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Full text of "KARTA - Russian Independet Historical and Human Rights Defending Journal N32-33"

32-33 



POCCMMCKMM HE3ABMCMMblH MCTOPMHECKMH M nPAB03AlUMTHbM WyPHAJl 






I IpaBQ MenoBeka/nocne 1 1 ceHTfl6pn: fleMOHTQK? 




POCCHWCKMH MeOaDMCHMUlM 
HCIOpHMeCKMH M npaB03aii(HT HbIM 

xypxan 

Affpec: 

390000, PoccMA, r. PsaaHb, 

n/i. Koctiouiko, 3. 

fl/wj nucemt: 390000, Pocchs, 

PB33Hb-ueHTp, a/H 20. 

TentafioH: (0912)77-51-17 
E-mail: andy@hro.org 
http://www. kmrta. ory 

ytpeAifTejm: 
PeAaKtinw HesaswcMMOA 

r33eTbl iPfl38HCKMH BeCTHMK'. 

)Kypna/i 3apervtcTpwpoBaH 
Mmmmc t"octbom nesam h 

MH<J>opMaunH 29.12.1992. 

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Ns 01949. 

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no BonpocaM naanMCKM hs «KapTy» 

oopaLuaTbco b peAaKuwo. 

Hag HOMepo M pa6oiann: 

A. E/iMHyuiOB, C. Pomshob, 
IO. CcpeAa . H. XosiMoropcxaii, 

B. XoiiMOropcKMJt, H. MapKHHa. 

KOMnuQiepwafl lepcrm: 
K). CepeAa 

OmenaTaHO TOO "CEPBMC" 
PmaHt., 

yn. HniepHauMOrtanbHaa, a. 1 "P". 

3aK33 N 242. 
rie^aih o<>ceTHaa. 
Tups* 2000 3K3. 

noAnMcaHO ■ nesaTb 15.05.2002 



PoccMMCKan «KAPTA» ocHoeaHa a Hos6pe 1992 ro«a no wHuunarnBe no/ibCKoro 
He3aaHCHMoro MCTopMsecicoro *ypHa/ia KARTA •• , BbixoAfiuero c nHBapn 1 982 ro/;a , 
h psoaHCKOro oomecTBa ■MEMOPHA/I-, yspeKAOHHoro e oKTsope 1989 roAa. 

B HOMEPE: 

AHflpeM CyC/lOB TeppopHCTMMecxiiii yAap no rno6an*3My H npaBa Menoaena 

CmeHym nu npaea ve/»oee*ra «xepmeot> Kamacmpocpbi»? 3 

Anapa* 30PHH Mnp cnpaBmcn c stum BbOoaoM 

©pasMewmw owpxa «0cenb e HbW-Mop*ce» 4 

HapyujoHun npaa MonoDOKa noA npuKpwTHOM BopbBfai c reppopMSMOM 

0ny6nuKoean HOSbiG scsmudhmu doxnad Xbiouan Paumc Borm 6 

Anapa* rPOMOB. K)ni« J1I05MM0BA 3HaMeHne cnoaa «C8o6ofla»- 

O 6anaHce caododbi u 6o3onacnocmu 7 

3mm3 BOHUHO Pno6ann3aunn. npaBa HenoBeKa m aeMonpains nocne 11 ceHTfl6pn 

Pasubiuinenusi aeponeucKoao nonumuxa 8 

Hacrano apeMs cneayioinHx waroa 

Ma saaenemm Memdynapodnozo (Xmactma *Meuopuan» 



AneKcanap ME/lflflHHCKMM Tne «e bwxoa? 

TeppopujM cao6oda .. Moxdyapodnaie omnouiOHuii 



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SopbSa c meppopu3MOu: xmo e coi03H UKax? 

ApnaH3 (OHbWMr MA y coaaaTenn PGP caon npHHUHw Ann CKop6w 
<t>nn 14MMMEPMAH fl He *aneio o pacnpocrpaneH«n PGP 

3eoHum nu xonoiton no PGP? 

O nonoKemiH HeweHueB b Pocchm 

Ceudemeribcmeo npaeo3amumHoao Uenmpa «Meuopuan» 

u KoMumema «rpaxda«afoe codaucmeuei 



oAHrnBoeHHbie abmctsmr' 
Ahohc npoexma 



HopMaH KOH Mm(}) b MauncTCKoiS nponaranAe 
Ms ucmopuu aHmucemmuBua 



BnaAHMHp BHPrEP | «Tbi noMHMUib, iok bob HaMMHaJiocb...» 

KaK co3daearcp «MoMcpuan» a KpacHonpcxe 



BeHnawnH HO*b 



XX aoK. Mopanb .1 npaao 

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Apxuo 



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25 



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rpaxoaHCKOO oBmacmeo nocne «rpaxdaHCKoeo Wopyua" 29 

K)6nneii TaTbfiMbi BenwuaHOBOii 
IA3 ucmopuu unaKoubicmm 
flawsin BapiuaBCKoro floMa cvipoT 



_31 
34 



XpoHonornw XonoKocra 1939-1945 

\fo npurpBopa MeyayHapoflHoro aoeHHoro Tpn6yHana b HopHSepre 

Tparefli'H 3 EaB86ho 

HpaacmeeiiHaK omaenKmeeHiocmb u HauuonanbHoe caMOC03ianue 

Ponoca XonoKocrra 

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EsreHMw BEPKOBMM IlpaBeflMUKn Mnpa b naHAuiacpTe XonoKOCTa 

H3 ucmopuu cnacenun eepeae e eodbi Bmopou Mupoeou eouHbi 

Hpvina XOPIMOrOPCKAS PleHu Pn0eHUjTanb, nnn Bonuje6Hafl (fineiiTa KpwconoBa 

McKyccmeo, e/iacmb u o6mecmao 

HkOB 3THHPEP BCTpBMM Ma TepHMCTOM nyro 

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Cmpanuubi 6uospa&uu P. 3muHzepa 

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CepreS n/llOmEHKOB 3aTHHyBtunMcs noticx 

Cydb6bi cmonemufi 



35 
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Ha 1 crp. o6noKKn (poTorpatpiw riHTepa Kannana w cepMM. nocanmeHMO^ 

BceMupHOMy ToprosoMy Uempy a Hbio-ktopKe 1981 r 

Ha 4 crp. o6no*Kn: aHTM0aujncTCXMM nuKer a Pii3aH^. Maw 2002 r. 1>oto: HMxonaJi Cepeaa 






4 HPABA 1EJIDBERA 



Kto 3HaeT, Kax nycro He6o 
Ha Mecre ynaeiueM SaiuHH... 

Ah Ha Axuamoea, 1940 e. 

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o6cTo«TeribCTBax. to, noeepbTe. TOTnac flBMrwcb 6w wcnonHwenM, aa eme n3 caMbix secenbix. 

<Pedop flocmoeecKuu, 1870-e sodbi 



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5HOTeppopnjMa raxaa ouetixa crana 6aHaiibnocTbio. 

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popHCTOB Moryr noKone6a*n> ryiwaHHCTHMecKHe uchhoc- 

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HeOXOTHO. 

Meacay tcm, b cpeacTBax MaccoBoii HHCpopMaumi 
to Tyr. to tum npocKaKiisaioT coo6uichhh o tom, mto 



«rno6a/iM3M»: cornacoaaMMbivt pauMOHa/iMCTMMeciuiM noaxoa 
Mxposoro coo6u<ecTBa « paipeiueHHio nan6onee ocrpbix rno- 
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peiueHMe npo6neMbi pa3MemeHH« m Hcnonb30BaHMB Cbipbesbix 
h jnepreiMMecKHx pecypcoa, aeMorpa(J>M v «ecKaH nonMiMxa, oc- 
BoeHne KOCMOCa h ao — npuu ped *Kapmbi> 



aMepHKanubi (no KpafiHefi Mepe, lacn, H3 jiht) totobu 
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Bot 3jecb CUIA ccrrb MCMy noymiTbCH y Pocchh. 
ripaBja, hctomv, mto HaaoacjiaTb. a TOMy. McroaenaTbHe 
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npeaOCTCpOKCHHCM BCCMy MCJIOBCMCCTBy. ToTaJIHTapHaH 

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i hoph. to nepBofi KepTBoft cjieayeT npn iiian. npc3yMn- 

UHK) HCBHHOBHOCTM. BCflKOMy lillDHIIIU'lKI II i li>M> MeJIOBe- 

xy H3BCCTHO, mto Biiny mo *c i . ii>K;i ia 1 1. To.ibKO cyn. Mc*- 
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Toro. CMH y-BepniOT Hac. mto Buna ycaMW och Jlaaena 
«npaxTH'iccKii aoxa3ana». Bosmoaho. y cnencayacS ecn. 
cepbe3HbieocHOBaHH)i jLi)i npejibHancHHfl o6bhhchh>i «Tep- 
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cTpnpoBam. k MCMy npHBoaHT TaKocaoBepxe. ripn btom 
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apecTOBbiBatoTH. HasepHoe, uapoay iiaao ttepencBTB koui- 
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nOHJTTb. MTO npHHUlin npC3yMnUHH HCBHHOBHOCTH - O.IIIO 

H3 »c. iii'iaiiiiiiiv ;ioi. i n*cmiii niiHH.iinamiH. BonnomcHHC 
3Toro npiiHimna b cyae6HOH npoucaype aaeT cymecrBeH- 
Hbic i apaii i nil npaB HC.iOBCKa. 

ilouino ao Toro, mto OBP Bcepte3 paccMaTpHaacT 
«B03MOA-Hocrb npiiMeHHTb Ml- i pa.iiuuioM n> -i<> i. i w Coean- 

HCHHblX UjTaTOB AMepHKIITdKTHKyaonpoCOB - I1CHXOJIO- 

niHecKHH npeccHHr. HapKOTiiKH >i nuTKii» k noao3peBac- 
MbiM b npiniaaaciKHocTii k TcppopHCTHMCcxoH rpynmi- 



4 nPABA 4EJI0BEKA 



Pobkc «Ajib-KaHaa»' . ^ot ypoK mi,i tow npoxoanan. 
Moikho aaace npeacKa3aTb, hto noa nbrnca.MH MHorHe 

lipiniiaioTCX B COBCpiUeHHH BCCX TCpaKTOB Ha njiaHeTe. 
(XlHaKO npH 3T0M He Ha^O <a 6 1.1 Ma ! ... HTO . I ii.'ii HOH CTaH- 

aapT b o6;iacTH npaB teaoBeKa (Ha Koro-To pacnpotrrpa- 
HfleTCH CBo6oaa ot nbiTOK. Ha Koro-To hct) neH36e>KHO 
npHBeaer k noapfciBy caMofi KOHuenumt npaB icaoBeKa, 
ana KOTopofi yHHBepca-ibHocTb siBaneTCH cHCTeMoo6pa3y- 

lOlUHM npH3HUKOM. 

OnacHbiecHMnTOMbi -ja.MeTHbi h bo BHeuiHeii nojin- 
THKe CUJA. Yaapu no AqbraHiicTaHy mhophmh iiaeHTH- 
(pimHpyioToi KaK aKUHfl id uil' i.uiH. MaaoToro. HTOCaMO 
noHHTHe BOJMeiaHH nywao KaK KOHuenuHH npaB MeaoBe- 
Ka, TaK H McxiayHapoaHOMy npaBy. ripo6/ieM BOJHHKaeT 
MHO*ecTBo. Bo-nepBbix, craBHTCH noa Bonpoc caiu npHH- 
unn cyBepeiiHTeTa rocyaapcrB c pokhmom. HeyroaHMM 
coo6iuecrBy pa3BiiTbix crpaH. Bo-BTopwx. oTHioab lie 

pHTOpHMeCKHM aOjIJKCH 6blTb BOnpOC O TH5eJlH COTeH He- 

npiinacTHbix k TeppopH3My MiipHbix rpaacaaH. B-TpeTbiix. 
BHOBb BCTaeT Bonpoc o nojMciic npmiminHa^bHOCTii no- 

.IHTIIMeCKOH KOHT,K>HKTypOH B OTHOUieHHH HeKOTOpblX 

rocyaapcrB. HanpitMep. mowho 3a6biTb o HapyineHHn 
naKHcraHOM npHHunna HepacnpocTpaHeHHs juepHoro 
opy-AHJi. eoiH oh aaeT ao6po Ha Hcnoab30BaHHe cboch 
TeppHTopnH npH npoBeaeHHH «aHTHTeppopHCTHMecKOH 
onepauHH». Bonpocbi moikho npoao/iiKHTb, mx 6o;ibuic. 

MCM OTBeTOB. 

Kpoine Bcero npoHcro. nacropawHBaeT to. MToaMe- 
pHKaHCKHfi HcreSaHuiMeHT HaMHHaeT noa6pacwBaTb 06- 
mecrBeHHOMy Miieimio Haeio no>KepTBOBaTb nacTbiocBo- 
60a paan 6e3onacHocTH. .la ac Mepe3 oxeaH HyBCTByeTcu. 
KaK crymaeTCH aTMOc<}>epa noao3piiTe,ibHocTH, iia<mn;i- 
iotc«i noiicKH «3aMacKHpoBaHHoro Bpara». B o6pajeBpa- 
ra wacTo npeacraioT apa6u H npoHHe «My>KHe». Bot koto- 
to hc nycKaioT iepe3 rpaHHuy - noKa3aacs? noao3pHTeab- 
HbiM. Bot BoaiiTejib BucawHBaeT noao3pnTe.ibiibix aio- 
aeii: naoxo roBopjnno-aHraHHCKH. M T.a. HT.n. OmuBa- 



' 3«cnepm, N9 40. 2001, 29 onmnOpn, c.64. 



eTca. mto Mnorwe roTOBbi OTKa3aTbca ot npiiBaTHOCTH 
CBoefi nepenncKii: aiiuib 6w hc noayiHTb cnopu cn6npc- 
koh H3Bbi. CoBeTCKHH onuT noKa3binaei . hto noao6nbie 
o6mecTBenHbie iiac i pocn it h chh vks iot iiMMyHHTeT Hapoaa 
k npoH3BO,ny rocyaapcTBa. cayxcaT xopouieii nosBoiiajm 
ycHneHHD itoto npoimoaa. 

B to me bdcmh npeacraBiiTeaii Baacru nbiTaioTcii 
y6eaHTbo6mecrBo. HTo.ycmniB KOHTpoabfH. Moxerforrb, 
caeaaB ero TOTaabHUM) h npttaaB oco6bie noniioMOHiui 
cneucayw6aM. mohcho nooeaiiTb TeppopioM. Onactias Ha- 
-1I03HJI. Bo-nepBbix. noTOMy. hto reppopHiM TaKiiM o6pa- 
iOM He noSeaHTb. CTajrawy aawe no i hck.i Ha3aa He yaa- 
aocb noKOHHHTb c 6aHaHTii3MOM npn Ha.Timmi chctcmw 
TOTaabHofl caejKKH h moiuhoh KapaTeabHofi MaujHHbi. B 
coBpeMeHiioM Mitpe uopi.oa c «TeHeBbiMH» crpyKTypaMH 
ycaoacHHaacb. I Uvimh piia ftflajlHTHKOB BnoaHe o6ocho- 
BaHHo yTBcp>KaaeT, hto HepapxHHecKan cucTevia. Kaxofi 
HB-nneTca rocyaapcTBo. He b citjiax cnpaBiiTbot c «ceTe- 
boh» CTpyKTypoH. KaKOBoii HB.isieTCH MewayHapoaiibifi 

TeppopH3M. Bo-BTOpblX. OnaCHOCTb B TOM. HTOyCHJieHHe 

KOHTpoaa 6yaeT ouum.hi, BTop»ceHne rocyaapcrBa b npn- 
BaTHoe npocrpaiicTBO aioaeii. CHmeHM ypOBHfl Toae- 
paHTHocrH o6mecTBa; ycnacHHe cneucay*6 T8K3R6 HOD- 

6«KHO o6opa>IHBaCTCH OrpaHHHCHHXMH CBo6oa. TaKHM 
o6pajOM, b o6mecTBe aeBanbBHpyioTCJi o6uichcjiobchcc- 
KHe ueHHocTH: yroao6as»cb b hcm-to TeppopiicrraM, oho 
TepseT .loci HAcinifl miBiiamauHH. 

Cmokct an nacTb MiipoBoro coo6mecTBa. crpeMH- 
maflcii k rao6aaH3auHH. HafiTH TaKofi otbct na BbiioB 
TeppopncTOB, KOTopuii He npHBea 6u k OTKa3y ot ryMa- 

HHCTHHeCKHX UeHHOCTCH, BblCTpaaaHHblXHejTOBeHeCTBOM? 

Bot npo6jieMa, ot pcnu-ii :< « KOTopoii 6yaeT ki mice 1 1, xa- 
paKTcp rpjiaymeii rao6aaH3aunH. 

riepMb 

Bnepebie onydnuKoeaHo: « rn06anu3au.ua u eo3/wox- 
Hocmu poccuucKO-aMepuKaHCKoao compydHuvecmea 
e 6u3Hece, o6pa3oeamju u Kynbmype». 
EKamepuH6ypa. 2001 



AHApew 30PMH 

Mup cnpaeiiTcn c 3tmm Bbi3oeoM 

OparMeHTbi osepKa «OceHb b Hbio-MopKe» 



...Boaee weM yviecTHo 3aayMaTbc» o nnaHax h pacne- 
Tax. b aamioM caynae o tom. book uean npecaeaoBaaH u 
HcnoaHHTeaH stoto KoaaeKTHBHoro caMoy6HiicTBa II 

CCHT)l6pfl. H HX BaOXHOBHTCJIH... 

Lle.ib Tepaicra - mopn.i i i, pyTimy. cnpoBonnpoBaB 
Baacrb Ha MaccoBoe HacHaiic no othouichhio k mhphomv 
HaceaeiiHK). KOTopoe b cboio oiepeab noaTaaKiiBacT b 
pnau ooiinoB bcc HOBbie rpynnbi npewae oTHociiTeabHo 



3aKOHonocayuiHbix rpaxcaaH. B nocaeaime aecsTHneTHa 
XKaaauH* Teppopa 6wBaeT pacciHTaHa iia BMeuiaTeab- 
ctbo MiipoBoro oouiccTBCHiioro MHeHHH. MnpoBoecoo6- 
uiecTBo. Kax npaBHao. pe3MC pcarHpyeT Ha npccrynacHini 
laKOHHbix npaBHTeabCTB, hcm Ha BbixoaKii o6ejyMeBUinx 
qbaHaTUKOB hjih oTKpoBeiiHbix oaHaifTOB. 

riOHHTHO.HTOyaapTaKOHMOIUIIH3peJIHIIlHOCTn6w/J 

npH3Ban no6yanTb CLLIA k cme 6oaee paipymiiTeabHUM 



4 RPABA HEJIOBERA 



OTBCTHblM aCHCTBHXM, KOTOpblC 6bl Cpa3y Hj3H nOtlC 06- 

MCHa cmc Hccko.nhKHMii ana.ioi ii'iHi.iMH xoaa.MH peiKo 
paaHKaamoBaaii aecxTKH mhji;1mohob MycyabMaH h b 
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Bnepnhiv onyo.iuKoeano « hohophckom Hbtnycue 
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<£ HPABA HEAOBEKA 



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4 flPABA MEAOBEKA 



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npHXOJMT CTOpOHJIHKH CHJIOBUX pciIICIIIlii". 

XbiOMaH PafiTC Both nawnsi MeaayHapoaHofi op- 
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3a dono.viume.ibHoii uH<pop.\tauue(i oopamambca: 

B Hbio-l/lopKe: KeHnem Pocc + 1-212-216-1801 

B BauiUHemoHe: Tom ManunoecKu + 1-202-612-4358 

B 5pK>ccene: >KaH-riojib Mapmo3 +322-732-2009 

BauiuHzmoH-MocKea 




AHApe* TPOMOB, rO/infl /lKDBMMOBA 

3Ha4eHne c/iosa «CBo6oAa»... 



1 1 ccHTsopa nem6e>KHo npHBC.no k orpaHiiieHHio 

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1 1 pa B.I HCJlOBCKa BOCTOp»i'CCTByiOT», TO Mlip OHCHb BCpOHT- 
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iiiiMcro. 

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yMOJlKHCT. He k.i 1 1. Hac resume JCMOKpa iiimcckiic Hapo.Tbl 

Toraa 6yaeT npocro Herae. h bhvkh Bpaji nu nofiMyr 
3Ha'ieiine ciobb «cBo6oaa». 

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ii AGMOKpaTu^ noc/ie 1 1 ceHTSi6psi 




«Hhhto b MHpc ocnbuje hc 6y- 
aer TaKMM. ksk npexcaen. - Taic ro- 
bopht. h He 6ea npHMHHw. MHonie 
in iiac nocjie 1 1 ceiiT»6pa. Oopy- 

Mbl. IipOKO.'lilRlllllCCH OHHOBpeMCH- 

ho b HbK>-HopKC h b FlopTO-Aaer- 
pc. Ha KOTopwx o6cyvK.ia.incb npo- 
6jieMU nio6artH3auHH, bhobb npn- 
BJiemiH BHiiMaHiie o6mecrBeHHOc- 
th k Bonpocy. KOTOpbiH ao TeppopHcnwecKoro aKTa a 
Avtepiixe hb-iji.ich ocHOBiibiM ana MHpoBoro coo6u4ecTBa 

H.IM.i.Ul TpeTberO TblCaHCTieTHa. 

Ha aponxeHHH iicTopHH Me.ioBeMecTBa Bceraa oiuy- 
ma.nicb ayHOBeiiHH B<rrpa i moa in laimn, annvKiiMue we- 
jiaiiHCM we^oBeKa npeoaojieBaTt reorpacpiiHecKHe. 3koho- 

MHHCCKHC H KV.TbTypHbie oapi.Cpi.l M BO BCe BpeMCHa 3TO 

Hecno b ce6e onpeacneHHyio yrpoiy. Ho eaiH mm xopo- 
ujeHbKO H3VHHM 3tot Bonpoc. hbm OVaCTTCPie ynpaBJIBTb 
iipoueccoM, o6paTHB ero Ha o6myio no.ib3y. 

r;io6a.TH3annsi B.iHaer hc To.ibKO Ha MCxaHH jmw na- 

UIHX 3KOHOMHK, HO Minn ;ia MeilSei H CaMy CTpyKTVpy 
HCKOTOpblXCOBpCMeHHblX o6mecTB. TaK*e lieCOMIieilHO. 
hto HapacTaiomiienpoucccbi r.io6ann3auHii bc.ivt k TOMy. 

HTO KOJIHMCCTBO HaCC.ICHlia B MHpC. KOTOpOC HC MOJKCT 

Bocno.ibioBaTbCS ee 6aaraMH, nocroAHHO yBeaHHHBacT- 
c». 3ro o6i>jiCHneT ney aepeHHOCTb h TpeBory :i to.ieii . ho He 
MOJKeT onpaB.iaTi, noiimnio «ynopiibix GopuoB npoTHB». 
3Ta nojiHTiiKa KaweTca mhc oiiih6ohhoh. sto - nycraa 
rpaTacRJi. 

fl C TeMH. KTO BepHT. HTO B aaHHblH MOMeHT MHpy 

hjtkho «rno6a.iH30BaTbcn aaabiiie». ho 5onee ynpaBjme- 
mo h c6a.iaHcnpoBaHHo, ana Tore MTo6bi y bccx 6bi.io 
6ojibuie oJiaronpiisTiiwx BOJMO/KiiocreH. hcm ccflnac. h 
bcc He iipeBpa ni ioci. 6u npocTo b HBbivKHBaHiie CHJibHefi- 
ujhx». /IpyrHMH caoBaMii, ByXHO ycranoBHTb noaJiHHHO 

CBOOOaHbIC OTHOUieHHH BO BCCM MHDe (KOTOpbie V5KC IIC- 

B03M0/KHO 6yaeT naiBarb «npoTeKUH0Hii3M0M ii\inepna- 

/IHCTOB»). IIY/KHO OTOftTH 0T npeCaeaOBaHHa KMbKO CBO- 
HX yiKHX HHTepeCOB. npeaOCTaBHTb .IW.lliM 3^CMCHTap- 

Hbie I pa* aaHCKiie 11 nonilTH'iecKHC iipa «a . 

CocpcjoTOMHMCfi HaHCCKOJibKiix pacnpocrpaHCHHUX 
3a6ny*acHH«x - 3T0 6yaeT nepBUM uiaroM k pciucHHio 
Bonpoca. 

HHaMiivc.iHii/k'CHiiHaHTiir.iooa.iiicroB.HeiipcicTaB- 
jTsiowero co6ofi nero-TO ueiiocrHoro. a cyuiecTByiomero 
o.iaroaapa cummm paJHOoopajHbiM opraHiiiaminvi. hhtc- 



3mms Bommho - MneH EBponekiCKoro napnaMeHTa. 



pCCW KOTOpblX B.lUHIlblii MOMeHT HC COBna/iaiOT C TCH3CH- 

lutaMH rjio6ajiH3Ma. HHoraa hxhchctbhu mo* ho Ha3BaTb 
CMeuiHbiMH.aiasBneiiHH-aeMarorHMHbiMH.HOHacTooHH 
6ccnpnmmiio npiiMenHioi naciune. hto6m npiiBacnb bhii- 
MailllCaBTOpHTCTHblX nO.IHTHKOB, npaBHTejlbCTB H cpcacTB 
MaccoBOHHH<popMauii>i. HecsioTpa Ha to. hto a npiiui/ia 
k y6c>KaeHHio. hto BnojiHTitKcao.iJKHO yacjiaTbca Soiibiue 
BHiiManim rJio6ajiH3amiH, HecMOTpa na roaw, b Teneniie 
KOTopux a opraHiooBWBaia h.ih nooacpucHBajia 6cchhc- 
neHiibie ncnacn.ibcTBCHHbic aKiniii h iniiiuiiai mbw. yna- 

CTBVH B KOTOpblX. HCpe.lKD 0Ka3bIB3JiaCb 3a pCUIC I KOl'i. 
HeCMOTp« Ha TO. HTO V MeHU etTb HTO BbICKa3aTb HO 3TOM>' 

noBoay, a HHKorja hc npiiMy ynacTHg b acMOHcrpannjix 
aHTHr^o6ajiHCTOB. *>ro - He ocTopoacHocTb h hc cho6h3m 
- 8 npocTo He Mor^a 6w npnHaajie*aTb hh k oaHoR H3 
cocTaB.TaioinHX 3toh o.iyacaaioiueH KOMiiamni. Ha koto- 
pyio Mbi HaTUKacMCJi bo Bcex neTbipex croponax cBeTa: 

- hhhto i«e lacraBHT mchh hjith pyica 06 pyKy c Xoce 
BoBe (Jose Bove). KOTOpbift npuHUMaeT BbiBecKy «MaK- 
iloHaaac» 3a BacTHnnio h KaK 6yaT0 6w jamniuaeT 
iiHTepecbi o6e3ao^eHHwx KpecTbaii. xoth 11a caMOM aeae 
bbjihctch npOBoamiKOM H.icii <ppaHiiy3CKoro arpapiioro 

np0TeKUH0HH3Ma: 

- 11 6w He HyBCTBOBajia ce6» b cboch Tapeaxc. Haxo- 
a»cb b pajax KaTo.nHHetKHX opraHHjauHfi, c oanofi cropo- 
Hbi. r<opKniiHxca npoTHB y*acaiomeH HHUieTbi TpcTbero 
Miipa, ana(pCMaTCTByiouuix TpaHcnaiiiioiia.ii.iii.ic Kopno- 
pauiiH. h b to ace bpcms 3aoaHO c oijim iwa h.ih,! m Ba r-.iKa- 
hom 3anBjT»K)mHx. HToaafl A(ppnKii KOHTpaucnniBbi npej- 
CTaBajiioT co6ofi 6onbuiyio onacHOcrb, nein norojioBHas 
jnaneMUfl CnM/J.a: 

- tcm 6ojTee mhc hc xohctcjj nononHHTb psau caiim- 
kom nocneaoBaTeabHbix iai;m ; mhk>-h oKpywaiowcH epe- 
aw. ja »h.-ihk>iiuu o cBoeM JKciaHHH «cnacTn Miip ot caMo- 
pa3pyujeHHH». npH 3tom 3anpeTHB HayKe pa3pa6aTbiBaTb 
cnoco6w naKopMHTb rojioaaromHX. Hcnonb3y« rcneTii- 
necKH H3MeHeHHbie pacTHTeabHbie h vkhbothmc npoayKTU 
TiiiTamiH. a TaKwe iipii ibiHaioiunx npcKpaTHTb pa3pa6oT- 

KI1 B OlViaci II KjTOHHpOBaHHfl K.ICIOK B McMIIIIIIHL'KHX IIC- 

nax. 

Ro Tex nop. noKa npoTHBiiMKH rno6a;iHjaunn He 
nonyBCTByKjT 3th npoTHBopcHiis b cbohx ycTpeM.ieHH»x. 
6yjieTOHeHbTpyaHo(no KpanHeii Mepcaan mchh) bccihc 
hhmh no-HacTOJiuieMy nojie3Hi>ifl aHaaor. 

Ayxo Tex «KpaHHHx» aHTHmoSajincrax, KOTopue 
hc nypaioTCH Hacii.ibCTBcuiu.ix Mcp, CTHpa« rpami M«Kay 
oopbodii 3a pa ipomeHne npo6neM MiipoBoro coo6mecTBa 

II DBHfalM TeppopiUMOM. H TOBOpHTb HeHerO. 



4 



IPABA MEAOBEKA 



Tenepb oopaTHM B3op k ccBepy, k u.icHaM «6o.ib- 
uioh Boci.MepKii» hjih we k 6ojiee umpoKOMv Kpyry npo- 
MuuivieHHO pa3BHTbix crpaH, no.iMTHHCCKHc anaepbi KO- 
Topux He ynycKaioT .noooit bo3mo<khocth npenoaaTb 
ypoK pwHoiHoft 3KOHOMHKH crpanaM tora. «rro6u ohh 
Mor.m unoMoib ceBepy noMo»ib hm». Ho KpafiHe TpyaHO 
HaHTii nonnTMMCCKoro .nuepa b AMepHKe, EBpone win 
ABcrpaJiHH, cnocooHoro pHCKHyTb cboch nony.mpnoc- 
Tbio ( ii.i ii aaxe Kapbcpoft), 1 1 pmi.i na h csoe npaBHT&nbCTBO 

K CHflTMIO BCeX 6apbCpOB npOTCKHHOHH3Ma. MCUiaiOIUHX 
3KOHOMHK3M pa IBHBaiOUlllXC H CTpUH aCHCTBOBaTb CUMO- 

cTOjrreabHO. 

B HacTomuee upcm h EBponeHCKiifi Coktc b npoTeKUH- 
ohhctckhx ueaax npoao.macT cy5ciwnpoBaTb Kaacayio 
ronoBy CKOTa. BbipamiiBacMoro b ero rpaHHuax ta pacwe- 

Ta "O.IIIM .lo.l.lap B JCHb». (MHTlJlHOHaM no.ICll B MHDC 

npuxojiHTCfl paccHHTbiBan. Ha iTy cyMMy. hto6u npocro 
m.:* ii i i.i. a IlajiaTa npcacTaBHTcncSi KoHrpccca C11IA 
npeaaoaaijia b aHxmnimiiu ucjisix BbiaenHTb cejibCKOMy 

X03SIHCTBy MaKCHMaJIbllO B03M03KHyiO Cy6CHjlHK> - 175 

Miipa. aoaaapoB. 

Ka3aaocb 6bi.aymieaena nayr b oGhbCM HMMHrpa- 
hhh. KaKiic npaBHTC.ibCTBa CTpaH pa3BHToro ceBepa He 
iipiiiiuiK.il iipiiiiiiiiii «cbo6o4hom mipKy^HUHH nacene- 
hhh» (h nacfi)? Ha caMOM acne. aawc b crpaHax EBponefi- 
CKoro Coio3a. .koiiomhk;i KOTopbix HysKaacrca b nocTO- 
hhhom nononHeHHH pa6oMeii chhoh H3-3a pyoewa. hcmho- 

THC H3 nOHHTHKOB npHACpWHBaiOTCJI B3rnnaa, HTO 3TH 

nepeineHbi (He TOJibKO b skohomhkc ho TaKwe aeMorpa- 
cpimecKHc h counajibHbic) neii 100*11 w. noTOMV «rro b na- 
uihx o6iuecTBax 6mt)1ot HacTpoeHHS orpaiiHiiiTb, cam 
ia*e hc npcKpaTim. iimmiii painiio OiCHb mhohic nuac- 

pbl. HB.1HHCI. npOTHBHHKaMli I .loo.l.lil talllllt. CTpCMHTCH 
6blTb riiVLIOpvfaUHMMII 06meCTBCHH0CTbK3. X.1M BCC 
MT06U laMC.l.lllI I. TC II IMCHCIIIIH. KOTOpbIC npHBCajT B 

6yayuicM k co uaimio nonH3THHsecKoro. MHoroKyjibTyp- 
Horo > k i.i.i.i *n urn b EBpone. > en. iiih.im ii oik i h'icckhc 
TeiueiiuiiH h cTpaxn neii j6e>KHbie cnyTHHKii HMMHrpa- 
HHOHHbix npoueccoB. 

B wtamauu paccKawy 06 oanoM uinpoKo paenpo- 
CTpaHHCMOM.iKaepaMH crpaH ccBcpa ii K>ra3a6nyaaeHHH: 

3KOH0MHHCCKOC pa3BHTHC CaMO C06OH npilBCACT BCCX K 

CBo6oae 11 .levioKpaTiui . 3aneM we roraa 000*11 nib mok- 
IVHapoaHMC OMioiiiemiH rpcooBailliaMH COOTBCTCTBHH 
(lpHnunnaM Bceo6meH .IcKiapaiiim npaB MeaoBeKa? 

fl BepK). KaK h ho6c.icbckiu1 .laypeaT A\i,ipi i.a Cch 
(Amartya Sen), hto co6.iioji.CHHe ocnoBiibix npaB h cbo- 
6oa rpawaaH, 6yayiH HopMOii *innn oouiecTBa. HBJiacTCfl 
ochobhoH h HeoTbeM^eMoB cocTaBnHiomeH ero pa3BimiH . 
Eme oaHo •"(xjh.-kiiibhoc cpcacrBo ot hiiuictu - nHMHan 
-jKOHOMUMccKan cBoooaa. KOTopas co3jaeT MHO*ecTBo 
hobux cMCiibix Teopjifi. MoicayHapoaHOMy coo6mecTBy. 
BeponTHo, ctohjio 6bi iix o6cyanTb. BepHo to. hto «jko- 
HOMHHeCKOe MVflO» MOJKeTa.lHTbCilJO.irO. eaiH oGwecTBo 

hmcct HHcriiTyT .icMOKpaTHH. oOecneiHBaioimift Hcnoji- 

HCHlie laK.illiMl. CBo6oay Ii aoCTOHHCTBOaillHOCTH. 

TpyaHO, ii.uiaKo. naii 111 KaK Ha lore. TaK 11 Ha ecnepe 
npaBHTcnbCTBa. *ejiaioimie caenaTb kto-to b stom na- 



npaBJieHHH. Bccm ropa3ao yao6Hec ocranoBHTbcji na ao- 

CTHniyTOM H HC«3aXOaHTbClHUIKOM aaaeKO». 3TOI103BO- 

.iscT npaBirreabCTBaM 6oraTbix crpaH OTKasaTbca ot nc- 

pCCMOTpa CBOCH 3KOHOMH'ICCKOH nOjlHTHKH (npOTCKUHO- 
HH3M npCBhllilC BCCro!). HTO B CBOK) OHCDCab n03B0a«CT 
OO.TI.IllllMC't a\ pC/KHMOB Ha K>rC He npitBO.THTI. CBOK) 3a- 
K0HH0CTK B COOTBCTCTBHe C aeMOKpaTHMeCKHMH npilHIIH- 

naMH. 

FIOMUHTC KOHlpCpeHUHIO B TeHVe? C OaHOH CTOpOHbl. 

pa iBiiBaiomiiccH crpaHbi tasBiun o vKcian mi noaHonpaB- 
ho yiacTBOBaTb b npouecce iipiiHM rn« pcniciiini «6oab- 
uiofi BOCbMepKH». ho b to *e ca.Moe Bpevu ohh OTBepraH 
Bee nyHKibi 1 iohcci k 11 .111H . b ho 1 up 1,1 \ pen, ui.1.1 o jcmok- 

pa I II 11 II upana \ HCIOBCKa, «BO HMD lienpllKOCHOBCHIIOCTH 

cbohx nauHoiiajibHbix cyBepeHHTeTOB». 

no MoeMy mhl'h 11 k>. CoeaiiHenHbie LLlTaTbi h hx 6hh- 

KaHUlHCCOKHHHKH npiUaail MlipOBOM BOHlie I1D0THB Tep- 

popiitM.i TaKofi o6opoT, npcanoMTS pcmeHHC npoo. icmi.i 
c noMonibK) bochhux aeHCTBHH h onopaiiii ii cneucay*6. 
craBJi 3TH MeToau Buuie aio6bix nonirrHHCCKHX. crpoji 
OTHouieHHH c ip\i iiMii M.iciiaMii a.ii.niica 11a onacHOM 
npimuiinc «Bpar mocto Bpara - moh Bpar» hto mw phckv- 
om o TKa 1 htkch o6paTHO B r cMiu.ic BpcMfiia HCnpHKpblTOH 
arpeccHH. 

Hac HenpHJTTHO v;iiibh:io. «rro Tenepb. Koraa a.iMii- 
HiicTpauHH Byiua 3aao>KHaa b Gwam n»THaj]uaTnnpo- 
ueHTHoe noBbiuieHHe BoeiiHux pacxoaoB. I K-h kit «>h\ ac- 
ciirHOBain Ha 2003 roa 378 MnaaiiapaoB aonaapoB (bcd 
noMouib crpaH-aoHopoB. Bi,iae:icniian Ha BOCCTaHOBae- 
hiic A(praHHCTaHa (279 mjih. aoiiji.), cootbctctbvct pac- 
xoaavt MHiiiicTepcTBa o6opoiibi CILIA 3a 7 iacoB), n to 
bdcmii . KaK oioaJKCT rocyaapcTBeHHoro JlenapTaMCHTa. c 
>-*e ia:iovKcHHoii b Hero noMOUibio, ocrancn Ha ypoBHe 
25.4 M.ip.i. aonaapoB. J\nn 6opb6u c TeppopH3M0M sto 
roaHTca. Ho rae Toraa B3»Tb pecypew na 6opb6y c hihuc- 

I oil H Ml paHM'ICHIIHMII. HB;iHhllHHMIICH BCC 'laiUC OCHOB- 
HOH npiiMiiiioii. a to h oiipaiuaiiiicM 3KcrpeMH3My ii Tep- 
popH3My? 

Kopoie. ecjiHao 1 1 ceHTn6pu modcho 6bMioeuic Haac- 
jrrbcji Ha pacuiiipeHHC 3TimecKnx pavioK MCwayHapoaiibix 
oTHouieHHH. 6oiocb. Tenepb HaM npnacTCJi no6opoTbc«. 
MTo6u He noTepjrrb yBepeHHOCTb b tom. mto 3anaa He 
BjpacTHT «mohctpob 6yayuiero» hj cbohx HUHeuiHiix 

C01O3HHKOB. KOTOpblMCXOaHTCpyK6e33aKOHHCHHIIlUCTa 
B COOCTBCHHblX CI paiiax 

BncpaiunHM jiiKTaTopaM moiKho mm :n> npocro 3aa- 
Birn. o CBoeft HCHaBHcrii k k >mm\ iiiijMy - ii ohh npno6pe- 
TaaHopeoaenpaBeaaHBOCTH. Boiocb.'iTOHceHMaccaMbiM 
jkcctokhm pc-KHMa.M yaacTCH cnHcaTb bcc cboh rpcxii. 
lanHcaBtiiHcb b «aHTHTeppopHCTbi». Hey)KenH aaii no5e- 
zu Haa TeppopH3MOM lU'oovo.iHMbi hobuc caaaaMbi. nii- 
HOMeTbi ii Mooyry? 

Moh niMiiaH tohku jpeHim. k Koropofi h npmina 
3aao.iroaoco6uTiiij 1 1 cciiTa6pa TcppopiriM He b tukoi'i 
creneHH nopoitcaeH 6e3Haae*-HocTbio. niiiueToii h yrHeTe- 
hhcm Hapo.nibix wacc. KaK (liana i immom rpynnKH .noaefl. 



10 



nPABA HEAOBEKA 



BcraBUiHX Ha nyrb u.ien.uix. HB.iwoiuerocii TpaaHUHOH- 

HUM HHCTpyMeHTOM TOTajIHTapH3Ma. KTO BHHOBaT B C3- 

mwx ipi'Mkin nojiHTimecKHx npecrynaeHimx nocjieaHnx 
aer? Movkct 6uTb, dto yrHeTeiiiiwe oopo/incb npoTHB 
ymeTaTejieH? HeT. lak-ocHCBiiine b tpaHaTimie voiibhih 
npocBemeHHbix aioaeH. oobmhhb hx b «npeaaTeabcrBe». 
<fcaHaTHK-HH.ayncT y6H.i MaxaTMy raHaH (Mahatma 
Gandhi). MycyjibMamma CaaaTa (Anvar Sadat) jacrpe- 
-iii.i oocbhk M3 opraHHiauiui «BpaTb» MycyabMaiio 
(«Muslim Brothers") . a cBpca MuxaKa Pa6nHa (Yitzhak 
Rabin) - mojiojoh n tpaiuibcKHH 3KCTpeMHCT. H thk one- 
Hn.nid. k.ik;. 10 ucny MCJioBenecTBO 3an,iaTH.io m npoaoa- 
acaeT njiaTHTb 3a ymepo. Hatieceinibifi 3thmh (paHaTHKa- 



MH. KOTOpbie(HaCH.lbHO lUMeilHH XO,l HCTOpHH) BblCTyna- 

kjt «bo hm» r"ocnoaa», jih6o jcJicTByiOT «bo hmji Ero». H 
3to npn tom. hto nciio .ii. lonamie pennrno3Hbix mothbob 

.X/1H pa3>KHraHMHBpa/K.lbI npOTHBOpCHHT IipHHUHnaMBCCX 

peniirnH. 

RBC MlipOBblX BOHHb! - BTOpaH MHpoiUlH II XOHO.lHail 
BblHrpaHbl aeMOKpaTHMCCKlIM MlipOM, 1! B ja-lblieiilHCM 

.iBa BapiiaiiTa TOTa.iiirapm\ta - miun m 11 KOViMyHHJM - 
lie CMoryT pacciHTWBaTb Ha mhphoc cocymecrBOBaHHe c 
ocTa-ibiibiM o6mecTBOM. TcppopiuM. 6pocasi bi.hob ae- 

MOKpaTHMCCKOMy Mlipy II paHH CTO B CaMOC cepaUC. TOiKe 
HC OCTaHCTCH 6e3HaKa3aHHblM 

CmpacGypz 
riy6nuKyemcfi e u3noMenuu. 






^HC^"^T[7^ 



HacTa/io Bpeivm oneAyioiMiix uuaroB 

M3 3aflBJieHn« MexcAyHapoAHoro 06mecTBa «MeMopna/i» 




... CerojHn y*e hcho. hto 6ecnpcue- 
aeHTHoe npecTynjicHiic npoTiiB ne- 
.lOBe'iecTBa.coBepujeiiiioc 1 1 cchtho- 
p» 2001 rojia b Hbio-ftopke 11 Ba- 
ujHHrroHe. hc ocraHCTCH Sejiiana- 

3aHHblM... 

Mm noajcpttHBaCM o6i.hh.ich- 

HblC HC.1H KOHTpTeppOpHCTIIMCCKOH 

onepauHH b A^raiincrane. 

... Mbi HaaeeMcsi. hto npn noaroTOBxe onepaiiHH Sua 
cepbe3H0 yMTeH hc: a i ainu.iii onbiT «aHTHTeppopHCTHHcc- 
koh» KaMtiaHHii poccHHCKoro npaBHTejibCTBa b Memie. 
rae oTacHCTBHfi (pejepajibHoii ap.Miiii cTpaaaeT b ncpByw 
onepcab vmpnoe nace.ieHiie. Mbi HaaceMCHTaKvk-c, hto npn 
noaroTOBKe onepamui ynTciibi h ypoKH BTopaceHHn Co- 
BCTCKOH apMHH B TOT ac AtpramicraH. Pe3yabTaT0M 3Toro 
BTop-A'ciiiiH 6bi.ia rH6e.ibcoTeH thcjih aqbraHueB 11 MHornx 
Tbican cobctckhx coaaaT; A (pi a hhc ra ii we Ha MHorne roabi 
norpy3HjicH b rpaiicaaHCKyio BoftHy, HCOKOHHHBuiyiocH n 
no cefl ,ieHb. ripaBjieHHe TajiH6oB b Ka6yne - He hto hhoc. 
KaK OTaaaeHHoe caeacTBHe cobctckoh arpeccmi 1 979 roaa. 

Mw xoTejtH 6w ayvtaTb. hto. npiiBaeKaa k KOHTpTep- 
popiicTHHccKOH onepamui rocyaapcTBa. npaBirrcabCTBa 
KOTopbix npaKTHKViOT MaccoBbie it rpy6we Hap\ iiichhh 



npaB He.ioBCKa. no.iHTii'iccKHc pyKoaoaHTean pa ibmtmx 
acMOKpaTHHCCKiix cTpan h MeatayHapoaHoe o6tuecTBeH- 

HOC MHCHHC HC HaMCpCllbl BbiaaB3Tb HM "HHJV.lbl eHUHK>». 

Heo6xoawMO npoaonwan. OKaibiBaTb aaB.ie>nie na 
3th rocyaapcTBa c TeM. htoou ohh H3MeHH.iH cbokj bhvt- 
peHiiioio noaHTiiKy no OTHouieHiiio k HHaKOMbiai)iui)iM. 
3Toro Tpe6yeT He ToabKo Mopa.ii.noc nyBCTBO, no n npo- 
cTofi pacHCT: HanoMHHM. hto iiMciiiio >KecTOKoe noaaBae- 
Hiie b y36ekiicTaiie Miipnofi no.iHTiiHCCKofi onno3HUHH 

CnOCO&CTBOBaJTO B03HHKH0BCHHI0 H yKODeHCHHIO B UeHT- 

pa.ibH0-a3naTCK0M pernoHc TeppopncTHHccKiix (pyHaa- 
MCHTaaHCTCKHX opi ami lainiii 

-Ill.lCpi.l aHTHTCppOpHCTHHeCKOH KOaJlHUHH taHB.lH- 

iot. hto, noMHMo BoeHHofl KOMnoHeHTu. onepaiiHH np>e- 
aycMaTpHBaeT TaK*e nojiHTHHecKyio - ycraHOB.ieHHe » 
AqbraHHcraHe Mitpa h cnoKoficTBim. h ryMaHHTapnyio - 
noMouib atpraiicKOMv Hapoay npoayicraMH h Meanx-aMeH- 
TaMH. 3to npaBii.ii.nbic h pajyMHbie naMepeHim. OanaKo 

3TOTO Ma.lO. 

YpoKii kocobckoh onepamui HATO 1999 r.. ooi.hu- 
.leHiian ueab KOTopoii - npeaoTBpamcHHc rcnoimaa. - 
To*e 6waa Bnoane aocToitHofi h 6aaropoaHofi. ao chx 
nop He ycBoeHbi MiipoBbiM coo6utecTBOM. Akkhji. BblXO- 
ajnuas 3a npeaeaw acflcTByiomcro MeacayiiapoaHoro npa- 




B cAGAyiomeM Howiepe «KapTbi»: 

MOAOAeXb npOTMB PQCH3MQ n KceHoc|)o6nn 



4 nPABA HEAOBEKA 



11 



MewnyHapoaHoe npaBo h cucreMy MeacayHapoaiibixoTHo- 

UICHHH B COOTBeTCTBHe C BhHOpaMII COBpeMCHHOCTH. Pe- 

i> .11. 1 .1 1 OM CI a HI HOBUe BCIlbllMK H iiacii.l HH Ha Sa. IK.t II.1X . 
Tencpb B MakClOHHH. 

BepoxTHO, aiiii anch.iH onepauim npHBe.iCT k pa3rpo- 
My TeppopHCTOB ii hx noco6HHKOB b A(J)raHHCTaHe. B03- 
MoacHOjawe. hto rra oncpau.Hn acficTBHTCJibHo npHHcccT 
A(()raHHCTaHy mhp h cnoKoficTBHe. Ho OHa He moxct 

p.i.HIKa.lbHO nOKOHMHTb C MC*.I\ Hapo.lHhIM rcppoPH 3- 
MOM. TcppopH3M HCB03MOXHO nOOCaHTb, orpaHH'lHBaH 

6opb6y c hum oiipojKvieinii.isiH rcorpacpimecKHMH pafio- 
iiumm scMHoro mapa. J\na no6cnbi HeooxoaitMbi ycHJiim 
BceroM»ipoBorocoo6mecTBa b r;io6anbHOM MacuiTa6e. H 
npcjKjic Bccro - KopcHHaa nepecTpofixa Bccro Mc*ayna- 
po.moi O npana 

CcroaHS hc cyiuecTByeT aavKC Me*.i> iiapo.uio npH- 
jHaHHoro onpeac. icii hh rcppopn i\ia A Kjib TdKoe onpe- 
acieHHe. BcoBOKynHOCTH c pa ipaf-D i iiiiHMM MexamuMOM 
iipiiMciicii iih caiiKuufi npoTHB yKpuBaTciefl TeppopHCTOB 
no iBOJiH.io 6u Sojiee 3<p(|>eKTHBHo opramnoBaTb 6oph6y 
c TeppopiicTHMecKoft onacHocTbK). H, mto lie Menee bu/k- 
ho, - Kjpiuima-kii npcceHb nonbiTKii puna rocyaapcTB 

nOJl BHilOM "OOpi.OI.I C TCppOpH3MOM» DdUaTb COOCTBeH- 
HblC BHyTpCHIIHC HJIH BHCUlHHe npo6.1CMbl. 

Mil pom >o coo6mecTBo. -hb ncpByio oscpcab CTpa- 
Hw. aKTtiBHO y«iacTByiomne BaHTHreppopHCTHMccKOH one- 
pauiiH. - ooma no m>c i a mi 1 1, nepea co6oh i ic. 1 i, paapaSo- 



TaTb McaayHapoaHoe 3aKOHoaaTC.ibcrB0. hctko onpeae- 
naiomee npecrynjieHHii. KOTopwe Tpe6yK)T 6e30T;iaraT€Jib- 
HoroMe)KayHapoaHorocH.ioBoroBMeiuaTe.nbcTBa.co3aaTb 
HaaHauHOHajibHbiecyae6HbieopraHbi,onpe^ejTi]ioiuneHe- 
ooxo.THMocTb TaKoro BMcmaTenbcTBa h \ic\aii ii jmi.i. on- 
pcaensnouine nopsuoK npiiMeHCHim cn.-ibi. Ilopa. naKO- 
hcu. npHcrynHTb k cTpoHTCJibCTBy hoboh chctcmh uex- 
ayHapoaHbix othoiuchhh, ocHOBaHHofi HciciiOHHTejibHO 
Ha upaiic. 

BTopas MnpoBan R.iiuia crajia bohhoh HCJiOBCHecTBa 
npoTHB (pauiinMa To.ibKo Toraa. Koraa cokhhiikh onpe- 

^CJIHJIH H ny6jlH'IHO np0B03r^aCH.TH HC TOJIbKO BOCIIHO- 

no.THTHMecKiie,HoiiMe*j>Hapoaiio-npaBOBweiianii3Toii 
Bofmbi. Pciy.ibTaTOM CTanoco3aaHHC Opranii3au.HH 06m- 
ai<HCHHbix HauHil.KOTopafl.npH bccm cbocm HecoBcpmcH- 
CTBe 6w;ia orpoMHUM uiaroM Bncpeu Baeae ooteaHHenHs 
McnoBeMecTBa. HmchhoOOH Bbipa6oTajia BejiHtcyio Xap- 
thkj .iH.i.maioi o ctojicthjj - Bceo6myio Aek.iapauHio 
npaB ■le.-iiiiinKa. miciiiio B OOH ri.i.m npimsi i i.i riaKTW 
1%6 r. o npaBax MenoBeKa - nepBbifi mar k npHaamiio 
npnnuHna.M Bceooiuefi aeKaapaumj cn.ibi ukuiu. 

Hacra-io BpcMn caeayioiuHX ujaroB. 

CeroflHs. K3K iiiikoi Ki. ;ik i > a.n.iia Mbicnb A. A- Ca- 
xapoBa o tom. hto npaBa neaoBeKa hb.thkhch ochoboh 
iinjj nocTpoeHHJi cnpaBcjuinaoro h ycToiiHHBoro Miipa. 

Mocksq 



AiieKcaHAP HEnflAUHCKUM 



Vj\e >Ke BbixoA? 



TparnnecKHe co6wths b CL1IA II ceHTaSps 2001 r. 

cmc pa i iianoMHii.iii ii ii poc i i.i m . i I'.uhm . ii ciicuaa. iik i a si 

B 06. MC I II \IC>K.1> ll.l po. 1111,1 \ o I ilolilCllil II HaJIHHHH pH.1.1 
L.io/Kiiciinin\ npou.icM. ho i opwe .ui.i*hi.i om 1 1. iionicpi - 
h>tw rmare.ibHOMy nayMHOMV aHajiiuy. 3MOUH0Haib- 
Hoe BocnpusTHC ciyiHBiuerocji ac .10.1*110 iac u nin 1 1. ot 
iiccacaoBaTeJieti noncxa ooi.ck i hhhi.ix h cy6TjekTHBHbix 

Iipil'lllll B03HHKHOBCHHH H pa mil I HM I aKOI o SiricHUH, K.1K 
TCppopHJM. 

KaK H3BeCTHO. no la I hiick.hi TCpMHHO.lorHH C10BO 

«Tcppopi> o ma'iaci «ycTpaiuaTb. iiaiioiiiH 11, crpaxoM». 
o;iii.iko 6ccnoKOHT to oocrosTcnbCTBO. hto Hacroe. k 
Mecry h^h HeT. ynoTpe6acHHe 3Toro TepMHHa 3aTymcBbi- 
BaeT iicTHHHoe nuito Kapnini.1 To. hto nponcxoiiHT ce- 
roaHn b MOicayHapojHbix othouichh h\. hh b kocm cnynac 
no.11. i« cBo.iiiTi. TonbKO k ncnaMCKOMV Teppopy 11 ero 
6opb6c c lanajHott nniui.iii iainiL-ii. xoth nac ycaieHHO 
noflTanKHBaioT hmchho k TahiiM bwbo.wm ii ynpoiiicii- 
hum oiK'iiKaM. He npeTeiuyji na HCTiiHy b nocneanefi 



MonHa«Mc«nM Anenca»iap A/ieKcaHApoBHH — aoaop Hcropt«vec- 
khx Mayx. npo4>eccop Ka<J)oflpbi MexutyHapoAHbix othoujOhmh 
<t)ai<yni>TBTa MexmyHapoziHbix OTHOiueHnS Benopyccxoro rocynap- 
CTBeHHoro yHMBepcMTeTa 



hhc raiiiuiii 11 .ia*cpiK-K\H fu.i ma 1 1. kphthkv BCBofiaiipec. 

HH Hip .Million CTaTbH n03B0.1HT BblCKa3aTb p(U Co6CTBeH- 

hux cy*aeHHH no 3T0My Bonpocy. rjiy6oKa» ero apxcrH- 

niiKa, npe*.ic Bcero ciimamuis C nc 1 opiien. hok.i iliikici . 

HTO CKJIOHHOCTb K Teppop»l3My U. lo*clla B C3MOH Iipiipo- 

,ie homo sapiens, c toto MOMeHTa, Koraa Kami y6iin 
CBoero opa ia Aboh. 4e.noBCK cnoco6eH H Ha aoopo. h Ha 
ino: OH BCiieT bohhm h. KaK 3T0 hh iiok.i*c ich HVaOBHUl- 
HUM. CTpeMHTcii Ha CBoe npaBo yoHBaTb pacnpocTpaHHTb 
acHCTBHe KoacKca Hccth. 

,'laAC B XXI BeKe .lKJ.lH HC >MCK»T H HC HaVHeHbl 

cnyiuaTb .10no.ua onnoHCHTOB. no mi 1 11 h KOTopux 11c co- 
Hiia .iaei c 11 \ co6ctbchhoh. npHneM 3to KacaeTca h *eHe- 
koh. h MyiKCKoft ayaHTopHH. FlpnunHn ncnpnMnpnMoc- 
th. npHBo.aamnH ne k aiicKvcciiH. a k cnopy. b kotopom 
«Ko6bi ma hcmhc 1 c» ncTHHa. ncpcpacTacT b ocKop6acHiix h 
yrpoibi. HBJi»CTCfl maBHOH 1111 ia icnauui cpeaofl Teppo- 

PHCTHHCCKHX ll.lc I pocil 11 M J\&*c ran pai|iil'lcc K oc npO/KH- 

iiaiuu' MenoBeKa bjihuct Ha ero MCHTajiHTeT. Bccm irjBecr- 

H0 HyBCTBO aOCTOHHCTBa. ropaOCTH. CMe-TOCTH H O -IHOBpe- 
MeHHO ooil.I'lHBOCIH. lipilCUIICC H.ipO.I.lM. VKHByiUHM B 

ropHOH MecTHOCTH. AipraiicKaJ! nocjiOBtiua macHT: «PaHa. 
npiiMUHCHnafl cad.ieii. 3ane'iHBacTCJi. ii.ihccchh.is ctobom 
- hc ja*HBaeT». Flo3roMy neooxoaiiMO oncHb o6bfKiiiB- 



12 



nPABA 1EJI06EKA 



ho ouemiBaTb nocryriKH aHHHocTii, npe*ae ieM opocaTb- 
ca cjioBaMH-apjibiKaMH «6aHjnT». «y6nflna». «yroaoB- 

IIHK», ••IliiCII 7I.IHIK". «TeppOpHCT» H T. il. 

06 3tom npHxojHTca roBopHTb ceronHa ewe h noTo- 

My. MTO B MCJKJiyHapOflHblX OTHOIUeHMHX B03HHKJ10 paC- 

iimpHTCibiioeTo.iKOBaHHe nonaTHH «TeppopH3M», «Tep- 
popHCT». «TcppopncTHMecKaa>ieHTcnbHocTb». 3aaBa roaa 
ao cnyiMBUJcrocfl 1 1 ccht»6ph b a-iepiiKancKOM maaHiin 
«<t>caepaa peaA-ncTep» obiao aano. co ccwjiKofi Ha 3aKo- 

HOjaTClbCTBO CILIA. HMCHHO TaKOC TO.IKOBaHHC. BKaiO- 

naiouj.ee uiecrb noaoA-eHiiii: 

1 ) 3axBaT mm ca6oTaw b othouichiih Jiio6oro rpaHc- 
nopTHoro cpeacTBa; 

2) umij i mjih yaepacaHHC. yrpo3a y6iiHCTBa, HaHece- 
HHe TejiecHbix noitpcAvieiiiiii qeaoBeKy c ueabio npHHy- 
,ii«Tb rpeTbe aimo (rocyaapcrBo) 0CBo6oaiiTb in TiopbMbi 

CBOHX COpaTHHKOB; 

3) KecTOKoe HanancHiie Ha aiiuo hjih noKyuieHHe Ha 
CBo6oay 3Toro aHua; 

4) y6»ificTBo: 

5) iicikvii. lOBatmc aioooro 6noaonmecKoro, XRMH- 
iccKoro BcmccTBa h.ih aaepHoro opywHS an6o ycTpoii- 
CTBa. mm B3pbiBMaToro BcmccTBa (UIH, orHccrpcibHoro 
opyxHD c n.niepcHiK'M yrpoAaTb oaHOMy nan HecKoab- 
kmm JiHuaM an6o nance i ii iiKcm i c. ii.iu.iii ymepo HMyme- 
CTBy; 

6) yrpo3a. nonbmca h.hh 3aroBop c irvii.io coBepuie- 
Him aioooro m BbiujenepeHHcaeHHoro'. 

OcraBHM KjpHCTaM-MOKiiyHapOaHHKaM B03MOAHOCTb 

jaTb HayHHoeonpcaejieHHCTeppopn3Ma. Hoccjih xoTbHa 
MHHyTycorjiacHTbcacTaKoftaMepiiKaHCKOHTpaKTOBKOH. 
KOTopas npiiBcaeHa bwuic, to noayiHTCH anoKaaHiiTii- 
HecKas Kapnuia. OaKTHieckii bch ncTopnii MCAayHapoa- 

HblX OTHOUJCHHH 11 HX HblHeiUHeC COCTOHHHe HB.1JIIOTCSI He 
HCM HHblM. KaK TeppopHCTHHCCKHMH O 1 IK 'I1ICII HHM1I . TflC 

npiicyTCTByeT nacii. inc. arpeccim, b KOTopoii yiacTByioi 
My*'iiuii»i, /Keniuiiiibi m aawe acTii. KaK b 3tom kohtckctc 
oueHHTb oopboy aMepHKaHCKiix kOjioHHii va no umwr 
MOCTb ot lkMiiKoopii ramiii c tomkh ipaiHH nocaeaHeii? 
II ihcoaachhc am niHaiiaMii Bejioro aovia b BamiiHrro- 
HCBXoaeaHrao-aMepHKaHCKoii BoiiHbi l814r.?y6nficTBO 
LUapaorroH Kopae 5K.- fl. Mapara. BoccTaHneacKa6pn- 

CTOB B POCCIIH? JI.Be MHpOBMC BofUlU? C TOMKH 3pCHHfl 

naeoaoroB qbauiHCTCKOii TcpMaHHH Tpii achiuhhm Beaa- 
pycH - H. Tpoim, M. OcHnoBa h E. MajamiK. oTnpaBiiB- 
iiihc Ha tot cbct rayaswrepa B. Kyos. 6mjih hbhmmm 
TeppopHCTKaMM. He laroHaeM .in mm ce6s b npaBOBofi. 
nojiiiTHwecKHii h npocTO npain.iHcnm.ii! TynHK. khi.ij 
6opb6y 3a namioHa u,iim<. cBo6oay h HejaBHCHMocTb. 
oTCTaHBaHiie iicaocTHocTH rocyjiapcrBa HJIH, nao6opoT. 
nonuTKy bmhth H3 cocraBa crpaHbi. iiaii i n cboio iiaiino- 
HajibHyio, tui.iKOByio h.ih pernoHa-ibHyiOHjeHTHMHOCTb b 

laBHCHMOCTH OT CHTyaUHH II TOHKM 3pCHI11I 06fcflRIHieM 

hah TeppopHjMOM. h.hh aHTMTeppopH3MOM? TparcaHH. 

BepHO. COCTOHT B TOM. MTO Ma.10 KTO H3 MHCaa noailTHMeC- 
KHX 3JIHT Ul.l\ Ml.lBad CM O TOM. KaKBH UeHa HC.IOBeHeCKOH 

-+1HIIH 6yiieT 3an^aieHa 3a jocthjkchhc toi'i ii.tii hhoh 
ue^H. KOTopaa. b kohchhom chctc mojkct oKaiaii.es MR- 



(pHMecKOH. ripaB 6biJi 1U. MoHTecKbe. niicaBiiiiiii: «He 
cjic.iycT liuiiaTi. Hapoa aeHCTBHTejibHO HcoS.xoaHMoro 
paan yaoB/icTBopeHHs mhhmux noTpcoHocTcii rocyaap- 
CTBa. YlxiiMh ic noTpeSHOCTii rocyaapcTBa - 3to ace to. 
nero rpe5yiOT CTpacTH h cjia6ocTn Tex. kto ynpaBjmeT: 
0'iapoBaiiHC Heo6bmaiiHoro npoeKTa. 6o.ie3neiiHa» atax- 
aa cyeTJiHBofl MaBbi h ueKOTopoe 6eccH,iHc paccyiiKa 
nepej qbaiiTajiicflw'. K co)Ka.icHHio. 3th oiOBa Be.iHKoro 
<piuioco<}>a lie npiiiiii\ia.nici. b pacicT. ^ciicTBOBaji CTa- 
.ihhckhh npiiHimn: «F.CTb MenoseK - ecrb npoejieMa, HeT 
we.-iOBCKa - hct npo6jteMbi». XX BeK hoiuc.i b hctophio 
\ii.-*.i> !iapo;iiii,:\ OTiioiueHinl KaK caMi.iii arpcccHBHbiH b 
othoujchiih .iiofleR. Flo neKOTopbiM noacMeTaM. noni6jio 
donee 170 Man. sc.iobck. TonbKo 3a nocncaHHe 13 aeT b 
pe3y.ibTaTe 'icjioBeiecKoii iieiiaBHCTH norH6ao 6o;icc 2 
m,ih. *eniUHH h aereii. mto cocraBaseT noMTii 90 % y6n- 

TblX II paHCHblX B XOaC BOOpy>keHHblX KOH(paHKTOB'. Bh- 

;ihmo. apaMaTHMecKoe painimie CHTyaUHH b MeAayHa- 
poaHbix OTHOuieHimx 3aao*-eHo b caMOH ie\uioii miBiiaii- 
3amui, aa*c b tcx ec aocTHACHHBX, KOTopuc npnniiTO 
noMesiy-To c'liiTaTb nporpeccoM. 3tot nporpecc HCOTfle- 
aiiM ot CKpbiTod b HHBuairjauiiH bo3mo}khocth Tcppopa. 
EciiH 3anaaHbifi Miip 6yaer no-npeA'He.My crpeMiiTbcH k 
TOMy. 4To6u noayHHTb MaKciiMyM yaoBoabCTBiiii ja mh- 
HHMyvt BpeweHH. cro h Bcex Hac owHaaeT ray6oHaiiuiee 
nopaACHiic. Tcppop noKa»ceTca iicHmiiioii aeTCKofi uia- 
aocTbio no cpaniieHHio c xoppopoM. mto b aaTHHCKoft 
TepMHHO.iormi 03HaHacT «Hano.iHHTbca crpaxoM. ouicth- 
HiiBa rbcs. BCTaBaTb n.iooM (o Boaocax)». 

Xoppop - 3to cocroHHHe uiiuii.i ma i inn . KOTopas 6o- 
htch caMa ce6s, noTOMy hto aio6bie ce .iocihayhiih - 
noiTa. MeaiiUHiia. KOMnbWTepbi. aBiiauim. BbicoTHbic 3aa- 
hiih. BoaoxpaHHJiHuia. bcc cpeacTBa TpaHcnopTa. A3C - 
Moryr ObiTb ncnoab30Baiiu a.i» ce pa3pyuieHii». Ha CMeny 
3KoaoniH KaK nepBooHcpeaHOH 3a6oTenpHxoairr xoppo- 
aorHH - HayKa 06 y*acax umui.ni laiimi KaK cucreMe 
aoBViucK. it o Mc^oBenecTBe KaK iaaowmiKe coTBopeHHofi 
hm iiiimi.m laiimi. Ceiiiac no Bceii AMepiu-e cTpcMHTeab- 
ho npoxoaHT npouecc xoppopiKpiiKaunii caMbix o6wm- 
Hbix npeaMeTOBH opyami miBiiainamiri, iu npeBpameHiic 
b HCTiiiiHbiH yA-ac. H ieM Bbime uiiBiiainaiiHfl laecb h 
cefmac. TeM OHa onacnec. Hbio-MopK. BauiHHrroH. Moc- 
KBa. Tcnb-ABHB. JIoHaoH onacHee. mcm ManeHbKHe ropoa- 
Kii. Bypaaume cTaaMoiibi. IHUOKH, a3ponopTM. BOK3aau 
onaciiee. hcm TiixiicaepeByuiKH. I In mi in ■ h inn craHOBHT- 
cji ocofieHHO rpo3HOH b Mecrax cBoero cKonaeHim. Uhbh- 

UHallllH y»3BHMa npOHIIKHOBeHllOCTbK) CBOHX KOMMyHH- 

KaTHBiibix ccTefl. Kto, H3 Kahiix MecT ii c KaKofi ueabK) 
paccameT 6aKTcpnn CH6npcKofi *3bm? flowcMy 3to bcc 
cme hc HJBecTHo nocie ycHanfl ueaoii ap.Mmi ay>iuiHx 
cnemiaaHCTOB h cbimnKOB?ila noTOMy . mto TaKas Hcycae- 
aiiMocTb. cBoooaa bxo.iob h BbixoaoB Bcrpoena b caMy 
crpyKTypy miBiiainauHH. KOTopas 03a6oMeHa Test. hto6u 
6biTb 3q3(peKTiiBHo3 h npoiiiiuaeMOH, nepecwaaTb KaA- 
abiii aeiib 700 timt. noMTOBbix oTnpaB.icmiH ToabKO b 
CUJA. 

UiiBnan3aun» hc TojibKo o6HapyAHBaeT cbokj y»3- 

BHMOCTb. OHa CTaHOBHTCJI npHHHHOH H Mepofi yH3BHM0C- 



• 



4 nPABA 1EJIDBEKA 



13 



ni. Mcpa cc coBcpuicHCTBa n ccrb Mcpa cc xpyriKOCTH. 
Mojioaoe noKOJieHnccrpeMHTca Ha 3anaa. H Bapyr oKa- 
jbiBacTca. mto 3T0 3anajHH. 11 jbcci mi.hi ny6mmHCT M. 
3nuiTci«H oTMeiacT: «B cyiUHOCTH. iihhh.iii iau.ua - jto 
:ic.iiik>ih iipomiH. KOTopan noa biijom iamiiTti ii yao6- 

CTBa. lHOOO.ii>! II CKOpOCTH, 6oraTCTBa H pa3>MHOCTII co- 

oiipaer nac bccx b oano laamie «ao6pa h cBeTa». npoHii- 
lamioc TfaicHHaMii npoBoaoB, jiccthhu. nwpTOB. omen, - 

1To6bl noaCTaBHTh BCCX BMCCTe OJHOMV TOHHOMy II BCe- 

CMCTaioiucMy yaapy. Uiibii.ih lamia - .lecniHua nporpec- 
ca, BCiiymaa Ha miacpo i •■'. 

IlpOH'JBOJlHOe OT IIIIHH.IH l.ltlHU COCTOHHIie MW.I\ II..- 

poitHWx OTiioiiieimfl Tainice o6t»cktiibho coiaaeT iianps- 
/KCHHOCTb. 4p€BaTVK> npo6.ieMnocTbio Bhonnanu. Pac- 
ryuiaa B3aHM03aBiicHM0<m> Bcex cySbciaoB othouichhh 

B 06naCTH 3KOHOMHKH. IIH(j)OpMailHH. nOJIHTMKH II KV.Ib- 
TVpbl II looa.lll la 11 II HI HH.'IHCK'H npOTHBOpeiHBbIM fipO- 

ueccoM. 

CoBpeMeiiHbie cpcncTBa KOMMyiiiiKamui, aocryn- 

HOCTb B pa Hill 1 l.l -, CTpaiiaX HH(j)OpMailHII. CBo6oaHOC ne- 

pcMcuiciinc.iio.icfi. TOBapoB h ycayr ;ihkbiuiip\k>t 6o.ib- 
uiiiHCTBO npenHTCTBiiH ins (pinHHccKoro ncpcMcmeHHB 
TcppopncTOB.in6ojc.iaioTeroneHy>KHbiM.'uaHaHeccHH» 
y.iapoB no o6i>eicTaM aTaKH. PacrcT no imovkiiou i. reppo- 

pHCTIIMeCKOfl aedTCIbHOCTH C HCIlO/lblOBaHHCM BblCOKIIX 

TexnojiorHfi. oco6emio onaci i i.im b 6nonorn'iecKoii ii xieic- 

TpOHHO-HH(|)OpMaUllOHHOfl CpC3C. 

r^o6ajiH3aunH chctcmw MHpoBoro xo3aficTBa no- 
3Bo.iaeT 3KCTpeMncTCKHM rpynnaM 6e3 oco6oro Tpyaa 

BHCiipMTb CBOK) KaapOByiO, (pHHaHCOBOOKOHOMH'ieCKyiO 

h TCXHO,iorH«iccKyio6a3y BCTpaiibiH pemoHbi. »b.iiiioiuh- 
cch o6t>*ktom hx mo. ipi.imiDii acHTCjibnocTH. rpaKaaiic- 
Koe Haccnciiiic. b tom 'ihcic Kciimiuibi h aem, mnco 

pCKp\THpyeTCHCOBpeMCHHbIMH DKCTpCMIICTaMII II BB.ISeT- 
CB BblC0K03(p(pCKTMBH0fl 6oeBOH CH. loll B 6opb6c 33 HjieiO 

h Bepy. tcm nane. hto b npsmra Tcppopimia HopMofi 
aBiacTca Hi.iii.ia i .1 cesibe norHSuiero 3HamiTe.ibHoH tpii- 
HaHcoBOH KOMncHcauiiH. B ycaoBiiax Bcco6mefi miiuci m 
rn5cjib oatioro H3 h.icmob ccMbii no3Bo.mcT ocruiuium 
nonytart. cpeacTBa k cyiuecTBOBaHino. 

CaenaB npo3pa'iiibiMii rpaimubi nauiiOHajibHbix ro- 
cy.iapcTB, rjiooaniijaiwa BBCJia b MotcayiiapoaHbie otho- 
uicHiiH HOBbix aKTopoB. Hccb.Ma pajHoiuepcTHbix. CO CBO- 
hmii HiiTepecaMii 11 uciumh. o.nui H3 T8XHX uenefl 6-iaro- 
poAHbi (3KOJiornHccKoe. npaBosoe jibh*chhh). JXpyruc 
npecneayioT TOJibKO Kopbicnibie ueaii cfmiiaiicoBbix hb- 
kiui 'U'Miii'i (THK ii THE) TpeTbH 6opioTCH npoTHBcyme- 
CTByiomcro nopaaica Betuefi. kotopmhohh b npiiHuiincHc 
npinHaioT. 

r.ioSanniauHa oka ta.iaci, hc crojib «rno6anbHoii» 
unna i w iiaioiiicn. c oaHOil cropOHbl. Bee crpaHbi II pcrno- 
Hbi, c apyroii - bcc ofi.iacin: iKOHOMiiKy, comianbiiue 
othouichhh, KynbTypy). necTo.ib«yHHBcpca J ibHoii»(iiMe- 

IOIIIl-II f .'111111.10 HOpMH. CTalUapTbl. UeHHOCTH) H HCCTO.Ib 

«npaMo.niHciiHoii)> (pa3BiiBaiouicHca ro^bKO h upaHii n,- 
hom HanpaB.iennn 11 HeaonycKaiomeH nonaTHbix jbhac- 
hhii). CcrojHa TaKHe cy6wKTbi McaayHapoaHbix otho- 

iiichiiii. hah rocyaapcTBa 11 THK. .10.1*111.1 HayHirrbca 



npncnoca6.iHBarb cbok> CTpaTenito k tcm BbnoBaM h yr- 
po3aM. KOTopuc nopoacaaeT r.iooa.nriaiiiia. BK.iioHaa 
ii.'Mii.ieiiiic 6bicTpbix h noTeHUHajtbHo HipwBoonaciibix 
cpHHaHcoBbix noTOKOB. naicHHc uch na 3Hcpropa-ypcbi. 
ycHneHHean<p<|)epeHHHauiin pa uui 1 1 in BHyTpH oTac.ibHbix 
CTpaii 11 t j. Bo.ni»ujaa qacrb MHpa. Koropaa. no noniKe 
B.B.riyTiiHa. «B.iacTca hciiiibii.'ihiobjiiiioii. ocraiiacb Ha 
oooHHHe r^o6a.ibHbix npoueccoB, b tom hhcic h Pocchhc 
Bciapycbio. Bonce Toro, a pcay.ibTaie 6ucrpbix TCMnoB 
r.io6ajin3auHii. KOTopwe o6ycnoBnHBaioTCH coBpcMeHHofi 
TexHo.iorHefi. pa jpwB Me*.iy crpaHaMii. BOBJicqeinibiMH b 
MiipoByio r.io6a.iinamiK) (30 crpaH), 11 ocTanbiibiMii 200 
crpaHaMH craHOBiiTca bcc oiuvthmcc. 

BoibMCM. k npHMepy. Be.niKo6pHTaHHio. 3aHiiMaio- 
uivioccroaHH 5-ionouimiKiH \111pc no \pomiio .kohomu- 
MccKoro pa iBiiriia. Ee BBn b pacncTc Ha ayujy nace.ienn» 
b 2000 r. cocTaBHn 24.3 twc aon.. b to BpeMa Kax 11a bccm 

nOCTCOBCTCKOM npOCTpaHCTBe OH COCT3BIU1 7 TWC. a BO 

Bcex CTpaHax Miipa. KOTopbic na u ib.uohh pajBHBaiomii- 
Miica. paBHanca 3.8 tuc ! Mto 6w mu hii roDopn.iii ccroa- 
H» o npHMHiiaxTaKoro pa3puBa. KaKHeou hii npiiBoaHJTH 
BecKHe aoKa3aTCJTbCTBa, noneMy aHrjinnaHaM xopoiuo. a 
ocTajbHbiM rmoxo. 3ro He BOJbiMeeT aeftcTBHsi. /Jticrap- 
mohhb pa iniiiiia nopoacaaeT HOBbie niSOBtl h yrpo3bi, k 
KOTopbiM othochtcs npoKje Bccro MaccoBaa Murpamis 
nacc:ieimn b 6narononyMiibic, ho tcm hc mchcc crpeMH- 
TcibHo crapcioiuHe pa iion 1,1 MHpa. CeroaHH y*e hh y Koro 

HC BI.1 il.lRaCI ;..UIH K'HIIH. tTO M.ICHOM IlU.iaihl .lOpaOB 

Rc'iiiKonpniaHiui - CBHTU CBSTbi.X am .ihhckoi o HCTCO- 
.niiiiMciii a - aaiaeTca npaBOBcpHbifi apa6-Mycyab.MaHHH. 
Hcpc3 10 ncr hx raM 6yaeT y*e 15, a Hepc3 30 ,ict hc 
noKa*o ica npoBOKaiiiicfi Bonpoc: «Koraa we rjiasa rocy- 
.lapcTBalccm iim 0Ka>KCTca wcHiuiiHa) HaacHCT naapy?» B 
uejioM 3KcnepTbi npeacKa3UBaioT k 80-m it. XXI BeKa 
HajiHHHe TonbKO 10-15 % 6enoro HaccieHHa b EBponc h 
CUJA*. 

B 3THX yClOBHSX SrOHCTHieCKHH paCMCT CTOpoilHH- 
K0B KOCMOnOjIHTHHeCKOH CHCTeMbl MC'A'.1> liapo.IHl.l \ OT- 

Homciiiifi upocMarpiiBaerca AOBOJibHO OTHcrnHBO. Ohm 
xoTaT. >iTo6bi ociioBiibie aHBHacaaw ot r.io6ajiH3auHii 
(noMiipaTb. TaK c \i> iiaKoii - A. M.) nonymi.m paiBHTbie 

B 3K0HOMHMCCKOM OIHOIIICHHH OOlUCCrHa. BCilb 11MC1IH. 

3TH o6uiecTBa BbicrynaioT hochtc^hmh ochobhux ee (J)aK- 
TopoB. Ha rocyjapcrea «ce.MepKH» ceroaHa npHxoaHTca 
6ojiee 90 % MiipoBoro npoH3BoacTBa, 20 % HaccieHiia 
oiaHCTbi pacnopa*aioTca 83 "M Miiposoro aoxoaa, a Ha 
jpyroM no.iiocc k 2005 r. 6yaer npovKHBaTb 85 % h&tiobc- 

MCCKOfl UHBH.lHiaiIHH. HMCa TOJibKO 17%'. 3TH UHljipbl H3 

roaa b roa npiiBojiHTca bo Bcex mhpobux cnpaBOMHHKax. 
k hhm jnoc bcc npiiBbiK.iii. Flo rjiy6oKOMy y6ewaeHHio 
aBTopa. HacrynHao BpeMa. Koraa 3Ty apiiipMCTiiKy ywe 
iicvibia iirHopiipoBaTb. tcm 6o.iec oTMaxiiBaTbca. KaK ot 

lia30H.1HB0H MVX1I. B HCH - IIOBCUKX nOHHTHHCCKOC HJIH 

aa*c. ccm xoTHTe, reHeTHiecKoe co4ep>Kanne, KOTopoe 
yxe onpoKHabiBacT cnoKoWHoeTeMCHiic McaciyHapoaHofl 
IKH3HH. rioaBaaioTca HOBbicHcnoBOJibHue. H3roH.«HOBbie 
BapBapw». ncHXOjioni'iccKii roTOBbicK. 1106011 Boiiiie. Mm 
Beab neMero repaTb. Mowho aiiuib c yBepeHHocTbio cKa- 



14 



nPABA 1EJI0BEKA 



33Tb. MTO OCTaTbCH B CTOpOHC CnpiITaTbCH OT BOHHbl. KaK 

3to 1,1 id b iipoui;ibieaeomi;ieTHa, iieyaacrca hh oaHOMy 
rocyjapcTBy, b tom Mucae BeaapycH. C apyrofi cTopoiibi. 
b npecce npocKaab3MBaioT uiKppbi. mto no pa3HWM ouch- 
Kain b Beaapycn ceroana CKomtaocb ot 200 ao 500 tmc. 
HCJicraaoB 83 apyntx. » ochobhom KOH<j)JiHKTyiomnx. pe- 
i'hohob. TaK cKOJibKo Ae tomho? noneMy TaK pa3Harca 
mi<ppu?3T0 Beab 'iy.ioiinmiu.iii iictomhiik couiu.n.iioii h 
TpyaoBOH HanpHyKeHHocTH. pocra pacoBbix iiacTpoeHHH. 

T0pr0B.1fl ll.ipho I HK.IMII H Opy-KHCM. .K1H.1CIII1C ll.l HaiUH 

rpaiiHUbi. oco6eHHO 6eaopyccKo-noabCKyio. CicoabKo 
npuxoairrca TpaTHTb cn.1 h cpeacTB HauieMy MoaoaoMy 
rocyaapcTBV, mto6m ocTaHOBHTb iiauiecTBiic «hobmx ra- 
Tapo-MOHroaoB» b EBpony? 

ripoTecTHau Macca pacTeT ii b pa3BHTbix oomecTBax. 
ii He ToabKO 38 CTCT MMMiirpaHTOB c apa6cKoro BocroKa 
(6ojiec 4 mjih. MycyabMaH b CLUA. ooaee 3 m.ih. - b OPP). 

EcTb Beab II BHVTpeHHKC npOTCCTaHTW. OHH HC CBOilXTCM 

k KpacHoii anoHCKoii apMHH, (pauiHCTCKoii napniii CUJA. 
pccnyonHkaHCKOH napTHH OPr h ap. A bot aHTnrno6a- 
aiicTCKoeaBH>KeHiie. oxBaTHBmec Moaoaux aioaeii 3anaa- 

HOH r.npiMl I.I II CcBCpHOH AMCpHKH. lie CTOHT HrHOpiipO- 

BaTb. Oho o6t>ckthbho oTpawaeT pacTymyio TpeBory no 
noBoay HeBocrpe6oBaHHocTH b HacToameM ii oyaymew ii 
CBH3MBaeT aaiiHbtil npouccc c TaKiivni cySieKTaMU mca- 
ayHapoaiibix othoujciihh. KaK THK. B 3toi"i cbh3h /La. 
Copoc cnpaBcaaiiBo oTMciacT. mto bmccto npocroro nac- 
ciiBHorooTpajKennHaeiicTBHTeabHocTH(pnHancoBbiepbiH- 

Kll aKTIIBHO (})OpMHpyiOT pCajIbHOCTb. KOTOpyKJ OHH. B 

cboio OMepeab. h OTpaAaKvr*. 

Ba-A-Heiluiefi npii'iinioii .iki hbh sauiui Teppopit3Ma b 
Me/KayiiapoaHbix othoiuchhsix mineral noBeacitiieCUJA. 
BcpHee. BHeniHenoaimmccKajiaesTeabHocTbBcex aMepvt- 
KaHCKHX .I.IMMIIIK I p.lllllll. Hil'IIIHUH c T. TpyM3Ha. 3tot 
(JiaiCT. B03MOAHO OCKOp6HTeTbHMHaa» npOCTUX JKHTeaefi 

AsiepHKH. HyA-aaeTCH b noaciteHHH. 

AHraHllCKOrO KHHOpCAHCCepa Fl. rpilHV3H. CMOTpCB- 

inero hobocth no CNN, nopaiHa aMepiiKaHCKiui HaJlb- 
HiiK. noKaibiBaioiuHH Ha pymaiayioca 6auiHio h cnpauiH- 
n;iioiiuiii y MaMbi: «Mto ac mm cacaa.in TaKoro, mto Bee 
37H aioaH TaK p.i km.iii.ihci. Ha Hac»? AHr.nmaHiiH nonu- 
Taac» aaTb otbct Ha 3Tot caoAHbift Bonpoc: «fla. b iiaiueM 
o6mecrBe ecrb aimeMepiic. ecrb Hrpa no aBoiiHMM c«ie- 
raM. H mam. mto KaAaaa Hauna b iia'ia. ic CBoero pa3BH- 
Tim TaK n,in HHa>ie ucnoab30Baaa Teppopii3M b miTcpccax 
rocyaapcTBa - 3to 6uao h b Amcphkc. h b Annum 
Flo3TOMy ceHMac - h aMepiiKamibi b tom inane - ao.TAHbi 
ui.iaH.i 1 1, 3tot Bonpoc caMHM ce6e. H caMH vsmaak nu- 
TaTbta iiaiiTH oTBeT»*. ripeacTaBaaeTca, mto h mm He 
.10.1*111.1 01 ka ji.ibu r bca ot noncKa otbctob. H aeao 33K- 
aio'iaeTCH bobcc hc b tom. mto6m TonbKo ynpeKaTb aMepn- 

KilllCK) lo a. 1M H II IIC I pal III K> B TOM. HTO 0H3 CnOCoSCTBOBa- 

aa poA'acHHio jbhachha «TaaHoaH». aeJicTBya no Kaac- 
cimecKOMy npHHunny «Bpar Moero Bpara - moh apyr». 
ripoG/ieMa ropaiao cnoxcHcc. riocnc pacnaaa CCCP bo 
linen mono 1 a 1 ii'iockii \ ycTanoBKaxCLUA CTaia npocMaT- 
piiBarbcn 1 cii.u'iiuiiH k o6iueMHpoBofi h pcriioiia.nbHOH 
rereMOHHH. k nonbiTKe caeaaTb XXI BeK «hobmm aMepii- 

KaHCKHM BCKOM». 



IloaaeTcs Bee 3to noa cp^aroM «B3aHMOo6oramcHHsi 
KyJibTyp» b MOKayHapoaHMx oTHoiiicmiflx. Koraa (paimi- 
mcckh rocnoacTBycT Moac.Tb oaHoii crpaHu. BaMcpiiKan- 
ckom no.THTiiiecKOM coiHaHiiH nosiBHJicfl 11 yciiaiiBaeTco 
mothb TO/KaccTBa ce6a h Miipa. ocTa.ibHbic ne hmciot 
HCTopHHecKofi nepcneKTHBbi: HapoaM He3anaaa ctoht 
nepea aHacMMofi - .moo OTKa3 or cooctbchhoh KyabTyp- 
hoh TpaaiiUHii. .11160 poKOBaa OTcraaocTb h npoiHoaiun- 
b KaMecTBC MiipoBoii ncpiKpcpim. XapaKTcpiibiMii scpTa- 
mii aMcpHKaHCKoi rocyaapcTBeHHoro MumaeHHsi h no- 

HC.iCIIIIH HH.IHIOIi.-H MCCCHaHCTBO H npOBHaeHUHa.1H3M: 

«Mm co3aaan 3tv nauiiio. hto6m caeaaTb ^loaeii CBo6oa- 
hmmh. mu. c tohkh ipeHiia KOHnenmui 11 ncaeil. He orpa- 
HHiHBacMCB AMcpHKofi h TcncpbcatnaeM ^loaeii CBo6oa- 
hmmh. A ccan mm 3Toro He caeaaeM. to caaBa AMepiiKii 
yaeTyHHTca. a bch ee MombHcnapiiTcfl»"'. 3th caoBa iubc- 
CTHoro noaiiTHKa 11 nccaeaoBaTe.ia T. KuccimaA-epa nyn- 

IIIC HHblX TpaKTaTOB 0&1.5ICHHIOT CyTb a MCpilKailll i\ia. 

<t>aHaTii>iHbiH ayx npcBocxoacTBa. bhcuiiic ycBoiiBUiHH 
ceKyaspHyio (ppa3eoaorHK> h .icK-.iap.ii;iiiiii,iii naiopa- 
aH3M. po>KaaeT noao6ne Hco6oabiueBH3Ma c ero npeHe6- 
poKeHiicM 11 ttecTOKocTbio k MeuiaiouiHM crpaHaM h Hapo- 
aaM. JIorHKa oanonoaapHoro npocKTa HeyMOJiHMo Beaer 
k KOHijipoHTamiii CLLIA co BceM ocTaabHMM mhpom. 1160 
oaHono.TapHaa Moaeab b npimuime HecoBMCcniMa c cy- 
uiecTBOBaHHeM jpynix KpynHbix rocyaapcrB. AMepnK-an- 
cKHHnoaiiTo.iorn.BbioKeHeHOTMeHaeT. MToClUAcBocri 
rereMoiiiicTCKoii noaHTHKon y*e ycnean na*iin. ce6c 
HCMaao BparoB. nocneuniB B3STb Ha cc6a 6cc4HcaeHHMc 
o6»3aTCjibCTBa oyKHa.i i,n< > b KawaoM pcmoHc MHpa". Ecu 11 
TaKas no.iHTiiKa coxpaHiiTcs h nocae 1 1 ceHTu6pa, to 
moaho c vBcpcHHocrbio yTBepAaaTb. KTO CLUA OAHaaCT 
cyab6a niTacpoBCKofi repMamiH. MeMTaBiucH mhpobom 
rocnoacTBe He.MeuKoii pacu, h,ih CoBeTCKoro Cowia. crpe- 
MHBiucroca BbinoaHaTb iiej.ic 11 Bcioay HHTepnamioHaab- 
Hbiii aoar b ueaax no5eabi «MiipoBoro comianii3Ma». 
MeA'ayHapoaHoe cooSuicctbo b ueaoM. naxe cok>3- 

HHKH CLUA. HHTVHTHBHO npOTHBOCTOIIT rcrCMOHIOMy B 

MeA-avHapoaiibix oTHouieHHax. yHiiA-cHHocrb b iiepap- 
xiiii hc moact npiiBCTCTBOBaTbta CTpanaMii. hcIi reHeTH- 
■iccKiifi koa HCTopii'iecKoro c;imooo uiaiiiia tie no3BO;iaeT 
onycTHTbca ao ypoBtta ynpaBaacMoii reonoaHTimecKofi 
BeaHHHHbi. BaAHM o6bCKTHBHbie o6cToaTeabCTBa. /Xia 
coiaaima MeAaynapoaiibix othouichihi. KOHTpoanpye- 

MMX Hi OaHOro UCHTpa. HC06x0aHMM KaK MIIHHMJ'M 3 

npeanocbi.iKii: qSHiiancoooc 3kohomiihcckoc rocnoacTBo. 
a3biKOBoe c6airA-eiiHe h peanriio3Has coBMecTHMocTb. 
TaaBeiicTBO CUJA Tpe6yeT yTBepAaeinia aoaaapa b Ka'ie- 
CTBeeaiiHOH MHpoBofi BaaioTu. Ho noaBacHiiccBpo noica- 
3MBaeT, mto HMeeTca ccpbCJHaa nonbiTKa EBponu naiini 
a-ibTepiiaTiiBy. Mto KacacTca anraHiicKoro a ii.i k.i. to pc- 
aabHOCTbTaKOBa. mto b Miipe Ha6aioaaeTca yMCHMiieHHe 
Mucaa roBopatuiix no-anraHficKH aioacfi c 10 % ao 7.5 % b 
2000 r. Ron* HaccacHiia Miipa, lOBopamero Ha KHTaftc- 
kom. npH6aH*acTca k 20 %. Hto Ae KacaeTca pc.inrno3- 
Hoii coBMecTHMocTH. to jaecb Ha6aioaaeTca caeayiouiaa 
Kapi una B 2000 r. xpHCTiiaHe cocTaB.TaaH 30% Haceae- 
Hua naaHCTbi. Mycy^bMaHe- 12%. ho Mepe3 MeTBepTb BCKa 
nepBbix 6yaer 25 %. a BTopbix 30 "A.' : . Ceroana npiueTca 



4 HPABA HEilOBEKA 



15 



oTKa33TbcJ> ot bbrryiomero CTepeoTHna o eaiiHbix h vhh- 
BcpcajiHUbix HopMax h paMKax -*ii inn. HocHTb .tahhcw. 
ccn> nmiuy h raM6yprepbi, miTb KOKa-KOJiy, CMOTpeTb 

HOBOCTH no CNN - BCC 3TO BOBCC HC 03HaMaCT HMCTb 
C/lHHWCyHHBCpCajlbHblCHCHHOCTHMCCTaHjiapTM. Ha 3TOT 

•|.-:ik i o6pauiaK)T mi ii Mamie miioi lie rio.nn iikh h Hccaeao- 
BaTcnH. sanHMaioinHcca aHaamou Baiiaima Kv.ihn piibix 
epaKTopoB Ha BHcujHioio noaHTHKy. K. Mauyypa, TeHc- 
paabiibiii aiipeKTop IOHECKO. OTMeMaer. mto rao6aaH- 

3aiIHH «HC aOJIJKHa BCCTH K yHH(j>HKaUHH KVJIbTyp H.1H 

rocnoacTBy ojiioii hjim HecKoabKHX KVJibTyp naa sceMii 
ocrajibHbiMii. He aoaxcna OHa h noompim. (pparMenTa- 
mno h.ih MeiiTajjiiTeT rerro. HanpoTHB, raooaainamta 

.KM* Mil CTHMVillipOBaTb n.llOpaJIH3M. HMdOUlHH CBOCM 

ucabio anaaor h BiaiiMiioc ooorauieHHO*". 

B COBpCMCHHMX \te*.iyMapiUlib!\ OTHOUieHHHX Mbl 

iiao:i k iaaeM .mini, o6uty 10 •< niicm moio o6ojiohkv». 3a ko- 
Topoii ckpbiBaioTCS coBepuieHHo pa tiihie Betmi HanpH- 
Mep. crpeMjieHiie noBTopnTb mch-to onbrr cTpoHTcabcrBa 

BHVTpCHHeH H BHc'lIIHCJi Mn III IHKH ofiopaMilliae IL'H. KaK 

npaBM.no. KpaxoM. ran *e, KaK h nonbiTKa Hafmi cboh 
oco6cHiibie Moaenii paiaiiTifii. TeM hc MeHee. Ha Ham 
B3r.iaa. onacnoii ICHACHUHCfl b McacayHapoaiibix othouic- 
HUHx.cTHMyjiiipyioincHTeppopinM. hh nacTcs HMeHiiocMe- 
iuchhc npnopiiTCTOB H3 o6aacni yMeTa oco6chhoctch 
nauiioHanbHoro hjih rpa>KaaHCKoro rocyaapcrBeHHoro 
crpoHTCJibCTBa b oSjiacrb npaKTHMecicoro BonaouiCHHa 
crpaHaMH "3an.ua. npeacac Bccro CUIA. TcopCTHHecKHX 
•■ t.iiu..in!.!N uchhoctch» (aeMOKpaTim. npaBa HeiioBeKa. 
paBHonpanite nanoB ii t. a. I. Bee ito Bbnuaano h 6yaeT 
cmc 6o^biue BM3biBaTb conpoTHB-ieHHe. BK.mo«ias Teppop. 
HanpHMep. iicaaMCKaa wacTb MeaoBeMecTBa. ttiiByuiaa 
noHTH b 60 crpaHax MHpa h o6ieaHHBioiuaa I Mapa mcio- 

BCK. HC MO'iKCT npHCOeai(HHTbC» K aMeptlKaHCKIIM din 

cBponcficKiiM cTaHjapTaM. Ilpcacic Bccro noTOMy, mto 
owa BMecre c BocTomioa3HaTCKofi. ini.ni iicKoii, aiaBsmo- 
npaBoc.iaBHOH. ;iaTiuioaMepnKaHCKOH ii acppiiKaHCKofi 
Mac i hm ii mi mi i ma nun Haxoairrca Ha apyrnx craanax 
o6uiecTBeHHo-no,iHTHMecKoro pauBHTHH. He.iyiuiHX h hc 
xyamiix. npocTo apyrnx. 

K npiiMepy. hc naao 3a6biBaTb. mto b A<|>i amic i aiic 
ceilMac ne kohcu 2001, a naMajio 1381 r. Ha 3BaiMBimiH 
Bonpoc rioHTHH rinaaTa. la.iaiuiiiiii XpiicTy: «Hto etrrb 
HCTHHa?». - p.mibic bctbh miBii.'iinaiiiin jaioT pa3Hbie 
OTBerw. Pa3HjrrcnnojxoabiKTaKiiM noinmtiiM.KaKcnpa- 
BenHBOcTb, npaBja, npeaeabi Haciiaiia. ucHa MeaoBeMec- 
Koii mm, Pocciiji. iianpiiMcp. i .ik h hc Ha) ■•iii.i.ici. ia 1 50 
.ieT bccth anaaor c iiapoaaMM CeBepHoro Ka BKa ia. caea- 
CTBiic Hero 1 O-aemaa noii iia b Mcmhc. .flaa cnponeiiueB n 
avcpiiKaHueB npeacTaBirreaH Toil ace apa6cKofl uhbh.ih- 
3amiH - 3to npcacraBHTciH apyrofi xynbTvpu. Tpaaiiiuiii. 
KaqecTBenHoapyrofl iiuhii.ih tamiii. KOTopan nopoaiiaa n 

COBCpilICHHO HHyiOMeHTa.'IbHOCTb. B MVCy.'lbMaiKKOM Miipe 

HHax cHCTcva janpeTOB Horpaiui'ieHHH. HHoeoTiiouiciiiic 
K /KCHiUHiic. k BJiacTii. k aeMOKpaTHH. R*9 eBponefiua 
3aoHTb McjioBeKa K.iMiisMii - iiiiKocTb.iis apa6oB - MaCTb 
npaBOBoii Ky.ibTypbi. JLns apa6a VMbiKamie iicbcctu. ho- 
tueHMe Kimvf a.ia - Tpajiiiiim, an* eBponcfma npecTynnc- 
iiiic: iioxniucHHe icioBCKa ii hoiuchhc xonoflHoro opy- 



jkhji. RnH CBponeima MHoroAencTBo - 3K30THKa, ana My- 
c\.Ti.viaimna - HopMa. H 3jecb cncayeT. Ha nam B3nisia. 
coraacHTbcH c n. TpHHyicM. Hc 3an>TajiHCb .ih a.Mcpii- 
KailUbl H CBponCHUbl B CHCTCMaX .IBOilHblX craHaapTOB 
ana ce6a m iuia apymx, pyKOBoacTByacb phmckhm npa- 
bom: «Hto nonoareHo KDnirrepy. He no/iOftceHo 6wicy». 
FIpH cymecTByioujeH :ie\ioi pa(!mMccKoii cm r\ aim h hc okh- 
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b crrpaHax-H3roax? 

H cmc Ha oaHH acneKT xoTcnocb 6w oopaTHTb BHHMa- 
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He j-noflH nina BacaeBa iuh Xairaoa. B CUJ A 6wji npoae- 

MOHCTpnpOBaH HJieflHUfi TeppopH3M. a 3aKa3MHKaMH II 

IICIUVIHIIHMHMH 6bIJIH Olipa l.iililHHMC lid 111, BXOaaUiHC B 

aaHTV HcnaMCKoro MHpa. Hx caMono/icepTBOBaHHe. yMHO- 

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thm. B to *e npe\iH 3TO h noKai cna6ocTii cHjibi CLLIA 
Ohh CMiiTa.in ce6a npaBMMii. Koraa HaueaiuiHCb Ha chm- 
bo.t (|)HHaHcoBoro6oraTCTBa CUIA - nc6ocKpe6bi h chm- 
boj! bochhoto MorymecTBa CILIA - IleHTaroH. ToabKo 

C^VMaftllOCTb nOMCUiajia MM VHHHTOJKHTbCHMBO.T nO.'lHTH- 

MecKoro MorymecTBa - lio.n.m aoM. CcBponcilcKoif h^h c 

aMcpilK.lHCKOH TOMKH 3peHlia - 3TO CpcaHCBCKOBbe. Bap- 

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kotopwh Kynaaca b aynax caaaw. 6oraTCTBa. Hern, 6aa- 
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mmm. HenoBTopacTca.TH iicTopnacHOBa? Tac pa3BepHyr- 

CB MiiBI.Ii- (ppOHTUI 3T08 HOBOll BOHHbl IICH3BCCTHO. Bofi- 

na iTa ne noaB^acTHa npomoiaM h cucHapHavi. Hct hh 
rao6aabHoro npoTHBOcroaHHa mhpobwx HaeoaorHMec- 

KHX CHCTCM Hail BOCHHO-noaHTHMeCKHX 6aOKOB H C0KJ3OB. 

hh paKeTHbix yaapoB H3 KOCMOca. Ecn BofiHa «hobwx 
BapBapoB» npoTHB «crrapoH iiHHKiiuaiiiiii-. Haymaa lie 
bo ii mh tcx ue-nefi. nj-ja KOTopwx o6whho BcayTca boiIhu. 
h He no Tevi npaBH.naM. PaaoBOH HciaMCKiiri TeppopHcr. 
cKopee Bcero. aa»:e He noHHMae? o TaKHX ikhhmx aaa 
eBpo-aMepHKanua aocmiweHiiax. KaK aeMOKpania, cbo- 
6oaa. npaBa MeaoBeKa. TaM, rae, no-HaiueMy mhchhio. 
cyiuecTByeT coBpeMeiinaa 3KOHOMiiKa. cBoooaa. paBCH- 
ctbo, TepniiMocTb, oh BiiaiiT 6c3oo5khc, pa3BpaT. nnyTOK- 
paTHio. ribaHCTBo. nopnorpaipHio. 

Boabiuyio po.ib b pa mi' i mi n ycHaeHHH 3KCTpeMHCT- 
ckhx HacTpoeHHil HrpaeT naaiiMiic MorymecTBCHHbix no- 
K-poBiiTcaeH b nme He<J>Teao6biBaioiuHX MOHapxufi hc- 
aaMCKoro MHpa c iix KoaoccaabHUMH (pHiiaHcoBUMH pe- 
cypcaMii. FlaKHCTaH, 0A3. KaTap. Kvbcht «npHcoeaniia- 
K>Tca» k 6opb6e npoTHB V'caMbi 6eH JlaaeHa jmuib H3 
crpaxa. mto CUIA o6pymaT uchu na HeqSTb. HaKaacyr 
aoaaapoBbiM KHyroMiiaii 3annuiyT BCTpaiibi-H3ron. kbk 

OHH 3TO CaC.ia.TH Ft OTHOUJeHHH JlllBHII. ClipHH, HpaK3, 
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k\. tax >kc. KaK ii CcBcpiibiH a.n.Hiic b AcpraHHCTaHC. 
HanpHMep. KoraaB 1991 r. Me/KayiiapoaiiaaKoajiHuna bo 
raaBC c CUIA Bhi6HBaaa H3 KyBefiTa soiicKa HpaKa. y 
AMepnKHHc6biao6o.ieeBepHorocoio3HHKa,MeMCayaoB- 
cKaa ApaBHa. Ho ccroaHa CHTyauna m iMcinriaci. Cay- 
aoBuu (jiaKTHMccKH pa3aeaHaH Miip Ha HeBcpiibix n npa- 



II 



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BOBepnux. n.ieMSHHHK Kopo.iJi npmm I5.i- 111,1 6en Taaaa, 
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chhckhh nccaeaoBaTeab E. CnaBOBCKHfl cnpaBeamiBo 

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ci pama Miipa OTKpoBCJino npojeBaiiH poxcaeHHe Bceo6- 
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6aH» MO/KHO HaHeCTH BOeHHOe lIopaA'L-HIIC. MOttHO. HaKO- 

hcu. i id ii Mai i. it na Ka i.i n, Ycainy 6ch JlaacHa. Ho n imc ii h i 
an paaHKaabHO CHTyaumo 3th aKiuni? 

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npHHuwnax 50-JieTHeii aaBHocTH 11 paccmiTaHHaa Ha aK- 

TiiBiiocTi. raKou yiiiincpca;iiaioiiiipraiiinaniiii.Kak()< )ll. 

B COBpCMCHHUX VCaOBHHX ll\ *.iac KM B CyUieCTBCHHOH 

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MaccoBoro nopavKciiHH, nponcxoaHT na TcppiiTopnax co- 
npoMciiiu.iv rocyaapcrB. c Beaovta h-ih 6e3 BeaoMa hx 
BnacTeii. Bo3hhk hobmh mhpoboh 6ccnopaaoK»". 

BuaHMo. He caynaHHbiMH aanaioTca ceixuHa uiarH 
3anaaa no na.ui*nn.iniiK> napiuepcKHX othouichuh c 
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6opb6u. y HauierocoK)3HViKa biicpbmc hosbilioi hctoph- 
mcckhh ujanc TecHoro coTpyaHHHecTBa b c(|)epe 6e3onac- 
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aornHecKoro CBoeo6pa3H«. Ho 3anaaHwe napracpbi Poc- 
chh aoaAHbi > 'in n.i Ban. h ec tiauHOHaabHbie HHTepecu. 
KOTopwe npocTo paiu.uic nrnopiipoBajiHCb. Bcab ne iiaao 
3a6biBaTb. hto Pocchh - 3To hc ToabKo 3anaa. no h Boc- 
tok. Pocchjj He 6yaeT TacnaTb KauiTaHbi H3 orn». b to 
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BaTb npocTpaHCTBO CpeaHcft A3Hh. npe*ae Bcero b cbohx 

7K0H0MIIHCCKHX H rCOnOnHTHHCCKHX UC.HBX. PoCCIIJI HC 

ao.T/Kiia noBTopHTb iifHa n.iiiaii ohmt cboch npapoaH- 
i t'.ibHii mm - /IpeBHeH PycH. KOTopaji 3aKpuaa cooofi moh- 
rono-TaTapcKoe iiauiecTBHe 11 tcm caMbiM no3Bo^naa Eb- 
pone ycneuiHO pa3BHBaTbCH 11 KpenHyTb. Xopouio. ecan Ha 
3anaae bcc aro oTneTaHBO noHHMaioT. «Mw CTajiii CBtiac- 
TcisMii noBopoTa n HCTOpifll, - lasmin ni.iiuiiiui nana 

ynpaB.ieHiis pa3BeaKH h HccieaoBaHHH rocaenapTaMeH- 
Ta ClilA M. A6paM0BHTu. - CILIA Tenepb 6yayr cobccm 
HHane CMOTpcTb Ha Becb ocTaabHofi MHp eme b tchchhc 
aoaroro bdcmchh»". B npoTHBOBCc BccMHpHOMy 6paT- 
cTBy TeppopncroB co3aaeTca. no cjtm aejia. aHTHTeppo- 
pHCTHHecKHH HHTepHauHOHa.1. Ho 6yaeTaH 3ToroaocTa- 

TOHHO? 

B jtoh CBH3H Heo6xoanMO nonwTaTbca oTBeTHTb na 
Bonpoc: rae we Bbixoa? Hey*eaH hcimh b Me>KayHapoa- 
hux oTHomeHHnx iiaiiTii KaKHe-To MCToau ii cpeacTBa. 
HToobi o6e3onacHTb 11 Hapoa. ii KOHKpeTHoro neaoBeKa ot 
nporpeccHpyiouiefi yrpo3bi? OaHH npcaaaraioT HacrHHHo 
orpamiHHTb npaBa n CBo6oaM rpawaaii b cootbctctbmh c 
laKDiiaMii BoeiiHoro BpeMeum KOHTpoJib Haa HH(popMa- 
uiieH.(pnnaHcoBbiMH noTOKaMii. HaeTHoii XB3HU0, bk.iio- 
■iaa c(J>epy KOHTaKTOB 11 ncpcMcuicHiiH. HpyrHe ocnapiiBa- 

KJT 3TH npeaaOVKCHHa. laHICIMH. HTO Bl.lllieil i:ic'-/KC!IHI.IC 

MeponpuHTHH noaopavT npaBa neaoBCKa h ai<6epaabHbie 
ueHHocrii. TpeTbii npeaaaraioT HanaTb(pH3HHecKoe yHHH- 

TOWeHHC TeppopHCTOB. o6bflBHTb HM i ">i.VliDlna, 1IIMD BOH- 

hv. Ha npHMcpc 1 1 ipan ih movkho yBHaeTb TynHKOBOcrb 
aaHHoro MeToaa. KaK npeacTaBaaeTca, cuiiicrBCHiibiM 
rapaHTOM BceoGtucii 6e30nacHOCTH Morjia nw ciari..niim, 
aoSpaa bo.hs aioaeH, ii3VHeHHe npHHHHW noaBaeHHa Tep- 
popinMa, ero couHaabiibix KopHcii. ho oto 6yaeT TonbKo 
b tom caynae. ecan .m>, in H3 pa i\ mhi.i\ cyiuecTB npeBpa- 
i men B iiiinii.mu>Haiini.ix. 



1 The Federal register. Washington. 1999. October 8. 

2 MonmecKbt 111 O ayxe 3a*OH0B. M., 1963. C. 16. 

3 Ulaxypo E. yKciiiiiiinbi H acni-6e*CHUW b eoopynccHHbix 
k-oni|i-inK i.ix // Be:i<ipyci-Kiii"i *ypna.i MOKitVMapoilHOro npaaa u 

MoimyHapoaHbix othouichuh 2001. H> 3. C. 71. 

4 hiMmiuii M V *..w Kax Bbicuaa CTyiieHb uiihii.ih laium // 
CoBCTCKan Beiopycciia 2001 3 Hoa6pn. 

5 MnpoHaa iKOHOMHKa 3a ero ^er // MiipOBax iKOHOMHKa h 
MentayHapoflHbie OTHotucHHa 2001 . W? 9. C. 98. 

6 HcJiaMCKMC HCTOKM U'ppupll (Ma // Api Wlfll l l.l M 1J1.1K' ii.i 

200l.>fe42. 

7 fOtemiyKuuJl. r.uuia.in laium ii HauHOHaJibHbie umepecbt II 
Me»ctyHapoiiHa« *H3Hh 2000 Hi 7. C. 89. 

8Cm.: CopocJlMC Kpii mc MHpoBoro KamiTa;iH3Ma. M.. 1999. 
C. XX. 

9 ApryineHTU u iparrhi. 2001 . ft> 47. 

10 Kuccundxep f. fliiruioMaTHii. M.. 1997. C. 39. 

11 HnaBHCHMax raiera. 1999. 24 Hox6px. 

12 reocrpyKTypa XXI BCKa /' MH(hopMaiiiioiiiii.iii oionjieTCHb. 
2000. CeHT»6pb. C. 7-8. 



nPABA HEJIOBERA 



17 



13 Maiiyypa K. r.io6a.injauHii - tto tskxc KyjibTypHbiA 
npouecc // MMmyHapoaHa* jkhihi, 2000. J* 9. C. 31. 

14 II ihiviiim 2001 Hovmnpi 

1 5 CamaHoic kuO E. rno6aiiii3auH«TeppopH3na Heronociea- 
cibm* // Mr*aynapo.ina« ah imi. 2001 . >fe 9-10. C. 24. 



16 lae.wdiM H. HoBbifi MHpoaofl 6ecnopnaOK h bhcuihuh 

llOIIHTMKa POCCIIH // M lipOBBS }KOHOMHKa H MC*J> Hapo JHMC OTHO- 

ujeHH«. 2000 N> I.C. 21. 

1 7 AMcpiiKaHcxas Tpareans - noBopor a hctophh ? // Komnac. 
20OI.Jt38.G31. 

MUHCK 

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u ueMcdyHiipodiihie oninomemuiu 



Y/lbpHX 5EK 

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Hcbo3mo>kho nivii.nio HJoewaTb onacHOCTH TepaKTOB 

II CHSlipCKOH JI3BH. Bo3HHKaeT BOnpOCI XOHHHJlOCb J1H 
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mu BiioBb npH yTBcpjtcaeHHH nepBencTBa iio;ihthkh? Hc- 
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TOpblft h.ua.K-H Hi'IU<f<C.lHMi,lM. o6opBajlOCb? 

rno6ajibHoc huuicctbhc Tcppopa noxowc na Hcpno- 

6bl lb M .1 pi noil 3KOHOMHKH: k:ik la\l ow.Tll laXOpOHeHU 
OTXOflbl aTOMHOrO npOH3BOaCTBa, TaK H i.ICCl, - Mbl H3 

noxopoiiax ooeuiaiuiii ocnacexiin. KOTopue aa.3 navi Heo- 

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3BaiiHoro lasiciiin i, no;iHTHKy n rocyaapcTBO 3Kohomh- 
koh. mi iiohomiio crajia He cTo;ib y6eanTejibiioH. 

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hux IUkuoh bo MHoroM cssnaiia c hx nojnmiHecKoK 
rpiinocoipifCH AMcpiiKaHCKan naima - rny6oKO Hco;m6e- 
pa u.iia ii via.no pacnonowetia njianiTb 3a o6uiecTBeHHyio 
6cionacHocrb. 

[IpoiUtC Bcero, jaBiio 6mjio iubcctho. tto CUIA bb- 

jmBICI BO3MOWH0H MHlUCllblO TCppopHCTOB. Ho. B OT7IH- 

mie ot EBponu. b Amcphkc B034yuiHoe coo6uacHHe 6bino 
npiiBanuHpoBaHo. hto noB.ieK.no TaK HajuBacMoe «tyno 
pa6oiHX mcct», iia Koropux pa6oTa Bciacb no m6KOMy 

i pa'jniK\ Japn iaia paooiHiiKOH cocT3B.3H.ia AaoxiupoB 

B Mac. B pe3ynbT3TC ']>> II Klinn HaiVlUUCTIlia - CaMMC BBJK- 

Hhic b cMCTCMe BHyTpeHHeii rpa*jiaHCKoii 6c3onacHocrn 
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ia iiccko.h.ko nacoB h ne 3a.aep>KHBaioujnitca na 3toi1 pa- 
6otc. b cpejHCM. aonee 6 mcchucb. 

TaKHM o6pa30M. neo;iH6epanbHaH KOHuenuHH, koto- 

pVK) CUJA npHHUJIH CaMH (C o;in.'ii CTOOOHbl - CKynOCTb 

rocyjapcTBa. c apyrofi - TpHaaa: .icper \ imnm - .in6cpa- 
.nnaniis - npnBaTH3amin)oTHacTH oni.HciiHi- 1 \n iuiimkc ii, 



ynbptix BeK - npexbeccop couMonoruM 
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ripino.niM k noao6HOMy 3aK.noMeHHio. cTaHOBHTcs ac- 
HblM, HTO rcrCMOHHU npeBOCXOJCTBa. KOTOpOH aocTHr 

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3KOH0MiicTU-K0MMeHTaTOpu. pa6oTaiouiHCB xpyn- 
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apyrofl a:i!,icpiiaTnm,i Bot hmchiio dto h ecTb io*i, 
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mom Mi.iiii.ioHitii. Bcerja noao3peBanH, hto Heo.in6epa- 

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COB H KOIKJJ.IIIK 101). M B CaMOM .1CJIC HCOTHOCpa.T I.HI.lfi 

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lipOHCXOHUCHHIO HB-UHOTCS TeMH MCC MHpOBhlMH npo6jie- 
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KpH3HCU. 

TpiiyMqbanbHbifi siapm neonn6epaiiH3via ocHOBbiBa- 
crcii na oGcuiaHHH, hto Hcpcry^Hpycviaa SKOHOMITXa n 
rno6anH3auna phhkob paipemar ochobhuc npo6ncviu 

HCJlOBCHeCTBa. HTO OCB06o5KiieHHe3rOHCTIIHeCKHX yCTpCM- 
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noja6oTHTCH o co3naHHii MiipoBoro npaBocyviHa. He pa3 

H C TOCKOfi Clipailllllia T CC6H. KT0 3aUlllTHT HaC 0T 3THX 

no6opmiKOB cnpaBe.TTiiBociii Ho Bepa KaniiTarHCTOB- 
p>eBo.iiomioHcpoB o6cpHy.nacb onaciioii iuiJiio3nefi. 

Bo BpcMD kpiunca Heonn6epajii43M ciiiiMacT c ce6a 
no.iHTHHccKyio oTBCTCTBCHiiocTb. Koraa yrpoia xpaxa 
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HHC.M JOJbl ropbKOH 3K0H0MHHCCKOII MHKCTVpbl OTIS HC- 

npaB.ieiiiiH no6oHHbix 3<})4>cktob r.no6ajiH3aunH -3HannT 
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npii\i>.ni rc« cot oaiiH aoporo nnaTHTb. 

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tw b TpiiyMqbe Heo.iii6epanii3Ma: Miiposaii 3KOHOMHKa. 
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mc, hto ecTb ceroiiHH! 

r.ic vKe HCKaTb anbTcpHaTHBy HConH6epaan3M\? Ko- 

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homhkh. TapH<}> Tobin Ha 6e3yacpAHbiii npiiTOK KanHTa- 
aa. ycTaHOBneHHa KOToporo Tpe6yeT Bee 6o.ibmee hhoio 
CTpaii EBponu 11 snipa. - Bccro .num. ncpsbiH nporpaMM- 
Hbiii mar n 3tom HanpaBiieHHit. 

Heonn6epa.iH3M .uniio HacTaiiBaa Ha tom, hto 3ko- 
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rocyaapcTBa 11 caMa ycianan.iun.ici i paHCHaUHOHaabu i.ic 
npaBHjia, KOTopbiM cneayeT rocyaapcTBO. B to ace BpeMS 
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KaCailOCb TOJlbKO BHyTpeHHCH 6e30naCHOCTH. 

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Ma. - iipiiHiiiiii Heo6xoaHMocrH rocyaapcTBa. npimeM b 
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ncp Ha apccT, KOTopbifi npcoao.ici cb»iuchhoc npaBoci pan 
Ha HeiaBHCMMOCTb b Bonpocax npaBocyjins h iioniumi. - 
ok-a laiiocb Ha paccTOSHHH BbiTHnyrofi pyKH. A. 6biTb Mo- 
wer, mu Biipaiic paccHHTbiBaTb Ha nojoGHoro poaa c6jih- 
wcHiie b cnynae bojmowhmx k pii iikoh b MiipoBoii skoho- 
miikc 3KOHOMiiKe, KOTopas aanwHa npncnoco6iiTbcsi K 

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'iii. i.iii. 3noxa. mrjia Kawawu 6mji «b cBoesi aoMCHe Ha- 
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aeHCTBHe 3Toro crpaHHoro lak-ona. noneMy-To o6ofiaeH- 
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CT, HTo6bl COnpOTHB-ieHMC I . loo.i. I II i.l I ill Ii TOJlbKO yCKOpH- 

,to ee phtm. xoTenocb 3Toro TeppopiicTaM hjih hct. 3tot 
napaaoKC noapa3VMeBaeT caeayroiuee: repMHHOM «rao- 
6anH3ami5i» o6o3HaHaerca cTpaimuH npouecc. nea.'iii ia- 
uim KOToporo HjeT. corjiacHbi m,i hjth HeT. 



ripoTiiBHHKH r.iooa.iirtaiiiiii HeTo^bKO nonb3yioTcn 
cpeacTBaMH cbsjh HapaBHC c ec aaerrraMii. Ohh noab3y- 

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Mbicnjrr h aeiicTByioT b paMKax r.io6anbHbix KaTeropiifi. 
Hx nocTyriKH Bbi3biBaioT MiipoBoii pe30iianc h no-iynaioT 
peiciaMy bo BceM Miipe. Hto mojkho CKa3aTb. HanpiiMep. o 
TOHHOCTll pacicTa TcppopiicTOB Ha to. hto noaie npoBc- 
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ii ii BceMnpHoro ToproBoro ueHTpa oyacr B*HByio nepe- 
aaBaTbcs iia Becb Miip Be3aecyuiHMii KauepaMH. 

Ctoht jih oc i ana h.-imr.i n. r/io6aiiH3auHio no npiiHH- 

He TeppOpHCTHHeCKHX aKTOB? Mowho jih noun 1 1, Tcppo- 

pHCTOB. KOTopwe xoTenH no.MeuiaTb HeonH6epajiH3My. 
KOTopuii, no mhchhio cro KpHTHKOB, nojio6HO KaTKy *e- 
jian npoexaTbCB no bcch n.iaHere? HeT. - 3to rjiynocrrb. Hii 
rno6a.<iH3auHa, hh a6crpaKTHaii iue». hii Bor hc Moiyr 
onpaBaaTb 3TOT3KT Hacii.niH rjio6aJiHiamiJi a\inaiia- 
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KHC H 6o.iee CJia6blC c i pa ii hi o i k.i nana m i c« o i ikviiitiikii 
iiaiiiioiia.!i,ii<iii an i .ipKiiii h Tpe6yioT aocTyna k mhpobo- 
My pbiHKy. Mto mu HinaeM Ha nepejOBHue Kp\ miciimcii 
VKpaHHCKofi raieTbi nepea bihhtom Kaiiaiepa repMaHiui? 

"Mbl lOTOBbl npOCTHTb jaBOCBaTC.ICH H JKilCM OT HHX 

hhbccthuhhm. rioTOMy hto. ecjiH h ecrb HesTO xyauicc, 

HCM 6bITb3aBOCBaHHblM HHOCTpaHHblMH HHBeCTHUHRMII. 
TaK 3T0 - HX OTCyTCTBHe. 

B to wc BpcMR neo6xoaHMO cBsjaTb rno6ajiH3auHK> 

3KOHOMHKH C I IO.I II 1 ll'ICCKIIM KOCMOnOJIHTHJMOM. B 6yiiy- 

uicm aocTOHHCTBO HCJioBCKa. ero Ky.ibTypHOc caMocoiHa- 
nne_ OT.iHHHoe ot apyrHX. jo.t-kho 6biTb npMHHTo bo 

BHHMaHHC. 1 I CCHT«6pa paCCTOJJHHe MeJtmy MHpOM. KOTO- 
pblfl npHBeTCTByeT i .lona/m laimio. h MiipoM. KOTopbift 
biuht ce6a noa yrpo30H, hchc3jio. noMoraTb TeM. kto 

HCUHOHCH H3 COOOUieCTBa, - Tenepb HC TOJlbKO ryMaHH- 
I api laa la.ia'la. HO COOTBeTCTByCT rjiy6oKOMy BHyTpCHHC- 

My HHTepecy 3anaaa. hh/iuctch k.iiohom k BHyrpeHHeft 
6e3onacHOCTH. 

MT06bl HCTOlUHTb HCTOHIIHKH, OT KOTOpblX IIHTaeTCll 

HCHaBiicTb MunjiHapaoB nejioBCK. OTKyaa occnpecraHiio 
B03HHKaioT iioHi.ic 6eH .laaeHbi. phck r.io6ajiH3auHH aon- 
*eH 6biTb nporH03HpyeMbiM. a ee 6,iara 11 cso6oai>i .io.ijk- 
hw pacnpeaenjiTbCJi 6onee cnpaBeannBo. Bcniha onac- 

HOCTb TOrO. HTO BCC npOH JOHfleT BTOHHOCTHaO Hao6opOT, 

hto rH6e,ibiibiri KpyroBopoT, KOTopbifi mm ceroaHH .iiuub 
Boo6paAacM.noMHo*eHHbiHHao6emaHH5i6e3onacHOCTH 
rocyaapcTB. 3aKpyTHTcn b cnHpaib o6MaHyTwx iia.ic/K.i 
yrpo3y nrjeacTaB.incT to. hto c HOBblM oTKpbiTiieM 
po.nn hi. tt t ii h coTpyaHHHecTBa rocy.iapcTB, 6yaeTco3aa- 
ho i paiiciminioiia.ii. nor rocyaapcTBo -Kpenocrb. b koto- 
poM aeMOKpaTHH h cuooo.ia pi.niKa 6yayT npniieceiibi b 
JKepTByHacTHOH5e3onacHocTii. Heo6xoaHM0. hto6i.i rnaB- 
iibic acucTByiouiiic .iima MiipoBoii 3kohomhkh nyo^iiHHo 
jaHHJiH HCTKyiono3HUHio npoTHBTaKoro.cn iiiiikom npea- 
CKa3yeMoro pa3BHTH» co6uthh. HTo6bi ohh BepHyjincb k 
aorMaTy o 6ccno.nc3HOCTH rocyaapcrBa h npcBpaTHJiH 6u 



4 nPABA HEAOBEKA 



II 



rocyjapcTBa - HaiiHH b oTxpuTbie rocyaapcTBa- kocmo- 
no^HTbi. yBaAaiomneueHHOCTH KvabTypH peUMTHfl Bcero 
MHpa. 

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nue HiicTHTyTbi jkohomhhcckoh pery/wiuiH, HenpaBH- 
TejibCTBCHHbie opramnatiHH h OOH BOOXm Becrw co- 



BMCCTHyio pa6oT> no (popMiipoBaniuo rocyaapcTKHHUx 
CTpyirryp h HHCTHTyroB, KOTopwc 6yayT otkputu on 
Bccro MHpa, 6yayT noapa3yMeBaTb pejiHrH03Huc h HauH- 

OHajIbHblC p.i i.IllMMH. npaBa HClOBCKa H 3KOHOMH4CCKyK> 

r^o6ajiH3auHK>. 

«Le Monde» 
riepeeod c HBMeuKoao: flaHusnb Apwene 



TeHrn3 rYAABA 

MeHqeM cboSoay ot Teppopa 

Ha CB060AY OT CB060Abl? 




Temm rydaea - «pau-6uo<pu- 
3UK. I'lhimiiuu Ouccudewti u nonum- 
hih-ihi'iciiHuCi B 1987 e. 6bu oceo- 
BoxcdeH U3 fJep.ucKoeo nommvwee- 
pxcyc.weueM .imw/hiuuu )Kueem e 
CUJ A. Paoomaem McypnajtucntOM 
na Paduo Ceo6oda. 

... BypHoe i i.i 'i a u' HOBoro rw- 

ame.ieTHJi Bbmecno Ha noBcpx- 

Hocrb nojiimmecKoro o63opa HirrcpecHyw kojijih3hio: 

6opb6bi c TeppopoM ii oopbobi 3a npaBa neaoBeKa. Bo3- 

MOXCHO. 3Ta JIIXOTOMHH OnpejCIIIT nO.lHTHMeCKOe jIHUO 

MHpa Ha aoanie roau. . . 

CBII.1CTCJII.CTBOM 3TOT0 iiapoaciaiouicrocfl npOTIIBO- 

pemfii aByx Miipoawx reii/ii-minii nBHJiocb aejio MyxaM- 
Maaa CoaHxa - y36cKCKoro onno3HUHOHepa, 3aaep*aH- 
noro b ripare b KOHue Hoa6ps no 3anpocy ocjiHUHaa i.noro 
TauiKCHTa. MyxaMMaa Coanx - hibccthwh v36ckckhh 
no3T. nnca ic.ib. .lii.iep/U'MOKpa i HiecKoii nap i km «3pK». 

C1HHCTBCHHMH pca.ll.lll.lli KOHKypCHT nOCTKOMMyilHCTy 

HcnaMy KapiivioBy Ha nepawx npejiiacHTCKHx Bu6opax 
1991 roaa. 3tot patpHHiipoBaHHwn HHre;uiHreHT 6ua 
iaHiicaeH y36cKCKHM pcXHMOM b TeppopHCTbi h npiiroBO- 
pcH (3aoHHo) k 15,5 roaa TiopbMbi. 4to sto 3a «cya» - 
TCMa oTacjibHax. oanaKo (])aKT, hto ceroaHH BMecro necHH 
«MocKBa-IleKHH» Mbi e.i win ii m He Menee opan y pHbiii ui.no- 
rep «BauiHHrTOH-TaiiiKeHT». 

MyxaMMaa Co.ihx aBa roaa na3aa noaymia craTyc 
noaHTHMCCKoro Seaccnua n HopBeniiiii o6be3ana noaMii- 
pa. Ho b ripare, crpane npe3HaeHTa-anccnacHTa BaimaBa 
FaBe.ia, cro apccroBann 11 .ibc ticacjiH acpxca. in b K)Ty3KC. 
1 1 acKa6pa MyxaMMaj Co.ihx 6bm ocBo6o>tcaeH 113 iau- 



JnoicHHfi(noa nopyHHTcabCTBO Toro ace TaBcia). iiocy.i 
naa hum ao.r*cn cocroirrbCJi. h Bonpoc o ero ikci pa.ni- 

UIIII B V'36eKHCTaH OCTaCTC* OTKpblTblM. 

CnyMHJiocb TaK. tto o.ihoih wc aBTopirrapHwe peacH- 
Mw UcHTpa.nbHOH Asm, nonHpaiouiHeocHOBHbiecBo6o- 
au, aocroHHCTBo h npaBa HeaoBexa. a TaKwc 3aeveHTap- 
Hbie acMOKpaTHHecKiic npiiHiuinw. b oaHonacbe eia.m 
«apy3b»MH 3anaaa» ToabKo noroMy. mto y hhx c 3anaaoM 

o6lUH ii lip, II «HCJiaMCKHH TCppOpH3M». 

ToBopirr. Bee b hctophh noBTopseTca aBaacaw: nep- 
Bi.ni pa ) k.ik apaMa, BTopofi pa i kjk cpapc ')Ta cHryauHx 
Miie BiuiiTca jibhoh {JiapcoBOH nepeiirpoBKOH cokbhhhc- 
crrBa 3anaaa co CTaJlHHCKHIl pCTHMOM bpcmch BTopofi 

MHpOBOfl BOflHbl. B H0B0H BOfiHC - BOlillC C TCppOpH3MOM 
- B COK>3HHKH K MHpOBOH .ICMOKpaTHII KapilKUTVpHO npH- 

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pa 1 lien Haxoanuweoi npn6anjHTcabHo b Tazm wt otho- 
mcHHHx. KaK JIchhh 6ua c 6yp*ya3Hefi... 

fl ayMaio, a Haaciocb. oto a6eppauH» noaHTHHccKofi 
CHioMrHOBCHHOCTH: 3anaa caaa jih jaxoneT «novieHjrrb 

Ulll.IO Mil MM^O»,TOCCTb3KCTpCMIICTCKHii IIC.TUM Hd Hcjla- 

Ma KapuMoaa. CBo6oay ot teppopa Ha CBo6oay otcbo6o- 
ShX. 3to ow.'io 6bl pea. 1 ii ia niicii a nr;i iiiicxoii noroBopKH 
tom, Kaic c rp»3H0H Boaoi'i Bwn.iecny.in h peociiKa 

H ayMaio. Bhupeei aoKTpHHa KOHCoaHanpoBaHHOH 
6opb6u: h c TeppopoM. 11 c .i;iKiar>pa\iii. hto. KCTaTH, 
oaHO h to ace. 3to - cnoaciiwCi nyTb, cnoacnee. <WS4 iiaiiTii 
YcaMy 6ch JIaaeHa b nciuepax Topa-Bopa. a kto CKa3an. 
mto iioBan 3pa - ipa npocTbix peuieniiH? 

ny6.mK\cnun n coKpauteituu 
The Younge Street Reviev 



...He wctcniOHeHO. mto moan Moryr yavmeib b nio6ovi mombht. Ha TenesKpaHe. icaKoii-HM6yAb BapwB (npHMoii 
penopTaw!) m He AoraAaTbCfl, mto sto ohm caMM MMeHHo m BapwBaiOTCfl 0110 MWHyTy. MOiyr yBHfleTb cboio 
co6cTBeHHyio cMepTb m yMpyT. He nofloapesafl 06 3tom (TaK h yMpyT, Tax h norn6Hyr «no TeneBM3opy», «no 
npflMOMy penopTa>Ky». Ha rnaaax y caMux ce6fi)... fla hto TaM «MoryT» — bcs bpsmh cxibiiuaT, bmaht, wnTaiOT 
penopTaacM o KOHi^e CBeTa, tom, HacxonbKo TinaTenbHO, AenoanTo. 6yflHMHHO MfleT noAnaTOBKa k H6My, m 
HOTepnennBo noAJKHflaioT, wto nocne Hero 6yA6T penopTaac co cTaflHOHa... 

fOpuu KapuKVH *npo3peHUH u ocnennenuft (0 "Becax")», 1981e. 



£ IPAIA HEJIOBEKA 




3BOHMT JIM KOJIOKOJI no PGP? 



ApuaHa KDHbiOHr HA 

y C03AaTe/in PGP 

CBOM npMHMHbl OH* 

CKop6n 

L(i4MwapMaH - pa3pa6oTMMK nporpaMMy, M3ee- 
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HaaeiKHaH 3amnTa). win PGP. fleam, tot Hasan oh 
paaMecTMn nporpaMMy a HKTepHeie a/in ceoooAnoro 
floCTyna nonbaoBarenefl. Bnaroflapa STOMy oobiBa- 
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He cnoco6Hi>i esnowaTb stot koa 

y*e Toraa UHMMepniaHa npeaynpewaann. mto 
pa3pa6oTaHHan mm MoutHeMuian TexHonomn momcst 
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MX. 

Tenepb npaaMTenbCTBO nwTaeTcn BUDCHMTb. 
6wna nM PGP MM xaxan-nMoo apyran TexHononw 
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pacnpocTpaHeMMs n ucnortbaoaaHite cucreMw 

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kom no3OH0 - TexHonorMfl yxce paaouinach no sceuy 
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B Tene<poMMOM HKrepebK) M3 caoero flo«*a a 
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mto He co*aneeT o tom. mto pa3MecTM/i nporpaMMy b 
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«fl Haaeiocb. *nn. - roaopMT sbtop nocnaHMn. 
- mto xposb 5 000 nKJflBM Ha tbomx pyxax hb MeiuaeT 
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eT HeM3BecTHbiM. npeepaTMnacb b opyane BOHHbi, 
npaxTMMecKM ypaeHRBiuee bo3moxchoctm Teppopuc- 
tob h raxMx moiuhux rocyflapcTs. xax CUJA. 




On/! MMMMEPMAH 

9\ He coxcaneio 
o pacnpocTpaHeHMH PGP 

B nHTHHuy, 21 ceHT(i6p» 2001 roaa 
i ,i jcirt Washington Post ony6/iHKOBajia 
CTaTfcio ApMaHW Ma (Ariana Cha) o tom, 
KaKyto ponb cwrpaiia cHcreMa PGP b co- 

6btTHSX I I CCHTHOpa. 

B Miin:pn;i.ii. - . k;ik mhc Ka*ercn. hc 

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3TOMy Bonpocy. Htnepsbio c *ypHajiHCT- 

ko ii i-oci ox.ioci. 1 7 L-ciimopx, mi.i rOBopH- 

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llcriO.lt, IOBJH3 3KCTpeMHCTaMH npM noj- 

roTOBKe Teparra. B cTaTbe HanitcaHo. mto 
mchu «nepenonHjier tyBCTBo bhhm». Ho a 
hc roBoptut HitHcro noao6Horo h aawe 
cneuHa.ii.HO OTMenti. mto hc CMHTaio ce6s hiihxii.h i.im Jl iiapo'iiio 
nonpocHJi «>pHajiHCTK> noBToptiTb moh cnoBa. MTo6bi hx cm wen Bnoc- 
neacTBHii hc 6wji ttcKaatcH. 5\ hc ovMaHHO aKitcHnipyio 3tot momcht. 
- Bcnb comacHO craTbe noJiyMaeTcs. hto H3-3a TeppopHCTHHecKHX 
akTOB a oTKaia.-ics ot cbohx y6e>itaeHHH oTHocirreribHo neo6xoanMoc- 
tm KpHnrorpatpHH am -jautHTW HenpHKOCHOBCHHocTit Hacrnofi *n mn 
ii rpaxaaHCKHX cbooo.i b 3noxy HHdpopMaimoHHbix TexHownoniH. 

B cbsjh c tcm. >rro tcmb M.ncpiixia hi rpai iiiiiia tohkiic wieoito- 
niMecKHe Bonpocu. mhcc Ma noMTH no.iiiocr uk> npoMirrana mhc trraTbio 
no TcncdpoHy, npc«ac hcm oraaTb ec peaarropy. Toraa b Hei» hh cioBa 
hc roBopHaocb o «h)bctbc CTbiaa». 3to yTBcp«acHiie noaBiiaocb To.ib- 

K0 B ony6ilHKOBaHH0M BapiiaHTC. KOTOpblit, K TOM>' *C, CTUJ! I iipa i.lo 

KopoMe pa6oicii Bepcmi. fl Mory Tojibxo npeano^owHTb, mto pcaaKTo- 

pbl COBCpiUCHHO 5cCUepCM0HH0 COKpaTHTIH CTaTblO. HCKa3HB MOH OtO- 

aa o Tex wyBCTBax. KOTopwe h HcnbiTbiBajt. 

Bo BDCMS HHTCpBblO Mbl aCHCTBHTCilbHO. TOBOpHJIH O TOM. KilKMM 

rope.M an« mcm h. xax ii a.i« acex. o i.ia a ora Tparcami. Ho c.ic iw Ha mohx 
raa3ax hm tBanbi He lyBCTBOM bhhu. - a hc bhhio ce6« ja H3o6peTeHnc 
PGP, - a CKop6bio o noni6uiHx. fl Tau*c paccKa3a,T *ypHaaiiCTKC. hto 
noayHKrt noaHoe HCHaBHCTH nocaaHHC no sacxTpoHHofi noHTC. b koto- 
pom mchu oCinni!--i. ii - b pa ip.iooi kc TCXHonormi. ci.n pamncii Ha pyxy 
TcppopHCTaM. H roBopHa cfi o tom. xax TpyaHo 6uao mhc cmhph h.ch 
c Mucabio. hto npecryiiHHKii aeHCTBHTeabHO Moran ycneuiHo npHMe- 
HHTb PGP. Ho s TaK !icecKa3aji. <i i o ,i. is mciim ropasao aa*nee oi p. vmiuh 
poTib. KOTopyio 3Ta tcxhojioths HrpacT b aaiuiiTc npas MC-ioacKa bo 
bccm Miipc. - Beab iiMCHiio aa« 3Toro ii coxaaa ee aecim> acr iia tax 

B iiacTomuee bpcmii mu, KpHnTorpadpu. nbrraeMca 3autHTiiTb chc- 
tcm> - PGP ot nonwTOK no.niTiiKOB bbccth cnai.ni.ie orpaHHicHim Ha ec 

HCnOab30B8HHC. Mbl nOHHMaCM. MTO, XOTJI 3TH illOflH WCJiaKJT TOJIbKO 



4 1MB lEJlOIEIA 



21 



ao6pa. - ohm nty6oico hc npaau. H a tie co6npaioci. .laiiaTi, iim bo imox- 
hocti. cMHTan.. <rro s OTCTynHacs or cbohx npiiHinmoB. A b cTaTtc 
aocraioiHo npHMo roBopHTcs. mto a totob oTKasaTbca ot cbohx nacfl. 
coin peHb RacT o TparcAHH Tavoro Macurra6a. 

Jla. h Ha caMOM acjic jaayMajics Haji cbohmh npiiHuiinaMH nocjic 

Co6wTHH I I CCHTn6p«. Ho B MTOre CHOBU llpHUICJI K TOMV. B ieM 6bUJ 

aoconiOTHo yacpcH Ha npoTmKcmui nocaearoix jjct. - HaaoKHas iiih«J>- 
poBKa npHneccT oonbuie no.ibjbi, hcm apeaa. aa*c cam ynecn. «rro efi 

MOrVT BOCflOJJb 10 B.I ll.vH TeppopncTH. 

Eiuc pa3 noBTopmo: h hc wajieio. hto pajpaooTaii cucrcMy POP 
Bonpoc o tom. .io.tkho Jin npaBirrejibCTBo orpaimmiBaii. iicno.ib- 
JOBallllC CHCTCM KO;ilipOBaHHR. OOCyHCaaaCH Ha npOTSJKCHHH Bcex 90-x. 

B oocyjimeHHH npHHHMajiH ynacrne Ecibiii aoM. HamioHa/ibHoc areH- 
tctbo 6cionacHocTH (NSA), OcacpaabHoe owpopaccaeaoBaHiifu FBI), 
cyaw. KoHipccc. ripcicTaBirrciii KOMiibtoicpnoii iiH;iycTpHH. npecca. 
Bo spcMB 3ToB .iHCKyccHH b acTaaax o6cy*aaaacb npoojievia BO'JMOaC- 

HOrO ilCllo.lbloIUHHS TeppopHCTaMH MOUIHUX TCXHO.IOrHH 3aillHTbl 
HH(()OpMaUHH. (PaKTHHCCKHbl TTO 6bl.l OflHH H3 IWIIOO.tCC Ba*HWX BOH- 

pocoB. B pciyavraTe 6bi.no iipnimTo pcuieHiie (HecMOTpa Ha BOjpa*c- 
Him 1>BP). mto HaM Bcc-Taxii iiy*H.i h.i.ic*h.ih cHcicMa, b KOTopoi) ana 
iipaBMTMbCTBa He 6yaer ocraBJieHO .la lei'iKii. OrpamiHeiiiia na jh-cnopT 

TCXHOJlOniH 6biaH OTMeHbl. .1 II. I CO HCn0.1b30BaHHC BHVTpH CTpaHbl - HC 

ycraHOBJicHbi fl curraio. hto sto npaBii.ibHoc pcmcHHC. noTOMy mo 
mm. aocraTOMHo aonro ofjcyxaaa npooacMy. ynan mhciihh mhothx 
iKcneproB. Ecjih cciiHac. noaauBuiiicb jmouhhm. mm npHMCM uocncui- 
hoc pemoline, oho He TonbKo npiiHeceT orpouHuH bdc.i acMOKpa nni u 
crpaHe. ho h noaopBcr rocyaapcTBCHHyjo HinpopMaiiHOHiiyio iiHibpa- 
CTpyKrypy. 

llonbiOBaTCJiH iiporpaMMbi POP Moryr 6wTb VBepeHH, hto a hii- 
KOMy hc 6yay aaBan. «k.-ik>hh or nepHoro xoaa». 

Ctoht Tav*-e 3aMCTHTb. hto noayneMHoe mhohd rtHCbMo c ooBHHe- 

IIIIHMH 6w.lO CaHHCTBCHHWM. B CBI3II C MHOrOHHCaCHHblMH HHropilbh". 

KOTopuc mhc npHiiiaocb aaaaTb npeccc. y Menu hc 6mjio BpcMemi 
npoavMa-n. otbct aBTopy nocaanna, h a hc otbctiui. riocnc ny6.iHKa- 
UMii craTbii x no.nyna.T cothh phccm co uiobumh noaacpKKii - no asa- 
rpn HHCbMa b MHHyry b acHb Buxoaa toto HOMepa rajenj. 

Moii oTHoiucHHiic npeccofi. a i ocoochhoctw c rocToft Washington 
Post, b nocacaniic accsTb acr cKaaauBaancb anoaHe 6aaronoayMHo. h 
a Haaeiocb, hto B03HHKuian ncnpiiarHaa cHTyaiuia 6yacT pa3pcmcHa b 

CKODOM lipcML-llll 

Washington Post 



L(nuu6puaw CHoaa » cmobs nepeMMTusan co- 
oftueHMe. pajMbiuinnn waa OTBeroM... H Menoeen. 

MSSeCTHblA BO BC8M MMDe CBOMMH 5neCTS'alHMH BWC- 

TynnetiMnMM m scerfla 6e3yxopv(3HeHHOM apryMOMTa- 
uh6m. He Hauien mto cxaaaTV 

cABTop niicbMa no/jHHMaeT Bonpocbi, KOTopbie 
cewuac npMXoaBT a ronoay mhotmm, a hmbhho - 
npooncMy McnonbJOBaHMO TexHononiH PGP reppo- 
Pmctbmm. -cnoKOMHO cxaaan LImmmbpmbh, - ho oh ne 
yMMTbiaaeT HeooxQnuuocTM MaAewwux ujwcpoo- 
ea/ibHbix TexHonorwfla. 

nnoepann3M npaBHTenbCTBa CLUA no OTHOtue- 
hhio « ujM<tipoBanbHWM TexHOPorMOM ofopMHpoean- 
cn nocne aonrux Ae6aroe b oeBflHocTbix Ummmbp- 

M3H fiun COeflH CBMblX y6e*aeMHblX npOTHBHMICOB 

xaiotx-nM6o orpaHuusHMA Ha pacnpocTpaneHne tbx- 
HonorMa Mepea HHreoHeT. oh opfaHM30Baa <awna- 
hmk) 3a OTMBHy aarpeTB na aKcnopr nporpaMMM. - m 
ao6nncn caoero 

LjHMMepMaH h apyrwe TexHonom xenepb nwra- 
icrrcn HawTH Bwxofl H3 cnowMBiueMCH ctrryauMH. na- 
paaoKC a tom. wto ac/w npaauTeribcniy 6yaar xwhb 
«aKaa-nn6c na3eH<a hhm yHMBepcaribHbiH whom k 
CMcreMe. mto h npeanaranT HeicoTopbie 3aKO«oaaTa- 
nw. Tame «ax c*«aTop flwya rpar (Juod Gregg), 
TexHonorwsi PGP npocro noTepHer cuibicn. 

PaayMeeTcn. sto cnxibHO ocnojKHwno on ae«>- 

TenbHOCTh tOCOBCXMX MnTSMCHHKOe, QAMH H3 KOTOflbW 

coo6wnn L|HMMepuaHy b nncbM«. mto TexHonorufi 
PGP 6bina ycneujuo McnonbaoBana arm nepeaaMM 

MH<pOpMauHM M3 OflHOfO KOMBUQHOfO UOHTDa B flpy- 

roM 6naroaap« neuy ornana Heo6xoAHMOcn> nocbt- 
naib cooOiueHHH c Kypt>epaMK 

OnMM to hmohbdob KOMnbiOTspHoA mpuniorpa- 
<Pmh MaT Bnavta (Man Blaze) cxaaan. mto Btm. h 
aKOMOMMMecxMe np-HMMHU. no wrroobiM Herib3ii orpa- 
HHMHBarb HcnonbaoaaHMe TexHonormi «fl OM«Hb co- 

MHeBaiOCb. MTO 3TH OrpaHMMeHHS MOWH0 BBBCTM, HO 

ocnafjMB HHipopManMOHHOM 3aiUMTM, a 3to noenoHer 
KonoccanbHue (pMHaHcoaue noTepn». - cxasan 
Ba3*i3, coTpyflHHK naooparopHM AT4T 

KpoM« toto, Bonpoc aanpeTa na Texnonornn 
uinippoBKw ocaeicn rpawaaHCXMx csooon 

■Mbl AOniKHbl 6blTb OCTOpOXCHblMM M He npMHK- 

Man> nocneuiHbix peuieHMfl. - cxa3an L(MMMepMaH, - 
seab BnocneacTBMx ohm MoryiMeraTHBHOcxasaTbcn 
hb HenpwxocHOBeHHOCTH mbcthoA MM3HM. npasax 
Menoaexa, a Tax xe caoooaax. rapaHTupoBaHHbix 
neoBovi nonpaaxoM*. 

Washington Post 



nepeeod c aHznuucKoao: Mapup CEPEEflA 



OT PEflAKUHH 

riy6riMKyn noa6opxy MaTepwanoB, nocsnmeHHbix aHaanay CMTyaunn c npaBaMM MenoeeKa. cno>KHBiueMc« nocne 
TparMHecKMx co6biTnii 1 1 ceHTn6pn. mu nonwranncb npeflCTaBMTb MMTaTennM ujmpokhm cneiap MHCHMii o tom. kbkum 
o6pa30M 3tm co6brrnn 0Tpa3HTcn Ha AaabHertuieM pa3BHTnn fleMoxpaTMn. 

TeppopmcTHMecKvie aiobi a CUJA MHorvie asTopw cmhtsiot «otbctom» Ha BceMMpHbin npoqecc rno6ann3ai4HM. B 
Poccmu 3tot TepMMH noxa euie nBnfleTCHAOCTaTOMHo hobwm; uiudoko oh cTan ynoTpe6nBTbCB nocne coo6meHnii CMH 06 
aHTMrno6a/iMCTcxMx ewcTynneHMjix s EBpone. 

nocne co6biTMM 1 1 ceHT«6pn OKa3aaoa., mto 3tb npo6neMa. Ka3aBiaajicn ann Pocchh aenoM OTflaneHHoro 6yaymero. 
BHe3anHonpH6nn3nnacb BnnoTHyio. crae npeflMeTOM flMCKyccuM a nonnTHMecxnx, 3KOHOMMHecKnx m pennrvi03Hbix ccpepax. 

AaTopw CTaTeii no-pa3HOMy oueHMBaioT BnnwHMe rno6ann3Ma Ha Mnpoeyro nonnTiixy n axoMOMnxy, ho Bee ohm 
cxoflHTCfl b OflHOM - TeppopucTHMecKvie axTbi 1 1 cenTH6pn. KaK n mmpoboii TeppopusM b uenoM, XOTB vt H6 CnoC06HbJ 
ocTaHOBMTb 3aK0HOMepHbiiS MCTopMMecKvivi npouecc, raw He MeHee, cnoco6Hw cnpoBounpoBaTb aevicTBun rocyaapcTB, 
HanpaBneHHwe Ha cyuiecTBeHHoe orpaHUMeHne npaB MenoBexa. 

ripoTMBocTOHTb 3TOMy - 3aflaMa xaK HenocpeflCTBeHHO npaB03aujMTHbix opraHH3aunM, Tax h ecero MnpoBoro 
coo6iaecTBa. KOTODOMy npeflCTowT npoiiTii TpyaHbiM nyrb MeiK/iy CuiinnoM Teppopn3Ma u XapH6aoM TOTannTapii3Ma. 



22 



flPABA HEAOBEKA 



nOAOMeHHN hbhghubb b Poccnn 

CBMAeTe/ibCTBO npaB03amnTHoro UeHTpa «MeMopna/i» 
m KoMHTera «rpa*<flaHCKoe coAeftCTBue» 



flpaeo3amumHbiu uenmp «MeMopuan» - odna ua 
xpynneuuiux npaeo3autumHbix opaaHU3auuu e Poccuu. 
UMetomaa pacnpocmpaHeHHyio cemb podcmeeHHbix 
opeaHU3auuu no eceu cmpane. C 1995 eoda vneHbi 
opaamj3aifuu mhozub Mecnubi npoeenu e ^e^encxou 
Pecny6nuxe. llo co6paHHbiM MamepuanaM e paMxax 
npozpaMMbi *ropmue mowuu 6binu uadanbi khusu: 
tPoccua - Weww: uenb oluu6ok u npecmynneHuu» 
(«3eeHbR», M., 1998), fTbWHMbM ydapbiu («3eeHbn», 
M., 1999), «ripo6neMbi xepme eoeHHbix deucmeuu e 
yeveHCKou Pecny6nuKe» («P-BaneHm», M.,2000), «JJuc- 
KpuMUHau,uft no npu3Haxy Mecma xoimenbcmea u ammi- 
uecKOMy npusHaxy e Mocxee u Mocxoecxou o6nacmu. 
Aeaycm 1999-dexa6pb 2000» («3eeHbn». M.. 2001). 

y^acmHUKu npoapaMMbi ttopfNUB mcNxu» nocmo- 
hhho opaaHusyiom 3Kcneduu,uu e peauoHbi, npoeodnm 
MOHumopuHa cumyauuu u ebicmynaiom c 3a»eneHu»Mu 
o HapyweHUfix npae venoeexa. 4/reHW flU «MeMopuan» 
Henpepbieno eedym HaSniodeHue 3a nonoxemjcM Mopme 
eoeHHbix deucmeuu xax e Wewe. max u e dpyzux 
peauoHax Poccuu, ede e Hacmonmee epeun <pyHxu,uo- 
Hupyem y>xe 49 Hjpuduvecxux Koncynbmau,uu Cemu 
«Muapau,un u npaeo». 

B Mocxee pa6oma KOHcynbmau,uoHHoeo nynxma 
npoeodumca wa 6aae 6nazomeopumenbHOU opaaHU3a- 
uuu noMOiuu 6eixeHu.aM u euHyMdeHHbiM nepeceneH- 
uaM aTpaixdaHCKoe codeucmeue», nepeou e Poccuu 
opaaHU3au.uu, esneiueu na ce6n o6ft3aHHocmb nouo- 
zamb ebiHyxdeHHbiM Muepanmau. 

K)pucmaMu cemu «Muapau,ua u npaeo» monbxo 3a 
2000 aod OK83aHO cebiuie 17 mbicftu KOHcy/ibmau,uu, 
Hanucano 4500 3aaeneHuu u uhux dOKyMenmoe e npa- 
eooxpaHumenbHbie opeaHbi. cdenano oxono 6000 o6pa- 
meHuueadMUHUcmpamueHbie opeaHbi, npoeedeno 60- 
nee tnucfNU cyde6Hbix den. 

Hainan c 1995 roAa, T.e. c HaMana soeHHbix AeM- 
CTBMM, b KDpuflUMecKMe KOHcynbTauMw ce™ o6paujaeTCfl 
MHoro 6biBwnx >KMTenei»i MeMeHCKOM Pecny6PMKM. 3ro 
rio/w, nmueHHbie «nnbB, CBoeii 3eMnn, npuBbiHHoro 
ywiafla jkmshm. mscto - noTepflBiune poahmx h Apy3eM, 
nepenecujue paHeHMn. Mw MoweM cBUfleTenbCTBOBaTb. 
4to PoccMMCKoe rocyflapcTBO He AenaeT npaxTMMecKM 
Hunero, HTo6bi BepHyTb mm to, nero ohm 6binM nMiueHbi 
no ero BMHe. Ta MM3epnaH KOMnencauMH, Ha KOTopyio b 
1997 rofly 6bino npM3HaHO npaBO He6onbUJ0M MacTM 
nocTpaAaBuiMx b nepMOfl c 1994 no 1996 rofl, BbinnaMM- 
BaeTcn KpaMHe MeA^eHHO. KpoMe Toro, b csh3m c nafle- 
HMeM pyfim b aBrycTe 1 998 r. . 3tom KOMneHcaqMM cTano 
HeaocTaTOHHO Ana npMo6peTeHMa aawe BecbMa ckpom- 
Horo >KMnbn. OcTa/ibHbie He nonynaioT Husero. 



B OTriMMMe ot nepMOAa 1991-1996 toaob, t.6.aom 
bo BpeMn nepBOii bomhu b MenHe. craryc BbiHyoKASHHoro 
nepeceneHua *epTBaM eoeHHbix AeMCTBMM b HenHe 
1999-2000 roAOB npaKTMMecKM He npeAocTaBnseTCfl. 
OcHoaaHMeM 0Txa3a cny>KMT craTbB 1 - «0TcyTCTBMe 
npM3HaKOB n o6cTo«TenbCTB, npeAycMOTpeHHwx ct.1 
3aKOHa P«t> «0 BbiHywASHHbix nepeceneHLjax». Tskmm 
o6pa30M. ceroAHn onpeaeneHue BbiHy)«caeHHoro nepe- 
ceneHua HMTaeTcn BnaCTHMM MHane, neu b 1996 roAy. 
KorAa «waccoBbie 6ecnopnAKM» cny»nnn ocHOBamieM 
npeAOCTaBneHMH crraTyca BbiHy>KAeHHoro nepeceneH- 
ua, ksk aToro Tpe6yeT onpeAeneHMe, flaHHoe b ct.1 
yKa3aHHoro 3aKOHa. 

ripMMMHa 3Toro npeACTaBnaeTcn npocTOM: nepaan 
eonHa wMTenevi MeMHM cocTOHna npeMMymecTBeHHO M3 
pyccKMx, MeieHubi »e OTCM>KMBanMCb b AepeBHnx, koto- 
pwe noMTM He noABepranMCb 6oM6apAnpoBKe. )KepTBbi 

BTOpOM BOnHbl BOeHHblX AeMCTBMM B HeMHe mSBHMM 

o6pa30M MeneHuw. I^m craTyc BbiHy>«AeHHoro nepece- 
neHua npeAOCTaBnnTb He pa3peiueHo comacHo ycTHo- 

My yK33aHnio M3 MocKBbi MurpaunoHHbiM cnyw6aM. py- 
KOBOflMTenM KOTOpblX HeOAHOKpaTHO OTKpblTO rOBOpMAM 

HaM 06 stom b nMHHbix 6eceAax. 

TocyAapcTBO CHMMaeT c ce6n OTBeTCTBeHHocTb 3a 
cyAb6w >KMTeneM Momhm KaK Ha ee TeppMTopMM, TaK h BHe 
Hee. 

ripaB03amMTHbieopraHM3auMMMoryTcoTBeTCTBeH- 
HocTbio yrsepxyjaTb, mto b Poccmm m, b nepByio one- 
peAb, a MocKse. npoBOAMTcn KaMnaHMS no 0anbcncpw- 
KauMM yronoBHbix pen npOTMB MeneHues. <J>aKTMsecKM 
3to 6bino npM3HaHO npeACTaBMTeneM npoKypaTypw r. 
MocKBbi Ha BcrrpeMe c npeACTaBMTenflMM Tpex npaeo3a- 
iMMTHbix opraHM3auMM. IImk 3tom KaMnaHMM npMxoA^ncn 
Ha ceHTn6pb-OKTH6pb 1 999 roAa m CBn3biBancs c B3pbi- 
BaMM 3A3HMM b MocKBe, ByHHaxcKe, BonroAOHCKe, He- 

CMOTpa Ha TO, MTO He TC-nbKO fleMCTBMM 0praHM30B3HHblX 

^e^eHCKHX rpynnMpOBOK, ho m npMMacTHOCTM xota 6w 
OAHoro neMeHua k 3Tmm B3puBaM He yaanocb Aoxa3aTb 
hm pasy. 

C aBrycra 2000 roAa xaunaHMH orana CHoea Ha6n- 
paTb CM/iy. noBTopMnMCb saAepwaHMH Ha HecxonbKo 
cyroK no o6bmh6hmio b xynMraHCTBe, npoTMBonpaBHbie 
o6biCKM b AOMax, noA6pacbiBaHMe xpaAeHHoro, HapKo- 
TMKOB, OpyWMfl M B3PblBHaTWX BemecTB. 

B anpene 2001 roAa Ha o^epeAHOM ceMMHape Ann 
topMCTOB CeTM «MMrpauMS m ripaBo» 6unM co6paHbi 
CBMAeTenbCTea o HapyiueHMM npaBJKMTeneii HeMeHCKOM 
Pecny6nMKM, BbiexaeuiMX b Apyrvte perMOHw. He Ha- 
ujnocb hm oahoto MneHa CeTM, kotopmm He Mor 6bi 
npMBecTM «cBe«ero» npMMepa TaKMx HapyiueHHM. Cbm- 
AeTexibCTBa kjpmctob 6binn M3no)KeHbi nMCbMBHHO m 



i 



nPABA HEAOBEKA 



23 



noflnncaHW mmm. 3™ AOxyMeHTw xpaHfrrcn y pyKOBOfln- 
Tesifl CeTn CeeTnaHbi PaHHy ujkm hom. hx kohh h MoryT npn 
Heo6xoflHMOcrn 6btTb npeflCTaBneHbi. Macrb W3 hmx 
nepeBeaeHa Ha Heuenwu h3wk. 

Xywe Bcero npuxoflnTcn sthhhcckhm HeseHuaM. Hm 
He aatOT bo3mo>«hocti4 nonyvnTb perMCTpauwo b opra- 
Hax BHyTpeHHMXflen. nocxoribKy ohm sKo6bi npeACTaB- 
/lniOT co6ort onacHOCTb Ana o6inecTBa. 

B pacnopnweHMM «rpa*AaHCxoro coAertcTBMH» Ha- 
xoflMTcn Konun canfleTenbCTsa o perncTpauMM b opra- 
nax BHyTpeHHUX aen Ha wnnoii nnoma.au SHaxoMwx 
Po3bi A3neeoM. CBepxy Ha stom AOxyMeHTe xpynHWMw 
GyKBaMM HanncaHO «MeMeHKa». Ka>KAbiti ccnpyAHHK mh- 
jimuhh. npoBepnn Aoxy MeHTbi o6paTHT BHUManne Ha 3Ty 
Haflnncb M npuMeT Mepw b cooTBeTCTBMM co cbohmh 
B3mnflaMM. 3to mowot 6biTb npuaoA b OTfleneHne mm- 
/imlwm, 3aflep>KaHne Ha Hecxonbxo Macoa, BWMoraTenb- 
ctbo m T.n. 

flpyrort HH-rre/ibHMMe rpo3Horo. MapeT Topwxoe- 
aort, 6bino npeAnoweno perncTpupoaaTbCfl sa onpefle- 
neHHyio cyMMy xax MHOCTpaHHort rpaxcAaHxe. rYBfl Moc- 
KBbi He nocrecHnnocb coo6tuwTb sto AenyraTy rocyaap- 
CTB6HH0M flyMw Ha ero sanpoc. 

B KoMmeTe «rpa>KAaHCxoe coAertcTBMe» Macro npn- 
xoflmcfl aibnuaTb *ano6bi Ha to, mto nacnopTHbie cnyw- 
6bi MocKBbi n Mocxobckom o6nacTM oTKaabiBaKDTcn pe- 
rucTpupoBaTb MeneHueB hmchho no npusuHe HaijMo- 
Ha/ibHOM npuHaaneiKHOCTn. HepeflKO Taxwe OTKaabi ho- 
cht rpyQwii xapaxTep. conpoBO*AaK)TCfl 0CK0p6nTe/ib- 

HblMM BblCKa3blBaHHqMM 0AH3K0 BCerfla 3TM 0TKa3bl 

AenaioTcn b ycTHOrt cpopMe. Ecnn we AatOTcn nMCbMen- 
Hbie OTK33bi, to HaqnoHaribHocTb aaRBurena HMKorAa He 
y*a3biBaeTCH b KanecrBe nx npuMWHw. MMriMuertcxoe 
HananbCTBO OTpm^aeT, mto flaeano yxaaaHMH cbomm 
noAMMHeHHbiM 06 orpaHWMeHMM perwcTpaMMM MeMenueB. 
rio-BHAHMOMy , riMCbMeHHbix pacnopn>KeHMii TaKoro poaa 
fleiicTBHTenbHo HeT. OAHaxo ecTb Bee ocHOBaHun yT- 
BepwaaTb, mto noBeA9Hne paooTHMKOB nacnopTHbix 
cny*6 no OTHomeHwo k HeneHuaM nenaeTcn nponBne- 
HneM He mx jimhhwx HyacTB. a nonnTMKM BnacTen. 

OflMH cnyMart y6eAMTenbHO CBHAeTe/ibCTeyeT 06 
3TOM. B KoMMTeT «rpawA3HCKoe coAewcTBne» o6paTM- 
nacb jKHTenbHuua Me^Hn 3axiBa ArtcxaHOBa. Flo npo- 
(J>eccnM OHa MeAcecrpa. pa6oTana b mmccmm Me*AyHa- 
poAHoro KpacHoro Kpecra a TpoaHOM, nepewH/ia Tparvi- 
MecxyiorMoenb HecKonbKMX coTpyAHHKOB muccmm, nocne 
3aKpwTn« KOTopow ocTa/iacb 6e3 pa6oTw B 1995 rofly 
nc>A 6oM6e>KKoii norn6 ee Myw. cTapujHM cwh nonyHun 
KOHTy3Mto n cran MHBannflOM. y Hee na pyiox MBTBepo 
AeTeii. OceHbio 1998 r. 3anBa npnexana b noAMocKOB- 
Hwii ropoA KoponeB b HaAe>KAe Hart™ pa6oTy. OHa 
ocTaHOBwracb y 3HaKOMoro. Xaneauja TawaeBa, koto- 
pwrt npnexan m3 Momhm paHbiue n chhji b Kopo/ieBe 
KBapTupy. KorAa 3anBa n XaxiBaiu o6paTnnncb b qeHT- 
panbHoe oTAeneHne wmnym Koponeaa, hm OTxa3a/iM 
Ha tom ocHOBaHMM, mto ohm - MeMeHijbi. 3anBa paccKa- 
3ana 06 3tom 15 MapTa 1999 r. Ha cneAyiomMii AeHb 



coTpyAHMK KoMMTeTa EneHa BypTHHa nosaoHiina Ha- 
nanbHMKy nacnopTHoii cny>K6bi SToro OTAeneHvia mhjim- 
UMM HaAe>KAe Hobmmkobom, KOTopan coo6iynna, mto 
oKono Aayx Mecnuee Ha3aA OHa nonyMM/ia Bbiroeop 3a 
to. HT03aperncTpnpoBa/ia MeMeHqa Ha tuecTb MecnueB. 
HoBMMKoaa noAana HawanbCTBy panopT o tom, mto ona 
He cornacHa c B3biCK3HneM, rax xax hmk3kmx saxoHHbtx 
ocHOBaHMM Aflf 0TKa3a 3T0My MenoBexy b pervicTpauMn 
ho 6bino. OTeeTa Ha cbom panopTOHa Tax h He no/iyMnna. 
BbiroBop nmuM/i ee bo3mo)«hoctm nonyMMTb cneAyio- 
ujee BOMHCxoe 3BaHne n npeMMto. BbiAaBaeMyio b xoHue 
roA3 (Tax Ha3WBaeMaH «TpnHaAuaTa«3apnnaTa»). Ha- 

A©)«A3 HOBMHKOB3 H6 HCKJIIOMMna, MTO ee COTpyAHMXH, 

HanyraHHbie 3Tmm cnyMaeM, Mornw OTxa3aTb3 Awcxa- 
HOBOii n X. TaMaeay b perMCTpauMM co ccwnKoii Ha mx 
HaunoHanbHyo npMHaAnewHOCTb. 

CaMUM 6onbiunM HecMacTbeM ann MurpaHTOBCTa- 
na Bee B03pacTaioman b Poccmm xceHO(J)o6nj>, xoTopan, 
pasyMeeTcn, b nepByto osepeAb xacaeTcn sthmmcckhx 
MeMeHLieB. Ecnw b 1995 roAy no MeHbiueM Mepe 70% 
HaceneHMq He noAAepnaiBano Bowwy b MeMHe, to axTMB- 
Hafl araTauMfl npeACTaBHTeneii Bnacru n CMH ceiiMac 
cAenaxiM cBoe Aeno. OTpnuaTenbHoe OTHoiueHMe 06- 
mecTBa nuiuaeT MeMeHqeB bosmowhocth Hart™ CBoe 

MeCTO B HOBblX yCJlOBMHX. 

Msp MocKBbi no3BonneT ceoe nocronHHO 3aflBnnTb, 
mto HaxoAUT «MeseHCKMrt cneA» bo acex npokicxoA«u4nx 
TeppopncTHM8CKMX axTax. ripe3MAeHT PO yrpo>«aeT 60- 
eBHKaM 6eccyAHOrt pacnpaBort, ynoTpe6nn$i npw stom 
BwpaweHMfl, CBOrtCTBeHHbie yro/ioBHOMy MHpy. 

nonwTxa ni4 «MeMopnan» B036yAHTb npoTHB M3pa 
yronoBHoe Aeno no cpaioy pa3)KnraHnn MewHaunonanb- 
Hort po3HM He npMBena K ycnexy - npoxypaTypa He 
Haiuna b AertcTBHnx v\ BbicxaawBaHHSx (Opus J1y>KKOBa 
cocTaea npecTynnenMn. 

B pe3yribTaTe pa3pyiuaeTcn Menxwrt h cpeAHMrt 6n3- 
Hec, b KOTopoM yMacTBytoTMeMeHcxwe 6n3HecMeHbi. Tax 
b xoHue 1 999 roAa YMap TeMnp6y/iaTOB. nonyMHn otx33 
b apeHAe noMemeHun b HapyiueHMe MMeBLuerocn Aoro- 
sopa XosflMH noMeiAeHMA o6bBCHwn sto yrpo3aMM co 
cTopoHbi MMnMunM. HawTM MHoe noMemeHMe TeMwp6y- 
naTOBy He yAa/iocb, ero 6n3Hec 6wn no/iHocrbK) pac- 
CTpoeH. B HacTonmee BpeMH ceMbe TeMnp6ynaTOBbix 
npeAocrraBneHO y6ewMU|8 ao OpaHUMM. 

B HaMane 2001 r. a ni4 «MeMopnan» o6paTMnca 
paooMMrt asponopTa «BHyxoBO» AcnaHoeic CynT3HOBM4 
6eMTepc. Oh 6bin yBoneH c pa6oTM, xorAa oxpaHntouiHe 
aaponopT COTpyAHMXH mm/imuiih cnyMaiiHOo6Hapy5Kmin, 
mto oh MeweHeM c HexapaxTepHOrt ppn 3Toro HapoAa 
ctawnnnevi. 

MeMeHMeB o6biMHO He npwHMMaioT Ha pa6oTy . MHor- 
Aa b «rpawAaHcxoe coAevicTBMe» o6paiAaK)TCfl sa 
pa3bncHeHMeM paooTOAaTenM, yoewAeHHwe, mto, npe- 
AocTaaMB paooTy MeMeHMy, ohm HapyiuaT 3axoH. HexoTo- 
pwx yAaeTca yoeAMTb b o6paTHOM, OAnaxo aocomoTHoe 
6oribUJMHCTB0 npeAnoMMTaeT npocro He HMeTb Aena c 



M 



4 



flPABA HEAOBEKA 



29 Man b fly KOBMUKOM cenbCKOM OKpyre CTapnqKoro 
pawoHa TeepcKOii oSnacTM cjieflCTBeHHaa rpynna npo- 
KypaTypbi coaMecTHO c ynpaBneHneM no 6opb6e c opra- 
HuaoBaHHoii npecTynHOCTbio (Bcero okoho 1 50 nenoeeK) 
npoBe/ia o6wckm b AeBnm AOMax HeneHLieB. KOTopwe 
npiiexanM k poflCTseHHUKaM, cnacancb ot bomhw Oahh 
M3 6omuob. ujBbipHyB Ha non ua/ibMHKa 12 neT, npticra- 
Bun eMy nucrroneT k BMCKy n M3o6pa3wi Bbtcrrpen. Bpo- 
CMBiuyiocn k cbiHy MaTb OTKMHynn b cropoHy yAapoM 
npuK/iaaa no ronoBe. Ben aicutm MMena ncicniomiTenbHO 
ycTpaiuawmee 3HaneHtie. xoth h 6bina npoBeaena hko- 
6w b cbr3m c 3asBneHneM oflHoro U3 cenbnaH o nponawe 
y Hero liieeiiiHOki MawMHKM 3nn30AA0CTaT04H0TnnnHeH 
h noBTopaeT o6u4en3BecTHt>ie weTOAW «3aHHCTOK», pe- 
ryxiRpHO nposoAMMbix b He^He. 

Eiye oamh OMeHb 6nn3xo SHaKOMbiii hsm npuMep. B 
paHee 3a6poweHHOii AepeBHe CnnpoBO BbitiiHeBonou- 
Koro pawona paccennnacb Heoonbtuan KonoHHfl neMeH- 
ueB, saHMMatoiyMxcfl cenbCKMM TpyAOM n paooraMM no 
Mcnonb30BaHM(oneca. «rpa*(AaHCKoecoAeficTBMe» oica- 
3biBaeTMMperynnpHyK> noAAep>KKyneKapcTBaMM 1 ujKonb- 
HO-riMCbMeHHbiMM npuHaAnewHOCTSMu HeoonbiuuMw 
cyMMaMn Aener. flMAep 3Toii rpynnw AxMeT ApcaMaicoB 
n n36paHHbiii Mynna npucraribHO cneAflT 3a TeM. HTo6bi 
yMeMeHL(eBHe6binoKOHqDnMKTOBCMecTHb)MHaceneHM- 
eM. TeM He MeHee, pafloHHan mm/ihlihs KareropuHecKM 
0TK33biBaeTcn permrrpupoBaTb rpynny b opraHax BHyT- 
peHHUx Aen npoTMB ee MneHOB nocrronHHo aaBOAflTcn 
yronoBHbie Aena, KOTOpwe noKa OKaHHMBatoTcn hmhcm. 
OAHaKOAep>KaT Bcex b HepBHOM HanppHceHHM. Perynnp- 
ho MM/innns 3aAepKMBaeT Koro-Hn6yAb M3 MeHeHqea, 
6beT, yrpoMaeT, BWMoraeTAeHbrn. CaM Axwei ApcaMa- 
kob HeoAHOKpaTHO noABepranca AaBneHmo v\ nposoKa- 
uhsm c uenbK) Bbi3BaTb era Ha npoTMBonpasHbie aeA- 
CTBua. B HacTonmee BpeMH npoTMB ero CbiHa otkpwto 
c(t>a/ibcncpni4npoBaHHoe yronoBHoe Aeno. 

ripaB03aii4MTHbiiii ueHTp «MeMopnan» m 6naroTBo- 
pmTenbHan o6ii|ecTBeHHaH opraHM3ai4Hfl «rpawA3HC- 
Koe coAeiicTBMe» co seen OTBeTCTaeHHOCTbio yTaepw- 
AaiOT. mto STHimecKne Me^eHuw. noxwHyBiuMe Poccmio, 
no caoeMy nonoweHwo cooTBeTCTByiOT onpeAeneHHio 
6e)KeHi4a, AaHHOMy bct 1 KoHBeHmiM OOH 1951 roAa. K 
cojKaneHnio, Poccnn He HB/iHeTca Ann hmx CTpaHOM, b 
kotopom mom Ha HexoTopwx Teppnropnax KOTOpOM OHM 
Mor/iM 6w wyBCTBOBaTb ce6n b 6e3onacHocm 

CeemnaMa AneKceeetia rAHHyUJKHHA, 

conpedcedamerib KoMumema noMoiuu Sexenya/vf u 

ebinyxdeHHbiM nepecenenuaM trpaxdaHcxoe codeu- 

cmeue», pyi<oeodume/ib npoapaMMbi «Muapau,ua u 

npaeo», we« coeema ripaeo3amumHoao 

UeHmpa «MeMopuan» 

Ones flempoeuH OP/lOB, 

npedcedamenb coeema npaeo3amumHoao Uenrnpa 

«MeMopuan» 




rpoiHb/O Mu«popauon Kamapua 




rposHbiO CmaponpoMbicnoecKoo uiocca 







rp03Hbiu. 3donue MBQ 
<Domo 3yne0KtaH BArAPOBOft 



4 



HPABA HEilOBERA 



25 



ripoeKT «AHTMBOeHHbie AeMCTBMSl» 

npaB03aiynTHbiPi uewp «Bw6op CoBecm» npn noAAepxKe (Dohaq «3a rpaxAOHCxoe o6iuecTBo» 
HQMUHaer npoeia. ochobhom 3aAcmeirf Koroporo HBAJieTCfl c6op n pacnpodpaHeHne hh^opmoumm o 
rpajKAQHCKnx hhhuhothbox, HanpaBAeHHwx ho npeKpaiMeHne bomhw b MeMHe. Oahom m3 npo6AeM 
OHTHBoeHHoro ABuxeHUJi, ypoBeHb KOToporo abho He cooTBeTCTByeT MaciuTa6y TpareAnn, pa3BepHyB- 
wetics ho CeBepHOM KaBKcrae. nBAneTcn ero HecKOopAHHnpoBOHHOCTb. 

(IpoeKT «AHTHBoeHHbie Ae^cTBus?" HanpaoAeH ho co3AQHne cucTeMw wHcfcopiviauMOHHoro o6ivieHa 

MeXAY OHTHBOeHHblMH OKTHBHCTaMU M3 pa3HblX perMOHOB POCCMM. 

B paMxax npoeiaa ho comom xpyriHOM n nocemaeMOM poccmmckom npaB03auinTHOM nopTOAe 
«ripaBa weAOBSKa b Poccmh» (http://www.hro.org) homoa pa6oiy comt. rAe pa3MemaeTcn MHcJiopMaunn 
06 OHTMBoeHHOM ABMxeHnn. BbinycKaercfl exeHeAeAbHOJi aAexipoHHan hh^opmouhohhoji cboako 

«AHTHB06HHbie HOBOCTH», B 603e AOHHWX KOTOpOM HdXOAHTCfl OKOAO 900 OAPeCOB 06weCTBeHHblX M 
nOAHTMMeCKHX OprOHH3aUMM, OTABAbHblX OKTHBUCTOB. poccniiCKHx (fceAepOAbHWX M perMOHOAbHblX CMM. 

3apy6e>KHbix noAnncMMKOB. 

Mw npeAAaraeM boom, kto 30HMMaeT- 

Cfl OHTHBOeHHOM p060TOM HAM HMeeT COOT- 
BeTCTByK3lMHe MOTepUClAbl. BblCblAOTb MH- 

(fcopMOLinio aah pa3Meu4eHns ee ho came 

H B CBOAKC 

AaHHbie MOTepnaAbi Moryr coAep>t<aTb 
MHtjiopMauMio 0: 

— ny6AMMHblX OKLIMHX. 

— 3asiBAeHmix m o6paiueHMflx. 

— KpyrAwx ctoaox n BCTpeMax.. 

— pa3pa6oTKe npeAAoxeHHii o cno- 
co6ax ycTOHOBAeHHa MMpa b Me^He, 

— 30JlBAeHH0M OTHOUjeHHM npeACTO.- 

BMTeAeii bacictm. noAnnmecKHx cha; o6tue- 

CTBeHHblX OpraHH30UMM K aHTMBOeHHWM 
MHMUHaTMBOM, 

— CAy^aflx npecAeAOBOHun OHTHBoeH- 
Hbix aKTnencT08 3a hx o6mecTBeHHyio Aea- 

TeAbHOCTb. 

— APyrMX C06blTMflX, KOTOpbie OTHOC3T- 
Cfl K OHTMBOeHHOM AeflTeAbHOCTH. 

Mw TQKxe 6yAeM 6AaroAapHbi Bom sa 

MaTepMOAbl 06 OHTHBOeHHblX KaMnOHMflX 
npOLUAblX AeT B P03AMMHWX CTpOHOX. MHbie 

MnpoTBop^ecKMe McrrepHaAbJ. 

ripHBeTCTByeTcn conpoBoxAeHne mq- 

TepHOAOB 0OTOrpa0M51MM, 




L 






■ .. t* 


* - 


W 1 i'*2r m F 
P 5 ^ I 1 ' IF H* ^ 


>»*** 









Banecnaa OEPAnOWKMH, KoHCTaHTMH CMMPHOB 
hrsas@fer.ryazan.ru http://wwnv.hro.org/war/anti 



21 



liPABA HEAOBERA 



Buktop TEPELUKMH 

«CTapa& TEaiiJHafi wyTKa...» 

BoeHHbiM cyA TnxooKeaHCKoro (pnoia 25 AeKa6pn 2001 roAa 
npuroBopmi JKypHa/iHCTa rpuropun llacbKO k 4 roflaM /iMtueHHfl cbo6oai>i 

y MCHH 3a O1HH0H BO BTOpOM psay H CTdn CHHMaTb TOJlbKO 

ojhh rmaH, HanpaBiiB KaMcpy Ha rpnropn« Hero 3aimir- 

HHKOB. 

K 11.00 b 3ane pa6oTa.io BoceMb TejieBHsnomibix 
rpynn. Cyawi HmhtphH K> biiiii h hhkob h HapoaHbie 3ace- 
aaTean BciHHecTBeHHo, c KaMeHHbivH .iHua.MH. npocneao- 
Banii Ha cboii Mecra. CyabH ciaji 3a'iHTbiBaTb npHroBop. h 
ywe 'icpci njiTb mhhjt crano iiohhtho, — npHroBop 6yaeT 
o6BHH>rruibHbiM. Mcpc3 TpHxiiiaTb MiiHyT b 3ajie norac 
cBeT, ho cyabsi mtchhsi npiiroBopa He npepBaji. Kar36eui- 
Hbiii onepaTop He npepBaa c bCMKii aawc b 3toh nonyTbMe. 

(pHKCHpyH BCC H3MCHCHHJ1 B HHUaX ajBOKaTOB. riacbKO, 

ThaneHKO. 

CyabH KyBuiHHHiiKOB HHTaji npuroBop. h h na cjiyx 
jtobh;i noTpncaioutiie cboiim npanoni.iM uiiiiiijmom (})pa- 
3bi: cya npinnaiuu. mto npn o6wcKe opraHbi CBQflcrBm 
Hapyiuii.iii npoueccya.ibHoe 3aKOHoaaTenbCTBO, ho chh- 
TaeT. mto co6paHHbie Tamil o6pa30M aoKa3aTenbCTBa 
HMeioT lopiuHHecKyio CHJiy. JJa, npH3HaBaa BoeHHbifi cy- 

AbH. — M.i- Mil KMpOHHblC lallHWII pa3roBopoB TlaChKO c 

snoHCKHM wypHajiHCTOM Taaaiiw OKaHo ymraTOStflHH. 
Ho Be.ib ocrajiiicb iix CTenorpaMMM ( Bbino.iHCHHbie noa- 
pyHHWMH cneaoBaTeax EropKHHa!). TaK bot. Ha ocHOBa- 
iihh 3thx creHorpaMM. coaepwaHHe KOTopux He 6uao 
noaTBepiicaeHo ynacTHHKaMH Te;ic<poHHbix pa3roBopoB, 
cya ycMOTpeji Bimy TpHropHH. He tuobi.i cyaba ynoMa- 
HVTb b npuroBope h npiiKa i mm unci pa o6opoHw CCCPM? 
010 ot 7 aBrycra 1990 roaa. KOTopbiii «ko6h HapyuiH.n 
llacbKO. AecBTb c hhuihhm .ict npoiuao nocne pacnaaa 
HMnepnnCCCP. a noceicpcTHbiM. Hnraeiieony6;iHKOBaH- 
hwm npiiKa cim crHHyBiuero rocyaapcTBa, cyasT wyptia- 
jiHcra. 

McpiBbie xBaTawT vkiibux! 

HanoMHio. hto cjiejcTBue yTBep>Kaaao — TpHropHH 
co6pa.T h ncpeaaa xiiohckhm xcypHanHcraM aec$rrb aoKy- 
MeHTOB. coacpwauiHX rocTaftHy. B npnroBopc npo3B\Ma- 
no, — aa HeT, hc aecsm>, a Bcero ojhh. H He nepeaaji, a 
TonbKO xoTea nepeaarb. 3tot aoKyMenT — re caniue 
3anncn, KOTopwe TpHropnH Bca Ha pa36ope 3a»icTHo- 
TaimmecKHx vmchhh lOO. B hcm. KaK VTBcp-AaacT cyabH 

KyBUIHHHHKOB. COJCp*aTCJl pOBHO 3B3 CeKpcTa. 

POBHO Mac B 3aJIC HC 6 1.|. 10 CBCTa. HO BOT OH BC II l.i Ml > I . 

h KOHeu npHroBopa bochhmh cyabsi /Jmhtphh k\ buihh- 
hhkob 'jaHHTaa b cbctjiom 3a.ie: 

« ...(JWOTCKHH BOCHHblH Cya npHrOBOpHji: llacbKO TpH- 

ropHJi MuxafiaoBMHa npmiiari. bhhobhum b rocyaap- 

CTBCHHOfiH3MeHeBlJ)OpMeUJnHOHaAa....aHlUHTberOCBO- 

6oau cpoKOM Ha 'leTbipe roaa b HcnpaBHTe.ii.Hoii ko.io- 
hhh crpororo peacHMa. 6e3 KOHCpHCKaunn iiMymccrBa. Ha 

OCHOBaHHH CT.48 YK PO aHUJHTb IlaCbKO BOHHCKOrO 

3BaiiHH KanHTaH Btoporo paHra 3anaca...» 




rpusopuu Hacbuo 



B^aaHBocroK - ropoa Mu;iciibKiiii. 3a HecKOJibKo 
met no Bbiiitvcii hk npnroBopa MecTHbie qeKHCTU npa3a- 
HOBaaH cboh CHC-T.n.iii npa3aHHMeK. H. KaK hum craao 
H JBecTHo. in nii,i ii hx HanaabHHK ikuhh.i ook.i.1 3a no6eau 
cBoero BeaoMCTBa b yxoa«meM roay. npii stom ynoMUHy.i 
ii BHKTopnio b aejie llacbKO. J\& Ta.M bcc He tsk oaHOjHaM- 
ho, po6ko HanoMHH.iH cMy noaiHHCHHbie. Ha wto 6occ 
cikbii i. — BOTyBHaHTe bo btophhk. Bee 6yaeT b uiaane. H 
Bee re6ucTU craan HOKaTbca. 

Koraa x Boiuea b i.iaimc cyaa, b r.ia3a 6pocHaocb 
o6hjihc pociibix MOpCKHX nexoTHHiieB, hx, na IiepiiOC. OT- 
6npa.iH H3 HccKo^bKHX noaKOB. «no6bi Bee nbi.iii no Merp 
aeBHHOcTo: ohh nposepjuiH vKypHajiHCTOB, oTceHBaH Tex. 
kto He noaymu aKKpeaHTaniiio, o kotopoh npeaynpew- 
aa.i npecc-ueHTpTOO. nexoTiiHuu ctohjih b KopHaopax 
cyaa. Ha aecTHiiHHbix naoiuaaKax. B cyae6HOM 3ane Kpa- 
coBanncb aBa npncraBa c i\ ■"iiukumii h iup> ■■ihhk.imii. 
bhcshuhmh Ha pcMiiK\ M y Menu TocK-iHBO cacajiocb cepa- 
ue. MMnepHJi Hrpana MbiuiuaMH. TaKoro BoeHHoro uioy 
hc ow.io h bo BpcM» nepBoro cyae6Horo npouecca. Koraa 

TpHropHH npHB03HaH H3 TK>pbMM. 

"yKypHaJiHcroB 6buro MCHbiue. nesi MopcKHX nexoTHH- 
ueB. B 10.45 b 3a.ie nosBiwcj) Mafiop «J>CB AncKcanap 
EropKHH. CHsiioiuiiH KaK HOBbi>°i .' piiiiciiHHK. Oh yace 3HaJl 
npHroBop. C hum own neaoBeK c noTepTofi bhcuihoctlio, 
BoopyweHHbiH BnaeoKaMepoH. He.noBeMeK npHCTpomica 



4 



(IPABA HEAOBEKA 



2/ 




Cy.ibH cuie 3amnuBa.i noc- 
acamie cnoBa npiiroBopa. Kax 
,iBa cyaeoHux npHcraBa noao- 
maii k TpiiropHK), h noBean ero 
b «K,ieTKy». Oh ycnci Ha ojho 

KOpOTKOe MTHOBeHHe o6llHTb 

achv TanHHy. H 3a hum c.isnroM 
3axaoriHyaacb 3apeuiCHeHHaji 
.iBepb. HBaH riaBnoB 11 AacK- 
caHjp TKaieHKO ycneaii cKaiaTb 
esiy Bcero HecnoabKo ctob. km 
npucraBbi 3au1.n1 b «K.ieTKy» 11 

Ha.ie.nn Ha Tpiiropus HapyiHHKii. Euie Mepe3 HccKo.ibKo 

MiiHyT ero bmbcih 113 3a^a. 

LLIok, 6o.ib.ome.noMncHne. )KypHajiHCTbi opocaioTCij 

k aaBOKaTaM. 6epyT HHTepBbio. fl BurasuuBaio 113 3aiia. 

— b raaiax craHOBHTca tcmho ot nepHOH (Juiotckoh (Jk>d- 

Mbi: BCCb K« ipil.l.«p 3an0.3HCH MOpCKIIMH MLAo I II llila Mil 

A b sane rHeBHo Kpmm •/Kypna.iHCTaM Cauia TKa- 
•ieHKo: 

— Tyr To.ibKO ito npoH30ULio npccTynaemtc. CyabH 
nouica Ha noBoay y KOMaHjoBaHHH BMO. Ilocjie Toro, 
KaK b cya hbh.ich nepBufi iaMecrine.ib raaBKOMa BM<t> 
ajMnpa.i 3axapeHKO. Ochobhoh ynop b npuroBOpe cae- 

.laH Ha aOKVMCHTC KOTOpblH HCTbipC TOaa BOOOIUC HHKTO 

He 3aMe«ia.i. A 3aMeTHJiH ero nocne Toro. KaK Bee ocra-ib- 
Hbie noj6poiueHHbie aoKyMeHTU 6mjih 'jauiHTOH pacrep- 

Tbl B nOpOUIOK. H OHH BUeilH.lHCb B 3Ty 6yMaA'OHKV Mep- 

tbom xBarKOH. 3axapenKO b tot aeHb CKa3aji: «fl 3HaK). 
mto b 3thx laniicsix BceceKpemo, bcc!» MucnpocHJiH: «A 
rae aoKa3aTeabCTBa?» H ajMHpaji OTBemi: «Ha to h h 
kom;i 11. lMomiiii. MTo6bi 3HaTbBce. a bu HHMero!» Ajmh- 
paa 3aaaBH^ cya HaeoaorHMecKH. CeroiiH* cioaa hbh.ilh 
chmoiuhh ot CMacTbs Maiiop <t>CE EropKHH. Bo BpeMii 
or.iauieHHJi npHroBopa Ha 1 icpaosi cyae6H0M npouecce oh 
11 hoc noooaaca cioaa cyHyTb. 3to 03HaMaeT, hto b stot 
pa3 oh ma. 1. Ka kiim 6yaeT npiiroBop. ripoioouiea croBop 
mokjv cy.ioM h <t>CE! 

A.iBOKaTbi no oaHOMy 3axo.3n.3n r Kapay.ibHoe noMe- 
meHiic, rac flgpxaim rpuropim. CoBemaancb. TanHHa 
yexana jomoh, hto6u npiiBe3TH rpttropHio TiopeMHyio 
OHISMpy. HBaH IhiH.ioH Bbiuie.1 H3 KapayabHoro noMeiuc- 
hhji. Bbmec raacrvK TpMropHJi. QoflOKBn ero Ha CTOJI. Y 

MCHH CAa. loci. CCpaUe — TOJlbKO MTO TpHUia 6bljl C IU1MI1. 

cMcs.icfl. myntn. H bot ywe BTsnyT b -*-epiioBa nopeUHOfi 
MauiiiHbi: cwii. pcMCHb, raiicryK. maypDL 
HBaH roBopHT: 

— Tpiiuia npocHT TOjibKO 06 oahom — 6eperHTe 
Tamo! 

H3 Kapay.ibHoro noMemeHHS buuict anBOKaT AHaTO- 
.iiiii ribiiuKiiH. JKypna-iiicTbi OKpy>KaiOT ero: lie cooiipa- 
ctch an PlacbKO noaaBaTb npe3HaeHTy npouieHne o noMH- 
aoBaHHH? 

AHaTo.uiH roBopiiT: 

— ilia rpnropna noaaBaTb npotueHHe o noMiiaoBa- 
hhh npe3itaeiiTy 3HaMHT coraacnTbc» c npiiroBopoM, c 

TCM. HTO OH — aCHCTBHTCJIbHO HnOHCKHH UinHOH. TpHrO- 

pmi y*e Hanncaji npeaBapHTe.ibHyio KaccaunoHHyio sea- 




aoby. h mu OTHCcaii cc b 
KaHueaspHio cyaa .inn pe- 
nicTpamiii. 3&BTpa mm 
npiiHeccM BcyacBoionpca- 
BapiiT&ibHyio caccauHOH- 
iiyio )Kaao6y. Mbicuicaoji- 
*Hbio3HaKOMiiTbcsi c npo- 
TOKoaoM cyje6Horo 3ace- 
aamm aJia Toro. hto6m 
npoBepiiTb. bcc an npa- 
Bii.ibiio i;im 3anncaH0. 

riOTOMV MTO npH np0B03T- 

. i.iiiicii mi npiiroBopa iaMe- 
thjim — noKa3aHim hcko- 
Topux cBHaeTeaefl. a TaKXC rpiiropim, iicwa avhm. 
R cnpocn.3 AHaToaim: 

— B npHroBope npo3Bynaao — aa. oouck 11 ocmotp 
aoKVMeHTOB 6w.m npoBcacHbi c HapyuieHiieM 3aKOHa. ho 
3TH iiapyuieium ne oneHb cyuiecTBeiiHbi. KaK BaM TaKaH 
apryMeHTamm? 

— B nepBOM cyje6H0M 3accaaHH>i cyab» 3a 3TH Hapy- 
inen 11a 3aK0Ha Bbmec b a^pec OCE MacTHoe onpeaeaeHHe. 
A cyabJi jEbonpafl Kjbujhhhhkob peuiHJi, hto 3aKOH Ha- 
pyuiaTb mo'a-ho! 3thm npuroBopoM iiociiiiwii cya jail 
noHaTb Kai 36euiHHKaM — MoweTe TaiuiiTb k HaM jiio6oc 
1 -i 11. 11. c. mm BcecionaeM 11 BbiiieceM iiy-A'iibiH npiiroBop! — 

OTBeTH.T llbllllKHH. 

Cy^eoHbie npncTaBbi ucpeKpi.inai.iT peuieTKOH npo- 
xoji k KapayabHOMy noMcmeHHio, npn6biBaeT kohboH. 
BoopyA'eiiHbiH BBTOmxaMB. rpxropHH BbiBoa»T, h ycne- 
Baro KpiiKiiyTbeMV no-yKpaiiHCKH: 

— Tpnviafica. ByflKy! (JXcpjtmcb. flanuca!) 
Oh yjibi6Hyjics Ha xoay: 

— Ta. Tpuviaiocb! 

Ero bubcih. BOcaflHJm b kohbohhuh ream, mu eme 
ycnean vBiiaeTb cKB03b nuabHoc. 3a6paHHoe peuieTKOH 
CTeicio ero ynu6icy. I a <uk pe3KO pBaHya c Mecra. 

Koraa *eHa noaouiaa k rpnuiHHOH MauiHHe. htoSu 
OTorHaTb ee b rapa-/K. ojmo Kaneco y aBTOMo6H.ia 6biao 
npoKoaoTO. AaBOKaT 1 1 i.miikmm v.-k;i <.i 1 

— O, CTapaH I [> iiini.iH iuyTKa! flame b 3tot aenb He 
yaepwaancb... 

Bellona, Ocno 




21 



4 



IIPABA HEAOBEKA 



T1oAAep)KiiTe rpnropnfl riacbKO — 
nouj/iMTe eMy Te/ierpaMMy b CH30! 

3tot cnoco6 He Tpe6yeT 6o/ibwnx AeHexHbix 3aTpaT n Bbi, npuMeHqn ero, He ao/ixhw nocBATHTb 
ce69 Bcero 6opb6e 3a npaBa nonnT3atoiK)HeHHoro. Heo6xoAHMO TO/ibKO, hto6w KaK moxho 6o;ibiue 
/itoaeii noc/ia/in TenerpaMMbi oahomy 3aicnioHeHHOMy. ripocTO nepeaann eMy cbom npuBeT... 
Mw npn3biBaeM Bac no/wepxaTb Tpuropufl riacbKO. riownnTe eMy TenerpaMMy b cneACTBeHHwii 

M30/lHTOp! 

AApec: 690106, Poccma, BnaAMBOCTOK, HapTM3aHCKMM npocneKT, 28-6, CneACTBeHHbiM 
n3o/i5iTop 25/1, riacbKO rpnropnto MuxaHSiOBMHy (umb ia ornecTBO nucarb no/iHOCTbio!). 

Te^erpaMMbi nyniue nocwjiaTb c yBeaoM/ieHiieM o BpyneHnn. Ecnn TenerpaMMa Hanpas/ifleTca ot 
opraHH3au.nn, to Ha 6/iaHxe TerterpaMMW flonxHa 6biTb ee nenaTb. 



Akl;mh b noAAepxKy rpuropn« riacbKO 




EKamepuH6ypz 




>|BEPHWCfl- r 

m 



^u 




KamjHunapad 



MocKea 




Tomck 




IMCKM 



CTpaHnubi o6iMecTBeHHOM KaMnaHMM 
b 3aunMTy TpHropiiR riacbKO b MHTepHeTe: 

http://www.hro.org/actions/pasko 

http://www.seu.ru/cci/campaign/pasko 

http://index.org . ru/mayday/pasko 

http://grani.ru/pasko/ 

http://www.gdf. ru/books/books/pasko 

http://www.enwl.net.ru/2001/pasko/index.php 



4 nPABA HEADBEKA 



21 



Bopuc nyCTblHUEB 

Mbl Ka>KAblM 



AeHb BeAeM 



Ana/ior c B/iacTbio 




KaKHx-TO 15neTOTae.mK)THac 
ot Toro speMeHH. Koraa aio6oe 
ao6poBO-TbHoeo6i>caHHCHnerpa)K- 
aaii, .1106011 «kjiv6 no mrnpficno 
CTaHOBiuiHCb oGteKTOM caMoro 
npiiCTaabiioro BHHMaHim co cto- 
poHbi rocyaapcTBa. noapajyMCBa- 
.iocb. mto rocyjapcTBO b noaHoft 
Mepe o6ecneHHBaeT codaioaeHiie 
HHTepccoB bccx rpynn iiacc.Tciui*. 
H nonuTKii nocTaBHTb dtot nocTyjiar noacoMHeHHe npH- 

paBHHBa-lHCb K «KJieBeTe Ha COBeTCKVK) aeflCTBHTe.Tb- 

HOCTb». mto rpo3Hao yroaoBHbiv npccaeaoBaiiHCM. 

riOJIOXeHHC CTa.10 pe3KO MeilHTbCJl BO BTOpOH noao- 

bhhc BocbMiiaecHTbix roaoB. Koraa anacrb oxa3aaacb bm- 
H>/KacHHo»"i. no ue.ioMy paay bccm hjbccthmx npHiiiH. 
nonojKHTb kohcu no.THoii i! u\ ihiihii CCCP ot BHeumero 
Mnpa. Ho lance nompoBaHHan .i>i6epajiH3aiiHsi pevKHMa 
cpa3y ace BbHBaaa K5KH3HH 3(})(peKT. na kotopmh npaBHTe- 
aw iniKaK He paccHiiTbiBaaH - Bo.iHy rpa>»ciaHCKOH aJCTHB* 

HOCTH. 

CBo6oaHoe o6mecTBO - caMoopraHH3yioma»cJi chc- 
TCMa. Ecnii noHBH.THCb ncpsuc pOCTKH CBo6oabi, nouBJia- 
lOTcn h nepBbie 3/ieMeHTbi caMoopranirjauiui - no taBHCii- 
Mbieo6uiecTBCHHbico6T.cjHHeHH(i. Becno J ie3Ho nb!TaTbcn 
3tiim npoueccoM pyKOBoaHTb. 3ajaBaTbeMy bcktopjbh- 
*chii« - oh 6yaeT pa3BHBaTbca b HanpaBaeHini euie 6oab- 
nicfi cbo6o.iu. ripaBja, ero MOXHO nonuTaTbcH >hhmto- 
>KHTb. pacronTarb BMecre c pocnaMH CBoGoaw. A Ha 3to 
B.iacTb BTOMCBoeMcocTOfliimi yace ire pcuianacb. 1 1 ui cine 
He pema.iacb. Jloraica oopbou Be.ia k pacKony caMoii 
BnacTH. HcaMajiapeMyMaseeMacTbpeujHTCJi Hanoao6Hbie 
jeHCTBHsiTO.ibKOBaBrycTe 1991 roaa. HoKTOMy Bpe.vieHii 
laHHii. caMoopramnauiiH ywe aacr Henaoxon yporcan. 
noHBHTCH Hevia.io rpaXflBH, cnocoGHbix oGmohhhiwi h 

OCyiUCCTBHTb CBOC np.llto Ha npOTCCT. H nyTHHCTbl pacTC- 

Psiotcs nepea HeooxoaHMocTbio MaccoBoro npo-iiiTnn 
KpoBii lie b JIhtbc. lie b rpy3HH. a b cepaue HMncpmi - b 
Mockbc 

C tcx nop. Hapjuy c pe3Kii.M cnaaoM BHeuiHeH. «y.iHH- 
hoh» rpaxuaHCKofl aKTHBHocrji. nponcxoa»ia Maao3a- 

MCTHblH. HO HeVKJIOHHMH poCT MHC.la aKTHBHO pa60Tah> 

uiHX nenpaBHTe.ibCTBeHHbix opramnauiiii. OTpaacaBuiHH 
npouecc nocTeneHHoro ocoinaiuisi rpaauaHaMii cbokx 
couna.ibiibix 11 no.iHTHHecKiix HHTepecoB. Haao cxasaTb. 
mto HOBan B-iacrb ne MHHHaa HaM ocoowx npenHTCTBHH, 
OHa npocro He 3aMeMaaa Hac. mto, ocoochho noc.ne noaB- 
.leHHfl oTiiocHTCibHO aH6epaabHoro iaK.m.i 06 o6me- 



Bopuc riycmbiHUBG. npedcedamenb npae03auiumno0 opeaxuiauuu 
«rpax<dGMCKuu KOMmpo/ib*. ConKm-nomep6ype. 



cTBeHHbix o6i.eanHeHHHx. HMe.no cboh noao>KHTeabHbie 
cropoHbi. He 3aMeMana - 3HannT, He Meiuana. Xotji Haxi 
owao HenerKo. a nopofi 11 oMCHb TpyaHO npHBaeKaTb 

BHilVaHHC COOTBCTCTBVK>lUHX BejOMCTB K CBOHM KOHK- 

peTHMM npo6,neMaM. mki coxpaHiijTHCBoio HeiaBucHMocrb. 
h eciit yaaBaaocb HaaaaHTb pa6oMiifi KOHTaKT c rocyaap- 
cTBeHHbiMH cayiKauniMH. to sto 6waH aeHCTBHTeabHO 
napTHepcKHe othouichum. K tbkhm KOHTaicraM tlbl crpe- 
Miiaiicb Bceraa, cymecTBeHHasi MacTb Hauinx TaKTHMecKiix 
ycHJiiiii jaK-iioHacTCB b noiibiTKax <<uiiBii;iH30Barb)> mh- 
HOBHHKa, o6T.ficHHTb CMy. mto ceroaHfl ero Kapbepnue 
aM6nunn MoryT uhhi.ii.uk c HHTepecaviH rpaacaaHCKoro 
oomecTBa. H Koraa sto yaaeTca. to mu paooTaesi BMecre 
a.ia peujcHHH o6iuhx npo6aeM. 

Baacrb iiin'i .1.1 co3aaBaaa cboh pyMHbie GONGO 
(Governmeni Organized Non-Governmental Organization 
- opeainaoMHHbie cocydapamoM iieeocydapameiiHbie opea- 
uuniHuit - Ped.). mto b paae c.iyMacB oc.to/Khh.io nauiy 
pa6oTy. ho. b o6tueM. TO*e He oneHb Metuaao. Xotji 
«Hae3au» Ha rpaiKaaHCKoe o6ujecTBO.ecTecTBeHHo. HMe- 
BH Mecro. ohh hc hociuih ciicTeMHoro xapaKTepa. Hanoo- 
aee onacHMM 6bia 1998 roa. Koraa c aerKOH pyKii npaBO- 
Boro ynpaaieHna mockobckoh M3pnH HaMaaocb HacTyn- 

-1CHHC p»aa pCrHOHa-TbHblX B.iaCTHblX 3.1HT Ha KOHCTIITy- 

mioHHbie npaii.i rpa5KaaH. Bbipa3iiBiiieecti BOTKaiax perii- 
CTpiipoBaTb h ncpeperHCTpiipoBaTb He3aBHCHMbie o6ie- 

-lilHCIIIIM B OCHOBHOM 3T0 OTHOCHaOCb K OOUteCTBeHHblM 

opi aim taiiHHM iipunmaimi inoro 11 3KoaorHMecKoro Ha- 
iipaH.'ieiuiH - i laimi.iM Kpn ; iik.-.m HenpaBOMOMHbix aeii- 

CTBHH B.iaCTH. 

KpiiTHKH nauia Bnacrb no crapofi 1 pa.iinin a He Tep- 
nvtT. JIhmhocth. o6cay*nBaioiiiHe ee HaeoaorHMecKH. no- 
CT0»HH0HMeHyioTHac«aHTnrocyaapcTBeHHHKaMH».«pa3- 
pyuinTe.iJiMH». a to h «areHTaMH b.ih5ihhh». 3Tiio6BHHe- 
Him npeacTaBJiuKJT co6oh apbeprapanbie (b HCTopiiMec- 

KOH lICpCIlCKTHBC) 60H lipi.'t|ilXk.Hi MM. H.IK'II OKJDOKpaTHH 

coBeTCKoro To.iKa. ripaB03auxiiTiibie HFIO ne boiokjt c 
rocyaapcTBOM. ohh noMorawT eMy. noMoraioT npofiTH 
TpyaHbifi nyrb ao coctoahhh npaBOBoro rocyaapcTBa. 
aocroHHoro co Bpe.MeHeM craTb paBHonpaBHWM MaeHOM 
CBponeficKOH ceMbit HapoaoB. M Koraa Baacrb no3HTHBHO 

OTK.IHKaCTCH Ha rpa»aaHCKHe HHHUHaTHBbl. Olia CTaHO- 
BHTCH HaUHIM COK33HHKOM. 

Mnoro Hcnpn«THOCTCH rpaA-aaHCKHM ooi.eaiineHH- 
hm aocTaBaj)K)T nepnoaiiMecKne 3aKOHoaaTeabHbie HOBa- 
uhh b HaaoroBoit c<pcpe, woraa Hac (HHoraa co3HaTe.TbHo) 
nyTaK>TCK0MMepMecKHMH0praHH3aunHMH.H0BnepcneK- 
THBe sto pa3peuiHMbiH Bonpoc. TaaBHajt onacnocrb. KaK 
oKaia.ioci.. BnepcaH. 

BepoflTHO. nepeHacbimeHnecTpyKTyp fi.uicim 3a noc- 
aeaHee bdcmji ohibhiiimh coTpyaHHKaMn cobctckhx cneu- 



31 



4 QPABA HEJIOBEKA 



cnywo cnoco6cTBOBa.io 6ypHOMy BOipowacHHio npocpec- 

CHOHaJlbHOrO HHCTHHKTa: KOHTpOjlHpOBaTb BCC MTO uie- 

bc-thtch. 3To.My conyTCTBOBa.T apyrofi npouccc: KaK 3dMe- 
tiu HejaBHO AHnpeii Ehtob. Bciea 3a yicpenneHHCM Bcp- 
THKa.™ B.iacTH noniMHo no»Biuiacb noTpe5Hocrb ycH- 
.iiiTb ce no ropinoHTaan. Han. ecnn npommipoBaTb nep- 
Boro 3axia r.iaBbi npe3HjeHTCK0ii aaMitiiiicTpaunH Baa- 
jHCiaBa CypKosa, «hco6xo.ihmo .avMaTb He ToabKO o 
bc-tiikom rocyjapcTBe. ho h o bcjihkom o6iucctbc» (b 
ojHOCTpammHOM o6pameHiin ynacTHiiKOB moHbcKofi 

BCTpCMH C npC3HJCHTOM C.10BO «Be.THKHH» BCTDeMaeTCJl 

Bocevib pa3: rout moh - Bpar moh). B o6meM. laneM 
«Bc.inKnii Oopyvi HnO» Hymen Baacm noHSTHO. He 
OMeHb noHHTHo. 38H6M oh Hy-ACH caifHM HenpaBHTejib- 
CTBCHHbiM opraHtnaiiHRM. 

Ociiobhom .k'ho.i irropoHHHKOB yiacTiiii b OopyMe: 
o6mecTBo jo.dkho bccth ananor c aaacrbio. fla mm cro h 
TaK Kawjbiii aenb BeaeM! H He c a6crrpaKTHOH BaacTbio 
Boo6me. a c kohkpcthmmh BenoMCTBavni h c 3aKOHoaaie- 
ihmii pa3Horo ypoBHX. BtuioTb jo (J>e.icpa.ibHoro. aan 

PCUICHHA BnOJIHC KOHKpCTHblX BOnpOCOB. He HBJIO )T OB3- 

pHBaTb Hac «npH3HaBaTb» BnacTb, H36paHHyio h iuuna- 
MeHHyio b cooTBeTCTBHH c .leMOKpaTiiMecKHMH npoueay- 
paMH. npejycMOTpeHHbiMii KOHCT H T yilHd l 1993 ro.aa.Mbi 
MOXCM He oao6p»Tb Bbi6op in6iipaTe.icH hjih onpeaeaeH- 
Hbie aeHCTBim aiacTii. ho OHa nerHTHMHa. h mw oopeMeHbi 
m corpynmiHccTBo c Hefi. Apyrofi «hc 3ascxiH». Bonpoc 
b roTOBHOCTH caMoii BJiacTM coTpynHHMaTb c rpaayiaHc- 
khm o6mec7BOM He Ha ypoBHe acKaapauHii. 

B.iacTb ceroana aocTaTOMHo HeoaHopoaHa. h TaM 
XBaTacT .aroacfi. He o6ypeBaeMbix KOMnacKcaMH «Bcait- 
mhh». npaKTHHecKH bo Bcex BeaoMCTBax (3a nonsrrnbiMH 

I!CK.Th>HCHMHMIl)CCTbaOJl>KHOCTHblCj3HUa. npOHB.IHIOlUHC 

TOTOBHOCTb K TaKOMy COTpyaHHMeCTBV . /Jo6pocoBecTHbie 
mhhobhhkh noHHMaKJT. mto HenpaBHTeabCTBenHbicopra- 
HH3auHH bhocht BecoMbifi Biciaa b peiueHiie TaKjix Bonpo- 
cob o6merocyjiapcTBeHHoro 3Ha«ienn», KaK craTyc h o6y- 
CTpoficTBo oewemieB. 6ecnpH3opHocTb h apyrue «aeTC- 
khc» npo6jrcMbi, cHTyauHH BcnejcTBCHHbix ino-iaropax H 
HcnpaRHTe.ibHbix yMpeaeaeHMflx. pcipnpMa chctcmm o6pa- 
30BaHH5i. apMHH. noamum. cy>aonpoH3BoacTBa ht. a. Ohh 
noHHMawT. mto mw HCTonbKo Mo6anH3ye.M rpaiKaaHCKyio 

aKTHBHOCTb. HO H HpilB.ICKliCM OHS peUieHHJI 3THX Ha6o- 

.icBUJHx npo6.neM maMnrc :ii»nbie BHe6K)a/KeTHbie cpca- 
CTBa . icii !.i ii lapyiie/KHbix 6naroTBopnTenbHbix (pottaoB. 
Ho cymecTBveT onita «MepTBas 30Ha», rje coTpyaHHMe- 
cTBa hct h b o6o3pHMOM 6yayweM He npeaBHaiiTCH. wo 
aocryn ko MHoruM BimaM OTKpbiTOfi HHtpopviauHH. HC- 
nocpeacTBeHHo laTparHBawmeii vKiniieimue HHTepecu 
o6uiccTBa. 

He npeaaiuHTcs. noTOMy mto mi,ihciiih»h BJiacrb hc 

OTKaJKCTCSI 0T OeCCMUCJieHHblX C TOMKH 3peHH« OTKpblTO- 

ro o6mecTBa aoKTpHH «HH<j>opMauHOHHOH 6e3onacHoc- 
th» h «ejHHoro HH<popMaunoHHoro npocTpaHCTBa». 
flna Hee JTHaoKTpiinbi hmciot ray6oHaHuiHHCMbicji. h6o 
(noviHMo cojaainiB pa6oHHx Mecr aJi» npeacraBHTejieH 
CHOBa nony-inpHofi y Hac npo(peccnn)ciy>KaT«KiiTaHCKOH 
ctchohw. KOTopas o6ecneHHBaeTnojiHyio Henpo3paMHocrb 
jchctbhh BaacTH. 



ECIH HCT aeflCTBeHHOrO 06lUCCTBCHH0r0 KOHTpO.m 

3a aeHTeabnocTbK) npaBiiTCvibCTBa. to hct h noanoueHHo- 
ro rpa*aaHCKoro oSmecrBa. K coTpyaHHHecTBy b dtoh 
o6.*iacTii B.iacTb5iBHOHeroTOBa:aBa Mecnua n.i kki n pa nn- 
Te.ibCTBO on«Tb 3apy6nao aocrraTOMHo yMcpcHHuii npo- 
ckt 3aK0Ha «06o6mecTBCHHOM KOHTpoae ja ooecneMeHH- 
cm npaB HtaoBCKa b vtecrax npuHyanTcabHoro cojcp^a- 
hh«». To ccTb Baacrb hc vKejiaeT iipinnaBan, oaHy in 
ochobhux (fyHKmni HeiaBHCHMbix o6T.eaHHeniiH rpa-«- 

JBH B yCJIOBHMX KOHCTHTytlHOHHOH KAH'Kp.llllll - TJlaC- 

iibifl KOHTpoab 3a paooToii rocyjapcTBemibix yt p tO KUB- 
hhh. h iniKaKoii Oopyvi TVT HaM He noMoweT. PaooTaTb c 
B.iacTbio b 3tom oTHOLueHHH Heo6xojiiMo. ho 3to 3aaana 
Ha aoanie roaw. MOXCT 6biTb, jecsTnaeTHji. 

Koaaeni-npaB03auiHTHHKH vBepsioT. hto HHiiuna- 
Topw <t>opyMa iipn iiH.-iii HauiH «yc^0BH» ii i pi.i-> . B aHCKyc- 
chh no 3TOMy noBoay y*e oTMcia.Tocb. mto Hrpw 6cj 
npoHrpaBiunx He 6blBaeT. Hoana mccthoh nrpw Heo6xo- 
aiiMO. mto6u o6e cropoHbi oaiiHaKoao noHHMa.ni npaBii- 
aa. no kotopum nrpaiOT. A bot iyr BbmcH«CTc«. mto, 
onepiipya oaHHMti ii tcmh *e TepMHuaMH. mm c Baacrbio 

BK.IiUblBaCM B HHX pa3HMH CMMOI. 

Ha oaHOM m «Kpyr.ibix irroaoB», KOTopue cciiMac 
peryanpHo npoBo.aiiT HeyroMHMbifiCepreiJ MapKOB ino- 
.lumo.we. McypiuLiucm. odun U3 wonumix op,*anu3amopoa 
rpaMcdawKoeo <popy.ua - Ped. ), npo3ByMaaa TaKaj? qbop- 
MyanpoBKa: «rpa»taaHCKoe o6mecTBo b Pocchh oTaiiMa- 
eTCH ot 3anaaHoH Moacan. h 3to ecrecTBeHHo b nepexoa- 
Hbifl nepnoj». 3to aeficTBiiTcabHo cctcctbchho. ho no 
ojHoft npiiMiiiic: no npuHHHe rpaxtaaHCKofi HespeaocTH 
caMOH anacTH. KOTopas He MVBCTByeT ce6a ooh taimoii 
bhhtho ootflCHJiTb KaAaufi CBofi mar oGmecTBy. na-ioro- 
naaTeabuiHKaM. HaaeHbrn KOTopux cymecTByeT. A pa3- 
hux Homeael rpa>k-aaHCKoroo6mecTBa HeobiBaeT n 6biTb 
He Mower. CTpaHbi paxiHMaioTcn pa nuiii CTeneHbK) pa3- 
bhtocth rpa)KiiaHCKoro oomccTBa, a hc ero pa jhohii. nto- 

CTJ1MII. 

TaK mto >Ke BaacTb noHHMaeT no.acnoBocoMeTaHHeM 
«rpa)KaaHCKoc o6mccTBo»? A bot mto. CuoBa caymaeM 
CepreH MapKOBa - yw OMeHb aKTHBHbifi mciobck: «Ba%- 

HOH OCOOCHHOCTblO 3T0ft BCTDeMH (12 HKJHfl - B. II.) JIBH- 

nocb to, mto na Hefi 6 bin npeacTaBneH noBbifl cneKTp 
o6iuecTBeHHbix ooi-cainiciinH. nojBo.isiouinii no-HOBOMy 
B3msHyTb Ha caMo rpawnaHCKoe o6mecTBo. ,flo 3Toro 
MOMeirra b TaKOBOM KaMecTBe paccsiaTpuBanHCb npc*.ie 
Bccro npaB03amnTHbie opraHioauiin-'. 

Flo-HOBOMy. noHHMaeTe? Boo5me-T0 3Ta roayGaa 
MCMTa BnacTH - HMeTb «rpa>KaaHCKoe o6mecTBO». He no- 
iin< ihioiik-c cc'h- KpHTHKH Banpcc npaBiiTcibci Ba- JByMa- 
na h paHbuie, ao 3toto HCTopHMecKoro MOMeHTa. Ho 
jpyras uiiTaTa H3 Toro *e icnaccHKa - aeficTBHTenbHo. KaK 
rOBOpHJIII COBCeM HejaBHO. «3pHMbie pOCTKH HOBoro»: 
«/lonxHa 6uTb cojaaiia cnemia:ibiias nporpaMMa pa jbii- 
thii rpa>KaaHCKoro o6uiecTBa». A>Maio, mto ruiaHOBbie 
3ajiann» no npoH3BoncTBy GONGO 6ynyT Tcncpb HeyK- 
noHHO nepeBbinonHSTbCB... 

Caw<m-nemep6ypz 



4 NCTOPHR NHAKOMblCAMH 



31 



HD6HAGM TdTbJlHbl BeAliKQHOBOM 



KOHTeKCT 

Aped KDnut) flanM3nn h AHApen CnHflBCKoro b 1 966 roay 
He TonbKo nocTaBun KpecT Ha orrenenw m nn6epanbHwx 
Haaemnax. no m Bbi3Ban uennyio peaxuHK) CyaflT r"nH36ypra. 
ranaHCKoro. flo6poBonbCKoro n JlaujKOBy, cocTaBMBwnx h 
npeaaBOJux Ha 3anaa Benyo KHury o pacnpaBe Haa nucaie- 
nsMH 3aTeM cyAST Ky3HeuoBa n BypMUCTpoBusa 3a pacnpo- 
CTpaneHMe npoMSBeaeHMii AaHiiann h Cumsbckoto 3aTeM — 
XaycTOBa, ByKOBCKoro, KyweBa, ra6an. 3aieM — abmohct- 
paunn npoTMB npouecca hsa f~HH36yproM. rioTOM — Tpuro- 
peHKo 3a npoTeci npoTMB cyaoB nan XaycTOBbiM h 6yxoBC- 
kmu Kohbmho, reHepana FpuropeHKO cyaoT He TonbKo 3a sto 
noTOM — BopucoBa 3a npoTeci npoTUB 3aKniOMeHMn b cneu- 
ncnx6onbHnuy, m tbk flanee... 

OAHOBpeMeHHO noTHHyncs m atimh- 
hwm pnfl BHGcyae6nbix penpeccnii — 
MCKntOMeHHM M3 napTMH, KOMCOMOna. 

yBonbHenun c paCOTU niOAeii, noann- 
caeuinx KonneKTMBHbie nHCbMa b UK 
KnCC b aamnTy apecTOBaHHbix no no- 
nMTHMBCKMM MOTHBaM m c npoTectaMn 
npoTUB B03po>KAeHMfl cTannHM3Ma. B aa- 
ryde 1968 rofla ceMb MenoBex. jiwwb 
cewb n3 300 MunnnoHOB. BbiwnM Ha 
KpacHyio nnomaflb npoTecToeaTb npo- 
TMB OKKynauHH MexocnoBaxMM. H TaTbR- 
Ha BennKaHOBa, MaTb Tponx aeieii, ot- 
Be^an Ha cyAe na Bonpoc. — OHa 6bina 
CBHflereneM, — noneMy OHa, snaa. Kyaa 
mABT ee My*. KoHCTaHTMH Ba6uuKuPi . He 
yaepwuBana ero, OTBemna: «fl cnnTa- 
na 3to HenopBAOHHbiM». H, ecTecTseH- 
ho. noTOM TO)Ke 6wna penpeccupoBaHa 
Bcnea 3a wyweM 

XpoHMKa 

Mto TaKoe caMM3flaTOBCKMM 6ion- 
nereHb «Xponni<a TeKymwx co6biTMM» b 
70-e roflbi, paccKa3UBaTb He naaoann rex, kto snaer A una 
Tex, kto He 3HaeT, — Hy, aa*e 3a MTeHne 3thx MauiMHonMCHbix 
CTpaHimeK mo>kho 6wno nonnaTMTbcn pa6oTOH, yHeooii, 06- 
mecTBeHHbiM nonoKenneM, a to m cpoK nonyHMTb. Ay* 3a 

M3flaHHe-TO... 

Room Hpuna PamyiuuHCKan 6bina euecme c Tams*- 
hou BcnuKanoeou a naaepe a Mopdoeuu: 

«TaTbHHa WnxavinoBHa Be/iMKaHoea. MneH HHnqnaTMB- 
Hoii rpynnw no 3awnTe npaB MenoBexa. b npaeosaiunTHOM 
ABn*eHnn c 1968 roaa. MenoBex bcbmmpho M3BecTHbiM. a 
CTano 6biTb, «o6mecTBeHH0 BpeAHWM». AnoTOMy Kan KrB hb 
MoweT m b Mbicnnx AonycTMTb, HTo6bi kto-to cant ao sero-To 
AoayMancn. 6bnne BeAb. no mx pa3yMeHMio. onpeAenneT 
co3HaHne, to Mmyr AypHbix BnMflHMii. Hy. Ha cboSoab — 
noHBTHO, 3anaAHwe paflnocTaHUMM, 6onbiue coBeTCKOMy ne- 
noBeKy HeoTKyAa noMepnHyTb MAew o co6ct86hhom aoctomh- 
CTBe m npaaax A b 30H6-to npiteMHUK nepeAaeT Tonbxo 
MOCKOBCKoe paAMO. 3HannT, oTKyAa? A sto OHa. 3noBpeflHaR 
BenHxaHOBa. Hac nopTMT. TeM 6onee. mto m cTapiue Bcex. m, 
6e3ycnoBHo. A"" "ac. BToporo AnccwAeHTCxoro noxoneHUH, 
aBTopuTST b cnopHbix Bonpocaxa. 




ripaeo3aiuumHUK Ajiexcafidp Tlaeym, o6uhu3 U3da- 
meneu oXpoHUHU menymux co6bimud», no3HanoMunca c 
TambtiHOu BenuKaHoeou na mom ca/uow cyde Had eu- 
weduiUMu na nnounadb: 

«Mw o6a c MexMaTa. OHa, npaBAa, hbmhowko nosxe 

KOHHHna M OH6Hb MHOrO. nOHHTHO. 06lilMX 3HaK0MblX, oco6bh- 

ho cpeAM MaTeManiKOB B 1968 roAy no3Ha<oMnnwcb Mbi c 
Cepe^eii KoeaneBbiM npnojnn k Heii nocne cyaa noroBopnTb 
m ysHaTb, H3A0 nn M6M-HM6yAb noMoraTb. OKasanocb, Haao, 
n Mbi b 3to bo ace BwiioHnnncb. Bee, kto b stom 6onee unw 
MeHee sawHTepecoBaH, SHaeT o TaTbBHe MnonnoBHe Benn- 
xaHOBOM xaK o A^ccMAeHTe — oahom M3 nepBwx. Ho bot 
MeHbtue 3H3K5T ee, TaK CKa3aTb, npo$eccnoHanbHyio Aen- 
TenbHocTb. OHa — MaTeMaTtix 3aMeHarenbHbi^. nporpaM- 
muct A nocneflHue Aec«Tb. hot. mox<gt 6biTb. aa*e ABBHaa- 
uaTb neT — yvnTenbHuua b ujxone. 

KorAa evi npniunocb yfrm M3 Bbi- 
MucnwTenbHoro yeHTpa. rAe ohs pa6o- 
Tana ho coaceM He pa6oTaTb. bot b 
o6biMHOM cMwcne, ona He Morna, ohs 
Tpyannacb HecKonbxo MecnueB. npax- 
TMHecKM ao apecTa. HHHesxoM b Sorib- 

HHLie 

OHa — oneHb uenbHwn MenoaeK, 
bo aceM OHa Ae/iaeT xax 6w oaho m to 
me — OHa AenaeT to, hto HyaiHO. Be3 
BcnKoro HacunMn Haflco6oM. Ona Aena- 
na «XpoHMxy», noTOMy mto Hy*HO. hto- 
6bi 3Hann nioAH 060 bcbx 6e3o6paanRx . 
KOTopwe nponcxoAfT. Hy*Ho ysnTb ae- 
T6M MaTeMaTMxe CxasaTb, mto ohb — 
Menosex AoSpwili, sto npaannbHO 6y- 
AeT. Ao6pwii, ho orHKJAb He Ao6peHb- 
kmm. Ee yveHMKH, Mano cxa3aTb — no- 
6ht, atib hmx npocTO hot Doribuiero as- 
TopnTeTa. 

Koraa mw AenanM «XpoHMKy», Tana 
ciana TaxMM, nowany^, rnaBHbiM neno- 
BexoM no Bbinycxy Ohb h ao stoto aaHMManacb eii mhoto. ho 
nocne apecTa KoBaneBa, to ecTb c 1 975 roAa. TaH« B3nna Ha 
ce6n OMeHb MHoro. Hhk3kmx Aon>«HocTeM y Hac. kohbhho. hb 
6bino. ho TaHB CTana t3kmm «AnpeiaopoM» OHa o6ecneMn- 
Bana. mto6h Bee sto pa6oTano «XpoHMicy». xa>KAbiiii HOMep. 
Aenaxio He Tax MHoro HapoAy. MenoBexa Tpn-MeTwpe. ho 
yMacTBOBanm b stom, noMorann BcaMbix pa3Ht>ix BeiAax eye 
oneHb MHorne. H, b ochobhom. sto 6binn TaHMHw APy3b». 

OHa Morna h3mtm. Tax cxa3aTb. <mncTyio» KBapTupy 
Ecnn OHa Koro-HM6yAb npocuna. sm He 0Txa3biBanii, noTOMy 
mto 3Hann: ecnn TaHn npocuT, shbmmt, OMeHb HaAO. H, bmbctb 
c TeM, OHa Aenana Bee, MTo6bi otm tikjah ksk-to He nocTpaAa- 
nm. (loMeMy «MMCTyio»? fleno b tom. mto hm boahom us Hawax 
KBapTup. xoHeMHO, Henbsn 6bino pasroBapusaTb ece na- 
c<B03b npocnyujuBanocb. 

Bot n-TO 3Han TaHK) hmchho xax «anpe«Topa» no «Xpo- 
Hnxe». V\ MHe. xax n huhbiuhmm ee aixoribHUKaM. mhb-to 
MHoro nonaAano ot Hee, maBHUM o6pa30M, n3-3a cpoxoB... 
Mw TonbKo mto OTnpasAHOBann ee K>6iineii. M tbm 
TaHMH 6paT Knpvinn paccxa3an. mto y hhx 6wna npa6a6yuJKa 
b 3acT0iiHbie 70-e roaw. xax noiiiymn KMpunxi. 19 eeica 



32 



4 HCTOPM NHAKOMblCilMSI 



ripa6a6yujK3 cTana cenbcxoii yMMTenbHrnjeii. 6bina Hapoa- 
HMueii. TonbKO coeceM He 6oM6oMeTaTenbHMu.e&. H bot ot 
npa6a6yujKM. CMMTaeT Kupunn. OMeHb Mnoro TaHe nepeaa- 
nocb. TeHbi Towe nMeioT SHaneHne. A eoin ynecTb, mto y Tbhm 
cetiMac 14 BHyKOB, mo*ho HaaesiTbCR, mto xopotuMX moaeM 
6yaeT cTaHOBnTt>cF 6onbue». 

Eapd. noam u dpauamypa tOnuu Kuu: 

• HaflHax naaecTHoii npaBoaainHTHnue TaTbRHe MMxavi- 
noBHe BenHKaHOBOvi ucnonHnnocb 70 neT, n r, Tax CKa3aTb, 
nonb3yiocb stmm cnynaeM. HTo6bi eme m eiae pa3 npM3HaTbCR 
ew b csoeii nio6BM n b xonoccanbHOM yBa>«eHMM 

Koraa a BcnoMMHaro 6yflHM npaB03aiymHOki >kh3hh b 60- 
70 roflbi, Hy, m Hanaro 80-x. xohcmho, toko, r cpa3y BcnoMM- 
Haw Tpn HMeHn. nepea xotopwmm HeMeaneHHO MwcneHHO 
ChUMaio Bee uinnnbi. xaxue Mory Boo6pa3MTb Ha CBoevi rono- 
Be. 3ro TaTbRHa BennxaHOBa. Hapuca Boropa3 m HnHa l"leT- 
pOBHa flucoBCKan. Bot stm Tpy^eHnuw Bennxoro npaB03a- 
muTHoro aena Bbt3biBaiOT oco6eHHoe Moe npennoHeHne. Ohm 
6binn aceraa OMeHb npnHunnnanbHbi b csoeM noBeaeHMM m b 
Bbiciueii cTeneHM cxpOMHu. 

TaHB BennxaHOBa npoaenana nyTb npaB03aujHTHMxa 

«OT M flO» CO BCeMU BblTeKBBUIMMH H3 3T0r0 rOCyaapCTB6HHbl- 

mm oprBbiaoaaMM Ona npouina n cnewxy. m yBonbHBHMB c 
pa6oTbi, n aped, n cya. m narepb. m ccbrnxy, na nonHyio, mto 
Ha3bisaeTCH. xaTywxy. Ohb Bena cefjR b Bwcujew CTeneHU 
aocToiiHo m, rnaBHoe. He BCTynana hm b xaxwe 6eceabi c 
npecneayioiunMM ee enacTRMM, 3a mto m nonyvuna. Mano 
Toro. mto eti ycTponnn narepb. ei* eme ycTponnii HeabiHOCM- 
Myra ccbinxy b TypxMeHCKMx necxax, a xoraa k nen crann 
esanTb b 3Ty ccwnxy rocTM. ee eme aanbiue nepeBenn, MTo6bt 
m rocTM yw ee He aocTurann Tax Bnac™ B3tnpwnncb Ha ee 
no/woe vi ropaoe HewenanMe BCTynaTb c hhmm a xaKne-nn6o 
paaroBopbL 

Ohb ho npocwna hm o xaxoM noMMnoBaHMM, m ywe b 
rop6aM6BCKvie BpeMeHa 3axoHMMna cbokj ccwnxy npaxTMMec- 
km nBOMHWM nopHflKOM ripaaaa, Haao OTflaTb aonxHoe B/ia- 
ctbm, ohm 3a 3to ee He npecneaoBanM, roraa y>xe sto Owno 

HenpMJIMMHO 

H xoraa r CMOTpio Ha ee aanbHeMUJMM xoohchhwh nyTb, 
to nonpniye. xoropoe OHa H36pana b ycnoBMRx HacTynwBujeM 
CBo6oab). Bbi3biBaeT etae oaMH npMOMB yea)«eHMfl m Taxovi. 
Tax CKa33Tb, oGmecTBeHHOM 6naroaapHOCTn: OHa noiuna b 
ujKony. OHa noiuna b mxony Ha HMxaxMe aeHbm. OHa B3nna 
MnaaujMe xnaccw Mflosena mx see ao Bbinycxa. H npoaon*a- 
eT TpyaMTbcn Ha tom we HMee ao cmx nop. M aenaeT 3to ho 

TOnbXO C aOCTOMHCTBOM, HO C KaXMM-TO OC06eHHblM BHyTpeH- 

hmm ayujeBHbiM BecenbeM n paaocTbW, xoropan BuaaeT b 
Hevi MenoBexa rnyeoHaMUJBM ayujM m npaBMnbHoro OTHOuie- 

HMO K >KM3HM flOTOMy MTO nK>aH DOJKfleHbl Ha 3TOT CB6T ann 

paaocTM H OHa HaxoawT ee b Taxoro poaa cnyjxeHMM o6uje- 

CTBy. 

J) aceraa 3a nocneaHee apeMH Ha sonpoc. rae rpa>xaa- 
HMHy b ceroflHoiunee BpeMo mbmtm nonpHtae, rae ocoSeHHO 
Tpe6yeTcn ero rpa*aaHcxafl no3MUMS m caMOOTaaMa. a nep- 
Byw OMepeab, HasbiBato nonpHuje yMMTenbexoe H 33tbm yx 
Hasbisaio wypHanMCTwxy. ho Tyr yixe npMXoaMTCH ao6aBnfm> 
anMTBT «MecTHan» Ha nonpuiae mbcthom >xypHarMCTMXM n 
Taioxe BMixy o6iaecTBeHHyo BocTpe6oBaHHOCTb b rpa*aaHC- 
kom cny*eHMM» 

Cepeeu Koatwee, npeOcedame/ib npaeo3amumHoeo 
06utecmea «Meuopuan», denymam rocydapcmeeHHOu 

flyMbi: 

«MHB OMBHb npMBTHO n03apaBMTb C flHBM p0)KfleHM9 

TaHio BennxaHOBy Co6ctb6hmo roaopa, n sto ywe m caenan 
nMMHO. ho 3T0 xax paa tot peaxMM cnynaM. xoraa He oTMaxM- 
Baeujbcn ot bo3mo*hoctm ny6nMMHoro no3apaeneHMR, s paa 

3T0M B03MOWHOCTM. 



He 3Haio. Hacxonbxo MHe sto yaacTCR. ho r xoTen 6w, 
MT06bi nioan noayManM bot o MeM. noHMMaeTe. Hame apeMR 
— OToepeMR noroHM 3a yenexow. Mbi 6biCTpoBOcnpwH«nM 3Ty 
MfleonoroK) HenpeMeHHoro yenexa. keep smiling. 3anaaa. m 
m30 Bcex cwn neseM sa stmm ycnexoM. npocTo us xoxm ne36M. 
Kohbmho, an» pasHbix nxiaeM yenex anaMMT aocTaTOMHO Baw- 
Hwe eemM. Rnst oa«oro — sto loukm Ha rpyab, an« apyroro — 
3to cepbesHwe aeHbrw, anR TpeTbero — sto couManbHWM 
CTaTyc, nono*eHne Ha cny>x6e, xonMMecTBO nenaTHbix pa6oT 
3to He Tax b3>kho. Ha caMOM aene. Bee stm bmam yenexa 
o6i>eflMHBeT oflHo — sto ((>opManbHbiM yenex, noHMMaeTe? 
3to to. mto npM3H3HO Boxpyr. 

A bot aonixeH r cxaaaTb. mto TaTbRHa MuxaMnoBHa 
BennxaHOBa — MpesBbiMaMHO ycneujHbtM Menoaex. ho sto 
yenex cobcom apyroro poaa. EcnM xotmto, sto yenex, koto- 

PWM COCTOHT B TOM, MTO MenOBex Ka)KablM flBHb COOTBeTCTByBT 

T0My,MT00HcaMCMMTaeTnpaBnnbHbiMMHy>KHbiM.He6e3rpe- 
ui6H, KOHeMHo, xax see, ho noHMMaeT sto m noHMMaeT, mto 
ycnexflonxceH 6wTb noHRTMeM. Hy. ecnw xotmt6, BHyTpeHHMM, 

MHTMMHblM. H 3T0, nO-MOCMy. MDe3BblMaMH0 BaX<HO. H BOT 

Taxoro poaa yenex anR Haiuero 6ypHO eaponewsMpyiouaerocR 
MnM aMepMxaHMSMpywwerocR o6mecTsa npocTo coeceM no- 
TepRH 3to xoraa-TO noHMMann 

TaTbRHa MwxaiinoBHa M3 tox peaxnx nwaeM, xoTopwe 
MyMMTenbHoayMawT o tom. xax Haonex<MT nocTynaTb b HexoM 
CMTyauMM, m ynpBMO npnaep>KMBaK)Tca CBoero co6cTB6HHoro 
peiaeHMH. Bot MHe xaweTCR. mto sto b TaHe BenMxaHOBOM. 
anR MenR, HanpwMep, BaxHee Bcero w noynnTenbHee Bcero. 

Paduo Ceo6oda. Moci<ga 



/leoHapd TepnoecKuu: 

«MaM 74-ro. Kax m ot xoro nonan a mom pyxn tot 

HMCTOK C XOPOTXMM T6XCT0M? He nOMHKJ. Ho nOMHKD MOM 

ToraaujHMeMyBCTBa: M3yMneHne, BocxmaeHMe, ropaocrb. 
— m ropeMb, m cxop6b. Cxop6b npeacTORiaew noTepn. 
HeM36e>tCHoro m exoporo paecTaaaHMR IToTOMy wto nnc- 
tox b momx pyxax ann Tex, kbm oh noartMcaH, — aepHas 
nyTeBxa b ryjlAr. Hx co6cTBBHHoe, aofipoBonbHoe 3aflB- 
HQHMe Ha npoxowioHne TwpeMHO-narepHOM cny*6bi 3a 
OTeMBCTBO. 3a Hac. «3aapyrMCBOH»... 

Bot oh, tot nMCTOK, noa kotopwm mmbh3 momx apy- 
3Gm: 

«l I-.' cm ran. BunpeKii iieo.iHOKpai hum yrBcpnuie- 
HHHM KrB ii c> .it'iiiiux iiiic niiniiiii CCCP «XpoHHK> 
TeKymnx co6uthi1» uticraiMiuM ii.ih k. kbc i mi-n-i •- 

KHM H J.iailllCM. Ml.! COH.1H CBOHM .1(1. II (IV CIIOCo6cTBO- 

BaTfc Kan* mo'A'iio Oo.icc uiiipoKOMv ee paenpocTpaiie- 

II HK). 

Mu >6c-«jchu b hco6xo.thmocth Toro, mto6m 
iipaB.iHBaflMH(J>opvauKHoiiap\iiH'iiHa\(Kii(iRiii.i\iip:iH 
■it loncK-a b CoseTCKUM Coioie 6bi. a aocT> naa BceM, 

KTO eiO HHTCpCCyCTCB. 

7 van 1974 roaa. 

T. BcTHKiiiionu. C. Kobsvicb, T. Xo.ioponHH». 
H sto aaPBneHMe yxe oTaaHo MHocTpaHHbiM 
xoppecnoHaeHTaM BMecre c OMepeaHWMM HOMepaMM 

«XpOHMKM». 

«XpoHMxa» BwxoaMJia eme 8 neT A bccm noanM- 
caBUJMM 3aflBneHM6 cyabfiOM 6bino BoaaaHo cbob: Cep- 
ren KoBanee 5wn apecToeaH b aeKa6pe 1974-ro m 
ocy)xaeH x 7 roaaM crporvix narepew m k 3 — ccbinxn; 
TaTbRHa XoaopoBMM nonnaTMnacb H3rHaHHeM, yexaBMS 
CTpaHbi b HOR6pe 77-ro; TaTbRHa BennxaHOBa 6bina 
apecTOBaHa 1 HORSpn 79-ro m npnroBopeHa k 4 roaaM 
cTporwx narepeM m 5 — ccbrnxn... 



PAfll/IQ CBOBOflA 



RF6/RL 



HacTOTbi BeuiaHMH 



M I HITiMMIM IMilfiHM Id I I iU i l'i LIILIIU LI ILfHI H I Li < LI H li ■ i til 




34 



4 3HAK BEAbl 




Unyui Kopvan (renput ronbdcmim). apov, 06- 
mecmeeHHbiu de*ment>. nedaeos. nucamenb 
C 1911 eoda aosznaanfin Qou cupom e Bap- 

ujaee Hoeu6 a Harare aeeycma 1942 a. sine- 
cm* co ceouuu eocnumaHHUKauu-dembuu e 
KOHunaaepe TpefauxKa. 



- __, 





Bopxa CnoHuuKB. oOhb u3 eocnuma- 
huj eapwaecKoeo Qoua cupom Ha 
(pomoepaQuu eu 9 nam Cmaee3poc- 

nou. Qoptta paGomana e JJoue cupom 
B 1942 aody euecme c Ph/uibu Kop- 
tatiou u eepeucKuuu dembuu nosu6- 
na a tOHnnaaepe Tpo6nuni<a 




MuHdertb MyntaH-UlmopuaH PaOomana a 
eapuiaacKOu JJoue cupom Ha &omozpa- 
0uu ohb c dovepbX) Pioiou 5 aeeycma 

1942 e. u wamb. u doib 6btnu omnpaejienbi 

e KOHunaaepb TpeBnuHxa. 



nAMflTll BAPLU ABCKOfO AOMA CMPOT 1 942-2002 



11a ihmmu A.irKran.ipa I A.IHMA 
•KaiwaBa 



.Illir.UIII Uiiilu p.u:il.. II HIMIUIIk. 

1 1. 1 |i. ■!".:. fin. ii'.it. uuvrnT •iihi.iiim!.. 

II i". ii. iirppoiia • i |in.-M i- 1 .i.i.i i iui.ii.-m. 

CHii.limb il|MHW.-.i;nc I MMJMMfa 

A na Vmiii.imi ii.inui- y iiok.uli» 
IVtto 3K.WT yrra-in - Mi-ii irpri? 

It 1 IIIM'.lr.lllHH IH'IIIIIMI 

.lui'V II. i iiiii.im: . Iii>i . il]..i I ' 

IHrnr.iHT i\fiHMH nrpriiii.ifHK. 
I.iiitku ni'pii-iix.ia, rpy.ik n tmcku\. 
Ho >n»r 1111.111n.1rn » mpi.iii Kfip'iuK 
( u'Iiiimkiimi llimii mi pyKut. 

Mm h irM mi m-rnrpn |>>i i.imii 

(Kllll.ll. KnpjOII M'-M'ilHrKH* lllipilH... 
,1*.imiii- iiiimhiiiiiti'H npiMilllhf. 
i'l ■ l.lllf MM HMMl IIIM III! lll'ppiill. 

II flOWH-T l.l MIUIHl ll('|MBI>.HHK. 

I '. .r. i.i. ii|nii.,i.':iri.'ii I. n.iriy: 

»BbM pil.l|M'llll'IMI IHTHIM'H. l»il|i'l . i I. ! • 

I .in it.|ill 1 1, i-hii IKI . M MH.IN.V. 
K BOeUQr. K Hyo'imoMy uapnwy. 

II Itt'.jy .ll-ll-H. KUK Mil )|Klli. 

M.i in n in. n. narniinn mi nrpp.ni) , 

It. HI. II.. A MM lll.llil.'M null. |..l;. 
I'HHIIMMM ''.LI lllll.MMII .'.[iMIUIII. 

Mm h ii*i iir H.in.ib. a nniicprK. 
II fiopy-r, I'Mi'inuniiiHrb. iiii.ihiiiih 

l;..:i::in..ii |.\i:..ii n»;l KnlMprK. 




MOMB 



H9eUM 



Adao, 




Hub Heu3iecmH0. 



Hun HBUseecmno 



Hup HBuieecmno 



4 3HAK BEAbl 



35 



PedannuH «Kapmbi» npodonmaem nyd/iuna- 
uiiK> cepuu MamepuanoB, nocenmeHHbix npo6ne- 
jue HauuoHan-3HcmpeMU3Ma u ducxpuMUHanuu. B 
WHmepneme. nanopmane "llpaea ■MAMMMM Poc- 
cuu (Human Rights Online)» compydHUKU naiueao 



Mypnana coeMecmno cpudoM poccuucxux usapy- 
oewHbix o6mecmeeHM,ix opzanu3au,uu. nay^HO- 
uccnedoeame/ibCKux uemnpoe, xypwa/rucmoe, 
noddepmueafom cmpammbi anu,uu «R He xowy 
HeHaeudembh 



http://www.hro. org/actions/nazi 



HopMaH KOH 

MHO B HAUHCTCKOH nPOriATAHAE 



«ripOTOKOnbl» H MMOp BCeMUpHOM eBpencKOM 3aroeo- 
pe ncnonb30Banncb HauncrcKOti nponaraHflovi nocTOJWHO, 
HasuHaf c po>K£eHHB nap-run b Hanane 20-x rojoo h ao 
naaeHun TpeTbero Penxa b 1 945 roay. CnepBa nx ncnorib30- 
Bann, vroCbi noMOMb napTnu 3axBa™Tb Bnacrb. 3aT6M. hto- 
6bi onpaBaaTb Teppop, no3)Ke, 4T06W onpaBaaTb BOMHy, aa- 
nee ana onpaBaaHws renounAa n, Haxoneu, wto6i>i orMHyTb 
KannTynsunKj Ha 3ape HauucTCKoroaBHweHUH rnaBHbiM npo- 
naran/iMCTOM Mi«pa M «ripoTOKonoB» 6wn Aribdppea PoseH- 
6epr, ocpnunanbHbiiS naeonor napmn. Po3eH6epr 6wn Bbi- 
xoflueM na npn6armiKn n He oTnwnancfl mhctotom HeMeuKOM 
Kpoau (xaK oh saoBnnn ojjuh h3 ero npeaxoB — naTbiui) EMy 
6wno oxono 25 neT. xoraa peeomounn npooyauna b hbm 
MHTepec k nonnTMKe. PoaeHoepr dan dpaHaTvmHWM aHTn- 
SonbUJeBMKOM. B 1918 roay oh npncoeanHnncn k OTdynaB- 
iiiuM n3 Poccmm HBMeuKMM BoiicKaM, xax m BwH6epr, KOTOpOrO 
oh xopoiuo 3Han m KOTopbitf OK33an Ha Hero rny6oKoe Bnun- 
Hue. B TepMaHUM Po3eH5epr scTynnn b Tonbxo mto ocHOBaH- 
Hyo HauncTCKyio napTnio m CTan 6nn*aiiiiJMM copaTHMKOM 
rmnepa. Tumep Bcepbea Huxoraa ero He BoenpHHHMan, h K 
MOMeHTy npuxoaa napTnu k B/iacm Po3eH6epr ywe Hasan 
Tepmb b hbm B/iMSHMe. T6M He MeHee oh cyMen npnaaTb 
HauncrcKOii naeonornvi cneuncpnnecKkie nepTbi. Ecnn c mo- 
MeHTa 0CH0B3HMH b 1919 roay HamicTcxafl napTnn y>xe ot/ih- 
nanacb 6e3yaep>KHbiM aHTnceMHTH3M0M. to HeHaBMCTb k pyc- 
cxoMy KOMMyHM3My saxnecTHyna ee nwub b 1921-1922 ro- 
flax, npe»ae acero, omcbhaho, 6naroaapn Po3eH6epry. Oh 
CTan CBnsyioiuMM 3bbhom Me>xay pyccKMMH 3HTnceMHTaMn- 
MepHocoTBHuaMM u repMaHCKMMM aHTMCBMMTaMn-pacMCTa- 
mm; TOMHee, BoenpnHnn OTHOiueHne BviH6epra k 6onbiueBM3- 
My Kan k eBpewcKOMy 3aroBopy h M3nox<nn ero s pacncTCKMx 
TepMMHax <...>. 

PoflMBuiancB b KOHewHOM MTore nAecpuKC. BonnomeH- 
Haa b 6ecHHcneHHbix cTaTbnx H naMcpneTax, CTana n3/iio6- 
neHHOti TeMoii we TonbKo rurnepa, ho m 3aH«na uenTparibHoe 
mocto b MnpoB033peHnn m nponaraHae HaqncTCKOti napTnu. 
Po36H6epr npoB03rnacnn ce6n 3KcnepTOM no 6onbLueen3My . 
oanaxo He npowen hm ctpohkm ms MapKca m SHreribca, hb 
M3yMan Mcropnio unn Teopnto counann3Ma. Hnnero He 3Han 06 
MCTopun pyccKoro peBoniouMOHHoro flBMweHnn. Boribuian 
nacTb cpatrroB, HecoMHeHHO. nocTaBnnnacb eMy Bnn6eproM h 
apyrnMn npaBWMM pyccKMMM 3MnrpaHTaMn 

Commh6hmh Po3eH6epra HanncaHbi b )KaHpe nonnTMMec- 
kom ny6nMi4MCTMKM. nanpaBneHHOM hb noaaep>t<«y nai4MCTC- 
kom napTnu b 6opb6e 3a anacTb. ho mx ayx cxopee cxomc c 
anoKannnTMHecKMM npopoMecTBOM. B MHwe MMHyTbi Ha caMo- 
ro fMTnepa HaKaTbieann anoxannnTnMecKne HacTpoeHns, ho 



a/in Po36H6epra sto 6uno ecrecTBeHHoe cocTOHHMe. «Eapen 
HBDHiOTcn HaiuuMn MeTacfusHMecKUMH npoTnBHMKaMn a nc- 
Topnw. — nwcan oh b 1923 roay b cboom KOMMeHTapnn k 
«ripoTOKonaM». — Mbt HMxoraa OT^eTnnBo He co3HaBann 
3Toro ... CeroaHfl. xoraa w3bcmho Bpa*ae6Han n Hy)KaaH cnna 
HaxoHeu o6pena Taxyio MyaoBMiaHyKD anacTb, ee oujymaiOT n 
HenaBnani mmchho kbk Bpa*£e6nyto n My>Kayio. Bnepawe b 
hctophh hhctuhkt m 3HaHne npoflCHnnn cosnaHne Espevi 
ctomt Ha caMow eepujHHe BnacTM, Ha KOTopyto oh BCKapa5- 
Kancs c aoTpucatomeM nerxocTbio, ho ero *aeT naaenne b 
6e3any». 

Po3eH6epr npocToayiuno eepnn b rannMaTbio, KOTopyK) 
nucan. Mo3ecp re66eribc, KOTopwii b 1928 roay CTan uje0OM 
napTMkiHOM nponaraHaw, 6t>in 6o/ibUJHM uuhmkom, v\ ero npo- 
naraHflncTCKne tpkjkm b ochobhom ciponnncb hs npeaHaMe- 
peHHOii n>Kn. npexpacHbiM o6pa3HMKOM Moryr cnymMTb sapn- 
aunn Ha TeMy «ripoTOKonoB», ony6nnK0BaHMbie b aei<a6pe 
1929 roaa noa 3aronosKOM oPuhok pa6oB» Ha nnaKaTax n b 
napTMMHwx iKypHanax nonBnnocb coo6meHne nocneaneM 
peiueHMM Me>KayHapoaHbix eepencKnx 6aHKMpoB: nocxoribKy 
repMaHnn He MOMer nonHOCTbio BbinnaTtiTb penapaunn. OHa 
aon*Ha BOcnoriHnTb ae$nunT cpeacTB. aKcnopTnpyn kjho- 
ujeM m aeByiueK. TaKoawx 6yayT OT6npaTb eepencKiie xo3se- 
Ba TepMaHMn; eBpeiiCKHx WHOiueH, ecTecTBeHHo. TporaTb He 
6yayr. «B nepeBoae c naniua Ha HeMeuxnii sto 03HanaeT: 
npMHyanreribHbiM axcnopT repMaHCxoro Hapoaa. B stom He 
MoweT 6biTb coMHeHMfl». B xanecTBe ncTOHHnxa stom 6acHM 
yKasbiBanacb «BepnnHep Tare6naT» — Bnonne pecneiaa- 
6enbnafi ra3eTa. KOTOpan HMHero He ny6nnxoBana Ha sry 
TeMy [«C. V. Zeitungx. 1929, Band. VIII. S. 561 und 1930. 
Band. IX S 15.]. 

3Ta MCToptin poflnna-b bo epeMn KaMnaHnn. npeauie- 
CTBOBaBiueki Bu6opaM b peMxcrar a 1930 roay. KOTopue 
nonoxnrn Hanano cTpeMMTenbHOMy BsneTy h3uvictckom 
napTnu. C 1928 no 1933 roa napTMP nerKO noaHflnacb c 
aeBOToro MecTa b pertxcrare (MeHee 1 MnH. ronocoB n acero 
12 mbct) Ha nepBoe (6onee 17 mhh ronocoB n 288 MecT). 
Ka)Kaan HOBan cryneHb xaMnaHun conpoBo>Kaanacb aanb- 
HeiiujMM ycMneHneM aHTMceMMTCKOii nponaraHaw. Mojkho 
nerxo ocnopnTb yTBep>KfleHMe — m ero MacTo ocnapneann . — 
6yaT0 ycnex na dthm 6bin BbiseaH npexcae Bcero ee amHceMM- 

TH3M0M, 6yaTO Ka>WlblM, KTO rOnOCOBajl 33 HaUMCTOB, o6R3a- 

TenbHO 6wn cpaHaTnMHWM anTnceMMTOM H Bee me TnTnep 
Hwxoraa 5bi He npniuen x enacTM, ecnw 6bi ne axoHOMMHecKan 
aenpeccnn. KOTopan b oaHo BpeMn aoaena wucno 3aperucT- 
pMpoBaHHwx 6e3pa6oTHwx b TepMaHmi ao 6 mhh.. Beeprna 
nosTM Bee HaceneHne — cpeaHne xxiaccw, KpecTbflHCTBO. a 



" npoaonweHMe Hanano ny6nMnauM« a NsNe 28-29. 30-31 



36 



4 3HAK BEAbl 




Ha nnaitamax — npushiesi * 6ouxomy eepadcmx 

uaeaiuHoa' 

* ripMKas no HCflAfl o oohkotb ospeeB ot 1 anpenn 1 933: 
«B «ax<AOM nacenoHMOM nywcTe, rae ecTt> OTfleneHtm 
HCflAn, aonwMbi o6ca3oauBaTbca ncnonm«TenbHbie ko- 
HMTeTbi Ann nnanoMepHoro nposefleHun 6oHKOTa eepevt- 
cxhx Mara3MuoB, roeapoe. apaMew ■> aaeonaTOB Kommto- 
Tbi o6«3aHbi cnexiHTb aa tom. hto6i>i hs nocTpaaanw 
heBMHHbie rpaxuiaHe. k eepeou xe orHoiueHMe aoruxHO 
6biTb tiaKCMMaribHO 6ea*anocTHbiM» 

SHtiufnongdun Tpemboao Peuxa. flOKMA-MMQ. 

Mockbb. 1996 



TawKe npoMwiiineHHbix pa&OMHx — b xpOHMMecxyto HMujeTy. 
nopoanna TpeBory h HeyBepeHHOCTb. 

B TaKOM OTnanHHOM o6cTaHOBKe, xoraa dpaHa Tonbtco 
Havana onpaenflTbCs ot npeawaywwx yaapoB — soeHHoro 
pasrpoMa n ranonwpyioineM MHtpnaumi — rwTnep ncnonb30- 
Ban bck) Moujb ceoeii aeMaromn Oh Hanaaan Ha no6eans- 
ojmx COKD3MHKOB. ocoSeHHO na (ppaHuyaoB. 3a nopa6outeHne 
HeMStjKoro Hapoaa Ha repMaHCKMii pecny6nnxaHcxHii pexcuM 
3a HeyMeHne cnpaBMTbcn c kpm3hcom: Ha neBwe napTMH sa 
pacKon Hauun: Ha npaswe napiwn 3a nx HeacpcpeKTUBHocTb 
na nnyTOKpaioB n MOHOtionncioB 3a sxcnnyaTaumo Bcex 
ocranbHbix. <DaxTiiMecKM oh Hanaaan Ha acex. xoth caMbie 
apocTHwe aTaKu 6binn HanpaBHBHbi npoTus BBpeee. KpoMe 
Toro. oh aeMOHCTpnpoBan *ene3HyK) Bono. roTOBHOCTbaevi- 
CTBOBaTb — m ae*cTBOBaTb peiunTe/ibHO b oSiyecTBe. koto- 
poe hs npHBbixno k neonpeaeneHHOCTw. nopowaeHHOM a«- 

MOKpaTMBH, OCO66HHO B 06CTaH0BKB MOBOM M HenpHBWMHOii 

cpopMbi npaBneHHH. Bee sto noMorno Tmnepy npMMTM k 
BnacTM, TOHHee, noMorno eMy 3aBoesaTb 37.3 npouBHTa 
ronocoB M36npaTeneM: 3to 6bjno Maxc^ManbHoe KonnMecTBO 
ronocoB. KOTopoe oh cMor nonyMMTb Ha CBo6oaHwx swobpax 
b wone 1932 roaa. Bcs OMeeMaubi cornacHw c tom, mto 
repMaHMR b M0M6H7 npnxoaa k BnacTH rmnepa hb 6bina 
oxBaneHa ropsMxoti aHTHcewnTn3Ma. He 6bina 3arnnH0TM3n- 
poBaHa mh$om sceMMpHOM eBpewcKOM saroBOpe a He 
*a>Kaana kpobh espeeB. Xota cbmob nonynnpHoe n3aaHne 
«npoTOKonoB» pa30iunocb 3a 12 neT b KonnnecTBe 100 tuc. 
3K3eMnn«poB. — 3HaMeHnn>iM aHTUBoeHHbiA dombh PeMapxa 
sHa 3anaaH0M cppoHTe Sea nepeMeH». ony6nn«oBaHHbi^i a 
1929 roay, pasoujencn 3a roa rupawoM s neTBepTb Munnn- 
OHa, u MHorneapyrne nporpeccMBHbie poMaHbi Taioxe paexo- 
annncb 6onbUJMMM Tnpa>KaMn. 



Henbsn Taione nonaraTb. mto caMa HauncTCKan nap™*, 
b kotopoh cocTonno cpaBHUTenbHO Mano (oxono MMnnnona) 
MneHOB, B uenoM cpopMnposanacb 113 c^aHaTHKOB-aHTuceMK- 
tob. B 1934 roay npeanpnnMMHBbivi aMepuxaHCKMii counonor 
Teoaop A6e/ib o6tHBnn. mto co6npaeT aBTo6norpao^nM nne- 
hob napTMH, b KOTopwx aonwHw 6t>iTb yxasanbi mothbw mx 
BCTynneHMJi b pHflw HauncTOB. LUecTbcoT nenoBex ao6po- 
BoribHO npncjiann cbpm JKH3HeonncaHMH. nopasmenbHo to, 
mto 60 npoueHTOB oTK/iMKHyBUJMxcfl Boo6me He ynoMHHynti 
aHTnceMHTH3M B-pnay MOTMBMpoBOK. HeKOTopwe aawe OT- 
KpwTo OTMe>xeBanncb ot 3Toro acnetaa nonHTuxn napTnn: 
«Movi nynbe 6nricfl cnnbHee. xoraa h cnbiiuan cnoBa Poan- 
He, eauHCTBe n noTpe6HOCTn b BepxoBHOM BO>xae. 3 MyBCTBO- 
Ban. mto npuHaa^ewy k 3thm nraanM. H Tonbxo He Mor corna- 

CHTbCfl C MX yTBepXaBHMBMM O SBpeflX MeHfl OT 3TOrO TOUJHM- 

no nocne Toro, xaK b BCTynmi b napTmo». Bonee roro, craTM- 
CTHMecxnji aHann3 noxa3an, mto, b to BpeMn xax aHTuceMM- 
in3M cpnrypupoBan noMTM b nonoBMHe 6norpa$nw. nanncaH- 
hwx npeacTaBMTenflMM cpeanMx tcnaccoB. a tom nucne nKija- 
mm cBoSoaHbix npo0eccMM, o HeM ynoMHHarw MeHee 30 
npoueHTOB npoMbiiuneHHbix nnn certbCKOX03H(iCTBeHHbix pa- 
6ommx. [T.Abel. Why HitlerCame Into Power. New York, 1938, 
p. 164.], 

Ecnn HacTonaian npHBepweHHOCTb anTuceMHTnaMy 6wna 
peanocTbio BHyrpM nap™n. xax cneayeT us aToro onpoca. 
Bpna nn oHa 6bma 3HaHbwenbHO pacnpocTpaHeHa m ocean 
ujupoKnx cnoeB naceneHMB, g napnito He BCTynaBiunx Ho 
npn Bcex 3thx oroBopxax HecoMHeHHO, mto MHorne ms Tex 1 7 
MunnnoHOB, KOTopbie ronocoBarw 3a HauncTOB b 1933 roay, 
AoriKHbi 6binn BbicKa3aTbca, no KpanHeft Mepe 3a nexoTopbie 
orpaHUMeHiiq eepees b rpaJKaancxvix npasax. KpoMe roro, 
oMeBwano. cyiaecTBOBano MHOwecTBO cpaHaTHMHbix aHTuce- 
mmtob. HanpuMep, b HaunoHanbHOM cryaeHMecKOM aBH>xe- 
hmm (xoTopoe HauncTbi noannHnnn ce6e b 1931 roay) nan 
cpean 400 Tbic. MneHOB OTpnaoe liirypMOBHKOB CA — cothm 
TbicdM ntoaBvi. xoTopwe 6w cornacnnncb c TeM, mto Hanwcan 
oann M3 KoppecnOHaeHTOB A6enn: "HcTopns wupa noTepnna 
6bi BCHKMki cMbicn, ecnn 6bi nyaan3M c ero paanaraiomMM 
ayxoM, BonnoiueHMe Bcero 3noro. oaep*an 6w no6eay Haa 
mctmhom m ao6poM. BonnoiaeHHWMM a naee Aaonb0a rurne- 
pa. 9\ sepio. mto Haw aoxcab. Aaonb0 rMTnep, aapoaaH 
HeMeqxoMy Hapoay 
caMOM cyflb6ow xax 
Haw cnacwTenb, Hecy- 

U4MM CBeT BO TbMy» 

[TaM me, dp 243.]. 

TaxoBbi 6wnn 
nnoAw 50-neTHeii xaM- 
naHiin. 3aBepwnBLueM- 
cn 14 roaaMM ycwneH- 
hom, opocTHOM. neyc- 
TaHHoii arwTamw. aevi- 
CTB0Ba8tijeii, npeixae 
Bcero cpeflu vonoae- 
jkm 3to 6binn oTpaa- 
neHHwe nnoaw, noTO- 
My mto MMeHHO opaHa- 

TM3M MeHbOJMHCTBa M 

paBHoayuiwe 6onb- 
ujMHCTaa aann to/imok 
aanbHenujeMy pa3BM- 

THK) CoGblTMii — ot 

nepBbix orpaHUMenuM 
x nocneayroiaeMy 
yHMMTOxeHMw {Mccne- 
doeamjR B.C. AnneHa 




Ha eumpuHe uazaauha nauaneeSHO 

caacmuKB u nadnuo, 'aepeO' 

repuamja. 1938 a 



4 3HAK BEAbl 



37 



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riocne iXpycmanbHoO hovu*' eepees nposuanu uapiueu 
no ynuttBU Baden-Badena »a nymu « Konunaeepb Qaxay. 

' HoMb c 9 Ma 10 How6pn 1938, bo bpbmp kotopoh no gcetf 
ropMaHHH npoujnH ospeHCKMe norpoMu. CumanoM k Hana/iy 

eBpeMcoix norpoMoe. nosoflans xoTopbix aaaHo noon* Hauw- 
CT«Me Bnacnt. nocnywKno y6niicrao b riapMwe 17-naTMHM 
nonh«nu eapeflM repweneu TpioHuinaHOM 7 Mooopn 1938 
coseTHUKa repuaHCKoro noconoCTBa 3pHCia cpon Paia B 
oTBeT Ha 3tot axT b nosh c 9 Ma 1 Moa6ps no HHMHOMy npMCHy 
Tmnepa m npw opraHM3aunOHMOu ynacTMM re66enbca m Tmih- 
Mnepa 6wr MHCueHnpoBaH tat cTMxnrtHoe a&pamexne Hapofl- 

HOfo rnesa BcerepMaMCKMH espeHcxHM norpoM 6btjio paapy- 
uiBHO x comxbho 267 cMHafOf m 815 MaraaHHOB m npeanpn»- 
tmh. npMMaanentaaiJMX eape«M 20 tuc. sapeea 6binM apecro- 
BaHw m 6poujeHbi a xoMi^narepn. 36 mo/iobbx 6oino y6HTO. 
OCutMH ywep6 cociaBnn 25 mph. pewxcMapoK, ms xoTopbix 
OKono 5 mhh npmnnocb Ha pa36nrbie bhtpmhu (OTCioaa bto- 
poe HaiBSHxe «XpycTanbHOM houms — oHoub pa36Hrbix bmt- 
P«h»). 

3muKflonedup Tpembeao PeOxa. nOKMA-MH0. 

Mocxaa. 1996 



[W. S. Alien. The Nazi Seizure of Power: the experience of a 
single German town, 1930-1935. Chicago. 1965, p. 77-78. 
209-212.], dOKasbieaiom <Amo paanuvue Mewdy nanucmcKu- 
uu (paHamuKaMu u ochobhou uaccou Hacenenun 6bwo daxe 
6o/ibUiuM, wsm yxa3ano 3decb. B mo spews /tax dm cpaiiamu- 
Koe aHmuceMumu3M 6bin a6conK>mHO cepbe3HbiM denoM, 
6onbiuuHcmeo Hacenemia cvumano aumuceuumcKyio npo- 
nazandy nycmou 6onmoeHeu, a6conicmHO He cez3aHnou c 
eepenuu. mmopux ohu 3Hanu nuwo, u. eo acnxoM cnyvae. 
ne Moaymeu npueecmu k cepbe3HtiM npecnedoeaHUfum. 

MccnedoeaHue AnneHa npoeodunocb a odnou ne6onb- 
luom aopodKe e raHHoeepe, u ezo pe3ynbmambi He o6»3a- 
menbHO docmoeepHbi dnn cmpanbi e uenoM. VeepeHno mom- 
ho CKa3amb odno: aHmuceMumu3M cbispan oepaHuveHHyio 
ponb e npuxode rumnepa k anacmu. ho paenodywue cbiepa- 
no oapoMnyio ponb e nacmynnenuu anoxu penpeccuu). 

B cpeBpane 1933 roaa ruT/iep cTan pertxcKaHtyiepoM, a 
1 anpenq Hananncb npecneaoBaHMn eapees — c npuHyflM- 
TenbHoro oflHoaHeBHoro 6oviKOTa eBpeiicKnx MaraanHOB". 
«ripoTOKorbi» 6binn ncnorib30BaHb) yxe anti stom nepBOM 
aHTMceMMTCKOM aKunH npexyje Bcero lOnMycoM UJTpavixepoM 
b «(6erbKMiije 6eo6axTGp». «Ba3enbCKMii nnaH» (mo ecmb 
nnaH. usnoxenHbiu e «npomoi<onax». — flpuu ped.), o6t>n- 
8nn oh, 6bin 6nn3ox k ocymecTBneHHio, ho «b 10 MacoB yrpa 
b cy66oTy 1 anpenw repMaHCKwii Hapoa Hasan peujuTenbHwe 
neiicTBMP npoTHB MMpoawx npecTynHMKOB — eBpeee! Haun- 
OHan-couna/iMCTbi! (lopasMTe BceMMpHwx BparoBU [Cm.: 
Streiher. «Volkischer Beobachtero, No. 31 . Marz 1933.J. Bom- 
xot 6wn npo6HWM ujapow: nocKonbKy hmkto He npoTecTOBan, 
npaBMTenbCTBO CTano BBOAHTb anTMceMHTCKMe 3aKOHu. 

BcKope 6Bpen 6wnti oTCTpaneHbt ot rocyaapcTBeHHOH 
cnyw6w, CBo6oflHwe npocpeccwt 6unn ajih hmx taae 3anpe- 



UIOHfal, m b ceHTs6pe 1935 roaa H»pH6eprcKne 3axoHbi okoh- 
MaTenbHO nocTaBn/iM mx bho oBmecTBa. B HenpepbiBHOfl 
nponaraHAHCTCKOH «aMnaHMM, KOTopan conpOBO)Kflana otm 
Mepbi. «ripoTOKonbi» m Mutt o sceMupMOM eBpeuiCKOM saro- 
Bope nrpann BecoMyw ponb. «OenbKviuje 6eo6axTep» Hano- 
MMHana o hux 6ecnpecraHHO, a emeHeaenbHMK LUTpatixepa 
«flep iuTtopMep» nesaTan to BbiaepwKM us «ripoTOKonoB», to 
ayujepasanpatomae hctophm o repMaHCKHx aeByuixax, ushb- 
cunoeaHHbix eBpenMn, to o puTyanbHbix y6nPiCTBax HeMeu- 
khx nereti. 

ycurinn «flep ujTiopMep» 6binn oco6eHHO BOKHfal, no- 
CKonbKy 3Ta THycHas ra3eTa nMena Tupa* no^TM b nonMMnnn- 
OHa — oflHH us caMwx 6onbiiJMx a TepMaHMM. — a Taxxe 
BbiBeiunBanacb na cneuMa/ibHbix CTeHaax b ropoaax n aepes- 
Hstx no Bceii cTpaHe; oco6eHH0 3noBeiitviu 6bino ee ncnonb- 
aoBanne b ujKonax. 

HoBoe napmMHoe M3aaHHe 6wno CHa6)KeH0 HacToiiHM- 
BbiM npn3biB0M k KawaoMy rpaiKaaHMHy: «Ka!«abiii repMaHeu 
o6s33h nayiHTb y>«acaiOLijMe otkpobohub Chohckhx Myape- 
uob n cpaBMHTb mx c 6e3rpaHUMHOH HMiueTOM Haaiero Hapoaa; 
caenaTb Heo6xoanMbie BUBoabi n npocneauTb. HTo6bi sia 
KHura nonana b pyxH Ka>xaoMy repMaHuy... Mm, repMaHcxne 
pacucTbi. aon>KHbi 6biTb 6naroaapHbi npoBMfleHHio, xoTopoe 
ocBeTMno Hauj nyTb mmghho b to MmoBeHne. xoraa Bee. 
xasanocb, 6wno noTepaHO Tnwenas 6opb6a OORHflBOT Hac. 
Haiua nepBap 3aaana — aaTb npoTMBonane ayiue repManc- 
xoro Hapoaa m npo6yanTb b Heii noHnMaHMe 6naropoacTBa 
apuwcKOM pacw C Botom — 3a BOcupeiueHMe TepMaHMn!* 
[Die Geheimnisse der Weisen von Zion. Munich, Parteiveriag 
1933. S. 3.21.]. 

«npoTOKonw» xopomo npoflaBanncb — hb OTnuHMe ot 
apyroM «CBHiueHHovi» KHMrw TpeTbero peiixa «MaMHKaMncp». 
— mx He TonbKO noKynanw, ho m MMTanw. MHorwe MMTaTenn 
CTaHOBHriMCb dpaHaTMMHbIMM nOKJlOHHMKaMM «ripoTOKonoB» 
[F. Bauer. Antinazistische Prozesse und politisches 
Bewusstsein. — In: Antisemitismus: zur Pathologic der 
burgerlichen Gesellschaft. Frankfurt am Main, 1965. S. 177.]. 
MeHee weM 3a abb roaa nocne npnxoaa TMTnepa k Bnacin 
MHTenneirryanbHbiM h HpaBCTBeHHbiii yposeHb a TepMaHHM 
ynan Tax hm3ko, hto mmhmctp npocBeweHMn CMor o5btiBMTb 
«DpoTOKonbi» oflHOii M3 maBHbix KHur ans HTeHM« b uixonax. 

noao6HbiM xoa coSwthm xocHyncfl He TonbKO eBpeee. B 
uapcxoH Pocchh mh(J) o BceMnpHOM obpouckom saroBOpc 
ncnonb30Bancn a^« ancxpeanTaunn aeMOKpaTMMecKoro 
CTpon: Tenepb, b TpeTbeM Peiixe, ero ncnonb30Bann He 
Tonbxo an« ancxpeanTaunn bosmojxhwx npoTHBHUKOBanxTa- 
Typw, ho m pj\* onpaBaaHnq bcoh CMCTeMw Teppopa 




Tpaueau a BapwaacKou aemmo 
Hadnucia »a momomkom u hoiiockou Tonoxo dm oepee' 



31 



4 3HAK BEAbl 




B 1935 roay PeMHxapa reiiapux. rnasHbii/i noMOUHHK 
reHDnxa THMMnepa. riMcan. MTOBceonno3nuuoHHbieopraHn- 
3ai_inn pa3rpoMneHbi B to Me BpeMR oh yieepauian, mto 
nyfleMCKO-MacoHCKMM BceMMpHbiM 3aroBop Bee eme npunara- 
6T ycMriMti, MTo6w noflopBaTb, OTpaBMTb h pa3pyiunTb rep- 
MaHCKMM Hapoa: «HcTopnn nocnennux TwcsweneTMM ynm 
Hac yMeHMK) pacno3HaB3Tb Bpara. Mu bmamm. mto ceroflHti 
Bnepsbie yxsaTunn Bpara 3a caMbie kophm YAUBMTenbHO n«. 
mto oh 3amnu4aeTcs Bee apocTHeM?» < > «Mw. bohhw. 
aonwHbi npn3HaTb: noTpe6yioTCfl roflbi owecTOMeHHOM 6opb- 
6w, hto6w nopa3MTb apara noBctoay. yHHMTO*MTb ero m o6e- 
3onacMTb KpoBb u ayx repwaHiM ot hobux nonon3HOBenu;i 
Bpara». [LJmt no: H Buchheim. Die SS — Das 
Herrschaftsinstrument. Befehl und Gehorsam. Band. I Anatomic 
des SS-Staates. Olten und Freiburg im Breisgau. 1965. S. 
114-115]. Ha npaxrnxe sto 03HaMano. mto bcbkmm, koto 
pewHM no TeM nnn mhwm npusuHaM 3axoMeT npecneflOBaTb 

MJ1M yHMHTOWMTb. MO*eT 6b)Tb 06bflBJieH HaeMHMKOM HeyBfi- 

aaiomero eBpeMcxoro BceMnpHoro 3aroBopa. 3to oaHanano 
raKxe. mto OTpnuaTb cymecTBOBanne BceMwpHoro saroeopa 
mowbt TonbKo Bpar pewMMa. xoToporo TaioKe HaflnexcuT npe- 
cneaoBaTb h yHMMTO*aTb. Tan amMceMMTCKMM MM(p. Bbiay- 

M3MMblM MeCKOJlbKHMM 3KCL|eMTpHHHblWH CBBLUeMHOCny*HTe- 

hhmh u HanpaBneHHbin rtporuB OpaHuyacxoM pesoniouiin. a 
1930-e roflbi CTan cpeacTBOM. npM noMOiaM KOToporo totb- 
nuTapHoe npaBMTenbCTBO yxpennnno cboio enacTb naa Be- 
nnKO" eeponeMCKOki Haqnen 

Mutt o BceMnpHOM eBpeviCKOM 3aroBope 6bin Taxace 
cnoco6oM 3acraenTb HeMeijxMvi Hapoa npHHBTb BHeaiHioio 
nonnTMKy npaBMTenbCTBa. 3Ta noriMTMxa 6wna naueneHa Ha 
BOMHy, ho Taxyw uenb hm oaho coBpeMeMHoe eeponeMcxoe 
npaBMTenbCTBO — aawe TuTnep — He Morno CTaBMTb OTxpt>i- 
to. riosTOMy c 1933 roaa BHeiUHsa nonnTHKa PepMaHnn 
n3o5pa)t<anacb npeacae Bcero KaK 3amnTa npoTUB spawecxoii 
6noKaflbi, opraHH30BaHHOH eapenMM. Oco6eHHO CoseTCKnii 
C0103 n3o6pawancfl raxuM. xaxMM ero eceraa npeACTaennn 
ce6e TMTnep, cTpaHoti HeAcwenoBexoB. ynpaBnneMbix eBpe- 
hmm, re66eribc pa3pa>xanca cpunnnnnKaMM Ha 3Ty TeMy bo 
BpeMH e>KeroflHwx napTMMHwx cbe3aos b HiopH6epre. B 1 935 
roay oh o6bflBM/i. mto 6o/ibweBM3M — sto caTaHMHCKw* 
saroBop. KOTOpbivi Mor co3peTb nMWb b Moary KOMeBHUKa a 
HauncTCKan TepMaHun — sto CKana. o xoTopyio 6eccnnbHo 
pa3o6beTca aanaTCKO-eBpeMCKHH noTox. Ha cneflywinnM roa 
oh HaaBan 6onbUjeBM3M cyMacmeaujeM n npecTynHOM Meny- 
xom. n3MbiajneHH0ii m opranMSOBaHHOvi eBpesMH, nMeioiaeii 
ue/ibio yHMMToweHMe esponeticKnx napoaoB n ycTanoBneHvie 
«a pyHnax wnpoBoro rocnoaciBa (O Memodax amnuceMumc- 



kou nponaaaHdbi re66e/ibca e 1935-1938 zodax nodpo6nee 
cm.: E.K.. Bramsted. Goebbels and National Socialist 
Propaganda 1925-1945. Michigan State U. P 1965: Z.A.B. 
Zeman. Nazi Propaganda. London. 1964.). V UJTpanxepa 
Towe MMenocb a 3anace HecKoribKO nepnoB. Koraa b 1935 
roay CoaeTCKMii C0103 6t>in npMHHT b Jlnry HauMvi. oh 3aBBHfi, 
mto ASMOKpaTMMecKMe npaBMTeribCTBa. noAAepwaBiuMe stot 
ujar. HaBepHAKa coctoat us Tex npecnoByTbix 300 MenoeeK. 
kotopwx ynoMMHan PaTeHay, — km stm TpMcrra senoaeK npn- 
HaA/ie)«aT k eBpeiicKOM pace n MacoHCKOMy 3aroBopy». [J. 
Streicher Der Feind des Volkerfnedens «Der Judenkennern 
No 5. Marz 1935. S. 94] 

TeM BpeMeHeM ycepAHwe nccneAOBaTenn ny6nnKOBa- 
nn Tpyaw noa TaKMM, HanpuMep, Ha3BaHneM: «EBpen aa 
cnMHOii CTannHa», tao AOxaabiBanocb, hto ace 3HaMMTerib- 
Hwe nwua b Cobbtckom Coioae — eBpew. flocKorbKy b aeti- 
CTBurenbHocTn noMTM Bee eBpew, KOTopwe nrpann CKonbKo- 
Hn6yAb 3aMeTHyK) ponb b cobbtckoh KoMMyHMCTMMecKOM 
napTMH. 6wnn k aTOMy BpeMeHu nMKBHAnpoBaHbi CTanMHWM, 
pa6oTa 6bina Henerxoft — npuxoannocb BbiayubiBaTb ropu 
rwu: eBpeMcxoe nponcxoxAeHne npunncbiBanocb ecnxoMy 
MenoBexy c naTbuucxwM, apMSHCKHM nan TaTapcxMM nMeHeM, 
Aa h o6wMHbiM pyccxMM. ripaBAa. 3aT6M Taxyio npoueaypy 
pacnpocTpaHnnM m Haapyrne cTpaHbi. Bcxope xawawki norm- 
tmx nio6oM CTpaHw. KOTOpwi* nwTancfl noiweujaTb nnaHaM 
TMTnepa, HannHan c Py3aenbTa. o6bnBnnncfl eBpeeM. espe- 
eM HanonoBHHy Mrin no xpaflHe* Mepe MyjxeM eBpelHxvi. Or- 
poMHoe xonMMecTBo cooTBeTCTByromux cBeaeiiHti Bbiaaoar.o 
MuHHCTepcTBO nponaraHAbi re66enbca. rae b hhx noMTH He 
eepunn n paanMMHbie napTHMHbie yMpe>KAeHiiq. noaMUHss- 
ujneca PoaeHBepry, rae Bepunw ropa3ao SonbujeMy. CrpaH- 
Hbie BeiAH na6niOAaiivicb b 1939-1940 roAax. xorAa HaAO 
6biao noAAepixaTb repMaHO-coBeTcxuki naxT o HeHanaAeHMM: 
o6Hapy»MJin Aa>xe, mto Cobotcxhm Cok)3 eosce He ynpaBnn- 
eTcn eBpenMM, a npeawayujue 3aBBneHMfl 6wnM o6MaHOM, 
BHyiueHHbiM nerxoaepHbiM HeMqaM nyAan3npoBaHHbiMn aHr- 
jiMMaHaMH. OAHaxo3To6binocnMUJxoM aaixeAii" re66enbca, 
moh, Aon>KHO 6biTb, noMyBCTBOBan o5nerMeHne. xorAa a 1941 
roAy ero yrBepwAeHMH o «To>KAecTBe eBpeee m xoMMyHMC- 
tob» b KOMue kohuob onpaB^anncb 

OAHaxo. naxne 6bi MHbie uenu hm npecneaosana 3Ta 
nponaraHAa. xaxvie 6bi MHwe aaaaMM OHa hm peojana. rnaBHOvi 
ee MMiiieHbK) Bceraa 6bmn caMM eepevi a rnaBHOM 3aAaneM 
6wno npeACTaBMTb 3tmx moAeii onnneTBopeHneM 3aa. ©MHa- 
noM noao6Horo nyTM 6bino y6MiiCTBO. n yxe nepeA bohhom 
oaepixMMbie «npoToxonaMM» tikjam HaMexanw Ha Taxyw B03- 
MowHOCTb B xoHue 1936 roAa «flep ujTK3pMep» npeAcxa3bi- 
sana onucTHTenbHyro onepamiio BceMMpHoro pa3Maxa: «He- 
obxoAHMO cocpeaoTOMMTb Bonxj repMBHcxoro napoaa na 
pa3pyuieHnn 6aunnn. paccennBUJuxcn e ero Tene. Heo6xoAn- 
mo o6i>fiBMTb BOiiHy BC6M eBpeflM b mm(.3. <...> [L|mt. no: L.W 
Bondy. Racketeers of Hatred. Julius Streieher and the Jew- 
baiters' international. London. 1946. p. 36-37] 

Ha HrapH6eprcK0M napTMMHOM cbe3Ae 1937 roaa Te6- 
6eribc npea30ujen caMoro ce6n: «EBpona Aon*Ha yBMAeTb n 
pacno3HaTb onacHocrrb... Mw 6yaeM 6eccTpauiHo yxa3biBaTb 
Ha eBpen xax Ha BAOXHOBHTenn n HHnqnaTopa. HamnBaio_ue- 
rocn Ha stux CTpaujHbix xaTacrpodJax ...» <...> [Cm.: Der 
Parteitag der Arbeit. Zentralverlag der NSDAP. Munich, 1 938. 
S. 157.]. 

B oxTn6pe 1 938 roAa mo>kho 6wno SwTb eme OTxpoBeH- 
Hee. m «flep ujTiopMep» Morna nncan> o eBpenx: «BaKTepnn. 
napa3MTbi, apeanTenn — mx Henb3n TepneTb. flnn roro MTo6bi 
6ak)ctm MMCTOTy m rMrneHy, mu o6fl3aHbi mx o6e3Bpe>KMBaTb, 
y6MB3Tb» [Cm.: Bondy. Op. cit.. p. 61.]. 



4 3HAK BEAbl 



31 

















Eepeucxue /KemuuHbi e oiudanuu paccmpena 
nuenan. doxa6pt 1941 a. 





Bee 3to, MomeT 6biTt>, ocTaBanocb 6w npocio cnoBaMn. 
ecnM 6bi He BOMHa, KOTopas k 1941 rosy 6pocnna 6onbUjnn- 
ctbo eaponeucKHX eapeeB bo anacTb rumepa. npeaocraBMB 
ewy ooiiinpHetiujue npocTpaHCrea, Ha kotopwx moxcho 6bino 
ocymecTBnnTb yHMMToweHHe. (ywe nepea bomhom cothm He- 
MeuKnx eBpeeB 6wnn y6nTbi b KOHueHTpaqnoHHbix narepax. 
ho Hwcno norn6wnx nonMTHHecKMx 3aioiKMeHHbix 6bino 3Ha- 

MMTenbH06o/lbUJMM. HM6HHO BOMHa Aana BOSMOWHOCTb yHUM- 

TOJKMTb espeMCKoe HaceneHne EBponw). rumep CMman cbokj 

BonHy BOMHoti «MnpoBoro espencTBa» nporuB HaunoHari- 
coi4nanncTMMecK0iii TepMaHHM: xoraa Hananocb yHMMTOwe- 
hmo. 3Ta Mflefl nocroflHHO 3ByMana b HeMeuxoii nponaraHae. 
nponaranaa, xoHeMHO, HHKorfla He paccxaauBana o Macco- 
bwx xa3Hsx h ra30Bwx KaMepax (sto 6wno sanpemeHO). ho 
OHa nocTonHHo noA^epKMaana, mto cbdccb 3acTaBnntoT nna- 

TMTb 3a BOMHy MX C06CTBeHHblMM )KM3HflMM JliofSonbiTHbiM 

MaHesp: HauwcTCKne BORAH nwianncb BOBneMb Becb HeMeu- 
Knii napofl b npecTynneHne, He npn3HaBancb b coaenHHOM 

BcKope nocne roro. xax HeMeunue Boucxa BToprnncb a 
Poccmkd. nosBnnacb6pouiKDpa nofl Ha3BaHMeM «repMaHCKne 
conaaTbi BMflflT CoBeTCKnii Cok>3», BfloxHOBHTeneM xoTopoii 
6bin re66enbc. B Hew yTBepxcaanocb, mto «eBpe&CKMM Bon- 
poc peoiaeTCH c BnesaTnuiomeM TiuaTenbHOCTbio... Kax cxa- 
3an cbiopep ecnM eepeMCTey yaacrcn aoaneMb eaponeMcxue 
Hapoflu a 6eccMbicneHHyK) BOMHy, sto 6yaeT oaHaMaTb mc- 
Tpe6neHne eBpeiicKoPi pacw b EBpone! Espen aonwHw 6wnM 
noHMMaTb. mto (piopep cepbe3H0 othocmtcs kcbohm cnoeaw. 
m Tenepb ohm aon»Hbi npMHHTb bcb. mto o6pymnnocb Ha hmx. 
xax 6u mm hm Swno Taweno, 3to Heo6xoanMO an* roro, mto6w 
b KOHue kohijob Mup m cnoxoMCTBMe eouapun^cb cpean napo- 
aoB». [Cm.: M. Weinreich Hitler's Professors. New York, 
1946, p.141.]. 

< > 

BwcTynan b Mae 1 942 roaa b Kapncpya. nMfiep TepMan- 
ckoto paBoMero (ppoHTa PoSepT /lew 6wn eme OTKpoeeHHee: 
«HeAOCTaTOMHO M3onMpoeaTb Bpara HenoBOMecTBa — eB- 
pen. eepeii aonweH 6biTb yHMMTO)»(eH». [Cm.: Bondy. Op. cit., 
p.157). 

B tom )kb Mecflue napTMMHbiM Myp»an «<0enbK yHA pac» 
o6bPBnr oripaBMnbHbiM noAxoA « noHMMaHMio eepeMCTsa 
Tpe6yeT ero no/iHoro yHMHTO>KeHHfi» [Cm : Weinreich. Op. 
cit. p. 185.]. B 1943 roay peaHMMMpoBann Aawe CTapMHHbiM 
MM(p o eBpeMCKMx pMTyaiibHwx y6MMCTBax. B 30-e roAw 3Ta 
TeMa Mcnonb30Banacb npaxTMMecKM nMuib lUTpanxepoM n 



«flep ujTtopMepn. ho Tenepb niOAM c yHMBepcMTeTCKMMM A*n- 
riOMaMM HaMann BwnycKaTb conMAHweTOMa, b KOTopwxAOKa- 
3bieanocb, mto pMTyanbHoe y6MMCTeo b MMHMBTiope pacKpM- 
eaeTTo, mto nonHocrbw o6Hapy>KMna bomh3: eBpeMCKMM n/iaH 

yHMMTOWBHMH BC6X xpMCTMaH. <...> 

rvrnep. TMMMnep m Te66enbc pa3AennnM nnnio3Mio. 
6yATO 6pMTaHCKyio h aMepMKancKyio HpaecTBeHHocTb mowho 
noaopBaTb nponaranaoM Ha TeMy o bccmmphom eBpe^cKOM 
3arosope. TaiOH nponaraHAa AePiCTBMTenbHO MMena KpaT- 

K0BpeM6HHblM 3CpCpeKT BO t>paHL(MM M AHmUM 3MM0M 1 939/40 

roaa, Koraa xoflnnn cMyTHbie tohkm o «eBpe»icKOM» bomh6: ho 
3aTeM ee B03aeMCTBMe nocTonHHO yMBHbuianocb. m Te6- 
6enbc o>aHTacTMMecKM npocMMTajicn, xoraa b 1943 roay yBe- 
nuMMn Bpewe paanoBeiaaHMS Ha 3arpaHMuy. nocBniaeHHoe 
aHTMceMMTCKMM TeMaM. c 70 ao 80 npoueHTOB. [The Goebbels 
Diaries (ed. Louis P. Lochner) London. 1948. p 287 ]. HaqM- 
ctckmo bo*am, oaHaxo, 6binM cTonb y6e>«AeHbi b npaaMnbHO- 
ctm cbomx pacMeTOB. mto Bcepbe3 OJKMAanM KpynHbix SHTMCe- 

MMTCKMX BOHHeHMM B AHmMM M COeflMHeHHblX QjTaTax ABM- 

*eHMM, KOTopwe MornM6bicBeprHyTbaeMOKpaTMMecKMe npa- 

BMTenbCTBa. 3aK/llOMMTb MMP C TepMaHMeM V* npMCOeAMHMTb- 

cb k aeny yHMMToweHMn espeeB. 

no Mepe Toro KaK ujaHCbi TepMaHuu BUMrpaTb BOMHy 
yMeHbuju/iMCb. CTpeMneHMe yHMMTOwaTb eBpeeB npMo6peno 
dpaHTacTMMecKne MacujTa6bi — xax 6yAT0 HauMCTcwie BOORAM 
xoTenM OAep>KaTb xota 6bi 3Ty, caMyio cymecTBeHHyio Ann 
hmx no6eay B HaMane 1943 roAa Hoawe ra30Bbie KaMepw 
6binn coopyiKeHbi b OcBeHiiMMe. m b npMcyTCTBMM BbicoKono- 
CTaBneHHbix rocTeii M3 BepnMHa 6wn nymen nepBbiM xpeMa- 
topmm B 1943 m 1944 roAax npoueccyHMMTOKeHMHycKopun- 
ch ao Toro. mto neTOM 1944 roaa b OceeHUMMe 6binn yHMMTo- 
weHbi a ra30Bbix KaMepax M coiKweHbi b oann n3 ahsm 1 2 tmc. , 
b apyrovi — 1 5 Tbic. , b TpeTMM — aaue 22 twc eBpeeB 

OceHbo 1944 roaa XonoKOcr (XonoKOcm (Kamacmpo- 
(pa) — pacnpocmpaHeHHbiu mepMUH, 03Ha^aiomuO npaKwu- 
xy ucmpe6neHU9 HauucmaMU eepeee OKxynupoeaHHoQ Eepo- 
nbi. flpuM. pad.) saBepujMncn, ho nponaraHAa. He yMonxan. 
TBepanna o eBpeMcxoM bccmmphom 3arosope. B ceHT«6pe 
«fleMMep BoxeHaMHCT» noAMepKMBana, mto nMcaTenM m opa- 
Topbi aonmHw M3o6pawaTb espeeB eaMHCTBeHHbiM HacTon- 

U1MM BparOM, eaMHCTBBHHblM MHMUMaTOPOM BOMHbl M OTBeT- 

mmkom 3a ee nocxieacTBMn riponaraHaa b apMMM Ha Boctom- 
hom tppoHTe Bnonne OTxpoBeHHO roBopuna 06 yHMMTomeHMM 




41 



4 3HAK BEAbl 




eapeea m onpaBflwaana ero xax mmcto o6opoHHTenbHyio 
Mepy. CneaywmuM TeKCT, x npuMepy. bsht ms apMeiicxoti 
ny6/iMKaunn, xoTopaa Mcxoflnna or Bwcwero BoeHHoro xo- 
MaHaoeaHns «Cpea M Haiuero Hspoaa no cmk nop ecTb 01- 
aeribHbie moan, xoTopwe MyecTByiOT ce6n He cobcsm yBepeH- 
ho, xoraa mu roBopuM 06 yHHMTox<eHHM eBpeeB a Hawew 
crrpaHe. floHaao6MnMCb cuna xapatn-epa m aHeprun Benn^aii- 
ujero Menosexa, KOToporo eflMHO)«flbi 3a TbicnseneTMe aan 
MMpy Ham Hapofl, MTo6bi copBaTb c Haiunx rnas nOBflSKy 
BBpeviCKoro o6MaHa. EBpeiicxaH nnyTOKpamn m eBpefiCKUM 

K0MMyHM3M CTpeMHTCB yHMHTOWMTb TepMaHCKMM HapOfl, BblP- 

bsbwmmch H3 mx pa6crBa Kto b stom 6opb6e MOWeT rOBOpMTb 
wanoc™ mum xpucTMaHcxoM Mnnocepann n t. n.? Ebdgs 
cneayeT yHMMToacaTb, rae 6w mu ero hm o6Hapy*»inM». [Cm.. 
Weinreich. Op. cit.. p 212.]. 

K oktb6pio 1944 roaa 6wno yHMHToweHO 5-6 mtih eBpe- 
eB, a Meway T6M TepMamifl oxasanacb nepea hmuom BTop*e- 
hmh c BocToxa m 3anaaa. TuMMnep. npeflBMan. mo acxope 

OCBBHUMM 6ya6T 3aHHT pyCCXMMM, M HaaeSCb, B03M0>KH0, 

CHMcxaTb pacnonoweHMe 3anaanbix cokwhmxob. npnxa3an 
npeKpamTb CMCTeMarnsecxoe yHMHToaceHMe eBpeee (xoth 
aecsTKM TwcflM nenoBex 6binM oSpeweHbi Ha CMepTb ot rono- 
aa). Mowho 6wno oxwaaTb, mto c 3Toro MOMeHTa HaxoHeu 
npeKpaTmcn pasroeop «npoToxonax» m espeacxoM Bce- 
MMpnoM 3aro8ope, ho 3Toro He cnyMM/iocb. «EBpen. — nwcan 
re66ertbc b AHBape 1945 roaa. — BonnomeHne paspyujM- 
TenbHOM 3Heprnn, KOTopan b stm jKyrxne roaw nouina bomhoh 
Ha ece. mto Mbi CHMTaeM 6naropoflHbJM, npexpacHbiM, aoc- 
tomhwm 3amnTb(... Kto tohmt pyccxHx, awriMHaH, aMepMxaH- 
ues B oroHb h npMHOCHT ruoacxwe rexaTOM6bi B 6e3Haae*"OM 
6opb6e npomB repMaHcxoro Hapoaa? Eapevi! ...B xohu.6 
3Toro roaa eBpew npiiayT b cbom Kshw. He EBpona, a caMM 
ohm norn6HyT. .». [TaM we. CTp. 203.) 

B pasrap aroHMM TpeTbero Peaxa b BepnuHe. xoTopbiii 
npeBpaTMncn b rpyay xaMHert. Mmhmct6pctbom nponaraHaw 
29aeKa6ps 1944 roaa 6wna noBTopeHa nowb. xoTopan npew- 
ae onbJiHHna y6MMu PaieHay: «rnaBHan saaaMa stom bomhw 
— coKpytueHMe rocnoacTBa eBpeee naa mmpom. Ec/im 6w hsm 
yaanocb pa3rpoMMTb 300TaMHbix eBpeiicxwx uapeM. xoTopwe 
npaenT mmpom. nraan Haiuew 3eMnn HaxoHeu-To o6penM 6w 
noK0M». [Politischer Dlenst (Arbeitsmaterial fur Presse und 
Publizistik), No. 370 (PacnpocTpaHeHo sepe3 Abteilung 
Deutsche Presse der Presseabteilung der Reichsregierung).] 

3to np03ByMa/io npn3HanMeM oxoHMaTenbHoro nopaixe- 
hm», xoTopoe owuaaeT BCHKoro napaHOMKa. CoBepujMB He- 
CMeTHoe xoriMsecTBO >xecTOHaMUJMX yCMMCTB. eowan h3um3- 
Ma noMyacTBOBariM. mto hm Ha uiar He npoflBMHynncb x csoeii 
uenvi. TnaBHbjM aaMHHMCTpaiop MaiunHw yHMHTO*eHM» — 
Aaonbdp SiixMaH — npeanowMn aceo6i.eMnK3U4ee o6tncHe- 
HMe 3T0My npoeany. Ha cyae b HepycanMMe b 1961 roay 



3MXMaH 3asBMn, hto caM TMTnep 6wn acero nniub neuixoM m 

MapMOHeTKoii b pyxax «caraHMHCxoro Me>xayHapoaHoro 3aro- 

Bopa sanaaHbix npyroKpaTOB». MMen e eway. kohomho, 3ara- 

aOHHWX, HeynoBMMbixM BceMorymMX «cmohckmx MyapeuoB* 

[L. Poliakov. Le Proces de Jerusalem. Paris. 1963, p. 284- 

285.]. 

*— 

Hero b MTore ao6Mnacb nponaraHaa? Ha stot Bonpoc 
HeT siCHoro oTBeTa. TMTnep m re56eribc nK)6MnM B03BeujaTb 

MMpy, HTO HaUMH 06beaMHMnaCb B CTpaCTHOM peilJUMOCTM 

pasrpoMMTb eBpeiiCKMM BceMMpHWM 3arosop MHome nwaM, 
y3HaBUJHe no^TM HeBeponTHOM tpaxTe rM6enn k KOHuy bom- 
hw oKono ujecTM MMnriMOHOB eBpeeB. aocraTOHHO nerxo cmm- 

PMDMCb C 3TMM BepHO HM 3T0? 

KapTMHa. KOTopyw pwcyiOT CBMaeTeribCTBa oneBMaueB, 

MfMBUJMX B TepMaHMM npu HSLlM3Me. He CTOnb OAH03Ha^H3. 

CoeepujeHHO acho. mto yme k TOMy BpeMeHM. xoraa TMTnep 
npMUjen x BnacTM, orpoMHan MacTb HeMeuxoro HaceneHMS 
6bina 3apa*eHa aHTMceMMTM3M0M b TaxoM cbopMe. xoTopan 
HaMHoro npeBocxoaMna TyMaHHbiM npeapaccyaox, BCTpena- 

K3U1MMCH BO BCeX 3anaAHblX aeMOKpaTMHX. TMnMMHbIM HBMeu- 

khm anTMceMMT Tpe6oBan, mto6u HeMeuxMe eepew 6wnM 
OTCTpaHeHw ot rocyaapcTeeHHOM cny>K6b), fro6bi bo3mo*ho- 
ctm mx o6pa30BaHnn m xapbepbi 6binn orpaHMMonbi, mto6w mx 
nocraBMnM a nonoxteHMe aMcxpMMMHMpyeMoro MeHbiuMHCTBa 
Ha 3tom, oaHaxo, ero wenaHMn xoHManMCb Xoth ohm 6whm 

HecnpaBeflJlMBblMM M H6L|MBMnM30BaHHblMM. HO Bee 1KB eecb- 

Ma oTriMMariMCb ot ycTpeMneHMM TMTnepa m ero copbthmxob. 
3a nepBwe aBa roaa HauMCTcxoro pewMMa Bee stm Tpe6oBa- 
hmh SbiriM BbinonHeHbi m nepeBwnonHeHbi EspeM 6wnM M3- 
maHbi M3 acex cxonbxo-HM6yab BMaHbix m B/iMHTeribHwx yM- 
peixaeHMM, nMMHwe xoHTaKTw Meway eepenMM m HeeBpe^MM 
npaxTMMecxn npexpaTMnMCb, HaManacb MaccoBaa 3MMrpauM« 
eBpeeB. BcTan Bonpoc: mto aanbwe? FIohhtho 5wno. mto 

yMepeHHWM 3HTMC6MMTM3M 60TlbliJMHCTBa HaCeneHMH BWflOX- 

MeTcw. noTOMy mto peanbHbiM oStexT nepecTan cymecTBO- 

BaTb. riOHHTHO M TO. MTO aHTMCeMMTM3M pa3ropHTCS 6U46 

6onbiue, ecnM ero pa3ayrb b xpoBaBWM dpaHaTM3M. 3toto m 
cTpeMMriMCb aocTMMb Hau,MCTCKMe BroxaM, axcnnyaTMpyH MMdD 
o BceMMpHOM eBpeMcxoM saroBope HacxonbKO mm sto yaa- 
nocb? BecbMa npoHMuaTsnbHbiii m onuTHbiM Ha6/iioAaTenb 
MMxaanb Monnep-Knayanc. xoTopbiM Ha npoTnwewMM mhotmx 
neT M3yMan aHTMceMMTM3M xax naneHMe. npoBoaMn cbom 
MccneaoBaHMs b 1938 m 1942 roaax. nocne o0MunanbHO 
opraHM30BaHHbix norpoMOB 9-10 H0n6pfl 1938 roaa. xoraa 
OTpnabi HauMCTOB paapyiuann m rpa6MnM CMHarorM. eBpeMC- 
xMe MarasMHw h aoMa no Bceii TepMaHMM, xoraa 6wno y6MTo 
HecxoribxoaecflTKOB eepeeB, Mwnnep-KnayaMcaoBepMTenb- 
ho 6eceaoBan c 41 MneHOM napTMM. npeacTaanniOLUMMM Bee 
couManbHwe cjiom. HaMMnan pa3roBop. oh npoMSHOCMn CTaH- 
aapTHyx) penriMxy: «OTnMMHo, HaxoHeu to ctqjim awnonHHTb 
nporpaMMy npoTMB eBpeeB», m nonyMMn cneaywiawe OTBeTbi: 
26 Menosex (63 npoueHTa ) BbipaanriH oTxpuToe B03MyaieHMe 
npoMcujeaujMM; ewe 13 MenoBex (32 npoueHTa) oTBeTMiiM 
yx/iOHMMBo: aBa nenoBexa (cryaeHT m 63hxobcxmm cnyxaujMM) 

Oao6pMflM aXUMKD. nOTOMy MTO BepMTIM BO BCeMMpHbIM eBp6M- 

ckmm 3arosop. B rnaaax 3tmx flByx rpaixaaH cpusunecKoe 
HacMXiMe Haa eBpenMM 6wrto onpaBaaHO. nocxonbxy «Ha 
Teppop Haao OTBeMaTb TeppopOMB. [M Muller-Claudius. Der 
Antisemitismus und das deutsche Verhangnis Frankfurt am 
Main. 1948. S. 162-166.]. 

CneayouiMe HaSmoneHun Mionnep-KnayaMC npoaoaMn 
MeTwpe roaa cnycTn. 3to 6wno oceHbxj 1942 roaa, xoraa 
ocTaTKM HeMeuxMx eBpeeB 6binw aenopTMpoBaHbi Ha boctok 
c HeM3BecTHOM uefibK) — npeanonarajiocb, mto ana dpM3MMec- 



4 3HAK BEAM 



41 



Koro Tpyaa. Ha 3tot pas wccneaoeaTenb 3aaaBan cepmo 
nCKycHO ccJ>opMynnpoBaHHbix BonpocoB 61 nneHy napinvv 
BHOBb npeflCTaenoiomux Bee couuanbHbie cnon rionyweH- 
Hbie pe3ynbT3Tt>i bo mhotom ouiMnanMCb ot npeawayiUMx 
TonbKo 16nenoBeK (26 npoqeHTOB)npoflBMnn Kaxyxi-To 3a6o- 
Ty o eepenx, b to BpeMH KaK aonn Tex. kto oTHeccn 6e3pa3- 
nnsHO. aospocna ao 69 npoueHTos (42 MenoBexa). Capyrow 
ctodohw. flonn (JjaHBTHKOB ocTa/iacb npewHea: Tpw MenoBe- 
K3. una nnTb npoueHTOB ot o6mero xonuMecTBa Ann stom 
rpynnw. xax h paHbiue, eBpeviCKnn BceMMpHbirt 3aroeop 6btn 
caMOOHGBnaHb4M tfcaxTOM. a MCTpe6neHMe eepees — a6co- 
niOTHOii Heo6xoanMOCTbio. 

Mtonnep-Knayanc B ceoeM KHwre npuBOflUT MHeHne no- 
ao6Hbix cpaMaTHKOB: «L4enbio bomhw. HecoMHeHHO. HBnneTCfl 
yHMHTo>KeHMe eBpeeB. Bea 3Toro oxoHnaTenbHan no6eaa 
neaocTuwnMa MexcayHapoAHoe eBpeiiCTBO cnpoBounpoBa- 
no BOMHy. ...nocne no6eaw eBpeMcxa* paca aonxwa npexpa- 
TMTb CBoe cymecTBOBaHHe. Owpep aan nenoBenecTBy bos- 
MOJKHOCTb ocBo6oanTbCfl ot eBpeticTBa. ...4>(opep yxaixeT, 
xaxMM o6pa3CM mx cneayeT Mcrpe6MTb» [Tat* >xe, ctp 166- 
172. B uenoM 3Ta KHura — caMoe ueHHoe nccneaoBaHne 
aHTnceMMTM3Ma b TepMaHnn c 20-x roaos ao naaeHun Tpe- 
Tbero PeMxa.]. 3th Ha6nK>aeHMH Mionjiepa-Knayanca. Bnoc- 
neacTBMM noaTBepxcaeHHbie apyrMMH nccneaoBaTenqMu. 

n03BO/1BK3T C 6onbW0M CTOneHbK) 06\>eXTMBH0CTM TOBOpHTb 

tom. Mero fHTnepy vt re66enbcy yaanocb ao6MTbCfl. a Mero — 
HeT. (3KcnepmHoe uccnedoeamie 1 mwc. hombukux eoeH- 
HonneHHbix e 1942-1944 aodax noxasano. vmo 24 npouenma 
U3 hux omHocunucb k pemuuy 6onee unu Mewee xpumu^ecxu: 
no omeemaM 65 npouewnoe onpoiueHHbix uomho 5w/io nped- 
nonoMumb. vmo k eonpocy o eepenx ohu omnocunucb 5e3- 
paj/iuHHO. 1 1 npouenmoe npunadnetxanu k nucny (paHamu- 
toe Hauu3Ma Bonee ObicoKuu npouenm cpanamuxoe. we« e 
daHHbix Mionnepa-Kjiayduca. Heydueumenen. nocxonbxy on- 
pocbi nocnedneao oxeambieanu nndeii espocnbix. Gbietuux e 
napmuu yme e 1933 aody. e mo epeua xax 6ortbiuuHcmeo 
eoeHHOnneHHbix nonynunu eocnumanue npu nauucmcxoni 
pexuue. Cm.: Henry V. Dicks. Personality traits and National 
Socialist ideology. — In: Human Relations. London and Ann 
Arbor. June 1950. vol.111. 2. p. 111-154.). 

C oaHOM CTopOHbi. HeMeuKHti Hapoa b ochobhom hb 6wn 
oxBaneH aHTweBpekiCKUM <J>aHaTM3MOM, He 6bin sarnnnoTusn- 
P0B3H MHtpOM o BceMHpHOM eBpeiicxoM 3aroBope. HMxoraa 
He ay Man o bomhb xax 06 anoKannnTHHecKOM 6opb6ec «BeH- 
HWM eBpewcTBOM». ho, c apyroii CTopoHw. oh ace 6onbue m 







•Pa6omm* lOmauzpynnbi «» meppumopuu CCCP. 







Poe c menauu paccmp6nnnnbix mumeneO zemmo. 

WpauHa 



6onbiue, oco6bhho bo apewo bomhw, OTaennn ce6s= ot OBpe- 
eB. K 1942 roay 6onbUJMHCTBO nroaevi no MeHbtueM Mepe 
noao3peBann. mto c aenopTHpoBaHHbiMH eBpenMM nponcxo- 
aiiT hbmto apawHoe. a 3HannTenbHoe mucho HeMuee b cuny 
npocpeccMonanbHoro nono>t<eHM« aonwHO 6wno 3M3Tb. sro 
nMeHHO c hhmh aenaiOT. ho Mano kto SecnoKOnncn 06 stom 
KoHTpacT Me«ay 1938 n 1942 roaaMM noKa3biBaeT, ao kskom 
CTenenM HaceneHMe b uenoM 6wno nepeopneHTnpoBaHo — 
He xaicrviBHOii HenaBHCTn. a xnonHOMy 6e3pa3nn"n>o KoHeM- 
ho. cneayeT yviecTb TpaaiMMOHHoe CTpeMneHwe HOMueB k 
noBHHOBeHMio BnacTBM. HanpJweHMe m TpeBory BOOMMUX neT. 
a Taxwe nocronHHo HameTaBiuMvicf! SecnoujaaHbiM Teppop, 
KOTopoMy noaBepranocb HaceneHHe. Oanaxo $aia ocTaeTcn 
0aKTOM: xoraa OTano hcho. mto nioae^ b ncMXMaTpMwecKMx 
neneSHMuax y6nBaioT, noaHnnacb MoiaHan BonHa npoTec- 
tob. a to BpeMA xax b sanjHTy eBpeeB He BwCTyntin noHTM 
hmkto. ripHMUHbi noHRTHbi. BcflKMM, kto BCTynancfl 3a eBpeeB. 
cpa3y >Ke pacLieHUBancw xax coyMacTHMx mx 3aroBopa, 3acny- 
jKHBaxjianii Toro. mto6w pa3aennTb mx cyab6y: o^eHb hbmho- 
rvie roTOBbi 6binM noaBeprHyrb ceSn m cbom ceMbM noao6HO- 
My pucxy B Taxnx o6cTonTenbCTBax oseHb co6na3HMTenbHO 

CKpblTb C06CTBeHHyK) TpyCOCTb. C/lUBUJUCb XOTH 6b) 0TH3CTM c 
OlpMUManbHOM TOMKOM 3p8HMH 

He 5bino Hyx<abi roBopnTb o «chohckmx Myapeuaxo — 
6wno aocTaTOMHO cornacnTbcn c TeM. mto b eBpenx ecTb 
HesTo snoBeiaee, mto ohm, no xpaMHeM Mepe, He 3acny)KMBa- 
tOT Tpeeorw oTHOCMTenbno mx cyae6. HauMCTcxoMy pyxoBoa- 
CTBy yaanocb BHyiuMTb noao6noe oTHOiueHMe k eBpenM 6onb- 
ujMHCTBy naceneHMfl. B npeacTaBneHMM 6onbiuMHCTBa hom- 
ueB HeMeuKne eapeM nepecTanM paccMaTpMBaTbCfl xax co- 
OTeMecTae-HHMKM, Mcse3nM nocneflHMe cneatx conviaapHoc- 
tm: o eBpenx we b oxxynMpoBaHHbix HBMuaMti cTpaHax boo6- 
me hmkto He 3aayMweancfl Bo3o6naaano HacTpoeHMe nac- 

CMBHOM yCTynMMBOCTM. 

TeM BpeMeHeM cpaHainKH. He 6onee MHoroMMcneHHbie. 
MeM npeixae, npno6pefiM oco6oe 3HaMeHue. Cpean rpaixaaH- 
CKoro HaceneHun m b apMMM naxoannocb Hecxonbxo cotch 

TblCflM, B03M0)KH0aa)Ke2 MHH. HKJfleM, XOTOpwe BOCHPMHMM3- 

nn Mnop o sarosope co BceMM BbiTexaBLUMMM orcwaa y6MM- 

CTBOHHblMM nOCneaCTBUPWM M KOTOpblB 6binM TOTOBbl BblflaTb 

BCHKoro. coMHeeaBiuerocH a stom MM(pe, cny»6e 6e3onacHo- 
ctm (Cfl). TaKoe nono*eHMe aen. xotji m He coBnaaano c 
MfleanaMM TMTnepa, no3Bonnno eMy cnoxofiHO yHHMTOx<aTb 
eaponeMcxoe eepewcTeo To we a uenoM mokho cxa33Tb m 06 
opraHM3auMM. xoTopan nnaHMpoBana m ocyiaecTBnflna yHMM- 

TOWBHMe. H 3aeCb MCTMHHWe CpaHaTMKM COCTaBnnnM M6Hb- 
UJMHCTB0. 



42 



4 3HAK BEAbl 




Ha BbicweM ypoBHe 6t>ino aocTaTOHHO npecTynHwx npn- 
cnocoGneHueB, ana xotopwx Bee sto xpoBaeoe npeanpMHTMe 
6wno npocTo cpeACTBOM BbiMoraTenbCTea. rpa6ewa m npo- 
flBH>KeHnn no cny*6e. Cpean coTpyaHMKOB narepen Taxwe 
6bino aocT3TOHHonpHcnoco5neHLieB, npeanoHHTaBiuHx cno- 
KOMHyio n npuBunernposaHHyio *n3Hb b Tuny onacHOCTRM h 
TnroiaM cppoHra; 6bmn m HacToaimte caa"CTbi. nonyHHBuine 
B03MO)KHOCTb »i36nBaTb a nbnaTb moaert Ha Bcex ypoBHHx 
odaBanocb HeMano o6bmHwx kohcJjopmmctob — nioaeM, 
cneflOBaBWMx no nyrn HaMMeHbiuero conpoTHBneHun, wea- 
ujmx Tyfla, xyaa nx aenw, aBTOMaTunecKM aenaBUHX to. hto 
mm npnKa3biBann 

H Bee *e HecoMHeHHO. hto scew stum moan" Hy*eH 6wn 
npeanor, xaxoe-To onpaeaaHHe, KOTopoe 6w BaoxHOBnano mx 
Ha y6nMCTBa. ocTaannn aywy cnoxofiHOM. B Cm h CC Ha 
/ik>6om ypoBHe 6t>mn cbanaTHKn. roTOBbie npeaocTaaMTo Ta- 
Koe onpaBaaHne b BHAe Mucpa o bccmmphom eapewcxoM 
3aroBope. TaxsTOT CTapwM Mud; sbhobo ocMwcnenHbiM ["ht- 
nepoM. CTan nacTbio naeonormi caMOw 6ecnoiyaaHOii m ax- 
tmbmom rpynntu npotpeccnoHanbHbix y6niiu, bo Bcew neroae- 

MeCKOli MCTOpHH 

<.. > 

flns 6onbiunHCTBa h/ibhob CC mmcp o 3aroaope cpaxTM- 
secKM 6wn hom-to oonbiuuM, neM Maeonorwfl nnn MapoB03- 
apeHne, - sto 6wno hbmto. OBnaAOBiuee mx AyuiaMM, Tax hto 
ohh 6binn cnoco6Hbi. x npviMepy, 3a*uBo OKwraTb ManeHbXMX 




aeTeii. He omyman hw nyBCTsa cocTpaaanHH, hh nyBCTBa 
buhw. [Cf. Elie A. Cohen. Human Behavior in the Concentration 
Camp. Trans. M.H. Braaksma New York. 1953. p 273.]. 

Bowah Haun3Ma mmohho 3Toro m ao6naamicb B oxr s5pe 
1943 rofla TuMMnep 3aaBnn b no3ene rpynne BbicoxonocTaB- 
neHHbix scacoBueB: «Haiu MopanbHbiti Aonr nepea HapoaoM 
— yHMMTowaTb mofleti, xoTopwe x<a>KAanM yHMHTowmb Hac 
. BonbuiUHCTBO M3Bac 3HaK>T, HTOosHanaeT auaeib rpyay 113 
da TpynoB. mhh nfrmcoT. h/im twcsmh. (IpoMTu nepes Bee sto 
n Bce-Taxn — 3a necKonbxuMH Hcx/iKmeHnnMH — ocraTbcn 
nopnaoHHbiMn ntoflbMn — bot hto saxannno Hac. 3to cnaB- 
Han cTpaHHua Hawaii mctopmm. KOTopaa HMKoraa He 6wna h 
He 6yaeT HanacaHa apyrnMM...». [L Poliakov, J. Wulf. Das 
Dritte Reich und die Juden, S. 215] 

flpyme 6unn eiye OTxpoBeHHee. B aarycie 1942 roAa 
THTnep m TuMMnep noceTwnn nonbcxnn ropoA Jlio6nMH, mto- 
6w o6cyflMTb cnocoGbi yHUMTOxeHMn eBpeeB c MecTHbiM 
HananbHuxoM CC h Cfl ascTpuMijeM Oahjio rno6ouHMKOM. 
Koraa oflHH H3 nneHOB cbhtw rmnepa cnpocnn, He ctout nn 
xopoHHTb y6mbix eBpeeB (a He KpewupoBaTb). «noTOMy hto 
6yAyLUne noxoneHMP Moryr scnxoe noAyMaTb Ha stot chotb, 
reHepan rno6ouHMK OTBeTMn: «Hy, rocnoaa. ecnn nocne Hac 
nonBHTCfl CTo/ib TpycnMBoe n npomnBujee noxoneHne, He 
cnoco6Hoe noHBTb. Hacxonbxo 6naroM m HeoSxoanMOii 6wna 
Haiua pa6oTa, Tor^a, rocnoaa, secb Hai4noHan-coMviann3M 
nanpaceH. HanpoTHB. cneayeT yCTaHOBMTb SpoxaOBbM aocxm 
c HaanHCflMM. hto sto caenaHO HaMM — mmcbiummh cMenocTb 
aocTMmyTb3ToiirMraHTCK0MuenM». ruTnepcomacvincH: «fla. 
mow aoporovi rnoobLjHMx, mm6hho Tax n h ayMara». [Trials of 
War Criminals before the Nurnberg Military Tribunal under 
Control Council Law No 10. Vol. I. U.S. Government Printing 
Office. Washington, p. 866 (deposition of Kurt Gerstein).]. 

OanaWAbl 3C3COBCKHM Bp3H flCpaHHeHUJTMrib (OH Obin 

Taioxe npocbeccopOM rnrvieHbi a Map6yprcxoM yHneepcuTe- 
Te) noceTun narepb yHviHToxceHHn a Tpe6nnHxe flarepHbie 
coTpyaHnxn CC ycrponnn 6aHK6T b ero necTb. n e otbcthom 
penn aoxrop cxa3an: «Bawa pa6oTa — BennnaiiujMM aonr, 
aonr nonesHbiM n Heo6xoanMbiki... Tnnfln Ha Tpynw eBpeeB, 
HaHMHaeiiiboco3HaBaTb eennune BameH 6raropoflHo* pa6o- 
tw». [TaM me, CTp 870.]. 

3to nporpaMMHbie cnoBa. CBHaeTenbCTByiomne 06 mc- 
xnioHMTenbHOM dJeHOMOHe. B cepeauHe XX CToneTMfl b ueH- 
Tpe UHBnnn30BaHHoPi EBponw cymecTBOBano orpoMHoe ko- 
nnHecTBO moaeii. b kotopux ho otrranocb hh ManePnunx 
cneaoB toto. mto o6biHHo Ha3WBaiOT coBecTbio m HenoaeHHO- 
CTbio. 3tm MHMeHepw reHounaa aannManncb aenoM c paao- 
CTbto — m no ceii aeHb Te «3 hmx, xto npeACTaeT nepea cyaoM. 
OTHioAb He pacxaMaaiOTcn 3tot dpeHOMeH, KOHeHHO. o6bfic- 
h«btcji pesynbTaTOM B03aewcTBMfl Mnornx dpaxropoa — m 
Bpo*aeHHora TeMnepaMeHTa, m onuTa aeTCTBa. n nosaHOM- 
ujero BocnuTaHnn. H Bee *e stmm nnanM 6bina Heo6xoa M Ma 
uneonoruB, HTo6bi onpaBaaTb cboh npecTynneHnn, m 3Ty 
Haeonornio ohm o6penn b «ripoToxonax» m MHcpe o BceMwp- 
hom eBpeMCKOM 3aroBope 

ny6/iMyeTCB a coKpamennn. 



B ny6mKauHH ncnonb3oaaHbi Qororpafpun 
M3 Konnexu.Hu MyaeeB The Getto Flgther House 

http://www.gfh.org.il 

h Yad-Vashem 

http://www.yad-vashem. 0rg.1l 



4 3HAK f>EAbl 



43 



xpaHDAorkm xdadkdcta 



1939 

24nHBapa repnHrco3aaeT 
LJeHTpanbHyra PeSixcKaHue- 
nnpwo no 3MMrpaunM eBpe- 
eB. 

4 oKTn6pn. Co3aaH BapiuaB- 
ckum icaeHpaT' 

7 okth6pb. Co3AaHne eBpen- 
CKOii pe3epBaunM a flio6nnH- 
ckom paiiOHe nonbiuu (Ha 
meppumopuu. omoweduieQ 
k repuaHuu no naxmy Mono- 
moea-Pu6eHmpona— pad.). 

8 onTfl6pn. riepBoe eBpe^ic- 
Koe rerro co3flaH0 b r. rieTp- 
KOB-Tpn6yHanbct(mJi (l"lonb- 
iua). 

23 Hon6pn. Eepen b nonbiue 

06«33Hbl HOCMTb Ha Ofle*fle 

cneunaribHbivi 3HaK (*3Be3oa 
Aaewfla")- 

194D 

24 HHBapn. HMymecTBO bb- 
pees perucrrpupyeTCfl b r e- 
Hepan-ry6epHaTopcTse Ha 
reppnTopun OKKyntipOBaHHOM 
nonbiun. 

25nHBapn. lOneHpai cosflaH 
b J1io6nMH8. 

30 anpenn. rerro b J1oa3h M3onnpoBaHO. 

3 oKT«6pn. cPpaHiinB bboamt 3aKOH o CTaiyce eBpeeB. 

22 okth6p«. EBpeiicK.ne npeflnpuq-run perncTpnpyioTCfl b 
Huflepnanaax 

28 OKT«6pH. HMymecTBO eapeeB pemcTpupyeTcn b Benbrnn 
15 hohSph. rerro b Bapwaee M3ornpoBaHO. 
Aexa6pt>. Coaaan TaiiHbiH apxue "Oneg Shabbat" ("Bocxpec- 
Hbiii c6op") o npecneaoBaHMM eBpeeB. 

1941 

1 MapTa. CipoMTeribCTBO xoHunarepa AywBHu N-BupxeHay 

(Birkenau) Hananocb. 

24 anpenn. J1>o6nnHCKoc rerro n3onnpoBano 

23 MtoHH. AMH3aTurpynnw (Einsatzgruppe) 2 HannHaioT y6m*- 
CTBa b CCCP. 

28 mow*. PyMWHCKan ">Kene3Han reapanfl" (aKcmpeMucmc- 
Kaa (paiuucmcKan opaanuaauuft, ocnoeannaa K. Kodpnny — 
pad.) y6nna 1500 BBpeeB b Jlacn. 3 

30 MtoHfl. AMHaamrpynna "4A" n MecTHwe yxpaMHUbi y6nnn 
300 eBpeeB b flyuKe. 

30 mmhr. HeMubi aaHuriM JlbBOB, x 3 aionn 4000 eapeeB 6unn 
ySnTbi. 

1 MK>nn. AMH3aTurpynna"D"HaHHHaeTfleMCTBOBaTbBBecca- 
pa6nn, k 31 aerycTa paccTpenHHw 160000 eBpeeB. 

4 Mtonn. Co3flaH wfleHpaT b BnnbHioce 
20 morn. Co3flaHO rerro a Muhckb. 

24 Mtojin. Co3aaHO rerro b KniunHeBe; 10000 eapeeB yMep- 

inanpiM. 

25 MK3/1H. llorpOM BO JlbBOBB. 

31 mkmih. repunr nopyMaeT reviflpvixy noAroToaxy nnaHa 
"OKOHMaTenbHoro peweHMfl" eBpewcxoM npo6neMbi. (Endlisung 




— aumnepoecKuu nnan cftuauuecKoao ymmmoxemjs* eepeu- 

CKoao Hacenenun Eeponbi — pad.). 

Hwnb. Y6MiiCTBa HaHMHatoTcn b noHapn (kjwhom patiOHe 

Bn/ibHioca). 

1 aBrycTa. 50000 eBpeeB usonnpoaaHbi b rerro b BenocToxe. 

4 aBrycTa. rerro b KayHace vooriMpoBaHo 

5 aerycTa. Pe3HH a riMHcxe: 10000 eBpeeB y6mo b TeneHMe 
Tpex flHew 

27-28 aerycTa. Pe3HB b KaMeHeq-noflonbcxe. 

I ceHTn6pn. HauMCTCKan TIporpaMMa 3BTaHa3nn"' ocJjhum- 
aribHO 3aKOHM6Ha. 

19 cenT«6p« HeMeuKne eBpen o6n3aHbi Hocmb cneunanb- 

Hbifi 3H3K ( "3Be3aa flaBHfla') 

3 ceHTn6pn. riepBoe axcnepuMeHTaribHoe yMepmBneHMe 

rasoM b AyuJBuue (OcBeHijuMe). 

5 ceHr«6pH. 2 saxpbiTbix rerro C03flaHW b BnnbHtoce. 

15 ceHTB6pn. 150000 eepeee aenopTMpoBaHbi BTpaHCHMCT- 

pwo (ucKyccmeeHHoe zeononumLHecKozo o6pa3oeamjst, co- 

3daHHoao OKKynaHmaMu Mexdy flHecmpoM u ByaoM—pad.) 

90000 yMepno. 

19 ceHTn6pn. JlMKBu/wpoaaHO rerro b >KnTOMnpe, y6mo 

10000 HenoBex. 

29-30 ceHTn6pn. 33771 nsnoBeK y6uT0 b Ba6beM flpe b 

KneBe. 5 

28 OKrn6pn. Twcjjmh eBpeeB y6wTbi b IX (popTe b KayHace. 

8 okth6pr. JlMKBHAnpoBaHO rerro b BnTe6cKe; y6nro 6onee 

16000 HenoBex. 

I I oKTn6pH. B MepHOBuax (PyMWHun) eBpen n3onnpoBaHbi b 
rerro. 

15 oxTfl6pn. Hananacb aenopTaunn eapeeB M3 TepMaHMM m 
Abctpmm b rerro Ha BocroKe 



44 



4 3HAK EEAbl 



' K)AeHpaT (Judenrat). — yHpexaeHHbin HauMCTCKn- 

MH BHaCTRMH aAMMHMCTpaTMBHbIM OpraH, RKOSbl B6AaB- 

ujmm BonpocaMM eapeP«cKoro caMoynpaBneHMR. Ucht- 
panbHWM opranoM rb/ir/icr HMnepcKMii npeacTaBMTenb- 
ckmm cobgt rep»*aHCKMx eBpeeB (Reichsvertretung der 
Deutschen Juden). 



ON Bill HRMnOUPft h wwss 

JUOIMEXWUTIOMtN 




•MM* 



Kapma 1/3 otpuuuanbHOZO ormema AOHsammpynribi A 
06 yMuwnoxeHuu eepeeB us meppumopuu npu6awmmu. 



' AMH38Tu.rpynnbi (Einsatzgruppe) - onepaTHBHwe 
rpynnu, Bnepswe coaaaHHbie BanbTepou LUenneH6ep- 
tom no npnKa3y PeMHxapaa rei-iapMxa b 1938 r nepea 
HasanoM onepauuM b MaxocnoBaKHM c uenbto ncaae/ie- 
huh BCRKoro conpoTMBneMHB co cropOHbi rpajKaaHCKO- 
ro MaceneHMn. Bwno co3naHO nerbipe aMH3aTurpynnu, 
pa3AenMBUJne Meamy coOoii $poht no reorpa$nsecKO- 
My npn3H8Ky: A — CTpanu ripMOa/iTMKM, B — Cmo- 
neHCK, MocKBa, C — pawon Kneea. D — loxHan sacTb 
yKpaHHbi. Bo rnaee hx Ownn nocraBneHbi McnwTaHHbie 
HaunCTbi B coCTaB Kaacaon aMH3aTurpynnbi axoanno 
ot 1 thc. ao 1200 mb/iobbk. pacnpeaeneHHbix MB*ay 
HecKonbKHMn aMHsaTUKOMaHAaMM. npo$eccnoHanbHbm 
cocTaB rpynn Sun TmaienbHO npOAyuaH n BaseiueH Ha 
1 Tuc HenoBSK npnxoannocb npHMepHO 350 3C3C0B- 
ubb. 150 wo^epoB m MaxaHMKOB, 100 4neH0B recTano. 
80 coTpyaHMKoa BcnoMoraTenbHOii nonnunn (HaOnpaB- 
ujHxcn oObiMHO Ha uecie), 130 coTpyAHHKOB noniiuHM 
nopRAKa, 40-50 pa6oTHMK0B yronoBHOM nonwuMM h 30- 
35 coTDyflHMKOB CA- rionaranocb TaKxe onpeaeneH- 
Hoe Hncno nepeBOAMHKOB, paaHCTOB. Tenerpa^MCToa. 
ynpasneHMOCKHx pa6oi hhkos m jkbhckhm nepcoHan , Ta* 
KaK b 3th noapaaaeneHMR yCMMu BK/nosanHCb m jkbh- 
muHbi (ot 10 ao 15 Ha rpynny). PyxoBoaRWHH nepcoHan 
cocTOHn. ecTecTBOHHO, M3 recTanoBues m HSOonbiuoro 
KonMMOCTBa coTpyAHWtOB Cfl m yronoBHOM nonnuMn. 

TOHHOe MMCflO XBpTB aSHTenbHOCTM COCCTBeHHO anH- 

3anirpynn ao chx nop hb ycTaHOB/ieHO, ho TonbKO na 
TeppmopHH CCCP seTwpbMR onepaTMBHWMM rpyrtna- 
mh Obino yHMMTOxeno OKono 750 twc. MonoaeK. 

1 «b to BpeMfl KaK coopmue 4>aujMCT0B CHapyxH (3aroHB 
anR Oomhh -pea.) HacMewnn80 CKaHanpoaana bbpbm- 
CKne MonmBbi, npoMCxoanna MaccoBan peann eapeea b 



16 OKTH6pa. OKKynauns Oaeccw, waccoBbie y6niicTBa eape- 
ea. 

24 oKTn6pn. 20000 eBpeee nepeB63eHbi b flanbHUK (Dalnik), 
Bee yHMMTOiKenbi. 

28 OKTu6pR. 3iixMaH (Eichmann) yTBepwaaer nnaH Mcnonb- 
3oaaHHR nepeABuwMwx rasoBbix KaMep (Gasenvagen). 

20 okth6ph. Pe3HH b KayHace, 6onee 9000 eBpeee yOmo. 
30 OKTnBpn. B CnoBaxnu eBpeee nepecenniOT na BpaTucna- 
bw a cenbCKyra MecTHocTb. 

OianSpb. riepBbiH TpaHcnopT npM6bin b 3KcnepMMema/ib- 
Hbiii narepb Ma^aaHeK. 

1 hor6pr. Hananocb CTponTe/ibCTBO narepfl BepreH-Benb- 
3eu (Belzec). 

24 Hos6pa. "MoaenbHWH narepb" co3aaH a Tepe3MHe 

(Theresienstadt). 

30 Hon6pn. B Pure 30000 eBpeeB apecTOBaHbi, 3aTeM pac- 

CTpennHw. 

8 aeKa6pn. rasoBwe xaMepw npMMeHBHbi b XenwHO 

(Chelmno). 

21 aexaSpn. Bonee 40000 eepeeB paccTpennnbi b Boraa- 

HOBKe. 

22 aexa6pR. 33500 M3 57 twcrm eepeeB b BunbHoce k 3T0My 
flHio ywe ySHTU. 

1942 
14 RHBapn. Ha^anacb KOHueHTpauws m aenopiauns eBpeee 
a flaHnn 

16 RHBapn. Ha^anacb aenopiauMfl 6onee 10000 eepeeB m 
noa3M b XenMHO (Chelmno). 

24 4>eapa/in. 14a noaau b XenMHO aenopTupoBaHO 6onee 

30000 eBpeee. 

13 MapTa. HeMubi y*<e y6nnn 240000 eBpeeB TonbKO Ha 

YKpaMHe. 

1 7 MapTa. 3KcnepnMeHTanbHbiM narepb b Benb3eue (Belzec) 
3anonH6H. 

26 MapTa. 58000 eBpeee M3 CjioBaKHM aenopTHpoBaHw. 

28 MapTa. riepebiH TpaHcnopT tppanuyscKHx eBpeeB a Ayui- 

bmu. 

Anpenb. B CCCP ochob3h BBpencKHM aHTMCpatuncTCKMii ko- 

MMT6T. 

8 anpenn. AviH3aurpynnbi panopTyiOT: b KpuMy He Odanocb 

hm oaHOro eBpefl. 

30 anpenn. Ochob3ho reTTO b riHHCxe. 

Hasano Man. riepBoe Maccoeoe y6nMCTBO b 3KcnepnMeH- 

TanbHOM narepe b Co6n6ope. 

2 hiohr. riepBan aenopTaqtin HeMeqKnx eepeeB b TepesHH. 
22 hiohii. nepBbiA TpaHcnopT wa flaxay a Ocbbhlimm. 




flenopmaitun oepea us Bydanewma e 1944 3. 



4 3HAK bEAbl 



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ISPS 


iswy ?py 




Paccrrpen xopeamcuuuu wsuuOHanuen 


nnbi eapeee 



16 Htonn. OonaBa Ha eBpeeB b riapn*e 

19 monH. TviMMriep: Bee espew b reHepan-ry6eHaTopcTBe 

aonwHbi 6t>iTb yHMMTOKSHbi x KOHuy Hions 1942 r. 

22 Htonn. dponTenbCTBO narepn b Tpe6nnHKe 3axoHMeHO. 

22 mono. Hananacb MaccoeaH aenopTauMH H3 BapiuaBCKoro 
rerro b Tpe6nnHKy. 

23 Mionn. CaMoySniicTBO AnaMa MepHRKOBa.' 

28 utonn B Bapujaee co3jaHa EBpeiicKan Boeeas OpraHn- 

3auna" (20B).' 

5 aBrycTa rumepoBLibi nuKBUflnpyiOT floM Cnpor a Bapwa- 

se BocnMTaHHUKM ompasneHbi b narepb yHMHToweHMfi Tpe6- 

nnHKy Bmbctb c hmmu norn6 ocHOBaTerib fioMa Cupor . nuca- 

Terib n neaaror flHyw Kopnax. 

10 aBrycTa. Hananacb AenopTauHR H3 JlbBoea a BepreH- 

Be/ib3eu. 50000 Henoeex yMepujBJieHo ra30M. 

3 csH-ra6pn. Boopy>t<eHHoe conpoTuBneHwe eBpeeB a Bena- 
pycH. 

24 ceHTn6pR. BocciaHne b reTro TynMHa (Tuchin). 

28 0Km6pH. nepBanaenopTauHs ms TspesnHa b OcBeHuuM 

29 oKTn6pn. IIomtm Bee eBpen rinHCKa yHHMTOweHW. 

1 Hon6pn riepBan aenopTauns M3 BenocroKCKoro pauOHa B 
AywBuu (OcBeHUMM) 

4 AeKa6pn. B (lonbiue cosash CcmeT noMoiyn eBpeRM 
(Zegota).' 

23 A»Ka6pn. EBpeiicKan opraHwaauMB conpoTMBneHnn aTa- 
KOBana HeMueB b Kpaxose. 

1943 

18 HHBapn. BoopyweHHoe conpomBneHne eBpeeB AenopTa- 
Umh b aapiuaBCKOM rerro. 

5 ct>eBpann. HaManacb AenopTaunii 10000 eBpeeB M3 Beno- 
CTOKa b Tpe6nnHKy. 

25 (peBpann. DepBbibi TpaHcnopT c eBpenwn us Ca/iOHMK 
(rpequB) B OCBeHU_MM. 

4 wapTa. Espen us Opa«nn flenopTMpyioTCfl b Tpe6nnHKy. 

19 anpenn. HaManocb BoccTaHne b BapiuaBCKOM rerro. 
12 Man. CaMoy6nMCTBO CaMyann 3nrenb6o*Ma.' 

24 Man. 191 53 eBpen no pacnopsxeHHto oonrapcKoro xopo- 
nn Bopuca OTnpaBneHbt M3 Co<pMM b npoBMHumo m cnaceHu 
ot nenopTauuM b Tpe6nnHKy. 

1 MK3HR. JlMKBUflMpOBaHO reTTO BO JlbBOBB. 

21 mkjhh TuMMnep otasot npMKaa o nuKBuaauMn Bcex rerro 

na Teppmopnn CoBeTCxoro CoK)3a. 

28 MtOHti. MeTwpe xpeMaTopMR nocTpoeww b OcBeHUMMe- 

BMpKenay 

2 aBrycta. BoccTaHne b Tpe6nnHKe 



cooTBeiCTBMM c MyaeMCKMM pnryanoM 3a0on. EmexM- 
Bbix, mx noABepra/iM bcsm craAKflM pacnneneHMfi cko- 
Ta. nocne sero o6e3rnaBneHHbie Tena Ouhm noBeuieHu 
Ha kpkdkm c HaanHCbio «KouiepHan numa- 
HarH-Tanaaepa. HHKonac M. 3eneHbie pyOauJKM m Apy- 
rwe. Hoover Institution Press. Stanford. CA. 1970, CTp, 
326). 

' « nporpaMMa 3BTaHa3HH» — HauMCTCKan nporpaM- 
Ma yHMMTO*eHnn HeM3newM0 6onbHwx, a TaK^e npea- 
CTasviTeneM «HenonHOueHHbix- Hapoaoa — eBpeeB. 
Ubiran, nonnKOB n pyccKMX. BnepBwe o nporpaMMe 
3BTaHa3MM 6wno 3aRBneH0 14 Mionn 1933 b AeKpeie "O 

3auiMT6 3A0p0BbFt HaUMM». 

(IporpaMMa cocTORna M3 Tpex nyHKToe: yMepuiBneHMe 
HeM3nenMMo ConbHwx, HenocpeACTeeHHoe yHHMTox(e- 
HMecnoMOmbio "OcoOorooCpameHMR" (Sonderbehand- 
lung) m onbiTM no MaccoBOH cTepnnn3auHn. 

s Ba6nM dp — OonbiiiOM oapar s ceeepHOH hbcth 
KMesa. rae b kohus ceHTnOpR 1941 npoHcxoAMnn Mac- 
coBbie KaaHM aecmKOB tmchh eBpeeB. 3a nea ahr 
MaccoBbix Ka3H6M Taw fSwno ytiMTO OKono 35000 Meno- 
B6K (no ApyrnM aaHHbiM — ot 50 ao 70 tuc. nenoBeK). 
Hx Tena 6wnM norpeoeHbi bo pay 60 Meipoe anMHOii h 
okoho 3 MeTpoB rnyOHHoii. 

B 60-e roAtJ coeecTKMMM B.iacTRMM HeoAHOKpaTHo npeA- 
npMHHManMCb nonbiTKn yHMHTOxeHnn MecTa 3axopoHe- 

HUR Ka3H6HHblX. 

1 Aabm HepHRKOB, rnasa BaptuaecKOro tOAeHpaTa. 
noKOHHH/i c coOoki, ocTasuB 3anncKy: «Ohm TpeOyKiT ot 

M6HR, HTOfJbl R CBOMMH pyKaMU yHMMTOAHH astbh Moero 

HapoAa. Mh6 HMsero He ocTaeTCR, ok yMepeTb» 



» 


h 

i 



Ada* UepHftxoe 

7 EBpeHCKan QoeBaR opraHM3au.MH (Zydowska 
Organizacja Bojowa. ZOB) 
6bi/ia coaaaHa b Bapoiaee. kot- 
aa MaccoBaR AenopTaunR eB- 
peeB B narepn cmopth AOCTwr- 
na ceoero nMKa. CeoeM uenbw 
MneHN opraHM3au.MH CTBBMnM 
KaK 3amMTy co6cTBeHHO(i *i43- 
hm. Tax m mnpoKoe BOOpy*9H- 
Hoe conpoTMBneHMe HaunaMy. 
BosmaanReMaH MopaexaeM 
AHeneBMMSM. ZOB opraHH30Ba- 
na repoMHBCKOe BOCCTaHne b 
BapiuaBCKOM rerro. 




4G 



4 3HAK BEAbi 




Byxaneant>d e dent, oceoSoxdenup 



' Zegola — Tan HasbteancR noflno/ibHWM nonbCKMM 
CoBeT domoiuh eapeHM . Hnenu CoBeTa co6npa/w aeHb- 
rn, AOKyMGHTbi n CBM/ierenbCTBa xonoxocTa, npHTanM 
aeTe* m B3pocnwx ot HauMCTOB. 

* CaMya/ib 3wrenb6o hm . eBpencKnft npencTaBMTenb 
b nonbCKOM npaBMTenbCTBa b nsrHaHMH. B npoma/ib- 
hom nMCbMe Hanncan: - Mon CMepTb — mom nocneaHKM 
npoTecT npoTMB nonycTMTenbCTBa m naccnBHOc™, c 

KOTOpbIMM MMP CMOTpnT. KaK yHWWTOxaiOT espewCKMM 

Hapofl*. 

10 3 horOpr 1943 roaa nauncTbi npose/iM aKu.nn Mac- 
coBoro yHMMTOJKeHMfi eepees (uyxnHH, othuhh h ae- 
tbm) oaHOBpeMSHHO b Tpex narepnx b rionbiue: Tpas- 
hhkm (Trawniki), noHRTOBa (Poniatowa) m ManaaHex 
(Majdanek). bbuio yOMTo okoho 43000 senoeK. 3Ta 
onepaiiHH nonynnna koaobob Ha3»aHMe «Erntefest» — 

«np83AHHK MCBTBbl". 




B/xBHeanbd. AuepuKSHCKuu condam ocMampuaaem 



B ny6nnKauHH Hcno/ib30Bam>i (bororpa&HH H3 

My3ea The Qetto Flgther House 

http://www. gfh. org. il 

m Mysea Yad-Vashem 

http://www.yad-vashem.org. il 



8 aBrycTa. riepBafl H3 n«TM opraHH3oaaHHbix rpynn no«naaeT 
BuribHioccKoe rerro, MT06W npncoeanHHTbcn k napTH3aHaM. 

1 5 aarycTa. nnKBManpoBaHo rerro b BenocToxe. 
1 ceHT»6pn. PaarpoM BoccTaHun b BnnbHtoce. 

3 ceHTR6pn. B 6enbrnn eapen apecTOBaHbi ann aenopTauun 
b OceemjHM 

23 ceHTn6pH. fluKananpOBaHO rerro b BnnbHioce. 
1-2 oktr6pr. B flaHMM eapen ocBo6o>xaeHbi. 

14 otrrfl6pfl. BoccTaHne b Co6n6ope. 

18 okth6pr. Eapen PMMa aenopTMpoBaHw b Ocb6humm. 

21 okth6ph. JlnKBnanpoBaHO rerro b MnHCxe. 

25 OKTn6pn. Ocao6o)KaeH flHenponeipoBCK. Odanocb 15 M3 
80000 eBpeeB. 

3 Hon6pn. HeMuw HaMa/iw onepauwo Tlpa3aHHK waTBbT 
(Erntefes) ,0 

17 HO«6pn. Espen-napTn33Hbi ocBo6oflnnn eBpeeB b Bop- 

mese. 

1944 

24 MapTa. Py3BenbT npn3biBaeT BeHrpmo B03aep>xaTbCfl ot 
npecneaoBaHktn eBpeeB 

7 anpenn. flBoe 3awiio4eHHbtx nepeaann TIpoTOKonbi Oc- 
BeHunMa". 

1 6 anpenn npaBHTenbCTBO BeHrpwM perncrpHpyeT eBpeee n 
KOHCpHCKyeT MX HMymecrBO 

15 Man. Hasano waccosoH aenopTaqnw BeHrepcKtix eapeeB 
a OcB6HUHM-BnpKeHay. 

3 hkmir. Ocso6o>KaeH Mhhck, nnuJb H6MHorne H3 80000 
eBpeeB ocranncb a whbwx 

7 Mionfl. BeHrepcKoe npasurenbCTBO Canaiun npoBOflm ae- 
nopraMMii eBpeeB, yueneBUjnx npu pewnMe Xopm. 

8 hkhih. flnKBnaHpoaaHO rerro b KayHace (Kobho). 

13 Mtonn. EBpen-napTusaHbi yvacTByioT a ocBo6o«aeHnn 
BMribHO. cnaceHO 2500 M3 57000 eBpeee. 

22 tuonn. Ocao6o)«aeH n b BOB, 1 10000 eBpeeB norn6nn. 

23 nionn. Mnccnn KpacHoro Kpecra noceujaeT Tepe3HH 

25 knonn. KpacHan ApMvin ocBo6oanna MaMaaHex 

7 aarycTa. HaManacb nuKBuaaunn rerro B noa3M. 74000 

eBpees aenopTMpoBaHbi b Ocbohumm. 

3 ceHTn6pR AHTaepneH ocBo6o>tmeH. cnacnucb MeHee 5000 

eBpeeB. 

3 okth6p«. Bapuiaecxoe BoccTaHMe noaaBneHO. 

7 oKTn6pn. BoccTaHne 30HaepxoMaHabi b OcBeHynMe. 
Hon6pb. HeMUbi npexpaTnnn yayiueHwe ra30M b Ocbghljm- 

M6. 

8 Hon6pR. Bo3o6HOBneHa aenopTau^fl n3 ByaaneuiTa 

1945 

17 nHBapn. OcBo6o«fleHa Bapujaea nmiib HCMHorne eapen 
yueneriM. 

1 8 HHBapn. Oc86humm onycren, 3aKnK)seHHbie Ha^ann Mapai 
CMepin b ByxeHBanba- 

19 nHBapn. OcBo6o>KaeHa flofl3b 
27 nHBapn. Oc8o6oKaeH OceeHuuM 

1 (peepann. 40 rwcflw 3awiKDMeHHbix BwiuriM neiuxoM M3 
rpocc-Po36H (Gross-Rosen). 

11 anpe/iH. AMepuxaHCKue bomckb bouj/ih b ByxeHBanba. 

15 anpenn. AHrnniicKne BoiiCKa ocBo6oanriH BepreH-Berib- 
3eH (Bergen-Belsen) 

2 Man. CoBeTCKMe Boiicxa 3aHttnM BepnMH. 

5 Mam. MayTxay36H (Mauthausen) ocsoOoxuieH 

7 Man. nonnncana xanMrynnuMO cpauiMCTCxon PepwaHHu. 

16 Mionn. rioTcaaMCKaw KOHCpepeHqna. 

18 oktr6pr. Hanano HHDpH6eprcxoro npouecca. 



4 3HAK BEAbl 



47 



HauMOHa/i-comia/in3M, oflapuB BbiMwiu/ieHHOe mm MnpoBoe eBpewcTBo sepTaMM pacn3Ma, 
xojkaom B/iacm HaA MwpoM, KOCMono/iMTMHecKMM 6e3pa3/iHHM6M k HeMeuKOM poAMHe, 
HaBH3a/i espenM cbom co6cTBeHHt>ie nepTM. Ho sto nmiib o«Ha H3 ctopoh aHTMceMMTM3Ma. 

\A3 KHurn BacHniw rpoccMaHa «Xn3Hb u cyjjb6a» 



M3 nPMrOBOPA 

ME)KAyHAPOAHOrO 

BOEHHOrO TPMBYHAAA 

B HHDPHBEPrE: 
-nPECAEAOBAHUE EBPEEB" 

<- . .> AOKa3aienbCTBa, npeacTaBneHHbie TpuSyHany, yc- 
TaHaenMBatOT (parr npecneaoBaHns eepees HauwcTcxnM npa- 
BMTenbCTBOM 3to MCTOpMs 6ecMeno8eMHOCTM, ocyiyecTB- 
nBBLuekiCfl nocneaoBaTenbHO h CMCTeMaTMMecxw b caMux 
ujwpoKnx MacujTa6ax Koraa CBMaeTenn &ax-3eneBcxoro cnpo- 
cm/im, Kan Mor/io cny^MTbcn, mto Onenaopcp. xax oh npMSHan. 
c HaxoanBLUMMMCfl noa ero xoMaHao* ntoabMM y6nn 90 TbicsM 
HenoBBK, oh oTseTMn: «fl dmmho CMMTaio, mto, xoraa b TeMeHMe 
aonrux neT, aBCtim/ieTHM nponoBeayeTCfl floicrpuHa o tom, 
mto cnaBflHCKan paca HBnaeTca HMsujew paeon, a eepeH aawe 
He HB/iqioTcn ntoabMM, noao6Hbiii pe3ynbTaT HeM36eweH>». 
rioflcyflMMbiM (»paHK npon3Hec nocneflMMe cnoBa stom rnaBu 
HauMciCKOM mctopmm, xoraa oh aaBan noKa33Hnn Ha cyae: 
«Mbi 6oponncb npoTMB eBpeiicTBa, mu Soponncb npoTMB 
Hero B TBHenne pnca neT. HaM npMHaanexoT HexoTopue 

M3peMeHMH (M MOM flHeBHMK MOWeT CTaTb B CBB3M C 3TMM 

CBnaeieneM npoTMB mbha caMoro) — M3peMeHMH. KOTopwe 
ywacHM... npOMflyTTbicflHeneTMH, H0 3Ta BMHa repMannn Bee 
euie hb 6yaeT CHHTa». 

AHTuceMHTCKaa nOflHTHKa 6bina c^opMynnpoBaHa b 
nyHiae 4 napTniiHoii nporpaMMw, xotopwm macnn cneayto- 
mee: «Tonbxo npeacraanTenb pacw mojkbt 6wTb rpawaaHM- 
hom, a npeaCTaBMTereM pacw MoweT 6biTb Toribxo tot, b kom 
TeneT repMaHCKas xpoBb, He3aBHCMMO ot ero BepoMcnoBeaa- 
hub CneaoBaTenbHo, hm obhh BBpew hb mojkbt 6biTb npea- 
cTaBMTeneM pacbi». Kocbhm 1938 roaa HauncTcxan nonnTHxa 
b OTHOiiienwu eBpeee aocrwrna craaMM, npMHqaiueu (popMy 
nonHoro BWTecHeHMS eBpeeB H3 wmshm TepMaHUM BwnM 
opraHM30BaHbi norpoMw. bo BpeMs kotopwx c>«MranM n yHMM- 
ToxonM cMHarofM; eBpetfcxiie npeanpuHTun noaBeprariMCb 
pa3rpa6neHMK>, a BnaHbie eapeiicKue aenbubi — apecTarn Ha 
eBpeee 6b<n HajioaceH xonnexTMBHUM urrpaQb b obmh Munnn- 
apa Mapox; 6wn caHxuiioHMpoBaH 3axBaT eBpeiicxoro MMy- 
mecTBa. n nepeaBnx<eHne eBpeee 6wno orpaHnneHO onpeae- 
neHHbiMM pa^OHaMM m onpeaenennbiMM tacaMM. reiro co- 
3aaBanncb b MpesBb/MaviHo uimpokom MacujTaSe. n no npuxa- 
sy nonnunn 6e3onacHocrn eBpeeB 3acTaBnnnn Hocmb *en- 
Tyw 3Beaay na rpyaw m Ha cnMHe. 

HaijMCTCKoe npecneaoBaHne eBpeeB a repMawuM ao 

BOMHbl. XOTH OHO 6binO *eCT0KMM M 5e3*anOCTHblM. He waeT. 

oaHaxo. hm b xaxoe cpaBHeHMe c nonMTMKoii, npoBoaMMOM bo 
BpeMH bomhw Ha OKxynMpoBaHHbix TeppMTopwnx. riepBOHa- 
^aribHO 3Ta nonMTMxa 6bina cxo*a c tom, KOTopan ocymecTB- 
ns/iacb n BHyTpn TepMaHnn: Bee eBpen aoroxHbi 6wnn npoxo- 
aMTb perMCTpaunK), mx aacTaannnn xnTb a ren-o. ohm aoruxHW 
BwriM HocMTb xcenryio 3Beaay. m mx ncnoribSOBan Marin pa6c- 



xoro Tpyaa. HeTOM 1941 roaa, oaHaxo, Hananw pa3pa6aTw- 
BaTbcn nnaHbi «oxoHMaTenbHoro peoieHMH* eBpeMCKoro eon- 
poca b EBpone. 3to aoxoHHaienbHoe peiueHMe» o3naMano 
yHMMToweHMe Bcex espeee, xoTopoe. cornacHO yrpoaaM Tmt- 
nepa, b Hasane 1939 roaaaorwHO 6wno »BMTbcn oaHMM K3 
cneacTBMM pa3pa3MBtueMCB bomhw; ann nposeaeHMji b »M3Hb 
3tom nonnTMKM 6wn opraHM30BaH cneuManbHWM oTaen recTa- 
no, kotopwm Boarnaannn Aaortbcp SMXMaH, HananbHMK OTae- 
na 4-B. 

rinaH yHMMToweHun espeeB 6wn pa3pa6oTaH acxope 
nocne HanaaeHun Ha CoseTcxnM Cokj3. MpaMHwe noxaaanun 
o MaccoBbix y6nAcTeax eapeea 6binn Taxwe npeacTaBnenw 
TpM6yHany nyTeM aeMOHCTpauwM (pMnbMa, noxasbiBaeiuero 
o6mMe MorMnw cotoh *epTB. BnocneacTBMM o6Hapy)xeHHbix 
cowaHMxaMM no Bonpocy 06 OcBBHUMMe TpM6yHan 3acny- 
man noK33aMMH Tecca, «BnBBujeroc« c 1 Man 1940 r. no 1 
aexaGpR 1943 r xoMeHaaHTOM narepn Oh saaBun. ijto Tont- 
xo b oaHOM narepe Ocbbhuum sa 3tot nepMoa BpeMeHM 6bino 
MCTpe6neHO 2 MMnnMona 500 twchh MeroBex, noMMMo Toro, 
hto 500 TbicHs norM6nn ot 6one3HeM m ronoaa. Buiim npea- 
CTaBneHbi aoxa3aTenbCTBa OTHocMTenbHO cyab6w 3aK/iK>- 
seHHwx ao m nocne mx yHMMTO)xeHMfl. 

Ho EBpone pa3be3>xann cneuManbHo cosaawHwe rpyn- 
nwnMu, BbiMcxMBaBiuMeeBpeeaafWTaKHa3biBaeMoro«oxoH- 
MaTeribHoro pa3peujeHMn» Bonpoca. B HexoTopbie CTpaMw- 
caTennMTw (BeHrpMji m BonrapMfi) 6wnn HanpaBneHbi rep- 

MaHCKMe MMCCMM. XOTOpbie aOJIJKHbl 6binn OpraHM30BblBaTb B 

BbiiueynoMBHyTbix uensx ompaBxy eapeeB b nareps yHMMTo- 
>KBHMn B TepMaHMio. Hjboctho, mto k KOHijy 1944 roaa 400 
TbiCflM eapeeB M3 BeHrptiM 6binn yMepujBneHbi b OcaeHUMMe. 
HMemTCfl noxaaaHMn 06 3BaxyaqnM 110 Tbicnn eepeeB us 
PyMWHMM ana HMXBMaauMM. Aaonbcp 3mxm8h, xoTopoMy Tmt- 
nep nopyHMn npoBeaeHMe 3tom nporpaMMw. noacsnTari, mto 
b pe3yribTaTe npoaoaMBiueiicfl nonMTMXM Sbino y6MTo 6 Mun- 
nnoHOB eBpeeB, M3 xotopwx 4 MM/inMOHa 6wno y6MTO b 
nyHXTax ann MCTpe6neHM« nxjaeM. 




HK3pH6eprcxnM npouecc. OrnaiueHMe npnroBopa 



41 



^ 3HAK BEflbl 



BTopan MMposan BOHHa BbiBena senoBesecTBO 3a rpaHb senoBesHOCTM. Bo bchkom cnyMae, He xoneTcs 
ayMaTb, hto KposaBan 6omhh, BfloxHOB/iHevan 6peaoBbiMM MflenMM, hb/ihctcr hopmom senoBesecKoro cyme- 
CTBoeaHMn. H wu ydeflnnn ce6«, hto H3-aa 3toh rpann mowho BepHyTt.cn, hto H»opH6eprcKMM npouecc nocraBHn 
Bee tomkh naa i. h 6ecnoKO»TCH 6onbiue He o mom: hu BHOBb MHCTbi n HBBMHHbi. Ho noHCMy KpoBasan 6omhr 
y*e 3a6biTa BHytcaMM h npaBHyKaMH ee wepTB m nananeH, KOTopbie, k TOMy *e, 0Ka3anncb oneHb BocnpMMMHMBbi 

K CTapbIM . HO OHBHb NCMByHMM 6peflOBblM HfleHM? 3to flMUJb KajKBTCfl, MTO BOMH3 6bljia OHCHb Aa BHO - Mbl Beflb 

fla*e He ycne/iM ycsoHTb ee ropbnne ypoKM n TO/ibKO HSMMHaeM noHHwarb. hto qcc em,e ctohm Ha rpaHM. 




3a (icHiniu. cueepiueHHbie e EdeaOHo, necem omtsemcmetHHOcmb 
eecb napod. 3mou omeememeeHHoemu .mm «<• do.iMcubi u He momccm 
inSeMcantb. 

Ctoiit capaii 3a ropoaoM. M a 3tot capafi no.wKii roimr capeB. \i 
CKO.ibKo 6bwo TaM CBpeeB - 1600 h.ih 100. -HeitMeeTWiKaKoroiHaHeHiiii. 
Hh k .ik cMHriaioiuee bhh>' o&ctost ejibcTBO, hii Kaic oTHniaiomec ^eaHiic. 
KOTOpoe ohm 'lepei mhiivtn coBcpuiaT. nepeji cvjom iiaiueii cosecni lie 
mo<kct HMCTb CMarnaioiuHx o6cTo»TejibCTB. CKO.ibKiix .iioaefi jarHa,™ u 
tot capafi. 6iuioToraa Ba*-Ho a.ia tcx eBpeeB. KOTopwe hc nona.iii b pyKii 
npecieaoBaTcneH. Ceflnac 3TO Ba*HO am iicropHKOB. H OK Te eBpen bcih 

Cc6a BO BpCMH COBCTCKOH OKKVIlalllin. lie IIMCCT HIIKaKOrO III.1HCHI1H AIM 

iiac. oueHHBaiouiHX ooiimoc tomkh ipchhm Hauieii coni'iiii 

Bo.ibdtMap KWHHCKHii. 
Hi cmambu oTopmuuii capaii u w». 



OceenuuM /7aMnmm>'u 3nax mpaaeduu e Edaa6no 



.. O mo.v. nmo jice ua comom deie npouiouno 10 woax 1941 soda t laxo.iycmuoM xwcmevKe EOeaouo. ceuuac toaopum acx flo.ibiua. 
Xamx do iiedaemvo ape.wenu ace Ka3awcb ncHbiu u hukqkux cnopoe ne 6bno. B mom denb e .uecmeiKO npuouvi eecmanoaifbi m 
cneiiua.ibiiou komuhOm «Ee.wcmoK». C no.vouibio noco6nuKot U3 huc.w Mecmnoeo iiace.iemui ami coemuu a a\ioap u cu.nce.iu sanamo 
oko.io 1600 vapeet. He nouiadu.ni iiukoso: no?u6:iu u cmap. u .xcmd. Flo caudeme.ibcmsaM oieauduea, jpyi)nbix denied caHibiao.ni in HOMCKU 
u ho eiciax opocaiu e oeonb... 

3mo npecmytfiemie iibtw npuvepiio hukumho no.ibCKUu npaeocydue.v. B 1949 eody cocmoaicn cyoeonbiii npouecc. ape 3y.ibmame 
Komopoeo odun ue.ioteK 6bu npueosopen K c.MepmHoii kuihu u oduHHadnamb - k O.wme.ibHbiM cpoKOM jaiciHiueHUM. Ha .\mu.k JKepma 
mpa.vduu nocma«uiu na.\tHmnuK. u ttadmich ua next e.iacwui. vmo eapeea coxcsju <pauiucmbi. 

Ho imy gepcwo onposepeaem mo.nno nmo uidaimast a no.xbwe Kiiuea «Cacedu». iianucaHiiaji ucmopuKou fluoM To.uauieM rpocco.M. 
Oiia ocHoeana ua ceudeme.ibcKux noKa3anunx Obiaweeo xcume.w Oepeanu Ulvyw Baicepiumaiiiia. nydoM ocmaaude^ocl1 « Mciiebix. 
OKa3btaaemc». nedaHmuHHbie hvmiin. cnu\iaawuc «ce ho rneHKY. cauu He yHacmaoea.tu a cnipaiuHo.M npecmyn.ienuu. HxieHiio pflcaMU 
no.iHKoa 6bLiu yituHmoxceiibi eepeiicKue ce.utu. uMymecmao nomopbtx nomo.upa3epa6u.iu. Hpaada. aemop ne ucKi/ouaem. nmo into \u v ui 
fihiinb uecnib eepenv 3a mo. vmo ohu houliu ho compydnutecmeo c cosemcKou ad.\tunucmpai<ueu a nepuod c 1939 no 1941 iod. Hopuiae 
ymo ww-mo Mewiem? 

A.ieKcaHdp CAMO/KHEB. 



... I'm i" moil iio.ii.ckmh 'in i ;i u-.:i. He xore.1 iupii 1 1.. hto m-i i o uojo6Hoe Mor.iociyMHTboi. 1 1 pn uiu i i.i'x. a rowe nociHia.1, nro mimi 
npyr 5In Tombui Tpocc cia.i *epi nmi MwcTHi}>Mk'aiiiiu. H «ce m iipecT>n.ieHHe ■ I ih arum. KOTopoM.v npe.iuiecTBOBa.i 3Bepck'Hii norpoM 

CBDeeB. IIMC 111 MIX' 1 li H .1(1.1*11(1 1 » AKIIM ip> KIM OT.lO'AHTbCH B MflCCOBOM C03H8HHH III). IUKOB. II B Mcll'M .1HMIIOM I d*i'. . ll-l'lll I I.I 11:1 li'Ml 

npecTj n.TeiiHH b I i ii joiih i. ih i cm cpc.iH i io.ihkob y*e iiecKo.ibKO mcchikh . Hm conyTCTByer cepbC3HOCTb, BjVMHHBOcrb. 6o.ib 11 >Aac. 
K8K "vim bccmv (mIiiu'ci b> npiiKa laiio B.ip> i iiecTH 6dcmh ci paiuiioi n nptxi mi uiiiiH. coBcpiiii'inioi o 60 .ieT ua la i. Kaic Oy.iTo BceM 
no.THK-aM npHk-aiaiio Ko.viek-rHBHO npn ih:i 1 1. bhhv h npocHTk npouieiiHo. 

. .. I i IIM1\ 1 1 II CTDOKH OCTOpOA'HO. H IBi'IIIIIBai<> i.inB.i. nOBTODDH 3a Moll U'CKI.i.-: ■ l>. I. II o 1.1 (IH lipiipu U-. II - 'U.lnBi'k'. fl.iai u upH 

c.iviaK). a - (ppaiun j". Taw a a: o.iai o.iapw ciynaio - ikuhk c eapcHCKHMM KopiiBMH. IIoith bcm mok> ceMbKi urn uhii.i Xo.iokoct. moh 
G.UUKHC Mor.iH norHCHyn. b Ejaa6HO. HeKOTopuc H3 iihx 6u.ih kommj HHcraMH h.ih po.iciBciuiHKaMH kohmvhnctob. lUKoiopbic 

■'•1,1. Ill |ii'Ma'. I> IIIIHK.IMII. TOplOBtiaMH. MO/KCT, ii paBBHliaMII. Ho BCC oi.l. Il; CBpCHMH. CBOCH 111! in l iu -p. I 1 1 Mil ll.il milllllMIl HC MVBCTByiO 

- HVBCTByio o i Be ic i mil hoc 1 1.. He 3a to. «no H% \ mi. iii. - 3Toro line iii i Bpa 1 1! m. a He Mor. A 3a to. «ito nocie cvtepiH mx >6h.ih btodoh 
P'.h - iio-'ic iiiiii'iickii He iioMipoiui.iii. tie on.i8Ka.iH, He pack-pt>uH npaB.iy 06 mum iio3ophom npccryn.ieHHH. ho paipeuiH.iH 

.leCflTH.lCTHHMH com:1III.IH:i 11.. II 3TO JOB MOB Blllia. He \B3 IH.IO Boin'ip;l*cllllH. HpcMCIIII. HJ-ja CBOeTO nlllhip n HH IM'.l H IVXOBHOrO 
.11-11 I mil I «J He la.l.l.l I'l-lV HCKOTOpUX BonpOCOB. He Hl'k'a.l OTBCTOB. I Inc. Mi'.' III-. II. Iipilll.l l. It *.l.l K ll'M. Kin .IK I Ilium f.K.I»'"|i l(« B 

jkii-k pi.i i ik iipuii ii.i o ii|H-t i > ii. i iii hii b k':i ii.iiiii. Kioima.iiM mi uiaiuiu iiciinii.i o CTa.iHHCKMX npoueccax. o AipiBav k-OMMyiiiiciH'ii-c- 
Koro penpeccHBHoro annapaia. I Io'ii-mn *t- lie HCKa.i npas.ibi no yiiHHToaceHiibix a K niaoiio nipin\ '.' Ki.ii i, moati. im ico ma u-.imio 
oi i>i. icii ee? 

A aeab jHKaa in.iiia b K.iBa6nii He fibi.ia iuhiiokuh. Bo bccx cipaHax. impaGouieiiiiux nocie 1939 loaa Cob*tckhm Coh>jo*i. 

u- iom H "C. Ill.lo 1941 in la npnlllMl ill III aCVTKHe lipi'CIJII.Il'IIIIH lipOTHB fH|H-fH. (lllll mil lion III OT p\'K Cliff It'll - .IHTOBCKMX. 
HII Mlill'KHX. 3CT0HCKHX, VKpaHIICKHX. |MllCHHCkH\. IK'.I0p> CCKIIV. .!> M1IK1, lipillll.IO BpeMH > 111311,. liaKOIICII. KCHi lipall.I) 06 3THX 
KOUJMapilblX COOUTHRX. FlNUIV JTH C inl'.a H CH0B3 OIII> IIIUIII t lit 'IIIHpll'U'i'k') HI lllll KKppillMhi: « - IIII.IHK. a MOH CTU.1 »» lIpfCTyn.ieilHC 



4 3HAK BEAbl 



41 




WiFctai 



OCnonota khubu Una Touawa 
fpocca tCocedun 



B I ■ 1 11:11"' Hi i - 1T0 naibCKHH CTM.t. HpH >TO*l IIKII". HTO, 
OKaVKHCb c:lM I "I .1:1 il I IFiaflMO. DM.1 OU VOMT KUK I'RpoH. 

TaK Km we, HUKOHeu, a, i ih m miihh ■ 1 11 cioBa? B.ia- 
111 lapw iipiipn ic. a - 'iv 1, hi, 1, . 1 1 1 k.'uih huh 11 nepe.i ipyi h- 
mh .iHUbMH ia to, hto caeaa-i h wo He c.ie.ia.1, B-iaro.ia- 

ps mwmv h i,h"m ip \ . si - in 1. in k h " 1 Bt- '1:1 h 1 nepea BceM mhdom 

IU TO MO. KOTOpoC COinopil.lH MOM COOTtHeCI BCHHMKH. 

. le.iaio 1 1 (i iico iiiaiiiin. no HSK-aiy cooctbchiioh cobccth. 

Ho ojiioBpcMeiiiio iiHiuy bcc 3to K*aK i Fipi-11. ouiyuia- 

KiuiHH i.hookoc oparcTBo c mn, Koro >6hb8.'ih Torja. 

I Imi Mil" iii-mi IH HJ JTOrO. I". IVKCII laHMII 1 1.: TOT. KTO nU- 

laeTca in.ipiu 1 1, ripecTyii.iciiHc b LlBaOHo H3 KoiiTCKcra 

3II0XM H nOCTpOHTb lla lll'M IICKOV DOOOUICHHC; TOT, KTO 

\TBep*.iaeT. hto tbk bcth ce6n ro.ibKo ho.ihkh h bcc 

IHi.IHKH. - TOT IliUaA lai I ,103Kb iah> III 3KC VICp)K\K>, KBK 

h MHoro.ieTHec Bpaiibe npecT\n.iiiinn n 1 1n.1r.1n. 

Ada* MHXHUK. 



Bcc neurit u neurit hohuxuuo. tmo cmhit) - odHO uj KUMCHritutux uyscnm tewaeKa. 
MiiMxm. cniNii lino iiKoKipuiiiiMu opiim nuiiu' 0op.ua.HKo />im lie eunoeam, ho kosou pent 
uthm c poonnae. npuHud.teJKiiocmu K mouy ca.uo.My napody. k inoii caxtou punituu iuu 
podcmaeiiitou no wmuwcuou opiiatmmtitu. HcydaemcH. npucmo Maxnytt pyKvu, onior.ianw- 
cm I'm putyuwHKH •< liiwitttiHKt 1 />;i/" H mo.vki sa.vcim noMiiumh. vnonptawmoMyue»o*e Ky 
'in ! miiii ohiini. npucyufc uymmmi cniuda. 3a mota nod.ieifa. la mo 3.10. ocko.iku Komopoeo 
mo.'.vi «ce nee nonacnth « nam eeeodnmuHuii Hucmmi mem A Moncem. u noruau? Moxcem, 
into oiiu npocuidbieaioni e iienomopbix porbHCHeHUH.x u KOMMeiimapitMx' ... 

Ec.111 ww He cnocoOUbi ucnhimamh cm-bid. ooiocb. imo MM tie cnpasuMcn c skhou. 

Tltmp HOBHHAKOHOnKA. 
Bi innimi.it «BuHa 6eccoeecmHbix>>. 

«ripo6neMa HpeiBbiHafiHO 6ojie3HeHHaii n» HbiHeuwero nojibCKoro o6mecTBa. 

Mbl 30: I3KHU V HHX npOCHTb npOUlCHHB? Ha pa3BC HCI13BeCTHO BCCMy MMpy. HTO ilO.INKll 
piICKOBa.TH CBOeH VKM3HI>K>. CfiaCaS L'BpeeB B TOJU BOfiHhl? Pa3BC He CBHJCTejIbCTByeT 06 

3tom Tpcn> Tex BoccMHajuaTii TbicHM jepeBbeB. mto noca*eHU b Hepyca.iHMe b Mecrb 

" I lpa BiMHH Ki'ii MHpa»? UJCCTb TMCSH aepCBbCB — 3TO UieCTb TblCSH nO.lSKOB. nO.lVHHB- 
luiix Meaa.ib «ripaBeaHHKa» 3a cnacemie eBpecB. M paiBc. c apyrofi cropoHbi. 11c ewpcn 
ciyxciLiH b nocieBoeHHofi cTa.iHHCKOH rio^biue b opraHax roc6e3onacHOcrn. b tom 
miaie hb caMbix bwcokhx nocrax. h hmcih HenocpejcTBCHHoe oTHoiueHHe k penpeccHiiM 
npoTHB no.ibCKHx naTpnoTOB. noanojibiuHKOB. conaaT 11 oipHucpoB Apmhh KpafioaoA? 
flycTb cBpen npocm" y Hac npouiCHim!» 

TaKHX craTCH h mnaTeibCKHX nHceM b no.ibCKofi npecce noiiB.nieTcii HeMaJio. Ho 
npeiiucHT rio.ibuiH A.ieKcaHap KBacbHeBCKHH y*c npiiHiLi peuieHiie: 10 hkmisi. b 
uiecTiuccHTyio roaoBiuiiHy Tpareanii. oh npneacT b EaBa6HO h nonpooiT npomeHHS ot 
iimchh nojibCKoro iiapo.ia. 3to umi.ieiino BU3Ba.io6yp>o. Flycrb KBacbHeBCKHH npociu 
npoiueHim ot CBoero hmchh! ripoBeaeHHUH couHO.ionmecKHfi onpoc Ha ratty, npocim. 
npomeHHS h.ih hct, noxaian. hto 53% no.mKOB - npoTHB. 34% - 3a, a 1 3% He 3HawT. hto 
OTBCTHTb. npe3iueHT TaK KOMMeHTHpoBa.i 3th pe3V^bTaTbi: «TaKHe co6bmm. Kan B 
F.niaono . He oueHiiBaioTCfi c 110 woiumo onpocoB. 3ro Bonpoc Haujcn oTBeTCTBCHHOCTH. 
Hauiero HpaBCTBCHHoro caMooiuyuieHHa... H HiiKaKiie paccy*aeHH»i 3aecb HHHero He 
H3MCHrr». 

jlio6oribiTHo. hto. hc coi .lauiadcb c npejtueHTOM b Bonpoce npomeHHH. 6ojib- 

U1HHCTBO nOJIMCOB npOaOH*aiOT JOBepSTb CMV OOjlblUe, HCM ,lK>6ony H3 HUHCUIHIIX 

no.iHTHKOB (77%,cornacHo nocneaiieMy onpocy). 

BucKa3a.ica Ha *TJf Tewy h npcMbep-MHHHcrrp Ejkh By3«K: "Eoih Kax Hapoa mm 
ropaHMca tcmh nu.mKa.Mii. KOTopue t phckom 11 ja*e uchoh cooctbchhoh *ihhh 
cnacajiH espeeB. to onm:nihi npH3HaTb h biihv rex. kto hx y6HBaji». 

Bee mami, KaKyio no3HUHK> 3afiMeT UepKOBb. hto cxaxceT npuMac Domam 
KapanHa-i r.icwn. HejaBHO oujio npHH»TO peuieHHe KOHCpepeHUHiienHCKonaTa. h Khecp 
T.ieMn oobHBiui. hto 27 Maa b koctwc Bcex Cbhiwx Ha TiKHOOBCKOH njiomaaH b 
BapuiaBe. Tavt. rje b roiibi bohhw 6m.i uejnp reTTO. enHCKonu «nonpocaT npomeHHa y 
Bora 3a npecTyrneHHS npoTHB CBpeeB b EaBa6Ho h apyrnx Mecrax. ia Bee xio. KOTopoe 
npiiHccm no.ibCKHC rpa*jaHe cbohm corpaxuaHaM HyjeflcKoro BcpoHcnoBeaaHHii». 
Kap. ni 11 a. 1 oacHjucT TaK*e, hto «cBpcHcxaa cropoHa noHHMacT h coocrBCHHyio rpexoB- 
HOCTb h noTOMy peujiiTcs nonpocHTb npomeHHa y nonaKOB 3a 3jto. npHHHHeHHoe hm 

CBpCSMM. B TOM HHC1C B KOMMVHHCTHHeCKHe BpeMCHa». 



AneKcaHAP KBacbHeBCKMM 
npe3MABHT Pecny6/iMKM rionbwa: 

• EC/lH Mbl XOTMM BMMTH H3 EflBa6HO 

nynuje. cwnbHee MMyapee, mom 6wnn, 
Mbl BonxcHM pacc*a3aTb bckd npae/jy 
o tbx co6wtm3x Ho cxa3aTb npaeay 
He osHanaeT pacnpocrpaHHTb ee Ha 
aecb wapoa mhm hb nonbcxoe rocy- 
flapcTBo. CpeflH nonsicoB 6wjih tb- 
Kne. kto noMoran bbdosm m cnacan 

MM )KM3Hb BblPM H T3KMe, KTO Bbifla- 

Ban m, yaw - tskos toucb 6biBano. - 
yfiMBan eapeeB. Bbino m tsk, m stbk 
Oamh na BbiBoaoe n3aena Easa6Ho: 
Me bosmomho m, 6onee Toro, hb »ym- 
ho noABOAMTb HTor repon3Ma m noa- 
nocTH - ohm, k cxjJKaaeHMio, He hc- 
wiiOMawT apyr apyra. (...) CneAyeT 
CAenan. to. hto aenaoTcji a TaKHx 
CHryauMBx: npoujaTb m npocim. npo- 

ujjBHm. 

rionBKH. cnopn tom. npocMTb htih hb 
npocurb npomeMMB 3a EaBa6no, aon- 
JKHbi 3aayMBTbCfl: a 6bino 6w km bcb 
paBHO, eonn 6m EnbunH He Haiuen b 
ceoe cmji h hb nonpociui npouieHHR 
3a KaTbiHb? Hnn ecnx 6bi pyxoaoAH- 
Tenw ©Pr BpaHAT b BapwaBe, Konb 
b Kujmwoboh, Tepuor a 50-» roaoB- 
iynMy BapujaBCKoro BOCcraMns. a ca- 
MbiM nocneaMMM lilpeaep - cMonna- 
nM m He CK/ioHnnn ronoBN nepeA 
nOnbCKHMH >KepTBaMH bohhw? Hnn 
Mbi comtom ace oto ntiuib nycTMMM 
PyTMHHMMH JKeCTaMH? Hot! (...)fln»i 
pyccKnx cica3aHHoe EnbuuHbiM «npo- 
ctht8» 3a KaiMHb 6wno. aoidkho 

6blTb. CTpaUJHMM nOTpflCSHMSM. OHM 

6wnH BocnMTaHw a yBepeHHOCTM, hto 

600 TWCflH MX COOTSHeCTBeHHllKOB 

nan». cpawancb sa oceo6o>KaeHMe 
nonsKOB ot HeMeuKO-c$aujMCTCKHx 
saxeaTHMKOB. y HMX 6oinn CBOH Morn- 
ribi h noHHraHrie norn5Lunx repoeB C 

T3KHM C03HaHM6M OHM XOTePM WMTb V 

aaxibuie. H bot hx npe3naeHT tobo- 
Pmt, hto 6Mna eme n KaTMHb h hto 
eawHO Me TO/ibKO to, hto no npmtaav 
CiannHa nonbCKHX ocpnuepoa pac- 
CTpe/iMBajiH BMcrpenoM b 3aTbinox, 
ho m to. hto paccTpenHBanM pyeexne 

M0MH0CnpoCHTb.33HeM BOO6ujeB03- 

apaujaTbcn k stmm TeMaM? CTOJibxo 
neT yxce npouiao... Ho OTBeT npocT 

Mbl AOHNCHM B03BpamaTbCfl, n6o 3T0 

nacTb HauieM mctopmh. Ecnn mm xo- 
tmm ropAHTbcn eecnaBHMMMCTpaHH- 
uaMH, mm aonwHW npviHHTb h Hpaa- 

CTB6HHyiO OTBeTCTBBHHOCTb 3a 66 

MpaHHue CTpaHMUbi. Pas aro npo- 
n30Lnno b rioribuje. to xax 6t* hsm hm 

6unO 60/lbHO, Mbl AOniKHM 06 3T0M 
nOMHMTb - B HaCTHOCTH, 3a60THCb 

cbobm HaunoHarbHOM caM0co3Ha- 
HMW, 

cTbitodHUK noeivexHbtOf 
15 anpesm 2001 a. 



51 



^ 3HAK bEAbl 



Ha 3th nocneaHHe cioBa r.iemna OTOJBa.ien paBBHH Bapiuaabi h ."Iojtjh Miixai.ib lUyjpux. npHr.iauieHHbift Ha coBMecrnoe 
6orooiy*eHHe c no.ibCKHMH cnncKonasin b koctci Bcex Cbhtwx: "Honshu aon*Hbi noHHTb. hto ith KOMMyHHcrw 6w.ih iaK*e 
MpeaaTe.mMii coocTBCHHoro Hapoaa. otpckuihmhch ot Hauiefi pciHniH h HaunoHajibHWX Tpaaitmifi. 3th .ikuh He ciHTanii ce6» 

CBpeSMH. II MU HX TaKOBUMH HC CMHTaCM». 

)KypHaJiHCT Ah TypHay npcmaji ciejoBaTb npHMepy HoaHiia flaB-ia II. nonpocHBiuero npouicHim y CBpecB ia Bee ooaau, 
npiiHHHeHHbie iim KaTo.iiiKaMii. 6c3 bcakhx oroBopoK. 

OiHaiacr sin 5oro&iy*cHHe, coctohbuicccs 27 Man b BapuiaBc. mo bucuihc KaTOJiiiHccKiic nepapxii FloJibiiiH hc npHeavT 10 
Hto.m b FLimiOHo. — HCHiBecTHo. Ho to. wto tbm Syayr npc-iH.icHT. iipeMbep. Mapmajibi Ceiiua u CenaTa. aenyTaTbi nap.-iaMeHTa. 
mhothc no.nHTimecKiic h oOwccTBeHHbic acme.™ crpaHW. - 3TO hccomhchho. 

BecHoft 3Toro roaa KHiira Tpocca Bwuina b ncpeBoae Ha mhohic stjukii. PcsoHaHc orpoMHwil. Flojibiua ctoht Ha nopore 
bcij imchhh BEBpoiieflcKHiicoio3. H b Eapouc xotbt VBHaerb. HTOcrpaHa nana. id latwnaibKpoHaBhiii pos. paiacimomuft iio.ibCKHft 
II espeticKHft napo.it.1 Poh. ho He rtaMim. o hcm... 

Cum Ey'KHHH. 
If j cmambu «He ohmaeni iityx npaad». 

liPyCCKOM MblClbx. 

... «iieo6\ojHMO mi.LiL'p-A-a ii. nmrcicH ElBafiHO. no.iroTOBHTb hx k ociuhuhhio ih*oc ih Tpn c.ihm. Hcooxo.ihmo iop*on rchhoc 
upH maiiHc npuB.iu h oi.iaiiHi' noiecTeii wcpiBaM. nycn> ito 6vjct caciaHO T8K, mtoow 06 nw naiiHca in i a it ; u b Mwpe. h moGu 
iiuK.i la.io icicBHicHHC CNN. c yiacmeM npciH.ieiiia. upHMaca n npcMbepa». - iiHca.i eiuc b miRape ( raiiHc.iaB KpaiiicKim. apR-aa 
ipHrypa naibCKoro espeflcKoro cootiuiecTBa. 

I Icno iiih. iscb \\ .iiiiuh MBcrb ci o npopoHecTBa. 

'/K'll It.liHI I 111:1(11111 IIHK'TO He IHIMOl CupaJMCpillb CBOH HVBCIBa CO IBNMallHCM HCTOpHH. lain B MeiliailCKOM liWeCl (I'll mm 

mu.iepaca.iH hx HOMiieiiCKHe oitjpocbi naiHTHWecKoit apeiiu. Ha ra&miie iiaMmiiHKa He HartHcaHO no-inoii upaii.n... a nosecm 

*r|) I HUM pr IIIH R I ■ . IKaflllll C IMUI.l'KOII H \ pHC I IUIICKOH CTOpOllbl OI.la.lH HCMHOIHC: llll. 1 1 op.l jeCflTKa It'll) 7 a IIIH 01 VllHH BclbHOClH 

H SLD iijipuKuiii KieibtX" a no.ibcKo.H nup io.\tcnmc - Ped.), BblcillHe mhiim eBanre.THClCKMX kocic.iub. iiccko.ii.ki> cbhui< num. ob ja 
• no.-. .. : i.k-ii .Mini m a i- 1 ii i.i\ . i iiii. TpaypHyio ucdcmohhio nok°aia.io u-.kiui hhiiv C N'\ h cute Hck-oTopue. O inn naiiHca.iH jccbtkh raid 
h iiiirp(.|iM:iiiiii.iini.H- arcHTCTBa ue.ioio MHpa. Ho k npe3HjeHiy He npncoeiiHHM.icfl hh npcMbep. hh npHMac. mo hckotopmi' (Mil 
iipok-iiMMt'ii i iipuBa.iii ROC oohkot. IIo.ii.tKMH EiiHCKiiiiai MftWC opt aiiH)oBa.i npotei cneuHa.ibiioe 6orociyaccHne. npcMbep iipHii«.i 
vHacTHi- b Koiiuepie. iiocbbiuciihom coouthh). b BapiuascKoii cHHarore ciyac6a npoui.ia Toace Ha Hen>ipe.iHsi puin.nu . 

EBpeHcKaa h naibCKaa ipai v iiih h icpei 60 .ict He o6be.iHHH.ia imuch. 1 mariiiiiii khh capaH BTopoii pai crope.i b iio.ibCKO\i 
ncK.ic, a homo jedvabicus paicMa i pwia.i hii.ii.h n.iaMciin 6c3 ji pi.i kiiiiii cobccth. 

/:'/.;/ C.iaeiiMup MAl{. 
Hi cmantbu «Xomo edaa6unyc». 



... roHHT b capafi eBpees. H mjokhkh. h /kchuihh. M crapbix. h mo.iojux. A HeKOTopwe Ha pynax aep*aT M^aaeHueB. Ocbo6ojihm 
Haiue Boo6pa*cHiie ot njrr. ot 6.ioKHpyioiuefl ero yBepeHHOcro, hto mw. nOflaXH, HHKoraa He 6m.ih cnoco6Hbi Ha TaKoe. Mbiao.iatHU 
noaoflTii k TOMy ropxuiCMy capaio 5c3 itiix nyr. a HHasc Mbi Hii'icro hc cyMCCM i u>nn 1 1.. nocMOTpHM Ha iio.icii b 3TOM capae. h cchh 
He vbh.ihm b iihx cbohx SjiHacHHx. ro xoth 6m npeacTaBiiM ce6s Ha kx Mecrc. Ceon. nauiHX aeTefl. iiaumx biivkoh. V iih.iiim TaM. b 
ueHTpe 3Toft Tonnw - noBTopanj. - eoiH He 6jiH/KHero. TOce6» h cbohx poaHMX. H vciuiiiiim tot kphk. KOTopuii «6u^o cimuiho 3a 
jBa KiuoMeTpa», ii npeacTaBHM ce6e. hto ito mw kpiihhm. mw h tc kto iibm jopo*e Bcero. 3to Hac h Tex. koto mw ,ik>6iim. nepe3 
cenyHay nor^oTHT iieBbinociiMWH acap. h hct hh MajiefluicH Hajeacau cnacTHCb. 

Bo.ndc.Hap KiHHHCKHtt. 
11 1 cmamhii "I'npamuii capaii u j»». 




npoaudowm llonbwu Ajtexcandp KeacbHeecituu Ha omKpbimuuu 
ueuopuana a Edea6no 



EuBaDHencKoe noKanHMO - 3to npM3HaK He cna- 
Soctm, a 3penocrn caMoco3HaHnn. cnoco6noro 
yaepaoTb nonbcicyio Haumo ot noBTopeHMn npe- 
atHMX oujm6ox. 3a6bm>, chb BopoujMTb npoiunoen. 
caenaTb bma, mto «Hac 3to ho xacaeTcna, - 3to, 
KOH8MHO, npome. Beflb Aaace He aa cbom nnsMbie 
rpexM npHxofltrrcn KanTbcn, a 3a rpexn csoero 
HapoAa, m cnyMMBUJnecB-TO s npoiuroM CToneTMM. 
Ho 3a6biTbie rpexw - ran MeaofieseHMan 3apa3a. 
flowAaBiuMCb cBoero naca, OHa BHOBb »ai\f\ej ce6e 
nwTaTflnbHyio cpeny u aaBnafleeT noTeptiBiuHM 

HMMyHHTBT 0praHH3M0M. ECJIH Mbl he XOTMM XCMTb 

b «aomb c npMBMABHMnMM*. xaacAan atepTsa Aonac- 
Ha 6biTb onnaxaHa, nawAbivi nanas - ocyatAeH, m ao 
Tex nop noKanHMe ho aohmcho 3aKOHMMTbCii. Bgab, 
acflH oho oaxe m ho HasHHanocb. 



4 3HAK BEAbl 



51 




M3 CBn/ieTe/ibCKnx noK030HMM HeMeqKoro i±io<$>epa Xecfcepa 
06 yMMHTOJKeHMM eBpeeB b 5a6beM flpe 29-30 ceHT«6p« 1941 roaa 



<...> OcHa*flbi h no/iyMM/i 3aflanno noexai-b ho 
cboom rpy30BMK6 3a ropoa (IpM MH6 B KOMCCTBe 
npoBOJKOToro 6u/i yKpoMHeq. Bw/io sto rae-To oxono 10 
hqcob. rio flopore mw o6oma/in espeee, uibaiumx 
ko/iohhom c noKna^eii a toaa nee HonpaBsieHMM. Tom 
6bi/in ue/iue ce^bM. Hom no/ibiue mw OTbe3*a/iM ot 

rOpOflO, T6M MHOrO/HOflHeM CTOHOBH/lHCb KO/IOHHbl. Ha 

6o/ibiuoM OTKpbiTOH no/iMHe /lexca/iw rpyaw oae>Kflbi — 
30 hmmm n m exan. 51 octohobm/ich no6/iM30CTM, m 

HOXOAMBUJMeCA HO HO/ISHe yKpQMHUM CTO/1M HarpyjKOTb 

NvaiuMHy leuiOMn. C SToro mbcto h bmab/i, mto npn6w- 
bobujmx eepees — m/jkmhh. weHUiMH h aeTen — BCTpena- 
/im Taxxe yKpoHHqu m HanpoB/m/tM mx k roMy Mecry, 
-a© Te ao/i»Hbi 6hi/in no onepe/iH CK/ioAWBOTb cbom 
noxMTKM, nn/ibTo, o6ysb, sepxHioio oneway h same 
HMJKHee 6e/ibe. B onpeneneHHOM mbcto eepe* aosimhm 
5biAM CK/iOAWBOTb m cbom aparoueHHOCTH. Bee >TO 
npoHCxoAnno OMeHb 6wcTpo: ec/in KTo-Hw6yab aaaep- 
jkhbo/icb, VKpoMHuw noarominM ero hmhkomm m yAapa- 
mh. 51 ay Man, mto hg npoxoAn/io m MMHyTbi c mombhto, 
<orna ne/ioBeK cHMMan na/ibTO, ao Toro, kok oh y*ce 
:too/i coBepuieHHO ronuii. He aonanocb hmkokoto 

P03/1MMMH M6*fl/ MyjKMMHOMM, xeHIMMHOMM H ABTbMM. 

y noAXOAMBWHX espeee 6bi/io aoctotomho bojmoxchoc- 
Tefi noeepHyrb o6paTHo npM suae Toro, kok pa3aeBa- 
otcb npniuecujMe poHbwe hmx. no com AeHb * yan*n*- 

OCb, MTO JTOrO HM p03y H6 C/tyMM/lOCb. 



Pa3fleTbix especo HonpaB/in/iM e oopar, npnwiepMO 

150 M6TPOB fl/lUHOM, 30 MeTpOB LJHpHHOM H UB/lblX 15 

MeTpoB rny6nHOM B 3tot ospar se/io 2 m/im 3 ysKMx 
npoxoaa, no kotopum cnycica/iMCb espe*. Koraa ohm 
noAxoAH/iH k tcpaio ospara, uuyu-nomtLieHCKMe (HBMeu- 
Kne) xboto/ih mx m yK/iaAbiBo/iM ho Tpynbi y *e hoxoamb- 
LijMxes tom poccTpe/inHHbix espees 3to nponcxoan/io 
oMBHb 6ucTpo. Tpynw nemann aKKypaTHbiMM pxnaMn. 
Kok TO/ibKO espeft /io*<nncsi, noAxoAH/i uiyu-no/iHueH- 

CKMM C OBTOMOTOM M CTpeflH/1 SieJKOBUJeMy 8 30TUS10K. 

Eapen, cnycKOBiiJHecB b oBpar, 6w/in HOCTO/ibKO Mcnyra- 

Hbl 3TOfl CTpailJHOM KOpTMHOM, MTO CTQHOBH/IMCW COBep- 
UI6HHO 6e3BO/1bHMMH. CflyHO/IOCb AO)t(e, MTO OHH COMH 

yK/iaflbiBanncb b cbom p«fl m ncflonM BbicTpe/ia. Poccipen 
npoM3BOAM/iM Bcero abo ujyu-no/iMijeMCKMX. Oamh hs 
hmx flBMCTBOBa/i b oflHOM KOHue ospara. apyroPi — B 

ApyrOM. 51 BMA6/1, KOK OHM, CTOJI HO y)Ke yAOKeHHblX 

Te/iax, CTpennioT b hmx — b OAHoro 3a npyrMM. flpoxoA* 
no Te/iOM y6MTux x cneayomeii *epTBe, xoTopon 
yene^o neMb so sto bpomb, asTOMOTMMK TyT me 
poccTpe/iMBa/i ee. 3to 6bi/i KOHBenep, hb po3/immobuimm 

My>KMMH, WeHLUMH H ABTefi. fl«T8M OCTOB/IB/IM C MOTep»- 
MH M pOCCTpe/IHBO/IM BMBCTe C HMMM. 51 Ha6/IK)Aa/1 30 
BC6M 3TMM HBROnrO. rioAOMAB K 1MB, * HOCTO/lbKO 

Mcnyrancn Toro, mto yBMAOfl, hto ho Mor AO/iro TyAO 
CMOTpeTb. B 1MB « ysMAe/i rpynu, nexasiuMe ■ ujMpMHy 

TpeMR P«flQMM, KQAAblM npHMBpHO 60 MBTpOB. CKO/1b- 



52 



4 3HAK BEAbl 



ko c/ioes /iex<a/io ohmh ho apyroM, « pa3r/i»fleTb He 
Mor. Bma AeprawmMxca e KOHBy/ibCMHx, 3a/iMTbix xpoBbio 
Ten npocTO He yK/ianwBancii b co3hohmm, no3TO**y 
neTonn no mcha He aouj/im. KpoMe asyx aBTOMOTMMKOB, 
y Konfloro npoxooa b ospare Haxoan/icn oamh «yK/ion- 

MMK» — 3TO QUA Ujyi4-nO/lML4eMCKMM, KOTOpbIM tok ytt/ia- 

flbiBan xepTBy ho Tpynw, mto npoxoAMBiueMy mmmo 

aBTOMOTHMKy OCTOBO/lOCb TO/lbKO CAC/lOTb BblCTpe/1. 

KorAQ *epTBbi cxoam/ih b ospar m b noc/ieAHee wrHO- 
BCHMe BHAe/iM 3Ty CTpaaiHyio xapTMHy, ohm Mcnycxa/iM 
xpnK yxaca. Ho nx jyr >xe xboto/im «yKnaflMMKH» m 
npncoeflHHfl/in k ocTa/ibHbiM. LLIenajMe c/ieaOM aa hmmm 
He Mornw BMfleTb 3toh y»cacHOM koptmhu, n6o ee 
30C/IOHHH yro/i oapcra. B to Bpe/A*, kok oahm /iioam 

pOSAOBO/IHCb, a 60/lb.WMHCTBO XKflQ/lO CB06M OMepeflU, 



ctos/1 6o/ibaioM uiyM. ykpaHHuu He o6pama/m ho Hero 

HHKQKOrO BHMMOHHH. 

Ohm npoAO/ixa/iM b cneiuKe rnaTb monefi Mepes 
npoxoAbi b ospar. C mccto, rae nponcxonn/io pa3fl6Ba- 
HHe, OBpar He 6w/i smash, tok kok oh hoxocm/icx ho 

paCCTOXHMM npHMOpHO 150 MSTpOB OT nepBOH rpyflbl 

oaex<abi. KpoMe Toro, ayn CH/ibHbin seTep, m 6bi/io 
oneHb xo/ioaho. BwcTpe/ioB b OBpare He 6wno c/iuujho. 
H3 3Toro o caenan bmboa, hto eepen He 3ho/im aapaHee, 

MTO B AeMCTBMTBSIbHOCTM npOMCXOAMT. 51 M CefOflHfl 

yflne/idiocb. mto co ctopohm eBpeeB Hnnero hb 6bi/io 
npeanptiHsiTo npoTHB 3tom qkuhm. Us ropoaa npM6bma- 

1M SCO HOBbie MOCCbl, M OHM, nO-BMAMAAOMy, HHMCro He 

noA03peea/iM, no/iara*, mto mx npocTO nepece/m/iM. 




Paccmpen memuuH u demeu us Buhhuukozo lemmo. 1943 sod 



M3 flHeBHMKO 16-^eTHerO LUKO/lbHMKCl 

Pomoho KpaBMeHKO r. KpeMeHeq, 1942 r. 



11 asrycTa. Doc/ibahmm OHTMeapeMCKMM okt b 
HauieM ropoAe noAXOAHT k KOHLiy. 

Oahh 30 npyruM eAyT obtomoSm/im, 3to yxe 
seMep, obtomo6m/im tok nepenonHBHbi: ho AHe cma*t 
x<eHujMHbi, AesyujKM, abtm. Oaho 6eccMbic/ieHHO y/iu- 
6aeTCH, apyran nonpasnncT nnaTOMOK mo rosiOBB... fla 
bu BeAb Mepe3 Asciub MMHyT 6yA6Te y6MTw, co3HaeTe 

3TO?.. 

19 OBrycTa. CeroflH* B63/im <t>. fl ce6e He Mory 

OTAOTb OtseTO B AAOMX wyBCTBOX, HO OHBHb THJKB/IO, 

ctwaho. He 3a ce6n, ho aa /hoabm, KOTopue cmotput ho 

3T0 6e3pa3/1MHHO M/1M CO 3/IOpQACTBOM. Ohm M6HR H6 

noiiMyT. Hto, oh maneej x<haob?I MamotI Hy mom 

TOKOfl <t>. xy«C Te6n OflHOro C ApyTMMM? fla OHO B 

AecflTb po3 npeBocxoAMT tb6* bo Bcex othowbhmiixI 

EflMHCTBeHHOU A6BOMKO, C KOTOpOfi fl 6bl/l OT HOMO/IO AO 
KOHLIO BnO/IHe MCKpBHBH, a npMJITHO M OTpaflHO MMCTb 

Apyra, KOTOpuii Te6s noHMMaeT m cor/iawaeTcti c 
to6oh. Oho 6u/ia xopowaa abbomko m xpa6pasi Oho 
exa/ia cto», c ropAO noAHHTOM to/iobom, sto 6wno 
no/iMaca TOAAy hosoa, b 6 hocob 35 MMHyT 19 asrycTa 
1942 r., — n ysepoH, mto, m yMMpaa, oho He onycTMT 
ro/ioBbi. 

0., 3hom, n noMHW Te6* m hc 3a6yAy m, mojkot 
6biTb, Korfla-M«6/flb OTOMiuyl Moh nepsax nio6oBb, 
ocTOBMBuia* no ce6e npM«THbie u untrue tocnoMMHa- 



hmh. 3to 6w/i mom MAea/i, m h bp*a /im Hanay KorAa- 
Mki6yab TaKyio apyryio HocnenHMM npMBBT ot Poaa- 
khI.. 

CeroAH* yTpoM ho UJmpokom /ie>xa/ia y6Mrax 
espeMKa. Oho nwTanacb cnocTMCb— m tom ycKopHna 
cbom KOHeq. Oho non/iaTMnacb 3a to, mto ocmc/im- 
nacb saxoTeTb *HTbl Koraa h nniiiy, ms TiopbMW 
aohocstch BbicTpe/iw. Bot on»Tbl Mo>xeT 6biTb, oh 
npeAH03HaMeH O.? B tokom cnyMae eft Tenepb /lyMiue. 

12 ceHT*6p«. B reTTo npoAO/oxoeTct* opraHM30- 
BaHHbiM rpa6e>K. Ba6bi c aaouikomm ne«ypnT nepea 
hmm Kpyr/ibiM AeHb, a Tew 6o/iee - HOMb. Hto 3a 
HapoAl Kokom «repoM3M». Mx CTDWMVT, />ob»it, 

6bWT, HO HO HMX 3TO H6 AOMCTByeT. TOM, TAB nOXHOT 
H0XKMBOM, MX H6 ycepntOT HMKOKMB nperpaflbl B TOTTO 

npMe3>xawT Myx<MKM M3 OTflaneHHbix ce/i, m peAKne 
M3 hmx xoAiT Tenepb 6e3 mocob. 3o/iOTaf» nHTepKa, 
CTOMBiuan ao nowapa m paccTpe/ia 1200-1400 py6- 
nefi, Tenepb ctomt /iHuib 200-250. rio/iMUMn 3a nnjp 

BOAKM A06T 2 HHTepKM 

26 OKTs6ps. CeroAHX 6ura otkputo fl/m pa6o- 
mmx npoflawa «MOKy/iaTypM», T. e. oaokam y6nTbix 
eBpeeB. H ecTb /iioam, KOTopue MOryT bto noKynorbl 
H Aoxe MHoro: b onepeaM ctor/im. fto 3tom npnMHHe 
ceroflHJi He 6wno pa6oTbi ho 0a6pMKe — Bee ctos/im 

B OMepSAM. 



4 3HAK BEAbl 



53 



B Ymohm 
BocnoMMHOHMJt Mqhm (J)aPiHro/ibLi 



nepeoro aBrycTa 1941 roaa YMOHb 6bina aoHXTa 
HewuoMH. B ropoae 6w/io 6o/iee 15 tuchm eBpees noc/ie 
Mo6n/in3anMn m 3BaKyauMM. <...> Ytpom 21 ceHTn6pn 
1941 rofla Bcex eBpeeB co6mpoiot ho pa6oiy, b npouec- 
ce pa6oTbi ohm ysHaiOT, mto uacTt 3tkx ntoaeCi norna/in 
OMy KonaTb. Sonee twcjimm ntoaeA 6pocann b norpe6a, 
m bo yTpa see ohm 6w/im 3aayiueHbi. flpyrwe eapew, 
nonaonjnecn b TiopbAAy, nocuflenn ao Benepa. BcicpoM 

npMUJ/lkl 3PMT6/1M CMOTpeTb HO 3TMX (Ka.lKHX /IKJfleH, 

KOTopwx 3acTaB/ifl/in TOHueBOTb m neTb. 

KoMeHMO, He no co6c.TB6HHOMy wenaHMio TOHijeBa- 
in BBpeu: mx 3acTaB/ifMM m npM ?iom *e 6nnn, 
m36mbo/im ao CMepTM. 

Koraa mofiM npocM/iM ny/iio, mm Taicoro yaoBo/ib- 

CTBHR npeflOCTOBHTb HO XOT6/1M, COMOB /ly4UjCC fl/lH 

paaBneneMMfl 6w/io y6MB0Tb npMK/iaaoM. K yTpy 6w/i 
npMKQ3 jkohiumh c fleTbMM BbinyCTMTb, a MyxcMMH ySn- 
BOTb. HecKO/ibKO AH6M noapxa npoao/i »o/ics norpoM, 
rne 60/ibiueM nacTbio y6MBanH My*MMH. flo nepsoro 
OKTfl6po see espeM ao/dkhu 6m/im nepece/imbcx ho 
CTapbiM 6a3ap, to ecTb *HTb see Ha obhom y/inue an* 
Toro, MTo6ti neme 6u/io co6npaTb mx m yHMMTOxcoTb. 



HecMoip* ho to, mio 6w/i ycTOHOB/ieH cpoK ana ne- 
peceiieHMfi, yKpOMHCKan no/imiMn Hanaaa/ia h He nemo 
no nepeHOCMTb CBoe MMymecTBO, Tpe6y« HeMeaneHHO- 
ro yxoAQ c KBapTMpw. B btom norpoMe c ue/ibio 
rpa6e*ca oktmbhoa yMOCTHe 6pann 60/ibwe 50 npoqcH- 
tob yKpoHHueB ropoaa YMOHb. MeHs BCTpeTM/ia o6bix- 
HOBeHHan neHmMHa, KOTopan pa3aeBana, 3a6npa/ia 
oaeway h ba\«ctb c tom 3oi>bm/ici: «Bot eme oaho 
xmaobko. 3a6MpaMTe ee, a to m3-30 hmx x<MTb HeB03- 
mo>kho». Cnxcy b oahom yKpaHHCKOM AOMe, rne h 
npoTa/iacb, npnxoAMT coceacxHn Ma/ibHMK, cbiHoneK 
no/iMLia*, m pacCK03biBaeT 06 yenexax cbobm motbph, 
CKo/ibKO seme* oho Ma6pa/ia, m npn BbixoAe oh tobo- 
Pmt: «Momo AOCTa/ia ceoe To/ibKO 3MMHee na/ibTo, ho 

OHO TOBOpMT, HTO KOK TO/lbKO 6yAyT eme pa3 6MTb 

jkhaob, oho ce6e AOCTaHeT m zieTHee na/ibTo». EspeS- 
CKOMy HapoAy 6e>icaTb HexyAa 6bino m 6ex<aTb He/ib3« 
6bi/io, KpyroM hoc 6bi/iM repMOHCKne cpawwcTbi, a 
TQKwe yKpanHCKan no/iMUMH. MHorne npeacTGBMTejiM 
Ymohm nOMoro/iM hcmuom pa3biCKMB0Tb m yHMMTOxaTb 
eepeeB. yxpanHuibi, KOTopue CTapa/iMCb CKpusoTb ea- 

pen, 6binM yHMMTO»6Hbl. 



CBMflETE/lbCTBYET 
/lnflMJi A6paMOBHa Mn/ibroTMHa (/Icbht) 
TeTTo Bhhhhliq 



H, MM/ibroTMHa /Imamji, poAH/iacb 20 ceHTd6p« 
1927 roAa b Bmhhmuc Poanrenn mom: /Iobmt A6paM 
Bopmcobmh, 1904 roAa po»nenM», b 1937 roAy 6bi/i 
penpeccMposoH, b 1938 roay — paccTpe/mH, o t 1969 
roAy — pea6M/iMTMpoBOH. MaTb - LUapropoACKaa 3mmo 
TlbBOBHa pa6oTa/ia BOcnMTQTe/ibHMLieM b Bmhhmmkom 

aeTCKOAA COHOTOpMM M 6bl/10 TOM nOMTM AO COMOTO 

3axBOTo H6ML40MM Bmhhmhw, nojrowy mu m He ycne/iM 
3BOKyMpoBOTbc«. Koraa 4>aiiiMCTbi 8CTynM/iM b BMHHMLiy, 
«He 6bino 13 nei, 6paTMUJKe Bope — 7 /ict, cecTpeHKe 
PyiuKe — 3 roAa. Mw x<m/im no yn. KoMMyHMCTMMecKOM, 
aoM 3, kb. 10. 

C nepeoro xe bhji 30xboto hcmliomm Haujero 
ropOAO ann hoc. espees, HOMa/iacb 6ecnpaBHcm *n3Hb 
Hana/iMCb y6MMCTBa, M3AeBOTe/ibCTBa. BnaMane M3 ao- 
mob 3a6Mpa/iM To/ibKO My*MMH, yB03M^M mx noA kohbo- 
bm. Mu xcm/im noA nocTOHHHbiM cipanoM. Ho comob 
CTpaujHoe b MoeM xcmshm npoM3oujno 19 cohtb6p» 1941 
roAa, itorna hoc, MOMy m AOTefi, npMMepHO b 5 hocob 
yTpa pa36yAM/)M kpmkm m nafi co6ok. Koraa Mbi Bbir/ifi- 
Hy/iM b okho, to yBMAe/iM HeMLieB b kockox c OBTOmQ- 
tomm m co6aKOMM. Ohm 3axoan/iH a koxawm oom, c 

HMMM 6blVlM nO/IMMOM; BblTOCKMBO/lM XC6HIHMH, AOTeM, 
CTOpMKOB. AeTM M X<eHU)MHbl n/lOKO/lH, KpwO/lH. MX 
BO/IOKflM CM/IOM. 

51 c coceflKOM noMora/ia momb c AGTbMM B3o6paTb- 
ch ho iopoaK, 3a6pana /lecTHnuy, a coma Bbi6e)Ka/ia ho 
y/iMuy. flyMa/ia, mto ho MepaaKe mx ho HOMflyT. Como 
cneanno so aomom m Bflpyr yBMae^a, hto MOMy c 
aeTbMH BeayT b To/iny, KOTopyo co6npann no y/inue 

KOMMyHMCTMHeCKOM, B OKpyxeHMM KOHBOH COJ1AOT C 

:o6okomh m no/iMUOOB. 51 KMHynacb k hmm, momr 

OTTO/IKMBOflM, HO * npMCOeAHHH/lOCb K HMM. HOC nOBO/lM 

co scefl TO/inofi ho y/inqy Caepa/iosa, rne yxe ctoh/im 

MOlUMHbl, M CTO/1M rpy3MTb B MOUJMHbl. Momo see speMX 

xpMnana xoHBOMpaM, mto h hb eapeMKa, mto6 mom* 
OTnycTM/iM, ho b bco paBHO sa/ies/ia s KptiTyio MauiHHy 



m hoc noBe3/iH b nee, ho to mccto, rae ceiiHac 
hoxoaxtch Morn/ibi ho XMe/ibHML|KOM uocce. B ziecy HOC 
Bbirpy3Mnn nofl kokmb-to AepeB»HHwe HaBecw. Y xbh- 
ihmh BupuBa/iM aeTeA, ho MOfl momo aep*ana HO pyKax 
Tpex/ieTHWK) cecTpeHKy. BpaTMiuKa 6wn p»aom, oh 
n/iaxa/i: «Mawa, * He xony yMMpaTbl» 

To, mto b enne/ia s stot TparHnecKMH jeHb 19 
ceHTo6p*, hb yMA6T M3 mobm noMHTH ao noc/i6AH6M 
MMHyTbt )km3hm. Haujy coceAKy no/iMUOM bo/iok/im no 

MOCTOBOM, OHO y>KO HO MOT/IO XOflHTb, 66 KOnBHH 6bl/1M 

o6arpeHbi Kpoebio, kowo o6/ie3/ia ao koctcm; y 6epe- 

M6HHOM X<eHU4MHbl HO T/IOSOX MO/ieHbKOrO CUHMUJKM 
BblTOCKMBO/IM H30 pTO 30/lOTbie 3y6bl, OHO MCTOU1HO 

KptMOJIO. 

51 6bina noMTM b o6mopohhom coctouhmm m TO^bKO 
cnuusano mommh kpmk: «tbi bo/iwho ^(MTb. 3a6epMTe 
ee, oho pyccKanl» 

MeHS m eme HecKO/ibxo MenoseK 3a6pocM/iM b 
MaujMHy m noee3/iM o6potho b ropoA- 51 HMMero He 
noHMMO/ia ot y»aca m cipaxa. He noMHio, kqk b BHOBb 
OKQ3a/iacb b HaiueM KBapTMpe, noMHio to/isko mto b 
CM/ibHo xpHHo/ia, m houj cocea, kotopwm y)Ke 3cihh/i 
Houjy KBapTMpy, B3K/1 M6HB 3D pyKy M noBen o6poTHO 
Ha y/iMLiy Csepa/ioBa, mto6m caaib recranoBuaM. 

Ho HOMeu, KOTopoMy oh Menu CAOBan, He B3fin 
m6h«. Bmaho, tok cyAb6oM mho 6w/io npeAH03HaHeHO 

OCTOTbCR XCHBOM M, KOK RpOCM/lO MOMO, paCCKQJOTb 060 

bcbm, mto npoMCxoAH/io. 3to ee hoko3: «...Tw ao/mkho 

)KMTb, TW 060 BCeM ROfiMHQ pQCCKa3QTb!.. » 

MeHu OTnycTM/iM, m r nouj/ia k hquimm 3HOKOMbiM, 
rpeKOM, KOTopue xmjim y BOK3ana. Mx (^OMMiiMR Xoho- 

nO/lO. 3TM /1K3BH XOT6/1M MH6 nOMOMb, HO COCeaH CTO/1M 

mm yrpoxcoTb, mto paccKOMtyT recTanoauaM, hto ohm 
cxpuiaiOT espeMKy, m, mto6i.i ho npMHMHUTb hm ropn, n 
yuina on*Tb b cbom asop, k coceaKe. CoceAxa CK03a/ia, 
mto mho nymiM KyAa-HM6yAb yexaTb. B stot AeHb kok 
pa3 k Hefi 8 toctm npne«a/ia cecrpa m He/vvHpooa, m 



54 



4 3HAK BEAbl 



ohcj nonpocM/io ee B3*Tb mohh k ce6e. Oho B3a/ia mch* 
k ce6e, « noMora/ia e(i no xosHftcTBy, My» ee 6bU 6e3 hot, 
HHBa/iHfl cano*:MHK 

Ho Bflpyr, yepe3 HecKO/ibKO AHeii, 3tq *eHu»MHa mho 
CKaaa/ia, mto6w h yonpa/iacb xyga yroflHO mhqmc oho 
cnacT mbho b reeTano. h n neiuxoM H3 HeMnposa onirrb 
npMiuna b BMHHMuy. Yme HocTynn/iM CM/ibHue xonoaa, 
oaewflbi He 6bi/io, Herne 61.1/10 xnTb, ho 6m/io cam. $1 
noHnna, mto ■ oamhomx/ mhb ho npOAepxcaTbcn m ne 
BbiwuTb, h b AeKo6pe 1941 roaa npmiina » eBpeftcxoe 
reTTo ho y/wqe KoMMyHMCTkmecKOvi. B reTTO 6m/ih tcpa- 
CM/ibHD, KoxeBeHHon MacTepcKaM, roe pa6orann a ochob- 
hom m/NCMMHU, m iDBeiiHOB, rae pa6oTa/iM weHLUHHu. 3tm 
meHujHHw m B3»nn mchb k ceDe b nOMOU|HML|bi. 

Pa6oTann mm ot tcmho no tsmho, OseHb noaAepxM- 
Ba/ia hoc b 3to cTpaaiHoe BpeMH oaho ceMbSt. Mx (pomm/ima 

&0HKOBbl. MOTb MX, EBreHUa ElJ)MMOBHO, CnQC/lO KM3Hb 

cspeMCKOMy •ohoujc bwaob ero so csoero cwho, a ee «ih 
Bops h Muna mqcto npHHOCH/in hom, mto y hmx 6bino 
noeCTb. 3 reTTO Mbi nepe»nnn mhoto CTpouiHbJX flneii. 
C«CTeMoinMecnne HOHHbie o6naobi, Korac HeMLju m no/iM- 

UOH HOC nOAHMMO/lH, BbirOHH/lH BO flBOp M B AOXAb, H • 

CHer s oahom 6e/ibe m mto-to ao/iro hcko/ih. Oahqwam, 
Korflc HeMitbi npMui/in b reTTO, kok cenwac noMHW, bto 
6bi/i coriHeHHbJH anpenbCKMM aeHb, osmh mj HeMues, no 
iJ>aMM/inM Kiohli, npmiie/i c no/iMyeiicKHM kohbobm b 
ujBeHHyio MOCTepcicyio. EMy He noHpaennocb, kok mojio- 
Aob uiBeo Mam nonono e»*y cuimyio ujanKy. T/t me bo 
ABope ee Aoro/ia pa3flenn m m36h/ih luoMnonoMM. Kok oho 
KpMHa/ia, ao cmx nop c/iwiuy ee spun... Ee Te/10 ot no6oeB 
see ecnyxno. r/iasa sotcr/im KpoBbio. K senepy oho 
noTepuna co3HOHne. noa yTpo yMep/ia. 



A ronoA, nocTOHHHbie HeAoeAaHM*... M CTpax, CTpax, 
cTpax. 

C KOWAUM AHBM *HTb CTOHOBM/lOCb see TpeBOXHee 
flo HOC AOXOAM/1M C/iyXM O TOM, MTO /IOB»T, y6nBOWT 

octobujmxoi espeee, mto cxopo m Howe reTTO 6yAeT 

/lHKBHnnpOBOHO H Mbl CTO/1M flywOTb O TOM, KOK 6bl 

y6e*aTb M3 reTTO, mto6u M36excaTb CMepTM. OAHowflbj 
HOHbio MHe yAaiocb Mepe3 3a6poweHHbiPi /iiok Bbi6paTbC* 
H3 reTTo, m « yiu/ia k oahom Ao6pon noxH/ioM »emuMHc 
— $OMH/iHfl ee ©eflOTosa 3to xteHiuMHa Menu OTMuna, 
HQKOpMHna. Ee eAMHCTseHHbiH cwh 6un ho (fpoHie. m oho 
OMBHb nepexmana 30 Hero. J1 np*Ta/iacb y Hee. M3 aomo 
AO/iro He BbixoAH/ia, ho kotao noHB/ia, mto mohd He Muiyr, 
CTo/ia ocTopox<HO BbixoAMTb. MeH8 cnaco/io TO, mto h 
6wna noxoma ho pyccnyio. 3to wohiuhho nOMor/ia MHe 
ycTpoMTbcn b npaMBMHyio, m » tom pa6oTa/ia. noxo He 
HOMa/iHCb 06/iaBbi. B oflny Toxyio o6naay mbhi 3o6po/iH m 

yB03/1H B TepMOHHIO. <...> 

Cpo3y xe b 1945 roAy * iepHy/iacb ho poAHHy, b 

BMHHMLiy, H CTOAO HCKOTb CBOHX pOACTBeHHMKOB. 0*030- 
/IHCb MMBblMH MOH 6a6yUJKa, CeCTpa M MOMHHbl 6paTb*. 

Ohm Mens Bbi3Ba/iM b Ofleccy, u * yexana k hmm. 

51 30K0HMM/1O UJKOny H nOCTynMna 8 MHCTMTyT, BblUJJia 
3QMy)K 30 MM/IbrOTMHO B/KJAMMMpa CeMeHOBMMO (OH 6bl/I 
yMOCTHMKOM M HHB0S1MAOM BOMHbl), y HOC pOflM/lOCL ABO 
CMHO. 

B 1990 roay * npMB63fla ho »tm Kpoaasbie mocto 

ceoero CWHO m BHynKy, mto6l>i nocne mocm CMepTH ohm 

mot/im npoAO/ixaTb noceiuoTb btm cBHTwe mocto, rae 
noKoxTCB 6e3BMHHwe mepTBu, mto6i>i Aanbiue xpaHM/iM 9Ty 

CBCT/lyiO nOMBTb O HOIUMX COMblX AOpOTMX pOflHblx. y 
KOTOpblX OTHS/1M >KM3Hb na/lOHM 




S ny€nuKOuuu ucnonoJooSHw ugmepuanai ceume httpJ/hgp.nm.ru, tnueu iBuhhuukoh oOnaomb Kamacmpcxpa :woa) u conpomue/iemje* Tentr 
Aeua - Kue*. 1994 e . Qomospatpuu u> tonnemuu uy3ep Ghetto Fighter House (Mapaunt) u numoepa&Ju Caeev Soodciozo uz unmocmpauuii * 
pouany AHBmonup Ky3neu,oea «5a5t/i) *?p» (Mypnan *IOHOcmb>.1966 t.). 



4 3HAK BEAbl 



55 



EBreHkiPi 5EPK0BMH 

nPABEAHMKM MMPA B AAHAL1JAOTE XOAOKOCTA 



xKmo cnacaem odny mu3Hb, cnacaem eecb mip». 
Hadnucb na medanu flpaeedHUKa uupa. 

B 1953 roAy 6wn OTKpbiT nepycannMcxviw MeMopnan fla BaweM - uemp 
nayMHbix MCcneAOBaHMti m naMATHMX acepTBaM KaTacTpo0bi eaponeiiCKoro ea- 
pencTBa. Kax cKa33H0 b 3axoHe 06 ocHoaaHMM MeMopnana, oh AonweH npeaoc- 
TaBUTt «m6cto m nMeHa» bcom wepTeaw XonoKocTa. KpoMe toto, stmm 33kohom 
onpeaeneH oco6wm CTaTyc Tex ntoceili, xoropwe M3 6naropoaHbix no6yxnenMH n 
c pmckom ann co6ctb6hhom wm3hm cnacann eBpeee b roaw XonoKocTa. no AaeHew 
eBpetiCKOtf TpaaMUMn tbxmx ntoaeii Ha3WBaiOT «xacnaeM aMMOT xa-onaM», mto 
ByKBanbHO 03HawaeT «np3BeAHnxn Hapoaoa Mnpa». 06wmho rOBOfMT xopone: 
«npaBeflHMKM Mnpa» Oahmm ms caMbix 3anoMMHaioiUMXCfi MecT 9\j\ BaweMa 
HBnneTcn Annen flpaBeaHUKOB - Hecxonbxo TUC9M B6MH03eneHbix aepeBbeB. 
xawAoe H3 xotopwx nocajxeHO a MecTb Menoaexa. xotopwm noMor xotb 6w oflHOMy 
eBpew nepe>KMTb Xonoxocr, Ta6nmxa y aepeBa cooSiyaeT hmr cnacMTe/w. 

CeAwac 3BaHne ripaBeflHMK Mupa nonywuni* 6onee 18 tmcsm ijenoaex 
boribwan ^acrb 3tmx ntoaew wnna b eBponencxnx cipaHax. oxxynnpoBaHHbix 
cpaujucTaMn: 6onee 5 Tbicnn - b rionbtue. Sonee 4 Tbicn«j - b ronnaHflMM, oxono 
2 Tbicns - bo ©paHuwi, 1600 - Ha yxpanHe. 6onee 1200 - b Be/ibrvin. Ot 400 ao 
500 ripaBeflHuxoB Mupa *nrn s xswflo* M3 cneflyioiunx CTpaH: BaHipMM, Mexoc- 
noBsxnn. JlMTBe. a Taxxe BMecie - b Poccmm h Benopyccim Ha 1 nHBapn 2001 
rofla HacMMTbiBanocb 342 ripaeeflHuxa us TepMaHMM, 281 - M3 Wrarwm, 234 - H3 
rpeuMM. 213 M3 Bcex rocyoapcTB. bxoahbwmx a (OrocnaBwo. Kaxtflaa us ocranb- 
hwx CTpaH aana MeHee 100 npaaeflHwxoB HanpuMep. AscTpun - 83, flnTea-93, 
PyMbiHun - 57. AnoaHun - 60. UJBeiiuapMfl - 36. flaHMH - 14. Eonrapnn n 
Bennxo6pnTaHMJi - no 13. HopBervw - 17. LUBeuna - 7. no oflHOMy ripaBeflHMity 
Mupa 6wno us Hiiohim. 6pa3nnnn, nopTyrannn, QUA... 3a 2000 roa mmc/io 
npaaeflHUKOB yBeriMMnnocb Ha 829 senoBex. flo chx nop npoaepntoTCji flaHHwe 

HOBblX KaHflMflaTOB. 

HccnaflOBaTenn BWAenmoT Tpn 6onbuine rpynnw HaceneHMa b roflw Btopom 
MnpoaoM bohhw: npecTynHMKM. KepTBbi m nocTopoHHMe Ha6fiK3flaTenM. no cpaB- 
HeHMio c humm npaseflHHKn Mupa cocTaannioT HesHasHTe/ibHoe MeHbiunHCTBo 
Ho6e3HHxonncaHne«naHflijjactiTaXoTioxocTa» 6wno6binBHOHenonHbiM. 3HaTt 
ncTopwo cnaceHun eapees b roflbi Btopom mmpobom bomhw Tax we sawHo. xax 

3H8Tb MCTOPMO MX yHMHTOWeHMB. flpaBeflHUXH MUpa ASKJT B03MO>KHOCTb BCeM 

n»OA«M Ha seMne coxpaHHTb Bepy m Haflemay. 

npaBeflHMKM Mupa - sto b nonHOM cMwcne cnoBa «conHeMHoecnxieTeHne» 
npo6neM Xohoxocts Pa3o6paTbcn b xoMnnexce stux npoSneM Heo6xoflHMO. 
HTo6bi noHHTb, hto oaHanana «MopanbHaa OTBeTCTBBHHocTb senoBexa* Toraa m 
xax mu nonwHbi nOHUMaTb ee ceroAHB. 

OTHOujeHne x eBpenM a roflw Btopom mmpobom bomhu onpeAensnocb 
MH0*ecT80M o6cTonTeribCTB. 6es yneTa xotopwx TpyAHO noHSTb m npaBunbHO 
oueHMTb noBeaeHHe nraflew b axcTpeManbHwx ycnoBMHx. Haun3M axTHBHO nc- 
nonbSOBan aHTnceMMTM3M xax «H3u6onee ueHHyio nacTb CBoero nponaraHflHCT- 
cxoro apceHaiia». HcnoribsoBanvicb Bee mctomhmkm aHTnceMMTH3Ma: pennrno3- 
Hbie, nonnTHMecxMe. axoHOMMnecxvie, xynbTypHwe. OxoTa Ha eapeeB CTaHOBM- 
nacb neranbHovi. npoTMB eapees pa3peiuanocb npnM6H«Tb nioGbie AeiicTBMfl, 
aa>xe to. xoTopwe a HopManbHOM o6uiecTee owTaoTca npecrynHbiMH. He Tonbxo 
noMoraTb eapeBM, ho aawe npocro BwxasbiBaTb mm cMMnamx) n coMyBCTBue 
craHOBunocb CMepTenbHO onacHWM. B BapmaBe 15 oxm6pn 1941 roAa 6wri 
ony6nnxoBaH npMxa3 o CMepTHoPi xa3HM nioBoro. xto noMor espeto. 3To6binn He 
nycTwe yrpoabi OseHb cxopo 6onbUjHHCTBO HaceneHM« noHnno. mto tot, xto 
noMoraeT eBpexi. pMcxyeT He Toxibxo cBoew >xvi3HbK). ho m ixusHbm cbomx 6nn3xwx 
HepeAxo 3a noMomb eBpeKJ yHMMTowanwcb uenwe AepeBHU. AHTuceMHTMSMOM, 
noAorpeTWM HauncrcxoM nponaraHnoii, mojkho bo mhotom o6tncHMTb paBHOAy- 
ujMe m Aajxe 3nopaACTBo. c xotopwmm HaCnoflann cTpaaaHnsi eBpeeB MHome mx 
obiEiiine coceAM m 3HaxoMbie Ho 6binki m apyriie o6cTo«TenbCTBa. BnnBBiune hs 
no8eAeHne nioAeii b toaw bomhw m. xax npaBMno, ocnowHABiiJMe n 5e3 Toro 
HenpocTbie oTHOUjeHHB k eapeaM. 




QMy3enne Atnueo u3 Umanuu 




CeubU BaOHapoeweu u3 Benopyccuu 



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4 3HAK BEAbl 




riwt>6epm flapcen uj flaMjj 




Paynb Bannentepa uj Uleewu 




Annan Sdeapdc u3 AHzmiu 



ripexyie ecero cneAyeT cKaaaTb o paspyweHtmx n cTpaaaHunx, npuHeceH- 
Hux BtopoPi mmpobom bomhom MHoruM eaponekiuaM, khbwmm b Te roaw, AOBe- 
nocb nepewnTb ropec™ npeAbiAymevi mupoboPi BOMHbi n pa3pyxy BennxoM skoho- 
MMMecxoM Aenpeccwn xonija ABaAuaTwx toaob. Ho 8 6onbtUMHCTBe BOcnoMMHa- 
hmm o tom BpeMeHu 3th 6eAdBHB KawyTcs He3HaMMTeribHbiMn no cpaBHeHwo c 
TeMM, KOTopwe npMHecna HOBas MnpoBas aoPiHa: 6oM6e>KKn. pa3pyuieHHbie aomb 
h uepKBn Bpa>KecKne conoaTbi, Mapujnpyiomne no yrwuaM. yMH3MTenbHbie nopa- 
weHMR cbohx apMMii u nopa6omeHue pOflHblX CTpaH. 

B 3thx ycnoBUBx rnaBHOM 3aAaMevi CTano cnacTM ce6st m cbokj ceMbio. 3ona 
MopanbHOki oTBeTCTBeHHOdn oTaenbHoro MenoBexa cTaHoennacb npeAeribHO 
y3KOM, MHorne dapanncb hb saMesaTb npecneAosaHMS nauMCTaMn eBpeeB. 

CneAyeT OTMGTMTb m 3K0HOMHMecK*e motubw. nooiupflBiuwe npecneaoBa- 
Hun n yHMHTO)KeHne eBpeee. HauncTbi ocpumianbHO 3asBMJiM, mto Bee MMymecTBO 
eepeeB npuHaAnewnT TpeTbeMy Peitxy. HeespeiicKoe HaceneHne repMaHwn m 
OKKynMpoBaHHwx HeMuaMM CTpaH nonynano a cbob pacnopjweHMe AOMa m co6- 
CTBeHHOCTb eBpeeB. 3aHMMano mx pa6oMne MecTa. HauncTbi nnaTMnw 3a KawAoro 
noiiMaHHoronnM y6nToro eBpen ABHbraMM m/im BecbMa Ae(pnunTHbiMM b eoeHHoe 
speMfl npoAyxTaMM. ynacTBOBaBuine b oxotb Ha eBpeee MecTHwe MuriMUMOHepbi 
m nonnueticKne, a Taioxe mieHbi mx cbmbm nony^ann ot HeMueB npoAOBonbCTBeH- 
Hwe naMKM m AeHe>KHbie B03Harpa>KAeHHfl. B ycnoBunx aKOHOMnnecKOM pa3pyxn 
BoeHHoro BpeMeHM nepeA stmmm npenMyiuecTBaMn coTpyAHnnecTBa c Haunc- 
TaMn MHorne He Mornn ycTOflTb. 

Ka3anocb 6w, nepeMncneHHwe cpaiaopbi. k kotopwm moxcho 6bino Ao6aBMTb 
eue HeMano noAo6Hbix. npnBOA"T k HeonpoeepwuMOMy BbieoAy: pea/ibHO no- 
MOWt> eepenu e OKKynupoeaHHOU HetJuauu Eepone 6bino hc-bo3momho 
Oah3ko >KM3Hb n Aena ripaBeAHUKOB Mupa noKa3biBaioT, mto sto He Tan. Henb3fl 
6wno cnacTn acex, ho mowho 6btno cnacTM MHornx. 3to AeiiCTBHTenbHO 6bino 
oneHb TpyAHo. Macro npnxoAnnocb pucxosaTb xoi3Hbio. Ho on* hokotopux nioAevi 
ocTaTbCB BepHUM cbomm MopanbHbiM npunuunaM OKaaanocb cronb eawHbiM. mto 

OHM UjnH Ha 3T0T PMCK. 

Oopmw noMomn eepesM Heso3Mox<HO paccMaTpuBaTb b oTDwee ot BpeMe- 
hh: caMa nonnTHKa HauncTOB no OTHOiueHMio k eepenM cyiuecTBeHHO weHsnacb 
c roAaMn - ot ymeMneHun rpa>w;aHCKMx n MenoaeMecKMX npaB ao TOTanbHoro 

yHMHTOXKBHMq. 

flo 1938 roAa abmctbhji HauncTOB eme He yrpoKann HenocpeacTBeHHO 
>k,i3hh HeMeuKnx eBpeeB. MeTOAusHO m ueneHanpaB/ieHHO eBpen npeBpaiyannCb 
b rna3ax ocHOBHoro HaceneHMs b Hex<enaTenbHbix HyxeaxoB, Mbfl >KM3Hb noA 
npeccoM hobux 33kohob h MHCTpyxuMiii cTaHOBunacb Bee 6onee HeBbiHocuMoiii 
Ohm nMiuanncb ochobhwx aTpMByroa HopManbHOM m aoctomhom jkm3hm: pasen- 
dBa nepeA rpa*AaHCKMM aaxoHOM. npaBa Ha npocfceccMOHanbHbiM TpyA. ynacTMn 
b KynbTypHoii >km3hh o6mecT8a. wyscTBa aauiMiueHHOCTM m 6e3onacHOCTM. (Hocne 
Havana bomhw b EBpone, b 1939 roAy. 3Ta nonMTMKa pacnpocipaHnnacb Ha Bee 
CTpaHw. OKa3aBiiiMecH noA (taiuMCTCKoii oxxynauMeM. 

Ha stom cTaAMM noMOiyb eBpenM cocTonna b tom, HTo6bi He BbiMepKHyTb nx 
Ms ceoeM XCM3HM. coxpaHMTb ApywecKue. TOBapumecKne wnn coceacKne OTHome- 
HMfl. He nOAAaTbCfl Ha npn3biBbi HauMCTCKOM nponaraHAbi counanbHO n3onnpo- 
BaTb eBpeeB flo6poTa. BepHOCTb. coBeT n yreiueHMe 6bUW TorAa oco6eHHO b 
ueHe. H b to HenpocToe BpeMH ocTaBanMCb eme HaAextHwe Apy3b« m npocTo 
nopnAOHHbie niOAM. BonbiuMHCTBO HeeBpeMCKMx skoh He noAAariMCb Tpe6oBanM»iM 
hbumctob paaBecTMCb co cbommm espeMCKMMM MyxbRUM m, k3k oxasanocb, CnaCHM 

MM )KM3Hb. 

B BocnoMMHaHMBx 6enbmMCKOM eBpeiiKM TaHM JlMncxM paccKaawBaeTCB. wto 
nocne Toro. xaic b 1942 roAy homuu o6n3ariM acex eBpeeB a BerbrMM HOCMTb 
»enTbie 3Be3Aw. MHoroe MyxwMHW Ha ynMue CHMMaxiM nepeA HeM ujnuny. a b 
TpaMBae noAnepKHyro ycTynariM om MecTO. UnorAa abtio aoxoawio ao axunvi 
npoTecTa. HanpMMep, b TonnaHAMM m APyrux crpaHax MHome niOAM HaAenM 
jxenTwe 3Be3Aw b 3hbk conMAapHOCTM c eBpenMM. ripoTuB npecneAoeaHun 
eBpeeB ycTpaMBanMCb 3a6acTOBKM. npoM3HOCuriMCb nponoBeAM b uepKBJix. 3tm 
BbicTynneHMn Swctdo m jkbctoko noAaBnanMCb HauMcraMM. TeM He MeHee noAo6- 
Hwe 3H3KM cMMnaTMM m noAflep>KKM noMoranM coxpaHMTb Bepy B to, mto He eecb 
Mnp coiuen c yMa ot aHTnceMHTM3Ma. 

C npMxoAOM TMTnepa k anacTM MHorMM eBpesM TepMaHMM CTano bcho. mto 

MX WMSHb B HSUMCTCKOM TOCyAapCTBe CT3HOBMTCS HeB03MO)KH0M. EBDeMCKaB 

3MMrpai4M« M3 TepMaHMM Hananacb b 1 933 roAy n npoAonwanacb snnoTb ao ee 



4 3HAK bEAbl 



5J 



ocpminanbHoro 3anpeTa b 1 94 1 . CTpaHy noKHHyna noMTM nonoBHHa M3 6onee neM 
nonyMnnnnoHHoro eBpeiiiCKoro HaceneHnn. 3tmm ntoasM b 6onbiunHCTBe CBoeM 
yaanocb cnacmcb. riocneAHne nnnK33nn o bo3mo«mocth wm3hm eBpeeB b mme- 
poBCKOii repMaHHn paccesnitcb y mhotmx TonbKO nocre XoycranoHoii homh 1938 
roaa. CaMM Hauncrbi b nepnoa c Hoa6ps 1938 roaa ao Hawara BTopoA MnpoBOii 
bomhw 1 ceHTn6ps 1939 roaa BCHMecxM nooiapa/iM orbe3fl eapeeB us repMaHtw. 
ripo6neMa cocTosna b tom, hto b Mwpe noMTM He ocranocb 6eaonacHbix Mecr, 
Kyaa paspewanocb 6u Bt>exaTb espenvi Mnorne moan noMoranu eepeaM ne- 
ra/ibHO unw HeneranbHO yexaTb M3 repMaMnn, a ro3*e - M M3 oKKynnposaHHbix 
HeMLiaMn dpaH EBponw. < . . > 3Mnrpaijnn cnacna aecsTxn, ecnn He cothm TMCm 
eapencuHx )»<n3Heiii. 

TonnaHflKa repTpyaa BnMCMio/inep-Manep yMactBOBana b cnaceHMM twcbm 
eBpencKnx aeTevi. B 1938 roay nosBunacb B03Mo*HOCTb mhothx nepeae3TM b 
AHrnwo. ho Ha sto Tpe6osanocb cornacne HeMeuKnx BnacTe*. repTpyaa noexa- 
na a BeHy. roBopwna c caMMM AaonbcpoM SrtxMaHOM w nonyMnna KonneKTMBHyio 
BwesaHyio BM3y ana 600 aeTeft. B aerycTe 1939 roaa. acero sa napy Heaerib ao 
MeMeuKoro BTopweHMn b Honbtuy. OHa noexana b Aamjur m opraHHSOBana 50 
Kopa6nevi ann nepeB03xn aeTew b ronnaHamo n Benbrwo. H b nocneaywmne 
BoeHHwe roaw TepTpyaa BMMCMionnep-MaMep noMorana eBpeiiiCKMM ASTRM, 
Haxoanna an" hmx yxpbiTun, CHa6>Kana nMTaHMeM, o6ecneMMBana cpanbUJMBbiMH 
aoKyMeHTaMM. 

UJBeacKOMy nacTopy ToyTy XeaeHKBMCTy yaanocb b 1938 roay Bbi3BonnTb M3 
Abctpmh 3 TbicnsM eapeeB. KMMVW ®P3hk Ooynn. ocpwuep 6pmt3hckom mmcchh 
b BepnHHe, pyKOBoann BwaaMeit bm3 ann Bbe3aa b flanecTMHy, HaxoaMBiuekic* 
Toraa noa aHmntiCKnM ynpaBneHMBM. KanmaH Ooynn othmmho noHiman. mto 
nonox<eHMe espeea b TepMaHnn cTaHoeuTcn KpnTHMecxuM. m BwaaBan aononHw- 
TeribHwe bm3w, xota AHrnnn otJ)MunanbHO orpaHMMMBana Bte3a eBpeeB b nane- 
CTMHy. MeM TparMHHeti CTaHOBMnocb nonoJueHne eapeeB e EBpone, Te*i cno*Hew 
CTaHOBMnocb nonynnTb BH3y b rianeCTMHy flo cnoaaM 6epnuHCKoro aspen Bena 
Ko3Ha, «<DoynM npeanpMHwMan Bee, mto 6wno b ero cvinax, mtoSw ompaBHTb b 
6e3onacHoe mbcto xan mo>kho 6onbiue nioaeii. Mojkho cxa3aTb, mto oh BupBan us 
nan cmbptm twchmm eBpeeB*. 

rioao6Ho d>oynn. eiue Hecxo/ibKO a^nnoMaTOB nwTariMCb cnacTM eBpeea. 
BbiaaBan mm Bbe3aHwe BM3W b 6e3onacHbie nrpaHM. HeiiTpanbHbie crpaHbi m 
ynacTHMKH aHTMrmnepoBCKOM KoanviuMvi. npotcae Bcero CUJA, 0TKa3biBanncb 
npuHnwaTb k ce6e espeeB us EBponw. V\ Bee we aan HecxonbKnx mmhobhmkob 
cnaceH^e MenoBeiecKnx ikmshom OKa3anocb Bawnee nonnTMKn nx npaBtueribCTB 
HananbHUK noiMUNM uiBBMuapcKoro norpaHMHHoro ropoana CeHT-raneH riay/ib 
rpiOHMHrep no3Bonnn b Hanane bomhw cotham eapeeB Haft™ cnaceHne b LUbbm- 
uapnt4, 3a mto 6wn ysoneH co cjiywGbi h /imuibh neHCHM. riopTyranbCKMii KOHcyn 
a Bopao ApHCTn^ec ae Cyca MeHflec Buaan BveaaHbie bh3w b nopTyrannio 
6onee 10 TwcflMaM eBpeeB. mto npoTHBopeMmio npnMbiM npMxasaM ero HaMa/ib- 
CTBa. Oh npeaocTaBnnn y6e>Knine mhothm BBpeRM b caoeM aoMe b Bopao. fla*e 
b tot aenb, Koraa ero noa kohbosm oTnpaBMnn Ha3aa b riopTyra/iMio. ae Cyca 
MeHaec BbiriMCbiaan nocneflHne BM3bi 6e»eHuaw. Oh noTepwn pa6oTy n 6bin 
oujTpacpOBaH b naKasaHne 3a cbou aeMCTBun CeMbs c 13 aeTbMM oxa3anacb b 
HMiueTe. 3BaHne npaBeaHHK Mupa ae Cyca MeHaec nonyMMn yxe nocMepTno b 
1966 roay. 

noc/ie HanaaeHMR TepMaHMM Ha rioribiuy bo3mox<hoctm neranbHOii 3Mwrpa- 
UMM eBpeeB CTann 3aMeiHo coxpaiuaTbcn. rioxasaTenbHO uccneaosaHMe Tewpn 
XyT8H6axa, kotopwm 3aaoKyMeHTnpoBan 6e3ycneiDHbie nonbiTKn eBpeeB M3 ro- 
poaa BopMC yexaTb M3 TepMaHim a 1938-41 roaax. Us 191 eBpeMcxoii ceMbM. 
KOTopwe b 1941 roay eme ocTaBa/incb a BopMce. Tonbxo 5 He xotohm noxnaaTb 
TepMaHHto OcTaribHbiM npocTo hb yaanocb 3Mnrpnp0BaTb. 

B 1939 roay HeMuw sown* b rionbiuy. b 1940 - b HopBerwo. flaHMio, 
Benbrnio. JlK)KceM6ypr. OpaHquio... >KecTOxocTb HauncroB 6biaa M3BecTHa - 
MMnnMOHw nioaeM. eapeeB n HeeBpeeB. ocTaBmw cbom aoMa, m no noporaM 
noTHHynncb HecKOHMaeMbi© noToxn eoweHMBB. .TlyH we acero 6bino aoo6iae yexaTb 
us Eaponw flanee no CTeneHM 6e3onacHoc™ Sunn HBiiTpanbHwe eBponeftCKMe 
CTpaHbi: HcnaHMH, riopTyraaMfl. UJBeuns, UJBeiiuapMn n Typutw. Te, kto nonaaan 
b TypqMio, ABMranncb, xax npaBuno, aa/ibiue. MToSbi HeneranbHO nepeBpaTbcn b 
6nM3nex<awyK3 llanecTMHy. Msbbctbh cnynaM. xoraa rpeMecxne napTM3BHbi npo- 
BenH OKono 3 twchm rpeMBCKHx eBpeeB Mepe3 Typunio 8 nanecTMHy. H. HaxoHeu. 
onpeaeneHHwe bosmohchoctm cnacenun npeaocraannnM crpaHbi. xotb m cBflsaH- 
Hbie c MauncTCKOn repMaHneii. ho coxpaHHBUjne Tpaa^uviOHHo Hespa)Kae6Hoe 




nuuump D*cm«. 
Oeaymam Oamapcmto napnauttm* 




Ocxap WuHdnap ui repuanuu 



SI 



4 3HAK BEAbl 




Ceamo'iHUK Mepu-BoMya (nodpe 
SoHOdemmu) ui Hmanuu 




Mohbxuhb Cmamjcnaea Byconbd 

U3 flunbWU 



OTHOiueHne x eepesM. K tbkmm «octpobk3m 6e3onacHOCTM» OTHOcnnncb ao 1 943 
roA3 cpatuncTCKan UTanns m KOHTponnpyewbie eio TeppnTopnn b KDrocnaBUM. 
Tpemin m «paHL(HM. a raiwe BeHrpMR ao 1944 roaa. 

Bo OpaHunn flecnTKM twchm eBpeeB CTpeMnnncb nepei*™ m3 OKxynwpoBaH- 
HOii 0aiuncTaMH 30hw b HeoxxynMpoB3HHyK> K3)KHyx) 30Hy co CTonMuert b ropofle 
Bhujm. riepexofl Mepe3fleMapKaunoHHyio nMHMio Mexuiy AByMn sohbmh 6wn ann 
eBpeea 3anpemeH, no3K>My Hyx<HO 6bino nonb30BaTbcn ycnyraMM cneyna/ibHbix 
npoBOflHUKOB, CHa6x<aBiiiMx BewewqeB (paribiuMBbiMti AOxyMeHTaMu, npoflyxra- 
mh m apyrviMn HeoSxoflUMNMM BetyaMM. 3a nepexoa 6e>xeHt4bi nna™nn 6onbWMe 
aeHbrn. npimeM nepeflKM 6binn cnyMSii, xor^a npoBOflHMKn npocTo rpa6unn 
6e33amnTHbix nwflefi n OTflaBa/in nx b pyxw HauncTOB. Ho nsBecTHbi h Apyrne 
npuMepw. noKa3biBaK)iune MenoBeMecxyio nopflAOMHOCTb. 

Paynb JlanopTbe. npn3HaHHbiii Tenepb npaBOAHMKOM MMpa. BnaAen He- 
6onbwuM Mara3HHOM B6nvi3M AeMapxauMOHHOw nnHnn Oh caM n3roTasnnBan 
cfanbuJMBbie AOKyMeHTbi n ooecneMMBsn mmm 6ex<eHLjeB, mscto nuwHO conpoBO*- 
Aan eBpeeB npvi nepexoAe Mepe3 rpaHnuy. Oh cxpuean mcygBfi y ce6n aomb m b 
AOMax cbomx Apy3eii. nepeAaBan noMTy ms oahom 30hw b apyryio. mto Taioxe 6wno 
CTpojKaMiue 3anpemeH0. l|MMfaM Bemn 6e*eHueB oh CHanana npnian, a noTOM 
oTflasan BnaAenbuaM ywe Ha APyroii CTopoHe. Cboh kohtsktu c cppaHuy3CKHMn 
nonnL»eMCKMMM oh *cnonb30Ban, MTo6bi npeAynpeiKAaTb eBpeee o roTOB«mnxcn 
o6naBax m AenopTauunx Paynb JlanopTbe He 6pan sa cbok> pa6oTy aeHer. mm 
pyxoBOAnnn coBceM HHbie motmbw. K xoHqy bomhw oh 0Ka3ancn noMTM hmuihm. 

riereHaapHOH cph-vdom cTar nacTop Map^-BeHya. opraHM30Ba3iuiiM b M3p- 
cenbCKOM MOHacTwpe xanyuuHOB HacTosiyee npeflnpuwiwe no cnaceHnw eape- 
eB BMecTe c rpynnaMM d3paHuy3Cxoro ConpoTMBneHun w ocpnuuanbHon opraHn- 
3aunea UGIF (Union Generale des Israelites en France), npeACTaBnaBwe* 
dppaHi4y3CKMX eBpeeB, 3to npeAnpnaTue o6ecnennno twchhh oeweHueB (panb- 
ujuBbiMn nacnopTaMn a ApyrMMH "apnMCKnwn» AOKyMemaMn. MToGbi nroAH Mor- 
da 6ewaTb Ha K)ro-3anaA. b 1/lcnaHHto, nnn Ha ceeepo-BocTOK - e UJeeMuapHio. 
Koraa b Hos6pe 1942 roaa (tarn act o\ OKOH^aTenbHO OKKynnposann OpaHunK) n 
am nym cnaceHHn 6wnn saupbTTbl, Mapn-BeHya yaanocb y6eAMTb MTanbPHCKne 
BnacTM paspeujMTb eBpenM ocTaTbca b MTanbtiHCKOM 30He OKxynauuM <PpaHunn, 
HecMOTps Ha OTManHHbie npoTecTu MMHMCTpa MHOCTpaHHwx Aen TepMaHMH. 
Twcjimm eBpeeB oxa3anncb e MTanbPHcxoM soho m Hauinn TaM ceoe cnaceHne. 
KorAa b nocneflHKiKJ MMHyTy copBancn rpaHAM03HbiM npoexT nocnaTb 50 twcpm 
cppaHuyacxnx eBpeeB Ha xopa6nnx b CeBepHyio AcppnKy, Mapn-Benya BUHy>KAeH 
6bjn 6ex<aTb b Pum TaM oh noA MMeHeM OTtia BeHeAerrM cbirpan KnioseByto ponb 
b cnacennn uTanbBHCKHx eBpeeB. Koraa oceHbio 1 943 roaa nan pe*nM Myccorn- 
hh. HeMubi 3aHsnn UTannw a np^cTynnnn < AenopTaunn eepeea Ha Boctok. 

Oahom M3 caMbix 3HaM6HMTbix onepauMw no cnaceHno eBpeeB b roflbl bomhw 
crana 3BaxyaLinn twc«h abtckhx espeeB oceHbio 1943 roAa. riocne Toro xax 
Teopr flyKBMTu. MopcxoM arrauje HeMeuxoM AMnnoMaruMecxoH mmcchh b KoneH- 
rareHe, npeAynpeawn AaTcxne BnacTM o roTossmekicB AenopianMn eepeeB, 
noMTn 8 TwcflH nejioBex b nepnoa c 29 ceHrn6pn no 1 oKTn6pn 6t>irin nepenpaB- 
neHbi Ha xopa6njix m noAxax a LUBeuMto, Hbe npaBmenbCTBO cornacunocb 
npuHPTb 6eweHijeB B stoh onepaqMM npMHUManM y^acTue cothm npocTux nat- 
waH. AHHa XpMCTeHceH b TeweHMe HecxonbKMx MecnyeB npma/ia 40 eBpencxnx 
AeTeM-6e)KeHueB, cBn3aHHbixccnoHncTCKOii rpynnoti «K)Han Anwn», 3a6o™nacb 
o hmx, 33HHManacb c humh a b HasHaneHHUM aeHb npuBena Ha no6epe>Kbe, ot- 
Kyaa ax nepeB03iiH b LUseunio. XaHHa ApeHAT b CBoeii SHaMOHMToii KHure 
«3vixMaH a HepycannMe» Ha3Bana nponciueAiuee b flaHnn «pe3ynbT3T0M npuBn- 
Toro noHUMaHMfl Tex npeAnocwnoK m o6n3aHHOCTetf. xoTopwe rapsHTMpyioT 

rpa>KA3HCTB0 H He33BHCHMOCTb». 

rionb Bopx36Hnyc 6wn oahhm M3 Tex, kto cnacan aaTCKMx eBpeeB b 1943 
roAy. B cbomx BOcnoMMHaHHflx oh HanMcan. mto «nocTynox AarnaH Bun cnoHTaH- 
HbiM, eAUHOAyuJHbiM n nonb30Bancfl noAAepwxofi acero HspoAa. Mw BHAenn, mto 
cpeflu Hac o6pa30Bsnocb 6e333inMTHoe m o6i>nBneHHoe BHe 33koh3 MeHbiuMH- 
ctbo, xoTopoe Aon)«HO SfeilW ecrape norn6HyTb. m mw Mornvi ero cnacTM. CaMo 
co6om pa3yMeeTcsi. mto mm mm noMornn. Ecnn ropMT aom coceAa. to xaJKAWM 
AonixeH noMOMb 6opoTbcn c nnaMeHeM. Hecnoco6HOCTb HauncTOB noHBTb, mto 
coBepuieHHO HopManbHbie AaTMaHe 6wnn roTOBw paAM eBpeeB pncxoBaTb cbom- 
mm WM3HHMM, noKa3btBaeTTy nponacTb, KOTopafl cymecTByeT MextAy CBo6oAHbiMM 
n»AbMM a y3xono6biMM pa6aMM TOTanMTapHwx pex<MMOB» <...> 

K cowaneHMK). Aax<e nnaMfl OcBeHUMMa He no6yAnno 6onbiiJMHCTBO eepo- 
newueB noMOMb eapeMCKMM coceAflM, kotas ropenn mx aomb. noneMy? HexoTO- 



4 3HAK BEAbl 



SI 



pue He CHMTanw eBpeeB cbommm coceaflMM HexoToptxe He xoTe/iM BepnTb. mto 
flOMa aeiicTBMTenbHo ropsT. flpyrne BMflenvt nowap. ho 6oHnncb cropeTb caMH. 
Bbinu \a Te. kto pafloaancn, rnnflfl na cropaioujue AOMa n ntofleii. H TonbKO OMGHb 
weMHorne pwcKOBanu cbommh *m3hhmm. MTo6bi noMOMb coceaHM cnpaanTbcn c 
orneM Ohm He mooim nctaiioHMTb eBpeeB M3 3ohw cBoeii MOpaxibHOM OTBeTCTBeH- 
hoctm 3tm HeMHorne. kto noMoran oopoTbca c omeM. 3acnyiKMriM HaswBaTbcs 
ripaBeaHHKaMM Mnpa. xotb caMM ce6n ohm TaKOBbiMM He <NMTann. 

riepe6paTbcn b 6e3onacHoe mocto yaanocb cpaBHMTenbHo He6onbiuoMy 
MMcny eBponeMCKMx eBpeeB. noaaBnaioiuee 6onbUjMHCTBO oxa3anocb Ha TeppM- 

TOPMAX. KOHTpOnMpyeMWX HaUMCTaMM. OdaBanMCb TOHbKO flB6 B03M0WH0CTM 

Ann cnaceHMsi -CKptjTb A/if oxpywaioiAMX, mto tw eepen, m/im Hafxew.no cnpnTaTb- 
cs. 06a 3tm cnoco6a Tpe6oaanM noMOLUM co ctopohw apyrMx nioaeM. 

MTo6bi oxpywaioiAMe ho npM3HanM b Menosexe espes, hjokho 6wno MMeTb 
cooTBeTCTByiotuMe flOKyMeHTbi. «HoBbiM nopnflOK» b HaqACTCKOii EBpone 6bin 
npeaenbHO 6iopOKpaTMHecKMM. KaayjbiM MenoBex aon>KeH 6bin nMeTb xyny 6yMar, 
npe>xae Bcero. yaocTOBepeHMe jihhhoctm. b kotopom yxasbiaancs penMrno3Hbiii 
m pacoBbiM CTaTyc ero enaaenbua. KpOMe 3Toro, Heo6xoanM0 6bino MMeTb 
pa3peiueHMe na pa6oTy, bmb Ha xtMTe/ibCTBo, npoflOBonbCTaeHHbie xapTOHKM, 
pa3nnsHbie AOKyMeHTbi Ann Aa/ibHtix noe3A0K. rikiHHyio xapTOMxy Ann noHTw m t A- 
OMeHb Baxwbi 6binn uepKOBHwe aoxyMeHTbi o xpemeHMM m BeHnaHUH. 6e3 «ero 
HeBO3Mox<H0 6bino nonynMTb «apMMCxoe» yAOCTOBepenMe jimmhoctm 

<...> ripoM3BOACTBO tskmx 6yMar cTano ueHTpoM AejrreribHOCTM opraH«30- 
BdHHbix rpynn cnacsHMw. Oco6eHHO 3Cp<peKTMBHa npM stom 6wna noMOiiib otpM- 
UnansHbix mmhobhmkob. Taxyio noMoiyb oxa3biBa/iM, HanpMMep, 6eribrMMCKMe 
rocyaapcTBeHHwe cnyxamMe. Twcahm eBpeeB o6n3aHw stom pMCKoeaHHOM aen- 

TenbHOCTM CBOMMM JKM3HAMM. 

faiibiuMBbie floxyMeHTw 6wnM Heo5xoanMbiM, ho huksk He flocraTOHHbiM 
ycnoBMeM Toro, mto6w eBpeM mot nepe>KMTb XonoxocT. Mto6w aocroBepHO 
BwrnnfleTb HeeapeeM, Haao 6bino o6naaaTb onpeaeneHHbiMM axTepcxMMM cno- 
co6hoctbmm. KpoMe Toro. 6bino BawHO, HacKonbKo b kohxpothom MecTe CMffcHM 
xyribTypHbie. subixoBwe m BHewHMe otjimmms eepen ot HeeBpen. Ha 3anaae stm 
OTnMHMn 6binn He Tax saMetHbi. xax Ha Boctoko. rioaTOMy n maHCw eBpew BbiAaTb 
ce6s 3a HeeBpen bo OpaHUMM. Ton/iaHAMM unM TepMaHMM 6t>inM Bbiuie. Mew Ha 

y<paHHe MJ1M B (lOPbLUe 

fl06pOB0nbHblB nOMOlUHMKM H3UMCT0B, T3K Ha3WBaeMbie «MH0OpMaTOpbl». 

BHMMaTenbHO npMCMaTpMBanncb ko bcom nofl03pMTe/ibHbiM nwA«M. Ha*™ cxpbi- 
Toro eBpen 6bino Ann MHcfeopMaTopa saBeTHbiM >xenaHneM - hommmo 6naroflap- 
hoctm ot HeMqeB, oh nonyMan m conMflnoe MaTepManbHoe B03Harpax<AeHMe. 
06MaHyrb MHcpopMaTopa 6wno o^eHb cjiowho: eBpeMCKMii axueHT, ooim6km npM 
Mo/iMTBax, HenpaBMDbHoe noeeAeHMe b uepxsM. - ace aro BwaaBano saMacxupo- 
BaHHoro eBpen. 

JlyMiue Bcero yaaBanocb BbiAaBaTb ce6n 3a HeeBpen tbm, kto caM eepMn, mto 
oh HeeBpeii. 3to othocmtch, npewe Bcero, xo mhowm eBpeScxiiM actam, 
OKasaBiuMMCfl b xpucinaHCKMx ceMbHx. rionbxa neoxaA^" HpoMMpcxa Hawna 
espeMCxyio AeBOMxy B6nn3n cbo«m AepeBHM. PoAMTeriM aeeoMKH ocTasMriM ee 
TaM, xorfla 6e)KajiM npw nMXBMAauMM eapeMCxoro rerro b JlerwoHOBO. neoxaAHfl 
B3ftna AeBOMKy x ce6e, xpecTMna ee. cooBiamb coceanM, hto sto ee Aonxa. 
DeoxaAMH pHCKoeaxia CBoeM jKM3Hbto. Tax xax coceAM c TpyflOM BepMnw b 3Ty 
nereHAy UeHOtf HeManwx jkbptb neoxaAMB BwpacTuna AeeoMKy. a ohm o6e 
AOMAanMCb KOHua bomhw 

Aji« Tex HecnacTHbix nraaeM, kto He CMor 6e>xaTb c oxxynMOOBaHHOM HauMC- 

TaMM TeppMTOpMM H H6 MMen Heo6xOflMMb)X flOKyMeHTOB A"« TOrO. WT06b< CKpblTb 

CBoe eBpeMCTBO, ocTaBanacb nocneflHnn BO3MoiKH0CTb cnaceHMn - cnp»TaTbcn. 
Oamh M3 caMbix M3BecTHbix npMMepoB noao6Horo poaa - sto mctopms Ahhw 
opaHx m ee ceMbM, npnTaBUMxcn b nepecrpoeHHOM 6K)po b AMcrepaaMe. TbicnnM 
eBpeeB bo Bcex yronxax Eaponw cnacnucb Snaroaap^ TOMy, hto mx npwTann y 
ce6n CMenwe m 6naropoaHbie nwaM. HaviTM yxpwTMe ann eBpen 6wno Henerxo 
Hbmuw 6e3 npoMea^eHMn npMBoannM b ncnonHeHMe CMepTHwe npnroBopw bccm. 
kto ocMenMBancfl npnTaTb eepen. 

Be>xeHueB npnTariM b aoMe m/im bo ABope. o6opyay« mocto 3a ujxacpoM, 3a 
nenxoM. b noaeane. noa necTHMuevi. Ha Mepaaxe. b xyptiTHMKe. b xneBy. ecapae. 
b CTory, b 3eMnnHKe, MHoraa aawe b niyvixe. xoropbiM roanncfl ann ManeHbxoro 
pe6eHxa. >KaxaMH Borbcp h ee MeTbipexneTHnn cedpa >Ko3eTra cxpusariMCb ot 
o6naa recTano e smb. cneunanbHO o6opyaosaHHOM noa naB03H0M xyneM nonbCXMM 




Kopap CanbBK, apxuenuctnn 
Tynysti. •DpaHUUR 




Kapp fliomii uieeuuapcKuu WHcyn a 
Bydanomme 




notiac u AnmoHUHa ney/utemy: 
uaflunvbi 



60 



4 3HAK EEAbl 




lOdxuH u Mapu BannoHC-Ceeeepc 
ua Benbauu 




Hemp rnod c Vkpbuhu 



^zl Iff 


r — » 





3aii*e6a Xaodatu uj lOiocraeuu 



eapeii Oennxc LJaHMaH n eme MeTbipe MenoBe«a b TeneHne nonTn 500 Aneii (!) 
npHTanncb b hmb nnomaflbio nomopa KBaapaTHwx MBTpa n rny6nHofl Merp 
nBafluaTb. 

>Kn3Hb a yKpwTMn 6biJia HenerKUM ncnwiaHneM He To/ibxo a/in cxpuBaiomMX- 
cn eepeeB. ho h ana Tex. kto noMoran mm BW)KMTb. HyxHO 6bino 6biTb nocTOHHHO 
HaneKy, mto6w hb Tonbxo HeMUbi, ho h cocbah HMMero He y3Hann n He aanoA03pn- 
nn_ CMacmuBbiM McxjioMeHneM cTaHosunncb noceneHws. ace xmenH KO'opwx 
yMacTBoeann a cnacemin eBpees TaK 6t>ino. HanpuMep. bo cppanuyacKOM ropoae 
Jle LUaM5oH. rae Haiunn yxpwTne HecxoneKO twchm espeeB Bo 0paHuy3cxovi 
AepeBHe XoT-6nonb Bee *MTenn 3Hann, mto ceMbs Apry nptweT AByx espeiicxnx 
tOHOiuen. HeMLibi MHOro pa3 npoMecbisann flepeBmo b noncKax eepeeB. ho HMKoro 
He HaiunM - hh oahh M3 muTeneu aepeBHM He oxa3anca npeaaieneM. B ronnaH- 
acKOH nepeBHe HoviBnaHAe KaxcAaa ceMbn yxpwBana. no xpatiHew Mepe. oflHoro 
espea. xotb HHKaxoii (JjopManbHOrt opraHH3aunn cnaceHHH TaM He Sbino. 

Efla h nexapcTBa Tpe6oBann ASHer. MaaecTHbi cnynaM, xoraa nioAn. Aaxe 
Haxoflncb b yxpuTUM. Mornn npoaonxoTb pa6oiaTb. BenbrnncxnM MHweHep A6- 
paM DuncKM 6wn yBoneH c pe3HHOBOM cfea6pnxn, Ha xoTopofl oh pa6oTan ao 
bomhw. n npjjTancn ot h3umctob. BbiBUJMM HananbHux flkincKM no3Bonnn eMy 
HeneranbHO paGoraib n nonynarb aeHbrn aa ceo* ipya nopa3HTenbHO, mto b 
Benbrnn 6anKM. uepKBu. 6onbHnubi ujxonbi MacTO Aaeann aeHb-n m npeaocTaB- 
nanw APyryo noMoiyb npaMyiynMcn ot HeMuee eBpenM. MHoroe 5enbrw*cxne 
npeAnpufiTMn no-npe*HeMy nnamnn 3apnnaTy cbomm 6b4BwnM coTpyAHMxaM- 
eBpeaM, xotr Te He Mornn 6onbtue noRB/iaTbcn Ha pa60MBM MecTe. Bee sto 
noMorno 6onee 25 TbicBMaM 6enbrw*CKnx eepeeB nepewwTb soiiHy. 

ABe TaKTMKM - cnpnTaTbcn m «CTaTb HeeBpeeM» - He MCKruoMann oahb 
ApyryK). HepeAKO npuxoA^nocb nx npuMeHHTb no OMepeAH. MeHnnwcb o6ctoji- 
Te/ibCTBa. cooTBeTCTBeHHO MeHflnacb m TaKTMxa. no/ibCKan cynpyxecxan napa 
KaponnHa n Muxonart KMMTa noMorann MonoaeHbKoiii eBpeMxe 3oce C noMouibio 
cpanbiuuBbix AoxyMeHToe 3ocn Bwflaaana ce6n 3a hx pozjdBeHHHuy. Oanaxo 
nocne cepnn *ecTOKnx paenpas HeMueB c eBpeswn n hx nonbCKMMn noMoujHUKa- 
mm b coceAHHx ropoAax m cenax, Kmhtw peiunnn. mto pmck ocTaeaTbCfl nonbxow 
Ann 3ocn cohiukom BenviK MtixonaM nocTponn ef\ a 6nnwaPiiijeM necy yKpbiine. 
n xa>Kflym HOMb KaponnHa npMHOCMna Tyaa eny. MUCTyio OAexmy. HHorAa BOAxy m 
nexapcTBa. 3ocn nepewuna b 3tom yKpwTMH BCto BOMHy. 

ABeHaAuaTuneTHHM UJMyneK OnuHep y6e>xan M3 rerro, h ero npwioTuna y 
ce6n nonbCKas KpecTbHHKa no wMeHM BaribBUHa. 3a to apeMw. noica BanbBHHa 
npnTana y ce6s UJMynexa. OHa o6yMMna ero rpaMOTHO nucaTb ia roBopMTb no- 
nonbCKn o6bf CHuna. xax BecTM ce6n b uepKBki n xax npaB^nbHO Montubcn. (locne 
SToro OHa peiunna. mto Tenepb 6e3onacHee npeACTaBHTb OriMHepa xaK nonbexoro 
ManbMktxa. seM aepwaTb ero b yxpuTHti. Oh Hauien paGoTy b oahom nonbcxon 
ceMbe b coceflHew Aepeewe mto noMorno npoxopMMTbcn m BMy. m BanbBMHe. 
UjMynex nepewMn BOMHy h dan w3eecTHbiM mctopmxom CaMynnoM OnuHepoM, 
aBTopoM OAHoro H3 caMux aBTopMTeTHbix MccneAOBaHMH o npaBeflHMKax Mupa 

HecMOTpo Ha ace ycuriMfl m ynoBKn. o KOTopbix roBopunocb Bbiiue. noaaenn- 
KjtueMy 6onbiiJMHCTBy eBponeiiCKnx eBpeeB He yAanocb M36e)KaTb CTpaiuHOM 
yyacru oxasaTbcn b pyxax y Hau^cTOB. fluuib HexoTopbiM nocMacTnuBiinocb 
nepe>KMTb reiro m nareps. 3to 6wno 6w Heeo3MO)XHO 6e3 caMooTBepweHHO* 
noMomn co CTopoHbi HeeBpeeB. 

EBpen. nonaAaBuine b rerro. eme ne 3Hann. mto ohm o6peM6Hbi Ha CMepTb. 
Ho to, mto mm c nepaoro aha h6o6xoammo 6opoTbcn sa cymecTBoeaHMe, craHO- 
BHnocb M3BecTHO cpa3y. He xBaTano npoAytfTOB. nexapcTB. oflew/ibi. flna noxynxvi 
eAw Ha MepHOM puHKe Tpe6oBanncb AeHbrn. Mto6w HeneranbHO pa6oTaTb, Hyjwio 
6wno MMeTb cpanbiuwawe AOKyMeHTbi. Bee stm Heo6xoflMMbie ann *m3hm Bemn 
nepeAaBanw b rerro coMyBCTByioiune eBpeHM hkjah C onpeAeneHHoro MOMeHTa 
bxoa b reTTO HeeBpesM 6bin aanpemeH, no3TOMy npuxoAnnocb npMAyMWBaTb 
HecTaHflapTHwe peiueHnq 

Anexcy PocnaHy. nonnxy us BapiuaBbi. yaanocb b 1943 roay npOHMXHyrrb b 
BapmaBCKoe rerro Mepes noA3eMHbiili TyHHenb, o kotopom He 3Hann cJiaujMCTbi. 
Ero noTpncno to. mto oh yaHAen, ocoSenHO 6eflCTBeHHoe nonoweHwe AeTeii. 
PocnaHy yaanocb 3a6paTb c co6ovi BocbMwneTHero flxoaa rmiaTa. no3Anee k 
HeMy npucoeflMHHnwcb Mnafliuwe 6paTbB LUanoM m flaBua JIkob m flaBMA TvinaTbi 
napewmin b AOMe PocnaHOB bckj BO&Hy, LUanoM yMep ot cxapnaTMHbi. 

HHorAa yAaaanocb nepeAaBaTb b rerro opy>xne. HacTonTenbHuua MOHacTbi- 
PH B6nn3M BunbHioca AHHa BopxoBCKaB c noMoiAbio HecxonbXMX MOHaxuHb 



4 3HAK BEAbt 



61 



co6npana Ha nonnx, rae npoxoannn cpaweHnn. hokm. nucToneibi pyHHbie 
rpaHaTw n nepeaasana nx a BurbHioccKoe rerro. Monacrbipb 6t>in MecTOM 
yKpbiTH^ ana eepevicKHx noanonbmnxoB n napTH3aHCKnx xowaHflHpoB A66bi 
KoBHepa m A6paxaMa 3y uxeBepa TaM xe cnacanucb MHorne ae™. 6ex<aBiune H3 
rerro 

HacTOBujMM aHrenoM-cnacnTeneM flnn 3aKniOMeHHbix b rerro eBpeeB crana 
Ahh3 3nMatiTe, pa6oTHHLia yHHBepCHTeTCxm* 6n6nwoTei<n H3 BnnbHK>ca Ohs 
y6eflnna HeMeuxiie BnacTn. mto ann nononHeHun 6n6nuoTexi* eii Heo6xoanMO 
co6paTb KHurM y eBpertCKMx cryaeHTOB, OKaaaBiunxcsi b rerro. m nonymina ryaa 
nponycx ann ceo6oaHoro Bxoaa n Bwxoaa Kaxcawvi aenb OHa npuxoanna b rerro 
w npMHOCuna c co6ofi xne6. MapMenaa, MaprapuM w cwp an" aeTea M3 aoMa 
cupoT. Ohs cyMena noMoub cothpm uenoBex Koraa o ee ae"TenbnocTM crano 
M3BecTH0 HeMqaM, 3nMaviTe apecTOBann. nbiTann n ompaBunM 8 xoHijem-pauH- 
OHHurt narepb flaxay. IIotom ee nepeBoannn b apyrne narepn OHa Bbiwuna 
MyaoM. <...> 

B KOHueHTpaanoHHbix narepnx. co3aaHHbix ruTnepoBuaMM a pasHbix orpa- 
Hax Haiunn cbok) rn6enb MiinnnoHbi eBponeucxiix espees. He Tonbxo b cneun- 
anbHbix narepnx yHUMToxeHun, Kax Ocbchiihm una Tpe6nnHxa, ho h b cothrx Tax 
HasbiBaeMbix TpyaoBbix narepen rae ntoan ywnpann ot HenocunbHOM pa60Tbi. 
HexaaTKM riMTaHMfi n OTcyTCTBMP Meani4MHCKOM noMOLUH. Peaxo, HO COHyBCTByW- 
ujne espeaM ntoan naxoannncb n cpeau o6cnyxnBaioiaero nepcoHana Taxnx 
narepevi. H Toraa b 6e3Haae>KHOM CMTyauwn nonBnwicH uiaHC Ha cnaceHwe. 

fleBnTHaauaTMneTHMM nonnx Bnaancnas Mn3tOHa pa6oTan Ha cpepMe no 
pa3BeaeHMio KponuxoB B6nu3u ropoaa PaaoM. Ha 6a3e 3toh cpepMt* 6bin opra- 
HM30BaH pa5oHMii narepb ana CHa6weHMa HeMeuxax conaaT Ha Boctomhom 
4>poHre xponnMbMM MexoM. BoribLunHCTBO 3aKniOHeHHbix b narepe 6wnn eBpeii- 
CKMe weHiiiMHbi. Kax v> bo Bcex hbm6ukhx narepnx. Tpya 6wn rawenuM. caHHTap- 
Hwe ycnoenn npHMi-iTHBHbiMn, nniaHns. oco66hho ana eBpeeB, 6bino Mano 
MM3WHa aenan see. mto 6wno a ero cunax, uTo6bi noaaepxaTb 3ax/iKweHHbix 
BonpeKH npnKa33M. oh nepeaasan mm sacTb npoayxTOB. npeaHasHaneHHux na 
xopM xponnxaM. B narepe cenpencTBOBann Sonesnn, a nexapcTB eBpeflM He 
nonaranocb. OaHawabi Bnaancnae 3apa3nn ce6n tom ixe 6one3Hbio, kotodom 
3a6onena oaHa aeByaiKa-saK/iioHeHHan. mto6w nonyMMTb ot narepHoro epana 
nexapcTBO, kotopum aennncn c aeByujKOii 06a ohm ewneMnnnCb flo KOHua 
BoviHbi BnaancnaB Mn3K)Ha 3a6oTnncs o 3axiiiOHeHHbix. Oh cnac 6onee aeon™ 
Menosex. 

Mcm 6onee bwcoxhm nod 3aHMMan b narepHoii Mepapxnn HenoBex, TeM 
6onbiue B03Mo>KHOCTeM cnaceHun eapeee oh nMen. Bcbmupho m3B6Cthom. 6na- 
roaapn cpnnbMy CnMn6epra. CTana ncTopns HeMqa Ocxapa LJnHonepa. cnacuie- 
ro Ha cboom npeanpnRTHn b nonbiue 6onee 1200 eBpeee npnMep UJMHanepa ho 
eAUMCTseHHbiH. lOnwyc Maapn^. aBCTpmicKHM npeanpuHUMaTenb, MMen aee 
TexcTMnbHbix cpa6pMKM B6nn3M KpaxoBa. Maapun 6wn TaiiHbiM npoTMBHMKOM 
Haqn3Ma. oh cnac Hecxonbxo coieH eBpeeB. B Hon6pe 1944 roaa MaapuMa 
apecTOBann. ho oh cMor nepex<nTb BOHHy. 

MHoraa coMyacTBMe k eepePM nposBnsnn aax<e o^anunanbHwe r\nua . cnyma- 
mne Ha cropoHe HeMuee nnvi mx cok>3hmkob. BeHrepcxnii nonxoBHux UMpe 
PeBMUKMM 6bifi xoMOHaaHTOM pa6oMero narepq. rae c 1940 no 1944 roa naxoan- 
nocb b 3aKnK5HeHnn Hecxonbxo coieH eBpeee. B omMMMe ot apyrvix narepHwx 
KOMOHaaHTOB, PeBMUKMii noMoran eBpe^M, xax Tonbxo Mor. Oh nosBonwi x<eHaM 
3aKniOHeHHbix BCTpeMaTbCB co cbohmh My*bnMM n 3a6oTMTbcn o hhx. Oh ocbo- 
6ox<aan eepeee or pa6oTw e pennrno3Hbie npa3aHnxn, aaBan OTnycxa no apyruM 
oScroflTenbCTBaM. flBepH aoMa Peanuxoro m ero jkchu 6wnn Bceraa oTxpwTbi 
an« eBpeeB. Oh BcnsecKw saTnriiBan ompaBxy pa6onero 3iuenoHa ceapeHMM Ha 
boctok. Tax xax nonaran, mto ohh TaM 6yayT yHMMTox<eHbi Koraa 6bin aaH npuxas 
o aenopTauMM Bcex eBpeeB b narepb yHMHTOJKeHun, Pcbumxhm OTKpwn BopoTa 
CBoero pa6o«ero nareps m no3Bonnn MHoruM 3aKnK?MeHHbiM 6ex<aTb ot BepHOM 
CMepTM. B xoHije 1944 roaa PeBnuxoro caMoro apecTOBariM 

3a noMoiitb eBpenM 6binn xa3HeHbi Hecxonbxo HeMeuxHX m aBCTpHiicxtix 
conaaT, nepeaaBaetuMx opymne a^n eBpewcxoro ConpoTMBneHMfi b Benocroxe. 
H3BecTHt>i npuMepbi noMoian eBpenM aawe co cropoHbi HeMeuxvix nommetiCKux 
b BepnnHe. 

(tlopa3ument>Ha cydb6a Mauopa Maxes fliomKe. npedomepamueweao 3C3- 
coecKyxj o6naey na eepeee a tlujeMbicne (rio/ibiua). flo npui<a3y fltomxe conda- 
mw ezo nodpa3deneHun ho no3eofiunu 3cacoeu,aM nepeumu *vepe3 uocm u 
npcHUKHymb e eepeOCKyio vacmb zopoda. 3a amom nocmyno* uauop /7/onwe 




lOosac CmaKaycxac. ceauieHHun 
u:i BunbMioca 




3nu3a6em Cmpo-HuKonox ua PyuoiHuu 




62 



4 3HAK BEAM 




Mam. Mapun (Emi3aeema C*o6uoea) 
cdemt>uu 




Tuyue Cyamtapa uj Rnonuu 




niomitg, HOueuKuQ o0uu»p 



6t>in paaxanoean e pndoebie u omnpaenen na nepedoeyio. Bbin e3fim e nnen 
KpacHoO apuueu u yMep e coeemcKOu nazepe. - flpuM. ped.) 

Bosmowhoctm cnaceHHq b narepnx yHMHTOJKeHun npatrrnMecKn He 6bino. \A 
ace we Haxoflnnncb npaBeflHUKM. o6nerMaBwne, no bosmokhoctm. ynacTb o6pe- 
neHHbx KaK npaBuno, 3to 6t>irw nonMTsaicntOMeHHbie, nonaBiuvie b narepb b 
peaynbTaTe cBoeii 6opb6bi c HamoMOM 

AHHa BuHflep 6bina mbujckhm AnnnoMaTov. ee apecTOBann 3a to. mto OHa 
nprnana eapeiiCKoe MMymecTBO h OTnpaBnnna ero 3a rpaHnuy. B MapTe 1942 rofla 
ee npuBeann b Ocbohuum, rue Ha3HaHnnn Ha 3aBnflHyio AonwHOCTb 6pnraanpa 
cenbCKOxoasiiCTaeHHOM 6p-iraabi - cym** part no cpaBHeHMio c paScKHM TpyAOM 
Ha apyrux yMacTxax. Ohb caMa oifjupana 3axniOMeHHbix fl/iq CBoeu 6pwraAw. 
npuMeM Bceraa 6pana Tex jKeHiynH, sbe <pn3MMecKoe cocTOHHue 6bi/io Han6onee 
TflwerbiM h Kowy rpoanna aepHaa cuepTb ot 6one3HeA h ncTomeHna. OHa 
MopanbHO noaaepjKHBana MHornxo6peHeHHbix. HacTo BuHflep Bcrynana b kohcp- 
nwa c 3C3coBuaMii. sawuinan eepeiicKnx saxritoMeHHbix 3a cbow AeflTenbHOCTb 
AHHa Bmhabp nuiutinacb narepHbix npuBunernw h b Hanane 1944 roAa 6b4/ia 
OTnpaBneHa Ha caMyio THwenyto pa6oTy - b rpnsb n CHer MocTMTb ynnuw b 
BupKeHay. AHHa THweno 3a6onena m MyAOM AO*nna ao HHBapa 1945 roAa, KorAa 
coaeTCxne conAaTbi ocBoobAMnn OcaeHUMM. 

MaTb MapnH , b Mupy - Enn3aseTa CKo6uoBa (e coeemcKou ucmopuoapacpuu 
- Ky3bMuna-Kapaeaeea. no cpaMunuu nepeoao Myxa - llpuM.ped) 6wna OTnpaB- 
neHa BweHCKMM KOHunarepbB PaBeHc6pK>KeBanpene 1943 roAa. rioHTMABa rofla 
WMna OHa BMecTe c eme 2500 3axmoMeHHbiMn. b ochobhom espeiicKHMM weHUW- 
HaMn. b narepHOM 6a pane. KaxAwii aeHb OHa npouianacb co cbohmh coceaoMn, 
kotopwx eenn Ha cMepTb. MaTb MapMR noMorana HecMacTHWM mom Tonbxo Morna, 
Aennna c hmmm cbom xne6 n AaBana nocneAHee yTeuieHne. ecnn 6onbuie Hunero 
Henbsn 6wno CAenaTb. 3Ty noMoub OHa oxa3biBana ao CBoero nocneAHero aha. 
npeanonowMTenbHo 31 MapTa 1945 rofla, Koraa 6wna ywe cnwwHa xaHOHaAa 
HacTynatoiueii CoBeTCKOM ApMnn B 3T0T aeHb m MaTb Mapno 0TnpaannM b 
ra30Byio KaMepy. no HexoTopbiM paccKa3SM nepe>KHBujnx 3tot narepb, MaTb 
Mapnf? caMa BCTana b rpynny OTo6paHHwx Ann k33hm weHiunH. MTOdfal o6onpnTb 
m noAflepwaTb mx. nocneAHee, mto OHa Morna CAenaTb, sto cyHyTb CBoe HeeBpevi- 
cxoe yAOCTOBepeHMe nHHHOCTn CBoeiii coceflKe b HaAewAe, hto oho coxpaHUT evi 
HB taiRi . 

Onepaunto no yHtmToweHvito espees b He6onbiuoM nonbCKOM ropoAKe He- 
CBtiw (ceroAHfl oh npHHaAnewMT Benopyccnn) homuu 3annaHnpoBann Ha 21 vwnn 
1942 roAa. HeKOTopue pyKOBOAMTenn eBpeMCKOH o6iamhw npeAnyBCTBOBann aro 
3a HecxonbKO flHeii. Tax xax 17 uronn noAo6Haa aKmw 6wna npoBeAena b 
coceAHeM c HeceMweM ropoAKe. B OKTn6pe 1941 roAa MaccoBwe y6MHicTBa 
eepeeB ywe npoxaTvinncb no stmm Meciaw Bonbuian MacTb HaceneHMs rerro 
HecBHwa peujuna oxasaTb HeMuaM BOopyweHHoe conpoTUBneHne Ytpom 21 
Mionn k BopoTaM reTTO noA'bexana HeMeuxan aMH3aTu-rpynna. n KOMaHA^p rpynnbi 
noTpe6oBan, xaK ctUHHO, hto6w bcs eapen HeMeA^eHHo co6panncb Ha nnomaAM. 
HeMtibi BbiBesyT nx W3 ropoAa. /Ikjah Tenepb 3Hann, hto sto 03HanaeT cxopbiM m 
6ecnomaAHbiM paccTpen. PeiunB. mto nyMiue yMepeTb b 6opb6e. npeACTaBMTenw 
CoBeTa rerro OTxa3anncb BwnonHHTb npnKa3 HeMiieB. IJJanoM XonaecKnii. pyxo- 
boambojmm BTOTABHb BoopyweHHWM conpoTusneHMeM, BcnoMUHan. Kax pasBHBa- 
nwcb co6biTnn Aanee. HeMuw oTxpbinn oroHb. Heo»HAaHHO orpnA 6omuob M3 
CMHarorw oTBeTwn 3annoM us pyxew m nucToneTOB. HeMuw BopBanncb b rerro. 
EBpen BCTpeMann nx c HowaMn m cTanbHbiMH npyraMn b pyxax. 3aBn3ancn 
HepaBHbiki 6om, ynmjbi 3anonHnnn Tena y6nTbix n paHBHbix. Kax 6wno peiueHO 
3apanee. eepew noAOJxrn»i cbom AOMa, HTo6bi noA npuxpbiTneM atiMa n orxn 
nonyvnTb lubhc BbipBaTbcn H3 rerro Xaoc m Hepa36epnxa oxBaTnnn Becb ubhtp 
ropofla. 

He 3acTaBnnn ce6s «AaTb m coceAn: Tonnw xpecTbBH n ropo*aH ycTpeMM- 
nnob b rerro, BpbiBanncb b ropsujue aoms, xeaTanM eme yueneaiuee espetiCKoe 
MMymecTBo:oA6>KAy. naMnbi. nocyAy ... BeiueHwe ot hpocth homuw paccTpennBa- 
nu K3*Aoro eBpea, kto nuTancn BbidewaTb H3 nwnaBUjero rerro. XonaecxuPi n Asa 
ApyrMx Qoma CKpwBarincb b MaHcapae OAHoro AOMa, awwuAan 6naronpnflTHoro 
MOMeHTa Ann 6ercTBa. M3 okhs ohm xopoiuo BHAenw, xax Tonnw ntoAen, MbM pyxw 
6wnn 3aH»TW Harpa6neHHbiMn aemaMM, npuranM m paAOCTHO opanM npn Ka>«AOM 
yaaMHOM HeMeuxoM BWCTpene, HeBawHO, kto 0Ka3WBancn y5nTWM, - MywMMHa, 
weHujMHa, pe6eH0K. 

HaxoHeu. XonaBCKMii m ero apy3bn Bbipeanncb M3 rerro n no6e»ann Mepe3 
none x cnacnTenbHOMy necy. XonaBCKMii yanAen, xax us rerro Bw6e)Kan CuMxa 
PoueH. c saBepHyTbiM b noAyujKy ManeHbKHM cwhom Ha pyxax. npo6eran mmmo 



4 3HAK fjEflbl 



13 



KpecTbnHKM, cTOBBiueki y bopot m Ha5nioaaBujei<t bck> 3Ty cqeHy, CuMxa cyHyn ew 
b pyKM y3en c peoeHKOM n noCewan aanbuie k necy 

npeCTyOHMKH, *epTBbl H 3pnTenM. O KOTOpblX Mbl rOBOpM/IM paHbliie. OTH8T- 

nuBO BMflHbi b cuewe. onucaHHOri LUanoMOM XonaacxHM (IpecTyriHUKu npeacTaB- 
neHbi aiiH3aTu-KOMaHaoii. noao6Hbie rpynnu, no ashhum HeMeuKOii bobhhovi 
CTaTMCTMKM, yHMMTownnn b o6iaeM cnowHocm nomopa MnnnnoHa eepeeB Ha 
TeppnTopunx rionbuiM. CTpan npn6anTMKM, coeeTc«wx pecny6nuK >KepT8bi - sto 
HaceneHne rerro, moan, KOTopwe aenann ace. MTo6bi JxepTeaMH He crraTb: 
CTponnn nnaHbi, Monnnncb. conpoTnennnncb. 6opormcb, yMnpann m 6ejKann ot 
cwepTn. 3pnTenn - sto tb wwrenn HecBuwa. KOTopwe pacxBaTbtBanu eepeiicKne 
aeuin M3 ropnmux aomob, sto moan. xoTopue «npt>irann n opann». xoraa owepea- 
hom eepew 6wn 3acTpeneH, sto, HaxoHeu, Ta xpecrbHHxa. xotodom cyHyn b pyxH 
CBoero ManeHbKoro cwHa Cmmxb PoueH. 

Hto caenana 3Ta xpecTbHHxa c pe6eHxoM? QJanoM XonascKnti HMMero 06 
3tom He roBOpm: cyab6a pe6eHKa ocTanacb HeMseecTHOH CMorna nw xpectbSH- 
Ka cnpnTaTb pe6eHxa, n CMnrana nn ohs Boo6me ue/iecoo6pa3HWM ero cnacaTb? 
Hnn OHa petunna He BMeumBaTbcn m tbm we, Ha oxpawHe ropoaa. npocTo 
nono«nna pe6eHKa na 3eMnw, npeaocTaBMB ero cyab6e? Mhm OHa OTaana 
ManbHuxa neMeuKOMy conaaTy h Ha6noaana. xax tot 6epeT pe6eHxa 3a ho™ u 
pa36nBaeT eMy ronoBy CTeHy, - Tax 06WMHO pacnpaBnnnncb HaqucTu c aeTbMM 
«eBpeMCKHx HeaoHeroB6KOB-napa3tiTOB»? Mw HHKoraa He ysHaeM, mto npon3ou- 
no na csmom aene. <...> 

MunniiOHbi eBponenueB ctom/ih nepea TaxMM *e bwdopom . xax u xpecrbHHKa 
u3 HecBM*a, m ot hx peiueHMw 3aBncena *M3Hb MunnwoHOB moaetf. npaBeaHMKn 
Mupa BMaenM an" ce6n eauncTBeHHO eo3MO)KHbirt Bbi6op - caenaTb see, hto 
mowho. ana cnaceHMB nenoBexa HcnacanoaHy wn3Hb. ohm cnacanrnjenbiMMvip, 
n6o aaBHO 6bino cxasano: «npaBeaHnx - ocHosa BceneHHOM». 

Hcnonb3oeaHHaH nMTepaTypa: 

Encyclopedia of the Holocaust - New York. 1990. 

Encyclopedia Judaica. - Jerusalem. 1972. 

David P. Gushee Die Gerechten des Holocaust. Wueppelai und Lutherstadt - 
Wittenberg. 1997. 

Rolf Rendtorff. 1st in Auschwitz das Christentum gestorben? - In: Rolf Rendtorff. 
Christen und Juden heute. Neukirchener. 1998. 

Eliezer Berkovitz. Fairth after Ihe Holocaust. - New York, 1973. 

EBreHMii BepxoBMM. XpacToc b OcBeHU,nMe. - «PyccxaB Mbicnb», N. 4215, 26 MapTa- 

1 anperm 1998 roaa 

EBreHnii BepxoBdM. Mojkho nn xptiCTkiaHMHy MbiTbcn a 6aHe c eapeeM? XpucTnaHCKO- 
nyaeiicKMM auanor enepa n ceroAHn - HeaaBMCMMbiM Sociohckum anbMaHax «Jle- 
6eab». HOMep 202, 2001. 

EBreHnvi BepxoBMH. CraTbn b xHiire «3aMeTKM no eepeMCKOki hctopmm» - MocxBa. 
2000. 

1 rpex aHTnceMHTH3Ma. 

2. CnoBO m aero. 

3. BaHanbHOCTb flo6pa Kax MTanbRHCKMe (paiuMCTw cnacann eBpees. 

4. HcroanH BunbrenbMa Baxnepa - eBpeiiCKoro Ocxapa uJunanepa. 

5 Koraa na He6e ho 6wBaeT paayrn. ripaBeaHMk - ocHoaa BceneHHOM. 

EBreHnii BepxoBMH CeMeviHbiM nopTpeT b hctophmockom HHTepbepe. - HesaBMCHMuti 
oocoHCKUki anbMaHax «/1e6eflb». 2000. 

EBreHMii BepxoBMM Kqhckmm 6yHr Ha ynnue P03. - «Bocthmx», 14(247), 2000 

EBreHMii BepxoBMH. AMepuxa h XonoKOCT. - «Kpyr», homop 1(51), KenbH. 2001. 

Raul Hilberg Porpertrators. Victims, Bystander - New York, 1992. 

XeneH n. 3>paw (cocraBHTenb). XpHCTwaHCKo-MyaeMCKUM auanor XpecTOMaTMn - 
Mocxaa. 1998. 

TepMBH PayujHMHr. ToBopuT rumep. 3eepb M3 6e3aHU. - Mwp. Mocxea. 1993. 

Samuel P. Oliner, Pearl M, Oliner. The Altruistic Personality: Rescuers of Jews in Nazi 
Europe- New York. 1988. 

Martin Gilbert. The Holocaust. - New York, 1985. 

Vehuda Bauer. The Holocaust in Historical Perspektive - New York. 1982. 




3uzuynd BanuuKUu us flonbwu 




3o0bn BuHKene uj flume* 




Banda flouuMcua m Dotou/u 



64 



4 3HAK BEAbl 




neoHmuMa-roHpuemma JJuxon 
U3 Senteuu 




Adenauda Xaymeanb us Opamfuu 




Opami u EneMa BewerKpertbdep ui 
repuenuj 



Dov Levin. On the Relations Between the Baltic Peoples and Their Jewish Neighbours 
Before, during and after World War II. - In: Holocaust und Genocide Studies. 5, Nr 
1(1990) 

Peter Hellman Avenue of the Righteous - New York. 1980 

B.A. Sljes. Several Observations concerning the Position of Jews in Occupied Holland 
during World War II. - In: Yisrael Gutman, Efraim Zuroff. Hrsg. Rescue Attempts during 
the Holocaust. Jerusalem. 1974, 

Leonard Gross. The Last Jews in Berlin. - New York, 1992. 

Edward Lynne Brave Lady from Holland. - Jewish Observer and Middle East Review. 
16. Nr. 16(21 Apnl 1967). 

David Kranzler. How 18000 Jews Surved the Holocaust While Europe Burned. — 
Jewish Life. Bd. 1 (new Serie). 1975. 

Henry Huttenbach. The Emigation of Jews from Worms (November 1938 - Oktober 
1941): Hopes and Plans. - In: Yisrael Gutman, Efraim Zuroff. Hrsg, Rescue Attempts 
dunng the Holocaust, Jerusalem, 1974. 

Stewen Bowman. Jews in Wartime Greece. - Jewisch Social Studies. 48, Nr.1, 1986. 

Femande Le Boucher. The Incredible Mission of Father Benoit. - New York. 1969 

Moshe Bejski. The Righteous among the Nations and Their Part in the Rescue of Jews 
- In: Yisrael Gutman, Efraim Zufoff. Hrsg, Rescue Attempts during the Holocaust, 
Jerusalem, 1974. 

Poul Borchsenius. The Rescue of the Danish Jews. - In: «Jewish Spectator). 34, Nr. 6. 
1969. 

Hanna Arendt. Eichman in Jerusalem. - Muenchen, 1990 

Felix Kanabus. Address at the J.N.F In: Jacob Glatstein, Hrsg Antology of Holocaust 
Literature. - New York, 1969 

Philip Friedman. Their Brothers' Keepers. -New York, 1978. 

Arieh Bauminger. The Righteous. - Jerusalem, 1983. 

Anne Frank. The Diary of Young Girl. - New York, 1967. 

Corrie ten Boom. The Hiding Place. - New York, 1971 . 

Jacqueline Wolf. Take care of Josette. - New York, 1981. 

Nechama Tec When Light Pierced the Darkness. - New York, 1986. 

Lucien Steinberg. Jewish Rescue Activities in Belgium and France. - In: Yisrael 
Gutman, Efraim Zufoff, Hrsg, Rescue Attempts during the Holocaust, Jerusalem, 1974. 

Michael Halperin. He Who Saves One Life.- Moment 6. Nr. 7, 1981. 

Shalom Gholawski. Soldiers from the Ghetto. - San Diego. 1980. 

Tasaaap Copoc. Macnapaa. Hrpa a npHTKM co CMepTbio b MaundCKOM BeHrpuH. - M.. 
Py/lOMHHo, 2001 . 

B ny6nnKauMM Mcnonb30BaHbi dpoTorpacpnn 

M3 ranepen flpaaeAHMKOB Mupa 

wy ,-ien Ghetto Fighter House, H3pannb 

http://www.gfh.org.il 



MoHyueHm e wecmt npaeednuKoe uupa e Aucmepdaue 




4 



3A6blTblE yPOKH 



Ecjih HeKOTopwe khhi-h npouiHTbi, a npoAaxa ux 3anpemeHa, to xax xe 6wTb c yxacatomnMn cfeaxTaMH, 
KOTopwe nocTpaoiHee Hexwx rpe3?.. Te, Koro 3aAeBaK)T Taxne KHurn, Hmero He Moryr npOTHBonocTaBUTb 
co6biTn«M. He KHurw - co6biTnn HyxHO 3anpewaTb. KaK nacTO 3.no mcxoamt m3 ao6pa, a ao6po ot 3Jia. 

repiuan Me/iBH/i/i. auepiiKaHCKHH nucare/ib. 1854 rp#. 



MpnHa XOJlMOrOPCKAfl 

JleHM PH(jDeHLUTa/lb, 

mum 

Bo/iiije6Haq cJ)/ieMTa 
Kpbico/iosa 

— SevNb/e c«b/, SeccnedHbie uamu 
A cepdue ece znyuje. a (pneuma ace cnaute . . 
— Ho dyuau. a cnedyu. «e dyuau, a cnywau . 
A 0neOma ece cname a cepdue ece znywe.. 

Mapuna Ueemaeea Kpbiconoe. 1925 

B nocnciHee Bpetta Macro 3BymiT nvta Jlemi Pii({>eHurTa.ib, 
ii hc To.ibxo noTOMy. hto b 2002 roay eft Hcno.iHHTca 100 hct 
OaHa in caMux ra.iaHT.iHBbix /KeHUiHii-pexotccepoB 3a bcko 
iicTopiiio KiiHCMaioi p.u|u. ajia Miii'im ohb 6bi.ia h 6yacr 
HauiicncKoft npecrynHimefi. «noeo6HHuefi FHT.iepa". EypHbie 
OHCKyCCHH hc ynixaioT co aHa noKaia cc (Jnt.ibMa «TpityM(}> 
bojih» b pa.MKax (JiecntBaaa «noaiaHiie k lenoBexv" b CaHXT- 
nerep6yprc (KioHb 2001 r.). 3tot qbH.ibM ciHTaeTca h noHWHc 
.ivhujhm b *aHpe nponaraHjHCTCKoro xitHCMaTorpa4>a. 

. . npoiueduiuii denb npunec oyKsaibiio nompucenue- nap- 
nnmy .leim Puipeiiiumaib «Tpuy.\i<p so.w». Ommbiu a 1935 
.•<i<)y omiem o HiopiidepccKOMCbeide Hau.uoHai-coiiua.iucmo6 
deucmeume.ihiio numpucaem - y.nce lepei daaduanib Mimyni 
niic.u- iiaiaia mate u nod.ubieaem ecKotumb c .uecma u ecKU- 
Hynib pyxy h HOfuetncKOM npueememeuu. 

E. Kocoh, cemeeoi Mcyp»a.i «Ko.H.HepcaHm>: 

fl cHumaio noKa3 vnoeo ipu.ib.ua omspamume.ibHou npo- 

noKQHiieu uencdynapodHoeo Kuiiotpecmuea.in. Bocneeamie 

Ado.ibipa runnepa hc itwcm mine.'o odiueso co csododou 

ucKvccmea. 

«TpuyMtp 6ccnu\tnmcrmti ■. O. CmpuMcan, 

tieH Cowia nucame.ieu Poccuu. 

. . Jtotda /'itipemumaib nbiuna mi cueuy, jai scma.1. H hc 

d) ho i. WHO >»'" npoujoiidem. Ho ny&UIKa an.iodupota.Mx 

imoii cmapyuiKe co cKanda.ib- 

iibLM ucmopuiecKUM npoiu.ibi\i. 

fl am iiuuicii axmiu c Pu<pemu- 

man j*vta.7 cepbeiHofopeioHau- 

ca. OcMbic.ienuH onbima pencuc- 

cepa, Hneuantiemiu om ec tpiLib- 

.w«ii, « Komopbix - ttunmo lie 6y- 

dent cnopumb - Miioncecmeo ku- 

HCMamoipa^WiecKux omxpw- 

muu.HocKaHdaianneoKdai fl 

npocmo lie dyMOM, inu> hii.ii - 

enwo - « noiiue Koiiuas pab me- 

nepb v.wf udem mojibtco o tpitib- 

mux '-MOHCem vnpotonupoeaim 

maKyio oyvy 

BuKtnop CtMCHWK, oupenmop 

npn.-paMM ipecmunaiH 

nenu PutpeHtvmarib nflociaHue k •ie.ioetKyu. 




.iavKc 3thx Tpcx uiiTaT Bno.THe aocTaToiHO. hto6w no- 

HOTb. HacKO.lbKO CHJIbHO BO.iMyinaioi II Rocxiniiakir ijni ii.mi.i 

JleHH Pii(j)CHUiTa.ib h riOHbiHe. M xom sno.iHe noHmeH 3anpcr 
Ha MaccoBbifl noxa3 «TpnyMi{)a bo.ih». Mo*eT 6biTb. y*c Hacry- 
nvuo BpeMa in TpC3Boro ana/in ia 3Toro BCCbMa CHMmoMaTHH- 
Horo HBneHHii. HHane xax *e mo*ho ovjct pacnoiHaTb 3th 
cHMrrroMM b SyjymeM ilih r*e aa*e b HacTomueM? 

He xomctcs hm b Roofl Mepc Kax-To o6iucTb .iio.icR npe- 
KJioHHoro »■■> ipaci a. KOTopue He MoryT 6ecnpHcrpacTHO otho- 
CHTCH KO BCeMy. HTO CB»3aHOC (J)aiIIH3MOM. HV HHX-TO. 5c3yc.ioii- 

ho, ccTb npaBo cio«Tb c nnaxaTaMH y Bxoaa nHTepcxoro /Iowa 
khho. Ho noMeMV *e BnonHe coBpeMCHHbie it Her.iynue )KypHa- 
.iiictw no3Bo.mioT ce6e BbiayMi.maib Hc6bi.iiiiibi npo PiKpenui- 
Tanb. uxoobi «npo.iaBiu>K)iiyiiiy ab»BOJiy». rHeBaioTca. 6paH»T- 
c». npana 3a auMOM oTpituaTejibHMX Miomffl Hecnoco6Hocrb 
H-iii He*e.iaHnc pa3o6paTbc» b npo6neMC. KOTopan Hitxoraa He 

HOTepHCT aKTya.lbHOCTb: B3aiIMOaCHCTBIIC IICKVCCTBa. BJlaCTH H 

o6uiecTBa. XUm Wp/WSOa 9T0i npo6.iCMbi cyab5a h tbophcctbo 
PHqbeHuira.ib sanaioTCJi XpeCTOManfiBUH MaTepHajiost. 

Koraa kto-to hs 3HaxoMbix npeo-ioxcnji PHQ*)eHUJTajib no- 
c.iyuiaTb petb THT.iepa b 6cp.iMHCKOM flBopue cnopTa. ona hc 
3iia.ia itii o Hest. hii oeronapTim. Ho aTMoaj>epa nonurimecKO- 
ro MHTitHra h BbicTyruieHHe THTnepa BooayiueBiiiH PitcpeHiu- 
Taib. it OHa HanHca^a evty boctopachhoc niicbsio. Bi.im.im.ioci,. 

4T0 <j)IOp€p TOKCHCpaBIIOajllICH K JleHH (JO 3TOrO y HeC 6blJIH 

axTcpcKHe pa6oTbi it pexitcccpcKHH jc6k»t - «rony6ofi CBeT»). 
no3TONty ee vjioctohjih ayjHeHUHtt. OrHouieHiia .Ichh h ritT.ie- 
pa BbiibiBa.ui BceB03Mo-A-Hbie TOSKB. Flo ee paccxa3ai«. ao 

CieMOK ()>H.nbS<a «TpitVMlJ) B0.TH» OHaCHCTBHTCIbHO Ilpill lacil.l 

ee noyjKHHaTb BMCCTe it oxaibiBavi BCJiHecKHe 3Haxn BBHlttBRfl. 
«Ecih 6w 6buio aoxasaHO. hto h 6kt.ia .hooobhiiuch riiT.icpa. 
mto a cna.ia c hhm. a 6w hc nepe*it.ia 3Ty jIojki. a 6w yMepna». 
- roBopHT JIchh Pn<peiiu!7a.n. OHa aa.ia evty noium.. hto hx 
OTHOUieHHa - HHCTO JClOBUC. H THT-iepV npHULlOCb C 3THM 

comacitTbca. Bcxope PHfJKHtuTajib no.iy<w.na npcaio*cnHc 
cHaTbaoxy vteHTaibHoe khho o HiopHoeprcxoM cteiae HC^lAfl . 
Bot TaKoe .lencoe. nomi Bojeun.ibiioe nanaiio y 3T0fi hcto- 
pmt. ecm 3a6biTb. o xaxofl napTim iueT peib h kio Taxoft 
riiT.iep. BnpoMeM. JleHH 3Toro h He 3Ha.ia: rwmepu.u moeda 
aoc.xuma.iacb ten repsiaituH, dance Hep<tu.m e 1935 eody ckujui. 
unto on 3aitudycm rep.uaiiuu. aedb y nee ecmt iikikou tpiopcp. 
riowMy h mo^^a do.inciia Oboa om/mi y.wiec 'iepiuxw'. 

Hto iimchho bocxhtiijio Piti})cHUJTa.ib. aa h MitxiitoHbi 
HCMueB, noHamo: nocieBoeHitaa TepMaHHa. ycraBiiiaa 5bm. 

HIIUICH I! OeCCWIbHOfi. yBHje.'la B 3THX rpOMKHX MitTHHrax. 

sbaxcibHbix ujccTBiian. necH»x o «Vaterland» B03po>KaeHHc 6u- 
jioro BciitHHa. BHHOBaTanit PH<}«HuiTa.ibBTOM,HTOHenpeflBH- 
aeaa 6yaymero? MHonte ee cooTeHecTBeHHitKH. Hanpiivtcp. aK- 
Tpuca Map.ieH JJirrpiix. iTHcaTtib 3pitx Mapiin PestapK. OKasa- 
aHCb npoiop.iHBee: ohh noxHHynit TepMaHHio h bcjih axntB- 
Hyio 6opb6y npontB (pauiit3Ma. PH(jKHuiTa.ib ocTaaacb it pa3ae- 
.inna c TepMaHHeH it ee ii.i.ik>3iih. h ee no3op. BitHa 6bijia. ho 
OHa - He b OTcyrcTBHH npejBiueHii«. hc b yruieteHHocrH napa- 
.ihwmh npoaB.ieHitaMH peiKitMa. a b iiap\uieitiiit 6H6neflcxoii 
3anoBeajt - «He coTBopii cc5c xyMHpa!». tcm 6oaee - hc noMO- 
rafl b 3tom apyntM. 3to ee aitiHaa h eanitcTBeHHas BHita, b 
xoTopofl. cyan no sceMy. OHa Tax ii He pacxaaaacb: 3mo ne « 
npuee.ia my da acex jmux.iiodeu u 3acmastaa ux c.iymanib rum- 
iepa. H npocmo eiuua ux mate xopoiuo, vax mo.ibno .woiia. 



Si 



4 3ABhlfblE yPOKH 




« Tpuyucp eonu». 



A Morna PrnjieHurranb. MX OKtMSOCfc, - reHiia.ibHO. Kh- 
HeMaTorpa(J) - cjihuikom cH.ibHoe cpeacTBo BOiaeflcTBHs. pc- 

HCHCCCp TpaHClHpyCT CBOH HVBCTBa C MHOrOKpaTHMM yBC.IHHe- 

hiicm. yB.ieKai jihihmm nepeactiBaHHCM aa*-e tcx. kto 3Toro 

ncpoKKBaHim bobcc hc HcnuTax 

Ho.voe opuecmpoaoe acmyinenue u aaeHepoacKue .\ie.io- 
dim. nod Komopbiena tKpane Med.ieiwo npocmynaem eep.vau- 
ckuu ope.i. KaK .ueccun ta oo.iokos aoiHuxaem u onycxaemcn 
mi XMXIO runuep. TbUKHU ecmpevwoiqux tpiopepu e incmaie 
mxHympyKU a uaitucmcKo.ii npusemcmauu. MeaouKa. dapautan 
nacmbi aoncdio, cmpoeoe BOfO runuepa - omen uaifuu! Cypo- 
atie Kpacuebie .mita co.idam. pndbi canoe. «3ue xaHib!". Houb. 
0aKcibi. Kocmpbi. npoxceKitiopbi. cuiyinibi a kockox. eo.vibi 
]UMH nodcaeHemibt.x 3Ha.iieii, .nodcsue Ko.ioiuibi - cmoautuc, 
uapiuupywutue. aidhLuaiowite p.yku. necyittue tpane.ibi. opy- 
iiiiie Petit, napadbi. oapaoaubt, ruouep KpyiWblM iuohom. 
oimntb nenpooueaeMbie pudbi. «3m xau.ib!». «fJapnnui - imo 
ruiiLiep. runuep - imo repMUMUH*. «Xopcm Becce.ib», ope.i. 
1 1,1 'i ibieaioutan caacmuna... 

Bee apode dw oaiicubiio. ho ko.k auaiul llledeep. oda. 
OKiieonucb. Bom oho. HacmoHUtan rep.\iamui. He onyutemtaH u 
Yiiu.wcutiau lui.uiiihLu BepctUUM, a .iio.wtkm. Kpacuaaa. nodm- 
MatoiiiOMcn c ko.ich. 

.l.Humpuu EbiKtie "<Ppay <t>aycmyc» 





n. Pu0eHivmanb u A. rumnep eo epeust cbeuox « Tpuyu0a so/iu*. 



K TpuyMtp eoriu* 



H&iio CKaiaTk. aaneKO hc o.iimoKa JIchh Pni}>eHinTa.ib b 
ae.ne <«co3jaHiw k\mhpob». 

y* cKo.ibKo hx coanara c nmoinuo KHHCMaTorpa<j>a - 

hoboh m> ju XX BeKa. OT.iHHaiomeflca ot cboiix cedep >jhbh- 
TejibHofi y6e4KTe.ibHocrbio h MaccoBocrbio h no3TOMy casioi! 
.iK>6iiMofi y B.iacTH: «H3 Bcex iicKyccrB a.™ Hac BawHeftuiHM 
musica khho». A TyT ciue h TcieBiueHHe noaocncio... Bot 
ohh, HauiH KVMHpbi. - .iwcbie h ycaTbie. cryiaiuiie Sothhkom no 
Tpn6yne. chohxbo .lo6bi taiouilte cboiix copaTHHKOB. B.ne3aio- 
miie - kto Ha 6poHeBHK. kto Ha TaHK. snfimtR tchhhc win 
casino. - Bee ohh npocro moan, mini .ia ja*e ciiMiia i it'im.ic. .10 
tcx nop. noKa mw caMii. cbohmh boctop/kchhmmh r.iaiaMH. 

CBOIIMH IlpiM HI llilalOI!I>!Mlt i'-VKCI IIKII p> K.lMII. HC 1C I.IL'M IIX 

KV'MHPAVIH. Akiiho. npuMeMTO.ibKOTajiaHT.iHBoe. hckdch- 
Hec ycii.iiiBacT 3tot ncnxo3 jo KpHTHnecKoro coctohiihs. 
KaK MHoro 'Aenaiouinx aoBepHTb cboii coScrBeHHue ot- 

BCTCTBCHHOCTb. H.I.1CA.1V nCpCneKTHBbl HCvlOBCKV. KOTODOrO 
COBCCM He3HaKJT.HOlaOMHO HaaenSIOT B03M0JKH0CTI1MH cBepx- 

Hc.iOBeKa: y* OH-to HOXCT, y* OH-to 3HaeT... ripHieM 3Ta 
nioCoBb mo/Kct SbiTb caMofl nw.iKOH ii HCKpeHHefi. noKa oiepea- 
Hofi KyMiip hc noTepnHT OMepejHofi npoBan. Hy TaK «6yabTe 
6aiiTeni.Hbi» *e. HaKOHeu. KaK niicaji KD.myc d>ymiK. n ecnii Bac 

>\h,i i l.mac! > MiMciiiii 1 1 1 pa nine .no.K-ii. m.iiiiai anaxnim\ napa- 
ohwm uiaroM e 6e3yMHoil.nio6oBbioB.iyHHCTOM B3ope. o6pa- 
uieHHOM k KyMiipy - bcc. bu nonanHCb - 3TO chmiitom. hi.: y*e 
noTeHuna-ibHO roTOBbi Kpii'ia n, «ypa!» win «Xafijib!». ripiiMe- 

DOB TaKIIX ClieH B CTanilHCKOM K MHC va I ii I paijiC HC MCHbUJC Hesi 

b rHT.iepoBCKOM; mw ao chx nop cmotphm «CBeT.3bifi nyrb». n 
«UHpK». h nun «riaaeHiie Bep.iHHa«. n hhkomv He npHxoaiiT b 
ronoByiix 3anpeiuaTb.JJ.au coBpeMeHHbift KHHe.MaTorpa(p nopa- 
.i.ni.i i. B «Ch6hpckom uHpionbHHKe» H. MuxanKOBa cucHa 
CMOTpa lOHKepoB - oaHa in cawwx MHorosHaHHTC.ibHwx b $x\b- 
mc: ii rocyaapb y Hac 6w.i hto Haao. h b crpane nopmoK. h 

MOJIOAClKb B MVHJIipiHKaX. M BCC VMIUBKJTCfl... 

Khho - hckvcctbo He TonbKO y6ejniTe.ibHoe. ho II OHCHb 
3aTpaTHoe. H '<Cn6npcKiifi unpio.ibHHK». ii «Ky6aHCKHC Ka3a- 
kh». it «TpiiyM<p Bonn» hc MornH Sun. cacnaHw 6e3 cepbC3Hbix 
cpucTB. B.iacrb. npcxiaraa 3th cpcacTBa. tcm csmhm scho 
aaeT noHSTb cboh 3CTeTHMecKHe npeanoMTeHiw ii no.niTii'iec- 
Ky» opiicHTauino Ha «Tpn\M(j)e» im PiicJieHurraib 6w.ih co- 
3aaHW 3aMeHaTe.ibHbie ycjioBim: b ec pacnopn*CHHH HaxoaH- 
niicb 30 KaMcp. 36 oncpaTopoB c acciicrcHTaMH h okojio 80 
noMouiHHKOB. MoHTa* jaHsLi nim. mcchiicb ( JIchh 6onbiue 
HiiKoro He noanycKana k ny.ibTy). rioa kohcu oHa paooTaia no 
20 nacoB b cyrKH. B HTore noaymucn rpaHjH03Hbift cneK- 



4 



3ABbiTblE yPOKH 



6/ 




tOpuunvKM 



Taicib. He TonbKO rcpMaHim 6bua OKo;uoBaHa «Tph>'mo)om 
bojih» - b riapHwe (pii.ibM noaytwi TpaH-npH h 30JioTyio 
•.tc-.i.i i!,. Ha 'jicci iih.i.ic b BcHeuiiH - 1 :ui uhm ii iipivi Ho (ppa nu\ - 

ibl. OT.BB .W.TA'HOC KlIHCMUTOipa^lllCCKOMV Ta.laHTy. 3TMM II 

orpaiiHMHnHCb. MaccoBoro ncHX03a co BtrynjieHHeM b napTiiio 
hc ciyniijiocb. Ohcbhjho jeao He TojibKO b (pwpepe. ho h b 
Hapoae. KOTopwfi ero Bbi6pa.i: «Ax. o6ManyTb Mens HeTpyaHO, 
h caM i '">\i. i mil ii.ii i.c-h paa...» 

CieayiouiHM ii ivmiiiiM (JiiuibMOM PiKpeHurranb crana 
«0,nHMniiH». BepniiHCKaHo^HMnHaaaou-ia BaAHaxis nmiepa 
ii TeSocibca KaK nponaraHjHCTtKaa aKUHH. n janciaT.ieTb ec 
6w.no aoBepeno JleHH. tDM.ibM cimr ii Tofi MX dctcthkc. hto ii 
«TpHyM(p iuviii". to.'ii.ko BocneBaer He Hamito. lupiino ii bo>k- 
a». a npcKpacHoe. coBcpuieHHoe HCiOBenecKoe Teno, hto TO10U 
coBnaano c Ky.ibTOM jaopoBoro, ciubHoro HeaoBeica Bipauin- 

CTCKOft TepMaHHH. 

rumieposcKuu pviix umij oSuiecmto.u, le'mKO abtcmpoen- 
ithLM no kwioiiom upacombt - npme.v c HeeepoRnmuu xydoxce- 
cinnt>HiibL\i ivmbe.M. Bom noie.uy cmtnb iiai/u do cux nop 
npuniRsueaem MHOBIX. Tan u cmavmcKuu cmiab npunuifuHu- 
em - no men jkc npuuunoM. <...> JlmCan duxmamypa, earn 
ona nooeJKdaem. mo no6e.ncdaem itueiaio no lcmemwecKUM 
npiiiuiiau. Caofioditoe. coToannoe d.vt ydoocmea pxdoeoeo 
o6bttame.TR ooiuecmeo janeooMo npotwpbitaem e.\iy s c.ubic.ie 
Kpaamibt. flomOMf KOK OHO ciunuiem ue.ibio He upacomy. a 
ydoocmea. u eooSuie lie daem nodtunumh m-jim. eduncmey 
ClttUMM, npoumaiy WOOL Oho udem ia jKumbio. no jicumb 
ca.ua no cede He icmemwuia. da.wna om coeepwencmea: imo 
nipanuHKa nepei UOOH UMU "if amble" mpycbi NO 6aAKOHt 
i v uuiuimihiu MciiHomiiK axwemo mowioso mopca. Kpacoma 
Me in)eni «om .-owabi» u cmpe.uumcR )iny HCiam nepede- 
iamb, nodiuiwnib empth'oemu ifiop.ubt. A tmo yam uapemeo 
iMepniu ii necHonndbi... 

JJee Komeet «0 MiHoaemiax- 

Mo>KCT6biTb.TBop'iecTBoPii4)CHUiTa.nbiipa3apa>KaeTTeM. 

•rrocTaBHTnojcoMHeHHcaBcaKCHOMbi: «reHHfi h noaeftcTBO - 

jbc bcuiii HecoBMecTHbie» ii «KpacoTa cnaccT MHp». Xoth h b 

1TOM CKala.lac*, He-lOBC'ICCKa* CK-lOHHOCTb K COTBOpCHIIK) K\- 

MiipoB: npitHSTb 3a HeonpoeepMcuuyio ucimmy KpaciiBue c.iobu 
rcHiia^bHbix nioaeft. 

riocnc«0;iHMiinii» k JIchh Pw(|)eHuiTajib npHiujia Me*uy- 
iiapojims ci a b.i 'I'ii.ism 6w^ HarpaxacH bo ■t'p.iiiiiini H Htb- 
iiiii Kaprnii.i 6bi:ia npeKpacHo npiiimia b ABcrpim. a aMepn- 
KaHCKiie RpHTMKH Ha3Ba.ni jieiiTy b jecMTKe :iymiiiix (pitibMOB 
Bcex BpesieH ii napoaoB. CTa.iHH. nocMOTpeB <pHHbM. npHaian 




"OnuMnuni 



efi noupaBHTejibHVio rtierpaMMy. Ho Ha 3tom nHk-e cjiaau ii 

KOHHaCTCS CTpeMIITC-lbHUH BXICT JlCHII. YxtC B TO Bpc'Md KaK OHa 

HanpaB.nji.iack b Amcphkv Ha KpacHBOM OKeancKOM jiaiiHepe. b 
TcpMaHiiH H.i'ia.iiicb cobccm HCKpacHBbie eBpcficKiie uorpoMbi. 
o 'icm JIchh h pacckain in no npH6bmm. noTpe6oBaB o6i,iichc- 
hhB. PH(peHurra.Tb hhhcmv hc noBepima h b OTHaHHHii noKHHyjia 
owcTpo ox-iajcBuiyio k Hcii AMepiik-y. Ho c\ab6a Bce-TaKii 
'..( . ■ i a mi.Tii ee owTb CBiiaeTeneM *yTKofl pa6oTU 3anymcHH0fi He 
6ei ee noMoum neMeuKofl BoeHHofi Maiiimiu. B 1939 roay 
Pii(pcmuTa.Tb nocbi.iaioT b tlonbuiy b Kanecm Boeiinoro kod- 
pecnoH^CHTa. ii bot t>t-to BepMaxT npocMHTa.ics.leHH 3anB- 

JHKT npOTeCT npOTIIB IICTH3aHliri MlipHUX XOrrenefl. OHa OTKa- 

3biBaeTcn cmiMa n. Boemibic jericTBim ii BCKopc yesxaei b Hcna- 
hhk). rae HamiHaeT cmmkh ipH.ibMa «Jlo.iHHa». riocne bohhw ee 
apecTOBa.iH. cyaiuii, ho Henero KpoMe cTpauiHo KpacHBMX (JiHJib- 

MOB HC CMOrilH HHKpHMHHIipOBaTb. 

H?-3a (pu.ih.Mci "Tpuywup sow r nepexciaa 30 . ivcuum 
np,nieccim. 2 .'oda npoee.ia e ncwcuamputecKou KiumiKe. Menu 
oiinuui.TU « mo.M, vino r choilm ipwih.\io.M (paumtiiccKti no.uos.ia 
iiauucmau npuumu K iLwcmu « FtfMQHUU. Ho h iimo,*oa lie 
3aHH.\iu.wch no.nimuKou. H ecio enoni .wuiiib iipunuti.ie.xiii iu uc 
Kyccnuy. Bo ace.xt. imo r de.vua. t mo.M VUCM u e enoux ifrtiih wax, 
» cmpe.uu.iacb iiaumu uiimepecubiu noeopom. eoioamb Hciaiibim- 
e.ubiu xydooKecmtenHbiu odpax fl ne no.iumun. » - xydostetaat 

Pn(penmia:ib HacTaHBaeT Ha cBoefi ano.iiiiM'iHocin. Ho 
HMeiiHo HCKpeHHocTb h Henpoja*HocTb Heo6xoaiiMbi ana co- 
uaHim nacToaujHX luejeBpoB nponaraHjHCTCKoro xaHpa. 
'■Pu.ibuib HyBCTByeTCH cpa3y ii To.ibKO oTBpauiacT ipHTcm ot 
npcjMe ra iiok-IOHchhd. 

'Ini i »mi.i PinJKMiiii ra.ib - npeviue Bcero ipiiibsua po.MaiiTii- 
HCCKIIC. (JlH.lbMbl-yTOnHII. KHHOMCMTU O CHJIbHOfl TepMaHiiH. 
Ohh npo3ByHa,iH Mtioanefl BonmefiHoii (p.iefiTbi. oGemaiomeH 
Hapoay aocToiiHCTBo. MywecTBo. paaocrb XH3HH. Bot TonbKO 
<p."ieiira. KaK ii .nooan naJiKa - o jsy.\ Koiiuax. OHa mo*ct 
luoaBHTb i opo.i ot Kpuc a moxct h VBCCTH 3a co6ofi nCTCfl. 
.iiiujHB 6yayiuero. To.ibko Hbs dtobhhs -(JbieflTbi.KpuconoBa 
HiiH r.iynux ropoittaH? 

KaK 6w h HaM la occkohcmhumh cnopa.MH 06 otbctctbch- 

HOCTII XyaOttHHKa. ia i.lblMIl ClaibllMH. HanO.IHL-HIII.IMII hco- 
C03HaHHblMH nDCaHyBCTBHHMII IIJIH CajIbepiieBCKIIMH KOMn.lCK- 

caMH He nponycTHTb » HecTpoftnoM 11 pa3apa*eHH0M xope 
Miionix ro.iotOB - oami. cnoKoftHwfi h iiat loii'iiiHi.iii «CpoH- 
110 Tpe6yeTCfl Bo;nue6iia« tjineftra- KpuconoB». 

PtnaHb 



B8 



4 CyjUribl CTDJIETN!) 



Hkob 3TMHrEP 



BcTpeiH Ha TepHHCTOM nyTH 



Jlicdu denamcn na dee nonoeuHbi - 

me. xmo cudum a rmopbue, u me, 

Krno dowKBH cudemb e mopun 

Mapcenb Aujap, 

0paHuy3CKuu dpaMamype 

3a roflu 6onee hbm MeTbipex^eTHero 3axnKweHMH cyab- 
6a cBoanna weHS c csmmmh paaHbiMM nioflbMn. Bwnn cpeflM 
hmx n ocTaBujuecs b *iiBbix BeTepaHbi ciapoPi «neHMHCX0M 
rBapflMM». MHorne us KOTopbix 6binw penpeccnpOBaHbi no 
BTopoMy, m aawe no TpeTbeMy pa3y; m apecTOBaHHwe no 
« nennHrpaflCKOMy aeny» KOHiia 40-x roaoB. wepTBOM xoTopo- 
ro da/in MHorne suflHbie napTMMHbie m coBeTCKwe aesTenn; m 
coeeTCKne pasBeanHKn aeiicrBoeaBiune e roAbi bomhm a 
Twny Bpara; m npeflCTaBmenn eBpeilicxoM WHTenrmreHUHn M3 
MocKBbi m JleHUHrpaaa; h couMan-AeMoxpaTMnecxMe aenyTa- 
tu 6wBwero naTBMMcxoro napnaMewa (nexoTopbie M3 hmx 
xopouio 3Hann JleHMHa); m npasocnasHbie. m xaTonimecKMe 
CBnmeHHOcnyx<MTenn; n AenTenn yxpaMHCxotf xynbTypw W3 
JlbBOBa, n apM«He-penaTpnaHTbi ms Emma, Cupuu n JlMBaHa 
(ot npocpeccopa acrpoHOMnn KanpcKoro yHUBepcmeTa ao 
peMecneHHMKa n3 Bei/ipyTa). 

BcTpenanncb 6opubi nonbCKoro amncpaiuiicTCKoro co- 
npoTuBneHMS. npuHMMaBiune ynacTue B BapuiaBCKOM boc- 
CTaHnn 1944 rofla, n pyccKne SMMrpaHTbi, B03BpaTHBUJnec« 
nocne BoiiHbi Ha poanHy ms d>panunu. tOrocnaBMM. Kmao. 
coseTCKne ynacTHMX* rpaxcAaHCxoii bomhw b HcnaHMn n npea- 
CT3BMTenn BblCnaHHWX c poahwx MeCT HapOAOB KpbiMa m 
CeBepHoro Kasxaaa 

Oco6eHHO MHoro 6wno Hatunx 6biBujux soeHHonneHHbix, 
CM6HMBLUMX rMTnepoBCKMe «narep« cMep™» Ha CTannHCKMe 
«ncnpaBMTenbHO-TpyAOBbie» . 3Aecb b TeneHMe 25 neT (6onb- 
wmhctbo apecTOBaHHbix BoeHHonneHHbix MMeno mmohho Ta- 
kom cpox) ohm AonwHbi 6binu a mxenbix ycnoBunx Mcxynan. 
cbokj HecymecTByioinyio «BMHy», xoTopan cocronna tttUUb b 
tom, mto xax pa3 no peanbHOM BUHe CTanMHa, o6ecxpoBMBiue- 
ro b KOHue 30-x roaoB KpacHyio ApMMio, ohm b nepBwe 
Mpcsubi BOMHbi OKaaanwcb b HeMeqxoM nneHy. 3anoMHMncn 
nnaxaT, BuceBiuwii Ha Bxofle b cronoByto narepn - «Tonbxo 

MeCTHbIM TpyAOM Tbl CMOWBLUb MCXynMTb CBOK5 TflWenyK) BMHy 

nepea ropflso hk)6hmom Poahhom». Kohshho, b narepe 6binn 
n 6biBiune nonnuan m APyrne nwan. aiaviBHO coTpyflHMMaB- 
iune b roAbi BOiiHbi c HeMeuxo-^aujMCTCKHMM OKKynaKraMM. 
XapaxTepHO, wto mmshho hb 3tot KOHTMHreHT saK/noMeHHwx 
npexvie Bcero onupanacb narepHan aawnHncTpauns 14s nx 
Mucna Ha3HaHanncb b ochobhom Hapna^MKn vi 6pnraAMPbi. 

OHM 3aHMManM OCHOBHbie XOSHMCTBeHHbie AOnKHOCTM. Ohm 

*e cocTaBnwnn ochobhom pe3epB «CTyKaHeM». no nwnawM 
AOMocaM KOTopbix MHorwe 3ax/)iOMeHHbie no/iyManii b narepe 
AononHMTenbHbie cdokm 3aKTiKmeHMfl. 

EbiriM n 3aK,nKDHeHHbie KOTopue no sceM MexcayHapoa- 
hwm saxoHaM nBnBJiMCb BoeHHbiMM npecTynHMxaMM, cosep- 
ujmblummm twxkmb npecTynneHMH npoTMe MenoBesecTBa. He 
BbisbieaeT cowHeHns, mto. oxaxcucb ohm b TepMaHMM, Urannn. 
OpaHUMM, rionbuje wnM nio6oMApyroM cTpaHe. ohm ho Tonbxo 
6w oxasanMCb 3a peweTKOM, ho 6wnM 6w npHroBopeHw k 

CMepTM. 



Pko6 finoeneeuv dmunaep - doxmop ucmopuuecxux Hayx. 
npo&eccop, novemHbiQ nnen ceuu 3apy6o*Hbix BKadeuuu. 



Xopouo noMHW Henoeexa, ec/iM sto cnoBO mowho npM- 
MeHMTb k H6My, no cpaMMnMM Bo6p. Oh 6bin He to 6yproMMC- 
TpoM, He to HaManbHMKOM nonniiMM b oflHOM 6enopyccxoM 
ropoflxe m nMHHO. - oh 3Toro He cxpwBan. Aa)xe ropAMncn, - 
npMHMMan ynacTue b yHMHTO>KeHMM eBpeeB a 6enopyccxMx 
aHTMCpaujMCTOB PaccKa3biBan. He ciecHnscb. xax 6pocan 
MnaAeHLies. npeABapMTenbHO pasMoawne mm ronoBy Tono- 
poM. b o6myto MorMny. Bwcokmm, c 6pmtom ronoBOM, c ywacHO 
HenpMHTHUMM kotiiohmmm rna33MM, oh 5wn b 6onbiDOM none- 
Te y narepHoro HasanbCTBa. Tax xax ero 6pnraaa He Tonbxo 
BbinoriHnna. ho m nepeBbinonnqna nnaH Ha neconoBane. 
cwMTancn nyniuMM 6pMraAMpoM. B ero 6pnraae Sbinn TaxMe 
*e 6aHAMTbi. xax m oh. OcHOBHan nacTb 3axnxiHeHHbix cTapa- 
nacb c hmm He o6maTbc«. Bch ero 6pMraaa «Mna BOTAenbHOM 
6apaxe, nb^HCTBOBana m MyscTBOBana csoe «oco6oe nono- 
*eHMe» a narepe OcywaeH Bo6p 6un Ha 25 neT. 

Oh paccxasbiaan, mto y Hero poahom 6paT a roAw bomhw 
Obin napTusanoM 

y*e nocne ocBo6o>xfleHMfl MHe paccxa3anM oany npMT- 
ny. «BcTpeMaK)TCfl MHoro neT nocne bomhw Aaa 6paTa. Oamh 
5wn b roAbi OKxynaijMM nonMijaeM, apyroM napTM33H0M. riep- 

BWM XOPOUJO XCMBeT, MMeeT C06CTBeHHblM AOM, BTOpOM KJTHI- 

cti b KOMMyHanxe Bubuimm napTH3an cnpaiUMBaeT y 6paTa: 
"Kax we Tax nonynaeTCn? Tbi bco apeMn cnywun HauMCTaM. 
y6MBan cobbtcxmx nxJAeii, a n 6oponcsi npoTMB opaiuMCTOB. y 
Te6« npexpacHbiM aoM, a h )XMBy xax co6axa». BbiBUJMM 
noriMuaM OTBenaeT: «Tw mto nwcan b anxeTe? Tbom 6paT 6wn 
bo BpeMfl bomhw noriMLiaeM. A « nMcan, hto mom 6paT 6wn 
napTM3aH0M. rioaTOMy n >KMBy xopoiuo. a tw 6eACTByeujb"». 
TaxoBa 6bina «BenMxan cMna» cob6tckmx aHxeT. 

BecHOM 1951 roAa b neqbopTOBCxoM TiopbMe Hecxonbxo 
AH6M momm coceAOM no xaMepe 6wn mockobcxmm qboTorpacp 
AnexcaHap MMxaiinoBMH BoraaHOB. EMy 6bino neT 60; oh 6bin 
apecTOBaH noaeny cbobm naanepMuw. yMeHMUbi 10 xnacca 
oaHOM M3 iuxon a paiioHe CTaporo Ap5aTa. 

Toraa 6wna BanTa rpynna aecHTMxnaccHMxoB, b ochob- 
hom espeeB, o6BMHeHHbix b «co3aaHnn aHTMcoBeTCKOM opra- 
HM33UMM c uenbto noxyiueHMn Ha tob. CTanMHao Cpean hmx 
6wno Hecxonbxo aeByujex, QauHmto oahom ms hmx, co cnoB 
A. M. BoraaHOBa. n 3anoMHMn - CycaHHa rienypo. TpM neno- 
eexa M3 rpynnw apecTOBaHHbix Sbinn paccTpenHHw. Ocranb- 
Hbie ocyxwieHbi Ha 6onbUJMe cpoxM . OT6biBanM 3axniOHeHMe Ha 
yronbHux ujaxTax BopxyTw. BecHOM 1952 roAa, HaxoA"Cb b 
nepecbinbHOM TiopbMe b KnpoBe. n yaHan, mto b cocsahsm 
xaMepe. tab naxoAMnMCb jxeHiaMHw, 6bina m CycaHHa fleMy- 

PO Mbl C H8M TaM, T3X CXa3aTb. «3a0MH0» nO3HaX0MMHMCb. 

CnycTJi mhoto neT - b 1989 roay b BCTpeTMn ee na ynpeAM- 
TenbHOM KOHCpepeHUMM o6mecTBa «MeMopMan», b pa6oTe 
xoToporo OHa hwho npMHMMaeT axTMBHoe y^acTMe. KcraTM, 
MHe b narepflx nonaAanocb aoaonbHO MHoro ujxonbHMXOB. 
oco6eHHO M3 3anaAHOM YxpaMHU m ripM6ariTMXM, KOTopue 
6unM y^acTHMxaMM pa3nMMHbix noAnonbHwx HauMOHanbno- 

OCBOGOflMTenbHblX 3HTMCTanMHCKMX OpraHM3ai4MM. 

B fle<})opTOBCxoM TiopbMe a HexoTopoe BpeMn, oceHbio 
1951 roAa, HaxoAMncn bmscto c Hbbhom flMMTpMeBMMeM 
flMMTpMeBbiM, apecToaaHHWM no «neHMHrpaACKOMy aeny» 
Bbixoaeu M3 3ax(MTOHHOM xpecTbflHCxoM ceMbM Jly)KCxoro paM- 
OHa JleHMHrpaacKOM o6nacTM. oh BonpexM Bone OTua Maeaa 



4 cyAbbbi ciora 



n 



BCTynwn b cepeAMHe 20-x roAOB b komcomoit 3a stot nocTy- 
noK oTeq c AeflOM ero HecKonbKO pa3 6e3*anocTHO cetcnu. 
•Mano ceKPM», - ecnoMMHa/i HBaH flMMTpneBHs, paccxaaw- 
ean o CBoevi >h3hh rjo bomhw oh 6wn Ha OTBeTCTBBHHOM 
pa60Te b JlywcxoM ropKOMe napTHM a bo speMo oxxynauMM 
HeMqaMM JleHMHrpaflCKOM o6nacrvi nannncfl oahmm ms pyxo- 
BOflMTeneM napTMsaHcxoro ABMaceHMa. (06 stom oh Hanncan 
KHury). riocne bomhw oxa3ancn Ha napTHMHOM pa6oTe a Jle- 
HMHrpaae, 6bin TpeTbUM ceKpeTapeM o6xoMa. 3aoMHO 3axoH- 
^Mn ncTopunecKUM cpaxynbTeT JleHMHrpaACxoro yHMBepcMTe- 
Ta. B MOMeHT apecTa - b non6pe 1950 rofla saHMMan nod 
npeflceflaTenn JlennHrpaacKoro o6nMcnomoMa. Sfclfl H/ie- 
hom npe3MflnyMa BepxoBHoro CoBeTa PCOCP. B 1 951 roay 
eMy 6biJio 43 roaa. M. fl. flMMTpMeBy 6bin npeAwieneH uenwM 
na6op rocyAapCTBBHHbix oSBUHeHmi, b iom nucne «noco6HM- 
MecTBO nimaM. coTpyflHUMaaiiiMM c oxxynaHTaMM» Oh pac- 
CKa3bisan mho, hto CTapocraMM m nonnuanMn 6binn nepeaxo 
riMua, TecHO CBfl3aHHwe c aHTMtpawMCTcxMM noanonbeM n 
napTMsaHaMn. MacTo noAnonbuiMKM caMn nHcnuDnpoBann 
Ha3HaHeHne cboux noaew Ha tb win mhub ao/dkhoctm b 
MecTHyio aAMUHncrpauMK). Bo BpeMn oahoto M3 qonpocoB 
cneaoBaTexib Matiop fleBUJMH cocraBMn npoToxon TaxHM 06- 
pa30M. mo Ammtpmm co3HarenbH0 cnocoocTBOBan HasHa- 
H8HHK3 «npeflaTeneii m m3M6hhmkob» Haaonx<HocTn ciapocT 
m Ha^anbHUKOB MecTHbix oTfleneHMM nonnuHw. HBaHa Ammt- 
pneBMMa noflBepra/in Ha cneaciBMH cipaujHbiM nwTxaM. B 
TeHeHMe mhotmx cyTOK eMy He aaaajiM cnaTb, *ecToxo m36m- 
Bann riocne OAHoro M3AonpocoB. xoaia flMHTpneaa hb 6bino 
b xaMepe bck> HOHb. oh cxa3an: «Mhb noxa3anocb, mto mbhh 
AonpaiunBaiOT TpM JleewMHa, - y MeHH ywe Tponnocb e 
rna3ax» Oh «Aan peiueHnn OcoSoro coBemaHMS npH MrB 
CCCP m 6bin ysepen, mto ero paccTpenawT. OanawAbi ABepb 
b xaMepy oTxpunacb. somen aewypHbiM HaasupaTerib n npn- 
Ka3an eMy co6paTbcn c BeujaMH. Mw xpenxo o6H!?nncb Ha 
npomaHne flMmpweB cxa3an: «y MeH« k Te6e npocb6a Tw 
Monoaon. MoiKeT 6biTb BbiKMBeuib m oKa«eu)bca Ha cao6oAe 
fl - eflsa nw, mbhji ohh paccTpe/wiOT. Coo&am moom ceMbe 
(oh aan MHe aApec). hto bcw cbokj )KM3Hb n 6wn MecTHbiM 
nenoBexoM m hm b hbm hb BUHOBaT. H 3anoMHH cpaMnnwio 

cneAOBaremm. 

CnycTB nsTb neT, b 1956 roay, n 6bin b JleHMHrpaAe. 
rocTwn y cBoero poACTBeHHMxa reHepan-neiiTeHaHTa BeTepn- 
HapHOM cnyjK6bi (0. A. JlttHfla. Oh b 3to speMS y«e 6bin b 
OTCTaBKe, ho xopouio 3Ha/i MecTHoe HananbCTBo fl eMy 
paccKa3an o flMMTpneae. Oh Tyr *e no3BOHnn no KaxoMy-ro 
TenecpoHyMy3Han,MToflMMTpneBpea6nnMTnpoBaH.BepHyn- 
cn a JleHMHrpaA h pa6oTaeT b o6nncnonKOMe 38MecTmeneM 
npeAceflaienn no MernopaunM. EMy aariM Teneo^oH Heana 

flMMTpMBBHMa. R n03B0HMn. Oh OMBHb OSpaflOBariCH MOBMy 

3B0Hicy. npucnan MatuMHy, h sepes nonnaca n y*e 6bi/i b ero 
Ka6nHeTe. rAe oh b 3to BpeMn npoBOAHn coeeinaHiie Cexpe- 
Tapiua TyT *e mchh npoaoanna x flMMTpneey. Ammtphbb, 
o6pamancb x npvicyTCTByioimiM b xa6nHeTe, cxasan: «C 3Thm 
MonoAbiM MenoBexoM mm npoBe/iM Hecxonbxo Heaenb b Jle- 
cpopiOBCxoM TiopbMe». riocne oxoHsaHMn 3acenaHMfl oh npn- 
rnacMn mbhr x ce6e Ha aasy QMHTptieB paccxa3an, mto 
nony^Mn 25 neT TxjpeMHoro 3axnK)HeHMH, 0T6wBan cpox b 
3HaMeHmoM AnexcaHApoBCxoM uehrrpane noa HpxyrcxoM 
Bcxope rtocrte CMepTM CTann>ia 6wr ocso6o>KAeH. Mb npo- 
AoruxanH BCTpeMaTbcs b nocneAytomne roabi - Ammtpmbb 
MacTo no cnyjxeSHbiM aenaM 6bman a Mocxae. KcoxaneHHxj, 
noTOM cB«3b npepsanacb OneBMAHO. c hmm mto-to cnyvM- 
nocb... 

B tom *e flecpopTOBCKOM THjpbMe, b caMOM Hasane 1 952 
roAa, b xaMepy BTonxHynn Monoaoro Menoeexa b coaeTcxoM 



BoeHHOii cpopMe. 3Haxn pas/iMHMJi 6binn. pa3yMeeTcn. copBa- 
hu. Ha bha eMy 6bino neT 20. 3to 6bin aMepMxaHeq APik 
anbxoBuy - nenoBex HeoowsHOM cyAbSw. Oh poflMncn b 
HbO-l/lopxe. b BpyxnuHe, b 66ahom eepeMcxon ceMbe. Poah- 
Tenw oTua m MaTepn 6wnn 3MnrpaHTaMM - BbixoAuaMn na 
Poccmm. OTeu Aiixa no cnemianbHOCTvi 6bin cxophaxom B 
xoHue 30-x roAOB, HannTaBujucb aMepuxaHcxnx xomm/hmctm- 
necxHx ra36T, oh peuiMn npnexaTb b CoBeTCXMH Coioa. HTo6bi 
npuHHTb VMacTMe a «CTponTenbCTBe counarn3Ma» BMecTe c 
poAMTennMM m ManeHbxoM cecTpow Aiixoxa3ancfi b CCCP. Mx 
nocennnn b ropoae )Kno6MHe b BenopyccuM. Aann ManeHb- 
Kyw xoMHaTy b KOMMyHaribHOM KsapTupe 6e3 bcskmx yAo6cTB 
ripouino HeMHoro epeMeHu B BenopyccMM nonHbiM xoaom 
unn penpeccMH, a otou Atixa CTan onacaTbcn. mto paHO nnn 
no3AHO oxaweTCH b noABanax HKBfl. Pa3o6paBtuncb b cob6t- 
cxom ASMCTBMTenbHOCTM h noHqB, mto mx noAno o6MaHynn 
aMepMxaHCXMe xoMMyHMCTbi. poAMTenM AMxa peujMnM. mto 
HaAO cpomho B03BpauiaTbcn b AMepMxy. Ohm xaxMM-To o6pa- 

30M CBH3anMCb C nOCOnbCTBOM CUJA B MOCXBe. nOflTBepAMAM 

caoe aMepMxaHcxoe rpa>KAaHCTBo. m 3a Hecxonbxo MecaqeB 
AO Hanana BenMxoiii OTeMecTBeHHOM bomhw nonyMMnM 6Mne- 
tw Ha napoxoA. OTnnwBawiuMM neroM 1941 roAa ms /leHMHr- 
paAa. Ho Hananacb BOtiHa c repMaHMeii, m Bee mx nnaHw 
pyxnyriM. Amk m ero ceMbfl paaAeriMnw cyAb6y MMnnMOHOB 
C0B6TCXMX n»aeM. PoAMTenM. no-BMAMMOMy, norM6nM b 3Ba- 
xyauMM, a Amx c cecTDOM 0Ka3anncb b actcxom aomo hb 
CeBepHOM KaBxa3e. TaM nyTM ero m cecTpw pa30iunMCb 
B03MOWHO, mto OHa To>xe norM6na. tlocne oxoHMaHMf bomhw 
Amk npnexan b MocxBy. flBMncn b aMepuxancxoe noconbCTBO 
c npocb5oi^ noMOMb eMy BepHyrbcs b CUJA Ho Bcxope HaMa- 
nacb «xonoAHan BoMHa», m noconbCTBO 6wno He bcoctobhmm 
BwnonHMTb ero npocb6y. Oaho BpeMP oh rae-To toTwncn e 
MocxBe. a 33TeM. onacaacb HenpMBTHocTeii M3-sa cbomx 
MacTbix nocemeHMM noconbCTsa. o6ocHOBancs b ero 3A3hmm 
Oh ycTponncs pa6oT3Tb Teneo>OHMCTOM b noconbCTBe. Tax 
npoAoroxanocb HecxonbKO neT. Amx He noxnaan TeppMTopnio 
noconbCTBa, 6oncb 6wTb cxsaMeHHbiM opraHaMM 6e3onacHO- 

CTM. 

CoBeTcxne BnacTM HeoAHoxpaTHO o6paii4anMCb b no- 
conbCTBO c Tpe6oBaHMnMM BucentiTb Anxa ms 3A3HHH. Co- 
TpyAHMXM noconbCTBa bcbmccxm CTapanMCb OTrnHyrb Bbinon- 
HeHMe SToro TpeSoBaHMn. TorAa coBeTcxMe enacTM HanpaBM- 
nM AMxy noBecTxy c TpeBoBaHMeM HBMTbCH b BoeHXOMaT 
flanbiue ocTasaTbcs a noconbCTBe crano HeBoaMOWHWM. m 
aMepMxaHCKMe AnnnoMarbi, onacaacb cxanAana, BbiHyixAe- 
Hbi 6biriM npeAnowMTb AMxy noxMHyTb noconbCTBO. Oh BBMncs 
e BoeHXOMaT ¥i 6un nanpaBneH Ans npoxo«A6HMa bomhcxom 
cny5x6bi b CTpoMTonbHWM 6aTanbOH a ropoAe ConHesHorop- 
cxe. Ho npo6bin tbm HBAonro, 6wn apecTosaH opraHaMM 
MrB. o6BMHeH b «M3MeHe PoAMHeo. flo TeM BpeMeHaM, xax 
M3eecTHo, sto enexno 3a co6om Haxa3aHMe ao 25 neT 3aKnx> 
M6HMt». Tax Amx 3nbX0BMu oxa3anc« a Jlec})opTOBCKoii Tiopb- 
Me. Oh nonyMMn 25 neT n oxa3ancB b narepe. flanbHeiiujap 
ero cyflb6a MHe HeMSBecrHa. 

B Mione 1992 roAa h ony6nMxoean b «He3aBHCMM0M 
ra3BTe» He6onbujyio crraTbio «>Kmb ok Amx 3nbXOBMq? AMe- 
PMXaHCXMM WHOUia b ne0opTOBcxo>i TwpbMe a 1951 roAy» 
CnycTB Hecxonbxo neT aHanorMMHyio cTaTbto h noMecTMn a 
BbixoAxmeM b CUJA pyccxosubiMHOM raseTe «BeMepHMM HbK> 
klopx». riMcan o cyAb6e AMxa m b M3paMnbCKOM nenaTM. 

X0H6TCT BCe-TaXM BepMTb. MTO OH M0JK6T 6blTb *MB... 

B fletpopTOBcxoM TxjpbMe. y>xe nocne npMroBopa Oco- 
5oro CoBemaHMfl. b Mae 1951 roAa. a npocMAsn Hecxonbxo 

AHeM B OflHOM KaMepe C M3BeCTHblM BOeHHWM MCTOPMKOM 

AnexcaHApoMAnexcaHApoBMMeMMorMneBMMeM B 1940roAy 



70 



4 Cyfibbbl CTOilETNH 



oh BMede c flpyrMM hctopmkom -M.S. AupaneTRHOM Bwny- 
CTnnKHnry«HanyTBXKMnpoBOMBOiiHe 1914-1 918 rr.n.Bcro 
Be/iKKyio OTeyecTBeHHyK) BOrtHy oh npoBen b paaax aewcTBy- 
•owei* apMnn HMen MHoro ooesbix Harpaa B 1951 roay 
nonyHun 15 neT 3axniOMeHMH. y3HaB n3 npuroBopa Oco6oro 
CoBeujaHna. mto oh, oxasbmaeTcn, 6bin «areHTOM» cpaay. . 
Tpex pa3Beflox - nonbCKOM e 20-e roflbi. repMaHCKO* Haxany- 
He bomhw h aMepMKaHCKoii b nocneBOBHHbie roaw. 

BwecTe c A A. MorwneameM 8 KaMepe Haxoanncn 
HeKMM Tepa noTanoB - Bop b 3aKOHe, cxnonoTaBiiwM Towe 15 
neT 3a <n3MeHHwyeo<we HauepeHnon Oh poflnncs w wnn b 
TopbKOM. ErO 0T6U 6bin BUflHblM napTMiiHbIM pa60THHKOM. HO 

Tepa y*e b wxonbHbie roflbi 3aHancn BMecie c rpynnoii 
cbiHKOB BbicoKonocTaBneHHbix MecTHbix napTMviHbix aeflTe- 
new bopobctbom HecKonbKo pa3 yxe cuflen B 1950 roay oh 
«npoMbiujrifln» Ha CeBepHOM KaBKa3e. B Comh Ha nnnwe oh 

K3K-TO n03HaKOMHnCH C OflHUM HenOBeKOM, KOTOpblM yroBO- 

pwn ero h eme necKoribKnx wonoflbix napHeti 3axeaTHTb 
MOTopHyio noflity m 6e*<aTb b Typumo . Bo3MOmcho. mto 3to 6wn 
npoBOKaTop, TpyflHO CKa3aTb. B oflHy H3 neTHwx Honevi Mono- 
awenioaM 3axBaTnnn MOTopHyio noaxy n peiunnn HanpaBmb- 
cs b Typijmo. OaHaxo mx nepea Hecxonbxo MWHyr cxaainna 
6eperoBao oxpaHa, u Tepa oxa3ancn b KaMepe npeasapu- 
TeribHoro aaKnioweHns oflHoro W3 OTaeneHH* uiinnunn ropo- 
aa Comu. 3to 6bin aepeBBHHbm aoM. TyaneT Haxoanncn bo 
asope, Bbirpe6HaH oua KOToporo BwiM b coceaHeM aeope. H 
bot. cnycTH HecKonbKo AMA< Tepa no3aHHM Bewepow nonpo- 
cuncfl b TyaneT. 3awen b Hero. oxpaHHwx crofln y asepn. 
Tepa, Heaonro ayuan. HwpHyn b snoBOHHyio Maccy n BWHbip- 
Myn Ha coceaneM asope. C6pocnB oaeway . oh ronton Gpocun- 
cn k Mopw. Hecxonbxo pa3 Mcxynancfl, mto6u CMbiTb cneaw 
npeobiBaHMn b Bbirpe6HOH sMe ho OTapaTuTenbHbiii sanax 
npoaon>Kan ero npecneaoBaTb. Toraa oh HanpaBMncn a ro- 
poa. pas6nn cTexno b k3kom- to MaraatiHe, me npoaaeanncb 
nap4)iOMepHbie naaennn. B3t?n HecxonbKo dsnaxoHosayxoB m 
oaeKonOHa - oh roBopmi «wTyK 10» - m Bbinun nx coaepxw- 
Moe ce6e Ha ronoBy m Ha Teno. Ho 3anax hb mcmbs. Oh 
B03Bparnncn b Mara3HH, cxBaum eme Hecxonbxo cpjiaKOHOB 
n cnycTH HexoTopoe speMn eMy noxa3anocb. mto oh n36aBnn- 
cn ot snoBOHHoro sanaxa. Oh Tyr *e o6oxpan KaxoM-To 
npoMTOBapHbM Mara3MH npttoaencfl, yTpoM sane3 k xoMy-To 
Ha pwHKe b KapMaH, yxpan aeHbrn m HeMeaneMHO yKaTun us 
Comh. Oh ayMan. hto see o6oiunocb. Ho oceHbK) 1 950 roaa b 
KyiiDbiujeBe oh nonancn Ha onepeaHOH xpawe. B xoae cnea- 

CTBMfl KaKMM-TO 06pa30M BblflCHHnOCb, MTO OH 6bin B MMC/ie 

Tex. kto nbiTancfi neTOM aaxeaTHTb b Comm MOTopHyro noaKy, 
m ero npenpoBoannM Ha JlySnHKy. npeatnBMB o6BMH8Hne b 
nonwTxe «M3MeHMTb PbioawHe* Tepa HeaoyMeBan. Oh tobo- 
pun cneaoBaTenm, - Kaxoii n msmohhuk, b naTpwoT, He xoTen 
rpa6nTb cobotckmx nioaeM m noaTOMy xoTen c6ei«aTb b Typ- 
UMK5. a orryaa - b CUJA. mto6w rpa6HTb xannTanncTOB. Ho 
taxne o6bflCHeHMR eMy He noMomn. n oh CTan «nornTHHec- 
kmm» npecTynHMKOM. repy STOTOMy ncxpeHHe B03Myiuancs: 
«KaKOM *i nonMTMMecKMM, noneMy y Mens 58-n CTaTbn?» - 
roBopun oh MHe h A. A. MornneBMMy... 

B 1 957 roay y Menu Ha nsapTupe pa3aancs Tene(J)OHHbiti 
3bohok. 3to 6bin Tepa. Oh npeaaojKnn MHe BcrpeTHTbcn y 
MeTpo «KpacHOcenbCKa»i». y Bxoaa b MeTpo CTonn xopowo 
oaeTbiM. b mobhom KocTKJMe. Tepa noTanoB. Oh coo6iann 
MHe. mto pea6nnnTnpoBaH no 58-vi CTaTbe n yxe roa xax Ha 
CBo6oae. H cnpocnn, rae oh wnBeT h MeM aaHMMaeTcs. Oh 
OTBeTMn, mto «y Bopa b aaxoHe hbt hoctoahhom KBapTupw, a 
b MocxBe oh Ha «racTponnx». Bonee n ero hb Bnaen . 

neTOM 1951 roaa bo BpeMB aTana Ha KoribiMy. ckotopo- 
ro fl 6wn chht h B03BpameH b Jleo>opT0BO Ha aocneaoBaHMe. 
b oaHOii M3 nepecw/ibHwx TwpeM a no3HaKOMMrcs» m oseHb 



6nn3xo noapy*nncn c xapbKOBMaHUHOM E0mmom rpuropbe- 
BMMeM CnnBaxoBCKHM. Skohommct no 06pB30BaHMIO. OH Own 
apecTOBaH b 1950 roay 3a «eBperiCKMM 6ypx<ya3HbiM Hauno- 
HanH3M», mto Ha nonnTMMBCKOM iKaproHe Toro BpeMenn 03Ha- 
nano «unnoH m cipeMnenne yexaTb b H3pannb». rioBoaow 
anfl apecTa nocny^Kuno ero nucbMO Unbe 3peH6ypry, a koto- 
pom oh nncari 06 aHTnceMMTM3Me b CCCP. BwanMo, oho 
6wno nepexBaweHO HenoBex 3HunKrioneanMecKnx 3HaHMM. 
oh sa cpaBHMTenbHo Heaonmii cpoK coBMecTHoro npe6biBa- 
hmh Ha STane m b nepecwnbHbix TtopbMax ocTaBMn rny6oKn(i 
cnea b uoert naM»™ EcpMU 6bin ocBo6oxca@ H b 1956 roay 
Bo3BpaTnncn b poaHOfi XapbKOB. B KOHue 60-x roaoe oh 
BO3c6H0Bnn cbok> ABOTenbHOCTb 3a npaso cobbtckhx eBpees 
Ha 3Mnrpai4wo m 6wji oaHMM na opraHH3aTopoB asmKeHnn 3a 
CBo6oaHbiM Bbie3a b M3paunb. rioaBeprancn npecneaoBa- 
hmk) co CTopoHbi BnacTeM. EMy yaanocb b 1971 roay aMnrpn- 
poBBTb b Mspannb, rae oh npo)KHn 5 neT. a saTeM, b cbs3m c 
ceMeiiHbiMM o6cTonTenbCTBaMM, nepeexan b CWA, rae b 
Hbio-l'lopKe npo>KiiBaeT ywe noMTvt 25 neT. H bot b 1 993 roay. 
bo BpeMB Moeti noe3AKn b AMepnKy . cnycTn 6onee 40 neT, mu 
BHOBb c hum scTpeTunncb ywe Ha aMep^xaHCKOti seMne. H 
xoraa » 6biBaK) c nexuMHMvi 8 CUJA, r eceraa HeMano BpeMe- 
hm npoBoxcy b 5eceaax c stmm saMBMaTenbHbiM nenoBBKOM, 
mohm 6onbiuMM apyroM. 

OanoBpeMeHHo c Ecphmom CnnBaKOBCKMM r no3Haxo- 

MMnCfl C MOCKOBCXHM HHXCeHep-nOHKOBHUKOM AM3MKOM Mom- 

ceeBuneM KpoHray30M. Bceoe BpeMn oh 6wn peopepeHTOM y 
nneHa nonnT6K5po J). M. KaraHOBMna, kotopwm, no cnoBaM 
Kponray3a, 6wn ywacHO rpy6biM n wecTOKnw MenoBexoM. EMy 
HMMero we ctomho ocxop6MTb noAMMHeHHoro. BbimaTb us 
Ka6nH6Ta MaTepnan 6paHb 6bina OTnviMHTenbHoii MepToii 
noBeaeHUH KaraHOBuna. 

KaK-To neTow 1950 roaa. A. M. Kponray3, He DP^JXBB- 
uiMCb TBKCM, ocTaHOBMn nonyTHyto MaujMHy Oxasanocb. mto 
3to 6bin aBTOMo6nnb coTpyaHMxa aMepuKaHCKoro noconb- 
CTaa. 3a annnoMaTOM, kohbmho, cneannn. YcTaHOBHTb nMM- 
HOCTb ceBuiero b noconbCKyx} MaiunHy He cocTaanno 6onb- 
ujoro Tpyaa. Bcxope A. M. KpoHray3 6bin apecTOBaH m ocyw- 
aeH Ha 15 neT aa nonbiTxy ycTaHOBneHun «wnnoHCKOM cbr3m» 

C aMepMKBHCKMM HOCOnbCTBOM 

Ha nepecbincax r HeoAHOKpaTHO oecefloaan c A. M. 
KpoHray30M. paccxaabiBan eMy o rerro m nocneayomwx co- 
6biTnnx b Moeii hmshh. B Bbhhho mw paccTanncb. Tax xaK 
MeHR B03BpaTMnM b MocKBy. 

Bo BpeM» oaHoro M3 aonpocoB cneaoBaTenb Bapyr cnpo- 
cnn. 3H3K3 r\vt n KpOHray3a, Ben nw oh KaKne-nn6o aHTncoBeT- 
cxne pa3roBopbi bo BpeMn aTana 9\ CK33an, mto HMMero 
noao6Horo He 5wno. xotr Ha cbmom aene Am3mk MonceeBMs 
HeoAHOKpaTHO b npncyTCTBMM Apywx 3axnK)MeHHbix pesxo 
BbicKa3biBancR o CTanuHCKOM pewHMe. OTxpuTo roBopun o 
HaMepeHMM cosepujviTb no6er. OMeBMAHO. cpean 3aKni0MeH- 
HbixBbin «CTyKaM», kotopwh coo6mnn 06 stom «xyaa Haao». 

riepea OTnpaBxoii b BfiTnar eecHofi 1952 roaa MeHR 
03HaxoMMnn c MCHM aenoM. - Taxoa Sun nopnaoK. Haao 
6bino noanncaTb npoToxon 06 okohm3hhh aena. K ceoeMy 
yanBneHnio, n o6Hapy>KMn b hbm npoToxon aonpoca A. M 
KpoHraysa o BCTpeMe co mhom, SonbuiyK) noaMy 060 MHe, h 
caMoe rnaBHoe n y>xacHoe - cnpasxy necpopTOBCKOw Topb- 
mw mto cMepTHbiw npurcBop B OTHOweHUH A. M. KpoHraysa 
Ha ocHOBaHMM npnroBopa Oco6oro CoaemaHnR b MapTe 1 952 
roaa npnBeaeH b ncnonH6Hne. OMBBMaHO, on nn6o coBep- 
ujHn nonbiTxy no6era h 6wn cxBaneH, nn6o ero xasHMnn no 
Kaxoti-To apyrofi npnMMHe. TparnMecxas rn6enb 3Toro Meno- 
bbkb ao cmx nop ocTaeTcn 3araAKOM ana MeHR. 



4 CYAbBbl CTMETII 



n 



B KHpoecKoii nepecwnbHoii TiopbMe BecHotf 1951 roAa 
mohm coceaoM no HapaM oxa3ancfl noMMnoA Menoeex c 
oxnaaMcroii ceaoM 6opoaoM Mbi paaroBopunncb. 3to 6wn 
penaTpnaHT M3 KuTan - AnexcaHap AnexcaHapoBMM UJyMaH. 
ypoweHea KpwMa. Bwxoaeu M3 abopbhcxom ceMbu, oh nocne 
peeontouHM, Kan m MHome aecnrxM tmchm pocchmckmx rpaw- 
aaH. OK33ancs a KuTae. b MaHbM*ypKn. b ropoae Xap6nHe. B 
H6M 6wno oxo/io 200 twcbm 6eweHLteB. y pyccxoi* SMMrpauMM 
5bino aBa ueHTpa: b EBpone - riapn*. a b Aam - Xap6nH Ho 
ecnw b riapn^e. BepnwHe, ripare, Cocpnn pyccxMe cociaBnfl- 
n»i HesHannTeribHoe MeHbiiiMHCTBO. to b Xap6nHe ohm 6t>mn 
5onbLUMHCTBOM 3aecb Bwxoannn pyccxMe raseTw, aei/idBO- 
3ann pyccKMe napmn. 6wnn pyccKMe reaipbi. yMe6Hbie saae- 
aeMnn. B Xap6nHe. b TeneHne anMTenbHoro epeMeHu, cyme- 
CTBOBan pyccKmi topnaMMecxMM 4>axynbTeT. eaaa nn He ca- 
Moe 3HaHMTeribHoe Bwciuee yneGHoe 3aBeaeHne pyccxofi 
3Mnrpai4nn. Hapsiay cpyccKMM topuflMMecKMM 0)axynbTeT0M 8 
ripare, xap6MHCxMii $axynbT6T aaBan Bbicwee (opnaMHecxoe 
o6pa30BaHne pyccxMM sMurpaHTaw A. A UJyMaH. npoxMB 
HBKOTopoe speMB b Xap6MHe h npoyMMBWHCb Ha opuaviMec- 
kom cfcaKyribTeTe. yexan b floHAOH. rae nonyMnn Bbicwee 
axoHOMMHecKoe o6pa30BaHwe. Oh aepHyncB b Kmtbm, rae 
pa5oTan b oahom H3 aHrnMMCKMx6aHKoa EroweHa, poaoM M3 
ceMbH 3a6aviKanbCKnx Ka3aKoa. 6bina KpynHWM cneuna/inc- 
tom b oSnacTM boctomhwx nsbiKOB. Koraa Hananacb Bennxan 
OTesecTBeHHafl BOiiHa, A. A, UJyMaH, pycouttt naipMOT, 6bin 
HHnunaTopoM c6opa b Kmae cpeadB a cpoHa noMOinn cpa- 
(KaKjiaeiicfl KpacHOM Apmmm, a nocne no6eabi dan oanuM us 
pyKOBoaMTeneii aBM*eHMB 3a B03BpaiaeHMe 3MnrpaHT0B Ha 
poaMHy. 

B KOHue 40-x roflOB CMTyauMB a KMTae. a cbb3m c rpaw- 
aaHCKoii bomhom, xpaMHe ocnowHunacb. dano bcho, mto 
npnxoa KOMMyHMCTOB k B/iacTn - Bonpoc BpeMeHM Haao 
6bino npMHUMaTb peujeHne. MToaenaTb aanbwe >KeHa A. A. 
UJyMaHa yroaapMBana ero xynnTb cpepMy b ABCTpariMM unw b 
Hobom 3enaHanM. Ho oh, ropnMO nw6B Poccmxj. peiuMn aep- 

HyTbCfl B COBeTCXMM COK)3. 

B xoHue 1949 roaa lilyMaHw nocennnncb a CBepanoBC- 
xe. rae AnexcaHap AnexcaHapoBMM nocTynnn Ha pa6oiy b 
MecTHoe oraeneHMe Toc6aHKa. Oh Macro esawn b MocxBy, 
MHTepecoBancn wn3Hbto crrpaHw. Ho xnnMaT b CBepanoBcxe 
oxa3ancn HenpuroanbiM ana aaopoBbB weHw, m UJyMaHb) 
co6panncb nepeexaTb b HoBonepxaccx rae ohm yxe aoroBo- 
pwincb o noxynxe He6onbiuoro aoMa. OaHaxo mx MenTaM He 
cy>xaeHO 6bmo ocymecTBMTbcn. B 1951 roay HOMbio 3a hum 
nprnunw coTpyaHHxn MrB. l"ny6oKO MHTennnreHTHbiM seno- 
sex, He SHaBUJMH 6paHHwx cnoB. oh Ha nepBOM we aonpoce 
6un ocbinaH nnoiaaaHWMM pyraTenbCTBaMH n cnnbHO m36mt. 
EMy 6wno npeatflBneHO oSBMHeHwe no craTbe 58-4 «cBfl3b c 
MMpoBOii 6yp*ya3neM». FlpuMUHa npocTan - pa6oTa b AHr- 
nuMCKOM 6aHKe b KMTae. Ocy)xaeh oh 6wn Oco6t>iM CoBeiaa- 
hm6m Ha 10 neT 

Tawe/io m SonbHO Cwao CMOTpeTb Ha aroro MenoBexa, no 
MHMunaTMee xoToporo cothm oMnrpaHToa sepHynncb Ha po- 
flMHy. a aaieM oxa3ariMCb b eTanMHexMx TKipbMax m narepsx. 
B o6iaeM xaMepe, b xotopom mu HaxoawnMCb. 6wno Hecxonb- 

KO M3 HMX, - B OCHOBHOM 3T0 6bl/lH MOPOabie Xap6MHCXM6 

pa6owM9. Ohm o6bmhb/im UJyMaHa b tom, mto no ero atine 
oxa3anncb b TiopbMe. noaaaBUJMCb Ha ero yroBopw BepHyTb- 
cn a Poccmio. UJyMaH McnbiTwaan HeBeponTHwe MopaxibHwe 
CTpaaaHMH, 6bin 6nM3ox x caMoy6MHCTBy... Cxopo oaHoro M3 
Mac B3flDM na 3Tan, m aanbueviiuaB cyab6a 3Toro necTHoro m 
rny6oxo necMacTHoro Menoeexa MHe HeM3BecTHa. 

B MapTe 1 952 roaa s Kmpobcxom nepecwnxe s BH63anHo 
noTepnn cosHaHMe b xaMepe. rae HaxoaM/incb 60 nenoBex, m 



awujaTb a kotopom 6wno HeB03MO>«HO, m OMHyncn y*e b 
nanaTe TwpeMHOM 6onbHMijbi. KaxoBO we 6uno yaMBneuMe (m 
He Mory He npM3HaTbcn, mto b ncnbiTan name HexoTopyxs 
paaocTb), xoraa momm coceaoM no 6onbHMMHOM nanaro oxa- 
3ancfl mom TpowpoaHbiii 6paT BopMC ABceeBMM JlBHaa-ren- 
nep. B 1946 roay oh oxohmm/i c OT/WMMeM SMonorMMecxMM 
(paxynbTeT JleHMHrpaacxoro yHMBepcMTeTa n 6bin ocTaaneH 
na xadjeape 6moxmmmm cTapLUMM na6opaHT0M Oh npoaon- 
*an HanaTwe Ha CTapiuMx Kypcax MccneaoBaHMB b o6nacTM 
neHMUMnriMHa m apyrMx aHTM6MOTMxoB. K 1949 roay hm 6miw 
co6paHbi axcnepMMeHTanbHbie Maiepnanbi afB KaHflnaaic- 
xoMaMCcepTaqMM.ony6riMxoBaHOHecKonbKOCTaTeM.OHBnep- 
Bbie b CCCP ocymecTBM/i OMMcrxy neHMUM/iriMHa MeroaoM 
xpoMarorpao>MMecxoM aacopBuMM. 3to 6wno xpynHWM HayM- 

HUM aOCTMmeHMBM B 0T6MeCTBeHH0M BMOHOrMM. 

Ho ero MHTepecosana He ro/ibxo Hayxa. Oh BHMMaTerib- 
ho cneaMn sa pa3BMTMeM nonMTMMecxoM CMTyauMM b CTpaHe. 
BCTpeMancn m apyxnn c HexoropbiMM acnMpaHTaMM m (rryaeH- 
TaMM; MHoraa ohm co6Mpanncb b xoMHaTe yHMBepcMTeroxoro 
o6iae)KMTMB, o6cy>«aanM y<e6Hbie m HayMHbie Bonpocbi, npo- 
McxoaMBUMe o6mecTBeHHbie m noriMTMMecxMe co6wtmb. 21 
dpeBpann 1949 roaa oh 6wn apecroBaH opraHaMM MrB m 
3aKiitOMeH bo BHyTpeHHWK) TwpbMy neManbHo 3HaM6HMroro b 
JleHMHrpaae «Bonbiuoro aoMa». EMy 6bino npeabBBneHO 

06BMH6HMe B yMaCTMM B «aHTMCOBeTCXOM eBpeMCXOM HaqMO- 

HanMCTMMecxoM opraHM3auMM», npoeeaeHMM xoHTppeBon»o- 
umohhom arMTauMM cpean CTyaeHTOB yHMBepcMTeTa. no aeny 
6bino apecTOBano m npeaaHO cyay 8 Henosex. Bee ohm 6whm 
eBpeBMM - CTyaeHTaMM, acnMpaHTaMM m coTpyaHMxaMM yHH- 
BepcMTeTa. Cyae6HWM npoyecc npoaonixancn 5aHeii b anpe- 
ne 1949 roaa m npoxoaMn b oaHOM M3 noMeiaeHMM «Bonbiuoro 
aoMa». MeTbipe Menoeexa, npoxMsaBiuMe a oaHOti KOMHaTe 
o6me»(MTMfl, 5binM npM3H3Hbi MneHaMM opraHM3aL»MM m ocyju- 
aeHbi no ct. 58-10, 58-11. HxnpuroBopMnw xpaccTpeny, hoc 
yMeroM aeMCTBOBaBiuero roraa «yna3a 06 OTMeHe cmopthom 
xa3HM» (c xoHua 1947 roaa ao HaMana 1950 roaa). cpox 
Haxa3aHM« 6bin onpeaeneH b 25 neT. OcTa/ibHwe MeTBepo 
apecroBaHHbix, b tom mmc/ib m mom poacTBeHHMx, 6wnn npn- 
3HaHbi bmhobhwmm b aHTMcoBeTcxoM arMTaqMM «npM cnyHaii- 
Hbix BCTpeMax* m npMroeopeHbi no ct. 58-10 x 10 roaaM 
nMUJeHMB cBodoRbi. MoeMy poacTeeHHMxy 6binM npeatBene- 
hw asa nyHXTa o6bmhbhmb - «x/ieaeTa Ha HauMOHanbHyio 
nonMTMxycoBeTcxoronpaBMTenbCTBa»M«BOcxBaneHMeypoe- 

HB pa3BMTMB HayXM B OaHOM M3 KanMTanMCTMMeCKMX CTpaH» 

flK36onuTeH caM tpaicr, xax bo3hmktio nocneaHee o6bm- 
H6HM6 B 1947 roay n3BecTHUM XMpypr. axaaeMMK AxaaeMMn 
MeanuMHCXMX Hayx CCCP (AMH) reHepan fl>xaHenMa3e 6wn 
xoMaHaMpoBaH b CUJA, no B03BpaujeHMM oh BbicTynMn c 
aoxnaaoM Ha ceccMM AMH, npoxoaMBiueii b fleHUHrpaae, a 
xotodom coo6mnn o aocTMxeeHMnx MeaMUMHcxoA wayxM n 
npaxTMXM b CUJA m 06 ycnoBMnx pa6oTw aMepMxaHCKMx spa- 
neii m y^eHbix. Bopwc npMcyTCTBOBan Ha aoxnaae m nepes 
Hecxo/ibKO aHOM paccxajan o ero coaepwaHnn cbomm Toea- 
pMiuaM no o6me)XMTMio 3to-to m nocnyoxMno ochobom o6bm- 
h6hmb. Ha cyae Bopmc xoaaTaiiCTBOBan 06 MCTpe6oBaHMM n 
npMo6meHMM x aeny crreHorpaMM aoxnaaa fl)xaHerMa3e. B 
HaMane xoaaTaiicTBO 6wno npMHBTO. ho fleHb cnycTfl cexpe- 
Tapb cyaa sasBMna, mto TaxoM CTBHorpaMMu He cymecrreyeT 
y*e nocne ocBo6o)xaeHMB. oh ho CMor o6HapywMTb b MaTe- 
pnanax AMH aonnaaa fpxaHenMase. H nMuib cnycTn 40 neT, 
b 1990 roay. xoraa Bopwc npMHMMan ynacTue B noaroTOBxe 
100-neTMB MHCTMTyTa axcnepMMeHTanbHOM MeaMUMHbi AMH, 
oh cnyMaviHo o6Hapy)XMn creHorpaMMy aoxnaaa /JjxaHenMa- 
36, npanomeHHoro x MaiepwanaM tom cbccmm AMH Ha cre- 
HorpaMMe cTosn LUTaMn: «b cneuxpaH». 



72 



<$ CYAbbbl CT0J1ETHH 



KaccaunoHHas >xano6a Ha npuroBop BepxoBHbiM CyaoM 
PCOCP 6wna OTxnoHeHa. B owiiaaHHK 3Tana 6opnc Haxo- 
flMncn b oahom KOMHaTe c AneKcaKQpoM Anb6epTOBvmeM 
Chobckhm, Toraa cryaeHTOM BeiepuHapHoro HHdHTyTa. B 
90-x roflax Chobckmm 6wn npeaceaaTeneM CaHXT-rieTep6yp- 
rcxotf opraHM3ai4nn wepTB nonnTHnecKvix penpeccwii. (Ero 
BOcnoMMHaHun ony6nuKOBaHbi a wypHane «3se3aa» 3a 1997. 
Ns 11). B KaMepe Haxoanncn ManbHMK 14-15 neT. yqeHux 8-ro 
xnacca no c^aMnnnn yxHannea, ocywaeHHwii no aeny aHTn- 
coBeTcxoft opraHnaaqnn wxonbHHKOB - Ha ypoKe a wxone oh 
CKasan. mto uCran^H csepHyn cnewwHcxoro nyTn» 

B none 1 949 roaa 6opnca OTnpaBWiM b JleHHHrpaacxyto 
nepecunbHyio TtopbMy, - orryaa b JleHMHrpaACXHM narepb 
nonnT3aicniOHeHHbix npw 3aBoae hm Cienana Pa3HHa (Bo- 
puc ony6nnKOBan BocnoMUHaHns o npe6biBaHu,i b 3tom nare- 
pe b raseTe «Bo3po>KaeHue Haae>KAbi» - Pocchmckom ra3eTe 
coqnanbHOM aaiambi wepre nonmn4eci<nx penpeccuvi (1997 
r.. Ns 6 ). B viae 1950 roaa stot narepb 6bin nuKBUflnpoBaH. 
h Bopnca siannpoBann b fleHMHr paacny w nepecbinbHyio Tiopb- 
My, a 3aTeM b KMpoBcxyio nepecbinbHyio TwpbMy. Cpean ero 
coKaMepHHKOB 6bin otbu BeHeanxr - apxuenucxon xaTonvi- 
necKOM uepxBM nwTBW. Ohm Benn MHTepecHwe 6eceaw Ha 
3)nnoco<t>cxne, HCTopvmecxne m nnTepaTypHwe rewbi Oh. 
npoHMKUjucb CMMnaTMeii k Bopvicy. npeanowHn eMy npwHflTb 
xaTonMMecTBO n coBepwHTb o6pna KpemeHMa sflecb me b 
xaMepe «noynpoiyeHHOMy MptMHTy*. KcTaTH, aHanornsnoe 
npeanoweHne caenan MHe b narepe 3Ctohckmm nacTop. 
Tonbxo Ha 3tot pa3 peMb iuna o nxyrepaHCTBe... 

B oiafl5pe 1950 roaa Bopnca oTrpaennn b narepb Ha 
ceaepe Kmpobckoh o6nacrn (nocenoK KoTMMxa), b kotopom 
oh HaxoA^ncn ao Mao 1953 rofla. 3axntOMeHHbie pa6oiann Ha 
neconoBane h Ha AepeBOo6pa6aTWBaioiAeM 3aeoAe npn na- 
repe. C cfeeBpanfl 1951 roaa Bopnca B3«nu Ha pa6oTy a 
nacepnyio ;ia6oparopnio BKanectBe GnoxnMUKa BeCHOri 1952 
rona ero Mepes KnpoBcxy» nepecwnxy wanpaBunn b KnpoBc- 
Kyw o6nacTHyio 6onbHnqy ann saxnKweHHbix. m bot 3flecb mu 
n Bc-peTnnncb v\ npoBenn 5-6 AHeft BMecre b 6onbHnmoM 
nanaTe. (Iotom ero CHOBa OTnpaennM b narepb, a MeHB 
BepHynn b nepecbinbHyio TiopbMy. 

B OKTn6pe 1953 roaa. yxe nocne CMepm CianMHa, 
CyAe6Han Konnernn BepxoBHoro CyAa CCCP nepecMOTpena 
aeno «aHTMCOB6TCKOH rpynnw» 1949 roaa. Ocy>«aeHHbiM, 
MMeBLUMM 25 neT. cpoK 6wn coxpauieH. Bopvicy cpox CKnHynn 
ao 5 neT. oh 6un noaBeaeH noa aMHMcnuo n BosspaTMncn b 
poAHOii ropoA. B 1957 r. bcb npoxoAHBiutie no aeny 6binn 
nonnocTbio pea6nnmnpoBaHbi 

Bopvic BepHyncn l HayHHOii paooTe. B HHBape 1 954 roaa 
oh Hanan pa6oTaTb 6moxhmmkom b fleHMHrpaACKOM HayMHO- 
nccneaoBaTenbCKOM MHCTMTyre bbkuhh n cbieopoTOK n npo- 
pa6oTan b hsm 44 roaa. B ceHTs6pe 1962 roAa CTan KaHavi- 
aaTOM 6nonornM6CKHx HayK, ony6nnKOBan CBwuje 70 Hayn- 
hmx cTarevi b o6nacTn nccneaoBaHus n npon3BoaciBa 6axTe- 
pnnHbix vi BnpycHbix npenapaTOB - b ochobhom Ty6epKyjie3- 
HO-anamocTMMecKnx, nonyMwn 3 aBTopcxnx csnaeTenbCTBa 
06 n3o6peTBHMflx. Oh flBnneTcn aBTopoM ujnpoxo MSBBCTHoro 
npenapaTa «osnmeHHbiii Ty6epxynviH b CTaHAapTHOM pa3Be- 
AennM». 3tot npenapaT ncnonb3yeTcn b MeAHUMHCKOM npax- 
thko ann Maccoaoii anamocTHKH Ty6epKyne3a (peaKunti 
MaHTy). HeKOTopwe noaenbHMKM Bopnca npoaonxcaiOT pa6o- 
TaTb b Poccmm, HeKOTOpbie )KMByT sa rpaHMjeM. B 1993 roay 
aoHb Bopnca - xmmmk - c MyweM n aeTbMM awnrpnpoBana e 
TepMaHino, >KMBeT b Ko6nenue Cuh - TanaHTnMBbivi c|)H3mk- 
TeopeTMK yn<e 6 neT paooiaeT b CUJA. B woHe 2000 roAa 
Bopnc, KOTopoMy b sto BpeMS 6bino ywe noMTM 79, neT 
BMede c *eHOM yexan k aombph b TepMaHMio. b ropoa 
Ko6neHu. fl npnea^an k HOMy nonpoutaTbcn Ha HOCKO/ibKO 



AHeii. Mw Tenno m cepaenHO npocmnncb. yanAMMcn nw eme 
- OAHOMy Bory M3BecTHO. 

rionaB secHOii 1952 roaa b oamh n3 narepHbix nyHKTOB 
BHmara - Bepe30BKy, n o6pen hobwx apy3eiii m SHaxoMbix. 
TaM fl noApy*nncn c MHweHepoM-xuviiKOM reopr neM Akhmo- 

BMH6M MepKaCOBblM. KopOHHOM MOCKBMH, OH B KOHqe 20-X 

roAOB, 6yAy^n cryAeHTOM xnMHKO-TexHonornMecxoro hhctm- 
Tyra, BMecre c HecKonbKMMM MonoawMn nioabwn. pacnpocT- 
paHnn nncTOBKn, ocyxAatoimie CiannHa. CaM no ceoe 3tot 
4>aKT roBopHT o tom, hto cranMHCKoe npaaneHne BCTpe^ano 
conpoTMBneHMe b crpaHe. I". A. MepxacoB 6un apecTOBaH. 
nonyvnn OTHOcmenbHO He6onbiaoM no TeM BpeMeHaMcpox- 
5 neT, KOTopwe 0T6wBan b BepxHeypanbcxoM nonnTH3onHTo- 
pe. B Hanane 30-x roaoB oh ocBo6oannc», ho b 1937 roay 6bin 
apecTOBaH CHOBa... no nepBOMy aeny. Oh 6bin ompaBneH b 
BopxyTy n oxasancn b narepe, rae 0T6biBann cboh cpokh 
nneHbt napmn, o6BHHeHHwe b npviHaAnexcHOCTM k TeM nnn 
HHbiM onnojuqnoHHbiM rpynntipoBKaM. 

Ot r A. MepxacoBa b Bnepsue ycnbiiuan o newanbHO 
SHaMeHMTbix «xaujKeTMHCKMx paccTpenax». Ha py6ex<e 40-x 
toaob MHorne ceaepHue narepn, rae Maxoannncb abcatkh 
TbicsH apecTOBaHHwx MneHOB napT^M, o6be3>xana rpynna 
pa6oTHMKOB HKBfl bo rnaBe c HeKnM KannTaHOM E. H. Kaiuxe- 
TMHbiM. Oh npn6wn M3 Mockbw b Komm ACCP b xaMecTBe 
pyxoBOAMTenn cneunanbHOii onepaTMBHOM rpynnw, nepeA 
KOTopovi Sbina nocTaBneHa saAana pacnpasMTbcn c 6bieujM- 
mm MneHaMM napTMM. ocy)KAeHHbiMM 3a TpouKMSM. B narepnx 
Ha BopKyTe m riewope 6wno nsBecTHO. roBOpnn MHe TeoprMM 

AkMMOBMH, MTO 3TOT OTBeTCTBCHHblM COTpyaHMK HKBfl B 1936 

roay 6wn OTCTpaHBH ot cny>K6bi b opraHax roc6e3onacHOCTM 

B CBW3H C Bpase6HblM flnam030M <-HIH30HaHblk1 nCHXOHeB- 

po3» V\ bot ero pyxaMM peojnnn onncTnTb ceBepHbie narepn 
ot 6bJBiiinx KOMMyHncTOB, HecornacHbix c nonnTuxovi CTanM- 
Ha n 0Ka3biBaBujnx conpoxnsneHne narepHOMy HananbCTBy. 
no cnoBaM HepxacoBa. KaiuxeTnH, npn6biB e narepb. rae 
Haxoanncn TeoprMti Ahmcmmobmm, OTKpbiTO 3aasnn «5\ Bbi- 
nonHHKD Bonio L|K BKn(6), nepeaaHHyio MHe nnnHo Mepes 
EiKOBa nepeaoTbe3aoM Bnarepnann npoBeaeHnnonepamin 
no yHHHTO)KeHmo tpoukhciob >■ . rioa pyKOBoacTBOM KaniKein- 
Ha nponcxoannn MaccoBbie paccTpenw saxnwMeHHbix kom- 
m/huctob Hx BbiBoannn 3a npeaenw narepn, 3acTaBn«nn 
pwTb orpoMHbie Mornnw. a 3aTeM n3 nyneMeTOB paccTpenn- 
eanvi Teoprnii Akmmobmm paccxa3biBan mho, mto Tonbxo H3 
narepn. b kotopom waxoAnncs oh. 6bino yHHMTOxeHO aae 
TbicsMn nenoBex. B poMaHe BacHnnn rpoccMaHa «>Kn3Hb n 
cyab6a», HanncaHHOM na ochobb M3yHeHnn (paxTHMecxoro 
waiepnana. ynoMRHyrbi «KawKeTMHCKne paccTpenbi»: «B 
nepBbiH roa bomhu npwexan e Ty rpynny narepeu MenoBei M3 
ueHTpa no cfcaMMnmi KaiuxeTMH n opraHM30Ban xa3Hn aeca™ 
TbicnM 3axnK)MeHHbix». Koraa stot nanaH BbinonHun csoe 
3aaaHne, oh irran neHyoKHWM n ero caMoro npnroBopnnn x 
CMepTHOfi K33HM. MepKacos paccxasbiean, ^to 06 otom tobo- 
pmiM b narepe. 

B Hanane bomhw MepKacoBa ocBo6oannn, n oh Bcxope 
OKa3anc« b cocTaBe nonbcxovi anBM3nn umbhm Taaeyiua 
Koctioujko. HepxacoB xopouio 3Han nonbcxnii A3WK. BotiHy oh 
saKOHMnn a BepnuHe, 6wn HarpaxcaeH MHoruMn cobbtckhmm 
m noribCKnMn 6oeBWMn opaeHaMH Flocne aeMo6nnn3aunn 
eepHyncn b MocKBy, ho cnycm HecKonbxo neT 6wn apecTo- 
BaH CHOBa... no nepeoMy aeny. B 50-e roabi mu HeoAHOxpaT- 
ho BCTpeManncb. BcnoMMHanu narepHoe npoujnoe. o6cy>KAa- 
nn Texyiyne npo6neMbi. BHeiiJHe oh nponsBOAnn BnenaTne- 
HMe my6oxo TpaBMnpoBaHHoro, cnoMneHHoro HenoBexa 



4 CyflbBbl CTflilETHH 



73 



Bot ewe oahh narepHux - Maiiop KpacHOrt ApMnn fpn- 
rop»H. rionaB b Hanane bomhw b nneH. oh 0Ka3anc« b KOHqna- 
repe Ma OKKynnpoBaMHOH HeMuaMn TeppmopMM OpaMUMM. 
C r peMncb BbipBaTbcn ms narepn w npnH«Tb y MacTue b 6opb6e 
c HauwcTaMn, oh n eme Hecnonbxo BoeHHonneHHbix «corna- 
CMnncb» BCTynwTb b HeMeuKMH cTpoM6aTanbOH Ann Toro, 
Mio6bi aaTeM 6e*caTb k «MaxH» - cppaHLtyacKMM napTM3aHaM. 
rinaH yBeHMancn ycnexoM. BMecTe c «msxm» TpuropflH n ero 
TOBapniyn xpa6po cpaxonncb neTOM 1 944 roaa 3a ocbooow- 
aenne Opanunn. 3a ooeBwe aacnyrvi oh Swn Harpaxaen 
bbicujumh HarpaAaMn OpanuyacKo^ Pecny6nwxn. OAMy us 
hmx eMy hmmho BpyMnn reHepan flexnepx. ahbh3uh xoToporo 
nepBow BOiuna b riapn>K b asrycTe 1944 roAa. flocne bomhu 
fpuropsH BepHyncn b ApMenmo, paoo - an nHweHepow a oa- 
mom M3 MHHMCTepcTB, a b 1949 roAy 6bin apecTOBaM n nony- 
nun 25 neT 3a «n3MeHy PoAMHex m «coTpyAHMHecTBO» c 

HeMuaMn. 

••• 

3anoMHnncR n nonbcxnn ocpnuep Aha»6m Hhkobckhm, c 
xotopwm a HaxoflMficn a oahom 6apaxe 1 ceHTs6pn 1939 
roAa oh BCTpeTun Ha nonbCxo-repMaHCKOM rpaHnqe, yMacTBO- 
san b 6o«x Ha BecTepnnflrre riocne ssxbsts HeMuaMH 
Hc^bLun oaho speMn cxpbiBancR a 33T6M opraMn30Ban napTn- 

33HCXMH OTpHA. KOTOpblH He 6bU1 CBMSH HH C OAHOM H3 

ochobhwx noqnonbHbix aHTMtfpawMCTCxMx rpynnnpoBOK b 
nonbwe. YsscTBOBan b BapiusBcxoM bocctshmm 1944 roAa. 
6bin B3AT b nneH. BepHyawucb Ha poAHHy, FIhkobckhk aery- 
nun b nonbCKyK) apMMio. B 1950 roay 6wn cxeaneH araHTaMM 
coBeTcxoro MrB b ueHTpe BapuiaBw h aocraBneH b MocxBy. 
nony^nn 25 neT 3a «n3M6Hy PoanHew. Oh hhiqk hb Mor 
noHSTb - xaxoH Poahhg? BeAb ero poAHHa - no/iboia. a 3a ee 
OCBo6o>KAeHue oh nponnsan xpoBb. Hvmero oh He Aenan u 
npoTMB CoBeTcxoro Coio33. B neM we TorAa Aeno? Oh 6wn 
o6bhhbh b npnH3AJie>KH0CTH ceoero OTpjyjs k Apmmm Kpavio- 
boh - rnaBHoii aHTHCpaujHCTCKOH noAnonbHOH opraHnaaunn b 

riOflbllje BO BpeMP BTOpOM MHPOBOHBOMHbl. 3Ta OpraHH3aUMB 

noflMMHnnacb JloHAOHCxoMy nonbcxoMy npaawTenbCTBy. c 

KOTOpWM KpeMHb P330PB3/1 B rOAW BOMHW AMnnOMSTMMeCKVie 
OTHOUMHHO. 

AHAJKBM HhXOBCXWM MHOTO P3CCKa3blBan MHe 06 aHTM- 
03WHCTCXOM COnpOTMBHeHHH H3 TeppMTOpMM riOJIbUJM, H6 

cxpbiBan oh h cTpaujHOM npsBAbi 06 yBuncTBe oprsHaMM 
HKBfl b 1940 roAy AecfiTKOB twccth noribCKMx o<pMnepoB a 
KaTWHM m Apymx Meciax. nonxoBHwc Ahkobcxmm ocTsncn b 
Moeii nsMRTH K3K MCTMHHbiM nonbCKHM nsTpnoT, HenoaeK 
orpoMHoro MywecTBa n c3Moo0naA3HMB B nsrepe 6wno 
HecKonbKO nonaKOB. n ohm KOHueHTpnpoBanncb eoxpyr Hero. 
Ero onTHMn3M m aepa b Hen36e>t<Hoe TopwecTBO CBo6oAbi 
noAAepwMBano mx b Te Tsxtenwe ahh. rionnxM c 6onbio b 
cepaue nepewMBann cyAb6y CBoeiii CTpaHw, pa3A3BneHH0M b 
1939 roAy AByMfl TOTarmTapHbiMM pewnMaMH Oah3 nnTan 
nacTb nonbCKOM Haunn 6wna yHMMTowena. CnycTn mhoto neT 
n npoHman y OHope Banb3axa 33noMHHBunecn mhb cnoBa: 
«5biTb nonHKOM - 3to He H3UM0HsnbH0CTb, 370 cyAbSs: 

cyAb6a MyMSHMMecTBa. cyAb6a conpoTMBneHns». 

■•• 

B narepe 6wno MHoro yKpawHueB, b ochobhom h3 3anaA- 
hom y KpanMbi CpeAn hux npMBneKaji k ce6e bhmmshub nbBOB- 
CKMvi npodpeccop-43Mnonor Mucbxo. K co)KaneHHio, 3a6wn ero 
hmb. xaoKeTcn. HpocnaB. Ao bomhu oh saxoHHMn yHUBepcuTeT 
b Jlbexce. b BeribrnM. npexpscHO roBopwn hs HecKonbKMx 
eBponeMCKMx »3b*Kax. B narepe 6bin 3aaeAyt0LunM 6aHn Oh 
aoaoribHO noApo6HO p3Ccxa3biB3n mhb o rax waabieaeMOM 
6aHAepoBCKOM abmwbhmh Ha 3anaAH0M YxpanHe. KOTopoe 
Hocuno OAHOBpeMeHHO m aHTHHeMeuxnii. m aHTucoaeTCKMM 
xapaxTep. Oh He 0Tpnuan, hto 6onbWkiHCTBo pyKOBOAHTenew 



ynA (yxpaHHCKOki noBCTaHMecKoti spMMH) m OyH (0pr3HM3a- 

UMM yKpaMHCKMX HSUHOHSHMCTOB) AO BOMHbl M B ee H343nbH0M 

CTaAHH 3anrpbiBann c BepriHHOM, cTpewacb Hcno/ib30BaTb 
ero B cbohx coocTBBHHbix nonnTHMecKnx qenax - aoctmncb- 

HMU He33BMCHM0CTH YKpaUHbl. OflH3K0, no CH0B3M MuCbKO. 

3T0 6wno hmcto TexHMMecKoe coTpyAHnnecTBO. HuAep yxpa- 
mhckhx HaunoHanncroB CTenaH BaHflepa 3a HecaHKUHOHnpo- 
B3HHoe HeMuaMM npOB03rnaujeHMe He3aBncnMoro yxpaMHC- 
xoro rocyaapcTBa 30 miohs 1 941 roAa bo flbBoae 6bin apecTO- 
B3H HauncTaMn n opoojeH b KOHunsrepb 3aKC6HX3y3eH, rje 
coflep*ancn ao Komja bomhw... MucbKo 3Han CTenana Ban- 
Aepy eme c AOBoeHHbix BpeMeH. flaa ero 6paia 6binn saMy- 

MeHbl B OCBeHLjHMe 

Jl b B0BCKMM npOtJjeCCOp CMHTan, HTO y6niHCTB0 MSBeCTHO- 

ro yxpanHCKoro nncaTen« ^pocnasa TanaHa b oxT»6pe 1949 
rofla 6bino AenoM pyx areHTOB MrB (Cnycm mhoto neT 
MOCKOBCxan «06m3fl r336Ta». Nfi 7 33 2000 toa. nnc3na. mto 
«nncaTenb flpocnss TsnaH n canmeHHUx raapmin Kocrenb- 

HHK 6binn y6nTbl COBeTCKHMH npOBOKaTOpaMM. a 06BHHeHbl B 

3thx npecTynneHHflx HaqnoHanncTbi) 

flpyroii conarepHVix-yxpaMHeu - Muxann CTynniuMH - 
nMen 3a cnnHovi 6onbUJOu nonnTHHecKmi onuT. BnepBue oh 
nnoinncs c.Bo6oabi eme b roflbi, xorAa 3anaAHan yxpanHa 
BX0AHD3 b coctsb rionbLun [lonbcxMe BnacTH npecnenoaanM 
6opuoB 3a He3aBkicviMOCTb yxpaMHbi, m Muxann. coBceM eiue 
MonoAoii Menoeex - eMy 6bino neT 25, - oxa3ancs b nenanbHO 
H3B6CTH0M KOHiyiarepe Bepeaa-Kapryscxa. KorAa HeMnw 
HansnM hs Ilonbiuy. b 1939 roAy oh 6bin ocBo6ox<AeH oxxyna- 
unoHHbiMH snacTflM*. Oh paccKasbmsn, mto npuxoA Kpacnon 
Apmhh 6bin na nepBux nopax BOCTOp)xeHHO BCTpeneH mnpo- 
kmmh cnosMH yxpaMHcxoro HaceneHWfl. OAnano Bcxope Hana- 
nncb penpeccnn. CTann apecTOBbiBaTb npeflCTasuTeneui y«- 
panHcxoM nHTennMreHUMM, B03HMionM axoHOMUHecxvie Tpya- 

HOCTM. KpeCTbflHCTBO 6onHOCb XOrneKTMBM33UHM. Ha 33n3A- 

hom yxpaiiHe 6b*nn ocBeaoMneHbi 06 McxyccTBeHHO opraHM- 
30B3hhom ronoAe b HaMane 30-x roAOB hs CoaeTcxoii Yxpa- 
MHe, wepTBOM xoToporo CT3nn MMnnMOHbi niOABM. JlnAepw 

yxpSMHCXOrOABVHXeHMf) nOHflnn. MTO paCCHMTWBaTb H3 «BOnb- 

Hyio x<M3Hb» npw KOMMyHMCTax He npnxoAMTc«. B 3thx ycno- 
bubx MHorne M3 mux CTanii opMemnpoBSTbCs Ha TepMaHHio. 
CHHTan. mto BOMHa TMTnepa co CTannHWM o6nerMMT npoao3- 
rnsiueHne He33BMCMM0CTn. CTano tfpopMMpoBaTbCfl Hauno- 
Ha/iMCTHMecxoe noAnonbe, HaxannnBanocb opy»ne, pacnpo- 

CTpaHRnMCb nMCTOBKM. 

Kax Toribxo Hananacb BOMHa TepMaHun npoTMB CCCP, 
30 MK5HH 1941 roAa OpraHH3aunn yxpanHcxnx HaunoHannc- 
tob npoao3rnacnna bo Jlbsoee He3aBMCMMyK> yxpaMHCxyo 
rocyA3PCTB6HHOCTb. Mwxan/1 npuHMMan axrMBHoe yMacTMe 
bo bcbx sthx AeticTBMnx. Oah3ko He3aBMCMMocTb yxpanHw 
He BxoAnna b nnaHw repMaHCxoro pyxoBOACTBa Ero uenbio 
6uno npeBpaTHTb crrpaHy a xonoHMio. THTnepoBUbi Hemea- 
neHHO apecTOBann rnaBy npoaosmaujeHHoro yxpaMHcxoro 
npaBMreribCTBa flpocnaBa CTeubxo m nwAepa OYH CTenaHa 
BaHAepy. Ohh 6binM 3axnK3MeHw a rMTnepoBCKnw KOHimarepb 
3axceHxay3eH. HeAanexo ot BepnHHa TaM we oxa3ancn m 
Mnxaiin CTynmijMH. npocnaen oh b narepe BMecTe c apvthmm 
apecTOBaHHbiMM yxpaHHqaMH BnnoTb ao xoHqa bohhw. Mepw 
repMaHcxMx BnacTeM npuBenf. x CTMXMtiHOMy conpoTMBneHMio 
m opraHM3aunn noBCTaHHecxMx rpynn. o6teAHHHBLUnxcR b 
yxpaMHCxyw noBCTaHMecxyto apMnto (ynA), KOTopan Bcxope 
npno6pena MepTu perynnpHOii apMMM. MMxawn paccxa3bi- 
Ban. mto b KapnaTax ABMCTBOBanM nonnonbHbie psamoctsh- 
Uhm. BoeHHbie ujxonbi, rocnHTanb. KaxrosopMn MwxaMn, cpe- 
A^ BpaMeH 6bino neMano espees HexoTopue H3 hux 6wnn 
apecTOBaHu nocne bomhw h o6BMHeHbi cobbtcxhmm BnacTs- 

MM B «yXpaMHCKOM Hai4H0Ha/1M3Me». 



n 



4 CYAbbbl GTOJIETHn 



yKpaHHCKne OTpnflbt pa3BepHynn nocTOBHHyio 6opb6y 
npoTMB HaqMCTOB. AKTMBHyio noMOiyb OKa3WBann mm KpeCTb- 
HHe-eAoCi, oae>KflOM. o6yBbio. nocnoBBM MHxanna. HMcnen- 
HocTb ynA cocTaBnnra oxono 300 twcbm Me/ioaex. Bee sto 
6binn ao6poBonbubi. - oahu 6binn BOOAyujeaneHbi uaeeii 
5opb5bi 3a He3aencnM0CTb y Kpa whw, apyrne oracanncb ape- 
CTa. TpeTbn xoTenn M36e>xaTb BWB03a Ha npuHyflmenbHwe 
pa6oTbi b TepMaHMK). 

nocne ocBo6o>KaeHHfl m HeMeuxoro xoHunarepn Muxa- 
nn KaKMM-TO o6pa30M aepHyncH Ha yxpawHy m cpaay me 
OKyHyncs b 6opb6y co ciann-tcKUM peiKMMOM. Oh pacci<a3bi- 
ean MHe o xoctokhx Mepax. KOTopwe npMMeHJinMCb coBeTc- 
xmmm BnacTAMn b 6opb6e c yxpanHCKMM conpoTnaneHMeM, - 
yHMmowanHCb uenwe cena. rae AeMcreoBanM napTH3aHbi, 
SHaMMTenbHan nacTb HaceneHMH 6wna aenopTMpoBaHa b 
Cn6npb Muxaun dynMUJUH paccxa3biBan. MTOMacTocoTpyA- 
hhkm MrB npoBOflnnn KapaienbHbie onepaunn s cpopMe ynA. 

yHMHTO*HB Ce/10, OHM paCnpOCTpaHfUlM nUCTOBKM, MTO 3TO 

aeno pyx HaunoHanncTOB. 

Koraa b 1950 roay Muxann 6bin cxsaMOH bo flbsose. b 
oahom yHHaTCKOM MOHacTbipe, kotopwm 6bin era BpeMeHHbiM 
y6e*nmeM. noBCTaHMecxan BOMHa 6bina b no/wow paarape 
Oh 6bin npuroBopeH Oco6biM coBeuaanneM k 25 roflaw 3ax- 
niOMeHMii. EMy yaaaanocb xaxMM-TO o6pa30M noAAepxMBaTb 
CBfl3b c apysbBMn Ha yxpaMHe. KOTopwe coo6manu ewy . mto 
BoopyweHHoe conpoTMBneHMe npoflonjxaeTCfl. 

B KOHiie 80-x roAOB oh nsMncn xo MHe b MHCTMTyr - 
aApeca He 3Han. ho kto-to eMy cxa3an. mto n paooTao b 
HM3M0 - c npuHTensM BpanoM, eBpeeM no HauMOHanbHO- 
ctm. KOTopwM co6Mpancn 3MMrpnpoBaTb b IfopaMnb. Mw npo- 
eeriM Hecxonbxo nacoe b pecTopaHe Mnxanri paccKaaan. mto 
ocBo6oAnriM ero Tonbxo b 1956 roAy, ho oh bo3o6hobmxi 
aKTMBHyo AenTenbHocTb b yxpanHcxoM abmwchmm, xoTopoe 
AencTBOBano noAnonbHO ao 1981 roAa. Buxoabu ms nHTen- 
nureHTHOii yHMTenbCxow ceMbn. oh no noHHTHbiM npttMMHaM 
hb CMor nony^MTb 06pa3OB3HMfl m patknan npocTbiM boamtb- 
neM. Ho sto 6bin oneHb o6pa30BaHHbiM m HaHMTaHHbiii neno- 
bbk. Koraa Mbi BCTpemnncb. eMy 6uno ywe 3a 60. Mbi ciann 
nepenncbiBaTbcn K BennKOMy cowaneHHio, 3Ta nepenncxa 
npoAon)Kanacb HeAonro - Muxann norn6 b aBTOMo6wnbnoM 
xaTacTpocpe. fl HaBcerAa 3anoMHnn cnoaa 3Toro nenoBexa. 

HTO «HapOA, KOTOPWM 6opeTCfl 3a CB060Ay M HeSaBMCMMOCTb, 
HOflb3H no6eAHTb, eTO MOJKHO TOilbKO yHMHTOWMTbB. 

CpeAM 3axriiOHeHHb(x 6wnM tikjam cbmux pa3nnMHbix 
B03pacTOB - ot 1 7-neTHnx KDHOujeti ao 80-neTHnx orapHKOB. 
Ecnn noc/ieAHMe cuaenn nacTo 3a npMHaAnewHOCTb k pa3- 
nnHHWM pennrno3HbiM cexTaM a Aep>KariMCb OTflenbHO ot 
ocTaxibHbix narepHnxoB, to Monoae*b 6bina b 6onbUJMHCTBe 
cnynaeB oneHb axiMBHa n otkputo BUCKasbiBana cbom amn- 
CTaniiHCKne B3rnqflbi. Co mhom b oahom 6apaxe 6bin Mono- 
Aoii HenoBex, yneHMK 9-ro mtim 10-ro tuiacca oahom ms ujxon 
3anaAH0M yxpanHw. B stom me 6apaxe HaxoAnncn ujxonb- 
hmk. Oh IKWl B OAHOM M3 ropoAOB MeHTparibHOM Poccmm, 6un 
apecToeaH bmbcto c HecKoribKMMH oAHOxnaccHMKaMM 3a co- 
3Aanne opraHM3auMti. HocuBueii HaseaHne «3a JleHMHa, npo- 
TMB CTannHaw. HeTKOii nporpaMMw y 3tom rpynnu hb 6uno. 
Ohm cHMTanM, hto CTanMH oTOwen ot neHMHCxoro nyrw m 
cnaceHne CTpaHu - b BoaepameHnn k JleHMHy. 3to 6binn, 
6e3ycnoBHo, HecTHwe, nopnAOHHbie pe6nTa. ho xaiuay hhx b 
ronoBe 6bina HeBepoHTHan. nonuTKM cnopMTb c hsmh hto-to 

06-bBCHMTb HeM3M6HH0 3aKaHHMBanMCb HeyAaHeM. MX KpBAO 

6bino: « Mw He npoTMBKOWMynnsMa. MUHe npoTUBCOBeTCKoPi 
BnacTM. ho HaM He HpaBMTcn CTanMH*. 

H bot b 3tom me 6apaxe HaxoAMDcn MonoAon yxpanHeu, 
BsrnjiAw xoToporo 6wnn aocTaTOHHo weTxo afcopMMpoeaHbi. 



Oh roBopun, hto 3Han, Ha mto wen. mto ero uenb - co3A3Hne 
cbo6oahom. He3aBMCHM0ii yxpaMHCxoM pecny6nwKM. KOTopan 
3afiMeT co BpeMeHeM aocToiiHoe mocto b EBpone. Oh xopo- 
luo 3Han ncTopnK) CBoero napoAa, npexpacHO pa36npanca b 
nonnTMMecKoii cuTyaijMM Ha yxpaMHe nocne 1917 roAa. Umtm- 
poBan M. TpyiueBCKoro. B. BuHnneHKO, Apyrvix yxpaMHCKnx 
nonmMKOB Toro BpeMeHM. 3To6bin xopoiuo noAroTOBneHHbiM 
6oeu 3a He3aBHCHM0CTb CBoeA cTpaHbi Ha ero cpOHe uxorib- 
hmkm ms rpynnw «3a JleHMHa. npoTMB CTanMHa» BwrnnAenn 
npocTO HecMbiiuneHbiMM aeTbMM. Flo cpaBHeHnto c hmmh 
yKpanHCKm'1 napeHb o6naaan BceMn saaaixaMn Gyayujero 
axTMBHoro nonHTMMecxoro AeflTenn. M He noMHio ero tpaMM- 
nMM, ho earn oh, cnaBa Bory, AO)Knn ao 1991 roaa, oh, 
HaBepHo, coctomt nnoo b Pyxe, nn6o b KaKOM-nn6o Apyrow 
HaunoHanMCTHMecKOii opraHM3auMn; MoateT 6wTb, CTan Aeny- 
T3TOM yKpawHCKoro napnaweHTa Boxpyr 3Toro MO/iOAoro 
napHO rpynn^pcsarncb xpecTbflHe c 3anaAHOti yxpanHbi. n s 
He pas 6wn cBMfleTeneM, xax oh aoctbtomho rpaMOTHo MStnc- 
hbh mm uenn n 3aaann OpraHH3aunn yKpanHCKHx HaqnoHann- 
ctob XapaxTepHO. mto b hom ho 6wno HMxaxoM. xax Tenepb 
moaho roBopMTb. pyco0o6nn unM TeM 6onee aHTMceMMTM3- 
Ma. Bonee Toro. C03AaHne rocyAapcTBa Hspanrib HBnnnocb y 
Hero apryMeHTOM Toro, mto HauwoHanbHan oceo6oAMTenb- 
Han 6opb6a mmoot tuaHCbi na yenex 

B narepe 6binn hioah paaHbix HaunoHanbHOCTeM. Cpean 
hmx 6bin n ncnaneu XyaH PoSnec. EMy Sbino npuMepno neT 
25. Bo BpeMfl rpa>KAaHCKOM bomhu b /cnaHUM oh b MMcne 
MHorvix McnaHCKMx AeTen oxa3ancn b CoBeTcxoM CoK)3e. 
PoAMTenM norM6nM. a b HcnaHMH *Mna CTapiuaa cecTpa. 
XyaH 3aKOHMnn HHCnfTyT b oahom M3 ropoAOB CoBeTcxoro 
Coi03a, cran unxceHepoM. Oh Bee epeMn MenTan sepHyrbcn 
Ha poAMHy, m b nacTHOM 6eceAe Ha saBOAe. rAe oh paSoTan, 
06 3tom otkpwto roBopun. Kto-to «cryKHyn» b opraHW MrB, 
vi XyaHa apecroBann «3a aHTkicoeeTCKMe pa3rosopbi». 3to 
6un OMGHb npMOTHbiM m MHTefinvireHTHbiM Menosex. Mbi npo- 
6binn b oahom narepe HeAonro - ero nepeBenvi b flpyroe 
narepHoe noApasAeneHMe. Ho cyAbSa pacnopHAMnacb Tax, 
mo HaM cy»AeHo 6bino BCTpeTMTbcs cnycTH MHoro neT, Ha 
3TOT pa3 a HcnaHMM B 1992 roAy n 6wn Ha oahom MexAyHa- 
POahom KOHO>epeHUMM, nocBsiaeHHOM npo6neM3M coBpeMBH- 
hom Poccmm, b McnaHCKOM ropoAe BapcenoHa. Kax-To b cbo- 
6oAHoe BpeM« h noiuen noryriBTb b LjeHTp ropoAa. OcTaHO- 
BMnco oxono uepxBM «Corpaaa ct>aMnnna» coopy)xeHHOM b 
Hanane XX sexa no npoeiay 3HaMeHMToro McnaHcxoro apxn- 
TexTopa Ahtohmo TayAM. m CTan paccMaTpMBaTb sto noTpnca- 
K)inee npOM3B6AeHMe ncxyccTBa. Phaom cTonn noiKMnoA ne- 
noBeK. onMpaBUJMMCH Ha TpocTb. B oxom-to momcht HaujM 
BsrnnAbi BCTpeTMnMCb, m McnaHeu, BHMMaTenbHO BrnHaeB- 
LUMCb b mob nMuo, no-pyccKM cxasan: «Bac 3oeyT fliua? MHe 
xaweTCB. sto mmchho Bw». 3to 6wn XyaH Po6nec Mu xpenxo 
o6HflriMCb. Oh no3HaxoMMn mbhh c conpoBOJXAaBujeM ero 
>xeHinMHOM -3to 6wna ero AOMb. XyaH Tyr me npMrnacMn mcha 
b pecTopaH, rAe paccxa3an o npo*MTbix roAax. XyaH 6bin 
ocBo6o>KAeH nocne XX c-be3aa KnCC, pea6MnMTnpoBaH. m 
BepHyncs b ropoA. a xotopom oh >XMn ao apecTa. B cepeAMHe 
60-x roAOB oh nonyMMn pa3peiueHMe B03BpaTMTbcn b Mcna- 
hmkj, TaM wMna ero cecTpa. ycTpoMncn Ha pa60Ty no cneuM- 
anbHOCTM, Bcxope iKeHM/icfl. Tenepb y Hero aeoe B3pocrbix 
AOMepeii. Hecxonbxo neT HasaA yiuen Ha neHcmo. >KMBeT Ha 
ceeepe GTfMtM. b He6onbiuoM ropoAe, rAe y Hero co6ctbbh- 
hwm aom. Oh npoflBMn jkmbom MHTepec k co6b4TMflM b Poccmm. 
Mw o6M6HnnMCb aapecaMM h TpM-neTbipe roAa perynnpHO 
nepenMCbiBanMCb 3aT6M XyaH nepecran oTBewaTb Ha mom 
nucbMa flo cmx nop xopouio noMHto ero m b narepe, h Haoiy 
BCTpeny b BapcenoHe. 



4 Cyflbbbl CTME1M 



75 



V3bi flpy>t<6bt CBH3biBann M6HR c wypnanMCTOM HMKona- 

6M 3MH0Bb6BHMeM MapKOBCKMM, MHOrODBT npOpaOOTaBWMM 

b raseTe «H3BecTHH». BoeHHun KoppecnoHAeKT b roflu bom- 
Hbj. uiupoKO o6pa30BaHHbiM nenoBex. oh paSoTan b narepe 
AHeBanbHbiM npM nene6HOM nyHKTe. 

JIotom 1 953 roaa, Tjwceno saoonea m Haxooncb Ha rpaHM 
cp.i3HHecKoro m HepBHoro ncToiyeHnn. n nonan a L4eHTpanb- 
Hyto Myxcxyio ooribHHuy Bnmara. TaM n no3HaxoMMnc« c 

MOCKBMHOM. 6blBUJMM CTyaeHTOM MexaHMKO-MaTeMaTMHeCKO- 

ro cpaKynbTeTa MocKOBexoro yHUBepcuTeia V\nteM lilMan- 
hum. EMy Torfla otino 23 roaa. OseHb nHTennnreHTHbiM 
KpacMBUH Monoaowi nenoBSK c MyAOCHWMH. nenanbHWMn 
rr.aaaMw. KaK BbiRCHunocb. mm y^nnncb a oahom m tom we 
ujKone Nb 636 a MocxBe. Ero otbu 6ur M3BecTHbiM KMHope- 
xoiccepoM. Unbn MMe/i cpoK 6 neT. KaKoe-To boomr mm 6uiim 
BMecTe b SonbHHue. a 3aT6M ero yBe3nn M3 6onbHHUbi. Unwo 
ocBo6oflnnn b OKTn6pe 1 954 roaa. Oh B03o6Hoann yne6y b 
yHMBepcuTeie. Ha stot pa3 na 330mhom 0TaeneHnn, Tax xan 
cra/i pa6oTaTb Ha 3aooAe B 1961 rofly oh aaxonsM/i yHHBep- 
CMT6T. B 3to BpeMn oh pa6oTan y«e BO BceCOI03HOM HHCTM- 
Tyre HayHHO-TexHMMecxoM MHCpopMauMM (BHHTH). Eroaa/ib- 
H6MUJMM *M3HeHHwiii nyTb HecKonbKO Heo6biHeH. BcKope noc- 
ne ocbo6o*johhb oh 3aMHTepecoeancn npaeocnaBHOM pe- 
nwweto, a 1962 roay xpecrMncn H peiunn yexaTb b H3pannb. 
HaaeflCb Taw co BpeMeHeM 3aHHTbcn mmccmohopckom Aen- 
TenbHOCTbio. B 1975 roay UnbH cceMben noKMHyn Cobbtckum 
Cokj3 V.3 Hspawnn b 1980 roAy oh Ha epeMP yexan ao 
OpaHunio. saxoHMMn TaM pyccxnii CBRTo-CeprvieBCKHH 6oro- 
cnoBCxwM MHCTMTyT n 6bin pyxonono*eH b caH CBnineHHMKa. B 
Hspanne oh pa6oTan a HHCTMTyTe BeiiuvaHa a PexoeoTe. 
BwnonHnB OflHoapoMeHHO o6n3aHHOCTM ceaiueHHMxa b rpe- 
MecKOM uepKBM 3 XpaMe Tpo6a rbcnoAHB b HepycanwMe. Ero 
pennrM03Has ABBTenbHocrb. caH npaBocnaBHoro CBfliaeHHM- 
xa HeraTHBHO socnpMHMManncb HexoTopwMM M3pannbcxMMM 
KpyraMM m co3AaBann OMy onpeAoneHHwo TpyaHOCTM. B 1983 
roAy oh nepeexan bo O p a infMI O, tab BHawane cnyacMn b 
pyccKOM npaBOcnaBHOM npMxoae AHbepa - b npMropoae 
napwata, a c 1991 roAa no 1997 toa own HacTOfrreneM xpaMa 
npw pyccKOM Knaa6nme. pacnonoweHHOM a tphaubtm kmtio- 
MeTpax ot cTo/wubi OpanuMM b He6onbW0M ropoAte Cbh- 
>KeHeBbeB-fle-Bya Ha 3tom K/iaaBwiue. sBnnraiueMCH Mec- 
tom nanoMHMHecTBa. noxopoHeHM MHome, OK33aBUJMecn b 
3Mnrpaunw. BbiaaioiiiMecB pyccKMe nonMTimecKMe h aoaHHue 
AenTenn, nwcaTenn. xyAO)KHMW4, KOMnosMTopw. 3Aecb we 
noxopoHeHu AnexcaHAp TariMM, Bmaop Hexpacoe, AHApeii 
TapKOBCKHM, Pyaonbtp HypneB 

B 1 997 roay Mnbfl LUmsmh eepnyncfl a Mocxay m cran 
CBmyeHHuxoM xpaMa anocTonos lleTpa m riaBna y HyscxMx 
aopoT. 

B narepe 6bino Hecxonbxo rpysMH B ochobhom ohm 
pa6oTanw b MacTepcKHx - canowHbix, no peMOHTy OAe*Aw, 
Ha TeppmopMH caMoro narepn. Ho Bcxope, pasroBopHBUJMCb 
no xaxoMy-TO Bonpocy c oahmm M3 mmx, a y3Han, mto b rqv\- 
CTBMTenbHOCTM 3to 6wnn rpysMHCKMe 6Bpen BHeuiHotrrb. 
MaHepa npowsHoujeHMfl pyccKMX cnoB 6wna TMnHHHO rpy3MH- 
cuan. ho ohm. Aawe b narepHwx ycnoennx. yMyApflnncb co- 
6niOAaTb eBpeiiCKHe pennrvio3Hbie o6p«Abi. MeiKAy co6om 
ohm roBopnnu Ha rpysMHcxoM n3biKe. Oamh M3 momx snaxo- 
Mbix, Mnwa - 0>aMMnMK) He noMHio - notation. xyAOKHMK no 
o6pa30BaHMio. nMcan a npeAOCTaeneHHOM eMy phaom co 
CTonoBOM He6onbiuoM KOMHaTe nopTpeTw narepHoro Hasanb- 
CTsa M mx men. Kohb^ho. eMy sa ero TpyA HMnero ho nnaTMnn 
npocro He BbiroHsuiM na o6mMe paooTw. Mniua, euxoAeu ms 
MHTennMreHTHOM cewbM - Beflb nonTM Bee rpy3MHCKMe eepeu 
McnoKOH bckob 6binM 38H«Tbi ToproBneM. KycTapHbiM npoM3- 



boactbom m pa3nMHHUMM peMecnaMM - xopomo 3Han mcto- 
Pmk) rpysHHCxoro espeMCTBa. xoTopan HacHMTbieaeT cBwuje 
AByxc nonoBHHOH TwcnseneTHM. Oh paccxa3biBan MHe, mtob 
Tpy3MM cpeAM uecTHbix 3HTy3MacroB 6wnM rnoAM. crpeMMB- 
UJM6CH B0CO03AaTb MCTOpMKD nOflBneHMH M CTOHb AnnTenb- 
Hoe, 6e3Mnre)«Hoe cymecTBOBaHMe rpysMHCKMx eepeeB b 
crpaHe - seflb a Tpy3MM npaxTMHecxM HHxorAa He 6bino 
aHTMC6MMTM3Ma. B 1 933 rOAy OAMH M3 ero 6nM3KMX poacTBeH- 
hmkob npMHMMan y^acTue a coaaaHMM MCTopMKO-3THorpao>M- 
Hecxoro Myaes rpyaMHCKMx espeeB l~lo cnosaM Mmuju. opra- 
MusaropoM Mysen 6bin t6m/imcckmm eapeti AapoH Kpusenn 
MMUja, Toraa eiue mohoaom nenoBex. o6b63AMn scto TpysMK). 
co6npafi MaTepManw no mctopmm rpysMHCKMX eapeee, mx 
BbiTa m o6pa3a wmshm. MyseM npMBnexan x ce6e BHMMaHMe 
>KMTeneM TpysuM Ero noceu»anM »e rorbKO eepeM, ho m 
rpyaHHbi, pyccxne. apMHHe. oceTMHbi. npeACTasMTenMAPyrux 
HauMOHa/ibHOCTeM, pecny6nnx. Ho cnycrH Hecxonbxo neT 
MyseM 6bin 3axpt.iT. a AHpexTopa apecroBann Muma roso- 
pwn. hto a 1937 roay 6wn apecTosaH n paccTpenjiH Tepuenb 
BaasoB - MSBecTHUM nMcaTexib. ycMnMAMM Koroporo arpy3MH- 
CKyio nMTepaTypy aouina eBpeMCKan npo6neMaTMxa, MMiua 
paccxa3biBan. mo Hanane 50-x rpy3MHCxvie eapen noABepr- 
nucb wecTOKMM penpeccMnM. Bwnn saxpuTbi CMHarorvi, - a 
rpysMHcxMe eepen oweHb penMrnosHbi, - MHome paaBMHbi 

apeCTOBaHbl. MMUJ3 BblCXa3blBa/l CpeA^CBOMX 3HaK0MblX B03- 
MyiABHMB 3TMMM apeCTaMM. KaK BOAMTCH, KTO-TO A0H6C. H OH. 

nonyMMB 10 neT, oxa3ancn b narepe. 

••* 

B narepe 6wno Hecxonwo nenoBeK. KOTopwe. hocmotpa 
Ha Bee nepexviToe b TiopbMe. hocmotpa Ha Aonpocw m m36m- 
eHMn. CHMTa/iM ce6s no-npex<HeMy «MAeMHWMM KOMMyHncTa- 
mm». Ohm paccywaanM npMMepHO Tax: cToeapMui CTanHH 
HMMero He 3HaeT OpyaywT Bparn cob6tcxom B/iacTM, 3axBa- 

THBWUe KOHTpOHb H3A napTMBM M MrB M BbinOTtHHtOLUMe 

3flAaHMe 3apy6e*Hbix paaaeaox no AncKpeAHTauMM CoaeTc- 
Koro Cok)33». Pa3roBapnB3Tb c stmmm niOAbMM 6bino coBep- 
uieHHO 6ecnone3Ho. y6eAMTbB mbm-to neBOSMOWHo, noaTOMy 
b crapancfl yAep*aTbCfl noaa/it>we ot stom ny6nMKM. Ohm 
CTpoMHnH xa>KAbiM ae>-b nMCbMa na mmr CTanMHa, AOKa3UBa- 
nn eMy cbokj HeBMHOBHOCTb m >xanoBanMCb. mto oxa3anMCb b 
narepe «BMecre c HacrofliAMMM sparaMM Hapoaa». xoTopue 
HaxoAflTcn TaM xcoBeptueHHO 3acnyxeHH0». 

PasyMeeTCB. 3Ta ny6nmca Bbisbiaana. mhtko roaopn. 
HenpMB3Hb y ochobhom Maccw 3aKnwHeHHbix . f\ 6bin csMAeTe- 

nOM, XaK OAHOrO M3 3TMX «MAeMHWX KOMMyHMCTOB» 3AODOBO 

M36nnM b eapaxe. a Apyrora. no cnyxaM. e coceAHBM narepe. 
npocro y6wnH. 

Ho cpeAM 3tmx ypa-xoMMyHMCTOB nonaAanMCt nMua. 
KOTopwe nocTeneHHO ocBo6o>KAanM cboio ronoey ot MapxcM- 
CTCxo-neHMHcxnx ao™ m Ha^MHanM, xotb m c SonbiiJMM Tpy- 
Aom, noMMMaTb, noMben BMHe ohm oxa3anMCb b narepe. Khmm 
nocreneHHO npMxoAMno oco3H8HMe Toro. mto bmhobhmxom 
BBnseTca He Tonbxo CTanMH. hto ywe 6wno nporpeccoM. a 
co3fldHHan nocne 1917 roAa nonMTMnecxaB CHCTeMa 

C OAHMM M3 T3XMX 6blBLIMX XOMMyHMCTOB - HenOBSKOM 

o6wMTenbHbiM, 6e3ycnoBHO yMHbiM. a xax-ro pa3roBopnncH b 
narepe. m noTOM mm noAAepxMBaxiM TOBapMUiecxMe OTHOuje- 
hmr. 3To6bin AnexcaHAp 3axapoBMs 3ycMaHOBMH EMy roraa 
6wno yoxe 50 neT. Oh 8 whoctm yMacrBoean s rpaitcaaHCKOM 
BOMHe b pnAax KpacHOM Apmmm. a nocne bomhw 6bm Hanpaa- 
neH Ha paooTy b cncTeMy KoMMHTepHa. tab 3aHMManc« acppn- 
K3HCKMMM aenaMM Oh AOBonbHo noAPo6HO paccKaswean o 
tom. xax KoMMHTepH. AeMCTByq Mepe3 (0)KHO-Ao>pMKaHcxyio 
KoMMyHMCTMHecxyc napTMio (lOAKri) nwTancfl MyrMTb BOAy b 
K)*Ho-A(ppMKaHCKOM Cox)3e, - Tax Toraa HasuBanacb hu- 
HeujMSH KD*Ho-AtppMKaHCKa» Pecny6nMxa. KoMMHTepH bch- 



71 



<£ CyflbBbl CTUETM 



necKM MHcnnpnpoBan BHyTpeHHue pacnpw b pnaax KwcHoacp- 
puKaHCKnx KOMMynncTOB. a MMeHHO: Me>xay ypo*<eHLieM KDAP 
Mo3ece KaiaHe m Jla3apeM BexaHOM. espeeM M3naTBnvicKoro 
ropoaa PeiKHua, coctosbwmm paHbiue b KOMnapinn JlaTBMM, 
a noTOM aMMrpupoeaBUJUM b K)AP. BHyrpeHHUJi 6opb6a b 
lOAKn no aonpocy o tom, xax 6bicTpee ycTaHOBHTb coBeTC- 
Kyio BnacTb Ha rare A<ppnxn. 3axoHMnnacb tbm. mto HaxoaMB- 
iijuecn b 1937 rofly b MocxBe, Jlasapb Bex, 6paTbn riaynb m 
Mopwc Bexep, 6wnn apecTOBaHw HKBA. H. no cnoBaM 3yc- 
MaHOBMMa, mx o6enHnnn hm 6onbiue hk Mewbiue. ksk b oKasa- 
hmm noMomM Me^aynapoAHOM 6yp)Kya3MM, KOHTppeBoniouvi- 
ohhoh nponaraHfle n armauHn. yMacmn b KOHTppeBoniouM- 
ohhom opraHH3auiiM. Abomx HenoBex, stmx HenpoueHwx 6op- 
uob 3a CBo6ofly K5AP. paccrpennnn. a TpeTMfc, ksk BbinCHM- 
nocb ywe noTOM, yMep a 3aKJnoseHMM. Ho b 1937 roay 3ycMa- 
HOBMMy noBe3no, xotb ero m 3bi3biBann Ha aonpocw no fleny 
pyKOBOACTsa lOAKn. 

B 1929 - 1939 roaax oh 6wn coTpyaHnxoM ripoepMHTep- 
Ha, flBnsncb b to *e speMP. b 1929 - 1932 roaax. 3aMecrnTe- 
neM npeaceaaTenn Me*ayHapoaHoro npocpcoio3Horo xomm- 
TeTa no acfrpMKaHCKMM opraHM3aijnHM OanoBpeMeHHO oh 
npenoaaBan e Tax Ha3biBasMOM KoMMyHMCTMMecxoM Yhm- 
BepcmeTe HapoaoB BocToxa (KYHB). b xotodom roTOBM/iMCb 
xaapw ana noapwBHOti aeflTenbHOCTH b CTpaHax A3mm m 
AcppMKH. pa6oran a MeKtAynapoAHOH /Ibhuhckom uixone, xo- 
Topan 3aHMMaxiacb tbm me, m b BoeHHO-nonnTMMecxoH axaae- 
mmh. Bee 3to 6wno ao 1941 roaa. Bcto BO&Hy AnexcaHap 
3axapoBMH npoBen Ha 0>poHTe. a nocne ee oxoHMaHMR paoo- 
Tan bo JlbBOBCKOM yHMBepcureTe Oh aaHMMancn b ochobhom 
HayMHWMM MccneaoaaHMBMn b o6nacTM atppwxaHOBeaeHMH. 
Ho a xoHue 40-x roaoB oh 6wn apecTOBaH opranaMM MrB, 
o6bhh6h b CBR3BX co mhotmmm 3apy6e)KHbiMM pasBeaxaMvi n 
npuroBopen k anMTenbHOMy cpoxy 3axn»OMeHMH. 

rioMHo, xax oh c WMopoM paccxaswean mho, mto cneao- 
BaTenb Bee BpeMn ao6MBancn ot Hero nepeMncneHHn bcbx 
3apy6e)«Hbix pasBeaox, areHTaMM xotopnx, AecxaTb, 6bin 
3ycMaHOBMM. «ycTaa ot 6ecMMCJieHHbix npMCTaBaHMM cneao- 
BaTenn, n B03bMn m nnnHM, ujyra, mto 6bin nnaTHWM areHTOM 
nanyaccxoii pa3Beaxn h CMCTeMaTvmecKM CHa6*an ee CBeae- 
hhpmm o BoeHHo-nonnTMMecKOM noTOHUMane CCCP m pacno- 
noweHMM MacTeii KpacHOti Apmmh» CneaoBaTenb hb cxpbi- 
Ban caoero BOCTopra, - ero xonnern pa3o6naMnnn areHTOB 
mhothx 3apy6e>KHbix pasBeaox, ho BnepBbie nonancn nanyac- 
ckhm areHT «MeHo sa 3to HarpaanT opaeHOM», - cainoao- 
BonbHO CKa3an cneaoBaTerib n cocTaBun cooTBeTCTByKjuiMM 
npoToxon. 3ycMaHoenM ero noanncan. Ho Mepe3 Hecxonbxo 
AH6H cneaoeare/ib BbiSBan ero Ha aonpoc m, ocbinaB MaTep- 
hom 6paHbio. n30nn Omgbhaho. HaManbHMK cneaoBaTena. 
ycTponn eMy ronoBOMowxy, cxa3aB, no-BnanMOMy, mto oh 
xBaTMn Mepe3 Kpaa. CneaoBaTenb. b OTMecTxy, Benen noMe- 
cTMTb AnexcaHapa 3axapoBHna b xapuep 

Mbl BHOBb BCTpeTMflMCb C 3yCMaHOBMM6M CJiyMaMHO BO 

flBope Moero aoMa Ha yHneepcuTeTCKOM npocnexTe. 3to 
6wno HOBoe 3aaHne. m oho 6w/io b 3HaMMTe/ibH0M creneHH 
aaceneHO 5biBaiviMn penpoccupoeanHbiMn. (loMOMb nony- 
MMTb eMy KBapTMpy noMor Mapiuan MaxiMHOBCxviM. xopoujo 
3HaBiijMM 3ycMaH08MMa bo apeMfl bomhw. Xm/im Mbi b cocea- 
hmx noai>e3aax. C 1959 roaa 3ycMaHOBMH paooTan b Hhctm- 
Tyre Acppmcw AxaaeMHM Hayx, nnoaoTBopHo 3aHMMancn hc- 
TopMOM Ao>pmxm b XIX Bexe. AnexcaHap 3axapoBHM cronn y 
mctoxob poccMMCKoro ar^puKOBeaeHMfl. M3aan npexpacHyio 
KHKiry o 6opb6e 3anaaHbix rocyaapcTB 3a pa3aen 6accewHa 
pexM Kohto. 3amnTnn b 1 963 roay aoxTopcxyto AwccepTaumo, 
ho. k coixaneHtiio, nepeHeceHHbie CTpaaaHun cxa3anncb Ha 
era 3aopoBbe, m b 1965 roay oh cxoHMancs. H kto 3HaeT, 



MoweT 6wTb. MMeHHO ysnexaTenbHbie paccKaaw 3ycMaHOBH- 
sa 06 A4>pnKe, era BnesaTneHMH ot npe6wBaHMH a ao>pnxaH- 
ckmx crpaHax. cnoco6cTBOBa/iM b xaxoii-TO CTeneHM TOMy. mto 
m « ycM/ieHHO 3aHnncn wayMeHneM a^pMxaHCXMX npo6neM. 

Hcrapufl *h3hh AnexcaHapa 3axapoBHMa 3ycMaHOBHMa 
- 3T0 TpyaHan, MyMMTenbHafl nepeoueHxa iteHHocTeti, yeso- 
eHHbix b paHHeii MonoaocTw m nocreneHHWH nyTb x np03pe- 
HMto. Koraa era apecTOBann, - 3to 6wn y6e)xaeHHbiM xoMMy- 
hhct, B3rnnabi xoToporo cpopMMposanncb nepeAOBHuaMM 
raseTbi «npaBAbi». Toaw saxnioMeHHfl Dbinn^ns Hero Bpeoie- 
H6M MyVMTenbHblX pa3flyMHM, ocTpwx cnopoB c caMUM co6oii. 
m xoraa oh Bbiiuen na cBo6oay - ara 6wr coeceM apyron 
MenoBex, Ha stot pa3 jipxhm aHTMcranMHHCT, b ayiue Henpw- 
MupHMbi* npoTHBHMx xoMMyHHCTHMecxoro pe>«MMa. M Taxnx, 
xax oh. 6wno HeMano. BnpoMeM, 6wnn n Taxne xoMMyHMCTw, 
KOTopue pwaann b narepe, ysHae o CMeprw CTanviHa, CMMTan, 
mto ero yxoa npHBeaeT x xaTacTpoo^e CTpaHW. ripaBaa, Taxvix 
6binn eaMHMijbi >Kn3Ht 6pana caoe, m Aawe TeepAono6bie 
xoMMyHMCTbi nocTeneHHO, c HeManwM TpyaoM cTann b mhom 
CBeTe BocnpwHMMaTb coBeTCKyre WMSHb. 

3anoMHMncti u xopeeu. yMMTenb mctopmm Hnxonai4 Kmm. 
flo 1937 roaa oh *nn c poaHTensMM Ha flanbneM Boctokc ho. 
xax M3BecTH0, B 1937 roay Hecxonbxo cot tuchm xopeiiueB 
6wnn aenopTMpoBaHw c flanbHero Bocrroxa b CpeaHtow A3mio 
h Ka3axcTaH. ycnoBMn, b xoTopbix HaxoanriMCb aenopTmpo- 
aaHHwe xopenubi. 6wnn oTHOCMTenbHO chochumm; ropasao 

AJTMUJHMM. MeM T6, B XOTOPWX 0Xa3anMCb BWCnaHHbie B X0HU6 

bomhw WMTeriM pnaa pecny6/inx CeBepHoro Kaexa3a. OTeu 
npenoaaBan b uxone hctopmk), MaTb - reorpacbMK). m Hmko- 
nan peiunn noMTM no mx cronaM. fl y>xe tomho ho noMHro, ho 
b xaxoM-To oSnacTHOM ropoae eMy yaanocb ao bomhn 3axoH- 
MMTb MCTopMMecxHM (paxynbTGT MecTHoro neAMHCTMTyTa m 
ycTpoMTbcn Ha paooTy b ujxone. Boxjcb xaTeropMMecxn yrBep- 
>xaaTb. no-M06My, Hnxonaii roBopnn, mto BbicnaHHWx xopeM- 
qee b apMwo He 6pann. Bo bchxom cnysae, no stom nn 
npMHMHe unit na-aa CMDbHOM 6nn3opyxocTM, oh we 6wn mo6m- 
nH30BaH u npoaonixan paooTaTb m nocne Hanana bomhw B 
1949 roay xto-to M3 xonner no ujxone aoHec Ha Hero, mto oh 
yMacTByeT b anoano/ibHOH xopeMCxoH MonoaeiKHOM HaunoHa- 
nMCTHMecxoii opraHH3auMM». lloBoaoM BBMnMCb Benepa. kc~ 
Topwe ycTpaMBanw Monoawe xopeviubi nn6o b o6me)«MTMM 
neanHCTMTyTa. nnoo y xoro-nM6oaoMa. HnKonaw paccxa3w- 
aan. mto napnay c o6cyjKAeHMeM nonoweHun Ha tppoHTe. 
roBopunocb n o HecnpaBeanMBOCTM. xoTopan 6wna aonyme- 
Ha BnacTHMn b OTHOiueHMM xopeMCxoro HaceneHMB b 1937 
roay. Bee ynacTHMXM «opraHH3aunn» Sbinn apecTOBaHu. 
Hnxonan Kmm nonyMMn 10 neT. Oh paccxasbman mhoto mhto- 
pecHoro M3 MCTopHM xopewcxoro Hapoaa. 3to 6bin yaMBM- 
TenbHO MHTepecHbiH co6eceaHMx. 

Xopoiuo noMHio Monoaoro CMMnaTHMHoro BeHrpa Mmk- 
noiua Ao6m. Oh 6wn poacTBeHHMKOM HwTBaHa Ao6m. Msaec- 
THoro BeHrepcxoro nonnTMMecxoro aesTenn nocneeoeHHoro 
nepnoaa, xotopwm p«a neT 6bin ripeAceAaTeneM TocyAap- 
CTBeHHoro co6paH«« BeHrepcxoM HapoAHOM Pecny6riMKM. 
Oaho BpeMn MuiTBaH flo6n 6wn rnaBoii BeHrepcxoro npaBM- 
TenbCTBa. HecMOTpn Ha to, mto H. flo6n nonb30Bancn 3h3mm- 
TenbHbiM Bnii^HHe v b cTpaHe, ero poactbchhmx Mmk/iouj 6bin 
apecTOBaH 3a nponaraHAy npoTviB HaMeMaBiueiicn b BeHrpnw 
xonnexTMBM3auMM Ha cenbcxMx exoaax oh HeoaHOxpaTHO 
3anBnnn, mto ace sto aenaeTcn no npwxa3y ms Mockbu. 
MapMOHGTxaMM kotopom flBnnioTcn MaTMauj PaxoujM m Apyrne 
pyxoBoanmne BeHrepcxwe xoMMyHMCTbi. Oh 6wn Bcxope 
apecroBaH areHTypoii coeeTCKnx cneucny»6 b BeHrpun. no- 



4 Cyflb&bl CTOHETH 



11 



nynun 10 neT m oxaaanca b narepe. 3to 6wn oneHb mmjimm, 
cuMnaTMMHbii* MenoBex. 

B narepe 6bino MHoro rMTOBUeB, naTbituen. acroHueB. 
HacTb n3 hmx b roflbi bomhw BCTynnna b paanMHHbie nonnuevi- 
cxn6 m BoeHHbie <popMnpoBaHns cosaanHbie HeMeuxiiMM 
owynauMOHMbiM enacTRMH; apyrwe 6wnn ynacTHMxaMH bktm- 
COB6TCK0TO napTM3aHCxoro aBM)«eHMfl b nocneBOBHHbifl ne- 

PMOfl. - TSK Ha3blBa6MblMM «n6CHblMM 6paTbHMM». COTpyfl- 

HunecTBO onpeaeneHHOri msctm npn6anToa c HeMeuKCHpa- 

UJMCTCKMMM 0KKynanT3MM ABMnOCb npjIMWM C/IBACTBHBM nO- 

nuTMKM penpeccHM M aenopTauMii. npoBoaMBujeMcn cranMHC- 
kmm pewHMOM b fluTBe, faTBun m Sctohmm nocne Hacunb- 
CTBeHHoro BuiKweHMB 3tmx rocyaapcTB B 1940 roay a cocraB 
CCCP. Mrome >«MTenn 6binn paccrpen«Hbi b noaaanax no- 
peM HKBfl b Pure. Bwnbwoce. Kaynace. TannMHHe. flecnTXM 
TbicflM BwcnaHw b Te^eHtie oflHoro numb roaa ao Havana 
BenMKOM OTBMecTBBHHOM BOMHbi 3ro 6binn npeacTaBurenn 
ToopMecKOki HMTonnMreHiiHM, apann. yMMTexiH, wHwenepbi, ro- 
cyaapcTBeHHbie cnymauiMe. cbpiu6hhmkm. Toproenbi m npc- 
MbituneMMMKn, ocpnuepw. xpecTbflHe-xyTopnHe. no cnoeaM 
HaxoflMBiLMxcn BnarepenaTbiuieM. nepBanflenopTauMB 6wna 
14 Mionn 1941 roaa - 3a Meaenio ao Havana bokhm Bwno 
BbicnaH0 1 5 twcam MenoBex. A Bcero no bomhw 6wno penpec- 
cnpoBaHO 35 twchh senoBBK flenopTaunn B03o6HOBnnncb m 
nocne bomhh: 25 MapTa 1 949 roaa 6wno Bwceneno 40 tucrh 
MenoBex, a Bcero, no cnoBaw naTbuueft, penpeccHpoaaHO a 
nocneBOBHHbie ronw 100 twcam. O/jmh mom 3HaxoMbiM nSTMD 
- npo<peccop mctopmm - nocne aenopTaunn oxa3ancfl e 
narepe Oh paccxaawBan. wto tskhx 6bino Tbicnnn Bcero, no 
ero noflcseTaM, no bomhh m b nocneBoeHHbie roflbi 6bino 
penpeccMpoaaHo. exniOMan .aenopTaumo. 135 twcam xtMTe- 
new pecnyonnxw. 

CpeflM aenopTupoBaHHbix Cbino HSMano eepeeB Mom 
xopouiMM 3HaxoMbiA. pnwcKMM eapew Po6epT OeMrenbCOH, 
Bbixoaeu M3 OTHoonenbHO cocTOBTenbHOfl ceMbM. 6bin ape- 
CTOBaM m BbicnaH 3a MBCxonbxo Heaenb ao nanana bomhu 
Ero 3TO cnacno ot yHMMToweHun - bch ceMbfl norwona b roflbi 
oxxynaqMM. 

KoMMyHHcnmecxHM Teppop He Mor He BW3BaTb hohsbm- 
ctm x HeMy b caMbix ujupoxMx xpyrax HaceneHnn. HeyaMBH- 
TenbHo, mto xoraa HeMeuxwe Boncxa b xoHqe mkiha - HBMane 
Mionn 1941 roaa aaxeaTMn* 3HaHMTenbHyio Macn» npn6arTn- 
xm, 6onbuiMHCTBO 66 wHTeneii BocrropKeHHo BCTpeMano HeM- 

UeB C UB6T3MM H CBOHaMM B HMX BMaenH OCB06oaHT6n6M OT 

coBeTCxoro rocnoacTBa. A Beflb na npoTH)xeHMM MHorMx Be- 
xob. c Hawana XIII sexa. H6MUbi yrHeTanMnaTwiucxoe Hacene- 
hm6 CnaMana b cocTaBe ilnaoHCKoro opaeHa. a saTeM b 
KypnnHacxoM repuorcTee. rae HeMeuxvie oapoHbi - xpynHwe 
3eMnea/iaaenbubi wecToxo 3xcnnyaTMpoBann naTbiuJCXMX 
xpecTbflH. TpsanuMOHHO cpe/jM ochobhom Maccw HaceneHMn 

flaTBUM. fl3 M SCTOHMM, CymeCTBOBanM yCTOMHHBbie aHTMHe- 

Meuxne H3CTpo6HM«i Ho danMH caoeA npeciynHOM nonMTM- 
xoti nepenepxHyn mx, m aecfrrxM Twcnn npn6anTOB no shom 
mpohmm cyab6w oxa3anMCb b oanoM BoeHHO-nonMTMMecxoM 
narepe c HeMeuxwMM oxxynaHTaMM. 

K HecvacTbK). cpeflM He6onbiuoM ropcTXM MecrHbix xom- 

MyHMCTOB. Ha XOTOPWX OnHDanMCb C0B6TCKM6 BnaCTM. 6bino 

HexoTopoe mmcho eBpees. riapTMMHbie m coseTcxMe (pyHxuvi- 
OHepbi BBpeiicxoro npoMCxo)«aeHMn 5e*anH BMecre c Kpsc- 
hom ApMHetf. s ocTSBujeMcn M3cce eBpeMcxoro HaceneHMfl 
npvmuiocb xpoBbto pacnnanMBaTbCfl 33 npecTynneHun cts- 
nMHexoro pe>KMMa. kotopum MecmbtMM HauHOHanncTaMn 
accouMMpoBanca c eepenMM, xoth. ksk xodoujo m3B6Ctho. 
MHorne M3 cbmmx nuTOBueB. nsTwiueA h acTOHuea sktmbho 



coTpyaHvmanM c stmm pexcuMOM. B npM63nTMxe 6wno yHMM- 
ToweHO B oemeii cnowHocTM oxono 300 twchm eBpeee. npw- 
mgm He Tonbxo oxxynaHTaMM, ho m mscthmho MecTHbiMH nonM- 

UBMCKMMM (t«PMMP0BaHMBMM y yMaCTHMKOB KOTOpblX UHOrMC 

poacTBeHHMXM m 3HaxoMwe BbinM psccTpensHw Mnn aenopTM- 

pOBaHbl aO BOMHbi 

flocne oxoHMaHMH BotiHbi b npnCanrMxe B03o6Hoawnacb 
nonMTMxa Teppopa Cothk twchh nMTOBueB. nsTbitueM, ac- 
tohubb - no HexoTopbiM oqeHxsM oxono 500 twcsh nenoBex 
- 6WPM aanopTMDOBSHbi ao bomhu m nocne Hee B stmx 
ycxiOBMHx b /1mtb6, naTBMM. 3ctohmm m pasBepHynocb aBM>xe- 
HMe *necHbix 6paTb8B». npoaonixaBiueecfl ennoTb no cepe- 
aMHw 50-x roaoa. CTpeMflCb n36e*aTb flenopiauiiM. twchmm 
xpecTbflH. cryaeHToe, cnywamHx yxoannn b neca m Hawann 
Boopy»eHHyx3 6opb6y npoTMB CTajiMHCxoro pexiMMS OanH M3 
TaxMx «6paTbeB» Haxoa^ncn co mhom b o^hom 6apaxe 3to 
6wn xpecTbAHMH cpeaHMX neT. Subujmm 3a*MT0MHbiM xyTopn- 
hmh; oh Bsnn b pyxM opyxwe m Hecxonbxo neT cpaxancn c 
OTp*maMM MrB. B 1950 roay oh 6wn cxaaneH b 6ok>, ocyj^en 
Ha 25 neT 

•a* 

Xopomo noMHO OMeHb nojxvinoro naTbiiua - Usapa f\H- 
coHa. Ero cyab6a aecbMa npMMenaTenbHa. Eme ao peaonio- 
Umm oh BcrynMn b naTbimcxyw conMan-aeMoxpaTMMecxyio 
paoo^yxj napTMKj, 6wn apecroBaH yapcxviMM anacTHMM, He- 
cxonbxo neT nposen b ccwnxe b CmSmpm Orryaa 6e)xan sa 
rpaHMuy. BCTpesancn c fleHMHbiM. Koraa HeMeuxMe Boiicxa b 
xoae nepBOii MMpoeoii bohhu oxxynnpoBann flaTBHK). oh 6wn 
CHoea apecroBaH. nocne npoBoarnauieHMfl h633bmchmocth 
HaTBHM 18 Honrjpn 1918 roaa HBap Ahcoh npuHMMsn cavioe 
axTMBHoe y^acTMe b nonMTMHecxoti ixtiSHu CTpaHbi Obho 
apeMn 6bin aenyraTOM cefiMa ot couMan-AOMOxpaTMwecKOM 
napTMM B Mae 1934 roaa nuaep «KpecTbBHCxoro coi03a» 
Kapn ynbMaHMC coBepuiMn b CTpaHe rocyaapcTBeHHbm nepe- 

BOpOT. H HBBP flHCOH BHOBb, BTeSBHMe HeXOTODOrO BP6M6HM. 

oxasancn b aaxjiKweHMM. a xoraa b 1940 roay HaTBMH 6una 
BxnioweHa a cocraB CoBeTCxoro Coxisa, 6un apecroBaH xax 
axTMBHW^i aBsrenb couMsn-AeMoxpaTHHecxoro aeMwenMn 
nocne oxxynauMM hbmusmm flaTBUM 6bin ocBo6o»aeH. ho 
Bcxope onsTb apecroBaH, na 3tot pa3, homcukmmm enacTBMM 
m ontiTb X3K sxTHBHbm coijMan-aeMoxpaT Hecxonbxo neT 
nposen b xoHunsrepe. Koraa coBeTcon anacTb BepHynacb b 
flaTBHK), eme pa3 oxa3ancn b TwpbMe: 6wn npMroBopeH k 10 
roaaM 3axniOMeHMR Mu c hmm pa6oTariM o oahom 6pMraae no 
oxopxeapeBecMHw B l952ronyeMy 6wnonpMMepHo80neT 

B oaHOM M3 nepecwnbHbix Tropew n no3HaxoMnnc« c 

M3BeCTHblM BBpeMCKMM noOTOM M0MC€eM ConOMOHOBMHeM 

TeficpoM, ypo*6HueM Mmhcks. Ero poaHwe m 6nM3XMe norM6- 
nw b mmhcxom reTTo npocMaee a 30-e roaw Hecxonbxo neT a 

CTanMHCXOM TKJpbMB no BWMblllineHHOMy 06BHH6HMK). OH C 

nepBbix flneii bomhw yiuen hs (Jjooht. npoiuen pnaosbiM ot 
MocxBbi ao BepnMHS. 3to 6bin rnySoxo nMpMnecxMM noaT. B 
xsxcaoM ero CTMxoTsopeHMM, noHTM bo ecex nosMsx m Sanns- 
aax npHcyTCTBOBan oh cbm, ero cyabSa, cyAbfja ero noxone- 

HMfl. 

K coxaneHMK), mm Heaonro npo6binM BMecre. B 1955 
roay, xoraa h yjxe B03BpaTMncfl b Mocxey, b KBapTMpy. xoto- 
pyxj Mbi Toras BpeMeHHo 3aHMMann, kto-to nocTyHan. Ha 
nopore crofln M3MyM6HHbiM HeGpMTwM nenoBex. oacTbiM b 
noTpenaHHyx> narepHyx) oae>«ay. 3to 6wn M. C. TeikJ). Tonb- 
XO MTO BepHyBLUMMCfl H3 3axilKMeHMB, M npHMO c Box3ana, 
y3Hae sepe3 aapecHbiH cron mom aapec. flBtmcn x hsm Mbi 
npusenn ero b nopsaox. HaxopMM/iM, aann oaeMay. noMornn 

C fl6Hbr3MM. . J1 C HMM nOTOM M3CT0 BMaenCfl. Co BpeMeHBM 

oh npviiiien b ce6fl. BHOBb 333ByNan ero nosTMMecxnM ronoc, 



71 



CYAb&bl CTOJIETNH 



5wnn M3AaHbi ero khutm «Pyxono*aTne» n «H36paHHoe». 
OflHa n3 3thx khmt c APy*ecKoii HaAnMCbio ao cnx nop x panm- 
cn y mbhr. M. C. TeAtp cxoponocTMWHO cxoHMancfl b MocKse 
s 1966 rofl/. Ero naMsmi «JlMTepaTypHan raaeTa* nocaaTuna 

CTaTbM. 

B Bshmho n ro3H3KOMnncn c oahmm OWBLJMM nOHKOBHH- 

KOM KpaCHOM ApMMM, Q>aMHnMK> KOTOpOrO TOMHO He nOMHK). 

3eann ero Hnxonan HBaMOBUM. Bo BpeM« bomhisi om 6b<n 
rnweno paneH, noTepnn co3naHne n OMHyncn ywe b HeMeu- 
kom nneHy. CnycTS HeKOTopoe BpeMn Huxonan MsaHOBUM 
oxa3ancn b OKpyxeHMM reHepana A. A. BnacoBa. TaM oh 
no3HaKOMHficn c )KypHanncTOM MeneTMOM 3biKOBbiM. no cno- 
aaM nonKOBHMKa, bmammo. eBpeeM BcKope oh TanHCTeeHHO 
ncMe3. rioTOM BUfiCHHnocb, mto oh 6bin cxBaMeH redano m 
paccTpennH. Mepea MHoro neT » y3Han, mto BfleMCTBureribHO- 
ctm 3T0 6bin Ueaapb CaMoiinoBuw Bonbne. pa6oTaBuiHM b 
CBoe BpeMfl c H. H. ByxapMHUM, a 6biTHOCTb nocneAHero 

OTBeTCTBeHHblM peflaKTOpOM ra3eTU «H38eCTMM». 

06ujeHne c HuxonaeM ^BaHoenMeM m HexOTopbiMn Apy- 

'MMH VMaCTHMKaMH BnaCOBCXOrO ABMXCeHMH H3MeHMnn MOe 

npeacrraBneHMe o hom. Mhb da/io scho. mto ero Hejib3$i 
OAHOCTopoHHe TpaicroBaTb K3K MCKniOHMTenbHo npoHeMeu- 
Koe. Cpe,an ero yMacmMxoB 6 bin a Hewanan ^acTb MAenHbix 
npornBHMKOB CTariMHCKoro pe*nMa. CTpeMMBiUHXcn ncnorib- 
30B3Tb HeMueB b cbohx nonMTMHecKMX uennx. 

HecKonbKO neT Ha3aA » no3HaKOMnncs c n3aecTHbiM 
MaHMcfcecroM KoMHreTa ocBo6ox<aeHMn HapoAoe Poccmm 
(KOHP), npuHHTOM b ripare 14 Hon6pn 1944 roAa. KcraTM, 
HMKaKnx cneaoB aHTnceMmn3Ma b hcm hot, xots rumepoBc- 
*ne BnacTH, nax roBopun mhg HwKonaii UsaHOBim. HeoAHOK- 
paTHO Tpe6oBarin ot reHepana BnacoBa, mto6w oh caenan 
aHTuceMHTCKMe 3anBneHnn. ho Hen36ex<H0 nonyManvi peww- 

Te/lbHblM OTflOp OCHOBHbIM HflpOM M3HH0eCTa HBUHHCb 14 

nyHKTOB. b KOTopwx roBopunocb o paBeHCTBe acex HapoAOB 
Poccuh, mx npaee Ha caMoonpeAeneHne, Heo6xofluMocTw 
nviKBMflauHH Konxo3HorocTpoH, ycrraHOBneHMM MacTHon co6- 
CTBeHHOCTn, ocBo6o>KAeHHM nonMTHsecKMx yaHMKOB 6onbiue- 
BH3wa, BBeaeHnn cao6oAb< pennrmi. coBecTH, cnoBa co6pa- 
hmm, nenaTM... B MaHno>ecTe coAepx<anwcb Tpe6oB3Hn« ra- 
paHTMM HenpWCOCHOBeHHOCTM nWMHOCTM, MMymecTBa II )Knnn- 
iya npoBoarnauianocb paBeHCTso ecex nepeA 3axoHOM, ho- 
3aBncMM0CTb m rnacHOCTb cyAa M T.A- 

Mto >Ke xacaeTcs ysacrrnfl coTeH twcam 6wbujmx coBeTc- 
khx BoennonncHHbix b paaniiMHbix aoeHHbix cpopMHpoBaHunx, 
C03AaHHbix HeMeuxMMH Bnacm wn . to rnaBHbiM buhobhuk stoh 
TpareAHM - crannHCKMM pex<MM, 6pocmbujmm Ha npowsaon 
cyabGbi 3thx BoeHHonneHHbix m oTKasaswHMCfl 3amniAaTb nx 
ipaaa h HMTepecbi. BonpeKM bcbm MewAyHapoAHbiM KOHB6H- 
uhhm Cbirpano cboio ponb n to. mto eiye CBe*n 6binn b 
naMHTu n cTpaiuHwe nocjieACTBnn roriOAa b 1932-1934 roAax 
b pe3ynbTaTe MacunbCTBeHHOii KonneKruBHsaunn. cTOHsiuevi 
«h3hm MurnnoHaM xpecrbflH. vt MaccoBbie penpeccnn KOHua 
30-x roaoB. 

Co mhom 8 OAHOft 6pnrafle Ha neconosane pa6oian 
MonoAOM napeHb us BonoroflHMHbi. EropoAMTenn c ManoneT- 
hmmm ABTbMM - eMy TorAa 6wno neT 1 2 - 6wnM pacxynaMeHbi 
h cocnaHw Ha Amatf, rAe Bcxope cKOHManncb. CaM oh, sepe3 
HecKoribxo Aneii nocne Havana bomhw 6wn Mo6nnn3osaH. 
nonan b nneH noA CMonencxoM a 1941 roAy. noMemeH b 
neMeuKUM KOHunarepb. Me BbiAepxoa HyAOBMiUHbix ycnoBMiii 
KOHunarepR, oh cornacnncn BCTynHTb b oaho BcnoMoraTerib- 
Hoe BoeHHoe cpopMnpoBaHne. cosaaHnoe HeMuaMM. Tax oh 
CTart «BnacoBueM» m nocne bomhw nonynnn 25 neT. Kax 3to 
hh 3ByHMT napaAOxcanbHO, MCTMHHbiM co3AaTeneM BnacoBC- 



xoro ABM>KeHMfl 6bin He reHepan A. A. Bnacoa, a mmchho 
CTanMH, 6pocnBUJMki Ha npon3Bon cyAb6bi MMnnnoHbi cobbt- 
ckmx BoeHHonneHHbix 

Tparvmecxn cnox<Mnacb >KM3Hb coBeTcxoro BoeHHonneH- 
Horo Cepreti Bopo6beea. MonoAoro nHTennnreHTHoro napHfl, 
pa6oTaBiuero ao bomhu yHtrreneM. Oh T$»xeno paHBHUM 
nonan e nneH k HeMuaM Ha CeBepHOM cppoHTe, Hecxonbxo 
neT coAep^cancR a xoHunarepe a HopBertiH. HaxaHyHe Kann- 
TynflUMM TepMaHMM oh c 6onbiuow rpynnovi coBeTcxnx BoeH- 
HonneHHbix 5ewan us KOHunareps m oxa3ancn Ha TeopnTopnn 
UJBeuMM LUBeacKne enacTvi coopannecex 6ewaBLUMx unoMe- 
OTnnn hx b narepb HOAanexo ot CToxrontMa. Cepreii paccxa- 
3WBan. mto 3to 6bin He narepb a o6wmhom cMwcne 3Toro 
cnoBa, a xopounw naHCMOHaT, c KOMHaTaMM Ha abohx. Hx 
xopomo KopMMnn. aann oAextAy m o6yBb, yroeapuBanM oc- 
TaTbCfl a lilseuHn OAHaxo scxope b narepe noflBunncb co- 
TpyAHMKH coBeTcxoro noconbCTBa b UJaeunn n npeacTasnTe- 
nn H KBfl. KOTopbie CTa/iM y6ex<AaTb 6biBwnx cobctckhx BoeH- 
HonneHHbix B03BpaTHTbcn Ha DOflnHy. o6emaB «nonHoe npo- 
oieHne BHHbi» 3a to. mto nonann b nneH n noMoiub b ycTpow- 
ctbb *m3hm b CoBeTCKOM Coiose. HeKOTopwe 0TKa3ariMCb 
BepHyTbcn w nonpocTy c6ex<anM us naHCMOHaTa. onacancb 
6biTb cxBaMeHHbiMH areHTypow HKBfl 

y Cepren Bopo6beBa 6wna b Poccmm MonoAas xpacn- 
aan xteHa. ManeHbKviPi pe6eHox, m oh. noBepMB cnosaM coBeT- 
ckmx npeACTaBkiTeneM, Aan cornacne BosepaTHTbCw b CoBeT- 
ckmm C0103. Ho aomoh oh He nonan. a oxaaancn a cbunbTpa- 
uhohhom narepe; npo6wn tbm 3 Mecnua, a 33TeM 6wn ocyx<- 
A6h «3a M3M6Hy PoAMHe» Ha 25 neT. EMy yAanocb cnncaTbcti 
cmeHOM, KOTopan ece apeMS ero >«Aana. Mw c hum npoOwnM 
b oflHOki 6pnraAe Ha neconoeane npuMepHo tph Mecnua 
neTOM 1952 roAa. Ho scxope npon3oujno HecMacTbe. Bo 
apeMA pyQxH Aepeebes Ha Cepres CBannncn orpoMHbiH CTBon 
m pa3Aa8nn ero. K ero noraw npMKpennnn 6npKy h Mepe3 ABMb 
noxopoHMnn Ha KnaA6nme. xoTopoe 6bino B6nn3n narepn. 
Huxaxnx xpecTOB Ha Mornnax hb 6w/io: ctowim nnuib narixn c 
yKaaaHHCM xowepa 6apaxa. fl npoeoAnn ero b nocneAHnw 
nyTb ao BaxTw. - Tpyn sesnn Ha noABoae. flanbiue mohh ho 
nycntnH, HecMOTps Ha Bee mom npocb6bi. rioflBOAy conpo- 
BOxcAanw Aea BoopyoxeHHbix oxpaHHMxa, - om6bmaho, 6o«- 
nucb, mto c6ex<nT... Taxwx mctopum a narepe 6wno HeMano. 
Xopoiuo noMHio no^nnoro Menoaexa no hmchm BnioMeHTanb. 
norn6ujero ot nepnTOHUTa - HMKaxoM MeA^UUHCKOM noMomM 
eMy OKasano He 6bino, - xoth Bpan. io*e narepHMK, roBopun 
HaManbHHxy noApasAeneHMn. mto 6onbHoro mojxho CfWCTM. 
Ho HaManbHMx - « 6wn CBMAeTeneM 3Toro pasroBopa - 
OTxpoBeHHO cxasan: «Kaxan c BnioMeHTann nonb3a - CTa- 
puM Menoaex. Ha neconoBaiie nnoxo pa6oTaeT. oahmm »m- 
AOM 6yaeT M6HbUJe». 

Mi 

B narepe cpean momx sHaxoMux oxa3ancn Menosex 
cpeAHnx nei. Ha3biaaBUJMM ce6n TeoprMeM HuxonaeBbiM. Oh 
roBopun, mto pa6oTan nocne bomhw b peAaxunn oahom ms 
3MnrpaHTcxnx pyccxMx ra3eT b (lapuwe. a b 1 947 roay 6wn 
noxMoteH areHTaMH MrB, ornymeH h aocTaeneH a /lecpopToa- 
cxyio TiopbMy b Mocxse. Oh 6un MonManuB. flep*ancn oco6- 
hrkom, onacancb cryxaMeM. ho nocTeneHHO cTaHOBMncn ece 
6onee pa3ro8opMMBbiM m OAHawAbi, xoraa mm CwnM babocm 
Ha neconosane, Hecxonbxo OTcrraB ot ochobhom Maccbi 3ax- 
niOMeHHbix. paccxa3an MHe cbom mctopmm. Ot Hero n anepBwe 
y3Han o cymecTBoeaHMM 3a py6e)K0M aHTMCTanMHCXOK 3Mwr- 
paHTcxoii opraHH3aunn «HapoAHO-TpyAOBOM Cok>3» (HTC). 
TeoprMM HnKonaeB poAMncs b BenrpaAe, xyAa nocne peBO- 
nioijMM 3MnrpMpoBann ero poAMTenn - TunnMHbie pyccKne 
nHTennnreHTw. Otbu ao 1918 rofla npenoAaaan mctopmio b 



4 CYAbbbl CTOJIETM 



71 



oahom M3 KneBCKnx rMMHa3MM, MaTb npHHUMana yMacTue B 
SnaroTBopnTenbHOM flemenbHOCTM. reopniM saxoHMnn pyc- 
CKyio rnMHasHK) b Benrpafle. a 3aieM m lopnanwecKMii 4>axynb- 
TeT MecTHoro yHMBepcMTBTa. 

B Hawa/ie 30-x roAOB oh BcrynaeT b HTC. nocemaeT ero 
Kypcbi. cjiymaeT nexuMM no hctophu Poccmm m mctopmm oopb- 
6m c 6onbujeBn3MOM, o cobbtckom ABMCTBMTenbHOCTM, aa- 
naflHOwceMOKpaTHn n paanMMHwx BapnaHTax 4>aiun3Ma. H3y- 
naeT pyccxyio cpunococpnio, 3anaflHbie nonnTuwecxHe too- 

pHM, petpOpMbl <DpaHKJ1MH3 fl Py3BenbT3. npMHMMaeT 3K7HB- 

Hoe yuacTue b ccjaHwn «Komht6tob cofleMCTBno» HTC b 
Benrpaae. JltoSnune a Taxxe b napnwe n floHAOHB- Dosyw- 
roM HTC 6wno: «3a Poccwo 6e3 HBMueB m 6onbiueBMKOB». 
Koraa Hananacb BOMHa, ochobhwb kbapw HTC yCTpeMM- 
nwcb Ma OKKynMpoBaHHbie HeMqaMw reppHTopwH CoaeTCKoro 
CoK>3a. MHorne M3 hmx, b tom nncne m TeoprviM HuronaeB, 
crpeMnnHCb npoHMKHyTb b co3AaHHyio oxxynaHTaMM rpax<- 
aaHCKyio aflMUHncipaunio. saHMMascb ycTpoMCTBOM 6ex<eH- 
ueB dan* cosaaBaTbco rpynnbi HTC B oxxynMpoBaHHbix 
ropoaax. OflHa M3 tskmx rpynn 6bina opraHH3oaaHa b MuHcxe. 
FeopruM HnKonaeBM4 xopoiuo noMHMn mmhcxoo rerro, cra- 

pa/ICR HOMOHb 3aK/1IOMeHHblM B H6M eBpenM, BblBe3TH mx 3a 

npeaenbi ropoaa Bo BpeMn oahom us tskhx nonuTox oh 6b»n 
apecToeaH recrano m HecxonbKO Mecmjea npocvuien b Mmh- 
ckom nopbMe. OTxyna BMy xaxMM-To o6paaoM - tohho hb 
noMHra - yaa/iocb oaxoTb Ho BCKope oh 6bm cnoBa cxaaMen 
recrano m ornpasreH e narepb Tpocc Posghb. orxyfla 6wn 
ocao6ox<aeH nocne pasrpoMa HauMcroB. Bo3Bpau)aTbcn b 
KDrocnaBMK). tab y B/iacru oxa3anMCb xoMMyHMcrbi, 6wno 
mcwuombho. m oh. noc/iB mhotmx MbuapcTB, 0K83ancn b PlapM- 
we. rfle m cTan coTpyAHMMSTb b oahom pyccxoM raaaTe. nncan 
aKTMCTanHHCKwe craTbM. bchhbckm cTpeMnncs aoxaaaTb, mo 
o6bmhbhmh cobbtckom nponaraHAbi b coTpyaHmecTBe HTC c 
HeMLtaMH hh Ha M8M peanbHO hb 6t>inn ocHosaHbi. H bot b 
1947 ro/iy oh 6bir apecroaan areHTypow MTE a riapuwe 

(0H6BHAH0, 3TO 6bUlM MBCTHbie KOMMyHUCTbl) M AOCTaBHBH B 

Mocxsy. HpuroBopeH k 25 roaaM saxAiOMBHWH. Pi c hum MHoro 
o6wanc». ysHaean secbMa HHTepecHbie Ann Menu caeAeHns 
06 MCTopMM cosAaHMfl h fle»TenbHOCTM HTC Kax m3B8Ctho. 
nocns naABHMH KOMMyHMCTMMecKoro pe*HMa ABHTenbHOCTb 
HTC 6bina nerann30BaHa b Pocchh. B Mockbb MSAaeTcn 
wcypHan <nocee», buxoaxt XMiim no hctophh aHTHOonbLue- 
BHCTcxoro conpoTMBneHMfl b Poccmm 

Mos MaTb, Tox<e penpeccMpoBaHHafl. aonroe bpbmb cm- 
Aena e TiopbMe, b oamhomkb, m noaTOMy xpyr ee nopoMMbix 
3HaxoMwx 6un aosonbHO y30K. Ho oamh cnyMavi Bpeaancn b 

naMBTb. 

B 1958 roAy neroM b Hawy KBapTMpy kto-to do6ko 
nocTyMan, f\ OTKpwn Aaepb. Ha nopore crofuia nownnas 
weHiAMHa b KaxoM-TO CMHeM xanaie BpocMnocb b ma3a mto 
Ha Horax 6binn He Ty4)nM. a TanonxM. Ona cnpocnna y mbhh, 
npo*MBaeT nn 3Aecb aoxrop BMiaopoBa? B stot mombht b 
kopmaop Bbnuna Man>. Hecxonbxo cexyHA ohm Monsa CMOTpe- 
/im Apyr Ha APyra. a 3aieM 6pocMnMCb b o6bnTMfl... 3to 6bina 
Hmh3 AnexcaHflpoBHa 06oneHcxan, c kotodom MaTb oaho 
BpeMti CHAena b oahom xaMepe Ha Jly6nHKe. CoTpyAHMua 
oflHOM pyccKoii ra3eTw, BwxoflMBujeM b riapMwe nocne bom- 
Hbi. ona b Hanane 1948 roaa npnexana a xaMecTBe xoppec- 
noHAeHTa b ripary Bcxope OHa, cppaHuy3CxaH rpa«AaHKa, 
6una cxaaneHa areHraMM MrB hb oahom M3 ynwq ropoAa, 
ornyuieHa m AocTaeneHa e MocxBy. HecxonbKO neT npoaena 
Ha /ly5BHKe. a 33T6M, nonyMMB 6onbUJOM cpox, 5bina OTnpaa- 
neHa b narepb. riocne ocBOOOxcAeHMn en Aa/iM 6MneT Ha 
noeaa MocKBa-napM)K m He5onbujyio cyMMy ABHer. HnxaxMx 
3HaxoMbix y hoo a Mockb© He 6bino m. yaHae b aApecHOM 



done aapec MaTepM, ona npmuna k HaM. Mm btpobm OTnpa- 
BMriMCb b BnMxoMUJMM Mara3MH, xynwnM en npMTWHHoe nna- 
Tbe. TycpnM. Hecxonbxo Hacos ona npoBena y Hac- BenepoM 
OHa ye3xtana b napM*. Mw B3nnM Taxcw m npoeoAwiM ee Ha 
BenopyccxMM eoxaa/i. no aopore Ha aotaan ona nonpocM/ia 
Hac ocTaHOBMTbcn B oahom apSaTCxoM nepeyn«e . tab b 6onb- 
ujom crapMHHOM AOMe ona »nna ao 1918 roaa. kotas etue 
MonoAOM ABByujxoM BMecTe c poAHTexinMM BbiHywaeHa 6bina 
noxMHyTb MocxBy m 6ex«Tb M3 Poccmm Mw nocTonnn He- 
cxonbxo MMHyr. Hmhs AnexcaHApoBHa npocne3Mnacb. Hepe3 
Hecxonbxo MMHyT mw 6wnM Ha BOK3ane. Bonbuie o ee cyAb6e 
mho HMHero HeM3BecTHo. 

B narepe 6uno HBMano moABM. xoropbie bo bobmo 
oxxynauMM paooTanM BpanaMM a 6onbHMyax, MHwenepoB m 
npocTwx paooHMx. TpyAMBUjMXCH Ha npeanpMBTMHx, 3aHRTbix 
o6cnyx<MBaHM6M MecTHoro HaceneHMn. Xopoiuo noMHto apa- 
sa BnaAHMMpa QaBWAOBa. apecroBaHHoro TonbKO sa to. hto 

B OAHOM M3 OKKyriMpOBaHHblX TOpOAOB 6bin 3aBeflyHDlHMM 
OTAenBHMBM B SonbHMUB, TAB HaXOAMflMCb B HMCJ16 npOHMX 

6onbHbix m rpawAaHcxMe riMua nocrrpaAaBUJMe e xoab BoeH- 

HWX A6MCTBMM. KpOMB TOTO, OH yKpblBBn B 60nbHML46 M paH6- 

Hbix conaaT KpacHoPi ApMMH, Bbiqasap mx sa MOCTHbix wnTe- 
neM. 

B ueHTpanbHOM Myx<cxOM 6oribHMue B«Tnara HananbHM- 
xom 6bin BnaAHMMp flxoenesMM YHpy. homou no HauMOHanb- 
hocth, cocnaHHbiM BMecrre c ceMben a toaw bomhw b Kupoa- 
CKyioo6nacTb 6es npaBa noxMAaTb Mecro BbicwnKM. )Kwn oh 
33 npeAenaMM narepHOM 30Hbi. 3to 6wn MCxnioHHTenbHO 
6naropoAHbiM m MywecrBBHHbiM Manosex. Bpan-ryMaHncT b 
nonHOM CMbicne aroro cnoBa. Bmbcto co caoeM x<eHOM Ene- 
hom Ammtpmbbhom JlyroBOM, 3aBeAyioiA6M nafJopaTopMeM 
6onbHMUbi, B. 9\ YHpy cTapancs o6ne™MTb Tq*enyK) yMacrb 
33KnK)HeHHbix. Kax moxiho AonbUJB npoABpwaTb MX B 6onbHM- 
ue, tab ohm Mornn HGMHoro npMMTM e ce6o m Ha6paTbcn cur 
BnaaMMupy flxoeneBMHy npMXOAH/iocb pa6oTaTb b TpyAHtax 
ycnoBMRx. Bee speMA naxoAflCb hoa Ha6nK>AeHMeM narepHO- 
ro HaHBJibCTBa. y3HaB. mto n M3 BpanaQHOM CBMbM. oh CAenan 
ace 803Mox<Hoe, MTo6bi npoAnMTb mob npe6biBaHne b 6onb- 
hmub nocne cmbptm CTanMHS ceMbfl Ynpy noKMHyna Kmdob- 
cxyio o6nacTb m nocsnMnacb Ha YxpaMHe b ropoAB CyMbi. Mu 
HaiunM APyr Apyra m Ha npoTHxeHMM mhotmx nsT napenMCbisa- 
nucb. B. 9\. yHpy npoAonman pa6oTaTb BpaMOM, oAHOBpe- 
MeHHo 3aHMMascb posucKOM cneAOB AexaBpMCToe na CyM- 
lUMHe. 3to 6wno ero «xo66m». B xOHqe 80-x toaob oh ckoh- 
sancH. Taxne nwA". xax oh onMUBTBopnnM cooom nyviiiiMe 
ryMaHMCTMMecKMB TpaAMLjMM pyccxoM MeAMUMHbi. MAyujue ot 
3HaM9HMToro MocxoBCxoro TKipeMHoro spa^a ©BAopa FIbt- 
poBMMa Taa3a. riaMjrrM B. fl. YHpy a nocsnTMn cTaTbio, ony6- 
nMKOBaHHyio B napMJtccxoM «PyccxoM MwcnM* b M»He 1990 
roaa. 

FlopoM npMXOAMTcn cnbiiuaTb. hto penpsccMSM noABep- 
ranncb nniub napTMMHwe m BoeHHwe xaApw, MHTennMreHUMfl, 
a npocToro HapoAa ohm hb xocHynMCb. 3to rny6cwaMujee 
3a6nyx<AeHMe B narepe. a xotodom a CMAen. b Macce cbogm 

33KAKNBHHUMM 6bVlM 06blMHbl6 COBeTCXMB rpBJKAaHB - pa&O- 

HMe. MMxceHepbi. xpecTbHHe. cny)KamMe 06meHMe c hmmm 
MMeno Ann mohji xax MCTopMxa Baxcnoe noaHasaienbHoe 
3Hawenue fl yanan mhoto MHTepecwbix niOAeM, pacoiwpnr 
cbom npeACTaBneHMH no MHTepecoaaBiuMM Menu nonMTMMec- 
kmm BonpocaM, nonyMMn oneHb aawHyK) m p33Hoo6pa3Hyx) 
MHU>opMai4MK3. xoTopas yTBepAMna mbhh b MwcriM, mto bcs 
MCTopMn KOMMyHMCTHMBCxoro pexcMMa - 3to 6ecnpepb«BHaji 
penpeccMBHan 5opb6a npoTMB co6cTBeHHoro napoaa 

MocKoa 



4 CYAbbbl CTOAETNfl 




ne0opmoecKan rmopbua - «ynueepcumembi» Jftroea Omumapa 



Buktop CHklTKOBCKHtf 

H3 CTaTbH 

«C HErO HAHHHAETCH POAMHA» 

C Akobom flKoeneBMMeM 3-rnHrepoM n no3HaK0MMncn 
b 1988 rooy c nepBbix AHeii cosAaHwn «MeMopnana» 
BbicoKOKBann0nunpoBaHHbiki yneHbitf MHOro Cflenan ans 
BbincHeHun m o6HapoAOBaHMH npecTynneHMM KOMMyHMCTM- 
MecKoro pe>KMMa. Ho mto. Ha mom MnMyg, He MeHee BaiKHO 

- OH npMBM/1 BblCOKyiO Ky/lbTypy CepbB3HOrO OTHOWeHKfl K 

M3yMeHnio cobbtckom MCTopwn n npoBepKe qbaKTonorMHec- 
Koro MaTepuana MHorMM MeMopnanbqaM 3HaKOMCTBO c 
hum b MocKBe 6bino A^i" MeHH B 

owbUMaapoM. rioHHTHO, HacranbKO paaocTHOfl 6wna 
Ann MeHH HeflaBHflti noe3Axa 8 Hbio-fiopK Ann BCTpenM c 
Hkobom HKOBneBn^eM, rocTMBWMM y cbomx 6nn3Knx. 

To, hto Bwnano Ha aonw sToro nenoBexa, aa*e pac- 
CK33biBaTb TpyflHO. OTeq $1. fl. STMHrepa - npotpeccop- 
Kapflnonor Jla3apb flKosneBMH CMTepMaH npoxcnn Heflonro. 
B «EBpeMCKOii3Hi<MKnoneflHM», BbinyneHHOMB 1997 roAy b 
MocKBe, yKa3aHbiroflbiero)KM3HM: 1894, Moawpb Mhhckom 
ry6. - 1941, Mmhck. fl 6bi HecKonbKO yrWHvin: He npocTO 
Mmhck, a eBpei&CKoe rerro b Mmhckb. Mmbhho b rerro 
(paujHCTbi y6nnn IL 9\. CmepMaHa m era weny. Hoc/ie 
CMepTM poAMTenew Huia (no MeTpMxe Hkob JlasapesnH 
CnTepMaH) cyMen 6e>naTb M3 rerro. Mojkho tim npeACTa- 
BMTb, hto npniunocb nepewuTb MartbMHKy b Te roAbi, KorAa 
oh CKpbiBancn ot HeMLieB m mx npwcnywHHKOB? 

nocne bomhw ero ycuHOBMHM MSBeCTHbiH npoqteccop- 
KapAnonor Rrm runflpweBUM STMHrep m ero weHa PeBeKKa 
KoHCTanTMHOBHa. TaK Skob Da3apeBMH CnTepMaH cran 
Hkobom flKOBneBMneM STMHrepoM, npneMHbiM cwhom 
«KpeMneBCKoro» Bpana co BceMM conyTCTByKjujuMM booc- 
neACTBun HecxacTbfiMM. flwy 3TMHrepa apecTOBa/iM nyTb 
paHbiue npweMHoro OTua. ripo(peccop STMHrep 6bin apec- 
T0B3H nepBbiM M3«KpeMneBCKnx» BpaneM. emeAononBne- 
hmb TaccoBCKoro coo6meHnn ot 18 HOfl6pn 1950 roAa. 
HywHO OTMeTMTb. 4to npoo>eccop fl. I" STUHrep 6bin asbho 
noA KornaKOM HKBfl- MI"E. Oh neMMn Knpoaa, Opajkohm- 



KKA3e, BunbrenbMa rinxa, Teoprun HuMMTposa m t. a. Kax 
OKa3anocb. b KBapTupe ctoh/i «*cyHOK» pfw noAcnyuiMBa- 

HMfl. fl03T0My 9\. T STMHrepy BnOPHB «06oCH0BaHHO» MHK- 

pMMMHMpoBanw «wieBeTHHMecKne n3MwujneHnsi» b aApec 
CTannHa, cpaBHeHne oranHHCKoro pe>KMMa c ruTnepoBC- 
khm, ocy*AeHne «6opb6w npoTMB KocMononnTM3Ma», xpM- 
Tuxy aicaAeMMKa JIuceHKo m yTBepj^qeHMe, mto npoueccbi 
30-x roAOB b CCCP m 40-x b BOCTOHHoeaponeiiCKMx cTpaHax 
6binn c0a6pMKOBaHw. Hy KaK ryT 6wno He Ao6asnTb «Ma- 
nocTb» - coTpyAHimecTBO c «A>komhtom)». npo0eccopa, 
cTpaAaramero rpyAHOM >Ka6oM, aeepcKM M36nBarn, nwTa- 
flCbuoonTbCfl npn3HaHnii b corpyaHnMecTBe c «A>komhtom» 
m t. n. B Hanane 1951 roaa ero 3a6nnn HacMepTb. 

Tax CTannHcxan pa3H0BMAH0CTb cpaujusMa CTana npM- 
HMHOii onepeAHOro HeoiacTbH fliun 3THHrepa — CTyAewa 
MCTopuMecxoro cpaxynbTeTa Mry. BiAtone 1951 roAa apec- 
TOBann ero npneMHyioMaTb. KcHacTbK), Wiua m ero npneM- 
Han MaTb Bw*nnn n b 1954 roAy Bbiiunn Ha Bonio. coBeTC- 
Ky» «Bonio». ?1kob HKoeneBHM STMHrep 3axoHHnn Mry m 
CTan AOKropoM MCTopnMecKMx Hayx b o6na<rrn a<t>pnKaHnc- 
tmxm. B AqbpMKy. OAHaxo, xax m 8 Apyrvie crpaHbi eBpen 
STMHrepa, seAyiAero cnenManncTa CoBeTcxoro CoK53a no 
npo6neMaMA(>pMKM.aBTopaMHorMXKHnr Henycxa/iM.aHe 
enyujan Aosepnn*. 

Pa3o6paTbcn c hctokhmh «nena BpaMePi» crrano ana 
ObiBuiero nonnT33Ka HacTOflTeribHOM 3aAaMe(i. B 1970 roay 
eMy yaanocb BCTpeniTbcn HecxonbKO pas c 6bie ujhm rna bom 
coBeTcxoro npaBmenbCTBa, hoohom nonviTSiopo UK KflCC 
H BynraHMHbiM n BwcnyiuaTb ero mhohmb o «Aene Bpa- 
HeM». Bot cnoBa BynraHMHa b nepecxa3e fl. R. 3TMHrepa: 

«B 1970 roAy B HecxonbKO pa3 oeceAoaan c HuxonaeM 
BynraHMHbiM. Oh paccxa3an UNO, mto npouecc HaA Bpana- 
mm, KOTopwii HaMenancfl Ha cepeAHHy MapTa 1953 rofla, 
AonweH 6bin 3aBepujMTbcn BWHeceHMeM cMepTHwx npnro- 
bopob. ripocpeccopoB npeAnonaranocb ny6nMMHO noBe- 
cnTb Ha ueHTpanbHbix nnomaAnx b MocxBe. MnHcxe, Jle- 
HMHrpaAe, KHeee, CBepAnoBCKe m b APy"nx ropoAax. ripw- 
MeM 6binacocTaBneHa«pa3HapnAKa», rne6bino3anncaHo. 
b xaxoM ropoAe 6yAeT xa3HeH tot wnn mhom npoqbeccop. 
BynraHMH noATBepAMn, hto AertcTBMTe/ibHO HaMenanacb 
MaccoBan AenopTaunn eBpeeB b Cn6npb n Ha flanbHMtf 
Boctok. BynraHMH, kotopmm TorAa 6bin mmhmctpom o6opo- 
Hw. nonynun ycTHoe yxa3aHne ot CTannHa noAorHaTb k 
Mock86 m APyruM KpynHenujHM qeHTpaM CTpaHu Hecxonbra 

COTBH BOeHHblX >K/A 3UJenOHOB A^« OpraHH3aUHH BblCbinKM 

eepeeB. Tai0KennaHHpoBa/iocbopraHM3OBaTb «Kp/oieHns» 
nacTn 3thx siuenoHOB m «cTMXMiiHbie» HanaAeHMn Ha hux 
«HaceneHnn». rnaBHbiMMopraHM3aTopaMM«AenaBpaHeiii)» 
6binn CTannH. ManeHKOB, Cycnos. MacTb axTHBHbix opra- 
HM3aTopoB 3Toro npecrynneHHn BynraHMH 0TKa3ancs Ha- 
3BaTb, ho cxa3an, hto ohm hwhs (1970 r. ) b HMcne pyxoao- 
AHTeneMCTpaHw» 

JIcho. hto «3anMcxa» JImaum TuMatuyx, kctbtm, Aonro 
nponoKaBiuan y hcxmctob 6e3 ABWtteHMH, 6bina nrnub cny- 
naMHUM 3nM30AOM CaMbix pa3Hoo6pa3Hbix aohocob b ee- 
AOMCTBe 3anneHHux Aen BcerAa xaaTano. A ecnM 6wno 
Hy>«Ho, to mx 4ia6pMKOBa/iM «no noTpe6HocTM». Boshmkho- 
BeHMe m npoBeABHMe BceMSTOM rpn3HOM «onepauMM»ne)KMT 
Ha coaecTM CTannna m ero 6nM>t<aMiijero oxpy)KeHMfl. <...> 

>KypHan «BecmHUK» his 1, 1999 a. 

BocmoH 



4 CYAbbbl CTMETM 



II 



MBaH MECHOKOB 





MeaH Gedopoeuv ^bcho- 
kog poduncp 22 nan 1926 zoda 
e cere Kyuuanb Pn3aHCKoO 
(HbiHe HuneuKou) o6nacmu. e 
znyGoxo penuzuo3Hou ceube. 
KyuMancxaa npaeocnaenaa 
oCmuHa, e wuc/re mhozux ce6e 
nodo6Hbix, ho npu3naeana 
npocoeemcKoO nonumuKU 
nampuapxa Anexcim I u nomo- 
uy c cepeduHbi 20-x aodoa 
nodeepzanacb HenpepwewwM 
eoHenuHM (nodpo6hee 06 
amou cu. U. Enunywoe *Mbi 
6binu o6pe i &Hbi Ha cmpada- 
nue...». *Kapmaa Ns 2, cmp. 
29-31). Bnocnedcmauu smy 
eemeb penusuo3Hozo conpomueneHua paxiuuy ocpuuua/ib- 
Hbie udeonosu na3eanu xucmuHHo-npaeocnaaHaa uepKoab" 

(unu). 

Penpeccum* nodaepanacb u eca MMoecmcneHHap ceubn 
UecHOKoebix, a maxme ace ux 6nuaxve u danbHue podcmeaH- 

HUKU. 

B 1946 zody. a eo3pacme 17 nam, Meaw HecHoxoe 
nonyvun ceou nepabiu cpox - 5 nam no cmambe 58-10. 
0m6biean a Bopxyma. riocne oceodoxoaHua a 48-M-ccbinxa 
a Hoeocu6upcxyio o6nacmb. B 49-u - noebiu cpox (cm. 82. 5 
nam), axo6bi 3a nodzomoexy nobeza a . Typu.uK) OmQbiaan 
eeo a 03apnaae, nedanexo om Tauuiema. 

0cao6odunca a 54-m u yexan a Bopxymy Ha noucxu Menbi 
u cbina. xomopbiu podunca a nazape, e OHeape 1948 zoda. B 
1956 zody ceMb>? HeaHa (Dedopoeuua WecHO/roea naxonen 
eoccoeduHunacb. B 62-m Wocwokobw nepeexaru a Pnsanb. 

HbiHe Mean Qedopoeu* - edoeeu. uneanud nepeou zpyn- 
nw, wwh Pn3aHcxou accouuauuu mepme nonumuyecxux pen- 
peccuu Cuh klzopb a 2000 zody maxxa npu3HaH pxepmaou 
nonumpenpeccuu. enpoieu, ewy, xueymeuy Ha yxpauno. no 
yxpauHcxoMy 3axoHodamenbcmey huxbkux nbzom ne nona- 
zaamoi... 

Co6wTne. cBwieTeneM KOToporo n 6wn. npoM30uino... b 
1 951 roay, a moxcot 5biTb b 52-m. fl tohho He noMHio Ho sto He 
donb BaiKHo. Mw CTponnn nrC-oBCKne aoms. AByxxBspTMp- 
Hwe. (fire - npoMwiuneHHo-rpaxyjaHCKoe cTpoMTenbcrBo. - 
pen). >Kene3HOAopo>«Hm<aM. fl TaM oaho apeMn Aame nenHM- 
kom paSoTan. Buna y nac 6pnraaa wenoBeK 28-30. Ot narepn 
3to 6wno Hefla/ieKo. KMnoMeTpa norrropa. A narepb - No 04, 
CTaHLjwB Myna, Ha Tpacce TawiueT -BpaiCK, 400 km. flanbuie 
6bina UJyKUja. a noTOM... ho 3to neea^HO UTax. cTpoMnM mw 

A0M. KOHBOM npHBOflHP, OUen/lB/1 C MBTbipeX CTOpOH, OHM 

cmotpbt. a Mbi pa6oTaeM ripoAyKTbi HaM aaeanti c co6om. 
BapM/iM cyn Ha Metrre, m Koraa noAXOAHno BpeMn, kohbom 
kp^mmt «Ha o6en!». mw co6npaeMC« b Kyvy c noxooMU. a ohh 
ToweBKyny. caBTOM3T3Mnn co6aKaMn. nenoAaneKy, mo6Mbi 
see 6wnn Ha BHAy. Hm o6eA npnao3nnM c aoHbt. H bot OAnaw- 
Abi, cmahm mw. 6A"M. Kohboh tomo. Kto mm nniny npnBe3 - 
yexanM V\ Bflpyr cpSAH HauJMX noAHMMaiOTCfl naib MenoBeK n 
Ha 3tot cMAnmuM a xyMe kohbom. jkykiiamm. - Ha npopwa 1 
BpocatoT mm TyAa OAHy rpaHaiy - B3pwB! BTopyio rpaHaTy - 
BspwB! LUyM , 3aMeuiaTenbCTBO. Bwcrpe/iw! H 3tm nnTepo nqyr 



b no6er A Tanra p«aom. MeTpoB 50 Bcero, MaKCMMyM - 100. 
OflHoro - nuToBua - ohm Bce-Tam noACTperiMnM, a MeTBepo 
ymriM.. 

ByxBanbHO nepea Aectm. MMHyr, xax M3-noA 36MnM. TyT 
CTOnbKO KOHBOK) Ha5eXO^O! C aBTOMaT3MM, c coCaKaMM. Hac 
c6nnn b Kyvy m cranH 3aroH«m> b APBHaxoiyio Tpy5y noA 
Hacbinbio. Kto nyTb 3aMeuiKaeTcn. Toro ujtukom yromaioT b 
Murxoe Mecro (y mbha na boo x<M3Hb ocranacb OTMeTMHa Ha 
flroAMue), 03aepen kohbom, luyrxa riM - BOOPy>KEHHbll'I 
nOBEn ria/iHT no TaMre. opyr. wyM HecycaeTHwii. ripaBfla, 

y6MTb y HMX HMKOrO HB y6MHO, HO HeCKOHbKO MenOBBK paHM/IM 

Bkohmo rpaHaTw 6buin caMOflenbHue. IIotom nac cra/iM M3 
Tpy6w BbiroHHTb m CMMTaTb Tyr x<e Bcex chhtm m b 30Hy . 5eroM, 
a tsm cpa3y noMTM bcsx a 6YP sarHariM (ByP - 6apax ycM/ieH- 
Horo pex<MMa, - peA-) V\ HaManocb cneACTBMe HasanM Tac- 

KaTb H TpHCTM. K3K H MT0, M KTO 1TO 3Ha6T. 

Bo/ibiiJMHCTBO y Hac b 6pnraae MMeno cpox 25 neT Pbako 
y xoro - 15. y moha ToribKO 5 6wno. y MeHq craTbn 82-b (no5er. 
Bepnee. noAroTOBxa k no6ery). ho ohb xyx<e bcakom 58-m (tom 
6onee, mto 58-r y MeHn Towe 5wna, nepea stmm, shsmut eme 
m peufjdue) Pa3 tw 6erneii, Te6e HMitaKOH Bepw, nyTb hto — 8 
BYP! fl nawa Bcex b ByPa CMAen KaK HBHaAex<HeM aneMBHT 
Bee npa3AHMKM TaM C kbm TonbKO ne CMAen, BYP ecrrb BYP, 
Mero TonbKO He HacMOTpencn! 

Bot BwawBaiOT mshh, m Ha Mcnyr cHanaxia: «Hy, hto b 
no6er peiuMn? He yAanocb?!» - «KaKOii no6er. - roBopio. - 
cook He tot. y Mena nomopa roAa ocTanocb». y MeHn. Aen- 
CTBMTenbHO. ocTaaa/iocb MyTb-Myrb nooojibiue nonyTopa neT. 
A ohm cwnm BonpocaMM. hto, moo. waio? kto eiye co6Mpan- 
cfl? a caMM. Mex«y AenoM . npoBcuyrr Tanyw /imhmkj. hto hmkto. 
Mon, HMKyAa He y6ex<an. Bcex nocrpeniuiM, m ece. H mo 

MHTepeCHO, K0TA3 MW ROTOM M8X< COOOM 06cyX<Aa/lM. OK33WB3- 

eTcsi - hmkto M3 6pnraaw HMsero Aaxce m hb noAoapesa/i! Tbk 
3TM ntrrepo CKphrmo roTOBM/iMCb BpMraAy. kohomho. pacnyc- 
tmom. HecxonbKo AHeii HexoAHnn Ha pa6oTy. FIotom mhobo 
c0opMMpoBanM, m MM3Hb flanbuje noTexna. A stm neTsepo - 
crwHynM, noTOMy xax hm jkmbwx. hm Tpynoa tojkb hot. 

PaneHoro riMToaua cpa3y 3a6pann b SonbHuuy TaM, 
KCTaTM. ero CM/ibHo M36M/1M. AMeTsepo. >^to yiumi Bno6er, sto 
GwriM bot kto: oamh 3anaAHUM yxpaMHeu.'GaHAepoBeu, Ctmumb 
no (fcaMMnww. bwcokmm tbkom doctom, mms ero 3a6wxi; btodom 
- KpioMKO, toxcb yxpaMHeu, ho c boctomhom\ c HaiueM yxpaMHw, 
mmb towb no3a6wn. npo hbto roaopM/iM, hto oh TepoM CoBeT- 
cxoro Coio3a. Hacxonbxo 3to npaaAa, - He 3Haw. ho npo Hero 
Tax b narepe roaopMnM; TpeTMii 6wn Bmta - bwcokmm, xpacn- 
BWM napeHb, m Bee speMB noA 6naTHoro Mrpan. nonyBnaTHon 
Taxovi, xoth, KOHeHHO, HMxaxoM oh 6wn He 6naTHOM, a tsk, no 
MonoAOCTM neT bma noMMBTb. Aa a o6nAy ce5n He ABTb, a 
nocneAHMM 6wn KMTaeu. nnM xopeeu. n ceMnac tomho He cxaxcy, 
xoTfl BepoBTHee. Bce-TaxM, - KMTaeu. ho sto He cronb Baxwo 
\A bot mx H6Ty. no6er 6wn b Mone. b KOHue, apeMn npoxoAMT, 
m BceaTO co6wTMe HanMHaeT noTMXOHe<HKy 3a6wBaTbcn. ripo- 
xoamt Mecnuee BOceMb. m BApyr. xax cner Ha ronoBy. xotr 3mms 
yxe npoiuna. MapT Ha ABope, npMB03nT a narepb Ctmumbs m 
KptOHKO. 3aMyMBHHWX - CTpaUJHO! flBOMX mx npMBe3nM. H 
npwMMKOM b BYP. A fl K8K pa3 B EVPo CMAen. Hy, TyAa-cwAB, 
paccnpaujMBaeM mx: xax? >rro? a eme ABoe me? «y6e>KaxiM. - 
roBopsrr. - a Hac. bot. b35utm». A mw b ujyTKy: «A MOxeT, bw 
ci>enM mx?» (fleno-ra b narepnx Bnonne M3BecTHoe). OTBesa- 
iot. hot. A3 mto bw! A mw ace noAHa-HMBaeM: «Hy kbk. Mon. 



12 



4 CYAbbbl CTOJIETNfl 



BKycHanMenoBeHMHKa-TO?» Aohh: «C6eraH-y3Haeujb!» Towe 
Bee ujyTKOM. LUyTKa Ha luyrxy. CKyMHO b narepe. Bot TaK bot 
ace. rioTOM, KorAa era/in nx roHSTb Ha pa6ary, ohm tobopht, 
naeavire nto6yio pa6oTy b 30H6, mm 3a 30Hy pa6oTaTb He 
noMfleM, noTOMy mto kohbom HOM0T yOMTb. H ABHCTBHTenbHO 
mot. 3anpocro! Kax pas b sto apeMR HaMMHaa c 50-ro. (XBHb 
MHoro pa3Benocb b kohbohx TaKnx noAneuoB, mto npoMwcen 
M3 3Toro ycrpoMnM. Habt ctdoh, KTo-HH6yAb, cnysaHHO, war 
b6ok. l"lo6er! Oh ero - menx! H eMy 3a t3koh «noABnr» Macu h 
AByxHeflenbHbiii omycx. H ohh TaK HaBocTpnnncb, mto TortbKO 
cmotpm, Ky^a tb6h nocunaioT. A to noiuniOT m Tyr *e tb6b >xe 
h uuienHyT, 3a OTnyc* h nacbi HapynHue «rio6efla». CTpenflfW, 
kohbmho, a nepayio OMepenb Tex, kto mgm-to He noHpaenncs 
MaxieMiLMM noBOfl - Hory M3 oKHa cBBCMii. no paooTe, - menx! 

TaK MTO KOHBOB BCB OMeHb OOflnHCb. H CTMUMB C KpKJMKO T0JK6 

6oanncb npaennbHO. Ho c kohbocm y hhx epoAe see oooiunocb 
6narononyMHO. 

BcKope MeHH nepeeenM c 04-ro Ha flOK (ABpeBoo6fleno4- 
Hbiii KOMCuHaT - pea ) m Conbuie » o Cemeuax Husero He 
cnbiiuan. H b 3tom narepe n yoxe 6wn ao kohus. ao CMepTH 
CTaxiMHa. ripoTOT no6er m AyMaTb 3a6wn, Apyran o6cTaHOBxa, 
Apyroe nxjAM. Apyan >KM3Hb B 53-m yMMpaeT CTannH. Bee 
o6paAOBajincb, kto aawe nnaseT ot paAOcm. HaxoHeq-To! 
YMep caTaHa! rioAox! 6pnraanp mom. Ky3HeuoB. npHMO npn 
H3A3npaTene: «raA Taxoii-enKOM! fl 30 hot >xAan, xorAa oh 
noA0XHeT!» Hy, AyMaeM, nponan Haw epnraAHp. Ho hot, 
oooiunocb. coBceM HHxaic He TpoHynn. A KysHeuoe HMen 25 
neT no 58-8-m (mepaKm-ped). >KeHa Hanncana, mto oh xomct 
y6nTb TosapMiiia CTariHHa, M36aBHTbcn ot Hero xoTena. 

27 MapTa 53-ro - aMHHCTnn. H n nonaaaio. V mbhb cTaTbfl 
82-h. 6biTOBan fl ocBo6o)KAaiocb. CHaMana b ccbinxy. noTOM 
BepHyncn Ha BopKyTy, rAe OT6wBan no 58-h, pa6oTan tbm 

BOnbHOHaeMHblM. HaKOHey B03BpaTMnCH B PfUaHb. >KnBy. H 

npo narepb y» Mano BcnoMMHaw, a npo tot cnyMaii m AyMaTb 

aaSun. 

H bot b roAy rAe-To 9 1 -m, - n yxe oamh *Mn . *6Ha yMepna . 
- cnywaio n Bh-Eh-Ch. M BApyr haot nepeAasa hmbhho o tom 
caMOM nooere, CBMABTeneM xoToporo n 6bin! Kax Bee 3to 
cnyMnnocb.HH TaxsHan. aBOTTo,MTonpoM30wnoAanbwe,3To 
MeHs noBeprno b ujok. fl Gbin Tax ujoKHpoBaH. mto oaho BpeMH 
npocTO He 3Han, mto MHe AenaTb, cxeM noAenHTbcn. H npaBAa, 
noAenMTbCH He c xbm, weHw hot, cuh b ApyoM ropoAe, 
Aanexo. HeAenH abo HaaepHoe ft nepewMBan to, mto yenw- 
ujan, ecoro mbha bot Tax acxo/ibixHyno... 

Mto *e y hhx npon3oujno Aaxibme no paccxasy Bh-Bm-Ch. 
Mx 6wno MeTBepo, riepawM nKo6w ocna6en h 3a6onen xwTaeu 
h cxa3an: «Pe6«Ta, bw HAHTe, a a y>xe CTapbiM, He nocneaara, 
nofiAy caM, yMpy - yMpy, HeT - neT» Ho 3Aecb mto-to He to. 
noTOMy mto KHTanuy yMepeTb b Tatfre ot ronoAa oseHb 3aTpyA- 
HHTenbHo. noTOMy mto xMTaeu ecT bcc! Hmxto ms Haiunx ho 
crraHeT. a xviTaeu Taxwx ToncTbix, wnpHbix 6enbix ahmhhok, 
MepBen bchkmx - 6yAb SAopoe ecr EMy neTOM b Tawre npo6neM 
c npoAOBOUbCTBMeM HeT. MHe xa>xeTCH. oh m 3mmom cyMeeT 
HaiiTM mto noxteBaTb. Ho Bm-Bm-Cm paccKa3biBaeT. mto ohh 
nanu eMy Tpn cnnMXH. hah. Mon. CBoen Aoporon. a Mbi csoen 
noAaeu. Otoujah ohm HeAanexo, Aa m tobopht npoMe* co6oh, 
Mbi Taxne Bee ronoAHbie, HSMyMeHHue, aaBaiiTe cbeAHM ero. PI 
BepnynHCb. M Koraa ohh BepHynncb. KHTaeu cpa3y ace noH«n... 
Ohh ero npHxoHMnnn h d>enn. CbenM xHTanua. h ocTaAOCb mx 
Tpoe. H CTariH ohm Apyr Apyra 5oHTbCH. To ecrb, Tenepb 
xa^Aoro H3 hhx, bosmowho. COKMABU Taxon me xohom. A no cune 
ohh Sbinn paaHbie Bmth - motioaom A Te Aea - yxpaHHuw. 
MoweT 6biTb, hx sto c6jiH)xa/io. Tyr Tonbxo npeAnonaraTb 

MO>KHO. flBOe, BMAHMO, X3K-T0 AaAH APyr APY^y nOHflTb, 3Haxa- 

mh hhh xax TaM eme. Aasan. Mon, Bhtko stoto npnoepeM Hy h 
ynyMHHH momcht. 6e3 CHa BeAb Troxe Henb3n. Tavira xoro 

XOMeilJb npMMOPMT. H OHM npHXOHMHnH BhTK) H CbBAM BhTKJ. 



Kax ceHMac, y mohu b rnaaax stot Bmth ctoht, MonoAOM, 
xpacHBbivi... fla, cteriH Bhtk>. — ^MHMIWM n ero hb 3Ha/i, - Aan 
Bor LjapcTBHfl eMy He6ecHoro 3a ero yjxacHyK) xoHMMHy, Mono- 
Aoh 6bin, Moero B03pacTa, neT 26. Ctmlimb, xcTaTM, T0>xe 
MonoAOH 6bin, neT 20. a KpxjMno - 3a 30. Ho 3to h. xoHeMHO, 

OpneHTHpOBOMHO. 

Ctenn ohh Bmtx), m Tyr yxe HaABuraercn 3n wa . Toraa ohh 
BCTa/tH APyr nepeA APyoM Ha koabhm h aanu apyr apyry 
xnnTBy, mto, ABCitaTb, nyMiue mw ywpeM caMOH nxjTOH ronoA- 
hoh cMepTbxj. ho mw Apy apyra He tpohcm! AariM ohm APyr 
x/iHTBy. omerno y hhx ot cepAua. m Bcxope Hauinn ohm oxot- 
HHMbK) H35yiuxy Ha 3anMxe. (lo Tanre Taxne nonaaaKncn. Ohh 
nocennnMCb, TaM 6binM xoH-xaxMe npnnacbi, ohm 3to enn. \A 
BApyr npne3)xaeT Ha 3Ty caow 3anMxy *eHU4MHa. no AenaM 
cbomm. Ohh ee noHMa/iH m HaMaxiM 3anyrnBaTb-AaBaM. kopmm 
Hac. Ecrm He craHeajb, y6beM h Te6« h ceMbio. Hac mhoto, 
3ABCb ABa, TaM Tpoe, xopoMe, - 3anyranH. H OHa B03nna mm 
xapMH MyTb He uenyx) 3MMy. rioTOM b AepeBHe HaMann 3aMe- 
Man.. mto 6onbH0 yw Matrro OHa Ha 33MMxy bsamt. H bssvim ee 
new Ha6nx)AeHMe h MecTHbie B/iacTM h MnnMLinn. A na 3anMKy 
3a6pen oxothmx MecrHWH, CTapnx. Ohm ero BcrpeTH/iM, o6e30- 
py>KHAH. o6uiMOHann. - xypeBO TaM. npoAyxTbi, -a oh Ha hmx 
nocMOTpen m tobopht: «0-o-o! Pe6fiTa, Aa bw - ntoAoeabi 
3tot rpex BaM Bor ho npocTMT. Bw -nxjAoeAbi! Hy, cteAnre bw 
m6hb . eme 6onbwe rpexa Ha Baujy Ayiuy nn>xeT. fl y>xe MenoBex 
noxHnoH. 6o«Tbcn mho cmoptm HeMero. m a BaM ho 6yAy hh 
noMoraTb, hm Mero APyroro. A iu o CBoen nyuie noAyMaHTe. 
Bw, npe»Ae ^bm yMepeTb, cTonbxo eme Myxn npHMeTe...» M 
bot noxa oh c hhmh Tax paaroBapMBaeT - b sto caMoe BpeMs 
- o6nasa! H hx B3nnn. B3Rj~ih h npnBe3nn b TaHiueT, h Hana- 
nocb cneACTBMe Mto Aa xaK. Aa tab ocTa/ibHbie. Ohm OTBeMa- 
kjt, mto HMMero 3Han. He 3Hax)T, CHaMana oahh oTxononcn. 
noTOM APyroH. yuinn b Tanry, h bcc. BpyT. b o6meM, a xaK 
npoBepHujb? BoceMb MecnueBnpoujno. shms npoiuna. CneA- 
CTBMe 6Mnocb-6wnocb h oTCTynnnocb. h hx npHBe3nn o6paTHO 
Ha 04-m. OTxyAa ohm 6exanM. Hy a SAecb s yxte paccxa3biBan, 
xax hx b ByPe BCTpeTMnM. xax luyTXH iiiyTMnH, TOMHOMynnn mto. 
riocna BYPa x hhm oTHOCMnncb c HacTopoweHHocTbK). He to 
MTo6bi onacanncb, hot, b narepe HapoA o6biMHO no xyMKaM 
rypTyeTCH. no 3-6 MenoBex, Tax mto 6oHTbcn mx ocHOBaHMH He 

6binO HH y KOrO. a npOCTO C HOKOTOpblM OTMyjKABHHBM. A 

Boo6me-TO. ohh 6binH OMeHb 3aMopeHHwe. Ohh flawe napauy 
b ByPe Tacxann, m HMMero. Mo*eT 6bm», kto ms hmx m ceMMac 
eme jkhb. A mto? OTCHAen cbom 25 - hm nocne no6era 
Ao6aBHnM ao 25 - m Bbiujen. xax roBOpHTcs, c kmmctoh coBec- 

TbK)»... 

H bot xorAa h ycnbiiuan, mto 6wno Aanbiue, b Tanre, y 
MeHfl ocTanca oahh Bonpoc: 

Kto Mor y3HaTb, mto y hhx Ha caMOM Aene npoH30iuno? 
KoMyoHHAOBepMnHCbHpaccxa3anH?CBBiueHHHKynoKaanMCb 
nnn xoMy? H nppMo b narepe OTKpbinM cboio TaHHy nnn KorAa 
Bbiuinn? OTKyAa bcw 3Ty hctophw y3Han aarop nepeAaMH Ha 
Bm-Bh-Cm? A moikot 6wTb. aBTop bc© commhha? Ho aToro n ho 
AyMaio. Hacronbxo HaMano hctophh coenaAaeT c TeM, mto h 
BHAen coScTBeHHbiMH rnasaMM. mto. AyMaeTcn, m AanbHen- 
ujee cooTBeTCTByeT AencTBHTenbHOCTM. H Tax. 3HaeTe. MHe 
xoMeTcfl y3HaTb, KOMy *e ohh AOBepnnn cbokj TaviHy ... 

Om pedaKuuu *Kapmt>i»: 

nonyvuo amom uamepuan. uu omnpaeunu coomeem- 
cmeyiomuu 3anpoc «a Bu-Bu-Cu. B nonyveHHOM pedaxnueu 
omeeme coo6iuanocb. wmo ynoMUHaeMan IA. '-lecnoKOBhiM 
paduonepedava deucmeumenbHO npo3eyvana a sQupe pa- 
duocmaHituu, ho no mexHu^ecxuu npuvuHau He Moxem Sbimb 
npedocmaeneHB. 

flumepamypHan 3anucb: C. POMAHOB 



4 CyflbBbl CTOAETHfl 



13 



Cepreti njHOLUEHKOB 



3aT5\\-\yBLUM\AG5\ nOMCK 




C 3tom oeamenbHOfl MHTennn- 
reHTHOM weHoiMHoA MHe Aoaenocb no- 
3MaKOMHTbC» a aarycTe 1 988 roaa. xor- 
aa ohs npnexana b 3a«pcx Ha nOMOKM 
Mornnw CBoaro OT^HMa - AMaTonwH 
CoH/iopca, naTbiiucKoro oo>nuepa, 
penpeccuposaHHoro 6y usanbHo 3a He- 
CKonbKO ah6h ao HaMana BemwoM Otb- 
secTBeHMOM aowHu. 

flour He roaw OMa nucana b pa3- 
riMMHbie apxHBbi h en OTseMaxiM - M3 
Purw. HopnnbCKa. TaviujeTB, AHrapc- 
ica, - WTO MeCTO 3axopoH6HHn A O. 
CoHAopca Hen3BecTno npaBaa a oahom aoxyMeHTe KOHua 50- 
x, 3a noanncbK) K. E Bopownnoaa. yxaawBancfl 3anpcx (AHrap- 
nar) Ahhtb Pnena peumna noBepHTb cnoBy Owawero napxoMa 
m ompaBHnacb b Cw6npb Bo btodom pa3... 

PoflM/iacb Ahmts SayapflOBHa b 1 928 rofly. b AayraanM/ice. 
nocne OKOHsaHMD ceM wrier kh ystinacb a na TbnucKovi ryMaHMTap- 
hom rnMna3nn (1942-44 rr ) B 1944 roay BMecre c waTepbto 
6una aaaKynpoBaHa a TepMaHMio. rae b 1945 roay 3axoHmina 
naTbuucxyio rnMHa3MK> OneHc6ypra. nocne bomhw OMa B03spa- 
Tunacb b HaTBMio n nocrynnna b JlarBMHC«nH rocyaapcTBeHHbJH 
yHHsepcMTe t Tpw ceMecrpa ywwnacb na oTfleneHMM *ypHa/inc- 
tmkm. 3aT6M na OTaeneHMM naTbiuicxoro «3bi«a h rweparypbi. 
3axoHHMB yHUBepcKTBT a 1952-m, roa OTpaooTana b cenbcxotf 
ujko/16. B 1953-m. nocne CMeprn Crania, noexana BCuCupb Ha 
iiomckx OTMMMa. riyTb npeacionn He6nM3KHH, ho MO/ioaocn. hb 
6ohtcs nperpaa 

Ot KpacHOflpcxa ao flyanHxn /jo6npanacb Ha napoxoae 
• Hociitp CTariMHu. aanbiue - na TosapHRxe a Hoptinbcx. nocrpo- 
eHHwA a TpoxCTax XHnoMBTpax k ceaepy or rionnpHoro xpyra no 
yxa3aHmo «orua bcox MapoaoB» Mepes HopunbMuA ropHo- 
MeTannyprMnecxMH kom6mh3t 3a aecfliwneTHB cyuieciaoeaHUB 
ry/lAra ( 1 935- 1 955 rr. ) npowno 6onoe 500 Tbtcns 3aKn>0HeHHb»x 
pa3fiMMHbix HannoHanbHOCTeft H Tax cnyHnnocb, hto noesaxa 
Ahmtu b 3anonnpb6 cosnana c BOCCTaHneM b MHoroHHcneHHbix 
HopvinbcxHx narepnx. floBeaeHHwe no oTMaHMHn neMenoBeHec- 
xhum ycnoBusMM coaepjtOHus. «aparw xapoaa* orxasanHCb 
Bbixo^nTb Ha paooTv. rpe6yn CMsr-jeHUB pewnwa 

B YnpaBneHHM Hopun&nara na 3anpoc Jlneribi coo6wnnvi. 
hto 8.07.1943 A O CoHflopc 6wn ManpaBneM e MHBa/iMA M biM 
narepb b r 3anpcxe HpxyTCKOH o6nacTn (TaM CTpoMnacb Hosas 
)Kene3Ha(i aopora. csn3biBaBujan Tpancc*6 c 6eperaMn fleHw.) 
Cboh aopoiKHbie HaSnKjfleHun Ah ma 3aHOCHna b ahoshmk. CTas- 
ujhm ee MonuanMBtJM coSscbahmkom c 12 hbt. EMy OHa aoBepw- 
na m noapo6HOCTn co6biTnvi «xonoa«oro neTa* 1953 roaa a 
Hopunbcue, rae hs noaaanennn bocctshmr 6wnu 6pouieHbi 
peryiispHwe BOHCxa 

3aBepiuHTb 6narononyHH0 C8oe nepaoe nyTeiuecTBMe b 
Ct*6bipb Ahhtc llnera hb yaanocb Ee apecTOBann b Ta^iueTe. 
rae ohs ao*naanacb oxa3MM b 3anpcK. no cvimany cocea«n no 
HOMepy a xonxosHOH rocTHMnue TnaaHbiM aoxaaaienociBOM 
«anHb<» MonoaoA naTbiuiXM ciann crpaHHMXM ee anesHMKa c 
3anHCbio paccxasoB OMeBMaues Hopnnw:xHx co6biTHM. nepeBoa 
aHeBHHxa Ha pyccxHM ocymecTBun npoo^eccop rocyhMBepcwTe- 
Ta, naTbiuj Kevi3apc. B wrore, 3 wapra 1954 roaa cyae6nas 
Konnerun BepxoBHoro cyaa naTsuMCKOii CCP npurosopuna A. 3 
Jlnena x 7 roaaM nuiueHMH c8o6oaw no ct. 58-10 npMM., c 
nopaweHweM a npaBax na 3 roas. Cpon OTOtiBana b ApxaHrenb- 
ckom uMonoTOBcxoH(riepMCKOH)o6nacTnx. Ocao6oa^nacbaoc- 
poMHO a 1956 roay co chrtmbm cyanMocru Pea6nnnTnpoB3Ha b 
1991 roay 



BepxyBUJHCb B flaiBHK). Jlwena paoorana 3aByneM b Be6- 
peHCKOH cpeanew luxone, npenoaaBana aHrnnncxMH u HeMeuKMu 
h3mkh. B 1960 nepeexana a pobhom flayraBnwnc m ycTponnacb Ha 
pa6oTy cTapuiHHOM nocTa Boano-cnacaTenbHofi craHum». 3aecb 
aonrnMH 3hmhhmh BeMepaMH. xorfla npnxoannocb aewypnib y 
TeneqVjHa. k hsm m npnuino to, mto abiapeaano noncnyawo see 
npo«MTbie roabi. Ona Hanana nucan.. TnaaHbiM, HaaepHoe. 6bino 
CTpeMneHHe aoHBcrvi ao cooTe^eciBeHHUKOB nuMHo yBHaenHoe 
m nepemHToe b CTannHCxnx riarepnx. 3anesaTneTb ropbKyo npaa- 
ay o TpareaHH caoero Hapoaa Ho CTpaMneHne 6ea cnoco€Hoc- 
Teri x nwca renbCKOMy peMecny noanac npMBoauT nnuib x ropbKHM 
pa30HapoBaHMBM. K cnacTbio, y AHMTbi ohh 6binn. OpraHMsecxM 
npuroannncb n npupoa^aB Ha6moaaTenbHOCTb, n MHoroneTHnn 
npuBbiHxa BecTMaHeBHMKM, h xopoiuee ryMannTapHoe o6pa3oaa- 
HMe nepBbiM ee paccxaa yanaen cbbt b 1961 roay. ho.. .3a 
noanHCbw MBTepti Taxoe Toraa 6bino apexiH A nepaas KHtira, 
ywe noa co6cTBBHHbiu MMeneM. noBBunacb b 1982 roay 

B 1988 roay. pobho Mepe3 35 neT nocne nepBoii nonbiTXM, 
AnMTa Jlnena npnexana b 3anpcK B sto BpeMS ona pa6o rana naa 
aoxyMOHTanbHbiM poManoM «3KcryMaunn», nocanuteHHOM na- 
MtiTH penpeccupoBaHHbix 0(})iiuepoB naTBUMCxoA Pecny6nnxM 
no ee npocboe h 03HaxoMnncs e apxnee YBfl HpxyTCKOM o6nacTM 
cnMMHWMaeaoMAHaToaMnOcMnoBHHaCoHaopca((t>. 10, on 10, 
a. 123). Ha Hero smcTBoeano, mto oh noxopoweH na 6onbHMHHOM 
xnaa6niiie namyHxra Ns022. Ha 25-m KMnoMeTpe MenesnoPi ao- 
pofM TaMiueT-BpaTcx HHTepecHO. mto b stom we TOHKx:eHbxovi 
nanxe c nopbiweBUJHMM nucrawn coaepwanncb h MaTepnanoi. 
cBB3aHHbie c cm6mpckom ooflMcceeA* ero np^eMHoA acepvi a 
1 953 roay Mbi noceTHnw >cnaa6ume m onpeaennnn npeanonoxn- 
TenbHO mbcto 3axopoHeHMR B 1991 roay Ahmts 3ayapaoBHa b 
rpeTHM pas noceTM/ia cn6MpcxyK} rnyxoMaHb n yciaHOBuna na- 
MflTHym rpaHHTHyio nnwry Ha Mornny caMoro 6nn3xoro eft poa- 
CTaeHHMxa. 3aTBHyaiuuMCB noncx 6wn 3aeepujeH 

PoMaH • 3Kcrywaunn» Bbiiaen a cbbt Ha naTbiujcxoM nabixe 
B 1990 roay A a 1998 roay AononHenHUM ero Bapi-am auiuen Ma 
pyeexoM Bswxe b M3aaTenbCTBB cflayraaa* HecMorpn Ha ho- 
cxonbxo omyrnBaiouiee cyaeBHO-MeauunHCKoe Hanaaw -sto 
aoGpoTHan npo3a. noBecTByioma» 06 mctophm oaHOii naTbuac- 
kom c«MbH c «OMua 19-ro aexa ao cepeavHw 20-ro. Bee. xto aacr 
ce6e Tpya npoMMTBTb ero. nonyMaT HecoMHeHHoe yaoeonbCTBHB 
ot BCTpenM c HacTonuiBM nMTepaTypoH, nopasoTcs rny6oxow 
ncMxonorMMHocTH n npoMnuaienbHOCTH aBropa, npoHecuiero 
ayiueBHyK) TennoTy Mepea roau MOibiTaHUH h nHiueHHH 

06a n3aaHMB c aBTorpatpaMH Ahhtw SayapaoBHbi xpaHnr- 
c» b Moeii 6n6nnoTexe. flnn mohs 3To BonnomeHHWM a KHurn 
CMMBon weHCKoii bophocth h no6en 

3anpcK 




Aayaaenunc s 1960 z Oomo: B. TutHye 



14 



4 



PRO MEMORIA 



naMsrrn BAQAMMupa Ewprepa. 1951 - 2002 




Ywep Bo/iOAn Bwprep... 3aMecTHTe/ib npeflceflaTena KpacHonpcKO- 
ro ncTopMKo-npocBeTHTenbCKoro. npaB03auiHTHoro n 6naroTBopnTejib- 
Horo OSmecTBa «MeMopnan». HenoBBK, KOTopbin noMor BepHyTb secT- 

HOe HMD COTHBM SbOHHMX non HTmeCKHX 3aK/1IOHeHHblX, y3MH KOB CTa/IMH- 
CKOrO nTlAra. MeCTHblM. HeBepOHTHO TpyAOJlK)6nBblH, MHTeJUIMreHTHblM 

■MIMMMK. 

AneKcen 5a5nH, Konnera Bojioam Bnprepa no KpacHOfipcKOMy «Me- 
Mopnany», b 1992 rofly nanncan: «Ec/im 6bi BBoannacb b CMCTBMe CH 
eflUHnqa 6ecKopbiCTHOCTM, n 6bi npeanowvin Ha3BaTb ee "oamh ouprep". 
14 He ay wara. mto Ha6panocb 6bi MHoro juoabm c 6ecKopt>icTHorri>io b "0,9 
6nprepa". Ecnn flawe jik>am c "0,56 6nprepa" - h to peAKOCTb». 

BeMHan Te6e naMHTb, Boxioab— 



BriaAHMMp BMPrEP 

«Tbl nOMHI/ILUb, KCIK BCe HCIHl/1HCIAOCb...>> 



Co CTpaHHbiM MyBCTBOM ceroAH* BcnoMMHaeTcn roAl988-ti. 
A seab 3to 6wno TaK HBAaBHo. xaxvix-TO aecsTb neT Haaaa. Ho 
nonpo6yiiTe, paccxawMTe HWHeuiHMM noapocTxaM. hto 10 neT 
Ma3aa He 6tjno y Mac He to hto chmkbpcob nnn tsm aBOKaao, - 
o6uhhoto cupa roaaMH He 6biBano b Marasunax. 3a MacnoM 
OTCTanBann MHoroHacoBue onepean. 3a pacTaopuMMM xocps 
win cppaHi4y3CKOM noMafloii neiann b Mocxsy... Botocb, hb 
nosepsi! 

A hto 6wno? O, MHoro sero! CCCP. oh *e Cok)3 Hspywa- 
mmm. Kr&, oh we KoHTopa f"ny6oxoro BypBHM«. copaaMu cbomx 
cexcoToa. Eoino nonnT6iopo, LJK, KpawKOMw, o6kom6i, pauxo- 
Mbt. Bmjio to /in 50, to Jin 70 tmchh TaHXOB (tohho hb noMHio). 
Hy, eme 6mji /wrepaTypHMM anacoBeu ConxceHMUWH. Kohbm- 
ho. hb y Hac. a s Bbpmohtb. Ho Caxapoaa yxe ocBoooannn ua 
CCbinxM. H 3a xpaHBHvie « Apxnnenara» yxe nepecranw cawarb 
flea TpoHyncn. ripoiiecc nouien. npo6nn sac orpoMHOM bmmo- 
POhhoA MMnepMn. Ohb HeyABpawMO noxaTMnacb noa yx/iOH. 
TonbKO hhxto ho 3Han, xyAa OHa 3axaTMTc«; He b paxeTHO- 
«A6pHyio /in rpawAaHCxym BOwHy? 

HiaBrtMT, KOHBHHO, T0X8 6bin, HO HBA TDOHynCH M TyT. K 

BnaapK3 1988 roaa rpoHyncs HacTonbxo ocHosaTBnbHO, hto 
wypHanncTy (Opwo UJexoHnXMHy ynanocb npoTonxHyTb a «/1mt- 
ra3e-e» Hy cobcbm ManeHbxyxj 3aMBTOHxy o c6ope noannceti 
3a coaaanne b Mocxbb naMHTHHxa *epTBaM cranwHCXHX pen- 
peccuM. H aawe ne npocro naMHTnuxa - MeMopnana Mon, 
BCTb MertOBBK, KOToputi co6npaei 3th noanncn: JIbb AnexcaH- 
APOBmm rioMOMapea 

ripoMHTan h 3to no3AHO aesepoM, a Ha cneay>oaiv\v\ ABHb 
noTaiuMncn Ha neperosopHbiM nyHKT: AOMa-To Tane^wna hbt. 
CTan 3BOHMTb b Mocxsy, b peAaxunKJ «JlnTra3eTbi». m c xoto- 
dom-to nonuTKM OTbicxan KJpvm U^exoMMXMHa. A y* oh aan 
Tene4>OH ribea AnexcaHApoBima. Ecnn kto-to He snaeT unw He 
noMHUT: HoHOMapeB - (Jjmsmx. aoxtop Hayx.B 1989 roAy oamh m3 
ocHOBareneii aBujxeHUH «AeMOxpaTMMecKan Pocchh». no3AHee 
AenyraT BepxoBHoro CoBeTa w r<KWyMH. 

Ilo3BOHH/icH h x rioHOMapeay cxasan eMy cbom aapec Oh 
o6eman npMcnaTb o6pa3eu noAnwcHoro nHCTa. OTnpaBnnr oh 



TpMNAW- HMCbMO c o6pasuoM aoiuno c TpeTbeii nonwTXH. 3to 
6bino ywe b caMOM kohub cpeBpans 

ripo6neMy «MHO>xnTenbHOM tbxhmxh» peiuMna pa3APbiraH- 
Has waujuHxa «Optbx» M3 aTanbe npoxaTa, b coMBTaHMM c 
naMXO* xonMpxM. OrneuaiaB agcpiok 6nanKoa. s npMHec mx 5 
MapTa (KTiHHycb. stohmcto cnyvaAHoe coBnaaeHne) hs B14. rge 
TpyAnncn Ha jxyxnovi hmbb ACY. m npoiaencH no OTAenaM 
KaixeTcn, c a6c«tok noAnwceki n TorAa co6pan. Ho HexoTopbie 
cunbHO nepenyrariMCb. 

riocne 3TOii «npo6Hoii cepMM» h BpyMnn Hecxoribxo 6naHxoB 
MpuHe Ky3HeuoBoii. y Hee coop noArwceM toxcb noiuen. fl hb 
noMHK> xax. ho nspea Hecxonbxo anew mu c hbm «8biiunn» Ha 
A/ibkcsh aa6nfl (oh 6wn nporpawMncTOM. xax h«)h BCTpeTn- 
nucb c hum b TopflK, 3 riMTepaTypHOM CTyflMM Pycaxoaa. Anex- 
cen cpaay noAx^iOHHnoi k pa6oie 

Kct3tm cxa3aTb, 3to 6wnn sax paa ahh Tax HaswBaeMoro 
•Manoro 3acTOH» (a bot aonpocArm 3h3tokob: kto noMHur, hto 
3to Taxoe - rwcbMo Hmhw AMapeeaoii?). Ho mm hb sto Kax-ro 
He o6paLua/iM BHuwaHnfl. noTOMy hto 3aHHTbi 6binn aenoM B 
stu me ahm mw OTHBTnuBO noHyBCTBOBann, hto c MBTOAonorvi- 
e« y nac cnaooBaTO. A Aeno ABnaeM cepb63Hoe. Hvixax Henb3n 
ero aaBa/iMTb! Tene4>OH BnaanMiipa reoprneBMia Chpotmhm- 
Ha y m6hb 6wn. KorAa noaBwnacb yBBpeHHOCTb. hto ne no 
nycTflxy HenoBexa SecnoxouM, mm BMy no3BOHnnn n floroBopvi- 
nMCb BCTpese. Tax h Tax. roeopuM. onMTa y Hac hbt. 6ommch 
HanopTaMHtb. bch HaAexAa - Ha Bac. 

OrwTb >xe, ecnn no hb 3HaaT: y CupoTMHUHa 3a nnesaMM 
Sonbuje AByxcoT nacoB aonpocoe b Kfb, HaMMHao c cepeAMHM 
LuecTnaecBTbix. noHTM ao cepeauHw BOCbMMAecnTbix toaob 
TpnwAM ero OMCHb xoTen^ nocaAHTb. ho Tax m hb cyMB/in: 
pa6oTaA HacTonbxo axxypaTHO. hto y T5 hb 6wno aaixe yaepeH- 
hoctm, a Toribxo noA03paHnq. PaooTan oh b OoHae ConixeHM- 

UblHa. TO BCTb B CpOHAB nOMOlUM nOnHT3aXJ1K3HeHHMM M MX 
CBMbflM. 

Kax mm m HaaemiHCb, co CTopoHM BnaA^MHpa reopmeBHwa 
BoapawenuM hb nocTynnno, npn acipe-je oxasanocb. mto y Hero 
ywe BCTb noArwcHOM nucT (mobto MaroTOBneHun) - norryrHUM 



^ PRO MEMORIA 



IS 



BerpoM npMHecno co Cron6oB. H oh y*e csm aaMsncs ero 
tnpa*npo3a>niew 

Ao KOHua wapTa hbm yaanocb otnpaBMTb rioHOMapeBy. 
KameTCfl. c noncoTHM noannceti. IIotom noiuen c6op noanncen 
Ha KOHuepTax Knyoa caMoaenTenbHon necuM, a Becb Man s no 
BbixoxiHbiM cionn c nwcraMM («Ha c6ope») b )Kmbom yronxe Ha 
don6ax. 

don «Ha c6ope». « (ioctohhho *anen, mto h ho ncnxonor n 
HecouMonor. Pa3HOo6pa3ne MenoBenecKHx peaxuMH npn B«ae 
noanncHux nucroB h nnaxaTa-o6bHB;ieHnn (HapncoBaHHOro c 
noMombto nnacTHKOBwx TpatpapeTOB) 6wno noncTMHe nopaaM- 
TenbHo: 01 HeHaBMcrw k naaaMaM n ao... HBHaBMcm k jxepTaaM 
Bunn n cne3w. n 3no6Han pyraHb (ho sto penico). 6uno h 
neaepne b BOSMOWHOCTb peanbHux nepoMSH: «ToBapnu*. aepb. 
nponaeT ona - Tax HasuaaBMan rnacHocrb. n bot Toraa roc6e- 
3onacHOCTb npunownHT hsuim HMena » 

ilMxa 6ep,a - Hanasio 

npocroH Bonpoc - 3asaM mu co6npann stm noanncn? ripo- 

CTOM 0TB6T Mbl CHyTDOM Mya/IMX. WTO STO HyttHO M BattHO CaMn 

noanMCHbie nMcru MoexoBexne MeMopnanbiiw caann b UK 
KflCC. Ka<o6pameHne k rtaprKOHCpepeHunn TaMOHH n xaHynn 
Ho rnaBHbiM 6bin caM npouecc c6opa noartnceM - npouacc 
npeoaoneHMfl nioabMM sacTapenoro apaxa n Tynoro 6eapa3- 
nvmnn. - rnaBHwx onop xoMMyHHCTHMecxoro pewnMa c tom 
nopbi, ksk npexpaTHnco MaccoButi Teppop. Kohbmho we, c6op 
noanncen 6bin nonHTMMecxon axuMeii. Mombt 6biTb, TOMHee 
6yaeT cK33aTb, - nortMTMKO-npocBeTMTenbCKOM. rionnTnpoc- 
BeT. ecnn yroaHo Hto n»6onuTHO. - cepbeaHoro npoTMBoaen- 
ctbmi) co cropOHbi Bnacren npu c6op6 noflnncen hb Ha6moaa- 
nocb. B apyrux pernoHax 6uBano ecflxoe 

riapannenbHO co c6opoM noanncen mw npnnowHnn pyxy h 
k HexoTopbiM apyrtiM aenaM. Aywaic. hto hb ace noaa6unM 
aewoHCTpauMK) 1 MiOHn 1988 roaa: xax-HMxax. nepsao caoooa- 
HaH aeMOHCTpaunfl a ropoae aa 70 nert Tax bot, peujeHMe 
npoBecTw 3Ty aeMOHcrpaumo 6uno npMHirro npeacTaBWTenn- 

MM KpaCHOnpCKHX HB3aBMCHMUX Opr3HM3auHM HB mobm aho 

po«aeHnn. b Moe* xBaprMpe. 3a mscau ao Ha3HaM6HHOtt aaTbi. 
Bcex ynacTHHxoB ho noMHK). ho 6u/im Bmxtop Canaro, Bibna- 
hmhob, BaSnH, BopoHoaa, n. xohomho Ky3Heu0Ba. Bcex Toraa 
BonHOBan oan" Bonpoc: a mto 6yaeT, ecnn Ha aBMoncrpauHio 
(HanoMMHaio, mto no3yHrn 6binn axonorMsecxne, - eme oamh 
«nonnTnpocBeT») cooepeTcn scero 20-30 MenoBex? Ho mohh 
Bo.iHOBar coBceM apyroA Bonpoc: mto hbm aenaTb. bcjih coCe- 
percn Tbicima? 3to *e HeynpaanneMao Macca! OcTanbHux 
Moe 6ecnoxoAcTBO CMeiunno 

Ha caMOM aerie co6panocb Hecxonbxo twcpm - aeMOHCTpa- 
lihb pa3pocnacb us Ma/ieHbKoro napa, kbk cne*Hbiii komI Bor 
Munosan. mto hb noacrponnn xaxoA-HM6yab nposo<aunn no- 
cneacranH Momn 6biTb HenpeacxasyeMbi HaBepHO. anacTn 
Toixe ayMariM, mto cooepeTcn 20 mpm 30 MyaaxoB. m bcb. 

Mbl, MBMopnaribUbi. npmunn Ha aeMOHCTpaumo a nonHOM 
cocTase m He c nyctbiMn pyxaMH, a ace c no3yHraM* (Meaento 
Mbi hx pucoeann no BCMepaM). Axtmbho yMacTsoean b 3tom 
aeMOHcrpauMM m Komvitbt CoaeMCTBMH nepecTpo^xe, nepBas 
He33BncnMaB KpacHOflpcxan opraHnaauHs. huhb nonTu 3a6w- 
Ta«, ho. Ha moh B3rn«a. ocraBneujaB b mctophm ropoaa 33M6T- 
Hwii cnea 

flOTOM, xoraa nepea CTH boshhx mmtmhf, mu csepHynn 
no3yHrn m nepemnn x caoeMy ocHOBHOMy 3aHtrruio. to ecTb 
crann co6npaTb noanncn 

rio3aHee 6bin ewe oanH mmthw H oh toxco roTOBM/icn npH 
HaiueM ynacTnn. ho na cawow MHTHHre yme mn b ochobhom 
3aHHManncb cbohm aexioM. 

C6op noannceM npoaoroxancn ao mons 1988 roaa, Cxonbxo 
Mu mx coCpann n nepenpaBunn b MocxBy? Bonbiue asyx twchm, 
rae-TO aoe c TpeTbio. A noiOM? Motom mu nocrenoHHO nepe- 



ajnn x aeny, xoropoe npoaoDxaeM n noHbiHe Mu kisynaeM 
hctodmio xoMMyHHCTMMecxoro Teppopa. - ceMnaecBTuneTHeM 
bomhu neHUMueB, CTaxiMHueB n T.a. npoTMB nopa6outeHHbix 
hmm Hapoaoe. HaMMHan c pyccxoro m xoHMan a(praHcxnM. 

BpeMenaMM sto 6bina Bovina na Mcr pe6neHne . - xax a 1 9 1 8- 
1920, 1929-1933 nun 1937-1938 roaax; s apyme nepnoaej - 
BOMHa Ha ncioweHHe. rio3fiHee npn XpymeBe, BOMHa bochob- 
hom npMHHna (JwpMy «xonoaHOH», ho bomhom 6wTb hb nepe- 
CTa/ia, to h aeno aaBaa «rop«Mne» BcnbiujxM. HoeoMepxaccx m 
apyrwe ropoaxM poccniicxoro (Ora, TCunHCM (b 1977 roay. 
xoraa moan acrann Ha 3auiMTy poanoro <i3bixa), MHrepseHunw 
b BeHrpnn n MexocnoBaxwH, a y>xe b «nepecTpoHxy» A/iMa-Aia, 
Baxy h CHOBa T6nnncn. BnnbHOc m Pura M MocKBa. Tpn flu* a 
Aarycre. Ho 3Tn Tpn ah" crann ana pewnMa nocneanuMn 

He ayMaa ». mto Ta BoiiHa euje aacT peunanB: 6ohhk> na 
KaBxa3e b 1994-1996 roaax Haaoxwan nMnepnn cyMena-Taxn 
yxta/iMTb «c Toro CBBTa*. 

Bonpocu c OTaeTaMM m 6e3 

A, COOCTBOHHO, KTO TaXMB - Mbi? OSbRCHHK): Mbl - 3T0 

KpacHonpcxoe o6mecTBO «MeMopnan». H ceroann naM - 10 
neT, Mu - MecTHoe oTae/ieHne Poccnncxoro HcTopnxo-npo- 
CBeTMTenbCxoro ripaB03aujMTHoro n BnaroTsopnTenbHoro 06- 
mecTBa «MeMopnan». Pa3yMeeTcn, 3aaaMa KpacHosipcxoro 
«MeMOpnaaa» - 3T0. a nepeyo onepeab, nayneHne co6biinn, 
nponcxoanBLunx a KpacHORpcxoM xpae (mu roaopnM: «b Ha- 
iaeM pernoHe»). 

A, CO6CTB6HH0. 3aM6M? Hy, XOTB 6bl 33T6M, MT06bl 3haTb 

OTBMecTBeHHyK) ncTopnio. K npnMepy, ecnn cnpocnTb y nioooro 
cnyMannoro npoxowero, mto Taxoe ByxeHBaxiba, to oh, Haeep 
ho, Mio-T0 Bpa3yMnTenbHoe cmoxcot oTBBTnTb. A ecnn cnpo- 
CMTb ero npo EHMceMCTpon (mjim npo CH6yj10H, mtim npo 
ropnar)? Koh6mho. npo aanexnn 3arpaHHMHuH ByxenBanba 
Toxce 3Han> naao, ho npo csoe, poaHoe n 6nn3Koe. tbm Sonee 
3to *e u ecTb Haiaa MCTopna! A mto ohb npnnrHa He bo scex 
OTHOuieHnHX, Tyr HMMero hb noaenaemb: apyryio ncTopwio HaM 
B3RTb HeoTxyaa «fla hkmo wenan 6u an" nac mhom nciopnn*. 
xax cxa aan co B3Aoxom BennxtiM nosT . npaeaa. hb 3Haio, mto 6u 
oh cxasan. aownBn oh ao TopwecTBa neHnHcxnx naen. 

Ecnn me roBopnrb cepb63H0. to aocTaTOMHO nponHTnpo- 
aaTb apyoro xnaccnxa: «Hapoa. 3a6uaujnn caoe npouinoe, 
pncxyeT nepewnrb ero eme pass. 

riniuy «, a caw ayMaw: sto on« Hac ryjlAr - npouinoe. a ans 
xoro-To apyroro? HanpnMep, ann coceaeti Hauinx aa TyMaHra- 
HOM^Qa m aa ApryHbio cAMypoM. npnMOCxaxteM.MHoroTaKoro, 
mto y Hac bhqht yxe Tonbxo a aypHux CHax. H mom 3to y hmx 
xohmmtca? flan-ro Bor (n mm. m hsm). mto5 xoHMMnocb xotb 6w 
tbx, xax y Hac. a He Tax. xax a (OrocnaBnn ... ripn mx-to paxeTHO- 
naepHOM apceHane 

XoMy ao6aBMTb ewe napy 3a6aBHbix Ha6mofieHnn n3 Toro. 
ywe aanexoro 1988 roaa HaM Toraa Macro 3aaaBa/iM Hecxonb- 
xo TnriMMHux BonpocoB Bo-nepaux, noneMy mu peiUMnn 3a- 
H«Tbc« tbmom «CTanMHCXMX» (no ToraawHeii oqoMunanbHon 
TepMMHonorviM) penpeccMii- HaeepHoe, ot hmx nocTpaoaxi kto- 

TO M3 H3UJMX 6nM3KMX? 

Ka)«aun pa3 npnxoaunocb aoBOnbHO aonro oSbncHHTb, mto 
npnMMHa Boace hb o6n3aTenbHO 8 stom. HanpMMep. poaHTe- 
nen BnaanMnpa TeoprMeenMa Teppop He 3aaen (xot» cpean 
aanbHnx poacTBeHHuxoa, xohomho, Gunn penpeccMpoBaHHue) 
Moero OTua ocpopMnna Ha MepaoHeu Tiopsaxa (10 ner itopeM- 
Horo 3axniOMeHMR) aueaaHan ceccnn BoeHHOM xonnerviM Bep- 
xoBHoro cyaa CCCP (y<p-<p! y Hac npuHSTo pa6oMee coxpawe- 
Hne - b'c BK BC). Hoi Ecnn ncxoamb na (paxTOB nnMHon 
6nor pacpHn. Tax »*AomeH no rpo6 jkhshu 6/iaroaapnTb o6oux 
aennxMx Bowen (to ecrb Hocwcpa BnccapMOHOBMMa m Aaonb- 
<pa AnoMSOBnMa), nocxonbxy 6e3 nx ynopHux n HacToriMuaux 
crapaHnn » 6u npocro no CMor nosambcs Ha cbbt. floTOMy mto 



PRO MEMORIA 



nepByio ceMbw oTua y6n/in b XapMOM HaiiMCTbi. Upa KysHeuo- 
aa TOJKe o6n3aHa noHBneHneM Ha cbot «reHHK> ecex apeMe*»: 
ea otbu. I"1o6mck Ky3HeuoB. ksk m mom. oxa3ancfl b KpacHOHpcxe 
nocne HopMnuiara. HecranbTO hpkmx cTpaHmi nocBHiueHO 
6My b MBMyapHOti KHure bopuca BMTMaHa «WnMOH, KOTopoMy 
M3MeHM/ia poflMHa*. 

Btodom TunnHHbiM Bonpoc: «Hy, roa-aBa aw 6yaeTe onpaiun- 
B3Tb penpeccupoBaHHbix, bcbx onpocnTe, a aanbwe-TO hto? 
Hx x<b Mano ocTa/iocb...» flepBoe epeMn mm m caMM ne npea- 
CTaansnn ncTMHHbix MacwTa6oB npo6neMbi. xoth y»ce Toraa 
noHMMann, hto pa6oTu bbmo ho Ha roa flpoiuno aecaib ne- m 
TBnepb cosepiueHHO hcho, hto paooTw xbstmt HecKoribKHM 
noKoneHMSM mctopmkob. To, hio aenaeM uw, Boo6tue xawercn 
mho M6M-T0 Bpoae Hyneaoro unKna. BnponeM, neMy yaMsnaTb- 
cn? B nciopnn BTopoti mmpobom bomhw ewe HeMano 6enux 
nsTBH, a Beab ee y*e nonBeKa M3ynaiOT tuchhm mctopmxob! 

npMMSM 3T0 HCTOPHH anMHOM «8Cero» B LUBCTb HBT, 3 HB B 
COMbfleCflT. 

BbiaaeT m noHbiHe, hto >ao-Hn6yab yaMBHTcn «KaK, neyxenw 
k Bau ao chx nop o6paiaaiOTCA penpeccnpoBaHHbie?» B stom 
cnynae a o6i>hchhk> oneHb npocro: CTa6nnbHb(ii noTOK o6pa- 
laeHMM HaM rapaHTupoBaH eme aaaauaTb neT fleno b tom, 
hto b 2018 roay yftayr Ha neHcwo (ecnn nencMOHHbiM eoapacT 

H9 H3MeHBT) pOaMBUJMeCH B 1958 roay. B roa MaCCOBOrO OCBO- 

6ox<aeHMH n3 ccunxM. TeM M3 hmx. kto «ycnen» poanTbcs a 
ccbime, nonaraeTcn pea6nnnTamiH. A nocxonbxy ao neHCHM 
CTaiyc pea6nnMTnpoBaMHoro He aaer npaxiMHecKOM nonb3bi, 
to aa pea6nnuTaunei* uhotmb HanMHaiOT o6paiaaTbcn. Tonbxo 
Koraa y»e npMwna nopa ocpopMnHTbCH b co6ece. 

Kohbhho, ccunbHbie 6wnn h nocne 1958 roaa: HanpviMep, 
HBKOTopux nmoBCKMx h naTBMMCKnx rpawaaH (c nepeoPi aenop- 
Taunn, c 1941 roaa)aep)KanM noa KoweHaaTypoM ao 1960 roaa 
n aa*e no3xe (mm ne 3HaeM, noneMy), HeKOTopwx ccwnbHbix 
yKpanHijeB c aenoprajnn 1951 roaa ocBo6oannn TonbKO B 
1963 roay. a eme 6binM 6biBLuwe ysHMKu-aBaauaninHinneTHn- 
xm, kotopwm saMOHMna narepHoiM cpox ccwnicoM * 0CBo6oannn 
b 1963-1964 roaax... Ho sto y*e hb 6wnn TaKne MaccoBwe 
onyn w. 

A rtocneaHMti MaccoBbin hotok ccbinbHbix nowen c 1961 
roaa, no 3HaM6HMTOMy xpymeBCKOMy «yKa3y o TyHenauax*. 
HbiHMe oh SHaMBHviT b ochobhom onaroaapa aeriMKOMy Bpoac- 
KOMy: xax pa3 no 3TOMy yxasy ero m 3acyann,i. Ho spa hokoto- 
Pbie CHMTaioT. mto Toraa nocTpaaann npenMymecTBeHHO «no- 
3TM-My3biKaHTbi-xyaox<HviKvi»: coTHdMM ccbinanM b Haw Kpafi 
roHMMUx 3a Bepy - mctmhho npaBocnaaHbix m hh tmubch imukob. 
3to 6una ccbinica «cpoMHan» , to ecTbeo cdokom Kan npaanno. 
no yna3y aasa/iH nsTb neT. Una CBeaeHMs HaM ywe yaaBanocb 
no TaxMM cnyManM ao6nTbcn pea6nnnTamiM. 

Mbl m Haiun noceTMTe/iM 

ripneM noceTHTene^ b natueM «MeMopnane» - sto eoo6me 
ocooan TeMa. Ha npueMe cn*y xax pas n. «Cn)*y» riRTb pas a 
Heaenio. to acTb xpoMe BbixoaHbix. torfi/B flou Tbxhhkh sanapT 

H3 33MOK. 

3a Heaeno 6wBaeT MHoraa 15-20 oSpameHMM (nenoBBK npM- 
ujen c xaxuM-To sonpocoM no HaiueM TBMaTMxe - sto HaauBa- 
ercH o6pauieHueM), MHoraa 40 m 6onbiue - 3to yxte neperpy3xa. 
Ho Huxyaa He aeHeujbcn. Hy, aeno ho TonbKO b 3T0ii uno^pe. 
o6paiaeHneo6paiueHUK> po3Hb. Onun MenoBex npviuien noann- 
caTb 3anpocbi, xoTopwe n noaroTOBun nocne ero npeauayiaero 
npuxoaa 3ro aeno MMHyTHoe. Hnn npunec OTBeTbi n3 YBfl. 
*CB unw eme OTKyaa-Hn6yab - OTBeTbi Ha sanpocw, KOTopwe 
vbi c hum paHee caenann no ero npo6neMe. A apyrofi - sto 
HOBbiM noceTMTenb, nnepBUMHoe o6paiaeHMe». rioxa n «no- 
cmotpk} Bonpoc», to ecTb pa36epycb. tome 6binvi b ero aene 
«tpaKTbi np^MeHBHUfl penpeccnM» m icaxkie npaxruHecKne Bon- 



pocw no ero aeny HywHO peiunTb. n KawM o6pa30M aro HyxcHO 
aenarb - na ace sto moxot yarn m nonsaca. n name Sonbiue. 
Kohbmho. SbiBaiOT n npocTbie aena. ho Beab noxa ne nocMOT- 
pMiub. Hen3BecTHO, npocroe aeno nnn hot. rioaTOMy nepBMH- 
Hb4x noceTMTeneM ocraBnnto Ha KOHeu npneMa Unoua 6biea- 
6T, hto HBHHyT B03MymaTbCB: a Mbi nepBbie npnuinn! ripnxo- 
flurcs o6i.HCHflTb Bw npnainn TonbKO ceroflHS. a bot OHa 
MecflLi Haaaa, a oh - roa Ha3aa. Eme SbisaeT. hto HanHHaiOT 
flOKa3biBaTb: y mbhh, Mon, aeno MMHyTHoe, TonbKO CKoniipo- 
BaTb aBe 6yMawKn! Ara. rosopio «, bcb noHnTHO, npnaeicn c 
BaiuMM aenoM pa36vipaTbCB MMHyT copox. hs MeHbiue. H peaxo 
OLun6aKicb. aoxasaHO npaKTMKOM. 

Hto Mbi AaeM /hoarm 

Pa6oTa c noceinTensMn y Hac ocHoaaHa Ha npuHiwne 
uTepauuM, to ecTb, HanaB peujaTb Bonpoc, n CTapaiocb ero 
AopeujaTb ao KOHua. ODbHCHSTb moflsw, xyaa n xax sanpaujn- 
aaTb. nacro 6biaaeT 6ecnone3Ho: MHOme He oneHb rpaMOTHu. 
HeHaaewMO vi cnniucoM aomo. BbicTpee a HecpaBHeHHO hs- 
ae*Hee - caMOMy roTOBMTb HyxHwe 3anpocbi m caMOMy hx 
ornpaannrb. 

OaHa 6eaa: oo>MUManbHbie opraHbi o6n33Hbi oTBenaTb rpaw- 
aanaM. to ecib, b naujeM cnynae, penpeccupoeaHHtJM nnn hx 
poacTseHHuxaM. a bot «MeMopnany» OTBenaTb ne o6»3aHbi II, 
K3K npaenno.He OTaenaiOT. flosioMy 3anpocb4 aonwHu 6uTb ot 
umbhm noceTMTenevi, M3-33 nero ohm BWHywaeHw npuxoanTb 
eme pa3, hto6m CBoeii pyxovi stm 3anpocbi noanncaTb. 

CaMO peujeHne KOHxpeTHoro aonpoca mombt 3aHMMaTb hb- 
cxonbKO Mecnuea. Ecnw Bonpoc aaxniOHaeTcn 8 tom, hto y 
nenoBexa nocaa^nn OTqa, cxaxceM. a Omckom o6nacm. a Huxa- 
kmx aoKyweHToe 06 stom y Hero eme hot, to cnanana Haao 
3anpocnTb b ynpaBneHne 4>C6 no Omckom oCnacTM, m nepe3 
aBa Mecsma npMaeT otbbt Toraa mowho y*e sanpocMTb cnpaa- 
xy o pea6MnMTaL|MM OTua, cKaweM, ms OMCxoro o5ncyaa. 3to 
eme Mecsu-nomopa. M. HaKOHeu, 3anBneHMe b npoxypaTypy 
Omckom o6nacTM o npM3H3HMM nocTpaaaauiMM. Eme mbchu- 
nonTopa. m nonyneH peaynbTaT - cnpaaKa o npu3HaHun nocTpa- 
aasuiMM. Toraa n o6bscHflK). c hbm m k KOMy matm b co6ec, m 
xaKue b pesynbTaTe y HenoBexa nosBSTcn nbroTbi. H ew,e - hto 
xoraa npo(iaeT nepe3 TocayMy npoenT M3MeneHMM m aononHe- 
hmh k 3aKOHy o pea6MnMTauMM, to cnpaBKa «o npM3H3HHM 
nocTpaaaaujMM* Kax 6bi cawa co6om npeapaTMTCH b cnpaaKy o 
peaSMnMTauMM, N y ee oenaaaTena no«BBTCfl eme h apyrne 
nbroTbi, a Taioxe Haa6aBxa k neHCMM. 

To ecTb, BuxoaMT b cyMMe 4-5 MecnueB, a Beab raxoM 
cnynaii M3 caMux npocrbix. «C Hynn» oh peujaeTcn b Tpn 
MTepauMM, LuecTb oCpameHMM. 

Kto-to MOweT cnpocMTb: noneMy stm nioaM MayT b «MeMopn- 
an». a He b npoxypaTypy, Mnn yBfl? 06bHCHHio: MMorwe CHana- 
na MayT b ocpnuMa/ibHwe ynpextaeHMH, a y*e OTTyaa mx HanpaB- 
nniOT k HaM. no pa3HbiM npMHMHaM: y oaHMX Bonpoc He no 
HaiueMy perMOHy. y apyrMx HeaocTaTOHHO aoxyMeHTOB MnM 
xaKMe-TO apyrne cnoKHOcm.. H npaBMnbHO aenaoT: npoxypa- 
Typa hb CTaHeT pa36MpaTbcn c npo6neMaMM ccbinbHbix, sto 
KOMneTeHUMn yBQ; yBfl He saHMMaeTca BonpocaMM KOMneHca- 
umm 3a yrpaneHHoe HMymecTBO. m t n A b «MeMopMane» mu 
dapaeMca peuiMTb najwibiM Bonpoc a nonHOM o6beMe rioce- 
TMTenw npMxoa«T m tobopbt: mhb Haao nonynnTb to-to. A n mm 
OTaenaio: bot xoraa n nocMOTpio Bam Bonpoc, Toraa m cxaxcy, 
hto BaM wywHO HacTO npMxoa«T nwaM c ijenbio nonyHMTb 
cnpaaKy o npMSHSHMM nocTpaaaaujMM. a oicaabiBaeTcn. hto mm 
m pea6MnMTauMK> Haao nonynaTb: GbinM b ccbinxe. Bbisaer 
aawe, hto ohm caMM 06 stom ne 3HaiOT (hto 6unM s ccbinxe), a 

MHe 3TO BMaHO no aOKyMBHTaM, KOTOpbie OHM C3MM MB M 

npMHecnM. 



PRO MEMORIA 



17 



Hto 3to AaeT HaM 

EcTSCTBeHHO, mto noMomb penpeccMpoBaHHWM m nocrpa- 
aaaujuM, npewae acero a BOCCTanoeneMHn »ix npaa. xax sto 
npoaycMOTpeHO 3axoHOM o pea6nnMTaunn. - ann Hac onHa M3 
vciasHbix 3aAaM Ho xorna Ha npneine mohb cnpaiDMBaioT. 
rnaBHoe fin sto Haiue aeno, n o6w»chhio, mto «MeMopnan» - 

MCTOpHKO-npOCBeTMTenbCKOe oSmeCIBO, M TOHbXO nOTOM MfleT 

cnoBo «npaB03amMTHoe»- flnn Hac np*6M noceTmenei* - eme 

H He3aM6HMMblM HCTOMHUX HCTOpHMeCKOM HHlJlOpMaUHM. Beflb B 

apxHBHbix AOKyMOHTax - TonbKO sacTb npaaabi, tbm 6onee 
yMHibiBas. HbUMM pyxaMn ohm nucaHu. 3aMacryio pyxaMM nana- 
mbm htim ux noapyMHbix nio6bie apxMBHbie mctomhmxm Haao c 

M6M-T0 COnOCTaBHTb. MBM-TO HaflO M3M6PMTb XpMBMSHy 3TMX 

3epxan. no ceoe 3Maio: ot aonmx 3aHnrMM b apxnae M03rn 
HannHaKjT coxHyTb, m ywo nepeciaeiub lyBCTBoaaib peant- 
HOCTb co6biTHM, ctohiumx 3a Ka3eHHWMM 6yMaraMM. 

Bonpoc aeflb hg b tom, weMy BepnTb - aoxyMeHTaM «nn 
nioaflM Canaetenn tojxb MHoraa Taxoro HanneTyr! Ho h b 
aoxyMBHTax 6biBaeT nonHO caMwx Hecypa3Hwx oujhdok, xotb 
6w nepenyraHHbix aaT nnii Q^aMnnM* OMBHb npocTo oamh 
mctomhhx - non-MCTOHHMxa, flaa yxe HaaewHee. Tpw - nonHan 

aOCTOBepHOCTb. ECJIM 3TM MCTOMHMXM B3aHMMO HBMBMCMMbl. 

3to BOo6me ochobhom npnni4nn uccneaoBarenbCxow aen- 
TenbHocTn «MeMOpnana»: c6op n conocTasneMne («CTbix0B- 
xa») aaHHbix M3 Bcex aocrynHbix mctomhkxob. Mw coowpaBM 
kiciopMsecxyio xapi uny hs ocxohxob. m3 mosbmkm. ho y Hac ecib 
npewMymecTBo: CBnaeTenM m mx wnsan. nycTb HecoBepujBH- 
Han. naMjm.. 

B npouacce npMBMa nocemTensM, oaHaxo, y Hac peann3y- 
tOTcn He ronbKO npaaosamMTMoie h nccneaoaaienbCKne. ho 
OTnacTM Taxxa npocBBTHTenbcxne sanasM Macro mbfiobbk npw- 
xoflMT a y6ex<aeHHvi, mto ero OTua paccrpannnM «no aoHOcy» 
TaKoro-To Hrin oh xombt nocMOTpsTb apxHBHoe aeno. mmbhho 
HTo6biy3HaTbOTTyaa, «KTOHanncajiaoHoc» npnxoanTc*io6bflc- 
HHTb. mto npuMUHa 6bina cobcbm hb a aoHOce. aaxtB ecnn bohoc 
aeHCTBMTe/ibHO cymecTBOBan. HKBfl (a ao Hero - OITiy. a 
nocne - MrB) npocro BbmOJlHHri njTAH. fla, bo3mox<ho. hb 
6yab Toro aoHoca, Tax paccipensn* 6bi xoro-To apyroro. A 
nnaHwBbinM-nnAHbl nAPTHH. naprvmcxasana: HAflO. Bot 
m ecn npuMMMa. Tax xte aenanocb n c «KynaxaMM» b HaMane 

ipwauaTblX. Tax xe»C «H3M8HHMXaMH DOaMHbl* B COpOXOBblX. 
HacToqiniie-TO noco6HHKH rumepoBueB noMTM Bee ycnerrn 
cxpwTbcn, a nnaH no nsMeHnnxaM awnonHHTb ace pasno Haao! 
M HKBfl-MrB BwnonHBno: ohh noa^ aoeHHwe, npnxa3 ecTb 
npnxa3. 

/lereHflbi m MMQbbi, uM<t>pbi n 4>aicru 

Boo6iae b 3toh apepe 6uTyeT MHoro nereHa. Ecrb Taxan, 
mto cneaosaienb aonmen 6biTi bo mto 6b) to hm CTano 3acra- 
Buib apecTOBaHHoro noanncatb mpn3HaHne» - mod. noTOMy 
mx m nbnanM. Ho ecnM 3T0 m Tax. to nwwb OTMacTw; OMenb 
mhotmb HMMero He noflnncann («hb npM3Hann BMny») m tom He 
Menee 6wnn ocyixaeHbi. Bonee Toro. naseciMbi cnysan. xoraa 
aasann cpox 5e3 eanHOto aonpocal 3tm cnyMaM MSBecTHbi HaM 
ot WMBbix ntoaeA. nonyMMBUiMx cpox mmchho Tawu o6pa3ow 
EcrecTaeHHO, mm hs 3HaeM, 6binM nw paccrpenbi 6e3 aonpo- 
cob. 06 3tom cnpaujHaaTb Mexoro. 

Ecn. Taxan nereHaa: xamabiiii aenb Ha narepHOM pa3Boae 
ace o6n3aTenbH0 HasuBanM cbok> CTarbK) m cpox. He aceraa m 
hb Besae: cothm TbicHM, ecnw He MMnnMOHw, y3HMxoB roaaMM 
cHaenn b narepnx h 6e3 CTaTtM. m 6es cpoxa. 3to Te. xoMy 
BbinMCbiBano cpox «oco5oe coBemaHMe» a copoxoBbix roaax. 
Ho m b 1938 roay Taxoe 6biBano. mto 3Tan BwrpyxonH b narepe 
m yx<e TaM. cpasy Mnn nosanee, oCbHBnBnM cpox 

Ecn. nerenaa. 6yaT0 bo epeMn bomhw 58 CTaTbK) M3 
narepen He Bbinycxann (aawe ecnM kohmmucr cpox), a aepwann 
«ao oco6oro>. 8 HexoTopux narepnx - aa, ho. HanpMMep. b 



Kpacnare m Hopunbnare BbinycxanM no xoHuy cpoxa m a aoHHy. 
Bonee Toro. bo mhotmx narepnx 58-to aax<e axTMpoBanti, to 
ecTb 0CBo6oixaanM aocpOMHO no HeTpyaocnoco6HOCTM. Bwna 
Tanan aMpexTMBa HKBfl b 1942 roay 

MHoro HeaopasyMeHMM Bw3biBaeT uMippa: 60 muhphohob 
Taxyw UMtppy (Maaxce 100 MMnnMOHOB) Ha3WBaK)T Mccneaoea- 
TenM, M3ysaK)mHe y6binb HaceneHMn b CCCP a pesynbTaTe 
MaccoBoro Teppopa Ho sto ho MMcno norM6ujMx, a pacMeTHan 
uMtppa, BxnxjMaioiaan Hepoa^BUJMxcn aeTeti. to ecTb aeTeu, 
KOTopue poannncb 6bi, ecnn 6w mx noreHunanbHwe poflMTenM 
ocranncb *MBbi Haao yMMTusaTb m bot Kaxoeo6cTonTexibCTBo: 
norn6wHX MornoSbiTb aaxce 6onbuie. mbm penpsccMpoeaHHux! 
noTOMy mto xcapTBbi xronoaHoro Teppopa* 1932-1933 roaoa 
(Ha yxpaHHe m Ky6aHM, b Kaaaxcrane) cpopManbHo ho 6unM 
penpeccMpoBaHbi: mx hb apecTOBbiBaxiM m hb ccwnanM, a npo- 
cto OTo6pann ace npoayxTw nwraHMn. TMnMMHWM cnyMaii ytJMM- 
CTaa «6e3 nponwTMti xoobm». MHome cmmt3iot, mto cwaa we 
Haao npMMMOiMTb m neHMHrpaacxyo 6noxaay Me OMeHb now»T- 
ho, kto TaM 6noxMPOBan. - sepMaxT mhm HKBA? 

3to bcb x TOMy, mto hb cnsayflT nyraTb aea pasHwx noHHTMs: 
«penpeccMpoBaHHbie» h xxceprabi pe*MMa» Bropoe HaMHoro 
ujMpa nepeoro. 

ripHxoaMTCt) MHoraa cnuujaTb aypauxMM Bonpoc: a mbbo sto 
b KaaaxcTaHe xa3axoB Mano, MOHbiue nonoBMHbi? A Ha ceaepe 
m Ha BOdoxe rax cobcbm HBTy? A bot tobo, mto b 1933 roay 
xaiaxos a Ka3axcTaHe ocranacb Tpeib TpeTb norH6na ot 
ronoaa. xoraa y hmx. KOMBBHUxoB-cxoTOBoaoB, xoMMyHMCTbi 
yHMMTOJXMnM aecb cxot. mto6w «nepeB8CTM Ha ocaanbiti o6pa3 
wm3hm» (aspixaTb X0M6BHMXO8 noaxoHTponeM TpyaHee). a eme 
TpeTb 6e)«ana co cbommm craaaMM 3a rpannuy, a KMraMCXMM 

CMHbU3HH. 

BbirywT b o6iaecTBeHHOM co3HaHMH m uMtppw npocro npa- 
yeenMMeHHbie: HanpMMep. mto Mepe3 HopMnbCKMB narepn npo- 
Luno 6onbiue MMruiMOHa ysHHKOB. 3to hb Tax: hb conbiue 
nonyMMnriMOHa. a cxopee. oxono 400 tucsm. CMmas m c 6uto- 

BMX3MM (H3 KOTOpbiX OMBHb MHOTMB TOMB 6binn HM B MBM H6 

nOBMHHbl), M C H8CTOni«HMM yronoBHMxaMn. A nonMT3axnx)MBH- 
Hbix, snanMO, hb oonae 300 tuwh . Bosmoxcho, 6unM cpean hmx 

M noCOOHHKM HaUMCTOB. aeMCTBMTenbHO BMH0BHMB B BOBHHblX 

npecTynneHMHx. ho HaaapHMxa HBMHoro. 

KciaTM. HopMnbnar - sto hb ronbxo caM Hopwnbcx c AyanH- 
xoii m KaMepxaHOM. sto m BocbMoe n/o (naroTaeneHMe) a 
KpaCHonpcxa, m narepb a rioaTecoBO. m cenbxo3narepn (noaxo- 
3bi) b KypeMxe m towHee. ao caMoro lUyiuBHCxoro. 

Qeno BBab hb Tonbxo b MacujTaGax Teppopa. ho. rnaBHOB, b 
tom. mto xoMMyHMCTbi yHMMTOxcanM MAM 6pocann 3a KOniOMyiO 
npoBonoxy nyMuwix: caMbix Tpyaonio6viBbix m McxycHbix 38Mne- 
aenbijeB, caMux yMenux m paasMTbix paooMHx. caMbix MBCTHbix 

M TOnXOBblX lOpMCTOB. 3K0H0MMCT0B. MCTOpMKOB. CaMblX TanaH- 

TnnBbix m npaaaMBbix nwcaTsneM m nosTOB... M Taxaanee. m Tax 
aansB... 

Ems oaHa nereHaa. TO*e aoBonbHo *MByMa«i: mto b Bonb- 
uiom Teppop. to ecn> b 1937-1938 roaax, nocTpaaariM a ochob- 
hom MneHbi BKn(6) no HaujBMy perMOHy cpeaw apecTOBaHHbix 
b nepwoa BT 6wno hb Sonbue 2-3 npoueHTOB xoMMyHMCtoB. He 
McxmoMax}, mto b Mocxbb npoueHT mot 601Tb m Bbime. Ho He 
Hacronbxo x<e! 

fla, coean ToraauiHMX xoMMyHMcroa 6wnM cy6bexTMBHO Me- 
cTHbie nioan. MCxpsHHe BepMBUJMe b MapxcMCTCXMe 6paaHM 
Koraa TaxMe Haxoneu npo3peBanM. ohm 6wnn o6peM8Hbi. 

HblHBUlHMB XOMMyHMCTbl BOXaSblBaiOT, MTO MM HB3aHBM X8- 

nTbcn, nocxonbxy MneHOB stoh napTMM npn CranMHe roxxa m 
cawanM, n paccTpenMBanM. Ohm ronbxo 3a6biBaK)T yroMHMTb, 
xto mx caMMx npMHMMan b Pnabi: paccrpennHHwe? UnM tb. xto 
paccTpennsan? 

KpacHonpcx 



PRO MEMORIA 



naivisiTM BeHMQMMHa Mo<J>e. 1938 - 2002 



Hctophh He ynwT, a Haxa3biBaeT aa He3HaHne 

BeHuauuH lAocpe 

21 anpe/in n roTOBHncn k Bcrpese c MonoAewbto - cnyuiaTeriHMM PnaaHCKOM 
UlKoribi npaB MenoBexa. XoTen roBopuTb o mmccmm Hauiero ncTopnxo-npocBeTn- 
TenbCKoro m npaB03amuTHoro 06iyecTBa « MeMopnan ». TpyAHan 3aAana. - ncxan 
o6pa3bi, cpaBHeHMH... KaK oobiHHo. npnewHUK y mchr 6mji HacTpoeH Ha BOiiHy 
Paflno Cao6ofla. Ra, noflywan, Bee-Tax* TOHHee. hbm Bbhr Hocpe. Haw neTepSyp- 
rcKMM MeMopnaneu, nowa/iyn. n He cxa3an hhkto. flocTan c no/iKH wypHan «Kap- 
Ta». 8 kotopom 6bin onyonnKoeaH Bohhh MaTepnan «K 10-^eTMto 06u|6CTBa 
«MeMopnari». npMHnncR nepesMTbiBaTb. llTyr- hoboctm Ha «Cbo6oa6»: 

«20 anperiR 2002 zoda e Camcm-nemepGypae Ha 64-m zody xu3hu CKOHvanca 
u3eecmHbiu poccuucKuu npaeo3atnumHUK u ucmopux BemiaMUH Hocpe. KaK coo6ununo 
nemep6ypzcKoe omdenemje o6iuecmea «MeMopuan». Hocpe yuep Ha scxanamope 
cmaHu,uu Mempo «npocnei<m 6onbuieeuKoa». rionpedeapumenbHou eepcuu npaeoox- 
paHumeribHbix opaanoa, cMepmb Hacmynuna e peaynbmame cepdewozo npucmyna. 
BeHuaMUH Hocpe c 1 964 zoda aicmuaHO compydHunan a 3anpemeHHOM coeemcKUMU e/iacmnuu xypnane «KonoKon», 
3anmoe1965 zody 6bin npuzoeopen k mpoM zodaM /luuieHua ceo6odbi. Poena ocao6o>t<d6HUfi aanuManca ucmopueu 
nonumuvecKOu onno3uuuu a CCCP. C 1989 aoda Hocpe ao3znaamn caHKm-nemep6ypecKuu HayvHO-UHCpopMauuoH- 
Hbiu uenmp «MeMopuan». 

BeHWaMHH BMKTOpOBMM HOCpe - MCTOpHK, HHTGJl/ieKTyaJl, 86MHO UpOHHHHblM M COMHeBaWlUMMCR. . . 

Tenepb hsm npnaeica xcHTb n pa6oTaTb 6e3 Hero. EcTecTBennbiM xoa speMeHM. M Bee-Tax* osenb 6o/ibHo. 
Bewnan naMHTb. 

Andpeu E/iunyuioe 




BeHnaMMH MO0E 



XX BeK: MopaAb i/i npaBO 

Aoicnafl Ha Me>KflyHapoflHOM HayMHOfi KOHCpepeHuiiH 

«BorocnoBne noc/ie OcBeHUMMa m ero CBH3b c 6oroc/ioBneM nocne ry/lAra: 

CneACTBue n BbiBOAbi». CaHKT-lleTepSypr. 26-28 HHBapa 1998. 



B ocHOBy Hawero paccMOTpeHwn meh nonoxw* napa- 
floxc, CBH3aHHbiii c Te3MCOM o npnopmeTe npaB MenoBexa. 
TeancoM, kotopwh CTan oahmm h3 ochobhwx nAeonornqecxnx 

AOTMaTOB flOnMTMHeCKOM CpMJlOCOCjjMM COBpeMeHHOCTM. KaK 

MW y*e ynoMMHann paHee, 1945 roA moikho CHMTaTb xyribMH- 
HauMeii nonnTMHecxofl HCTOpMM XX Bexa. B 1945 roay coxja- 
Hbie BOticxa Ha Teppnropmix, Kompon^pyeMbix TepMaHMen. 
o6Hapyxnnn narepn yHMMTOweHvifl BparoB HauMOHanbHoro 
repMaHCKoro rocyaapcTBa, a tom *e roAy b Hiannn Ha 
nonbCKOM B3WKe Bbiiuna KHura Mopw m 3BepHAKa, onucwBa- 
wman cucTBMy narepew ryHAra b Cobbtckom Cotoae (no 
cBufleTenbCTeaM Maccoeoro onpoca nonbCKtix 3aK/noseH- 
Hbix, BbiLueatiJMX M3 CCCP b 1942 rofly c apMMen AHflepca). 
narepeii. npeflHa3HaM6HHbix Ann yHMMTOMBHun Bparoe coun- 
anMCTvmecKoro rocyaapcTBa. n, HaKOHeu, a ceHTa6pB 1945 
roaa aTOMHan 6oM6apanpoBKa Xhpocmmw noKaaana, hto h 
Ann ABMOKpaTMsecKOti A M O p HK M ny*an ^enoBenecKas «M3Hb 
HMMero He ctomt. Tax 6bin o6o3HaM6H kphsmc Bcex Tpex 
ocHOBHbix HanpaaneHHvi nonmnMBCKOM Mucnw XX BeKa: ro- 
cyAapCTBa counanbHon cnpaBeAnnBocrM, rocyAapcTBa Ha- 
unoHantHoii Bonn n rocyaapcTBa pa3yMHoft AeMOKpaTun. 
Bee ohm oKa3anncb eecnenoBeMHW no csoeki cyrn n Bee 



npniunn k oflHOMy m TOMy *e - k MaccoBOMy yHMHToxteHHio 
cjiyMaiiHbix IHOAeA, OKasaaujMxcfl Ha aopore ycTponTeneii 
nonnTMMecKoro wABana. 

B 1948 roAy Ann yenoxoeHMH ycTpaiuBHHoro MenoBene- 
CTBa Ha TeHepaflbHOii AccaM6nee OOH 6wna npHHtm Bce- 
oowaa ABK/iapauHfl npaa MenoeeKa. o6bnBMBiuan npaaa n 
MHTepecu MenoBeKa 4>yH/jaMeHTanbHovi ueHHOCTbto mmpobo- 
ro coo6iuecTBa n CTaBiuafl ochobom Hosoro nonHTMnecKoro 
fl3WKa. C Tex nop HeT, nowanyM, b Mvipe hm oahoto nonnTHMec- 
xoro AOKyMeHTa, kotopwm He AewiapupoBan 6w Te3nc o 
npnopnieTe npaB HenoBexa. OAHaxo nonyBexoBan hctopm- 
secKan peanbHOCTb no*a3ana. hto waccoBbie nonnTnnecKne 
penpeccnu. npocTO y6nMCTsa a nonnTHMecKnx uennx ocTa- 
nucb hopmom nonnTMnecKOM 3XM3HM XX BeKa KnTavi, BbeT- 
H3M, KaM6ofl>t<a. JlaTHHCKan AMepHKa, AcppnKa, eBponeiic- 
kmb m apa6cKne TeppopHCTw. AcJjraHMCTaH. lOrocnaBMH. Hen- 

Hfl - npnMepbl MOMHO MHOMHTb M MHO)KMTb. 

OMeanflHo. mto b coBpeMBHHOM Mupe OKa3anocb He 
o6ecneHBHHbiM ocHOBHoe npaBO MenoBexa - npaBO Ha »M3Hb. 
6e3 KOToporo pa3roBop o rapaHTunx counanbHwx m nonnTM- 
necxkix npaB ociaeTcn Tonbxo hhmcm He noAxpenneHHbiM 
3a«BreHneM o Snarvix HaMepeHMflx. nosTOMy (pyHAaMeH- 



PRO MEMORIA 



TanbHoti npo6neMoi/i coBpeMeHHoro Mupa oxaswaaeTCB Bon- 
poc - a MO)«eT nn Boo6iye 6wTb Aona3aHO m noATBepayjeHo 
npaBO senoBeKa Ha wn3Hb nnvi 3to npocTO RSMBBM xnMepa, 
npn3BaHMan 3aMacxnpoBaTb o6ujyio AerpaAaumo Mopa/in h 
cnori3aHne HenoeesecTBa b BoPiHy «Bcex npoiMB acex». B 
npeflbiayuiyio anoxy npaBO nenoaexa Ha x<M3Hb 6binoAexna- 
pupoaaHO pennrno3HbiMn 3anoBeaflMn, xax usHananbHoe 
6o>KecTBeHHoe ycTaHOBneHne B Hosoe spews oTnoweHue k 
3anoBeA"M n3MeHnnocb. mx crann BocnpuHMMaTb He tea* 
3anncb onbiTa BHyrpeHHew pennruo3Holi jkhshm, a xax Haoop 
peuerrroe rapanTMpoBaHHoro cnaceHMn, h xax bchkmm Ha5op 
peuenToa - flOCTynnbiMH xpHTMxe h Tpe6yioiunMn aoKasa- 
TenbCTB. MoiuHan nponaraHAMCTCxaa MaiunHa pa6oTaeT. hto- 
6w A0xa33Tb npaeo nenoBexa Ha wn3Hb. OHa anen/wpyeT x 
HaujMM MyBCTaaM h AeMOHCTpupyeT ropu Tpynoa m cneAu 
KaTacTpo(j3HHecKMx anoAeHCTB, OHa anenmipyeT k npaBy, 
KOTopoe xax 6w cnoco6HO orpaHnnnib aewcTBHe jnovi aonn. 
OHa anennnpyeT x pa3yMy. AoxasbisaB xoHeMHyto He^tfcex- 
TMBHOCTb 3na. Bee TmeTHo. 3HTy3nacTt>i HacM/iMB TopmecTBy- 
K3T no8CK)Ay. h xaweTCfl, hto nenoBex nponrpan cbow >xvi3Hb 
nonHocTbK), npimeM caMOMy ce6e. 

Bonee BHMMaTenbHbiti B3mnA na Beiun, OAHaxo. noxa- 
3WBaeT, hto HpaBCTBeHHas AerpaAaunw He TOTanbHa. h ecTb 

ypOBBHb, Ha KOTOpOM Mbl BCe-TaXM HaXOAHM n03MTHBHO6 

noHMMaHne y nx5ABM caMux pasnwx *u3HeHHbix ycrraHOBOx. 
ripaBo nenoBexa Ha wn3Hb ABtfcTBMTeribHo nnoxo Aoxasye- 
mo. nnoxo A0xa3yeMbi counanbHbie m nonnTUHeci<ne npaBa. 
npoMCTexaiomMe us npHopmeTa npasa Ha xutsHb. OAHaxo 
ecnM Mu oGpaTHMcn x npaBy. KOTopbiM pacnonaraeT Henosex 
BHe 3aencnMocTn ot Toro. *na oh hjim wepTB. mu oxaabiBaeM- 
cn Ha 6onee TBepAOM no<-me o6iuecTaeHHoro BsaHMonowuMa- 
hmb. Mu MMeeM b amy npaBO nenoaexa Ha hmb. Ha <pOHe 
TOTanbHoro HpaBCTBeHHoro penaTHBH3Ma npaao nenoBexa 
Ha hmb oxa3biBaeTCfl oahhm n3 HeMHorux HeocnopuMbix no- 
crynaTOB, yfjeAUTenbHbiM or\n dkjabm pa3nnHHwx xyxibTyp n 
pa3nnMHbix *<M3HeHHbix ueHHocTOH. flBurancb no cneflaw 
nonMTHMBCKHX KaTacTpocp. MaxcwManbHoe cowyBCTBwe mu 

06b4MH0 HaXOAHM B OTHOWeHMM llpeOAO/ieHMfl aHOHMMHOCTM 

cwepTM. BoccTaHOBnenne mmbh wepTB BBnBeTca aaAaseM. 
noHBTHOii BC6M m He Tpe6y»metf o&bBCHeHK*. 3to AaeT 
ocHOBaHHe Ann on™wn3Ma. nocxonbxy 3aujnTa mm6hm moikbt 
txraTb nepBOM cryneHbio e aene 3amnTbi Henoaei<a Mmb 
npnHaAne*MT Menoeexy Haaceraa. MoxeT 6brrb. 3to eflMH- 
CTaeHHati ero HacTonnan co6cTBeHHOCTb, m sto AaeT HaM 
oTnpaBHyio TCHKy Ann Haujero AanbHePiiuero Ancxypca. 

PeannsauHA nonnTunecxoM (pnnoco(J)Mn b BHfle Tpex 
CMepTOHocHwx nonMTMMecxMx aoxtpmh He sanneTCH cnyMaii- 
hom. 3to BBneHne npHHaAnewnr x TOMy >xe xpyry cooutmm, 
mto h paaAenenne Han6onee pasaMTbix BepoyMeHMii n xyrib- 

TypHO-MCTOPMHeCKMX TpaAHLtHM Ha TPM MCTOPHHBCKHX BepO- 

McnoBeAaHMH wnM na tpm HanpaBneHMa. npaeocxiaBne. xaTO- 
HHUH3M H npOT8CTaHTH3M. B KOTOpblX et>ipa>KaeT ce6n HCTO- 
pMwecxoe xpucTnaHCTBo; ujumtw, cyHHUTw vt cy<$nn HcnaMa; 
nerncTbi. KOHC^yunaHUbi n naocw Kmas. caaayxen, cpapucen 
m eccen apeBHevi HyAen - TpoxMacTHoe pa3AeneHHe MAeono- 
thm BctOAy sananneT ce6n xax nocronHHWH motmb b mctophu 
MenoeeHeexoro caM0C03HaHn« 

Ann acex xy/ibTyp xapaxTepHa peann3aqMH nepBMMHoro 
OTxpoBBHMn mdm xynbTypHo-MCTopHHecxoro MM$a B BHAe 



ycTOHMMBOiii TpnaAbi pa3AeneHHwx HAeonoroM, HocMrennMH 

XOTOpWX CTaHOBHTCfl OTAenbHWC 3THOCW MOM CyOSTHOCbl. B 

xaTeropMBx TeHAenmiM nonMTvmecxoii mctopmh stm HanpaB- 
neHUH Moryr 6b<Tb onMcaHw xax TBroTeiouitie x rocyAapcTBeH- 
hom (ue3apenann3M. UMMTCKM MOAenb), c8epxrocyAapcTBeH- 
Hovi (nanoue3apM3M. cyHHMTCxan MOAenb) nnn BHerocyAap- 
CTBeHHOii (npoTecTaHTcxan, cy4>MHCxan MOAenb) peannsa- 
uhh. CooTBeTCTBymwuM o6pa30M 3tm HanpaBneHna feHepn- 
pywT npeAnoMTMTenbHwe ahh hmx nonnTviMecxne aoxtphhw. 
OAHaxo HopMnpoeaHne no OTHoiueHkix) x rocyaapciBy He 
nc-iopnbiBaeT n He o6bncH«eT 3Toro nsneiuin MHTepecyto- 
mne Hac coBpeMeHHwe nonnTHHecKne /MeHns. pa3yMeeTCfl. 
Taxsxe xoppermpyioT c cooTBeTCTBywiuMMn paaAeneHHwMM 
HanpaeneHUBMn Haujeu cpeA^3eMHOMopcKOM xynbTypu, OA- 
Haxo hhcto nonMTonorvmecxHM noAxoa He pacxpbiBaei hm 
hctokob 3Toro pa3AeneHvin. hh ero nocneACTBu*. flno bwbb- 
neHHR mx CMwcna b xoHTexcTe pa3BMTnn mmpobom hctophh 
Heo6xoAHMO BbiBBneHne CBB3eii c ueHHOCTMbJMM ycraHOBxa- 
mm, ne>xaiAMMii b ochobb nonnTimecKOM xapTMHbi Mnpa. 

ECilM CMMTaTb, MTO B OCHOBe Be.TMKHX OTKpOBeHHM HePO- 

BenecTBa ne*MT conpBweHHe yveHUB o bwcujhx mmpobwx 
ueHHOCTBx c yveHUBM o npMHunnax senoBeMecxoro xoi3Heyc- 
TpoMCTBa (HMenHo noaTOMy nio6oe Beniixoe OTxpoeeMMe b 
c3mom oxaTOM suae He MoweT 6uTb ccpopM/nupoBaHO B 
BHAe oAHoro Te3Mca. a Tortbxo b Bnae AByx Tax. HanpuMep. 
b xpMCTMaHCTBe Ha aonpoc: aYHMTenb! xaxan Han6onbujafl 
3anoB6Ab b 3axoHe?», Hwcyc OTBeTun: «Bo3BK)6m TocnoAa 
Bora TBoeto bcbm cepauew tbomm a Bceo Ayujoio TBoen h 
BceM pa3yM6HneM tbomm: cmh ecTb nepBaB Hanoonbujan 
3anoBeflb: BTopaa we noAo6H3B eii: B03n>o5n 6nn«Hero ibo- 
ero. xax caMow ce6B: Ha cnx nByx aanoaeABx yTBep)XAaeTCfl 
eecb 3axoH h npopoxn»), to pa3AeneHHwe naeonoreMbi Moryr 
6biTb onucanbi b TepMHHax Tpex bosmojxhwx axueHTyauHH: 
xax yMeHne, axueHTupyKjinee Bbicujne CBepxueHHOCTM OTxpo- 
BeHUH (b xaTeropwax nviMHOH ncTUHbi). yneHHe, axueHTupyio- 
Luee ueHHOcTn MenoBenecKoro MnpoycTpoHcrea (b xareropH- 
bx BceMMpHOCTM). m xax yMeHMe. axueHTMpywmee ueHHOCTb h 
cnacHTenbHocTb caMOM npHHaAnewHocru x McnoBBAaHHio 
xax TaxoBOMy (b xaTeropMBx opTOAOxcanbHOti BepHOCTM). 
3aecb. no-BMAHMOMy, mu noaownn xcaMHM ocnoBaM Ha6nw- 
AaeMoro h AOCTaTOMHO ycTOMHMBoro 0eHOMeHa, ocranocb 

TOnbKO nOHBTb npMHMHHbIM MeXSHHSM STOrO HBneHHfl ripMMH- 
Hbl 3TM KOpeHBTCB B CBMMX OCHOBaX MBnOBevieCXOM CBB3M C 

MnpoM. - b nenoeeMecxoM ncuxHxe. 

CoepeMeHHafl ncuxonorHB HaM cooSmaeT, hto 3Bonx> 
UMB senoeexa ot nepBo6uTHoro coctobhmb k coapeMeHHOMy 
conpoBOJKAanacb Ano>4)epeHi4MauMeM paHee eAUHoro nep- 
Bo6biTHoro C03H3HMB. KOTopoe OHa Ha3biBaeT npanorviHec- 
xmm. Ha SMOUMOHanbHyio. Boneeyx) n MHTennexryanbHyK) 
ccpepbi. 3tm ccpepu, panee cocTaBnBBiune HeKoe Hepacnne- 
HeHHoe eAMHcrao, b npouecce xynbTypHOM 3Bonwunn nopo- 
AHnu MHoroo6pa3ne ncMxonorvmecKMX cpopw. outymeHMM. 
npeACTaBneHMM. CAenaB HenoBenecxyio x(M3Hb oorane vi mho- 
rorpaHHBM. Hayxa, McxyccTBO. ynopnAoneHHan counanbHa«i 
*M3Hb CTariH 803MO)KHbi xax cneacTBue stom A^"t><t>epeHuna- 
umm. Mnp pacujupun caon npeAenu, Menoaexcrran ynacTHM- 
kom co6wthm Muxpo- h MaxpoMupa n cosflan coepeMeHHyH) 
rno6anbHyio TexHMMecxyio unBnnn3aunto rinaTOM 3a ncuxo- 
norHHecxMM nporpecc CTano nporpeccnpyK)iAee paexoxyje- 



PRO MEMORIA 



Hue sMOUMOHanbHOM. aoneBOM u MHTennexTyanbHOM ccpep. 
Haxoflfltunx co BpeMeHBM see MeHbwe Tone* conpwxocHOBe- 
hm8 m ropflbix ceoeM caMOflocTaTOMMOCTbw («x naponb - 
«npo4>eccMOHanM3M»). B paMKax o6mecTBeHHoro caMoco3- 
naHnfl 3MounoHanbHas KOMnoHeHTa, noMnwo Mupa MCxyccT- 
Ba. Hawna caoe BwpaweHHe BC03aaHnn cucTew counanbHOii 
aamnTw ib nonnTUKe - nflen rocyaapcTBa couwanbHOH enpa- 
aeanHBocTn); BoneBan KOMnoHeHTa. noMUMo Mupa npasa, 
naiuna CBoe BupaweHue b co3flaHMn KynbTa m xy/ibTypbi 
bomhw (b nonnTHKe - Mflen rocyaapcTBa HauMOHanbHOM Bonn). 
nHTenneKTyarbMan KounoHeHTa, noMkiMO Mupa Hayxn, Ha- 
iiina CBoe Bbipa:*eHne b cc3aaHnn KynbTa pa3yMa (b nonmn- 
Ke - MfleM rocyaapcTBa npeACTaBMTe/ibHOM aeMoxpaTMM). 
KonuMa. Ocbchumm h XnpocuMa RBHnwcb norMMecKHM cnea- 

CTBH6M 3TOM MCTOpHMeCKOM TeHfleHUHH 

Bpqa nw B03MO)KeH BOSBpaT k Hexoeii xpuTMwecKoii toh- 
xe MCTopuHecKoro npownoro MenoBenecTBa. rae npoM30wno 
MCKaweHne npaannbHoro nyrn. k neMy Mac npusbiaaior mho- 
rue HeHaBMCTMMKM HacTOHinero. Aa Bpna rm raxan Tonxa m 
cyiuecTBOBana xoraa-TO. >Kn.-5wb pa3BWBaeTca no cbomm He- 
nocTMWMMbiM saxoHaM, m cyxoe aepeso Ha3aa He rwTMTcn. 
HeBO3M0>KH0 H He HyTKHO OTKa3WBaTbCJl ot Toro, mo 6wno 



cosaaHO m HanonneHO BexaMM. H3MeHHTbc*i BWHywaeHbi mw 
caMn, 3flecb m ceMMac. To. hto ncuxonorn Ha3WBaioT npano- 
mHecKMM co3HaHneM, KPTopoe co3flaeT aocroBepHoe omy- 
meHne conpuHacTHOCTM nenoBexa Mupy b ero noxiHOTe, to 
oinymeHHe HepaaaenenHOCTM nenoeexa m Mwpa. xorapoe 
aenano otxpobohmb oneBMaHbiMM h He Tpe6y ioiuumm aoKa3a- 
Te/ibCTB, mowot 6wTb flocTynHWM ann coBpeMeHHoro Meno- 
eeKa pa3BHToro MHTennexTa. nyscTBa m Bonn He MeHbiue, neM 
n^a ero flanexoro npeflxa, a/in xoToporo npaBO Menoeexa Ha 
wmHb 6bino cronb x<e ecrecTBeHHbiM, cxonbxo npaBO Ha 
*M3Hb 3eMnn h He6a. 3to cocTOflHMe C03HaHnn ynoflo6nneT 
mmkpokocm MenoBeKa MaxpoxocMocy BceneHHOH, oho npnaa- 
eT CMwcn HenoBeMecxoMy mmbhm xax rnaBHOH cbasm wenoBe- 
xa h Mupa, oho hb 0TMeH«eT hh jiotmkm, hm HayKM, hm aswe 
noriHTMKH. oho npocTo TnroTeeT k E^nHOwy. riooTOMy cerofl- 
hr. ecnn B KaKnx-TO co6biTn«x Mbi yraawBaeM npoqBneHMa 

TOrO, MTO npMHHTO H83blBaTb n^aHBTapHblM C03HaHM6M, MHH 

aaMenaeM npocro TeHfleHunio k coeflMHeHMio paHee Hecoe- 
anHUMwx ccpep oomecTBeHHoro 6wthh b eauHOM esaHMO- 
fleMCTBMM, 3T0 03HaMaeT, wto CKB03b pyHHW XX eexa npopa- 
CTaeT Mnp, xaKMM oh flon>xeH craTb nocne OcBeHijMMa. 
ry/IAra m Xhpocmmw. 



BeHnaMHH MOOE 



Pea6nAMTai4M5i 
kqk MCTopMMecKa^ npo6Aeivia 



ripo6neMa oco3HaHnn cMwcna ry/IAra (noHUMan noa 
ry/lAroM bcio penpeccHBHyto cucieMy coeeTCKoro nepnoaa 
hctophh Pocchm). noMHMO mmcto MCTopMMGcxoro MHTepeca, 
nMeeT eme oahh, xpaviHe 3no6oflHeBHbiM acneia, kotopum 
Tpe6yeT ot hctopmxob. nonMTMxoB h iopmctob He3aMeflJin- 
TenbHbix oTBeTos, He ocTaa/iRH hm speMBHH Ha aKaaeMMHec- 
xyw HecneujHOCTb. — Meo6xoaHvocTb pea6HrnTauMM wepTB 
coeeTcxoro nofiHTvmecxoro pe>KHMa. Mhotmb H3 amx nroaeii 

M M3 MX 6nH*aMUJMX pOaCTBeHHMXOB JKMBW, CerOflHB OHM 

Tpe6ytOT BOCCTaHOBneHMR ncTopuMecxoH cnpaBeannBOCTM 
(m cooTBBTCTByoiueM MoparibHOM m MaTepnanbHovi xoMneH- 
caqHn). BonpocoTHocnTerbHO nerxopeujaeTcn b oTHomeHUH 
noRHbHbix coBeTCKnx rpa«aaH. HeBHHHbix *epTB nonnueiic- 
xoro npotisBona — mx pea6nnnTnpyioT no tpaicry npMMH0HHfl 
x hmm Heo6ocHOBaHHOM penpeccMM. OnHaKo pbujbhmb npo- 
6neMbi pea6nnnTaunn b OTHOiueHMM npoTMBHMKOB KOMMyHM- 
CTMHecKoro pe>KMMa, a Taxwe penpeccMpoBaHHwx opraHM3a- 
Topoe penpeccHM Tpe6yeT naeonornHecKHx h npaBOBwx 060- 
CHOBaHMvi. Pea6MfiMTauMfl — »e npocTo KjpMaMnecxMM airr. 
OTMeHnioiuMM ocywflBHMe. 3to pesynbTaT noHMMaHHs rocy- 
aapcTBOM caoeii co6cTBeHHOM mctopmm, a noTOMy OHa cny- 
>kmt noaoAOM ann ocMwcneHMn KOMMyHMCTMHecxoro npo- 
iunoro Poccnn, m 3aecb npocMaTpMBaiOTcn abb nocneaoaa- 
TenbHbie no3nunn 

CymecTByeT Tonxa 3peHMS, mo BnacTb b crpaHe crrana 
HenerMTHMHOii c MOMeHTa oTpeneHun HnKonaa II b nonb3y 
6paia. xoraa 6wn HapyiueH 3axoH o npectoroHacneaMM. mhm 



we c pasroHa YMpeflMTexibHoro Co6paHMB, xoraa 6wna nponr- 
HopMpoBaHa cBo6oflHo BbipaweHHan eons Hapoaa, m HbiHeuj- 
HBMy rocyaapcTBy cneayeT o6i.flBMTb ce6n npnMbiM Hacnea- 

HMKOM aopeBOniOUMOHHOM POCCMM. YCTpOMTb TOCyflapCTBeH- 

Hoe nepesaxoponeHue uapcxoii ceMbM. npM3H3Tb cbokj ot- 
BeTCTBeHHOCib no uapcxMM aonraM. BepHyrbcn x HopMaM 
aopeBoniouHOHHoro npasa h co6paTb 3eMCKMM Co5op virw 
YMpeanTenbHoe Co6paHMe. B stom cnyvas MHoroneTHee 
conpoTMBneHMe (b tom HMcne BoopyweHHoe) coeeTcxoMy 

pOKMMy Hy>KHO CMMTaTbO60CH0BaHHblM, a CTpOMTenbCTBO M 

yxpenneHne ero — npoTMBonpasHbiM. CTano 6wTb, He MoweT 
6blTb h peHM 06 KjpMaMMeCKOM peaSMfiMTauMM TpouKoro. By- 
xapMHa. 3nHOBbeBa (HbiHe pea6MnnTMpoBaHu). flroaw. E*o- 
sa, BepMM (He pea6MHMTvipoBaHbi) hjim MCTopuwecxoii pea6n- 
nMTauwM JleHHHa. CTanwHa. fl3ep>«HHCKoro (ao cmx nop noMM- 

TaiOTCS HaaOCTaTOMHO BblCOXOM 0(})MUHanbHOM ypoBHe) M AP- 

\A HanpoTMB, aorwHbi 6biTb HeMeaneHHO pea6MnMTnpoBaHbi 
Bee ynacTHMXH ConpoTMBneHnn: ynacTHMXH xpoHUjiaflTcxoro 
m TaM6oBcxoro BoccTaHMM. DeTporpaacxoM 6oeBOM opraHu- 
sauMM 1921 roaa, noanonbHwx nonMTMHecxMX xpyacxoB 1920- 
1980-x roaoB (HWHe pea6MnMTnpoBaHbi). ynacTHMKM xpecTb- 

RHCKMX B0CCT3HI1M 1930-X rOAOB. 3MMCCapbl CaBUHKOBa. 

PoccMiicxoro 06meBOMcxoBoro Coi03a (POBC) 1920-1930-x. 
HapoaHO-TpyaoBoro coi03a HOBoro noxoneHMfl (HTCHn, no3- 
>xe HTC) 1930-1950-x. 6oiii4bi PyccxoM Oc8o6oAMTeribHOM 
Apmmm (POA), pyitOBOAMTenM BcepoccMHCKoro counan-xpMC- 
TMaHCxoro coioaa ocBo6o)KAeHMfl napOAa (BCXCOH) 1960-x 



4 PRO MEMORIA 



91 



rozioB (He pea6nnnTnpoBaHbi). m ncTopnHec<n noMTeHbi A B 
Konwaic, A. M. fleHMXMH, H.H. K)a6hmm (oTseprawTcn bo mho- 
tmx BnnaTenbHbix xpyrax) KaK bmamm. hhkskom nocneaoBa- 
TenbHocTM noaxoaa b peanbHOcm HeT. 

Bo3MO)KHa w apyraa nonMTMMecxan, a cneaoBaTenbHo. m 
iopnflMHecKafi no3MUHfl — npn3HaTb coBeTcxyio BnacTb b 

POCCHH MCTOpMM8CXW COCTOHBUieMCH H T6M C3MWM nerMTKM- 

Hoii de facto, no xpbmhbm vepe c MOMewa npuHHTHH cobst- 
cxom KoHCTMTyuMM 1936 roaa, xoTopan OTMeHwna cerpera- 
unio no couManbHbiM MOTMBaM m ypaBHnna Bcex rpa»aaH 
cTpaHw b mx npaaax m o6s?3aHHocTflx m tbm caMWM xoth 6bi 
dpopManbHO cooTBeTCTBoaana oBmeeBponeiicxMM noHBTHAM 
rocyflapcTBOHHoro npaBa csoero BpeMOHH CocronHne crpa- 
hw b npefluiecTBytowMM napMoa. c 1917 no 1936 roan. npH- 

3H8Tb npaBOBbIM HeT HMXBXOM BO3M0WH0CTM, H mo6a» flBfl- 

TenbHOCTb. HanpaBreHHan Ha BoccTaHOBnenne Poccmmcxom 
HMnepmi Mfin BnacTn ynpefliiTenbHoro Co6paMnn, Mnn npo- 
CTO npoTHBoaeiicTByiouiafl yaypnaumi boscth nonbuieauKa- 
mm aonxwa CMMTaTbcn loptWMMecKM onpaaaaHHOM. OflHaxo 
nptt tskom noflxoae bcg MCTopnwecxne co6ntmh nocxieflyto- 
mero nep«ofla, HasMHas c 1937 roaa, cneayeT oueHMBaTb c 
tomxm 3peHMB co6nwaeHMfl kohctmtyumohhwx h iopnflHHec- 

XMX HOpM, aekiCTBOBaSliJMX B COBeTCXOM C0K)3e B TO BpeMfl 

(yxt xaxMe 6w ohm hm 6W/1M), m TeM cauuM CHMTaTb HenpaBO- 
bom npaKTuxy npMMeneHMH BHe3axoHHbix axTOB peBonwynoH- 
Horo caMoco3HaHnn, peuiOHHH HexoHCTMTyuMOHHbix opraHoa 
ynpaBfieHtin. napTMMHwx ycTaHOBOK n TeneqboHHbix 3bohkob 
Taxoe noHMMaHne OTsesaeT nonynnpHOMy Te3ncy flucaifleM- 
tob 1960— 1970-x roaoB: «Co6nwaaMTe mum co6cTBBHHbie 
3axoHbi». opMflMMecKM oho 3axpenneHo petusHwnMH Kohctm- 
TyunOHHOro Cyaa P© 1992 roaa no npoaepxe yK3308 ripe3M- 
aeHTa Pd> o 3anpeTe KI1CC m KH PCOCP 3tm peweHHq 
npn3Hann HapyweHMe Kohctmtyumm CCCP pyxoBoaamMMH 
opraHaMH BKn(6)-KriCC. noaMeHSBmnMn 3axoHHbie opraHw 
anacTM. npecTynHow npoTMBonpaBHOM npaxTMKOM, Tpe6yio- 
me* ocywaeHUB. ripw TaxoM noaxoae aesTenbHocTb bccx 6e3 
ncxntoseHUH mmhob napTMMHoro pyxoBoacTBa crpaHOM (Ctb- 
nnHa. MonoTOBa, XpyiaeBa, BpewHeBa, EwoBa, bepMfl m ap) 
6t>ina npoTHBonpaBMOii b tom creneHM, b xaxoM ohb Bena k 
pa3pyujeHnio cymecTBOBaBiaero xoHCTMTyiiMOHHoro nopnaxa 
b CTpaHe. n TonbKO bo Bropyw owepeab ns-3a oonbiaero hhm 
MeHbiaero oBbCMa nHMHwx anoaeiicTB 06WMH0 ae«Tenn 
coBBTCKoro pewMMa nocne BMHeceHMn mm npviroBopoB b 
npeacMepTHbix o6paiueHMnx b UK nwcann otom. mto bcp mx 
*M3Hb m pa6oTa 6binn nocafliaeHbi aeny yxpenaeHun enacTM 
UeHTpanbHoro KoMHTeTa BKn(6) n /imhho Toeapniaa CTann- 
Ha, to ecTb, pa3pyujeHnio cyutecTBOBaBiuero xoHCTHTynwoH- 
Horo CTpoji. mto b noHHTMBx npasa osHaMano mx npMSHaHne e 
aiae rocyaapcTB8HHOM M3M6HW. TaxoM (popManbHO-npaBO- 
bom noaxoa aaeT Hau ocHOBaHMe otMTaTb ntoSoe nocnra- 
Te/ibCTBo Ha cyBepeHMTeT CTpaHw m ee 3aKOHHbiM KOHCTMTy- 

UMOHHWM CTDOM CO CTOPOHW BH8UJHMX CHO KpMMMHanbHbIM, 

>4To OTBesaeT pacnpocTpaHOHHOMy npeacTaBneHMio o nem- 
TMMM33MMH coseTCxoro pewMMa no6eaoM b Bennxoii OTene- 
CTBeHHOM bomhb. Ho BHyTpeHHee conpoTMBneHMe ycTaHOB- 

neHM>0 M yCM/ieHHtO KOMMyHMCTMSOCKOM TOTanMTapHOM aMK- 

TaTypw. HapyuaBiueti co6cTBeHHyxj KoHCTMTyuMO. Mbi Aon>x- 

Hbl CMMTaTb 060CH0B3HHblM, M BCe yMaCTHMXH T3KOfO COnpO- 

TMBneHMH (He coBepujMBUjue o6iaeyronoBHwx npecTynne- 
hmm) 3acny«MBaioT pea6MnMTauMM noTOMy hto ohm OwriM 
npaBw no cymecTBy. a hb M3-sa (popManbHbix HeaocTaTKOB mx 
cneacTBeHHux aen 

TeM He MeHee ceroaHn cno*Mnacb napaaoncanbHan 
CMTyauMH. oTpaxawman bcw HeocHoeaTenbHOCTb coBpeMeH- 



Horo rocyaapcTBeHHoro yCTpoMCTBa Poccmm. OcywaeHhwx 
coBeTcxoii B/iacTbiono nonMTMnecxMM MOTMeaMnerxo pea6M- 
nMTMpytoT. no bo3mo>«hoctm, ho Bxoan b paccMOTpeHMe cy- 

lUeCTBa 06BMHBHMH, M3-3a OTMBHeHHOM HblH8 CTaTbM 06BMHB- 
HMfl, M3-33 OCyXaSHMR «TpOMKOM», MOM nO HeaOCTaTOMHOM 

aoKa3aHHOCTM 0aKTa noxyiaeHMB Ha ycroM COBeTCXOM enac- 
TM. Tax npM paccMOTpeHMM npo6neMu pea6MnMTauMM yMacT- 
HMxa neTporpaacKOM oocbom opraHM3auMM H.C TyMMneea 
rnaBHWM OKa3b4BaeTcn ho Bonpoc o tom. 6wn nn oh npae Mnw 
He npae. Sopncb c KOMMyHMCTMwecxMM pbxcmmom. a to. mto 
era Bpa>«ae6HOCTb k cobotcxom anacTM oxaaanacb Hey6eaM- 
TenbHO aoxyMeHTMpoBaHa. Ectim xce b pea6MnMTauMM OTxa- 

3W8aK)T, TO B OCMOBHOM no npMMMHaM HMMHOM npMHaCTHOCTM 

ocyjxaeHHoro x anoaeoHMOM, coBepiueHHUM Ha nonbay co- 
BeTcxoM BnacTM , Bb43biBaiomMM oTBpameHMe o6mecTBa ( E>K0B. 
BepMB), wim. HanpoTMB, M3-3a aeiicTBMTenbHoro HaMepeHMs 
cBepmyTb cymecTBOBaBUJMM b crpaHe xoMMyHMCTMMBCKMM 
pexcMM, npn3HaBaeMbiw m hwhs aaxoHHUM (pyxoBoaMTenn 
BCXCOH, ocyoxaeHHbie b HeHMHrpaae b 1 967 roay). 

CeroaHH npaBonpMMeHMTenM Pd> roTOBbi OTMeHBTb xa- 
paTB/ibHbie axTbi cobbtcxom kjctmljmm. noTOMy mto tb Sbinw 
BWHeceHbi Ha OCHOB3HMM nnoxMx saxoHOB m b paMxax nnoxoii 
npoueaypw m b Tex cayManx. xoraa mokho nocMMTaTb. mto 
aaHTMcoeeTCKafi aeflTenbHocTb* 6wna HeySeaMTenbHO ao- 
xa3aHa. OaHaxo mx He OTMeHnioT b oTHOtueHHM peanbHux 
npoTMBHMK08 xoMMyHMCTMMecxoM aMXTaTypu, yrpo)xaBUJMX 
orocyaapcTBeHHOMy m o6ujecTBeHHOMy CTpoio CCCP» (npM- 

3H3HH0My KOHCTMTyUMOHHWM CyflOM B 1992 fOAy aHTMKOH- 
CTMTyMMOHHblM). Ho maBHOe npOTMBOpOMMe COCTOMT B TOM. 

mto Bee cyae6Hwe peiueHMH coeeTCxoro nepwoaa no nonMTM- 
MecKMM aenaw, b tom mmcjto m nocneanux aecnTMneTHM ero 
cymecTBoeaHMH. Tax m ne npM3HaHw HenpaaocyaHWMM m 
noaaewaoiMMM otmchb M3-3a Toro, mto mx BbiHecnw c Hapyme- 
hm8m 3axoHOB CBoero BpeMBHM. xoTopwe m raraa Tpe6oeajiM 
OTo6BMHMTennaoKa3aTenbCTBHanMHMHcy6bexTMBHoroyMbic- 
na Ha HaHeceHMe Bpeaa caoeM crpaHe b aenax no o6aMHeHMto 
a aHTMcoaeTcxoM aeflTenbHOCTM MnM floxasaTenbCTB 3aeeao- 

MOM nO>XHOCTM yTB8p)KaeHMM B ae/iax 06 aHTMCOBeTCKOM 

xneBeTe. Hmxto 3toto HMxoraa He aoxa3WBaji, tom caMbiM 
cyae6Hbie npoueccw 6binM 6e33axoHHbi. a npaBonpMMGHMTe- 
hm OMBBMflHbiM o6pasoM 6wnM noBMHHbi a npecTynnBHMflx 
npoTMB npaBOcyaMH. npoM3Bon pea6MnMTauMM, HUHe CMe- 
mmbujmm npoM3Bon penpeccMM npeamecTByioiaero nepwoaa, 
npeapamaeT poccMiicxyw mctopmxj XX saxa b 6eccMwcneH- 
Hy» Mepeay co6biTMM m norpyxaer poccMMcxoe o6iaecTBO b 
MopanbHo-nonMTMMecxMM xaoc. b kotodom cocTOHBuancfl 
pea6MnMTauMH Tponxoro. xax m HacocTOHBuiancH psa6MnM- 
TauMW BepMM, He 3HaMaT npaxTMMecxM HMsero. 

3tot xaoc wpMaMMecKMx. nonMTMMecxMx m MopanbHbix 
oueHOK MBnBeTcs eaBa nM He co3HaTenbHOM auMOBOM 3ase- 

COM, X0T0pa» BBOaMT 06IU6CTBO (M. X3)KeTCfl, H6 TOnbXO DOC- 

CMiicxoe) b aonrwe m BecnnoaHbie aMexyceMM no MacTHbiM 
BonpocaM ocyjxaeHMM Mnw HeocysxaeHMM Toro vim MHoro 
MCTopMMecxoro nepcoHa)xa. m TeM caMWM MacxMpyeT npo- 
SneMy Heo6xoaMMocTM HaxoxaeHMH o>opMyaMpoBOx no mc- 
TopMMecxoM oueHxe coesTcxoro nepMoaa mctopmm Poccmm b 
cronb >xe 6eccnopHbix dpopMax. xaxMe 6unn HaMaeHu a 
OTHOUJBHMM HaUMOHan-COUMa/lMCTMMeCXOM TepMaHMM. 3t3 
oueHxa Heo6xoaMMa He Tonbxo anw BHeceHMP b ujxonbHbie 
yMeBHMXM no mctopmm XX eexa. ho m ana yMeTa ee a coepe- 

M6HHOM tOpMaMHeCKOM npaKTMKO 

BecmHUK Meuopuana. Bun. 6. — Cn6.. 2001. 



92 



4 



APXWB 



HCTOpMSI 

b AOKyMemax 



91< 







«1930-ro OkTs6ps 25 aH*. 

Muxanay MBaHOBHHy KanHHHHy c npocb6ofi k BaM h 
n pou iv Bamero noacHeHba. KaK j BacaaHo BpacnopawcHbc 
bumii ana acTCKoro riHTaHta MaJioro B03pacra... riocne- 
auec BpcMa flCTCKoro mrraHba Hunero hc biuhm. Kposie 
HopMM apiKaHoii mvk ii 6.S KRnorpaMM h caxapy 400 rpaMM 
h necKy 400 rpaMM, hoojimuc mumcio. Kpyu. MaKapoH. V*e 
MyKH 6eaoH Ha aeTeS He bhjihm. h peoeiiKa BOCTiHTWBaTb 
coaepuicHHo HCMeM. y Hac MaKapoHbi h Kpyna... yxoawT no 
ctojiobum B3pocnoro nirraHbii. a jcth ocraioTca hc npH 
mcm, « a npcano.iaraio, hto pail no aejiacr HcnpasmibHoe 
pacnpeaeaeHbe. ohh bcc roBopaT. Ha acrefi HHHcro He 
Bbicbi.iawT. H npouiy Bac. nowaayficTa. aafrre otbct. 

M.icii .uiiiaiimofi komhcchh. 2-c noacHCHbe. 

Flo iasB.iciu.io rpaw.ianinia Tpiiropba riaanOBHia 
<DnnnnoBa. 6biBuiero KpacHoapMeHua,ao6poBonbua. npo- 
ciy>Ka ao 21-ro aBrycra Mecaua. 3acay*a noxBaabHoe 
aocTOBepcHbe 3a cbok> cay*6y. h ero npH3HaioT. KaK Kyaa- 
Ka, h xotbt pacKynaiHTb. Ohh HMeeT xo3attcTBo: aBeaouia- 
aw. aBe Kopoaw. aBa vtuaaa jicthhkh, aBe obuu. ojworo 
si iicHKa h oaHoro 6opoBa. h ccmm c 7 neaoBeK. Oruy 74 
roaa. %ia icpn 71 roa. acni 7, 10. 12 ncr, h accro ciHTaTb. 
aBoe pa6oTHHKOB - caM H xeHa. 

06;io*-eti I.S HaaonceHO. hto oh CTOJibKO m hc noaynmi. 
ypamu eMy He XBaiacT ynaaTHTb [Haaor], h oh rrpoctn 
p.i ipcmcM i,h npoaaTb oaHy KopoBy. KOTopaa y»ce aBa roaa 
a.ioBas . H 6opoBa. EMy He aaioT pa ipcuicubs. 4To6w jaicy- 
nHTb tc ceMCHa. KOTopwe oh Hecenji. KaK aen. obcc. *brra. 
ropox. cevis H ace... c Hero Tpe6yioT b KopoTKHft epos, 
coin hc BwnojiHHT b cpoK, to 6yaeT o6ao*CH naTb pa3, a 
coin hc BbinonHHT onim. xe k cpoKy. to b aecsrrb pa3 h 
paenpoaaayr HMyiuecTBo. 

3aaBHTe.ib aepeBHH H:n.«ii!iia MabTHTHCKOBa ccab- 
coBCTa EonaroBCKoropafioHa TpHropHH riaBaoBH«j<t>Hnn- 
noB, a no ero 3aaaneHbio nucaa cpocTBCHKHK no xeHC. laeH 
napTHH BaaaroBCKOH MacrepcKofi Erop HBaHOBHM Hbs- 
hob. 

Aapec: ropoa Bonaroc, KooncpaniBHaa yjiHua, a>fe7, 

kb.j*>3. 

II ibiihhkxi.. hto naoxo Haimcan tan hc nocaywSe. fl 
xoan.i bo Bcioau. ii mirae He naxoxy kohuob. a mchn 
3acraBHjio nHcan, ciimchiioo noao*eHHe». 



«Tob. KaaHHHH M.H. 

ft KpacHO«J)aoTeu c xmuhiw «Kapa JlH6KHexTa» 
xony noacJiHTbca h cnpocHTby Bac coBera. KOToporo a He 
Mor nonyMHTb ot mcci hh\ BJiacreft. k KOTopbiM a o6pa- 
uiajica. KaK b KOHcyjibTaiiHK). KoTopaa mhc onpeaeaeHHo 
HHHcro hc ikj iu:ia. a noceMy h pcihii.i o6pai im.es 3a 

COBCTOM. TO CCTb 3a DCUICHItCM K BaM. 

Tob. KaaHHHH. aeao 6uao TaK. KaK h3bcctho. aeao 
01,110 TaK. KaK H3BecTHO .lis Bac. mto mm k pac imiji. 10 un.i 
3a 4 roaa cnyx6u hmccm 2 oniycKa (KpaTKOBpeMeHHbix). 
H bot. 6yayHH b OTnycny no 3 roay ciiy«5bi. mhc npn- 
umocb BCTpeTHTbca cocBoefi 3HaKOMofl. c KOTopofl x paHb- 
iue ryasa h ayMaa Ha Hefi *thh i i.es 

Ho no cayHaio bochhoh cayxSw, MHe npnuinocb 
OTcraBHTb Mow *eHHTb6y. Ilo npnesay b OTnycK auacHH- 
aocb. to Moa 6aH5KHaa sikikom.is. a BepHce Bca ceMba 
wuu e wa npaBa rojioca 1 930 roay. CnpauiHBacrca. Mory hh 
a '(KeiiHTbca na TaKoB hhuiohkc hjih hct? 

KoHcynbTaiwa MHe oTBeTHaa. wo xeHHTbca a hc 
HMeio npas Ha hch. ripn mcm moh OTeu h bc* ocTaabHas 
ccMba Haxoaiuca b cenbCKOxo3aflcTBCHHoil apTeaH. ripn- 

MCM OTCU lllllllL- 1 MHe B nHCbMC. MTO CMy TOBOpaT. CCJ1H Tbl 

*en h 1 1 ii. cuHa Ha thkoboh. to h Te6a bu6dochm H3 apTeaH. 

% >lceCHHTaK)Ce6aaOCTaTOMHOBbiacp>KaHHblMHCTOHKHM 

KpacHoqbaoTUOM h noa BJiHUHHe He ayMaio nonacrb caoefi 
■*cnbi. a HaoSopoT xoiy h ce nocraBHTb Ha comianHCTH- 
HecKHe pcju.ci.i iiauici o crpoHTeabCTBa. 

ripouiy aan. noapo5Hoe o6i>acHeHHe. 6yaynn Moeii 
wenoH. 6yaeT an |oHa) BoccraHOBaeHa b npasax roaoca. 

KoMeHaop no 3 roay cay>K-6u lli>an B.ich.ii.cbii-i 
CepsKOB. 

Aapec: r. KpoHurraaT. s/m «Kapa J1h6khcxt». 

13/111 30roaa». 



flo MaTepnanaM nporpaMMbi 

•floKyMGHTbi npoiunoroio 

Paflno CBo6ofla. 

Peflaiaop m BeAymMM — 
nncaTe/ib AHaTonMM CTpe/iHHbiM. 



4 APXMB 



83 



«jloporoH TOBapumCTaiinH! 

IK'. i tbohm iciina-ibHbiM pyKuBo.iciiioM. BcecoKrjHasi KoMMyHHCTHHCCKaX 
nap-ma 6o;ibiueBHKOB m paoomiti miacc npersopaioT b *iuhi> bcikkiic hjch 
MapKca-3Hrcibca-JIcHHHa. cTpoar BcaHKoaenHCHiuee. euie HCBiuannoc a MHpe. 
i.iamic coimajiH3Ma. TBopa HewnwnatMVK) HrropHio, nciopnio KoaoccaabHbix 
no6ca npojiCTapiiaTa. 

K.!*;u.iii c03HaTCJlbHblft rpy.mmiiiics. yBncicHKbiii uenaMll ii la.ia'iaMii 
c I pOHKH . B COUHajlHCTHHCCKOM COpcBHOBaHHH MaCC. CTDCMHTCa LCI 0.1118 OliTb CIUC 

6onbuiHM. icm BMepa, a MBTpa 6oabuiHM. icm 6un ceroaHa. 11 raxHM o6pa30M 
cojaaer HenoapaxacMun 061mm noaicM, TaKyio oo.ibiuyio pa6oTy. c ukhmh 

nopa3IITCJIbHbIMH pC3y.1bTaTaMH. KOTOpblX .Ta>KC ncflUllIC Haillll Bparil OTpHUSTb 

He MoryT. 

H a. tiecHacTHbiH c caMofl mhii>tu CBoero poxaeHiia (Hoa6pb 1907 r). hc 
cy.Mcniuiiii ao npconamaHCHHoro MHe Mecra cpean xHTCHCKoro HCHacTM n c 
ropbKoii iicyaaicii i5opiouiiific* M csoccyuiccTBOBaHHc, - * hc xosy 6bin> Gajuia- 

CTOM. HHKICMHbiM •IC.IOBCKOM. liyiaKIUUIMCN B HOniX. iUIHa'IC'lHOI o CTpOHKOfl 

copeBHyiomerc»csxi«CKupciiiiieio.!.>Liii*eMiisiiaMCHei(MiiiU]c.ii!.iipo;iciap!iaM 
- * hc xohv *HTb cpejXH o6utecTBCHHbix OTOpocoB h xaaMa. fl toxc xoiy copeBHo- 
BaTbcH ii craTb HcorbCMJicMofl HacTbio BociiHTaBUjero mchh iipo.ici apua Id! 

Ho. KaK 3TO HII CTpalUHO COIII.IBaTI,. B ITOll 803MOKHOCTU I HIHCH II V MCHfl HC 

XBaTaer chji eeao6iiTbca. BopoTHTb xot» 6w to, hto y mchb othitm aioaH. cboh xc 
Touapiiimi. 

H 1101 H6ato Hj-3a Hcyaan. csroaHHbix C HenpcoaoaHUbiM xciaHHCM h cipeM- 
ichiiom ymrrbca. 

B acTCTBC mow Memy 06 yHc6e mhc hc yaaaocb ocyuiecTBHTb H3-M vtaTepH. 
I'lbiBtiicii no ipaiiaTHJMa penHni03Hofi (cefmac oHa 6c36o*Hnua). ot KOTopofl a no 
itoiI iipii'iiiiie 6bui BuiiyiicicH y6cxaTb b 1918 r. h BocniiTbiBaTbcH B aeTaoMe, B 
oaTpaicax. h. tjkiim nyTCM. Ha'taTb cbcx caMocToaTcibHoc cyuiecTBOBaime. Oreu 

B 3T0 BpCMD OblJl Ha fpaxaaHCKOfi BOJIHC. 

OopaiuBJiuir moc (iiinmec) no3B©a*ao mhc nocTyiwTb to.imco Ha pafrpaK, 
nyreBKy b KOTopuii a hc mor nonyHHn> jo OTKiaa Ha cnyx6y b KpacHyu ap.Miiio. 
9 1929 roay, t.k. a b yro bdcmb no cou. iio.io*chhio 6bui ciyacauiMM, a mciw 
HCKJHOMHTCIbllO b paooieM paftoHC. 

rioTOM. 3Ty xe mcit\ a iibrraaca ocyuiecTBHTb b KpacHofl apMHH. icyaa mchh 
hc 6pajin no 6o.icjhh. ho a ao5H.ica npneMa. Haaedcb Ha B03MoxHocn> noaroroBKH 
b TcxiiiiKyM. xotb ana mchi 3to OM.io ii tsmc'io. H Tyr mchb nocTHraa pcmaKnii.m 
Heyaaia. ne XBanuio bpcmchh ana noaroTOBKH (paooTaji a muuihhhctom na 
nHUiymcft MaiuiiHKc b iirraoe J-ro CTpenicoBoro no.ina mockobckoh nponeTapCKofl 
aiiuiuHH). ">Ta Heyaaia BbmyaH.ia mchh ao Tuoi crcncHH saxaaapHTb. BnatTb b 
TaKoO HCCCHMH3M. MTO a noiiaji a iitnpaB.-Tpya. ^arepb 6wb. OITiy, nonyiiiB no 
cT.58-IOyK5rtrr. 

OocioarcjibcTB aciia bccx hc ncpenHuieuib. oano JiHiiib moxho cKa38Tb. «ito 

Ha MOC «CHaCTbC» B 3T0 BpCMB CoK>3 CCP KHUie.1 T8KHMH rHOflHHMMH. KaK 

npoMnapTiia. MciibiucBiikii 11 upo'taa eao^oHb. OiipaBauBaTbca ceftnac occcMbit- 
ichho. ho a cMHTaji paHMiie ii aonycxaJi h aonycKaio. <rro rocyaapcTBy. b uenax 
ooccnescHHa cbocA 5c3onacHocTM. ayiuie noxcpTBOBaTb narxoM-aecaTKOM hcbh- 

HOBHblX. HCM OCTaBHTb liaciHiOO.lco.IHOm BHHOBHHKa. a n03T0MV, XOTS HCTHIIHOe 

no:io*.cime bciuci'i 11 aoaxiio roBopHTb. hto aaa xniiTcabHoro Moerosaicaio'icHHa 
He 6buio aocTaToiHux ripiiMim. tto ko mhc noaoiwiH He b Mepy *ecrKo. a Bee xe. 
npo(5biB B laicaiOHeHMH okoao 3 aer 2 mcc.. 3a sto hc o6n*aiocb. OGhxcii nHuib 
qcaoBCKOM. aaBaBiiiHM 060 MHe cBcaeHiia h ao raynoro crymaBiuiiM KpacKH. 
HCKaxaa jtjim ao ncv uiaiiaciocni hctiihu, 

B .larepax (BuiiL'iare, jlajiwiare h BaM-iarc) a bcji cc6a xopouio, pa6oTan 
TaKxe. sa «rro no.ib30Baaca npaBOM npoximaHHa Ha nacTHofi KBapTHpe. MTPob- 
ckhm nirraHHCM. nojiynaji 6aaroaapnocrH. npeMHH k yaapHwe 3a4eru. Pa6oTaa a 
6 wecaueB Ha o6uihx pa'jHux paSoiax. MecaucB 910 MaiuHHiiCTOM Ha nHiiiyiuefl 
MauiHHKe h ocnuibHoc BpcM» - cTapuiHM acjionpoH3BoaHTcacM aaMMacTH Kpyn- 
hux orac lemifi. riopyMCHHoe MHe aeao Buiio.maa ao6pocoBecTHO. He curraacb c 
npcMciicM. a pyKOBo.iiucH Bceraa roabxo iiHrepccaMii aeaa. rio.ib30Baica 6ojib- 
iuhm aoBcpHCM h aBTopiiTCTOM. TaKaa paSoTa. a paooTaa a BC3ac, Taicwe h ao 
i.iy -aon b apMHH, b npoxypaTypc h b npoiJiopraHHiauHax, h b komcomo.ic. h b 
apMim: Biana y mchb npoueHTOB 25-30 laopoBba: a qyBCTByio 6onbiuyio yTOMna- 
cMocTb. Hero paHbuic hc ihoji. ycTaaocn.. 




I KiilH II IIC JlfniKI Cmil I lit "It 





94 



4 



APXNI 




m am Bvatr DAOBEPibiBAibca camokpmtmka m kphtmka chmy. 
km roiiiitt mvi BMfisngriiCSTBOPMECtnfE ch/imn mm hiiuho hipoju 

IM CXJlbHf bfflfT PICK D KPEHMffb B W-CM MVBGTBO X038HH1 C1PAHM. 




no npHcxae aoMofi. b MapTe mccbuc 1934 roaa. aBa 
Mecnua * 6m,t BUHywaeH own. 6e3 pa6oTbi h TSHyTb H3 
poaHTeaefi jkiijiu. no2TOMy mto HecMOTps Ha oT.iHHHyio 
xapaKTcpHCTHKy. a Bcway BCTpeHaa npcHe6pe>KeHHc He- 

JOBCpHC II npOHCC B 3TOM pOflC. IloC/lC aOJiniX MHTapCTB X 

nonyMHJi Mecro coBepmeHHO 6ecnone3Horo h HenyxHoro 
pa6oTHHKa - «acjionpoH3BoaHTejia no TexHHKe 6e3onac- 
Hocrii » Ha (baSpHKC hm. Hoi una < xaonnaTO-6) MaxHa n I, c 
3apnnaT0fl 85 py6. b mcchu (b aarepsx * nonyiaji ot 35 no 
100 pyo). Ho 3Toro Ha stom mcctc 6wa «HHCTpyKrop» c 
oiuiaaoM b 130 py6. ITocae BMiueauicro b cbct nocraHOB- 
.neHim UHK h CHK o npH6aBKe 3apnaaTW b cbh3H c 
noiii.iinciiHCM uch Ha xjic6, Miii nonaraiouteficsi iui.i<"i.mm 
He aanH. npn6aBHJiH Toabico nocie cneunaabHoro xoaa- 
TaiicTBa Mocro HenocpcacTBeHHoro HaiaabHiika - 3aB. 

TCXHHKOH 6«30naCH0CTH. 

TaKoe iio;io*eime HeBOJlbHO CTaaifT Bonpoc: MO/Kiio 
.ih HopMa-ibHO Mbicjiameviy HtioBeicy. aymeft h tcjiom 
CTOsmcMy Ha rtnanJiopMe pyKOBoairreabHHUbi - BKI1 (6) h 
y6e*acHHOMy aocaMoro M03ra KocTeiJ b no6eaecouHaan- 
crHMecKiix 3.ieMeHTOB bo BceM Coiote CCP mi ioi i. ao 
nocTpoeHHS couiia.nnMa. xcirrb BTaKiix ycaoBiwx. Korja 
Bexae h Bcway - npw nocTynaeHHH Ha pa6oTy. no .ihhhh 

lipOIJK'OIOia. OOOpOHbl L' I pUHhl. > 'ICOi.1 H IipOH.. HCC.MO I pH 

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opraHOB npo.iCTapcKOH aHKTaTypw. oh HarwKaeTCH Ha 
porancH. npcnjiTCTBHsi, HrnopHpoBaHHc HcaoBepiic h T.n., 

mi . Id Kd/K.lbl 11 . 1 lU.I'ldL \ V*C CIO. CC.I ll TOJlbKO K.Ik CJICflyCT 

pa3o6paTbCR. yKa3UBaeT Ha Hero naabueM. koi :ia oh. bbh- 
ay Bcero 3Toro. .niuieH bojmo*hocth Hcnoab30BaTb cboh 
iciOBCMecKHe npaBa Ha XR9BK, HaTy mat KOTopyw mu. 
bcc. noBcejHCBHoii. KponoT.iiiBofi n ynopHofi pa6oTofl. 

IH'.l lll.lMc.-rH.-M . k"ll II Ha. noa TBOHM M v.ipeil IHIIM pyuoBoa- 

ci bom - co3aaeM. 

O.ihh no3T (XapoB HaH V'tkhh. He no.MHio) 0030, 
•ito «kpomc npana iia *miib ecTb npaBO yMepen>». 

yMiipaTb.aoporofl HocHip BuccapHOHOBHi. mhc TaK 
He xoHCTca. noTOMV hto h raySoxo y6e*aeH b tom, hto... 
h Mory 6wTb b HecKoabKO pa3 noae3Heeaas cBoero poaHo- 
ro OTeMCCTBa. mcm cettMae. MeM MHorHeapynte. KaJKyiUHecs 
MHiue mch«. HecMOTpu hh Ha HTO. II HeOCTaBnMO M I.IC.l II 06 
yHc6e. V'He6a- npe/KaeBcero. ho BCTpeMaiomnecii HaMoeM 
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nonwTKy OTopsaTb y Te6a KycoMeK BiuiMamio croab Hy*- 
Horo h aopororo aaa Bcex, h npocHTb TBocro coscTa h 
ii. ic mu. leium - Kan aocnmb Heo6xoaHMoro h khk crarb 
paBHonpaBHUM cyiuccTBOM b paaax noocxcaaiouiHx, mchh 
BocmrraBuiHX? 

Euie pa3 » npouiy. yuonno Te6a. aoporofl ysHTeab h 

BOXUb. llotlllji BlICCapHOHOBIIH. OTBeTHTb mhc aaTb MHe 
BCXII. no KOTOpbIM S OV.IV IIJTII JO CMCpTH. HIIKVaa HC 

cBopamiBas h hc oTCTynas. naMin-ya. mto 3to MHe aaa 
BeaHHafliUHH b Miipe 'icioBch - CraabHOH CTaaHH! 

>KeaaK> Tc6e Kpenfaftuiero 3aopoBbn h aoaroaeTHefl 
*nimi! Mnp - Kopao.ii,. /Kiibii Ha 6naro nponeTapHaTa 
accro Miipa. h ao KOHUa ov.n. i eiiiia.ii.iu.iM Kami khiom' 

C lyBCTBOM HCKpCHHCrO yBaJKCHHS H npeaaHHOCTbK) 

k Tc6e AaeKcanap BopncoB. 
31/Vm-34r. 

Aapec: rop. BHnyra. HBaHOBCKofi npoMbimneHHofl 
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«£enyTaTy BepxoBHoro CoBera tob. Muxaiay HBa- 
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npowHBaioiueH b JleHHHrpaae, b I Icr poi paaocoM paftoHe, 
no ricpMCKOH y.i. .16. KB.6. 

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s oopamaiocb c iiajcaaoii, ito moc laxaiemic hc ocraHCT- 
CH 6C3 OTBCTa. BoT JTKC 10 iUTHHHHX MeCdUCB 51 ninny F 

pa3jiHHHbie rocyaapcTBCHHbie n hc i .m linn . .looiiBaacb boc- 
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40MC. rae npojiexajia 3 Mecmia c r a*c.ibiM nooicpoaoBbiM 
3a6ojic»aHiicM. b pciy.ibiaTe KOToporo a ocTajiacb nojiy- 

HHBUJIHaOM. 

Tan KaK b KBapTHpe b momcht apecra Mocro M>-*a 
HHKoro He 6ijjio. to oneiaTa.™ bcc iiMymccTBo. a o6jiHra- 
uhh h 750 p. aener hj KBapntpu HibfuiH. Bbiii.m H3 pox 
iom.i 4 miBapn. a oKaiaaacb ">c i bchkhx cpe.icru h cobccm 
lyAHCJHOaH npHHOCHJIH MHCCay. Ha MOH HCOaHOKpaTHblC 

lasBncHHa b HKB.Il oo orncmTamiH KBapnipw. nocneao- 
Bano pacnopnnccuHc 27 aHBapii «Hajio*HTb apecr Ha HMy- 
uiecrBO jIHMHO npiiHaxie/Kasiuec MoeMy Mywy» (TaK 
6biao yKa3aHo b npeanHcanHH paoorHHKOB HKBil) ii bw- 
.:a i i- mhc moc. 

IIpn pacncMaTaHHH jkc mhc Bbuaiin chmoc mhhh- 

IMJOaOt II CIIOBa BCC jailc'la ia.nl TaKHC !KC BCU1H. KSK 

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JlCTCTBe, no.iv>ieni,i mhok) ot pojHT<ncH ii nPHHAJXJIE- 
5KAT HCKJHOMHTEJIbHO MHE. KpoMe toto. a bck> 
*H3Hb ca.Ma pa6oTana, cuMa noanncbiBajiacb Ha jaiiMbi h 
npiiofipeTajia hx h.i cboh cii.mo.im.ie .iciibnt. a MeH» .ih- 

IIIII.IH MOHX CWpC*CHIIH. 

B AOBepmeHHH bccx mohx ropccTefl Mens buccihjih 

HJ IdHUMdCMl'II MHOK) KOMHBTbl 6) Mia. II.IIO Ha yHHUV, HC 

nocmnaacb hh tcm. mto a ewe ene xoAH.ia nocnc Moero 
TBAcioro 3a6o.icBaHim. hh tcm. hto y mchji 5-th mccsi- 
Hbift pe6cHOK. Hi MocKBbi mhc npiiui.iocb ycxaTb k 6paTy. 
II i-ja rsAC-ibix MaTepHajibHbix ycioBHH mhc ao chx 
nop He yjaiocb empaBim.cn ot cBoeJi 6o.ie3HH ii ao chx 
nop a HCTpyaocnoco6HUH wciobck. 

y MCHS JBOC JCTCfi. HI KOTOpuX OailH 10-UeCRHHUH. 

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ana mohx jteTcfl •jacTaB.iHCT mchu o6paTiiTuc» k Ban h 
npociiTb BauierocoaeftcTBiia n BoccraHoa.ieHHHMOHx npaB 

na MOC HMymCCTBO H OO.I11I ailllll. 

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mhc *n iHciuibic cii.ibi. Ji 3Haio csoero M>-*a 20 .ieT. !>to 
HecTHUH. nopaaoHHbifl, npeaaHHbifi cBOCMy aeay - aeny 
\Kpcn;icHH» mouih KpacHoH ApMHH hciobck. JI y5e*ae- 
Ha. hto oh Mor craTb TOJibKo *cpiBofi miciicrbi. H tcm 
y'A'acHcc ot co'iiiamiN. wo b tcichhc cTpaimibn 10 Mec. a 
HHMero He Mory ao6irrbc>i. Mcjiobck cnmyn. a Ha moh 

jaSBICHHS XOTb 6bl KTO OTBCTHa. OhCBUHHO HX II He HHTa- 
K»T. 

Tae B3BTb c.'iobh. KOTopue 6u joainii ao ytueft t«x. k 
KOMy o€pamaeuibca'.' yicaXHTC mhc nyn.. no KOTopoMy a 
.u>;i*iia 1 1.1 ; ii. 

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Flpomy o6paTHTb Bauic BiiiiMamie na moio npocb6y n nan Miie noMOun,. 5\ b 1 932 r. Buuina 3aMy* 31 miocrpaHua - HeMua 
K.M. Eera. pa6oTaioiuero Ha jaBoje «3jieKTpocBeT» b TepMimecKOM uexy. B 1933 r. pojii.ica y MeHS cuh h b 1936 r. mm c hum 
pa30iiuiHCb no ccmchhoh HeyB»3Ke. ho nepc3 tph Mecsua mm BHOBb couUUCt h acn.ui 6c3 perncTpauHH. Pozuiaoi BTopofi cuh. 

B 1937 r. opraHaMH HKBfl 6wa B3HT moh m>tk, h Mcpci ween. Mecauca a nonymuia ot Hero nucbMO c ropoaa «t>paHK(()ypTa/ 

MaHHC. C TcpMaHHH, HIT OH All BO I B ;UIHHOC BJX-MH C pOJMTCHIlMH. My* CTBJI XJIOnOTaTb O MOCM BblC3iie K HCMy C JCtbMII. HO « 

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MHe BocnHTaTb aereS. t.k. oh jikjoht hx ii SBaacTca otuom. 

B .Kill HOC BJX'M H HM IIOC.'UIH.I IlCpH.IS IkVbl.IKU .1CTSM. KO I opa» HaXO.IlITCS Ha MO'I TilMTC. Ha yJIHIK KlipOBS. II KOTOpVK) H HC 

Mory B3rrb, t.k. nouuiHHy b 1000 p. h hc b cii.nax oruiaTHTb. ko: ;ia a 3apa6aTbisaio 250 p.. h h aBoc acTCH, Mory mi n oruiaTHTb? 

OneHb npouiy Bac CH*Tb c mchu noimiimy h aaTb pa3peiueHHe BbmaTb MHe nocwiicy, a run pa3peuieHHe Ha nonyveHHe b 
;ia.ii.nciuucvi nocM.iOK 6e3 noui.iim. 

B neM yOBKUMMQ nponry Bac. 

Moft aapec: MocKBa. riyuiKHHCKan n.ioumi,. a. 1 , kb.23 B.M. Ulaiiiu ie„ 

ff] npueMHoil Ha iuhuhu lanpoc oui nuc iuii a 1 hihiki, TaMonteHHoe ynpaa lernie, omnyda rwcmynu.i c ted yumiuii omaem: 

«r.ia8Hoe TaMOMceHHoe ynpaejiemie. 25 tpeepa.vi 1939 ,>, 

3atedyK>U4e.\iy npuexiHou npedcedame.w npeiuduy.ua Bepxoeiioeo Coeema Coiom CCP moe. Caec.ibeey. 

Ha Ns K 6-M om 16/11-39. 

Bojapaufon npu imoM >a na ;. nut ip-Ku UJamidje B. M.. coooiuae.u, umo e nocmynuauieu a ee adpec uj rep.uauuu noumotou 
nocbuiKt uaxodxmca cJiedynique npedMeimi: mpuKO ooMCKoe 6y.\iaMcnoe - 4 napbi. KocmioMbi demacue 6y.u. - 2, o6yeb demcKax - 4 
napbi. copoHKU dem UJe.vc. - 2, Kow'nuieimiN dem. - 2. ... neieiibe - 180 ep.. uioKo.wd - 200 ep.. lupyuucu - 2 mm.. Kiiueu. Bee eeu{ii 
Hoitbie. nnuuuHo sa mix nanuciena a cyxme - 3845 p. 60 k. 

Bonpoc o e.iooKeimu nouuuwu npedcmiuuvieM ho ycuompeiiue [lpedcedame.w HpeiuduyMa Bepxoaiuwo Coaema CCCP. 

HanaJibmiK riaccaMcupcKO-noHmoaoeo omde.ia Camapot*. 

Omeem in nputMHou Kumuiuhu: 

il4xiapma 1939 rp. Ulaiiudje B.M. 

B omeem no Baiue laxe-iewie o c.tojKeHuu iwuciuuhi c no.iyneHHou in rep.uaiiuu nocbtimi flpueMiiaM eoo6ufaem. vmo k 
noddepxKe Bauteeo xodamaucmea Hem ocHoeamiu. 

3aeedyiou(uu flpue.uHou 17. Caecibes 

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••Tonapiiiu KajiHHHH, ao Bac npocb6a n KpccrbSHiui HHanono-Bo niecciicKoii o6.iacTH Pbi6HHCKoro OKpyra. Mo.tockoto 
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tdoc aercH MajioaeTKHx: 2 roaa. 4 roaa m 6 jict. Xne6a KaMuuii roa He xBaTaeT. npiuoaHTCH noKynaTb nyaoB ao mrmaauaTH no 

.iopni oil [uciic] .. II bot xapMH To.ibKO HTO vil'o .ia KapToujKa, Koposa hc .ion i. siac. i.i HCT HHKaKoro, ii) KoonepauHH HHMeroHe 
BMaaiOT. ici iiniKii ro:io.nii.if. ocyHynncb. kuk oepecra oeiwc ri«;m Ha hhx cepaue 6onHT. >* caM Ha ce6s n mniMaium He 
o6pauiaeuib. xoth h pa6oraeuib. II bot y mciih ecn> cHi'in.a 2 roaa. n x xotci lak-o.-um. ho MHe He pa tpeuiawi . a s vise iu>;iobiih> 

Kap I oilIK II CKOpMH.1 H KOpMHTb .1.1. 1 bllic He BCHJiaX - BCCI! KapTOUIKH He \»a 1 II I .10 IIO.IOBHH M JHMbl.ec.3H Ctf KOpMHTb. H BOT lipoilis 
Bac. TOBapHiu KajiHHHH. pa3peuiiiTb 3tot Bonpoc 3ape3aTb cbii 1 1 i>io. wa.3eioHH He MeHB ii He Moe xo3nficTBo. a moiix v a. 1 1,1 n aereii». 

«23/Xl- 30. 

rp-HV BacKaKoay H.A. 

Cooamae.v. imo no eonpocy 06 yooe cKoma c.iedyem o6paiuamt>ai e .uecmiiNe apiatiH Aiacmu, ce.ibcoeem u paUucnojutoM. 

Cexpenxapb flpedBUUK C.uupuoa 

H.wh BUHK Emcees*. 



B ny6/iHKauMM Mcnonb3oeaHbi AOKyMBHTbi M3 rocyAapcTeeHHoro apxMBa Poccmmckom <DeAepamin h 
PoccHMCKoro rocyaapcTBeHHoro apxHBa coi(ManbHO-nonwTMMecKOM mctopmm. 






£ APXNB 

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Bbiiio.iHieM nirrRneTicy. 
Kto 3a rpiisy. kto 3a xboct, 
PaciaiuH.m Becb Koaxoi. 

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CHilMT .'Ichiih Ha 6epc3c. 
Hy. a TpotiKHft - Ha ejiH. 
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fl Ha 3T0T aoMHieic; 

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lapeiaaH McpHHa. 

TpH HCJC.IH KI1U1MI cm - 

ikiMv.iuu ;n JleHHHa. 

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H noftay h nocaacy 
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npeaccMTeaio cieaxy: 
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K.Liiuiu-uaaiiMa. 

Her in i an. in y CiaaHHa, 
Ecib iinaiiM y PbikOBa 
H re - nerpa Beamcoro. 

H pa6oTaaa a xoaxo3c, 
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Hy a 3aa ocraaca Taic. 

• 
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ny6nnKyeTCfl no: «MacryiiiKw (5n6nnoTeK3 pyeexoro (ponwenopa)*. M. Cob. Pocom, 1990 r 





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nouiaa Ha C o.iobkii 
iapbua.m naimi via icpn. - 
tloexaaii cuhkh. 

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lime Mope, chhc Mope, 
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He npHaer. hc npHoexHT 
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• 
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,'lnf Ha.:na ii. MecmiCB niMa. 

OcraabHoe - aero. 

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hum LUxojiom npaB ne- 
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TenbCKoro. 6naroTBO- 
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«MeMopnan». 

B H6M npea- 
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npasaM nenosexa CuSupn, Ypana h UeHTpanbHOM Poc- 
chm. 

KoHKypcbi Ann yMaiyMxcn no npa83M nenoeexa 6binn 
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roTBopmenbHoro cpOHAa noAAep>KKM MHMmiaTUB rpa*AaH- 
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3aBTpaujHeM £He. 

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Aawe rocyAapcTBy, KOTopue TaK xoHeics «cnp«TaTb» ot 

HaCTOMMMBblX AeTCXMX 17133... 



B cbomx pa6oiax MHorne nncanvi: «R xony >KMTb b 
npaBOBOM rocyAapcTse... fl CAenato ace arm Toro, mo6bi 

MOM AeTM 6bWM CnaCTJIMBbl...* PaAM TaKMX CHOB CTOMflO 
npOBOflMTb KOHKypc! 

B c6opHMxe npeflcraBneHbi pa3nwe no xapairrepy m 
o6teMy pa6oTbi CocraBMTe/iM CTapanMCb coxpaHMTb yHM- 
xaribHbie tohkm 3peHMH aBTopoB. JlMiiJb MHorAa HSMHoro 
coxpauianM TexcTw. Kcowa/ieHMio, b c6ophmk nona/iM Aawe 
He Bee naypeaTcxMe paSoTbi: o6teM KHurM orpaHH^eH. 

no MToraM KOHxypca bo bcox pernonax 6binn npose- 
aeHbi ceMMHapw Ann neAaroroB. MbM yneHMKM HaM6onee 
npxo nponBMnM ce6fl b xoab KOHxypcoa. B ceMMHapax 
npHHnnH ynacTHe M3BecTHbie poccMMCKMe cneuMa/iMCTbi a 
o6nacTM npenoaaBaHMn npaa MenoBexa. A 3to 3HasnT - 
TeMa npaB nenoBeKa Ha^MHaeT ssyMan. b poccmmcxmx 
pemoHax. A sto 3HaMMT, mto 6yAyT HOBbie xoHxypcbi, 6yAyr 
HOBbie c6ophmkm! 

Oamh M3 ynacTHMKOB, MonoAOM nenoBex, KOTopoMy 
AOBenocbnMMHo6b)Tb CBMAOTeneM TparMHecxMX co6biTMM 
b Tpo3HOM. HanMcan Tax: 

«Ceo6oda e mobm noHUManuu - omo mo. padu veao 
cmoum Mumb... 3mo xoada mu Moxeujb co3damb maKOu 
uup, e KomopoM hq 6bino Bbl xecmoKocmu, Hacunun. 
»enaeucmu, 3IK6bl, nuueMepun. CKynocmu u nmu. 3mom 
Mup donxeH 6bimb npaeduebiM. dodpbiM, eecenbiM, na- 
cmonmuM. Oh He AomMI 6bimb HepHo-6esibiM. B hbm 
OoiOKHO 6bimb mhobo Kpacox, neemoe u cnacmnuebix 
demeu. B hbm mo6a 6ydym OKpywamb mo/ibno no-nacmo- 
mueuy do6pue. uckpbhhub niodu. Hpoxodft mumo, ohu 
6ydym dpya dpyay ynt>i6ambCH, wanamb mo/ibKo xopo- 
iubb... Bydym mapnuMeB omHOcumbca dpya k dpyay. 
3acbinaa, ohu 6ydym yeepenbi e aaempaujHBM dHB. a 
npocHyeaiucb, ^yecmeoeamb, <4mo 3mom Mup Hywdaemcsi 
b hux... B amoM Mupe xaxdbiQ ^bhobbk 6ydem o6nadamb 
npaaaMu... u 6e3apaHW4Hbiuu BO3MOMH0cmaMu nony- 
vumb bcb amo. Mmbhho maxuu 6ydam mob aocydapcmeo 
u eceoSmee npaeo e hom...» 

CocrraBMTenM Ha3Banw c6ophmx - «Mmp uB8Ta paAy- 
tm!» 

Bee wenaioiuMe nonynMTb 3to yHMKanbMoe M3AaHMe 
Moryr o6pamaTbcn b BnaroTBopMTeribHbiM (Jjoha noAAep- 
)kkm MHMunaTUB rpa>t^aaHCKoro o6mecTBa «ToMKa onopbi»: 

Mocnea, 125315, a/a 28. TenecpoHlcpanc: (095) 928- 
40-36. E-mail: tochkaopory@mtu-nat.ru , k xoopduHa- 
mopy npocKma flao/ibi weeou Anene. 

MnM b Pfl3aHCxyio LUxony npaB nenoBexa mctopmxo- 
npocBeTMTenbCKoro, 6naroTBopMTenbHoro m npaB03amMT- 
Horo o6ujecT8a «MeMopMan»: 

P»33Mb, 390011. XanmypuHa, 7, PC/1. UJxona npae 
we/7oee«a. Tene/pon: (0912) 24-02-67. E-mail: 
soriva@ryazan.nBt, k pyKoeodumenic IDxonhi MeaHo- 
eou Cocpuu lOpbBBHB. 






)KypHa.n «KapTa» bmxoamt npu noAAepxxe tyonaa 
National Endowment for Democracy (NED) 



npaenTenbCTBo Kopo/ieBCTBa 
HuAepnaHflw 



OupMa «Epwr-<I>» 
(PwaHb) 



Hac noflflep>KMBa;i m 




nporpaMMa MOflbDI rpaHTOB 

POCCMMCKO-AMepMK3HCK0M 

ripoeKTHOM Tpynnw no npaBaM 
Henoaexa (MocKBa) 

AO «Pokc» 

(Pfl38Hb) 




OoHa (fopaa 
(BaujMHrroH) 



OPEN SOCIETY INSTITUTE 

HHCTHTyT "OTKpblTOe 

06mecTBo" (MocKBa). 
<t>OHfl flwopao Copoca 



OupMa oprrexHHKM 

AHTOHnyca ryrrepMaHa 

(TepMaHun) 

HeMeuKMH HapoflHbiM C0103 no yxoay 

3a MomnaMu *epiB bomhu v 

penpeccHM 



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MexcayHapoflHoe hctopmko- 
npoceeTMTeribCKoe n npaeosaiunTHoe 
o6mecTBO «MeMopnan» 



^S AreHTCTBO CUJA 
USAID no Me>KayHapoflHOMy PasBHTnw 



HHCTHTyT fleMOKparnn b Boctohhom 
EBpone (BawwHrroH-BapujaBa) 




<fOMA «EBpa3M(1» 
(BaiilMHITOH) 

Mfl «fleKop» (Pn3aHb) 



06mecTBeHHwvi L|eHTp 1/ -» rf -s 
(BapujaBa) ,VCl ' lcl 



nonnrpa<J)MMecKast cpupMa 
rieTepa JloMMana (TepMannfli . 



<!>OHfl nonbCKo-HeujCKO-C/ioBaLjKoti 
ConMAapHocm (Bapwaea) 



npaB03amnTHbiu cpona «3a 

rpa>KAaHCKoe o6iuecTBO» 

(MocKBa) 






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»i« hHp:)/ww* hro org 



ripasa HcnoBCKa b Poccmm 



nam "i=*4oe-m»n»«Tc* mm* 

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mixaux smM» M n a aw ia taccaan pHH I • 

'A»rro*ianna?TW|riiaBci»aa£aaJi m> «a* *am-f .«■■■> 



rk*«fTtel M» DyUIKKNCIO* 

QHBBM ■■■■■■ ■leifituqoiuww n^xfi 

M*«noBmeKiani HM|M cjth atpM Mm 

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ripasa HenoBGKa b Poccmm 
(Human Rights Online) 

riopTan OTKpbJBaeT okho b npaBO3amwTH0e co- 
o6ujecTBO MM/uinoHaM nojib30BaTeneii poccnii- 
CKoro HHTepHeTa. 3ro caMwii KpyriHbiii npaBO- 
3aiyMTHbJii pecypc Ha pyccKOM s3biKe - Tucfl- 
mm AOKyMeHTOB, noHTM 2000 noceTmeneii 
eweAHeBHo. MnTaTe/in nopra/ia 3HaKOMnTcn c 
hobocthmm. npMHMMaiOT yvacTMB b npaB03a- 
lUMTHbix aKUkinx, o6cy>KflaiOT o6mne npo6ne- 
mw Ha cpopyMe «Haiun npasaw, M3yMaioT ao- 
KyMeHTbi m npaKTMHecKne noco6nfl. 
B 2001 roAy norib30BaTenn CerM oopaiyajiMCb 
k dpaHMMKaM pasAeAOB n nonpa3AenoB 
nopiana oko/io Tpex c nonoBMHOM MMnnnoHOB 

Pa3. CTpOrHkl AH3aiiH. HHCpOpwaTHBHOCTb, 

e^eflHeBHoe o6HOB^eHne - see 3to npuB/ie- 
naeT k pecypcy hobwx noceTHTeneM. 
http://www.hro.org