 10 anocher, oi rreated the tirscborn is eouiv3' 
\ci\i 10 aJi [he odiera - his- scavcmcnc is\-^lid. But jf he had saLdn 'By 
reason of an inhericancc f :he afoje-siaKd ajran^menis are niadel>' he 
ha,q Siid iioihiJig what soever. |Tf| he had written, wherher at ihe 
begjoniilgn middle. OJ- end, |lha< ffic-iclhiligSaie lniLidcd^wcJ-l lis H^ gift. 
hiistHUcmcnris vaJid. He who^ays, 'Mr 5o3nd-itj will inherit mc/ itia 
case in which he has a daughter 'My daughter will inherit mci' in a -case 
in ^^"hcch he has a son^ has said nothing whacsocvcr. For he has made? a 
stipulation contrarj' m what is writrcn in rhcTorabi. He who writriovcr 
his propcrtj' :o ochcn and left out his 50ns — what he has done h done. 
Bur [chcj sag« are not picked VJ"ith him. 

T7:"^ The firsrhorn d.oes noc take a double poition In ihe Lncrea_se 
which acerues to the csiace after the dcajh of the father. 

T.7-^ Hmv" doei the firsch^rji no: take a douhLc pomionr llfl he 
inheri^H^^rirs oMndebt^T^^SH tif uL^^^dnLiblapni'iion |lf| diitn.^^l^ 
collcaion wcnifurrhiigiLini^J him Isii his f^clicn heir] , he "Jiip tmisi 
double portion. But if he said, 'I dont Tpvant to take, and 1 do-n't vi^an i: to 
pay our la double portion]/ he has every right to<lo so. 

Tr7 :7 How'doei |t"hc br^tburi]] not take a double portion in what is 
going to accrue to rhe lathers estate as he does in what is already 
po55cs5rdbv ihc Pathcr'sc^rac-c^ [II] the lacherol'hia father dici in ihc 
Lifetime of his father, he takes a doubk portion in the estueofhts 
Father, hut he does noi uke a double porcLcm in th^: ctcacc of the father 
of his ^ther Bur if his lecher was firsiborn, he lakes a double pornoji in 
the estate o-Fdie licheir of his l^her. 

T7?ll He who sa)'s/I*r my !Oiii divide my titaiccqujlly/fljid ihcrc 
was a pListborn there, il {the brothetij had acquired poi5W4]oii oFthcr 
estate of their father while he v^as yrtali^r, Ithe tirstborn^ docs not take 
a double portion. And if not, he takes a double ponion. 

T7rl2 He who says/GivctiAo hundred dinars to So-and-so my 
fLrnborn son, with what is coming i-o him/ he lakn the [moncvl and 
[alsa] takes a double portion as his nghi as a Ristborn. And his hand cs 
on rop. lLf| he wancSn he cakes l^hai the faihcr has specified]. And ""if] 
he wanes, heiakes the double panian [in the eii^Ee]. 



T7:r3 i^c who sapn 'Give such-and-such a fidd to So-[ind--5a mywik 
"WNih whar is coming co her' —she lakts |thc field] and also cij|]ect5 her 
marriage sciilcmejH. And hrr hand is on top. [If] shr wants, she takes 
the field. |IfJ she "^'anis, she colleges hci m^na^ settJcmcnt- 

T.7:l4 He whosaysj 'Give two hundred co N{LS^-and-^i mvtrcdirar 
— he i;o]leccs che money and lalso] collects the debt owing n> him. |Jfhe 

had-5aj<l,] ^foc his debt,' he has i right -onlv w> c^Hra: Eh<? money owing 

to lilm- 

T7:[5 nf] he had a fidd, and i [ had been mad? ^si(rft>"fi>rihei^iir 
for [he ^crtJemcnt of her n^aiiiagc wniFE^nandl^racr^korfbriL 
-scrrlcmcni of whir was o-win^io him, if he rhcn aaid, 'Give 
-such-and-such a Field lo my wifc, So-and-so, in payment for her 
marnage contract, and lo Mr. So-and-so, my creditor, \n payment for 
"wha: IS- owing no bim, wIim is ciwinglo ih-cm has been received. And 
their h^nd is on top. 

T7:Hj He who siys^ ^Give a TJomon to Mr So-afid'5o in my esutc-- 
|ec him inherit widi my sons in ihc posmion oKihc firstborn/ he docs 
not okei doable portion. He who says^ ^Lec Mr. So'ind'Sn inh^iric me/ 
haj said hf>[hir^gu'h«^<>em- Ifheidii 'Giv^ tny pw(veicyn> 

So-and-so/ his jcjtcmcnt is CLtrrial out. 

Since the d-onor disposes of his propcrtyn the issue is raised whether his state- 
meni oFfacE is accepicd withouc further ado. The ant^xr is, it he maikes a 
statcmeni: to the advanta^ ol the person -tonccrning whom he sp4:Aks^ nis 
stitf ment is v^lidat^; iHristothediKtdvanTagt itisnot. [fhesay^/Soandso 
is my son/ aJl other thin^brin^ equal ^^c man gctihissharc in the estate, [f 
he says, 'He is my brodiei/ deprivinc die man, of his share ai heir, he ]3 not 
beiievedn if the man wasa^vuined m have bten a son. 

M_3:rt He who sa^s^ ^This Ls iiiysoji/ is believed- |If he £a]d|, 'This is 

triv bn>tkei'/ hel; rt<>Ebeli^t(i. -irtd [rhehttefc-] ^hdr^^wirh kitw in his 
portion lofthcfathtiracstaicj- [If the brother whose itJtus iiindoubil 
diedi rhe property is so go bach to its original ioujce. [J( ] he receinrd 
propercj' From some oihcr source, his brothers are to Jnhcrit with hini. 
He who ditd, and a will -^^as found tied co his thigh - Id, :hi5 is nothing 
whatsoever. |U he had delivered Ic and] granted poiitsslon through ic to 
ajic^cher person, whether this is one of hiiiheiriior nor one of hb ht^r^^ 
his staremcni ]5 cojifirmcd. 



iTie 1bs£f[3 lak-es &ke law and bco^den^ thecise eiico a principle by tninxluc- 
irg Acase JerLvingfc"c>rti jrtOthtr£itud=c]ott ylrv^trlicr. Now the niid-*iJ^ tciU- 
Ties to tKe staiusofiwtn males r 

Ti7^2 A iriidwilt is bcdkvtd k 5a)> 'Thia ^jh^ came <?ur fim,' Under 
"v^ha-t tircurnitantxi: When there ii nu contKtin^ opinion. But if there 
is k contchtin^cpinkjTia she is not bclio'cd. 

The KEiimony is acccpEcd only if unconcfsitrd- No^ wc sen how ih^ Toscfia 

clanllnand rcfincB [he basic rLdc: ihi: foilicr deprives someoneofilit SLam^of 
tieir^ S4^n nc ^ firstborn. 

T-7:3 flf] people tonic forgrafLttd ciftnticrning someone (liat i^c was a 

llricborrisMtk faihcfl linaibeltevd. JIfl people cook for giamcd 
concerning someone ttiai lie wjs nof die fintbin-n, ^nd jf the time of 
ihegittj [thefether] ijid, 'He ii tht firstborri,' he is believed. [If] people 
took futgranttxl concerning sn^mcrcNnc that He was his son, and at the 
lijiic t>r has dejlJlh tlic Ipucjtjvc hither] said^ ""He ]s not my son,^ he is 
norbdirved. |If| people ifwk for granted coTitrrning someone dial he 
was nor his son^ ind at chc ciTncof [the man's] dcach^ he said^ '1 1c is my 
sonn' he is believed |M_ B. B. 8:JjA]. |lf] people i-ook for erinied 
concerning; sonieone th^t he was lus son, ajid at the tiine oFlii^de^Eh^ 
he siid. ^Hc is [my] broJier; he ls h^Uv^ [J. M- aB. fi:&F| |If| 
pmple took for gtanisd coiicefning«E>meone that h« wai: his brorh^r 
and at [hedmeof hi^dearhj bei^aid. 'Hf i:^ etl/ ^l^yc/lici^ not bciici^. 
|ir| people [ooh (oi er^nied co^icc^rninc soni£:nne th^E 1^4^ w^ h|j£.sj^ve» 
and at liie tnne orchis de^ch, belaid. 'He is ^'\.y son/ he j% believed. I If] 
he was standing among tai-collecKirsjndsaidn '"He ismy^on,' [ind then 
hj^wfntisfidfiaid, 'H« iy tnyJave," hei^bdievd. |lf] he said/ He ii: my 
5]avt a-Tidiheahe went and aaid^ 'He is my son.,' hcisnoi bclirvcd. 

T.a:5 Tvra who ^Tte coming from overseas- cvrn though their 
trading, eating and drinbiDg "were done in parrncrshLpn [if] one of them 
deed, hi^ feFlow docs not it^hcrEi h:jn. Bur if in: k.^d doiiduLced atTairs in 
ihis way beciu^eol ikir Ijcmg brH^thti^^ jilie survivorl doci itihcric. 

T_J^:£i He who went over^ejs witl^ his soci -^nd jthe w^n] tame home^ 
ajid wLih htm was a brod^er |borji co the fathen who had died c^ver^eas] 
— and Itlie wn] said^ ^This ls my hrothern wKo was Ex^fn to me mecieas' 
-and liheson wl^o hid come hotne] had fivebroih*rs, jnd b?Jbre ihem 
w^ atiftiait yffivf ^ors^>flW-(h^ydoi^yiSivc (i^ thevih^r 
bFOther, bofn ovcTv:ai| anj f orti<jn ^vhatsoci-er I Mr B,B, 8:^B] . Bjc the 
ison [bom overieas] gives him aiij:th out othis hharc [h-L B.B. Sj6C]. 


AWONC 1 HE Mil H^UL |l| 

[Ifthcn the brorh-e^ bot-n ^hro^l dJ^^c^^ |ihe hrtuher who had eiven hiiu 
asti^re] takcswhst lilit decedcml lijd^Lven cnHjtn |M B-It-3:6D]T 
and. the rest |o[ tl>e deccdem^s eitaie) rlie}^ bring jnd divide amcing [^| 
-surviving brothers] |M. B.R, 8;6Ejr 

T.a:7 He ^ho^=vcnt^jvcrscii5, brand Iiiii^thct--rindih^;avndic4 ^^t 
the father died- under all <:ircu[n£tancc:s the property i% -aiisiinicd ft* 
bclung ro ihc elder |tht father, and ncrn the son, so that thc^thcr'i yth^r 
sons JnherLc]. 

T8:S He who wi-? Tenting ix^ll,ardwi5 afraid of rhc heirs:- [rhc 

Klib? snd wil"fi«&«| &t irm* vihi( hiati like ordinarv visitors ajid hear 
whnt he liajfO say inside. Theti they go OLjc and wntt the will cmishie- 

Tft:^ A hwltfiy person wW wrote a w[ll -a dying mamHvhn wrore his 

properly J.E a gift - even (hd^gh he gsv* po^^^iftri ifrtf rh^ gift, hi his 

dojicncjthingatilL Bulk whu writes (fttrhi^ property in [he name of 
his fdli?^", and hcgavchirnpsjw=t^ioni^lt«[htgiltjlii^ith*i<rrTi?m]i 


TSulO He who writcia will can rcvract. He who writci. a deed of ^it 
^nn6[ KCPa^T. Whar iia willrLccrhis bciconrirmcdilf Idit lerm^? 
atwt bce^veti [o S^^uid'.so-' And what is i deed ofgif:? 'A5 of chis date 
1^:[ my prjp-^Tty b? given m 5<N-atid-!*-'" 

T8::]l He who writes a wiJl, before he gives pns^ssion, wherherir is he 
oranorher pjrfv-heajirccr^cuQjicehe has given possessLoti, 
whether Jt is he ufartoihtff party -he annor retract 

The kw5 of inheritance prwi^e for the FTianagemcnr^jf in. esiatehy^u^^^ 
Lf chc heirs are 100 yo Li Jie to take care oftheirovr-n aF^airs, Mut:h conts-rn there- 
fore focuses upon the powcr3.nJ rciponsibilitica o( the guardian*, who fmc- 
lion as eKecucori of :hc cstatj: and managers ol che property until the sons 
con\e of ag^. 

T81I2 Guirdians (of ^he e^iaie ol" minors] before chey have made 
acquiiition of the estate of minort. can rttritt- Oncie chey have made 
acquisition of the ej^t3tec]f nnino«H they [^nnor recracr. 

T8:I3A, A guardian whfitnihe father of rhe orphans hai app&mccd is 
[0 be subjeaeiJ ro 'n o^rli |Lha[ he has nr>[ misapproprianid the 
property of rheiThinorJ, [If J 3 couft appointed him, he ls- noi recjmred 
Co take an oath. 



Hcit^ow^ their duts to ihe pri«rs (^heave offering and cachet') ^nd ihe guard- 
iaru tuvc th? obligacion ttj^^eto it that minur ocirt' Jivtncubligi^t ions ^re ear- 
ned out. 

T8:L4 Guardians set aside hcivc offering and fithes ouf ciT the property 
of orphans. They scL] Kauscs. fields, vineyards, cattle, boy--skvts. 
girl'slaveSn to preside malnrcnance fbr the orphans, for] to build a 

Sukhi^k i^qLijK a iubb, shmv-fring«, wid otherwise co make if possible 
10017 nut ^ly and all commandmcuKitaEcdin thcTo^ah^^o 
purch^^ a soull ofih^ Torah or prophizis, [cyv] any niataT which is 

wrifttn in the Tonh. But ihey do no: conrjihjre m fijnds for the 
R"dcmptit>n-uft^L|]tivci&n tLeiraccoiir^i. and ihey do not -izontj-ihute to 
diarLryirtthes>^n^oguer |c>r provide forj sny cmstter, the fiied jimounr 
^^fvhitK]i^^yl&clly^th in irhr Torab. They hiv^norgot ch^nghi co 
emancipate slavci, but tJicy mayseJJ ihcm to others, ind ihe others 
emancipate therFr 

The guardians cannot cngi^ In odiftaty commerce ^rd rndp wi:h jn h^lfs 
pjopcriy; they m-ust }it>ld irmorear less intJitt- I'hcy Jn^y JuJVF^vctj t^ketncs- 
SLires 10 increase the security of the- estate. That means purchase real estate, 
which was regarded as the principal medium dI iDng-term investment and the 
Lnerea^ii: nf sahd vealih (ihc Ijw ofjudiism ]n ]l:s classical tormulalionliad no 
undtiirjfidiEJgofmarkcieconoinia'n and liquid capital). 

T&:1 IThe guardians of estates of minor^l do noi sell Un.d at a 
distance tt>buy land nearbyj land n^'pnorqiulity to hjy lind rf good 
qusdity- Thf y jrt nc^t gt^ rc^trturr c^^ thf djfi^dvant^^T tei ch? ad^incage 
[of[hc^^J5^|^^u toJItct or 10 disburse in behairof die orphans, unless 
they get permiasjoi^ ftom tKe court- 

T.S:I(> [The guardians of an escate of miaisrsl sell slaves tubxiy real 
Riaicwiih lite proceeds, butrhc^do noc&cllreak'statt [0 buy slaves 
wirh the proi:cccUi 

Women ind ^lave^ may serve a_s guardians (thuj Lncluding the wjdiow), if the 

d-^eued had chc^scin d^em;huL (he coun €:annot choose tl^em. 

T.B^17 A WU^l dy^?! ^OX appoi'^l woititn ind .^lave^ as: guaidian^ ^ 
begin with- Eur if cheir fecher had named chcnn while he was alivcn :hcy 
dt> Appoint them gg aid] ins- 

7.8:1 8A, |[f. nnchasivriiicn ir adorn mem, 'I have money and 
utensils in the possession of Mrr So-and-w^' thew-ifnesincs h^v^ th^r fight 



to 51^ |tht docLimcnr] . But [the clairiLantJ cajiFiot collect unnl he 
brings proof |t>f his claim]. 

This brings ujio the maiic-r of gifts incontt-mpkcion of dcach. ^TiaT hapjKiis 
LfihefeiherwntesoverliJspFopeTcy CO the son mwhat we would call an irtevo- 

land in ihc ^rhcrt lifeurvie^ Boch. paries concrol the luid in queiEion. 

M_S^7 He who wiices over his pfoperiy lo his son |rf> c^ke effect] :ifter 
his <lc:ach - tlic JjtJ-tcr tijtijiot sdl thts pirupcrtv, becajw: it is written over 
to thcioji, a.nd the ion Lijinnor sdl the property, Imxhilsc ii is |ytt] in the 
doiT^aln o( tlie ™hcr. [Tf] the fecher sold fic], the property is sold uncil 
he diei. [If] the son sold the property, the purchaicr has no ri^^hi 
whatever in the property until the &therdic&. Ttiefachcrharvciw the 
iZTops andgi^'es chcuiulmaco anyone whom he wanr^. Andwhacorf 
he left iLLrcady h^rve^Lcd - J?i k belongs tt^ hii hcir^. [U] hck^ ^dult 
and minor sons, ihe adults may not i^kccaie of themselves [from rhe 
csiatc] at the expense of ihc minor sons, n-or mavrhe mino-r sans 
support ihenise]ves (oin of rhecsiare] ic the expense: of rhe aduh sons. 
But ihey dcvidc ihc eiaie equally. If the aduli sons g,or married |a: ihe 
cKpemse of tlic cerate], :hc mjnoi wns [in due couRe] anav niart^^ [ai the 
e>:]ienwnfrli£ei[aie] Rut it rhe minor miwtaid/la we jeering ro 
^t[msjm«l jujr"u%/oudid [while fnihcrwai still alive]' -ihey pay no 
hceU^^ them. But what thcEilLhagav^lt^ ihcm he lias given, 

When the deceased leaves both adults and minor chjl<lrcn, Jiov^ arc ihe con- 
flitting dai mi -the foriDcr to ownership ofproptrtynthelatTcriosupporr-to 
be sorted out? The fights of all clicldren arc to be protected, no macEcr whan 
their satus,ar.dequiljhar« [apart h"omtht do ubkporrion owing to the FiiiC' 
born son) arc assigned (o ilh 

M.SjS [If] he left adiili and minor dauehcerij rhe aduli:^ may not uhe 
careof dicmselves |fn>m die escaiel ar the exp-ense of [he rnmor 
ds-uglnrets, norrriiiy fli-e minors support tlvemselv^ [fron the <^atei it 
tht e3^p^n3e■yfth^;idu-^t -^Liughtcri.. But they divide the -estate cquiJly. [f 
th^ aaulr daugnteRgot married [at the cspense of thee-stateh the minor 
da-U^rcrs may ger mairicd [at rhcevpenstof the csiaTel - And if ch?^ 
minor djughrers said, 'Lo^ wr arc going lo gc( married jusr as you gor 
muri^ l^hilcl^tlifr wftt iti]Jfliivf|/ihcy p^y nahctdToihem. ITiis 
rufe is more Jtrit-1 in rc^rd to daughters than to sonSr Por the dau^cers 
arcsupporteil at thedlsadvantiige of the sons (M- 9:"th hut ihcj^arc nor 
supported at the dLsadvauEa^c ol [other] daug^rers. 


The minf^r^ may nftclay eiressivt ckims no ^uddotCh but musrshowconsidtr- 
Hici^n fl^rtlie A^eti of [hte^iaK^ la which the jdulc heirs also havcaclajm. 

T-8:1S [IftheiJefedent' had left adjhard minor wns |M- S^7J1 
and ihcytuiiLLnucdEO crlj1>y^upp^]r[^vL[l1^licci>fnpbin[, the minors 
should not y^y to fhc adulfi/Uin '^ jtcgoirkgto he supponed |aL ihe 
expense otthcchtartl in rhc way in vrhlcli you were supparted wheti 
father >vas alive [and y-ou were minor s|/ ^Ifl the adulu had b^en 
marriodduriiigthtlittrimfofthf ferher the minora should n^r.-iiiy/U, 
"wearc^ingmbc married [arthccipcnx of rhc estate] in the w^i^in 
which you were married.' And no: only io, bur even if rhe fethcr [in his 
lifetime] h^d \th |:o rhe adults] slave-boyi and slavc-girhn silver and 
goJd uten^h, \ny ihey are cheirs Jcf XI B-_B_ S:7F]. 

T-3:I9 nn Ite |[he decedent] Hradulcand minor daughccrSn |M. B.B. 
^i^A]^ ^11^ ih^ (oniinued rn enpv support wiihauT oomplaLnv^ die 
tninors shoiild ftot iay to rhe adulrs, "l-o, we are going ro be supported 
[at tht e^^pcn^e ^f thet^Cire] \a che '^^y in v/hicli V(>u were sup-poned 
[wh<:n father w^ alive, ^tij^ou were mitio^s]/ |lfl =cKe adulrshad been 
married Idurlngthclifdinnf [>ritiela.ther]. iheminoK .should not sa^^ 
\j}, ^c ares^ingii^bcnianied l^uhc c^ptntc ohh^ Krare] in rhe way 
in which yoLi%vere married/ And not only so, but even ii tVieir father ^in 
hit Liferimel had lefi |io the aduh&j slavc-boya and slavc-girh, gold and 
stiver unensilsi lo^ they are rheiri |cf M. B_ll- 3:3]. 

What about the dainis of^onsinddaughiersMfihc share of chc sons cran be 
p^!d wnile tIi£ estate suppo-rcs che daugliiexsT chat happy arrangemem governs. 
But M'hai hip|>eiis if there is insulFicienl: money to ijrovide an inherirance lor 
the sons and 5uppt>rc for die daughrcrs^ Then the dau^hrcrs are supported^ 

andihe to*^ia*l^^^& 

M.^^l He vKhodicrda-ndldtJons and daughters -when ihe^tate is 
la^T the sons :nherit, and the daughter* are suppocted |br the est&KJ- 
[1f] rhe cstan: ]£ small, the daughters are supporTed, and^ns go hc^ggiug 
ir Ipeojile^l d<>ors. 

A^ischc w^r ^fihchaJakhah, w£ now mm rointcrs^iriiJ problems. Ihecafc 
deinCtibe^l bt^low concerns a diild whose sexua] traits arc not clearly dcfinedr 
Itow is char heir classified benA-'ccn rhe sons and the daughters as ro his or her 


M,?;2 [If] heifft sons^ddaughcers^ndons who:ie:iej{ualrr^it>vcrc 
not dearly dcfinediwhm fhe ^;3fJte is iar^, the niJespush him over 
onto the females, [ifj the estate is imiail, the feanaies push hjm overoc^io 



die mtdetr He wh<] srtyjj *lf mv wife bears ^ mak% he will ^c: a manchj' 
-|if] shcWre a cnaks h*; ^is^inaneh. |lf hesaid, 'If she bears] a 
IrmaJc^ |itic^llget| r^T>liandred [zuz],' Ijf] she bore a fcjnalc, she gets 
cwohLLndrcd [zuz], [[f he said^ 'Ffsht hears| a malc^ [he will gcr| a 
maneh. i!"|&hc-bcari] atiUdt, [sk will ger| rwi"] hundi^d >iiE]/iFshc 
bore a jualj: aiad a tcfnaie.ihcTnale^csa injnph, jnc rhe female [gees] 
rwohu.ndrcd [zuz]- (If) she borr a thil J whose ^cauJ [faJLiwcrc not 
clearly defined, he gets nothing, irhciflid, ^Whatever tnj/ wi^e bMrswJil 
gei |a maneh]^' loy dii^one gets |a manch]- Acid if rhert Ls no heir buc 
thjf [ctiild licki]igdeljned sexual traiisj, hcioheEits the entifC estate. 

Anolhcrmodc <jFlntcr:nliti4lityinvcikefi ch&wwh&sescims is iubJKl T&dotibt 
jitad]cfactsof[hcrnal[rr. Here we deil with women ^hogL^cbirlh in a. cave 
lacking ligh^ 'a^ happen^ ]n die warapainsi Rome Fojsht in 1 32-35^ CE;in 
the repiession ttiaf tT>lbwed> peopk fvptind themsehxi tijding out for lo:^ 
periods oftimc), TTicy ^^cbinh lO tn:il?saiidlo4e crackofwhich baby belongs 
CO which woman. Emergjng from rhe cave afcer che war and rtic period o(" 
reprcssiorin the wcunen revtrf ff^ fheir hmhandsT who in che interim have sur- 
vtvcJ with thd.r lands intERt. "ftlwgJiis whai^ 

1 3 "3 Two women who gave bixtht<>t-i¥0 mates in hiding, and [:ht 

women] w^n: and gave birth to cwo males in hidirhg boili t>f them go la 
the flR-t Ihusbu^'sesiace:] and cake a pinion of a male. [Then thcjr go| 
CO the second ihuibatid's «taiel and ukea pordonoFa male. |Ifthc 
s^xuncn produced 1 ;i tnaltattd a Female, |dien another] male and lemalcT 
boihofthrmgo to the ^rst [husband'^ cstarc] and tike the portion 
giving |[j a injie. [TJien ih^y g^] to :1k ^ixond [hiisband^a c^^Eticj und 
cake the portaoil owing 10 ifejnale- 

9:5 He who 5ays> 'He who informj? ine d\ai myw]Se has ^v^i\ berdi to 
a male gets two hundred-, [or if she gavebjtch] toafejna[e, he gea a 
mineh' - [iH she ^v^ birth To a mjle. (the fne^^ring^^fl g^rs rao 
hundred [If she gave birrhto] a female, he gcii a maaich- |lf die gave 
birch i^] a mile and a fficnal^i [hemc5S[:ngerg^& unly a nt^^dii 

The lawT ofe.'^rates and inhencances encompass a jyreat many more issues, 
form tng che ^^dclefo' th^ ha lakhah^presencacLonofjrs basic principles about 

such large and entutrtjsas^mg: problems as the rcsolucEon of matccr^of<ioubt, 

ih^ diypu^itidft rtf propeni' sub|o:i to multiple daLms (a prcsent-da}^ cxainple 

m^lii be J ±ain-<:[ishon the high^^/), ihc conflict of rlaims among hdn 
and LTedin^t). syn^tfJ^dd^^i&htera, and the liJcc. 'What rhe law means to accom- 

phsh is to im[Mjse upcn the miiL;inierahleea£cs oF conflicting property clainns 
ihc applied reason and pr^aktfcl logic ^rj notice ihanh-eTorah inirends to reaE- 
izein the rveij-'da^ and the here .ind nt>w. 



7 INHMilTflNTlH iN lSl_AM 

lni:lieitctlorti>[] bctfocK,J»chcfamily wasddiiied bythostv^^men a [Tijn maj/ 

not marry: his itiorhcr mtti, junr, and so on, Qmparitron with the bw^: {if 
Judaisni highlight the Bict iliai Islamic Jaw induflcs two cjic^rici nt>t ncr- 

and rho5c connccttd by slavery. That is to say, there aic dm prohibitions 
ao^insca man [narrh'~Lne his 'milk'sistcr' (j wom-an v^ho was suckled ai rbicsamc 
breasi) or afemaleskvcbcSongingcG-his mfc. Sojn ihc lawof marriigf, ncga- 
rive [Yhninnands defijie ihe family ^.-^chnfe persons too cl^seto fnarry.The law 
of liili^riuiicic J^? deriiie^ rhe Ul^irkiC Tamily^ hue rhi-^ tinie [httmgN po^cive 
^onim^nds &.^i ^stablJ^h ibo^e per^ont svlio ihll^i t^n^ea ^^r^ of inlurj- 
tar_ce Trani tite deceased Thtit commands see blood as rhar which cc^imecK 
rht fainilj- and not t^hilk^ .si niiUrly^ .slaves: dn ncitinJ^erir. Freed .si ivtsir-e, how- 
ev^Ff txNnn^Lml co rhe family imic (Nf (heir fcfFiner nuMtrs: diev hcnN inheric 
ftujn tiic f^mict rnoittri fafliHy siciii in the cjse of clieit dutl^ that fauiUy 
inJitriii Jroin thcJiL 

Tke-lsbmiclawofiriheritiirtct ij[>aseciori rlie iJftioffiW sli^^res tliar must 
be ailocartd to certain members or the rareiUy. These prevent a pcnon 
froin leaving his or her cniirccsiaicioasinglcJiidividiidT as any such bo^ucire 
arehniiKdmon-e-diirdof [he value of the «[aic. They alffitn^iirechaEC^^ 
inemherj^ of che t^niLly who may noi have access co incoi"ne - widows. inc>ch- 
tt^t and daughcers - receive i sub^ranrial share of rhe tsrate Tlie EbLLndaiioij 
fcr ihese rults is found Jti the Qui'irt^ ^vhinh prefaizej [\\m specifi-c laws wiih jn 
ijiipoK^ii U^^olci^ical si^tejnenc. 

Men hiivt fl ^hawof whjrpafeii-r^and foitiil^ li^ave, and women Fiave s 
^sirt of^-hLii pactrti and farnilylciiiT- art apparduncd dilate, whcih^^ 
i( isiiitkor Tmidi. 

Tf ihej' attend tlic divJEion of the estate, put lamiLy, orphans and the 
poor first. Give diem sonic o-f ihe wcalthn and spu^ak honorable words lo- 

Certainly rhflye who leave weak seed behind should worry andfeaf for 
ihcrti;ilKy ihfluld be in awe [ifdodiiidtpe^kpertinerLn^otds. 

Those vv^n consume the weaUli ofi^rpluits uiiju^dv^ will co^i^iime firt 
in cheir hdli^^ and will n^^st in a hljze 



c;od*:lia]^lrtjt|j,c<ni4:crnnigyc^Mtth!ldren: {^ til? nak tk puriiM^jf 

twof-emjts. If there art mo rt than twuwcjmcn, then they will have 
cwo-rhjfdsof-^vhiac ht leav«. Burif she is onl^ ont, then she will have 

one-Kalf- Fich otieo^- his parcrnivn^ill have ant-ilsth ofwhw he- Ici-vcSh 
irhe hu& cJiildlrrl. Er JiC ndi wii} ^ildrcn. and his hc]r^ arc h]s parcnrsn his 
mcthci will havconr-rhird; but ifhchaibroihcrs^ his moih-cr will have 
orrc-siilhi alter any bequest he bcqu^lhsi or any dcbL Ai fox your 
fathers and youraons, ^ou do no: know which of :hcm Is more bejiefi- 
cial to yoM. Division oFsharcs is from God^ Gcxl is knowing wl$c. 

Vou will have one-halfof whac yotij- wives IcavCh Ifchev have no 
thildptJi; bur df [tiey havf childrtrt then >o-u will have one-fourth of 
what diey leave, ifrer any hequarrhty hcqucatk orjny debt. They will 
ha^-eo^ie-founhol^^bftt )\H4 l^^v^^^ ify^u have ny thildtt^n; but if you 
have children^ then they will have one-eighth ofwhjtyi>u Icave^ after 
an>'heN^uejr vfiuhequeach, or jnydeht. If amaxiH ur a woman, has Jio 
heir btii he hai s hmcher or a sister, ea^^h of them wJl ht^ve one-sixth. 
If there arc tnorc tl]?r cwo, they ^hare in one-th]rdT after any be<|uc3r he 
hequearh^^ op any debt that takes pictedeiit:^. Thi5 is i bequest from 
Gud; God b knowing, diaccrniDg. 

These ire God's boundariQ- '["he one who obeys God and his 
mcsscngei-, Cod will c^u^e him co enrer ^tdetii undcrne^di ivliich 

rivers Flow, aliidingtiierer This h ihc miglicy triximph. 

Bur rhe one who disobeys God jnj bit ma^engpr, and overitfpi lii5 
boundaries, God wiJL uuse him [o emer i Lire, dbidin^ [here. Kc wilt 
]i3ve a hnmhhnepnjii^hmeiat. 

(The Quran. 4:7-14) 

Th&evtir)' specific in] unctLona arc enframed bycxhorutiomsthai csrablish the 
checlogical contest oJ inherirance; forirhertan« in I^kiwiie law js not ^baur 
coniervinp ones wcaliiiT bui ratber cjiing for the weaker nicmbcr^ af [he 
J^mjiy ^d e^cabJifhing |U2Eice ty obeying ^Ciod^j hiiur^daries/ PdrrKuLirly 
iniporcanr here are cvro sees of rules. Fti'si, ^ ir^ ihc liws of nijrriatCb VH-onaen 
^renor rhe same a_s men hui hjvN^ i separate stl, of nghtv Second, the Quran 
e^TabrL£be.s dur debt^^nd heque^u are to be tdhert care of in advjrKc of divi- 
-Sion nPchc e^race 

A_s for women's rsghrs, ir wotiLd he a mi^iaJie m "vereTTiphasizff rht 
Quranic siarejiieni: "lorlie male the bkcftfihcpor[i[]nuf™ylcmjicii' and 
suggesr ih^rwon^en are valued eKAcily h^lf of menj jircc oH^ mu^l laliC b^lh 
prciporrior^ ^iid n^der inio jccourtt That ii to jay, the Quran specitlcally 
provide* fut shates toniocbcrs, wives, daughters and sisters, bu: docs not give a 
ipetafic share to sans, and only givraa specific share co the ^rher m one case. 



In prafQcal appLcaiion, iho&e with shares mentioned in ihc Qur^an receive 
chfirJnheiLcajice-firarj ai:d only chen dn orher relatives itiherii_ H^w^ndtJig ^a^ 
cheipecific sitLiacion, these ruLeican lead ro the li^i-n's share ofciieest^r-e going 
CO die women orchefamil}-"_ShL'] law calcei diis ser of rules evm farther»asscrc- 
iiig rfLir nooj^e who i_s nnc _qp£c]ficiMv mcairioned in ilie Qur'jti receives an)' 
inher3iancejlejv]|]g the pcmlhUityll>ra lT:rn-Lilc heir t&i^^^^ 
noi rciertlj her tjuljin^^ ilure. 

The y^xon-d xt o( rules alyo concerns chc question ot order before ani; 
apporcioning of ihc cjcaic, debts arc paid; rhcn bequests arc honored" and 
rinally rhc he-ir^ splij what rcmairai, Ii is posatble, [hcl{:fo^c^ rhuadebicould 
cFfecc xhc cniirc csraECi lca"ving rtic heirs no-chjnt fiequeira are a special care- 
iory wjrhin the Islamic law of iniiertiance and will be addt^sed belo^, t^ty 
call be m^c tq any pcrsoa^ or ijisuci^uons indiiding chose wlia would alread}^ 
receive a sdiare accordijig tft die Qur^an 

"iKe dassical handbooks of che Sunnj rradjnon follow iliese Quranic rules 
fffcipliciilyj hunreac rhe I aw nfirhentjnceas^ modincat^onorjivorM in which 
tflifi ire chi pnm^rv' h^t^L. \^ fhit wnHdn cemiri ch^^^ l^jve pi'ifti'iiy o^-e^ 
odi^r^ descendiriTs (i^udi ii chjIdreEi) o^er ascendants (tiidi sih pa^nc^jn ^nj 
ast^ndarii^ o^er collaterals [inch js siblings)- Thc^otc. diuirt pci^arii wla^j 
h4vc5p«i-ficihar«tffticn[K5Kdm tlJeQ^^^lnaKiJ^li^cd^glhat amount, and 
rhc tcmaindtr dcvo3>cs on thr nearest mal^ relative. AI-<^ayrawani'a chapter 
on inh-crirancc (cntiilcd '"allocation" of shares') begins with Ehc ^rstabListuncnc 
ofrhis ma Icordc In followed by some san^ pic cases rJia: danfy iheroJeofasceri' 
djnrs^nd descejidanrs. 

Qjily [c^ m^ninhcm^ ifln, a ^flr^'s3cnofl-o^verd««ndanfs, father, 
prerrai grand&rhtr or higherascendanESn brother, brochert son or 

c&ilaicrals fjrrhet rem-oved, pacerjial uncie^ pawtnal unties soti or 
co-llaierjis further removedj hushajid^ and men ^lanie^ ^ ^UTV! ^ 
dienci^ge- O^iy seven wornen irtherif. daughten a son's diughter^ 
morh^r, gtAndrnoilierH sisccn mik, and -wonwrL gr4nt<^ the statu:? of 

Trie Lnhcritajicc share for a husband from his wife is onr-haif if she Is 
survived by no child, nor a child of her son, bur if she ls survived hy a 
child or a child of her son wherhej hflrn of [he eurviving hLiihand or 
someone else- rhe- husband receiver one^quarce^ Ifihe hu^bjiiddivS, 
[h« WEfeifceivesont-quatrctir if be Is survived b^ neithtr child ^ordiild 
of a son, bui jf he has a child or child of a fioji^ dien ^he n^ieivts 

TheLiiheritanceoFan^iocher from her deceased son is a diird if no 
dtKendi^nrinhertrs, OJ-ftS longifcs two dblingido not survive These 
\ih<^ prctedtrKt:, c^tcpl in sharw alLollird to (lie wife and ro the parents. 



In rhji MK ih*: wife ecrs a fcujrch and chc mother a diird otwhit 
rcindns, with :hc rcmajndur going to chc farhcr. 

In [he ii^se ofs wnmaji who dies leading onty a husband and parenis^ 
ihe huthaid J¥ceivesone'ha]f, ihemorher-Diie--diirdofwha[ remuiSn 
jndcheremaiiide-rhelonpmheffitheiseTtcepi for that which may 
redu^ze the iiii^ther^s ^arc. \fd\^ deor^cd had achild^ child nf^ son or 
tW4> jjhliMgt^ t]tt rnoclitr retcLves [^jit-si>Lch in thi^ cra^t. 

Tl»c share or a nitncr rrom his child who din without thiJdrcn or 
siblings Ls the -complete ]nhcri[aiice. If n]s child ls survived by a male 
thild or achildofrhLsniilcchil-dnilicf^ditT receives ^asixrk ifihcrci^ 
r^cji^ali: child orchildofEhLamdcLhildH the ^Ehcr first rcccjvc&^3&L?f[h, 
rhcn other femily members arc gLven rhcir shares^ vdiar remains bcloncs 
ro the fe:hcr_ 

TTie malechil^ who js ike orlylieEr receives rhe entire inheritance from 
hi^dBc^sedpiretiL OnfThere-afeoihef mrvLvori, &uch ai wife^ 
parents, grajidpat^ms, h^cake^ whacrejmins afccr [hcrir fharfs are 
Jivided- The grai^son ii in rhe po^itioji of che sc^n is loiig as ch^rp is il^ 
-son. [f rhere Is bt^fh ^ son ^m\ a daughrert cheii 'co rhe male the por? ion 
■of t^"o lirniales' {ThcQu^ran 4:1 1); the same rule applies whether there 
are many sons and daughters or only a few or them: they Inherit the 
Hinrire inhcriunce in eKls waj or [hey sfi^rc whar li lefiover afcer rhc 
-division amon.^ rhe oihcr le^ heirs. The grandson is jusr lil:^ [he son, 
^sumirgchcsan is abscni J n v^-hai he mhcrji5and jn raking precedence 
iovei oihers. 

The daughter who is die jole heir LnheiLis one-hair ajid if rhere are cwd 
ihcy Inherit cwo-rhird^- If there arc moTc chjn i^vo? they <li> iifli e^cxeJ 

rhls iwCHihifc'dtThcdaugh(ej'[>ra^c>n iiiheiiitjufli likcj djughKt'lf 
ihcct IS rrn daughitr SirTfcilarly, hii daughicri Irhcni )ui[ like mulnpk 
■d^uthicri, jttijming tkiiighrvri ^rc flbscm. If ihcrr is tmth n daughter 
und. die dauj^ter of a son> then the daughter receives hall while the 
Igranddaug^rer receives one-siKchn die c-omplerion of rherwo-diirds. 
Even if there were more granddanghi^r^H rhey ndo Jioi evoccd rhL&£L]C[h/^ 

In this way al-Qavrawani layi cpuc rh^ rul« whj^h combine rhe nld Afih 
Eyitemof JnhcricanccthrciLJahchirnulcline wuh [he Qur'anic rules. Whereas 
the Quran defines- ipec[licshareSi and all !eeal heirs who turvive the deceased 
recci^'c a share, cheold sysKni ^"v^i all che esrave m [he ntares: male relaiivc 
No orhet male relarive receive anyrhing. So jf a man is survived, hv onLy hi$ 
gj^nds^Nii jndhi-^ fa then che gJ^ndson {a dtscendan-i) receives che entitees(^ 
taking prrccdcntx uvcrthc rather {at] mcciidantjr 


k 2s possible chac aJJol thoit: pcnon-s mtnti^jn^d in tl]r QurWi sufviv<_ For 
initancc^ a man dicSn leaving nvo daughccrs (tinc-rhiiu to each) Ix^tl] parenti 
{ojiC'^ixih M each), and a i-sirc (onr-cighth)T iDaicihg <>ri* arifi ^►rti^^Lghcn 
shires. For such 2 cawr^ al-Qayrawani 5iiics: 1£ aJl of rht known redpicnti of 
shares as mcjitiof^cd in God's bock arr pathcrcd toother and di^^sc shares 
exciicd ilie Loial iiihenranccT ihcn each of tbcm must bear 5omc loss; their 
shiares J r^di^^Lded according m [he raiio of their shares in total/ (L21) In such l 
casCj irty bfocKeror tn^le c-ousin l5 fully exclu-dcdn and women rieccivc aJmost 

AsiminibncdHrJicr, cn]iintipdtcdsUvcianiiih£riBf]"ntTiihe]rforirLeicnai- 
tcrs, but only when all Qur^jmtihiiresliav^betn given ouiindwlienrh^^ 
no oihcr male rclatis^es. This rcliticn-ship between fortner fdaitCf -and fr«d 
slave is known as clientage Iwwiij') and forms a maj<jrcaftgOry In biamlt b^^'- 
SucKarckcEonshipTvas alsokntMn iiiTlorTu^n law, but tht:ke>'RoEnanu«pec« 
ofcijcncagc Isuch as an c^p^raiiun uf vfiniinucd bcrvitt) arc Ji^i found in 
Islamic law. In a case where a clien: might reccivi: parf of l:Ne^;5t^te, onlj- fhe senior of rhe emancipaicd slaves Inherits; any others receive notNirig- 
Al-QayrawajiL wrircs: 

Hie s£n.LDrdien[HwhcihcL"milc(>r female^ inherits everything if ihcrc 
are no ather heirs If ihcrc are oih-crkgal heirSn rhe client inherics what 
rtrniins after rht "^hai^ art divided. "Hie clienrdoes noc inhcric tf ihcrc 
arcolhcrmalcrclutivcTh, but heh^mor^ of a righr ro the irther][an« 
ihan remalc rclativcrs v^ho have nti snare provKictl For rn^m m God s 
book ™ he is mighty and g.rcai:! Nofcinale relative ] nhe jit unless tliey 
h^vca^harc provided forthcTwi m Gydilw^"kjnt^rdo wyjn^nprilierit 
from clients unless they ar-c slaves em-nneipjtcd by rhe women or 
persons related to such emancipated slaves and tJien freed by hi"h or 

Once agai^^ rhe jurists are primarily comicincd ivith pr-opcr organiHlion of 
Csh^cgorie^. Me]ij wftmen and clients may all InheriEn bur under specific condi- 
ctons. The comhinaiion of rwo inccrsruial careg-oncs^ pregnant women and 
emanclpared 5lave3^ provides an oppormniiy for Muslim jurisis ro demon- 
strate (he SjphlnltJtion ofinheriHn« Uw by add^«bng a p«ulJir 3^^^ 
fr male slave- ^ ho was pregnant it the i][nc of jicr E;[ndiicipdU^ii iiid whnse 
husl^and wa^ a slave at that time. 

Maliktolduson thea-uthority of fUhiak Ai>d jJ-Raliinan ihai Zabayr 
b. al-Awwam bflught aslavc ^nd ftc^ hiitt, Thj^ davf had iOfi^e HJiu 

b>' a freed woman, and when Zubayr Ireed h itn Zubayt .^aid: 'Thtse 
children arc also nty dicncs/ But the diemi^o^^thc moch^r said: 'No^ 
ihey are our clicnis!' So they brought the case to Uthman b- Afian^ and 
Uthjiian ruLed vhac ihc rigJiE of clientage belonged zo Zuba^r 



MalJtiaJd: In che d^e of a female slave who is emancipated while she h 
pr^nanCj and while her husband ib sci]] a slave, and chcn her hushjiid a 
eminapateJetiW before or after her pregnancy, ihcclaenrage ofiLac 
which Is in her womb belungs to ihc pariy ^-hicb ^majitipiced rhe 
tiiQiher Tbi^i* bfCfluiClbis diild ^■a5aJTx:3dyi:Dnnec[edro charp-inv in 
slavery l?efi?rc its mother ^^as frccd.^ 

The ditnt relationship U not a commoJlcy jnd. [zantioc be bopughtn sold or 
givi^o away; rarhcr, it e& j fenuly connc^cinn bi/ i^hftic^ ir^ttad of blood. 
Muslim juriiti dcmonstraic diii tonneccjon by addtessing x\\t qjonion ot 
whdrhcr slave status blocks an tnheNran^f liner In some cases ct docs^ for 
instance^ if lie child of a free inorher sjid & sbve father dies, the i nhemancc of 
thac child goes to chemochet" and her rriialereUrives, But iFth^7 slave father hasa 
free grand&?hcr ch^n chac gt-andf^lhsr atlfji^Stiie remainder nfthe inht^n^ 
(ante diirwould otherwise go to the mochcr'i male relatives. 

Olpaincuiar iniponanee in the bw of Intieritance Is the cmancipadon -of 
slaves as a bequetr. ThLs 7pe nfhequest is Strongly supported by die Qur'an^ 
which ur^es heldevejB lo fiec sJ;^vt^ as a pioits act and as e^pjauon for ccnain 
sins. As noied above, however, Ketjuevts are limited no one-rhird of the estate. 
and chii rult i5 soniecimeh predicated upon a story :n whfch i man had no 
properry oiher than iiltf slili^es anJ he wished to cmancLpt-e rliem all ji fij^ 
death. The Frophct, hovreYer> only allowed cwo of ihe slaves to be emanu- 
pated, and the other four were ]nherned by his hcirs- 

In addicion :o a simple beqtiesc, a person mjyaLso make avow diat a certain 
slave will be freed upon rhe masref'^ dearh Mostworlu of jurisprudence have a 

^paraic chapter for d^LsiypcofivU^'e^kr^ii^niiisiffiE^cif^W^cind dtough ih<:re 
is no incnuon of this rjpe oF slave eiiher in ihc 'i^ujan or among the early 

Muslimsnit w^ a praedeecompacLhlewjch Muslim values. In most schools of 
law, decluacion of tlie slave a^ amudahbar is diffcrtn^ ftoma simple bequesr. 
FlrLh while a bequ-e« niiiy |ve cfigr5g.t!d. a v<iw of cmtncipati^m jnay noL 
SecQlld^ [herriudabtwr'^tftv-nct tnaynut^cllhim nor may he be exchanged for 
jjiodier slavt Thtsc rules are clearly sec Jbrth in the handbook of Ibn Abd 

I i-aid: Wha4 ls your opinion oonccrning che mud^bbar^ can his owner 

sell him? He said^j^forrhemLidalJwJiisgwncr rruyrotKll him. nor 
r^ay he be r^^ai^ecdj ~^'hile h.Ls master live? — neirh^f fi>r a Jtb^? noi fur 
Anything else, as lon^ as he lives. If the nia.trer di^^ the slave is (rccd 
from the third of h:s estate which may be used for bsquc:^tSh whether all 
flfhifn got:? forth from (he third or noc. For if che deeei-«d had no 
a^wti from which che slave coiild In: ukeOnnoteiren some cif him, ehen 
he rt;mains a sla^e.^"^ 



Like rJie sliive whn is iKqiicaLhcd cman^LpaLionH lIk JiiuLbbbir js fi'Ci^d from 
the niabKt'jdiicrecJOJi^rT ihird, and -th]^ rule can causfpiVNWems for che iivi- 
iioiL of the esiaw- Farthcrf just is in Jewidi l^Wf ihere ls ^ ceneril rule nhai 
bcquesfijike vo-ivs dnddeclat-aci^nsofdn'orcej^renor accepr^ 
dcatH]^ ill. In the case of etnarLdpstion^ ln^^^^e^'er, denchhed bequtsr^ m^iy be 
honorcid, iho-ugh given t-cconJ raTik. 

!i ispcnnfEwdror rhc mail to withdraw Irom his cbphc whaicuerhe 
wbhci^ciccpi forthoowol making a slave a mudabbar. This may no: 
bf wlihdrA>^ii' 

As f[jt socneonc wko iti^e hi^ sJ^ve^ I'mid^hb^rj, hut did ii^e have any 
uther iSS^K besides them^ on* btgin-q to frte fJrsT one iiad rheci ch* orher 
until ^ne-rhird-nfche^rateLs rejctied- Biir if he m^Lev them 
muda.bKjts aJt^^etJier, Ixn aUo snys ^so-and-ro is free ind so-and-so is 
free if I am told th^t ni^y illne^ is tt^i'mnal (Ijc : ir ]£ tnld co tn^ ahaui 
my illiWS^rhiE whidii^cnldl^rli-enihi? i^nhequetr [atidihe^ specifi- 
cally lumcd ilavci shu-uld be fretd fimj. 

Asfoi someone "who mak-cs a bkvtot'his a mudabbjir, ihca he Irccs ha3f 
of anodicr ^hilcon h-sdcathbcd, <>nc begins dividing fhc tiita.rt by 
racing [hcmiid^bbar As for somcanc ^%h-o inakcs one 5lav<: a mudabbar 
while he is healchy and another "when he ls neardeadi, one begins wuh 
ihefitstuf thtrii Simil^ilj, iflu; inaLe;^ one after anoih^r niudabbar 
wtiile he is on his deithbedf one begins with the iirsr, even if he Jjd not 
intend rh^-ie w^rdt tn d^cia rhenr<.!er rtFemandprinn. 

A£i tbi ^incouc wfso dii;^ and li^avc^ ni> ^"iSsl^ e^^pL for a j^nudahbar, 
but the mud^bbar h^ isfets. then one-third oHJie niLdabbar \^ freed 
and his asscirs remain Ln hi^ possession. Bjt if the man dies, having no 
assccs except ihc mudabbar [but he do« have an outscaTiding deb^tj, bis 
debt is first leekon-cd n^ainsi him, ^ubscqiientiy aihird ci^'hat remains 
is freed. 

N^w if th^ m^iiAf di^L and le^ve; hN^ih a i^uJAbb^r ^ w^ll ^ a^s^ [s, 
ivhkh iiw nt^t ^iifficienr fcir rlie itiudahhar lo he lakcn frojn his [lijrd,^ 
and ihtn murt ^5tii jpptar -which were noi proiouil)^ Iwo^n, ihe 
fgJlfl^ir^i? i^lid Ei[hc;r<lim [hp- mudabbat i? fiWortlyfr^ni ihaj 
whicJi w^s kiUAvn ^t rbe tin^e^nd plaee of the hequest, or iriai he is 
eJTianop:iTcd from d^e rwo -^ers of assets together. Bu[ v^-esay diat ifilie 
ni-iidjt>bai: tomes lordi and Jie third did noi exceed his. emancipaiJoii, 
the assets mnxsz be ^thered together Somtthing is rerritived from the 
ncrwly dtscoveird assets, taking mto consider&thon diat v^hich renijiincd 


AMOfJC rJLI'.i^AliaiJ'ULtM 

t>f C"h^ M^^rXi oti rhf day he shouid have bern cmanctpaced. and rlijs [3 
put" rowardi the emancipation oFiiie mud^hbaf. 

AsTOrone who rnakc^ a slave a mudabbar ivhile lie ls hc&hhy, ciicli 
bequeathe his goods 10 alms in whjk lie 1^ on his dtsthbed, the 

The special provisioni for prnmisej made fiXNtn the Jrathbed also apply rathe 
qucsnon of ^^diL^her a woinin Jtihtrits frotri g 3iuiband who divorcer her {or 

mjrries her} whiU Kt ^sdcjlhl^ 01 In this cai^, there is no: only (he standard 
lengilioradciiihlviJlnj^E tOvijnbidcr(rhiwdaysKbuialso ihc'^aiungpeficul' 
^L?i^wvnisn j$divur:al butbcEoKshcmay marry ^ no ditr. 

The wcimjtn divorced three ijmcs while her husband js ]ll Jciherirs froiri 
her KusbElnd ifhc dies from thit illness, but he dnes noi Lnheric Erom 
her- The sfimc appbes ironly one pronounNreniem: of -divorce 1$ rn^d^ 
jnd he had diai [jom his illness alter her waiting period wj^ coinpkiai, 
even ifhc ^nily divorced hi^ wife wiih a sira^e prumiunccmftnc [he ;wy 
of them inherit from oncan-oth*! a^ lone as .she a? in h^i: waiting pciiod 
^en he diei. If shecomplered rhe "tailing per lod^ then then: 13 no 
inheritance berween iJie rwcKsf-rh^jn aiKS" the waiting prrlod. As for 
«meint whrt mstfit* ^ wife Oi^ h\i dcj-lbbed, ihc neither tnnerns from 
him nor he from her-'" 

The Id^mir Liw of inhencarKe is orgMiz^t^ ensure tfiatapccific members of 
chefcln]l>^ pariiculacly wome ni receive a fair share of ihe deceaseds csiace. In 
Shi'i l^^', these Qur'anic rules are liiideirtyud tu have establifhcd sn entirely 
new sysceni of inheriiance, while in Suari law, che old system instill m foK^, 
nKrely modified by these ntw rulci- In cither case, inheritance rulci cnfoFCf 
fiO^lJvccjtintctions artd ropo-nsibilities. Included in ihcse rcspnnsibjhties j^ ; 
strung cmpb^isis on making chariiable bequeiu, eidier for ffeeioK sJives^ 
giving of alms or establishment of an endowmeni- "l"be limiEatiOE] af Mccil 
bcquesfs to one-cblrd of the coiai e^cat^, however^ prcvcni-S sucli i^loljs infcn- 
rions from impovti-ri^hing the l^mily_ 


The Written Torab at Dent 24:|ff- tlWijSci the la^of divorce in a few sen- 
tenMS, and it^fotus]^ thenditwhere. [rm^ikcs the point chit serial marmge. 
first to one tnan^then to jnurhcLrticnrcvcnion co ihcfirscjsnot permiEEed. 
The haLalthah m tlie OE'al Torah vastly incrcaies the scope and jnEensifie^ 

stteritioTt fo detEiil. On the one hand^ die woman i^ ireac-ed as a iwjstve 
oidwjKcr KN the process; on chcoeher ihc woman isamc^stresponsdblf pJrfvin 



many dciailsn who has every F3^t to knt>^' whac if^irag^nj lOSCC ctnidiuojis 
in thect)nd.uc[ of che iran.saciioiiT and who has at thcirjlin: fltnt reiponsibtU 
hy (cr tKe cojiieqacmccs if ihc cransaciion is not correctly perfocmea_ 

Irt normative law, groundi for djvorcc kaow na bijundt: ihc huibdrtd Irti/ 
iHuCiwrirofdivoFizefoTiny reason whacMCYcn Lis he ^howJmmhsmbrhc 
Kfib? tcj p[H;L3^t? O^t^ JocLimenr ind the wiinnscs co sign and the court or its 
Mt'-nti m hand it 4>ve[' lo ihe wife. She has rhc rieht t>n]y to revive rhcdotu- 
rncnt proper] Yj thatiSn in full 4warentss_ And rhc wife may nor iniriaic rhc pro- 
cess In any way. fl^Ougl^ under certain ci>ndirinn^ ihe court of Jiidaism may 
inErvcneandcompcllhc hustand l^j^i^tctOll IsLS^x^n wliriMiw isJLiesucha 
wri[. Grounds for divorce arctlrbjicd bcrwccit rhe Hflust^of Shammai anti 
HJllel, t^ferred to earlier. As may be scctIt che wife tai^^Jniii impofiam rvilein 
the transaction and bears responsibjlicy h?r the proper cftndacc <^f t3m 
proceed i]i^5_ 

On w+iai CQ-nsciiuces proper grounds ror divor-tc. fne psrdti^nt vtrse of 
.^[:fi[>fLi*¥. l>LiT-24il-^&^caiisehcha5&bundin h^rtndopi^ticy in-anyihijig'- 
is resd diflifcinly The House ofShanimiJ lindi si tlcar icfcrctice i[> 'ir^de- 
CCnc^/ i-Lfidersi-ood co mean aduhcryf and the Hoiiit uf Hillcl HtrcsbCH '111 afty 
thing.' Aqib^ JiE]n broadens che Jiiacrcrio yield no-fauLt divorce: 

9:10 A. Th-t Hoa^e ofSJiammai iay^ ^A man should divorce nis w]fe 
only btcaiise he h^ fbuii d g^cjujid^ for lt in uni^hastiry, 

B- smce it is said^ "Bccaust "he Kas found in her indeccnqr in an.ything" 
{Dent. 24:1); 

C And eLic House oJ HilJel sajj 'Even ifslitipoil^his diih^ 

D. since it is said, "&cca^i5t hchih fuiijid inher jnde"ticy in 

E_ R_ Aqiha^ySs ^E\Tn jf he found someone cLc prcrdi^r tn^in ^ne^ 

P sinc^ir is said, "And ir ^baff hE iPshc find n-o ^\m in his eves" 

{Mishnah-cracare Gtrrin, 5-10) 

In any cvem, the husband ism nearly fullcinncrol of ihe maltcr^ so rhc l^inidJ- 
fiarian position accDnimadgt& [hp isa^ of [he rdiEionship. But ihe husband 
can bt: persuaded by rhctJJurt.tTven ehmugh l^[iniaic VLokncesuthaja ho^ 
cjntj ro declare char he wanci to divorce rh*; wift. 3iid Se>io appoint a scribe anjd 
wi[raeisej for rhe pro|ect. Here is a ca^e in which die man is fbrctd lO divorce 
hi^ wife: 



7:ICl A. And tlicscarc chconcs whcun chcy lorcc to put htraway: (1) hi 
who L5 aflliincid with Ixjiisn or [Z] "who has a polypus, or 13) "^Ko collects 
[do^ ciuzrciDcniln or (4) acoppcrsTnlchH or ^5) a tanner — 

B. whechcnhesc [hleniiihes] were preseni before [hc^'^^xrc married or 
wh^Lh^rafLenJicywerf married ihsy made EhfLf appearance. 

C- An<l coJicefningall o^rhem did R_ Me]? say; 'Ever [hough he made 
rt condiuotL VF-itK JieJ- |fhii che tiutrijgt is valid de^pice ihese blemishes], 
&hc still can tl^m, "I thi>u^t that J c;ould r^kc it- But tiow 1 find J 
cannot takcii-"' 

(Mi^hnah-Lraoatc Kciubtn, 7ri0) 

The acT of divorce depends upon the hushand's specifying that the writ serves 
hispurposCn wich his and his wifr-s name therein n and InsEnictlngchjt thrdoc- 
LLmcm hehanJcdnj^rr. So a^voman mavwrLlcherown wn U since in any crvclill 
[[ i^ die husband who icei^ecs ii. 

3:3 Ah All are valid fbr tJic v^ririne-of a writ of divorct> 

Br evet) ^ de^f-inuie, an idioE^ of a minor. 

C A -woman ma^ wiiic her own wricofdivurcc. ^nd^maii ma]/ v. rice 
his quittance [a receipt fbr die p^iymcn^ oC chc miimiigc L4>n^riiajp 

D. for f he confirmation of the"ftTic of divorce is solely throu^ its 
signatures [of the ^^itncs^es]. 

E. M ire valid for delivering a wricof divcrcc, 
R e>Lc^pi for a deif-mute, an idioc^ and a minor, 
Gr A l>lind man, and a Genrile. 

(Miihndh-rricrare Giirin^ 2;5) 

Ac [he same tinic the husband must give eKpliLit :nstrui.tions in the matter, 
parEicifaEEng in the rite start to finish. 

7:2 A. [ir, the)' said to him-, ^Shall w<;-wrLtta writ of divorce fcq-your 
wifr?' and he said to Them, 'WrifC>' 

B . [if] ihcv then instructed a scribe and he viTotc it> andTviltiCSseS in J 

rhey sigjied icn 



C. cvtn though rhe^ wrote l[ nuid ^^^ it Hftd delivered ii [O hjnij and 
he hannJcd it over to licr^ 

D. Iot (hi&^TLl oidjvorccis nulL 

E. unless he hjjnscif says to the scribcp 'Write,' and tc the witncHcS^ 

(Ibid-. 7:2) 


9:2 A. [If the husband said, | 'I Of ^ou are ptrtnititd iE>^n^ rcian^ eseepr 
for my lattier and ^ourfafhN:r, my hroth^r^ yo-urbrrtrher .lilave^ot^ 

B, or my man ro whom ^he cann^r becfltwe befmthal — 

(Ibid,. 9:3) 

9:3 A. Thcitxrof ihc wn: of divorce |ls i5 follows]: 

B- 'L>hyouatepermi[Kd[oany inan/ 

(Ibid., 93) 

Tht limitation thfit \^ itattd at M. Gitriti 9:2 h tidl in a*iy evetit, the Torah 

having turbid Jcii the ■woman lO tnit;r intogLich a uiiion. rhe-docunienc chen 
IDU5I specify ilic womaiii new freflJotn^ bu: fron^ ch^c point iorwatd, die 

7:4 A. Sht should noi aftcnvard cantinue together with him ctccpt in 
die presence of wnntsses, 

P, ft'en a SL!f\.'in[,£v-£n agiil5£rvanL 

C esccpt for hcruw^ji iervitii gid, becau^^he i$ jKjmela^ befbfi^li^r 
servant girl. 


The law thus p^yt mwt aitcjition h> woman f^nd family) a: rhtae poiiiG ar 


is neitl^er wholly the property of one man nor tnrireli-^ of" jr-ocher <c>r, in 

unusual circumscanccsH in her oivn cioinain}. These poijici vi danger - 

beirodmlj Tnarriage, divorce - attract the concern of the Ic^ syatem arKi 



w^uLresccurclcgalproviiionfor the Jiangc m :^ ^^L^mj.n'ipaiii]oii within ihe 
social ordern th^: whole rcscinE uptm the convlctiun that J wo-fi^aii\ ietiiiljry 
forms a principal source D-I^ocia] disRiptiun- 

Wh2c role Ji given ic the wife? Even tlioufji Only the liuihifid nuy tnitiare 
ch^wrir iF divorce ind it wjttcen and handed over, The Oral Tcjt-^h pfo- 
vide*;ihewifewidi amporiaiii poincs of parndpiijonmrhcprmcssol ordinary 
divorcei even when ibe Jiiin inicLain rhat proccssi And ihc w■c^[^-ani ^t^l^ j-n 
the Drc]cewcofre£nN>rLdinp]y£a[ns enormous consctLucnce. She has rhc right to 
Jittatf fNecondicioii-^ofd^lLver)'- .She his the rjgjii to be corrective nfcumed, t-o 
pamcipatein tfietriiniaabn ^i jn atuvt pUyer, deceimining^ how her halfof 
ihemartcnvill be tonduucd by dittatLng ihc Cit^umj^ciJicei, under which sl^e 
will rcccjvc th-c document. And above alL beoiu^e rhe Oral Tiirah akfl 
imposes the mosr severe and long-lailingpcnaldCbiLp^n n woinan wlioit^ wrai 
of divorce lurns out" to be impai rend and so ]nv;^li<|. and whoota ditiirtn^ch of 
such a documenr rcmarricSa the ^omanmusttlioLightfull^ e:(erci« hej'p<]wer 
wtthin riie Transaciion. So fhc wcman is riot oti],- given a rolt in ihe proems* 
but also avciy heavy responsibility In ih^;c<jrTectim!^lc:nti£titflcr[>n-ofcnL: [Fins' 
acuoji- For thai reasonn she lakes anylhing but a passfL^ rolt in iMc ciulltl"- 

rhedocumeni mus( not onlybcparucukr ECS ihai woman, but icrmistalho 
aixOTTiniodaie her preferences as roLLsddtveryc Since ihcdKurnenfinusi t-cm- 
fortVLto ih^ Iaw [or tr yields m^ effce: and leaves her sanctified to chit partictdar 
man), she hjs to malce sur^ ic is validly prepared at ir". crincal poims. That is 
why she dictates the tunditiorii of chewris's deliver 1^. While she cannocininaiie 
the procedure- Scripture has accorded ber no role in cKc transicrioji hut che 
passive one of rei:c]V]™g the locumrjil - hetwtll gOvcr*^i -whfr^ ^rid hftW chri 
wriL will be handed over to her, Thar ii ho^' the h:itakhjh3i.signMcjhera pan 
by aJlowing her w ditiiir^ thp wiidiciviu und^r wtaci^lt ^h^ ret^ive^ the dcKzu- 
meni^shemay appoint an agent, specify the CJrcuinstinoe of deliverv m her 
^^nLnandochenvLsetakean acti^-e role insrFrtingtht ITlLi^it^t] bond. Not onfy 
soj hiii die hushandmusTcxplicidyidentift" the document as a wti.tot divorc^^ 
and the wif-;must receive it a& such. 1 hjs if he puts it into her hard whil-c she 
Lsslaepin^ iher she waket up. reads ii^indseeiihadr ]s her wrkotdivorce, it 
Lb noi a >jlid ^vrit- untd he says to hcr^ Here i^your wrirof djYorce/ Here 
agailli the ininiilCCiOri r^q'M^^-S rhe -mfe'^ f!ill pmcipaiion^ and an explicit 
cschangCi understood byborh pamesf fi^t rhe marctal botid to b^ severed. 

Wbacisacsrahcinrhescrequiiemcnts^TTKy iervt LOinjke eertaiii the writ 
is valid and takes cfl^ct, so ihat all parEics to the tranii^ciion tnow thir the 
wonians status has changed Lrje\'CH:ably.Tha.t means th^-ice vf nan irrtpedecrtion 
with no bearing on ihc subttanteof ilie [laii^attiot^ such i-^ Jtiis-diiing or 
rnis-idennF^ingthtwritttisinEtlKwjonEdatCjijrn^is-tdentiryLiig; t^ 
[he liLJ3band)surtice5 TO invalidate it. Equally^ if tht scribe ert^ &nd gav* the 
writ ofdLvorce to the woman andthequittancc to tJiemariH rjtherthan ^ivir^g 
rhe writ to [he man co ^v-e to his wife and vice versan it is a complete d]SiLster. 
Boib these examples, and oiher comparable ones, bnng to be-ar the jnoit 



severe pcndticia. If flit wT?man ihould then rtniyrry vn the iCfctigth of rlit 
]inpaLrcd yirrk ol divorce, hcrcnfirc situation is ruined. She hntb ro _^r -.i tlcw 
wnrcf divorce from (he rirsl Lu^band and injm the scii>hd^ ^he lo^ hfr dli- 
jiiony; and shcloscE many oflhrbcndUsandguarmlccsof ihc jnarriagc wi- 
demcnc. turdicimcirCf the offcpciiip from (he rnarriagc^l into the catcg,orytif 
ibose whose parcjiis arc Icml]>" unable lo wcd^ for cxamplcn (he offepringofa 
jiiari led woman by .a man ocher than her husband. E^xiythin:^ Ja lost by reason 
(^f ihe irnoeein anuons of rhc ivifc in reniarry]ng, on die icrengch of an 
impiited wrirnindrhaE tneiiK the wife his an acute i iireres! jn.and bears full 
r^poniatihty fcJtj itsy^hdiiy. The hu^band^^ fljdy i^wi^nt powtr i^ lo dirci:! 
the writing and delivery of rhc writ^ o^herwist^ the wift btiirs ftjuJ cesponsi- 
hihtj' for the aeturate preparation of the doe(3mcnt, its valM dehvtry (hefKC 
insistence that she be aiert to the cransaciioin.), and the luUy t:orTtN:t details 
inieribedthf^irir. So in chc aggrt^at^, the Rabbinieiiageshave lotonly gti3r- 
anrecd alimony buc also cirttcti prui^uans fur the wilV and treated her ii5 j 
ftilly scncient, intelligcjn bdng^ possessed of freedom of will and e:iiJowcd 
wirh ^espon5ibni[)^ 


Dhwce inTsbm has no Jtamp nf iia 15 bn C^rigiianLiyH ind ii i5 ducepijvely 
easy for die maji to achieve. All that is required it Jur hlni to Itl^kt tl^ft* |>to- 
notjncemenrs of davorce to his wije, and unhkc Jcwisii law, these may be 
ipok-cn. Dtv-orcc, how^!vcf^ has specific legal cfffcts ivtaich can moke the matircr 
[norc d]ii]CLil[H ^d in rcguiaung divorce, Jfiami^ k^ ^^j^ to entur^ that 
^'onienand children are ni>[ left Vi^thont support. 

A sc^Hzment ot" divorce l^r^is^, lit. setting free] said three limes in a 
sjngje sentence goe"^ against tFadition^buTifit occurs, i: has legal effect. 
Thf [tjdiiioiiil fotmofdivorceis-an indifferem aa |nci[hcrrccDni- 
mend^ iiot t^ptfli^nsible) and \i \s as follows The man issues a single 
t-tat^rrv^rtt t>rdlvt>rce lO big wife while she i_s in a stace oFpujirv |berwcen 
menstrual perioJi], during whick kt liai not ^me i if jr her The final 
slatcmcnE atdjvorce does not follow until ihe ha& Coilipleied the 
ivaicing period; during this period he has the n^t lufetratEhis 
starcmcnt ofdi"vorce: as for free women "who menscruatCi ihcs \^ as long 
as the child mensrrual cycle after divorce docs not begin; for slaves ic is 
the second pericKi. If she is one of thtjse who do not jnen&truat-e, or one 
v^ho has already ^ne into menopause, hedi"vorL"e5 her whenever nt 
wanu/llic same applies [o [be pregnane woman. The pregnant woman 
he may ask :o return lo him a^ Eone as she has not aiven barch; the 
ivoman nndei^iEif; 2 ^ajring perlchd may be asked co return dunne d^e 
moMth^ in whic:h lier waiting period has nor yei been completed." 



A]i:ht>LJgh the pronounce mcni of divorce maybe oral^ jcinusc be-Sjwken thitt 
times, Prcfrrab])" the husband make^ one ar two protiouncem^ht^^ the wIJc 
undf^c^H her waking pcrioi and then he cnmpleies ^^■e femsinin^ pro- 
nfHLn^^mcnia.T^c availing period is ddjned in [he Qur'tfina^ih ret 
cy<:lcsaiid is csublUhed fi}r the purposes of ciiiu ring tHit j divorced woman is 
nDis^Jrhchild^aj-tdThiTifsheispr^nanutJ^epiirtrriitj" uf that chJd is known 
and moclicr ind chifd are properly car^d ^or. TIlcsc and other mica arc covered 
fXEeiLsivcly ii ihc Qur'iJi, 

T ho5t who lake an ^nith to stay away from ihcir women have a w^i( of 
fourmonthsr If they revere, God is fo^ving, i:ompaision2E^H 

If rhcy decide lo divorcc-n God ii hciring^ blowing. 

Divorcfe shah wait by thennsclvci for three mensiius] c^lts. They art 

not allowed to h:de that whach God has created in iliejr womtis^ if the/ 
btflie^einCodandrhf Lasiday. In chis rh^j r hii^h^nd; hiv^ rh^c-ighiio 

make than rcrurn, ifihey wishiestoracionj Won^cJihavcrighripbccd 
u.pon thCTn by honor, Bll: men have a degree Over tlaeins God ij 
almighty^ ^^isc. 

Divorce is rwf>E[mec:ThetejlTer i^dthethonurablr retention or setting 
free respectfLilly. Yougr? n;?ialbwcd to rate an>lhin£of^ha[ you hive 
^L\^nyoLLi waves, ^jnless the two arc afraid ihac they will not scay wiihin 
God^s [>n-Liiu|afles Ifyou art aliiiid that rhcy wi]] noi scay wuhin Ciod'i 
bouiLdan^. lliert is no harm in her acquiring her Freedom by i[_ 'I'hese 
are God's boLndarie^r^ do noiovCT^tcptli^m.^t^oevcrovcffMcpsihe 
bpundariesofGnd-lh^yflrf ^vi: sinners. 

If he divotccs her, she is not ]awiii[ for him aherwardsn [im]\ ^e marH-ts 
Another husband; it ^ubacquendy he dtvore^ ber rhei^ Oie^rc is no liarin 
in the two of them returning to one anoche-r, if they believe [hat thtv 
will 5 tay within God's boundarin. Thc.-^ ar-e (ind-S boundaries^ which 
he makes clear to a knowledg^sbie people- 
When yau divf^iv:^ u^iim^n irid thcv reach their term, then retain ihem 
honnrahlyor^r rhein free honorably. Do lot retain them by force. s& 
that you overstep- Whoevtr docs that has sinned against himself Do 
nor rake 'Gods SLg;ns ]n rtiotlery^ bui rcmeniber Gods blesiing upon 
youandrhac ofth^ RooIe and the wisdom which he has seni down eo 
youfof yf^uradmofLi^hmenr Andb*in awt of God, ind tnow that 
t^od his knowledge wf jH things. 



"^^'Tkh you d'^OiW ^vocnen^ and rhey reach [hejr lermi do hot ke-ep 
them (Vtjm rnarrviTiK thei t hiiib&tids whoii ilic\ Lave acjteJ htmoribly. 
TTtis i^ jh admajiicbn Tof tlwse of you who believe m Ckid and ihc laic 
^ky. TKisLsdcaDcrandpuNirfof ^^^J^J.CroJ^nows^and™u^llc^w^l^^ 

mipQiir'^fn. 2:225-232) 

The wiicLne pcnod h also of parti<:ular concern to Muslim juriiti, ajid soiree 
devnre a scpaFucehipierToibe intricacies of this instiiurion, Inhiihandbcx^fe, 
al-Qiyr^wiiiJejcceiid^ The iogJcofihtQjranic rules ro scvcraJ ucwaicuacions. 

llic waiting pcn<>d of a divt>fj;eid Trcc wimaji "m fhf« menstii'Uil iv^la, 
whether she is Muslim ui of the Itople oPtlie Bt^^k A^ for a. female 
slaycorafwnv wliy ijpartiaHv a .ttave: twoeytles. Whecher che 
husband i^bkve4>rfi^iti9kes no^dilTc^^;llc:e ml all ihesecases/lhe cj^les 
arc marked by the pcrimb of purificationiri b&ween the Elowi nf btood 

IfsheisoQcofthosc-whohdsnot i-ct rneo^r^u^red, ftir of rhose^o havt 
already «ajcd menstruating: Tht^n f he wait u^ period is iliree mofiihs 
for both free a_nd skvc. rhfwaiimgpcriodof j. free wiirrijn or slave 
who has bccji divorced and isalDout to begin menstruating it- a jxar. 
The waiiina period of a pregnane womann "whcrthcrat the death ol her 
husl'jatid at" divorce^ is until [he complerion of her pregnancy, wtiCEhcr 
she is fret. Javeo^of"th^; rta?pleof"ihe Book- 
No v.^i(irig period h tfquited of rhe divorce who hii not had m!x wiih 
her husbJtnrf.Thfi wairmgjienoiJnfafKe Vf-fttiianafrer ihedearhoFher 
husband is ftiur rnonciii jr^d idi^dajSi v^iether -sht ii old or^-oung, 
^hcth^Tf iihchadhad sa wit h het h usband ornoi, whccKcj-Muihm or 
ofthcl^pieofthcBook Fof tlie female slave or anyone who is 
parrially a slave: r*vo months and hve nighti. BiK A m^nirt who 
msnuruiTKandwhost qdeiskre dut^y nt>t blla^" ihis order: rather 
^c sics ^nd waits until all doubE has pa^^cd. 

As for rho-^e VF-ho do not mcn^cruaies whether bccausi: of vouth oroJd 
agC: btit tbeir buj^J>aiid^diJ have_^:tual iniercouise with them, chey 
n]ust>^'aEt three [TianthiattctdiiiJeairb otihetr husbands before 
maiiying agzun. 

The racriaians of ni<JLirr)ing for i ^oman ui hei waiEing peiiod after 
the dtillh oih^l hutUiUd intlvJc "lOi jpprflaching aj_y kinii of 
adoimment, such as fcwclry, eye maiceup^ etc^ And to avoid all dyed 
clothings rxccpt black, and all pcrRjme. Ske should not apply henna, 
nor even come close lo anointing oils, nor should ^he comb her bait 



Rescrlcdnn^ of mourning are inErumhenc upon free and ilave^ but there 
is A dififeretitc€jftjpi[]brt ^ t(j whether rhc}^ .arc rc:<|uircd of Pwplc t>f 
die flookr These rtstr^ctioiM arc not required of divyrccJ ^xnncn. 

wailing pcriudiri rhttaKtjflxjih divorce and draih. The waiuog 

pcritxl of a cojicubinc ai thc-dtach cf J^tT master Ls one incnscnLal cydc; 
the same applies ifhc had treed hcfu But ifshc ha± ceased to mensiruarc, 

then diree monchs. 

Separ^un™ fmm i fercide slave due to i ransrer oriii^f ownership ^riLaJs ii 

waning |>trjud [>l one mensLrual t)'tle- Oi^nershipii irani&fred by 
conntnercej eifr. tzaprure^ etc. A.^ fw a feJtiale slave who had just 

mej^sTniited whil^ sUtwas tn his po3w-_yiocu and tlien he hnughr her, 
no w^hingpericxlof scpar^iLou 15 iutunibeot wpciti herifihc diii not 

To prtvtrit A man from frivolinisJy titirr^tng and tlivorcing [he hamc ivoman, 
IsLimic law fijrbids j man frofn manning the wojuan he ju^t divorce d^ unlns 
she had an intervening marriage tt> another man. Evrn so^ that intervening 
marriag^c may rot be merely tor convcn IcnM. 

Ui^notpermia^foramin to marT>' a wmnan in order [om^ her 
perjnLiiiibk lo a man \ylio divorced ligr ^ndu^jvdy^ ihi^ ^i^n 4o^ n^ 
mile her i-jecmissi hie to him „_ _ As- for -^rtscanc v^ho divorcts liii wife 
coiuzliisivelvj slie is ncM per]tii«ihle co hini^ luitlaer h^ righ r of owntrs:hip 
nor hy right ol" niaini^, until ^he marries inoc her hiLshartd"^' 

As At^ha ruled m the l^jdith quoted abo-veonp^e Gfl, the woman mmr both 
inarry fhij iiiKrvening hv^bjnd and con^Hirimate ihf marri^- Hjftliet, ht 
muint divorct-^hcr I^^Lly befijic she r^av rcnnarryr 

There art numtirous i^ays to effect a divijrtx-, jrtd moht of these arc at the 
discretion or the husband. Incsc inscniments varj' arnong thr schools of 
Fslamic laWn bo: usually women are allosved some mcLhod of divorce for 
women by leturmng die mirnagc gifr. This Tvpoofdjvorccis known ^ihuf, 
iicerilly rhe dipping ofForf a garmen-L 

As for sotneoaie ^-ho ^^ ta his VFife you cire divfjrc&i' chij^ h one 
pronouncemenr, tven if he inccrded ic ro he mors chaii rtnc^ 

Khol' is a type of di^Xfrne m which iherc ls no right of returti, e^en 
diough i[ is noi called divorce- It is when she g^ve? him Mrnechtng {of 
her marria^gift) and he accepts it ir» order to separate h.Emsclf from 




At fyja miiP ^'}i^ :^ay^ i*? hi^ w]Ic; 'yuu are di-rortcd EFommt 
complettl)'!^ this hs^ tlic ^aljcof a conclusive- di^^rcc whether o: nt>c he 
hai hiid ■ntcK'ourit with !hcr- But if he caJ3s h-cr 'frccn' 'released/ or 'for^ 
bidden/ orsaya to her your icin is on yourw^jchcrs' :hcn ihji h^ ihc 
value o^ a conclusive divorce in the case" of a woman with whom he ha5 
had intercourse, [n rhccaseof ihose wuh^vhom he has not hid inter- 
course ii is as hf imcndcd 

Al for :hc T^onian who is diuurctd befnrecOJiimnnm3,li<>rt tif ll^C 
m^rnacej sl^e fetaiiii hjlf of the tnarFia£<- gilt^ xinless sht it- a ivoniati 
v^lio been previously married and she foi^ocs it. IF the is a vir^n, 
any dccisian to forego the marrLage gift is up eo her faiher. Similarly, if 
stie I5 a h:jnalc siavcn the decision hclongs ro her mascer. 

As for WJinctrnc who Jiv<>rccs, h-c oui^ht to grant his dii^orccd wife sone 
gifi. He iin-oi forticdcogivcagiEtroa wc-man vnrh v^iiom he has nor 
had sexj he alJo-catcsa share of inheritance co herT hue docs noi cive hej 
agittp nor does he give a §if[ to the "woman divorced bv" khul'. 

If hedjc5 and is^survivcd by a woman ro^'hom he had neiihei alLocs-C^ 
a share of inhernancc nor had inrervzoLj rse, .she r&ceives ^n jnli^JiLance 
bui no[[he niafufl^ gift- IF^hehjid had itirercout^^^viih h^r, she ahci 
receiTe-s jnapjimpxiarr irnrrijgcgifc, imtcssilitiihiiiificd with some 
urhcr thing i^f^lue/' 

The variety of pt^i^iblelc5rm ulas of divorce is a subiect of incertscin coileiiiiions 
oMiadlch^ suda *i this Kf from Mdilc's rf^A/BJtw/Td: 

Yahyd kJu mc on Malik's authority rhat he had been told thar someone 
wroicto Umar ibn aJ-Khatiabfrojn Iraq that a man said ra his wifs, 
Tour rein is on yonii wirhers/ Umar ibn al^Khaccab wrnrc ro hts 
po^rrnor: 'Order him to come see me in Mecca during Lhe piltrimsge-^ 
WTiilc LTjnar was circumamhulacing rh* K_a^ba, ^ Jiiin C4nie up to him 
and greeted hiin. Um&r asbed^ 'Wno iire you^' and he replied, 1 a-in che 
one you nrdered robe brought before you/ Umar iaid to hiiriH 'I ask 
you hy the I^rd of this buildings v^-nat did you mean by your seat cineniH 
*Y^uf rtin is on your wilhcn?^? The man replied, "Had you made mc 
iwdArb^Hinyoiherplatc than this I would nochav^ioldyou die rru.[h. 
I itiEcndd sq:?JTiiii(jri by (his/ l^mg.ribng]-Khartih said, 'It is aajxfu 

Yahya told me on MaL]Vs authoiity that he had be rold ihn Ali ibn Ahi 
Tallb used to say that If a man said ro his wife, ^Vbu are forhjddeo m 
mc/ n was like rhree pronoiiJice^enrs of divorce. 



MJikaaJdn 'This ls thcbcit of"whae 1 have ht:ard ^n the iub^^^tt-' 

YiKya lold mc on Malika auihoiity Irom Nan char Abdul.ah ibn Umar 
used icr sav dial nzaccmcnis l:kc Vou arc cljh oFf^ or "you ar^ a-bandoncd"^ 
were each ijkc three pronounccmenis of divorce. 

O^nceininc a man who said lo his wife you arc cur oiT or 'yoti arc 

abaiTidoiied' or you are ^eparattd/ Malik said rhac dicsc ^crc like cfircc 
prO"rtOuncefnt«r5 <jf divorce fnr -rlie woman wjih whom lie had already 
had imertourec. As fl>rt]icj>iK vnitJi vh|]<j]ji he hati tiO( luid ]nietrcouJSC 
he profesiCE w^if ih^r Jie had mcani kio be one or three. Ifheijyb wiie^ 
hi£v-^ar5 ^diisi chcn hcbowmtslikc one of thc^w who awl; w be 
cneaficd. This ls because a woman whose husband has had irttcr-couiK 
wjtIi her ls not set frCiC by bc-ii^ cut ofF^ abandoned ox separated, bjt 
only by ihree pronouncements of divorcCn but the one w|io5c husband 
had no-thad tncercooise w]lh her is cut oft, abandoned and scparaccd by 
one pronounccnxni. 

MaJtksaidj 'I'hJi i$ [he b<it of wnai I .^lave heard on the subjcci-'^" 

In addition ro divorcen ^ m^rriag^ may also he lenninaied dLJc to annulmeLii. 
ArnarTiage l&il^^mlJltd^A'bcn^Usb;ii^d^^f wif-si^fcut:^d[<%hav£aptfcy^i^^ 
vfhkh ivould prevent iheni I'rum pciformirig their ujtijugsl dutic:^ As in iIjc 
lawof Juda]£miaregu.larscxijalcclalJon:fhipE5x?iiEiSi4diit)^^^f mimages^^ 
not a ^Yor, so chat which siinds in the way of sex maj^ because (or dh"orcc, 
Furcher, a marriage may bcaianuLcd when oncoEtlie ewo undergucs -a change 
]ii scaiuSa ciihcrfrajn slave to tree or Irom trat rehgion to jnuthci: 

If one spouscicnoLinccshlam^rhc marriage is annulled by divorce - 
aiihough some say it is annjhcd wichour d L'F^rcc. 11 rwo "Lmbciievers 
l^CCOtiie MusiJmfc ihey are cf>nfirmcd in dietr nnarrtagCT hue if only o-nc 
becomes 3 Muslim, chen chts J5 atinulmeni wirhoui divorce If she es rhe 
one who th^carne 3 N^tislin^H th^n he has tigl^E oF marriage ihould he 
bcCflme3MushIrt^Aitblfthe['^k^sitifigper'^ftd, bur ifhel^ ^^ on^who 
became a Muslim and ha j ^vifc i j otic of (he People of the IRwiks the 
maniafe is confirjncd. If she is a Zoroastrian and she becomes a 
Mushna after he didn she is in chc same position and the two are consid- 
ered husband and ^vife. Bui if she bccojnts a Mushm much later, then 
she is already separated from him. 

Ifanujibcltocrbccomcia Muslim anJ he has morr than four wives, he 
choosers four and separates hmiseif From ihe rest of them. As for 
fiomeoiie who divorces hii wK^ through mutual cursing, ^ ts never 
^lleNwed 10 htni agam as a wife I'he same holds for a man who marries a 



womm duri ng iier waiil[i^p?rLuda.iid hais^ual jncsrc-nurie WLih her 

A wojniti frtav be Kciirned no her rainLl)^ for r-fasoii of iiisatiicv. hl-ack 
leprosvo ^-hiie leprosy, ora disease of tJ^e^dgin^rJf he lus imi^icoufie 
with her and did not Lnoiv of ktr Mtidulon, he rjl^es her iTbatd^ gift 
S*^ddei^3ttdilhe l^lufc'riofKaig.lltlV^jittKerljthtr the 5aintapf'll<:&if 
ilw: had been ^iT^CTi away b^ her brother. Rm iPihcKad bcpn given in 
marriage by aa-agcnl who vf13 notatlt^c mcnbcrt^fihc family [and 50 
would not Jiavc knc^v^7ic^rticriilncRf]>ih^ jiuihing is incumbciiLupon 
hEin. She g^iis nodiine buT a qua-mcr dinar T[tc limc Lmit Ebr chjcctijiG 
is ^n^ yc^ when hf h^s iex %vj[h her, hui jf hedges n£»[, die nva are 
separated if ihe wishes. 

The husband who is mi^sir^ has a limc period, of foui years from [he day 

^hfC mciiLicns it |to [he auihoiitics]. The scareh forhjm end^andshe 
und^rgoE^ a wai Ting period JLLU [ike ih^ waiting period ^i the d^rh of j 
hii^b^nd-^h-emarrhs^jtuffhe wishers but j~kO one inhtrii^from him 


I^lsmiic li™ reqjires that 3 divorc:ed wi^nun rtceiv^ alimony [vr herself and 
child support as lun^^ai ihccai« fbrthcthiLdrcn. These niici arc [arjjcly based 
on the sura from the Qurancntided 'Divorce/ and wJiicti isaddiesseddireetly 
10 the Prophet Wuhammad ajid his wives. Here many of che injujietions 
fotind in t-he second sura aie repealed^ aiongwidi the reit^rauon: di^t tli^fe at^ 
limiis Be: by God himself. 

O Prophct>^hcnyou divorce womtni divorc-ethcni ai [heir wajcLng 
peiiod. Keep crack of die waiting perriod^ and he in awe oi Ciod your 
Lord- Do no[ evpei thtm irom then aparimenis. nor will chey ao outj 
except if diey hive brought lorihadw-rHitKniiiriatk]!!. The ware Gwd'i 
h<»Lindifie3, WKoever oversteps the boundaries 0"f Ct>d "has slrttied 
jgalnsr himself Von do r\jA kno^^; p::rhjpi Ccd ^dl bring wmerhmg 
ciLtirtly new- to pass. 

Tlicn., when rhcy have reached dieir term, retain rhfm honorably or 
pirt widi dicm honorably. A^k csvo from among yoarsdvts wlio pos^ns 
justice to Kstift'i and brjn-^ die ttsiimony before Ciod. Thj5 js for iyhj an 
adjnon]shmcnt for chose ^o believe in God and th* laic day. And the 
one who is jn awe of GoJt God wdl make a way for him. 

And he will enrich him from a place he had never eonsidered. And rhe 
orie who puis his irusi. in Godn he wj] jccount iot liiin. G<_kI rcadieis his- 
jilTiif. God Hm ai^pohued 9 mea^ufe far ev^ery thing. 



Ai: for vtNur wcjnicci who h^ve dff^pa-Lred of menscruanne uid iho^c^o 
have not vet nurnstruitcdj if jT>ulJ^in dn^ibt chen chetr waLcJn^ period 
wlH be thiw munth5, Thost who are ivlrh child, iheir Krm is rhc 
completion okhcETprcgnanCj-/n^e on-e who j^ m iweoftirods tiod ^111 
appoint an easy padi tor him by his coinm^i^J. 

This liGod^icommaid, which he has -smtdtjwn to voii- ^nd ^ti^oeip'tr 
is in awtoKiodn hi: ^11 aci|iiiiJiin3cf his- vnldcol^iiod hc^vili grant 
him i wage- 
Let chcm live wheire yov. are liv]ngj in ^oar pl:^cc. Do not noakcdifFi- 
nilty for them in urdcrfO restrict fhen^- TfJiey are carrj-lng^ givt :o 
tJwm until they cojnplcfc thdr pctgn^ne^r IT they suckle (or you, ^ve 
rlwrn rhtir wages, and confer ivttli tai^ti other lionorabk If you rrcar 
a<h orhcr hjirshly, anoilicr wgnian will suckle for liijn 

Let The wealthy man expend out of his wejlrh A.s fcNf him wh™e prcFvi- 
sion us limiicdT ki him cKpend that whi-^ii Gwl Nji giveai hijn. C]od 
charges no soul sai'c with what he has ^vcn kun. After KarAness^ CcJ 
v^ll mak-e ihln^casici. 

(Tho Quran, G5:l-7| 

Ttic rules un sutkling^wliich tame tPiKe fore jno-iirdi^ussion of the blainit 

kwofbctrothal,igiLiLd<;inon5imCfOn«tri for [ieiofmilL These ihIk arc, in 
facL, rcpcarcd in ihc Qur'in. 

hiolIkCK iuckli lliL-ii i-hildrcii i^vi* Tull jedj^, foe such 2*. desire lo fulfil 
ihc SQcUrne. Il li for the "Taihcr 10 iHnvidi: for iKe Jiiorliers and clothe 
rhcm hojiorably. Nnsoul istihjr^ tawe wiit<o.|>ai!iiy;anio[hcr Ehall 
noi be prey*d for her child, ndikc^fjrlitrtorlm child. 

(U):d., 2:23^) 

AI-QayrawiiiL^s vereton of ihc lawi of alimony and child iupp&rt begins on a 
nrEativt note^ listing cho_se women who do not qualil^^ for majnrtnance- 
Whilc no dir<x:t rfFei^rCcS arc m^c: lo the Qur'an^ the dcwndcncc on the 
logic of the Qur^anLCiugtunctLt t£ cw^^ioiis, 

Thcjc is no maantcnancc citcpt for rhe wom^n whii ts divorced WL[houi: 
ih^ third lU]^ l^nal dl^vrv^j byl th^Ci^ i^ for th^ ppegnani woman, 
whether diiH-orccx] tlircc times or only once. Ther* h no maintenance for 
rhc woman divorced by kliul\ except if Jihe i£ pregnant. There is no 
maintenance for the woman divorofd by Tnurual cutr-sing, e:%^n tfshe is 
pre^ani. 'Ihene is no malnrcnajicc for all w^mcr in i winangperLoa 
due 10 [he jeath of ihcir husbandsn hut such la wNjnmn doci hiv^ iKf 


right of abiding |in che home nFtier husband] tf ihe house belonged :o 
him or he Imd ^If&id)' paid ch^ rem_ 5lie ]£ not co be expelled fi-om lier 
huuicicdivorwordejih oftKeHu^bW unulihe wairingperjod i^ 
completed. iinlcM Ehe Jarajlord ixpiik hpr becfluse he hjd nm received 
the rent Cyrils c^ui^aicnt. In chiiCiiK hc^pch h^^-^nd iktr^iy? i" ybe 
plaoc of residence to which shr has nc^rd iirtH fhc Wn^tirigpttiod ii 

A woman tuckLcs r}if child in her custody cx-ccpcwhrn the child is like 
din^ who are not suckltd^ A divorcee has ihiznghi of suckling hErchtld 
t>vcr htr huibandj ^iid j^he h^ [he rithc ciFrikingaT-vac^ for suiikliTig 
thcthild if sht wisbeSr Affer a divorce, chei^T>min ti^ihe right of 
cuswdy until rhc male child ri^jcltej pubect^ ^r the fem^ale child itiarrjea 
find t^iUurtiii^at&iifj- mar^flagt I^o-if fl;^ i^Mh&di^ar miM^ie^ 
^ jLs the &[andmo(hcr iind ctiCEi [hcaum havecusiod)^;' 

In general the Isiajnic lawi of di^rce are rjiher simple, alWing for eisy 
divnrcc cnd^ die l^nuEy relationship, it tLucs nut [Jicjn a[] end Ccj [nutjal 
rc^ponsibilirics, pardcularly if rhcrt are children. The spccilit rules on the 
wailing period arcdesigncdT& ensure knowledge otpaternityT maintaining cbc 
rttder of []^e l^^mic l^tnily. Durijie chis period, men support thcjr former 
wiixcSj ifielii^fing providing for [heir living a-trangemen e_ Eqti^ly^ men are 
e:Kpe*Ltcd t(j sLippwt chdrchildn^Ti -w-ho .ire being trajsed bj- ^vomcri whorn they 
have divorced. 

10 CONCl.ttSlONS 

Li both JudsEim and [slam Jaws of ms^rrbge. divuttt ^rtdirthw-itan^help w 
mark out [he ideal pattern ot fimilv relations, re^uliing in a rhtMlo^ of family 
lite. 'I'he relative place of womirnand men is paramount, both in e:^plieit and 
L?^iplici[ rerms. IZ^plicirly men insELgaicman~i3ge and divorce, and eh Judaism 
they jre the muA hein_ Imptieidy^ laws are directed coward men who areiccn 
iS the guardians ot wo-nier Simibrly, hciNch craditjojis include specific rules 
proratingwomen.-withrh^tftucr^ providing w>]Tieti aotcaiUJf ofptph-erchey 
wt^ld nyt <?ihemK hnve an vjuttyi 

The rites of bctrofhaL nnarrugc and divorce ibo servt to ma.rk imporcain 
cb^riges in tlie^'Ortian's-^riitLiij M^hemove^frfim the cusiody of fad^erirt hat- 
band. Men have no such equjvaletic stacu^^hifr, ^nd whether a miti hai 
enga^ in tcxuH^limcruJtjrse previous IU3 marrugeornoc ipnotij^iibjeci for 
legal di5cusiLDn■lmpc^r^andy, howcytr, a wvnianird^b niyi^s receptive rok 
riian a passL"vc one. The role she pla^ is determined by men - he offers to 
marry ajid she accepts, she receives his marri;^ gift and his seed durii^g 



intfrcoLjrseT and in Judaism ^hc receives ihc writ of divorce- buc whether she 

acciv-ely engages- ihis role ox passively accepts m is up rn her. 

Ecuochal Jtt boih serj of lainv-is a prccur-sor ro marnagc, and nc one may be 
bcirodic^ who could no: marry. Em while- iridic laws of JiidaiimbciJ^^ 
^£ Jf^l for^ofmarn^gc^ in Islamic law [(haslittJc kgiJ effect. Tb^dLsunc- 
tioii JiiiV l>; 3e<?n ill tl^c uneil^od bv whi^h a beiro^al may be broken- Heir 
l$lam, 4^iTbcr par^y i^^y ujiikiej'ally eiid rhe beti^Ebal wirh r\o -cuns^quencsH 
unless 4 gift" bad been eitcTunged- For JuJaigniH in jcrual writ of divnrce h 
rajuird, yqmif kw miilrcK a Further disrin^ion ber^^v^n marfi^g^ by fl>n- 
mci alone and consummatbn ofchcmarTiagc^binccinihcrfirsccabcr, ihcmar- 
riafic is broken by only one pnijnouncemciit of divorce. 

ImpoitaniJvi niarria^ is as much a joining of^mjlics as a joining of cwo 
indivLdudls. 1 he laws of J^daisni and Lslana emphasize chisby forbidd]ng[nar* 
ital relatione widi a specific -set of dose family relacives. Islam, hov^cv-crn 
e^iendsihis sharcdscLttoincluderelaiioasesrabli-shedby milk and cftvncrsliip 
a^ wel] as blood. This exieiiivion of cbe l^mily has no counrerpart in Judaism^ 
bu: itpUys a signiftcan.: roJe in tb-c Islamk use of family tics ro extend Gods 
ilJs:£o^:Jec)^ "iTie infiiiucion of [tw/jv'^iiie parron tiieni relationship) ^va^ used 
ro attacli converts co Mufltn^ lan^iiieSj giving them riglirs of proteciipn and 


JuterTigridlilam^Karf iK^ i<j^l<>frnairiagea5icoiirtracr5 no^a-^:sct■alnel:^^- 
But ^'hcreas in Judaism both inarTiag.t: ojntract and writ of divorce rDUbt bt 
wriccen documents, in Islam oral form ulacion? arc preferred. Th]s dependence 
an oral] cy seems anamalousHgi^cn wharwr know of the great liKrar^-wcalrh of 
the Islamic c^mpi res. in fecc. h&wevcr LIuviiindeMstanckThe^ spoken ^'crd ro 
have a parcicular value, whith ultimaicly goes back to chc und-crscanding of 
God as final ^uaranior of all contracts. 

Gods aciive loic is citempliFicd in ihc differences with which the two rdi- 
gions crcar an aecusaiion of adultery; "whic]! lj seen as a perverse inversion of 
ti^^ii'iLiI MA^f. Whik Jiid^h^ni (^naci^CIrtd'^ p^^rfscr jij;fi« upon [he accused 
WEjtnjii, matciiingpjnhhtneiitcotHtne, Islam gives her [he Jigh[ of st^tann^ 
by Gud| that she is innoceuL Tl>t under sundingi of cours^^ ts ihji if jhfLs 
iying, she will hjve to endure far worse pun]fhmt^n(5 iNan cb^ drinking of 
bitter water for aJieternicy. Both rcJigions use rules oJ evidence to ensure ttaal 
proving anaccusarjon is diHicult, bui :n the case ol a T^ojiian who is incKpiica- 
bly prcgjianti punishmcnr is severe. 

Bc^'^nd rhe ^bviou? diffj:reice between ihc ft^im of SLaiemenr? {irdrvcmp 
Judaism and Is^ani share many aspects of divorce l-aw. First, the right of divorce 
IS aSmost cniirel^ v--]tli the man^ since he instigated the relarkmship. ^c may 
end :t. Kurrher, the man rwed olErr no expiaiiation for his des]rr to divorcx. 
However, borh Traditions are contern^d "wich the trcaiment af [hcdjvorced 
w<>[nani who IS ^i^sumed robe ihe weaker partner in &uch:anarrangernc[iLTJic 
hushajid is also esp^tted en care for Any minor children from the niarriace, 

Tlie Je;wivti ]^w of inheritance^ h{:]wever, is markedly divergent fri^in diac of 



Jskm, iintein Jtwigh law a d-ft^iWe porid^^n of [hecncircc^EatcJs inhcriKdbiy 

the firstbflr-n mule, that bw ii ns-iriirvilly ccjjLcenied wiiK ilie proce^ ofesi^b- 
lashifigwho, among t^'[ni,wj5 the fit3tbom,Tliis question Js of I ktle jncerest 
CO cbc Muflim jurists, sinw iharc> are lixeJ ^nd ^ tirscWn sf>n nnl)^ iiih^ncs 
aforall oLhcrsharrshavc b«iidi5iributed. Roth aim Forjinckt ^ur injuda- 
isTTLp a|a5[5yncmofinhcri[anct ii jicnhcMJktunsiJeEaiiorL; rhc Jisptftiiion 
of ihe L^nd of Israel amon^ the iribts, the main ten jncr f»f fimilv [?T^^pc■ty 
[hroiigh gjCncfacLoni - ihcsc Fornn consjdcrationa as wrl]. -So cht cbim t>f the 
jridividuil Ji wtighcd agiinsE the in:-er«: of the commLuiity in tticcondiiion 
of rkc Holy I ^nd_ Of course, ihercis alsoagreacerrcsponiLbLliiy planicdon the 
heir to c^Tt ftK orli^r Giieml>er? ol [he tiiiend^ fiJiiily. In. Islani^ Gad's rulw 
take over (hii rnpcnsibility i^fdisttibuiive ju^iice^ nudining jusc^tio in ihe 
r^jnily is ff» receive- a ponrk^n ^f ftieestatc- 
Findly, checNidcrof the household isofkeyiriteres[[ohn[htradjrions, Since 
it is the baslt building bWk*>f a well-ordered so*:ifty- Ju JaLsni and Lslam are 
not prlmarij^ personal rel^ium, satisfted with injj^idu^l worship: ratlier, Crf^d 
is worshipped ihroiighuibn]ii.biojiit> his divindyotxljindotrierf^^ 
ofmdctVjthcnitirely d'humanhindjSlridchrtrorder induridsfeniJJvand poli- 
tics. Thcihcolo^icil Ibundati-un l^rthi^ intcre-it ish noriuritriMnglj', i|uLtt;dLf- 
fereni in rcli^on.. Tor si'hjlc Judaism sees the well-wrdertd faitiily of a II 
Israel m the Land of Urael a^ the replication of ch? paradisiacal ^t^te orEderlH 
IsUm .sees ihe famjlv is the fsrabhshnicnl of pustice and a buli^ark a^ns^ 
]gnt>rj|nce- Here, we -■;ee in ihi^ one derail hmvihegenemrr^refiiyih of huirian^ 
kinJj history takes ovtr TheigCi^rigiiiiraiKe and injuivLice jn hhin Mrrs- 
sTionds to tlic gencrati-oni from Adam to N-oih ind from Nnali co Abraham. 
That is to bavj God create*! Fnan^ wlno rebelled and l[>vc EJcn_ Man cjiicjcd a 
dcclin^j cocnmitting ever moje linrrejidooi acis o\ reheliion againsi Cod^ in 
tht ten gener^tiohs fruln Ada-ifl tO Noah Gftd iKeii xtjfi^ ^^LH all of hurvLin- 
kind cxLcpc K<Mh and his family from the fl-ood. ten generjEirins pawed, lead- 
ing Iroin Koah tQ j^rahsun, -^bom God tilled ^.^tl ct» whioti^ ^od enrrysTed 
rhc Land - that is^ the LajKl of Israel — as the 5ttting :or the restoration of 

In hjie"with (he nanativeof Scripeure, Judals;m divides history Into the ttn 
gen^r^nons from Eden and man inGod'^ imagCnaEterGod sJikcncsSn followed 
by rebellion jfidche fa II, to [he re II (;ciicra[Lnm fro nriNoihEO Abraham. From 
Abn^h^m ^>ijme^ holy T^raelj hi^ descendants and iieirs, and lyael [lakes ihe 
pathtoix^ti^]^Ltianofpar^Oiic, ri<jw through the lj lid c^^lfira^^^ 
pitulatesthcstDryofAdam^fcrtiicgivlci^nrtke Torah isj-nlio^ed hyrebelhoii 
and ultitrtaKl}^ tke lots of the Ijnd_ Then for Judaism the reworadon of rhe 
human OMiditloti 10 God'splflu fi>r fci^att - lift ji^f^Ail irt paradise it ch^ [^k 
of Israel throng tibcdicExc [othcTorali.Thc Tcjrjh ^htn nurb hu-manir/s 
hopcfoi regenrrRtion and renewal, fot the rec^Jverv oF Eid-en jnd ^tetrn^l life 
Tliis supernatural narrative finds its counterpart in Llam':? view yf^the divi- 
sion of hisrory intothc time o-F ignorance and injustice, and thetimcofjustict 



broj^c about through Islam- Throne :-rlli the stoiy of chchumin cond::Joii 

t^irough rhc narrative of rhar 5ccror of humanicy ihar his rccej^^ed anJ 
accepted God's- Thvill in the Torah, invhich IscaJIc-d 'IsracL'andxhc other of ihc 
hunbin arondLcion chrough rhc namcjvc of die age of innisricc ajid ihe age of 
jui[Ltc.Gcd\LrKrvizncion in human hismrv fnims the^hai'edandgiznef^ijvf 
convjaion, and hi^ purpose in h^th narrsiive^ i^iJie i^ime: the real i^ii^n nf 
God's will Qt jLiirice (itlwavs Kajijiiigs i^iefeforej niei-cv^^ well)^ tliroufih th-c 
social order on earrl^_ 

ii iKen, rhe judaic paradigm (io^i fforn Rden to flie Floods fhto ftom 
Noun to Abtidiiiln to Sinui^ the IblacniL paradigm takc:i cts ^yvrn touisc, Tbc 
IslainiL parndigm is one ol HtabltEhing Cod's jmcicrc cin eaiEh. The key (crni 
for this proctss i&aiii:gauvcon^i^f^?jr(«.C^cncni^undtriBQd 
a^eof L^nojance' before cbieeomjnp of lalaiti, this c-crin also refers- ro bodn ike 
disordered and unj"LiST\\'orldDfdicunbelLcveriaiidthc dev^iarions'^'hjch Mos- 
lims may make fro-m Cod's padi. The Isiajnic laws on mamagc are designed 
spccihodly (o prevent rorn]ca[]on, a form of jahiliyya. LikewLSCn they seek [»o 
cnablLshjusticCi by u]gins.[hecarcoforphaii5. Widows -and davcs, aJlofwhom 
need, lo b< brought wjihii^ rhe boui^dane^ of ^ jusi ^CKiecy. hunJicr^ Islamic 
laiH^'s of Lnhcriiance explicidy imodify :hc old system of Tfansfernng wealih ro 
ihe nearesi niaJe relative !>v idencLfv'Lrig specific shai^s for fcmale members of 
rhe family- TKiii rhe paradigmatic movenieriCj From jahiliyya lo ituticen h set 

fcrrl^irt fheseUws. Sslart^andjud^ii^nh |*^[fr*^[*fl che-pnridpbofGod'i pro- 
if iiionoHhciuicwij rid orclCTchiiiu^hrcv'calcdk^t.Bui each leUsiKoivn 
c^fihc meeting pt^im. 





EJcCftiosyniT^ iciiorui in [lie^'esi generally arc deemed optiflnai^noi ctUga- 
coiy^ in chc ^ay that taaci ire nwf votive. Aci dCt ofcharjry' comes abourby 
reawnoFihcgcKjdwillorthcdonor/Almsgiving Ijyiirresfion'^^^ 
of ijidivUijal intcntLcniallty - whlm^i cnpffccie 'iT^arcftrLcepcion is Jien m both 
]ud^£ni and Esldm^ which regard almsgii^inp and fhancy ny buth ^bligawiy 
a^id voluniatry-Bo[k make provision for^krt'f 
tlwCj in ^ll(;£^;c:ulir W^t, chacicy is supposed lo entail. The difference is, ^hat 
jsvolumuy is also oblEgatory, and howtht ns-o rdigiorL^ son olh [he f^bvioiu 
cotVLpliiiaiJorLs of such contradictoiy cerms fertns die probltiTi or trii-i L^hjipcer. 
Wha^ we fih^l ^^e i^ [Lai chc legal &)'steiTis of bovh l5lain and Jiidai^ni mme 
pfuvision for burh obligitoi>' ^iid voltjntar^ ^zhjiicvn ind each highly viJuci 
giving b5:>^jd rh-? rin^^rc of vlie law 

Tt^ begin withn in both Islam and Judaism laws thai express boih theology 
ajid pubtic policy goi^mactivitittiisuan^d-ljsedj^'ilmsgiv] 
TheM are noc merely cncaumgcd, diey reprticni sn absolute obligaiion And 
diai nre^m^H in b&rh insran-ccs^ tha.t 'brggam' j.rt: Jiaf TTe;^red diydaitifull^ biir 
wiih [c^pcLU fully pjri or LhesciGai order And JegLum acdy si>. Badi Islam md 
ludaibm plice a high ^ilue on aim^eivine in pam-cuiar, acEs of charily in ech- 
cral. Both religious legal Sf'sr^ni^lav'hejvy srrcsso-n sLipporrforihe poor. But, 
hke theseciJar Wesc, neither is prepared to leave th^ matter to indivkluills and 
Tlieir gorJwdIi tNF m rely whollj upon pnvaic persons' sense of rcsponHibihty 
andobligaELon. The characicr of ihc la^^s governing: acriun that musr mme 
il^m th^ hft^ci emb-^iffB ho^v che da'o Lraditio-ns bod* provide for a just social 
order and alsoltai^ open the oppt^rrunicy for die individual loa-ctouiof lo"vc 
f^jrGtjd. tiotonly LbegN>od.of sqclccv and its jnicresc in inaintwningthc poOJ 
and the ^-veak. 

"^KTiai IS EiTiking i^ ho^ piofuund i theologial niess^ is conveyed rhroiigh 
practical laws on almsgiving. The Hebrew word h?r philanthropy i>r 
Altt^sgiving, itf^jrfAj hears the double meaning of 'ri^hreousnrss' anJ 't;harft^/ 



and chat f^ct conveys chc tcncraliiVa in :hc tialakhahn of support for rJie ncKPi. 
Buf al missing vastly I lanfccndsrhc Silt of donaiin^ funds coa b^^r. Indeed] 
it is "not 2. mcurly vocivc action burobligaiory, and^ moreover^ whac njie gives 
belongs to "God and ^txr-s lo those i^hom God has dc^gnaced ro receive hh 

shajc/lhcEcrmis vinuallydie^ajnein [sbm Mflji^fi-rrom amor with [lie 

rehgjLonson ihc fundainerLtal-Qbtit^LLon of iho^c k^4X po$SC:SS wc^clth ru rsdizc 

justice with whai chey ht>Ed_ Ij^latnhmld-q itstnrti^ systen on the imperative to 
c!rt justjce, rocreace^ JLisc j^nciij and ^votld OrdcF, jtnd Jitdaiirn. agrees^ MtNscs 
jjkI Muhimrfiad i-rt k^rth j t^oniLnon g<>[d lor humaniTy, At [hj poEnt in the 
a>m pari5on^nda>nirabro1iht:hvo religious [raditions do wf^^ 
c^rrc^pondcn^c ol docirinc and law, in principle and jh dciaEE> ihaji Kelt. 


There arc (t-^o kinda ol charity ir klam - required and volurcary. Required 
^harj[y ^i s-lmfgLVLng j^ called zakat and volunE^iy chariiy is called jo^^^ih, 
^Idiough iKc c^'orerms arcoFicn uictlinwrchajLceiblv in ihat cla^sic^t soutcct^ 
because in some ways chey are h&Eh necessary fvir sa.lvarion. However, distinc- 
cions hcrwecn che rwo are disceniihle in difiCU^SJOns ol^'tlit ttsulti tiJ'J^ilurct-o 

Required ehiciiy c»r ^mKgi^iihg (^^jt^f] in t\\c Qu-ran 

The TcqiJiremcnf to contribute to che supp^src of ihe communiry, especially 
rlicpyorand needy; Is-wnc of chcmost frequcndy mentioned prcscripcions far 
piery'in the Quran. l^iroKamplc, amcnngrhenvisroftsiquflKd ver«iiiuw 


It is noc piery chacyou turn yotjr faces to die Esse or rht Wc^t^ bur 

pious is one who j^eljeves in <i[xi and die L^^l Day jnd th^ aii^Js and 
the Tkjok ajtd the prophets, and .-iperijj monty dttpltc hts lo^c fbr it^ on 
relirLVfiiartdfttpHart^ .\t\d tht ntedy and fravtltrsand (hose when ask 
^nd for tiiptiirij ind "who prrforma prayer and ^vcs 3:aka.i and dnosc 
>vhtjkccp their pwmi^es "^hcn tJiev ma!ke ihein and who are picienc ii^ 
poverty and stnfe and in t]nie of Vp^j^ those who do so ine cruchfnl and 
fhc -ones who take proccction in God. 


In ihia ^rsc^ i[ hdear ihai r^kai refers lo required charirablceonrribiirions, 
vvhik orher 'spcndins^ refers to supHzrerogatory charity: In ejrher c^^^ it is 
note^'orthy :ha: of ihc fi\Tr principles of ptety givcji^ r^vo concerti thaHry, 


ZaJcic is mencinned in ihe Quran ino« offcn iti OTrLOc<:tiaj] with prayer^ 

Thc^ar-2 verses of T3ie BwkofWjidom, guidance and mcrty for dime 
who do good dttdi, wko perform pra^Trand give rjkarand who hdicvc 
ilrmly irt i]\c yfteflife, The> [ati] upon guidance Eroni cheir Lord and 
will pro5[icr 

{Ibid,, 3 1:3-6) 

Believe IT] whai J have iencdo^s^nn coiiiirming whir h \\\\\:^'Ady] ^'ith 
jtjUh and do rot be rhe firsc co disbelieve irt ir. stid do not trade my 
5jgns for a imall price, and tal^ pro-tecrioc] tn mc^ and do cioi mis the 

[nnhwuhceceptionnnrhidL- tlii^imrlipurpoEfly, And ptrrform praj-cr 
and pay -zikai and how in ntaj'e-t' wprli those; wht> bow, 

(jod ha.9 proit^ised rmthnst among you ivhi>bdtcvc and do good works 
chaL he will make rtscm ^tcwurdson, earth as he made rbosc before rhem 
siewatdsj and to cstabliih fi>rthcin chcir religion which he choie tor 
cherrij and tacju^hange rheir fear for securic}'. They serve me, iisoctautig 
norhing "^ith mc and whcjci^r Ji ungraicful afrer rhai h ^iisfuL So 
pcrbrm prayer and give t^i and obey tlie Meisengerj and y(ju ml[ Ik 
sho^n mern:^. 

UbLdo 24^56-57) 

In feet, 50 impofEani i^ chariiy in Islam rhai it is often listed, fllor^ mth rhe 
Lrucbdicf and prayer which arc ajsu:iK\i IS ijispire it wdidl<]LhcrgiL^ 
as sufficient for salva.tLon_ 

Indeed rhos^ wlio bcliiiv-c jrij Jnj good -d^rdsojid perform prayer and 
gjve zakar wd] have chcir fewnTt J from [lidr Lord, indba^r noihjngio 
fear Jinr^hall chey yricvcr 

(Ibid , 2^278} 

TneQur^an cveit assures chose ivho jnatie ihe efforr huL cannot quttc niana^ 
cnrcchcchcQur'an, ihaipra/cr and chariry will suifice. 

Indccd y-our Lord kno^v? thai you, and a ^roup wich you^ stand slcriosf 
n-vo thirds of chc lughrora half or a ihudof ii. And G-od dttexrEilnch 
th^ iiighi and ch-c day^ kncwing ihai y&u ^ni^4%i k«p [^aol^ so he has 
rurncd toward you (inmcrcyJ-So recite From [he Quran ai much aa is 
feasible. He knows thir pf]>trc^ATf| be among you the sick and others 
ciavelling die land seekia^gGod'ifjvot and others iaghung jn chc ^-ay of 



Godr ^> fecitt what is -te^ih^c^nd perform prayer and give zikac and 

lend tc^God a good Ic^ati WKaic^'cr ^tid you pur foiih for yourselves 
you Will fLjid it imprnv-cd wiih ^iod and i^in e^'ciil greaicr regard. And 
ask Gud'b Hjrgivciit&s. Indeed Gixl is forgiving and mcrcLFul, 

(Ibid.. 73:31) 

The nJiaprtr cntitfcd 'Rep^nr^nee^ {^-T^uhJ reinforces chji, nocion by 

initruccEJig believers m Ught idolsKrg <cxccpc during 4 trkwze m rhN\se wiih 
wtiom ire^Eics have bec-ii ir.ade) wherever you find tnfrn sna leiM them 3™ 
holdthi:m and waj: for ihcmtn every lookojipiMtbudhhcyrcpeni and per- 
form prjverand piyiakaCn chenlei them go rbrir way. Inderdn God is forgiv- 
ing. tni;r^ifd W^i^t cf. 9=1 1) 

Indeed^ true beliefcojnbuied with prayer and chaiiiy areaufhcjenrforiaJva- 
ric^ia cvrfL for J^w^ and Chrisu-an^ -'[^™ple of rhf Uook'- actording to (be 

Bui those nf|cke People of die Bo<>k| Vf-Ko are firmly rooreJ in knowt- 
tdgc^and ilielxlje"vetiibfljcve inwhai was sen: down 10 you and iviia: 
was sent down lidor^ you and oerforn^ing praver aaid eivijic zakat and 
be-licvcng m God and t5ic Last r>a)r. To tbtm we will giv^r a grtit reward. 


Thai i£ because all previous prophets are dcscrLbed as havir^g: piescribed cht 
siame e^ssentials ' bctieE, praiycr and chaniy. 

And ^ve made them feadcrSn guiding by our cumEniLJidh Jnd wc 5cn[ 
rcvefation to :hem; do good works, csrabJiih praver^ and ga^ e j^ii- 
And d:e)' served us aJonc. 


Th^ were on±en?d only ro wrvc God, being dnccreio him in refi^on, 
true bt^liev^ri and perfortfl^-ng prayer and giving zak^:; tbatis rhccstab- 
lisbed rf ligiotl. 

(Ibid. 98:3-6^ cf: I9:31"32i 19:53-^6) 

As chesc verses indicate^ in the Quranic view^ proper oricntatiori tow^^rd char- 
ity js impossEblc wLthoui: bchcf Fur true belK-F gives ^roptr itujt-vacaon or 
imenTion.-aprrrequisiicfomcTiuri the Quran Thcnt^n-believers v^ho-con- 
EroHcd ihe 4at;red most|uc in Mect.i, foreiampk, were -severely cricidjed for 
[hLnkJngthnc fhcir provision ot waf*:r ii>r tnc pilsrinvi wa.h equivaient w htlier 
in God and the Last Judgment, and rJic itriiggle to do Ckid's wdl-0[Dly cho^e 
who bchevr and emigrarc (in order rodtnhc"Wil]ufGudl andcicrtcvcrj^efTof! 
ij^/^s^du] in rhc way ot Cad widi chcir wc^th and their person' receive the 



higK??[ tqnk wirK GoJ C9 2<))- Thcr?forCi 4h< Qm'^n tircttC5 thai saving 

v-ralth (Uit tl>r sKu-w it. yf n<j jncfit, 

HavcjTJu 5CCJI the one who main ;i m^Lkrry of religion? 'ITiat is tlic 
-one- who rc|cct5 (he orphan and docs net ^ork (o Icod chc poor, ^oc to 
those who pray bul make nothing of Lticir prayer, '["hey like cohcswn 
Enii do not ^ve charity. 

CEbid, 107:2-3? 

Lid^eds Cind doK hot lo^^e those whf> ire proud and hra^^r^, wha are 
Jclfiih and encourage pen|?le to he elfish ^nd h3dc%vh3t God iiAs given 
ihfili in rivor Wc have (trcpurcxl a tmiLiLli^idn^ puniilimcnl "forlhc 
ingratci lorunbclicvcri] and for ihoKwhcj ^pcnd rhdr v-xakh lo be 
-tt\Ti b)'fw;VplCiin<|diJnOlbtl"^"^inGyJ<?r[hi;-lfl5t D^f. 

Clbid. 4:37-39) 

h is no-ryaur rtsponsLhihtj'to make them fcUtnv chc right path, but 
God ^idcs whomever he pl-MHCs. And whiT^frwt!alch>'ouipcnd, iris 
foryotir5clv& ify^u spend only m scrk the ^voroFGcd. And whatever 
"wcdth you. spend [rorcKarityJ, itshali be paid back to you in Tull and 
yoti shall not be wronced_ 

[rhid-, 2=273) 

Sin]ilail}'H rajlurr; tu give tnj^ricy 15 equated "^afh tion-bcJccf In a well-known 

paiii^ in rhc Quran, Miiharnrnfld LsinMn.ntal ro remind his followers ihal 
beisonlv'^ himuis beLngJjkcTKcni>w thc^ should mrnditoLrly mGo^iaTid 
ask Eorgiintntss. LjSKtitr^ jre chen warmed: ""Wtic ry tlic idNjIgtcri, wh-o dcj not 
give zakftc and dtnytht afterlife/ (41 :7-B}Acco-Klin^y, the giving of charity ii 
ptscnwd in the Quran as ad integral componcm: ot lightcous bebavicir, 
indc^H a5 an cssenclal response to true belief^ to recognition of the one goil. 
TmebcljtF^nd chanty arr two sides rf the 5amr coin. "I"h«e are no j^tiaranw^s 
offered char chanty ^iJl make up for lack of belief or for cvlI behavior how- 
ever. A^ >ve ^aw, chuLEy th^t is moriyai^ by pride OLher [ban conipisiiion lii 
not menc^^LnLis. Nor i^chariry that is tiuc p^ri nf an ic^Legraced p^nern ^f-viir- 
euoLis h^ihavior- 'Thos^ wh£> .spend rheir wealth in che wa)f n^ftiftd, (hendta rtot 
folltjw wliat the^ l]4ivc b|>ent wirh insult or hatm^ fhcit rewaid Ls VF-]th thcif 
Lord &nd thiey navcnotliingtortatnurv/ill tliev griirvc Hun^irjbli; speech and 
fiirgivi^jies^ are betier than charity rhar Ls fallovp-ed hy ii5|iify-' {2:2ft-ii4) 

Tlie rcrin zakut acts]jlly CHint^ Ftotii a nwr mcanidi 'to hr purc^ jnd ihc 
Kfni ^ii^l?<> mean 'pumy'j 'im^t-iiy'^ 'h<>iits-iy'tNre^cii 'j^psiifKatiWi The 
ideaistlut the wealth one- ttctives is effectivdy sanctified -or tnadc righteous 
— by being shared with those in need, by bcin^ contributed to society for its 
well-being. This sense of the term ^ak^it as a means of purifying something is 



tu^ed ill (he Qiir'an in in umber of vers^ts- i.}nc involves :he de^ih of a thild 
and the; liopc tlut G^xl ■^ill |>ro^^Ld^ h]$ partus wi^h one 'heiier thaji him In 
^alai Ipufiiyl and cbser in cotnpsi^ior/ {IR: &2) In ant>cher, John, 5nn of 
Zcchanibn ii Jescri W as kaving been endo-wtd from childhocidwich wisdom 
and rendernffi^ and ^ar (purkyK (l?:]3-lO Relievers gre rolil ehewhere 
dial rhcyamu'puriiy^rhcirsouksLnd riw icbcwrrupr and mill [lic[rt{9l: 
8-]])iTIk 5cn3tpf7fl,kai ii^^mciinf ^fpurilying^^tb j^al^w^id^nur (ti? 
Qur^an: Take chariiy Isadaqah) from their vvcalth mid cleanse them and 
purilfy [hem (from the- sairic root as zakatf ihcrcby. ' (^J03j The Qur'an says 
ihai cbe pioui, rhose who will be saved from damration, arc chose who give 
cheir we^hli, lFius puutyin^ je (agaia, usjng d^e verbal rooc of the: xrm laLii: 

"Wealth [hit ha^ beenThuipurLfLedisfZonEidered lawful. TTiatiibeaiise [he 
Qur'an teaches that wealtb i^ no-T -sg-tneihij^g earned by people and co which 
thev are therefbi^ en deled wd<> with asthev" wjLL Wealrh comes lo people as a 
rtsulr of God's favors it could not be otKerwj^e^ since all pi^wer uhiniaret^r 
belongs Cfl Gt>d- Yet ^-ealth is iiot co ^clr<uljte only ^ni^at^g rhe wealch}?'- 
'WhaievtfrCodha^gi^'irt irt ht^M^^t^gef— isS>fti^ and t he Wrffle^^^rirtd 
fot^dativ?iJndo^pW^a^d tlis need^^aiid ih^ttJvelcJi, soUma)' nocdtcu- 
kre lonlyl amun^thc wcaJthy/ 159=8) L-jwfu] wcdibp ihtrcbre, h (hat which 
is spenc on th^ well-being ol the family 3.nd community for flic vcr^ purpose 
ofwcaloh js to piovidc for the neirds of the community. TineQur^an chcr-cforc 
i-[Lpula:es rhe o^es lo which required chariry is ro be pur. Ir is ro be spcn: In 
wdy of Go J.' a phrase n^ed r^>eaiedly in seripcure ro refer to rhe worbiai^^ of 
the ov^hJI divine plan {alc-hougji iometifrta interpreted in rhemiireiKcricted 
s£n« of spreading Klain a>f fighting non-htlievers}. Specifically, ihc (^ur'in 
Sayt ^ha[ charily is- to he spenr for che needy and ihe poor, chose who ^ork 
with them, tho^ whose hearrs arero hew'Ort overHfDrcapri\^esH for debiors^ for 
thecatLseof CjodhS-nd fbrcravelersHiiulingFjoniCiod-' I9'<j0}ln rhiis verse, :hc 
terriiiusedissadaqah, rather dianT^ltaCn bur the imporr is rhesi^me. In anarber 
vcrst.tlic uses flfd^tfrtahletoritTLbiititnii are spe]lt:doutj rtftrcltig simply to 
rhe 'wealth Ibclicvrrsl spend' in the wai^ofG^xl, 

jThis charitv] is for rhe poor who axe dccuned in rhe way of God and 
^re unable co inoveabour in rhe iand. 'Ibe i^oranr rhinkof rhcm ^ 
ftee fn>m want because of |dieirl al>s[ainLn^ Iftom be^in^ You wiii 
know rhemi hy dieir appearance: rhey do nt>c begopeniy. Ajid wiiaKver 
wealth yoa spend, purely God has pieffetit Lnowled^-of ic. 

(IbJd-H 2:274) 

The ver^ quoted above fiJ'liO) i^ generally raken a_s designanng che specifdc 
u-sos fot ^^i! varieties of charitable eontril>Mci<]ns, bmit is repeated urirh sliglu 
variations clicwheie. For cxjmplc 


[T]hc |>tOui one Esonc viho bclicvci in God and [he Lair Div^ ihe 
angjclsn fhr Bw^kand :tic prophecy and. ejves of her/his w£jlth for 
[Gods] love, to relatives antt oq^hans, ihc nccdy^ ^he^vavferersind 
bcggarSn and forcsptivcs; an-d perform* ihcprayetr an J gives ^tat, 

(Ibid-, 2^178) 

ThiiSn wcalihdocsi^oc belong to cho^ ro whom it is given ^lionc. Thtpooiaa-d 
needy have an^hrful daim crt ir. Spejl^irgoJ-fhe righteous people, those who 
havctalten protecuon witK God / the Quran snys, 'And in chcirw^alih was a 
share hir those w[ipo asked, for help and the needy/ [51 ^?0) Nor is weaJrh any 
bentftciniLrdonisclf"wich regard TGspiricLi^i well -beir^j^. 

Woe to every l^u[t-finderp sbjKli:r<:r. who colle^rs wealili ind tounc^ if 
repeatcdlvr He thinks hts wealth w][E bring hjtn eternal hfe. No^ lie will 
certainly be thrown jnto ^i^tdwd and you loiow whar hunama is^ It is 
Cod's Fire rhal: he lights and rhac dcsccnd.s upon the hearr. 

Ohid., 104:2-6] 

Wealth is a tift from Gftd and tha-^e ivkoeL^tn t^t VF^^th arc to rccn^e a por- 
nnn ofii^ 'Men have ^ share of ^^l^ai: they ha^r earned and women a share of 
TrthaT thc^ ha^c-Cnitncdr^ (4: 33) But a portion also belongs to (hose for whoni 
wc arc responsible: ^And to e^'cryone ^^^ehavc appointed heirs m whai ir\^ par- 
ents and rela(]vc& lea^x and thos^: with "whom your oath^ have sealed ^ con- 
ma, Sogiucihcm iheir portion. IndccdnGodwatchcs overall [hifLgc' (4:34) 
J[it?ri;^dn^y, c^p^nditLin: ^1 wcsd^Ji Cor others n how the Qur'^^n ejipiijti^ 
mens responsibility for women. W< are told thai men aie responj:ible for 
Tyumen beauiie C-od has fevored 'some of ihcm ov^:: ocheris^ presum^Sly in 
terms of wcalihp since the verse a^jiTJci Lies : atid for whac they h:i vert pfl^nd^ of 
the] I property.' iA35) I hat tSn msles are noi ptefetrtd mgentia] <>ver woincn, 
bucthotewho have received greater wejlih are wKpoiiiiible^mth have 

received Ici^. 

SochjiH[}r,<>r spending ^^-ealih for the support of the conrniunLiyn i& a bask 
virtue in Islitm^ ^ sourtt of^rcat spir]tual merit. 

Those who spend thcjr wealth in :hc way of God are like agrajn of com 
tha: grows seven ears, in cveiy e^r one hundred ^ms And God 
incrcaiei further for whomever be pleases. Cod li bounnfuh 


In I^Cp RJVjng of OJle^ wealth in eharicy ls a commonly merttiotitd way of 
ji/}a^, or 'sTjenuQus effort". 



TTkisc thrlicv^xs who {^rt Inactive] ^ ei^cepi rher disabled crneis arid ihoic 
who cxc-rt effort |or those M-ho cngs^ iri jilWl Jn the i^i^^ofGod wjih 
chcjrwc^ch ar>d their pcrscms jre ntn equil- God hisra.LSKi]n rank 
ThcKc who CTcrt effort wirh their w«lrh »nd rheif perscmsflver ihosc 
[who arc [nacdvc], And lo each God hai pmit^iitil d gOL?d rovird. But 
Clod has raised in rank chose who itniggl-c tjvtr fh<jiic |wht>-aje iiiacLive] 
hy a grcai rovard.' 

Coforrhjighr and heavy, and snivcwirh your wcakh and your pciani 
in thtvp-ay ofGod. That Is better for jou jfyou only kficw. 

And whcn;iLhap(eris icnrdown: Believe in God and eserr every effort 
■wilh his Mt^ng^JFj EkelUf^iincjng ihnti tskod^yousaylng/LMvcos 
to be with rhoit: |who art inactive] ' They are sacisficrd being wirh cboie 
left behind and thru hcarfi ar^: :>c^li^d sa the)- do hot ujider^an^t. Bur 
the Messenger and those who believe with mt:\ l;x^;r^ ev^tyifnojc wich 
their w^alih and ihcirpcrrani and ihcyvviJJha^^ rewards and wjli 

(Ibid.. 5:8iS-aS) 

The believers are those w^io btlfcve in Cod ajid bis Messenger and ihcn 

do not doubly but pTKcrl e^^c'y fffrtn ^^irh eh^Li-w^lrh ind ih^f persons 
in the cau^c ol God- They are rhe rrurnfjlojics^ 


Oycuwho bclicre. iball [ lh->w ydii j bj c-g^in f haf ivilj 5iveyoufrflni 

painful punishmcni? That pu bdicvcin Gwland liii Mc^cn^t a nd 
e\er[ eveij'efFon jn cbe cause of God with youf "wealth ^ild your per- 

[Jbid.. 61:1-12) 

The iiTiparcance of chariry In i-^latn reflecL^ the Qur'ans o^'erall concern for 
jusrlce. The pitrpow uEhurosti Life is [o acr a^ CckJ& agenis or jEc^rd^, 
i^/^wjjj^ cr Wiphs', inQu/anic: Unsuaee Huitian beinK were creaicdro carry 
our the divine k^IIJ^ ii'hieh is co recreate in socjery cbeequalicy all sKare in the 
eyes of their Creator TbeQuj^ann th^reforek calls upon usro Vsrabhsh fii^rioc/ 
ro 'enioin gi:jod atid prevecu evil,' coiiiJiion reiraiJis lakcn co cncompiss the 
overdl Qur anic m^rldvicvr". \t^i>rking for social jusri^^^ 

miriinj^ ro ihc divine witE, In that cofitest. wealrh ii seeti as a rri^l or rest oF 
human resolve. PoverEy ls an evil. It, f-wo, [^ a trldl of human, forciiude. 


CHAR] Jl JN lilA^l 

And ^x will tcst^u "with some fear and hune^r and lns£ of property' 
and Ijvc5 and prnducc. But gCMjd news foi the patdenCn Hiost who viiltil 
disaster cojncs to dieui i^ 'Ind-ccd,, we are Gcid's and CO him we 
return/ It ls those upon whom are blessings ^toni rheit Lord and mercy, 

and n is those whtj are corre-ccly gnhd^ 

([bid. 2LllLj-n8) 

You wlI! he rested m ynuf wealth and voiif sd"^^ and you will hnr 
muth ahiiSL: fi-om thn^ whcN wcrt ^ivcn the Book before yoj and from 
chose wliti urc [dfdar<:r^. But ifyctiare fiancnt and n^hceous, indeed 
that ib [rut fortJEudc. 


O yvii whabclicvTH do no: becravG^jd and ilie Mcsieiiger r\^t b^rray 
you-r trusts Lnowin^ly^ And know diar you_r weaJili and your children 
ar^ a tfial and char'WLth Cod ]^ a great rewatd 


Inthc^ccof lueh tribulatjoni^per^veranceis:^ virmc: 'It isnotpictv chaitvou 
curn your faces to the Fa^t or the \Ctsr, but pluus ... [arc chosel who arc 
paLLeniJnpiVtfiy and ^IriJf and in time of war; th-ose who do so arc [mchRil 
iiid take pi[]tcLtion in Gcd/ (2:178) I"]ohtvct, poverty i^ al-so an ev'A ed be 
(Nverfflm? [hrou^ charity^ ^calthn en ehc other handi i^ no^ at^ eviln tn ihe 
Qur acucconfcit tt is Rch^leii^c. Those ]n povcriy arc liJiderscandihly eager 
\o elui]^ chtic inituijtion. Persons ofs^raldun by conir-astn maj^ w^ll be disiti- 
clinedtoiniedtrE; wicn chcirfcrfunc by relinquishing a parr of it. The Qurati, 
thefti^re ihow^^itH^Kidt^i^blt concern wirh wealds. Iris m<:rcLonedivef£igfc 
limc^, rtio^f often in vciics cm oumgtng charity (cKpcndirurc^ "in [he w:i}roF 
God/ at wc hatT seen) and warning oFche dangers of erced- For-cs^cnpl-e- 

Indeed, chose "who arc ungraieliil l&r disbelievc]s thdf VFcaJrti nind their 
children will not proiec: them ar all Irtim God[i punJihrncntl- 


At for rhoj^ wh<j arc ungrateful |or dEsbciicveja ihcir wcaldi and their 
childrtrt wiill not hcip tlicm abic against G-od. Th-ese-wdi be the inhab- 
icartiirtf the Hf^, Hind in itthcv-will remain. 


In tlic Quranic wroHdvicw, rhcrefbre, if charity i^ required J^ A means of 
achic^'ing the goaE of human csiiience - doing ilie wtll of Gvd by working for 


AMONG Tht hAITHfUL [llj 

SOtiil juststt-chcn ^vcaJth es not propcHy our own. Iris a gift frnjii tlori andi 

triaj oftHirvLrtiiCa in addition to being, ncccisary co fiilfil rhe divine coniiiinind 
Iti c:^labll5h |usticc. In this h^d wc may understand rhe Kucniii role ofsEtw- 
aidship li'ftjij/flror'cdjphaic'), anddicQurWs insbstence rh^E G^xlal-cmc a 
tStc rruc master of all creation- 

Etoyou not know that m Cind belongs the Hcig^Mp of fhc litavcns and 
the canh: 

(Ibid, i: 108) 

And God uivns the heavens and theearrh and wliar is benveen cheni. 

He crated "whai he wane;, and God iias po^^^rover everything 

(Ibid-, 5:18; cf among otheis:5n2lL&^74- 7:159; 9:11 tf 24^42, 23:3s 

35:14; 39:7, 57:3} 

In lactn rhc Arabic terms for kingship or sovereignly and ownewhip are the 

same {f*2uih from wjij-td, co possessor [o rule) llius^ another wa^ Tt> iKjidt^r- 
stand ihe many verses referring to God asrhe nnty rtuesost;reig:i isdinilGyd is 
[he only rriic ownci of wealth: 'Hl5 J5 [he (mnerthip |or kjn^ship or suvcr- 
eigncy]' 05-7) ofthc heavens and airrk srtd all th^Jt i-S id between them. 'Say^ 
" loCfodheLongj^ j11 itiKrcessiont ht is the aw ner erf the heavens and carrK so 
CO l^itn you ^iJl retLirn, '^ (39:4 S) 'To God belongs o^vnc^ship of ch* heavens 
jnd earths hccrcattsivhaE lie pleases; |4Z:50; cf.: 43::3^ 4fi:I5; <^4.?; <^7 2) 

Whether Eovercign oi ownor [he Quran ijisists rhu God i? the nnly ocu? 
tiuly dt:>CTvin^yfwmpkLeobcdicji«i (hconLytrLjeKingL'Ir^dccdil^n^ tSort, 
there is no g<ide>Lccpt me, iu serve me and perform prayn?! co remember me ' 
[20:15) 'So Txalted is God^ ih^ trjc sovereign /owiier ' [20' \ \^) 'So e-^aLied ii 
God:, tht ttue sovereignVowncr there is not Cod bur hen Lord of the sacred 
thronr/ (23:1 17^ cf] among other"^: ^^j2'ir(>2^2.1 And we Imman beings ^^'tfw 
crcarcdcobcrhcsffwardiofGod^doniajti Thewralth,chcr^foreiihEi.i>vCrLrc 
eiveiiT is rruly ours only rothe esLenL ihai \^ u^ it 'm the ^avaf Godi'thatis, 
to funhcr ihe divine wlIL And we do th&t hy giving our wraJth for the 
well-beingofoth^fSsTlie spiritual lew jrd fcr such chailcy isours ro keep. 

Ttequired eliarity or ^m^giviEig {z^ijii) in hadith liter^ttun: 

Had ithlitcratiLrcbc^rs our the importance of chancy in Islam. I c confirms thjt 
at[Ti;givir]gis required Elnd that k is soniethin]r to ^hich cne poor arc enniled, 
tcncttmgthc rcLc^nitLun rhar^vcallhisnoccacncdT bur raiher is a gift gtven b)' 

Gud ai a ira^ over which wc as human "beings only bear srewatd^iijp: 
'Almsgiving is a durj' unto you. .Mms should be cakeji fjoni th^ r](h And 
returned, to ihe poor'^ Hadiih liTcraiure alio diseujses the recujirement of 
charity even for dio^ wichouL Hn^nci^l or niat^rtiil inciins. 


CHAfilTV[N \%lAhi 

MLihammad saidn h is indispensable for every" Wusli™ to gi^'c alms.' 
The cDinp^n ions 22ked, 'But ifhe l^^rh nm ^^njth^ng t<j givc^ He siid, 
Ifhchaih ntuhLagnliemLJH do a worlc with hii lund, by which to 

obiain sojnechjng, and henelir hims^ith and give alms ivith the 
remainder The) taiii/Rutif heih not ablcto do rhaiwork, lo bcncfi[ 

himffiir^rt^ giv^; ^1^^ ty uihH^r The RmhI |Mutiaminad| faidi Then 
he should assimheiiwdj-jndtNpprcHcd/ Their aikcd'Whai if he ii 
not rihic c<i ;wS]iC the oppressed?^ HcMLdn Then he should eKhoit 
jveople x<} do good.' They askcd^ And if he cajinoi^^ He uid^ 'Then 1« 
him wjihhold himself froni Joingharni lo penple-; fcirvtrily that Is aliiti 
iiidch^i[y forhini/ 


Bccaiisezakac jskg;il]yohlJ^roryJijditlilitfraturt also establishes ihc princi- 
ple of mini mum aniouni inujibi of wealth necwsari^ btforc one is required to 
give a portion of i: ]ji ckariry. Thii antounf vjde:? wlrh che kind of iv-eaiidi 
undor oonsidcrarton. NnmsfflLi^ Kprfc-i? cftivfL^^tt E^hiI charily Is nol payable 
unle^onchai arlcasi fii-e niea^uret (cms^ oulato or grains. (The mcastjn: 
used ts generousj ^Ithnugh itkTecpj^fliiyiii of ^hat Et r««g^ weighs V3r>'i ii^a^ 
clearly suHjcieiu [o supporc a Kouschi^ld fur a year) Similarly one was not 
expected ta €:o:nti"i buic thanty if one o^vned fcwci chan five cametsn f>r five 
wei^ts {u^iyas, ot forty dirfiams) of silver 'Abu Sa^id al-Khucifl jeportcd 
Albh's Messenger (miy p«i:c be tipun him) ai iiyin^^ N<^ ^^<idk [T^kflf) Js 
payable on less rhan five wasqi or fdaKS at grijn^), on Its than five 
camel 'head sand on les thaai five yqiyag (yf 5il^[}n^^^ 

Hadiih fiicracuri: also s-pecifies i\\<y$^ klu-ds of ^vealtfi upon which the eix 
cnust be paid Slavct and horses, for example^ jfe nof subject to the t^a by 
agrerment of vinLially all reporrs. "Abu Huracit:) t^p^rced Allah'i Messenger 
Imaype^cehciiponhim) a^sayjn^ No^adaqah [i^k^t] is due fro ma Nluslim 
on his slave or his hotse*^' These cxempiiorii cffec lively remove these two - 
slaves and hor.-^^- from the category of wealth- Reprdingslaves^ the eitcmp- 
tion reflects chelsl^tnicinitw fhaf human beings arc noc pn>peri:yassuchj even 
vi^hcti cbtj art slaves- Based on Quranic iniur^ccions. Islan^L-c la^^^ sEipLilate$ 
that sl^^ves have right:?. Some oft host rl^hrs arc of the order afihc rig}itsof a 
rriinorwirhinchefamilyH as Jc^sephSchi*:h^mlI«/[T] he l^isjm it Wofsk^^ 
ispacrJarchaJand belongs niorem rhe lawof rimily thgn to the law cf prop- 
erty/^* Slaves may own propertyn jnu^ luir he miititatM:d ur over^^rkcd^ and 
musv be maintained properly They nuy Sue fuf f^ilun: to abide by those rules 
and (he cou r: may free die slave if the ovF^itr 15 in Hagrjnt violation of rhe law/' 
The eKempcLon of horses fi-oni ihe wealth on whicli an uwncr i& required no 
gfve a portion J n charily resuk; from their heitigcymidfrTdcEsentiat in dom^ 
the work ofGod^ ^upporriiig oiiadfarid ono dtpcnd^nt^, defending ikc 
communjcy againsr airack ar-d spreading true belief It however horses are 
bejng raised for shnw or trade - that is, to make a piofiin ihen they are iubject 



Thchchrscs are ofduKkcnds. They arc J^ourtcof fc^^^tt^^ ^t^n^ 

they area covenne to i pcrsDnn and rhcvurt" j Ijuftkn to 3 jjerinc^i^- [In 
(he ftfir case] a pcrwn would get reward wht> rcari them Ibrtht sat:cof 
AlLh ajid crajns cheni for him and noching disappcan In theif stOrTiad^s 
hm Alldli ^vould recotrd forliim a good dcc-d. And ittiicj' ^ftc (0 grj;^^ 
in th^ niairloWn EJU!^ wfliiid Ml noiiiiiig but AJlah would record for him 
a [omrf. And tfihev^vereiodmk water from the canal, wich even- 

r ■ 

drup thjt wuuld dLsappear in ihejr stomachs ihcrt- would be reward [tor 
the owner]. He went on de-^icrihing [tl] a revard was mcnTioncd for their 
nrinc and dunig. .^d ifthc^ pr^nt^ed i^ coia c>r rft-n^ ihcrc would bt 
recorded a reward for ever)' pate that they cj<j'F^red. A:* W ont for wnom 
<hcy are a covering, he is (he man^ho jcari ihcjn for Iior]or^n0 dsgftiLj 
hill does noifofgccihc right of ihcirbiclu andihciriiUTTLjcH^, in 
plenty and adversity. As rcgardi on: for wh-^m ibcy ^"^t ii b^hnjeOjht J* 
■diai. who rears :hem for ^Minglor^'and ishowlrlgoffru die psopbs for 
'him rhey are a burdcnJ" 

Hadich ^irerature also specifics anorher kind orzitat> that ivhich must h: pai-d 
ai tkf end (Thf cht nMnih^fRflmidiTi ([fie month of fasting). Tht craditionibi 
(badiih-coiJipilcr) Mll^li|■n lima number of rcpor[5diimJng thai a]]Mus]EniJ 
-maicand knvnh iUvCil:"^ rrvg-miisT pay diezdijr tf/-/7jrl-zakaifoFbrcak' 
J ng of dne Ramadan fost) in dates ai^d bade^ oa^wheac " 'Ahdidldi h. 'L'mar 
reporccd :ha: die Messenger fll" Allah {rtlay pCftCC b« upon him) ordered :he 
{paymeiiiT 4>f)zakaEal'fj[r one [porrionj of datc^, or one |portion| ot bdilJiyr 
Thcfe follows some daieussion ahour rhc possibEJirs" or subsEituting a ptjtcaon 
ofqualJr>'^hcaifo-j[hcbark:yHa5-wc]]a5 chcposEJbilk^'Ol" including OKiiiJ^ or 
chetse lh the offcringL Rcpons arc also induded ip«ifying [har [he uffernig 
£hoLj]d he mad-e before going lo the Firr prayer^ in order to allcjw the p<x?t — 
wlu> would receive rhe ofFerLnfis — co partiCLpatc in the celebrations. 

Mute SLib^t^ntid discil^sion in h^dirh ]E[eraEiirc c-oncerrLs the oETcnse of fail- 
ure to pay ^l^at. According r4> on^ relUng of an aeeouncauEhcrDcicated bymuS- 
tiple authorities: 

Abu 1 hiraira reported Allah^ Mpswng«r (may peace be upi>n him) ^ 
saying No owner of die treasure who docs not pjvTjkac [would lie 
spared] bui (hLs hoards] would be heated in fhc fiie of bell ^nd thes^ 
woLild be made imo plaresand widi dicse his sides, hit- forehead would 
be caucei'ized cdl Allah wou]tl pronounce juc^mcnf among hit. incrvantt 
during a day. the csient ofwhi^h wou]d be ?\ky thousiinJ y^a^- He 
would JictiscchJjparhH leading ciihcr nopamdiieor tohdJ, And no 
nwncr i^f [he canids vs'ho doc^r^i piyzakai l^ujld be spared) buc^ 
soft sandy pliin would beset for him and chev [zbx: camehl wojld be 
madct-o pass o^^er him til) che lasc of diem vvould be made to rccurn, till 
-Allah would pronounce judgtricnr among his servanis durjn^aday che 



extent of which would be fifty rhojsand ycii^ . He would ih-cn ace his 
puh Ic^idiiig him to par3.d]5c or leading bim co hdl. And no HDwncr of 
the [caitlc] and goars who d-ocs noi pay Takat [would be spared] buia 
sofc sandy piaan ^^uld be 5c: for himT he would Pind nont of dicm 
niitsingwichu^uKd horni, wkhoui horns-n or WLih broken horns, and 
they will ^re him with dieir horn^ ai^d ir^mpLs turn wiih dieif hoo^ 
and [hey would b^ made- m pass over bifii nill [be lasc of vhejn woidd be 
j^ade CO recufdi till Allih would prannunee judgmefir among hi^ 
wrvaiiKj ^uritigi day rh-e cKrenr of wLach wvn]ld he ^[fvf rho^jMtid 
ycafi, and he would icc the patns leading iro pjradise or to ntlJ, Sxihj]l 
saidrl do not knov^ whether he mjdcmeniionof dict^ovs.ThtiyMjid^ 
Mc^^ngcroCAiJ^H whaEalNuc the ho 1^5^ Herald; The hcrrscf have 
goodncis ]n their torc^Kads [or he saidj or goodness is ingrained in the 
foreheads of the horses l^ubail iiaid: 1 am in douhcas- no -what was 
acruilly saidl ^ip ffill chc Day of Judg 



The rcpon then concludes with a d]sckimcr concerning kindi of wxalch not 
5p£dfieila^ subject ro zalut paymem&H and areLteracicinof rJiemtmiof gschd 

They said: Messenger of AlLhn what aboui asset^ He _said^ Allah ha_q riQc 

f(:vealed ro [>i* artything in rf^d r^^ if ff^^^pt hit ^^ i:&nipi^hefliiv* 
vtrTcr'Hc who docs jn ijiom^ wcighiof good lAJllijeclrtrcTA^ariJcd]:, jnd 
hr v/hodoK an awmi'i^ghnjf evil "will ^tk |puniEhcd]M[^^-':i7}-^ 


This rcpon not only allov^'s ftjrthektndof discretionarj'or voluntary (supcr- 
crogacory) -rharity on irems not covered in specific legislationp but encojrages 
ir. This isjuewill be diJiiusscd below. 

The icsponsibiliry lo return a shan: o£ ones wcalch to th^ community h 
turcher strewed in hadith reports listed under categories detailing the ptuiLsh- 
raejiis due ihose who fail to contribute zak3.[. "lliese reports aire vi rtuallv iden- 
cicai ^^di chose iji the e^t^gorLfs deding with the seriousjies^ of ihe 
responsibildty cogive chatriry Fof e\nmple^ 

Abu HuraJra reported A]lah'iMcBtngcr[iray peace be upon him) as 
saying: If anv owner tif gold or silver docs not pay what is due [froin] 
him, i^hen chc Day oF [lcsurrcc(]on ^vould come, plates of Pre would be 
beaten otit Eorbim; these would chrn be heated in chc fire of hell artd 
his sidcSn hib Forehead and h 13 back ^oiild be caul:cri?"^d vith them. 
Whenever thciieeocjl ikwn, Ith^proeesB hil ^pcaTiid during the day the 
cstcn: oJwhicb would be fifty ihojsandycar^ uitil judgment i-s 
pronounced a mons servants, and be sees whether his path is ro take 
him [□ paradise orro heli. It was said: Messenger of y\llah, ^at about 
ih^ canieir" He |ihe Holy Prophet] said: IF any ow^ier oFche cani^l does 



not pay what is due |trom] him, and of his due in rhaE [camclj is [also] 
to milL it ofj thcday whcu it ccuncs dov^n to waccr when the Day of 
RcsurrccTioci c&mcs a 5Chft andy plan wauld be «i for him^ an. tKimsive 
a^p^^ibic, |hcv^iil£iid| that ll-^?( a single yc^ungc^nci^mi^in^i^iii 

they will trample hjm with chcir hoofs and bjic him wiih chcjr jnoudii. 
v\s oRcn as rhc firsi of chcm passes hJm, ihe lasc of chem would he made 
no recurn during a day ihe eimeni oF which "vvoL^ld be Rfry rhousand 
^rars, untd judgmein is projioLinced among; setvani^ jnd he see^ 
wheiher his pach is lo Take him rn Paradi^ or ro Hell. Ie was Ug:iinj 
s;iid; MsstfLgetof AlUh, ^vhaf jKouf cc™"i |c3ttlc| and ihwp? He iaid: 
It any a^ncrof the c:ai:dt and shctp dtwri not pay v^hat ii due tm dicm, 
whenihcDayofRcsurrecikincomcsa sofc&andy plain would bespread 
for ihenii he v^ilJ find none of fhcm miisingi with twjsicd homs^ 
without horns ox with a broken hornn and they wj|] gore him with ihcir 
horn.-? and trample himivich their hooJs. j\e otten as thcfini of them 
paiiiriihim thcl^iicof rht™ vrouldbemade toretuin tohimd-Lringa 
dav rhecsttniol'whitih would brfifiy ihousandyara, until jjd^mmt 
would be pronounced aiuone his scrvanii. And he would be ihown his 
paih - leading him to paradise or to hell/ 


rhehnguage used in rhishaditliLS clearly meanr 10 tmpresseventhe jimpleEiE 

lisi^jietwJiN the serioyjtieis Ljftht t>Efen.3ej>fiiot KmcriburingcocoErtniufilt^ 
support- Some ofxht iiri^ry \i driwn fn>rn the Qitran. especially that 
describing eautcnLatlon with heated metal plates. Amonp the Quran's 
dcEcripdons ot" the painful punishmrni earned by selfish people is che 

And those who lioard gold and silver anJ do not spend it in the ^'ay oE 
God, gii'vrhem the "ncw^ of painful punishment the day rhey will be 
hcaccd in die tire othclh then ihcjr forchcadi and aides will be branded. 
Thii Ls what you hoarded for yourselves, so- now tiiie what you were 


(Qur^an.!) 3^35) 

The mention of in ilhingcarnels on theday wheti it comes to water is o. refer- 
ence fO the cuitum uJ sharing milk with the poor when Bcdenjin fnomadic 
desert herders) brin^ their anJmah from the desert to an oasis; this generosity 
is also described as a duty, avoidj-nceofw^iirfi ispuniEhabLe. Again^ d^cseri- 
tju^nc55 ijf the yf^EUc oi gJP^d - the ^^pp9>!te ^Jf wn(ribucing sakai - i? 

Abu Dharri^^rttdnT^Til to (he Apo^de of Allah (rtiay peace be upon 
him} and he was sitting underthcshad-irof [he Ka'ba, Ashcsiwmchc 
said: By ithe lotd of ihf K^'bin diey are- die lasers ...A said: xM^&sciig^r 



of Allah, ki my fathtr b^ fansom tnr you, who arc thc>' [ihc lojcrt)^ He 
aaid: Tl]C)'aEx tliosc having a hu^ ^mciunc of ^'caLih except so^nd so 
and [ihoic who Epcnd [heir weilch generojdy on iht.m whom Ehcy find 
in front of thcm^ behind fhem atid on theif rjchi side and on their left 
iLde] and ihcy arc a ftr^, j\nd tio o^ner ofc:am*lsH of cade or goai and 
sheep, wKodocs notpayzikat [would be spared pun i^hmeni] bu: ihe-sc 
[i^ijnels, cacdc. gMT& and 5h-Kpl would ^arrn^nn cha Day of ReiLifrec- 
ikin v^aring mwc iLcih and w^huld gon: him ^\\h jheiT ^1"rtls and 
rfiimple rliem wLih cheir hoov«. And when the Ij:?! ^►n< w<]uld p^s 
a^viiy^ the fitSL <]ntVF^itl^ renirrL Jeq [rajnpLc him] ciii judgmcnl: would 
be pronounced Jimong people.^ 

In yci another scries of TcpOrtSi tj^e piinuhnient for those who hoarJ wealth l5 
described in tvcn more highK piaLireM|ue language: 

Ahnaf b. Qtid rtpor;pd: ^ile 1 wa^ i]i rhe company of the [elites] oF 
i^hc leading rribc of M««| , Abu Qhjrf came ^here and he was saying: 
Glyc ^lad tidmgs to chc hoa.rdcrb of rithes ihai their hacks would be 
branded [so decplyl that [the htit iron | wauld come ouc of liicLr sides. 
i.nd wh(^n ihc backs of cheir nwb would be branded, ir wfiald i^ojiie 
«Ljrof[hcjrforcliead5LHc |Abu Dhm] (hen iv«n[ iiway .irtd^iidown. 
T j'i\f.^ who ]i^ WIS J'hey said: he is Abu Dharr. [ ivcnt to him and ^\d 
to him: W!]dL Ji ilijs that I heaid from you which ^'ou wcressym^ 
before? He S-aid: I said norhin^ hut only that which I heard irom thcit 
Prophet [rtinLv pcALc he iJ|xiii htm] I again siid: What do you say about 
th]5 gift |giv*;ii i<] nic by a rich pers^nj? 11^ said: Take it, for toda^" it is a 
lidp- BuL whtin IE becomes a price for your religion, then abandon ic- 


ThfhorriGc piini^hmmudetfribed for fadureEo share one 5 wealth, reported 
in great detail in numemitwUttli^^ns. hear witness mihe Importance oEchar- 
iry in Idamic practice. 

Requ-Jred chariiv or ^tiLs^ving iza^t) in legal codes 

The Kcncrjl pniuziple, esrablished by ihc Qur'ar and sound hadith literutufe^ 
isthatMiiilimsa-re respon_sible for rhc woU-bcJng of those who cannot suppott 
themseK-cb H^rwliiittver jrason_ Thai principle was expressed suconcdyb)' the 
rlcverrh-cenrurj'Andsili^mn I.Spanish} lunsilbn Hazm: 

Jt ii the obb^tifin ftf rhe rich in cvcr^^ society to fulfil the nccdb of the 
poofr Thegoverrin^cj^r lias co compel ihem to "undertake this if zaikat is 
msutftcitnr for thtirti teds The pcw^f musr be tniurcd for their 
n^ccKajyfowJplortticirwinp;; and^^^tnmer clothing, and For ashditr 



which js capable of vfardinj; off harm Eroin them due lo runs^ cold -and 
hear and which gives ihcnn privacy from the public eye." 

]n otder to realize ihis- principle on a prac[lc:a[ level, zakat was crcaied as a tax 
WLchLiichc<!ifl}' MiL'^limciprnji^Limry^. ColkcE&esifih^raxv^'ereKnc&Liriiid 
h^Lrh LiiefJiiiirF Jndadefi re^?rj'isc^|]nguponMLjdLni&ro[re^[rhecollecro[& 

as indicaitd by L^e dire puni^hiTLents described Tlie ma\z ier]ou_s punish- 
rnc-ma wcrt de«ribetiaii^k]rigpl:^elnrhee(ero^lwoHd<>fTli-eif^ 
roimativc era before ifjdj^ty ever conceived ofa aistirLCti<^n Ix-tw^:]! spiritiiaJ 
or rcligEoua and civil crlincs. Yet collectLC>n had to tike place in the secular 
WAfld. Thtrcforc, bjscd on chc principles arricutatcd in rhe Qur'an and rhe 
pFeccdcjiis ciiabljshcd in hadich liccrarurc^ hiamic law carefully arcLculared 
details concern Lng minLmiim amounts of wcahh andihc types of wealth upon 
T^hich zaka: was due, and in whai proportLon. 

The specification of dcvaih eojicerning the colletiion of zakat arc a perfect 
example of analngieal reasoning in Islamic jurisprudence. The Quran says, for 
f^ample, chai lakaion specific agricultural prciduLcisTobc paid on rhe day of 

And he ii the one who produces gaiden^^ trelliietJ ajid unrrellised^ and 
the datc-paim ^d ^1 the divert cropSj and ol ives and }>omf gr^rLaceSn 
alike and unlike. Eat of their fruic ^^hcn ihey produce, and pay its due 
on ihe day of liarvesE and do no: beivasicniL Indeed, God docs not love 
those who are wasielui. 

(Qu>an, 6:142) 

Prom this li was deEcrmincd ?hac zakat i^ to be paid annually. Buc wliat about 
the types cJ wtahh u-oon which zakai is duc^ We have seen al>ove thai the 
j^rnphec eicempEed hn-rscs- frojii vax^tionn alihougli cajneK ^liet^p, ^oais and 
cox^'^^re ^abject co tliL^iak^E. Ai^SKafiS naferr^d from LhisdiSEuicLLon [he prin- 
dpIethacukiiL tnuKib^pyid fln ■^omegiiods, huuiniLilL H^ihen ^venconin 
rcsjcti toncfrning j^kji laKjuon on Jgnculiuf^l products, incorpotaiing 
h^dlth material ^ ht: did a^. 

As to men who posie-ss sown and pianied produces f>uch as palm-dates 
and grapes, |l*rophe: Muhammad] ordered paymenr of alms on both o-n 
|dic basis of] a rough escimaie |of the value of eacfi (reel. The rate of 

pay mcni^^; one-ten rh [ofthc tocal value] if [thelandl w^ir wircred by 
rain or from a spring and haifof the onc-ccnih if ii were waicred by 

Some of [lie scholars held byan^ogy^ co palm-trees aiid grapes cbac 
[z^k^ll on ol!v« ir^e^ l^hould be one^tenth is well'. 



Since men pf>s».s5 crops oKi^iied produce ocht^r than palm-daccsT 
gt-:i|>t;$ ^tiJ i>live^, such. i£ iftValnursH alnxonds. Tigs, and others, which chf 
[Projihei] liasexetTipced trom payjnenrn we concluded rharCod 
impo^ (hspaj'trLenrofilms oiisoniecrDps^ buinoiojialL 

Shsfi'i i-aiJ: Men hnivc prtadin^ vi-hcatn Wley, milleT and SLinJfar 
producri, on whivh, w< i^tc ccjld, rhe IProphei] ordetri^d the paymetic fnf 
Eaka-t], By a_na]Dg>'-ofwhMt andlMilcf^, alitii hjv^; be[;n p^iJ on grim, 
Wr lakind ot barley], 'fliu|a kind of wh-eat], rite, ynd yllorhpT 
pmducES whkh men have produced and -ratcui iuch aa bna-J. [varwui 
kind^ of flour] H chick-peas and [lentils] ^^'hich ma^ be made inco fluur 
OT breads e[<:-j ir che same wav as the Prophci ordered ihe paynncnt of 
the alms on .similar prnduccs whLc]i men produced fir firtd." 

AE-^ii3fl*iLf»ndude3 his diiscussioii by Lioang rha.r various kinds of spices iic 
excluded from iakai Ta3:atioiij even rliou^ people grow them, fince n<:itficr 
ther*njptief nor hi^ iiL]Cce«or^ said dianhey should be u^Kd. Thii followi the 
prctctknf cStablisKed-lln^vtin tht hadich rcpoci concerning -assess since noth- 
ing aiLthviknita^c li^Wen treve^led aboui cheni, noeh.arLr)'[a3:wouldbelevjed 
onThcm.Buahcl^pticrJid(>rdcrihdiii1vDksijbjccicc>iabr Based eid^er 
on analogical rciiioningor onahadiih report fharha^ nor J^urviued^ al-Shafi'i 
iaysthat Muslims aerce that zakat is also due on gold. But fhe lUTalogy dots not 
apply, he claims, to m^als, such as biass, iron anJ kad/ ber^u^ thcic 
arc nor ^tiscd ^ sundards for puces in all conntri-es, and all oiher metab |nor 
may] all other niefaL-i--- be pn^eh^^ by rheni on [he basis of a specific weigh: 
ataceruincim^/' H^al^ rc^iTfvhai precious jcwebJike rubier and chryai?- 
tioe ire cvennpt, even rhou^i ihej^ art more vaJuable ihan precious mecalsn 
bccau^E 'ihey are possessed by ± special [class] and are noc used as a mcdjum of 
tvchgnge- because they are noi nieaiures of price .... 
RegWingtheamoums roh*paidon precious minerilsHal-Shafi^ rekrcaa 

hadich report in which the- Prophcr specified onedlfihofiheir vabe. paid at 

the time they air brought forth froan diccprth- Hjicondlidts, confirming thar 

he is reaioning analogically based on prtcederir5 established in jioiind hadtih 
report: ^Irie weic not For ihe evidence of the [nadltn repurti]! ^l\ goods vf^h-LI 
have been cr-eaicd on an equal footing on |lhe basis of] iBic Lccrai meaning of 
llicQiir'annand [he alms Vp"ouldha"vc been iniposedonal],noionsomef>nly.'^' 
A? |ht ietal schools developed, tiinher cradarions were incorporacedf 
ildi<>Ligl"i not Lirtifornily. There was gNineid agrecnienc on idie kinds of li^c- 
^[oct:, agrLcutrural producrs, and minerals upon ^hidi zakat was duen as 
expressed by al'Miafj\, and ihe obl]gai:ion to pay zakal on gold and 4]]vcr was 
jl^nexLeiidedtacurrencyindpropcrcy loqmrcdihro Ugh trade CO nducrcd for 
p^^^1l^, Thf ^hrxsls disagreej however, on whether or noi and co wha: eKcenc 
dtbforjnire r-equired to pay ?^t:at. andonrlie|>ercenuteofcach kind ofwealih 
tliat constitutes prapcr zdkatr There arc diso dif£tfciii;e5 of opinion oai SMth 



dciiliU ^ [l^C "flt^ t>f I^^'i^^^ ^'^ cfftp^ watered hv vaiioj^ mcan^. Howeveff 
thesclnjoli ^«rt^;thyt^ho■^cc^rlflctlt^>be]lcfl^ frofti i^^c ire ilic^e ^i^tcjfted in 
the Quran, 'the pwrand ih* ncedy^ and iKos^ who ^ort Ivir them, ajid for 
tho5cwho:nchcartsare:tober<^aticiled, WfofilavtSjinJde^ 

pallioKod, Hind k^rliavrlcn/ {9:60) AgairiHlheffdrfilightvit'^^ 
ihf 5ctiools concerning ilicBpcdfit appliuiiuniuf iheffUicgorici-DLii thej? 
ii general agKcmcTiuliai 'rhc poor and iht nerd/ an: chohtwho do "ot liniv^; 
cncujah lo be c-hgjblc to pay rhczakatn and^thtMc who \vork for flicm^ arc the 
zaku callcciors. Giving from zakac hjiid^ to 'those whose hcajcs air to be rec- 
onciled^ JS generally heljeved to have applied in che early days of Islam, bur to 
K^v^ hlhn oui of u^cfuljie^ once the eommijnir^' achieveG greai ^rrengEhn 

alitujugh ihe vtr&e hajnmb^i^^iht-figaid-Thtuw^^iabr funds ff^pilav^; is 

univcrsnHy nigrecd corncan that it is to bended for tke freeing of sbve5, and 

t^Ct^ is aJ?J 3gr^rCien"C lh=H73l^I futids ^^y he lued rrj help people gerrtii: of 
dcbcj and hdp sctandpsd cravdtrs return lo thfir hornet. Ii^pendjcure 'in che 
patlitjf'Gtvd' is utiivct-^jllv agjeed in iJie legil cexi^io nie.^ii prijiiarily The sup- 

potrof jihadr 

\^luntary charity {saifoifaf^ in. the Qui^an 

Much of tke Quranic guidance concerning ]W[«iredchariiy applLC5 ]n general 
lermia-S^vtj]! ic> valunrary charjij. [n fact, ihc key verse specifyirtc the rccipi- 
enrs of aakai l^the pour ajid ihe needy ajid ihose who "work forthenin and for 
those whos< kearr* are to l:>erecoiiciltd and fot slaves ^ndihose in dehr, andin 
the way ofGod.artdft>rtTivders/9 601 actually use^ ike tertn^adaqak- Nev- 
etUi^lei^, there [^ :3 di^tinctin-n between required ind i.upererogiror>' dianc}'. 
A& wei^awi required duricy (zakar) i^mfntoriou^-andl^iJui'f [opay kinajri 
dire puni^hinenij m (he afierliJe_ llie leKcs' [jearn^eiit ftf voluntary nhariry 
Csjdjqali)jbyc<]nTr3^ts3treFiSejthe tewardiobee^rjied-by choje who give. For 
tsamplt; Tht^sc i^ko ipend their wealtli b^ tiight and by day^ iecrerly dtid 
openly, Ehcir reward h with then Ix}rd^ tincy have noitkliig to f^;a^r^o^^^^ 
grinrc/ (2^27^) By ddinirion, rhtirr h no ypt:<:iti<: puni^hm^nt for ^[lurt! to 
perform a ■volunraiy acr, 

VblumarychanEynctDnly earns reward in [k-caitcrlifcn bill it is dcKribed in 
the Qutr'an - jlonc widi FasLLne — as effccnve m c^piauon for fins. For cxani' 
ple^ [he //ji^y (pil^ntiage ro Mecca) i^ required for rhose who are able, ac lea^sE 
once ha ahfl^tinie- Bm tl^t;:rei$=gri^aL men l associated Vf I ch per for jning tke H^jj^ 
missing it AS [1 result 4^ pkyj^ic^l nr fSnarMiial di^abiliry nieaiis Lk^r one misses a 
chance ro earn rhat nier]:. The Cjur" an [herefore guides liioiewha cannot per- 
fftrin [he pilgrimage dial ihe>^niiv gain nieriE also rhroughftsEing or charir>^ar 

And complete tke Hajj licquited pi^rirnage] and tht "Uitirih |volij-n- 
taiy pllgrimagel ror Gdd but d you axe detained, then ioncrj whatt-vcr 



^jf[ yVLJ i^i^^ and ^ tiac ^havf vour he^£ [pan of the pil^imagc rLruall 

"uniaJ rhcgifc r«ches i[i place. Aiid ■whQe\^e-r amonp you J5 sLcikor has a 
be^ ir^fuiyh it^ri miike i^f fbr lc by ^c or chiiir>" or a sacrifice. 

(Quran. 2: 197) 


ftilin^ pf ihoic whti daini m MItaw (he t»cliirtgfl of P 

thciL mix a pod vr^rk ^Hth another -cvil^' chiTrity is recommended ai i w^yro 
brJng chcoftcniicrs back into a proper rclatiansUipwifh God: ^Takefcfim cheir 
wea][h some charity h> cleanse and punfy rhcm and pray tor them- !9:L 03/ 

Tn ihijsense ladaqah, liSte rlie jaknn jsassociai^ with chc nocian ofpjri^- 
IngarinalitCLfvnfcgw^illh- Ai wesiw ibo-V£, jn the Qur'^anic worUvicw wtatth 
i-5 gi^cn To individiijl^ to cejiC cheir virriie Those who have been rcaied with 
povfiiy hgvc J ^h:^!^ [n ihe wealiliiand iinnl ihosewLth weaJthshaic it^ihttic 
l-ci!] Ivrturuttj weaUh ]i Jioc dLVLiiely sancuon&d. Howrvcr, rfie root meaning 
ofthctcnn ^adflqsb isdiffertncfrom diacofv^kai, roi>eparc\ Sadaqah comes 
from a ttrm tntariing^co Ke ftnnesCf irue, or iincerc/ and dus fncianing is evi- 
dent In 5omc 0"fits Qut-'anlc OJ^t Fn-r ex^mplcn ^So Gad knows diose who arc 
crurhftil and he kntiwi: rti^twh^are liir-'^-'(?9=4;cf-9j43} InJced.rhiZieimls 
used in This way when rcfcning i« God and ihe Praphei Muhanunadi; This is 
what God and his Messenger pnjrtiiSM:d ii5 ;^nd God and his Measengcr were 
cruihRiL' (33:23) 'Say, "God was tijrhiiil w follow the rtliKion of Ahtahim, 
[he righdy-^Liided and he was not aiT]on_^rf^c idolatt^-" ' {3:96) 'Thw is "what 
die Mcrdful promised ^nd ihe inesseiijcrs were cniE^iful.' {5^:^,^1 Interest- 
ingly, sjdniqah is Tcoin ih-e same tooi as some of (he ^'ords usc<l for dowcr 
(_s^:iI^\'^^i^Ji£fdh)^o^'bn6A[ph, as well as i±ie terms for frtcndindfjicndship. 
Sii ilie v»[>rd .s££]ns to carry the sen» crd':mc>[i£LraLj [^ smc^nty in iL^tit^ns di^t 
are not Jbrced 

ScilK^xvitK zak^E^ Lhe merEt fo-r sadaqah L^not jruaranteod: charity in and of 
itsclCisflotiuffidcrtti^pltiseCriid. The QuranchastjaaLhosf who give chai- 
itybutwho arc alia trucl or cominii other offenses: 

Those -who spend their weahhii] die way of God .indthendo run 
follow whal chey have spent widi iQ^dc^r inju^t h^ them tVii" reward 
i_s w'iih iheir Lord. They have nothing to fear nor shall rUeir ^rievtr 

H<]3iot^hle speech and forgiveness arc hccEcr dian cha-rity followed by 

Oyou who belifvejdt> nor invalidate your charit>"by insuhand injury 
like |he [jae who spends his weahh to be seen hy people and does not 
believe in God and the lasr dav_ He is tike a smooch roek with soth and 
a fliwd hit-S It, leaving tr litele^t They hat'e no power ov^:^ whai chey 
earn and Cod does n<Jt guide unguttful people. 



Aiiii I hose why ^p?r^4 ik?[ v-^i^tih ^wkins'^ pl^y^ Gvdiimlcu 
ftrctigtli<;n tliemselves are likcaprden on a hill, and a tlocjd oomt^and 

it prt>rtuce^doiib'c, md if no rain f^lb-on it, then dew, an J Gud sees 

Tliu^, 05 with all prfKribcd ^ciiorii in lilatn, proper initniion is ^ssonridl in 
order for ihc pcriorcnancc ofchc^aion [o bE mcricoriousL 

Vcthintary chui ry (jd^^d^] m hidith lir^ranire 

h'lsm hadithlLter^uire tf^Jt t^iedistinaLon bcrwtrcn o-bl^tuij- sind wluntary 
charity hecomw dtar- For ont fhlng, sida^ali Is dc5crl"bcd as jnclunding alL 
ni't;indl>^aai= il i^^d (IcJika gift of a Inatcrial or finantia] nacurc: 

Aj1d b-Ahii Rijfda repftf^cd on [hcaijrbori[)-pf hisgrartdf^rhcrihai 
rht Ajio^rko^AllA^ (r-na>- peace bc^ipon hEm^said: Qving sadaqa is 
cisenti^l foe cvcr>' Muilim. Itwai taid [ro liim]: Whar do you -say of 
him wln^ cUjcs lioE find [the means) fo do so^ He said: Then let him 
assist the nccd^^ the aggrieved. Tt was said: What doyoLi say of oac who 
rannut even do rhi-s? He said: Then he should c:npin ^hac is repucabJe 
orj^ood. !lc said: Whaiiboki: him if h^cinnmdrt ihar^ Hi^ |tht Hcilv 
PnoptierJ said: Heshouid chen alH[jinfn>rTievil, for v^^ril^itiar is bid^qa 
oil his behj]£" 

Secoi^Jly, hidjch hc^jrjcure dlsiiiiguishct voluntftr^ from obJigatOiy aims in ie 
de3cripcif>nfifrh* ideal recipients <if this charEty^ We have sern that rhe redin- 
emiofiibiiA'di^idtnidfi&^in th^Qufari(9:60Kand coditicdinhlamiclcRal 
tern (the poor and chuK who woiltforcheiii, foririsianct). Buihadjchlicm^ 
lure 5trc:iit:5 ihc familj k the mosr dcxrvinj; iKipkrus of sadaqah For 

Thaaban reported j\Iiah's Messcrger {may peace Tjc mvon Kim) ^$ 
saying: The r^iosr ei:cellen[ dinar i,^ one rh5f n per£<iT> spentU or his 
family, atid iJ^e dinar whic^h h^ spcn-ds an his anlmjl in A]]ah\ path^ and 
iht dinar h^ ^p.^nd-'^Aii hi£Ci>ri\|Wiiioil3 In Allahs path. AbuQdaba |onc 
of chenaffifflj^] ^aid^He jihcnarraiorl smnwiwirh family, and rhcn 
.'Ibu QiJiba said: "Wh^ i^ ihc pcr^un with ^rrjiitr reward ihan a person 
who spends on young member^ of his family [and thus] preserves [saves 
ditm from wani] land b^ virtue of whi^hl Allah brings proEic for chcm 
and makes cheni tii^h. 


Ahu Hiiiaira fcpflrtcd Allah's Messenger (miy |>eace Ke apon Liirji) jis 
Myin^ Or th^ dinar you spend as a coiitrihrutjoii iti Allah's palK, or ro 
set free a.slav^'3 or as a sadaqa j^"vcn m a needy jpcr^onlt Or tOiupport 

your fRmilyH ihc one yielding dtegrejieirrcT^drd isiharwhkh you 
^pcnd on your l^mJy. 

Khajthama reponed: While we were siniftg in thc-companyof 
'AbddlaJiQ- Vm^t [herecu^ic iiililsst^-ard. He |[bn Umar] said^ 
Have you supplied rhepruvisionia thcslavci^ He said: No. Upon [his 
he said" H^ jftd give [th-c provision] to them, for :bic Mcssea^ser of Allfth 
(in:5y pcatx be upon him) ha^said: "l"hi£ sin is enough tor ^ man that he 
withholds the sLibsisKnc^ from one ivhoie jnas^er tie iSr*^ 

Miii b, Mdikis rcpcrtcd^ a^yin^^ AbuTalhj >vasih^ uncamangrhc 

fiupp^^rtcrs of Prophe: Muhammad at] Metlinj whf> poi^cascJ the 
laagcst propcrcy -and among his property he valued most ^^^ li is garden 
known as Bairaha which was opposite tlic inosqut:, and the Messenger 
ol Allah |nuy peace he Qpnt:ihim)oF[en viiiinl iEandhcdranJ^ofirs 
sw-cetwater. When rhis verse was rtve^|«f: Tt^u >^ ill never awun righ- 
Tcouincss rill you gjv^ freely of wh^c you Itxvt' [3:9!J], Abu "lalhag-oi jp 
andi going CO Al UK's Messenger (mayp^accbc Qpcinhini}^ taid^ AJUK 
siys in hi:j Rook: ^You will never attain nghteousncss nil you gjve freely 
Dfwh^t you love/ and chcdcarcirofmypropercy isBiirahf ^ol^ive ii 
sisiadj^j. io"God from v^hom [ hope for reward for il a]i4 ili^ li^iwrt 
wifh ^lljh^ so spend itn Messenger of Allah, on whicever purpose y^m 
deeiTi ir proper The iTK5sen_ger cf yVllah fm-ay j>eace he upon Nimf said: 
Bfavo! th^< ii proht-rarnjng property. I have heard what vou have wd. 
twi I ihink yvu ahouJd 3pend ii on youi nearest relaiivc:^- S« Aim Tsillui 
d-i^tHbulcd it among ihe nearest iclaiivcs uid hij cousins on ]\h Ikthcr's 

Sadaqah. voluniary charir^ rherefore, ]s e^uiiMltnt to ^impl^ pcncrcnsiry. As 

ijchi iiannotbcrtg;iilaiedbvcarihlylawat.Mkartanbc, burn l5 highly nier- 
imrio US- Be] L£vcrjs;ir^ Therefore encouraged to b<: generous now, lesEch^ 
die chance: 

Hjncha Ij- Wahb rtiwrtcd Allah& Mttsenger (may peace b^ upon him) 

^i^yingz'givf ^^qah for a time LS-dbouLio come v^■hcny. person 
would Will with alma' and the one ro^hofn It es 10 be tiven would iav: 
^h[jd you broijght it yesterday, T would have accepccd ir. Fnr ih-e pfri^s^^rat 
I do not need ic/ |And tlie ^%rr of sadaqah| wouU noB HnJ jjtyone to 




For Judaism ihc Torah makes ample proivision fox suppori of rhc poof. 
rtlmsgivin^ hfjauicd inrwodjsEmci wiysTparriciilarand general- Hl^5t^ sup 
pcHfc for the poor to begin "withn ]n iht lawfordie l^nra.KuchaI book of Lev jii- 
cLJin forms a chapter in ihc scory of the rvEaiJonshLp of ihe holy j^eopl^h Isr^eln 
ro the Land of Israd. Tht law of ihe T&rali presuppchs^i tJiJt sLj|>pafr for the 
poor (ike %\'"idow, [lie nrpKaii) prncetdi iTL^nor^rl^'and te^Jar mjnnetpitnd 

^ubjctE. Thcpuord^ima ahiTcin (hcpmdjecofEhcLandof l^rifLmd God 
has issigncd that -share tc them; it is part of what Israel o^wes lo God j n 
fcsponi^w iispOiseisionofthcl^rLdoflsrad.lodctd, thr poor form a ichcd- 
uica QStc^ alang with the pc^cstf and the Lcvitcs, ror the &upp4>rc ofwhom 
God has ^ jpetidi interests Tliat explains h^jw, in Jirc with whac was seated at 
ilie oui^ of thi^ chapter, the poor arc -Euppumcd noc as a voti^T act but an 
t>bhga(oryoncj a portion ol the crops of the Land being reserved for iheoi. 

But a second conception oK almsgiving- a more abstract one - rasters as 
wtIIt laying ^streK on the SLiperero^TorvT no: only the obligaTorVnatt of philan- 
thropy. That is expressed in a peculiar usages in which the word for 'acquire 
jnerii js used for an actof philanrhropy, _so rhat a p<^o^pe^50t^-as in the sto- 
ries we ?hill to-n^ider in ;i n^tnenr - addrewcs u dorior in the kngaage, ac- 
quire intrit thn^ugh Jtic whith bcnn tlie csact mcauingp 'gsve me alms,' A 
STtidy of rhii second, more abstratc concept of almsEiving is more readily 
iecessihle than the concept particular cti Judaism of the poor as God's surro- 
^3Td^ []n tht^ l-^nd in pjttiiiulsr. 

The tncolc^gy or almsgiving c;o[tic5 4o csprciisi-on m (he larger concept 
txprtsscdin the JangiLagc ihc nctdy use when ihcy appn>ach dojio-n. The}' 5iy 
ii[ithcTdmudtc3torics)/^^f ^iV^hkhuats the roc^tfar (hi:>vordH^4i^tfi^ 
rougjily translated as ""merLtT' and die cxpre^^ion rhus yields soniethine like, 
acquire merit throng me |by giving me alms]/ ti:actly how 'merif is 
acquired in the philanrhropic rran^acuon rhen defines die cerm£ of c he specific 
Transaction of alni^tving whsi ii it chat God noi& and to which Go-d 

n^pondsin ihectansitziinnof philanthtopyrThcanWiXt intnjduccsus toibc 
vflijiffi, jiQt rthhpiotyj diinrnsi<>ri yf almsgiving in JuJai^m. In, the framcv^T?rk 

tif this Jiinswcr, philanthropy tr^nsccnd^ almsgiving in a ^anx^w sense and 

encompassts all actions of sclf-iacnlice for the other, deeds of placing ihe 
needs of che oeher jbove ont's Own Irttcrcsts. Thtte acts oFsclf-abuegatlon, 
^vherhef givifig i prtOt j^lWfl iCaKereWilfCeSnwhi^h^Nne needs lor ones o^-ji 
Uit, ot gLvin^ up jj an act of hclf-iurrcndcr ones own adv^inlage in souc 
othet-ch ill- materia] relationship^ attract Gods interest; uncoerced actsofiovcE 
transccudin-g che narTO>^' re<|uirem-ents o^ rhe law, win his rcspoit and 


l-Tcre is how ihe Talmud of the Land of Israel ft presents the act of pliilan- 
ihro-py. In ^lihr^c tnsi^nces t!Lit tol]<>%v, df^nirkgVhhat tbc individu^ must do 
mgainzekhuT, the poi in is chsitJitdecdiof the heroes of thtJtoryinahc them 
worthy of having cheir prayeis answered, whitL -s a Tnarh af the w>rldn^ of 
lekhuc- f[ i^ Jeeds bcpwid ih^ s^nci require mecirj of ihc Ibrah. and even ihe 
Ijnim nf iheJa^ iiln>gc[h<ir, thai trflnsform ihc hero imo a holy man, whose 
holiness served just Hkc fhat uf a sage rnaH^cd is a biol^' man by kjioivlcdgc of 
the Torah, The following stories should not he understctod 25 c^pn^ssions of 
the Jncrc scntimcncaJi ty of the clerks concerning rhc losx^er ordersj for chey 
deny in favorolasDn^eacrLonofsufpaMEng TJowcr rhe jages life_ongdevotiop 
CO whar chizy held lo bs [heha^e?L t-alu^sLnowJedgtof (lieT^jrah. 

E A certain man cime hcfnreone ofciic rcUfET^cs ofR, Vannac. He sasd 
rohini-, 'K^bbi, aiiain zekhuc rhrotigh mi; [by giving jnc charic}']. 

G. He said ro hiiiin And didni ^cxit fattier leave yo\} mone^ 

H- Hesaii!ti>h[m. No/ 

I, HesjatI to tiirtia 'Go and tollctt T^'ha.t youi ^dur left in dcposir with 

J, He said 10 him/1 have heard concern ingptroperry my fkcher 
-dcpofiicd^iEh others- ^haui wa&ga]ned by violence l^ol don't v\ar?t irjj 

K. He said to hiin> 'Yoli are wonhy of praying and havir^g ^our pra^trs 


The poiiitofKjofcQLirsCj isself-evidtndyareferentf loihj^puwejsiorlof^nli- 
denienr [o supcrjiatural favor, 2nd it is gaiifed through deeds rhar tbe k^v of 
theTorali cannot nequirebuf must fivor ^hatonedoeton oncio-wniTjIition, 
h^yona rhe iiirasureot chelae. Here! seetheopi^osctcolsin. A sin iisvhar one 
rusd&nc by nn-i^iown volJtEon beyond ahhn^ics or che Uw Anaci Jiargener- 

atcjTekhur for the individual isihccounrerpiriandopposiri:: wharnnedoe^ 
b]r^ones ownvohrLon Ehac also is beyond all requLremejii; of nhe 1^^'. 

L. AcenaLn a&S'drivcr appeared before rhe rabhis 'iln; annct^t requires;: 
uia dream] and prayedn and rain e^mc. 'I'Kc ribbis senr and "braughr 
hifli^nd^idiohLm, Whac iivour rrade?' 

M. He said lenhcm^ ^1 a_m an ass-driver/ 

N- They said rnbim^ And how do you conduct yuurbusinessr"' 


AMONG rHtMnHl^UlJ[l] 

O. He sakl lo rhcrris 'One iLme I tenced mv a« tofl certain ivtunatij 
and she was weeping oji iKc way^ and f isiij ro her^ ''Whafs with you?'' 
and jhi: said TO me, ""The huiband of'tlur woman, (mcrj is in prison [for 
dcbi], ind I wanted co see whar I can do to frtc him," So I sold my ass 
and 1 gave her the proceeds^ -ind I aid 10 her, "Here is your moiicy, free 
vnuf hustatij, htJL du [ii>[ SJ[) [hy brtt^ming a prohiiiuic no rajsr iht 

nece^siirv fiuKbl-^" 

P Tri^ inicd Eo him. Toil arc ivflithy of praying and having ygur 
pravcrs an^-iwcicd/ 


The ass-driver deariy has a powerful lien on Hciti'cnf w that his prayers arc 
ansi^ered, even while iho^ of others are no-r_ Wli^ir he did to get that cntidc- 
mciki^ He did wha: no la^v [lould dem^Jid iit^j-XiverisEied hirtisell^to aa^x the 
woman from a fare worse di.^ti death', 

Q- Inadi-eamof R. Abh.ihi3,Mr Psnrakak |TivCiinb'] appeared, v^ho 
prated thjc ratn iv^aLd wrnc^ acid it rained . R. Abbahu acnt and 
-summoned himr He said tu Jiim/Whaiis jou-rtr-adc?' 

R, He saitl lo himn 'Fl^t sire docs thai man |l] dn c\^ry dav,. |for I im a 
pimp:| hLringwhorcs-,i:|j?aninguprheihea.[er, hnngijig home their 
^rmcnrs for washing, da.ndjig^ and pcrfof^nin^ bcfsjirc ihcm.' 

-S. He said to hinin 'A_nd whar sorr nf deceit- rhtng have you ever doitc?^ 

T n^ said B Kln^/Un^diyrhdCarfcAn [1] ^ai de^iiUhg (lie theater, and 
a woman came and 5[ood hehinci a pilljrjnd cried. I iaid [o her, 
"What's with yciu?" And she sid W ™^/Tharwi>maiiE [my] husband 
Ls in pt-Lsoti, and I wi^nted to sce^i^atl caado to free him," jo I soid 
my bed atid o^ctn acid I gave the proceeds to her 1 said to her, " Here is 
joiit irionevj Irec /our husband, but do not sin/' 

U. He said 10 him^ 'Vou arc woichy of praying and hiving y-our pfavrri 


Q moves us still liijd:er, since lie natned man ha_\ done ev^r^^rhlng sinful that 
one an do> andn m&r^ to th^ pojnr, h^dM.-? JLe^iefy day-So tKc^Liigularlty of 
ihc ac[ of ickhiJCH which s"iilTLLt:i ifdiine only nncCn cncOEJipjssci hipov^crra 
ouiweigha life ofs in -again, an acr ofi^l^but as themimsr-imagcand oppo- 
sjce nf^in- Here ag^jOn (he -tingle ict of saving a vromaji froma 'face worse ihan 
deaih^ hi$ sufrii.E:d- 



V. Af^inus rhin from Ktferlmi appeared finadrcamf to rhcrabbis_ 
H*; prs^ed for rjir^ and it rained- The rabbis wcjit up to him- His 
li[>u?ehuldcr^ tuld them thai he was ^sitiin^-Dn a hilL llicy were olu lo 
nirtij Saying to himn 'Grccdngs/ but he <I]d noc an5W£j iJiem^ 

"^ Hf ^is sitting and caiing, and hcdidnfli^y^co rhr^m/y^ubr'tAk 
brcaJ rcw/ 

X. Whtnhcwcm bick hijme, he made J bundle ot faggots and put his 
doikonio^of [hehundJe|insreadofi>rLh.issht>uldcrJ. 

V. W}ic[] lie lATuc htunCn he saiJ to h]s hou^old [wifeln ^ lliese rab-b^s 
litfhcR! [heaiisej chj^y want mc to pray for rain. If 1 pv^v and si rajtis, it 
Jsadis^t^cifyrihcnij and if Jiotn it is a profanadoiiof [hcNamero^ 
Heaven But ijontCj yau and I ^iJ] ^ up |to ihc ro-off and pray. If ir 
rainSj vft shall fell chem, ^Wt arc not worthy ro pray and iiav-e our 

Z. They Vr^nt up and prayed and it rained. 

AA. They nmc dnwn lo ihtm [aid a^k^dl/Why havedacrabbib 
cHmbicd themselves ro cotnt h^r^ coday?^ 

BB. Theyiaid to hini/We wanted vmi to pray ao that k -would rain/ 

CC HetiLdEoiki^m, 'N^)ur-(ioy"u really need my prayers? Hcivcn 
aEir^y ha^ done [[s miracL' 

DD. They ssid to bim, 'Whv^ when yon w-rrc on chc hilL did wc say 
iieilo TO you, and you did not rq^ly^ 

EE. He said to ibcm, T was ehcn daing my |ob Should I ihfn inremipt 

my conccniratLon |on my work];' 

FF Thej'saidin hjnip 'And why^ wbcn you iat do^^m to car^ dcdyou not 

say oi uj *^Vou hre^k bread too'^?' 

Gtl_ He to thcm^ 'Htcaui-e I had only my small racio-n o^brcad 
Why would liiav^ inviiidy^UiOftit by way ofmrrcflaiccry |whcn I 
blew I could not gi>L: v|]LJiinyib:nga[jll]^' 

HH_ They said to Jiiiti, And why ^"hcrt you came to eo dowji^ did vou 
put ^Ouj cloak on top o( chc bundle?' 


for LL5C ar prayer I djd nc»[ w^i^c lo le^r i[h^ 

JJ. Thn" sitd iQ hinti "And why, wlneii yi>u w*rp ot\ ihc hill^ did your 
wife-weardiriy cloihes, b^-r wh?o >\n;l ^;aro? do>^n f^X^m tht niffunCami 
did slie pu[ on de4J^ doclit^^" 

KK_ He ssi-d fti trirm, ^WKcn I w?is an the hllL she pu: on dirty clothes, 
TO thai no wnc would gaze aihcr Bui wh-cnl came home from ihc hill, 
sbcpui on clean dcthcs^ ^ ihai I v^ould hoc gaze on an^ □{her %VQmdn/ 

LL. Thty said ro hiniH 'lus well char yo\A pr^y and have }^oiir pnivtri 

The pious man of V^ finally, enjoys the recocnLrion^^Frhe sages by reason of liii 

lien upon Hcavcnn abAc ai he ts lo pra)/ aaid bring r^in Whii h^s !0 tndowcd 
hini "wirli zekhui^ Aeis ofputictthtniijatisS ijf a mornil onlcr: tonLcntratin^on 
hiswo^k^avaJdinganaao^diMLmulatiun^hl^cg^it/i^ the dispcraitior of a bor- 
rowed nh;ec[. his wife's concern nm tu arirjct other jncn aid her equal con- 
cern fo malte herself attractive to her huiband. None &f dacse stories refers 
< to ZJ:khuti all o! them tell us aboui whan ee means m cniov noc gn 
entitlement by inheritance buc a lien accomplished by ones owai suptfreft^- 
tnrvicts oi rcstraini. 

Now vff grasp Ehe conicKt in which almsgivLRg find^ ci; narufil Inearirtn. 
Alm^^Ying -ftaf>ds fc^r dio^c act^ c^f witl consist] n^ cf ^ubmisSsioE^^ on ouci 
<j"wn, to the v^j]] of Heaven. Whai we cannor by will impose, we can hy will 
evoke. What wc cannot accxjmphsh through coercLoti, we can achje^'c rh trough 
submission. Cod will do for us w^i we cannncdo for OLiricSves, when wtdo 
forGcKl"i^"hiiCodcannorniakeu;do- Whenihi:^agej^%^ihedrflfnrteHy^ufa 
reciprocal response henveeji Heaven and bryclt^n earth ^ beyond ihcaci5of 
dcvodon tt^Liiredhj th-eTtirahbucall the 5ame defined by it, chryc-ould firkd 
no bcicer example rlun ^Imigiving, Haven ^nnut force us to do those i^-pes 
ordeedi diat yteUl wkhut.and that, staiy after stoij' su^lgcscs-, js [hedefiniEiun 
(>fa deed ihal generates rxkJiuc. doing whaEipvcoughr lodo buEdojicpi have to 
do- 3ut rhcn.iviccanncitcocrcrlkavcn lodo what we warn doneei[hcr, for 
e^ampIc; bv carrving out the commandmejirs. These are i?bli^[ory, but do 
not obligate Kcaven. 

Alienee tlien our hen on Heaven^ It is through deeds of a SLipen^rogacory 
cbaracter- l-o wlucli Heaven responds by decdsofasLipererognorycharaccet": 

supernatural Pavoricchisone^ whoihroughdccd^otjngradi[Lonorch*oih*r 
o-r self-abnecadon or resiriLm cihLbiB die aciictide char ua Heaven pf-ecipitaw 
a coanierparTan]iude,henp:eg^nera[ing?eklm^ rather rhan to that ont:, who 

docs nor. Thesiccipit fat [tbacribbis cannot ptayasad bring ruin, but a simple 



iis-tlnvrr uin, tclU the v-^olc story. The relationship mcasurrd by zckhut - 
Heaven's responbc bv an aci t>f uncoerced fevor co a pcrson^s uncoerced ^jfin 
for example, act of gentilltyT r-cstr-alntn or sdi-ab negation - coniains an clc- 
mcncotTLnprediecabilir}' for which, appeal TcniicEckhucinhcmKtfrnmaflcss- 
[oraaccouDis.So whiklcoinoitocrcchcavcQ. Jean througtizEkhuigamac^ 
oiffavorfromTlcavcnTand cha: itbydoinB whacHeav-encannocfequ-ireof me_ 
Heaven liicn responds lo my aiiJiLide in carrving oui my duties - and mort 
tban my duiics- ThaLaciof purcdisinieresi- givjiig the woman my mean^-of 
livtiiliocfd - ifi ih^ Chft^ chac gain^ foi trie Hi^jvih':! de<:prt[ ii^rei^i- 

Nowwccfinie[ojlrn^givingiLiiunaurctonvciq[iurj]fr3intwy anJhow, 
]ti JudaiScn^ thae jbstratfiontomrs Eu concrete expression in obli gaiary law. 
Iti line with the conception of zekhut attached to the sivin^ of aimsn which 
cT^cn^pHlnei the cnily right relationship witLGodn wc realize rharphiEanrhropy 
]s not a personal or individual aclEon^ an.d ]t t5 noc done merdv ou: of ihe 
goodness of onc\hc3K. Rachcr^ support for ihcp<*or in the halakhah engages 
th?eiiLir-?^oinn~Liinicyofhdy I^rad. li i? not dccn^ed aprindpalty indtvidLial 
activity, thou^ cvcrv' person bears res-porasLhihty, bur a pubJic and collcecive 
duty: A tractate of the Mishnah (eKcendingintoThe'lbsefiaaDdthelalniudof 
the Land of Israel}"^ sysiemacicaiiy deilncs ihc public obliganojvs m the- poor 
ihai are incunibtint on die- society's unics of prodiJcriDJiT assumed to he the 
^mcr^ This i^ pariofa.-iiiJi Lsigct ^lipnsiti^n of linvr' i^o^ierv miui bufipun 
orhcr schedtiled ca_si« hesidefl ihe imor, ^pecificailu the pHesii-, tht Invites, 
uidh in its context, Jcfiisalctn lis w^ll (in tliat inttanct", by making sure thai a 
steady tlc^w or rood reacheJ the h^iy place). 

in (he halakhah (he poor constitiice legicimace recipients of ihe produce of 
ihc[-anJoH5rad.TJieniain rjlcsrxprcssa theory of whiEJ: means for fsrac]-- 
ite houichokltri to pis^esb the Land iji parcicuJar. Support for rhe pooj, like 
Suppctt for the priesthood and Lc^Tres, undencorc^ Gods oinvnership and 
reinrorcei the pto^isional char-actcr of the houaeiioideFs possession. For itie 
IdndlCsi-' the pnesthoodn the Lcviles, and ihc poar- God sck a^ide whai i^ 
coming CO htm fiomrhc produce of chei_and-"lha[equalLi« l^ra^linrebtJOLl' 
^hip to the Land. Some pos^ss, oEhers do noE^ portionj; of th? I^n^t^ [^W d)! 
g-ain -whdE they need fram i a p raduee; di? householder^ Ehem ^o\d what they 
have-on sufferance, covenantalljJnrhar way thosedthec not enlandJsedVith 
Jstael It] h^inxvptKotdbpossessed of their portion of the Landiater ongain a 
po^itdon u'ithiiuhGi holy tummunity chat is nourished- and jyvcndcfinmon 
-bv thg land- 


God acconJs to all th ree components oE" the social order par: of his porrion 
of checrupj giving rhem a intake in the Lanid and making up for their not pos- 
sessing rlic Latid as (bv definition of che halakhah) do the householders, Tlie 
poor in chiK cuTKtKt Kprsi^eTit :fc kgitimate, important componenr of rh^-soeiil 

ordcn tLUta social burden. Like the pncitSsrhcyrcprescnr away jiwhjch Jsnel 
rclarcs ro God^ bui it is adLffcri:nc"^vay From rhar of rheprn:sTs\ Ac [he end of 
dnis chapcern 1 shall specify "ft'hii as a relij^ous clauii^cation the poorenib:>dy. 


AMONG THL hrtllHl^L'L |ll] 

a^ di^cincE fn^m ctic KnusErholders ^nd che prie^is — artd I sh^LI .qho^v rhjT che 

ssgt-uhcjnselves defined msutrs iiijusuLis ivjy. ^Su fh^hjUkli^h^on-tc jgaicu 
emerges ^ J ^at^memin the Imgua^ofiocial norms flf iwiill-crjfced thccn 
logical syjterri of siitpasstng simplicity and puricy. in eml^ 
wiih God 

Tiiai ihwlygitial srawmc^nc ihould nai ob^atrp die qiioiidkn eituceutc set 
inplat^ ^c:liially[(3(:;afcl^rtlicpwrinEhdro>vridrairn^n«bi and not as a 
medium of sociof bico^osical con"viccion. Wlicn v-^ deal with sup^rc fcr die 
poor in its own, Th]s-worldly ccrms. ctic hakkhih makes proviijon jn pratcicil 
^vays. I'hat is [hrouj^h [hir soup^kiccticn ajid chu dc^c, such as the cojicliiding 
unit nf die K^lakhah rak?i up_ '['he fioup-kiccheti provides fftodn i-h*^ dolcn 

eftie^gfri€:y sufhpdi'i fot U5rt^itri[5, ^fld long-itrHi i^ippc>rE fcr locil re&idenn. 

li folBnws [hit the L^isue of economic cnticlemem cakci asuNWinatc p>^i- 
ti^n- TTl£ finnd- gii'en om m the dale incj the snup-kin;h?n ^rvf^ a pig^rical 
pijrp[>se iiiU dots not ej^hibii majltiorGod^s ijutrvention^ :*3 sdeaion ofpto- 
diKX: for cN^gifci to ilae p<not does- Merely CO SLip|KNrt the ptlest^txid jml rhc 
poor, fht elaWnte provision^ of sanctiflcafiori i>f the Tjnd^i produce are 
hi^ t^f hihkhah ^f tin; dole i^nd tiie^up-lcitchen for the poor 
maktH ubundiLrrI)' clfLtr. Thm food li nor siibifrt r-o diviic st^kttion nor 
removed frcm human ownership and cvm the signiiiontonsufpcnonal pos- 
se^icHii^ as is ihc case viith the food for the pcKsr dnar is pros^ided by die 
halikhahou: cifd^c householders crop. 

'I'he preienc-f nF [he pcwr, racher forins the occatinn for che hoLLscholdcr 
giving a powerful signal of bis relittqui-shLng poisessnon [nor mertly owner* 
ship} of the Land and subordinating his posstision oFit to God's ownerihip. 
arb)'rdL]^uishingvvhaih£ha:tJur^e^L^I>iJLl[>?hE^>nLheoEhctr. Ill hoch Ja^^e^ 
argLfiicoLbejHJorjilieupilioiis the saitie: il^ liouseholdei-nci lot^gersubfcai 
to his will c he pt<]duce of hii own bW on liis<iivn land. Ownership Ij com- 
promised, posscs&i-on repJflccd by disposicssdon- 

But in 3e> dcfcniog almsgiving as a matter of public policy, the haiakhah of 
ch^ Oral Torah bu.ilt upor rhe coniiiuiidm.^nK ofthr Wrirtrn Torah. Scrip- 
tuFC forms rhc sraningpoinu rhc pc'ah-portjon ■- a par: of a field left unhar- 
^'tstsdH specified a[ Lev. l?:?,;gle3iiiitgs±L[besat:ieY£:se^forgD(ienprodjcea[ 
Deui- 24_l'!)-2n, die sepiriied g.'ape^ ai Lev I "^M On defective du^Kfs ac l.ev_ 
19:1 n, pnofinin'^ lirbe at Deur_ ?(i:l2— !3h and die definicinn of the poor ac 
Lev- I9;l0j [>ut.24;l9,21-MosesraTadH;pn>visk]nfbt- tKepoorinan tntcreyt- 
Irig wa^h specifically involving nvo d-iiticict buc related prhnclples ^Lrnt, 
Ehrnugb Mo^e^ <iod tn^itted ih^r ihe farmeri dn noc (honiughiy reap rhdir 
hjrveith picking evervla^t obvefrom the [ree and grape fivin^ rlit vinqurhcf> 
[h^yareiV leave ov^r pjr( yf*he crt]|> fi>r [be poo^j \^\^ ^heJ'w-ere ^o desig- 
nate, part of the crop ftirttic 5iipport of fhcpricbtShthe Lcvifci^ atidJcruHAlcna. 
So the first prindple is that philanchmpj'{af]d not mridy alm5gi"viiig') rcprc- 
sentB slianng abun.dancc that is owed in the end to God, 


The halaUiah kjtcjw^ foux classes ^f product reserved by QiA for «lie ,qiip- 
pflfc&f rhs p^ifir and, a^ Lj;iiAl,iheTo«:fiaprnvid<y icf^t^vciiiein lnrdbcMjt 
MiiLer-siresvfKmaiizedby rgfereiiceEo il^ [u^nomicu^iL^ ^rvyluc i^gi^n 
and why_ Thus the coaL-^Triiction -i cwo -dimension A I g-'tl - ^s divided by the 
d^^ssilicatioai t>frhe source; vifbeyardsgrairi-fi-eldj ffu^e-treeat thcvcrficjllin^^^ 
ihe cWficafioh c]f fhc Ja^^roLtcr <jf (he praduw - nt^^ 

T2:l3 There arc lour gifts thaL mu^c be dcsij^ated for the piwr ftam 

[be prmluLC ol a vincyaid: 

[1) scpararcrd erapcSj 
f2) rorgoiJ en 1 heaves, 

(4) iJid dfiffiitiw cluai&ri- 

There ire rh^ee gifts char must be designi^ied for fhc poor fFom a IecM of 

|1> gleanings, 

{2} forgo[[-en sheaves^ 

0} andpc^aliL 

There .arc cwo gifts Lhac miLsc be dc^]gii.i[cd for rhe po<>r Froni th-e fruji 

(J> forgofKft s"heave¥, 

[21- and pe'^. 

None of these gifts ro rhe poor may be gLven :o a specjilc poor pN:r_soii A5 
a tavor. Even a poor Israelii^ - chc)' lakeany produce given co hitn as a 
favor from h]s hand. Bur any other ^jfiSH which are desipjiaied for rhe 
priesthoods audi ai rhc 5houldcJ^ ihc twc chccb, and chc sromach oFa 
aacrificia] animal ivhich are given no [he Ln vires as iLmplceifrSn may be 
gsvcn to a spcciEc Levitroi prie&ias a favor. And rhc hoiiseholdcr may 
gEve them ro whichever prieic he wishes. I hey may aim caLc a priestJv 
gift from a priesr [ft whom i[ his betn gjven j^j rgv»r. not a Lcviiital 
etft from ^ Le\ice id whom it hii been eiven js a livor. 



The Tosefra'^ frirrrulirion coven che copic of pe'jh^ and [^oinis toward one 
Jjmcn^ivi|oftheptcl>ki"na[ic ihiiguidc^^htsj^s' reading, wiiJi lis emphajis 
cha.[i^onc of these gifts lo iKe poor may be given to ;i specific pfwf person as a 

The diffitrenci: bctivten gifts lo the poor a^d those lo the priesthood rlietii 
emerges: the former m«it be treated jls own^^rlcis, assign ea to the end re class 
of che pcmr, noi vo a. spceiQt: person. 1 hehakldian (ken Ircals ihcgifr-b tta ihc 
poor mihccatcgory'olpnjdiJH" in the Sabbatical ycir^t^hichnius^ 
as ownerless. Parr af [he produce di5iii]gu.i5hcd rhrougli ihc passage oi ihc 
^ibbarLci] cycle, moreover^ poormaiii tithe, like second tichc^ is sub|€CT lo 
Lloyd's very parciCLilar regulacinns. Second lirhe is pre^rved and eaien ]n the 
[}iAy cic^E poocitians tithe is selected Tor ihc poor b^^ Cio<l^^ iniervencjon inm 
lhcliaT\'CStirLgprr]C:&^s_ThedLS|>ositinrtofKdith Lkn-diofnthe then isiubject n 
Go6\ will [n I'eiry [>ArciCul:^r w^yj, ^nd in hoih c^se;^ (]od diciues die rules 
rhir gtJ^rn p<3^WK^i*n nfwliai none ifi t^raol righth' <iwn^ ai i\l 

Second, whit h 3SsignKi \o ihc scheduled ca^ts i^ not deiihericel}/ daig- 
natcd Ji dlhiUvomci abtjui iisH msn«rofchinte. If^ forinsranceh ^ fiirmei 
forgets ro col le^Ti^sT^eflf of grain, he may tiorgo hiicic for ii- the aci oF for gee- 
ting [5 deemed the rcMjJrof sojnc^jne elw's iiireiirLtjii. ii^mcly^ G-cidbr Tlic p«- 
alicl is how grain is deiignateJ ai the prlcjts' and Loitci' share- Thj.t is^otto 
be iveighcd or measured bui to rcpri^sent an act of casual dispoiltion. At the 
altar of the Tcmplcn when cbcpricsTS receive cheir share oflhc beast, the bl-ood 
nfwhj-ch hai hee-n offered, die.'^acrificLa] papuofwhichhivf been burned up^, 
rhc djvisioti h to rate |ila« [hroiigli toiling, no\. thmugh a delibenE£ ace of 
dviftlion, 5o ih^fflet^tni of change =1^ prtserved_ Thac utiprediccahle conipo- 
nenr i>f che trai^sserinn reprefitnES (lod^-E poini orenuy ^So whac gots in die 
poof rei^resetic^ <.iod^s shaie 4>r%^hac i5 given lo riie fermer. I hai nie-an^ the 
firmer gives v^li^i i5 not hj^. to begin vpiiih, hue wha: he owes m l^lc^d is Liod'.s 
shareindiefiruiisof tbelatiddiat CJodpflssessesaadrh^diel^riner wcirLsssa 
jh*recfoppe^ in pflitrtei^hlpwiih G*d, 

Scriptuics provision for the pour js defined atfl^vfral poiiiu. Ai all pomti^ 
the share ofihc trap [T5tr>-rd by God f^rihc poor Bspurnuilar, that i^ noi 
confused '^irh what l5 reserved by God for (he priests and levitcs and Jcrua- 
lem, even thouo^ che fame basic thLt]log^ and governine principles come to 
cKpression in all caics in which God's share of (he crop ls designated. Whac ls 
specif] call ^iei iiide fotr ihe pnor^ tir^i, Lev.l?:9- 10 specifies ihai che cornei 
of die field {pe^dh} is u> h< left i^^r che pnor^ so trto gleaiungs ^nd sep^rsced 
gr^pC^ofthc virt^V^i'di'^Wlltt^yiiiftiptht^ h^lTtit of yOLLf-knd., yOUsliJI ftfif 

reap you.]: field m i[i very border, iieidicr ihall vou gather che ]^]eani]igs afcci 
your Jii^rv^t. And vw sh^W rioi scrjp your vtrieyard bare, nelcber stiall you 

Miher the fallen grapes ofvouf vijieyardiyou shall leivethem for che poor and 
for the sojourntTi: I am the l-ord I'our God-' Lev, 23:?2 goes over t>ie same 
grciund: "And i^hen you reap the ha^^t$cof your land, yo=tL sKall not reap your 
field CO Its very border, nor shall yoii g?.thec the ^einirLgi ither your harvests 



you ihaJl leave :hem for che poor ajnd for rhc siran^r, 1 am chc Lord your 
God/ EJeui. 2^:21 goes oiver che- jyTzmnd of the defective cluster: 'When you 
garher chegrap^^ QF}?our vineyard, you shall mnr glean it afterward^ it shall hz 
lE>rrh£wjaLifnh^sCh£^Eh<irlf^, and chc wiJow_ Vati shall riMirmbcrrhMyou 
wcre^ihveiti ihe landnfF^pr^ therefore I conunandyou to do i[,' llicfoi- 
goffcn i hejf is specified 3tDeLJT- 24.19: 'When you reap your haivesr in your 
field jtidhai-efo^^LCiia sheaf in the tield> yfiu ^l^all dicir go baek co gc[ it; it 
shall be ft>t the S0|0umer^ the facheiless^ aaid the widow^ that the l^ird your 
God may blc3s you in all the wo rlc of yottr haruls, WlietJ yotJ- b*^u your t^ljve 
[reGs.y^iLJihall noc ^ over ihc boughs ag5.]m it shall btif^rth^K^jciurnertht: 
f^rhcrlesi, and the ^idow.' Finally, in the rhird a_nd sixch ycaj5 of thr 
S^ven-vear cvcle ('Sabbatical') a cithc of ihc cnup is reetdajly scr apart for the 
pootn «i Deuc_ 26:: 12:: 'When you have RnLshed paying all rhe ciche of your 
producff ill the chlrd year, which is rhe year of lithing, si^i'ifi " ^^ ^^ Lcvitc, 
the sojourner, the facherlesin and rhe widow^ rhat rhey may eat wichin your 
towns ajid bt iilled, then you &hill iay before the Lord yotir God, "I have 
i^moved rhe sacred prtrifhnoui of my hausci arid, mor-coveii I have given it ro 
rhe Le^ite. che sojotirtiefj chc fatherlesin and the widow^ aeeordjne co aJl diy 
comiiundn^cnt that thou h^cenniniaiided me.^ ' 

What has b«ii ^id leave; nadotibrthatptovisiati for chepoor representt a 
prindpalcommujiJresporisibility. The basic principle is char the |vnciit" have ro 
go our and ptiirtbcirhaiidionihai part of [he crop left ftirtlidrglejningor 
retffvciyj The priesthood and Levins, by conrrast, receive what ihcr ia.rmcr 
delihera-telydestenatei for them, :ha:ii, a porclon of rhccrop that die ^rmrr 
declarer is the prie^dy radon [herein, and^QihraughotJT.Tiue^ the priest has to 
make the rotindi of ihe threshing floors lo collect his share of rhe grain, but 
rhar ts not the same thtng as ^inj; out into rhe fiel<ls and tjndjjig ^hac hai 
been left behind, or j^oingimo die vim:yards and oJive groves and collccLing 

Tbe tlifferen-ce between sharintoi^eicrnpsTvithihe poor and paytneoblig- 
itorj tJjies shouJdn htiwewfn be noted- ^*/hsL Oie ftrnter aligns to ihe poor, 
when it tornci^TtJttie cotntro^th^ Held j£i^idic>ui limits he can give nearly 
cnriiT field. That crop is therie>Lernptfnj[Tt t heather agrteuhuraldueSiSiLcKa^ 
tho&e ouing to the priests, L^ues^ and rhc support of Jefusdem, that Cad 
«a^t^. Hi:"! only sc^, but mppon for chcpwr^a deemed an aa^ffuch aurpa^- 
ine virtue rhar it i& treaied jn the >aine coniest as the performance of acts oi 
ri^ieDusness and (heconsetjuenr response of 1 leaven cosueh an action iicat- 
ried over into che^vorid to come and dielaiifudgmeni: 

MA. Tliese are things whj-ch have no [spoiifiedl measure: 

B- (I] |tbe quant try of prodtiee designated a^l pe^ah^ (2) [th^r quaniity 
of prodtiwgti^n a^l Hf\r friitr^. (3) |tlie valtieofj the appearance 



olfcring^ (4) [the performance ol] rightcoui dccds^ ['^) and jtimc^pcnt 

lh] study of T-ordiL 

C. Thccarc things chc tcnmc orwhich a. pcrion enjoys in chls v^o-rld^ 
lA^iiJ^ihcprmcLpdrc-m^jn^ for him in The world t& iionicL 

Dl (1) [deeds m| honor of J^iherandmotherHlZ) Ipeitormanirt-Qf] 

fighrenLis deeds, (3) and (icis which] bring peace benveen i miwi and 
hi* fellow- 

E. Bun thc^tLidy of loraii l5 ;l^ important :ll^ all ot th^m teacher. 

(\fislinah-rra£:[alcPc'ah^ 1:1) 

To undersuand theirtting in ivhkh wcspcalot reward in the svoHd tooomcp 

we take acoounr of cht opposite, acis ]n t:hi5"\vorld that afiect chc actors' face in 
ihc TasT judgment and In the world to come: 

1:2 A. hjrchcsc ihiRgs [hey punts}] a person in this world, whdcchc 
priQiiipal I i.e. erernal piinLshnieni] remains for rhe world -ro-conw: 

Rr (1) fot lacr5 oF] idolatrous wor?Hip, (2) fot incest, (3) for murder, 
14) andforgo^ipj |v/nct:h is] warsc than all of thtirt togethei. 

C. Doing good creates a prinei|?al |for the world-(o-comel and bear^ 
interest lijiitiis world], 

1:3 A, A transgression eieatcs a principal [i.e. eterna! punishmenrp in 

die world-ro-comej but bears no inrerest |in this"vrorldl. 

Closcfra'rracKre Pe'ih, 1-2-3) 

Now[htrixlliri]pc>t[3n[X3iiigncd[Oii3pponifigihtp<xireme^ Ir ii 

an atti^jJi 4i wci^iy ^ Torah-siudj^ Jt^ coun^wpaii ^nd oppo&ii? i^ pKprc- 
sented b^ i<loIatiy3 incest, and murder, ttie trilogy of cardinal sins oE the 

Clearly; defining die several classes oFcrop5> siibjccrto diverse expressions of 
^fcce^ or chance^ ^►ur m fact divmc [ntenrionality forms rhe focus of rhe 
hfdakhah. The first principle li, whar ^omconr wants, mu&t be shared with 
God,a partner, and rhu5 with. GodWcai^naiedagcuia, ihc poor or th-c priests. 
TharprjncLplc is most lucidly expressed in connection ^iih ihc produce rhar is 
&ubjcc[ ^o being iefr for rhc poor at :he corner of rhc field, ihai [s nor goineto 
be produce rh^r ihc farmer neglects because of Jisdaan. Ic niusr b^ produce 



ihai isedahlc. privaielv^ownedn produced by ihc holy land-fhirvetied sysiemaE- 
ically ^ a crop C^oc if^^i^d cafLi^ly}, ^nd d^^eafier stared iw^y as v^Lu^ble: 

1:4 A- They^Hred a general pnni^ipltfi^oncenung |iht designs nonnf 

B, "^Tiafcwr i^: i J } cJJble:> (2) privgi^ly uwnwl, (3) grcj-wn fnr^ iKe 
ground. (4) hjirvcstcd as a crop, (5) and tan be procfvcd In stcNr^c, li 
sLibJKr K [d«ignarion ^isl peah^ 

C Grain uid lecumes ^le included m diis gerLCial principle. 

(IMtiliJiah-iriciite Pe'aJin [:4) 

The samedefinirior perains ro crops rhar are subjtfcr ro the de5ij;narion of 

ijiheiand pries[lyfact<:inSfand ihe same principle Lwrrajns_"J"hai fact indictees 
iha clasiSLlEC^LCtoLi of alanSn once a^in rcpresciiicd as roi a nuEccr of whim or 
]Mjvnial will biif a_s a matter of LJj^avojd:^le4^l>ligatio]i: (lod^s ^hare_ 

Tiayc wnxup<>LOt emerges in iheo>EisiJerationi^rhowihejXK>r^rt tocolleci 
whnU Lowing 10 ihem. IngpnenJ, th? p^srmuhi command ukewKjiheloJig^ 
TOthcm by righ^^iti^nui t^yana«d "Wilful g^ncruiiiyvtth^i^cmcj.kbn 
even Wis choice. But that principle is modified by another: tli^ tanner is not to 
iuJrer damage lo his pioperty when die poor come lo ^can. Thcieforc ihc 
f^rnief jn^y harvesi and divide among ike poor whai grows on a creilLs or a 
^i\m rr^^^t^diK^lik^, ript^tKchiBprtiperry. BLLEih^K^if rjgliicif [hepo^r 
luidliewhac is diciison land owned by [he fermcr cannot be tompromjacdL 

4:1 A. iVah L5 desLgnared frojn (produce which aiye: iij unharvesicd 
[Uv. 23^221- 

B. [Airc^rdi produce whicbgrowi] on jircHis^or |ihc produce of, J 
palm tree [cifhtT of whidi tnight be JnmagcxI if thr pour attempted to 
collect pc'ahl — 

C rhe boti^holdcr cues down |ihe produce] and diirnbutcs i[ among, 

D. R. Simeon say&, '|The preceding ruie appliesl also to [twos wbkb 
growoni smoorh nui TreeSn [sance chc poor cannor caiiiy chmb ihese 
crees ro pack ihe pr-<Mitice]/ 

E, Even jf ninety^nine Ipoorp^apk] -say thai [chehou^holdcr .should] 
diicribijtc [the prodxictj jnd [onlyjoiit [po^Nt person J SAyi th,it [the 



poor should] cake (ihc produce by di-cmsch'cs- Jcaving the ht>u5chaldcr 
Duc-of ihc discribunon process ecninplcrciyl, 

E ihcy lisicn roihckcitrH [who said due ihc poor should take [he 
produce [hem^vesjp 

G. ior he lus spoken acccirdingio [he k^v. 

(Ibid., 4.1) 

The law once more undcricorci that rhc poor cuke wJui h rlicirs by lights not 
on sulftrantx. PhJianthropj' is not i choice ore makes biLC a duty one cairics 
OUT by reason of obligatiojiT a^ much as one performs acts of lighitcoiisncsi 
because -one has lo^ not merely bccaun: one v-^anti co- 

1 he r-ole of chance in the speciUcarion of thar portion or (he crop that 
bclanf;s(oGodand [hcreforc ro rh.c poor comes lo [he fo re i^hen wc dcaJ wi rh 
ihc Foreonen sheaf Thcre^ in particular^ in[er[iona] designation ls mLudcdj 
chance happening -emphasized. All parrin.^ musi bear mponsibility for the 
jieglecc of rhesheai^ I he poor cannor hide it so cha[ che householder and his 
worlcers ^vlII mjss ie. I he householder cannot e^e^clse deception cjrher. All 
jMme^niu^r ^are in [he general ac[ofjie^cc[:(haioblmon, li w^e have norcA 

5^7 A. A sheaf "which il) worikers forgot, but v^hkh the householder 
did not foj^^H {2} whkh tJie householder forgot, bjt which thr workers 
did ntjc forgetn 0} |orif| poorpecplc^taod in front [ofa^lieaf] or 
covered il wi[h srravK | in o [dcr lo hide ii so ihai the workers would 
Eorg^et ich 

B. loj this [shear] Is not |5ub|ect to tlie restr:ctLonsof ihe] forgotten 
£h<?if |ft>r c.*irhi.*r thi: poor rKdvedit by dccc-pri&n. ontwasn^v^rfor- 
goii^n by htnh [he worker and the hoLiseholder] [cf- Deui. 21 1? 22]. 

(IbJd-, 5:7) 

Not only sO:, bjt the process bj wJikh 'A sheaf may be dassi^ied as '-forgotten' 
commefices only when the work is complete- If the workers arc still binding 
the sheaves^^hatii neglected doc5 noiqualily as fo[gocieii" when their wo[k is 
donci then iidocf. But [he definition rfniainsrc^trinive.foi thcoc-c^sicn For 
torECHJng chcshcafdraws lo a close when the rhrcshing begins. So jr is abraeF 
interval at which authentic '(ojgerting' takes place^ and that undericores the 
importance accorded to chance in the process: 

^:S A. He ivho bind^ Isheives] inic> ^rack coders , alack basc^i tcmporaiy 
Slicks, or lordjraryl sheaves — 



R. [whilf rhc sheaves arc bcin^ bounda thcyj arc noi ^subject m ihc 
rcbtrkiicnii of the] forgotten sheaf. 

C. [While the hound sheaves arc brougjit] from [chc bjndjngar£i| ro 

rhcchrc-shin^ floor, 

D. rhey arc [subjcci fo the re^cricnons of the] forc^JCTen ^he^E; |The 

poinr is chac liibJlLr}' eo rhe la^^ nf die frirgotceii shc^j- begins otily oi]C^ 
the binding proce^ ii iirhtinpleKd Adilhionallvj shtivHar^ no longer 
ELjb|cer CO the l^wofclie to^Dpsn^ln^af after iKe Jifeshiii^ piroccrsi 

E- He whfj hind^ l-Jits^c:^ which wHI be placed in] a grain heap — 

K [the bounj sheaves iti tlit^rjiJ: heap] arc [subject to the rcsmcdons 
ftftht) ff]^liert il^caf. 

Qr f OncF the ih^^vfi arc bwughij fram [the grain h^rap] tc^thf 
dlEcshing Hoor, 

H. [they] are not [subjcci to :hc icscricrions of iht] forgoicejT shesJ- 

I. This ii rhe general Iprinciplel: 

J All who bind shaves ac a platxwfiefcbiiidtngwilf be compktcd — 

K. [rhe shelves] aire [subica iv t3ic rtstrkiii^ns of rhe| lorgotiren sheaf 

L lOnfiXihrihrjTCwrcbrOTighi] from Ibucii a place, where binJmgia 
€:oniplet-td] to the ihrtshin^ floor, 

M. [the sheaves] arc not [subjeci ro ihc restricfions ofihe] forgoiten 

N- UuLifihc leaves if c bound Mr a p-Licc whrre binding will not be 

O. ^They] arcnoc l^ubjecc m the t^-^tricHoo-S of the ] fV>rgancr^ ihcaf 

P [^^ile I he sheaves are gaTJiEfed fogechep, \kikJch mjrIiK tlw etidof the 

binding prQo:^i [and arc hroughfj fron^ [tl^cpW where tbcvvicrc 
bound] to che chrt-^hing flflor^ 


AMONC; THt ¥\\ ] Hl^UL 1111 

^^- ('Kct] are J^uhject to die resuictioibs of the] forgoctcn ^caF. 


The shaf thai l^lfs.ihtOEie left b<:hind,ihe one ignored a: ihc place whcrcihc 
^ticavci are tMjwnd - ihwc ar? ihc flit^a chic c:;adde4Jgnaie& for :hc poor. 

The same bajscprindplcbtliat oper^ie for ihe forgoiten slieafcomcto bear 
upon cUc orhcr crops fer which ch^; I^fiJ i$ nored, grapes and oLJvcs^ whichn 
cogcihcr with wheat, constitute the principjl produce of the Land. fiKe 
equavaJenifcir Bab^'loniaH :hc other iinporlaiil Icxalc ^herf u1^ h^liJMiah I04>k 
^hniiwin [htfformaFLve period, najudyn brer EorwincHBcamc oil for dive oil^ 
and bilrlty fct^h^ai, never comes within ihc purview oFthe WritcenTorahr) 
Here, ancc itto re^ whit decides ihe smus of a ^pe is chance; inrcntJonaL dci- 
i^nation of sgcapeis ^^parac^' does nor «rve. The grape still belongs tuthe 
femacrTTie fermerciaji diea: die poor by coilccrlng c^^eiy last grapes rhac vio- 
lates iKe ihtcni <>fih£ bw_ 

7:3 A. "What [piT>duceii iubj^no the law of die] separaicd. jgrape] 
[Lev. V}:9]> 

B. Ilndl vidua I grapes] ivtiichyj |to fkie ground) during ihe harvesi^ 

Cr [If a worker wai harvescing, land] tur an cnii re dusio; 

D. laridf ic bec^tne e^ncanded in die leaves |of the vine]. 

E, [$0 dial [he clbi&cerl Eeii fioni his hand to the groujid^ and scparniLtcd 
lintaj individual grape^l, 

R lo, [the individual grape^^ and che rcmaininEcliiscer] belong co [he 

C. One w-ho piaccs a basken under the vjttc whllt he harvests [in order 
w^iTclithigrapKwhichML^othatthey willnorbein the sraciisnf 
sejiamred grapes]. 

Hr lOj tliil nun steals from die p 


1_ Concerjiiiigthai man j: Liscaied, ^R-cmove nor the landmad^ ttftht 
pu^r/ laplay on word^onFrov- 22:33, which reads Remove ncmhc 

(Ibid.. 7:3} 

Here dicn we discern the ouKr Jimiti of the l&w On tlie on^ iitle, :he poor 



annoriieil what beloJie^ coiKe firmer, that h^ wliai is no: forgo Tren> what is 
nottangcniiJ tothcharveicirt^pmtcjiltKt comet-ofchefteldj.and^ 
nt>t(ii]ltotJicgi^ijndNjnitivwji, OoUii;c>tlierlian.[l. Lhe^t-m^ 
control rhcnaturJwiiratoflhc hir^est by pfevtrirmg gra pes fivini separaring 

Liy in chccropn an J dicabnormality is affected bj the a ttoFtut^iti gtliegr^pes- 
A defective cluster is one that is unnatural in itE sh^pc, Ix^r ciampl^. Jad^ing a 
shoulder and a pendanr. If such a cluster is harvested wich the normal on^^ 
kowe^'ein ir rcmaijus il^c piopcriiY' ofihchauseholdcr II itis jidc n-ormally hai- 
vwted, il]4?i] k kloiigi in [he poon 

7'A Ar Whit IpToduce is subject in the law of che] defccf ive clu^rer^ 
(iuch that it b-cbinp en t}ie pcwrt^ 

Br Any fdinicfl which hfl^ nfirhfr j ^nuld^r (a wide upper piit] nor a 
pendant |j cone-shaped lower pari] — 

C. Jf [ad-ustcr] has dthc;r a sh<juldcrma petuJatitj 

D. i: belongs ro the hoiischaldcr. 

E- If it h uncctrajn [ifrhEcluirerha^eiTberashouldrrorapcn-dan-t] ^ 

E. |it| btlcngi torhep<K3t Ld% M,^,1I1Jh 

G, A dtJectivtcliifirer [which grows] on |the porEion of rhe vine which) 
l^lns l^h Tiarmsl f I u^iorin ih^ i^ine] , Imchihai u mighrbEicon^dcrcd 

pari tjf ihc Tjyrmal Ji4Slcr}j 

H. if i.t is harvested af iKc same time a-S the noffrtat dujrer, 
l_ Tot it belong ro the hDusrholdcr. 

J- Rut iFI'he defective cluster] 35 rwf [harvested with the normal d"U5[7r 

to ^vhich it i^ itcad^edj? 

K. lo, it bcloogh to thcpoor 

Lr [M (*gardi^] a gra|K [\yhich grows] singly> 

M. R. Judah 5ayt 'lit is deemedj a. [norm^ll clusteTn |which belong to 
the hoiischoldcr]/ 


AMOWi; THt HAll HKUl tU] 

WhacihcUral 'Ibrahh^concrjbui^ta the-clucEdacJon of rhc halakhah ls wc 
see the JncrodmriLon qF consideracLOJis rhar Scnpcure has noi lakcn up. The 
main poinr running ihroiigh ihe-dcftnEiion of ihc several cypcsof foodlcfrfor 
ihc poor focuses upon afiirdererminadon of niatrcrs_Tha:niansoji cticoiie 
lurLd[hd[didn^^r^^[:jdcmgovfi'nH^nd^n.TlifOTh£rchj[ chc-nonwalpi-ocess 
cfH^^^^LJjigd-^ceTJ'nLi'Le^ wh^Lf^lUinto [he UEegory of nhsnce: that k tD^jy^ 
tbf farmer ^^^^boEJL luii hu^m^b^ tn ihc i^orinal way. If byhi^act hedji^ifig- 
nates AS ustful-and desired a defecrt^^e duster, or if ]ie indii;3tescHiit ashtaf^i 
not j-er iitJijea fo "beirigfoi^tteri/ then the tnnccer ]* serried in favor of rhe 
householder. Oihcrwijc Uianc^c takci ovci> witD the tonseqiicneci wc nOiv 

So murh for tht jworaThom^^Hthosf whohivcThc&:ei;LOJH0 go ouc imo 
die Hclds^ share in ihc cropsof ihcir vJlijfc. Bje iJic law also provides for 
cran^ients^ even while dccording pfioriry lo die locals. The canimuniry muse 
pro\'"Lde food and Lodgine for :ra.vclcrs. Ir owes a ioaf of bread per day and a 
nj^is lodging-, and> for thcSabbattin Food for chc three statu roiymeals. The 
soup-kitchen Jia: provider ike food may cuin away people who have enough 
lisod. for rwo nne^Lss and ihose who ha^'e enou^ for fourEeeji m^Y nor lake 
moiie>^ {mm rhe c^mrLiuniry fund. "1 hff ^nrirt rran&acuoTL. rhen, resrs upon 
muiti^t te^pon^JhJliEy ihe-i:omtininLcy rorhe puiof, hiit chepnor mrhecnjn- 
munit^ as well. The poor jre nor to oke advanr^ge^ aaid rhe principle chjt gov- 
erns, expressed in liter timet.^ Is: 'G^ve the poor rtot a (ish but a fish-hook,' 
Here is che rule governing the transient poon 

-8^7 A. They g]vc to a poor man Iravehng From place to pface no less 
ihanaloaflof bread] worth adupondion, |mide from wheat which 
coses ac lcai(| c^nc sds for four acdi?. 

E. |lf such a poor pc^soji] scaj^ed overnighiT 

O rkty give lum enough |co pay] fot a nighct lodgEng. 

D, llfiuch apnorper^or] ipcniibtSibbath, 

E- they Ei^Thiin foodfor three meals. 

P. Whoever hassiifficicnrfo-od for two meals may no: ra!ke |food^ from 

G. [Whoever hai sufficient] food for Iburteen mcala may nor Eakc 
[money] from ihe |cominunal| fund. 



H. [Mon^" for? ctic {comuiuiial} FuiLd is collcctcrd liy rwo [peo-plc] and 
disciibutcd by three [pcoplcj. 

(Ibid. 3:7} 

Thac (h^ dcrLntdun &f who i^ po^z requircr^ ampIifLcailon j^ ■:]c^r. 

Tc^summa^L^e:aQnLJall}^ die pDorarecJ^'enneslaziedar i-eiecL^d pifLs ofch^ 
crop (hat [h-e householder h^ possei^ed htii ^^zdideniall^ relLnquLsKed. Th^y 
rccetvejin addicioci, :lie ti[ he of the crop ici rhethi-rJandsisrli t^fi^rsciPtkeSab- 

crop rhai the htjuxholdacatiwiihhi-i family Jiihcpilgjim rojcrusalcnir 
Both represent Codi ihan: of the crop for chc othcr-than-saccrdotaf classes. 
Support for the poor^thcnn has to be divided into cwo carcgorLcs: provtsionfor 
their ordinary needs throng the year, and special supporr cvcrv diird and 
5islh year oFihe Sabbatical eycle> a tcmh of rhc rwiduarj' crop, no which ihe 
halakhah pa)^ only air3or>'acKncion. 

Unlike th-c priesr-s but like ^dam and Eve and humanity until Neahf rhc 
poor Rie aligned a veg-ecarian diet. Grain and Icgtuncs alone arc included in 
iliES gericral prineiple. Jhe farnier's herds and flocks, howe^^er, are Jir>[ subjecc 
to pe ah-oFEcnng^ m.eai is not ai issue. When Cod \iys elaiin no n^eafn il goes to 
only rhc cull and rheprieiihood- Indus regard, accordingly, the :wor[aUu|> 
the posirjon oFAdi^in ^nd Eve^ ivhoh^d ^reecht>ic? oFlh^ ft^H J^d v^gci^b'Si 
of Eden bur did rioi eat meat. 


While the halakhah focuses upon the support for the poor in the Land oflsrad 

as part oFGods daim to oviTiershipof the Land in particular chc laworjutfa- 
ism prtjvldes more {generally foi support for iJie poorn and ihai is wjchoui spC' 
cjfic regard tc^ ch^ Land hjt ^ItLiit^ whei^cT the holy commujiicv, Ur^l k 
lincat-edn whether in the Land ot -ibroad- It i^ dirnjgh prftvisiuii of regular 
mfaljfor thepDor 15 well as oUier neciiMary iceitis. 

TI-m; Kibkhih tik^s for granred tbat the o^mfnunity m^int^in^ a 
iOup-kit-Jnen toi tncdistririutioo o-f tuon a nd also a community nind thatpro' 
vidcs hnancial support in odierivays. The lormer serves transientSn the larter, 
pcrniancnirrsidcnift. The halathahrhar covers general iuppt>rt for rhe poor, as 
dbmcrJioniihirsharcf in ^hc^rop nested abcve, LsacLbrthin^h^ fdlowmg 
precis. Ir involves r^o emolument Firstn white all (srachtes jnusc cidie their 
crop&n food gi^'en to che poor, such as the agriculcural donations descrihtd 
abovCn does ffioi hav-c lo be t]thcd. So the poor arc Ta:i exempt. Second, ac cer- 
[ainpoiniiinihcsc^cn-ycarQrcicflfLiihingiihf ciihcisrescj"v^ for rhepoor, 
Ls ovctand ahov^ttht p^rti^n of thecrr^as reset^i^J ior the poor b^ Gods daitrt 



expressed chmagh rhc chance leaving or gleanings and the like. The pooi 
iheniselvci adrnmiscef their ovp-n ta:^ mcniptioii. 

A The l^wr min^-s Ll^inj Bt^giirdln^PcHit (^(Tcnng^i ^tiJ. 

Ml 8=2 |Theponr| att believed |if [h<yay thanichcinccd not be 
scpaTitedl on bt;lwlf^^f glean] ngs^ forgotten sheaves, and pc'ahn [from 
pt<]duce tl];ic ii] in -seasj^n, and on bchalfof poor mar. i caihc in lis proper 
^r^ lior^r assume cbai h ouKholdtrs actually gave ihcjii this prodace. 
And a Lrv]br isialways bcLirvccI lifhc says cha: llrsc iiche in his posj^j- 
sion i&eien^pt Fronn rhe^paTaaon of bei"\'e offering of rherithe] Hut 
|ihe poor] ajc only believed wich regard ro rl^at ^hich men Lisually [^\^X 
[hem, far'we assume thai any other p^roduee [hey might po^sc$£ h^ tioc 
been given no them by householders ai^d so :i[hts have ooi heer^ 

M. Sl3 IThepoorj ire-belisved |]f di^'s^y th^il wheii lln =ihci]:^mhc^ 
^ion ise^cmpr from rlie wmrjtJon aFtirhe^^ since fhe produte wai 
JesLgnaiedforrhepoorjrIii]! ihey nire- esoc heli^ed with rc^rd roftour 
Of a loar lor hreatl, ror hoxtseliulJi^rE tto ntt usually designate processed 
produce]. The>' arc believed v.nrh regard ropanjeici of riee^ bui rh^y aw 
fioi bcficvcd l^'ith regard m hulked riar] , whcrhcrrawor cnnked, TKcj 
arc Ijclieved with regard w beanSn hur diey ar-e Jinr beheverf wifh regard 
w bean Jtieal, wherlier raw or coofced_ They are believed wirh i^gnrtl to- 
oiK []f they] say ih^r [rheoLl) is in the srarus □fpoorinan'^ lecK^. Bar 
chey arc noT bclirvtd with rn^gardco [oil], if rh<!yMy rha? Ich^^jl] 
derives fronnoiiYcs (lefron die] crown |ofacrec foi die poor) 

M. 8:4 They are beheved -iVith regard to raw vcgr^tables^ but chty arr 
noc believed with regard lt> CCujltLxl |vi;gefLiblcs| itnlcss Jihc poor 
person] lias a small amctinr fof the ctwkcd incgetabtc,. For ic Is chc 
cmcomyf houfholdai w lake |a small amounLJ ou^oE diek^rcw, [and 
i^jgiv^attv ihe pwjr]. 

T.4:l P. Judah says^ '(In] a place ^vhcre Jhoiiseholderi] presii libe grapes 
cin] defective dusterSn [and give eke requiring wine rf> rhe ponrj^ ^ p^wt 
person as believfd if he dainii (!) ^"Iliiiwine is in J^e^taiu-^of Jeteetiw 
dusrcr^i Undfo [\q tirhc^nccd bc^cparai-cd from ii]." | A poor pi^rwn 
a.lso is believed iFhc claims] n (2] "My broihersn relaEives^ and I gitKcred 
these gleanings/' But he ls no: believed if hcclaim^j (1) "^f purchased 
[this food] from, a Geiuile |who d-iim^ rbat the produce has 
rhes.racLi;ftf£[einir^g^J''flrf (?) "I punJiaseJ ilfrom 5<j-and-so. a 



Samarhan [who jradc the daimj/' ' Pwt Satriariranwre rfeeined 
equivalcni to poor Israelites and so arc dccrnctl trNxliblc iin^kr jil 
dmumHanccs m which Israclicca arc bc:hcvcd. But as rc^rdi: puut 
(^£n[ile£, v^■<: do noi bclic^^can^ja^ cticy say about anything, 

XV^ium^nen^ [ovhchalakhahofcra^raccpcah on how much pouiirViin? ciih^ 
i! f^Eiuifed CO be: $cc i^-ide a( rhe dire^hing lloor 

!B Definitioji: Vh^ Proper Amoujit of Food to Give tu E^ch 
Poor Persoji a.s Poormans Tithe 

M.8:5 [Wlien dispensing pivarman^s cLcheJ iKcy mav' give to ihe poor at 
The Thrt-^hlr^ tWr iiu lewihjn ([] fine- half qab of Avhcii, [2)oncqab 
of barleys (Br Mtirjajs^'-ont-hairqab |of barley|')^13}oncandaha.lf 
qabs orspdr^ 0} <^ne qab of dried Fies. {^} one nianch of fresh fiesi TR, 
Aqiba sa^j 'orL£-K:|]f fof a oianeli of fttsh fi8iI')H C6) one-half log of 
wiiLCi (R. Aqibasays. 'aquantr [ofa log of wine]') (7) a quaiier-llog] of 
olL (R. Atilbai-ayt., 'an cLghrh tifa logof oil]')- A:^d lasregai-di] all 
ochcr n-prs of produce - said Abba Sajl^'lThey must give ro diepoorl 
cnt>uj;h |pjodiicc|5o char th-cy may idl It [and u^rht revenue to| buy 
^ufficLcnc fooc for tv^o meals/ 

M,8;6 This single mejsut^ 3fnr eich lype of product] applies whcQ 
dlstribiitln-g poortnajt's rlthe to pooj] pne^Es, LeviieSn and lsradj[£:s. |lf a 

mn-Ti wished wj ^3v£ [lioffianrthe produce he designated as poornians 
[ithf for lib uwh|X]ur relatives] Jie mjy laJce only half |fbr his rclaiivcs] 
and tnuir giv^; hulffof the poornian's tiihe m oihcr poor people . If he 
had lorlyl a imsll smouiit- nFan^ rype [of produccn Icsi chati chc 
mcasurr spculicd jc M, 8;5|, he places fthc produce] before [chepoor], 
and [hey djvidc it am-ODg themselves. 

TlZ;13 [y\jfegardij poor people who amnaking [he rojndsof 
[hreshiiig floors - [if ahousehoLder w]shes to distribute the poormani 
fitht i^r^ym hi^ homCf he tieed not^ive ihe poo-r any poormans tirhc at 
the thr-cshing Hoot, [lUiher Jie n^usc] d-esLgnare rjiihes [from some 
ecunmon produce] aMgive them thi? grain [isagLfc]- [And] decent 
people bring out in ilipir handcTStxl [wc^rrh a small ai noun [nf| money, 
and givii [a p<Hjrper.S[^nL rhL!i tnflc, m [haL he will [have sonieihin^ io| 
eat bcftjrc lit rcaJies the eity- [And) the portion aFrhe piMr offerings 
that [rcmaiiisl iti fhc Helds, to which the poor pay no anefltioo- Ici^ 
chis [produce] belongs xo the householder, 

TAil Duiing. the proper ycai hi diipcnsin^ poorman'^ tidr.e, they rnaj 



give[0[^epcMirn^le.^di;;n one-hslfqahoFwhearora qatn?f bailey [M. 
Pe^ati- fi_5l - under wh^Ccircitrninttnai dffs thii apply? It applies ot the 
hi>ij5ehcJdet" Jismbu-its die pt<jdu« at the tlirshing floor. Bu^ Ifhcdlsiril^ 
iites pjflduce iroffl Kis own hoiis*:, he niay give mrhc poor any amounr and 
need rti>i itjupk" ihashc hsu ghTnchcm Ira [han die r«]iiircd antouin, 
&iil^ re^rtlitht remaicidtTof ^hs disE^]bu^^^l ^ihc ihrcshin^^loor, 
namely lliosc giv-cn to the priesthood aj>d to ihc- IjrvLKS-, he may j;Lve any 
amount and ncod noi suruiJr iliar he has nor ^vcn enough. 

TA\2 If ht wisheSn he may raiin h:ilfnf rhe poorm^in'-K tichirforhu own 
poor relarLv«' use ard give hjlf^o ojKt^rpwNr pc<jplc |M- Pt:'ah. H:6]r 
Ahbi Vo^c^ b. [5c>ssrji says in the name of R. Eliczrr ""Ifkc wish«H h-r 
triiy give to the -cither p<KNr people a third of'the poormans cithcand 
grve cwo-rhirds m hK tw/n ^ot rclAtivtt/ 

T4 3 Apj^^txlipric^tund l-^^r^imwhtj^iandby ihcttircEhingflcwr 

^jiringrn h^yiveniKe ^ifti due thcm^ hwvc olfrringand fini tithe, 
iudochef prit^rscAineand stood rhcrt lor a shon time only -- the 
pricMs who came by latp^r may not take the pries Jy gihi due oFthc 
hsiiidiof [he prints who ^i^Fcthf re first. Said Rabban Simmnb. 
GamdicL, 'RJdi priests used v? he ^ncreja, md in oider noi lo stnd 
out cbeirpoor hroihcrs empTj^-haadedn th^' used m take a hand Fill of 
ihe fi>od [hey had collecced. as heave often ng ;ind give It ro tlierri.' 
R. Simeon h. Elt&j3.r saysn ""If some priests came to the thrcihlng floor 
ifcf lh£ hfluwhflldct hid gi^-^rtrtuEOlie round of affrrings.hur hcfcre 
hehad^vt:]i[>LH the secnndrotinds they mnstiiandatthcend of the 
hne and take Ehe oIFerifigs only in turii/ 

T-4:i As leganig tht wives and slaves ur pticMi, tliey may not apponkin 
Thf m pr i e^dy i>f*Cr';T^^ at the ihrcsliing fitwr But dispensing this 
produce from the house, dicy may give ihem pricidy or Lcviucal gif[£ as 
an at t of fevor. 

T.^:5 Rabban Simeon b_ Gani^hel saj^s^ Jusi as^ [when produce 15I 
dtsmhuTcd j.: the ch resiling floor, |a petj^jiV receiving] h^^ve offering L- 
prima facie evidcnize fdiii he it a men^lwrj of the pntsthootLso loo, 
{when ptrodute is] dn^iribiitcd ai the tlireiliing floor, |a ptThons 
receiving] tithe priitti f^cle evidence [that he i5 one] ofchc Levitcs.' 
|Bu: when[ disrcibucing chiough che agency o^f A court |an inheritance 
con rdning prod kice in Lhe hiatus of tnKes rbsr never wa:? given to 
priests, a perwn^ receiving aporiiuriohhefoodl is not priiTi:^ facie 
evideriL^c [[hit hcii.^ memb^rofihtj prirathood. [for thra produce tan 
begiven> by the ajiirtn to anyonej. 



T4:6 [Thtre arej rwo [mattei^ thit constitute] prlrna fade evidence 

[that a pcr^tm is a member of] rht priesthood; wit}i]n fhr Land of [sracl 
— (1) talui^^jiKs hand^ [during the priestly bcnedicrion], ind 
{2} rccdving |iicavc oncnng] at the threshing floor And m Syria, up m 
the plaw whtFC ihe mcsscno^r Iwhoicllsof ihrncw] moon icachci - 
[]} lai^ng Qnc'f hand^ [during rhc piLC&dy bcncdlciic^n], buL (2J |ihcy 
do] nor receive Iheavcoffcrinsl ac die threshiag (Iool And iSabylojiia [is 
in nhc sam^r siarus-] as Syria. R. Simeon b_ Elca-zar says, 'Alio AlcKuiidrJa 
[hid (he &ame iiaius ^s ^yria], dnnng che ciriy iitiies. wl^en Lhere wa^ ^ 

T.4=7 Amur*; ttiLngcnE rule applies to hdy things ^?f the Tcmpkitian 

applies ro lioly things of the provinces. And a moiescrinpnt rule 
appJlcs to holy things of the provinces rhan ^.pplics co holy things of the 

TctTiplc. [As nrgsrdsl the holy things oi the provinces — {l) juinor 
[pn*^[&| n^iy partftl^f or thern, (3) unclcan Ipnests] may partake ot 
thcrn+C3j (hey may davidt^ihcm in conditions of uncleajincs5j4}and 
lh?r may meEUurc^ulaneqiiiviJent amouitl [-QfcQmrnQnfoQdm be 
used in place of the holy rhing&l . [As regards] vhe holy rhjnes oFthe 

Temple- 0) Ipricsri] arc charged with ihc rcsponsibihiy of caring for 
[h^m, (2) and {with the rcsponsihiliq^l [f> bring [hem lg vhe lemple 
huilding [Aiicgard^l hr^ly things ftfch^prnvincej-chft'fii^Thfrrt frt 
aJiy hjlicr[-prLesi| Imcreip^niKiftl- But [gMCEardsJ holy things of (he 

Tcmpk-pric^iJwrethflrgcJ with the K^porui bill lyc^t caring fo^ 
and wicb the rcsponsibiJity t-o brin^ them to the Temple building. 

As ecgirdi holy tl^ingi of the provinces, they give ihe^n to any 
h^lK:r-|piJtit| nierely ntb ^ giJtr But as rcprds holy things or the Temple, 
(hj^y give thenfc only ro the nicmbcTi of rhtdficia ting priestly wMchoJ 
ilui jpnn of limcr 

What abouT rhe poor who do noc reside in one"s own villaBe, travelers for 
example^ They eoq arc pro^^idcd for m loea! fioup-kicehens. 

C Typ*s of Charity Given ihroLighont the Year fioni One 
HarveBL to tlie NeH 

M.8:7 'Iliey^ve ma poor man irav^Fing from pl^cc [opijceno lepis 
[Eian a loaf [of bread] worrh adupondionH [mjde fiom wh£aiihjLi:E?f[£ 
-at least] one seta for four scahi. [ff such a poor person] scayedovernighrj 
they give him enou^ [is pay] for a niche's- lodgijig. [If sueh i ponr 
person! sptnr che Sabbarh, tJiey give him fi^od for chrw ineils_ Whoever 
has flifficjfnr fortd for i\vG n^eal* r^ay rt->[ lake [fo<HjJ from a 
iOU[vld[chtn. [Whoever hai sufildcnt] fowl kti fourccen. mcjh may not 



cake [money] from :he [cammunaJI fiind. [Money for] the [communaf] 
fund is collected by dhvd Ipcoplcj andHdlstribuEcd by thrc:c IpcopJcJ. 

TAt& Th^ ^vca apaorpcrMH tri^i^lling frcm pla.« ri> place no less 
rh^n alrtafafbrf^d wofch a dupondiuMmdf from >vhca[ that ^ 05cs at 
leJS[ one sel^ foi" fbur seihs. Jf such 2. pooff person acav^d overnJthc, iJiev 
muit give him enough fond foj 3 tiighi^s lodgLng (M_ Pe^ah. SiV}^ 
namely, oil and bani^ Ifiuc^i apoor pet*on s^^iid^ rhe .^bhath, rliey 
g[ve hliii luod for thj^ ftiftjis. rijm^ly, oil, bftiffti, ftiK, ^luiAv^g^raHle- 
Undcr what drcumsiancci doci (his proviibn pcrtainf h applies htj long 
as :hc cownspcc-plc do not recognize eIic poor pci3on. Bur if they 
recognLz^ hijiin chev must even provide dothine for him. If a poor 
person we\u from door lodooi, hcg^mg for food from c^ch ^mily, they 
axe n>3E ohijgaced co h]r^ in anyway because lie thojld collect his nccnd^ 
fiDJU the commurul fund. 

T_4:^ The £Qup- kitchen provides cnoueh Spf>d for a full day; hut the 
communal fund gi^^ -sufficient food 10 lisr front one week :o ihe nexT_ 

TJlc ->uu[5-Litchtn pn>vdde?- food for anybody^ but the comniLinal Uinti 
givtis support only fOtKe poor of thai locale. If a jKior person dwdc 
there for ihiiry da)-*, lOrht ii toniidcrcdmilifficuntsof rcstdentufih^ 
locale for purposes ol receiving assistance from the communsd fun J. But 
to receive skelte In he niusi have dwelt there for six montlis. j^d ro be 
liable to pay rhe :own-:a:<, he must havebeert a rcsLd^rnt for cweJve 
jtion rhs 

T'^lilO As regards a poor person who. like anyone else, gave a penny to 
support the conimLinal lujid ora piece of hre^d co help out at the 

SOU p-kj ether, they do cake the money or food from him. But if he did 
not conrribure^ rfiey alio d<i n^ji Force ham rn give. If they gave co a poor 
person n^Jorhft frum the comr^iunul ftind Jjid heexch^ngal tiif 
wcnujui dt^ihcj in paiiEjl paym^uSjCh^^niiiyti^kf the tb;,h« fruni 
him. But [f he did rwt exchange his w-om-out clothes, dicy do not Ivrce 
him m ^i\'c. If he used to^^earfinc wool before he became poor, they 
supply Kim with cloches of fine wool ff kc used ro receive a coin as a 
^fllifVj [tievgLve him a coin If he used ro eatdoughbef&rehebtcamf 
pouTj ihc> p'ft: him doiigh_ If he used toejE btad before he beLame 
poofj thcy p^e him bread. If rhey used co spoon-feed hiiii before he 
became frooj^ they ?jioon'f<:^ him. 'I'licse rules accord WLch whac is 
wri[i,cn i]i !^eripture, ^Vou thall open your hand co [he poor person and 
l^rovide l^irt^ ^iirfi*:ieni far hi^n^, whacker jrniiiv Jh^WDc-lii- 15-S). 
Thi^ rcferi 10 providing fvfn ii stjveara horse if thi^ Lsdeetvted his 
standard of living- ' for his ncod' (Dcut 15:8) -this nsltrs to pr-oviding 
him with a wife, ai it is written in Stripiurc, *Thcn tht Lord God snidn 



It is tiot go4Kl tlisit thcr uiui stiDiildbc ^one. I wA\ m^ke^ helper fbf lij^ 
need' (Gen- 2:18), 

T4:ll ^[fapcwrpcrscn] was used co usifig golden aremjlche mu^iij^li 
thcm^ and usc5Jlvcr ones. |lf he was used i^] silver urejisJls^ h? LT"U?t tdl 
them, and use brass ones. Ilf he^^s used 10 brsis ucensils, he mu$c scJl 
them and usc^ass ones. They cold fche folloftviiigiiorf^]- A f5.milv from 
6cc Ncbaliah was [visjting^l m jerii^-^km, Vh-^y were related to rhc 
fcmjIynfAriion. rhe Jeh^i^iiTe [rh^rl-^^iheir family vfasimongrhc 
ongmjl Liiliabawiiuofjcrmakni], The sages scnnhcni dircf bundled 
gold jl^elia fi>r xU^ did not want them id (be forcN^d ro| leave 
Jcmnalcm [because of a lack of money]. 

T4rl2 '[As regards] onciMio ays, "fihalln&th^sLLppni'Eecihy nrhen"* 
-ihcy 3-crtoDiidcraicly [owar-d hiirii-and supponhim hy giving |ihb 
convcrtj a gift/ the ^T>rdi of Rabbi. But tbe saces say^ "Tlicy give |tlie 
poorpcjson money] as a gift^ and [when he refijses to rake flie [+L|jrii)r] 
they converc it co a. loan.' 

T 4rl3 lAsrcgardi] one who siy*/l cjnnot support myself- ihcyact 
consJderaKly inward him, aaid support hitn bv Kiving [this to him] [as a 

Fin^lly^ (he hjl^^Khuh ddjilcs who ]s poffin and specifics the niEnimum 

ainoiinr ofcrapiral iliji m^kcs a bt>ii5chold?iinf liable fm puWicsuupofioui" 
of God!s ihit^yf ^}Lc ^^ypr 

M_ S:R ^X'Tiofver hus ™tj nuridre^l zuz |in lit|uid assets] may no: collecr 
gie^nir^, fotgotreii sheaves, pc ah^ or poorman s tiihe. If he had rwo 
hundmJ [lui] Jesi one dinar |hf had one bundled ind nin^ry-iiiii^ 7-ti?], 
crvtti if one Ehoiiiarid [houjchdders rach are abouE [n] give him loiic 
dinar], all at the same cimCn io-, ihas man may col!tet EproduCi: dcsig- 
ciated fc>r the poor, because ai ihc moment he raltes charity- he "has less 
chan two hundred y.uj"!- [If h*^ Kad two hiindnxl tuz thatsn^r^l as] 
collateril frhf a Cfc-editrtf, Oi fft^ hi% wifc's marriage contract. In, ihis man 
maycollecc [prodi-LC dcslgiiatpcd fortJie poor since thi=^ money isnoi 
availahleJorhi-iUiel^Theymay not compel him to sell his house nor 
cheiool^ lof his tride in order that be m]ghc hav-c hvo hundred zuz]. 

M- 8^^ WllE^w has [o*^It1 filty zuz, yel conduciE business wiih them, 
fcx ihis man may nottollca Ip^jducc designated ]cir the poor]. And 
anyone "^vhci doet not need to eo]]-rct |such pjoduce] bu^ [nevertheless j 
wjJlcLts [it] wi]l not depart fmm ihis ^orld before he in fact depetidson 
ether people. And any man who ls noc lame^ dunibj ot hai^diuppctl. 


bui pr^Lcndf eo be will nc?i die: enfold a^bcf-orc lie acEuaily his-^uch [an 

itijur^T. Ajid aa^^ojie ^ho needs co coLlecL [such piodiicej hiii does not 
colleci: |ji| wjil iior die of old aoe before |he ls able] ro iuppurc odier^ 
trona [hjE whtcli belongs t4> KiJii Aiid ^virh i^ard co [bn^ in^n ScripcLir^ 
itneSj 'Rkssed is cl« niiii who ff-usrs in ilie lj>rd, wliost crusr i-s cKe 
b>r[i^Ot^E- 17:7)- Atfcd joniudgj; who judges tor justice's ij^e |ii 
bkysedj. Ail ilk sTatal in Scrijirure, 'Jusritt aiid t^^l>' ju^Hcssh:^!] yov 
lijllow' (Dtur, 16:20), Buc any )uagc ipvhu aarpu n bribe, and -on m 
aaoum^n^ca hi? judgment, ^eJI hqi die iV^mold iLg? b?lorchif cm 
grow weak. As ji ls stat-cd [in ScrLpturcJ. '[And you 5ha[l akc no bribcj, 
for a bribe blinds cbeolfLcnals [and subvene tiui ca^ af d:ios£ who ar£ in 
[henghc^ (Eaod_33--S)_ 

T_ 4:15 CKaniy Mlleciors are no-c perniicced lo separ-aic che-it" o^^Ji 
money from [bar which chev collect for chartcy by' placing ihejj'o^n 
man^ m a ^eparare purstp kst ][ appear [hac [hey ^te^ for [henn^clvcs 
some of :he money rhcy Gaihcj" as charjcy Even if his friend paid hjni 
]Tioti^^ rhic he owed hlin, ei'en if lie foLind Jtione/ in ihe mad^ lie oiav 
nm Lake Li for bimself. For U is"wrmeii in Scripmrti "You ^fid I "be free of 
ubl^tioti before the Lord and Wok Tsrae-I" (Num. 3?;22}- Pu.t the^ 
may separate their own mtmry mjm that which they collect: fur ciLaiity 
jtchey ar^ CO 11k ring in a private eotircyard or within their own shop. 

T4j15 [As regards produce lh [he snatiii of| second Q[he- (1) they 

may noc use ir rt> repay loins or [ocl^erj debcSn {2} ihev jnay noi use it to 
repay favors rcctivcdn {3} ihcy may noc Ti5c ir ro ransom prisorKirSn 
(4) ihey may noi use it ro purchase groomsmen's gife, (5) and ihcy may 
jior give any pan of ir as chariiys flesc rhe poor person ca: ii wichoui 
observing rho pr-odiice's special sucm^l. Bur (1) [hey inay send part, ofii 
|to atiothsr) a^ an ate nf laving kindnea^, hit he musr infoi-m [the orher 
perion of the produce's ^tsiiii J, And [2] [hc>^[iijy gi>c it to^driicn 
whoisk^iywnicjitmplt: [Kg«dijig^ht pryptr di&j>erLis«iivnuf wntc- 
crated produce] as a favor 

T4:17 |Ifl one plcdj^^ to give {money m charityln and chcn gave |rhis 
moneylfc ihey accord him merir [>oth ort aecounr ot pied^ng [ro gi^^el 
and on accounc of aerially [givingl. [If] he piedged [o give [money rci 
ehai-ifyl, but then, |wh-en ihe [mic came to pay his pledjje, he] Jio 
[longer] had enough [ca^h] in hand ro give |[hc ainouni [har he had 
ple^lged] chey accord him men: on accouni oFpledelne [:o give] |use as 
|rhey would hav* accorded him} mcjLC on account of accualiy [eivLngl. 
Jf he Jid nor pled^ |cogive money i^ cliariryl but sajd no arher people, 
'Giver they jccflid him mctir on ^^co>ijnt 4>f rht^ ^^ ic is^r^ti^ |in 
Scrapmrr^j/.-- gtidiur litis ^'ordf ch^; Lord will l>Eess}^n {[>cut. 15:1 D)- 



[li] he did tioc say tft nther neoplej ^Givel' hm pliced [a. p^>or p^rsnn'i 
niindl it Ci^; with kind w-ordi, itfsym wh&c Iwrse an&j wcd<?fivi;i that he 
should be ^ttoicied metLi? Uissiai^ [in ScriptLire]> ^-- jnd for this 

wofd |],e., the LiM n/oMs ip^tfrt i<> ik pfK>r rtianj <ht? LoikI i^ill ble^ 

Tr4: 19 Charity and rightc<jus d«rdi outweigh ail <jchcr ctunirundmcrLls 

in the Torah. NcvcrthclcES-, charicy [can bcgLvcn only to tht) living, bim 
nghtcous dccd& [can be pcrtomicd to-r ihc] living and rhcdcad. Charity 
[ii given oal^l to che poor people^ bin ngh[eoii5 deeds [arc done for 
bM}[h] prror and rich people- CiharLcy |j£ civeai aa jn aid for a poor 
pcrK^nj] fLnanccs. hut cighico UJ JccJs [aid both a poor per»n^s] 
Bnancie^ aiitj hi ^ phy^KZ.^] needs. 

T4.20 Siid R. Jofihui h. Qorhi, Trom s^^hich. |verte] jnay ive derj\e [he 
Eact ili»an;yon< who lofe:^ fight [i^ftlie inpnndrLi:^ of giving] charity Ik 
viewed) ^^ if he worshipi^ed idnLir>^ Ir i^ srared [in ^fnpTiife]j *Tflke 
heed Itst there he a bi^se thought In your heart, and y<y\,i suv, rht icventh 
ytar^ th<r ycjr<jj rclcjsc, i^ iitat^ ar]d ymn tyc l>c hobtilt: t^^ y^^ui poor 
brochcr^ and y<>u give liim nothing" Deut J^:9). And elsewhere 
|Scrip[jrc] staccs, ''If you hear ... thattcTiain base men have gone our 
among you-, ... saying. Let us go and serve other gods^ ... you ihall 
surely pQi rhe ijihabJEUits of that city eo Ehe sivord, descrojing ir 
uttcrl^r.'^IIJcLit I3;I2-I^}_ Jlis[45 tn iKc Wet c^sc %i5C^' eiplidtly 
c^fcr? cci idolatrous ^vonthip, m too in the former ta^ ^Tiase" refers to 
l^nieEbing deemed equiv^ki^t lo| idobtfous war^hjp.' 

Theh^Ah4lidi^iinguLshesbecweenliqaEd^set$1ajh,or'c^pii9]')and maic- 

rial provLjions- If a.t the momenc at whu^h he cor^c^mpbief taking cliaH ry^ 
someonehstsrw<ihijiidrtd-njr-- whldi ls the sum i virgin at marn^ recdves 
fur Euppori should she bedivorced later on and the arnount a^s un^td w pro- 
vide minimal nrrdf fur a year - that pciwn rw^y nut bcncfrl from gleanings h 

forEoiKn sheaves, pe'ihi ox poormans tinhe. That is a formal liJDi:. As is :hc 
way of :he law^ subsidiary tase^ co-mc up. Whac if someone has nvo hundred 
'un.^ hut die mojicy is dciignaicd as collateral: Then he may rake food reserved 
fnr thi^ pftonihi^ m^nfy is lun avajlahle. And still tnore jniporiiciL. theprtir 

mjy not bt^ stripped nfatlihcirposicssfconi in order to !>a;omt eligible for llwd 
jisiswn€:e- They ^re nw required to ^el] theii residence^ cheir tools^ otr th^ir 
clothing. These do not ejiier into :he calLuta.[LO]~L of whether otr not rhey are 
cla^^ified aj worthy for food- 

lo be ^upporicd iniccorj-wiih ibtdjgni[yih.iiLiOwLr^toihcn].Th.cyarcnot 
to be trcate^i with dizain but wirh hcnoir The Talmud of rhe Land or Israel 
sets forth an anal^'Sit oJ^^'hat is required in that connection: 



[¥. iVah 8:3 liA] A family train Bci Ktbutah was |visitjjhg| in 
Jerus^le-jn. "I'hcy were rel3.rcd to the family of Anxtirij the Jcfcuiitc [d^ac 
meanfin (heir family ^^vas among the ori^nal ]n1i^h;irit^ C]fJct-u5.lleiTi|r 
The aagciitni ihcm ihrcc hundred (alrncs otgold^ far (hvydid riOt 
w^iuEhcm 10 [be forced m] Leave Jerusalem [ducioa lack of money] (T 
P?Vh 4^] IJ. Thiswai because ih-ey ijHcrprcccd -Dcut. 14:2B— 2^^ 
double use afVLcSiiji your senlcmcriB/ as foliows]: '[Every third veAr 
^u ilijll hting nur the iiill cirhe oFyour i^Lcld of li^a: virar bjt leave i:] 
within vuiirseidetTient^- ITlien cKe LeviK^ "whn lia_t no hereditary 
portion as yiju have, and ih^; sriangtr, llie fochei't^^^, aJld ih^ widow] ill 
Vouiserdcmenii (shall come and cat thdr GIJ ...1' (Dcui- 14:29). IThe^e 
phrases impiv rhat rhc femily should be supported while tntilj in 

tl. And has It not been stitcdonTinnaitk aiithLiricjj 'Hlllel the elder 
cpnci^gavcT&a cerrain pecrper^on^amiiiTiber 0F5. go^MJ familyn ^ Kot-^e 
for die man ro ride foi eierd^e, afid a slave to be the mjn'jser^imt' [T. 
I^'ah -i. 10i)_ Likewisei "I he people of Galilee each tkay wouW w^nd to a. 
ceriJJn old man 1 pound ol meac [aceording h> the wcighti used in] 
Sepphorjfi' CT- Pe^ah^^lOb). 

C Now k it ptM^iblf [thar [H^nr people would be supported so 

L>. YcSt because this poor man never ate aloJic in his endit life, l^o he 
required enough to share ^ith hii compatrLotsl. 

t. IihasbceD [aQ_ght |in chc Toscftj]: jlfa pourp«rsori| wai accus- 
tomed to using go Idcnuccnsilsj he musi scl i ih-ciDi anil use silver ones. 
[If he wai aecusTc^m^:d :d) silver utensils, he must sell dicrn., a.dd ust 
ht^\^ onei_ flf he %^as accLLSit>med col brass UTcnsilsn he mrust sell them 
and use gl^^sojies (T_ Pe'ah ^:11 ). 

E Said R. Mana^ "iThpsrofrr^even cohi^selhr^ his fancy stuff and 
EpLirchasing] aiiver or glstsi pcrHinitl uicnsils/ 

G. Que is it nor stated on Tannaitic authority, |lf I he ij5c<l t^i ^ei^r fine 
wool [before he bceame poor], they supply him with (cloth^ii or | rine 

wool [If he used to rtxeivc] a coin La5 j s^iljry hchjrt; lie Hecinie poor], 
chc/ gi^T him a co-in. [iFhcuAsd cowl] duu^b Ibeforehc became poorjj 
the^ghT him dough. Ilfheused [0 s:ai] bread Ibtfurc he hccjmcpoor]^ 
chcvcLvc him brc^. |lf ihcy iisedl tosfwon tetd him [bclbrc he hodime 
pooT]fc they spoon teed hi ml 41. Pe'ah 4:10}^ 



H- [The cwo pas^gs do nocconii'adLCT one amoctier.) Fo^ the former 
pass?^, [directing rhcpoor perjcm to .^aiLi^com liidlsclf fu a luwcr 
^c:4nd:trdoHivin^, refers noi u hk p^f ^c^ii jl i^o^^sj^^ru, Ibui (tjctiai 

yfc'hidi he nccda for his work). Bucchelatrerpaswgc, [which ^iCaica thic 
the poorpcfion musi receive is^i^rance ar the Ic^t:1 ta which he ia accua- 
rflmcd]^ refers ro possessions ihai ^^ of J pers>nal natujc, [such k his 
clothes and the like] . [R. M^nj's |>y5itbn remains at vanance with this 

rheps^age ui>dcrs«nrb thesvaj' in which adialeccical arcuinenr illutriinates 
thesevetj] put-siblc posltaonsand nicdjaKs amojig chetn. But iKtn: is riowrti- 
pfOitiiit when It comes to deception^ chehaJaLiiah t jW ^try icriously Indeed 
any Fraud in. connecEEon with ihtLisj? of phjknchfopie Turid^-JijiiF as rh^ crops 
jnd morwy belong to God and are shared hy him with iho^ fyr w|(uiTl he ha? 
ipctaal tonccrn, so the deceiver from God and v/[ll ultirti,itt]y he Dun- 
islied byJiimfcr his dccci:. 

^fiy dOcs the halakhah assjgn so high a siccus nj rht p^or^ The pour arc 
iLSJumcd to oivn no land and eo be uaable to r^kt ait of rhrmsclvc^. The 
uji-eniandisedi for cKample, rhe traveler^ and flic dis-tnlLuidtbed - rhose who 
have had m sell chcjilaad ro mppon thertisclvcs - then enter inro ihcirown 
framework of inreracuon wlrh God: different from chc fiouseholderi, a.iid 
htlhw ihail [ TTiar i^ IwcSuse, unlikr chc householder, rhcy c^n nothing 
iiod posstii i]uthing in rhc Land, BiLC among rhe ^affidoi^ c^ta, tht poor 
reach tJie piiirinie: they not cml^ do not possess aporricin jn rhe Landhbut the 
very food th^f the L:iTid yields to checn icsclfbcarsna marks of irtdivLdai^J own- 
ership Tnty a<> nut tvA'n even ivhat they e^r - and cbey also do i^oe worry. 
They enitwdyihjT purity, rbitaLiTonoiny ft\>m all posseKJons, char rciak^j^ 
sibJe i\\t higlieir forrn i>f tiiich, thii signified by not worrj^m^ ahoui what 
tomort^w will bring. As EJiezcr b. HyFcanus says^ 'WhcNrver has a piece of 
bread in his>std]ccand saysn "Whacs-ball 1 ea no morrow^"* isonly otie of those 
of little r^ith' (Bavii Soiali 48a); and as Hillel says: 

U_ They saidmntcriiing Shammai the elder cha: dl of d^eda^'sof his: 
IlifeJ he wouldeat widiancyc tochchonorof rhc l^abbaEh. 

C- [If] he ft^urid a fine inimal^ he would say 'I'his is for the Sitbbadli^ 

D- flfj ne found a diTrcrcnt animal h finer chan the firsi, he^^^uld put 
l^jd^ rhe ^^CiOrid ffincr one ror the Sabt>adi] and would imjiiedjatelyl 

eat the li [it. 

£. But HiJ]c:[ ihc either hid a different nKaiu 


AMONG T H E rrtlTHrUL llll 
G, as it IS writwo (Ps- 68J!)j/Bkssed be ihc Lordda^ by di^-/ 

None inoK rhan ihc landless poor find^ moifp ample gmuinds to hira God da/ 
by day. Wichin iihc hakkhic rhcaryp [hnn ib ilit pcrfctt faiih rhar GlkI pm- 
videSi b}^ reason of the obedient chiractcr of hoi)- Jt-ratlj Jind wliat cw;rvojie 
iie^ds The poor place Lheirbftpein God, confidcaEof ihcirshar-c in the scsirce 
rciOurtft nudca^ajLableto die Israelite sociaJ order by reason of Gods o^vrcr- 
ship of all ihiUgSr So til i: poor em hocy \ n chejr lives thai perfcci rrus: in GoJ 
thsLtall IsTntc:] 'Owcs^ )L4.^t a^ rlit; prie.s[liood and [keLevjc^sr^jzem [tieconduet 
of (hdr lives ttiaici^ure^HCfLficauflflrl^acaUEst'ad ls nieam m arrain- In th^ 
haJ-akliah of Pc'ah wc sec how ihe [heolc^ical vircuc of faiih - iLc ptx?r 
^cknoutcdgingG^'^ [«li^biliry» iht rich ^nd enhndiscd God'^o^nciship- 
finds articiulacion irt the Ijnd acid th-t di^Lx^siiion of ics benefice among those 
thit poiicsi and those diar do not pOiS[;si lind 


The reach jng 3 on chjrit^ area profound ircflfcuon of overall hIamEC Mcial a[[i- 
cudc^. Tlicy ^[EectLvely tiun^tcini iht poor from mai^nalizcd ouicaata into 
people wurtlly of concern, and ac [he sitne utne, opportunities ro tarn spirt- 
cual reward. In rbe ptrxtsSj tlw^sf ^vho take advantajjeof [hose opporciinitLcs 
'ATC laeLpicig CO Creole ^hekEnd of socier)' Islun clea.rly envisions: one ia^hicti 
there w]1l no loi^^r he tko^e in i^ed of^ charitable danacEDns. Tlits view i5 

Abu Huraira repot ttid Albhi Mcnscn^ fni^y peace be upon him) a* 
saying: The Last Hour \^n[[ not come befijre weal fh becomes ahund am 

and o^crfltjwing, so much 50 that 3 man takct z^kat tnjt of his propeity 

atid cannot find ajiyone lo^ceept ic from htm, and till the land oj 

Aplbiil btcotiies ni^adov^s and rLvers/ 


'The poor wl-lrt^ve^iii^e fffti'n d^^ LatidVlJ^uL 15 4) is ho^v Mos^:* puty the 
same thought- Boih Judaism and Islam, Mosk and MLihaniiiiadH make provi- 
Wii (or ihc piX^t ij^ a criuc^l conipontnt of rbcir design for ^hc ^oeiil order 

God tail acrttpi, 
Judaism ccincurf in the Idariie in&i^cence diar che poor have jusc claims on 

society, so thatphiljinthropj'i^ noivoTivebucnbiagacory. Not onlyaOn butiocj- 
ery must so organize Icself that the puor -arc pruvid-td tor. Nor is the 4:onditlon 
ofpos'crcyd&cnicda disgra<.corcKpWcdby rd^rence LO the sini orfaduttsof 



cht pooJ" i^fsoi^- ^A fisli-lioolij fioc J fisli' would caprur^ che social policy of 
Judaism. iTihere is a dilTif r^rLc:^ hetween Iflajii and Juckism in tlic marrcr of 
aJtriggiving arid chstiry^ ic is not m che Ki^c coannijcmcn: la die poor. Boih 
conciKtKrlc^|U$C!OCi^ will ni^ilre njiiple ptrnvisinti Fo:^ chel^s^uccesivful, and 

neirher x^u-uld siaurd lu diuie cli^r ]}0^^ii ivealih die ri&hi. of urij^incced 


Judaism, God and the householder form a partnership, an<l the ho^ii^eKolder js 

the steward and rriisccc? he possesses and controJi, but he does not own oat- 
righin and therefore he Isans^ivcrBblc. On diis Islam Loncjrs. So the compad- 
sonand conrr^sr yield many compariscHDSH but Ecw conrrasts. 





Sodeiies 5ei ilicir own bounds anddictatt who is inside and who out- How a 
legal svitcm It-glilatcs ttinctfllLiig tli^ outsider - cha: other who (alls beyond 
[hc^ocia] world that rcacheieKpre^^ioM wtchin the i^cem -reveals rhcsysKms 
decpcstconvjairns abokii itricir The bv^s I hiiitmbody iliosec^^ 
alize fhe SfOrv ilie pirtLeipancs cell chcmselvcs about their group. Being 
rdi^ioListurnmunitie^liorhJiiiiaLsmardLslarnfard Christianity) c^^ 
'ihcoriicr t3 defined by unbelitf. The fajthfiil - Judii^5 Israel' formed at 
^inai by rhose xvho declare W shall do and wc shall ohe/ aaid eonrmiied by 
char dciecndams- consdcuic holy hwitl (noi mbe ctftifustd mch [he cor- 
rempnraiY-'iiacc of Isra-cl L^r ihi: Jtnvibh ethnic groups bc^h flfwh^h deftnf 
rhcLmicl^es in suculii caweoriizs). Islam is formed uf those who submat w 
Godiv^illrTlieoLHSLdei by diacdcfinicLon only is the inlidcL 'Ncjt-Iir^tr (tht 
Gentiles, undiffttentiated) then corresponds to 'rhc infidels [also undlftcren- 
tiaccdr&irnQscpuf70s«K OrhermwHaofi^t^flTi^rhnli^^^^ economie^iand- 
ingi culruraJ qualEiifs, nor ro mcntitm gender, gcograpliy, ^nd polirtcs, make 
J¥0 di.ffer-enccai^ll'-andthc rhcolcw^'wiil always [nakecsplicii ihiLSueh \xi^i' 
tcrs arc insigrificant.'^'liaf marks a religious sysiein as religious and 
caia rhcn^ are rKc criterLa that the flysrejn selects to indicacc who belongs and 
who does not. The law then realizes the theology - at thiimcHc criEical point 

i ho wall. 

Whar, dien, the law cakes to require Iti^attertLOi^- rhe coptLal pro^rai-fin liic 

range of problems to be solved - telli US Libour rhe crirical cnmrnirn-itntsthit 
anin^acc dia: law. Judaism calls die faithliiL 'Isratf az j gryup. i^tid ^Uraelitcs' as 
inJividxLiilsj jnJ endows rhe ^ithfui with i genealogy beginning i^'itn Abra- 
ham and Sarah, whotn God ailed lo his ssrvice aiid idcmiFicd as the Eirsi 
bclirver^ Wl^oem accepts iht^Torah (alio ailed 'iudaiiiTi')[bcn bc^ijmcftpin 



ofasacrcdiiory (il-eiwrd 'history" docs not apply) a_nd gi transformed Jnioa 

jMmdpamin th^isicory cm a pJart of eternity, "^"ha: of the jKui-lsraelke, tht 

CiLiiSider? TliKi ire C^lli^d 'Gcfllclcs^ mean cng sun ply , cvcjyone^ho doesiiw 

tnowrh-eonetr»eGod andthcrcforcbcbngiolsracLihcpcopleof rhefajth- 
fioliachacoiTLt anJonly, revealed Cod. 

And who mighc thac ouisidcr \xi Jhc oucsjder is so indicared hy a -single 
m^rt:: ftjecriun <?f Gwl in l^vor of idok 'Jhe c1ass]CJ:l law of Judi^i^m tl-efiii-cs 
th^ i>tncr as an idolaiizr^ and \l dcfints ^m tn relai]on_qh[p to 'ihc ^jdier' as ^h- 
racl/mc3ninp,rhos€ who tnowTWirft"ship. and obey iHt one and c^^ 
^rc^[-cd hc^^cn and e^ruh. 

In Islamk law, on die orhef lund/us - if wc ujid^riand by the lerm rhtuse 
whn share che rights in^ set ouc in our legal system - mcJudes 
chosE who hivt declared themsclv-es iMuslim, bui rakci inro consideradon is 
well Jews and Chmriarn^yincc rfwy arc alio believe r5 \n Th^ one Grtd, indill 
those for whom wchjvgpledgRlixiponiibihcyf^i^im-Wr^fijprtgar^^^ 
Islain comes at <he rnd of a long history -of God s self manife^nation: itm u^ 
MnsesAnd Iscaeltthcn to Jesus andChristianiiy- Islam rcpjesents melf as lite 
filial and pernxr revelation. Hence 1: forms a rheory oFics pFedecKsor5^ who 
t^uvKs™ ihc (njih an part but who erred as welL h cake^an afi^^rtVLairive posi- 
tion toward Judaism and ChrijiLanJTy, recc^mngthiuheyhiaricJ in rhcclim 
ol" God's revelation fo prophets^ coming w tti climax in the seal ofprophecfr. 
ItscritiqucofJiidai^nir^L^pjrularesthat of Chfistiatiiity :-^vhat Moses brou^^ 
lo Israel, Jesiii, theti^ htingi to sti humsnitv. The upshot is that Islam (like 
ChnstiaiiLty] form^ i tlieor^ ^^'^^'y ^^^^^^ iri^af differcnciares its predecessor 
from iherestof human iiy, 3 theology of the g-cnealog>^ of monochcLsm, while 
JudaiiJii;, with noiliing mjcwH^i l^r "beyond ilKld has no rt^aran lo dc» SQ- 

The sources sec forch here focus vn haw Jutbism, and Islam define their 
respective comnnunities of the taithfiil and how each of them deals with die 
oLiTijJer:: the one who does not know God. That veiy SirmulaEio™ captun:s 
their common convitiion thai wp' arc a W- a community - bur 'the:/ aw 
mcrrely isokml iDd]~vidLLab. 


liy Judaism^ 'kraei' then ii defined entirely in lerms of rclij;i-on^ the holy 
people^ wlmm God singled out for the redemption of mankind, variously rep- 
resented in both dieWfitrejiandrhcOralTurihasan CKtcnd-wi holy ^mily, a 
people flr ri^iiot^ d^O^ft by Gcjti hjrbanthtifation andscrvicCpGods-comniii' 
nityand venueonearikOjitantunyinfoT Israel is Gentile. Gentiles worship 
idoh, Jj^nel worships the one, jnitjue God. Anodier is Adam: Israel ts A^an^!J 
couoretpjrt. fhe other ratxlcf for man. Israel cami: into cxiscence in the after- 
nuth oj the l^ilure of Creatitin v^iih the f^W -of man^ in [he restoration that 


fVfllo^^d the FlcK>d> God idttitified A"bfd-i&trL w found a supcrnarsirsl ^-^octaJ 

muridcyH j natiori jnd a peoplfci brael -abo^-e aJI focms God^s rt^ting place on 

earfh.ThisdefinirbnofTsrael cqnnut beironfii&rdwiThj.ny-^eL-ukrint'a.nir^ 

to t>tlicr Jiatwni orclhnicgrtmpa. [n itsbasiccxpusicjanof thcihcmcof idola- 
tiy, the iialakhih rests sqaarcEy on chc rotLndacicns of Sa"ip:Ljrc, supplying 

rulc5 and rrgulaiions that earn' out the fundamcnsl Scnprural command- 
mfUBibout disTreyirg idols ind ffvsrychj ng rhat hii tt^dc^y^ith idoJacry. Bur 
ihEihal^ahsofornidates m^rKr&ajiorransformEhefrLnre ropicofidolauy 

jn[o ^n ess^y ofL Lsnul^s rel^tioii^J^^p^ wUti [he Genule^j who arc ^doUicts by 


"^ffhac mafb l^r&dK the pmmij*<]fi portion in the wofld to-comt, whm 
thed^i^J hivebetft^abtidindjudgincTitk^ taken pUtCi hAh J then eternal life 
i^kti place "Who is oui h^ no .share, ^nd who U in, with ^iiicd fxccpiion^, 
dn«_ The hetr - and mo_si lelling - defiiniTion wi(hin \h^ h^lgkh^h ijf why 
J>elon^ w Israel is as fi>Jlows: 

M.llrl j\ll israclitci hn^vc a share in cheivor3d to comc^ as it Is said, 
jT?ur pMplcalsDstiall "be all ri^hirous, they shall inherit the land 
[^[cvcr the branch dmypi^iingi Lhc^v^rkcfmy hand^, ihar Lmay 
bcfiloriFi^^ flsi 60:21)_ And :hcM art the ernes Tvho hive no porrifij^j Ln 
rhe world co come" He wIk? tsy^j the resu-rreciion of ihe de^d ii a 
Lea[:hing which does not d^rlv-e Trorrnht Torjh, ind rhe Totih d«s nt>t 
Cfifrti Fr^frt "H^iV^n^drtdirt FpiCiirfart, 

T 12^9 They added lo die lisL ofihoj^ (who h^^'^ no porMt>n tn ihe 

wnrLd [ft corie| [M_ Sin 1 1:1 ]: he vKo breat^j che yoLe-+ violafei tUe 
covenant, misLnrerprtts rhe Torah ^ pro^oLinces tlit Divine Name i£ ]t es 
tpelkdoiir |M- S^^. ] 0:1C|, who- h^ven^ portion irlch^: world 1o 

T. 1,1:5 But hcr-cticjn apoitati:sT craitorsn EpicLircansT ihosc who dcnv :he 
Torahj those who separate from ihe ways oFche conimuniry, ihtfMe who 
deny the reiucreiziaon nf che dead, and whoever both suijied arid Caused 
the public TO £iti and thnse who S(?nt iheiir arrows jg^insT [he lurid uf the 

living 3itd £Ef£tch£4 out [heir hjnds again^L ihc hhv habitation' lihc 
Tetnplel, (iehenna j£ Ineked hehmd thtm^ ^nd they arc iudgcd therein 
for all generatii^ns, sijice ii \i\ s^id, 'An J i\i^y ^^h^ll go torch Aod look at 
[he corpses of ihe men who were iran^ressotr^ jgamst rnt^ for tliclr 
wofin dies noc^ and their ftw is not quenched- And thev shall fc* an 
abhnrringiinrft jl] flesh' [l^a. S6;24), Shcol will wasir away, but they 
will not wjstc awaj', fiji it is ivrittcnn 'and their form ahaJ] cause Shcol ro 
waste jivay IPs, 4^:14^, What nude th]s hap-pcn to them? BKiusc they 



^[rctcherd out d^eirhajid against ihe ^lofiy hahLcaiion/ as ]r i^ £^id, 
'Because of his IoFe}' h^biuEJonn and loii^ U.jbiL^LLori rL;i4;T> c^t^Iv t<> the 
Tcjnpl^H as jr is said, I have surely bujlr you. is 2. \oky habitations j plate 
ior you lo dwell in Eorcvcr (I Kgs S^15)- 

Besidft che specified classei of pet^an, individujJs ^re singled oui tor chIu- 
Mniis ckir sins having niirhgj ilsm inddiWy. 

M.llrJ Tiircc kii^-and four ordinary folU have no portjon in che 
"world to come. Three kin^r JcroboaniH Ahab, and Mana^seh. four 
ordinary EolL Balaamr Doeg^ AJiiiophelj and Ceh»i. 

So TOO, besides indivLdudsandpcrsomwhodo norafEimi xht c:riricjl ci>rnpo- 
ncREis of chf ^Lch^ parriccpanr^ lii enormouj, coll^c^v^ ^(ivicie^ of irebclliOJl 

againsc God do not rise from [he de^d uid scand in |udcmenL hut arc \\^i'^ L]1 
their gravels. 

W_l 1:3 The generation t>f the flood I115 no sKare in the wortd toromcn 
ind diey^iall noi fuaid csi ihe judgment, mce ir iiiwrimn. ^Myiipirir 
^all nor judge ifthh nnan forever' (Gen. 6:3) neither judgnicm nor 
spirit, TTlC ^enfi^Cion ol the dispersion has no share in chLcvmdd ro 
COmCn since it is said, 'So the Lord scattered th-cm abroad from there 
upon che &cc-of the v^holeea^dl' (Gen. 1 [:fl)_ ^io the Lord mattered 
ihcm abroad^ - in [his world, ^ar^ che Lotd K3uet^ chem frocJi there' 
- in [he world to conie The men of Sodoin have no portion in the 
■world m conic^ since ir is said^ 'Now rh-c jncn f?f !^odrtin were wi^:teif 
and sjnncc^ against ihsLtjrd tixcssdingly' {<^vi. 33:131 'Wick^iJ'- in 
(his wocldn '\nd ssnners' - in che^vor^d lo i:onie_ Biii il^cy will bigtid ira 
judgment Tht spies have no porcioji in che ^vofU CO [^►Ene, as n ]S said, 
^Eveji rhose m^n who hnihiighr up ^11 evil report of the kdcl died hy the 
pljgue beEbre the Lor^riKum, 14J7K 'Ditd'- In this worlds 'b> ihc 
l^lague" - in fhtf w<jrJJ to cocjw- 

J^.l Ji4 Thciov^n^Jblk^fan apostate town have no portion in iKe 

world to come, as jc is said, C^rcairi base fcrllnw^ [soa-S of BeLiai] haue 
gone out f[>3m rhe midst of cJiee and have drawai iwa^' the inhahitiritJi 
ofrhcJrcicy'lDeur. 13:14) And ihej- ^xenoipui Co death unle^i thtist 
who misled cht |town] come Fn>ir_ that j^ame ic^wn jihI froni thjt 5amc 
tribe, and unless rhe majority le misled, ind uailas jiien did rhe 
miikadingL |lf]wi^mcn or children milled rhemjofifamiiioriTyof rhc 
Eown was mjsied, or if rhose who nnsled [h? [i^wn 4;9me frgn^ Ou-I^adc; vf 
it, io, chey are [reared as individuals Un^J n4>M^j-^hok town], and ihc^ 
(rhiisl require Itescimon^- a^lnvt ihcm] by twjivitncsscs^ and a 
ft^i^n^entcl VF^Jtni^^ (breath and everyone o£ them. This rule js more 



iifjcr for JindivL duals than for the comm-unity: for individuali are put lo 
deach bv stoning. Therefore iheir property is sived_ Bat the coniniLinity 
Ls piiL TCI desEh hy ihe fwordn ihercfo-re iheir property Ei IfliL 

TJ4:1 Theydonm J^dawihroeio^'iiSTO Iw apcm^tc lowns iii die 
[jnd oflsrad, ^o^i noi lo wi pe oui sccdtmem \rnht Undofhrjcl. 
Bui they d^^d?.fc <>EK tfi^ twfl 1^0 b* apo^tiiEC t;iipRj, 

M. 1 1:5 "And yo\d ishafl surety smite tiic inhabitants of chc city with the 
edge- of the tword' iDcut. 1^: I?). Ais-drJverSn camd-ilrivcrsT and people 
paising iVoni place zo place - io chesc have the power ^o save lU ain it is 
^sid, 'D£.-^iJVhyingi[U[[Erly aivddl [hacisEhfr^jn^nd rhenaLdedi^r^i^r, 
wnh [he edge of die sword' (Dtm. 13^17). On [hi^bi-^Jiihey satdihc 
properly of rich Leo us folk whicK happens co he locaLed in h is lost. But 
that which isout^id^ of tE i£ saved. And 2s to Etiac of evil Tolk^ whedi^r lc 
is in rhe rown or nuLsideoti^ lo» it ls Iost. 

T-14:2 Atfi-dpiveRHCiniel-dfiverfl, indpeopkpj^^uig^ frntn pUce lo 

pljte fNi San 10:5B1 who ^peni iht nighi in its midsi jnd bcamc 
ApOiiait:wiih [ihc oihcriEjFiliK[<fwn|, arsputiodcaihb^thtswijrd- 
Ttcir property and tht to^^^n are pn>hib^red. And Lfthcy spent thirty 
days in the Tov-tIt they" are put to death by the s^'ord, and cheir pioptrty 
and the rown areprohibicci But if they did n&t spend chlrcy days in 
the cowOt while They pui no deiTh hy che sword^ their properry uid 
ch? co\i'n ifc perniitfed- Btir und^r ill ^ir^umsrince^ rhcvie wht kavt 
LncJied ihe [own Loapc^tari^areptiLLn de-^Lh hy snon ing^ And ihtir 
properr}' aaid rhe lown are ^HrohibEced. |lf] women and ehjldr-en enrjced 
the cownsFolk to apoira[i7.e, chey are puc tadeaih hy rhe swor-dn but 
cheir property and rhe rnwn ire permjcMd. Ilf] women enricied die 
popuijdon foapos(:jti7£5nd tfioT tn^ju children and not Hidtiics- isic 
possible that tnc town ihould be dc^^krcd jr ap>vtj.ce tt™-n? Scripture 
vayi. rheinhabitantiyfcharnswn (Dcuc 13^14)- the tnaner i^ dcra- 
niincd by the deeds oi the residents of chc town, and the cnaHcrh not 
determined hy the deeds of aLI stich sorts as che-se [ni, M_ San. llIk:4C -[|. 

Tl4^3 The minor children of [he re^jdenrs-cf an apostate city who 
apo^ratized with le are nocput r^de^ch. 

Tl4:4 The property of [he nghieoui which ii LndierowiiiG lose, hiic 
rhaL which [i ours idt of le ifs^ved. And ihaiof Eh^ wicked, whed^erjn ii 
ar outside oFle, js lost [M. San. 10-^D-E|. 

T.14;5 Iftherc Wert haly things in ir^ things rhat ha^-t bren tonaetrated 
wr ikieon the alur arc left to die J thin^ T^hLch are toniccjatcd (or ihe 


upkeep cifihc Temple bu3ldingiirCToheredMmedLliea.vt Dficringlclt 

[herein is aJI-[mcd W rol^ ictyjid litli? rtJtd Jacred ^a-olls arc hidden 

M-.lhfi [Ai tt Lssa-idJ 'And you ibal] gicLer all rliesp^^il ofic Lncoihe 
mitLw of :he widcpkce cficrcor [Dcuc- 1^:17)- If if ihas 3W wide plaoe, 
rh^ mjke a "^vide place far l(- [li] icssvide plate Lb <juliia* c>t LJ^ ih^ 
bring ii m^ide- 'And you will bum wiih fire ihc dcj' and all [he^poil 
ihtrtuf, [ever whi[, un m rhe "Lord your God)' (Deui. l3;l'^)/'rTit spoil 
ihereor — biiL RVl tl^C ip<>il which belongs lo Heaven. On this basis 
they j-iavcsaad: thin^-whidi liav^ bten consecrared which arc in ir arc 
ic he Ledeemcd:hrave otfcnng Idt theKiji i£ allowed m roi; sccojid 
tLchc and sacred, scrolls arc hidden flWniy ^And chere shall cleave nau^t 
ofthc dewncd things to your Kajid |tliJT che [-fijd Jnay turn from :hc 
fif r^^n^5£ of his anger andshaw ynu mercy land have cthmpasij on upon 
youuid multiply youl' fDcut. 1 3: 1 8) fi-jr^sol-nng as evd people are in 
the world, Fierce anger is in ihc ivorld, "^licn die evil people have- 
perjjhed from ihe ^'orldn fier-cc angci dtpartj frrirts rhe ^vorld. 

So nmdi l^>^ iIil: generaJ theory of chc manerof ^vhabclan^ to th^c Israel ihac 
is constituted by those whft^ after dearhnTvljl rise from the grave, -Stand iTb]ailg- 
jnem, and enter intocctttial l=iEe-:iiidwhci belonj^ pcrpcrjall}^ lo the grave. 
The W of Judaism i^? eompri-^^ hy rhe^5e svlio will live forever, the 'rhcy' is 
niadeupof LhcM who arc destined tftd it- 
Bur hfl^ lo deal wilh Ur^I'^ who iin? Do dicy iose ihcir 'portion in the 
world CO come/ mcatiine, etefnal life? Thjs definition of Israel leaves op^-n a 
critical issue: whnitiis rhe status of thosie who, in th^ lifcn have sinned and bccti 
punished - the rnuiclercr, foe" insunee? What ij cnc fate or :hc Israelite sinner 
aFrer death? The most profouj^dqises lion facing Israelite thinners ctjncerns the 
face of the fiiaelite at the liandsof thf p^rfedy jllfir ind prftfr^LindLv ryicrcilTil 
God- E^wndil m their ihoughi it. ihc ci>nvit[iun that alkre^Lurei aie answer- 
able io [heir Creator, and absolutely tfiticil m their sysicm as the face ihai ai 
[hcerid c>rdays che dead arc raised m etcrna] life; the Criminal jtisnee system 
thus encompissei deep rfioughc on the interplay between God^ iLiSflcc :jnd 
GckI's nicrt.7: Kcnw 3fe these reconctled an the caic oFche sinner orcriminaJf 

*K1thin Israeli wjcial ordct th^ h^klthah addresses from a theological per- 
speetive the pro+oand qucsrbit of social justiee: what sLail we make of the 
Israehte sinner or crimitial^ SjWc'ifiiillv, dM.-; ihc fitn or erimCn which has 
estranged the individual from (iod. elftse the doorra lilreTcrnalf If ]t doci^ 
chcnjustitcisimplri-uibicantl perfect- If 3r does nou then God ihowshjs mercy 
- but ^vhatoF justice^ Wc can uridersijnd the ansvF'cr only ifwc keep eh mind 
cha: rlic halakhah talies for granted the resurrecciotinf [he dcadnihe tinal|Ljdg- 
rnent, and the life of the worid co come beyond the grave From thic per-spee- 
tjvtj death b^eoines an evcni in life but not its end. And^ it must iollown die 



death j^cnaltv' too docs noc imrk ihc ucter annLhikcion of iIil^ person o( die 
sinner or criminal. On ihc toairary. because he piys foi his crjine or stn in ihts 
lifcn he situates Kiniscif svnh all opThc rcsc of su-pcmarural Israel^ ready for :he 
final judgmcni. Having hctn judgcdn he will 'scand lii judgmciii,' meanLiig^nhe 
will find hi5 way lo ihe life of the world [o conic aloiif; wirh c^'eiyoiie die, 
Wiihii^diedidlwciii-h formed hiytho^lwftf^c(4-puili*^^rt^^^ life 

breroji- u^fidentily asi:rLiEalihe iwftpai^jge& in ihc halikhdhufSaiibed- 
rir-MakkniiM. Sjr^kdrinft,2jnd lO:l-.^chanpayuk4uprtmt:pcnEili)'but 
secures his plac<: id the worJd tu ccjmcj all Isiaclj w^dnjnlya trw cKccpcEons^ i& 
^tngto h^ajid in judgment and cnccrdicvp^^rld ed comc^ c:^licidy incliid]ng 
all manner of criminaJs and ^nncrs. 

That is "A'hai defines die siak^s in chis crivjejl eoj^panenc oi [he ^j^' 
aecouncofGods abode inisrajrL Wkac ihelialakliih wishes eo explore iSnlicw^ 
is the Isnchtc iinner ormmind rehabiiTaKdn through rhe^fircijnd ju^tict 
syitcm, 5oa5 rorcfoin Israel in all its cccrniTy? l"hc answer l^^ [hecrtminilor 
sinner remains IsracL[c, nomsmrr^haL he docs-e^^en Ehough he^ins-^nd 
the deadi pcnalt^^ is ciacrcd by ihc canhly courc. So chch^lakhahnf.Sajihedrta 
emhodies ihe^e r^ligLiius principles: (1) -Israel endurei forever. eiH^c^mpai'^irtg 
^nearly) all Isj-iellLesj (2] sinnets Qt crtniinals ire able to rctdin dicir poiition 
within tharecerrial Israel hyt^isonorthe peniUies that expiate tlic specific sir^s 
or critnes spelled oii^ by tnt halskhali^ {3Ht ii an act of mcrciliil justice that is 
donei^henthcsinncroFcriniindispiJCEodMdiHforatthit point he t&a£surc?d 
of cccmity along, wcihcvcryoicdsf. God's justice comes tofiJ] eKpreasJonin 
di^ pcnaJiyi >vhich is instrumenL^l and coniingenc; ^od's mercy endute^ foi- 
ever in ihc f&retveness nhac follows expiation of tuilr through the JjrLpo^itJon 
of chc penalty. 

Tha: explains vAiy chc governing religious- prineiple-of SantiedTin'Makkor is 
the perfeei, nnercifij] jusneeof-Godn and iEaceounr^Eor die detailed expo$il-ion 
tjf the corrKt form oi rhc e^it^l peridi^'for tiih ^pii^ tin of efitvie. The 
thji, iicherauriecrJon^iwJthiciadgjnffit, thttrlnic wJI have been cunrctl^- 
e^pi3tedrBecau^iheh;3JAkli.-^li rem on the pirrtiitc that Ctnl is just and thac 
Godha3Creat<:d hiirnanity in hi^ image, altcj his likeness, chc ha^akhah can nor 
de^m sufticirnt that the piinishmeni: fit ihe crime. Ra-Eher, given jes premisejj, 
the halakhah miisi pursue the i^sue, whac of rhc sinner or^ee he has heen pun- 
]5hed? And rhe enure consEructian ofrlne coniEnLLOuf e\.po£i[ian af^anhed- 
rin-Makte>r aims ^r leaking this ^Lmpt^ fur^menr. rh^ cfii^mjl^ li^ God'^ 
image, alicr God's likeness, paysthejienalry for hisensiiein thii^^orldbul like 
the r?s4ofLs]^elwjlhiandLn|UfLL(cindirLhabili[£EedHWjlkiijoy [heworldii^ 

Aeeardjndyi eiven cheir eonvktian chac all Isr^Lel po^^esses ^ $ti^re in the 
^oild TO come, meajiingj nearly everyhody will nse frorrt the grave, thti-agcs 
ron-ka-srheirEa^kchej|>edpLCJciofi o^ hoi^, in this w^rld, t:rsmjjiaii ajidilnncr^ 
would receive appropriate puLUikntcnt lh a pfupcj prtuxxlure, so that, in the 


ivoddiocomc", rhcy wouM rafcc their place along wicli everyone die in ihe res- 
urT^[!t>n jnd clcrniil lifc ^ ib^ reJi^O"S pri^dple Jiar i;ames m eapressjcui 

mSan^cd^m-MakkmLc^^«ms themeinirLg[>riu3n'sb?ing]ti ^itMd'i jmage- 
Thai: mKiii5, it is in man's nature to surpass the ^ive And hmv. C;^}d being 
jiisi^dcurs rhc- 5Jnncr or crimind iuivive hii sin or crime? Ir ds by pa.yingwich 
his life in rhc here and. nov/y so that at rhc rc^urrc^-t^on^ he m^y nigr^iii li&* 
iJongwLch all Israel flvai ]£ why the climactic m^jmoit itl the: hakUiich OOi^^ 
ii[heendohhc longcaialogocoFthosc sins and crimci penalized v^iih capital 
punJsbmenL kJEwiihaniplcixasondiarEhcBivliplscc^at [taca?ncltisiijn jnd 
c^iiTha^ 4>f iT^ v^f^i^^n chf nngLnt declaration^ "all Israel has a ponion in ihc 
iwrld t(jC0TncjCX[;cp( --. ' And clie etc^piLoaig, ig we have seen in qui precis 
ofthchiiakhahH pointedly do noE include uiy oFiIkim listed in the l^ngcita- 
logun of persons c:cccLitcd n>r &ini or crimes. 

Tharthc twxNrcligloLis principles iu5t now specified pLyacricical mleiti ifie 
fermtiktion and prL^miLtion afilie halakhali orSanliedfin-MatJunij made 
cxpliciclnthccontcirtiflt^lcApoiiiioiiiihrlf- The riie of stoning involves an 
admonition rhatcRplidrlydcdare^ the dmh penalty rhet^^^ 
alltrimcs and sin3> leaving the criminal blameless and welcort^e itito rhe Ung- 
dom of Hcavrn: 

A_ [when] he was Lcn mihjrs from ihe place orsconing, they say to 
hiiTL, ^CoiifesJi' for |[ Ls usLia] for [hose abouT lo be put to death to 

B. F^rwhwvec WldRs^^hatathfl(?intk^orftilOWlVle- 
C. Far M> wr fiffcd -co [teeming Achittn en whom Joshua jaLd, *My son^ I 
pr-ayyou,givcgJorj t<j tlwLods tlie<iod oHsrael, and confess tq hun, 
latid tell tnc now what >'Oti hive-done^ hide ic nor frism nie-1 And 
Achan ani^'cred Joshua and saca, 'Tmly havf ] ^]Atifd a^iii&( iHf Lfltflj 
die Cfld of Israi^L and [husaiid [hiLElhav-cdune'(Joih. 7:19K Andhoi^ 
do "we know ihar h L3 confcssj-tjn achieved aEoncmenl Jbrtiim^ for itis 
saidf ^And Joshua siidp Wliv ha^^e you troublrd \js? The Lord^vill 
ctoubte you ihi^ diV (Josli- 7:2^) - This day you will be Tmubledn but 
y^uwilJ not be troubled in ihe woi^ oo c^me. 

D. And if Jicducs not know liow t<i conless, they sjiy [ft him. 'Say as 
foJlows: "1 j< iny dcitb Ijeiiortfi^eiHtiVpfill^fiwytfafisjf^ifiJinfi/' 

So wlchln rhc very center of the h^laldiic exposition comes tlie theological 
prinelpic that chedeaih pcnalry opens the w^y lor Life eternal. Ir-lb]l<iws that at 
staliLe in die rxaecatc SaDhcxIfin-Makkot Is a systemadc dcmonstratLon or how 



God mercifulty tmposes justice upcn^inncr^ and criminals, and aTso ol ^Ji^rc 
[helimLcs co Cod's mcrc^' a jc readied: rcjciiiion aFihcTorah^ chc conscitution 
o-fa c&IIcctiviiT — ajD 'Isiacr - chat srands a^] nst GcxJ. Gods mrrcirjl |usciCc 
[heji perEainj eq privaic persons. Dui rhcic can bt: ^nW one Israel, and [ha[ 
l^rad i:^ made up of aJJ thn^^iu? look bi^'ard lo a poraon Ln [he wc^rld lo 
come: who ■-vill ^land lii iu^ciE^e and [i.^tis^£nd death. In humanity, idakiers 
^ill rtot Jt^Fid in judgn^ent^ acid entire generations who sinned collectively as 
wtll as Tsraelites who brot^e off fro™ rhe hody (^Fl^rael and Pornied iheirown 
hmeldo norcniayrbr merdful juKtiti^rh^rfffachtf^fulleTpr&^si^iUftrhefaK 
of Achan:hc5rcilcfroin.Godl™i3liaral[licwarldio wmt AndiU wjlljllof 
rhoie wtio have done thcdreadfij] deeds catalosiicd hercx 

Bat there ii more. Wliar is Gods iiake In all this^Thc sages recognize that^ 
in th-c sectLLg; of this lifc die dcarh penalty brings anguish, even though il 
flisures the ^ntier or criminal eiLpjation for wliat he has done. Thai ma.ttcr is 
suted in so many words: 

A_ Said R_ Weir, 'When a person is dlstiessedT what words docs chc 

Presence of (iod say^ As it were: "My heaad is in pajn> my arm is m 

11 I 

Br 'Ifihusisib^Ompiipr^JScrii Jinrtswd <>" dcwucirofthe blood nf rhe 

Wicked ^cn it is shed, ht>w much tile more so on accouni: oHhe blood 
of die righteous!' 

[Ibid. 6:5} 

God isdiatrcsed IE the blood ofdicwkkedi shed jn expiation for 5]n or crime; 
so too Ls humanity. So while d>csases reco^ize die mercy and jusdccthat arc 
embodied jr^ ihe sancuons :hey iitiposen chey impute m Go-d^ a_nd express in 
rheir own behalf common sencimcnc an J attitudes. They feel the same senti- 
ft^eftc^ Gj>d dn«j s^ rh^ ^yp^Luon ^i ihe cf>urc procesi in ChipTers 3 and 4 

makei explicit. 
That Eact alerts U5 to fh^ fundiiJtieEitil prinapk embodied in ihe lialaldiah^ 

people aic rcsponsibic fi>r what they do, because t]ie^ ^re Ijkt God- That is tlie 
basis for pen alizdng sins orcrimcspbutif also is the baais for tnf hope in t tergal 
life for nearly aJI Israel. Like God, human beings are m command or and 
responiihle for, rheLr own will and inccntionality and conscqjcnt conduct. 
The vtryfacL that God revcah h]m2clfihrDLJgJitbc74rah,>vhich humanity i^ 
able to utiderstandn ihcre to be portrayed in icrms arid categones iharcan be 
gratpedn shows how the characteristics of Cod and human beings prove com- 
paribie. I he Ursr difference between :hc rwo ]s that people slUh but the one 
ajid the just Gtsd, never; connecLing 'God' and \ifi yields an iinintclligLble 
rc^uK. And cli£fei:ond difference iKtwfcn -creature and Cr^iiQJihumamcyind 
God» is rhat God is (5ocl- 

[c is not An ^ccUlctit tl^at in the setting of the c^Legary forniauon of 



Sanhcdrin-MaHoij saKS- J^tr fonh h^w C4od^s euiaiions corrrsptmd wif"h 
those ot- humanity r Itlc 3 pjjtni facfd"wirh a jecaJcurani child, he rakci n-o 
pleasure in man's fall bur mourns. Nol only sOn bmi cscn wIie]c he procccts 
those ^vho ]o\'c- him - Israel — from his^ jnd ihtarp cmz-macsn he cakes to ncart 
Ehar he madi: al] utic human race; k doc^ nor rejoice anhe Sea whcji Israel is 
aavcdi btcaiise, even xhzn. hit cii^:mit^ arc p^ri^hit^g, Thig ls said in so rraay 
wi^rdiJnEhec&meKiofadisojsaion tin whet her God fi^ioJi:^ when th£ 


A. ThcrdT^reman wajcreiKdaloM |4:5J1: 

B- 'Andtticre ^cmt^ulityF^s^hn>^gllOLil die hojc' (I Kgs. 22"^(>) |aJ: 
Ahabs death at Ramoth in Gilead]. 

C. Said R, Ahab "b. Hjnina, '^t^ieji ^e wlcketl pcnsh, ihcrc- Is song^ 

D- 'When Ahab b- Omri perished] there w^? ^o^^g ' 

(Ba^]i-traUatcSanhtdnr_, 4:5VLI/39b} 

Doe^Godsltig Jrtcj r(:jd« wh^n rhi wicked perish? Noc at alh 

£. Butdoo ihe H<>lv C^J^Cj hleised be hci rcjo-ice ai tfic doivnlill offhc 

Fr L it iioi wriufti, 'Thai they should praise as tkey went out hcfijre tke 
army and say, "Giveihifik.'; toiliE Lord, for hi&nierc>^ endures forcvei'' 

G. And said R. Jonaihan, 'On what acwu-nt ^rc the^^r-ds in diJs psalm 
ofpraiie otTLined^ "Because he is gcM?d' ^ Because ihc HoLy One^ blf^ssed 

hekie^ does ntm rc-joicc ai thcdownlall fiftnc wiclti^dr 

{I hid J 

Now wc revert to the tOTldiiCC of God at :he"vcry momcntof Israels J ibcratioEi, 
when Israel sitig^ rheSongat cheSeai 

Hr FoT R, Sarrtuel har Hahrciaii said R. Jonadian said, "What is the 
mtaningohKc ve^enrScrjpiuiE |rhaE speaks of Egypiajid Israel at the 
5cal, "And one did not come nMr die other .ilL nighi"^ [Exod- Hi203h' 

L 'At rhat nmc, the miii-istcrir^Hingeh wane m recjre-a song |dF 
re^oicjjig] before die Holy One^ blessed be ncr 



J. 'Said to them the HalvOnc^ bIcsicJ br hc^ ""Theworl^^ofniy h&nds 

ajc pcnshlng in thcsca, and do jttu ^int to ^ings t-ocjg bcftfte rrie?^' 

No^^ ch-r matter 15 resolved: 

K. Said R^ Yo^barblanmi, 'licdixs not rciQ]i:Cibm other? do rqc^k^ 
N&rc liiAi ir is writicrij ''[And it shaJI come- to pass^ as the Lord rejoiced 
ovej )xiLj :o do gcKid^ so the Lord] will ^iiuse rejoicing over you hy 
(festroyLfLg yoLL^ [iJeu:. 2fi:63) —and noi ^Lso will ihe Lord (himsflf] 

tejoii:e" ' 

L. That proves the ^la^. 


CodscmorLOnacartcspondr then, to thoseofa Tachcr or a moiKern cnournlng 
al (he downy] of (heir children, evdn (hOugh (hfir chllrfc-fft l^^vt ribflled 
againsc thcmr Even ac the moment Ji which IsrafI lirsi mccriGoJ, with God's 
ic[QflLbcrati<inar^hcSca:.GDd^nn9iifiir. dicminthdrMjng. G^^dandJ^ri^d 
then correspondn cheecemalGod in Heaven^ Israel on canh, also dest]ned lor 
eiernal life. Israel fofms orj ca.rdi a society that corresponds to the retinue aad 
court oF(!4>d in hcivcn. Inlu'wav, die halalchali in S3nhednn-Makkei[sa>^ no 
l&s- Rut iih^^tttT]\eira<tivi£KNi5VF'^hiye-«£n,in dlofrh^^imjmacyindpn- 
vaLyofl5rj.d'ELn[ciiur«iHicntj::-islicn(j[id]eoo^ lej^i) Israel i^karc^fxjnsi- 
crime and just punishment, turrs out to form aju ccitOfrtpassiJig CKCrdit in 
shov^ingGods mercy, even, (jrespcci^lJy, forthesirLAtrorcriiTiinal who e:tp]- 
aits the sin or crime: thiit cutitdiidcs the tranijcdori, but a gr^i deal will 
folW ir - and from it. 


Ndn rHiirw*kr<>wThein5idef-whnhfilfpngflfrt1flRir-indihirLfi, ev^r^ 
^hoiTJccii idol jnd worships the one ^tridc^nly.rkirueCioilwIiacabaijfrh^ 
outsidcii or^ in the contest of Jxidiiism^ ihcGcntilcij whitl] iit<j:^i'r^^f)'bod}^ 
clse^ Judaism sets forth an eschatological inonctheisjn; the hope that, at the 
end ol daySn all of humanity will acknowledge the one tmc Codr Rtit i"n fhc 
IntcnjTi^SeTlpturc Is cleat, Israel ]% to obJ iterate ail meiitLot^o^Ldol^ 4E:(od- 23: 
I3)> not bow down TO Gf nt]l« ^ds or iien'e rhem but ti-verchruw thtni^^nd 
brcikihcm inco p]ccc5 (Esod, 23:241: Tou shall break down their altari and 
dash in piccei their pillars and hew down their Ashcrim and burn their graven 
iniage^wJch Pre'{Deut. 7;^). liraelLccsarecommandcdalongrhesr same lines: 



Ihc graven jmaees of iheirgotJi yoii jKall burii with fire; yon} stiatl ntm 

m^r Ehe silver or the gold d^iit lb on fbem OMakc if for you j5<:Ivc:St lest 
you be erisnined hy it, for it ii ari abotni nation to the Lord your God. 
AnJ ynu shall hoc bring ^n abuitiiiuhlc thing Into your house and 

hemmeaeciiwd like it 

[DeuL 7:25-26) 

Vou sh^IJ surely destroy all the plaeci where chc naiions whom you shall 

dis-possess served chcir gods, upon rhc hjgh mouni^ijis and jjinai the 
hilLs and under every green irec; ycm shall tear dowr) tlieir AltJts and 
dash jn pieces dieir pillars and hum chor Asherim with fire; you^hali 

hew down the graven images uf rhdr godsend di^^Troythdr namt ouc 
of diar place. 

(Dcuc. 12:2-3) 

.■\ccDtdingly,Mfer asche Wrc«e™ToJAh supplier rhc foundations for chetrcat- 
memof rhemirrerb}'theOtfa1 Torah, the focus of discourse concerning the 

Ci(?rtiLle^ I?: nJ(>lajry_ Stripliirf e holakhah does noc c-onlcmplare [srael*^ 
co-eii^wrLfi?, i[] \h^ Land, with Geniiles and ihcir idolairy. 

Thehalai^hahofihcOndTorahcojniDcncn irsneaimcnrof rhesanie ^\ib- 
jctfftTch the oppoaiic premise: Gentrlci live side by ^tdi: {wherher ^or noi m che 
Land of Israeli with lsiaelite£> and Israeli tt^h^ve en jOfrou^ the complex prob- 
lems of co-eiis-rence wjdi idolatry. It ts ^iinply taken for gr^nral thflC^ at fhis 
timci Israel rhc holy people eaiinf>r tomplete cKe oblitirMtlon of tdolatry, 
though God v^ill d& fuse rhii in hLS-(^%7rt fift\e_ But \ht OhilTorah uses ihc 
CKicasionof jdolarry TO CDnicmpbce a condition entirely hfyordchf ima^m- 
tion of Scripnjiei which js the hetemony of idolaitH^yi n.^|.iQii^ rtaid ih^ tubjiJ- 
gltkin of holy Israel. The Orai Torah^ fully considertd^ m-lkcs of ttac 
discussion of idolatry the occa-vion for the disc Lisbon of l^ra^^l^s pUcc aTnong 
ihe nations- of The ^^ild and ofl^rad's teldf ion ships ^ith Ccjitilcs. Not only 
so, bur iheOril Tor^h'i theory ofwlmLraeLli findi FES context in rhe conttait 
with the Gen;ile^- iTie meeting point with the Wrirtcn Torah is defined t>y the 
andicarivetrait oFchcCemIrs, which is ihcir idolatry; tharis all rhacmatte?^ 
about dncfn. Biutj as we shaft noTv sec, while the haJabhah o^ (he Ot-^\ TyH-h 
expounds the local details of everyday relarionships wtth C^nrble^^ the awadih 
oFthcsan^c Oral Torah vasrl}? expands the rjn^ of tht]ugl]t itnd f^tkcs up the 
more profound issues of Gentili: donijranee in this agtt IstEL^rs jfubjugatcd 
posjlion^ ihe power of the idolatcrSn ajid rhe lit:e_ Weohrtcrve that once more 
the a^adihdnh with the world at large: the hahkhah, the wntldnthumf, 

Spc^iiicaily^rhehaJakhahofih^OriJlbrah deals fir^L^ilhcomni^rd^^ rela- 
tionships; second nWiThmarteit p^rtaLnLJieta idol t^^n J finjUv with thcpartic- 

idar pn>hihi[jon of wineojiee anv p^n of it h^s served as a libatioji to an jdt>l. 

llie whole is r^ulsri^"^ jnd ordered- There arc telarionships with Gentiles 

char aK jbiolu-icly pruhlbitcdj pardculady occasions of Idol worship; as we 



shall iCE-, rhc halakliah recognizes thai thoc art' mujtjr c.ornmi;i>:i:a] eveti($H 
when JL comes m commerce ^ich idolaters Israelites in-i^^ ntjf itil Of iji any 
wiv benefit from ccnain dr^ings^ iiiAy sc]l bur may nor luilist: ctrr^in otHpR, 
jndtTLiy seLUnducLiizcyaachcr^. Hcrc^ wc sr: immcdiacdy i W ihc tomplcx 
and ivsretnacic mode of chmuthc rhac eovcrns ihc Oral Torah's tn:acmc:iit -of 
the: tijpic y'A^i\y EfAnsc^rd:; Ehe richer simple conccpEaoji ctiac animates 5crip- 
turt'i diitussioti of'iKe£a]tiemacctT. There arc ihcic jnsraml premises wiihin 
tliclialakha]t: (1) wKataGeiUjl^isnot likel|f lo usefonhtivorihipofan idol C5 
lor prohibited; Ul what may ^ervcnnt aspait of an idoibuiaian appanzc- 
lancc cticrelo is pr^jhit^ilcd foi hraclilC uK t>^l p^rmnrcd f^r liraelLit com- 
merces (3) Vf'h^i senses id-tjlatry is prohibittxi fijr uic and foe b^nefli- In 
rtflecTing upon reliiionships W\&i rhc Gcntttci (meaning idolactn) tUt Orj.1 
Tnrafi nioreo^^er rakes ^ nmnbcroF facts For granted. TKcKtum tnit H) y\Ad ^ 
single genef^lL^CLOJi: Ger.iilos ire Fouiinely iw prHiciitc tjciiiaitty^ 
niufdefi 3]id EQinicatton. I'unh^r negative atcr^^typc^ ^rm~?rnEng id^Ut^^'S 
<>i;cur Thepjccureafchehalakhah finds its contest in chc largcrthcory of idol- 
arty and iw ephemeral hcgjcmony. 

[ CommcTcial Rcdati&nsJiipswirii Gentiles 

M-M Before chefcslivaJs of Gentiles for ihrTfdSvi It ii fotKidded tO 
do bustJiesi WL[h Ehcm. 11} To icad anything lo chcm or to boirow 
SnyrhLJifi from ihem. [2) To lend money to them or to borcow moncj 
from di^m. (3) lo repay [hem or ro be repaid by thcirlr 

Tl-1 Undcj" wliai circomsranccs [M- AbodaK Z-arab 1:1 A]? In tin: Ca^c 
oFrecurrenr fe^iivjkHbLjrLn rhe case of Ee^Elvali which do net rrcur 
prohibited bor^iy EbdC dA^ali>ne. And even ihcugh [h^havc^idi iii^ 
forbidden ttidt>bissliies3wnh thfm IM-A.Z_ 1:1 A] - urder whar 
eirojms ranees? [n the rase o[ something which la^T^_Bu[ m ihc ca^c of 
something which docs not lait. It ii p^irmifced. And tven in checaseof 
fiomerhlngi^iehl^r^^lifl^n^boLighroi'aold irju^ chi^if peninirc^r 

TA-2 A perscm should noc do business with a Gcnrilc fln the dajf of bis 
f^cLV^I, nor shonU on-i: talk frivolously, nor should one ask alter his 
welfatt jn i situacLon which as taken into acoijuni. Tiut If orie happened 
^^i^me^^ros^ hini in a routine ^"^y^ htaski: after his wflf^jreiv-tfh nil 
due re^pecr. 

M. 1 :2 Before their festivals n is probihir-edf biic afKr diejj fesiivals ir is 



M.U (1) On ihed^^oji whit-}^ [^ ^jtntikj shaven t^rt'his beard an J 
Lotiiof luitTj (2) on iln; djy On whidi he uunc up salcLy from an -occdn 
voyage, (3) on rhe d^v on wKkh he^t out ol' prison. And a Gentile 
who maJe iihanqiiet For Ins son -it is pmhibitcd lor-only thacday, and. 
]n rcgjr^l 10 only ihji indmdual alone Jit}cnc«inro business relaiion- 
^hjps yf any son, 05 listed ai M. l:t|. 

MJ :4 A city in ^ich tl^cre is an idol - [in rhcar^ra] ouiside of ]cjr ]^ 
pcnnittcd [to do busiEie^sl. |lf| an tdol 'wait oursidc of'n, Jjn [h^Hit^a] 
In&ide ir ls permi«ed_ What h ike rule as lo goi'^g to rhar pljft^^il^fn 
the road is set ^ide (or going: lo diat pW ynl^^, It is prohibited. Bur if 
nne Lsable m nkt rha [ ham? ro^d tu some other plact ii is pcrmiticd. A 
town in winch [hcret^-in idol, and ihcrr were in ii -Jiops whjch wrw 
adorned ^nd shop ii'hiJi wcrt not Hdomtd- those %\'hich arc adorned 
areproliLbEEedj but tho5t -which ^re nor jdornwl are permitted. 

B ObJ^a I^otri/ri^d £\ 

iJfjjjM tuOraEraerff 

M.Ij^ What are rhe rhings char ate forl^idd^n ro stil CO Cfntiltb? (0 fir 
conein {2} whice figs, (3) W tJi^ir stalky H) frank [ntcnbt, and (>) a 
white ccxik- And JK TO tfi-eryrhingdM, |if] rhiiy arc IcFrwiihourspcnfi- 
CJiion |as hj tlicir proposed use], i: is pcrmiiKd, bui [if] ihc}^ ire 
^p^iflcd [f^ruscEbridolatiyla j[ ia piotiEbiccd. 

M.l :7 They d-o notsd] them {1 } beaw or {2} lions, nr (31 inythiftg 
which is a puhlcc danger. They do rot build wirh diem (I ] a baiilLca^ 
{2) stalFolda (3) stadinmT or {A) |ud^' cribunaL Buc ihey huiid w^di 
rhemOJ pubEiFcbarhhouEj£or(&) piivareones. lUtice] ihey reach the 
vadiingon wtikh chcysciupaft jdolj lc is fofhidd^n |io hd[>bL[ildanx 

MA:S And they do nof ml« oriiLunents fijran idol: (1) necklaces, (2) 
earringSH or (i) finger ririgj. They da noc sell diem produce aiyei 
iinplucked. Bur one may sell ironce ir has been harve&ced. 

M.2;l Thcv do not kavf cacdt in Genciles'innsi because chq'jtre 
s-uspcct in re^rd lo besrialiry. And a ^lYpman should nor be 3\<^t\^ with 
thcniT because they anr siispcci in regard ro fornLcarLon- And i m^n 
should nut be alone w^ich chemT because rhty are suspcizr in regard to 
bloodshed. An Jsraeliic pul should nor serve as a midwife to a CientiU 
woman, he^uH ih^^ 5crve-i ro brLngfcfrhiH:hildfnf (het^rvjceaf 
idolarry- Biica GenLLlewomjnmjy serve Ji J midwife toanFiradite 
girL An Israelite girl should nor give ^ufk |(i (h^ cli-ild pf a G^lil^ 



wojflan Bu: lC;en^il^: "ft'oman may gJ^^^uck co the child of an Israelite 
tirLj tt'liea it h bv permissi-Dii. 

T3:l Thty leave cattle in Samariiant' irnt. even jnalc jc^rtlc] with 

vnOjTienH and female IcirrltJ wirh men^ ind temalt leacck) wirh woitu:ji_ 
And th^^y hjnd uv4;r otrU to i Ki^i p sliephar Js, and rhe^'hajidoven 
child wh]in tu rcjdihim reading ^n J KJieich hii-nacuft, ard ro be 
al^nc ^ith hbir An hradiKgli-l ^cri-?t:(>3 micJ^Tfcuid gives eucL: h> 
the child of a Surundcari w-oman. And a Sarn^rJtaa w'Oman ^^^rve^^s 
mtdwifc ajid eiv^s ^uck to an I^^elitc child. 

M 1:1 Th^Y accspt frcwn cheni h-ea][ng for prupcrcy, Lut noi healing for 
the per-son. 

T3.4 Tliey accepcfrom chem healing as to matrc-rs of property, bui not 
healing 3s [Q tnafiers oFrhc person [M. A.Z. 2::2A— BJ. A Gentile 
woni^ri ^liniild Jioi: be called upon :o eui ou: :he Jecu.5 in chcwomb of 
an IftAclic^; girl. And ^he should iioi gjvc her a cap ofbiicers co dnrk, 
for thcj 3rc 5itS]>ta as 1.0 ilie i^iiig c>f life. And an IsraeLce ihould no: 
bcaloncwith a GcniiJe either m ^ bathhouse ofiia a unnaL |^4ien] an 
Israelite goes alongwitba CcnEilc. bf p«tS hiitt Jl hit^ighl hjnd, and 
hedoc^norpnthiniat hk lelt hand. 

M,2i3 1 hc^ chnig^ b^loiiging co G^ncile^ arc prohibiied^ and rhc 
prtihibnion aftecrinc ihean evcends m derivjne any benefi: from rbem ac 
alh (1) wi^c. (2) vinegar of Ccnciles which no begin with wai wine, (^) 
Hadnaniceaidienware, and {4) hides pierced 2.1 the hearc. With those 

who aregoL]ig to jn jdoiarrons pilgnmage - i[ es prohibiced to do 
businaR-WiTlnlifKirhar lire coming bick iri^pcrmiiitd. 

C Oi^€£tj l^ro^iftJ F^ft l/x ^Kt F^rmiii^ i^ C^T^mertf 

M 3:4 Skills of<Teni]]£wnd their jii^,"wnhkraehK winecol]ftH€d in 
them - tbc prohibition afeting [hem tlott not dicnd to deriving; 
benefit from them, -Crape pits ar^d ^^< skin^ belonging to CJeniLles if 
the)' arc n-Loist, they arc forbidden Jftb^:)' art drj-^ tlicy^lre p^cmifred. 
Fish brine and Birhynian cheese bdotigitig tt> Gentiles - the prohibition 
of thtm docs nofcK-fcnd fo dcmiiig benefit rrcjti] cliccn_ 

M.2:6 And what are Things of CentiIeK whic;h arepfcihihitHl, bur the 
prohibition ofi-^ididocs not csKnd ttj deriving benefit Prom thcm^ 

(]) miikdi^wnby aGentiJe^iihoiJcan hradi Ec'^ >^i:^hing him; (2) 
their bread; and {^} ihejr oil - {4) tMrwed and pjckled [vegetablesj into 



whkli if is custoinary to put wi[]e und vLtwgarE (5) mirtted lish] (6) 
btir^e witNtjut kilktt f5ihi floating in k; (7) hWcq^^A^) drt>p5of 

a$al<»etiJj. arid i9] sal-condituiri - lo^ these arc pFuhibltcrd, W the 
prohibition affcding clipm doej not expend to dciiving b^ncfii from 

M.2:7 These arc tKing5 ^hkh |to begin with] arc pcrmLcicd for 

[Tsraclltcl consumpcion. (1) milt which 2 Gcnrllc drcsv, ^vilh an ItracllK 
watching himi (21 hofiEy; (3) grap* duiiefs, (lEven th-ough dieydnp 
wt[-i moL5[uiei chey are nor suhjeci to che ruleof jtnpamngiuscepii- 
bincy » uncteanness as liquidh H) ptdtkd v^^tabks inco which it is 
riflttusrotnar^rtopur wine or vinegar; {5f unmnccd fisJi? [61 brine 
tzontaiftjng rt^b; (7) w, l^holt] Icgfof asaf^^tida, a-^d (S) pl^ltlcd alive 
C5Utcs, Ujtij5l% whith culnc ffttfrt |lnc t-bcjpkccpcr'i] bjinkct arc 
fiarijiddcn. Those which i:<>inc from ihc irud |of hii idiopl sirc 
permitted 4nd io cs tht fule for heave ofEiring. 

11 [doln 

j4 Gtir^iif PriticipJ^ 

\i.3, 1 Tjna-ges are prohibiicd tliii have in iu h^ind a staff, bird, ^^t 

M-3.2 HcwhiJ finduhtsliirdiuf ini:^cs-!uj (iicH: arc pcrmincd. [If] 
one ToiiJid bfragmernj shapeJ Itk^ j lutid ^r a bot, |[j, fhcie arc 

prohibited, because objeas iiro Jar 10 diem are v^tilsippcdr 

MJ:3 He%t+LO finds utensils uptin whlcihiirhe figure of rh-r sun, 
nnoon, or dragon, should b ring them ro ihc Sail Sea. One breaks rh cm 
inio pieces and rhrows (he powder lo thcTMnd or drops rhccn Jnio ehe 
sea. Al^. rhc\'nnay he made inio manurCn ai ii is sijd, 'Ajid (here w:Jl 
clea^^ norhmg nf a devfhLed chjng lo your hand^ |DeiJt_ I 3:1 fi) 

MJ.5 Gentiles wKu worship JiilU and vJIcys - thoc |hi]h yr vallcyij 
ajt pcEFTiitteJi buiwhfliii^nTJiern islvrbiddcti Ifcr bracliic uw], a^ k 
is iaid, 'You shall nottavet the 5itw:rt" guld cKar Is upon rhrcn not rake 
it-" 0:i n/hac accoutit is an itshctah prt^hibircd^ Because it has been 

^i^bjCCrl t^> inaJiTj-if liibjrf arid w-liatc:\'cr lias been iubjc^^r t-o inanu^l li^hiyi 
tS prohitiicd. 



8 JhAfh^^h 

Mr3-7 There are lUree sorts oFhoiiscs [so Ear ai uiat: ^is a t-hrlr]? f^r 
idolatfj h concefnetl]: fl) a house- whidi was builc to begin wkh for the 
pui|it>it£of- tdolatfv-lti, chi3 L3prahibircd. (2) |lf] crnr stuccwdand 
dctofiticdii fof idoUfrv'^iid rtnnvaKd ir, one removes [he rcnovaiiuns- 
(-5) [IfJ one brtniEiil ;iil ido] imo n and icwk Lt out - lo^ rhis is 
pcrmirrcd. There arc three suni of sconts: (11 a mme whtch one hcivcd 
lohcgjn wirii for a pedcital-lo, this s J forbidden- (?) flf] Ke^ei up an 
idnl on [an cKisiing] 5(onc and then took il off, lo. ih^ Is petnn^ftd. 
ThereareiKfEC kinds of asherahi: (IJ a [rcc which one plar.tcd lo lM;giii 
wLih (^r idoBacrv ^ lo, ihes is prohibittd. (2) |]F] he tJioppc-;! it ji^d 
irimined le for idokcry. and i: sprouted afresh he may rcmovt that 
which sproLAied afresh. {3] [\.i] he set up an idol und^r it J.nd then 
annulled itn lo, ihk ispermiiKd. 

C mM^^ih 

M.4:l ThrceaconciiCJicbcaide Jicoihcrplwaidca mtikol^i^tJtuej- 
those whtch appeir lo bcLcino ro it arc forbidden, and those whitK do 
not appc^-r to beiong to it ^ pennitted. 

M.4:2 [f] one fouiid cjti itihead coirt^ndftchLn^. or uctnsilsJo, rhcic 
arc percniflcd- [Ifonc found) bunches of grapes, garlands of co^n^ju^ 
ofivinc or o^lL ^r (ii^e ^nur or^nychjnc die like of which is offcicd on 

D A'iJi^Fn^rfjj frit/ 

Mr 4:3 An Jdol which had a ^rdeti or a bachhous^ - they derive 
bcnttic fromthrm |whcn itisj noiio the adi^ncige lofthe temple], bji 
diey do noi derive benefit iromihcm [whenjtijj to (h? advantage [of 
the temple]. If it belonged both to die idol rind t-0 Outsiders, they derive 
beneftt from them ^hcchci or not it is to the adi^n^nfage fof fhe templel- 

M-^=4 An idol belonging To a Gcniilcisprohibjied Jorthwich ["whenic 
]± made]. And oncbdc»nging wan kridip:i?p^liit»i|"?dy™1yifre' ic 
wil] have be^rn worshipped. A Gentile ha5 thtpo^fr td nullify 4n ido] 
belnngjng either lo himself or his fellow Gentile. But jn hracli\"c hys 
n&rgot the jwxver to nullify an idol bclon^n^ to a Gentile. He whc 
fiuLN^^s ^^ idol h^nullj^^ iijappun^nancu. [inhennllilied lonfyl 



ks apptirttnantcb, itiH^ppucteniOKfi are peniuHeJ, bur ihe jgoI hsclf 
[rcmacnsl pnJiibitco, 

'r^'3 He who purchases mfial filings from (lentiies uid found an idol 
ihcrc-jn takc5it and cossci i t a^vjy^ and the tts< - lo^ this is permirK J. An 
Isracljrc -who found an idoL bcl-brc it has <;anic into his domain rciay tell 
2. Gcjicilc M nuiEjfy ic. For a Gentile has the po^-er to nullil^' nn idol^ 
wheiKcr [[ l>clongs no him cr co his felloe liM.A Z. ^^^Cl^ whttncr ]r u 
an iJn] wdiichh^h*en worshipped or "whether iris onti^hkh hjsnot 
trnin woEsliippc^p whgihtr ei Is inadv^ncnr or dcLEt^E^rd. ^kcihcr Ie h 
jndcrcunsttALhr or wilhntly But an Isrielne who midc an idol - ii is 
prohibited, even though h^ has rioc wofshippied ic [vs MA Z-4-4B]. 
Therefore he has noc got fhe power to- mjllify it- 

TII Libation Wine 

M,4;S They purchaic from Gentiles |[hc KutcntsofJ a mnt press 
which has alwadv heen irnddcin e^u^^ even. chouEh [the Gent ilcj rakea 
|the ^rapeij in hand and pucs ihen: on che heap I'appicin for it is not 
made incu wine used for libiuons uncjl h drips down inio :hc vit. [And 
if wine has] dripped Into the v^I, whai ii dn 4iii cJiCii^n is prohlhlied, 
white the jca is pcimimcd. 

M. 4:9 [Israeliiesl tread a ivinc press with a Gentilt [b dit Geniile's 
V3i|. liuTthcyd-o not gaihcr grapes with hitn. A™ Isradice who prepares 
Ihiswinc] in a state of uncJeanntss - chey do nor ttamp[e otr oji grapes 
wjih him. But the)' do [akr jarj. tvLih hirEi ui ihc winepress, and die)' 
bring them TV] ^h him from the winepnss- AbiUri^^ho preprts bread 
in a sacc of uncieanness - they do not knead Or cut Oi^r df^iigh "wid^ 
hin^- Bli[ [hfy may lakc bmad wuh him eo the dealer. 

M4;J0 A Gemile vvho is found branding hciidc aastcrnofwine-if 
he had a. lien on ihevat, it i^proiiibiEed. [If] he had no Lien on iti^if 
permitted. [If] he M\ into the vat And 4:limhed oq[, or (2) lifCJenrilcsJ 
measured iE wiEh a reed - Or (3) [i£\ h^; flaked out a hornec wichareed, 
or [ill (4) he paEte J down the froth on the [nouih orajir- in regard fo 
each of chese Ehere was a case let it he &t>ld IK] [5 1 hei<>oli djirind 
dirtwJE m afii ofEcmpcrinto thtvic-thh^Ji ic^scj and ihej 
declared it valid. 

M.5:l A IGenciic] ^ho hires an [Lr^tlite] worlcer t* work wjrb him in 
(he preparanon of ]ibai:ion w]ne- _(h<: Israehwi] sliar^ ^i fon>ida*fl 
|lf] hehireJhim in dch some other kind otwork^ even though he said 


BfclTVttNlHtt'flllHUJLAND IHfeOUlSiDliR 

to him, 'Move 3 j-ai of libation wjnc from one pla-Cn: 10 another," his 
saJiiy i5 permLcKcl. [ It who hires an ass no bring Libaiion wluc on it -lis 
fee Is forbidden, [[f] he lured ii ro ride on ii, e^rn chough TkcCcntilc 
(also] pul a flagon |of Lbaiion winc| on iiy its ice ts pcrniitrcJ_ 

M.5:2 LjbjtjQii wine which fdl on grapes - o-ne rciay rinse chem ofF, 
^nd [iKTare permkLed But if |[he $rapej| were splits die^' are prohib^ 

ited- |Jf| it fell on Pgs&r dates, if there ii^uffl-cient |libstion wine 
abiotWl to Impart a flavor [ro rhemj, rliey Are forbi-ddtn, Thisischc 
govrrning pnnciplc: aji)'tniiig wnich bc:i1o^'s bcntnl (nn^ugh uilpJrlmg 
3 flavoi is ft3rb]ddrn, and aj]>Th]iig which does not bcsiow bcnt^i 
[hrough impaicLng a Flavor Is permitted - for cvampfei vinegar [from 
libaijon wLnc] which ^Ison crtuhcd beans. 

Thi& bricF reprise of ma! Ji polnis oFrhc halakliali of cheouislder yields a single 

p&inc. The Oril Torah rakei a? the prf>blema:ics of the halakhah the way in 
which rhe Israelii can inrcraci with cht idoh worshipping Gcotik in such a 
way ai CO he uncorrupwd by his idolatry. Kn che izeaimenFof rhe halakhah of 
AbodaliZarah not only shifts die locus bur vastly broadens the rrearmenr of ic^ 
providitig^ h^ndboole k^t the conduct oFF4>reigii relatdon.s hecwe^n Israel ^nd 
eke Gentiles. How, esaaly, ij T^rsel supposed to live in a world domin^ttd by 

The prcscntmbn of ihchilakhah accordi the poiiiion of pjumincn-cc to 
what musT be deemed :he mosr Riadamcntal que^-htion it musr addrcsi: m^y 
Israelites panicipaEein rhc principal trading oocasions of the commercial life, 
which arc permeaccd wirh idolatrous cclebracLO-ns? Since die festival dcflneda 
principal occasion for holding a market, snd sioccie was celebraie<l with idok- 
rrotisnEK, [he mixture of fcsdvaJ and ^r fbnnrd a ccmsidcrable problfnifor 
the Israelite merchant: the sages 50 legislated 15 to close otFa major channel of 
con^meice. In conneccion with Ger^rjle FesEivalsn which were celebraccd wirh 
^iT^y l^raelitef- meaning, irader^, commercial player^ orallkEnd^- could ni^r 
cnccr into busineis relaiionshipi wuh Gemile coumerpArts Citt ilone cJicm- 
selves participate), cutting ofFall contriaujl ties, lerEditigot borrowing mjny 
foritii nnegjit rhe Esraelifc ttadera cmild in no way pirritipate in a principal 
mcditim of trade. 

Bur ihc sa^ di(fcri:ni:iate berwecn actual co-mmercial relasionships on :he 
occasion of fescivah and ^irs> on th-r one ^idc, and transact]on5 of a normal, 
Inuman character, on the other. They do not require Israelites coa-crou: Scnp- 
lure^s commandnitnts utterly to dcscroy idolariy; rhey permit them to main- 
tain normal social amenities "with their nfighbors, within some broad limits. 
Rrasi while the gcricrai prohibition ccivas alt Gentiles on (he occasion of feiri 
and fesrivals, it pertains to individual celebrations in a liniiied wav ^1 
dci^iiics aiv noc ^ubjecred lo a prohibiEion for alF pu^poECis ajid ar all ulnies^ 
and thit ij the maiji principle that iheeAteti^o]! arid ihe amptilicaiioii of the 



law inHJTtliaift in ma^y t-OfiCf^^ tiiits. The efFeci ls lo rc-^ape ScripcQre'& 
iniplat:ablc and cxtrcmt ruJlftgi into a conscrutiion iwore ficiijig F&r an Itrael 
tha.t canDcjt tomplclc the Cask iy( dtSLro^^ing idoti^rj bu: ii tior free co desjsc 
trom trying. 

The prciblcma-cics of the lialakliaL iLo crujompass relationjKips fjih-er chan 
comiinrrc]al ones. The basic ihcoij' pof Gcritjlft- ill iA tfjcin aiiUitl^ 10 hi 
id&larcr^-isH firs c^ihir Gen [lies d ways and cvci^whtw 
sraim^ aj^goingTopcifbrmaaacttifwoi&hiplbroncoranochtirofihdr^ds. 
Sec&ndj Geticiles arc represented as thorouehly depraved (n-ot being rrgcncr- 
areri hy rheTorahj^ audio [hej^wall murder, fornicatetOr steal it every oppor- 
furtity; they TOiLtJrtdv c<>tmn]| besti^lic/. incests and varicms oitier Forbidden 
aetsofic^ual wrgrcM?, Within irliardacutii^ ^he halalchak will he worked out^ 
and the problematics then pr«ipitafethoLj^c*>ri kow kriel is co proKci itself 
[nawcrld populated b^ Uttf^V in^lttO/al peflOft^, whillr ^^^irs;de iht [Time- 
work ofthcTurjh and iisgUKctuincm- 

Thc governing premiK, 30 different frijm Ulams-ih^iTfiraelannoi change 

cht world but must nc^tiatt with its rtpngtiitrit reality - ctmcradicK Scnp- 

ckiw. Basically tlic hal^khah cmzbodlcs th-i- s^irie principle f>F compromise 

where possible- bun rigid con-forniiry tatht principles <>f thcT<jr^ undtr all 

eircnmsEajiceipat wharcvcrcosT - that governed tomnicrual traos^ctlonSrJuSC 

2S Israel musr give up- at] passjbihey oF normal trading relationships wiCti 

Gef^cile^, -rfepmirig irselfof rhe iiioei lucrative transaaEons-, those- involving 

fsAti, 50 Israel mii^t ;*vnid more than roucine court-eMds and nccessar}? 

cidian^wich iddatcr^. 
That in^-olves the principle that one tnust avoid crucring into sLcuacLomof 

nianger: for cjianipk, in allowing upjjortunities to .^rLse for Gentdts coearr}? 

out their natLirjil instititts of riuinler aaid he^tialirv'- Otrlear-t nnr to belef: in 


their Injis; a woman ftih^t not be kft alone wiik ihem, noramin-rhe tormer 
by reason cl^probable forlLiulioil. iht lauf^ tViiliJer rtn rh^ pare eif the Gfin- 

tik-. Then physicians Eire not lo be (riLCiteti though when Ie corner to ii*;i]^g 
[hem for bcasiSn chac ls all ri^t. One also nuar avoid appearing to tonduti 
nneself as jfone werean tdola&cr, even ifnot actually dosing so; thus il soni(?jne 
is iiTL fronc oF^n idol and pjers a splinr ii^ his fooc, be should not bend over to 
remove it beauMic loolts ^ choiigh he is bowing down ro cheldol - IFirdoes 
not look rhar way^ he ii periniited ro do so_ Put rhere arc objeecs cJia: arc 
assumed to be destined l*>t Lt^^datt't]^!'^ wor^hipn and these under all careuni- 
slancts are fcrbcdd^n for Israelite tl^Jt l&ri^liiK pimply miy mi «ll M 
Gc nciles anything that ihcv are likdy to mp, or tKj* [hey explidd^uy the}? ar^ 
intending tu uhCi fV^r idobcty: includes, tor examplcn win^. Wliaitvci 
Gencileshavc used lot idobtiv may r^orbtarilLitedaftisrw^ardbv IsraeltceSn and 

J r 

That cKtends to what 13 left over tVom an offering, such as mear or wine. Israel- 
jixsalson-iay noc sell ro Gentiles anything thty itrt going to use in an immorj 
way, lor example^ wild aniimals foi die arena, materialis roj tkc eonbtructtOn Oi 



pkccs in whidiCcntilcimmDrdLty or injus-titic will occur and ornaincntsfDr 
a.11 idoL 

Israelites may, howcvcrn derive bcncfn from, that Is, conduci trade In^ "ftjiat 
tias no( been dirccdy uicd for :clolairoLii purpoics. The appurtenances or 
TFVJncH5iichasskiLnorTank5Tma}^bc cradcd^ bLit not used for their own needs 
by Israel Lies. In che case of|ars-[ha[ have served for waKr, Itraelcies maj" u^clie 
jars ^id puL wine into them; Cenciles are not a^umed m olEcr w^icr eo dicir 
i^oh, ^f r4>n briJiecir Eish^bniw;. Cleniile milkn bread andoiL For iiisranci:, may 
be (raded l>>^ UrjeLlteSr WKtJ» h cfames to milk kr^^Jiies have siiperviwd, or 

tioney, Iiraeli[i;& [tiay piittihitie ajid eac sudi iooiniodlfie. Wlui Gcriiiiles 
jicvcr use for idokit)^ is accxpiabic. 

When th-c haJakJiah comei eo rreat idols thcmsehTSj wc find few problems 
[tiai require subde anaJyats. Idols are co bedcstrD]Td and disposed of- nosiii- 
prLscsdicrt-TheWriic-cnTorahhasproi'tded the bulk otchehalakhah, and the 
Oral Torab coninbuccs only a rccapitulacion of tKc maia points, Vi'ith some 
ur^iition tainrcRrmdprobl^^ms of merely cKfgcticajinrer^^^ When tr cetmc^ 
H) the aihcrahn the nicrkoii^H ^d die nullificauon of an idoK ihehalabhah 
presents no surprises. Here rhe Oral lorali shows itself derivacivc of an.d 
dependent upon, the WrJrren^ iniroducingriounfan^Lliar prol>leTn&>e:teciJt^ng 
no discernible genentive prohlemacics When lc comtrs qd libsiion wine, ihe 
is^t ij eqiull^ unren^ark^ble^ aLch^^ngh dite details ^b^^w thar .saine concern 
noricd in conni^riun w'lrh [ratle. 

Thai concern maybe tkEincd as: how isihclsnicliicTolivcsidc by side with 
the Gcntile-idcJarcr in the Land^ Here the sages find space for the house- to conduct his cnccrprisc, that is. Gentile workers mazy be 
cmpJoyed, anc cheir piodticc ma^ be utJized, The concnst ^ich ihc blanket 
protiLbition agE^inst paiticdpating in trade-birs proves -striking here die sages 
find groundsfcirmakinEpossihleakindof joint vcncurc chat-, when k tomes 
[fl the trade-tiir, "[hey implacably probibii. Thus ihey retognDie that the 
Gentiles do nor deem as wine suitable Forlibauon the grapes in various stages 
Cif preparation. (jenLile ^rape^ may be purchas^, even chose that have beem 
rroddeti Genrlle workers may parcicipace ro a ceriam point as well, kraeliie 
workers may atcep^ etiiploynieait wich Ceiinle-^ ^^ ch< winepress, Tke hjsic 
ptyyfLtii nocpLiniciilgr to^ine-rrtikingi the k^lal^kqh retxigril-^es rhiefuirhfiil 
braditcs may ^vork with uthci liracliiBj meaning, (ho5cv^ho -do noi ke^pihe 
halshhah as the aages define it, subject m limitations that where there is clear 
violation ot the law, che Israelite may not participate Ln that part of the ven- 
ture. The halakhah generally creats the Geniile as likely to perform his rites 
whenever be cin, buf also as rcspons-ivc tolsraelirc mbtructions wherever ]t is 
roihe Gentiles advancage or Isnieliiesupcrvihionistirm. 

The halakhah pieAuppo^s not Gcncilc hegemony but only Gcncilc power; 
and it further takes fof granted tbac Israelircs niay inakc choices, may specif]' 
callv refrain hvim rradin^ m what Gencilcs value in rhe service of i heir godj, 
and may hold hack from Gencile^ whac Geatiles require ^r ihat service. 





Israrlitcs^ while siiboF-dinalc in some wa/S, COfifrol Their own crjnduci an-d 
sovtrn [heir own desriny. They may live ina wtirJ^I ^veriitd by Uctiules, hnz 
[hey form jnicrcio-ni and carry them out. They may dtcidc what. u> wIL aaid 
ivhit jiQT M ^cIL whom to hire ror what particukr act oMabor and w^ whmii 
not po sell [hen o^n labofn and, Eibovc all iBraHjic tratkri msy detecmime ro 
gi>r up opporEuntTia denied them by [he cjrtaimsrance uf Gtncil? idyLuriy^ 
The hal-akhah iherefoie niakei a formidable scsTcment of h[aer5 frccdc^m to 
makcthoioes, jtsoppOi'CiJiiJcy wjihirt ihc comcsi of everyday life to preserve a 
tcrntoiy ftcc of IdolatroiiS cojiramjaaijcuin |U6: ai Israel ia cnicringthc Land 
vvas tocrcace a territory frte office worj^hip of idols and cheir presenc-e. Ir rhc 
i^^rcmg of world ordfr l^radmay fmdiri:dt^ubitclcnlll^2 willofoiher&.buLin 
ihe hoLi;^ qF Is rad , Israelites can indshouMtiEii^bli^h a r^lrn jiir ^od'sruk 

d presencen ficc of idolatry. If they are Eocfitabhsh a dcjirialn l^r God, Israel- 
CSS muir praciiec self-^ne^tion, and refrain from scrion^ of considerable 
^r and conwqijcncc^ rnuch of the To]^coilcernS kit If ^Uhvhii people 
are noc supposed TO do T and (I od^^ rule eumcs to rejiliiaCLOtTi in acKoftesErainc- 

When k^oniKiTi dealing wndirhe oil isidH, [he halaldiahfoCLE«ino[^ 
rheGeii-iilesbLiEupon hricJLwhari j^vci thcvrodda^it bpun l^raddcjinrLif 
dotnmion subjctr lo Israel's own will and inicntion^ Tinat ii [hetjLie^ion diaCn 
liv^i3i>w$«^ dieh^Ul^h^h fully answers. For die halakhah constnjLCE, indeed 
dclnnci, cheintcrlofily of' an Igrsel sufiraining God's semcc ina wcirld of idola- 
try: life agajnst death in the ti^o eoncr^ie aaid ungihlc dincn^ojis by which 
life 15 &j&taLncd -trade and the proJuction of fond, die fociofTh«halabhah. 
No wonder hradniiist refrain frumciigBgingwiih tdolacryondayicifiht fcs- 
rivals for Idols diat the grcac feurs cmbodv - then especially 

Gcntilcs are idolaters, and Isniclltej worship the OEie. (riie Clod^ who h^ 
made himself blown in the Torah- In dje CW Torah, diar ls ih^ difFercnce - 
theonlvconsequenElaldislinclLo^n- Sftw^^ri Jflriflifid rh^Gennlcs- Biiirhc 
halalhah cakes as m religious prublcm cht (orifrcti/jrion of iiha: disiinc noD, 
the dcnjon&craiion, of where and ho^ ihr djitintiJOii In ihwry m$k^ a bjge 
difference in diepxacrice^ rhe condLctn of everyday affiiirb^ ^Tiat is a^ irnikc is 
dial [ifaelsc3:^dsforlifes cheGcnriles- like Their id-oji - l\j r de^rh . An^rshcr^h 
erce^ like a corpse, conveys uncleanness rorhosc wh-o pass underneath n^ as we 
noted at M. 3^S: Andllf iliould nor pass nndernearliiCHbijr ifbepa^^ undei- 
ncalhilnhe isundcan. Rcforeprocreding, ler m consider a dear atatemenr of 
^hy idolatry dcrtne^ ttit" bviind^ry tctwwn i&rjcl jnd e^-erybody else. "I'lic 
reason is char jdolarrj' - rebellious airog^nte against God - encampasies cbe 
eniirc Torali. The religions dimy to avoid idolaery ii pritnary, if an indivtdiial 
violates the rchgloiis duties, he or ihcWala ditf yoke of ennitifLandmencs; and 
]frhir single lellgioiis duty lb violated. wlouJiihe entire Ti^fih Vi^ibrJngchf 
prohibiiion against idolatry h cquivilctit to :riji^gret.djig all Ten 
C^mmandmcnrs . 

The hat-^khih LreaLs Gentiles 2s undrfTerentaaced, but :ab irdividuaJs. The 
5^gadah - che loie of rhe Ubrah, irs e:«:geiis of Scripture and irs theolc^ - 



accJons bttv^eeti private |j£fsft]ifi_ In tlit tl^c^logy of tKe Oi^lTor^hh dit csk- 
gojy - Gentiles or che tiaiions - withom elaborate dilTercniUutnin 

encompass^ all wKo are t^t^srwlites^rhacii, who do nor belong folstd^^ 
thei%efi>i^ do nor triow and Stive God. That t5Ttg«r^'ta^^^ tin mwnirigoiilyas 
t. ompltmair and apposite [0 ipgaitraiivccounrcrpiri, having no srandiag - 
Ki[-si^nin.gchiirEia^risda-i7n iLf4:?^n].TTiiiii5, si n«: Israel ?ni:ofnpaf^schc 
scrtor of huTnanity that knov^ and serves God hy reason of God's 
sclt-manifc3tai]on in the Torah^ ihi: Gc-ntilcs comprjtc everybody cLse: rhosc 
pbced by iheirown tnEnnEJon ^nd jciive decision beyond ^c limns of Clod's 
revel^Eion.CiiideJ hy die lot^iK Ijiraelt^^orshipsGcid^ wJtbouLKs ilium in ai^on 
Getiiilefiwflfshi^ idols. A.t the n-uisft, therefore^ rheitiain poim re^^ren: by 
'Gentilci' the siges untStrsLind Gfid^ encjnic^i and bv 'brad' rhcj unJcr- 
tundp cho^e who know God J?^ God h^q niade himvlf Itno^n^ wNi^^h i^ 
diro-udi [h« Tor^ti. hi nc^ w^y do we deal ^ich seculaf categories^ "but wiih 
theological one?- 

T}ie liiUkhah rlieii server ^s ihe inean^ Tor tlie rrjnslanon of rh^ological 
COrtvi(|L.^rt IrilO^ftfial 1^1 ky, GeilEil^H-lr^A^flurii-xl lo he r«dy 10 r^urdrrarty 

Lsraditciheytningtiithdrhgidbon, rjpcany Israelire^vomeri, lommiibcitial- 
ity WLih any Israeli tr mvr. TEit Oral Torah cito fcwtasci toindifaic rhar ihai 
conviciLon rcsponndi id ordinary, everyday" evcnis^ the fiosciliiy to Gentiles 
flows from a ilicory of idolauyn noc the l^ct^ of everyday social incercaurse, 
which^ as we have seen^ die sag.e^ j-eenjiijaie is full of iicrighbndy eotdiahcy 
Then wKyialte for gran led that Clemiles routinely €:[>nimitcbetriotrjls^^^ 

^1 t^ei^K iJrtliify b^[ batialiiy, jortiicadoi^, and ft^urde^? Thai i& lwi:ause 
die halaUiah nkesa-S ii^ra^ there^lij^tionnrrheTheolc^git^ principle th:iT 
chose who hate Israel hatetiod^ cho^ewho hate ^^lodhaie Krael^ ind<Tod x^^ill 
ulLJmatflvvanqiji.-^h kraer^eiieitiiesa-shisowi^ — jiiSLaFi Godtc>o wa^ixde^n^ed 
frotr Egypt, So the dieory of idolatry involvjrg alienation fr<>m Godf 
accoiinrs for the wided conduct Imputed ici idt^lat-er^, witKout regard to 
■whether, m ntcthth-at lishov^ idoiatcrs conduct thcm5ch'cSr That nutter ot logic 
JsslaleJ in to maiv words. 

LA ' __ and let rhem that Kite vou flee before 


B And do thnse who hate [comie beforej him who ^pokeai^d brought 

ihe world utiLO hetiig^ 

C Thicpurposeof [he vcrscat hand Ji lo^ay (hai whoever hates liiael 
i^a£if.hcha[e-.shitn who spoke and by hjA wordh-rough[ ihe world into 

{Sifri to Numbeti, 84^4) 



TTie same pn>pojii]Ort ii rt-^arkcd- God can have no adi^nanw, but Gcniilc 
^CLemit:^ oi Jsrad ^t u tiKJugti dicy "^vcrc his cncitiiu. 

D, Along thcirTsatnt lines: 'In ihc _grratnc--S5 o-ryour iDajnty you 
avcr[hroTA^)xturadv?fsariB' (Exod^ I5r7). 

E, And arcihcrc rc^ly aJvcrsarici before him who spoke and by his 
word broughc chc world inco bdn^ &ur Scnpcurc ihu^ JLidicaEes diac 

whoever rose up agaiJisi krA^i \s is if he rose up ^ajji^ the 

F, Along thc«: samr lines; 'Do noi forget (he clamor olyoiir fotij the 
uproar of vo LIT adversaries, which mcs up -concmuahy' (Ps. 74^23)- 

G- Tw kj^ur enemies. O Lord' fPs. 92:10>, 

Hr Tar ihose who lire [ir from you shall perish, j^u puian cndro 
dioac^vho arc ^acloyoii' {'P5.7}\Z7). 

]. 'For lon your enemies are in nimuhn chose who hacc you have ni^ 
dicir h-i:ads^ <I^s. S3:2). On whai acctujiii? 'Thev lay crafcy plans ^ain$c 

your people^ ihev neNn^ul: m^rlier ngjin^c youf prorected ones^ 
(Ps- 83:3). 


Israel hates GwJ s cncmicsT and [srad is hated bcca.use of its loyalty to God (a 
matter to whieli we shall ruum prtsentlyL 

J, 'Do ] n-oihaic [hoL^c who haccyou, OLordrAnddoL nor loathe 
dicm Lhat ri^ up against you: I hac^ihcni>^idipeffc:cihauc:dHl wur.r 
ditm my enemies' (?s- 1^9:21^22), 

K- And so too izripiure say^, ^For whoever lay_q hjnds on you is 4* if he 
ky$h^nd$on ilie appleofhisejV (Z^k 2,12}, 

Li Rn JudiLb siiyt, 'Whpt Ijwriutn litwi, "ibt Kj?pi^ t^fan cyV bui "ihc 
dppk t?f ^jjc^/' it ks as if Scrip cure speaks of iiim above, but Scnpturc 
has U3cd an cuphcmibKi.' 


Ncm" [hctun3a[uciicc3ofthc5rproposiTioTis are drawn: 

y And whoever gives help co Israel is as if he ^vcs help lo hjm who 
spoke and by his word brou^r che world inco being, as le js satdn 'Course 



Memj^ -sap iKe angel of the Lord cur^^bitttrLy its itiKibJiaticsH because 
chey time not 'o die helpof ihc Lard, to the bclp of rhc Liird against 

the mjgJuy' 0"^&- ^^?5K 

\Vr R. Simeon b- FJmi^t sav5, 'You have no ir.orc pri^^d pari of ihi^ 
hodvrhan ihc cvcand L^rad haibeencomprcdra ii. AfurcLcf 
c^mpariwn; if i^ lilfl" is huon l^js hcadf onlv tiis eyes feci it Accord- 
inolv, vou have no moTcprtied paii of (he bisdy than :hc cycn and IsrElcl 
has been compared to it/ 

Xr SoScripiuxesaysH 'WLai:, my soji, what, bOJi of mj wfiinh? WhaE, 

son ufitiy vowi^' (Prm^. 3L2J. 

Vr And ir^aySi ^NCTien I was a son widt m^ father^ tcndtCn th^ only one 
in lilt SJcht of my morhcr, he tau^ftt tuc and said EO mt^ "Lei your hean 
hdd f^t mv words" ' (Prov, 4:3^)- 


7"hf propotiii<>niiu]unncedinheoLiricE[i fully amcularcd-[hoicwh[>haic 
Israel haic God, those "who are tnctntes t>f Israel arc enemies oJ God, tlrosc why 
lielpl^raclhdpGcid-andthcnsjMerTiaficaLly Liisiaiitiaied by facts set lorthi^ 
ScHprure The systematic pixK^f extendi "beycrid verses of ScrJpcure, with scat- 
^togue f]f che ifizbecypal ^ntmies aEscmblcd: r'n&niobn Sisera, Sennacneribn 
Ndrnicb^dneszar^ J-Jainan. So chc paradigm reinforce^ die jmcial alfcgaiion 
ai^il ttpifcoii^ if Kxs. The correct then of all choiaghi nn krae" and rhe 
Gci»i3lesft]"ididefEiiirionLnjjpernarLiraiiHiiC5Bndconiciiin iheology^ I nrhc 
Orjl Torah rhc sagei at no point deem as merely secular rhc cac-egoiy of 

fiiyw leF Lis SK how the Ccnciles are characterised in thJs-worldly lerms, aa 
we have noted how^beiiig UaeV ji assumed to mean a given seroi vcrLues inar 
will maik the Tiraclitc as 3n andaviJual- ftTicn tiod bk^aes Gentiic natjoi^&j 
ihfydo not acknowltd^ him harblaiphemCn but when h^blrsEcsbrad^rhty 
glorify him and blc55 himi ihcK judgmen[5 clahoraic the basic principle that 
iheGencilctdo not know G-xl.^nd Isfad dne£_ Burwhar-emer^ts hert is that 
^'^n wlien che Gendlcs ought to n:to^iic Cud's liinJ an iheLr al^irsn even 
wlien God blesses :hem. thcv stj]l deny hilUr Cuming ignorance inro wilful- 
n«Sr what is striking 1^ ihc exaet balance of thrct: (Unfiles i^ agaiiisi rhree 
Jsraelltev all (>f tlie siarus of wxjrld rulers: the cOmn^on dii^tF - Pilifioh, 
^enn^hcnk Nebiich adnciiar - V5. [be sMndanJ Juttcr - David, Solomon^ 
iiEiil Daniel. 

A, 'On rhe eighih day you shall have i solemn asscmb)/. |V<il] ih^l! do 
no laborio-ub work, b"Ur you shall offer a burn: of&rin^T an olTering by 
Gre> a pleading odor to ihe Lonk _._lhese you shall offer co the Lord at 



yoLiT appoinicd fizasis in addLrLDn to yourvoiJve offerings and your 
Freewill offeringi, for your bLiinroffennjy and for your ccrcaJ offerings 
and for vcmrdrLnkoffcriiigs and for your peace offcrangs]' ^Nuin. 29: 

F, Bur ^u have increised the nacioti, O Lord, yon have increased the 
naciojii [}^c urc gl<]riried^ you We enlai^eJ all tlie bor-ders of ihe landf 

(P«iqia dcRab Kalians SBd.l) 

The proposLcion having been scaied, :he conifXMe-r proceeds lo aniasi evidence 
for :Ke two concriicing propoinio-ntn iiric CciuJn: rulers. 

C You pave security to the wicked Pharaoh, Djdhc[hcn call you 

"Lord'^ "Was ii noi wicbi blasphemies and curses ihai he,said> 'VITio js ihe 

Lordj rhai I should lisren co l^is^nflicer' (Exod. ^:2). 

V}r Vou- gave securny lo ihe wick^ Sei^it^cUerib. Dad lie chen c^ll you 
'Lord'^"Wj3 itwi with blaiphctn Ih and curies thai heiaidj "Who ii 
there among aJ] tht gtidi of die lindth? (2Kgir IS. 3 5). 

E, You gave sccuiiry i-D the wicked Ncbiicbadnezsai. Did he then call 
you ^Lord^? Was l: noi wjcb blasphemies and curses ihai he saidn And 
who 15 God 10 save you from my pffAcr^^ [Dan. 3:1 ^). 

NoiVp nicely balancird^ come IsracLiie cciuncerparcsL 

r_ ^__ )'ou hase- increased ihc naiicm; youi areglaijRcd/ 

G, You iBii'csecurirycoDflvid .i^idsnhelibialyou 'David bh*cd 

the Lord before rtJJ the coiigK^rtori" (I Chr, 29:10). 

H. Voj gave security to his sofIt Solomon, and so kc blessed you: 
'Blessed IS the Lord^vho has j^ven r«l co his people Israel' 
(1 Kgs. 8:36). 

I- YoLi gave sccurJi^ lo Daniel and so he bles-scd you: "Daniel aiis^vered 
and said. Blessed hcihe name of Cod' (Dan. 2:201. 


Here ]s annrlitr Atr oFrstnif^slre^- rhreeenemia, rhree_qa]nr^: a lair march. In 
each cj^Cj the IsfjeliK responded to tiod's fa>&' with blessing, and the 



GentiEe wirh hUsphemv- In thii way cheC^entiLei shffw the price chej" pav for 
uyrknowijtgGod hvt serving Jio gods insifjd- Like phil[>fo^>^let■g, iKe sages in 
the docum^ncs of the Oral Torah apped lo a smgle o-use to accoum for 
divtrst phtjiomjifiifc^ the same fa^ortKat tsplainslsrgtlhjsalMCOi^ccoiintfot 
rhc oppOKicc chat ii. ihc Geniifeci; wh^ii Isrjcl Kas, Gc^niilfs lack, and thai 
common pcint ha& made iilJ ihc dift^rcn^Ci IduJ^try is ^hEii ^igci^ Q^l nn^ 
turnshima^instthcGcntilcsT stated in 50 many words atb. ArZ. hi L23Hb: 
'Thattiincat which God gci5 angrj^conicsi^hcn the kings puc on thcircrowns 
on chcir hcadi and prosEraK chcmscUxis co ihc sun. FonhwEth the Hcly Onc^ 
blesM^ he IiCt grows angry-' I hai is wh}^ it isabiolLLiely forhiJden to conduce 
any sort of mnimerce xviih G^ntils in connectiotfi with occisjoas of udolj" 
uout wutihipj fy[ cwmpEcn f^MV((U sMid ib^ Ijke- 

Wh^n we come to the hiljIfhih'streaLtnentof cheiimt ropitjour firstciues- 
fion must be why do the sig£.s deftiic ^ priticipal cac^orv 0^ che hilafcluli Ln 
chls wlsc? It is h^au^c tfie i^ges must devote a considetahle accounc to the 

&ulxiK[i nation and pctiury-Fonftiieirory of the n^otjlottjerrd 
rhai «iOTrt»pai5W all c^k^v<>^^ [l^-cHapitrof^Gctiiilt rule v^^il^ dbr^pr^ tN? 
acccMjnt. GcntlJc tuIc fijittii the pvinx. yf tension^ chc iourtc of tocifllct, 
attracting attention and demanding cxplanatiorr For chc Liicical problematic 
Inhcrcnc in the carcgtjryn Isiad, is that its anti^atcgory, chc GcntjIcSn doml- 
nice. Sft whit i^nomlLty ^fa w^^^ld ordwd rh rough | tisricc acciriuncs h>r the 
wrtfid ruled hy Gentiles represents the UFgeju quesELon to which tht .system 
mtiit iRpviiOn And ths? e^pUi"^? whfr [h? sy^temn; problemjuc <"-otvw^ wp*" 

chc i|u«.tiori: how c^n iust^ce be thought to o*der the world if the Gentile 
rate? Th-^r iorniniarirtti hirtherm^^re f<>rms the public coLinteipirc zo the pri- 
vate perplcxiij: hftw is ]t that ihe 'vv'icked pfCh^peiand the righteous suffer? I'he 
rwo challenges to ihe tt>nvJc[Lc)ri of the rule oi n^oral rauoiuljcy - Geniile 
h^mony, notched by ihe pnttperiiy of wjcke<l ^^eisons - marcliL 

Yet hcmhch[tiakhah turns out w make it5 o-wn point, cjnc that should not 
he missed. Thehalakhahptciuppascs not Gentile hegemony but only Gcncilc 
powTi^ and it furnhet takes tor gran t-cd that laraditcs may make choices, may 
specifically tcfraJn ftom trading in what Gentiles value In the service of then 
godfijiftdrwdy hflld back fr&mGfmilis what Gcniiks require for th^r service, 
[n this t^rd the halakhah para company from tht a^adah^ ihc piccurc 
sained hv kjok-Lut niwatJ ]ioi cnrFesp"]]idu"LC lo il^e auiw-ard-lacdn£ perspec- 
csvtr Focused upon it^ten-oniiej that prove red 3Jid lajigible^ not maccers of 
C:hc4l<^;i<=ll theory at all^ the haljkhah of Abod^ Zarah I^^Latef for a worLd 
tn which Israelites, though apparently ^nhoidinaie^ goT^ern their own behavior 
and Kreer rheir nwn cnurw. 

What ihen IS [he dilTerence between [he neniJleji^ihelM-idiK^i^^^ 
ally and «j11cct]vely {thert being no distinction between the private person 
and the public, social, and political en tity)P A picture iri catco graphic form of 
che Theological anthropology -of fheOtalTorah would portray a many colored 



slu-ch:, in chr halakhaJip Gcntilts, like their id-ob^ arc a^vKc have fccn, n^uurccof 

uni:lca_nnKsofthc53m<: vimlcnccas corpse undcinncsSn the- pciimctcr would 
be in undiffc-runcJaHrd whiK^ the -color of death. The law of wnclcannciii bears 
1h Theological counKrpart inthclorcof dcathand rwiirrcccionn a single theol- 
ogy an j maun gbcnh_(ienrile' idolaters and Israeliic- worshippers of rhc one and 
only God pan conipnv a: dtfith- For ihc moaicm Israclii^i die bui rise from 
ihegtavcs tifntiksdieand remain [here_The roads in cersccE a: the grave, each 
torTLpOritrH tjf KuiTLanny Ciikiilg Irs <^wn pgch hey^fid- lsmeljce.s - jn^aniiig-, 
thD5cpo55Ciir«luf right ™nvictit>n- Will riw from dit gr^v^^ si^rnd lai judg- 
me-nr, bur rhrncnttrupwn ctrmal life, to^'hich no one c:iic will enjoy atLms- 
Sop in subiiancc-, humanjiy viewed whole is di"vidcd between those who get a 
ihaiein dicw^orld [oconw: -Israel- and who wlJI stand when siibject to divine 
judgnieni and ihose who will noE. 

Clnrlif, Ehc moral oidering of rhe v^^^rld ena>cn|xuiKs 3.11 hununiiy- Bm 
from [he perspective of the Tcirah Cod does noincglctt the GentiJcs or fail tu 
exercise dominion over them. For even noWj Gentiici arc iubjccc to antimbcr 
of commandnieiits or reljmoiis oblie^iions. Qod eaies foi Gentiles as Eor 
I^radh he wajits Genciles is nitich as Israel to enter die kingdom of Heaven, 
and he assigns t(>Ge]ic]1estppporfiinE CIS Loevmec their aceepcance of hit mlc- 
Oncofth^se cOTYimandmerics 15 nottoeur_sc G^A\ namCf so Mishnah'^ractaie 
SanhedrirL?'^ [.2/^63: "Anymjn who cut(^ hi^ GoH shjIITheaphi^jiin" {1&. 
24:15)': It wotild have been tJcar hatithL"tes[i:in]ply hU, Anun/ Miy docs 
j[3pecJfyH 'Any? It scr^c lo cncocnpasH idoBatcrs, who art admonished not to 
curse rhe Name, |Ui: ai Israelites art so admon]shed. Not ciirsir^ God, even 
while worshipping idolsn seems a minimaleizpcci^tior]. 

In feet there are seven such religioii5 obligations that appl^ tothcthildtenof 
Noah. Iris nor surprising -indeedn it is predictable -that thcdehnitionotthe 
m^tcer should find tts place iq dur halakhah of Abodah Zarah. 

T-8:4 A- Concerning *fven rdigiousrequ^rement^wer^tht children of 

B. setting tip courts of jujrice^ idoktry, blasphemy [cut^itig rhe Name 
of Godh tornicationT bloodshed, and tSiicvcry. 

(Toscfra- tractate Abodah Zarahn S:4— 6J 

We ncftv proceed [0 show how each of [ht5tTeligiou5obligidt>n5i5rt^r^ 
as applying to Gem lies as much as ro Isiaeiices. 

C- Concerntiig; selling up cdufis of justice — how so [how docs 
Scriprur^or rojon v^idftEethe^Uimdi^t Gentiles are user jp courts 

of juitlcej? 



courts ofjusEkt 

R. Gjrce^njr^giJolatrj^iiid Wp^phemy- Ktjw so? ... 

R CanccmiiiEEbmiauon-hofl^so^ 

G. 'On accDLiiiT' of any form of prohibiccd sexual relationship on 
accounrofwtijch an Jsraclitc court inflicrs chc dc^ih pcndi}\ ihe 
children of No^ are subject to warning' ihe wofxbof R^ Mett 

H. And |rhc] wg-ci: ki/, 'Thtre art many prohEbiTed relitricknihips, on 
JCtOurttofw>iith fln TicndilCtOuri tlo&noi inhliatlic dervish penally 
^ntj rliediildrenof No^hare |nrttj warned!- In regard to ilifse brbid^lei^ 
rds-iiomKips [Kt tiatiotis ^re fod^edin accord ^^ifli rlie b^s governing 
ihe nations.' 

L "And y[>u have only chc prohibilious af 5«Ljal relatione 'with a 
bcLroihcd majdeiikuic.^ 


The j^stenilTJcion fifScnpcure'se^denceJoiihe stared [>ropfls]rLcmcftntLiiu«^ 

TS ^5 A_ For hlondshed - hi^w so? 

B. AGeniife [^okUk] at-iennfeand a Gentile who bJlU an Israelite 
are liable. An Israelice [who iullsj a<^enr]le \s e^empE. 

Ch Concerning [hievery? 

D. flfj one has^tolcrp o-f j^jobcdr an J ino tuo in tnetjsc ofnndciig a 
bwnjiiFul capri^T Iwomanjn and in ^imiUi casti: 

£. a Gentik \n regard lo a Gcurile^ or a Gcnti Ic in rc^rd lo an bra^hic 
- ir isprohibiied. And an hraelite iai re^rd i^ a (ieniile - ie is 


TSifi A_ Contenting a limhieur frftni 3 living hea^t -^ 

Bh a dangling limb on ^ bcaivi, [^^Eikh] jsnnv [k ^onnta^] ^ i^brux^ 
ahfNur ht^ijig;. 

C iiftirbiddtn for use by the children of Noah, and, it go& wiihoiit 
sayings for Jar^clit;:^. 



D Bill iF there W (in rhe cf>iineccLnft fl-c^j iufficicni [hli^od lupplvj in 
bring About hc^lii^g, 


Asinih^Mseoflsfaeliies^sothcdntlipciialty app1i« toaNodhid^^ soMisli- 

rah-traccaicSajihcdrin 7:ST.'^5/5^a: 'On account ot violating three reli^ous 
duTiesarechjIdreaof Noah put to death: on actoujicof adulceij'T murder, and 
bksphemy/R. Huna, H-Jiid-ah, anJiil the dj^jplei of Kabsay/Oa account 
nfjicven wmn^^ndtrLcriLS 2 ^n of No^h i:f puL w d^aih. The AJI-M£j\:ird 
revelled [hj[iac[afaneof[hem, ind die same rule applies to Alloftltejii.' B-uc 
ju^T 2S Isnelitet, eduLzaced iniheTorah, area^sutnedtaekhLhic ceriun unEfortn 
virLLLei^H ior eiample, forbearance, so Gen riles Jacking chat same^edLJcacion, are 
assumed ro coiiforin co a dLiTereiit mod-el_ 

(jenrile^, b]'f£a£onnf[heLrcondL[ion DUL-^jde-ofihcTorahiarcdiiraacnzed 
by ^rrain rrairj^ njtiLtalEachdrKLnurionH 13 ndOieiie^rt worldly. NaTonly.sOj 
but rhc-hiLj^'thcvlu^ of Gccirilci shapes dicaiurniytivcldiA iu liuw cc;ni:kcci(j 
riicin.Acu>rdiji£tutheT<jrahJfai]L5racliic Lnb^riaturtfij/bcarLr^andtb^iv- 
■ng, ihe Gentile Is by nature rerocJoiu. That explains vp^hy In the halaldiah as 
much as in die agg^aliGcjiEilcs^rc^way^suspecr aFliiecard:nal sin^, bcstia]^ 
ity, fonijcaijon Hand bloodied, a^w^lla^cfiu^t^ni idoBairy'lJia: viewofmai- 
ci^rs i&crnb^>dicd in norii^aiive laWn ^s "a^ h^ve ifeen. ~[~he bw ofihe Miiihnab 
c:ot'rejpond3 co che lore ^f sciipmra] esegesli; :he iheory oHhe Gennlei cov- 
ems: iti h[5th_ Beyond cheTorah chere ls hoc oliIv no salvation fromdcaihn rhcrc 
i$nnt even ihe poivSLbLlm' of a coninran decency ihe 'ibrah niake^all ihedif- 
fei^nce TKe ujMh-ot r^^v h^ sfir^ v^ry ajmply^ kpa^I and rh^ GentJl^a form 
iheiwodLvisiofLSofliuniuiJcv-TJicnnc^'il] die hut risr from chc grave m erer' 
na] life >vpih CcxI Whcri [he <>rkt dift> ir pffiih^j ta i^ rh< end- 
In thcTorah Mcj5C5 said ic vcrj^ wd): choose Ijir. TheC-cntil^ lut-tain com- 
parison and contrast with Israel, the poi nt of ultimate diviision being -death for 
the onc^ eternal lire for the other. IFIsraeland tbc Gentries are deemed compa- 
rable, ihcGennlcs donoi acknowlcJj;eorknowGodT chei'clore, while cbiry are 
Lkc IsracliECi in diirijtga -common tiuinaniry by rcisonol myihic genealogy - 
deri'vingfrnm Koah- the tlenaleido noi t■ecel^'e in a meritorious manner rhe 
bless I tigs that God hesLO"ws upon th^ni. When iccnniesto [he halakhah^ iswe 
ti^vc ^i^cn, the religious probleinacics focus- not upnn the Geniile^ but upon 
Israeli whaCn given ilie warld as it is, can Israel do in ihc dojninion subject -co 
I^i'i^rs c^n ^hl] ^nd Jni^nii^n? Th^t i^ ihs qu^mon that rhe hilakFah fully 



THEQUR AX. H\l>[rH. F TQl I 

Thd ideiiLLn^ rtfihe communis wnm 3^ c;1sirt3[T in Islam as tt k in Judaism. 
Wheitisinjudii-^m vmy liiilc onibidcr^ibn h rakcnufihoscouisidcihcholy 
p^oplfj 'I'jdji^ l^lam't st^u^«5a§real dcELlot~3ncm]c^ii is^vcjuopctrpJcof 
c^thti" l^ifll c&tTimuniticip manj^ mentioned by name. These are accorded 
greater different iadon ihin 'the ^oyiin' arc bv Judaj^ni- But che prineLi^l 
poiDEs of difFercjiiiacion remain focused [i^\i in^Lt^rs rif f^irh ^ai^l pr^^rice. 
Accent ion ts given lo people wLio do tiorheii^e in God ikjf^aT), t^i people who 
pretend lo belceve but do Jio: jeilly [mun^fiijuji), nnJ to t(n>!nc wlith believe in 
muiEJpic gods {f^itihrikujii. Indeed, Jti many wj/s, tV Mti^iiJni mmmuniry 
defines iiself m-i-t^ij the eommujijtjes of" Jion-Mu^lini :iiat]y[|]esbi5 and 
non-monodictsTs. Vet because rheQiir'an recogniiiftlJ^yt 5ymc i^wplc amflng 
other FaJth group a_rc irue beiie^erSH ^Jid that dtJmitdy it is only GcJ who 
|udges, [heljties bemeen [he idenriry nf the wmrpur^iiy (jf Prophet Muham- 
mad and ibose out^adt ut^i tfln][fiuEiicy arc not neatly dra^n in scripture. 

The Qur^in, in fetct, uses a fLuinbcr of tcrnis to designate the^Lthfu). The 
mtN^fl^fttfal il'Mie^-eiri" <rf/'-mH^;ffun).[hcNsc who acCTpt die existence of :^^ 
one God, j/-ii]/3 fth^ |on!y] God) orAllah.Addre^MngrhcPrnphcc'i followers^ 
the Quran says; 

[ndeed, God ha_s blessed che believers by bringing forth anu^nE them a 
nwssengcr from, imon^ ibentselvei^ who teei+t^ for fihtrri hit. verses and 
purifi-cs rhcjn and leaches them ihe JiMskiJid ^iido:nj -St]^^;l^^ befiire 
that they were obviously' mcsguided^ 


The vcfse ctjntiaijesj conirasung the bJicvrts (al-muminun) ^ich ihc hypo- 
crLi:es{al-miinjfi<^u[l)r Belcmng to the E^tdc of Uhud bcrwcen the Muslim 
coiTim^nny at Medina and their enemies in Mecca stion alrcr the emicrancji 
(Hijta^ 622 CE)> the Quran oLpIains dia: the dcfcar of die Medinan^ by the 
Meccans was a test ^ven by God. 

And whic happened eo you on f lie day wktin-ihi; twu groups met wa^i by 
God's coniniandi [ha[ he would know the bclitvcrh and the bvpociEin. 
And i[ was sacd to rhenif 'Come and fight in che wav nl'lxi^i gnj 
defend.' They said. If we knew how to fifcht, we wouJd fi>^^fT^H yo^t/ 
That day- thcj- were cicpscr to disbelief {■^_^] ili^n \o belief, ^Aying with 
their mouih^whai Ji nnt in ch^it hearcSr God knows what dicy arc 




Tke hypocrites J re here likcnnl co uribclJcvcrsT those who cnc^cc^Jn \^iiir. 
[TL^ans buth ingratitude (FarGod^s ^vdi-Sj and ^Iuie to lecoeni^c (iodai alL^ 
tlia.t [;?, unbelief Alttiou^ the meanings o-f Lngrdtiriide and uriheJi^fare F^r 
ap^ft in English, ^Ithia the Quranic woryvicwihtcwoareircEmatel^tiOLJtid^ 
clcarrccognltitmofthc onLyCcd is lisumcdincviKhly cft resulr in obedaeil«> 
submission, "worship. I heie^ see-n is marLt of gri^ciriide, demftnsfratc the 
Qiir'an's rquation of tfUE belief "With f«pon^ive beliavi^hr. In the foregoing 
vcr3£TiheonlvdLH:Liic[ii:rnl)en,veerouLrighE LH^heHe^PiinLnd hvpotriit'i ts (hat 
[he hypocrites do not admit thcJf atheism. Ncv^rchclcs. it demonstrate iirscif 
in cheij-aciions. andin iny case^ tjOtl htio^-s isid si-ill juJgt ausjrdingjy- 

As w^iaw in ^ lie previous cHuprcti bcliefin the oncGod^ integrally related 
to or expressed in righteous behavior, i-s the focus of the Qtjr'ans teaching. 
Til us. nearly ninety y^.T\cb arc addressed direcjJy to 'those who bdjeve'. For 

O you who helSeve, enter In peace completely and dc notfollciw die 
fo<i(3tepS ^fSiHan, Indeed, he is the clurencmv ofyoLi- 
llhii, 3:208) 

Indeed, believers arc brothers, so make peace between brothers aad caU 
proLc^iioiii wkh God^^rhaihcwill be m^ratijl H^ynu- 

OyouwKo beheve,d[>u<>ccntidjx^orLe people against another ^vho 
niiy be better tli.4ti thcy^ nor women against women ivho jnay be benei 
thari they^ and do not backbite among yourselves noi jnsulr. InstJt after 
belief ij evil -and th<isc who do not repent are -viTtjngdocrs. 

you wjlo beli^ve^ a^-oid ttiuch suspicion^ ror some aiisp]cion is sinfuL 

[Ibid. 49^^-13) 

The difficulty of najTin^nToicspcdfjcdlyrhecomjiiunir^'ehKi^ 
isr^flcctcdin.Lhc JQlJoy^ngverssof Ehesamedu|?[er 

O peopicnivt created j^ti from ^ m^^le^nd a remile and we made you 
tribe? andd^^^n that y&u^^Li Id Itnoworit another Indeed, the most 

dEsiingtiished among you wiHi God are- thijse who are mtMc picMis- Triifyp 
God knows, and i_s aware. 

I"he l!edi>uin say^ ^We believe/ Say, 'You do not believe; instead, 5ay, 

"W^ submit/ fof bdi&f has noi^nt^reit v^ui^fcejrfs^ butd^ou obey 

Ciod ind hi5 mey^iiger, h-e will not rake anyihingaway from your 
d&edv Indeed tiod isrotgi^ingand tXJmpabiioDatc.' 

Truly the bcllcTH^rsare those v^ho belicvr in Gcd and hi& messengetj 



fhcn ha\x not doicbtcd and have expended cvciy effort ^ith their "wcaith 
and their pcrsoni in the way ot God. They are the truthful on-c^. 

Say, ^Do you acquaint God with your rcfij^ion, when God knows ^^'hl[ 
L5 in the heavens and the earth and God is Vf-cII aware of cvcrvThine:' 

They eounr [[ as a^vor toyoti diac they ^ubrntc. ^yy ^Do not counc 

>^kir 3ub-mL3iiOft (wifflt) ^ a fev^r; ti«i beiww; hmt ^ti wu chic he 
has guided yoLi to helief, if you are (rutHul/ 

[jidwrd, Go J knowi the hidden things of die heavens and earth and 
God sees wkai you do. 

(Ibid. 49:1^19) 

The Qur art setrrs tc be discinguishing here between true belief (rmtffl) and 
submissiun {islffrn} en obedicnccT wjth the implication ihai ev-cn before true 
brnerdcvc.op&H it is spintuaJly advantageous ro obej the teachings otPTophci 

Muhajnmad. Ncvathclcss^ k is clcir thairheQur'^an again emphajLzes rhii 
true beiief 15 reosanizahle in peoples accii^^ns^ radier ihan ii] ^h^ii'svorj^ n|- j|| 
how ihey identify thtms^:lve3_ 

Because of [he imporuiiee of rnie belief eirprtyed in tilt Qlj^'sfi and many 
ver«s addressed r<] the believers, it seems cleiAirrhac "the believers' waa an early 
dnignatiun of rhc Muslim txjmmurLity. Thii is aticstcd to by chc faa thar (he 
ear] ic St leaden^ after fhcdeatborPro-phet Muhammad (6^2 CL]^ called cheni' 
seizes leadcr^s) of the believers/ uf?^am (singular: irmir) £ii'^u?nmtr^. 

It i-s in this- context that the teim 'ls[an^\ asiE iz used today lo designate ihe 
rrligiiJOn j-ppcars m (he Qi-iran, although only c]Eh^ times. Wc saw one 
instance abovc^ where people were told chai their islarnh locafe^r roGod 
but isratberCods Fa"vortothem. Indeed, die Quran [caches that chisstibnijs- 
sion results from Gods guidances '"Wb^m^^er Ciod wants m guide., he instib 
iuhniissJnji (jiZ-ira) in his breast/ (^d2flL cf- 39:24) BiLt we ife Alsi^ told tliat 
[hfonly [FU£ religion is^ubmis^ion tn [he^illorGod. a^ ifk>M 

God and the Angela ind tho« with knowlcdjjc, upholding justice^ bea.r 
T^itness that there is no god but CoA there is no god but he, the greac^ 
tne^iser Indeed, tht; religloji oFCokI is submission (al-hlam). And 
those wbo WJ^rc given the Book did nor differ j^xcept afrer knon^ledg? 
umcnthcnii InmLiiuaJerror. And whocyeidiabclio^in dic^igns^f 
God^ truly God will quicJdy cake it into account. Then if rhey dispute 
T^ith you, say; 'I have submitted myself, as have those who follow me.^ 
Say CO those who have IxKn given the Bool^ [Jews and "Chriirans] and 
iv the unlearned^ 'Kavq yo\i submjrtcdi' Then, if dtey hav* su^n^ttied, 



ihcy have been gajdcd^ and if tticy furn batki dicn Ie is far }vur4 
Emuoum^ [the mcHagc], afid God sees ihcwt wlio serve. 


Similarly/Whwvcr 5C cb och^r chill fiLjbm]£5J<in (iiimi) i^ 
be atccpccd fram him and he wiLI he ^nii^jig di* loiers in the afterlife.' (3:86J 
TiucrcligL^iiirhenni&submis^on [oihtvKJJLnfCjoJicrvcnifrhv^tinvijIvcd^cdl 
rhcmsclves Jew^ or Clirjsiians. It is not dcirtribcd us Prophcc Muhammads 
mis^on :o Jtiake rhem dtiaige rhtlr group des^atton but to announcr ihc 
trutri TO (hefn- Gtxi ^■lliudge dicm by chcLracfLDiif and intcncLcniL 

It is [nrcrcvting tu note the use of the rcrm cranslaEcd as^reli^^^n' (c^u) ]n [he 
QliVm. For e>:ampEf : 

Aiid Abniliarn <:liai^cd hh sons vjdi Ehis^ and Jacob: 'My sons^ ii^d?^ 

God cEiosc the religion {dm) for you so do noi die until you hiv<:su.b- 

irbid-. ?;133) 

-rtnd fi]^ht (those who fighiigaJnfL}vni] unril thewis no oppress ion ;iiid 

icligion (dJB) L^God-i- Bui if [hey icop, thcJi nu hostility LHxpt toward 
the oppressors^ 

{Ibid_. 2^194) 

TheJC Is no compulsion in religion (i/^s), TU^ht h^ been clearly disciin^ 
gijisKfd irOiD wTong. So whoever disbcljiTiTS jji idols and believes ]n 
God h^^ hold til" the itrongcsE, jnbrcakablcbond. .■\nd Godhcais^nd 

(Ibid., 2:257) 
Indeed^ the religion {^m) of God is submission (i^kmf) 

O PcoplcoftheBook, donocgo beyor^d y<iur [elisor (din) and do noi 
sjyanyThii-Lgflt^UtGfld Csttpt lilt irulh- Indcrdi die Mc^sidipjcsuSi 
50n of Marjj wnj^i Tin:£i»mgcrorGod and hii word which he sent down 
CO Matynand \m spirit liom him, ^o believe in God and his messenger 
and do not say, 'Three [Tjinit>i.' 

(Ib[d_, 4:172) 

All J tht> were ^unim^ndt^lrnLy to obcyGodi making rciigitinWifl"} his 

in sii]ccnty^ being ri^rl^ guided^ and to pcrfoim pra)/er and ^ve z^ka^^ 

And that is the religion {^Htj} of "value. 

(Ibid. 9^:6) 



Tlic«:rin^^>j loused inihis w^aLka^isixn^mc^rcdnic^s. fiuiihcs^meumi 
jsalso LJ$ed to me^n^itiefin^ judfmenc^' at Ee^EeighEe^n CLLnes. Far £i:aniple-^ 
the Qurinapeni wJiJi^ 

fn [hf nanie oF^nd the mer^ifulH ih.^ cf?mp±A£[n iiate^ praise bel^^ng^ to 
GoJ, the Lord of che -worlds^ tht merdfiiL ihe comp^^sioJiste* dw 
master E>ftbe day of iudgtnem Ujw)- 


[Godj said, 'O [blis [<lcvi]jT what is the matter with you thar]TOiJ are no: 
among ihos^ who bow Jbetore rhe human btcngn as God insrruoE-ed and 

[he res[ of the angels did^ ackjiowled^idig his special role in God's: ptaji|.^ 
Ke said to him-, '1 am noLg4>ing to how he^re a persnti you creared 

from clay and sihaped mud_' He said^ ' l"hen l^ave from here for you are 

damned. And Indeed onyou wilt be a turseiiniil the Day cf Judgment 

Biit yoii disbelki^ m the jmlgniefit- {<i^ti) And indeed over you are 
guatdiaiii, li&rtored recorder, they know what y<}\$ are lioi ng. Indeed* 
thcvirtiiotLs wUbclu bliss a.iid the evil wJll be In ML btimmg thereon 
chcdiyof judgment (^jn). And rhry will not bf absque fro-m rhcrc. And. 
what makes you realize whai [hedayofiLidgmcncjsf' Again, whan makes 
you KaLzewha.[ theday offkidgment [5? The da> a person has no power 
over a[nutherj pej'£on and [aLl] po^^r ih^i day wil] be Gods [alonej. 

(IbiA, 82:10-20;) 

One of tke noun foinisorvhe Eametfrm (^di^) means 'debt' oi^ what isdue/ 
andif^ererm is also usediiirkeQiir'inapp^fenrlywhrharwnseonftccat^^^ 

YoK csampk: X?n iliar day Gtxl ^vill pay ihtm iheir dtie and ihcy wiJi know 
ihni Gud h die U^gif imih.' (24=25) E^cd vn (h^i u^g?] K^mc hypchihcMz^ 
that the common bond between 'religion and 'judgment' is that is thar (hey 
arc both somcthinfr 'owi:d'. Correct bcJicf and bchavjor-arc owed co God the 
Creator, explaining why ^disbelief' and ']ji]y^tirudc' arc the same tcim in 
Anabici and che lasi jud^enc is only far Cod m make, whiie^ve for our pare 
will receive whai we are owed 

Inatiyda^B, tbfierm j/-Jjj"jistJ_sed[OJ¥f?ruiihefeligLotiofAbfa_haiti,aswfl 
saw, and it is also dnc rdLgionof Noah^ and of ^1 dit prophcESL'He has pre- 
bribed for vou a& reli&on whac he hai chared Noah wirh, and whac we 
reve^Eed to you and Abraham and Mosses and Je^us: "EfcablUh relJgLon {^n) 
do noisep^raie over it/' ' (42:14) Bvr dl/^ is i*or ihe only term used (or 'relj- 
a;iciii\ Tht tetm mi/Iah is also used^ foe tMampler 


And "who [uiru froinihc religion [flJi/irj'?)-Qf Abraliam tKCfpi the 

Andchcy tay/Be J^wf or Chrisrians co be guided.' Say, 'RathcTn the 
religinn ImiJLh'j of Ahrih^in tlie rJ^dv inclined {hamf);hz wk noc 


And I followed [be religion (jrti£ij/?^ of m>' Others Abraham and liaac 
and Jacob. L[i& nocfbrus id associate a nycbngwiLh *Aifd, Tharis-by 

th^graceof GQdfQj-usuidfbj"[wh^r| p«3ple^ but irwiC petjpk die not 

(Jbid. 1?:39> 

So rhc ^/ra of Abraham afnd rhe ^niV^i^orAbraliain areojie and the same, rhe 

triHT rtligionn Eor Abohani is ai once ngbdy tnclined {hj^nif)^ a ttue believer 

AndwJicii AbrJurrMud Lhmud niiicdihcfountktiion^of [hchousc; 
'OurLordj accept from us i^r vou arc all-hcarinE and sccLne. Our Lonl, 
mak^ us submitccrs {^usUmiTi} to you and [makcj our offipriiiGa sub- 
mittir^ {mushrT^) people co you/ 

(Thid-, 2:138-29) 

Abraham was neither a Jew nor a C}irjsi]an buc kc v^-ai rj^rly jncicnird 
(fidflj/), 3^bmiitiDg(HMf/jfl2)^ind wa&no: an idoiarer. 

(Ibid-, 3:68) 

Say-p 'God wiirrkichful^^N follow rhe feli^ioji [jHz'iffrAi) of Abraham, 
righdr inclined [hatiif], for ke lA-aj eioc an idolater/ 

(Ibid.. 3:96) 

So -again wcicc the ccrmtliat camcio be used co d-[rsij;nate rhe religion ^ isl^m^ 
does nor hive the kind of cicfusiviit ronnoraDor^ tn ih^ Qiir'in ihir %vrNLjJd 
develop kccr k stctds instead eo indicate all ihose who believe in theon^God, 
ivho has inccjYcncd in hisrorp sending mcsacn^eis ^irh [rurKi and whoever 
acocpfs rhosc messages and lives in accordance wiJi tktm rho^ who submit 

In this conrcxtn chc Quran uses yet another rerm for rhe cnmniunicy 
Htablijhed tpy the Propher Muhammad: wmmd^, a ^nacjon' (cott^jtig Trom 
rhc same looi a^ rhe word for ^mncher^ jix-^i ^ ^narion' comes fVoin the same 
rcK>r as 'narivtry' or hjjch), people^ or 'cotnrrtunji/. There are numerous 



mcntEoni of prcvKius communicics {ifflMW, plural of K^jm^'F^T that have fajled 
to follow God-s guidarcc and so have passed away. Forcjtamplcj rc&rringcD 
idic dcsccnnjanns of Abraham, UKmacL l^aac, and Jacob: 

Thar ii a cominuniry (irwmfi&l rhai has pa.^-^ awav; for [hem jg what 
[Kev de^rv'^d^ and fc^r you svhac you have eained, andyouivill ntfibe 
quLSf loncd abcmc ^vhac thev were doing. 

Obid.. 2:135) 

Or do you iay that Abraham add litunaej and 3saiC and Jacob and the 
ifibtt were- Jew5 or Christians' SaVn 'Ajt you more knowlcdgrabl-f ikan 
<jod?' jAjiI wheals more oppri:saivc diai^ ihcoDe^ho hides (he 
cestamonj^ he has from God? God is noi jgnoram of whai you do. 

uiat L5 a community (tfr^^afj) that has passed away- for rhem is wtiat 
diey'dcicrvcdp and for you what you havccarncdT and you will noi tc 
questioned aboQi what ihey were doing. 

(Ibid-, 2:H1-M2) 

Abraham himself is desi:rtbt:d is a cotiimiinLiyj probably indicicing that he was 
the fbi^ndttf of che cocrmmtiicy of ttue believerSr 

[ndoxl-, Abraham was a commujiity iummnh) obedient to God^ rightly 
jndined {h^mifl.^nd he^^af noc among (he id-olaiers. Grateful fertile 
tavor^, he chose hint and guides him to chc straighc path (sira^ 
fljHTij^jm]- And wc gave him goods in (his world and indeed in the 
aftcHlfe he will be among the righteous . So we have revealed ro you to 
follow The religioii t7Ki!bh] of Abraham ih^ righrly indin^d {ha^if}, iiiJ 
he was not among ibcidolaicrs. 

Accoidingly, the followers of Prophes Muhamrtud are told: 

Thui, wf 4p|>oirtl6f yOu a Incdian [or moderale] colnmjn]ty {umr^t 
maar] m that you. ir^y bear witness to the people and ihc Messenger 
[Prophet MuLammadJ bra v'jtness to vt>u. And ^ronly made the 
direction of prayci ia^^Ia^) yo[i were l^ingso that we would know one 
"who follows the Mciienger from one who curns on his beds. 

([bid,, 2: 144) 

ThcQu.rm3ays that atojicrimCi ail people were one community- 
People wereojie ooininuniry [t^f^mafi), rhen (iorf btoiighf ft>tth 
prophets a_s annonncets and warnets and sent do^'u with them the 



BooJc cnf tFLith fo he could fudge a.moiig pcc^lcan things upon which 
ihey differed. And none djffcrcd on is ciccpt diose roivhom it was 
l^v^r^ ^er cle^r figns icp [h^m, oui ofjcdousy among, thcn^. 

(ibid., 2:2H^i:f-IOLiO) 

TiieQur^^ conFirinsclsfiwhenjihatrliJinnuliiplicJTyofcofninunLticswaH pait 

oftKe divine plan 

And if ^ur Loid had ivillcd. hi would have rnadt ]>cc]plc infO one com- 
munjcy, but chcy i:i3ntinuc ro differ, tsccpt fhosc up^n whom ^ur Loxd 

has mercy. And for thar he cieatcd dicm and die "word of your Lord is 

Furrhcrmorcp God has icnt a mcsscj^gfc w cmK comttiuniTy. 

And Totvery commuQJcy ^ujhwj.^) a messcn^rn io when ihcir messen- 
ger Einme^, Lc ]$ judged among them widi juscicc an J [hf:}^arc noc 


ilh]d_, 10^4 a) 

And wc have brought forth in every community {u^T^^ffj a irtc55Ciigeir_ 
5o serve Cod and Curn away from tcmpcatiorir For among rncm aft 
(hoK whom God has guid^ and among rhem ir^ rho^s rruly rurwd 
tovi'ard cjTur, Sd Havrl ihc land jridKC wharh^ppcnMoliais, 

Every ci^mmLinirv hai alio b^cnpivm riuials to follow. 

And For every com mujiity {ur?imah) wt made a ritual Df^acrifice so diey 
could niejirion the njmeof God over the animaJs oFdic herdt he has 
given tkern. Gud is one, so submit rohim^nd preach jn hurciifeityr 

llbitt,, ?233) 

For every commuaity {uf?if?iaM we have made a ritual fcatrihice m dty 
not let theifi ar_gue wlfh you <jn tljc matter ar]d tall to y<mt- Lord for 
indeed you follow the t:orTcct ^id^nker And it fJicy argue w^itk you^ say> 

^God ii TTiorcknowled^ble ahciur w'hqi voj da God (lidgtt among 
YOU on ^tic Day of Re^uritr^don ii^boji ihc tilings ^n wfii4i yvu djj??r.' 

CJbid. 22:6^70) 


Thl^Sag^'f^ ^^^ QUi^'^J^j Lii k^ptrkgwirh iiiov^iglifmphi'ii^c^nevprtt-qingtt'H^ 

belitf thrtJu^i guml wurkij guidci fwjplc A'^'^y ^ym arguing -ini^jn^ them- 
selves abt>iit iktit- vairi&us cretds and practices- h cxpbitas lurthef that t^-cey 
community wil] be judged t<>gcrhet in I ight of what tSwir respective messcn- 
gcn nave faughl ihcitl. 

And lojic] day wr wif] bring forth from aJI comm unitica (MffSflm") Ji ivii- 
ncsi. Tkcn those who disbelieve wtll not be aJowcd leave nor to 

[Lbid., i6:&5} 

-And |(>iic] djy wc w[|J btiilg forth It^jRiaJl C^^riifrt-nnities [f^nw^}aw||- 

nca foi: tVicm from Jimong thecriidvcs and wc wilS bring you asawii- 
JKSi 3g;lins[ ih^im, Aod w? I^gvc ^nj doi^^i [o vy^ |he Bwlc iv mjLi^ 

e^'erychin^dturajidjjsa guide and m inctc,^, <«nd dnnounung to tliNj:^^ 

who subEnit. 


Bditvers are then encouraged B come ctigethcr again aiiyingJe commtinicy. 

O you who bchcvCi rake refuse in God as you ahouid ^ ind d-o noi die 
withniiE having sLibnitired- 

And cling to the bond of God together and do not divider And 
remcmbct fnc hivor ofGod Njn you whcti j^u were cncmict- -and he 
bnj-ughivourheamii^ether^o chjcbyhitfjxroryou becanie brothrri 
Yguwcr£[>i) the ^^ of a piEuff^t^andht^uved yau trom Lr. 5<^GoeJ 
makes ^Ica-r hi^^i^n^ to yvu^ ^Eding yoUr 

And let there be a. community (sffjwwft) of you, calling to good and pre- 
scribing righteousness and proscribing eviL And it is (hose who "wifl 


(Ibid.. 3" 103-105) 

The unir^ofrheerjmmiiniEy rtfrrue htllevers ij^ srtt^ied when tht Qiir^an fcl!s 
Muhjmm^'s followers that ^hc^ bdon_g to the ^mc community as the fo^l- 
Jowcrs of earlier tncbbcngcrSr After mcndonlng Mcises, Aaron, AonJinim, Lo-t, 
Isaac, Jacob. Nonh, David, KSnlrtinnn, Job, l^hmae^, Idm, Flijah, atid jc^rtah^ 
the Qur jfi [ccr>iirn3 the iioi>'of Zcchiriah. 

|W]hcn he odled to his Lord^ 'My Lord, do nor leave mealoncn for you 
arc the bcsi of heirs/ 



Then w^ inj^^'^rTd liim gn^ g^ve hi tn John, and cured his wjfe rorhim. 
Indeed, th-cv compcfcd with iJiii; .^noihef in e^od woilcsj and called on 

u£ in hope: and [«ritd they were humble before us. 

And die one who rcn^aiQcd dlaSIt [Mifylj Srt "we hfeachtd fcni& hcF from 
our spirit and w^ mEidc her and her son, a «gi» For the wnrlds. 

fndeed iKjSt vour community {um/^r^h}^ ts one communit]^ ^um-mah) 
and indeed L am your Lard, ^o worship. 

(Ibid-. 21:90-93) 

The ccrm bw?^ appear (u be tilt df^igttJItOft Lii&i earl]«r by Prophi^i 
Muhammid as he orgniiiizcd Hii follDx^trs and ih^it dcpcndanrs inio a 
SQcitHpolmcal entity. Thit lti^ppyrj;n[fn>tTL the <::onsucudDn ofMedEna^ prc- 
serv-cdinMuhamma^l [bti ljl^i<|^'j Jiral Kutf^^^M(Life of the Messenger of 

God), ba5<:d on oial iha^Eith) repotr^^ collecred and placed in narratrve form 
^u&ioveraccnturyaltcrtllcPtophetWiiJth-TheJocLimen: defines the com- 
munity {umm^^ ascomistljiEof his followers, referred lo a^ 'Btlie^-ers' and 
'Mjsllms . both those who cmi^Kd%virh liicn from Mecca Imuh^tmr^) ard 
ihoic who welcomed [hem in Mcdiiia(anwr),ii]CludiiigiheJewLsh tribes who 
[[ved Lo MedLH-^- The ocher inhabitants ofMedina^vr ho were not monothcisKf 
wcrt Jim ]iicl tided r 

In the namcafGodi the Merdfijl, the Compassionace! 

Thjs documcni is fn^m Muhammad rhe Pfophci, governing relations 
amongihcBcEic^niarid the Muslims ofQur^y^hiM^ccaniribc} and 
Yadi Fib {Medina) and those whof[>llflwed cheni and joined wiih ih-cm 
and stru2£rLed with thcitL 

|_ They are one Community to ch-c eicclu^Ion. of all other meiir 

[2-10. Thevariousciibei shall handle their own retaliation and priTOtwr 

rcdauptifnii, iccordi-ng lo ihelr customs.] 

1 1. The E<el]tvcr-S shall not dtrfrr any po^ir person amonj!; rhem, but 
shall pay his redempcion or blood-money, as Ls proper. 

12. N"o B^ievfr^halUefilt r<] tjrn the auxiliary of anothnzr BclEcvcr 
agitnst hinir 

13. God-fearing Believers will be against wh^xver smojig them ls rebel- 
^toiisor whoever scc^ to so^v injustice orstn or tdmicy among ihe 



Belifvcr^ tVN^ry m^n's hand shall be aeajnjt hjuin thougti he sverc the 

soti cafoneof tJieni. 

14- No Bdit^vetih^l Icill a Believer for [he sake of an unbeliever, oj aid 
un unbeliever iig-iiin^c a Believer. 

15- The protection ofG<>d is ont: even thelcasi af them may e^itend ii 
to a stranger. The B^Iicvcfs arc Irknds to each orhef, co theeiclusi[>n of 
illochcr men, 

1 fi. The Jews who fbltow us ihall have acd arwl cqualJTyj except ihosc 
who do wronger iid (he enemies of the Muslims. 

17, The pe^ceof ihe Belkuvefs ls one: no Believer shaJl maLe peace 
wparatdy where [here Lsfighring for God's sal:e.03ndiriori3 |of pcatc] 

18, In every raid^ the nders shall ridedo^e wither. 

ly. Andihe Believers thai] ;Lvenge one iinoiher's blood, ]hM for 
God^'-s akc, Tcr d^c G^d-iraring \uy^ eh? b^^ and 3tr-cn^c3i gujdsuicer 

20- No idolarer [of Medina] shall rake Qiirayshi [Mcccan tribes} 
proptrtf^or persons under his pforecrion^ nor shall he iiirn anjT^ne 

21 Whoever kills a Believer shall also he killed, unless the next of kin 
4>rthe daiii man is oiKerhVi^ sarisfjedn and the llel Levers shakJ be ^ainsr 
liicn altogether, no one is pernurced co aci oiiicrwise. 

23. No Belic^rr whoacccpiMhisdotumcntaritt believed in Go<l Jrid 

judginent ls permitted to aid a<j"iininal o-rgive him theltcr- The Curse 
of God and his"wrachon the Day -of Judgment ahaJI ^1 upon whoever 
aids or shelrers hLm:, an-d no repentance or compcnsaiion shall be 
ihccepred from him if he dnes. 

Z3- ^^eiWverY[>u dilfer^houLdU^Ct iL&hdIbe referred [oGodai^dco 


24- TTteJews shall T^ear e:tpenses wliU the Muslims as long as they Rght 
jlong^with tVtii- 

25. Thrjm^sfrftfre Berju Auf^rr^necon^mjifiitf wvf /? f ^ fltf /rflWK the 
Jeivs have their lellgjon and che MxisJlni^ havi: ti]^Eri. Tliii ii JO fot thena 



and thflir clients^ csccpt for one wKt^ d^f^ wrong or rreichery; he hurtj 

only Limsclf uid b!s &jiiily. [Italia Oitdtiil 

2f^35- The samcis true for Jews (who are mem hers and confidcraiM) 
of chcoihcr clansof Yadnrib:honorabk behavior is wichou-C treachery. 

3& Nrtrte af rhim may ^ our [to war] wichonrMuhjjTimad^^ permis- 
siDHi buL ihq'fiEuLJ noE be prevented from^kingv^ngHno:'^Ejr» 
wound. XtTioevtf mtirder^i man murdtrihirasclf-and his ftimilys imless 
he has been wronged. G<id is (rhe guaiiniorl. 

37. The Jews ih all bear dieirexpcnsoand ihc Muilijm shall bear 
cheirs, and diey shall render mutiial aid tt> whoevetr warsagaJiisT [he 
people of ihis dcKument. There shall be cnutiLal jdvice and consulia-^ 
rion, anJ hororable behavior^ w-ifhout Treacher y^ A. m^Ji le norguiliyof 
iKacher^by ihc aa ofhis con Ecdf rale, and help^hjll he due to one 
A'hn ii^ wronged. 

[7l^e<kiciitnen[ cn-ncludus wich [cniriorcprovisjoiis detailing in]vi:ellane4>us 

Lssuftof proreciicJJi and iwutual aidj'^ 

[iippcan, ihcrdbirt, [hata[[hispoini wffE/iMAor'"coinmuniiy' wasthcmsKT 
encompassing cacegoiy of belicvcfs [cnonorheiLis^H capable of including a 
number of 'rcli^ioni^ and Jegal cwlcs brcjught by vanoos m^ssengeri. Indeed, 
chis became ihc model for IndudiJi-g other monoiheisicsH s-uch as (he Giris- 
[i^£. ^0 vrcrc likctviic allowed lo join iht ct>mn^uniry, keeping ihcir own 
worship and pcrsonaJkw^ paying a fas ([^suhffic UK for die libr paid by iVIiis- 

iinis jn order to contribjtt to ^:<>mniLinity support. 

Oilier hadnh literature preicrvcd iti the aathoHcanve eollcciionj displays, 
however, an cvolvinj^ sense ot group idfniiiy Jii^otig rhosc "who accepted 
MuJijmnrud i3[lieirpixrph^:iia£d]5LLntifromih(?K^lii>rn^L'^r-u"^^^ 
their own |>mphe[Ks]n rhecaseoftheje^v"?, and chose who at teptcdjc5us;isi. lie 
redeemer itnd fulfil nientofrheeovenancihatisn the Christians. Thcrepottsln 
question reflccr another tretid in eemui Qiiranie verscin one in wh]ch jc^'i 
and Christiana are described Kgenefidly utiUUSEworihyL 

Oyou who behcve^ -do not take Jews and Christians ai fnendi. They are 
friends aFone anochef and "whoever m^-KcS friends Among ineni is one 
ofibem. Indeed, Coddms nor guide opprckbivepeopk- 

For you will rind chc5trong«t people ajencmL«(>fth*lwlieversEfl be 

thcjcw^ Atidrhcido'laiers. 

[Ibid,. 5:83) 



And chey fi3v/N[><]iit will emtr p^iatliK unlcsshc isa ]c^or a 

Climciati/ These ii^ c heir hopes. Say, 'Gk-c >T>ur proof if you arc 

Rather, whuCTeriubmiti himself Tct God and do« good worts, his 
reward is with his Lord. They have nDEhingtofear nor shdL rhe^ grieve, 

And the Jcivs say the Chrasiiaiis stand on noiiijng, and the Christians 
say the Jews stand on nochinf. And ihcy read the ^ame Bool^. That is 
Tvhar is said by chose who do noi bl[>wjjke what they say^ So Cod will 
juiige berweencktJtion the Da^^ of Resurrection on thoisc things on 

TvWh they disagree, 

(Ibid.. 2=1 12^1 14) 

Thjs, the Consticution of Mpjins iotiu^c^i J^w^ within the uinmahi and 
by eiMniion, orher? were also Ailowed rcii^ou^ Krecdom. Vci: there rpcmains 
suspicLon ^bout (he m-otives ^i those v^ho <lci not leave their religions and 
become Muilitnn rcflectcd in the fact that violaiion of provisions for their 
inclusion -autflmatitalJy results in eEclu^ion from che conimuniryL 

Tht Specific nature of che dEFerencci benAcen Mushni communal identity 
and ihii of odiff monothc-Esu dfrn-^ nm lakE cf^ncrer^ ft^rni iifttil rh^d^dof^ 
of revdaiion aiid the n-orniative pniLi:ii;c yf Pr^nhiiji M\ihamn]ad)r [t v^ill bt 
recalled (see out cr^mpaiiLcin volume Gj^flrfn^fi Ri^ti^njnj ^r^ug^ l.£^J:Ji^i^ 
tsm iinJ Isiiim}, tliai (heie tekt^ dtViiloped in the contest ol an eKpan<Ijn£ 
sociopoliueal power, ihe conimujiiiy led by ^nr/r al-^uT7rirs ^f^ Ithe com- 
mander of the believers] or caliph^ which allowed iretJgiolf^al freedom to Jcws- 
andChrisninsJiwtajidChn^riiniivewalUi^^tomairitai legal 

systems, while Mu^ims had fn develop thcituwii.A^wc have seen, dicrcii/as. 
muchintiieJewiihindChrihdan htiiiagerharwasantiionfd by rhe Quran 
ind thf pncrict of Prophet Muhamniadf but there were differences as welf_ 
Th-us, the dc^ekipment of the Islamic Icpal system involved a dual dvnaTnic. 
Not only wa^ ic necessary lo discin^iiisEi Islamic law from kUaw of rhe orher 
monocheisis, bur ie "jvas necesaiy lo develop a iyj^c em tJiat al lowed lur -certain 
differences of opinion withm che Mud-im i;ociiJtiunity, but one that at ihe 
samciimi: nidini^ned an overall []^>hereEKt- WhiJerfic btttrdforFtoofcpreec- 
dence over the fotnier, iti tejniilrs influenced tht growing sense of Muslim 
group ide-ntity and Uierefijrc ir-i jub^Tandvt reparation Erom othci religious 

The Islamic Ic^ sysreni developed ovet a period of seme 200 yeai^. The 
ulumarcs^^utc£nf Is lam ie law Wiis die Qilt'jn-iipoiil this all agreed. There Tva^ 

ggrtemeiic i5 well that cheQur'an li complemented by oral tra<L[iQnT carried 
1*1 ^eptjJ"ti (jMJdr^^; singular: hoi^cth) relating the invords ard deeds of ?ropher 
Muhamm^, collected and ccxiified by the [hird century afcer die d^adi of 



Mohammad [l?32CE}.Vhilem^iiyh^ith repc^rr-idi^gref^tEhofi^HiriLtThcrN 
^jid [heri; r^na^in^ Jjiagre<;rnenf »m<jng H-holar-t- regarding individual reports' 
rdLabincyai^dapp]i€:abiHiy, v-irtiully aJl-MiijUmsacctpr the pdntipic that the 
Surn^ of iTn; PropKet, tJiough secondary to the Qur'iii, ib essential to the 
LindtJ^randing of sccipture, k atti ^i author itarivt explication ol- wriEEcn 

Bin lis Muslini djI^ spread bcv^jnd the Anbian pcninmla, issues arose thai 
nvcrc not spccificallT ccivercd in chcQur'anandtfie Sunna. Effo-rc u'crc needed, 
thcrcforCn to dctcnninc how" to dcrisT needed leeiskcion from [he t^'ealed 
sournzcs. WidiJn ihc firsc three cenniriesof dac ItkniJc era^ ajiQtnhnfrofsehtXNLq 
of legal choLighi developed in diis n^A. Wliile ill agreed on the ultJinjte 
5flUt«fl -anj methodology (of deriving le^slidon, diey diflered on the letadvc 
ary prac[Lce.TJ^eeaHiffirschnali>fJegjlrbftLigh[{fraa(i^Afl*) to develop was that 
lEcnbLJied 10 [lie work of'Abu Hanil^ (d. 7G7 CE)^ aldiougl] noft<<jf hii ovpTi 
works hii fituvivedr The oldest swrviviogo^Nmprthensiwwcjrk-uffiqh is that of 
Malik Ix Anas [d- 795/6 C.L)h A!-Muwam' {"tht Itvded pathl. The cailitst 
work^offiqhiiresttrifciutftlro followers ofdrher Abu Manila, and are thus said 
to belong EuChc H^inafi sJiool oFlhou^rhOi co MaiiL ^nd thus said to brlong 
CO the Maliki fihool. The Hanaii school w^s aJso sometimes called the Iraqi 
^CN^L aino: that if where Ab'u Hani:^ and his main Jbllowcr^ (AbuVusuJ^and 
al'Sh^ybanil worked. The Maliki school wai aisoeLaied with Medina. h\ bnrh 
regions ihere^i-^s an ei^iahlished body of tudad^ licetrariLre which v^-fts consuked 
for ^hj^cj: not s^^eeifLcally d^^lt with in the Qutsn, or lor amphfitation of 
chojpf chac virerCr A£-Mr£ii/a^, for example, includes some 1700 hiidith reports 
ctrcularif^inrivcafyofMedinaH MalthHume I^iyrK thni tKrr:fcpobred frorn 
-SLJch precedejiL i-S wa^ available, reEying on t[ieir inf^^mieii [ipinion (my^ to 
determine |hee^[ablL?hdijfsgt&3j-y|>0HpMaitt in <^ ui^d 

n describe such agreed upon interpi^cadon was ijma\ ]jma' means eonsensu^, 
bur in the content oteaH^ bUtnicUwit refers to practice thaE has bcc-nagiecd 
upon as appropriacc/Theijma'ofMcdinan^ tor eKample^iv^^ a common phrase^ 
meaning thai something or other was the agreed-upon (legal) praaice in 
Medina. Mdik gcncrallv condudn^s h is argumcn u in Ai'Muw^itsi, afiej having 
ated auihoritaiivc haiiihs, b)^ claiming ihat die pra-citce In qu^ctorLi? lKcoe^ 
his commLinicv in Medina usually follows hi rhej;e seiirencet M^\\\^ U5« die 
rerni5 jj^^ff^and i^m^y/fiiraeiicej ajid ^/-dmr ^^-muji^m^' ^iavh C^A^^t:^ iipo^n 
pjjciice"") LtiierchiJ^gcjbJy-" 

ic3 kgi! fi^Km. A nwj^ hrm^ .Ayii^p^Tt^ t^^^hi^g t^i^l w-as de^-rlopcd co 
eicraci rulings fn>m ihc inutca foi novel (vises. Whcrhcr b>'niCiiisofra>or 
qiyis. (he exerti^c of reaiuning to determine jppliutbn -of principles estab- 
lished in rh^Qut'anand authohrativc hadith reports to Mjvel cases vras called 
t/^h^ The earliest schooh of law chereforcn generally srancd wich die 
Qur^an, wenc nen to the hadich rcpoics considered audioriianve in cheir 



r<^ni, (htn exe^ised fhtir reason oji rhei^e iwo sources^ tondoding with 

T-heculpiination of eftorts fo sy5te[nati:ri Islatnic Legal reasoning wl« the 
i^XNtk^f the eponyrnoU third schixaJ legal 3ch<xiLAl-Shafi'i [d, ft20 CF.)/ In 
his system, ijma'waj the third iourccoi IsIjidIl law^ after the Qjr an and the 
cess of dLTcrminiiiE exactly ^iijch Kidith reports Vh^crc aiithci-rLtativc had not 
},Ti:bccn complcicd}. Bui for aJ'Shafi'in ijma' diJ ncn rctcr to regional consent 
sus. For him ic m^ani the consensus of rhe enure Muslim communny. The 
goaJ of tlii^ reHderLni[]or <]Fi|ni^' w^ nc douhr greater utijfVpiniLry iti Lsl^mic 
law- But gtveiuhe^aiceEicniofihcMuslLcn world bv^liai [Lmtartdihevinujl 
imp^T^itili^vNeicf mining wn^c^ti^ij! ^unong p<x^plc ^prr^d imm ?pajn (^ 

Iran J its cfTctl wjisgrcrtt^:rrc:lijinCt:on prttcdcnf it^/;4i in determining legisla- 
tion. In fatt al-SlLafi'i hcLd that (he -h-cjujidci-t Im:>1s fcr lnw was prctsdcnt and 
d^at j)VA?^sKo-ijldbeu3edoiilvasalas(r^orLArid thei^it mustbeiitih^ 
fo^lyiriiei-prfiedayt.|iya&. fofwhlth Keamculated hjlei, rrtiKeriKati ihe-rtto-rt- 
libcr;il Uy, 

It if al-5hafiYt vic^ ^n i)ma that wnc:crnf u? here, liia Lii$i^n« iliiii it 
consists ot the consensus of the entire communityT not jiist those of a eiven 
re^on, meant cha: in wain for pra*:tical reasons, a thing of the past. All aurhori- 
caiiveijina^ had hcen^ionc since ic was n-o io-ngcrpnisiblc co achieve stich con- 
fltn^Li^ Irt hit ^H(^ri to convince others of the vilidirv c^f hj^ a^, dl-Sliifi i 
artitiLjIarcddcar iLnCbufdistiiiaiOiibciwccEi thust who hold wluc the Muslim 
community h^Jds' and tho^ Vhohdd ditlcicml^.^ Inhif Rml^h^ x^^qurk 
being asked what prooFhchaiforhisvjewon conscnsLis. The questioner sa^5 
he agrees that it ^^ouJd be unlawni] to ^vc ar^ opinion Jit oclds with a dear 
■Liommarid ajf tnc Qur^jn or 5iinna or the Pcoplietr But hf^v J<j we hnov^ that 
iveshojld;tc^Tnnt!:tabhshed opinion (TOn^ensuMjJ thepublic'l^s^iurhori- 
caiive (rather than cngE^ in our uwn reasoning baicd on the cwo main 
sourars)? A]-Shafi'ii answer a^jmcs general acceptance of an already preva- 
lent hadith reporc accord tne co -Lvhifh rhe [^ropher said that his communiEy 
will nev^r agree on an error. 

TKit on which rhe[>LihNcin?a6ri?e^aBd wftich, ^rhey at^flH^i^s 
rclaied tTomhcapoitIc, thaEii 50 .„ . So^t must accept the dcdiion 
of the public bctausc wc have to ohcf^ their authority, and we know that 
wherever there are sunnas of the Prophctn nhe puhhc cannot be ignorant 
of chem, although it is possible that somearen and we know thai the 
public Can neither agrtctm anything con traiy to the iunnaof the 
Prophet nor on an erioT-^^ 

NcKtp al-Shafi'i was a^kcd, 'What is the meaning of the Proph-cts order to 
follnw riiecommuniry^' In ^^:p[yHa^Shafi1 said thar chere is only ojiepcKuihle 
nieanni^^ ThequescLOJier th^n asked, ^How is it possible chat chene Ls-ojily one 



rrttaring^^ In response, al-Shari'i aniculatcd the dificftntc bcrweeti Musl^mi 
And nun-Musli ciiJ ll^M would beconic dc^itiv-Cr 

WKen (Ke cocrLmunicy spread m die lands [of Islam], nooudy was able 
CO follow i(h mtmhert wlio had been dispersed and mixed with oihcr 
l^di-cvcE^antLuJibciin'cr^spi^LJS and [mpiou^. Soli ^^f io 
follow the mmmunit^ [i5i%vhol£l, becaui^ k was iniposiiblc |tD do 
-so^ cKccpi for whjt the ferLfit?) coriin^uriLry regarded as lawful or 
LinkwfVil lordcrs] and [the dutyl fO oWy (l^se [nrdei-sl. 

He whiihnlds what The Muslim -romiriunityhuldiiihJI be regarded i-^ 
]^lluwji]gihec^mmuiiL[>o^dhc>^tichoJd^diif:i^ntiy^dJ bc^Jt^kJ 
35 t>ppo5lngc]ie cammujiiiy bic ^vai ordered to follow. So fhc t-rrrjc i:r>nie£ 
froiti stpaJ3ti<>n^ burin die comrnQniiy as a wh-otc there i^ riij en^r 
concerning d^e meaning of ilir Qur^an, the iunna, and aridt^ Itjiya^]. 

Inpiiictial [ern^, ilins£who a^rrccwuli wliai[tgcJc:gal5Chokridfxidesh3llhe 
considered Muslim, and ffhost ^ho do jiot foJJiM J&lamic legal Kh^^l^r^" pa\- 
iiiEs arc not. Undoiilt^rdJy. ic loo^iitne fcral-lihafL'J's arcJculatioTi of the joati 
of hiamic kw [usui 4l-Ji^h) to l^e accepied - ac least acentur): TKat itdtd 
hhscome the bails of 'an oi^nkally stru-crured and indepcndeni science ... a 
fulUfleJged methodology/ 15. hov.-ei-er. urtdeiliESble.^TKir Udi^ prtmarilytB 
[he lace that his opinions vff re not innovative; has genius lay iriihefictih^^ 
vfis dhk [o achieve a synthe-fE^ of prevailing ^ipiniyn^ Qtig^^Lng a^menre 
about the d^iaiisof hissyDihesi^ need noi conc-em us heir- Of jntertj^i in this 
coneexi is ihe clear definiccon of "the xMuslinnx^mmunic^'/ Fn>m thj£ [imeon, 
ifnothefoM,wni}i few eKoepMns^ it wji defined iJ those ^hu accepc chc aruc- 
uUi^ ^cyMc^ of kgiskcEon and folloi.^" chtir rujingi. All -flthers ^halJ be 
regicdedjj opposing the conimuniEy/ 


Tlii^LSiiDT Tosavrhai religions freedom was abandoned in IsljniLon die con- 
Qr^rvf Je^^ and Chnstjans - and larcr ZorffastriaLis and "Hindui - were 
acc:cpted as members- of the Islamic politya althou^ noc of the uniniah, 
defined ^^ the^trLcily Muslim community. ]tis simply fo ftrc^:? that che ideti- 
(iry oF (he Mustini community came x^ rest on [sl.inilc 3iw. raLher Ehan on 
ittueift^"l>eli*Fi^rbehavifrf. This^ioo, rrflectsQurani^ tescHiflg, 

Anil so let the Ptopleof rhc Gospel [Chris tiansl jud^ according to 
v^hat Gtxl stnt dt>wn to it? and tvhoe^'ei" does noc judge by whar God 
has sent down arc sitifulr 



And wc §iavc sent to you r Bcjok with cnich, canRrmingand s^l^guird- 

ingthc Bouk thatv^is scnc before ]c. So jiidge Ewc^een chcm hj what 
Goa has scntuo^n and do noi follow ihcir desires, [u^tiing (rum the 
iTuth thai ofDC [oyou. Wc have appojncedforeichofyoui law 
{-j^rrflA) and. a path. 

The fact ThiT cheri^ajrnurvLefftu^prophciiHftlOrtihjInoncbookofrevHal^^^^ 

and more rhm ore legal systetn Lss [l^erefijrc. notconaidcrcd pro hfcn^adc. Like 
the cxJiTcnct of more ihin one religious tcjrnmunicy, it is dcKribcd by the 
Qur'an 12 pan of [he divine plartr 

Some of (he foUoivefi or the earlier tests mav c^'cn he ^ved^ as rhe Qur^aa 

Surelvn rhose whf>be]icv< aji,d those Jc^vi, Christians and Sibiiiis who 
believe jtiGnds-nd the last day and do good docds^ rhcirrewaid ls with 
[heir Uirdndiey Kav« nothing to Icar nor shalhhcy gntvc 

(Ibid., 2^3^ tf. 5:70) 

And il chc People of the Book bad belteved ^rtd taken refuge with God, 
we would fc^i-ven rheir sim W adrnltttd them to rhc garden of 

And if rhey had observed thcTorah and :be Gospel and wTiat wa^ sert< 
d<]Wii rn them from fhcir Lord, they would have caccn froi"n whar w^ 

ab^v^ dl^m and Ipcneytli ihcirtcct Among dicmaie a jus: commuiiiry 
fummahjh\^-[ many of them do cviL 

Q Xfeisenger deliver what hai been scm dnwn m you from youf Lord, 
for If yoiido not, you have nor delivered hjj^ Jiieisjge, And God will 
proiea: you from people, and God doe^ noi guide tliybtlirving people. 

Say/0 People f rhe EtPok^ yotj. stand On nothing unriJ ^-ou observe rhe 

lorah ajid the tloh^vel grid has biccn scnc denvn co you from your Loni/ 
Andn indeed, what li.t-n b-ctn senr to yo\i will Increase in many of rhein 
disregard and ingtaiitud*, w do noc grieve for an jngracefLil pmple 

Siiiely [hose who beheve and (he Jews ^nd the Sabiani and. the Cbrii- 

tiant^ whoever believes m G^dand the Lait Day and docs good works 
have norhjng :o fear norsh^ll they grieve. 

(Tbid., 5:6fl-70) 
[The People ol the &ookl aie noi dl alike. Among ihe People: cif cbc 



BcMjkisan upHgfit mtmnunity, redtbg God's vtr?« dutirg ihc night 
a-od prostralJiig (in pra}*^!!. 

They believe in God>ihc]a5i day, indcommard good and pn^ 
crvj], hastening in good^ivrlu^ and ihcy ^c unong the righteous. 

abjd.3i 114-1 15) 

Tndeedj God will adjnir tlichsewho believe and do good works inm die 

gafdtribenearN -which rivers flo we jndetd God does wh^i lie wanti 

Obid. 22:15) 

Thi5 promi^ of reward for thwc who bdicv^ and do gccKJ w^jrks refers to 
diviiK judgment, hawcvcra indnotto group idcntityr In thiiicnsc the People 
of rhc Book mav'cvcn be considered whj/^w, in the Arabic sense oF'one^ho 
subnuESn' as wc ODted earlier. 

Inde^ ihe KlleLon of God ls submission {ol-irL^m}, And chose v^ho 
were given che Boot: did nor differ excepc after knowledge came m 
t hem J an mucual error. And whoever dJsbeLteves in ihe signi of Gi^l? 
trul/Gid Wlituickly uke it inco acco-um- Tl^en iFrh<y dispute wirh 
>'ou, 5ay, 1 have submitted myself, as those who follow me/ 5ay to 
those who have been ^ven The book [Jews and Christianil and to the 
unlearned, 'Have y^u subniEtied^' TheHa if they have submiitcd, rhey 
have been guided, and if they cum back, then it is for you to announce 
[the mesiage], and God sees chcsse who- serve. 

C[bLd.3:iy-Zl;cf. 2:273) 

T"he reference here is clearly igajn to divine judgment rather than group idcn- 
ticy_ The Jew^H Chriscians and rvlusikmi have eaL:h received correct guidance 
and rfVfii^Ti^^tt jind each his a law; ch^i l^ ^^ (n^d ha.^ ordained. Accordinglyn 
tht:> shtuild ihovK ihcir l>tlii;f [litougli ligJiic^us bthivjof (actordiiig lo the 

QuTan)^ ITU pro Late loyalty latcxNrding to the Coi^sticiitkin of Medina), jnd 
discuss their differencesr 

And debate wiii [hcl^pkofthcBookoDly on what i&besiH burnoi 
wirh choK among ihcm >vhoarc>vriiiigdocr&, And^ay/^'obciicv-cin 
what has been sent down to us and sent to you: otir God and yourGixl 
areonCa and we have submitiied m him/ 

(Ibid., 2y;47-4S) 

^^ill, ^ w? ^w fjrli^r, j^w^ ^4 Chiistians should hot be taken a^ irtcnds. 



O you ^vho btl icvt* da nof take n> che in^de other chan youradvn .... 
Haired hai shown iudf from rheir mouths ind "wKit cheii breasrs hide 
h Icvcn) greater. "^^ have iradc signs clear for )^ujfy&uund^^^ 

(Ibid., 3:1 19) 

O you who bcTicvc. do noi ralLC Jc^t sad ChriiLijn^ ^ friends- They arc 
friends wkh one another, and whoever mat« fnends wjch chem as ojie 
of th^m. 

TriIvh ™ur friend is God jrd hi^ niesscjig^r and those who tclic\^ and 
those who obscPH^ praj^i" atid ^ive zakat and who bow (in prayex). 

And ^^hficvcr tfiltcs God and his messenger as friends and rhosr "^ho 
believe, thr party of God fffi^ Alkh}, -d-^^ shall prevail. 

O you \^'ho believe, do nor cJi^i^se friends from chose who were given 

riic Book before y<>u [andlorwhoml yourreligioii bijokc and gaFnc, 
and th-e dlsbeh-evers - and take rcfuEc in God if you- are beiicvers- 

And [those who! ^vhen you call to praj^c^ take it as a jokeanda ^nie, 
Thati^hetiauserhei/'artapeoplf whodonol uodersinnd. 


Somcr^opleof [Nt BtMk.miyeTjen havcro be fou^t if rhcy liiil lo live up to 
their trwn st^ndardSttcj^eting Mo^hmruleandthuslnterferLnEincst^li^hir^ 

a godly society. 

Fi^t those among thoK who have Wn given [he Book who dn not 
beliOTcinCod and the Ust^ Day jnd do noi Torbid wharGod and his 
Messen^r have fDrbidden^ nor follow the tive irch^oii^ until they hand 
ovct th^ i^ltiis t^j< and are humbled. 

{Ibid, 9:291 

This is bcc^jjc they rftnaui under ^u^pLcJon in rhai. having been ^ivc]i cruc 
revelation in the past, rliey fail to recogrijzeac no^'bv accepting the rchgLcmof 
Trophcr Muliammid- 

And when thtj jneec those who believe, they say^ 'Wc bclicvr.' But 
when thev gocffwith -one another, die^' say, ^Doyou tell chrm wh;it 
GodhiSrt:vcaIcd(f]yiniK]theycan jigue wirh >tiu about icbcfort 
your Lord^ Dan't you undetstand?' 



Dorn't they kn<jw that God krwift^b >vlut xlicy hLdtniJid Ahat tliey 

[Ibido 276-77) 

And wkfiiiBook from God camera Them, co-nfirmin^whatwu wkh 
chcm, 2nd dicy had been sct^dngvictoryovrrthwc who disbelieved, yn 
^cn whai ilicy knov came CO iicni, thcydisbdic^d in u. 5k3 the tursc 

of God be on rhc unbelievers. 

And when it ii said to thcrn, 'Believi; In what God his sent down/ th^y 
Mv/Webclifvcin wharM^sent K us. And Thc}'diKlvlievdin whar Jv 
afier [bat but ii i^ iherruthh cfi^nHrmingwhat b with ^hcln-5ay^ '^Ti^ 
did jTju kill the prophets ^f God bcfcttj if von are btJkvers^ 

abido ^:9?) 

Indnred your Lord knciws "vvhatycmr brcastj hide and wha< ihcy rcvcsdr 

And [here is norhing hidden m heaven and eanhihu was noi made 
dear tii the Book. 


And v^hen our clear verses arc recited ttj them, tho^^ho disidleve sa/ 
of die tmlh when i( comH to thttn, 'This is ih«|- (rickeTy/ 

Sq ih^y tay, 'Pid he Ib^ ii?" 5a>j 'If I fi^rgi^d i^^ v^?u cantioi ^el}* me ji 
all againsc God. He hntws bcstwhat p>u ate erig,iging in, He^er^-ts as a 
witness bcirween you and me, and he is fo^vingand-coitipaisLonate, 

Say ^I am nor an innavaror among prophecs and 1 do not know what 

v/\\] hedone with jne [>f wirh yen. Bu: 1 only follow whariiiicvcaleJ m 
rae jnd 1 jm only j clejr warnerJ 

And they say 'Be Jews or Cbri5tijni to be guided." Saj, 'No, tlie rdigian 
of Abraham the true bclic^^cr; hevi^ts not dmon^the idolaters' 

Say, "^believe in Cod and v^h Jt w"h4s wrnt down tu uvand what wji 
5cn[ Eo Abraham and IshrriAcJ^ndlHi^ 4EI J Jiitcjb and the tcibc^ ^iid 
whar sj^en to Moses and Jesus and whatwai gi>en to the prophet! from 
their Lird. Wc do notdistinsuish amona any ol thrm. arKi to him v^z 



And ifthcybclLir^TasyoLj bcHtven they h^ive bsen guided hur ]f ctiey 
luni awavj ihcn they arc in -sciiism and God will b<; ^uiucieni for you 
againsT ihtm^ lor ht htars and tjicws. 

([hid,?. 136-155) 

O Peopl-c of die Book our messenger liaij comt ro y^^^ malting clear - 
afwf 1 gap m ih-e rnKseng^n - biLT ycu siV:, 'N*^ anncmn^er Ins tojfle w 
mc^ora w^mer/Indccdi^iiini>Quiiccrh^«7iTiciciy^uHJ^dH>^'?[r^rr 
and God ha.t pfNWcr over e%'ery:hiii& 


Wcmokan agrccmcm ^irh the CliiWren of Israel andwt seni tncsKii' 
gcrs roihein. Whcncvcramcisengtrcaitie to tliejti wjdi i^hac chey 
chcmsclvcsdidnof want, they Jkd w some and killed -oihers. 

And ihey reckoned "dierf would be no lem prat lori, so they were blind, 
md deaf Then G-Xl fijrgi^v^fh^m, [h.^n [agajti] n^any ofchemihcy 
were blind and deal and God ivatcJicb Vh'h^ thty dtj. 

For iher diibelj^'e who- say rhar God is dw Messiah. Wfi of Mary, when 
the Messiah ^aldh 'Children of Israeli serve God my Lord and )'out 
Lord/ Indeed, whos^'er js^ociaies arhers ^\d^ God^ God has forbiddcrn 
him Heaven and his refuge will be (it*^ atid the oppressors have no 

Thcj' have disbelieve who s^id diac God is rhird of three. UTiiere 13 nc 
god but the one God_ And ifrhey do nor s-rop whar dicy arc iaying, a. 
pamful puniihmeiirwiJJconi^ 10 chose of them ivhodLsbclicsTT. 

Woni they lurn K? G^J and alk foi his foi^pntts, ^ince God ls forpv- 
Lngand compas^iouare^ 

(Tbid,. 5.71-75) 

The ^ijipEdrtfL wifh which Jew5 and Chrisrians are viiiwed as a rcinjlr uf (heir 
lailurc to bt:c;t>rtle Mujlutis i< Kei^re^ied by che Qurans clalmi ihat chc 
tioming of fhe Prophei Muh^rcsm^ was accuall}^ anjiounccd jn the other 
monorhci^ts^ scriptures^ belort they concea]e<l aucii references. 

Do you expecc thai thej wljl belie^-e you when acioiip of rhcm hear (he 
v^^ord of God and ihen lampered wirh jc ificr chey undcrscood and they 
know [\t]: 

[Ibid. 2=75) 

Do you say that Abtaham and J^furaeJ and Isa^: acid Jacob and rhc 


(rih« wer^; Jew* f>r Chrisciam^ SaVj 'Are wu mc^rt knowledytit^le chin 

O People of ihc Boflk, why dfi yoii dhbclkvc ihc signi of God -when 
you havi: wicncsbcd? 

O People or the Bc^k, why d<i you jilex Enitli^Ldi lies a.nd hide mc 
Truth knciwinglv? 

(Ibid. 371-72) 

Tboic wh<j follow the Mesidigct, the lirilettcrtd prophet, whom they 

find wci^teti- about w]tK thcit] In theTorah aricl fhe Gospel who 
command^ *hem ^-irh ^lil| .ind proscnbej evil, And -illrtiA'S ehe^cwl 

and ptahibitsthcbadand [einiovurhdrloadfrOLrtthrnund ctiebond^ 
ih&i T^^re <>n. ch^irtn Sy th<>ie who kU^? inhirn and.a1Jalldtuppyi-^ 
btttijAttdfoHowtht light thit wssi^nc with him. these will pn>spetf, 


NcYC-ritKksE-HdcapJKvhc^^u&pMQn&Ha^n^icd above, ici^ not Ff^rM^^^ 
force the People of cheBoofc m change ihejr rcligionj nor lo jiidgeihtm- They 
dte ^Ici^ed CO rctaifi their own systetn^ ajid Cod svill judge diem ^vhen ttie 
Eime comes- 

IGndsaid,] 'As Fbnhose disbelieve, J "will punish diem seveiely in this 
wodd 2.nA id [he ifEerlife, and [hey will hive no helpers.' 

But i-s For rhosewl^o heheve ind do good wotla^ he wilL rewar^^ ihau 

fulksahd God does H*r Icyvc r"he whohgdoert 

[Ibid. 3:57) 

Indeed, those ^ho believe and thoarrev^s-andSibianiaiidChjistians 
and Zor-oascriani and che idokccrSn surely God %vill discingu-Lsh among 
thean on the Day of ResLirremion. Irulyj fjod ls a WLcness over all 

CJhid, 22=18) 

Say? Travel the lajiid co-sec how iJwse ^hoeame before you enJ^d w^; 
]"oo^i of d^tfo ^ere idoJarers/ 

So SCI your Ike loihc esiablihhd tfiliginnbcforcaday tomits when 
there will be no- a^'oiding God^ on. diat day they will separated. 



Whoever disb-sljeves, his djsbelLtf will be flg;ain^c h\m a^d wViocvtf d<>c5 
worksn d\^y it^ pcovidijig for ci5.«u:ncJvoH 

Thac he wdll reiA^rd riirtj^e who l.>tlievtaJid do good works out of hii 
hojJiryjhednaiioTlo^* thciinbclEfvcis. 

ThuSf Jews and Chrtstkiw ate separate immunities in ihc QtirVnn lo be 
respttitd in that thzy have received true rc^^e-ladon, and allowed ccfRipIeK 
freedom provided ihcy do noc inccifere wiih kkmie £ove reign Ty_ Hsidith 
ma[«ial makes rdacLvdi^LriLnDi'merLcinn of nikerrdjgioii^ 
mosiaiisnuon is paid [oJewii^ndC^risu^ns. fbrCj^Bm^ik, intlistiussEonscon- 
ceriiJne how Q> address nem^MushcrL^^ it IsurLivt^r^ll^ nigrccd fhaf MiiaJimsarc 
togKCT one another wjihilie phrase ^Ajdiidffi 'alayi^urrt, Trace be withyau/ [c 
is also agreed ihdt Mu^lim^mLJSL respond ^L;E:ofLling]y, ^t:ncrallt'ljy jdding Ar- 
cher blessings: ^And widi }>ju^ peace^ and tkt m^rcy orGi>d jnd his blcinslng/ 
Therci5alsodiscu5sJorahnu[ wherher [hisgrtecirigi^nccei^aryfo individ- 
Lulsorj^si for Jiio.-^i of rhficommiLftii^j whether Hdrrit;rccrwdkei^^ 
cidierwa^ jroui^d^ whctJiertJioic inaiinall group should oEeithe^cetjrgco 
a Urgtr g^'OUp ItfSt or the other way around, and 50 on. Bur also included are 
appfOpri^itc greetings for Pecnplc of the Book, meaning Jews an J ChrJsaanSj 
wht>are nocto be greeted fifsc. If Jews or Ckriscaanfi greet Muslinis, r^evateto 
be responded 10 accordingly^ wherher [hey cjffer 'ppatc' (wisw] or 'pciison' 
t^sm^^H ihe appropriaLe rtsponse is 'ind w vuu,.' Ir ii bJmj rrpwrtrd that Mue- 
[ims are: na: ro ^ve way lo Jew>i ^nj Christians on the road: "Abu Huraira 
repornxl Allah's Messenger {may pea-ce be upon him) pj sa^ng: ""Do not greet 
che Jews and Christians before rbe^ greer you and when ixnl meet any one of 
chem on [he r^ads fot-e^ him ro ^ 10 ike nafhVwcyl pari tjf il/" " Ochcr than 
^uch minor Lssuts, hadith rmrtrijlgerLtidly confirnis Qur'anic teachings Lon- 
cerning the People of (he Book 

The jtdtiu of non-bclitvers ih^^j) and polyrheisis (or idolaters^ 
?^PffA"^BJj) is ^ diHercnt case entirely. 7hey are addressed ii^ rhe (jLira.n, a.-^ 
wcll^ but there "Is no hcricage of rrue belief jn which chey ea.n r^e refugt-TJicy 
inust accept true fcvelal]on or ihey will receive che^^eresr putiiihmentiii] the 

KavenV yo Li seen thai whoever i n tli^; liNrjvcns ^nd on eamh, and che sun 
and moon and che scars and the n^ountain^and trees and animaJs, and 
many bunian beings ^ubt^iit co find? Bur msn^ t^m punlshmen.c5T and 
■ft^MverGchddKhr^fcehle, n4>ri^Ski|J h<>*^or Indeed^ Cod does what 

he \van rs. 


-God wjllpunJsh hypotritea -men and womenn and idolaters- men 



^ womcfinandGod for^ivt::^ riie bdkvers - men aniL wojnfiri^and 
God is forojivLng^ inefCLfuL 

(Ibid.. 3i;74) 

This cosmic JLidgmenr U r^FlocKd irh TslamicWr Those -v^hu refuse ta acxcpt 
Islaiii or^i-r leasf ny (nak^; y freaty v^ith Muilimi whereby a tnbucc is pa]d and 
Mu^liitw a[id rheir gllj« living withii rJicir territory are prucccred, ihise 
non-bcJkvcre arc 5ijbJD3r tu miliiar)" rxpcdliion s vhIiosc purpoic is co foEicsub- 
jjgEiuon. j^-Mi'WEirdii the icnth-ccniury SJiafi'i |urLS-i responsible for articLJ- 
iating the role of che Icidcr o-f die caiiph, in i^r dci^crJliEid lc a-t in essienrUl 
drny TO 'wage holy war [jJfijj^ ^msc tliose who^ a1"n;r having b<tn irtvstc^iio 
accept hlam^ pecsif r in rejecting n, until rlieyehlierbKatnc MuiliniE urcnfci 
ibe Pace [-dyj^wffjjj] so iliac God'^ truth may prtvaii (jvet cvcfv religiijnr''"^ iScc 
C&jnpfiiririg R^Iigt^m ihr^ijgb Liii^. J^Jafi^m ^nJ Islfinj, ch^pttr 7i (i?ra fill] dis- 
cjuLOfi of jihad.) 

It is drar rroJn the foregoing that Jewish and Islajnic scripnircs use difieieni 
criteria to determlT>e group Idcncity, inclusEon and exclusions ^ ie^t at one 
level In Jod^m, r^ci^rion i^ addir^^d ic^ an^ ^Lbj^cr gfc^up, idftifiljed ^ 
chosei by Godtn live in jeeof cknce wj th ^peciFic regul-irion^r TliCff regula- 
tions are deigned ro tt-creaie an idenJ life in relation tij Cod. chc Creator. 
Observance on he regulations ii therefore of primarv importance. In other 
wftrdsjLvmjictordjnfjfoJe^isK lawdednts inclusion in the group. To be 
'Israer nmnSn lo accept Ciod's drjmijiiort andhisurtit^'harid fu actcpt 'the vokc 
DfrlieTorah-"'Tl-LiLiswJia^ l>rcng5 e4ch a iFirtning individual ivithin die frame- 
work o^Is rid/ and it ii why"'[3raer in the aicthoricativc sources may leftr to 
iiJi iftd-3viduil or tu the entire cojnmunity; rhi^re k no difference. The scory 
Judiism [ells it^la.bout Israel i5 that God hasduvEscd in rheTor^h hi^ Hiisl 
^jTiu^n M the problem of^ humanity- fre^ wili making diem iikcCsixJ bui 
also JcadinE them to rebel against Cod's will The ls^u^ l$ ik^i Liidividud but 
the characrer of humanity ai ^ wholes from creation Itke GckI, with free will, 
humaniq^ rebels, and theTorih is given fopurlly the human heart and teach 
people to wane the same rhing,-^ God i^ants - 'to do jiisticc^ love mercy, -and 
wjIk huiiibly w^thCod^ ]tl J ^b^sicj^rmu lotion. So by 'kiael^Judaj^m means 
not in erhni*:^ group ftr a pariitulitr nation li kc oth er ethn ic grotips &f JiiTions- 
ItnicinsaLimqjesot:ia.lenii(y/d people' that i^ jar^^rifby leaMnofhoifflt 
com^ mro b^mt; tlirongh ^l£ limtr (hoK that embody Godi kingd^jm on 

Islamic ^criptuire, by contrast, is addressed to a l^rmore amorphous group: 
believers in God Imonotheists), those who stibmino the one Q5d('mu.sljni5')> 
and th-ose who cklm to helk^v or submit bui do hot really jhypocr]cei}-in<| 



onlvGcxl[;an tell whid^jiwhith -as well ai those who bcltcYtm than 

ontgod Of "wh^j awicjti Jtc uthcrs v^]th Gwl (polythcistsh At this level/ muslim' 
includes all thcist who belitve in Goduid rcspo-nd accordingly b>' doing .good 
worlds :is judged b^G^wl.Orichcpnict-Lcd level of daily lifc:,^ 
CMj^lim) meani: those whtwr liiT5 arc r^ukccd by I^kmic law. 'IIhsc cwcs 
fcvcis arc not lji ^.anlradkitjoffi co one another; [hey simply refer ro differeni 
kvdsofOTn^m.TheforniciievcL thai su-cssed inihcQur'ai^i is tQnccrncd 
"hvitti salvation or eamin? eifrn^l rcwaid. Ultimaccly, only God caji judge 
inclusion jn that ^oupn since [he cricena include noE only iruebeLjef but ^i^d 
workj w^tch have been properly itiociv^nid- The Uttet \^v<\ if dc^e-lopcd lu 
IsUraic legal Kxts- JlCOfiU^ln3 cerium ruJ« laid out fur followers of the Pruphct 
of Is lam. F^-en at rhi^k'.'^ followers of cither rev'Mlfd Tests ai^no^ 
escluded^iinD^ Islam dllows fur the co-cxistcnccofilskwwirh chat of other 
faith gr<mps^ alrlwugJi not at ctjual IcvcU of jurisdiction; the concern of 
Iskniic liw as suchi h wiih M g$linis^ 

P\c[}[i, htc^tise Tilim ;^nd Judaism concur rliar ko love God means to partici- 
pate in atoJnmunity oftnuse that love God, affirm, his unicy, perpcc jally gtve 
thanks rahim^ and therefore Bubmit to his rule (Islam) or 11 vea.ndFejoLcc in his 
kingdom Judaism), The concrasK prove subrlc; each drjws ira owr^ conat- 
cincnccifor the character of the social order from checojnmonalErJei of fairh 
Judaism invokes ihic nieraphoT of 'kingdom /tind^ rule l>eing gotten ofii'r^ie 
kingdor^iofHMven-'TheSabhith prayer (^pru res the niude of thought und 
c:tpress[on: ^choK tliac Ueptlie raith with th^ Sabbath and call it a delight ivdl 
i^jf^Lce in yoiif kingd^i^-' Ulaitt.^-ithitlCritifiiiHJofwhat it perceives to be the 
etdLj^iviiyonscaclis God'i people, fiafticbffTtaiim by uiing more ihcologicai 
rhanpoJiricalmeraphor* lu pt^im^ of 4iffcrt»lisilJ0n- th^r Jjnwrc, thehypu- 
crites- yield nuances cha: God aloo* Cin percdvc, 

Ju-daisni Af\6 Tsbrn <<incur thjt religion is public, cotnmunak corporaEc - 
nlll^ teftlizfd only in the »cial order. Butdicir respeccive nanati^'es define i_n 
vciy daniirent T^aya how diar social order is icahzcd^ by whom, andn above alk 
In what context. N"d wonder in conteniporaffy affairs a vast labor of niedmri^in 
awairs. Points in common require arnciiJarion, jo pnlnu of difference ma^r be 
idennfiedand undersiood In fluf judgmenr jbe Ix^rmer v^fly PUl^^igl" ihc 
laccei-Noc-^o t^li^oit-sannon^ailchet^Li^fUofthewodd^Mneiirn 
nauch, h^v^ better prospects of niutuid understanding jnd cc^nciJiation thdji 



(d-^t»^S1fll-ttL]-liiiii.^tdiilihShiirjf-CajrD Dir aJ-Rayui iL-l-TuiiiM^Wfi. ^ 1. O-^t, 

^ A]-^ajT¥wani a using Qur'anic Ia ngujgc riirCHJEh OUT ITIB JM_wagC- HcKh fcr LFHtancc. ihf tfld of flit 

SuU of l^lTtutdk {S^; swh 'Ov^^c v^ulb EdLirn 4d ^tuc^plciwlllHlpl[UJF1g[Ej1ECr 

unro my wpAinn: cnwr mi" giidco!' 

S AI-QfljT^i^ani, 2J-2^. 

7 ]bftl,??-ZJ- 

y ITffi-is^h ^L^tfT ^ uw, rti bvifi^ R^tih in c^l Assrnbly of j^f FLca Pjayflhoc^ CHMTinuoK-i l^i^fci 

id Judah Coldji, crans.i TV ^ra^r Afi^ M^f^ New Ynwt The (t*vi^ Thb^LopJ SiittSnuy tJ 

J J ^IrQqnvrini^ ^1 - 

]2 IbLd.-^if 

I) EbnUu.^. L13 

It Mjlitid Ml. 

IS ftl-QflyrHW|r-ri.9-|l]. 

|g EbiiJ.n 

17 Ibldnli-n- 

lA MJitW 3.JJ7-5^S 

I? AJ'Qjyn^an. ^^- 

JO M-Qflraw^^77. 

23 [isid., 77. 

34 M=iIiLpuL I,36Z. 

J^ [|>id,-^l L.37JJ- 

!& [Ijldn'^l. L.34^. 

2;' AJ-Qii rjwjju, 1[>7 

id [bid.irs. 

*? «-y>|i^™,LJJ-JJ7, 

i^ Ebid.r^l. 



17 Al-Qayrah»ani. 12a 
^a Ai^y^imii. 7? 
19 AEJjayrawanJ. ai-a^ 

4E I b^, TO-DO. 

4J *^4li,iTj. 1,57^377. 

43 Al-Qaynwani."?a 

4A 3]iKl.9Ci-li1 

4£ Allin^ASrAUiiiJih^U^Li:]^ J-^uh:w;irJL, 7Af^/r^^^ 

47 !bbl 

4^ liTUfnMLiilini>.:irf.^AfMi/^~rMH[raru ^Abdul HjjnuJ ^^nldStfi N? J ^^^ ] h H :^^- 

iS Ihid-. 11467, 

Pj3LlLlhletimH£ll «. 

52 InujTiMa^lim ^u^.^ Afo^^in^ [l 4^^ 

^? lbid_ 

14 Ibld- 

iJ Ibid.. lE472-7i 

56 Ibid. If:4-7D-71. 

57 Ihid-.irVi- 
^8 lbld_ 11:477- 

5? pDom Ibn Haim'^ ^t-M^^^ CQil^U ci[«l t^ E-uJur L^^Iltuji ir^ '[iliim and FtobJcrEi Ui^l i>f 

61 Ibjd, l£^- 
ri2 [bid. 
6) Ibid. )6&- 

6^ Ebid, IL-4?a-475 
a lbid.Jli47M80. 
«7 [bid-,l]:4El] 
^ [bid^lT:4a4. 

ri? All [r^^mhcioru ofjudajc ma m iits cbapccr den %? iVoin Ko^r ^ock^ ^^tfiti^i fj^f ihr m'^aw^ tn t^ 
ATrt^M^ /j[ff lyTi^ni^'rarf TrfflrTarr tlsfr fiiicn ■Scholirs Prcsj. 151*3, 

70 IrumMiL^im, lyd^M^Lm, l[4S^_ 

7 1 Wio A- Wi|3inms, cd-. Tfrr^es fl/"/;i*injr OrrVHwrjA^ BcrlwlL7: ^-^niversny of Cjirfornia l^Bi. 

"? Tbis u»ge- wj^ jv^iiicd our b^ fid Lr Pdluna n tn J^jW^ Afi^Aii£^^ m /^j^ji^ l^lunalnd Lljfihid 
Rffsicfi I rutituK, i %-^r L3- 

73 S« tJni£fKf anil Soiui, C!>ffl^^^ ^ji!^efL^.4j ^WijfA Lh^^ L^iidoa RDiiiLed^ 
]'iTf, fbrnAjll dLsruiJbor fJ ftc fh III nu|nc ^^Ivmk (iT^unni Ihv 

74 U3|h] Kbaddiirj ^iiawkJunsfrMltJftt -^^r'i'i ^i^Id. BdEirrv^r-TliLji>hiuHo[vlLLmFc£^, 1^1, 

7^J ^Ec JisfiAisioq ti^\djl P Hj^h^. "ffj? J-Slufi"*! T^r Tn*FifT ?.rchi[-^CT c^f ] Jijnic J jriipnidcrKc*"" 

rtlt^T^a;s&r^/i} JiTTuiiA^'MstLfic E21I Stvdai 2 V^ . NnhicnilKr 1 ^^i, 6CK\ 
77 lliii, oFoi ur^ . i j <if ri cnofc iinpoiuTic i^Lib E^P^ «H r^n-bf^itvcj^ 'O^^u^lh^bdlctvuH Jlhiuli^ 


New Vmrk H^fiKwn. iiu FfjJi ciia^ l^ihtiTi 1 larp*r 1 1^J1:}^tK^^l:s^ L974h L71-17?. 



^lutKuns: bcfdF? meal; 4^> l^lam L 1C^5, 

mcnscruicLOD and 4Uh 4X 4^h ^^L kx ^nd 

aduJccjy: dk-orc^ and 1 ] ^i Jatim 9tf-^. 1?6, 

aAcr]]E^:|Lidakun 1S2. la^, 2U7 

Jlmcmy {maincn: ancc- ahc r divorce ) 124- [f 

ajiimalEi dauphwr ^nt S7-B 
FLiiiulmnic urETimi^; hUm 12^-3 

(if^C^pticin 62-3, l^-Atheiv^ii^p til; 
Itkin 6i-7. IS^LjudiijinWI-?, 3?Cl 

blfssinga: Jud^sm l4, 2(^-I^U; m^aLs 14. 

bJcKKJ' sloiLif^ur Chf animals and ^7— £, mt 

bribery 174 

cliajicy 129-;Q, C ;«-y: jlm^ijig #5^ 

17^ Judaism 129-3^1 IW-7JJ; rKiorad 

i:lU-?6|W5lunurv ]4J>-y 
cliilJr4TTapr>!Ciuy3.hd IM: hflrfllllfllj^FftO, 

4j 3 , fuii r^g anJ 37n giurd^ani of orplun^ 

10(^2; marna^aJid 86, i7jplun^67. 

p^fn EagD of fiFJ-7Ui unni^JEalii siaru^ 

103-^, 1 3 7, /*- dJw .nW i^F^c 
Cbrijnaii Lcy: hbmic 7icw of 2l}i J2I— 2, 

2iS-52: itiartii^ B5; prtytr I 
cleansing jffabluiioi^ 
comnicrcial rrjn^actEons ^ Lth inutEidcr?. 

tJjmjTiuflal pn^r; Islam Z.% 10 
contmLuiirvlBU-lLlJam lB3,?]0-2^, 

Z3M:"]udaism 180-90, iii, 234 
CCIKuhir^a^ ^ 
creed (Shcina") LI, L5-L7 
j;nni*']iidiigftilJS90, zafl-5:flu™lerfl 


Day of AtojicuKiit nom Kippur} J&-S 

okiiudcn 209 
dct^icyii;betjuc]ul4[iJ62"3-pdi^Lr> 4jid 

dhikr (rcp^Ltion mf the namt of Gix[3 2, 10 
dii/otc«59, 12^ iJ]lL«riMFic«4nd 1 12, hUit\ 

117-23. l2&i]iKiaJsrHjl. 112-17, IJS; 

majn tciia-Dcc ^H L2^^ 

cflipHs: prav^nar 10 

finillf MliEJMu yi 12^-H: birmchal ^^, 
6U-?, ]?5^idi^DF« ^^, 112-2^1 J26r 
ltiheriuii<c^9. ^-i-ll i^ 12<i--7;oiafrij^ 


luring: at jpJTitu^ rcimr )2i ^^^.ihGdicn 
jjid 3"^; iLlftM and 37-H^ l^Lm. 1 . .HM;. 
57tJudaiHn] l>36— 40i ^7^ raenrtnjacion 
jrid33,M-pr?gitjnCT-:^nci3J, 34,37^ 
Rimadan fisr 1, >U-4_33i -^and-JI, 
34h 3 ^H 3fct cravcTlcrT a nd 37-6: voFruniif; 
and 33-4 : vrtitve 3?. 54-^ . ^K-4n 

fa£hfis bdrodial and 60, 6lj m^m^ uuL 

fnc^B: GmcLIc 1^)2-11^15 

Ki^"*d'h^ 15&-735flWRM*candl?-*-5, 

^Rignffj /^4Xi«id«rs 

fiirn^^ of prayer: Llam 7-9^ JudajFn] L^-L4 

fdm ic^tkrn: Ldam ij6: Judajsin 1^5 

Gcn-tilcs fff QotsHlcrE 



^l^s: laLani IIU n^Jodauin^^-S, SCMJh 
1113. 157-3 

gcurdi^itisoEorpJunt 100-7 

hidith l]rcrritLiJc: in x, iblutionsui^C^^ll-^; 
bctfOE KjI in C>^1 Ji^fity In 13R— ^3, 
I*I8-9h CO mmuiucy in 2 L^— iLn drvufcc 

inhere [aiHUF in 107— 12^ ouEsLdtisLn ?33l 

[>rd.yw III 3 10 
Hajj pi^rimagc ]4fi-7 
hoFKis I3MC 

LlJi^iiimi^q:.IuEL4^aLW 70 

^lnc&^' b^iin^ and 37— S 

Lnhii-iiirtc* ^5, 1 2h™7; nlivorn* ajui 1 Li 
h\^m lU^lZ I27:judaimi^l04. 
126-7, tnyslai^ JtW-lOnby wi>mcn 
g-9-^%s lK-^106-10, 31Z 

l^amvii;^lutnni U-^0-^J7-8;adulccry 
50-^, l?&:alrns^ving L2D-^fn. htiiynhjl 
63-7. I2&idiflfiiy 12^, l3i>4!J-. ETii 
CWtPr^bhiCylSl. 710-2^,235^; 
divorce ll?-?5, [36; fiimLly cc^arii>ns jn 

hi^rnc^ and 12^-^, inh^rii^nc^ Ift^lJ, 

OUfjiJer^lfll, 22i-J^. pra>^rl-,2-L:, 
%6-7l 5onKC3 viLi, ijir-i^ vKwof 
CKclstunit}" ?I3. 221-?. 2Z30?; vi-w 

JudlLiffl vu;ablutittns I, 45-^&, ^7-8^ 
adiilicry/^Sd. Il6-aft«liift Ifii IR^. 
207| alm5gjvi n g 1S(I-67| aposuq^lSl, 

ie3-?5b?m^3Ml^ 3, l^^JsW^ssm&s 

H 20-30 tchu^T l?f^-JU. I^^J-7y; 
community 1ftO-M,l^^,iWt crime 
lR^?L>,2l>fi-^di"rtJtw6lJli 17, 
126; ^mjl y icldcians i n ^^; l^[Li]gU 
3^j-40. 57, gifts ^ 5. 100, [02. 157-S. 
hijrari'and [77, 12G; inhciicancf 
^>4^HH, l26-7;lilEijnjcviev;cif2IS. 
220-L .322, 225-321 marriaEc 67-S^. 
pra^-HZi U?, 11-30. 5&-7t3Ln IS^^D^ 
S<iur<J^ vli J, ]X, Support f-mrrlK poor 
l67-7B^suppwrfriiprlKEli-i>od 1Sij-9h 


maintmance flAerdiwunic 124—5 

rmjuagtS^ l?i>; jdnlKfy 74-fl^, W-^h 
annuliT^cnl: l22->; children and 6t^ 
diLCteiltl 70-3, <j>fiflK^^mcnt /<T- brtrothala 
faihcfi and 36; latam fk4. &-1 1>7. a^i-H- 
126; Judusm &7-S^, 12&: mcMyind 
fi7-R,rt?=5eiar.j7a,7j^2,f7,H t22i 
slavcE and 64, 66^ 67^S^'^\lZff^\^^z\A 
Q 5,86 

jncJs: abJhnicna bi:fcMi: 44; blessings ar li, 
20-^ ; conununaf 23-5 

jiMniTfuaclort jhlipriotl artci-^0--^3,^<i^55; 
di-^r-crand 117-195 ^[ingam]33j 5Ji 
s 1:1 during B5 

nulk: liiin]l¥ irlatkins ^nd 6^— iS, I05h I 24h 

mirarln: bicssanp in cmnunnnoraEiDn of 

Uii&naX iiLibluii^n in 47-53. 5^: iidulctry 
^■L 74 -Sl^ei;lrt™tlij]m*l>-3^ chanty 
in 151 E5^J-67. lfia-5. 171, 173^; 
comimini ty Qj Israel ]n 16?-^^ crime and 
?mLr» ig^-^, dii\iw?inl]3-l6,£Mting 
in ^6-40i Ccnulc^ in iy2-B. 2e7, 2m. 
inuCT itanc? in ^^3i JO?— 3i mairi^cin 
67-75f prayer ill 1-1-21,23-e 

m<jnrr bcciodi^l and 60—1, M^ hncE72| 
nufjLigf icid -ij"^-R, fl7, wf -iiw (.hanCy 

iVItwajr [3W. nurriage and 73 

to 12, 34-5 
mniirnLn^: Uh\^ I \9-Ji^ 
MubammadH ProphcL \x^^^ 31 U; nnfria^ 

afi-^. Fii^t lourncy 4 
Muhammad jl-Sokluri w 
muT^JoduFJc L65 
Muslim ibn iil-Hjj]aj al-May^nbun ;c 

hdturalphrnt^iKffiarprayrruid ^7 

4atlu^ DKjkJDf; od ^2 

N^rplians ^uardaani Iffl}- J marringi-^ijwi &7 
ouctdcTS ^ commcfCEaE iraii::ai:T ions wicli 
1!>2-5h I9B, Z0{l-lJdi>lwgf5h.pig^7, 
1^ 200^ l^lam 161. i?^_14Judaiim 
IHCI. IKI- l5fl-3C)^:wicwafid L9^. 
1 97-a. 2Q0 

pLIcrimagt (Hajj) 14&-7 



pcor suppi^it for iff cfuFLty 

pftSLt lpc d uriiig pfi^f Islam 7—^1 J ittkism 

ii-ii. laj^ 

prtTcr ]■ hltssines 14, 2ft-^Ch|cJli-i:i 2^ 
9-LI>. ^7,cc.iniiiijnJi,9, JO,^:r«d. 
rhz name-cifGodj % 10| IciTmsof 7— ^. 
Iskm ],?-n. ^6-7;^P^ajSrfl 1,2. 
I \—Hii 5^^^: j^mnufc during 7—^^ 
ll-J^, ia,2?,pjL^tc l>2, ]9,pub3Li.^ 
57; nm^J ^— Jl; spirrfica-nnyiu ]; [fcFnHngcif 

pregnajicjT dLvorcc «hJ 117-^16, 119, 12^, 

fig[|n£ajHl33.J4. ?7 
pn&ThcKKi: iuppDntor 1Sn>-9, 170-1 
rrcici^mi[i£ni:p[iyi:j I 

Qjt^jn is; jb]u[L(^n£ in 40-1 ; ajdulrcr}' in 

i:<hnifn ihrLiiry i n 2]Ch-l^i 221—2; divn^rcc 
ifi llS-L^ L 2 1-4> cjnajinpatio n of 
dive III 1 Id; fanmg irt3ll-?; gendw 
]n«]Li^i[ia in 8^-6; inhcriianccLn 

MijliAinnud^i ~WL¥t^ In &i: ouEsidtis in 

M^ciCin^ 4iirjn^ Knpii^^n 3C> 

niri: prfferlbf 10 

RjjiucLia (nAL E, 30-4, J5. charliy :it trn] c^f 

Sitnarh 34 
£ani3Titans 194 

a^Julccry ~^4-[$Hi ^&[Lngand3]i 34. 3^, 
36^ iitdet^rmlnatesci- I 03-4; rMrriajr 
itid70,7l-Z, 37, D4, IZ^i ouaidcriand 
lf>5. 1^. 2*2 208^ ^bn^t ar-d 66 

ihflr'ifl llsl^icDii. kw) s;^+nii<y m l43-f^. 
Ltiiiimu-ii rv in IH.-'^ 

SKnii" (c-nrd) IJJ5-I7 

siiju^um ]£^-9€ 

slaufthKt ^7— fl 

al^vR. id ul'~?rK ^n J ?0; cmintipH?.ti4ri bf 

l>fquL!:^[ 1 1lk-l?; finuly rclacLon 3 an^] ^; 

15 guitdiaj^^ul'ijrptiinff L4J. inh^ncin^ 

by ICfl-IO,marrta^aJsd&4/4>7,89E 

rigncB Qf ] 3^^ 
*Lcangi-i5 fffiiuMdtr^ 
Sunna ix—x 

Talmud bL,4dJltc^yin7(^8)>chflrLt¥in 
1?Q, L^l^. l7V-fl| uLrnc and sdnin 
le^-flO.praf^nniH. ]-S-lS,20.^. 

Trnipfc UcmsaLcml JS^ 171 

dmi ng oip prayriz liJam 4— 7, JuJaiSrTi ll? IS 

Torah" Jiliil[cfy in fli -Zi flj-4i clyrliv in 
1^0. L%, iiS-% HiSidawrce^n 
112^13. I]« Omtiltsin 192. 19S. 
201-7.209; Ldolmy in igfu?,20O. 
101. mhtfiracl« IJI 54--^, 9&; mjrrijge 
and Tit 

Tosefca jx; 3tl".L[tO[i in 47"!^^, !l^: SJ^iJiery 
iii75-Bl.?J-chariij'iji 157-8^ IG«, 
168-75, ^^CHjnmurt]iy of Istael III 182-5: 
Ccnnlcs in 19?^, 1 9"^. ?0T-9i 
]nhcr:fdi« in 9^-104, praytrin 1^21 j 

iravdlcra" liarLTvajid. 166-7, 171— 2| raariiig 

tribes icihi^jbUfLfi: jnd 94 

cwii^E: Li:ri!icr]rincc and ^4 

vj rgEniiiy : Islam !Mjh 12 J ] J iidaiEm S7-9 

VHjrnlCiiaJ rasL.nt SimJ 33 — 4 

lonve&tTingi JsLam ^2, 34-^:3ui3inn 

^lOTC praycn ]iidai5ni 19 

v/astiing ^^abljuoiit 

widens; inhcncancc by 95 , mamaj^ and 67 

wllh- Jutljlifti IftO 

wjnr {}lGiingc-f Zlt^^EOUQidcfs uid 1^ 

1^-8, 2i>;) 
w^^mcn apLi£[uyaiid 1 ^; hccrncliak ^9b 

^J(^-7, liwing and 3Jj as guadurj of 

OfphittS H^l. iri(wfiran«hT^^5. 5ci. 

102-1, li>&-JU, Il2,jira^<ran[l^. 17. 


m n^^ [ ni 3^ on ^ p [»iia ncy 
WHjrL: na jrtia^ jnd 71