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Full text of "KARTA - Russian Independet Historical and Human Rights Defending Journal N28-29"

POCCMftCKHIrf HE3ABMCHMbM MCTOPMHECKUM M nPAB03AmUTHblkl WYPHAJl 



RUSSIAN INDEPENDENT HISTORICAL AND HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDING JOURNAL 





PoccuwcKan kapta ocHOBaHa b Hon6pe 1992 roAa no MHMUMaTMBe no/ibCKoro 
HesaBMCMMoro ncTopunecKoro xcypHana "KARTA", BbixoARLAero c RHBapti 1982 
roAa, m pH3aHCKoro o6iuecTBa "MEMOPHAJ1 ", yspex<AeHHoro b oKT«6pe 1989 
rofla. 



POCCMHCKMM He3aBMCHMblM 

nCTopunecKUM n 
np3BQ3amnTHbiM xypnan 

AMpec: 390000, Poccmr, 

r. Pfl33Hb, 

nil. KOCTIOLUKO, 3. 

Ana nuceM: 390000, Poccmh, 
Pfl3aHb ueHTp, a/n 20. 
Teji./QaKc: (0912)77-51-17 
E-mail: andy@hro.org 
http://www.karta.org 

yipegviTenb: 

PeAaKLJMfl He3aBMCHMOM 

ra3eTbi "PnaaHCKMM BecTHWK". 
XypHaii 3apernCTpnpoBaH 
MMHMCTepCTBOM ne^a™ m 
nHcpopMauwu 29.12.1992 r. 
CBMfleTeiibCTBo o pemcTpauHM 
Ns 01949. 

rnaBHbiH pegBKTop 
AHApeft BiiMHyujOB 

PegaKijHa: 
rOnun CepeAa 
Cepreft PoMaHOB 

BaAHM LUy6nH 
lleTp MuTUHep 

BHKTOp J103MHCKMM 
MHDHUH aBTOpOB H6 

o6fl3aieiibHo coBnaAaiOT c 
TOHKOM 3peHHfl peAaKLjHM. 
CoxpaHHOCTb pyKonnceii, 
4>OTOMaTepManoB m AOxyMeHTOB 
rapaHTMpyeTcn. 

no BonpocaM noAnwCKn Ha 
"KapTy" o6pau4aTbcn 
b peAaKUHio. 

Hag HOMepoM padorann: 

A. E/IMHyUJOB, C. POMaHOB, 

IO. CepeAa, T. riocne/iosa 

KoMnbtorepHaa aepcTKa: 
fOT. CepeAa 



OmeMaTaHO OOO "CEPBMC 

PnaaHb, 

y/i. HHTepHaunoHaiibHaa, 

A- 1 "r. 

3axa3 Nfi 773. 
nesaTb ocpceTHan. 

Twpax 

2000 3K3. 

rionnncaHO 

b nesaTb 16.10.2000 r. 




B HOMEPE: 



fleno Ns 52 

yneHbiu oOeunaemcfi e lunuoHaxe 



"...OCB cMo>KeT o5t.«BHTb ujnwoHaweM nK>6y»o HayvHyio pa6oiy" 

y^eHbiu odeuHFiemcn e Lunuonaxe 

fleno Ns 52. XpOHonorun 
YveHbiu o68UHRemcH e ujnuonaxe 



Ma YronoBHoro KOfleKca P<t> 
M LUnuoHCKue"cmambu c KOMMeHmapunMu 



fleno Ns 52. Paflno CBo6ofla. riporpaMMa Tlpasa HenoBeKa" 

yveHbiu o68UH9emcn e umuonaxe 

BHeceH b "3aKpbiTbiM cnncoK"... 

H3eecmH0My Mupomeopny Tdpacaee fl3K>Hceio 3anpemeH ebe3d e Poccuio 



TapacaBa fl3K)Hceti: OTKpbnoe nucbMO 
npe3MfleHTy BnaflMMupy nyrwHy 



EBreHMM 3AXAPOB ripaB03aiMMTHMKM 

3adaNU, cpyHKu,uu. npaea u npuHu,unbi 
denme/ibHocmu npaeo3amumHbix opaaHu3au,uu 



HaflBwraiomaflCH Kaiacipocpa 

nonoxeHue ebiHyxdeHHbix nepeceneHU.ee U3 '-ieuHu 



_j3 
_5 
_6 

_7 
JM 
J5 
16 



AHflpeii JIAHbKOB CeBepHaa Kopea: penpeccnn n 6ecnpaBne 

B3znnd Ha CeeepHyto Kopeto c moHKu 3penup MexdyHapodHoao npaea 

rionoweHHe c npaBaMw nenoeeKa b CeBepnoii Kopee 

M3 doxnada KopeucKou MexdyHapodHoO fluzu 3aiu,umh>i npae ne/ioeexa (IHRLK) 

Jlappn flAklAMOHfl Tonoca M3 ceBepoKopeiiCKoro TY/lAra" 

Ceudemenbcmea oneeuduee 

Cto3aHHa UJOJlbT 3a TeMHbiM saHaBecoM CeBepHoii Kopen 

Caudemenbcmea oveeudu.ee 

ribiTKn m y6niiCTBa 3aK/iKmeHHbix 

"HacKanbHap xueonucb " nepexueuiux ceeepoxopeucKue nazepn 

HaTajibfl JIEEEflEBA HeTBepTwfi pa3flen nonbiuii n KaTWHCKaa Tpareflua 

Wcmopw-tecKuii onepx 

riaynnHa flPEBHFIK BocnoMMHaHun aeflyiuKM 36biujKa 

nonaKu e Ka3axcmaHe 

Udopun b flOKyMeHTax 

AoKyMeHmaribHbie ceudemenbcmea KambiHCKoao npecmynnenup 

Evm nOMflHOBCKUM 3Ta roflOBiMUHa 

Pa3MbiuineHUH nucamen* 

HD3e$ HAnCKUM CTapo6enbCKne BOcnoMMHaHun 
J^OKyMenmanbHbie ceudemenbcmea KamuHCKoao npecmynneHUP 
Ha c6opHMKa "KaTbiHCKoe npeciynneHne b CBeTe AOKyMeHTOB" 

RoKyMeHmanbHbie ceudemenbcmea KambiHCKoao npecmynneHua 

OrrmHucb b pacKaflHun 

3anenenue poccuucKux npaeo3amumHUKoe 

ripocTUTe Hac. nonnKn! MeflHoe, 2 ceHTa6pa 2000 roaa 

Cepaeu POMAHOB Oomopenopmax 

"3 nepeiuen Ha craTyc CBo6oflHoro nenoBeKa" 

unmepebK) c npaeo3amumHUKOM MocucpQM flndbKUHbiM 

Buktop KArAH CnHTaKCuc norpoMa 

Pa3MbiujfieHue o npupode Hau,uoHanu3Ma 

flaBHA TAPACK3K Ee3 bmhw BMHOBaTbie 

EepeQcKue noapoMbi e aodbi rpawdaHCKoQ eouHbi e Poccuu 

HopMaH KOH BnarocnoeeHne Ha reHounfl 

H3 ucmopuu aHmuceMumu3Ma 

B. BOJ1KOB <DaiuM3M b Poccmm. Hto 3aBTpa? 

Pa3Mbiui/ieHun ucmopuKa 

CnoBapb 

reHOuud, amHOHud. amHuvecxaH nucmKa, npecmynneHua npomue Henoeenecmea 

OHa xoTena, 4to6w tioah 3Hann npaafly 

HaMftmu AHHbi MuxaunoeHbi rpuuuuHOU 

HHHOKeHTMM nACblHKOB no6er 

Cydbdbi cmonemup 

Ha nepBOM CTp. o6ho)kkm 4>oto m3 xcypHana "Index on Censorship" 

Ha HeTBeproii — cpparMeHT MeMopnanbHoro KOMnneKca b KaTbiHM noA CMoneHCKOM 



18 
22 
26 
38 
41 
43 
45 
50 
64 
69 
73 
74 
74 
75 
75 
78 
85 
86 
89 
96 
99 
101 
102 



4 



flPABA HEflOBEKA 



Aeno He 52 



Buife-npe3udeHm ynueepcumema nopK 

MaiiKi CmueencoH: 

Cepieto Pozoey 

JJupeKmopy 

Hucmumyma CLUA U Kcrnadu 

Poccuuckou AKadeMuu hovk 

121814 Mocxea, Xie6Hbiu nepey.iOK, 2/3 

0okc: 011-7095-200-1207 

yBaacaeMMH a-p PoroB. 

Si xcmy nonpocuTb BauieH noMouiH b BecbMa HenpusT- 
HOMnejie. ilejiaa 3to. h Haaeiocb Ha HauiH mramie OTHoiueHHH. 
a tugkc Ha jwbho ycTaHOBHBiiiHecH napTHepcKHe OTHonjeHim 
Meauy HauiHMH HHCTHTyraMH. 

HeaaBHO h nojiyHHJi nHCbMO ot IlaBJia IToaBHra, coTpy.a- 
HHKa UeHTpa no H3yneHHK> npoGneM pa3opy>KeHH« npH Moc- 

KOBCKOM (J)H3HKO-TeXHHHeCKOM HHCTHTyTC rioHBHr o6paTHJl 

Moe BHH\iaHne Ha aeno Hropa CyrarHHa, HayHHoro coTpya- 
HiiKa HCKPAHa. HacKO.ibKO a noHHMaio, oceHbio CyrarHH 
6biJi apecTOBaH pocchhckom <t>e.aepajibHOH cjiy>K6oH 6e3onac- 
hocth (<t>CE) no noao3peHHK) b rocyaapcTBeHHOH H3MeHe h 



ujnHOHaiKe. CorjiacHO nncbMy rioaBHra, cpejH apryMeHTOB, 
KOTopue cjieacTBHe npHBOjHT b noAaepjKKy oCbhhchhh, hc- 
nojib3yeTCfl (paicr yiacTHH CyrarHHa b KaHaacKOM Hcc.ne.aoBa- 
TejibCKOM npoeiae. ROTopufi ocymecTBJifljica cobmcctho yHH- 
BepcHTeTaMH KapjiTOH h HopK. 

MHe He H3BecTHbi nerajiH oGbhhchmji, KOTopoe poccHHc- 
Koe rocyaapcTBO BbUBuraeT DpOTHB CvTHrHHa, h y mchh hct 
HaMepeHH«, Ha caMOM acne, h HHKaKoro npaBa BMeiiJHBaTbca 
b xoa paccicnoBaHna. B to ace BpeMfl, a CHHTaio cbohm aonroM 
o6parH TbCa k HJBecTHbiM MHe acneiaaM 3Toro .ae.ua. KOTopwe 

KacaiOTCH yHHBepCHTeTa HopK l< KOTOpbie HCKJHOMHTeJlbHO 

BB3KHH jjih Mem h jinn Bcex KaHaacKnx nccue,aoBaTejieH. 
KOTopwe y6e)KjeHbi b tom, hto COBBieCTHbie HCC.nejOBaieiibc- 
KHe npoeKTbi c nantflMH pocchhckhmh KOJiJieraMH npeacTaB- 
jihiot ueHHocTb mix o6enx HailJHX CTpaH. 

rio3BOJibTe MHe onHcaTb npoetcr, b kotopom npHHHMaji 
ynacTHe Hropb CymrHH. 

ripoeKT 6bui 3aayMaH KaK Hacrb nporpa.MMbi no jnyne- 
hhk) BoeHHO-rpa>KaaHCKHx othouichhh, HanaTOH b 1997 r. 
MHHHCTepCTBOM o6opoHbi KaHajbi C nOMOLUbK) AccounauHH 
yHHBepcHTeTOBH KOJuieaxeH KaHaaw. LJejib nporpaMMbi 3aK- 



MrOPb BfWECJlABOBHH CyTHrHH— KaiuiuaT hctoph- 

Ml'l'KIIX IIIIVK. lailtMN KIIIIIIH I'CKIOpOM BOCH IIO-'I CX llll Ml'CKOH H BO- 

CIIHO IKOHOMII'llCKOH IIIUHIHKII Ol.tC.ia HOell II O- II O. I II 1 II Ml'C kll \ 

HCCiejOBaHHH If lie i ii i \ i :i (III A H kaiia ii.i PAH. 

0VHKuuona.ibitb4e o6x3aHHOcmu: CneuHa.iHci b o6.iacTH 

IIIUIIIIUH II KliL'MIKlii III). Ill I IIKII H BOnpOCOB Sit'* 1> liapi) 1111)11 Of 10- 

nacHOCTH, lias -in i.iii cm* 6o.iee 10 JUT. OcHOBHbie on. lac i n HCCie- 

uiHaimii — CTparei HHecKHe Boop\ aciuim. 6e30nacHOCTb hii'|iihi- 

ro op\*nn, npoo.it'Mi.i i i poii i cu.c i Ha ii Hcmi. ii. umaiiiiH BOeHHO- 

MOpCKHX CHJI. 

Q6pa3oeanue: 1982-1988 — Mockobckiih ioc>.iapciiu'iiiii,iii 

MIIHIipCM I C I HM. M. B.. IliMOIIOCOIia. <I>II IH'ieCKIlil (paKN.Ih KM. k-a- 
(pt.ipa ofdllt'H (pll 1HKI1 H BOJIHOBMX lipOllfffOII. 

. I.iiii.iom 06 > MHiu'pcii 1 e 1 ckom oOpa iOBaiinii no ciieiiHa.ibiin- 
CTH «Pa iHoipiiiHka H i.irk'i pniuik-a. hk.imi'i;isi Kuan i <>ns ki ink i - 
poHHK>» — n .V« 227775. 1988-1991— HHCTHTyr CI11A 11 Kaii.i im 
Vka uMiiii HavK (MocKBa). Acnupaii 1 \ pa no c1ifi111a.11.11c 1 11 '11c- 
1'ipiiii mi'*m\ iiapii.un.i v o 1 Homeii 11 ii •>. > 'iciiuh c i i'Mciii. k :a n 1 11 1:1 1 a 
HCTOpHHeCKHX H8>'K, OHI.IOM Kail III Ul I a H8VK — KT JTs 019750. 

Tpvdoecm deMme.ibiiocmb: c 1989 no nacuwiiiee BpeMfl — 
MHCTHTyT CLUA h k'uiia.n.i Pocchhckoh Vka umum ii:i\ k. CTap- 
uiHH;ia6opaHT (1989-1992); M.ia .nniiii iia\«uii.iii coips iiihk ( 1 ')');- 
1993); iiayini.iii coip> iiiiik (1993-1997); ciapuimi u:i\ *i 11 1,1 11 co- 
1 p> iiihk (1997-1998); (am is loninii ceicropoM bochho-tcxhhhcc- 

KOH H HOt'HHO- >KOHOMM'K'CKOH IIO.IHIHKH (C 1998). 

1992-1996 — cope i:ik i op. i .kibii i.iii pc.iaK i op h an i op c*tmc- 
CMHHoro «BoeHHoro BecTHHKa» HHipopMauHOHHOro ai en icina 
«llocT(paKTyM». 

[Iy6.iuKauuu: Hropb CyrjirHH hh.ihc i ch aaTopoM oo.iec neM 
100 cTaTell h dpoimop. M!i\i').iiiK«inaiiiii.i\ b CoBeTCKOM Coio3e/ 
POCCHH, a iak*e b ( Of iiiiit ; iiin.i\ III iaia\. lU-iiik-oopn laoiiii 11 
IHruMiiapiiH. CoaBTop Tpex KHHr: «( "ivil- Military Relations and 
Nuclear Weapons*, Stanford, 1994, «Kermvaffenverbreitung und 
internationaler Systemwandeh, Baden-Baden. 1994 h «Cmpameeu- 




necKoe HdepHoe eoopyncenue 
Poccuu» (noa pe.i. II. 1 1>. inu- 
la. M.. HaaAT, 1998). 

Hayiitye pqfomH CfK- 
mopa: 

CymrHH H. B. «Ocho«- 
Hbie npoipoMMbi coidanuH e 
CLUA epedeme npomuaopa- 
is cm m >u i n'm /in ii hi-. 1999 r. 

< wHiiiii H. B. uPaipa- 
6omna e CLUA cucmeM npo- 
mueopanemHou odoponbt pat- 

lU'tmuti mi iiiuhviiiih" (enpa- 

BOMHbie laiiin.if i. 1999 r. 

CymrHH H. B. «Paipa- 
I'mmha iiepcnvKmuiiUbix Kpbuamux panem t):m BMC <I>paiutuu», 
1999 r. 

CymrHH H. B. uCoeeptuencmeoeaHue eomoxcHocmeu pa- 
Kcmiitico KOMmeKca «MuHumMeH-IU» no 6opt6e c MoOiubHUMU 
tic iHMii-. 1999 i. 

CyTHIHH H. B. «0 803M03KHOM Climpyi)nt4tL'fmiU- Poccuu 11 

CU1A e ctpepe npedomepameHua pacnpocmpaneuun Kpumunec- 
kux mexHO.iocuuu, 1999 r. 

CymrHH H. B. «0 mexnutecKou eoxMOMcuocmu coidanua e 
CU1A Hexdepnux epedeme npomueopaKemnou o6opoHtun, 1999 r. 

CymrHH H. B., I tic i >i i m-f w E.B. «IJpo6.ieMU conuaibHozo 
iifninciciiuH eoeHHoayjKainux BC CU1A», 1999 r. 

CymrHH H. B., Jchkhm .I.K). «nepcneKmueu coeepiuen- 
cmeoaaiiUH mexHUKU BBC CU1A», 1999 r. 

M a hi ii i B. A., H it a iioh K). A., CymrHH H. B., Sen kh ii . \. K)., 

1 1 o'iseiia T. K)., I : itc i h I neon E. B. "PhinoK aauauurmnou meXHU- 

ku empan ACEAH», 1999 1. 



fleno Nq 52 



jnonaeTca b o (naKOMicHiiii coipyiiHHKOB bochhwx BeflOMCTB 

nOCTKOMMyHHCTHHeCKHX CTpaH CKaHaaCKHM OnWTOM BOeHHO- 

rpaxmaHCKHx othoiuchhh b aeMOKpaTHHecKOM o6mecTBe. 
K.i>Kji.iii roa, MdMiniaH c 1997 r., b KaHaay npHrnaiuajiHCb 
aenerauHH paj.miHbix BOCTOHHoeBponencKHX CTpaH h Poc- 
chh. B xoae BH3HTOB, zuihbuihxch HecKo.ibKO He.ie.ib. 3th 
iiejierauHH cjiymajiH .ickuiih. nocemajiH Boennbic o6T>eKTbi h 
HayHHO-HCcneaoBaTejibCKHe HHCTHTyTw, cneuHajiH3HpyiomH- 
eca Ha HccneaoBaHHax b o6jiacTH MeamyHaponHOH h Hauno- 
H&nbHOH 6e3onacHOCTH. no xoay ocyiuecTBJieHHH nporpaM- 
Mbi ee kohhciiuhh ihmchh. nacb noa B03aeHCTBHeM npHo6pe- 

TeHHblX ypOKOB H KpHTHHeCKHX laMCHaHlill yiaCTHHKOB. B 

nacTHOCTH, b 1998 r. Mhhhctcpctbo o6opoHbi npHHJUiopeuie- 
HHe npoBecTH HayHHoe HCCJieaoBaHne npo6jieM BoeHHo-rpajK- 
aaHCKHx OTHomeHHH b Boctohhoh EBpone. 

KoHKypc Ha npaBO npoBeaeHHfl 3Toro iicc.ie.ioBan » h 6bui 
BbiHrpaH KOJiJieKTHBOM yqeHbix H3 yHHBepcHTeTOB HopK H 
KapjiTOH, B03rjiaajifleMbiM npocpeccopoM yHHBepcHTeia Kap- 
jttoh XapanbaoM <J)oh Phkxo^^om. C cavioro na i ia.ia jean 
npaBHTenbCTBO, TaK h yHHBepcHTeTbi, yHacrayiomHe b npoen- 
Te, paccMaTpHBanH ero KaK nonHOCTbio OTKpbirbiH uikohhmm 
HayHHO-HCCJienoBaTejibCKHH npoeKT. Hhkto H3 ynacTHHKOB 
He Bii.ic.i HHHero npoTHB03aKOHHoro hjih HenpaBHJibHoro b 
tom, HTo6bi KaHaacKiie HCcncaoBaiejiH npoBenn H3yneHHe 

lipi>6.ICM OTHOUieHHH MC/K.1Y BOeHHblMH H I pa>K_iailCK11.Mll 
HHCTHTyTaMH B CTpaHaX, 6bIBlllHX paHee KOMMyHHCTHHCCKH- 

mh. HacaMOM aejie, 3a Bpevis, npomemnee c MOMeHTa OKOHna- 
hhjj xojiojihoh BOHHbi, OTH npo6jieMbi 6buiH npejiMeTOM He- 
CKOJlbKHX HCCJieflOBaTenbCKHX npoeKTOB, ocymecTBJieHHbix 
coBMecTHO yneHbiMH 'jana.iHOH h Boctohhoh EBponw. 3tot 
HHTepec BHe hchkoi o comhciuih onpasjiaH, TaK KaK 3th Bonpo- 
cbi hbjuhotcji HCKJiioMHTenbHo BajKHWMH juia MeamyHapoaHO- 
ro MHpa h yenenmoro pa3BHTHS aeMOKparaH b Boctohhoh 
EBpone. 

Pa6oTa Haa npoeKTOM 6buia HanaTa oceHbio 1 998 r. Ojihh 
H3 ero 3JieMeHTOB npejwojiaraji upoiie.icii lie cepHH HHrepBbio 
c npcacTaBHTejiJiMH bochhux bcjomctb h HayMHbiMH iKcnep- 
TawH crpaH, H3yHeHHe KOTopux bxoahjio b 3ajiaHy npoeKTa. 
JXna npOBeaeHHA HHTepBbio obi.iii BbiGpaHbi asa nenoBeKa — 

H.3BHJ1 BeTU, KaHaaCKHH aCHHpaHT, KOTOpblH CCHiaC yHHTCS B 

yHHBepcHTeTC rjia3ro, h Hropb CyTarHH. Bonpocw HHTepBbio 
KacanHCb b ochobhom BonpocoB KOHTpojia rpaamancKHx op- 
rauoB npaBHTejibCTBa 3a BoeHHbiMH h hx ynacTHJi b pemeHHH 
TeKyumx npo6jieM ap.Mnu. OTHOiueHHH Meacay apMHefi h 06- 
mecTBOM h po;in nap.ia.MeH i a. cpe.ic i b MaccoBofi MHcpopsia- 
UHH, HavHnoi'0 coo6mecTBa b onpe jcichhm bochhom noji u in - 

KH. 

HacKOJibKO MHe h3bcctho, b xoae ocymecTBJieHHa npoeK- 
Ta HHKTO H3 npHHHMaBLUHX B HCM yHaCTHe JHOflefi, BK.lIOWaH 

HHTepBbiOHpyeMbix, He noasepr coMneniiK> 3aKOHHOcrb npo- 
BeaeHH* HccjieaoBaHi« h He 3anoao3pHa HajiHHHe KaKHx- 
jih6o cKpbn bix mothbob ero npoBeaeHHa. J&BBH Bern coBep- 
uihji noe3^Ky b MocKBy b Hoa6pe 1 998 r. h npoBeii HHTepBbio 

C HeCKOJlbKHMH npeflCTaBHTeJlHMH pOCCHHCKOrO MHHHCTep- 

craa o6opoHbi. B aeKa6pe 1998 - sHBape 1999 it. M. CyrarHH 
B3JU1 HHTepBbio npHMepHO y 20 nenoBeK — b ochobhom HayH- 
Hbix 3KcneproB. KanccTBO npoaejiaHHOH hm pa6oTbi 6buio 

HCKJIIOHHTeJIbHO BblCOKHM! OH B3H.1 HHTepBbK) BblCOKOIipO- 

(peccHOHajibHbiM o6pa30M h npnno*HJi k hhm cboh cooopawe- 
hhji no o6cy»jiaeMOMy npeaMery. 



Pa6oTa Haa npoeKTOM 6buia3aKOHHeHa k anpe-iK) 1999 r. 
Otmct o npoeicre, HacHHTWBaiomHH okoho 500 crpaHHu (M. 
CyrHTHH nepeHHcneH b HHCJie coaBTopoB), 6bLn npeacTaAiieH 
o6mecTBeHHOCTH Ha BCTpese b yHHBepcHTeTe Kap^TOH b Ot- 
TaBe. npo4>. (J)oh PHKXo$(p h flBa apyrHX coTpyjiHHKa, pa6o- 
TaBuinx Haa npoeKTOM, npejicraBHiiH pe3yjibraTbi iiHiuiOMa- 
TaM H3 cipaH, KOTopue iibi.in npeaMeTOM ncc.ie johuh n a . bkjik)- 
naa h Pocchk). M3aaTejibCTB0 riparep, KOTopoe Bbipa3HJio 
HHTepec k ny6jiHKauHH pe3yjibraTOB npoeKTa, nozmncano co- 
oTBeTCTByiomHH KOHTpaicr neTOM 1999 r. 0>KHiiaeTCJi, hto 
jiByxTOMHHK c pe3ynbTaTaMH ncc.ic.ioHaniiii BbiilaeT b cbct b 
otom roay. 

ripocMOTpeB eme pa3 HcropHK) npoeicra h pojib H. Cyrs- 
rHHa b ero ocymecTBJieHHH, « He Mory noBepHTb b to, tto kto- 
ihoo. h b HacTHOCTH npaBOOxpaHHTenbHhie opraHbi, MO«eT 
cnecTb, hto 3ra pa6oTa mo»cct HBJurrbCJi aicroM rocyaapcTBeH- 
hoh H3MeHbi hjih umHOHa)Ka. ft c niy6oKHM coxcajieHHeM 
aojiHcen OTMeTHTb, hto Poccha CTana ejiHHCTBeHHOH H3 12 
CTpaH, H3yHeHHbix b xoae 3Toro npoeiaa, b KOTopofi o(J)huh- 
ajibHbie JiHua cohjih, hto npOBeaeHHoe Kana.ioii H3yneHHe 
cocTOJiHHa BoeHHO-rpaacaaHCKHX othouichhh npeflCTaaiHeT 
yrpo3y arw iiamioiia.ii.iioii 6e3onacHOCTH. Bo Bcex apyrHX 
crpaHax HCCJieaoBaTejiH i ion. iOBa.inci. 1 10. moii noaaep)KKOH 
co CTopoHbi npaBHTe^ibCTBeHHbix opraHOB, KOTopwe paccMaT- 
pHBanH KaHaacKMH npoeicr KaK nojie3Hyio h Ba«HyK) tpopMy 

nOMOUIH B OCyiUeCTBJieHHH petpOpM, npOBO/lHMblX 3THMH 

crpanaMH. 

BHe hchkoi o coMiieiniH. npoTHBopeHHBaji CHTyaUHH, KO- 
Topaa cno«H^acb BOKpyr ynacTiw H. CyrarHHa b KaHaacKOM 
HCCJieaoBaTejibCKOM npoeKTe, bhocht HOTy 6ecnoKoficTBa h 
neaoBepHs b c(J)epy poccHHCKO-xaHaacKHX HayHHbix KOHTaK- 
tob. KanaacKiic (a B03M03KHO, h .ipynie laiia.mbic) iicc.ic.io- 
BaTe^H, KOTopue ocymecTBJWK)T npoeKTbi c ynacTHeM poc- 

CHHCKHX yneHMX HJIH paCCMaTpHBaiOT BO3MO)KH0CTb TaKHX 

npoeKTOB, flOJDKHbi 6yayr cnpocHTb ce6a o tom, He co3/j.aioT 
jih ohh TeM caMbiM HeonpaBiiaHHbiH pncK juw cbohx pocciiii- 
ckhx KOJuier. ft xoTeji 6bi HaaeHTbca Ha to, hto CHTyamw, 

c . 10/KUBinaHCH BOKpyr C '> i hi una. h b.ihc I CH C.IC.IC 1 HHCM Mbefi- 
to cepbe3HOH ouih6kh h He OTpaacaeT hobuh nojixoa docchh- 
CKoro npaBHTejibCTBa k >c i aiioBiiBiuciicH npaKTHKe cobmcct- 
hoh HayHHOH paooTbi yneHbix painwx cipaH. 

ft oy.iy BaM oicHb npii inaic.icH. cc.in Bw CMO^ere 
npoHCHHTb ooc i oh re.ibCTBa ae.ia mm Menu h mohx KOJiJier. 

C yBa»eHHeM, 
MafiKJi Cthbchcoh 



B OKTq6pe 1998 r. Bbiuina b cbst 
KHura «CTpaTernHecKoe naephoe bo- 
opy>KeHMe Poccmm», noaroTOBneH- 
Han L4eHTpoM no nayneHHK) npo6neM 
paaopymeHns npn Mockobckom cpn- 

3MKO-TeXHMHeCKOM MHCTMTyTe. B M3- 

AanuM paccMaTpMBaeTcn jjupoKnii 

Kpyr BOnpOCOB, CBH3aHHWX C MCTO- 

pneii coanaHMW m pa3BMTMfl crpaTe- 
runecKnx naepHbix cun CCCP, Hbi- 
H611JHMM COCTOflHHBM CTpaTerMM6C- 

khx chji Poccnn h nepcneKTHBaMH hx 

pa3BHTHH 




4 



flPABA HEJ10BEKA 



«..JCE CMIXBT OOblBNTb UinNOHaXGM 

AioOyio uayHHp pa6oTg» 



OOospeeameab "The Globe and Mail "J.me<p(ppii Hopn: 

HccjieaoBaTe/ibCKaa pa6oia, ocymecTBiiaBiuaaca KaHan- 

ckhmh yHHBepcHTeTaMH, OKa3ajiacb bobjichchhoh b pOCCHH- 

ckhh ujnHOHCKHH CKanaan, b pe3yjibTaTe KOToporo mockob- 

ckhh yneHbifi noMemeH BTiopbMy no oohmhchhio b rocyaap- 

CTBeHHOH 1HMCHC H IlIIIHOIia/KC. 

Hropb CyTarHH 6bin npHBJieneH HCCJieaoBaie^bCKHM 
KCwmeKTHBOM yHHBepcHTeTOB HopK h KapjiTOHiyw H3yHeHHfl 
BoeHHO-rpajfcaaHCKHX OTHonieHHH b Pocchh b npoeiae, ko- 
Topbifi (})HHaHCHpOBancji /JenapTaMeHTOM HaunoHajibuoH 
o6opoHu [KaHaau]. 

OAHaKO OCB noao3peBaeT, hto b aefiCTBHTejibHOCTH 
KaHaacKHe BoeHHbie xoTejiH, «rro6bi CyTarHH BbiBcaan ceK- 
peTHbie cBeaenHJi y HHTepBbioHpyeMbix mm bochhhx 3Kcnep- 

TOB. 

06a ynHBepcHTeTa oipHuaiOT (J)aKT uinHOna>Ka h npe- 
aynpoicaaioT, hto nojio6nbie oobhiichhh Moryr npHBecTH k 
cbcpi hiBaiiino C0TpyflHH4ecTBa Meatfly yneHbiMH Pocchh h 
KaHaau. 

OCB apecTOBajia H. CyrarHHa b OKTa6pe 1999 roaa, 
. ichh i b MecaueB cnycra nocjie Toro, KaK oh 3aKOHHHJi npoBe- 
aeiiHe HHTepBbio ;yia KaHajjcKoro npoeicra. Oh ao chx nop 
Haxojurrca b TiopbMe b ropojie Kanyra. 

OCB He o6HapoiiOBajia KaKHx-jiH6o aeTaneH npcaiaB- 
jiaeMoro CyTJirHHy oohuhciiiim b hi nnoiia>Kc. B momcht ape- 
era OCB coo6iUHJia cpcacTBaM MaccoBofi nn(j)op.Maunn , hto 
oh co6Hpaji ceKpeTHyio HHCjjOpMaiUIIO O pOCCHHCKHX aTOM- 
Hbix noflBOAHbix noaKax. OflBBBO Bnocjie/iCTBHH <t>CE Hana- 
jia paccjieaoBaHHe ero KOHTaicroB b KaHane. 

3to ae.no CTajio npHMepoM pacrywero BJinaHHa pocchh- 
ckhx opraHOB 6e3onacHOCTH, KOTopwe no/jBeprajiH npecne- 
aoBaHHHM h apecTaM pocchhckhx rpaacaaH, pa6oTaiomHx b 
o6iiacTH HccjieaoBaHHii OKpyacaioweH cpeaw, b aHTHaaep- 
hom iiBHJKeHHH, Bcay whx mcc. ic.u>i«aii uH b o6nacTH 6e3onac- 
hocth hjih paooTaiouiHX b He3aBHCHMbix cpe/jcrBax Macco- 

BOH HH<J)OpMaUHH. 

Hropb CyTarHH, 35 JieT, aBJiaeTca coTpyaHHKOM Hhcth- 
Tyra C1IJA h KaHaabi, H3BecTHoro HCcneaoBaTenbCKoro hh- 
CTHTyTa. B 1998 r. HCcneaoBaTenbCKaa rpynna yHHBepcHTe- 
tob HopK h KapjiTOH 3aienoHHJia c hhm KOHTpaicr Ha npoBe- 
nemie cepnn HHTepBbio. YqeHbie npoBO/rwiH HCcne/iOBaHHe 
B 12 6bIBUJHX KOMMyHHCTHHeCKHX CTpaHax, cpenH KOTOpblX 

6wjih Poccna, YKpaHHa, Eonrapna, PyMbiHHa h CnoBaKHa. 

«.H He Mory noBepHTb, hto kto-to, a oco6eHHO npaBOOx- 
paHHTejibHbie opraHbi, mohih cnecrb 3Ty pa6oTy ninHOHa- 
ymetA hjih rocyjjapcTBeHHOH h3.mchoh». — Hanncau Mafiiui 
Cthbchcoh b nncbMe na hmji anpeicropa HHCTHTyra CILIA h 
KaHaau. 

«fl c rnyooKHM co*aneHHeM aonaceH oTMeTHTb, hto H3 

12 CTpaH, B KOTOpblX npOBOiWJIHCb HCCneaOBaHHJI, TOJlbKO B 



Pocchh otpHiuiajibHbie Jinua cohjih, hto KanaacKoc Hccneao- 
BaHHe BoeHHo-rpa^aaHCKHx OTHomeHHH npeacTaBJiaeT yr- 
po3y HauHOHajibHOH 6e3onacHOCTH». 

B HHTepBbK) MafiKJi Cthbchcoh casaaan, hto oh 6bui 
noTpjiceH noBopoTOM co6hthh, kotopwh oh onHcan xax 
a6cypAHbiH. 

«HacKOJibKO a 3Haio coaepjKaHHe npoeicra, 3to coBep- 
uieHHO HeBepo5rrHO. 3to oneHb TpeBO*HO — nroaeH Moryr 

o6BHHHTb B UinHOHa»e H dpaKTHHeCKH yHHHTO*HTb Ha OCHO- 

BaHHH nojiHOCTbio HaayMaHHbix OOBH hchhh». 

HccneaoBaHHe 6buio nacTbio ropa3^o 6onee mnpoKOH 
nporpaMMbi KaHaacKOH noMomn npeacraBHTenaM BoeHHWx 
BeaoMCTB CTpaH Boctohhoh EBponw h GbiBuiero CoBeTCKoro 
CoK)3a. B paMKax 3toh nporpaMMbi, h3bccthoh KaK «ripo- 
rpaMMa aeMOKpaTHHccKHx BoeHno-rpaxcaaHCKHX OTHOiue- 
hhh», HanaTofi b 1997 r., aecnTKH bochhux H3 owbluhx 

KOMMyHHCTHHeCKHX CTpaH BKJIKDHaJl PoCCHKD 6bIJIH 

npHrjiaiueHbi Ha ceMHHapw b HccjieaoBaTenbCKHe HHCTHTyTbi 
b KaHa^e. 

B KaHaae nojiaraan, hto noao6Haji noMouib 6yzieT no- 
ne3Hoft an* Pocchh, noMoraa ch co3aaBaTb MexaHH3M rpa»- 

aaHCKOrO KOHTpOJW 3a BOCHHblMH, aHajIorHMH blH TOMy, KOTO- 

pufi cymecTByeT Ha 3anane. Pocchhckhc BoeHHbie, cyaa no 
BceMy, c 3HTy3Ha3MOM npHHHMaiH ynacTHe b ceMHHapax, a 
poccHHCKHe aHmioMaTbi npHcyTCTBOBajiH Ha uepeMOHHH 
npe3HTauHH khhth, b kotopoh 6biJiH npeacTaBJieHbi pe3ynb- 
TaTbi HccjieaoBaHH*, npoBojjHMoro H. CyT«rHHbiM. 

O^HaKO ceroflH* <PCB othochtch k KaHa^CKOMy npoeK- 
Ty c GoiibuiHM noA03peHHeM, onacaacb, hto oh sb;ihci cm 
uinHOHCKOH aeaTejibHOCTbK). riaBeji rioaBHr, mockobckhh 
yneHbiH, 3aHHMaioiuHHca BonpocaMH pa3opy»eHHJi, tobo- 
pHT, hto ero oneHb cHJibHO o6ecnoKOHJiH Bonpocu, KOTopwe 
OCB bo BpeM* aonpocoB 3aaaBajia jnoaaM, KOTopwx HHrep- 
BbioiipoBa.i CyTarHH. 

«OCB 3asB.ia.ia 3thm JiKjjjaM, hto HHTepBbio 6biJiH He 
nacTbio Hcc^eaoBaTenbCKoro npoeicra, a «Ko6bi npoBOiiHJiHCb 
CyTarHHbiM no 3aaaHHK) KaHaacKoro MHHHCTepcTBa o6opo- 
Hbi, noapa3yMeBaa TeM caMbiM, hto 3to 6buia uinHOHCKaa 
jiejrTejibHOCTb», — 3aaBJiHeT FIoflBHr, KOTopbifi HMeji B03- 

MO>KHOCTb nOrOBOpHTb C HCKO I Opbl.MM H3 JIOIipOUieHHblX. 

OCB npoH3Bejia o6uck b ocpnee h Ha KBapnipe ITffJDftHra 

h iribH.'ia Bee ero HaynHbie MaTepnajibi 27 OKT«6pa npoumoro 
roaa — b tot ace Rem,, Korna 6bm apecTOBaH CyTarHH. B tot 
MOMeHT OCB 6buia b ochobhom jaini i cpccoBaiia b MaTepna- 
Jiax o aaepHbix Boopy»ceHHax h 6e3onacHocTH. CyTarHH h 
rio^BHr HBJiaioTca oahhmh H3 coaBTopoB KHHm, nocBHinen- 

HOH pOCCHHCKHM CTpaTerHHeCKHM BOOpV/KCMIHHM. 

«Ohh CHHTaioT, hto CyTarHH nepe^aBaji KaKHe-TOceicpe- 
tw HHOcTpaHuaM. Ho y Hero He 6biJio nocnyna k ceKpeTHbiM 
CBe^eHHaM», — CKa3an floiiBHr b HHTepBbio. 



4 



I1PABA HEflOBEKA 



«Bce, hto y Hero obi.io — 3to oncpuTaa h HipopiuauHH . Oh 
nncan CTaTbH, HCiiojib3ya cboh aHaiiHTHHecKHe choco6hocth. 
Ecjih Mbi cerojiHJi ihvjbo.-ihm C>C5 no.iBcpi a n. comhchhio jiio- 
6oh KOHTaicr c HHOcrpaHueM h Ha jbiBa i b ero mnnoHaxceM, to 
mij 3acny*HBaeM to, hto mij nojiywHM b HTore. A noJiynHM mu 

CHTyaUHK), B KOTOpOH <t>CB CMOKeT 00 bHBII I I, IlIIIHOHaVKCM H 

rocyjiapcTBeHHOH lUMenoii j»o6yio HayMHyio pa6oTy». 

npoqbeccop nojiHTonorHH yHHBepcHTera HopK Ceprefi 

I LlLWaHOB, KOTOpbiH COCI aB.IH.I BOIipOCbl. HCIIO. IbiOUaHlil.lC 
(\ 1 HI HHbIM B XO.IC I1H I cpBblO. CK'a Ui.l. HTO OHH B OCHOBHOM 

KacaiOTCH po.i h i lap.iaMCH i a h perHOH&nbHbix aaMtiunc i pamiii 

B peUieHHH IipOO.ICM apMHH H IIO.'III 1 HHOCKHX CHMIia I nii BOCH- 

hux. Te *e caMbie Bonpocu saaaBaaitct, bo Bcex 12 CTpaHax, 
i .ic npoBOAHJiocb HccneaoBaHHe. 

«Haui npoeicr coBceM He hb.ihci ch hobum hjih hco6uh- 

HblM. 3TO 6bDI nOJIHOCTbK) OTKpblTblH IipoeKT. Y MCHH aawe 

miKoua He B03HHicajio mucjih o tom, hto oh mohcct 6biTb 
HHTepnpeTHpoBan KaK noiibrnca BbiBeaa i b poccHHCKHe BoeH- 
Hbie ceKpeTbi», — cKa *aa 1 1.iexanoB b HHTepBbfo. «Bce 6buio 
cacnaHO Tan, hto6i>i 6biTb iiojic3hi>]m ojw Pocchh h apyrnx 
c i pan. riOMOHb mm b BoeHHOH peipopMe». 

Oh ao6aBHji, hto apecr CyrarHHa HBjmeTCH nacTbro 6o;iee 
uinpoKOH TeHjieHUHH k aBTopHTapHOMy npaaiieHHK) b Pocchh. 
«Mu BiianM i ioaaB. ien nc itcc.ieaoBaii n ii a oo. rcac i it nauuona. i b- 
hoh 6e3onacHOdH. PacTyr HacipoeHHM HeaoBepHH h i uuo jpn - 

TeJlbHOCTM HO OTHOllieHHK) K HHOCTpaHU.aM, a TaK)Ke Blt.Uia 

TeHjieHUHS k H30jmu.HH Pocchh ot BHeuiHero MHpa». 

BTeneHHe iiohth aBeHaaua™ MecaueB H. CynirHH Hcnu- 
TbiBaeT Ha ce6e bcjo TawecTb nepenojiHeHHoro cneacTBeHHoro 
H30JWTopa. Ero xeHa, Hpitna. momcct biuci bc« c hhm TOJibKO 
aBa pa3a b mcchu. a to h MeHbiue. 

«0H B OHCHb TH/KCIOM (})H {HMCCKOM H IICHXO. 101 ll'ICCKOM 

cocto»hhh», — CKa3ana OHa bcbocm liHicpBbio. 

«Cna i iaaa oh 6bui cpeaH 28 mciobck b KaMepe, KOTopan 
paccHHTaHa Ha BocbMepux. TaM 6hmo ywacHo xcapico h He 6buio 



bo v, i > ■ xa . A b i ioc.'ic.ih ne .ibc neae. hi ero n o mcv t n. in b Kapuep. . . 
TaM oneHb xo;ioaHO, HeT OTonaeHHS, 3JieKTpHHecTBa, HHHero. 
Ero 3aopoBbe yxyauiaeTca. Y Hero 6bian i ipooae.Mbi c cepaueM 
h cennac ohh ycyry6juiioTCH». 

OHa CKa3ajia, hto cjieaoBaTenn d>CE o t ica ibi Ba to i ch coo6- 
mai b cit hjih ajBOKai y KaKHe-Jin6o aeraan oobhhohhh. «5I 
3Haio TOJibKo to, hto ywe o6T>SBJieHO, KoHeMHO, ito HenpaB/ia. 
S[ He iiiato. noneMy Bee 3to npoHCxoaHT». 

Cy mecTByeT oi ipcae. i e h nan napajuiejib mc*.i_\ ae. i o m Cy- 
THrnHa h npecjicaoBaHHeM AneKcaHapa HnKHTHHa, otct3bho- 
ro k'ai i h i ana a i omho» i io.ukuhoh .io.ikii . KOTOporo oobuhh.ih 
b rocyaapcTBeHHOH h-jmchc h uinnoHaxce nocae toto, KaK oh 
iipitHH.i ynacme b npoeicre no H3yHeHHio paaiioaKitiBHoio 
jaipH'iHemiM Ha pocchhckhx BoeHHbix 6a3ax. 

K'ana.ia npnHHMa^a aeHTenbHoe ynacTHe b aerie HnKHTH- 
Ha, nocKo.ibKv oh nonaB&n ia»BJicH hc Ha i io;iy mch h c Ka na.icKofi 
BHJbi btoi momchi. koi aaoH Obi.iapccroBaH b 1996 r. Ero>KeHa 
Btioc.ic-ac i nun nepeexaiia b KaHaay. Hhkhthh 6bm oupanaati 
cyaoM b 1 999 may. 

Bo BpeMa i uk- i.iKii b KaHaay b viaprc 3Toro roaa IloaBnr 

HMeJI B03M0)KH0CTb BCTpeTHTbCS C M11H11C I pOM HHOC ipailllblV 

aeji KaHaau JlnoRaoM 3Kcyopcn h paccKa3aTb eMy o nejie 
CyrjirHHa. MHHHCTepcTBo it hoc i pannbi\ aen He 3a*BJiJiJio hh- 
KaKHX ocpHUHaabHbix npoTecroB MocKBe, ho, KaK CKa33Ji ero 
npeacTaBHTeJib, «naoaioaac i 3a pa3BHTHeM co6uthh». 

- 1- 1 o paoo i a b Kana.icKOM npoeicre no H3yHeHHK> BoeHHo- 
rpajKjiaHCKHX otholhchhh 6buia nepBOKJiaccHofi h 6buia i iocbh- 
meHa TeMe, ko i opan Haxoait rca b c^iepe ao^rocpoMHbix HHTe- 
pecoB KaHaau b ee ornouicHnnx c PoccneH h co c lpanaMii 
Hen rpa i buoii h Boctohhoh I upon hi. 

Ilocjie Toro KaK mu TaK aonro 6bian bob.icmchi.i b acno 
HnKHTHHa, Mbi o'tcub BHHMaTeabHO othochmc* k (paicraM Heo- 
oocHOBan hoio oOBUHCHiia B iiiiiH0Ha>Ke H B.veuia i c.ibCTBa poc- 
chhckhx ceKpeTHbix c^yx6 b i ipaiioc> anc»t.i . — ok a ta.i npea- 
CTaBHTejib MHHHcrepcTBa. 



Aeno Hs 52. XpoHOJiorNi. 



27 etamntpn 1999 z. 

B 8 nacoB yrpa b KBapTHpe Hropa CyTarHHa b 06hhhckc 
noxBHJiHCb coTpyaHHKH KajiyjKCKoro OTZieaeHHX Oeaepaab- 
hoh cjiy»6bi 6e3onacHOCTH (OCE). nocne npeaiaBJieHHa 
opacpa ohh HanajiH o6uck, KOToputi npoaoJi»cajic» npaKTH- 
HecKH Beet, aen b. 

Hropb CyrarHH 6biJi npenpoBOKaeH b 06hhhckoc OTae- 
aeHHe OCE, rae oh 6bui aonpomeH Kax cBHaeTejib no aejry 
>f252 opa3rjiauieHHH rocyaapcTBeHHOHTaHHbi. Heo6xoanMO 
OTMeTHTb, hto b tot momcht Hropb He 6bia apecTOBaH h eMy 
He 6biao npcatHBaoMo hhkukhx ooBHiiciiHfi. 

Bo BTopofi nojiOBHHe toto we nun coTpyaHHKH <I>CE 
HanajiH o6uckh b ocpuce Hrop» CynirHHa b HHCTHryTe CllIA 
h Kanaaw . Ha KBap inpe ^xcouiya X maaepa h b ocpuce HaBaa 
IloaBHra b MocKBeu. 3th oouckh 6bian. no Been BHaHMOC- 
th, CKOopaHHHpoBaHbi, TaK KaK Bee ohh 6biaH HanaTbi OKoao 
16:30. 



Zlwouiya Xiaanep — aMepnKaHCKHH HccaeaoBaTeab, 
KOTopbiH HaxoanacH b MocKBe c Hioaa 1999 r. b paMKax 
iipoi pasiMi.i axaaeMKHecKoro oovieiia MOKay HHCTMTyTOM 
CULA h Kaiiaaw h npHHCTOHCKHM yHHBepcHTeTOM, acnnpaH- 
tom KOToporo J^jKouiya HBa^eTCH. Hropb CyrarHH ynacTBO- 
Ban b o6ecneneHHH bm3h ra J,>Kouiya X jnaaepa. 

Bo BpeMa o6biCKa Ha KBapTHpe /Iwouiya X3Haaepa, 
npoaoawaBiiierocfl 6oaee 7 nacoB, coTpyaHHKH OC5 H3i>aaH 
KOMiibioicp. aHCKeTbi, pa6osne MaTepnaabi. Xoth coTpyaHH- 
KH <PCE h 3aaaB3JiH Bonpocu, .flwoiuya He 6bia aonpomeH h 
HHKaKHX ooBnnenHH eMy He 6bLio npeabHBaeHO. 

UaBen noaBHr, b o(j)Hce KOToporo TaioKe 6bi.i npoH3Be- 
aeH o6biCK, — poccit fie km h ipa-A'aa h n h . h ay h h i,i it coTpyaHHK 
UeHTpa no H3yneHHK) npo6aeM pa3opy»eHHfl. FlaBea noaBHr 
flBJuuica peaaicTopoM khhth «CTpaTerH4ecKoe aaepHoe boo- 
pyaceHHe Pocchh», KOTopaa 6biaa ony6aHKOBaHa b OKTsSpe 

1998 T., Hropb CyTHTHH — OaHH H3 aBTOpOB 3T0H khhth. 



4 



I1PABA HEJ10BEKA 



Bo hpcmm o6biCKa b ocpnce 1 Ian. 1a I Iojibui a co it> y.ui h km 
cDCB H3T.anH pa6o4He MaTepHajibi h npHHaaaewamHe Hempy 
KOMnbioTepu. KpoMe 3Toro, coTpyaHHKH <DCB onenaTajiH 
see HaxoziMBuiHecH b UeHTpe koi i n h KHHrH «CTpaTerHHecKoe 
jmepHoe BoopyaceHHe Pocchh». nocjie3aBepinemw oSbicKaB 
otpnce coipyiiHHKH OCB npoBejiH o6uck Ha KBapTHpe FlaBJia 
ricuBHra. 

29 otmntpn 1999 z. 

BenepoM 29 0KTH6pa Hropb CyT«raH 6bui apecrroBaH KaK 

IIO.IO jpeiUlCMblH B rOCyAapCTBetiHOH 11 5MC1IC H IK'pCHC.lCli B 

Kanyry. J\o 3Toro MOMeirra Hropb Haxoaanca b OTaejieHHH 
d>CB b 06hhhckc, rae oh aonpaniHBajicH KaK CBHaeTejib no 
aeny o pa3rjiameHHH rocyaapcTBeHHofi TaHHbi. 

HecMOTpa Ha to hto ao Benepa 29 okt»6ph Hropb 
CyTarHH He 6bui apecrroBaH, coTpyaHHKH <DCB He iio3bojmjih 
eMy noKHjaTb Mecro aonpoca, «HacTOjrrejibHO He coBerya» 
3Toro aenaTb. Hommmo nposero, 1 1 o.jooi i hh cnoco6 3aaep>Ka- 
hhx no3BonHJi <&CE b TeHeHHe Tpex . u ic ii Becro aonpocbi npH 

OTCyTCTBHH aaBOKaTa. B TO HCe BpeMfl, COTpy^HMKH cDCB 
pa3peiHHJlH HrOpK) n03BOHHTb pO.lC I BCUHHKaM H apy3b«M. 

2 Ho*6px 1999 z. 

COTpyaHHKH <PCB npOBe^H nOBTOpHblH OObICK B 0(})HCe 
I IciH.ta I io.miii a. I Io Been bh.iiimocih. oh hbih.ich .iiimi. 
npoaojiaceHHeM o6bicKa, HanaToro 27 oicra6pH. Tax, b xozie 
oobiCKa coTpyaHHKH OCB H3b«:ni KonHH KHHru «CrpaTern- 
necKoe aaepnoe Boopy»eHHe Pocchh», onenaTaHHbie b xoae 
nepBoro oowcKa. 

5 HO*6px 1999 z. 

Hropio CyTxrHHy i!pcai.H«.icno oomincimc b coBepine- 
hhh npecTyn^emw, npeaycMOTpeHHoro craTbeH 275 YK P<t> 
(TocyxiapcTBeHHaa H3MeHa). 3Ta CTaTba npeaycMaTpHBaer 
HaKa3aHHe b BHae .iHiueHHa cBoooau cpokom ot 12 ao 20 Jier. 

B tot «e aeHb .Hxcouiya XiHanep 6bui BMHyxcaeH noKH- 
Hyn> MocKBy. 3ro crajio pe3yjibraT0M «CKoopaHHHpoBaH- 
hmx» ycHJiHH cPCB h reHepanbHoro KOHcyna CllIA. <I>CE 
ycTpoHJia OTKpbnyio cjieaocy 3a .ZJacomya, a reHKOHcyn CllIA 
b oneHb pe3KHX BbipavKeiuiax peKOMeHaoBaji XlHcoiuya noKH- 

HyTb POCCHK). 

26 anpejm 2000 z. 

3aMecTHTejib TeHepajibHoro npoxypopa A. A. Pa3aH0B 
yaoBneTBopHJi xoaaTaficTBO OCB o npoaneHHH cpoKa cjiea- 

CTBHa Ha TpH MCCXUa. B COOTBeTCTBHH C pOCCHHCKHM 3aKOHO- 

aaTe;n>CTBOM, 3aMecTHTejib TeHnpoKypopa HMeeT npaBO npo- 



anHTb cpoK cneacTBHx Ha uiecTb MecsueB. nocne 3Toro Bon- 
poc o npoaiieHHH cpoKa aojiaceH 6yaeT pemaTbcs reHepaab- 
HbiM npoKypopoM. 

Mau2000z. 

CTano H3BecTHo, hto <I>CE paccieayeTpojib H. CyrarHHa 
b HCCJieaoBaTeabCKOM npoeicre, nocBHiueHHOM H3yneHHK) bo- 
chi io- rpa>K;iai ic kii \ o i iioinei inn . ocymec i hax buicmcm KaHaac- 
khmh yHHBepcHTeTaMH. KaHaacKHe yneHbie cnHTaioT TaKofi 
noBopoT coSbiTHH «a6cypaHbiM». 

HwHb 2000 e. 

MeHcperHOHaribHaji Tpynna npaB03amHTHan Ceir. ot- 
KpbuiacTpaHHuy BceTH, nocBHmeHHyToaejiy CyTsrHHa. Poa- 
c i BemiHKH Hrops TaK»e OTxpunn ceTeByio CTpaHHiiy c hh- 
(J)opMauHeH o aejie: <www.hro.org/actions/sutyagin>. 

29 uwhh 2000 z. 

B r. Kanyre cocToajiocb cyae6Hoe 3aceaaHHe, Ha koto- 
poM paccMaTpHBaaacb >Kano6a H. CyTHrHHa Ha npozuieHHe 
cpoxa caeacTBHJi h coaepxcanHa noncTpaoKefi. Cyab» ocraBH- 
na b CHJie peuieHHe 3a.MecTHTenx TeHepajibHoro npoKypopa, 
KOTopuH yaoBJierBopHJi npocb6y OCB o npoaneHHH cpoKa 
cneacTBHA. Hropb CyTxTHH ocTaeTCH noa cTpajKeH. 

I umjih 2000 z. 

OCB o6HapoaoBajia HHCpopMauHK) o tom, hto Hrop« 
CyTarHHa co6HpaK>TCH o6BHHHTt b npecTynaeHHH, He npeayc- 

MOTpeHHOM y rOjTOBHblM KOaCKCOM PO. B HHTepBbK), KOTOpoe 

anpeKTop HHCTHTyra CllIA h KaHaaw C. M. PoroB aan 
«He3aBHCHM0H ra3eTe», oh coo6uihji, hto «Mbi nojiyHHan 
pa3b»CHeHHe [cneacTBHa], hto Hropa o6bhh5hot b nepeaane 
h i ioc i pan nbi m iipeacTaBHTenaM HH(j)opMauHH b ymep6 6e30- 
nacHOCTH Pocchh». cDCB nbrrajiacb yGeanrb C. M. PoroBa b 
tom, hto «corjiacHO OTenecTBeHHOMy 3aKOHOnaTejibCTBy ne- 
peaana KaKHx-;iH6o CBeaeHHH npeacTaBHTejiHM HHOCTpaH- 
hux opraHH3auHH 3a aeHe*Hoe B03Harpa3KaeHHe noanaaaeT 
noa 3Ty craTbio [275 ct. Y K PO o rocyaapcTBeHHofi H3MeHe], 
aaace ecjiH 3Ta HHtpopMauHJi He coaepacHT rocyaapcTBeHHOH 

TaHHbI». KaK HeC.TOMCHO nOHJTTb, B aeHCTBHTenbHOCTH HHHero 

noao6Horo 275 crraTbH YK Pd) He coaep»arr. 

26 uio.im 2000 e. 

TeHepaabHas npoKypaTypa b onepeaHOH pa3 yaoBaeTBO- 
pHaa xoaaTaiicTBO <DCE o npoaaeHHH cpoKa cjieacTBHa. Ha 
itot pa3 caeacTBHe npoaaeHO ao 26 ceHT»6pa 2000 r. Hropb 
CyTarHH npoaojDKaeTOcraBaTbCfl b cneacTBeHHOM H30jmTope 
r. KanyrH. 



N3 YrojioBHoro Kinexca PIP 



C i a i !>h 275. I ni-y.iapc i BiMiiiaH HJMt'iia 

loc> jape i Hi'imaH n jveiia. to ecTb iiniHoiia*. Bbua'ia 
i (»e> jape i bchhom i aiim.i .mori hiioc oKa Jaime iiomoihh hho- 
e i pan iiomn i nc> jape i n\ . h noe i pan noii opi an h rauiiii hjih hx 

lipt'.ie 1 11HH I t'.IHM B lipOBOJt'HHH Bpa>K U'OHOH JCH I CI I.MOC I Ii 

B \iuep6 Biieiuiu'H oejoiiaeiiociH Pocchhckoh «I>c icpaunM. 
coBepuieHHasi i paAuaiiHiuni Pocchhckoh OeaepauHH, — 

iiakajbiBacicM .ihuichhcm cBofiojbi Ha cpoK oi .men a i 
ua i h ao jBa ma i h .ic i c KOHipHCKauHeH hm\ meci Ba hjih 6e j 

T8KOBOH. 



IlpuMenaHue. 

Jluifo, coeepiuuemee npecmynieHUH. npedycMompeHHbie 
HacmuHUfeu cmambeu, a maKJice cmambHMU 276 u 278 nacmoH- 
mezo Kodexca, oceo6oMcdaemcfi omyaojioeHou omeemcmeeHHo- 
cmu, eaiu oho do6poeojibHUM u ceoeepeMennbiM coo6menueM 
opzanaM anacmu wiu uhum o6pa30M cnoco6cmeoea/io npedome- 
patqehuio dajibHeuiuezo yiqepoa unmepecaM Poccuuckou Oede- 
paifuu u eanu e ezo deucmewtx we codepotcumcn uuoeo cocmaea 
npecmyruiehUH. 



M3 Yro/iOBHoro KO^eKca PCD 



1. I <»o. r.ipc i ho i! ii aw in mom a npeacTaanaeT coooh aicr 
upc.ia i e.n.c i wa. t. e. OKa3aHHe rpaacaaHHHOM PO noMOUiH hho- 
CTpaHHOMy rocyaapcTBy, HHocrpaHHOH opraHH3aiuiH hjih hx 
npeacTaBHTejiHM b ocymecrBaeHHH Bpaacae6HOH aejrrejibHOCTH 
npoTHB Pocchhckoh OeaepauHH. KpoMe o6meH (poaoBOH) <pop- 
Mbi H3MeHbi b BHue oKa (aiiMH no.MOiUH sahOH npeaycMaTpHBaeT 
OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a ee cneuHajibHbie 4>op.Mbi — umHOHaac, bu- 
jaqy rocyaapcrBeHHOHTaHHU — ecjiH ohh HanpaBJieHbi b ymep6 
BHeinHefi 6e3onacHOCTH. 

2. HiiciiuiMH 6e30iiacHOCTb kuk oohoki npecTyiiHOio 
iiuchi a i o. ibt i na o3HaHaeT cocrojWHe 3auiHiueHHOCTH rocyaap- 
CTBeHHoro h o6mecTBeHHoro crpoa Pocchh ot yrpo3 n 3bhc 
/leHCTBjm BHHOBHoro co3aaK>T yrpo3y cyBepeHHreTy, TeppHTO- 
pH3JIbH0H HenpHKOCHOBeHHOCTH h o6opoHOcnoco6HocTH PO. 

>Ka jaiiHbie ccjiepu oSmecTBeHHbix oiHouieHiifi TecHO cbh- 
33Hbi Me3Kay co6oh. h Bonpoc tom, KaKOMy KOMnoHeHry HaHO- 
chtch Han6onbiiiHH Bpea, nozuiejKHT ycTaHOBJiemno b KaacaoM 
KOHKperHOM cnynae Ha ocHOBaHHH HMeiomHxca MaTepnaaoB. 

3. I OC) tape 1 bohhuh m iMoiia b ({mpMi* uiiiHOliaaca Bbipa- 
>KaeTca b nepeaaie, a paBHO b co6HpaHHH, noxumeHHH hjih 
\panenn 11 b ueaax nepeaann HHOCTpaHHOMy rocyaapcrBy, hhoc- 
TpaHHOH opraHH3auHH hjih hx npeacTaBHTejwM CBeaeHHH, co- 
CTaBJwiouiHX rocyaapcTBeHHyio TaHHy, a TaKHce b nepeaane huh 
co6HpaHHH no 3aaaHHK> HHOCTpaHHOH pa3BeaKH hhmx CBeaeHHH 
aaa Hcnojib30BaHHJi hx b ymep6 BHeuiHefi 6e3onacHocTH Pocchh- 
ckoh Oeaepaimn, ecjiH ohh coBepuiaFOTca rpajKaaHHHOM Poc- 
chh. EcjIH noao6Hbie aeficrBHa coBepmaioTCH HHOcrpaHHbiM 
rpaKnaHHHOM jih6o jihuom 6e3 rpaHcaaHCTBa, to ohh KBajiHtjm- 
unpyiOTca no ct. 276 YK (cm. KOMMeHTapHH k aaHHOH CTaTbe). 

4. I ocyaapc i licimaH >i i.Moiia b d)op\io hm ia<i 11 i (u \ iap 
c i Hen iniii i aHiu.i BbipajKaeTCJi b aeHCTBHjrx, CBJBaHHbix c nepe- 
aaieH HHOCTpaHHOMy rocyaapcrBy, HHOCTpamtOH opraHH3auHH 
hjih hx npcacraBHTejiHM CBeaeHHH, cocraBJiJHomux rocyaap- 
CTBeHHyio TaHHy, jihuom, KOTopoMy ohh 6buiH aoBepeHbi no 
CJiy5K6e hjih pa6oTe jih6o CTajiH h tBeciHbi hhum nyTeM, 3a 
HCKJHOHeHHeM hx coonpanna jih5o noxHiueww. B 3TOM coctoht 
otjihhhc BbiaaiH rocyaapcTBeHHOH TaHHbi ot uinnoHajKa, npn 
kotodom nepeaaioTCH jih6o xpaHjrrcji c uenbio nepeaaiH CBeae- 
hh», KOTopbiMH anno He pacnojiaraeT no cjiy«6e (pa6oTe). 

HanpHMep, T., 6yayHH BeayiUHM HHaceHepoM pokhmhoto 
HUM, no cBoefi liiumuantBe ycTaHOBHJi npecrynHyjo CBJOb c 
HHOCTpaHHofi cneucnyacooH h Bbiaaji H3BecrHbie eMy no pa6oTe 
CBeaeHHH, cocTaBJiJHouiHe rocyaapcTBeHHyio TaHHy. 

I i)t> tape i boiih> hi TaiiHy cocTaBJiaiOT 3aniHmaeMbie ro- 
cyaapcTBOM CBeaeHHfl b o6aacTH ero bochhoh, BHeniHenoaHTH- 
necKOH, DKOHOMHHecKOH, pa3BcabiBaTc;ibHoii. KOHTppa3BeabiBa- 
TeabHOH h onepaTHBHO-po3UCKHOH aejrrejibHOCTH, pacnpocrpa- 
HCHiie KOTopwx mokct HaHecTH yuiep6 6e3onacHocrH Pocchhc- 
koh OeaepauHH (ct. 2 3aK0Ha PO «0 rocyaapcTBeHHofi TaHHe» 
ot21 hiojw 1993 r.). 

B yica3aHHOM 3aKOHe (ct. 5) aaerca nepeneHb CBeaeHHH, 
KOTopue Moryr 6birb oraeceHbi k rocyaapcTBeHHOH nttse. Mc- 
4epnuBaK>uiHH *e OTKpbrrbiH «riepeHeHb CBeaeHHH, OTHeceH- 
Hbix k rocyaapcTBeHHofi TaftHe» yrBepjKaeH y Ka30M ripe3HaeHTa 
PO ot 30 HO»6pa 1995 r. JY21203. 

TocyaapcTBeHHyK) TaiiHy o6pa3yiOT CBeaeHJU 3 CTeneHefi 
ceKpeTHOCTH: «ceKpeTHO», «coBepmeHHO ceKpeTHO» h «oco6oh 

Ba«HOCTH». 

bi Bbiaasa rocyaapcTBeHHoft TaHHbi npH3HacTCH c MOMOBm 
nepexoaa CBeaeHHH, ee cocTaBJuiioniHx, b aapec HHOcrpaHHoro 
rocyaapcTBa, HHOCTpaHHofi opraHH3auHH jih6o hx npeacTaBHTe- 
Jiefi. ripeacTaBHTejuiMH HHOcrpaHHoro rocyaapcTBa h HHOcrpaH- 
Hofi opi aumauHii mb.thkucji hx 0(pHU.HaabHbie JiHiia («uieHbi 
npaBHTeJibCTBeHHbix ae.'ieraunH, coTpyaHHKH aHnJiOMaTHHec- 



khx npeacTaBHTeJibCTB b Pocchh, coTpyaHHKH HHOCTpaHHbix 
cneucay>K6, •;. R-nbi HHOCTpaHHbix HerocyaapcTBeHHbix opraHH- 
3aujiH t. a), a TaioKe HHbie Jinua, BbinojiH«K>ujHe hx nopyneHHs. 
Moryr HMeTb MecTo cTaann npHroTOBJieHHa hh6o noicyiiie- 
hh« Ha npecTynaeHHe (HanpHMep, 3aaep»aHHe BHHOBHoro npH 
nonbiTKe nepeaaTb CBeaeHH* >Ka3aHHbiM aapecaTaM). 

5. H 1100 Ka ill II 110 IIOMOUIH HHOCTpaHHOMy I oo\ . iapo I B> . 

HHOCTpaHHofi opraHH3auHH hjih hx npeacTaBHTejwM b npoBeae- 
hhh BpavK.iednoii aeaTeabHOCTH npoTHB Pocchh BbipaHcaeTCH b 
coBepuieHHH pa3aH4Hbix aeaHHH. HanpaBJieHHbix Ha una taiiiio 
hm coaeHCTBH* b npoBeaeHHH pa3BeabiBaTeabHOH h hhoh noa- 
pbiBHOH aejrrejibHOCTH npoTHB ochob KOHCTHTyunoHHoro CTpoa 
h 6e3onacHOCTH Pocchhckoh OeaepauHH, ecjiH ohh He omuiu- 
BaioTCJi apyrHMH qbopMaMH rocyaapcTBeHHOH h3mchm. 

06i>eKmueHO 0Ka3aHHe noMomn CBJi'iano c ycraHOBJieHHeM 
KOHTain-a (cbji3h) rpajKaaHHHOM Pocchh c npeacTaBHTejmMH 
HHOCTpaHHoro rocyaapcTBa hjih ii hoc rpaHnoii HerocyaapcTBeH- 
hoh opraHH3auHH h coBepuieHHeM no hx 3aaaHHK>: 

a) apyrnx (KpoMe H3MeHbi) npecTynaemiH npoTHB ochob 
KOHCTHTyunoHHoro CTpoji h 6e3onacHocTH rocyaapcTBa; 

6) ae»HHH, He o6pa3yK>umx npH3HaKOB yKa3aHHbix npe- 
CTynaeHHH, ho HaHocaiunx ymep6 BHeuiHen 6e3onacHOCTH PO. 

B nepBOM cjiynae aeficTBHa bhhobhoi-o KBaaH(pHUHpyK)Tca 
no coBOKynHOCTH npecTynaeHHii: rocyaapcTBeHHaa Baneaa h 
KOHKpeTHoe npecTynJieHiie aamioro Bnaa (TeppopncTHHecKHH 
aicr, aHBepcim, BoopyweHHbiH icnox h t. a.). 

Bo btopom caynae Kpyr aexHHH MHoroo6pa3eH h He HMeeT 
HcnepnuBaiouiero nepenHs. 06T>eaHHJHouiHM HanaaoM aaiaeTCJi 
hx HanpaBJieHHOCTb npoTHB BHeiuHeB 6e3onacHocTH Pocchh. 
^to Moryr 6bi"n>: Bep6oBKa areHrypu ana HHOCTpaHHofi cneu- 
cay)K6bi; noa6op hbohhux h KOHcnupaTHBHbix KBapTHp; una ui- 
HHe coaeHCTBHa HHocTpaHHbiM 3MHCcapaM h KaapoBbiM pa3Bea- 
HHKaM b npHo6peTeHHH aoKyMeHTOB npHKpbiTHa, ycrpoHCTBe Ha 
pa6oTy, CBjnaHHyio c aocnynoM k rocyaapcTBeHHbiM ceicpeTaM, h 
t. n. OKa3aHne noMouw mojkct 6brrb KaK b mhphoc TaK h b 
BoeHHoe »pe\iH. 

IlpecTynaeHHe CHHTaeTC« oKOHteHHbiM c MOMeHra (J)aKTH- 
necKoro OKa3aHH« noMoniH. Moryr HMeTb MecTO craaHH coBep- 
lueHHa npecTynaeHHa. 

IIpHTOTOBneHHe k npecTynaeHHK) o6pa3yK)T pa3pa6oTKa 
naaHa oKajaHiia noMoniH, co3aaHHe ycaoBHH aaa ycTaHOBaeHHa 
KOHTaiera c aapecaTaMH, npHBeaeHHe b cHCTeMy, yao6HyK> aaa 
BbiaaHH, Tex CBeaeHHH h B03M0)KH0CTeH. KOTopbiMH pacnonaraeT 
aaHHoe anno, h t. a, 

KaK noKyiueHue Ha npecTynaeHHe KBaanipHUHpyiOTC}! He- 
yaaBuiaaca nonbiTKa ycraHOBHTb KOHTaKT c npeacTaBHTejmMH 
HHOcrpaHHoro rocyaapcTBa hjih nnocTpanHoii opranioamui. 
coBepuieHHe aencrBHii, HanpaBaeHHtix Ha 0Ka3aHHe noMomn, 
KOTopoii HHOCTpaHHaa pa3BeaKa He Moraa Bocnoab30BaTbca, h 
t. n. 

6. TocyaapcTBeHHaa H3MeHa coBepmaeTca TOJibKO c npn- 

MblM yMblCJIOM, T. C BHHOBHbiH C03Haer o6mecTBeHHO OnaCHUH 

xapaKTep aeHCTBHH, yKa3aHHbix b aHcno3HUHH aaHHofi CTaTbH. h 
xKejiaer hx ocymecTBHTb. HeKOTopue aBTopu BbicKa3biBaaH MHe- 
HHeo bo3mo3khocth coBepuieHHa H3MeHbi h uinHOHaaca C KOCBeH- 
hwm yMbicjioM, oaHaKO aaHHan no3HUHJi He Hauuia OTpasKeHH* b 
npaKTHKe h aajibHennieM pa3BHTHH TeopHH. 

^jw KBaaH(pHKau.HH npecrynaeHHii noaaoKHT ycTaHOBJie- 
hhk) nanpaBTCHHocTi. yMbicaa — Hanecmuymep6 eHeiuneu 6eio- 
nacHocmu Poccuu. IlpH otom mothbu Moryr 6bm> caMUMH pa3- 
hw mh: KopucTb, Mecrb, HauHOHaaHCTHHecKHe no6y»aeHHJi h t. 
a. Mothbu, xotji h He yKa3aHu b aaHHofi HopMe, hmciot 6ojib- 
moe 3HaneHne b pacKpuuTHH MexamnMa coBepuieHHx npecryn- 
nenna, onpeaejieHHH creneHH bhhu h na3HaMeHiin HaKa3aHHH. 



M3 Yro/iOBHoro KOAeKca PO 



7. C>6i,i'kiom rocyaapcTBeHHoii himc>ii>i npH3Haerca 
TonbKo rpaacaaHHH Pocchh, aocTHruiHH uuecTHaanaTH Jier. Co- 
yqacTHHKaMH *e npecTynaeHHS (icpoMe HcnoiHHTea*) Moryr 
6brn» HHOCTpaHHbie rpaaaaHe h anna 6e3 rpaacaaHCTBa. 

rpaacaaHHH Pocchh moxct men rpaacaaHCTBo HHOcrpaH- 
Horo rocyaapcTBa (asoHHoe rpaacaaHCTBo). ripn coBepuieHHH hm 
rocyaapCTBeHHOH m.xieHbi oh raioice noaJieaoiT yrojioBHofl ot- 
BeTCTBeHHocTH, nocKOJibicy «HanHHHe y rpaacaaHHHa Pocchhc- 
koh OeaepauHH rpaacaaHCTBa HHocTpaHHoro rocyaapcTBa He 
yMajweT ero npaB h CBo6oa h He ocBo6o3icaaeT ot o6a3aaHOCTeH, 
BbrreKaioiHHx H3 poccHHCKoro rpaataaHCTBa. ecjiH HHoe He npe- 
a> cMorpeiio (peaepaabHbiM 3aKOHOM hjih mc>ju\ HapoaHbiM aoro- 
BopoM Pocchhckoh OeaepaiiHH» (n. 2 ct. 62 KoHCTHTyiiHH PO). 

8. IIpHMesaHHe k ct. 275 YK npeaycMaTpHBaeT boj.mo*-- 

HOCTb OCBOOOtt.K'HHH OT \ I OJIOBHOH O I Bt' 1 1 1 UlllllOC I H. eCJIHI 
8) JIHUO JOOpOBO.lbHbIM H CBOeBpe.MeHHblM COOOLUCHHCM 

opraHaM BJiac™ hjih hhum oopa30M coaeHCTBOBaao npeaoTBpa- 
uieiiino aajibnenuiero ymep6a HHTepeca.M Pocchhckoh Oeaepa- 
uhh; 

6) b ero fleHCTBHax He coaepacHTca HHoro cocTaBa npecTyn- 

mOBBL 

.'iaHHUH nooiupure.-ibHaa HOpMa iipmBaiia iioku uu i, nejio- 
BeKy, coBepiHHBiueMy OKOHMeHHoe npecTyrmeHHe, nyrb k ot- 
CTyrmeHHK) h npH BbinojraeHHH hm yKa3aHHbix ycaoBHH rapaHTH- 

pOBaTb OCB060)KiieHHe OT yrOnOBHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. 

C i a i bH 276. IlliiHoiia* 

llepeiaMa. a paBiio cooiipaii He, iiox nineiine ii.i h \ pane 

II HC B IH'.IHX Ill-pi' Hl'llt MIIOC I pailllOM} IIIO UipC I B\ . HHOCT- 
paHHOH lipi illlll !.1IIHH II. Ill HX lipi'.IC I HUH I C.IH M C 'Ht'.l I'll II 11. 
COC I 1111. IHIOI1I II \ I OCV.Ktpc I IUMI li\ K> I liHHN . a I UKAf uepenasa 

h.ih cofinpamie no ja.iaiiHHi hiioci pamioii pa3Be ikh hiiwx 
cbcichh ii j. ih iiciio. i bionaii hm hx b yiuep6 iiiu-ui ncii 6e3onac- 
hocth Pocchhckoh <Div u>p:i uh h. eoiH n m kh huh coBepuieHU 
hikic i pamii.iM i pa-K.iaiimioM ii .'in .iimoM oc i i paA.iaiu' i iia. 

HUKaiblBaH) I CM -I HUH'll HC'M CBOUO.Ibl MU CpOK OT .U'CH I H .1(1 

iBa ma i ii . it i . 

ripuMemiHue. 

1. Oiiiiat i HtniiaH onacHOCTb innHOHaaca jaK;iK>'iaeicH b 
tom, tto H3 Bjiaaetuu rocyaapcTBa Moryr yfiTH BaacHefimHe 
CBeaeHHJi.cocTaBJiJiromHerocyziapcTBeHHyioTaHHy.KpoMeToro, 
uiriHOHaac, KaK npecTynHoe aea h lie. co3aacr vc.iobhh ana coBep- 
meHHa apymx npecTyruieHHH npoTHB ochob KOHCTHryuHOHHoro 
crpoa h 6e3onacHocTH rocyaapcrea. Hmchho no3TOMy npeaMe- 
tom unuioHavKa Moryr 6brrb Hapaay c rocyaapcTBeHHofi TaftHOH 
HHbie CBeaeHHa, He o6pa3yiomHe rocyaapcrBeHHOH' rafiHbi. 

2. K HHblM CBtlCIIHHM MOJKeT OTHOCHTbCS JIK>6a* HHIpOp- 

Mauna, He cocraBJuiioiiia* rocyaapcTBCHHOH TaHHbi, KOTopyio 
jimxo co6HpaeT no 3aaami \o HHOcrpaHHOH pa3Be;iKn ana Hcnojib- 
30BaHwi ee b ymep6 BHemHefi 6e3onacHocTH: 

xapaKTepH3yiomHe aaHHbie Ha OTBeTCTBeHHbix flonjKHocr- 
hux nnu, npo6bi noHBw. Boau b onpeaejieHHOH mccthocth, 

CHHMKH HJIH CXCMbl KpynHblX >KC;ie3HO JOpOJKHbl.X y3JIOB, TpaHC- 

nopTHbix pa3BH30K H T. u. IIoao6Hbie CBeaeHHa C06HpaK)TCH 
pa3BejKa.M ii ana nepcneKTHBHoro peineHHa BepooBOHHbix 3aaa4, 
coBepnieHHa .niBepcuH. pa3pa6oTKH CTpaTerH4ecKHx nnaHOB 
noapbiBHOH flejrrejibHOCTH Ha oco6biH nepnoa h t. a. 

3. UJnHOHaxc o6teKmueHo Bbipa«aeTC» b nepeflane, co6h- 
paHHH, noxHiueHiiH hjih xpaHCHHH c uejibio nepeaanH yKa3aH- 
hjjm ajjpecaTaM CBeaeHHH, cocTaBJiaiomHX rocyaapcTBeHHyio 
TaflHy, jih6o b nepeaaHe hjih cooitpaHHH no 3aaaHHio HHocrpaH- 

HOH pa3BeiUCH HHblX CBeaeHHH. 

riepejana cbc jchhh — 3to coo6meHHe hx JiK)6biM cnoco- 
6om aapecaTy (ycrHO, imcbMeiiHO, Hepe3 nocpezuuuca, c hc- 
nojib30BaHHeM TexHHHecKHX cpeacrB, TaHHHKOB h t. a.). 



CooHpaiiHe ecTb .no6aa, KpoMe noxHiueHHJi. (popMa nojiy- 
neHHa Ha3BaHHbix CBeaeHHft ojis nocjieayiomeH hx nepeaaqH 
yKa3aHHbiM b 3aKOHe opraHH3auHJiM h nHuaM. Cnoco6u co6npa- 
BH* MoryT6brrbcaMbiMH pa3Hoo6pa3HWMH (Ha6juoaeHHe. bkjiio- 
naa npHMeHeHHe TexHHqecKHX cpeacTB; o6meHHe c ceKpeTOHO- 
CHTejiaMH h BbiBeiibiBaHHe CBeaeHHH npH pa3roBopax; noacjry- 
iiiHBaHHe 6ecea cneiwajiHCTOB; HecaHKHHOHHpoBaHHoe noaKino- 
neHHe k TexHHHecKHM cpeacxBa.M cb»3h h t. n.). 

I lo xii uu'hhc CBcacmiH. KaK pa jHOBii.iHocib hx co6npaHHa, 
MOJKeT ocymecTBJiflTbca h TaHHo, h OTKpbiTO. Ecjih noxHiuaeMbie 
cBeaeHHa HaxoaaTca Ha MaiepHajibHbix oGbeicrax (H3aeJinax, 
aeTajuoc, y3Jiax, MaTepna^ax h t. n), to npH n.ianmin npH3HaKOB 
pn jihoo apyrofi (JiopMU xiuueH hh TaKHe aencTBHa k :na.in ipn - 
unpyioTca no coBoicynHOCTH co uinHOHajKeM. 

XpaneiiHc CBeaeHHii 03HaMaeT jik>6oh cnoco6 hx c6ep«Ke- 

HHa.o6eCne4HBaK)UiHHCOXpaHHOCTbHHeH3MeHH0CTbHH4)0pMa- 

u.HH npH ee nocaeayiomeH nepeflane. 

4. Ill niKiiiaA-. iipe.iMc i (im Koroporo hb.ihc i ch i oo.iap- 
c i iu'ii ii hh i a ii iia . MBOBtt coBepmaTbCJi jih6o hhhu,H3thbho, jih6o 
no 3aaaHHK» HHOCTpamioro rocyaapcTBa. AaHHoe npecTynjieHHe 
OKOHneHO c MOMem-a coBepuieHHH yKa3aHHbix Bume aeHCTBHH. 
ycraHOBJieHHe KOHTaKTa c HHOCTpaHHOH pa3Be.0KOH h nojiyne- 
HHe ot Hee 3aaaHHa aBJiaeTca npuroTOBJieHHeM k jianHOMy npe- 
CTynjieHHio. IIpeceneHHaa nonbrrKa co6paTb CBeaeHHa, naupii- 
Mep nyreM KpaacH, o6pa3yeT noicyuieHHe Ha npecTynjieHHe. 

5. UlllllOliaA, lipi'JMOIOM KOTOpOIO HBJIHIOTCa lllll.lt 

i-ii i" icii h h. o6pa3yeT oxomeHHoe npecrynjieHHe. ecjiH nepeaana. 
hjih co6HpaHHe cBeaeHHH ocyinecTBjiaeTca no 3anaHHio hhoct- 
paHHofi pa3BeaKH. Ecjih yKa3aHHbie aeficTBHa coBepmaioTCM hhh- 
UHaTHBHO. ho c uejibK) nocJieayiomeH nepenanH CBejieHHH hho- 
CTpaHHOH pa3BeaKe, ohh o6pa3yK)T npueomoenenue k aaHHOMy 
npecTyruieHHio. 

6. ( > 6 biK i ii hm ax CTopoHa urn hoii a>Ka xapaK i tpiuN 1 1 en 

lipHMHIM \ MblC.IOM. T. ebl. OC03HaHHCM J1HUOM o6meCTBeHH0 

onacHoro xapaicrepa coBepniaeMbix aeHCTBHH h JKenaHHeM aeft- 
CTBOBaTb b ymep6 BHemHefi 6e3onacHOCTH Pocchh. Momueu h 
i^ejiu MoryT 6wTb pajJiHHHbiMH. KaK noKa3biBaeT npaKTHKa, qauie 
Bcero npoaBJiaiOT ce6a Kopbicrnbie no6y>icaeHHa npH HanHinn 
uejiH o6oraTHTbca npoTHBonpaBHw.M ciiocooom. 

7. CyobcKi om (HcnojiHHTeJieM) uinHOHajKa MoaceT 6bm> 
TOJibKO HHOcrpaHHUH rpaataaHHH jih6o anuo 6e3 rpaamaHCTBa, 
jocTHruiee niecTHajmaTH aeT. CoynacTHHKaMH aaaHoro npe- 
CTynaeHHa (opraHH3aTopaMH h noncTpeKaTejniMH) Moryr Bbicry- 
naTb h rpaacaaHe PO npn OTcyTCTBHH b hx aeficTBHax npH3HaKOB 
rocyaapcTBeHHOH H3MeHbi (cm. KOMMeirrapHH k ct. 275). IlocoG- 
HHHecKHe aefic i bum rpaacaaHHHa Pocchh no oKa iannio noMoniH 
b cosepnieHHH ninHOHama HHOcrpaHHbiM rpaacaaHHHOM an6o 
anuoM 6e3 rpajicaaHCTBa KBajiHiJmuHpyiOTca KaK rocyaapcTBeH- 
naa iiiMena. 

8. Ha HopMy o iminoiia>Ke pacnpocTpaHaeT CBoe aeHCTBHe 
npiiMe'ianiie k ct. 275 YK, me c(popMynnpoBaHa noompHTCJib- 
Haa HopMa 06 0CBo6oacaeHHH ot yroaoBHOH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH 
anua, coBepmHBniero ujimoncKHe aencTBHa, ho BbinojiHHBmero 
ycaoBHa. npirjBaHHbie npeaoTBpaTHTb aaabHefirnHft ymep6 HH- 
Tepeca.M Pocchhckoh OeaepaiwH (cm. KOMMeHTapHfi k ct. 275). 

Texcm cmameu u KOMMenmapux k hum npueeden no Kttuee 
«KoMMenmapuu k YzojioenoMy Kodexcy Poccuuckou 0edepa- 
i4uu». Hid. 3-e, U3M. u don. IJod ooiyeu pedaxuueu lenepcLibHoeo 
npoKypopa Poccuuckou 0edepauuu, npo<peccopa K>. M. CKypa- 
moea u Ilpedcedamejix Bepxoenoeo Cyda Poccuuckou (Pedepa- 
t4uu B. M. Jle6edeea.— M.: MidameibcmH epvnna HOPMA- 
MH0PA. M, 1999. — C. 708-712. 



4 



flPABA HEJ10BEKA 



flupeKTop MHCTMTyra CLUA n Kanaflbi PAH 
CepreH Poroa: 

...CymazuH npuwen e nauj uHcmumym acnupaHmoM 
decamb nem Ha3ad, 3aw,umun xaHdudamcxyK) duccepmanuio 
u, e omnuvue om mhozux dpyzux, ne yuuen e xoMMepu,ux), a 
npodonxun aHanumuvecxyio pa6omy. rioamoMy a u pexo- 
MeHdoean ezo Ha donxHOcmb 3aeedyiomezo cexmopoM e 
omdene eoeHHo-nonumunecKux uccnedoeaHuu. Mbi He pas 
zoeopunu c hum u o doKmopcKoQ duccepmaixuu. Ezo apecm 
6bin dna ecex nac HeoxudaHHOcmbio. Bedb mm e Hawed 
padome He nonb3yeMca cexpemHbiMu doKyMenmaMu, a monb- 
ko omKpbimbiMu ucmoHHUKaMU. HosmoMy hukhio u3 compyd- 
HUKoe no pody ceoeu padomu e UHcmumyme He Moxem 
pa3znacumb KaKue-mo zocydapcmeeHHbie maCiHbi. 

...Mbi o6pamunucb k cnedcmeuio c npocbdou o0uu,u- 
anbHO pa3bficHumb cymb u xapaxmep npedbaeneHHbix Cyma- 
auHy o6euHeHuu. B omeem Mbi nonynunu pasbacneHue, wn?o 
V\zopa o6euHfwm e nepedane uHocmpaHHbiM npedcmaeume- 
n»M uH<popMau,uu e ymepS 6e3onacHocmu Poccuu. Ho mhb- 
huio cnedcmeua, amo o6euHeHue nonynuno ceoe nodmaepm- 
deHue e xode paccnedoeanua. y mbhh Hem ocHoeanuu o6eu- 
HH/TJb cnedcmeue e npedesamocmu, ho monbKO cyd Moxem 
ycmaHoeumb eunoeHOcmb oSeuaaeuozo. floamoMy Mbi ucxo- 
duM U3 npe3yMnu,uu HeeuHoenocmu u do cyda He MoxeM 
coznacumbca c ebideuHymbiMu npomue compydHuxa uHcmu- 
myma o6euneHURMu. 

...Ha nauj 3anpoc cnedcmeue coo6muno, wmo mom 
Qanm, vmo Cymazun ne uMen docmyna no pa6ome k cexpem- 
HbiM ceedeHUHM, «na Keanu0uKau,uio npecmynnenua He enu- 
aem». Do MHeHuio cnedcmeue, Mzopb coSupan, xpanun u 
nepedaean «ceedeHua, cocmaenanujue zocydapcmeeHHyio 
mauHy, u UHbie ceedenua o eoeHHO-nonumuuecxoM u o6opon- 
hom nomeHLiuane Poccuu». HaM 6bino coo6meHO, nmo 6onee 
nodpo6Haa uH&opMau,uR 06 o6cmoamenbcmeax paccnedo- 
eanua u cyujecmee npedbaeneHHoao o6euHenua noKa He 
MOMem 6bimb npedcmaeneHa. 

...3mom eonpoc o6cy)xdanca wa 3acedanuu yuenozo 
coeema uncmumyma, eduHOznacno noddepjxaeu/ezo xoda- 
maucmeo 06 u3M6HeHuu CymazuHy Mepu npeceveHun nod 
Hauie nopyvumenbcmeo. Mbi ne 0Ka3bieaeM daeneHua Ha 
cnedcmeue, ho npocuM ynecmb cocmoaHue ezo sdopoeba u 
MamepuanbHoe nonoxenue ceMbu (y Hzopa deoe demeu). 
OdHaKo renepanbHan nponypamypa caHXu,uoHupoeana npo- 
dneHue cpoxa ezo npe6bieanua nod cmpaxeu, a Kanyxcxuu 
cyd ocmaeun Mepy npecevenua 6e3 u3MeHenuu. 



CoTpyflHUK Uempa no n3yneHHK) npo6neM 
pasopyweHUfl riaBen riOABHr: 

OnydnuKoeaHHoe e «He3aeucuMou za3eme» 1 uxjna 
UHmepebiocC. M. PozoeuM, dupexmopoM MHcmumyma CLUA 
u Kanadbi. noceaw,eHHoe deny Mzopa Cymazuna, daem ped- 
Kyio eo3MO)KHOcmb cocmaeumb npedcmaenenue o moM, e wew 
KOHKpemHO QCBMOxem oGeuHumb Cymazuna. Kaxcnpaeed- 
nueo om/wewewo e uHmepebio, amo deno npuo6pemaem ece 
6onbiuuuo6u4ecmeeHHbiu pe30HaHC. Cnedyem cxasamb, wmo 
dnn amozo ecmb cepb63Hbie ocHoeanua, man ksk deno Cyma- 
zuHa eo mhozom 6ecnpeu,edeHmHO. 

Cnedyem coznacumbcn c PozoeuM, Komopbiu He eepum 
e nonumuvecKuu xapanmep amozo dena. Cumyauua ebiznn- 
dum zopa3do cepbe3Heu. Ta uHcpopMauun. Komopyio <DCB 
cow/7a eo3Mo>KHbiM coo6mumb Ha npouinou Hedene. paeno 
KaK u ma, vmo 6bina oOHapodoeana panbiue. onpedenenHO 
zoeopum moM, wmo ocHoeHaa npuvuna, no Komopou noaeu- 



nocb deno Cymnzuna, — ydpynaiouiaa 6e3zpaMomHocmb 
paGomHUKoe KanyxcKoG <PCB. 

fleucmeumenbHO, dupeicmopy MHcmumyma CLUA u Ka- 
nadbi, KaK u ece/w, Kmo 3anuMaemca HayvHbiMU uccnedoeaHu- 
pmu, cno?KHO noeepumb e mo, wmo o6beKmoM eHUManua 
cnedcmeun cman onpoc o cocmoanuu eoeHHO-zpaxdancKux 
omHOLueHuu, Komopbiu Cymnzun npoeodun no npocbde Ka- 
Hadcxozo yHueepcumema Mop* (u cnedyem omMemumb, c 
eedoMa u coznacun pyKoeodcmea ceoezo UHcmumyma). M 
nem Huvezo ydueumenbHozo e moM, vmo <t>CB e o0uu.ua/ib- 
Hbix coo6uj,eHUHx aaeepaem ecex, nmo OHa He eudum e amoM 
onpoce Huuezo npomueoaaKOHHozo. Bonee mozo, ecmb ocho- 
eanua nonazamb, vmo <PCB He exjiio^um cpaKm yvacmua 
Cymazuna e amoM onpoce e OKOHvamenbHoe ob~euHenue. 
Ecnu 6bi smo npou30iuno, cmano 6bi coeepiueHHO 6ecnpeu,e- 
deHmHbiM 0aKmoM oGbaeneHue umuoHaxeM HaynHOu pa6o- 
mbi, ebinonneHHoQ e coomeemcmeuu c caMbiMu ebicoKUMu 
cmandapmauu omKpbimocmu u npo(peccuonanu3Ma. 

Ho daMe ecnu anuaod c KanadcxuM onpocoM u ne 6ydem 
e/c/7/owew e OKOHvamenbHoe o6euneHue, amo nuvezo He u3Me- 
Hum — ecmb docmamowo ydedumenbHbie ceudemenbcmea 
mozo, vmo cnedoeamenu 0CB coeepuieHHo ucxpenne nona- 
zaiom, nmo amom onpoc aenaemca ^acmbio «ujnuoHCKoQ 
deamenbHOcmu» Cymazuna. W ecnu cezodHaocmaeumb 3mom 
cpaKm 6e3 Hadnexamezo eHUMaHua, ydoenemeopueujucb 3a- 
eepeHuaMU cnedcmeua, mo 3aempa nodo6Hozopoda o6euHe- 
Hua 6ydym denambca coeepujeHHO omKpbimo u 6e33acmeH- 
Hueo. 

CoeceM HeyduaumenbHO, ecnu OKawemca, nmo u oc- 
manbHbte anu3odbi, xomopbie paccnedyem <J>CB, OKa)*ymca 
noxo>KUMu na 3nu30d c onpocoM, npoeedenHbiM KanadcKUM 
yHueepcumemoM, a e neM-mo, eo3MO)KHO, u npee3oQdym ezo. 
06 ypoeHe pa6ombi, Komopyio eedem cnedcmeue. mo>kho 
cydumb, nanpuMep, no maxoMy 0axmy: onpaedbieaa ceou 
nod03peHua e omHoweHuu aMepuKancKOZO xonnezu Cymazu- 
na. 0CB npueoduna e Kanecmee ocHoeanua dna hux mom 
0aKm, vmo oh axo6bi pa6omaem e UHcmumyme, e xomopoM 
cnymum nneMaHnux 6bieuiezo dupexmopa LJPY. 

K coxaneHuio, o6uj,ecmey CKopee ecezo He ydacmca 
y3Hamb, e wew KOHxpemno 0CB oGeunaem Cymazuna. max 
xax ezo deno 3aceKpeveHO u 6ydem cnyiuambca e 3axpbimoM 
cyde6noM 3acedaHuu. BnonHe 603mo>kho, wmo npuvuaa 3a- 
ceKpevueanua dena KaK pa3 u cocmoum e moM, nmo cned- 
cmeue 6oumca ebicmaeumb ceoe Heee>Kecmeo na cyd o6uj,e- 
cmea u noHUMaem, vmo omcmoamb ceoio no3uu,uio e omxpu- 
moM cyde eMy He ydacmca. flpyzux npu<4UH, onpaedbieaiomux 
cexpemHOcmb. nonpocmy ne cymecmeyem. Mzopb CymazuH 
HUKOzda He uwen donycxa unu docmyna k cexpemnbiM caede- 
HuaM, u, xpoMe mozo, e U3bambix y nezo 6yMazax He 6bino 
ceKpemnbix (mo ecmb umbioimux coomeemcmeyiomuu epu0) 
6yMaz unu Mamepuanoe. Cnedcmeue, zoeopa hokux «cee- 
denuax, cocmaenatomux zocydapcmeeHHyio mauHy, u uhux 
ceedeHuax o eoenHo-nonumuvecKOM u ooopohhom nomeHU,u- 
ane Poccuu», xax Hecnoxno noHamb, uMeem e eudy HaudeH- 
Hbie y CymazuHa za3emHbie 8bipe3xu u dpyzue omxpumo u 
3aK0HH0 onydnuxoeaHHbie Mamepuar.ai. 

Tom 0aKm, nmo cnedoeamenu 0CB He Mozym noHamb, 
KaKUM o6pa30M 8 omxpbimbix ny6nuKau,uax Mozym codep- 
mambca ceedenua, cocmaenaiomue zocydapcmeeHHyio mau- 
Hy. u xax npu amoM OHa Moxem ocmaeambca Hepa3znauieH- 
hoO, epad nu cnoco6eH Kozo-mo ydueumb. Yduenenue ebiabi- 
eaem mo, wmo ceoio OHeeudayio 6e3zpaMomHOcmb u Henpo- 
0eccuonanu3M cnedcmeue nbimaemca cxpbimb 3a 3aeecou 
ceKpemHOcmu u npodonwaem deptxamb e cnedcmeeHHOM 
u3onamope nenoeeKa, Komopbiu, noxoxe. euHoeam nuuib e 
moM, vmo yMeem aHanu3upoeamb npovumaHHoe nyviue, we/w 
amo yMeiom denamb cnedoeamenu OCB. 



4 



nPABA HE/10BEKA 



Aejio N 52. Pajwo CboGor 
DporpaMMa «npaaa leMBeiian 



11 



Vnenozo in 06huhckq 0CE o6euHJtem e «HaneceHuu 
ytqep6a 6e3onacHocmu poccuucKOZo eocydapcmea» 

JJeenmbiu Mecxif codepotcumcn e KcuiyoKCKOM CH30 co- 
mpydnuK eoeHHO-nojiumunecKoeo omdena MHcmumyma 
CllIA u Kanadbi, otcumejib 06huhcko Heopb CymmuH. &CB 
o6euHMem eeo e Hanecenuu yufep6a 6e3onacHocmu poccuuc- 
KOMy zocydapcmsy. VnenoMy zpo3um jiuiuetiue ceo6odbi cpo- 
kom do deadi^amu .nem. O dene Heopn Cymsuuna paccucubi- 
eaem nam o6huhckuu KoppecnoHdenm AneKceu Co6auKUH. 

AjieKCeH C'ooumkhh: 

Hropb CyrarHH — yneHbiH c 6ojibiiiHM cneicrpoM HHTe- 
pecoB. Oh 3aKOHHHJi (pH3H4ecKHH <J)aKyjibTeT Mry , a KaHjm- 
aaTCKyK) jmccepTaumo 3amHTnn KaK hctophk, Hccneayn bo- 
eHHO-MopcKyio CTpaTerHK) CllIA mecTHaecHTbix-BOCbMHae- 
CHTbix roaoB. B 1998 roay b Mockbc Buiima KHHra «CTpaTC- 
rHHecKoe h naepHoe BOopyaceHHe Pocchh», b kotopoh CyTH- 
thh HanHcan rnaBbi o co3aaHHH h 3KcnjiyaiauHH aaepHbix 
6oenpHnacoB h o CTpaTerHHecxoH o6opoue. Oh ny6;iHKOBaji 
cboh CTaTbH b «MopcKOM c6opHHKe», «3apy6e>KHOM BoeH- 
hom o6o3peHHH» h apynix cneuHajiH3HpOBaHHbix acypHanax. 
B 06hhhckom yne6HOM ueHTpe BoeHHo-Mopcxoro (JwioTa, 
rae npoxoaHT nepenoaroTOBKy 3KHnaacH naepHbix noaBoa- 
hwx noaoK, CyTJirHH Ha o6mecTBeHHbix Haqanax HHTan o<Jw- 
uepaM neKUHH o noaBoaHOM (JmoTe CllIA. 

Bee cboh HccjieaoBaHHH Hropb CymrHH npOBoana no 

OTKpblTbIM HCTOHHHKaM H ny6jIHKaU.HHM, He coaepacaniHM 

rocyaapcTBeHHyio TaHHy. no pony cBoefi aeHTejibHoc™ oh 
HE HMEJ1 flOnYCKA K CEKPETAM. Oh Hacro BCTpeqaji- 
ch c HHOcTpaHHbiMH yqeHbiMH h JumnoMaTaMH b paMKax 
coBMecTHbix HayHHbix rrpoeKTOB Pocchh h apyrax rocy- 
aapcm 

He3aaojiro no apecTa CyrarHH 0Ka3biBaji noMOinb b 
paSoTe Haa zmccepTaujiefi aMepHKaHiry ^xcouiya X3Hanepy, 
acnHpamy ripHHCTOHCKoro yHHBepcHTeTa, K0TopbiH6bLn npn- 
rnaiueH b Pocchio HHCTHTyroM CllIA h KaHaaw . Ero anccep- 
TauHsi 6buia nocBsmeHa npo6neMaM CTpaTerHHecKHX naep- 
hux BOopy*ceHHH. Koraa b 0KTJi6pe 1999 roaa CyTHrHHa 
apecTOBajiH, to y X3bntanepa npoH3BejiH o6hck h H3bJiiiH 

KOMnblOTep. HHKaKHX KOHKpeTHblX 06BHHeHHfi aMepHKaHC- 

KOMy acnnpaHTy He npeabHBHJiH. Oh nepe3 MecHU noKHHyji 
Pocchio h oo.ibLiie cioaa He B03BpamajicH. 

Iloa Ha6jnoaeHHe OCE Hropb CyTHrHH nonan eme b 
1 998 roay, Koraa CTaa 0Ka3biBaTb HHtpopMauHOHHbie ycjiyrn 
pa3JiHHHMM 3apy6ea<HUM (j)HpMaM. 3th ycjryra 3aKJHOHajiHCb 
b aHanH3e BoeHHO-nonHTHqecKOH cuTyauHH b Pocchh. Pa6o- 
Ta BbinojiHJUiacb no oncpbiTbiM HCTOHHHKaM: ra3eTaM, wyp- 
HanaM h KHHraM. 3a Hee CyTHrHH, pa3yMeeTCH, nonynan 
aeHbni. PoiiHTejiH Hropa. o6hhhckhc yneHbie BHHecnaB h 



CBeTJiaHa CyT»rHHbi, CHHTaiOT, hto npoH3onuio, Manco tobo- 
pa, Heaopa3yMeHHe, Tax KaK aHanH3 oTKpbiTbix hctohhhkob h 
ii vo.iHKauuft He MOJKer HaHecTH ymep6a o6opoHocnoco6HO- 
cth Pocchh. 

OimaKO y KajiyaccKoro ynpaBJieHiw OCB apyroe MHe- 
hhc Hropb HaxoflHTca noa cjieacTBHeM, iiBa ero KOMnbKJTepa 
H3bsrrbi, apyroe HMymecTBO onHcaHO. ^HpeKTop HHCTHTyTa 
CLLIA h Kanaabi Cepren PoroB 6biJi yaHBJieH apecTOM cBoero 

COTpyaHHKa, UK;n;iH. ITO 3TO GblJIO 60JlbUI0H HeOHCHJiaHHOC- 

TbK>, TaK Kax cneuHajiHCTbi HHCTHiyra b CBoefi pa6oTe He 
nojib3yioTcsi ceKpeTHbiMH aoKyMeHTaMH. 

H3BecTHbiH yneHbiH aKaaeMHK EBreHHH BennxoB o6pa- 
thjich c xoaaiaHCTBOM b Kany)KCKoe ynpaBJieHHe OCE c 
npocb6ofi H3MeHHTb CyrarHHy Mepy npeceHeHHa Ha noanHC- 
xy o HeBbie3ae. BejmxoB nopyiHJiCH 3a noacneacTBeHHoro, 
ho ero npocb6a ocTanacb 6c3 BUHManna. 

29 hiohji 2000 roaa coctojuich cya, Ha kotopom paccMaT- 
pHBancH Bonpoc 06 ocBo6o3KaeHHH CyTHrHHa H3-noa CTpaacn. 
5wno BbiHeceHO peineHHe — ociaBHTb yneHoro b cneacTBeH- 
hom H30JiHTope. Ta.M oh, no nocjieaHero BpeMeHH, HaxoaHJicsi 
b HeBbiHOCHMO THKe^bix ycnoBHHx. B KaMepe, paCCIHTaHHOH 
Ha BoccMb nejiOBeK, coaepacanocbaBaauaTb BoccMb noacnea- 
ctbchhmx. Majio Toro, CyTHrHHa oaiiaAMw noMecTRHH b 
Kapuep. Koraa poacTBeHHHKH B03MyTHJiHCb TaKHM o6pame- 
HHeM c HropeM, hm npnuuio nucbMO H3 Kany»CKOH npoKypa- 
rypu, b kotopom 6biJio HanncaHo, hto CyTHnm noMemaicn b 
Kapuep «He b KanecTBe wtepu B3wcKanna. a c yneTOM ero 
nHHHoro )«enaHHJi o co6;noaeHHH k HeMy Tpe6oBaHHH 3aKOHa 

06 H30HHUHH OT apyTHX KaTerOpHH 3aKJHOHeHHbIX», — KOHeu 

uHTaTbi. 26 hk)jih 3aKaHHHBaeTCH oqepeaHoe npoaneHHe cpo- 
Ka coaep5KaHHH noa cTpa»efi, ho, no Been BHaHMOCTH, cnea- 
cTBHe 6yaeT npoaonacaTbcn eme Mecnu-aBa. 

H.ii.h ;ia.iauiH ue: 

«J\eno Hropn CyTHrHHa ann mchh — oco6oe aeJio», — 
yTBep»aaeT npeaceaaTejib Mockobckoh XenbCHHKCKOH rpyn- 
nbi JlroaMHJia AneKceeBa. 

JlioaMHJia AjieKceeBa: 

9{ pa3roBapHBajia c ero apy3bHMH, c ero poaHTenHMH. fl 
npoHiia Bee HMeiouiHecH no 3TOMy aejiy aoKyMeHTbi. H He 

H>TKHO 6bITb KjpHCTOM, a Hy«HO 6bITb npocTo HenOBeKOM B 

3apaBOM yMe ann Toro, HT06W noHHTb: 3TOT lenoBeK a6co- 

JHOTHO HeBHHOBeH. H aJlH TOrO, TTOGbl nOHHTb, KaK onacHO 

B03HHKHOBeHHe TaKoro aena y Hac b Pocchh. C Moefi tohkh 
3peHHH, ec^H CyrnrHH 6yaer ocy)KaeH, 3to oaHH, ho oseHb 
cepbe3HbiH cuar k TOMy, hto6w Haa Hauiefi CTpaHOH CHOBa 
onycTHJicH 5Kene3HbiH 3aHaBec, 3a KOTopbiM Mbi jkhjih oo.ibuie 
ceMHaecHTH Jier. 



12 



fle/io N 52. PaAMO CBo6oAa. flporpaMMa «l~lpaBa ne/iOBeKa* 



FIpeacTaBbTe ce6e: eciH 3a pa3roBopu Ha HaynHbie TeMbi, 

OCHOBaHHUe Ha OTKpblTblX, Ony6jlHKOBaHHbIX HCTOHHHKaX, 

mo)kho 3arpeMeTb b nopbMy no TaKOMy cTpauiHOMy o6bhhc- 

HHK>, KaKOC Iipejl 1.HB.1HC I CB CyTBrHHy, TO KTO MC H3 pOCCHH- 

ckhx yneHbix cornacHTca aajibuie noaaepxcHBaTb KOHTaicrbi 
co cbohmh KonjieraMH 3a py6e»OM? 

A npeacTaBJiaere ce6e, neM 3to rpo3HT Hauiefi (npaHe, 
ecjiH 3th HaynHbie KOHTaicrbi 6yayr npeicpaiueHbi Bra xora 6u 
cyaceHbi? Mbi ii Tax OTcraaH HeBepojrrao ot UHBmiH30BaHHO- 
ro MHpa bo MHorHX o6jiacTax HayKH. Mbi OTcraHeM eme 
6o.ii.iue. Mbi OTCTaHeM 6e nia.ic/Kiio. H aejio He To.ibKO b 
HayHHbix cb»3«x. Kawabifi rpaacaaHHH 6yaer 6oaTbca KOHTaK- 

TOB C HHOCTpaHUaMH, KaK 60JL1CJI B COBCTCKOe BpeMB. IlpH- 

HeM, a 6w cKa3ajia aaace, b CTajiHHCKoe, a He b caMwe nocne- 
aHHe rojtu, noTOMy hto b nocjiezwHe roan jnoaH, Bpoae 6w, 
nepecTaiH 6oaTbca. 

rioneMy <t>CB Tax B3ajiacb 3a CymrHHa? fl hc Ntory tto 
o6bscHHTb miane KaK *e iamiest B3HTb peBanui 3a to, hto He 
yaaaocb ocyaHTb HHKHTHHa, 3a to, hto He yaanocb iioca.m i b 
IlacbKo, 3a to, hto copBanocb aeno Cofitpepa h apyrne aena, 
rae 1 1 i.i ra. i it c i» . io Ka la i b . hto . i Hunt iiapynin.ni KaKyio-TO npe- 
cnoByTyTO ceKpeTHOCTb, He BTopraacb b Ty o6jiacn>, KOTopaa 
iaiipemeita ana pasmauiemia. 

3to coBepuieHHO oneBtiaHO cuurroe aeno, uiirroe 6eabi- 
mh HHTKaMH h TeM He Menee Bbi3biBaK>mee 6ojiburyio TpeBo- 
ry, noTOMy hto mm 3HaeM, hto no iTOMy o6bhhchhio mowho 
ycTpoHTb 3aKpbJTbiH cya, h Toraa caMbiM hcjiobkhm o6pa30M 
cuiiiToe aeno Moxcer 3axoHHHTbca o5BHHeHHeM. 

Hi i.h ,1a luiiini ie: 

He Hy3KH0 6biTb iophctom, hto6ij noHaTb: Hropb Cyra- 
thh HeBHHOBeH, — yraepHcaaeT JlioaMmia AnexceeBa. B 
OTJiHHHe ot Hee, coTpyaHHK MocKOBCKoro HHCTHTyra npas 
nenoBeKa BaieHTHH TecpTep cHHTaer Heo6xoaHMbiM cocpe- 
aoTOHHTbCH Ha lopnaHHecKHx acneicrax rroro aena, HeCMOT- 
pa Ha bck) ero 3aKpbrrocn>. 

Ba.ieiiiHH rt(piep: 

R ayMaio, hto 3flecb ecTb aBa acneicra b tom nojie, o 
kotopom a xony roBopHTb b nepByio onepeab, — npaBOBOM. 

Co6cTBCHHO, HTO npeaCTaBJiaCT C060H CTaTbH 275 YrOJlOBHO- 

ro KoaeKca, no KOTopofi CyrarHH o6bhhch? rio3Bo;iK> ce6e 
npouHTHpoBaTb. KpoMe uinnoHaxca 11 BuaaHii rocyaapcrBeH- 
HOfi TaHHbl, KOTOpaa HHKpHMHHHpyeTCJI 3T0H CTaTbefi, ecTb 

eme noHame «hhoto OKa jaiins noMouiH hhoc rpannoM\ ro- 
cyaapcTBy, opraHH3auHH mm hx npeacTaBHTenaM b npoBeae- 
hhh Bpaa<ae6Hofi aeaTejibHOCTH b yiuep6 BHeuiHefi 6e3onac- 
hocth Pocchhckoh Oeaepau,HH». 3aecb aaa noHBTHa — no- 
MOUib mhoc 1 panna.M b npoHciemui npa>K_ie6Hoii aeaTe/ibHO- 
cth h ymep6 BHeuiHefi 6e3onacHocm 

% ayMaio, hto Koraa o6bhh«k)t b noaooHoro poaa aea- 
hhjix, xotji Mbi He 3HaeM ceHnac c BaMH h He MOJKeM 3HaTb ao 
cyaa, aa, s 6oiocb, h nocjie cyaa He y3HaeM, nocKoabKy oh 
6yaer 3aKpbiTbiM, hto «e cocTaB-iajio ymep6 BHeuiHefi 6e30- 
nacHoc™, cjieacTBHe h cya aojiacHbi aoKa3aTb, hto 3Ta no- 
Mouib, ecan OHa 0Ka3biBaaacb HHOCTpaHHOMy rocyaapcTBy, 
HMeHHo b npoBeaeHHH Bpa«ae6H0H aeaTejibHocTH. 



CTaTbfl, MO*eT6bTTb, He HaeajibHoc<popMy;iHpoBaHa, ho 
OHa Bce-TaKH CTaBHTaoBonbHO cepbe3Hbie orpanHHeHHs. He 
nK)6oe aeHHHe, KOTopoe cneacreHe CHHTaeT ymep6oM ana 
Hauiefi BHeuiHeH 6e3onacHOCTH, M0*eT6biTb hhkphmhhhpo- 
Bano TOMy wm apyroMy nejiOBeKy, b aaHHOM cnynae HropK) 
CyrarHHy, a toju>ko to, Koropoe noapasyMeBaer, hto 3to 
6waa noMomb onpeaeaeHHOMy rocyaapcTBy, hjih ipHpMe, 
juiH npeacTaBHTenio,B npoBeaeHHHaeaTe^bHocTH, Bpa*ae6- 
hoh Hauiefi CTpaHe. 

3ro nepBbifi acneicr, Ha Koropufi a xony o6paTHTb bhh- 
MaHHe, noTOMy hto oneHb nacTO, b coBpeMeHHbix ycnoBHax, 
cueacTBHe oco6chho, a mo»ct 6brn>, h cya, hc o6pauiaK)T 
BHHMaHHa Ha iTy oneHb BaiKHyio Hacn. 3Tofi 275. 

A Tenepb no cym caMoro ae.ia, KOTopoe HanoMHHaeT 
MHorne apynie aejia, h kotopmmh mu, npaB03amHTHHKH, 
3annMajiHCb Ha npoiaweHHH nocjieaHHx nei. Mbi c BaMH 
noHHMaeM, hto HHTe.TJieKTyaabHbui ypoBeHb ,110608 aHaan- 
thkh cm. 11.110 noBbicmica 3a iioc.ic.ummc roabi, 3a nocjieaHHe 
aecaTHJieTHa. 3tot ypoBeHb oneHb CMymaer Hauiy KOHTppa3- 
BeaKy, Hauiy <DCB. H OHa HanHHaeT BBoaHTb noHaTHe «or- 
KpbiTOH pa3BeaaeaTejibHoc™», o KOTopofi yace HecKOJibKO 
pa3 roBopHJia npHMeHHTejibHO k caMbiM pa3HbiM aenaM — h 
3KonoroB, h co6HpaTejiefi o6mecTBeHHO-nojiHTHHecKofi hh- 
(popMauHH ana HHocTpaHHbix o6mecTBeHHbix opraHH3a- 
uhh, h rocyaapcTB aaoKe, it bot, icax b ae.ie CyrarHHa, no 
pa6oTe c KaHaacKHMH yHHBepcHTeraMH, ana kotopwx oh 
6paa HHTepBbio... 

3th HHTepBbK), 3th onpocbi, y»e ony6nHKOBaHbi. H 
no3TOMy no coaep»caHHK> onySnHKOBaHHbix HHTepBbio, a 

ayMaK), HHKpHMHHMpOBaTb HHHeTO HClb3a, nOCKO.lbKy 0HH 

ony6.iHKOBaHu b OTKpbiTofi nenaTH, 11 KaacabiH mo*ct yBH- 
aen>, hto HHxaxoro ymep6a TaM Her. 

TaK bot, 3th o6BHHeHHa b «OTKpbrrofi pa3BeaaeaTenbH0- 
cth» hocbt a6cojnoTHO He npaBOBofi h, a 6bi cKa3an, aaace He 
yMHbifi xapaicrep. noTOMy hto Jno6yio aHaniiTHKy, KOTopaa 
no3BOJiaeT He ToabKo c6op HH(popMauHH, ho h ee o6ayMbiBa- 
HHe, ee conocTaBJieHHe 11 npoH3BoacTBo Kaiaix-To BbiBoaoB, 
moxcho npeacraBHTb Kax hckmh yxe ymep6, KaK uckoc npe- 
BwuieHHe toto, hto KOHxpeTHo coaepxHTca b HCTOHHHKax 

3TOfi HHIpOpMaUHH. 

TaKHM o6pa30M. bot 3to npeacTaBJieHiie 06 «OTKpbnofi 
pa3BeaaeaTejibHocTH», BBeaeHHoe b nocaeaHHe roaw OCB, 
KcraTH roBopa, ny6jiHHHo, — Mbi HHTajiH 3to yjKe b paae 
ny6jiHKauHfi b otxputoh nenaTH, — npeaeraBJiaeT co6ofi 
oneHb onacHyio TeHaeHiwio, KOTopaa, KaK mij BHaHM.. npn- 
MeHaeTca b caMwx pa3Hoo6pa3Hbix HanpaB-ieHHax. 

ft ayMaK), hto HeaapoM KOMMeHTapHH no aejiy CyrarH- 
Ha, h eiue pa3 noaHepKHBaio: aa»e aioaefi, KOTopue He 3HaioT 
cym KoiiKpe 1 max npeabaBJieHHbix eMy 3nH3oaoB h nioai icob 
aena, roBopaT o tom, hto ero HHTejTJieKTyajibHbiH ana.ni 1 h- 
necKHfi ypoBeHbuacraribKO npeBuinaeT npeacTaBJieHHe OCB, 
h oco6eHH0 corpyaHHKOB oaHoro H3 o6.3acTHbix ynpaBJieHHfi 
OCB, hto aaa hhx 3to, mowct 6biTb, aawe ao6pocoBecTHo 
3a6jiy5KaaK>iUHxca, Ka^Kebrrca nyrb jih He inrmoHajKeM b noju.3y 
HiiocTpaHHoro rocyaapcrea, hjim, no KpaimeH Mepe, oica3aHH- 
eM eMy 1 iomoium. 



4 



nPABA HEJ10BEKA 



13 



AKafleMHK Aneicceft 516/iokob: 
..S{ aoeopun mhozo pa 3 u cnumax) no-npemneMy, wmo 
deno Haopa cemano c u3bamueM yjjxowya XaHdnepa xoc- 
muhocxux CHUMKoe Hauiux ndepHo-opyxeuHbix meppumopuu. 
3mu chumku. Komopbie He3adomo do npueada flxoiuya e 
Poccuk) 6binu paccexpenenbi e CLUA, oh umbh e ceoeM xom- 
nhfomepe u noxaabiean Ha deyx ceoux ebicmynnenuax. flo eao 
cnoeaM, ohu ebiseanu 6onbuiou uHtnepec y eoennbix, xomo- 
pbie omxpumo 3aaenanu, nmo ux nado HeMednenno 3acexpe- 
mumb! Wmo6b/ He eo3umbca c neaanbHbiM nonyueHueM 3mux 
CHUMKoe e CUJA (nado nnamumb 3a hux, Hado nocbinamb u 
meM caMbiM «3aceevueamb» KaKux-mo Hauiux niodeu maM), 
(PCS, He ucxnxjveHO, vmo no npocbde MuHo6opoHbi. peuiuna 
npocmo U3hnmb ux y flxoujya nod KaKUM-mo npednoaoM. 
Ilpocmo o6bicK u KOH(pucxau,ua y aMepuxanua 6binu 6bi 
mpydno o6bacnuMbi. floamoMy u npudyManu «deno Cymaau- 
Ha»... 



TjiaBHbiM peflaKTop xcypHana 

«HHAeKc/flocbe Ha ueH3ypy» HayM Hum: 

...flpoujy Bac o6pamumb eHUMaHue Ha mpeeoMHyn 
npaxmuxy OCB P<D no enedpeHux) e o6uiecmeeHHoe co3«a- 
Hue npedcmaenenuu o moM, nmo uHCpopMauuoHHoe compyd- 
Huvecmeo poccuucxux apaxdan c uHocmpanuaMu (unu c 
UHOcmpaHHbiMU opaaHU3au,UHMu) uioxem 6bimb neanucpuuu- 
poeaHO KaK u3MeHa PoduHe. 

. . .B u3eecmHbix denax Mup30»Hoea, HuKumuHa u Hacb- 
ko (DCS Pd> 6e3ycneujHO cmapanacb ebicmpoumb o6euHe- 
hup e ujnuoHaxe. VKa3aHHbie dena pa3eanunucb e cyde He 
monbKO nomoMy, nmo oSeuneHua 6binu HecocmoamenbHbi- 
mu. rnaeHbiM 6bino enuManue CMH, npu xomopoM poccuuc- 
xuu cyd He pemunca coanacumbca c o6euHenuaMu. He nod- 
meepxdeHHbiMu ydedumenbHbiMu doxasamenbcmeaMu. 

Koada nodo6Hbie npou,eccbi npoxodam 6e3 enuMaHua 
>t(ypHanucmoe — cyd nocnyuiHO ymeep^daem o6eunumenb- 
hnm npuaoeopoM aonocnoeHbie npednonoxeHua cneu,cny)x6. 

CaMu xe cneu.cnym6bi ece 6onee ycneuJHO ebieodnm 
maKue dena U3 nona enuMaHua CMH. Bnanane ohu npedna- 
aaiom ho moponumbca uHe Meiuamb cnedcmeuto. HomoM ohu 
do3upyiom nto6yio uHcpopMau,uto nod npednozoM cexpemHO- 
cmu cnedcmeua. B xode 3aKpbimoao cydeSnoao npouecca 
ebiHocumcR o6euHumenbHbiu npuaoeop. Bpode ece u,ueunu- 
3oeaHHO. OdHano npu amoM eo epewH cnedcmeua o6euHae- 
Mbiu naxodumca e nbimonHbix ycnoeuax ceaodHavuneu poc- 
cuucxou mnpbMbi u e nonHou enacmu cnedcmeeHHoQ 6puaa- 
dbi, nonHocmbw uaHopupyxjujeO 3aK0Hbi no o6pameHuxj c 
o6euH»eMbiM. KpoMe moao, ece yuacmHuxu cnedcmeua 3apa- 
Hee onymaHbi nodnucxou Hepasanauienuu (Komopyio cne- 
doeamenu monxyiom e caMOM uiupokom CMbicne, He donyc- 
xaa paaanameHua ceedenuu daxe o HesaxoHHbix Memodax 
cnedcmeua). B 3mo Me epeMa caMo o6euHeHue e Kopornxux 
xoMMenmapuax coofjujaem o nonHOM ycmaHoenenuu euHbi 
o6eunaeMoao. 

flpyauMu cnoeaMu, cnedcmeue u cyd no yi<a3aHHbiM 
denaM nonnocmbto ebieedenbi U3 nona o6mecmeeHHoao bhu- 
mshup (u o6uu,ecmeeHHoao xonmpona). 3mo oveHb 6naaonpu- 
pmHan amMOccpepa dnn (panbcucpuKau,uu den no u3Mene 
Podune. 

...HyaaiomuM npedcmaennemcn deno Haopa Cymnau- 
Ha, maKxaK3decb OCBe omupbimyio saaeuna, nmo CymaauH 
euHoeeH e nepedave UHoempaHHbiM npedcmaeumenaM uh- 
<popMau,uu e ymep6 6e3onacHOcmu Poccuu. He wnuoHaxi, He 
pa3anauieHue mam, k xomopbiM CymaauH ne uMen Huxaxoao 
donycKa, a nepedava uH(popMau,uu. 

3mo momho npuMeHamb k niodOMy mypnanucmy, pa6o- 
matoufeMy c UHOcmpaHHbiMU Konneaauu, da u k nio6oMy 
apaxdaHuny cmpanbi, pa6omaiouj,eMy, cxaxeM, no apaHtnau 
uHocmpaHHbix opaaHU3au,uu.. . 



AKaaeMHK EBreHMM Bermxoa: 
HananbHUKy cnedcmeeHHoao omdeneHUfi Y0CB P<t> 
no KanyxcKou o6nacmu 
B.C. KanauiHUKoey 

yeaxaeMbiu Buxmop Cepaeeeuv! 

Mne cmano u3eecmHO, wno a BauieM eedenuuHaxodum- 
c« deno e omHoujeHuu Maopa Bavecnaeoeuna Cymaauna, 
o6euHaeMoao e aocydapcmeeHHoQ u3MeHe (cmamba 275 YK 
PO). HacxonbKO mhb useecmHO, e Hacmoauj.ee epeMa H. B. 
CymaauH naxodumca nod cmpaxeu. 

J? 3Haio Maopa Bavecnaeoeuva Cymaauna co epeMenu 
OKOH^anua um ynueepcumema xax omeemcmeeHHoao u nopa- 
doHHoao Henoeena. fl y6e*cde« e moM, nmo e cnynae u3MeHe- 
Hua ewy Mepbi npecenenua oh ne Sydem npednpuHUMamb 
Kai<ux-nu6o uiaaoe, Hanpaenennbix na coxpbimue o6cmoa- 
menbcme dena unu npenamcmeoeamb xody cnedcmeua. 

B cea3u c 3muM a y6edumenbHO npomy usMeHumb M. B. 
CymaauHy Mepy npecevenua na ne cea3aHHyK> c codepxaHu- 
eM nod cmpaMeu. ft aomoe ebicmynumb huhhnm nopysume- 
neM Haopa Banecnaeoeuva Cymaauna, xax amo npedycMom- 
peno cmambeu 94 VTIK PCOCP. 

C yeaxeHueM 

Konua: flpoxypopy Kanymcxou o6nacmu 



TpHropMM riacbKo: 

. . .Apecm Maopa npoucxodun 5yxeanbH0 na moux ana- 
3ax: e mo epeMa a monbxo ebiujen U3 mtopbMbi u 6bin e 
Mocxee. ft ( u ne monbxo a) yduenanucb omcymcmeuxj uh- 
cpopMauuu no noeody apecma — om adeoxamoe, xewb/, 
dpy3eu. yvenbix-xonnea... ft 3Hax3 XaHdnepa, 3Hax), wmo oh 
yveHbiu, a ne ujnuoH (e «uoeM» dene OHmoixe (puaypupyem). 
Tenepb a 3Haxj, «vmo u Maopb HeeuHoeen. ft ySexdew, nmo 
mexcm o6euHumenbHoao 3axnxjH6Hua codepxum udenmuv- 
Hbie a53aubi Moeao 03. 

flyMax), nmo Heo6xoduMO nocmoaHHo, peaynapno ny6- 
nuxoeamb e MHmepHeme. enpecce. Ha TB 6onbuie uHQopua- 
u,uu 06 amoM dene. xode cnedcmeua u sameM cyde6noao 
3acedanua. KrB ho nx)6um ceema. anacHocmu. ece ceou 
npecmynneHua ohu npueuxnu meopumb e menu. Ohu npu- 
ebixnu x 6e3Haxa3aHHOcmu. Eme nuxmo U3 hux — hu no deny 
HuxumuHa, hu no MoeMy deny, hu no deny Mouceeea ( deno 
/JydHuxa do cux nop 3axpbimo) — «e noHec yaonoenoao 
naxaaanua. \A we/w donbuie Mbi 6ydeM Monvamb, meM naanee 
ohu 6ydym. 

Menax) Maopxj cmouxocmu, ebidepxxu u Myxecmea. 
TAM He cnadxo: a novmu dea aoda omcuden e CM30, U3 hux 
aod — e nodeane-oduHOHxe. 3a amo epeMa a Hanucan xnuay 
cmuxoe u xHuay npo3bi. Hucamb Maopb yMeem. epeMa ecmb, 
nucamb no 3axoHy ne 3anpew,eHO — nycmb nuuiem. riomoM 
u eao onbim ecew waw npuaodumca. 

MeHe u dow/caw — moxe ebidepxxu. Koada-Hu6ydb ece 
xonnaemca. Moa ceMba Mena noddepxueana e nepeyxy 
owepedb ceoeu eepou e MeHa... 



MHcpopMauMH no Ae/iy Urops CyTfirMHa 
b HHTepHeTe: 
http://www.hro.org/actions/sutyagin 
http://www.case52.org 
http://www.chat.ru/~scotch13 



14 



4 



I1PABA HE/10BEKA 



H3 nucbwa Tapo/ibAa Lilannpo (ripuHCTOHCKnn 

yHUBepcuTGT) npe3HfleHTy Pocchmckoh 
AKa^eMnn HayK KDpuro OcunoBy : 

YeaxaeMbiu AxadeMUK Ocunoe, 

Ho6pamaK>cbKBaMdnnmo30, vmo6bi o6pamumb Bauie 
eHUMaHue Ha cumyauuio, Komopan, Ha mou 83annd, owe«b 
cepb63Ha, maK nan Moxem yapomamb coeMecmHbiM uccne- 
doeaHUHM, Komopbie eedym yneHbie Poccuu u CoeduHeHHbix 
LUmamoe... 

HacKontKO MHe u3eecmH0, uccnedoeamenbcxap pa6o- 
ma £}m. XaHdnepa nonana e none 3penua ®CB e OBMStl c 
denoM M. Cymmuna, Komopbiu 6bin apecmoean OCB e ok- 
mndpe 1999 a. no o6euH6Huto e aocydapcmeenHou u3Mene u 
uinuonaxe. B mobm pacnopnxenuu 0Ka3ancp mpaHCKpunm 
nepedanu «Becmu», noi<a3aHHOu no poccuucKOMy eocydap- 
cmeeHHOMy meneeu3U0HH0My xanany PTP 30 OKmadpn 1 999 
a. B amou nepedane ymeepxdanocb, wmo «cpedu cen3eu 
Cymaauna ycmanoeneHbi Kadpoeue paseednuKu ClilA u Be- 
nuKo6pumanuu. A coeceM HedaeHO oh ecmpe<iancn c co- 
mpydHUKOM llpuHcmoHCKoao yHueepcumema JJxoiuya Xand- 
nepoM. Ilpu o6bici<e Keapmupbi XaHdnepa e Mocxee 6binu 
U3bnmbi Mamepuanbi pa3eedbieame/ibHoao xapaxmepa. 0CB 
He coMHeeaemcp. nmo u Xandnep uMeem omHoiueHue k 
c6opy ceKpemHou uncpopMau,uu». 

«Hacmopaxueaem onepamueHunoe npexde eceao mom 
(paxm, w/tjo XaHdnep, nnioc ko eceMy. aennemcn compydHu- 
kom UeHmpa cmpameaunecMx u MexdyHapodnbix uccnedo- 
eanuu. 3mom LJeHmp, no dannbiM 0CB, eedem deouHyio 
uccnedoeamenbCKyiopa6omy. KpoMe moeo, c 1995 a. omden, 
3aHUMaK)muucti Poccueu u cmpanaMu CHr, eo3anaeiinem 
nneMRHHUK 3KC-npe3udeHma CU1A Kum Byiv, Komopbiu nem- 
emcft KadpoeuM compydmjKOM cneu,cnyx6 CLUA». 

...CompydHUKu u cmydeHmbi npuncmoHCKoao yHueep- 
cumema npoeodnm uccnedoeaHun eo mhobux cmpanax 06- 
euHeHun e umuoHaxe, ebideuHymbie npomue odnoao U3 hux, 
cnoco6Hbi nocmaeumb nod eonpoc 3aKOHHocmb dpyaux uc- 
cfiedoeamenbCKux npoenmoe. noamoMyn eHUHiamenbHO U3y- 
hup cumyau,uio u o6Hapyx<un, nmo nod03peHun 0CB He uMe- 
tom nod co6ou adconiomHO hukskux ocnoeaHuu. 

ripexde eceao. XaHdnep HUKoada He uuen MMBRO80 
omnoujeHun k pacnonoxeHHOMy e BaiuuHamoHe Uenrnpy 
cmpamezunecKux u MexdynapodHbix uccnedoeaHuu (CSIS). 
R Moay npednonoxumb, nmo ymeepxdeHUP <PCB ocHoeaHbi 
Ha moM, nmo ee compydHuxu HeeepHO nponumanu Ha3eanue 
odHoao U3 uccnedoeamenbCKux uenmpoe llpuHcmoHCKoao 
yHueepcumema, c xomopbiMu X3Hdnep deucmeumenbHO cen- 
3an — UeHmpa MexdyHapodHbix uccnedoeanuu (CIS) unu 
UeHmpa no u3yneHuio npo6neM SHepaemuxu u oxpyxatomeu 
cpedbi (CEES). 

Bo-emopbix, nmo Kacaemcn «Mamepuanoe paseedbiea- 
me/ibHoao xapaKmepa», Komopbie 0CB MOBtfU Hauina yXan- 
dnepa, mo y nezo c co6ou 6binu paccenpevenHbie cnymnuKO- 
ebie chumku meppumopuu Coeemcxoeo Coio3a 30-nemHeu 
daeHocmu. pacceKpevueanuu amux Mamepuanoe odbneun 
euu,e-npe3udeHm ClilA 3/7 rop e 1995 aody e cneu.ua/ibHou 
penu. Xandnep e3ftn amu Mamepuanbi e HauuoHanbHOM apxu- 
ee CUJA u ucnonb3oean ux e ceoeu uccnedoeamenbCKOM 
npoenme, uenbto Komopoao 6bino U3yvenue eo3MOMHOcmu 
6e3onacHoao pa3Memenufi 6oeaonoeoK, CHambix c paxem... 
9\ npomy Bac pa3bHCHumb <Z>CB, nmonodo6Hoe o6pa- 
uueHue c auepuiOHCKUMu ywewb/Miv, npoeodftmuMu omxpbi- 
my\o HayvHyio denmenbHOcmb e Poccuu. Sydem uMemb ovenb 
pa3pyujumenbHbie nocnedcmeusi dnn ovenb eamnoao Hayn- 
hozo compydHuvecmea wexdy yneHbiMu Poccuu u ClilA. 

C yeaxeHueM, 
raponbd T. LUanupo 



I IuchMO AOHcpcii MiopR CyniH/una 
ripesuAeHmy PG> BAQAUMupy TlymuHy: 

3Apaecmeyume, Baqaumup Baqaumupobuh! Mtn. Cymmu- 
Hbi Okcoho u Hacmst. npocuM Bac 3amumumb nauieio nany. 
CymtiiuHa Hiopst BanecAaeoBUHa. Eio cnumatom uihuohom u 
yxe aeeumb MecHy,ee coAepxcam e miopbMe. Oh ne uuiuohII! Oh 
ynwi hoc Aio6umb Poccuto, munUA khuiu opyccKux zeposix, bosua 
no ucmopunccKUM MCcmaM. Sua b pa3Hbtx. cmpanax paccKa3bi- 
boa. nmo maM xoaouio. ho y hoc. ho Pycu. b mbicRiy pas 
AymucW Haw nana oncHb xopoiuuii. Ao6puu. caMt*u Aynuuuu 
b Mupe. Oh HUKOiaa ne KypuA. He ynompe6AHA cnupmnbix 
HanumnoB. hc pyiaACH. 

Oh OHCHb Aio6um hoc u hc moz u3MCHumb hom (cACJiamb 
man n.wxo). 

Mbi hc xomuM. wmo6w 6a6ywKa n.iaKa.ia. a ACAyiuKa man 
6bicmpo cmapeA. Haui Kom Ky3H u co6aKa K)Ha moxce 
CKynaiom! 

liana noAAcpxuBacm hoc omupbimoHKaMu, Komopbie oh 
aeAaem com. Ho 3mo?o hqm moao. 

Mbt hc xomuM Mumb 6cs nanbt!!! Oh He BUHoeam! ! ! 

floMoiume hom. noxaAyucma. 

Okcoho. Hacmst. 




249039. Poccufi, 
KanyxcKan o6n.. 
a. 06huhck, 
yn. 3ee3dHaa. 
a. 1a, K8. 82 
CymmuHbiM 1/lpuHe, 
OKcaHe u Hacme. 



IIucbMo Hiopa CymmuHa ua rmopbMt*: 

Bom yxce nonmu 10 Mccnu.ee. c OKmn6pn 1999 loja, n 
Haxoxycb b 3aK.iioHeHuu no oSbuhchuio b zocyjapcmBeHHoii 
u3Mene. TlpuHCM ocHoeanueM aah ma<oio msiJKKoio o6buhchusi 
ynpasACHue CDCE no Ka.ayxcKou o6Aacmu cnumacm mom 
(paKm. nmo n na npomnxenuu toja AeAa-\ aah uHocmpanHou 
ipupMbt o630pbi ny6AUKau,uu omeHCcmeeHHOu npeccbi no bochhou 
mcMamuKe. 

H ne mepnto see em,e HOAexAt* Ha mo. nmo ucmuna ece- 
maKU BocmopxecmByem. Oahqko n xony o6pamumb Baiue 
BHUManue na mo. nmo .mou CAynau Moxem cmamb npcucAenmoM 
aah moio, nmo6bi o6BUHnmb aioacu b uinuonaxe. npoxBAHio- 
taeMcst e nepccKaae uH0cmpaHy.aM cmameu. ony6AUK08anHbix a 
Hauiux ia3cmax u xypnaAax. Bo3moxho. Bw hc coiAacumecb co 
mhou, ho h noAazaio, nmo maxoc paseumue coSbtmuii 6i*ao 6w 
onacHbiM uiazoM nponb om cao6oAbi zpaxAan nameu empanbt. 

B maKOu cumyau,uu h o6paiuaiocb k Bom c npocb6ou: 
noAAepxume moio ceMbio, moio cynpyiy Hpuny — um onenb 
mnxKo nepCHOcumb 3my huhcm ne o6ocHoaaHHyio pa3Ayny. H 
cAeAaume ace, nmo e Baiuux cuaox. aah moio. wmo6w ne 
Aonycmumb bo3hukhobchuh b houicu empane noAoxeHUft. koiao 
nepecKas uHocmpanu,y BbtcmynAeHUft Tlpe3UAeHma, ony6Auno- 
bohhozo b zasemax, 6yAem AOcmamoHHUM ochobohucm aah 
moio. nmo6bt o6auHumb vcioseKa e npeAamcibcmae u uaMcne 
Poauhc 

H onenb paccHumbiaaio Ha Baiuy noMoiub u HyxAaiocb 8 
Heu. 

15 aaiycma 2000 z. 



4 



I1PABA HEJ10BEKA 



15 



BHeceH 

B «3aKpblTblM CnMCOK»... 



6 uk>hh 2000 eoda npou30ui.no upe3ebiuauHoe co6bimue: 
MuHucmepcmeo unocmpanHbix de.i Poccuu omKCucuxo U3ee- 
cmnoMy odufecmeeHHO.uy upe.iueuo3Ho.My denmejuo T^paca- 
ee Jl3H)HceK} a eudane e-be3dnou OlSbl, IJpuueM compydHUK 
MMJJ noncHwi, «umo no auhuu MM/Ja MM AC «T3pacaaa 
nucm» u nmo npueiaweHue yoKe 6bmo ebinucano 16 moh 
2000 c\, ho eeo ebidana 6buia npuocmanoejxeua ym3aHue.w 
OedepaihHou cjiyjtc6bi 6e3onacnocmu P0. nocKOJibKy dau- 
>i hi f< epa.wda.Hi4H enecen e nexuu «30KpbaitbtU chucok 0CE». 

JJejoemoM, nmo Tjpacaea, kqk npedcmaeumejib nenpa- 
eume.ibcmeeHHOU opeaHU3auuu MeoKdynapodnoe Eiopo 
Mupa. ynacmeoeai e padome 56-u ceccuu Komuccuu OOH 
no npaeaM ue.weeKa, Komopan npoxodwia c 20 .uapma no 
28 anpe.w 2000 ?. e)Keneee. M- T^pacaea e ceoe.\i ebicmyn- 
.lenuu, a maKJfce e o6u\enuu c muaiOMU de.ieeauuu eoeoptn 
npaedy o (panmax eoennbix npecmymeHuu npomue MupHoeo 
HaceneHUR u cepbe3Heumux Hapyiuemuvc npae teMOeetca e 
Henne c HOHtua HbineuiHeu eounbi. 

Cnynau c eocnodunoM Tapacaeou — He nacnwbiu 3nu- 
3od. Ecjiu HenpaeumejibcmeeHHbie opeanu uiuuu Poccuu ne 
ebicKajfcym ceou peuiume.ibHbiu npomecm npaxmuKe eo3- 
pootcdenuH mepnbix cnucxoe rB» — 3aempa U3 Poccuu 
ebiutiiom uecmnbix unocmpanHbix otcypucLiucmoe, npedcma- 
eumejieu 6.iaeomeopume.ibHbix qbondoe um.d. A nocjie3aem- 
pa 63mu «nepHbie cnucKu» Moment nonacmb.irodou poccuu- 
ckuu o6utecmeennbiu anmueucm. 



MHHHCTpy HHOCTpaHHblX fleji 

HBaHOBy Hropio CepreeBimy 
121200 Pocchji, MocKBa, 
CMOJieHCKafl-CeHHaa rui., ji.32/34 
Tejie(J>OH: (095) 244 1606 
E-mail: ministry^mid.ru 
Info@dks.ru 

3aHBJieHHe 
1 1 hk)hh 2000 roaa 

«06 0TKa3e MHJJ, P<t> b Bbinawe Bbe3,HH0H BB3H r-Hy 
T3pacaBe JJ,3K)HceH» 

YBa>KaeMbiH Hropb CepreeBHM! 

KaK crano h3bcctho Hauiefi HenpaBHTenbCTBeHHOH npa- 
B03aiuHTHofi opi aim tauHM, 6 hiohh 2000 r. arraiue JXKC 
MWJ\a r-H 3axapoB coo6iuhji 06 o(j>nuna.ii.no\i OTKa3e b 
Bbuane BH3M rpa>KAaHHHy Mi ion n n TipacaBe JJ,3K)HceK), ycr- 

HO nOHCHHB, MTO no JIHHHH MH/Ja MHAC «OH HHCT» H HTO 

npHrjiauieHHe ywe 6ujio BbinncaHo 16 Mas 2000 r., ho ero 
Bbiaana 6biJia npHociaHOB.ieHa yKa3aHHeM cfceaepa.ibHofi 
cnyx6u 6e3onacHOCTH PO, nocKOJibKy ruhhuh rpawaaHHH 
BHeceH b HCKnii «3aKpbiTbiH cnHcoK OCB». 

Tocno^HH T3pacaBa H3BecTCH HaM b TeMeHiie n»TH JieT 
KaK my6oKO HpaBCTBeHHbiH. nopaaoHHbiH hciobck, Hpe3Bbi- 
MaiiiKi MHoro c^enaBHJHH win MHpHoro pa3peujeHHH koh({)- 



CnpaBKa "KapTbi": 

T-H TapacaBa fl3KDHC3M poAnnca b 1950 r. b npe- 
(peicrype McuKaBa, FlnoHna. B 17 neT noaHaKOMMncfi c 
AocronoHTeHHbiM HuTHAaMy <t)yfl3un, HacTonTeneM 6ya- 
AMiicKoro opfleHa HnnnoHfl3aH Mexofl3M, m dan ero 
yneHUKOM. npo)Knn b Mhahh 6 m b EBpone 15 neT, 
maBHbiM o6pa30M b AHrnnn, nyTeujecTByn n npaicrnKyn 
KaK 6yAA^^cKHki MOHax. a TaioKe 3aHHMancb axTMBHOui 

MMpOTBOpMeCKOM fleflTeflbHOCTbK). Bo BpeMfl BOMHbl B 

riepcuACKOM 3annBe 6bin oahmm M3 opraHM3aiopOB 
flarepyi Mupa nofl OTKpbiTbiM He6oM. B 1988 rofly Bnep- 
Bbie nocemaeT Cobbtckum Cok)3. HeoAHOKpaTHO BCTpe- 
Mancn c M. C. rop6aMeBbiM, paBHo KaK m c ApyriiMM 
pyKOBOAmenflMM pa3Hbix cipaH. B 1992 roAY nonBnn- 
tOTcn o6mnHbi ero yMeHMKOB-MOHaxoB b Poccmm m Ha 
YKpanHe. C 1995 roAa BMecTe c yMeHMKaMn hcoahok- 
paTHo noceu4an HenHio c MnpoTBopsecKHMM n ryMaHn- 

TapHblMM MMCCMflMM. LUnpOKO H3BeCTeH BO MHOrMX Kpy- 

rax poccufiCKoro o6mecTBa. 




16 



BHeceH b «3aKpbiTbifi cnncoK*... 



-iHKTOB. npoHcxoaamux b Harnett cTpaHe. TpyaHoaa)Ke npea- 

nO.lOWHTb, HTO TaKOH HClOBeK MOr COBepilJHTb aeHCTBHfl, 

CBA3aHHbie c HapyiueHHeM 3aKOHa. 

T3pacaBa ZbJOHcefi uiHpoKO M3BecTeH b cpeae poccufic- 
khx h 3apy6e>KHwx HenpaBHTe.ibCTBeHHbix opraHH3au.HH h 
pejiHrH03Hbix KOHtpeccHH. QrKa3 b Bbiaane BH3W TaKOMy 
nejioBeKy 6yaeT BocnpHHHT KaK aeMOHCTpauHOHHbifi no,iH- 
THMecKHH mar. KaK OTCTyoncHHe ot npuHunnoB aeMOKpaTHH 

B POCCHH. 

ripaKTHKa «3aKpbiTbix cnHCKOB». Ha Hauj B3rj»ia, r;iy6o- 

KO nopOMHa H CBOHCTBeHHa TOJlbKO 3aKpbITblM oomecTBaM c 

an lopii i apm.iMii h TOTajiHTapHbiMH pewtiMaMH. k MHCJiy ko- 
Topwx PoccHHCKaa cDeaepauHH He npHHaanewHT y>Ke noHTH 
aecaTb jieT. 

KpoMe Toro, orpaHHMeHHH npaB h CBoooa rpa>KaaH, 
HacTynaKDiuHe b pe3y,ibTaTe npaKTHKH «3aKpbiTbix cnMCKOB», 
npoTHBopeMaT ncioaceHUHM paTH(pHunpoBaHHbix Poccneii 
MeacayHapoaHbix corjiaweHHtt h KoHCTHTyuHH Pd>. 

YoeiiHTejibHO npocHM Bac peuiHTb Bonpoc c Bbiaanett 
rocnoaHHy T3pacaBe J\3\OHce» Bbe3aHott BH3bi b cootbct- 

CTBHH C jeHCTByiOlUHM 3aKOHOaaTCJlbCTBOM. IlpOCHM H3BCC- 

THTb Haujy opraHH3auHH) o npHHHTOM BaMH peiueHHii. 

C yBa)KeHHeM. 

AHapefi KDpbeBHH EnHHyuiOB 

IlpeaceaaTejib P«3aHCKoro HcropHKO-npocBeTHTejibCKO- 

ro. npaB03auiHTHoro h 6.naroTBopHTejibHoro oomecTBa 

«MeMopHaji» 



MtfHHCTepCTBO HHOCTpaHHMX JIM 

Pocchhckoh OeiiepauHH 

QrHOCHTejibHO 0TKa3a b Bbuane biom rpa>KaaHHHy 
flnoHHH TipacaBe ,Zl3K)HceK). 

Pa3b»cHfleM BaM, mto pemeHHe 06 oTKa3e b BbiaaMe BH3bi 
ynoMflHyTOMy BaMH .inuy npuHHTO Ha ocHOBaHHH CTaTbH 27 
Oeaep&nbHoro 3aKOHa Pocchhckoh OeaepaiiHH «0 nopaaKe 
Bbie3aa H3 Pocchhckoh <I>eaepau.HH h Bbe3aa b PoccHttcKyio 
<I>eaepau.HK)», npeaycMaTpHBaiomett cnynaH, b kotopwx 
Bbe3.a it PoccHHCKyio OeaepauHK) HHocrpaHHWM rpawaaHaM 
h JiHixaM 6e3 rpaiKnaHCTBa He pa3peuiaeTcn. 

Mto ace KacaeTca cymecTBOBaHHH «3aKpwTbix cnHCKOB», 
to npaKTHKa HHeceiuiH b eaHHbitt cnncoK jihii, HOKcnaTenb- 
hhx ana Bbe3na, HBJiaeTca o6mhhoh h noao6Hbitt cnncoK 
BeaeT Kaacaaa CTpaHa. B nacTHOCTH, CTaTba 5 LLIeHreHCKoro 
cornauieHHH(noanHcaHHoro 10-K>CBponeHCKHMHCTpaHaMH) 
b nyHicre «d» coo6maeT. mto B-be3a Ha TeppHTopnio /JoroBa- 
pHBaiouieHca Ctopohw Mo>KeT 6biTb pa3peiueH npn ycnoBHH. 
mto HHOCTpaHHbifi ipa/K.ian mi He aoJiaceH 6biTb 3aperHCTpn- 
poBaH b nepeMHe jihu, kotopwm OTKa3aHO b npaBe Ha Bbe3a. 

Bojiee Toro, no npcxbflBJieHHK) oaHOH H3 ctopoh Bbe3a 
sah-pi.nuK- rca bo Bee «iueHreHCKne rocyaapcTBa». 



C yBa»eHHe.M, 

3aMecTHTenb anpeicTopa 

£KC MHJ1 Pocchh B.H.JlH3yH 



Tipacaea , I Jionciii: OTKpbiToe iihci.mo 
npe3H^eHTy Bjia inMitpv IlyTHHy 

TocnojHH ripe3HiieHT! 

fl — nnoHCKHH 6yaanttcKHH yMHTcnb. FIocjieaHHe ae- 
caTb jier a >kh:i b Pocchh. OaHaKO 6 hfohji 2000 roaa Bame 
npaBHTe.TbCTBO OTKa3a;io MHe b Bbiaane BH3bi noa npeonoroM 
Toro, hto MOfl (paMH^HH 3aHeceHa b 1 ickiiji 3aKpbiTbin cnncoK 
<t>CB. HvieHHo otot cjiyMan 3acraBHJi stenn BbicTynHTb c 
OTKpbiTbiM nncbMOM b^hh Bauiero npe6biBaHnsi h 51 nomiu Ha 
BCTpene pyKOBOiiHTejiefi CTpaH 6ojibUJOH BocbMepKH Ha 
OKHHaBe. 

fl BnepBbie noceTHji Bamy cTpaHy eme bo BpeMeHa 

CymeCTBOBaHHfl CCCP, 3TO 6bI^O BO BpeMH HCTOpHMeCKOH 

BCTpeiH npe3HiieHTOB TopoaMeBa h PenraHa b Mockbc ^1 
CH.ie^ Ha KpacHOH njiomann, mojihhch h 6hji b 6apa6aH, a 
BnocaeacTBHH BpyMHji Mnxanjiy Top6aMeBy b KpeMne cbh- 
Tbie moiuh Byimw. 

3To6bLio BpeviJi HeBHuaHHbix nojiHTHMecKHx TpaHcqbop- 
MauHH — HaHHHaa c naaeHHJi Bep^nncKOH ctchh h ao 
HCTopHMecKoro caMMHTa OBCE, npoB03rjiacHBiijero okoh- 
«iaHHe ao.iroH «xojio;ihoh bohhm». % c mhcthm cepAueM 
B03pajiOBajicji HaMajiy hoboh 3pbi, nyTb k KOTopoii 6wji npo- 
.io>KeH TeMH, kto yMacTBOBan b Mapuiax vwpa b 70-x h 80-x 
roiiax. ft 6bui oahmm H3 hhx. a moh oapaoaH MacTO B03rnaB.TJiji 
MHoroMnc.ieHHbie MapuiH MHpa h neMOHCTpatiHH b EBpone. 
KoraaB 1991 roay BcnwxHynaBOHHaBriepcHiiCKOM 3a.THBe. 
ji HaxoaH,ncfl b Jlarepe Mupa b nycTUHe. pa3aenaK>uieH HpaK 
h CayaoBCKyK) ApaBHK). npH3WBaa ctopohw k MHpHOMy 

HeHaCH.TbCTBeHHOMy pa3peUJeHHK) KOHCp.THKTa. 

B aBrycTe toto »e roaa, bo BpeM» nonbiTKH rocyjap- 
CTBeHHoro nepeBopoTa b Mockbc a 6*W eziHHCTBeHHbiM 
oyaaHHCKHM MOHaxoM, KOTopbifi nocneuKLi npHHTH Ha oap- 
pHKaau nepea BenbiM aoMOM b Te cyab6oH0CHbie ahh. Twca- 
mh jTioaen cnumaJIH Toraa 3ByKH Moero MonHTBeHHoro 6apa- 
oaHa. H ao chx nop mhothc mockbhhh DOIfflarr, mto KaKHe 6u 
KpHTHMecKHe co6biTH» hh cjiyMa.iHCb b Mockbc BO BpeMfl 
,Tio6oro Kpn3Hca, Bceraa 6bma Ha BHay rpynna 6yaa»iHCKHx 
MOHaxoB, Mo.iHBUiHXCM c 6apaoaHaMH b pyKax. Mu Gbub 
atmcntu Ha 3tom c^ojkhom, iutopmobom nonHTHMecKOM qboHe 
nocneaHero aecaTHneTHH XX BeKa b Pocchh. 

H bot Tenepb bcj? moh aeaTe.ibHocTb b Pocchh KaK 
6yaaHHCKoro MOHaxa, HaMaBinaaca BMecre c Hana^oM hoboh 
Pocchh, npeKpaTHnacb H3-3a toto. mto kto-to BHec mok> 
qba.MHjiHK) b MepHbiii cnncoK <DCE. !>ry 6ecnpeueaeHTHyK) 

Mepy B OTHOUieHHH NieHH npHMeHHJIH B OTBeT Ha MOK) He3aBH- 
CHMVK). HO OMeHb 3aMCTHyK) aeHTClbHOCTb Ha 56-oh ceccHH 

Komhcchh OOH no npaBaM MejiOBena b anpe.iecero roaa. rae 
6wjia npHHJiTa pe3o.iK)UHji, ocy-yKaaiomaH poccnncKyK) boch- 
Hyio onepauHio b HeHHe. 

Moh oTKpwTaa an 1 nnoennaM no3HmiH uinpoKO H3BecTHa 
eme c Toro BpevieHH. KaK 6una pa3BH3aHa nepBaa MeMeHCKaH 
BoiiHa. HaMHHaa c ca.MOH nepBOH aHTHBoeHHOH aeMOHCTpa- 
uhh Ha 3hmhhx y.inuax Mockbw 3b>kh 6apa6aHOB 6yaaHHc- 
khx MOHaxoB Be^H 3aco6oH KaK rpaacaaHCKne aBnaceHna, TaK 
h HenpaBHTejibCTBeHHbie opraHH3auHH. TaKHe, KaK «MeMO- 
pnaji» h KoMHTeT cojiaaTCKHx MaTepen Pocchh. Twcjjmh 



BHeceH B «3aKpblTbM cnncoK»... 



17 



cojuwtckhx MaTepeH h KHTejien hcmchckhx cen BMecTe ujjih 
nepe3 nana cpa*eHHH, Koraa mm npoBoaH.™ Mapui MaTe- 
ptiHCKoro CocTpaiiaHHa «Bo Hm» )Kh3HH». 

3TOT yHHKaJIbHMH npHMep HeHaCH-lbCTBeHHblX aeft- 
CTBHH, OObejHHHBUlHH o6e CTOpOHM KOH(j)JlHKTa, OKa3aJI 

ciiJibHoe bjihjmhc Ha o6mecTBeHHoe mhchhc b Pocchh h 3a 
pyoewoM. 

Tenepb we, Koraa HaHajiacb HOBaa BoeHHan onepamiH. 
Baiue npaBHTenbCTBO jik>6mmh MeToaaMH — npaBOBbiMH h 
HenpaBOBbiMH, — H30 Bcex CHfl CTapaeTca npeceHb ;no6bie 

nonMTKH KpHTHKH. OTKa3 B BNBWK MHe BT,e3HHOH BH3M — 

iiiiin. Offfxa H3 MHoroMHCJieHHbix TOMy npHMepoB. 

H c noMOinbK) KaKHx 6m BbicoKonapHbix cjiob Bu hh 
nbna-iHCb onpaBiiaTbCfl, 3Ta ne^eHCKaa BOfiHa — HenpiiKpu- 
Toe h >KecTOKoe noaaB.ieHHe cbo6ojo;ik>6mh, noxo>Kee no 
cyTH Ha ycMHpeHiie HenoKopHbix TeppHTopHH apeBHen Phm- 
ckoh HMnepHefi h cpenHeBeKOBMMH rocyaapcTBaMH. 

Moe nepBoe 3H3komctbo c MeHHen enymmocb 3aaojiro 
,io nepBofi bohhm. Eme Tor\aa mchh rciy6oKO BnenaTJiHJiH 
KpacHBbifi ayx h aocTOHHas yBaA-eHHH icyjibTypaiToro Hapo- 
^a, KOTopbiH npoHec mx nepe3 Bee HcnbiTaHHH CBoefi Tparn- 

MeCKOH HCTOpHH. 

CefiMac Bm, He 3Haa Mepbi b npHMeHeHHH chjim. npocro 

(j)H3HHeCKH yHHHTO)KaeTe 3T0T M&ieHbKHH flOCTOHHMH Ha- 

poa 3a to, hto oh npoHec nepe3 BeKa apeBHHe DOHflTHfl o 
CBo6oje, necTH h 6jiaropo^cTBe. MoweT jih 6b!Tb hto-jih6o 
6ojiee y>KacHMM m anoKajinnTHHccKH yapynaioiuHM, neM Ha- 
WBKfffi HeneHCKoro Hapoaa. pacnHTbie hoboh PoccHeii?! , lavnc 
pynHM h nenenHiua MeMHH Ksmaxn k npaBocy^Hio h cocTpa- 
aaHHio! 

ZleMOKpaTHHecKoe pa3BHTne h peipopMM b Pocchh — Ha 
rpaHH npoBajia. M b cBeie 3thx co6mthh nocne^HHe aecHTb 
jieT 6e3 «xojio.ohoh bohhm» Moryr OKa3aTbca He npocTO 
yTpaseHHbiM uiaHCOM HejioBenecTBa, ho h onacHMM taotUBt- 

3aTOpOM B03M0»H0r0 npOTHBOCTOJIHHH HaponoB h uejibix 
UHBHJIH3aUHH B HOBOM B€C& 

B HauiH w» aTOMHaa SHeprna, 

CnOC06Ha» yHHHTOWHTb Bee >KHBOe 

Ha anaHere, KaK npaBHjio, cnyacuT 

BOeHHbIM UeJIflM. ACTpOHOMHHeCKHe 

cyMMbi neHerTpaTjjTcs Ha yoHHCTBa 
h pa3pyuieHHa. a 3aTeM eme 6ojib- 
uiHe aeHbrH nayr Ha 0Ka3aHne 3kct- 

peHHOH nOMOLUH H BOCCTaHOBJieHHe 

pa3pyuieHHoro. M nocie Bcero 3T0- 
ro hh ojHa cepbe ti Ian npo6jieMa He 
0Ka3MBaeTCH peiueHHOM. O KaKHx 
Toraa MHpHbix HaMepeHiiax h Ha- 
aexjiax Ha MHp b XXI BeKe mo)kct 
HflTH penb? 

Hmchho .iHaepoB Beaymnx hh- 
jycTpnanbHbix CTpaH cncpyer oobh- 

HHTb B TOM, MTO H3-3a C06CTBCHHOH 

orpaHimeHHOCTH h OTcyTCTBiia no- 
HHMaHHJi H^eH co3nnaHHa rjiooanb- 
hoh KynbTypw Mnpa b hobom Bene 
HenoBeqecTBo ynycTiuio maHc na ne- 
pcMeHbi. 



flaepnaa Tpare/uia Xhpochmm h HaracaKH cTaia jxnn 
Moero Hapoaa HacTOHiUHM oTKpoBeHHeM Ha Bee BpeMeHa, 
KOTopoe He aaeT Miiomiu; norpa3HyTb b roHKe BOopyaceHHii. 
KoHCTHTyuHOHHoe nono/KeHHe Moen CTpaHbi 06 oTKa3e ot 
bohh h BOopy>KeHHMx chji rny6oKO yKopeHHjiocb b cep.au.ax 
,iK)jeH KaK (popMa HaunoHajibHoro nauncpiOMa. Mhcchji 

BCefi MOefi OyjAHHCKOH MOHaiUeCKOH iKH3HH — CHUtKIb BCC 

hto6m MHp npniueji k HeHacn^Hio h 0TKa3y ot bohh. 

C TaKMMH yOOKJieHHHMH H C MOvlHTBOH 06 3TOM JJ o5pa- 

maiocb ko BceMy Hapoay Mchhh: 3auBHTe Pocchh h BceMy 

MHpy O CBOeM CTpeMJieHHH K HeHaCHJIHIO H MHpy, OTKaiKHTeCb 
OT BOOpy>KeHHOrO COnpOTHBJieHHfl H BO HMH HCTHHHOH CBO- 

ooAMHHecTH ooteaHHHTecb BceM HapoaoM KaK oziho uejioe, 
KaK o^Ha cHvia, KaK ouho XpaSpoe Cepaue HeHacHjina. M kto 
Toraa nocveeT nasi^ai i> Bac 6aHiiHTaMH, ncxaKonni,i\in boo- 

py>KeHHbIMH <J)OpMHpOBaHHJlMH, HC^aMCKHMH 3KCTpeMHCTa- 
MH H TeppOpHCTaMH? 

TocnoaHH ripe3iueHT IlyTHH! 

9{ xony cnpocHTb. xBaTHT .ih y Bac xpa6pocTH h Mynpo- 
CTH Zl06HTbCH npHMHpeHHfl II MHpHoro cocyiuecTBOBaHHa CO 
BceM HapoaoM HenHH? B HacTOHweii CHTyauHH 3T0My hfoxer 
cnocoGcTBOBaTb BbiBoa bohck c TeppHTopHH pecny6nHKH h 
peajibHafl aeHCTBeHHaa noMomb b BoccTaHOBneHHH o6me- 
CTBeHHoro ycTpoficTBa 6e3 HacHJina h bohh. 

Ecjih Bm ynycTHTe 3Ty BOSMOKHOCTb, HCTopn» npeata- 
biit BaM c.ieayiomHH yjibTHMaTyM: noca^HTe 3a peiueTKy Tex, 

KTO BO HMJl MHHMMX petpOp.M paCTpaH)KHpHJl HaUHOHaJlbHOe 

6oraTCTBo cxparoi h HHOCTpaHHbie 3aHMbi b noc^eaHHe j\q- 
CHTb JieT. CxBaTHTe h BbiaafiTe Me»ayHapoaHOMy BoeHHOMy 
Tpn6yHajiy Bcex ranHbix h hbhmx 3aHHHuiHKOB nepBon h 

BTOpOH HCMCHCKHX BOHH, B TOM MHCJie H Ce6fl. 

21 HKVU 2000 roiia. 

ByaanHCKHH MOHax opaeHa HnnnoH^aH MexoA3H, 

Jl3iOHceH T3pacaBa 




Bydduuocue mohoxu. vuchuku e-na Tjpacaebi. — ynacmHUKU Mapuia MamepuncKoeo Cocmpadanuit 

Weuwt. Mapm 1 995 e. 



II 



EBreHKifi 3AXAP0B 



<£ nPABA HEJ10BEKA 



JfyaBcBmmmjiufqi 



iaaa'in. (j)\ HKUim. npaBa n iipiiiiuinihi .ichic.ii.hoci n 
npaB03auiHTHbix opraHH3auHH. 

ripaB03amHTHbie opraHH3auHH (TIO) — sto oco6mh bhjj 
HerocyaapcTBeHHbix Hen pnm.i na 1 hi \ opraHH3auHH, jie$iTejib- 
HOCTb KOTopwx n;u ipaB.'ieiia Ha yTBepwaeHHe h 3aiUHTy npaB 
h cbo6oj HejiOBeica, 3(})(peKTHBHbiH KOHTpojib 3a hx co6jno.ne- 
HHeM rocyaapcTBOM, ero opraHaMH h aojdkhocthmmh Jinua- 
mh. no caaeHCTByioT yMeHbuieHHK) opraHH30BaHHoro Hacn- 
jihh, ocyuiccTBJiHCMoro rocyaapcTBOM. 

J\nsi 3Toro ohh pa6oTaioT oaHOBpeMeHHO b Tpex HanpaB- 
jieHHSx: 

1 3aiuHTa npaB nejiOBeKa b kohkpcthmx cjiywajix (3Ta 
novfomb AOJERHa 6biTb 6ecnjiaTHofi noa 3aflBHTejm), o6iue- 
CTBeHHbie paccac;ioHannH (J)aicroB nap\ mcunii npaB HejiOBe- 
Ka rocyaapcTBeHHbiMH opraHaMH. 

2.PacnpocTpaHeHHe HHtpopMauHH o npaBax nejiOBeKa. 
npaBOBoe BocnHTaHHe. 

3. AHajiH3 nojioaceHHa c npaBaMH nejiOBeKa. 

Bee rpn HanpaBJieHHH TecHO B5an\iocRH iam.i. pa6oTa 
TOJibKO b o/ihom H3 Tpex HanpaBJieHHH. Boo6me roBopa, He 

MOJKeT OblTb, Ha MOH B3I\nfl.a, 3<p(})eKTHBHOH. Ec/IH 3aHHMaTbCH 

To.ibKO 3amHTOH rpaacnaH. to npaB03aujHTHbie opraHH3auHH 
o6peHeHbi Ha BeMHyio 6opb6y c rocyjjapcTBOM npn coxpaHH- 
rameMCH naTepHajiH3Me b o6iuecTBe, He3HaHHH jnoubMH cbo- 

HX npaB H HHCTpyMeHTOB HX 3aiUHTbI B 3aK0H0/iaTeJIbCTBe, 

KOTopoe no-npeacHeMy conepacHT yrpo3bi npaBaM MenoBeKa. 
llpaBOBoe BocnHTaHHe h npenoaaBaHne npaB iciOBeKa, 3Ha- 
HHe cbohx npaB, naunonaai»ni.i\ h M«K.ayHapo;iHbix Mexa- 
hh3mob hx laiun i i.i HeoGxo/iHMbi juiji ycneuiHoro OTcraHBa- 
hhh cbohx npaB H yTBep>KaeHHJ! npaBOBoro avniamiH. 

AHajiH3 nojio>KeHH5i c npaBaMH HejiOBeica npeanojiaraeT 

aHaJIH3 3aKOHOiiaTeJlbCTBa, Cyae6HOH H ajJMHHHCTpaTHBHOH 

npaKTHKH. hx cooTBeTCTBHH HopMaM Me>KayHapo/j.Horo npa- 
Ba. Ha6jiio.neHHe 3a 5aKOHo.uaTcn1.nKiM npoueccoM, hhhuhh- 
poBaHHe Heo6xoiiHMbix H3MeHeHHH b 3aKOHoaaTe^bCTBe h 
npaBonpHMeHHTejibHOH npaKTHKe. 

Jinn npoBeaeHHa TaKoro aHanH3a Heo6xo;j.HMo 3HaHHe 
Me)KiiyHapojj,Hbix aoroBopoB b o6jiacTH npaB nejioBeKa, bh>t- 
peHHero 3aKOHo;iaTejibCTBa h cy/j.e6HOH npak 1 iikii apyrnx 
CTpaH, "MflrKoro" npaBa, b nacTHOCTH. npaKTHKH EBponenc- 
Koro cyaa no npaBaM nejiOBeKa. Emjio 6bi oqeHb xopouio, 
ec.iH 6w cymecTBOBana cen. opraHH3auHH, 3aHHMaioiuHxc$i 

TOJibKO 0/J.HHM KJIIOHeBMM npaBOM — HanpHMep, TOJibKO 

npaBOM Ha «H3Hb; hjih TOJibKO npaBOM Ha 3amHTy ot nbiTOK 

H >KeCTOKOrO oOpaiHOH IIH; HjIH TOJibKO CBO6o^0H BhipaVKCH II >i 

CBoero MHciiim, T.e. cbo6ojk>h mhchhh, cbo6o;joh cnoBa h 

CBOOOflOH HH({)OpMaUHH; HJIH TOJibKO CBO6OJIOH COBeCTH H T.JI. 

0/j.HaKo npaB03amHTHbix opraHH3auHH (hmciotcji b BH/j,y 
o6mecTBeHHbie opramnauHH, 3aHHMaioiuHec$i xoth 6m on- 
hhm H3Tpex yKa3aHHbix HanpaBneHHH)oHeHb Majio, nosTOMy 



ohh BbiHyaueHbi 3aHHMaTbca paccMOTpeHneM HapyuieHHH 
caMbix pa3JiH4Hbix npaB nejioBeKa, pa6oTaa b pe>KHMe nowap- 
hoh KOMaii.n.i c HenpeacKa3yeMMMH hldohumii. Bojiee 3(J>- 
(peKTHBHOH pa6oTe cnoco6cTBOBajia 6w cneuHanH3auH$j no, 
Kor/j.a ohh, Bbi6paB ojho hjih HecKOJibKO kjhohcbmx npaB, 
3aHHMa.HHCb 6m hmh cHCTeMaTHHecKH h rjiy6oKO H3 roaa B 
roa. 

nonwTaeMCH paccMOTpeTb 6ojiee noapo6H0 h onpe^e- 
jichho no (popMe npe^MeT kohtpojiji TIO, 3aziaHH no, hx 
4>yHKUHH h npaBa, npHHunnu hx ^ejiTe.nbHocTH, hmcji b BHjjy 
pa3pa6oTKy b 6y^ymeM cneunajibHoro 3aKOHa "06 o6me- 
CTBeHHbix npaB03auiHTHbix opraHH3auHJix". 

ripeaMeTOM KOHTpojia no HBjiaeTCfl TeKymaji rocyaap- 
CTBeHHaji nonHTHKa b o6jiacTH npaB He.iOBeKa. peuieHHfl, 
jjeHCTBHfl (6e3aencTBHe) rocyaapcTBeHHbix opraHOB h hx 
aojiwHOCTHbix jihu, b pe3yjibTaTe KOTopux HapyiuajoTCfl npa- 
Ba h cBo6onbi nejiOBeKa, jih6o co3aaK)TCJi npenHTCTBHH juih 
ocymecTBJieHHH hcjiobckom cbohx npaB h cbo6o;i, jih6o mcjio- 
BeK He3aK0HH0 npHHyaaaeTCH k BbinojiHeHHK) KaKHX-jiH6o 

06H3aHHOCTeH HJIH He3aK0HH0 npHBJieKaeTCJI K OTBeTCTBeH- 

hocth. 3th HapymeHHH, npenjiTCTBHH h npuHyjKjeHHe Moiyr 
6biTb cncTeMHbiMH, T.e. KacaTbCH He oflHoro nejiOBeKa, a 
rpynnbi JiioaeH, no3TOMy 110 paccMaTpHBaioT <a«u ichmh h 

)KaJI06bl KaK (|)H3HHeCKHX, TaK H KjpHUHHeCKHX JIHU, BK.'IIOMas 

o6pameHHJi rpynnbi jnoaen, hjih npoBozurrpaccjiejjoBaHHJi no 

C06CTBeHHOH HHHUHaTHBe. 

no i! pinna ii i,i pemaTb cjiejiyiomHe 3anaHH: 

1. 3aiUHmaTb npaBa h CBo6ojibi MejiOBeKa, 3aKpenneH- 
Hbie b KoHCTHTyuHH h naunonaai,iioM 3aKOHOnaTejibCTBe 
(BKjnoHas MOKjjyHapo^Hbie aoroBopw. corjiacne Ha o6fl3a- 
TenbHocTb kotopmx jiaHO napjiaMeHTOM). 

2. BbiTb hctohhhkom HH(J)opMauHH o npaBax nejiOBeKa 
ana Hapoaa h opraHOB BJiacTH, noBbiuiaTb ypoBeHb o6pa30- 
BaHHOCTH b ooJiacTH npas HenoBeKa, noompflTb cTaHOBneHHe 
ueHHOCTen h pa3BHTHe ycTaHOBOK, cnoco6cTByK)iuHx yBaiKe- 
hhk) h oco3HaHHio npaB HenoBeKa. 

3. AHanH3HpoBaTb nojio>KeHne c npaBaMH nejiOBeKa b 
CBoen CTpaHe h ee oniejibHbix pernoHax. 

Una peuieHHa 3thx 3ajiaH no Heo6xoaHMO BbinojiHJiTb 
cjie/jyiomne ({)yHKUHH: 

1.1. PaccMOTpeHHe uiMBacmiii (pH3HqecKnx h wpn^H- 
hcckhx jihu, hh6o hx accounauHH. o Heco6jiK)iieHHH npaB h 
CBo6oii nejiOBeKa, 3aKpenjieHHbix b KoHCTHTyuHH, MOKjjyHa- 
poaHOM npaBe h HaunoHajibHOM 3aKOHO^aTe.ibCTBe. 

1.2. HH^opMHpoBaHHe noaaTejiH 3a»BjieHHH o ero npa- 
Bax H HMeiOlUHXCH B03M0>KH0CTJIX HX npaBOBOH laiUHTbl H 

cojieHCTBHe eMy b ziocTyne k 3thm cpencTBaM. 

1.3. OcymecTBJieHHe nocpeiiHHHecKHx (pyHKUHH iui>i 
BOCCTaHOBJieHHH HapyujeHHbix npaB h cbo6o^ c noMOiubio 
corjiacHTejibHOH npoueiiypbi (mediation). 



npaB03aU4MTHMKM 



1! 



1 .4. ripoBcaeHHe o6mecTBeHHbix paccneAOBaHHH qoaK- 
tob HapyiueHHH npaB He;ioBeKa(KaK no 3asBJKWUBi (j)H3HHec- 

KHX H K)pHilHHeCKHX AHU., TaK H no C06CTBeHHOH HHHUHaTH- 

Be). 

1.5.HanpaB J ieHHe3aflBjieHHH(oTHMeHH3ajiBHTe J mjiH6o 
ot CBoero hmchh) KOMneTeHTHbiM opraHaM aaji peiueHHH no 
cyra Bonpoca. 

1.6. 06pameHHe ot hmchh 3a*BHTeAa hah ot CBoero 
iiMonii b cya h MejK^yHapojHbie opraHH3au.HH. 

1 .7. YnacTHe b cyje6HOM ripouecce c uenbio 3amHTbi h 
BoccTaHOB-ieHHH HapyiueHHbix npaB h cboooa 3aflBHTena. 

1.8. ripHHATHe 3aiuK>HeHHH no pe3y;ibTaTaM npoBeAeH- 
Horo oomecTBeHHoro paccneAOBaHHH. 

1.9. BbmeceHHe o6mecTBeHHoro nopnuaHHsi h o6iue- 
cTBeHHoro npeAynpoKAeHna opraHaM h (hjih) ahuam, HbH 
ACHctbhh (6e3aeiicTBHe) npHBcnn k HapyiueHHK) npaB h cbo- 
6oa MenoBeKa. 

1.10. riy6jinKauHfl cbohx 3aK.iK)HeHHH b CMH. 

2.1. C6op, nojroTOBKa h pacnpocTpaHeHHe HH(J>opMa- 
uhohhwx MaiepHajioB, BicnoHaiomHx: 

— BHyTpeHHee 3aKOHOAaTeAbCTBO (b tom hhcac HMnAe- 
MeHTupoBaHHoe MOKAyHapoAHoe npaBo). Kacajomeeca npaB 
MejioBeica, KOMMeHTapHH k HeMy, cooTBeTCTByioiAHeaAMHHH- 
CTpaTHBHwe h cyneoHbie peuieHUH h hx miKOBaHHa Bbicuni- 
mh cy^e6HbiMH opraHaMH; 

— BHyTpeHHHe viexaHH3Mbi 3amHTbi npaB nenoBeKa; 

— MOKnyHapoaHO-npaBOBbie AOKyMeHTbi no npaBaM 
HenoBeKa h KOMMeHTapnn k hum; 

— Me*nyHapo,iHbie MexaHH3Mbi 3aujHTbi npaB MenoBe- 
Ka; 

— HHtpOpMaUHK) ACHTeilbHOCTH CaMOH npaB03auiHT- 

hoh opraHH3auHH h ee coGctbchhmc ny6nHKauHH. 

2.2. Co3aaHHe npocBeTHTcnbCKHX nenaTHbix, ayAHO-, 
(J)oto- h KHHOMaTepna.ioB no npaBaM MejioBeica ana MaccoBO- 
ro noTpe6HTe;m h cneunajibHoro Ha ',m:i'!ciiiih. 

2.3. Pa3paooTKa yqe6Hbix n.naHOB, mctoahk h nporpaMM 
npenojaBaHHJi npaB nejiOBeKa una pa3.iHMHbix counajibHbix h 
npocpeccHOHajibHbix rpynn. 

2.4. ripoBcaeHHe cnenHajnnnpoBaHHbix ceMHHapoB no 
npaBaM HenoBeKa aaji npeACTaBHTenefi th. «npo(peccHM puc- 
Ka» (coTpyaHHKOB opraHOB BHyTpeHHHx aeu h ca}ok6 6e30- 
nacnocTH, cjiy>KauiHx neHHTeHunapHbix ynpevKAeHMH, anBO- 
KaTOB. cyaeH. npoKypopoB. BoeHHOCJiy/Kamnx. Bpanen, acyp- 

HaJIHCTOB, npO(J)COK)3HbIX AeHTeAeH, COUHaJlbHblX paOOTHH- 

kob), npeACTaBHTenen 3aKOHoaaTeiibHOH h HcnonHHTejibHOH 
BeTBefi BjiacTH, cbhuihhmx c C03.aaHHeM h ncnojiHeHneM 
3aKOHOiiaTejibCTBa, Kacaromerocji npaB ne.iOBeKa. 

2.5. OpraHH3auHJi pa3;iHHHbix nyGjiHMHbix KaMnaHHH h 
aKUHH c uenbK) yTBep>KaeHHH npaB MejiOBeKa b o6mecTBeH- 
hom c(< iiiamiii: KOHKypcoB Ha JiyHniee coMHHeHHe o npaBax 
ncnoBeKa h KOHKypcoB pucyHKOB h (J)OTorpa(})HH una uncojib- 
hhkob, ojiHMnHaa aah CTy^eHTOB, cneunajibHbix MeponpHH- 
thh. npHypoHeHHbix k Rhw npaB HenoBeKa, JJhio noAHT3aK- 

AHDHCHHOrO H T.A. 

2.6. C6op h pacnpocTpaHeHHe MaTepnajioB no hctophh 
pa3BHTH« H.ien npaB HenoBena h hctophh npaB03amHTHoro 

fgBBBBUUL 

3.1 . rioaroTOBKa 3aKJiK)HeHHH o 3aK0Hax, 3aKOHonpoeK- 
Tax h hhwx HopMaTHBHO-npaBOBbix aicrax h nporpaMMax. 



HanpaBneHHbix Ha yTBep>KAeHHe h 3ainHTy npaB MejiOBeKa, 
noiiroTOBKa h npeAOCTaBAeHne napjiaMeHTy nepe3 o(J)huh- 
a-ibHbix cyoteKTOB npaBa 3aKOHOAaTeAbHOH HHHiinaTHBbi 
co6cTBeHHbix 3aKOHonpoeiaoB h nporpaMM. 

3.2. MoHHTopHHr 3aKOHOAaTe^bCTBa, cyne6HOH h a^MH- 
HHCTpaTHBHOH npaKTHKH b o6nacTH npaB MejiOBeKa. 

3.3. CoaeficTBHe paTH(J)HKauHH Me>KAyHapo/jHbix .aoro- 
BopoB b o6nacTH npaB He.iOBeKa h cneiKeHHe 3a cootbctctbh- 
eM HauHOHajibHoro3aKOHOAaTe^bCTBaH npaBonpHMeHHTejib- 

HOH npaKTHKH MOKjyHapOJTHblM o6a3aTejibCTBaM b o6aacTH 
npaB MejiOBeKa. 

3.4. rioiiroTOBKa mc ;anncii\ii.ix aoKJiaAOB o coctoshhh 
co6nK)iieHHa h 3aiuHTbi npaB h cbo6oji Me.noBeKa h KOMMem-a- 
pneB k 0(pHUHajibHbiM rokji&j&m, npcacTaBJiaeMbiM TeM hah 

HHbIM TOCyAapCTBOM B COOTBeTCTBHH C MeiKAyHapOAHblMH 

AoroBopaMH. 

3.5. rioAroTOBKa h npeACTaB^ieHHe nap^aMeHTV. npaBH- 
TeAbCTBy h ApyrHM opraHaM rocyAapcTBeHHOH BnacTH h yn- 
paB.ieHHH aHaAHTHMecKHx 3anncoK, peKOMeHAauHH h npeA- 
TOweHHH. KacaioiuHxcfl i\K>6hi\ BonpocoB. CB»3aHHbix c npa- 
BaMH qeAOBeKa, b nacTHOCTH. no BonpocaM: 

a) HauHOHajibHOH hojihthkh; 

6) aAMHHHCTpaTHBHbix npoueAyp h npaKTHKH; 

b) npoueccyaAbHbix achctbhh npaBooxpaHHTeAbHbix 
opraHOB — cyAa. noAHUHH (mhahuhh). npoKypaTypu, CAy»- 
6w 6e3onacHOCTH, HanoroBOH no. in hum h Ap.; 

r) MOKAyHapoAHbix acneKTOB npaB neAOBeKa. 
J\jih Hi.n io. iHcima nepeHHCjieHHbix (J)vhkuhh 110 ao^jk- 
hu HMerb CAeAyKJUine npaBa: 

— Ha CB060AHUH AOCTyn KO BCeM AOKyMeHTaM, BKAK3- 

naa AOicyMeHTbi. coxpaHHeMbie rocyAapcTBeHHWMH opraHa- 
MH h apxHBaMH, KOTopue HeooxoAHMbi aa» HaAAOKamero 
paccjieAOBaHH» iaHB.icnn». h npano cnn\iai \. c hhx KonHH, 
ecjiH in lOA-cniKiH b 3thx AOKyMeHTax HH(|)opMau.HJi HecoAep- 

>KHT TOCyAapCTBeHHOH HJ1H HHOH OXpaHHCMOH 3aKOHOM Tafi- 

hu; 

— nciynaTb nncbMeHHbie .ih6o ycTHbie pa3T>HCHeHHa ot 

BCeX AHU (B TOM HHCAe rOCyAapCTBCHHblX AOA)KHOCTHbIX AHU 

h cnywaiinix), KOTopwe Moryr pacnoAaraTb HHcpopMaunen o 
npeAnoJiaraeMOM HapyuieHHH h^h hhhm o6pa30M OKa3aTb 
noMoujb b paccAeAOBaHHH; 

— npoBOAHTb paccAeAOBaHHH 3a«BAeHHfl Ha MecTe, 
BKAionaji KaMepw npeABapHTenbHoro 3aAep>KaHHfl, MecTa 
npeABapHTeAbHoro 3aKAK)HeHHfl, yqpejKAeHHfl HcnoAHeHHH 

HaKa3aHHH, BOHHCKHe HaCTH, nCHXHaTpHMeCKHe 60JIbHHUbI. 

HHTepHaTbi h Apyrne MecTa BpeMeHHoro orpannqeHHa cbooo- 
aw weAOBeKa; 

— ocymecTBAHTb HHbie achctbha, Heo6xoAHMbie AAH 
npOBeAeHHJi HaAAOKaiuen npoBepKH 3a»BAeHHH, He npoTHBO- 
pesamHe 3aKOHOAaTenbCTBy; 

— BbmocHTb peKOMeHAauHH rocyAapcTBeHHbiM opra- 
HaM no pe3yAbTaTaM paccAeAOBaHHH h oueHHBaTb achctbhh 
rocyAapcTBeHHbix h HerocyAapcTBeHHbix opraHOB b 3toh 
oo.iacTH; 

— Ha cbo6oahuh AOCTyn k 3aKOHOTBopHecK0H pa6oTe: 
npaBo nonynaTb npoeKTbi kikoiiob ot komhtctob napjiaMeH- 
Ta, npaBo ynacTBOBaTb b o6cy)KAeHHH 3aKOHonpoeKTOB Ha 
3aceAaHH»x komhtctob, npaBo o6pauiaTbca k cy6teKTaM 3a- 

KOHOAaTeAbHOH HHHUHaTHBbi; 



21 



npaB03amt1THHKH 



— ynacTBOBaTb b pa3pa6oTKe rocy.iapcTBeHHWx npo- 
ipaMM, KacaioiuHxca npenoaaBaHHH h HccneaoBaHHH no Bon- 
pocaM npaB nenoBeKa, h hx pea. in mnmi b uiKonax, By3ax h 
hhwx ynpe>KiieHHJix no npo(peccHOHanbHOH noaroTOBKe ro- 
cyAapcTBeHHbix ciiyxauiHx; 

— npHcyrcTBOBaTb b cyae6Hbix 3aceaaHHHX h 3ace.aaHH- 
ax HHbix rocyiiapcTBeHHbix opraHOB no BonpocaM 3aiHHTbi 
npaB h cbo6oa HenoBeKa. npaBo HMeTb jocTyn k npoTOKo.iaM 

TaKHX 3ace^aHHH H CHHMaTb c hhx KonnH; 

— nojiynaTb otpHUHajibHbie aoieianbi, KOTopwe rocy- 
aapCTBO aojiwho HanpaBnaTb opraHaM h KOMHTeTaM OOH. 
OBCE, CoBeTa EBponbi h apyrHM MOK^yHapoaHbiM opraHH- 
3auHHM; 

— nepe jaBaTb co6paHHyK) HH(j)opMau.HK) o HapyiueHHJix 
npaB HejiOBeica, coScTBeHHbie aH&riHTHHecKHe MaTepnarbi 
opraHaM BJiacni, cpeacTBaM MaccoBon HH(popMau.Hn, aTaioKe 
Me>K.ayHapo.a.HbiM opraHH3auHaM, ec;iH 3Ta HHtJjopMauH* hc 
coiiep5KHT CBeaeHHH, cocTaB,3HH5iuHx rocyaapcTBeHHyjo huh 
HHyio oxpaHjjeMyK) 3aKOHOM TafiHy. 

ripuHUHnbi .aejrrejibHOCTH no cjieayiomHe. 

1. nO \ i Bepac i am i H uiiiuiiiiaioi npana HejiOBeica 
lie jamu-iiMt) ot ero pacbJ, im.ia. i pa>K. ianci h;i, 3THHHec- 
Koro ii. i m comia. 1 1. ikii o npoHCxovKjeiuiH, hm\ luecTBeiuio- 
ro ii. in jpyroro no. io/Kihiui. tojiahoc i m. po ui ii xapaK 1 e- 
pa iaiiMiiiii. MecTa npowHBaHHfi, a ii.iha. pi.m i h h. no.m- 

THHeCKHX H ip\l ll\ \ Ol'VK leilllli. 

2. I Ipauo Ha Mil i niuipmjaiiiii.iii in wa i lavmn i e.no b 
vioh. hi isiipiiuiii ero >Kii. ii)(ii>i. 3tot iipnnnnn 03Hanaer. 
hto no HMeiOT onpeiie.ieHHyK) CBo6o.ay ycMOTpeHHH. ohh, b 
otjihhhc ot rocyaapcTBa, KOTopoe o6$naHO 3ammnaTb npaBa 
MejiOBeKa. npHHHMaioT k paccMOTpeHHio »a:io6bi. ecjin nojia- 
raioT, hto hx ycHjiHH npHBcoyT k BoccTaHOB.ieHHK) HapynieH- 
hwx npaB h cbo6oa HenoBeKa. noMoryr npcaoTBpaTHTb He3a- 
KOHHyio ae>iTejibHOCTb jih6o 6e3aeiicTBHe rocyaapcTBeHHbix 
opraHOB huojihchocthmx jihu hjih npeicpaTHT Ta»<yio aeHTejib- 
HocTb. hjih xoth 6w 6yayT cnoco6cTBOBaTb npHBJieneHHio 
BHH.MaHHfl o6mecTBa k 3thm HapymeHHJiM. npn 3tom OTKa3 
jo.DKeH obrrbTiuaTejibHO MOTHBHpoBaH. noaojiyH. iTOcavioe 
TpyziHoe neno b pa6oTe no — 0TKa3aTb nejioBeKy, KOTopwn 
npocHT noMomH. 

3. OTKpbiTOCTb h rjiacHOCTb. HeaTe-TbHocTb no non- 

>KHa 6bITb OTKpblTOH H np03paMHOH flJIfl OOlUeCTBCHHOCTH. Ha 

moh B3rji&a, obuia 6bi ecTecTBeHHOH noaroTOBKa roaoBbix 
OTHeTOBoaeHTe;ibHOCTHopraHH3auHH,BKnioHaK)mHx.noMH- 
mo coaepjKaTejibHOH nacTH. noapoGHbifi cpHHaHCOBbiii OTner 

C yK83aHHeM HCTOHHHKOB (pHHaHCHpOBaHHH H paCXOJIOBaHHJI 

nojiyneHHbix cpercTB. 

4. HenacH.iHe. KoHCMHo,6biBaK>TBpeMeHa(HamicTCKaji 
TepMaHHfl, CCCP b nepnoa 1917-1 953 rr.), Koraa BoopyaceH- 
naa fxipi.ua npomB rocyaapcTBa onpaiuana. ho 3to ya<e 
o6.iacTb ^ejue^bHocTH. aaneKaa ot nHCTHTymioHajiH3Hpo- 
BaHHon 3auiHTbi npaB nenoBeKa. 

5. «He naKpe.ui! ». 3tot npHHunn o3HanaeT, hto HyjKHO 
aencTBOBaTb TaK. hto6m He yxyaujHTb no.iowceHHe o6T.eKTa 
(5KepTBbi) HapyiueHHH npaB HejioBeica. Oh c^ejyer TaK>Ke H3 
Toro, hto rjiaBHaa ue^ib npaBO3amnTH0H 3ktmbhocth — mh- 

HHMH3aUHJI VpOBHfl HaCHJlHH B OOlUeCTBC 

6. Me jukhchmoc 1 1. ot iid.mi 1 HMi-eu-mi no innnii. J\jih 
npaB03auiHTHHKa npHHunnna-ibHO. hto6w b o6iuecTBeHHOH 



vKimni 6biTH oTpa*eHbi h neBwe, h npaBbie. T.e. Bee HanpaB- 
jieHna no.iHTHHecKOH mwcjIh h couHajibHOH aKTHBHocTH. no- 
MoeMy. npaB03amHTHbie opraHn3auHH o6H3aHbi 6biTb npHH- 
unnnajibHO 6ecnapTHHHbiMH h He jojdkhw no^aepjKHBaTb Ty 
h.ih HHyio napTHHHyK) njiaT(|)opMy b H36npaTejibHbix KaMna- 
hhjix, ncnHTMHecKHH Bbioop aon»eH ocTaBaThca aejiOM jihh- 
Horo Bbioopa Ka>K^oro MneHa npaB03amHTHofi opraHH3auHn. 
Ha moh B3MJIJ1, HJieHbi npaB03auiHTHbix opraHH3auHH He 
;ui:i >kii 1,1 6biTb HaeHaMH no^HTHHecKHx napTHH h jenyraTaMH 
napaavieHTa. 

7. He 3annciiM(icri> OT onniec 1 iumiikii o mikiiiivi. O6- 
mecTBeHHoe MneHne M0«eT Bno.iHe noAaep>KHBaTb H^en, 
Hyjjcawe npaBaM qenoBeKa h yrpo>KaiomHe npaBaM nenoBeKa. 
HanpHMep. o6uiecTBeHHoe MHeHne b nciaBiunoineM 6onb- 
uiHHCTBe cTpaH nojjepyKHBaeT cMepTHyio Ka3Hb. npaB03a- 
uiHTHbie ^ce opraHH3au.MH — 6opKDTca 3a ee oTMeHy. 

8. HecTHOCTb, MaKCHMa.ibiiaH .locTOBepHocTb 11 
ofu.i'Ki Miiiiiiei 1. Mii(|)opManiin. 3tot npHHunn 03HaHaeT. 
BO-nepBbix, HeB03M0>KH0CTb nyMaTb ohho, a roBopHTb apy- 
roe h, BO-BTopwx. pa6oTy no (popMyjie aHr.iHHCKoro cyaa: 
«roBopHTb npaBjy, bckd npaB^y h Hnnero. Kpovie npaBjibi». 
3jecboaHO H3 ochobhwx ot^ihhhh Meauy npaBO3auiHTH0H h 
nojiHTHnecKOH jeaTe.ibHocTbK). Jinx no.iHTHKa, b jiyniueM 
Cjiynae, xapaicrepHo roBopHTb npaB^y, ho He bc»o. A Ty 

HH(|)OpMaUHK), KOTopaa MO>KeT OKa3aTbC« Bpe^HOH am CBoefi 

napTHH, mo>kho h yraHTb. H3BecTHafl (popviyna «...ho 3to Hani 
cyKHH cwh» ana npaB03auiHTHbix opraHH3aunH coBepujeHHo 
HenpneMJieMa. Ohh jo.dkhm cTpeMHTbca k o6beicrHBHocTH 
HH(popMau.HH, iia>Ke ecjin 3Ta o6bei<THBHocTb He CBnaeTejib- 
cTByeT b hx no-ib3y. 

9. CKpoiHocTb. 3tot npHHunn MeHee aceH h TpyaHO 
nojmaeTCH i|inp\ia 1 n ;a 1 in n . K coMcaieHHK), b nocne^HHe ro/tu 
pa3BH,iocb HBjieHHe, KOTopoe mowho 6w^o 6bi Ha3BaTb "npa- 
B03amHTHbiM TypH3MOM", Kor^a .iio^eH, Ha3biBaioiuHx ce6a 
npaB03auiHTHHKaMH, Tpy^Ho ycnbiujaTb b pojHOH CTpaHe: 
noflBHj3HCbopraHH3au.HH, HMeHyjoiuHe ce6« npaB03amnTHbi- 
mii. KOTopwe nocTOAHHO ycTpaHBaiOT KOHiJjepeHUHH c nbiiu- 
humh oaHKeTaMH — b n ii men CTpaHe 3to, no-MoeMy, Hcnony- 

CTHMO. 

10. He3aeiiCHMOCTb npaiuuainn 1 111, i\ opi aim jannii 
ot i ne> nipei na. nocKO.ibKy nO hbthiotch onnoHeHTaMH 
rocyaapcTBa, ohh ho.ihchw owrb MaKCHManbHO He3aBHCHMbi- 
mh ot Hero, npeacie Bcero, b (pHHaHcoBOM ruiaHe. Ha moh 
B3rjifla. npaB03amHTHbie opraHH3auHH Heao.3>KHi>i cy6cHzw- 
poaaTbCfl 3a cneT rocyaapcTBa h He ao^>KHbi nonynaTb KaKHe- 
.ih6o cneuna.ibHbie jibroTbi. KpoMe ycTaHOB.ieHHbix 3aKOHOM 
ixm Bcex HerocyaapcTBeHHbix HenpH6bi,ibHbix opraHH3annH. 

OilHaKO He3aBHCHMOCTb He AOJDKHa nepeXOJHTb B KOH(ppOH- 

TauHK). MeHa CMymaeT npoKypopcKHii no OTHOiuemiK) k 
rocyjiapcTBy toh MHornx npauu uinui muikch. hx CTpeM.aeHHe 
bo BceM ooBHHHTb B^acTH. Hctohhhk HapymeHHH npaB Heno- 
BeKa — caM hciobck h Te CTpyKTypbi, KOTopwe oh co3.aaeT. 
Ho ntoaxM cBoficTBeHHo HCKaTb npiiHHHbi cbohx 6ea roe 
yro^HO, KpoMe KaK b casinx ce6e. 

11. «HecTHoe coTpyaHnsecTBO net ■ uiudmmim. hiihii- 
kob». 3tot npHHunn B3aHMoaeHCTBHH npaB03auiHTHbix opra- 
HH3auHH c rocyjapcTBOM cipopMyTHpoBaji b 1988 r. Cepren 
KoBajieB. Bo BceM tom, b neM n corjiaceH c BJiacTbK), a totob 



npaB03aLmiTHMKM 



21 



c Hen HecTHO coTpyaHHMaTb, a Koraa OHa aonycKaeT oujhokh. 
a 6yay npoTHBOCTOHTb eft, Hcnojib3ya HMeiomnecH 3aKOHHbie 
MeroAU. 

12. Y'k- i HHTepecoB Bcex CTOpOti, CHH iaillll.iV c koh- 

(j).niKi (im. b tom MHCie rocyjiapcTBeHHbix opraHOB. 3to 

OJHH H3 OCHOBHblX npiiHUHnOB B KOHCp.lHKTOJlOrHH — OTHeT- 

jiHBoe noHHMaHHe Toro, mto rapMOHH» b o6iuecTBe HacTynaeT 
HeTorja, KoraaHHTepecbiBcexeroH^eHOBCOBnaaaK)T(TaKoe 
coBnaaemie hcbo3mo>kho, h6o HenpHpo^Ho), a Toraa, Koraa 
b OAHHaxoBOH Mepe yBanoioTCfl h ynHTbiBaiOTCH HHTepecu 
Bcex 3anHTepecoBaHHbix CTOpOH. 

13. CoaeftcTBHe rocyaapcTBy b lamiiii' npau rpaw- 
jaH. 3a\ieTHM, hto npaB03auiHTHHK He ifoxer He 6uTb rocy- 
aapcTBeHHHKOM. nocKOJibKy npaBa McnoBeKa noapa3yMeBa- 
k>t o6fl3aHHOCTH rocyaapcTBa no hx co6.mo;xeHHK). KaK cna- 
3ajia H3BecTHaa aMepHKaHCKaa npaB03aiuHTHHua K3rpHH 
d)nunaTpHK, «6e3cnpaBe.0JiHBbix 3aKOHOB, He3aBHCHMbix cy- 
hob h npo(j)eccHOHajibHbix aaBOKaTOB 6opb6a 3a npaBa hcjio- 
BeKa — 3to 3JieMeHTapHafl 6opb6a 3a nnacHOCTb: o6Hapo.no- 
BaHne HH(j)opMauHH o npecTynjieHnsx b Haaeacae 3aaeTb 
coBecTb hjih, no KpaHHefi Mepe, BU3B&B o6ecnoKoeHHocTb 
cpean BJiacTHbix CTpyicryp». no3TOMy aoTex nop, noKa rocy- 
aapcTBO cnocooHO HaaHanor, npaB03am,HTHbie opraHH3au.HH 
aoJDKHbieroBecTH. XapaKTep jHanoraonpeiiejiflK)TC(popMy- 
nnpoBaHHwe Bbime npHHunnu "wecTHoro coTpyaHnnecTBa 
HeeaHHOMbiuiaeHHHKOB" h "yneTa HHTepecoB Bcex cropon", 
a TeMa ero — peaabHoe co6;no.aeHHe rocyaapcTBOM npaB 
HenoBeKa, npnopHTeT KOTopwx npoB03riiauieH BceMii nocT- 
TOTajiHTapHbiMH CTpaHaMH. rio3TOMy cTapas (popMyna npa- 
B03amHTbi b TOTajiHTapHbiH nepnoa — «3auiHTa npaB rpaac- 
aaH ot opraHH30BaHHoro HacH.iHH, ocymecTBJiHeMoro rocy- 
aapcTBOM» — 2BUDKBB 6biTb aono.iHeHa: «h coaeficTBHe rocy- 
napcTBy b o6ecneMeHHH h 3amnTe npaB rpaa<aaH». 



He Menee cneuH(J)H4Hbi oTHOinemifl npaB03amHTHbix 
opraHH3auHH c ocTajibHoii nacTbJO rpawaaHCKoro o&aecTBa. 
KOTopwe Moryr 6biTb aaaeKO He 6e3o6jiaHHbiMn. Herocyaap- 
CTBeHHas opraHH3auHJi 3auiHmaeT HHTepecw onpeaeneHHoro 

KOJIJieKTHBa, KOH^JlHKTbl HHTepeCOBB oGllieCTBe HeH30e>KHbl. 

h npaB03aiuHTHbie opraHH3auHH no npnpoae CBoefi aoaxcHu 
y^a^KHBaxb 3th KOH(pjiHKTbi. OaKTHwecKH no noji>KHbi HrpaTb 
poab6y<pepa Meacay oomecTBOM, rocyaapcTBOM h paxiHMHbi- 
mh oomecTBeHHWMH rpynnaMH. Mojkho 6biao 6bi cpaBHHTb 

HX C HMMyHHOH CHCTeMOH OpraHH3Ma. ripH 3TOM, BOo6me 

roBopa. He HcicHOMeHa cHTyaunfl. Koraa npaB03aiHHTHHKH 
6yayT OTCTaHBaTb HHTepecw rocy japcTBa b cjiynae yq)o>KaK)- 
mero noBeaeHHH KaKHX-nn6o iKCTpeMHCTCKiix. paaHKaab- 
hwx CTpymyp rpa>KaaHCKoro o6mecTBa. 

CaMOH oojibiuoH npo6jieMOH npeacTaBJiaeTCJi aerajiH3a- 
uhh npaB03amHTHbix opramnaunH. OneBHaHO, hto He rocy- 
^apcTBeHHbin opraH aoaxeH peuiaTb, HBasieTCH ;ih aencTBM- 
TejibHO npaB03amHTHOH opraHH3auHH. Ha3biBaK>ma« ce6a 

TaKOBOH. rio-BHaHMOMy,3TOflOj3)KHOOnpeaeJlJITbCfl npaB03a- 

muTHbiM cooomecTBOM b uenoM, HanpHMep, b jiHue HauHo- 
ii.u i.iioii accounauHH npaB03auiHTHbix opi ami iaium. a opraH 
rocy^apcTBeHHOH BaacTH mokct ToabKO ocj)opMHTb pcmeHHe 
3TOH accounauHH. JXo.tmhs 6biTb onHcaHa npouenypa npHHs- 
THB hoboh opraHH3auHH b accou.Hau.Hio, TaK >Ke, KaK h pju 
.apyrnx Tpe6oBaHHH, onpeae^aiouiHX nopsAOK paoorw 110: 
KO^eKC npo(peccH0HajibHOH 3thkh, aeKjiapaunH npaB h o6«- 
3aHH0CTeH h up. 

XapbKoe 

Aemop 6.id2odapum 3uhoeioi AHtnowoKa, JJapucy Bozo- 
pa3, Cepcex Koecueea. Mupoc.iaea Mapwioauna, Bceeo.ioda 
PeuuifKozo u Cepeex &edopiiHvuKa, 6ej oomenun c Komoptu- 
mu 3ma cmambH He moziq 6w owmfc nanucana. 

Pedaxmm 6naaodapum XapbKoecKyto npaeo3amumHyio 
zpynny 3a npedocmaeneHHbiu Mamepuan. 



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riiiu^ii^Miir^w: 



nonoxeHHe BbiHyxcAeHHbix nepecenemieB 
H3 HeHHH Ha reppMTopHM 

Pecny6/iHKM HHryuuerHfi 

C nepm.ix ace jxhch uiHpoKOMacuiTa6HOH BoeHHOH one- 
pauHH, ocymecTBjiaeMOH Ha TeppHTopHH HeneHCKOH Pecny6- 
jihkh. rpy6eHuiHM o6pa30M Hapyuiajwcb npaBa rpaacjiaH Poc- 
chh Ha cBo6oay nepcaBHweHHH h Bbioop MecTa acHTejibCTBa. 

HKmenxM HeHHH, )KejiaBiHHM noKHHyrb 30Hy 6oeBbix 
neHCTBHH. 3anpemajiocb Bbie3)KaTb 3a npeaejiu 3toh pecny6- 
jihkh. B nacTHOCTH, b KOHue ceHTJj6pa 1999 r. b opraHbi 
BHyrpeHHHx nen KpaeB h pecny6nnK, HaxoaaiuHxcH b cocraBe 
Pocchhckoh OeaepauHH, 6biJia HanpaBJieHa cooTBeTCTBy»o- 
maa Tejie<J)OHorpaMMa 3a noanHCbio KornaHiiyiomero o6-be.aH- 
HeHHOH rpynnnpoBKOH (pcaepajibHbix chji «3anaa» reHepan- 
Manopa B. LUaMaHcma. 

OaKTHHeCKH ejHHCTBeHHMM perHOHOM Pocchh. npHHH- 

MaiomHM BbiHy>KiieHHbix nepeceneHueB H3 HeHHH. OKa3anacb 
PecnyojiHKa HHryiueTHa (PH). JIhhhmm pacnopaweHHeM 
ripe3HAeHTa PH P. AyiueBa ee rpaHHUbi 6biJin otkpwtu ana 
JHoaefi, oerymHX otbohhw. Bo3MO>KHOCTb BUBSNk b HHryuie- 
thkd, 6e3yc.ioBHO, cnacua XH3HH mhoi~hx jitojieM. QaHaico b 
pe3yjibTaie b 3toh pecny6iiHKe HHCJieHHocTb HacejieHHH 3a 
KopOTKHH cpoK yBejiHHHJiacb Sonee HeM b nojuopa pa3a: b 
pecny6^HKy c HacejieHHeM b 310 men nejiOBeK Bi>exano 
6o;iee 200 men BbiHyjKaeHHbix nepccejieHueB. 

Flo CpaBHeHHK) C 3THM nOTOKOM JIHUJb MBOSSi H3CTb 

BbiHyHcueHHbix nepecejreHueB cMoma Bbiexan> b apynie pe- 
rHOHbi P<t>. K npHMepy, b CeBepHyio OceTHio Bbiexaiio 2200 
nenoBeK, b CTaBponojibCKHH icpan 5000, b /JarecTaH 2200 
nejiOBeK. 

Bbie3^ npcaycMaTpHB&n yHH3HTe;ibHyionpoue.3ypyno- 
cjieiioBaTe.ibHbix perncTpauHH. He npeaycMOTpeHHbix iiiiKa- 
khmh npaBOBHMH aicraMH; KpoMe Toro, nojiyneHHoe «npaBo» 
Ha Bbie3a nacTo 3aKaHHHBa,iocb Ha onwKaiiwHX npnrpaHHH- 
Hbix nocTax, m,e naMima;mcb hobwc HapyuieHH*. TaK, Hanpn- 




B narepe 6e*eHueB "CnyTHMtc". 1/lHryweTHH, 25 asrycTa 2000 r. 
Oomo: Myca Cadynaee/AP Photo 



Mep, Ha nocTax, pacnojiOKeHHbix b CeBepHOH OceTHH h 
Ka6apziHHO-BajiKapHH, jihu. hchchckoh HaunoHajibHOCTH, 
He3aBHCHMo ot B03pacTa h nojia, emma in c rpaHcnopTa, 
o6wcKHBajiH. BHMorajiH y hhx b3htkh. CnryauHs Ha 3thx 
nocTax Majio b neM H3MeHHJiacb h b Hacroamee Bpevui. 

HeOOXO^HMO OTMeTHTb, HTO aHTHHeneHCKafl HH(pOpMa- 

UHOHHaa KaMnaHHfl npHBe.ua k TOMy, hto aance cyMeBiiiHe 
BbiexaTb b poccHHCKne pei hohw neneHCKHe ceMbH, b 6ojib- 

UJHHCTBe CBOeM, He HaXOflHT COMyBCTBHH H llomiMaiiliM y 

MecTHbix )KHTejieH. CTa6n,ibH0CTb we hx nojioweHHJi bo mho- 
tom onpeaejmeTCH HacrpoeHneM mccthux BTacTen. 

H3 BbimecKa3aHHoro mohcho caenaTb BbiBoa o tom, hto 
nnaaupycMaa onepauHH npcaycMaTpuBajia 6noKHpoBaHHe 
Bcex larrejieH Hcmhh b npeaejiax 3toh pecny6.iHKH h kohuch- 
TpauHio BbiHy>KiieHHbix nepecejieHueB b TaK Ha3biBaeMbix 
«30Hax 6e3onacHocTH». 

"3oHbi 6e3onacHOCTH» 

B KOHue 1999 roaa npeacTaBHTenn <pe.aepa.ibHbix opra- 
hob B,iacTH (hm.m iui. i ii '•■ u)na\i ii 6e3onacHOCTH» paj HacejieH- 
hux nyHKTOB MeHHH. B 3th iiacc.ioiii i i.ic nyHKTbi peKOMeHao- 
Bajiocb B03BpamaTbca hx nocTO»HHbiM mieiUlL B HenHe h 
3a ee npe.ieTa.viH vkhtctch «30h 6e3onacHOCTH» 0TKa3biBa- 
nHCb perHCTpnpoBaTb no (})opMe N° 7, h&ihhhc kotopoh 
o5H3aTejibHo am nojiyneHHa iu.m\ vk.iciiiii.im nepecejieHueM 
vjHHMMa-ibHux couMa-ibHMx noco6nH. B 3thx »e30Hax npca- 
.larajiocb pacnonaraTbc» )KHTe.i»M jpyrwx ceji h roponoB 
HeHHH. BbiHywaeHHWM 6e>KaTb ot 6oeBbix ^chctbhh (b tom 
HHCie h b HHryiueTHK)). OiwaKO nocjieaoBaBiune BCKope 
coowthm noKa3ajiw nojiHyw Heo6ocHOBaHHoab T8KHX yKa3a- 

HHH 11 pcJKOMeil.Ulumi. 

BoeBHKH He CHHTa.iH h He CHHTaiOT una ce6ji o6$naTejib- 
hum co6^K)jiaTb oobflBJieHHbiH (|)e^epajibHOH BJiacTbK) PO b 
ojHOCTopoHHeM nopjUKe CTaTyc «30H 6e3onacHocTH». Hx 
aencTBHa b 3thx 30Hax npoBouHpoBajiH OTBeTHbie yuapw 
4>eaepa:ibHbix ch^, BeayuiHe K rn6ejiH MHpHoro aaceneBJVL 
Bxon 6oeBHKOB b Hana-ie aHBapa 2000 r. b ropoji UlajiH, 
o6T>»B^eHHbiH nepea 3thm «30hoh 6e3onacH0CTH», h otbct- 
hwh paKeTHo-6oM6oBbiH yaap, npuBeaujHH k raSena cotch 
mhphwx >KHTe;ien, — HpKiiii npuMep nono6Horo pa mil iiim 

C06bITHH. 

B qoeBpajie 2000 r. cTaio hcho, hto qbeaepanbHoe komah- 
aoBaHHe npH noaroTOBKe BoeHHbix onepauHH TaK>Ke He ynw- 
TbiBaeT cymecTBOBaHHe «30H 6e3onacHocTH». B xone pa3pa- 
6oTaHHofi poccHHCKHM BoeHHbiM KOMaHaoBaHHeM onepauHH 
TaK iia ji.macMi.iii «KopHaop cMepTH», no KOTopoMy 6oeBHKH 

BMXO^HJIH H3 TpO3HOr0 H Ha KOTOpOM OHH yHHHTOKaiHCb 

orHeM apTHJinepHH h 6om6obwmh yjapaMH, 6bi;i npoBeaeH 
nepe3 puj cen, btomhhcjic h o6bJiBneHHbix ioobumm 6e3onac- 
hocth». B pe3yjibTaTe apTo6cTpejiOB h OoMoapanpoBOK b 
ce.ne UlaaMii-IOpT («30Ha 6e3onacHocTH») noraGno oko^o 

200 MHpHblX HCHTeJiefi. Bee 3TO BH3UBaaO HOBbie nOTOKH 

Bbmy-yKaeHHbix nepecejieHueB H3 Hchhh b HHryiueTHK). 



HaABiiraiomaflCfl KaTacTpocjDa 



23 



rionbiTKH nepeMetueHHfi 
nepecenemteB b HenHio 

Eiue a HO>i6pe 1999 r. npejicTaBHTejib ripaBHTejibCTBa 
P<t> MP H. KouiMaH 3ajiBH.i, mto k 25 aeicaGpji Bee BbmyacjieH- 
Hbie nepecejieHuu, HaxozwmHeca Ha TeppmopHH HHryuie- 
thh, 6y^yT B03BpaiueHbi Ha3aa b HeMHio. B aeKa6pe 1 999 r. — 
SHBape 2000 r. MuHHCTepcTBO no Hpe3BbmaHHbiM CHTyauHSM 
(MMC) PO npejuipHHJUio nepBbie nonuTKH BbinaBJiHBaHHH a 
jaKe npsMoro HacHJibCTBeHHoro bo jupamciuiH BbiHyacieH- 
hwx nepecejieHueB H3 HHrymeTHH Ha3aj b HeHHio. B 3thx 
uejiax npeKpamajiacb Bbiaana juo6oh noMomH BbiHyacaeH- 
hwm nepecejiemiaM H3 psma HacejieHHbix nyHKTOB HeMHH. B 
CepHOBO^CK (HeMHJi) H3 Jiarepa «CeBepHbiH» (HHryuieTna) 
6biJiH npoTHB bojih hx oGHTaTejieu nepeMemeHbi 47 >Kejie3H0- 
iiopoyKHbix BaroHOB. b KOTopwx pacnojiarajiHCb BbiHy>K,aeH- 
Hbie nepecejieHuw. 

B CHJiy pjua npHHHH: o6beKTHBHajj CHTyauna b HeHHe. 
npoTecrw npaB03amnTHbix m MeHuyHapoAHbix opi aHH3auHH, 
npoTecTbi caviHx BbiHyacieHHbix nepecejieHueB. — njiaHbi 
6bicTporo B03BpameHHH BbwyaueHHbix nepecejieHueB H3 HH- 
rymeTHH b HeHHio pea.iH30BaHbi He oi.liii. 

B TeneHHe ywe ceMH MecaueB 2000 ro;ia Ha TeppHTopmi 
HHrymeTHH npoaojiwaeT HaxoitHTbca rpoMajmoe kojihmc- 
ctbo BbiHyvKneHHbix nepecejieHueB H3 HeMHH. Ottok b MecTa 
CBoero nocTOAHHoro npoAHBaHHa nponcxcuHT KpafiHe Mea- 
jichho — 3a BecHy-jieTO 2000 r. kojiuhcctbo BbmyaueHHbix 
nepecejieHueB H3 HeMHH coKpaTHjiocb c 190000 .10 150000 
HejioBeK. 3to o6ycjioBJieHo npeaue Bcero HeB03MOvKHOCTbio 
HaiaaHTb cKOJibKo-HHoyab HopManbHbie ycnoBHH ah3hh Ha 
6ojibUjeH nacTH TeppnTopHH Tpo3Horo h pajia pa3pyiueHHbix 
KpynHbix ceji. peanbHWM oTcyTCTBHeM 6e3onacHOCTH bo mho- 
thx pafioHax HeHHH. 

TaK, 1 8 hk).ih CTaHHixa AccHHOBCKaa, b kotopoh Haxo- 

flHTCH OJJHH H3 UCHTpOB BpeMeHHOrO pa3MemeHHfl BblHyiK- 

.icmii.i \ nepecejieHueB. 6bina o6cTpejuma H3 TaHKOBbix opy- 
ahh h c BepTOJieTa. riorH6 ohhh mccthmh acHTenb. pjw jomob 
noyjiHue KpacHonapTH3aHCKon 6wji CHJibHopa3pyiueH, no;i- 
HocTbio VHHHTWKeHa MenbHHua. BoeHHOcjiyncaiuHe o6t>hchji- 

JIH CBOH AeHCTBHfl TeM, HTO CO CTOpOHbl CTaHHUbl no HHM 

CTpejiajiH. 

B/tacTH Pocchh 6pocaiOT nepecejieHueB 
Ha npoH3BO/i cyAb6bi? 

BMecTe c TeM, Ha npoT$i>KeHHH Been BoeHHOti onepauHH 
(pHHaHcupoBaHne npoHCHBaHiui BbiHy>KjeHHbix nepecejieH- 
ueB b PecnyojiHKe HHryuieTHH 6mjio jjbho HejiocTaTOHHbiM. 
HecKOJibKO pa3 npaKTHHecKH nojiHOCTbio npeKpamajiocb no- 
CTynjieHne cpejjcTB ot (j)eaepa.ibHbix cTpyinyp. mto CTaBiuo 
CHTyauHio Ha rpaHb KaTacTpo(j)bi. 

Ha cojep>KaHHe h npowHBaHne rpaaaaH, BbiHyaueHHo 
noKHHyBuinx MeneHCKyio Pecny6jiHKy. ripaBHTC.ibCTBOM P<t> 
3a nepnoii OKT$i6pb 1 999 r. — viapT 2000 r. 6biJio BbmeneHo 
474,2 mjih. py6jieH. PeajibHO 5Ke, no pacneTaM MurpauHOH- 
hoh c.iy»6bi PH, Ha coaepwaHHe h npo^KHBaHne rpaacaan, 

BbIHy>KiieHH0 nOKHH>'BUJHX HP, 6blJ10 Heo6xoaHMO nOHTH B 

aBa pa3a 6ojibuie — 3a nepBbie 7 MecaueB 2000 r. H3 pacneTa 
1 80 TMCHM MejioBeK — 922,087 mjih. py6jiefi. 

H3 BbinejieHHbix cpencTB b MHrpauHOHHyiocjiy>K6y Pec- 
ny6jiHKH HHryuieTH» no pacnopH>KeHHio<t>eaepajibHOH Mur- 
pauHOHHOH cji>ok6u (OMC) Pocchh pearibHO nocTynnjio 3a 
nepHoa OKTJi6pb 1999 r. — Mafi 2000 r.: 349,212915 mjih. 
py6jieH. H3 nocrynHBiUHx cpejicTB ow.io inpacxo;ioBaHo: 




BeweHUbi, >KHByiMne b >k/a BaroHax. HHryujeTun 
Oomo: http://www.acchechnya.org/ 

349.1 78741 mjih. py6jiefi. CpeacTBa m OMC Pocchh nocTy- 
najin HecBoeBpeMeHHO. 

B pe3yjibTaTe no coctohhhio Ha 01 .06.00 r. y MHrpami- 
ohhoh cjiy>K6bi Pecny6jiHKH HmyujeTHH H3-3a HeaocTaTOH- 
Horo (tiMiianciipoKamis h :a:ia i.ii.iHaiiiiM c nocTynJieHneM 

cpeacTB o6pa30Bajiacb 6ojibuia» KpeaHTopcKa» 3aaoji»ceH- 
HocTb b 307,3 mjih. py6jiefi. I~Io pacneiaM MHrpaunoHHofi 
cjiy-A'6bi PH, Ha o6ecneneHHe BbiHyjKjeHHbix nepecejieHueB 
H3 HeneHCKOH Pecny6jiHKH (hcxooji H3 uncppbi b 150 twc 
HejioBen) Heo6xojjHMo 92,5 mjih. pyGjiefi b Mecau. 

OjHaKO c hiohji 2000 r. cpencTBa Ha conep)KaHHe bw- 
Hy>KjieHHbix nepecejieHueB Ha TeppHTopHH HHrymeTHH bo- 
o6me nepecTajiu nocTynaTb. 

Eme b Hanajie hiohh MnrpauHOHHaji cjiy>K6a HHryme- 
THH npejxynpe>Kjiajia npaBHTejibCTBO P<J>, hto HecBoeBpeMeH- 
Ha» onjiaTa 3aaoji>KeHHOCTH MO>KeT BbnBaTb nepe6on b CHao- 
>Kcnnii BbiHyataeHHbix nepecejieHueB npoayicraMH nuTaHHJi. 

1 9 HIOHJI H3-3a OTCyTCTBHH CpeACTB 6bIJIO nOJIHOCTbK) 

npeKpameHO o6ecneneHHe oGHTaiejiefl Jiarepen BbiHy*iieH- 
hhx nepecejieHueB ropaiHM nuTaHHCM. CKJiaaw MHC nycTw 
h TaM HeT npojjyicroB jia>Ke juhi cyxux naHKOB (6jiarojaapsi 
KOTOpbiM 3hmoh 2000 v. b aHajiorHHHOH cHTyauHH yjjaBanocb 
H36e)KaTb KaTacTpotpw). HeT bo3mo>khocth o6ecneHHBaTb Ha 
npe>KHeM ypoBHe CHa6>KeHHe BbiHy>K.ieHHbix nepecejieHueB 
xotji 6w xjre6oM. J\eno aouuio ao toto, hto MHC HHrymeTHH 
6biJio BbiHy»neHHO oopaTHTbCJi k opraHH3auHHM. nocTaBjia- 
iouihm xjie6 Jim nepecejieHueB H3 HeHHH. c npocbooii yMeHb- 
uiHTb pauHOH xjie6a, BbuejiaeMoro Ha oaHoro HejioBeKa, ^jia 
Toro HTo6u CHa6>KaTb xjieSoM Bcex HywaaiomHxcfl b 3tom 
JHOJien. Bpe3yjibTaTeKOJiHHecTBoxjie6a, paHbiuenpejjHa3Ha- 




npoeepKa aoKyMeHTOB. rpo3Hwii, 19 aerycrra 2000 

Oomo: AP Photo 



24 



HaflBviraiOLnaflCfl KaiacTpocfDa 




CeMbs 6e>tteHKM Pancbi XaHsapoBoiii. 
Oomo: Human Rights Watsh 

HaBiueecfl on* o/iHoro Jiarepa «CnyTHHK», cennac pacnpeae- 
jiaeTcs Taicwe h Ha Jiarepb «CeBepHbiH». H 3to npH tom, hto 
rocyaapcTBo He npoBOAHT ciiatv/Koime »i.ih\ sk. icmmi.ix nepe- 
cejieHueB jno6biMH apyrHMH npaayicraMH nm-aHHH. 

B HacToamee BpeMs npo/jyicrbi nuraHHH b jiarepa bm- 
HyjK^eHHbix nepecejieHueB nocTynaiOT HCKjnoHHTejibHO ot 
HenpaBHTejibCTBeHHbix h MOKiiyHapoaHbix ryMaHHTapHbix 
opi aim laum'i. Flo uiiiiii.im opi anuumim «BpaMH MHpa», B 
.narepe «CeBepHbifi» ynacTHJincb ia6o. icuai mn cpean .aeTen, 
hto HBJiaeTca cneacTBHeM npeKpameHna CHa6>KeHHH ropa- 

HHM nHTaHHeM. 

B HHTepBbio KoppecnoHiieHTy «PaaHo Pocchh» T. H. 
KacaTKHHofi MHHHcrp no aejiaM <J)e.aepauHH, nauiioiia.ii.iion 
h MHrpauHOHHOH nojiHTHKe PO A. B. Bjioxhh ia;iBn i no 
aaHHOMy noBoay, hto npojjOBOJibCTBeHHbie npoojieMbi n Jia- 
repax BpeMeHHbi h cBjnaHbi c JiHKBHuauHefi <t>eaepajibHOH 
MHrpauHOHHOH cny>K6bi h nepeiianeH ochobhwx cj)yHKUHH 
3toh cjiyMc6w ero MHHHCTepcTBy. O^HaKO npouijio Gojibiue 
Mecaua h 1 1 11 ica k 11 x ihmoii cm h ii HeT, xot» penb HjieT o 5KH3HeH- 
ho BancHbix npHopHTeTax b o6ecneneHHH jmnen. 

Ha Bcrpene pyKOBOjiHTejieH Tpynnbi npouecca KOH(j)e- 
peHUHH OOH no BbiHyataeHHOH MHrpauHH b CTpaHax CHT, 
npoxonHBuieH 14 hiojih 2000 r. b )KeHeBe, poccHHCKaa aejie- 
rauHfl, Hivu.iaB.iHCMaH A. B. Bjioxhhmm, yrBepacziajia, mto 
<{)nnancnpoBaHnc nHTaHHH h jjpyrnx ini.ioB noMOiun BUByx- 
^eHHbiM MHrpaHTaM, BbiexaBuiHM H3 HeHHH, npojiojiMcaeTcs, 
hto He6onbuiHe nepepbiBbi b nocTynjiemiH cpeacTB h >i kjk He 

l'BH mil 1.1 C JlHKBH/jaUHeH <t>MC. 

B HiOHe b MnrpauHOHHyio cjiyac6y PH o6paTHJincb py- 
KOBOiiHTejiH pjiaa bcjiomctb («HHryuira3», «HHryui3Hepro», 
«BoiioKaHajia») c npcaynpeataaioiUHMH nncbMaMH o npen- 

CTOJUiieM, B CUm 1 1 C OO.U.nicil 3aa.OJTyKeHHOCTbK), OTKJHOHeHHH 

ra3a, ik>. u.i. sjieKTposHeprmi b MecTax KOMnaKTHoro npown- 




Jlarepb 5e>KeHueB "CnyTHWK". HHryweTMH, 25 aBrycrra 2000 r. 
Oomo: Myca Cadynaee/AP Photo 



BaHHH BbiHy>KaeHHbix nepecejieHueB. B pe3ynbTaTe b Hiojie 
2000 r. b HHryuieTHH b ueHTpax BpeMeHHoro pa jmciiichiisi 
Hanaiocb noBceMecTHoe oTKJuoneHHe 3/ieicrpHHecTBa. rio- 
CKOjibKy jhoah nacTO >KHByT b noMemeHHax 6e3 okoh, ohh 
OKa3biBaK5TCH Kpyrjiwe cyrKH b ycnoBHSx nojwoH tcmhotw. 

Bo.ibUJHHCTBO BbiHyjKneHHbix nepecejieHueB Ha Teppn- 
TopHH HHryuieTHH npo)KHBaK)T b noMemeHHax nacTHoro ceic- 
Topa h pa3J7HHHbix xo3HHCTBeHHbix nocrpoHKax. ComacHo 
pacnopH>KeHHK) OeaepajibHoii mmi paiiiiomioit cjiy>K6bi ot 
20. 10.99 r JVe 329 xo3«eBaM 3thx noMeiuemiH aojixcHa 6buia 
BbinjiaHHBaTbCH apeHflHaa mma 3a cner 6iaa>KeTHbix cpeacTB. 

B HacToamee BpeMH k MHrpauHOHHOH c,iy>K6e HHryiue- 
thh npeaiHBJiHioTCJi hckh b ap6HTpa)KHbiH cya C Tpe60BaHH- 
eM on;iaTHTb 3aAOJi«eHHocTb 3a apeHay noMemeHHH. ^oro- 
Bopw )Ke, 3aioiK)HeHHbie c nacTHbiMH .■ioMOK.ia.ic.ii.ii.aMii h 
COOCTBeHHHKaMH FipeiinpHflTHH. HCOJlHOKpaTHO B03Bpama- 

jiHCb H3 C>ejepajibHOH MHrpauHOHHOH cjiy»6bi Pd> Ha3aa b 
HHryiueTHio c 3aMenaHHaMH unn aopa6oTKH. BnojiHe 060- 
CHOBaHHO mo^ho npejinojiaraTb, hto Hico6bi «Heaopa6oTaH- 
Hbie» apeHiiHbie aoroBopw jjbjihk)tc» nnuib 6K>poKpaTHHec- 

KOH npOBOJlOHKOH, n03B0^5IK>meH «He nnaTHTb, He OTKa3bI- 

Baj!». Ecjih )Ke Kpe^HT TepneHHH apeHnoaaTejiefi 6yaeT hc- 
nepnaH h BbinyjKzieHHbix nepeceneHueB HanHyT BbicejiHTb H3 
nacTHoro ceicropa, HHryiueTHH peanbHo rpo3HT 3KCTpeManb- 
Haa CHTyauHa, t.k. jiarepa ju\a 6e>KeHueB y>Ke nepeHacejieHbi. 

MHryuieTMfi nbiraercsi noMOHb nepecenetmaM 

06ocHOBaHHo CHHTaa, hto: 

— b TeneHHe npeacToamero oceHHe-3HMHero ce30Ha Ha 
TeppHTOpHH HHryiueTHH ocTaHeTca 6o,ibiuaii nacTb HbiHe 
HaxojwiuHxca TaM Bbmy»aeHHbix nepecejieHueB; 

— ycnoBHH >kh3hh b aeHCTByjoiuHX Jiarepax npoumoH 

3HMOH 6bIJlH 'ipe {Hl.l'iaiillO cypoBUMH; 

— 3HaMHTe^bHaji nacTb nepecejieHueB 6yjieT BbiHy>Kiie- 
Ha BbiexaTb H3 nacTHoro ceicropa. 

ripe3HaeHT PH oTaan pacnopaweHHe o CTpoHTejibCTBe 
HOBoro najiaTOHHoro Jiarepa. IlpaBHTejibCTBO PH o6paTH- 
jiocb b YnpaBJieHHe BepxoBHoro KOMHccapa no aejiaM 6e- 
»eHueB (YBKB) OOH c npocbSofi 06 OKa3aHH» noMooin b 
CTpoHTejibCTBe 3Toro Jiarepji, nocKOJibKy HHryuierHJj cbohmh 
cpe^CTBaMH ana 3Toro He pacnojiaraeT, a H3 (J)eaepajibHoro 
6ioa)KeTa cpe^cTBa He nocTynaiOT. 

YBKB OOH, b cbok) onepeiib, TiuaTenbHo npoaHanH3H- 
poBaB CHTyauHio, aauio corjiacne Ha CTpoHTejibCTBO ^Byx 
6naroycrpoeHHbix jiarepeii Bcero Ha 12 twc nejioBeK, cto- 
HMOCTbH) 0,5 mjth. iiojuiapoB. Jlarepa aoji>KHbi BMecTHTb b 
ce6a Bcex o6HTaTejien )Kejie3Hoaopo)KHbix BaroHOB, a TaKwe 
BbiHyjKaeHHbix nepecencHueB, npo>KHBaioiuHx b MecTax, He- 
npHcnoco6.neHHbix ann vKn.n,« (MOJioMHo-TOBapHbie (J>epMbi, 
no^Bajibi h T.n.). npeimojiaraiocb 3aBepuiHTb CTpoHTejibCTBO 
b jieTHHfi nepHozi. 

OaHaKo pa6oTbi 6wjih npnocTaHOBJieHbi, nocKOJibKy 
mhhhctp no aejiaM (})eaepauHH, na unoiu. n.m >ii h MHrpauHOH- 
hoh nojiHTHKe Pet) A.B. Bjioxhh m.ic Ka ',a:i cBoe HecomacHe co 
CTpoHTejibCTBOM 3thx narepefi b HHryuieTHH, no ero MHe- 
hhk), Jiarep» aoji>KHbi 6biTb nocTpoeHbi b HenHe. YBKB OOH, 
b cbok) onepeab, He uaacez CTpoHTb jiarepa b MenHe no 

CJieayiOLUHM iipii'iiiHaM: 

— OTcyrcTBHe 6e3onacHocTH iipovkmbuhmh . 

— OTcyrcTBHe yBepeHHOCTH b tom, hto moHH noenyr H3 
HHryuieTHH b nocTpoeHHbie Jiarepa. 



HaflBi/iraicunaflCfl KaTacipocfca 



25 



HaCKOJIbKO HaM H3BCCTHO, BO BpeMeHHOH a^MHHHCTpa- 

lihh MeMeHCKOH Pecny6,iHKH npeo6;iaaaeT mhchhc hto noKa 
HHryiueTHH KOpMHT BbiHyKiieHHbix nepeceneHueB. ohh b 
MeMHK) He BepHyTca. Ho rannbi juozieH, KOTopwe oceHbio 
1999 r. 6e)KajiH b HHryiueTHio, HCKanH TaM 6e3onacHOCTH. 
Ohh He6bi.iH 3apaHeeo6ecneneHbi hh MedaMH npoacHBaHHa, 
hh npoayKTaMH nuTaHHH. Ohcbh^ho, mto CHanana aojdkhm 
6biTb co3^aHbi ycjiOBHH ana 6e3onacHoro npO/KHBaHHH jho- 
Aen, h JiHLUb 3aTeM mohcho roBopHTb o Mepax, HanpaaneHHbix 
Ha MaccoBoe B03BpameHHe BbmyjKneHHbix nepecejieHueB. 

Moryr jih JKHTb ntonn b 
pa3pyiueHHOM rpo3HOM? 

rio HMeioiuHMca y nu, «MeMopHaji» CBejeHHHM, IlpaBH- 
Te.ibCTBo ?<$> npHH»Jio peiueHHe o cmnaHHH nam uempoB 
BpeMeHHoro pa {mciuchiih na TeppHTopHH rpo3Horo. Hcnoji- 
HHTejieM Ha3HaHeHo Mhhhctcpctbo no nenaii <pe,aepauHH, 
HauHOHajibHOH h MHrpauHOHHofi nojiHTHKe Pel). K cnacTbK). 
noKa HHKaKHx npaKTHHecKHX uiaroB b 3tom HanpaBjieHHH He 
npeanpHHHMaeTca. Bee, kto xotji 6bi npH6jiH3HTejibHO 3Ha- 
komu c HbiHeiuHeft" o6cTaHOBKOH b Tpo3HOM, npeKpacHO 
noHHMaiOT, mto pa3MemeHHe Maccw jiKxacfi b nanaTKax hjih 
BaroHMHKax nocpenH pa3pyiueHHoro ropaaa. b kotopom ea<en- 
HeBHO npoHcxoiiflT nepecTpejiKH. peryjiapHO npoBOzwTCJi <oa- 
mhctkh», TRe HCHe3aK>T jikuih, a nepenBHaceHHe no yjiHuaM 
KpafiHe orpaHHHeHO, HBHJiocb 6u nojiHofi 6e30TBeTCTBeHH0- 

CTbK). 

BpflUnH yjiaCTCa nOJIHOCTbK) HCKJIIOHHTb B03M0)KHOCTb 

npoHHKHOBeHHH ooeBHKOB b no.ioonbic ueHTpbi BpeMeHHoro 
pa3MemeHHH. HananeHHe>Ker.ae-jiH6ono6jiH3ocTH oTTaKoro 
uempa Ha (pcaepanbHbie chjim HeH36e)KH0 noBJieneT, KaK 3T0 
y>Ke HeoaHOKpaTHO crryHajiocb Ha TeppHTopHH HeMHH, npn- 
MeHeHHe otbcthwx Mep, nanpan iciniwx npoTHB MHpHbix 
)KHTejieH, — b /uiHHoM ciynae o6HTaTejiefi ueHTpoB BpeMeH- 
Horo pa3MemeHHa. IlonbiTKH ace npeaoTBpaTHTb noao6Hoe 

pa3BHTHe C06bITHH nVTCM yCTaHOBJieHHH aononHHTejibHbix 
6;iOK-nocTOB, 3arpa>KiieHHH n T.n. npeBpaTHT 3th ueHTpw b 
KOHueHTpauHOHHbie Jiarepa. 

K cojKajieHHK), Becb o6pa3 /jchctbhh KOMaHaoBaHHH 
(peaepanbHbix chjt b xoae Hi>incuincii bochhoh onepaunn b 
HenHe ocTaBJiHeT B03M0)KH0CTb mix eiue oflHoro npeanojio- 
■/icci! 1 1 m . He HCKjHoneHO, hto co3,oa,HHeM n»TH jiarepeH b Tpo3- 
hom npecneayeTCsi uerib npHKpbiTHJi hmh ot oocbhkob KaK 
(OKHBbIM IUHTOM» HeKOTOpblX HanpaBjieHHH. 

KpaTKHe BblBOffbl 

BbiwenpHBeaeHHUH aHajiH3 cjiohchbiuchcji CHTyauHH 
no3BOJij«eT caejiaTb cjicayiouiHe BbiBojbi: 

— iiaKaiiy hc HacTyrmeHHH oceHH CTa naTHjiecflTH Tbica- 
qaM BbiHyiKiieHHbix nepecejieHueB. HaxojwmHMca Ha TeppH- 
TopHH HHryiueTHH, rpo3HT KaTacTpoqoa. BMecTOToro, mto6m 
no3a6oTHTbca o 6e3onacHOCTH h peaibHOM o6ycTpoHCTBe 

3THX JHOHeH K npeaCTOHUieH 3HMC HX nblTaiOTCH BbUaBHTb 

Ha3a^ b MeMHio; 

— Hcxo/aa H3 cyry6o nojiHTHMecKHx uenen (penepanb- 
Hbie opraHbi BJiac™ Pocchh, h b nepByio onepeiib — Mhhh- 
CTepcTBO no aejiaM qteaepamiH, HauHOHanbHOH h MHrpaun- 
ohhoh nojiHTHKe Pct>, (paKTHHecKH npenaTCTByKvr y BK5 OOH 
0Ka3biBaTb noMOUib rpaacaaHaM Pocchh, 0Ka3aBuiHMCJi b t«- 
*ejieHiueH CHTyauHH; 

— (peaepa-TbHbie opraHbi BJiacrrH PO, b comacHH c Bpe- 
MeHHofi aaMHHHCTpauHefi MeneHCKOH PecnySuHKH, npoBo- 
a«T no.iHTHKy «BbiaaB^HBaHHJi» BbmyjK^eHHbix nepecejieH- 




MOM HOBbiM AOM " 

0omo: Human Rights Watch 

ueB H3 HHryuieTHH b Mcmhk>, 0Ka3biBa« KocBeHHoe aaBiieHHe 
h Ha npaBHTdibCTBO HHryiueTHH; 

— iiepeviemeHHe BbiHyxtaeHHbix nepecejieHueB H3 HH- 
ryiueTHH b ccBcpiibic panoHbi MeMHH He peniHT hh o.anoii 
npo6jieMbi h 6yaeT HMerb TaKHe )Ke OTpHuaTejibHbie b couh- 
anbHOM acneicre nocneiiCTBHJj, KaK h pa 5\i ciuchhc i a k n x jiare- 
pefi Ha TeppHTopHH HHryiueTHH. Ho 3to noTpe6yeT 3aTpaT 
3HaMHTenbHbix cpencTB h co3nacT aononHHTejibHbie Heyao6- 
CTBa caMHM BbmyjKaeHHbiM nepeceneHuaM; 

— nepeMeiueHHe BbiHyaeieHHbix nepece^eHneB H3 HH- 
ryiueTHH b apyrne panoHbi Hcmhh, me hx 6e3onacHocTb He 
o6ecneHeHa, MOJKer cnpoBouupoBaTb HOBbieTeppopHCTHMec- 
KHe aKTbi h MaccoBoe nacn;me: 

— H3HaMajibHaa no3HUHJi npe^cTaBHTe^eH puna (peae- 
panbHbix BeaoMCTB, naiicioniian Ha KOHueHTpaunjo Bcex 
KHTejiefi MeMHH b npeje-iax 3toh pecny6^HKH, h npoBOflHMaji 
ceroflHM nojiHTHKa Ha ycKOpeHHyK) pe3MHrpau.HK> unsym- 
zieHHbix nepecejieHueB aenaeT oSocHOBaHHbiMH noao3peHH» 

O B03MO>KHOCTH C03^aHHJI Ha TeppHTOpHH MeHHH 4.IKpi>l i 1,1 X 

30H zuiji pajMemeHHJi BHyTpeHHHx MHrpaHTOB, Ky^a 6yaeT 
orpaHHwen npoe3a acypHaiHCTOB h npaB03auiHTHHKOB. 

B n:iannpoBannn paGoTbi c BbiHy>KiieHHbiMH nepece- 
^eHuaMH H3 MeMHH (peaepajibHue opraHbi BnacTH onepnpyioT 

-1IIIIII. .lliyMfl aaMHHHCTpaTHBHWMH eaHHHUaMH: JIH60 HeMHH, 

Kyjia MHorne jhojih noKa coBepuieHHO ciipa»o.a;inBo onaca- 
k)tc« B03BpauiaTbca. as6o HHryuierHjj, KOTopaa y)Ke okojio 
roaa HaxoaHTca b cocto«hhh Mpe3BbiMaHH0H CHTyauHH. 
XlyviaeTCJi, mto uenecooopa3HbiM 6biJio 6u paccMOTpe- 

HHe HOBblX KOHCTpyKTHBHWX npeaJio)KeHHH. Haiipil MCp. 38K- 

^lOMeHHe npoH3Bo,icTBeHHbix noroBopoB b perHOHax Pocchh, 
Kyaa Tpa^HUHOHHO Bbie3)KaLiiH Ha ce30HHbie pa6oTbi )khtcjih 

HeMHH H HHryiueTHH, B03M0)KH0CTb apcn;u.i CeJlbX03yrOAHH 

noa (pepMepcKHe X03flHCTBaHT.ii. 
^^ (ny6nuKyemcfi e coKpamemju) 

TeKCT noflroTOBneH 

ripaB03aiHMTHblM 

UeHTpoM "MeMopHan". 

MocKBa, 103051. 

M. KapeTHbiii nep. 

fl.12, kom. 17. 

Ten.: (095) 200-6506, 

cpaKC: (095) 209-5779, 

E-mail: memhrc@glasnet.ru 

http://www.memo.ru/hr 

BeweHUbi PaHeHWM pe6enoK b 

6onbHnue MHryiueTHM. 

Qomo: http://www.acchechnya.org/ 




20 



4 



flPABA HEJ10BEKA 



CEBEPHAfl KOPEfl 



KirraM 




rocyflapcTBo: KopeucKan HapoflHO-fleMOKpaTunecKan 
Pecny6nnKa (KHflP). 06pa30BaHa b 1948 roAy 

HMeeT flunnoMaTHMecKne oTHoweHMH c Poccweii (c 
CCCP-c1948r.) 

BbiciuMH opraH rocyaapcTBeHHOM BnacTM (OAHona- 
naTHbifi) - BepxoBHoe HapoflHoe Co6paHue (BHC). Tnasa 
rocyAapcTBa (c 1972 r. ) - npe3HfleHT. 

rinoiMaflb: 122,8 Tbic. kb. km. 

CyxonyTHbie rpBIWItfii: KhtbA, Pocchh (16,5 km). 

HaceneHMe: okojio 23 m;ih. MenoBeK (1998 r.). 

CTO/iMija: rixeHbHH (2,3 mjih. Hen.). 

rocyaapcTBeHHbiM H3biK: KopeiiCKMM. 

OcHOBHbie pejinrnM: 6yAAH3M, KOH(pyunaHCTBO, xpMC- 

TMaHCTBO. 

AeHewHan eflUHMija: BOHa. 



HauMOHanbHbie 

npa3flHHKn 

9 ceHTfl6pn - fleHb 
o6pa30BaHnn KHAP; 15 
anpenn - fleHb po>KAeHMfl 
KnMMpCeHa(1912r.);16 
cpeBpana - fleHb po>Kfle- 
HMA Kmm HeH I4pa. 

AflMUHUCTpaTMBHO- 

TeppnTopnanbHoe 
fleriGHne: 

9 npoBMHunii m 3 ro- 
pofla ueHTpanbHoro noA- 

HMHeHUfl (nxeHbflH. K3COH, 

HaMnxo). 

ripoBUHMHn: 

1. XaMreH-flyKTO 

2. XaMreH-HaMAO 

3. flHraHflo 

4. HaraHflo 

5. nxeHaH-HaMAO 

6. rixeHaH-riyKTo 

7. XBaHxa-HaMflo 

8. XBaHxa-riyKTO 

9. KaHBOHAO 



rionMTMHecKoe 
ycTpoiiCTBo: 

O a h o n a p t m m h a a 
(TpyAOBan riapTun Kopew 
[TriK], co3AaHa 10 okth6- 
pa 1945 r., HacHHTbisaeT 
oko/io 3,2 MnH. nneHOB) 
KOMMyHMCTHwecKan fluiaa- 
Typa >KecTKoroTOTannTap- 
Horo Tuna c runepipocpn- 

pOBaHHblM KynbTOM J1MH- 
HOCTH BOJKAA napTHM. 

riocne rpa>KAaHCKOM 
BOfiHbi 1950-53 rr. KopeiicKMti nonyocTpoB 6bin pa3AeneH 
(npMMepHO no 38-ii napannenn) AeMwnnTapn30BaHHOi* 30- 
Hoii (ujupuHOM 4 km m AnHHHOii 240 km) Ha CeBepHyK) KopeK) 
(KHflP) — ccpepy BnnnHiifl CCCP n Kman, n fOwnyK) KopeK) 

- ccpepy BnMflHMH 3anaAHt>ix AeMOKpamrt (b nepByo onepeAb 

- CLUA). 

CornacHO KOHCTMTyunn (1972 r.) KHflP - cysepeHHoe 
couManncTMHecKoe rocyAapcTBO, KOTopoe b CBoetf Ae^Terib- 

HOCTM pyKOBOACTByeTCS MAenMM «HYMXe». Maccw BOCnMTbl- 

BaKDTcn b Ayxe 6e3rpaHMMHoii npeAaHHOCTM Be/iHKOMy Bow- 
nto Khm Up CeHy, a TaKwe ero Cbiny - Kmm MeH Mpy, kotopwm 
nocne cMepm crua (1994 r.) cian pyKOBOAmeneM dpaHbi. 
B OKTn6pe 1997r. Khm HeH Mp M36paH TeHepanbHbiM ceKpe- 
TapeM TpyAOBoii napTnn Kopen (TriK). 

«Hynxe» - caMOCTOHTenbHOCTb. B cooTBeTCTBMM c 

3TMMH MAeflMM BCe BOnpOCbl «B peBOJIKDUMH M CTpOMTenb- 

CTBe»bi Aonx<Hbi peiuaTbca c no3ni4uPi caMOCTOflTenbHOCTM, 
npM onope Ha co6cTBeHHbie cunw, coo6pa3Ho c AertcTBH- 

TenbHOCTbK) CTpaHW. 



4 nPABA HEJ10BEKA 



27 



AHApePi JIAHbKOB 



CeBePHaa Kopea: 
penpeccnn v\ 6ecnpaBne 



OaHOH H3 xapaicrepHwx nepT ceBepoKopeHCKoro oome- 

CTBa JHMJieTCfl BCeo6teMJlK)IUHH rOCyaapCTBeHHUH KOHTpOJlb, 

KOTopuii KacaeTCJi Bcex ctopoh 5KH3HH Kopenua. rio-BHilHMO- 
My, He 6yaeT oco6hm npeyBeaHneHHeM cKa3aTb, mto CeBep- 
Haa Kopea — Han6oaee KOHTpoaHpyeMoe oSmecTBo coBpe- 
MeHHoro MHpa. B 3toh daTbe xoTeaocb 6m ocTaHOBHTbca KaK 
Ha HCTopHH, TaK h Ha coBpeMeHHbix MeToaax aaMHHHCTpa- 
THBHo-nonHueHCKoro kohtpojih Haa HaceaemieM b CeBepHofi 
Kopee. <...> 

Ha nepBbix nopax CTpyiaypa ceBepoKopeHCKoro pen- 
peccHBHO-nojiHueHCKoro annapaia cKaaabiBaaacb noa CHJib- 
HbiM coBeTCKHM BJiHHHHeM, npH npjiMOM yHacTHH BbixoaueB 
H3 CCCP h HanpaBJieHHbix Mockboh cobcthhkob, KOTopwe 
pa6oTajiH b annapaTe KopencKoro MBJX BiuiOTb ao KOHua 
1950-x it. 1 rio-HacToaiueMy cneu.H(pnHecKHe IKTOW voa- 
HHCTpaTHBHO-no.inueHCKoro KOHTpojia hzr HaceaeHHeM, xa- 
paKTepHbie hmchho nnn KHJXP, noflBHancb ToabKo b KOHue 
1950-x rr., Koraa nepnoa 6e3oroBopoHHoro caeaoBaHHH b 
(J>apBaTepe coBeTCKOH no;iHTHKH ocraaca no3aaH, h bo mho- 

TOM 6bIJlH CBS33HK! C BJlHHHHeM nO.IHTHMeCKOH KyjIbTypbl 

MaoHCTCKoro KHTas. 

Pe3Koe y)KecTOHeHHe KOHTpoas Haa HacejieHHeM Hana- 
jiocb b CeBepHofi Kopee c KOHua 1 950-x roaoB, to ecTb c Toro 
BpeMeHH, Koraa (ppaKiniH Khm Hp CeHa, pacnpaBHBiimcb co 
cbohmh peajibHUMH H no i cHniia;ii,iii,iMH conepHHKaMH, 3ax- 
naiH.ia bck) nojiHOTy BJiacTH b crpaHe. Hmchho c Tex nop 
CeBepHas Kopea, KOTopaa h paHbuie OTHioab He flBaaaa co6oh 
UBeTymyio aeMOKpaTHio, HanHHacr npeBpaiuaTbca b TOTaab- 

HO KOHTpOaHpyeMOe 06meCTB0, B KOTOpOM BJiaCTH CTpeMHTCH 

BMeiUHBaTbCfl a6coaK»THo bo Bee ctodohh >kh3HH cbohx noa- 
aaHHbix. 

30 Mas 1957 roaa nocTOHHHbiH komhtct (nojiHT6iopo) 
UK TpyaoBofi FlapTHH KopeH (TriK) npHHsa peuieHHe noa 
aaHHHbiM Ha3BaHHevi: «0 npeBpameHHH 6opb6w c KOHTppe- 
BoaKJUHOHHbiMH laeMeHTaMH bo BceHapoaHoe, BcenapTHH- 
Hoe aBH>KeHHe» (Tan Ha3biBaeMoe «peuieHHe ot 30 Maa»). 
3thm peiueHHeM 6uao noaoiKeHo Haqaao oaHOH H3 nepBbix 
KpynHbix KaMnaHHH no BbiflBaeHHK) BparoB peacHMa. Ha nep- 
Bbix nopax KaMnaHHH no «npeBpameHHK) 6opb6u c KOHTppe- 
BoaHDUHOHHbiMH 3aeMeHTaMH bo BceHapoaHoe, BcenapTHH- 
Hoe aBH)KeHHe» maa uno h pe3KO aKTHBH3HpoBanacb .mini, b 
1959 roay, Koraa npH UK TFIK 6ua co3aaH cneuHaabHWH 
opraH aaa pyKOBoacrea eio. Bo raaBe 3Toro opraHa Bcran 
MaaaujHH 6paT Khm Hp CeHa — Khm Eh M>Ky, KOTopbifi b to 

BpCMfl 6bia O.THMM H3 BblCUIHX napTHHHMX (JtyHKUHOHepOB. 

AHaaorHHHbie opraHbi, b cocTaB KOTopux BxoaHao ao 7000 
HeaoBeK, obi.in co3aaHbi h npw napTHHHbix KOMHTeTax 6oaee 
HH3KOrO ypoBHfl 2 . 



Pa3AeneHHoe o6m,ecTBo 

B xoae itoh KaMnaHHH Bee HaceaeHHe CeBepHOH Kopen 
6uao BnepBbie pa3aeaeHo Ha 3 rpynnu: «Bpa»ae6Hbie CHabi», 
«HeHTpaiibHbie chjiw» h «apy«ecTBeHHbie CHaw». 3to Tpex- 
qjieHHoe aeaeHHe coxpaHaeTca h noHbiHe. 

K «Bpa»aeoHbiM cnaaM» 6biaw oTHeceHu: 

1 ) ceMbH nepe6e)KHHKOB Ha K)r; 

2) 6biBLUHe noMeiUHKH, npeanpHHHMaTeaH, ToproBuw h 
cay»HTeaH KyabTa, a Taoce hx com mi ; 

3) He BepHyBiiiHecH Ha CeBep naeHHbie h naeHbi hx 
ceMeil; 

4)6bIBIHHe COTpyaHHKH 5inOHCKOH KOaOHHajIbHOH aaMH- 
HHCTpaUHH H HX CeMbH; 

5) ceMbH anu, OTGbiBaioiuHx TiopeMHoe 3aKaioHeHHe. a 
TaioKe caMH owBiune 3aKaK)HeHHbie; 

6) «(ppaKUHOHepw» (to ecTb Te naeHbi napTHH, KOTopue 
BbicrynanH npoTHB aeficTBHH Khm Hp CeHa) h hx ceMbH. 

K «apy»ecTBeHHbiM cnaaM» 6wan OTHeceHu: 

1 ) ccmi.h nornouiHX peBoaiouHOHepoB; 

2)ceMbH norn6iiJHx BoeHHOcayacauiHx; 

3) KaapoBbie paoo i hhkh h hx ccmkh. 

OcTajibHoe HacejieHne nonaao, ecTecTBeHHo, b pa3p>ia 
«HeHTpajn.Hbix cna». 

TaK 6biaa 3aaoaceHa ocHOBa ^ecTKoro. no cyTH — co- 
caoBHoroaeaeHHH HaceaeHHa Ha HepaBHonpaBHbie h Hacaea- 
CTBeHHbie KaTeropHH, KOTopoe cTaao xapaKTepHOH nepTofi 
noaHTHHecKOH opraHH3auHH ceBepoKopeHCKoro o6iuecTBa. 
CHCTeMa 3Ta ciovkh. iacb noa jibhum b:immhhcm MaoncTCKoro 
KHTaa, rae c KOHua 50-x rr. ro'Ace cymecTBOBanH noxo>KHe 
KBa3HCocaoBHbie rpynnbi HaceaeHHS, oaHaKO b Kopee 3ro 
aeaeHHe, Bo-nepBbix, obi.io Kyaa 6oaee apoOHbiM, h, bo- 
BTopux, npocymecTBOBaao b TeMeHHe Kyaa 6oaee aoaroro 
BpeMeHH. 

B xoae KaMnaHHH 1957-1960 rr. 6biao BwaB.ieno hcmu- 

aoe KOaHHeCTBO «3aOCTHbIX KOHTppeBOaK)UHOHepOB», koto- 

pue npeacTaaH nepea cyaoM. OKoao 2500 HeaoBeK 6wao 
Ka3HeHO, npHneM hmchho b 3to BpeMa Ka3HH CTajiH ocyme- 
CTBaflTbCH ny6aHHHO. MHorne noaBeprancb 6oaee mjjtkhm 
HaKa3aHHAM. HacTbio KaMnaHHH CTaao nocTaHOBaeHHe Co- 

BeTa MHHHCTpOB J^*9 1 49, npHHHTOe Ha OCHOBaHHH y>Ke ynoMH- 

HaBiuerocfl «petueHHJi 30 Ma«». B cootbctctbhh c 3thm no- 
CTaHOBaeHHeM anua, OTHeceHHbie k «Bpa>Kae6HbiM CHaaM», 
aHuiaancb npaBa >KHTb b npHrpaHHHHbix h npHMopcKHX pafi- 
OHax (Ha paccTOJiHHH mchcc 20 km ot rpaHHUbi Han 6epero- 
boh aHHHH), a TaioKe Ha paccTOHHHH MeHee 50 km ot nxeHb- 
Miian K»cona h MeHee 20 km — 0TJiK)6oroapyror0KpynHoro 
ropoaa. EcaH ynecrb, hto CeBepHaH Kopea — He caHiiiKOM 



21 



CeBepHaa Kopea: penpeccnn v\ 6ecnpaBne 




"^oporoM u fltc6nMt.iM Boitgjb m 
yHMTe/ib Khm Up Coh". 



6ojibmaa cTpaHa, to 3T0 no- 

CTaHOBJieHHe <J>aKTHHeCKH 

03HaHajio BbiceneHHe 
«Bpa»cae6Hbix 3JieMeHTOB» b 
Majiojuo^Hbie ropHbie ce- 
bcphmc npoBHHUHH, rjifi JSJIX 

hx pa3MemeHHJi 6i>uii co- 

uam.i ciiciiiia.iL.iii.ie pano- 

Hbl. 

Bcero ace 3a BpeMfl aeH- 

CTBHH rioCTaHOBJieHHJI N° 

149, KOTopoe ocTaeTca b 
CHJie h noHbme, b ropHbie 
pawoHbi 6biJio. no k»khoko- 

peHCKHM ZOHHblM, BblCC.ICHO Ha IIOCIOHHHOC IipcV/KHBamie 

okojio 70 TbicflH HejioBeK 3 - Hano CKa3aTb, hto b 3tom cjiynae 

MM, B03MOHCHO, HMeeM flCJlO C np»MbIM COBeTCKHM B. I II H H HC M. 

tsk KaK bc« 3Ta CHcreMa BecbMa HanoMMHaer npecnoByrbiH 
« 1 1 km», cymecTBOBaBiuyio b CCCP CHCTeMy. b cootbct- 

CTBHH C KOTOpOH OCB06o/J,HBUJHeCfl H3 3aKJIK)HeHHfl ttBOfi B 

HHbie He6jiaroHaae)KHbie 3JieMeHTbi He hmcjih npaBa 3KHTb 
6;iH>Ke 101 km ot Mockbh, JleHHHrpaaa h hhmx KpynHbix 
ropoaoB. 

K i la-ia iy 1 96 1 i o.ia khm i ian n « no bi.ih b.ich m io h Bbicene- 
hhk) «KOHTppeBOJiK)UHOHHbix 3JieMeHTOB» ycneuiHO 3aBep- 
uiHjiacb. O^HaKo pe3Ka» aKTHBH3auHH BoeHHbix npHroTOBJie- 
hhh b Hanane 1960-x rr. h npoaoji>KaK>meec» yacecTOHeHHe 
BHyrpeHHeH nojiHTHKH KHMHpceHOBCKoro pe)KHMa noTpe6o- 
BajiH i ipoBc, icii iih hoboh, 6anee TwaTejibHOH «npoBepKH Ha- 
ceneHH5i Ha nojuibHOCTb». IlpoBepKa 3Ta na>ia.iaci. b 1964 

rOAy B COOTBeTCTBHH c nOCTaHOBJieHHCM «0 aajibHeHuieM 

ycHJieHHH pa6oTbi c pa3JiHMHbiMH cjiohmh h rpynnaMH Hace- 

jieHH»», npHHHTbIM BOCbMbIM njieHyMOM UK TIIK MeTBepTO- 

ro co3biBa b KOHue <J)eBpajm. nocTaHOBJieHHe npeanHCbiBajio 
npoBecTH HOBoe nepepacnpeaeJieHHe HacejieHH* no KaTero- 
pnHM. npHMeM HOBbiM (He TaKHM, KaK b 1957-1960 rr.) h 
cymecTBeHHO 6ojiee /j.po6hhm. Pa6oTa 3Ta npoBoziHJiacb b 
1 964- 1 969 rr. CHJiaMH TaK na st.i nac \i u x «rpynn 620», cneuH- 
aJlbHO C(|)OpMHpOBaHHbIX JUIH 3TOH ueuH. KaK h b 1957-1960 
rr., 3Ta ziejrrejibHOCTb conpoBOKnanacb bi.icbi. iKaMii. apecTa- 
mh h Ka3H«MH BparoB pe>KHMa (KaK peanbHbix.TaK h noTeHUH- 
ajibHbix ii.ni npocTO Bi.ri\Manni,i\ ). 3aBepuiHJiacb k-a\nianHH 
ycraHOB^eHHeM hoboh chctcmm pa3iiejieHHJi Bcero Hacene- 
HHA CeBepHOH KopeH Ha rpynnw. CHCTeMa 3Ta c HeKOTopbiMH 
H3MeHeHH»MH aeficTByeT h no HacToamero BpeMeHH, no3To- 
My Ha Hefi cnenycr ocraHOBHTbCfl nonoapo6Hee. 

Bee HacejieHHe KH^P b 33bhchmocth ot cBoero nponc- 
xoacaeHHH no/jpa3.ae.n>ieTC$i Ha 5 1 rpynny, KOTopwe o6pa3yrc>T 

TpH CJlOa: «OCHOBHOH», «KOJie6jlK>mHHCJl» H «Bpa>KHe6HbIH». 

K «ocHOBHOMy cjiok3» othochtch cneayiomHe 1 2 rpynn: 

1 ) pa6oHHe, Bbixo.au.bi H3 paSoHHx ceMefi; 

2) Bbixo.au.fai H3 KpecTbJiH-6aTpaKOB; 

3) Bwxoimw H3 6eaHbix KpecrbflH; 

4) cjiyiKaiuHe rocyaapcTBeHHbix yHpeacaeHHH; 

5) HJieHbi TIIK; 

6) m.ici i i.i ceMefi norH6iiiHX b 6ohx ynacTHHKOB peBOJiK)- 

UHOHHOH nop 1.6 I.I : 

7) HJieHbi ceMefi noKOHHbix ynacTHHKOB peBo;nouHOHHO- 
ro h HauHOHanbHO-ocBo6o^HTejibHoro ABHxceHHfl; 



8) peBOJiiouHOHHbie HHTejuinreHTbi (to ecTb TaKHe hh- 
TejuiHreHTbi. KOTopue nojiyHHJiH o6pa30BaHHe yace nocjie 
OcBo6o>KaeHHJi); 

9) ceMbH y6HTbix b roaw bohhw mhphwx ^HTenefi; 

10) ceMbH coJuaT, norn6ujHX Ha KopeiicKOH BOHHe; 

1 1 ) ceMbH BoeHHoc^yjKamnx; 

12) repoH bohhu. 

K «KOJie6jnomeMycfl cjiok>» othocjitcs 9 rpynn: 

13) 6biBiUHe MejiKHe ToproBUbi-pa3HOCMHKH; 

14) SbiBUJHe cpeaHHe ToproBUbi; 

1 5) 6biBUJne peMecjieHHHKH; 

16) 6biBUJHe BJiaaejibuw mcjikhx npeanpHjrrHH; 

17) 6biBtuHe B^aaejibUbi mc.ikmx npcnnpHJiTHH c(})epbi 
o6cjiy»HBaHH«; 

1 8) 6biBLLwe BJiaaejibuw cpe^HHx npeanpnaTHH c(j)epu 
o6cjiy>KHBaHHJi; 

19) ccMi.ii .ihu, yiueauiHX Ha KDr bo BpeMa KopencKOH 

BOHHM, HO npH 3TOM He CuBCpiIlMBIllHX HIIKaKliX ijeHCTBHH, 

HanpaB^eHHbix npoTHB ceBepoKopencKoro nojiHTHHecKoro h 
rocyaapcTBeHHoro CTpoa; 

20) 6biBUJHe KpecTbaHe-cepeAHJiKH; 

21) Bbixoauu c K)ra, He npHHHMaBuiHe ynacTHB b TaK 

1 1 a ( i ,i naeMo i i «(J>paKUHOHHOH aejiTenbHOCTH» (to ecTb, nonpo- 

CTy, He CB5I3aHHbie C KOMMyHHCTHMeCKHM .IBH/KOIIHeM B 

K)>khoh Kopee). 

KaK h cneayeT o»H^aTb, HaH6ojiee apo6Haji KJiaccH(J)n- 
KauHH cymecTByeT ons moneii, KOTopux HbiHemHHH ceBepo- 
KopeflcKHH pe*nM othocht k «BpajK^e6HOMy cjioio». Cyme- 
CTByeT hh MHoro hh Majio — 30 biuob BparoB: 

22) pa6oMHe co cjiojkhum coima. \ 1.11 um npOHCxo>icaeHH- 
eM, to ecTb Te jiioah, KOTopue, xots h CTann pa6oHHMH nocjie 
OcBo6o)K^eHH», no 3Toro foam npeanpHHHMaTe^MH hjih 

HHHOBHHKaMH; 

23) 6biBiHHe KyjiaKH, to ecTb KpecTb»He. Hcnojib30BaB- 

UJHe B CBOHX X038HCTBaX HaeMHblH TTpyR\ 

24) 6biBUJHe ToproBUbi, npeiiCTaBjiHBUJHe HauHOHajibHbiH 
MejiKHH h cpe^HHH KanHTaji; 

25) 6biBUJne noMeiuHKH, to ecTb .inua. BJiaaeBiiiHe no 
3eMejibH0H pecpopMbi 1 946 rxxaa oojiee Hevi 5 hoh6o ( 1 hohoo 
■ 0,99 ra) ;cm i n; 

26) nnua, 3aHHMaBuiHecji npoanoHCKOH hjih npoaMepH- 

KaHCKOH IjeflTeJlbHOCTbK); 

27) 6biBUJHe peaKUHOHHbie mhhobhhkh, c^jOKHBUJHe b 
anoHCKOH KOJiOHHajibHOH aaMHHHcrrpauHH; 

28) CeMbH ^HU C XOpOUIHM COUHaJIbHbIM npOHCXWKiie- 

iiiicm. coBepiiiHBUJHX npecTynHbie acmctbhji h 6oKamn n\ Ha 
K)r BO BpCMH bohhu; 

29) ceMbH jihu c qyaunoi couHajibHbiM npoHcxoacaeHH- 
e\i. 6c>KaBiiinx Ha Id bo BpeMB bohhm; 

30) BepHyBuiHeca b 1 950-e rr. H3 KnTaji b Kopeio KHTafi- 
cKHe Kopefiubi; 

31) BepHyBuiHecji b 1960-e rr. H3 5InoHHH b Kopeio 
anoHCKHe KopeHuu; 

32) nepe6ewHHKH c K)ra, He OTHOCflinHeca k KaTeropHH 
JV2 21; 

33) CTapaa HHTejuiHreHuna, nojiynHBuiaa o6pa30BaHne 
eme no OcBo6o»ciieHHfl; 

34)nnua, HcnoBeayiomHe npoTecTaHTH3M h ncnojiHaio- 
mne npoTecrraHTCKHe o6pjiabi; 



CeBepHaa Kopea: penpeccnn 1/1 6ecnpaBne 



21 



35) jiHua. HcnoBeayiomHe 6yaaH3M h HcnojiHJiiomHe 
GyaanncKne o6paabi; 

36) . in i ui. HcnoBeayjouiHe KaToanujnM h HcnojiHJHoiune 
KaTO^HMecKHe o6psiabi; 

37) MecTHbie KOHqbyu.HaHu.bi; 

38) JiHua, HCKJiiOHeHHue H3 TI1K; 

39) 6biBiiJHe KaapoBbie pa6oTHHKH, CHSTbie c nociOB; 

40) JiHua, cjiy»HBuiHe bo BpeMa oKKynaunn CeBepHOH 

Kopeil B a.MepHKaHO-K)>KHOKOpeHCKHX BOHCKaX, B nOJIHUHH M 

rocyaapcTBeHHOM annapaTe K)ra; 

41 ) ceMbH ami, oTObiBafoiuHx TiopeMHoe 3aioiK)HeHHe; 

42) ;iHua, CB«3aHHwe co mniioHCKHMH opraHH3aun»MH, 
h HJieHbi hx ceMew; 

43) aHTMnapTHHHbie, KOHTppeBOJHOUHOHHbie. qbpaKUH- 

oHHbie 3,ieMeHTbj; 

44) ceMtH jihu, Hai<a3aHHbix 3a noaHTHnecKHe npecryn- 
JieHHa; 

45) JiHua, ocBo6o^MBiuHecfl nocjie ot6mthh cpona HaKa- 
3aHH« 3a noaHTHHecKHe npecrynaeHHa; 

46) JiHua, cicnoHHue k xyjiHraHCKHM nocTynKaM; 

47) «no^03pHTejibHbie weHLUHHbi» — obimnne maMaH- 

KH, KypTH3aHKH-KHC3H H HX O.IH/KaiilllllC poaCTBCHHHUbi; 

48) .inua. ocBo6o;iHBiiJHecji nocae ot6mthji cpoKa HaKa- 
3Uaa 3a XHineHHa, pacrpaTbi h HHue 3KOH0MHnecKHe npe- 
CTynaeHHJi; 

49) 6biBUJHe HJieHbi IlapTHH Moaoawx apy3efi He6ecHoro 
nyro; 

50) oi.ibiuhc 'i.-icHi,! JJeMoicpaTHHecKOH napTHH; 

5 1 ) 6biBuiHe KamrrajiHcnj,co6cTBeHHOCTb KOTopux 6buia 
HauHOHajiH3HpoBaHa b 1 946 roay. 

OcTanbHbie acme;™ CTpaHu othocjttcji, KaK mo>kho aer- 
ko aoraaaTbca, k «Koae6aioiueMycji» cjioio. To, k KaKOMy 

CJIOK) H aa)Ke K KaKOM KOHKpeTHO H3 3THX MHOrOHHCaeHHblX 

rpynn npHHaaae>KHT tot hjih hhoh HeaoBeK, OKa3bmaeT or- 
poMHoe, a nopofi h onpeaejisuomee h.ihmhuc Ha ero cyab6y. 
Or 3Toro 3aBHCHT nocTynaeHHe Ha pa6oTy huh yne6y, a 

3HaHHT, H ypOBeHb XH3HH, B03MO)KHOCTb >KHTb B IlxeHbflHe H 

apyrnx npecTH>KHbix ropoaax, TaacecTb npHroBopa b cnynae 
cyaa h MHoroe apyroe. HanpHMep, y npeacTaBHTeneH «Bpa>K- 
aeGHoro cnoa» o6biHHo Her i i n kukii \ uiaHcoB hh nocrynHTb b 
ctojihhhmh By3. hh )KHTb b rTxeHb»He hjih KxOHt. IlpeacTa- 
BHTe^H HanGojiee aHCKpuMHHHpyeMbix rpynnHpoBOK, KaK 
npaBHjio, Moryr HaHTH ce6a cynpyra TOJibKO cpean TOBapH- 
men no HecnacTbio (cHTyauHa, H3BecTHa» no Maoine/xyHOBC- 
KOMy KHTaw), hto OKOHHaTeabHO npeBpamaeT TaKHe rpynnH- 
PObkh b 3aviKHyTbie Hacjie^CTBeHHbie KBCOl HenpuKacaeMbix. 
Pa3yMeeTCH, hct HHKaKOH bo3mohchocth aaace npn6aH- 
3HTejibH0 onpeaejiHTb MHCJieHHocTb 3thx rpynn. Pa3Ho6ofi b 
aaHHbix no 3TOMy Bonpocy peaKOCTHMH. TaK, b 1986 roay b 

OaHOH KWKHOKOpeHCKOH KOaJieKTHBHOH MOHOrpa(J)HH,COCCbUl- 

koh na H3aaHne MnHHCTepcTBa o6beaHHeHH» (3TH H3aaHHJi 
BecbMa 6oraTu (fjaicraMH, ho, yBbi, He ccwaKaMH, h, noxoace. 
Macro onnpaiOTCH Ha pa3BeabiBaTeabHyio HHqbopMaitHio), 6u.no 
3ajiBJieHO, hto HHcaeHHOCTb «ocHOBHoro», «KOJie6^K)iuero- 
c*» h «Bpa3Kae6Horo» caoeB cocTaBJiseT 28%, 45% h 27% 

COOTBeTCTBeHHO 4 . 

Unqbpbi 3th, no KpaHHen Mepe, npaBaonoao6Hbi, h Bee 
6u HHMero, ecan 6u b apyroM pa3aeaeTofi ace caMOH kojuick- 



thbhoh MOHorpa(J)HH He coaep- 
/KaaHCb, co ccwaKOH Ha aMepn- 
KaHCKyio ny6nHKauHio, coBceM 
apyrne uH(j>pu: 25%, 24 %, 5 1 % s . 
TaKofi pa36poc eiae pa3 noanep- **» %£.£ £* 



-,«-. Z'U- mm 






06b«BneHne o npoBenennn 
ny6nnMHOM 3K3eKyunn. 



KHBaeT TO OOCTOJITejlbCTBO, HTO 

cepbe3HOH HH^opMauHH noKaHer 
hh y koto. 

P. KaraH, coaBTop H3BecT- 
hoh paGoTU o npaBax qejioBeKa b 
CeBepHOH Kopee, CKa3aa Ha npo- 
BoaHBuiHxca b Mae 1992 roaa b 
CLUA cneuna^bHbix cayinaHHSx 

Heritage Foundation no ceBepoKopencKOMy Bonpocy. hto k 
nepBOMy, «ocHOBHOMy», caoio othochtca okojio 2 MaH. weao- 
BeK, ko BTopoMy — «KoaeojiK)iueMycji» — okojio 1 5 MaH. h k 
TperbeMy — «Bpa)Kae6HOMy» — oKoao 3 MaH*. K coHcaae- 
hhk), P. KaraH He aaa npH 3tom hhkbkhx ccwaoK. HaM. 
oaHaKO. npeacTaaiJieTCfl, hto HHcaeHHOCTb «ocHOBHoro» caoH 
y P. KaraHa cyinecTBeHHo 3aHH)KeHa, a «Kone6aiomerocji» — 
HaoSopoT. 3aBbiiueHa. 

ripn paccMOTpeHHH oueHOK P. KaraHa cjieayeT no- 

MHHTb, HTO TOJibKO HHCJieHHOCTb 7TFK, BCe HJieHbi KOTOpOH, 

no onpeaeneHHio. othochtch k «ocHOBHOMy» caoio, b 1980 
roay cocTaBa«jia. KaK 6wjio coo6meHo Ha VI Cbe3ae, «2-3 
MHJiaHOHa HejioBeK» h c Tex nop, 6eccnopHo. yBeaHHHJiacb. 
KpoMe Toro, k «ocHOBHOMy» cjioio caeayeT othccth npaKTH- 
necKH Bcex >KHTe.iefi IlxenbHHa h KscoHa, a 3TO eiue okojio 
asyx m ii.MiioHOR neaoBeK. nacTHHHo 6ecnapTHHHbix h. TSKHH 
o6pa30M, anujb nacTHHHO BxoaaiUHX b ynoMHHVTbie Bbiuie «2- 
3 MHaaHOHa». KpoMe Toro, b cocTaB «ocHOBHoro cjioji» 
BxoaJrrHceMbHBoeHHocayjKarnHx — HeMaaoHHcaeHHaa rpyn- 
na, ecan ynecTb, hto b ceBepoKopeficKOH apMHH HacHHTbi- 
BaeTCH 6ojiee MHjuiHOHa coaaaT h o<\h\ i icpou . TaK hto aawe no 

CaMbIM npH6jIH3HTeabHbJM MHIII1MCLII,III>IM OUeHKaM HHCJieH- 
HOCTb «ocHOBHoro cj:oji» eaBa ^h mojkct 6biTb MeHbuie 4-5 
MHaaHOHOB neaoBeK. CKopee »e Bcero, 0Ha cymecTBeHHo 
Bbiuje. 

HMeeT cmwcji CKa3aTb HecKonbKo cjiob o KopeficKHx 

MeCTaxaHUieHHJI CBo6oabI, 6e3 KOTOpblX 3({)(|)eKTHBHWH KOH- 

Tpo.ib pexcHMa Haa HaceaeHHeM 6wa 6w hcmwcjikm. Bee 
KopeficKHeTiopbMbi h aarepa mojkho pa3aejiHTb Ha ase rpyn- 
nbi: aarepji, b KOTopue HanpaBJiHiOTCJi no.iHTHHecKH He6aa- 
roHaaeacHbie M&iCfmt h noaHTHHecKHe npecTynHHKH, h 
o6b!HHbie Jiarepjj h TtopbMy, b KOTopwx coaep*aTcn anua, 
ocyjKaeHHbie cyaoM 3a yro.iOBHbie npecTynaeHHJi. H3 H3Bec- 
thoh Ha HacTOfliium momcht HiicJiopMLiuii ii co3aaeTc>i BnenaT- 
jieHne, hto cerperauHH Mexcay yroJioBHbiMH h noaHTHHec- 
khmh npecTynHHKaMH co6jnoaaeTCJi b KHJJP aocTaTOHHo 
(rrporo. 

ccbi/iKa M cneunoce/ieHne 

K nepBOMy THny aarepefi othocstcji TaK naii.mae\n.ic 
«paHOHbi aeficTBH* nocTaHOBaeHHa Xsl49» h «oco6ue pan- 
ohu o6beKTOB aHKTaTypbi». «PaHOHbi aeHCTBHH riocTaHOBae- 

HHfl ]Vol49» (149 XO T3CaHb HHeK) 6bUlH C03aaHbI B KOHUC 

naTHaecHTbix roaoB b ceBepHbix MaaoHaceaeHHbix npoBHH- 
UHflx nocjie npHHjn-HayHceynoMHHaBUjerocji nocTaHOBaeHHJi 



CeBepHaa Kopea: penpeccwi/i i/i 6ecnpaBne 




noKa3aTenbHas 3K3e«yunH 



CoBeTa MHHHCTpoB. KOTopoe npeaycMaTpHBajio BbiceneHHe 
HOKenaTejibHbix sneMeHTOB b OTaaneHHbie ropHue mccthoc- 
th. BwcjiaHHbie Ty.ua jiio/ih He aBJiaioTca 3amiK)HeHHbiMn b 
tohhom cMbicjie cuoBa. CKopee, ohh Haxo/iaTca Ha nojioace- 
hhh. HanoMMHaiomeM cTaTyc cobctckhx «cneunepeceneH- 
ueB» 30-50-x rr. (bo3mo)kho, hto 3/iecb cymecTBOBano npa- 
Moe BJiMHHHe): b y/jocTOBepeHHax jihmhocth y hhx craBHTca 
cooTBeTCTByioiuaji oTMeTKa, ohh o6a3aHbi nepnojiHMecKH 
OTMeHaTbca b MecTHOM ynpaBJieHHH o6mecTBeHHOH 6e3onac- 
hocth, 6e3 pa3peuieHH« 3Toro opraHa ohh He Moryr noKH- 
Hyrb CBoero nocejiKa hjih npnniacHTb Koro-JiH6o k ce6e. 
BucjiaHHbie b 3th pafioHbi jijohh 3aHHMaK)TCH npeHMyme- 

CTBCHHO Ta^CjlOH (pH3HHeCKOH pa60TOH, XOTH 6bl no TOH 

npHMHHe. hto HHKaKOH .apyrofi paSoTbi TaM HeT. 

FlapaaoKcajibHocTb CHTyauHH 3aicnK)HaeTca b tom, hto 
ecjiH HauiH npcananoaceHHa o bjihahhh cTariHHCKOH chctcmw 
«cneu.nepece.neHu.eB» Ha «IlocTaHOBjieHHe JVs 1 49» BepHbi, to 
ero aBTopaM He Haao 6biJio TpaTHTb MHoro BpeMeHH Ha H3yne- 
HHe coBeTCKoro onwTa: «cneunepecejieHuaMH» b 1937-1945 
rr. 6wjio GojibuiHHCTBO cobctckhx KopeftueB, b tom HHCJie h 
Te, kto b KOHue 1 950-x rr. 3aHHMan 3aMeTHbie nocTbi b KH R?. 

«Oco6we panoHbi o6beKTOB^HKTaTypbi» oujih co3.aaHbi 
b KOHue 1 950-x rr. h npeziHa3HaHajiHCb ann BbicejieHHa Ty.ua 

JIHU, CB«3aHHbIX C TeMH HJ1H HIII.IMH nOJIHTHHeCKHMH npe- 
CTynTeHHHMH. 3TOT HHCTHTyT (KaK, KCT8TH, H caM CTpaHHO- 

BaTbifi juia Haiuero cjiyxa TepMHH «o6beKTbi AHKTaTypbi») — 

KHTaHCKOrO npOHCXO)KfleHHfl. Pe5KHM, fleHCTByJOlUHH B 3THX 

pafioHax, 3HaHHTejibH0 cTpoace Toro, hto cyiuecTByeT b «pan- 
OHaxaencTBHB IlocTaHOBJieHHa Xs 1 49», h6o b hhx npenMy- 
mecTBeHHO Haxo/iaTca He noTeHUHajibHbie Bparn pexcHMa, a 
jwua. coBepiiJHBiiiHe Te hjih HHbie «nojiHTHHecKHe oujh6kh», 
a TaioKe hjichh ceMen 6ojiee cepbe3Hbix nojiHTunecKHx npe- 

CTynHHKOB. riO K))KHOKOpeHCKHM HaHHblM, B KOHUe BOCbMH- 

aecHTbix roaoB b KHJJ.P HacHHTbrnajiocb ^BeHajuaTb Tanux 
panoHOB, njiowaabio ot 50 no 250 kb. km Kaacabin. Kojinne- 
ctbo npoKHBajouiHX TaM «o6beKTOB ^HKTaTypbi» oueHHBaeT- 
ch npHMepHO b 1 50 thc nejiOBeK 7 . 

B nocjieaHee BpeMa noaBmiucb nepBbie aocTOBepHbie 

CBefleHHi! HCH3HH B «0C06bIX paHOHaX 06beKT0B JlHKTaTy- 
pbl». 3T0 CB«3aHO C TeM, HTO HeCKOJlbKHM 6bIBlUHM 3aKJHO- 

neHHUM y/janocb nepe3 HeKOTopoe BpeMa nocne ocBo6o>K.ae- 

HH5I H3 3aKJHOHeHHa 6e>KaTb B K)jKHyiO KopeK). Ha OCHOBaHHH 

hx paccKa30B momcho npcucTaBHTb yician jkh3hh, cytuecTBy- 
KHUHH b Jiarepax 3Toro THna. 



B uejiOM pe)KHM b «oco6bix pafioHax» 6jih30k k jiarepHO- 
My. TeppHTopna panoHa o6HeceHa KonioHeH npoBO.ioKOH h 
oxpaHaeTca, HaxoaaiuHeca TaM jihwh Bo6»3aTejibHOM nopa/i- 
Ke jon)KHbi pa6oTaTb no 12 nacoB b aeHb, nojiynaa CKyjjHbiH 
naeK. Ohh, KaK npaBHJio, >KHByT b OTaejibHbix jiOMax hjih 
3eMJiJiHKax BMecTe co cbohmh ceMbasiH, Moryr 6e3 kohboa 
nepe^BHraTbca no TeppHTopHH pafioHa, hm pa3peiuaerca 3a- 
HHMaTbca 3eMJieae;iHeM. 

B OilHOM OTHOUieHHH CCBepOKOpeHCKHH pOKHM flaieKO 
npeBOCXOAHTCBOH npOTOTHnbll CTaJlHHCKHH COBeTCKHH Cok>3 

h Maou3eayHOBCKHH KuTafi. <. . .> B Kopee b «oco6bin paiioii •.- 
nacTO nonaaaioT uenuMH ceMbHMH, npHHeM HecoBepuieHHO- 
nCTHHX ^eTeii oinpaBJiaiOT Tyaa bmcctc c pojHTenaMH. TaK, 
»HBymHH Hbine b KD»hoh Kopee KaH Hxojib XBaH 6wji 
oTnpaBJieH b «oco6uh pafioH o6beKTOB aHKTaTypbi» BMetrre 
co cBoen ceMbefi b 1977 roay, Koraa eMy oujio lonbso 7 ner, 
h HaxoflHJica TaM no (peBpana 1987 roaa. IIphhhhoh apecTa 
ceMbH cTan kohjpjihkt Me»iiy ero 6a6yuiKOH, npoyKHBaBHieH 
b 51noHHH, aKTHBHCTKofi MxoHpeHa, nponxeHbaHCKofi opra- 

HH3aUHH anOHCKHX KOpeHUeB, H JIHUepOM 3T0H opraHH3auHH 

XaH JloK Cy . Ilocne penaTpHaunn 3Ta ceMba, KOTopaa. noMH- 
mo Bcero nponero, BHecaa HeManue achbth Ha cTpoHrejib- 
ctbo HcnonHHCKOH craTyH Khm Hp CeHa Ha xonMe MaHcy^3, 
b nojiHOM cocTaBe nonana b Jiarepb. Rem b narepax — 3TO 
aBJieHHe CTom o6biHHoe, hto juisi hhx TaM aa>Ke aencTByioT 
uiKOJibi, rae npenojiaiOT coTpynHHKH nojiHTunecKOH nonn- 

UHH (TaKyK) UJKOJTy OKOHHHJl, B HaCTHOCTH, KaH MxOjlb XBaH) 1 . 

BHyrpH caMHX «oco6wx panoHOB» HMeioTca 30Hbi, pa3- 
nHHaiouiHeca no CBoeMy pe>KHMy. H3bcctho o cymecTBOBa- 
hhh 6anee MarKHX «3oh peBO^KJUHOHHsauHHw h 6ojiee 5KecT- 

KHX «30H a6cOJTK>THOrO KOHTpona». B nOCJieilHHX 3aK^K)HeH- 

Hbie jiHiueHM npaBa >KHTb c ceMbaMH h Boo6me He hmckdt 
maHcoB na ocBoGoKaeHHe'. 

Bee 3TH THnbi jiarepeH OTJinnaioTca TeM, hto ohh He 
aBJiafOTca, b CTporoM CMbicjie cjiOBa, MecTaMH OT6brTHa naKa- 
3aHH«, noTOMy hto 3aKJiioHeHHbie nacro (a bo3mojkho, h 
Bceriia) HanpaBJiawTca b hhx bo BHecyae6HOM nopanKe, no 
oaHOMy i ii i in. aaMHHHCTpaTHBHOMy peiueHHK) BJiacreH. Ilo- 
BHUHMOMy, cpoK npeowBaHHa b 3aKJiioHeHHH HHKaK He jihmh- 
THpoBaH h ocBo6o>K.aeHHe 3aBHCHT HdciKjHHTejibHo ot npo- 
H3Bona BJiacTefi. 

OcyjJcaeHHbie no cy^y oifjbiBaioT Hak-a^aii ne b TiopbMax, 
KOTopwe 6biBa»OT iiByx bhuob — HcnpaBHTenbHbie narepa 
(KexBaco) h HcnpaBHTejibHO-TpyaoBbie narepa (HOjiOHb Kex- 
Baco). 

)KH3Hb nopal h Jiarepen — o^Ha H3 caMwx 3aKpwTbix 
CTpaHHU b jno6oM TOTajiHTapHOM rocy^apcTBc OcooeHHO 
3to oTHocHTca k TaKOMy cBepxTOTajiHTapHOMy rocyaapcTBy. 
k:ikhm aB^aeTca coBpeMeHHaa CeBepnaa Kopea. 

3a BpeMa CBoero npe6biBaHHa b 3toh CTpaHe a oopaiEfl 
».i! h van ne Ha to, hto KopencKaa nponaranaa h otpHUHajibHoe 
HCKyccTBO (a apyroro HCKyccTBa TaM npocTo He cy mecTByer) 
noHTH HHKoraa He roBopaT hh o cyae, hh o TiopbMax. 

<t>li:ibMt,I npO IIIIIMOHOB H «(ppaKUHOHepOB» KOHHaK)TCa TeM, 

hto pa3o6jiaHeHHbix xioaeeB Kyaa-To yB03»T. CueHa cyaa, 
CTOJib nonynapHaa b cobctckom KHHOHCKyccTBe cTajiHHCKHX 
BpeMeH, — pe^KOCTb, o TiopbMax ace h BOBce He roBopHTca 
HHHero. 



CeBepHaa Kopea: penpeccnn m 6ecnpaBne 



31 



B CBoeM 6o;ibujHHCTBe cyaw npoxozurr (eciiH npoxoaflT 
BOo6iue) b 3aKpuTOM nopaaKe. OTKpwTbie npoueccw — HBJie- 
HHe penKoe. h o6uhho ohm hocjjt noKa3aTeabHbm xapaicrep. 
Ah XeK, caM Cmbluhh 3aKJiK)MeHHbiH, sasawi KaTeropHHecKH: 
«Te, kto coBepuinri noiiHTHHecKHe hjih Haeo/iorHnecKHe npe- 
CTynjieHH», [HaKa3biBaioTCH] 6e3 cyaa»". Flo ero chomui, 
cyae6Hbifi npouecc — npHBHaernji yroaoBHbix npecTynHH- 
kob. 3to, bo3mo>kho, h HeKOTopoe npeyBejiHqeHHe, He hc- 
aacneao, hto KaKaa-TO ynpoweHHaa nceBaocyae6Haa npo- 
ueaypa Bce-TaKH npoBoaHTca (KaK b caynae c apecTOBaHHbiM 
b 1 967 roay BeHecyonbCKHM H03TOM Ajih JlaMeaon, KOTOpufi 
Toraa paooTaa b CeBepHofi Kopee). ho jjcho. hto Ha HacTOH- 
iuhh cya oHa coBepiueHHo Henoxoaca. 

Capyrou CTopoHbi, b cnvHae c J1h CyH Ok, o6bhhchhoh 
b yro-iOBHOM npecTyniieHHH, HeKoe noao6ne cyzia aencTBH- 
TeabHO HMe.io toecTo (xoth noKa3aHH» 6mjih aaHbi noa nbiT- 
KaMH)", hto Mo^eT noaTBep>KaaTb3aaB.neHHe Ah Xenao tom, 
hto b CeBepHOH Kopee cya»T 3a yrojiOBHbie npecTynjieHHJi, b 
to BpeMH KaK nojiHTHHecKHe npecTynneHHfl HaKa3biBaKjrcfl b 

aaMHHHCTpaTHBHOM nopJUKC BnpOHeM, BO MHOrOM 3TOT 

pa3i~oBop HenpejiMeTeH, TaK KaK ohcbhjho, hto cya, aa>Ke 
ec.iH oh HHor,ia h npoHcxoaHT,3aHHMaeT6yKBaiibHo MHHyru 
h npocTo 4>opMajibHO yrBep>KaaeT 3apaHee noaroTOBJieHHbin 

BJiaCTflMH npHTOBOp. 

Kastm 

CeBepHaa Kopea — oaHa H3 HeMHorux cTpaH Ha KMOe, 
KOTopaji npoaoJiacaeT iHHpoKO npHMeHjrrb ny6jiHHHbie ha jhh . 
JXo 70-x roaoB ny6-iHHHbie paccTpejibi, npoBoanBLunecfl npn 
6ojibiiiOM CTeneHHH Hapoaa, 6ujih o6mhhmm 3pejiHtueM na 
cTaaHOHax rixeHbflHa, ho b HacToamee Bpcaa noao6Hbie 
«ujoy» npoBoa»TCH TOJibKo b npoBHHUHH. OcywaeHHoro 

npHB«3bIBaK)T K BpblTOMy B 3CMJ1K) B UeHTpe CnOpTHBHOH 

apcHN CTOji6y h Ha r;ia3ax co6paBmeHca oyGnHKH, 3anHTaB 
npHroBop, paccTpe^HBaiOT. Cpean 3pHTejiefi b o6a3aTe;ibH0M 
nopJUKe^O.TvKHbl npHCyTCTBOBaTbCOC^yiKHBLlbl ocyaueHHo- 

ro. HHoraa b BocnHTaTeabHbix uenax Ha Ka3Hb Boaar h CTy- 

^eHTOB By30B, a TO H CTapUieKJiaCCHHKOB (OAHH H3 3HaKOMbIX 

aBTopa xoana Ha ny6jiHHHbiH paccTpeji b 1 984 roay BMecTe co 

BCeM KJiaCCOM). 

XapaicrepHOH ocooeHHOCTbio CHCTeMLl no.iHTHHecKoro 
Teppopa b CeBepHOH Kopee SBflSCTCl OTcyrcTBHe npucrpac- 
thh k nbiuiHbiM cyae6HHM anexTtaauBt, Ha KOTopux .nuaepbi 
onno3HUHH aoaxcHbi KajiTbca b pa3HOo6pa3Hbix peanbHbix 
hjih. name, BbiMbiiujieHHbix rpexax. 3to npHCTpacTne. pac- 
npocTpaHHBuieeca no EBpone, no-BHaHMOMy, H3 no3aHec- 
peaHeBeKOBOH AHr.nHH. KOTopaa coneTajia npoH3Bo;i BepxoB- 
hoh aiacTH c BecbMa noHTHTenbHbiM OTHOiueHHeM k (pop- 
MaibHbiM npaBOBbiM HOpMtkM, 6biao xapaicrepHO h aaa OpaH- 
uy3CK0H peBoawuHH. Ilonaao oho h b nocnepeBoaiouHOH- 

HyK) POCCHK). BO MHOrOM OpHeHTHpOBaBUjyKJCfl Ha 4>paHuy3- 
CKHe TpaaHLlHH. 

B to )Ke BpeMH HCTopHH CeBepHOH Kopen 3Haer To/ibKo 
oaHH OTKpwTbiH noanTHHecKHH npouecc — cya 1953 roaa 
Haa paao.M 6ubuihx pyKOBoaHTeaen K)«HOKopeHCKoro noa- 
no;ibH, KOTopwx o6BHHHaH b uinHOHa>Ke b noab3y CUJA h 
>InoHHH, noaroTOBKe BoeHHoro nepeBopoTa h paae apyrnx, 
CTO-ib »e cpaHTacTHHecKHx npecTynjieHHH. 



MCMe3H0BeHMSI 

OaHaKO 3Ta cyae6Haa HHcneHnpoBKa npoH3oin;ia eme b 
nepnoa, Koraa KopeficKoe pyKOBoacTBo bo Bcex o6;iacT»x 

XH3HB OaH03HaHHO OpHeHTHpOBaaOCb Ha COBeTCKHH onuT. 

Bbipa6oTaBUJHHCJi »e c KOHua 50-x rr. co6ctbchho ceBepoKO- 
peficKHH cTnab aHKBHaauHH HeyroaHbix. He HCKawHafl h ca- 
mwx BbicoKonocTaBneHHbix, CTa.3 npeaycMaTpHBaTb hx BHe- 
3anHoe HCMe3HOBeHne, noc.ne KOToporo 3aHacTyK) aaxce poa- 
Hbie He Moran y3HaTb o cyab6e acepTB a6coaioTHO HHnero. 
BnponeM, oGhhho y3HaBaTb 6biao HeKowry: naeHbi ceMeii 
penpeccnpoBaHHbix, b 6ojibiuHHCTBe cjiynaeB, caMH OTnpaB- 
juuma» b ccwaKy b yyKQ ynoMHHaBuiHecj! «oco6bie panoHbi 
o6"beicTOB aHKTaTypbi». 

B 3TOH MeToaHKe 6eccjieaHoro HCMe3HOBeHH» To»e, 
KOHeHHO. neT Hunero HOBoro — eio noab30BaaHCb MHorne 
aniaaTopcKHe peamoi. OaHaKO KopeficKaii cneuH<pHKa 3aK- 
TioHaeTcs b tom, hto TaKoe Hcne3HOBeHHe 0THK>ab He Bceraa 
OKa3biBaeTCJi wheum. B cianRHCKOfi Pocchh BHe3anHoe hc- 

4C3HOBeHHe BHaHOrO nO.THTHKa H.1H KpynHOrO HHHOBHHKa 

noHTH Bceraa 03HaHaro ero apecT h rn6ejib, ho b CeBepHOH 
Kopee ae.ia o6ctoat HecKO.ibKO HHane. HacTbi caynaH. Koraa 
jiioaH, KOTopux Bee Ha6aK>aaTeaH eaHHoayuiHo cHirraaH aaB- 
ho norH6uiHMH. BHOBb noflBJiHHHCb Ha ceBepoKopeficKOH no- 
THTHHecKOH apeHe h aa«e on$rrb HanHHaaH HrpaTbTaM HeMa- 
nyio ponb. OcooeHHo ynacTHJiHCb noao6Hbie «BocKpeujeHHH 
H3 He6uTHn» bo BTopon no.noBHHe 80-x rr. 

rioKa3aTeabHa a 3tom CMbicae cyab6a IlaK Hvkoh 3 (IlaK 
fleH AR) — coBeTCKofi KopeaHKH, 3a6poineHHOH BKopeioaaa 
Heaera.ibHOH pa6oTbi eme b 30-e rr. h BnocjieacTBHH nepe- 
MeTHyBiiieHcs Ha CTopoHy khmhpcchobckoh (ppaKUHH. IlaK 
H»oh 3 npHH»^a caMoeaesTejibHoe ynacTHe b yHmroxeHBH 
noTeHUHajibHbix npoTHBHHKOB Khm Hp CeHa, ho noc/ie jieTa 
1 968 roaa OHa nno-ian no Hc^e3Jia h. Ka3ajiocb, caMa pa3aenH- 
na hx cyab6y. OaHaKO cnycTa 20 bct, b 1986 roay, OHa BHOBb 
nojiBH-iacb Ha KopeHCKOH noaHTHHecKOH cueHe. 

BnponeM, nocae CBoero noaHTHHecKoro BocKpeuieHHH 
IlaK H)koh 3 Bce-TaKH cTaaa, hto Ha3WBaeTca, «CBaae6HbiM 
reHepanoM» h He nrpajia aKTHBHon nojiHTHHecKoii hjih aaMH- 
HHCTpaTHBHon ponn, Hero HHKaK Henb35i CKa3aTb o apyroM 
HeaoBeKe c noxoweH cyab6ofi — MxBe TBaHe. B MoaoaocTH 




"Mo6nnM30BaHHwe Maccw cnaBHT Mfleio Mywxe" 



32 



CeBepHaa Kopea: penpecctii/i i/i 6ecnpaBne 



oh npHHHMa.1 ynacTHe b napTH3aHCKOM hbh/Kchhh, cuejian 
6ojibnryio Kapbepy nocie OcBooo)KneHHfl, craa wwttbBBKOU 
TeHepa-ibHoro UJTaoa, ho b (peBpajie 1 969 roaa 6mji o6bhhch 
b «nonpbiBe aBTopHTda napTHH». chat co CBoero nocia h 
ncne3. OjiHaKO 6onbiue neM nepe3 aecHTHJieTHe oh Bjjpyr 
noflBH.icfl Ha BTopocTeneHHOM nocry, noroM CHOBa caejian 
Kapbepy h b 1988 rouy BepHyjicH Ha Ty caMyio ;mrDKH0CTb, c 
KOTopofi 3a 20 jieT ao 3Toro 6bi.i H3rHaH, CHOBa daB Hanajib- 
hhkom TeHepanbHoro LLlTa6a (h BTaKOBOM KanecTBe npocjia- 
bh.ich oco6o rpo3HUMH ttftBJlGHHJDfB no aapecy KDhchoh 
Kopen). 

Eme ojihhm npHMepoM TaKoro BocKpeuieHiw in nojiHTH- 
MecKoro He6biTHJi crajia cyjiboa Khm Eh 4a<y, 6paTa Khm Up 
CeHa, kotophh b cBoe BpeMH SfBKS paccMaTpHBajica KaK ero 

B03MO)KHbIH HaCJiejJHHK. HMeHHO OH, KCTaTH, OWJl 0/J.HHM H3 

pyKOBOAHTejieH ynoMHHaBiueHca Bbiuie Ka\inaHHH npoTHB 
KOHTppeBOJHOLiHOHHbix 3JieMeHT0B, npoxozuiBuieH B 1957- 
1959 it. B 1975 r. oh 6eccne;uio ncne3 c noJiHTHHecKofi 
apeHbi ( no cnyxaM, H3-3a Toro. hto HeaocTaTOHHO nojmep>KH- 
Ban HaHHHaioujeecH B03BbiiijeHne Khm HeH Hpa), o^HaKo b 
1993 ro/jy on«Tb noflBiuica b ceBepoKopencKOM npaBiirejib- 
CTBe, npuneM Ha oneHb 3aMeTHbix pojiax. Mo>kho npHBec™ 
eme uenbiH p»u npuMepoB TaKoro *e poaa. 

TiopbMbi m Jiarepn 

Ho HaHa.iaaeB»HOCTbix rojoB bhcuihhh MHp npaKTHHec- 
kh He 3Haji HHMero o tom, hto nponcxojuiT b ceBepoKopefic- 

KHX TK)pbMaX. E^HHCTBeHHWM HCTOHHHKOM HHfpOpMaUHH 

6bijia He6o.ibiijajj opomiopa BeHecy3JibCKoro no3Ta Ajih Jla- 
Mejjbi. KOTopoMy ynajiocb, no6bmaB b ceBepokopencKOH Tiopb- 
Me, BbipBaTbca OTTyaa Ha CBo6o.ay . B cepeaHHe 60-x tojob oh 
pa6oTaji b rixeHbHHe Koppeicropo.M Bbixoafluiefi TaM Ha hc- 
naHCKOM jnbiice JiHTepaTypbi h b ceHTa6pe 1967 roaa 6biji 
apecTOBaH BMecTe c eme ohhhm HHOCTpaHueM. cbohm cocuy- 
>KHBueM. Hm 6bmo npejrbflBJieHO o6BHHeHHe b mnHOHa>Ke b 
no.nb3y CUIA, cyaa no BceMy, a6cojnoTHO jioxHoe. B neM 
3aKjiK)Hajiacb HeHCTBHTejibHaa npnnHHa apecTa Ajih JlaMcaw 

— CKa3aTb aOCTaTOHHO CJ10>KHO, B03MOJKHO, B 3TOM CO BpeMe- 

tteu pa36epyTc» KopeficKHe HccnejOBaTejiH, ho bo3mo>kho h 
to, hto 3TO TaK HaBcerjw h ocTaHeTCJi TaHHoH: b Tamx jjejiax 
nucbMeHHbix CBnneTe^bCTB o6whho ne ocTaBJiaioT, a c Tenc- 
hhcm BpeMenn 6yjjeT Bee MeHbuie uiaHcoB hb&th wwbhx 

ynaCTHHKOB 3THX C06bITHH. 

Ilocjie roaa npe6biBaHHs b TK>pbMe, KpaTKOBpeMeHHoro 
ocBo6o>K^eHHH h hoboto apecTa Ajih JlaMcaa npeacTan nepca 
cyaoM. KaKHHanpeiiiijecTBOBaBUJHxcyiiy^onpocax, otAjih 
JlaMeaw noTpe6oBajiH npH3HaTb cbokj BHHy h noKaaTbCfl. Oh 
OTKa3ajics h noTpe6oBa.n 3aiu»Tbi h OTKpbrroro npouecca, ho 
cyabH nonynapHO pa3bflCHHJi eMy, hto noao6Hbie Tpe6oBaHHH 
jiBJunoTCfl 6yp>Kya3HbiMH, h, pa3yMeeTCJi, otkjiohhji hx. rioc- 
jie nHTHMHHyTHoro coBemaHHH cya npHroBopHJi Ajih JlaMeay 
k 20 roaaM TiopeMHoro 3aKJiK)HeHHfl KaK areHTa UPY. B 
TiopbMe, onHaKo, oh npoBeji TOJibKO 7 ner h b 1 974 ro/ry 6wn 
ocBoGoacaeH b pe3yjibTaTe aKTHBHbix xjionoT caMbix paSHUX 
opramnannii h ^eflTejiefi — ot «Me>KayHapoaHOH Amhhc- 
thh» no pyMbiHCKoro aHicraTopa HnKOJiae MayoiecKy. 

O/jHaKO cHTyauHHCTajiaMeHJiTbCJi BHananeaeBflHocTbix 
roiiOB, Koraa na KDr nepeuijio HecKOJibKo nenoBeK, hmcbujhx 



caMoe npaMoe oTHomeHHe k ceBepoKopencKOH KapaTe;ibHOH 
CHCTeMe. CpeaH hhx uoxho Ha3BaTb HecKOJibKHx Gubuihx 
3aiciiOHeHHbix:AHXeK(HaxojnjicjiBjiarepeB 1987-1989 rr., 
6e>Ka.i Ha K)r b 1992-m), KaH MxoJib XBaH (nonaji b Jiarepb 
peGeHKOM. no npHHimny ceMeHHofi OTBcrcTBeHHOCTH, b 1 977- 
1987 rr.. 6e?Kan Ha KDr b 1992-m), JIh CyH Ok (oT6biBajra 
iiaKcHamic b 1986-1992 rr. b >KeHCKOH TiopbMe b K3hxohc 
nepeuj.ia Ha K3r b 1995-m). Cpean nepe6e>KHHKOB 6biJi h 
owbujhh oxpaHHHK. Ah MeH Mxojib, KOTopuii b 1987- 1 994 rr. 
cjiyjKHJi b oxpaHe KOHimarepen ojih no.iHTHHecKHx 3aKJiK>- 

MeHHblX. 

Hx paCCKa3bI n03BOJI»K)TCOCTaBHTb JOCTaTOHHO nojiHoe 

npeacTaBJieHHe o tom. KaK ace npoTeKaeT >KH3Hb ceBepoKO- 
peficKOH TiopbMbi. KapTHHa. KOTopaa BOSBBKBfftwa hx Bocno- 

MHHaHHH, JJOCTaTOHHOO^H03HaHHa. TlOpbMa H Jiarepb — 3TO 

uapcTBO ro.iojja ii HenocHJibHoro vpyna. 

Bee 3aiaiioHeHHbie o6j«3aHbi pa6oTaTb. B K3hxohckom 
vKencKOM jiarepe, HanpHMep, 3aKJiioHeHHbie uihjih bochhvio 
(popMy h npe^MeTbi apMeHCKoroo6MyHiinpoBaHHJi: BffrHHKH, 
njiaHuieTbi.ooyBb, Ko>KaHbie nopTynen. C 1990 roja b jiarepe 
pa6oTa;i h Bfl3aibHbiH uex. npojiyKuna KOToporo OTnpaBJia- 
.nacb Ha3KcnopT b ^InoHHio. Pa6oHHH jieHb b jiarepe npoaoji- 
)Kajicjj 18 nacoB, a b nocJiejHHe He^e-in nepea Hobwm tojom, 
Kor/ia obLio HeoGxoanMo BbinojiHHTb n.naH jiio6oh uchoh k 
KOHiiy ro.ia. pa6onnH iieHb CTaHOBHJiCH Boo6uie 20-naco- 

BblM 13 . 

Xoth Bee CBHHeTejiH noKHHynn Jiarepa no Hanana npojo- 
BOJibCTBeHHoro KpH3Hca. KOTopwR nopa3HJi CeBepHyio Ko- 
peK» b Hanajie aeBHHOCTbix, nocToaHHbiH ronofl y)Ke Toraa 

6bUI MaCTbK) nOBCejHCBHOH HCH3HH 3aKJIK)MCHHbIX. ToJlOJl 

Hcnojib30Bajics h KaK cpe/iCTBo ROBTpojn: e.ia 6hji8 niaBHOfi 

(popMOH nooiupeHHH, a jinmeHHe ee — rnaBHOH (popMOH 
HaKa3aHHJi. 

KaK cBnaeTe.ibCTByeT Jin CyH Ok, KOTopaa oTObiBaia 
HaKa3aHHe b X6HCK01I Jiarepe b K3Hxohc TaM okojio 1990 
rona cymecTBOBajia cnenytomaji cucTeMa. Ecjih 3aicnioHeH- 
Has He Bbino.nHfl.na HopMy. Ha cjienyiomnH j.enb ee 300- 
rpaMMOBbiH naeK CHU/Ka^icfl no 240 rpaMMOB. Ecjih HeBbinoji- 
HeHne npojiojiKajiocb 6ojiee 4 aHen noapjin, to naeK coKpa- 
majicfl eme oo.ibtue, no 210 rpaMMOB 14 . 

Pa3yMeeTCfl, otpnuHanbHoro naHKa He^ocTaTOHHO. hto- 

6bl BbI>KHTb, TaK HTO TOJIOH H CBH3aHHbie C HUM 6o J TC3HH (B 

nepByio OMepe^b — nejuiarpa) kochjih 3aKjnoMeHHwx aa^Ke b 




EflMHCTBeHHwii KaTonHHecKMM xpaM b CeeepHoii Kopee. 

flo KOMMyHMCTMnecKoro npaeneHun b CTpaHe 

6t>ino nonMnnniiOHa KaTonMKOB. 



CeBepHaa Kopea: penpecci/11/1 1/1 6ecnpaBne 



33 



cpaBHHTe.ibHo 6.iarono-iyMHb!e BOCbMHaecjrrbie roiibi. Mto- 
6w yuejieTb. moffH BbmyxtaeHU co6HpaTb k-opeHba. Tpasy, 
oxoTHTbca Ha Kpbic h Mbiiuefi. O Mbiuiax h Kpwcax KaK o 
r.naBHOM hctohhhkc jkhbothopo 6ejnca b mn aimii 3aKJiK)MeH- 
hux ynoMHHaiOT noMTH bcc KOMy npunj.iocb noobiBaTb b 
ceBepoKopeficKOM .narepe. KaH Mxo;ib XBaH roBopHT: «Ecnn 
6h h Toraa bmcctc co BceviH He jiobhji h He en Mwuien, 
nary tueK. to jj 6mji 6w y»e b .nyHiueM MHpe»". E.My btopht Ah 
MeH Hxojib: «Xoth noJiHT3aK;noHeHHbie Tftwe.no pa6oTaK>T. 

MHCa OHH He BHiWT, H KpbIC II HOC MHCO IUIH HHX 3TO BaiKHOe 

npo(J)H.iaKTHHecKoe JieicapcTBo, cpeacTBO 6opb6bi c rono- 
hom»". 

Pe>KHM H3HypHTeJibHoro Tpyna no;mep>KHBaeTCH Teppo- 
poM. HaKa3aHH>r pa3Hooopa3Hbi. OTKpbiToe conpcmiBjieHHe 
hjih no6er HaKa3MBaK)TCH CMepTbio, npnseM ha jhi» npoH3BO- 

^HTCH liyOjlHHHO, B npHCyTCTBHH ZtpyrHX 3aiUllOMeHHbIX 17 . 

BojibuiHHCTBo 6o;iee mhhchx HaKa jaHiifi cbh 33ho c coKpame- 
HneM h 6e3 Toro MH3epHoro i iaiiKa. B Kshxohckom jiarepe 3a 
HapyuieHHH pexHMa no/iaranocb 3aioiK)HeHHe b Kapuepe Ha 
cpoK.no 10 jweii, b TeneHHe KOTopux 3amiK)MeHHbie nojiyna- 
jih To.ibKO 90 rpaviMOB 3epHa b aeHb. KaK niimeT JIh CyH Ok. 
«3aKJiioHeHHbie oonjincb Kapuepa oo.ibiiie cMepTH»". 

Pa3yMeeTCJ«, HHKaxBX TOHHbix cBeneHHfi o MacujTa6ax 
penpeccHH h HHone ocyHcaeHHbix hct. CymecTByiOT pa3Hbie 

OUeHKH, B TOM HHCJie H OCHOBaHHbie Ha jaHHblX a3pO(J)OTOCT>- 

eMKH Jiarepefi, coooiuchhhx nepeSeacHHKOB, HH<|)opMau.HH 
HHOCTpaHHbix noconbCTB. CaMoe jnooonbiTHoe, hto pa36poc 

UH(j)p B 3THX OUeHKaX HCBCJIHK, nOHTH Bee npH3HaK)T, HTO B 

HacToaiuee BpeMH b KopeiicKnx Jiarepax HaxazwTCH rae-TO ot 

100 JO 150 TbICHH HClOBeK, 60JlbUJHHCTBO H3 KOTOpblX CO- 

CTaB^HWT He yronoBHbie. a nojiHTHHecKHe npecTynHHKH 19 . 

HeCKOJIbKO OCOOHHKOM CTOHT OUCHKa, KOTOpVK) 6e3 CCbUIOK 
Ha HCTOHHHKH BbICKa3ajl P. KaraH, OlieHHBUJHH 3TO KOJlHHe- 
CTBO B 300-400 TbICHH, HO OH. BHJHMO, BKJHOHHJ1 B HHCJ10 
3aK-lK)HeHHbIX H Tex, KTO HaXO^HTCH B «paHOHaX flefiCTBHH 

riocTaHOBJieHHfl .Nel49» h b «ocoowx panoHax o6ieKTOB 
nnKTaTypbi». 

M3 MCTopMM Teppopa 

McpiuiH bo. ma Teppopa oopyiuH.iacb Ha CTpaHy b KOHixe 
naTHnecHTbix roiioB h 6bina cBH3aHa c HaMeTHBuiHMCH Toraa 
otxojom Khm Mp CeHa ot opHeHTaunn Ha CCCP. 2KepTB8BOl 
penpeccHH Torna nacTo CTWOBBXBGb cneuHanHcrbi, no-iy- 
MHBuine nojroTOBKy b CCCP h b CHJiy 3Toro co CKencHCOM 
OTHOCHBuinecfl ko MHorHM huchm Khm Up CeHa, aa h boo6- 
me, KaK tobophjih Toraa b Kopee. «3apa>KeHHbie peBH3HOHH- 
ctckoh H.aeo.norHeH». 

B KOHue 1 950-x roaoB Khm Hp CeH oto3B3ji Bcex Kopefi- 
ckhx cTyneHTOB H3 CoBeTCKoro CoK)3a. JJajibHeHiiiafl hx cyab- 
6a 0Ka3ajiacb neHanbHOH. KaK paccKa3a;i aBTopy 3thx ctpok 

6bIBUIHH 3aMeCTHTe,lb MHHHCTpa BHVTpeHHHX zie.i KHilP KaH 

CaH Xo, KOTopoMy Bnoc^e^CTBHH caMOMy npmiLiocb fxtxxn 

B CCCP, JUISi B03BpaTHBUJHXCa CTyaeHTOB 6bL1 3a6oTjTHBO 

noaroTOB^eH cneunajibHUH narepb. b kotopom b Te^eHHe 
HecKOJibKHX MecKueB npoBOflH.iacb hx TTuaTejibHas npoBep- 

Ka. BblflCHHJIH, HaCKO.lbKO OHH nOHBeprJIHCb T.ieTBOpHOMV 
BJ1HHHHK) XX Cbe3ja KnCC H peBH3HOHHCTCKOH nOJIHTHKH 

XpyiueBa. C tcmh, KOTopue OKa3ajincb «HneHHo ctohkhmh», 
nocTynHUH mhjiocthbo: hx oTnpaBHJiH b aepeBHio Ha Tpyjio- 




KaHfla/ibi ons Tex, kto nbuaeTCfl y6e*aTb 
n3 CesepHovi Kopen 



Boe nepeBocnHTaHne, 

no OKOHHaHHH KOTO- 

poro no3BanHJiH pa- 
ooTaTb no cneuHanb- 
hocth. MeHee ctoh- 
khx /K.xa-ia TiopbMa. 
caMbixjKe «HeHaae>K- 
hwx» nonpocry pac- 

CTpeJlHJlH. 

Hajo CKa3aTb, 

HTO KOe-KTO H3 CTy- 

neHTOB npe^BHjen 
TaKoe pa3BHTHe co- 

OblTHH H OTKa3anc« 

B03BpamaTbCH Ha poaHHy. Flo HacTOHHHio KD. B. AHJiponoBa, 
Toraa — r.iaBbi Me»iiyHapojHoro oT^ejia UK KF1CC, 3thm 
HeB03BpameHuaM 6bLio npeaocTaB,ieHo nojiHTHHecKoe y6e- 
5KHiue h, co BpeMeHeM, coBeTCKoe rpa>KaaHCTBo. B otbct Ha 
ito ceBepoKopencKHe cneuc.Ty*6bi pa3BepHyjin Ha cobctc- 

KOH TeppHTOpHH HaCTOHUiyK) OXOTy 3a nOTeHUHaJlbHblMH He- 

^OBO^bHbiMH. B nacTHOCTH. hmh 6bi.ia npeanpHHHTa Heyaaw- 
Haa nonbiTKa noxHTHTb Xo HwtiHa (BnocnejCTBHH oh npHoo- 
pen 3acny)KeHHyK) H3BecTH0CTb b KaqecTBe >KypHajiHCTa h 
aBTopaonHOH H3 nepBbix KHHrnoncTopHH CeBepHofi Kopen). 
Xo H)KHHy yaanocb 6excaTb, BbinpbirHyB H3 OKHa nocojibCTBa. 
He Bcerna. oaHaKO, Bee KOHHanocb TaK 6naronojiyHHo. 
no MeHbiuen Mepe. ojihh H3 anccHjeHTOB — cryaeHT Moc- 
kobckoh KOHcepBaTopnn — out cpe^b 6e<ia jihji 3axBaqeH 
KopencKOH cneurpynnon b ueHTpe Mockbu h burc^h b 
FIxeHbJiH. rae ejBa .ih ocTanca b tkhbux, Boo6me aKTHBHau 
.lenTe.ibHOCTb no OT.iOBy HeBoiBpameimcB. KOTopyio Toraa 
pa3BepHy.iH KopeficKHe cneucnyxc6u Ha cobctckoh TeppHTo- 
pHH, npHo6pe^a TaKOH pa3Max, hto noTpe6oBanocb nnwHoe 
BMeiuaTe-ibCTBo XpymeBa, mto6h ocTaHOBHTb ee. rio ero 
HacTO>iHHK> ceBepoKopencKHH nocon, npH kotodom npo- 
hsoui^o noxHiueHHe, 6un OT03BaH b nxeHbHH 2 *. 

XepTBbi Mynxe 

HaBepHoe, HMeeT cmwch paccKa3aTb 3aecb o tom, 3a hto 
we sejioBeK mokct 0Ka3aTbc» b ceBepoKopencKOH TiopbMe. 
Cennac HH(J)opMauHJo TaKoro poja mojkho HafiTH b MHoro- 
HHCJieHHblX BOCnOMHHaHH»X nepe6e>KMHKOB, onySiiHKOBaH- 
hwx b IOwhoh Kopee. OziHaKO n 6w xoTen HanaTb cboh 
paccKa3 c Tex ciynaeB, o KOTopwx y3Han caM bo BpeMa 
CBoero npe6biBaHna b CeBepHOH Kopee H3 6ecea c ceBepoKO- 
pefiuaMH h pa6oTaBUJHMH b FIxeHbflHe cobctckhmh annjioMa- 
TaifH. Hajo CKa3aTb, hto o noao6Hbix cnynajix ynoMHHanH He 
oaHH pa3. 

Bot oaHH H3 noaooHbix 3nH3ojoB, o kotopom MHe pac- 
CKa3an cobctckhh JiHnjioMaT. Ha riyKH)KHHCKOM a^ioMHHHe- 
bom 3aBoae b 1977 rony 6bLi mo.iojoh HH>KeHep. ne^oBeK 

CnOCOOHblH H pa60TJHUHH. Oh 6^H3K0 COUieJICH C HaUIHMH 

cneunajiHCTaMH, CTan 6paTb y hhx ^HTepaTypy, HecKonbKO 

pa3 HMejl HeOCTOpO)KHOCTb BbIpa3HTb CBOIOCHMnaTHK) K CCCP 

h .aawe KaK-TO npw cBHjeTenjix CKaaan, hto «y CCCP Haao 
yHHTbca». Oh 6bLi apecroBaH h ny6nHHHO paccipejiflH. KaK 
o6iflCHHJiH pa6oHHM, 3a «HH3KonoKJiOHCTBO nepea HHOCT- 

paHlUHHOH». 



34 



CeBepHaa Kopea: penpecci/in vi 6ecnpaBi/ie 




"BenMKMM Boxmb (cnpaBa) MHCTpyicrvipyeT KHTaiicKnx 

ao6poBonbuee". 

ripaKTHKa ny6jiHHHbix paccTpejiOB 3a HiiHiUHe Teruioe 
OTHOiueHHe k coBeTCKOMy onwTy hjih jnoa»M, aa h Boo6me 3a 
jno6bie nanoacHTejibHbie ot3ubw o HayHHO-TexHHHecKHx hjih 
KyjibTypHbix flocTHHceHHSx hhhx CTpaH, ocoSo uiHpoKoe pac- 
npocTpaHeHHe nojiyHHJia b uiecTHaecHTbie roau, b nepnoa 
6opb6u 3a yTBepacaeHHe naeojiorHH nynxe — KopeHCKOH 
caMo6biTHOCTH. TaK, no cnoBaM oaHoro OTCTaBHoro otpHue- 
pa, cjiy^HBiiiero b KopencKofi HCTpe6HTejibHOH aBHaunH h 
BnocjieacTBHH 6e»aBiuero b CCCP, b 1960-1961 roaax y 
Hero b 3CKaapHJibe 6bmn Ka3HeHbi aBanejiOBeKa. OaHH H3 hhx 
— 3a to, hto bo BpeMH noneTa Ha ero caMOJiere BbiuiJia H3 
ctpoh CHCTeMa noaann TonjiHBa (o6bhhhjih bo BpeaHTe/ib- 
CTBe), a apyron — 3a H3JiHuiHe oao6pHTejibHbie BocnoMHHa- 

HHH O COBeTCKHX BOCH Hbl \ COBCTHHKaX H BblCOKyK) OLieHICy HX 

npo(peccnoHajibHbix KanecTB 21 . 

JlpyroU cjiywaH, o KOTopoM aBTopy crrajio h3bcctho bo 
BpeMA npe6biBaHHJi b IlxeHbJiHe b 1 984-85 rr., npoH30iueji co 
ciyaeHTOM yHHBepcHTeTa, Man. KOToporo pa6oTajia 3aKpon- 
mHuefi b aTejibe. OaHawaw ee apecTOBa-iH npaMo Ha pa6oie, 
h 6ojibiue ee hhkto He BHA6H. Hepe3 TpH wa h CTyaenry, h ero 
6paTbflM h cecTpaM 6bijio npHKa3aHO BbiexaTb b aepeBHK). 
HecKOJibKO MecaueB cnycTa npHexaBiunn H3 aajibHero ye3aa 
HenoBeK npHBe3 nncbMO, b kotopom 3tot cTyaeHT nncaji o 
CBoefi »h3hh b ccbuiKe. EMy h ero ceMbe npHxoanTca paoo- 
TaTb no 12-14 nacoB b aeHb, a b hx Hacnex nocTpoeHHOM 
noMHuiKe HonaMH aaace He TaeT nea. rio-BHUHMOMy, 3Ta 
ceMbJi 0Ka3ajiacb b aaMHHHCTpaTHBHOM nopsuKe BbicjiaHa b 
«pafioH aeHCTBHH riocTaHOBneHHJi jY°149» hjih ace «oco6mh 
pa iio h o6beicroB aHKTaTypbi». 

HeMajio npHMepoB Tanoro poaa mohcho HaHTH h b Bocno- 
m tin an im \ ^HByiuHX ceHMac b K)h<hoh Kopee nepeoeacHHKOB 
H3 KH^P. KaK BcnoMHHaeT Ah MeH Hxojib, b Jiarepe, rae oh 
cjiyiKHJi oxpaHHHKOM, Haxoanjracb 27-neTH5iJi XaH Mhh Rok. 
rionajia OHa Tyaa b B03pacTe Bcero jiHuib 7 Jier, no aeny 
CBoero OTua XaH BeH Cy, cenbCKoro BerepuHapa. B Hanajie 
ceMHaec»Twx ee OTeu, kotophh Jie^HJi cbmhmo y KpecTbHHKH, 
CKa3an: «B stom MHpe aa>Ke cbiihmi He Moryr pacTH KaK 
xotht». KpecTbHHKa, ycMOTpeB b 3tom Bbina.a npoTHB BJiac- 
Tefi, aoHecJia, h Ha cneayiomHH aeHb coTpyaHHK no.iHTuqec- 
koh no^HUHH npnineji k XaH BeH Cy. Tyr BerepHHap coBep- 
uiHJi BTopyio ouiHGny, KOTopaa oKOHnaTeribHO onpeaejiHJia He 
To.ibKO ero cyAb6y, ho h cyzu>6y ero ceMbH. Oh Ha3Baji 
ceBepoKopeficKoro pyKOBoaHTena «Khm Up CeH», He ynoTpe- 
6hb npn 3tom HHKaKoro o6«aTejibHoro THTyjia («Bcjihkhh 



Boacab ToBapnm Khm Hp CeH», HanpHMep). Oh 6wji apecTo- 
BaH. no^BepmyT nbiTKaM, nonnwcan «npH3HaHHs» b 3aroBop- 
uiHMecKOH h peaKUHOHHOH aesiTejibHocTH h 6biji paccTpcnw, 
b to BpeMH KaK ero >KeHa h aBe aonepn nonann b KOHiwarepb. 
)KeHa ero yMepjia TaM, aany aoMepH cyab6a cjio>KHjiacb 
TparHMecKH: nocjie Toro KaK ojihh H3 oxpaHHHKOB noTepa^i 

MeCTO no 06BHHeHHK> B CBH3H C HeH (CBJI3b C 3aKJHOHCHHbIMH 

^eHiuHHaMH — HaeojiorHHecKoe npecTynjieHHe), apy3bji 
«nocTpaaaBiuero» cxBaTHJin ee, H3HacHJioBajiH, HCKanesHJiH 
h ao6njiHCb ee ompaBKH Ha noj3eMHbie pa6oTbi. hto paBHO- 
3HaHHO CMepTHOMy npnroBopy". 

KaH Hxojib XBaH BcnoMHHaeT o no6ere H3/iarepH, koto- 
pwfl cosepujHJiH jiBoe obiiiiiinx coji^aT. I lpiiM iiHuii hx apecTa 

CTaJIO TO, HTO OHH neJIH K))KHOKOpeHCKHe necHH, KOTopwe 

BbiyHHJiH, noKa cjiy»HJiH Ha 38-h napajuiejiH. BnocjieacTBHH 
cojiaaTaM yaajiocb 6e»aTb h CKpbiBaTbcs ot noroHH b Tene- 
HHe HecKOJibKHX MecHueB. BnponeM, b HTore hx no6er koh- 
hhjicji TaK )Ke, KaK h oojibinHHCTBO no6eroB: ohh 6biJiH 
cxBaneHbi h noBeiueHbi b npncyTCTBHH cneunajibHO co6paH- 
hwx ajifl 3Toro 3aiuiK)HeHHbix (cpean KOTopwx 6wji h caM KaH 
Hxojib XBaH)". 

BnpoHeM, noao6Hbie npHMepw mowho npHBoaHTb 6ec- 
KOHenHo. ^cho, hto 3aMeTHa« nacTb Jiioaen, KOTopwe cefmac 
HaxojWTca b ceBepoKopencKHx TiopbMax, nonajiH Tyaa H3-3a 
npocTynKOB, KOTopwe hh b KaKOH apyrofi cTpaHe He 6bijiH 6bi 
coHTeHbi npecTynjieHHHMH. Acho Taoce h to, hto apyraa, 
TO»e HeMajian, nacTb ceBepoKopencKHx 3aKJiK)HeHHbix boo6- 
me HHHero npeaocyaHTejibHoro (aa»e no BecbMa napaHOH- 
aajibHUM MepKaM nxeHb»HCKoro pe»HMa) He coBepiunjia. a 
0Ka3ajiacb TaM no npHHUHny ceMeHHOH oTBercTBeHHOCTH, 
KOTopwH npoBoaHTca b KH^P b vkirhi. c nocjieaoBaTejibHO- 
CTbK), He MMciomcii aHanoroB b coBpeMeHHOM MHpe. 

PenpeccMBHbiM annapaT 

YMecTHO 6yaeT, no^ajiyfi, CKa3aTb HecKonbKo cjiob h o 
caMHX penpeccHBHwx opraHax. OopMHpoBaHHe ceBepoKO- 
pencKoro penpeccuBHoro annapaTa Hananocb BCKope nocne 
OcBo6o>KaeHHJi cTpaHbi. Y>Ke b cocTaBe co3aaHHoro oceHbio 
1945 roaa AaMHHHCTpaTHBHoro KOMHTeTa njiTH [ceBepoKo- 
pencKHx] npoBHHUHH cyuiecTBOBajio HapoaHoe oiopo 6e30- 
nacHocTH, pyKOBoaHTejieM KOToporo CTan CTapwn copaTHHK 
Khm Hp CeHa no napnnaHCKOH 6opb6e b MaHb4>KypHH — 
MxBe Eh Toh. 

rioc.ie np0B03r\nauieHHH KHUP nojiHTunecKHM cuckom 
3aHHMajiocb MnHHCTepcTBO BHyrpeHHux aeji, b kotopom c 
1948 roaacyiuecTBOBaji«OTaejicneuHajibHOH HH(})opMaunii». 
KOTopwH b Hiojie 1949 roaa nojiynn^ na ?»annc «oTaeji nojin- 

THHeCKOH OXpaHbI» (no HeKOTOpMM aaHHbIM, 3TOT OTJje.l OWJI 

co3aaH b cpeBpane 1 948 roaa, to ecTb jia>Ke eme ao (popMajib- 
Horo npoB03rjiaineHHH KHJJP) 24 . 

FlepBbiM MHHHCTpOM BHyrpeHHux aeji KHflPcTa-i 6jiec- 
TauiHH opaTop, b npouiJiOM — KpynHbm ae^Te^b KF1K h 
aoBepeHHoe jihuo Mao U33ayHa riaK Hp y, ho nojiHTiinecKHH 
cwcK c cavioro Hanajia HaxoaHJicH b noanHHeHHH IlaH XaK Ce, 
b npoujjiOM — coBeTCKoro Kopenua. 3tot hcjiobck cwrpaji b 
ceBepoKopeficKOH HCTopmi 3JiOBeiny»o pojib, CTaB oaHHM H3 
maBHbix opraHH3aTopoB penpeccnn 50-60-x rr. O tom, hto 
IlaH XaK Ce no;ib30BajicH HeorpaHHHeHHbiM aoBepneM Khm 



CeBepHaa Kopea: penpeccw/i m 6ecnpaBne 



35 



Hp Cena. CBHaeTeJibCTByeT tot (j)aKT, hto BnocreacTBHH oh 
He To.ibKO He pa3ae^Hn cy;jb6y cbohx cjihujkom MHoro 3HaB- 

UIHX COBeTCKHX tXUBKT E)KOBa H Eepnn, HO no CaMOH CBOeH 

CMepTH b 1 992 rony npoaofiwaji san n %ia i u Ha>KHcti in hc nocTbi 
b KapaTe^bHofi cwcTeMe CeBepHOH Kopen. 

B MapTe 1951 roaa «OTZien nojiHTHHecKofi oxpaHbi» h 
HeKOTopwe apyrHe OT/jejiw MBJX, 3aHHMaBuiHec» KaK oomh- 

HblM. TaK H IIOJIHTHHeCKHM CblCKOM, 6bIJIH BbmCieHbl B OC06oe 

MHHHCTepcTBo o6mecTBeHHOH 6e3onacHOCTH, bo maBe ko- 
Toporo BCTaji FlaH XaK Ce. BnpoMeM, Toma 3to MHHHCTep- 
ctbo npocymecTBOBajio Hcaanro h b OKT»6pe 1952 roaa 
BHOBb 6biJio cjihto c MBJ1, npHHeM nocjie 3Toro cjihjihhh flaH 
XaK Ce 3aHHJi nocT MHHHCTpa BHyrpeHHHX sen, 3aMeHHB nan 
Hp y, KOTopoMy cyjKiieHO 6w.io BCKope CTaTb wepTBofi pen- 

peCCHH. MHHHCTepCTBO OOUieCTBeHHOH 6e30naCH0CTH B03- 

po/miocb b 0KT«6pe 1 962 roaa. Ha nepBbix nopax oho cocpe- 

AOTaMHBaJlO B CBOHX pyKaX KOHTpO.lb Ha^iieHTeJlbHOCTbK) KaK 

o6uHHOH nojinunH, TaK h opraHOB nojummecKoro CblCKa. 
KOTopwe no^MHHHJiHCb cneu.Ha.ibHOMy «0Taejiy nojiHTHHec- 
koh oxpaHw». 

B (j)eBpa,ie 1973 ro.ua 3tot OTjieji 6w.n npeBpaiuteH b 
caMOCTOHTenbHoe Mhhhctcpctbo no;iHTHHecKOH oxpaHbi 
rocyaapcTBa. B anpejie 1982 roaa cocToajiacb eme ouHa 
pecpopvia. joBOjibHo HeoowMHaa: Mhhhctcpctbo no.iHTH- 
necKOH oxpaHbi rocynapcTBa, KOTopoe c 3Toro BpeMeHH CTano 
Ha3biBaTbc« npocTo Mhhhctcpctbom oxpaHbi rocyaapcTBa 
(MOD, cTa.io (paBHO KaK h BoeHHoe bchomctbo, h Mhhh- 
CTepcTBo oomecTBeHHOH 6e3onacHOCTH) napTHHHbiM opra- 
hom. noaHHHJHOiuHMCJi HenocpeacTBeHHo UK TT1K. 

O CTpyKType MOr ikucahmx CBeneHHH b otkpmtoh 
jiHTepaType, pa3yMeeTCH. KpafiHe Ma-io. B otjihhhc ot CCCP, 
rue b rcibi KOH(ppoHTauHH c CHIA bhxo^hjio BenHKoe mho- 
McecTBO pa3o6^aMHTe;ibHbix khht o LJPy h d>BP, hjih ace 
caMHx CLLIA, b KOTopwx HeMajio, nycrb h b caMux MpaHHbix 
TOHax, nncajiH o KrB, K»KHOKopeHCKHe BJiacrH kpai'me Heo- 
xotho aejiflTCs c ny6;iHK0H toh HH(pop\iauneii o ceBepoKO- 
pewcKHx cneucjryMcGax. kotopoh y hhx He mojkct He 6brn>. 
3to Boo6me xapaKTepHo juir KDvkhoh KopeH, b kotopoh 
HccnezioBaHHs no pajry aeneicroB hctophh h coBpeMeHHon 
KH3HH ceBepoKopencKoro o6mecTBa Haxo/MTCH <paKTHHecKH 
noa Her.iacHbiM 3anpeTOM. Othochtcm 3to h k BbiiueaiuHM b 
Ceyne 3anHCKaM nepeiueaujHX Ha KOr ocpnuepoB ceBepoKO- 
pencKHX cneucjr>TK6. Penb b 3thx jarmcKax H^er o MeM 
yroaHo, ho TOJibKo He o CTpyiaype h nejrrejibHOCTH hx owb- 
uiero Be^OMCTBa 25 . HeT comhchhh, hto 3to 3aMajiHHBaHHe 
OTpaacacT BnojiHe onpeaeaeHHyio nojiHTHHecKyio jihhhio 
Ccyna. 

H3BecrHo, hto b cocTaB ueHrpanbHoro annapaTa MOr 
bxo^st 1 6 OTaejioB (KyK) h 4 ynpaBJieHHJi (hxo). CBoe YnpaB- 
neHHe nojiHTHHecKOH oxpaHbi HMeeT Ka>K:iaM npoBHHUHH h 
KaacabiH ye3^. Kpovie Toro, b apMHH cymecTByeT CHcreMa. 
npiiMepHo aHajiorHHHafl cobctckoh CHCTeMe oco6wx OTjie- 
jiob. LLlTaTHwe npeacraBHTejiH cry)K6bi 6e3onacHOCTH ecTb 
KaK b HacTax, Tax h b noapasaeneHHJix, BiuiOTb jo poTbi. 

3aaaHH ajjMHHHCTpaTHBHoro KOHTponji Haa HaccieHH- 
eM MOr peuiaeT He o^ho. a b tcchom KOHraKTe c Mh- 

HHCTepCTBOM 06lUeCTBeHHOH 6e30naCHOCTH (MOB), koto- 

poMy no.HHHHfleTCH o6biHHaji no^HUHH. BojibuiHHCTBO npo- 



ctwx KopefiueB hmcwt iiejio c MOr TOJibKO b Tex c-nynajjx, 
Koraa hm ocooo He noBe3eT, b to BpeMH KaK noBceziHeBHbiH 
KOHTponb Haa hx KH3Hbto nopyneH opraHaM MOB. Hmchho 
ohh ocymecTB-THJOT perncTpauHK) HaceneHHs, BbiaawT 
pa3peujeHn>j Ha noe3.aKH nocTpaHe, hmchho k hhm CTeKaeTCH 
noBceaHeBHas HHqiopMauHH o noBeaeHHH, nocrynKax, bwc- 

Ka3bIBaHHHX 6o.lbllJHHCTBa KopeHueB. 

KoHTpojib ii c/ie)KKa 

yHHKanbHOH, ho b to ace caMoe BpeMH H HMCKDmeH 
rnyooKHe KopHH b aanbHeBocTOHHofi TpajHUHH ocoCeHHoc- 
TbK) CHCTeMbi nojiHTHHecKoro KOHTpowiH, cymecTByjouieH B 
coBpeMeHHOM ceBepoKopencKOM oSmecTBe, sB^aeTca hhcth- 
t>t KpyroBofi nopyKH. Bee HacejieHHe CeBepHOH KopeH pa3- 
jejieHO Ha TaK Ha3biBaeMbie HapoaHbie rpynnw «HHMHHoaH», 
b KOTopwe o6i.eaHHflK)TCJj no MecTy )KHTe,ibCTBa oTHBanuaTH 
20 nsTH^ecsTH, a b cpeaHeM — okoho copoKa ceMeH. Oomhho 
3to n»6o jKHTenn Heoo.ibuioro KBapTauia ce.ibCKHx .iomob. 
hh6o MHoro3Ta>KHoro aoMa. .ih6o aa»e o^Horo noai>e3iia b 
TaKOM aoMe. Bo maBe KarcaoH qjynnu ctoht hhhobhhk. 
KOTOpblH HeceT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a Bee, hto npoHcxoaHT c 
H^eHaMH ero nojBeAOMCTBeHHOH «HapoaH0H rpynnu». Oouh- 
ho oh oaHTejibHO cnenHT 3a 6aaroHaae)KHocTbio h ao6poHpa- 
BHeM cbohx nojoneHHbix, Beab jik>6oh hx KpynHbiH npocTy- 

nOK M0>KeT CTOHTb eMy HenpHHTHOCTeH. 

Ha3bIBaK)T 3THX HHHOBHHKOB — «HHMHH0aHH»aH», TO 

ecTb «HananbHHK HapoiiHOH rpynnbi». no ero pa3Hap»iiKe 
H^eHbi «HaponHOH rpynnw» no;i>KHbi ynacTBOBaTb bo Bcanec- 
khx xo3«HCTBeHHbix paooTax, y6npaTb TeppHTopnio. npoxo- 
hht b «HapoiiHbix rpynnax» h co6paHH«, Ha KOTopwx hx 
HepaooTaiomHe HjieHbi — no 6ojibuieH nacra noKHJiue Te- 
t>'ujkh — H3ynaioT Hjien nynxe hjih cayuiaiOT paccKa3bi o 
BejiHHHH Khm Hp CeHa. 

OzwaKo rjiaBHas 3aaana 3thx hh3ujhx hhhobhhkob — 

KOHTpOjlb HajJ BBepeHHbIM HM HaCCieHHeM. «HHMHH6aHH- 

>KaH», b nacTHOCTH, MO>KeT bohth b nK)6yio H3 noaoneHHbix 
eMy KBapTHp KaK jihcm, TaK h HOHbio. Ka>K.u.iii Kopeeu, Hony- 
joiuhh He y ce6a noMa. o6«3aH CBH3aTbc« c TeM «HHMHH6aH- 
H>KaHOM». b iicimiHCHHH KOToporo HaxojHTCJi CTaBiua» ero 
HOHiieroM KBapi upa. npe/iT>HBHTb cboh jOKyMeHTbi, o6-b»c- 
HHTb npHHHHy cBoero noHB^eHHJi m nonynHTb nncbMeHHoe 
pa3peuieHHe ocTaTbc* Ha HOHb (an* 3Toro b «HapojHOH rpyn- 
ne» cymecTByeT cnei ma:i i.h biii rpocc6yx). Be3 cor.iacHJi dto- 
ro HHHOBHHKa Henb3M yexaTb b apyroH ropoa k poacTBeHHH- 
KaM, o Bue3^ax b KOMaH^npoBKH Toace caeAyeT CTaBHTb ero b 
n3BecTHOCTb. Rawe CTyaeHTbi, npnouB Ha KaHHKy.ibi, o6fl3a- 

Hbl aO^O>KHTbCJI 06 3TOM «HHMHHOaHH>KaHy». 

B.iaCTb «HHMHH6aHH)KaHOB» AOCTaTOHHO Be^iHKa, B He- 

KOTopux cjryHanx ohh Moryr :ia>Kc BbicJiaTb Heyro^Hbix H3 

nxeHbaHa. B cjiy- 
nae, ecjiH kto-to H3 
H.ieHOB «Hapo/i- 
hoh rpynnbi» co- 

BepiilHT OC060 T3I- 
/KC.IOC nOJIHTHHeC- 

Koe npecTynjie- 

HHe, TO TeM H^H 
HHbIMHaKa3aHH*M 



~M%m 



"Bo)Kflb m ApMns eAHHbi". Kmm Up CeH 
npMHMMaet napaa 



3B 



CeBepHaa Kopea: penpeccnn 1/1 6ecnpaBne 




KaH BaH Cok. Benman MaTb Kopen. 
BbipacTMBiuajj BennKoro Boreas Hapoaa 
TOBapuma Kmm Up CeHa. BceM* cunaMH 
noMorana eMy b peBomounoHHOii 
aemenbHOCTn w TeM caMWM BHecna 
BecoMbiM BKJiaa b npoABn»eHne 
HyMxertcxoro peeontounoHHoro Aena. 



Moiyr noiiBeprHyTbCJi Bee ee vustOL CncrreMa 3Ta bocxoij.ht 
k apeBHeHuiHM Bpe.MeHaM, k snoxe JierncTCKHX 3KcnepHMeH- 
tob b Kvrrae b III b. no h.3. 

Pojib cHCTeMbi «HHMHH6aH» TpynHo nepeoneHHTb, n6o 
OHa o6ecneHHBaeT BO3M0>KHocTb ocyiuecTBjiHTb HenpepbiB- 
HbiH KOHTpojib Haa Bcevw o6jiacT«MH mama ceBepoKopeii- 
ueB. Bo MHorHx othouichmjix 3Ta CHCTOMa 6o.iee 3(J)(J)eKTHB- 
Ha, neM aawe caMas pa3BeTBJieHHaji ceTb nojinueHCKHX ocBe- 
.aoMHTeneH: Be;u> to o6cTOHTenbCTBO, hto TaiiHUM areHTaM 
npHxo^HTCfl jeficTBOBaTb, no onpejejieHHio, TafiHO h Haxo- 

JHTb KaKHe-TO 06l>JlCHeHHfl TeM HJIH HHWM cbohm nocTynKaM 

hjih BonpocaM, bo MHoroM 3aTpyjH»eT hx nejrrejibHOCTb. 
«HHMHH6aHH>KaH», HanpoTHB, HMeeT o(})HUHajibHoe npa- 

BO KOHTpOJlHpOBaTb H 3a^aBaTb BOnpOCbl. B TOM HHCJie H 

TaKHe, KaKHe nojiHuencKHH ocBeaoMHTejib He cMor 6u 3a- 
jjaTb. He pHCKyH 6biTb pacKpbiTbiM. Pa3VMeeTCfl. 3to He 03Ha- 
naeT. hto ocBeaoMHTeneH b Kopee Her — hx, CKOpee Bcero. 
HeMano, aa h «Jio6poBOJibHbie» noHocbi. KaK mm BB3HSBM H3 
npHBeneHHbix Bwiue npHMepoB. bjocib nooiupaioT. 

KoHTpojib Haii HacejieHHeM oneHb o6jiernaeT to o6ctoa- 
TejibCTBo. hto nepenBHxeHiie no CTpaHe KpaftHe orpaHHneHO. 
Be3 cneuHajibHoro paipeuieHHH opraHOB 6e3onacHOCTH hhk- 
to He HMeeT npaBa Bbie3»aTb 3a npejiejiw cBoero ye3iia. EwjieT 
mojkho KynHTb, .Tiiuib npejrbflBHB 3to pa3peuieHHe. rieppoHbi 
)KeJie3Hoaopo>KHbix cTaHUHH TiuaTe-ibHO oropo^ceHbi h nacTO 
oxpaHfltoTCjj conaaTaMH BHyTpeHHHx bohck, npoil™ Ha nep- 

POH MOJKHO TOJIbKO Hepe3 KOHTpOJlbHblH nyHKT, npejIfcJIBHB 

BoopyjKeHHbiM qacoBbiM (aecjiH aejio npoHcxoaHT Ha maiKHX 
cTaHUHHx. r/je hx hct, — to jjeByuiKe-KOHTpojiepy) cboh 
AOKyMeHTbi. Gnjier h pa3peuieHHe Ha noe3jjKy. MHe cauouy 
jjOBenocb BHaeTb 3to pa3peuieHne — He6ojibiuoH rojiy6oBa- 
twh jiHCToneK c HMeHeM, yKa3aHHeM yHpe>KjeHHJi, ue.iH h 
npoaojDKHTenbHocTH noe3^KH. 3a norarncy npOHHKHyri 6e3 
3Toro aoKyMeHTa b coce/WHH ye3a nonaraeTca 15 cyroK 
npHHyiiHTenbHbix pa6oT h. pa3yMeeTca, BOjjBopeHne Ha npe- 
»Hee MecTo acHTejibCTBa. 

EcTecTBeHHO, B03HHKaeT Bonpoc: a KaK ace 6brn>TeM. kto 

XOHeT BCTpeTHTbCH C pOilCTBeHHHKaMH HJIH *e Ap>'3bHMH, 

>KHByujHMH b coce/iHeM ye3ae? JffU hhx cymecTByeT cncTeMa 
BW30B0B. opraHbi 6e3onacHocTH BbuiaioT pa3peweHHe Ha 
noe3/iKy, ecjiH ecTb oqoHimajibHO 3aBepeHHoe npnr;iaujeHne 

OT pO^CTBeHHHKOB. 

KoHeHHO, bcjj 3Ta CHCTeMa npecjieayeT, b nepByio one- 
peab, BHyTpHnojiHTHHecKHe 3a.aaHH. OTqacTH HanpaB.ieHa 
OHa h npoTHB aencTBHH K»KHOKopeHCKHx h hhux pa3Be.ac- 
ny»6, ho rjiaBHaa ee uejib — He aonycTHTb HeaoBO^bCTBa 
Pokhmom h npecenb b 3apoabiuie caMy B03Mo>KHOCTb npoTe- 
CTa. Zlenaer OHa HeBO3M0)KHbiM h no5er H3 MecT SUUODHSBm 
hjih ae3epTHpcTBO. Te Tpoe 6wbuihx 3aioiK)HeHHbix, KOTopue 
cennac HaxoaflTca b IOjkhoh Kopee, 6e«ajiH 3a rpaHHuy y*e 
nocne Toro, KaK 6ijjih ocBo6o»ciieHbi H3 MecT 3aKJiK)HeHHfl, h 



yTBep>KiiaK)T. hto hm HemBecTCH hh ohhh cnynaH yaaHHoro 
no6era H3 ceBepoKopeficKOH TiopbMbi 26 . <...> 

OaHoii H3 BaXHeftlUHX 3ajan, KOTopyio npecjieayeT ch- 
CTeMa ajMHHHCTpaTHBHO-noJiHueHCKoro KOHTpo.iH b Kopee, 
HBviseTCJi o6ecneHeHHe«repMeTHHHocTH» KopeficKorooome- 
CTBa. opraHH3auHH >KecTKoro KOHTpo^a Haj HH^opMauHefi. B 
Kopee 3anpemeHa npoaa)Ka npneMHHKOB co cbo6ojhoh Ha- 
cTpofiKOH: Bee npcaaBaMbie (TOHHee — BbuaBaeMbie no op- 
aepaM h TaaoHaM, a TaK>Ke b KaqecTBe «noaapKOB BejiHKoro 

B0yKJU») npHeMHHKH HMeK)T(J)HKCHpOBaHHyK) HacTpoflKy Ha 

both)' nxeHbHHcxoro pajHo, npnneM npcacTaBHTejiH MOB 
CHCTeMaTHnecKH npoBoasT BHe3anHbie pefuu Ha noMa Bna- 
aeTbueB npneMHHK0B c uejibK) hx npoBepKH. jjaace b tom 
cnynae, ecjiH Kopeeu noKynaeT npHeMHHK b BanioTHOM Niara- 
3HHe hhh npnB03HT ero H3-3a rpaHHuw, oh o6a3aH HeMeiUieH- 
ho caaTb ero b YnpaBneHHe o6iuecTBeHH0H 6e3onacHocTH 
avih nepe^eTKH, noc.ie kotopoh c noMombK) npneMHHKa uom- 
ho cjiyiuaTb TOJibKo HuefiHO npoBepeHHoe nxeHbHHCKoe Be- 
maHne. Ha-innne y Koro-jw6o He nepeaenaHHoro npneMHHKa 
y*e caMO no ce6e cMHTaeTCJi npecTyn^eHHeM. 

JlpyrHM cpencTBOM HHtpopMaunoHHoro KOHTpo.na Haa 
HacejieHHeM iBJnercfl 4pe3BbmaHHopa3BHTajicncTeMacneu- 
xpaHOB b OHOTHoieKax. B oTje.ibi cneunaibHoro xpaHeHHfl 
nonaaaeT bcji HHocTpaHHafl HHTepaTypa h (Bno;iHe b ayxe 
Opy3JiJia) Bee KopencKHe H3aaHHH 6o.iee neM 10- hjih 15- 
jieTHen aaBHocTH. 3a HCKJiiOHeHHeM hhcto tcxhhhcckhx, TaK 

HTO CeBepOKOpefiUb! -THUieHM BO3MO/KH0CTH npocjienHTb 3a 
KOJie6aHHHMH JIHHHH BJiaCTeH no CTapbIM H3jaHHHM. 

Pa3yMeeTCH. noiiHocTbio H30JinpOBaHbi Kopenubi h ot 
Tex HeMnornx HHOCTpaHneB, hto HaxomrrcH b CTpaHe. Onac- 

HOCTb 6bITb o6BHHeHHWM B «IUnHOHCKHX CBH3flX» CTOJIb Be^H- 

Ka, hto ot rpynnbi HHOCTpaHueB Ha ynnue 6yKBajibHO oTiua- 
TbiBatoTCH, KaK ot npOKaaceHHbix. Ha^io cKa3aTb, hto ju\x 
TaKoro noBejieHHs ecTb ocHOBaHHH. Be^b Jiioobie HecaHKuno- 
HHpoBaHHbie KOHTaKTbi c HHOCTpaHuaMH CMepTejibHO onac- 
hw jga rpaacaaH CeBepHOH Kopen. 

TaK, >KHByuiHH HbiHe b IOxhoh Kopee Ah XeK 6uji b 
1986 roay apecTOBaH 3a BCTpeny c HHOCTpaHueM h npoBeji 
cHanana nojiTopa rojia b TiopbMe MuHHCTepcTBa nojiHTHnec- 
koh oxpaHbi rocyaapcTBa, a noTOM eme 2 roaa — b «oco6om 
panoHe oGieKTOB aHKTaTypbi» 27 . 06ecneHeHiie xeCTKOfi hh- 




BcTpena nepe3 nonBOKa. 
ilepsan neaw KDwhom 
Kopen flu Xm Xo (c/iesa) 
m ee uiKonbHan ynnTerib- 
Hmja Kmm /4>kh XaH, 
yexaBiuan wa Ceyna b 
PlxeHbfiH B 1945-M. 
(Oomo: AP) 



CeBepHafl Kopea: penpecci/in m 6ecnpaBne 



37 



4)opMaunoHHOH H30HHUHH, KOTopyio HbiHeuiHee ceBepoKo- 
peficKoe pyKOBoacTBO He 6e3 ocHOBamifl CMHTaeT sanOTOM 
coxpaHeHHa cBoero pevKHMa (a bo3mojkho, h co6cTBeHHoro 
4>H3HHecKoro Bbi^cHBaHiia), Toace B03JiaraeTC5i Ha penpeccHB- 
Ho-nojiHueHCKHe opraHbi. 

B pe3y.ibTaTe MHoroneTHefi «.ae5iTe;ibHOCTH» ceBepoKO- 
peficKHX BjiacTeft BCTpaHeyaanocbCOsaaTbCTpoHHyiocHCTe- 
My TOTanbHoro KOHTpojia h, nojKa-iyH, peajiH30BaTb CTapyio 
MeHTy hhwx yronHCTOB (h KOuiMap aHTHyronHCTOB) — nocT- 

pOHTb oGlUeCTBO. B KOTOpOM BCe CTOpOHbl >KM3HH UHaHBHUa 

ecjiH h He ynpaBJiJHOTCfl BJiacTHMH, to, no KpaHHen Mepe, hm 

H3BeCTHW H OTHaCTH KOHTpOJIHpyiOTCfl. <...> 



P.PMMEHAHMfl 

*1. IrtHTepBbio c KaM CaM Xo. JleHMHrpafl. 31 oxth6ph 1989 r. 

KaH CaH Xo — cobbtckhm wypnanMCT m napTMfiHbiM pa6oTHMK, b 1945- 1959 
rr Ha pa6oTe a KHflP. aaHUMan pan hoctob aMpexTop BbicweM napTMMHOM 
ujKonM. aaM MMHMcrpa BHyTpeHHMx aen h flp. 

*2. riyxxaH HXOHWiaM (CeaepoxopeMCKoe o6o3peHne). Ceyn. «riyKxaH 

6Hryco». 1985. C.310. 

"3. TaM*e. c.312. 

*4. nyKH3M-biM c3HbxBanbcaMb (06pas *m3hm CeBepa m Ora). Ceyn, 1986. 

C.45. 

'5. TaM *e, c 105 

*6. Orwell's Nightmare: Human Rights in North Korea. The Heritage Lectures. 
N9394. Washington, Heritage Foundation. 1992. 

*7, KaH Cmh Pm. riyxxaH-biM naH nxemxe cepex-e TsxaH xonxanb (Hccneaoaa- 
hmb aHTunpaBHTenbCTBeHHtdx cun b CeBepHO* Kopee) - riyxxaH. 1990, Ns9. 

'8. TxwxCenb TOKMJto T3caHb xyex cyeHbHKaflbinb wpoxxe canbro mttmo (Tax 

wneyT saxniOMeHHbie b «oco6ux paMOHax o6bexTOB A^xTaTypbi»). - 

•riyxxaH*. 1992, Na12. 

•9. TaM me. c 66. 

•10. TaM)«e, c.65. 

*11. JIm CyH Ok. flyx Mocoh-wm MMcaHb HaxBOH-uM «axMa-biMCorynb» Morra 

— «nyiaaH». 1997. NB11. 

*13. JIm CyH Ok. riyx HocoM-biM HMcanb HaxsoH-biH «axMa-biM corynb» noua 

— «nyicxaH». 1996. NQ12. c.140. 144; 1997. N»1. c 103. 

*14. Jin CyH Ok. riyx Mocoh-wm HMcaHb HaxBOH-biH «axMa-biM corynb* Morra. 

— «nyKxaH». 1996. N»12. C.138. 

"15. KaH Mxonb Xbbh Ohm (lyxcoH saunb xenxo-biM cupfiH — «Xhh koc-ao 
KOMfla» Ceyn. «TaHa». 1996. C.26. 

"16. Ah M6h Mxonb. Mbm Korn-ra tOH/ibxaH noHK. — «Xmh Koc-ao xoMaa». 
Ceyn, TaHa. 1996. C.178. 

*17 OnucaHHe TaxoM xasHM oahmm m3 6i>ibujmx 3axn«HeHHbix cm.: 

Kan Mxonb XsaH. riyxyxaH coenco mhmmh >onxaH. — «Xmh xoc-ao KOMaa». 
Ceyn, TaHa, 1996. C. 30-41, 

'18. JIm CyH Ok. flyx Mocoh-wm nncaHb HaxBOH-uH «axMa-biM corynb» Morra. 

— «nyiaaH», 1996. Nb12. C.13B. 

*19. Orwell's Nightmare: Human Rights in North Korea. The Heritage 
Lectures, Nb394. Washington, Heritage Foundation. 1992 P. 24 

*20. rioxumeHMe ceBepoxopeiicxoro CTyaeHTa BW3Bano mmhh-xpmsmc b 

coBeTCKO-KopeucKMx oTHOiueHMfix. Cpean MaiepnanoB Ha 3Ty TBMy mo*ho 

BbiaenMTb: 

flHeBHMx coBeTcxoro nocna b KHflP. 3anna> ot 1 cpeBpann 1960. ApxMB 

BHeujHBM nonmnKM Poccmmcxom <t>eaepauMM. (pOHa 0102. on 16. a 6. n.85 

3anncb TenedxwHoro pasroBopa E.fl Tmtopbhko (btopom cexpeTapb M/\D,a ) 
c Kmm y Mwohom (nepauM cexpeTapb noconbCTBa KHflP). 26 HOfl6pn 1959 
roaa ApxMB BHeuiHevi nonMTMKM Poccmmckom *eaepaunM. 0>OHa0541, on. 
15.a8, n.81. 

•21. HHTepBbK) c ACohom. TaiuxeHT. 23 AHBapp 1991 r. 

*22. Ah M6h Mxonb CypSnbHMM ManbMOM xaMftHCO cancnaa. — «Xmh rac-ao 
xoMaa». Ceyn. TaHa. 1996 

*23. KaH Mxonb XaaH. riyxyxaH coeHco hhmmh nanxaH. — «Xmh koc-ao 
K0Maa». Ceyn. TaHa. 1996. C.33. 



*24. riyxxaH TacanxoH Ceyn, 1974. C.706 

3to noaTBep*aaeTCfl n HeaaBHO onySmiKOBaHHbiM a IOmhoh Kopee 
aoxyMBHTOM cBBepoxopeMCKoro MBfl. xoropbiH aaTHposaH 31 Mapra 1948 r. 
h Ha kotodom ecTb, b sacTHOCTM. n noanncb riaH Xax Ce xax «HaManbHnxa 
OTasna MH(popMaunn» (HOHb6oHxo HxoMKaHb) (TexcT aoKyMeHTa cm. riyxxaH 
MMHHxcy TxoHbMnb yHaoHb ca. rixeHbaHao nxfiH («Hctopmh aeMOKpaTMHecxo- 
ro flBumeHMH 3a o6beanHeMne b IOwhoh Kopee. npoBumjus nx^Hbanao*). 
Ceyn. «riyKxaHeHryco». 1990. C 420 

*25. TMriMHHbi b 3tom OTHOuiBHMM Bbnueflujue b Ceyne b 1976 r. sanncxH Koh 
Txax Xo — oanoro M3 nepawx ocpnuepoB ceBepoxopeiicKOM cnyw6bi 
6e30nacH0CTH, nepeujeauinx Ha KDr (Koh Txax Xo. Kyxxa MOHbMxn noBuryx 
HOMax (3a xynncaMH MwHHCTepCTBa nonnTimecKOM oxpaHbi rocyaapCTaa). 
Ceyn. 1976). a Tatoxe b uenoM oneHb HHTepecHwe 3anncKn Kmm Moh Eh (Kmm 
Moh £h, rixSHbBHb en)«a. Ceyn, «Kope coh>kox», 1995). 

*26 Txwx6§nb tokh)k3 T3canb KyeK cyftHbM)«aabinb Mpowe canbro mttmo 
(Tax *MByT 3aKnioHeHHbie s «oco6bix paMOHax oSbexToa anKTaTypbi*). — 
«nyocaH». 1992. Nb12. C.67. 

*27. TaM *e 

3AnMCM BECEJ1 

1 . MHTepBbio c KaH CaH Xo. fleHMHrpaa, 31 okta6ps 1989 r. KaH CaH Xo — 
coBeTcxMM ttypHanHCT m napTMMHWM paooTHHK. b 1945-1959 rr Ha pa6oTe b 
KHflP. san^Man pna nocTos: anpeKTop Bbiciuen napTMMHOH ujKonbi. 3aM. 
MMHMCTpa BHyrpeHHMX aen m ap 

2. HHTepBbio c B.n.TKaMeHKO. MocxBa. 23 RHaapn 1990 r. 

B.n.TxaseHKO — coaeTCKUM annnoMaT m napTMMHWM paSoTHMK. c Hasana 
1960-x rr. m BnnoTb ao aBrycToscxMx coCuthm 1991 r. pa6oTan a L(K KnCC. 

B KOpeftCKOM CBKTOpe. 

3. HMTepBbK) c A.Cohom. TauixeHT. 23 BMeaps 1991 r. A Com — cwh 
xpynHoro ceBepoxopeMCxoro aeoTenn Coh Boh Cnxa. Bbixoaua M3 CCCP 
riocne oxoHnaHMH BoeHHoro ysMnMma b 1953-1961 rr. cnyxnn b ceeepoKC- 
peviCKMX BBC. 



nyBJlHKAUHH 

4. Orwell's Nightmare: Human Rights in North Korea. The Heritage Lectures. 
N9394 Washington, Heritage Foundation, 1992. 

5. Ah M6h Mxonb. CypfiHbHMM ManbMOM xaMfiHco cancwaa. — «Xmh xoc-ao 
KOMaa». Ceyn, TaHa, 1996. 

6. Ah Mbh Mxonb. Hbm xorn-ra lOMObxan nosx. — «Xmh xoc-ao KOMaa». Ceyn, 
TaHa, 1996 

7. KaH Hxonb XBaH. riyKyxaH coenco mhmmh nanxaH. — «Xmh xoc-ao xoMaa». 
Ceyn, TaHa. 1996 

8. KaH Mxonb XBaH. Ohu riyKCOH nannb xenxo-wM chdSh. — «Xmh xoc-ao 
KOMaa». Ceyn, Tana. 1996. 

9. Kmm riy CoHb. Ha-ra nfixan TTOHbrynb. Ceyn. «KanMxa MyHXBa ca», 1976. 

10. riyxxaH TacaMMOH Ceyn. 1974. 

10a. Jin CyH Ok. riyx Mocoh-um sncaHb HaxeoH-btH <axMa-biM corynb» mottb. 

— «nyiaaH». 1996. Nb8-Nb12; 1997. N»1. 

11 JImMohXm. riyiaaH epoH. Ceyn, MyHx6Hca,1987. 

12. riyxxaH MHMfiHb caMMOH. Ceyn. «ToHba nnb5o ca». 1990. 

13 riyicxaH MMHM)Ky TxoHbMnb yHjoHb ca. rixeHbaHao nxen ("HCTOPHH 

aeMOKpaTMHeCKOrO aBM»BHMB 3a 06beaHH6HMe B K)»HOM Kopee. llpOBMHUMn 

rixebaHao») Ceyn, «nyKxaHBHryco». 1990. 

14. riyxxaH nxonnaM (CeBepoxopeMCKoe o6o3peHMe). Ceyn, 1985. 

1 5. Koh Txax Xo. Kyxxa MOHbMXM noBuryx H3Max (3a KynMcaMM MMHMcrepCTBa 
nonMTHMecKOM oxpaHw rocyaapcTBa). Ceyn. 1976. 

16. KaH Cmh I'm. riyxxaH-biM naH nxenwe cepex-e tsxbh xonxanb (HccneaoBa- 
hmb aHTMnpaBMTenbCTaeHHbix CMn b CeeepHOM Kopee). — «riyic<aH». 1990, 
Ns9. 

17. riyxHaM-biM c3HbXBanbcaHb (06pa3 ikm3hm CeBepa m lOra). Ceyn. 1986 

1 8. Txbix6enb tokmjks Tacanb xyeK cyeHbMJKaawnb npoxxe canbro mttmo (Tax 
WMsyT 3axni0HeHHbie b «oco6bix paMOHax o6beKTOB anxTaTypbi») — 
«nyxxaH». 1992, Nb12. 



ny6nuKyemcn e coKpamenuu. 

OpuauHan: 

http://www. korea.org/2000/rights/1 6_80/42 7. htm 



31 



4 



I1PABA HEJ10BEKA 



riojio>KeHMe c npasaMii He/ioeeica 
b CeeepHOM Kopee 

#3 noKnaaa KopeucKOM MexAyHapoAHOH 
Hum 3amuTbi npas nenoeeKa (IHRLK) 



<...>B CeBepHOH Kopee hct HHKaKHx 3aK0H0B, peryjin- 
pyiomHx 3amHTy npaB nenoBeKa. KDpHjwHecKHe BJiacTH hbjia- 
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pen, h ee yKa3aHH» 6o;iee BaacHbi an hhx, neM Bee apyrne 
3SK0HLL B cyaax He co6juoziaiOTCJi HBKarae 3aK0HHbie npoue- 
aypu, anyonnHHbie3K3eKyuHH npoH3Boajrrc» b.ikooom Mecie 
h b Jiio6oe BpeMH. TaKHM oopa30M Gush npHroBopeHbi okojio 
200000 MejiOBeK, KOTopwe HaxoaflTCfl b HacToamee Bpc\ia b 
6ojiee neM aeorrn jiarepax, pa36pocaHHbix no TeppHTopHH 
Been CTpaHbi. 3aKJiioMeHHbie He hmciot cepbe3Hon Haaeatabi 
Ha ocBo6o«neHHe, a hx rpajKaancKHe npaBa HeycTaHHO Hapy- 

UJaiOTCH. 

B CeBepHOH Kopee yica3aHH5i, ncxoajnune ot Khm Hp 
CeHa h Khm MeH Hpa, CMHTaiOTCJi HaHBbicuiHM 3aKOHOM h hx 
BecoMocrb npeBbimaeT na^ce KOHCTHTyunio hjih peuieHHH 
TpyAOBOH FlapTHM Kopen. CeBepoKopencKaji KOHCTHTyuns 
b 1 1 CTaTbe npe^ycMaTpHBaeT, mto KopeficKaa HapoaHO- 
XleMOKpaTHHecKaa Pecny6nHKa jkhbct noa pyKOBoacTBOM 
TI1K. A b cbok) onepeab, ycTaB TTIK yTBepwaaeT b npeaM6y- 
ne, mto bo Bcex cbohx aeficTBHax nap™* noaHUHaeTCH naeo- 
jiorHH nynxe, co3aaHHOH Bcihkhm BoacaeM Khm Hp CeHOM. 

KoHCTHTyuHH HrpaeT po;ib opyana, npH noMomH koto- 
poro npoBOHHTCH b >KH3Hb HHCTpyKUHH Khm Hp CeHa, a Te B 
cbok) onepenb peajiH3yK)T npnHUHnu Ko-uieKTHBH3Ma. 

CeBepoKopeficKoe yro;ioBHoe npaBo cKOHCTpynpoBaHo 
TaKHM OOpa30M, HT06bI yCHJIHTb npHHunn Hacne^CTBeHHOH 
AHKTaTypbi. 

Cyau h npoKypaTypw (pyHKunoHnpyioT TaKHM o6pa30M, 
hto6u npoBoaHTb b >KH3Hb yKa3aHHJi Botkjui h napTnn. Bee 
o6fl3biBaKomHe b CeBepHOH Kopee 3aKOHbi TaK c(popMyjinpo- 
BaHbi. HTOObi npHHy^HTb jnoaen k 6e3ycnoBHOMy Bbinojme- 
hhko npHKa30B Khm Hp CeHa n Khm MeH Hpa, a TaioKe 
nojiHTHKH napTHH. 3aKOHbi 3th He HMeioT HHHero o6mero c 
npaBaMH HcioBeKa. 

HapyiuGHne npas ne/iOBeica 

b no/inTMKe 

Bceoomne Bbi6opw b CeBepHOH Kopee hmciot cBoen 
uejibio Bbi6op HJieHOB BepxoBHoro HaponHoro Co6paHHH 
(KopencKoro nap;iaMeHTa). TojiocoBaHHe. oaHaKO, HBJiJieTCfl 

MHCTOH (pOpMaJIbHOCTbKO, npH3B3HH0H nOKa3aTb MHpy, HTO B 

CeBepHOH Kopee co6jnoaaeTCfl aeMOKpaTHHecKHH nopjuoK. 
Ha caMOM aejie Bbi6opu hmckjt uejibio yTBepacaeHHe oaHo- 
napTHHHofi CHCTeMbi. nocKOJibKy b KaacaoM OKpyre TnK Bbu- 
BHraeTTO^bKO oaHoro KananaaTa. ronocytoiuHe Moryr ony- 
CTHTb b ypHW TOjibKO rojioca «3a» h «npoTHB». B pe3ynbTaTe 
b Bbi6opax Bceraa npuHHMaet ynacTHe 100 npoueHTOB Ha- 



ceaeHHA h 100 npoueHTOB ronocyKOT «3a». KaK caeayeT H3 
3aiiBJieHHJi ceBepoKopencKHX anacTen. b Bbi6opax npHHHJio 
ynacTHe 99, 85 % H36HpaTeaefi, 1 00 % nporoaocoBaio «3a». 

HapyiueHne npas ne/iOBeica 

B 3KOHOMHICe 

CeBepoKopencKas KOHCTHTyuHH ooiHBJifleT, HTOBce cpea- 
CTBa npOH3BoacTBa npHHaonoKaT HCKjiioHHTe^bHO rocyaap- 

CTBy H KOOnepaTHBHbIM OpraHH3aUHHM (CTaTbH 20). CTaTbJI 

2 1 roBopuT, b cbok) OMepejb, hto He cymecTByeT HHKaKHx 
orpaHHHeHHH HMyinecTBa, kotopwm Mo>KeT BJiaaeTb rocy- 
aapcTBO. KaK yTBepauaeT KOHCTHTyuHfl. Bee oouiecTBeHHbie 
3aaHHa. a TaK)Ke (pa6pHKH. npeanpnaTHJi, SaHKH h cpencTBa 
nepeiiBH>KeHHH npHHajuie>KaT rocyaapCTBy. JlHHHaa co6- 

CTBeHHOCTb JlOnyCKaeTCS TOJlbKO B OTHOUieHHH J1BH5KHMOCTH. 

KOTopoR MacTHbiH B.iajeTejib nonb3yeTCfl b .thmhwx uejuix. 
npojiOBo.nbCTBeHHbiH naeK, nonyqaeMbifi rpaiKjaHH- 

HOM, 3aBHCHT OT erO o6meCTBeHHOH n03HUHH H Hl.IIIO.-f HUO- 

moh paooTbi. no o(J)HUHajibHbiM aaHHbiM, KavKjbiii rpa>Kaa- 
hhh nojiynaeT 700 rpaMMOB 3epHa e>Ke,aHeBHo. OjHaKO b 

CBH3H C yxyflUiaiOmeHCH X03HHCTBeHHOH CHTJ'aUHeH B CTpaHC 

c 1995 rojia Bnacrn nxeHbaHanpnocranoBM.ni Bbuany 3ep- 
Ha. npoaoBOjibCTBHH TeM He MeHee xBaTaeT HJieHaM 3JiHTap- 
hwx rpynn oomecTBa. Cennac 6o^buJHHCTBO rpaatnaH Bbi- 
HyyiueHO jo6biBaTb npo/iOBo^bCTBHe Ha nepHOM pbiHKe. 
HaceneHHe CeBepHOH Kopen CTpaaaeTOTOTcyTCTBua npoao- 
BOJibCTBHH y>Ke b TeHeHHe HecKOjibKHx jict. H3 nojiyneHHOH 
HH(})opMauHH c^enyeT, hto 3a nocnenHHe HBa-Tpn roja TaM 
yMepno ot rojiona oojiee MHJiJiHOHa Me^OBeK. Hmchho ronoa 

JIBjIfleTCH OJHOH H3 HiaBHblX npHMHH yBdHHCHHA B iiocie- 

jHee BpeMa nwcna 6e>KeHueB H3 CeBepHOH Kopen. 

Ky/lbT /1MHHOCTM BO)Kflfl 

YMepuiHH Khm Hp CeH, wena* ycujiHTb cbokd no3nunK) 
B0>Kj3Ji-AHKTaTopa, CKOHueHTpHpoBaji Bee ycHJiHH Ha yKpen- 
.leHHHKy^bTajiHMHocTH.CneunajiHCTbino nponaraHje CTpji- 
najiH HCTopuH. KOTopwe .aojiJKHbi 6binn o6oraTHTb jocthjkc- 
hh» Boacaa. 

rio Been cTpaHe nociaB^eHbi pajHoro poaa naMATHHKH. 
cpeaH hhx 70 6poH30Bbix CTaTyn Khm Hp CeHa, 40000 rnn- 

COBblX 6K3CT0B BOKJW, 250 MOHyMeHTOB, BOCXBaJlfllOlUHX 

aocTiDKeHHH Khm Hp CeHa. 350 naMHTHbix 3naHHH h, KpoMe 
Toro. 3500 TaK Ha3biBaeMbix «6ameH bcmhoh >kh3hh». Bonee 
Toro, see rpa'AcnaHe ooh hwm HOCHTb 3HawKH c H3o6pa>KeHH- 
eM Khm Hp CeHa Bceraa. Koraa noflBJunoTCH BHe aoMa. 
JXon^KHbi TaKKe BeuiaTb nopTpeTbi Khm Hp CeHa h ero cuHa 
Khm MeH Hpa b rnaBHOM noMemeHHH cBoero aoMa. 



nano>KeHi/ie c npaBaMi/i ne/iOBeKa b CeBepHofi Kopee 



33 



CeBepHaa Kopea pacxoayer okojio 300 mhjijihohob aoji- 
napoB h.ih 6% BaioBoro HaunoHajibHoro nponyicra tojibko Ha 
MyMH(pHKauHK> h KOHcepBaunio Te/ia Khm Up CeHa. no.iMH.n- 
. inoiia aojuiapoB ctohjio 6ajib3aMHpoBaHHe ocTaHKOB, a e>Ke- 
rojwasi CTOHMOCTb hx coaepwanna aocTHraeT 2,27 m i i . i . i h< >i la 
aonjiapoB. 230 mhjmhohob aojwapoB H3pacxoaoBaHo Ha 06- 
HOBJieHHe h yBe^HHeHHe ^Bopua KyMcycaH. 

BceMH HaHHHaHHJiMH, cjiy>KaujHMH uejiH noAaep^cKH 

KyJlbTa JIHHHOCTH, pyKOBOilHT JIHHHO CblH H npeeMHHK KHM 

Hp CeHa — Khm HeH Hp. Oh nbiTaeTca onpaB/iaTb Hacnea- 
CTBeHHyio nepeaany anacm, yTBep*.aaji, hto peBOjnounoH- 

Hbie HaHHHaHHH JJOJttKHbl 1 1 cpc. 1.: \i'd I bCM C nOKOJieHHfl Ha nOKO- 
jieHHC 

flpe3peHne k He/iOBenecKOM xcm3hm 

06pa30BaHne b CeBepHOH Kopee CKOHueHTpnpoBaHo Ha 
tom, HTo6bi npHBHTb b yMax ynawHxcH anew o tom, hto He 

flCTyKHOOblTb KOJieCaHHH, eCflH nOTDe6yeTCH OTiiaTb>KH3Hb 3a 

Boataen Khm Hp CeHa h Khm MeH Hpa. 

KopeHCKas KOHCTHTyuHJi yTBepjKjiaeT — «rocynapcTBo 
npOBOjHT b vKH'jHb npHHunnw couHajiHCTHHecKoR nenarorn- 

KH H BOCnHTblBaeT HOBOe nOKOJieHHe HaflOKHblMH peBOJIIOUH- 

OHepaMH, 6opiomHMHCH 3a o6mecTBO h Hapoa, KOTopwe CTa- 

HOBflTCfl HOBbIM THnOM KOMMyHHCTOB, oOpa K>nailHi>i\. HC- 

no^HeHHbix ao6puMH KanecTBaMH h 3aopoBbix» (era™* 43). 
TaKHM o6pa30M, ceBepoKopencKHe BJiac™ npo6yK)T 
noaHHHHTb ce6e o6mecTBo h caenaTb H3 jnoaefi 33iuhthhkob 
Khm Hp CeHa h ero cbiHa. KaK aoKa3aTejibCTBO jiocTHrHyTbix 
ycnexoB, nenaTHbin opraH TpyaoBOH napTHH Kopen «Po- 
aoHr CHHMyH» 1 7 hiojih 3toto ro.ua nHuier, hto 1 7 hjichob 
<<Or.ae.na J1h HH-cy» OTaann cboh mch3hh, nbrraacb noracHTb 

OrOHb, KOTOpblH BCnblXHyjl B OflHOM H3 MeCT «peB0niOUH0H- 

hoh naM«TH». Ta3eTa onHCbiBaeT repoHHecKHe noaBHrn coji- 
jwt: «HacTb cojiaaT He CMorjia GewaTb c MecTa noacapa, 
nocKOJibicy ohh nbrraiHCb 3acji0HHTb cwpon rpjnbio aepeBbfl 

C Bbipe3aHHbIMH Ha HX CTBOJiaX Ha.UIMCflMH B necTb Boaow, 

HTo6bi TaKHM o6pa30M cnacTH hx ot othh. CojiaaTu Bee 

BpeMfl 3aCJ10HJLnH ^epeBbM COOCTBeHHblMH pyKaMH, HeCMOTpfl 

Ha to hto hx Gumma h Tejia yace ropejiH». EweHeaenbHHK 
HanHcan, hto 1 7 cojiaaT nonynnjin nocMepTHO 3BaHHe «re- 
poji», a npaBHTcnbCTBO npnHJLio peiuenne o CTpoHTejibCTBe 
Ha 3tom Mecre naMHTHHKa b necTb oTBaxcHbix connaT. 

Tpynnbi Hac/ia^AeHna 

B CeBepHOH Kopee cyiuecTByiOT TaK Ha3biBaeMbie 
«rpynnw Hac.ia5icaeHHH», cocTo»wne H3 TaHuoBmnii h neBnu 
h HCHBymne Ha cneuHaibHbix BHiuiax. 3to KOJuieKTHBbi, czwh- 
CTBeHHWM ia.iaHHCM KOTopwx «BJifleTCfl ycnaameHHe Khm 
HeH Hpa. B 80-e wru CeBepHaa KopeH npnrjiainajia .aaace 
jkchujhh H3 ToHKOHra h c BjiH»Hero BocroKa, hto6w ohh 

pa60TaJ!H B 3THX KOjlJieKTHBaX. 

KaHaaa «rpynna HacnaacaeHHjm coctoht H3 Tpex koji- 
neKTHBOB. riepBbm Ha3biBaeTCJ? «rpynnoH yaoBJieTBopeHHH» 
h 0Ka3biBaeT ceKcyanbHbie ycjiyrn. BTopofi — «rpynna cnac- 
tmi» — 3aHHMaeTca MaccarceM, rperHH, «B0K3JibHo-TaHue- 
BajibHaH rpynna», aaer My3biKaibHbie h xopeorpa())HHecKHe 
npeacTaaneHHS. 

Ha6op b 3th «rpynnu Hac,iaw^eHHa» npoH3BOJiHT 6iopo 
3amHTbi Khm MeH Hpa. Hon pyKOBoacTBOM 3Toro 6iopo 




B CeBepnoM Kopee "ronocyioT" eauHomacHo. 



ropoacKHe h o6jiacTHbie OTne^bi TpyjioBOH napTHH Kopen 
BbiHCKHBaioT noAxoaHmHx KaHaH^aTOK cpeaH yneHHu noc^e- 
zihhx icnaccoB cpenHHx ujko^. rio iiaHHbiM 6e>KeHua c CeBepa 
Khm MnoHr Xyjui (GbiBiuero coTpy^HHKa OT^ejia 3amHTbi 

OilHOH H3 CneUHaJIbHblX BHJIJl), BK)pO 3aiUHTbl coaep>KHT B 

HacTOJimee BpeMH b «rpynnax Hac;ia)KiieHHJj» oko^o 2000 

KeHLUHH. 

KaKoe KOJinnecTBO KaHjiHiiaTOK aojiTKen npeacTaBHTb 
KaacabiH TeppHTopnanbHbiH OTaeji napTHH — peiuaeT nsTaji 
ceKUHH OpraHH3auHOHHoro OTflena TpyaoBOH napTHH Ko- 
pen. Ort5op ocHOBbiBaeTCH npn 3tom Ha npHHUHne, hto Ha 
o^ho MecTo ^oji*Hbi npeTeHaoBaTb 1 00 KaaannaTOK. Ccaga 
5 oifJHpaeT onHy aec5nyio nacTb KaHaHjaTOK h OTnpaBjmeT hx 
b K.iHHHKy HaMcaH b pafloHe ilaeiiOHTraHr b nxeHbHHe Ha 
BpaHe6Hoe o6cjieaoBaHHe. TojibKO nocie oGcuejoBaHHH e>Ke- 
ronHO OT6npaioTCfl 50 hcchiuhh, noTeHunajibHUx HjieHOB 
«rpynn Hacna»caeHHH». CnncoK )KeHiuHH BMecTe c (poTorpa- 
(pH5iMHBbicbiJiaK)THepe3ilenapTaMeHTCeKpeTapHaTa napTHH 
Khm HeH Hpy, KOTopuH OKOHHaTejibHoyTBep)KiiaeT KaHjiHjia- 
Typbi. 

Hobhhkh npoxonKT 6-MecHHHHH TpeHHHr, npoKjie neM 
hx Ha3Ha4aK>T na onpezieneHHbie bhjuiu. MHHHMyM 15 flHefi 
TpeHHHra hmciot qbopMy 3apy6e5KHOH 3KCKypcHH. rio OKOHna- 
hhh Kypca Ka^najj ero ynacTHHua nonynaeT 3BaHHe nepHHKa 
b Biopo 3amHTbi h Ha3HaneHHe Ha pa5oTy Ha yKa3aHH0H BfDDK 
BnjioTb no MOMeHTa, Koraa en mhhct 25 ner. 

CeBepoKopeHCKas TpynoBa» napTHH Kopen H3aanaTan- 
hwh ^OKyMeHT noa 3amaBHeM «ripoeKT o6ecneHeHH* aonro- 
BeHHs BennKoro Bo)Kiia (Khm Hp CeHa) n/Iopororo FIpeaBO- 
ABTOM (Khm MeH Hpa) HBJiHeTCfl cbhtoh o6«3aHHocTbio Bcex 
H.ienoB IlapTHH n napTHHHbix KOMHTeTOB». JIoKyMeHT 6biji 
po3aaH HanajibCTBy MecTHbix komhtctob BMecTe c yKa3aHH- 
eM, hto6w nojib30BaTbca hm npn non6ope KaHaniiaTOK b 
«rpynnw HacjiajKjieHHJi». Ka>KHbin npejcTaBHTejib pyKOBoa- 

CTBa Bblllie HOJ15KHOCTH CeKpeTapfl B nepBHHHOM MeCTHOM 

OTaejie napTHH o6fl3aH pexoMeHnoBaTb KaK MHHHMyM o^Hy 
KaHjnjaTKy b TeneHHe ro^a. Ka»nb!H npeacTaBHTejib napTHH 
o6hhho b Hanane yne6Horo roiia nocemaeT CTapuiHe KJiaccu 

MCeHCKHX UIKOjT Ha CBOeH TeppHTOpHH H npOH3BO^HT BCTynH- 

Te^bHbiH OT6op KaH^HaaTOK. rioTOM npHKa3biBaeT Hanajib- 

CTBy UIKOjTU, MT06bI Te XOpOlHO 3a60THJlHCb O Bbl6paHHbIX HM 

KaHAHaaTKax. 



41 



no/io>KeHMe c npaBaMM ne/ioBeKa b CeBepHOM Kopee 




Hflen syMxe Ha ceBepoKopeficKwx MOHeiax u Kyniopax 



riy6/iMHHbie 3K3eKyuMM 

Xoth ceBepoKopeficKHe BJiacrn nbnaioTCfl 3TO OTpn- 
uaTb, Tenepb ywe bccm h3bcctho, hto b CeBepHOH Kopee 

4aCT0 npOH3BOA«TCJI ny6nHMHbie 3K3CKyUHH. BoJIbUJHHCTBO 

6e*eHueB c CeBepa yTBepwjjaeT, mto bhucjih hjih cjibiiuanH o 
hhx. rioKa mo yzta-tocb co6paTb jtOKa3aTe,ibCTBa Toro, hto c 
70-x rojoB b CeBepHOH Kopee npoH3Be.aeHO, KaK MHHHMyM, 
23 nyojiHHHue 3K3eKyiiHH. 

RoKnaa Amnesty International ot (JjeBpajm 1997 roaa 
noaTBep>KiiaeT, hto anac™ b nxeHbjme nonBepraKyr ny6jiHH- 
HbiM 3K3eKyuH«M He TonbKO y6HHit, ho TaKwe o6wHHbix npe- 
CTynHHKOB, Bpoae pacxHTHTenew 3epHa. ny6jiHMHbie 3K3eky- 
uhh npoBojwTca nocjie coKpaaieHHbix hjih (})HKTHBHbix cy- 
^e6Hbix npoueccoB, b KOTopux He npHHHMajOT ynacTHfl hh 
cy^bH, hh aiiBOKaTbi. 06hhho c.iencTBHe npoioBozurrcH Me- 

CTHblMH 0(pHUepaMH nOJIHUHH, H 3T0 OHH BblHOCHT CMepTHblH 

npnroBop. O6biMH0 noriHUHH Beiuaei oobHBJieHHe, onoBema- 
iomee JKHTejien .iuhhoh mccthocth o BpeMeHH h MecTe 3K3e- 
KyitHH. rienaTaeT TaK»e qbaMHJiHH npnroBopeHHbix npecTyn- 
hhkob. 3x3eKyiiHH npoH3Boj»TCJ! Ha oTKpbiTOM B03ityxe, rite 
MoryTCo6paTbCH mnnbi, htoow CJieAHTb 3a hx hciiojihciiucm . 
CeBepoKopeftcKoe npaBHTejibCTBO nojib3yeTca ny6jiH4- 
HbiMH 3K3eKyuH«MH KaK cpeacTBOM ycTpaiueHHJi rpasK^aH, b 
yviax KOTopwx Mornn npopacTH aHTHpeBoniouHOHHbie Hiten. 

riO/10>KeHMe MHBa/lMAOB 

HHOCTpaHitbi MiiKor.ia He yBHjWT iiHBa.iM.ioB b IlxeHba- 
He hjih b jtpyrnx 6ojibiiJHX ropoaax. TaK nponcxojtHT noTOMy , 
hto BnacTH CeBepHOH KopeH npanyT hx oTo6mecTBeHHOCTH, 
nepecejiaa b oT^aneHHbie panoHbi CTpaHbi. J1h CyH Ok. >KeH- 
tUHHa, KOTopaa 0T6biJia cpoK b ceBepoxopeHCKOH TiopbMe, a 
noTOM 6e»ajia b KbKHyio Kopeio, noKaaana, hto BJiacTH b 
IlxeHbflHe HanajiH KaMnaHHK) nepecejieHHJi HHBajiHaoB b ot- 
aaneHHbie 30hw CTpaHbi b 80-e ronbi. 

B 90-x roaax CeBep Hanan BBoaHTb b >KH3Hb nporpaMMy 
BbicejieHHs HHBajinaoB H3 apyrnx ropoztOB, Tannx, KaK HaM- 

nXO, K3C0H H HxOHflXHH. KOTOpbie 6bIJlH OTKpblTbl JUIJ? HHOC- 

TpaHueB. Bbi.iH nocTpoeHbi cneunajibHbie .lepeBHii b OT^a- 



jieHHbix panoHax b OKpyre YxpaHr npoBHHUHH flHranao, a 
Tan>Ke b OKpyre XoaHrcoHr ceBepHofi npoBHHUHH XaMreH- 

IlyKTO. B 3THX iiepCBHUX HvHJIH TOJlbKO hap.l liKll. OTHeJieHHbie 
OT MHpa ^BOHHOH npOBOJIOKOH non HanpJDKeHHeM. KapjIHKH 

He HMeKDT npaBao6maTbCJi c o6biHHbiMn jnoabMH H3 BHeuiHe- 
ro MHpa. 3anpemeH0 hm TaK>Ke BCTynaTb b 6paK h poacaTb 
iteTeH. 

BexceHLibi c CeBepa 

Kojihhcctbo ucaciiiijh c CeBepa Hanajio B03pacTaTb b 
90-x roaax, Koraa couHajiHCTHnecKHH Jiarepb CTaji npn6jiH- 
/K'ari,cH k CBoeMy KOHuy. Hx noTOK yBejiHHHJica no npumiHe 
orpoMHbix Tpy^HOCTefi c npoaoBOJibCTBneM Ha CeBepe. 

BojibiuHHCTBO 6e)KeHueB nepeceKaeT ceBepHyw rpaHH- 
uy, hto6w nonacTb b KHTafi hjih b Pocchio, ho h noc.ie 3Toro 
ohh aojiacHbi CKpwBaTbc» ot areHTOB CeBepa. ToubKo He- 
MHornM H3 hhx yaaeTCfl no6paTbca ao K)>khoh Kopen. 

BeaceHUbi, cxBaHeHHbie cnettHa.ibHbiMH rpynnaMH. 
o6bflaiHioTc» BparaMH rocyjapcTBa h TpancnopTHpyiOTCJ! 
o6paTHO b CeBepHyio Kopeio b jKejiesHbix uenax. kotopwmh 
hx npiiBaibiBaioT 3a hoc. B CTpane hx ny6THHH0 Ka3H«T hjih 
OTnpaBjiHK)T b .aareps xns no.iHTHHecKHx 3aicjiK>HeHHbix. 

BblBOAbl 

ripaBa HciOBeKa hbjijikjtch yHHBepcajibHMMH uchhocth- 
mh. npHHaiuieacaiitHMH BceM nejioBenecKHM cymecTBaM He3a- 
bhchmo ot HauHOHanbHocTH. pacw. BepoHcnoBenaHHJi HJIH 
HaeojiorHHecKHx y6e)KfleHHH. B CeBepHOH Kopee npocTO He 
cymecTByeT TaKoro noHHTHH — npaBa wejioBeKa. 

B 3toh CTpaHe HeBHHHbie JHOjtH Moryr 6brn> Ha3B3Hbi 
KOHTppeBOJiiouHOHepaMH h 6e3 cyaa h cjieacTBHa OTnpaBJie- 
Hbi b Jiarepji jui» nojiHTHHecKHx 3aKjiK)MeHHbix. KpoMe toto. 
6ojibiiJoe hhcjio KopeniieB ro/ioaaeT y»e mhoto jieT. 

FlojiOKeHHe c npaBaMH He.iOBeKa b CeBepHOH Kopee 
MovKer 6biTb H3MeHeHo TOJibKO b tom cjiynae, ecjin npaBH- 
TejibCTBa Bcex rocyaapcTB MHpa, Bee Me>K;ryHapo,aHbie opra- 
HH3auHH 3ainnTbi npaB nenoBeKa, a TaK)Ke npaBHTejibCTBeH- 
Hbie op i an it mi 1 1 mi coeiiHHJJTycHJiHH c uejibio ok:i sail n« aaBJie- 
hhsi Ha B.iacTH CeBepHOH Kopen, mto6w ohh npeKpaTHJin 
HapyuieHHH npaB nejiOBeKa b CBoen CTpaHe. 




To/ibKo Ha raxne cneuManbHwe Kynwpw mowho 
npno6pecTM Toeapw MHOCTpaHHoro npoM3BOX}CTBa. 



4 



nPABA HEJ10BEKA 



41 



Jlappw AAMAMOHA 

To/ioca M3 
ceeepoKopeiiCKoro 

«ry/iAra» 



y>Ke b TeMeHHe MHorux jieT noaBJuuoTca aoKiaaw, 6na- 
roaapa kotopwm cTauo hcho, mto b CeBepHofi Kopee cyiue- 
CTByroT TpyiiOBbie Jiarepn, b KOTopux orpoMHoe kojihhcctbo 
nojiHTHMecKHX, a TaKiKe hhmx 3aKJHOHeHHbix no^BepraeTca 
cTpauiHbiM H3neBaTejibCTBaM. Coo6majiocb 06 3tom b aoicna- 
aax Me>KjyHapo^Horo KoMHTeTa 3aiHHTbi ripaB MenoBeKa 
KDpHCTOB MHHHecoTbi b 1988 rony, a TaK)Ke b aoKJiaaax 
opramnauHH Amnesty International b 1990. 1993, 1994, 1995 
roiiax. JXoKnaa aMepHKaHCKoro rocyaapcTBeHHoro aenapTa- 
MeHTa o co6jiK)iieHHn npaB nerioBeKa b 1997 roay coaep>KHT 

MHOrOHHCJieHHbie CCblJIKM Ha HH(pOpMaUHK) O TOM, HTO B 

CeBepHofi Kopee cymecTByjoT jiarepa una nojniTHHecKHx 

3aKJlK)MeHHUX. 

KoHeMHO, MHpoBoe oouiecTBeHHoe MHeHHe omaeT ceoe 
OTMeT b tom. hto CeBepHaa Kopea ocraeTCJi o^hhm H3 Han6o- 
;iee 3aKpbiTbix, cTpornx h penpeccHBHbrx noiiHTHHecKHx pe- 

JKHMOB MHpa. nOHKOMHCCHfl npe^OTBpaineHHfl ^HCKpHMH- 

HauHH h 3autHTbi MeHbuiHHCTB OOH npHHfljia 2 1 aBrycTa 
1 997 roaa pe3o;nouHK>, Bbipawaiomyio oSecnoKoeHHocTb «no- 

BTOp»K)lUHMHCH H COBfiaaaiOlUHMH T.0 MCJIOHefi 06BHHeHHfl- 

mm b tom, hto b CeBepHofi Kopee 6biBaK)T cnynaH rpyGoro 
HapyuieHHH npaB He.noBeKa». Pe30Jnounji npH3biBaeT npaBH- 
TejibCTBo CeBepHofi Kopen o6ecneHHTb nojiHoe BbinoriHeHHe 
nyHKTOB BceoSuiefi HeKJiapaunn npaB He.TOBeKa. 

OflHaKO, BnjioTb ito ceroaHHUJHero nun, MOKnyHapoa- 
Hoe o6mecTBeHHoe MHeHHe HeaocTaTOHHo HH(popMHpoBaHo 
o MaciiJTaSe h CHCTeMaTHnecKOM xapaicrepe HapyuieHHH npaB 
HejioBena b CeBepHofi Kopee. Ochobhoh npo6/ieMofi HBJiaeT- 

CH OTCyTCTBHe noapOOHOH HH(pOpMaU.HH. CHTyaUHH, OilHaKO, 

MeHHeTca, uiaBHbiM o6pa30M, Cjiaroaapa Bee B03pacra»ome- 
My b noc.ne.HHne roaw KonnnecTBy 6ea<eHu.eB c CeBepa, nacTb 

KOTOpblX COCTaBJIJIIOT OblBUJHe nOjTHTHHeCKHe 3aKJlK3HeHHbie 

h jikdhh, KOTopwe HcnonHHJiH (pyHKUHH narepHbix CTpaiKHH- 

KOB. 

H xot» a6cojTK)THo 3aKpbm>iH xapaicrep ceBepoKopefic- 
Koro pe)KHMa aejiaeT npaKTHHeciai hcbo3mo)khoh npoBepny 
nonpo6Hbix noKa3aHHH 6e>KeHueB, OHHaKO paccKa3bi ohcbhj.- 

UeB H .lHMHblil OnblT 6bIBUJHX 3aiCHOHeHHbIX H CTpaHCHHKOB 

pncyK)T uioKHpyiouiHH o6pa3 BceoobeMjnomeH chctcmw Tep- 
popa, H3zieBaTe^bCTB h pa6cKoroTpy,aa. Bee 3to mokct 6biTb 
Ha3BaHO He HHane, KaK TOJibKO ceBepoKopeficKHM «rYJlA- 
Tom». 

B Mae 1 998 roaa coH3aaTenb «Journal of Democracy)) 
Jbppn .HafiaMOHa jihhho npoBen b Ceyjie co6eceaoBaHH« c 

OblBUJHMH CeBepOKOpeHCKHMH nOJIHTHHeCKHMH 3aKJHOHeH- 

hwmh, a Taioice c 6biBiiiHMH JiarepHbiMH CTpa>KHHKaMH. Oh 
pa3roBapHBan TaioKe c aejrrenflMH HaH6ojiee 3HaHHTenbHofi 

KttKHOKOpefiCKOH oClUeCTBCHHOH opramnauHH, 3aHHMaK)tlteH- 

ca oeaceHuaMH c CeBepa, — rpaauaHCKoro CoKwa FIomoiuh 




OflHH H3 ceBepoKopeiicKnx narepeii (MaxeT). 



FIojiHTHHecKHM 3aioihDHeHHbiM b CeBepHofi Kopee. Bee 3to 
itario — no cnoBaM .HaRaMOHiia — 3acjiy>KHBaK)uiHH jioBepna 
h noTpjicaromHH o6pa3 toto, hto npoHcxoaHT Ha CeBepe. Bot 
ero KpaTKoe pe3K)Me. 

CeBepoKopeficKHH pe*HM nojib3yeTCH nwTKaMH, tkj- 

peMHblM 3aKJHOHeHHeM. BbipBaHHMMH CHnOH nOKa3aHH«MH. a 

TaK»e paGcKHM TpyaoM b orpoMHbix MacuiTa6ax, htoGw 
HCKopeHHTb aa>Ke caMbie He3HaHHTejibHbie npoaBJieHHa HHa- 

KOMblCJIHfl, CJie^aTb HeB03MO>KHbIM CBOOOZtHblH c6op HH(J)Op- 
MaUHH. 

^eHCTByioinHH b Cey;ie UeHTp y^yHuieHHa Co6jiK)iie- 
hhh ripaB He^OBeKa b CeBepHon Kopee CHHTaer, hto 6onee 
HeM B jeCJTTH pa3Hbix TiopbMax Ha TeppHTopnH Bcefi CTpaHbl 
coaep)KaTCfl oko.to 200 000 rpa/KjaH CeBepHofi Kopen. Ohh 
OT6biBaK)T cpoKH 3a TaKHe «npecTynneHH5i», KaK HTeHHe 3apy- 
6e»Hofi npeccbi, cjiyuiaHHe 3apy6e>KHbix paaHocTaHuufi, 
•^ajio6bi Ha orpaHHHeHHH b aocTaBKax npoayKTOB nHTaHHH, 
OTKa30TBbino.THeHHH pacnop«>KeHH5j npeacTaBHTens BJiacTH, 
6eceaa c HHocrpaHuaMH, Bbie3j 3a rpaHHUbi KopeH 6e3 pa3pe- 
uieHHH hjih 3a hto yroiiHO. hto Morjio 6bi «noaopBaTb aBTOpH- 
TeT» HHKTaTopa Khm HeH Mpa. 

Oc^aojieHHaa no npHHHHe npoaonjKaiomHxoi b TeneHne 
nonyBeKa orpoMHbix HCKaxceHHH cboooh -THHHOCTefi, a TaK5Ke 

MOTHBOB HX jeHTCJlbHOCTH, CeBepOKOpeHCKajJ 3KOHOMHHeC- 

Kasi CHCTeMa, htoow npocymecTBOBaTb, Tpe6yeT paocKofi 
pa6oneH chjim, oco6chho ffja noaaep>KaHHJi 3apy6e>KHofi 
ToproBJiH. riojiHTHHecKHeTiopbMbi HTpynoBbie.iarepjiaoH^- 
Hbi b TeneHHe Ka>Kiioro Mecaua, KBapTana h roaa BbinycKaTb 
tohho onpeae;ieHHoe ko.thhcctbo npoayKunn. HopMy Haao 
BbinojiHHTb jik)6oh ueHofi. Hto6h 3to ocyiuecTBHTb, Hanajib- 
ctbo TiopeM h Jiarepefi aonjKHO nonynaTb caejKHe napTHH 
3amnoHeHHbix, KOTopwe 6bi 3aH«^H mccto Tex y3HHKOB, koto- 
pwe y»e He Moryr 3Toro AejiaTb. 

UeHTp YjiyHuieHHfl Co6jiM3iieHHJ! ripaB HejioBeKa b Ce- 
BepHofi Kopee CHHTaer, hto b pe3yjibTaTe HenejiOBeHecKHx 
ycjiOBHH, pa6cKoro Tpyaa, rojioztHoro cymecTBOBaHHx, a TaK- 
>Ke nacTbix CBoeBOJibHbix 3K3eKyuHH b 3thx jiarepjix, co Bpe- 
vieHH hx co3naHHH Khm Up CeHOM, norH6/io 0K0110 400000 
ne^OBeK. 

3th TparnnecKHe CBHiteTe^bCTBa He TonbKO He no3BOJiH- 
K)T ocTaBaTbCH 6e3ynacTHbiMH Ha ypoBHC nejioBenecKHX 3mo- 



42 



To/ioca M3 ceBepoKopewcKoro "ryJlAfa" 



uhh, 3to TaK5Ke jOKyMeHTW, KOTopue TpeoytoT ropa3ao 6ojib- 
uieH 3anHTepecoBaHHocTH npaB03amnTHwx opraHH3auHH. 
aeMOKpaTHnecKHx npaBHTejibCTB h MewnyHapojiHbix cTpyk- 
Typ BO BCeM MHpe. 

EanHCTBeHHa« Bemb. KOTopoH, KaK KaaceTCJi, 6ohtch 
pe*HM b nxeHbHHe, 3to o6HapoaoBaHHe Bcero Toro, hto 

npOHCXOHHT B 3TOH CTpaHC a TahTKe KpHTHKa CO CTOpOHbl 

MOKayHapoaHofi o6mecTBeHHocTH. C 3thm canHoayuiHo co- 
r.iaiuaiOTCJi bcc GbiBuiwe nojiHTHHecKHe 3aKjiK>HeHHbie h y3- 
hhkh TpyaoBbix narepefi, KOTopbiM yaajiocb coBepiunTb no- 
oerc CeBepa. Eexcemiu c CeBepay6e>K.aeHbi, HTOTpe6oBaHHfl 
na MOKjyHapo^HOM ypoBHe aonycraTb b ceBepoKopencKHe 
TiopbMbi Ha6jiioaaTejieH, a TaK*ce TpeGoBaHHH npeKpameHHH 

HCTH3aHHM, KOTOpbie T8M HMeiOT MeCTO, M0I71H 6w cnacTH 
MH0>KeCTBO HCnOBeMeCKHX VKII iHCli . FIoilHepKHBaJOT OHH TaK- 

we h to, hto 3aKpwTne ceBepoKopeficKoro «ryjlAra» »B.na- 
eTCH HenpeMeHHbiM ycjioBHeMjiH6epa.iH3au.HH rocyaapcTBeH- 
hoh cHCTeMbi b CeBepHOH Kopee. 

npencTaBjieHHbie HHace (ppar.MeHTbi, cocTaB.ieHMi.ic Te- 

MaTHHeCKH, B3HTM H3 IIOKa3aHHH JBVX 6bIBUlHX 3aKJIK)HeH- 
HblX H HByX 6blBUlHX TIOpCMHblX CTpaaCHHKOB. 

TocnoaHHy Xyjib Xboh KaHTy, jjea KOToporo ;jo6po- 
BOJibHO B03BpaTHJica b CeBepHyro Kopero b 1 963 ro/iy nocne 
Toro, KaK e\iy y/iajiocb HanajiHTb BbiroaHWH 6H3Hec b flno- 
hhh, 6bLio 9 iieT, Korja BMecTe co Been ceMbeH oh own 
BbicnaH b Jiarepb b Hojiok. Cnycni 10 jier oh Bbiiueji Ha 
CBo6o.ay. B 1987-1992 roaax paGoTaji 3aBenyK)uiHM cicia- 
aoM, 3aTeM noMOuiHHKOM HayHHoro coTpyjjHHKa. B asrycTe 
1 992 roaa 6e>Kaji H3 CeBepHOH KopeH. 

TocnoiKaCyH Ok JIh nojiynnjia jwruioM Bo6;iacTH mr*c- 
HepHH h H3ywajia 6yxrajiTepcKoe aejio, Kor/aa b 1 977 ro/jy ee 
Ha3HaMH,iH aHpeicropoM cHaoweHHfl apMHH b oKpyre OHce- 
oht. OHa 3aK0HMH-ia 3KOHOMHHecKoe Bbiciuee yHeoHoe 3aBe- 
aeHHe b ceBepoKopencKOM ropoae MxoHrn>KHH b 1983 roay. 
Tocno)Ka JIh npoBena 5 JieT b TiopbMe K3hxoh. Buuuia Ha 
cBo6o^y b aeKaope 1 992 ro.ua h cnyc™ Tpn roaa 6excajia Ha 
lOr. Cefinac rocno^a JIh HaxoaHTca Ha jieneHHH b IOjkhoh 
Kopee h MHTaeT jieKiimt Ha TeMy HacToauiHX yciOBHH >kiuhii 
b CeBepHOH Kopee. HejjaBHO rocnoxa JIh H3jj.ana KHHry noa 
Ha3BaHHeM «CBeTJibie rjia3a 6ecrHH 6e3 xboctob». KOTopaa 

XBJWeTCH CBH/jeTCIIbCTBOM *eCTOKOCTeH, KOTOpbie HMeK)T 

MecTO b ceBepoKopeficKHx jiarepax. 

rocnoaHH ^oht Xyjia Xoh. cmh rocno>KH JIh, cjiyxcnn 
Pjuobhm b OTjcrie rocyaapcTBeHHOH cnyacobi 6e3onacHOCTH 
b FIxeHbHHe b 1983-1986 ronax, jjo apecTa MaTepn. rio3/iHee 
obi.i npnnHcaH k narepio JYsl 1 b owpyre XonHCOHr, b ceBep- 
hoh npoBHHUHH XaMreH-FIyKTO. TocnoaHH Xoh 6e>Kaj\ BMe- 
CTe c MaTepbfo b KOiKHyio Kopero b aeKaope 1 995 roaa. 

TocnonHH MnyHr Xyjib Axh pontics b CeBepHOH Kopee 
b 1969 roay. B HKWie 1987 roaa, BCKope nocjie OKOHHaHHH 
cejibCKOxo3flHCTBeHHoro Bbicuiero yneGHoro 3aBej3eHHfl b 
CBoeM pojHOM ropoae Xohbohc, BCTynn.n b apMHK) b Kane- 
cTBe TiopeMHoro CTpa>KHHKa. Ee>Kan b KHTafi, a noTOM ycneiu- 
ho nepenpaBnacji b lOxHyio Kopeto. B HacTO»mee BpeMH — 
hhhobhhk BbicoKoro paHra b HauHOHajibHOH OeaepauHH 
CeJibCKOxo3JiHCTBeHHbix AccouHauHH b Ceyjre. OaHOBpe- 
NienHo oh yMHTca 3aoMHO b yHHBepcHTexe Ha (JjaKynbTeTe 
ynpasjieHHSi npoH3BoacTBOM. 



Hroxe npejCTaB.neHbi CBHaeTenbCTBa, nonynenHbie ot 
ceyjibCKoro rpa>KaaHCKoro Coio3a TIomoujh no-nHTimecKHM 
3aK.iK)HeHHbiM CeBepHOH Kopen, npaB03auiHTHOH HenpaBH- 
Te.ibCTBeHHOH opraHH3auHH, h 3anHCHpaccKa30Br-HaKaHTa 
h r->KH JIh bo BpeMJi hx taomm b BaiuHHrroH b Hanane 1998 
roaa. TeKCT npeaocTaB.ieH BaLUHHiroHCKHM cDohjiom «Oo- 
pyM 3auiHTbi». 



Xy.ib Xeon Kaiim: ft poduicn e Ceeepnou Kopee e 1968 
zody. Odnaoicdbi, e Hcmcue aseycma 1977 eoda, e nautv xeap- 
mupy neoDtcudaHHO eopeaiucb ccuepo otpuyepoe cmyx6bt 
5e3onacHocmu. B mo epe.\m mm mciliu e anapmaMewnax. 
npuHad.wjtcauiux .uuHucmepcnwy nomapiU ti mpancnopma, 
oko.io Mocma Ta3dom e UxeHhune. Oqbuyepbi ebiHy.iu onucb 
naiueeo ituyitfecmea u npuKa3aiu .siamepu nodnucaim imom 
()oKy\teHm. B He.\t 6buo nanucano, nmo uMyiqecmeo Tai Xny 
Kanma, mo ecmb Moeeo deda, Komophiu coeepuiwi u3Mem; 
oydem KowpucKoeaHO coejiacHo c npednucaHUHMu yeoJOSHO- 
30 npaea Kopeucxoii Hapodno-JJe.\toKpamuMecKou Pecny6- 
tUKU. Tlodnucb fl? k'yn /Oh a, ute<pa oupyza MUHucmepcmea 
eocydapcmeeHHou 6e3onacHocmu. 

Ha c.iedy/ou{uu deub, e nembipe nacaympa. Mbiyc.iHiua- 
iu, umo k HauieMy oiokv nodhexai a«moMo6u.ib. Ofpuyepbi 
mtHKOMU ebieeju hoc U3 do.ua u npuKa3a.iu cecmb e .waiuuHy. 
Mamb, cadueiuyioc* e aemoMo6icib, 3adepMcan o6uh U3 uc- 
no.iHume.ieu u CKa3ai eu : « Tbi noedewb omde.ibH0». Hmbhho 
maxuM o6po3o.M h dw.7 omde.ien om .uamepu. JJecnmb nacos 
cnycmxMbi npue.xa.iu e.iaeepb d.w no.iumuiecKux 3aiciioHeH- 
Hbix e ModoK, e iomchou npoeuHuuu XeaHX3-Ha.\ido. 3mom 
.wzepb 6o.iee U3eecmen kok Omdei Kopeucxou Hapoduou 




«S ucmeKiuue nepuodu mw. yc- 
maHoeue ^yvxe. cdenanu ece 
no HatueMy cmunio. u y mc ece 
dena ycneuiHO npodeueanucb 
eneped. 14 menepb mu peujaeu 
ece eonpoctu no-Hauieuy Ha oc- 
Hoee udeu wyvxe*. 
Be/IHKMM Bo>KAb TOBapuui Kmm 
Up CeH 





Jt 



I1PABA HEJ10BEKA 



43 



Cmpa^cu No 2915. 3decb Mbi ecmpemwiu Moezo dndio, apec- 
moeauHozo npedbidymeu noubio. 



CyH OkJIu: 26 oxmn6pn 1 986 zoda h 6bua apecmoeana 
no (pcuibiuueoMy odeuneHUK) e xuutenuu zocydapcmeenHozo 
uMyiqecmea. fl nepeMCunapa3nozo poda cmpauiHbie nbirtiKu u 
zpy6oe odpau^enue e meuenue 1 4-MecHHHbix donpocoe. Menn 
max cwibHO owiu, nunanu u dyutunu, umo x eneMozna doumu 
US Moeu KOMepbt e xoMnamy donpocoe. Menu donoKHbi 6bv\u 
eo.ioHb na donpocbi. Mou zy6bi Obuu pa3opeanbi edo.tb eceu 
uitKu ennomb do yxa. Hacmo Menu o6nueaj\u xonodnou eodou 
u ocmaennnu cuapyoKU na .ledeHHiyeM 3w\meM eempy, u h 
ecezda cmofiia man e meuenue uaca. 3mo na3bieaiocb «30mo- 
pajfcueanueM pbi6bi». Odnaotcdbi Menx ocmaewiu Ha no.iy 6e3 
C03HOHUM, a xozda n ounynacb, mo yeudejia, unto no moum 
omupbimbiM panaM non30K>m uepeu. 

3ma cmpauxnan 6oiib donpocoe nauunanacb pannuM 
ympoM u npodonoKOJiacb do nonynouu. Hacmo e meuenue 
HecKOJibxux dneu nodpnd Menu .luwanu edbi u, xpo.Kte mozo, 
3acmae.1n.1u cmonmb okojio oqbuyepoe, xomopbie e 3mo epcwn 
npunuManu nuiyy. 

Hacmb 3ax,iH>HeHHbix y.xtepna nocne nbimox, cpedu 
jK-epme 6binu K)hz Kean Xoh, 6bieiuuu dupexmop CHadxce- 
Him, eocnoDKa Cyn Huo Kum, 6bieuiast cnyDtcaufasi oanxa, u 
nexomopbie dpyzue, qhaMwiuu xomopbix mozv Ha38amb. Oqhu- 
yepbi. npoeodueuiue donpocbi, mpeooeanu, umoobi h «cxa3a- 
na npaedy» u npu3Hcma ceoio euny. H omxa3bieanacb u ece 
epeMsiymeepMcdajia, umo h hu e ueM ne eunoeama. Odnaoicdbi 
Mne noo6emajiu, umo earn n npu3HaK>cb. mo ohu «ne mponym 
Moezo mvjko u cbma». flodaewiu, umo a CMOzy doxa3amb 
ceox) neeunoenocmb neped cydoM. fl nodnucajia 6y.\tazu u 9 
Hon6pn 1987 zoda npedcmana neped cydoM. 

Mou npou.ecc uauancn e 10 uacoeympa. Jf nompe6oeaia 
ceudanwi c MyotceM. Xomena e.uy paccxa3amb, xaxMcecmoxo 
comhou o6xodwiucb. CjiedoBameJib omeemwi: «Kmo? Teou 
mvmc? Ezo 3decb Hem. Jlymue ciedu cezodnx 3a ceowu «jn- 
xom, a ecnu He 6ydeiub. mo MOOKeuib UMemb nacmomnue 
npo6.neMbi. 3anoMHu dmo!» Bcmynumejibnoe pa36upamenb- 
cmeo npoucxodwio e dxypo dupexmopa omdena ynpaenenua 
mopzoenu. Tom h enepewe yeudeia cydbm u adeoxama. Cnpo- 
citiu. npu3Hax? m ft ceow euny. Eiye panbiue cjiedoeame.iu 
Mnozoxpamno zoeopiau Mne u npunydwiu o6emamb, umo so 
epe.\tH npox^ecca h npumaK) ceow euny. Odnaxo h HeydepDKa- 
jiacb u cxa3aiia, umo hu e hcm ne eunoeama. flonpocujia 
maxjtce, vmo6u npou,ecc npoeodwicn necmno. IJocie 3mux 
moux neoMcudaHHbix cnoe cmostufue oxojiOMenx cmpaxcnuxu 
cmanu na Men* xpuuamb u 6pocwiu Menu na xojienu. CydbR 
30X6WI, umo ho 3mo.u ecmynumejibHast nacmb npou,ecca oxoh- 
uena. Bo epeMA oxcudanux Hanajia Moezo npoyecca, do 5 
uacoe eenepa, r 6bua CMepmejibHo zonodna. Mne mpydno 
6buio enademb co6ou. Uomo.M npuuau aiedcmeeHHbie o(pu- 
u,epbi u cxa3aiu. nmoobi n npu3Ha.iacb u maxuM o6pa30M 
cnaaia mvoko u cbtna. Bo epeMH npoyecca cydbft cnpocwi, 
cnpaeed.mebi jiu ebideunymbie npomue Menu o6euneHun. H 
omeemwia ymeepdumesibHo. FJojiyuwia npuzoeop — 13 nem 
mxjpbMbi. Mou 3au\umnux nenpou3Hec hu cioea, a deao cpa3y 



3axoHHwiu. FIo3dHee h y3naia. umo mou cbiH 6bvi ucxjixmeH U3 
uixo.ibi. a \ty.yc .iuuiuacr pa6ombi. C.iedoeame.m Menu o6mo- 
nyjiu... 



Ct03aHHa LUOJlbT 

3a TeMHbiM 3aHaeecoM 
CesepHOM Kopeii 

<...> TocnoHca J1h, BbicoKoo6pa30BaHHas rpaaoiaHKa 
CeBepHOH KopeH, 6buia pyKOBOHHTeneM nocraBOK b Topro- 

BOM UeHTpe, KOTOpblH 3aHHMaJIC51 06MyHaHp0BaHHeM apMHH. 

Koraa aHpeiaop no aenaM 6e3onacHOCTH b 3tom ueHTpe 
nonpocHJi ee aaTb eMy HecKOJibKO KOMnjieicroB oneaubi, oHa 
OTKa3ajia. AnpeKTop ao6H,icH ec apecra, jiojkho oGbhhhb b 
XHiueHHH rocyaapcTBeHHoro HMymecrrBa. OHa HaxoaHjiacb 
noa nojiHueficKHM cjieacTBeHHbiM apecTOM 14 MecsueB, bo 
BpeMfl KOTopux ee >KecTOK0 H36HBajiH h nbrrajiH, nocKOJibicy 
OHa 0TKa3anacb noanwcaTb aoKyMeHTbi, noaTBepjKiiaiomHe 
ee BHHy. 

TocnoKa J1h oSbflCHser: «fl ne cwnauai dKenu^una, ho 
nepenocwia ece imu nbimxu. umo6bi y6epenb Myxa u cbtna, 
xomopbix onenb ,ik>6.ik>. Bh 3naeme, e Ceeepnou Kopee, earn 
odun HJieH ceMbu 6ydem o6euHen e npecmywienuu, mo mpu 
CMedytOUfue noxo.ieHu* jmoii ce.\ibu 6ydym cocianbi e naze- 
pa ». 

OflHOH H3 nwTOK, K.iKiiM noiiBepranacb rocno»ca JIh, 
6bLia TaK Ha3biBaeMaji Bo.ianaa nbiTKa. bo BpeMH kotopoh ee 

npHBH3bIBaJlH K ^epeBflHHOH KpOBaTH H npHHy5KaajiH BbinH- 

BaTb orpoMHoe KOJiweCiUO Boabi, KOTopaa jiHJiacb H3 cocyaa, 
nojBeuieHHoro noa noTonKOM. CneuHanbHO cnpoeKTHpo- 
BaHHyio Tpy6icy BoaabiBanH b pot, hto6u BOfla B^HBajiacb 
np»Mo b acejiyaoK. Koraa *e^y^0K nepenonHHJica, ohhh H3 
CTpa»HHKOB mian Ha jkhbot rocno>KH JIh jocKy h c uihobh.-ich 
Ha Hee. rocnonca JIh npit3na.-ia cboio «BHHy» h 6bna OTnpaB- 
jieHa B^arepb^JiH nojiHTHqecKHx 3SXsaantBBLDL He6ojibiuoe 
HMymecTBO, npHHajuiOKaiuee ee ceMbe, 6biJio nonejieHo Me»- 
ay cyabefi, ee «aflB0KaT0M», kotopwh He npoH3Hec bo BpeMjj 
npouecca hh cjioBa, h HaHajibHHKOM no.aHUHH. 

B CeBepHOH Kopee cymecTByeT, no KpaHHefi Mepe, 10 
Jiarepefi zui» no-iHTHMecKHX 3aiciK)HeHHbix, rjxt 3aiciK)HeH- 
hwx npHHy5K^aiOT pa6oTaTb 1 7 nacoB e^enHeBHO. 3to o6«3a- 

TCIbHO iUlH BCeX. KpOMe Go^lbHblX H ^CTCH 0.0 CeMH Jld. 

3aKjnoHeHHbie Moryr cnaTb To^bKO 5 nacoB HOHbio b CTpaiu- 
hwm o6pa30M nepenonHeHHbix 6apaKax. B TeMeHHeiiHa Bcero 
oaHH Mac npe;iHa3HaMeH mm enw h nocemeHHH TyajieTa. B 
Jiarepe, b kotopom HaxoaHJica rocnoaHH KaHT, e»eflHeBHyio 
eay cocTaBnfljia ropcTKa Kyicypy3bi c menoTKOH cojih. 

«06hum U3 npuHifunoe nazepHbix enacmeu 6biw max 
Ha3bieaeMoe dqb<pexmueHoe ucnonb3oeanue 6ecnnamHOu pa- 
6oueu ciabi ecouemanuu c.\iu3epHbLst numanueM, — ad.uuHu- 
cmpauMH npexpacHO noHUMona, umo npu maxoM o6pau^enuu 
3axiK>ueHHbie nozu6Hym», — oCiacHfleT rocnoAHH KaHT. Bo 
BpeMH 1 0-;ieTHero npe6biBaHHJi b narepe rocnoaHH KaHT6bui 



44 



3a TeMHbiM 3aHaBecoM CeBepHOM Kopew 




"Puc ecTb KOMMyHM3M. Bnepea. k uenn — nsiTHafliia™ 
Mn/inMOHaM tohh 3epHa!" 



CBHaeie^eM CMep™ ot rojioaa cotch monm, bhjxci TaKwe 
peryjiapHO HcnojiHeHHa ciuepTHbix npHroBopoB nepe3 noBe- 
uieHHe hjih paccTpen. 

Tocno>Ka JIh paccKa3biBaeT: «nepebiMu cioeaMu, Komo- 
pbie h yc.tbiiua.na om cmpaotcHuxa cpa3y no npu6bimuu a 
.taeepb, 6buu: «Bpocb ecsucue MUCMU o most, umoobi JK-umb 
kok ue.ioeeK». CmpaoKHUKu Ha.3biea.iu ywuKoe «6ecmuHMu 
6e3 X8ocmoe». 

EojibiiJHHCTBo acemuHH b 3tom jiarepe 6ujih 3aMyjKHH- 
mh. )KeHiuHHaM, KOTOpwe iipiiobiBa.iu b .iarepb 6epeMeHHbi- 
mm, BnpbiCKHBanH cneuHaribHbie upciiapaibi. KOTopue aefi- 
cTBOBajiH Tax, HTo ae™ poacaajiHCb MepTBbiMH. Ecjih npoue- 
aypa He yaaBajiacb h peoeHOK po%aajic>! aaiBbi m . ero y6nBajin 
cpa3y nocjie poaoB Ha nna3ax MaTepn. Tocno>Ka JIh 6buia 
CBHjeTejieM Taicnx npHHyiiHTe^bHbix a6opTOB h y6nficTB ho- 
Bopo>KaeHHbix. 

OHa coocTBeHHbiMH rjia3aMH BHaena, KaK Ha 3aKJiK)HeH- 
hwx HcnbiTbiBajiocbXHMHHecKoeopyHCHe. <(OdnaoKdbi e <pee- 
pcue 1990 eoda .iiodHM, komopbie moziu padomamb, 6u,io 
npuKQ3aH0 ocmambCH e Jiaeepe. B mo xce epesisi npiLwepno 
150 He.ioeeKa.sx, Komopbie He 6buu e cocmonnuu 6bino.iH»mb 
KaKue-.iuoo padontbi, npuKa3anu ebiumu Hapyotcy». — pac- 
cKa3WBaeT rocnoaca J1h. «Mbi yeudenu, umo cmpaoxHUKu 
odentbi e npomueo2a3bi. TlomoM ohu pacnbuwiu « eo3dyxe 
KQKyio-mo cy6cmaHU,uio u npw<a3aiu jmou cpynne e 150 
HcioeeK npoumu uepe3 o6.ioko xuMUKamoe. ft eudeia, kqk 
ohu cpasy otce y.\iupajiu». — aooaBJiaeT rocnoxca JIh. 

Jlarepb HoaoK, b kotopom rocnojHH KaHT npoBeji 10 
neT, 6biJi pa3aejieH Ha aBe Hac™ — 30Hy «HaHBbiciueH 6e30- 
nacHOCTH» h 30Hy «peHHjioKTpnHaunH». «fi omcudeji cpoKeo 
emopou 3one. Tym 3aK.uoHenHbie u.\te.iu xomx 6bi menb na- 
deycdbi na mo. umo Koeda-nuoydb 6ydym oceoooycdeHbi», — 
roBopHT rocnaaHH KaHT. «Tlepean Dice 3ona 6bua e deucmeu- 
mejbHocmu .laeepeM ynuumooiceHUH d.w mex, umo 6bui npueo- 
eopeH k nojKU3HeHHO.\ty 3aK.i\oueHUK>». 

Koraa b KOHije kohuob rocnoaca JIh 6uaa BbinymeHa H3 
jiarepa, OHa HHKoraa ywe He yBHaejia MyjKa. Eh yaaiiocb, 
o^HaKO, HafiTH cwHa, h ohh BMecTe 6e)KajiH cHanaia b KHTafi, 
a noTOM b KhKHyio Kopeio. 

Ilocjie oKoiiMaima cpoKa rocnoaHH KaHT peuiancji Ha 
no6er, Koma cjryjKamHe nojiHUHH 3acTariH ero 3a cnyiuaHHeM 
MD)KHOKopeHCKOH panHOCTaHUHH. EoflCb noBTopHoro TiopeM- 
Horo 3aKJHOHeHHH, rocnaaHH KaHT fkxan Hepe3 KnTafi b 
EOxHyio Kopeio. 



BbiCKa3biBaHHjj rocno>KH JIh h rocnoaHHa KaHTa aaiOT 
CBHaeTcibCTBa y^cacaiomeH cHTyaunn b CeBepHOH Kopee. 
3Ta CTpaHa yMHpaeT ot BHyrpeHHeH npHMHHbi, BCJieiicTBHe 
npaBJimero TaM CTanHHHCTCKoro pe>KHMa. Tenepb npaBH- 
TejibCTBO b rixeHbHHe npocHT 3anan cpoHHO .aocraBHTb npo- 
.lOBO^bCTBHe, KpHHa oaHOBpeMeHHO, hto 3anacw npoaoBo^b- 

CTBHJI CTpaHb! KOHHaTCH y)Ke B 3TOM MecHue. 

<.. .> B npouuioM roay nojiKOBHHK fly XBanb Xh, cavibiH 

BUCOKHH CeBepOKOpeHCKHH BOeHaHaJIbHHK H3Tex, KOTopwe 

Koraa 6bi to hh 6ujio y6erajin H3 CeBepHOH Kopen, noKa3an, 

HTO npOJlOBO^bCTBeHHaa nOMOUJb H nOCTaBKH MCaHKaMeHTOB 

oneHb nacTO He nonaaaiOT k tcm, ans koto 6hum npeaHa3Ha- 
MeHbi. Ohh oceaaiOT y npHBHJierHpoBaHHbix m^chob npaBH- 
TejibCTBa, napTHHHbix annapaTHHKOB, aTaioKe bmciuhx BoeH- 

HblX HHHOB. 

<...> OpraHH3auHH OoteanHeHHbix HauHH aoiDKHa 
Tpe6oBaTb, hto6w Bee ryMaHHTapHbie opraHH3auHH, Bbicw- 
.lawuiHe npo^OBO^bCTBHe b CeBepHyio Kopeio, hmctih npaBo 

He TOJlbKO nOCTaBJIHTb nOMOlUb, HO TaiOKe KOHTpOJIHpOBaTb 

ee pacnpcaeneHne. B CBoeM CBHueTenbCTBe rocnoflHH Xh 
yTBep)KAaeT, hto npoaoBO^bCTBHe, pa3.aaBaeMoe HyvKjiaK)- 
ujHvica nepen TeneBH3HOHHbiMH KaMepaMH, a TaK>Ke Ha rjia- 
3ax paooTHHKOB ryMaHHTapHbix opraHH3auHH. 0T6HpaeTCJi 
apMHefi cpa3y noc^eToro, KaK OTnajisK)TC« KaMepw h opraHH- 

3aUHH. OaHOH H3 TaKHX OpraHH3aU.HH, KOTOpafl Ha3bIBaeTCH 

«Voice of Martyrs», yaanocb nepexnTpHTb KOMM>HHCTHHec- 

KHH pe>KHM. ripO^OBO,1bCTBHe aOCTaBn»J10Cb C nOMOU4bK) 

B03ayuiHbix uiapoB, KOTopwe npHHOCHJiH ero b OTaarieHHbie 
o6;iacTH CTpaHbi, b MecTa. me oho owjio Han6ojiee Heo6xo- 

JIHMO. 

Eciih mw He HanHeM iieficTBOBaTb, 3a tcmhoh ctchoh 
CeBepHOH KopeH Gyiiyr nponcxonHTb Bee 6o;iee CTpauiHbie 
BeuiH. Mhothc OTBa^Hbie jhohh, noiioSHbie rocnoKe JIh h 
rocnaaHHy KaHTy, Synyr hcbhhho cTpaaaTb, 24 MRruiHOHa 
rpa>KnaH CeBepHOH KopeH oyayT MynaTbca b tcmhotc b to 
BpeMA KaK Khm HeH Hp 6yaeT CBo6oaHo yHHHTo^aTb napoa, 
Hcnonb3ya BceB03MO>KHbie cpeacrBa. Hro6bi npon3BoaHTb 
opyacne MaccoBoro yHHHTo»eHH« h coaepjKaTb oecnejiOBeH- 

HVK) apMHJO. <...> 

riy6nuKyemcfi e conpameHuu 

Mamepuajibi drift ny6i\UKamiu npedocmaeneHbi 

rpamdaHCKUM Cot030M lloMomu flonumuuecHUM 
3aKsiK)HeHHbiM e CeeepHoQ Kopee. 




B ny6nuKamiu ucnonb3oeaHbi 

(pomoMamepuanbi 

U3 apxuea xypHana "Kapma" 



4 



I1PABA HEJ10BEKA 



45 




-» I was here. 



3aieniOHeHHbix y6MsaioT paA" CMexa 

OxpaHHUK ocTaHaennBaeT rpynny My>KHMH-3aKJiK)HeHHbix m roBOpm: «3m, Tbl h th, MflMTe ciOAa! Ecnn Bt>i nepene3eie 
sepe3 KomonyK) npoBonoKy, a flaw bbm CBo6ofly», — w noKa3biaaeT Ha 3a6op, no Bepxy KOToporo HaTAHyTa KonioMan nposonoKa 
noA tokom. 3aK/iK)MeHHbie, AosefleHHbie ao no/iHoro OTManHMfl, b CMSTeHMM n 6e3yMHOii HaAewAe, mto hx cTpa/jaHMflM npufleT 
KOHeij, npbiratOT HaBCTpeny cBoert CMep™. 

3tot npuMep noKa3biBaeT. HacKonbKo ManoueHHa >KM3Hb aaioitoMeHHoro. K HeMy oTHOcflTcn, KaK k Bemii, KOTopyio He wanb 
Bbi6pocnTb n nerKo 3aMeHHTb. H sto He MCKJiKwmenbHbiM cnysaii. fl HeoflHOKpaTHO cnbiiuana 06 stom m ABa>KAbi BMflena 
cbohmh rna3aMn 3a nyiTb neT Moero npe6biBaHna b TiopbMe. 

CO. flu, dbieiuan 3aK/iioHeHHafi. 



Ha 3aicniOHeHHbix 

OTpa6aTbisaK)T npneivibi 

6oeBbix MCKyccTB 

3aK/iK)MeHHbie nocne 
wecnua npe6biBaHnn b Tfopb- 
Me, rfle nx MynaK)T ronoflOM n 
noflBepratOT nwTKaM, floxo- 
Abt ao cocTOBHua CKeneTa, 
o6TAHyToro Koxeii. Mepe3 
Mecflu nenoBeKa TpyAHO y3- 
HaTb. MywHMHbi CTpaAaiOT ot 
ronoAa cwibHee, neM weH- 

UtMHfaL 

Ocpnuepbi ncnonb3y»OT 
3aKnK>seHHbix KaK Maiepnan 
Ann 0Tpa60TKM npneMOB. 
nocne nepBbix >Ke yAapoB mc- 
ToiMeHHbiii HenoseK naAaeT 
Ha ueMeHTHbiii non m newm 
Taw, MCTeKan KpoBbK). noKa 
ero He OTBonoKyT b Kaiuepy. 

MacTo 0(t>nuepbi npMHo- 
cot pw6y n >Kap«T ee Ha new- 
<e b CBoetf KOMHaTe. 3anax 
nuiAn npoHMKaeT b KaMepw, 
npusMHRfl ronoAHbiM niOAHM 
AononHMTeribHbie MyneHMfl. 
C. O. flu, 6k,ieiuan 
3annK)HeHHap. 




4i 



4 



riPABA HEJ10BEKA 




riOi1MT3aKJ1IOHeHHMe - XepTBbl <OTHeTHOCTM» 

B 1 988 rofly flBoe ocJwuepoB oxpaHbi KOHunarepn Nfi 1 5 aacTaBuriM nonnT3aKfitOHeHHbix npwrHyTb na KOJiJOHyw npoBonoKy 
n paccTpennnn hx. 3to HywHo 6bino otpmjepaM fl/w Toro, hto6w HarwcaTb acpcpeicrHbiii panopT. 

Af. C. AXH, 6bl6LUUU oxpaHHUK. 



: ft=#fl 



Kick kin 




ftrtft 

SoMicn wailing tkcir tarn 




Mcnojib30BaHne 3aiciiiOHeHHbix an« OTpa6oTKM HaebiKOB 6oeebix HCicyccTB Bouino b npaxTuxy 



CeBepHan Kopea Bbinycrwna b 1986 roay flsa cpwibMa, nocBfliueHHbix 6oeBbiM HCKyccTBaM: «XoHr Kun Tohd> m «npw<a3 
Nfi 027». C Tex nop b narepnx dano o6bMHOtf npatanKOM Bocnpon3B0AHTb cueHbi H3 otmx cpmibMOB. Ocpnuepw noompflK>T 
ncnonb30BaHne nonmHHecKHx 3aK/noHeHHwx Rnn oTpa6oTKM yaapoB. riocne TaKiix «3aHHTHM» y 3aKn»OHeHHoro o6wmho pa36nTo 
b KpoBb nnMO, Bbi6nTw 3y6w, oh He MOweT caM nepeflBuraTbcn. 9\ BMflen noflo6Hbie cueHbi b narepe No 22, a M3 pa3roBopoB c 
mommm KonneraMM nona/i. hto oto - o6bNHaa npaKTMKa arm Bcex narepeii. 

M. C. Axh, dbieuiuu oxpaHHUK. 



4 



IIPABA HEJ10BEKA 



47 



3aK/iK)HeHHbix y6nBaK)T 
3a Kpa>Ky noMoes 

TiopeMHan KyxHA He npon3- 

BOflUT OTXOAOB. J]/lfl OTKOpMa CBH- 
HeM OTXOflbl npMB03HT «C BOnM». 

CBUHefi ana oxpaHbi OTKapMnn- 
BaiOT xopoiuo. 3aKHK)MeHHbie 3a- 

BMflyiOT CBMHbHM, noTOMy hto y 
Tex MHoro riMUtM n MHoro caoSofl- 
Horo BpeMeHM. CneMMaribHaj? ko- 

M3HAa 3aKTlK)MeHHblX BblB03MT Ha- 
B03 M HHCTHT 3arOHbl A™ CBMHeii. 

3th 3aK/iK)HeHHbie Bcerfla Ha- 
CTonbKo ronoflHw, mto MHorne H3 
hmx, pHCxyn CBoevi wnsHbio, Bopy- 
K)T nOMOM M3 KopbiTa. Koraa CBH- 
HbM OTXOflflT B CTOpOHy. HenoBeK 

6pocaeTcn k cBMHOMy KopbiTy h 
XBaTaeT kopm. Ecnn oxpaHa 3aMe- 
tmt 3to, oh 6yfleT 6e3>xanocTHO 
paccTpennH. 

3aKTiKDMeHHbie>KflyT, Korfla hx 

HanpaBHT MUCTHTb 3arOHbl fl/lH 

CBMHen, noTOMy hto Ann hmx sto 

B03MO>KHOCTb n0flO6paTb OCTaTKH 

KopMa, HecMOTpn Ha to hto oh 
CMeiuaH c Haeo30M. 3aKTiK)HeH- 

Hbie. KOTOpbie KOpMflT CBMHeH, CTa- 

paiOTcn flaBaTb wmbothum kopm, 
Koraa b 3aroH bxoamt KOMaHAa 

y6opiMMKOB, HT06bl flaTb CBOMM. TOBapMUjaM UjaHC «nO,qKpenMTbCfl» BMeCTe CO CBMHbflMM. 

OflHa>Kflbi KyM Bok Kmm M3 ropofla Kanre fipobmhumm MaraHflo, MHnan m oneHb Ao6pan weHiuMHa, B3nna HeMHoro CBMHoro 
KopMa. 3a 3to oHa 6wna M36nTa oxpaHHMKaMH flo noTepn co3HaHM«. 3aTeM ee BbiHyflnrw nncbMeHHO M3no)KMTb CBoe 
«npecTynneHne», m fleno 6wno HanpasneHOHaflonoriHHTenbHoepaccrieAOBaHMe. >KeHU4MHa yMepna noA nwTKaMM bo BpeMa 
paccneflOBaHMfl. 

C. O. flu, 6bieiuaa 3annK>*4eHHap. 




CiieHa, TMnHHHan nnn 
KopeiiCKHx ziarepeii 

C Ma« no Hoa6pb 1991 roaa a 
6bin HanpaaneH b 6pnraay TiopeM- 
hom o6cnyrn, OTeeTCTBeHHyio 3a 
otkopm CBMH6M b narepe Nfi 22. 
Moeii o6n3aHHOCTbK) 6bino npn- 
HOCHTb nonno A/in CBMHeii M3 Kyx- 
hm nepcoHana. f\ no3Bonwn 3ax- 
rifOMeHHbiM BapnTb 3to noiino, Kop- 
MHTb CBHHeii m y6npaTb 3aroHbi 

HOHbK). Ka>KflblM fleHb 3aKJ1K)MeH- 

Hbie zioKnanbiBann MHe. hto Bee b 
nopnflKe. CBHHbM HaKopMneHbi. 3a- 
roHbi BbiHHineHbi. Ho nepe3 Mecnq 
n 3aMeTnn, hto CBHHbM nepecTa/iM 
Ha6npaTb Bee. OflHa>Kflbi Bene- 
poM. b 22 naca. n tuxo noAOiuen k 
3aroHy m yBMflen TaKyio KapTMHy: okoho copoxa 3aKnK>HeHHbix CHflenn b saroHe n noeflann KycKM nnuuH H3 kopwt. >KnflK0CTb ohh 
ocTaBnnriM CBHHbflM. fl BepHyncfl k ce6e m HMKOMy He CKa3an o tom, hto BHflen. no3x<e n y3Han, hto bo acex narepnx 

3ai01K)HeHHbie BOpyiOT KOPM y >KMBOTHblX npM flK)60H B03MO)KHOCTH. 

flosefleHHwe ao OTnanHMn ronoflOM hioah eflflT TpaBy, Kopy AepeBbeB, Kpwc, naryiueK, HaceKOMwx. 

M. C. Axh, 6bieiuuu ox pan huh. 




41 



4 



flPABA HEJ10BEKA 




AeTn pott/jaiOTCfl, 

HT06bl 6blTb 

y6MfUHM 

Koraa b 1 989 rofly 
a wyflOM Bbi>KMna noc- 
ne TM(£a, Meua Hanpa- 
Bunn b narepHyw Me- 

flMUUHCKyK) KOMHaTy 
AODO)KHTbO npn6biTnn. 

B KOMHaTe a yBMAena 
aiecTepbix 6epeMeH- 

HblX >KeHli(MH, KOTOpbie 
AO/DKHbl 6blflH pOflMTb 

b STOTfleHb. MHe 6wno 
BeneHO AowiiflaTbca 
Moero Hafl3npaTe/iH. 
rioKa n Haxoflnnacb 
TaM, Tpoe WeHlAMH po- 
Amhm npnMO Ha ueMeHTHOM nony. 9\ c y>KacoM CMOTpena, KaK TtopeMHbiM span 6beT sthx weHinMH HoraMM. KorAa AeTM 
poAHJiHCb, B p aH KpuKHyn: «Y6nTb ux! Bbicrpo! TAe sto bhasho, mto6w npecTynmiKaM nosBonflna MMeTb Aeieii? y6MTb nx!» 
>KeHU4MHbi pbiAariM m 3aKpbiBann ntma pynaMn. 3aKn(OMeHHan-caHHTapKa ApoacaujHMH pyKaMw CAaBnueana weiiKH MnaAeHqeB. 
3aAyiueHHbix AeTei* 3aBopannBanii b rpji3Hbie TpanKw, ctcnaAbiBann b Kop3MHbi m BbiHocunn Mepes MepHbiii xoa. rinaH sthx 
>KeHmnH a cnbiujy ao cnx nop b homhwx KoiuMapax. flBa>KAbi 3a BpeMn Moero sawiKweHKia a BMAena cueHy y6w*cTBa 

HOBOpO>KAeHHblX. 

Hepe3 HecKonbKO AHeii n 6bina Ha3HaseHa Ae>KypHoti no MeAnunHCKow KOMHaTe. LUmh Ok Khm h Mm Ok Ho, 3aKJiKHeHHbie- 
caHMTapKM, pa6oTaK>iAne tsm, pbiAann, h oahb H3 hmx CKa3ana MHe: «Mw xyrce 3Bepeii, xywe caMoro AbflBona!» OHa 
paccKa3ana, mto y6wrbje AeTM ncnonb3yKJTcn nnn SKcnepuMeHTOB npw pa3pa6o™e HOBoro MeAHUHHCKoro npenapaTa. ft 
CTpawHO Mcnyranacb, 3aKpbina ee pot cBoeti pyKOM m CKa3ana: «Tw nmero MHe ho roBOpuna! 9\ HMKorAa Husero He cnbiiuana 
ot Te6n 06 3tom!» rio3>Ke n dapanacb He BCTpeHaTbcn c stmmm weHiAHHaMM. 

B 1992 roAy a chobb nonana b MeAMUHHCKyto KOMHaTy nocne Bbi3AopoBneHus (Ha stot pa3 n 6onena nneBpmoM). B stot 
pa3 b KOMHaTe 6bino HecKonbKO AecaTKOB 6epeMeHHbix jkbhiumh. Mm BceM 6binn cAenaHbi MHbeKqiin npenapaTOB, CTMMynMpy- 
ioiamx poAw. m Bee ohh crpaAanw ot cunbHoii 6onn ywe HecKonbKO Macos. MHorwe M3 sthx MCTomeHHux, cna6bix weHinwH He 
6bmn b cocTOflHMM nepenec™ poAOBbie MyKM u yMnpanH npaMO bo speMH cxb3tok. CaHMTapKa uuenoTOM CKa3ana MHe. mto 
poAHTb MepTsoro pe6eHKa ropa3AO Tfl*enee, neM wMBoro, noaTOMy weHinnHbi TaK MynatoTCfl. 

Po>KeHnubi BwrnnAe^M y>Kacno: mx 
6neAHbie nmja Sbinn noKpwTbi ncnapuHOM. 
YcnbiiuaB ctohw, spaM 6nn HecMacTHyio no 
>KMBOTy m opan: «3aTKHMCb. CMMynqHTKa!» 
f\ cnbiiuana, KaKTpnAuaTMAByxneTHflfl BuHr 
Ok Kmm, KOTopan TonbKO mto poAwna >kmbo- 
ro pe6eHKa. KpMsana: «rio)KanyMCTa, He 
y6MBaMTe pe6eHKa! PoAHTenn Moero My>Ka 
y»e CTapbie, ohm He AO)KAyTcn Apyroro 
BHyKa! rio>KanyticTa, noMcanyMcTa, ocTaBb- 
Te ero!»OHa 6una BHe ce6fl ot ropn. Oc- 
TanbHbie JKeHiunHbi 3aTnxnn, 6wn cnbiweH 
TonbKO ee yMonnwiAHii kphk. Bpaw Ha Mmo- 
BeHne 3aMep, ho TyT xe onoMHuncs n 3ao- 
pan: «Te6e mto, >KMTb HaAoeno? HeMeA- 
neHHO y6nTb pe6eHKa!» M yAapwn ee. 

3aTeM Boiuen HasanbHHK rocnuTans 
m CKa3an: «Kto Tyr TaK BonuT? B aiTpacp- 
HyK) KaMepy ee!» Oh HecKonbKO pa3 yAa- 
pun ee Horoii m noBonoK b LUTpacJJHyK) Ka- 
Mepy. CaMa OHa He Morna AepwaTbca Ha 
Horax. OHa yMepna BCKope nocne Toro, KaK 
Bbiiuna us ujTpacpHOM KaMepbi. 

CO. flu. 6bieujan 3aK/iK>HeHHan. 



HoBopo>KAeHHoro y6nnn v\ 6pocnnw 
co6aKe. 

M. C. Axh, 6bieiuuu oxpaHHUK. 




4 



I1PABA HEJ10BEKA 



49 






3aK/1K)MeHHbie n OxpaHHMKM 

OxpaHHMKM b TtopbMe cuflflT b CTeicnflHHbix Ka6MHax, TaK mm yao6HO Ha6/iioflaTb 3a pa6oTOM 3aKntoMeHHbix, m , b to we BpeM n, 
CTeKrmHHan CTeHKa 3ammnaeT mx ot ywacHOM bohm, KOTopan ctoht b noMemeHunx a^« 3aKJiK)HeHHbix. 

no npaBwnaM, Koraa 3aioiK)MeHHoro Bbi3biBaeT oxpaHHMK, tot /jonweH nofl6e>KaTb, CTaTb Ha KoneHM n onycTMTb ronoBy. 
3aKJiK)HeHHbiii MoweT TonbKo OTBenaTb Ha Bonpocw, caMOMy eiwiy roBopnTb 3anpemeHO. Ecnn npoMe/yiMWb c OTBeTOM, 
nonynMUJb yflap hoi-om b /imuo. 

OxpaHHMKM CTapatOTCfl aep>KaTbcn na paccTOAHMM ot 3aKTiK)MeHHbix m hocht MacKM. noTOMy hto 3axnioMeHHbie naxHyT 
ywacHO. 06paTMTe BHMMaHMe, HaocoribKO 3aK/iK)HeHHbie MeHbtue oxpaHHMKOB. M eme o6paTMTe BHMMaHMe, KaKMe cyTynwe 
nneHM y 3aKJiK>MeHHbix. B TtopbMax HeHOpManbHO 6o/ibiuoe KO/iMMecTBO rop6aTbix m cyTynbix ntofleii. 3to oStflCHneTca TeM, 
mto ocna6neHHbie Hefloe/jaHMeM nioflM MHoro BpeMeHM npoeoAflT, KaK bo speMH paSOTfal, Tax m npn MHoroKpaTHOM BbicnyiuM- 
bshmm npMK330B oxpaHHMKOB, b noroweHMM, Kor^a no3BOHOHHMK comyT, a ronoBa onymeHa. 

CO. flu, 6bieiuan 3aKfiK>veHHan. 




CueHa, xapaxTep 
Han Asia Bcex 
ziarepeM 

Koraa noflBnneTCfl 

OXpaHHMK MJ1M 0(pMUep, 

nonMT3aKntOHeHHbie 
AonjKHbi corHyTbcn b 
rny6oKOM noxnoHe mdm 
BCTaTb Ha KoneHM. Tot, 
kto He caenaeT aToro. 
6yfleT wecTOKO m36mt m 
noMeiyeH b uiTpacpHyK) 
xaMepy. 

KoHLinarepb Ns 24 
npoM3BOflMT nymuMe b 
CeBepHOM Kopee Beno- 
CMneflw. 

M. C. Axh, 
6bieuiuu oxpaHHUK. 

Marepna/i 

npeaocraBrteH 

rpaxnaHCKHM 

COKJ30M 
flOMOUlU 
nO/1MT3aKJlK)HeHHblM 

CeBepHou Kopeu 

nepeBOA 

c aHr/iMHCKoro: 

IOjihh Cepena 



51 



4 



KPACHOE KO/1ECO 



HaTa/ib* J1E5E£EBA 



HemBepmbiu pajgen noAbiuu u 
KambiHCKaa mpazequfl 

(cppameHTbi) 



<...> B xoflc 6oeB KpacHas ApMHa BiH.ia b ruieH 6ojiee 
240 twc. BoeHHOcny>KamHX nojibCKOH apMHM. BcenneHHHKH, 
BonpeKH MeacnyHapoiiHOMy npaky, 6w;ih nepeaaHbi H3-noa 
oneKH apMHH opranaM HKBZl. EyayHH He b coctohhhh o6ec- 
nenMTb TaKoe kojihhcctbo jnoaefi npoaoBOJibCTBHeM, 7KBJO- 
eM, aa>Ke nHTbeBofi bo/joh, ciajiHHCKoe pyKOBoacTBO peuiHuo 
b HaHajie OKTa6pji pacnycTHTb no aoMaM paaoBbix h yirrep- 
0(J)HuepoB — )KHTeneH npncoe.iHHCH h bix k CCCP 3eMejib, a b 
cepe/jHHe okth6ph nepeaaTb TepMaHHH 3th me KaTeropHH 

BOCH HOII/1CHH WX ypO>KCHUeB UeHTpajlbHblX IlOJIbCKHX Boe- 

BO/JCTB. 

O/jHaico okojio 25 twc. psujOBoro h Mnajjiiiero KOMaHjj- 
Horo codaBa apMHH 6bi;iH 3anep>KaHbi b Pobchckom narepe h 
jiarepax HapKOMHepMera ajw CTpoHTejibCTBa uiocce CTpaTe- 
rHMecKoro Ha3HaneHH>i h pa6oTbi Ha waxTax KpHBoro Pora h 
floH6acca. 

no peiueHHK) FIo^HT6K)po UK BKn (6) ot 3 OKT»6pji 
1939 r. okojio 15 tuc. nojibCKHx o(})nuepoB. no;iHueHCKHx, 
TiopeMHbix pa6oTHHKOB BCKope 6buiM pa3MemeHM B K03e/Ib- 
ckom, CTapo6ejibCKOM h OcTaiuKOBCKOM iiarepax. 

B tot ace aeHb, 3 OKT«6p», no/in-r6iopo UK BKI1 (6) 
npHHH/io euie ojjho peuieHne. Henocpe/iCTBeHHo KacaBiiieecji 
cyab6bi nojibCKHx ocpHuepoB. B cootbctctbhh c hhm BoeH- 
HbiM coBCTaM y KpaHHCKoro h EenopyccKoro (ppoHTOB npeno- 
crraBJiHJiocb npaBO nynteepjKdantb npueoeopbi mpu6yHano8K 
ebiciueu Mepe HaKa3QHua no KOHmppeeoMouuonHUM npe- 
cmyrueHWiM epajtcdaHCKUx .nty 3anadnou YKpauHbi u 3anad- 
hou Beaopyccuu u eoeHHOcayotcamux 6bie[uteu] nojibCKou 
apMuu»K 

JXoKy\teHThi onepaTHBHoii pa3pa6oTKH BoeHHormeH- 
Hbix, HanaTOH 6yKBanbHO c nepBbix aHe» hx npeobiBaHna b 
narepjix HKBjJ. noKa3biBaiOT, hto ohh He CMHpHJincbc pa3^e- 
JIOM nOJlblUH H 6bIJIH TOTOBbl 6opoTbc« 3a B03po>KaeHHe 
CTpaHw. Becb Ho«6pb 1939 r. b CTapo6e;ibCKOM, Ko3ejibCKOM 
h OcTauiKOBCKOM jiarepax pa6oTajiH cjieacTBeHHbie opHraaw 
H3 pa6oTHHKOB ueHTpanbHoro annapaTa HKB.ZI bo rjiaBe 

COOTBeTCTBeHHO C E. M. E(J)HMOBbIM, B. M. 3apy6HHbiM H 

Ahtohobum. 

3 aewaopH no;iHT6K)po UK BKn (6) yTBep/jmio npeano- 
>KeHHe HKBil CCCP 06 apecTe Bcex b3htwx Ha yneT Kajipo- 
bwx oc{)HuepOB 6biBiHeH nanbCKOH apMHH : . Ha cueayiomHri 
aeHb b OcTauiKOBCKHH uarepb 6buia HanpaBJieHa HOBaa cie/j- 
CTBeHHaji 6pnraAa bo rjiaBe c C. E. Beao.iHneuKHM, otbct- 
cTBeHHWM coTpyaHHKOM cjie/KTBeHHOH nacTH TjiaBHoro yn- 
paajieHHa roc6e3onacHOCTH HKBfl CCCP (ryrB HKBA 
CCCP). Bpwraae nopynajiocb otpopMHTb k KOHuy HHBapa 



cjieacTBeHHwe aejia h ooBHHHTe.ibHbic 3aKJnoHeHH* Ha Becb 
OcTauiKOBCKHH KOHTHHreHT 3jia npeacTaB/ieHHH hx Ha Oco- 
6oe coBeuiaHHe — opraH BHecy.ne6HOH pacnpaBbi 3 . 

B 3to ace caMoe BpOMS nojiHT6K)po h CoBHapKOM CCCP 
roTOBwiH nepByK) KpynHyK) aenopTauHK) ocaaHHKOB 4 hhx 
ceMen b panoHbi KpafiHeroCeBepa h Ch6hph. 5 aeKa6pa CHK 
CCCP npHHAJi nocTaHOBJieHHe JVs 2001-558cc, yTBep)KaeH- 
Hoe b tot we aeHb nojiHT6iopo UK BKn (6), o co3aaHHH 
cneunocejieHHH ana 2 1 twc. ceMeii ocaaHHKOB 5 . B noce^Kax 
Ha 100 — 500 ceivieH Bee B3poc^we /jojdkhm 6bi.iH npHHyiiH- 
Te^ibHO paGoTaTb Ha jieconoBane h He HMenn npaBa noKHaaTb 
MecTa BceiieHHH oonee neM Ha 24 waca. nepece.ieHHe nuaHH- 
poBanocb ocyiuecTBHTb b caMbifi pa3rap 3hmu — b Hanane 
(peBpajia 1940 r. 

2 1 aeKa6p>i nojiHT6iopo yrBepaH.io npeono5KeHH« UK 
Kn(6) YKpaHHbi h UK Kn(6) BenopyccHH oo Hcnonb30BaHHH 
HMymecTBa BbicejuieMbix ocajHHKOB. Bbino peuieHo: 

«l) 8CK) 3e.iL.iio ocadHUKoe, 3a ebiuemoM mou nacmu 
3e.\uu, Komopan yxce pacnpedexeHa Meotcdy KpecmbRHaMU, 
nepedantb e 3eMenbHbie gbondbi oonacmnbix KOMumemoe dm 
HadejieHwt umu coexo3oe u Ko.ixo3oe; 

2) Jiotuadeu. npodyKmusHbiu cKom u cenbCKOX03siu- 
cmeeHHbiu UHeenmapb nepedantb enoeb opeaHU3\e.\ibiu ko.i- 
xo3om u coexo3aM. B KOJtcdou o6nacmu opeaHU3oeamb 2 — 3 
coexosa, KomopbLu nepedantb eecb CKom u ce.ibCKoxo3RU- 
cmeenHbiu uneeumapb ocadmiKoe u no Mepe opaanu3ai\uu 
Ko.ixo3oe ebidejumb lift cxom u cejibCKoxo3»ucmeeHHbiu UH- 
eenmapb, ocniaesiMM e Ko.ixo3ax e nepeyto ouepedb nieueHHoii 

U 6btCOKOnpod}'KntU6HblU CKOm». 

JXoua ocajiHHKOB npe/jnojiarajiocb Hcnojib30BaTb npe>K- 
Bfi Bcero jura opramramiH uikoh, oo^bHHU, MejHUHHCKHX 

nyHKTOB, pO.'Hl.IbHblX aOMOB, jeTCKHX HCJieH, CeJIbCKHX COBe- 

tob, KoonepauHH, npaBJieHHfi kojixo3ob, MTC, b KanecTBe 
KBapTHp am yHHTeneH h BpaHen. B HHCJIO Bbiceji«eN5bix ao- 
nojiHHTenbHO BKJiKmajiacb KaTeropna CTopo>KeBOH oxpaHbi 
necoB 6 . 

29aeKa6p» CoBHapKOM CCCP h nojiHT6K)poyTBepiiHJiH 
aoKyMeHTbi. nojroTOBJieHHbie BeaoMCTBOM JI. n. Bepnn. — 
«rio.ioMceHiteo cnennocciKax u mpydoeoMycmpoucmee ocad- 
HUKoe, ebiceuieMbix U3 3anadhbix o6.iaemeu YCCP u ECCP» 
h «HHCmpytafUtO Hapodnoao KOMuccapuama enympeHHUx 
dex Co\03a CCP o nopadxe nepece-teuuH no.ibCKUx ocadmiKoe 
U3 3anadHbix o6.iacmeu YCCP u BCCP». 

CHK H3.aaji cneuHajibHoe nocTaHOBJieHHe no 3TOMy Bon- 
pocy b pa3BHTHe CBoero nocTaHOB.ieHn» ot 5 aeKa6p«. a 
nojiHT5iopo UK BKn (6) yTBepaHno h ero. B HeM npeanncw- 



HeTBepTbiM pa3fle/i flo/ibmi/i m KaTbiHCKaa TpareAi/ia 



51 



Banocfc: HapKOMJiecy ooecneMHTb nonroTOBKy k npneMy, pac- 
ceneHHK) h TpynoHcno.nb30BaHHK) ocanHHKOB; HapKOMaTy 
nyreH coo6?ueHHfl — hx nepeB03Ky OTae.ibHUMH suejioHa- 
mh; HapKOM3npaBy — BbueriHTb mcihuhhckhh nepcoHan 
una Kawjioro suiejiOHa h o6cjiy5KHBaHHfl cneunoce;iKOB. Kh- 
pOBCKHH, riepMCKHH. BoJIOrOflCKHH, ApxaHrejibCKHH, HBa- 
H0BCKHH, flpOCJiaBCKHH, HOBOCH6npCKHH, CBepflJIOBCKHH, 
OMCKHH o6jlHCnOJlKOMbJ. KpaCHOJjpCKHH H AjITaHCKHH Kpan- 
HCnOJlKOMbl, CHK KOMH ACCP AOJlJKHbl 6bUIH OKa3bIBaTb 

npaKTHMecKyio noMoiub HKB.ZI CCCP. yTBepacaariHCb urra- 
th h CTaBKH nocejiKOBbix h paHOHHbix KOMeHaaTyp, co3aa- 
BaBiuHxca BcneunocejiKaxiyia Hafl3opa3aaenopTHpoBaHHbi- 

MH. 

HKBZl Bbizieji»JiHCb aonojiHHTejibHbie accHTHOBaHHH b 
17,5 mjih. py6. Ha pacxonw no nepeccneHHio ocaaHHKOB, 
HapKOMJiecy CCCP — 14 mjih. py6. Ha o6ycTponcTBo cneu- 
noceriKOB 7 . 

B COOTBeTCTBHH C HHCTpVKUHefi ZienOpTaUHJI OCailHHKOB 

H3 BCCP h YCCP aoji>KHa 6ujia npoH3BoaHTbCH oaHOBpe- 
MeHHO b aeHb, onpejaejieHHbiH HKB.H CCCP. Bee HeaBHHCH- 
Moe HMyiuecTBO. ckot, HHBeHTapb KOH(J)HCKOBbiBajTHCb h ripn- 
HHManHCb no axTy. 

C co6oh pa3peuja.iocb 6paTb nmiihoaexxy, oejibe, ooyBb, 
nocTejibHbie npHHaimeiKHOCTH, nacTb nocyaw (hohch, bhjikh. 

O09KKH, MaHHHKH, BCUpa), npOHOBOJIbCTBHe Ha MeCHU, X03HH- 

cTBeHHbiw 6wtoboh HHCTpyMeHT (Tonop, nHJia, nonaTa, mo- 
Tbira, Koca, rpa6jiH, bhjiu h t. n.), neHbrn h uchhocth — Bcero 
He 6onee 500 Kr Ha ceMbio. Ha c6opu oTBonHjiocb ne 6ojiee 
AByx qacoB '. 

PyKOBOUHJlH AenopTaUHHMH OnepaTHBHbie TpOHKH — 

ueHTpanbHbie, o6jiacTHbie, ye3jHbie. a TaioKe cneunajibHo 
co3AaHHbie an* 3Toro uiTa6bi. Ohh pa3pa6aTbiBanH ruian 
onepauHH, onpcaejiaiiH cocraB ceMefl BbicejiseMbix, cpopMH- 
poBanH onepaTHBHbie rpynnw, totobhjih TpaHcnopT. 

Oneprpynnbi co6HpajiHCb HaKaHyHe onepauHH BenepoM 
h He mohih OTJiynaTbCJi H3 iuTa6a hh Ha MHHyTy. CrapuiHH 
oneprpynnw H3yHaji cocTaB ceinefi, KOTopwe einy Hajuiewajio 
BbicenxTb, nyTH no/n>e3.aa k hx jjOMaM, MapuipyTbi . ibhvkch hh 




17 ceHTn6pn 1939 r. CoBeTCKne BOMCica acrrynaiOT Ha TeppMtopmo rio/ibWH 



k >Kejie3HOiiopo'/KHbiM cTaHUHHM, nae npoxoanna norpy3Ka b 
Bar oh i,!. OnepauHH aojiHCHa 6biJia HaHHHaTbcs Ha paccBeTe, 

MT06bl H36e>KaTb «HeHy»HOH IIiyMHXH H naHHKH». CTaHUHH 

ouenjin.iHCb kohbohhwmh BOHCKaMH, KOTopwe conpoBoacia- 
jih suiejioHbi H3 55 BaroHOB no 25 — 30 nejiOBeK b KaxcaoM. 
riepBaa nenopTauHJi HaMenajiacb na Hanano (peBpajia, h 

HMeHHO K 3T0My BpeMeHH Oco60My COBemaHHK) flOJttKHbl 

6hjih nepeaaTb cjicacTBeHHue acna Ha Becb KOHTHHreHT 
OcTauiKOBCKoro Jiarepa, 3aKOHHHTb c/ie.acTBHe no ftejiau 
o(J)HuepoB H3 Ko3ejibCKoro h CTapo6ejibCKoro jiarepen. 

B cbh3h c 3thm 3 1 ,aeKa6pfl 1 939 r. Jl. n. Eepna H3flan 
cepHK) npHKa30B, npcanHcaB HanajibHHicy YnpaBJieHHa no 
jiejiaM BoeHHonjieHHbix n. K. ConpyHeHKO BMecTe c 6pnra- 
aoR cjieaoBaTejieH Bbiexarb b OcTauiKOB, ero 3aMecTHTejno 
H. M. rioJiyxHHy h HawaibHHKy 1 -ro omena HiaBHoro 3koho- 
vrnqecKoro ynpaBJieHH* (T3y) 51. A. Hopniy — b Ko3ejibCK, 
KOMHecapy ynB C. B. HexopoiueBy h OTBeTCTBeHHOMy pa- 
6oTHHKy T3Y Po^HOHOBy — b Crapo6ejibCK 9 . 

Hm Ha^noKajio npoBepHTb CTeneHb o6ecneHeHHOCTH 
jiarepefi areHTypofi h ocaefffimnenaMB, aKTHBH3HpoBaTb hx 
pa6oTV, 3aBepui»Tb cjieacTBHe k kohuv HHBapa. «AreHTyp- 
hhm o6c.iy>KHBaHneM» njiaHHpoBanocb oxBaTHTb He mnbico 
BoeHHonjieHHbix, ho h annapaT JiarepeH h aaiKe OKpecTHbie 
nocejiKH. npHMenaTejibHO. hto 06 Oco6om coBcmannM penb 
uijia TOJibKO b npHKa3e BepHH no OcTauiKOBCKOMy Jiarepio. 
BpHra^aM we, HanpaBJiHBuiHMCJi b Ko3e,ibCKHH h Crapooejib- 
ckhh ^arepH, npezinHCbiBajiocb 03HaK0MHTbca c coctohhhcm 
areHTypHo-ocBeaoMHTe^bCKoR paooTu, npoBO^HMOH Oco- 
GbiMJi OTaejieHHHMH narepefi, o6paTHTb BHHMamie Ha Kane- 
ctbo areHTypHOH pa6oTbi h HanHMHecBe^eHHH o HacTpoeHH- 
hx Bcex KaTeropHH BoeHHonjieHHbix, BunBJTflTb h^chob nona- 
THHecKHx napTHH, pa6oTHHKOB reHiirraSa h oco6chho ero 
BToporo (KOHTppa3Be^biBaTejibHoro) ynpaBJieHHJi h t. a. 

K KOHuy HHBapa 3HaHHTejibHaM nacTb H3 3aBeaeHHbix b 
OcTauiKOBCKOM narepe 6onee neM 6 Tbic. c^eacTBeHHbix ne/i 
6bijia nepeaaHa Oco6oMy coBeuiaHHio. 1 (peBpana ConpyHeH- 
KO h EejiojiHneuKHH nepenajiH ujH(ppoM BepHH: «C.iedcmeue 
OcmaiuKoecKOM naeepe 3aKOHHeHO, cxpop.MJieHo 6 mucm 50 
dei. flpucmynu.1 k omnpaeKe de.t Oco6[oe] coeeiqa- 
Hue. OmnpaeKv 3cikohmum 8 (peepcvist» xo . Otmct o npo- 
fleriaHHOH pa6oie cocTaBHJi h HexopoiueB. 

10 (})eBpajiH 6bijia npoBeneHa nepBaji MaccoBa« 
^enopiauHfl nojibCKoro MHpHoro HaceneHH», b xoae 
KOTopoft 6biJiH nepecejienbi 1 39590 hcjiobck, b noziaB- 

HflK)UieM CBOeM 60,lbUJHHCTBe CeMbH OCailHHKOB H 

JiecHHKOB. Hx pa3MecTHJiH b 2 1 Kpae h o6jiacTH b 1 1 5 
nocejiKax, npn 3tom HaH6onbuuee kojihhcctbo ceMefi 
npnuinocb Ha ApxaHrenbCKyio o6nacrb ( 8084) h Kpac- 
HOHpcKHH Kpaii (3279). B 25-30-rpa,aycHbiH Mopo3 
.nioneH Be3Jin b BaroHax jina cKOTa, npH HenocTaTOM- 
hom nHTaHHH. b pe3y.ibTaTe Hero HecKOJibKO men 
HenoBeK yMepno b nym. 

B HioroBOM o63ope TjiaBHoro ynpaBJieHHH koh- 
bohhhx bohck onucbiBaeTcs, Kaic npoxoiiH.ia ompaB- 
Ka 100 3uienoHOB (peBpanbCKOH ^enopTauHH: «Bcr 
padoma lacmeu no Bbino.weHUK) ladamm npomeKOJia 
e Kpaune cxomchou, a nomoMy mpydnou oocmanoeKe 
(cypoeax 3umq. KoneoupyeMbiu KOhmuHeeum npunu- 



52 



HeTBepTbM pa3fle/i flo/ibmi/i m KaTbiHCKafl Tparefli/ifl 




KaTbiHb. 1943 r Bwfl OflHOii H3 bckpwtwx Mornn 



McuicH MejiKUMU epynnaMU e pa3Hbix pauonax, mpeooeauue 
npou38ecmu noepy3KV u omnpaejienue ecex 3iue.iohoe e odun 
denb, nepeep\'3Ka U3 saeoHoe c y3KOU Ko.ieeu Ha utupoKyto. 
omcymcmeue KOMaud o6cjiyjicueaHUfi u numaHue KOHeoupye- 
Mbtx U3 DKe.te3HodopoJKHbix 6y(pemoe cu.ia.\tu kohgoh, nepe- 
6ou e cHadxeHuu npodynmaMu u m.d.)» n . 

Hepcaico no npnowTHH Ha mccto jhojisjm He npeaocTas- 
jisjiocb wHJibe, He 6ujio Ha.ia>KeHO npoaoBOJibCTBeHHoe CHa6- 

/KeHHe. HTO TaiOKe npHBOJXHJlO K BblCOKOH CMepTHOCTH. V'cjio- 

BHfl paGoTbi b cneunocejiKax Majio neM OTJiHHamicb ot ry.ia- 
roBCKHx. JlereH b cjiywae CMepTH MaTepn ompaBJiajiH b npH- 
K)Tbi, rue He 6buw co3aaHu xoth 6m Majio-ManbCKH CHOcHbie 

yCJIOBHJI. 

B KOHue cpeBpajia 6m;ih npcanpHHjrrbi Mepu win rjio- 
6aribHoro peiueHHH ynacm 6o:ibUjeH nacm BoeHHonneHHMX. 
K 3TOMy BpeMeHH Oco6oe coBemaHHe ywe BbiHecnopeuieHH» 



no iie.iaM oonee neM 600 BoeHHonjieHHwx h b 1-m 
cneuoTiiejie HKBH CCCP roTOBn;mcb k ompaBKe no- 
mth Bcero ocTauiKOBCKoro KOHTHHreHTa b Jiarepa rY- 
JIAra Ha KaMHaTKe. 

B MocKBe oujio npoBeaeHocoBeiuaHne pa6omn- 
kob ynB, TnaBHoro ynpaBJieHHH kohbohhwx bohck 
(TYKB HKBJX CCCP), OcTauiKOBCKoro Jiarepa win 
BbipaooTKH MeponpHHTHH no ompaBKe BoeHHon;ieH- 
hwx. Box KaK onncbiBaeT 3to ziByxiiHeBHoe coBemaHHe, 
npoBoanMoe 1-m cneuoT.ae.noM, HananbHiiK Ocoooro 
OTiiejieHHH OcTainKOBCKoro narepjj M.ianiuHfi .ieHTe- 
HaHT roc6e3onacHOCTH T. B. KopwTOB b aoHeceHHit 
HawanbHHKy Oco6oro OTjcia YHKB.I1 KajnimtHCKOH 
o6.iacT»i iio.ikobhhkv B. n. riaBjiOBy: «OcHOBHbie Bon- 
pocw ctojuih TaK: 

1 . Ilo^roTOBKaBJiarepeocy)K.ieHHbixKOTnpaBKe. 

2. Tje o6T»HB^aTb peiueHHH Ocoooro coBewaHHa. 

3. Hue npoH3BoziHTb caany kohbokj ocyjK^eHHbix 
— b Jiarepe hjih na BOK3&ne. 

4. OnepaTHBHoe o6c;ry5KHBaHHe b nym. 

5. Xo3o6cjiy>KHBaHHe... 

HCXOOH H3 HaCTpoeHHH BOeHHOnjieHHblX, HX HHC- 

.leHHOCTH. a r.iaBHUM oopa30M HMea b BHjy, hto Becb 

3TOT KOHTHHreHT npeaCTaBTHeT H3 Ce6a aKTHBHVK) 

K[oHTp]-p[eBo;iiouHOHHyio] CHJiy. ji cboh coo6paaceHHfl 
BbiCKa3a.i: 

1 . no^rOTOBKy K OTnpaBKe npolttBOaHTb B TOM ace 

Oyxe, KaK npon3BOjiHjiH paHee npn ompaBKe b TepMa- 
hhk> h pafionbi iiauiei'i TeppHTopnn, t. e. coojiKxaaa 
npHHUHn 3eM.umecTBa, hto 6y.neT cjiyacHTb noBonoM 
nyviaTb ocy>K7ieHHbiM. hto hx nonroToanawT k ompaB- 
Ke .10MOH. 

2. PeiueHne Oco6oro coBemaHna uecb y Hac bo 
H36e>KaHne pa3j*iHHHoro pojia 3KCueccoB h bojimhok hh 
b KoeM CiiyHae He o6i>HBJum>, a o6bflBj3HTb TaKOBbie b 
tom jiarepe, rae ohh 6yayT coaepacaTbca. Ecjih »e b 
nyrn cjicaoBaHHH ot B[oeHHo]n^[eHHbix] nocjieayfOT 
Bonpocu. Kyaa hx Be3yT, to kohboh hm mo/Kct o6t>hc- 
HiiTb o^ho: «Ha paooTbi b apyron -iarepb». 

3. Cuany ocy-yKiieHHbix kohbok) npoH3BOHHTb, KaK 
h paHee. y Hac b Jiarepe. 

4. B nacTH onepaTHBHoro o6c,Ty>KHBaHH» b nyrn, 
to h npocHJi CoBemaHHe 3Ty o6«3aHHOCTbc 0[co6oro] o[Tae- 
jieHHa] cno)KHTb. wcxoiw H3 ManoHHCieHHOCTH urraTa... B 
TaKOM ayxe 6bin HanncaH npoeia opraHH3amin OTnpaBKH h 
nepeaaH Ha yTBepacjeHHe 3aM. HapKOMa tob. MEPKYJIO- 
BY... KaK CKopo mm 6yaeM pa3rpy>KaTbCJi? H3 npcncTaBJieH- 
hhx iiuMii 6 005 aen noKa paccMOTpeHu 600, cpoxii 3-5-8 ner 
(KaMHaTKa), aajibHeiiujee paccMOTpeHne HapKOMOM noKa 
npHOCTaHOBJieHO. Ho pa3roBopu TaKOBbi, hto b Mapre mu 

;iO.T/KHbl OCHOBaTClbHO pa3rp>'3HTbCJI H noarOTOB.lflTbCJI K 

npneMKe 4>hhhob. Ecrrb pacnop»>KeHHe HapKOMa o 3aKniOHe- 

HHH HeCKOJlbKHX KaTeropHH BOeHHOn.ieHHWX B MeCTHbieTlOpb- 

mh. Ha 3tot cner y HanajibHHKa YnpaBJieHHH no KO (m. e. 
yHKBMKcuunuHCKouo6.iacmu. —H.JJ.) ecTb aHpeKTHBa ot 
29.11.40 r. 3a-N2 25/1869,cKOTopoHnpouiyo3HaKOMHTbCH» i: . 
B nocncaHen cppa3e penb ui^a o aoKyMeHTe, pa3BHBaB- 
uieM no^ojKeHHJi awpeKTHBu HKB/I CCCP ot 22 <J>eBpanji o 



HeTBepTbiM pa3flen flonbuju n KaTbiHCKafl Tparefli/ifl 



53 



MacTHHHOH pa3rpy3Ke narepew Ufa BoeHHoniieHHbix, b coot- 

BeTCTBHH C KOTOpOH B TIOpbMU YHKBiJ nepeBOUHJIHCb BOeH- 

Hon.ieHHue — ocpHuepu Kopnyca oxpaHw norpaHHMbJi 
(KOFI), cyaeHCKO-npOKypopcKHe h TiopeMHbie pa6oTHHKn, 
pa3BeaMHKH, npoBOKaTopw, OCaUHHKH, nOMeiUHKH, ToproB- 

Ubl, KpynHbie C06CTBeHHHKH l} . 

ripHMeMaiejibHa h ccwjiKa KopwTOBa Ha Heo6xo^H- 
MOCTb pa3rpy3KH Jiarepefi b cbjtch c noaroTOBKofi k npneMy 
BoeHHonjieHHbix (J)hhhob. BnepBbie o noaroTOBKe Jiarepen k 
npHe.vy BoeHHon^eHHbix tpHHHOB roBopHJiocbyjKe b npnKa3e 
HapKOMa ot 1 AeKa6pfl, a 4 jjeica6pH b OcTauiKOBCKHH jiarepb, 
KaK y)Ke oTMenajiocb, Bbiexana 6pHraaa EejiojimieuKoro c 



3aaaHHeM k KOHuy HHBapa nonrcrroBHTb aena Ha Becb kohthh- 
reHT jxn* nepezianH hx OcoooMy coBemaHHto. 

B cooTBeTCTBHH co cnpaBKofi ynB ot 21 (peBpajin pe- 
3epBHbie Jiarepa juiji BoeHHoruieHHbix 6bijiH totobm npHHjrrb 
OKOnO 25 TfelC. (pHHHOB W . Flo BCeH BHJIHMOCTH. n.iannpoBa- 

nocb pa3rpy3HTb h TpH caMbix 6ojibiiiHx h o6ycrpoeHHbix 
.larepa h Tanace npHcnocoonTb hx juw coaepacaHHH (Jjhhhob. 
OflHaKO 3aKJHoneHHe MHpHoro aoroBopa c OHHJiflHjuieH 
1 3 Mapia 1940 r. npHBCiio k TOMy, hto ruieHHbie (pHHHbi TaK h 
He nocTynHJiH. W iqu He MeHee CTajiHH He TOJibico He OTKa3an- 
ch ot r^oSajibHoro peiueHHa b oiHoiueHUH ynacTH no ii.ckhx 

0(pHUepOBH nOJIHUCHCKHX y3HHKOB JiarepeH AJ1JI BOCHHOn- 



►» 

•ii«;.«j 



KQRFUSU DCHHDIlOOCBAXiaZA 



Nr. ] 
Koi^d* ZlfcXOWSKI Jml.I* 



(»> <MT wa«*<i o<l«M»t K—V* O«*»0«» 



I 






*m 



3S5S- "•• 




1 





BemecTBenMbie AOKa3aTenbCTea, voBneMeHHwe M3 xaTbiHCKux Morun 



54 



HeTBepTbiii pa3flen flo/ibiDi/i m KaTbiHCKaa TpareAi/ia 



jieHHbix, ho H nouie.i b peweHitH aaHHoro Bonpoca 3Hann- 
TejibHO aajibiue. neM npe^iaran EepHH. 

B to ace BpeMfl c Y KpaHHbi ot H. C. XpymeBa nocTynn.in 
npejuio>KeHHH 06 yi<pen;ieHHH oxpaHbi rpaHHUbi b 3anaaHbix 
oo.iacTHx yCCP h BCCP. nooaep>KaHHbie Bepiiefi h paccMaT- 
pnBaBiunec« 2 MapTa 1940 r. Ha 3acenaHHH nonHT6iopo UK 
BKn (6). 

FIpeAJiarajiocb, Hapaay c ohhctkoh ot MecTHoro Haccie- 
hhh 800-MeTpoBofi nojiocbi Biio.ib rpaHHUbi, aenopTHpoBaTb 
b panoHbi Ka3axcTaHa Ha 1 ner ceMbH penpeccnpoBaHHbix h 
HaxoaHiHHxcjj BjiarepjixiuiH BoeHHon,ieHHbixnojuu<oB, Bcero 
22 — 25 Tbic. ceNiefi. «HaH6ojiee 3jiocthwx» R3 noarce>KaBiuHx 
Bbice.neHHio npeanHCbiBanocb apecTOBbiBaTb h nepeziaBaTb 
hx .ae.ia Oco6oviy coBemaHHJO. JJoMa h KBapTHpbi Bbicejise- 

MblX JO.DKHbl 6bI,TH C;iy>KHTb.aJIH paCCeJieHHfl BOeHHOCJiy/Ka- 
IU.HX PKKA, napTHHHO-COBeTCKHX pa60THHK0B, KOMaHUHpO- 

BaHHbix UflM pa6oTbi b saiuunwe o6jiacTH YKpaHHbi h 5e.no- 
pyccuH. no.iHT6iopo nozuiep>Kajio sth nperuioweHm? h npt«- 
hhjio cneunajibHoe pemeHHe no aaHHOMy Bonpocy. AHajio- 
rHHHoe nocraHOBJieHHe npnns;i h CoBHapKOM CCCP 15 . 

no Bcefi bhjihmocth,3th npezLnowemia nocny>KHJiH to;i- 
hkom h k npHHHTHio Bceo6T>eMJiiouiero Kap^HHa^bHoro pe- 
HieHna b OTHOineHHH cy;ib6bi no,ibCKnx otfwuepoB h no:in- 
uchckhx — y3HHKOB Jiarepen ,uih BoeHHonneHHbix HKB/1 
CCCP. 

2 — 3 MapTa no TpeooBaHHK) Bepnn ow.th cocraBJieHbi 

CBOilHbie^aHHbie O Ha.1HMHH B CHCTeMe yilB nO-lbCKHX 0({)H- 



UepOB, nO.THUeHCKHX, CBHmeHHHKOB, TK)peMHbIX paOOTHH- 

kob, norpaHHMHHKOB. pa3BejMHKOB h t. a. A k 5 MapTa ywe 
6bino nojroToaieHo h nnci>MO napKOMa BHVTpeHHHX Ren 
CCCP CTa^THHy, npenycMaTpHBaBiiiee paccTpe.i 3thx jimu 
6e3 bchkoh cyne6HOH npoueaypw. BKinoMaa aa>Ke Taicyio ee 
KapHKaTypHvio (popMy, KaK Ocoooe coBemaHHe. 

Kpovie 14.7 Tbic. BoeHHonjieHHbix, npe;narajiocb pac- 
CTpejiaTb h 1 1 Tbic. y3HHK0B TiopeM 3ana^Hbix o6jiacTen 

YCCP H BCCP. MT06bI OOOCHOBaTbH36paHHb1H CTaJIHHCKHM 

pyKOBOziCTBOM MeToa pacnpaBbi (paccTpe.i) Haa nojibCKon 
rocyaapcTBeHHOH, bochhoh h wHTejuieKTyajibHOH ijihtoh. 
Eepua BKnioHH^ b CBoe nucbMO h npocTpaHHyio xapaKTepuc- 
THKy KOHTHHreHTa ;iarepeH h TiopeM, noaiepKHyB: «Bce ohu 
sts.iHiomcR jaicisimbiMu epapaxiu cosemcKou e.iacmu. npeuc- 
no.iHeHHH.\tu Henaeucmu k coeemcKo.uy cmpoton. ToBopn- 
jiocb, hto BoeHHonneHHbie ocpnuepw h nojiHuencKHe, Haxo- 
;wcb it jiarepax, «nbimaiomcH npodo.iDtcamb KOHmppeeo.no- 
Huohhyk) pa6omy, eedym anmueoeemcKyio aeumaifuio. Kaoic- 
dbiu U3 hux mo.ibKo u xcdem oceooowdemin, umooM u.\iemb 
eo3.\to3icHocmb aKinusHo eicitoHumbCH e 6opb6y npomue co- 
eemcKou aiacmu. OpeaHOMU HKBJJ e 3anadHbix o6.iacniRX 
ynpaunbi u Eaopyccuu acKpbim pad K-p noecmaHuecKux 
op?aHU3auuu. Bo ecex 3mux K-p opeaHU3aifUHx axmueHYio 
pyKoeodnuiyio po.ib uzpa.iu abieiuue otpuyephi 6bwiueu 
no.ibCKou ap.uuu, dbieiuue no.iuneucKue u .ycaHdapMbi» xt . 

HapKOM oTMenaji TaioKe, hto cpenn nepe6e>KMHKOB h 
HapyuiHTejiefi rpaHnu. cocTaBjiJiBUJHX 3HaHHTe;ibHy»o wacTb 





MoHacmupb Hunoea flycmbiHb. 



MoHacmbipb Onmuna /7/cmwHb. 



Bee Tpu narepn, y3HHKn Koropwx 6wnn yHMMToweHbi, pa3Memanncb b MOHacTbipnx. KoaenbCKHii narepb HaxoAnncn b 3HaMeH^TOM MOHacTbipe OnTMHa 
riycTbiHb nofl Ko3enbCKOM, OcTaujKOBCKMA — b MOHacTbipe Hvinosa flycTbiHb Ha 03epe Cenwrep B6nM3M r. OcTaiuKOB. 



HeTBepTbiM pa3fle/i flo/ibniM \a KaTbiHCKaa jparep,\A9\ 



55 




rinan MeMopnanbHoro 
KOMnneKca b KarwHu. 
OTKpuToro B wone 2000 
rofla. 



1. llaeunbOH 
znaeMoeo exoda 

2. nepean pumyanb- 
nan nnomadKa. 

3. PoccuucKoe 
aaxopoHBHue 

4. rionbCKoe 
3axopoH0Hue. 



3aKJiK>MeHHb!x TiopeM, Tame MHoro yHacTHHKOB 3thx opra- 

HH3aUHM. C006lUHB. KaKOe KOJlHHeCTBO 4HHOB apMHH H nOJlH- 

uhh. hhhobhhkob h TOMy nojio6Hbix jiHU Haxoam-ca b jiare- 
pax AM BoeHHonjieHHwx, kukhc KaTeropnH H CKOJibKO K83K- 
aofi H3 hhx caaep/KHTCH b Tfopbviax, HapKOM npea-naran pac- 
cMOTpeTb hx aejia «e oco6om nopxdKe c npuAumemteM k hum 
ehicuieu Mepbi HaKa3anusi — paccmpe.ia». IlepBbiM Ha 3toh 
oyMare nocTaBHn «3a» w pacnHcaicflCrajiHH, 3aTeM BopouiH- 
.108, Mojiotob h Mhkoah. Ha nonflX pyKOH ceKpeTapa: «KaflH- 
hhh — 3a, KaraHOBHH — 3a»' 7 . 

B 3tot se aeHb no.inT6iopo UK BKri(6) npHHHjio peme- 
Hne: 

«1) JJejia o HaxodHUiuxai e jiaeepxx d.w noeHHomeHHNx 
14 700 H&ioeeK obieiuux noAbcnux oabuuepoe, huho6huko6, 
noMeufUKoe, nmaafeucma, pa3eedHUKoe, xcaudapMoe, ocad- 
mtKoe u nuopeMUfwcoe, 

2) a manatee dejia 06 apeemoeannbix u HaxodautuxcH e 
miopbMax 3anadHbix od.iacmeu yfcpaUKbi u Eciopyccuu e 
Ko.muecmee II 000 ueioeeK tieHoe pas/tWWbU KfonmpJ- 
pfeeojimfUOHHux] lunuoHcmx u dueepcuoHHbix opeamaa- 
uuit, dbieiuux no.MeufUKoe. qbaopuKanmoe. obieiuux no.ibcxux 
ocpuifepos, vuHOBHUKoe u nepeoeMCMUKoe — pacc.uompenib e 
oco6om nopxdKe, c npinteneHueM k hum sbicuieu .\iepbi natca- 
3cihuh — paccmpe.ia. 

II. PaccMompemie de.i npoeecma 6e3 8bi3oea apecmo- 
eaana u oei npedb»e.iemtft o6miHeHun. nocmanoAieHitft 06 
okohwhuu c.iedcmeusi u o6euHiimeibHoeo 3aKiKmemm — e 
c.iedyiou^eM nopndKe: 

a) HaJtUtf, Hoxodfimuxcsi 8 .laeepnx eoeHHoruienHbix, — no 
cnpa8Ka.M, npedcmaejieHHbiM Ynpa8.ieHue.\t no de.ia\t 8oen- 
HonieHHbLX HKBJJ CCCP; 

6) Ha .iuy apecmoeaimbix — no cnpaexaM U3 dea, 
npedcmae.iHeMbiM HKBJJ YCCP u HKBJJ BCCP. 

III. PaccMompenue dai u ebweceuue pemonux eo3.io- 
.ycuntb na mpouKy e eocmaee m. m. MepKy.ioea, Ka6y.ioea 
(man e meKcme. flpaeiabHo: Ko6y.ioea. — H. JJ.) u Eauima- 
Koea (Hana.ibHUK I-eo Cneuomde.ia HKBJJ CCCP). 

CEKPETAPb W» l *. 
B 3tot we neHb nojiHT6iopo paccMarpHBajio h Bonpoc o 
co3jiaHHH HOBoro capKO(|)ara iui» Tejia B.M. JleHHHa... 



rioaroTOBKa k npoBeaeHHio paccTpcna y3HHKOB Tpex 
cneunarepeii mix BoeHHoruieHHbix h TiopeM 3ana^Hbix o6na- 
creH YCCP h BCCP Haqajiacb GyKBa^bHO Ha cneayioiuHH 
aeHb nocjie 3aceaaHHH IIojihtSiopo. C 7 no 15 MapTa Sun 
npoBcaeH pstz coBemaHHH b Mockbc — c coTpy^HHKaMH 
ueHTpajibHoro annapaTa HKBJl, c HanajibHHKaMH YnpaBne- 
hhh HKB/1 Tpex oGnacTew — Cmojichckoh, Ka^HHHHCKOH h 

XapbKOBCKOH, C HX 3aMeCTHTe.1HMH H KOMeHAaHTaMH, c Ha- 

MajibHHKaMH Ko3ejibCKoro, Ciapo6e;ibCKoro H OcraiuKOBC- 
Koro Jiarepeii, c pyKOBoacTBOM HKBJ1 YCCP h BCCP h up. 

Bo Hcno;iHeHHe peiueHHS no.iHT6iopo UK BKI~I(6) 
6bi-ia pa3BepHyTa pa6oTa no cocTaBJieHHio cnpaB0K-3aKjiio- 
MeHHH Ha BoeHHonjieHHbix h y3HHKOB TK>peM. Ee (})opMa 
nocTynnaa b YFIB ot Ko6y,noBa 16 Mapia 1940 r. Ctoa 
Bbir.iHaejia cjieayioiHHM o6pa30M: 

«COBEPWEHHO CEKPETHO 

CnPABKA 

no JtUHHOMy day M 

Ha eoeHHonjenHoeo (qba.MU.iun, law, onmecmeo) 

UMH, 

omnecmeo 
ycmauoeouHbie 
daHHbie 

noc.iedwtfi do.ixcHocmb u uuh e obieut. no.ihCKoii ap.xtuu 
iLiu 8 no.iuueucKux, pa3eedbieame.ibHbix u KapameibHtax opca- 

HOX 

3aKnoneHue 

YKa3amb eod, Mecmo podtcdemiH. uuyufecmeeHHoe no- 
.lOJKeuue. ede codepwumcn, Koeda 63fUtt « n.ien 

« » 1940* 



HanaibHUK Ynpae-iemui no deiaM o eoeHHon.ieHHbix. 
KanumetH zocoe3onacHocmu ConpyneHKov 19 . 

nocjiejHHH rpa<})a, no-BHjHMOMV. ocTaB>ianacbxifl BHe- 
ceHHH b Hee peKOMen^auHH no aeny KOHKpeTHoro BoeHHon- 
.leHHoro. B H3peiiKa BCTpenaFOuinxcji b nenax YIIB «cnpaB- 
Kax» aaHHOH ^opoi oHa Bcer.ia ocTaBaiacb He3anojiHeHHOH. 
3thm cnpaBKaM npnijaBaaocb oco6oe 3HaneHHe, nenaTaHHe 
Am hhx o.iaiiKoH b THnorpa(j)HHx KaTeropnHecKH 3anpema- 
.iocb bbhuv «cyzy6ou ceKpemnocmu npoeodituou paoombi». 
Cneiwarepa He3aMeonHTe^bHO CTajiH roTOBHTb cnpaBKH-3aK- 
jnoHeHHH. riepBbie 6ujih nocuaHbi b MocKBy 19 — 21 MapTa, 
00/11.1 nan hx nacTb 6biaa roTOBa k 25 MapTa. BnocjieacTBHH HX 
3anojiHJUH Ha BHOBb npnobiBiUHx, Tex, Koro nepeBoaH.nn b 
Ko3ejibCK. CTapo6e.ibCK. OcTamKOB H3 jiarepefi HapKOMMep- 
MeTa, PoBeHCKoro. a lanee H3 6o.ibHHu. 

22 MapTa BepHH noAnncaji npHKa3 «Opa3epy3Ke mfope.u 
HKBJJ yCCPu BCCP». 3HaHHTejibHyio wacTb 3aKJHOHeHHbix 
3thx Tiopesi cocTaBJiHJiH o<|)Huepbi h nojiHueficKHe. riepeBoay 
b KneBCKyfo, XapbKOBCKyio H XepcoHCKyio TiopbMbi (una 
nocieayiomero paccTpeaaTaM) aoflnexoflH: 

900 3aK^K)HeHHbIX H3 JIbBOBCKOH TiopbMbi, 
500 — H3 POBeHCKOH, 
500 — H3 BOJlblHCKOH, 

500 — H3 TapHonojibCKofi, 
200 — H3 ilporo6biHCKOH, 

400 H3 CTaHHCJiaBOBCKOH; 



Si 



HeTBepTbM pa3fle.n flojibLiJi/i i/i KaTbiHCKafl Tparefli/ia 




ABrycrr 1991 r. SiccryMauMfl b MeflHOM. 

b Mhhck — 3 000 apecTOBaHHux: 

H3 riHHCKa — 500, 

H3 BpeCT-JlHTOBCKa — 1 500, 

H3 BHJieeK — 500, 

H3 BapaHOBHweH — 450. 

Bcio paooTy no nepeB03Ke 3aioiK)HeHHbix HaaJiOK&no 
ocymecTBHTi> b .aecjmuHeBHbiH cpoK, T.e. k Hanany MaccoBo- 
ro paccTpejia >3hmkob jiarepefi h TiopeM 20 . 

Hannnaa c 7 MapTa npOBOflHTCH h MHTeHCHBHas noaro- 
TOBKa k aenopTauHH ceMefi BoeHHonjieHHbix — ocJmuepoB h 
nojiHueHCKHX h 3aioiioqeHHbix TiopeM, t. e. ceMefi Tex, Koro 
HaMepeBaiiHCb paccrpejiflTb. B 3tot aeHb BepHJi HanpaBRn 
HapKOMaM BHyTpeHHHx aeji YCCP H. A. CepoBy h BCCP JI. 
<t>. UaHaBe npHKa3 o nooroTOBKe k BbiceneHHioceMeH otpHue- 

POB, nOJlHUeHCKHX, HHHOBHHKOB, nOMdUHKOB, npOMblUUieH- 

hhkob M . npeanarajiocb npoH3BecTH 3Ty aenopiauHio k 15 
anpejis; pafioH Bbice.icHMH — Ka3axcTaH; cpoK ccbuiKH — 10 
Jier. 

Jlpsi ncoroTOBKH h npoBeaeHHfl onepauHH npw YHKB.Il 
3ananHbix o6jiacTeH YicpaHHM h BejiopyccHH co3,aaBajiHCb 
onepaTHBHbie tpohkh b cocTaBe HaqanbHHica cooTBeTCTByio- 
mero YHKBfl, npeacTaBHTenefi HKBfl CCCP h HKBfl 
YCCP h BCCP. 

KpoMe Toro, C03naBanHCb ropoacKHe h panoHHbie Tpofi- 
kh, KOTopue h pa3pa6aTbiBajiH iLiaHbi onepamm b npe.ne.nax 
CBoero yMacTKa. B onepauHH aojracHbi 6buiH yqacTBOBaTb 
coTpyaHHKH Bcex opraHOB HKB,fl, KOMaHaupbi. nojiHTpa6oT- 
hhkh h KpacHoapMeHixw BHyrpeHHHx h norpaHHHHbix BOHCK 



HKB.Z1, onepaTHBHbie pa6oTHHKH mhjihu.hh. H3 hhx (popMH- 
poBanH onepaTHBHbie rpynnw no Tpn HejiOBena. KaacnoH 
rpynne HaiyioKano BbicejiHTbaBe-TpH ceMbH. KaK h b cjiynae 
c ocaaHHKaMH, onepamno npezuiHCbiBajiocb npoBecTH b o^hh 
aeHb. 

HKB^l YCCP h BCCP 6hjio npHKajaHO HeMemieHHo 
npHCTynHTb h k 30 MapTa 3aKOHHHTb cocTaaneHHe cnncKOB 
HjieHOB ceMefi BoeHHonjieHHbix m apecTOBaHHbix. 

7 MapTa HapKOM npHKa3aji HaHaribHHKy YIiB ConpyHeH- 
ko h, no Bcefi BnaHMOCTH, HaHajibHHKy TiopeMHoro ynpaBJie- 
hhji A. r. 3BepeBy «opeaHU3oeamb cocmaesieHue moHHbix 
cnucKoe codepMcau^uxcn e Jiaeepxx eoeHHorvieHHbix — 6"we- 
uiux no.ibCKux oqbuuepoe. nonui^eucKux. otcandapMoe, mio- 
peMmuKoe. ejiacubix u nea-iacnbix azenmoe nojiuifuu. 6bieiuux 
no.MemuKoe. ipaopuKOHmoe u xpynHbix HUHoenuKoe 6bieiuezo 
no.ibCKoeo eocydapcmeeHHOZo annapama», 3aKJiiOHeHHbix 
TiopeM c yKa3aHHeM cocTaBa ceMbH h hx TOMHoro aapeca. 
CnwcKH Heo6xoiiHMO 6bijro cocraBHTb no ropoaaM h paficmaM 
3anaaHbix o6jiacTefi yicpaHHbi h BejiopyccHH h HanpaBHTb 
HKB,fl dthx pecny6jiHK 22 . 

CneaoBano cocTaBHTb n ompaBHTb HKBJJ, YCCP h 
BCCP h cnncKH Tex, qbH ccmi.h npo>KiiBa.-in Ha TeppHTopmi 
riojibuiH, oTouicauieH k TepMaHHH. Ecjih peecTpw npo>KH- 
BaBinHX b CCCP nwnen npe/jcTaBJisjiH npaKTHMecKHH hhtc- 
pec nm opraHOB HKBJJ, to aapeca ceMefi, Haxo^HBUJHxcfl b 
noflKOHTpojibHOH TepMaHHH ccpepe, He MorjiH 6biTb ncnojib- 
30BaHbi b npeacTosBineH anpejibCKOH aenopiaiwH. TeM He 
MeHee b npHKa3e BepHH CepoBy h UaHaBe ot 7 MapTa yica3bi- 
Banocb: «Ecjiu e npoi{ecce npoeepm u yuema opeaHOMu 
HKBJJ6ydemycmaHO6JieH0, HmoHJieHbiceMeu, nodjieotcau^ue 
QbiceneHwo, ebiexanu 3a npedesibi 3anadnbix o6siacmeu YKpa- 
uHbi u Eejiopyccuu, HeooxoduMO npwatmb Mtphi K ebixcneHUK) 
ux Hoeoeo Mecmojtcumaibcmsa u ace Mamepuaubi oo 3mo.u 
Sbiaiamb e HKBU CCCP» 23 . 

KaK H3BecTHo, MHorne ceMbH b npouecce npoBOjjHBUje- 
rocH CCCP h TepMaHHeH ooMeHa HacejieHHeM BbiexajiH b 
ueHTpajibHbie paiioHbi riojibUJH. He hckjhohcho, hto cnncKH 
n aapeca ceMeft penpeccHpoBaHHbix h BoeHHonjieHHbix toto- 

BHJlHCb no ilOrOBOpeHHOCTH C repMaHCKOH CTOpOHOH. 

CnynaHHO nw npoBoan.incb oaHOBpcMenHo nenanbHo 
n3BecTHaji HauHCTCKaji «aKUHH AB» no yHHHTo»eHHio 
no^bCKOH HHTejiJieKTyajibHOH h rocyaapcTBeHHOH 3^htu h 
CTanHHCKafl onepauHH no «pa3rpy3Ke» Tpex cneanarepeH bo- 
eHHonjieHHbix h TiopeM 3anaaHbix o6;iacTeH YKpaHHbi h Be- 
nopyccHH hjih cymecTBOBajia onpeaejieHHafl KOopaHHauns 

AeHCTBHH AByX TOTaJTHTapHblX pe>KHMOB? 

JXhh Bbino^HeHHJi npHKa3a HapicoMa b jiarepji zui« BoeH- 
HonjieHHbix BbiexaiiH 3aMecTHTeJib Ha«anbHHKa YI1B H. M.rio- 
.TyxHH, 3aMecTHTe^b HanajibHHKa Ocoooro OTiiejia YIIB H. 
A.PoMaHOB h HaianbHHK yneTHo-perHCTpauHOHHoro OTae^a 
ynB H. B. MaKJispcKHH. rioc^eiiHHH BCKope Tejierpa(pHpo- 
Ban ConpyHeHKo: 

«B a6co.vomHOM 6ojibiuuHcmee yuerrtHbix den nepco- 
HoibHbie ceedehw Knenoe ceMeu eoeHHorvieHHbix omcym- 
cmeyiom. /lix cocmaejieHua cnucKoe npucmynwi onpocaM 
eoeHHorvieHHbix. Una 3mou paoombi Mo6wiU3oeaHo 20 ueio- 
eeKpacuemoM oKOHHanua ee e menenue cextu — eocbMu dneu» . 

16 MapTa oh me flOKjiajjbiBai: «Paooma c nenamaHueM 



HeTBepTbiul pa3flen flonbiuM i/i KaTbiHCKaa TpareAi/ia 



57 



cnucKoe nodxodum K KOHtfy. Eiqe 2 — 3 6hh, u HapoHHbi.uu ohu 
oydym omnpaaienbi e Muhck u Kuee. Onenb dojibiuue mpyd- 
Hocmu c mouHHLU ycmanoe.ienue.u .uecmo.vcumejbcmea ce- 
.\teu. OKa3bieaemoi, nmo 3Hauume.ibHaft nacmb ceueu, Komo- 
pbie dtnoeo xomejiu, nepes CMeiuannbie komuccuu ebiexanu c 
named meppumopuu «a eepMancKyio meppumopwo... Ha xo- 
.locntbix h cnucKU ne cocmaensu. FJpouiy cooomumb, ciedyem 
Jtu noc.ie oKcmuamm cnucKoe ce.\ieuHbix cocmaejmmb ua xo- 
jocnibix. H .iuhho cHumaw, nmo 3tno dejiamb Heu.ejecoo6pa3- 
HO, uoo ohu HiiKo.uy He hvxchm oydyriDr*. OnHaKO MaKJiapc- 
khh ouiH6ajic« — ana ithx jihu npeonaranocb cooomaTb 
MecTO>KHTe^bCTBo hx pcaHTCiefi, 6paTbeB h cecTep, npoacH- 

BaBUJHX BMeCTeC HHMH. 

H3 CrapooeabCKa k 15 MapTa HanpaBHJiH b MocKBy 
cuhckh Ha 3 041 BoeHHonneHHoro, b tom HHCJie 27 TCTpaaeH 
(1 662 sejioBCKa) no BoeBoacrBaM ueHTpa-ibHofi rionbuiH. B 
aanbHeHiueM oTcyTCTBHe CBeaemul o Mecrc»KHTe:ibCTBe ce- 
\ii.ii b cne^CTBeHHOM aejie h cnpaBKe-3aKJiK>HeHHH c.iyvKHJio 
ocHOBaHneM iiH hx B03BpameHHH H3 yilB b Jiarepa Ha ^opa- 

OOTKy. 

ripnKa3 npncTynHTb k «onepau.HH no pa3rpy3Ke» Ciapo- 
6enbCKoro, OcTaujKOBCKoro h Ko3e,ibCKoro Jiarepefi nocry- 
mui b nocncuHHx MHcnax MapTa. 

B 3to BpeMH b Ciapo6e.ibCKe coaepwaiiocb: 

8 rcHeparioB, 

55 nO.TKOBHHKOB, 

126 no^nonKOBHHKOB, 

3 1 6 MafiopOB. 

843 KamuaHa, 

2 527 apyrnx 0(pHuepoB, 

9 KCeHH30B, 

2 noMeuiHKa, 

5 KpynHbix rocyjapcTBeHHbix hhhobhhkob, 

1 yMauiHHCJj, 

1 ;iaKef! obiBUicro npe3HjeHTa FIonbiiiH H. Mocbu.Hu.KO- 



ro; 



b Ko3e;ibCKe — 4599 BoeHHonjieHHbix. BKiHOHaa: 
1 ajMiipaia, 
4 reHepajioB, 

26 nOTKOBHHKOB, 

72 noanojiKOBHHKa, 




AsrycT 1991 r. 3KcryMaunH b necy nofl XapbKOBWM. 



232 Manopa, 

647 KanHTaHOB, 

1 2 KanHTaHOB Mop<pjiOTa, 

3 KanHTaHOB II paHra, 

2 KanHTaHOB I paHra, 

3 480 apyrux otpnuepoB, 

8 KceHjuoB, 

9 UOMCI1IHKOB. 

61 rocyaapcTBeHHoro HHHOBHHKa, 
5 cojiaaT, 
37 apyrnx jihu.: 

b OdaiuKOBCKOM Jiarepe — 6364 nejiOBeKa, H3 hhx: 
0(J)HuepoB ap.MHii — 48, 
o(J)nuepoB no^HUHH h waHaapMepHH — 240, 
nojiHuencKHx h waHjapMOB MJiaauiero KOMaHiworo co- 
CTaBa — 775, 

pfl.'IOBblX nOTHUHH — 4924. 
TIOpeMHblX paOOTHHKOB — 189, 
pa3B£aHHKOB — 9, 

Kcen.i job — 5, 

coxiaT h MJianwnx KOMaw/wpoB apMHH — 72, 

npoHHX — 54. 25 

TaKHM o6pa30M, b Tpex cneujiarepax HaxojHjiocb 14 
857 HcnoBeK, b npouecce «onepauHH» Tyaa aonojiHHTejibHo 
cbo3hjih BoeHHonjieHHbix, KaK H3 «TpyaoBbix» Jtarepen, TaK h 

H3 TIOpeM H 6o.lbHHU. 

nepBuecnncKH HaoTnpaBKy BoeHHonjieHHbix H3 narepa 
b pacnop>i)KeHHe YHKBJ1, t. e. k MecTy paccrpe.ia, HanajiH 
nocTynaTb b Ko3e.ibCK, CTapo6e.TbCK h OcTaiuKOB 3 — 5 anpe- 
n», b TKDpbMbi — okojIo 20 anpe.ifl 26 . Mauie Bcero KavKTWH 
cnncoK coaepncan (J)aMHTHH oko.io CTa Me.ioBeK. OcpopMjm- 
nncb ohh b 1-m cneiiOTae.ie HKBZl CCCP. 

CnncKH, nonnncbiBaBUJHecH HaHajibHHKOM YriB (c 14 
anpe.m — ero 3aMecTHTeneM \\. M. Xoxjiobum b cb«3h c 
KOMaHanpoBaHHeM ConpyHeHKo Ha rpaHHuy c dnrnjifiHAHeH 
ons o6MeHa Tavi BoeHHon.ieHHbiMH), co;iep>KaiH npeannca- 
HHe HanajibHHKaM Tpex cneiwarepen HeMejirieHHo HanpaBHTb 
yKa3aHHbix acnHCKe mm b Ka-nnHHH. Cmotchck h XapbKOB 
onji nepejaHH hx b pacnopaweHHe yHKBZl Ka.nnnHHCKOH, 
CMO^eHCKOH h XapbKOBCKOH o6jiadeH. 

AHanoiHHHbic cnncKH 3a noanncbio MepKy.ioBa Bpyna- 
.nicb h HanajibHHKaM YHKB/l yKa3aH- 
hwx Tpex oonacTeii h coaep>KajiH npn- 
Ka3 o paccTpejie noHMeHOBaHHbix b hhx 
mm. KaK npaBHJio. H3 Mockbw cpa3y 
nocTynaiio ot 3-x jo 5 cnncKOB. b pe- 
3y;ibTaTe e^HHOBpeMeHHO kohbohpo- 
Bajiocb 300 — 450 MenoBeK, KOTopwe 
BCKope nocne aociaBKH b TiopbMy TaM 
ace h paccTpeniiBajiHCb. B Hapaabi Ha 
nepeaany JiioneH YHKBXI 6hjih bkjiio- 
HeHbi 97% Bcex otpnuepoB, nonnueHC- 
khx h apynix BoeHHonjieHHbix, coaep- 
>KaBUjHxcj! b Tpex cneujiarepjix. Cpean 
hhx 6buiH KaapoBbie BoeHHbie, pe3ep- 
BHCTbi. npecTapejiue otct3bhhkh; tne- 
hw noTHTHHecKHx napTHH H aOCOJ!K)T- 
HoanOjiHTHHHbiejiKxaH; nojiHKH, eBpen, 
6ejiopycw h yKpaHHUbi. 



51 



HeTBepTbM pa3fle;i nonbLun n KaTbiHCKafl Tparefli/m 




13 anpena 1990 r. npeawfleHT CCCP Mwxawn l~op6aMeB nepeaaeT 

ripe3naeHTy rionbiuu Bouuexy flpyaenbCKOMy kohwh MaiepuanoB. 
CBnaaHHbix c KatwHCKOvi rpareanewi 



Bpaneft, HcnojiHHBUiHx b apMHH cboh ryiuaHHTapHbiH 
aojir, oopcKa. in Ha paccTpen HapaBHe c jKanaapMaMH, Komp- 

p.HHC.lMHK'aMU H TJOpeMHMMH pa6oTHHKaMM. FIpaKTHHeCKH 

penb uuia He o tom. Koro ocyaHTb, a KOMy cjieayeT coxpaHHTb 

)KH3Hb, BKJHOMHB B CI1HCKH Ha OTIipaBKV' B lOxHOBCKHH Jtt- 

repb. 

B CHJiy KaKHx npunnH 395 yiHHKaM coxpaHHJiH ah. 3Hb, 
He MorjiH noHHTb hh Hcane.aoBaTe.jiH, hh ocTaBimiccfl b whbux 
>'3hhkh. «rioHeMy HeKomopbie ruieHHue U36e3tca.iu paccmpe- 
na — 3moeoMbt HUKoeda He y3Hae.u», — rmcaji Eacn JloeK (SI. 
E>KeBCKHH) b CBoen KHHre «KaTbiHb. 1940» 27 . Mothbm, no 
KOTOpbiM 3% y3HHKOB obijia coxpaHeHa >KH3Ht. crojib »ce 
3arajiOHHbi, KaK h tc no kotopum ocrajibHbie 97% 6mjih 
jiHKBHAHpoBaHbi, 3aMeHaet b cbohx BocnoMHHaHHHx npo(J)ec- 
cop C. Cbhhcbhh, 6biBuiHH 3aKJiioHeHHbiH Ko3ejibCKoro Jiare- 
pjj, chhtwh c 3Tana no npHKa3y EepnH 28 . 

O/jHaKO MaTepHajibi UeHTpa xpaHeHH* HcropHKO-aoKy- 

MeHTaJlbHblX KO.lJieKUHH (UXHJ1K) n03B0JIHJIH OTBeTHTb H Ha 

3tot Bonpoc. B cnpaBKe, cocTaBJieHHofi HanajibHHKOM VTIB, 
b nacTHOCTH, yKa3WBaJiocb: 

«Bcero ompaBJieHo b IOxhobckhh Jiarepb 395 nejioBeK. 
H3 hhx: 

a) no 3a^aHHio 5-ro OT/jejia rVTE — 47 neji.; 

6) no 3a^aHHio repMaHCKoro nocojibCTBa — 47 neji.; 

b) no 3anpocy jihtobckoh mhcchh — 19 nen.; 
r) iieMueB — 24 neji.; 

a) no pacnopjDKeHHio 3aM. HapoaHoro KOMHecapa BHyr- 
peHHHX aea Coio3a CCP tob. MepKyjioBa — 91 neji.; 
e) nposHx — 167 hcji.» 29 . 



JXpyroii aoicyMeHT — 3to cnHCOK BoeHHonjieHHbix, 
npenpoBoacaeHHbix b KDxhob. c yKa3aHHeM, no KaicoMy 
H3 Ha3BaHHbix mothbob 6wji BbiBe3eH b Jiarepb TOT HJ1H 

HHOH MeJlOBCK. 

Pa3BeziKa, t. e. 5-h OTaea ryrE, cocTaBHJia cnncoK 
jihu, KOTopue ee HHTepecoBaan KaK hctomhhkh HH(pop- 

MaUHH HJ1H KOTOpbie Bbipa3HJlH TOTOBHOCTb CpajKaTbCH 

BMecrec KpacHOH ApMHen b cjiynae HanaaeHHa repwa- 
hhh Ha CCCP. B CBH3H c 3anpocaMH repMaHCKoro no- 
cojibCTBa ocTaBHJiH b hchbux aawe Tex Jiioaen, KOTopue 
HHKorjia He 6hjih CBjmHbi c TepMaHHeH. ho o KOTopux 
xoiiaTaHCTBOBajiH BJiHaTejibHbie eBponencKHe, npeacae 
Bcero HTajibflHCKHe. JiHua. 

TaK, erne 30 HHBapn 1940 r. k coBeTHHKy repMaHC- 
Koro nocojibCTBa b Phmc 6apoHy H. (J)oh IljiHCceHy 
o6paTHJicji rpacp ae Kacrejib c npocbGoH nocoaencTBO- 
BaTb ocBo6o»caeHHio H3 nueHa rpa<j>a K). HancKoro, 
H3BecTHoro xyaoacHHKa, oaHoro H3 ocHOBaTejien 
no.ibCKoro HMnpeccHOHH3Ma. 063tom ace npocmia khjj- 
3m EncMapKa h rpa<|)HHJ! n&ieiiKaa. B aonojiHHTejibHOM 
janpoce, nocTymiBiueM b HKBJJ H3 HKHJJ CCCP, Hapa- 
ay c (paMHJiHen HancKoro (pnrypnpoBajiH (paMHJiHH B. 
KoMapHHUKoro, Syaymero MHHHCTpa b npaBHTejibCTBe 
B. CnKopcKoro, ajtioTaHTa B. AHaepca O. CjiH3neHa h 
apyrae. 

B rpynne, oTo6paHHOH no yKa3aHHK) MepKyjioBa, 

6hjih h Te, y Koro naaeaaHCb BbiBeaaTb HHTepecyioiuHe 

HKBflcBeAeHHH, h Te, kto He hb.ih.ihci-. ocpmiepaMH hjih 

cjiy>KamHMH KapaTeJibHbix opraHOB, — pajjOBbie, yH- 

Tep-ocpHuepu apMHH, nojpcopyHHCHe, K)HaKH, 6eiKeHUbi. B 

KDxhobckhh Jiarepb nonajiH n .ikiih. iaHBitBiime o cbohx 

KOMMyHHCTHnecKHx y6e)KiieHH«x. B pa3p».a «npoMHx» BXO- 

flHJlH H HeCKOJlbKO ZteCSTKOB OCBeilOMHTeJieH, nOCTaBJISBUJHX 

Oco6biM oTflejieHHHM Jiarepen KOMnpoMaT Ha cbohx cojia- 
repHHKOB. 

Eme 4 anpe.m 3apy6HHy (Ko3ejibCKHH Jiarepb), Mnpo- 
HOBy (CTapo6enbCKHH) h XojiHHeBy (OcrauiKOBCKHH) 6biJio 
nepe/iaHO nopyneHHe MepKyjioBa cocTaBHTb cnpaBKH h xa- 
paKTepHCTHKH Ha Bcex jioBepeHHbix jihu h BMecTe c hx aejia- 
mh h areHTypHHMH MaTepnajiaMH Ha hhx BbicjiaTb b MocKBy 

7 anpejia hm »e h na'icuibii mk;i\i Tpex cneanarepen 6bi.no 
HanpaaneHo HOBoe npeanncaHne: «Ha ocHoeamiu pacnopn- 
DKeHun 3QMHapKOMa moe. MepKy.ioea emopuHHO npedyn- 
peotcdaio, eciu e cnucKax eoeHHomeHNbix, nod.ieoicau\ux om- 
npaeKee.weepft, 6ydym Bauiujiiodu, nociednux. kokowuoou- 
ho eKMoneHHbix e cnucKu, HUKyda He omnpaejinmb do ocodoeo 
pacnopfwceHim» 30 . Hepe3 n«Tb aHeii ConpyHeHKO bmohi, 
HanoMHHaer n;i , ia:ii.iiiiKaM jiarepeil o hco6xojihmocth npe- 
aocTaBJi»Tb 3apy6nHy, MnpoHOBy h XojmneBy cnncKH Ha 
OTnpaBKy h ocTaBjiHTb b .larepe Tex, Ha Koro ohh yKa>Kyr. 

JJejia BoeHHonjieHHbix, BepoHTHo, npoxoanjiH cjieayK)- 
iuhm o6pa30M: H3 Jiarepefi b YIIB nocTynajiH jiHMHbie aocbe 
h cnpaBKH-3aK.iK)HeHHfl c He3anojiHeHHOH nocncaHeH rpa- 
(J)oh, a TaKJKe cnncKH cjieacTBeHHbix aeji b nopsaKe hx homc- 
poB. 3aecb hx npoBepjuiH h b cjiynae k8khx-to HeaoneTOB 
OTnpaBJiBJiH Ha jiopa6oTKy. Ecjih Bee 6yviarH OTBenajiH 
npeabJiBnBBUJHMCJi Tpe6oBaHHSM, hx nepejiaBajm b 1 -h cne- 
uoTjieji, npejiBapHTejibHo BnncaB peKOMeHjaunK) no jjejiy b 



HeTBepTbiM pa3Ae/i no/ibiuii h KaTbmcKaa Tparefli/ifl 



51 



cnpaBKy-3aicniOMeHHe. B l-McneuoTjiejieHa^HHMHpaooTajiH 
uor pyKOBoacTBOM 3aMHaHajibHHKa 3Toro OTaena KariHTaHa 
roc6e3onacHOCTH A. fl. TepuoBCKoro. 

YHHTMBajiHCb h MaTepHajibi sen, 0(J)opMJieHHbix paHee 
6pHraaaMH cjieaoBaTejieH H3 ueHTpajibHoro annapaTa HKB/l 
CCCP. ripw 3tom Hacn> flocbe CTaBHJiacb Ha oco6mh koht- 
pojib, peuieHHe no hhm npBHmfBJ] jihhho MepKyjiOB. OcTanb- 
Hbie nepeiiaBajiHCb b Komhcchk) (t. e. TpoHKe — MepKyjioB, 
Ko6yjiOB h BauiTaKOB), KOTopa>i npiiroBapHBana BoeHHon- 
vieHHbix h y3HHKOB nopCM k Bbiciuefi viepe HaKa3aHH«. Peiue- 

HHJI KOMHCCHH (XpOpMJlVJJlHCfe OC06bIMH npOTOKOJiaMH, B Ko- 
Topbix. no-BHjiHMOMy, (J)HrypHpoBajiH He cpaMHJiHH ocyataeH- 
Hbix, a HOMepa ciihckob. 

FlepBbie ceMb cnHCKOB, KOTopbie 6mjih ncanncaHbi 1 h 2 
anpejifl. BKjnonajiH (JjaMHJiHH 692 ocJwuepoB H3 Ko3ejibCKoro 
jiarepa. 9 anpejm 6ujih nojumcaHbi 13 cnHCKOB Ha 1297 
nejiOBeK. Mor jih opraH BHecyae6HOH pacnpaBbi paccMOT- 
peTb no cymecTBy 1 100-1300 aejj? OrBeT oneBH^eH — 3to 

(})H3HHeCKM HCB03M05KHO. riOHHTHO, HTO B 3aaaHy TpOHKH 

bxojihjio .iniiii, npouiTaMnoBaTb cnHCKH, ocpop.MHB 3to cne- 

UHaJlbHbJMH npOTOKOJiaMH. 

Hmchho o hhx noKJiaabiBaji H. C.XpymeBy npeacena- 
Tejib KrB A. H. IUejienHH 3 MapTa 1959 r., npeaJiaras yHHH- 

TOHCHTb BCe JIHHHbie H CJieflCTBeHHbie p/SBA BOeHHOnjieHHblX, 

ho coxpaHHTb npoTOKOJibi TpoHKH. XpymeB, KaK cne/iyeT m 
noKa3aHHH pj?.aa pa6oTHHKOB obiBiuero KrB, otxuli no Tejie- 
cpoHy npHKa3 oKenb bcc BioiioMaa h npoTOKOJibi. 

IlocKOJibKy XpymeB KaK nepBbifi ceKpeTapb KnY(6) 
6biJi npHMacTeH h k npoBe.aeHHK> «onepamiH no pa3rpy3Ke» 
TiopeM 3ananHbix o6jiacTew YKpaHHU, paccTpejiw y3HHKOB 

KOTOpblX 0(J)OpMJlflJlHCb npOTOKOJiaMH 3TOH TpOHKH, H K /ie- 

nopTauHH ceMen o$HLiepoB h nojinueHCKHX, ero cTpeMJieHHe 
y'HHHTOHCHTb bck) jj.OKyMeHTau.mo npencTaBJiaeTCfl ede- 
cTBeHHUM. JXpyroe neno, HacKOJibKO aocTOBepHbi noKa3aHHJi 
obiBuiHX pa6oTHHKOB opraHOB roc6e3onacHocTH. 06 3tom 

Mbl CMOJKeM Cy^HTb TOJIbKO nOCJie OTKpblTHfl apXHBOB 3THX 

opraHOB. Be3 aoKyMeHTajibHoro noaTBep)Kjj,eHHH ohh Bbnbi- 
BaioT cepbe3Hbie comhchhh y nojibCKoft oGmecTBeHHOCTH. 

JXena Tex, Koro 6buio peiueHO ocTaBHTb b hchbux, b 
Komhcchk) He nepeaaBajincb, h ocyaaeHHUMH ohh He 3HanH- 
-incb. B YHKBJ5, t. e. Ha paccTpeji, 6hjih OTnpaBJieHbi, no 
npeaBapHTeJibHbiM naHHbiM, 14587 BoeHHonjieHHbix H3Tpex 
cneanarepen, no cnpaBKaM 1 94 1 - 1 943 rr. — 15131 HenoBeK. 

LUejiennH >Ke 3 MapTa 1959 r. coo6iuhji XpyiueBy o 
21857 paccTpeji»HHbix BoeHHonjieHHbix h y3HHKOB TiopeM, 

H3 KOTOpblX 7305 6bIJ1H 3aKJlK)HeHHblMH 31 . 

Tex, Koro OTnpaBjiajiH b YHKB.ZI, jjawe He no;jo3peBajiH 
o tom, wto hx HcaeT. KoMHccap yriB C. B. HexopomeB 
coo6maji TpeM sauecTfrreJIflii HapKOMa — B. B. HepHbiuieBy. 
H. H. MacjieHHHKOBy h B. H. MepKyjioBy, hto «e cen3u c 
omnpasKou nacmpoenue eoeHHomeHHbix npunodHnmoe» n '. 

Bo/ibiiiafl nacTb BoeHHonjieHHbix XHienefi OKKynnpo- 

BaHHblX TepMaHHefi nOJlbCKHX TeppHTOpHH BbICKa3bIBajlH 

HewenaHHe B03BpamaTbca Ha poaHHy, ho cTpeMHJiHCb no- 
nacTb b HeHTpajibHbie CTpaHbi. OTryaa ohh paccHHTbiBajw 
npo6paTbca bo <J>paHUHK> h npoji.o;i>KHTb 6opb6y npoTHB 
HauHCTOB. npH 3aaep>KKax c 3TanHpoBaHHeM b Cmojichck, 
XapbKOB h KanHHHH nojibCKHe ocpHuepu h nojiHuencKHe 



npoHBjiHJiH cepbe3Hoe oecnoKOHCTBO, onacaacb, hto hx He 
OTnpaBHT Ha poaHHy, o6pamajiHCb k .narepHOMy HanajibCTBy 
c npocb6oH ycKopHTbOTnpaBKy. CTapiune o(j)Huepbi cobcto- 
BajiH cbohm KOjiJieraM, oTnpaBjiHBuiHMca c nepBHMH napTH- 
hmh, seaan b BaroHax HaanwcH c yKa3aHHeM kohchhoh 
CTaHUHH, hto6w nocneiiyK)mHe 3Hann, Kyaa hx Be3yr. 7 anpe- 
nx npn B03BpaTe BaroHOB 6una o6Hapy>KeHa 4>pa3a Ha 
nojibCKOM ji3biKe: «BTopajj napTHa — Cmohchck, 6/IV — 
1940» 33 . EcrrecTBeHHO, nocjieaoBai npHKa3 TiuaTenbHO oc- 
MaTpHBaTb BaroHbi h Bee HajinHCH CMbiBaTb. 

O tom, KaK npoxoiuuio 3TannpoBaHHe BoeHHonjieHHbix 

H HTO OHH npH 3TOM MyBCTBOBaJIH, Mbl 3HaeM H3 aHeBHHKOB, 

o6Hapy*eHHbix b KanmCKHX Mornnax b 1943 roay. Tpnaua- 
THaByxjieTHHii nopyHHK BaanaB KpyK Beji cboh ^hcbhhk 
Bcero^BanocjiejiHHxaH5iCBoeH)KH3HH. npHBeaeM3anHCbOT 
8 anpejm: 

«Mo cux nop h Huneeo He nucan, cvumax. nmo Huneeo 
oco6eHHoeo He npoucxodum. B nociednee epeMH. mo ecmb 
nod Konei4 Maptna u e nataie anpcw, nofteuiucb HacmpoenuH 
«na 8bie3d». Mbi cnumajiu 3/wo o6nuhou cnjiemneu. Te\t 
epeMeheM cnjiemwi Havana peaw306bi6ambcx. B nepewx dnnx 
anpeiut HOHOJOi... (uecKOJibKo c.we CMkuno. — HJI.) omnpae- 
.vimb jmanbi, CHOHCaa Hedo.ibiuue. Co CKuma paoo... no 
deaaib u 6o.iee neioeeK. HaxoHey 7-zo, ecy66omy, mKeudu- 
poeajiu... u nepeeejtu e zjiaenbiu naeepb... Hoc epe.ueHHo 
noMecmwiu e .uauopcmu 6.iok. Bnepa omnpaeiuu ebiciuux 




npe3Hfl6HT POCCHM BopMC BlblJHH B03/iaraeT B8HOK K KaTWHCKOMy 
KpecTy Ha BoeHHOM Knafl6nme b BapuiaBe. 25 aerycta 1993 r. 



60 



HeTBepTbiM pa3fle;i no/ibiun n KaTbiHCKafl TpareAHfl 



MeMopuanbHbiu KOMnnexc e KambiHCKOu necy. 




oqbuyepoB — 3 aenepaia, 20 — 25 no.iKoeHuxoe 
u cmoubKo xce Mauopoe. Cnocod omnpaenu 
ece.ifu e nac .lynxuue Hadeztcdbi. Ceeodun one- 
pedb douaa do .\tena. YmpoM h no.\ibi.ica e 6ane, 
nocmupai hocku u n.iamouKii... 8oo6iye... do... «C 8eiua,uu». 
rioc.ie cdanu Ka3eHHbix eeiqeii o6b\CKa.iu noemopno e 19-m 
6apase, a ommyda nepa eopoma ebieau k mqiuuhom, hq 
Komopbix mm doexanu do Heoo.ibiuou onanism, ho ne do 
Ko3eihCKa (Ko3e.ibCK ompe3an no.ioeodbe.xi). Ha 3mou cman- 
mu nod cmpozuM Koneoew nac noap\3u.iu e mtopeMHbie 
eaeoHbi. B mwpeMHOM omceae eaeona, Komopbiu n budkx 
nepebiu po.3 e dk-ujhu, hoc 30 ue.weeK. fl eiye ne 3Hokom c 
jmiLuu moeapuufCLMU no njieHy. Tenepb McdeM omnpaem co 
cmanuuu. Ectu panee n 6bn Hacmpoen onmuMucmunecKu, mo 
menepb om dmoeo nymeiuecmeun ne otcdy Huneeoxopoweao... 
EdeM e HanpaejieHuu CMo.iencKa. I7oeoda... comenHOH, na 
no.inx etqe mhoco cneea» S4 . 

3anHCb, cacnaHHaa 9 anpejia: 

«BmopHUK. HoubMbi npoeenu iiymue, vew npedbidymyto 
e eaeonax d.w CKoma. Ebuo neMHoeo 6o.ibiue Mecma u ne man 
yjK-acHO mpncio. Cezodnx nozoda... enojine 3umhhh. Cbiniem 
cnee, nacMypno. Cneey na no.inx, Kaxenneape. Heeo3MooKHO 
copuenmupoeambCH, e kokom Hanpaaienuu deujiceMcn <...> 
JJenb npoxodum kok o6hhho. Buepa ympoM dajiu nopyuio 
x.ie6a u caxapa, a e eazone — xo.wdnyio Kunftuenyio eody. 
Ceunac npu6nuMcaemcH no.ideHb, ho edbi ne daiom. 06paiqe- 
Hue c homu... maKOfce opdunapnoe. He pa3petua/om nuueeo. 
Bbiumu e mya.iem mojkho nuxub moeda, Kozda 3tno esdy.uaem- 
cn K0H80upa.\i; hu npocb6bi. hu xpuKu ne noMoeaiom <...> 
Tenepb 14.30. By>e3McaeM e Cmojichck. YoKeeeuep, npoexanu 
CMOJiencK, npu6buiu e rne3do80. TloxoMce, nac 6ydym ebiepy- 
Mcamb, 80xpye mhozo eoeHHbix. Jlo cux nop hom ne danu 
Huveeo noecntb. Co enepaiuHeeo laempaxa otcueeM nopi^ueu 
xie6a u eodbi» 3i . 

BoeHHonjicHHbix co CTamjHH r"He3,aoBO, anr/Kamiieii k 
KaTUHCKOMy Jiecy, Be mi b «nepHbix BopoHax» b cochobum 
6op, rue rpynnaMH yBoamiH Ha paccTpen. PaccTpejiHBajiH b 
MyHiiHpax. b opneHax. B BocbMH KaTbiHCKHx Morajiax b 1 943 
r. 6i,i.Tii o6HapyweHbi 4 1 43 Tejia; npH hx 3KcryMauHH nain;ui 
^OKyMeHTbi, nHCbMa, aHeBHHKH, nojibCKHe MOHeTbi, KpynHbie 
Kyniopu 3JioTbix h t. r. 

CTpe^JinH b 3aTbiJioK c 6jiH3Koro paccTOAHHfl. Mcnonb30- 
BajiHCb HeMeuKHe nyjiH 7,65 mm KajiH6pa. B 20% c^ynaeB 
pyKH y o(j)MuepoB 6w^h CBM3aHbi 3a cnnnoii iipoBo:ioKotl hjih 
n^eTeHWM uiHypoM c jbohhoh ncTnefi. B o^hoh H3 Mormi 





Haxo^HJiHCb Tejia, Ha rojiOBax KOTopux 6hinu 
lUHHe^H, Ha ypoBHe uieH o6MOTaHHbie uiHy- 

pOM, KOTOpblH COeaHHJUlCJ! neT^efl CO CBH3aH- 

HbiMH pyKaMH. Echh MenoBeK nbiTajicji ;ibh- 
HyTb pyKaMH. neTJiH Ha tuee TyT -yKe 3aT«rHBa- 
nacb. Ha TeppHTopHM KaTbmcKoro Jieca noKO- 
jjtcji h MHorne TbicHHH coBeTCKHx JHOnefi, pac- 
CTpenHHHbix re6HCTaMH 36 . 
Otom, KaK npoxoaHJiH paccTpejiw b KajiHHHHCKOH Tiopb- 
Me BoeHHonneHHbix H3 OcraiiiKOBCKoro Jiarepa, paccKa3a;i 
c^eAOBaTenjiM Bochhoh npoKypaTypw 6wbujhh HanajibHHK 
V r HKBiI no KajiHHHHCKoii o6;iacTH J\. C. Tohapes. Oh coo6- 
iuh^, hto nj\* pyKOBOiicTBa 3toh pa6oTofi 6bUlH npncjiaHbi 
Manop roc6e3onacHOCTH HaManbHHK KOMeH^aHTCKoro OTae- 
,ia HKBJ1 CCCP B. M. Ejioxhh, Mafiop roc6e3onacHocTn 
CHHery6oB m Hana-ibHHK uiTa6a kohbohhhx bohck KOM6pwr 
M. C. KpuBeHKO. 

BoeHHonneHHbix noc^e Bbirpy3KH b KanHHHHe pa3Me- 
wajiH bo BHyTpeHHefi TiopbMe KaiHHHHCKoro YHKB^ Ha 
Cobctckoh yjinue. TwpbMy BpeMeHHO ohhcthjih ot apyrHx 

3aKJlK)HeHHbIX, O^Hy H3 KaMep OOUJHJIH BOHJIOKOM, HTOSbl HC 
6bUlH CJlblUIHb! BblCTpe^bl. H3 KaMep nOJlJIKOB nooaHHOHKe 

AOCTaBJiJiJiH b « KpacHbiO yrojioK» (JleHHHCKyio KOMHaTy), TaM 
CBep»JiH naHHbie — (JjaMHJiHio, hmji, otmcctbo, roa po>Kae- 
hhh. 3aTeM Ha.ieBa.Tn HapyHHHKH, BenH b npHroTOBJieHHyio 
KaMepy h CTpe^Ji.iH H3 nHCTOJieTa b 3aTbiJiOK. FIotom Hepe3 
zipyryio 4Bepb Te.no buhochjih bo iiBop, rae rpy3HJiH b Kpw- 

TblH rpy30BHK. 

PyKOBOZWJI paccTpejiOM Bjioxhh, KOTOpblH npHBe3 C co- 
6oh uejibiH weMoaaH hcmcukhx «BaibTepoB», h6o cobctckhc 
HaraHbi He Bwjep>KHBajiH — neperpeBajincb. Ilepea paccrpe- 
hom Bjioxhh HaaeBaji cneuoae>Kiiy: KoacaHyio KopHHHeByio 
KenKy, jjjiHHHbm KO/KanKiii cpapTyic, TaKHe txe nepnaTKH c 
xihhhmmh KparaMH Bbiiue .noKTeH. «ft yeude.1 na.iana», — 
paccKa3biBaji cjieaoBaiejiaM R. C. ToKapeB 37 . 

Ha paccBCTe 5 — 6 MauiHH Bemn Tejia b Me/jnoe, rae y»e 
obi.TH BbiKonaHw 3KCKaBaTopoM hmw, b KOTopue Tejia KaK 
nonano c6pacbiBajiH h 3aKanwBajiH. nocjie Ka>Kaoro TaKoro 
paccTpejiaToKapeB/joHOCHJi B. H. MepKy^oBy: noTaKOMy-To 
Hapa^y HcnojmeHO (T.e. paccTpejiaHo) cro^bKo-TO. 5 anpe/ia 
oh, b HacTHocTH, OTnpaBHn ujH(})poBKy: «riepBOMy Hapaay 
HcnojiHeno JVo 343 » 38 . HveHHo cTOJibKO HaKaHywe 6biJio ot- 
npaBJieHO H3 OcrauiKOBa b KajiHHHH BoeHHoaieHHbix. 

0(J)HuepoB H3 CTapo6e:ibCKoro Jiarep» paccTpejiHBajiH b 

XapbKOBCKOH TIOpbMe npH CaMOM aKTHBHOM ynacTHH Ha- 

MajibHHKa YHKB^I XapbKOBCKOH o6nacTH Mafiopa roc6e30- 
nacHOCTH n. C. Ca(pOHOBa. TexHO^orHS paccipena 6buia 
TaKofi ace, KaK h b KajiHHHHe. Te.na Bexnn b paiioH CeMHxaTOK 
— HbiHe 6-fi paiioH ^econapKOBOH 30hu XapbKOBa. KaK b 



HeTBepTbM pa3fle/i nanbiiii/i \a KaTbiHCKaa Tparefluifl 



11 



Kan>iHH h b MeflHOM, 3iiecb H3naBHa 3aKanwBanH Te.ua pac- 
CTpejiHHHbix opraHaMH moneti. 

HcHe3HOBeHHe 6cnee 1 5 tuc. ocpnuepoB h nojiHuencKHX 
Bbi3Ba.no orpoMHoe oecnoKOHCTBO y hx ponHbix h 6jih3khx, 
KOTopwe 6oM6ap.nHpoBajiH HKBH 3anpocaMH. TaK, H. To- 
msk HHCana HananbHHKy OcTauiKOBCKoro Jiarepa n. <I>.EopH- 
coBuy: «ripocTHTe. hto ocMejiHBaiocb Bac 6ecnoKOHTb, ho 
pyKOBOiiHT mhok) CHJibHaji .iioooBi. k My>Ky h 3a6oTa o HeM. 
...He crinio no HonaM, GecnoKOiocb ywacHO. YMonaio, nowa- 
jieHTe MeH», HanniiiHTe, jkhb hh My*c. mohcho jih e\iy noMOMb 
AeHbraMH, h, eciiH ero HeT yace b TiopbMe, yKaacHTe MecTO 
npeowBaHHJj ero arm k KOMy h aojiama o6paTHTbca jxna Toro, 
HToGbi y^HaTb, rae Tenepb HaxoflHTca. npomy, noacaneHTe 
MeHH, He oTKaacHTe b Moen npocb6e, 6yjiy ot ayuiH 6;iaroiiap- 
Ha. 3Ha», hto My>K >khb, 6yny ciiokohho paooTaTb, 3apa6aTbi- 
BaTb Ha conep>KaHHe ujHTbeMOiie)Kiibi. C nomeHHeM H3a6e;i- 
.ia ToMflKw 39 . Ha 11 nc bsie noMeTa « 1 -h cneuoTjeji». 3to 03Ha- 
najio, hto H. H.ToMHKa y>Ke He fauna b >khbux. 

PacnpaBHBiuHCb c nojibCKHMH o(J)HuepaMH h nojinueHc- 
khmh, CTariHH h EepHH He nomanHJin h BoeHHoimeHHbix H3 
jiarepeH HapKOMMepMeTa, KOTopue iioctohhho Tpe6oBajin 
OTnpaBKH hx iioMofi h 3anacTyio ca6oTHpoBa-in pa6oTy Ha 
maxTax KpHBoro Pora h JloH6acca. 

Cpa3y no 3aBepmeHHH onepaunH no pa3rpy3Ke Tpex 
cneuiiarepen 8000 paaoBux h M.iaauinx KOMaH^npoB 
nojibCKofi apviHH 6mjih nepeBeaeHbi H3 HapKOMHepMeTOBC- 
khx JiarepeH b CeBepHUH )«ejie3HO,aopo)KHUH Jiarepb rYJIA- 
Ta Ha CTpoHTenbCTBO CeBepo-IieHopcKOH -A'ejie3HOnopo>K- 

HOH MarHCTpailH. YCJlOBHfl, B KOTOpblX HaXOilHJIHCb nOJIHKH, 
HHHeM He OTJIHHa^HCb OT yCJIOBHH, C03flaHHbIX ZU1H COBCTCKHX 

33kob, t. e. paccHHTaHHbix Ha y6HHCTBO TpyaoM. K HaHany 
bomhm nojiaarifliomee 6ojibtiJHHCTBO H3 hhx noaopBanH cBoe 
3^opoBbe h Sujih yace HeTpyaocnocoGHUMH 40 . Jlmub HanaB- 
maflca b HiOHe 1941 r. Boiina h nocneaoBaBiiiafl b ceHTfl6pe 
1941 r. nepenana hx, KaK h apyrnx yue.ieBiuHx no;ibCKHx 
BoeHHonneHHbix, b apMHio B. AH^epca cnacna hx ot rH6eJin. 

riapaariejibHO c onepauneH no pa3rpy3ice Jiarepefi jwa 
BoeHHonneHHbix h TK)peM 3ana^Hbix o6jiacreH YCCP h BCCP 
1 3 anpcna 6biJia npoBeaeHa aenopTauHjj ceMefi BoeHHon.neH- 
hhx. OKOHnaTejibHoe peuieHHe o ee npoBcaeHHH oujio npn- 
hsto nojiHT6»opo h Cobctom Hapo-anux KoMHccapoB 10 
anpejui. 

Ohh oao6pnjiH npe;u]o>KeHHfl,npeacTaB:ieHHue Bepnen 
5 anpejia. YTBepataeHa 6u,na h HHCTpyKuna o npoBcaeHHH 
onepaunH. KpoMe ceMen BoeHHonneHHbix ocpnuepoB h noiiH- 
uencKHX, y3HHKOB TiopeM, 6biJio npeanHcaHO aenop-mpoBaTb 
h oeaceHueB c TeppHTopun riojibuiH, «omouiediueu k rep.ua- 
huu, U3hMeueiuux Dice.iaHue euexamb U3 npedenoe Coeemcxo- 
eo Coh?3o no meppumoputo, 3aHHmyio HeMiia\tu, u nenpunH- 
ntbix eep.MOHCKUM npaeumejibcmeoM», a TaK>Ke npocTHTyroK. 
CHK Ka3axcTaHa npeanaranocb o6ecneMHTb 22 — 25 twc. 
ceMeii »H^beM h pa6oTOH, HapKOMaTy nyren coo6meHH» — 
BbmejiHTb 81 3iiiejiOH no 55 BaroHOB b Ka^noM, HapKOMaTy 
ToproB^H — oSecnewHTb nepecejieHueB nHTaHHeM b nym 
TpyaoycTpoHTb hx npejmaranocb npotcae Bcero Ha npeanpH- 

HTHflX HapKOMaTOB JieCHOH npOMblUIJieHHOCTH H UBeTHOH Me- 

TajuiyprHH. HapKOMaT (pHHaHCOB jojdkch 6bui Bbiae.iHTb Ha 
3iy onepauHK) 30 mjih. py6jieH 41 . 



Flo aaHHWM HanajibHHKa OTaena TpyaoBbix nocejieHufi 
ryUAra M. B. KoHpaaoBa, 3a I h II KBapTanw 1940 r. b 586 
noce^Kax 6ujih pa3MemeHU 2 1 5 twc. hcjiobck (54 832 ceMbH) 
H3 3anaiiHbix o6.nacTeH YCCP h BCCP, npeHMymecTBeHHO 
nojiflKOB. H3 hhx 1 38 twc. — b I KBapTane, 77 tmc. — bo II 42 . 

Ycjiobha )kh3hh b Ka3axcTaHe 6buiH He MHorHM jiywuie, 
weM b ceBepHbix o6jiacTHX CCCP. "XHnm name Bcero b 3eM- 

TflHKaX, Ma3aHKaX, H3-3a OTCyTCTBHS BORbi MblJlHCb KpaHHe 

peaKo, b ochobhom ;ieTOM, Koraa Boaa HarpeBanacb Ha cojih- 
ue. Bo MHornx nocenKax He 6wjio hh uikoji, hh Soi&HRK. He 
npHBbmeH h THJKen 6wji KJiHMaT: JieroM acapa aoxoaHJia no 
45°, 3hmoh Mopo3bi b 50°. no cTenH pbicKann bojikh, Hana- 
AaBiuHe Ha ckot h JHO^efi. 

Oco6eHHO TparnHHOH 6biJia cyab6a aeTefi. 20 Ma», b 
aeHb, Koraa 3aKOHMHJiacb onepauna no MaccoBOMy paccTpeny 
BoeHHoaneHHbix h 3aKjnoHeHHbix nopeM, nojibCKHeaerH HBaH 
fleHHLUHH, Oajiefi 3aBoamKH, 36nrHeB Ehjwcchhhk h Bap6a- 
pa KoBaiibCKa o6paTH^HCb k CranHHy: 

«KoxaHHbiu ome Cma/iim! Mw M/BM detju 3 fkutUKUM 
npoiu3Hue.\t do Be.iuKoeo Omi^a Cmaiuna npocUM 3 eapatieo 
cepita nmoo hom eupny.iu naiuux omi^oe, Komopbie padoma- 
tomb e OcmaiuKoee. Hac nepec.na.iu 3 lanadnou Eciopycu na 
Cudup u na.\t Hueu.ie.iu nmo ue6ymb ejfiub 3 caoou. Hom cuuac 
uhxcko Jicbieeuuay ecex deueu.uamb ne 3dopoebie u Hejuozym 
padomaub u eoniu3 mtumo npouac ne dy.\tae kok mm OKUeeM 
upa6ombi hukokou nedaromb. 3a3mo.\tbi.\ta.ibideuu20AodaM 
npu.\tepaa\i u ettWO npocUM omua CmaiUHa utmoe npouac He 
3a6bLi.\ibi ecezda oydeM e Coeex^KUM Coto3e xopowu.\tu pa6o- 
ubLxiu napodoM mo.ibKo hom nvuKKo xutfb 6e3 Hauiuxomyoe. 
/Jo ceudana oune» 4 \ OaHaKO otuob hx k 3TOMy BpeMemi yace 
paccTpe-mjiH no BO^e «0Tua CranHHa». 

TpeTHfi noTOK aenopTauHH npHiuejicn Ha noc^eflHioK) 
jeKany hkjhsi 1941 r. 29 hjohjj 6biJio HanaTo h k cepenHHe 
HKMn 3aKOHHeHO Bbice.ieHne 76382 HejiOBex (25682 ceMbn) b 
KpacHospcKHH h AviTaficKHH Kpafl, ApxaHrejibCKyio. Bono- 
roacKyio, TopbKOBCKyK), HpKyTCKyio, HoBOCHGupcicyio, Om- 
CKyK>, CBepjinoBCKyK), Hejia6HHCKyK), -HKyTCKyio o6jiacTH, 
Komh ACCP. Kacanocb oho npe>icae Bcero BbixonueB H3 
ueHTpajibHbix no^bCKHx bocbo^ctb 44 . 

noc^eziHHH jienopTauHH 6buia npoBeaeHa naKan> nc Ha- 
na^eHHH TepMaHHH Ha CCCP, 20 mOHfl. B nyTH 3iuejiOHbi 
6om6hjih Hevmbi. BbiB03ii:in rjiaBHWM o6pa30M b pawoHM 
UeHTpajibHOH Ch6hph. AjiiafiCKMfl Kpaw. Ha CeBep. Flo npn- 
6uthh Ha MecTO Bee, BKJiK)Haji noapocTKOB 10 — 12 Jier, 
aojiiKHbi 6buin TpyaHTbCJL JJa>Ke noc^e aBrycTOBCKofi aMHH- 
cthh BaroHbi c 3aKJHOHeHHbiMH nojiHKaMH npoaonaca^H cne- 
aoBaTb b HanpaBJieHHH BjiajiHBocTOKa. 

Bcero, no aaHHbiM A. ft. BbiuiHHCKoro. H3 npHcoean- 
HeHHbix k CCCP b pe3y;ibTaTe ceHT«6pbCKoro «ocbo6o.hh- 
TenbHoro» noxoaa TeppHTopHH owhh BHCeneHfel 388 tuc. 
MenoBeK . 3th ;iaH Hbie noaTBepauawTcs cnpaBKaMH HKB^ h 
kohbohhhx bohck. XOT8 b nojibCKOH HCTopHorpatpHH Bceeuie 
{pHrypnpyeT UH(J)pa 1 500 000 nenopTHpoBaHHbix. OjHaKO h 
BbiceneHHe noHTH 400 tuc. nojiflKOB, 6ojibuiyK) nacTb koto- 
pux cocTaB,iajiH aeTH, jkchiuhhu h CTapHKH, CBHaeTenbCTBy- 
eT o n^aHOMepHOM nofflpHBC reHOtponaa nojibCKoro Hapoaa. 

Ecjih xe ynecTb, hto 3th aenopTauHH npoBoaHjincb 
napajinenbHO h b TecHofi cbjhh c yHHHTO>KeHHeM nonbCKHx 



62 



HeTBepTbM pa3fle/i flonbLun 1/1 KaTbiHCKafl Tparefli/m 




HaMfimHUK 'Kam&Hb — fomcHpa BocmoKa'. BanmuMop, CILIA 



(xJmuepoB, noJiHueiiCKHX, pa6oTHHKOB rocyaapcTBeHHoro an- 
napaTa, npoMbiuiJieHHHKOB. 3eMJieB.iaaenbueB, mto oonbinyio 
Hacn> 0(pHuepcTBa cocTaB.mrtH 3anacH hkh , npuman h we nnuib 
3a HecKOJibKO Henenbno hx ruieHemifl. yHHTcnH, BpanH, arpo- 
HOMbi h flpyrne npencraBHTejiH nojibCKOH HHTejuinreHUHH. to 
4>aKT reHouHiia npoTHB nojibCKoro Hapcaa cTaHeT oneBHa- 

HUM. 

KapiiHHajibHbie Bonpocw KaTWHCKOH TpareaHH — kto. 
Koraa h noneMy npHHJUi pei ueii ne o MaccoBOM yHHMTO)«eHHH 
noiibCKHX BoeHHonjreHHwx — ocpnuepoB h nojiHuencKHX — 
nocae o6Hapy>KeHHJi «Oco6oh nanKH» no KaTbiHCKOMy Bon- 
pocy b apxHBe ripe3H.aeHTa Pocchhckoh OeaepauHH mohcho 

B 0CH0BH0M CHHTaTb peilieHHblMH. 

HafueHHwe b KpeMJieBCKOM apxHBe naiiKii noMoraioT 

nOHflTb, KUKUMH C0O6pa>KeHHHMH pyKOBOaCTBOBaJlHCb Cia- 

jihh h no^HT6jopo UK BKI"I(6), npMHHMaji 3to npecTynHoe 
peuieHHe. B coneTaHHH co BceM KOMnjieKCOM paHee HanaeH- 

HbJX HaMH apXHBHblX MaTepHailOB OHH n03BOJIHK>T OlUyTHTb 

aTMOctpepy, KOTopaa uapHjia b to BpeMfl b oKpyaceHHH CrajiH- 
Ha h b HKBJl, oco3HaTb hx OTHotueHHe k BoeHHonneHHUM KaK 
k rocyaapcTBeHHbiM, KJiaccoBbiM h naeojiorHHecKHM Bparasi. 
MHoroe pa3b»CHMeT h aH;un i o i houjchhh coBeTCKoro pyKO- 
BOACTBa k «naHCKofj noJibiue» b 20-x h 30-x roaax, BHyTpH- 

nOJlHTHMeCKOH CHTyaUHH B CCCP H, Hak'OHeU. OC06eHHOCTeH 
nCHXOJlOTHH «BO)Kjm». 



Ha npoTH>KeHHH 20-x h 30-x roaoB riojibiua b CCCP 
paccMaTpHBanacb b KasecTBe «caHHTapHoro KopaoHa» Ha 
ero rpaHHuax. B Hen BH.ae.nH aKTHBHoro 6opua 3a H.aeio 
Be-iHKOH rionbuiH, 3a pacnjieHeHHe CCCP, OT/iejieHHe ot 
Hero YKpanHW h EciopyccHH, yrHeTaTeJifl «6paTbeB no 
KpoBH». riojibCKHe BOopyjKeHHbiecH.ibi.c KOTopwMH Kpac- 
hoh ApMHH aoBcnocb cpavKaTbca b 20-x roaax, npoaeMOH- 

CTpHpOBaiH CBOK) MOUlb H B UCJIOM CHHTaJIHCb b npeaBO- 

eHHufi nepnoa noTeHUHaabHbiM BparoM CTpaHbi CoBeTOB. 
BoeHHwe h nonHTHKH b CCCP c 6ecnoKOHCTBOM 

CJieflHJIH 3a yCHJIHJJMH HaUHCTCKOH TepMaHHH CKJIOHHTb 

BapuiaBy k coBMecTHOMy noxoay npoTHB CCCP. Koraa 
>Ke anaHbi Eep.miHa He 6wjih pea/iH30BaHbi, a no.ibiua 
CBfl3ana ce6« tcchumh yoaMH c JIoHaoHOM h IlapHvKeM, ho 
He c Mockboh, pa3apa)KeHHe CrajiHHa npoTHB Hee .num. 

yCHJIHJIOCb. 

B no/ibCKOM rocyaapcTBe yBHaeaH HeTOJibKO He6jia- 
roaapHoro coceaa, onanaBuierocfl ot nponycKa KpacHofi 
ApMHH nepe3 cbok) TeppHTopHio b cnynae HananeHHH 
TepMaHHH Ha riojibiuy, ho h yHacTHHKa 3anaaHofi KoanH- 
uhh. nocneiiH5?» we BocnpHHHMajiacb coBeTCKHM pyKo- 
BoacTBOM KaK cHJia, cnocooHafl npoTHBoaencTBOBaTb pa3- 
aejiy ctpep b:ih hh mh vie/Kay CCCP h TepMaHHefi. 3aicpen hb 
28 ceHTJi6pji 1 939 r. «CoBeTCKO-repMaHCKHM aoroBopoM 
o apy*c6e h rpaHHue» .tiikbh tannic nojibCKoro rocyaap- 
CTBa, CTajiHH h THTJiepcTaiH npennpHHHMaTb. KaacawHCO 
CBoefi CTopoHw, aajieKo Hayuwe Mepu no noapwBy caMHx 
ochob nojibCKOH rocynapcTBeHHOCTH. 

30 Mas 1940 r. HauncTCKHH reHepaji-ry6epHaTop ok- 

KynnpoBaHHux no.ibCKHX TeppHTopHH T. OpaHK 3aHBn:i: 

«10moh Hancuiocb HacmymeHue na 3anade. 3mo 3Hanum. 

Htno e jmom detib yeac npeo6.iadafou^uu iwmepec Mupa k 

npoucxodHmexiy 3decb y hoc... Tenepb mm do.iJKHbt uc- 

noj\b3oeamb npedcmaeueiuuuca Htttt MOMeum... Kan na- 

MiiOHaji-coifuajiucmbi ,vw o6n3anbi dvMantb o moM, kqk 6bi 3a 

cuem dtnux neMeyKwc otcepme He nodnxjiacb nojibCKcm hq- 

IfWL.. 

fl coeepiueuHo omKpbimo npustUBO, umo 3mo 6ydem 
cmoumb .7KU3HU HecxojibKUM mbicHUOM noMKoe, npeotcde 
eceeo U3 pynoeodameco cnoa nonbCKOu UHmeHMUZeHlfUU... 
0iopep 6bipa3wicH mate: mo, nmoMbi ceunac onpede.iwiu kok 
pyKOHodHinuu c.iou e Flo.ibiue. hvjkho .lUKeudupoeattib. To, 
umo enoeb ebipacmem e,uy na CMeny, nasi hvmcho o6e3ona- 
cumb u e npedeiax coomeemcmeyion4e20 epeMeuu cnoea 
ycmpanumb». 

MaccoBwe aenopTauHH nojiHKOB, pa6cKHH Tpya, yHHH- 
TO)KeHHe mhphwx rpa>KjaH — Bee 3to owjih cocraBHbie 3Jie- 
MeHTbi no^HTHKH reHOUHjia npoTHB nojibCKoro Hapoaa. noa- 
iiep)KHBaeMOH MeiUHHeM yHHHTO)KHTb HaBeKH casio nOHHTHe 
«riojibuia». 

O tom, KaK Ha npaKTHKe peajiH30Bajiocb peuieHHe rHTne- 
pa, noBeaan 6pHraaeH<p»opep CC LUTpeKeH6ax. Co BpeMeHH 
npoBeaeHHofi no.i hiihcm 6e3onacHOCTH 1 MapTa 1 940 r. one- 
pauHH b ee pyKax OKa3anocb okojio 2 000 m>okhhh h Hecxonb- 
ko cot )KeHiuHH, «deucmeumejibHO npedcmae.wewux co6ou 
uHmejneKmya/ibHbiu pyKoeodaiquucwu... CyMMapnoe ocyotc- 
denue srnux juodeu Hanajiocb e mom MOMenm, Kozda 6bu 
u3daH npuK03 o vpe3BbmauHou qki^uu no yMupomeopenuio. 



HeTBepTbM pa3Ae/i flojibujn h KaTbiHCKaa Tparefli/ia 



63 



Ocy.-HcdeHue eoeHHO-no.iesbiMu cyda\iu 2 000 apecmoeannbix 
npu6.iujKaemcn K KOtaff, u ocmcuocb ebmecmu npueosopni 
ninth oueHb He^^^i0^u^^ MUifOAi*, — coo6iuhji cbohm KOJiJieraM 
3C3C0Beu. Ha 3tom, cuHaico. «aKUH» AB» — onepamm no 

yHHHTOHCeHHK) nOJlbCKOH HHTCIJieKTyaAbHOH 3JIHTW — He 

jaKaHMHBajiacb. iuiaHHpoBa;iocbapecTOBaTbeiue 2 000 leno- 
BeK. B 3TOM )Ke K.iK)we npoBOjH.i cboh aKU.nn h CiaflBH. 

Y3HHKH Ko3ejibCKa, CTapooejibCKa h OcTauiKOBa npeji- 
CTaBjiajiH co6oh BoeHHyio h HHTenjieKTyajibHyio 3AHTy 
rio^buiH. Ohh ow.ih nojiHbi peujHMOCTH BCTynnTb b 6opb6y 3a 
BoccTaHOBjieHHe He3aBHCHM0CTH CBoefi CTpaHbi, BocnpenHT- 

CTBOBaTb yCHJlHHM CTaJIHHCKOI"0 pOKHMa B HaCa>KiieHHH CBO- 
HX nopJUKOB Ha OTOUieaUIHX K CCCP TeppHTOpHHX. 0(flHUe- 

pu h no-iHueHCKne, npoobiB 6ojiee nanyroaa b ^ocTaTOHHO 
1 hac.ii.in ycjioBHflx njieHa. He 6bLiii cjJOM.ieHbi ncuxojiorH- 

MeCKM H HpaBCTBeHHO. OHH He OTK33aJlHCb HH OTCBOCH pOilH- 

hu. hh ot pennrHH, hh ot nojiHTHMecKnx, hii ot MopanbHbix 
ueHHOCTeH. Ha.ieaubi coBeTCKoro pyicoBaacTBa Ha «nepeBoc- 
nHTaHHe» xoth 6w nacTH pa6oMHx m KpecTbSH, npejcTaBHTe- 
acfl TpyaoBofi HHTejiJiHreHUHH, oaeTbix b iiymHpu, oica3a- 
.iHCbTmeTHbiMH. CneaoBaTejibHo. no nomas CranHBa h ero 
npn6nH>KeHHbix, HocHTejiefi HHaKOMbicnHfl H&ao 6ujio jihk- 

BHilHpOBaTb. 

Mbl He flOJIXHH 3a6bIBaTb II O TOH HCHaBHCTH. KOTOpyK) 
nHTai «B05Kjb HapoAOB» k noJibCKOMy o(J)HLiepcTBy, 3acra- 
BHBiueMy ero HcnbiTaTb b 1920 r. ropeMb coKpyujHTe.ibHoro 
uopaxetuu. ApryMeHT B03Me3AHH «6ejionojmKaM» 3a npo- 
.iHTyio hmh b 1919 — 1920 rr. KpoBb KpacHoapMefmeB 6un 
1 ipn $»an onpaBaaTb bkuhh) b rnaiax Tex, irroee ocyinecTBAfl.n. 

MorjiH 6biTb h jipyrae. He cmnb KapjHHajibHbie coo6pa- 
>KeHHH, Hanpiiviep, crpeMJieHHe 3aBepHTb Eep.iHH, hto CCCP 
He.aep>KHT kumhh 3a na3yxoH, neciya noubCKoe o(pHiiepcTBo; 
CTpeM-ieHHe moaBH 1 bcs ot «n«TOH ko.hhuii.i ■- Ha cjiynaif, 
ecjiH pa3pa3HTCJi noiina c OpaHunefi h kannuM H3-3a $hh- 

IHII . IH 11 II npH6ai!THKH, II T. fl. 

no cBHaeTenbCTBy aHmnficKoro nocjia npHJionaoHCKOM 
npaBHTeJibCTBe B. CnKopcKoro OyiHa O'MaJi.ien. cam no- 
mttM ycMaTpHBann npHMHHy yHHMTOweHna odpnuepoB h no- 
jihuchckhx hmchho b >kc iaium pa3pyuiHTb ^yHflgMCBT, Ha 
KOTopoM Morjia Bnoc^eACTBHH B03po^HTbca nojibCKaa rocy- 
aapcTBeHHocTb, B noApMBe ochobm ncwibCKOH h;iiiiih 45 . 

.'I111111. h.ukhchuc TepMaHHH Ha CCCP no6yziHJio CTa- 

.1HHCKHH pOKHM HeCKOJIbKO H3MeHHTb CBOH) nOJIHTHKy B OT- 

1 11 much 11 11 nonbCKoro HaceJieHH*, oojibiua* Hacn> KOToporo b 
1945 r. 6biJia penaTpuHpoBaHa b Ilojibiiiy. QaHaico h b nocne- 
BoeHHoe BpeMH pyKOBoacTBO CCCP CTapanocb no.iHOCTbK) 

KOHTpOHHpOBaTb ^eHCTBHJI KOMMyHHCTHHeCKOrO pCAHMa B 

rjojibiue, co3aaBa» lmni. BHanMocTb ee He3aBHCHMocTn. 

nPMMEHAHMfl 

1 AnP0> 0). 3. On. 50. fl. 410. Jl. 145. 151-152; PLlXUflHU. <t> 
17. On. 162. fl. 26. Jl. 21. 

'PUXUflHM. <D. 17. On. 162. fl. 26. Jl. 119. 

■ L4enTp xpaHeHMA MCTopMKO-AOKyMeHTanbHbix Konnexui4M. <t> 
1/n.On. 1e.fl. 10. Jl. 8; On. 2e.fl. 11. Jl. 139. 160-160 06, 186-186 
06 (flanee: L^XUflK). 

4 OcaflHMKM — 6biBwne BoeHHocny^aujue BoiicKa riMMonbCKo- 
ro, nonyMMBWMe 36MenbHbie Haaenw Ha npncoeAHHeHHbix k nonbuie 
no Pn>KCKOMy AoroBopy TeppMTopuHx \a nepMOAHnecKM coonpaBujMe- 
cm Ha BoeHHue c6opw 

■ PITXHflHU. <P. 17. On. 162. fl. 26. Jl 120 (?). 



'TaMxe. Jl. 152. 157 

' rocyAapcTBeHHbiM apxue Poccmmckoh cpeAepauMM O. 9479. 
On. 1. fl. 61. Jl. 1-3; 0>. P-5446. n 57 fl. 65. Jl. 163- 165. (flanee: 
TAPO); PUXUflHH O. 17. On. 162. fl. 26. Jl. 159 

•PUXUflHU. <D 17. On 162. fl 26. Jl. 185-190 

9 UXUflK. <I>. 1/n. On. 1 a. fl. 1. Jl. 218-223. 261-262 

10 LjeHTpanbHbiM apxnB OeAepanbHOH cny)K6bi 6e3onacHOCTM 
KonnenuMfl MaTepnanoa. (flanee: 14AQCB) 

" PPBA. <D 40 On. 1.fl. 70. Jl. 28-29. 

•* L4A<t>CB. KonneKunfl MaiepnanoB 

" UXktflK 1/n. On. 1 e. fl. 1. Jl. 230. 

14 UXHflK. <D. 1/n. On. 4 b. fl. 9 Jl. 240-252; On 2 a. fl. 1 . Jl. 437. 

■ PMXHflHM. t>. 17. On. 162 fl. 27. Jl 48-49 

16 AflPO riaKeT No 1 Cm. Taioce: Bonpocbi mctophm — 1993. 
— No1— C. 17-19. 

"Bonpocbi HCTopMM 1993 — No 1 — C. 17. 

,s TaM xe C. 20. 

" Cm : JleSeAeBa H.C. KaTWHb: npecTynneHMe npoTMB nenoBe- 
secTBa. — C. 163-164 

a TaMJKe.C. 168-170. 

21 l4A<t>CB KonneKLiup MaTepnanoB. 

22 TaM xe. 

23 TaM xe 

24 UXUflK. On. 2 e. fl. 11. Jl. 170-171 06. 

25 UXUflK. 0). 1/n. On. 01 e. fl. 3 Jl. 142-143. 

28 Cm. noApo6Hee: Jle6eA6Ba H.C KaTWHb: npecTynneHMe 
npoTMB MenoBenecTBa — C. 177 — 213. 

27 ExeBCKMM Jl KaTblHb 1940. — HbK>-l4opK, 1987. — C 18. 

28 CBHHeBMM C B TeHM KaTblHM JIohaoh. 1989. C. 104 — 105 

29 UXUflK. <t> 1/n. On. 4 e. fl. 13. Jl. 421 

30 UXUflK. O 1/n. On. 1 e. fl. 1. Jl. 239-245; On 2 e. fl. 11. Jl. 
338; On 4 e. fl. 13. Jl. 135; On. 2 e. fl. 9 Jl. 348 

51 UXUflK. 0. 1/n. On. 3 a. fl. 1 . Jl. 257-261 . 273; On 1 e fl. 4. 
Jl 3-3 06. On. 01 e. fl. 1. Jl 38-39. 

32 UXUflK. <D. 3. On. 1. fl. 1. Jl. 118-120. 145-153. 

M TaM*e. Jl. 150-151. 

^Pamietnlki znalezione wKatyniu. Wydanie II. Paris; Warszawa, 

1990 — S. 59. 

35 Ibid. S. 60. 

^KaTbiHCKas ApaMa. C. 99-103. 

37 EnHH Jl 53 nanasa — m Aaa CBMAeTenn // Hosoe BpeMfl. — 

1991 —Mo 42 — C 32-35. 

38 UA<DCB. KonneKUMH MaTepnanoB. 

39 UXUflK. O. 1/n. On. 4 e fl. 1. Jl. 180-181 

40 UXUflK. O. 1/n On. 4 b. fl. 17. Jl. 74-82; fl. 8 fl 22-40; On 
5 a. fl. 2. Jl. 180-181. 

4 ' TAPd). <D. 7446. On. 57. fl. 68 Jl. 123- 128 

42 f"AP0>. O. P-9479C. On. 1. fl 61. Jl. 47. 

43 Cm.: Jle6eAeBa H.C. KaTwHCKne ronoca // HoBbiw Mnp — 
1991 — Nfi2. — C. 215-216. 

"PrBA <t>. 38106 On. 1. fl. 10. Jl. 132; 4> 40. On. 1. fl. 70. Jl. 
29. 

45 Katyn Despatches of Sir Owen O'Malley to the British 
Government. London. 1972. —P. 15. 



B nyS/iMKauHM Hcno/ib30BaHt>i cpoTorpacpMH 

M3 KHMr: 

Ks. ZdzisiawJ. Peszkowski Pami^c Golgoty Wshodu. 
BapiuaBa. 2000 r. 

Jerzy Morawski slad Kuli. BapiuaBa-JloHflOH, 1992 r. 
BnaduMup A6apuHoe. KaTWHCKw* na6npiiHT. MocKBa.1991 r. 



E4 



J KPACHOE KOJ1ECO 



nay/iMHa APEBHflK 



BocnoMHHaHHH Ae^yuiKH 36biuiKa 



KaruHb, OcraujKOB, Ko3enbCK, Crapo6enbCK... JHo cm nop 
370 6binu Rna Mena Htwero He 3Hayamue reorpa&HHecKue Ha- 
3BaHMR. HaBepHoe, a emeRonro Mor/ia ocrasaTbca s HeBeReHm. 
paaee hto, Bb/ynnna 6bi ypoK b paMKax uiKonbHoA nporpaMMu. H 
to, a ne yBepena, wro Bropaa Mupoea* soiAHa u csflaaHHb/e c neu 
fl&ACKMe cyab6bi Mor/w 3anHTepecoaaTb Mena Bcepbe3 n a 6u 
Bbimna 3a rpanuubi ynedHHKa. 

Cnysunocb wave. Moa ywnre/teHnya McropuM npeRROxu/ia 
mho npuHPTb y^acrne b KOHKypce -KaTbiHb - FonroQa Bocioxa-. 
Kan AMCUHn/iitHMpoBaHHafi yveHuua. a comacn/iacb. (loRyMana: 
*A, nero raw/ Hro-Hu6yRb npowraio, vro-Hu6yRb Hannuiy. Kan- 
Hu6yflb nonyMHTCR*. 

Ppcrana pa3Hbie Marepnajiu. ynmenbhiAna ycrpou/ia MHe 
Bcrpeny c rocnoRHHOM Bo/iORHMexeM BoryuKiiM - npeRceRare- 
neM KaTbiHCKoH CeMbi/i Jlio6yiiiCKoro BoeBORCTBa, KOToputi or- 
xpun MHe MHOxeciBO HHCpopMaLjuu o KaTUHCKOM npecrynne- 
hm. Bot ryi a BnepBbie ymacHynacb. 

OKa3anocb, wro npo6/i&Ma, 3a xoropyio a c raKOu nernoc- 
Tbio Bsanacb, Ha caMOMRene onenb c/iOMHa, oco6eHHOR/ia Mens, 
mo/iorom jjeByiLKH. Tyr 6binu hjokww He cyxue cpaxTbi. flaw vim 
Ha3BaniAR. Rnonana, wro rnaBHoe - /noncKue crpaRanna, crpam- 
Hoe npecryrweHHe, orpoMHaa HecnpaeeRnHBOCTb, Koropaa He 
MCKyrweHa ro chx nop. R noRyMana, wro mho ne cnpasvnbca c 

3TUM M HaRO 0TKa3aTbCR OT yHBCTVia B KOHKypCB. 

M a paccKa3asia MaMe o CBoeui npo6neMe. MaMa BcnoMHM- 
na, wro moH ReRyuiKa noxasbiBan eft (pororpacpHH CBoero orua, 
KOTopbiM noru6 e wawane Bropovi MupoBou bohhu. \a ero y6unu ne 
HeMUbi, a coBercKue co/iRarbi. Ero CMeprb 6bi/ia CBaaaHa c stum 
Ha3BaHiAeM - KaruHb. 

ReRyuiKa 36biujeK BcerRa neoxorno BcnoMunaer Bomy. 
EMy rpyRHO roaopHTb o BOHHe, rRe oh norepan cbohx caMbix 
6/W3KUX nioReu. R y6eRvma ero, hto aro eaxHO - BcnoMHHarb, 
wro ero BOcnoMMHaHna noMoryr /horpm noHfrrb, >noHeMy ran 
c/iyHMJiocb', h no3BO/iar npocrnrb. 

R 3anncasia Hauin xaoTMHHbie m orpweowHwe pa3roBopbi. 

nepBbtu pa3 ReRyuiKa npuompbi/) RBepu b caoe npomaoe, b 
CBoe RercTBO, no/iHoe 6onu u crpaRaHua, ManeHbKux paROcreu 

M HaR6)KR. 

R noceamaio 3tot paccxas naMam dMi/inm w AHRxea 
KpuRa, poRHTe/ien Moero ReRyuiKH, Koropbix a He 3Hona, ho 
Koropue crajiH pj\a Mena owe«b 6t\w3kiamm. R xony, hto6u Bee 
3Hanu: wx 6opb6a 3a ceo6oRy n vecrb othh3hu, u aa tboio, 
ReRyuiKa, *<H3Hb He 6buia HanpacHoH. BnaroRapa raxuM riorum, 
Kan ohm, mu ceroRHa >KneeM b He3aBncnMoH no/ibuie. 

CnacTbe 

«... rioHcajiyH, cHanana paccKaacy o cbohx poflHTejiax. 
Ohh no3HaKOMnnHCb Ha boctokc Konaa Tyaa npnexajia moh 
\ia\ia. KOTopas paamiacfe h wHJia b THe3H0. A oTeu pontine* 
b KpocHo (3to ywe Eemaaw). MaMe 6buio iiBaauaTb jict. 
Konia oHa noexana Ha boctok npoBcaaTb cbok) noapyry . Oreu 
b to BpeMfl 6biJi ywe KOMaHiiHpoM norpaHMMHoro nocra. IIoct 
oTua HaxoaHjic« okojio Kopuie, noTOM ero nepeBejiH b Pobho, 
b Bojimhckom BoeBoacTBe. B MoeM nacnopTe HanHcaHO Mec- 
to poacaeHHJi - CCCP. A mist Menu 3TO Bceraa 6bLia riojibuia. 

Ta.M, Ha BOCTOKe, OHH n03HaK0MH.lHCb, BJ]K>6HJIHCb, no>KeHH- 




CBaflb6a ((JieBpanb 1934 r ) 



jiHCb. MaMa TOJibKO mto 3a- 

KOHHHJia UJKOJiy B THe3HO. 

MaMa 6biJia oweHb KpacH- 
Baa. Oreu, KOTopuw po- 
hhjicx b 1904 roay, bckj 

)KH3Hb 6bLT CBJBaH c apMH- 

efi h nojiHUHefi. Yikc uiec- 

THailUaTH^eTHHM Ma-lbHH- 
KOM OH BCTynHJl b Bohcko 

FIojibCKoeH BMecTecrinji- 
cyacKHM 6oponc5« npOTHB 
oo.ihLiicBiiKOB. 3auiHiuax 
Flo-ibuiy. ft 3Haio 3to 6na- 
roiiapa (JioTOKapTOHKaM, 

KOTOpbie OCTaJIHCb c Tex 
BpeMeH, BOCnOMHHaHHflM 
poaCTBeHHHKOB H KHH)K- 

Ka.v, KOTOpbie MHe yaanocb 
coopaTb. Toa pO>KaeHHH 
OTua jj Haiuen b ojhoh H3 
ny6iiHKauHH o KaTbiHH. Oh 
6bui CTapuie \ia.Mbi Ha 9 JieT. 

PoiiHTejiH noKeHHJincb 8 cpeBpajia 1 934 roaa. Ha (J)oto- 
rpacjwax Tex ueT ohh TaKHe KpacHBbie. . . ft pouhjich 6 anpejia 
1936 roaa, nepe3 aBa roaa nocjie hx cBaab6u, b ropoae 
Kopuie . Moero OTua 3Bann AHiUKefl Kpwaa. a MaMy - 3mh- 
THJi KaponeBCKa. 

^(H3Hb b Tex MecTax npoTeKajia cnoKOHHO, c He6ojibuin- 
mh npoHctuecTBHJiMH Ha rpamme, o KOTopwx noTOM paccKa- 
3biBa-ia MHe MaMa. liana, c^ynajiocb, jiobhji cobctckhx nepe- 
6okhhkob h iiinHOHOB. Y norpaHHHHHKOB Toraa He 6buio 
aBTOMo6njieH, TOJibKO kohh h Tcnem. nojiHueficKHe o6te3- 
/Ka.iii rpaHHuy Ha Tenerax hhh Ha Be.iocimeaax. 3to obbi 
Kopnyc oxpaHbi norpaHHHbs. 

TaK moh poanrejiH npo)KHJiH BMecTe rurrb JieT, b noKoe h 
cnacTbe. A noTOM Hananacb BufiHa... 

Tope ii c/ie3bi 

17 ceHTj«6pH 1939 roaa cobctckhc BOHCKa nepem^H 
nojibCK-yio rpaHHuy. 

O tom BpeMeHH a noMHK) HeMHoro. rioMHio, npn 06- 
CTpe^e MaMa cnpHTana mchh b orpoMHbiH .napb H3-noa MyKH, 
b ncaBane, a pyccKne OKpyjKH.m jjepeBHK) ii HaManocb cpaace- 
hhc ZlepeBHJO laiiimiucin nojiHuencKne h KHTejiH. Ebuio 
oneHb CTpauiHO... ft cnpjiTaji nopTpeT OTua, KOTopbifi BHce.i 
Ha cTeHe b Hainefi KBapTHpe Ha tom nocTy. 3tot nopTpeT 
cyab6a y6eperjia ot cobctckoh nyjiH. Oh ro chx nop bhcht y 
MeHH Ha CTeHe. HanoMHHaji o Tex cMyrHbix BpeMeHax. MaMa 
,TK>6HJia OTua. Ero nopTpeT OHa c6eperjia BonpeKH BceM 
npeBpaTHOcTHM cyab6w. 



BocnoMi/iHaHvm .qeAywKM 36biLUKa 



65 



BoeHHue peuiHJiH noKHHyrb TeppHTopHio nocTa h cpa- 
acaTbCH b npyroM MecTe, hto6h He nonBepraTb onacHocTH 
mhphux HCHTejien. C Tex nop ioi c MaMofi oma He BnaeiiH. 06 
ymenujHx nojiHueficKHx hhkto HHnero He 3Han, mw hh pa3y 
He nojiyHHJiH ot oma bcctohkh. ,Ha h hcbo3mo)kho 3to oujio, 
h6o BCKope m bi caMH BbiHyx aeHbi 6buiH noKHHyn, aoM. Tojib- 
ko kto-to Koraa-TO CKasan MaMe, hto OTeu b n;ieHy. ft oneHb 
nojiro )kh,t b HeBcaeHHH, rae h Koraa norn6 moh otcu. 

CeHnac, 6jiaro;xapH khhhim. HanncaHHbiM o KaTUHCKOH 
6ofiHe, n 3Haio, KaK Morjia cnowHTbca nanbHefiuiaji cy/ib6a 
Moero OTixa. 3Toro inanns a yKRan njJTbaecjrr ner. 

B Hanajie bohhu pyccKHe b3»jih b ruieH 6onee 240 TbicaH 

HeJIOBeK, B HX MHCJie 

6wjih cojiaaTbi BoflcKa 
IlojibCKoro, Kopnyca 
oxpaHbi norpaHH^bfl. 
cjiyacamHe rocyaap- 

CTBeHHOM IIOJUUHH. 

rpaiKiiaHCKHe cnyxca- 

UXHe, CBflUieHHHKH — 

HBeT HHTejiJiwreHUHH 
BOCTOHHbix 3eMe,ib rio- 
BumaL 

Moero 0TuaBbme3- 

J1H B OCTaiUKOB, TaM 

6bi.ii! coopaHbi noJiH- 
ueHCKHe, coaaaTbi Kop- 
nyca oxpaHbi norpaHH- 
Hbfl h pa6oTHHKH opra- 
hob cyaa. 3tot Jiarepb 
HaXOilHJICH Ha ocirpoBe 
03epa Cejmrep, b MOHa- 
cTbipcKHX nocTpOHKax. J\o anpena 1940 roaa nepe3 Hero 
npouiiiH 6500 nejiOBeK, b tom Hucie 400 ocpHuepoB (300 

0(|)HUepOB nOJIHUHH). 

YcnoBHa b 3tom Jiarepe 6mjih crpaujHbie, xyace, neM b 
Ko3e;ibCKe hjih Crapooe/ibCKe. 3aTpH MecauaTaMyMepjiH 92 
HenoBeKa. 

3BaKyaunH H3 OcTauiKOBCKoro narepa Hanajiacb4 anpe- 
-iH 1 940 roaa. KaK MHHHMyM. aBa TpaHcnopTa b c>tkh yB03H- 
jiH ot 60 ao 130 njieHHbix. CHanana bccth o Tex, Koro 
BUB03HJIH, 6wjih, CKopee, ao6pbie. Tobophjih. hto ohh nona- 
jih b Henjioxne ycjioBHa, hmciot 6ojibuiecBo6oabi. He rojioaa- 
k)t. rio3>Ke ot H3BecTHH ywe He Beano onTHMH3MOM. Hacrpo- 
eHHe b /iarepe 6ujio noaaBJieHHWM, aaa<e OTHaaHHbiM, TeM 
oojiee, aouiJiH c;iyxH, hto 6i).ibiucBHKi! norpy3HJiH HecKOJib- 

KOTblCHH IIO.'IHKOB BOap>KI1, KOTopue HanpaBHJiHCb BCTOpOHy 

Eejioro MOpa h no aopore 6buiii 3aTonjieHbi BMecre c nneHHbi- 
mh. He 3Ha»o, npaBaa jih 3to. MoaceT. moh OTeu norH6 hmchho 
Tan... 

CHanana 3aKJiK>HeHHbix OcTauiKOBa npoBoacajiH c opKe- 

CTpOM. FLieHHHKH MOr/IH nonpOUiaTbCJJ CO CBOHMH TOBapH- 
UiaMH. riOTOM 3TO npeKpaTHJlOCb, nJieHHblX 06bICKHBaJlH B 

oojibLuoM 3ane uepKBH h noaaynaMH aBTOMaTOB oTnpaanajiH 
Ha >Kejie3HyK) aopory. HacKo.ibKO a 3Haio, 3aiuiK)HeHHbix H3 
OcTaujKOBa, a TaKace h 3 Ko je.ibCKa h CTapo6ejibCKa. KOTopwx 
oo.ibiueBHKH cohjih «BparaMn coBercKOH BJiacTH», HanajiH 
paccTpejiHBaTb BecHofi 1 940 roaa h npoaojiacanacb 3Ta aKUHH 




PoflMTenn na nporyme (1934 r.). 



no cepeaHHbi mm. RneHHux H3 Ko3ejibCKoro narepa (okojio 
5 Tbican) paccTpejiHJiH b Ka 1 bmcKOM Jiecy. a H3 CTapo6ejibCKa 
(okojio 4 TbicflH) — BbiBe3HH b XapbKOB h y6HJiH b noaBane 
MecTHoro HKB/1. n^eHHHKOB OcTauiKOBCKoro .larepa y6n- 
BajiH b TBepn, b 3ByKOHenpoHHuaeMbix noaB&nax HKBZl. 
rioTOM hx Tena 3aKonajiH b necy okojio cejia MeaHoe. 

Bcero b Tpex aarepax coaepxcanocb oko.io 15 tuchh 

IIO.lbCKHX n.lCHHblX. B OCHOBHOM 0(pHUepbI. B )KHBbIX 

ocTanocb 448 ne^OBeK. H3 narepn Moero OTua cnac.incb 1 24 
HenoBetca, KOTopux BbicnanH b rpa30Beu. 3to ow.in hckjtio- 
HHTeribHO o(|)Huepbi. Ko3e-ibCK cMorjiH nepe)KHTb 245 nejio- 
BeK, a CTapooejibCK — 79. Hx, nepe3 Jiarepb b FlaBJiHiueBOM 
Bopy, TO>Ke BbiBe3JiH b Tpji30Beu, OTKyaa ohh owjih ocbooo>k- 
aeHbi b 1 94 1 roay, nocjie Hanajia coBeTCKo-HeMeuKOH boh- 
hw. MoeMy omy Tanoro CHacTb» hc Bbinajio... 

BAa/iti ot AOMa 

Mu c MaMofi 6bbiH BbiHyjKaeHbi GewaTb H3 norpaHOTpa- 
aa, Haiuero cnacTjiHBoro, ao toh nopw, aoMa. HaM yaanocb 
ycKOJib3HyTb ot coBeTCKHX conaaT. Si xopoiuo Bee nOMHK), 
xoTfl 6buio MHe Toraa Bcero TpH roaa. CHanana mm 6e>KajiH 
sepe3 caa, noTOM cnpjrrajincb y Hainnx apy3efi yicpaHHueB. 
TaM mw npo6u.in KaKoe-TO BpeMJi, He noMHK) KaK ao^ro. ho 
BCKope pyccKHe nepenoBHJiw Bcex nojuiKOB. Hac noMecTHJiH 
bo BpeMeHHbifi Jiarepb. noTOM norpy3HaH b noe3aa. C co6oh 
6bijio no3BOJieHo B3«Tb TOJibKo pyHHofi 6ara>K. 

«ynaKOBann» Hac b rensmbH BaroHbi h noBe3JiH Brjry6b 
Pocchh. 3to 6bLi KOHeu 1939 roaa. He Mory CKa3aTb ceHnac, 

CKO.'lbk'O JUmnCfl 3T0T nyTb, nOMHK) TO^bKO. HTO MyHHTeJlbHO 

aojiro. EbiJio Hac oneHb MHoro, oaHH no.uiKH... 

ripHCxajiH Ha Mecio. Hac BbiiuBbipHyjiH H3 BaroHOB, 
nonejiwui Ha rpynnu h pacnpeaejiHJiH no pa3HbiM jiepeBHHM. 
ITotom mw y3HanH, hto HaxoaHMca b CeBepHOM Ka3axcTaHe. 
b ero ueHTpaibHOH Hacro. A KpyroM — ronaji CTenb. Mu c 
NiaMOH nonaiiH b aepeBHio noa Ha3BaHHeM BoroayxoBKa. 

rioMHK), KaK h 6ojieji, KaK MaMa nennjia mchji. BnaHvio, 
3to 6biJi aH(j)TepnT, noTOMy hto MHe othctjihbo BcnoMHHaer- 
ca BKyc KepocHHa. KOTopbin s aon>KeH 6bui nHTb. KaK-TO a 
BbDKHJi ... He noMHK), noHeMy mu nepeexann b apyryio aepeB- 
hk>. noTOM Hac, nojiflKOB, cHOBa nepeBe3JiH b apyrne MecTa, 
pa36pocaB no BceMy Ka3axcTaHy. Mw jkhjih b aepeBHe Kpe- 
MeHbnyK. b neiponaB- 
.iobckoh oCaacTH. ITo- 
)KanyH, a He cyMeio Han- 
TH Ha KapTe 3T0 Mecro. . . 

noMHioorpOMHyio 

CTenb, HH3KHeaOMHKH C 
nJIOCKHMH Kpblll KIM H H 

Koe-rae B03nejiaHHbte 
nojia. H jiHua BnenaTa- 
jiHCb b naMjrrb. Pa3Hbie 
^nua jnoaen pa3Hbix Ha- 

UHOHaabHOCTeH. 

Hac pacnpeaejiHJiH 
b MajieHbKHH aoM, rae 
6buia KyxHa h oaHa kom- 
HaTa, KOTopyio 3anHpa- 

jih Ha 3HMy, h6o OHa He 

noptpeT OTua. 




II 



BocnOMMHaHHfl fleAYLUKM 36blLUKa 



OTanjiHBanacb. Be* MBSBb npoTeKana Ha KyxHe. TaM uapn/ia 
nenb. Ha Hefi a h cnaji. MaMe nocTanacb mcneman KpoBaTb y 
OKHa. Xo3«eBa, k HanieMy H3yMJieHHK>, OKa3ajiHCb nojniKaMH. 
Hx BbmeiJiH b Ka3axcTaH, Koraa CrajiHH Bbicejuui nojniKOB H3 
YKpaHHbi h EenapycH. J\o chx nop noMHK) <{kimh.-ihk> 3toh 
ceMbH — 3anojibCKHe, KaMHJi h CTaHHCJiaBa. y hhx 6mji cmh. 
Ero 3BanH OHy(})pHH, mm c hhm BMecTe cnariH Ha nenn. 

MaMa pa6oTajia b KOJixo3e. Yxa>KHBajia 3a OBuaMH, ko- 
hhmh, a TaK»c pa6oTana b none. Ham xo3jihh 6mji TpaKTopn- 
ctom, noMHK) ero orpoMHyto MaiuHHy c >Ke:ie3Hbi m h 3y6acTbi- 
mh KonecaMH. A MHe Tpn rona. ft nrpato c aeTbMH — nonsiKa- 
mh. pyccKHMH, Ka3axaMH. Eiue 6mjih ufpnuu, KOTopbie hchjih 
jajieKO b denH, b KipTax. ZUih mchh *CH3Hb Toraa 6bi,ia 
6e33a6oTHofi... 

IIomhio, nepe3 KaKoe-TO BpeMH nojwKH HanajiH kohco- 
viHUHpoBaTbCfl. JXzxae opraHH30Bajin no.ibCKnii jjctckhh cafl. 
KOTopbiii pa3Mecmncji b MajieHbKOH H36e. BocnHTaTe.ibHH- 
uaMH 6mjih nonbKH. Mw ynHJin TaM nonbCKHe neceHKH h 
cthxh. MaMa iainiMa/iaci. c HaMH neHHeM h pyHHbiMH nonsn- 
KaMH. 3th noaenicH Hac, Mexcjiy npoMHM, HeMHoro noaaep- 
■/KMBajin. )Khjih mm oneHbGenHO. Ejih bochobhom KapTouiKy, 
3anapeHHyio c MyKOH h HyTb-Hyrb nojiHTyio k8khm-to>khpom. 
Mbi Bee cih H3 OAHoro KOTejiKa. Ejhoao ito 6bijio KJieftKoe, ho 
HanojiHHJio )KejiyaoK h Ha KaKoe-TO BpeM« Hacbimajio. Bcno- 
MHHaeTca ewe rycToe BapeBO H3 mopkobh (KOTopyio a no chx 
nop TepneTb He Mory ! ) h hto-to H3 optoKBbi h ropoxa. B nrnuy 
iiijio Bee, hto mohcho 6mjio HafiTH b none. 

XjieS nemiH btoh cavort neHKe, Ha KOTopoii mm cnajiH. 
Bo3JM jiomob jik>/ih B03aeJiUBaiH ManeHbKHe oropoau, rue 
BwpamHBajiH no^cojiHeMHHK h KapTouiKy. HHor/ja Koe-KOMy 
yaaBajiocb 3aBecTH KopoBy hjih OBuy. 

OrpoMHofi npo6;ieMOH fount buih. MaMa nacTO CTHpajia 
oaeumy, 3acTaB;niJia mchh MbiTbca, HarojiocTpHraa MHe rojio- 
By — HHHero He noMor&no. Burn 6mjih Be3.ae — CTpauiHoe 
6eacTBHe h MyneHHe! 

3anoMHHJiHCb MHe cypoBMe, chokhmc 3hmm h crpaiiiHaa 
acapa h cyuib JieTOM. Cjiynajiocb, hto 3hmoh noMa 6bi.ni 
laBa-ieiibi cneroM no caMbie kpmujh, Tpyzwo 6mjio bmhth 
Hapyjk-y. rio3TOMy aBepn b jjOMax oTKpMBanncb BHyrpb, hto- 

Obl MX BOOGlIie M0>KHO ObLIO OTKpMTb. B C H CIA BMKanMBaJIHCb 

TOHHejiH. Okojio Moero aoMa pocjio ejiHHCTBeHHoe b Harnett 
OKpyre nepeBO. Oho 3hmoh yKa3MBajio MHe aopory h He pa3 
cnacano )KH3Hb, Kor/aa a ruiyTaji b 3aHeceHHofi cHeroM cTenH, 
B03Bpamajicb, nanpHMep, ot aajibHHx coce/jen, k kotopum 
xouhji 3a mohokom. TojibKO OJiaroaapa 3T0My aepeBy a Haxo- 
avui cboh aoM. 

H eme bojikh. Emjih CJiynaH, Kor.ia 3HMOH ohh nana.ia.in 
Ha jnoneH, exaBiunx b caHsx. H eme crrpauiHee 6ujio ot Toro, 
hto ohh MorjiH 6eraTb no 3aHeceHHMM CHeroM KpuuiaM. 
EbiBa.io aawe TaK. hto ohh ucioh craefi npoonpa.iHCb b capan 
h oKnpajiH KopoBy hjih OBuy. Mojkho ce6e npeacTaBHTb, hto 

3T0 3HaHHJIO RJ\H X03JieB TOH eAHHCTBeHHOH CKOTHHM... 

riocne 1941 roaa cyzib6a HyTb-Hyrb noBepHyjiacbJiHUOM 
k nouHKaM. Bbuia opraHH30BaHa ApMHa AHijepca, noTOM — 
AHBH3HM KocTfouiKO, KOTopafli no3>Ke cpa*a.iac b noa JIchhho. 
Mnp nana.! conyBCTBOBaTb nojMKaM, mm nojiyHanH nocbi.iKii 
ot UNRA (United Nations Relief Administration -Meotcdy- 
Hapodnajt zyMaHumapHax op^amnamm - npu\t. nep.), no- 




C MaMoii(1937 r.). 



cnaHHbie aMepH- 
KaiiCKiiM npaBii- 
TejibCTBOM ajia 

nOJlJIKOB,npO>KH- 

BaiomHx b Poc- 
chh. BnocbuiKax 

6bi.ni aMcpiiKan- 
CKHe mHHejiH, H3 

KOTOpMX mnmi 
BCeB03MO»HyK) 

ORevKjxy, a Tafoice 

TKaHH.HHTKH.Ka- 

Kao, caxap h or- 

pOMHbie 6aHKH 

CMajibua. 

Pacnpeae- 

JIJlJI3THnOCbLlKH 

COK)3 FIo.lbCKHX riaTpHOTOB. XOAHJIH CJiyXH, HTO H.KH bl 3T0H 

opi aiin laniin - npHCJiy^KHHKH CnUDIBa, oanaKO 6aaroAapa 

HM CpeflH «pOCCHHCKHX» HO.IflKOB uapH.lH nopJIilOK H B3aHMO- 

noMOUib. Moh MaMa BXOUHJia b itot Cok>3. Ilo ero 3a:ian \\v. •■-'. 
OHa ezunna aajieKO. b paHOHHbin ueHTp, 3a npoiiyKTaMH. 
KOTopbie noTOM nejiHJiHCb MOKay BceMH. H3-3a 3thx noe3aoK 
ona nacTo npocTy*ajiacb h 6ojiejia. 

AMepHKaHCKHMH hhitomh MaMa BbiuiHBana pyccKHe 
y3opbi h npo/WBajia hx poccHJiHKaM. Ha 3th aeHbrH OHa 
HHoraa noKynana ana mchh (JjpyicTbi h iiaace i icibCKiiii uioko- 
jiaji, KOTopbifi coBeTCKHe coJuaTM c (})poHTa npntbi. ia;m cbo- 

HM CCMbHM. 

rioMHK). KaK mm c OHy(ppneM, oh 6mji nacTyxoM, cKaKa- 
nn no CTenn Ha noiuajwx. A HHoraa KaTajincb Ha orpoMHOM 
BOJie. Bojia 3BanH JIjojihk. C ero cnHHM a orjiaflMBan crenb, 
KaK c Ha6^K>aaTenbHOH BbimKH. TpaBa 6bma b moh pocr, no 
Heft nepeBajiHBajiHCb mapbi nepeKaTH-noJia, c kotopmmh nr- 
paiiH jJieTH. Ohh roHJUincb 3a hhmh, KaK 3a BparaMH, h «pac- 
CTpejiHBanH» hx H3 cTe6jieH noacojiHeHHHKa. 

ft oneHb 6wcTpo poc, a y mchh b to BpeMa 6biJia TOJibKO 
oflHa napa 6othhok. H3-3a Toro hto h Torjia xoann b tcchmx 
ooTHHKax. y MeHfl aecJ)opMHpoBanHCb najibUM hop. Jlo chx 
nop MHe T»)Ke;io HafiTH nozixoiwmyK) o6yBb. 

ft Hanaji xoaHTb b uiKOJiy. Ot anpeKTopa mKonu mm 

y3HajlH, HTO BOHHa C HeMUaMH 3aK0HHHJiaCb. Jlllfl MeH« 3Ta 

HOBOCTb npo3ByHana KaK-To a6cTpaKTHO. ft hh pa3y He BHae^ 

HH OilHOrO THTJiepOBUa, BBJUBR TO^bKO CTpeJIJJIOmHX COBeTC- 

khx coji/mt, h to — b caMOM Hanajie bohhm. Ho ZieHb, Konia 
6bi.io o6b»BJieHO o KOHue bohhm, h 3anoMHHji, noTOMy hto b 
tot aeHb KaacaoMy mKOJibHHicy Bbua;in no ojihoh KOHqbeTKe. 
J\o chx nop noMHK) BKyc Toro jieoeHua. 

MaMa 6onejia Bee T»»cejiee, 3T0 yace 6mji Ty6epKyjie3. 

BHe3anHO k HaM npnexana MOHTeTJi OneubKa (e no.ibCKOM 
fUbiKe — y.\ieHbiuume.ibHoe om AjieKcandpt* — npuM. nep.), 
MJiaamas cecTpa uaifiU. OTKyaa OHa 3/aecb B3anacb? PaHbme 
OHa >KHJia Ha boctokc c My*eM, kotopmh Ghb o(J)HuepoM 
BoHCKa riojibCKoro. Koraa ee My» BoeBan c pyccKHMH, OHa 
Toace 6Mjia BMBe3ena, TOJibKO b JipyroM HanpaBJieHHH. ^Cnaa 
b Ch6hph, b Tafire. PaccKa3MBajia, KaK b cTpamHbie Mopo3M 
nHJiRna TaM apoBa. K HaM OHa npnexana, Kor\aa buuijio 
pacnopjiaceHHe cobctckhx BnacTefi o BOCCoejjHHeHHH 



BocnoMi/maHi/m fleflyujKH 36biwKa 



S7 



no.ibCKHX ceMefi. TeTS nepe3 KpacHMH KpecT pa3MCKajia Hac. 
H 3to 6bin nonapoK cyab6bi b Hauievi HecnacTbe. Ma\ia 
wyBCTBOBajia ce6a Bee xywe. 

3to 6bin (j)eBpajib 1946 roaa. Hauj xo3hhh h Te™ 
nojio>KHJiH MaMy b caHH, yKyranH, o6jio)khjih erne ana Tenna 
conoMOH h noBe3JiH b ropoa k Bpany. ExaTb SbiJio aaneKO, 
aopora uina nepe3 denb. . . ft HecKOJibKO KHnoMeTpoB 6e>Kan 
3a caHSMH, Maxan pyKOH, nona coBceM He bm6hjich H3 chji. 
Maviy a BHacn Toraa nocneaHHH pa3. OHa aonro Jie>Ka,ia b 
GojibHHue, ho y»ce HHMero He Momo en noMOHb, 6one3Hb 
6wjia CHnbHO 3anymeHa. Kto-to coooihhji HaM o ee CMepTH. 
TeTa noexana ee xopoHHTb. FIotom OHa paccKa3biBana, hto 
HeB03MO)KHO 6bi.io KynnTb rpo6. He 6bmo aepeBa, hto6m ero 
caenaTb... JJocTana aBe aocKH, Ha oaHy nonownnn MaMy, 
apyrofi HaKpbinn cBepxy h o6MOTanH npocTMHen. 3a ith 
iockh TeTa OTaana 3onoTOH nepcreHb. 

Bo3BpaLueHne 

Hacrynnn MapT 1946 roaa. IlpHiiino H3BecTHe, hto 
mo>kho roTOBHTbca k B03BpameHHio b nonbuiy. TeTa nocne 
CMepTH MaMbi 3a6pana MeHa b KennepoBKy, ManeHbKHH ropo- 
■iok. ft nonpomancH c \iMHcnii\m. c OHyqopneM. c apyrHMH 
aeTbMH. B aepeBHe ocTaBa-mcb moh 3aMeHaTe.ibHMH apyr 
Ko,is h no.apy>KKa TaMapa. 

TeTa Hanana roTOBHTbca k OTbe3ay, aenajia 3anacbi. 
CyuiHJia cyxapn Ha nenn, Hacoonpana hx a>K aBa MeiiiKa. Ho 
»cene3Hofi aoporH. ao rieTponaBJioBCKa, Hac aoBe3nH Ha ca- 
Hax. XoTa 3to 6un MapT, Be3ae eme newan CHer. Hac npnco- 
eauHHJiH k 6onbuioH ceMbe h TaK aoexanw mm ao B0K3ana. 
TaM Hac, nonaKOB, pacnpeaenHnn no pa3HWM BaroHavi. Baro- 
Hbi 6bi.au ooycTpoeHbi BecbMa npocTo -aBe houkh, Ha koto- 
pux jicAa.in hjih CHaenH JiioaH. Mw c TeTefi OKa3&nHCb Ha 
BepxHefi nojiKe. B noMemeHHH pa3MepoM jBa Ha Tpii Meipa 
pacno.no5KHj]HCb HecKo^bKo ceMen h ManeHbKaa newKa. nen- 
Ka Ha3biBanacb noneMy-TO «K03a». Emjio tcmho, noTOMy hto 
He 6bino okoh. 

B TaKHx bot ycnoBMax exann mm ao caMofi rionbuiH. 
ExanH uenbiH Mecau. npHBe3,iH Hac b BapuiaBy. Ro chx nop 
noMHK). KaK OHa 6buia pa36HTa! Mbi npoexann nepe3 BpeMeH- 
hmh aepeBaHHbiii maTaiowiiHca moct, nepe3 pa3pyuieHHMH 
ropoa. 

H3 BapuiaBbi mm ABHHyjiHCb aanbiue. aoexajin no I"Io- 
•:nani!. Hamn nonyTHHKH, y KOTopbix b Tex icpaax ow.m 
poaHbie. Bbiui.iH b rio3HaHH h pa3bexanHCb no cbohm aoMaM. 
A Te. y KOTopwx HHKoro He 6bino, noexanH aanbuie. Ha 3anaa. 
Ha TaK Ha3biBaeMbie BoccoeaHHeHHbie 3eM.iH. Y HeKOTopbix 
H3 hhx aoM ocTanca Ha boctokc y Koro-TO omji cohokch hs\h 
pa3rpa6neH pyccKHMH... 

HaM 6bmo Kyaa B03BpamaTbca. HeaaneKo ot no3HaHH, b 
MecTeHKe THe3H0. >kwjih poaHTenn Moefi MaMbi. IIomhk) non- 
Hbie coHyBCTBHH nna3a nioaen, Koraa ohh y3HaBanH, hto mm 
B03BpamaeMCJi H3 Pocchh. B anpejie, nepea caMOH nacxofi, c 
TaaHbCKoro Boioajia HBHJiHCb mm b hom aeaa. 

JJenyuiKa h 6a6yuiKa HHnero He 3HariH o HauueM npne3ae, 
TeTa He xarena hx BonHOBaTb 3apaHee. Koraa mm noatexann 
k KaiHTKe. H3aoMa Bbiuien Ha KOCTbinax aeayiiiKa, a 3a hum — 
nnawymaa 6aoyuiKa. YBHaeB Hac, OHa ynana Ha KoneHH. 
I Iomhk) nepBbieeecjioBa: «A r^e 3MHnna?» Y 6a6yuiKH 6bino 




O0nuepbi Kopnyca oxpanw 
norpaHMMbfl (1930-e roflw) 



Tpn no^epH M Tpn CM Ha. 
3MIMM* h AneKcaHapa 
0Ka3anHCb b Ka3axcTaHe 
h b Ch6hph. JleoHapa. 
KOToporo cnnoH 3a6pann 
b HeMeuKyio apMHK), y6e- 
>Kan H3 nee nepe3 OpaH- 
QIOO b Ahijihk), a noTOM 
BCTynH-i b TaHKOByio ah- 
hihiiio reHepana ManeKa. 
3aMVHii 6mji yBe3eH Kyaa- 
to Ha 3anaa. KpHcniHa pa- 
ooTana y 6ayepa b Tep- 
MaHHH. 3oHrHeB cpa>Kan- 

ca B ApMHH KpaHOBOH. 

noTOM CHaen b TiopbMe. 
Bee Hepe3 Kanoe-TO Bpe- 

MH BepHyjlHCb ilOMOH, 

Bee. KpoMe Moen MaMbi. 

Hmchho aeayuiKa h 6a6ytuKa BbipacTH,™ mcha. Mhc 
aocTanacb hx nioooBb h 3a6oTa. KaK 6yaT0 s 3aMeHHJi hm 
norH6uiyio aonb. MHe 6uno 1 OneT. Koraa mm npnexann b hx 
aoM. 

5! ayMaio, hto MaMa. H3MyneHHaa 6one3Hbio, nepecTana 
en conpoTHBaaTbca Toraa. Koraa yace tohho 3Hana, hto a He 
ocTanycb oaHH h BepHycb aoMOH. 

Pa3AyMbn 

ft HHHero He 3Han 06 ome. CHanana roBopunH, hto ero 
y6HJin HeMUM. TaK roBopHTb 6uno BbiroaHO ToraaiiiHen 
BnacTH. noTOM ao Hac cianH aoxoaHTb $parMeHTM npaBau. 
Bbin.ibi.io Ha3BaHHe — KaTMHb. IIomhio, Koraa yHHJica b 
Jirniee. ii noTOM, Koraa y«e Hanan pa6oTaTb yHHTejieM. a hc 
Mor b aBTo6norpa4)nn HanHcaTb. hto moh OTeu norn6 b 
KaTbiHH. a aojiMceH 6bin BpaTb, hto oh npona.3 6e3 bccth bo 
BpeMa BOHHM. ywe Toraa a 3aayMMBa.ica: k neMy TaKaa 
TanHa, ecnw nany yonnn hcmum? Beab apyrne. norH6uiHe ot 
pyK (J)auincTOB, 6binn repoaMH. 

FloMHK), oaHa-A-abi moh cmh CKa3an cBoeMy yHHTejno, 
hto cnwuian. oyaTo ero aeaa y6HnH pyccKHe b KaTbiHH. 
YHHTejib ero aojiro ySoKaan b tom, hto oh oimioaeTca. hto 
ero aeaa yonjin hcmum. A 3to 6m.i yace KOHeu BocbMHaeca- 
tmx. 

TonbKO b 1 989 roay, Korna b Flonbuje npomeji «KpyrjiMH 
CTon». npaBaa yBHaena cbct ookhh. OaHa)Kabi a 6mji b 
BapuiaBe b KOMaHjnpoBKe h b khh>khom Mara3HHe Ha Hobom 
CBeTe (odxa 
U3 ifeHmpaib- 
HhLxy.iuii Bap- 
maebi — 

npuM. nep.) 
KymuiKHHryo 
KaTbiHH. B 
Hen 6 bin enn- 
cok norno- 

UIHX. ft 0T- 

Kpbin KHHry 

Hayraa. OHa norpaHUHHWM naTpynb (1933 r.) 



K A' '^^ ' ' '"' '" • '' ' ™ 



BocnoMimaHi/m AeAyniKi/i 36biLUKa 



pacKpwjiacb Ha 270-h cTpaHHue. TaM 6mjio HanHcaHo: 
«Kryda Andrzej, Kom. Post. P.P.,1904». hyajo kto-to 
HanpaBjiaji MOiopyKy... 

3Ta 3anHCb h HecKoribKo (J)OTOKapTOHeK - Bee, hto 
odajiocb ot Moero oma. 

Ho y Hero xoth 6u ecTb CBoe Medo. MecTO, KOTopoe 

3HaK)T, nOMHHT H nOHHTaHOT BCE nOJIHKH, Ha KOTOpOM CTpo- 

ht naMHTHHK. A Moe cepaue xpaHHT naviaTb o Tex nonaicax, 
hto ocTanHCb b Ch6hph h b Ka3axcTaHe b 3a6brrbix Monuiax. 
Mornjia Moefl MaMU Toace, HaBepHHKa, 3a6brra. 

... Knaji6Hiua b Ka3axcTaHe BbirjuiiieiiH CTpaiiiHo: mo- 
rHJBi 3apocjiH TpaBOH, no hhm xoahjih kopobm h 6erajiH 
bo.'ikm. Tenepb, HaBepHoe, ot hhx yace HHMero He ocra- 
jiocb... TucflHH MorHJi HeH3BecTHbix nojiflKOB, pa30pocaH- 
Hbie no Bcefi Pocchh. H hhkto ywe o hhx He noMHHT... 

ft - HJieH KaTbiHCKOH CeMbH (Rodzina Katynska — 
odufecmeeHHOX opeaHU3ai{UP, o6-beduHPtomap H.ienoe ce- 
.ueu noeu6iuux e KambiHu, - npUM. nep.), ho MHe TpyaHO 
BCTpenaTbCB c mohmh TOBapniuaMH. TpynHo aejiHTbCH cbo- 
hm chpotctbom. ft h Tenepb qacTo BcnoMHHaio ceMbio 3a- 
nojibCKHx, KOTopwM He no3BOJiHJiH BbiexaTb b riojibiuy. 
noTOMy hto y hhx 6bmo coBeTCKoe rpa>KaaHCTBO. ft noMHK), 
KaK ohh njiaicajiH. OcooeHHO MHe wajib OHydppHJi, KOTopoMy 
He Bbinajio cnacTbe, h oh He BepHyjica, KaK BepHyjica a. )Khb 
jih oh Tenepb? 

A MHe ocTanHCb TOJibKO BOcnoMHHaHHa, KOTopue Tpya- 

HO Bbipa3HTb CJIOBaMH. 

ft cTapanca coxpaHHTb b naMHTH Bee, hto 6biJio b TOH 
Moefi )kh3hh ao6poro. Mokj MaMa, ee ,iio6oBb ko MHe h k 
OTuy, ee cthxh. b KOTopbix wHJia Hanexcaa, xopoiunx jnoneH 
- ihuukob, Ka3axoB, pyccKHX. Mw Toraa, hto6m BbKKHTb, 
jepjKajiHCb BMecTe, h HaM He 6u.io BaacHO, kto H3 Hac oncyaa 
poaoM. Hac Bcex o6beaHHHJia BOHHa, pasnyia c 6jih3khmh h 
HecnpaBezuiHBOCTb. Beua He cnpaujHBaeT. KaKOH m Hauno- 

HaJlbHOCTH... 

H H aOJDKeH HyBCTBOBaTb Ce6fl CHaCTJlHBMM, noTOMy HTO 

MHe yaanocb BUKHTb h BepHyTbca b Ilojibiiiy, TeM 6ojiee hto 
b Ka3axcTaHe cMepTHocTb cpeaH aereH 6bina oneHb bmcokoh. 

JJ.0 CHX nop nOMHfOOHHH H3 MaMHHblX CTHXOB, nOJIHHH TOCKH 

h Haaexcjibi. OHa Bceraa Bepn.ia. hto HauiHM crpaaaHHSM 
Koraa-HH6yiib npnaer kohcu. 

B neHKe BeTep nnaneT. 

Ctohct BeTep. BoeT... 

CTenb Koro ynpaneT — 

Cner Toro yKpoer. 

Toe Haiu nana, BeTep? 

Be3 Hero HaM rpycTHO, 

Be3 Hero Ha cBere 

3tom oneHb nycTO.* 

Hy, bot h Bee, .aoporaa moa BHyHKa, hto h xotci Te6e 
paccKa3aTb. Hamerocb, naMjm> o npaaenyuiKe h npaoa6yuiKe 
Tenepb ocTaHeTca b tbocm cepaenKe, naace Koraa mchs ywe 
He6yaeT». 

rioc/ie fieflyujKHHoro paccKa3a MHoroe MgftMMVUOOfc bmoom 
Bocnpuprm Mupa. R Havana noHiAMarb. nacxoRbKo BbicoKa ueHa 
xh3hh; noHMMarb, hto ?KH3Hb - 3to ne TO/ibKo Hayna, padora \A 





■ >fs. 


1 4* 






' >fc- ^■^^ 


- 




_ 


*& 


1 \ 


¥ 


> ' 




••j^ 




\ 


. 


iT 


B Ka3axcTaHe (ceHTn6pb 1940 r). 



pa3Bn&4eH[AR. 3to eme n niodoBb k cbomm 6/iu3kum, Koiopbie 
p,ena>or pj\R nac rax MHoro, a mw ran nacro He yMeeM aroro 
oueHHTb. Panbiue MHe h b ro/iOBy He npuxopu/io. hto mou 
nenywKa nepexun Taxue crpaujHbie roflbi - oh raKoii CBer/ibiM, 
sece/7WM HenoeeK, BenHbiu onriiMUCT. H, Moxer 6b/Tb, n ran m He 
y3Ha/ia 6u ero ncropnn, ecm 6u He KOHKypc. R He xorena a Her* 
ynacTBOBarb, a OKa3anocb, hto oh noMor MHe OTxpurb mme 
BaxHbte CTpaHiiubi ucropuH Moefi ceMbM. He CKpoio, cnyujan 
p,ep,yuiKUH paccKa3, a npoiwna Mope cne3. Tenepb stot nenoeeK 
cra/i nnn mbhp KyMnpoM, momm repoeM, npuMepoM p/ia no/ipa- 
KaHwn. Oh cyMen Bee npeoRonerb. He norepHB eepy b moneti. 
Raxe roraa, xorjja yMep caMufi 6nu3KMtf eMy HenoeeK. 

fleayujKa - saMenatenbHbiiA ynvnenb. KpoMe SHBHH0; oh 
yMeer nepenaTb yneniAKaM ceoe ffo6poe oTHouieHne k xh3hm h k 
niopflM. Ero n\o6aj ynenviKH, a re, kto yniAncn p,aBHO, ro ciax nop 
noMHHT u 6/iaroffapfiT ero. A r/ih Men* oh renepb - He ro/ibKo 
caMbiH nyHUiM na CBere ReayujKa, oreu Moew wa/wb/ u Ro6pbiH 
Mym 6a6yiiJKH HuHbi, ho h chmboji eepu v\ ctohkocth. Oh npeno- 
Ran MHe ypon narpiAoriASMa u mo6BM. J1k>6bu k ceMbe u k 
Oviu3He. 

Bee moia poaecHMKM o6B3arenbHO rormhu 3Harb uctophio 
KarbiHM n ecex rex moot, rpie non/KM norn6ajin h/ih nepexcHBann 
cipawHbie yHHxeHiip. Mower, 3Hasi ece sro, mw cyMeeM CRe/iarb 
rax, Hro6bi Hmoraa a 6yRymeM ara rparepup nonbCKoro napoRa 
ne noBTopunacb. fla, mw cyMeeM aro CRenarb, ecm 6yReM 3narb 
npaBRwayo Mcropuio, ece ee repounecKHe n ropecrHbie cropoHbi. 
TonbKO llpaBRa Momer Hac neMy-ro Haynnrb, Raxce 9CMt sra 
npaBRa - raxa* ropbKan. 

KawHb - 3to ne npocro y6urbie raM OfpMtteptl, Ann Mewfl 
3to, npexRe Bcero, — cmmboji crpaRaHna horpkob, hcubujmx Ha 
reppnropnpx, HexorRa npHnaRsiexaBUJux no/ibine. KaK 6bt p 
xorena, wroow see mou coporvihm, xiABymue b nyxux Kpapx. 
CMornu BepHyrbCP romom! 

Ho nenanbHee ecero ro, hto -roRro0bi*, wepea Koropbie 
npoui/iH no/iBKH HRpyrue napoRbi, nuneMy He Haynn/in eror Mnp. 
Pp cnx nop crpaRaioT riorh, ro chx nop npoRonxaiOTCP somhw. 
Bnepa — soma b 6biBLueti lOrocRaBM. ceroRHP - b HenHe. 
rioneMy riorh nonnbi arpeccun u HenaBwcrvi? 

Fl He 3Haio OTBera Ha aror eonpoc. Mower 6uTb, potom... 

nepeeod c nonbCKoao: KDrup Cepeda 



* [7epeeod MpuHN XoiiMoeopcKou 



J MCTOPHH BflOKYMEHTAX 



69 



# 



.Jib.,. .^*4 



»r & f i0r: 



mntMtk —M l 

ton 






U M K M ( <l ) 

— 1 ftUJUULL 




1 JWT|MI M« novnaonjaiiMi HOI CTT I D mimi! 



Amkimi imIotmkoi iiomcxel ■ &■««»■ x pwaenme- 
hcmr — — — — Witt «-j« 
jfSrtMft&^fwttk^f.^ inp *-p HMMHB wjmhm* 

ton, 

"^7 



/^ 



ItoOIIINUflHKWI 




icrrcii jajunnnaa mo- 
(uaemniiai ntnuacr* r «»rr 



■ nsMUtlci**, nanoic* ■ ja 

«-|i r"rtotj'. M(7T wtmeoim- 

m\ TUkO « M»t ocaoOoscraip 

mr-nma minima » doiwfy «r»>- 



0|<n*M>> <KIU i "wwi oAancru U\mm * Etjo- 
i-teeaa aac(«T l*« t-p NMtMVwIM « Apnm»i»wl. On w»W 
3T»« «-p oprmau'tHZ oirteMTB |ijr»Qi»e««J"> l*» tPPM» 

ii/awa* <*>mjw ntm! nojMiof »pa*a, (Swawie io»flt»c«n- 
■ itta,*!**). 



PDtlMaMI •'jii. 

: • .i.-. --\,\ ii i»nn»B 

I Wlh.fr--' if-a<>|-«mni 




r.r.iiiixrtn 



[rep6 CCCP] 

CCCP 

HAPOflHbll/l KOMMCCAPMAT 

BHYTPEHHHX flEfl 

« « MiapTa 1940 r. 

Nfi 794/B 

r. MocKBa 



COB.CEKPETHO 
OT5.lll.40r. 

MK BKn(6) 
TOBapumy CTA^HHY 



B narepax Ann BoeHHonneHHbix HKBfl CCCP n b TiopbMax 
3anaflHOM o6nacTM YKpanHbi n Benopyccnn b Hacroflmee 
BpeMfl coflep)KriTca 6onbwoe KOJinnecTBO 6biBWMx oo^MuepoB 
nonbCKOM apMnn. 6biBiuMx pa6oTHHKOB nonbCKOii nonMUMM n 
pa3BeflbiBaTenbHbix opraHOB, nneHOB nonbcxwx HauMOHanM- 

CTMHeCKMX K-p napTMM, ywaCTHMKOB BCKpWTblX K-p nOBCTaH- 

MecKMx opraHH3ai4MM, nepe6e>KMriKOB n ap Bee ohm nBnflioTCH 
3aKnnTbiMii BparaMM cobbtckom snacTH, npencnonHeHHbiMM 
HeHaencTM k coBeTCKOMy ctpok). 

BoeHHonneHHbie ocpnuepw m nonnueviCKne, Haxoflncb b 
narepnx, BeflyT aHTucoBeTCKyio arnTaunrO. Ka>Kflbiri M3 hmx 

TOHbKO H JKfleT OCBO60)K r qeHHn. WT06bl MMeTb B03MO)KHOCTb 

aianBHO BrOirOMMTbcn b 6opb6y npoTMB coBeTCKoii Bnacm. 

OpraHaMM HKBfl b 3anaflHbix o6nacTflx !/KpaMHbi m 
BenopyccMM bckpwt pnp, noBcraHHecKMx K-p opraHM3ai4MM. Bo 

BCeX 3TMX K-p OpraHM3ai4HflX aKTMBHyK) pyKOBOflnmyK) po/ib 

nrpann 6biBLiine ocpnuepbi 6biBiiieii nonbCKOft apMwu. 6wb- 
uirie nonnuePicKne n waHAapMbi. 

Cpeflu 3aaep>KaHHbix nepeGexcmiKOB n HapyuriTenePi 
rocrpaHMUbi TaioKe BbinBneHo 3HaMMTenbHoe nucno nnu, 
KOTopwe nB/inrOTcn ynacTHriKaMn K-p ujnMOHCKMx m noBCTaH- 
necKrix opraHM3auriM. 



B narepflx flnn BoeHHonneHHbix coAep>KriTCfl Bcero (He 
CMMTan conAaT m yHTep-o(pnuepcKoro cocTaea) — 14.736 
6biBLUrix ocpnuepoB, muhobhukob. noMemnKOB. nonnuekiCKHx, 
>KaHflapMOB, TropeMiuMKOB, ocaAHMKOB n pa3BeAHHKos — no 
HaunoHaribHocTn csbiiue 97% nonnKM. 

M3 hmx: 

TeHepanoB. nonxoBHUKOB n noAno/iKOBHMKOB — 295 

MaiiopoB m KannTaHOB — 2.080 

riopyMUKOB, noAnopynnKOB n xopyH>Knx — 6.049 

OcJnmepoB n MnaALUnx KOMaHflnpoB nonnqnn, 
norpaHHHHOM oxpaHw h >KaHAapMepnri — 1 .030 

Phaobwx nonHueiicKiix, )KaHAapMOB. TtopeMinnKOB m 
pa3BeAHMKOB — 5.138 

Muhobhukob, noMemnKOB, KceHA30B n ocaAHUKOB — 144 

B TiopbMax 3anaAHbix o6nacTeii YKpaHHbi m Benopyccnn 
ecero coAepjKHTCfl 18.632 apecTOBaHHbix (M3 hux 10.685 
nonnKM), b tom Mucne: 

Bwbujux ocpnuepoB — 1 .207 

BbiBwux nonnqeiicKux. pa3BeAHriKOB n waHAapMOB — 
5.141 

LUnnoHOB h A^BepcaHTOB — 347 

EblBLUHX nOMeLUHKOB. (pa6pHKaHTOB H MUHOBHUKOB — 

465 

HneHOB pa3nnMHbix K-p m noBCTaHMecKMX opraHM3auriri n 
pa3Horo K-p aneMeHTa — 5.345 

nepe5e>KHMKOB — 6.127 

McxoAn M3 Toro, mto Bee ohm ABriflrOTcn 3aKopeHenbiMM, 
HeMcnpaBMMbiMM BparaMM coBeTCKOii BnacTM, HKBfl CCCP 
CHMTaeT Heo6xoAHMbiM: 

I. npeAJiOttMTb HKBfl CCCP: 

1) flena o HaxoAfliAMxcH b narepnx BoeHHonneHHbix 
14.700 MenoBex SbiBiUMx nonbCKMX ocpMuepoB, mmhobhmkob. 
nOMeiAMKOB, nOJIMLieMCKMX, pa3BeAMMKOB, waHAapMOB, OCaA- 
HMKOB M TtOpeMlAMKOB, 

2) a TatoKe Aena 06 apecTOBaHHbix m HaxoAniAnxcn b 
TropbMax 3anaAHbix oSracTeii YKpannw m BenopyccMM b ko- 
HMHecTBe 1 1 .000 MenoBeK nneHOB pas/iMHHbix K-p unMOHCKMx 

M AUBepCMOHHblX OpraHM3ai4MM. 6blBUJMX nOMeiAMKOB, 
(pa6pMKaHTOB, 6blBUJMX nOHbCKMX 0(})MI4epOB, MMHOBHMKOB M 

nepe6e>KHMKOB — 

— paccMOTpeTb b oco6om nopnAxe. c npMMeHeHMeM k 
hmm BbiciueM Mepbi HaK33aHMfl — paccTpena 

II. PaccMOTpeHiie Aen npoBecTM 6e3 BW30Ba 
apecTOBaHHbix m 6e3 npeAbflBneHMn o6BMHeHMfl, nocTaHOB- 

neHMH 06 OKOHMaHMM CneACTBUfl M o6BMHMTenbHOrO 3aKJ1K)Me- 

HMfl b cneAywineM nopnAxe: 

a) Ha nMu. HaxoAnmnxcn b narepnx BoeHHonneHHb»x — 
no cnpaBKaM, npeACTaBnneMbiM YnpaBneHMeM no AenaM 
BoeHHonneHHbix HKBfl CCCP, 

6) Ha nMM apecTOBaHHbix — no cnpaBKaM M3 Aen, 
npeACTasnneMbix HKBfl YCCP m HKBfl BCCP. 

III. PaccMOTpeHMe Aen m BWHeceHMe peiueHMn B03no- 
iKMTb Ha TDOMKy, b cocTaBe tt. MepxynoBa, Ko6ynoBa m 
BaiJTaKOBa (HanajibHMK 1-ro CneuoTAena HKBfl CCCP) 

HAPOflHblkl KOMMCCAP BHVTPEHHMX flEJl 

Coiosa CCP 

(noAnMCb) 

(Jl.BEPMFI) 

[nodnucb e KOHu,e — fl.Bepua. Ha 1-u cmpamiue psMMh 
Luucmo vepe3 eecb mencm nodnucu: «M.CmanuH», *K. 
BopoLuunoe», «B.Monomoe», «A. Mukorh». Ha nonnx, Men- 
ko: «m. KanuHUH—3a, m. KaaaHoeu^—3a». B n. Hie nepewe 
cocmaea «mpouKu» ebNepKHyma cpaMunun «Bepup» u om 
pyxu enucaHa (paMunun «Ko6ynoe».] 



71 



A HCTOPHfl BflOKYMEHTAX 



CTMIITOAbllOQ llptHIMMOIIJIOUTR "0 TNO.pVliAOS u Itnpxow *0O- 

„oIt KmSmdmSwiI 5JCP ZO wc . ry-nft AAA npaMiiftOMiiNii 
lOiio'iiu. HIT « BM WHMI .lOBOAon.yHotiTnonaiMiBX b buiiob- 
■••3HMM Aono«iinTnnhiiora nn.-wmm i"J iioiiToimim iwipKa* . 

UiniH-^Rn nocAOiRj: 

"*'.'? .'TSiJ60SiiJI,XniH!Jioiiiw>..«it'M»*»J' i 

Cti:|*HODJf . 
rilJMHTh lh|IKl'MWWTUIB-J CCU' 30KJI1HTW B9 rpOIIU- 

UoU m« HaiwounoopyaoiiM 11 uoTBAAO^xyBiiix ktsiikod no »yn- 
aj sffllnO pyfiaofl. 

Uiimcxii mwn» „ , 

-f7T.'flHKSny,IWIniu«0My.i;niH)ii«»v. 

135.-S v BHifS9B | !JUSnSfiUs 

IJL»h pnnm'^oimH > lo|*innnu anKoaoo na ii|mihiiotu i>o- 
(■i.yxniinn DMium xuubojrb boa pyijoflOAOTDOu tol. Tenormin 
n MOJOBWM cbctjibo (ou.ii|SAOi<iiino). - •■ 

«{?I||!UO*Ky Roiniyon Ko\»>6nn "Jlwrtiov , ooero Boony o- 

JipCTpOBRJ KOOdOJU " tlUOBanOAHT IIKU1 B AOIOOTBi I '110- 

nnnn Mimm n iptinwim « MM «ounj»«Tiio oo 
„,,, noopy»MB T «« !«"•»;„,,„ (R „ n ...2) npo-.wutw- np-r 
rb 10 Anfln.6o«en n capno hx fcfMNMTCM Hoopy*on«A ItopEono- 

Ty nu1"UO|»)'JlOTO . 

UumiuKR hucaohu: 
-rT^THiiiionilSTTSBucniiy.hyaiioiWBy, 

:ioi)0«UAOBy,toiiiiiiiioBy,(.ni«iiioBy - noo; 
l*p«n.UaAODKOoy,«oxypn(iy,l^pi-«ony - 1. 

13C . -fltfU9iBL&UaSCK^&CB 

Owpo IlK GKDIOI iio cyAoCiaia *"*»« or SB 'Ikid^aii MHO IWX*. 
UuimuKU iiouaomu: 

I'uAHKOiiy Jlaim i-jj-1 bOBy . 

Or &. M.4gr. 

144.- Bgnpoc 1I KUJ1 CUCP^ 

I.llpuiAOXNTb idqui own 

DJIOAA IIOAOABV* * ° "O^P** •**" BOOIIIIOIIAOHIIMS 

14.700 Maxonex MMM iicai.oxhx olmnepoo, mjHowmxoB.nouop.u 
KOB.iio-uuoRcKBA.jitoiKiAmiROi.AniiAapooD.ocnjiiiMRoB « nopoii- 

""" ' U)0 T1KK0 A«A8 o8 OjiOOTOBailllUX H HBXOAXWIXCA » 

tapMuu MMJ0WX odAooTnr y«|«iniii * WMMttJ "•S222E 

an 11.000 'ICIOHeK 'lACIloX IWBAM'IIIIO. |-D NIlllOHCKKX ■ AUiirpon 

im 9prmnm0 ■ mum lyiwiwit w >f)>cplnwtol. ■■mb "•£•*■ 

o.Uiuepo», , inMOBiinKOB ■ /■•I BW MHMI oi - pMOtn*rpM» B ocoi'OM 
noimwo, c npuMniwiiiMSn h MM HlUMl uopw MMH - pc- 



[Cmp. 9 u 10 U3 npomoKona 3acedaHua nonum6topo UK 
BKn(6) Nq 13-on (1940 a.)] 

...CTpomeribHoii npOMbiwneHHOc™ 80 Tbic.py6nei* n 
HapKOMa JlecHoii npOMbiiuneHHOCTM CCCP 20 Tbic.py6neii 
A^« npeMnpoeaHHfl pa6oHnx, MTP n cnyoKatunx 3aBOAOB, 
ynacTBOBaBiunx b BbinonHeHnn flononHHTenbHoro 3aflaHnn 
no noHTOHHbiM napKaM». 

BbinncKM nocnaHbi: 

t.t. TeBOCflHy, AHLienoBMny, 3BepeBy, 

CacpoHOBy. 

II. O pa3BepTbiBaHMM npon3BOACTBa 6nHO»oieM Ha 3aBo- 
aax HKB b 1940roay. 

Pa3peuiMTb HapKOMBHeuiTopry CCCP 3aicynnTb 3a rpa- 
HMLjeii pj\n HapKOMBOopy>KeHMfl 1 1 MeTannopexymax CTaH- 
kob Ha cyMMy 271.000 py6nefi. 

BbinncKM nocnaHbi: 

t.t. MuKOflHy, BaHHUKOBy, CacpoHOBy. 

135. — O KOMMCCMM T. TeBOCflHa. 

1 . Ann pa3MeiueHnn 3aKa30B b repMannn Ha npeAMeTbi 
BoopyoKeHMn HanpaBMTb kommcchkd nofl pyKOBOACTBOM t. Te- 
BocnHa b cneflyioiAeM cocTaBe (cm. npmioweHwe). 

2. ripneMKy Kopnyca Kopa6nn «flK)TU0B», Bcero Boopy- 
weHns, MexaHH3MOB. o6opyflOBaHna, Bxoflflujero b KOMn/ieK- 
Taumo Kopa6nn. B03no>KMTb Ha HKBMO npn yMacTMM HKCn m 
HKB. 



flocTpoiiKy Kopa6nn npoM3BOflMT HKCn b KanecTse 
reHepanbHoro nocTasiuMKa m npeAtnBnneT KCflane kom- 
nneKTHo co BceM BOopyxeHneM HKBM<t>. 

3. Ha 3tmx >Ke ycnoBnax (KaK b n. 2) npon3BOfliucn 
npneMKa 15flK)MM.6aiijeH m caana mx HapKOMaTOM Boo- 
pyxeHMfl HapKOMaTy BoeHMopcpnoTa. 

BbinncKH nocnaHbi: 

t.t. MuKORHy, TesocHHy, Ky3HeuoBy, 

BopoujunoBy, BaHHUKOBy, CacpoHOBy — Bee; 

bepun, ManeHKOBy, UJaxypuHy, Cepreesy — 1. 

136. — Bonpocbi Bepxcyaa CCCP. 

yTBepflMTb npoTOKon Na 18 3aceflaHMH Komuccmh 
nonnT6iopo I4K BKf~!(6) no cyfle6HbiM .qenaM ot 29 cpeB- 
pann 1940 roAa. 

BbmucKu nocnaHbi: 

t.t. KannHMHy, ynbpwxy, BepHa, 

rionnKOBy. riaHKpaTbeBy. 

OT5.lll.40r. 

144. — Bonpoc HKBfl CCCP. 

I. ripeAJiOKHTb HKBfl CCCP: 

1 ) Aeia o HaxoAniAHxcfl b narepnx ana BoeHHon- 
neHHbix 14.700 nenoBeK 6biBiunx nonbCKMx ocpwuepoB, 
huhobhmkob. noMeiAMKOB, nonnqeMCKHx, pa3BeAHMKOB, 

>KaHAapMOB, OCaAHMKOB M TKJpeMLMHKOB, 

2) a TaioKe Aena 06 apecTosaHHbix m HaxoAfliAnxcji 
b TiopbMax 3anaAHbix o6nacTew YKpanHbi v\ Benopyccnn 
b KonnnecTBe 11.000 nenoBeK sneHOB pa3nnMHbix K-p 
uinMOHCKMx m AMBepcuoHHbix opraHM3ai4nii, 6ubluhx no- 
MemnKOB, cpa6pnKaHTOB. 6biBLUnx nonbCKMx ocpnuepoB, 
muhobhmkob h nepe6e>KMMK0B — paccMOTpeTb b oco6om 
nopflAKe, c npuMeneHneM k hum BMCt U Bfl Mepw HaKa3a- 
Hun — paccTpena. 

II. PaccMOTpeHne Aen npoBecTM 6e3 Bbi30Ba apec- 
TOBaHHWx m 6e3 npeAbflBneHun oSBMHeHUfl, nocTaHOB- 
nenun 06 OKOHnaHUM cneACTBun n o6BHHHTenbHoro 3aK- 
nioHeHun — b cneAyiomeM nopnAKe: 

a) Ha nnu, HaxoAfliAnxcn b narepnx BoeHHO-nneH- 
hwx — no cnpaBKaM, npeACTasnaeMbiM ynpaBneHMeM 
no AenaM BoeHHonneHHbix HKBfl CCCP, 
6) Ha nni4, apecTOBaHHbix — no cnpaBKaM H3 Aen, npeA- 

CTaBnneMbix HKBA YCCP h HKBfl BCCP. 

III. PaccMOTpeHne Aen h BbmeceHne peuieHun B03no- 

>KMTb Ha TpoM«y, b cocTaBe t.t. MepxynoBa. Ko6ynoBa m 

BaiuTaKOBa (HananbHUK 1-ro cneuoTAena HKBfl CCCP). 
BbinncKa nocnaHa: 
tob. Bepun. 
145. — 06 M3roTOBneHnn HOBoro capKOCpara pj\n Tena 

B.H.JleHMHa. 

YTBepAMTb cneAywiAMfi npoexT nocTaHOBneHMfl CHK 

CCCP: 

«CoBeT HapoAHbix KoMwccapoB CoK>3a CCP nOCTA- 

HOBJlflET: 

1. M3roTOBHTb no npoeirry B3M hobwh capKOcpar Ann 
Tena B.M.JleHiiHa k 20 OKrn6pn 1940 r. 

ripocpeccopy 36apcKOMy B.M. k 15.IV.1940r. npeACTa- 
BUTb CHK CCCP 3CKM3Hbie npoexTbi m MaKeTbi xyAOxecTBeH- 
Horo ocpopMneHna HOBoro capKOCpara. 

2. HapoAHOMy KoMnccapy SneiapocTaHMMii m 3neiapo- 
npoMbiiuneHHOCTn tob. riepByxuny M. r. o6ecneMMTb M3ro- 
TOBneHMe capKOCpara b B3M b ycraHOBneHHbiii cpoK, npeAO- 
CTaBMB CHK CCCP k 1 0. V. 1 940 r. CMeTy Ha BwnonHeHMe stoPi 
paSorw. 

3. HapoAHOMy KoMMccapy BoopyweHna t. BaHHUKOBy 
o6ecneHHTb M3roTOBneHMe no 3aAaHn«M B3M onTMKH An« 
ocBeTMTenbHoii annapaTypw capKOCpara. 



KaTbiHb, MeAHoe, XapbKOB 



71 



4. HK<J>HHy CCCP OTnycTMTb M3 pe3epBHoro 
4>OHAa CHK CCCP Heo6xoAMMbie cpeflCTBa Ha 
M3roTOB/ieHne capKocpara no cMeie HIOn.» 

BbinncKM nocnaHw: 

t.t. Bepufl, XnoMOBy, nepByxuHy — ace; 

BaHHUKOBy — 3; 38epeBy — 4. 

Ot 11.lll.40r. 

183. — Bonpoc KO. 

06 o6ecneHeHMM KOHTpareHTCKMMM nocraB- 
KaMM soeHHoro cyflOCTpoeHun Ha 1940 roA 

YTBepAMTb cneAyioiAee peiueHne KO: 

a) B uermx no/iHoro o6ecneHeHna nporpaM- 
Mbi BoeHHO-MopcKoro cyAOCTpoeHUA b 1941 roAy 
n co3AaHM« Heo6xoAHMoro saAena, o6fi3aTb Hap- 
KOMBHeujTopr 3aKa3aTb Ha MMnopT 250 ujt. cyAO- 
Bbix Banos no cnequcpuKaunn HapKOMcyAnpoMa, 
npuHAB HeoSxoAHMbie wepbi k TOMy, HTo5bi 50% 
3TMX BanoB 6bino 6bi AOCTaBneHO b CCCP He 
no3>Ke oKTHSpn 1940 r., a ocTa/ibHbie sanbi He 
no3>»<e MapTa 1941 r. 

HapKOMcyAnpoMy (t. TeBOCHHy) b 5-th ahcb- 
Hbiii cpoK npeAdaBHTb HapKOMBHeurropry cne- 

UUKpMKaUMM 11 TeXHMMeCKyKD AOKyMeHTaumo Ha 

Banw h o6ecneHMTb npueMKy BanoB ot 3arpaHMH- 

HblX CpMpM CBOMMM MHWeHepaMM. 

6) 06fl3aTb HapKOMcyAnpoM (t. TeaocnHa) 
k 15 anpenn BHec™ b Skohomcobot 3anBKy Ha 
nMnopT o6opyAOBaHMfl, Heo6xoAHMoro ana EMU- 
nonHeHun cyAOCTponTenbHoii nporpaMMbi b 
1940-42 r.r. 

b) no HapKOMaTy OGiAero MaiiiMHOCTpoe- 

HHB. 

Pa3peiiiMTb HapKOMo6LMMaaiy MMnopT nyc- 
Ko-perynnpyioiAeii asTOMaTMKM a^h yKOMnneK- 
TOBaHMfl cppeoHOBbix ycTaHOBOK pf\n HapKOM-... 

[Ha cmp. 9 npomonona — pyKonucHan nad- 
nucb: «M3bfimo U3 npomoKona «Ofl» 4.1 1 1. 1970 
a. e 3aKpbimbiu naKem. Coznacoeano c m. Wep- 
HeHKo K.y.» llodnucb Hepa36opuuea.] 



•oaapaty ■ lfieim* 34 taeoa (noci. U& UK «•» O.V.27r.. rip. No )0O. n. B) 
.nac iw OcoCoro Cmtiopn U 1 ' 

CTPOrO CEUPETHO 
<m> o. at 

H9i.ll llRHTIieTlKEIll lipTil fliiklliiiii) KEfiTFBflbHWH BQMTET 



M 1118/144. 
M a p I ■ /.<*W r. 



Ton. I! o p « i, 



[J 



111* 



Uudkiiii ii"> iipn'»<u9 Ht 18 wrjuum IIim»iiIm»|hi IlK m 



193 r. 



JlHl»0llAX_M. liJUiUiv 

144.- UBWlilQjlKUa_UGUi. 

1. Upexxoxxr* MXi'Ji CCCC: 
DjUxa o uaioximaxuM o aaropnx xxa MMMMgl 

14.VOO 'le-IOHOK OUDMX HOJbOKnX O^BUopOU, INIIODDXKOa, uoua- 

taKOB,uoaitH6llcr.«x,|i«3B«A"i«Kon, xaiixapxoD.ocBviamoi I Topaw- 
bxkob. 

2Ja tbkxo *9*» n6 apocToiaimux m iibxoxmxxcx ■ topt.- 
xax lauMRMX oOjuotoI yr.naaiiH i Uaaopycoxa a Koxivacrsa 
11.000 MaxuDux 'Hioiiou i-aaxawimx R-P mixoncxax ■ imbspchoii- 
iihx oni »uKsnu»n, Owiirux iiuojiiiiqi, ♦aGpaxaiiTOB. ouuxix 

UOXbCMIX OjiHUOpOB, WHIIO UIIK.KOB ■ UOpOdOZiaKOB - PBCCHOTPOT '. 

■ oco6om iiopuxa, c upaiMHaanaa k iihm duchoh nopa iiaxa.in- 

HHH ■ p«ccrp»/a, 

II. PaycMuipauMo no* iij'OBOCtn 5«a mujcdo apooToa«MnKX 
i 0<a iniejt'noJiaHMa oobuhchhx, uocrauoB^aHa* od otoHqaNua 
catiXCTBNa a oCuh:iktojihio;o lar-jaciouxa - a c^oiyniBM uopiu- 

ro1 a) ii» am, iiaxoxiiMMXca a anrapnx BoaiiHO-lMBBNiU - uo 
ciipaaraM, iip«.actrbjiaonum rupaujanaBM no x«'bk booiiiioujioh- 
nux IlKlil CCt*. 

0)n» Xiu, apoorouoHKMX - uv unpanr.au oa xoj.iipexcTa-- 
BxaaMHM HKBA 'OCP * I1KUU UCKS'. 

I. racuMOTpanas x«x a BHiiaceiiHo punaiiuH aoajioxurk us 
TpoHxy, a cocraBB T.T.M«pxy*oB».l'.»!JyxoBa ■ IfcrraxoBa (hb- 
tuiHnr. 1-t-o OuaaoTxe^a IKBJ1 CCCV). 



CKU'KTAl'b UK 



C iv>xihiii«m m>|iho 
rxapmll rwaa^ u ctw wMB iB «f 




r.l'.Muxon 



noAneawT B03BpaTy b TeneHMe 24 nacos 

b cneuMacTb OcoSoro Cetrropa LJK (riocTaHOBneHne n& L4K 

OT5.V.27r., np. No 100, n. 5) 

CTPOrO CEKPETHO 
(H3 0.I1.) 
Bcecot03Haa KoMMyHncTMMecKafl riapTun (6onbiueBMKOB). 
MEHTPATlbHblM KOMHTET . 

Tob. Bepufl 
Nsn 13/144. 
5 wapTa 1940 r. 

BbinncKa H3 npoTOKona Na 13 3aceAaHMfl rionnT6»opo 14K ot 
193 r. 

PeiueHne ot 5.III.40 r. 

144. Bonpoc HKBfl CCCP. 

1. ripeA/iowuTb HKBA CCCP: 

1 ) flena o HaxoAnmnxcn b narepnx Ann soeHHonneHHbix 
14.700 MenoBeK 6biBiuMX nonbCKMx o0nuepoB, mmhobhukob, 
noMeiAMKOB, nonnueiiCKMx, pa3BeAHMKOB, >KaHAapMOB, ocaA- 

HMKOB M TIOpeMlAMKOB, 



2) a TaioKe Aena 06 apecTosaHHbix m HaxoAfliAnxca b 
TiopbMax 3anaAHbix o6nacTeM ynpanHbi v\ Benopyccnn b ko- 
TinMecTBe 1 1 .000 MenoBeK nneHOB pa3nnMHbix K-p mnnoHCKnx 
m AMBepcuoHHbix opraHM3ai4MM, 6biBiiiMx noMeiAHKOB, cpa6pn- 
KaHTOB, 6biBoinx no/ibCKwx ocpMLiepoB, mmhobhukob m nepe- 
6e>KHMKOB — paccMOTpeTb b oco6om nopnAKe. c npuMeHeHii- 
eM k hum Bbicweii Mepw HaKa3aHMH — paccTpena. 

II. PaccMOTpenne Aen npoBecTM 6e3 Bbi30Ba apecTOBaH- 
Hbix m 6e3 npeAtflBneHUfl o6BMHeHnn, nocTanoBneHMn 06 

OKOHHaHMH CneACTBMfl M 06BMHMTenbH0r0 3aK/lK)HeHHn — B 

cneAytomeM nopnAKe: 

a) Ha nnq, HaxoAnnjuxca b narepnx BoeHHO-nneHHbix — 
no cnpaBKaM, npeACTaBnneMbiM YnpaBneHneM no AenaM 
BoeHHonneHHbix HKBfl CCCP, 

6) Ha nnu apecTOBaHHbix — no cnpaBKaM H3 Aen, npeA- 
CTasnneMbix HKBA YCCP m HKBfl BCCP. 

Ill PaccMOTpeHne Aen n BbmeceHMe peiueHun bo3ho- 
>Ki4Tb Ha TpoiiKy. b cocTaBe t.t. MepKynoBa, Ka6ynosa n 
BaiiiTaKOBa (HasanbHUK 1-ro cneuoTAena HKBfl CCCP). 

CEKPETAPb L4K 

C noAJWHHbiM BepHO. rnaBHbiii rocyAapcTBeHHbifi apxn- 
buct PoccniiCKoii OeApaunn f.r. flMxon 



72 



4 



MCTOPMfl BAOKYMEHTAX 



r 



C*4m 



MtfWCIMII oiiiiii/, 

-9UAP1965 
•4 cam 

•tut Bgl MgSiifi l 



9&*/yuv<r JCpyu^GO* /V. C. 



£ /!ofiwiir">e lvc-r-?apc»<£ar<"o<4 J 



•~o/*-,,e t>f„. 



vyx, 



J CCCA < f*4c 






Jrfs*~L*ot~o<J ■'.'osi6tutd . Sceto no f>ei-ir~<s*t* e»fi<««^>>«i/ 
fyeufy /VA'&Q CCC/° i6'S>e> A*occntf*f. f.*i*o ■*/ /■// v tmmAn ff 
/tuJC.- £ /.'ofX^fCu'ot* steer <T<P'*'*<t'*C'*'>-9 oJJtOertti ) 4 4& ' 'fsnf*M. 

Oemotu/^ooCort /nMCOf £ AoJ>ur*t*rrCA'ti& oo-/>ocsno ) 6.0 ft J Wfl— iWM 
</ / y«^" v/stoAt* 4>6*jhj jnt>ccnyae*rjr*tv A p/>yt*/X *oie/o»*c u 
r>>J*}/>6**0-'C SorntpHOV i/*(BOtiM&/ u S>7rt4it)/to<j ScAopyccoi/. 

Bejt On*jo»tfUjO rtn s>-s*£'t<f<i><o'/ .v#oft>+.t-4tjc SHstt MOO- 
<>vpus>tte6] +"* OC"o6o**v*4 S)ocmo**oA^4+nsjt ifA' X/7CC *rn 
■f-4o i*»o/3tpt/> /S^OtoifO- See SHWf MMMf oc,v.¥£ff«^/ «' *fcc- 
<c«</ ft e toe /*<t*(ot*>*uf> *>o Mvent/*6n'f pejte<*t ta6\oe*rM&f'*f 
fry >,s.k A'nm /*/» 6o»"f onsi email je <• "-'"*/"'(//it"io«~^ic o 

C tvor~rr'/*-i3 rtooArift'*''* rtojt-n- ■"•!? Onc/e*KfJt-r , *—. e. 
C /fiAo logo Mur\-o*</«C Cnao£ot no jmrc* <yrs>ar-f em rfo«u 
sre <£&t_e-aoos*OQ& t* o*e % e*sto # ^'e^i/v/f^/f A/. If? -»««»• 

jQs»J> Co6e*—e*'tsj>c <yoeo*~£ £*e .»»»*« jt+sf "e nfgeroS- 







»6 ffi.<tr*m f/XtoPCnt 



r.|M|nt>« 



Banocb n Bee flena b KoniiMecTBe 21.857 xpaHmcn b 
oneMaTaHHOM noMeLueHMM. 

flna CoBeTCKHx opraHoa Bee 3tm flena He npefl- 
CTaBJinioT hm onepaTHBHoro nmepeca. hm mctoph- 
MecKoii qeHHOCTM. Bpna nn ohh MoryT npeflCTaBrmb 
AeiicTBMTefibHbiM nHTepec flnn HauiMx nonbCKnx 
Apy3etf. Hao6opoT KaKan-nn6o HenpeflBUfleHHan 
cnyMaMHOCTb MoweT npusecTn k pacKOHcnupaunn 
npoBefleHHoii onepaunn, co BceMn He>KenaTenbHbi- 
mm flnn Hawero rocyflapcTBa nocneflCTBunMn. TeM 
6onee, mo b OTHoiueHnn paccipennHHbix b KaTWHC- 
kom necy cyLuecTByeT ocpnunajibHaa BepcMfl, nofl- 
TBep)KfleHHan npon3BefleHHbiM no nHnqnaTMBe Co- 
BeTCKnx opranoB BnacTM b 1944 rofly paccneflOBa- 
HneM Kommccmh nMeHOBaBLuewcfl: «CneunaribHan 
komuccmh no ycTaHOB/ieHMK) n paccneflOBaHMKD pac- 
CTpena HeMeuKO-cpaiuncTCKMMM 3axBaTHHKaMn b Ka- 
TbiHCKOM necy BoeHHonneHHbix nonbCKnx ocpnue- 

p0B». 

CornacHo BWBOflaM stom kommccmm Bee nMKBu- 
flupoBaHHbie TaM nonnxn CMHTaioTcn yHMMTOKeHHbi- 
mm HeMeuKMMM OKxynaHTaMM. MaTepnanw paccne- 
flOBaHMS b tot nepnofl ujupoKO ocBeiflanncb b Co- 
BeTCKOii m 3apy6e>KH0ii nesaTM. BbiBOflbi komhcchh 
npoHHO yxpennnncb b we)KflyHapoflHOM o6mecTBeH- 

HOM MHeHUM. 

Hcxoflfl M3 M3no>KeHHoro npeflCTaBnaeTCfl qe- 
necoo6pa3HWM yHMMTo>KHTb see yneTHbie flena Ha 
nnu, paccTpennHHbix b 1940 rofly no HasBaHHOrt 
Bbiiiie onepaquM. 

Ana ncnonHeHun Moryiflux 6biTb 3anpocos no 
nnHMH L|K Knee nnn CoBeTCKoro npaBHTenbCTBa 
mowho ocTaBMTb npoTOKonbi 3aceflaHMPi TpotiKM HKBfl 
CCCP, KOTopan ocyflnna yKa3aHHbix nni4 k paccTpe- 
ny n aKTw o npMBefleHnn b ncnonHeHne peiueHMfi 
TpoeK. no o6beMy otm flOKyMeHTbi HesHasnTenbHw n 
xpaHHTb mx mo>kho b oco6om nanKe. 

npoeia nocTaHoeneHMfl 14K KnCC npHnaraeT- 
cn. 



CoBepiueHHO cexpeTHo 
ToeapMifly XpymeBy H.C. 

B KoMmeTe rocyflapcTBeHHOM SesonacHocTM npn CoBe- 
Te Mmhuctpob CCCP c 1940 rofla xpaHHTcn yneTHbie flena m 
flpyrwe MaTepnanw Ha paccTpenflHHwx b tom »e rofly nneH- 
Hbix v\ nHTepHnpoBaHHbix ocpnuepoB. >KaHflapMOB, nonnueiic- 
kmx, ocaflHUKOB, noMeiflMKOB m T.n. nnu 6biBiueii 6yp>Kya3Hoii 
rionbiun. Bcero no peujeHnsM cneunanbHOi5i TpoiiKM HKBA 
CCCP 6bino paccTpenflHp 21.857 nenoBeK M3 hmx: b KaTbiH- 
ckom necy (CMoneHcxan o5nacTb) 4.421 senBex, b CTapo- 
6enbcxoM narepe 5nn3 XapbKoea 3.820 MenoBeK, b OcTaiu- 
kobckom narepe (KanHHMHCxaH oGnacTb) 6.311 senoBeK m 
7.305 senoeeK 6binn paccTpenaHw b flpymx narepax m Ttopb- 
Max 3anaflHOii YxpanHbi n 3anaflHOH Benopyccnn. 

Bcp onepauns no nuKBUflaunn yKasaHHbix nnu npoBOfln- 
nacb Ha ocHOBaHMM nocTaHoeneHMP L|K KflCC ot 5-ro MapTa 
1940 rofla. Bee ohm 6bBW ocyxcfleHbi k BWCUfOfi Mepe HaKa3a- 
HUfl no yMeTHbiM flenaM 3aeefleHHbiM Ha hmx iok Ha BoeHHon- 
neHHbix m MHTepHMpoBaHHwx b 1939 rofly. 

C MOMeHTa nposefleHMfl Ha3BaHHOM onepaquM, T.e. c 
1 940 rofla hmk8kmx cnpaBOK no stmm flenaM HMKOMy He Bbifla- 



llpeflceflaTenb KoMMTeTa rocyflapcTBeHHoii 
Be3onacHOCTM npM CoBeTa Mmhmctpob CCCP 
A. LUenennH (noflnMCb) 

3 MapTa 1959 rofla 

npoeia 

CoBepiueHHO cexpeTHO 

nocTaHOBnenne npe3MflMyMa L4K KIICC 

ot 1959 rofla 

Pa3peiuMTb KoMMTeTy TocyflapcTBeHHOM Be3onacHOCTM 
npM CoBeie Mmhmctpob CCCP nMKBMflnpoBaTb Bee flena no 
onepauMM npoeefleHHOM b cooTBeTCTBMM c riocTaHOBneHweM 
MK KIICC ot 5-ro MapTa 1940 rofla. xpoMe npoTOKonos 
3aceflaHMM tpomkm HKBA CCCP. 

[OpuauHan doKyMenma — pyKonucHbiu] 



ApxMB AOKyMeHTOB KIICC — b MHTepHeTe, Ha 

web-caiiTe BnaflMMupa ByKOBCKoro: 

http://psi.ece.jhu.edu/-kaplan/IRUSS/BUK/ 

GBARC/buk-rus.html 



4 



KPACHOE KOJ1ECO 



73 



&ku nOMflHOBCKMM 

3TA rOAOBLUMHA 

B roflOBiuHHy KaTWHCKoro npecTynaeHHa mm ny6jiHKy- 
eM HeGojibLuyio noa6opKy aoKyMeHTOB He 3aTeM, hto6u cu- 
naTb cojib Ha paHbi, H yac 3aBeaoMo ne 3aieM, hto6u H3BHTb 
3thm HanoMHHaHHeM cero.aH*iiiHHx poccHHCKHx rpaacaaH: 
npoiiuio 60 ner, Ha HMHeuiHHX noKO/ieHHax 3Ta BHHa He 

Jie)KHT, H nOHTH HHHCpilX ka HeT B *ll Bbl \ HHKOI O H3 HCnOJlHH- 

Tejiefi pe30JiiouHH nojiHT6iopo BKri(6) ot 5 MapTa 1 940 roaa. 

J\a, HMeHHO BO HCIlOHHeHHe 3TOH pe30JIK)UHH 6bIJlH y6n- 

tu, no cicpynyjie3HbiM yneTHbiM aaHHbiM HKBfl, 21857 
nojibCKHX BoeHHonneHHbix h 3amnoHeHHbix, b t.h. 442 1 o(pH- 
Uep H3 HHCJia HHTepHHpOBaHHblX b Ko3ejibCKe, 3820 — B 
Crapo6e.nbCKe h 6311 nojiHueftcKHX h norpaHHHHHKOB H3 
jiarepa b OcTauiKOBe. riepBbie neacaT b KaTbiHH noa Cmojich- 

CKOM, BTOpwe B ILlTHXaTKaX noa XapbKOBOM, TpCTbH — B 

MeiiHOM noa TBepbio. Ho wu oTHroab He cHHTaeM, hto 
nonbCKHe cipaaaHHa ropuie H 6ojibiue apyrnx. B KyponaTax 
noa Mhhckom jichcht b aecarb pa3 6ojibnie 6ejiopycoB h 
apyrnx paccTpenHHHbix, a i.ikhc MaccoBue moth/im Ha Tep- 
pHTopHH GbiBuiero CCCP — b Kaxcaon o6nacTH, h 3anacTyK> 
no HecKoabKO. B rbiTHxaTKax b o6ihhx pBax — 6ojibine 
pyccKHx h yKpaHHueB. neM nojiHKOB. .TJpyroe aeao, hto nojia- 
kh JieacaT b MyHanpax, a no cymecTBy h BoeHHonaeHHUMH 
ohh He 6buiH, Tax KaK Ilojibuia He o6i>JiBJiaJia bohhu Cobctc- 
KOMy Cow3y b ceHTJi6pe 1 939 r., paccHHTUBaa na coBceM erne 
HeaaBHHH aoroBop o HeHanaaeHHH. Ho OHa noaBepraacb 
coBeTCKOMy HanaaeHHK) b to caMoe BpeMH, Koraa Bejia HepaB- 
Hwe 6oh c TeM a<e caMUM rHTJiepoBCKHM arpeccopoM, koto- 
pwH aBa roaa cnycTH Hanaji Ha CCCP, a b to BpeMa 6ua ero 

C0IO3HHK0M H COyHaCTHHKOM. 

Be3ycaoBHO, Ha cneTy oo.ibuieBii kob necpaBii en no 6oab- 
uiee hhcjio »epTB h aKTOB BepoaoMCTBa. EcTb, oanaxo, npH- 
■ ii i i i hi . KOTopwe npeBpaiaaiOT KaTWHCKoe aeao b coBepuieHHO 
oco6uh cjiynaH. 

Bo-nepBbix, He 6biao apyroro npecrynaeHHa npoTHB 
apyrofi Hau,HH, KOTopoe 6bi Tax CTapaTenbHO CKpuBaaH — to 
MoaqaHHeM, to aoacbio, — Kax xaTWHCKoe. Flpeacae Bcero 

0TKa3blBaJIHCb 1 1 pC.'UK I aR H I h KH KMC Obi TO HH 6 bl. 10 C BC.'U' 1 1 MM 

ceMbSM BoeHHonaeHHbix: nocaeaHHe nncbMa, nonyHeHHbie 

OT HHX, 6bLFlH aaTHpOBaHbl — BHHMaHHe! — MapTOM 1940 

roaa. IIotom, nocae 22 hk>h* 1941 r., Koraa noabina H3 
3aeHuiero Bpara Bapyr CTaaa xccnaHHbiM cok)3hhkom CCCP, 
Koraa H3 coTeH Tbican 33kob h ccbuibHbix aoa*Ha 6bina 
co3aaBaTbca noabCKaa apMHa, — nojibcxoe KOMaHaoBaHHe 
c6hb3jih c ToaKy H3BecTHaMH, hto 0(pHuepcKHe Kaapw 3aaep- 
*HBaK)TC5i, noTOMy, moji, hto ohh aaaeKO — Ha 3eMae Opan- 
ua HocH([)a, b 3anoaapHUX abaax. A xoraa HeMUbi b 1943 r. 
o6Hapy*HaH h BCKpuaH KaTbmcKHeMorHau, coBeTCKaa npo- 
naranaa — ot KpeMaa ao nocaeaHen CTeHra3eTbi — npHHX- 
iiacb TBepaHTb, hto noaaKH H3 Bcex Tpex jiarepeH 0Ka3aaHCb 
b KaTbiHH, T.e. Ha 3anaae crpaHU, h TaM nonaaH b pyKH 

THTJiepOBlteB. IlOCne OCBOOOHCaeHHJI OT HeMUeB CMOJieHCKOH 

o6aacTH ycTpoHjm 3KcnepTH3y, aaa npoBeaeHHa KOTopon 
Hcnoab30BaaH caMoro npotp. BypaeHKO h ero coTpyaHHKOB: 
OHa aoajKHa 6uaa aoica3aTb, hto MaccoBue paccTpejibi npo- 
HcxoaHaH He BecHofi 1940-ro, a oceHbio 1941 r., T.e. ywe 
nocae 3axBaTa HeMuaMH CMoaeHcxa. BemecTBeHHbie aoKa3a- 
TeabCTBa 6buiH HeMHoroHHcaeHHbi, aa h Te otkpobchho c<|)a6- 



pHKOBaHbl, 3aTO HHcno »epTB 3aBblUieiIO, HT06bl HHKTO H He 
B3ayMaji ne ku 1 1. Bocm ioi i. iei i ii bi x H3 CTapo6ejibCKa h OcTaui- 
KOBa, aaBHO y5Ke 3apbiTbix b apyrnx MecTax. 

B 3th aoKa3aTe^bCTBa, oaHaKO, noBepnnH MHorne, b tom 
HHcne h cpean nonsKOB, HaxoaHBuiHxcH b CCCP h, CTano 
6bm>, OTpe3aHHbix ot apyrnx hctohhhkob HHipopMauHH. 
nmiiyuniH 3TH cjiOBa c ropenbio npH3HaeTCJi, hto h oh 
npHHaaJiexcan k tcm, kto npHHJUi 3Ty Bepcnio 3a HHCTyio 
MOHeTy. Pa3Max apyrnx rHTnepoBCKHx npecTynaeHHH 6hin 
Bonnioiue oneBHaeH, h b y v ne bmchui-ioci.. hto CTanHHy 
HacroabKO He XBaTHJio pa3yMa, hto6u HaxaHyHe bohhu yHHH- 
TOKHTb 3JiHTy 3aBTpamHero coio3HHKa. 3Ta . mi mk.i ceroaHJi 
Bbi ii.iuiic i co*aneHHe h cTua: yHHHTOMCHJi )Ke CTaaHH 3ajrry 
co6cTBeHHoro Hapoaa. OTpe3BJieHHe npHHecjiH (paicru: co- 
BeTCKHH OTKa3 aonycTHTb k paccaeaoBaHHK) MeacayHapoa- 
huh KpacHbiH KpecT, H3BecTHe, hto b HeMeuKHX aarepax 
no.'ibCKnc BoeHHonaeHHbie b ochobhom buxchjih. HaxoHeu. h 
HK)pH6eprcKHH Tpn6yHaa He npHmia coBeTCKyio BepcHK), He 
B03ao)KHa hiiiiy 3a Ka 1 bnib Ha hcmchkhx Bocmibix npecTyn- 
hhkob, a H. J\. 3apa, iiomoihhhk npoxypopa PyaeHKO, noKOH- 
hhji >KiiJHb b HiopHSepre 3araaoHHbiM «caMoy6HHCTBOM», 

C I a B OaHHM H3 1 IcpBbl X I Ba>KH 1.1X II >KCp 1 BC11 II 1.1 X CBM,IC 1 C. 10 II 

o6BHHeHHK no aejiy o 6oabrneBHCTCKOH hjkh. 

Ha 3anaae npaBay xoTb h 3HaaH, ho 3aMariHHBaan, hto- 
6u He KOMnpoMeTHpoBaTb BOCTOHHoro coK)3HHKa, a nocjie 
bohhu — juithhckhh paaaeji EBponu. ile3HH(popMauHa He 
npexpaTHaacb ao caMoro nocaeaHero BpeineHH, o neM 
CBHaeTe.ibCTByeT, HanpHMep, BbiuieauiHH b 1995 r. b MocKae 
«KaTbiHCKHH KpHMHHaji» HeKoero MyxHHa. He 6yaeM nHTaTb 

HJiaK)3HH: B POCCHH MHOrHM aO CHX nop HeH3BeCTH0 HH caMO 

KaTUHCKoe aeao, hh ero 3HaneHHe. A, xa3aaocb, HCTHHa 
ae*HT Ha aaaoHH. Mokho 6bi:io o6oHTHCb :.ixmc 6e3 aoKa3a- 
TejibCTB, vmcio Hcnojib30BaHHUx re66eabC0BCK0H npona- 
raHaofi nocne pacKpuTHa MaccoBbix 3axopoHeHHH noaaxoB 
noa OKKynHpoBaHHbiM Cmojichckom. 631 1 no;ib-CKHx naeH- 
hux H3 OcTauiKOBa Ji«KaT b MeaHOM, Kyaa iicMiibi bo Bpesia 
bohhu He ao6pajiHCb. Hx paccTpenHBaa tot »ce HanaabHHK 
KOMeHaaTypu HKB/1 CCCP B.M.BnoxHH, kotopmh F.ecKOJib- 
khmh HeaenaMH paiibiuc paccTpeaHBaa Hcaaxa Ba6eaa, Bce- 
boio.ui MeHepxonbaa. Mwxanaa Ko.ibuobiBa. 1 lonibifi ciih- 
cok ero copaTHHKOB coxpaHHaca, KaK coxpaHHaHCb h panop- 
Tbi HanaabHHKa KaaHHHHCKoro o6;iacTHoro ynpaBJieHHa 
HKBJX ToKapeBa. 

Bo-BTopux, HHKaKHe aoKyMeHTbi h CBHaereabCTBa He 
npHxoaHaocb BbipbiBaTb c TaKHM TpyaoM. KaK aoxaaaTejib- 
CTBa 3Toro MaccoBoro yHHHTo>KeHHa. O cyab6e noabCKHX 
ocJ)HuepoB 0TKa3biBaaHCb hto 6w to hh 6biao coo6umTb He 
TonbKO reHepaay AHaepcy, KOTopun co3aaBaa b CCCP cboh 
iio.ibCKiifi Kopnyc, hjih poTMHCTpy HancKOMy, xyao>KHHKy, 
yuejieBineMy b CTapo6enbCKe h no nopyneHHio AHaepca 
HCKaBnieMy hx ot I la\uipa ao Hoboh 3eMJin, ho h KOMMyHH- 
CTaM — reHepany BepjiHHry, cpopMiipoBaBoiCMy npocoBeTC- 
KHe noabCKHe nacTH, nepBOMy ceKpeTapio UK nOPn ToMya- 
Ke, a noa KOHeu h ilpy3ejibCKOMy. Oco6o KpacHopenHBbi 

HMeHHO HX CBHaeTeJlbCTBa, nOTOMy HTO HX HCB03MOM(HO 

3anoao3pHTb bo BpaxaeGHocTH k coBeTCKOMy rocyaapcTBy h 
couHaiiHCTHHecKOH cHCTeMe h noTOMy hto ohh HMejiH npa- 
moh aocTyn k TeM, kto b CCCP peoiaji Bee, b tom HHcrce — hto 
6yaeT CHHTaTbca hcthhoh, a hto Her. 3to MyHHTciibHoe 
BupuBaHHe hcthhu b Konue KOHU.OB npHHecao naoau, 3a- 
cjiyMtHBaiomHe oco6oro BnnMaiiHH. Oxaaajiocb, hto Bee (panb- 



74 



KaTbiHb, MeAHoe, XapbKOB 



CH(J)HKaiiHH HanpacHbi h HeT ceKpeTOB, KOTopwe b kohijc 
kohiiob He o6Hapy>KaTC». 4to eme BaxHee, mm nojiyHHJiH 
AOKa3aTeJibCTBO, hto 01 .lauiciiHc ropbKOH HCTMHbi (nero eme 
Goxjicx rop6aHeB h nero He Hcnyrancx Ejimihh) He oxpaBH.io, 
a, Hao6opor, ohhcthjio aTMOC({>epy othouichmh Ilo.ibuin c 
PoccHefi. Be3 3Toro CMcnoro penieHHa 3a PoccHeii npoaoji- 
*aji 6w TMHyTbCJi TpaypHbifi wneiify ziyxoBHoro Hac/ieAH* 
cobctckhx BpeMeH, uenb CTapwx h ywe nyacnx rpexoB. Hto 
mw cae/iaeM aanbiue b sthx ycjiOBHJix, 3aBHCHT y»e TonbKO ot 
Hauiero pa3yMa. Rtih ot ero HeaocTaTKa. 

B-TpeTbHX, 3TO cnynaH nanoMiui rb BaxHyio Bcuib: hhh- 
to He npoHexoflHT caMO co6ofi. 4to6u 3Ta iicTnna Bbnu.ia Ha 
CBeT Bokchh, Hy^KHa 6biJia iieoobi'iaiiiuiH. ynopHaa CTpacTb 
MHorux oTBaxcHbix jiioaeH. Pa3yMeeTca, cpenH hhx npeoSna- 
aajiH no:i«Kn — HamiHas c nHcaTeJifl ICbecpa MauKCBHua, 
4ancKoro, TeapOHua h Bcero Kpyra «KynbTypw», yneHbix, 
TaKHX, KaK npoqb. 3aBoaHtiii. no;inTHKOB H3 nojibCKoro npa- 
BHTe^bCTBa b H3i naHHH h no aejrrejieH H3 HHP, KOTopue, 
3aqacryio menoTOM hjih bo Becb tojioc, Tpe6oBanH omacHTb 

TO, HTO H TaK BCe 3HaJIH. He MOJIHaJIH H HHOCTpaHUbl, TaKHC 

KaK <DnurH66oH hjih 227 aenyraTOB 6pHTaHCKOH riajiaTbi 
06uihh, noTpe6oBaBuiHx ot OOH pacc:ie;ioBannfl KaTbiHCKO- 



ro aejia. Ho oco6o BOJiHyiouiMM h b Komie kohuob pemaio- 

IUHM 6blJ10 H OCTaeTCH yHaCTHe pyCCKHX B 3TOM OHHCTHTeJIb- 

hom npouecce. 9i npoiny Bac, HHTaTejiH «Hoboh flojibuiHw, 
Bcnyx npOHHTaTb tckct h no;ui hch noa laHB.'icniicM . ony6jiH- 
KOBaHHbiM b acypHajie «KoHTHHeHT» (Toraa eme 3MHrpaHTC- 
kom) rpynnoH naiuu\ jxpy3eH — HeaaBHHx cobctckhx rpaw- 
aan no HinmnaniBe niicarciM BjiajjHMHpa MaKCHMOBa b 
anpene 1980 r., koi.ui He TOJibKO HHKaKaa CTeHa eme He 
pyxHyna, ho h «CojinaapHocTH» eme To/ibKo npcacToajio 
poaHTbca. C TeM 3Ke BOJinenHeM nHuiymHH 3th cnoBa HHTaeT 

CnHCOK HJieHOB COBMeCTHOH noJibCKO-pyccKofi peaaKUHH TOMa 

«KaTbiHb» (M., 1999) — 3Toro o6pa3UOBoro co6pai»w «co- 
BepmeHHO ceKpeTHbix» /joKyMeHTOB, aojirHe roxibi CKpbrrux b 
KpevuieBCKHx apxHBax h Tenepb maannbix noa pe.aaKu.HeH 
aKaa. AjieKcaH^pa HHKOJiaeBHHa ^KOBJieBa. K yjKacy h 6ojih 
npH hx HTeHHH npHCoejjHHJieTCJi pacTyiuee nyBCTBO Haaeacabi 
h Bepw, hto ecn> Ha CBere ao6pocoBecTHocTb. H hto 6yaeT 
TaK, KaK CKa3aHO b I Incamui : hc 1 una caenaeT Hac cbo6oahu- 
mh. Cbo6oahmmh ot rpy3a ncnaBnc 1 11 h neaoBepnH . TonbKO 

HCTHHa nOMOMCeT nOJIJIKaM H pyCCKHM flOCTHHb npHMHpenHH. 

nepeeod c nonbCKoeo: Hama/ib* rop6aHeecKap 

Ony6nuKoeaHO e xypHane 
«Hoeaa flonbLua», N° 3 3a 2000 z. 



fCtae* HAnCKMI/l 

CTapo6e/ibCKne 

BOCnOMMHaHMn 

(cpparMeHT) 
B oicrs6pe 1 940 r., 3a BOceMb MecaueB no Hanana cobct- 
CKO-repMaHCKOH bohhw. oojibmeBHKii npHBe3JiH b cneuHajib- 
HbiH Jiarepb noa Mockboh, a noTOM h b MocKBy HecKOJibKHX 
HamHX uiTa6Hbix o(J)HuepoB, b nacTHOCTH nojiKOBHHKa Bep- 
iniii a. h npeAmoKHJiH hm cqoopMHpoBaTb nojibCKyio apMHio 
npoTHB HeMueB. BepjiHHr y*e Toraa npHwui npe4Jio)«eHHe, 
ho 1 ioc 1 aiiii:i TBepaoe ycjioBHe: b 3Ty apMHWCMoryT BCTyriHTb 
Bee coaaaTbi h ocpHuepu, ne jaBHCHMo or nonHTHHecKHX B3rjw- 
^ob. Ebuia BCTpena c BepHeH h MepKyjioBbiM. 

— Hy ecTecTBeHHO, — otbcthjih ohm . — Hojuikh Jiio6bix 
nojiHTHHecKHx B3rn*aoB no^ynaT npaBo BcryiiMTb b 3Ty ap- 
MHio. 

— 3a.vieHaTenbHo, — npoH3Hec Bep^HHr, — y Hac ecTb 
OTJiHHHbie Kanpu ana apMHH b Jiarepxx CTapo6enbCKa h 
Ko3eju>CKa. 

H Tyr y MepKyjiOBa BbipBanacb (ppa3a: 

— HeT, 3th — HeT. Mbi cdc.1a.1u c humu 6o.ibiuyn> 
oiuu6kv. ( BbueneHHoe KypcHBOM — no-pyccKH b TeKCTe) 

M3 c6opHHKa «KaTbiHCKoe 
npecTyn/ieHue b cseTe 

AOKyMeHTOB» 

3fleKa6pfl 1941 t. b KpeM/ie cocTORncn pa3roeop reHe- 
pana CurapcKoro co CTamiHbiM npn ynacTnn reHepana Ah- 
aepca n KOMnccapa MonoTOBa. Bot cooTBeTCTByioman nacrb 
npoTOKona: 



Ten. CuKopcKuu: ...3aBepaio Bac, rocnoaHH npe3HiieHT, 
hto Bame pacnopflKemie 06 aMHHCTHH He BbinojiHxeTc*. 
MHorHe. npHTOM caMbie neniibic HauiH jhoj^h, eme Haxo;wTca 
b TpyaoBbix /iarepax h TiopbMax. 

CmaiuH (dejian 3aMemKu): 3toto He mokct 6biTb, aviHH- 
CTHa Kacanacb Bcex, h Bee non«KH ocBo6o»caeHbi. (riocne- 
HHHe cnoBa aapecyer MonoTOBy. Mojiotob no^TBepjicaaeT). 

Ten. Andepc (no mpe6oeaHuto zen. CuKopcxoeo, npueo- 
dum nodpodHocmu): 3to He cooTBercTByeT aeHCTBHTejibHO- 
My ikviovkchiiio Bemeft. y Memi b ap\inn ecTb moaH, Koropux 
ocbo6ojihjih TonbKO HecKOJibKo He^ejib n;na:i h KOTopue 
3aJiBJi«K)T, hto b OTae^bHbix narepjix ocTanHCb eme cothh h 

iiaJKe TbICHHH HamHX COOTeHeCTBCHHHKOB. <...> 

CmcLiuH: 3toix> He mokct 6brrb. Ohh 6excajiH. 

/>«. Andepc: Kyaa we ohh MorjiH 6ewaTb? 

CmaxuH: Hy, b MaHbHwypHK). 

/>«. Andepc: He mowct 6bm,, HTo6bi BceM yaajiocb 
6ewaTb... BojibmHHCTBO o4»HuepoB, ynoMHHyrbix b cnncKe. 
H3BecTHbi MHe ^hhho. CpeaH HHX — MOH arra6Hbie OQOHUepbl 

H KOMaH^Hpbl... 

CmaiuH: HaBepiiHKa hx ocBo6oaHJTH. npocTO ohh eme 
He npuSbum. 

Am. CuKopcicuu: Pocchh BenHKa, h TpyimocTH Towe 

BeJIHKH. B03MOKH0, MeCTHbie BJiaCTH He BbinOJIHRlH npHKa3. 

Ecjih 6m kto-to Bbi6pajica 3a npeaejibi Pocchh, oh HaBepHJixa 

JlOSlOTKHn 6bl MHC 

Cmcum: 3HaHTe, hto y coBeTCKoro npaBHTenbCTBa HeT 
hh ManeHiiiero noBoaa 3aaepwHBan> xoTb oaHoro nojurea. 

Monomoe: BbiTb Toro He Mower, HTo6bi b ^arepax Haxo- 
AHJiHCb Bamn mom. 

ren. Andepc: OjmaKO mw c aocojiioTHOH aocTOBepHoc- 

TbK) yCTaHOBHJIH, HTO OHH TaM eCTb... 

3tot pa3roBop eme 6onbiue yKpenun nonbCKyto CTopoHy 
b y6e>KfleHnn 1 hto nponaauine ocpnuepw >KHBbi n nx conepxaT 
b TpyAOBbix narepax. 



KaTbiHb, MeflHoe, XapbKOB 



75 



OrnqHucb b pacKasiHHii 

3anB/ieHne pocchmckhx 

npaB03aiMMTHMK0B 

B 3TH naMJITHbie H CKOp6Hbie RHfi rionbLUM AHU Mbl, 

coBeTCKne npaB03amnTHHKH, xothm euje pa3 3aBepnTb 
cbomx nonbCKnx APy3eti, a b nx nnue m Becb nonbCKMM 
HapoA. ^to hmkto M3 Hac HHKorfla He 3a6biBan m He 3a6yAeT 
o tom OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM, KOTopyio HeceT Hauja CTpaHa 3a 
npecTynneHne, coBepiueHHoe ee ocpumianbHbiMM npeA- 
CTaBHTennMM b KaTbiHH. 

Mw ysepeHbi, mto yx<e HeAaneK tot AeHb, KorAa Hauj 
HapoA B03AacT Aon>KHoe BceM yMacTHwoM sto\a TpareAnn, 
KaK nananaM, TaK m >KepTBaM: oahum — b Mepy nx 3noAea- 
hhh, APyruM — b Mepy nx MyneHUMecTBa. 

Anpenb1980 

flKJAMnna AneKceeBa, 

AHApeii Awaribpnx, 

BnaA^Mnp ByKOBCKHrt, 

Bopnc Batinb, 

ToMac BeHunoBa, 

AneKcaHAP l~nH36ypr, 



HaTanbn rop6aHeacKan, 
3nHanAa n rieTp TpuropeHKO, 

Bopnc EdDHMOB, 

TaTbRHa >KnTHMKOBa (llniom), 

ApuHa >KonKOBCKan (rViH36ypr), 

K)nn?i 3aKc, 

3AyapA Ky3HeuoB, 

nasen JIhtbmhob, 

KpoHMfl Jlio6apcKMii, 

BnaAHMnp MaKcuMOB, 

BnaflUMnp n rannHa ManuHKOBun. 

Panca Mopo3, 

Buicrop HexpacoB, 

BnaA^eH m CBeTnaHa nasneHKOBbi, 

JleoHMA nnKDiA, 

TariMHa CanoBa (flK)6apcKafl), 

HaAns CBHT/iMMHan, 

riaBen CTOKaTenbHbifi, 

BaneHTHH TypsnH, 

Bopnc LUparMH, 

KDpufi m BepoHMKa LUtcmh, 

TaTbnHa Xoaopobhh 

(«KoHmuHeHm» Ns24, 1980) 



nPOCTMTE HAC, nO/lflKII 



MEAHOE, 
2 ceHTq6pq 2000 ro#a 

cfcoTopenopTax 
Ceprea POMAHOBA 

IB ■: - ^^:^> 




71 



MeflHoe, 2 ceHTfl6pfl 2000 ro,qa 






1 ^^ 


^a* -"I'-' • 




^sy^>^ 


i- 


-'■S^^ 




LJepeMOHUfl OTKpblTMfl H 

ocB«meHMfl MeMopnaribHoro 

Knafl6nLMa b MeflHOM. 

2 ceHTn6pn 2000 r. 

((pparMem - MonMTBw) 

BevHbiu Boxe, MunocepdHbiu Omue! 

BcnoMunaeM neped mo6ou max, Komopue 
6binu nuuieHbi npaea Ha ceo6ody. Ha eo3epame- 
Hue, na )KU3Hb u Ha docmouHbie noxopoHbi. Bcno- 
MUHaeM co CKop6bio, ho 6e3 HeHaeucmu. 3Han, 
nmo vepea Monumey, npaedy u npomeHue eedem 
dopoaa k 6ydymeMy 6e3 Hoebix xepme udeono- 
auu, Hau,uoHanu3Ma u niodcKOZo ebicoKOMepuz. 

Cdenau, Focnodu, man, vmo6bi npuHeceHHaa 
xepmea >ku3hu naujux podHbix ne 6bina Hanpac- 
hou dna 6ydymezo Haiuezo napoda u nauiux coce- 
deu. Cdenau maK, umodbi 3ma 3eMna HUKozda 
6onbiue He 3nana 6pamoy6uucmeeHHbix bouh, na- 
cunua u y6uucme. ^mo6bi me, Komopue 3decb 
ynoKounucb u me, KomopbiM 3decb xumb, y3Hanu 
MupunoKou. HayvuHac. rocnodu, 6bimb do6pbiMu 
cocedaMu.... 



flaMfl™ wepTB penpeccuM 



77 




I 


If* 

^#r - 




ill*! s 1 ^ ; ^f i' • 








71 



4 



MCTOPUR l/IHAKOMblOTIHfl 



\> 



H nEPEHIEJI HA CTATYC 



CBOBOflHOrO ^EJIOBEKA 

C npaeo3amumHUKOM HocucpoM flndbKUHbiM 

6ecedyK>m AHdpeu BnuHyuioe, Cepaeu PoMaHoe, lOnun Cepeda. 



ff 



— Hocuqb reneieeut, Bm Kopemiou meepHK... u.iu mee- 

ptt't, kuk nptifiu ihiw cKiiuinu,'.' 

— Mojkho H TaK H 3JiaK. HeT. H pOJJHJICH Ha YKpaHHC, B 

BenoH UepkBH. 3to owjio b 1928 rojiy. FEotom mchji, aByx Jier 
ot pojy, yBe3JiH b BHHHHuy. A b 39-om, Kor/ja HaiuH BoncKa 
BoiiiJiH b riojibiuy. oma 3aopajin b apMino — oh 6m npoBino- 

POM — H OTnpaBHJIH CJiyOKHTb B KpOHIUTaJJT HaHaJlbHHKOM 

anTCKH (p.ioTCKoro rocnHTajia. B caMOM Hanajie 1941-ro OTeu 
nepeBe3 Hac c Maiepbio k ce6e. H 3to Hac cnacjio, mm ocTajincb 
>KHBbi. A Bee HauiH cocean no Bhhhhuc, Bee moh apyibH-eBpen 
— norH6iin... 

IlOTOM Mbl C MaMOH 6bIJIH B 3BaKyaUHH, B BOTKHHCKC 3TO 
YilMypTHH. Tyjja BbiBejJiH michckhm «ApceHaJi» h Myac Moefi 

JJBOlOpOJJHOH CeCTpbl 6blJl HaHaJIbHHKOM CTpOHTeJIbCTBa 3aBoaa. 

Oh-to Hac h npHiOTun. Pa6oTaji hjuji Mmua... Mw ero BHjejiH 
ot chjim nBa naca H3 24-x. Euie 6h! Oh. nocjie bohhm yace, 
paccKa3biBaii, KaK npne3>Kan Ycthhob (B 1941-1953 zz. — 
HapKOM eoopyDKeHuu CCCP — npu*t. ped. «Kapmbi»), BbiKJia- 
abiBaji peBOJibBep Ha ctoji h roBopun: «MTo6bi nepBaa nyuiKa 
6bijia k... nepe3 Tpn aHH!» Bot TaK Tor.ia pa6oTajiH. 

B 1 944-m OTeu on*Tb VBe3 Hac b KpoHiuTaaT. Iiomhk>. hto 
H3 Mockbw b 6yaymHH rieTep6ypr mu exajin no *ejie3Hofi 
aopore Tpoe cyTOK! OTeu 6mji KaKOH- HHKaKofi. HHTeRaaHTCKoii 
cjiyxc6u, ho ocpHuep, noaTOMy exanu mu He b TenjiyuiKe. C 
npoiiyKTaMH Toace 6mjio 6o;iee MeHee. /Jejio b tom, hto b 
otjihhhc ot JleHHHrpaja. rue npo/xyKTOBbie CKJianbi pa36oM6H- 
hh h ohh cropejin b nepBbie we hhh bohhm. b KpoHiiiTa/XTe 
HeMuaM 3Toro Gjnaaxb He yaajiocb. Ilo3TOMy Ha (JuioTe ikimkii 
oujih iiopMa iMiwo. rojioa KOCHyjicji TOJibKO rpaacaaHCKoro na- 
cejieHHJi. OTeu HaM aawe nocbuiKH npwcbiJiaji b Botkhhck H3 
ocaoicdeHHozo KpoHuiTajrra. MoaceTe ce6e npeacTaBHTb? Bom- 
Shjih 3tot ropoa-icpenocTb KpenKO. oco6eHHO b cenrjiGpe 1 94 1 - 
ro. A h no.MHio 22-e hwhh, Kor/ja nepBbie caMOJieTbi HaneTenH ■ 
KaK ji jjpoacaji. ripaBja, jihji «iepe3 qeTupe npHBbiK h npH 

06"bJiBJieHHH B03JJ.yUIHOH TpeBOTH ywe Jie3 Ha Kpblliiy CMOTpCTb. 

rionajia 6oM6a h b rocnirranb. FlojioBHHa 3/jaHHJi ObiJia pa3py- 
uieHa. Oreix, k cnacTbio. 6mji b jipyroH nonoBHHe H ocrajicji jkhb. 
B KpoHuiTaaTe a okohhhji cpeaHwio ujKOJiy. Bw 3Haere. 
ROHeHHo, hto Torjia o6ynajiH pa3jiejibHO. Ho b KpoHiuTaiiTe He 
obijio TaKoro ManbmiKa. KOToputi He toman 6w o (pJioTe h hc 
nouie.i 6w b uneasy K>Hr. rio3TOMy b My*CKofi uiKone, HanHHaa 
c 8-ro KJiacca, ocTajiocb Bcero 3-4 6e3Hajie)KHO uiTaTCKHx yne- 
HMKa, KOTopwe He no. ua:i \wu. TaK cnatOb, MH-iHTapH3auHH. H 
noTOMy « okohhhji »eHCKyK) uiKOJiy. Hac caaejio Tpoe nauaHOB 
cpe^H uenoro Kiiacca /jcbhohok. Ohh OTHOCHJincb k HaM c 
npe3peHHeM. eme 6bi! — Koraa uenbiH ropoa mophhkob BOKpyr. 
Ho 3anncoHKH nepe3 Hac nepejaBaTb He CTecHiuiHCb. Mhoh pa3 
TaKoe nHcajiH. hto aHBy jjaeuibca, no ceH nopu noMHK)... A 
Boo6me omymeHHe y mchu ot KpoHuiTaaTa. KaK y CajRHKOM- 



IHe^pHHa: ropoa b kotopom bmccto He6a, — con/jaTCKa» uih- 
Hejib. O^hh BoeHHbie... 

B 1946-m h nocTynHJi b JleHHHrpaacKHH no/iHTexHHHec- 
khh HHCTHTyr, kohhhji ero h 3aTeM 22 roaa npopaSoTan b 
BaujKHpHH. Ho 3to To^bKO b o(pHUHajibHOH 6norpa(J)Hn TaK 
KopoTKO. Bee 6bi.no ropa3no 3aMbic.i0BaTee. HanaTb c Toro, hto 
b JinH, Kyaa a nocTynnn Ha a^epHyio (pH3HKy, nepe3 HeKOTopoe 
BpeMJi, b 1948-m, mchjj BbiCTaBHjin c 3TOH cneuHajiH3aunH. H He 
TOJibKO lima, kohchho. OnyAa y6panH Bcex «He6naronaiie>K- 
hwx»: kto 6bbi Ha OKKynnpoBaHHOH TeppHTopHH. y Koro po.i- 

CTBeHHHKH penpCCCHpOBaHbl H T.a. H T.n., Hy H BCeX ClipcCB B 

npiuany . Ho nocKOJibKy aeKaHCTBOBan y Hac 3HaMemiTbiH Ho(p- 
(pe, iiKa.icMUK. HHKoro HeTpoHy.nH, He BbiKHHyjiH, npocTO nepe- 
Benn Ha Jjpyrne cneuHaJibHOCTH h see. A tc kto ocTanca. TaK 
CKa3aTb, «HHCTbie h CBepxHHCTbie» no BceM CTaTbSM, cnjiejiH b 
cneuHajibHOM satyrm h Bsyvua aMepnKaHCKyio nepeBojHyio 
jiHTepaTypy. 

— AHo<p(pe? 

— A hto oh Mor c/jejiaTb? Hnscro oh He Mor caenaTb... 

— A npaeda, nmo mozda hiojikom lie mam o epedoHoc- 
iwcmu ndepHoeo uuytenuM u nomoMy ne npuMenfLiu huko- 
Kue epedemea loutunihi u ue c06.11oda.1u npaeu.ia mexnuKu 
oeionacHocmu ? 

— B HHCTHTyre Iffil He pa6oTajiH c >uepHbiMH MaTepnajia- 
mh. A hto 6mjio noTOM — ji paccKa>Ky. HTaK, ji okohhhji 
pajjHoq3H3HKy, nojiyHHJi ^nnnoM, a mchji HHKyaa He 6epyT! no 
Bee toh *e npHHHHc. Ho Hauiejicji otihh rjiaBK — «He(pTereo- 
(pH3HKa», — KOTopbin Span Bcex. H eBpeeB. h 6ubiiihx nojy 
OKKynaunefi, — noMcajiyiicTa! To jih y hhx pa3pciucHHe Ha 3to 

6bIJIO. TO JIH npHJIHHHbie JIK3J1H B pyKOBOJICTBe co6pajiHCb (a OHH 
ZieHCTBHTeJIbHO 6bIJIH npHJIHHHblMH, KaK nOTOM BblJICHHJIOCb). B 

o6meM, nonaaaio h b 3tot rjiaBK h c orpoMHbiM yaHB-ieHneM 
o6Hapy>KHBaK), hto mhc npeacTOHT 3aHHMaTbcn JuepHOH reo- 

(pH3HKOH. Korjia H 0(J)OpMHJICJI H IIpl!C\a.l B BaiUKIipHK), BCTpe- 

naeT MeHJi KOJiJiera h 6ynyuiHH xopoujHH jipyr KDpa TyjiHH h 
roBopHT: «ByaeM wmntimcai raMMa-KapoTa)KeM». (KapomaoK 
— imw:eHepHO-<pu3wecKue .uemodbi ucciedoeanusi ckbomcuh 
na Ka6e.ie c uejibto ebmenemm eeo.ioeuuecxoeo empoenuft u 
naiuuna no.iembix uctco na e M btx — npu.\t. ped. «Kapmbt»). 

CHanajia ji nojiyMaji, hto 3to MarHHTHbin KapoTa* — ecTb 
TaKaji caHHuua MarHeTH3Ma: «raMMa». Ho OKa3ajiocb, — Her, 
JinepHbiH, a iimchho: neii i poinibiii raMMa-KapoTaac. TaKHM 06- 
pa30M, ji cjiynaHHO nonan Ha Ty ciicnua imaunio. c KOTopoii 
Item Bbinepjin b HHCTHTyTe. KaK roBopHTca. ot cyjb6u... 

H hto OKa3ajiocb oco6eHHO npjwTHbiM. — tngpBU reo<pH- 
3HKa 6biJia coBepuieHHO otkputoh TeMaTHKOH cpean npoHHx 
JijepHbix HanpaBjieHHH. Bee moh paGoTbi b 3toh oo.iacTH onyo- 

JIHKOBaHbl B OTKpblTOH neHaTH, H KaJKJJblH M05KCT CyJJHTb o 

Moen rjiynocTH h KaKofi-To, mojkct 6uTb, jojie pa3yMa. 



"fl nepewe/i Ha ciaiyc CBo6oAHoro nejiOBeKa" 



71 



3T0 6bIJI 1952-H TO/!. /teHCTBHTCIbHO, HHKaKOH 3aiUHTW 

Toraa He 6wjio. He 6mjio HHKaKHX ao3HMeTpoB. Ho mm *& see 
obi.™ (})H3HKaMH. KDpa TyjiHH npenpacHO pa36HpajiCH b aaep- 
hoh reo(pH3HKe. Mw Bee paccHHTajiH: Ha kukom paccroHHHH 
jep»aTb HCTOHHHKH. B KaKHX KOHTCHHepaX, CKOJIbKO BpeMeHH 

mo)kho oGjiynaTbca h T.a., h Mepw npeaocTopowHocTH npe- 
KpacHO 3HajiH h BbinojiHJiJiH. W hhkto H3 Hac He 3a6ojie;i Jiyne- 
BbiMH 6o^e3HaMH. 5I.aepHaji reo(J)H3HKa Bceraa 6buia h ocTacTCH 

a6cOJIK)THO OTKpWTOH. 51 rop*cyCb TeM, MTO HHKOr^a He 38HH- 

MajicH ceKpeTHbiMH pa6oTaMH. flaepHaa reo(J»H3HKa — 3to hch- 
CTBirrenbHO npHMeHeHHe aTOMa b mhphwx uejiax. B o6meM, 
OTpa6oTaji a b HccjieaoBaTejibCKHx napTHax 1 2 ner h ynacTBO- 
Ban TaKHM o6pa30M b crraHOB.ieHHH aaepHOH reo(|)H3HKH b Ha- 
ul eft CTpaHe. 

Mw HCCJienoBanH no Been BauiKHpHH Bee cicBaxHHu Mec- 
Topo^QeHHa TaK Ha3WBaeMoro «BToporo BaKy». H bot TaM, bo 
BpeMfl paGoTe «b none», bo MHe, Toraa hcthhhom crajiHHue, — 
TaK a 6biJi BocnHTaH, hto TaM roBopHTb, — BnepBbie 3apo;w- 

JIHCb COMHeHHH. 

npHMHHOH 6bIJlH OPpOMHbie KO.IOHHW 33KOB. KOTOpbie 

cipoHJiH TaM Bee h Bca — b CanaBaTe, CTepjiHTaMaKe, y<J>e. 
Jlarepefi 6wjio — nojmo! H bot eaeuib co cboch KapoTaacHOH 
cTaHUHew, a ohh Hjjyr, ajjyv, unyr, — noHeBone 3aayMaeujbca. 
npaBfla, nepBbie npoSjiecKH y MeHa 6biJiH eme b hhctht>- 
Te, Koraa mu jictom 195 1-ro nouuiH Ha uuuonKax H3 JleHHHrpa- 
ja b CTajiHHrpaii no MapHHHCKOH chctcmc KaHanoB. H bot 
n.ibiBeM, a no 6eperaM Ko.nioHKa, KHJiOMerp 3a KHJioMeTpOM. 
OnHa 30Ha KOHHaeTcs. apyraa HaHHHaeTca. 33kob He hh.ic.mi, ho 
Bee paBHO... 

— roeopnm, nmo y ipuiuKoe-xdepmuKoe amMoctpepa 
/■hi ia o«. tev eo.ibuodyMHoU, hcm eeide, a kok y eeo<pu3UKo«? 

— KoHenHo! To ace caMoe! roBopHJin y Hac Bee. hto 
xoTenn. CoBepmeHHO cbo6ohho. Bot, k npHMepy, moh apyr 
K)pa TyjiHH — 6ojibuioH yMHHua, 3HUHKJioneaHCT, — oh npe- 
KpacHO pa3o6pajica b CTajiHHe ropa3,ao paHbine MeHa h, kohch- 
ho, roBopHJi MHe 06 3TOM. 51 KaKoe-TO BpeMX eMy npocro He 
BepHJi. Ho k 1954-My rouy «co3pejr» h bcc noHaji. conocTaBHB 
H CBOH HaOJIK).aeHHa, h paccKa3bi K)pw... 

— A e 1953-m — ncpc.iHiina.iii'.' C.Mepmb «onma napo- 
do«»... 

— /Ja. Eme — na. HepeatHBaa... 

— inii'iuni. pui.*t>iiupiii;u.iu ceododtto. A cmyKaueu He 

60HJlUCb? 

— CTyKaHH, pa3yMeeTC«, 6ujih, ho hh^khx nocnencTBHH 
ana Hac 3to He hmcjio. 51 npHBcay npHMep, B8KM TaM y Hac 6wna 
o6cTaHOBKa. KaaceTca, b 1956-m hjih 1957-m B3,ayManocb MHe 
BbiaBHHyrb He3aBHCHMoro KaHanaaTa b .aenyTaTw. Ot hhx 6uji 
KaKofi-TO 6ypMacTep. XopouiHH 6ypMacTep. Meacay npoHHM. A 
a cneji, hto Heo6xoflHMaajibTepHaTHBHa« KaHUHaaTypa. H bwc- 
Ka3an sto ny6jiHHHO. Hy, t>t Hananocb HepT 3HaeT hto! AHa/m- 
3npy» stot 3nH3oa ceiiHac, no^araw, hto BnojiHe motjih mchji 
nocaaHTb Toraa. Ho hot, TOJibKO nwma.-i mchu ccKpeTapb ropKO- 

Ma 3TO rODOJl OKTJl6pbCKHH B BauiKHpHH — H iiaBafi HHTaTb 

HOTauHK), a a Hanaji c hhm cnopnTb. 

B HTore MHe 6uno CKa3aHO, hto a Hnnero He noHHMaio b 
nonHTHKe Hauien oco6oh CTpaHbi, rae napTHa ctoht b HepyuiH- 
mom 6jioKe co cbohm HapoaoM, h ecjiH napTHa pcuiHJia bu^bh- 
Hyrb onHoro KaHanjaTa, Hapoa 6yaeT ri.ukh i a 1 1. oiiHoro KaH- 
aHaaTa, a MHe npn stom ^ynuie noMOJinaTb. Bot Tax. KcTaTH, Mbi 
c sthm cexpeTapeM coceaaMH 6ujih, xmjih Ha o.inoii jiccthhh- 




HocmcJ) flsflbKMH. MeAHoe, 2 ceHT«6pn 2000 r. 
Oomo: Cepaeu Pouanoe 

hoh KJieTKe. B o6meM, Bee una mchji o6ouuiocb 6naronojryHH0. 
H y apyrHx h HHHero He noMHK), HTo6bi hto-to cjiynajiocb no 
noBoay OTKpoBeHHoro Bbicwa suBainifl cbohx B3r^aaoB. 

TaKofi aTMoctpepe cnoco6cTBOBano eme h to, hto b Baui- 
KHpHH *HJia Macca ccujibHbix. H hcmuu noBOJi*CKHe, h KpbiM- 
cKne TaTapu. Ohh paGoTanH h y Hac, mw oGmaiHCb, h ohh 
paccKa3biBajiH, ecTecTBeHHO, npaB^y, KaK y hhx Bee cjiynHJiocb. 
Tan hto aTMOccpepu eaHHOMbicjiHa He 6bino. 

noTOM MeHa npurjiacHJiH b BamKHpcKHH yHHBepcHTeT, H 
10 ^eT a pa6oTan b Y(pe, npenoaaBaji. H roBopHJi cryaeHTaM 
Koe-HTO, npaBfla, octopojkho. 3aecb, b Hanane 70-x roaoB, * 
BKycHJi caMHuaTa. B nacTHOCTH, npoHHTan «B Kpyre nepBOM» 
CoJDKeHHUbma. 

— A kok cuMUKhim K MEM nonadojt? 

— Hepe3 MOCKBHHeti. Mw oneHb nacTO e3anjiH b MocKBy, 
nocKOJibKy coBMecTHo pa3pa6aTWBanH MeToaw >mepHOH reo- 

(J)H3HKH. CHaHaJia C MOCKOBCKHM He^TJIHWM HHCTHTyTOM, a 

noTOM, Koraa HanaJibHHK rnaBKa A/ieKceeB opraHH30BaJi BHH- 

H5ir, — C HHMH. KCTaTH,3TOTHHCTHTyTnoapa3HUMH na '.HailH- 

»mh cymecTByeT no chx nop. Hmchho oh BHec ocHOBonojiaraio- 

IUHH BKJiaa B pa3BHTHe wepHOH reO(pH3HKH B CCCP. 

A flajiee CO&RHI pajBHBajincb TaK. B Hanajie Tex *e 70-x, 

H3BHHHTC COBepUieHHO HeHerO CTaJIO XCpaTb. H 3TO B BauiKH- 
pHH, Ha 6oraTeHumx 3eMJiax! ileTefi yHHTb TaM tojkc 6wjio 
Heme. Bce-TaKH He tot b Y<pe 6wji ypoBeHb. Bee 3to BMecTe 

nOilBHrJIO reO(J)H3HKOB — IiailOMIllO. HTO rOnOBHOH HHCTHTyT 



"H nepewe/i Ha daTyc cBo6oflHoro ne/iOBeKa" 




lOpa* TynMH. 



pacnojiaranca b C»KTa6pbCKOM, 

— opraHH30BaTb cboh (pHJiHan 
B KaJIHHHHC to ecn> TBepH. 

rio6jiH5Ke k Mockbc By3aM, 

«KO.l6aCHblM 3JieKTpHMKaM». H 

MeHH npnrjiacHJiH pyKOBO/jHTb 
na6opaTopHCH TeopernHecKOH 
reo({)H3HKH. TaK a oKa3aJica h 
no6jiH>Ke k caMH3^aTy. Bnep- 
Bbie b *m 3iin MHe cpa3y Btue- 

J1HJIH TpeXKOMHaTHyK) KBapTH- 

py. H ywe owji HteHaT, Tpoe ae- 
refi — .iBoe ot nepBoro opaKa 

— mux moh oTeu, na mm c 
)KeHoJi. Ho Bee paBHO, no TeM 
BpeMeHaM 3to 6hjio HecribixaH- 
ho, hto6m TaK cpa3y. 

B ckopom BpeMeHH. c noMouxbio CBoero apyra JleHH Jlo- 
30BCKoro, npHniauieHHoro b KajiHHHH H3 AKaaeMropo/jica, a 
no3HaKOMMJic» c AjieKcaaapoM naBJioBHHeM JlaByTOM. koto- 
Phh Toace pa6oTaji b i coij.ni jiikc. Hepe3 Hero h Hananacb mo» 
HHccHaeHTCKaa jieaTejibHocTb. KoHTaMHJin mu c hhm fuiotho. 
3jieiopHHKH Be;ib He TonbKo una KOJi6acu cymecTBOBajiH, xotji 
h c npoayicTaMH noMoranH oneHb h omcik. CHJibHO. 

— Hmo, mym to cnadxcenue.M moMce n.ioxo onaiiLiocb? 

— JX&. Xoth Koraa mw b 1972-m npHexajin, nocpaBHeHHW 
c EauiKHpHeHCHa6>KeHHe 6mjio otjihmhoc Xotji HHKaKHx mi ur 
mux npHHHH /uia 3Toro He 6hjio. Ho pobho Hepe3 nonroaa — 
Bee Hcne3Jio. H HanajiHCb BbiHyjKaeHHbie peiuu b MocKBy. 

B Ka.uiHiiHc CBepuiHJiocb rJiaBHoe b Moefi >kh3hh — a 
nepewe.1 na cmamyc ceo6odnoeo veioeeKa. 

51 CTan qHTaTb, mto a xony, a CTan nejiaTb to, mto Haxoacy 
Hy^cHbiM... npaBaa, 3aecb, b otjihmhc ot EauiKHpHH, mchji ape- 
CTOBajiH. B 1980 rony. B ochobhom 3a to, hto a HanHC&n 
jjeMorpaiJwHecKyio pa6oTy, b KOTopon paccHHraji, CKOJibKO jik>- 
aefi norn6.no b ryJlAre. 

— H nmo Mce no.nynujiocb? 

— Mto nojiyiHJiocb? Hy, BO-nepBbix, nocKOJibicy a Hayn- 
HbiH pa6oTHHK, noaxo/j 6mji cyry6o HavHHbiH: HCXO/j.Hbie jaH- 
Hbie — TaKHe-To; npeanoJioaceHHa h aonyweHHa — TaKHe-To; 
aeMorpa(pHMecKHe (fx>pMyjibi — TaKHe-To; bmbcum — c He- 
CKOJibKHX ToneK 3peHHH. fl npoaHa.iH3HpoBan h no a6cojnoT- 
hwm HHoaM nepennceH, h no coothouichhio m>tkhhh h >KeH- 
uihh, h no B03pacTHbiM rpynnaM. Bee 3to omjio npcacrraBJieHo. 
H nojryMHJiocb y mchh. a nocMHTaji a c 1928-ro no 1949-fi ron, 
hto c 1928-ro no 1 941 -h roau nornojio ot Bcex bh.iob penpec- 
chh h rojioaa — ot lOao 15 mhjijihohob nenoBeK 

A 3a nepnoa c 1941-ro no 1949-h tor to ecTb 3a BOHHy 
njiioc 4 iioc.icBocHHbix rojja — 30 MHJIJIHOHOB HeJIOBeK. M.C. 
rop6aHeB b Hanane nepecrpofiKH na3Baji-TaKH UH(J)py norn6- 
mhxb 194 1-45 roaax. 3a coGctbchho BOHHy, — 27 mhjijihohob. 

KoHenHO, b ocpHunajibHbix aaHHbix 6wjih 6ojibUJHe jiaKy- 
Hbi. Ho 3th JiaKyHbi caMH no ce6e roBopHJiH h aaace BonHJUin 
jjjih BCMKoro, kto jiaji ce6e Tpya 3aayMaTbc>i. 

HanpHMep, aaHHbie o cmcpthocth HacejieHHs 6hhh npH- 
BeaeHM 3a 1 928-h ron, a noTOM TOJibKo a* 3a 1936-fi. Hotom. 
Kax hh CTpaHHo, 3a 1937-38-h (BnponeM, cTpaHHee h noao3pH- 
TejibHee Bbir.uue.io. kohchho, ecjiH 6u rojiu «6ojibiuoH hhct- 
kh» om.ih BbiKHHyrbi), a 1 939-h y»e tuen c iipiaoc.uiHCHiibiMii 

TeppHTOpHJIMH... 

Kopone roBopji, HeBoopy«eHHbiM rjia30M owjio bhjjho, hto 
jiaxyHbi caejiaHbi jjjiji Toro, hto6h b uenoM 6bu npupocm Hace- 



JUSBB3L A npoBajibi 3aByajiHpoBajiHCb. Ho Beab 3to OMeHb npo- 
CTOBbuiBJiJieTCJi! HanpHMep, c 1926-rono 1 928-h roAWOTHOCH- 
Te.ibHbiH npnpocT 6wji npHMepHO 4%. C 1937-ro no 1941-fi 
T0»e npHMepHO MeTbipe, xoth » AyMaw, hto uneppa ubho 
3aBbiuieHa. A c 1 928-ro no 1 936-h — 1 ,3%. To ecn. noiTH b TpH 
pa3a MeHbiue! 3to ace KauecmeeHHbiii CKaHOic! Mo>KeT 6biTb 
TaKoe b npupozie caMO co5oh?! 

B oomeM, Bee cboh pa3MbiinjieHHJi h pacneTbi a Hanvican h 
3anycTHJi b caMH3AaT. Oahh 3K3eMnJiap OT^aji Came JlaByry, a 
BTopofi — MoeMy apyry Hropio HHKOJiaeBHHy XoxjiyuiKHHy. 
CaiuaoTnpaBHJi CTaTbio Ha 3anaa. TaM OHa GbiJia onyojiHKOBaHa 
b KaKoii-TO qbpaHuy3CKOH ra3CTe h b «yopjia CTpHT ajkoph3ji». 
A Hropb OTjiaji CojixeHHUbiHy. H HeTa Coji>KeHHUbiHbix, 6yjiy- 
hh b 3MHrpauHH, ony6jiHKOBajia ee Hepe3 JlioaMHJiy TopH, c 
G.>. i bu i mm npeanc.ioBMCM. 

— Hociup reiiciesuu, Bbi imy paoomy nod nceedonu- 
mom ony6.iuKoaa.iu? 

— Her. HeT — OTKpbiTO. Ha3Baji ee «CTaTHCTw» h noa 
CBoefi (paMHJineH, a Bee nncbMa npoTecTa npoTHB apyrnx /aen- 
ctbhh BJiacTen a noanncbiBaji c aapecoM (ohh 3HaMaTc» b 
HauieM c Ceprefi MaxcHMOBHHeM rop6aMeBWM jiejie — HOMep 
. . . HeoxoTa HCKaTb. Bpojie 2.48). 

— A Bbt npedcmae.in.iu noaedemeua? 

— Hy, ji ace roBopHJi yace, hto nepeuieji Ha CTaTyc coBep- 
uieHHO CBo6oiiHoro HejioBeKa. R CHHTaji, mto, ecjiH a Mory 
npoBecTH HayHHoe HCCJieaoBaHHe, roBopio. OTKy^a B3>ui aaH- 
Hwe h mto b pe3yjibTaTe aHanH3a nojiyMHJiocb h jik>6oh mokct 
Mena KpHTHKOBaTb, c KaKOH CTaTH MHe TaHTbca? nepBbiH Bapn- 
aHT h Hanncaji b 1974-m, noTOM aejian yroMHeHHa. nocjie/iHHH 
BapnaHT Bbiiueji b 1976-m. 

— A e 80-m Bbt obciu apecmoeanbu.. H no kukou cm urn be 
Bac o6euHfLiu? 

— 1 90 npHM. He 70-a. To ecTb a aexiaji «3aBe;iOMO Jio*Hbie 
H3MbiiiiJieHHa», ho He noKyniajica Ha CTpofi. B otjihmhc ot 
Ceprea Aaa.MOBHMa KoBaneBa, kotopuh xotcji STOTCTpon H3Be- 

CTH, KaK rOBOpHTCa, Ha KOpHKJ. 

— Ac KoeaieebLH Bbt nomaKOMUJiucb nepei JIaeyma? 

— Hepe3 JlaByra, ho 3aoMHo. R y3Haji o HeM nocjie Toro, 
KaK oh cen yace. 3to 6bLio b 1974-m. Ho JlaByT MHe o HeM bcc 
yuiH npoacy>K»aji. H Kor^a Ceprefi noaBHJica b TBepn nocjie 



Cnedoeamenio npoicypamypbi 

m. MmKoey B.E. 

Om compydHUKoe KO BHMruC 

3ae.omdenoM No 5 K). A. rynuHa 

3ae. na6opamopueu A. B. 3onomoea 

3ae. nadopamopueu E. B. Bnam<oea 

3amnenue 
25 an pen ft c.a. apecmoean Haui Konneea no paSome M. f". 
/JndbKUH. Mbi 6onee 20 nam jwaew ezo KaK ^enoeena Hecno- 
codHoao yK/ioHumbCfj om omeememeeHHoemu 3a coeepuieH- 
Hbie um deucmeua. ilosmoMy, He 3ampaauean eonpoca 06 ezo 
euHoeHOcmu unu HeeuHoeHOcmu, Mb/ npocuM Bac 3aM6Humb 
dnn Heao codepManue nod cmpaw.au do cyda nodnucKou o 
Heebie3de. 

3manpocb6a o6ocHoeana emeumeM, wmo H. r. fladbKUH 
6onen n3eou Mcenydxa u nepenec onepauuio, nocne Komopou 
Hyxdaemcfi e pezynapnoM vacmoM numanuu u dueme. 

rynuH. 3onomoe. BnaHKoe. 
28 . 04. 80 s. 

(BceX TpOMX nOHM3H/lM B aotdkhoctm. — H-A) 



"H nepeweji Ha ciaiyc cBo6oflHoro He/iOBeKa" 



II 




Cepren KoBanea 



aarepa — ero b Mock- 
By He nycKanH — h mu 
c hhm nepBufi paa 
BCTpeTH^HCb, a cKa3an: 
«5I Te6a 3Haio! H noa- 

po6HO!» IlOTOM OH CTO- 

pOSBBI Bee hto mohcho: 
KaKyio-To crpoHKy, rop- 
caa, apaMTeaip. H a b 
erocTopowKax 6bia, no- 
iKajiyH, caMWM nacTbiM 
rocreM. 

— B kokom eody 
Cepeeu AdoMoeun no- 
tion e Teepb? 

— B 1984-m. 51 
yace roa KaK 6bia Ha cbo- 

5oae, OTCH^CB OT 3BOH- 
Kil .10 3B0HKa MaKCH- 

MyM no Moen CTaTbe — 
3 roaa. Mohm noaeab- 
hhkom 6wji moh apyr CepoKa rop6aneB, eMy aaan aBa roaa. 
Boo6iue hh 3a hto! Oh He 6mji anccHaeHTOM, xoTa hmcji 
(pHJiocotpCKHH CKnaa yMa, Hauiy CHCTeMy npeicpacHO noHHMaa, 
ho HHKaKHX a6cojnoTHO aeficTBHH npoTHB Hee He npcanpHHH- 
Maa. 

— Hokum Mce o6paiOM eeo «npunvmynu » k BauteMy 
deny? 

— TyrTaKaa Hcropna. KaKTOJibKO MeHa apecTOBanH — 25 
anpeaa 1 980 roaa — oh cpa3y ace noexaji b MocKBy h coo6mnn 
Came JIaByTy h Hropio XoxnyuiKHHy. Ohh Tyr we nepeaaaH 
HH(popMau.HK) b «XpoHHKy TeKymnx co6biTHH» h Ha 3anaa. 

Pa3yMeeTCJi, 3Ta noe3aKa He ocTajiacb He3aMeneHHOH. 
I"Io3TOMy o6wcK 6biJi He TOJibKo y MeHa, ho h y Ceprea. 51 Hywne 
pa6oTbi ycneji cnpaTaTb, a cboh He (rran, c KaKofi CTaTH? 3to — 

MOH pa60TbI, H OT HHX He OTDeKaiOCb. ri03T0My OHH H3T.HJIH 

nonHocTbK) Becb moh caMmaaT. 

A y Ceprea h y apyrnx (eiue o6uck caejiaaH y JleHH 
JIo30BCKoro h Bojiojih TojiHUbiHa) Majio nero Hainan. CHanaaa 
ero TacKajiH b KanecTBe CBHaerejia. A iepe3 aBa Mecaua. b 
KOHue hiohji, BbHBanH h caMMM noaabiM o6pa30M apecTOBanH 
npaMo Ha aonpoce. 

Bh/Ihmo, peuiHJiH, hto ecjiH apecTywT aa HaaaBaT, to oh 
aacT noKa3aHHJi npoTHB MeHa. Ho 3aecb ohh npociHTaaHCb. 
ribiTaiiHCb h MeHa iiianra/KHpoBaTb. aecKaTb, Top6aHeB npo Bac 
ece paccKa3aji, mu BaM ycTpouM cK)pnpH3 c hhm h T.a. B ofimeM, 

o6bIHHbie UX npHeMHHKH. 

Ho a cpa3y noma, hto HHHero y hhx He Bunaer. Ceprefi 

XOTb H He flHCCHfleHCTBOBaJI, HO He TaKOH 6bUl HeJIOBeK, HT06bI 

aaBaTb noKa3aHHa Ha apyra. H oh oneHb 6wctdo coo6pa3HJi, KaK 
ce6a c hh.mii B6CTH. KcTam, b 3tom OTHOiueHHH eMy oneHb 
noMorna )KeHa. Koraa ero apecTOBaan, oh cyMeji no3BOHHTb 
aoMOH npaMo H3 Ka6HHeTa cjieaoBaTeaa, Koraa tot Buiuea 
o4>opMHTb KaKHe-To 6yMaTH. nXena eMy cKa3aaa: «Cepe)KKa, 
Tepnn! riycrb aynwe Mopaa b KpoBH, neM hotom bck> *H3Hb 
nmon. 

TaK HTO, BHJHMO, re6eUIHHKH peiUHJIH eMy OTOMCTHTb 3a 

cTOHKocTb. npaB^a, HMenacb h (popMaabHaa 3auenKa. npH 
o6ucKe y Hero Hainan oaHy-eaHHCTBeHHyio 6poiuiopKy caMH3- 
aaTOBCKyio: «HenojiHTHHecKHe nHCbMa» PacHHa. 3to TaKHe. 
AencTBHTejibHo HenonHTHHecKHe, coBeTbi, KaK y6epenb pe6eH- 
Ka ot HOKeaaTejibHbix bjihhhhh, b tom nucjie h rocyaapcTBa. 



Ho Ceprefi, no HeonwTHOCTH, CKa3aji cneflOBaTemo, hto 
jgOBB ee TojiHUbiHy. A pa3aaBaji,3HaHHT, «pacnpocTpaHeHHe», 
noJiyHH o.Bi roaa. 3to HecMOTps Ha to, hto ronnubiH Ha cyae 
3aaBHn. hto «He TopGaneB Mne aaBaa 6pou«opy, a kto hmchho 
aaBan — ot k;i u.maioch oTBenaTb». CyaHJiH Hac BMecTe. 

Booome-TO, mchh aojihchu 6ujih cyaHTb BMecTe c JlaBy- 
tom. y Hero 3nH3oaoB o6BHHeHHfl 6wao pa3 b aecjrrb 6ojibiue, 
neM y MeHH, — TaKOH «npo**eHHWH» Gun anccnaeHT, — b tom 

4HCJie H CB»3aHHbIX CO MHOHI y Hero HaillJIH nOJUlHHHHKH MOHX 

craTefi. 

Ho ohh He 3axoTejiH. h bot no KaKOH npHHHHe. Ero cxieao- 
BaTejib nopyHHJi MoeMy aonpocHTb mchh o JlaByre, a moh, 
cooTBeTCTBeHHO, Hao6opoT. noTOM » b acne npoHHTan, hto 
Cauia OTKa3ajica aaBaTb :ioK;nann5i no BceM BonpocaM. y mchji 
no3HUHH 6w^a TaKaa: o cede n 6yny paccKaibiBaTb, a o apyrnx, 
a TaKiKe o pacnpocTpaHeHHH jiHTepaTypw, He CKaiicy hh cuoBa. 

H KaK ohh MeHa hh nyrajiH 70-h cTaTbefi, h ctojiji Ha 3tom 
ao KOHua. nosTOMy, Koraa MHe 3aaanH nepBbifi Bonpoc o Came, 
3 oTBeTHJi TaK: «0 JIaByTe HHnero roBopHTb He 6yay, ho a totob 
BwcTynnTb Ha cyae Haa JlaByroM h paccKa3aTb, hto a ayMaro o 
ero acne h o hcm caMOM». B otbct Ha 3to moh cneaoBaTejib, 
BanepHH MarKOB. H3peK: «Xothtc. 3HaHHT, BCTpeTHTbca Ha 
cyae? He BbinaeTlw H cyanaH Hac oTaeabHo, xotk nainn aeaa 

6bl.U1 CBH3aHbI npaMO. 

— ffocurf) I "eue:ienun, a eom maxou eonpoc... Hmo npo- 
ucxodum c HCioeeKOM, noeda cjiedoeamenb eoeopum eMy e 
iw pa hi it pan, umt> eeo dpye dan ho uezo hoku iuhuh... 

— Ecjih tw yBepeH b cbocm apyre... Xota, hcctho roBopa, 
b nepBoe BpeMH MHe 6wao... HecnoKOHHO. BeabTbi *e jnoaHpo- 
BaH! Heab3« no6e»caTb h Tyr *e Bee BbiacHHTb. 51 Mor npeano- 
aojKHTb. hto oh aeHCTBHTeabHO CKa3aa, HeaonoHHMaa nero-TO, 
no HeonuTHocTH h T.a. B KOHue kohuob, ero MorjiH h caoMaTb. 
y Ceprea 6wao oneHb HeBaiKHO co 3aopoBbeM. Ho OHeHb-oneHb 
cKopo, no HeKOTopwM HioaHcaM b noBeaeHHH caeaoBaTeaa, a 
noHaa, hto Bee 3to 6jie(p, THnHHHWH npHeM «KOHTopbi». 

TaK hto stot HaTHCK a nepe)KHJi BnoaHe 6jiaronoayHHO. A 
aeficTBHTenbHo 6ojibuiyio TOCKy Ha mchh HaBejio bot hto. Koraa 
a 0TKa3anca roBopHTb 060 BceM, KpoMe ce6a, caeaoBaTejtb 
oTBeTHa TaK: «llo5KaayHCTa, uoxeie He roBopHTb. Ho Bu, 
KOHeHHO, 3Haere, hto a caeaoBaTeab o6nacn\HOU npoKypamypbi. 
TaK bot, a c orpoMHbiM yaoBOJibCTBneM nepeaaM 3to aeao b 
KrB. H Bac 6yayTcyaHTb no CTaTbe 70-h ». Bot Tyr MeHa Tocxa 
B3a;ia aeficTBHTe.TbHO cyinecTBeHHaa. Ho, TeM He MeHee, a 
6biCTpeHbKo — maM ropa3ao 6biCTpee Hainnaeuib uieBeaHTb 
h iRii.uiiia.Mii — coo6pa3Ha, KaK OTBeTHTb. 51 CKa3aa: «Xopo- 
mo, 70-a TaK 70-a. Ho ecan co caeaoBaTeaeM o6aacrH0H 
npoKypaTypw a totob pa3roBapHBaTb h aaBaTb noKa3aHHa o 
ce6e, to co cjieaoBaTeaeM KrB a He 6yay roBopHTb coBepnieH- 
ho! noTOMy hto npaBa h o6a3aHHOCTH KrB He ony6.inKOBaHbi 
b oTKpbiTOH neHaTH». MojKeT 6biTb, 3to noaeficTBOBaao, a 
Mo»eT6biTb, to, hto CoaaceHHUMH b 3to BpeMa y«e ony6aHKO- 
Ban coo6meHHe 06 apecre h npH3Baa yneHbix MHpa 3auiHTHTb 
MeHa, ho ohh Bce-TaKH He CTanH nepeKBanH(|)Hu.HpoBaTb moc 
aejio Ha 70-jo cTaTbio. 

— A Bbi waeme, Ktno ui yneHbix ecmynuncjt la Bac? 
— <J>paHuy3CKHe yneHbie h, KaxeTca, eme kto-to. Komhtc- 

th 3auiHTu co3aaBaaH. Beab Toraa Kyny aroaen apecTOBaan, h 
OpnoBa, h apyrnx... 

Koe o neM a yaBttD y»e Toraa, H3 aejia CBoero, Koraa 
3HaKOMHaca. HanpHMep, 6bia aoKyMem, 03araaBaeHHbiH «ZIaH- 



82 



"R nepeweji Ha CTaTyc CBo6oAHoro MenoBeKa" 




AneKcaHAp JlaayT. 



Hue paaHonepexBaTa» — 
KaKOBO? H b HeM 3to caMoe 
ia«Hicimc AjieKcamipa 
HcaeBHHa. 3HannT. ohh 

BHHMaTeJIbHO OTGJKXHB8- 
jih «3a6yropHbie ronoca». A 
npo KOMmeTbi yweHbix a 
y3Haji yace b Haiue Bpem. 
MapHO KoprH c PajHO Cbo- 
Sofl&i npHCJian H3 apxHBa 
Bee, hto KacaeTca mcha. 

— Homo uuo Baute 
aiedcmeue? 

— He oneHb, oco6eH- 
ho ecjiH BbmecTb BpeMa, 3aT- 
paneHHoe Ha ncHXHaTpHHec- 
Kyro 3KcnepTH3y. Ha. npn- 

UlJIOCb H Hepe3 3TO npOHTH. 

Moh cne.aoBaTe.nb peiuH.1 

nOTSHyTb Bpe.MH, HCXOia H3 
CBOHX KaKHX-TO UCJICH H CO 

o6pa*eHHH. Oh 3auenHJica 3a aaHHbie «naTHMHHyTKH» y ncH- 
xHaTpa, KOTopuii b o6jrcaTejibHOM nopajiKe oeceayeT ravoiB 
co bccmh noacjie^CTBeHHbiMH. 

B MoeM cjiynae 3to 6biJio Tan, a noTOM npoHHTa-i. MeHa 
cnpocHJin o cTapmeM cuhc JleBe. 51 c k;i j& i . hto jho6.ik> CBoero 
cwHa, ho nocKOJibKy oh HHKaKoro oTHOiueHna k MoeMy neny He 
HMeeT, >a'icM a o HeM oyay paccKa3biBaTb? 3to 6u.no HHTepnpe- 
THpoBano Tax: «CKpbrreH. He xoner OTBenaTb Ha Bonpocw o 
cbiHe». 

OTCioaa — npaMaa aopoacKa Ha CTaunoHapHyio 3iccnepTH- 
3y. H MeHfl OTnpaBHJiH b BypameBO. Bernn b kom i ian h n yroiiOB- 
hhkob, KOTopwe SbiJiH yacacHO pa.au, hto hx Be3yT b «ncHxyui- 
Ky», hto hx Moryr npH3HaTb HenopMajibHUMH. A a 6wji npocro 
y6HT... 

Bpawa a BCTpeTHJi c noHTH Bpa>Kjc6nbiM nc;ionepnc\i . Ho 
oh cpa3y CKa3aji: «51 BHacy. hto Bu He Ham nauHeHT. 51 BaM 
rapaHTHpyio, hto nepe3 Mecau Bu oTcioaa BUHaeTe». 51 eMy. 
Kaiocb, He noBepitn. Ho oh tohho caepacaa CBoe cjiobo. Hepe3 
Mecau MeHfl aeiicTBHTejibHo OTnpaBHJiH oSpaTHO c «jHarHo- 
30M» — nop mq. ic ii 

— A nan npoeodumcH JKcnepmuia? 

— Pa3roBopw pa3roBapHBaK>T. 3tot Bpan npHxoanji eme 
co mhoh b uiaxMaTbi HrpaTb. CaHHTapu tohcc Ha6j»oaaioT h 
Tone, bhjhmo, nHuiyT KaKHe-TO OTHeTbi. B MoeM cjiynae 3kc- 
nepTH3a 6buia hcthhhoh. Ho b hc:iom a noHiui, hto HyxBO 
iioMcm.inc roBopHTb. noMeHbiue paccKa3biBaTb. 

Hmchho TaKOH nyTb h H36paji Cama JlaByr. Oh Boo6iue hh 
o 4eM He roBopmi Ha cneacTBHH. TonbKo Ha cyae cxatto, 51 xe 
H36pan nyn.: o ce6e roBopHTb, o apyrnx — hct. 

— liocutp I'cm'.-ietiUH, lani'M, co6cmeeHHO, ny.wno vm.io 
eoaopuntb o ce6e? Hmofthi coeceM yxc aiedcmeue ne paioi- 
.iiimb? 

— HeT, hct! H ace o6bflCHAK>, hto a nepemeji Ha craTyc 
CBoooaHoro nejioBeKa b cBo6oaHOH cTpaHe. npocTo a peuiHJi. 
hto HMeHHo TaK aojiacen nocTynaTb CBo6oaHUH hcjiobck. Bot h 
Bee. 

— A ecnu 6bt Bhi. KOKJIaeym, omxaia-iucb omeenamb Ha 
eonpocu ciedoeamesiH, imo 6bi Bom ue.M-nuoyOh zpoiu.io? 

— H He 3Haio. Bpaa.iH. B Komie kohuob, Cauiy cyaHJiH no 
toh a<e craTbe 190 npHM. Xota motjih nepexBajiHtpHUHpoBaTb 



Ha 70-K) 3anpocTO. TaM pa jhmui,i npaKTHnecKH hhiokoh: ouji 
.hh yMbiceji noapwBa vctocb couHanH3Ma hih He omjio yMucjia. 
A bot b narepe... Bejb b ^arepe eMy .louaniriu 5 aer 
CC&UIKH (b HyMMKaH). A CjiaBe BaxMHHy (TO»e 190 npHM) — 
eme roa 3aiciioHeHH». B jiarepe ao6aBHTb cpoK — napa nycTS- 
kob. A MeHH Bce-TaKH BbinycTHJiH tohho no npHroBopy. Moav-er 

6bITb, HMCHHO TaKaH MOJl n03HUH5i Ha CJieaCTBHH C3KOHOMHJia 

MHe rom? 

npasaa, b OTHOiueHHH Meal TO)Ke 6buia nonwTKa TaKoro 
poaa. npHHeM, HCKjnoHHTejibHo no HHHunaTHBe KrB, DB « 
noHHMaw. 3to 6ujio ohcbh^ho. Beab mm — co 1 90-fi npHM — 
CHiiejiH Byro-noBHOM Jiarepe, h Hana^bCTBy 3Ba-TpH noTHTHHec- 
KHX OblJIH a6co^K>THO «jo naMnoMKH>>, y HHX XBaTaJIO CBOHX 
rojioBHbix 6ojiefi. 

H bot Bee BJgtt HopManbHO h xopoiuo, ocTaeTc» MHe 
6yKBajibHo no.iro.aa. KaK Bjpyr «hh c toto hh c cero» mhoh 
saHH.icN onep. Jinn nanajia oh npocMOTpeji moh nncbMa, Ha- 
CKpeo «MaTepHan» h Hanan «uiHTb». 

BbnbiBaeT: «HTaK, JJjubKHH. b TaKOM-To cBoeM nucbMe 
Bu HanncajiH to-to h to-to. Hto Bm hmcjih npn 3tom b BH^y?» 
Hy, HanpuMep, a HaKapaoajiTaKon cthujok b oTBCTHa nocwjiKy, 
b kotopoh xeaa npHCJiana Ta6aic «3onoToe pyHO»: 
Pyno xeHbi — Maxpa 6otob! 
3aKypHUib — .abiM oTenecTBa npnaTeH. 
Ha co.iHue MBJX He bhjho naTeH, 
A Ha kojiiohhx npoBoaax — iuhhob. 

«TaK mto Bu HMejiH b BH,ny???» H cpa3y 3Ke nocjie 3.iaKn\ 
pa3roBopHHKOB MeHa nepeBoaaT b uiTaMnoBOHHWH uex h c 
nepBoro BH9 Tpe6yioT BbinojiHeHHa HopMbi Ha 100 %. 51 3th 

CTaHKH BH»y B nepBblH pa3 B >KH3HH H, eCTeCTBCHHO. HH O EBKOfi 

HopMe penb h^th He Mower. MeHa Tyr 3Ke cavKaio i b Kapuep. 

Kopone roBopa, TOJibKO Wtfka He iiohsci 6w, mto rpo3HT 
«aooaBKa» k cpoKy. H Tan, «na B3BOiie». ohh aep»ajiH MeHa no 
caMoro KOHua cpona. .Hyuiy BbiMaTbiBajiH. Mo*eT 6biTb, tkahjik, 
hto a copBycb? 

— Hy a comu «ohu» e .tazepb He npuei.wa.iii c Bu.mii 
nmoeopumb? 

— HeT. 3a ttjh roiia aaace 6jih3ko hhkto He cyHynca. 

— B kukom Mecme Bhi cpon om6bteajiu? 

— CHaqajia b To6ojibCKOM, a noTOM b Tfomchckom nare- 
pax. 

— A Kate Bhi .ladwiu c yzo.iotuuKOMU? 

— Bw 3HaeTe, a KaK-To cpa3y noHan, mto ecjiH He npoaBHTb 
TBepaocTb HeMeiuieHHo — b ^k>6oh cHTyauHH ! — to aejio 6yaeT 
rnioxo. TaM Beab«3aKOH — Tanra». CKpOMHbixaa 3acTeHMHBbix 
ohh CKpyMHBajiH 6e30 BcaKHX. npmn.Tocb aaBaTb HeMeiuieH- 
hmh oinop, BnaoTb no pyKonpHKJiajcTBa. napy pa3 npn- 

HJJIOCb... 

npHHeM cpa3y. Ha nepBofi xe nepecwjiKc b 51pocjiaBHe. 
Reno b tom. mto MeHa OTnpaBHJiH Ha 3Tan BMecTe c CepreeM 

rop6aMeBWM. KCTaTH. KOCBeHHO 3TO TOBOpHT O TOM, MTO OHH 

npeicpacHO noHHMajin, mto oh hh b MeM He BHHOBaT. Ocy^caeH- 
hhx yro.iOBHHKOB aa»e nocjie cyaa hh 3a mto. HHKoraa He 
nOUlJHOT ouhhm 3TanoM. 

TaK bot, b nepBbin M<e Benep Ha apocnaBCKoil nepecbuixe 
Bee h HaMajiocb. ^JeiicTByioT yrojiOBHHKH Har.io, HaxpanncTO. 
«Hto y Te6a b pK)K3aice, a Hy noKaacH!» A «3aKOH» hx tskoh, mto 
caMHM b MyacoH «CHiiop» ^a3HTb Hejib3a. Cepewa hcjiobck 
MarKHH... B o6meM. KTOMy MOMeHTy, Koraa a BMeuianca, oh y»e 
paccTajica c MexoBofi uianKOH. Hy, y* Tyr a pa3oiijenca Ha bcio 
HBaHOBCKyio... xe-xe, KaMepy. Ho, pa3yMeeTca, KyabTypHO, 6e3 



"R nepenien Ha CTaiyc CBo6oAHoro He/iOBeKa" 



13 



MaTa, h 3to npOH3Bejio BnenaTJieHHe. Haao 6ujio BHaeTb 3th 
(})H3hohomhh, Koraa ohh cnuuianH cnoBa «HeroaaH». «Mep3a- 
Beu» h TOMy noao6Hue! ripocTO OUOB Ha jio6 y hhx noBbuia- 

3HJIH... 

3aTO, KaK TOJibKo mate ce6a noBcueuib, oTHOiueHHe cpa3y 

5Ke CTaHOBHTCfl HOpMaTlbHUM. 

Ha nepvicKofi nepecujiKe npnuuiocb aencTBOBaTb TaK ace 
acecrKO, noMTH Hamo, KaK ohh. H Hac ocraBHJiH b noKoe. 
KcTaTH, npoH3Boan.no BneMameHHC h to, hto mu — nonHTHHec- 
khc noacaiiyHCTa. MoaceM noKa3aTb npHroBop. A yronoBHue 
npHroBop HUKoeda He noKaacyT. no pa3HUM iipicmnaM 3to 
MoaceT HMeTb CTO.ib oTpHiiaTejibHbie noc.ieacTBua ana noKa3aB- 
uiero, mo aaa hhx 3to Ta6y. A mu noKaiuBariH cbo6ohho. 3to 
BbnuBano CHMnaTHK). A ana CTyKanen HauiH npmoBopu 6ujih 
.naace noBoaoM aoKJiaauBaTb. hto mu paccKa3UBaeM hto-to 
Heo6uHHoe, arnTauna, TaK CKa3aTb. 

— A uooomc e Jiazepe unmepecoeajiucb, ia nmo eac 
ocydwiu? 

ripOCTbie 33KH 06bIHHO TOBOpHJIH: «Ax, Bbl npOTHB 

KOMMymiK? Bot MOJioauu!» H npHxoanjiocb o6bacHaTb: «Ilo- 
qeMy mu npoTHB KOMMyHaK? Yj\t Tyr CKa3aHO, hto mu npoTHB 
hhx? Mu npodo OTCTaHBaeM cboh HejioBenecKHe npaBa. riycrb 
ohh SyayT caMH no ce6e h He ne3yT b HauiH ayujH... Cobccm mu 

He npOTHB KOMMyHHK». Ho 3TO o6bIHHO He aoxoaroio... 

— Hocutp f'eni'.n'nuu, umoMHu.iocb Bom mno-.iu6o oco- 
6eMHoe U3 .lazepHoeo nepuoda? 

— KaK He 3anoMHHTbCJi... EuBa.no bchkoc H CBHaaHHM 
jimuajiH HecKonbKO pa3, jimiiajiH nocuaoK, b Kapuep caacarm. 
ripaBfla, b OT^HHHe ot JlaByTa, KOTopufi cwnzn b Kapuepe pa3 
necHTb, a OTCHaen Bcero aBaacau. TaK hto, a CHHTato, othoch- 
jiHCb ko use 6onee MeHee JiHSepaiibHO. MoaceT 6uTb, noTOMy, 
mto a caM JinGepan? 

A H3 3anoMHHBiuerocH oco6o, noacanyH. ctoht ynoMaHyrb 
ABa co6biTH5«. riepBoe npoH30uiiio b To6ojibCKe. Buji a coBep- 
meHHO oaHH, b cMucne, HHKoro H3 nojiHTHHecKHx HeT. H Bapyr 
33K0BCKaa noHTa hohocht: «CjiyuiaH! TaM b 3Tane kcht npH- 
uieji TBoero nouinoa, b KapaHTHHe chjiht». 51 onepTa ro/iOBy 
oery 3HaK0MHTbc>i. h 3HaeTe kto 3to oica3ajica? Ojier IlonoB, 
6arrrHcr, H3 Pa3aHH. 3aMeHaTeabHbiH HcnoBeid B o6meM, c 
3Toro MOMeHTa a CTan nac.ia>K.ia Tbca ooiiieinicv c HopMaJibHUM 
lejiOBeKOM. 

Ero ocyanjiH Toace no 190 npHM. Hauum b SaraacHHKe 
aBTOMoGHJia a»a 6anTHcrcKHX 6K>JiJieTeHa. BnpaMyio paenpoc- 
rpaHeHHe .aoKa3aTb He mottim. Toraa ero B3ajiH nepe3 HaMepe- 
hhc Pa3 b 6ara>KHHKe, 3HaHHT, HaMepeBanca Kyaa-TO OTBe3TH, 
a 3HaHHT — «pacnpocTpaHHTb». nojiynu TpH roaa. 

OJiera nocTaBHJiH xne6ope30M, ho oh He Kynnnca 3thm 

MeCTOM, O KOTOpOM 6oJTbUJHHCTBO yTOJlOBHHKOB CTpaCTHO MeH- 

TaeT. Eme 6u, b narepe 3a xjie6 mohcho jiocTaTb hto xoneuib! Y 

3T0H pa60TU TOJIbKO OJIHH HeaOCTaTOK — HeT BMXOAHMX. Ho 

Oner TBepao CKa3an HanajibCTBy: «Bepa He no3BonaeT MHe 
paSoTaTb no BOCKpeceHbaM. Ho a noHHMaio, hto bi.i He npHBUK- 
th cmc HMeTb neno c 6anTHCTaMH, no3TOMy HeKOTopoe BpcMa a 
Syay pa6oTaTb, KaK y Bac nono^eHO, ho noTOM pa6oTy no 
BOCKpeceHbaM a 6yay BUHjoK^eH npeKpaTHTb». 

Pa3yMeeTca, HanajibCTBO He noBepnjio. Hto6u Ha TaKOM 
wecTe, aa ycjiOBHa CTaBHTb? A oh, aeficTBHTejibHO, nepe3 
HeKOTopoe BpcMa OTKa3a:ica pa6oTaTb. Ero, kohchho, cpa3y b 
Kapuep. noTOM b caMUH bohiohhh XHMuex... Hto MeHa nopa3n- 
-io b cjiynae c OjieroM? 3to KaK nejioBeK b ycjioBHax HecBo6oau 
cyMeji, hc poHaa ce6a, npoaBHTb ao6pyio bohio. J\y\taio, hto oh 
paccMaTpHBan CBoe npeGuBaHHe b narepe, KaK mhcchk), a ce6a 




Oner rionoB. 



CHHTaJl MHCCHOHeDOM. 33KH 
K HeMy npocTO ttBDXB H c 
yaoBOJibCTBHeM cjiyuiaiiH. 
A 6buio CMy Bcero 27 jieT. 
Oh h MeHa nuTanca 
oopaniTb b cboio Bepy. Mu 

C HHM MHOrO ^HCKyTHpO- 

BajiH Ha po.T ii i no iiii.ic 
TeMbi. 06maTbca c hhm, no- 
BTopaio. 6ujio Hpe3BUHafi- 
ho npnaTHo! ^ eMy tobo- 
Phji, HTozuia MeHa — Hayn- 
Horo pa6oTHHKa — hmch- 
ho Hayna ii HaynHbie mcto- 
au no3HaHHa hmciot or- 
poMHoe3HaMeHHe h hto He 
Hncyc «e XpncToc H3o6- 
peji (J)H3HKy, MaTeMaTHKy h 
HHbie HayKH. 

nosTOMy a, nojiHoc- 
Tbio yBaacaa ero B3rjiaau, 

nOHHMaa po^b peflBTHH B HCTOpHH HeJIOBeHeCKOH UHBHJlH3aiIHH 

h caM Bepa b Bora, btom CMbicae, hto a OTBeTCTBeHeH HeTOJibKO 
nepea JiioabMH, ho h nepea hcm-to bucuihm, tcm He MeHee He 
Mory npHHaTb ero aorMaTu. B kohhc kohuob oh cKa3an: «Jlaa- 
ho, HocH(p TeuejieBHH, ocTaBaHTecb caMHM co6oh. Ho a Bce- 
TaKH yTBep*aaK), hto ryMaHHTapHue Bonpocu Buuie Hayn- 
hux». Tyr a c hhm coniacHJica... 

BTopofi iKe cjiynaH npoH3omeji b caMUH noc.nc.aHHH aeHb 
cpoKa. HpHiue^-TaKH cBeT^unaeHb ocBo6o»aeHba! )KeHa npn- 
exana BCTpenaTb. A TWMeHCKaa 30Ha orpoMHaa, TaM Kaacaufi 
aeHb no HecKOJibKO hcjiobck OTnycKaioT. 

H bot npnuiJiH mu, uiecTepo 33kob. ocBo6o*aaTbca. A HaM 
— najiKofi no ronoBe: «/leHer b Kacce HeT. BuaaTb 3apa6oTaH- 
Hoe BaMH He MoaceM. PacxoaHTecb no MecTaM». Bot t>t y mchs 
cepaue eKHyno 6yab 3aopoB. H y coTOBapHmeH mohx hcjiiocth 
otbhcjih, a aenaTb Henero. B OTpaae To>Ke Bee pacKpunn ptu. 
Koraa a BepHy.ica. CH>Ky, ayMaio, Bee; npnjeTca «MOTaTb» 
hobuh cpoK. Ho HeT. IlocJie o6eja onaTb Bcex BU3BajiH h 
o(popMHnH ocBo6o5KaeHHe. 51 cnpauiHBaio: «noneMy ace c yTpa 
He OTnycTHJiH? 51 Mor 6u h 6e3 aeHen>. 

HanajibHHK o6i,acHaeT aoBOJibHO npaBaonoao6Ho: «Bac, 
KOHeHHO, mojkho 6mjio OTnycTHTb h 6e3 .aeHer. A ocTanbHue 
HaBepHaKa TyT ace CTain 6u hx ao6bmaTb npecTynHUM o6pa- 
3om». Ho, ayMaro, KaKaa-To apyraa 6u;ia npHHHHa. MoaceT 
6uTb. nynryTb xotchh HanocneaoK. jjjia 3aKpen;ieHHa, TaK 
CKa3aTb, HcnpaBHTejibHoro 3(J)cpeKTa. Ohh Beab Gum aojiacHbi 
BocnHTUBaTb h nepeBOcnirrbiBaTb mciih. A MoaceT 6uTb, 3to 
Takon cneuHCpHHecKHH npHBeT ot KTE HanocneaoK. He <naio. 
He 3Haio... 

— ChujKume, llocuip rei{ejieeuH, a He tibiioy Hue muc- 
in "iMmpupoeamb? 

— nocne ocBo6oacaeHHa? Bujia. 3to Beab 6un 1983-fi 
roa. XeabCHHKCKyio rpynny pa3orHanH. BecnpocBeTHo... 51 ro- 
Bopio CBoefi Haae — aasan yeaeM. A OHa — MaMy He Mory 
6pocHTb. H a ocTaBH^ 3Ty Mucab. B KOHue kohuob, ccmcmiii.ic 
y3u Bume Bcero... 

— PaccKOMcume, noMcaxyucma, npo MXT. 

— B Xe^bCHHKCKOH rpynne nepBoro, KaK CKa3aTb, C03UBa 
hjih npH3UBa, a He ynacTBOBan. 51 6uji 3HaKOM c BajieHTHHOM 
TypHHHUM, a c OpnoBUM h I"HH36yproM — HeT. Ho Koraa hx 
apecTOBanH, a nouieji k TypHHHy h roBopK): «3Haeuib, ao Toro 



14 



"fl nepenie/i Ha CTaTyc CBo6oflHoro ne/iOBeKa" 




Bn^ecnaB BaxMMH 



TOUJHO... 51 XOHy BCTynHTb B 

XenbCHHKCKyio rpynny». A 
BaneHTHH OTBeHaer: «Ho- 
cn4>. He ToponHCb. rioao»- 
an cboh nepea. He BCTpeBafi 
noKa». 

B tom cMucjie, a no- 
H5in, hto bot apecTyioT oc- 
TajibHbix, Haao 6yaeT npo- 
aoji5KHTb. H s ero nocjryuian- 
ch. TaKHM o6pa30M oh mchh 
sbho cnac ot 70-h CTaTbH. 
Ero caMoro b to BpeMa ywe 
TacnajiH b KrB. B HTore oh 
3MHrpHpoBan. TaK 6buio c 
nepBbiM cocTaBOM. 

A bo BTopofi MeHfl no- 
npocna BCTynHTb CepreH 

.-Via MO BUM. 3to 6bIJIO B 

1988-m. Oh npocH.1 MeHa. 
JleHio KojieBaTOBa h CjiaBy BaxMHHa. Ho C .urna npaKTHHecKH 
cocToaa h b toh nepBofi rpynne, TOJibKo oh 6uji b komhcchh no 
ncHxnaTpHH. 5\, npaBaa, nonbiTaaca roBopHTb, hto CTapoBaT, 
Bce-TaKH 60 Jier yace CTyKHyjio, ho CepreH MeHa 6ucTpo y6e- 

O.HJI, HTO Hy>KHO. 

— Ay Bac nocae nazepn He 6 m. 10 kqkux-:\u6o ozpanune- 

HUU? 

— Her, HHKaKHX. ripcxpHJiaKTHpoBajiH \ieiiH. npaBaa, Heo- 
aHOKpaTHo. noneMy a co ccwjibHbiM KoBajieBUM o6maiocb, 
noneMy c BaxMHHbiM? Oco6eHH0 noneiviy-TO no noBoay BaxMH- 
Ha y hhx 6bi/io pa3apa)KeHHe. BnaHMO, CHJibHO hx 3aaean 
pa3o6.iaHeHH3i CnaBbi b ncHXHaTpnnecKHx aeaax. KcTaTH, Cep- 
rea AaaMOBHHa tohcc nbrraJiHCb npoqbHJiaKTnpoBaTb npoTHB 
BaxMHHa. 

SI aaBaa BCflKHe yicioHHHBbie otbctw, a noTOM ohhh pa3 
MHe Haaoe.no h a CKa3an: «TaK hto, bi.i cHHTaeTe, hto a aoaaceH 
nepecTaTb o6maTbca c KoBaneBbiM h BaxMHHUM?» H Tyr hx 
uiTaTHUH npocpHjiaicrop aaji ui.uinii xoa: «Hy... 3to Baiue, b 
o6meM-T0, aeao...» 5\ BepHyjica ot Hero h roBopio pe6jrraM: 
«Tenepb ji npoaoaacaK) o6maTbca c BaMH c pa3pemeHHH KrB!» 

/la, o6majiHCb mm mhoto... Mhoto cnopnan. Oco6eHHo no 
HauHOHanbHOMy Bonpocy h o naTpH0TH3Me. CepreH, oh Haayx 
He nepeHOCHT h «naTpHOTH3M», h aeaTejien bcbkhx c ynopoM 
Ha naTpHOTHHHOCTb, THna LUacpapeBHHa. 

9i »ee Bceraa CHHTan, hto HyacHO c yBaaceHHeM OTHOCHTbca 

K pyCCKHM HaUHOHaJIbHbIM ^BH)KeHHJIM. B KOHUe KOHUOB. 60JIb- 

uie bccx aocrajiocb pyccKHM, Kan TaM hh KpyrH... f{ cHHTaio, hto 
HeaonacHO 6biTb npaBa Ha caMOonpeaeaeHHe BnaoTb aooTaeae- 
hhjj. JIio6aa KyjibTypHaa aBTOHOMHa — aa, noacaayficTa! A 
oTaejieHHa — He aojiacHo 6brn>! 

rioneMy? rioTOMy hto ecjiH Haiwa, ot KOTopoii coCnpaiOT- 
ch OTacnaTbca, 6ojbtue co6jnoaaeT npaBa HeJiOBeKa, to ot Hee 
OTaeaaTbca Hejib3Ji! Ecjih OTaeaaioiaHeca. 3aBeaoMo acHO, 6y- 
ayr coo JiioaaTb npaBa HenoBeKa.ueHbiue — 0TaeaaTbcaHe;ib3a! 
Ho a TeopeTH3Hpyio, a KaK Bee sto caeaaTb Ha npaKTHKe... Kto 
3HaeT? 

A Ceprefi CHHTaeT, hto npaBo Ha caMOonpeaejieHHe BnjioTb 
ao OTaeaeHHH — HeorbeMJieMoe npaBo HauHH. Eeaa Jinuib b 
tom, hto He pa3pa6oTaHbi Mexanii 3mm Tanoro OTaeJieHHa h hto 
o6H3aTejibHo HyacHO hx pa3pa6aTMBaTb. 3aecb y mchh c hhm 
pa3Horjiacne. Ho Boo6me-To. a yxaCHO paa, hto mw c hhm whjih 
b oaHOM ropoae h tccho o6majiHCb c 1 984 no 1 988 roa, BnjioTb 



3.0 Toro MOMeHTa. Koraa 6wji pa3roBop c CaxapoBbiM no 
TejieqboHy, Kor.aaeroB.apyr noaKaKOHHJiH AHapew^MHTpHeBH- 
ny... 

Koraa jiH6epajiH3auH>j pexsata aoKaTHJiacb ao toto, hto 
nepecTann rnyimm «rojioca» h mm ycjibmiajiH HOBocTb o 
Tene(|)OHe, CepreH Tyr *e ub Mockbc y3Haji HOMep. nocae 
3Toro oh no3Baji MeHa. h mw nouiJiH b 3aTBepenbe h H3 thxofo 
noHTOBoro OTaejieHHa no3BOHHJTH b TopbKHH. BjiarowejiaTeji fa- 
Han TenecpoHHCTKa coeaHHana mthobchho. 3to 6wjio npocTo 
yaHBHTe^bHo! S\ ctohji psaoM h noTpsceHHo cjiyuian, KaK Cep- 
refl pa3roBapHBaeT c CaxapoBbiM. 

B KOHue KoBajieB roBopHT, hto bot Tyr, panoM co mhoh, 
ctoht MocH(p ilaabKHH. H CaxapoB CKa3an, nepeaafi eMy, hto « 
oneHb xopoiuo noMHK) ero aeno, nepcaafi eMy npHBeT. Koraa 
Ceprefi Bee 3to MHe nepeaan, h. kohchho, paciiBeji. H OTToro, 

HTO ClMUlaJI 3T0T pa3T0B0p, H OT BHHMaHHJI... 

— A Bn ecmpemuu An dp en JlMumpueeuua, Kozda on 
eoiepamiLicsi e Mocney? 

— Her. Toraa eme 6w.no HeH3BecTHo, Koraa oh noeacT H3 
ccbiaKH. B pa3roBope 6biao, b nacTHOCTH. TaKoe: «5I cKopo 
B03Bpamaiocb b MocKBy, TaK hto BCTpenafi mchs!» A KoBaaeB 
oTBenaeT: «AHapen ^MHTpHeBHH, a He HMeio npaBa BMe3»caTb 
b MocKBy 6e3 pa3peineHHH». A CaxapoB eMy: «JXa? Ho «-to 
BUCK npaBo. rio3TOMy nepBbiH, k KOMy a noeay, 6yaeuib tt»i». 
KoBa.iciui He 6wjio Ha BCTpene b Mockbc A nepe3 HeKOTopoe 
BpeMJi oh naioHya na Bee h noexaa b MocKBy 6e3 BcaKoro 
pa3peujeHHa. H hhkto HHHero. TaK hto aeficTBHTenbHO hto-to 
cTpoHyjiocb Toraa, b 1988 roay... 

— Hocutp reu,e:ieeu>i, kok ope ami ioiuluui. meepcKoe 
o6mecmeo «MeMopua.i»? Bbi sedb odun U3 mex, Kmo hohu- 
hoji... 

— Hy, 3to rpoMKO CKa3aHO, xots ApceHHH Pophhckhh 
(oduH U3 co3dame.ieu ooufecmea «MeMopuan» e CoeemcKo.u 
Coto3e. obieuiuu noJiun\3aKJiKmeHHbiu — npuM. Bed. «KapntM») 
aeftcTBHTeabHO roBopHJi co mhoh 06 opraHH3auHH paSoTbi 
«MeMopHana» b TBepH. CKa3aa, M«Kay npoHHM: «Hocn({), ho 
3T0 aoaKHbl 6bITb npHaHHHbie ^K>aH...» 

A a Beab ne TBepcKOH... 06majica, b ochobhom, c KoBane- 
bwm h CaaBOH BaxMHHbiM. 9l pcuiH.'i noroBopHTb co CaaBofi, OH 
KopeHHofi TBepaK, y Hero 3aecb apy3efi mhoto — ohh ero Bee 
BpeMa noaaepacHBaaH. CaaBa MHe cpa3y OTBeTHa hctko h onpe- 
aejieHHo: «Hah KCeprero rayuiKOBy». 5\ noroBopan c TayuiKO- 
bwm h, bot 3aecb a 6oiocb coBpaTb, ho Ka)KeTca, y»e noc^e 
Haiuero pa3roBopa, TBepcKOH «MeMopnaa» oneHb oucTpo owji 
co3aaH. Ho, kohchho ace, norpeGHOCTb b TaKOH o6wecTBeHHOH 
opraHH3auHH y*e Ha3peaa. B stom roay TBepcKOMy «MeMopn- 
ajiy» 6yaeT y*e 12 aeT. 

HaM yaanocb ycrraHOBHTb b ueHrpe ropoaa naMaTHHK >Kep- 
TBaM TOTaaHTapHorope*HMa. Bll ero BHaejin. 3to 3acayra Bcex 
MeMopHanbueB b uenoM, ho 6oabiue Bcex, kohcsho, Ceprea 
BaaaHaeHOBHHa TayuiKOBa. KaK ToabKO o6mecTBO 6uao co- 
3aaH0, mw cpa3y HanajiH .uibiiti. Ha BnacTH. H bot, KaK roBopHT- 
ca. He npouijio h 10 aeT... JXoh&bujih. Abtodom CKyabmypfei 
cTaa 6e»eHeu rs Tpy3HH OeaHKC A3aMaT0B. Oh Bee caeaaa 
6e3B03Me3aHO. XleHbrH Ha lieraOB aaan cnoHCopu, BaacTH ot- 
BeaH 3eMJiio. Oncpbian naMaTHHK b 1998 roay... 

H, KOHeiHo. b noncKe 3axopoHeHHH b Jiecy noa MeaHbiM 
T05Ke ecTb 3acayra TBepcKoro «MeMopHaaa» — KDpHH AaeKce- 
eBHH UlapKOB n CepreH TayiuKOB oneHb MHoroe caeaaan ana 
3Toro. Bot, HaKOHeu, BHepa h OTKpwTHe MeMopnaabHoro kom- 
n^eKca b MeaHOM cocToaaocb. OaHHM caoBOM — *n jhb npo- 
aoJiacaeTca... 

2. Teepb. 
ceHrm6pb 2000 z. 



<£ 3HAK BEflbl 



H 



Bmktop KAfAH 



CHHTaKCHC 

norpoMa 



...flaBHO yace He p,o ujyTOK. fla, KOHeMHO, aHTuceMn- 

TH3M — MHTepHai4HOHa/lbHafl CpOpMa UJOBMHM3Ma — o6be- 
AMHfleT UIOBUHMCTOB BCeX CTpaH. Korfla 3T0T CMMnTOM 

Han 11140, o flwarH03e ywe Henero cnopnTb — oh flceH.<...> 
Cmhapom KynbTypHoro nMMyHOflecpnunTa (CKHA) — TaK 
Ha3WBaeTCfl 3Ta 6one3Hb. I/I y Hee AaneKO He oamh ciiMn- 

TOM. 

CKHfl B03HMKaeT b nepwoAw comia/ibHbix w KynbTyp- 
hwx Kpn3ncoB, hto npeKpacHO onucaHO h ncc/ieflOBaHO na 
npuMepe, CKaxeM, cpeAHeseKOBbn, 80-tm neT XX CTone- 
Tun b Pocchm, TepMaHMM 30-x toaob h Tenepb bot AOCTyn- 
ho >KMBOMy Ha6/iK)AeHnio b HacTOfliAeM. Ha KpyTbix noBO- 
poTax pa3BMTH5> o6iAecTBa, KorAa npuBWHHbie ycTon h 
CTepeoTunw pa3pyuiaiOTCfl, B03HHKaeT Bno/iHe noHATHafl 
TpeBora. 

Mofi TpeBora noAAep>KiiBaeT TpeBory Bcex, a TpeBora 
Bcex — Mora. CeroAHfl b Poccmh noBbnueHHWM yposeHb 
TpeBorw oTMenaeTCfl y 65-70 % BMedo 10-15 % niQAeft, 
KaK o6biHHO. TpeBora o6pamaeTcn b arpeccwo npoTMB Tex 

11 TOrO, KTO M MTO BOCnpi/IHLIMaeTCfl KaK OTHMMaiOlAafl 

npuBUHHwii noKOfi (nydb fla>Ke CTbinbiM-pacnocTbmuii 
noKOM pa6a, Ha6nBiuero 6pioxo 6pK>KBOii) HOBH3Ha. Cna- 

CTI1 MO)KeT TO/lbKO 6opb6a C BparOM 11 BblCUJMe CMJlbl. 

BparoM cTaHOBHTca hobos v\nw hocmtg/im Hosoro. 

KorAa ecTb Bpar — a ywe He 6oiocb, n y>Ke 6opeu. Ho 
A/ifl SToro Bpar ppnmeH 6biTb HeynoBHMoft MeTacpopoii. H 
— Br/iHAMTecb b o6pa3 spara: oh Hpe3BbmaiiH0 xmep, 
3/ioyMwuj/ieH, Ma^OHnc/ieH, 3aiaeH, 3aMacKiipoBaH. Oh 
TanTCfl noA nwmiHaMw APyra, Bepw, 6/iarononymin, niiTe- 
paTypw, MCKyccTBa, wKonbHOM nporpaMMw: «Bce bw roso- 
pme xopoujue cnoBa, a Ha caMOM nene CTpeMHTecb Hac 
pa3pyiuMTb, pacT^MTb, noAopBaTb, y6iiTb, noAaBHTb». 
3Aecb-T0 u HannHaeTCfl cyA He no p,enaM, h Aawe He no 
cnoBaM, a no TawHbiM, Hew3BecTHbiM \a caMOMy noAcyAw- 
MOMy MbicnRM ii yMbicnaM. 

C BeAbMaMM 3Hanca linn nnaHiipoBa/i npOKonaTb 
TOHHenb ot JloHAOHa ao f\env\ — He TaK yw saxHo: noA 
AaBneHneM co6cTB6HHoro CTpaxa n CTaAHoro nyBCTBa linn 
c noMombio nwTOMHbix Aen MacTepoB — co3HaeTca. A He 
co3HaeTca — TeM xywe pj\f\ Hero. 3anax nyworo naneHoro 
MflcaoKa3biBaeTCflapOMaTOMCBoeMcoxpaHeHHoii)Kii3HM. 

A noTOM, KorAa KOCTpw n nem/i noracHyT, 3anax nane- 
hoii MenoseMMHW 3a6biBaeTca, a nyBCTBO xwbothom ynpB- 
neTBopeHHOCTM ocTaeTCB: He 6wno ry/lAra, He 6wno Oc- 
BeHLtMMa n flaxay, He 6bino XonoKOCTa, He AenopTupoBan 
BenwKMii OTeq ueriwe HapoAbi — Bee 6wno TaK xopomo \a 
Beceno! 

riorpoMHoe MbiLuneHne BcerAa npoB03rnaiuaeT mmc- 

TOTy MCK/IIOHMTenbHO CBOMX KpOBM, BepW M HpaBCTBeHHOC- 

tm; oho CTpeMMTcn yHMHTOKMTb o6naAaTene£i hhom kpobm, 
Bepw h HpascTBeHHOCTii nnn, Ha xyAoti KOHeu, HaBfl3aTb 
CBoe BMASHne BceM npoHMM. M ecnn wcxoAHTb M3 onpeAe- 



17 ceHTfl6pR 2000 roaa b caMOM ueHTpe 
ropoAa Pn3aHH rpynna HaqucTOB nanana Ha 
BOdcpecHyra eBpefiCKyio ujKony, ynnHUB b noMe- 
mennu pa3rpoM... 

3to coSbiTue 3acTaBwno peAaKuwo xypHana 
«KapTa» oSpaTHTb cepbe3Hoe BHUMaHne Ha npo- 
6neMy HaunoHan-3iccTpeMH3Ma b Pocchh \a, b 
MacTHocTn, b HaujeM poflHOM ropoAe. 

C TeKymero Hoviepa Mbi HannHaeM ny6nnKa- 
uhhd cepnn MaTepnanoB, nocBAU4eHHbix TpareA^n 
eBpeeB b XX BeKe. 

B HHTepHeTe, na cai^Te «l~IpaBa MenoBeKa b 
Pocchm». Mbi OTKpbinw cneunanbHbie CTpaHMUbi 
aHTMcpaiuMCTCKOfi o6mecTBeHHoPi xaMnaHnn: 

<http:/ / www.hro.org/ actions/ nazi> 

PejjaKUHP xypHa/ia «Kapra» 



neHuin CBo6oAbi Mepa6a MaMapAaiuBunw: «CBo6oAa — 
sto KorAa CBo6oAa OAHoro ynnpaeTca b CBo6oAy APyroro 
h HMeeT 3Ty nocneAHioio cbohm ycnoBneM», to oho, sto 
MwiiineHne, m ecTb nepBan m maBHan yrpo3a nto6oiii 
CBo6ofle, nio6oii bo3mo>khoctm jiiOAefi 6wTb caMUMM co- 
6om. HuHbio CBo6oAy He MMeTb cbomm ycnoBneM v\ OCBO- 
6o>KAaTbC« BceMn cnoco6aMM ot ny>KMX cbo6oa — bot 
nornKa v\ cnHTaKcuc norpoMa. 

Mw AaBHo y?«e >KMBeM nocpeAn norpoMa. C KaKoii 
npocTbKD npecneAyoTcn HenpuiBbiMHwe pennrnn \a koh- 
cpeccnn! Ha hmx HaBeiunBaiOTcn flpnwKM «nH0CTpaHHbix» 
(6yATO Bepa — He Ao6poBonbHo M36upaeMoe HejiOBeKOM 
y6e>KAeHiie, a LuoKonaAKa unw kpoccobkm), «TOTanwTap- 

HWX-, -AeCTpyKTHBHblX., -HeTpaAHUMOHHblX-. Hx o6bmha- 
KDT B «30M6lipOBaHMM», «nOAPblBe HpaBCTBeHHOrO 3Aopo- 

Bbfl HaL4Mn», npocTO b CBeAeHMM n\op,ev\ c ywa n, Boo6iAe, 

BO BCeM, B HeM B03MO)KHO M HeB03M0)KH0 06BMHHTb. rio/iy- 

naeTCfl, hto ecnw tw npaBocnaBHwii iuM30(ppeHMK — sto 
6eAa, a ecnn 6anTMCTCKMM nnn, TaM, mopmohckmm ujm3o4>- 
peHMK — to y>Ke >KepTBa nponcKOB 3noyMbnu/ieHHOM 3a- 
naAHoii ceKTbi. EcnM pe6eHKa b MnaAeHnecTBe KpecTiinu 
no npaBOcnaBHOMy o6pflAy — sto xopoiuo, a ecnn b 1 3 nei 
\a no o6p«Ay CBMAeTeneii MeroBW — to BOB/ieneHne Mano- 
neTHnx b ceicry w Hacunne Han, nuMHOCTbK). 

Xoneiub ne xoHeujb, a BcnoMHMiub 33ona: «BonK 
yBMAe/i. KaK nacTyxn b manaiue eA^T oBi^y. Oh noAoiuen k 
hum h cKa3an: «npeACTaBnBio ce6e — KaKofi 6w LiiyM Bbi 
noAHnnw, ec/in 6w sto Aenan «• — ecnn 6w, k npuMepy, 
aABeHTMCTw ceAbMoro aha 3aHMMa/incb 6ecnoiuniiHHbiM 
MMnopTOM TaSaKa v\ boakh! Ka3a/iocb 6w, TaKan nomKa — 
npeAMeT Ann ncwxuaTpuHecKoro aHann3a. OAHaKo, HeT — 
bot ym CKonbKO neT p*A ncuxnaTpoB, a BMecTe c hhmu h 

pflA MMHOBHUKOB Mk1H3ApaBa, B )KM3HM He BMAeBUJMX HUI 

OAHoro nenoBeKa, y Koro AyLueBHoe 3a6oneBaHne 6wno 
6w BW3BaHO pennrnew, ycuneHHO ncnoBeAyiOT Ty me ca- 
Myio norMKy norpoMa, HaBB3WBan npeACTaB/ieHne o «He 
Haujew» pennmn KaK npumiHe ncuxunecKnx paccTpoticTB. 
«Haiue» \a «He Haiue». 

Ec/im 99 H3 1 00 «Haiiinx» Ae/iaiOT Aypno — sto mcktiio- 
HeHne M3 xopoiuero npaBuna. Ecnn 1 113 100 «He Haiunx» 
— sto AOKa3aTenbCTBo Aypnoro npaBuna, ocHOBaHne p/\n 



<$ 3HAK BEflbl 



HeMeftneHHoro 3anpeTa, Bbicw/iKu m npon. Pa3Be He Ha 
3Tom HacTOflH 3aKOH «0 CBo6ofle coBecTM m BeponcnoBeAa- 
hmh», npuHflTbiti b 1 997? 6e3yMCTByiomee Top)KecTBO npuH- 
L^nna BuLUUHCKoro — npe3yMni4nn buhobhoctm. HeAaeHO b 
oahom TaKOM co6paHui/i h BC^yiuajicfl b ryfleHne 3ana: 
•Pocchh — pfin pyccKnx npaBocnaBHbix. A nero sth Bee 
xoakdt m xoak)t? flycTb y6npaiOTCH orcioAaU Bot h bca 
jion/ma. JlornKa 3Jio6w h norpoMa. <...> 

Mo>kho n\A Bcepbe3 roBopnTb 06 stom Ha cpOHe Toro, 
mto npoHCXOAW b ceroAHHWHeii Pocchm? rioAyMaeuib — 
eBpea o6nAe/iw, y KaBKa3ua jihluhhm pa3 nacnopT cnpocw- 
nn, KaKux-TO TaM «ceKTaHTOB» b yron 3aABi/iHyjin, ypoKOB 
nonoBoro BocnuTaHun He 6yAei\.. Ho sto h edb to, mto 
nponcxoAMT. 

PeaKunn BcerAa Bbi6npa/ia npe>KAe Bcero Hai4HOHa- 
nn3M, pennrno3Hwii 3KCTpeMii3M, ceKcocpo6wo ppn arnTa- 
Umm 3a ce6n. 3ia Tponija peanuywA Hepa3Ae/inMa. M ecnw ne 
roBopmb 06 3tom, to roBopiiTb Boo6me He o neM — HaAO 
npodo noAHflTb pyKW ... 11 CAaTbca KpacHO-KopuHHeBbiM. 

(Daiun3M npuxoAMT k B/iacTM TaM, rAe 6onbLuan nacTb 
nK>p,ev\ 3a6o/ieBaeT CKMfloM. TaM, rAe b Aenb rw6enn 
Ta^nHw CTapoBOMTOBoii TB npoAO/i*aeT rpeMeTb pa3yxa- 
6mctom petcnaMoii. TAe mm npoAoroxaeM 3AopoBaTbcn c 
Mep3aBueM. l~Ae p,enaeM 6pe3rjinByio rpuMacy, yonbuuaB 
o APyroM cnoco6e Bepw. l~Ae HannHaeM wcKaTb 3ApaBbifi 

nO/IHTHMeCKUM CMblC/l B M3pbiraeM0M KyHKOM 3KCTpeMHC- 

tob rpn3n. M TorAa 3Ta KyHKa cTaHOBHTCfl Moryneii Kyweti. 
Ho TorAa ywe HeKOMy wanoBaTbca w Hey Koro wcKaTb 
aauyiTfai. 

Bi/ipyc CKHfla WMBeT He b o6iAecTBe, He b Ky/ibrype 
Boo6me. Oh >KHBeT bo MHe, b Bac, b HeM, b Heft. Oh zinLuaeT 
MeHfl, Bac, ero, ee 3amnTHwx cun, Ky/ibTypHoro uMMyHwe- 
Ta. M TorAa mw Ha^MHaeM onpaBAbmaTb mockobckmm pa- 

CM3M no OTHOUJeHMK) K «JlMl4aM KaBKa3CK0M HaUWOHa/lbHO- 

ctm» CMTyai4new Ha mockobckhx pwHKax, aHTuceMHTM3M — 
6aHKnpcKMMn TpaAuuwflMn eBpeeB m c/ioBapeM riywKMHa 1/1 
flocToeBCKoro. TorAa HaMMHaeM B/ie3aTb b canorax aTewc- 
TMnecKoro MbiiujieHMn b Ayww BepyioiAMX \a BepiunTb «Mi/ip- 
CKOti cyA b AyxoBHOii 6paHW», coMHeBaTbcn b i4enecoo6- 
pa3H0CTn oTMeHw cMepTHoii Ka3HM m BBeAeHMA a/ibTepHa- 

TMBHOll Cny)K6bl ... 

EcTb OMeHb MHoro Ma/ieHbKnx, BpoAe 6w 6e3o6uAHbix 
npopbiBOB b noBeAeHne Toro Heoco3HaHHoro, mto no/iHoc- 
Tbio onpeAenaeT Ae^CTBMB norpoMinnKOB. 3to h ecTb nep- 
Bwe CMMnTOMw CKHfla. Ecnn n oTMeMaKD nx y ce6n — n Mory 

HM npOTHBOCTOBTb. M Bbl, H OH, M OHa, M Ka>KAblii. TOT, KTO 

xoneT 3aMeMaTb v\ cnoco6eH 3aMeTHTb 3tm nepswe CMMnTO- 

Mbl. 

<...> ECTb B POCCMM OXOTHOpflAeU, HO 6CTb H — BHe 
3aBMCMMOCTH OT ypOBHfl 06pa30BaHMfl — HHTe/1/IMreHT, K0- 

Toporo A/ieKceii Cumohob tohho onpeAenw/i KaK «HenoBe- 
Ka, Mew ryMaHH3M (T.e. yBaxteHne k MHaKOMwc/iUKD, MHaKO- 

HyBCTBUKD V\ MHaKOKMTHK)) LUMpe, SeM erO C06CTBeHHbie 

y6ex<AeHMfl*. CKo/ibKO 3Toro uHTennureHTa bo MHe — poB- 
ho CTO/ibKO y MeHfl luaHCOB He 3a6o^eTb CKMfloM. CKonb- 
ko OKaweTCfi cpeA^ nac nHTe/i/inreHTOB b stom cumohobc- 

KOM nOHUMaHMH, CTOflbKO liiaHCOB y POCCMH He CTaTbHeT- 

BepTWM PewxoM. 

ny6nuKyemcp e coKpamemju. 

riofiHbiu meKcm: 

http://sexology.narod.ru/info012.html 



flaBM/i TAPACIOK 



Be3 BHHbl 
BHHOBaTbie 

EBpeMCKne norpoMbi b roflbi 

fpa^flaHCKOM BOMHbl B POCCMM 



B ny6jiHKauHJix HeKOTopwx aBTopoB, nwoiy iuhx ceroaHH 
o 6ejioM .iHHVKCHiiii. nocjiejHee Bbirnniim iieBCTBeHHO «6e- 

.IHM)), nOHTH HeBHHHbIM no CpaBHeHHK) C KpOBaBO-KpaCHbIM, 
GOjIbUieBHCTCKHM . MeHHIOTC H OLieHKH, yTBep^HBUJHeCfl B TeH- 
.aeHUH03H0H COBeTCKOH HCTOpHOrpa(|)HH, npHHeM H HOBbie 

oueHKH He MeHee TCHaeHUM03Hbi. 

B aeHCTBHTejibHocTH >Ke 6biJi h KpacHbiH, h 00. 1 1.1 ii Tep- 
pop. Pe3y;ibTaTOM Toro h apyroro cranH HeBocno/iHHMbie 

JIKJJCKHe nOTepH H. B TOM HHCJie, HeHMOBepHbie OeaCTBHfl 

poccHHCxoro eBpeficTBa, nepoKHBiuero vparejwto, conocTa- 
BHMyio c XMejibHHTHHHOH b XVII BeKe h npeB30H^eHHyio 
.iHiiib b nepHon XojiOKocTa. 

EBpen 3aHHMain 3aMeTHoe mccto b pyccKOM peBOJiiouH- 

ohhom jBH-A-eHHH. Ohh k\o in i n bo Bee napTHH OT KpaHHe 

neBbix (aHapxHCTOB h 6ojibuieBHKOB) ao Haxo^HBiuHxca Ha 
KpaHHe.M npaBOM cj)naHre xaaeTOB, noiTOMy roBopHTb o Ka- 

KOH-TO eflHHOH «eBpeHCKOH» nOJIHTHKe HCT OCHOBaHHH. 

Cpe^H 300 ruaBHbix peBo^iouHOHHbix no^HTHHecKHX 
jeHTeneH Hanana XX Bena 6buio 53 cupcH. H3 hhx ihiiii. 16 
CTanH aKTHBHbiMH yMacTHHKaMH OKTs6pbCKoro nepeBopoTa, 
a 37 oTHeoiHCb k HeMy oTpHuaTenbHo. OiiHaKO b co3HaHHH 
pyccKoro oGbmaTejia — ot nioMneHa no HHTenjiHreHTa — 
pojib eBpeeB b pcbojikduhh npcucTaBjiajiacb eme oojibiuefi. 
MeM OHa 6bi;ia Ha caMOM AeJie, mto iu.nBa.io nocne peBo.iiouHH 
BcnnecK h 6e3 Toro CH^bHbix b crpaHe aHTHceMHTCKHx Ha- 

CTpoeHHH. 




Cuporw M3 KoBwuubi b Bo6pyiiCKOM aeTCKOMflOMe C 1914 no 1921 roflw 
6ea poflMTeneii ocianocb 300000 eBpewcKHx aera*. CoBeTCKoe npaBH- 
TenbCTBO paapeiuHno p«Ay aanaflHbix opraHM3aunii, b MacTHOcTn, Amb- 
pwKaHCKOMy o&beAMHeHHOMy eBpeiicKOMy KOMnreiy cofleiiCTBHH, OKa- 
3aTb noMoinh MceptBaM norpoMOB 



Be3 Bl/lHbl BMHOBaTbie 



17 



HapacTaHHeaHTHceMHTH3Ma cpejH ropoacKoro Hacejie- 
HHfl OTMeTHJi MaKCHM TopbKHH. B CBoefi ra3eTe «HoBaa 
>KH3Hb», b uHicie «HecBoeBpeMeHHbie m mc;ih» (kotopmm CKpbi- 
Bancfl ot MHTaTejiH 6ojiee 70 ncr), oh rmcan neroM 1917 roaa: 

« AHTHCCMHTH3M )KHB H nOHCMHOHCKy, OCTOpOKHO CHOBa nOil- 

HHMaeT cbok) PHycHyio rojioBy...» 

3axBaTHB B^acTb b 0KTa6pe poKOBoro ;uifl Pocchh 1917 
ro.ua, 6ojibiueBHKH He aonycKajiH OTKpbrroro nposiBJieHHJi 
aHTHceMHTH3Ma, no KpawHefi Mepe, norpovioB. Ho ohh Taione 

3aMaJlMHBa^H 3KCU.eCCbI Ha TeppHTOpHH, 3aHHTOH 6eJlbIMH, 

mto6w He aaBaTb apryMeHTOB TeM. kto paccMaTpHBaji 6onb- 

[lieBHCTCKHH pe>KHM KaK CiyHOlUHH «eBpeHCKHM» HHTepe- 

caM. 

M3HaHajibH0 h b 6eji0M hbhwchhh He 6biJio OTKpwTbix 
npoHB J neHHHaHTHceMHTH3Ma. EBpeniia)Kecny)KH^H B,Zlo6po- 
Bo^bHecKOH apMHH. O^HaKo 3hmoh 191 81 919 roaanpoH3o- 
uieji 6yKBanbHO B3puB HeHaBMCTH k eBpeaM. 









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<flL.JB 










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>, ~ : 'i*sWJ 








IE* 




I* ja. L 





OaeccKne eBpea. norn6wne bo BpeMfl norpoMOB b ronw 

Tpa^KAaHCKOfi BOMHbl. 



Bo-nepBbix, KpacHMH Teppop, ootjAbjichhwh aeKpeTOM 
CoBHapKOMa ot 5 ceHTHSpa 1918 rojia, MHorHe CBJHbiBajiH c 

CBpCHMll He TOJlbKO no TOH pOUH, KOTOpyK) OHH HITJaJIH B 

MK, oco6eHHO b ee npoRiinuiia:ii.ni.i\ OTaejiax, ho h noTOMy, 
hto ca.MH ohh peace CTaHOBHJincb >KepTBaMH «Kapaiomero 
viena peBOjnouHH». 

B0-BTOpblX. lipOTHBHHKH OOJIbHieBHKOB paCCMaTpHBajlH 

/lemma h ero oKpy>KeHne KaK cTaBJieHHHKOB TepMaHHH h 

CHHTaJIH. HTO C yXOZlOM repMaHCKHX BOHCK .leHHHCKHH pe- 

5KHM na^er. Ho 6oJXbmeBRKH ycro&OH, a xhsbb Hapoaa cTajia 
erne Tracejiee, hto, kohchho. 6e3 BcaicoroocHOBaHHJ! npwnH- 
cbiBa^ocb «eBpencK0My rocnoacTBy». 

HaKOHeu, c eBpe»MH CBH3biBa.iH 3Jio.aeHCKyK) aKUHio no 

HCTpe6iieHHK) HMnepaTOpCKOH CeMbH. XOTfl B jeHCTBHTCIb- 

hocth OKOHnaTe^bHoe peuieHne 06 itoh aKunn npHHHMajin 
He eBpeii. 

Koraa Bejiaa apMHH BCTynnna Ha TeppHTopnio YicpaH- 
Hbi, Bee c.ioh Hace.ieHHH Guam HacipoeHbi aHTnceMHTCKH. 
ApviHK), no CBHaeTcnbCTBy JleHHKHHa. 6yxBaibHO HaTpaBJiH- 
BajiH na «npeziaTe^eH-eBpeeB». /Ichhkhh nwTajicji, ho He 

CMOf OCTaHOBHTb yBOJlbHeHHH HeMHOrOHHC.ieHHblX oq*)Hu.e- 




Meibipe wepTBbi norpoMa b XoflopKOBHax nocne 

OKa33HUfl MM MeflHUMMCKOii riOMOlUU B 

AneKcaHflpoBCKOM 6onbHMue b KneBe. 

pOB-eBpeeB no Tpe6oBaHHK) pyccKHx, KOTopwe OTKa3biBa- 
jincb caymutb noa hx HanajioM. 

B 1 9 1 9 roay b KOHTpojiHpyeMbix 6c. 1 i»i m h panoHax CBpe- 
eB CTajiH ycTpaHHTb h c rpaxtaaHCKHx /lOJDKHOCTeH. Eoacb 
npocjibirb KxaocpHJiOM, JleHHKHH otkjiohhji jno6we npejuio- 
•A'eHHH CMHrneHHH itoh no.iHTHKH, Hanpnviep cobct B. A. 
MaiciaKOBa, nocneaHeropoccHHCKoro nocjia b RapHxe (6jie- 
CTHiuero a^BOKara. 3aiumuaBUiero b CBoe BpeMH MeHiiejiH 
EeftjiHca), o bkjhohchhh b aeHHRHHCKyw ajMHHHCTpauHK) 
xoth 6w oiiHoro eBpea «b KanecTBe CHMBOna». 

AHTHeBpencKHe iKcueccw HanajiHCb b 1918 roiiy, npn 
remaHe Ck-oponancKOM, eme b ycjiOBHJix hcmcukoh OKKyna- 
uhh. nepBbin KpynHbin norpoM npoH3onie.T b sHBape 1918 
roaa b r. OBpyne Ha Bo-nbiHw, ero BaoxHOBHTe^eM 6biji aTa- 
mbh Ko^cyp-)KypKa, cnOABiuciuiK neivnopbi. 

3aTeM nocneaoBajiH norpoMbi b npocKypoBe, <t>e^uiTH- 
He, BepanneBe h 

)KHTOMHpe. B 

1919 ro^y 6buio 
aBa nHKa norpo- 
mob: BMaenBaB- 
rycTe-ceHTHope. 
Bena» apMHH 
npnnacTHa JiHiub 

KO BTOpOMy, a ^o 

tofo ycTpoHTejia- 
mh norpoMOB 
6wjih nacTH neT- 

v1K>pbI H OTpflJlbl 

apyrHx aTaMa- 

HOB. 

no noBo^y 

jIHHHOH BHHOBHO- 

cth rieT.iiopbi, 
nacTH KOToporo 
ocymecTBH.iH 60- 
nbiiiHHCTBO no- 
rpoMOB. MHOHltH 

" P " Banaa aTaMana Ctpioks ocraBM/ia no ce6e 

XOiXHTCJI. M3BeCT- CTpaujHyKD naMHTb KpoBaawMM norpoMaMM b 

HO, HTO B HK)He HepHo6binbCKOM BonocTM. BaHflMTbi noanpyioT 

Ha cpOHe nrpyiueHHOki nouian«u 




n 



Be3 Bl/IHbl BMHOBaTbie 



1919 roaa mm 
6bui H3aaH npn- 
Ka3 o 3anpeme- 

HHH aHTHCeMHT- 

ckoh nponaraH- 
Abi.HooHHeBce- 
raa kohtpojih- 

pOBaJl CBOH BOH- 
CKa H HX KOMaH- 
JHpOB.iUMIKOTO- 
pwx aHTH60JIb- 
UJeBH3M OTO»ae- 
CTBJ1HJ1CH C aHTH- 
CCMHTH3MOM. 

CTaBJieH- 
HHK JleHHHa Ha 
YicpawHe Ahto- 

HOB-OBCeeHKO B 

noHeceHHH npa- 
BHTenbCTBy cpe- 

JW npHMHH He- 

npHHTHH ynpa- 

HUlKiMM COBCTC- 

KoropoKHMaoT- 

MCTHil hx HeHa- 
BHCTb K eBpeHM, 

b KOTopux bhacih areHTOB npaBHTejibCTBa «MOCKaneH». 

BecHOH 1919 roaa wecTOManiiiHH eBpewcKHH norpoM 
ycTpoH.iH b E;iH3aBeTrpaae nmjw aTaMaHa TpHropbeBa: rpa- 

6«KH, H3HaCHJ10BaHHfl H yOHHCTBa npO^OJDKa-lHCb TpH flHH. B 

CBoeM «yHHBepcajie» TpHropbeB o6pyuiHnc» Ha «rop6oHO- 
cwx KOMHCcapoB» h npH3Ban cbohx «6paTbeB» rpaSHTb CXaec- 
cy — c 6ojibiunM eBpeiicKHM HacejieHHeM — ixo Tex nop, noica 
oho He CTaHeT Ma,ieHbKHM. 




CnHarora b fleMbeBKe (YxpatiHa). pa3opeHHan 

nonnKaMM. 




Tpynu eapeeB. y6vm>ix 6aHflnTaMn aTaMaHa CTpioKa. 
Hbbhkob, 1919 rofl. Hm Ctp»k, hm flpyrne aiaMaHw tbk m hb 6wjim 

npMBneMeHW K 0TBBTCTB8HH0CTM 3a CBOM 3n0fl6flHM«. 



Bcero bo BpeM» rpaaaaHCKOH bohhu b Pocchh 6buio 
1236 cjiynaeB aHTHeBpencKHX HacH,ibCTBeHHbix aicroB, H3 
KOTopwx 887 KJiaccHJpHUHpyiOTCH KaK norpoMbi, a ocTajibHbie 
— Kan 3Kcueccbi, to ecTb aKumi, KOTopue He conpOBOHc.ua- 
jincb HacHJineM b MaccoBOM MacuiTa6e. 



H3 oomero mhcjw norpoMOB 493, hjih 40 npoueHTOB, 
coBepujHiiH neTjiiopoBuu, 307 (25 npoueHTOB) — OTpaaw 
aTaMaHOB TpHropbeBa, MaxHO, 3ejieHoro h npyrwx, 213(17 
npoueHTOB) — MacTH apMHH ZleHHKHHa, 106 (8,5 npoueHTa) 

— HaCTH KpaCHOH ApMHH. 

OTHOCHTe.ibHo noc.ie^HHx aBTopu HCTopHnecKHX pa6oT 
jecaTH,ieTHHMH xpaHHJiH MOJinaHHe. A Meacny tcm H3BecTH0. 
mto 1 Maa 1918 rona nacTHMH KpacHOH ApMHH 6biJi ycTpoeH 
norpoM b HoBropoae-CeBepcKOM. OnncaHHe >kvtkhx cueH 
norpoMa b Oaecce 2 Man 1919 roaa mu HaxojiHM b «OKasH- 
hux ^h»x» H. A. ByHHHa. 

J\. BojiKoroHOB oTMenaeT, mto, Koraa bo BpeMH nonbCKofi 
aBaHTiopw 1920 roaa («coBeTCKO-nojibCKa$i BOHHa») Mac™ 
riepBofi kohhoh ap\inn noKaTHJincb Ha3aa, ohm Ha CBoeM 
nym ycTpaHBarm norpoMbi, 6e3Hca.iocTHo rpa6n/iH h yHHHTO- 
5KajiH eBpencKoe HaceneHHe. 

A Hacoo6meHHJi oo 3thx 6e3o6pa3H«x JleHHH OTpearn- 
poBaji jiaKOHHHHo h paBHoayuiHo: «B apxHB». 

06mee mhcjio norn6uiHx b norpovax He nooaaeTca 
TOHHOMy onpcaeneHHio. ripHBOAHMbie b pa3JiHMHbix hctom- 
HHKax uHcppbi Kone6jnoTCH Me>Kziy 50 h 200 TbicHHaMH. Cne- 




Eepew. nepewuBujae norpoM b CnoaeMHO. 
YKpanHa. 1919 rofl. 



jyeT OTMeTHTb, mto hh JleHHH, eciiH He CMHTaTb BbicTyn^eHHa 
no panHO 2 anpejia 1919 rona npoTHB aHTHceMHTH3Ma b 
o6mefi qbopMe, hh JIbbhkhb eBpencKHe norpoMU nyojiHMHo 
He ocyAHJiH. 

JlHiub maBa FIpaBocjiaBHOH uepKBH naTpnapx Thxoh b 
oGpaiueHHH k BepyiomnM 2 1 n k>. im 1919 roaa Ha3Baji n;n. n . i n w 
npoTHB cnpccB 6ecMecTHbiMH, a hx 5a>innmn kob — npecryn- 
HHKaMH. MHorne «nyxoBHbie nacTbipn», o;ihuko. He BBaia 
npH3biBy naipHapxa h npogBttVU caMoe aKTHBHoe, HHoraa 
noiicTpeKaTejTbCKoe yMacTHe b norpoMax. 

M iuia 6enbix, h juia KpacHbix, h jh» 3eneHbix eBpen 

IIOIiMi'HHl.) OCTaBaJIHCb He>KejiaHHblMH, HeHaBHCTHblMH, BH- 
HOBHUMH BO BCeX 6ejax. Be3 BHHU BHHOBaTblMH. 

Ony6nuKoeaHO Ha http://www.jew.spb.ru/ 

B Mamepuane ucno/ib3oeaHbi (pomoapacpuu 

cpomoebicmaeKu "Hepma ocednocmu: do u nocne", 

1995 «BRON,» Amsterdam. 



A 3HAK BEflbl 



89 



HopMaH KOH 



EjiaroejiOBeHne Ha reHoijHfl 



<...> Tpa>KaaHCKa» BOHHaTo;ibKopa3ropaiiacb. OHa npo- 
jojixajiacbeuie /iBa ro/ia, m HeojHOKpaTHO CoBeTCKoe npaBH- 
TenbCTBo HaxoziHjiocb Ha bo.iocok ot rH6ejiH, noKa HaKOHeu 
oejiwe apMHH He dujih oKOHnaTenbHo pa3rpovuieHbi. B 3tot 
nepHon(J)ajibiuHBKa «ripoTOKOJibi chohckhx MynpeuoB» Bnep- 
Bbie obuia Hcnojib30BaHbi ma ncacTpeKaiejibCTBa k y6HH- 
CTBy. 3a «IlpoTOKOjiaMH» ctojjuh Bee Te ace mow. C 1910 
ro.aa «Cok)3 pyccKoro Hapoaa» (aHmuceMumcKan npaeopa- 
duKcubnaM opeaHU3aiiux, co3daHHan npu aKmuenoM ynacmuu 
asetimott yapcxou oxpanxu, u3eecmHaa nemepuou Henaeuc- 
mbw k "uHopoduaM " u npRMbiM yuacmueM e noepo.uax - 
npuueu. ped. .vcvpn. "Kapma ") qbopM&nbHO ywe He cytue- 
CTBOBaji KaK eziHHa« opraHH3au.HH, ho ero npeacHHe pyKOBO- 
aHTe^H noaBH3a.iHCb Tenepb b pa3;iHHHbix 6ejiwx apMHJix, 
06pa3OBbiBanH HOBbie nojiHTHHecKHe rpynnnpoBKit Tuna 
«COK)3a pVCCKHX HaUHOHaJlbHblX komhtctob» hjih «PyccKofi 

3VMbi» h b ochobhom aKTHBHO nponaraaztfipoBajiH norpo- 
Mbi. OpaHny3 aw Ulafijia, KOTopuH b 3to Bpe\ifl HaxojHJicfl 
b pji^ax 6enoH apMHH, onHcan. c KaKHM pBeHHeM 3th mow 

pacnpOCTpaHJIjlH «npOTOKOJTbI». IlpHCJOKHblH noBepeHHbiH 
H3MaHJIOB H BOHCKOBOH CTapiIIHHa Po/JHOHOB COBMeCTHO 

BbinycTHJiH /jeineBoe H3/iaHHe «ripoTOKOJiOB» b HoBonepKac- 
cKe b 1918 roay. 3iy KHHry pacnpocrpaHflji cpe/jH bohck 

riypHUIKeBHH, OCHOBaTClb «MepHOH COTHH», 3aHHMaBLUHH 

nod b OT^ejie nponarannbi ujTa6a reHepana JleHHKHHa b 
Poctobc B KpbiMy npw reHepane BpaHrene HepHocoTeHiibi, 
«cy6cHjjHpyeMbie npaBHTcnbCTBOM, roBopHJiH Ha Bcex nepe- 

KpeCTKax O «ripOTOKOJTaX» H /KH^O-MaCOHCKOM BCeMHpHOM 

3aroBope» [A. M. a«o UJaRjia. C. A. Hmiyc h «Chohckhc 
npoTOKOJibi». — «riocjieaHHe hobocth» (llapHJK), 1 2 h 1 3 Mas 
1921]. 

KpOMe TOrO, H3,aaHHfl «ripOTOKOJ10B» nOHBHJIHCb b Ch- 

onpn, ohho 6mjio HaneMaTaHo b Omckc ujih apMHH a/i \i npa. ia 
KoJinaica. CaM a/aMHpan owji noMeuiaH Ha «ripoTOKOJiax». T. 

K. JXlKHHC. KOTOpblH HaCTO BHUeJlCJl C KojlHaKOM B 3T0 BpeM», 

cooSmaeT, hto tot 6yKBajibH0 «no»Hpai» «npoTOKOJibi». 
TojiOBa a^MHpajia «6bina Ha6nTa aHTHMacoHCKHMH naeaMH. 
Oh BH/ae;i MacoHOB noBoony, /ia*ce b co6ctbchhom OKpyace- 

HHH... H Cpe^H HJieHOB BOCHHblX MHCCHH COK)3HHKOB» [r. K. 
JUjKBBe, Cn6Hpb, COK)3HHKH H KoJlHaK. T. II. IleKHH, 1 92 1 , c. 

39]. HecKOJibKO H3.aaHHH «ripoTOKOJioB» no»BHjiHCb b Boc- 
tohhoh Ch6hph, bo BiiaflHBocTOKe h Xa6apoBCKe. (Xano 
H3^aHHe 6buio BbinymeHO pyccKHMH 6eno3MHrpaHTaMH .aaace 

B flnOHHH. 

3HaneHHe, KOTopoe npHaaBajiocb «ripoTOKOJiaM», noa- 

HepKHyTO B npe^HCjIOBHH K nepBOMy H3 HOBblX H3/WHHH. 

KOTopoe ObiJio OTnenaTaHo H3MaHJioBbiM h Pouhohobmm b 
HoBonepKaccKe noa Ha3BaHHeM «Chohckhc npoTOKOJibi, n.iaH 
i;iHocB;miiH MHpoBoro rocno.ncTBa eBpeHMH h MacoHaMH»: 

«ripoTOKO-ibi» — 3TO THiaTe.ibHO h ^eTajibHO pa3pa6o- 
TaHHaa npoq^aMMa 3aBoeBaHH» Bcero vinpa eBpeflMH. Bonb- 
iua» nacTb 3toh nporpaMMbi y>Ke ocymecTBjieHa. h ecriH hbi 
He oAyMaeMCJi, to HeH36e>KHo 6yaeM o6peHCHw Ha yHHHTo>Ke- 
hhc. «ripoTOKonbi» jibjijiiotcji, no cymecTBy, He TO.ibKO 



KjIiomom k noHHMaHHio Hauien nepBOH HeyaaHHOH peBOJiK)- 

UHH ( 1 905), HO H li;i 1 1 k'il BTOpOH peBOJHOUHH ( 1 9 1 7), B KOTO- 

pofi eBpen curpajiH CTOJib rH6e,ibHyK) pojib rim Pocchh... Jinx 
Hac, CBHACTCJieii TaKoro caMoyHHHTOJKeHHjj, ana Hac, Haaeio- 
uihxch yBHjeTb B03po>K^eHne Pocchh, 3tot ^OKyMeHT tcm 
6ojiee 3HaMeHaTejieH, nocKOJibicy oh pacKpbiBaeT Te HaMepe- 

HHfl, C nOMOIUbK) KOTOpblX Hp.H H XpHCTHaHCTBa CTpeMflTCfl 

nopa6oTHTb Hac. ToubKO b tom cjiynae, ecjiH mm pa3rajaeM 
3th HaMepeHH», mw CMO>KeM ycneuiHo 6opoTbc>! c BparaMH 

XpHCTa H XpHCTHaHCKOH UHBHJlH3aUHH» [CHOHCKHe npOTO- 

KOJlb! (K3H. A. Po^HOHOBa). HoBOHepKaccK. 1918]. 

«npoT0KOJibi» Bce-TaKH 6hjih cjihujkom cjio»Hbi h 3any- 

TaHbl Sin nOHHMaHHH npOCTblX COJI^aT, B 60JlbUlHHCTBe CBO- 

evi JHoaeii ManorpaMOTHbix. Ha npouecce b BepHe b 1 934 roay 
XaHM BenuviaH BcnoMHHaji. Kan oh BnepBbie yBHjien «ripoTO- 
KOJibi». BpHTaHCKHe otpHuepw, npHKOMaHiiHpoBaHHbie k 6e- 

jlblM apMHJIM, npHBe3J!H C C060H B riaJieCTHHy KaKOH-TOJOKy- 
MeHT. COCTOJHUHH H3 HCTblpeX HJIH nHTH MaUJHHOnHCHblX 
CTpaHHU, H 06bflCHH.lH, HTO TaKOH HOKyMeHT HaXOflHTCJI y 

Kaauoro 6enoro oqbHuepa. OKa3anocb, hto 3tot aoicyMeHT 
coixep^cHT Bbijep>KKH H3 «ripoT0KOJiOB». CoTiiacHo apyrHM 
HCTOHHHKaM, no^o6HbiH MaTepHaji lunpoKo pacnpocTpaHJiJi- 
c» cpean rpaMOTHbix Gohuob pajJiHHHbix 6ejiwx h ynpaHHC- 

KHX apMHH, KOTOpbie BCJiyX HHTaiH em H pa3T>5ICHfl J lH CMblCH 

HerpaMOTHbiM. 

B jionojiHCHHe k «ripoTOKOJiaM chohckhx My.apeu,OB» 
noflBHJiHCb HOBbie no^aenKH, ue/ib kotopwx 6biJia no^HOBHTb 
h npncnoco6HTb hx k TpeGoBaHHJiM MOMeHTa. Cpean HaH6o- 
Jiee H3BecTHbix BapnamtH ow.ia 0.111a. naii.iciinaH hkooi.i y 
HeKoero KOMaH^npa KpacHoii ApMHH, cbpch no hmchh UyH- 
nep. 3K3eMnjiapbi 3Toro aoKyMeHTa, cya« no BceMy, unpKy- 
jinpoBaiH y»e b Mae 1918 ro/w; 3hmoh 1919/20 roaa, Koma 
Ge.ibie apMHH Tepne.iH ojho nopaaceHne 3a apyrHM, 3tot 
zioKyMeHT CTan no»BJiaTbCfl b ra3eTax ne. n.ix apMHH, HHoraa b 




Co6paHHwe Ann yHumoweHHH cbmtkm Topw H3 Bme6cKOM cunarorn. 

oahoh us 650 cuHaror. 3aKpbiTbix b 20-e roabi. B Bnie6cKe we 6bin 

ycTpoeH noxaaaTenbHbiPi cy/} Ha/] xeaepoM — TpaanunoHHoii eBpeiic- 

kow ujKonoPi. nocne nero xeflep 6btn Tyr we 3aKpbiT. 



5/iaroc/iOBeHMe Ha reHoui/ifl 



hobhx h 3HaHHTejibHO pacujHpeHHbix BapwaHTax. B HeM ro- 

BOpHJlOCb: 

«CeKpeTHO. ripeacTaBHTenHM Bcex OTaeneHHH Meatay- 

HapOHHOH H3paHJlbCKOH JIHrH. 

( Mm. i II ipan.i>i' Mac HaaieH OKOHnaTejibHOH nooeau 
6;ih30k! Mu na.\o;uiMc« Ha nopore 3aBoeBaHH» MHpa. To, o 
neM paHbiue mu TOJibKO MeHTanH, daHOBHTca abmo. Eme 
HeaaBHO cna6ue h 6eccHjibHue, mw Tenepb mokcm, 6naro.aa- 
p» mhpoboh KaTacTpocpe, BblCOKO H ropao noaHflTb ronoBbi. 

HO MU, OZlHaKO, flOJDKHbl npOHBjlflTb OCTOpO)KHOCTb. 

Mohcho c yBepeHHocTbK) npeacKa3aTb, hto, nocie Toro KaK 
mm npoMapuiHpyeM no pyxHyBiiiHM h pa36HTUM ajuapaM h 
TpoHaM, mu nponojDKHM Haiu Mapiu no npenHanepTaHHOMy 
nyra. 

ABTopHTeT nyHtnbix HaM pejiHnw h BepoyneHHH mu c 
noMombio ycneiuHOH nponaraH.au noaBepniH 6ecnoma,aHOH 
KpiiTHKe m HacMeiuKaM. Mu 3acTaBH.3H KynbTypy, u.HBH,iH3a- 

UHK), TpaHHUHH H CaMH TpOHbl XpHCTHaHCKHX HapOJOB nO- 

uiaTHyTbca, h cpem 3thx HaponoB mu HaiujiH Kyna 6ojibiue 
jiioaeH, neM HeooxonHMO juw Hauiefi paooTu. Mu caejiajm 
Bee, hto6u HajieTb Ha pyccKHH Hapoa upMo eBpeficKofi anac- 
th, h b KOHue kohu.ob npHHynnjin hx nacrb nepen HaMH Ha 

KOJieHH. 

Mu noHTH iaBcpuiii.in 3aayMaHHoe, ho b to tkc BpeMa 
mu ao-Tukhu npoHBJi»Tb 6aHTenbHOCTb, TaK KaK yrHeTeHHajj 
Pocchji — 3to Haiu caMUH r.naBHUH Bpar. riooeaa nan Pocch- 
efi, aocTHrHyTaa 6jiaroaapa HauieMy HHTejuieKTyanbHOMy npe- 
BOcxoncTBy, MoaceT b 6yaymeM, npH hobom noKOJieHHH, o5ep- 

HyTbCH npOTHB Hac CaMHX. 

Pocchh iaHocRana h noBaneHa Ha3eM.iK). Pocchh aroHH- 
3HpyeT noa HauiHM Ka6jiyKOM. Ho He 3a6uBaHTe hh Ha MWHy- 
Ty, HTO MU aOJDKHU OUTb 6aHTCJIbHU. CBflUieHHafl o6$rcaH- 

HOCTb 3a6oTHTbca o iiaincii co6ctbchhoh 6e3onacHOCTH He 

n03B0JI$ieT HaM npOHBJIHTb HH HO.10CTH, HH MHJlOCepjHfl. 

HaKOHeu-TO mu nojiynHJin B03M0>KH0CTb ^Hue3peTb ropb- 
Kyro Hy>Kny pyccKoro Hapoaa h BnaeTb c;ie3u Ha ero nia3ax! 
Qr6Hpaji y hhx co6crBeHHOCTb, 30jioto, mu hiubcih 3tot 
Hapoa Ha nojio*eHHe 6ecnoMoiu.Hux pa6oB. 

EyabTe oaHTeiibHU h cnoKOHHU. V Hac He fltUDKHO 6bm> 
>KanocTH k BparaM. Mu aojihchm yHHHTOKHTb.nynujHx, Buaa- 
joiuhxch npeacTaBHTejien pyccKoro Hapoaa, hto6u nooeac- 
aeHHaa Pocchji 6ojiee He cMorjia HaHTH ce6e nocTOHHoro 
bohcw! TaK Hcwe3HeT jno6aii ho)\io>kiiocii, conpoTHBjieHHH 
Haujefl BnacTH. Mu JKHEKHH pa3»HraTb HeHaBHCTb a Bpaxtay 
MOKay paooM h sin h KpecTbflHaMH. BoHHa h KJiaccoBas 6opb6a 

yHHHTO)KaT BCe COKpOBHUia H KynbTypy, C03,aaHHyiO XpHCTH- 

aHCKHM naptvioM . Ho He TepaftlC 6nHTenbHOCTH, cuhu H3pa- 
Hjia! I lauia no6eaa 6jiH3Ka. TaK KaK c KaacauM aHeM pacnyr 

naillH -JKOHOMHMCCKafl H nO.IHTHHeCKafl MOUlb H B.IHflHHC Ha 

LUHpoKHe Maccu. Mu noKynaeM npaBHrejibCTBa c iiomouu.io 
uiiiMOB h 30JiOTa h TeM caMUM KOHTponnpyeM MHpoByio 
(J)HHaHcoByK) CHCTeMy. BjiacTb b Haiiinx pyKax. ho 6yabTe 
6aHTejibHu h He BepbTe npeaaienbCKHM, ichcbi.im ch.kim. 

BpOHUITeHH (TpOUKHH), PajJOMUC^bCKHH (3HHOBbeB), 

Po3eH(|)enbii (KaMeHeB), lHTeHH6epr — Bee ohh, KaK h tuch- 
hh i lo.ntoi i m\ hm, — HCTHHHue cuhu Hh pS B J B L Hauia BJiaCTb 
b Pocchh 6e3rpaHHHHa. B ropoaax KOMHecapHanj h komhtc- 

TU no npOHOBOJlbCTBHK), flOMKOMU H T.H. B03rJiaBJIJIK)T HauiH 



jiiOiiH. Ho nycTb no6ena Bac He onbHHHeT. npoHBn»HTe octo- 

pOHCHOCTb, HOO HHKTO, KpOMe BaC, He CMO)KeT 3aiUHTHTb Hac 

rioMHHTe, mu He MO>KeM nojiaraTbca Ha KpacHyro Ap- 
mhk), KOTopas b ohhh npeKpacHUH MOMeHT MO>KeT noBepnyTb 
CBoe opyjKHe npoTHB Hac. Cuhu Hspamix! Mac naincii non- 
ro>KaaHHOH no6eau Han PoccHefi 6hh3ok — CMUKafiTe uie- 
peHrH! nponaraHjiHpyHTe Hauiy naunona:n.nyio no^HTHKy! 
BopHTecb 3a HauiH t&BUU naeanu! XpaHHTe b cbstocth 
HauiHjpeBHHe3anoBenH,KOTopue3aBemaHUHaMHCTopHeH! 
riycTb Ham yM-, Ham rCHEfl 3aiuHTHT Hac h noBejeT Hac 
Bnepea! UeHTpanbHUH komhtct MejKiiyHapoflHOH H3paH^bc- 

KOH JlHrH». 

ripw Bcefi a6cypjjHOCTH TaK naii.iBacMi.iii «40KyMeHT 
UyHjiepa» hbhjich cBoeo6pa3HUM npenTeneH, h6o Hiies, Jie- 
iKamajj b ero ochobc — hto 6ojibuieBHCTCKafl peBoniouHfl 
ABHjiacb pe3yjibraT0M eBpeficKoro 3aroBopa h ocymecTB^e- 
HHeM BeKOBbix Ha«HHH H3paHJibCKoro napoaa, — ocraBHJia 

3aMeTHbIH CJien B HCTOpHH. 

OHa npno6peJia xapaicrep \i;uinn y MHornx 6eno3MHr- 
paHTOB, no3»ce OHa cTana chmbo.iom Bepu HauncTOB h Ha 
npoT»>KeHHH uenoro iioko.iciiiih oka n.iBa;ia b:i 11 h h iic h;i BHyr- 
peHHioio h BHcuiHioio nojiHTHKy repMaHCKoro npaBHTenb- 
CTBa. Heo6xoziHMO paccMOTpeTb, HMeeT nw 3Ta H^ea KaKoe- 

^H6o HCTOpMHeCKOe OOOCHOBaHHC 

BnnoTb no caMbix nocnenHHx BpeMen 6uTb eBpecM 03- 
Hana-io TOJibKO ojho: HcnoBenoBaTb HyneficKyio pejiHrHK). 
.Una Bepyiomnx eBpeeB «6onbiueBHCTCKaH peBOJiiouHJ!» 03Ha- 
nana He ocymecTaneHHe hx najiHHH, a HOByw yrpo3y. 

B to BpeMa BepyiomHe eBpeH noiiBepranHCb TaKHM »e 
roHeHHHM b CoBeTCKOM CoK)3e, KaK h xpncTHaHe. KaK pa3 B 
to cavioe BpeMH, Korna «noKyMeHT U,yHnepa» unpRynHpoBaa 
b 6ejiux apMHHX. coBeTCKoe npaBHTejibCTBO 3aKpuBajio cHHa- 
rorn, npeBpamaa hx b iciyou, pacnycKanoeBpeHCKHepejiHrH- 
03Hue, KynbTypHue h cpHJiaHTponHnecKHe HHCTHTyru, 3an- 
pemano Bee eBpeficKHe KHnrn ho ianncn\io ot hx coaepwa- 

HHM. EBpeH-6o.1bUJeBHKH OTHJOnb He HCnblTUBaJlH HyBCTBa 

conHnapHocTH c BepyiouiMMH eBpeHMH. Koma nenyTauHH 
eBpeeB noceTHna TpouKoro h nonpocHJia ero He npoBonnpo- 
BaTb «6eJiyio C0JinaTHH3» Ha oprann wuino norpOMOB, oh 
OTBenui: «Bo3epamaumecb K ceouM eeperm u nepedaume 
um, unto h — He eepeu u Mue natueeamb Ha mo, nmo c ea.Hu 
ciytumcfi» [Cm.: Valentin H. Antisemitens Spiegel. Vienna. 
1937, S. 179-180]. 3necb isii.iHa HenpeoaonHMaa nponacn>, 
KOTopyw nponaraH.iHCTbi aHTHceMHTH3Ma cTapaiOTCsi bo mto 

6bl TO HH CTajlO 3aMaCKHp0BaTb. 

CymecTBOBana eme onHa npHHHHa, no KOTopofi lunpo- 
K»ie Maccu eBpeeB He o«a ii.iBa.-in nonaep>KKy hoboh BnacTH: 

OHH B OCHOBHOH MaCCe SbUlH MC.l KHMM .KIBOMH IIKaM II H HaCT- 

humh peMecjieHHHKaMH-onHHOHKaMH. HecMOTpji Ha Kpafi- 
HK)Ko6enHocTb,oHH He6buiH npHHHcneHU HneonoraMH peBo- 

niOUHH K COK)3HHKaM 60JlbUJeBHK0B. 

H xoth cupcn 6ujih HacTpoeHu npoTHB uapcKoro p«KH- 

Ma, KOTOpblH nOABepraJl HX iXHCKpHMHHaUHH, OHH CTaHOBH- 
HHCb KeM yrOilHO, TOnbKO He KOMMyHHCTaMH. Bo BpeMJl KpaT- 
Koro npoMOKynca, Koraa mojkho Gujio cbo6ohho Bupa>KaTb 
nonHTHHecKHe B3rjisnu, eBpen BcrajiH Ha CTopoHy 6ypjKya3- 
HOH napTHH KOHCTHTyUHOHajIHCTOB-neMOKpaTOB (KaneTOB). 

B 20-e roflu 6ojiee TpeTH eBpeficKoro HaceneHHa 6buio JiHiiie- 



BjiarocjioBeHi/ie Ha renou^p, 



91 



ho rpaacnaHCKHx npaB no cpaBHeHHio c nHTbio-iuecTbio npo- 
ueHTaMH HeeBpeficKoro HaceaeHHH. 

HecoMHeHHo, eBpeH, to ecTb jiHua eBpeHCKoro npoHc- 
xo)KiieHHJi, cocTaB^5ifiH HenponopuHOHajibHo6ojibuiyio qacTb 
b pyKOBOiiCTBe (xoth He ot o6iuero cocTaBa) napTHH 6oJibiue- 

BHKOB H MCHI.lIICHilKOB. IlpHMHHy yjJCHHTb HeTpyaHO. 3T0 

6buiH jhojh, KaK npaBmio, nopBaBiune c TpaanuHOHHOH eB- 
peficKOH o6ujhhoh h eBpeHCKoii penHrneH, hto He cnacaao hx 

OT .UlCKpHMIlliailllll H npeCJieaOBaHHH npH UapH3MC HMeHHO 
3THM 06b»CHfleTC» HX npHXOH B p»abl JieBblX napTHH. 

B nonHTHKy ujjih b ochobhom CTyaenTbi, npHHeM eBpen 
aojnKeH 6hji o6jiaaaTb noncTHHe BbiaaioiUHMHCH cnoco6HO- 
ct»mh, hto6w nonacTb b yHHBepcHTeT, TaK KaK b Te BpeMeHa 
cymecTBOBana ocpHUHajibHaa npoueHTHa* HopMa (5%) aJia 
nocTynjieHHJi eBpeeB b bmcuihc yMe6Htie saiicaciiHH . BcTynaa 
b paaw napTHH, ohh 0Ka3biBaaHCb ropa3ao jiynuie apyrnx 
noaroTOBneHHbiMH h noTOMy iann\ia.in pyKOBoaflWHe no- 
ctw. TaKoe nojio>KeHHe HeoaHOKpaTHO noBTopajiocb b apy- 
rnx CTpaHax, rae eBpencKHe HHTejiJieKTyajibi ycneuiHO 6opo- 
jiHCb c aHTHceMHTH3MOM, He Hma noaaep>KKH h yreujeHHs b 
pejinrHH. 

EBpen-nojiHTHKH, KaK npaBHJio, naeajiHCTbi. BaoxHOB- 
jieHHbie Haeefi nocTpoeHna o6iuecTBa, rae 6yayT yHHHTOHce- 

Hbl BCe BHabI AHCKpHMHHaUHH. 06bIHHO 3TO nJlOXHe nOJIHTH- 

kh, h hx, KaK npaBHJio, y6npaioT cpa3y nocjie CBepmeHHH 
no6e.aoHOCHOH peBoniouHH. 

B Pocchh eBpeeB 6biJio 3HaHHTejibHO 6ojibiue b MeHbiue- 
bhctckom, MeM B6ojibuieBHCTCKOM pyKOBoacTBe. Bee eBpen- 

MeHbllieBHKH BnOCJieaCTBHH 6bIJlH COCJiaHbl HJ1H yHHHTO)Ke- 

hu. Ta )Ke ynacTb nocTHraa eBpeeB cpeaH 6oJibUjeBHCTCKHX 
Borcaen, noHTH Bee ohh 6bian paccTpenjiHbi b 30-e roaw. 

TanoBbi (J)aKTbi. Ho Bepa He onnpaeTCH Ha (JraKTbi, u mhcJ) 
o eBpeficKo-KOMMyHHCTHHecKOM 3aroBope OKa3ajica 6ojiee 
>KHByMHM, neM mh(}) o 3aroBOpe eBpencKO-MacoHCKOM. TpajK- 
aancKaa BOHHa b Pocchh miepBi.ic npoaeMOHCTpnpoBajia ero 
CH.iy h »HBynecTb. HeKOTopbiernaBHOKOMaHiiyroinHe.TaKHe, 
KaK reHepan /leHHKHH, 6buiH B03MymeHbi aHTHceMHTCKoii 
nponaraHaofi, KOTopaa senacb b hx apMH«x, ho 3to He mchhjio 
cyra aeaa. MepHOCOTeHUbi jicho ccpopMyanpoBajiH ao3yHr: 
«5en vkh.'iob — cnacan Pocchio!» 

MaccoBoe yHHHToaceHHe eBpeeB, ocymecTBaeHHoe Ha- 
UHCTaMH, 3aTMHjio Bee norpoMbi npouiaoro, TaK hto onenb 
HeMHorne 3HaiOT o toh npejnoaHH, KOTopaa pajwrpajiacb b 
Pocchh b nepnoa c 1 9 1 8 no 1 920 roa. Hhcjio acepTB 6mjio 

aOBOJIbHO BHyUJHTeJIbHbIM — OKOJIO 100 TbIC. y6HTbIX H 
HeH3BeCTHO CKOJIbKO paHCHblX H IICKa.lCMCIIMI.lX. CBH/jeTeJlb- 

CTBa 06 3thx norpoMax HacrrojibKO HyaoBHiiiHbi, hto Bpaa jih 
hx mowho nepecKa3aTb. 

QrpwBKH H3 coo6meHHjj pyccKoro McypHaiiHCTa M»ana 
HepeBeHCKoro o norpoMe, kotopuh yMHHHJi Ka3auKHH no.™ b 
OacTOBe, HenoaaaeKy ot KneBa, b ceHTsope 1919 roaa, 
Moryr aaTb KaKoe-TO npeacTa&rieHHe o tom, hto TaKoe no- 
rpoM h KaK oh opraHH3yeTC». Bot hto cjiyHHJiocb nocjie 
HeyaaBuieHCH nonbiTKH 6o:ibineBHKOB 3axBaTHTb ropoa: 

«rpa6e5KH h y6HHCTBa nponcxoanjiH b 3th nepBwe aHH 

npeHMyiUeCTBeHHO HOHbK). ,HeHCTBHTeJIbHO, HOHbK) Bee Ha- 

cejieHHe cnbimajio to TaM, to 3aecb OTHasHHbie kphkh h 
BbicTpejibi. Y6hhctb 6hjio euie He TaK MHoro. Ho ohh Bee 
ycH^HBajiHCb. Ha TpeTHH, npHMepHo, aeHb no MecTeHKy y»e 



OTKpbno xoahjih rpynnu KauiKOB. OTbiCKHBas eBpencKHe 
KBapTHpw, h neraiH b hhx hto xoTejiH. ( )c i aiian. i ii na. in eBpe- 
eB Ha yjiHue. HHoraa npocTO cnpauiHBajiH: «Tw hchj?» — h 
nycKajiH ny.TK) b jioo, ho name npe^sapHTenbHO oomckh Baa n . 
na*e pa3neBaiH norona. h b TaKOM BHue Tyr »e Ha yjiHue 
paccTpejiHBajiH. CpejH rpoMHJi 61,1.111 h ih.hhi.ic. 

...rioa)KorH eBpeficKHX aoMOB h uibok naMa.iiici, npH- 
MepHo Ha BTopoH-TpeTHH ^eHb. Bnanajie ohh flHKTOBanHCb 
Hte^aHHeM norpoMmHKOB cKpi.ru. cne/ibi cbohx oco6chho 
yjKacHbix npecTynneHHH. TaK, b ojihom aovie Ha yrjry Topro- 
boh njiomajiH 6wjio nsTHajiuaTb TpynoB, b tom HHCJie mhoto 
H3HacHjioBaHHbix, a 3aTeM ytauux neByuieK. C uejibio cKpwTb 
cjieaw 3Toro npecTynaeHHH norpoMuiHKH noao)KrnH oom. 

...Onnuiy norpoMHbie npecTynjieHHH no OT/ie/ibHbiM bh- 
aaM hx. 

> oniic 1 na. KojinnecTBO »epTB b ahh Moero npe6biBa- 
hhh b OacTOBe onpeae.iHTb c TOHHocTbio eme hhkto He Mor. 
noxopoHeHo na eBpencKOM K.iaa6Huie no 18-ro ceHT»6pa 
6bLio 550 TpynoB (un(J)pa, cKa3aHHaa MHe b KpacHOM Kpec- 
tc). 06mec mhchhc nocTpaaaBtuHx h Bcex apyrnx o6biBaTe- 
.len, hto norH6jio b OacTOBe 1 500-2000 nejiOBeK y6HTbiMH... 
Bee Tpynw, KOTopwe JiexcanH b OacTOBe Ha BHay. 6ujih npn 
MHe ywe noxopoHeHbi. npoaojDKajiocbOTbicKHBaHHe h y6op- 
Ka TpynoB b OBparax, aecax, OTaejibHbix aoMax h np. KpoMe 
toto, no cioBaM noTepneBuinx. MHoro TpynoB noropejio Ha 
nojKapHiuax. ripoaon^aeTCM hx o twckm Ban 11c. ^encTBHTeJib- 
ho, OKOJio HeKOTopwx noropeBUJHx aoMOB 4yBCTByeTca Tpyn- 
hwh 3anax. HacTO Ha MecTe no>Kapa HaxoaflT kocth, HeH3Be- 

CTHO HbH. MhOTHX OHH pOaCTBeHHHKH He HaXOAST HH B HHCJie 

)KHBbix, hh MepTBbix. EcTb ocHOBaHHA npeanoiiaraTb, hto ohh 
norH6jiH. HecKonbKo TpynoB b OBpare 3a MOJiHTBeHHWM ao- 

MOM COKpaJlH CBHHI.I1 h co6aKH... 

Paiiciii.ie. Hhcjio paHeHbix onpeaejiaeTCJi MejioBeK b 
300-400. KaxcabiH aenb cpean paHeHbix Ha6aK>aajOTca CMep- 
THbie cnynan. MeanuHHCKaji noMomb 6biaa oneHb caa6aa, 3a 
OTcyTCTBHeM aocraTOHHoro MeanuHHCKoro nepcoHaaa. Pa- 
HeHbie, noMeuieHHbie b aByxKJiaccHOM ynnjinme, Jie>KajiH 6e3 
nepeB«30K h b TaKofi TecHOTe, hto Me>Kay hhmh TpyaHo 6i.no 
npoHTH. 

3BepcTBa h 
HijeBaTe.ib- 
CTBa. PaccKa3bi- 

BaiOT 06 OaHOM 

cjiynae, Koraa 
vKHBoii neaoBeK 

6l,l.l 6poillCH B 

oroHb. y HeKoero 
KitKCMana OTpe- 
taii » ii.iK h o6na- 
py«eHa paHa pa3- 



MuHCKan CMHarora, 

npeBpameHHan b 1934 

roay b rocyaapcTBeH- 

hum eBpeMCKMvi TeaTp. 

B MMHCKe m Oflecce 

npn 3aKpwTnn cMHaror 

BnacTM npMMeHMnw 

cviny — He o6oiu/iocb 

6ea wenoBewecKHX 

wepTB. 




92 



B/iarocjiOBeHi/ie Ha renouyip, 




CoeeTCKUM nnaiOT, npu3bmaK)mnii 

eBpeeB k aaHsiTMto cenbCKMM xo3am- 

ctbom: xHaxaTb 3eMnio nymue, neM 

ToproBatb B03flyxoM». 



pwBHOH nyjiefi (yMep). 
O npHNieHeHHH pa3- 
pbiBHbix nyjib roBopaT 

BCe, BTOM HHCJie H JIHUa 

H3 MeaHUHHCKoro nep- 
coHajia 3eMCKofi 6ojib- 
HHUbi. y paHeHoro 
MapKMaHa o6pe3aHbi 
yujH. y OiiHoro H3 
MapKMaHOB o6Hapy- 
weHO 12 paHeHHH 
uiaujKaMH, y apyroro 
— 8. Tpyn acbohkh M. 

FIOJIbCKOH OWJl Haft^eH 

o6ropejibiM. B ojihom 
cnncKe noxopoHeHHbix 
(HMeeTcs y nncbMOBO- 
ahtc.ih npHCTaBa) ecn> 

<|um 1 1. 1 II II nByx UieCTH- 

Mecs4Hbix aeTeH — 

ABpyM Cjl060ilCK0H H 

PyBHH Kohhk. Tpyn 
o^Horo eBpea 6biJi pa3- 
py6jieH nonojiaM. y 
CHHarorn 6anbmafl rpynna eBpeeB (nenoBeK 20) 6buia pa3.ae- 
Ta aorojia h t>t >Ke paccTpejuma. TaKOH jKe cjiynafi oijji c 
HeTbipbMa eBpejiMH Ha BomajibHofi yjiHue. OcooeHHO nacTO 
npaKTHKOBajiocb norpoxnuHKaMH i hunch in huh no xepTBu. 
KaK (popMa yrpo3bi... 

Ecn> h noBeuieHHbie HacMepTb, KaK, HanpHMep, Mouiko 
PeMeHHK (b cajxy Ha aepeBe); Meep h Eopnc 3a6apcKHe (oTeu 
h cwH-rHMHa3HCT) 06a noiiBeujHBa.iHCb, npnneM M&nbHHKa 
3acTaBHJiH 3aT«HyTb neTJiio Ha tuee CBoero OTua... 

M {liacil.IOBailllH. <DaMHJlHH H3HaCHJIOBaHHbIX H OCTaB- 

luhxck b *hbi.i\. no Hiu v i hc i ion h i h hi \i npHMHHaM, noTepneB- 
uine He coo6maiOT. TaKHx HeMHoro — MHe roBopHJiH TOJibKo 
o aByx aeByujKax, KOTopbie jiexcaT rae-To b 6ojibHHue. Ho 
BOo6ine-TO H3HacnjiOBaHHbix MHoro, KaK paccKa3biBaiOT no- 
TepneBLUHe. Hx oobiKHOBeiino. nocne coBepiueHHH rayCHOro 

3JIOae»HHfl, yf)HBaj\H. PaCCKa3bIBaK)T 06 H3HaCH.10BaHHbIX 

noapocTKax... 

IloAapi.i. Bbiropejio b o6inen cjiohchocth okojio 200 
CTpoeHHH... Tbicana ceMeficTB ocrranacb 6yKBanbHO 6e3 npn- 
K)Ta h iothtcji b CHHarore, niKOJiax h npocro Ha yjiHne, noa 

OTKpblTbIM He60M. 

Ha Bonpoc, kto ycTponn norpOM, — npeacTaBJiaeTCH 
OTBeTHTb BnojTHe onpcaeneHHo: Ka v<\kh 2-h TepcKOH anac- 
ryHCKOH 6pHra^bi, KOMaH/wpoM ee coctoht hojikobhhk Be- 
noropueB... 

JjfMWtta 3aflBHTb, hto noTepneBuiHe noneMy-TO y6e>Kiie- 
hw, hto norpoM 6mji pa3peiueH ruiacTyHaM hx HanajibCTBOM. 
K TaKOMy y6e>K.aeHHK> npHBeno hx KaK paBHoayuiHoe, a 
nopofi h mbho nooinpHTejibHoe OTHOiueHHe otpwuepcKoro 
codaBa 6pHraabi k norpoMy, TaK h 3ajiBJieHHe OftfffiJSbBbtX 

rpOMHjl-Ka3aKOB, HTO HM «npHKa3aHO 6HTb >khjiob», hto ohh 

MoryT «no 3aK0Hy ryjurrbTpH ahh», hto «HHHero mm 3a 3to He 
6yaeT» HT.n.Ho to.t/kc h 3aMeTHTb, hto OTAenbHbie ocpHuepw 
toh >Ke 6pHraaw npHHHMajin Mepu k npeKpameHHW norpoMa, 
3amnma^H OTjiejibHbie aoMa h Boo6me bchhcckh noMoraan 
eBpencKOMy HaceneHHK) b ero HecnacTbe. TaK, nopynnK 



Hjhoujkhh, HanajibHHK nynevieTHOH KOManabi, y6enH.i Ka3a- 
kob cBoeti cothh 3amHiuaTb ot norpoMa uejibin ynacTOK... 

Oopauxaiocb k Bonpocy o noBoaax k norpoMy. 1 1 ukukii \ 
onpeaejieHHbix yKa3aHHH Ha onpeneneHHbiH noBona He nony- 
hhji, xotjj h HHTepecoBaica 3thm BonpocoM 6ojibiije Bcero. 
HecoMHeHHO tojbbo OflHO, hto cpcan Ka3aKOB 6bi.no npOHHoe 
yoe>KiieHHe b CHMnamflx eBpencKoro HaceaeHHSi k 6ojibiue- 
BH3My,y6e>K.a.eHHe, kohchho, b TaKofi ory/ibHofi (popivie. hh Ha 
neM He ocHOBaHHoe. IlopyHHK HjIioujkhh saHHii.i MHe no 
3T0My noBoay, hto cpe^H Ka3aKOB kto-to pacnpocTpaHnn 
«jjbho npoBOKauHOHHbin cjiyx», hto eBpen pajocTHO BCTpe- 

THJIH OOjlbUJeBHKOB, KOriia OHH BOpBaJlHCb Ha KopoTKoe Bpe- 

ms b OacTOB, hto eBpen KpHHajiH «ypa» Ha BOK3ane So^biue- 
BHK&M h, HaKOHeu, hto ohh CTpenjuiH b Ao6poBOJibueB, Koraa 
Te otxojihjth ot cDacTOBa. Hhkto h3 onpouieHHbix MHOK> J1HU 
He noaTBepanji npaBHJibHOCTH 3thx cnyxoB. HaoSopoT, Bee 

— B TOM HHCJie H JIHUa, HacnpoeHHbie HBHO Bpa>Kje6HO K 

eBpencTBy, — OTpnuajiH aa)Ke B03MO)KHocTb TaKHx qbaKTOB. 
KpuKH «ypa». aeficTBHTejibHO, 6mjih cjibiiiJHbi b MecTeHKe co 
CTopoHbi BOK3ajia b MOMeHT, Koraa Tyaa iiopiia.iiici. 6ojibiue- 
bhkh, ho eBpeeB, na h Boo6ine MecTeHKOBbix o6biBaTejien b 
tot MOMeHT Ha BOK33,ie He 6mjio, h6o Bee 5oflJiHCb 6oa h 
nonp»TajiHCb...» 

[HBaH XlepeBeHCKHfi Gun nociaH b OacTOB opraHH3auH- 
en, ocHOBaHHOH b Khcbc b 1919 roay, on* c6opa HH(j)opMa- 
hhh o norpoMax Ha YKpasme, KOTopaa no35Ke, o6ocHOBaB- 
iiiHCb b BepnHHe, 6biJia Ha3BaHa «UeHTpajibHbiM apxHBOM 
MaTepHanoB o norpoMax». ^epeBeHCKHH npH6uji b OacroB 
17 ceHT«6pji 1919 ro^a. IlorpoM 6bi;i 10-13 ceHTJiGpa. Ero 
coo6tueHHe HanenaTaHO b KHHre: IUexTMaH H. B. IlorpoMbi 
JJoGpoBOJibHecKOH apMHH Ha yKpaHHe. Bep^HH, 1932]. B to 
BpeMH, Kor^a noaooHwe coowthh nponcxonHJiH b Pocchh. 
«ripoTOKonbi» h MH(p o eBpeHCKO-6ojibuieBHCTCKOM 3aroBope 
npoHHKJiH Ha 3anaa h npojcae Bcero yKopeHHJiHCb Ha repMaH- 

CKOH nOHBC 

Bo BpeMH rpaHtaaHCKOH bohhu b Pocchh norpoMuiHKH 
h 6ejiwe otpnuepbi. Ha KOTopux ohh OKa3ajiH 6ojibiuoe 

B,THHHHe, C03^ajlH IieilUH CBO^ aHTHCeMHTCKHX jiereHfl h 

(pajbiiiHBOK. HanpHMep, b ceHTa6pe 1919 roaa ra3eTa 
MOHapxHHecKoro HanpaBvieHHfl b PocTOBe-Ha-^oHy Hane- 
naTajia noano>KHbiH joKyMeHT, hko6w cocTaB^eHHbin bwc- 
iuhm KOMHecapoM (ppaHuy3CKoro npaBHTeTbCTBa npH Oeiie- 
pajibHOM npaBHTejibCTBe b BaujHHrroHe [«B MocKBy!». Po- 
CTOB-Ha-/4oHy, 23 ceHT«6pfl, 1919]. 

Cmucji ^OKyMeHTa cbojhjTcj) k TOMy, hto GojibiueBiiKH 

nOJiyHH^H MHOrOMHJIJIHOHHyK) cy6cnanK) b .lo.i.mpax OT 
aMepHKaHCKoro 6aHKHpa, eBpen 5-li-ona llJH(p(J)a, Hepe3HbK>- 

HOpKCKHHOaHKKyHa. Jl036aHK°, H3TOnOMOr^OHMilOBeCTH 

peBOjiJounK) ao no6e/iHoro KOHua. JlerKO noH>m>, noneMy 
HMeHHo lUH(p(p ynoMHHaeTca b 3tom noKyMeHTe. 

Bo BpeMH norpoMa 1905 roaa oh aeiiCTBHTejibHO 
nbrrajicjj y6eaHTb aMepHKaHCKoe npaBHrejibCTBo BUCiy- 
nHTb Ha 3auiHTy eBpeeB b Pocchh. h. kohchho, norpoMiHHKH 
He Mor.TH eMy 3Toro npocTHTb. HeKOTopwe H3HH0CTpaH- 
hhx KoppecnoHaeHTOB h hjichob bochhux mhcchh npn 
6ejiwx apMHHx BocnpHHflJTH Becb 3T0T B3jop Bcepbe3 h nepe- 
npaBnxjiH ero no cbohm KaHajiaM Ha 3anaa, b EBpony. B 
napH5Ke MOHceHbop ^Cy3H oxoTHonepeneHaTajicpajibiuHBKy 
o ILItHpcpe b CBoeM H3;iaHnn «npoTOKo^OB», a juw 
HauncTCKOH nponaraHiibi OHa cTajia HeHcnepnaeMOH tcmoh. 



5jiaroanoBeHi/ie Ha reHounfl 



TeM BpeMeHeM caMH «npoTOKOJibi» yate uupKyjinpoBa- 
jih Ha 3anaae. Cnycm 20 ner nocjie Toro, KaK pyKonncb 
(})paHuy3CKOH noaaeaKH 6biaa aocTaBjieHa m FlapHwa b 
Pocchk), OTnenaTaHHwe KonHH ee pyccKoro i iepeBO, ui bmbo- 
3hjihc)> H3 Pocchh b 6ara>Ke 6enbix o(pHuepoB. 

B 1919 roay OTnenaTaHHbie Ha uaiDfflQ Ha pa3JiHHHbix 
«3biKax, ohh noaBJULiHCb Ha CTonax mhhhctpob h rpaacaaH- 
ckhx cayacaiuHX b JIohjiohc IlapHHce, PuMe h BaiiiHHiroHe. 
Uejib noaoSHoro MaHeBpa 3aKjnoHa.iacb b tom, hto6m 
y6eaHTb npaBHTejibCTBa paxiHHHbix aepwaB npoaoji>KHTb h 
aaace ycH.iHTb HHTepBemiHio b Pocchh. Bcsucoro poaa 

B03pa)KeHHfl MOrJIH 6bITb BbWBHHyTW npOTHB BMeiuaTejib- 

CTBa b o6biHHyK) rpaacaaHCKyKt BOHHy, ny a hto, ecjiH 
koh<pjihkt b Pocchh — 3to He npocTO rpavk'aaHCKaa BOHHa, 
a Ha caMOM aeae ocymecTaneHHe MeacayHapoaHoro 
eBpeHCKoro 3aroBopa c ue.Tbio riopaooiueHna pyccKoro 
Hapoaa? KaKHM 6bi Henemni cefiHac hh noanoi 3tot 
apryMeHT. b to Bpeina, cyaa no Bceviy, oh hmci HeKOTopoe 
B03aeHCTBHe Ha rocyaapcTBeHHyjo nojiHTHKy. 

YMecTHo 3aMeTHTb, hto He see pacnpocTpaHHTejiH 

«ripOTOKOJIOB» 3a60THJIHCb .IHI1II, O «6oJIbUJOH IIO.IHTHKO). 

Taic, HanpHMep, jictom h oceHbio 1919 roaa hckhh tsmh- 
CTBeHHbiH JiHTOBeu, 6biBiiiHH arem" oxpaHKH, noceTHa 
eBpeHCKyio aeaeraunio Ha riapHwcKofi mhphoh KOHcpepeH- 
uhh h npeaaoacHJi eii KynHTb 3a 1 twc. (j)yHTOB CTep.iHHroB 
KHHry, KOTopaa, no ero ciOBaM, npeacTaB.ia.ia CMepTejib- 
Hyio onacHOCTb ana eBpeeB. Bpaa jih ctoht ynoMHHaTb. 
hto cncnica He cocTOHJiacb, ho aenerau.H$i BHjena KHHiy- 

KOnHK) «ripOTOKOJ10B». H 3TO He O.lHIHIMHI.lii HHU.HACHT. 

AMepuKaHCKHH eBpencKHH komhtct coo6iuh.i b CBoeM eace- 
roiiHHKe 3a 1920 roa, hto k HeMy o6pamajiHCb HeKOTopwe 
pyccKHe c npeanoaceHHeM 3a H3BecTHyio cyMMy vhhhto- 

)KHTb nepBOHCTOHHHK-pyKOnHCb «ripOTOKO-TOB». 

Ho BpeM5? uemODI HHTpHr BOKpyr «ripoTOKonoB» noa- 
xojhjio k KOHuy. K ncxoay 1919 roaa hx H3BecTH0CTb CTajia 
BceMHpHOH 6.iaroaapfl aejrrejibHocTH aByx pyccKHx (paHaTH- 
kob, o6ocHOBaBiiiHxcji b Bep;iHHe. — rieTpa HHKoaaeBHHa 
IUa6ejibCKoro-BopKa h <t>eaopa BnKTopoBHHa BnHoepra 
[Cm.: Rollin H. L'Apocalypsede notre temps. Paris. 1939, 
p. 153; Laqueur W. Russia and Germany. London. 1965. p. 
109]. 

UIa6ejibCKHH-EopK pomnca na KaBKa3e b 1893 roay. 
Ero OTeu 6bui KpynHbiM iiomcihhkom. a MaTb — a« i hbhmm 
hjichom «Coio3a pyccKoro Hapoaa», aBTopoM aHTHceMHTC- 
koh h aHTHMacoHCKOH KHii/KKu «rioapyHHbie caTaHbi 
aBaaiWToro kckii». CaM LUa6ejibCKHH-BopK b iohocth 
coctojui b «CoK)3e pyccKoro Hapoaa» h 6wa hjichom 
apyrofi opraHH3amiH — «CoK)3a Mnxanaa ApxaHrena». KaK 
o<pnuep oh ynacTBOBaji b nepBofi MHpoBofi bohhc a TaKJKe. 
oneHb Heaojiro, — b rpajKaaHCKOH. B ceHTj>6pe 1918 roaa 
oh HaxoaHaca b EKaTepHH6ypre, yTBep>Kaa$i, hto eviy 6w.no 
nopyneHO BecbMa BawHbiMH ocooaMH npoBecTH paccneaoBa- 

HHC CB«3aHHOe C BblJICHeHHeM 06CT0JlTeJlbCTB y6HHCTBa 

HMnepaTopcKOH ceMbH. Oh aonpocHa MHornx aioaeH, h. 
KOHenHO, exiy 6mjio h3bcctho o CBacTHKe h o KHHre Hn.iyca. 
BHH6epr6biJi 3HanHTenbHO CTapiue Bopi<a. OHpoaHJica 
b KneBe b 1 87 1 roay h SfiUl cuhom KOMaHayiomero apTHJuie- 
Phhckoh 6pnraiioH. BopK To»e 6wji ocpnuepoM b 3BaHHH 
no.iKOBHHKa HMnepaTopcKOH rBapann. ByayHH hjichom 



«CoK)3a Mnxanjia ApxaHrena>>, oh nocTOJiHHO n nca;i nepHO- 
coTeHHbie CTaTbH. B 1918 roay 6bui apecTOBaH 3a KOHTppe- 
BOJiKmHOHHyio aeaTeabHocTb h 3aKJiK3HeH b rieTponaBJiOBC- 
Kyio KpenocTb b rieTporpaae, ho BCKope to ^h 6e>Kaji, to jih 
6biJi ocBo6o5KaeH. Oh oTnpaBHJicfl Ha YKpaHHy, rae 
npHMKHyn k oejiorBapaencKHM aHTHceMHTaM h norpoMuiH- 
KaM b KneBe. Y6hhctbo uapnuu h HaxoaKH, o6Hapy>KeHHbie 
b ee KOMHaTe b EKaTepHH6ypre, HMenn ana Hero oco6oe 
3HaneHHe. Koraa oh yMep b 1927 roay bo OpaHUHH, 
HeKpo-nor b «Me>KayHapoaHOM >KypHane i aimi.i \ o6mecTB» 
OTMenan, hto uapnua 6bLia noneTHbiM ho^kobhhkom b 
nojiKy BnH6epra: «Oh no-HacroaiueMy 6oroTBopHJi ee, h 
Bee ero cohhhchhs, HanpaBJieHHbie npoTHB eBpeeB h 

MaCOHOB. npOHH3aHbl 3THM nOHHTaHHCM». 

liIa6ejibCKHH-BopK h BHH6epr noKHHyan Pocchk) b 
Hanaae rpaiKaaHCKOH bohhw. Koraa HeMeuKne Boncxa 
ocTaBHjiH YKpaHHy nocne 3aKjnoHeHHJi nepeMHpHs b 1918 
roay, repMaHCKHe BJiaCTH npeaocTaBHv3H noe3a aaa Bcex 
pyccKHx ocpnuepoB, noaceaaBUjHx BbiexaTb BMecTe c hhmh. 
UJaoejibcKHH-BopK h BnH6epr Bocno^b30BajiHCb TaKOH B03- 
MOKHocTbK) h yexaaH b TepMaHHK). 

Cya« no BceMy, cpa3y ace no npne3ae b TepMaHnK) 
BnH6epr no3HaKOMH^C5i c nenoBeKOM, KOTopbin craji 
nepBUM nepeBoaHHKOM wIlpoTOKo.iOB)) Ha hcmcukhh ji3biK. 
— JlroaBHroM Mion.iepoM. Mioaaep, aio6HBuiHH BeannaTb 
ce6» Mro^aepoM (poH Xay3eHOM, B3«a ce6e nceBaoHHM 
roTTtppna uyp BeK. Oh ow/i apMencKHM Kai i n i a no\i b OTCTaB- 
Ke h H3aaTe;ieM aHTHceMHTCKoro h KOHcepBaTHBHoro eafeMe- 
c»HHHKa «Ay(|) (J)opnocTeH». 

B KOHue Hoa6pH oh y»e pacnojiaraa Konnefi tamn 
Hnayca «BeanKoe b ifaJKHD) H3aaHH» 1911 roaa BMecTe c 
«npoTOKo.iaMH», KOTopyio no.iyHH^ aH6o ot BnH6epra. 
.ih6o ot oaHoro H3 ero npHjrrejien. Jlpy>KecKHe OTHoujeHHH 
Me*ay 3thmh tcmhumh, nony6e3yMHWMH. no/iyyrojiOBHbi- 
MH aHHHOCTKMH npHBeJIH K Cepbe3HbIM nocjieacTBHHM: 

MoHceHbop )Ky3H. kotopmh MHoro caejiaa zuia pacnpocrpa- 

HeHHJ! «ripOTOKOJ10B» BO OpaHUHH. CHHTaa, hto aeHTenb- 

HocTb BHH6epra b TepMaHHH «CTaaa OTnpaBHOH tohkoh b 
KpecTOBOM noxoae npoTHB eBpeficKO-MacoHCKOH yrpo3w». 

Bom 3Ta oueHKa h 3ByHHT npeyBejiHHeHHeM, to OHa 
coaep^aaa ao/no hcthhw. HecoMHeHHo. c 3Toro MOMeHTa 
aHTHceMHTCKas arHTauHJi npnH»jia TaKHe nyaoBHiuHbie 
MacuiTa6w. KOTopwx panee He 3Haaa 3anaaHaa EBpona. 

BBep^HHeBHH6eprn UlaCejibCKHH-BopK coTpyaHHna- 
,ih b OKeroaHHKe «JlyM cBeTa». TpeTHH HOMep KOToporo 
(Man 1920)coaep)KHTnojiHbiHTeKCTH3aaHHJiKHHrH HHJiyca 
1911 roaa. Bee HOMepa OKeroaHHKa HaBa3HHBOTo;iKOBaaH 
o eBpeficKO-MacoHCKO-CoabUjeBHCTCKOM 3aroBope, KaK h 
KHHra caMoro BnHoepra «KpecTHbiH nyTb», KOTopa« 6uaa 
nepeBeaeHa Ha ncMcuKiiii. 

Bo Bcex cbohx iiiicaHiisx BnH6epr btom hjih HHOM BHae 
yTBep»aaji, HToceBpeaMH Heo6xoaHMO noKOHHHTb. Kohch- 
ho, oh noHHMaa, hto HHnero noao6Horo Heab3« caeaan> 
b aeMOKpaTHHecKOH CTpaHe, ho 3to ero orajoab He 6ecnoKo- 
iijio. h6o, no ero much ii to. aeMOKpaTHM JBJOffTCX nyaoBHia- 
hum 3a6uy)KaeHHeM. :u,n ho.ii.ckii m HHCTpyMeHTOM, npnay- 
MaHHbiM eBpeaMH ana aocTH>KeHHJi CBoero rocnoacTBa. 
BnHoepr no3TOMy Tpe6oBaa, hto6m npH3HaHHbie Bowaw 
HauHH pa3 h HaBceraa npH3HaaH no^HTHnecKoe hcbokcctbo 



i4 



B/iaroc/iOBeHne Ha reHOLji/ifl 




TOJinbl H, nOKOHHHB C HTpOH 
B JieMOKpaTHK), 3aXBaTH-lM 
BJiaCTb, yCTaHOBHBAHKTaTy- 

py Haa 3thm «HejioBeKo- 
o6pa3HWM CTaaoM». Toraa 
co3peeT Heo6xoxiHMUH mo- 
uetttJUU o6i>ejHHeHHH Bcex 

HaUHH npOTHB BCeMHpHOFO 

3aroBopa eBpeeB. 

rioKa ace BnHSepra 
yTeiuajio ohho: TepMaHMH 

Gum 0TH0CHTeJIbH0CB060H- 

Ha ot ^eMOKpaTHMecKoro 

«Hejyra». «B TepMaHHH ry- 

BenorBapAeticKMM aHTuceMmcKUM juieT no ropo/MM, no $a6pH- 

nnaKaT. B BepxHew hscth - KaM H 3aBOaaM nepeHOCMT- 

Tpounw. 

ca H3.nepeBHH BaepeBHio 3Ha- 

icsHarejibBaa KHHra — «ripo- 
tokojiw chohckhx MyjjpeuoB», h pa6onHe no noBony 3toh 

KMHI H C06HpaK)T 3KCTpeHHbie COBeiliaHHJI H BblHOCHT 

nocraHOBJieHHH o nepecMOTpe Bcex cbohx counajiHCTHHec- 
khx nporpaMM»[BHH6epr<I). B. KpecTHbin nyrb. MwHxeH, 
1922, c. 246]. 

On;ioTOM «MyapeuoB», no ero mhchhk), HBJuuiHCbOpaH- 
UHJi H AHrjiHfl, 3th Bparn TepMaHMH. Eme b XVIII cro/ieTHH 
AHrjiHJj no Tpe6oBaHHK) «MyapeuoB» njiaTHiia Pycco, Bonb- 
Tepy h 3HiiHKJioneflHCTaM 3a hx pa6oTy, HanpaBJieHHyio Ha 
noapbiB OpaHUHH; HeaaBHO OHa 3aruiaTHjia TojicTOMy h Topb- 
KOMy 3a noapbiB o6mecTBeHHbix ydoeB b Pocchh. 
OpaHuy3CKaji peBOJiiouHH 6buia aenoM pyK «MyapeuoB», TaK 
)Ke KaK pyccKa* h repMaHCKaa peBoniouHH 1917-1918 i-oaob: 

«06maa cesi3b u naiueu, u neMei\Kou peeo.noyuu 30k.ho- 
naemcn e mo.\i, nmo o6a zocydapcmeeHHHX nepeeopoma 
coeepiueHbi ucKyccmeennbiM nymeM, nocpedcmeo.u .\iupo- 
eou, eciody pacKunymou cemu uampue u mauHbix npouacoe 
eepeucKO-MacoHCKUx <>i>,-anuhii<itu B imux opeaHU3aifuxx 
MacoHcmeo hiumumu cjiohmu csoumu uepaem po.ib c.ienoeo 
opydun 3HOMenumou «A.ium» («Bce,\tupH02o eepeucKoeo 
coto3a»). a ebicwue ciou (cmenenu) MacoHcmea coeeputeHHo 
noejioufenbi u 3anojneHbi eepensm. max umo ebicwee ynpae- 
.ienue MaconcmeoM cocpedomoneho uatvovumejibHO e ee- 
peiicKux pyKax»[Jlyn ceema. T.J. BepxilH, 1919, c. 50]. 

«Bojiee Toro, He TOJibKO peno iioiihh. ho h nepBaa 
MHpoBaa BOHHa 6biJia /rejioM pyK «MyapeuoB», KOTopue koh- 

TpOjlHpOBaJlH HlieillHKWO no^HTHKy AhTJIHH H OpaHUHH. 

Kainep h uapb caejiajiH bcc hto6m H36e»aTb bohhu, ho ohh 
He norma no came paBHHTbca c «MyapeuaMH». E^hhctbchhwh 
Tenepb UDCQfl — 3to cok>3 hcthhhoh TepMaHHH c hcthhhoh 
PoccHefi, to ecTb Poccnen h TepMaHneH noa /jHicraTypoH 
npaBbix. TaKOH cok>3 uoxeT 6pocHTb hwior h pa3pyuiHTb 
eBpeHCKO-MacoHCKHH 3aroBop BMecTe c ero <J)paHuy3CKHMH 

H aHTJlHHCKHMH MapHOHeTKaMH. JIOJDKeH 6bITb BbUlBHHyT 

HOBbiH .i03yHr: «Pocchh, TepMaHHa — npeBbiine Bcero. 
npeBbiuie Bcero b MHpe!» «H Toraa, — KOMMeHTupyeT 
BHH6epr, — o6aHapoaa HaflayT CBoe HacToamee npH3Ba- 
HHe h o6peTyT BceHejioBenecKoe, BciHKOjryiiiHoe h 6jiaro- 
CTHoe crrpeMJieHHe k «Mnpy Bcero Mnpa» [BnH6epr O. B. 
KpecTHbiH nyrb. MioHxeH, 1922, c. 49]. 



BKanecTBe nonHTHHecKOH nporpaMMbi BbicKa3biBa- 
BHfl BHH6epra hcbo3mo>kho 6mjio npHHHMaTb Bcepbe3. Cpe- 
KH pyccKHX 3MHrpaHTOB, aa>Ke b cpeae npaBbix 3KCTpeMHc- 
tob, jiHiub He3HaMHTe^bHan HacTb MeMTajia npH3BaTb Tepvia- 

HHK) Ha nOMOUlb, HToGbl BOCCTaHOBHTb UapCKHH pe)KHM, a 

cpe^H HeMeuKHX npaBbix .•num. HeMHorHe, HanpnMep JIio- 

iieHilOpCp, HaCTOJlbKO oi.i.ill OTOpBaHbl OT pea.1bHOCTH. HTO 

Bcepbe3 paccMaTpHBajiH B03MO>KHOCTb pecTaBpauHH 

MOHapXHH. 

C flpyrofl ctopohw, BHHSepr 6uji a6cojiK)THo npaB, 

CHHTafl, HTO «npOTOKO^bI» HaH*iyT B TepMaHHH 3HaHHTe^bHO 
60J1bUJHH OTIGIHK, HeM B JlK)6oH apvrOH CTpaHC Oh 3H8JI, 
KOHeHHO, HTO CO BpeMeHH HO illMKHOBCH IIH aHTHCeMHTH3Ma 

KaK nonHTHHecKOH chjih (okojio 1 870 roja) oh 6wji 3HanH- 
TejibHO cH^bHee h 3HaHHTejibHO 6ojiee uiHpoKO pacnpocTpa- 

HeH B TepMaHHH, HeM B AhFJIHH H (DpaHUHH. Ho 3T0 6bIJ10 

eme He Bee: KaK TOjTbKO CTano hcho, hto TepMaHHa npoHrpw- 
BaeT BOHHy, Te, kto bcji CTpaHy k xaTacTpocpe, nocneiumiH 

CBaJlHTb BHHy Ha eBpeeB, KOTOpUX oGt^SBH^H OTBeTCTBeHHbl- 
MH He TOJibKO 3a pa illH iMiUHIMC BOHHbl, HO H 3a IlopaVKCHIIC B 

Hefi. 

Y)KeB »HBape 1918 roaa OKeMecaHHHK npaBbix «XIoh- 
HJiaHii 3pHonepyHr» ony6jiHKOBaji HeKOTopue BapnauHH Ha 
TeMy «PeHH PaBBHHa», ho H3paiiHO npncnocoGjieHHbie k 
Tpe6oBaHHnM TeKymero MOMeHTa. Oh coo6uian, hto b 1913 
rojiy b riapHxce co6pajiacb Me»ayHapojiHafl rpynna eBpeeB- 
6aHKHpoBHnpHHH^apenjeHHe, — hto HacTynHno BpeMH&jm 
KpynHbix (pHHaHCHCTOB CBeprHyrb c npecTOJioB uapefi h hm- 
nepaTopoB h otkpwto HaB«3aTb cboio BJiacTb BceMy MHpy; 

TO, HTO paHbUJe KOHTpOJlHDOBanOCb TaHHO, Tenepb ilOJDKHO 
CTaTb OTKpblTOH AHKTaTypOH. Hmchhu 3TH JIIOflH HOIVICK in 

MHp b BOHHy. Ohh TaKJKe HacTanBajiH Ha tom, hto «eBpen- 
cKHe arHTaTopu» aOji>KHbi TaK noaopBaTb o6mecTBeHHbie 
ycTOH TepMaHHH, hto6h HHOCTpaHHbie ;icp>Kani,i motjih 
6ecnpenflTCTBeHHO HanacTb Ha Hee, 3apaHee 3Haa, hto 3Ta 

BOHHa npeBpaTHTCfl B peBOJlK)U.HK). 

3Ty «CMejiyio» vmeto 6wcTpo BocnpHHHJiH b npaBbix 
Kpyrax. TaK, b TeneHHe nocjie^Hnx oTHaaHHbix mcchik-k 

BOHHbl B TepMaHHH H ABCTpHH B03HHKajIH 3a6aCTOBKH, 

noBCKojy pa36pacbiBariH -iHCTOBKH, yTBep)KaaBUJHe, hto «aMe- 
pHKaHCKHe, aHrjiHHCKHe h pyccKHe eBpen BbtnenwiH 1500 

MHH^HOHOB MapOK... HT06bl HaTpaBHTb neMneB Ha HeMueB, 

6paTa Ha 6paTa». 

BaBrycTel918 roja, Koraa HeMeuKaji epvau cneuiHo 
OTCTynajia Ha 3ana.HHOM 4>Pohtc noKTop Otto uy 3ajibM- 
XopuiMap, KOTopbifi 3aTeM CTaji aKTHBHWM pacnpocTpa- 
HHTejieM «ripoTOKO^OB». saHBiii: «repMaHH« nponrpbiBaeT 
Bonny H3-3a Toro, hto aeMOKpaTHHecKas HaeojiorHJi no^o- 
pBajia yKopeHeHHyio b TepMaHHH (pH^ocoqbHio apncTOKpa- 
TH3\ia, hto iieMOKpaTHHecKaJi HzieonorHH HauiJia HaH6o-nb- 
niyK) noimep^KKy b Me»nyHapo^HOM eBpencTBe, TencTBy- 
lomeM Hepe3MacoHCKHeno>KH». Jlfu ycn.TeHHB CBoeii apry- 
MeHTauHH oh Ao6aBMJi, hto JleHHH TaKKe eBpen h npHHaime- 

XHT K MaCOHCKOH J10*e B riapiDKe, K TOH CaMOH, HTO H 

TpouKHH. Bee 3TO KHfl3b BbiCKa3a.i b o(])unna.n>noii penn b 
BepxHen najiaTe npyccKoro nap^aMeHTa. 

ra3eTa «Ay^> (J>opnocTeH» TaK npoKOMMeHTHpoBana 
OKOHHaTenbHoe nopa)KeHHe TepMaHHH: «Ee.io-eojiy6ou $mo2 



B/iaroc/iOBeHwe Ha reHOMi/ifl 



95 



eepeucKoeo napoda u Kpoeaeo-Kpacnoe 3na.ua cmapbix, 
uccmapu eocnpunambix utonuandcKux pumyajoefMacoHC- 
koh cucme.ua u.ueem 33 cmynenu; uionuandcKuu pumyai — 
odua U3 hux, Komopaa 01,1.1a ycmaHoejieua e CoeduHeHHbix 
LLImamax u pacnpocmpauwiacb HOMHOeue cmpanbi. — Ilpu- 
.ueu. nepee.J e nacmoxiuee epeAta euuepaiu! Tpouu 
poMdHoebix, eaoc6yp2oe u aoeeHuo.xiepnoe... onycmciu, a 
rep.ua mm cmouem nod mupanueu pa6ouux u co.idamcKux 
Coeemoe»[«Auf Vorposten». 1918, Heft 4-6, S. 82] . 

BHanajie 1919ro,aa, kotjxz hcmum nepeacHBaiiH ropewb 
nopaaceHHH, mohbiuhci. o6T»eMHCTbie khhi-h, noapo6HO 

HCT0JIKOBbIBaK>lUHe HCXOJlBOHHbl.Cpe.aH HHX HaH60JIbllieH 

nonyjiJipHOCTbio narib30BajiHCb «CHera, KOTopbieTepMaHHfl 
aoji)KHa CBecTH c eBpeflMn», BbiuieaiuHe noa nceBaoHHMOM 
BHJibreiibM MaHcrrep[ABTopoM 6bi.i riayjib BaHr, 3KcnepT no 
3KOHOMHKe b HauHOHajibHofi napTHH TepMaHHH, npeeM- 

HHIibl KOHCCpBaTHBHOH napTHH IlpyccHH, cymecTBOBaB- 
uieHao 1918 rojia], h «BceMHpHoe MacoHCTBo, BceMHpHaa 
peBOJiiouHa. BceMHpHaa pecny6;iHKa — HCcaeaoBaHne 
npoHcxo>KaeHHfl h KOHe^Hbix uejiefi mhpoboh bohhh» aoK- 
Topa cj>. Bhxtjih. 

06e khhfh obuiH HanenaTaHbi b Miohxchc me 
Anojibcp THTnep TOJibKo iki-ihiu-i cbokj nojiHTHwecKyK) 
Kaptepy. Uejib 3thx KHHr c 3aMeHaTenbHofi HanBHocTbio 
ooTjjiCHeHa caMHM Bhxtjicm: «MbixoTHMy6eaHTbHHTaTeji5i, 

MT006BHH»TbBHyaOBHUlHOM KDOBOnpOJIHTHH Heo6xOflHMO 

He Hac, HeMueB, a eBpeHCKO-MacoHCKHfi BcevinpHbiH 3aroBop. 
3Toro He3pHMoro rocnojHHa Bcex HapoaoB ■ rocyaapcTB» 
[Wichtl F. Weltfreimaurerei, Weltrevolution,Weltrepublik. 
Munich, 1922, S. 268]. 

rio.apa3yMeBajiocb, kohcmho. mto Pocchs HaxcanTCJi b 
uenKHx aanax 3toh ch-im, ho hto b He MeHbuiefi cieneHH 
nojiHHHeHa en h Ahi-jima. AHmimaHe cobmcctho c eBpeaMH 
BCTynmn b 3aroBop h pa ?bh ki.ih BOHHy, hto6h jierne aoc- 
THHb MHpoBoro rocnaacTBa. KaK h nauH(pHCTCKaa npona- 
raaaa, KOTopaa noaopBajia Momb rep.MaHHH, AHTaHTa Obuia 
0praHH3OBaHaeBpeaMH H3Hx6acTHOHa b JloHiiOHe. H ec,™ 
TpOUKHH HBJIJieTCa OJHOBpeMeHHO areHTOM bmcujhx (pH- 

HaHcoBbix KpyroB h paBBHHaTa, to eBpencKHM MOHapxoM, 

KOTOpblH aOJDKeH 6bITb B03BeaeH Ha TpOH b KanecTBe npaBH- 

Tena Bcero MHpa, .aoaweH cTaTb He kto hhoh, KaK Kopo/ib 
Teopr V. CTpaHa, b KOTopoii noao6HMH B3.aop Mor nojib30- 
BaTbc» rpoMaflHoii nonyjiapHOCTbio (3a o^hh ro.a 3th khhth 
pa30uijiHCb THpaacoM b 50 Tbic. 3K3eMnjiapoB KayKn.au), aew- 
CTBHTejibHO co3peaa una «ripoTOKOJioB». 

Ho Tyr «ripoTOKOJibi» a&riH ocenicy. npcanojiaraiocb 
ony6iiHKOBaTb hx oaHOBpeMeHHO b TepMaHHH h Ahfjihh c 

COOTBeTCTByWUJHMH KOMMeHTapHHMH, OflHaKO HaHTH B 

Ahhihh H3aaTejia OKa3anocb ,ia:icKo He ^erKHM ae^OM. 
rio3TOMy ny6jiHKauH» hx b TepMaHHH 6bijia OTnoiKeHa no 
Hanana 1 920 roaa. Ho y>Ke b anpene 1919 roaa npecTapejibifi 
Teoiiop ct>pHTiii, «naTpHapx repMaHCKoro aHTHceMHTH3Ma», 
ony6^HKOBaji b cbocm «MojiOTe» npeacKa3aHHe, KOTopoe 
*Ko6bi b 1 895 roay, to eerb bo BpeMH noaBneHHfl «npoTOKo- 
jiob», c^enaji b 1 1 apii >kc KaKOH-To eBpeficKHH peBonrouHOHep: 
«ripHMepHO Hepe3TpHauaTb JieT TepMaHHu Gy/ier BOBjieneHa 
b 6oJibuiyio BOHHy, KOTopyw OHa 6yaeT BhiHyvK.iena npoHr- 
paTb.Tor.aa Ha pyHHax TepMaHCKofi HMnepHH im nocTpoHM 



Haiuy HMnepHio, KaK HaM h o6emaji HeroBa, a uapeM ee 

CTaHeT BTOpOH Co.lOMOH». KaK ABCTByeT H3 Bl.l lllCnpiIBC.'lCH- 
HOrO OTpblBKa, OpHTUJ OblJl 3HaKOM C TeKCTOM «HpOTOKO- 
^OB» (BCKOpe OH HX H3,0.aCT H nonyHHT orpoMHyK) npH6wjib). 
Toraa »ce, b anpe^e 1919 rona, «Ay(J) (bopnocTeH» 
noviecTHJiaHa cbohx CTpaHHuax o6b«BneHHe. KOTopoe hbjiji- 
eTCJi BecbMa cepbe3HbiM aoKyMeHTOM: «B rep.uanuu uH<pop- 
.uauiiH o cuohckux .uydpeuax do eounbi 6bua meecmHa .iuwb 
e eepeucKux u mocohckux Kpyeax. Mupoean ucmopun, 
HecoMHeHHo, nouua 6bi no dpyvo.uy nymu, earn 6bi npaeu- 
mcibcmea eeponeucKiix cmpaHno3HaKo.uu.iucb c«Tauna.uu 
cuohckux uydpeuoe» 3a6.iaeoepe.ueHuo u cde.ia.iu U3 eceeo 
npaewibHbie ebieodbi... Pf3-3a.MJieK0me.wcmu. npoae.we.uou 
HapodoMii LleHmpaibHou Eeponbi, u oco6euHO He.ueuKU.\t 
Hapodo.u. 6 nodxode k eepeucKo.uy eonpocy. odnapodo- 
saHue do eouHbi ucmunHbix i^cieu eepeee 6buio 6bi, 
eepoamno, omtcioneHo c Hedoeepnueou y.ibidKOii. JJajKe eo 
epe.ua eounbi mo.ibKo HCUHoaue oco3ho.iu, nmo .uoMcem 
cyuiecmeoeamb KaKou-mo eeiumu n.ian ynuumooiceHua rep- 
mohuu: nocea^euHbie 3Ha.iu, nmo .uacoubi u eepeu pa3pa6a- 
mbieam imom man 3ado.ieo do Havana eounbi. ho 
npomaxcenuu decamwiemuu, umo6bi HU3.w.ycumb npaeau^ue 
dunacmuu Eeponbi, a 3ame.u Hanamb 6opb6y npomue 
i^epKeu... IJycmb decnpucmpacmubiu mpuoyHa.1 paccydum, 
Kmo eunoeam e 3mou eoune! A/w ebi3bieae.u pyKoeodumcieu 
MewdynapodHoao .uacoHcmea, eepeucKux eceMupnbix co- 
to3oe u ecex e.iaeHbix paeeuuoe e imom mpu6yHa.i»[«Auf 
Vorposten», 1919, Heft 4-6, S. 78-80]. 

B 3TOM B033BaHHH npaBilOH HBJIHeTCJl JlHlIlb O.HHO: JHOflH, 

KOTopue nepca bohhoh npocTo CMesjincb Han «ripoTOKo;ia- 
mh» h c npe3peHHeM ot hhx OTBopanHBajincb, Tenepb 
BOCnpHHHMaJIH hx Bcepbe3. 

Te TparHHecKHe coohthh, KOTopue nponcxoaHjiH b 
Pocchh nocie Oiaji6pbCKOH peBaniouHH, jxonyKnu 6buin no- 

BTOpHTbCJI, TOJlbKO B 3HaHHTe J lbHO 6o,iee UlHpOKOM MacuiTa- 

6e, b TepMaHHH. IloTepneBiuHe nopaaceHHe, iiOBeaeHHbie no 

0THaflHHfl^IOaHAOn>KHbl6bIjTH XBaTaTbCJJ 3a 3Ty CMeXOTBOp- 
HyiO (paJlbUJHBKy, MT06m XOTb KaK-TO OObJICHHTb CBOH 

HecnacTba h onpaBaaTb cboh co6cTBeHHbie npoviaxH. H 
maBHoe, ropcTKa nojiHTHHecKHx aBamropncTOB Bocnojib30- 
Bajiacb BceM 3thm KaK cpeacTBOM 3aBoeBaHna b^hjihhh, npn- 
BHjierHii, BnacTH, b neM HeKOTopue H3 hhx HacTOJibKO 
npeycnejiH, KaK He CHHJiocb HHKaKOMy norpoMiuHKy H3 

«MepHOH COTHH»... 

JlOHdOH 

flepeeod c aHanuucKoao C. BbiHKoea 

riydnuKyemca no u3daHUK>: 
Koh H. Bnazocnoeenue Ha zeHomid. - M.: ripoapecc, 1990 

ripoflo/DKeHHe — b cneAyKDLueM HOMepe «KapTbi» 

B Mamepuane ucno/ib3oeaHbi (pomozpacpuu 

(pomoebicmaeKu "Hepma oced/iocmu: do u nocne". 

1995 «BRON,» Amsterdam. 



SB 



B. B0J1K0B 



«£ 3HAK BEAbl 



IPaUIH3M B POCCMN 

Mto 3aBTpa? 



OaiiJH3M b Pocchh — 3to peajibHocrb. B Heapax pOCCHH- 
CKoro o6mecTBa oh 3peeT yace aanno. JleHHBOMy h BHJioMy 
oouBaTeJiK) xohctch, hto6m k BjiacTH upmjjuui peunrrenbHue, 
nojTJiHyTbie Monoawe maj& h ycTpaHHjiH Bee npo6jieMbi. 
IlaTpHOTy xoneTca, hto6w cpauiHCTbi 6e3>KanocTHOCKpyTHJiH 
rojiOBbi He b Mepy pc jbi.im «Hau.MeHaM» h 3acTaBHJin Bcex 
yBa>KaTb pyccKHx. HHTejuinreHUHH y»e cennac xohctch boc- 
neBaTb CHJibHyio JiHHHocrb, noKHOHHTbca eft. HecMOTpa Ha 
npe3naeHTCKHH YKa3 ot 23 MapTa 1995 r. «0 Mepax no 
6opb6e c npoHBJieHHHMH (paniH3Ma h hhmx (|)opM nojiHTHHec- 
k-oro 3KcrpeMH3Ma b CTpaHe», ra3eTHbie CTaTbH, npcaynpeac- 
aeHHfl o6mecTBeHHbix .aejrrejieH. 6opb6a c 4)auiH3MOM b Poc- 
chh no chx nop HOCHJia hhcto aeicnapaTHBHbiH xapaicrep. P$u 
(pauiHcrcKHX opraHH3audH o(J)HUHa;ibHO 3aperHCTpHpoBaHbi 
b MnHHCTcpcTBe iocthuhh, a HeKOTopbie hx Jinaepbi .aaace 
6bLiH BbinBHHyTbi KaHUHjaTaMH b TocyziapcTBeHHyio JlyMy h 
b npe3HfleHTbi Pocchh. TaKHM o6pa30M, aaepacaB no6eay 
nan cpauimMOM b bohhc mm He npno6pejiH HMMyHHTeT npo- 

THB CaMOH erOCyTH. KpOMe TOrO, (paLUH3M MHOrOJIHK, H3MCH- 

hhb, cnoco6eH k mhmhkphh. 

HanpHMep, pyccKHe HauHOHajrucTbi co CBacTHKaMH Ha 
pyKax BbicTynawTnojiMacKOH pyccKHx ypa-naTpHOTOB. Kcra- 
TH, 6oeBHKH B HepHblX py6aiUKaX — 3T0 TOJlbKO HacTb no.iH- 

THnecKoro TeMeHHH, HMeHyiomero ce6» «HauHOHaribHo-naT- 

pHOTHHeCKHM ABHH<eHHeM». JlyXOBHblH BaKyyM, C03,aaHHbIH 

KpyuieHHeM KOMMyHHCTHHecKOH MopajiH h pacnaiioM CCCP, 
He cmohih 3ano-iHHTb hh .iH6epajibHO-aeMOKpaTHHecKHe ueH- 

HOCTH, HH XpHCTHaHCTBO, HH HapOJlHHHeCTBO. Tpa^HUHH Ha- 

UHOHaji-6ojibiueBH3Ma b Hauien crpaHe npHBcnn k KOMMyno- 
(J)auiH3My. PoacTBo KOMMyHH3Ma h (j)aujH3Ma He cjiynafiHo: h 
to h .apyroe — pa3HOBHflHOCTH TOTa;iHTapH3Ma. OflHa «nep- 
Haa» (J>a3a TOTajiHTapH3Ma Jienco nepeTeKaeT b jipyryio — 
«KpacHyK>» (h Hao6opoT), a nocTKOMMyHHCTHnecKHH <pa- 
ujh3m OKa3biBaeTC5i eme 6ojiee onacHUM. Tenept yace pyc- 

CKHH (J)aUJH3M MOHCeTpaCCHHTblBaTb Ha CBOK) ajCTyajIbHOCTb H 

BOCTpe6oBaHHOCTb o6mecTBOM. OamHcrcicaji yrpo3a crrajia 
peanbHOCTbK) b Pocchh. Otmcthm, hto pyccKHii cpaiuH3M 
HeojiHopoaeH h npcacTaBjifleT co6oh uejibin cnejcrp KopnnHe- 
bwx, KpacHO-KopHHHeBbix h MepHO-KopHHHeBbix opraHH3a- 

UHH, B KOTOpOM HeTKO pa3JIHHaK)TC$I (pyHHaMCHTaJlHCTCKOe H 

aBaHrap^HCTCKoe Kpbmo. OaHaico b maBHOM ohh eaHHbi: hm 
BceM Hy>KeH «hobwh nopa.aoK». 

YneHbie cHHTaiOT, hto b coBpevieHHOH Hayne HeT o6me- 
npH3HaHHoro onpcaejieHHH 4>aujH3Ma, nocKOJibicy 3tot (peHo- 
MeH cJioaceH h noJiHTHnecKH HeonH03HaHeH, npoTHBopenHB. 
B nocjicuHHe ro^w noHJrrne (j)auiH3Ma oKa3ajiocb cnjibHO 



pa3MbiTbiM, b CHJiy Hero aaTb fopHimnecKyio TpaKTOBKy ae<pH- 

HHUitll aOCTaTOHHO C.IOJKHO. B HayHHOM CMbicjie, cyiMMHpyH 

noHHTHJ!,Hcnojib3yeMb!eBcneuHanbHOH^HTepaType(B.5lAOB, 
A. TajiKHH, C. neiiH h up.), (pauiH3M — 3to naeojiorHJi 

KOHCepBaTHBHOH peBOJHOUHH, BK. IRi'KlKMHUH BCe6»: 

KpaHHHH HaU.H0Ha.1H3M, HOCHIUHH MHCTHMeCKHH XapaK- 

Tep, HauHOHajibHUH cojiH.aapH3M; 

Bepy b rocy^apcTBO, mhcthhcckhh 3TaTH3M; 

HiieiocouHajibHoro rocyaapcTBa, rocyiiapcTBeHHUH na- 
TepHa-iH3M; 

KopnopaTHBH3M, cTpeMjieHHe 3aKOHoaaTe^bHo iaKpe- 
nHTb CTpyicrypHpoBaHHe o6mecTBa no npoqoeccHOHanbHO- 
KopnopaTHBHOMy npH3HaKy; 

opneHTauHK) Ha «Tpa;iHU.HOHHwe ueHHOCTH»; 

arpeccHBHyio KceHO(po6HK), aoxoajnnyio b rep\iaHCKOM 
BapnaHTe no pacH3Ma; 

Bepy B KOHCTpyKTHBHbie B03MO»HOCTH nOJIHTHHeCKOrO 

HacHJina; 

HaeropacuiHpeHHH «>KH3HeHHoro npocTpaHCTBa»Haunn; 
aHTHnapnaMeHTapH3M; 

Bepy B BO>KiW; 
MHJlHTapH3M. 

O^HaKo He BCJiKaii aHTHaeMOKpaTHHecKaa H^eojiorHH — 

(paUIH3M, He BCHKHH flHKTaTOpCKHH pc'Ali \l (paiUHCTCKHH. 






ff / 



. r. I. 



HeHMPHAnnP 3 ^"^-" 1 * )f "' 



QaLuu3M b Pocci/ii/i. Hto 3aBTpa? 



97 



HmcTaTypa (DpaHKO b HcnaHHH He 6u;ia (pauiHCTCKOH, xotjj 
«HcnaHCKaji cpajiaHra» Ha nepBbix nopax nrpajia b CTpyicry- 
pax BiiacTH cymecTBeHHyio ponb. To *<e caMoe h apxaHHHaa 
^HtrraTypa Cana3apa b TIopTyranHH. PyMMHCKaa «)Ke^e3Haa 
rBap^HH» KojpjJHy 6wjia (pauiHCTCKOH napTHeii, ho MapnoHe- 
tomhuh pexcHM AHTOHecKy — Bpun, J1H. 

H3BecTHWH Bceviy MHpy hhjihhckhh unirraTop reHeparj 
A. riHHOHeT BOBce He 6bi;i (pauiHCTOM, xoth b HueojiorHii ero 
pexmia mojkho Han™ MHoro nepT, cxoahux c (pauiH3MOM. 
Bo B3nuuax B. B. )KnpHHOBCKoro h Haeo;iorHH JWIP mhoto 
o6iuero c (pauiH3MOM, ho Ha ceroaHfliuHHH neHb oh — pa^H- 
Ka.ii.Mi.iii HMnepHariHCT-aBTopHTapHCT. B nocjieaHee BpeMH 
oh aKTMBHO 3aHrpbiBaeT c pyccKHMH «naTpHOTaMH». Ycjiobho 
noCjiejHiix M03KHO no^enHTb Ha HaunoHaji-naTpiioTOB ( PHE 
— A. BapKauiOBa, PHC — A. CrepjinroBa) h mmepcKHX 
naTpnoTOB («aep«aBHHKH» hjth «rocynapcTBeHHHKH», KaK, 
HanpHMep: «ilep)KaBa» — A. PyuKoro, POC — C. Ba6ypHHa). 

Oauj>i3M — 3to H^eojiorHJi h npahTHKa, yTBepataaiouiHe 
npeBocxo^CTBO h HCKjnoMHTe.ibHocTb onpeaejieHHOH iiaiUiH 
h.ih pacu ii HanpaB-ieHHbie Ha pa3>KiiraHHe HauHOHajibHOH 

HeTepnHMOCTH, oGoCHOBaHHe AHCKpHMHHaU.HH B OTHOUieHHH 

npeacTaBHTe.ieH hhmx HapoaoB, OTpnuaHHe jjeMOKpaTHH. 
ycTaHOB,ieHHe KynbTa Boatzw; npHMeHeHHe HacHJiHH h Teppo- 

pa JJIH IIO.iaH.ICIIHM nOJIHTHHeCKHX OpOTHBHHKOB H JHOOblX 

(popM HHaKOM wuttUi onpaBjaHHe bohhu KaK cpejjCTBa peuie- 
hhh MOKrocyaapcTBeHHbix npo6jieM. Ot (pauin3Ma Hy>KHo 

OTJIHHaTb nOJlHTHHeCKHH 3KCTpeMH3M, KOTOpblH HBJIJieTCfl 

6ojiee ujHpoKHM noHjrrneM. Oh npeanojiaraeT nponaranay h 

HCnOj3b30BaHIie HaCHJIHJI JUlfl aOCTHMCeHHfl JlK)6blX nOJlHTH- 
HeCKHX UeJiefi. IloJIHTHHeCKHH 3KCTpeMH3M MOHv'eT HMeTb 

pa3Hyw HaeonorHHecKyio HanpaBneHHOCTb ((pauincTCKyio, 
KOMMyHHCTHHecKyio. cenapaTHCTCKyio h up.), npoHBJiHTbCH b 
cqbepax HamioHa-ibHbix othoujchuh, pejinrH03Hbix Bepoyne- 

HHH. BHeiHHefi H BHyTpeHHeH nOJlHTHKC 3TO TOBOpHT O TOM, 
HaCKOJIbKO CJKEKHO HCnOjlb30BaTb lOpHflHHeCKHe 3anpeTbi 

(pauiH3Ma 11 no.iHTHHecKoro3KCTpeMH3Ma. HanpHMep, Hjieo- 
.norHK) KaKTaKOByio 3anpeTHTb hcbo3mo>kho, ee mohcho jmuib 
3arHaTb BHyTpb. npnuaB eii aonojiHHTejibHbie <«KH3HeHHbie 
CHJiw». rio3TOMy HyweH cneuHajibHbiH 3aKOH o 3anpemeHHH 
(pauiHCTCKOH nponaraHjbi n (paiuncTCKHx aBHHceHHH, b koto- 
poM 6u jiii 6bi o6o3HaqeHbi ochob- 
Hbie npmuuKii 4>aujH3Ma. OaHaKO 

HCXOflfl H3 3THX OCHOBaHHH, IKVJBa Tb 

CTporoTeopeTHHecKH. HanpHMep, Tex 
ace «6apKaiuoBueB» pyccKHMii (pauin- 
CTaMH, a He nojiHTHnecKiiMH 3Kcrpe- 
MiiCTaMii oyRQT jjOBOJibHO npoojie- 

MaTHHHO. 

ripHcyTCTBiie b 3aKOHe aoBxna 
(pauiH3M H3JiHiuHe h onacHo. B npo- 
rpaMMax Heo(})auiHCTOB npHnyjuiHBO 
nepermeTeHbi KOHcepBaTHBHbie, mo- 

AepHHCTCKHe, KOJUieKTHBHCTCKIie, 
HHJIHBHayaJlHCTHMeCKHe, HaUHOHaJlH- 
CTHHeCKHe, HHTepHaUHOHaJIHCTCKHe 

ueHHOCTH. Ho b H^eojiorHHecKHH 6a- 
raw nonaaaiOT Jinuib Te TPHBM, no- 
CTyjiaTbi, KOHuenuHH, KOTopue Jier- 



ko nojuaioTca paanKajibHO-arpeccHBHOH, 3kctpcmhctckoh 

HHTepnpeTaUHH. Fl03T0My HeB03MO>KHO 6opOTbCH C nOMO- 

mbK) lopH^HHecKHx 3anpeTOB c o6uienpii3HaHHbiMH poaoBbi- 
mh nepTaMH (pauiH3Ma, KaK, HanpHMep, coiiHajibHaa aeMaro- 
m h Jioacb, KyjibT bojkjw, OTpnuaHHe o6uienejiOBeHecKHx 
ueHHocTen, HenpHHTHc i lap.uiMcii i a h i ipn ii i ui i la pa3iie^eHHJi 
B.iacTeH. Ha none Hjieii 3aKOHy Bxoj3anpemeH, HOKaKTo^bKo 
OTaejibHbie JiHua HaHHHaioT iiponaiaii.nipoHan, iianno- 

HaJlbHyK) (paCOByiO) HCKJHOHHTeJlbHOCTb, I Ipll'il.l »a 1 1, k iiaun- 

OHajibHOMy HepaBHonpaBHK), C03^aBaTb BoeHH3iipoBaHHbie 

(J)OpMHpOBaHHH H T.fl., — OHH HeMeiUieHHO JlOJiaCHbl HeCTH 

oTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a npecTynHbie .icmhmh. 

ToTajiHTapHbifi cTpoii, cymecTBOBaBiUHH b CCCP 70 
jier, c nojiHbiM ocHOBamieM mot 6bi 6biTb HatBaH couh- 
a.ibHbiM (pauiH3M0M. y Hac yace 6bm cboh OTeHecTBeHHbiii 
(j)auiH3M — He co cBacTHKon, a c cepnoM h mojiotom. Tenepb 
oh MoaceTJierKO B03poflHTbCJi noacp.iaroM HauHOHa.i-KOMMy- 

HH3Ma. 

IloKa (pauiH3M He y anacTH, oh cyuiecTByeT KaK Haeo^o- 
rHH. 3aTeM, Kan mm y)Ke 3HaeM, njien oBJiajjeBaioT tnccsam h 
cj)auiHCTCKafl napTHJi (HamioHajibHaa, naTpHOTHHecKaji, couh- 
ajiHCTimecKafl, jiHoepajibHa» bbb KaKas-JinGo euie) nojiynaeT 

Ha CB06oaHbIX, jeMOKpaTHMeCKIIX Bbl6opaX 60JIbUIHHCTB0 

iojiocob h ycTaHaBjiHBaeT TOTajiHTapHbiH pe»HM. HHTepec- 

HO, HTO, nOMHMO KOHCTHTyilHH P<t> hY rojiOBHoro KOjieKca, y 
Hac jocTaTOMHO npaBOBbix aKTOB, 3anpemaiouiHx B03o>OKiie- 
Hiie HauHOHa-ibHofi, pacoBoii mm pejinrH03HOH Bpaaubi hjih 
po3HH, nponaraH^bi HacH-iHs, bohhm h t.h. OaHaxo naccHB- 
HocTb npaBooxpaHHTejibHbix opraHOB. PocKOMneiaTH, pern- 
OHajibHbix HHcneKuiiH no 3auiHTe cboSojim nenaTH h Macco- 
Bofi nH(J)opMauHHaaeTnonHyK)CBo6oziyaJi>i BHejipeHHH H^efi 
(j)auiH3Ma b o6iuecTBCHHoe C03HaHHe. 

OaKTHHecKH o6mecTBO njiaTHT 3a CBOH OeCKpOBHblfi 
nepexoA k aeMOKpaTHH (1991 r.), ho HCTHHHaa neMOKpaTHA 

— 3to jHicraTypa 3aKOHa, KOTopwii noKa 6e3M0.iBCTByeT... 
^HCKpeAHTauHa aeMOKpaTHii b Pocchh o6orHajia caMy ae- 
MOKpaTHio h 6e>KHT BnepejH Hee. Co6;ia3H cBoero, poccHHC- 
Koro nyro pa3BHTH5i — sto tot »e co6.ia3H KOMMyHH3Ma, 
TOJibKo onpoKHHyrbiH. Xyauiaa nepTa 3anajHOH jieMOKpaTHH 

— HeyeMHoe noTpe6nTe-ibCTBO, 04HaK03T0 Jiynuie, neM TOTa- 




91 



Qauji/i3M b Pocci/ih. Hto 3aBTpa? 




jiHTapHoe 6ecnpaBHe h yHHaceHne HejioBenecKoro jioctohh- 

CTBa H J1HHHOCTH. 

M«K/ryHapo.aHbiH (popyM «cI>aiiiH3M b TOTariHTapHOM H 
nocTTOTa-iHTapHOM o6mecTBe», npoxoAHBUiHfi b Mockbc b 
HHBape 1995 r., nbrrajiCH ocMbicjiHTb HbmeiiiHJOK) CHTyaunio, 
aaTb aHajiH3 npeanocwjiOK poccHHCKoro (paujH3Ma, noKa3aTb 
ero HjeHHbie kophh h nepcneKTHBbi pa3BHTHfl. 

C Tex nop MHoroe ywe H3MeHHjiocb b Pocchh, h He b 
jiyninyio dopoHy. 06ocTpeHHe couHajibHooKOHOMHHecKOH 
CHTyauHH b CTpaHe, pod npecTynHOCTH, yrpo3a /iep>KaBHo- 

GOJlbllieBHCTCKOHilHKTaTypbl KpaHHC nO;iHpH30BajIH pOCCHH- 

CKoe o6mecTBO Ha ctopohhhkob (okcctkoh pyKH» h anojiore- 
tob jiH6epajibHO-pbiHOHHoro cueHapnji pa3BHTHH. CjieayeT 

HanOMHHTb, HTO B PoCCHH H/ieH HaU.HOHaJI-COUHaJIH3Ma HMe- 

jot cboh oco6eHHOCTH. Y Hac (noica eme) ner eAMHOH cruio- 
neHHOH (paiuHCTCKOH napTHH (xots perHOHajibHbie OTae/ie- 
hh« PHE HMeiOTca noHTH bo Bcex cy6beKTax P<D), hct xapm- 
MaTHHecKoro n m ep a , KOTopwH nonb30Bajics 6w a6cojnoT- 

HblM aBTOpHTCTOM H MOP 6bl BbinOJIHHTb pOJIb UeMCHTHpyK)- 

mefi ochobw Bcero hbhjkchhh. PyccKHe (pauiHCTbi HecnpocTa 
6paBHpyK»T CBoeii pe;iHrH03HOCTbio. CraHOBjrrcH Bee 6ojiee 
HacTOHHHBbiMH nonbiTKH HeKOTopwx cBHiueHHHKOB npeBpa- 
THTb npaBocjraBHe b 3THHHecKyK> pejiHrnio. b aTpn6yT pyc- 
ckoh HauHOHanbHOH HaeoJiorHH. H3 pyccKOH npaBOCJiaBHOH 
uepKBH xotjit caejiaTb pyccicyK) HauHOH&nbHyio uepKOBb, 

XOTfl XpHCTHaHCTBO CUHHO, HaflHaUHOHaJIbHO. 

riopa)KaeT cxoactbo H/jeojiorHHecKHX nocTyjiaTOB, JieK- 

CHKH HeOHaUHCTOB H npaBOCJiaBHWX CBSUieHHOCJiyiKHTeJieH. 

Bojibuiaa nacTb tckctob 3auHKJieHa Ha eBpencKOH TeMe, «mh- 
poBOM 3aroBope», «ripoTOK0Jiax chohckhx MyapeuoB» h t.jx. 
B HacToamee BpeMH 1 56 (pauiHCTCKHx, npoqbaujHCTCKHx, Ha- 
UHCTCKHX,couHaji-HauHOHajiHCTHHecKMx H3^aHHM npo/jaioT- 
ca h pacnpocTpaHflKvrcH Ha TeppHTopHH Pocchh (HanpHMep, 
raaenn «PyccKHH nopa.aoK», «Hapo/iHbiH CTpofi», «PyccKoe 
/jeno», «Mojihhh», «3aBTpa», «Ajib-Koac», «Onno3HHH»». 
«KojiOKom>», «ByM6apam»). 

no onpocaM o6mecTBeHHoro mhchhh (1998 r.), huchmh 
(pauiH3Ma 6biJiH yBJieneHbi He 6oJiee 5% ot HHCJia rojiocyio- 
mero HacejieHHa. onHaKO mhcjio coHyBCTByiouiHX hjih hh- 
^n(p(pepeHTHbix k 3T0My HBJieHHio — ropa3.ao 6ojibuie h 
npH6jiH5Kajiocb k 30%. Bojiee toto, hhcjto TaKHX rpaacaaH 

nOCTOHHHO paCTeT, HTO 06yCJI0BrteH0 MHOrHMH COUHaJlbHO- 



3KOHOMHHCCKHMH npHHHHaMH. RaeT KOJIOCCaJlbHOe o6HHiua- 

HHeHacejieHHJ). Mhcjio movineHOB HayjiHuax mhojkhtca Heno 
aHHM, a no nacaM. PyccKHe (a b Pocchh — 3to 90% Hacejie- 

HHfl) JJBHO HCHOBOJIbHbl 3aCHJIHeM «J1HU kailka JCKOl'i IK1HHO- 

HajibHocTH» h ceMHTOB b nojiHTHKe. 6n3Hece H ToproBJie. 
ApMHH coKpamaeTCfl, a paooTbi ana 6mbiiihx BoeHHOCJiy>Ka- 
iuhx HeT. B o6mecTBe 3peeT HeaoBOJibCTBO BHyrpeHHefi no- 

JIHTHKOH HCTe6jIHUJMeHTa, OTCyTCTBHCM npe3H/ieHTCKoro 
KOHTpo^H 3a CHTyauneii. PernoHbi 0TKa3biBaKrrc>i nepennc- 
ji«Tb aeHbrH b MocKBy. 3kohomhk3 Pocchh y>Ke He mohcct 
cymecTBOBaTb 6e3 cepbe3Hbix (pHHaHcoBbix h. i u nan n ii idrii e. 
Co3aaeTcacTOHKoe omymeHne, HTocpoHHOTpe6yeTCfl «cn^b- 
Ha« pyKa» a/i« HaBcaeHHH nopaiiKa. B ciovKnmiiciicM CHTya- 

UHH HfleH HaUHOH£Ll-COUHajIH3Ma, KOHCHH0, 6y^yT nOJlb30- 

BaTbca noBbiuieHHWM cnpocoM. H3BecTH0 TaioKe, hto (pa- 
UJH3M — hhth KpH3HCOB. MeM rjiy6iKe h Bceo6T>eMJiiome 
Kpn3Hc o6mecTBa, tcm nHTaTejibHen noHBa njix (paujH3Ma. 
<PauiH3M nepnaeTCBOH chjiw b MaccoBOM .ibhvkchum npoTec- 
Ta, a oho, b cBoio onepenb, Hy^iiaeTca b HjieojiorHH, cnoco6- 
hoh iiocTynHO ccpopMyjinpoBaTb uenn h cnoco6bi hx aocTH- 
>KeHHJj. co3aaTb o6pa3 Bpara. CHjrrb yrpo3y (pauiH3Ma cmokct 
TOJibKO yjiynujeHHe connajibHO-3KOHOMHHecKOH o6cTaHOBKH 
b Pocchh, a oho-to KaK pa3 h He npeaBHaHTCJi. 

rioKa eme b o6mecTBe coxpaHaeTcs cHJibHbifi HMMyHH- 
Ter na caM TepMHH «tpaujH3M» h, b onpe^ejieHHOH creneHH, — 
Ha nponaraHay hhcto (pauiHCTCKOH H^eojiorHH. B npaBHUinx 
Kpyrax He 3aMeHaeTCH CTpeMJieHHa k Hcnojib30BaHHio (paiun- 

CTCKHX MeTO^OB JLTIH COXpaHeHHfl BHaCTH. OHeBHJHO, noKa B 

3tom npocTO HeT Heo6xonHMOCTH. OaHaKo b HacToamee Bpe- 
mh noTeHunaji BjiacTH CTpeMHTejibHO ct&ji HCCHKaTb, h bot 
y»e mm «Bnoji3JiH» b yMepeHHO-aBTopHTapHbin pe»HM (pyn- 

KUHOHHpOBaHHH TOCyiiapCTBa. riOil yrpO30H HaXO/JHTCH HH- 

CTHTyr npe3HjeHTCTBa b Pocchh KaKTaKOBofi. Cero/iHJiujHHH 
peanbHbiH Bbi6op — 3TO Bbi6op Me»ay nonHbiM aBTopHTapH3- 
mom h no^yaeMOKpaTHew. ^o3HpoBKa aBTopnTapH3Ma 6yaei 
o6ycjioBnHBaTbc» peanbHbiMH Hy»naMH o6ujecTBa, ikoho- 

MHHeCKOHCHTyailHeH H OC06eHHOCTHMH nOJIHTHHeCKOH 6opb- 

6w... 

HcTopHHecKHH onbiT apyrux rocyiiapcTB, b nacTHOCTH 
TparnnecKHH onbiT 3aKaTa BefiMapcKOH pecnv6jiHKH h koh- 
cTHTynpoBaHHH (pauiHCTCKoro rocy/japcTBaB TepMaHHH, ynHT. 

HTO 6opb6a C (paUJH3MOM, KaK TOTaJIHTapHOH CHCTeMOH, HOJI- 
»Ha BeCTHCb BCeMH, B TOM HHC^e K)pHflHHeCKHMH, CpCHCTBa- 

mh eme no 3axBaTa anacTH ^HicraTypoH. 




^ 3HAK BEflbl 

CJIOBAPb 



99 



TEHOUMfl 



TeHOUMA [om apevecKoao genos — pod u namuHCKO- 
20 caedere — yOueamb] — AertcTBua, coBepwaeMbie c 
HaMepeHneM yHnmowMTb noriHOCTbio nnn MacTMHHO Ka- 
KyKD-nn6o HauMOHanbHyio, sTHMHecKyto, pacoByio mhm pe- 
nnrno3HyK) rpynny. 

TeHOUMA — 3to MaccoBoe npeAHaMepeHHoe ncnpe6- 
neHne rpynnw, npeACTaBnnwmeM, Ka« npaBuno, MeHb- 
luuhctbo HaceneHMS, ocymecTBnfleMoe rocyAapcTBOM nnn 
>Ke noAaBJiniOLUMM 6onbiuMHCTBOM, onnpaK>U4MMcn Ha cuny, 
BK/iKDMan rocyAapcTBeHHyio noAAepwKy. KoHuenunn reHo- 
UMfla 6bina BBeAeHa b Mex<AyHapoAHbiM npaBOBoii KOAeKc 
cpa3y >Ke nocne co6biTMM 1 933-1 945 toaob Ann Bbipa6oTKH 
npaBOBoro Mexann3Ma no npeAOTBpaujeHMK) noBTopeHMR 
coBepweHHoro TorAa reHOUMAa. 

1 1 AeKa6pfl 1 946 roAa nop, BnwnHueM HfopH6eprci<oro 
npouecca TeHepanbHan AccaM6nen OOH 3axneMMMna 
reHOUMA KaK cTpaujHoe npecTynjiemie npoTMB MenoBeMe- 
CTBa m 3aflBkina, hto oh noAnewm cypoBOMy HaKa3aHM»o. 

9 AeKa6pn 1948 roAa b >KeHeBe 6bina npuHHTa Mew- 
AyHapoAHaa KoHBeHUMfl o npeAynpe>KAeHHM npecTynne- 
hum renounAa n HaKaaaHnn 3a hux. Ohs Bowna b cuny b 
1951 roAy- no stom KOHBeHunn noA reHOUMAOM noHMMaer- 
cfl riK)6oe H3 c/ieAyJoiUMx pev\C7B\Av\, HanpaBneHHbix Ha 

nOJIHOe MHM HaCTMHHOe yHMMTO>KeHMe HaUMOHa/lbHblX, 3T- 

HUHecKux. pacoBbix nnn pennrno3Hbix rpynn: 

— y6niiCTBO nx MneHOB; 

— npuMMHenne mm cepbe3Hbix TenecHbix noBpe>KAe- 
hum nnn ncuxusecKnx paccipoMCTB; 

— co3HaTe/ibHoe co3AaHne ycnoBMM, moTopwe BeAyT 
k o)DM3MHecKOMy ncHe3HOBeHHK) TaKoii rpynnw; 

— BBeAeHne Mep no npeAOTBpaiAeHMfo po>KAaeMocTn 
y ee MneHOB; 



— HacunbCTBeHHbifi nepeBOA A©TeM M3 gtom rpynnbi b 
flpyryto. 

ripaKTHKa reHOUMAa BioifOMaeT norpoMbi, noMeiAeHne 
nK)Aeii b KOHuempauMOHHbie narepa, MaccoBbiM m mham- 
BHAyanbHbiPi Teppop, npuBOAfliMne k cpM3MMecKOMy yHMM- 
TO>KeHnio rpynnw. ripaianKa reHoquAa BKnjonaeT npuHyAn- 
TeribHyK) CTepnnn3aunK5, 3anpeTbi 6paKOB. 

MAeonorwMecKOM ochobom reHounAa HBnneTCfl paco- 
Ban Teopus, Ha kotopom n CTponTcn ny6riMMHbie noAdpe- 
KaTenbdBa k reHOUMAy Tuna npn3biBOB k yHM^ToweHMK) 
eBpeeB, coAep^aBiiinxcn b HaijMCTCKOM ra3eie «Aep UJ-nop- 
Mep» b 1938-1941 roAax. 

B nocneAHne roAbi k TaKoro poAa nponaraHAe mo>kho 
OTHecTM oTpuqaHMA XonoKOda, pacnpocipaHeHHbie b Heo- 
HaqucTCKOii npecce. 

TeHepanbHan AccaM6nea OOH npeAnoxwna BceM 
cbomm MneHaM npMHHTb 3aKOHOAaienbHbie uepfai no npe- 
AOTBpaiAeHMK) reHounAa m Hai<a3aHMK) 3a Hero. 3to otho- 
CMTcn h k nacTHbiM nnuaM, m k rocyAapcTBeHHbiM Aeaie- 
n9\M. Ohm noAnewaT cyAy Me>KAyHapoAHoro TpM6yHana, 
ecnn o6BMHHK>TCfl b n»o6bix nonwTKax unM 3arosopax c 
uenbK) npoBeAeHMfl reHounAa. 

renouMA o6bnBneH npeAMeTOM HeydaHHoro BHMMa- 
hmji Bcero Me>KAyHapoAHoro coo6mecTBa m He MoweT 
CHMTaTbcn BHyTpeHHMM AenoM OTAenbHbix cipaH. 

STHOUHq 

3thomha [om apevecKozo ethnos — Hapod u namuH- 
CK020 caedere — y6ueamb] — TepMMH, BBeAeHHbiM b 
nocneAHMe AecnTMneTun Ann o6o3HaMeHMq HauwoHa/ib- 
HO-KynbTypHoro reHOUMAa. Pa6oHan rpynna no KOpeHHbiM 
HapoAaM npM KDHECKO npeAJiaraeT noHMMaTb noA stho- 
Umaom «nio6oe AeMCTBMe, HanpaBneHHoe Ha nwiueHMe 




Ill 



<£ 3HAK BEflbl 




3THMHeCKMX MepT HflM MfleHTMMHO- 

cth, n»o6bie cfcopMbi HacmibCTBeH- 
hom accuMMnnuuM nnn MHTerpa- 
umm, npnHy>KfleHMe k nepexoAy k 
My>KflOMy o6pa3y >kh3hm h npona- 
raHAy npoTMB KopeHHbix Hapo- 

AOB». B HaCTHOCTM, K 3TH0UMAy 

cneAyeT oTHOCMTb CAenaHHbie 
noA AaBneHneM n3MeHeHnn cbo- 
ev\ HaunoHanbHOCTn, KOTopwe 
HepeAKO npaKTMKOBanncb b CCCP 
(y36eKH3ai4M« t3a>kmkob, TaA^n- 
KM3ai4nn HapoAOB TopHoro BaAax- 
ujaHa, a3ep6aiiA>KaHH3aunnTaTOB 
n ne3rnH, Tpe6oBaHne ot MerpenoB 3anncbiBaTbcn rpy3M- 

HaMll MT^.). 

MeTOAbi aTHOUMAa BKntosajoT Taione yHUHTOKeHne 
HaunoHa/ibHbix m Ky/ibTypHbix naMHTHMKOB, nepenMeHOBa- 
Hun reorpactiMMecKMX m npoHMx nyHKTOB, 3anpeT poAHoro 
H3biKa, nepenncbiBaHMe hctopmm, yHMHToweHMe apxwBOB n 
5n6/iMOTeK. ripo6neMa 3amnTbi KopeHHbix HapoAOB m st- 

HMMeCKHX MeHblilUHCTB OT MCHe3H0BeHMH B03HMKJia B CBS- 

3M c 6ypHoii MOAepHH3auneM (nHAycTpna/iM3ai4Meii, yp6a- 
HM3auneM), Ha6rnoAaK)ineiic9 bo MHorux pa3BMTbix n paa- 
BHBa»oiAMxcn CTpaHax. Ha hswmx ma3ax c Jinua 3eMnn 
ncHe3a»OT TpaAnunoHHbie cenbCKMe noceneHMH m uenwe 
paiioHbi c mx HenoBTOpMMOM xynbTypoii v\ 6biTOM, noA 
yrpo30M HaxoAflTcn yHMKa/ibHbie n3biKM m KynbTypw p«Aa 
ManoMiicneHHbix HapoAOB, nonaAatoiAMe «noA ho>k» He- 
yMOJiMMo HacTynatomeM MHAycTpnaribHOM L4MBnnn3ai4MM. 
Mex<Ay TeM npaBO Ha coxpaHeHue CBoePi KynbTypw, 

33blKa H MAeHTMHHOCTM SBJlfleTCH HeOTbeMJieMbIM ecrre- 

CTBeHHbiw npaBOM xiK)6oro MenoBeKa. fln» yAOB/ieTBope- 
hmh 3tom n0Tpe6H0CTM b Me>KAyHapoAHOM npaKTMKe pa3- 
pa6oTaHbi ABa noAxoAa — BBeAeHne jim6o HaqMOHanbHo- 
KynbTypHoPi, jim6o HauMOHanbHO-TeppHTopnanbHOM 3bto- 

HOMMM. HaUHOHaJIbHO-Ky/lbTypHanaBTOHOMMB MOKeTAOC- 

TaTOMHo xopoiuo pa6oTaTb b CTpaHax c AaBHMMM TpaAnun- 
hmm rpaxcAaHCKoro o6mecTB3. Taw, rAe stmx tpsamumm 
HeT, xax, HanpMMep, b CTpaHax TOTannTapHoro pewMMa 
nnn Tex, rAe coxpaHaeTCH cmibHoe TOTannTapHoe Hac/ie- 
Ane, 6onee HaAewHbiM npeACTasnaeTCfl BaeAeHMe tom 

MJ1M MHOM (J)OpMbl HaUMOHanbHO-TeppMTOpManbHOM aBTO- 
HOMUM. OnbIT CCCP nOKa3blBaeT, HTO CBOM H3blKM M xynb- 

Typw nynwe coxpaHKinM Te M3 ManoHncneHHbix HapoAOB 
CeBepa m Cn6npn, KOTopwe MMenn cboh HaunoHanbHO- 
TeppMTopnanbHbie aBTOHOMUM, T.e. o6naAa/iM, xoth m CM/ib- 
ho ype3aHHbiM. ho Bee we caMoynpaBJieHMevi. Jl»o6onbiT- 
ho, hto no 3T0My x<e nyTn b nocneAHwe 10-15 neT noiuriM 
CLLIA m KaHaAa, rAe Ha MecTe npewmix pesepBauMM, no 
AoroBopeHHOCTM c npaBHTenbCTBOM m MecTHbiMn BnacTa- 
mh. B03Hn«atoT Te nnn nHbie cpopMbi caMoynpaBneHMf 
KopeHHbix HapoAOB. B Pocchm 17 MtOHfl 1996 roAa npMHAT 
3aKOH PO «0 HauMOHaribHO-KynbTypHOM aBTOHOMMM». 

3THMHECKAfl HMCTKA 

dTHHHecKan hmctio — noniiTMHecKan npaicrMKa. no- 
nyHUBiuan oco6oe pacnpocTpaHeHMe b XX Be«e n HanpaB- 
neHHan Ha co3AaHne KyribTypHoii m n3biKOBoii oahopoaho- 



ctm b rocyAapcTBe nyTeM cpn3MMecKoro BbiTecHeHun sthm- 
necKMx MeHbiuMHCTB, 0TnMM3K)LAMxcfl ot rocnoACTByjome- 
ro HaceneHun no KynbType, P3biKy mjim pennrnn. Hanpn- 
Mep. b Hanane 1 980-x roAOBTypxn Bonrapnn 6binn nocT3B- 
neHbi nepeA A^neMMoPi: nn6o CMeHMTb nMeHa Ha 6onr3p- 
CKne, nn6o BbiexaTb H3 CTpaHbi, hto npuBeno k 3HanMTenb- 

HOM SMUrpaUMM TypOK B Typi^MK). 3THM4eCKHe hmctkm MaLAe 

Bcero nponcxoA^T bo BpeMn sTHnnecKnx bomh, KaK aro 
Ha6nK>Aanocb hbasbho Ha Ba/iKaHax, b ApMeHnn n A3ep- 
63iiA>K3He, b A6xa3MM. MToroM CTann AecnTxn h cothm 
TbicsM 6e>KeHueB, nuiueHHbix bo3mo>khoctm BepHyTbcn Ha 
poAMHy. 

KpaiiHHM BbipaweHneM STHMHecKoii muctkm nBnneTcn 
reHOUMA. KorAa rpynna nonpocTy yHMMTOwaeTcn. B noAas- 
nnwiAeM 6onbiuiiHCTBe coBpeMeHHbie rocyAapcTBa mho- 

rOSTHMHHbl M MHOrOKynbTypHbl, M STHMMeCKMe MMCTKM He 

MoryT peiunTb nocTonHHo B03HMKaK)Lune STHnnecKne npo- 
6neMbi. EAHHCTBeHHbiM unBnnn30BaHHbiM nyTeM kmx pe- 
tueHMK) flBnaeTcn AeMOKpaTM33i4MFi, no3Bonn»oiA3n neno- 
Be«y cbo6oaho M3tflBnnTb cbokd Bonn) n yAOBneTBopflTb 
cbom KynbTypHbie, penMrM03Hbie m n3biKOBbie noTpeGnoc- 

TM. 



nPECTynxiEHMfl npoTMB 

HEJ1QBEHECTBA 

ripecTynneHMH npoTMB MenoBenecTBa — oco6biM 
bma npecTynjieHMM, coBepiueHHbix npoTMB rpa>KAaHCKoro 
HaceneHMA. K hum othocptca y6MMCTBa, MCTpeGneHMe, 
nopa6omeHMe, nbiTKM, noMeiAeHMe b KOHueHTpauMOHHbie 
narepn, AenopTsuMM, npMMeHfleMbie b oTHOiueHMM ue/ibix 
rpynn HaceneHMs. no KaxMM 6w npM3HaxaM stm rpynnw hm 
BbiAennnMCb. 3tot bma npecTynneHMM 6bin onpeAeneH b 
AoroBope Me>KAy OpaHUMeM, BenMKo6pnTaHMeM, CLUA m 
CCCP npecneAOBaHMM m HaK33aHMM BoeHHbix npecTyn- 
hmkob, KOTopbiM 6bin noAnMcaH 8 aBrycTa 1945 roAa. B 
1961 roAy OOH npMHsna flexnapauMK) o 3anpemeHMM 
HAepnoro opyjKnn, rAe npMMeHeHMe HAepHoro opywMH 
KBanMcpMLtMpoBanocb xax npecTynneHMe npoTMB MenoBe- 
necTBa. npecTynneHMM npoTMB HenoBenecTBa b omMMMe 
ot o6bNHbix npecTynneHMM He MMeKJT cpoxa AaBHocTM. 

Aemop nod6opKU BuKmop UJHMPE/lbMAH 

Bnepeue ony6nui<oeaHo e xypnane 
«RuazH03»,1997, Nq2, (Hon6pb) 




4 B HALUEM nAMHTM 



111 



OHa xomeAa, mno6u 
Aiogu 3HaAU npaGgy 




21 aBrycTa 2000 r. b MocKee ywepna Ahh3 MuxauinoBHa 
TpuLUMHa, OAHa H3 cTapeiiiunx yMacTHUKOB MeMopnanbCKoro 
ABM>KeHMfl. ocHOBaienbHuua «nonbCKoPi nporpaMMbi» 06me- 
CTBa «MeMopnan». FloMOLUb nonaKaM m nonbCKMM rpa>KAa- 
HaM — wepTeaM coaeTCKMX penpeccMM m mx poACTBeHHn«aM, 
M3yMeHne hctopmm stmx penpeccnii CTann a^h nee AenoM 
;4<h3hh. no cnoBaM Ahhw MkixaPi/ioBHbi, TaK OHa peujuna. 
KorAa, npnexaB oceHbio 1988 r. b nonbiuy k APy3b«M, yBMAena 
Ha ynnuax BapiuaBbi AeMOHCTpaunn. Tpe6oBaBwne ot kom- 
MyHncTMMecKnx BnacTeii OTMeHHTb 3anpeT «ConnAapHOCTM», 
BBeAeHHbiii BoeHHoii xyHTOM 13 AeKa6pa 1981 r., o6HapOAO- 
BaTb npaBAy o KaTWHM m Apymx npecrynneHMflx coBeTCKoro 
pe>KMMa, penpeccupoBaBiuero b 6binbie roflbi TbicnMn n Tbicn- 
mm nonnKOB m nonbCKMX rpa>KAaH opyrm HauMOHanbHooreM. 

rionbiija npncyTCTBOBana b >km3hm Ahhw MuxaPinoBHbi c 
caMoro ee po>KAeHnn. Ona poAMnacb 23 aBrycTa 1920 r. b 
3anaAnoii BenopyccuM b MecTeMKe TopoAen, nepe3 KOTopoe 
npoxoAUT >Kene3Han Aopora MuHCK-BapaHOBMHM. Ee OTeu 
6bin KOMMCcapoM KpacHoii ApMMM, oh cnywMn b oahom M3 
nacTeii 3anaAHoro cppoHTa, kotopwm noA KOMaHAOBaHneM 
TyxaHeBCKoro neTOM 1920 roAa 3aHnn ceBepo-BocroHHyio 
nacTb rionbLun m b aBrycie noAOwen k Bapujase. Ho BapiuaBy 
KpacHoii Apmum B3HTb He yAanocb, TaK KaK b pe3ynbTaTe 
coKpyiuMTenbHoro noribCKoro KOHTpHacTynneHMA, HaMaBiue- 
rocfl 15 asrycTa, 3anaAHbiM (ppoHT noiepnen nopa>KeHne n 
eMy npniu/iocb CTpeMmenbHO OTKaTbiBaTbcn Ha boctok. OTuy 
Ahhw MnxaiinoBHbi yAanocb bo apeMfl OTCTynneHun «3acKO- 



HMTb» b TopoAeio m 3a6paTb oiryAa weHy c HOBopowAeHHOM 
AOhkom. TaK AHHa MuxaMnoBHa OKa3anacb b Poccmm. Ho b 
TopoAee, OToweAweii no PnwcKOMy MnpHOMy Aoroeopy k 

IIO/lbLUe, OCTa/IMCb pOACTBeHHHKM, K KOTOpbIM AHHa Muxafi- 

noBHa b AeTCTBe Aaxe e3Anna norocTMTb (noKa 3to eme 

6blJ10 B03M0)KH0)! POACTBeHHUKM 6WJ1M ("OpflHMMM nOKJIOHHM- 

KaMn KD3ecpa rinncyACKoro — npn3HaHHoro eo>KAfl rionbWM m 
ee HaunoHanbHoro repoa, CHanana Ao6nBLuerocH BoccTaHOB- 
neHMfl He3aBncnMOCTn dpaHbi nocne 125 neT pa3Aena m 
HeBonn noA B/iacTbio Poccmm. npyccMM m Abctpmm. a 3aTeM 
3aAyMaBujero m ocyiAecTBMBiuero cnacMTenbnoe KOHTpHac- 
TynneHMe 15 aBrycTa (m no stom, b nacTHocTM, npMHMHe 

CTpaCTHO HeHaBMAMMOro COBeTCKMM pyKOBOACTBOM). Mo>KeT 
6blTb, MMeHHO AeTCKMM nOe3AKaM M BCTpenaM C pOAHbIMM 

o6fl3ana AHHa MMxaiirioBHa TeM, mto bckj >KM3Hb omymana 

CBOK) CBH3b C nonbliieM. 

OAnaxo BepHeiwica k KOHijy BOCbMMAecnTbix toaob. Bcko- 
pe nocne B03BpaiAeHMn M3 llonbiuM AHHa MMxaiinoBHa yna- 
CTBOBana b MocKBe b ynpeAMTeribHOM KOH(pepeHUMM 06iAe- 
cTBa «MeMopMan». 3aTeM 6bina orpoMHan paGoTa no noAro- 
TOBKe AByx 3HaMeHMTbix BbidaBOK «MeMopMana» — k 50- 
neTMK) nairra PM66eHTpona-MonoTOBa b 1989 r. m k 50-ne™»o 
KaTWHCKoro npecTynneHMA b 1990 r. «KaTbiHCKan BbiCTaBKa», 
noAroTOBneHHaa noA pyKOBOACTBOM Ahhw MMxaMnoBHbi m 
OTKpbiTan b anpene 1990 r. b KnHoueHTpe b MocKBe, CTana 
oahmm M3 caMwx nepBbix b CCCP ny6nMHHbix o6pameHMii k 
Hauueii o6iAecTBeHHOCTM, aohocmbujmx npaBAy o KaTbiHM noc- 
ne nonyeeKa dkm. 

B mockobckom «MeMopnane» AHHa MuxaiinoBHa co6pa- 
na BOKpyr ce6n nioAeii. KOTopwe xoTenM 3aHMMaTbcn npo6ne- 
mom coBeTCKMx penpeccMM npoTMB nonsKOB. TaK B03HMKna 
rionbCKan kommccma «MeMopMana», m noHWHeAo6biBaioiAan 
b apxMBax 5biBiuero CoBeTCKoro Co»03a ocpMqMa/ibHbie cnpaB- 
km Ana 3anBMTeneii M3 PIonbLUM, KOTopwe npMCbina»OT b «Me- 
Mopnan» nMCbwia c npocb6aMM noMOHb b AOKyMeHTanbHOM 
noATBep>KAeHMM cpaKTOB penpeccMM npoTMB hmx mhm mx poa- 
CTBeHHMKOB, b BbiHCHeHMM cyAb6bi cbomx 6hm3kmx, nponaB- 

UJMX 6e3 BeCTM B CCCP. 

OAHOBpeMeHHO AHHa MMxaiinoBHa sena m HaywHO-apxM- 
BHbie MCcneAOBaHMfl no mctopmm penpeccMM npoTMB nonbCKMX 
KOMMyHMCTOB b CCCP b 1937-1938 it. B MacTHOCTM, no 
apxMBHWM MaTepManaM KoMMHTepHa eii yAanocb yciaHO- 
BMTb MCTMHHyK) cyAb6y Bepw KoujyTCKOM-KocTiueBW — oaho- 
ro M3 xiMAepoB KoMMyHMCTMMecKOM napTMM nonbiuM, apedo- 

B3HHOM B 1937 T. M yMepiiieM B 3aKJIK)HeHMM B 1940 r., HaMTM 
B apXMBe DMHHWe AOKyMeHTbl 3T0M My)KeCTBeHHOM JKeHLUMHW, 

MMeBiueM cMenocTb otkpwto npoTMBOCTOATb CraiWHy. 

Bee BpeMfl, napanneribHO c noribCKOM pa6oTOM, AHHa 
MMxannoBHa Bena b «MeMOpnane» m nporpaMMy «Penpec- 

CMpOBaHHOe BOCTOKOBeAeHMe». 

Ahhb MMxaMnoBHa 6bina oneHb cepAenHbiM, Ao6pwM, 

flpKMM, OCTpOyiMHWM He/lOBeKOM, TaKOM OHa M OCTaHeTCfl B 

HaweM naMRTM. 

AnencaHdp rypbBHoe, 

H/ieH noribCHOu komuccuu 06iu,ecmea «MeMopuan» 



112 



<£ CYAbBbl CT0J1ETMR 



MHHOKeHTHM llACblHKOB 



iloGes 



lIocHHiHiwmcH Ajienceto Ceenuoey, dopoeoMy dpyey c 
demcKux .iem,yMepuieMy nocie ntHMceioii 6o.ie3HU e Cud- 
nee 22 denaopn 1999 eoda. 



CBepAfiOBCKafl oBnacTb, TaBflMHCKnii paiioH, CTaHuns A3aH- 
na. 3Aecb 6bin pacnonoweH oflHH H3 6ecMncneHHbix octpobkob 
Apxunenara ryjlAr: orpoMHan 30Ha m tpm iunano3aBOAa, Ha 
KOTopwx 3a ronoflHbiii naeK Tpyflmwcb Ha HenocMnbHOM pa6oie 
«Bparn HapoAa». Phaom c A3aHKofi pacnonarancH caHropoflOK, 
rae pa6oTann BpaMH-33Kii. npeKpacHeiiiuMe cneunaniiCTbi, npo- 
xoAHBLUne b ochobhom no «fleny ropbKoro». 

H nonan a caHropoflOK c AMCTpo(pneM 2-m rpynnw, ho 
6naroflapn yMeHMW Bpana EcppeMOBa AiiMTpiM McaaKOBHHa h 
cTapaHHAM cperibAuiepa Op/iOBa Bopuca flMHTpneanna 3a non- 
roAa CMor onpaBHTbcn m npuHRTb BHOBb nenoBeMecKMii o6nnK. 
Hx « nw<orAa He 3a6yAy! 

... MTaK, aBrycTOBCKHM Benep 1946 roAa. caHropoAOK. rioro- 
Aa OTnuMHas, coriHeHHO n Tenno. C yrpa no 6onbHMije pasHeccn 
cnyx — H3 Jiarepn Bewann ABoe, oauh m3 hmx — CM17I0B. KaK 
CseT/ioB? J1 He noBepnn: kpotkmm, flennKaTHbiii Anewa, cwh 
CBHiueHHUKa. N BAPyr nowen Ha BepHyw cMepTb?! (OSfaNHO 
TaKne nonbiTKM KOHManncb y6niiCTBOM 6emeu,OB). Ho cnyx 
ynopHO xoAnn no nanaTaM, v\ bot OKono nmw nacoB « yBMAen, 
KaK Mepe3 BHyTpeHHioK) ABepb BaxTbi kohboup BbiBen KaKoro-To 
BbicoKoro nenoBeKa b o6oflpaHHOii n OKposaB/ieHHOM OAe>Kae, c 
coBepujeHHO 6e3yMHbiM B3rnnaoM. ycTpeMneHHbiM b HMKyAa. . 
Bbino BiiflHO. hto ero Benu b 6aHto. \A Tyr TO/ibKO, KaK Monnn«. 
npoH3M/ia Mbic/ib: «fla sto we AnewKa! Mow APyr c paHHero 
AeTCTBa, 6ok o 6ok c kotopwm npoiu/in WHOCTb, CTyfleHMecKne 
roAbi, a noTOM eme m nyTb b ckotckmx aaroHax H3 Xap6nHa Ha 
ypan...» 

3Aecb npnAeTcn paccKa3aTb HeMHoro o BpeMeHax nmHaA- 
uaTMAeTHeti jpBHOCnt, unane He noHHTb AanbHetfujero. 

Xap6wH, qeHTp poccmmckom SMurpaqnn b MaHb^wypMM, — 
cpeAOTOsne npeAcraBmeneM orapoM pyccKOii HHTe/innreHLinn: 
yneHbix, Bpaneii, neAaroroe, nmepaiopoB, BoeHHwx. 22 uepKan, 
AopeBO/itouiiOHHbm pyccKuu 6bu. MunaH. Ao6pan ceMbfl CeeT- 
jiobwx. TnaBa ee — npoTonepeii OTeu, B/iaAHMnp Cbstjkw, 
CBHiueHHMK CBflTO-HnKonaeBCKoro co6opa (OTeu, BnaAHMnp yMep 
ot MHcynbTa b cTanHHCKOM narepe Ha cr. HoBosyHCKaa MpKyrc- 
kom o6nacTM b 1954 roAy, a co6op co>KxeH xyHBeii6nHaMM b 1 956 
roAy). y BcerAa npMBernrtBow MaTyujKn Ahhw Ebaokmmobhw 
oweHb Kpacusafl BHeuiHocTb, noMTM onepnoe KOHTpanbTo n 30- 
noTwe pyKM xo3amkm. B ceMbe Tpoe AeTew, Aae AOHepn-KpacaBM- 
ubi — JImaub m BaneHTHHa, n cwh AneKceti. (O tom. KaK ohm 
0Ka3anncb Ha Hy)K6nHe, 6ercaB H3 npnAnecTpoBbfl, — OTAe/ib- 
Ha« TparnsecKaB noeecTb). 

B Xap6nne Anewa okohmmji peanbHoe y^nrinuje. a 3BTeM 
OpueHTanbHwti MHCTHTyr, nonynuB KBa/incpHKamiK) yMeHoro cn- 
Honora. C Aneaieii CBemoBbiM CBH3aHa bch moh MonoAOdb — 
m o6yneHMe b MHCTMTyTe, h nocemeHHe 6anoB, n pu6anKa Ha 
CyHrapw, m MHoroe-MHoroe APyroe — npeKpacHoe n He3a6wBa- 
eMoe... 

BTopaa MnpoBan Bee n3MeHnna b KopHe. 3a seTbipe HeAe- 
nn b aerycTe 45-ro 6bina coKpyiueHa KBaHTyHCKaa apMnw nnoH- 



qeB, coBeTCKne soucKa 3aHfl/in MaHbHJKypnK) n BCTynnnn b 
Xap6nH. PoccMflHe c BOdoproM BCTpeTwiH KpacHyio ApMno. 
HaA ropOAOM n/ibin KonoKO/ibHbiii sboh, Ha ynnuax Tonnw nio- 
Aew, KpuKM «ypa!», LtseTbi, zinKOBaHne. Ho Bee sto 6bicipo m 
HaBcerAa 3aKOHHnnocb, KorAa 3MurpaHT0B npnMO Ha ynnuax 
CTann apecroBbmaTb n ohm ncHe3ariM HeM3BecTHO KyAa. Pen- 
peccMM pasBopaMMBa/iMCb cTpeMMTenbHO, ntoAeii «6pariM» m Ha 
pa6oTe, m AOMa — naiue no HonaM. 

flo Menn «osepeAb Aoiuna» b Hasane ceHTflOpn, ao A/ieiuM 
— nyib no3>Ke. He 6yAy onucwBaTb Bee yxacw AonpocoB b 
cnyMaMHwx, npMcnoco6neHHbix ajih Kf~13 noABa/iax m TaKMx we 
TiopbMax b Xap6MHe m TpoAeKOBO (npMMopcKMM Kpaii). B rpoAe- 
kobckom TKjpbMe, Ha momx rna3ax, Ha nony, ot nHcynbTa m 

OTCyTCTBMfl MeAHUMHCKOM nOMOlAM nOrM6 MSBeCTHbIM pyccKMii 

nMcaienb m noaT ApceHMM HecMenos. B KonenHOM more Mbi c 
AneiueM onyTM/iMCb b oahom 3Tane b CBepA/iOBCKyro o6nacTb. 

Be3nn Hac b orpoMHbix TenaMbnx BaroHax, b xonoAe, Ha 
ronoAHOM naiiKe. B HaweM aaroHe yMepno Tpoe: MH03eMi4eB, 
OuiaHOB MflaHAypoB. Mx Tpynw Aonro He y6npa/iM, m b TeMHOTe 
Mbi cnoTbiKa/iMCb o hmx. (3tot 3Tan aoctomh OTAenbHoro onuca- 
hms). Ha 29-e cyTKM Hac Bbirpy3M/iM Ha CTaHUMM A33HKa m 
npenpoBOAnnn b orpoMHbiM, nycTovi m 3anyiAeHHbiM narepb c 
pwaBOti boaom b KonoAuax. 

riocne T3K Ha3WBaeMOM 6aHM MeAMKM-MeKMCTbi 6erno oc- 
MOTperiM m pacnpeAeriMfiu Ha pa6oiy. Mw c AneiueM nonanw Ha 
oahh M3 ainano3aBOAOB, na TimMlfetf (pM3MMecKMM TpyA. k koto- 
pOMy He 6binM npMcnoco6neHw. OcpMqManbHbtM no3yHr rnacMn: 




AneKceii C—TJW. 1940 r 



flo6er 



113 



«TonbKO TRJKenblM 0M3HMeCKHM TpyflOM MOWHO HCKynWTb BUHy 

nepefl PoflHHOii!» 

HanBHbie n AOBepmiBbie, BocnuTaHHbie b hhmx Mopanb- 
hwx KaTeropuflx, SonbwwHCTBO W3 Hac b sto Bepuno, b tom 
HMcne w Anewa. Xoth noneMy Tonbico TpyflOM n o6H3aTenbHO 
THwenwM? H KaKyio Bwny? BeAb b OTHOiueHMn Hac — xap6nni4eB 
— He 6bino 3aKOHseHO cneACTBue, eciecTBeHHo. He 6wno n 
cyfla. 6wna nuiub nonHaa HeonpeaeneHHOCTb AanbHeiiiuMx cy- 
Ae6, ycyry6jiHBiuaH MopanbHWMM CTpaAaHUHMM MyKM noAHe- 
BonbHoro TpyAa b ronoAe n xonoAe. H Anewa, kpotkum m 
BbicoKOHpaBCTBeHHUM nenoBeK. we CMor BWAepwaTb ranou >kh3- 

HH... 

A Tenepb BepHBMcn b tot aBrycTOBCKnii Benep, KorAa 
Anewy nocne 6aHn noMecTunn b TepaneBTHHecKnii Kopnyc. 
BcKope mw Bt>i3Ha/in, hto y Hero Tawenoe omecTpenbHoe paHe- 
Hue m CHnbHeMiuee cpn3MHecKoe MCTomeHMe. y3Hann mw m o 
tom. hto M3 onepsac™ nocTynun HernacHbift npnKa3: «CBenio- 
Ba He neMMTb!» 

B 3tot >Ke Besep n HaBecTun Aneiuy BMecTe c APyrnMn 
3eMnnKaMn. Mbi npuHecnn eMy xne6a h ceneAxy. KaK we >xaAHO 
oh en! flo cnx nop BcnoMMHaTb THweno... A Tenepb o caMOM 
no6ere. O neM n 3Haio M3 paccKa30B Anewu. no3>xe, b ABCTpa- 
nnn> oh Hanwcan BOcnoMHHaHna m ony6nnKOBan mx b CMAHenc- 
Koii pyccKon3biHHOM ra3eTe «EAHHeHue», b HecxonbKwx HOMe- 
pax. Hwwe — (pparMeHTw M3 ero onepKa «rio6er». 

«...rioHTM iic. n.iii roA c HanapHHKOM no pa6oTe A$aHa- 
cneM riocTHHKOBbiM (omo 6t>Li .uecmHbiu .-Hcwne.ib, oxomnuK. 
xopouto 3HaRiuuu mouzy — ff. 17.) mw oocy>KAajiH h cepbe^Ho 
nAaHHpoBajin no6er h >KAajiH TOJibKO yAOOHoro CAynan. Ton 
HOMbio Hauiy norpy30HHyio opHraAy HapjuHHK pa36yAHji KaK 
o6biHHO. Tpex3Ta>KHbiM MaTOM, h norHan Ha Baxiy. TaM yme 
>KAaji kohboh c co6aKaMH. Ilo npn6biTHH mi'ia. ii.ihik kohboh 
paccTaBHJi no MecTaM conAaT h Be;ie.n 6pHraaHpy HaHHHaTb. 
BpHraAHp BaneeB (.uaHbUJicypey. Komopoao nomo.u y6wiu 
ceou .yce 3a U3deeame.ibcmea Had 3eMWKaMu — fi. 17.), 
OKHHy b 6pHraAy 3BepHHbiM B3niHAOM, pa36HJi Bcex no napaM. 

HaM C riOCTHHKOBblM AOCTaACH KpaHHHH b cocraBe BaroH. 
Pa3o6paB HHCTpyMeHTbi, Bee OTnpaBHJiMCb no MecTaM. 

IlOrOAa Ol.l.ia .UV/K.l. IHHilH. BCI pCIKlM. MCpHI.10 Mpa'lHK.'C 

TyMH 3aBOAOKAH Bee He6o, HaABHranacb rpo3a. BHe3anHO 
Berep pe3KO ycHJiHjicn h pa3pa3HJiacb 6ypn c rpoMOM h moji- 

HHHMH, a AO)KAb nOJlHA TaKOH, HTO TpyAHO 6bIA0 pa3AHHHTb 

Aa>Ke 6jiH>KaHUJHe npeaMeTbi. Mu jKAaJin hmchho TaKoro 

MOMeHTa. riOCTHHKOB CXBaTH^ MeHH 3a pyKy : «Be5KHM ! » H Mbi 

pBaHynn! lLlKBa.n.i .-ioamh io \ cii.iHBa.iiici.. idoopi.iit;!. mci. K 
CHaCTbK), HHKTO H3 KOHBOH He 06Hapy>KHJI HaUierO ABHJKeHHH 

k Jiecy. Co6aKn, KaK hh CTpaHHO, Toace He OTpearHpoBajiH. 
Mbi6e>KanH, 11 KavKvibin HtnanaBTOMaTHOHOHepeAHBcnHHy... 
PaccTOHHHe no AepeBbeB — b 50 MeTpoB — noKa ui;ioci» 
6ecKOHeHHbiM, ho, c 6o>KbeH noMombio, mw npeoAOJiejiH ero 
He3aMeqeHHbiMH. 

BbipBaBiiiHCb H3 ocBemeHHofl 3ohw, mw nepeKpecTH- 
jiHCb, noueAOBajiHCb h no6e)KajiH BAOAb >Ke,ie3H0H Aoporn, 

C(V5liaBa«. HTO BOT-BOT Hame OTCyTCTBHe o6Hapy*HTCH H 

HaHHeTC» noroHH. C 3TOH Mbicjibio a McrHyjicji b CTopoHy ot 
HacbinH, ho A<J>aHacHH nepexBaTH^ MeHa: «TaM BOJiHbH nul» 
51 oxotho noBHHOBancji cneAonbny h nanee, He OTCTaBas, 
ABHrancH TOAbKO 3a hhm. HaKOHeu A<j>ohh CBepHyji b ctodo- 
Hy, Br\ny6b TaHm... 

HecMOTpfl Ha rHeTymyio THacecrb o»HAaHHH noroHH, ee 
HeH36e)KHOCTb, omymeHHe cbo6oaw 6yKBaribHO nepepoaHJio 



Hac. HauiH nHua ciihjih. Abimanocb jierxo, name npHBbiMHbiH 
3eMJiHCTWH uBeT K<»Kii 6yAT0 6u HCHe3. 9{ CMOTpeA Ha Aqba- 
HacHfl n He ywttBttJl ero. Oh noMOAOAeji, h He 6uao b o6jihkc 
ero cypoBOCTH, cbohctb€hhoh CTapoo6pjiAuaM (IJocmHUKoe 
npuHad.ieoKa.i k smou xpucmuattcKou KOH(peceuu — M. 17.). 
3to 6bLi BepHbm Apyr h 3aMeHaTenbHbm TOBapwiu. 

Mu npoAOji5KajiH 6e>KaTb. Ae.iaa Maribie nepeAwiiiKH. 
I>c/k;lim uejibiH AeHb. Bee BpeMM ine.i He6o,ibujOH AO»Ab, hto 
6mao HaM oneHb Ha pyKy. Ac|)OHfl. ciapaacb eme 6oAbine 
3aMecTH cjieAW, BpeMH ot BpcMcim npwran c sajieKHHbi Ha 
BanexcHHy, h h HeyKOCHHTejibHO ABHrancH 3a hhm. Ho OAHa 
cooaKa Bce-TaKH Baraa Haui cnen... 

K Benepy, H3M05KAeHHbie h ronoAHbie, Ha He6oAbinoii 
no^sHKe mu AopBanHCb ao KycTOB co cnejiofi cmodoahhoh. 
)KaAHo rAOTaa HroAbi, a BHe3anH0 noAHHA rojioBy h yBHAeji 
HenepeAaBaeMMHy>KacHa.riHueA(paHacHH...3aTeMOH KaK-TO 
He^oBKo MeTHyjiCH b CTopoHy h no6e>Kan. 51 o6epHyncji. 
Meipax b AecflTH. cpenw AepeBbeB, ctohji kohbohhuh h ue- 
jiHjicH b MeHa H3 HaraHa. Me»Ay hhm h mhoh Ha amhhhom 
noBOAKe MeTajiacb h pBanacb OBnapKa. Ee pmbkh MeiuajiH 
eMy, opywHe xoahao xoAyHOM, h oh OTnycTH.i DOBOflOK. 

Co6aKa b ABa npbDKKa npeoAOAeAa paccTOHHHe h 6pocn- 
nacb MHe b jIhuo. H hhcthhkthbho 3aKpbi,ica pyKaMH, oHa 
BuenHJiacb b 3an«cTbe h CTana pBaTb... FIotom pa3Aajicji Ka- 
koh-to KpHK, co6aKa oTCKOHHAa, h a pa3rjiHAeA nepeA coooh 
HCKa>KeHHoe 3jio6oh, coBepuieHHO 03BepeBinee ahuo neKHCTa 
h cKB03b n.nomaAHyroGpaHbyjiOBHA npHKaj: «iloBopaHHBaH- 
ch! PaccTpenjno!» 

Tyr co6aKa bhobi, Ha6pocHJiacb Ha MeHH, h n onHTb 
3amHmajicji ot ee yKycoB pynaMH. 5! He Mory 3Toro o6b«c- 

HHTb. HO 6^H30CTb3BepHHOH MOpAbI U1C I aHM.Ul MeH«... yAbl6- 

HyTbca! «Hero Jibi6Huibca?!» — ycAbiman h cpbiBaiouuiiicH 
Ha BH3r tojioc h nonyBCTBOBaA xoaoa ot npncTaBAeHHoro k 
3aTWAKy AyAa HaraHa. 3aTeM pa3AaACH 3ByK «A3HHb». h He6o 

HaAO MHOH 3aKaHaJ!OCb H OnpOKHHyjlOCb... 

B ronoBe nonjiujin KpacHO-^cenTbie KpyrH, co CTpaiii- 
hoh, o6)KHraioiueH 6oAbio no Tejiy pa3AHA0Cb My bctbo cjia6o- 

CTH. JI ynajl H CKB03b OTBpaTHTeAbHyK) TOLUHOTy nOHyBCTBO- 

Ban, KaK mchh pBeT co6aKa... 

HeKHCT, CHHTas MeHJi y6HTbiM, a cboio 3aAany Bbinojr- 
HeHHOH, opan h orracKHBaji nca, bhahmo, enema 6pocHTbCH 
no ropsneMy cneay 3a ApyrHM 6erjieuoM. 51 noTepaji co3Ha- 
HHe... 

BpeM» ot BpeMeHH co3HaHHe B03BpaiuaA0Cb... B 3th 

M1HOBCH1.H H HCnbITbIBa.1 HeBblHOCHMyK) 60Jlb B 3aTbL3Ke, B 

BepxHefl neAiocTH h TeMeHH. Ot 6oAbiiJOH KpoBonoiepH 
6buio crpaiuHO xojioaho, MeHH 6hji 03ho6. TaK npoAon^a- 

JlOCb BCK) HOHb. 

Ytdom, OMHyBiiiHCb. a nonyBCTBOBaji. hto bch npaBaa 
nacTb TyAOBHma OTemia, npaBas pyKa ABHra-iacb c HeHMOBep- 
hwm TpyAOM, a KorAa nonbiTancfl npHnoAHjrrbCJi, o6Hapy)KHA, 
hto npaBaa Hora KaK 6bi npoBaAHBaeTCH. OAOJieBanH KauieAb 
c KpoBoxapKaHbeM h MyMHTejibHaa 6ojib b ropne. 

y>Ke b narepe, noc^e H3onflTopa, b kotopom npocHAen 

HeCKOJlbKO HeAeAb, H 6bL3 OCMOTpeH BpaHOM ripHXOAbKO 

(moMce xap6uHeif — ff. 17.) h y3Han, hto y MeHH CKB03Hoe 
pancimc men c noBpe^AeHHeM H3biHKa, a Tao<e BbipBaHa 
nacTb BepxHefi leniOCTB cnpaBa BMecTe c AByMH 3y6aMH. 



114 



flo6er 




AmKcevi CaeTnoe u 1/lHHOKeHTuti riacbimtOB. 1940 r. 



ft jiexcan h ayuasi o tom, hto kohcmho se BenepoM 
koi i hoi i p jiojicmkhji o paccTpejie, 3HaiHT, CKopo npn.ayT 3a 
mohm TpynoM, hto6w BbiCTaBHTb ero Ha BaxTe b na;iuaiiiic 
BceMy jiarepio. Hy>KHO 6bijio KaK mo>kho CKopee yxoflHTb c 
3Toro MecTa. ripeB03Moraa ooiib, a npHnoanajica h Hanajica 
aa... MyHHTenbHoeHyBCTBo wawiibi 6yKBanbHo rpuino Menu, 
ho Konaa a van c;iH3biBaTb xanejibKH pocbi, BKyc ee 6wji 
CTOjib ropex, mto nocnenoBan npHCTyn KpOBaBOH pbotw. 
OweHb 6ojie;i paHeHbifi »3uhok, oco6eHHo Korna iiumh Hajica 
Kauiejib c KpoBbio. H Bee 3to Ha (pOHe wecTOKofi, kojhoiuch 

6ojih B TeMeHH. 

H3-3a OTeKa a He Mor h;ith npaMo. FIpHiiiJiocb nepeaBH- 
raTbcn, CKOco6oMHBUiHCb Biipano. He noaHHMaa rojioBbi. BeT- 
bh xjiecTajiH MeHa no jiHuy, a a He Mor3auiHTHTbca. TaK KaK we 
b coctohhhh 6wji no^HSTb npaByio pyKy. H b aoBepmeHHe 
Bcero, h i,i u.i Baa Tynyio ayuieBHyio 6ojib, Ka3ajiocb, co 
Bcex CTopoH cpa3y cnuiiiajica OTnajieHHbiH co6anHH 
jiafi... 

ft KOBbuiflji, H36eraa BcaqecKHX TponoK, KaK B^pyr 
yBHne:i nepeo. co6oh aopory. ( iiawu. ia a OTiuaTHyjica. 
ho 3a aoporoH npocTHpanocb orpoMHoe 6ojioto, ko- 
Topoe Mono HaaewHo noxopoHHTb moh cjieau. ft 
nepeceK aopory h CTyiuui b xojioAHyio Boay... 

Mepe3 HecKOJibKO uiaroB, noTepaB paBHOBecne. 
ynan b 6onoTHyio HCHacy. C TpyaoM no.QHH.nc5i, CJlffJan 
eme HecKOJibKO uiaroB, ho pe3KHH npwcryn tojiobok- 

py^eHHH H 06lUefi CJia60CTH 3aCTaBHJIH OCTaHOBHTb- 

ca. Hanajioi MyHHTCJibHbiH Kauiejib, a 3aTeM pBOTa co 
crycTKaMH KpoBH. HaujJiH MeHa n KOMapu h c ocTep- 
BeHeHHeM Ha6pocHjiHCb Ha cbok> acepTBy. ft noTepaji 
co3HaHHe h ynan Ha KOMKy... 

MejiOBenecKaa auras — yaHBHTejibHenujaa 
Bemb! Flo npouiecTBHH crojibKHX Jier a c noTpscaio- 

mefi (pOTOrpa(pHHeCKOH TOHHOCTbK) nOMHK) Bee MrHO- 
BeHHH MOHX (J)H3HHeCKHX H ayiUeBHblX MyK. 

... BojiOTy KOHua He bh;iho. ft Gpeay CKB03b 
o6;iaKO MOuiKH h KOMapoB, BpeM» ot BpeMeHH c tpy- 



ziom caaacb Ha MOKpue kohkh una OTiibi- 
xa. Ohh ryr xe npoceaaioT no.no mhoh, h 
a cnacy b rp«3HOH, oneHb xojiojihoh Boae. 
)Ka*.aa MynaeT HecTepnHMo, nopon ot- 
KpuBaeTca KpoBoxapKaHbe, nopon a tc- 
paio C03HaHHe... 

HaKOHeu, Korja cojiHue CBannjiocb 
3a KpoMKy jieca, a BbiSpanca Ha apyryio 
CTopoHy oonoTa, KOTopoe Mono cTaTb 
Moeii MorHJiofi, ho noKa, a Haaeiocb, no- 
Morjio CKpbiTb cneaw. nepe.no mhoh ot- 
Kpujiacb 6onbiuaa nojiHHa co cbokhmh 
KonHaMH ceHa. H onaTb rjiyxo, ho co 
Bcex CTopoH pa3aaBajica coSanHii nan. A 

MOWeT, 3T0 rajl-lfOUHHaUHH? 

ft noaKOBbnaji k ohhoh H3 KoneH h 
CTaji 3apbiBaTbca BHyTpb. Bapyr HeHaaH- 
hmh yziap o KaKVK>-TO acepzib. h ot >Kec- 
TOHaHiueH 6ojih a noiepaji co3HaHHe... 
KaK AOJiro a 6un 6e3 co iiiamiM — He 
3Haio, ho Korja npHiuen b ceoa, ycnbima-i 
M<eHCKHe ro;ioca, Koiopbie to apB&nma- 
jiHCb, to yaanajiHCb. Bhjhmo, npMUJHH y6npaTb ceHo. 3HannT. 
HacTynHH aeHb. TojioBa — 6y.0TO mXaat pacKaieHHbiMH 
yrjiaMH. OnaTb TouiHOTa, ro^OBOKpyjKeHHa, KpoBaBo-iKen- 
Tbie KpyrH nepea rnsoaMB, IIotom Hananca yvKacm.iii 03hoo. 
— nepeox^a^KjieHHe b 6o.ioTe nano ce6a 3HaTb. 

Jlo 3Toro MOMeHTa a noMHK) otjihhho Bee, hto nenan. Bee 
gams MejibMafiuiHe noapo6HOCTH no6era, a aajiee — KaKaa-To 
npHTynneHHOCTb co3HaHHa, 6e3pa3HHHHe k OKpy>KaiomeMy. 
hto-to Bpoae nojryGpeiia h TonbKO cjia6biH, ho aBCTBeHHhifi 
hhcthhkt caMOcoxpaHeHHa nynbcnpoBaji b M03r>' — Haao 

HflTH. HaaO HilTH... KyiW >Ke HJTH? Cm>THO nOMHK), KaK a 

Bbi6pajica H3 KonHbi h noiueji Kyaa-T0BHH3, noyKJiOHy. Bhh3v 
0Ka3anacb penyuiKa, Ha Hen n^oTHK H3 TOHeHbKHX 6peBeH. a 
no 6epery — MorynHe sapoCUB cnenofi ypanbCKofi nui.i imi.t . 
FIomhk) paHOM c njiOTHKOM HepeMyxy c qepHbiMH aroaaMH, a 




AneKceii CeeinoB (ctomt b uempe) b narepHOM 6onbHnue b 
noc. CocHOBbie Poahmku 1956 r 



no6er 



115 




1/lHHOKeHTUki DacbiHKOB — onepaiinoHHbiM cpenbawep 5onbHnubi Nq2 03epnara. 
Ct. HoBonyHKa HyHCKoro patiOHa HpicyTCKoii o6nac™. 1955 rofl. 



pjinoM nexajra HaHH3aHHbie Ha najioHKy noacymeHHue rpn- 
6w. riepBbiM ae;iOM. npeB03Moraji 6o;ib, noacycb h nbio. nbio, 
nbio... Kanoe ito cnacTbe — HHCTa>i, xonoaHaji Boja! Omy- 
iueHHeTaKoe,6y^To«no>KHJiaM 3acTpymiacbCBe>Ka$i KpoBb». 
CaMonyBCTBHe yjiyniiJHJiocb, a cTan rnoTaTb coiHbie 
aroabi ManHHH. CTpaHHO, ho hh Boaa, hh aroaa He pa3.apa>Ka- 
.ih paHw bo pTy. 3aTo pe3K0, cKaHKOM noBbicHJiacb TeMnepa- 

Typa. HHCTHHKTCaMOCOXpaHeHHH BblTOJIKHyjI MeHH BIH Mil. Ha 

nojiHHy, hoth no Tafire a y>Ke He Mor. H a no6pe;i no KaKOH- 
to TporiHHKe, noTepJiB bchkhh cneT BpeMeHH... 

Ha oaHOM H3 noBopoTOB Tponw, BHe3anHO, nepeao mhoh 
npeacTan ccaofi KaK nyHb CTapHK c ropooBHKOM 3a rnieqaMH, 
Hano^HeHHbiM aroaoH. Or HeoacHaaHHOCTH oh mapaxHyjica b 
CTopoHy, noKaHHyjica h ynan. flro.ua npocunanacb... He cbo- 
na c MeHH MajieHbKHx BcrpeBO>KeHHbix, Geraiomnx ma30K, oh 
MejmeHHO nozwajicfl h 6yKBanbH0 omynaji mchh B3nnwoM. 
Bapyr, 6pocHB ropGoBHK, oh noBepHyjica h noMHajica nponb 
c npbiTbw MOJioaoro. 5Icho — no6e»ai aoHOCHTb, hto Bcrrpe- 
thji 6erjieua. 3a TaKOH «no,aBHr» b Te BpevieHa no.iarajiacb 
Harpaaa ot HKBXl: conHaHoe KOJiHMecrBO MyKH, nacbi h 
aeHbrH. HeBonbHo BcnoMHHJiocb: «Xjie6oM kopmhjih KpecTb- 
hhkh MeH», napHH en.i6yK.Lin MaxopKOH». A y>K o npeaaTejib- 
cTBe b «npoKJiHToe uapcKoe BpeMH» He moivio 6brrb h penn.. . 

ft npoaoji/Kan KOBbui5iTb no Tpone, ocosna»afl TOJibKO 

H3Hyp«K)lUHH 03H06, >Ka>K.ay, B0J1HHH rojioa H «nJlJICKy 6ojih», 

iipoKH {i.maBiiicii Tejio. H Bee we, HaBepHoe, y>Ke 6ecco3Ha- 
TejibHO, a CBepHyji c Tponw b Tafiry, nbrraacb KaK mo>kho 
aajibuje yfiTH ot npecneaoBaTejieH. HaKOHeu a noTepan co- 
3HaHHe h CBaJiH/icfl. 3to 6h;ih nocjieziHHe MHHyTbi (hjih 
nacbi?) Moefi cbo6ojuj... 

OnHyjica a ot MejiKoro nacToro TonoTa co6aHbHX nan h 
HejiOBenecKHX tojiocob. FIpaMO nepea jihuom a yBHjieji co6a- 
Hbio nacTb h eaBa ycneji 3aKpbm>ca pyKaMH, KaK kjihkh 
B0H3HJiHCb b npe/uuieHba... (Cneahi ot yKycoB ocTanwcb Ha- 
Bceraa). Co6aKa pna;ia mchh. a asa KOHBOHpa c HaraHaMH b 



pyKax ctojuih noaaarib h hctoujho opajiH: «Caa- 
Banca!» Mo/kho noayMaTb, hto neper hhmh 
6biJia rpynna BOopy>KeHHbix CaH^HTOB, a He 
paHeHbifi, nonyMepTBbiH h a6coniOTHO 6ecno- 
MouiHbiH 6erjien. Ka3anocb, ohh 6o«jiHCb MeH« 
oojibiue, neM a hx... 

Bapyr ojhh H3 MeKHCTOB npoKpHHaji: «fl 
Te6e noKa>Ky , KaK y6eraTb ot Hac ! » — h npnue- 
.iwica H3 HaraHa. Ho BTopon cxBaTHJi ero 3a 
pyKy: «Tbi hto?! Ero aonwHbi aonpaiuHBaTb! 
A Teoe «KaTyiHKy» (m.e. 25 Jtem — M. U.) 3a 
cpbiB 3aaaHH«!» 

ToraaTOT, KOTOpbifi cooHpancji npHCTpe- 
nuTb MeH>i, cjioMar BeTKy. 3aocTpH,T KOHeu h 
CTan TbiKaTb octphcm b rpyab, noHy>Kiiaa 
BCTaTb, a Koraa x ckbo h. 6onb h MyMeHH>i c 
TpyaoM yTBepaH^cfl Ha Horax, Haqaji KOJioTb b 
cnHHy, 3acTaBJi/ifl 6e>KaTb. Hh o KaKOM 6ere. 
KOHeHHo, He Mor.io ObiTb h penn B MOeM COCTO- 
5ihhh. Koe-KaK a bojiohhji CBoe Tejio, Tep».i 
co3HaHHe, najiaa h BHOBb BCTaBaa. .aBHraacb Ha 
npeaejie toh MyKH. 3a KOTopon HannHaeTca 
He6biTHe... O^HaKo oTHero-TO coBepuieHHO 
jiBCTBeHHO noMHio rpynnKy pe6>iT y KOCTpa npH aopore, b 

KOTOpblH OHH OpOCajIH KejpOBbie UJHUIKH. Ohh 3aKpHHajiH: 

«Hto bm nenaeTe c HenoBeKOM?!» A b otbct — OMep3HTejib- 

HblH MaT KOHBOHpOB. 

...BpeMH THHy.iocb KoujMapHo MeiyieHHO. HaKOHeu ao- 
Tamn^HCb no KaKOH-TO CTaHUHH. )KaajiH Heao^ro. noaanH 
napoB03 c BaroHOM. H bot CHOBa A3aHKa — MecTO Moero 
no6era. Kohbohp npuBeji b uiTaG oxpaHbi narepn. 3a ctojiom 
b Ka6nHeTe CHae.i ne^OBeK b bochhoh (popvie, ho b KaKOM 
hhhc He 3HaK0. TaK KaK HHKoraa He c.ny>KHJi b apMHH. JIhuo 
HHTeji^HreHTHoe,cepbe3Hoe. Bo6jiHKeeroHyBCTByeTCJ« Bbin- 
paiiK.'. KaapoBoro BoeHHoro. TaKHx jnoaefi cpa3y mo>kho bw- 
aejiHTb H3 cepeHbKOH pa6one-My>KHUKOH Maccu, cocTaBJi»B- 
MeH norojioBHoe GonbiuHHCTBO narepHOH «Boxpbi». 

«CaaHTecb, Cbctjiob)), — o6pamaeTCJi oh ko MHe c 
HejioeenecKou HHTOHauneH. bailee — aojiras nay3a. 5\. npH- 
BbiKiiiHH k rpy6oMy, xaMCKOMy o6pamcHHio HanajibHHKOB 
Bcex paHroB, B3aporHyji ot yaHBjieHHfl, hto He ycKOjib3Hyjio 
ot BHHMaTenbHoro B3r.THAa otj)Huepa. «Hy h hto >Ke? — onjrTb 
aiHTejibHaji nay3a. — ^ocTHrnH CBoefi uejin? Paaw? A a 
jyMaio bot hto: y Bac >kh ini, h TaK noKajieHeHHaa, a BH euie 
. u>oa mi. m Ot Hac BH HHKyaa Hey6e>KHTe. BceTinaTejibHO, ao 
Me^oneH, npoayMaHO. Muiub He npocKOHHT! A Bac MHe, no- 
HejiOBeHecKH. — >Kajib. riocMOTpHTe, bo hto Bbi npeBpaTH- 
jiHCb! CrojibKO BpeMeHH He ecTb!» «ripHHecHTe eMy co 
cto^oboh noecTb!» — npHKaaai oh oxpaHHHKy y aBepn. 

Hepe3 HecKo-ibKo mhh>t nepeao mhoh nocTaBHJiH mhckh 
c cynoM h KaiueH. HanajibHHK CMOTpe^. KaK /KaaHO a eM, h MHe 
noKa3awiocb (bo3Mo>kho, TonbKO noKa3ajiocb!), hto rna3a y 
Hero Ha6yxjiH cjie30H... TobophjIh, hto MHornx HeyroaHbix 
BJiacTH o(|)HuepoB 3a pa3Hbie npocrrynKH, HanpHMep, 3a «M»r- 
Koe o6pameHHe c BparaMH Hapoaaw, nocbinajiH Ha HcnpaBJie- 
HHe b TaKHe vcaBcvKbii yrjibi, KaK Hama A3aHKa. (M dpyeue 
3aKJitOHeHHbie. npouiediuue nepe3 MXcopy6>cy D/JlAra, nod- 
meepoKdatom, nmo ecmpeuajiu, npaeda, e eude pednauiueeo 



106 



flo6er 



ucKiioueHUH, oueHb 6jaeopodHbix .itodeu U3 uuc.ia HiPtaxb- 
cmea — M. FJ.) 

...JXsa oxpaHHHKa noBenH mchh Ha BaxTy. TaM, no hhct- 
pyKUHH, nojiarajiocb nocaAHTb mchs B03Jie BopoT, htoom Bee 
3aicnioHeHHbie BHAcnH, neM KOHnaiOTCH nonbiTKH k noGery. 
Ho HecMOTpa hh Ha hto KajKAyio BecHy no6erH noBTopaiOTCH, 
xotji name Bcero KOHHaioTCfl cviepTbio, p«Ke — yBenbJiMH. H 
Bce-TaKH, Ha Moefi naMHTH, oahh Kopeeu CMor y6e>KaTb! 

riocjie BaxTbi, 6e3 BcaKoro MeaHUHHCKoro ocMOTpa h, 
TeM 6oAee, — noMomH, a 6bui ompaBJieH b urrpacpHOH h30ah- 

TOp. KopMHJIH BnpOrOJIOilb OTBapOM HeneBHUbl, KOTOpblH 

3aKjiK>qeHHwe Ha3biBanH «rojiy6oH J\yHaii», Jioaocy nono>KeH- 
HOH KaUIH-pa3Ma3HH, BHAHMO, cbeflaji Haa3HpaTeiib. H He 
TOJibKO y MeHH... TecHa« KaMepa, KJionw h HiiKaKoii mcah- 
uhhckoh noMoiUH. fl CTan noxo» Ha CKejieT, o6TflHyTbm 
Ko>KeH, KOTopbiH coTpacan to 03H06, to wap... 

JlHoib Mepe3 Tpn HeacjiH H3 caHropoAKa npHexan Bpan 
npoBoaHTb «KOMHCCOBKy». riocAe ocMOTpa MeHfl cpa3y ace 
noMecTHJiH b CTauHOHap. KOTopbiM 3aBeAOBaji Bpan IlpHxoAb- 
ko. HaHanocb aeHCTBHTejibHoe JieneHHe mohx paH, a CTaji 
nonpaBjiflTbca. Eiue nepe3 Tpn HeaejiH, ocMaTpHBaa mchji 
nepea ompaBKOH b caHropoAOK Ha «0KOHHaTe;ibHoe H3.ieHe- 
HHe», 6biBuiHH KpeMJieBCKHii BpaH-XHpypr KpavapeHKo, caM 
cicicHiniiii no «neny ropbKoro», 3aHBHji: «JXa, oahh H3 twch- 
hh BH>KHBaeT npH noAo6HOM paHeHHH, ho .neMHTb 6eziet4oe 
mw He 6yaeM». 

Ybw, Gmah h TaKHe BpaMH, c TaKHM ypoBHeM npo(peccH- 
OHaibHOH MopariH. a cKopee — aMopajibHOCTH. K cnacTbK), 
< "ii.i.i ii h Apyrne. B caHropo^Ke Mafiop mcahuhhckoh cny)K6bi 
KoBaneHKO no HonaM npuHocHA MHe nonocicaHHfl, onacaacb 
3a pany b ropjie. EAaroaapHaa naM»Tb o TaKHX aioahx ocraeT- 

Cfl Ha BCK) )KH3Hb. HMKOFAa He 3a6yay H H CBOHX 3eMJlHKOB, 

HiiBcmaBiiinx h Mo;ricp>KHRaBiiiii\ MeH»...» 



BceM CMepTHM wa3no APyr mom He ywiep ot «nese- 
hmh», h. Koraa HeMHoro onpaBuncn. ero Bbmncann, 
ompaBunn b A3aHKy n Ha3HaHnnn b impacpHyio 6pnra- 
Ay. UJTpacpHMKM noMeuaanncb b oco6om 6apaKe, ax 
BbiBOflnnn Ha caMbie M3HypMTenbHbie pa6oTbi noA oco- 
6o ycunenHbiM KOHBoeM. Bot eme oahh 3nn30A M3 
narepHoi^ OAnccen AneKcea CBemoBa, paccxa3aHHbiii 

MM CaMMM. 

«...OAHa»ju, bo BpeMA iuTa6ejieBKH iunaji b 
cwpyK) noroAy, a ocTynHJica npaBOM CBoefi 6ojibHoii 
HoroH h He ycnen BbiaepHyTb npaByto pyKy... Koraa 
HanapHHKH npHnoAHSJiH uinany, o«a >u. u>u>. hto pa3- 
Apo6.neHa BTopaa 4>anaHra TpeTbero nanbua. H3 Kpo- 
BaBoro MecHBa pa3opBaHHbix TKaHen Topnajia no- 
BpoKAeHHaa Kocn.... 

He pa3 cnynajiocb, hto b KpHTHnecKHe momchth 

Aa>Ke CpeAH KOHBOfl HaXOAHJIHCbJHOAH, KOTopweoKa- 

3biBajiH MHe noMomb (xoth same 6bLio HaoGopoT). B 
AaHHOM cnynae caM HananbHHK nocaAHJi mchs okoao 
KOCTpa h co CAOBaMH: «Hy h HeBe3yHHH »e tw. My- 
>khk», — CTan HaiciaAbiBaTb noB«3icy. H 3to HecMOTpji 

Ha TO, HTO y KOHB05I 6bIAa yCTaHOBKa — npHHHHHTb 

«BparaM HapoAa» KaK mokho 6oAbiue MyneHHH. J\o6- 
poe HanaAO b neAOBeKe hoi u'x.ibho Aawe b CTaAHHC- 
KOMnarepe...» 



3aKaHHMBaa paccKa3, xony nepenncnuTb Bee narepHwe 
TpasMbi AneiiJM. «noKa3aTenn» no/iyHMnncb bot TaKne: nepeno- 
mw Tpex pe6ep, nepenoM KnioMHLibi, nepenoM neBoti nyseBoii 
koctm, nepenoM btopom (fcanaHrw TpeTbero nanbLta npaBoti 
kmctm. H, KOHenHO, BbipBaHHwii nyneii KycoK BepxHeti ne/iKDCTM 
c AByMn 3y6aMM cnpaea. 

B 1956 roAy Te xap6nHU,bi, kto BbOKMfl, 6binn aocpomho 
ocBo6o>KAeHbi co CHHTneM cyAHMOcTn, a b AanbHeMweM — 
pea6nniiTiipoBaHbi. Aneiua 3aKOHnnn 3aoMHo MeAyHnnume, 3a- 
BeAOBan (penbAuuepcKo-axyujepcKMM nyHKTOM Ha oahom HacTaH- 
[\v\v\ Tpaccw TaiiiueT — JleHa.jKeHnncn.B 1970c>KeHo£iMAByMH 
AeTbMM 3MnrpiipoBan b ABCTpanmo, KyAa nyTb paHbme nepe- 
exann wnTb ero MaTb m cTapiuan cecTpa (a MnaAiuan cecTpa 
yMepna b Xap6nHe). 

B CMAHee oh pa6oTan peHTreH-/ia6opaHTOM m ao kohub 
*h3hm npenoAaBan b pyccKnx Luxonax MCTopnio m nuTepaTypy. 
AneKceii noxib30Ba/iCH orpoMHbiM yBa)KeHMeM b pyccKOii o6iam- 
He ropoAa. OTnunancn yAHBHTenbHOM cxpoMHOCTbio. BepHan 
cnyTHnua ero >kh3hm JlK)6oBb CepreeBHa 6wna MHcneKTopoM 
pyccKnx oiKon ABCTpannn. P,eiv\ — cwh h AOHb — noAapunn 
Aneiue HecKonbKO BHyKOB. 

H3 nucbMa, nonyneHHoro ot aBCTpanniicKMx 3eMnnKOB- 
xap6nHqeB, h 3HaK), hto xopoHnnn Moero APyra oneHb Topwe- 
CTBeHHo: enncKon, Tpoe CBfliAeHHMKOB, nen co6opHbiii xop. Tax 
22 AeKa6pH 1999 roAa 3aKOHHnn cbom seMHOii nyTb 3tot hmctwm 
Ayujoii, cToribKO nepe>KHBiuMM, ho He 03no6nBUJMiicfl, He caom- 
neHHbiM >KecTOKocTbK> n\op,evt, a HanpoTMB — coxpaHMBiuuM 
nystune sepTbi CBoeii nHHHOCTn pyccKufi npaBOcnaBHwii neno- 
Bex AneKceii CBeTnoB. 

BeHHan naMHTb n BenHbiM noxofi AoporoMy MoeMy Apyry! 

«He aoeopu c mocKOu: ux Hem! 
Ho c GnazodapHOcmuK): 6binu!» 

B. A. >KyK08CKUU 



MocKea 



B ny5nuKau,uu ucno/ib3oeaHbi 
tpomoapa&uu U3 apxuea \A. flacbiHKoea 




CneBa HanpaBo: AneicceM CWTJXM, ero cwh BnaAMMnp, flOMb Jlnfla, xena 
AneKcen flto6oBb CepreeBHa. CwAHeM, ABdpanun 1986 r. 



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POCOWCKMH HftiaettCMMblM 

MCTOpM-^CKnH 

m npaBoj«mnnb»i xypxan 



P«""u "Xj»t»* •o.nn.Hi g ho. or- l«« nw ■» 



BW MM I piiyi IMIIHoft llll.aif W* y dumuivt 

CCCT ■ ro r j a f in> Borwiiu ft Enawnr 
MM«y»pu. — i p— i wii imin mat u 

k.^iMp.i),ui rVJIATk, 

n«r»« b i»> ifm.iw t* n|imi»i— iiiiiii ■ 

MHpaiM^»ik.in tffaiauiuaift 

— TO— — p— I »W— ft— 

etpMtuftcua u mini nuauix ik<iwp i m a* 



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ripaBMTenbCTBO KoponeBCTBa 
HuflepnaHAbi 



OupMa «Bpnr-(J>» 
(Pfl3aHb) 



OoHfl OopAa 

(BaLUMHITOH) 



OPEN SOCIETY INSTITUTE 

MHCTMTyT "OTKpbiroe 
06mecTBo" (MocKBa), 
Ooha A«op>Ka Copoca 



)KypHa/i «KapTa» Bt>ixoA"T npn noAAepxcice cpoHAa 
National Endowment for Democracy (NED) 



Hac noAAep>KMBa/iM: 




riporpaMMa Maxibix rpaHTOB 

PoCCMMCKO-AMepMKaHCKOM 

npoeKTHoii Tpynnbi no npaBaM 
MenoBeKa (MocKBa) 




OupMa oprrexHMKM AHTOHnyca 
rynepMaHa 
(fepMaHUfi) 



AO «Pokc» 
(Pn3aHb) 

Ml 



HeMeuKMii HapoAHbiii Cok>3 no yxoay 

3a MornnaMM wepTB bomhw m 

penpeccMii 




Si 



MeacAyHapoflHoe mctopmko- 
npocBeTHTenbCKoe n npaBoaamnTHoe 
o6mecTBO «MeMopnaji» 



Z^ AreHTCTBO CliJA 
luSAED no Me>KAyHapoAHOMy Pa3BHTHio 



MHCTMTyT fleMOKpaTHM B BOCTOHHOM 

EBpone (BaiiJMHrTOH-BapiuaBa) 



06mecTBeHHbiii LieHTp 1/ -* H- -^ 
(BapiuaBa) ,Vcin:a 




rionnrpacpMHecKan cpupMa rieTepa 
JloMMaHa (TepMaHna) 



Ooha nonbCKO-HeuiCKO-CnoBaMKoPi 
ConnAapHOCTM (BapiuaBa) 



Ooha «EBpa3MH» 
(BaLUUHfTOH) 

Mn «fleKop» (Pfl3aHb) 




npaB03amnTHbiPi cpoha «3a 

rpawAaHCKoe o6mecTBo» 

(MocKBa) 




fil-MTie 

IITUICMi 

Tparum: 

tTf.HH