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Full text of "KARTA - Russian Independet Historical and Human Rights Defending Journal N34-35."

34-35 




RUSSIAN INDEPENDENT HISTORICAL AND HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDING JOURNAL 





PoccMMCKafl « KAPTAo ocHOBaHa b ho- 
n6pa 1992 rona no HHnnnainBe 
no/ibCKoro HesaBMCHMoro mctopmj- 
necKoroiKypHana «KARTA», bwxoah- 
mero c nHsapn 1982 rofla, m pnsaHC- 
Koro o6mecTBa «MeMopnan», yn- 
peiKfleHHoro b OKTH6pe 1989 roaa. 

Aapec: 

300000, Poccus, r. PiuaHb, 

n/i. Koctkhuko. 3. 

flns nnceMi 390000, Poccus, 

P«3aHb-qeHTp, a/a 20. 

Teii./<paicc: (0012) 77 51 17 

E-mail: andy@hro.org 

http://www.karta.org 

yspeflHTenb: 

PeoaKUMn He3aBMCMMOM 
raaerbi «Pn3aHCKMM aecTHMK>. 

)Ky pHa/i 3aperi<CTpnpoBaH 
MMHMCTepCTBOM nesam M 
h h epo p m a umh 29.12.1 092 . 
CaHAeTenbCTBO o pervtcrpauMM 
N> 01949. 

r/iaBHbiit peqaicrop 

AHflpen B/iMMyujOB 

Peflaicmw: 

(Onus CepeAa 

CepreH PoMaHoa 
MpMHa XonMoropcKas 
B/iaAMMMP XoiiMoropcKHA 
Buktop /Iosmhckmm (CUiA) 

rieTp Muruuep (rionbiiia) 

Mmi'hus aaropoa He ofnoaTe/ibno 

cosnaAaiOT c tohkom 3P«hm« 

peoaKUMM. 

CoxpaHHOCTb pyKOnncePi, 

0OTOMaTepna/ioB m aoKyMetrroe 

rapaHTMpyeTcn. 

no aonpocaM noanncicn Ma •KapTy» 

oopautaTbCN b pefla«umo. 

Haa HOMepoM pa6oTann: 

A. E/iMHyuioa, C. Pomohob, 
K>. Cepeaa. H. XoJiMoropcKan, 

B. XoiiMoropcKMfl, E. MaKapeHKO. 

KoMnbWTepHaw aepcnca: 

K). Cepeaa 

OTnesaTaHO OOO "CEPBMC" 

Pvoawo. 

y/i. MHTepHautiOHa/ibHaii, a- 1 "P". 

3aK33 N 477. 

riesaTb OfpCBTHan. 

Tiipax 2000 an. 

noAnttcaHO b nenaTb 22. 1 0.2002 

To/ibxo Am 6ecnnaTH0ro 
pacnpocTpaHeHMd 



POCCHHCKOMV HeiaBHCIIMOMV HCTOpHMeCKOMV 

HiipaBOjaujninoM\/K>pna.iy«KAPTA»-10.ieT 

B HOMEPE: 

MaprapnTa riETPOCHH npaee na MenpnnocMoeeMMOcTb nacTHOii xh3hh 3 

Cepre* CMUPHOB npaaosaujMTMmcM u npnaaTHOCTb 

Cumyauun c npaeou Ha Henpui<ocnoaenMOcmb waemwoO ku3hu a ^Hmepneme 7 



A/lBKCaHflp KOCTHHCKHrt. MHxann 6PAyflE-30nOTAPEB 
■ npocnyuwBaHne» poccwitoKoro Hhtbphbtb 



npHBaTMOCTb M 



Bepn KHBH npHBaTMOCTb a cam na* 3anor cBo6oaw 



AneKcaHflp CyHTyPOB 3amnTa npaB -jenoaena h cyaepennTet rocyaapcTaa 
Anapa* CyCflOB Hpaaa HenoBena * pouch hoboh pocchkckoh *aeMTnwMOCTn 
kipMHa xonMoropCKA^ 
CydbSbi cmonemuH 



AxHneTTa Caran - « ..ia caMan aowuiojM^a mj ArepTOHa* 



KPyTOfl MAPUJPyT BbETHAWA 

PbGTHaM HapoAbJ. ponwrHM. anacrb 



BbBTHaM: BBKa BOHHbl. flHM MHP3 

CmpahWjbi meeOuieO ucmopnn 



Cobbtckhb }Bm>ithh«h b a*ywn»x BbBTMaMa npoim CUJA h 
Banepn* Kyn/lEBAXCKHtf «BbeTH8MCKHe Ta*Hbi» 



BaaHM y/iy-XAH 



XaMpti 



Pfj 39HUCOK 9OGHH030 COGGmHUKa 



BnaflHMnp HflbHH MmP-21 npoTHB «*aHT0M8» 
Bouhb a neie BaemMsua 



BaeTHaMO-coBeTCKaa apy»6a b u*(ppan 



Jin Kyanr 10 BaeTwaM B03Bpame«ne b cospeMeHHbiH mhp 
H3 ueuyapoe npeubepuuhucmpa Cuiaanypa 



3wbh HOHECKO 
ripacca 



npoTHBOnflHe npaBAbi 



ripaBa HenoasKa bo BbBTHaMe 

M3 onvtema Human Rights Watch 2002 iod 



TBMMblH KO(pe 

Ctpbimbie uHzpeduenmbi abemnaucKoao KO0e 



aobiw Human Rights Walcn o MOMTaMbapax 



KoMnapTMn BbGTMaMa npoTMB Mex/iyHaponHOM Amhhcthw 



3bkoh oxfynrneti 
npaeocyOua no-tbemnaucxu 



BbOTHaMCKue anccv<neHTbi 
20 Kpamitux 6uoapacpuu 



Bo Bsh At/1 BbBTHaM: rno6anM3auMfl aouoxpaTMH 
Pa3UbiuineHup noaeoiamumHuiia o 6ydymeu OMpawjj 



AHflpeH AHTOHOB KonneKTHBHaf) an«a aa BaeinaM 
PoccuucKue aKuuu e jamumy np09 *4Vioe9KB eo BMtnHBuo 



riaMBTH TaTbBMbi BenHKaMOBO* 1932-2002 



APXHB 

•Bceraa tboh lilypa ■ 

/Tttmti nucw. u3bRmtiX owdenou eoeHMOti uenaypbi a 1920 eody 



«rocnoa«. <oraa *e Bee sto komhmtcb?..» 

HuCbMa c Qponma. noaySueujue condama Muxauna Epuonoaa 



«y "MeMopnana" ecTb 6yayiuee - pa6oTa Ha aonrne ronw » 
Unmepebio c wettou npaenenuK Ma»tdynapodHOzci otmecmea 
«Mauopua/i» BuxmopoM KyvepunenKO 



O TOBAPUIUE A3EPXMHCK0V. nAMHTHUKE M ME^OBEKE 
Bopnc COKOflOB Hep»aBeioiMMH PenwKC 



Etue paa o naunrmtte npeaceaaTenio BMK-Omy flsepusHMCKOMy 
3anenemje 06iuecmea •Mauopuant 



Ann AJ1K1EB flaepxcHHCKHii h BMecyae6Hbie pacnpaBN 



Ceprew BOflKOB fljepm^Hco-^ w KOMunarepn 



A n/lEXAHOB flaepwHhCKHM h «bopb napTnn» 



lOpxti BflOBHH 
riowna nKapmbi' 



P^0eHiiiTanb. asepwrtHCKHM. aanee - eeaae 



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12 
14 
17 

19 

23 

27 



>KaM nonb CAPTP reHounae 

Hi pew Ha PaccanoecKou mpu6yHane no totmtm npecmynnenuiiu 



fl*OM CKOTT 14a pa3MbmjneHMi4 aMep^KaHua o somhb b lOro-BocTOHHOM A3mm 
3kbh HOHECKO OcMenHBaTbCR ayMBTb hb rax. uk APyrwe 
SbomuBMCKSH 80UH8 u eeponeucKBH uHmennuaeMuu* 



34 
37 

38 

39 



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47 

51 



52 



flKMHerra CArAH. Ctmbbm flEHHEkl napeBocnHTaMwe bo BbBTHaMe 
oaKMoseciBo, cipaaaMxe * cxepTb 
DodnuHnan ucmopup ibemHauctux Komwaeepeu 



_2§. 



Ctmbbh flEHHEI/1 KyribTypa m peso/nouns 

yHWimoMBHue 'vyiKdoO' xynbmypbi a couuanucmutecxou Bb»mnawe 



6yu HrOK TAH Paccxaa 2000-ro roaa 

rnaea us sanpemeHHoeo eo Bbemnaue pouana - anepabie na pyccxoM »3fe/<e 



_Z9 

JS. 

88 
_89 
-90 

102 



104 
107 



108 

111 



113 



121 



AneiccaHapCO/DKEHHUblH /^epwHncKHti u -o>h;ioco<3)ckhk napoxoa* 



Pombm ry/lb i.-.Kbk eepHbiH CTOpoKeBOii nac pacTepaaTb aparoan 



123 
124 
124 
124 
124 
125 



126 



»oto hb 1 CTp. o6now«M: Wtb Collection 



4 



nPABA 1EJI0BEKA 



Maprapma IIETPOCflH 



O riPABE HA HEnPMKOCHOBEHHOCTb 

HACTHOfl )KM3HH 




Koraa pesb 3axoflnT o cbo6o- 
ae, paHbiue BceroBcnoMHHa- 
K)T CBo6ofly nonMTHMecKyio, 
ny6nnMHyio - CBo6oay cno- 
Ba, cao6oay MHTMHroB n co- 
6paHnii, npaao us y^acTue a 
rocynapcTBeHHOM ynpaBne- 
Hnn. OflHaKO nonnTH4ecKan 
CBo6oaa - sto numb oahh us 
KOMnoHeHTOB HenoBenecKO* 
caoCoflM, flpyroii ee «>Mno- 
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•OTflenbHO B3BToro» nenoBexa, - 3to CBo6oaa ot nocro- 
HHHoro Ha6nioaeHHfl, CBo6oaa xpaHHTb npo ce6n cboh 
BSnutflM, vwcnn h cywaeHUfl, cBo6oaa 6wTb He3aBncu- 
MbiM n, Koraa tw 3Toro xoneujb, ocTaBaTbcsi HaeauHe c 
caivuM co6oft. 

3HaneHiie Taxo* CB060AW oneHb xopowo noHWMan 
riyujKHH. «Mbicrib. hto KTO-Hn6yflb Hac c to6om noacny- 
ujuBar.r, npuBOflMT MeMB b 6eujeMCTBo... Be3 nonnTHHec- 
Koiii C3o6oflbi wnTb oneHb mowho; 6e3 ceMeacTBeHHOti 
HenpuKOCHOBeHHOCTM h6bo3mo)«ho: KaTopra He 3 npuMep 
nyHiue», - nniueT riyujKHH xceHe. y3Hae o tom, hto hx 
nepennco npocMaTpuBaeTcs TpeTbMM OTaeneHneM. 

HMeHHO noTpe6HOCTb b «ceweviCTBeHHOM nenpuKOC- 
HOBeHHocTn». nHase rosopn, b HenpuKocHOBeHHOCTucife- 
pw HacTHort xh3hh Haiuna OTpaweHHe a Me>xayHapoaHOM 
naiae o rpaxaaHCXHX n nonnTunecKnx npaBax, ct. 1 7 koto- 
poro rnacuT: «Hhkto ho ao/tkbh noflsepraTbcn Bweuia 
TenbCTBy b ero nuMHyio u ceMeviHyw >KH3Hb, npon3Bonb- 
hwm nnn HesaKOHHWM nocnraTenbCTBaw Ha HenpuxocHO- 
BeHHOCTb ero >Knnnma m/ih ero xoppecnoHaenqiiu unu 
He3axoHHbiv nocnraTenbCTBaM Ha ero necrb nnn penyia- 
Hvmo. Kaxabiii nenoBex niweeT npaao na samnTy 3aKOHa ot 
Taxoro BMeujaTenbCTaa.. » 

Ho hto Taxoe «MacTHan >KH3Hb»? Kaxawii nMeeT 06 
3tom co6cTBeHHoe npeacTaBneHne, n npeacTaBneHue 
3to 3aBMCMT n ot ncnxonornHecxux xapaKTepucTMK XOHK- 
peTHoro nenoBexa (mm tobophm: oh 3aMXHyTbitf nenoBex, 
m/ih «ayuja Hapacnaajxyn), h ot Tex hopm n Tpaamiviii, 
KOTopwe cyiyecTByiOT 3 tom nnn mhom o6inecTae b onpe- 
AeneHHUki MCTopunecKUM nepnoA. 06o6iyeHHO roBopa, 
nacTHyio «n3Hb mowho onpeAenmb xax 4)M3HHecnyKi n 
AyxOBHyo o6nacTb, xoTopaa KOHTponnpyeTcn cbmhm ne- 
noBexoM, T.e. CBo6oaHa ot BHewHero HanpaBnniomero 
B03aeiicTBnn, e tom nucne ot npaaoBoro perynnooBa-np 
(OAHaxo Aon>KHa HMeTb npaBOBoeo6ecneHeHne) KaTero- 
pun «MacTHaH >KH3Hb» He nMeeT topnAnnecKoro coAepxa- 
hmh; npaaoBoe perynnpoBaHne nnujbycTaHaBnuBaeT npe- 
Aentj ee HenpnxocHOBeHHocTn («npnBaTHOCTM») n, coot- 



Mapaapuma flempocHH - nayHbiu compydmjK HHcmumyma 
CUJA u KeHadbi, 3Kcnepm npaeo3amumnbix opsa"U3au.uu 



Bom cmoio n neped eauu. cnoeno aoneHbKuu. . . 
A. rami* «KpacHhiu mpeysonbHUK* 

BeTCTBeHHO, npeAenw AonycrnMoro BMemaTenbCTBa. He 
cnynaMHO npaBO Ha HenpuxocHOBeHHOCTb nacTHOili mushu 
b HeKOTopux npaBonopnflKax onpeaenne T csi Kax «npaBO 
6b!ib npeAOCTaBneHHUM caMOMy ce6e». 

ABTopHTeTHwii aMepuxaHCKMM nccneaoBaTenb, aB- 

TOp (fiyHAaMBHTanbHOrO Tpyaa «ripUBaTHOCTb n cbo6o- 

Aa» AnaH BecTHH tobopht o neTbipex qbopMax npneaTHO- 
cth. nepBan - sto «yeAHHeHtie», cocronHne, b xotopom 
MenoBex u36aBneH ot *a6n<men*a co ctopohu Apy r *x. 
BTopan - «MHTMMHOCTb», aawKHyroe o6weHne, npeAno- 
naraomee Ao6poBo/ibHoe noaflepxaHne KOHTaxTa c y3- 
khm xpyroM nnu TpeTbfl - «cneDwaMnocib» to eCTb 
HannMne ncHxonornnecKoro 6apbepa uenay mhahbhaom 
n oxpyxaiomHMn ero nraabMn. HeTBepTan - (Ohohmm- 
HOCTb», cocTOSH^e. «oraa Henosex. Haxoancb a o6me- 
CTBeHHOM MecTe, CTpeMHTcn ocTaTbCH Hey3HaHHbiM. 

Ho BepHeMca x MeJKflyHapoAHWM aoxyMeHTaM no 
npaBaM senoBexa. BceoeiaaBaexnapaunsi. a Taxxe llaxT 
nonnTHMecKnx v, rpa>KAaHCKMX npaBax othocht npaBO Ha 
npuBaTHOCTb k Hucny npaB nenoBeKa. Kax 6w uu hh 
o6ocHOBbiBann Hannnne stom xaTeropnn npaB - tom. mto 
Tocnoab cosAan Bcex nioaeti paBHbiMn nnn TeM, hto stm 
npasa npnMaane«ai HefioBe<y Benny OAHOroTOro.HTOOH 
Don/ncA nenoBeKOM, onnpanc& Ha xaHTOBCKMM xaTeropti- 
Hecxnii MMnepaTMB nnn na haok> cnpaaeAnnBOCTM, - mu 
we aonwHw sa6biBaTb tom, hto stw npaBa BbinonHHioT 
onpeaeneHHwe couwanbHue cpyHxunn 3to Te cpyHAa- 
MeHTanbHwe npaBa, co6ntoAeHne xotopwx o6i>e<TMBHo 
Heo6xoanMO ann noaAepxoHun coukianbHoro coTpynHM- 
necTBa. HHane roBopn, nio6oe nenoBenecKoe coo6ine- 
ctbo, rAe 3th npaaa nrHopupyraTcn, paHO nnn no3AHO 
paccbinneTco. KocaeHHoe noaTBep>KfleHne counanbnoii 
cpyHKUkiM npaB nenoBexa mokho HaiiTM b npeaM6yne k 
Bceo6nert Aexnapaunn npaB HenoBexa, rae yxa3biBaeT- 
cn, hto «Heo6xoanMO, hto6w npasa nenoBena oxpaHn- 
nucb BnacTbo 3a<OHa b uennx o6ecneHeHHH Toro, mtoOm 
nenoeex ne 6bin BbiHyxaeH npn6eraTb, b xanecTBe nocne- 
AHero cpeacTBa, k BoccTaHMio npoTna TupaHnn u yrHeTe- 

HHH». 

Ann Toro HTo6bt ysCHHTb counanbHoe npeaHaaHane- 
Hue npaBa Ha HenpuxocHOBeHHOCTb nacTHOii >kh3hh, cne- 
AyeT OTaaTb ce6e othct b tom, hto xnTb b o6iaecTBe n 

6blTbCB06oaHblMOTo6iaeCTBa HeB03MO>KHO \a hto CTpeM- 

nSHMH nenoBexa x npuBaTHOCTM npoTHBOCTonT coun- 
anbHwii KOHTporib - HeorbeMneMbiii aneMeHT counanb- 
Hovi XH3HH. B aaHHOM cnysae ochobhom MexaHH3M coun- 
anbHoro kohtpo/ih - 3to Ha6nioaeHne. Poa^Tenn n Bocnu- 
TaTenn Ha6nioaaioT 3a aeTbMn, nonimeiiCKne Beayr Ha- 
6nK5A6Hne hb ynnLiax m b o6iaecTBeHHbix MecTax, rocy- 
AapcTBeHHwe opraHw Ha6riK)AaK)T 3a TeM, kbk rpa>t<aaHe 
BbinonHBtoT Dasn^iHHbie o6«3aHHOCTki n sanpeTw Ees 
Taxoro Ha6nK3aeHnn o6iaecTBO He Morno 6bi o6ecneHMTb 
BbmonHenne caHnunoHnpoBaHHbix hopm noBeaeHHn iinn 
saiaMTy cboux rpaxcaan. Heo6xoanMOCTb ero oHeBMana. 



4 



UPABA HEAOBEKA 



H M6M cnoxwee CTaHOBMTcn coquanbHan jkhshb, tbm 
npncTa/ibnee n n3ompeHHee craHOBnTcn KOHTponb Oh 
6epeT Ha BOopyweHwe orpoMHwii apceaan HaysHO-Texnu- 
necxux aocTMJKeHHii. TenetpOHHoe n snexTpoHHoe noa- 
cnyiUMBaHne, BH3yanbHoe HaontoaeHMe, c6op, Haxannn- 
9anne u conocraBneHHe c noMouibO KOMnbtorepHbix hh- 
cpopMauHOHHbix cucTeM orpoMHoro KonnnecTBa nepco- 
HanbHwx aaHHbix - Bee sth coapeMenHbie cpeacTBa coun- 
aribHoro KOHTponn, o6pa3HO roBopn. co3flatOT orpoMHyto 
«3aMOHHyK3 cKBa>KHHy», sepe3 KOTopyio 3a senoBeKOM 
Ha5riK)flaiOT rocyaapcTBO, nonnTuneCKne n o6iaecTBeH- 
Hb:e opraHnsaunn Ho, Ka«3aMenaer aMeprixaHCKnii coqn- 
onor Po6epT MepTOH. «BbiHyxaeHHan Heo6xonuvocTb 
aeTanbHO BwnoriHflTb ace (nacTo npoTMBopeHamne apy r 
flpyry ) coi|HanbHbie Hopuu caenana 6w >KH3Hb 6y KBaribHO 
HeabiHocMMOii; a cno>KHOM o6ujecTBe uin3o<t>pennMecKoe 
noseaeHne dano 6w crapee npaBwioM, neM McxjiioHeHK- 
eM». Chuwkom npucTanbHoe, «TOTanbHoe» Ha6nioaeHne 
np^BoanT k HeraTHBHbiM counanDHbiM nocreaCTBMHM 
Meway npoHMM, umbhho wnpOKce Ha6nioaeHne 3a -ioee- 
aeHneM HnenoB 0anaHCTepoB (xovMyH. opraHH3oaaHHbix 
counanncTaMn-yTonncTaMM BaeBHTHaauaTOM Bene) hbh- 
nocb, no CBUfleTenbCTBy coapeweMMUKOB, oanoii M3 rnas- 
hwx npuMHH Heycnexa 3Toro axcnepuMeHTa 

Bonpoc 06 ycTaHOBneHUM npeaenoa kohtpohh sa 
OTaenbHWMn nnuaMn n rpynnaMU nuii co ctopohw rocy- 
aapcTBeHHbix, penurno3Hbix nnn skohomhhcckhx hhcth- 
TyTOB Bceraa 6bin obhhm H3 ueHTpanbHwx a hctopmm 
6opb6bi 3a HHansnayanbHyio CBo6oay. 

B cyjjHocTn, TpaanijuoHHbie ipaaa, saxpenneHHbie 

B KOHCTHTyiJHBX fleMOKpaTHMBCKHX TOCyaapCTB, - CBO60- 

aa pennrnn, T.e. CBo6oaa cobbcth, HenpuKOCHOBeHHOCTb 
wnnnina. rapaHTnu ot HecaMKuaoHnpoaaHHoro o6bicxa n 
ot caMoo6BHMenn« - npusBaMbi orpaanTb cipevineMne 
anacTeti KcnuujxoM npncTanbHOMycouna/ibHOMy kohtpo- 

niO H3a JlHHHOCTbK). 

HenoBexy Heo6xoanMa «30Ha 6e3onacHoc™», h sto 
ho npocTo nMMHoe npeanoHTeHHe, oto aawHoe rpe6oaa 
Hue 3(pcpeKTMBH0CTn counanbHoii CTpyiaypbi. (IpaBO Ha 
HenpuKOCHOBeHHOCTb sacTHOii *h3hw h co3aaeT 3Ty 30Hy 
6e3onacHOCTn, orpaHUMUBas coqnanbHbi* KOHTponb npe- 
nenaMn, KOTopwe n onpeaennna 6bi *a< Heo6xoa^Mbie u 
aocTaTOMHbie. Oho o6ecneHHBaeT nenoBexy nnHHyw aB- 
tohomhkj, nMHHyio He3aancnMOCTb, noao6HO TOMy xax 
npaBOCo6cTBOHHOCino6ecneHHBaeT eviy rie3as«ic.iv<ocTb 
HMymecTBeHHyio (pa3yMeeTcn. n to. v\ apyroe a paMxax 
saKOHa). 

TaxoBbi counonornnecKne napaiweTpbi npaBa Ha He- 

npHKOCHOBeHHOCTb MaCTHOM WM3HM. Tenepb OSpaTHMCR K 

ero npaBOBOti npo6neMain<e. 

3to npaBO He othochtca k HHcny Tax Ha3WBaeMbix 
«TpaanunoHHbix» ecTecTBeHHbix npaB, ccpopiwynnpoBaH- 
hwx b soceMHaauaTOM Bexe. Hanp^Mep. b KoncTHTynnn 
CLUA, K/iaccMMecxoM kohcthtyuhh KOHua BoceMHaauaTO- 
"0 Bexa, aw He Hanqeie ero noa cbo^m nMSHeM, xoth 
rapaHTMM, ycTaHOBneHHbte OTaenbHbiMn nonpaBKaMn k 
KoHCTHTyuuti n Bunnew o npaaax a uenow. aam^ujanM 
xots 6w HexoTopbie CTopoHbi nacTHoii >kh3hh ot nocTO- 
poHHero HecaHKmioHnpoBaHHoro BTopjxeHnn. Tonbxo oko- 
no aaaauaTu neT Hasaa BepxoBHbifi cya CLUA nyiew 
TOJixoBaHtin hopm KoHCTHTyL4nn npMSHan npaao Ha Henpu- 

KOCHOBeHHOCTb saCTHOM >KM3HH tpyHaaMeHTailbHblM K0H- 
CTMTyi<MOHHblM npaBOM 

HcTopun 3BontounM npaBa Ha HenpuKOCHOBeHHOCTb 
nacTHoii >km3hh - 3to y6eanTenbHan unniocTpamin Toro, 



xax o6iaecTB6HHoe cosHaHne BnnneT Ha coaepwaHHe 

npaBOBblX hopm 

TeopeTimecKoe o6ocHOBaHne 3Toro npaBa. ho He xax 
oflHoro H3 cJjyHaaMeHTanbHbix, KOHCTHTyi^noHHbix npaa, a 
xax nnsHoro HenMymecTBeHHoro npaBa, 3amnmaeMoro 
cpeacTBaMn rpa«aaHCKoro npaBa. T.e. nyTeM npeaocTaB- 
neHMfl nnuy bo3mo>khocth npeabflBHTb b cyae hck k Hapy- 
tunTenio a aoBnTbcs 3anpetaeHnn Taxoro HapyiueHtm nnn 
B03MemeHnp npnMMH6HHoro MopanbHoro nnn omou^o- 
HaribHoro Bpeaa. noMTH oaHOBpeMeHHo nonBnneTcn b 
K)pnanMecKoii /lHTepaType pa3Hbix crrpaH Ha py6e»e ae- 
BsiTHaauaToro n aeaauaToro BexoB. 3to 6wna peax^H 
nporpeccMBHO Mbicnnutux npaBoaeaOB na nsweHeHnn. 
6ypH0 nponcxoanaujue b o6iaecTBeHHoti *h3hh: yp6aHM- 
aaunK). KOMMepnecKyo axcnnyaTamiio hm6hh n^ua, ero 
^joDpaweina n ero MacTHbix aen co CTopoHbi npeccbi n 
pex/iaMbi. HOBbie bo3mo>khocth Ha6nioaeHnn sa sacTHofi 

)KK3HbK>, CBR3aHHbie C TOraaLUHUMH TeXHUHeCKHMH HOBO- 

BBeaeHnaMU - TenerpatJJOM, Teneo>OHOM vt MOMenTanb- 
HoPi (poTorpac^>neii. AMepnKaHOKne aaBoxaTbi /I. BpaH- 
aeiic m C. yoppeH, nocBfiTMBiuMe 3T0My Bonpocy cneuu- 
anbnyw CTaTbio, nucanw b 1890 roay: «Hanps)KeHHOCTb vt 
cnoMHocrb *H3HH, npucymne pasBUBawmeMcn unennn- 
sauMM. npuBoanT k Heo6xoanMocTK MMeTb y6e>KMtne ot 
BHewHero MMpa, Tax hto yeanHeHne n npuBaTHOCTb CTa- 
hobstch an" Menosexa 6onee 3HaMMMWMn; oaHaxo co- 
BpeMeHHoe npeanp/iHuvaieriDCTBo n TexHwsecxne hobo- 
BBeaeHns. BToprancb b ero nacTHyio wn3Hb. npnHmn>0T 
eMy flyoieBHyio 6o/ib n CTpaaaHnq ropaaao 6onee cepbes- 
Hwe, HexenM Te. xoTopwe MoryT 6wTb npunnHeHbi npo- 

CTbJM (j3M3MMeCKHM HaCUHMeMH. 

3to 6bin, HecoMHeHHO, peBoniounoHHwii iuar, no- 
CKonbxy a aeenTHaauaTOM Bexe rpa>xaaHCKoe npaBO 3a- 
mnoiano Tonbxo «TnntiHHbie», MMymecTBeHHbie nHTepe- 
cm .1 He c<nOHHO 6bino npnanaaaTb KaTeropuio MopanbHO- 
ro Bpeaa, to ecTb Bpeaa, xoTopwii He Mo»eT 6wTb hchuc- 
neH BaeHe>KHOM Bwpa>t(eHnn. Tenepb *e nepea rpa>xaaH- 
ckhm npaBOM CTonna Mosan aaaana: «homhmo oxpaHbi 
Henosexa... a ero TMnnsHbix HHTepecax. aaTb oxpaHy 
xoHxpeTHOii nnHHOCTn bo BceM 6oraTCTse ee cBoeo6pa3- 
hwx oco6eHHOCTeiH...» Tax onpeaenun 3Ty saqany tisaec- 
THbiM pyccKni^ npasoaea nanana aexa H A. rioxpoBCKMii. 
IlocTeneHHO 3Ta TeopeTHHecxan naen «BHeap"nacb» b 
C03HaHne cyaeii n 3axoHoaaTeneii, H MeaneHHO, c oro- 
BOpxa mm, npaBO Ha HenpuxocHOBeHHOCTb nacrHo/i ccpepw 
nonynano npii3HaHMe a cyae6HOii npaxTuxe. 

3tot npoqecc caep^MBancn aByMfl cepbeaHWMn 
tpaxropawn. Bo-nepewx, boshhkhm TpyaHOCTn conpeae- 
neHnew coaepwanna npaBa. Kaxyxe roBopunocb, xaTero- 
pMH «sacTHan )KH3Hb» nuiueHa lopnanMecxoro coaep>xa- 
Hun. Cyae6Han npaxTHxa CTonxHynacb c TeM, mto noa 
o6iaei* xpbuueii «npnBaTH0CTM» co6paH uenuft p«a pa3- 
HopoaHbix nHTepecoB. KOTopbie noTpe6osanocb onpeae- 

nilTb M KJiaCCUCpHUHpOBaTb. ri03T0My B KOHeHHOM MTore 

KOHxpeTM3npoBaTb coaepwaHne npaBa Ha HenpuxocHo- 
BeHHOCTb nacTHOii wh3hm ooaanoco nerne He nepea npa- 
BOMonun, xoTopwMM pacnonaraeT cy6bexT stoto npaaa, a 
nepea Te HapyweHun, ot kotopwx aaHHoe npaBO ero 
8amnu4aer. 

Knaccmpuxaitnio Taxwx HapyiueHHii uowho npeflCTa- 
BMTb cneayioiauM o6pasoM: 1) HapyiueHne yeanHeHna 
jiHya nnn BMeiuaTenbCTBO a ero nuMHwe aena (cioaa 
othochtcb m TaKHe HapyujeHun, xax noacnyiunBaHne n 
nepexBaT Tenect>OHHbix neperoaopoB unw nepnwcTpaunH 
xoppecnoHaeHUMn); 2) npeaaHne rnacHOCTM CBeaenn^ 



4 nPABA MEADBEKA 



nnHHoro xapaKTepa, KOTopwe, c tohkh 3peHn» nnua. He- 
6naronpnflTHO bhhhiot Ha ero hmhow b o6mecTBe una 
npusuHHioT eMy 6onb n ayweBHbie CTpaaaHns (b tom 
Hucne v\ b Tex cnynaax, Koraa Taxus CBeaeHHH cooTaeT- 
CTByoT aetic-B^TenbHocTn ), 3) BbicTasneMne nnua b now- 
hom CBeTe b ma3ax oxpywaioiavix; 4) ncnonb30BaHne 
.ivenn una .i3o6pa>KeHHfl niiua b uniepecax Toro. kto ero 
Mcnonb3yeT (b nepsyno onepeao, c ue/ibio nonyienHn 
KOMMepneCKOH BblTOAbi) 

BTopoii CpaKTOp COCTOHT B TOM, hto npaBO Ha HenpH- 
KOCHOaeHHOCTb MacTHOH «h3hh He Mo*er Me noaBepraTb- 
cn onpeAeneHHWM orpaHnneHUHM, n TaKne orpaHvmeHua 
o6i>eKTHBHO Heo6xoflnMw, hto6w c6anaHcnpoBaTb HHTe- 
pecw OTaenbHOii jihwhoctm c HwepecaMn apyrax nwu. 
rpynn n rocyaapcTBa, KOTopoe. no onpeaenemiK), Bwpa- 
«aeT «ny6nmHbiii HHTepecn. Han6onee nocneaoBaTenb- 
ho cyaw ycMaTpuBarw HapyiueHne npuBaTHocru b cnyna- 
hx KOMMepMecKoro ncnonbSOBaHun hmchu h n3o6pa>xe- 
hhb nHua (nanpHMep. b pexnaMe). ropaaao 6onee octo- 
powHyio no3ni4HK) ohh 3aHHMann b Tex cnynanx. Koraa 
HapyiunTenb Mor cocnaTbca Ha «3aKOHHyio 3amnTy npaBa 
co6cTBeHHOCTn», HanpuMep. xoraa snaaeneu rocTHHU- 
Ubi. Mara3HHa nnn npeanpuHTun ycTpanBan cnewxy 3a 
noBeaeHneM nocTOnmueB mjih naeMHbix pa6oTHMK0B. 
Eiye npo6neMaTHMHee 6wnoao6nTbCH 3amnTbi npaBa Ha 
npnB3TH0CTb Torfla, Koraa peMb iuna o aenax, CBfuaHHbix 
c ony6nnKOBaHneM b nenaTu caeaeMnn o huhhom >kh3hh 
nnya. Hmchho 3aecb pa3BopaHHBancs KOHCpnaxT nHanBn- 
ayanbHoro nHTepeca b HenpuxocHoeeHHOc™ nnHHoro 
Mupa c o6mecTBeHHbiM MHTepecoM, npnHi<nn KOToporo - 
«3HaTb Bee o5o BceM», a cpeacTsa MaccoBou HH$opMa- 
Uhh BonnoiaaiOT 3tot npuHuwn. H y* coBceM 6ecnepc- 
neicrnBHOH aonroe apevia 6bina cyab6a nc<a. npeabnans- 
eMoro k rocyaapcTBy hjih k rocyaapcTBeHHOMy opraHy. 
TaK, b asaauaTbie roflw BepxoBHwfl cya CL1JA OTxa3ancs 
npn3HaTb HapyiuenneM npuBaTHOCTn TenecpoHHoe npo- 
cnywuBaHne, nocxonbxy oho He MoweT paccwaTpuBaTbcn 
KaK cJ)H3HHec«oe BTopmeHne a *n;inme (Hepe3 copoK neT 
cya nepecMOTpen CBoe peweHue - ho an* 3Toro noHaao- 
6nnocb, 4to6w ncHxonornnecKUM xriMMaT b o6iaecTBe a 

KOPHB HSMeHUJlCfl). 

Taxan ciTyaunn c npaBOM Ha HenprncocHOBeHHOCTb 
MacTHOii >kh3hh cyiyecTBoeana npuMepHo ao cepeanHw 
npownoro CTone™n (roBops o ero pasBMTnn b stot nepu- 
oa. n MMeto b BHfly nc<nK)HHTenbHO aMepkixaHCKyio »opn- 
annecKyio npaKTuxy). B eBponei^cKnx cTpaHax npaBO na 
HenpuKOCHOBeHHOCTb mbcthom >kh3hm TaK h He ycneno 
BbikiTu 3a paMKM reopeTmecKoro o6ocHOBaHMH. 

B nocneBoeHHbie roaw CHTyauns pa3HTenbH0 weHS- 
eTcn npaBO Ha npnaaTHOCTb BbixoanT Ha asaHcueHy 
o6iaecTBeHHoro BHUMaHnn. Oho BK/iOMaeTCH b xaTanor 
npaBMenoBeica n saxpennneTCfi MHorwMn KOHCTHTyunnwn 
MHaycTpnaribHO pa3BHTbix CTpaH Haen npaBOBOii oxpa- 
hw HenpuKOCHOBeHHOCTM nacTHOiii >kh3hm npnoSpeTaeT 
HOBbiii. 6onee rny60KHM CMbicn. 3to o6v>scHHeTcs aByua 
npuHUHaMU, onpeaexinBuiHMM oco3Hanne ubhhoctm yi<a- 
aaHHoro npaBa v\ ujtipoKoe o6iaecTBeHHoe ABn>KeHne 3a 
ero npnanaHne vt peanbHyio saiaMTy. 

nepBan - 3to ncTopunecKnii onwT, aaBiiinii todhok 
MaccoBOMy co3HaHMK>. 3a roatJ HauHCTCKoro rocnoacTB3 
esponeiiubi. n. b nepByio onepeab, cawn HeMuw, Ha ce6e 
ncnwTann, k xaKUM TparMHecxnM nocneacTBMBM npuBO- 
flUT TOTanbHbiS KOHTpoxib. PsflOBOwy aMepuiOHLty, flnn 
KOToporo tJ)aujn3M ocTaBancn «no Ty cTopoHy oxeaHa*, 
noHaaoGnnacb aononHMTenbHan BCTpacKa MaKxapTH3Ma, 

MT06bl y6eaHTbCfl B TOM, MTO npMBaTHOCTb - H6MTO 3Ha- 



HUTenbHo 6onee cepbe3Hoe, Hewenn «naTpnunaHCKoe 
Tpe6oBaHne», Ka< aMepuKaHijbi 6wnn ck/iohhw OTHocnTb- 
cn k Heft b nanane eexa 

BTopaH npuHUHa - ycuneHHe «aenpnBaTH3amin» 
nenoBeHecKoii jkwshu, BW3BaHHoe TeM, hto MH^oopMaunn 
o nn4HOCTn HannnaeT paccMaTpMsaTbcn. no BwpaweHHio 
BMepuKaHCKoro nccneaoBaTenn A. Munnepa. «KaioKOHO- 
MunecKn BbiroaHwi^ TOBap v\ xaK hctomhuk BnacTn». a 
coBpeMeHHbie HayHHo-TexHUHecKMeaocTkOKeHun npeaoc- 
TaBriHiOT HeBkiaaHHwe paHee bo3mo>khoc™ an» Haxonne- 
mmh a ncnonb30BaHHH TaKow nHCpopMaunn h npeBpame- 
hhh ee. T3KHM o6pa30M, BopyanecounanbHoroKOHTponn 
n MaHnnynnpoaaHn?< HenOBenecKviM noBeaeH^eM 

Pa3HOo6pa3Hbie ycipoiicTBa arm Tenei|)OHnoro m 
3neiapoHHoro noacnyujuBaHun, onTMnecxne npn6opw 
HOHHoro nuppum, CKpuTwe Teneo6-beKTHBbi no3BonnioT 
KOHTpo/inpoBaTb h saneMaTncaaTb mxwrf »ecT, Bbipa- 
weHne nnqa f Ka>xaoe chobo b KOHtpnaeHunaribHOM pa3ro- 
Bope, paciunpnn bo3mo>khocth MenoBenecKoro 3peHna n 
cnyxa, n c03flaioT 6onbiuoi< co6na3H ann ncnonb3oaaHnn 
mx BMecTO TpaanunoHHwx cnoco6oB Ha6nK3aeHnn. Mho- 
rMe us wax MUHnaTiopHw vi nMeK3Tcn b OTxpwToii npoaaxe, 
Tax mto mmh MoryT BOcnonb30B3Tbcn He TonbKO cneu- 
cnyx6bi nrin nonnuna, ho h nio6oe 3anHTepecoBaHHoe b 
3tom nacTHoe nnuo mhh opraHH3aunn. 

flpyras yrpo3a css3ana co cpeacTBaMii ncwxonorn- 
secKoro npoHMKHOBenns bo BHyrpeHHn^ iwup wenoBeKa 
(TecTupoaaHiie, ncnonbsoBaHne «aeTeKTopoBn)Kn»). Me- 
Toaw «HayHHoii» npoBepKH aenoawx KanecTB. ao6poco- 
secTHOCTn, nonnTunecKOM m nnHHOCTHoii opneHTaiiun 6e- 
pyTcs Ha BOopyxeHne nacTHbiMM n 'ocyaapcraenHbivn 
opraHH3ai4HflMn npn noa6ope KaapoB. Me>Kay TeM HayM- 

Hafl aOCTOBepHOCTb 3THX MeTOaOB, KM U flOCTOSepHOCTb 

Ha ypoBHe KOHxpeTHoro cnyMaa, aanexo Me a6conK)THbi. 

M, HaxoHeq, Han6onee MacciipoBaHHan m Han6onee 
noBceaHeBHan yrposa - 3to co3aaHne KOMnbKnepnbix 
cucTeM nepcoHanbHbixaaHHbix. KoMnbK3Tepn3aunB - sto 
He npocTo Hoean, «TexHH3npoBaHHan» cpopMa Haxonne- 
hhs nHcpopwauHii 06 OTaeribHbix n^uax CospeMeHHbie 
KOMnbioTepHbie TexHonornw no3BonnK)T MrHOBeHHO 06- 
MeHUBaTbcn HH(J)opMauneii, conocTaBnsiTb n CBoanTb 
BoeanHO nepcoHanbHwe aaHHwe, HaxannnBaeMbie b paa- 
Hbix HH^xipMauMOHHbix CMCTeMax. Tax mto nKD6oui 6onee 
nnn weHee noaroTOBneHHbiii MenoBex, nMerauinii aocTyn 
k HyjKHoii 6a3e aaHHbix, Mox<eT npocneflMTb sa Baiueii 
>KH3HbK). aawe hh pasy He yBnaea sac! MeaHunHcxaa 
nHCjjopMaunH nonaaaeT b pyxn paSoToaaTenn, CBeaeHun 
o aoxoaax - b pyxn ToproBLieB n r ipon3aoanTeneH TOBa- 
poB, cBeaeHun 06 apecTe nnn ocywaeHnn - b pyxw couw- 
anbHbix cnyx6. Bbi TepneTe xoHTporib Haa cbomm «mh- 
cpopMaunoHHbiM nopTpeTOM», T.e. cyMMoPi CBeaeHnii, 
onpeaenHomeii same nuuo b rnasax o6mecTaa. 

Ha 0OHe SToro MpanHoro neM3a>Ka TpaanuHOHHwe 
cnoco6w saujuTbi npMBaTHOCTH, opueHTupoBaHHbie rnaa- 
hum o6pa30M Ha OTHOiueHns Me>xay nacTHbiMM cy6bexTa- 

MM. CTaHOBBTCfl HeaOCTaTOHHblMM. OHM aOnonHHK)TCB 

npHMbiM 3axoHoaaTenbHbiM perynupoBanneM (IpMHHMa- 
x}Tcn 3aK0Hbi, 3anpeuiaiOLiiHe wacTHoe Ha6n-oaeHne a 
• oacnyianaaHne n ycTaHaBn^aaouj^e aocTaroHHO neT- 
xne paMKn b Bnae ycnoBUM -a o6a3aTeribHbix npoueayp 
Ann noacnyiuHBanHH co ctodohw nonnunn h apynx npa- 
BonpHMeHHTenbHbix opraHOB. Qpy-ne aaxoHbi ja.i ueiua-u : 
utVA orpaHUHHBatOT npuMeHeHne «aeTexTopoBn>Ku>». Ha- 
kohbu, npHHHMaoTCH 3axoHOAaTenbHbie h noasaxoHHbie 
axTbi. noapo6Ho pernaMeHTnpyK)iaMe o6paiaeHne c 



4 



nPABA 4EA0BEKA 



nepcoHaribHbiMn aaHHbiMH KaK a cucTeMe rocyaapcTBeH- 
Horo ynpaBnennji, Tax v\ a MacTHOM cexrope. [\ame 6ernbiii 
o6sop Bcero 3Toro 3aKonoflaTenbCTBa 6bin 6w HeBOSMO- 
weH b upaTKOki neKunn, TeM 6onee. mto npaBOBoe perynn- 
poaaHne pa3Hwx CTpaH pacxoaHTcn, m nHoraa aoaonbHO 
cymecTBeHHO. 

TeM He MeHee npeacTaansieTCH Heo6xoflUMbiM cxa- 
aaTb xoth 6t>i HecKonbKo chob o Tex npwHUHnax, Ha KOTO- 
pt>ixcTpoMTc« npaBOBa«3ainnTa auMcpopwaunoHMOM npn- 
BaTHOCTn» b coBpeMeHHOM MMpe. BO-nepsbix, noTOMy, 
hto b Haweii dpaHe 3axoH o nepcoHanbHwx aaHHbix noxa 
ho npHHHT, ho pa6oTa Haa hum ywe naeT, n, ciano 6wTb, 
mw eiue He ynycTunn B03MO>KHOCTb noBnunTb Ha ero 
coaepJKaHMe, a bo-btopwx, noTovy, mto 3th npuHmmu 
saKpennenbi Ha MexyiynapoaHOM ypoBHe KoHBeHnneiii 
1981 roaa o 3au»nTe *nanB.iao3 b cb«3h c aBTOMaTWMec- 
kom o6pa6oTKoii nepcoHanbHwx aaHHbix (3to noxa eauH- 
CTBBHHan Mewaynapoflf-afl kohbbhuhh no sonpocaM, cbr- 

33HMblM CHenpHKOCHOBeHHOCTbK3HaCTHOl1>KH3HH), usaKo- 

HoqaTenbCTBO pasHwx CTpaH, BHe saBucHMOCTu ot roro. 
nennioTCfl nu ohh yMacmnKaMM stovi KoHB6Hann, 6onee 
hjim MeHee noc/ieaoBarenbHO OTBenaeT stum npMHltft- 
naM. Fl npocTO M3no>tcy mx, He xoMMeHTnpyn. 

llpeKae scero. KoHBeHunn ycTaHaBnuBaeT TpeooBa- 
hub, .-oeflbHBnneMbie k caMUM aaHHWM. nepconanbHbie 
aaHHbie aonwHbi 6wTb nonyMeHbi aoSpocoBecTHbiM u 3a- 

KOHHblM nyTew; OHK aOnWHbl C06npaTbCH A WCnOJ1b30- 

aaTbcs ana tomho onpeaeneHHbix a He npoTHBopeMamux 
3aK0Hy qeneii n He ncnonb30Ba;bC« an« ueneii, necoBMe- 
cthwux CTevn, ant\ KOTopbix 6binn co6paHbi; ohh ao/dkhw 

6blTb0TH0CHmHMHCfl Kfleny, nOIIHblMM, HO He H36blT0MHbl- 

mh c tomxh 3peHHH Tex uenevi, ann kotopwx ohm naxanriH- 
aatOTCH, ohm aonjKHw xpaHMTbcn b Taxovi cpopMe, KOTopas 
nosBonneT /aei-TucpULMpoBaTb cy6beKTOB aaHHbix He 
6onbwe, MeM aToro Tpe6yeT uenb, a/i« kotopom ohm co- 
6paHw. Eiae oanH npnHijnn rnacuT, hto nepcona/ibHwe 
aaHHbie o HaunoHa/ibHOM npnHaane>KHOCTn, nofiHTHnec- 
xhx Barnnaax nn6o pennrnoaHwx unn hhwx y6e>KaeHnflx, 
a Taxxe nepcoHa/ibHwe aaHHbie, Kacatomneca 3aopoBb« 
hjih cexcyaxibHoft >kh3hh. Moryr noaBepraTbca KOMnbto- 
TepHOii o6pa6oT<e Toribxo b Tex cnynanx. roraa npaBono- 
pnaoK npeaycMaTpneaeT TBepawe rapaHTnn nx KOHdpvi- 
aeHunanbHocTn HaKOHeu, KoHaeHunnnpeaycMaTpMBaer 
raoaHTiin anq cy6beicroB aaHHbix. 

3tm rapaHTnn coctoht b npeaocraBneHnn nK)6oMy 
nnuy npaBa 6biTb ocBeaoMneHHMM o cyiaecTBOBaHnn 
6a3bi nepcoHaribHbix aaHHbix noee rnaBHbix uennx, a 
Taioxe o ee oDnanwecKOM aapece nepkioatiHecKvi. m 6e3 
nnuH^x aaTpaT apeMeHH nnn cpeacTa, xaxcabiti aon>xeH 

HMeTb BO3M0)KH0CTb OBpaTHTbCH C 3anpOCOM O TOM, H3- 

xannMBaiOTCfl nu a 6ase aannux ero napcoHanbHbie aaH- 
Hbie, unonyMHTbMHCpopMauntooTaKMxaaHHbix BaocTyn- 
hom cpopwe, Tpe6oBaTb n3MeHe"np nnn yHmTo>KeHnn 
aaHHbix, KOTopwe He cooTBeTCTByiOT Tpe6oBaHnnM, nepe- 
HMcneHHWM awue (tomhocth, OTHeceHHOCTM k onpeae- 
neHHOM uenn m ap ); npn6emyTb k cyae6H0ii 3au»nTe 
HapyueHHoro npaBa, ecnn ero sanpoc nn6o Tpe6oBaHne 
o aocTyne k ero nepcoHanbHWM aaHHbiM, yTOHHeHMH nnn 
yHHMTOweHHM aaHHbix He 6wnM yaoBneTBopeHw. 

HabSTue H3 3TMX nono)KeHnii aonycxaeTcn Tonbxo b 
tom cnynae, ecnn oho npuMO npeayoMOTpeno 38kohom h 
npeacTsanaeT co6oii Heo6xoanMyK3 BaeMoxpsTunecKOM 
o6mecTBe Mepy, ycrsHOBneHHyio ana oxpsHw rocyasp- 
CTBeHHOM m o6ujecTBeHHOM 6e3onacHOCTn, dpwHaHcoBbix 
HHTepecoB rocyaapcTBa nnn AIM npeceneHiifl npecTyn- 
neHMM. 



KaxoBO me nono>xeHne c npsBOM us HenpuxocHOBeH- 

HOCTb MaCTHOM >KH3HH B H3Jje(l CTpBHe? 

3anaaHbie nccneaoaaTenn npaaa Ha npuBaTHOCTb. 
xoraa ohh xotat on^csTb Te nocneacTBun. kotopwmm 
rpo3MT MaccoBoe napyiueHne HenpuxocHOBeHHOCTH nac- 
thom ccpepbi o6biMHO BcnoMUHaKDT Opyanna n ero «1984 
roa». 

HaM HeT Heo6xoanM0CTM npn6eraTb k nuTepaTyp- 
hwm annio3nnM, nocKonbxy y Hac ecTb CBOii onwr pea/ib- 
Hoii *h3hh b TOTannTapHOM rocyaapcTae, 6onee ana Hac 
y6eanTenbHbiM, weM nuTepaTypHMii hctohhuk, - noTOMy 

HTO 3TO H3UJ C06CTBeHHblVI OnWT. flaBaiiTe BCnOMHUM. 

AecnTKM nioaeii, nonyMUBiunx cpox 3a «aHTncoBeTCKyo 
arnTaqnK) v\ nponaraHay» Ha ochobshmm oaHnx hulud 
aHeBHUKOB, HacTHwx nuceM nnn BbicxasbiBaHMii b apy- 
JKecKOM Kpyry. OTKpwTbie ronocoBanun b noaaepwKy Bna- 
cTeii nnn b ocywaeHne nenoBexa. npn3BaHHbie 3acBnae- 
TenbCTBOBaTb ero «npeaaHHOCTb aeny napTHM m npaBM- 
TenbCTBan. riepcoHanbHbie aena KOHMaBiutiecn yaoriD- 
HeHneu c pa6otbi riosopHbie MeanunHcxne cnpaBKM 
HeB03MO)KHOCTH nMeTb aeTBti, Tpe6oBaBiunecn ann ocbo- 
6o>xaeHnfl ot «Hanora Ha xonocTflKOB» . He roBopw yx< 
cnnoujHOki nepnocTpauHn <oppecnoHaeHi4nn, nocTynaio- 
uxeii n3-3a rpaHnuu. m o nocTonHHOM cTpaxe Toro, mto 
tbom TenecpOH npocnyiunaaeTcn. Bee 3to - HapyuieHMB 
HenpwxocHOBeHHOCTn nacTHOM x<m3hm. npn 3tom nocne- 
aHflfl coBeTcxan KOHCTHTyuMn, KoHCTHTyunB 1977 r., co- 
aepwana cneana/ibHyio HopMy o tom. mto «nnHHan wn3Hb 
rpaxcaaH, TafiHa nepenncKn, Teneo>OHHbix neperoBopoB a 
TenerpacpHbix coo6meHnti oxpaHsnoTcn 3axoHOM»! 

)Khbs b o6iaecTBe, rae nioooe Tpe6oaaHne ayxoB- 
hom He3aBncnM0CTd noaaBnnnocb Kax nocsraTenbCTBO 
HaocHOBW rocyaapcTBeHHorocTpofl uraesenoBeKnocTo- 
nHHO ucnbiTbiBan ouiymeHne. OMeHb tomho BbipaxeHHoe b 
oaHOii H3 neceH rannna: «Bot ctow h nepea aaMM, cnoBHo 
roneHbxuviw, mw nocTOSHHO WMena B03MO>KHOCTb y6e- 

AUTbCfl B TOM, HaCKOJlbKO T6CH0 HenpMKOCHOBeHHOCTb 

MacTHOii >kh3hh CBn3aHa c nonnTimecKOM CBo6oaoii. 

Cei4Mac nono)KeHne Beujeii n3MeHnnocb HoBas Koh- 
CTWTyuwx ywe He orpaHUMMBaeTCH pacnnwBHaTbiM yxaaa- 
hubm Ha to. MTonnMHan wn3Hb «oxpaHneTcn 3axoHOM». a 
MeTxo 3aKpennneT aa MenoBexoM «npaBO Ha HenpuxocHO- 
BeHHOCTb MacTHovi >kh3hm, nuMHyio h ceMeiiHyK) TaPiHy, 
aamnTy csoen mbcth h no6poro MMeHn» (cTaTbn 23). 3Ta 
dpopMynnpoaxa 03HaMaeT, mto nenoBex caM MoxceT axTMB- 
ho 3amniaaTb CBoe npaBo, He3aancnMO ot Toro, oxpaHsi- 
eTCH oho nnn neT xaxHM-To onocpeayioiauM 3axoHOM. 
KoHcrnTyunfl saxpennna Taxxe npaBO Ha TafiHy napennc- 
kh, Tene0OHHbix neperoBopoB n hhwx coo6uieHM(i, o6ec- 
nenna ero rapaHTneti, b cootb6tctbhh c kotopom orpaHM- 
MeHne aToro npaea aonycxaeTcn Tonbxo Ha ocHOBannn 
cyae6Horo peiueHMH. CTaTbB 24 coaepwuT nonox<eHne 
tom, mtoc6op, xpaHeHMe, ncnonb30BaHne n pacnpocTpa- 
HeHne iiHrfpopwaunn o MacTHOM >kh3hu nnua 6e~3 ero 
comacMS He aonycxaiOTCB. CTaTbn 25 ycTaHaannBaeT 
HenpuxocHOBeHHocTb jxunniya. HMeeTcn eme aee xoh- 
cruTyunoHHbix rapaHTMH HenpuxocHoaeHHocTn mbcthom 
>kh3hu. KOTopwe nsntiioTCB npoMbiM oTronocxoM Hauiero 
coBeTcxoro onwTa. 3to nonoxceHne ct. 29 o tom, mto 
hukto He Moxer 6wTb npMHy)xaeH x BwpaweHwo cboux 
MHeHMili n y6ewaeHnii, m nono>KeHne ct. 26 o tom, mto 
huxto He mowbt 6wTb npuHyjKfleH k yxa3aHnto CBoeii 
HaunoHanbHOii npuHaanewHOCTH. yMMTbiaan, mto Bee no- 
noweHUH KoHCTHTyunn HMeiOT npnMoe aeMCTBwe. xa3a- 
nocb 6bi. ana npaea Ha HenpuxocHOBeHHocTb MacTHOfi 
»h3hh cosaaH caMbiPi 6naronpnnTHbiii xnwMaT. 



4 



nPABA MEAQBEKA 



Ho He 6yaeM 6naroaywecTBOBaTb. Pea/ibHan cmya- 

UHH BO MHOrOM OTHUHaeTCH OT HOpMaTHBHOtl MOfle/lH. B 

ra3erax noflBnnK>Tcn coo6meHHS o mscthom noacnywn- 
Ban.'.i a apyvix HapyweHHnx npusaTHOc™ nacTHbix ruu 
CymecTByeT TaxoPi coeepweHHO neraribHbivi KaHan yTen- 

KU MBAMLJUHCKOH HHCpOpMaiJUH, Kax 6onbHHMHblfl nHCT C 

ysoaaHneM anarnosa. 3tot hkct bw aornxHw OTaaTb b 
OTflen KaapoB. Ahkbtw, aanonHseMwe npn nocTynneHnn 
Ha pa6oTy. Hecxonbxo coxpaTHnucb, ho nc-npewHewy 
npeflno/iaraoT npeac-CTaBneHue n36biTOHHoti HHipopMa- 
Uhh, He roBopn y>xe o Hen3MeHH0i* rpa$e «HamiOHanb- 

HOCTb». 

Ot MeHfl npn nocTynneHHH na pa50Ty b aaMUHHCTpa- 
mito ripe3HfleHTa noTpeooBann yK33aTb MecTo po*aeHHH 
Moero OTua. cxoHHaBiaeroca aBaauaTb neT Ha3aa H ecnn 
mm noKa He omymaeM HeraTnanbix -locnencTBuii «hho?op- 

MamiOHHOrO KOHTpOnH» CO CTOPOHW rOCyflapCTBa, 3TO 

CBnaeTenbCTByeT He CTonbKo o ero caMoorpaHMneHnn, 
CKonbxo 06 OTcyrcTBMH y Hero b aaHHbm mombht cooTBei"- 
CTByKsmux B03MO>KHOCTevi. Bo bchkom cnysae, MHe ywe 
npnxoannocb CTanxuBaTbCH c npeanox<eHMHMn C03aa- 
hhh o6ujeHaunoHanbHoro peectpa HaceneHun - ueHtpa- 



nn3oeaHHOii 6a3w aaHHwx, rae HaxannHBanacb 6w nomn 
HCHepnwaaiomafl nHtpopMaunn 06 nHanBnae 3to 060- 
CHOBbiBanocbTeu. mto Tax-ae 6yaeT yaoSnee n a^n rocy- 
aapcTBa. m ana caMoro nenoBexa 

He ctout ynoBaTb Ha oaHO TonbKO npsiMoe aeiicTBue 
KoHCTHTyunn HaM Heo6xoa*Mbi saxoHbi - H6Txne. ae- 
TanbHO pa3pa6oTaHHt>ie 3aKOHbt, coaepwauiHe rapaHTnn 
ot HecaHKijuoHnpoBaHHO'o BweuiaienbCTBa b Hauiy nac- 

THyK) )KM3Hb CO CTOPOHbl rOCyaapCTBeHHblX H MaCTHbtX 

nHCTHTyroB, a b cnyHanx, noraa Taxoe BMewaTe/ibCTBO 

06t>eKTMBHO Heo6xOflHMO H CaHKL(HOHHpOBaHO 33K0H0M , - 

o6n3aienbHbie npoqeaypbi, xoTopwe ncwuoHnnn 6w npo- 
n3Bon b ocyLjecTsnennn mmm cbo^x noriHOMOHHiii. Cbohm 
waTepnanoM si crapanacb noMOHb cocTasnTb npeacTaB- 
neHne o tom, hto Taxoe npaao Ha HenpnK0CH0B6HH0CTb 
nacTHoii >kh3hh h b neM coctoht ero ijeHHOCTb. HaaeKicb, 
hto 3Ta nHt^opMaunn noMoweT sav 6onee nacronHUBo 
3ataniuaTb HapyiueHHwe npaBa - co6cTBeHHbie h Myx<ne. 
/l6oecnu npaBawn He nonbsyiOTCfl, HapyweHHe hx nepe- 

CTaeT 6blTb npOCTO HenpHflTHblM UHllMaeHTOM U CTaHO- 

3HTCH noBceaHeBHOii npa<Tn<oti. 

MocKea 



Cepre* CMMPHOB 

nPAB03AlHMTHMKM M nPMBATHOCTb 




JleTOM 2002 roaa MOKpenio- 
HanbHaa rpynna «ripaB03amHT- 
HaH ceTb» Bbinycnuia b cbct khh- 
ry Cepres CMiipHOBa «npH- 

B@THOCrb». B 3TOM H34aHHH H3- 

no>KeH B3rji>ia npaB03aiunTHHKa 
Ha coBpeineHHyio cwryauHK) c 
npaBOM ua HenpiiKOCHOBeHHOCTb 

laCTHOH )KH3HH B HHTepHeTC 

PaccMaTpHBaroTCH cneayiouiHe 
Bonpocu: npiiBaTHOCTb nepcoHajibHbixaaHiiux; no^HTH- 
Ka npHBaTHOCTH; npHBainocTb KOMMyHHKauHfi: «rpynna 
pHCKa»; 6anaHc Motay 6e3onacHOCTbio h npaBaviu hcio- 
Bexa; rapaH thm npHBaTHOCTH b MexuyHaponHbix corna- 
uieHHHx; rapaHTHH npHBaTHOCTH nepcoHajibHbix aaHHbix 
b nauiioiia.i i.iium (aKOiiu.ui 1 c. ii.c 1 11c: soceMb i:p»nuniioii. 
Ha KOTopux ocHOBaHa npiiBa 1 hoc 1 1> nepcoiia.ibiibix ;un- 
■ibix RIP; 6piiTaHCKHH 3aKOH o c.ic.K-i hciihi.ix opraHax; 
COPM-2; Carnivore; EBponeHCKaa KOHBeHmiH o KOMnb- 
K)TepHbix npecTyn^eHHax; MewjiyHapoaHUH Teppopn3M 
H npnBaniocTb; [ipaB03auiiiTHHKii 11 npiiBanioc il; lump- 
pw h uiHlppOBaHiie; k;ik i cK-y'iapciiuuii paiiH'iiiBaei Kpim- 
TorpatpHK); anyamm c Kpmiioipatpiicii b Miipe; liiutppo- 
BaHHC C OTKpblTWM KJIK340M; caM03auuiTa B HHTCpHeTC. 

FIOMHMO ITOrO. B KHHTC lipilBO.'lll I ^H HHCTpyKUHH no pa- 

6oTe c nonyjwpHOH ujiuppoBa^bHOH nporpaMMOH PGP, 
Hcnonb3yeMOH bo bccm MHpeiinji3auiHTbi nepcoHa^bHbix 
aanHbix. PacnpocTpaHeHHe RHHTH (piiHaHCHpycTca <Poh- 
aoM dJopaa h ocymecTBnaercJi no o6whhoh noMTe 6ec- 
naaTHO ma opraHH3auHH h sacTHux ihu, pa6oTaioiuHx b 
o6nactH npaB nenoBexa h/hsih HHTepecyKJiuHxcji tcmoh b 



paMxax cBoefi nccaeaoBaTenbCKofi, acypHaaHCTCKOH, upe- 
noaaBaTeabCKofi HUB hhoh aejrrenbHocTH. KHHry mojkho 
3aKa3aTb, 3anoaiiHB Kpareyio (popMy b MHTepHeTe: 
http://www.hro.0rg/editions/priv9cy/anket.htm 
nan HanpaBHB 3anpoc no aapecy: privacy@hro.org 
ripeaaaraeM BHHM8BHK) HHTaTcacfl «KapTbi» ipparMCHT 

KHtlDl «ripHB@THOCTb». 



CoBceM He o6s3aTenbHO norpy>KaTbCn b rnyBuHbi 
hctophh nnn ncuxonomn. vro6hi yBnaeTb b Pocchu otho- 
ujeHne nraaeii k npwBaTHOcru omnHaeTcsi ot 3anaaHoro. 
BbiT poccuftCKtix ; pa«aaH npoHHO CBnaaH c nnauxapTHbi- 
mh BaronaMn n o6iaecTB6HHbiMn 6anflMn. npneaTHOCTb 
He npuHnwaeTCB Bcepbea aawe TeMn, kto, xa3anocb 5bi, 
aoniKeH ee 3amnmaTb. 

B 1996 roay opraHvi3ai4MR «rpax<aaHCKMM KOHTponb» 
(CaHKT-rieTep6ypr) BbinycTuna nepeBoaHyio KHH>KKy-cnpa- 
bohhuk «Bauje npaBO Ha HenpnK0CH0BeHHOCTb nacTHOii 
>kh3hh» . B UnTepHeTe aocnx nop mowho OTbicxaTb onuca- 
hh« He6onbiunx ceMUHapoB «Tpa>KaaHCKoro xoHTponn* 
no 3tom tomb. B BHBape 1 997 roaa b Mockbb hs oahom na 
ceMUHapoB MocxoBCxoii XenbCMHKCKoii r pynnw noa 06- 
muM pyKOBoacTBOM H. H. Boropas npoiuna ancxyccvin o 
npHBaTHOCTH. no ee pe3yribTaTaM 6wna Bbinymena 600- 
ujiopa. B 2000 roay «rpa>KaaHCKMM xoHTponb» n3jan 
KHury «3aujnTa npas rpa>xaaH npn BHeapeHtiki c^cieMbi 
onepaTMBHO-po3bicxHbix MeponpkmTMM b cerax cbp3h» 
Oanaxo bcb 3Ta aenTenbHOCTb Morna aanHTepecoBaTb 



Cepieu CuupHoa - KOopduHamop uockobckobo omdenemjH 
uexpeeuoHanbHOu apynnm «npaeo3amumnaa cemb». 



4 



nPABA HEAQEEKA 



TonbKO cneunanncTOB. KHurn HanncaHbi cyxMM opuan- 
MecKkiM H3WKOM n MeflocTynMbi ann ujupoKoii ayamopnn 
CeMMHaptJ co6npann Manoe nucno npaB03amnTHuxoB vt 

•OPHCTOB. 

UnTepecHbiM MaiepnanoM qna aHann3a moth 6w 
CTaTb MTom MOHHTopuHra HapyujeHnii npaB Henoaexa b 
Poccmm. 3tot npoeia Hanancn b 1998 roay noa naTpoHa- 
x<eM Mockobckom XenbCHHKcxotf roynibi n o6beanH*n 
ycunns aecflTKOB npaB03aujnTHbix opraHH3au,n& H3 paa- 
hwx pernoHOB CTpaHbi. B 2000 roay hx muc/io aowno ao 
89, v\ {fnHanbHbiMaOKnaa oxBaTbiBan now™ bc>o Poccwo 
K cowaneHwo, nonwTKn aHaruraa cmyaunn a o6nacrn 
npuBaTHOCTn wommo cocHMTaTb no nanbuaM. B paarap 
CTpacTevi no COPM-2 (BTopap nonosnHa 1 998 roaa) Tonb- 
ko Tpn aBTopa ynoMHHynn o cymecTBOBaHnn aroii cucie- 
Mbi. Hh b oaHOM H3 aoxnaaoB HeT aHann3a HapyiueHUM 
npuBaTHOCTM, npaKTMMecKH HUiero hb cxaaano o tomb 
3tom khm™ - HapyujeHMflx npuBaTHOc™ b HmepHeTe. 
CBBaeHun npaBO3amnTHHK0B no-npewHeMy coctoht hs 
eauHUHHbix tpaxTOB, o6mnx chob n pa3Hwx cnyxoB. 

HenpuxocHOBeHHOCTb wnnnma vi TaiiHa nepenwcxw 
noHTM Huxoraa He crraHOBnTca TeMaMH ceMHnapoB, «xpyr- 
nwx CTonoB» hjih npecc-xoHOjepeHmiii. noMeiwy? 

EcTb, no KpaKHeii Mepe, nsTb npmMH: 

1 . npaB03aiUHTHHKK nOKa He OC03HaiOT npHBaTHCXJTb 

xax 4)yHaaMeHTanbHoe npaso vt othocat ero «na 3aaHuti 
nnaH». 

2. Konnern -paanLMo-mo HHTepecyiOTcn nuwb oa- 
hom MacTbK) TeMw - npocryujueaHneM TenecpoHOB co 
ctopohw cneucny>K6. Xoth, xax bw 3HaeTe, npo6neMa 
ropa3ao Lunpe 

3. MeTonn<n HCcnenoBaHnii ocraiOTCfl Manon3yMRH- 
HbiMn Pa6oTw 3anaflHt>ix asTopoB no npo6neMaw 3amn- 
tw npuBaTHocTn peaxo nepeBOA«Tc« Ha pyccKnii pawx. 

4. ^IncpopMauuFi o TpocnyujuBaHiiHx no^Tri Bceraa 
sacexpeneHa. B poccniacxnx3aKOHax HeT npaBOBOrt Hop- 
Mbi, no KOTopoti cneacTBHe fionx<HO 6bino 6w pacxpwBaTb 
nHcpopMau.nio 06 onepaTHBHO-po3t>iCKHbix aeviCTBHPx. 

5. AeHer Ha opraHwaiiwio pa6oTu, nax aceraa, hb 
xaaTaeT 

Ahto b «nnioce»? 

Hncno ny6nnnaunn. nocBflujeHHbix nptisaTHOCTn, 
yBennsuriocb. K stom TeMe npoPBnnn HHTepec xypHan 
«npaB03aiuMTHHK», 6tonneTeHb MewayHapoaHoro «Me- 




Mopnana», ncTopuxo-npa- 
B03annTHbiii jnypHan 
«KapTa» - n3aaHnn. xoto- 
pwe He cneunann3npy»0T- 
cp Ha TeMe npnaaTHOCTn. 
C noaaMH npasosaujMTHM- 
kob npoiuno HeCKOHbKO BW- 
CTynneHMi* na Paano Cbo- 
6oqa Bnjih onygnnKOBa- 

Hbi CTaTbH B OHnaMHOBOM 

n3aaHnn «HHTepHeT.Py», a 
Hecxonbxnx «6yMax<Hbix>» 
ra3eTax n«<ypHanax B an- 
pene 2000 roaa «ripaBO- 
3aianTHa» ceTb» (www 
firo.org) coBMecTHO c Ha- 

UHOManbMblM HHCTHTyTOM 

npeccw a AMepwOHCKHM cok)30m 3a rpa>xaaHCKMe cbo6o- 
aw npoBena b Mockbb KOHqsepeHiiMK) «Okho b cBo6oaHbiM 
Mnp-2000». 3to 6bino Hati6onee npeacTaanTenbHoe co- 
6paHne npaB03amnTHHKOB. 3xcnepTOB. rocyaapcTaenHbix 
huhobhukob m >xypHanMCTOB, nHTepecyiomnxcB OHnaiiHo- 
bo^ npiiBaTHocTbio. AnpenbCKan KOHtJjepeHLjiifl CTana 
oaHOM n3 nepBwx nonbuox «HaBeaeHMB moctob» Me>Kay 
noTeHunanbHbiMn coKOHnxaMn IIommmo 3Toro. «CeTb» 
aBaxflw y^acTBoaana b Me>xayHapoaHbix KOH$>epeHun«x 
nonpuBaTHOCTH - a 1998 rofly B ByaaneujTe n b 1 999 roay 
b BawnnrTOHe. JleTow 2000 roaa «ripa803amMTHan ceTb» 
npoBena HecKonbxo xopotkmx TpeHUHroB no npuBaTHOCTM 
b pa3nnHHbix ropoaax crpaHbi, a aecHoii 2001 roaa 3Ta 
TeMa anepabie 6bina noapoGHO n3no»eHa Ha aByxaneB- 
hom ceMnnape ann yMaiuMxcn pssaHc<nx ujxon. B nione 
2002 roaa «npaB03aianTHan ceTb» npoBena a MocxBe 
MejKayHapoaHyw KOHcpepeHunio «Okho a cBo6oaHbii4 Mnp- 
2002» no TeMe «ripaBa HenoBexa nocne 11 ceHTs6p« 
2001 roaa». 

B 2002 roay. y*e nocne Bwxoaa a cseT stow KHwrn, 
apxMB naaaHnfl npaB03aianTHoro coo6mecTBa nononnnT- 
cn AOxnaaoM o co<roannn OHnaMHOBOM npuBaTHocru b 
Poccmh. 

3tm po6xne ujarn HanoMUHaiOT nonbiTxy caannTb 
BeKOBOM cn6npcKnii xeap c noMombw TypucTcxoro Tono- 
puKa. ripo6neMa, oseBwaHO. Tpe6yeT HanpaBneHHwx m 
KBanncpnunposaHHbix ycvuiMM WHorux ntoaei^. 

MocKea 



ArieKcaHflp KOCTMHCKWM, Muxan/i BPAYAE-30^0TAPEB 

nPMBATHOCTb M «nPOCAyiJJMBAHME» 
POCCMPlCKOrO MHTEPHETA 




Ane«candp KocmuHCKuQ: 

C Tex nop nax b cepequHe 1998 
roaa BnepBwe nonannncb CBeae- 
huh o BHeapeHnn b HHTepHeTe 
hoboS cucTeMbi onepaTHBHO-po- 
SbicxHbix MeponpuflTHtf, COPM-2. 
b cneu^iannanpoBaHHO^ vt npaBO- 
3aianTHOM npecce ho npe<pama- 
iotcb ancxyccwM o npaBOMepHOc- 



th Taxoro oiara cnei^cnyH<6 m k ieMy oh MroxeT npuBecTM 
floBoribHO nonHO cotrroBHue sonpoca n3no>KeHO Ha Hh- 
TepHer-ysne www.libertarium.ru . 

OaHaxo, no oonbiuetf sacTM, Taxne a^cxyccnn He 
xacawTcn pearibHoro nono^enun nen c BHeapeHneM 
COPM. HeaaBHO MHe m Mtixawny Bpayae-3onoTapeBy 
3aMecrnTenKjrnaBHoro peaaxTopa eweHeaenbHHxa «Kom- 
nbOTeppax, yaanocb, bhqumo, snepBbie a3nTb OTKpoeeH- 
Hoe HHTepBbio Ha 3Ty TeMy y oanoro H3 xpynHbix poccnii. 



4 nPABA 1EJI0BEKA 



ckhx periiOHanbHbix npoBartflepoB HHTepHeia. no noHHT- 
HbiM npuHUHaM oh nowenan ocTaTbes Hen3BecTHt>iM, ho 

ero ,ivn ,1 ace KoopaunaTbi peaaKunn Paa^io C3o6ona 

H3BeCTHbl. 

COPM-2 - TexHunecKne cpeacTBa, o6ecneHMBaio- 
wneflOCTyn cneucny>t<6 k hkhhhm onepaiopoB HHTepHeT 
anncbeMaaaHHWx. PaHee, xoraacoTpyaHnxncneucny>K6 
xoTenn nonysnTb aocryn k nacTHOrt nMCpopMaunn a6o- 
neHTa, ohh aonwHw 6binn npeawBMTb -posatiaepy pe- 
djeHne cyaa Tenepb Taxou hopmw He npeaycMOTpeno. 

riepeMHcnuM ocHOBHwe npeT6H3nn k COPM-2: 

Bo-nepBwx, COPM-2 Tpe6yeT, mto6w xax<abiii npo- 
Bartflep aa cboh cweT (!) «npoT«Hyn» BwaenenHyio jihhwo 
cbhsm b MecTHoe oraeneHne OCB co cxopocrbio noflKjiio- 
^eHun «He HM>Ke ckopocth noAwiH)4eHMfl nio6oro a6oHeH- 
ra». 3to HyxHO mm ana o6ecneHeHun cxpbrmoro aocTyna 
<o aceii nHiJiopwaunn a6oHeHToa b pe*^Me peanbHoro 
BP OMO I IW . 

ripn 3tom cneucnyx6bi nonysaiOT 6ecxoHTponbHbiii 
aocTyn ko aceM aaHHWM, u o dpaxTe Taxoro nocryna He 
5yaeT nsBecTHO HHxoMy. 

CaHKuns Ha noacnyujuBaHne npn stom CTaHOBurcn 
cpopMaribHOCTbio. nocKonbKy TexHonornqecKnx orpaHH- 
^eHMVi Ha HecaHKijHOHnpoBaHHoe noacnymnBaHne COPM- 
2 He o6ecnesnBaeT 

B -biMeiune^ Poccnn noao6Hbie bosmowhocth no- 
TeHunanbHO npeBpaiyaiOT COPM b cpeacTBO sxohomh- 
necKoro LunnoHama. c6opa xoMnpoMaTa nnn nontiTtmec- 

noro awmhhr. 

Bo-BTopbix.npoTHBopesacTaTbe 193aKona «06one- 
paTMBHO-po3biCKHoPi aeflTejibHOCTn», xoTopaa Tpe6yeT 
i})nHaHCnpoBaTb OPfl ndcniOHHTenbHO H3 6K>a>KeTa n BHe- 
6)oa>KeTHbix cponaoB opraHOB rocyaapcTBeHHOii 3nacin 
COPM cpviHaHCMpyeTcn ae-c}>aKTo 3a chot nposaiiaepoB 
HHTepHeTa, apyruMM cnoeaMn, 3a cneT nonb30BaTenert. 

B-TpeTbHx, onepaTopu cbhsh o6n3aHbi xpaHMTb Taw- 
ny cbhsu, m no saKOHy 6es npeqnucanufj cyaa ohm He 
HMe«T npaBa hu npocnywMBaTb, hh coynacTBOBaTb b 
npocnyuinBannn paaroBopos cboux a6oHeHT0B. 

Ho oTBeTHan apryMeHTauwn npeacTaBMTenea cneu- 
cny>K6, k co*aneHMio, dpaaana m CTpaaaeT HenonHOTO*. 

A^h npviMepa npoamnpyev HasanbHUKa L4eHipa 06- 
ujecTBeHHbix CB«3ew OCB AnexcaHapa 3aaHOBHHa. koto- 
pbiii b oTBeT Ha aanpoc b CBoew ocpuuuanbHOM nucbMe b 
peaaKunio «KoMnbK)Teppbm b 1998 roay nucan, hto 
«COPM npeacTaBnaeT co6oii nporpaMMHO-annapaTHwrt 
KOMnnenc, xoTopwfi npuMeHseTcn b npouecce onepaTHB- 
HO-po3biCKHOM flenTenbHocTM Tonbxo... Ha ocHOBannn cy- 
ae6Horo peueHn«», mo «npn npoBeaeHUM OPM hckhk)- 
HaeTcn B03M0)KH0CTb HaHeceHUB ymep6a mushm h 3aopo- 
3bK3 n-oaei^", mto «COPM hub Koeii vepe He Hanpasnena 
na orpaHMHeHne npas rpa>«aaH», mto «b ct. 138 YronoBHO- 
ro KoaeKca P<P npeaycMOTpeHO HaKaaaHiie 3a H63aKOH- 
Hoe HapyweHue Ta^Hbi nepenMCKM, Tene({)OHHbix nepero- 
bopob. noMTOBbix, TenerpaiJjHbix n uhux coo6meHHii» 

He ocnapuBas (popwanbHOM npaBunbHOCTn yTBepx- 
aenm HananbHUKa UOC OCB. aaMemv. hto nexaT ohm 
coeepujeHHO b hhom nnocxocTn, He)Kenn 6ecnoKOMCTBO 
o6wecTBeHHOCTH. 

K cowanen.-o, cpea.i nposatiaepoB HaiunocbHeMHO- 
ro xenaom^x OTCTaviaaTb 3axoHHbie nHTepecb cbphx 
khhchtob n 0TKa3aBiiikixcn cneno ncnonHHTb - pe6oBainn 
1>C5, npoTHBopeHaoineKaK3aKOHoaaTenbCTBy, TaKH3apa- 
BOMy CMwcny. B xanecTBe eauHCTBeHHoro, BiianMo, mc- 
KntOHeHun mo>kho HaaBaTb Tonbxo BonrorpaacKyio a>npMy 




«Baiiflpfl-CnaBHH KoMMyHHKeMujH3». riofian na OTKpwToe 
npoTHBOCTORHne co cneL(cny)K6aMn, cpkipMa CTonxHynacb 
c MaccupoBaHHou aTaxoM MecTHbix roccBn3bHaa3opa u 
<DCB, b pe3ynbT3Te nero ee aenTenbHocTb 6wna 6noxn- 

P0B3Ha. 

HecMOTpn Ha to, mto cpopManbHO «5aiinpa» HeoTxa- 
3biBancn BHeapsTb COPM-2 H He npoTecTOBan npoTUB 
onepaTMBHo-po3bicxHOM aeHTenbHOCTM Kax TaxoBoii, a 
ronbxo OTBepran KonxpeTHbie HesaxoHHbie Tpe6oaaHnn 
MecTHux OCB h roccBHSbHaaaopa Ha cpopManbibix ocho- 
BaHMHx. HecMOTp« Ha to, hto BnocneacTBHH cya npusHan 

ae^CTBMR npOTMBHVIKOB «BakiflPfla» He33KOHHblMH, CBOM 

6n3Hec KOMnaHMB, OaKTMnecKn, noTepnna. 3to CTano 
OTpMLiaTenbHbiM npuMepoM at« cotch poccmmckhx npo- 

BadASpos. 

Cneu^annsiipoBaHHbie o6mecTBeHHbie opraHH3aunn, 
npn3BaHHbie, Kaaanocb 6w, oTCTanBaTb HHTepecbi MHTep- 
neT-coo6mecTBa, HanpuMep C0103 onepaTopoB HHTepHe- 
Ta nnn AccoLinaann aoKyMeHTanbHoii 3neiapocBfl3n, b 
3tom cmyau/iM cTbianiiBO npoMoriManM. 

Muxaun Bpayde-3onomapea: 
flpymM. naaepHoe. 6oneeyTeujn- 
TenbHbtM npuMepoM ctomt cmm- 
TaTb hck b BepxoBHbivi Cya, no- 
aaHHbm wypHan^CTOM riasnoM 
HeTyncxMM npoTMB Mhhcbh3h h 
MuHHjcTa, xoTopwii npocnn npn- 
3naTb HesaxoHHOCTb nuceM n npn- 

K330B 3TMX BeqOMCTB, Kaca KJL11HX- 

cs BueflpeHns COPM-2. OcnoBaHwe - HapyiueHtie cbo6o- 
qw rpaxcaaH Ha TaMny nepenncxn a TeneqboHHbix pa3roBO- 

POB. 

KoHxpeTHO, HeTyncKufi Tpe6oaan npnaMaTb Hefleii- 
CTBMTenbHbiM npeanncaHne oneparopaM cbssh 3a cbom 
cneT ycTaHaBnuBaTb cpeacTBa npocnyianBaHHn. KpoMe 
Toro, ero He ycipanaano ocao6o>KaeHvie cnei4cny5K6 ot 
o6n3aHHOCTM coo6iaaTb onepaTopy niweHa npocnyiunBa- 
BMbix a6oHenTOB n peiueHMR, Ha ocHOBaHMti xoTopbix 
aeaeTcs npocnyujMBaHMe. 

Cya cocTOflncn a ceHTn6pe 2000 roaa. Oh OTxasan- 
cn npn3HaTb on/iaTy COPM 3a cneT npoaaiiaepoB He3a- 

KOHHOft. 

no BTopoMy nyHKTy peiueHne oxa3anocb b nonb3y 
ncTna: Tenepb cneucnyxSbi o6n3aHw CTaBHTb onepaTO- 

POB B M3B6CTHOCTb O TOM, KOrO H3 aOOHeHTOB OHM C06npa- 

KiTca npocnyiunBaTb. 

AnencaHdp KocmuHcmQ: 

HanoMHMM, oaHaxo, hto b cnynae CTpororo BHeape- 
hmb COPM-2 TexHunecKne cpeacTBa 6ecxoHTponbHoro 
aocTyna x HacTHWM aaHHbiv y coTpyaHuxoB cneqcny>K6 
ocTaioTcn. 

Ho 3to no saxoHy. A xaK we Ha caMOM aene ocyiae- 
CTBnneTCfi COPM b HHTepneTe? 

HeaaBHO HaM yaanocb BnepBbie B3HTb oTxpoBeHHoe 
MHTepBbto Ha 3Ty TeMy y oaHoro M3 xpynHwx poccniicxMX 
perwoHanbHbix npoBawaepoe l^HTepHBTa. flo noHATHbiM 
npMMMHaM oh nowenan ocTaTbcn H6M3BecTHbiM. 

Muxaun Bpayde-3onomapee : 

KaxoBa MMcnenHOCTb aauinx xnnenTOB? 

flpoeaudep: 

ripMMepHO qecflTb twcah MenoBex. 

Muxaun Bpayde-3onomapee: 

CxawnTe. xax cTpooTcn Bamn BsaMMOOTnoujeHMfl c 
perynnpyK3u»MMii opraHaMM, b sacTHOcTw, h nMew b Bnay 



10 



4 



nPABA 1EJI0BEKA 



coTpyflHUKOB OCB, b CBH3M c BHeapeHneM CHcreMw one- 
paTHBHO-po3biCKHwx MeponpunTMfi? 

ripoeaudep: 

Bw 3HaeTe, CKaxev Tax: no saKOHy. B ochobhom 
rioneMy n roBopio «b ochobhom», noTOMy mto Ha caMOM 
nene. MHe KaxeTcn. peanbHwe B3anMOOTHoujeHHfl one- 
paTopa c cOTpyflHMKOM OeaepanbHOM cnyx6bi 6esonac- 
hoctm 6onee aaxoHHu, seM 3to 3anncano b aaKOHe 06 
onepaTHBHO-po3biCKHOii aenTenbHOCTn. rjeno b tom, mto 
3aKOH noapa3yMeBaeT OTcyicTBue KOHTponn onepaiopa 
cbj»3m naa aeiciRnawii OCB fleiicTBMn OCB noaxoHT- 
ponbHW TonbKO npoKypaiype. Ecnn cneaoBaTb 6yKBe 3a- 
KOHa, to n He Mory KOHTponnpoBaTbfleiicTBMfl coTpyanvi- 
kob OCB. Ho b peanbio/i wm3hm Bee ydpoeHO HecKonbKO 
L4HaMe Beflb nonhOMacLuTaDHoe BneapeHue 3tom CMCTe- 
Mbi Tpe6yeT rpoMaaHbix 3arpaT n ot onepaTopa, m ot 
COTpyflHUKOB OCB. 

Ho b npuMmine oho Me Hy>KHO hh TeM hh apyrnM. 
Bezib. BO-nepBbix. ksk npasuno. npoeauaepaMM pa6oTa- 
K)T HopManbHbie m BMeHdewbie ntoan, KOTopwe noHUMa- 
K)t, mto moan florDKHw aenaTb cbok) paobTy. A npoBartaep 
no CBoeviy CTaTycy aon*<eH, kohohho, mm noMoraib. 3to 
Towe - OMeBMaHO. H n03T0My. c Moeti tomkm speHnq. 
npoucxoauT ksk pas 6onee saKOHHbiii cnoco6 33anMoaeM- 
ctbuh. ToecTbnpnxoAHTCOTpyflHHK<J>CB, OHnoKa3biBaeT 
KOMKpeTMyo caHKijmo npoxypopa nnn nocTaMOBfieMne, 
moxcbt 6biTb. aawe 3a<pbiBan pyKOii Te MecTa. KOTopwe 
MHe 3HaTb HeoonaaTenbHO. m mm HasMHaeM c hum BMecTe 
-ecno>K-ibie aePicauB 

He Hano roTanbnoro KOHTpona naa Bcew cucreMOM. 
ripocro aocTaTOMHO Toro. HTo6bi HopManbHbie BMeHne- 
Mbie nioaM, <oTopwe 3HatOT cBoe aeno womn pa6oTaTb 
BMecTe. 

Muxaun Bpayde-3onomapee: 

ft npaBn/ibHO Bac noHtin. mto nonHOMaciura6HOro. b 
cooTBeTCTBHn c fiaxeTOM aoKyMeHTaunn no COPM, Bne- 
qpeHMfl aTOlii cucTeMw He npon30wno? 

ripoeaudep: 

Bw 3HaeTe, kohcmho x<e. n Mory roaopnTb TonbKO 
CBoeM pernowe. xota na csmom aene pemOHw OMeHb 
noxoww. ft aywaio, mto h cn*yauns b MocKBe ne cunbHO 
OTnHMaeTcn. 

Muxaun Bpayde-3onomapee: 

CKax<MTe, nowanyficTa, bot coTpyflHMKM OCB npn- 
Hecnn caHKquo Ha aocTyn k K3KOkl-ro HHCpopwaunn KaK 
TexHMMecKM ocymecTanoeTca nepeaana 3aToe6oBaHHo.i 
hmh nHcpoaMaunn b cootb6tctbmm c caHKi^neii npoKypo- 
pa? 

ripoeaudep: 

MecTHO roeopn. n He CMMTan. mto b stom ecTb xaxaa- 
to cnowHOCTb. Kax nioaHM yao6H0, TaK mm mojkho 3Ty 
nHdpopviaunK) noaaTb Mu we He aaHMMaeMcn caMM 
onepaTMBHO-posbiCKHOrt aenrenbHOCTbio, Mbi He ysacTBy- 
eM a cyaax. aemecTBeHHbix aoxaaaTenbCTB He co6npaeM, 
Mbi npocTo BbtnonHseM cboh o6s3aHHOCTn no npeaocTaa- 
neHHO neKOTopwx cseaeHUM, Hapyiaasi npw stom TartHy 
nepenncKn b nopnaxe, oroBopeHHOM aaxoHOM. 

Muxaun Bpayde-3onomapee: 

HO K3K 3TO KOHKpeTHO npOHCXOBUT? Bbl CKnawBaeTe 
Ha AHCxeTy Te nucbMa. KOTopwe aanpocunti coTpyaHkiKM 
OCB? Bw, CKaweM, pacneMaTaB, OTewnaeTe mm no (faK- 
cy? Ecnu bu roBopme. mto xaHanbi we nponox<eHbi. to 
B03HHKaeT coMHenne. ecTb nn y hux KOMnbiOTepu. 



ripoeaudep: 

y Menn, MecTHO rOBopfl, HeT hmkbkmx coMHeHniii, mto 
y hmx ecTb KOMnbioTepbi To ecTb xax 6u HexMM «spar 
Hapoaa», snoyMwuireHHMK, nmjeT xoMy-TO TaM nucbMa. 
fla, ecTecTBeHHO, npoBaMaep nonHOCTbio MoweT kohtpo- 
nupoBaTb xoppecnoHaeHLjMio a6oHeHTa. A cnoco6 nepe- 
aann He MMeeT 3HaMeHnq Mame Bcero no tom xce cbmom 
oneicrpoHHOii noMTe. 

Muxaun Bpayde-3onomapee: 

Bn xoTme CK33aTb. mto npocTO nepecwnaeTe cneu- 
cny>x6aM no anexTpoHHOii noMTe nucbMa noao3peBae- 
Mbix, OTo6panHbie pyMxaMM nnn c noMoiabto xaKOti-To 
nporpaMMw, m ohh yxe hmm nonb3yoTCB. KaK hm aaSnaro- 
paccyflMTcn? 

ripoeaudep: 

KoHeMHO, HeT. PyMicaMw hmkto HMKaKoro OT6opa He 
aenaeT. Echm peMb waeT o nepmocTpaynn Myxoii nepe- 

nMCKM, 9 3TMM He 3aHMMatOCb. 3THM 3aHMMaeTCd aSTOMaT 

KOTopwii, ne Hapyiuan uenocTHOCTn niicbMa. HuxaKMM 
o6pa30M Ha Hero He B03fleMCTBysi, hb aanpeman a6oHeH- 
Ty mto-to nucaTb, npocTO nepeHanpaenneT xonwo SToro 
nucbMa b KOHTponnpyiomnii op^aH. 

Muxaun Bpayde-3onomapee: 

Ecnu n npaBaribHo noHsn, to 3Ta nepecwnKa naeT no 

OTKpblTbIM KaHanaM CBA3M? 

flpoeaudep: 

Bbi 3HaeTe, aa. ho Tax ksk Meway mhoki m kohtpojim- 
pyoiaMM opraHOM HeT MecT nepexBaTa, oh we mom a6o- 
hbht - HanpsMyio 3bohmt MoeMy cepBepy y mbha TpyaHo 
yKpacTb nywoe nncbMO. 

Muxaun Epayde-3onomapee: 

y NieHH ManeHbKan peMapKa. Bw TaK cxaaanM npo to, 
mto y Bac HeT coMHOHMii b wannMnn KOMnbWTepoB a <t>CB. 
KaK 6yaTO Bbi caMH mx Tyaa cTaBuriM. 

ripoeaudep: 

3to xopoiuo. ft ouenun TOHKyio myTKy. Mn ne CTaBH- 
nu Tyaa KOMnbKDTepoB. xoth. Ha caMOM aene. bot b Meu 
TOHKOCTb pyKOBOflHianx aoKyMeHTOB no COPM: npoBart- 
aep caM aon*;en o6ecneMMBaTb TexHMMecKyio, HeT, cxa- 
>neM Tax, cpopMynnpoBKa 6oneeTOHxas: mm aon>KHbi BMe- 
CTe c coTpyaHMKOM OCB o6ecneMHBaTbTexHMMecKyK) bos- 
MO>KHOCTb. Hy. noaapio h mm KOwnwoTep. ecnu mm Hyx<HO 
6yaeT an» aneiapoHHOM noMTbi. 

Muxaun Epayde-3onomapee: 

ripMMeM CMTyauufi Mpe3BbiMaiiHO 6naronpnnTHaHann 
Bcex. rioTOMy mto oho aa)xe m b3htkom CMHTaTbCB He 
MoweT, noKyaa sto - coBMecTHan aenTenbHOCTb, Kan Bbi 
roBopMTe, npoaai^aepa m OCB. 

Xopowo. flaBaMTe npoaoroKMM paaroBop hcmhokko 
b apyroM HanpasneHMM. BceM MaaecTHo, mto cyiaecTByeT 

AOBOnbHO MHOrO CpeaCTB 3aiaMTbl MaCTHOM MH(}}OpMai4MM 

B icaMecTse TMnnMHoro m Han6onee pacnpocTpaHeHHoro 
npuMepa pa3yMH0 npMBecTM MSBecTHyx) nporpaMMy PGP 
3to KpMnTorpaqbwMecKMM Moaynb, kotopwii, iok CMMTaeT- 
ch, Haae»HO 3aKpbiBaeT KoppecnonaeHiimo ot aocTyna k 
Heii. Mto npoMcxoaMT b tom cnyMae, ecnM BaiiJM <oppec- 
noHaeHTw 3axpbinn c noMOiabK) xpunTOcpeacTB cboki 

nOMTy? COTpyaHMKM OCB, $M3MMeCKM nOnyMMB TeKCTU, He 
MOryT MX npOMMTaTb M TeM CaMbIM BbinOnHMTb, KaK Bbl 

roBopine. mx poaoBbie 3aaaMM. 
flpoeaudep: 
MHe OMeHb TpyflHO OTBeTMTb Ha Bonpoc, mto npoMC- 

XOAMT C COTpyaHMKOM OCB, KOTOpblii He CMOr npOMMTaTb 
nMCbMO, M KTO B006o»e T3M 3TMM 3aHMMaeTCH, HO Ha- 



4 



nPABA 1EJIDBEKA 



11 



CXO/lbXO H MOry CyflHTb H3 pa3rOBOpOB C COTpyBHHXaMM 

Toro we OeaepanbHoro aremcTBa npasHTenbCTBeHHovi 
cbp 3n. PGP Me sanneTCB xpnnTOCTOMXHM, aonpoc npocTO 
BpeweHH, CKonbKO noTpe6yercn Ann ero Bcxpwnm. Bnon- 
ne aonycKaK). mto HacTOfmiuii aMepaxaHcxHii iunnoH, xo- 
Topwii *MBeT b Moevi ManenbxoM poaMOM ropoae, rfle- 
Hn6yab TaM npnneTCT n nocwnaeT no anexTpoHHoii nome 
nucbMa cbohm xo3seBaM, KOTopwe 3awMCj)poBaHw no- 
HacTosmeMy. Hto b 3tom cnynae 6yaeT aenaTb coTpya- 
hhx OCB, kto we ero 3HaeT. 

Muxaun BpaydeSonomapee: 

H3 Haiuero pa3roBopa nonynaeTCH TaK, hto cuTyaunn 
c COPM b HHTepHeT-cemx 3HaHWTe/ibHO 6o/iee MHrxan n 
6onee xoMtfopTHaa ana acex ynacTHHxoB: npoBartaeps, 
KnueMTOB npoBafiAepa m, mwkct 6biTb, Aawe coTpyaHHxa 
<t>C6, xotm 3Aecb MeHbiue yBepeMHOcm, nev c TeneQbOH- 
MbiMn npoBaiiaepaMH, rqe 3Ta ciicreMa BHeapeHa aaB- 
HbiM-aasMo. npeTepnena Maccy penHKapnaunki, npocTO a 
CBA3M c paasnTnew Texnn«n, _ ae cpaxTHHecxM cnownnacb 
cuTyauns, Koraa h^okom npoaa^aep n HHxaxofi K/ineHT 
HHxaxoro KOHTponn 3a ae*CTBH«MH *CB He mneoT, npo- 
cto noTOMy mto TexHHMecxaa peann3aunn chctcmw aoc- 
Tyna TaxoBa, mto ohh MoryT 6ecxoHrponbHO npocnywn- 
BaTb TpatJiHK. 9\ npaBn/ibHO noHMMaio CHTyaunio? 

flpoaaudop: 

Bo-nepBwx, xohbhho we. He Mory roeopnTb 060 Bcert 
Pocchh 9\ Mory rosopnTb xoMxperno o cbocm pernoHe. Ha 
ceroAHRiuHnii aeHb cucTeMa TenecJiOHHoro COPM, npo 
xoTopyto, xcTaTu, roBopnT Mano, ycTpoeHa ropa3AO 6onee 
>xecTKHM o6pasoM n 6ecnoLuaAMbiv. cxaweM Tax, no otho- 
ujeHMK) x a6oHeHTy. TeM 6onee hto nporpaMMw, KOTopwe 
ujntfcpyoT Baiuy nuMHyto nepenncxy, aociaTOMHO pacnpo- 
CTpaHetibi n AOCTynHw b HHTepHeTe. A ycTpoiiCTBa, koto- 
pwe saHUMawTcn KoanpoBaHueM Baiunx TenetpOHHwx 
pa3roBopoB, ohk nn6o Boo6iye 3axoHoaaTeribHWM o6pa- 
30M b Maiueki CTpaHe 3anpemeHbi, nn6o ohh coaepwaT 
«xpK3Hxn» Ann cneucny>x6. 

Muxaun Bpayde-3onomapee. 

Hacxo/ibKO B3aMMOABMCTBkie c OCB no noBOAy 
COPM yAopowaeT Ba w 6n3Hec, OTBnexaBT MeHeawepoB? 

ripoeaudep: 

TexHUMecxne n3Aep>xxM, ecnn nocMOTpeTb peant>HO, 
He oneHb sennM noaapeHHwii Bwwecxa3aHHWM xoMnb- 
xjTep, yBenMHeHiie HexoToporo MHcna 6ecnnaTH wx nonb3c- 
eaTerieu, aent> cneucny>x6bi HcnonbSyioT eme n b cboux 
uensx mok) CBsub Ho b TDnnunne o6i>eM sthx u3aep>xeK 
He iamv\ 6onbujoii ia ceroAHHWHMM aeHb. Kohchho, bo- 
nepsbix. oTaneneH^e BHMManuB Tpe6yeTcn. Bo-btopux, b 
cuny tohxocth B3anMOAeiiCTBHH, 3to Bceraa 3aaana Ton- 
MeHea>«MeHTa. KOTOpufl 6onee aoporoti n speMn xotopo- 
ro 6onee libhho atii KOMnaHnn. B 3tom nnaHe, koh6hho, 
nK>6oe HapyujeHne rpa$nxa pa60Tw Bbiciuero pyxoBOA- 
CTBa ann xoMnaHnn Heyao6no. 

Muxaun Epayde-3onomapee: 

BbmaKjT cnynan, Tax, nonoxa pyxy Ha cepaue, xoraa 
He noxasbiBaeTCfl caHxukin Ha aocTyn x xaxoii-To hh0op- 
Maunn, nepenncxe, a. cxaweM, npHCwriaeTcn no dpaxcy 
urn roBopnTCH b MacTHOM pasroBope, nnn no TenecfcOHy? 
Hy, n He 3HaK> xax, pasHwe cymecTByiOT dpopMbi, oco6eH- 
ho xoraa oTHOiueHun cTponTcn Ha ochobg, xax mm noHH- 
MaeM, Hexoero AOBepnw n coTpyaHnnecTBa, a HewecTxo- 
ro cneaoaannfl 6esyMH0 chokhum TexHtmecxvi 3axoHoaa- 
TerbHWM nooueaypaM BusaiOT nH MOMeHTH, xorAa ay 



OTcrynaeTe ot Hexoeii npasunbHovi nnHnn a naeTe Ha 
ycTynxw, h y* He 3Haw seMy? 

ripoeaudep: 

Bw noflHUMaeTe (JjunococficxnM Bonpoc, mto Taxoe 
npaannbHap huhus 

ripaBunbHafi nnHns, ecnn no saxony, 3to xoraa p 
Boo5me He 3HaK), mto aenaeT xoHToonnDyouan opraHM- 
3aunn. Bw nonpocunii - nono»a pyxy Ha cepaue. Hy, 
xoneMHO, 6uBaeT. 3to 6bieaeT aoaonbHO peaxo. 3to 
6wBaeT b orpaHnneHHOM o6beMe. 3to 6wBaeT, xoraa 
Hy»HO - cdomho. Kax npaanno, ecnn h nonpouy, mhb 
noTOM 3Ty 6yMary noxa)xyT. He 6bmaeT Taxoro, mto6w mhg 
OTxa3anncb noxa3aTb 3to nocTaHoaneHne npoxypopa, mto 
aertCTBMTenbHoecTbB036y>KaeHMeyronoBHoroaena.3To 
npocTO, Hy H3 pnaa boh h6mto, mbhh >xe yBajxaiOT. 

Muxaun Epayde-3onomapee : 

fl noHUMaxj, ho TeM hb MeHee, bw ne oonTecb, mto 
xaxan-To, cxaweM, my6oxo MacTHan npo6neMa coTpyAHM- 
xa *CB, xoraa eMy Haao cpohho mto-to nonysnTb, a nHaMe 

- BwroBop, yBonbHenne. Mano nw mto, h oh Bac noaciaB- 
nneT. Oh 6epeT HHdpopManmo, oh ee «cnnBaeT». Hy, 
HartpuMep xoHxypeHTaM Hy, nonan nenoBex b CMTyaunK), 
oh ee 3ano>KHHK, n nepexnaawBaeT oTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, 
0>axTHMecxn, Ha aac. KorAa bw eMy hto-to nepeAann, oh 
3to xax-To 3aAoicyMeH™poBan, a noTOM - nnoo o6paiae- 
Hue b cya. nn6o npecca. H bw, (JjaxTHMecKn, oTBenaeTe 3a 
yTenxy, HapyiunB, xctsth roBopp, aobo/ioho MHoro 3axo- 
hob, noM^MO woparibHoPi ctopohw Bonpoca. 

ripoeaudep: 

Hy, Bo-nepBwx, n rny6oxo coMHeBaiocb, mto aeii- 
CTBHTenbHO Hapyuiaio xaxne-nn6o saxoHw. Bo-btopwx, 

XOHeMHO, M0)KH0 aOnyCTMTb HeHUCTOnnOTHOCTb coTpya- 

Huxa xoHTponnpyKjmux opraHOB, KOTopwii nepeaacr 3Ty 
^HcfopMaunK) voum KOHxypeHTaM, ho npuBnexaTb sa 3to 

X OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH MOHfl? fl npOCTO He OMeHb nOHUMaK) 

aaxe. xax aro moxoho caenaro, n onepaunoHHO, n tbxhh- 
Mecxn, m 3axoHOAaTenbHO, n, rnaBHoe, - saMew? Kohcmho, 
Taxa«onacHOCTbcyiaecTByeT. BcerAa, xoraa ecTb aocTyn 
x xaxoft-TO nHcpopwaLinn, MenoBex woweT Bocnonb30BaTb- 
cb ex) ans cboux hmmhwx uenei*. ho Mew b 3tom CMwcne 
COPM OTnuMaeTCH ot npocro ae^TenbHOCTn coTpyaHnxa 
OCB? Oh «e mowbt npocTO b3rto 3Ty mcpopMau^Kj 
apyrviM nyreM Bee mw, b HexOTopOM poae, 3anowHHKn 
Haujew saxoHoaaTenbHoii cuctbmw, Bee mw MyTb-nyTb 
HapyoiaeM 3axon. Ecnn Hac oneHb 3axoM6Tcn npusneMb 
3a hto-to x oTaeTCTBeHHOCTM, to « 6w cxa3an, mto COPM 

- caMwii HeTpuBnanbHwti cnoco6 3to caenaTb. rioaTOMy 
He Mory cxasaTb, mto b sceraa cnnio cnoxoiiHO, n sooSme 
b Haiueii CTpaHe OMeHb TpyaHO Bceraa cnaTb cnoxoiiHO, ho 
3to npeanocneflHee, mto mchb BO/iHyeT. 

Muxaun Epayde-3onomapee: 

OnnTb-Taxn, nonoxa pyxy na cepaue. CyiaecTayeT 

nn TOXHHMeCXafl BOSMOWHOCTb y pnaOBWX COTpyaHMXOB 

HMeTb aocTyn x anexTpoHHOH noMTe Bauikix xnneHToa? 

ripoeaudep: 

flaBatire He 6yaeM nyxaBHTb. rioHTa nocTynaeT k 
npoaai^Aepy no otkpwtwm KananaM, no otkpwtwm xaHa- 
naM yxoA^T n xpaHHTCfl Ha cepsepe npoBa^aepa EcTe- 
CTBeHHO, mto TexHunecKnii nepcoHan npoBawaepa nMeeT 
AOCTyn x noMTe, ecTBCTBeHHO, ohh Moryr nponecTb noMTy 
xnneHTOB, npoaaTb ee xoHxypenTaM n Tax aanee. Ho bot 
aToywe xaxpa3yronoBHoe npecrynneHne. EcTb cooTBeT- 
crByKDtune CTaTbM, ecTb MeToabi HaKa33HHn -iDoaaiiaeos 



1? 



4 



OPABA 4EA0BEKA 



3a TaKMe Beuju. 3Aecb cuTyautin HecKonbKO apyraa. H 
ayvato. mo stom onacHOCTM 6onTbcn cneayeT weHbiue 
Bcero, nocKonbKy 3to we - 6n3Hec npoBaaaepa. flpea- 
CTaanneTe, ecnn a ycnoBMax, Koraa ecTb xoHxypeHu,Mfl 
npoBaiiaepoB.flaJKe b cawoM He6onbLU0M ropoae. ct3ho- 
bmtca nsBecTMO. mto npoaaiiaep «cnnBaeT». msbmhmtc 3a 
Bwpa>KeHne, noHTy cbomx xjmeHTOB ero KOHKypeHTaM. Hy, 
TaxoH npoaartaep npocTo o6peneH. 

Anexcandp KocmuHCKiiu: 

Bot Tarae. xa3anocb 6w. onTMMUcTUHHoe nHTepBbio: 
Bee nponcxoam ecnn n He no 3aKOHy, Toaa*e nyMwe, seM 
no 3aKony. Bee BMenneMbie ntoan - y oaHux 6m3hbc, y 
apyrux cny>K6a, xax apyrapyra He nomiTb... 

OaHara Henb3R He nonuMaTb, mto caMNM onacHWM b 
Taxofl CMTyau.nn craHOBJircn mmchho aoBepmenbHwe ot- 
HoueHUB, cKfiaabiBaKJiunecs Meway cneucny>K6aMn u 
npoaatiaepaMM. xoraa ohm sa xpyxxoM nuBa peiuaiOT bo3- 
HHKatoiane Bonpocw. 3to m nocTaao napw-apyroii aap- 
mobwx KOMnbtOTepoB b ®C6, n 6ecnnaTHbiM aocTyn cneu,- 
cny>x6 8 HHTepHeT, n HeMaTepnanbHbie «ycnyrn»: npeao- 
CTaBneHne MacTHOM MHqiopMau,mi K/ineHTOB no npocb6e 
coTpyawnKOB cneucnyx6. 

Kax npoBaviaepy omnMHTb, cnyx<e6Hbirt y <DC6 nHTe- 
pec unM MacTHWM? Kaxy3HaTb, KaK pacnopna^Tcn OTaenb- 
ho BSflTwti nio6onbiTHbiii coTpyaHnx cn/ioBoro BeaoMCTBa 
nonyMeHHOii Heo^nqwanbHO nH(J)opvaaneii? A seab b 



tom, mto Tawe xaHa/iw Me>xay npoBaiiaepoM m cneu,cnyw- 
6awn npono)KeHbi naeficTByiOT, y mohb coMHeHMM, x co*<a- 
ne-tno. hbt. 

Tbm ne MeHee cneayeT npti3H3Tb, mto noriHOMacuj- 
TaOHoro BHeapeHMH COPM-2 b HHTepHeTe He npon30iii- 
no; ae-C?axTO npoAonxaeT aeScTaoBaTb npeatxaymaa 
«yBeaoMHTe/ibHan» Bepcun COPM. Tax mto b Ce™ one- 
paTMBHO-po3biCKHan aeflTeribHOCTb nponcxoanT HeMHoro 
nHane, HeM b TenecpOMn^ TaM cucreivia noacnyoinBaHUS 
TenecpOHHbix pasroBopoa BHeapeHa y acex TenecpoHHbix 
coTOBbix n netiawepHbix onepaTopoe, OHa no/iHOCTbio 
aBTOMaTH3npoBaHa h, aHanormHO COPM-2. ho npeayc- 
waTpuBaeT HnxaKoro xohtpotih hm co ctopohw BnacreM. 
hm co CTopoHw npoBaiiaepa mhm o6iaecTBa. 

A 3aKOHonocnyiuHbiM KnueHTaM npoBaiiflepoB, moti- 
M3ianM, xax HmHTa, mokho nocoaeTosaTb Toribxo oflHo: 
Baiue npaBO McnonbsoaaTb cpeflCTBa xpnnT03aianTbi poc- 
cuiiCKiiM 3aKOHoaaTenbCTB0M He ocnapneaeTcn. H ecnn 
TaKoe ncnonb30BaHne n He hcxjikjmmt bo3mowhocth aoc- 
Tyna k BaweM nepenMcxe, to, bo bchkom cnynae, cyiae- 
CTBeHHO ycnoxHUT ero B nepByio OMepeab. onn Bamux 
KOHxypeHTOB nnn Heao6po>KenaTeneki, nocKO/ibxy y cnea- 
cnyx<6, xax Bepno 33MeTnn Haiu ceroaHHWHuii co6ecea- 
hmk, CKopee ecero, HaviayTca a/ibTepHaTuBHwe nyTn aoc- 
Tyna k BaiuuM aaHHUM. 

Paduo Ceo6oda 



BepA KMBM 



nPMBATHOCTb B CETM 
KAK 3AAOr CBOBOAbl 



ripuBaTHocTb n c6op 
nepcoHa/ibHbix AaHHbix 
06ecneMeHne npuBaTHocTn MenoBexa, nonb3yioiae- 

rOCB lilUpOKMMM B03MOJKHOCTHMH HHTepHeTa, m HeaaMeT- 

hwm, ho BecbMa MHTeHCMBHwii c6op a3HHt>ix, nepcoHanb- 
ho naeHTM(})nunpyioiaMX ero nuMHOCTb, - sto ase OMBHb 
cepbe3HO KOH4>rikiKTyK)u|tie apyr c apyroM npo6neMbi. 

npHMeM KOH(J)nHKT 3TOT 6blCTpO CTaHOBHTCfl OaHOM H3 

nanSonee ropRMux TeM xax b pa3BHTnn aneiapoHHoii kom- 
Mepunn, Tax M a 6onee cneuntfuMecKOti o6nacTn, aenn- 
xaTHO nMeHyeMoii «o6ecneMeH^e HopMa/ibHoi^ pa6oTbi 
noaBooxpaHHTenbHbix opraHOB». 

3aHHMaioianecn MapxeTMHroM CTpyxTypw nocTOBH- 
ho n3bicKMBaK>T HOBwe, Bee 6onee jcpcpeKTuanbe nym 
ans c6opa MaKCMManbHO B03MO)XHoii nHcfopMamiii o cbo- 
nx noTeHmiaxibHbix noxynaTennx. fln« KOMMepunw Taxne 
aaHHwe - yao6Hoe, a Tenepb n Heo6xoanMoe aonoriHe- 
Hue bo bcbiS loit aBTOMaTM3aunn, hto npeaocTaBnaeTcn 
HHTepHeTOM. y>xe BnonHe neTxo oco3HaH0, mto c noMO- 
mbio HHTepHeTa HaMHoro nerMe co6npaTb orpoMHwe 
oSbeMw MH$opMaunn o noTpe6nTennx, a BsanMHan yBH3- 
xa 3tmx aaHHux o6ecneHMsaeT cyuiecTBeHHbie npM6binki 
b ToproBne. 

OaHaxo saiMHTHHxn rpaxcflaHcxnx CBo6oa BnonHe 
pe30HHo ycMaTpnaaiOT b stux ycTpewneHunx noxyueHMe 
Ha (fcyHaaMeHTaribHbie npaBa rpaxcaaH, nocxonbxy, b no- 
aaBnniomeM 6onbiunHCTBe cnyMaeB, HH0opMaunfl o 



nonbaoBareriBX co6npaeTCsi 6es nx cornacuji. rioaTOMy 
o6ecneM8Hne aHonnviHOCTn nonbsoBaTenn HHTepHeTa n 

BO3MO>KH0CTb HCnOnb30BaHH« nceBaOHUMOB B OHnailHO- 

bwx xoMMyHMxaunjix paccMaTpuBaioTcn Kax Heo6xoan- 
Mbie Mepw b 3amnTe n yxpenneHnn Taxnx rpaxcaaHCxnx 
npaa. xax npuBaTHOCTb h cso6oaa cnosa. 

Cny>K6bi aH0HHMH3aii.nn 

H MX KOMnpOMeTaLJHH 
B nocneaHMe roaw a HHTepHeTe noaenncn uenwti 
pna cny>x6, xax 6ecnnaTHO, Tax n sa aeHbrn npeflnaraio- 
ujhx nonbSOBaTennM yenyry «aH0HHMH3aunn» flpyr^MM 
cnoBaMn, ncnonb3yn cepBepw stux cny)x6 xax cTapTOByra 
nnoiaaaxy ann csonx nyTewecTBHii no CeTM, nonb3oea- 
Tenb nonyMaeT rapaHTnn, mto bcb ero nepcoHa/ibHbie 
aanHbie «cpe3aioTc»». a noceiaaeMue nv Be6-caiiTb 
nonyMaxjT b CBoe pacnopn>xeHne jiniub xapaiaepMCTHxn 
cepBepa-«aH0HviMaH3epa». 

Cpezin aecBTKOB Taxnx cnyx<6 mo>xho ynoMSHyTb : 
Anonymizer (http://www. anonymizer.com), npoexT kom- 
naHnn Lucent noa Ha3BaHneM Private Web Access 
(www.bell-labs.com/project/lpwa), cny>x6a «Omon Router» 
HccneaoBaTeribCxoro ueHTpa BMC CUJA (www onion- 
router.net), a Tawxe c/ryx6a Aixs (http:Waixs.net/aixs/) 

Ho, Kax noxasano npucTanbnoe nsyneHne bo3mojk- 
HOCTew 3Tnx cny>«6, ohm He npenocraBnRKOT tom CTeneHM 
aHOHMMHocTM, KOTopyioflex/iapupyKiT. CooTBeTCTByxjiaee 



4 nPABA MEJIOBEKA 



13 



nccneaoaaHne 6wno HeaaBno npoBeaeno 6octohckmm 
nHTepHeT-KOHcynbTaHTOM PanapaoM Cmhtom (Richard 
M Smith). KOTopbirt He CTan pa3pa6aTbiBarb Hnxa<nx 
hobwx cpeacTB, a npocTo BOcnonb30Bancn n3aecTHWM 
nHCTpyMeHTapneM, kotopwm ucnonb3ytoT Be6-cepBepbi 
ons naeHTnifcnxau.un cbohx noceTHTenevi. Cmht npoqe- 

MOHCTpupOBan, HTO flHWb 3TMX HHCTpyMeHTOB, B COMeTa- 

hhk caecpeKTaivin b nonynnpHbix nporpaMMax-6pay3epax 
Internet Explorer h Netscape Navigator, aoct3tohho Ana 
<ovnpoMeTaunn cny>K6 aHOHHMH3au/-i. 

Ana opraHnsauMM TecTupoBaHnii Cmht cosaan Be6- 
caHT (www.tiac.net/users/smiths/anon/), kotopwh o6opy- 
qoBan cooT3eTCTByioiUHMH nporpaMMaMH, n pasocnan 
apHrnaweHnn a KOMnbtOTepHbie HOBOCTHwe rpynnbi. Ann 
ouenKn cTeneHM saiyHTbi aHOHUMHOCTn npuMensn^cb 
ujecTb pasniiHHbix TecTOB, rnaBHWM o6paaoM ncnonb3y- 
■omue BO3M0WH0CTH s3biK0B Java, JavaScript a Active X. 
PeanbHwe HcnwTaHun noxasann, hto Bee MeTwpe nepe- 
MHcneHHbie Bbiiue cnywBw aH0HHMH3aunn He cmo'hh bw- 
aepxoTb HaTncxa h ycTynnnw. no xpaHHeu Mepe, oaHOMy 
na 6 TecTOB, nponycTUB h 3biaas peanbHbiii IP-aapec 
nonb30BaTensi. no cnoBaM Cnuna, Ha bckj 3Ty aeMOHcr- 
paunio HeHane>KHOCTM ■wrupax Han6onee aBTopmeTHbix 
cny>K6 ywno MeHbiue naca. 

<CeTb CBo6oflbi» 

Ho bot Tenepb b HHTepHeie nonBnnacb cnyx6a 
Freedom Network (www freedom net). coaaaHHaa xaHaa- 
ckom KOMnaHnert Zero Knowledge System a npeanaraio- 
man xanecTaeHHO myio CTeneHb 3atunTw aMOHUMHOdn 
nonb3oaaTenei^. Ha pa3pa60TKy CHcreMbt yiuno oxono 
aByx neT, h, xax roBopuT o CBoeM fleTume B03rnaBndio- 
U4HM KOMnaHMto Octhh Xnnn (Austin Hill): «3to HH$pa- 
CTpyxTypa, Ha xoTopon 5yaeT cTpombCfl Syqymee Mw 
paccMaTpnaaeM Hawy TexHonornto icax ifcyHAaMeHTanb- 
Hyio.» 3arpy)KaeMan c Be6-caHTa Freedom nporpaMwa- 
K/iweHT no3BonneT nonb30BaTenHM co3aaBatb onn ce6n 
HecKonbxo nceBQOHHMOB, npuneM nepcoHanbHbie aaH- 
Hbie He Tpe6yeTca xpannTb Ha xaxoM-HH6yab cepBepe 
TpeTbefi ctopohw. Ben HHdpopMauns, kotopoh pacnona- 
raeT npeaocTaannioman yenyry KOMnaHun, - sto aaHHwe 
KpeanTHOii KapTw, xoTopon pacnnamnncb 3a yenyry (50 
aonnapoB b -oal. Hcnonb3yn nporpaMMy a nceaaoi.^bi 
(no wenaHno. pasHbie ann pasnuwHbix ceTeBwx Hyxa), 
nonb30Baienb MOweT nyreujecTBOBaTb no HHTepHeTy c 
noMOutbio uenn cepsepoB, xaxcabiH na KOiopux oowsaeT 
-iqenTucpuKaTOD nonb30BaTenn a ero "uncpposwe cne- 
aw» npH Be6-ceprJpnHre, paoore c aneiapoHHOiii noMTOfi, 
o6uaeHnn b HOBOCTHbix rpynnax m naT-xoHCpepeHunHx. 

Ben cudeMa nMeer npoHHyio KpunTorparJpuMecKyio 
ocHOBy , noexonbKy b npoqecce nepecbinKn naner w c A3H- 
hwmh nonb30BaTen« Haae>KH0 ujucppytOTcn. 3aujncppo- 
BaHHwe naxeTbi nepecwnaiOTcn nepes MHOwecTBO cepBe- 
poB, KOTopuMki ynpaBnsiK3T nposatiAepbi-napTHepbi Ann 

COKpWTMB MapujpyTOB naKBTOB. riO CBHfleTenbCTBy CTO- 



Pohhux 3KcnepT0B, CHCTeMa freedom.net o6ecneM^BaeT 
qeiiiCTBHTenbHO MouaHyK) 3amuTy 3hohhmhocth. Kax CKa- 
3an Maw (Mudge). oahh h3 nnaepoB n3BecTHOii 6octoh- 
cko^ rpynnw xaxepoa LOpht, «3aecb aeiiCTBHTenbHO ae- 
naeTcn to, mto AexnapupyeTCH... n sto aecsMa 3Hann- 
TenbHoe aocTn>KeHne». 

06ecnoKoeHHOCTb opraHOB 

noao6HyK3 CTeneHb samnTw anoHUMHocTn HHKa<ne 
Tpioxn KOMMepnecxnx Be6-cepBepoB, noHATHoe aeno, 
npo6nTb He a cunax. Bonee toto, He Ha luyrKy nepenono- 
ninnncb npaaooxpaHMTenbHbie m pasBeabiBaTenbHbie 
opraHbi KaHaaw n ClilA, ycwoTpeBiune b hoboii cnyx6e 
cepbe3Hyio yrpo3y CBoeii pa6oTe. Octmh Xunn n ero 
KOnnern no Zero Knowledge nonynnnn y«e mhowcctbo 
npurnaiueHMii b pa3nuHHwe npaBHTenbCTBOHHwe MHCTaH- 
uav\ ans pa3bncHeHnn noapooHocTeii ^mh coaenHHoro. B 
TeneHHe nocneaHnx MecsueB roaa hm yxe nprnunocb 
BwcTynnTb c «npe3eHTai;neki CBoero npoayicra» nepea 
npeACTasnTentiMH TaKnx bcaomctb, <ax RCMP - «Kopo- 
neBcxan KOHHan nonnunp» (xaHaacKMii aHanor aMepuxaH- 
exoro <KBP), CSE - YnpaBneHne 6e3onacH0CTM cbh3h 
(aHanor aMepkixaHCKOM paa^opasBeabiBaTenbHoii cnyw- 
5bi AH5), CSIS - pa3Beacny>K6a (aHanor L4Py). Bwna 
raioxe necpopManbHas BCTpena c coTpyaHUKaMn Muhh- 
CTepcTBa iocthlihh CUIA us noapa3aeneHnn no 6opb6e c 
KOMnbtOTepHUMM npecTynneHHHMH. 

nocxonbxy b hctopmh ywe M3BecTHbi cnynan, xoraa 
nocne noflo6Hbix o6pa60TOK KOMna>-nn paanKanowo M3- 
MeHflnn nonnTuxy n ocna6nnnn cboh cucTeMw noa Hawn- 
mom anacTevi, to b HHTepHeT-cooSmecTBe aapoannocb 
ecTecTBeHHoe onaceHne OTHOcmenbHO peanbHOCTn nanb- 
HekiiueMCToiixocTn «CeTnCBo6oabi». Oanaxo Octmh Xiinn 
tvt Me npeaocTaBun o6mecTBeHHOCTn noapo6Ht>M othct 
06 nMesoinxcs BCTpenax c npeacTaBUTennMu BnacTevi .1 
noBTopun to Beian. hto paccxa3biBan hm. CyTb aaaaB- 
ujkixcn Ha npe3eHTaunnx pa3bRCHeHuft 06 ocoSeHHOCTHx 
Texhonornn cboahtch KHBCKonbKHMcnoaaM: «freedom net 
Bnonne yMbiuineHHo C03aaBanacb Tax. MTo6bi HuxoMy He 
He 6bina aocTynHa nio6an HHcpopMaunn o nonbsoBaTe- 
ne». 

no y6e«aeHnto co3aaTeneri CMCTeMbi, ohh He napy- 
maiOT a6co/iK>THO HMxaxiix saxoHOB, b Mucfpoeow Bex 
npeaocTaanHsa rpa>KaaHaM npaao Ha TaKyto we anoHMM- 
HOCTb a Ce™, xaxyio ncnoxoH bckob npeaocTaBnann mo- 
qnM o6biMHbiii niicT 6yMarn u xapaHaauj. 

B saxntoseHMe xe mo>kho scioMHUTb BbicxasbiBaHMe 
oaHoro M3aecTHoro aaBOKaTa no noBoqy toto, mto OTnusa- 
eT cso6oaHoe rocyaapcTBO ot TOTannTapHoro. BonbHO 
H3naran ero cnoaa, - b CBo6oanoii CTpane y npaBooxpa- 
HmenbHbix opraHOB aonwHu 6wrb TpyaHOCTn c nonyne- 
Hnew aodyna x npuBaTHOki uncpopMaunn rpa>KaaH. Ecdm 
>Ke y opraHOB hot Huxaxnx npo6neM c nonyMeHneM Taxoro 
aocTyna, to 3to rocyaapcTBO - cpawncTcxoe 

Computerra 



1/lHTepHer n npaea venoBexa http://www.hro.org/gilc/ru/ 

rnoOanbHaa KaMnaHna aa caoOonbi a 1/lHrepHeT (GILC) http://www.gilc.org 

BionnereHH GILC no-pyccKn http://www.hro.org/editions/alert 

Privacy International http://www.privacy.org 

Electronic Privacy Information Center http://www.epic.org/ 

Digital Freedom Network http://www.dfn.org 

AMepHKBHCKHti Cok>3 3B rpaAXDBMCKne CBo6anbi (ACLUj http://www.aclu.org/ 



14 



4 



nPABA HEMBEKA 



A/ieKcaHAp CYHryPOB 

3ainnTa npaB MeAoeeKa m 
cy BepeHMTeT rocyAapcTBa 




Ta<ne co6wthh nocnea«nx 
nei". xax BariKaHCKnii kpwhc 
BOKpyr Kocobo. aeiicTBun 
POCCMJICKHX BOtiCK b HeHHe, 
cawa Deanunq Ha 3th co6bi- 
tmh MnpoBoro o6iyecTBeH- 
Horo MHeHUH, aenaKJT Becb- 
ua aKTyanbHbiM Bonpoc o 
TeHnennunx M3MeHPHiia mm- 
poBoro nopnaKa b 6nnwaw- 
iuev m 6onee oTaaneHHOM 
6yAyweM HBnseTCB nn Bee, 
hto nponcxoflm BHyrpM rocyaapcTBa. ero BHyTpeHHUM 
aenoM. bo3mo>kho nn BMeuaienbCTBO naBHe b cnynae 
MaccoBbix HapyiueHMiii npaB nenoBexa «aKUM-nn6o rocy- 
aapcTBOM, rae npeaenu a rpaHULibi TaKoro BMeuiaTenb- 
CTBa, kto, HaKOweu, snpaBe onpeaenmb npaBOMOMHOCTb 
Tararo BMeiuaTenbCTBa? 3th a MHorueapyrne noao6Hbie 
Bonpocbi Tpe6yK)T o6cy>KaeHHfl n notiCKa otbbtob. 

BaaHHOii pa6oTeocHOBHoe BHtiwaHiie 6yneTynene- 
ho TaKOMy acneirry 3toi* npo6neMw, KaK cooTHOiueHHe 
Mewziy npHHLinnoM cyBepeHHTeia rocyaapcTBa a npnHU.ii- 
noM npnopnTBTa npaB senoseKa. OaHaxo npe>t<ae Bcero 
aaKHOonpeaeriMTb, wTowe uu noHHMaeM noaiepMHHOw 
«MnpoBOM nop«flOK». Ha mom Barnna. 3T0 noH«Tne He- 
cKonbKO wape, neM «Me>t<ayHapoflHoe npaso», raK Kan 
BxmoMaeT b ce6n He Tonbxo HopMbi MewayHapoaHbix 
OTHOtueHHii, BbiTexaiomiie H3 MejxrocyaapcTBBHHbix ao- 
roBopoB h cornaueHHili, ho h peanbHyto npaxTuxy Mextay- 
napoaHbix oTHOujeHHki. OTnHMMTenbHOM MepToii coepe- 
MeHHOii cnTyau.nn BBnnoTca 6wcTpt>ie H3MeHeHH« Taxon 
npaxTHKH, b nacTHOCTH, b HanpaBneHMH npuHfimuR Mnorn- 
mh dpaHaMH Haen aonycTHMocTM BMeiuaTenbCTBa bo 
BHyTpeHHHe aena konkpsthux CTpan b cnynae MaccoBoro 
HapymeHHH b hhx npaB nenoBexa h HenpuHRmup - apyrn- 

MH CTP3H3MH flpn 3T0M, C OaHOH CTOpOHW, 3ByHaT CHOBa 

o npaBOMepHOCTM npnMeHeHHH npHHijnna npnopnTeia 
npaB MenoBeKa ko BceM rocyaapcTBaM. CTpaHaM a napo- 
aaM coBpeMeHHOCTM, c flpyrofi - BNCxa3biBaKJTCfl yrBep- 
)Kflen^n o HeKoppexTHOCTM ripnweHeHHB npHHunnoB, bw- 
pa6oTaHHbtx a oflHOti rpynne CTpaH (3anaflHan Eapona h 
CeaepHas AMepnxa. npoTecTaHTcxan icynbTypa), K 6onb- 
ibMHCTBy apyrHX rocyaapcTB h xynbTyp. 

rj/in noMCxa peiueHHH cctopMynnpoBaHHOH Bbiwe 
npo6neMbi sawHO. ao-nepaux, onpeaenHTb, m-o mu HMe- 
eM b 3nay npa cnoBOM «npaBO». a. bo-btopwx, CBoaa 
cnowHe^iiiyo npo6neMy Me>KLMB'.inn3ai4nOHHbix n vew- 
xynbTypHbix pa3JinHnii k TeMe ncTopmec<oro speMenw, 
onpeaeriMTb. mto x<e Taxoe HCTopnMecxoe speMn ann 
aaHHort CTpaHbi aha Hapoaa. 

06pau4ancb x iohwtao npaBa, nonwTaeMcn caTb 
ero xpaTKoe onpeaeneHHe. Kax imilMT b «H>nnoco(t)nn 



AnBKciHdp Cynaypoe - npe3udenm cannm r.emep6ypecKozc 

neumpa nCmpameaun'. npcxpeccop Cri6. VHueepcumema. 



npaBa» C C. A/iexceeB, npaBO npw cavioii aneMeHTap- 
HOti. CTporo lopuquMecKoii xapaiaepMCTMKe - sto xpwiTe- 
Paa «opnanMecKoii ipasowepHOCTHM. ocMOB3Hne a cba- 
aeTeribCTBO, cspero poaa couvianbHUM 3HaK Toro, mto 
Ka>KAbii4 A3 nac anpaae hjih hb anpaBe hto-to aenaTb. 
KaK-ro nocTynaTb. Eiae no cyxaeHHSM apesHepuMcxHx 
wphctob (onpeaeneHHe Uenbca), «npaB0, 6yaynn Hay- 
Koii o ao6pe h cnpaBeariHBOCTM, npn3BaH0 6wTb ochob3- 
HHeM an» OTnHHHfl ao3soneHHoro ot Heao3BoneHHoro» 
Kaic n3BecTHO. B03HMKHyB b npownoM Ha ocHOBe o6binaeB 
<a Tpaflnu,nii, npaso npno6peno 3aTeM BHa neTKO c<})opMy- 
nnpoBaHHwx h Haane>Kau4HM o6pasoM npHHHTwx aaKO- 
hob. coBOxynHOCTb KOTopwx MoiKeT 6wrb onpeaeneHa xaK 
«no3HTHBHoe npaBox. OaHaxo Haptiay c no3n™aHbiM npa- 
bom npoflonxano cyuaecTBOBaTb w «npaBO ecTecTBen- 
Hoe», coaepKamee, b HacTHOCTM. TaKHe ecTecTBeHHwe 
npaBa MenoBexa, xaK npaBO Ha >KW3Hb h C5o6oay 

OnbiT cpaujucTCKOM TepMaHMM a apymx TOTanwTap- 
Hbix rocyaapcTB XX aexa co Bceii y6eanTenbHOCTbK3 npo- 

aeMOHCTpupOBan OnaCHOCTb n03HTMBHCTCKOii TpaKTOBKH 

npaBa K3K coBOKynHOCTM aaKOHOB, cymecTBywmux b aan- 
hom rocyaapcTBe. npMH«Tne a 1948 roay flewiapamiH 
npaB senoBexa, oCHOBHbie nonoweHun KOTopoii 3aTeM 
TpaHccpopMnpoBanncb b pernoHanbHbie Kohb6huhh no 
npaBaM nenoaeKa, CTano sawHuu niaroM e onnoaoTsope- 
huh no3HTH8Horo npaBa MaenMn npaBa ecTecTBeHHoro. 
TaKUM o6pa30M, no TepMUHonoru* C. C. AnexceeBa. 
Mw CTaHOBUMcn CBnaeTennMH nepexoaa ot «npaBa rocy- 
aapcTBa» k «ryMaHncTMM6CKOMy npaBy» •atwa npasy rpaw- 
aaHcxoro o6mecTBa, b kotopom coSnioaeHne npaB Meno- 
sexa daHOBHTcn ophau \a3 aaxHe-iwHx. ecnn He caMbiM 
saMHbiM npnopwTeTOM. Ba)KHO OTMeTHTb, hto oaHoape- 
mbhho mu Ha6nK>aasM a ocna6neHne npuHynna cyBepe- 
HMTeTa rocyaapcTBa. fletiCTBHTenbHO. Bee rocyaapcTBa. 
nonn^caBLune EaponeiiCKyio KOHBeHunio no npasav ne- 
noseKa. npn3Hann npnopnTeT ee nonomeHU^ HaacBOHMM 
Hau^OHanbHbiMM npaaoBbiMi* HopMawui, npnanann cboio 
noacyaHOCTb EBponertcxOMy cyay no npaBaM nenoBexa. 
Oco3HaHne SToro ci)aKTa He no3Bon»eT comacuTbcn c 
nono*eHiieM M. B. UnbUHa o Hen3MeHHocTn ponn a 3Ha- 
MeHun cyBepeHwreTa rocyaapcTBa b coBpeMeHHOM Mupe 
Ha Moii B3rnna, npnopnTeT cyBepeHMTeTa rocyaapcTBa 

HBnHeTCB nOHHTneM, CBH3aHHblM C KOHKpeTHWM 3TanOM 

nnn aranaMn pa3Bn T na nenoBesecKOvi ncropnn. 3to no- 
HSTue B03Hn<no BMecTe c BOSHHKHOBeHneM caMoro co- 
BpeMeHHoro rocyaapcTBa, rae-TO Ha ypoBHe npenHflycT- 
pManbHoro ootuecTBa. n nonynnno ceoe MaxcuManbHoe 
pa3BHTne Ha nHKe paaBHTnn nHflycTpnanbHoro o6iaecTBa. 
ripuHqun HBBMeujaTenbCTBa a aena apyroro rocy- 
aapcTBa, BbiTeKaiomnii H3 npMHunna rocyaapcTaenHoro 
cyBepeHHTeTa, ctpopMynnpoBaHHwiii BHanane BaoxyMeH- 
Tax Jlnrn Haunki, a aaTeM m b aoxyMeHTax OOH, nonynun 
CBoe aaxpenneHiie b Me«ayHapoaHOM no3MTHBHOM npaae 
npaKTHMecKM HaxaHyHe Toro, Kax ^acTb ^enoBenecKoro 



4 nPABA MEJiOBEKA 



15 



coo6mecTBa, npn3HaB npnopmeT npaB nenoBexa, nocra- 
Buna ero noa coMHenne. 

MHTepecHO OTMeTMTb sbojuolimio OTHOiueHnq k npuH- 
uwriy cyBepennTeTa rocyaapcTBa b aoxyMeHTax OBCE, 
nocneflHeft o6meeaponeiicKoii opraHH3aunn. Bbipocme^ 
U3 XerbCHHKCKoro cornaiueHUB 1976 roaa. CaMO Xenb- 
cnHKCKoe cornaiueHne no saMwcny CCCP npn3BaHo 6wno 
3axpennTb He3w6neMOCTb rpaHwu esponeiicKiix rocy- 
aapcTB. noaBecTM uTor noa nocneBoeHHWM pa3aeneHn- 

eM EBpOnw H COaeiiiCTBOBaTb pa3BHTHK5 SKOHOMUHeCKOrO 

coTpyaHUMecTBa. BMecie c TeM a xoae noaroTOBKn serpe- 
nt* b XenbCHHicn BOSHnxna naen tapeTbeii kop3hhw», 
KOTopafl npeacTaBnnna co6oii Bonpocu ryMaHMTapHoro 
coTpyaHMHecTBa, o6s3aTenbCTBa ctopoh co6nwaaTb oc- 
HOBHwe npaBa Henosexa. KaK paccxa3biBaiOT annnoMa- 
tw, roTOBUBiune BCTpeny b XenbcunKn, yCeawTb Jl. H. 
BpexcHBBa noanncaTb 3aioiK)HHTenbHbiki 3kt BMecTe c ero 
ryMaHMTapHOki sacTbio 6wno HenpocTWM aenoM, aawe 
npw ysepeHHOCTn coBeTCKoro pyKOBoadBa. hto hhkto He 
3acTaBHT ero b peanbHocm BbinonHgTb npuMHTbie o6a3a- 
TenbCTBa b o6nadn ryMaHmapHoro coTpyaHnnecTBa. 

KaK n3BecTHO, XenbCHHKCxoe cornaweHHe asno moui- 
Hwvi HMnynbC pa3BHTMH npaB03amnTHoro aaufKBHUH b 
CCCP. HMeHHOToraa nosBtinacb MocKOBCKan XenbCUHK- 
CKan rpynna, nocTaaHBwaa CBoetf uenbio o6iaecTBeHHuvi 
KOHTponb 3a BwnonHeHneM noanncaHHoro cornaujennfl 
riapTHMHO-rocyaapcTBeHHwii annapaT CCCP He Mor aon- 
ro repneTbaeBTenbHOCTb MXr. v\ k cepea^ne 80-x roaoB 
ee nnenbi o<a3anncb nu6o b 3a*ntOHeHnn. nn6o b 3Mnrpa- 
umm. npoujno ewe 6 nei\ n oceHbio 1991 r. onepeaHas 
BCTpena no HenoBenecKOMy n3MepeHHio b paMKax Xenb- 
CHHKCxoro npouecca cocToanacb y*e b nocneaBrycTOBc- 
Koii Mockbc nbiTaioianiicfl MoaepHnsupoBaTbcn Cok>3 
npeacTaBnun Ha nen 33MMMHncTpa nHocTpaHHwx aen KD. 
C. flep«6nH, roTOBMBiukiH nHTMaauaTbneT na3aa BCTpeny 
a XenbCHHKu; HOByto Poccuio - C. A. Koaanea. nneH 
nepaoM Mockobckom XenbCUHKCKofl rpynnw. Hx coBMecT- 
hwm npeano>KeHneM Ha Mockobckoh BCTpene Gbma aaMe- 
Ha anw peweHHii b paMKax OpraHM3aunn esponeviCKoro 
coTpyaHnnecTBa u pa3BHTUH, b cnynanx rpy6oroHapywe- 
huh npaB nenoBeKa, npnHLinna KOHceHcyca Ha npnHi;nn 
• KOHceHcyc MMHyc oaMH». 3to npeanoweHHe He 6bino 
noaaepx<aHOToraaapy'"HMncTaHavn,npe>KaeBceroClUA, 
He ojKMaaBujHMM TaKoro paanKanbHoro npeano>xeHiiH or 
CoK)3a n Pocchh. Cnycm ceMb neT ywe poccMMCxoe 
pyKOBoadBO He cornacunocb c 3TOii naeei*, noaTBepana, 
hto ero nosnunH a 1991 roay 6wna nnuib «Kpa^HkiM 
nono>KeHneM KanaomerocH MaHTHMKa». 

BcaMOMCxeMaTHMecKOMBnaeanHaMUKycooTHOiue- 
-!^ih 3«aHe-i.i»i npuopuTeTa cyaepenHTera rocyaapcTBa * 
npnopmeTa npaa nenoBeKa mo>kho npeacTaBHTb b Bnae 
□Byx KpuBbix 06e KpuBbie nepecexaiOTCfl rae-To Ha py6e- 
x<e MHflycTpnanbHoro n noCTHHaycTpnanbHoro o6mecTBa 
Mojkho aaxe npeanonox<nTb, hto nepeceweHne stmx Kpn- 
bwx h BBnaeTcn ycnoBnoii rpaHnueii MHaycTpnanbHoro n 
nocTHHaycTpnanbHoro o6mecTBa, a npnH«Tne 6onbiunH- 
ctbom HaceneHiin aaHHOtf CTpaHw nnn pernoHa npnopn- 
Tera npaB nenoBexa Haa cyBepeHHTeroM rocyaapcTBa 
BBnaeTCs csuneTenbCTBOM aocTuweHun CTpaHOH una 
pernoHOM cooTBeTCTByioiaeM cTaann pasB^Tun. 

ripn stom hcho, hto xa>KaaH CTpaHa, Raxnufl Hapoa 

npOXOflMT CBOki co6cTBeHHwvi nyTb pa3BHTMfl, B KOTOpOM 

pe3Kne cxanxn HeB03Mox<Hbi, a nx HacanbCTBeHHoe npo- 



BeaeHne MO>Ker BW3BaTb B03BpaiaeHne CTpaHU b CBoe 
co6cTBeHnoe npownoe. riosTOMy, nanpuMep, noaaep^Ka 
HaceneHneM xaKOki-nn6o CTpaHw naen cyBepeHmeTa ro- 
cyaapcTBa H aOCT3TOHHO paBHOayUJHOe OTHOlljeHUe K 
naee npnopmeia npaB senoBexa 03HasaeT numb, hto aia 
CTpaHa >KnseT bo BpeMeHu nHaycipnanbHoro o6iyecTBa, 
h Tpe6oB3Tb ot Hee hhoto - 6eccMwcneHH0. CooTBeT- 
CTB6HH0, roBopnTb o Heo6xoanMOCTn co6n>oaeHnn npae 
MenoBexa b coo6iaecTBe, HaxoanmeMCH Ha CTaanH npe- 
^HaycTDnanbHoro o6oiecTBa, npuneM roBopnTb c no3M- 
\\v\v\ o6mecTaa nocTMHaycrpvianbHoro, mowho TonbKO 
oneHb octopokho. Tpe6oBaTb xe nx coSnioaeHUfl b nio- 
6om coo6iaecTBe, HeBSupan na ero MCTopusecKoe BpeMn, 
Ha wow B3rnna. ne coBcev xoppeirrHO. H 3aecb n hhksk He 
Mory cornacnTbcn c no3nuneii yBaxaeMoro mhokj C. A. 
KoaaneBa, KOTopyiooH coJjopMynnpoBar npeaenbHoneT- 
ko: «KynbTypa - xynbTypow, a npoueaypa - npoi^eaypoii. 

ft, OK (J5H3HK, SHSKJ TOnbKOOaHO BpeMJI - 0))H3MHeCKOe» 

Ha mom Bsrnna. tskom noaxoa HBnueTcs apkmm npuviepow 
4)n3HKanncTC«oro B3rnHaa na MHp. 

ripH paCCMOTpeHMkl a^HaMMKM H3MeH6HH(i OTHOUje- 

Him x cyBepeHnreTy rocyaapcraa aocTaTOHHO nnoao- 
tbophom wower oxasarbcn KOHLtenLinn M. B. /Inanna 
npeacTaBnaioiaero noHATue cyBepeHHTeTa xax MOHono- 
nnn Ha npuMeHeHne ysaxOHeHHOii c-inbi, nn^ nac.in^s 8 
BUfle vaipiiLtoi. b KOTopoti npeacTaBneHM, coaHOii CTopo- 

Hbl, 0pM3MHeCKaH B03MO)KHOCTb OCyiyeCTBHTb TaKOe 0H3H- 

necKoe B03aeiicTBne n cornacne o6mecTBa Ha ero peann- 
3aunK>, a capyroi^ - BHyrpeMHee n MexmynapoaHoe n3Me- 
penvie. no MHeHMto M. B. klnbkiHa, Tonbxo s cnynae 3anon- 
HeHHOCTM Bcex HeTupex nneex stom waTpnubi mo>kho 
roBopnTb o peanbHOM cyBepeHHTeTe, b npoTusnoM cny- 
nae, HanpMMep npM Hecnoco6H0CTM BnacTM k ocyiaecTB- 
nennto MOHononuu Ha Hac^nne nn6o npn HenpuRTMH 
3Toro Hacnnn« co CTopoHbi HaceneHUH nnn Me>«ayHapofl- 
Horo coo6mecTBa, 303mowho BOSHUKHOsenne pasn^HHux 
KBas^rocyaapcTBeHHbix xnwep ripuMepoM Taxoti xnwe- 
Dbi MO*er RBnxTbCfl MacxaaoscKas Meiifl 

...PaccMaTpMBan coepeMeHHyK) cuTyaunio, mo>kho 
xoHCTaTupoBaTb, hto CTapoe MewaynapoaHoe npaao, a 
ocioee KOToporo newan npuHqun HepymHMOCTM cyBepe- 
HMTeTa u HeBMeiuaTenbCTBa bo BHyipeHHue aena rocy- 
aapcTB, y»e He OTaenaeT peanviflM ceroaHnuJHero nur 
3to npaBO, xpoMe Bcero nposero, 6bino nopowaeHO 6nno- 
nspHbiM pa3aeneHneM wupa, peannnMn flnTUHCxux cc- 
rnaiueHnii, KOTopwe nocTeneHHO yxoa*"" b npoiunoe. Ha 
CMeHy, CKopee Bcero, aonwHbi npHMTH Hoeue npHHUHflU, 
ocHOBaHHwe Ha orpaHnneHnn cyBepeHMTeTa b nonbsy 
coGnraaeHna npaB MenoBexa. Ba>«HO npn stom, hto6w 
npnopnTeT npaB nenoBexa He ncnonb30Bancs ksk lunpiwa 
ann peann3auMM coeceM apyrux saaan. HaxoHeu. aon>KeH 

6blTb AOCTHTHyT KOHCBHCyC OTHOCHTenbHO TOTO, KTO M0- 

weT npuHHMaTb peuieHun o uenecoo6pa3H0CTn Hapyuie- 
huh cyBepeHMTeTa c uenbio samnTbi HenoBenecxnx npaB 
Co6wTHfl Boxpyr Kocobo noxa3ann onacHocTb cuTyauwn, 
xoraa oahs rpynna rocyaapcTB (nneHbi HATO) npucBau- 
BaeT ce6e sto npaBO, b to BpeM« xax apyme rocyaapcTBa 
Taxoro npaea He npn3HatOT. 

Hpe3BbiHaHHO aawHO TaioKe, hto6w BOBneneHKbie b 
KOHdpntiKTHyK} cuTyaunio CTpaHU Haxoa^nncb b oaHOM 

.mil B 6HM3KOM MCTOP^HeCKOM BpeMeHH. B npOTMBHOM 

cnynae ohm 6yayT npocToae^CTBOBaTb no pa3HbiM npaaw- 
naM ^rpw. n OTCTaiiBanne npaBnenoBexa MOX<eT socnpii- 



16 



4 



nPABA HEAOBEKA 



HUMaTbcn HacenenneM cTpaHw, muBymuM b npyroM nc- 
TopnnecKOM BDeMeHH. KaK npnMan arpeccnn .1 Hapywe- 
HMe cyBepeHHTeia. 

Kpovie Toro, BnonHe BoaMowHa cmyaunfl, Koraa aa- 
iHMTa npaBMenoBeKa n/in pyKOBOACTBa OTflenbHWX CTpaH 
urn ana BnnnTenbHOii nacTM Taicoro Dy<oBoacTBa bbhw- 
e-rcfl n^ujb npeonorpM ans peannaaunn coBcew hhwx 
nHTepecoB, HanpuMep kohtpojih aa MecTopojKfleHHSMn 
none3Hbix ncxonaewbix. 6noKnpoBa-Mn oahhx nyTew m 
cofleiicTBud apyrMM MapwpyraM npoxoameHim He0Te- 
unH ra3onpoBOfloa, ocymecTsneHnn ^hwx cbohx reono- 
nHTunecKnx HMTepecoB . .. 

KaKne we BbiBOAbi mowho CAenaTb Ha ocHOBe bwc- 
<a3aHHoix nonoMeHMH? iokom MnponopRaxe XX! sexa 
mowho roBopMTb? B KanecTBe OTBeTa Ha 3tm Bonpocw 
mowho ccpopMynnpoBaTb HecKonbKO cueHapvieB pa3an- 
thh co6biTiiPi. npuBeAeM 3flecb asa M3 hmx - HeKenaTenb- 
hwm u KenaTenbHWM. 

CueHapMM Ns 1. 

OpraHH3aunji MnpoBoro coo6mecTBa ocTaeTcn He- 
pecfcopMupoBaHHOi*. CoxpaHBeTcn Taxoii penna apewen 
nocTHmnHCKoro MnponopsAKa, KaK nocTOflHHbie nnenw 
CoseTa BeaonaCHOCTn OOH. o6nanaioiuMe npaBou bcto 
na nK)6bie pemeHnq CoseTa 3to, b cbokj onepeAb, ycn- 
nuBaeTyjKe Ha5nioAaeMyK) Hea4)4)e<THBH0CTb cTpyKTypw 
OOH, nepexoAHiuyto b HeB03M0>KH0CTb npHHHTHfl Heo6- 
xoahmwx peuienm. MHeHne MupoBoro rpaxAaHcxoro 06- 
lAecTBa, ve>KAyHapoAHbix h HaunoHanbHbix HenpaBn- 
TenbCTBeHHbix opraHHsauw* BbicnywuBaeics. ho aanac- 
Tyio He yMMTbiBaeTCfi nonnTMKaMn. B arovt CHTyaMHH ne~ 
nerKoe 6peMH npuHHTun peweHM* no nptiMeHeHHic cnno- 
bwx Aei^CTBMii ajih 3amnTbi npaB HenoBeKa B03naraeT Ha 
ce6a rpynna CTpaH, HaxoAHiAnxcn a noCTHHAycTpnafib- 
hom udoptmecKOM BpeiweHn. HanpuMep HATO KoHKpeT- 
Hoe ncTopunecKoe BpeMn Apynx CTpaH npn stom He 
yMHTbiaaeTCfl nnn ynmbiBaeTcn cnaoo, npuMeHBeTca oahh 
ma6noH - co6ntoaeHne noas MonoBe«a ripn otom 3anac- 
Tyio cunoBwe AetfcTBua b peanbHOCTn npecneAywT ocy- 
mecTBneHne reononnTHHecKnx HHTepecoB 3tom rpynnw 
CTpaH mjih oflHOti nHAupyioweii CTpanbi 

Taxan cmyauwn HBnneTCH HenpneMnewo* Ann p«Aa 
nocTcounanncTunecKnx cTpan, HaceneHMe kotopwx *m- 
BeT b ochobhom b ycnoBHflx BpeMenn nHAycTpnanbHoro 
o6mecTBa. npereH3nn CTpaH HATO Ha npaBO BMewa- 
TenbCTBa b Aena APyrux CTpaH paccMaTpMBamTCfl Hace- 
neHneM sthx CTpaH Kax HapyiueHne npHHijuna cyBepeHH- 
reTa, T.e. arpeccud. Jln6epanbHan nacTb nonnTHKOB sthx 
CTpan vi npaaosamnTHUKn paccMaTpuBaioTCH HaceneHn- 
eM ksk npoBOAHMKM lAp&h CTpaH-arpeccopos n OTBepraiOT- 
cn. BocTpe6oBaHHbiMn o6mecTBOM OKaswBaioTcn see 
6onee aaTopnTapMbte n aHTHaanaAHwe nuAepw. CTpaHW 
B03BpamaK)TCfl Ha npuBbiMHwii Ann hux Mo6unu3auuoH- 
Hwii nyTb pa38HTMH. 

ycyry6nHK3Tca SKOHOMmecxne npoTusopennfl Mew- 
Ay pa3BMTWMH H pa3BHBaiOU4HMHC« cTpaHaMn, MewAy 

CeBepoM n (OroM. Matrrb HacTpoeHHwx paAHKanbnocTpaH 
lOra, He wenaKJiynx nocnyujHO cneAOBaTb AwcraTy peiue- 
»v\vt CTpaH HATO. npucoeAMHneTCB k no3Mi4nn KpynHwx 
nocTcounanHCTimecKMx CTpan. Mhp 803BpamaeTcn k koh- 
(ppoHTaunoHHOMy 6nnon$ipH0My BMAy. HapacTaeT Hanpn- 
KeHHOCTb, yrpo3a BoeHnoro KOHiJinnKTa. 

B ycnoBHHx pa3o6meHMOCTn OTHOCHTeribHO pa3BH- 
twx CTpan Ha6npaeT cuny pennrno3Hbiti i})yHAaMeHTa- 

J1H3M H 3KCTpeMH3M. He MCKAIOMeHbl U npOBOKai<HOHHbie 



aeicT3nn 3KCTpeMMCTOB b bhab aKTOB Teppopa. KOTopwe 
b ycnoBunx pacTymeii aaanMHoti noAoapwTenbHOCTn cTpa- 
Hw HATO n xpynnwe nocTcomianMCTusecKne ctpshw Moryr 
MCTonKOBaTb KaK arpeccMBHwe AeiicTBus APyr APyra 
Mnp CHOBa CTaHosnTca Ha rpaHb bomhm. 

CqeHapMH Na 2. 

nponcxoAHTcepbe3Ha(ipecpopMaopraHH3auMiiOOH, 
MCioiKjuaioTCfl penman apeMOH xohoahom bomhu. MHe- 
Hue MMpoBoro rpax<AaHCKoro o6iA8CTBa He To/ibKo npuHn- 
MaeTcn bo BHUMaHne, ho yHHTWBaeTcn b o6«3aTenbHOM 
nop^AKe. ypoKH iwaccoBbix AeMOHCTpai^n^ Me>KAyHapoA- 
hwx o6iuecTBeHHbix opraHH3aunti Ha Aexa6pbCKOM acTpe- 
ne BTO b Cn3Tne He nponanw AapoM. Mhchhb o6me- 
CTBeHHbixopraHH3aunii CTaHOBHTcs ocHOBOii Ann iJ>opMn- 
poBaHun noBBCTKM aha MexAynapoAHbix nonnTMHecxnx 
CTpyKTyp. Bosmowho iJ>opMnpoBaHne BTopow nanaTbi OOH 
n3 npeACTaBMTeneii Me)KAyHapoAHbix n HauMOHanbHbix 
oGiAecTBeHHbix opraHH3aunvi. YMacT^e HamiOHanbHbix 
opraHMsaunii pasnwMHbix crpaH 8 npoqecce npuHSTHd 
peueHnw Ha rno6anbHOM n pernonanbHOM ypoBHe OTMa- 

CTM CHMMaeT CTpeCC B CBB3M CO CHMMeHMBM CTeneHM 

cyBepeHmeTa OTAe/ibHbix CTpaH. 3T0My cnoco6cTByeT n 
pocT MewperHOHanbHoro coTpyAHnnecTBa vi TpaHcrpa- 
HUHHoro coTpyAHnnecTBa MecTHoro caMoynpaBneHno. 

npn OTCTaMBaHnn npaB nenoBexa b pa3nnnHbix cTpa- 
nax yHHTbiBaeTcn KOHKpeTnoe ncTopusecKoe BpeMs stvix 
CTpaH. fleicnapaunji npaB nenoBeKa 1948 r coeAUHneTcn 
b eAunyio npasoByK) cHCTeMy c pernoHanbHbiMM Kohbbh- 
Uuhmh no co6nK>AeHnio npaB nenoBexa, yMHTWBaoiAHMH 
cneunipMKy stmx perwonoB. f\na CTpaH, eiye hb roTOBux k 
noanncaHHK) perMOHanbHwxKOHBeHi^nii, ycTaHaennBaeT- 
ch. c mx comacwi, cneunanbHWM npaBOBO^ pewuM co- 
6nK)AeHns npaa MenoBeKa. CunoBbie weroAbi an« 3aiAH- 
tw npae nenoBeKa npuMeHHKJTcn nerMTHMHbiM nyTeM u 
TonbKO nocne ncMepnaHwn Bcex mhphwx nyTeii peuienmi 
KOHCpnuKTHbix cuTyauMii (b tom HHcne n npn ynacTHH 
ncMXonoroe-MeAMaTopoB neperosopoB). 

OcTasujnecfl 3KCTpeMncTc<ne OD'aHnsaunH. 3 tom 
Hucne n pennrno3Horo TonKa, CTaHOBHTCH o6beicroM co- 
BMecTHbix AeiicTBMii Bcex HOnViTMHeCKHX n OBlAeCTBeH- 
hwx CTpyKTyp MnpoBoro coo6mecTaa PacTeT ponb 3ko- 
nornHecKoro C03HaHMH. peann3yioTCH npuHUMnw cbmmh- 
Ta b Pao-Ae-WaHetfpo 1992 roAa - «MbicnnTb rno6anbHO, 
AeiicTBOBaTb noKanbHo». 

• • • 

Cno*HO o>KunaTb. hto pearibHoe pa3BHTne co6biTHM 
6yAeT nponcxoAHTb no BTopoMy. wenaTenbHOMy Ann aa- 
Topa aroii CTaibn cueHapno Oahsko ocosHaHne onacHO- 
ctm peann3aunn nepBoro cueHapiin no3BonnT, na mow 
B3mnA. npeAnpHHHTb BceM 3anHTepecoBaHHbiM nnuaM n 
opraHM3aun«M onpeAeneHHwe iuarn no ero npeAOTBpa- 

lUeHHK). H 3AeCb yvtaCTHMKH pOCCMfclCKO-aMepMKaHCKHX 

nporpaMM nay^Hbix o6MenoB Mornn 6bi npwHATb cawoe 
nenocpeACTBeHHoe ynacTue, Bnnns Ha xoa paaBHTua co- 
6wTnii n xaK aKcnepTw-KOHcynbraHTw nwu, npuHUMawmux 
nonnTusecxkie peaieHtin, n xax HesasucuMbie aHannTMKn, 
n xax sacTb Me>KAyHapoAHoro coo6mecTBa HenpaeviTenb- 
CTBeHHux opraHnsaunti. 

lly6/iuKyemcn e coKpamenuu. 
CanKm-riemep6ype 



4 



nPABA MEJIOBEKA 



17 



AHApePi CYC/lOB 

npOBO HeAOBeKQ H nOMCK HOBOM 
POCCMMCKOM MAeHTMHHOCTM 




fln" coBpeMeHHoro se/ioBe- 

KS nOMCK MfleHTHHHOCTM BO 

MHoroM cenaaH c ero boc- 
npuHmtjM npaB nenoBexa, 

BHe 3aBHCMM0CTH. OC03HaeT 
HHflMBMA 3T0 HJ1M HeT. OCHO- 

Banns 4n» iaKoro BbiBoaa 
mowho ncKaTb b flByx nnoc- 

KOCTflX. C OAHOM CTOpOHbl. 

onopon npaB Menosexa cny- 
wmt MenoBenecKoe bocto- 

MHCTBO. OTHOUjeHMe K 3T0My 

HeoTteMneMOMy xanecTBy HenoBewecxoii hmmhocth - eaw- 
Heiiiijee cbomctbo nepcoHaribHOii HaeHTHMHOCTM. C apy- 
roM cTopoHbi. npaBa nenoBexa xapaxTepn3yK>T OTHOwe- 
Hue jiuhhoctm k rocyaapcTBy, k BnacTM. Oc03H3Hne oco- 
6eHHOCTeM nnHHbix BsanMooTHomeHUM c B/iacTbio Taxwe 
nB/iiReTcn BajKHeiiujeki nepToii caMOnaeHTH(pnxaum>i. 

riepecTpoeHHwe m nocTnepecTpoeHHbie roflbi ana 
MHorux poccmah da/in 6one3HeHHbiM BpeMeneM. 3anac- 
Tyio CB«3aHHbiM c yrpaToii npewHeii nfleHTHMHOCTM, c 
noMCKOM hobom. KoHeHHO, 3th npoueccw 6onbiueM Mac- 
Tbw He 6wnn CBfl3aHt>i c pe$nexcneii no noBoay npas 
HenoBexa. OflHaxo ocosHaHHO nnn Heoco3HaHHo npaBa 
nejioBeKa. b tom nnn hhom noHMMaHnn. Bee >xe cnyx<aT 
HeKMM nHflnxaTopoM b cucTeMe MfleHTnqbuKamioHHbix 

KOOPflMHaT. 

H3MeHeHne MfleHTUHHOCTM nponcxoflnno He Tonbxo 
Ha nviMHOCTHOM ypoBHe. 3tot npouecc saipoHyn Bee 
o6iuecTBo b uenoM. 

riOMCK pOCCMiiCKUM COUHyMOM HOBOM MfleHTMMHOCTM 

noBnen 3a co6oii cymecTBeHHbie noaBn*xn b cqbepe no- 
nuTMMecKOM KynbTypu. Hasanocb n3MeHeHne SanaHca 
cocymecTByKJiunx b o6mecTBe nonmnHecKnx cy6xyrib- 
Typ: aonn axTHBHwx cy6KynbTyp Hecxonbxo Bospocna 3a 
cneT naccuBHbix. Ho o>xnaaHMfl 5biCTpt>ix m oaH03HaHHwx 
nepeMeH, b cMbicne nosceMecTHoro yTBepwaeHnq xy/ib- 
Typw «yMacTnn». 6binn 6bi yronneM. Xotb xoe-xm cyan no 
HexoTopuM ra3eTHbiM ny6nnKauns?M Hanana 90-x, Ha sto 
Haflea/icn. Ha Aene, xaK noKa3ann counonornnecKne nc- 
cneaoBaHna. bo BTopoiii nonoBUHe 90-x rr oxono nonoBM- 
hw poccMAH npuHaanexano x xyribType «Ha6nraaaTenei<i» 
(no Tunonornn ronnaHflcxnx MccnefloeaieneM O XbOHK- 
ca m <t>. Xnxcnypca). ana xoTopoii xapaxTepeH othocm- 
TenbHO Bbicoxuki ypoBeHb HHTepeca x nonmuxe npn hhs- 
kom flOBepnn nonnTuxaM n hm3kom yHacTMM b nonrnkwec- 
kom jkh3hh. H3 axTkiBHbix >xe BMflOB cy6xynbTyp npeacTa- 

BMTenbHOM MO*HO H33BaTb TO/lbXO «aBT0HOMHyK)» -OHa 



AHdpeu Cycnoe - 3au npedcedamena nepucxoao odmecmea 
nMoMopuan; ucmopuic, doueHm nepucxoBo nedazoauvecKoao 
ymieepcumema. 



xapaxTepHa npuMepHo ann naroS MacTM HaceneHHfl Ho- 
CMTenn 3tom cy6xyribTypt>i MHTepecytOTcn nonHTuxoii m 
CHMTaiOT ce6n cnoco6HbiMM oxa33Tb BnnnHne Ha BnacTb 
npn noMTM a6conioTHOM HeAOBepnn x hom' . 

rioHHMaHue cywHOCTn npaB nenoBexa. yuenne m 
>xenaHne nx 3amnmaTb - oahh M3 xpniepneB npn onpeae- 
neHMM Tuna nonnTHMecxoii xynbTypw. ripn stom bbwho 
o6paTMTb BHuwaHkie Ha nponcxoflnBuine b o6mecTBeH- 
hom co3HaHnn, HasuHafl c 1985 r., npuMyfl^MBbie TpaHc- 
0opMamiM xax noHHTus «npaBa HenoBexa», Tax m otho- 
ujeHHH x npaeaM MenoBexa xax TaxoewM 

OnpefleneHnaa BecTepHH3aqnn poccniiicxoro o6iye- 
CTBa, HexoTopoe 3anMCTBoaaHne 3anaflHbix nonMTHHec- 
xmx. xynbTypHbix. HpaBCTBenHbix ueHHOCTew npuBOflMT k 
saKpenneHHK) «npaB nenoBexa* b xanecTBe Hexoro 3Ta- 
noHa unBn/iM30BaHH0CTM. 3ax/iMHaHM5) nonmnxoB o npM- 
sepjxGHHocTn ueHHocTAM npaB MenoBexa. CTpeM/ieHMe 
rocyaapcTBenHbix flenTenew y6eflMTb 3anafl b nporpecce 
c co6nx)fleHneM npaB nenoBexa ct3hobhtch o6wfleHHbiM 
BB/ieHueM. CaMo no ce6e sto Hennoxo. 

Ha o6biBa r enbCKOM ypoBHe Tax>xe nponcxoanT aex- 
napaTMBHoe npn3HaHne ueHHociei^ npaB nenoBexa. Oa- 
naxo nxsaH, sacBnnroinue o BawHOCTM co6/iK)fleHM5i npaB 
nenoBexa, 3aMacTyx) pa3aenBK)T cosceM apyrne ueHHoc- 
th. He 6yaeM ocTaHaB/iMBaTbcs Ha tom, hto noaaBnnK)- 
Luee 6oribiuMHCTBO o6biBaTeneii He bmamt oTnusuji no3n- 
TMBHoro npaBa ot npaB nenoeexa. CyujHocrHOii nepToti 
poccniicxoro MeHTanmeTa BBnaeTcn to. hto na nepBwiii 
nnaH BuaBurareTcn couiianbHbie m axoHOMMHecxMe npaBa 
- npaBa «BToporo noxoneHnn». ripn stom b xanecTBe 
o6»3aHHOCTM rocyaapcTBa b OTHOujeHMM wenoBexa pac- 
CMaTpueaeTcn b nepByx) onepeflb He C03aamie ycnoBMki 
axis peann3aunn xaKoro-nn6o npaBa, Hanpmuep npaBa Ha 
Tpya mjih Ha o6pa30B3Hne, a HenocpeflCTBeHHoe npeao- 
CTaBneHne pa6oTbi, o6pa30BaHns h T.a. M aawe MaTepn- 
anbHbix 6nar. B cymHOCTM, 3to pequauB TOTannTapHoro 
MnpoBOcnpuflTun: npuHqTue xax aonjKHoro 3a6oTbi rocy- 
aapcTBa o cbomx noaaaHHbix. B ceroaHnujHux ycnoBMBx 
Taxoe MMpooiuymeHMe ^3cto Tpanco>3pMnpyeTcq b CTpaH- 
Hoe, Ha nepBwii B3mna. aM6nBaneHTHoe 0THOweHne k 
rocyaapcTBy. BnacTb pyraxjT n HeHaBMaflT, ho ot Hee *e 
6onbiue Bcero n mayr no3MTHBHbix nepeMeH vt yaoBneT- 
BopeHun cboux noTpe6HOCTeii. 

06opoTHoii CTopoHoii «noTpe6nTeribCKoro» OTHOiue- 
HMfl x BnacTM nanneTCB «6ercTB0 ot CBo6oaw» CBoeo6- 
pa3HbiM npenoMneHneM 3tom nepTbi TOTannTspHoro co- 
3H3Hnq cTano yManeHne npaB nenoBexa «nepsoro noxo- 
neHMfl». Ecnn *e npoaH3nn3npoBaTb snaeHne poccnaHa- 
mm npaB «nepsoro noxoneHHH», noxa3aTenbHbiM 6yaeT 
to, hto nonnTMMecKMM npasaM (cao6oae cnoBa, b nepByio 
onepeab) OTaaeTca SBHwii npnopnTeT, no cpaBHeHMra c 
nuMHWMM npaBaMM. Bonee Toro. MHorne HeorbeM/ieMbie 
nMMHbie npaBa ana MHornx He nenniOTCH ueHHOCTbio. Bot 



4 



nPABA HEJIOBEKA 



HacTHWii. ho HarnnflHbitf npwMep. Pe3ynbTaTw mohhto- 
punra cocTOBHuq npaBOBOi/i KynbTypw yuadwuKOB o6pa- 
3OBaTenbH0ro npouecca, npoBoanBwe r ocn b nepMcxtix 
wxonax b HOfl6pe 2001 r.. noxa3ann, mto 40% ynamnxcn 
a 25% yHHTenefl npn3naK>T aonycTuMocib nwTox (b onpe- 
aeneHHwxycnoBHax) 2 . ripoaonwas b tom >xe xnwMe. mow- 
ho cxa3aTb, mto nonynnpHOCTb cMepTHoCi k33hm xax cpea- 
ctbs o6y3flaHMn npecrrynHOCTH, npn3HaHne nernTMMHOC- 
th caMOcyaa n Hacunns HarnnflHo CBnaerenbCTBytor o 
tom, mto npaBa MenoBexa He CTann onpeaenniomuMH b 
uKane ueHHOCTeii 6onbiuovi flonn yMacTHnxoB onpoca Ho 
mowho B3rnnHyTb Ha npo6neMy h c apyrotf ctopohw. fl/in 
MHorux poccunH (b tom HHcne n ana pecnoHaeHTOB npn- 
aeAeHHoro b xaMeCTse npnuepa onpoca) nn6epanbHbie. 
^MaHncTunecKne ueHHOCTn ywe flBnatoTcn ueHHOCTHMH. 
H 3Ty noflBMXKy. npon30wefliuyio 3a nocneflHue 17 neT. 
TaKxe Haao BuaeTb. 

Mowho 3aMeTHTb m to. mto HeKOTopuii HeraTHBM3M 
o6mecTBa b OTHOiueHnn uaeonornti npaB MenoBexa cbh- 
3an c pa30^apoBaHneM o6biBaTensi 8 bo3mo>khocth 6wc- 
Tporo nonyMenuH yBecucTwx «nnoflOB» ot «BBefleHwn» 
npaB HenoBexa s Poccuu. ripouaoujno h8mto, aHanoruM- 
Hoeo6iuecTBeHHOMy pa30MapoBaHMio b CBepxacJxfcexTHB- 
hom h HeMeaneHHOM ae^CTBnn «HeBHAHMOti pyxa pwh- 
Ka», b Mvicp o kotopom no3ep.ina Macca poccuph Ha 
py6ewe 80-90-x rr. Sonbiueu Mac™ HaceneHun TpyAHO 
oco3HaTb ncTMHy, mto 3aKpennenue iopnanMecKnx hopm. 
3am^uiaK)iunx npaBa Menosexa, a poccw^ickom aaxoHoaa- 
Te/ibCTBe - He naHauen ot scex 6ea m aawe He naHauen ot 
HaoyuieHn/i npaBMenoaexa. Mto npaaa ienoBe<a cavn no 
ce6e He caenax3T>KU3Hb CMacT/iMBOii h 6e33a6oTHOfi. Mto 
npaBa HenoBexa - sto TonbKO HHCTpyMeHT nuBnnn30BaH- 
Horo oCiyecTBa. ripaaaa, Taxo* nHCTpyMeHT, 6e3 xotopo- 
ro o6mecTBO spnA nu moxho ceroflHq Ha3B3Tb uuBunwso- 
BaHHWM n 6e3 KOToporo nuHHOCTb He MoweT MyacTBOBaTb 
ce6n 3amnmeHHoii ot npou3Bona rocyaapcTBa. 

nonnTHMecKMe, 3xoHOMHMecxne, counanbHwe nepe- 
MeHbj, ycune-ne ufleonoruMecxoro snusH^o u3ane ewe 
pe3Me o6o3HaMnnn cpparMeHTaunto nonnTHMecxux cy6- 
KynbTyp poccnflcxoro o6mecTBa. HeoqHopoflHOCTb 06- 
laecTBa caMWM cyiaecTBeHHWM o6pa30M ocnowHfleT no- 
ne* hobom poccutfexort uashtumhoctw. aenaeT ero pasno- 
ManpaBneHHbiM He cnyMatfHO ocHosaHua hobom nfleH- 
thmhocth cB$*3biBaiOTCH c anaMeTpanbHO npoTMBononow- 
hwmh opueHTupaMH. Ro-BnanMOMy. Poccmr ctout nepea 
miB.irui3aunoMHbiM Bbj6opoM. Ecnn npiiHATb 3a ocnoey 
K/iacc^0^KaukiK}, npeanoxceHHyK) aMepnKaHC<nM nonn- 
TonoroM C. XaHTMHrroHOM 3 , sto Bbi6op Me»cay 3anaaHOi* 
m npaBocnaBHO-cnaBRHCKOM uuBnnnsaunen Or aroro 
9bi6opa 6yayr acepbes 3aBnceT=, xax cyab6a Poccnn. Tax 
n xoa (bo3mo)kho, n nexoa Toxce) HasaBLuerocn n CTaBtije- 
ro OMeBnanbiM b Hanane TpeTbero TwcnMeneTun miBunn- 
3aqnOHHoro xoHcpnniaa. KoHCpnuxTa. b kotopom, no MHe- 
hhk) XaHTMHrroHa n ero eaHHOMbiujneHHWKOB, 3anaa 6y- 

a6T npOTMBOCTOBTb BCBMy OCTanbHOMy MUpy*. HMeHHO 

nosTOMy Bbi6op ^aenTHMHOCTn Ha unsunnaaunoHHOM 
ypoBHe HpesBbinanHO BaweH ans Pocchm. 

nepcnexTMBa naeHTndpnL(npoBaTbC9 b xaMecTBe 060- 
co6neHHOri unBnnn3aun-i nnn Pocc^n BnonHe pearibHa. 
MHoruM rpexjT ayiuy nnnK)3nn B03BpameHn« 6wnoro bo- 
eHHO-AepxoBHoro Morymec-sa «fleowaBHHKn« bhk)6om 
uia-o 3anaaa nmyT tdouckh Bpara, roTOBoro Ha Bee paa" 
3axa6aneHnn Poccnn. IIomumo ycnneHUH xc6hocJk)6hh 



Bbi6op npaBocnasHO-cnaaHHCxo^ waeHTUHHOCTn Hanpn- 
Myo CBnsaH c otk330m ot Taxwx «HecBoiicTBeHHi>ix pyc- 
CKOMy Hapoay» sanaAnux ueHHOCTeii, Kax npaBa Henose- 
xa n T.n., paa^ ycnneHnsi rocyaapcTBa 

OflHaxo ecTb n APy r an a/ibTepHaTWBa - Poccub vo- 
wei -iaeH7iicpimnDOBaTbCB xaxsanaAnancTpaHa, HecMOT- 
pn Ha to mto 6onbLiian MacTb ee TeppnTopnw HaxoanTCH 3a 
npeaenaMM EBponu BntisocTb poccMMCxoii vi ocTanbHOM 
3anaaHOM xynbTypw oip^uais AOBonbHO cnoxHo. Taxne 
nu6eparibHbie uenHocTn. <a< puHOMHao axoHOMMxa n ae- 
woxpaTHH, xyao-6eaHO npnmnBatorcn m y Hac. MHoroe 
3aBncnT ot Toro, npujKMByrcH nn Ha poccutfexoti noMBe 
npaBa Me/iOBexa. npnweT nn nx xaK ueHHOCTb SonbiiinH- 
ctbo HacenenHB, npnMeT nn mx normTUMecxaH n skohomk- 
Mecxan anviTa. 3aecb aanexo He ace »cho 

KoMy-TO MOxeT noxaaaTbcn, mto yenex b yTBepxae- 
hum Tex nrin hhwx ueHHOCTefi 6yaeT Ha tom cropoHe, 
xoTopan cyMeeT ncnonb30BaTb womb rocyaapcTBeHHoro 
nponaraHAncTcxoro annapaTa. Ho He Bee Tax npocTo 
CneayeT yMHTWBaTb, no xpartHefi Mepe, oano BawHoe 
oScTosiTenbCTBO. L4eHH0CTn oneHb nnoxo ycBanBatOTCfl 
Ha Bep6anbHOM ypoBHe. OopMMpoBaHHe nnn n3M6HeHne 
nx, xa< npaBMno, nponcxoanT Ha ypoBHe aenTenbHOCT- 
hom. rioaTOMy bo3MO)khocth nponaraHAw b 3tom OTHOiue- 
hvih BecbMa orpaHMMeHbi 

HeManoBax<Hyio ponb b AeflTenbHOCTHOM ocbochhm 
npaB HenoBexa, no-BMA"MOMy, cwrpaeT npno6meHiie 
Poccnki x eBponeiiCKOii npaBOBOki KynbType b aToii ccpe- 
pe Mo>xho Ha3BaTb Mpe3BbiMadHO Ba*HbiM to o6cron- 
TenbCTBO, mto Pocchh, noanncaB EBponeiicxyK) <ohbbh- 
UkiK) o samuTe npas Menosexa n ochobhux cbo6oa * 
33KpenMB>e KoHCT^Tyuim npuopuTBT MeixayHapoAHbix 
aoroBopoBnooTHOiueHniox(peAepanbHbiv3axoHaM,Bouj- 
na b eBponericxoe npaBoaoe npocTpaHCTBO. A 3to oshb- 
MaeT, mto 3a6oTMTbCfl o co6n>oaeHHn npas Menosexa 
rocyaapcTBeHHbiw MyxaM npuaeTCR He Tonbxo Ha cnosax 
npn BceM HeixenaHun npeanpwHnMaTb mto-to Ha aene. 
riepsoe npoMrpaHHoe Poccneii Aeno a EsponeiiCKOM cyae 
6 Man 2002 roaa - euje oaviH noBoa ann enacTn scepbe3 
3aayMaTbCH o csoeM OTnoujeHun k npaBau MenoBexa. 

rioaBoan utot, mo>kho cxaaaTb, mto, xoth oTHOujenne 
x npaeaM Menosexa ne sBnseTcn eauHCTaeHHWM dpaxTo- 
poM, onpeaennioiaMM CTaHOBneHwe hoboii poccuiiexow 
naeHTnMHOCTn, saBnceTb ot Hero 6yaeT MHoroe. 

llepMb 



' Cm. : PyxaauuiHUKoe B. O. nonumimecKaa Ky/ibmypa u 
npaea venoeexa e nocmcoaemcKou Poccuu u empanax 
3anada: cpaeHumenbHbiu munonoauvecKuuaHanu3// npa- 
ea venoeena e Poccuu: npownoo u Hacmofuuee. - tlepMb, 
1999 -c 131-139. 

' rtodpo6nee o uonumopunse cm.: MoHumopune cocmo- 
HHua npaeoaou xyabmypw yvacmHUKoe o6pa3oeamenb- 
Hoao npouecca e ujKonax a. riepMu: C6.uamepuanoe. - 
flepMb, 2002. 

3 Cm.: XaHmuHamoH C. Cmo/iKHoeeHue u,ueunu3au,uu? II 
nonuc. - 1994. -Na1.- C 33-48. 



'TaMMe, c.43. 



4 CYAbbbl CT0JIETNI1 



IB 



KaK n npeJMie, neAOCTaeT BOBce He nnc{)opMau,nn o necnpaBeAJinBOCTki, a xpa6pocTu, MTo6bi npoTn- 
BoaeiicTBOBaTb efi n noMoraTb ee xepTBaM. Mw MorceM noMOMb. Monna Ha6nioAaTb HecnpaBea^nBOCTb 
- 3to coysacTwe b npecTynneHUM. 

flwHHena CaraH 



MpnHa XOJlMOrOPCKAfl 

A>KMHETTA CArAH - 
«...TA CAMAfl AOMOX03fll7lKA M3 ATEPTOHA 



>> 




IlmuHemma Caaan na npa3d- 
HoeaHuu 50-0 eodoemuHbi ee 
noSeaa U3 mnptMbl. 1995 a. 



ilaciiHerra CaraH (Mopo- 
hii) po.in.nacb b l925roay 
h npoBe.nacHacr.iHBoeaeT- 
ctbo b Miiaane n ropax ce- 
Bcpiioii Iliajiiiii. Ec poan- 
rean 6waii BpanaMM. Kor- 
aa TuT-iep ii Mycco.iiiHH 

CTaJlH Haoiipa II, B.lHflHHC II 

CH.iy b EBpone, ceMb* 

MopOHHak'TMBHOBK.'llOHH- 
.aaCb B JBHWCHIfC HTa,lb- 

HHCKOrO ConpoTHB.ncHHS. 
B 1942 roay /l/KKHcrra. 
pa6oTa»i MjnmmHM k.icpkom b mvuukkom MyHHUHnajmTe- 

TcaoaaBaiia Ta-noHbi Ha oacaoiy it npoaoBo.ibCTBiic CBpc- 
hm. CKpuBaioiUHMCX ot (paniHCTOB. ynacTBOBaaa b apyrnx 
aHTH(pauiHCTCKHx aKuiinx. k ccMHajuani roaaxt OHa 5u.ia 

VJKC 3aKajlCHHblM II onblTHbIM OOHUOM ConpoTiiBJicHiw. Ec 

3Bajin MwiuKa(Topolino)in-3aMajieHbKoropocTa. Mbiuj- 
Ka k.i laaacb I I-.icthhm noapocTKOM n hc bi.i ihiBaia noao- 
jpcHiiii. B 1 943 roay apecTOBajm cc poaxTeaeH. OTeu 6w.i 
paccTpe.isiH. \iaTb (cBpeiiky no HauHOHajibHocTH) oTnpaBu- 
.nii b KOHUjiarcpb AyuiBHU. OTKyaa OHa y*e hc BepHynacb. 
/IxHHCTra. npeoaoacBaa KasaBuicccs hcbuhochmmm rope, 
npoaoaaaiaa pa6oiaTb Ha apyryio noanoabHyio ceTb - 
<<Giustizia c Liberia party»: ncnaTana h pacnpocTpaHH.ia 

JIIICTOBKII. OHa HC TOJlbKO AOCTaBJiaJia CO06ujeHHH COKttHII- 
raM Ha HTa-io-uiBeiiuapcKyio rpaHimy. ho h casta nepenpa- 
BH.ia okojio 300 ocweHueB: eBpeeB. coaaaT. aHTHtpaiinic- 
tob. ac3cpTnpoB H3 HaiincTCKOH apMini. Ha rpaHHue eft 
iico.iHOKpaTHo npiixoaiiJiocb npeojo.ieBaTb orpa/Kjeiwe 
H3 kojiioich npoBo.aoKii. nocacaHcc npeiwTCTBuc Ha nyTH k 
-KH3HH h cbo6ojc. - hc cayiaHHo ^WMHerra CaraH caeaaaa 

CHMBO.IOM MoKjyHapOaHOH AMHHCTHII CBCiy. OKpVWCH- 
HyK) «KOJIIOHKOH». 

MbiuiKa ycncuiHO cnpaBaaaacb co vHoniMH 3aaaHHs- 
mh, ho b 1 945 roay kto-to npoHiiK b no.ano.11 be 11 hc iipcaaa 
cc. /Ihuihcttc obiao 20 aeT. 45 aHcfi acByiUKy oh.ih. Hacn- 
aoBaan. noaBcprann pasHbixi nuTKaM. b tom mhc.ic h 
nbiTka.M 3acKTpimccTBOM. Ho owa hc caoMaiacb. Kak-To 
oxpaHHKK opocna b ee KaMepy KycoK xae6a. Owa yaHBH- 
aacb: kto H3-3a Hee paccTaaca cocbohm nafiKOM 11 nouiea Ha 
piicK.' C /KaaHOCTbio noeaaii xac6 b a6coaK>THOH tcmhotc 
Kaviepu, owa Bapyr oonap;. -kiiia b msikhuic cnHMCiHyio 
Kopo6ky.aBHCH-oaHycniiHKynKaoHOK6yMani.^*iiHCT- 



Ta saxrjia cniiHk-y h npotaa: «CARAGG10! Lavoriamo per 
tc» («XPABPOCTb! Mw paooTacw ana Tc6a»). 

3th caoBaB03HHkaan Bee naMfmi KavKawfi pa3. Koraa 
OHa cauuiaaa ot apyrHx 3aKaK)HCHHbix. mto «hhkto hc 
iHaeT hhx h He 6yaeT 3HaTb». 

PaccTpea H^iiHerrbi 6wa Ha3HaHeH Ha 23 anpeas 
1 945 roaa. B 3tot aeHb ConpoTHBaeHHe opraHHioBaao cc 
noSerc noMombioaByx hcmcukhx ocpimcpoB. Koraa Rxh- 
Herry Beaw noa kohbocm. OHa hc 3Hana. mto 0Ka*-eTcsi hc b 
Moniae. a b KaroanHecKOH 6oabHiiue b lilBCHiiapiui. 

«3to owaa kpaciiBaa 3Be3aHan HOHb. Si ayxiaaa. mto 
HHKoraa combine He yBtiacy 3apio», - BcnoMHHajia A"*'ii- 
Herra. 

3apn - «Aurora» - TaK nepei HCCKoabKO acT OHa 

HaiOBCT CBOli (JK)Ha. 

3tot acHbona OTMenaaa KaK npa 1,111 11 k bcio ocTaBUiy- 

Kica All IHh. 

HcKOTopoc BpcMa nocne noocra /J)KHHCTTa muia b 
bBponc BoccTaHaBaiiBaa 3aopoBbc. B napitxc OHa bctpc- 

TH.iaCb CO CBOHM k'pCCTHMM OTUOM. aMCpilKaHCKIIM oaHKII- 

poM. ki> u'pi.iii Biaa Ha ce6» 3a6oTy hch. OHa inyiaaa b 
Cop6oHHe aeTCKyio ncHxoaormo. B 1951 roay jJ-AiiHerra 
npHC3*aeTB AwepHKy. mto6w npoaoa>KHTb o6pa30BaHHc b 
MHKarcKOMyHHBepcHTCTc.TavtoHano3HaKOMHaacbcocTy- 
acHTOMMeaHUHHCKoro4>aKynbTeTa JleoHapaoMCaraHOMH 
Bbiuiaa 3a Hero 3a\iyvK. y hhx poaHaocb Tpn cwna - JIopHHr. 
/lyHKan h iIhko. 

B 1961-1964 ro- 
aax aoKTop CaraH pa- 
uoia.i b HaracaKH iiaa 
n3yienneM Boiacn- 
CTBlia puHauHH. JIjkh- 
Herra Bbi3Baaacb opra- 

HIHollWHilll. nOMOUlb 

an* npnioTOB b Hara- 
caKH. aocTaBasd npo- 
aoBoabCTBHe h Mean- 
KavieHTbi. o6ycTpaiiBaji 
llpHIOTU. 

B 1967 roay ee 

HiUliaKOMII.il! C -Kl'II- 

LUHHOH. Ik'llbi:aniucii 
Ha CBOCM cilia ic > Aac 

cyuiecTBOBaHHD noa Buoapacfiu fi HxuHemmu Caaan. 

BaacTbio «Hc P Hbix noa- nmem»m Mapu nuc tamm 

drn demeu 




20 



4 CYAbbbl CTMETN 





P K F. " 



N IDR< I 



Bo spew*? npoeedeHu* bkuuu npomecma npomue 
penpeccuu a TuGeme. 1999 a. 

kobhhkob» b rpemiH. T---Ka CaraH maia. ito k nojiirni- 
HCCKHM 3aKJlK>4CHHblM xyHTa npuMCHneT Te JKe MeToau 
ao3HaHH« h ycTpaiucHiisi. mto h recTano b (pauiHCTCKofi 
llTaaiut ii apynix OKKyimpOMHBNX peltxoM crpaHax. Bcko- 
pe noc.ne 3Toro ilacHHerra Haiaaa paooTan. b McwayHa- 
pojHoii Amhhcthh. ocHOBaHHofi b EBpone ajBoicaTOM 
riHTepoM Echchcohom b l96lroay (uira6 HaxoaHTca b 

/lOHJOHC) II K TOMy BpCMCHH HaCIHTMBaBUlCII B CU1A 

Bcero 700 le.ioBeic. CaraH aKTHBHO noMoraaa ct3hob.ic- 
hhk) npa3BHTHio MewayHapoaHoii Amhhcthh b ANiepuKe. 
OHa Haui.'ia cboc npii mamic J/KiiHcrra CaraH npii vemiaa 
cboh onuT ooflua ConpoTiiB.ieHim b oopboe npoTHB rpe- 
icckoh xyHTH h c(j>opMiipoBa.ia ceTb, Kyja bouj.iii BCTcpa- 
Hw aHTiKpauiHCTCKoro noanoaba h rpeiccKHc oeweHuw. 
Ohm co6npa.ni ctihckh uk. i iohchh w \. v'ToiHsiaH viccropac- 
no.ioiKeHiie TiopeM. HeojHOkpaTHO A*MHerre npiixojH- 

.lOCb nOCCUiaTb TpCmilO noa BblMbllU.lCHHblM hmchcm h c 
II3MCHCHHOH BHCUJHOCTbK). 

B 1971 roay fl)KHHcrra CaraH ocymecTB^iicT yaan- 
Hy io aKUii K) no coopy cpeacTB ana nocrpaaaBuiHX ot aiiKTa- 
TopcKoro pcvKiivia b rpcmw. coopaB Ha 6jiaroTBopHTc.ib- 

HblH KOHUCPT B BcpK.lli (KaJlHtpOpHlia) 10000 MC.IOBCK. B 

KOHuepie npuHfuiH ynacTHe cyncp3Be3jw - A'A'oaH Ba33 11 
Me.niiHa MepkypH. 

Ha cncayioiuHH acHb noc.ne KOHiicpTa b CT3Hipopae 
6waa ocHOBaHa 19-a rpynna MettayHapoaHoii Amhhcthh. 
3a Tpn roaa npn6aBHjiocb erne 75 rpynn. HHtpopMamioH- 
Hbifi 6ioajieTeHb AMepHicaHCKoro OTacaeHHa MokayHa- 
poaHoft Amhhcthh ^jKHHerra CaraH Ha3Baaa «Matchbox» 

(«CnHHCMHbiH Kopo6oic»)- B naMHTb O M&TieHbKOM BCCTHII- 

Ke Haae>Kjbi H3 ec npouuioro. O.ihhm m nepBbix yiHtiKOB 

COBCCTH, 0CB0603KJCHHblX B fpCUHH nOJ jaB.ICHHeM OOIUC- 

cTBeHHocTH, opraHH30BaHHWM MeauyHapoaHoii Amhhc- 
Tueii. oua KpncToc LUpTieTaKHc. Cyab6a 3Toro HcnoKop- 
Horo KjpHCTa. ocMeaiiBtueroca npoTHBOCToaTb cneucay*- 
6aM (jeno 06 ySHficTBe JlaM6paKHca) h 3a 3to npec.ieaye- 

MOrO pC/KHMOM «HCpHblX nOJIKOBH IIKOB) . Hillll.ia OTpa'A'C- 

Hue b 3HaMeHiiTOM (piiabMe KocTa-FaBpaca «Jl3eTa» («Z»). 
B 1985 roay UapT3eTaKiic craa npe3HaeHT0M CBofxuHoii 
PpeuHH. 



B Hanaiic 80-x roaoB no HHiiuiiaTHBc /liKHHCTTbi Ca- 
raH 6bl.1H COOpaHU HHTCpBbK) K00 BbCTHaMCKHX 3aK.HOHCH- 

Hbix. Ha ochobc KOTopbix «Aurora» onyoaincoBaaa othct 
penpecciiax b nocaeBoeHHOM BbCTHaMe. npiiB.iekiuiiH bhh- 

MaHHC MlipOBOH oSlUCCTBCHHOCTH K CTpajaHIIHM BbCTHaM- 

CKoro Hapoaa. Eaaroaapa upoBoaiiMbiM ck) jmiibiium k.im- 
naiiHRM 6000 laiciioMCHHbix bo BbeTHave 6wan ocbo6o>k- 
aeHbi. a ycnoBiia caaepacami* b HeKOTopbix «aarepax ncpe- 
BocninaHim» - cMarwcHbi. 

OHa coaeftcTBOBaaa ocBo6o>KacHiiio noaimmecKHx 
3aKaioMeHHbixBrioabUJC. L lexocaoBaKHH. JlaTHHCKoii Amc- 

PHKC H K)AHOH AlppilKC. CpCJII HHX - npe3IUCHT MeiUCKOH 

pecnyoaiiKH BaanaB PaBea 11 npC3iueHT IOjkhoh Kopcn 
Khm A& JlacyHr. 

Koraa ABrycTO iIhhohct b 1973 roay 3aKaioHHa b 

TIOpbMbl TbICRMH MHaHHIICB. HC lipilHSHIUHV nepCBOpOT H 

npaBacHncxvHTbi./lAHHeTTaao6HaacbnpiiMoroTeae())OH- 
Horo pa3roBopa c reHepa.iOM.Tpe6ynocBo6oaiiTb vihhkob. 

MaaeHbKan jKeniuiiHa. o6aaaaioiuaii Tcnaofi yawoKoii 
11 neyeMHOH 3HeprHcfi. Bccraa yTBcpwaaaa. mto ,ik>6oh mot 
caeaaTb to xe caMoc. 

«Ee pa6oTa 5uaa hcoowkhobchho i^ckthbhoh. - 
CKa3aa ee jpyr h copaTHHK no MoKayHapoaHofi Amhhcthh 
Bhhucht /I'AHapea (Vincent D*Andrca). npotpeccop kjih- 
HimecicoH nciixnaTpHH b CnHiJiopje. - OHa lacTasamia 
npiicayiuaTbcii k ce6e aioooro HaunoHaabHoro aiucpa. 
BKJiioHaii 11 "ruioxHX napHcii"». 

B 1985 roay ^JKiiHcrra CaraH H^*oaHBa33 noceTiian 
Flo.Tbiiiy, rae c 1980 roaa KOMMyHHCTHicciaiMii BaacTHMii 
ouao BBcacHO bochhoc noaoweHiie. 

3Ta noc3jKa 6waa opraHinoBaHa wt toto. mto6u 
ncpeaaTb cpcacTBa aaH 3aiaiioMeHHbix b TiopbMy nacHOB 
Co.iHaapHocTH. I 1i'iis.ih|-m.im iicHima h cteMOHHan rpynna 




IlaoHapd u A>Kunomma Caean - 
«noi<a cuepmb He pawyyum hbc..». 1997 a. 



4 CYAbBbl CTOJIETDJI 



21 




3u6n6Ma MaxtdyHapodHoO 
Amhuctiuu. 



obi.in npiik-pbiTneM ana r-XH 
CaraH. nepeB03HBiucfi BanKvry 
Ha ceoe. noa oacauoH. Bo Bpe- 
mh BCTpcwH Ha aipojpoMe OHa 
BHC3anHo noHVBCTBOBa-na. hto 
nojic c acHbra\in nono.T3 bhms. 
UpHuj.iocb jcpjKaTbcs 3a cnH- 
Hy. Bail SbiCTpo noaxBaTH.ia 
cc oaraw 11 nm.Hi.HH.ia BCTpe- 
taioiuMM. hto y xenntHHU 
rpaBMHpoBaHacilHHa.«fl lUJia, 
ksk oy.iTO y MeHS cjiosiaH no- 

3BOHOHHHK». - BCnOMHH3Jia 

CaraH. 60-JieTHfm "KOHTpaoaH- 

-lHCTK'a» BbinOJlHHJiaCBOK) MHC- 

chio. ho cii Bcc-TaKH hc y.'iajiocb cKpuTb cboc npcobiBamic 
b rio.nbujc. h no.ibCKHe BJiac™ noiibnaJiHCb H36aBHTbc« ot 
HcxcjiaTcnbHon rocTbii. OHa h h3bccthmh no.ibCKiiii anc- 
ch.icht nyaoM hc norH6.ni BaBTOMOoiijibHOH KaTacTpo(j)e. 
nojcTpocHHOH areHTaMH reHcpana 5Ipy3c:ibCKoro. Hacpo- 
TorpaiJ)HH c NiecTa aBapini - OKpoBaB.icHHoe jihuo .Hwhhct- 
tw c Top/KecTBViomeH yjiu6Koii: nycTb bhjht. hto cc Hcner- 
ko 3anyraTb. 

Ona He ObiJia npHCTpacTHa k KaKiiM-jin6o mojihth- 
hcckhm pexHMBM. Ha3biBajia.Tn CTpaHa ccoh «nporpcccnB- 
hoh» mjiii He CKpuBajia cboiix jiiKTaTopcKiix laMauicK. ee 
BOJiHOBanit To.ibKo KOHK-pcTHbic .le.na. KOHicpeTHbie cyab6u, 
OHa 6opo.iacb co bccmh TwpcMimiKaMH. na^anaMH h hx 

rOCyaapCTBCHHUMUnOKpOBHTClUMH. 

Ec>KH3Hb (JiaKTIIHCCKH HJIJIIOCTpHpyeTCJlOBa KiawHHa 

ilcooca: «fl hc CBofkxaeH, ecjiH xot* 6w ojHa HCBHHHan 
jyuia - b i K>pi,vo- 

ilxiiHCTTa CaraH yvtyiipiuacb nejiaTb hcbo3mo<khoc 

OHaObMa UCHTpOM HHTeHCHBHOH npaB03aWHTHOH JCHTCJlb- 




AxuHemma Caaan 3a 

HBCxonbKO uecmee 

do cuepmu. 



HOCTII BO BCCM MHpc Ha.XOJHCb 

jova b ATepTOHe h oyjyHii 3a- 
6oTnHBOH MaTcpbio. rocrcnpii- 

HMHOfl X03HHKOH.3HaTOKOM KV- 
JlllHapilll H opxiUCH (0JI1H 113 
HOBblX COpTOB HOCHT CC HMD), 
HTO OTpa3HJIOCb BO (ppa3C .111- 

peiaopa UPy ViivibUMa KeficH 
(William Casey). o.iHa-*.ibiHa- 
3BaBuiero ce «Ta caMas jomo- 

X03»HKa H3 ATepTOHa». 

ilAiiHCTTano^yHiwa mho- 
ro Harpa.i. Bk-.-no'ian Bbicmyio 
Harpajy HTajimi b 1996 r. B 
tom we roay ona 6wjia Ha- 
rpa*acHaripc3iucHTCKoii Me- 
aanbio Cbo(xuu. Bbiciueii rpaauaHCk-oii Harpaaoii ClUA. 

«Hmh il/KHHerrbi CaraH - chhohhm 6opb6w 3a npaBa 
HcjioBCKa bo BceM MHpe, - ck*a3aji npc3iueHT K.thhtoh Ha 
ucpeMOHHH b BejioM JIomc — OHa o.imicTBopseT nooeay 
HenoBenecKoro jyxa Haj TnpaHHeH». 

B 1998 rojy il*HHCTTa CaraH owjia npHniaiucHa Ha 
TpeTbio Me*ayHapoaHyio KoHcpepeHmiiono npana\i hcjio- 
BCKa b BapuiaBC. rac Becb (popyM npHBCTCTBOBajr cc ctoh. 

I ccht»6p« 2000 r.. Ha TpH roaa nepc>KHB CBoero 
Mywa, ilvKHHCTra CaraH cKoHHa. mci. b cbocm aoMc b Arcp- 
tohc nocjie ao.iroit oopbou c paKOM. Eh 6ujio 75 jict. OHa 
oopoaacb c 6o.ne3HbK) TaK. Kaic To.ibko h Mor^a /I-KHHcrra 
MopoHH - MwuiKa - r-wa CaraH: ctohko. hc Tcpa» XH3iie- 

pajlOCTHOCTH H HajOKJbl. 

«MHp nHUJH^CH .ivHUJcro rpa*aaHHHa, - cKa3a.na 
KOHrpeccMCH AHHa 3iuy, y3HaB o ee ciuepTH. - OHa 6ujia 

He TOJlbKO HaUHOHajIbHblM. HO H MHpOBbIM JOCTOHHHCM». 

no uamopuanau MBxdynapodnoti Aunucmuu. 




flxuhiemma CazaH e Anbnax. Hedanexo om max uecm. ade e zodti eoOHbi ona 
nepenpaenrtna SenieHuee wepej umano-u/eeuuapcKyio zpamiuy 



22 



4 KPACHOE KOJIECO 




4 KPYTOM MAPUIPyT BbETHAMA 



23 



BbETHAM: HAPOAbl, 
PEA.VLFVtVl. BAACTb 



HapoAbi 

OflMH M3 (J)paHuy3CKMx nccneA0B3Teneii o6pa3H0 
H33Ban BbeTHaM «nepeKpecTKOM xynbTyp u HapoA0B». 

CorxiacHo «HoMeHioiaType MapoaoB BbeTHaMa», 
yTBepiKfleHHOM rnaBHWM ynpasneHneM no craTHCTHxe 
CPB b 1979 c. b codaB HacereHna CounanncnmecKOki 




Tbicfwenemmiu neG3a>K BbemnaMa 



Pecny6nnKn BbeTHaM, o6pa3oaaHHoii nocne o6teflMHe- 
HMfl CeeepHoro v\ K)>KHoro BbeTHaMa b 1976r., cocTaBnn- 
wiuero 71 MwinviOH nenoBeK, bxoaht 54 pa3nnnHbix 3thh- 
necxux o6pa30BaHna, npeacTaBnnioiyMX 3BCTpoa3naTC- 

KyK), aBCTpOHe3MMCKytO M XMTaMCXO-Tw6eTCXyK) H3blK0Bbie 
CeMbM 

PacceneHne napoAOB no Teppmopnu cTpaHw He- 
paBHOMepHO n CBoeo6pa3HO. CTpyirrypa TeppnTopna/ib- 
Horo pa3MeiiieHnn HaceneHun BbeTHaMa cboahtca KTpeM 
TMnaM pacceneHMs: AenbT0BO-npnMopcxnti (paBHHHHwu) 
ropHO-flonnHHwii uropHbiiii. CymecTBeHHas ocoSeHHOCTb 
pa3MemeHnn HeBbeTCKnx napoaoB no Tepp*Topnn BbeT- 
HaMa coctout b tom, mto paiiOHbi psccenenMfl He MMeioT 

M6TKMX rpaHML|- HapOflbl, rOBOpHLLltie H3 H3blKaX pa3JlWH- 

hwx H3biKOBbix ceMeii, npox<MBaiOT flucnepcHO n Mepecno- 
nocHO apyr c gpyroM. HexoTopwe STHMHecxwe o6iahoctm. 





npodaemuLia xappu. 



Pbi6anKan nodxa Ha pete Mbkohb. 



Mac™ xoTopbix pacceHHw no 
Bceii reppnTopnn CTpaHw, c 
nonHbiM npaaoM Moryr 6wTb 

Ha3B3Hbl «AHCnepCHblMM Ha- 

poAHOCT$iMM». Ha tore CTpaHw, 
OAH3K0, npocne>KMBaeTcn TeH- 
AeHMMti k pacceneHMio HeBbeT- 

CKHX HapOAOB KOMnaKTHblMH 

3THMMecKHMH rpynnaMM. 

HexoTopbie HapoAw Ha 
npoTB)KeHMM coTeH n TwcflH neT 
saHUManncb naiueHHbiM puco- 
cenHneM. apyrne - noaceHHo- 
orHeBWM 3eMneAenneM, Tpe- 
Tbn Bern nonyxoneBOM o6pa3 
)kh3hh, AoSbiBan cpeACTB3 k cymecTB0B3HHK> co6npa- 

TenbCTBOM, OXOTOM M pbl6HblM npOMblCflOM 

flo 1945 roAa BbeTHaMijaMM Ha3bieann npexyje Bce- 
ro paBHMHHwx jKMTeneii. B nocneAnee BpeMH cTan Han6o- 
nee ynoTpe6nTenbHbiM sthohwm ebemt/, a «BbeTHaMua- 
mm» HasbieaioT scex >KHTenen BbeTHaMa. B 1998 BbOTM 
cocT3Bnnnn oKono 88% HaceneHMH cTpaHw. Bnn3xne k 
HUM no Ky/lbType M H3blXy MblOHZU npO*MB3IOT b ropHOfi 
MecTHOCTH 6a«6o u nposwHiuuu HreaH Ha paBHHHax pac- 
ceneHbi eme ABe xpynHbie STHUHecxne o6u|MHbi: xnTavic- 
K3A h KXMepcxan (KaM6oA*nMCKan). Kumauubi, xotopux 
HacMMTbiBaeTcsoK 1 M/iH.MenoBex, cocpeAOTOMeHbinpew- 
Ae Bcero b 6biBiueM ropoAe WonoH («TenoH», T.e. «Bonb- 
wom pwHOK»), npespaTHBiueMcn b xpynHwvi paiiOH Xouju- 
MMH3, n KOHTponnpyioT bo BbeTHaMe ao 40% HauMOHanb- 
Horo xsnuTsna. KxMepu, HMcneHHOCTbio oxono 850 Tbic 
Menosex, paccenenbi. rnaBHbiM o6pa30M, b AeribTOBOH 
o6nacTM MexoHrs m b ropoae XoujuMMHe. 

flpyrm HapQObi BbeTHSMa pacnpeflennioTcn no cne- 
AyKJiyuM s3biKOBbiM ceMbSM m rpynnaM: aBCTpoa3naTbi, 
roaopsiAne Ha TaPiCKMx S3bixax, - mxau, Hyna. mau. nao. 
330, caHmstu (uiaHtrmQ), nu, 6yu: na n3wxax rpynnu Meo- 

3a0 - MOO (XMOHB), 3aO\ Ha MOH-KXMepCKHX H3blKaX - 

wnBymne b K)ro-33naAHOM hscth CTpanw 6anapbi. cedaH- 
zu, mhohzu. Ma. Koxo, xp3, cmueHeu, KXMy. Hs nnaTO 
rijieMxy n flapnax npoxMBaxsT HapoAw, rosopaiuMe Ha 
ManaMcxo-nonwHe3HMCxnx nsbixax aBCTpoHesniicxoii ce- 
Mbn, - dxapau, 3de. paanau, miopy, sde-6ux. Ha n3bixe 
ManaMCKO-nonMHeauMCKOM rpynnw rosopsT Taxxe m»Mbi 
(vaMbi), HeMHoroHncneHHbie Tenepb noTOMXM ApeBHero 
H3pOAa pUCOBOAOB, C03AaBUJMX BO 2 B. H.3 Ha TeppnTo- 
pnn HbmewHero MynrGo rocyAspcTBO TnMns (MaMna) M 
apxyra xynbTypy, HaxoflMBiiiyiocfl noA cnnbHbiM hhammc- 
khm B.nnsMneM KniaiiCKO-TuSeTCKaH nsbiKOBan ceMbfl 
npeACTaB/ieHa Taxjxe Tn6eTo-6npMaHCKOii BeTBbio: xamj, 
(pyna. naxy, nono. 

PejmmM 

y HapoAOB. HacenniomMx TeppnTopnio BbeTHSMa, a 
pa3Hwe nepnoflbt nx aTHnnecxoii mctopmm 6binn pacnpoc- 
TpaHeHbi pasnHMHbie pennrnoanbie cucTeMw n BepoBa- 
hvw: aHMMM3M, TOTeMM3M M Apyne paHHHe (})0pMbi penn- 



24 



4 



KPACHDE KOJIECO 



• * 






. i 



MoHaxu d3en-6ydduucKoeo uonacmbipsf TpyK-flau. 

rno3Hbix BepoeaHMM; KynbTbi noKpoBHTened n KynbT npea- 
<ob bo Bcex ero npoaBneHwax; 6yaan3w xwHanHbi n Maxa- 
nHbi; flaocn3M; KOH0yunaHCTBo; paBHO KaK n BbeTHaMM3M- 
poBaHHan cpopMa CMHTe3a Tpex nocneflHux; nHflyn3M; 
ncnaM. xpucTnaMCTBO 

B XX BeKe npn coxpaHeHHH y BbeTOB n Apyrux napo- 
aoB TpaflmjuoHHbix BepoBaHbiM n KOMnneKca «Tpex penn- 
rurt» c npeo6naaaHneM 6yaAH3Ma. a Tanwe pa3BHTun 
pa3nnHHbix TeMeHufi xpucTnaHCTBa (nocne 1954 r. bo 
BbeTHaMe nponcxoanno AOcraTOHHO aianBHoe pacnpoc- 
TpaHeHne npoTecTaHTCTBa) 6wn oTMeneH otxoa ot penn- 
rno3HOii >km3hm 3HaMMTe/ibH0M HacTM HaceneHwn. Xapax- 
TepHOM oco6eHHOCTbK> aaHHoro nepnoAa CTa/io cjjopMn- 
poBaHne h pacnpocTpaHeHne b iowhom BbeTHaMe «ho- 
Bbix» BbeTHaMCKnx perwMH - Kao/jan3Ma. xoaxao. 

Hapoaw, Hacenstoiyne ropHwe v\ TpyAHOAOCTyriHbie 
paMOHbi BbeTHaMa. sa ncxniOMeHneM o6pameHHbix b xpn- 
CTnaHcrBO, b cBoeii ocHOBHOii Macce npoAonjxanM coxpa- 
HSTb TpaflnunoHHbie 0opmw BepoBaHn.i flns BbeTHaMC- 
kmx KXMepoB, Kax n b npe>KHne BeKa. xapaiaepHO noAflep- 
*aHne Tpannunii 6yAAH3Ma xnHasHbi: arm pasr.nMHbix 
KOHtpeccHOHanbHwx rpynn tbmob - nHAyn3Ma, optoaok- 
canbHoro ncnaMa n ncnaMa-6aHn a ana 3THM4ecKon 
o6u»hocth xoa - noAaepwaHHe rpaAnunoHHbix Bepoaa- 
hhm, HBnniomMXCR MHTerpnpyK>mnM cfeaiaopoM a^a P33- 
nMMHwx aTHnnecKHx rpynn h oahmm h3 (fcaxropoB o6oco6- 
neHun xoa ot Apyrux HapoAOB BbeTHaMa. 

06wao MucneHHOCTb aepyiomnx 8 CTpaHe o<fc huh- 
anbHO oueHUBaeTcn un$po* 6o/iee 20 m/ih He/iOBex (hto 
cocTaBnneT okojio TpeTn HaceneHns cTpaHw). 




BonbiunHCTBO BbeTHaMueB, HesaBMCHMo ot penwrH- 
osHbix npeAnoHTeHMfi m nonnTMnecKHx BoaapemiH, CHMTa- 
eT, MTOxpaHHTb naMnTb o npeAKax - sto mx HpaBCTBeHHbirt 
m pennrno3Hbiti Aonr. Morwia ecTb npucTaHHiye yconiunx, 
ho (paianMecKn ohm He MepTBw: xorfla HenoBexcTaHOBHT- 
cp noKOMHUKOM . ero Aywa npoaonwaeT cBoe cy wecTBOBa- 
Hue >KnBbie n MepTBwe o6niatoT b oahom m tom we Mupe. 
ho cymecTByiOT b pasHbix cpopMax. 

nosTOMy npeAKM npHHMMaiOT ynacrne b noBceAHeB- 
Hbix Aenax cboux noTOMKOB m 3aiAnmaK>T mx. MHorAa 
nocetnan bo BpeMH cHa nnn npeAynpe*Aan o rp03Hmeii 
onacHOCTn. BBHAy Toro ^to ayujn npeAKOB nrpaioT cranb 
BawHyio porib b cyAb6ax m Bnaronony^HM nocneAytomux 
noKoneHnii. cbiHOBHue n flonepHne o6b33hhoc™ Tpe6yH3T 
co6nK3AaTb AJiMTenbHwii Tpayp no yMepiunM. 3a6oTMTbCfi 
o wepTBonpuHouieHUflx n coaepjKaTb b nopsAKe MOfWibi m 
KnaA6Miua. 

BbeTHaMCKne xpMCTMaHe no coBoxyriHocTM MHorux 
npn3HaKOB (oTnuHHTenbHbie oco6eHHOCTM KynbTypw m 
caMoco3HaHHB, o6ycnoBneHHbie pe/inrneM. TeHAeHUHM k 
3aK/iK3HeHHio BHyTpurpynnoBbix 6paxoB m KOMnaxTHOMy 
pacceneHMio) npeACTaBnnioT co6om oco6yK> aTHOKOH^iec- 




y anmapn npedxoe. 



Cny>x6a e xpaue KamonuvecKoao uonacmbipp 



CMOHanbHyto o6wHOCTb. B paMxax 3Toii o6iahoctm BUAe- 
nnoTCB 2 aTHOKOHCpeccMOHanbHbie rpynnw: BbeTw-xaTO- 
nuKM (oxono 5 vjih. MenoBex. cornacHO ofyuuHaribHOM 
CTaTMCTuxe) n BbeTw-npoTecTaHTw (oxono 300Tbic. Meno- 
Bex, npeccTaBripiOLunx 10 pa3/iMMHbix npoTecTaHTCKMX 
TeneHMii m opraHM3aunM). 

KaoAan3M npeACTaBnneT co6oti aKAeKTunecKoe co- 
eAUHeHne TpaAMUHOHHux flanbHeBOCTOMHux pennrwM n 
xynbTOB, a Taioxe xpmctm3hckmx TpaAnunw c aneMeHTaMn 
cnnpnTH3Ma m Bepovi b Bbiciuee 6o>KecTBO, MMeHyeMoe 
Kao flaii, cumbotiom KOToporo SBriHeTcn saxriKDHeHHoe e 
TpeyroribHMK «BceBHAnmee oko». 

B 1990-x roaax b CTpaHe eme nacMMTbiBanocb npn- 
6nn3MTenbH0 1 Mnn. ctopohhmkob xaoAan3Ma n ok. 0,5 
MnH. nocneAoaaTeneii xoaxao. 

ropHwe HapoAu BbeTHaMa coxpaHnnn paHHue npn- 
MMTuBHbie BepoBaHns, gacTb tamob (m3mob) npnaepwu- 
BaeTcn nhflyn3Ma. Apyran sacTb - ncraMa. 

CTeneHb hhtbhchbhoc™ penMrno3HOii wm3hh Hace- 
nenun bo BbeTHaMe mokct csHTaTbcn AocraTOHHO bwco- 
kom. oco6bhho y nocneAOBaTeneM xpucTnaHCTBa, xaoAa- 

MCTOB. 6yAAMCTOB-KXMepOB H TflMOB - OpTOAOKCanbHblX 

iiycynbMSH. 



4 



ml MAPUJPyT BbETHAMA 



75 




ripn 3tom pennrno3- 
Han >KM3Hb Ha KDre 
BbeTHaMa OT/inna- 
eTc« ropa3AO 6onee 

BblCOKOM CTeneHbK) 
aKTHBHOCTM H pa3HO- 

o6pa3neM no cpaB- 
HeHuio c CeeepHbiw 
BbemaMOH. 

noaaenmoiMao 
MacTb HaceneHns 
BbeTHaMa, KaK n e 
npefliuecTByiomMe 
MCTOpuMecKne ano- 
xh, oTriMsaeTcn Be- 
porepnuMOCTbio m 
roTOBHOCTbK) k pe- 

rinrno3HOMy KOMn- 
POMMCCy. 

XpauKaoQaue TeuHune. 

BnacTb 

BbeTHaM - counanncTHMecKoe rocyaapcTBO. ripaBB- 
mei\ napTMeii HBnneTCH KoMMyHHCTHHecxan napTMS BbeT- 
HaMa (KI~IB). 

CornacHO KoHCTMTyunn 1992. bwcujum opraHOM ro- 
cyaapCTBeHHOM BnacTn BBnneTcn oaHonanaTHoe Hauno- 
HanbHoe co6paHne, cocToaiuee M3 450 aenyTaTOB, koto- 
pwe n36npa(OTCH Ha nRTuneTHHfi cpok npstMbiM eceo6- 
iumm ronocoBaHneM. 06s3aHHOCTn napnaMeHTapneB 
BwiioHaioT «Ha3Ha>teHne, BpeMeHHoe npexpameHHe non- 
homohhh m OTnpaBKy b OTCTaBKy» npe3HfleHTa, BMue- 
npe3naeHT3 n npeMbep-MMHUcTpa (Ha 3th nocTw BbiflBM- 
raiOTCfi nnujb AenyraTbi HauHOHanbHoro co6paHnn). a 
Taione npeflceaaTenn BepxoBnoro HapoflHoro cyAa h Apy- 
rnx BbiciuMx nnu rocyaapcTBa. ripesnaeHT nBnneTcn mas- 

HOKOMaHflyiOal^M BOOpy>KeHHblMH CunaMU H pyKOBOflUT 

CoBeTOM HauMOHanbHoii o6opoHbi m 6e3onacHOCTn. npe- 
3naeHTy npnHaAne)KMT npaso Ha3HaHeHnn c cornacufl 
HaunonanbHoro co6pannq hmhobhhkob Ha pnA otbbt- 
CTBeHHbix nocToa, b tom MMcne Ha nocTw npeaceaaTens 
BepxoBHoro HapoAHoro cyAa n reHepanbHoro npoKypopa. 

B aAMUHMCTpaTHBHOM OTHOLUGHMH BbeTHaM COCTOHT M3 

61 npoBMHUMM. OAHOro oco6oro OKpyra h MeTbipex ropo- 
AOB ueHTpanbHoro noAMnneHna: Xanoa. XaiiicpOHa, fla- 
HaHra m XoiuMMUHa (6biBiuero CartroHa. cnnBiuerocn c 















£+ 


_^4 




=&4&^- 








1*1 


\ J 


1 1 J 


J 








&^^^v 








H^iNP 






Mai 


I3one0 Xo IMu Mumb a Xanoe 




nocne 8bineceHU8 npuaoeopa Xbhou. 2001 z. 



«BepxHMM ropoAOM» UJo/iomom). (IpoBUMiiMM pa3AeneHbi 
Ha OKpyra. 

KoMMyHUCTMnecKan napTHR BbeTHaMa, co3AaHHan e 
1930 r., HB/ineTCfl eAHHCTBBHHOM napTMefi b CTpane, no- 
CKonbKy fleMOKpaTunecKan h CoMnanncTHMecKaji napTMu 
npeKpaTunii CBoe cyuiecTBOBaHne b 1988 r 

CyAe6Han cucTeMa BKnionaeT BepxoBHbii/i HapoA- 
hwm cyA b XaHoe m Hn>KecTOflmne HapoAHbie cyflw b 
npoBUHLinfix n KpynHbix ropoAax. HaunoHaribHoe co6pa- 
HHe MOweT b oco6bix cnynaflx, HanpuMep. xorAa saTparn- 
BaioTcs nHTepecw HauMOHanbHoti 6e3onacHOCTM. co3fla- 
saTb cbohm peiueHneM cneuna/ibHwii opraH cyAonpon3- 

BOflCTBa. 

flaHHbie, Kacaomnecn BbeTHaMCKoii hspoahom ap- 
mum n Apyrux cunoBbix CTpytoyp, cTporo 3aceKpeneHbi 
MucreHHOCTb BoeHHocnywaiAnx b CTpaHe oueHUBawT 
npH6nn3MTenbHO b 0,5 MriH. HenoBex. a coTpyAHUKOB 
opraHOB 6e3onacHocTM - b 2 mjih. HenoBex. 

CTpeMneHHe BbeTHaMCxnx BnacTeii ocymecTBMTb 
couManncTHMecKMe npeo6pa30BaHM« y>xe b xoHqe 1970-x 
roAOB npuBeno k HeraTHBHbiM nocneACTBunM. ripaBM- 
TenbCTBo b Xanoe KOHLieHTpupoBano Bee ycunun Ha BoeH- 
hwx axuMHx m uennxoM 3aBnceno ot noMomn CCCP. 

CPB flBnaeTCH nneHOM OOH (c 1977 r.), a Taioxe 
ynacTHnKOM PernoHanbHoro (popyMa ACEAH n Asmbtcko- 
TuxooxeaHcxoro SKOHOMUHecxoro coo6mecTBa (AI1EK), b 
1995 r. noAnncana npoToxon o coTpyAHnnecTBe c EBpo- 
neiicKHM coK>30M. BbeTHaM ABnaeTca ysacTHMKOM Abm- 
>xeHMfl HenpncoeAHHeHMfl. 

no MamepuanaM MHcmumyma ue^dynapodHhix 3ko- 
HOMunecKux u nonumuvecKux ucc/iedoeamiu Poccuuc- 
kou aKadeuuu nayn (MMdriM PAH). 




rpynna condam ebemHaucxou Hapodnou apMuu Ha napade 



26 



4 



KPACHDE KOJIECO 




XoneT Mupa HapoA. 

n c HapoAOM comaceH Myapeu: 
KTonoKOiiB03nK)6Mn 1 

tot noKoeM 3 cTpaHe AopoMCMT. 

HayeH Hau, ebemHaMCKuti noam XV eexa 






B aopax UenmpanbHOto Bbemnaua. 



JleeyujKa c pucoeou nnanmauuu. 





fleeowa U3 Xk)3. 



B dpeBHBM xpaue 





1 ■ 


\£^^L 


1 




^^^^*aJ 




*V A> 1 


mt *^^ 


~^^^ v 




■SSJE^L 


■ A flkW 





CeueuHbiu mpancnopm 





Cyiuxa KtxpeuHbix iepen 



Ha 0a6puxe xepauuKu e XanoHae 



4 KPYTOH MAPUIPYT BbETHAMA 



27 



BbETHAM: BEKA BOMHbl, AHM MI1PA 



flo 1770 roAa TeppnTopnw coBpeMeHHoro BbeTHaMa 6bina cpairrn- 
MecKH pa3fleneHa Ha ABe apa>KflyK)mne nonoBUHw no ninpoTe ropofla 
flOHrxoii. pacnono>KeHHoro Ha ysxoii npn6pe>KHoii paBHWHe b ueHTpanb- 
hom nacTn cTpaHw. BnacTb nMnepaTopoB AnnacTnn Jin, KOTopan Teope- 
TunecKn pacnpodpaHfl/iacb Ha Becb BbeTHaM, c TeneHneM doneTnii 
ocna6eBana. CBeTcxati BnacTb oxasanacb b pyKax AByx Mya (Hac/iea- 
CTBeHHbix ry6epHaTopoB). floM MuHb npaBwi Ha ceBepe (ceBepHaa 
nacTb AHHaMa n Tohkmh), a aom HryeH - Ha tore (lowHaa nacTb AHHaMa 
u KoxuHxnHa). 

B xofle BOCCTaHun 1 771 rofla BoBbeTHaMefBoccTanneTaiiiuoHOB) 
6unn CBeprHyrbi nMnepaiop n o6a nya. Kocbchho 3to BOcciaHne cno- 
co6cTBOBano yTBepxcAeHuio b crpaHe cppaHuy3cxoro BnunHMn. Hacxiea- 
hmk -nya Ha tore HryeH AHb Bocno/ib30Bancs noMombio 4>paHuy3CKoro 
KaTonnnecKoro enwcxona fluHbo ae BesHa nnn noGeau nan TaawoHa- 
mm. Paa6viTb BOCCTaBiiinx eMy yaanocb. b SHannTenbHoti Mepe. 6naroAa- 
pn eBponewcKUM HaeMHHxaM. nocne Mero HryeH AHb o6i>eAHHnn BbeT- 
HaM h npoB03macnn ce6n nMnepaTopoM 3n JIohtom (roAw npaaneHua 
1802-1820). B 6naroAapHOCTb 3a oxa3aHHyio noAAep^xy 3n floHr pa3- 
peiunn xpiicTnaHCKUM MuccnOHepaM 6ecnpensTCTBeHHO 33HHMaTbcs 
nponoseAHUMecTBOM. OAHaxo ero npeeMHHxn BOcnpwHnnn 3Ty Aen- 
Te/ibHOCTb xax BMeuiaTeribCTBO uHocTpaHueB bo BHyTpeHHue Aena m 
nanam cucTeMaTHMecKM npecneAcmaTb xpucTnaH. y6niicTBO Hecxonb- 
khx cppaHuy3CKnx h McnaHCKnx MuccnOHepoB npneeno k TOMy, hto bo 
BbeTHaM 6wna OTnpaBnena cppaHKO-ucnaHCKan aciOApa (1858 r). 

3Ta acxaApa o6cTpe/wna v\ saHnna nopTOBWti ropoA flaHaHr, ho 
BoeHHWM Kopa6nBM He yAanocb noAHflTbca no MenxoBOAHOM pexe ao 

BbeTHSMCKOM CTODumbl Xk33. Me>Kfly KOMaHAyK3U4MMM B03HMK/1H P33HO- 

rnacus no noBOAy AanbHeMiunx onepauuM, n ncnaHcxnii cpnoT omnblll, 
ocraBMB cppaHuy30B b OAHHonecTBe. B 1859 r. <$paHuy3bi B3Hnn CaiaroH. 
Boiina npoAonwanacb ao miohh 1862, nocne Mero nMneparop ycTynvin 
4)paHUy33M TpM BOCTOHHbie npOBUHUMM KoXMHXMHbl. B 1 867 r. $paHuy3bi 
AonoriHMTenbHO aHHexcupoBann Tpn 3anaAHbie npoBHHynn Koxhhxmhw 
m o6pa30Bann ko/iohmk) KoxnHXMHa. 

B 1873 Opanunn Hawna noBOA ann BTopoti HHTepBeHuun bo BbeT- 
HaM. Bocnonb30BaBiuncb TeM, hto HMnepaTop o6paTnnca k ry6epH3To- 
py KoxHHXWHbi c npocb6oii noMOMb eMy BbiABOpnTb cppaHLiyacKoro xynua 
>K. flioniou M3 ToHKMHCxoro XaHon. Tax Ha3biBaeMaa cneACTBeHHan 
Muccnn O. TapHbe 3axBaTnna b Hon6pe 1873 r. XaHOii, m b 1874 r. c 
MMnepaTopoM 5bin noflnucaH floroaop, xoTopbin paapeiuan MHOCTpaH- 
hwm cyAaM nnaBaTb no p. XoHrxa (KpacHOii) m rapanTupoBan (J>paHLiy- 
33m npaBOHa 3amnTy Ha Bceti TeppMTOpnn BbeTHaMa. OaKTu^ecKn Aoro- 
Bop npeAOCTaB/ifin OpaHUMM nnaLwapM A^f npoHUKHOBeHwn b KuTaii. 

CuTyauns b ToHKMHe ocTaBanacb oneHb HanpaweHHOii. CenbCKyio 
MecTHOCTbTeppopMSupoBann 6a haw pa36oiiiHHKOB, M3BecTHbie xax «Mep- 
Hbie t^narun h «>Ke/iTbie cpnarn», KOTopue 6e>KanH M3 KMTaB nocne 
noAaBneHun tbm TaMnnHcxoro BOCCTaHkin. B cTpaHe HaxoAnnncb xnTaii- 
cxne BOMCxa, npurnatueHHbie MMnepaTopoM Ana 6opb6w c stumm 6aH- 
AaMM, AeiicTBOBano Taioxe BbeTHaMcxoe ABn>xeHMe «y>HeHbie», ycTpo- 
HBiuee MaccoByio pe3Hio xpucTnaH. B 1882 cppaHqy3bi OTnpaBunn b 
Tohkhh AononHMTenbHbie BOopyxeHHwe CMflbl noA KOMaHAoeaHneM A. 
PuBbepa. nocne 3axB3Ta XaHon ohh oKKynnpoBajnn aecb Tohkmh. ms- 
rH3B orryAa KUTawues. no AoroBopy 1 884 r. Tohkhh m AHHaM npeBpaTM- 
nucb b npoTexTopaTbi 0paHL>nn. 

no KOHCTMTymiM, BB6A3HH0M cJ)paHuy3CKMM fleKpeTOM n3 tlapuwa B 
1887 r., npoTeicropaTbi Tohkmh, Ahhbm m KaM6oAxa. a Taxixe kojiohhh 
KoxuHxnHa 6binn o6-beAMHeHbi b HHAOKHTa^cxnii C0103. HecxonbKHMn 
roAaMM no3>xe b Hero eoiuen flaoc. flpaBHTefibCTBO Coi03a B03rnaennn 




Munepamop 3r Hohz. 




<Dpam{y3CKuG Muccuoriep Too&bh BeHap. 
y6umbiu so BoemHaue e 1861 Body. 




Kopa6nb <ppaHuy3cxou acxadpbi a 
Tohkuhckom sanuee. 1990 a. 




Ka3Mb pa36ouHUKa. 1890-g aodbi 



21 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 




PexnauHbiu nnaxam Havana XX aexa. 




Tpu6/Han o Tohkuho. 
flonpoc o6euHpeuoeo. 1890-e zodbi. 




Xbhouckuu mpaMeau. 20-e eodbi XX eexa 




3aHnmun e moOuu/jhckou WKone. 
30-e aodbi XX eexa. 




riuacmp - edunan eanoma 
MHdoxumaucKoeo Cowaa. 



OTBeTCTBeHHbiw nepeA mhhmctpom ko/iohmk OpaHqun reHepan-ry6ep- 
HaTop. KOTopbi^ o6naAan ujmpokmmm aflMMHMCTpaTMBHbiMn noriHOMOMu- 
hmm. npn HeM b 1928 rofly 6wn C03flaH KOHcynbTaTHBHbi* opraH - 
Bonbwo* CoBeT no 3<ohommh6Ckhm h (pMHaHCOBWM aenaM. rionoBUHy 
nneHOB CoBeia cocTaennnu BwcoKonocTaBneHHbie cppaHuy3CKne hh- 
hobhmkh, npeflCTaBMTenu KonoHiianbHoro coBeTa Koxuhxhhw, a TaioKe 
ToproBOM n CenbCKOxoanPiCTBeHHoii nanaT. BTopan nonoBUHa 6bina 
o6pa30BaHa npefldaanTenfiMn MecTHoro HaceneHnn. CoBeT paccMaT- 
puBan npoeKTw 6rofl*eT0B CoK33a n ero H/ieHOB, a TaioKe npeixnoKenvw 
no HanoroBoii noni/iTMxe. 

Bee naTb n/ieHOB HHAOXHTaiiCKoro CoK)3a coxpaHann cboh co6- 

CTBeHHbie aflMUHMCTpaTMBHbie CMCTeMbl M MeCTHbie npaBMTe/lbCTBa. 

npnMoe npaBJieHne <p paHqyacKnx hwhobhhkob 6bi/io ynpoKAeHO TonbKO 
b KoxMHXMHe, MMeBiueM CTaTyc kojiohmm, a He npoTeicropaTa. Ee ry6ep- 
HaTopy, KOTOpufl noflHUHfl/ica reHepan-ry6epHaTopy, noMoran Kohohm- 
anbHbiw coBeT. BtcniOMaBiuuM cppaHuy30B u 12 KopeHHbix Mvuei\ei\. Ko- 
xnHxnHa niwena Taioxe, b onMHMB ot flpyrMX ynacTHUKOB Coiosa, csoero 
npeflCTaBHrenn b na/iaTe AenyTaTOB <UpaHLinn. B npoTeicropaTax ynpaB- 
neHne ocymecTBnfl/iocb nepe3 MecVHHX huhobhmkob, yuenenn m Tpaan- 

UMOHHbie aflMMHUCTpaTMBHbie MHCTMTyTbl. 

B AHHaMe m ToHKMHe BnacTb onuqeTBopunn MMnepaTopbi. a b 
KaM6ofl>xe- Koponb. Jlaoc TONO B03rnasnnn Monapx, ho ero npepora™- 
Bbi pacnpocTpaHsnucb numb Ha o6nacTb JlayHrnxa6aHr b ceBepo-ueH- 
TpanbHOM MacTn crpaHbi OpanijuKi b iomcaom H3 npoTeKTopaTOB, ryje 
6binn cosflaHbi KOHcynbTaTMBHbie accaM6nen, npeflCTaBnsn eepxoB- 
HbiM pe3naeHT, b fiaoce ee npeACTaBMTenb MMeHoeanca aflMMHvicTpaTO- 

POM. 

CyflonponsBOflCTBO a KoxuHXMHe ocymecTananocb 0paHqy3CKUMn 
MarncTpaTaMn, noa K>pncAUKLtnei/i kotopux Haxoflnnucb icax nHoseMqw. 
Tax m MeCTHbie wwTenu. B npoTeicropaTax xopeHHoe HaceneHHe 6bino 
OTBeTCTBeHHO nepeA co6cTBeHHbiMn opraHaMn kdcthuhh, a cppaHuysc- 
KMe cyflw paccMaipuBann aena HHOdpaHueB. Ane/infli»nn nocTynann b 
cyflw BbicujePi nHCTaHunn b CaPiroHe n XaHoe, cocTORBiuMe H3 (ppa»ny3- 
ckmx topMCTOB, xoTopbiM npn pa36ope aen Ty3eMqeB accncTnpoBa/in 

MeCTHbie MUHOBH^KH. 

Kor,qa 0paHuy3bi Hawann yTBepxcflaTbcn b HHfloxnTae, b 3tom 
pemoHe He 6bino hm ropoAOB. hm nyTeki coo6meHMfi b mx coBpeMeHHOM 

nOHMM3HMM, OTCyTCTBOBariH 60nbHMl4bl H KOMMyHa/lbHOe XOSnilCTBO. 

3a BpeMn 0paHuy3CKoro npasneHun yAanocb AocTMHb 3aMeTHoro 
nporpecca: dponnncb wene3Hbie v\ aBTOMo6nnbHbie flopom m moctw. 
6bina co3A3Ha cucieMa TenerpacpHoti cba3h. Bbipocnn ropoaa. nonBH- 
nucb 6o/ibHML<bi m lilROnw, yHUBepcMTeT c HecKO/ibKMMn (JjaxynbTeTaMM, 
b tom Hucne MeAMUMHCKMM. MHorwe KOpeHHwe »kiTenn ompaennnncb 
Ann 3aBepiueHHH 06pa3OBaHMR b EBpony, rAe craHoennncb KBariM(|3Mun- 
poBaHHbiMM BpanaMM. MH)KeHepaMn, apxmeiaopaMH n T.n. B crpaHax 
MHAOKMTan 6binn coopyjKeHbi cospeMeHHbie nopTw. aanowenbi KaynyKO- 
Bwe, MaiiHbie, Ta6aMHbie n nposne nnaHTauMM, ocHOBaHbi xpynHbie 
npoMbiwneHHbie npeAnpnqTun, Taxwe, Kax xnonnaTo6yMa>KHan 0a6pn- 

K3 B HaMAMHe M XaWpOHCKMtf MeMeHTHbIM 33BOA, B03HMKJ1H yronbHbie 

aiaxTbi n pyflHMKM no ffpOvHB none3Hbix McxonaeMbix 3KcnopTHyio 
opueHTaqnio npno6peno npon3BOACTBO ujupoKoro p«Aa ToaapoB, oco- 
6eHHo puca. 

06opoTHO(i ctopoho^ MeAann Obina nocieneHHan yTpaTa xopeH- 
HbiM HacenenneM kohtpo/ih nc-nn HaA BceMn ctopoh3mh o6mecTBeH- 
hom >kh3hh. Ha MecTax b npoTexTopaTax cuAenn Ty3eMHwe mmhobhmkh, 
ho peanbHan Bnadb npnHaA/ie>Kana aAMMHMCTpa-ropaM us riapM)Ka. 
Mhotmb cneunanncTbi ms nucna HHAOKHTaMqeB, nonyMMBiune xopoiuee 
o6pa3oaaH»e hhm OBnaA©Biune TexHimecKHMn npocJieccMnMM, Tpyan- 
nucb 6ok o 6ok c 0paHqy3aMM b rocyAapcTBeHHbix yMpewAeHnnx. rAe 
y6e)KAanncb. mo 3a aHanorHHHyio pa6oiy ohm nojiynaKDT cymecTBeHHo 
MeHbiuyK) nnaiy. B MHAOKHTae npoHM3npoBann, hto cppaHuy3CKan Ae- 
MoxpaTMB - BennKonenHan Beiut. ho axcnopTy He noAne>KMT. <I>paHLiy3- 
cxvie KOMnaHMM nonyMnriM MOHononbHbie npaBa Ha aeAeHne KOMMepsec- 



4 



KPYTOM MAPIllPyi BhETHAMA 



29 



kmx aen. CaMoe cunbHoe HeflOBonbCTBO nponBnnnn BbeTHaMqw. koto- 
pwe aianBHO BwcTyna/iM npoTMB MHOCTpaHHoro rocnoflCTBa. ConpoTHB- 
neHne nH03eMnoMy KonoMna/ibHOMy npaBneMnto aapo/innocb cpeflu 
BbicoK0o6pa3OBaHHoii Mac™ o6iuecTBa. muhobhukob h yneHbix. ho bcko- 
pe oxBaTuno ujupoKwe cnou o6mecTBa. 

CipaTerMHecKH Bbirofinoe nonoweHne HHflOKHTan «Bnnocb tom 

npMHUHOM. no KOTOPOM SnOHCKMe MMJIHTapHCTbl 06paTMJlM BHMMaHUe Ha 

3Ty TeppnTopmo. B cemfl6pe 1940 r. anoHUbi npeAnpnH9/in HacTyna- 
TenbHyto onepaumo b ceeepHOM HHaoKHTae. rfle mm 6bino oxasaHO 
Banoe conpoTUBneHMe. m no cornaiueHMio. noanncaHHOMy b nione 1941 
I". C BMUJMCTCKMM «npaBMTe/lbCTBOM» OpaHunn, SaXBaTMflM BCK) CTpaHy. 

B 3tm roflw b KonoHWM flePicTBOBano HecxonbKo HaunoHanbHo- 
ocBoGounTenbHbix opraHH3aunki. Han6onee aeecnoco6HOM cpeflM koto- 
pwx 6bina flnra 6opb6w 3a He3aBncnMOCTb BbeTHaMa. coxpameHHO 
BbeTMMHb. nofl pyKOBoacTBOM Xo Wm Mmhb. Beaymae nOSMLJMH B HeM 
3aHHMann KOMMyHMCTw. ho 6binn npeacTaBneHbi n HecKonbKo napTnii. 
CTaBMBLunx nnujb OQHy uenb - nuKBuaaunio nyweseMHoro rocnoacTBa b 
poflHoii dpaHe. 

B roflbi bomhu c^yHKunn ynpaBneHHs b \Anno*.mae HOMUHanbHO 
odaBanncb b pyKax npewHeti xonoHnanbHOM aflMHHMCTpaunn ennoTb 
ao 9 Mapia 1945 r., xoraa nnoHqbi MHTepHnpoBann tppaHuy3CKnx BoeH- 
HOcny>Kaiunx. a 3aTeu n MHorux roaw.naHCK.ix nuu. CneaywiuMM waroM 
snoHCKkix oKKynaqMOHHbix BnacTei* CTano npoB03rnaiueHne ot hmchm 
Tpex MOHapxoB «He3aBMCMM0CTn» Tpex rocyaapcTB HH/joKHTan. nocne 
KanMTynflMMM flnonnn Ha ero TeppnTopnu k ceBepy ot 16-m napannenn 
6binn BBeaeHbi kmtbAcum bomcio. a k tory - 6pnTaHcxne. 

B 3T0M CJIOWHOM CMTyaUMH HaUHOHariUCTUMeCKM opMeHTupoBaHHbie 
napTMM BbeTHaMa. nacTbio HanpaBnnBuinecB KMTaMCKou ctopohom. pa3- 
BepHyrin oTHanHHyo 6opb6y c TeM, htoSw He flonycTHTb BOCCTanoBne- 
Hun KonoHnanbHoro pex<MMa. nocne ocBo6owaeHMq anrnMHaHaMn mh- 
TepHHpoeaHHbix cppaHL|y3CKwix conaaT Te HeMeaneHHO BKjuoMnnMCb b 
6opb6y co CTopoHHMKaMH He33BMCMM0CTn Ha (Ore, ho b ToHKHHe nony- 
MUBiunii noaaepwxy aMepuKaHCKOi* bobhhom mhccmm BbeTMUHb c$op- 
MnpoBan 2 ceHTn6pn 1945 r. npasMTe/ibCTBO cyeepeHHoro BbeTHaMa. 
3to npuBeno k oTpeneHMK) MMnepaTopa Bao flan. MeTpononnn. osa6o- 
MeHHan 6e3onacHOCTbK) Bee eme tommbwmxch b 3aKjiK)HeHMM b CeBep- 
hom BbeTHaMe TbicnM cJjpaHqyaoB m cppaHqyweHOK, 4bn cyflb6bi 3aBnce- 
rin ot flo6poii Bonn BbeTMunn n KuraiiueB, 6bina BWHyxaeHa BCTynnTb 
b neperoBopw c HOBbiM npaBHTeribCTBOM n cMHpnTbca c He3aBMCMMoc- 
TbK) HOBOo5pa30BaHHoro rocyaapcTBa. 

d>paHuy3CKMe BracTM nonwTariMCbflOCTMMb cornaiueHun c Xo LUm 
Muhom. Bbipa3MB roTOBHOCTb H33HaHHTb ero ry6epH3TopoM CeBepa npn 
npn3HaHMM BepxoeeHCTBa c})paHLiy3CKOM MapnoHSTKn — KMnepaTopa 
Bao flan. KoMMyHncTMMecKMii eowab 3to npeflrio>KeHne. ecTecTBeHHo, 
OTBepr. Toraa (ppaHuy3bi b Hon6pe 1946 roaa BwcaflMnncb b ceBepHOM 
BbeTHaMe m 3axBaTnnn Xaiic^OH. XaHoii n apyrne KpynHbie ropoaa. 
OcHOBHbie cunw KOMMyHncTHnecKOM apMHM (BbeTMMHs) oToiunn b rop- 
Hbie paiiOHbi. noKpwTbie TpyflHonpoxoflUMbiMM owyHrnHMH. <t>paHi^y3c- 
KMe soiicKa aa«e He nwTa/iucb mx npecneaoaaTb. 

BbeTHaMCKMe KOMMyHMCTbi nonynann 3HannTenbHyio noMomb 
ot KOMMyHHCTusecKOiii HapoflHO-ocBo6oflnTenbHOvi apMHH KuTan bo 
rnaBe c Mao l433flynoM. 3Ta noMomb snaMHTenbHO B03pocna nocne 
no6eflw KOMMyHHCTOB b KHTae b 1949 rofly. BbeTMMHio CTano nocTynaTb 
b 6o/ibwnx KonnnecTBax m coBeTcxoe opywMe. B BHBape 1950 roaa 
npaBHTeribCTBO Xo LLIm MnHa 6bino npn3HaHO KuTaeM n Cobbtckum 
C01030M eflMHCTBeHHoii 3aKOHHort BnacTbK) bo BbeTHaMe. B otbct CLUA 
m flpyme CTpaHbi HATO npn3Hann HOMUHanbHyKi He3aBncnM0CTb Bao 
flan m HananM nocTaenoTb BOopy«eHne 4>paHLjy3CKHM BotiCKaM n mx 

HHflOKMTaVICKMM C0KD3HMKaM. 

flo KOHua 1950 roaa BbeTMMHio c noMOiybra KMTaiiCKnx bomck 
yflanocb Bu6MTb cppaHuysoB M3 npurpaHUMHbix rapHn30HOB. B Hanane 
1951 roaa cppaHijy3CKyK) apMnio b MHflOKMTae B03maBnri Mapwan >KaH 
Mapn fle DaTp ae TaccuHbn (e Mae 1945 eoda npuHUMaeujuu yvacmue 




w U3 nepebix ompudoe BbemMUH*. 




Boo Mail - nocnodHuu uunepamop 
Bt>emnaua. 




< <ppaHuy3cnoeo neauona 
eo BbemHaue. 



31 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 







Souubv peaynapHbix vacmed 
BbemMUHR. Havano 50-x aodoe. 




JJonpoc condamauu (ppamtyscKOio 
neauona 3axeaveHHoao noecmanua. 




Condambi (ppamyacKoao neauoHa a 
OKonax J]beH6beH(py. 




Xo Ulu Muh npuHuuaew noadpasneHUft 

auepuKBHCKux dunnouamoe e de«6 

no6edbi Had <ppantjy3aMu. 



* 










'^T* 








Jgl 


\ 






"Jm. 




• 


£ 


\?tjj 






|-j 




1 


' 


1 1 1 


■ \ 


a npt 




1 


^B ] 


zmpe* 


■judeHma 


5llJ/^U3 


mxayx 



u K»HiioebomiiaMCKoeo npesudenma 
Hao AuHb JJbeMa 1957 a. 



a nodnucanuu Kanumynnnuu 0auiucmcKou repManuu - npuM. ped.). Oh 
pewnn nocTpoMTb o6opoHHTenbHyio jihhhk> a/ia 3amnTbi XaHon w ae/ib- 
Tbi KpacHOfi peKM. Ann 6opb6bi c napTvaanaMn Mapwan ccpopMHpoBan 

M06njlbHbie OTpflflbl. KOTOpwe flOri)KHbl 6bl/lH UJMPOKO npMMeHSTb B03- 

ayujHbie aecaHTbi n nonb30BaTbcn noaaepwxoM caMoneTOB n BepTone- 
tob B nepBOM nonoBUHe 1951 roaa, a° HacTynneHnn ce30Ha flOKaefi. 
3Ta TaianKa npuHOCuna <t>paHuy3aM ycnex. 3a nepnoa aoKaert KOMMy- 
HMCTMMecKne cnribi bo rnaee c reHepa/iOM Bo HryeH 3nanoM ocymecTBM- 
nn neperpynnnpoBKy n c HananoM cyxoro ce30Ha nonbuanncb nepeiiTu 
b HacTynneHne, ho b 0KTs6pe 51-ro 6wnn BHOBb pa36nTw. Tenepb JlaTp 
ae TaccuHbM peainn 3aHSTb npurpaHUMHbiii paiioH. MTo6bi HeaonycTHTb 
nocTaBOK BoopyweHHn n CHa6>t<eHHfl n3 Kman. OaHaxo 3Ta onepaunn 
npuHecna 6o/ibwe epeaa. neM nonbsw. Ha CHa6>*eHne oiaaneHHbix 

CeBepHblX rapHH30HOB npHUinOCb TpaTHTb cjihujkom MHorocw/i n cpeacTB. 
npn TOM 4TO 3(J)0^eKTHBHOki 6nOK3abl rpaHHUbl BCe paBHO aOCTMHb He 

yaanocb. B Hoa6pe 3a6oneeujnki JlaTp ae TaccuHbn noKMHyn HHaoKM- 
t3m, a aaa Mecnua cnycTn Mapwan CKOHnancn. Ero CMeHun Paynb 
CanaH. kotopwm noTpe6oBan xpynHwe noaxpenneHna. yTBepavjaa. hto 
KHaMe c BbeTMUHeM He cnpaBMTbcn. Ho MHaoKHTaiiCKan BortHa 6bina 
onenb HenonyrmpHa bo cJjpaHuyacxoM o5u4ecTBeHHOM mhbhhh, h npaBu- 
TeribCTBO ne pucKHyno OTnpaBMTb 3H3HMTenbHbie aono/iHUTenbHbie koh- 
TMHreHTw bo BbeTHaM. B 1952 roay m Hanane 1953 roaa cppaHuy3bi b 
ochobhom o6opoHnnncb. 

B anpene 53-ro BOMCKa Xo LUm MnHa BToprnucb b Jlaoc, BWHyauB 
tppaHuy3CKoe KOMaHaoBaHue ewe Sonbiue pacTHHyTb 0poht. Oho, 
oflHaxo. nonyjuno hobos aMepuKaHCKoe Boopyx<eHMe m paccsnTbiBa/io 
pa3rp0MMTb BbeTMMHb b reHepanbHOM cpa)KeHMM. MecTOM ann Tararo 
cpameHun 5bma Bbi6paHa aepeByuxa AbeH6beHCpy Ha Tax Ha3biBaeMOM 
«Tpone Xo Liln MnHa» — rnaBHOM ny™ CHa6>xeHMfl BbeTHaMcxnx KOMMy- 
hmctob, npoxoaneoieii n3 KuTap nepe3 Jlaoc. ceBepHbiii vi ueNTpanbHbiii 
BbeTHaM. 20 Hon6pa 1953 roaa (JjpaHuy3CKnfiaecaHT3axBaTnnflbeH6b- 
encpy u co3aan 3aea> MomHbiti yxpenneHHbiii nyHKT, CHa6)xaeMbm no 
Bosayxy. CanaH nonaran, mto a"<yHrnn He no3Bon«T HenpunTenio nepe- 
5pocnTb x flbeH6beH(py apTurtnepmo. B 3tom cny^ae 4>paHuy3Cxnii 
rapHH30H nMen Bee ujaHCbi ycneiuHO Bwaep^aTb ocaay . OaHaxo KOMaH- 
tXy\o\i\m ceBepoBbenawcKoti apMneii reHepan 3nan opraH^oean aTa- 
kh b MecKonbKnx paiioHax cTpaHbi, cxoBae cppaHLiy3CKne cmiw. a leu 
BpeMeHeM cocpeaoTOMnn y flbeH6beH(py 50-TbicnMHyio apMnio c tuec- 
Tbio aecnTKaMn noneBbix n HecxonbKHMn aecsTxaMn 3eHHTHbix opyauM, 
nonyneHHbix M3 KuTaa. 1 3 MapTa 1954 roaa 6otiubi BbeTMUHfl pa3eepHy- 
riM HacrynneHne Ha flbeH6beHCj)y. B3neTHO-nocaaoHHaH nonoca cppaH- 
uy30B oxa3anacb noa oScTpenoM. a oroHb HenpunTenbCxnx 3eHHTOK 
33TpyaHHn CHa6>KeHne rapHH30Ha no B03ayxy. OpaHqysaM yaa/iocb 
BwcaaMTb b pawoHe 5oeBbix aertcTBvw B03ayiuHbiM aecaHT, ho 3to He 
nepenoMnno He6naronpnnTHy(o ana hmx cuTyaqnto. 1 Ma« BbeTMUHqw 
npeanpHHflnn peiuaiomyio aTaxy n nepe3 Heaento cnOMMfW conpOTnane- 
HHe HenpHHTenn. H3 1 3-TwcaMHoro rapHH30Ha 6 TbiCflH nenoBeK norn6- 
nw, a 7 TbicHH bo rnaBe c nonxoBHUKOM KpncTnaHOM ae KacrpucoM 
caanncb b nneH. l"loTepn BbeTHaMCKnx bo^ck b 6htbc npn n, b eH5beHdpy 
oueHHBanncb b 23 TUCfMM y6nTwx m paHeHbix. flocne 3Toro nopa)KeHMfl 
U5paHuns 0TKa3anacb ot cBoero BoeHHoro npucyrcTBHn b HHaoxnTae. 
21 Miona 1954 roaa b >KeHeBe 6binn noanncaHw cornaiueHns. 
comacHO kotopwm Jlaoc m KaM6oa>Ka CTann He3aencnMbiMM rocyaap- 
CTBaMn, a BbeTHaM 6wn pasaeneH no 17-iJi napanne/in Ha KOMMyHMCTn- 
necKnii CeBep n npo3anaaHbirt K)r. OaHaxo npaenTenbCTBO Xo LUn Wuhb 
He npeKpaiaano noaaepjKMBaTb aetiCTBun napTnaaH b K)>khom BbeTHa- 
Me n KOMMyHMCTunecKnx noecTaHMecKMx rpynn b Jlaoce. B KaM5oa>«e k 
BnacTn npkiujen cnMnaTH3npoBaBiun^ Xo LUn MuHy npuHu CnaHyx, 
no3BO/inBiunii CHa6>xaTb K)>t<HOBbeTHaMCKMx napTM33H Mepe3 TeppMTO- 
pnio CBoeii CTpaHbi. B 1956 roay b o6enx MacTjix BbeTHaMa aon>KHbi 
6binn npofiTM CBo5oaHt>ie Bbi6opbi xax npenioanc k 6yayiaeMy o&\.eQy\- 
HeHnw CTpaHbi. Ho npe3naeHT K5>KHoro BbeTHaMa Hro fluHb flbeM. 
noaaep)xaHHbiM aMepuxaHuaMM, Hbn BteHHbM cobbthukh yxe naxoa^- 



4 



KPYTOM MAPlllPyT BbETHAMA 



31 



nucb b ero apMnn, 3anBnn, hto Bbi6opbi Ha CeBepe He 6blflM AeMOKpaTu- 
^ecKHMn. h oTKaaancn npusHaTb npaBMTe/ibCTBO Xo LUh Mhh3. B 1957 
rofly KOMMyHMCTMMecKHe napTM3aHbi. kotopwx Tenepb Ha3WBa/in BbeT- 
KOHroM, B03o6HOBnnn ujupoKowaciuTaSHbie B08MHU6 onepaqnn b KD>k- 

HOM BbeTH3Me. 

K KOHqy 1962 rofla mmcjio aMepuKaHCKnx BoeHHwx coaeTHMKOB b 
CTpaHe aocTurno 9 twchh, mto. oflHaKO, He OKa3ano cymecTBeHHoro 
b/imhhuh Ha 3<pcpeKTHBHOCTb aHTnnapTH3aHCKnx onepauHM. B Hon6pe 
1963 rofla Hro fluHb flbeM, kotopwm TaK n He cMor cnpaBHTbcn c 
napTM3aHaMn, 6bi/i CBeprHyT pyKOBOflnTe/iflMn towHOBbeTHaMCKOu ap- 
mmh m y6nT. OflHaKO mm TaKwe ne yaanocb ycraHOBHTb KOHTponb Haa 
TeppmopnePi IO>KHoro BbeTHaMa. no6biBaBiunK b Hanane 1964 rofla b 
CTpaHe aMepuKancKUM reHepan y^nbOM yacTMopnena KOHCTainpoBan. 
mto BbeTKOHr co6npaeT Hanorn b copoKa o/jHOiii us 44-x npoBHHUMPi 
CTpaHw. a npaBHTenbCTBeHHbie BOi/ioca oxpaHHioT nniub cawn ce6n. 
riocne 3Toro b BaujuHnoHe 6bino npunflTO peuieHne o iunpoKOMaciuTa6- 
hom aMeptnOHCKOii BoeHHon uHTepBeHqun. 

2 aBrycTa 1964 rofla acMMHuw CLUA b Tohkkhckom 3annBe 6t>mn 
aTaKOBaHbi ceBepoBbeTHaMCKMMM TopneflHbiMu KaTepaMu. 3tot mhum- 
aeHT Bbi3Ban 6ypro HeroflOBaHun aMepuKaHCKoii o6iuecTBeHHOc™. Me- 
pe3 necKonbKO flHeti KoHrpecc CLUA caHKquoHMpoBan OTnpaBKy aMepn- 

K3HCKMX BOMCKB KDwHblM BbeTMBM A HaMSHO 60M6apflMpOBCK SMepWIKSH- 

ckom aBnauneii CeBepHoro BbeTHaMa. TonbKO a 1968 ro/jy a CLUA 6bum 
ony6nnKOBaHbi AOKyMeHTbi (leHTaroHa (MUHUCTepcTBa oOopOHU), AOKa- 
3biBaBujne. mto ToHKMHCKnii MHunfleHT 6wn 3apaHee cnnannpoBaHHOti 
npoBOKaunefi. a b pom ceaepoBbeTHaMCKnx KaTepos BAeitaTBMTenbHO- 
cth BbicTynann TopneflHbie KaTepa tOxHoro BbeTHaMa. 

rioc/ie Hana/ia nHTepeeHmiH CLUA 6pocnnn npoTMB CeeepHoro 
BbeTHaMa no/iTopbi tucsmm 6oeBwx caMoneTOB, AeticTBOBaBiuHx c 6a3 
b KDxhom BbeTHaMe, TannaHfle m aBnaHocueB aMepwraHCKoro 7-ro 
cpnoTa. HapainMBaHne aMeprntaHCKHx cyxonyTHbix bomck iuno 6bicTpbi- 
MMTeMnaMn. B 1960 roAy b KDjkhom BbeTHaMe 6bino 900 aMepuxaHCKnx 
coBeTHMKOB. K monio 1964 roaa b CTpaHe HacMHTbiBanocb ywe 23,5 

TbICflMH COBeTHMKOB M BOeHHblX CneUkiajlHCTOB H3 CLUA. K KOHL(y 1964 

roaa, Kor/ja npn6binn nepBbie 6oeBbie coeflMHeHna, nucneHHOCTb aMe- 
puKaHCxoro BoeHHoro KOHTMHreHTa b HHfloxnTae aocTurna 90 twchh 
nenoBeK. B xOHLte 1965 roAa b (Owhom BbeTHaMe 6bino yme 184 twchmu 
aMepMxaHCKnx co/tast m ocpuqepoB, b KOHqe 1966-ro — 385 twcrm. 
nepe3 rofl — 486 twchm. K HHBapio 1969 ro/ia, Kor^a HOBOM36paHHbiti 
npe3naeHT CLUA P. Hhkcoh peiunn HanaTb npouecc coKpameHun npn- 
Moro aMepMKaHCKoro ynacTMJi bo BbeTHaMCKOii BOMHe. nucneHHOCTb 
aMepuKaHCKHx bo^ck b K)>khom BbeTHaMe flocTurna MaKCMManbHOM 
aennHMHbi b 540 tnchh nenoBeK. Bcero Ha BeaeHne bomhw b HHflOKHTae 
b 1964-1973 roflax CLUA ncTpainnn 352 Munnnapaa aonnapoB. B 
KOH0nniae npuHnnn ynacTue 68 npoueHTOB cyxonyTHbix cun CLUA. 60 
npoueHTOB Mopcraii nexoTbi. nonoBMHa CTpaTernnecKOM m TpeTb scevi 
TaianHecKOii aBnaunn. 

8 (teBpann 1965 rofla aMepw<aHCKMe caMoneTbi Hanann 6oM5nTb 
TeppnTopmo CeBepHoro BbeTHaMa, MTo6bi aocnperiHTCTBOBaTb noMoiyn 
BbeTKOHry . Cobctckhm C0103 b OTBeT Hanan nocTaBnnTb fleMOKpaTMHec- 
kom Pecny6nwKe BbeTHaM paKeTbi <oeMnsi — B03ayx» n MCTpe6nTenn 
Mnr-17, KOTopwe HaHecnn Gonbiune noTepn aenaqnn CLUA. KHTati 
TaKwe nocTaBnnn CeBepHOMy BbeTHaMy BoopyxeHne — CTpenKosoe 
opyxne h noneByo apTunnepnio. KpoMe Toro. cothm twchm KMTaiiCKnx 
paSoMux nuKBUflnpoBann nocneflCTBun 6oM6apflnpoBOK. 

Bo BbeTHaMe Haxoannocb TaioKe 6onbiuoe xoniiMecTBo KMTaMCKnx 

H COBeTCKHX O0MUepOB-MHCTpyKTOpOB. B OTHMMHe OT aMepMKaHCKHX 
fl3HHblX CBeAeHMfl O KMTaMCKOM H COBeTCKOM BOeHHOM ynaCTMH flO cnx 

nop TiqaTenbHO CKpbieaKjTca. 

no oueHKaM axcnepTOB MaccupoBaHHan BoeHHO-aKOHOMUMecKas 
noMomb KOMMyHUCTMMecKoro KMTan cocTaBuna ot 14 ao 21 Munnnapaa 
flonnapoB. CoBeTCKoro Coio3a — ot 8 flo 15 MnnrnapaoB. 




tOxHoebemnaucKue napmu3aHbi ycmanae- 
nueaiom npomueonexomHbie muhu. 




KouandyioiuuO boucomu CLUA eo 
BbBmHaue Vunbftu VocmuopneHd 




AMepuxancKuu man* Ha ynuue 
CauaoHa. 




3eHurnHa» paxerrtMan ycmaHOOKa Oocmae- 
neHa u3 CCCP e CeeepHbiO SbemwaM. 




Condemn iomHoebBWHaucHou modckou 
nexomu eodym itecmynnoiiuc. 



32 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECD 




u rweHHbie eberrtkOHaoeubi 




npeiudeHw KDxnoao BbemHaua 

HayeH Saw Txuey u npasudenm ClllA 

flUHdOH Amohcoh. 




noconbcmeo CLUA e Cauaone nocne 

Manademjn abemnoHeoeuea, 

30 HHeapn 1968 a. 




AuepuKBHCKuO xypnaji «Ufe> c npu3bieou 
npexpamumb 6ou6apdupoBKU Ceeepnoso 

BbemnaMa. 



B cepeflUHe 1965 roaa no TpeooBaHwo YacTMopneHjaa npeanaeHT 
fluHAOH flxtOHCOHflan cornacae Ha nonHOMacwTa6Hoe wcnonb30BaHue 
aMepHKaHCKHx cyxonyTHwx bomck b Ha3eMHbix onepaunnx. nepBoe xpyn- 
Hoe HacTynneHne Ha cywe aMepnxaHUbi npeanpuHnnn Boicrn6pe 1965 
roaa. B Hew ynacTBOBano 200 tmcrh aMepuKaHCKnx conaaT, 500 thcrm 
conaaT npaBMTe/ibCTBeHHOM apMnn iOwHoro BbeTHaMa n 28 twcam 
conaaT aMepuKBHCKnx cok)3hhkob — aBCTpannfiLieB. (punnnnnHLieB. 
TannaHflueB vi KWtHOKopewueB. Hx noAAep>KHBajin 2300 caMOJieTOB m 
aepToneTOB, 1400 tshkob u 1200 opyanti. HacTynneHne passHea/iocb b 
flByx HanpaBneHunx: ot mopckhx nopTOB UeHTpanbHoro BbeTHaMa k 
rpaHnqe c JlaocoM h KaM6oA>«eii n Ha rare ot CaiiroHa k xaM6oA>Kniicxow 
rpaHnue. HecMOTpa Ha pna naCTHblx ycnexoB aMepwOHijaM n mx cok)3- 
hmiom He yflanocb pas6wTb ocHOBHbie cunw BbeTKOHra u yflep»aTb 
3axBaHeHHbie b xoae HacTynneHun TeppnTopnn. npunnHOiii HeyAann 
CTana HH3Kas 6oecnoco6HOCTb K>*HOBbeTHaMCKMx npaBUTenbCTBen- 
hwx bomck, HenoflroToaneHHOCTb aMepnxaHLieB k BoPiHe b ycnoaunx 
TponnnecKnx AtcyHrneM m CBfoaHHwe c stmm TpyAHOcru CHaBweHna 

Cneayioinee nacrynneHvie Ha no3Munn BbeTKOHra n noAAepwwBaB- 
wnx ero ceBepoBbeTHaMCKnx bomck cocToanocb BecHoii 1966 roaa. B 
HeM ynacTBOBano 250 TbicflH aNiepuKancxnx conaaT. Oho Taxxe He 
npuHecno CKonbKo-Hn6yflb cymecTBeHHbix pe3y/ibTaTOB. HoBoe Hacryn- 
neHne, npeanpuHSToe oceHbio 1966 roaa. 6wno HanpaeneHO npoTHB 
ocHOBHoii rpynnnpoBKn BbeTKOHra, pacnoriOKeHHOiii k ceBepy ot Caiiro- 
na. B HeM yyacTBOBann 41 twcsm aMepuxaHcxux, 500 tmcrm K»KHOBbeT- 
HaMCK^x n 54 TbicsiMM conaaT coKWHbix bohck. Hx noaqep>KHBann 430 
caMoneTOB h BepTo/ieTOB, 2300 KpynHOKann6epHbix opyAHti h 3300 
T3HKOBH 6poHeTpaHcnopTepoB. Hm npoTHBOCTonnw 160 twchh BbeTKOH- 
roaueBH 90 Tbicn^ cesepoBbeTHaMueB. nocxonbxy noaaBnniomee 6onb- 
WKiHCTBO aMepuxaHues cocTonno b MacTnx Tbi/ioBoro o6ecneMeHun, 
HenocpeacTBeHHO b 6onx yMacTBOsano He Sonee 70 twcah aMepuxaHC- 
kmx conflaT m ocpMuepoB. l"lo3TOMy HMcneHHbiM nepeBec aMepMKaHLieB m 
nx coK33HnxoB Ha caMOM flene 6un He Tax sexiMK, xax MoweT noxa3aTbca 
us conocTaBneHMfl o6iyeii HucneHHOc™ BOiicx. AMepMKaHCKoii m iokho- 
BbeTHaMCKOft apMUHM nocne TH>xenbix 6oes ynanocb bwmth na rpaHHuy 
c KaM6oflx<ert, oflHaxo ocHOBHbie cunw npoTHBHuxa n36exonn paarpo- 
Ma. Taoxe n nocneayiomne HacTynneHun b 1967 rofly He npiiBenn k 
petuHTe/ibHbtM pesy/ibTaTaM. KoMMyHncTHMecxne Boiicxa npuMeHnnvi 
napTM3aHCxyio TaxTuxy n ownn HeynoBUMbi bo BbeTHaMCKHx flwyHrrmx, 
He yaanocb c noMombio 6oM6apanpoBOK 6noxnpoBaTb nepe6pocKy 
CHa6x<eHHfl n ceBepoBbeTnaMcxnx bomck Ha ior BbeTHaMa no Tax Ha3t>i- 
BaeMOM «Tpone Xo LUn MnHa». npoxoflMBiiiefi no A^ynrnnM Jlaoca n 

30 HHBapn 1 968 roaa b xaHyH HOBoro nyHHoro roaa Tst BbeTKOHroB- 
ubi m ceBepoBbeTHaMcxne Boiicxa aTaxoBann CaiiroH m pna apyrux 
xpyriHbix ropoAOB m BoeHHWx 6a3 K)>KHoro BbeTHaMa. riepeo 3thm 21 
RHBaps 5-TbicflHHbiki rapHM30H aMepuxaHCKMx mopckhx nexoTMHueB Ha 
5ase b KxecaHn HeAanexo ot 17-m napanxierin 6wn oca>KfleH 20-TbicnH- 
hom ceBepoBbeTHaMCKOM apumeA. YacTMopneHfl 6pocnn ajia Ae6noKa- 
abi Kxecanu 3HaMHTeribHbie cunu, neM ocna6n/i o6opoHy Caiirona n 
aenbTbi pexn MeKonr. Oco6eHHO o>xecTOMeHHbie 6om pasBepHynwcb a 
CaiiroHe n ApeBHeii CTonnqe Xioa b UeHTpanbHOM BbeTHaMe. Tonbxo b 
KOHue cpeBpana aMepHxaHcxtie n wwHOBbeTHaMcxne so^cxa CMor/in 
orrecHHTb npOTMBHuxa o6paTHO b AXyHlTlM, a Ann chbtma ocaAw c 
KxecaHn noTpe6oBanocb Tpn Mecnua. B xoAe HacTynnenun ceaepOBb- 
eTHaMCxne soiicKa n napTMsaHw noTepariM, no aMepuxancKOM oqeHxe, 
OKono 50 TwcflM y6nTbiMn m paneHbiMn, ho sto He noflOpBano nx 6oeBoii 
moiah. 

B anpene 1968 rofla aMepuxaHCKnii npe3MAeHT OTAan npnxa3 o 
npexpaiyeHnn 6oM6apAnpoBox CeBepHoro BbeTHaMa. a b Mae b napn>Ke 
HaManwcb neperoeopbi wexcfly fleneraunoMn flPB n CLUA. Cm6hmbujmm 
QwoHcoHa na nocTy npe3HAeHTa Ptfiapfl Hukcoh B3nn xypc Ha «BbeTHa- 
MH3aunK)» BOiiHw. C 1969 ~oaa HticneHHOCTb awepuKancKnx bohck b 
HHAOxnTae Hana/ia nocieneHHo coxpamaTbCH. T/iaBHyK) Tnx<ecTb 6opb- 
6w c napTM3aH3Mn \a ceBepoBbeTHaMLiaMn AOfix<Hbi 6binu hcctm Tenepb 

K3>KHOBbeTHaMCKMe BOMCKa. 



4 Ml MAPUIPyi BbETHAMA 



33 



B ceHTfl6pe 1969 rofla CKOHnancH Xo Wm Mmh, ho 3to He ocna6u/io 
Bonio k 6opb6e CeBepHoro BbeTHaMa n ero cok>3hmkob Ha lore. Hio6bi 
o6nerMMTb mm petuewMe 3TOii 3aflaww, a 1969-1971 roaax npn ywacTMM 
aMepuKancKnx bomck 6wno npeflnpMHSTO HecKoribKO onepauni<i Ha Tep- 
puTopnn Jlaoca n KaM6ofl>Kn c uenbio nepepe3aTb nyTn CHa6>KeHnn 
BbeTKOHra M3 CeBepHoro BbeTHaMa. OflHaKo 3a6noKnpoBaTb «Tpony Xo 
LUn MnHa» Ta« n He yaanocb. K KOHuy 1971 roaa nucneHHOCTb aMepn- 

K3HCKMX BOMCK BO BbeTHaMe COKpaTHJiaCb flO 160 TbICflH nenoBeK. 

ripoTuBHMK 3t»im Bocnonb30Bancs. 30 MapTa 1972 roaa cesepoBbeT- 
naMCKne BOiiiCKa npn noAQep*Ke BbeTKOHra Hanann KpyriH0MacujTa6- 
Hoe HacTynneHne OKHee aeMMnnTapn30BaHHOii 30Hbi, 3axeaTHB CTonn- 
uy norpaHUHHOM c CeBepHbiM BberHaMOM npoBHHunn KyaHrnn. B OTBeT 
ClilA bo3o6hobhjih MaccupoBaHHbie 6oM6apanpoBKn TeppnTopnn Ce- 
BepHoro BbeTHaMa. C noMoiabK) aMepuKaHCKoii asMaqHM K»KHOBbeT- 
HaMCKUM BoiicKaM yAanocb 0T6nTb KyaHrMM b ceHTflSpe B KOHLje okt$i6- 
pn b CBA3M c nporpeccoM Ha napn>KCKMx neperoBopax 5oM6apflupoBKn 
CeBepHoro BbeTHaMa 6binn npeKpaiueHw. OflHaKo b flet<a6pe nepero- 
BOpbl 3aCTOnopnriHCb, M 60M6apflMpOBKM B0306HOBMniHCb w npoflon>Ka- 
nucbflBeHafluaTbnHeii. B pe3ynbT3Te CeBepHbitf BbeTHaM n BbeTKOHr 
comacMnncb BepnyTbcsi 3a ctoji neperoBopoB. 

27 nHBapn 1973 roaa b riapn>Ke 6t>mo noanncaHO CornaweHMe o 
npeKpameHnn bomhu u BoccTaHoeneHMn Mupa bo BbeTHaMe. CLUA 
npeKpaTunn 6oM6apAnpOBKn CeBepHoro BbeTHaMa m k KOHqy MapTa 
BwBerin M3 K))KHoro BbeTHaMa Bee cboh bo^cio. B cTpaHe ocTanocb 
TonbKO okojio 20 tucrm aMepw<aHCKnx BoeHHbix cobcthhkob. riapvDKc- 
Kne comaiueHun npn3Hann nannMne bo BbeTHaMe flByx apMnti n /jByx 
30H KOHTponn — npaBHTertbCTBa b CaiiroHe n BbeTKOHra. 

neperoBopw Me*Ay CeBepoM h KDroM o 6yaymeM ycTportcTBe 
BbeTHaMa 3aKOHHnnncb 6e3pe3y/ibTaTHO m 6binn npepBaHbi b anpene 

1974 roaa. CLUA cepbe3HO coKpaTunn noMoiub (OwHOMy BbeTHawy H3- 
aa yoTepretiTCKoro CKaHAana n pe3Koro ocna6neHna no3nijnCi aMepn- 
KaHCKoti ncno/iHUTenbHoii BfiacTM. Bocnorb30BaBUJMCb stmm. b MapTe 

1975 roaa apMMfl CeBepHoro BbeTHaMa npeflnpuHnna ujnpoKOMaciu- 
Ta6Hoe BTop>«eHMe Ha tor. AMepnKahi_jbi nrnub yBennHnriM nocTaBKW 
BOOpy)KeHnn npaBMTenbCTBy b CaiiroHe. ho OKa3anncb He b coctohhmh 

B0306HOBMTb 60M6apflMpOBKH, TaK K3K STOMy KSTeropMHeCKH npoTMBun- 

cn KOHrpecc CLUA. 

30 anpenn 1 975 roaa CatiroH nan nofl yaapaMn ceeepoBbeTHawc- 

KMX M BbeTKOHrOBCKMX BOMCK. Bonee MUririMOHa KWHOBbeTHaMUeB, H6 

>KenaBOjnx ocTaBaTbca noa BnacTbio KOMMyHncTOB. Sbinn SBaxynpoBa- 
Hbi aMepuiicaHCKMMu cyflaMn n caMoneiaMn. CeBep n lOr 6b;nn o6tefln- 
HeHw b CounanncTMMecKyK3 Pecny6nnKy BbeTHaM. OflHOBpeMeHHO k 
BnacTM b Jlaoce npniuen npoKOMMyHMCTunecKMii riaTeT-flao (naTpnoTn- 
necKHM o^poht), a b KaM6oA*e — «KpacHbie KXMepw». 

BbeTHaMCKan BOMHa 3aKOHHnriacb. C 1961 no 1975nom6no56555 
aMepuKBHCKnx BoeHHOcny>Kaiunx. 303 654 nenoBeKa nonynnnn paHe- 
HMR. y BbCTnawueB nornfino He Menee 200 000 caPiroHCKMx conflaT, 
npuMepHO MunnnoH coriAaT HaqnoHanbHoro cppoHTa ocBo6o>KfleHMfl 
KD>KHoro BbeTHaMa M apMnn CeBepHoro BbeTHaMa, a TaioKe noriMMnrin- 
OHa rpaxyaaHCKMx rum. Eiue HecKonbKO MunnnoHOB MenoBeK nonynnnn 
paHeHun, oKono aecnTu Mun/iHOHOB ocTanncb 6e3 KpoBa. 



rioBCK5fly Konbfl, noBCK>fly LUHTU, 3/io5a 3aTwnna CBeT. 
CTpax b y6e)Knma tohmt moa&th, 6eryr, cnacancb ot 6eA- 
BeryT, npuxuMaa k cepauy neieu, AOBepucb nrnub neSecaM. 
ribiTaiOTCH 6nnxHnx cboux cnacTM. yBbi! CnaceHnq HeT. 

HryeH EMHb Kxnew, 
BbeTHaMCKMM no3T XV Bexa 




'jjaume uupy wa»c!» C6op nodnuceu 
3a npeKpameHue eounbi eo Bbemnaue 




lonynnpHan auepunancKasi aKmpuca 

BxeOn OoHda e CeeepHou 

BbemHaue. 1972 a. 




flaypeambi HoOeneecxou npeuuu uupa 
fie hbiK Txo u renpu Kuccundxep 1973 a. 




nocnedHuu eepmonem us Cauaona 
30 anpem 1975 z. 



f ~ \ 

B nyCnuxanuu ucnonb3oeaHbi cpomo- 
gpatpuu U3 apxuaoa mypnanoa: *Oto- 
hbkm, tHbiocyuK», tKauKi, <flaucp», 

« Bunhd*. Hau,uonanbnou cppdnnyjci<ou 
6u6nuomeKu, UMpopkiamjOHHbJX aa»H- 
mcme Accouiusumed flpecc. Peumep, 
•pane npacc. 

\ , J 



34 



4 KPACHOE KOJIECO 



XaH no/ib CAPTP 



O TEHOI4MAE 

MaBiieseHHq n3 peHM Ha Pacce/iOBCKOM Tpn6yHane no BoeHHbiM npecTynneHnqM 




CnoBa reHOunfl He cyiye- 
cTBOBanooMeHbflonro: era 
BbiayMan wpucT XleMXMH 
Menmy AByMs Mnpoabiwn 
BoiiHaMM CaMO Me stBne- 
Hue dapo KaK HenoBene- 
ctbo, h HHKoraa He 6bino 
TaKoroo6wecTBa, CTpyiay- 
pa Koraporo y6eperna 6w 
ero or aToro npecTynne- 
hub. no6oM reHOuna - sto 
npoayirr ncTopnn. m oh He- 
ceT Ha ceoe sepru Toro 06- 

UieCTBa. B KOTOpOM B03HM- 

KaeT. Heno, KOTopoe MU 
flonwHw paccMaTpwBaTb. xacaeTcn BenMHawweii coepe- 
MeHHOM KanMTanncrnHecKOM Aep*aBbi. M mmchho Tax mm 
n flonwHbi ero paccMaipuBaTb. MHaMeroBopn. mu aojiwhw 
ynnTbiBaTb, b Kaxow Mepe sto aeno BbipawaeT sxohomm- 
necxyio CTpyKTypy 3T0iiflep>KaBbi,ee nonnTHMecKne uenM 
n BHyTpeHHHe npoTHBOpe^MB. 

Mw AOJi>KHbi nocTaparbcs noHHTb, 6wno nn b bomhb, 
pa3BH33HHOM a wepuKaHCKUM npaBMTenbCTBOM npoTMB BbeT- 
HaMa. HaMepeHne reHOunfla. B CTaTbe 2 KoHseHunn 1948 
roaa reHOUMfl onpeaenneTcn Ha ocHOBe H3MepeHM« Koh- 
BeHunn MonHannBO anennnpyeT k caMOM HeASBHeM mcto- 
pnn. rumep OTKpwTo npoB03rnacM/i nnaH yHMMToxceHWH 
eepeeB, oh ue cxpWMJl, hto Mcnonb3yeT reHOunfl ksk nonu- 
TunecKyio TaxTMxy. flK)60M eapeu AonweH 6wn 6wTb ytttft- 
ToweH. BHe 33bmcmmoctm ot ero nponcxo>KAeHnsi, BHe3aBn- 
cmmocth ot Toro. 6pan nw oh b pyKn opyawe. yMacTBOBan jim 

B ABMWeHMM ConpOTMBOeHMH, OH AOflXeH 6blTb yHMHTOtteH 

noTOMy, mto oh espeii. AMepHKaHCKoe npaBMTenbCTBO no- 
floGnbix 3aflBneHM(i He aenano. Oho fla»e 3aBepnno, hto 
wenaeT oxasaTb noAflepwxy cbohm coKMHMxaM. ion<HbiM 
BbeTHaMuaM, Ha xotopwx Hanann ceeepHbie KOMMyHMCTw. 

ECTb JIM B03MO>KHOCTb, HTO MU, fipM CaMOM TiyaTejlbHOM 

paccMOTpeHMM dpaicTOB, cyMeeM BbinsnTb cKpbiToe h3mb- 
peHwe? H cmowom nn mw, nocne TaKoro paccneaoBaHMn, 





Ka3Hb KDKHoebemnaMCKoQ xeHmuHbi 
3a C8H36 c BbemKOHaou 1 966 e. 



fKomuuna c dembuu. yKpbiewapcp e mpocmnuKax eo Bpeun 
Hacmynnemjn apMuu IOmhobo Bbemnaua us Uananz. 1968 a. 

CK33aTb. hto BOopy>KeHHbie cunw CLUA yOneaKii BbeTH3M- 
ueB bo BbeTHSMe no tom npocroM npuHMHe, mto ohm BbeT- 
HaMUbi? 

HropH6eprcKHii Tpn6yHan 6bin eme y Bcex hs naMBTn, 
Koraa, xnpuMepy, cppaHuysw y6nnn 45 000 a/DKupueB. 3to 
Bbirnjifleno HacToribKO phaobwm cnynaeM, hto hm y xoro u 

MblCnn He B03HMK/10 CyflMTb npSBMTenbCTBO d>paHU»1H Tax 

>xe, xax cyflnnn HauncTOB Ho Taroe Maccosoe y6MMCTBO 
«h3ctm HaunoHanbHoii rpynnw» He Morno npoaon>t<aTbCfl 
6e3 Toro. hto6w He noBpeanTb xonoHncTaM. B TaxoM c/iy- 
-jaeonw6binn 6bi pa3opeHt>i. <t>paHqy3bi nponrpann bouh/ b 
Anwupe noTOMy, hto ohh He Mornn nnxBHflMpoBaTb anmnp- 
cxoe HaceneHMe, n noTOMy, hto ohm He MHTerpMpoBsnM 3Ty 
CTpaHy . 3to paccyxfleHMe noMoraeT hbm noHnTb, xax M3Me- 
HMncn xapaicrep xonoHManbHbix bomh nocne btopom mmpo- 

BOM BOMHbl. 

OcHOBHbie xspaxrepucTMXM stom 6opb6w 6binM bchw c 
csMoro Hanana: xonoHMCTbi npeBoexoflMnM wecTHoe Hace- 
neHne soopyweHMeM, MecTHoe HaceneHiie npeBoexoflMno 
mx MMcnotn. fla«e b AnwMpe, rqe 6bino MHoro kohohmctob, 
sto cooTHOiueHMe cocTaBnsno 1:9. Bo BpeMfl flByx mmpo- 
bwx bomh MHorMe xonoHManbHbie napoflbi HaynMnMCb BoeH- 
HOMy McxyccTBy m cranM 3axaneHHbiMH conaaiaMM. OflHaxo 
HeaocTaTOK m xanecTBO BOopyweHMM - bo bchxom cnynae. b 
Hanane- orpaHMHMBanM nwcno BOopyweHHbix coeflMHennM. 
3to o6ycnoBfiMB3no xspsxTep 6opb6bi: TeppopusM, 33C3- 
Abi, 6ecnoKoninMe Bbi/i33KM, Bbicoxan Mo6MnbHOCTb rpynn, 
Heo>KMAaHHO B03HMKaioiuMx m Tyr we ncneaatoiAnx. noao6- 
Hoe 6bino 6bl HeB03Mo>KHbiM 6es noAAep>KKM scero Hacene- 
hmh OTciOAa BWTexaeT M3BecTHoe o6beAMHeHMe ocbo6o- 
AMTenbHwxABMweHMM m HapoAHwx Mace: nepawe nposoAf t 
arpapHbie pecfcopMbi. opraHM3ytoT nonMTMneCKyio >KM3Hb m 
o6pa30BaHtie, BTopue noAABp^MBatoT 0CBo6oA^TeribHoe 
ABM>xeHMe tgm, hto xopMUT ero. npqnyT m aaiOT nonofiHeHne 
BaaMeH noHeceHHbix noTepb 

B OTnuHMe ot naprnaaMCKoro ABM>xeHMH, noAflepiKM- 
BseMoro HaceneHneM. xonoHManbHbie apMMM 6ecnoMom- 
Hbi. Hm ocTaeTCH To/ibxo M36eraTb cTonxHoaeHMM, hto mx 



4 KPYTOM MAPlOPyi BbETHAMA 



35 




CeeepoobemHaMCKuu pe6enoK 
o yupbimuu 1967 e 



aeMopann3yeT m 3acTaBns- 

eT MCK3Tb BblXOA B yHMHTO- 

weHMn HaceneHMB. l~lo- 
CKOfibKy ocso6oflHTerbHbie 

apMUM HB/IKKJTCS HaCTbK) 

Bcero CBoero Hapoaa. to 

eflHHCTBeHHOI* 3(pCpeKTHB- 
HOM T3KTMKOM 6opb6bl C 
napTH33HCKHM flBM)KeHMeM 
CT3H0BMTCH yHMHTOKeHMe 
Hapoaa, TO eCTb MMpHblX 

iKMTeneii, weHiuMH MaeTeii. 

riblTKH M reHOUMfl- TaK 

OTBeTun KonoHnann3M Ha 
BOCcTaHun nopa6omeHHbix 

HapOaOB. A 3TOT OTBeT. KaK 
H3M H3B6CTHO, BefleT K 

uenw TonbKo b tom cnynse. 

Koraa oh peujuTeneH u to- 

TaneH. ynopcTBO Hapoaa. 

oS'beanHeHHoro wecTOKOM 

m nonnTH3npoB3HHOvi ap- 

Mneti, He no3BonnT eMy 

aaTb ce6n 3anyraTb «ypo- 

ksmm» MaccoBbix y6nMCTB. KaK to 6bino bo BpeMB pacijBeTa 

KonoHnannawa HanpoTMB. sto ToribKO ycunuT ero HeHa- 

BMCTb Tenepb Bonpoc coctomt He b tom. HTo6bi BHywMTb 

CTpax. a b tom. mto6w 0m3mhcckm yHMMToawTb Hapoa. Atbk 

KaK 3TO HeB03MO)KHO 6e3 TOrO, HT06bl B TO we BpeMB He 

paspywHTb KonoHnaribHyio SKOHOMMKy n KoriOHManbHyio 
cucTeMy. KonoHnanbHbieaepjKaBbi nocTeneHHO ycTaiOT ot 
nocTOHHMoro pacxoaoeaHkifl jiioacKMx m MaTepwanbHbix pe- 
cypcoB b KOH^nntae, He nMewmeM peuieHMH, m Maccw b 
MeTpononuM b KOHue kohliob HanMHaioT BWCTynaTb npoTMB 
eapsapcKMx bomh, m ko/iohmm CTaHOBtiTcs HeaaBucMMbiMn 
rocyaapcTBaMH. 

OaHaKo cymecTByioT cnynsM. Koraa reHOuna xaK pe- 
LueHne npo6neMbi ocBo6oanTenbHbix bomh He caepwuBa- 
eTcs npucywHMM stom cMTyauMM npoTMBopennflMn. H Toraa 

CT3H0BMTCH flCHO, HTO TOTBflbHblM reHOUMa SBTlfleTCS HM 

MeM mhum, KaK cTpsTerueM 6opb6u c napTussHCKMM aewwe- 
HueM. M. npn onpeaeneHHbix o6cTOSTenbCTB3x. reHOUMa 
MO>neT, cpa3y we mjim nocTeneHHO, CTaTb oxoHHaTeribHOM 
uenbio. 

no Mepe Toro. ksk BOopyweHHbie CM/ibi CLUA npoflBM- 
ratOTca Brny6b BbeTHSMS, see name npn6eras k MaccoBbiM 
y6niicTBaM n 6oM6apflnpoBKaM b HSMepeHMM noflHMHMTb 
flaoc n BToprHyTbcs b KaM6oa>Ky, ywe He ocTaeTcfl coMHe- 

HMM B TOM, HTO npaBMTe/lbCTBO CoeaMHeHHWX lilTaTOB. 

HecMOTpn Ha Bee ero nMueMepnbie 3anBneHnn, npuHnno 
peweHne b norib3y reHOUnaa. 

06 3tom c OMeenaHOCTbto cBnaeTenbCTByioT efcaicrbi. 
TeHounn npeanpHHMMseTCfl c 33p3Hee o6ayMaHHbiM HaMe- 
peHneM. Bo3MO)kho. sto b npownoM reHOUMa npoticxoann 
cnoHTaHHO, b nbmy CTpacTeM, b paarap nneMeHHbix nnn 
0eoaaribHbix kohcpjimktob. AHTMnspTMsaHCKMii reHOuna, 
HanpoTMB. ecTb npoayxT Haiuero BpeMeHM. KOTopbiri c Heo6- 
xoanMocTbto npeanonaraeT opraHuoauuoHHbie ycuniiB. 
noaroTOBKy 6a3u m, cooTBeTCTBeHHO, Hannnne coo6uihm- 
kob (HsxoaBianxcn Ha paccTOAHMM ot npoMcxoaflmero), a 
Taiotce cooTBeTCTByKjianii 6wa>KeT. TaxoM reHOuna He mo- 
weT He 6biTb o6ayM3HHbiM m cnnaHnpoBaHHbiM. 3h3mmt nn 
3to, hto Te. rto HeceT 3a Hero OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb, nonHOCTbw 
OTaawT ce6e otmct b cbomx HaMepeHMnx? TpyaHO CK333Tb, 
nocKonbKy b tskom cnynae HenoBeKy npniunocb 6u npM- 
3H3Tb 3noHaMepeHHOCTb nypMTaHCKoii MOTMsaunM. 



npaBay cneayeT ncKaTb hs none 6on. b pacn3Me 

aMepMK3HCKHX BOMCK. fleHCTBMTeHbHO. pacn3M - aHTMHer- 
pMTSIHCKMM,aHTHa3M3TCKMki,3HTHMeKCMK3HCKHti-HBn»eTCfl 

cpyHflaMeHTanbHbiM KanecTBOM. KOTopoe nMeeT rnyGoxne 
xopHM m cyuiecTBOBano, b sbhom nnn naTeHTHoti cpopMe, 
3aaonroao BbeTHSMCKOii bomhw. floKa3aTenbCTBOM 3T0My 

Cny>KHT 0TK33 CoeaHHeHHblX LUT3T0B paTM^JMUHpOeaTb )Ke- 

HeBCKyio KOHBeHunio no reHounay- 3to He 03HaMaeT, hto 
aMepwKaHUbi eiae c 1948 roaa nenesinn nnaHw no yHMMTo- 
weHnio uenbix HapoaoB, sto osnaMaeT numb to. hto, no mx 
co6cTBeHHOMy 3aHBneHno, KOHBeHqun exoa^T b npoTMBO- 

peHMe C 33KOHOfl3TenbCTBOM MHOrHX UlTaTOB 3T0ii CTpa- 

Hbi. QpyrtiMki cnoBSMH. HbiHeuHkie nuaepbi CoeanHeHHbix 
LUtstob T3K yBepeHHo nyBCTBytoT ce6n bo BbeTHSMe 6naro- 

aSP" CBOMM npeflUjeCTBeHHMKSM. KOTOpbie H6 OTK333nHCb 
yB3)K3Tb SHTHHerpHTSHCKMVi paCH3M K))KHblX UJTaTOB. B nHD- 

6om cnynse, no cpsBHeHMio c 1965 roflOM. pscn3M 3Mepn- 
xaHCKHx conaaT bo BbeTHawe CTan HaMHoro aaMeTHee 
Monoawe aMepuxaHuw nuraiOT ntoaeki 6eso scnKoro ot- 
BpaiueHnn. cTpenntoT b 6e3opy>KHbix )KeHianH, 6bioT paHe- 
Hbix b nax, oTpe3aioT yujn y MepTBbix eparoe. O^nuepbi eote 
xyxe: hckmm reHepan 3eBan. xoras oamh (ppanuys cBnae- 
Te/ibCTB0B3n nepea TpuByHanoM, hto 3tot BoeHansjibHHK 
oxoTuncn c aepToneTa hs BbeTHaMueB m CTpenun b hux. 
Koraa ohm pa6oTann Ha pucosbix nonox, m to 6wnn KOHen- 
ho. He fjOMijbi conpoinBreHna. KOTopbie yMeiOT 3aiuninTb 
ce6fl, a o6HKHOBeHHbie xpecTbHHe. 3tm noMyTMBiuMecs 
3MepMK3HCKMe Mosrn ece MeHbuie u MeHbiue noHUMaioT 
pa3Hnuy Mex<ay BbeTKOHroeuaMti h BbeTHaMuaMH Boo6uie 
CTana paexowert cpp333 «XopoiuMM BbeTHaMeu - sto wep- 
TBwii BbeTHaMeu», hto 03H3naeT «Ka)KabiM MepTBWM BbeT- 
HaMeu - 3to BbeTKOHroeeu». 

KDxHee 17 napannenn KpecTbSHe BbipacTunnypoiKaM 
puca ripuxoflflT awepuKaHCKne conaaTu c HSMepeHneM 
nepeBecTn mx b cneunoceneHnn. KpecTbBHe npoTecTyioT. A 
hto eme ohm. 6e30pyx<Hbie, MoryT? Ohm roBopsT: «Mw 

BbipaCTMOM XOPOUJMM PMC, Mbl OCTaHeMCH 3aeCb». kl 3T0 

BbiBoaMT M3 ce6n Monoawx aMepMKaHueB: «3to BbeTKOH- 
roeuw B3M b6mjim b ronoBbi. 3to ohm HsynMnw sac conpo- 
TMBnaTbcn» ConaaTbi HacTonbxo noTepsnM BCBKoe pa3y- 

M6HM6. MTO y>Ke CHMTaiOT noaPblBHOM aeflTeribHOCTbK) C/13- 
Obie npOTeCTbi . Bbl3BaHHbie MXC06CTB6HHblMM HaCMflbCTBeH- 

HbiMM fleMCTBMOMM. BepoPTHe'e ecero, ohm m npaBaa 6=inn 
pa30HapoBaHw: ohm np^w/iM cnacsTb BbeTHSMueB ot kom- 
MyHMCTMnecKMx arpeccopoB. ho exopo noHnnu, hto BbeT- 

H3MUbl CMMT3KJT 3rpeCC0p3MM MX C3MMX. Ohm XOTenM Mr- 





M ■ 



rpynna demeu. nonaeuiux nod Hananuoeyio amaxy. 1972 a. 



36 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 







V^»r 




1 1 .% 


X' my 


*£$ 




pfg** 


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Mupnb/9 xcumepu depoouu 

M3u flaii (Cohzmu). y6umt>ie aiwepu- 

xaHCKUMu condamauu. 1972 a. 



paTb npneneKa- 
TenbHyio ponb 
ocBo6oflMTeneM. 
a OK33annco b 
ponn oxxynaH- 
tob. 3to Morno 
6w daTb Hana- 
jiom 3flpaeoki 
ca MooueHKn : 
«Ohm Mac He xo- 
THT.aa m HaMTyT 
aenaTbHe>)ero». 
Ho mx npoTed 
T3K aanexo He 
nowen. ohm npo- 
cto o6o3nnnncb m peainnn npo ce6n. hto xaxcabiM BbeTHa- 
Meu nofl03pnTeneH npocTo no onpeaeneHMio. 

3flecb, b TeMHbix m po6oTonoao6Hbix aywax conaaT. 
Mbi n HaxoAMM HacTonoiyK) npaBfly o Bb9THaMC«OM bomhb. 
OHa nonHOCTbio ynoflo6nHeTcs BbiCKasuBaHnnM rwmepa 
Oh y6nBan eBpeeB, noTOMy hto ohm - eBpeM. AMepMKaHC- 
KMe BOopyn<eHHbie CtVIM nwTaiOT m y6MBatOT bo BbeTHaivie 

MyJKMMH. WeHUJMH M flBTeM. nOTOMy MTO OHM BbeTHaMUbl. H 

Kax 6bi hm nrano m hm M3BopaHMBanocb npaBMTenbCTBo. flyx 
reHouMaa npoflBnaeT ce6n b yMax conaaT v\ t8kmm o6pa- 
30M ohm ycyry6nn wt CMTyaqMio reHouMaa . b xoTopyio notrra- 
BMno mx co6cTBeHHoe npaBMTenbCTBo CBMaeTenb flMTep 
MapTMHceH, flsaauaTHTpexneTHHM CTyaeHT. kotopwm BTe- 
neHMe nonyroaa <-aonpawMBan» nneHHHxoa. a Tenepb He 

MOWeT >KMTb C 3THMM BOCnOMMHaHMflMM, cxaaan HaM: «fl 

o6biKH0BeHHbiM aMepwxaHeu, tbkom we, xax nto6oii apyroft 
CTyaeHT, ho Tenepb n - BoeHHbiM npecTyriHMK». H ao6aBMn: 
«n>o6oM Ha MoeM MecTe nociynan 6bi Tax we. xax n». H oh 
6bin coBeptueHHO npae 

3a6ny>xflancfl oh Tonbxo b tom, hto npMnMCbiBan stm 
KOLUMapHwe npecTynneHHn BoaaeMCTBMio bomhw Boo6me 
HeT. 3to He a6cTp3KTHas bomhs. a bomhs. xorapyio oahs ms 
MorymecTBeHHeMiuMxaep>KaB BeaeT npoTMB 6eflHoro xpe- 

CTbHHCKOrO Hapoaa. BOMHa. pa3BH33HHaa TeMM, XTOCHViTa- 

eT ee eaMHCTBeHHo BO9M09n<WM oTHOiueHMeM Me>«ay npes- 

BbinaMHO pa3BMT0M CTpaHOtf H CTpSHOM Hep33BMTOM. HH3He 

roBopn, reHOUMa 3aecb o5pen pacMCTCKMe ocHoaaHMa. 

AMepMxaHCxoe npaBMTenbCTBo bmhobho ne b tom. hto 
npeaHaMepeHHO ycTpoMno reHOUMa BbeTHaMcxoro Hapoaa. 
m ne b tom. hto Bbi6pano reHOUMa xax eauHCTBeHHbiii otbot 
Ha BW30B napTM3aHCK0M 6opb6hi. He bmhobho oho m b tom. 
hto - x npMMepy - caenano ero MHCTpyvieHTOM csoeM 
CTpaTerMM m skohommkm. Ha aene, reHOUMa npeacTaeT eaMH- 
CTBeHHo bo3mo>khom peaxuueM Ha BoccTaHMe Hapoaa npo- 
TMB ymeTaTenert. AMepMKaHexoe npaBMTenbCTBo bmhobho 
b tom. mto npeanonno no/iMTMxy bomhw h arpeccMM. MMeio- 
meii cBoeM uenbio reHoqua. nonMTMxe Mupa, eaiHCTBeHHO 
B03Mo>KHOii aribTepHSTMse. nocxonbxy OHa npMBena 6bl x 
nepecMOTpy ochobhwx ueneii. HSBssaHHbix CTpaHe 6onb- 
ujmmm HMnepMariMCTMHecKMMM xoMnaHMSMM AMepuxa bm- 
HOBHa 8 tom, mto Bena m ycM/ieHHO npoaonwana BortHy. 
xots nro6oM ms ee nw/jepoB. wish e>xeaHeBHbie CBoaxM m 
aoHeceHMs BoeHHwx, yeexcaancn b tom, hto eaMHCTBeHHbiM 

DblXOa - 3TO 0CB060AMTb BbeTHaM OT BbeTHaMLieB. 

Oh3 BMH0BH3 B TOM, HTO TlMLieMepMna. M3B0p3HMBa- 

nacb, nrana, m nrsna caMOM ce6e. ssnyTWBSACb Bee 5onb- 
uje m 6onbme, HecMOTpn Ha ocoSbiM, HenepeHoCMMbiM OflbfT, 
kotopwm ona M3Bnexna. cneayo no nyTn. c xoToporo HeT 
B03BpaTa. OHa BMHOBHa, no co6cTBeHH0My cBoeMy nony- 

lyeHMK), B TOM, HTO 0C03HaHH0 Bena «npMMepHyK)» BOMHy, 



xoTopan caenana reHOUMa bwsobom m yrpo3oM ann Bcex 
HapoaoB. HaM BceM 6onbHo. xoraa xpecTbnHMH yMMpaeT na 
Pmcobom none. cpaweHHwii aBTOMaTHoii nyneM. Tskmm 06- 
pa30M, BbeTHaMuw cpa>KaK)TCfl 3a Bcex moaeiii, a aMepM- 
xaHCxan apMMfl cpawaeTcn co bcomm hbmm. 3to He Teopua 
m He a6cTpaxuM« 3to He noTOMy, hto reHOUMa nsnueTcsi 
BceMM npn3HaHHWM npecTynneHMeM npoTMB npae nenoBe- 
xa. 3to noTOMy. hto njaHTa* reHOunaa Maxio-noMany pac- 
npocTpaHfleTcn Ha Bee HenoBenecTBO, npM tom hto y*e 
cymecTByeT ujanTa* btomhom bomhw. 3to npecTynneHMe 
coBepiuanocb Ha HaujMx rna3ax Ka>KflbiMaeHb. a Bee Te, kto 
He ocyaMfi ero. cT3HOBMnncb coo6uihmk3mm 3toto npecTyn- 
neHMR.. 

«MHdeKc/J]ocbe Ha u,eH3ypy» 



Me»ayHapoaHbiM PaccenoBCKMM TpM6yHan - Herocy- 
aapcTBeHHasi opraHMsaunn. coaaaHHan no MHMUMaTMBe cpM- 
nococps m o6mecTBeHHoro fleflTens BepTpsHa Paccena b 
1966 roayann paccneaoBaHMfl BoeHHbix npecTynneHMki bo 
Bmtmmm. 

ripeflceaaTeneM Tpn6yHan3 6bin M36p3H o>p3Huy3c- 
kmm (pnnocoo>. nMCSTenb m o6mecTBeHHbiii aetiTenb. naypesT 
Ho6eneBcxoM npeMnn >Ksh (lonb CapTp. 




*...napHu coCupanucb paccmpermmb amux niodeO. F 
3aKpuvan: tnodoMdume!» - u cdenan chumok. Koeda » 
yxodun. mo cnbnuan Gbicmpenu U3 M-16. Kpaeu a/iasa 
h euden nadaicutue mena, ho He noeepnyncfi, vmo6bi 
nocMompemb*. 

Poh Xao6apn (Ron Haerbele), <t>omoapa<t>. 



4 KPYTDM MAPUIPYT BbETHAMA 



37 



Axoh CKOTT 



M3 pa3MbiLUJieHMM aMepnKaHu,a 

O BOMHe B KDrO BOCTOHHOM A3 MM 



K cepeauHe 1960-x roAOB ue/in aMepwuaHCKOM no/in- 
tmkm bo BbeTHaMCKoii BotfHe da/iM onpefleneHHWMn. Mw 
eoBce Me Be/in BOMHy c MapoAOM CeaepMoro BbeTHaMa m/im 
c ero npaBme/ibCTBOM. u sto noAHepKHBa/iM Bee Tpn HawM 
aflMMHucTpaunn. Mw npocTo CTapa/iwcb npeflOTBpaTHTb 
3axsaT IO>KHoro BbeTHaMa CeBepHbiM BbeTHaMOM. koto- 
pbtvt BTopra/ics Ha Teppi/iTopmio lOra ia aKTMBHO noAAepx<M- 
sa/i TaM noflpwBHyK) KOHcnupaniBHyio nesTenbHOCTb. flris 
ocymecTBneHns 3Toii ue/in CLUA dariM npuMeHRTb yBe/iu- 
neHHyio BoeHHyio cu/iy. 

B roabi acKa/iaunn bomhw nocne Hauiero TH*e/ioro 
onwTa b Kopee HecKO/ibKO BwcoKonocTaBneHHbix mm c 
6o/ibwuM BoeHHWM CTa*eM pewuTe/ibHO BbiCKa3anncb npo- 
tmb BBOfla aMepMKaHCKMx cyxonyTHwx HacTetf e A3uio. Ho b 
BaiunHrroHe 6w/im yeepeHw, hto -eme HeMHoro bomck v\ 
HeMHoro 6ojibuie ycunnii - n mw BburpaeM-. B pe3y^bTaie 
aroro k 1967-My roay y Hac OKa3a/iocb noHTu 500000 
conflaT bo BbeTHaMe. 3Ty apMwo noAAepttMBajw CenbMoti 
4>/iot c Mopa n 3HaHM7enbHbie nacTn aMepunaHCKMX BoeH- 
H0-BO3aywHbix cun, pacno/ioxteHHwe Ha 6a3ax octpobob 
TyaM n 0«HHaBa n b TamiaHAe. Bo/ibwoe KO/iMnecTBo Hajie- 

TOB Ha npOTMBHWKa npOU3B0flMPOCb He TO/lbKO B KD>KHOM, HO 

m b CeBepHOM BbeTHaMe. Pacxoflw Ha Bee 3th onepaunn 
noflHjirincb flo Tpuflua™ Mun/inapflOB flo/wapoB b rofl, v, b 
KOHCpnuKTe npuHanu ynacTue coo3Hbie otphau M3 K)»hom 
Kopew. ABCTpa/iuM, TannaHfla, Hobom 3enaHAUM n c <Dia- 

TlUnnMHCKHX OCTpOBOB 

noMUMO orpoMHoro KonnnecTBa opy*HH m BoeHHoro 
CHapaaceHUH bbo3 HeBoeHHbix TOBapos b K)>i<Hbiii BbeTHaM b 
KanecTBe SKOHOMunecKow noMOiuw AOCTura/i ctommoctm 
600 mhji/imohob flo/inapoB b rofl. CneKyrwunn TOBapaMH c 
aMepuKaHCKnx ctuiaAOB CTajia pacnpocTpaHeHHbiM HB/ie- 

HlieM 

Ho ecnu aMep^KaHLjbi noMorarm caiiroHCKOMy npaBH- 
TenbCTBy, to h CoeeTCKnii C0103 BMecTe c KHP ona3biBajiM 
3HaHMTe/ibHyw noAAepatKy CeBepHOMy BbeTHaMy. CyA" no 

aBTOpHTeTHWM WCTOHHHKaM, B 1966-M TOAy 3Ta nOMOlAb 

AOCTura/ia 250-tm MunnnoHOB AonnapoB b toa ot «ax<AoS H3 
CTpaH. Kurati npucw/ia/i pic n npocroe opyaine, a H3 CCCP 
w/im rpy3oBnxi/i. caMoneTN, apTinji/iepwn u ynpasnaeMbie 
CHapnAw. fl BHAen 6onbLune CK/iaAW 6oeabix npunacoB, 
nonaBUJMx b pyKM coio3hhkob b cesephbix h ueHTpa/ibHwx 
o6nacTqx KD)KHoro BbeTHawa. MuHOMeTu n rpaHanj 6u/in 
ceBepoBbeTHaMCKoro npon3BOACTBa. CHap«Aw a^ mmho- 
MeTOB, nyneMeTw, o6MyHAMpoBaHne n puc - M3 KuTan. 
aBTOMaTw. paxeTHwe CHapsAw. apTn/inepun n rpy30BHKM - 



H3 CCCP. a XHpyprnnecKMe MHCTpyMeHTbi n MeAMKaMeHTbi 
6w/im npucnaHw H3 (lonbiun n HexocnoBaKnn. 

Ky/ibTyphas peBoniounH, HaHaBmancH e Kirrae b aBry- 
CTe 1966-ro roAa. npnae/ia k coKpameHMio nocTaaoK v\3 
KMTafl, a noMOujb CCCP yBeriMHMriacb ao OAHoro Muririiiap- 
Aa no.nnapoB 3a 1969-ii roA. 

rny6oKoe BOB/ieMeHiie aMepuKaHqea b Boiiny Bbi3Ba/io 
ujupoxoe HeAOBOJibCTBO b CIDA. KorAa aMepuKaHCKne 60- 
eBbie norepn cTann HacnuTbieaTb HecKonbxo cor y6^Tbix b 
HeAerio, to npoTecTu Hanajin npuHUMaTb ace 6oriee Macco- 
Bwti xapaKTep. 

B MapTe 1968-ro roAa npe3MAeHT Ajkohcoh npnKa3a/i 
npeKpaTMTb HarieTw Ha CeaepHMM BbeTHaM b HaAex<Ae, hto 
sto npuBeAeT k ycneujHbiM mhphum neperosopaM b riapn- 

X<e. flnfl KOMMyHUCTOB 3TOT aKT f^JKOHCOHa CTa/l CBHAeTe/lb- 

ctbom. mto CLUA BoiiHy nponrpa/in. hto ohm sto npusnaoT n 
hto. c/ieAOBaTe/ibHO. CesepHbiii BbeTHaM no6eaiin. CTano 
hcho, hto yxoA aMepuxaHueB 6yAeT paccMaTpusaTbCH KaK 
npusHaHne CoeAviHeMMbiMM LLlTaTaMn 3aK0HHocrn aaxBara 
cyBepeHHoro rocyaapcTBa noA bhaom .bomhw HaunoHa/ib- 
Horo 0CBo6o>KAeHHH. npn noMomn KOMMyHncTunecKovi koh- 
cnnpaMnu m BTopjKeHna n3BHe. 

3to BbiAa/10 6w Ha pacnpasy KOMMynncTaM twcbhh 
BbeTHaMueB. ApyxecTBeHHo HacTpoeHwx k CLUA n caiiroH- 
cxoMy npaBHTe^bCTBy. TaKoro poaa KpoBaBas pacnpaBa 
nocTwrna twcshm jdMTeneii ApeBHero ropoAa Xkjs. paccTpe- 
/iHHHbix b TeneHme ipexHeAe/ibHoii OKKynaunu ropofla kom- 
MyHUCTaMU b 1968-m roAy... 

B MWHe 1971 roAa ra3eTa .Hbio-t/lopK Ta^MC- ony6nn- 
Kosara ooiunpHyK) ceono AOKyMeHTOB. BUKpaAeHHwx H3 
OCpMUMa^lbHblX apxHBOB 6blBUJHM COTpyAHMKOM BOeHHOrO 

MUHncTepcTBa, onucwBaioiAnx MHoroneTHOio uenb Henpa- 
BuribHbix oueHOK no/ioxeHUR bo BbeTHaMe aMepMKaHCKMMM 
BoeHHWMw ia rpaxyiaHCK^Mn ao/dkhocthwmm ^nuaMM n ot- 
cyrcTBue hccthoctm co ctopohw npaenTe^bCT8a b ae/ie 
MHO^iopMauMM napnaMeHTa n o6mecTBeHHoro MHeHun otho- 
cnTe/ibHonoA/inHHorono/iox<eHHflBHHAOKHTae. >Hbio-l^opK 
TawMC vi Apyrwe raseTw HanenaTanw stm AOKyMOHTbi. HTo6bi 
noATBepA^Tb cbok) cnMnaTn» k aHTHBoeHHWM HacTpoeHM- 
hm MunnnoHOB aMepuKanueB. b nonHOii yBepeHHOCTn, hto 
KOHCTMTyunoHHbie rapaHTnn cBo6oflbi nenaTu npeAOxpaHST 
mx ot yro/ioBHoro npecneAoeaHun 3a pa3rjiaiueHne ceKpeT- 
hux AOKyMeHTOB. H b caMOM Ae/ie, 3a ncTeKiuee c Tex nop 

BpeMII HIA OAUH X<ypHa/IMCT B CBH3M C 3TMM K yrO/IOBHOM 

OTBeTCTBeHHOCTM fipuB/ieHeH He 6wn... 

HoPHOcmbio onytnuKoeaHO e anbuanaxe 
«Hoebiu KonOKona. 1971 z. 



IO/KHoebBmHaM- 


bj-* 


- J Mh ■ 




» _ _ 




CKBP AtehUUUHd 










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U3 Xl03. 






^ 






o6Hapy>KuewBa 




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meno csoezo 


* - 


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»«y»ra cpedu 




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paccmpormH- 










HblX BbBmSOH- 












zooubmu eo 




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epewi onKyna- 






^^ ^.^ 






duo eopoOa. 












1966 g. 














riOXOpOHbl 
QMGpUKaHCKOeO 

condama, 
noeuGwezo so 
Bbemtaue. hb 

Ap/IUHBWOHC- 
KOU BOBHHOU 

K/iad6ume. 
1968 e 



31 



4 



KPACHDE KOAECO 



3xeH MOHECKO 

OCME/lMBATbCq AVMATb HE TAK, KAK APVrME 




flyMaib He Tan, Kan Apy- 
rue. - 3to 3HawnT npodo 
flyMaTb. flpyrne, koto- 
pue CHMTawT, 6yflTo ohm 
AyMaioT, o6whho 6e3o 

BCflKUX pa3Mb(UJ/ieHMM 

npuHMMaoT Bee Jio3yHm 

M npn3blBW. BblHeCeHHbie 

BpeMeHeM. CosecTb npn 
3tom cnoKoima. a aeM- 
CTBUfl BbirnqflflT o6ocHOBaHHbiMM u onpaBnaHHbii.11,1... 

...HaM BCeM M3BeCTHO, MTO MMeHeM -BWCOKOrO M 

6/iaropoAHoro c/iyweHun fle/iy» mojkho coBepwaTb 
caMwe wyAOBHiMHbie npeciynneHMfl... 

EcTb MCTOpMMeCKHG C06blTMfl, KOTOpbie TaK BO/1- 

HyioT MeHfl, 6yAT0 6bi penb MAeT o Moeii co6cTBeHHoii 
cyflb6e. TaKUM 6wn HeAaBHUM yAap CoBeroB no ripa- 
re. MeHJi sto 3aj\eno no-HacToameMy. Bo MHe Bee 
HoeT, 3aMep/io e MynnTe/ibHoii TpeBore. 

Bw/iw m Apyrwe co6biTun. KOTopwe npuBOAnnn b 
OTHaflHue: HanpuMep, woHb 40-ro rofla, Koraa a Ay- 
Ma/i, mto pjw OpaHqun Bee noTepaHO, noTOMy hto 
TorAa a cnman 0panuy\«3 CBoeti poAnnoii v\ poamhom 
Bcero Mwpa; 6eccu/ibHo n cnepyin M3Aann, no/iHwii 
6eiueHCTBa, KaK 3axBatbiBajiM no/ibwy Haui/icTw m 
KpacHwe; noTOM s nyBCTBOBan, KaK MeHH saMypoBw- 
Bajin b Bep/WHCKyio CTeHy, KOTopyio B03ABwraAM Bee 
Bunie HaA Moevi ronoBoti: n 6w/i ocKop6neH Bceo6 
luum 6e3pa3Jin<HneM, KorAa yHUHTOKiinn ™6eTCKyio 
UHBM^M3aunK); a 6w/i B03MymeH, y6eAMBWMCb, mo 
BceM 6w/io HanneBaTb Ha 6eACTBna ceBepHwx m kdw- 

HWX BbeTHaMUeB H HTO OTHOUJeHMH OnpeAe/IHTlUCb 

TeM, kto Ha Mbew CTopoHe: OAHy BbeTHaMCKyw Aepes- 

HKD OKpyWHJIH BbeTKOHrOBLlbi; XMKMHU, MyWHMH, *eH- 

muH c AeTbMM Ha pyKax — Bee cowrjw HananMOM Te, 
kto caM >Ka/ioBa/icn Ha npecTynHyio oecne/ioBeHHocTb 
Apymx. 3tot OpaAyp, coAenHHuii BbeTKOHroBuaMM, 
3aMeTw/ia bo CDpaHqun jwuib «<DpaHc-cyap-, KOTopaa 
c Tex nop 06 3tom He nucana, a 6onbiue hmkto m He 

BCnOMHUfl. MOWHO n\fl npHHSTb, M0>KH0 JIM 3aiAHtAaTb 



3x<eH MoHecKO 11912-1996) - ebidaiouiuuCR ippanuyxKuu 
dpauamyps u nyCnuuucm. oduH us xnaccuxoe numepamypbi 
XX seta flyCrtUKyeubiu moKcm - (ppasuenmbi khubu \Aohbc- 
ko «npomueondun». cocmaeneHHOu us ny6nuu.ucmu»eci<ux 
cmameii. nanucaHHbix e 1968-1975 iz. 



cyAaHCKnx y6nMu. nanaMeii b Bnacppe. KpoBaBwe tu- 
paHnui •ocBo6oAMBUJMXCfl. KonoHnii m mx HOBoe pa6- 

CTBO, HaBH3aHH0e -HaUHOHajIbHOM He3aBMCMMOCTblO'? 

...CoeflMHenHbie LLlTaTw, BHyTpw cTpaHw tpM3n- 
necKM h/im Mopa/ibHO y6MBan cbomx npe3HAeHTOB. Ha 
Me>KAyHapoAHoii apeHe pa3r/iaiuaioT ceKpeTbi CBoero 
BepxoBHoro KowaHAOBaHna 11 KOMnpoMeTMpyioT yn- 
peayjeHMH, KOTopwe nx 3aiMMiuaKDT; KnccMHA«ep 3a 
Kpyrnyio cyMMy noKynaeT y BbeTHaMa wnp, KOTopwii. 
Aa«e OTMeneHHbiM Ho6eneBCKofi npeMneii, ocTaeTcn 
HeMMpOM.aKannTyntimieii. HeMHornepeAKnecBMAe- 
Te/iH, H3 Tex, hto cnoxBaTunncb b nocneAHiOK) MUHyry, 
eABaocMe/iHBaioTCfl, po6KoocMeniiBaiOTcn. ecrw mo>k- 
ho TaK CKa3aTb, pa3o6nanaTb A^KTaTypy, 6e3«a/iocT- 
Hyio nonnTMMecKyio u SKOHOMnnecKyio x<ecTKocTb pe- 
wnMa, CMeHMBiuero aMepuKancKyio -KoppyrmMK)*... 

...He eAMHOJKAW b jkmshm MeHfl nopa>Kana pe3Kan 
nepeweHa b tom. hto mo>kho 6wno 6w na3BaTb o6me- 
CTBeHHbiM MHeHneM, ero 6btCTpaa 3BonK>unfl, cwna 
ero 3apa3MTenbHOCTM, cpaBHMMan c noA^MHHoii snw- 
AeMneii. A^By AaeujbCfl, KaK cpunoco4)bi n >KypHa/in- 
CTM, npeTeHAyKJLAne Ha opurMHaxibHyio cpunococpiiK), 
npuHUMaioTCfl ToriKOBaTb 06 •hcthhho MCTopunecKOM 

MOMBHTe-... 

...R AO/iro HeroAOBan Ha )KaHa rio^fl CapTpa 3a 
to, hto oh noBe/i cppaHqy3CKyKD MHTe/i^nreHunK) no 
no>KHOMy nyTn. Ho bot coBceM HeAaBHO noHfl/i , hto oh 
BOBce m He 6bui BO>KAeM n B/iacTHTeneM AyM, a 6wn 
npocTOOTpa)KeHMeM,OT6necKOMonpeAeneHHoroypoB- 
Hfl o6mecTBeHHoro co3HaHMfl... 

...MnpoBoe «co3HaHne- 6w/io B03MymeH0 TeM, 
hto io>KHOBbeTHaMCKMe cojiAaTH CwnM OAeTbi b aMepn- 
KaHCKyio cfopMy w CMAe/iw Ha aMepviKaHCKnx TaHKax. 
Ho to we caMoe co3HaHMe pyKon/iecKano tim6o npo- 
cto He 3aMenajio coBeTCKnx TaHKOB, cobotckhx aBTo- 
MaTOB, coBeTCKOM (popMw y co/iAaT CeBepHoro BbeT- 
HaMa... 

...B Bw6ope Me>wiy cypoBOM npaBAoii 11 MAeono- 
rwev\ npeAnoHTuiTenbHoii OKa3biBaeTCfl MAeonorna... 
He ceroflHfl-3aBTpa y B/iacTM OKawyTCfl 3^afl boah m 
jiowb. Ecjim To/ibKO He npon30MAeT nyAa. H nyAO sto 
MoweT cnynnTbCfl TonbKO nocne KpyiueHMfl, bo3mo>k- 
Horo 8cerAa, HeBeponTHoro. ho B03MowHoro Kpyuje- 
Hun coBeTCKoro o6iyecTea. 



ECAM BbeTHaMCKyHD BOMHy CHUTaTb HaCTbK) BOMHbl npOTMB K0MMyHH3Ma, TO OHa UeilUKOM 

onpaaoaHa... 

Xopxe Jlyuc Bopxec, apreHTMHCxuH nucarejib h cpnnococp 



4 KPYTOH MAPUlPyT BbETHAMA 



39 




OE HEEO 



BaA^M y/iy-xAH 

COBHTCKHB 3GHMT l IHKM B AWpr'AHX 

BbeTHaMa npoTNB CUIA n... XaHon 

Koraa Bbiciune pyKOBOflnTenn CTpaHbi roeopnT o bo- 
3o6HOB/ieHnn npe»Heii flpy*6bi c BbeTHainoM, ohm npocro 
yManmiBaioT o tom. mto hmchho flpyw6bi n ne 6bino. BbeT- 
HaM npodo ncnonb30Ban CCCP b cbomx Mmepecax... 

BoKTn6pe 64-ro roaa b Cobbtckom Coio3e npoMsow- 
na CMOHa BnacTn B pe3ynbT3Te 3aro8opa napTMiiHO -npa- 
BHTenbCTBeHHoii sepxyujKM riepBbiM ceKpeTapb UK KI1CC m 
npeflceaaienb CoBeTa Muhmctpob Hmkmts XpymeB 6wn 
CMemeH. Bo maBe napinn CTan /leoHMfl BpeaweB 

CMena BHeiiiHenonnTM^ecKoro xypca CCCP 03HaMa- 
na ycnjieHne KOH(ppoHTaunw c sparoM HOMep oahh - c 
CoeflMHeHHbiMn UJTaTaMn AMepuKM. K MOMeHTy tmxoto 
nepeBopoTa b KpeMne aMepwoHCKMe conaaTbi yme Bbica- 
flunMCb Ha TeppnTopnn lOwHoro BbeTHaMa. a 6oM6apan- 
posmnKn CUJA HaHecnn nepBwe yaapw no TeppnTopnn 
couuafiHCTimecKoro CeBepHoro BbeTHaMa. 

CTapbiii flpyr CcmeTCKoro Coio3a opTOAOKca/ibHbiii 
KOMMyHncT Xo liln Mmh y>Ke o6pamancfl k Xpymesy c 
npocb6ow nodaBHTb BbeTHaMy HOBetitune BoopyweHHS 
arm oTpaweHMH aMepm<aHCKMx aTax. OflHaKo HnKura Xpy- 
aieB, HayMeHHwii ropbKHM onuTOM Kapn6cxoro Kpn3nca. He 
pewuncsi noiiTu Ha npsiMOM KOHcpnwa co LUTaTaMu. KpoMe 
roro, CCCP ywe Hec thwkhm rpy3 BoeHH0-3KOH0MMsecK0M 
noMOUiM apa6«HM CTpaHaM CMeHMBtiiMM Xpymeaa Epew- 
neB 6bin b 3tmx aonpocax MeHee meneTuneH. K TOMy >Ke. 
ecnw 6bi CCCP He dan noMoraTb xaHoiicKOMy pewMMy. ero 

pOtlb B MeiKflyHapOflHOM KOMMyHMCTMMeCKOM flBMlKeHMH 

pe3KO coKpaTHnacb 6w - BbeTHaMy 3ktiibho noMoran Km- 
Taii. KuTaii nojibaoaancs HeorpaHimeHHbiM BnnnHneM na 
ceBepoBbeiHaMCKnx KOMMyHHCTOB. B MTore KpeMneBCKne 
noriMTMKH m wfleonorn npmunM k BbiBOAy. mto BbeTHaMy 
noMOHb Haflo. CoBeTCKMii C0103 OTKpbuo aaflBun CBoei* 
noanepjKxe cesepoBbeTHaMCKux cowshmkob. 

Ha XXIII cto3ac KnCC BpewHee 3asBnn: «Ocyme- 
ctbjihh acxanauwo nocrbiflHort bomhw npoTUB BbeTnaMc- 
koto Hapoaa. arpeccopw BCTpeTRTcn co Bee B03paciato- 
wew noaaepwKoii BbeTHaMy co ctopohw CoBeTcxoro Co- 
103a*. 

3th cnoBa 6binn BCTpeneHbi annoflncMeHTaMM. Ho 
/inujbHeMHorMeB3arieflBopuaCi.e3flOB3Hann.MTocoBeT- 
CKMe 36HMTMMKM yme BeflyT THttenwe h M3HypnTenbHbie 6om 
c aMepwoHuaMM Eiue 3a roaao ctesaa KOMaHanpw paaa 
coBeTCKnx 3eHHTHwx paKeTHwx nacre* nonynnnM npw<a3 
noa rpucpow «CoBepujeHHo CeKpeTHO»: 6e30TnaraTe/ibHO. 
b cpomhom nopflAxe cipopMnpoBaTb M3 nymuMX conaaT w 
oo^nuepoB rpynnw on" HeceHnq cnyx6bi na ore b ycnoBM- 
sx, MaKCMManbHO npn6nn>KeHHbix k 6oeBWM 

CeBepHbiii BbeTHaM noflBeprancn 5oM6apflnpoB«aM 
CUJA c 5 asrycTa 64 roaa. B 3tot *e aeHb BbeTHaMCKMe 
3eHMTHMKM OTKpbinM cHeT c6nTbiM caMoneTaM. B Hanane 65 



rona HaMancn 3Tan HeorpaHimeHHOM B03nyujH0ii BOiiHbi 
HaneTw ciann noMTM e*eflHeBHbiMM. AMepuxaHUbi Bnep- 
Bbie ncnonb30Bann cTpaTern4ecxnvi 6oM6apflnpoBiynK 
B-52. B HaneTax npuHMMann ywacTue m 3H3MeHMTbie caMO- 
neTbi 0-4 «<I)aHTOM». 

B anpene 65-ro roaa aMepuKanuu BnepBwe BCTpe- 
Tunncb b B03flyxe c BbeTHaMcxuMM neTMUKaMM. nepBbiii 
HacTomuMii 6om npon30Ujen 9 anpenn. 4 MCTpe6tiTenn 

Mnr-17 BCTpeTMnHCb C BOCbMbK) «<t>aHTOMaMM». Boii 6blP 

CKopoTeneH. B pe3yribTaTe caMoneT aMepuKaHCKoro neii- 
TeHaHTa MapcpM 6bin c6mt. 



Baduu Yny-XaH - o6o3peeamerib uxcpoDwauuo^Hoeo 
azeHmcmea nllpecc-ueHmpo http://www.press-centr.ru 




Qx<ynznu - 6bom«a*ic«ue. peKewbi - coeemexue... 
0omo U3 mypuana eCoeemcKan MemjjjHat. 



41 



4 KPACHQE KOJIECI 




"Boeeou pacvem daeyuiex-jeHumvuu ompnda cauoo6opoHbi 

eceada nsweKy» - nodnuct, nod <pomoepa0ueu 

e coeemcKou npecce. 

BaanbHenujeM B03flyujHbie Son Meayiy BbeTHaMua- 
mm n awepmOHuaMM CTanu perynnpHbiwn. n Haao npn- 
3Ha"b BbeTHar.icKne neTMUKn. o6yMaBiunecs 3 coBeTcxux 
yveSHbix 3aBeaeHnnx m ncnonb30BaBiDne coBeTCKyio h km- 
raMCKyio TexHMKy. noKa3ann ce6n c caMoii nynujeii cropo- 
Hw. Ho ace we bo3mo*hoctm CeBepHoro BbeTHaMa 6binn 
KpaiiHe orpaHH^eHHbiMH - caMoneTOB 6wno scero Hecxoxib- 
KO fleCSTKOB, M B TaXHX yOlOBHHX TOBOpHTb cepbeaHOM 
conpoTHBneHUH 6b/io Tpyano. AwepuKaHUbi npaKTunecKn 
6ecKOHTponbHo 6om6wim npoMuwreHHwe u B06HHM6 
o6beKTw fleMOKpaTunecKOii Pecny6nw<n BbeTHaM Oanaxo 
24 mora 1965 rofla b nnTnaecHTu xnnoMeipax BOCTOHHee 
XaHon Bosne aepeBHM MyHrxa npon30iuno HeopauHapHoe 
co6biTne - nepBbiti 6om 3eHMTHbix paKeTHwx pacneTOB co 
CBepx3ByxoBbiMn caMoneiaMM B STOTaeHb 6binn yHMHTO- 
weHbi 399, 400 m 401 -ii caMoneTbi CUJA. M caenanw 3to 

COBeTCKMe 3eHMTHMKM. 

Bo BbeTHaM 6binn nociaBneHbi HOBertuwe no roMy 
BpeMenn aeHtiTHo-paxeTHbie xoMnnexcbi C-75. CoBeTcxne 
cneunanncTbi Bbipa6oTann opwrnHanbHyio TaxTHxy: yaapw 
no caMoneTaM npoTnBHMxa H3 sacaa. noTOM - 6biCTpbiM 
OTxofl na 3apanee 3aroTOBneHHbie no3nu.nn. 

Hoeeiiujafl Taicnixa 3BHHTHbix noapasae/ieHHM CTana 
a/if aMepuKaHueB noriHoii HeownaaHHOCTbio. A pe3xo B03- 
pocoine norepn 3acTaBnnn cpomho Bbipa6aTbiBaTb Mepw 
npoTMBoaeiicTBMH Bo BbeTHaMe BnepBbie 6binn wcnorib- 
30BaHbi npoTMBopaaapHbie paxeTbi «ujpaiix» CoBeTcxwe 
cneu^anncTbi b xpaTHartwiie cpoxn pa3pa6oTann cxeMy 
6opb6bi c hobwm opywueM. 

Bon uinn eweaHeBHo PaxeTMMKM Hapymann Bee npe- 
aycMOTpeHHwe TexHonornn n yciaBHbie Tpe6oBaHMP - Ha- 
CTomaan BoiiHa Bnocnna cboh xoppexTMBbi. Ho Tswenee 
Bcero 6bino mourn*. Pe6nTa H3 ceeepHovi CTpaHbi c TpyaoM 
npnBbixann k TponimecxoMy xnnr/aTy Ho aepwanwcb H 
HeKOTopwe M3 hmx CTaewnH caoeo6pa3Hbie BoeHHbie pe- 
Kopabi.TaKpacMeTnoflnonKOBHMKaOeaopaHjibMHbJXc6nn 
24 spawecKMX caMoneTa B wnpe HeT hh oaHoro 3eHHTHnxa. 
nMetomero Taxne noxa3aTenw. CoBeTcxne h BbeTHaMcxne 
seHHTHwe pacneTbi c6nnn 6onee twcahm caMoneroB npo- 
THBHnKa. BbeTHaM dan csoeo6pa3HbiM no/woHOM ana 

MCnblTaHMfl HOBbiX RM/IOR OpyWMB B 6oeBOM o6CT3H0BKe 

npesocxoaHO noxasann ce6n coBeTcxne 3PK. Ha hx aonio 
npnxoamcfl 6onbiuaji nacTb c6mbix caMoneTOB. Kax Bbinc- 
Hnnocb. aodaTOHHo 3(poJ)eKTMBHO pa6oTana n CTBO/ibHas! 
apmnnepnfl. BbeTHaMCxne Murn 3aMaHMBariM npoTHBHnxa 
b 30Hy aeiicTBMB apTnnnepnMCxnx ycTaHOBox, a BbeTHaMc- 
Kne HaBoaMMKM Bceraa OTnnnanncb MeTKOCTbio... 

B to we BpeMn He ece 6bino Tax rnaaKO. xax xoTenocb 
6w. BbeTHaMCKMe pyxoBoanTe/iM otkpwto nrpann Ha npoTn- 



sopewn8x CCCP n KuTas. 3acTaBnsf< «CTapwero 6paTa» 
HapaiynsaTb nocTaBKM opywun n npoaoBonbCTBMn. Ha 80 
npoueHTOB BbeTHaM 6bin o6ecneneH npoayKuneti mmchho 
coBeTcxoro nponseoacTBa. 

B ClilA acepbes paccywaanw o cobbtckom axcnaHcnn 
b KDro-BocTOMHOM A3nn, ho HnxoMy n b ronoBy npniiTH He 
Morno. 4To CCCP Bxa^MBaeT MnnnnapawaonnapoB b CTpa- 
ny. Haxoa^iayiocw noa nonnTMHecKMM ennsHneM 3neiiujero 
epara CCCP - KuTan. KcraTM. KtiTaw Towe ce6sj He 3a6w- 
Ban. Tax xax 6onbiuasi nacTb BoopyweHnii ujna M3 CCCP no 
>xene3HOtiaoporeHepe3 «noflHe6ecHyio», xnTaiiubi npocTO 
npMxapMaHMBanM MacTb BoeHHbix rpy30B, Boopywancb 3a 
Ham cneT. 

flocTaTOHHO noaneHbxo aeiicTBOBann BbeTnaMuw b 
OTHomeHMM coBercxnx MopHKOB. JlouMaHbi Haaoannn ko- 
pa6nn coBeTcxoro Toprosoro dpnoTa Ha MUHHbie nonn Hpw 
noaxoae Kopa6nfl k nopTy BbeTHaMqw oxpywann ero nnoTa- 
mm c ycTaHOBneHHbiMM Ha hux 3eHMTHbiMM nyneMeTaMM Kax 
Tonbxo b B03flyxe nonsrisnncb aMepnxaHcxne caMoneTbi. 
3eHHTHnxn n3-noa 6optob coseTcxnx xopa6new OTxpwBann 
oroHb, cnpaBeafiHBO nonaras. hto 6oM6a ynaaeT, CKopee. 
Ha xopa6nb... 

Uenbio Taxnx npoBoxauiiii 6bino BTnrnBaHne CCC> 3 b 
OTxpbtTbiM xoH0rnxT c CUJA. Mea<ay TeM 3MepnxaHcxne 
nunoTbi nMenn ctpoxomlumm np^xa3 hm b xoeM cnywae He 
6oM6nTb coBeTcxne o6texTbi. 

Bee BpeMn bo BbeTHaMe tuna 6opb6a cesepoBbeT- 
HaMcxoii KOHTppa3Beflxn c pa3Beaxoti coBeTcxoii. flo6MTb- 
cs coBeTcxoMy oo^inuepy npocTO nonpucyTCTBOBaTb Ha 
aonpoce nneHHoro aMepnxamia 6bino aeriOM npo6neMa- 
tuhhhm. BbeTHaMuw Tax)Ke aenann Bee. HTo6bi He aonyc- 
TUTb coaeTCKHx cneunanncTOB ao c6mtwx aMepuxaHcxnx 
caMoneTOB. xota oto y»e Hapyiuano MewrocyaapcTBeH- 
Hwe cornaujeHMH. 

TaxviM bot 6biro Hauie «6oeBoe 6paTCTBO»... 
B caMux Coea^HeHHbix UJiaiax HapacTana BonHa 
npoTecTa npoTna 6eccMbicneHHo(i bomhw MHoroMwcneH- 
Hwe aeMOHCTpau,un Hepeaxo 3axaHHneanncb cxBaTKaMM c 




CoeemcKue eoeHHbie cneuuanucmbi eo BbemHaue. 60-e aodts 
Oomo U3 /7UWM020 apxuea <D. MntuHbix («Co6ecedmjK») 



4 



KPyTDH MAPUIPYT BbETHAMA 



41 



nonMuuen Pe3epBMCTbi c>Knrann cbom noBecTxw. npe3M- 
fleHT Hmkcoh to oTAaean npMK83 npeKpaTMTb 6om6gw km. to 
npnKa3WBan coeepiuaTb HOBwe B03AywHbieHaneTbi. Haxo- 
Heu 27 AHBapn 73-ro roAa b napn»e 6bino noanncaHO 
cornatueHne Mexyiy XaHoeM n BawHHrroHOM o npenpame- 
hmh ornn n Bbiaoae aMepMKaHCKnx bomck n3 BbeTHawa 

flo cmx nop ocTaeTcn otkpwtwm eonpoc o npucyT- 

CTBMM COBeTCKHX BOeHHblX CneUMariMCTOB M pa3BeflMMKOB B 

AwyHrnax KDwHoro BbeTHaMa. 

Cnyxn roBopnT o tom, mto K5)KHee 17-* napannemi 
neiicTBOBanM rpynnw coeeTcxax cneuHasoBueB. CxaxeM. 
6wewnii MopcKovi nexoTHHeu, a Hune 3H3MeHHTbiii nyTewe- 
CTBeHHUK QeAop Kohioxob npn3HaeT. mto Bbino/iHsn cneun- 
anbHbie 3aaaHnn bo BbeTHaMe 

TeM He MeHee, ocpnunanbHo yTBepjKflaeTcn, mto hm 

0.-U1H COBeTCKMM RDeHHblH MopnK He npuHuwan yMar.TMn BO 
BbeTH3MCK0M BOMHe 

no6eaa coBeTCKoro opywMB B A^yHrnnx BbeTHaMa m 
nocTOBHHoe cooercKoe Boennoe npMcyrcTBue b pornone 
nsMennno paccTaHOBKy cun. 

BbeTHaM cMen 3a nyMwee APy*HTb c CCCP. a He c 
KuTaeM. CoBeTCKOMy CoK)3y aa*e 6biria npeaociaBneHa 
BoeHHO-MopcKaw 6aaa b KaMpaHM. 



Bpax<Ae6HbiM CoaeTCKOMy Coto3y KuTavi CTan 6onee 
ocTopoweH B cbomx npeTeH3usix k 6biRiuPMy BennKOf.'y APy- 
ry - Tenepb y Hero b Tbiny ctoswh npeeocxoAno o6yMeHHbie 
n 3aKaneHHbie b 6ohx BbeTHaMcxae nac™. a b KaMpaHM 
nocTOflHHO Aewypunn 3CKaApnnbn cobctckhx caMoneTOB n 
6oeBbie KopafinH. KMTaii npo6oBan npoaepnTb BbeTHaM Ha 
npoMHOCTb 1 7 0eBpan» 79-ro roAa TorAa b nonnnToro yTpa 
KMTaMCKo-BbeTHaMCKan rpaHnua Ha BceM ee npoTsweHMM 
fibina aTaxoBana 160-TbicnMHoii KUTartcxou apMuew Ho 
xnTawubi 6e3HaAe>KHO yBH3nvi b npurpaHUMHbix 6osx, a b 
6ohx 3a ropoA JlaHrwoH noTepnenn coxpywHTenbHoe nopa- 
weHMe. ripuMeM Ha otot pa3 BbeTHawubi o5oujnncb 6e3 
HenocpeACT8eHHoro yMacTun cobctckhx conaaT 

Bo BpeMfl bohhu bo BbeTHaMe b 6ohx yMacTBoeanvi 
cothh coBeTCKMx 3eHMTHMK0B. BoeHHan Hayxa o6oraTnnacb 

HOBbIMM TaKTMMeCKHMM HOBMHKaMM H, Ka3anOCb 6bl, aMe- 

pHxaHUbi BceMy Mupy npenoAann ypoK Toro. mto He HaAO 
BBH3biBaTbcs b 6e3HaAe>KHyio eoiiHy. Kto-kto, a CoBeTCKw* 
Cok>3 Aonwen 6bin 5bi ycBOHTb neMaribHbiH aMepuKaHCKmi 
onwT. Ho 3Toro He npon30wno H ao AqbranncTaHa ocTaBa- 
nocby>Ke coBceM HeMHoro... 



Baneputi Kyn/1EBAXCKW/I 

cfBhETHaMCKHB TaNHhln 



UxeQMcy PoOepmy Buuiony 

...riocne nonBneHMH momx «3anHC0K» oco6mct n3 4-ro 
TnaBHoro ynpaeneHUH MuHMCTepcisa oBopoHw. a MbeM 

nOAMMH6HMM B HaxOAMnCB, yAUBnBHHO CnpaiUMBa/l M6Hfl: 

- KaxnM sto o6pa30M tboa cfeaMHroiH Morna oxasaTb- 
cs pnAOM co cnoBOM «BbeTHaM»? CornacHO AnpexTUBe 
Asa Hynn TaKOH-To oto KaTeropMMecKM 3anpemeHo! Xoth, 
KOHeMHO. Bac c stom AnpexTHBoii He SHaxoMnnn. ohb wna 
no Haiueii nnHnn... OMOHb CTpaHHO... 

Ha 3aiaae MeHH, xameTCH, lepenena isma/iM. h HMMe- 
ro M3 aToro He BMA6X1, He nbiTancn. Aa m ne Mor yanAeTb 
OAHa>KAbi Ha cny>«6y no3BOHnnn m <Dotoxpohmkm TACC M 
nonpocunn xaKne-nn6o <J)OTorpa<pmi. xaixeTCH . arm « lUrep- 
Ha» fl MyBCTBOBar. mto euie Hewuoro - m a nepenonHW 
HbK3-TO Maiuy TepneHns m mhom Koe-xro 3aMHTepecyeTcs 
scepbe3. rioaTOMy n no3BOHnn TOMy we oco6ncTy m cnpo- 
cwn, xaK mhb nocTynMTb. Otbot 6bin nceH, n 4>0ToxpoHMxa 
ero yc/iwiuana ot mchh. 

- Mw apyroro OTBeTa v\ He ownAann. 

..rioTOM Hananacb noAroTOBKa khwwkm b MsaaTerib- 
CTBe «MonoAan rBapAM«». UK n Mltfl (He noMHio. kto b 
5oribiueii CTenenn) npoTusunncb ee noflsneHMK). PeAaian- 
poBan KHMJKxy b M3AaTeribCTBe nownnofi MenoBeK. Kuce- 
neB. nposenujMii. xax oxasanocb, Bee toaw btopom mmpo- 
aoti BoiiHbi b RnoHnn b KopnyHKTe TACC, mto Ann MeHS 
dBunocb OTxpoBeHvieM (xopnyHxr TACC ao BpeMfl bomhw b 
CTpaHe «ocm» PnoHnn!). KMceneB 6wn nacTpoeH ohthmm- 
CTunecKn: 

- *axT npucyTCTBUfl Haiunx BoeHHwx bo BbeTHaMe 
ywe o6HapoAOB3H b «3HaMeHM», aUssecTWHxo, uOroHb- 
Ke», Aawe Ha 3anaAe ripendTCTBUM ne AonwHo 6wTb. 

Xots h oh yAHBriHncfl, xax see sto npoxoanno Mepes 
soeHHyo ueH3ypy n TnaBHUT ao cmx nop. 



BepcTxy khmmckm L|K h MUfl Bee He BMSwpOBann (a ee 
TyAa nocwnann, MT06W y6na>«MTb ueH3opos TnaBniiTa), h 
c OTMasHun Hanncan CycnoBy b nonnT6iopo: «rny6o<oyBa- 

JKaeMbllM... C KOMMyHMCTHMBCKHM npHBOTOM.. » OTTyAa Heo- 

npeAeneHHO Ana MeHH m anonHe onpeAeneHHO An" n3aa- 
TenbCTBa OTBeTunw ycTHO (nucbMeHHbiM OTxa3 Heribss 6wno 
o6bacHMTb HHMeM). Ha6op paccwnaTiM, pucynxM BepHynn 
xyAOKHHuy. M3AaTenbCTB0 nwTanocb eepHyTb aBaHC. xoto- 
pwiii n A3BH0 yixe nponan... 

...ripouino TptiAuaTb neT KaixeTCH, MOKHO acnoMM- 
Hatb. He cipaoiacb hm rocyAapcTBeHHOM. hm BoeHHOM ueH- 
sypw, He onacascb pa3rnacnTb cexpeTw nonnwHHenH. 

Haiua rpynna M3 HecxoribKMx 0(pnuepoB-iiH>KeHepoB - 
xannTaHoa, Maiiopoa vi noanonxoBHHxa - OTnpaBunacb bo 
BbeTHaM b aBrycTe 1967 roAa. Mbi npeACTaBnsnn «Mery- 
mo» - 4-e TnaaHoe ynpaBneHne MuHwcTepcTea o6opOHbi, 
McnuTaTenbHwe paKOTHue nornroHbi b KanycTMHOM Hpe m 
Ha Banxaiue n KannnnHcxHM HayHHO-nccneAOBaTenbCKnii 
MHCTMTyT Boiicx nBO. L|enn rpynnw BHanane 6t>inn aHa/iM- 

TMMeCKMe - BWHCHMTb H3 MBCTe npMMMHbl. Ka3anOCb. K3Ta- 

CTpocpMMecxHx Heyaan Haiunx 3eHWTHO-paxeTHbix xoMn- 
nexcoB (ouenxa HayaribCTBa b Coo3e: «M3 BbeTHaMa co- 
o6max3T, mto eweAHeBHo pacxoAyioTCJi AecnTxn paxeT n hm 




Peciem Oatrtapeu ebemHawcKoec 
3BHumno-pai<emHoio KOMrvwKca. 



42 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 



11 noHMMaeM, TonbKo He cxoahmch bo Bsrnaaax), ho Hac 
csn3biBaeT CTapoe xaMpaaciBo. Haw bcbm oamaKOBo Hyw- 
aa MbineLUHnn upoHUHHan nonynpasaa o Hac <\ y« OTxpo- 
aeHHO o6nflno MonnaHMe o tom, hto 3Ty-To BOMny BbeTHaM- 
Ubi Bbinrparn. Bwurpann y AMepMKM. A uu nowornn Bb6T- 
HaMuaM. 

9, CMOTpen b unnioMMHaTop. n xoraa mm noanuManMCb 
Haa»Ke/iTo-3eneHb(Mii oKpecTHOCTSMM riexMHa, n raraa 36M- 



oaHoroc6nToroaMepnKaHua»);3aieM. nooBcTaHOBxe, uenn 
Hauiw pacojupunncb. xoth nx pacujnpeine. npaBaa. CMyr- 
ho. npeanonaranocb 3apaHee HaM HywHO 6wno npMKpw- 
Tue. (Ot Koro? CKopee Bcero, ot xMTaMuee. TiyaTeribHO 
cneanBuiMX 3a ocew. hto aenaiOT bo BbeTHaMe coBeTcxne 
P6BM3M0HMCTM.) 

Rn« aToro nawy rpynny BxniOHnnn b coct3b 6pnraaw 
«aopa6oTsnKOB» - MOHTawHMKOB, npeacTaBMTeneM reHe- 
panbHwx KOHCTpyirropoB paKeTHOM CMCTeMH m caMOM paxe- 
tw m BoeHnpeaoB m KanydwHa flpa. - 6pnraaw, xoTopaa 
aonxHa 6bina b xoae Boeawx aeMCTBMM MoaepHM3npoBaTb 
naujH aeHHTHO-paKeiHbie xOMnnexcw C-75 «flB«Ha» KoMn- 
nexcbi npnBe3nn bo BbeTHau BMecTe c cobbtckhmh pacne- 
t3mm - conaaTaMM m oqonuepaMn - eiye b Hana/ie bomhw hb 
BbenaMCKOM Ceaepe 

«Pyccxtix bo BbeTHaMe HeT» -3To6bino, 6e3ycnoBHO, 
ana HameM annnoMaTnn, armnpcna n ana nac caMnx. 
..oxoanQLunxcfl TaM. Mbi Sunn (flame n 3Toro He npoHSHOcn 
Bcnyx) y MMtpunecKoro «3axa3nnxa 075». Tax we tohho, xax 
Hac co CBoew 6oeBOii tcxhukom ao 3Toro He 6wno b lOrocna- 
bmm, b KuTae, b Kopee npn CTannne b 40-x m b Hanane 50- 
x roaoB, Ha Ky6e npn Xpyuiese a csmom Harare 60-x 

O HaaiHx neT^Mxax b Kopee npexpacHO 3Hann m b 
CoK)3e, n b AMepuxe, ho hx hb aorwHO fj D ino TaM SbiTb, u 
noTOMy mx TaM HMxoraa He 6wno . O Ky6e 6bino eme 
MeHbtue CBeaeHMii. ho ohh Bee >xe npocannBanncb b cny- 
•-aMHbix npuBaTHbix pa3'OBopax 

npii paccK33ax o BbeTHaMe y momx co6eceaHnxoB ao 
cmx nop oxpyrnaioTca rnasa. 

Bee, KOHenHO, saTMnnn BeHrpMa b 1956-m. Mexocno- 
eaxMa b 1968-m h, HaxoHeu, AqbranncTaH. nero cxpuTb ywe 
6wno Henb3fl. 

ErnneT. 1/leMeH, Cupun. Upax, P.MBna. HurepuH. CoMa- 
xim, 3cpnonnn. AHrona. riepy, MnanH... 06 mctmhhoh boch- 
hom reorpacJjuM noapo6HO SHaior numb Te. xto caM nyTewe- 
CTBOBan, n Te. kto CHapaixan b 3NCnSAKUMH. - «aecflTKa», 
10-e TnaBHoe y ipauiieHne TeHiiiTaOa. 

CnexTp BoeHHoro Haxana - ot npocToro o6yneHnn 
My*nx bomck nn/\ nocTasox TexHuxn ao npoMoro ynacTnq b 
eoeewx aencTBunx - ujupox, a CTeneHb coaeTcxovi 3axpbiTo- 
cth Bceraa Aoxoanna ao kommhhoctm. 

C nopbl flriUHHOM BbeTHaMCKOM BOMHbl (tohho Taxoii »e 

no3opnoM no pe3ynbTaTaM n nocneacTBunM a/i" AwepuxM. 
xax m AipraHnciaH ana Hac) npooi.no mhoto epeMOHM. mbi 
CTanM apyrnMM, ho s He CTpaaao aMHe3neM, a OMeHb xopo- 
ujo noMHio ce6s aeaauaTHBOCbMnneTHUM xantiTaHOM. He- I 
aaBHHM nHweHepoM-ncnbiTaTeneM, nonHUM HeHaBMCTM k 
npoTHBHMxy m ncnoriHeHHbiM Mcxpennero conyBCTBua x hm- 
ojhm BbeTHaMuaM, soioioiaMM sa cbokj caMocTonTenbHocTb. 
OanH sua aMepuxaHCKoro (Jjnara Ha BbtcTaaxe nx HaynHO- 
TexHunecxnx ycnexoB b CoxonbHuxax npuBoann MeHa b 
cocToaHne Tuxoro 6eiaeHCTBa. Tenepb a 6e33no6HO, xot« m 
yauBnnscb caM ce6e. noJxuMaxj pyxy awepuxaHcxoMy non- 
KOBHuxy b seneHOM 6epeie Ha nnomaau CseoanoBa noa 
•laMATHUKOM Mapxcy b aeHb Haiunx eweroAHbix seTepaHC- 
kmx BCTpen «b ajecTb nacoe Benepa nocne BOMHbi» 5 asry- 
CTa KcTaTM. xax yxoanT HenaBHCTb?.. 

Mbi. 6r>iB'jjne «3CB33c», CBC. coaercKMe BoeHHbie 
cneunanncTbi. y>xe Hanann Bbiiynpaib, ceroana y>xe He Bee 
mu, noxa ocraQujiiecn. noHMMaeM apyr apyra (mojkbt 6=iTb 




Bouubi ompfida caMOo6opoHbi pa36upaion 
ocmanKu c6umoeo cauonema 

na cxpwnacb aa o6naKaMM. noxo>XMMn Ha orpoMHyto nywy 

MbinbHOU neHbi 

BpeMa ujno MeaneHHO. Tax MeanenHo, xax. HaBepnoe, 
naer eme BpeMa, n3MepneMoe necoMHbiwn nacavin nenn 
necHM CTK>apaeccbi-u3aoc})aHM ConHue MeaneHHO onycxa- 
nocb k np^HMMano ubst pacxaneHHOro MeaHoro n^Taxa. 
rioTOM He6o 6wno nepHbiM; xax 6pbi3rn hwctom kpobm, Ha 
HeM anenn naTHa bwcoxmx nepucTwx o6naKOB. 

rioa h3mm ywe 6bin BbeTHaM. 

Kaaanocb CTpaHHWM: Tonbxo B^epa uu roBopiinn o 
neM, roTOBacb x noneTy , a ceMnac oh y>xe 6wn noa HaMM, Ha 
3Ty seMriK) ywe mojkho 6bino cTynnTb nnn ynacTb BMecTe c 
caMoneTOM:o6naxa. xoTopbieanennceiiHacaannnioMMHa- 
TopoM, nrbinn y*e Haa BbeTHaMOM. ohm npo.nnBanncb 
aoixaaMM y>xe Ha BbeTHaMCxyo 3eMno. m sto ywe mmchho 
saecb 6bina nonb. bo BbeTHaMe. 

Ana Hac cny>t<6a bo BbeTHaMe ywe HaManacb, m c 
6opTa caMonera sto awrrmaeno Tax: nepHoe He6on Bcnwiu- 
kh. na cexynay BbiceemiBaiomne ayTwe o6naxa. 

CTioapaeccbi-xMTaaHXM neriM cbom necHM v\ pa3Hocnnn 
curapeTbt. bmho m BnaiKHue MaxpoBwe cancpeTKM. riaTMMM- 
Hy-Hbie arnTKOHuepTbJ3axaHMMBajincb3apaBMuaMn BnecTb 
npeaceaaTena Mao. Xpynxue aeByiuxn yribi6anncb. nnua 
nx 6necTenM ot noTa. Ohm yMyapanwcb b y3X0M npoxoae 
Moxay xpecnaMM ncnonHSTb eme m arMTTaHuw c cfcnaraMM 
m uMTar HMK3MH a apxo-KpacHux BMHMnoBbix o6no>KKax. HauiM 
MOHTaiKHMKM yxpaAKOM oaiynuBanM 3K30tmh6Ckmx pesonio- 
UMOHepox m Tpe6oBariM BUHa. 

B nepepuBax Meway KOHuepTaMM o6pa3uosoM 6pnra- 
au o6pa3uoBoro OTpaaa _3aocpaHePi nexiiHCKoroasponop- 
Ta b canoHe HaapMBanacb TpaHcnamia. My aaBHo ywe He 
cribiiuanM a tbxom xonMnecTBe neceH o CianwHe h so/iona- 
bbcxmx aHax, 3Ta My3wxa b CoxDae yjxe xieT aectiTb Hasaa 
6eciayMH0 MCMe3/ia c paano flonoMxa MarHMroo>OHa 6wna 
BCTpenena oao6pnTenbHUM rynoM, ho MecTo MarHMTO(J)o- 
Ha 3aHanu Monoabie pe6aTa, 6omko roBopMsoine no-pyc- 

CKM. 

... B orpoMHOM riexMHcxoM MeixayHapoanoM aaponop- 
Ty, nocTpoeHHOM b xoae xynbTypHOM peaoniOLiMM. Hac noca- 
annM b eauHCTBenHbiM oxa3aeaiMiica na xoay Hn-18 - Becb 
KMraMCKMM rpaxcaaHCKMM ipnor CToan Ha npMxone: abioien 
pecypc aBuraTeneii, a ms Coiosa HOBbie nepecTanM nocTaB- 
naTb. 

-flOHTTM, - CMeerca conaaTMx, npoTarMBaa MHe MaHM- 
ok. - Maii 6aw Mm - xst! JlMeHco - 33T tot! 

Haao noHMMaTb, hto aMepMxaHCxoM asuauuM - xaHa, 
ecnM ecTb coeeTcxMe paxeTw. 

- 3aT tot. - roBopio a. - Koneu AMepMxe. 

AeMCTBMTenbHO, Mbi c6riaaeM see. hto npMCbiaaoT 
aMepMxaHi^bi bo BbeTHaM. 

EaMHdBeHHbiM tmiiom aMepMKaHcxofo cavoneia, Tax 

3a BCK3 BOMHy M H6 C6MTMM Haa CeBepHbIM BbeTHaMOM. 

ocTanca awcoTHbiM cTpaTerMnecxMM pa3BeanMx SR-71. 



4 KPYTOM MAPUIPYT BbETHAMA 



43 



To, hto vbi He c6nnn SR-71 . He cBMaeTenbcrByeT o 
cna6ocTw name* tbxhmxm, OTHtoab, s nmuy 06 stom Tonbxo 
noTOMy, hto y MeHfi c bomhm ociancs HeyaoBneTBopeHHWM 
a3apT MHweHepa-paKeTHUKa... 

riepBUM 3aMeTHWM qenoM, xotopum hbm npmunocb 
3aHsiTbCH b XaHoe ywe a aerycie 1967-ro, oxa3ancsi mmch- 
ho 3tot cynepcaMoneT. 

JlornHHbiw 6bin cneayoiMMM aonpoc: mto mowot cae- 
naTb CTapywxa «ABMHa» c stum mohctpom? KoMnnexc 
«flBHHa» - caMas ciapas Hawa nepeaBMwnan cucieMa 
bomck nBO CTpaNbi; ee npoeKTupoBaHne. OTpa6oTxa m 
ocHaoieHne eio bomck npaxoaMTcs Ha kohou nwTMaecflTMx 
roaoB; co6ctb6hho. nBO CTpaHbi HanMHanacb mmchho c 
stom cucTeMbi b ee rpoM03flKOM uiecTMKaSHHHOM BapnaH- 
Te Ham iuecTMKa6iiHHbiH BapnaHT b 1967 rony 6wn Ha 
BOopyweHMu n y urratkt8B. C3mwm me nepauA - CTauno- 
HapHDin xoMnnexc C-25 - pa3pa6aTbiBancn cneunanbHo m 
CTonn TonbKO Ha o6opoHe Mockbm. KcTSTM, eauHCTBeHHO 
xopoLunMn aoporaMn a (loawocKOBbe mu ao chx nop o6n- 
33hw 3TOMy xoMnnexcy - ohm CTpoM/iMCb ana »ero. floporn 
3th aonroe apeMn 6oinn Boo6nje 3aKpwTM v Ha KapTu 
noawocKOBbs He HaHecenbi. oneBMaHO, hx cxpwBanM ot 
rpn6Hn«0B - us xocMOca aMepMxaHitw kix Bnaemi onenb 

XOpOUJO. 

OiaeT naiu 6wn 6ecKOvnpoMnccHWM: 6e3 cneunanb- 

HblX Mep «flBHH3» He CM0W6T HMsero. 

HananbCTBOM sto 6wno BOcnpuHSTO c MHwenepHMM 
noHUMaHneM - Meroa HaBeaeHna Ha uenb paxeTw. npMMe- 
Hflioiaevi aKTMBHwe noMexvi, mmchho ann stom cucTeMbi n 

HMeHHO HT\f\ 3T0M CXOpOCTHOM BWCOTH0M U6J1U He TflHeT 

(6onbiune anHaMKMeCKne ooim6kh. nonpocTy roaopn. paxe- 

ia He BbiTH-nsaeT HyWHoro); 3ao5asoK 6oeBan -iac'b paxe- 
fbi m paanoB3pbiBaTenb pa3pa5aTaiBanncb noa coBceM 
apyrne caMoneTw - TiixoxoaHbie «ceii6pM» m «cynepceM6- 

Pbl». 

BbeTHaMuaMn, HcnoBeaoBaBwuMH flpyryn, He MHwe- 
nepHyio pennrmo. 3T0 noHHTO He 6bino. ohm c noMOUibio 
KUTaiiueB nocHMTanm, hto mm b ratiHOM croBope c aMepn- 
OHuaMM, xaneeM nx aMepuxaHCKne aonnapw (CTpaiern- 
necKUki pasBeqnuK CTOMT 6acHOcnoBHwx aeMer). m ohm 
HanpacHO BwnycTMnH He oaHy paxeiy no SR-71. noxa 
boohmk) ne y6eannncb b TiueTHOc™ nonwTOK saMeHMTb 
3apaByio MHweHepnyio norMKy MfleonorMeiii Bceno6e>xaaK>- 
uieii HapoflHOM aoMHU. 

rioaxMHy/iM HaM cpasy we no npM6w™M eme oany 
saaanxy. Towe BbeTHaMuw. 

Cobcom MonoabiM McnuTaieneM mhb npMiunocb oue- 

HMBSTb B03MOWHOCTM CTpe/1b6bl 3eHMTHO-p3KeTHblM KOMn- 

nexcoM no H33eMHbiM m mopckmw uennw ripMHUMntianbHsn 
so3MO>KHOCTb b weToaax HaBeaeHMn coaepwanacb. mhm- 
UMSTopoM MaeM 6bin 3HeprM4HbiM MHweHep-noanonxoBHMK 
KDp.ui /BaHOBMH fl., BnocneacTBMM reHepan. HcnwiaHMfl 
npoiunM ycneujHO, paxeTa Ha H33eMHyK3 qenb HaBoaMnacb, 
onpeaeneHHbie cho>khoctm 6binM. ho mw 0TM6Tfal HanMca- 
riM, IOpmm HBaHOBMM aoKTopcxyo aMCcepiaqMio 3amMTMn. 
b npaBMna CTpenb6bi cooTBeTCTBywmMM paaaen BMecnM w 
cnoxoMHO 3a6wnM. Hmxto Bcepbe3 ne co6Mpanca Mcnonb- 
30B3Tb 36HMTHyio ynpaBJifleMyio paxeiy BMecro o6wMHoro 
spTMnnepMMCKoro CHapnaa. 

BbeTHauLteB 6ecnoxoMn 7-fl tp.nor ctoabuimm y caMO- 
ro 6epera. Haao ero ecnn He yHMHTOwmb, to xota 6w 
no6ecnoxoMTb - noTonwrb napy Kopa6new. florMKS BbeT- 
HaMLiee nOHnrHa: o4>MUMaribHbiMM, mnorpadpcKn usqaH- 
hwmm npaBMnaMM npeaycMaipMBaeTcn CTperib6a no H3a- 
BoaHbiM uensM, uenM HanMLio; hto ayMawT coBeTCKMe 
roaapMuiM? 

CoBercxMe tob3pmium paccyannn sapaBO. CTaBMTb 
aM8M3MOH hs no6epe)Kbe - caMoy6MMCTBO. b otbot hs nep- 



BbiM we paxeTHbiM nycx aMBMSMOH coipeT c ntuja 3eMiin 
nany6Han sbmsums sMepMKaHuea. A KaxoB 6yaer 30(fceKT 
ot nycxa? 

ABwaHOceu mojkho noTonMTb Tonbxo CBM - cneuM- 
anbHOM 6oesoM nacTbio. to ecTb BaepnoM. m to He co 

BCflXMM TpOTMHOBblM 3KBMBaneHT0M. JlMHKOpy HeCKOHbKO 

aecnTKOB KMnorpsMMOB BspwBHSTKM -owe ocoooro Bpeaa 
hb npMHecyT. Ctomt tm KaKan-HM6yab ujnionKa, xoTopyw c 

He OHeHb BWCOKOii BepOflTHOCTbK) MOXHO 6yfl6T nOTOnMTb, 

rM6e/iM nioaeM - 6oeBoro pscneTa. csMoro flMBM3M0Ha? 

Tax oTBeTMnM mm. y mohh ao cmx nop a rna3ax CTonnM 
xpMBbie nepeceneHMn KOHyca pa3neT3 ockohkob 6oeeoM 
nacTM paKeTw nnocKOCTbio 3eMriM, KOTopwe f BbNepHMBan 
a/in OTneTa. Ta6anHMM kmock mm eme xax-HM6yab pa36oM- 
6mm. ho Kopa6nb. aa*e cTopoweBOM xaTep... ToribKO nany- 
raeM. Echm McnyratOTcn. 

BbeTHaMuw Hawy HOBOCTb BoenpMHBHM xaK onepea- 
Hoe cBMaeTenbCTBo croBopa c aMepMxaHuaMM Bee bcho. 
coBe'CKne TOBapMiaM wanewT aoporoM auepMxaHCKMM 
cpnoT! 

HananbCTBO CKpenn cepaje aatiBuno. «Ecnn y* cipe- 
nHTb, to Tonbxo c naiuMM xoMaHaMpoM». ycnoBMe 6wno 
npMHRTO. Hauj KOManaup aMBMSMOHa M «na xannBy». ao 
CTpenb6bi no aBMaHOCuaM, yenen c6nrb napy nany6HMX 
ujTypMOBMxoB. flMBMSMOH TyT me 6m/i pa36nT. 7-m cpnoT He 
OTooien ot 6epera. BbeTHaMUM noTepnnM MHTepec xcrpenb- 
6e 3eHMTHMMM ynpaBJiaeMbiMM paxeTaMM no mopckmm u,e- 
nflM... 

- C 3tom pa6oToii Bee Hao6opoT. HoMbK) - aeHb, a 
aHeM - HOHb. Tax a m hb npMBMx x 3T0My: cnaTb, xoraa 
cseTno. Heeo3MO)KHO. - roBopMT Jl.. BoeHnpea M3 «aopa- 
6othmxob». - H noTOM, 3Haeujb Beab, rana^T to, xto HOHbW 
He pa60Tan... fla. tm cnwxan, hto Bnepa c6mhm tpm caMO- 
neTa? Oamh oxono Xanon 

- Kto c6mji? 

- riepeBoaHMXM roBopuT, hto 3eHMTHas apTMnnepMB m 
ononneHMe. A h cbommm rna3aMM BMaen, mto yw tohho 
aBOMx c6nnn paxeTaMM, BMaen, xax naaanM, xax B30paa- 
nMCb. Tae ohm? fl we BMaen, hto c6nnM paxeTaMn, cbommm 
co6cTBeHHMMM tna33MM BMaen. BoM6binnpnMOHaaHaMM. . 

B 6ynrano nonyMpax. okoh 3aecb hbt, a Tonbxo menM 
Meway HennoTHO HaaeujeHHMMM uMHOBxaMM aa eme ceepxy 
BMecre c BnaroM npocanMsaeTCR TycxnwM cbot. Bnara 
oceaaeT Ha yTpaM6oBaHHMii rnMHAHMM non. npM6MBaeT 
nwnb. 

- MoweT. eiae He Haiunn? 

- MoweT 6wTb. - roBopMT fl , - mowbt 6biTb, Bee 

MOW6T 6MTb... 

fltOflM, KOTopbie cnywMnM a Boticxax npoTMBOB03ayLU- 
hom o6opoHsJ ao speMa HaujeM bomh»i c repManne/. pac- 

CKa3blBatOT, HTO OXOHHBHMe 6on, B XOTOPOM 6MnM c6MTbl 

caMoneTM, npMHOCMno He Tonbxo yaoBneTBopeHMe, ho m 
oropneHMH. Koraa neT ao xoHua o6t>exTMBHoro KOHTponn 
pe3ynbTaTOB CTpe/ib6. ycTaHOBMTb, hto c6Mna caMoneT 
MMeHHO ibob 6aTapes, MMeHHo tbom pacneT. npaxTunecxM 

HeB03MOWHO. 

flnfl 6eccnopHoro xOHTpona npMiunocb 6w CTpoMTb 
uenyio CMCTeMy, He Menee cnowHyKi, neM cawa cucTeMa 
nBO. H Tenepb. aawe npM bcom wenaHMM 6wTb o6oeKTMB- 
hmm. xoMaHaoBaHMW. BeaawmeMy pacnpeaeneHMeM c6m- 
twx caMoneToa cpeaM sohmthmx paxeTHbix HacTetf, apTMn- 
nepMMcxMx anBM3MOHOB m 6a T apen. nyneMeTHMx Tonex m 
OTaenbHbix ononneHLieB, Bpna in 3to yaacTcu flByMn 
coBepiueHHO aocTOBepHMMM uM$paMM pacnonarano xo- 
MaHaoBaHMe b kohuc d,hs> hmchom nosBUBiunxcn hobmx 
xboctob caMoneTOB (06 ynaBwew caMoneTe M3 aepeBHM 
cpohho coo6iaaK0T b paiioH, ms paiiOHa - b yesa. n3 ye3aa - 
B npOBMHUMO, M3 npOBMHUMM - b Xbhom) m HMCnOM Mspacxo- 



44 



4 



KPACHOE KOAECQ 




A3podpoM 3uanau nod XanoaM. 
IlemvuKu - nepabie aepou UPB. 



AOBaHHbix 6oenpnnacoB (KTOCTpejis/i.HeMCTpenan, cuorib- 
ko iOpacxoaoeaHO paxeT. CHapnaos, naTpoHOB). 

ripaBfla. co6npanncb noapo6Hwe nereHflbi. npoK/iaa- 
km KypcoB cainoneTOB, onmcaHMH crperib6. xoropwe xpoHO- 
MBTpupyKiTCH. Ho nonpo6ya pa3o6paTbCH b stom ao xoHua. 
xoraa dpennioT no oahom rpynne noMTM oflHOBpeMeHHO n 
3eHWTHt>iepaKeTHbieflMBM3noHbi, n3eHHTHbienyujKM, anyn^ 
H3 buhtobok o6pa3ytoT npocTo CBiiHuoBbie o6nai<a n3-3a 
orpoMHoro nvicna nioaeii. Beayiynx dpenb6y! KoMaHfloaa- 
Hue saHMMaeTcn noacneTOM TonbKo Tex caMoneios, koto- 
pwe ynann na TeppnTopnn pecny6nuxn m c KOTopwx chbtw 
oopTOBDie HOMepa - awpaneBwe nnacTMHKM c Bw6nTbiMn 
3aBoacKHMn 3HaKaMn cepiM. napinn n c K/ieiiMOu BoeHnpe- 
aa. Mnorwe caMoneTu naaanw b Tohkmhckom 3annBe, Ha 
TeppnTopMM flaoca n Ha KDre. nx ynecTb 6bino He/ibsa. 

Kax-TO npoMeribKHyno coo6meHne nnoHueB, a HeM 
ohm yTBepwaanu, mto oo>MunanbHafl BbeTHawcxaH unctipa 
yHMMTOiKeHHbix cavtoneioa 3aHn>KeHa no xpauHeM Mepe 
BaBoe. JJeno b tom, o6bncHpnn ohh, hto MHorne caMoneTw 
B03BpaiM3/incb c 6oM6apanpoBO"Hbix noneTOB cepbe3Ho 
noBpewaeHHbiMM. CucTeMa ynpaaneHHn no3BonaeT nemn- 
xy aoTSHyTb ao aspoapoMa, ho caMoneT npoawpnBneH 
ocKoriKaMn, m 6or ero 3HaeT, xax oh 6yaeT BecTn ce6a npn 
nocaaKe. TeM 6onee Ha nany6y aBnaHocua, nosTowy nnno- 
Tbi HanpaannioT MauiHHbi Ha Knaaonme. a cawn xaTanyrib- 
TupyioTcn. 3th caMoneTbi Henb3H ynecTb Torce. K TOMy we 
Ha reppnTopnn BbBTHaMa ecTb TaKMe MecTa - a ropax, a 
axyHrnax. - b kotopwx CBHaeTensiMM naaeHun caMoneTOB 
MoryT CTaTb TonbKo necHbie rony6n u Maxaxii. Coo6iyeHMfl 
06 3tmx caMoneTax nocTynann ot nneMOH ropueB c 6orib- 
luhm ono3aaHneM... 

Bonee cymecTBeHHWMM oxasa/iMCb aaneKO He tcxhh- 
MecKHe cnowHOCTM. Haeonom n3 napTMM rpyamuHxcn Bbei- 
HaMa HcnoBeaoeajiM Teopura HapoaHon bomhw. b kotopom 
Bee peiuaeT He TexHMxa, a He/iOBex, 3apH«eHHbivi naeHMM 
counann3Ma w naTpnoTH3Ma. CaMa no ce6e TexHHxa - He 
TonbKo 6e3ayuJHa. ho aawe 6ypwya3Ha MeM TexHuxa cnow- 
Hee. TeM ona 6ypwya3HeM flawe KOMaHavip paKeTHoro nw- 
BM3MOHa CHHTancs o6yp>Kya3HBiuMMcn M3-3a noeceaHeeHO- 
ro o6meHMR co cnowHoPi TexHHxoii WeHee 6yp>«ya3HbiMH 
6binn apTnnnepncTbi-CTBonbHMKH, eme MeHee - HaaoanHKii 
seHMTHbix nyneMeTOB. He noaBepweHHWMH 6yp>Kya3HOM 
sapa3e oxasanncb TonbKo ononMSHLtbi, CTpenmomne M3 
pywen m nyKOB. rioTOMy H3 aecnTu c6mtwx paxeTaiwn caMO- 
neTOB mecTb oiaaBanncb ono/ineHuaM. a neTwpe - 3eHMT- 
4HKaM-CTBonbHHKaM. CeMsac moxho ynbi6aTbcn, ho Hani 
Toraa 6bino o6naHO. 

Ka«eTCfl, no6wBaBUJn^ bo BbeTHaMeoqbMuepaonweH 
6bin ueHMTbcn b BOHCKax Ha poauHe Ha Bee sonoTa. K 
cowaneHHio. to. hto npuHOcunn b aoi^CKa «BbeTHaMUbi». 
HananbCTBOM mbcto BCTpenanocb c HecKpwBaeMbiM pa3- 



apaweHMeM. «Hene3bTe Bbt cocbohm onbiTOM! y Hac M03rn 
hb xyxe aaujMx!)) BbCTHaMCxan bomhb 6binaanfl HMxcnuuj- 
kom aaneKOM... 

noTOM, ywe nocre BbeTHaMa, mw nbiTanncb BecTn 
pe^b o noaroTOBKe TeaTpoB boghhwx ae^CTBMM, HanpHMep 
b aKTyanbHoii Toraa CupuM, ho HaTonKHynncb Ha poaHoe «a 
Te6e 6onbtiie Bcex Haao?». B Chpmh onoaopMnMCb. U3pa- 
unbTSHe norHOCTbto Bbipy6nnn CMpHHCKyw nBO. H kto Ha 

3T0T KTIOHOK 36MHM npHBOHOK CHCTeMy. KOTOP3H aOJlWHa 

npuKpwaaTb orpoMHbie TeppnTopuvi! 

Ecrin 6wTb o6beKTHBHWM. cpea^ naiuero MecTHoro 
HananbCTBa neTOM 1967 roaa Liapnna naHwxa. ceoaKH xaw- 
aoaHeBHO CTaHosunncb Bee 6onee apaMaTUHHbiMn: «B 
THwenux KTiHMaTMHecKux ycnoBunx aMepHKaHcxan aBna- 
uhs b HaneTax uiipoKO ncnonb3yeT Manue Bbicoru. paano- 
noMexn pasHbix TunoB, 3ktmbho npuMeHseT npoTHBopaxeT- 
Hwii MaHesp m orHeeoe noaaBneHne, b tom nucne npoTMBO- 
paanonoKaunoHHbiMn paxeTBMn "iupaiiK"». 

Mw Hanann c noMex. KoHenHO. Tpyano ceimac BcnoM- 
HMTb. c nero KOHxpeTHO mw Hanann: Haao Swno HanMHaTbCO 
acero, a cpean HananbCTBa ecnn n He uapuna HacTOHiuan 
naHMxa. to ace we npeo6naaano HacTpoeHne yHbiHun. Mu 
He npurnsawBanncb k oxpyxaiomeMy, mw rnnaenH, pac- 
xpwB ma3a. - Bee 6wno BHOBe. flawe to, hto yTpo nocne 
npMneTa h hohhom nepenpaBbi OKa3anocb nywuM. 6aHaHO- 
BO-miMOHHbiM, ocnennTenbHWM... M 3eneHwe aepeBHHHwe 
>xanra3H Ha OKHax, h o)eH noa noTonxoM, n Kucennbiii 6anaa- 
xmm HaxoMapHnxa Haa nocie/ibio, m aiinHHas, Ha secb 3Ta>K. 
noflxm... 

CoceaoM oxaaancn xannTaH-apTunnepucT. ApTunne- 

PMCT HaCTOniUMM, CTBOnbHMK 

- Mto tu 3aecb aenaeujb c nymxaMM? - yaHBMnnCb 

MM. 

- y>xe HMHero, yneTaKj. - 3acMesncn oh. - ApTunrepus 
noHTM sen - KniaiicKas Koh6hmo, Hama. ho xMTaiicxoro 
npon3BoacTBa. M3 Coio3a Tonbxo caMbie 6onbiune KanM6- 
pw. Ho BbeTHaMuw yjxe caMM cnpaBrmKucn c 3thm aenoM. 
MHe, HocuBiueMy apinnnepMiicKne OapaOaHHwe nanonxn 
Ha noroHax c neTbipHaauaTM ner. cyHTaauieMy b aeTCTBe 
apTM/inepnioaeMCTBHTenbHbiM 6oroM bomhw, co BpeweHeM 
CTaHOBunocb ace oneBHaHee, hto CTpenb6a 36hhtx3mh no 
caMoneiaM - aHaxpoHn3M. EauHCTBeHnoe, hto ocTaea- 
nocb b Taxoii CTpenb6e npna/iexaTenbHbiM, - cnowHwe 
cxonacTMnecKne pacneTbi 3O))0eKTMBHOCTM CTpenb6bi 3an- 
noM, osepeaHMM. c yneTOM HaxonnenwH ymep6a ... 3eHMT- 
Han CTpenb6a MHTepecHa npuMepHO Tax me. Kax MeaBewbn 
uianxM rBapaeMueB y ByxHHreMCKoroaBopua nnn ainopw y 
Hac, apTnnnepncTOB, ywe aawe b 1953 roay Ha napaae 
KannTaH yneTan aomom h 6bin necxasaHHO paa. fl yaMBnnn- 
cfl. Oh HepBHO nocMenBancn, xpHBun ry6y: 

- Te6e 3Ta sxsoTMxa, a oco66hho aMepuxaHybi, octo- 
nepTeioT nepea Mecnu. Tobopht, BbeTHaMuu npea^iowMnn 
naiuMM nocennTb saecb cnemianbHbix aeBMu-conaaT. Tax 
Haujn oTxasa/iMCb: «y coaeTcxnx Bbicoxne MopanbHbie na- 
necTBa!» Ky6nHUbi, roBopHT. cornacunncb... Boh tot kop- 
nyc - xy6tiHCKMM. a tot - xMTaMCKuvi... 

Cocea«MM no 3Tawy 0Ka3anncb n o6mnTenbHt>ie ocpn- 
uepw apyroii cneunanbHOCTH - cbhshctw c fly6BHKM. Mx 
npHHaanewHocTb k 3toh opraHH3aunM mu BWHMcriMnM cpa- 
3y, xax ohm hm TeMHunn, n hhkbkhx BonpocoB hm He 3aaasa- 
tim. ToBopunM ohh caMn, wanoBanncb: 

- Ty6nT annapaTypy. MaKaxvi... Bee 3a6poujeMO, nnec- 
HeBeeT... 

HaM He 6wno aena ao hx annapaTypw, oaHaxo 3tot 
motub - ceroBaHne n aawe pa3apaweHHoe BopnaHbe Ha 
BbeTHaMueB no nx>6oMy noBony - « cnbiuian hotom bo bcbx 
pa3roBopax He Tonbxo coceaeii c fly6HHxn... 



4 



KPyiOl MAPLUPYT BbETHAMA 



45 



BbeiMaMUbi b 1967 roay 3Hann b03mo«mocth TexHHKH 
Ha ypoBHe Haiunx 3xcnnyaTaunoHwnxoB-BOMCX0BHKOB. 
caMy TexHUKy - HecKonbKO cna6ee. Bwno OMeenaHO. hto 
Sonboiero ohm noHepnnyTb y cneunanncTOB H3 Coo3a He 
Moryr. Hamn cneunanucTbi HanuHanu BbBTnaMCKux <ouan- 
anpoB ToroTMTb n Bawe paaapawaib 3to 6bino aaMeTHO. 

- flaBaiiTe HOByK) cuciewy. Hn Mbi, hu bw c «flBMH0M» 
ywe HMHero He mokom caonaib 

HaojMM we 6bino warno OTaaBaTb eiae oany cucTeMy. 

- flocTaHeTcn xnT3iiuaM! 

Xoah/i ynopHWM cnyx o tom. hto Xo LUm Muh Aan 
yKa3aHne: «B hobom roay coBeTcxnx cneunanncroB He 
aon«HO 6biTb Hurae, cawe b psxbthwx HacTax». K Hawevi 
rpynne snanane OTHOCunncb caepwaHHo: «HaM HenoHHT- 
ho. hpm Bbi saHviMaeTecb. Bbicnpaainaaeie. neaeie b 6oe- 
syio pa6oTy, Tpe6yeTe xaxyio-TO annapaTypy yciaHaBnu- 
aaib b Ka6nHax. 3to 6om, 3to BOiiHa!» Tew ne wenee. mw 
BaaennBanncb. BneaarH Hac ne Mann, ho u He pacnaxnea- 

nn OSbflTHM... 

Mw npnBe3/in c co6om Teneo6bexTHBbi - b nanBHOM 
Haaet^ne CtMTb Ha nneHxy nocTpoeMne aMepuKaHCKnx ca- 
MoneTOB b rpynne. Tot. kto nonbsOBancn mouihwm rene- 
o6beKTMBOM, 3Haer. Kax TpyaHO noiiMaTb b xaap aa»e 
HenoaBM)KHbi(i oObeKT a HatfTM b ne6e Ha aanbHOCTH 
xmnoMeTpoB flecaib neinmnii caMoneT npaxTMnecxu »e- 

803MO>KHO. Ho A/lfl TOrO, HT06bl B 3T0M y6eflMTbCfl. Mbl BO 

speMH HaneTOB Hecxonbxo pa3 noannManncb Ha kpwujm 
6aHxa n xaHOMCKoro oiern «MeTpono/ib» k seHMTnuxaM. 
Ceti'-ac He homhk), xoMy npniuna b ronoBy noHTti rennanb- 
Hafl naen ycTaHOBMTb stot TeneBHK Ha aHTeHHe CTaHunn 
HaBeaeHUH paxeT. Kohohho. cuaeTb a «CKBopeHHMxe», xax 
Ha3sann xa6MHKy onepaTopa. noaae^jeMHyio Ha ai-ieHHe. 
bo BpeMH 6oh comacM/iMCb 6w pa3Be hto Tonbxo xawnxaa- 
3e. Ho BHanane cuaenw oOwiHoie peGflTa-oneparopbi... 
BesonacHee OKaaanocr. nocraBMTb Ha aHTeHHe renexaMe- 
py n Te/ieBH3noHH 3 in npneMHUK b xa6me. A reoMeTpnw 
CTpoeB H3M npuHocunn BbeTHaMuu nocne aonpocos aMe- 
pnxancxnx nunoTOB... 

ripoTHBopaanonoxaunoHHafl paxeia «ujpaMx» hsbo- 
anTcn no ueHTpy n3nyHeHns - Ha n3nynaTenb aHTeHHw 
craMunn. HasoflnTcn nqeanbHO. flocne yaapa «uipaiiKOM» 
aHTeHHa HanoMMHaeT noxopexeHHbiM aypuirar. «lilpawKM» 
npeacTaBfiflfiM peanbHyio onacHOCTb axis anBM3H0H0B. 
Hmchho H3-33 HOtcenaHMH nonynnTb ce6e s no6 paxeTy 
HexoTopwe a^BusnoHbi bo BpeM« 6ob oxa3t>iBanticb «He6o- 
eroTOBbi»: sceraa mowho cocnaTbcs Ha HeticnpaBHOCTb 
CTaHijuM, TeM 6onee hto TexHuxa He BberHaMCxan m cno*- 
Ha ao OTxpoBeHHOii 6ypwya3HOCTM 

PeKOMeHaaqnn 6t>ina TanaHTnuBO npocTa ho bwxo- 
a^Tb 6e3 Hyacaw b dtpup, 6naro caMoneTw caMn «cBeTAT» 
nepeaaTMnxaMM nowex. a BbixoauTb Tonbxo Toraa. xoraa 
caMoneTy>KeHeycneBaeTHauennTb«ujpaiiK». EcnuyiKTax 
xoseTcs, Bwxoan b ao^np Ha HecKoribxo cexyHa an" Toro, 
HTo6bi oueHMTb B03ayujHyto o6cTaHOBxy ... Pa6oTaTb a Ta- 
xom npepbisucTOM, noMTM nMnynbCHOM pe>KHMe cyMeeT He 
xaMcawM, Heo6xoa^Mbi yM n xpa6pocTb HaM noBe3no - 
«Hauj» KOMaHanp, a 3aTeM era cocea iskhmh xawecisavu 
o6naaann: ohm m caMoneTOB Hac6nBann 6onbiue apymx. n 
«ojpakiKM» nepecTann nonynarb b no6. AvepuxaHuw noHH- 
nn naujy HesaMbicxiOBaTyio xnTpocTb m. HanptiMep, Ha SR- 
71 nocTaBunu aBTOMar. axxiKmaioiuMM nepeaaTmix nowex 
Tonbxo Toraa. xoraa «CBeTHM» mw... 

O xcHByHecTM CTaHunoHHwx xa6nH y6eanTenbHee ece- 

TO TOBOpUT TO, MTO BC6 npMBeSeHHbie BO BbOTHaM a^BM3V10- 

Hbi ocTanncb uenw Ohm nocne yaapoB peMOHTMpoBanMCb, 
HexoTopbie cepb63H0. ho ece ocrankicb b cmctcmb I1BO. 
3to an» Hac ro>Ke 6bino yauBMTenbHo: «xpynxne» 6noxn 



BbiaepjKMBanw 6ecxoHenHbie nepee3abi npn CMene no3n- 
unii m. hto eme ya^BHTenoHee. 6oM6oBbie n paxeTHbie 
yaapu CaMbiM TpyaHbiM 6bino y6ean"b 3benauue5 npa- 
TaTb xa6MHbi - 3apwBaTb b 3eMnK). npuxpwBaTb o6sanoB- 
xaMM flno 6on Haa seMne^i aonwHa ocTaaaibca Tonbxo 
aHTeHHa. Bee ocTanbnoe Hy)KHO npsiTaTb. Ho aoHecTM 3Ty 
oneBnaHyx) seiat ao BbeTHaMcxoro HananbCTBa oxasa- 

HOCb HOHTM HOB03MO>KHblM: TeOpMfl HSpOaHOM BOMHbl TOBO- 

puT, hto nepea BparoM He/ib3H CTaHOBHTbcs Ha xoneHu, 
Bpara naao BCTpenaTb B nonHbivi pocT. A TyT 3Ta 6yp»xya3- 
Hao cianunH HaseaeHMX paxer! Haao no6wBaib b HaiueM 
nono»eHnn. HTo6bi nOHATb Haiun nyBCTsa: pacneTw m6hb- 
nucb 6wcrpee. neM mw ycneBann k hum xax cneayeT npn- 
BbixHyTb. A Beab 3to 6binn caMwe rpsMOTHwe pe6HTa - 
nacTO c yHWBepcuTeTCKUM o6pa3oaaHkteM... 

. flcowMa He Bxoanna b Haoiy o6d3aHHOCTb, mm aa«e 
noanepxHyTO OTMeweBbiBanncb ot xoMaHaw <apocpeniiin- 
kob». HaxoanBujuxca bo BbeTHaMe no hhhmh TPy. Ohh, 
XCT3TM, K3K weHee meneTMJibHan xoHTopa. Hao6opoT, aawe 
npuMasanncb x HaM, u Hecxonbxo pa3 Ha c6nTbie caMoneTw 
Ma Bbie3*aim BMecTe. Mw racsann c co6om nuBO. pe6nra 
M3 TPy. xpoMe nMBa. Tacxann c co6oii eme m orpoMHbie 

pmoam. 

Haws rpynna nepea BbeTHaMuantn 6wna nucTa. HaM 
HMnero M3 BHyTpeHHOCTew m BHeiuHMx noaBscox auepM- 
xaHCXMX caMoneTOB ne 6t>ino HywHO. MeHs MHTepecoBariM 
nmub xoHCTpyxuns caMoneTOB - o6wnBKa, sxpaHnpoBKa 
yH3BHMbix OTCexOB (nunoi, 6aKM. aanraienn. lonnnanas n 
MacnwHas mx o6efl3Ka) - m npo6onnw - awpxn, ocTSBneH- 
Hue ocKonKawn 6oeBou nactn paxeTu no pasMepau sthx 
awpoK n TonaiMHe npo6nibix nperpaa R yMen ouen.iBaib 
xanecTea 6oeBOi* nacTM paxeTbi n 3Han. xan mx xoppexTupo- 

B3Tb. A X TOMy, HTO AOCTSnOCb BbeTHaMUBM OT 3MepMX3H- 

ueB, ohm OTHOcunncb c ano.iHe pohsthdim HanpHMep an» 
MeHH. nyBCTBOM peBHOCTM: c6nnn Mbi. 3to - Hauie. m Hauie 
aeno, xoMy sto OTaaBaTb. 

- Hen. ao Hac 3aecb y>xe xTo-HM6yat> Bwn? - cnpaiiin- 
Bao n Ha xpato bopohkm y nepeBOAHMxa. 

- CeiiHac y3HaK5. 

- y3Haii. 

MeH luenneTcn c conpoBO>xaaK>iaiiM. xoshmhom caMo- 
neT3 n3 ujt363 nBO. 

- HeT, Huxoro ho 6wno. 

- ripaBfla? 

- npaBAa. - oh BbiTupaeT noTHoe nnuo m npnMeT 
rna3a 

fl CMexjCb, OTBO>Ky Hepe3 nonnaca HesaneTHO b cto- 
poHxy npeaceaaTenn xoonepaTMBa. Ha Hbe none ynan 

BMeptwaHeu. 

- ToBapnia, KUTaiiubi 3aecb 6wnn? 

- O, MyHr xyox! MyHr xyox MyoH HaM! 

- ToBspnia, a xy6nHqbi 3aecb 6binn? 

- O, Ky6a! Ky6a MyoH HaM! 

OanMM cnoBOM, aa 3apaBCTByeT Kv\rafi m aa 3apaB- 
CTByeT Ky6a. Tonbxo nocne Huxaa 3apaBCTByeM uu. nonn- 
TMK3 pnaoM c OHBBnaHOii tbxhmxom! Beab hu xnTaiiubi, hm 
Tew 6onee xybMHi^w ho 3HaioT, hto aenaTb c stumm o6noM- 



BbeTHaM. BoSHa. Qpa oxona apyr HanpoTne apyra: 
oa^H aMepuxaHcxuvi, apyroii - BbeTHaMcxnti. H3 
awepuKaHCxoro xpunaT. 

- BbGTnaMUbi, Bbi nponrpann, caaBaiiTecb! 
H3 BbeTHaMcxoro OTaenaiOT; 

- BbeTnaMubi He caaiOTCfl! KapneHxo, CHapflaw! 

CobbtckhUi ahieKAOT Konua 60-x. 



41 



4 



KPACHOE KOilECO 



KaMM. A Mbi 3MaeM. v\ caMoneT mbm Hywen Me ans cyBeMnpoB 

- Ha cyBeHnpu HayT jwujb mapuKOBbie 6om6w. CHapflabi 
a3naunoMHbix nyiuex «BynxaH» n 6opTOBwe oinnbaMKn - 
antoMUHnesbte nnn wecTAHwe nnacTMHXM c cpupMoui n cne- 
aaMn nnoM6npoB saaoacxux BoennpeaoB HaM ynaeiiinii 
caMoneT Hywen KaK aneMeHT nenoro. mw (b, no xpaMHeti 
Mepe) HaMepesanncb BOCCTaHOBHTb xoth 6w HecKonbKO 
nycKOB - o6pa6oTaTb mx nomn no-nonnroHHOMy. to ecTb ot 
MOMeH-a nepeaanH uenn paaMOTexHHMecKHMM BoPiCKaw^ 
paKeTHOMy anBusnoHy ao MOMeHTa naaenns caMoneTa 
TeopeTunecKH 3to caenaib mojkmo, mo ctiojkmoctm oxa3a- 
nucb HenpeoaonnMbiMM: nyjKM dpaHa. HenoHMMaiomee 
HananbCTBO n. HaKOHeu. npnMoe nonaaaHue awepnxaHcxo/i 
6oM6bi b Haiuy KOHTponbH0-3anncbiBatom/K) annapaTypy 

Koraa n nnujy «BbeTHaMubi» noro a iweo a sway? 3to 
He KOHKpeTHbienioaM. c xeM mu o6maeMcn. - nepeBoanMKM. 
ujo<t>epw. pacneTbi paxeTHbix anBnanOHOB. oo>nuepbi una- 
6a nBO m BBC w reHUTa6a. MenocpeacTaeHMo pa6oTaic- 
mne c H3MM. Koraa n nnwy «BbeTHaMUbi» npuMennienbHO 
k TaxnM maronaM. Kax «peujnnn», «CMWTann», «ayMann», a 
MMew b Bnay nexoe 6e3nnxoe an" mbhh Ha^anbCTBo - n 

BOeHHOe. M. K0H6MH0 KB, napTMMHOe, MaeOJlOrHMBCKOe. C 

HananbCTBOM o6manocb Haaie HawanbCTBO, ho m an" na- 
wero HaMaribCTBa. xpoMe KOHxpeTHbix nioaevi - BbeTHaMc- 
kmx reHepanoB. - Toxce cyinecTBoaano Hexoe 6e3nnxoe 
cymedBO - «BbeTHaMCK3fl CTopOHa». 

Koraa, k npuMepy, MU OTxpoBeHHO aon6nnn KanmaHy 

- KOMaHaupy anBH3MOHa: «Koraa we rw sapoeiub Ka6uHbi? 
Tboh TpocTHMKOBbie MaTw hb cnacaiOT aawe ot KOHTaKTHoro 
noapbiea iuapnKOB0ti 6om6w!» - oh cMymeHHO, BUHoeaTO 
ynw6ancn m roBopnn hsm hto-to ycnoxaMBaiotnee. Mbi. 
MaxoMeu, aoaywanncb, hto «BbeTHaMijbi» - Bee xoMaHflnpw 
anBM3MOHOB - MMeKJT yctaHOBKy He 3apwaaTbCs: «Bpara 
Haao BCTpenaTb c OTxpwTbiM nviuoM! Hapoaa, OTCTanBaio- 
iaero cbok) He3aancnM0CTb, He wcnyraTb Huxaxoti, aarce 
caMoii n3ou»peHHOM TexHHxoii MMnepwarmcTOBlx 

- Ho ecnn tw 3apoeujbCM Me ot cTpaxa, a M3 BoeHHOii 
uenecoo6pa3HOCTM? Te6e Beab MBHbwe npnaeTCs nnHHTb 
TexHMKy, co6beujb 6onbiue caMorieToa! 

KannTaH ynt>i6aeTcn: 

- Cnacn6o CoBOTcxoMy CoK)3y 3a paxeTw. Mbi no6e- 
auM AMepviKy... 

fl cuwy Ha nnocxocTH, Kawoicn. RB-47 (oTxyaa ero 
B3flnn?), n Bapyr Mne 6pocaeTcn a rna3a ManeHbxuki Tpa- 
o>apeT: «VECTOR-M». fl yx<e hb noMHK), to nn sto nnoc- 
xocrb Kpbina 6bina, to jih xBOCTOBoe onepeHMe, ho noa 
TpacbapeTxoM - xpyrnniuoK M3 ananexTpuKa. mto-to Bpoae 
TexcTonnTa. AHTeHHa... 

- KypMnxa. - rnxo roBopx) s Bonoae. - «BexTop». 

- KaKOli BBKTOp? 

- Tmxo. - roBopio s. - TxaM MaeT. 

JleviTeHaHT TxaM caamcfl psaOM co mhom. Oh oneHb 
xyaeHbKuvi. <ppeHM 6o/iTaeTCH Ha hom. C ynnBepcuieiCKnM 
o6pa3oaaHkieM. MaTeMaTMK. npuKOMaHnnpoBaH us reHiu- 
Ta6a. 3anycxaeT naneu b hoc h cmotput b mok> TeTpaaKy. 
Oh Bceraa mo/ihmt h yBneseHHO xoBwpneT s Hocy, Koraa uw 
o6pa6aTbiBaeM oKcnepuMom 

- Bee, - roBopio s. - XeT 

Mw yxoauM c nnomaaxM b cboio noMsmnsbw Bunny c 
aepeBHHHbiMn napaMn w niaHxaMn nuBa, rae Hac x<aeT (1. 
TxaM yxoanT x ce6e. He BbiMMMan nanbua M3 Hoca 

- AneKcew Bacunbeaim, xa>KeTCH, h Hawen «BexTop». 

AHTOHHy. 

fl o6bncHqio. Mu roeopuM ujenoTOM 

- Hy ee Ha xpeH, - tobopmt n. - Hac 3acexyT h BMroHHT 
k nepTOBOM Marepn. ft He yMeio BopoBaib 



- A nax ee BWKOBbipaTb? - roBopiu KypwiKa. - 3to X 
cpaay bmaho 6yaeT. 

- Hy ee na xpeH. - noeropaeT n. Oh 6ohtcs 3a Haiuy 
pa6oTy. - BopoBaTb - He Hauje aeno MTo6bi nepeaaTb HaM 
«ujpaiiK», BbeTH3Mi|bi cneunanbHO nonnT6K)po co6npann. 
a Koraa rpnaeann k caMoneTy. y «wpaiiKa» He oxasanocb 
ronoBxn caMOHaseaeHMfl. Hy ero Ha xpeH. stot «BexTop»! 

- flypax, n 6w Te6n x «KpacHOwy 3HaMeHn» npeacTa- 
BMn. - roBopuT MHe no3we noMomHux BoeHHoro arrauie 
TlerocTaeB... 

...A-6 n F-105 6oM6nnnaopory. 3to 6bin coBMecTHbiii 
HaneT MopsiKOB n nunoTOB M3 KopaTa. lilecTnaauaTb F-105 
aepwanncb BMecTe Ha aopory 3axoan/iM no OMepean. 
ycTynan wecTo creayrometi neTBepxe. Koraa nocneaHne 
nocne pa3B0poTa Bouinn e 30Hy nopaweMnw paxeTHoro 
xoMnnexca. HaBCTpesy mm noiunn aae paxeTbi. 

HeTsepxa pacewnanacb, ho x oaHOMy na caMoneTOB 
paxeTa cnoBHo npuxjiennacb; OHa BSopsanacb pnaoM. ca- 
Moner noa6pocnno ot B3pbiaa, oh caenan ropxy. a saTeM 
xnioHyn. rineHHwe rmnOTU, xoTopwe He cxpwBann, hto 
6onbiue scero 6ohtch 3eHMTHbix paxeT, paccxa3biBanM. hto 
b momoht B3pbiaa 6oeBoii sacTH paxeTw oiqymaioT cunb- 
hwm To/isox, MHorne TepHKJT opueHTupoBxy b npocTpaH- 

CTB6. 

HaBepMoe. opueHTupoBxy noTepsn \n stot nnnoT, mmh 
xoToporo ocTanocb BbOTHaMiaaM Hen3secTHbiM: caMoneT 
pyxHyn xnnoMeTpax b Tpex ot tohxm BCTpesn c paxeToti. 
MaiunHa Bpe3anacb b pucoBoe none. HaMUHawmeecn npn- 
mo sa noMaun aepeBHn AH6nnb BoceMHaauaTMTOHHao 
waxMHa «TaHaepHM0a» BMecTe c nunoTOM nonHocTbio 
Boiuna b rp$i3b nona. B TeneHne aecnTxa MUHyr none 
rope/io. Ho puc - b aoae, m nnaMn noracno. M3 aepeBHM 
coo6iannn b paiioHHwii ueHTp 3f»HTneH. oTTyaa - b ye3a 
KxoaiiTay. CseT c6htwx naa npoBMHuneii XwHrneH MaiunH 

BbipOC, 

Koraa mw npnexanii b AH6nHb. b BopoHxe pa6oTann 
xpecTbflHe. PyxoBoawna hmh neMonoaan JKeHianHa - npea- 
ceaaienb q6u|HHM. riepeaaaaa n3 pyx a pyxn KOMbn pac- 
xnciueM rnnHbi. noan OTxanbiBann caMoneT Hm oanH o6no- 
mox, 6yab oh BennHMHOM c naaoHb, He Bw6pacbiBancs: Bee 
cK/iaabiBanocb b ctopoho. yxe Bbipocna ueran rpyaa Toro. 
mto paHbme MMeno aeBBTHaauaTb mstpob b anMHy, Hecno 
c co6oii tohhw nonTopw-aBe 6om6obom Harpyaxn. 

06noMxn nayT b aeno: 3aecb ornnnHbie Tpy6onpoBO- 
aw. MHoro aopann, us xoToporo mowho 6yaeT caenaTb 
3a6aBHbie Bemn, noriHO TpaH3MCTopoB an« caMoaenbHwx 
npneMHMKOB. Ha cbmom a»e smw napeHb co6npan KOTen- 
kom xepocuH. cnnaan ero b seapa h nepeaaBan HaBepx. 
TonrwBa oxa3anacb napa 6ohox. oho eme Morno npnro- 
QMTbCd. 

Ben o6ianHa pa6oTana b bmb, 3axaTaB lUTflHbl, xoBbi- 
pflflCb TanKawM b rnuHe MsTbie noaaecHbie 6akn aannnucb 
Ha aopore, nacTb nnocxocTH xpbina b3pwbom 3a6pocnno b 
xaHan. ManbHuujKM B03nnncb a Boae, CTapaniicb Bw6po- 
CMTb o6noMOx Ha 6eper m cpbiBann c toimmx nxp nnqBOK 
MoTouMKjiucT us paiioHa >Kaan aoxyMeHTOB nnnoTa. 

flo Ka6nHbi ao6paTbcn 6t>ino TpyaHee Bcero... 

fl CTonn y afiMHHOro, cKononeHHoro H3 o>aHepbi Bianxa 
co CTapoBbeTHaMCKHMM nepornn4>aMM Ha 6oxy n pa3rosa- 
puBan c nepeBoannKOM HeHOM. Mw 3axypnnn, n cen Ha 
niquK 

- He Haao. - cxasan nepeBoannx. - BcTaHb 

- riOMeMy? 

- Tw cuamub Ha rpoSe, b xoTopwii nono>KaT neTnuxa. 
Monoaow xpecTbBHMH xonan Mornny Oh BbiTwpan noT 

kohuom xaiune m oTroHnn Myx. BoeHHbiM M3 paiioHa ne Mor 
yexaTb, He nonynuB noaTBep)KaeHMn. floxyMeHTw hbmtm 



4 KPyiDM MflPlllPyi BbETHAMA 



47 



6bino MeB03Mo*HO... >Kenu»nMa, pyKOB0AHBiuan pa6oTaMM, 
noBena MOTOunwincTa k rpyae o6/iomkob. 

- riycTb CHMMyr 6optobom HOMep, - CKa3an Hbh. - 
3Toro xBarm. Kto 6wn nunoT, Tenepb He y3Haewb. Kaxtie 
AOKyMeHTwf PasBe b=i hb shahts... 

Bee, hto odanccb ot nemnKa. noMecTunn b suamx c 
nepornn0aMn m onycTunn Ha oho amw, b KOTopyio yxe 
Haieicno BOflbi. 

fl noMHio A-6, 6oM6nBiuMvi aoceMbaecHT AeBsiTb pa3 n 
c6htwm Ha CBoeM aeBSHOCTOM Bbmere. IIm/iot, no«non- 
kobhuk, ayMa/i. hto CKopo, Hepe3 Aecmb BwrieTOB, BepHer- 
ch B LLiTarbi. Ero Towe nonownnu b rpoo BbeTHawCKue 
KpecTbHMe n 3apwnn Ha oxpauHe jepeBHn Mecio, CTaB- 
aiee ero Mornnovi, HeKOTOpoe BpeMH BWAenanocb *enTOK 
nneaibo cpeAH seneHoro nono. Bbipocna Hosan rpaBa, n 
H3 nee Tenepb TonbKO Topnana noHepHeBwaw nofl acww- 
mh cfcanepHan Ta6nn^Ka c MMeHOM. 

fleTM b Toncrbix HeyxnoKMX wnanax (3amma ot uia- 
Pukobwx 6om6 m ocKonKoa cbomx 36HMTOK) nnHcanM Torna 
Ha Kune «nHTpyaepa», c o6ujmbkm OTBannBanncb nenewxa 
xpynxoki xonoTn; abtk 6mjim nanxaMM no ASMraTenio, noxa 



OTTyaa ho Bbinon3na Bonbwaji wpoBaa 3Mea. Pe6flT 6wno 
uenoBex copox. bcji ujxona nnqcana Ha o6noMxax «aMepn- 
KaHua». a MonoAas ymiTenbHHua nanxoii y6nna 3m6kj 

Bcex. kto apesancH co cbohmh MaiunHawu s aeM/iio, 
KpecTbflne OTxanbiBann m xopoHnnn. xoth oneHb sacTo ot 
nunoTa ho ocTaeanocb no^Tn Hunero. (Ipn Bceti ropenM no 
norn6ujMM cooTenecTBeHHuxaM m npn Bceti HenaancT^ k 
nunoiaw. copacbiBaBiuuM Ha mx AOMa BapwBMaTKy n Me- 
Tann. BbeTHaMubi ocTaaanncb niOAbMw. coxpanmoiAMMM 
Aoctohhctbo. «Mw HMKorAa He onycTMMCH ao ypoBHH aMe- 
pnxaHuee. mu He BapBapww, - roBopunn xpecTbHHe n npo- 
Aonxann xopoHHTb nnnoTOB He xax Mycop, a xax nKJAeki, m 
T3M, roe mo>kho 6wno ycTaHOBMTb mmh nunoTa. sanncwBa- 
m ero m OTMeHanw MecTO, xyaa 3apwnn AnnHHwii (feaHep- 
Hwtf siiauk co CTapoBbeTHaMCKMMM nepornwcpaMM no 60- 
KBM... 

riydnuKyemcfi e coKpamemju 

BtonnemeHb irPyccKaa Epaju/iun* 
MypHaji n3naMR» 




B/iaAHMnp M/lbMH 

MHr-21 nPOTMB (1OAHTOMA11 

BoiiHa b He6e CeBepnoro BbeTHaMa CTana caMbiM 

KpynHbIM H APaMaTMMHWM B03AyUJHblM CTOnXHOBeHMeM 

nocne 1945 roaa. C o6enx ctopoh b Hew y^acTBOBann 
caMoneTbiAecflTKOBTnnoe. OAHaxo rnaBHas T«)KecTbnpo- 
Tneo6opcTBa b B03Ayxe «nerna Ha KpwnbH» Aeyx runoB 
6oeBbi< MaainH. mcxoa cxBaTox Me«Ay kotopwmm nonpeAe- 
riHfi xoa 6opb6bi. 

C aMepuxaHcxoii CTopoHbi ochobhww 6bin ncrpe6n- 
Te/ib MaxAOHHen-Ayrxiac F-4 «*aHTOM ll». 3t3 Tfl»enaa 
AByxMecTHan AayxABuraTenbHas MamnHa (HOpManbHas 
B3neTHan Macca 6onee 20 t). co3AaHHas b 1958 roAy. 
nepBOHananbHo npeAHa3HaHanacb a/ia 06ecneMeHiifi npo- 

TMBOB03AyilJH0M o6opOHbl ai/epilKaHCK/IX aBM3HOCHblX co- 

eAMHeHnii. K Hanany 60-x toaob «<DaHTOM 1 1 » , 3aBoeBaBOJMki 

P«A MHpOBblX peKOPAOB B CKOPOCTM. 6bin. nOMCailyfl, C3MWM 

nonynnpHbiM 3MepnKaHCXMM 6oeBbiM caMoneTOM. K 6e3yc- 
noBHbiM AOCTonHCTBaM F-4 cneAOBano OTHecTM BbiAawmn- 
ecn axis ceoero epevieHM neTHwe xapaKTepucTuxn (Maxcu- 
ManbHyio cxopocTb 2260 km/h, npaxTHMecxnii noTonox 
16600-1 7900 m. npaicrnHecKy 10 AanbHOCTbnoneTa 5e3nofl- 
eecHbix 6axoB 2380 xm), MomHyK) 6opTOByio o63opHo- 
npnuenbHyio paAMonoxaunoHHyio CTaHunto (P/1C), a Taxxe 
yHMxanbHbiii xoMnnexc BOopyweHMB. BxniouaioiuMM paxeTbi 
xAacca«BO3Ayx-BO3Ayx»ManoviAaribH0CTuAIM-9«CaMAy- 



nHAep» (HopManbHbiH 5oeKOMnnexT - neTbipe eAUHnqbi) m 
BcepaxypcHbie BcenoroAHwe yP AIM-7 «Cn3ppoy» cpeA- 
neii AanbHOCTM (neTbipe paxeTbi pa3Memajincb na nony- 
yTonneHHwx b 0K)3enB>Ke y3nax BHewHert noABecxn). 

AMepuxaHCxaa Mopcxao aBnaunn BCTynnna b Boi^Hy c 
nany6HbiMn MCTpe6nTe/iflMM F-4B. b Aa/ibHeMueM b 6opb- 
6y BK/itOHMriMCb ycoBepiueHCTBOBaHHbie nany6Hbie caMO- 
neTbi F-4 J. BBC CLUAKHanany eoftHbi MMenH MCTpe6nTenn 
F-4C. B xoAe bomhw mx flonoriHiinM ycoBepiueHCTBOBaH- 
Hwe caMoneTw F-4D, a Ha 3aK/iK)MMTenbHOM 3rane 6oee 
BBC nonynn/iM Han6onee coBepweHHyio MOAM0MKai4MKj 
«<DaHTOMa» - F-4E. 

rnaBHbin conepHMx «it>aHTOMa» - c^pohtoboh ncTpe- 
6nTenb Mnr-21 -Taxx<e 6bin co3AaH b 1958 roAy- B oTnMHue 
ot aMepMxaHcxoro caMoneTa poccuwcxan MaiuMHa npeA- 
HaaHaMeHHafl Ann abmctbum HaA nnHneii $poHTa. Ha He- 
oonbiuoM yAaneHMH ot aapoAPOMa 6a3npoBaHnn, othoch- 
nacb k APyroM «BecoBo(i xaTeropnn» (HopManbHaa 83/ieT- 
Haq wacca woAncpuxaunM. npuMeHsauinxcn bo BbeTHawe - 
MeHee 8 t) n nMena 3HaHMTenbH0 MeHbuiyw AanbHOCTb - 
oxono 1500 km. Oah3ko noocTa/ibHbiM neTHbiM xapaxrepn- 
CTMxaM (MaxcuManbHafl cxopocTb 21 75-2300 km/m. npaxTM- 
^ecxvivi noTonox- 1 8 000- 19000 m) Mur He ycrynan CBoeMy 
aMepuxaHcxoMy conepHUxy. Coct3b BOopyjxeHMB caMone- 
tob MmT-21 6bin Tax>xe 3HaHMTenbHO cna6ee, iom y «aue- 
pnxaHuan, - ABe (b AanbHeiiiueM - neTwpe) paxeTw xnacca 
«B03ayx-B03Ayx» cpeAHeiii AanbHOCTn P-3c c MHo>paKpac- 
hwm caMOHaaeAeHMeM (coBeTCKan «nnparcKaH» kormp 
aMepuxaHCKOM VP AIM-9 «Ca(iAynHAep»). a Taioxe oahb 



41 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 




Muf-17 u F-4 e ne6e nad BbemnaMOu 
KoMtibiomepMbiu xonnaiK 

(Ha pnfle MOflnctuKaunw OTcyTdByeT) nyujKa Kann6poM 23 

HHM 30 MM 

B HananbHbiii nepnoa bomhw BBC h BOtfCKa nBO 
CeBepHoro BbeTHaMa pacnonaranu numb 25 ao3ByK0Bbi- 
mm MCTpe6viTen?iMn J-5 (Mnr-17<t> KMTartcKoro npo*3Boa- 
CTBa), HecKonbKHMn cobbtckmmh Mnr-15 6mc, a Tawtce 
6oM6apAnpoBmm<aMM Hn-28. 3tm H63HaHHTe/ibHbie cwnbi 
He MorxiH OK33aTb cepbe3Horo npoTHBoaetiCTBHH aMepn- 
icaHuaw. neTaBuiuM b He6e BbeTHaMa, k3k y ce6s AOMa Ho 
c noMOiiibio coBeTCKMx n KHTaMCKMx BoeHHbix cneunanfic- 
tob BbeTHawubi BCKope Bbipa6oiann TaKTHKy ncnonb30Ba- 
hus cboux ncTpe6nTeneii, no3BonPBwyio aawe b ycnoenBx 
MHoroKpaTHoro nucneHHoro npeBoexoacTBa npoTMBHUKa 
naHocuTb eMy OLuyTMMbie yaapbi. He6onbuine rpynnbi Mn- 
Tob 6appa*MpoBanM Ha Manow Bwcoie. BHe 30Hbi BMawMo- 
cth PJ1C npoTMBHUKa (aMepMKaHijbi ncnonb30Bann caMo- 
neTbi flanbHero paflMonoKauMOHHoro ao3opo - npoc6pa3b 
coBpeMeHHwx «AsaKCOB», a Taiwe nOCTbl ynpaBneHun aBna- 
une^i. pasMemeHHbie Ha Kopa6nnx, Kpeiicupyioainx y 6epe- 
tob CeBepHoro BbeTHaMa n nwetomux MOiiiHue paauono- 
<aunonHhie cTaHiinn) ripn nonRnennn cavoneTOB npcniB- 
hhk3 MtirVt Heo>KHflaHHO aTaKOBann ero 6oeBwe nopsflKM, 
paccTpennBan M3 nyweK Tsweno rpy>KeHHbie 6om63mh yaap- 
Hbie MaujMHbi. 

nepBbiii HacTOBiunJi 6oti c yvadneM F-4 cocTon/icn 9 
anpenn no aMeprntaHCKoii Bepcun, oh npoTeKan cneflyw- 
iynM o6pa30M . B 8 nacoB 40 MMHyT MCTpe6nTenb BMC CLUA 
F-4B. B3neTeBUJnti c aenaHocua «PeMHa>Kep», 6wn aTara- 
BaH Haa MopeM MeTbipbMs BbeTHaMCKHMn caMoneiaMH 
MmT-17. OflMH M3 hmx 6bin cBnTpaKeToii «Cn3ppoy». oflHa- 
ko BCKope flpyroM Mur 3awen r xboct «<t>aHTOMy» u nopa- 
3nn ero OMepeflbio us nyujKM. SKunaw aMepuKaHCKoro ca- 
MoneTa - neTMMK T. MapcfcM m onepaiop P. <DaraH - norn6- 
nit. 

Cneayioaikiii B03ayujHbiH 6oii c ynacTneM «OaHTO- 
mob» npon30wen 17 hkdhh HaaropoaoM HnHb6nHb. B xoae 
Hero neTbipe MmI~-17<1> aTaKOBann npoTMBHUKa c 3a/jHeii 
nonycrfcepu c awcTaHUHM 100-600 m. Hm yaanocb c6nTb 
asa F-4B. npH 3tom aMepHK3Hu,bi He nponannn oco6oii 
aKTMBHOCTM m AOBO/ibHO OecnopflflOMHO Bbimnn M3 60s. 
BbeTHawubi noTepb He noHecnw, xotb ux 6oesow nopoflOK 
TaKxe 6wn HapyiueH, a ynpaBneH^e 3BeH0M yTepflHO. ripn 
B033pameHnn Ha aapoapow aea BbeTHaMCKMx netnuw 
BbiHyxyjeHbi 6binn KaTanynbTMpoBaTbcn n3-sa nonnoro pac- 
xoaa Tonnnea, a oahh M^r-17 coBepiunn BbiHyxyjeHHyio 
nocaflxy Ha aapoapoMe Xai^cpOHa. 

B tot Me aeHb oTKpbinn CBoii GoeBort cseT w «<6aHTo- 
Mbi»: F-4B. CTapTCBaBiiiuii c nany6bi aBtiaHOCua nMnay- 
3ii», c6nn Haa XaMCJjOHOM MCTpe6nTe/ib Mnr-17. 10 rnonsi 
1965 roaa nepsyio no6eay oaep>Kan F-4C H3 cociaBa BBC 
CLiJA. c6nBaBa Mnl"-17 



B aanbHeiiujeM BCTpenn b He6e CeBepHoro BbeTHaMa 
MuTob n «<t>aHTOMOB» CTann o6biMHbiM qeneHMeM. 

B uenoM cneayeT oTMeTHTb. hto, noKa Ha cueHy He 
Bbiiunn M^r-21 m He Hawanocb Maccosoe npuweHenne 
3emiTHbix paKeTHbix KOMnneKcoe C-75, aMepuKaHCKasaBna- 
uhb b ne6e BbeTHaMa Bena ce6n aoaonbHO 6ecneMHO. He 
paccMaipuBas ManonncneHHwe Mnr-17 KaK cepbe3Hyto 
yrpo3y. 

C (fceBpann 1966 roaa ocnosHbiMM npoTHBHMKaMu F-4 
CTann CBepxseyKOBbie Mnr-210-13 (MacTb H3 hux -Mexoc- 
noBauKoro npon3BoacTBa) m Mnr-21 no-B (BapnaHT Bceno- 
roaHoro, to ecTb CHa6x<eHHoro paano/iOKaunoHHbiM npmje- 
noM. Mnr-2in<I> b «TporiHHecKOM» ncno/iHeHnn). TaK x<e, 
KaK n aMepuKaHCKne cawoneTbi. ocHaiueHHbie paxeTHbiM 
opy*neM - yp P-3c c TrC nnn 6noKaMM c 55-MwnnnMeTpo- 
bwmh HeynpasnneMbiMM aBMaunoHHbiMM paKeTaMn (HAP) 
C-5. KoMaHaoBaHne BBC n BMC ClilA npoaon>Kano B03na- 
raTb 6onbnjne Hafle>Kabi Ha F-4. cMHTan. ^to MomHoe boo- 
pyweHMe. coaepujeHHap 6opTosan P/1C, BbicoKne ckopoct- 
Hwe v\ pa3roHHwe xapaKTepucTHKH b coMeTaHMM c HOBbiMn 
TaKTuvecKHMM npneM3Mn o6ecneMaT «iDaHTOMaM» npe- 
bocxoactbo Haa caMoneTaMn npoTHBHUKa. nepBbm 6oti c 
yMacTHeM Mnr-21 nponsomen bo BbeTHaMe 23 anpenn 
1966 roaa h 3aKOHHnnc5! SespeaynbTaTHO. A 26 anpenn 
«(PaHTOMaM» yaanocb c6nTb nepBbifl MnT-21 , OTKpUB cneT 
b noeauHKe stmx ncTpe5nTenew. npoaorDKasiueMCP na 
0poHTax MHorux noKanbHbix bomh Ha npoTswceHMH 5onee 
neM aByx aecflTuneTHM. 

C Man noaeKa6pb 1966 roaa CLUA BBOsaywHbix 6onx 
noTepnnn 47 caMoneTOB, yHUHTOKua npn stom nuiub 12 
ncTpe6nTeneii npoTMBHUKa. 

Mnr-21 oSbiHHO aTaKOBann npoTMBHUKa Ha ceepx3By- 
kobom ckopocth. BbinonHBH paKeTHbiPi nycK H3 3aaH6M no- 
nyccpepw m 6ucrpo OTpbisancb ot B03Mro«Horo npecneao- 
BaHun TaKoii TaKTMKe, TpeSoBaBiueM bucokom noaroTOBKH 
nemuKOB m ocpnuepoB HaBeaenMn Ha3GMHoro KOManaHoro 
nyHKTa. aMepuKaHuaM TpyaHO 6wno mto-/im6o npoTneono- 
daBMTb. Hanann npaKTMKOBaTbcn TaioKe vi coBMecTHwe 

aeMCTBUS «aBaaUaTbnepBblX» C MnT-17. BblTeCHBBLUMMM 

npoTMBHUKa c Manbix bwcot Ha cpeaHMe. rae ero aTaKosa- 
riM Mnr-21. 

Bot Kax onucbiBaeT BosayuiHwii 6oii c Mnr-21, npo- 
nsoLueauinii 14 mono 1966 r . KanmaH Bunn LLlBeHaep' «Bo 
rnaBe3BeHa F-4C HBbi/ieTen C8BM8683bl Taxnu. Boopy- 
weHne Moero caMoneTa cocTonno M3HeTbipex «Cnappoy» m 
ncTupox nCaiiflyiiHAepoBn. noa KpbiriOM Buceno aoa 6aKa. 
erne c/jhh 6bin pa3Meiaen noa 0>iO3enn>KeM flo3anpaBHB- 
ujMCb Haa naocoM OT KC-135, MW BCTpeTunncb C TpOMKOii 
«TaHflepHno>OB». ueribto kotopwx 6bin aapoapoM b flnar 
tieH (conpoBO>KaeHne 3tmx caMoneroB nBnnnocb Haiuew 




6 aeeyema 1964 a CUIA Havunaom eoeHHbie deucmeua 

npomue BbewnaMa 



4 KPyTOM MAPUJPyi BbETHAMA 



49 




fleumeHBHm Hayen Saw Mu u uHcmpyKmop oQuuep B.M. 
Hpueanoe noped ObinomoM <Pomo U3 *ypnana <<OeoneK». 

3aflaneki). Bcrape TonnnBO b ueHTpanbHOM nTB kohhh- 
nocb, m oh 6wn c6poiueH (nycTo* noa<pK)3ensi>xHbm 6aK 
co3flaBan conpoTMBneHne, hto 3aTpyflHano coBMecTHbiii 
noneT c F-105). Mw CHH3nnncb h cneaoBann Ha paccron- 
hmh 1000-1500 m ot ncTpe6nTeneM-6oM6apflMpoBU4MKOB. 
neTHMKM Koropbix Benn Me*Ay co6otf ManonoHHTHbie nepe- 
roBopbi o neM-TO. xacaBweMCfl paAMoanexTpoHMXH. Hetom- 
aaHHO Beaymnii rpynnw «TaHAepHucpoB» coo6mnn, hto 
eMy yrpowaeT onacHOdb (xaxan mmbhho, n He ycnen paso6- 
paTb). PeainB. hto peib maot o aeHHTHbix paneiax npornB- 
HMKa, n co6npancfl o6neieTb yrpowaeMwii paviOH cnpaBa 
OflHaKO nocne pa3Bopoia Ha 180 rpaaycoe TpeTHii caMO- 
neTMoero3BeHacoo6mmi: «Mnr, «BoceMbMacoB» (cnoco6 
onpeaeneHUA HanpaBneHna Ha uerib. Koraa ee aswMyr 
ynoflo6nseTcn nacoBOfi crpenxe), npn6;iM*aeTCfl k h3m!» 
BbicTpo pa3BepHyBLiikicb BneBo. a ornflHyncn Hepe3 nneno 
m yennen 6necK aHOAMposaHHoro ueianna CTpeMMTeribHO 
nuKupyiomero Mn r a. Pe3KO OTBepHyB BnpaBO, « c6pocnr 
noAKpwnbeBbie 6axn, npuroTOBUBUJMCb k aTaKe. OAHaxo 
npoTMBHMK ncMe3 B n/iOTHOM o6naHHOCTn. BcKope b Hanpaa- 
neHnn CAM naca» s yenflen Mn r -21, npn6nn>xaiomnMCH k 
«TaHaepm<i(paM». Coo6ujmb o HeM xoManaapy rpynnw hc- 
"pe6nTene*i-6oM6apflnpoBmnKOB h npoaonwan npaabiM 
Bnpaw. a Hana/i c6nn>t<eHMe c hpotmbhmkom c t8kmm pacne- 
tom, HTo6bi mom onepaTop. flyaH Barren, cMor nposecTn 
ero 3axBaT paanonpnue/ioM. BcKope flyaHy sto yaanocb, s 
Ha*an Ha rauieTxy, nycTMB YP «Cnappoy» m b tot we 
MOM6HT KpaeM rnasa 3aMeTHB Ha axpaHe PJ1C McnesHOBe- 
Hue OTMeTKM uenn Pa3Aancfl BOsmac onepaTopa: «Cnnw- 
kom Mana flncTaHunfl!» B tomohmo CHMTaHHux MmoaeHUM a 
nepewiioHMn Tun opywMfl h BHOBb Haxan Ha raiueTKy . Bwny- 

CTMB B npOTMBHMKa wCairfAyHHAepn, XOTfl 3Hafl, mto uerib 

cnnujKOM 6nn3xa. Aa m paxypc a*is aTaxn HenoAxoflstunki. 
PaKeTa npowna HaA xa6nHOii Mn r a. He pa3opBaeiuncb. ho 
onoBecTMB cbomm nonsrieHneM npoTMBHMxa o tom. mto oh 
o6Hapy)KeH. BbeTHaMcxnii neTHHK, bxtiiohhb (popca*, pe3KO 
yuien BnpaBO BnanMo. Tax n He pa3o6paBiuucb tab «4>aH- 
tom», Mnl"-21 CTan cTpeMMTenbHo Ha6npaTb BbicoTy. yBe- 
nnHMBan AncTaHunio Meiwiy mbmh. Bcxope oh CTan Bbirnn- 
fleTb xax npKoe ceeTtimeecfi nsiTHo Ha (pone rony6oro He6a 
- OTnuHHan MMiueHb a/is paiceT c Trc. 3anycTMB btopom 
«CaiiAynHAep>i. n ot 3nocTM sacKpexeTan 3y6aMM, noHHB, 
hto paxeTa MAeT mmmo uenn. ho TyT *e B3nn ce6fl b pyKH m 
npoMsaen nycxTpeTbevi paxeTbi. Mwr. yxnoHnncbOT paxeT, 
BOmtCOM BepTencn cpean ocTaBnseMwx mmh flwMHbix luneii- 
cpOB. «flyaH. mw CHOBa npoMaxHynncb!» - xpuxHyn n b 
OTnaflHMn cBoeMy nanapHUKy. ho b stot momoht Ha mbcto 
BbeTHaMcxoro ncTpe6nTenn bo3hmx orpoMHbiM orHeHHbi* 



map. yxnoHSflCb ot ropumux ockojikob. cpeA^ xoTopbix 
naAannnuenbieMacTMKpbinbeB, flOTBepH/riBnpaBo...» Kax 
bmahm. aMepuxaHCKMM neTHnxaM yAanocb oaepwaTb aepx 
6naroAapn TOMy. mto ohh nocTosHno BMAenn npoTMBHHxa. 
a oh He CMor nx CBoeBpeMeHHo o6Hapy>xnTb (cxa3ancn 
nnoxow o63op Ha3aA n3 xa6nHbi Mnr-2H1(6). 

Bcero Ha nepBOM 3Tane B03AyiuHOM bomhw, c anpens 
1 965 r. no Hos6pb 1 968 r. . hba BbeTHaMOM 6bino npoBeae- 
ho 268 B03AyuJHbix 6oeB. b xofle xoTopwx 6bino c6nro 244 
aMepuxaHCKnx m 85 BbeTHaMCxnx caMoneTOB. 46 6oeB 
npon30iuno Mea<Ay MmT-21 m «<t>aHTOMaMn», nx MTor oKa- 
3ancs HeyTeiiiMTenbHbiM arin aMepkixaHCxnx ncTpeSure- 
neu - noTepn coct3bhjim 27 F-4 n 20 Mnl~-21 . 

y6eanBiuviCb b HeB03MO)XHOCTn 3a xopoTxoe BpeMfl 
Ao6nTbcsi npeBoexoACTBa HaA HCTpe6nTennMM npoTMBHM- 
xa, aMepuxaHLtbi cocpeAOTOMnnn ochobhub ycnfinn Ha co- 
BepweHCTBOBaHHH SoeBoro MacTepcTBa cbomx neTM^xoB. 
BBC CUJA opraHM30Bann cneunaribHbie xypcw nepenoAro- 
tobkh no nporpaMMe <'PeA *fi3r», e xoAe xoTopow OTpa6a- 
TWBann B03ayujHbie 6om c acxaapunbBMM «Arpeccop». 
ocHameHHbiMH ncTpe6nTenBMM «HopTpon» F-5, mmhtm- 
pytoiAHMn caMoneTw Mwr-21 . flnn neTMnxoe mopckom aana- 
UMM no HHMUMaTnae xannTaHa <t>p3Hxa AyriTa b 1969 roAy 
Taxjxe 6bina opraHM30BaHa «LUxona ncTpe6nTenbHoro bo- 
opy>xeHMB BMC». M3BecTHas xax mxoria «Ton TaH» (3Haico- 

M3 H3M no OAHOHMeHHOMy (JjH/lbMy c Tomom KpysoM B 

rnaBHort ponn). rAe b TeneHne nn™ HeAenb nponcxoAnna 
HHTeHcuBHan noAroTOBxa neTnuxoB b ycnoBunx, Maxcu- 
Ma/ibHO npn6nw*eHHbix k 6oeBbir/ 

B MOHe 1971 roaa CILIA B03o6HOBnnn HaneTbi Ha 
CeBepHwii BbeTHaM. Bbchom 1972 r. CLLA. yeennnMB co- 
CTas asuaunn Ha TBfl ao 1 000 6oeBbix caMoneTOB. npose- 
nn ujnpoKOMaciuTa6Hyio B03AyujHyK) onepaqmo «flaMH63- 
xep»-1 , b xoae xoTopoii no ceBepoBbeTHaMCKMM xoMMyHn- 
KaunsM v. aspoapoMaM 6bino HaHeceHO e o6iaeii cpowho- 
ctm oxono 40 xopoujo cnnaHMpoBaHHbix, moiuhux 6om6o- 
bwx yAapoB, 3HaHMTenbHO oc/ia6nBwux 6oeBbie bo3mojk- 
hoctm aBnaqnn L1PB. BHOBb pa3ropenncb oxecTOHeHHbie 
B03AyiuHbie Son Meamy «<»aHTOMaMM» n MuraMM. 

16 anpennflBaMnr-2in<D BCTynnnuB 6om c 12 «<t>aH- 
TOMaMn» (o6a BbeTnaMcxnx caMoneTa SfalflM c6mtw). 

27 anpenn 3Beno F-4 BCTpeTMnocb c napoS Mnr-21 n 
b 3aBfl3aaiueMCfl 6okj noTepnno oahh cauoneT. 

6 Mas napa «<DaHTOMOB» nepexBainna aea ncTpe6n- 
Tenn Mnf-17, nwTaBUJiixcB aTaxoBaTb uiTypMOBuxn A-7, 

OflMH MMr yaa/lOCb c6k1Tb. 

B tot )xe aeHb 3B6ho F-4 BCTynn/io b 6om c MeTBepxoii 
MmT-21, npn 3tom no oaHOMy M3 MmFob Swno BwnyiaeHO 
ujecTb paxeT. oaHaxo noBKMii BbeTHaMeu cyMen ot hmx 
yBepHyTbcn (ri03yHr «xoHeuib *MTb - ywePi BepTeTbcn» 
nMeeT HenocpeacTBeHHoe OTHoujeHne x neTnuxaM-HCTpe- 
6nTennM ! ), nocneaosaBiUMM 33TeM 3annoM eiye Tpex aMe- 
pMxaHCKMx paxeT MnT-21 ace we 6w/i c6mt, ho neTHMx 
cyMen 6narononyHHo xaTanynbTvipoBaTbcn. 

KyribMHHauneti 6opb6w b B03Ayxe BecHoii 1972 r. 
CTano 10 Ma», xorAa aanauns flPB BbinoriHuria 64 6oeBbix 
BbineTa. npoBeAfl 15 B03AyiiJHbix 6oeB. b peayribTaTe xoto- 
pux 6bino c6nToceMb «<DaHTOMOB» (Tpn Ha cneTy Mnl"-21 , 

TpM - J-6 M OAMH - Mnr-17). npn 3TOM «<PaHTOMaM» yAa- 

nocb yHMMTOJXMTb Asa Mnr-21.flBa MhP-17 moamh J-6. 

B xoae OAHoro H3 5oeB 10 Mas sboho Mnr-1 7 noflHnnn 
Ha ae6noxnpoBaHne coceaHero aapoapoMa. Mnr"n cxpbiT- 
ho, Ha npeaenbHo Manoft BucoTe Bbioinn Ha qe/ib m c 
nepBovi aTaxn c6nnn oanH «<DaHTOM». BTopan napa 3BeHa 

BTBHynaCb B MaH6BpeHHblM B03ayiiJHblM 6om C HeTBepKOM 

F-4, 3axoHHMBiiinMCH noTepeM OAHoro Mnr-1 7 OaHaxo bts- 
rMBaHne «<DaHT0MOB» a eosayiUHbiii 6oii nosBonwrio noa- 



51 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 



HPTb b B03flyx c 6/ioKnpoBaHHoro aapoflpoMa napy Mnl~-21 . 
KOTopwe «c ropxu» Ha BbicoTe 2 km aiaKoeann napy F-4 n 
c6nnn o6a «<DaHTOMa». M3pacxoaoBaB nnujbflBe paxeTbi 
P-3C. 

11 Mas napa Mnr-21. nrpaBiuas porib «npnMaHxn», 
BbiBena MerBepxy F-4 Ha «3acaay». cocTOBBiuyio H3 flByx 
6appa>KnpoBaBiunx Ha Manort BHC0T8 MnT-21 MmI"m cipe- 
MUTenbHO aTanoBann «<DaHTOMOB» m TpeMn paxeTaMM c6m- 
nn flaa caMoneTa npoTMBHMKa 

13 mk>hs 3seHO Mnr-21 nepexsaTuno rpynny «OaHTo- 
mob». BKnuHUBiuncb b 6oeBOn nopaflOK awepuxaHueB. flBa 
BbeTHaMCKnx MCTpe6nTens) Bbi3Bann y npoTMBHHxa naHHxy 
«(t>aHTOMbi>< Hapymwnu CTpoft u Hanann 6ecnopfl,iOMHO Ma- 
HeBpupoBaTb B sto epeMs BTopaa napa MhI~ob Bbino/iHMna 
paxeTHyio aiaxy n c6nna flBa F-4. 

18 Man BbeTHaMCKas aBnaunq coaepajura 26 6oeBbix 
BbineTCB u npoBena BOceMb B03ayaiHbix 6oeB. ctohbuihk 
aMepuKaHuaM neTbipex «<t>aHTOMOB». 3beTHaMCKwe ncTpe- 
6nTe/in b tot iteMb noTepb He noHecrw Bo BpeMH oflHoro M3 
6oeB napa Mnl~-21 nepexBaTuna 3BeHO «OaHTOMOB». Beay- 
ujhm BbeTHaMCKOii napw. xannTaH Hrw. c nonynepeBopoTa 
aiaxoBan m c6wn F-4 oahom paxeioii. 

JIbtow 1972 r. nHTGHCMBHOCTb B03flytuHbix 6oee no- 
ujna Ha y6birib, CTonxHOBeHun b B03flyxe CTann HOCHTb 
6onee 3nn30flHMecxnM xapaxTep. Tax. 1 2 uohb 3BeHo «tJ>aH- 
tomobii npoBeno 6oii c napoii Mnr-21 n noTepano oahh 
caMonBT. Ha cneayioiuuii aeHb npon30wno ewe aea 6or, 
cTonBu.ne aMepuxaHLiaM eme flByx F-4 (BbeTHaMcxaa cto- 
poHa noTepb He noHecna). 

no aMepuxaHCxnM aanHUM. c miohb no ceHTfl6pb 1 972 
rofla b B03flywHbix 6onx Haa CesepHbiM BbeTHaMOM cbmo- 
neTbi BBC m BMC CUJA yHMMToixunn 17 ncTpe6nTeJieii 
npoTUBHMxa. b tom MHcne 11 MmT-21, 4 MmT-17 m 2 J-6 . 
noTepflB npH stom 1 1 «<I>aHTOMOB» - 9 caMoneTOB BBC n 
2 BMC. 

ripuneM Han6oneepe3ynbTaTMBHbiMn OKa3anwcb. kbk 
hm CTpaHHO. He HOBetiiune F-4E. a 6onee dapwe F-4D, Ha 
cneT xotopwx 6faUW 3anncaHO 9 no6ea b B03flyxe (7 - H3fl 
Mnr-21 n 2- Hafl J-6). F-4J c6nnn 1 Mn(~-21 n 4 Mul"-17, a 
F-4E - 3 MmT-21 PaxeTaMn «Cnsppoy» 6bino c6mto 8 MmT- 

21. «CaiiflyMHflepaMM» - 3 
Mnr-21.2 J-6m4MmI~-17. 

B pesynbTaTe «B03flyiu- 
Horo HacTynneHnsio, npea- 
npuHBToro aMepuKaHuawn 
eecHOH m neTOM 1972 r., k 
oceHHHaTeaTpe6oeBbixfleM- 

CTBMM 360-TM TaKTMHeCKMM 

MCTpeSnTenflM BBC CWA n 
96 ncTpe6nTennM BMC. 
6onbwyio wacTb xoTopbix co- 
CTaBnnnn «<J>aHTOMbi» nocne- 

AHMX MOflUC&MKauMM, npOTH- 

BOCTonno numb 187 ncTpe- 
6nTeneii flPB (Mnr-1 7. Mur- 
21 h J-6). oflHaxo M3 SToro 
MncnaTonbKo7lcaMoneT(31 
uuenauu auepuxaHuoe. Mnr-21 m 16 Mnr-17) SBrinri- 
noiu6ujux bo BbemHaue. cb 6oecnoco6HWM. 





AuepuKBHCKuu nemvuK. 

cCurrtbiu Had CeaepHbiu 

BbemHaMOM 



Bcero b 1972 r. Me>xfly 
aMepuKaHCKMMM n BbeTHawc- 
kmmm caMoneraMti npon30iuen 
20 1 B03flyiiJHbivi 6oii . b pe3yrib- 
TaTe Sbino noTepHHo 54 BbeT- 
HaMCxwx ncTpe6nTenn (b tom 
Mucne 36 Mnr-21, oamh Mm(~- 
21 yC, 12MnM7nnflTbJ-6)n 
90 aMepuKaHCKnx MaujHH (b 
tom HMcne 74 ncTpe6nTenfl F- 
4 m flBa pa3BeflMnxa RF-4C; 
Mnr-21 yHUMTOJKunn 67 caMO- 
neTOB npoTHBHMxa, Ha c-ieTy 

Mnr-17 M J-6, COOTBeTCTBeH- 

ho. 11 m 12 «aMepnKaHueB»)- 

CnenyeT npn3HaTb. mto 

conepHHHecTBO MnT-21 n 

(("PaHTOMan BO BbeTHaMCKOM 

He6e 3aBepujvinocb nopaMe- 
HneM aMepMxaHCKOii MaiunHbi: 
MCTpe6nTensM F-4 3a Becb nepnofl 6oeBbix aeficTBHii c 
1966 no 1972 r. yflanocb c6wTb nnujb 54 caMoneTa Mnr-21 . 
sa 3tot >«e nepnofl «flBafli4aTbnepBbie» yHHMTOJKnnn 103 
«iJ)aHTOMa». ripn 3tom HywHO yMecTb, hto noTepn oflHoro 
aMepuxaHCxoro caMoneTa. xax npaBuno, npuBOflvuia x rn- 
6enn Mfin nneHeHMio flByx sneHOB sxHnawa KpOMe toto, 
«<t>aHTOM» o6xoflnncB aMepuxaHCXMM HanoronnaTenbifln- 

K3M B CyMMy. B HeCKOTIbKO pa3 npeBWLUaWlUyK) CTOHMOCTb 

OflHoro Mnr-21 (ecnn cpaBHUBaTb b conocTaBMMbix ueHax). 

B uenoM cauoneiaw F-4 nptixofli^nocb pemaTb bo 
BbeTHaMe He cBOMCTseHHwe nw 3a/jaHn: c03flaBaBUJHMCB 
xax Tn>xenbiM nepexBaTHnx, npn3BaHHbiM o6opoHBTb yaap- 
Hbie aBMaHOCHbiecoeflMHeHun ot HaneTOB cxopocTHbix 6om- 
6apflnpoBiijnK08 n npoTMBOxopa6enbHbix xpwnaTbix paxeT. 
«<DaHTOM» ncnonb30Bancfl b 6opb6e 3a 3aBoeBaHne roc- 
noflCTBa b B03flyxe, npoTMBOCTOH 6onee npncnoco6neHHO- 
Myfl/ifl aroii porn caMoneTy Mnr-21. riosTOMy nopa»eHne 
aMepuxaHueB oGtscHseTcn He oiiin6xaMn KOHCTpyxTopoB 
cfupMbi «MaxaoHHenn-flyrnac», cyMeBuinx co3flaTb Bwaa- 
K3UIMMCB nnn cBoero BpeMewM 6oeBoii caMoneT. a OTcyT- 
CTBueM y ClilA cneunannsMpoBaHHoro nerxoro MCTpe6nTe- 
m B03flyiuHoro 6os. cnoco6Horo Ha paBHbix npoTHBOdo- 
BTbMnr-21. 

OflHaxo B ponn TaxTMMecxoro yaapHoro caMoneTa F-4 
nposBun ce6« npeBocxoaHO. «OaHT0Mbi» mnpoxo npuBne- 
Kanncb flnn yflapoB no oco6o Ba>KHbiM o5bexTaM (MocTaM. 
anexrpocTaHUMBM) n no *ene3HOflopo)KHbiM TpaHcnopTaM 
npoTMBHwxa. CaMoneTbi HenpepwBHO npoMecbiBann kom- 
MynnKaunn npoTHBHuxa. MecTaMM noriHOdbK) napann3ys 
flBM)KeHMe b cseTnoe BpeMB cyTox. 

OnbiT BbeTHaMcxoM BOMHbi oxasan orpoMHoe BnnsHne 
Ha BoeHHoe aBnacTpoeHne xax b ClilA. TaK v, b CCCP. 
AMepnKaHLtbioTpearnpoBann HanopaweHne «<faHTOMa» b 
B03flyuiHbix 6onx cosflaHnew BbicoxoMaHeBpeHHbix ncTpe- 
6nTeneii MeTBepToro noKoneHns, npn3BaHHbix npeB3oiiTn 
MmT-21 b 6rM)KHeM MaHeBpeHHOM 6ow. B to me speMH 
«yHMBepcanbHbivi conaaT» F-4 oxa3an BnnsiHMe m Ha yMw 
poccMiicxMx aBnaqnoHHbix TeopeTMKOB. mto Haiuno OTpawe- 
Hue b MOflHQpuxaunsx MCTpe6nTeneM Tpetbero noxoneHnn. 



... fl xnsy He 0)KMflaHHeM CMepin b xaxjiyio 6nn)xaCiujyx3 cexyHfly; a *nBy BOCxpeceHneM, HacTynawmuM 
cpa3y BC/ieA 3a ce<yHflOM npeaujeCTByioiaeii... fl *nBy. fl xmb. fl eme xmb. 

AHryaH ne CeHT -3K3ionepn «BoeHHbi& neTimc 



4 KPyiON MAPIUPYT BbETHAMA 



51 



BbETHAMO-COBETCKAfl HPV^BA B LJI/IOPAX 



CyiHEHbiE EAHAHM 
30 .neT Ha potnucKOM pbaucc 

P-MIIEBAJ! UEHHOCTb 
KaaapwuK. MS K^'ioo,- 

Coflcp*aHiic *iirxm 
Co.acpntaHMc yr.ncaortoo 



5.4r./10()r 



III. I IVJ -IA" 

RucTHaMe 






N. 



\p7mmrTTyxoM MecTe 



Apyx6a naeenu? 

CoBeTCKUM Cok)3 flnn BbeTHaMa flonrne roflbi HB/inn- 
ch rnaBHbiM BHewHBTOproBbiM napTHepoM w nMocipaH- 
HbiM MHBecTopow, xoTfl nns caworo CCCP cbh3u c BbeT- 
HaMOM He nrpanii cymecTBeHHO* porn. 

flo 1991 r. CoBeTCKMM C0103 3aHMMan Beaymee Me- 
cto bo BHeuiHesKOHOMMMecKnx CBS3HX CP8 (oxono 65%). 
Ha ero aonto npnxoflnnncb ocnoBHwe nocTaBxw bo BbeT- 
H3M HecJnenpoflyKTOB. 100% nociaBOK xnonxa-BonoxHa. 
CBbiuie 70% nocraaoK Mnnopanbiibix yao6pennki. oxono 
75% nociaBOK npoxaia nepHwx MeTannoB. 

flona BbeTHaMa bo BHeiuHeToproBOM o6opoTe 6wb- 
ujero CCCP cocTaBnnna oxono 1 ,5%, oanaxo nocraBXM M3 
CPB aaHMMann saiuieTHoe Mecro b o6meM HMnopTe CCCP 
OTfleribHbix TOBapoB. Tax, florin BbeTHaMa cocTaBnnna 
20% b o6meM HMnopTe flxyra, 16% b o6iyeM HMnopTe 
HaTypanbHoro xaynyxa, 12% b o6iflew HMnopTe xotfce e 
3epHax. 1 5% b o6meM oSteMe nMnopTa xnon4aTo6yMa>x- 
hom npnxcH, 9% b o6ujeM o6beMe nMnopTa OBomevi h 
cppyxraB. 





tlpuuan e nopmy 

e KaupaHb, nocmpoenntiiu 

no coeemcKOMy npoexmy 



^ 

PoccuucKug cneuuanucmbi na cmpoumenacmee Jleopua 

Kyribmypbi npocpcoio3oe e Xanoe. 



ripOH3BOflCTBeHHbie 
MOlflHOCTH, BBefleHHbie B 

3KcnnyaTaL(MK) npn coAeM- 

CTBMH CCCP. COCTaBnSIKJT: 

no Bbipa6oTxe anexTpo- 
SHeprnn - 1600 twc. kBt, 
no npon3BOACTBy yrno - 7,9 
Mnn. t b rofl, ueMeHTa - 
1200 twc. t, onoBa- 470 t, 
4>occpopHbix yAo6peHMM u 
cepHoii xncnoTbi cootbct- 
CTBeHHO 320 n 180 twc. t. 
RocTpoeHbi J13n npoTA- 
weHHOCTbK) CBwaie 2300 
twc. km, co3flaHw n pac- 
mnpeHbi cymecTByroiflne 
rocxo3w no npon3BoacTBy 
^an, xocpe m apyrux Tponn- 
^ecxHx xynbTyp Ha nnoiaa- 
flu 100 twc ra, coopywe- 
Hw uppurauwoHHwe cucTe- 
mw Ha nnomaflu 400 twc 
ra, ocymecTBnena 3axnaa- 
xa 90 twc ra nnaHTaunii 
reBen. 

06beM BbinycxaeMoi/i npoayxunn Ha npeanpHHTHsx 
CPB, nocTpoeHHwx npn TexHMMecxoM cofleiiiCTBun CCCP, 
b Hanane 90-x toaob cocraBnan b o6meM o6beMe npo- 
MwujneHHoro npon3BOflCTBa anexTpoanepruM - 70,5%, 
yrnn - 71,4%, ueMeHTa -45.4%, HecpTH, cynepcpoccpaTa 
m anaTHTOBOii pyflw - 100%, onoBa - 42%. MeTannopewy- 

111MX CT3HK0B - 100%, Ha» - 46%, flH3enbHWX MOTOpOB - 

31.7%. 

3a roflw coTpyaHMnecTBa npn coaeMCTBun CCCP 
6wno noflroTosneHO CBwiue 190 twc. BbeTHaMcxvix cne- 
unanncTos no pa3HbiM ncTOMNMKaw ce^Mac b Pocchu 
nocTOAHHO npownBawT ot 60 flo 80 twc BbeTHaMueB H3 
hux npMMepHO 40 twc npHexann b CCCP b cepeflUHe 
BocbMMflecHTwx fln« pa6oTBi no KompaxTaM n nocne 
MCTeneHMSi cpoxa He BepHynncb Ha poanHy. 

3a Becb nepnofl coTpyflHMMecTBa (c 1955 r.) CoBeT- 
cxhm Coras npeflocTaenn BbeTHaMy rocyaapcTBeHHwe 
KpeflMTbi Ha cyMMy 16,2 Mnpfl. py6.. n3 KOTopbix ncnonb- 
30B3HO 12,6 Mnpfl. py6.. norauieHO m pecpMHaHCMpoBano 
ocHOBHoro flonra okojio 2,8 Mnpfl. py6. n cnncaHoocHOB- 
Horo aonra Ha cyMMy 1,1 Mnpfl. py6. 

06inan saflonweHHOCTb CPB 6biBuieMy CoseTcxoMy 
Co»3y no npeflOCTaBneHHbiM KpeflMTaM cocTaBnnna k 
MOMeHTy pacnafla CCCP 9,8Mnpfl. py6. m 128M/iH.flonn 
KpoMe Toro, sa Becb nepnofl coTpyflHunecTBa BbeTHaMy 
6wna npeaocTaBneHa 6e3B03Me3flHan noMoiflb Ha cyMMy 
oxono 400 MnH.py6. 

BbeTHaM CpeflU aOTDXHMKOB Poccnn - 6WBUJHX cou- 
CTpaH - 33HHMaeT TpeTbe Mecro, ycTynas MoHrornii n 
Ky6e. B ncHncneHnn Ha ayuiy HaceneHMn 3aaon>KeHHocTb 
nepefl Poccneii no oTHOiueHHio k BHI1 y BbeTHaMa paBHa 
5%. a ecu 3aaon*eHHOCTb, BxunanaH 3anaa. npeBwiuaei 
BbeTHaMCxnii BBn Ha ayiuy HaceneHns b 1 .2 pa3a. 

Ho MamepuanaM MM3nu PAH 



52 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 



T\v\ KyaHr IO 

BbeTHaM: B03Bpau^eHiie b coBpeMeHHbiu Mnp 




OTHOiueHHn CnHranypa c 

BbeTHaMOM, KOTOpbIM 

o6fceaMHnncfi b 1975 
roay, Hananncb c npoTM- 

BOCTOflHMH. BbeTHaMMbl 

noBKO 3KcnnyaTnpoBann 
onaceHun cTpaH ACEAH 
n mx wensHMe noaaepxw- 
BaTb flpy»ecKne OTHOiue- 

HMfl C BbeTHaMOM. Toh MX 

paflMonepeaaM m ra3eT- 
hwx ny6nwKai4MM 6bin yr- 

pO)KaiOU4MM. Hx HMflepbl 
K333nMCb MHe HeBblHOCM- 
MblMM JIIOflbMW - OHM 6blHM nonHbi MyBCTBa COBCTBeH- 

hom 3H3MMMOCTM m cpaBHMBanM ce6n c «npyccaKaMM 
KDro-BocTOHHOM A3mm». fleMCTBMTeribHO, ohm nepewM- 
hm MHoro CTpaaaHMM, Bbmecn Ha ce6e Bee ywacu, 
npMMMHeHHbieaMepMKaHCKOMBoeHHOMMaiuMHOM, M.npo- 

51BMBOrpOMHyiOBblHOCnMBOCTbM3aMeHaTenbHyK)M306- 

peiaTenbHOCTb b Mcnonb30BaHMM aMepMKaHCKMx 
cpefldB MaccoBOM MHCpopMaijMn b nponaraHflMCTCKMx 
ue/inx, no6eflnnM aMepMKaHues. BbeTHaMuw 6unM yBe- 
peHbi, hto CMoryT no6eflMTb nio6yio CTpaHy b Mupe, 
KOTopan nanana 6w Ha hmx. aawe KMTaii. K hbm. Ma- 
neHbKMM rocyaapcTBaM IOi-o-Boctohhom A3mm, ohh He 
McnbiTUBanM mhwx nyBCTB. KpoMe npe3peHMH. BbeTHaM 
3asiBMn, hto ycTaHOBMT flMnnoMaTMnecKMe OTHOiueHMH 
c Ka>KflOM CTpaHOM ACEAH b oTaenbHOCTM, u oTicaaancH 
MMeTb aeno c opraHM3auMeii b M e/ioM. BbeTHaMCKMe 
ra3eTw KpwTMKOBanM tt>M/iMnnMHbi m TsunsHa 3a Ha/iM- 
MMe TaM BoeHHbix 6a3 CLUA n roBopnnM o cyiyecTBOBa- 
hmm croBopa b OTHOtueHMox Mex<ay KuTaeM m CMHrany- 
POM. 

K 1 976 roay see 6onee yrny6nnBiuMecH pa3Homa- 

CMH B OTHOUjeHMHX C KMTaeM BblHyflM/lM BbeTHaMLieB 

nocnaTb aMnnoMaTMnecKae mmccmm b CTpaHbi ACEAH 
Bo BpeMn noe3flKM no CTpaHaM pernoHa mmhmctp mho- 
cTpaHHbix aen <DaH Xvten (Phan Hien) roBopMn o Mupe. 
nepBOHananbHO oh MCKniOHMn noceiyeHMe CMHranypa 
M3 nporpaMMbi CBoeii noesflKM. ho 3aTeM M3MeHnn cbom 
nnanw m npM6wn k HaM b Mione 1976 roaa. Oh CK33an. 
hto BbeTHaM He BMeuiMBsncn bo BHyTpeHHMe aena 
apyrMx CTpaH, ho npoBen pasnMHMe Mea<ay HapoaoM m 
npaBMTenbCTBOM CoMManncTMMecKOM Pecny6nMKM BbeT- 
HaM. no ero cnoBaM, Hapoa BbeTHaMa noaaepwMBsn 
cnpaBeanMsoe aeno HapoaoB KDro-BocTOHHoii A3mm, 
6opoBiuMxcn 3a HeaaBMCMMocTb (noa stmm oh noapasy- 
MeBan KOMMyHMCTMHecKMe MHTe>KM), a npasmeiibCTBc 
BbeTHaMa xoTeno ycTaHOBMTb asycTopoHHue oTHoiue- 

HMB C 3TMMM CTpaHaMM. fl OTBeTMn, HTO 3Ta annjlOM3TM- 

Heacan Ka3yMCTMKa He noaaonneT hsm M36aaMTbcn ot 



flu Kyane IO - npoMbep-MUHucmp Cumanypa. odun U3 meopuoe 
•cuHeanypcKoeo 3noHOMwwcKoao »yda» HytnuKyeubiQ meKcm - 
ippaBMOHm khubu «CuHsenypcKe* ucmopun u3 mpembeeo uupa - 
« nepebiu*. 



BnenaTneHMJi. hto TaKOM aBOMHOM noaxoa npeacTaBnn- 
eT coSom BMeiuaTenbCTBO bo BHyTpeHHMe aena apyrMx 
rocyaapcTB. ToBops o cobotckom noMouiM BbeTHaMy. a 
3aMeTMn. hto BenMKMe aep)KaBbi 3Hann. mto Henocpea- 
CTBenHO BoeBaTb apyr c apyoM 6wno onacHO, TaK mto 
ohm ncnonb30Ba/iM TpeTbM CTpaHbi ana pacujMpeHMn 
CBoero BnMHHMfl. Pa3HomacMR we Me>t<ay CTpaHaMM 
ACEAH paspeuianMCb BHyTpM stom opraHM3auMM, TaK 

HTO HM COBeTCKMM COK)3, HM COeaMHeHHbie ILlTaTbl He 

MornM Mcnonb30BaTb mx b cbomx uennx. 

Toa cnycTH npeMbep-MMHMCTp n>aM BaH flOHr (Pham 
Van Dong ) TaioKe nepBOHananbHo He BwironMn CMHranyp 
b nnan CBoero BMSMTa no CTpaHaM perMOHa. BeponTHO. 
HTo6bi npMnyrHyTb Hac Mw He Mcnyranncb- BbeTHaMuw 
nOKa HTO He MOmM npMHMHMTb H3M HMKaKoro Bpeas. Oh 
npM6wn 16 oicm6pH 1978 roaa m noKa3ancn MHe Bbico- 
KOMepHbiM m Heao6po>KenaTenbHbiM nenoBexoM. BbeT- 
HaMubi 6binM npeKpscHbiMM pe>KMccep3MM. riepBbiM k 
HaM npMexsn Oan Xmch, hto6w noK333Tb hsm ensms- 
Boe, ynwSMMBoe hmuo KOMMyHMCTM-necKoro Bbemawa 
Tenepb Osm BanfloHr. no>KnnoM nenoBeK b B03pacTe 72 
neT, npMexan noKa3aTb hsm, hto ohm 6binn TBepaw, ksk 
CTsnb. Bo BpeMB aMCKyccMM, npoaonjKaBiuevicn aBa c 
nonoBMHOM naca, mw pacTona/iM nK>6e3HOCTM m roBopM- 
nw MH0Cxa3aTenbH0, a OTxpoBeHHbiM pa3roBop Me>«ay 
HaMM Hanancn b MsujMHe no aopore M3 33ponopT3. 

fl Hansn c KOMnnMMeHTOB no noBoay >Ken3Hnn 
BbeTHSMa pa6oT3Tb BMecre c hsmm ann yKpenneHun 
Mupa cTa6MnbHOCTn m npouBBTaHMn. TeM He MeHee 
npocnyujMBaHMe nepeaan «PaaMo XaHoa» n HTeHMe 
ra3eTbi «HnHaaH» (Nhan Dsn) nopo>Kaanoy MeHn Hera- 
Topwe coMHeHMs: mx toh 6bin HeapywecTBeHHWM, aa«e 
yrpo»atomMM. <DaM BaH floHr OTBeTMn, hto BbeTHaM - 
couManMCTMnecKan CTpaHa. a oh - KOMMynMCT. McnoBe- 
aywiaMM M3pKCM3M-neHMHM3M. Oh npMexsn b CMHrsnyp, 
HTo6bi BecTM neperoBopw b KanecTBe npeMbep-MMHM- 
CTpa CouManMCTMsecKOM Pecny6nkiKM BbeTHaM. BbeT- 
HaM BHeccBOii Btrnaa b aeno peBonwunM m MMpa e (Oro- 
Boctohhom A3mm m bo BceM MMpe. rio ero cnoBaM, 3T0 He 
aon>KHo 6ecnoK0MTb CnHranyp. BbeTHSM - CTpaHa c 
HacenenneM b 50 MMnnnoHOB HenoaeK; sto MywecTBeH- 
Hwe m o6pa30B3HHbie nioaM: CTpsHa 6oraTa npMpoaHbi- 
mm pecypcaMM. H ClilA. m flnoHMn roBopMnM BbeTHSM- 

U3M, HTO MX CTpaHa CTaHeT 3K0HOMMHeCKM CMnbHOM. 3 

noTOMy m CUJA. m ?1noHMH 6yayT Hy>Ka3TbCfl B P33bmtmm 

TOprOBblX M 3K0H0MMMeCKMX OTHOlijeHMM C BbeTHaMOM. 

rioc/ie TaKoro yBepeHHoro BCTyn/ieHMa. oTBenan Ha 
mom Bonpocbi. oh 33BBMn, mto rieKMH noacTpexsji 140- 
150 TbicflH STHMnecKMx KMTSMueB, npo)KMBaBujMx Ha ce- 
sepe BbeTHaMa. nOKMH/rb BbeTHaM m BepHyTbes b Km- 
t3m. Oh CKa3an. hto BbeTHSMuw He noHMMSiOT. noneMy 

KMTaM aensn 3T0. ripMHMHOM B03HMKHOBeHMfl 3TMX npO- 

6neM 6wno OTHOiueHMe Kmtbh k BbeTHaMy nocne no6e- 
aw BbeTHaMa Haa Amcpmkom. Oh cxaaan, hto Kmt8m 

npoaO/DKaeT CBOIO 3KCnaHCMOHHCTCKyK> nonMTMKy 8 OT- 

HoiueHMM BbeTHaMa. riexMH McnoribsoBan «KpacHbix 
KXMepoB» ann opraHM3auMM HanaaeHMM Ha TeppMTo- 



4 KPyTOH MAPU1PYT BbETHAMA 



53 



puKi BbeTHaMa n coBepueHun ywacHbix npecrynneHMM 
KaMnaHns, pa3BepHyTasi kmtbmckmm noconbCTBOM b 
XaHoe. npuBena k MaccoBOMy orbe3ay M3 BbeTHaMa 
ntoaeit HapoflHOCTM xoa, KOTopwe 3aTeM nonynajiM b 
KuTae cneunanbHyio noflroTOBKy c uenbio BoaBpaiueHua 
Ha BbeTHaMCKyw TeppMTopmo. KuTaMqw 3apy6e>Kbfl ace- 
raa MyBCTBOBariM npMBepwenHOCTb k cBoeM poflMHe - 
3to MCKpeHHee n flocTOMHoe yBaweHnsi nyBCTBO, ho 
rieKHH Mrpan na stmx MyBCTBax. 

9\ cnpocMn ero. CTaHeT m nexMH nposoanTb no- 
ao6Hyw nonMTMKy b OTHomeHUM CMHranypa, ecnn ot- 
KpoeT b ropofle CBoe noco/ibCTBO. 4>aM BaH floHr oTBe- 
tmd, mto oh TaK He ayMaeT, m6o b nnanbi Kmt3a He 
Bxoflnno B03BpameHne Ha poflUHy ecex KMTaMqeB, *mb- 
uimx 3a py6ex<OM. Kmaii npeanoMMTan ocTaBHTb mx tbm. 
raeoHM wm/im m ncnonbSOBaTb 9 KanecTae MHCTpyMeHTa 

CBOeii nOHMTHKM. 

MHoro3HaHMTe/ibHo nocMOTpeB Ha MeHH, oh cxa- 
3an. mto npOKMBaiomne 3a py6e)KOM KMT8fll|bl eceraa 
6yayT noaaep>KHBaTb KuTaii. TaK *e Kax npowMBaiomMe 
sa py6e>«0M BbeTHaMLiw Bceraa 6yayT noaaepwHBaTb 

BbeTHBM. 

flocne aToro oh nepeuien k 3kohomhm6ckmm B3an- 
MOOTHOuieHMSM. yflMBMB Mens 3asiBneHMeM. mto CwHra- 
nyp Mor 6w bhcctm Bxnaa b BoccTaHOBneHne BbeTHaMa. 
Koraa a MflrKo B03pa3nn, hto mm aonwHw nonyMaTbHTO- 
to B33MeH 3a HaiiJM TOBapw n ycnyrM, oh npnMO CKa3an, 
MT0 3K0H0MMKa BbeTHaMa 6wna cna6opa3BMTOM. a bo3- 
mojkhoctm ann ToproBnn - orpaHUMeHHWMH. B tot we 
Benep, xoraa wh npoxawMBartMCb nepea ywwHOM. oh 
CHOBa CKa3an, hto BbeTHaMy 6wno HeneM ToproBaTb, ho 
oh Hy>Kflancfl b noMOiyn. ["locxonbKy CnHranyp n3Bnei<an 
Bbiroay m3bomhw bo BbeTHaMe npoaasanaMepuKaHLiaM 
BoenHbie MaTepnanw m cupbe, to HaujHM aonroM 6bino 
6bi noMOHb BbeTHaMy. ?\ 6bin oiuenoMneH stum bwco- 

KOMepHblM M B0MHCTB6HHblM OTHOUjeHMeM 

Koraa Ha cneaytoujMM aeHb mw exann b MauuHe no 
Ha6epe>KH0M. oh yBnaen MHO*ecTBO KOpa6/ieM. ctohb- 
llux b nopTy. Oh CHOBa noanepKHyn, mto mm H3BneKnn 
orpoMHyo Bbiroay n3 BOMMbi bo BbeTHaMe w paaBuBann 
CMHranyp 3a nx cneT, TaK hto HaiauM aonroM 6bino 
noMOHb mm. 9\ He Bepun cbomm ywaM m He Mor noHATb, 
noMeMy Mbi Apramfai 6wnn noMoraTb mm, - TonbKO nn 
noTOMy, mto ohm o6HMmariM b pe3ynbTaTe bomhu. koto- 
pyw mw He pa3BA3biBanM m b kotopom He ywacTBOBanM' 
3 CKa3an, hto ochobhw- 

MM BOeHHbIMM MBTepMa- 

naMM. KOTopwe mw no- 
CTaannnM aMepMKaHCKMM 
BOMCKaM, 6binM TCM (ro- 
piOHe-CMa30MHbie MaTe- 
pManw), npoaaBaewMecfl 
aMepMKaHCKMMM m 6pn- 

TaHCKMMM He4)T51HblMM 

KOMnaHMSMM ripM6binb, 
nonynaeMan CMHranypoM 
ot 3tom ToproeriM. 6wra 
HMHTOKHa. Oh nocMOTpen 
Ha MeH5? cKenTMMecKM. fl 
CKa3an, mto mw roTOBbi 
ToproBaTb, a He npeaoc- 
TaBDflTb 6e3B03Me3aHyK> 





yKpennenuii na ebemHBMO-K8M6od)KuucKou epamjue. 



noMomb. 3to eMy He noHpaBMnocb, m mw paccTa/incb 
BewnMBO, ho xonoaHo 

OKKynauMH KaM5oa»M BbeTHaMOM cTana McnwTa- 
HMeM conMaapHOCTM CTpaH ACEAH b nepMoa c 1978 no 
1991 roaw. riocne roro Kax 25 aeKa6pfl 1978 roaa 
BbeTHaM Hanan Ha KaM6oa>Ky. mmhmctp HHOCTpaHHbix 
aen CMHranypa Paa>t<a nponBMn MHwqMaTMBy u 1 2 AHBa- 
pn 1979 roaa C03Ban cneuManbHyio BCTpeny mmhuctpob 
MHOCTpaHHwx aen CTpaH ACEAH b BaHrxoKe. B coBMe- 
cthom 3anBneHMM ohm ocyaMHM BTopweHMe m npMSBanM 

K BblBOay BCex MHOCTpaHHblX BOMCK M3 KaM6oa>KM. FlpM- 

6nM>KeHiie BbeTHaMCKMx bomck, HacTynaBiuMx b KaM- 
6oa*e, k rpaHMqe c TaMnaHaoM caenano nonoiKeHMe 
yrpoiKaioiaMM, ho KMTaiicKasi xapaTe/ibHas 3KcneflMijMB 
npoTMB BbeTHaMa b o^eepane 1979 roaa CTa6Mnn3npo- 
Bana CMTyauMK). Bonpoc Tenepb 3aKnK5Hancn b tom, KaK 
npeaoTBpaTMTb 3axaaT pemtMOM XeHr CaMpMHa (Heng 
Samrin), ycTaHOBneHHbiM BbeTHaMuaMM b riHOMneHe, 
MecTa b OOH. KOTOpoe saHMMano npaBMTeribCTBo «xpac- 

HWX KXMepOBB. TeHOMMA, pa3Bf13aHHblM MMM npOTMB 

CBoero co6cTBeHHoro Hapoaa, npMBen k B03MymeHMK) m 
HenpMHTMionpaBMTenbCTBa«KpacHbixKXMepoB» BOBceM 
MMpe. TeM He MeHee ecnn mw xoTenM noMeuiaib BbeT- 
HaMy ao6MTbca Me>KayHapoflHoro npM3HaHMH yciaHOB- 
neHHoro mm MapMOHeTOHHoro pe>KMMa. to y Hac He 
ocTaBanocb MHoro Bw6opa, xpoMe noaaep>KKM npaBM- 
TenbCTsa «KpacHwx KXMepos». 

AoHeceHMH Haajeii pa3BeaKM, noaTBep>KaeHHbie Ta- 
MnanaoM, noK33WBanM, hto BbeTHaMCKaa OKKynauMOH- 
Han apMMq HMcneHHOCTbK) 170000 BoeHHOcnyxamMX 
KOHTponMpoBana Bee ocHOBHwe HaceneHHwe nyHKTU m 
6onbiuyK) MacTb TeppwTopMM KaM6oa>KM. BoopyweHHwe 
CMnw XeHr CaMpMHa, HacHMTbiBaBiuMe 30000 nenoBex, 
CTpaaanM M3-sa hmskoto MoparibHoro ayxa conaaT n 
ae3epTMpcTBa. Coo6meHMa o pacTyiyeM conpoTMBne- 
hmm HaceneHMn BbeTHaMCKOM oxxynauMM noaH'^Mann 
HaM HacTpoeHwe. Cmum «KpacHwx KXMepoB» OTCTynM/iM 
b ropMCTbiii perMOH Ha sanaae CTpaHbi. y rpaHMuw c 
TaM/iaHaoM. flnn cobmbcthom 6opb6w c BbeTHaMuaMM 
c hmmm o6beflMHnnMCb HexOMMyHMCTM^eCKMe rpynnbi 
conpoTMBneHMH, KOTopwe paHbiae 6oponMCb c «Kpac- 
hwmm KXMepaMM» noa pyKOBoacTBOM KOMaHaMpoB, npe- 
aaHHwx cTapoMy npaBMTenbCTBy flOH Hona . Haujn ocpM- 
una/ibHbie nMua HanpnM<eHHO pa6oTann Haa tbm, mto6w 
3acTaBMTb npuHua CuaHyxa m Coh CeHa (Son Sann) 

C$OpMMpOBaTb C «KpaCHblMM KXMepaMM)) KOanHUMOH- 



54 



4 



KPACHQE KOJIECO 




Apuua CPB wa Maputo 



Hoe npaBmenbCTBO, ho ohm 06a 6onnncb m HenaBmen^ 
«KpacHbix KXMepoB». rioTpe6oBancn uenbiii toa. noKa 
KMTaio. TannaHfly n CMHranypy yaanocb y6eflHTb Cua- 
HyKa m Coh CeHa BCTpeTHTbcn b Kyana-flyMnype c 
«KpacHbiMM KXMepaMM» anq noanncaHMq cbopManbHoro 
comaiueHun o co3A8hmm KoannuMOHHoro npaBMTenb- 
CTBa aeMOKpaTMnecKOM KaMnynuM (KIHflK - Coalition 
Government of Democratic Kampuchea). 

flnn BbeTHaMa tpopMnpoeaHne KllflK 6bino nno- 
xmm n3BecTneM, Ha KOTopoe OHnoTpearnpoBann haobm- 
to, Ha3BaB 3to npaeMTenbCTBo «mohctpom, aaayMaH- 

HblM KMT3MCXMMM SXCnaHCMOHMCTaMM M aMepuxaHCKHMM 
MMnepnanncTaMM». Mmhmctp MHocTpaHHbix aen BbeT- 
HaMa HeoflHOKpaTHO 3anBnnn, mto CMTyauMn b KaM6oA- 
we BBnnnacb Heo6paTMMOM h He noA/iewana o6cy>KAe- 
hmio. KuTart ne cornauiancn c stmm, a CLUA noaaepwM- 
sariM KmaM. Ilo uepe Toro xax MewAyHapoflHaa noA- 
Aepwxa KflflK B03pacTana. Bcsxafl nepcnexTMBa npw- 
3H3HHfl MapnoHeroHHoro BbeTHaMcxoro pewMMa XeHr 
CawpnHa ncne3na. 

riocne Toro KaK b 1975 rofly BbeTHaMiibi no6eannn 
aMepuxaHueB m 3axBainnn CafiroH. cipaMM «TpeTbero 
Mnpa» Bocxumanncb hmh xan reposiMM. Tenepb we. 3ax- 
BaTMB caoero ManeHbxoro coceaa, ohm 6pocm/im Bbi30B 
Me)«/iyHapoflHOMy coo6ujecTBy m ewcTynnnn b ponn uew- 
ayHapoflHbix pa36oMHMX0B. BbeTHaMuw oxasanMCb btb- 
nyrbiMH b napTusaHCxyio soiiHy, s KOTopoii ohm, icax n 
aMepuKaHubi bo BbetHaMe, He Momn no6eflMTb. Ohh 
npo6binn b Kaw6oa>Ke etue ceMb neT, ao nonHoro bmbo- 
fla bomcx b ceHTn6pe 1989 roaa, ho npoAonwanM nonn- 
TMnecKoe BMewaTenbCTBO bo BHyTpeHHHeaena CTpaHU 
flo saKmoneHHH riapn>KCKoro MnpHoro cornaweHMn b 
0KTn6pe 1991 rofla. Ha6npan c kbwamm toaom Bee 
6onbuie m 6onbwe ronocoB b OOH, Mbi 3acTaBnnnn 
BbeTHaM MyBCTBOBaTb padymyio Me>KAyHapoAHyto H30- 
nnumo. flaH CnoniiH npeflOTBpainn B03MO>KHoe Hanaae- 
HHe Ha TaHnaHa. HanaB Ha BbeTHaM b cpeBpane 1979 
roaa, - ueHa 6bina 3annaseHa kmt3mckom kpobmo. B 
1 980 rofly. b llexMHe, Hrcao L(3blflH (Zhao Ziyang) o6t,nc- 
Hnri MHe, mto b pe3yribTaTe BoeHHOiii onepaunn, npoBe- 
fleHHoii npoTMB BbeTHaMa b 1979 rofly, KwTan bmhvamh 
BbeTHaM flep>KaTb 60% cbomx nynuiHx bomcx BAorib xm- 
TaMCKO-BbeTHaMCKoii rpaHMuw. Ecdm 6u BbeTHaM Mor 
ncnonb30BaTb stm bomcxb nnn BeaeHMs boAhm b KaM- 
6ofl>Ke, to cneayiomas MewayHapoflHaa KOHQ>epeHunfl 



no MwpHOMy yperynnpoBaHHK) npoBOflHnacb 6bi y>Ke b 
TaMnanAe, a He b KaM6oA»<e. HecMOTpn Ha orpoMHyro 
ueHy, KOTopyto BbeTHaM nnaTMn Ha npoTflweHMM 13 neT 
OKKynatjHH KaM6ofl>Kn, eMy Tax u He yaanocb npeBpa- 
TMTb ee b CBoero caiennma. Mbi noTpaTHrin MHoro 
speMeHu n pecypcoB, HTo6bi copeaTb nnaHbi BbeTHaMa 
b KaM6ofl>xe. n6o b Hauinx HHTepecax 6wno ao6nTbcn 
Toro, mto6w arpeccan hhkcm He paccMaTpHBanacb b 
xaMecTBe BbiroAnoro npeanpHnTHa. 

B 1 990 roay, Ha BceMMpHOM axoHOMMHecKOM opopy- 
Me b flaBOce. 3aMecTMTenb npeaceaaTejiB npasMTenb- 
CTBa BbeTHaMa Bo BaH KweT (Vo Van Kiet) nonpocnn o 
BCTpene co mhom. Oh xoTen ocTaBMTb b cropoHe pa3HO- 
rnacus Me«Ay naMn v\ npMCTynMTb k coTpyflHHnecTBy. fl 
noceToean Ha to. mto. Hainan cflei<a6p3 1 978 roaa, M3- 
sa BbeTHaMcxow OKxynaqHM KaM6oa>KM. 6bino ynyiyeHO 
CTonbxo BpeMeHM. R noAnepKHyn, hto ao Tex nop. noxa 
3tot xoHr43nnKT He SyaeT pa3peiueH, xaxne-nn6o Mew- 
npaBMTenbCTaeHHbie CBS3M HeBosMOXHbi. KneTCKa3an. 

MTO BbeTHaM - CTpaHa OrpOMHWX B03MO)KHOCTeM M HTO 

npaBMTenbCTBO BbiAano 6onee 100 MHBecTuu.MOHHbix 
nnueH3n(i 3apy6e*HbiM KOMnaHMqM. fl OTBeTMn, hto, 
He3aBncnMo ot Toro, BbiAaayT /in BbeTHaMqbi 100 nnki 
1000 nnueH3HM, BbeTHaMcxan 3KOH0Mnxa He HanHeT 
6ypHO pa3BMBaTbcn ao Tex nop, noxa CLUA He oao6pbt 
BbiAeneHMe MMpoeblM BaHXOM nbroTHwx xpeAHTOB Ha 
BoccTaHOBneHMe BbeTHaMa, a Kpytmue aMepuxaHCKne 

6aHKM He COHTyT, MTO pMCX, CBH3aHHblii C MHBeCTMUMBMM 

bo BbeTHaMe, HBnneTCfi npneMneMbiM. TeM He MeHee, 
xax Tonbxo BbeTHaM BbieeaeT cboh BOMCKa H3 KaM6oA- 
>xn, Mbi CHoaa HaMHeM c Toro *e caMoro Mecia. rAe mm 

OCTaHOBMHMCb B 1978 TOAy. 

B OKTH6pe 1991 roAa BbeTHaM n Bee 3anHTepeco- 
BaHHbie CTOpOHbi noAnncann b riapMKe cornaiueHMe o 
Bceo6-beMnioineM nonMTMHecKOM yperynnpoBaHnn b 
KaM6oAKe. Mepe3 HeAenio Bo BaH KneT, Tenepb ywe b 
xaMecTBe npeMbep-MMHHCTpa. noceTMn CwHranyp. Xots 
n y>xe He 6faUl npeMbep-MMHMCTpoM , Mbi BCTpeTnrincb Ha 
o6efle, KOTopbiM Aan b ero necTb mom npeeMHUK. npe- 
Mbep-MMHUCTp To 4ox Toht. KorAa o6eA noAxoAwn k 
xoHLiy, Bo BaH KvieT noAHnncn, noAOiuen xo MHe n no*aB 
mom pyxM b TvtnnHHOM napTMMHOM pyKono>xaTMM, cnpo- 
CHn, CMory on s noMOHb BbeTHaMy . fl noMHTepecoBancn, 
neM a Mory noMOHb Oh cxa3an, mto xoTen 6m npeano- 

>KHTb MHe CTaTb MX 3«OH0MMMeCXMMCOBeTHMKOM. fl nOTe- 

pnn Aap peMM. fl 6bin MMiueHbK) mx f)3BMTenbHbix Hana- 
Aox c MOMeMTa nanana BbeTHaMcxofi OKKynaijHM KaM- 
6oawm. ripMAfl B ce6n ot MsyMneHiin, a cxa3an, mto mom 
onbiT 6bin orpaHMMeH paMxaMM rocyAapcTBa-ropoAa m 
mto y MeH« ne 6wno 
onbiTa ynpaBneHMH Ta- 

XOM fJOribUJOM CTpaHOM. 

xax BbeTHaM. c Hace- 
neHMeM 60 MMnnMOHOB 
MenoBex. K TOMy >xe 
CTpaHa 6bina paspy iue- 

Ha BOMHOM, B HeM CO- 

xpaHanacb xoMMyHMC- 
TMMecxas CMCTeMa, ko- 
Topyio cneAoeano 
TpaHCCDOpMMpOBaTb B Bcmpeva Bo Ban Kuema u 

' \1 cenamopa Qm. MaK-KeuHa 

pUHOMHyW. OH npo- Xa W u.2OO0a 




4 



KPYTOM MAPUlPyi BbETHAMA 



55 




ynuvHbiu pt>iHOK e Xaxoe. 



Aonwan HacTaneaTb Ha CBoeM n npucnan MHe ABa 
nucbMa, b KOTopsix noBTopun cbokd npocb6y. 

riocne o6MeHa nucbMaMH n cornacuncn npnexaTb 
bo BbeTHaM. ho He b xaMecTBe coBeTHMxa, a TonbKO ana 
ynacTufl b flwcKyccnn v\ o6MeHe B3rnHAaMH o nyrnx 
nepexofla BbeTHaMa k pwhomhom axoHOMUKe. Korqa n 
noceTun XaHOM b anpe/ie 1992 roAa, OTHOiueHMfl MOtcfly 
HaMn nonHOCTbra n3MeHnnncb. 3aceaaHnn npoBoan- 
nMCb b yxpaujeHHOM opHaMeHTOM 3ane, b ueHTpe koto- 
poro CToan 6ioct Xo LUm MnHa (Ho Chi Minh). 9\ npoBen 
uenbui aeHb c Bo Bsh Kmctom m KowaHaovi ero muhh- 

CTpOB H OCpMLlMaJlbHblX J1MLI. V HMX 6blI10 flflTb OCHOBHblX 

BonpocoB. HaMMHan c Toro. Ha npon3BOflCTBe xaxMx 
ToeapoB cnefloeano 6w cocpeflOTOHHTbcn BbeTHaMy b 
xoae cBoeii MoaepHH3aunM. c iokhmu napTHepaMM n Ha 
Kanux pwHKax pa6oTaTb. fl OTBeTMn mm, hto b caMOM 
Bonpoce OTpawancfl o6pa3 MwtuneHMH, BOcnuTaHHwii 
AO/itmmh roaaMM LieHTpann30BaHHoro nnaHnpoBaHnfl. 
m6o ohm McxoaMnM M3 Toro. hto towe-To onpeaeneHHbie 
Tosapbi. pwhkm MriM ToproBwe napTHepw npMBeayT k 

TpSHCIpOpMaUMM MX 3K0HOMMKM. fl npeflnOKMH MM M3y- 
HMTb OnbIT TaMBaHH M tO)KHOM KOpeM, KOTOpbie C3MM 

npeo6pa30BanM ce6n M3 arpapHbix rocyaapcTB a HOBbie 
MHflycTpManbHbie dpaHbi. H CKa3an, hto xopoiueM crpa- 
TerMew 6wno 6u Mcnonb30BaHMe KDwHoro BbeTHaMa, 
oco6eHHO XoiuMMMHa (6biBiunM CafiroH), b KaMecTBe 
ABMraTenn 3KOHOMMMecKoro pocTa Ann Bceii cTpaHbi. 
KoMMyHMCTMMecKan CMCTeMa cyiyecTBOBana Ha ceBepe 
Ha npoT«)KeHkiM 40 neT, a Ha tore - To/ibKO 1 6 neT. JIkjam 
Ha tore BbeTHaMa 6bi/iM 3HaxoMbi c pwhohhom skohomm- 
kom m MorriM nertco eepnyTbcn k cTapoii CMCTeMe. Han- 
nyMtuuM KaTariM3aTOpOM p33bmtmh 6wnM 6w wx 3MMr- 
paHTbi - BbeTHaMCKMe SOKOHUbl, noKMHyBUJMe CTpaHy 
nocne 1975 roAa, KOTopwe ycneujHO 3aHMMarwcb 6m3- 
HecoM b AMepMKe, 3anaAH0ii Eepone, ABCTpanun m 
A3mm. fl nocoBeTOBan npMrnacMTb mx BepHyTbcn m 3any- 
CTMTb npoqecc SKOHOMMnecKoro pa3BMTMfl Ha lore BbeT- 
HaMa, m6o ohm HasepHHKa saxoTeriM 6fai noMOHb cbomm 
poACTeeHHMKaM m Apy3b?iM. MHe noi<a3anocb, hto Moe 
npeAno>KeHMe noHpaBMnocb KMeTy. Oh 6bin BbixoAueM 
c tora, ho APyrMe, 6onee BbicoKonocTaBneHHbie JiMAepw, 
xoTenn, MTo6w pa3BMTne skohomukm wno paBHOMepHO. 
- K3K Ha tore, TaK m Ha ceBepe CTpaHw. HeBwcKa3aHHbiMM 
ocTaaanMCb onaceHMn no noBOAy Toro, hto 3MnrpaHTbi 



npMHecnM6bi cco6oMnoAPbiBHbie Hflen, aTaioKeMomM 
6w 0Ka3aTbcn CBS3aHHbiMM CMHOCTpaHHbiMM cneucnyjK- 
6aMn. HanpuMepcUPy. riocne aecflTMneTMM napTM3aH- 

CKOM BOMHbl OHM nOA03peBa/lM K3>KA0r0. 

Kmct npMneTen b Xoujmmmh M3 XaHon ana 3aK/iK)HM- 
TenbHoii BCTpeHM co mhom. Oh nonpocMn MeHB npMe3- 
MOTb eweroAHO, cxasaB. mto s OKasancs HacTonujMM 
ApyroM, m6o AaBan MCKpeHHMe m necTHbie coBeTbi, lean 
hm 6onbHO 6bino noAnac mx BbicnyiuMBaTb. 3 noo6eujan 
npMexaTb Mepe3 Aaa roAa. B TeMeHMe 3Toro nepMOAa 
BpeMeHu a noo6eman npMcnaTb KOMaHAy cneLinanMCTOB 
Ann n3yneHMfi HeAOCTaTKOB pa3BMTMfl mx MHCppacTpyicry- 
pu m pa3pa6oTKM pexoMeHAauMM no noAroTOBKe Mopc- 
kmx nopTOB, aaponopTa, Aopor, moctob, cpeACTB cbji3m 

M OneKTpOCTaHLlMM. 

HaniM coTpyAHMKM CHMTanM, hto BbeTHaMLtbi xoTenM 
HanaAMTb KOHTaicrbi co mhom, hto6w pa3BMBaTb 6o/iee 
6nM3KMe OTHOiueHMH co CTpaHaMM ACEAH m MyBCTBO- 
eaTb ce6n s Gonbiueii 6e3onacHocTM no OTHomeHMio k 
KMTaio. CMHraryp 6wn csmwm npwM onnoHeHTOM BbeT- 
HaMa, T3K MTO eCHM 6bl MM yAanOCb HOpM3nM30BaTb 
OTHOUjeHMfl C HaMM, TO 3apy6e>KHbie MHBeCTOpbl OTHOCM- 

riMCb6biK BbeTHaMy c6onbiuMMAOBepiieM. Mbipetunnn 
ocTaBMTb npoiunoe no3aAM m noMOMb mm npwcnoco6MTb- 

CH K PWHOMHOM 3KOHOMMKe M CTaTb OOnee nOAXOA«lAMMM 

napTHepaMM Ana CTpaH ACEAH. 

B XaHoe b nonpocMn o BCTpene c OaM BaH floHroM. 
Xoth oh ywe ymen b OTCTaBKy, mw BCTpeTunMCb c hmm b 
npaBMTenbCTBeHHOM 3A3hmh. xaMeHHOM oco6H?Ke no- 
CTpOMKM 1 920-X rOAOB. KOTOpbIM KOTAa-TO 6wn pesMfleH- 
UMeii cppaHuy3CKMx ryBepHaTopos. Oh BCTpeTMn MeH« y 
fleepeM Ha caMOM BepxHeM nponeTe necTHMLtw. Oh 6wn 
oneHb cna6. CTOnTb npsMO eMy AaBanocb c 6onbuiMM 
TpyAOM, a k xpecny, CTonBiueMy nooAarib, oh noAOiuen 
HeyBepeHHOM noxoAKOM. KoHAMUMOHepw 6biriM Bbiicnio- 
MeHbi, TaK KaK oh ne Mor nepeHoCMTb xonoAa. Oh 6wn 
OMeHbAPfxnbiM. ho roBopMnTBepAOMcmy6oKuMy6e>K- 
fleHMeM. Oh HanoMHMn o Hatueii BCTpene b CMHranype m 
cxa3an, hto npoiunoe ocTanocb no3aAM, BbeTHaM ot- 
KpbiBan HOByw CTpaHULty b caoeti mctopmm Oh noSnaro- 
Aapun MeHS 3a Apy^ecxoe OTnoiueHMe m cornacne npM- 
exaTb, MTo6bi noMOHb BbeTHaMy. 

BbeTHaMCKMe riMAepw BneMaTnanM. Ohm 6bi/iM ce- 

pbe3HblMM npOTMBHMKaMM, peUJMTeribHblMM M CMHbHbl- 



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KPACHOE KDJIECD 



mm flyxoM nioflbMM. B CBoeti aoKJiaanoM 3anncKe npasn- 
TenbCTBy b onwcan to ywacHoe cocTosiHMe. b kotopom 
Haxoflnncn BteTHaM, HecMOTpa Ha to mto npowno ywe 
6 neT nocrte Toro, xax ohm oTxpbinM axoHOMMxy cTpaHbi. 
B 1975 rofly ropoa Xolummmh Mor nocnopMTb c BaHrxo- 
kom. Tenepb>Ke (b 1992 roay)OH OTcraBan 6onee MeM Ha 
20 neT. Fl nyBCTBOBan, mto napOA yTpa™n Bepy b cbomx 
nuaepoB, a nnflepw yTpaTunn Bepy b cbok) cucTeMy. 
TeM He rmeHee ohm 6binn SHeprMHHbiMM m o6pa30BaHHbi- 
mh ntoabMM. KOHi$yuMaHuaMM ao M03ra xocTeM. 9\ bg- 
pwn, mto B TeneHMe 20-30 neT ohm CMoryr nonpaBMTb 
aena. Kawaaa BCTpena HaMMnanacb m 3axaHMMBanacb b 
tomho Ha3HaneHHoe BpeMH - BbeTHaMCKMe nnaepw 6birw 

Cepbe3HblMM JllOabMM. 

H KMeT, m 6biBiuMM TeHepanbHbiM cexpeTapb Kom- 
MyHMCTMnecKOM napTMM BbeTHaMa HryeH BaH JlMHb 
(Nguen Van Lihn), KOToporo n BCTpeTMn b Xowmmmhc 
He3aBMCMMO flpyr ot apyra cxa3anM MHe. mto mm cneao- 
eano nepeo6yMMTb cbom Kaapw ann pa6oTw b ycnoBMnx 

pblHOHHOM 3K0H0MMKM M OCBO60flMTbCJ1 OT HeBepHblX 
MSpKCMCTCKMX MflBM. H3-33 Cepbe3HOM «yTeHKM yMOB» 

BbeTHaMCKMe BnacTM McnwTbiBanM HexsaTxy noaroTOB- 
neHHbix, o6yHeHHbix /lKDaevi. Ohm paccMaTpMBanM Bcex 
MHocTpaHuea xax noTeHUMaribHbix sparoB, o MbeM aen- 
TeribHOCTM BbeTHaMCKMe cnyxomMe aon>KHbi 6binn ao- 
HOCMTb. Hx noaxoaw bo MHoroM Bee eme ocTaBanMCb 
KOMMyHMCTMnecKMMM. Mw o6cyaMnM npo6neMy y6biTOM- 
hwx rocyaapcTBeHHbix npeanpMHTMM. Ohm xoTenM npM- 
BaTM3MpoB3Tb mx mhm npoaaTb pa6oMMM m apyrMM riM- 
qaM. fl o6bncHMn mm, mto TaxoM MeToa npMBaTM3aqMM 
Heaan 6bi mm Toro, e MeM ohm Hy>«aanMCb 6onbaie Bcero, 
- acpcpeKTMBHoro ynpaBneHM». fl nopexoMeHaoBan mm, 
HTo6bi ohm npMB3TM3MpoBanM cbom rocyaapcTBeHHbie 
npeanpM«TM9 nyTeM npMBneneHMH MHOCTpaHHbix kom- 
naHMM, mto6w sanoayMMTb 3HaHM« b o6nacTM ynpaBne- 
HMA m MHOCTpaHHbiM xanMTan pj\f\ BHeapeHMS HOBblX 
TexHO/iorMM. H3MeHeHMn b CMCTeMe ynpaBneHMfl 6wnM 

)KM3HeHH0 Heo6xOaMMbl, BbeTHaMU.bl aOHWHbl 6blTlM pa- 

60TaTb pyKa 06 pyxy c MHOCTpaHuaMM, MT06W yvMTbcn b 
npoqecce pa6oTbi. ripMBaTM3auMn npeanpMHTMw BHyrrpM 
CTpaHbi, nyTeM npoaawM mx axu.MM co6cTBeHHbiM rpaw- 
aanaM, HMMero 6w 3Toro He aana. 

Mw nanpaBMnM xoMaHay cneuManMCTOB, noaroTo- 

BMBUjyK) OTMeT O paSBMTMM MHCppaCTpyKTypbl, KOTOpbIM 





Bcmpeva Oo Mbion u cenamopa Kappa. 



BbemnaMCKue upecmbsme 1998 z 



6wn npMH«T npaBMTenbCTBOM BbeTHaMa. Mw C03aanM 
0>ona noMoiyM HHAOKMTaio (Indochina Assistance Fund) 
b pasMepe 10 MMnnnonos aonnapoB ann TexHMMecKOti 

nOarOTOBKM MX aOn>KHOCTHblX HMU.. 

TeHepanbHbiM cexpeTapb KI1B flo Mwom noceTMn 
CMHranyp a oxmSpe 1993 roaa. Oh 6bin nopa>KeH Bbico- 
kmm KaMecTBOM 3aaHMii m MHO^pacTpyKTypbi. Koraa OH 
noceTMn yHMBepMar HKI1C «<D3Mpnpaiic», to 6bin ene- 
naTneH, Kax m npeMbep-MMHMCTp CCCP HnxonaM Pbi>K- 
kob b 1990 roay. pa3Hoo6pa3MeM m M3o6MnMeM noTpe- 
6MTenbCKMX TOBapoB, aocrynHbix HaujMM paeo^MM. Kor- 
aa Mecnu cnycTS n HaHec OTBeTHbiM bm3mt, to y3nan ot 

BbeTHaMCKMX Od)MUManbHblX nMU, MTO MX BeflOMCTBaM 

6binMaaHbi yKa3aHMS ysMTbcn y CMHranypa m Be3ae, rae 
Tonbxo 6wno bo3mojkho, OTaaBaTb npeanOMTeHMe npo- 
eifraM, npeanox<eHHbiM CMHranypcxMMM MHBecTopaMM. 
TeM He MeHee. HecMOTpn Ha to mto 6bino noanMcaHO 
HeMano cornaaieHMii. Haiun MHBecTopbi Bcxope y6eaM- 

nMCb B TOM. MTO OHM He BbtnOnHHJlMCb. HMJKeCTOHlUMe 

otpMUManbHbie JiMu,a Mcnonb30BanM stm cornaiueHMfl 
ana Toro. HTo6bi 3anonyMMTb euje 6onee BbiroaHwe 
npeano>KeHMq ot apyrMx 6M3HecMeH0B. 

flo Mwom 6un caMUM BnMBTenbHbiM MenoBexoM bo 
BbeTHaMe. Kpenxoro cno>xeHMn. c 6onbiuMM nMuoM, 

UJMPOKMM HOCOM, TeMHOM KO>KeM M npflMbIMM BOnOCaMM, 

33MecaHHbiMM Ha npo6op, oh Bbirnsaen onpnTHO m aKKy- 
paTHo. B OTnMHMe ot KMeTa, KOTopbtM HOCMn nMawaHHbie 
napw. oh HOCMn BbeTHaMCKyra BepcMio koctk3M3 b CTMne 
Mao. Oh He 6bin cronb pecpopMMCTCKM HacTpoeH, xax 
KweT. ho He 6wn m CTonb KOHcepsaTMBeH, xax npe3M- 
aeHT, reHepan lie flyx Ah (Le Due Ann). Oh 6bin ap6MT- 
poM, MenoeexoM, noaaep>KMBaBUJMM paBHOBecMe Me>x- 
ay aayMA KpwnbBMM napTMM. 

Koraa oh cnpocMn Mens, xax mojkho 6wno 6bi yse- 

nMMMTb OSteM MHBeCTMUMM, fl nOCOBeTOBan BMy 0TK3- 

3aTbcn ot napTM3aHCKMx npMBbiMex. npoexTbi. ocyuje- 
cTBnFBujuecfl Ha tore BbeTHaMa, KOTOpwe 6binM oao6- 
peHbi enacTHMM XoujMMMHa. 3aTeM noane>xanM oao6pe- 
hmk3 odJMUManbHbiMM nMuaMM b XaHoe, xoTopwe Mano 
mto 3HanM o MecTHbix ycnoBMHx. 3to 6bina nycTan TpaTa 
BpeMeHM 3aTeM npoexTw, oao6peHHbie npaBMTenb- 
CTBOM b XaHoe, nacre 6noxMpoBanMCb MecTHbiMM ena- 
ctsmm, Mcxoaa M3 yHacneaoBaHHoro co BpeMeH napTM- 
33HCK0M BOMHbi npMHUMna. cornacHO KOTopoMy BepxoB- 
hom BnacTbio o6naaan KOMaHaMp, HaxoflMBiuMMcn Ha 
MecTe. 



4 



KPyiOM MAPUJPYT BbETHAMA 



57 



Oh c 6onbKi roBopun o TuxenoM npoiunoM BbeTna- 
Ma: TbicsMa neT bomhw c KmaeM, aaieM eme 100 neT 
6opb6w c 0paHuy3CKMM KonoHnann3MOM n MMnepna- 
nn3MOM, 3aieM boPihs 3a He3aBncnM0CTb nocne Btopom 

MMpOBOM BOMHbl. Ha npOTHWeHMM 140 TieT BbeTHSMLJbl 

BoeBann sa ocBo6o>t<aeHwe cBoeti CTpaHbi. HaHeceH- 
Hbie bomhom paHbi 6binn rny6oKHMM, npoMbiwneHHOCTb 
- cna6oM, TexHO/iorMn - oTCTanoM, a MHCppacTpytrrypa - 
b npucKopSHOM cocTOAHMM. H OTHeccn k ero CfiOBaM c 
noHMMaHHeM, CKa3aB. hto BoiiHa 6bina Tpareanen nans 
CLUA, h Ann BbeTHaMa. Oh B3aoxHyn m txaaan, mto, He 
6yflb bomhu. BbeTHaM 6bin 6bi pa3BMTWM, coBpeMeH- 
hwm rocyflapcTBOM, Kan n CnHranyp. fl 3asepnn ero. mto, 
b KOH6HHOM cneTe, BbeiHaM MoweT flo6nTbcn 6onbiue- 
ro, MeM CMHranyp. He cytuecTBOBano KaKnx-nn6o npn- 
hmh. no KOTopwM mmp n CTa6nnbHocTb b perMone He 
moitim 6bi npoflo/iwaTbca Ha npoTH>«eHMM flJiMTenbHoro 
BpeMeHM. B TeneHue nocneflHMX 40 neT BocTOMHaa 
A3MS Ha ropbKOM onwTe y6eannacb. hto BoeBaTb He 
MMeno CMbicna. B BOMnax b Kopee, bo BbeTHaMe, b 
napTH3aHCKOM BOMHe b KaM6oa>Ke He 6bino no6eflnTe- 
neti - oflHM wepTBbi. flo MwoA c rpycTbio cornacuncn. 
OaKTunecKM BbeTHaM ao5Mncn nporpecca. B pe- 

3yHbT3Te paCWMpMBWMXCfl KOHTaKTOB C MHOCTpaHUaMU, 

nynweti MH0opMnpoBaHHOCTn o pa60Te pbiHOHHOM axo- 
hommkm MMHMCTpbi m o$MMManbHbie riMua CTann nynaie 
pa36npaTbcn b tom, kbk pa6oTaeT cso6oaHbiM pwhok. 
YBennMnnacb aicrnBHOCTb Ha yriMqax, CTano 6onbwe 
Mara3HH0B, nonBunncb MHOCTpaHHbie 6n3HecMeHt>i m 
rocTMHMqbi - Bee 3th npn3HaKn npouBeTaHun B Xolum- 
MUHe m XaHoe 6bUM Hannuo. 

HanyraHHbie counaribHbiMn nocneacTBMHMM «no- 

nMTMKH OTKpblTWX flBepeM» no OTHOOieHMK) K BHeiUHeMy 

Mupy, onacancb noTepaTb noriMTMHecKMM KOHTponb naa 
o6wecTBOM. Bbiciuee pyxoBoacTBo BbeTHaMa npoaon- 
wano TopM03HTbnn6epann3aLiMio. B OTnunne ot Khtbh. 
b kotopom 6onbujMHCTBO MapOB h pyxoBoaMreneM npo- 
BUHunii oLinn MonoflbiMn noflbMM c BbicojuM o6paaoBa- 
HneM, Bwciune pyKOBoanTenn BbeTHaMCKMx ropoaoe m 
npoBMHunii. Bee KaK oamh. Sbinn obiBunwn napTM3aHC- 
kmmm KOMaHflnpaMM. Ohm ow/im oiuenoMneHbi TeM. mto 
cnynnnocb b Mockbc m b Cobgtckom Cot03e, m He oao6- 
pnnn Tex counaribHbix son. xoTopwe nopa3nnn KMTaMC- 
KMe npn6pe>KHbie ropoaa. 3to 6bino He to. 3a hto ohm 
BoeBann 

B 1993 roay " npefljno>KMn Bo BaH KneTy v\ ero 
KOMaHae no3BonnTb moikwum nroanM. npeanoMTM- 
TenbHo MMeBWMM onbiTo6meHMJi c 3anaaoM, 3aHHTbC5! 





Bu3um Bunna KnunmoHa eo Bbemnau e 2001 i 



Cmydehmxu u3 Xowumuhs. 1998 a 



TexymMM pyKOBOflCTBOM. Ohh HyjKaanncb b nioaax, ko- 
Topwe noHUMann pwHOHHyK) axoHOMMKy m mooim pa6o- 
TaTb c MHOCTpaHHbiMM nHBecTopaMM. TeM He MeHee 
BeTepaHbi. KOTopwe Boeaann n no6eannn b bomhg. 
Haxoannncb eo rnase CTpaHu m xoTenn Bean CTpaHy no 
CBoeMy nyTM. 9\ Bepio, mto. xoraa enacTb nepeiiaeT k 
MonoaoMy noKoneHMK) pyxoBoaMTeneii. BberHaMcxas 
3K0H0MMxa cTaHeT pa3BMBaTbcn 6biCTpee Ba>»<Hbie ne- 
peMeHbi b pyxoBoacTBe npon30Ujnn b ceHTn6pe 1997 
roaa. xoraa Bnue-npeMbep <DaH BaH Kxati CTan npe- 
Mbep-MMHMCTpoM, a BMLie-npeMbep HaH flbiK JlbiOHr 
(Tran Due Luong) cweHiin reHepana fie flyx AHa na 
nocTy npeswaeHTa. 3to 6binn uiarn no nepeaaMe Bna- 
ctm npeacTaBMTeriHM Mo/ioaoro noKonenufl pyxoBoan- 
Tenew, KOTopwe 6onbiue nyTewecTBOBarm m conpuxa- 

CanHCb C BHeiUHUM MHpOM H CnHUJKOM XOPOLUO 3HaK3T. 

xax aanexo otct3/i BbeTHaM ot cbomx coceaeii. 

B Hon6pe 1997 roaa h BHOBb noceTun Xowhmmh. 
CTpaHa naxoannacb b noaBeiueHHOM coctohhhm. Haiun 

HHBeCTOpbl B XOLUMMMHe M HHOCTpaHHbie 6aHKMpbl 6binn 

oiuenoMneHbi BBeaeHHbiM He3aaonroao roro 3anpeTOM 

Ha KOHBepTaUHK) BbeTHaMCKHX AOHrOB B MHOCTpaHHyK) 

BanwTy . KaKMM o6pa30M ohm aon>KHbi 6binn ynnanHBaTb 
csonaonrn b 3apy6e>KHbix 6aHxax. xpeanTbi noTexymuM 
CMeTaM, npoqeHTHbie naaTejKM no xpeanTaM, KOTOpue 
ohm nonyMMPM b 3apy5ex<Hbix 6aHxax, MTo6bi MHBecTM- 
poBaTb bo BbeTHaMe? Kax npoaon>KaTb 6n3Hec? Mmhm- 
CTepcTBO ToproBnn m npoMbiiurieHHOCTM peaiMTenbHO 
B03pa>Kano npoTviB stow iwepw, KOTopan. xax oho 3Hano. 
aon>KH3 6bina o6ecKypa>KHTb MHBecTopoB, ho HMMero He 
Morno noaenaib. LleHTparibHwii 6aHK BbeTHaMa v\ mm- 

HUCTepCTBO CpMHSHCOB 6bllTM BCTpeBOWeHbl BaniOTHbIM 

xpusucoM b pernoHe n 6ecnoKOnnncb M3-3a cbomx He- 
3H3MMTenbHbix BsnioTHbix pe3epBOB. 

BbeTHaMqaM noTpe6yeTCH HexoTopoe BpeMsi, hto- 
6n c6pocnTb c ce6n KOMMyHMCTMMecKyio CMupwTenb- 
Hyio py6aujKy m HaHaTbaenraTbCfl CBo6oaHO m rn6xo. Ho 

H He COMHeBaOCb, MTO, KBK TOnbKO 3TO npOM30MfleT, 

BbeTHaML»bi noxajKyT, Ha hto ohm cnoco6Hbi. To yMeHMe. 
cxoTopbiM ohm ncnonb30Bann coBeTCxoe opywwe, M3o6- 
peT3TenbH0CTb, c xoTopoii ohm npeoaoneBSHM hcxbst- 
xy BceroHeo6xoanMoro bo BpeMn bomhw, MaocTM)«eHMfl 
BbeTHaMCKMx 6e>xeHLieB b AMepMxe m bo cPpaHi^MM HBnn- 
KiTCfl aoxa3aTenbCTBOM mx 3HaMMTenbHbix aocTOMHCTB. 

HonHOcmbK) ony5nuKosano Ha caume 
http://probib.by.ru/likuaO00/index.htm 



51 



4 



KPACHOE KOIIECO 



TaM, rfle ^enoBeK CTpaAaeT, Mbl- ero ronoc. Hepep, jimljom HacM/iMf? -mu o6n3aHbi B03BbicnTb CBoii ronoc. 
M caMoe eawHoe - Hawe wenaHHe He MO/inaTb, ho aeiiCTBOBaTb. 

BepmpaH Paccen 

AxuHerra CArAH, Ctmbgh flEHHEI/l 

nEPEBOCnMTAHME BO BbETHAME: 
OAMHOHECTBO, CTPAflAHME M CMEPTb 



Heo6xoduMbie aaMevanun: ama cmambP. fiennioma- 
»c« coKpameHHbiM eapuanmoM orrmema, nodaomoenen- 
Hoao Aurora Foundation. 6bina Hanucana e OKmp6pe- 
HOfi6pe 1982 a. drm ovepedHoao HOMepa un&opMauuoH- 
Hoeo 6ionnemeH» « Indochina Newsletter». 3a npouied- 
ujue c mex nop aodbi MHoaoe u3MeHunocb. KaK u3eecmHO. 
6ofibuiuHcmeo 6bieuiux K»KHoebemHaMCKux do/uttHOcm- 
Hbix nuu u ocpuuepoe 6bino oceodomdeHO u3 naaepeu 
nepeeocnumanun, u mhozum ydanocb ouuapupoeamb e 
CUJA 6naaodapp cneuua/ibHOU npoapaMMe ((Humanitarian 
Operation)). Ho nocnedcmeun ucnbimanuu, ebinaewux Ha 
ux donio, eme domo 6ydym CKa3bieambcn. Mbi HadeeMCP. 
wmo 3ma cmambP no3eonum npedcmaeumb eaM mo, <vmo 
ucnbimanuamu aa/cn/oweHHwe. a maKxe. e xaxux yc/ioeu- 
fx codepxamcn e 3a/cn»oweHuu duccudeHmbi e ceaodHRui- 
HeM BbemnaMe. 

B Hanane 70-x no eceMy Mupy npounn aeMOHCTpa- 
uhm npoTeda npoTMB nonnTn^ecKHx penpeccuvi b K)>khom 
BbeTHaMe. 

B 1 975 rofly KOMMyHncTunecKne CMflU OKOHMaTenbHO 
3aBoeBann IO)KHbtA BbeTHaM. B woHeToro we roaa hobuh 
pewuM ompaBun 3a peweTxy cothm twchh BbeTHaMijeB, 
MOTMBupyn 3T0 Heo6xoflMMOCTb(0 ux «nepeBocnnTanM5i». 
MHorne H3 hhx h no cert aeHb HaxoanTcn b narepnx, ho Ha 
3tot pa3 Mnp rnyx k mx ctpaflaHUHM. 




(DpaMuy3CKue ooenHonneMMbie e nepeoix naeepnx 
nepeeocnumaHuR e CeeepnoM BbemHaue. 1956 a 



CnoBO «nepeBOcnnTaHne» TpaxTyeTcn pa3HWMn 
nioflbMM no-pa3HOMy. 

PewnMOM XaHon n ero rpoMornacHbiMM sammHUKa- 
mh 3a pyGemoM «nepeeocnnTaHne» CMHTaeicn nono>xn- 
TeribHbiMcnoco6oM MHTerpupoBaTbnpewHero Bpara kom- 
MyHMCTHMecKoro pewnMa b HOBoe o6mecTBO C to^km 
speHHn rtMflepoB KOMMyHMCTHHecKoro BbeTHaMa. «nepe- 
BocnnTaHne» - sto axT noMnnoBaHnn, Tax xax b narepn 
ompaB/ifliOTcn Te, kto 3acny>KHBaeT CMepTHoti k33mh nnn 
no>KM3HeHHoro saK/iWHeHun'. Ho c tohkm 3peHnn 6WBU1HX 
3aK^K3HeHHbix, «nepeBocnnTaHne no-BbeTHaMCKn» nMeeT 
cosceM apyroe 3HaneHne. 

«nepeBocnnTaHne». ocymecT8nseMoe bo BbGTHa- 
Me. sBnBeTcn cnoco6oM MecTn n M3ompeHHO pa3pa6o- 
T3HH0M TexHMxoiii penpeccHM m naeonorHHecKOM o6pa6oT- 
km, KOTopan 6bina npuflyMaHa n anpo6npoeaHa Ha Ceae- 
pe b TeneHne HecKonbxnx neT h nocne KOMMyHHCTHMecxo- 
ro nepeBopoTa 1975 roaa pacnpocTpaHeHa Ha (Or. Ho b 
3HaHmeribHOM deneHM pewuM noiepnen Heyaany b no- 
nbiTxe nepeaenaTb nuMHOCTb. noTOMy mto Mfleonornn. Ha 
kotopom oh 6a3npyeTcq, neaooqeHUBaeT cnny nenoBe- 
HecKoro flyxa. 

B npouecce noflroTOBKn 3tom CTaTbn Mbi B3«nn mh- 
TepBbK) 6onee neM y BocbMncoT 6biBtiinx 3aioiioHeHHbix 
BbeTHaMcxnx narepeii nepeBocnuTaHna u n3yHnnn bckj 
flocTynHyw xaHotfcKyio m 3anaflHyra npeccy o BbeTHaMC- 
kmx KOHLtnarepnx. KapTHHa. nosBHBiuaacn b peaynbTaie 
Haiuero MccneflOBaHun, - narepa npuHyanTenbHoro m 
TtDKenoro Tpyaa, b KOTopbix qap«T ronofl m 6one3HM. rae 
3awiKiMeHHbie cyposo HaKa3biBaK>Tcs 3a He3HaHMTenb- 
Hwe HapyiueHUH narepHbix npaBun. nocTOBHHO noflBepra- 
lOTcn nonnTHKO-nfleonornnecKOvi o6pa6oTxe n npHHyxyje- 
Hbi nwcaTb fljiHHHbie «npn3HaHnn» o cboux h Mywux npo- 
ujnbix «npecTynneHnnx». 

KonMnecTBO 3aKnK>weHHbix b narepnx nepeBocnuia- 
hms Kone6neTcn b ananasone ot 20000 (no ouew<e npaBM- 
TenbCTBa) ao 200000 2 . 

HaM n3BecTH0. no KpaiiHeii Mepe. o 80-th narepnx 
nepeBocnMTaHUB bo BbeTHSMe (xoth HexoTopwe v\3 hmx. 
bo3mo>kho. 6binn oGbeflMHeHbi nocne 0CB060>KfleHHH na- 
CTM 3aioiioyeHHbix) m o 100000 Menosex, Bee eme Haxoan- 
tynxcfl b KOHnnarepnx Cpea^ 3aKnKweHHbix -otpnuepw n 
npaBMTeribCTBeHHbie huhobhhkm npewHero pewMMa, Bpa- 
4M, pennrno3Hbie n nonHTusecKne nnflepw. xyaowHUKu 

n03Tbl. WKOTlbHbie yMMTeflJI 3 . 

B 3T0ii CTaTbe Mbl HanneM c onucaHMn HananbHOM 
CMdeMbi nepeBOcnuTaHHM b CesepnoM BbeTHaMe, a 3a- 
TeM nccneayeM narepn nepesocnHTaHMn, opraHH30Ban- 
Hbie b KD>khom BbeTHaMe HaHUHan c 1975 r. Mbi cocpeao- 
TOHUMcn Ha cucTeMe narepeii eme m noTOMy. hto o Tiopb- 
Max. KOTopbix ropa3flo 6onbue, Mbi nueeM ropasaoMeHb- 
me HHcfcopMaunn 



4 KPyTDH MAPUIPYT BbETHAMA 



59 




anepeeocnumamie e 
nocneeoGHHOM Bb&mna- 
uen Sdyapda MumuHe- 
pa. Xkxh Ban Huha u 
TpaH Ban QyKa - &yn- 
daueHmanbHoe ucc/ie- 

doeoHuo o ebemHBMCKUx 

KOHiinaeepux. 



ripeuefleHT Ha CeBepe 

no cnoBaM XoaHr Cohs 
(Hoang Son), npeacTaBHTena xa- 
HOiiCKoro pewnMa. ncnonb30Ba- 
Hue narepeu nepeBoenMTaHHn Ha- 
nanocb b CeBepHOM BbeTHaMe c 
1961 r.,KorAaCoeflMHeHHbieLJJTa- 

Tbl H KMKHOBbeTHaMCKOe npaBU- 

TeribCTBO Hro fluHb flbeMa (Ngo 
Dinh Diem) Hapyiuumi KeHeBC- 
Kne cornaueHun 1954 r. h nonw- 
Tanncb no/icTpeKaTb k BoccTaHHio 
•KOHTppeBoniouMOHHbie aneMeH- 
tw» Ha CeBepe (ocooeHHO cpean 

6blBUJHX MHHOB KOnOHHaJIbHOki 

apMnn n npo$paHuy3CKoro npa- 

BUTenbCTBa). B sucne abmctbhm, 

yrpoaoBWMx o6iuecTBeHHOii 6e- 

sonacHOCTM. XoaHr Coh na3Ban «3KOHOMnyecKnii ca6o- 

Taa<» m noKyweHHS Ha wn3Hb KaAPOBbix napTuviHbix pa6oT- 

HMKOB. 

3th o6cTonTenbCTBa npuseriM k TOMy, hto npaBn- 
TenbCTBoflPB(fleMOKpaTHMecKOM Pecny6nnKH BbeTHaM) 
npwHnno 20 wohh 1961 r. riociaHOBneHne 49-NQTVQH, b 
kotopom 6wna nocTaBneHa 3aaana M3onnunn b kohlicht- 
paunoHHbix narepnx «KOHTppeBonioiiwoHHbix sneMenTOB, 
BMHOBHbix b AertcTBHnx, yrpowaioiAMx o6mecTBeHHoii 6e- 

30naCHOCTM» 4 . 

MeTOflbi ocyiyecTBneHMfl 3aAan. ccpopMy/iMpOBaH- 
hux b riocTaHOBneHMvi 49. 6binn onpeAeneHbi b UwpKynn- 
pe CoBeTa Muhmctpob n,PB Ns121-CP ot 8 ceHTn6pn 
1961 r. «0 KOHueHTpaunw Ann nepeBocnuTaHun aneMeH- 
tob. onacHbix Ans o6mecTBa». B HeM roBopunocb, hto 
riocTaHOBneHne 49 aojdkho npHMeHflTbcn b OTHOweHMH 
«Bcex ynopHbix KOHTppesoniOMMOHHbix aneMeHTOB, yrpo- 
jKaiouiMx o6aiecTBeHHOki 6e3onacHoc™». K «ynopHbiM 
KOHTppeBontounoHHbiM aneMe HTaM « , yKa3WB3/iocb b LJup- 
Kynnpe, «OTHOcnTcn cneayioiAHe rpynnw: 

1. Bee 6biBwne coTpyAHUKM pa3BeAKM m cnyxSbi 
6e3onacHocTn, Bee hmhh MapnoHeTOMHoii apMwu n aflMM- 
Hucrpaunn. 6o(iubi pa3BeflOBaTenbHo-flHBepcuOHHbix 
rpynn, coBepujMBujne MHoroHMcneHHbie TOKUW npecryn- 
neHnn. noMMnoBaHHbie npaeMTe/ibCTBOM [XaHon], ho yn- 
pnMo o T Ka3biBaKiiiinecfl nepeBocnHTbiBaTbcn n npeACTSB- 
nmomne yrposy Ann rocyAapcTBeHHoii 6e3onacHOCTn; 

2. Bee MneHbi onno3nunoHHbix nap™& n opraHnaa- 
UMM. coBepniMBLUne MHOroMncneHHbie TqjKKne npecTynne- 
Hnq, noMnnoBaHHwe npaBmenbCTBOM, ho ynpnMo otks- 
3biBatoiukiecfl nepeBocnuTbiBaTbcn n npeACTaenmoujHe 
yrposy ana rocyaapcTBeHHort 6e3onaCHocTn; 

3. ynopcTByoiAne sneMeHTbi M3 SKcnnyaTaTopcxnx 

KTiaCCOB M MHbie KOHTppeBOniOUMOHepbl. OAepJKHMbie MyB- 

ctbom wee™ k Haiuen CMdeMe a Bcer^a Haxoaaiunecn b 
onno3ni4MM; 

4. Bee onacHbie KOHTppeBoniounoHepbi, 4eii cpoK 

3aKJlK)HeHMn nOAXOAUT K KOHUy, HO KOTOpbte OTKa3blBaK)T- 
ca ncnpaBnaTbcna. 

B UupKynapeTaioKe 6bina BWAeneHa xaTeropun «npo- 
(peccnoHanbHbtx HeroA«eB», BwnonaBiuaH Bopoa. cyTe- 
HepoB m «3nocTHbix xynnraHOB», HeoAHOxpaTHO «noABep- 
raBujMxcn ncnpaBneHMK5», ho npoAon>xaiOLUMX «matm no 
no*HOMy nyTM» 5 . OseBMAHo, hto TepMHH «npo$eccno- 
HanbHwe HeroAnn» osHanaeT yronoBHbix npecTynHnxoB. a 
TepMHH «ynopnbie KOHTppeBoniounoHHbie aneMeHTbin ot- 
hocmtcs k nonnTmecKUM npecTynHUKaM (c tomkh speHUB 



npaBMTenbCTBa). m 3ai<niOHeHHbie b TiopbMbi n narepn Ha 
3tom ocHOBaHnn AonjKHbi pacueHMBaTbCfl K3K nonnTHHec- 
xne 3aKnoHeHHbie. 

CneAyeT o5paTMTb BHUMaHne. hto k «npocpeccno- 
HanbHbiM HeroAflflM» He OTHeceHbi Han6o/iee onacHbie 
npedynHHKM - </6niiuu. CwcTeMa nepeBocnuTaHMs. npn- 
MeHBBUjaqcs b CesepnoM BbeTHaMe c 1961 r. n bo BceM 
BbeTHaMe HannHanc 1975 r.,o0nunaribHo paccMaTpM8a- 
eTcn BbeTHaMCKMMn KOMMyHMCTMHecKMMn nuAepaMM He 
KaK HaKa3aHne, a KaK cpopMa «BoccTaHOBneHMfi m HcnpaB- 
neHM9». npa KOTopoiii BbeTHaMtibi. He cooTBeTCTByKDmne 
HopMaM npaBHTenbCTBa. nnujatorcB rpa>*uaHCKnx npaB, 
noxa He 6yAeT ycTaHOBneHO, hto ohm roTOBbi BepHyTbCH b 
o6iuecTB0 KaK naseneHO b noCTanoBneHMn 49. UIMlta, 
noABeprHyTwe nepeBOcnuTaHmo. ne AOmcHbl paccinaTpn- 
BaTbCB KaK npecTynHMKM, npnroBopeHHbie k HaKasaHHK). 
ho b nepMOA npoxo>«AeMkifl nepeBocnuTaHun AonmHbi 6t>iTb 
nuiueHbi Bcex rpaxcaaHCKHx npaB m npnBnnernii» 

CucTewa nepeBOcnuTaHMs, cornacHo riocTaHOBre- 
hmk) 49, AO/iWHa coneTaTb «npon3BOAHTenbHbiM TpyA m 
no/iHTHnecKoe o6pa3oaaHne», m pe*MM AonweH stcnio- 
HaTb BoceMb nacoB «npoAyKTMBHort pa6oTbi» b AeHb. abb 
HenonHbix pa60Hnx aha otboa«tc« Kaxayio HeAenio Ann 
«nonnTHMecKoro 06pa30BaHMfl» c KynbTypnbiMn Mepon- 
pMqTMPMn no BenepaM. Te, kto HapyiuaeT narepHyio ahc- 
UMlulHHy, roBopnTcn b nocTaHosneHnn, b 3aBncnM0CTM ot 
cepbeaHOCTM HapyujeHun, «Aon>KHbi noABepraTbcn cy- 
Ae6H0My wnn aflMUHUcTpaTMBHOMy HaKa3aHMio». 

(locTaHOBneHMe 49 onpeAenneT cpox «nepeBocnn- 

TaHMfl» B TpM rOAa, HO C BO3M0>KHOCTbK> AOCpOHHOrO 

ocBo6o)KAeHMfl ann Tex, kto «MCKpeHHe pacKanBaeTcn», n 
yBennHeHneM cpoKa Afin «OTKa3biBaK3LUMxc» nepeBocnn- 
TWBaTbCsi». no cnoBaM XoaHr CoHa. k 1980 roAy Bee. kto 
6bm HHTepHnpoBaH b Hasane 60-x toaob Ann «nepeBOc- 
nnTaHnn», ocBo6o»AeHbi (ho CKonbKne us ocBo6o«AeH- 
Hbix6binnBHOBbapecTOBaHbi?). «Oah3ko, -- CKaaanXoan 
- nMeeTcn eme He3HaHHTenbHoe KonnnecTBO kohtppcbo- 
niouMOHHbix aneMeHTOB, apecTOBaHHbix no nocTaHOBne- 
hmkj 49 c Hasans 70-x roAOB» s . 

BbeTHaMCKne KOMMyHMCTMMecKne rlHAepw ynopHo 
AOKa3biBaK)T, hto cucTeMa «nepeBocnnTaHnn» - n/MaH- 
Han a/ibTephaTHBa ann Tex, kto 3acny>KHBaeT HaxassHun, 
ho MO>KeT 6biTb «McnpaBneH». Ho H3 Toro, hto Mbi cekinac 
y3Hajin. pa3nnHne Me>KAy nepeBOcnMTaHneM v\ 3aKnK)He- 
HneM He ncHO. Ochobhwm OTnunneM, kbk xaiKeTcn. nenn- 
eTcn to. hto «nepeBocnnTbiB3eMbiiii> HaxoanTcn b Heo- 
npeAeneHHOM nono>KeHMM h hs HeonpeAereHHWH cpox, 

AOnweH 33HMMaTbCn «npOM3BOAHTenbHblM TPyAOM» n 

noABepraTbcn MAeonornnecKOM o5pa6oTKe. Ecnn nsrepn 
nepeBocnuTSHun BbeTHaMs CHMTaKncfl 6onee ryMaHHbi- 

MH. HeM TK>pbMbl. TO 3T0 B npflMOM CMblCne «MeHbliiee H3 

AByx 3on». 

riepeBocnuTaHne c 1975 rofla 

CTaTbn 11 napM)KCKoro cornaujeHun 1973 r. rspsH- 
Tupoaana wnTenflM KDjKHoro BbeTHania cneayioiyee: 

1 . CBo6oAa ot penpeccmi n flucKpuMMHauuM b otho- 
lueHMM nnq, coTpyAHnnaBiunx c tom urn mhom ctopohom b 
nepnoA BOflHbi. 

2. fleMoxpaTMHecKMe C9o6oflbi: TaKHe, xax coo6oaa 
cnoBa, nenaTM, co6paHMM, Mpu, opraHH3aunM, MecT3 
)KMTenbCTBa m nonMTMHecKnx acmctbum. 

riapmKCKoe comaajeHHe oSbnBnnno no6eAy flPB m 
OHO (OpoHTa HauMOHsnbHoro 0CBo5ox<AeHMn). m npeA- 



II 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 



CTaBMTenn nofjeAUTeneti aanBunn, mto HexoTopwe CTaTbn 
cornaweHMH, BwnoHan daTbio 1 1, (fcaKTM-necKn naeHTMH- 
Hbi 3asiBneHnnM b flewiapaunflx HOO. BKnKwaa 33HBne- 
HHe o ero C03flaHwn b 1960 r. KaK ncTMHHbie no6opHnxn 
CBo6oflbi (HecMOTpa Ha nonmjeviCKoe rocyflapcTBO Ha 
CeBepe). ontapuB. mto CTaTbfl 11 naxo.iuTca b nonnoM 
cooTBeTCTBMH c HopMaMM Mex<AyHapoAHoro npaBa, bkhio- 
msh Bceo6my« fleKnapaqnK) npaB MenoBexa, nnflepw 
flPB h HOO peiumerbHO KpMTHKOBann K»KHOBbeTHaMc- 
Koe npaBHTenbCTBO 3a HeyBawenne k npaBaM MenoBexa. 
ynoMHHyTWM B CTaTbe 11 7 . 

Koraa b 1975 r. flPB h OHO Hanann BeceHHee Ha- 
CTynneHMe c uenbio saxaaTa IOx<Horo BbeTHaMa, ohm 
o6tHCHnnn sto Heo6xoAHMOCTbto ((BbmonHeHHHK napvi>K- 
CKoro cornaujeHna. Ho nocne ycTaHOB/ieHMn KOHTpona 
Haa (O-KHbiM BbeTHainoM HOBbie nnflepw He Tonbxo He 
co6npanncb co6ntoAaTb npaBa ncBo6o;jbi. nepeMHcneH- 

Hbie B CTOTb6 1 1. HO BCHHeCKM CTpeMUnnCb yHHMTOXWTb 

mx npn noMoiyH «flntaaTypbi nponeTapiwa*. 

Cothm twcam BbeTHaMueB. nonaBiiMx b narepn ne- 
peBOcnuTaHun HaMMHan c 1975 rofla, b ochobhom pasae- 
nnwTCfl Ha ase KaTeropaw: 

1 ) kto 6bin noMeaieH b KOHunarepb 3a coTpyAHMMe- 
ctbo c BparoM b nepnoa bomhu. 

2) kto 6wn apecToeaH 3a nonwTKM ocymecTBHTb 
fleMOKpaTunecKne csoOOflbl, nepenncneHHwe b CTaTbe 
11 riapn>KCKoro cornaiueHnq. 

CneaoBaTenbHO, aeiicTBMH b OTHomeHnn o5enx Ka- 
Teropnii saK/noseHHbix Haxoannncb b BonntoiyeM npoTu- 
Bopennn co CTaTbew 1 1 napnx<CKoro cornaiueHMH n Hop- 
MaMn MeiKAyHapoflHoro npasa 

PerncTpaunH n apecT 

B Mae 1975 r. pasriHMHbiM rpynnaM BbeTHaMueB 
6bino npnKa3aHO 3aperncTpnpoBaTbCH b opraHax hobom 
Bnacm ri03>Ke. b HK5ne, HOBbiM pe>KMM BbinycTun pacno- 
pjuxeHMe o tom, hto6w nmja, 3aperncTpnpoBaBwnecH b 
Mae. npn6binn b paannHHbie, onpeaeneHHbie BnacTHMM, 
MecTa Ann «nepeBOcnnTaHnn». Oahm us hmx, HanpuMep 
conaaTbi. Mnaawue ocpimepbi n wenKne mhhobhuku k»k- 
HOBbeTHaMCKoro npaBMTenbCTBa. AonwHbi 6bi/in 11-13 
wohh npowTM TpexflHeBHyio «nporpaMMy ncnpaBneHns», 
naxoA^Cb Ha nyHicre nepeaocnHTaHUfl ahbm m B03Bpama- 

HCb Ha HOMb flOMOii 8 . 

flpyruM 6binc 3anpeweHO noxMflaTb MecTo c6opa b 
TeneHne Bcero «nepnoaa nepeBocnnTaHMH». O^naKo 3to 
He BHyiuano oco6bix onaceHUM. nocKonbKy npasmenb- 
ctbom 5bino C03A3HO BneMameHne, mto «nepeBocnnTa- 
Hne» npoonnTCH ne 6onee Mecaua ana mmhobhmkob h 
ocpiiueooB caworo BbicoKoro paura u 
AecflTM flnen ana mhhobhmkob h ocpnue- 
poB cpeflHero 3eeHa. 

3ts yeepeHHocTb ocHOBbiBanacb 
Ha tom. mto MnaaujeMy o0nuepcKOMy 
cocraBy KJJKHOBbeTHaMCKOii apMMM (ot 
Mn. neiiTeHaHTa ao xanHTaHa), Mnaa- 

UJMM MMHaM nOnnUHH. pa6oTHHK3M 06- 

pa30BaHnn n TBopMecxoM HHTennnreH- 
un^ Sbino npviKasaHO npn6biTb b Mecra 
c6opa. HMen c co6om «6yMary, nucb- 
MeHHbie npnHaflne>KHocTii. oneway, 
MOCKMTHbie ceTKM. /iHMHbie BemH. npo- 
AOBonbCTBuennnfleHbrM.AocTaTOMHbie 
A/if ncnonb30BaHMH b TeMeHMe 1 AHert 
c MOMeHTa c6opa» 9 . 



BbicoKonodaBneHHbie B06HHM6 (ot Maiiopa ao re- 
Hepana) HapnAy c npeACTaBMTenaMU cpeAHero n Bbicwe- 
ro MUHOBHMMecTBa. MneHbi ncnonHMTenbHbix. cyae6Hbix m 
3aKOHOflaTenbHbix opraHOB, BK/iiOMafl Bcex MnenoB riana- 
tw npeflCTaBHTenevi m CenaTa. n, HaxoHeu, nuaepw «pe- 

aK14MOHHblX» (T.e. HeKOMMyHMCTHMeCKMX) nonHTHMOCKHX 

napTMti K)>KHoro BbeTHaMa aon>KHbi 6binn npn6biTb Ha 
nyHKTbi nepeBOcnuTaHUfl, MMen «6yMary, nucbMenHbie 
npuHaATiejKHOCTM, oaejufly, MOCKMTHbie ceTKM, nHHHbie 
Benin. npoAOBonbCTBue nnn aeHbrn. AOCTaTOMHbie ana 
ncnonb30BaHnn b TeMeHne Mecflua c MOMeHTa c6opa»'°. 
floxTop TpaH KcyaH HuHb (TranXuan Ninh), neanarp. 

CnyWHBLLlHH K3K MeAHLlHHCKMH pa60THMK B SOOpy*eHHb!X 

cunax. 6wn cpean Tex. kto AonweH 6fa01 npoiiTM AecflTM- 
flHeBHbiii xypc nepeBOcnuTaHMS. «no cpaBHeHnio c TeM, 
mto owHflanocb, - cxa3an aoicrop HuHb, - 3to Bbir/inaeno 
cnnaiKOM xopoiuo: TpM ahb ana nepeBocnHTaHun conAaT 

KD^HOBbeTHaMCKOM apMHH. fleCSTb AHeM AflH MnaflUJMX 

otpnijepoB n MenxMx aonwHOCTHbix nnq n Mecsu Ann 

BblClilWXOO>MUepOBMBblCOKOnOCTaBneHHblXMMHOBHHKOB». 

MHorne yMHTerifl n3bnBnnn flo6poBonbHoe >KenaHne 
noMTn Ha «nepeBocnnTaHne», noHMMan. mto paHO urn 
no3AHO. Tax iinn MHaMe, hm npnAeTcn npoiiTM nepe3 3to. 
BonbHbce fiKJAn TaK»e cornamanncb Ha «nepeBOcnnTa- 
Hne», noBepuB 3a«BneHHHM BnacTeM (nomblM), mto b 
MecTax nepeeocnuTaHnn mmckitcs) Bpann n cpeACTBa 
neMeHun n yxoAa n mto nauneHTaM rapaHTupyeTcn 3a6oT- 
nuBoe o6pameHne". 

Mbl yBMAMM, MTO OMeHb HeMHOme H3 Tex, kto 6bin 
co6paH ppa < nepeBocnnTaHHH» Ha aecHTb nnn TpnAU3Tb 
AHefi, 6binn OTnymeHbi b npeAenax otmx cpoxoB. a MHorne 
m ceMMac, ceMb c nonoBUHOti neT cnycTq (cmambft nanu- 
caHae 1982 a. -npuM. nep.j, npoAonwawT HaxoAUTbcn b 
narepnx b y^acawmux ycnoBMflx. 

Pe*MM XaHon m ero anonoreTbi 3aoinmaiOT narcpp 
nepeBOcnnTaHHfl,HaKJienBa(iHa3aK/iK)MeHHbixBpnbiK«BO- 
eHHbix npecTynHHKOB». 

B MeMopaHAyMe CoijuanncTMMecKOM PecnySnuxn 
BbeTHaM k Me>KAyHapoflHoii Amhmctmh (Amnesty Inter- 
national) 3aPBneHo. mto Bee, HaxoAfiynecn b narepnx 
nepeBocnuTaHns. 6binn bmhobhu b rocyAapCTBenHOM n3- 
mohb, Haxa3aHMe 3a KOTopyo «3aKOH o KOHTppeeoniouH- 
ohhwx npecTynneHnnx» ot 30 oirrn6pfl 1967 r. (npuHATbiM 
ceBepoBbeTnaMCKHM npaBHTenbCTBOM) b CTaTbe 3 onpe- 
AenneT ot 20 neT ao nox<n3HeHHoro 3aKnK3MeHnn nnn 
CMepTHOM xaaHM Ho nocKonbxy pewMM HacTonbxo mmoo- 
cepAeH, to BMecro stoto pa3pewnn 3aKniOHeHHbiM npoii- 
TM onepeBocnuTaHne 6e3 cyAe6Horo pa36npaTenbCTBa», 
KOTopoe «npnMeHjieTcn bo BbeTHaMe xax Han6onee ry- 
MaHHan cucieMa n Han6onee manfliuas ana HapymnTe- 




Jlaaepb e npoeuHuuu Hyu flw Coh - oduH us hbmhobiix. 
omxphimtix dim nocemenun uHOcmpanhbiuu deneeauuauu 



4 



KPyTQH MAPUlPyi BbtTHAMA 



G1 



neri 33K0H3 ... b cootb6tctbhh c Tpajnuuen BerMKOfly- 
liiMfi m ryMaHH3Ma BbeTHaMCKOii Hau.nn m caMbix bwcokhx 
nfleanoB HenoBeHecTBa»' 2 . 

TaKUM 06p330M, Mbl BMflUM, HTO COTHH TWCH4 BbeT- 

HaMijee 6binn oTnpaBneHw 8 narepa nepeBocnmaHna He 
sa KaKne-nn6o KOHKpeTHwe npecTynneHMfl. a 3a coTpya- 
HunecTBO c K»KHOBbeTHaMCKHMM BnacTSMn b nepnoa BOIrf- 

Hbl. 3T0 OTHOCHHOCb He TOnbKO K BblCOKOnOCTaBneHHblM 

Aonx<HOCTHbiM lMLiaM n BoeHHbiM npe>KHero pe«nMa. ho m 
k o6bNHbiM nioflHM. ™na Bpanew n Meapa6oTHHK0B. npn- 
3BaHHt>ix b apMnto (noAo6no aoxropy Hmhkj). o6BHHeHHbix 

B TOM, MTO, yX3>KHBaH 3a 60/lbHblMH H paHeHblMH, OHM 

' yKpennnrM wapnoHeTOMHbie cwnbi» 

BwnycKHUKn Konneawew, a cootbbtctbuh c 3aKOHOM 
npoxoflnBiune BoeHHyio ujrany ocprnjepoB 3anaca, 6binn 
Taioxe ompaBneHbi b narepn nepeBocnuraHnn. CpeAH 
oTnpaBneHHbix b narepn b n©He 1975 r. 6bino okodo 400 
nucaieneM. noaTOB h JKypnariMCTOB n 6onee 2000 pennrn- 
oaHbix aeflTeneii. BKnioMan 194 SyftquMCKux. KaTonnMec- 
khx n npaaocnaBHbix CBsmeHHUKa n MOHaxa' ■' flawe jih- 
Aepu io>KHOBbeTHaMCKOM onno3Mu.nn. TaKne na< TpaH Ban 
TtoeH (Tran Van Tuyen) (cKOHMaBWHiiCH nocne TpexneT- 
Hero 3aK/iK)MeHMfl), 6wnn nocnaHbi b narepb. 

Me>wiyHapoflHan Amhhcthh o6pa™nacb k XaHoio c 
3anBneHneM b saiunTy MHorux nucaieneM, yMeHux, cbs- 
meHHUKos, npaBO3aujMTHMK0B n apyrux nioaeM, He MMeB- 
ujhx HHKaKoii cb&3h c pewnMOM Txney n ho noAAepwHBaB- 
ujhx CILIA, ho apecTOBaHHbix «cnycTS Mecnubi n flawe 
roflw nocne oKOHnaHun BoeHHoro KOHipnHiaa b anpene 
1975 r.». 

Me>tmyHapoflHa5i Amhmctmh nonaraeT. mto MHorne 
n3 hux 6bi/iki apecTOBanbi 3a «HeHacnribCTBeHHoe Bwpa- 

JKeHUe KpHTMKH KOMMyHMCTHHeCKOrO npaBHTe/lbCTBaw'*. 

ripn cyiyecTByKJLueM npaBOBOM cucTBMe bo BbeTHaMe 
anacTn, b cnynae nonnTunecKHXflen. Moryr 3aaep>KHBaTb 
rpa>KAaHMHa Ha cpok ao 12 Mecnues Ann Aonpoca. 6e3 
npeAbflBneHnn oSenHeHHn nnn cyAe6Horo pa36npaTenb- 

CTBa. 

HeKOTopwe BbeTHaMuw, HanpMMep nnaepw 06te- 
AMHeHHoti ByaaniicKoiii UepKBH, apecTOBaHHbie b anpene 
1977 r., Sbinn 3aAepwaHbi «ans aonpocoa» Ha ropa3ao 
6onbWMw, neM 12 MecnueB, cpok. 

nocne OKOHHaHMfi nepnoaa aonpocoB 3aKniOMeHHb4M 

MOWeT 5blTb: 

1 ) ocso6o>KAeH c cpopManbHbiM npeaynpexyieHneM, 

2) ompaBneH b narepb nepeBOcnuTaHns b cooTBeT- 
ctbmh c (locTaHOBneHneM 49 nnn 

3) noABeprHyT cyae6HOMy npecneaoBaHtiw. 

Ecnn cya npn3HaeT o6snHSieMoro BUHOBHbiM, to co- 
rnacHO saKOHaM, npuHSTbiw ceBepoBbeTHaMCKUM npaBn- 
TenbCTBOM. oh 6yaeT ocyttaen ha cpoK ot aeyx ao 1 2 neT 
TKipbMbi <oa nponaraHay nonnTMKH nopa6omeHMfl h pa3- 
BpameHHOM KynbTypw MMnepnann3Ma», OTTpexao 12 neT 
- <oa nonwTKy 6ercTBa M3 CTpaHbi» n ot 5 ao 15 neT - 3a 
unoapbiB penw"H03H0tf nonnTHKM npaBMTenbCTBa» nnn 
«co3AaHne pa3HomacnM cpean pa3nwMHbix pennrnw . Me*- 
Ay BepyHDmuM^ n HeBepy>OLunM.i n Me>Kay BepyioiunMn v 
aaMHHMCTpauMeM»' 6 . 

Bn fluHb Xa (Bui Dinh Ha), 6biBiuMki conaaT k»kho- 
BbeTHaMCKoti apMnn. 25 ^hjhs 1981 r. 6bin oosuHeH b 
npoaa*e w pacnpocTpaHenMH «peaKunoHHt>ix m ynaaHM- 
HecKnx khmd>. Oh 6bin npuroBopeH k no>KM3HeHHOMy 3aK- 

nK5^eHMIO B COOTBBTCTBMM CO CT3TbBMH 4,7 M 8 fleKp6T3 

267, npuHSToro Cobctom Mkhmctpob CeBepHoro BberHa- 
ua 15 hiohh 1956 r." (cm. cmambio Cmuee»a OeHHe* 



«Kynbmypa u peeoniouufi» 
e smoM HOMepe xypnana - 
npuM. ped.). 

CoBepujeHHO hchoto. 
hto npaBHTenbCTBoXanon 
npeaocTaBuno ce6e ca- 

Mbie UMpOKHe nOnHOMOHMH 

ann apecra m sawnoneHUH 

M HTO 3TH nOnHOMOMMfl OC- 

HOBaHbi He Ha npaeocyann. 
a Ha >KenaHnn o6ecnemiTb 
6e3onacHOCTb TOTannTap- 
hoto npasmenbCTBa 
HMeHHO 3th o6cTOHTenb- 
CTBa npuBenH k TOMy, mto 

TBK MHOrO BbelMaMUBB 

6e)Kann M3 CTpaHbi 3a noc- 
neanne roaw. 




rtOMemenue dnn ceudamiu 
8 odnoM u3 nazepeu. 



YcnoBMH narepji 

HaM n3BecTHO, no KpaiiHehi Mepe, o BocbMnaecwTn 
narepax nepeBocnMTaHMa a CeBepHOM n KDwhom BbeTHa- 
Me. XOTfl HeKOTOpbie H3 HHX. B03MOWHO. 6binn 3aKPblTb> 

wnn o6beanHeHbi, Tax Kax 3aK/ii04eHHbie, y KOTOpux MU 
Spann MHTepBbo. 6binn ocso6o>KaeHbi. HacTb narepeii 
pacnonaraiOTcn rpynnaMM no Tpn-MeTbipe, Ha paccTOSHnn 
ot Tpex ao nnTHaauaTM Munb apyr ot apyra. Ha KDre 
narepn pacnonaraioTcn b oTaaneHHbix o6nacTnx A>«yHr- 
nev\ unM oxono «6e3onacHbix)) aepeBeHb (noaaepwuBaB- 
liinx OHO ao 1975 roaa). 

BbicoKonocTaBneHHbie BOOHHUe n npaenTenbCTBeH- 
HbieflonxHOCTHwennqa npe>KHero pe*MMa K)*HoroBbeT- 
HaMa b 1976-77 rr. BMecTe c flpyrnMH BbeTHaMuaMki, 
npeacTaBnnBUJMMn, no mhchmk) BnacTevi. Han6onbujyK) 
yrposy. 5wnn noMeujeHbi snarepsx Ha CeBepe, Heaanexo 

OT KtlTatiCKOM rpaHULJbl, HO B CBB3M CO BCnblLUKOli BOeHHblX 

aeiiCTBUM b 1978 r oTnpasneHbi Brny6bCTpaHw. 

no HHQ^iopMauuM Me>KayHapoaHOM Amhmcthm ycno- 
bms b narepsx MeHawTCn b 3aBncnM0CTn ot hx MecTono- 
nojKeHMn, cocTasa 3aioiK3HeHHbix h xapaicrepa aaMMHMCT- 
paunn narepn m apyrvix o^aKTopoB' 8 . B oTneTe Me>KayHa- 
poaHOM Amhucthh 3a 1978 r. onucaHbi MeTbipe xaTeropnn 
BbeTHaMCKnx narepeii nepeBocnuTaHMfi: a) Mecia 3aKnio- 
MeHusi b ropoaax, rfle nponsBeaeHo nepeoHaManbHoe 3a- 
aep>KaHne; b) narepn BTopoii KaTeropnn, rae coaepiKaTcn 
yronoBHbie n nonnTHMecxne npecTynHMKn, npnHy>Kaae- 
Mbie nucaTb npn3HaHnn o cbomx «npecTynneHMHx»; c) 
narepn TpeTbew xaTeropnn. rae aaKnraMeHHbie coaep>KaT- 
cn cornacHO xapaiaepy nx npoiunbix npecTynneHUM (aeii- 
cTBHTenbHbix nnn mhmmux) v\ d) narepn Ann 6biBiiinx 
BbicoKonocTaaneHHbix hmhobhhkob h coTpyaHMKOB pa3Be- 
awBaTenbHbix cny>K6. npn3HaHHbix «Mpe3BbwaMH0 onac- 
HbiMn», KOTopwe 6wnn pacnono>t<eHbi rnaBHbiM o6pa30M 
k ceBepy ot XaHon' 9 . B oTHoiueHUM TpeTbeti xaTeropnn 
narepeM coBepuieHHO OMeBMAHO. mto pa3MemeHne b hux 
3aK/i(OMeHHbix saenceno He ot coBepmeHHbix hmh npe- 
CTynneHMii. a ot nonoweHun, saHUMaeMoro npw npe>KHeM 
pewMMe. 

TaK, 6onbiuMHCTBO MnaaujHx hmhob ocbuuepcxoro 
cocTaBa 6wno paaMeujeHO b narepnx Ha KDre, b to speMS 
k3k BbicoKonocTaBneHHbie hmhobhmkm, Bbicixne odpnuepb: 
h ao/i»cHOCTHbie nuija pa3Memanncb Ha CeBepe cTpanbi 

Bonbiu.iHCTBo 6biBLiivix aaKniOHeHHbix, onpomeHHbix 
h3mm, CMeHnnn Tpii-nflTb narepeM nepeeocnuTaHMfi. flo 



12 



4 



KPACHQE KOJIECO 



HameMy MHeHmo. nepeMemeHne 3axnioHeHHbix no nare- 

pSM npOM3BOflMriOCb, HT06bl CKpblTb OT M/ieHOB ceMefi 

penpeccMpoBaHHbix MecTOHaxowaeHwe mx poahwx h npe- 
aoTBpaTHTb B03HMKHOBeHne APy*ecxnx oTHoiueHMM cpe- 
flH 3aiuiioMeHHbix win Mexcay 3axniOHeHHbiMM n HexoTopw- 
mw oxpaHHi4K3MH. MacTb narepei* HaxoAHTcs s eejeHnn 
apMnn. nacTb - opraHOB roc6e3onacHOCTn. HexoTopwe - 
b coBMecTHOM ynpaBneHnn 

Mw pacnonaraeM TpeMH HCTOHHMxaMH, cooSiuaw- 
lynMM 06 ycnoanflx b narepsx nepeBoenwTaHus: 

1 ) ocpmiwanbHbie coo6meHHs npaBmeribCTBa CPB. 

2) coo6weHufl HHOCTpaHueB, nocemaBuinx nareps. 

3) coo5meHH(i 6biBiunx 3axnK>HeHHbix. 
Heo6xo^i'MO ncnonb3oeaTb CBeaeHHR to ecex rpex 

hctohhhxob, ho HaAO yMMTbiBaTb. hto ueHHOCTb flByx nep- 
Bbix hctohhukob orpaHMMeMa CTaTbH m ocpumianbHou 
xaHOMCKOti npeccw. o6HapyxeHHbie HaMu. oxaaanwcb Becb- 
Ma none3Hbi, nocxonbxy b hhx aeMOHCTpupoBanacb cmc- 
TeMa Tpe6oBaHnii, xoTopwe npeAWiBflsiorcs xaHoiiCKHMM 

BnaCTSMH K 3aKJ1K)HeHHblM H MX CeMbSM . a TaiOKe OTHOUje- 

Hue BnacTeM k 3axnKDHeHHbiM. ho CTaTbM «Ans MHOdpaH- 
Horo noTpe6nenns» OTnnHaK>Tcs Heao6pocoBecTHOCTbK) 
n nponaraHfloiii. 

Koraa nHOCTpaHHbie aeneramw noceiyaioT nareps, 
3awitoHeHHbix cneunanbHO npeaynpe)»maioT o tom, hto 
cneqyeT roBOpnTb noceTMTensM. 

HMemicb cnynan, xoraa oxono nonoenHbi 3aKnKweH- 
hwx nareps OTnpasnsnacb Ha nons nnn B nxyHrnw, mto6w 
n36e>xaTb hx xoHTaxTa c noceTHTensMM. HaM M3BecTeH 
cnynai-i. xoraa nepea npoBepsiomHMH ponb 3axriK)HeHHbix 
«nrpann» coTpyaHnxn opraHOB roc6e3onacHOCTn 20 . 

Taioxe HaM cTan nsBecieH $axT cypoBoro Haxa3aHus 
saxniOHeHHoro. nponnTaBUjero npoBepsKJinert komhccmm 
noaroTOBfieHHoe aflMMHucTpauHeii nareps 3asBnenne no 
6yMare, a He no naMSTM 2 '. 

OflHaxo noflo6Hbie cnynaM, xax npaBuno, Hea(J)mun- 
pywTcn 6onbiunHCTBOM noflo6Hbix aenerauMM, m sto ne 
cnynaiiHO, nocxonbxy ohh ocMaTpHBaiOT TOJibxo cneun- 
anbHbie. o6pa3uoBbie nareps M Tax xax 3th noceTHTenw 
h AeonornHecxn npeApacnono>xeHbi k noAAepwxe pe*HMa 
XaHOs, CTpeMATcn ynynujHTb OTHOweHHs Mex<Ay xoMMy- 

HHCTHHeCKMM pOKMMOM M 3anaflOM. TO OHH, eCTCCTBCHHO, 

CTapawTcn npeacTaBMTb nareps b nynweM ceeTe - Tax. 
cnoBHO TunnHHWii narepb - 3to wxona nepeBocnMTaHMS, 
a hb TxjpbMa. 3aiuniuas nareps nepeBoenmaHHs, 3tm 
noceTHTenn noompsioT pe*nM XaHos npoAonxoTb cbow 
nonnTuxy n noTOMy HecyT OTBeTCTaeHHOCTb 3a CTpaflaHun 
nonnTn^ecKnx 3aKniOHeHHbix BbeTHaMa. 

OflHaxo He Bee xomuccmm, noceiuaBujne nareps ne- 
peBOcnuTaHun bo BbeTHaMe. 6binn HacTonbKO 6nn3opy- 
kh. HacranbKO sto 6bino Hy>KHo xaHoiiCKMM BnacTAM. Cpe- 
an McxnKiHeHHM 6wna komhcchh MeixayHapoflHOM Amhm- 
cthh, noceTHBUjas BbeTHaM BA@xa6pe 1979 r., n Bbiaaio- 
mnwcfl npnaHflcxuki aflBOxaT AepMOT Kunnen. pa6oTaB- 
ujmm bo BbeTHaMe b anpene 1 980 r. flenerauns Me>«flyHa- 
poflHow Amhhctmh. noceTMB Tpn narepn nepeBoenMTaHMH 
v\ OflHy TwpbMy. OTMeTMna. hto He MoxceT caenaTb o6myio 
oueHxy ycnoBHti b narepnx Ha ocHOBaHnn stmx noceiye- 
hmm". 

flepMOT KnHneH oTMeTHn, hto nareps, noceoieHHbie 
ero KOMnccneii. «6binn tomho TeMH *e, hto m ocMOTpen- 
Hbie HecxonbXMMn MecauaMn paHee Me>wiyHapoflHOM Am- 
Hucrneii. >Kanb. hto Tonbxo rpn nareps AOCTyriHbi Ans 
ocMOTpa» Bo Bcex narepsx. KOTopbie kommccms noceTn- 
na, nucan KnHneH, «0TcyTCTB08ana 6onbiuas nacTb 3ax- 



nKjneHHbix, HaxoAHBiunxcs, kbk HaM coo6iAnnn. Ha none- 
bwx pa6oTax». KnHneH TaK»e nucan, hto «Kax aflBoxar c 
TpnAuaTuneTHHM CTax<eM m cneuManwcT no neHonornn 
(neHonoaup - Hayxa HaKa3amiu. TepMun eeeden topuc- 
moM 0. flu6epoM e 1838 e. - npuM. nep.) s y6e>KAeH, hto 
HMeiOTcs MaccoBbie HapytueHMs npaB nenoBexa bo BbeT- 
HaMe 3aAep>xaHne 6onbiuoro xonnnecTBa moaeu no co- 
MHHTenbHbiMnpnHMHaM6e3cyAe6Horopa36npaTenbCTBa, 
npuHyAHTenbHbiM TpyA h nocTosHHas MAeonornHecxas 
o6pa6oTKa. fMU KMIMO mx noAQepwH pOAHbix h KOHTaKTOB c 
ceMbeii HApy3bSMn, OTcyTCTBue MeAnunHCKOki noMOiyn m 
HeaAexBaTHoe npuMeHeHne mba^uuhckhx npenapaTOB. 
3anpemeHne coBepiueHMs pennrno3Hbix o6psAOB, noA- 
MeHa MHTenneKTyanbHOw AesTenbHOCTn saynnBaHneM 
cneunanbHO OTo6paHHbix tcxctob nponaranAMCTCxoro 
xapaxTepa - ace sto npoTMBopenHT npaBaM HenoBexa» 23 . 

JlarepHan npatcriiKa 

Xots, xax Mbi Bbiuje nucanH, ycnoans b narepsx 
Moryr Hecxonbxo OTnHnaTbcs, hbm yAanocb BbiAennTb 
Hecxonbxo «yHHBepcanbHbix» cnoco6os noaaBnenMS nnn- 
hoctm. xapaxTepHbix Ans ecex narepei* nepeBocnuTaHns. 

3to — nocTosHHas nAeonornHecxas o6pa6oTxa h 
npuHyjKAeHne k HanncanMio «npn3HaHMii» Ha paHHvtx CTa- 
Ahsx nepeBocnuTaHns, Tswenwii n 3aHacTyto onacHbiti 
Q>n3HHecKnii TpyA, uJMpoxoe pacnpocTpaHeHne 6one3- 

Heii. Bbl3B8HHblX HeflOCTaTXOM nMTaHHS M MeflWqMHCKOrO 

o6cny>KHBaHMS. 

OmMHus rnaBHbiM o6pa30M xacawTcs pa3nnHHbix 
cpopM 0n3nnecxnx M3AeBaTenbCTB Hafl 3axnK)HeHHbiMM, 
ho Aa>xe 3Aecb HMeiOTcs o6mne MOMeHTw. nanpHMep 
pa3MemeHne Haxa3biBaeMbix 3axntoHeHHbix b ocTaBinnx- 
cs ot aMepuKaHcxoM apMnn BepToneTHbix MeTannnHec- 
xnx rpy30Bbix KOHTeMHepax >inn b nmueHHbix cBeTa noA- 
seMHbix KaMepax 

HapaHHuxcTaAnsxnepeBocnuTaHns.AnnBiunxcsoT 
Hecxonbxnx HeAenb no Hecxonbxnx MecsueB. 3axriK)HeH- 
Hbie noABepranwcb MHTeHCMBHOfi MAeonornHecxoii oopa- 
6oTxe. b npoijecce KOTopoii «M3yHanncb» TaxneTeMbi, xax 
«3xcnnyaTauns aMepuxaHCKMM uMnepnannsMOM pa6o- 
hmx b Apyrux CTpaHax», «cnaBa Tpyay», «Hen36e>KHas 
no6eaa BbeTHaMa. bo rnaBec KoMMyHncTn^ecxoM nap™- 
eii. H3A CLUA» m KBennxoAyuJue HOBoro npaBHTenbCTBa k 
MSTe>KHHKaM» (T.e. x TeM, xto cpa>xancs Ha crapoHe 
npoTHBHuxa). Bcero HacHHTbiBanocb aeBSTb xypcoB pa3- 
nHHHOii npoAonx<MTenbHO- 
ctm. Ka>XAbiPi xypc Hann- 
nancsi c nexunii xaAPOBO- 
ro napTpa6oTHnxa, npo- 
Aon>xaBiunxcs oahh-abb 
Ahs, nocne nero 3axniOHeH- 
Hwe Aennnncb Ha rpynnw, 
b kotopwx b TeneHne cne- 
Aywujux nsTM-ceMn Aneti 
o6cy>xAanM npocnyiuaH- 
Hbiw MaTepnan m nncariM 
«3cce». cyMMnpyKimwe Te- 
My. llocBHAeTenbCTByHro 
TpyHr Tponra (Ngo Trung 
Trong). 6biBujero 3axnx>- 
neHHoro nareps Ans MnaA- 
ujhx huhob KHKHOBbeTHaM- 6 naaepHou 6apaxe. Pucyno* 
ckom apMnn. o6cy>KAeHMS 3annio*eHHozo. Cmpamjita 

flnunMCb neTbipe naca yr- omiema Oonda «/»spopa» 




KPyiOH MAPHIPyi BbETHAMA 



B3 



pom h MeTbipe naca AneM Ha AneBHbix 3aHn™nx ot 
3awiK3HeHHt>ix Tpe6oBanocb noBTopflTb coAepwaHne nex- 

UMM M 

HHTeHcuBHan nfleo/iornMecKa5<o6pa6oTKa. BK/itOMae- 
luas b ce6a fleBHTb «KypcoB», npoAonwanacb npuMepHo 
asa neTHnx Mec«ua 1975 r. 

MfleonorvmecKoe «npoMbiBaHne M03roB» npoAon- 
wanocb n no3flHee, ho c MeHbweii HHTeHCHBHOCTbto. Bwb- 
ujnM3aitnK)MeHHbiviK))KHOBbeTHaMCKoronarepfl KcyeHMoK 
(Xuyen Moc) CBnaeTeribCTBOBan, mto AanbHewiuas naeo- 
nornMecxaB o6pa6oTKa cocTonna b tom, mto 3axnK)MeH- 
hwx pa3flennnn Ha HeGonbiune rpynnw. KOTopwe nocne 
pa6onero ahh Aon*Hbi 6binn 3aHHMaTbcn b33hmhom xpn- 
tmkoPi a csmokputhkow rioAo6Hbie «pa36opbi» Benncb 
3aKnK3HeHHbiMM TonbKO b npucyTCTBun KOHTponnpyK>aieti 
oxpaHbi m TyT we npexpamanncb, xax Tonbxo saxniOHeH- 
Hwe ocTaBanncb oahm 25 . 

flpyro^ oco6eHHOCTbK3 Ha^anbHoii CTaann nepesoc- 
nuTaHMH (BnpOMeM. npoAon>xaBweiics n b TeMeHne Bcero 
cpoxa 3aKniOHeHM5i) nBnnnocb npHHyxaeHne y3HnxoB k 
HankicaHMio «Ao6poBonbHbix non3Hanni/i» b coeepueH- 
hwx npecTynneHHHx. OTBenafl b MapTe 1981 r. Ha MeMO- 
paHflyM Me«AyHapoflHOH Amhhcthm, npaBwrenbCTBO CPB 
yTBep*Aano, mto «bo Bcex cnyManx, Kacaewnxcfl ntoaeii, 
OTnpae/ineMbix b narepn nepeBocnnTaHnn. KOMneieHT- 
Hbie BbeTHaMcxne opraHbi 0opMnpoBann cyae6Hbiii ap- 
kub b kotopom coxpaHsnucb sanporoKonnpoBaHhbie CBe- 
A6hhh o coBepmeHHwx mmh npecTynHbix aesiHnnx» 26 . 

3tm «cyae6HbieapxnBbi» cpopMnpoBanncb M3 nony- 
MeHHbix nofl npuHyxyjeHneM noxasaHnti, b kotopwx 3ax- 
moHeHHbiki 6bin BbinyxyjeH o6BMHHTb cp6* h apyrux. 

TaKMe«npM3HaHkin»kicnonb3OBanMCbxaH0MCKMMnpa- 
BUTenbCTBOM b KanecTBe onpaBflaHun peoieHnii o 3aicnK> 
HeHnn b TiopbMbi n narepn cotch twcam BbeTHaMueB. Ha 
hmx ccbinanncb, xax b cnynae c Me>KAyHapoflHovi Amhmc- 
Tue^i. xax Ha cpaxTbi npn3HaHns cBoeu BUHbi ;3mwmh 
38KIU0H6HHNMM. 

KoHeHHO,noAo6Hbje«AOKa3aTenbCTBa»BpnAnncno- 
co6Hbi y6eainb MHorux moaew 33 npejenaMu Bnaaennn 
BbeTHaMCKoA KOMnapTHM. nocKonbxy hcho, mto caokhb- 
maacfl b dpaHe cmyaunsi AaeT BnacTHM Mpe3BbiMaiiH0 

MHOrO B03MO*HOCTeM A^" nCHXO/IOrWHeCKOrO MHM CpH3H- 

Mecxoro npuHyxcaeHUH 3aKnK>MeHHbix c uenbio nonyneHHfl 
«npn3HaHMB». 

Ot Bcex 3aK/itOHeHHbix b narepnx Tpe6yioT nucbMeH- 

HblX npH3HaHMi4, He3aBHCHMO OT TOTO, HaCKOTIbKO TpHBH- 

anbHbi nocTynxn, o6bHBnfleMbie npecTynneHUHMn. rio- 
htobum pa6oTHHK3M, HanpuMep, MHKpuMUhnpoBanacb 
noMomb «MapnoHeTOHHoii BoeHHOM MaiunHe» nocpeA- 
ctbom paccbiriKM noMTbi. a AenTenevi uepxBM o6BHHqnn a 
«co3A3hmm AyuieBHoro KOMtpopTa n MopaHbHoti noAAep- 
>Kxe bo^ick Bpara»'". Ocpnuepy sanaca. npenoAaBaBiueMy 
BbeTHaMcxyio nMTepaTypy b cpeAHefi uiKone. 6bino 
npeAb^BneHO oGBMHeHne b tom, mto oh «BBen b 3a6ny>K- 
AeHne uenoe noxoneHne HeBHHHbix AeTeii» 28 

riOMUMO «npn3HaHMii», saK/iiOHeHHbie Aon>KHbi 6binn 
perynspHO niicaTb aBTo6norpacpnn c o6o3aTenbHWM pac- 
cxa30v 06 nMyujecTBeHHOM nonoxeHMn. Kax coo6iahji 
oamh 6biBUJMfi 33KAK)MeHHbifi, «mw Aon>KHbi 6binn Hann- 
caTb ncTopnio CBoefi x<h3hh, BKnonaH »n3HeonwcaHMH 
OTua, AeAa. AeTeii. mto ohh MMenn. BxniOMasi TeneBM3op. 
paAnonpneMHUK, KMHOKaMepyMT.n.ABToeMorpattHMAon- 
jKHbi 6wnn 3aHOB0 rwcaTbcn Ka>KAbie A8e HeAenn, xax b 
TiopbMax. ran m b narepsix Ecnn b mux o6t'apy>KHBanncb 
HecooTBeTCTBun. 33KntOMeHHoro xyja/iM 6onbiune HenpH- 




Omierr cponda 

KAapopa» '982 a . 

enepeue paccKB38B- 

muu o naeepnx 

nepeeocnumamiR 



athocth B 3tom cnyMae ot 3ax- 
fiOMeHHOro Tpe6oBann nucaTb 
6norpacfcnio no HecxoribKo pa3 b 
AeHb. KaxcAan 3BTo6norpacpMfl 
Aonx<Ha 6bi/ia 6wTb He MeHee 20 
pyxonMCHbix cTpaHmja 29 . 

nocne nucbMeHHbix npusHa- 
Hnii opraHM30BbiBanncb o6me- 

CTBeHHbie npH3HaHMfl, BO BpeMS 

xoTopbix saxnioyeHHbie xannncb b 
cbomx npecTynneHMflx nepeA Bna- 
ctbmh nareps n ApyrnMH 3axjiK>- 

MeHHblMM. 

flarepHan aAMMHMCTpauMn 
axTMBHO nooiAP^na «KpnTMKy» 
pacKaHHHtf oahhx 3axniOHeHHbix 
APymMM «3to 6bin oueHb 34>cpeKTMBHbiii cnoco6 sacTa- 

B.ub Hac HenaBHAeTb apy Apyra». - paccK33bi9aei 6bis- 

UJMii 3aKniOMeHHblM. 3aKTlK)MeHHblti. npH3H3BaBUJMI^Cn B 

6onbiueM xonmecTBe «npecTynneHMM», yaocTa^Bancp 
noxBanw BnacTSMn narepn xax «nporpeccnBHbi^ nepe- 

BOCnHTblBaiOlAMMCfl». 

HenpepbiBHoe ncuxonorMMecxoe AaBneHne MacTO 
npuBOAnno k HepBHbiM cpbisaM m coctoahmw HeBMenne- 

MOCTH y MHOTUX 3aKJ1K)MeHHblX. BblBUJMii 3aKT10MeHHblii. 

paHee pa6oTaBUJMM spaMOM. paccKa3biBan. mto neoAHOK- 
paTHo 6wn CBHfleTeneM toto, xaK MenoseK HannHan BHe- 
3ariH0 rpoMxo 6eccBfl3HO BonnTb. HecMOTpq na ero MeAn- 
uuhckum onuT. eMy 3anpemann oxasbiBaTb noMomb b 
noAo6Hbix cnyManx 30 . 

L4enbK3 3Tnx «npn3HaHMM» 6wnoHeTonbKoco3AaHne 
MyBCTBa buhw y 3axAK)MeHHoro n HaxonneHtie cyAe6Horo 
apxuBa npoTMB Hero, ho h BbinBneHne Tex BoeHHbix h 
rpa>toaHCKnx nni4, KOTopue eme He nonann b cucTeMy 
nepeBocnuTaHnn. 

C/iaBa Tpyay 

Oco6oe MecTO b jiarepnx nepeBocnuTSHns saHMMan 
Tax Ha3biBaeMbiM «npoti3BOAUTenbHbirt TpyA». no MHe- 
hhio 4neHa UK KriB XoaHr CoHa (Hoang Son).Taxoki TpyA 
6wn «a6conKDTHO Heo6xoAHM» a/ia nepeBOcnuTanMn, no- 
cxonbxy «npn npe>KHeM pe)KMMe ohm [3ax/iK3MeHHbie] npeA- 
CTaBnnnn Bcpxiinc cnon o6iMecTBa, pa3DoraTeBiune 6na- 
roAapn noAAepjKKeCUJA. OHMnpesupanM pa6oMMMKnacc. 
nocne csepweHMH npe>KHero counanbHoro nopsAKS m 
nocne toto. xaxoHM 3axoHMaT npouecc nepeBOcnuraHun, 

HM npeACTOMT 3apa6aTblB3Tb HS *M3Hb C06CTB6HHblM 
TpyAOM H WMTb B 06lAeCTBC TAe pa60T3 B MeCTMB 3 '. TaKMM 

o6pa30M, «npon3BOAHTenbHbiM Tpya» flBnaeTca b rna3ax 
BbeTHaMCKMx npaBHTeneM Heo6xoAMMbiM ycnoBMeM n3- 
MeHeHMsi counanbHoro CT3Tyca. Ho paccMOTpeHne ycno- 
bh\a, b kotopwx 3tot TpyA ocyiAecTBnneTcs. CBMAeTenb- 
cTByeT o bbhom npucyTCTBun aneMeHTa MecTM. 

JlarepHbiM TpyA - 3to rnaBHbiM o6pa30M Tqx<enan 
0n3MMecKas pa6oTa, 3aM3CTyio OMeHb onacHan, Hanpu- 
Mep pacMMCTxa mmhhwx noneiii. flpn stom saxnKJMeHHbiM 
ne nonaraeTcn Huxaxoro o6opyAOBaHM« mxim HHCTpyMeH- 
tob. n b pesynbTaTe Mnorne 6binn y6nTbi h ncxaneMeHbi 
B3pbiBaMM mmh. flpyran pa6oTa BxntOMaeT xopMeBaHne 
AepeBbeB, nocaAKy xyKypy3bi m xopHennoAOB, omiCTKy 
A>«yHrneii, pbiTbe xonoAueB, otxo>kmx MecT m MycopHbix 
am. CTponTenbCTBO 6apaxoB b npeAenax narepn m 3a6o- 
poB Boxpyr Hero. 3aioiK)MeHHbie opraHM30BbiBaioTcn bo 

B3BOAbl H 6pMraabl, B KOTOpblX OHM AOJDKHbl COpeBHOBaTb- 

cn APyr c ApyroM 3a nyMiune noxa33Tenn b pa6oTe 



64 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 



3to npMBOAnno k HepBHOMy n (J)M3MMecKOMy mcto- 
meHMK), noCKOnbKy, no cnoBaM 6l.iblucto 3aK/iK3seHHoro, 
«k3>kawm 33icnioMeHHWM n 6pnraaa Aon>KHw 6binu nepe- 
KpwTb nnn, no Kpa^Heii Mepe, BwnonHMTb hopmw. ycra- 
HOBneHHbie BnacTOMM narepn, a b npoTHBHOM cnyMae ohh 
KBanncpMunpoBanMCb kbk «/ieHMBwe» n HanpaenonMCb Ha 
«KOMneHcaunoHHbie pa6oTw» b BocxpeceHbex". 33kjik> 
neHHbie. cucTeMaTHMecKM He Bwno/iHBBiuMe HopMy, 33x0- 
BbiBanncb b qenw m ompaBriHnncb b oamhomhwc xaMe- 
pw». 

ripoflODKMTenbHocTb pa6oTbi cociaannna BoceMb 
mscob b aeHb, tuecTb Anew b Heaenio. mto Ka^eTcn He 
CTo/ib y* nnoxMM, ecnn He ynwTWBaTb Toro. hto 3aicmo- 
neHHbie, KOTOpwx njioxo coaepjKaTM xoropwe He nonyna- 
kjt HHKaKoro MeflnunHCKoro o6cny>KMBaHHH, pa6oTaiOT 
nofl nanamuM TponwHecKUM conHueM. CnaBoe 3flopoBbe 
b coMeTaHUM c M3MaTbiBaicinePt pa6oTOM. HfleonornMec- 
kom o6pa6oTKOw m npuHyflMTe/ibHbiMM npn3HaHM5iMn ae- 
naioT >KM3Hb 3aK/iK>MeHHoro bo BbeTHaMe xpaMHe Tawe- 
noi\, o neM CBUfleTenbCTByeT BbicoKMM ypoBeHb CMepTHO- 
ctm b narepax nepeBocnuTaHMJi. 

llpoflOBonbCTBue v\ MeflnnaMeHTbi 

«Mom Mfleanw, moa cnaea, mom MenTbi, moh no60Bb. 
Bee 3to Tenepb - Aanexwe m a6cTpaKTHbie noHHTMn! 
PeanbHu TonbKO mu, ronoAHbie saxnioMeHHbie. TonbKO 

MeMTW, MT06bl H3C KOPMUJIM T3K, KaK KOpMflT CKOTMHy. 

rioneMy? Bee MenoeeMecKne MeMTbi, yBbi, ywe yinepnn Te 
MenTbi npneenn Hac b TiopbMy. Tenepb nnujb neTwpe 
eemn SHaMMMbi flnn Hac Ha 3eMne: pmc. uaHnoKa. 6aTaT. 
KyKypy3a. 3th MeTbipe Beiyn Tep3aK)T n MynaiOT Hac. Ohm 
HHKoraa He ocTaenT Hac b noxoew 34 . 

KaK noflTBepflkin b 1980 r. npeACTaBHtenb BbeTHaM- 
CKoro npaBmenbCTBa XoaHr Coh. nocKonbKy 6eflH0CTb 
senseTCfi cepbesHoii npo6neM0M bo BbeTHaMe, «hm npo- 
flOBOnbCTBeHHoe CHa6>t<eH^e. hh ycnoBusi pa3MeujeHMfl b 
HBKOTopbix narepax He MoryT paccwaTpMBaTbca KaK yaoB- 
neTBopnrenbHbie». Oah3ko Coh yTeep>Kflan. hto hoao6- 
Hbie ycnoBusi «b psbhom Mepe pa3flennioTcn n 3aK/it0MeH- 
HbiMM, m oxpaHOM»". BbiBiune 3aicniOMeHHbie ncnonbsyioT 
6onee CMnbHbie RbinaweHus xapaKTepn3yn HeAOCTarox 
npoflOBonbCTBun b narepe. n oTprntaiOT cymecTBOBaHHe 
«paBHoro pa3fleneHna». Ohm yeepeHbi, mto BnacTii npea- 
HaMepeHHO aepiKaT 3aKnK)MeHHwx Bnporonoflb, mto6w 
ocnaSnTb mx cnoco6HOCTb o6beflHH«Tbcn m conpoTHB- 
nsiTbcn nonwTMKe narepn. TaK Kax Bee nx Mbicnn 6yayT 
TonbKO o nponnTaHnn M . 

nocKonbKy TeM, kto HanpaBnnnct! Ha nepeBOcnuTa- 
Hue b 1975 rofly, paspeiuanocb MMeTb c co6oii 3anac 
npoflOBonbCTBUfl Ha 30 flHeii, to ycnoBun nuTaHun mojkho 
6bino Ha3BaTb HopManbHbiMn nnuib b leHenne nepBbix 
HecxonbKMX Heaenb. 3aTeM ohm HaMMHariM pesxo yxya- 
ujaTbcn. 3aKnK)HeHHbie, y kotopwx mm 6panM MHTepsbK), 
coo6mMnM, hto b 1976-77 roaax tmhmhhwm paqMOH 3ax- 
nwHeHHoro cocTonn M3 OAHOM-flayx naueK pMca 6e3 Mnca 
m oBoujeM b aeHb 37 . B aaxibHeMiijeM paunoH CTan eme 
6onee cxyAHbIM, pmc 6wn 33MeHeH KyKypy30M m xopHen- 

riOAaMM (K3K npaBMHO, MaHMOKOM, KpaXMa/lMCTblM KOp- 

HennoAOM c hm3kmmm nMTaTenbHbiMM cBOMCTBaMki, cno- 
co6HbiM nMiub Ha KopoTKoe BpeMn 3arnyujMTb wyBCTBo 
ronoaa). He cmmtbh cohm m boaw, o6iamm Bee npoAOBonb- 
CTBMfl Ha OAHoro 3aKnK)MeHHoro cocTaBnneT ot 400 ao 500 
rpaMMOB b AeHb, m k TOMy *e MHoroe M3 npoAoeonbCTBMti 
- McnopseHO. 



llonHOCTbK) OTcyTCTByKDT b paMMOHe >KMBOTHbie 6en- 
km, 3a MCKnwHeHMeM peflKMx cnynaeB ABa-TpM pa3a b roa 
(b necTb ahh po>KAeHkifl Xo UJm Mmh3. JlyHHoro HoBoro 
TOA3 MHM flHB He3aBMCMMOCTM), KorAa pauMOH AononHfl- 
eTCB HeCKOnbKMMM KpOUjeMHbIMM KyCOHKaMM MHCa M . B 
noAo6Hbix ycnoBunx see ycunnd saK/iKmeHHbix nanpaB- 
neHbi Ha noMCKM nponMTaHMS, xax sto onucaHO b riMCbMe, 
TanHO BbiBeseHHOM ms CTpaHbi: 

«B npMHyAMTenbHo-TpyAOBOM narepe ocHOBHoe - 
HenpeKpauiaiOLueecH ^yBCTBO ronoAa. EAMHCTBeHHoe, o 
neM mw b coctoahmm AyM3Tb, - sto eAa! 

B nepBwe ahm ce30Ha ypo>Ka« hbm no3Bon«ioT pohtm 
HacbiiiiaTtcn MaHMOKOM m KyKypy30M. Ho sto npoflonwaeT- 
cn TonbKO HecKonbxo flHeM. B TeneHMe stmx ahcm b narepe 
moikho AaiKe yBMAeTb ynbi6Kn m ctmioiAMe rns3a. Ho 
oneHb 5bicTpo aAMMHMCTpaunH nsrepn coxpamaeT naeK. 
ynbi6xn MC^esawT. Mw BHOBb wyBCTByeM ce5n ronoAHbi- 
MM, rO/lOAHblMM HaCTOnbKO, mto He MO*eM AyM3Tb hm o 
MeM APyroM, xpoMe eaw. MHorMe M3 hsc noBST niyepMu 
Ans eflbi, MTo5bi o6ecneMMTb ce6« 6enxoM. Ho oneHb 
CKopo RtuepMiibi MCTpe6nnKDTcn. fl 3Haw o 3aKntoMeHHOM. 
kotopwm HOMbio noMMan MHoroHOKKy Ha noTome, enpn- 
T3/i nofl umhobkom, 3 yTpoM M3)KapMn Ha xocTpe m cben. Oh 
roBopMn, mto 3TO 6bino noxo>Ke Ha wapeHyio KpeBeTKy. 
HeicoTopwe npMAyMbiBaiOT BceB03MO)KHbie npMcnoco6- 
neHMn Afis noBnM MbiiueM m nTMu, ecnM mm yAaeTcn mto- 

HM6yAb nOMMSTb, OHM )K3pflT M eflflT 3TO. B TO BpeMH K3K 

ApyrMe c 3aBMCTbio Ha6nK>AaiOT. flpyrMe hobht xy3H6MM- 

KOB M CBepMKOB. ECHM KOMy-TO nOCMSCTnMBMTCfl nOMMaTb 

3Meio - 3to npa3AHMK KorAS mw ps3roBapMBaeM Me>KAy 
co6om, to roBOpMM To/ibKo o eAe. Korqa mw He tobopmm o 
eae. mw AyMaeM o eae Korna saxaHMMsaeTcn 3aBTpax. 
mw HSMMHaeM AyMaTb 06 y>KMHe, oKMAawmeM Hac nocne 
paSoTbi. HtoSw pacTHHyTb xpoxoTHwe nopuMM, mw *yeM 
mx OMeHb Mea/ieHHo. Ho ece paBno. mw nyBCTByeM ce6si 
eiye 6onee ronoanbiMM. fla*e HauiM chw HsnonneHw 
MenTaMM o eAe. HexoTopwe p,axe luyMno wyKH ao CHe... 

MbiLLlH. KpWCW, HTMUW. 3MeM, Ky3heMMKH AOJDKHbl 

noBMTbcn n cbeAaTbcn TaMHo 3to 3anpemeHO, m ecnM 
oxpaHa nposnaeT 06 stom, saKmoneHHwe 6yAyT HaK333- 

HW» 39 . 

HeAOCTaTOK npoAoaonbCTBMfi npMBOAMT k ocna6ne- 
hmk) conpoTMBneHMn opraHM3Ma pasnMMHWM 6one3H«M. 
HaM6onee Macro Bnarepnx BcrpeMaiOTcn MannpHn, 6epw- 
6epM m AM3eHTepMH 40 . UJmpoko pacnpocTpaHen TygepKy- 
nes. MeAMKaMeHTw m MeAMUMHCKoe o6cnywMBaHMe npaK- 
TMMecKM OTcyTCTByioT b narepnx, KaK npaBMno. b MeAnyH- 




«8 noucxax znomna ceeixeac eosdyxa*. Pucynox 38Kn»oveH«020 



4 



KPyTDM MAPUIPYT BbETHAMA 



65 



icrax pa60TaroT nnoxo oSyMeHHbie caHHTapw m nHoraa - 
33KnK3HeHHbie. paHee pa6oT3Bwne epanaMn Pc3ynoTar 

- BbicoKan cMepTHOCTb ot 6one3Heii. 3axn©HeHHbii<i nare- 
pa flaM flyOHr b npoBMHunn XaHaMHMHb, HanpuMep, 3ac- 
Bufleie/ibCTBOBan asaauaTb CMepTHbix cnynaeB, bkjiw- 

Mafl Tpn CMepTM OT KMlljeHHOrO KpOBOM3nHBHM9. xoraa 

3aKntOMeHHbieyMepnnoTOTcyTCTBMflnna3Mbi". B narepe 
TyH Xoa oxono Tpn/wa™ 3axnK)seHHbix (M3 nsra twcjih) 
yMeprw ot 6or.e3HeM TO/ibxo 3a Tpw Mecnua 1978 roaa 42 . 
HeKOTopwM THa<eno6onbHbiM 3axnK)HeHHbiM 6bino pa3pe- 
ujeHO o6paTMTbCfl b 6onbHnubi BHe narepn unu BepHyTbca 
k ceMbflM. Ho MHorne yMepnn b narepax, Bflann ot 6nn3- 
khx. KOTopwx aaxe ne yseaoMunM o CMepTM. 1/1 sto He- 
CMOTps Ha to. hto b flexpeTe BpeMeHHoro npaBMTenbCTBa 
lOwHoro BbeTHaMa Nb 02/CS-76 6bino o6tflBneHO. mto 
Hen3neMMMo 6onbHt>iM 6yaeT pa3peweH0 BepHyTbCH k 
ceMbnM. Baoxnaae Me>xayHapoaHOM Amhmcthm coo6uja- 
eTcn o HecKoribKnx TaxMx saxnxjMeHHbix. kotopwm 6wno 
0TKa3ano b B03BpameHnn Oahmm H3 hmx 6bin TpyoHrBaH 
TpyoK (Truong Van Truoc). «cxoHMaBUJMi/ics b aBrycTe 
1980 r. ot paxa wenyaxa b narepe ann nHTepHnpoBaHHwx 
nnu 90A TD63/TC. Doi 1 1 . TxaHb Xoa ». flpyrou 3axniOHeH- 
HbiM. ynoMSHyTbiM Baoxnaae Mex<ayHapoanoii Amhmcthw, 

- nMcaTe/ib Xo Xwy Tyom\ 6oneBWMM b TeneHne Hecxonb- 
khx Mecnues, ho OTnpaBneHHbiPi b 6onbHHny Tonbxo 2 
mk>hh 1980 r. «Oh yMep nepe3 tph neaenn, a pa3peweHMe 
BepHyTbcn k poflHWM 6bino nonyneHO mm nnuib sa ho- 
cranbKo flHeCi ao CMepTM» 43 . 

npaBuna n HaKa3aHMH 

B npnno*eHMM k cBoeM KHure «KpacHbiM Aa, moh 
nK>6oBb» JliocbeH TpoHr, 6wbwmm 3axnK>HeHHbiM oanoro 
M3 narepeii an* Mnaauwx mmhob K»KHOBbeTHaMcxoM ap- 
mmm. ony6nnKOBan criMCox npasuri. pa30cnaHHbiM, no ero 
cnoBaM, so Bee nareps. OnpoweHHwe HaMn apyrne 6biB- 
ujMe saxmoMeHHbie noaTBepannn. mto Taxne we npaenna 
aeiiCTBOBanvi b mx narepnx. nocxonbxy anacTn cTpeMBTca 
ycTaHOBHTb nonHbifi xoHTponb Haa MwcnaMM 3axnKweH- 
Hwx, to KaTeropMnecKw 3anpeiaator xpaMHTb n suraTb 
KHurn nnn wypHanw npewHero pe>«MMa. ynoMMHaTb b 
Seceaax o >km3hm «Ha MMnepManncTunecKOM n MapnoHe- 
tohhom K)re». neTb necHM cTaporo pewMMa, o6cyxaaTb 
nonnTMMecKne Bonpocbi (b OTCyTCTBun ynoriHOMOMeHHbix), 
a Taxxe cxpbiBaTb «peaKunoHHwe» Mbicnw h cyeBepun. 

TaioKe 3anpei«eHo nponBnsiTb HeyBa>KeHne m rpy- 
6ocTb no OTHOujeHMK) k BnacTHM narepfl. n ara npaBuno 
OTKpwBano 6onbiune bo3mo>khocth ann 3noynoipe6ne- 
hum, nocKOJibxy aa>t<e Maneiiiuee Heno^TeHne k BnacTAM 
narepn pacueHMBanocb kbk rpy5ocTb m Bnex/io 3a co6om 
Tawenwe HaKasaHMn. 

HapyiueHne stmx npaBwn BeaeT k npuMeHeHuro pa3- 
nnHHbix cpopM HaKa3aHHfi, BK/noMaoianx Bceso3Mo>KHbie 
cnoco6bi cBH3biBaHHR b MysMTenbHbix no3ax, noMemeHne 
B TecHwe KOHTeMHepw nnn xaMepw 6e3 aocTyna CBeTa. 
aono/iHMTenbHbie npkiHyanTenbHwe pa6oTbi nnn yMeHb- 
lueHne npoaosonbCTBeHHoro nartxa. MHornx 3aK/itOHeH- 
nbix n36nBaK)T. HBKOTopbix ao CMepTM. mjim noflBepraKiT 
n3oiypeHHbiM cpopMaM Haxa3aHMfl n3-3a caaMCTcxnx Ha- 
xnoHHOCTei'l HeKOTopwx ao/DKHOCTHbix nnq narepn mhm 
oxpaHHMKOB. Han6onbiuevi jKecTOKOdbro ornmatOTCfl 
oxpaHHMKn narepeM. pacnonoweHHbix b aenbTe pexw Me- 
KOHr, oseBnaHO, nonHOCTbio yBepeHHbie b CBoeM 6e3Haxa- 

3aHH0CTH". 

KoHTeMHepw, ncnonb3yeMbiean« HaKa3aHMn, HMewT 
pa3riMHHbie pa3Mepbi. a HeraTopwe nnoTHO saTanxMBa- 



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:.r. -.-.■■ -;. 


** r™ *** * 



Pa3/?uwM6/e cnoco6bi ibimnu 

co*3bteBHueHi. CmpaMuua 

omvema Oonda «Aapopa» 



nocb no necKoxibKO 3axnK3- 
HOHHbix MacTb KOHTeiiHe- 
poB caenaHa M3 aepeBa, 

HO B 0CH0BH0M OHM MeTan- 

nuMecxne. noa >KapxnM 

conHuer.i KOHTePinepbi cm- 
nbHO HarpesaioTCf!, m Ha- 

XOaMTbCH B HMX CTaHOBMT- 
CH HeBblHOCMMO, 3aKnKJ- 

neHHbie TepnioT co3HaHMe 
m aa*e yMMpawT 4 '. 

KaMepbl-OaMHOHXM 

TaioKe ujupoKo pacnpocT- 

paHeHw b narepnx. Tax, 

HanpMMep, b narepe fljtwa 

Peii 3axnK)MeHHbie nona- 

aann b hhx Ha flecoTbflHeii 

3a He3H3MMTenbHbie npo- 

buhhocth, Ha nsiTHaauaTb 3a «peaKLtnoHHbie 3aflBneHMn» 

m Ha oamh roa (mjim ao CMepTM) 3a nonwTKy k 6ercTBy. 

3axrnoseHHbie b tbkmx xaMepax BWHy>KaeHbiecTb. cnaTb m 

cnpaBnsTb (pM3nonorMMecxMe noTpe6HOCTM, 6yaynM npM- 

KOBaHHbiMM k CTeHe". 3aioiK3HeHHbiM b oAMHOHxax narepn 

XaM TaM (npoBMHLiMn TioaHxaii) Ha HorM Haaesanncb 

Tswenwe aepeBSHHbie xonoflKM. 47 B narepe. pacnono- 

>xeHHOM B Hre TMHb, paMOHa TxaHnyoHr npoBMHqMM Hre- 

THHb, HeKOTOpbIM 33KnK)MeHHblM B OaMHOMHblX K3MepaX 

HacTonbxo cMnbHo CBtObiaanM BepeBxaMM pyKM m HorM. 
hto y hmx HanMHanacb raHrpeHa, npMBoaMBujaf x noTepe 
xoHeHHOCTew m CMepTM 48 . 

B xasecTBe mcct Maxa3aHnn Mcnonb3yK)Tcn noBMMe 
BMW m 3a6poweHHbie xonoauw. 3axniOMeHHbiM narepn 
JloHrKxaHb (KjwHbm narepba/m ocpMuepos m hmhobhmkob) 
6wn 6pooieH b bwcoxiumm xonoaeu aa to, mto nen b 
Co^enbHMx 1975 roaa neceHxy «TMxan H0Hb» 49 . B narepe 
6eH TMa rny6oxMe pbw, BbipwTbie 3axniOMeHHbiMM, Ha3w- 

BanMCb «)KMBblMM M0rMn3MM». BpOUjeHHbie B 3TH pBbl 

y3HMXM nonynanM b aeHb oaHy Mamxy pMca MnM copro m 
oaHy Maiuxy eoabi 50 . 

apyrMx tpopMax nwTox CBMaeTenbCTBOBan 6biB- 
ujMMsaxrKJMeHHbiMnarepflflaMflyoHr. BKOTOpOMHaxoaM- 
nocboxono 1000 y3HMKOB, a tom HMcne 200 MOHTaHbapoB 
(BbeTHaMcxMx ropueB) 

1 . «XoHfla»: 3axnK)MeHHoro noaBeujMBaK)T x noTonxy 
sa CBfl33HHbie BMecTe pyxn m Horn, nMuoM bhms, m. CMnbHo 
pacKSMMBan, 6bK5T nanKaMM, noxa 3axnK)HeHHbiM He Hasn- 
HaeT M3BepraTb pBOTy. 

2. «ABTOMo6Mnb»: 6onbtuMe nanbuw pyx 3axnK)neH- 
Horo CB«3biBaioTCH 3a cnMHOM. npvmeM oaHa pyxa BbiBep- 
nyTa noBepx nne^a, apyran - ot nonca. B apyroii «Bep- 
cmm» 3tom nbiTxn nanbubi Hor 3axniOHeHHoro npMB«3biBa- 
K)Tcn x aByM cpeaHMM nanbuaM BbiTSHyTbix pyx. 3axnio- 
weHHWM Mor SbiTb ocTasneH b TaxoM nonowenuM Ha He- 
cxonbxo Heaenb m aa*e Mecnues. 

3. «CaMoneT»: 3aKnK3HeHHbiii npMBfl3bisancfl xaepe- 
BHHHOMy xony, CTOfliyeMy BepTMxanbHO, mhm yxnaawBan- 
cn Ha ucMenTHbiPi non, Ha cpox ot HecxonbXMx p,nei\ ao 
HecxonbKMx Heaenb, b 3aBMCMM0CTM ot T«>xecTM «npo- 
CTynxa». flocne oxohm3hmh noao6Horo Haxa3aHMfl 6onb- 
lumhctbo 3axnKJHeHHbix flonro He Mornn nepeasMraTbcn 
caMOCTOATenbHO 5 ' . 

Cny-iaM npMMeHeHMS nwTxn «caMoneT» onMcan b 
CBoeii KHMre «Bons He6ec» HryeH Hrox HraH. 3tot cny- 
naM npoM30iuen b Mae 1977 r. b narepe By fl)KMa Man. 
pacnonoweHHOM Heaanexo ot xaM6oa>KMMcxoM rpaHMqbi 



SB 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 



3aK/iK)HeHHbiM no hmchm Tpy, yBnaeB, hto oxpaHHM- 
km ncnorib3yK)T rocyaapcTBeHHbiii cpnar KJwHoro BteTHa- 
Ma KaK nonoByio Tpnnxy. npumen b HeroAoeaHne m, BUp- 
BaB M3 pyK oxpaHHMKa cpnar, B03MymeHHo npoTecTosan 
npoTMB ero ocKBepneHUH. Ha cneaywiynii AeHb Tpy npefl- 
cTan nepefl «HapOAHt>iM cyaoM». coctoabuihm us pyxo- 
BOAdBa narepn. Ho BMecro ownaaeMoro «pacxaflHnn» 
Tpy npoflOJDKan BocxsanflTb (pnar n pyraTb KOMMyHUCTOB. 
B36eiueHHbiii Hana/ibHHx nareps npnxa3an npuensaTb Tpy 
k BpbiTOMy b 3eMnio flepeB^HHOMy cron6y noA OTKpbiTbiM 
He6oM Ha Tpn Mecaqa. 3ax/iK>HeHHOMy 3aTXHynn pot m. 
CTHHyB pyKn 3a cnnHOM TenecpOHHbiM npoBoaoM, TeM we 
npoBOflOM npnB«i3anii k CTon6y. K Konuy nepBoro ahh 
npOBOfl rny6oKO Bpesancn b pacnyxujee Teno. BbiHyayieH- 
hwm HaxoflnTbcn uenuMM ahbmm c HenoxpwToii ronoBOvi 
noawapxnM conHueMH 6e3yxpbirMHxonoAHbiMM HonaMH. 
MyMUMbiii MOCKMTaMM. k xoHuy BTopoii nenenvi Tpy Tnweno 
3a6onen Mannpnert. Mepe3 Mecsu, bo speMn MOOTS bw- 
luecTOfliuero HaMsnbCTBa. Tpy 6bin oTBasaH oTCTon6a. u 
eMy 6bin npeaocTaBneH eiye oahh wane pacxanTbcn. Ho 
Tpy ot pacKa^HbB OTxa3anca n Ha cneaytoiMMii AeHb 6bin 
yBe3eH us narepn b Hen3Beci"HOM HanpaBneHnn 52 . 

C/iynan HacMnns Haa 3axnx)MeHHbiMn noflTBepxma- 
eT n XaHOM. xo™ yTBep>t<aaeTcn, mto 3th oTAenbHbie 
cnywan He noxa3aTeribHbi ann o6iyeii noriHTHxu nepeeoc- 
nnT3Hnn". Co CBoeii CTOpOHbl, 6biBwne sawiiOMeHHbie 
coo6maK)T o MacTwx cnysanx M36neHMH 3a He3naHHTenb- 
Hbie npodyriKU. HanpMMep 3a HeBuxoA Ha pa6oTy no 
6one3HH. B HexoTopwx cnynanx 3axnioMeHHbie h36hb3- 
nucb no CMepTM, HanpuMep nonxoBHMX OaM Bw XaM. 
06BHHOHHbiii b noMomn npu oprann3aunn no6era apyrux 
y3HHKOB, oh 6wn wecToxo h36mt nanxaMH nepea cipoeM 
3awiK)HeHHbix m ocTasneH 6e3 mcahuhhcxom noMomn, mto 
npuBeno k ero cMep™ 54 . 

flpyroii y3HHK. 6biBwnti ocpnuep K»KH0BbeTHaMCKOM 
apMnn, Haxoflncb b ropsRMenHOM 6peay, ocxop6nnn nuae- 
poB KI1B n 6bin HacMepTb 3a6m uenaMH 55 . 

3aicnK)MeHHbie. noMMaHHbie npn nonbmcs k 6ercTBy, 
xax npaBuno. noflBepranncb CMepTHoii xa3HH. B HexoTo- 
pbix cnynanx noMMaHHbie 3ax/iiOHeHHbie npeAdaBanH 
nepea «HapoflHbiMH cyaaMM», a 3aTeM 6binn ny6nnMHo 
xaaHeHbi Ha rna3ax y Apyrux y3HnxoB M . 

CaMoy6niiicTBa sBnfliOTCfl aoBonbHO nacTbiM co6w- 
TneM b narepax. B oahom H3 narepeti 6wBaiMi5i (j)apMa- 
uesT 3aKOHHnn CBoe nucbMo k wene npocb6oii MonnTbcn 
3a ero 0CB06o)«fleHne. rincbMO. nonaBiuee b pyxn Hananb- 
Huxa narepfl, 6bino nponnTaHO nepeA BceMn 3aioiK)HeH- 
HbiMn. a caM aBTop - noaaeprcn n3fleB3TenbCTBaM n 




KaMBpa-oduHowa. eupyGneHHan e wane. Paiepb 3au Hya. 



HOHHbiM aonpocaM, noxa He noxoHMHn ccoCofi. Ero ceMbe 
He 6bino coo6meHo o cMepTu 5 '. 

3aK/ihOMeHHbie n nx cevibn 

noceoieHMn saK/DonenHbix poaHbiMn n 6n<i3KHMn 
Ba>KHbi He TonbKOA/ifl Mopa/ibHOti noAAep*Kn HaxoAfltue- 
roc« a 3aioiioHeHMM. ho m noTOMy, mto M/ieHbi ceMbu MoryT 
npMHOCMTb npoAOBonbCTBue cbomm poncTBeHHMxaM a 
narepflx. Coo6iAanocb, mto 3aK/ii0MeHHbie He MoryT Bbi- 
>KMTb b narepnx 6e3 npoAyxTOBbix nepeflan* 8 . OAHaxo 
npaBMTenbCTBo He paspeoiaeT sacTbix nocemeHMM. C 
1980 roAa. cornacHO ocpnunanbHOM HHCTpyxunn, 3axnio- 
MeHHbie b narepnx nMeioT npaBO Ha oflHO noceujeHne b 
Tpn Mecnua". 

ripoAonwHTenbHOCTb noceiyeHun HeaHannTenbHa m 
AJiMTca ot 15 ao 30 MUHyr* . KpoMe Toro, 3axnMDMeHHbiM 
MoweT 6wTb HMiueH cBMflaHMs. ecru aAMnnncTpaunn na- 
repn comtbt. hto oh HapyuaeT npaenna. Taxxe 6wno 
o6t5iBneHO. mto Tonbxo ceMbu. AoxasaBoiMe cbohd noonb- 
HOCTb HOBOMy pe>KHMy. HMeiOT npaBO Ha nocemeHne 3ax- 
nKDMeHHoro poACTBeHHuxa 81 . 

B cBoeM MeMopanayMe npaBMTenbCTey CPB Mew- 
ayHapoflHafl Amhucthh Bbipa3nna 6ecnoxoiiCTBO no no- 
Boay roro. mto npaBO saxniOMeHHoro Ha cBnaaHne 3bbh- 
cmt ot ero noseAeHMSi m «nporpecca b nepeBocnnTaHnn», 
n noAMepKHyna, mto «npaBa 3aKnK>MeHHoro Ha CBHAaHne 
n nepenncxy AO/nCHbl 6b(Tb HenpuKOCHoeeHHbi n He orpa- 
HMMeHbi ycnoBMHMM, xpoMe cnyMaeB cepbe3Hwx Hapyiue- 
hmm narepHOA A^cunnnnHbi. n TonbKo Ha onpeAeneHHbivi 
cpox» H . TaM we oTMeMeHO. mto ecnn saxnoMeHHOMy «He 
nosBoneHbi cBnaaHUR c aABOxaTOM nnn poACTBeHHuxa- 
mm, to TiopeMHoe pyxoBOACTBO MyBCTByeT 6e3Haxa3aH- 
HOCTb npn rpy6oM o6pameHMM c 3axniOMeHHbiM, 3Han, mto 
hukto He CMOx<eT o6napyx<MTb npu3HaxoB cpn3HMecKorc 
mm yMCTBeHHoro yxyAUJennnw 61 . 

CMMTaeTCfl, MTO CeMbU 3aK/IK)MeHHblX OTBeTCTBeHHW 

3a ero fleiScTBUfl flo 1975 roAa. CornacHO xaHOiiCKOMy 
npeACTaBMTenio XoaHr CoHy, 1 .3 MnH. BbeTHaMueB 6binn 
MacTbio BoeHHoro hjih aAMUHncTpaTHBHoro annapaTa 
tOwHoro BbeTHaMa, MneHaMn «Tax Ha3biBaeMbix» nonn- 
TUMecxnx napTnii nnii MaccoBbix opraHH3aqnM, KOTopbie, 
nocnoBaM CoHa. xoHTponnpoBanncb aMepuxaHqaMn Ha 
ocHOBaHMn 3tom OLieHKM, a Taxsxe hcxoah H3 pacMeTa, MTO 
b cpeflHeM BbeTHaMCKas cewbn coctout M3 nmn MenoBex. 
Coh 3axnx)MaeT. mto oxono 6.5 mtih BbeTHaMLtea «ckom- 
npoMeTnpoBann ce6n» cbh3hmh c aHTUxoMMyHMCTHMec- 
xmm pewnMOM KDwHoro BbeTHaMa 64 . 

B pe3ynbT3Te Taxoti nornxn He Toribxo 3axniOHeH- 

Hbie. HO H MJieHbl AX CeMevi HCnblTblBaiOT AMCXpHMUHaUMKl 

B AOCTyne x 3ApaBooxpaHeHMio, 33hhtoc t h m Bbicwewv 

O6pa30BaHMK) 85 . 

Oahhm n3 cnoco6oB «ncxynneHMB» MneHaMM comoi- 
saxnKxeHHbix nx npoiunbix nocTynxoe 6wno HanncaHne 
MHoroMncneHHbix nuceM b narepn c npM3biBaMM x 6nn3- 
xhm «axTMBHO 3aHHMaTbCH nporpaMMOM nepeBocnuTa- 
hms, oTflaaao ce6n ue/iMxoM* 86 . Taxwe ceMbu 3axniOMeH- 
Hbix b narepa nepeBocnuTanns nocTOflHHO noABepranncb 
AaBneHHio c ue/ibK) BbiHyAHTb nx, ana noATBep*AeHHB 
nonnbHocTH, nepee3>xaTb b «HOBbie 3KOH0MHMecxne 
30Hbi» 67 . HexoTopbiMceMbflM He npoAneBann nponoBonb- 
CTseHHbie xapTOMXM ao Tex nop. noxa ohh He AaBann 
cornacnn Ha nepee3A b 3tm 30Hbi 86 . 

OcpnunanbHO 6bino o6t8BneHo. mto HOBbie skoho- 
MMHecxne 30hw opraHM3yK)Tcn c uenbK) yBeriMMeHnsi npo- 



4 



KPVTOH MAPIUPYT BbETHAMA 



17 



H3BOflCTBa npOnOBOnbCTBHH, HO OpaKTMHeCKM 3TO 6blf1M 

rerro. pacnonoweHHbie b MannpuMHwx paMOHax R-Atynr- 

nefi. c 3eMne(i, He npuroflHOiii a^ ceribCKoro xosniicTBa. 

>Kn3Hb b 3thx 30Hax Mano neM omnManacb ot npe- 

6wBaHmi b narepnx nepeBocnmaHUH c mx n3onnpoB3HHo- 

CTbKJ M THWe/lblMM yCJIOBUflMM. 

TbicsmM BbeTHaMueB dexcann na hobwx aKOHOMunec- 
kmx 30h o6paTHO b ropoaa. npespamancb b 6oM>KeM, 
KOTopbiM He nonaranocb ot rocyaapcTBa hm npoAosorib- 
ctbha, hh pa6oTbi, hm wmibfl. B 1980 r. b oahom TonbKO 
CaiiroHe HacMMTbisanocb ot 15-tm ao 20-tm twchh TaKnx 
SecnpasHbix ntoflefi 69 . 

MTo6bi ao6nTbcn ocBo6o>wieHM5i poflHwx H3 nare- 
peii. BnacTHMM 6bino peKOMeHAOBaHO nneHaM mx ceMeiii 
nepeaaTb Bee csoe MMyiaecTso rocyaapcTBy h airrMBHO 
pa6oT3Tb CBepxypoHHO 70 . 

nOHMTHKa 0CBO6O)KAeHMfl 

nonnTuxa ocBo6o>KAeHMfl 3aKniOHeHHbix H3 narepeii 
nepeBocnuTaHMfl bo BbeTHaMe - sto anuHHan nepeaa 
HapyiueHHbix o6emaHMCi. 

CaMO cyujecTBOBaHne noao6Hbix narepe* - Hapy- 
ujeHne 11 CTaTbM riapumcKoro cornawemiH, co BceM 
onpefleneHHOCTbK) 3anpemaK>meM noAoGHwe aeMCTBMfl. 

flpyruM HapyuieHHbiM o6emaHneM cTan 0TKa3 b oc- 
Bo6o>KfleHMM Mepe3 30 AHeti Tex. kto 6bin OTnpaBJieH Ha 
«nepeBOcnnTaHne» b MiOHe 1975 r., ksk sto 6wno coo6- 
meHo BpeMeHHbiM peBontounoHHbiM npaBMTeribCTBOM. B 

OAHOM M3 CBOMX nOCTieflHUX nOCTaHOBJieHMM B MtOHe 1976 

roaa BPn o6tflBnno o npoaneHMM cpoKa nepeBOcnuTa- 
huji ao Tpex neT. Ho m 3to o6eujaHne 6bino HapyweHO. 

no yTBepnyjeHmo BbeTHaMCKoro npaBHTertbCTRa, 
OKono MunnnoHa BbeTHaMueB 6wno nepeBocnuTaHo m 
«B03BpameHo o6ujecTBy», HanMHas c 1975 r. 

OAH3K0 3TO npoTHBopenuT APyoMy OCpMlJuaJlbHOMy 
coo6iAeHMio XaHOfl, b kotopom rosopnTCfl, hto 40000 
BbeTHaMueB npowno nepe3 narepn c 1975 r. m 26000 eiye 
HaxoAnnocb b narepnx k 1980 roay"- 

Tan hto ecnvi mm npwMeM stm micppw ecepbea m 
nonbiTaeMcn mx comacoeaTb. to aojdkhm npeanonowMTb, 
htooahh MnnniioH-3Too6Luee KonnHecTBO«nepeBocnn- 
TbiBaeMbixn, BK/no^an Tex, kto npoxoAnn nepeBOcnuTa- 
Hue AneM. B03Bpamascb Ha HOMb aomoh, a nucno 40000 
othocmtcs k oTnpaBneHHWM b OTAaneHHwe narepn Ha 
A/iMTenbHbie cpokm. B OTHOiueHMM nocneAHnx mw aonw- 
Hbi yMecTb, 4to. nooqeHKe MHOCTpaHHbix Ha6/iK>AaTenei/i. 
mmcjio coaepwaiyuxcfl b narepnx c 1975 roAa HaMHoro 
Bbiuie m cocTaBnneT npuMepHO 300 twcbh Me/ioBeK 72 . no 
HaiuuM oueHKaM, (b 1982 roay) okoho 100000 BbeTHaM- 
ueB Bee eme HaxoAMTCH b narepnx K cowanenMio, mw 
Aawe npn6nn3HTenbHO He MO>KeM oueHMTb xonnMecTBO 

AMCCHAeHTOB, HaxOAfllAMXCB B MHOrOHUCneHHblX TK>pb- 

Max BbeTHaMa 

no coo6ujeHMnM ocpnunanbHotii BbeTHaMcxow npec- 
cw mojkho npeAnonowHTb. hto MaccoBbie ocBo6o>KAeHMH 
3aKnioMeHHbix Hananncb y«e b KOHue 1 975 roAa". 6 flHBapn 
1976 roAa npaBmenbCTBeHHasi ra3eTa «CaMron flxaw 
<t>OHr» («Saigon Giai Phong») («OcBo6o>KAeHHbm Cafi- 
roH»), n3AaBaeMan b XomnMUHe, o6bHBriHfl 06 ocbo6o>k- 
AeHMn coTen 3aKniOHeHHbix, nucana: «3Toy>Ke 21 cr\y^av\, 
KorAa o6yMaK>man ceKunsi KoMMTeTa BoeHHoro ynpaBne- 
hhh no3BonaeT TeM, kto aenaeT ycnexM b nepeBocnuTa- 

HMM, B03Bpam3TbCH K MX CeMbflM». (IpeAnOriOlKMB, HTO B 
Ka>KAOM H3 3TMX CflyMaeB OCB060)KAanMCb «COTHM 33KnK3- 

MeHHbix». rpy6o mowho oueHMTb KonMnecTBO ocbo6o>k- 



AeHHbix b KOHue 1975 r. b npeAenax ot 4000 ao 10000 
nenoBeK. 

B CTaTbflx. ony6nMKOBaHHbix «CaiiroH fljKaii OoHr» b 
aBrycTe. ceHTn6pe m AeKa6pe 1975 roAa. nepenMcnnnMCb 
KaTeropMM 3aKnioHeHHbix, b otholu6hhm KOTopbix Morno 
6wTb npMMeHeHoocBo6o>KAeHMe. B HOMepe 3a 24 aBrycTa 
coo6ujanocb. hto npaso Ha ocBo6o>KAeHMe mmciot saKnio- 
MeHHbie. HbM 6nM3KMe poactb6hhmkm (poAMTenM, cynpyrn, 
poflHbie 6paTbfl m cecTpu) SBnsioTCfi npocpeccMOHanbHbi- 
mm peBoriKJUHOHepaMM mdm «riK3AbMM. airrMBHO cnoco6- 
CTBOBaBiuMMH Aeny peBoniouMM», a TawKe «HaynHO-Tex- 
HMMecKMe cneuMa/iMCTbi. He ccBepwuBLune t5i>kkmx npe- 
CTynneHMii» m ne BBnnioujMecfl nneHaMM aHTHKOMMyHMc- 
TMMecKMx napTMM m opraHM3aunM. 7 ceHTfl6ps b CTaTbe. 
HanenaTaHHoM b tow we ra3eTe, flo6aB/wnocb eiye He- 
CKoribKO KaTeropMM saKDto^eHHbix. MMeioiiiMX npaso Ha 
ocBo6o>KAeHMe: CTapMKM, TH>Keno6onbHbie noAM m 6epe- 
wenHbie weHiunhbi OAHaKO. xax n b OTHOUJeHMM Apyrux 
KaTeropMM, noAnepKMBanocb, hto npe>KAe Bcero 3310110- 
neHHbie AO/DKHbi npoAeMOHCTpuposaTb «nporpecc» b ne- 
peBoenMTaHMM m pacKaaHbe «b npomribix oujM6Kax», a 
TaioKe He coBepiuaTb «npecTynHbix aeMCTBMM» npoTMB 
pesonKDUMM b nepMOA ao 1975 roAa' 3 rioAo6Hbie pac- 
nribiB^aTbie cpopMy/iMpoBKM Heaaeann HMKaxnx rapaHTMM 
na ocBo6o>KAeHMe nio6oM M3 BbnuenepeMMcneHHbix KaTe- 
ropMM SaKTIIOHeHHblX. 

B 3aBB/ieHMM ot 25 Man 1976 roAa Nfl 02/CS-76. 
noanMcaHHOM ripe3MaeHTOM XiOHb TaH Ostom, yTBep*- 
aanocb, hto aena 95% rpaacaaH. M3 Tex, kto npoxoAMri 
npouecc nepeBoenMTaHMfl, «3aKOHneHbi paccMOTpenMeM 
m mm B0CCT3H0B/ieHbi mx rpa>KAaHCKMe npaBa», HT06bl OHM 
MornM npMHHTb ynacTMe b anpenbCKvix Bbi6opax. flocKoribKy 




Bbieuiue o<puuepbi lOMHOSbemHaucKou apuuu. 
ocao6o)*d6HHbie us nazepn. Xowumuh. 1999 a 



SI 



4 KPACHOE KOJIECD 



paHee b oqbMUManbHbix coo6iueHnnx cpurypupoBano sue- 
no a o/iHH mmjwhoh «nepeBocnMTbieaeMbix». to mowho 
caenaTb bwboa, mto okoho 50-tm twcah nenoBeK k neTy 
1976 rofla npoAonwarw ocTaBaTbcn b narepax. 

B tom we 3aaeneHnn 6bino CK33aH0, mto ocTaBuine- 
ch b narepsx 6yAyr HaxoflMTbcn b hux b TeseHne TpexneT. 
ho Moryr 6wTb ocBo6o>KfleHbi paHbiue, ecnw 6yaeT ycTa- 
HOBneH «peanbHNM nporpecc b hx nepeBocnnTaHnn u 
aKTMBHoe npn3HaHne cbomx npeciynneHMw nflewcTBUM* 
TaioKe coo6manocb, mto psa rpawAaH 6yAeT noABepmyr 
cyAe6HOMy npecneAOBaHmo, b tom Miicne Te. kto Ae3ep- 

TMpOBan M3 OTpflflOB ©HO B rOAW BOMHbl, Te. KTO MMeeT 

«Aonr KpoBM», h Te, kto «6e>Kan 3a py6e>K BMecTe c 

aMepHK3HCKHMM X03fleeaMH» 7< . 

HacKonbxo hsm M3BecTHo, HMKaKHx cyae6Ht>ix pa36n- 
paTeribCTB He npoBoawnocb mxim o hux hb coo6ma/-ocb 
ripn 3tom saKntoneHHbie b narepsx He 6wnn ocBo6o>Kae- 
hw no npowecTBMH Tpex neT. OcHOBaHneM ann storo 
BbeTHaMCKne snacTM cwnTaioT o6ocTpeHne oTHOweHMii c 
KuTaew. a TaioKe to. mto BMecTO flexpeTa BpeuieHHoro 
npaBHTenbCTBa KDikhoto BbeTHaMa ot 1976 r. Hune txefi- 
CTByeT PeweHne No 49 1961 roAa. ycrraHaBnuBaiomee 
cpoK 3aKniOHeHnn b narepnx 6onee seM Ha Tpn roaa. no 
cnoBaM Xoanr CoHa. PeweHHe 49 ycTaHaBnuBaeT hobwm 
TpexneTHwii cpox 3aKni0HeHMn Ann Tex, kto HeAocraTOHHO 
nepeBocnuranca b TeneHne nepBbix Tpex neT 75 . Mw mo- 
weM npeanonowMTb. mto M U OTH O 3aicniOMeHHbie OT6biBaiOT 
ywe TpeTHM TpexneTHMrt cpoK c MOMeHTa CBoero nepeoHa- 
ManbHoro apecTa. 

no MHeHuro MeacayHapoaHOti Amhmctmh. «ocHOBa- 
HMeM ana anHTenbHoro 3aKniOHeHHH 3TnxnioflePi RBnnioT- 
cn He hx npownwe npecTynneHun, a jiojkho noHHTwe 
npuHunnbi HaunoHanbHow BesonacHocm To. mto npouc- 
xoaht c hmmm, - 3to aAMHHucTpaTHBHbiii apecT 6e3 cya©6- 
Horo pa36npaTenbCTBa» 76 . 

nocranbKy oTCyTCTByioT RCHbie KpnTepnn AJ11 0CBO- 
6o«AeHnn, to ecTecTBenHo, mto b3htkh h «TeneoJ)OHHoe 
npaBO» HaaewHee o6ecneMHBaioT ocBo6o*aeHue. MeM 
«npaBnnbHoe» noBeAeHne 3aKniOHeHHoro. 

OcBo6o>KAeHHbie M3 narepevi b nepvioA npoxo>KAe- 
hm9 ncnuTaTenbHoro cpoKa (anniuerocH ot 6-tm mcchmcb 
Ao roAa) He HMeiOT HHKaKoro ocpnunanbHoro CTaTyca. He 
nMeioT npaBa Ha Bbie3AHbie BH3b.. Ha rapaHTupcBaHHbu'i 
rocyaapcTBOM npoAOBonbCTBeHHWM naeK (ioptomkh) h 
o6ysenne fleTeii e wxonax 77 Ecnn «coi4nanbHt>iM npo- 
rpecc» 6biBtunx 3aKnioHeHHbix 6yAeT oueHeH xaK HeyaoB- 
neTBopnTenbHwii, ohm Moryr BfalTb yBoneHbi c pa60Tbi, 
noMeiyeHbi noa ycuneHHoe Ha6riK)AeHMe eiae Ha nonroaa 
ham OTnpaBneHw o6paTHo b narepb 78 . Kax CBMaeTenb- 
CTByeT BbtcoKonocTaBneHHoe BbeTHaMCKoe aonwnocTHoe 
nmjo. npn6nn3HTenbHo60%ocBo6o>KAeHHbix6binnBHOBb 
apecT08aHbi". 

Me>KayHapoaHan Amhuctmh o6paTnnacb k XaHoto c 
npocb6oii 06 OTMeHe PeaieHun 49 n CMCTBMM narepevi 
nepeBocnuraHMH bo BbeTHaMe. Hbt coMHeHnii b tom, mto 
noannHHbiw mmp m cornacne bo BbeTHaMe He MoryT 6biTb 
AOCTurHyrbi nyTeM npnHy>KAeHMn ntoAeti k BOCXBaneHnio 
KOMMyHMCTunecKoro pe)KMMa nnn k «pacKanHbK))> b tom. 

MTO OHM 6binM B On H03ML4H M K KI1B . Henb33 He COmaCMTbCS 

co cnoBaMn ruAepa OpoHTa HaunonanbHoro ocBo6o>Kae- 
Hun BbeTHaMa HryeHa BaH Txney (huhc MMHMCTpa xynb- 
Typw CPB), cKB3aHHbiMn hm b 1973 roay: «...fleMOKpa™- 
Mec<ne CBo6oAbc. 0>yHaaMeHTanbHbie npaBa senoseKa 
ABnatoTcn ropBMMMM ycTpeMneHMAMM Bcex counanbHbix 
cnoeB, Bcex nonnTunecKnx n pennrno3Hwx cun Ha (Ore 



BbeTHaMa. TonbKO nonHoe m Bceo6iaee ocyiaecTBneHne 
aeMOKpaTunecKMx npuBuneruM MoxceT cny*nTb ocHOBa- 
HMeM ana peann3aunn HaunoHanbHoro npHMnpeHun n 
cornacnn, yperynnpoBaHun BHyTpeHHux Aen Ha KDre BbeT- 
HaMa m ocymecTBneHMn npaea K»KHOBbeTHaMCKoro napo- 
Aa na caMoonpeAeneHnew* . 

Mw npn3biBaeM BbeTHaMCKoe pyxoBOACTBO caenaTb 
am cnoBa peanbHocTbio bo BbeTHaMe ceroAHH. 



HCTOHHMKM 

' Omeem npaeumeribcmea CPB MexdyHapodnou Aunucrriuu 

(Mapm 1981 e.), onyOnuxoeaH e Uoxnade MA o muccuu eo 

BbemHaue. wo«b 1981 a., c.42. 

' Far Eastern Economic Review. August 6, 1982. 

1 Cm. ewezodHbie Ottrwnu, ny6nuKyeMbie MemdyMapodnou 

AMHUcmueu. 

4 "Kanue npaea we/7oaeifa?». Xanou. 1980, c.86. 

- riepeeod smozc doKyueHma ony6nuKoaan e npunoxenuu k 

doK/iady o npaeax we/7oee«a eo BbemHaue. nodaomoeneHHOu 

CmuBBKOH flHsoM oVth Hbo-WopKcxoO Accou,uau,uu Kjpjcmoe. 

1978 e. 

' Tau me. 

7 Cm. Indochine Newsletter No. 1 (0Kmn6pb 1979 e). 

8 6/10/75 Saigon-Gia Dmh. Komu/ohuko Boennoio VnpaeneHja. 
8 6/20/75 Saigon-Gia Dinh. Komuiohuko Bobhhoio YnpaeneHun 
'" 6/1 1/75 Saigon-Gia Dinh, Komkhohukb Bobhhoio ynpaenemjn. 
' ' H3 ebicmynneHUfi doxmopa Hunxa Ha KOHOpepenu.uu MemdyHa- 
podHou AuHucmuu, cenmnOpb 1982 e. 

'' Omeem npaeumenbcmea CPB MemdyHapodHOu AMHjcmuu. 

(wapm 1981 i). onyfnuxoeaH e Qoioiade MA o muccuu eo 

BbemHBMe. uiOHb 1981 z., c.42. 

" Nguc Tu Lao Dong Vietnam, riapu* 1977. uumupyemcfi 

CmueeHOu Phzom b donnade k Hbio-l4opKCHou Acconuauuu 

lopucmoe 1978 s. 

'' Amnesty International Report 1981 a., p. 272. 

" Al Report on Mission to SRV. p. 9. 

" 3aK0H o KOHmppeeoniouuoHHbix npecmynneHURx. (cmambu 

9.12. 15), nepeoHavanbHo npuHPmbiu npaeumenbcmeoM Ceeep- 

hoso BbemnaMa e 1967e., cman 3Bkohom dru eceeo BbemHBMa 

nocne 1976 a. 

" Mamepuanbi npouecca Had Bu JJuhb Xa ony6nuKoeaHbi e 

npaeumenbcmeeHHOu asaeme Saigon Giai Phong 11. 25 u 26 

uiohh 1981 a. 

" Amnesty International Annual Report 1978. p. 196. 

" TaM me. 

■ MHmepebio c 6bieuiuMu aawi/oweHMbiMu. (CeedeHun o ecex 

38K/iic*ieHHbix, y Komopux Mbi e3fnu UHmepebio npu nodsomoe- 

Ke amoao Mamepuana. coxpaHmomca e maune a uennx ux 

6e3onacHocmu). 

•"' Newsweek. 26 uiohh. 1978 

" Al Report on Mission to SRV, p. 13. 

" Report on the Re-education Camps and Prisons in Vietnam, by 

Dermot Kinlen, June 1981. pp. 4, 6. 

" Kypcbi udeonoauiecKOU o6pa6omKu 6binu onucanbi 6biewuM 

3aK/7fousHHb/M Hao Tpyna Tponaou e eao Heony6nuHoeaHnou 

pyxonucu 'BbemnaMCHuu naaepb nepeeocnumanunii. a maioxe 

6bieuiuM 3aw7ioweHHb(M HayenoM Haox HaanoM e eao *mae 

'Bonn nebec» (Dutton, 1982. p. 123. u tBawunamoh nocm», 4/ 

30/78. «HbK>-fitopK TaCiMCo. 8/29/78 u 3aKnwenHbinu. y xomo- 

pbix Mbi 6panu unmepebio. 

" New York Times. 8/14/81. 

" Report ofAl Mission to SRV. p. 42. 

" Washington Post. 4/30/78. 

28 Nguyen Ngoc Ngan aThe Will of Heaven*, p.112 

" «They Were US. Were We Vietnamese. » by Theodore 

Jacgueney. Worldview. April. 1977 

30 TaM xe. 

" Xobhb Com iflaaepn nepeeocnumaMun u npaea we/7oee«a» e 

KHuae xKaxue npaea we/roae»fa'o. Xanou, 1980. c.97. 

12 Washington Post. April 30. 1978. 

33 Ahohumhoo UHmepebio. 

" Nguyen Chi Thien. nosMa «Tu Chuong Tren Doit. 



4 



KPyTOM MAPUlPyi BbEIHAMA 



69 



" tKaxue npaea *enoeeKa?», Xanou. 1960. c. 99. 

3 - Cm .nanpimep. cmambio itllbimKa zonodOMi Kao Hiok Oyone, 

vnena BbemnaMCKoO 6ydduucKoO muqhou denezauuu e Tlapu- 

xe. Focnoxa <t>yonz cuumaem. vmo numna ao/iodoM Havana 

npuueHPrnbcn e CeeepnoM BbemnaMe yxe c 1 956 e. 

" New York Times . 11/11/76. 2/12/77; Wortdview, April, 1977; 

Christian Science Monitor. 5/4/77. 

38 AHOHUMHoe unmepebio 

" *A Form of Torture: Food Deprivation. » by Cao Ngoc Phuong. 

i0 Washington Post , 4/30/78. 

" Ahohumhoo UHmepebio 

" Tom xe. 

" Report ofAl Mission to SRV. p. 38. 

" Ahohumhoo UHmepebio. 

* Ahohumhoo unmepebio 

" Ahohumhoo unmepebio 

" Ahohumhoo unmepebio 

48 Ahohumhoo UHmepebio 

" The Will of Heaven, pp. 137-142. 

50 Ahohumhoo unmepebio 

" Ahohumhoo unmepebio 

■ The Will of Heaven, pp. 240-246. 

" «Kaxue npaea venoeeKa?». c. 98. 

» The Times. 10/25778. 

" Vl3 ebicmynneHUH doKmopa Huhr Ha KOH<pepeHu,uu Mexdyna- 

podnou Aunucmuu. ceHmnCpb 1982 e. 

x Cm. npuMep maxozo cyde6nozo pa36upamenbcmea « «The 

Will of Heaven* pp. 116-118. 

" <A3 ebicmynnenun doicmopa Huhh Ha KOH(pepenu,uu MexdyHa- 

podnou Aunucmuu. cewnnGpb 1 982 e. 

M New York Times. 8/14/81. 

" Report of Al Mission to SRV. p.14. 

K The Oregonian. 12/6/77; The New York Times 8/14/81. 

" The Oregonian. 12/6/77. 

" Report ofAl Mission to SRV, p 14. 



B Tbm Me 

M «KaKue npaea venoeexa?". c. 81. 

" Coo6uj,enue rocydapcmeennoeo denapmaMenma Kompeccy 

CUJA omnocumanbHO npae venoeeita 2 (peepann 1981 a. 

"Giai Phong, 6/11/75.. 

" Saigon Giai Phong . June 16 & 18. 1975. 

H New York Times. 2/12/77. 

" The Asian Wall Street Journal Weekly . Hong Kong. 6/16/80 and 

6/23/80. 

'" Ahohumhoo unmepebio. 

" Hcnonb3oeaHbi daHHbie, npeoocmaeneHHbie MexdynapodHoO 

AMHucmuu e dena6pe, a tXepMomy Kunneny - e anpene 1 980 i. 

" BQoxnade Memdynapodnou AMnucmuu 1979 a. ymeepxdaem- 

cn, imo wuc/70 nonumuuecKux 3aioiioieHHbix «zopa3do ebiwe». 

weM o0uu.uanbHoe Konunecmeo e 50000. u coo6ujaemcn. wmo. 

no ouenxau unocmpanHbix ucmovHUKoe, Konunecmeo saxnio- 

HOHHbix eo BbemnaMe cocmaeneem «om 50000 do 80000* (Le 

Monde. 4/19/78); 150000 (Router); «om150000 do 200000» 

(Washington Post. 12/20/78) u 300000 (France Presse, 2/12/78). 

" PRGRSV No. 02/CS-76. 

" TaM xe. 

" «KaKue npaea veno69K3?», c. 90. 

" Al Report on Mission to SRV. June 1981. 

" Far Eastern Economic Review. August 6. 1982. 

" PRGRSV No. 02/CS-76. 

" Xoam 6uw Coh. uuHucmp uHOcmpaHHbix den CPB. 

K irflapuxCKoe coenaweHue no BbemHaMy. OcHoenbie iopudu- 

wecifoe npo6neubi». XanoCi. 1973. c. 128 

nepeeod c anznuucKOZo: 
BnadiiMup XOnMOrOPCKMti 



3xeH MOHECKO 



nPOTMBOflflME nPABflbl 



B napHJKCKoii ra3eTe «MoHa» MOXHO nponimTb penop- 
Ta>K cneuHaibHoro KoppecnoHaeHTa 3toh raaem bo BbeTHa- 
Me. Penb Hacr o aarcpax, ho hc KOHueHTpauHOHHbix. a nepe- 
«ocmimaHun B hhx HanpaBaaioTCii h co.iep*aTC» (ittKOTO- 
pwe c iik>hh npouiJioro.l975-ro, roaa)HHH08HHKH 6uBmero 
pe*nMa.o(pHuepbi. M.iaaiuHfi KOMaH.iHWH cocraB. napTH3a- 

HU, aMCpHKaHUbl. 

OTBeTCTBeHHbie ;iniia. mi noBputpanaet KoppecnoH- 

JCHT «M0Ha». yTBep)KjaKDT. HTO B 3TMX C0UHa.1HCTHHeCKHX 

.larepax «oco6oe BHHinaHnc yfleiUHOT TOMy. mto6w He vhh- 

3HTb JOCTOHHCTBO ) !h. I :("1CMH M \ ... nOC.iejHHC *e lipc6blBa- 
K1T B OO.ipOM HaCTpoeHHH H OXOTHO yMaCTByWT B VieOHOM 

npouecce. )K'ypHajTHCT Bpoae 6w i.n.:ita.i Bonpocu laK.nio- 
MeHHMM. Ojhh H3 hhx, o(pHiiep BbicoKoro paHra. OTBewa.1 Ha 
Bonpocw «cbo6ojho» h yneprnjaa, hto aoBo.ieH jtcjiobiumh 
coaep3KaHn». 

3aK^K)MeHHbix. urn cKopee «ocnumye.\tNX, hoo ohh KaK 

6bl H He HB.IMK'H'S l.:K ". IIo'Il'HH l.!MII. B 3THX Mttptt HaCMHTM- 

BaeTCH oko.30 200000. coo6maeT peaaiaop «Mohj». HHTa» 
penopTax mi u m.i i o. i i.im. moskho 3aMeTHTb, mto TaM ecTb erne 
TUCJIM CTO MCJIOBeK. HToro 300000 

fl paccKa3biBaio 06 3toh CTaTie f. C, npHexaBiueMy H3 
TepMaHHH. Oh oTBenaeT, hto b hcmcukoh couHaji-aeMOKpa- 
thmcckoR hjih .loiuui npecce mi.io.i penopTaiKH, mou.6iii.ic 



3TOMy. ja n.iioc k TOMy eme h (poTorpacpHH. Ha KOTopux 
BocnHTyeMbie Bee y.ibi6aioTcn. bhj hmciot 3jopoBbiH h oaeTw 

BCe MHCTO H «JOCTOHHO». 

51 noMHio. KaK bo BpeM* Hoiim.i mu b oKKynnpoBaHHOH 
«t>paHUHH 4HTa.iH OHeHb noxo/KHe penopTa*H h BRASIH Ha 
KapTHHKax H;XiKKTpnpoBaHHux /KypHaaoBToro BpevieHH KOH- 
ueHTpaunoHHbie Jiarepn. b KOTopux 6bUH HHTepHiipoBaHu 
eBpeii h nniinu ConpoTHBJieHim Ha hhx mowho 6uiK) yBH- 
. ic 1 1. HHCTbie i. uiiiiim. napK c line : i»i hi.i vn k.iunVivii h \ i i,i - 
6aK3UlHXCIl 3akVl!OHeHHblX. «ojeTbix hhcto h joctohhoo. 

B nojTBepwjeHHe Toro, hto Bee BbeiHaMuw .loBo.ibHbi, 
mu y3HaeM. hto o(t>HUHa.ibHue UHJSWUTU Hosoro pexmn 
ni.i.111 ii lop.im.i 6ojiee neM 99 npoueHTaMH tojiocob. KaK b 
Pocchh. KaK B TepMaHHH bo BpevieHa HauH3Ma. 

ripoTiiB cpeacTB HHipopsiauHH y nac hct cpeacTB ihth- 
HHi))opMauHH. CoMiieBaTbcs bo BceM ii Bcex no.303peBaTb 
npocTo HeB03MO*HO. B KOHue kohuob. TaK mh Hmie MU 
Bceraa nonaaaeMcn Ha yaoHKy. aa*e ec.iH h ayMaeM. hto ot 
3Toro y Hac ecTb HMMyHHTeT. 

% ucnuTbiBaio MyBCTBO ropbKoro yaoBJieTBopeHHa ot 
Toro. hto hc CTaa :«cp r iu»h ovwa m.i MeaoBeK MO*eT nbiTaTb- 
ca cnpnTaTbca ot TpyaHocTeH, OTnoanHHHOfi 5KH3HH. Ho ecaH 
oh noBepHT, hto Hamea > Kni.i thc 3a npeaeaaMH iip.in.iw. 
3HaHHT, oh nonaa b aoByuiKy h *hbct b i h'pi.vv 

1976 2. 



71 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 



KOHUJlAfEPfl BbETHAMA 




OLUMMMH 



HryeH Hm TbEH 

Bubujmm 3amiiOHeHHbiM KOHunarepn 

OTOBE3bflHbl 
flO MEJIOBEKA, 

OT MEJIOBEKA 
K >K H BOTH OMY 

Ot o6e3bflHbi ao nejioBeKa 

— nyTb B MHJUlWOHbl /ieT. 

Bw AywaeTe, o6paTHuti nyTb - 
TaK >Ke flonro npofrm? 

Ecnn 6 secb Mnp yeiARen 

b flpeMynux A>KyHr/iax BbeTHaMa 

TauHbie KOHunarepn, 

Tfle ro/iwe 3aK/iiOHeHHbie 
myT cnnHbi b tsxkom Tpyfle, 

Tfle rp»3HOM BOfibi He XBaTaeT 
Ha Bcex, mto6u noMbiTbcn, 

ffle no HonaM TepsaioT 

MX Te/ia BUJU W MOCKMTbl, 

Tfle Bosflyx mokp m 3/ioBOHeH, 
rAe Aepyrcn 3a xecTKuCi KopeHb 
u y6bioT - 3a rHM/ioii 6aTaT. 

CKOBaHHbie uensMn. 
H3/iOMaHHwe yaapaMn. 
no npwxoTM 3/io6Hoii oxpaHW 
Tena mx craHyr Ao6bNeft 

B6MHO TOJIOAHblX KpWC. 

Ohm noAo6HN «MBOTHbiM, 

TOJlbKO CJia6bl M HG^OBKM. 

Ot ro/iOAa, mto mx Tep3aeT, 

OHW TOHbUje TpOCTMHKM. 

O, ec/iu 6bi Mnp yBnae/i! 

Ot o6e3bBHbi ao He/iOBena - 
nyTb b MMnnnoHw neT? 

Ho pa3Be bu He 3HaeTe, 
hto b Moeii CTpaHe 
B/iacTb TBopm MyAeca? 



nepeBOA c aHriiHftcKoro: 
B/ibammmp XOJIMOrOPCKMM 



4 KPyTQH MAP01PYT BbETHAMA 



71 



Bcex icpioKOM 3auennnn, no nony npoTamn/in, Bee 3a ctojiu. 3a Ty6apeTbi uennwnncb. Bee mctoujho 
Bonnnn, KorAa Ha /leseHne-TO nx 3a6npa/in... He-e-ei"! — aecKaTb, — He Ha-a-aAa-a-a!.. 

A KaK xe He HaAO-TO — aeAb CKa3aH0: K»nr AOMa He aepxaTb, a kto aepxnT — He npnTaTb, a kto 
npaneT — neHMTb. 

TarbUHa ToncTaa «KbiCb», 2001 r. 



CTMBeH flEHHEI/l 



KYJlbTYPA M PEBOJlK)l4Mfl 

OOMUMAJIbHAFI nOJIMTMKA PEnPECCMM 
B COI4MAJ1HCTMHECKOM PECnYBJlMKE BbETHAM 



3ma cmambft 6bina Hanucana e wweape 1982 aoda 
dnR uadaeaeMoao mhou e mo epeM» un0opMau,uoHHoao 
GiorwemeHR «The Indochina Newsletter». 

Pa3yMeemcn, c mex nop Mnoeoe uaueminocb, ho, 
KaK MHe KaxemcR, 3mom uamepuan npodonxaem coxpa- 
Httmb ucmopuvecKuu unmepec. 

Kax noKa3ano pa3eumue coGbimuu, ycunun KOMMy- 
HucmuvecKux nudepoa CeeepHoao BbemnaMa no «o>4uc- 
mxe* K)aa om «HeoKonoHuanbHoO Kynbmypbi» dunu 06- 
pewe«bi Ha nopa>KeHue. 



Ky/ibTypHan peBoniounn bo BbemaMe - oana H3 
Tpex peBoniou,HH, o kotopux TaKsacTo roBopm BbeTHaM- 
awe KOMMyHncTM'jecKHe nnflepw: peso/nomin b Texnono- 
mM ii npoMwiuneHHocTn, KnaccoBaa peeoniounfl b npon3- 
BOACTBeHHbix OTHOiueHUflx n KynbTypHan peBontouns. 
MapKcucTCKHe nunepw xotht npeBpaTHTb BbeTHaM H3 
cexibCK0xo3flHCTBeHHoro o6mecTBa, ocHOBaHHoro Ha Men- 

KOM npOM3BOflCTBe, B KOnneKTMBHOe o6lL(eCTB0, OCHOBaH- 

Hoe Ha KpynHOM HHAycTpvianbHOM h cenbCKOX038MCTBeH- 
hom npon3BOflCTBe nofl ynpaBneHneM nponeTapnaia. 

HTO6blflOCTMHb3T0iiuenM,Heo6xOflHM0CO3flaTb«HOBOrO 

comianvicTMMecKoro nenoBeKan. KaK c«a3an Xo UJn Mmh 
(Ho Chi Minh). «pf\n CTponTenbCTBa cou.nanncTnyecKoro 
o6mecTBa Heo6xoAHMO wMeTb counanncTHMecKnx nio- 
aert». 

CymecTBywT pa3nnHHbie acneiau KynbTypHO* peao- 
mou.ni/i. KOTopwe MMeraT HenocpeacTBeHHoe OTHoiiienne k 
npo6neMe nonnTH^ecKHxpenpeccnii. Ohm bwhoh3iot kbm- 
naHwio no yHHHTOJKeHMio «HeoKonoHnaribHOM» KynbTypu 
KDra. C03flaHne narepevi nepeaocnuTaHUH. nonmnKy CPB 
e o6nacTM pennrHH. 

B stoh daTbe mu noKaweM, ksk pyKoeoacTBO CPB 
yHMHTOKaeT «HeoKonoHMaribHyK>» KynbTypy KDra. 

nopoc* Ka>KeTcn. hto MapKcucTCKMe nnaepu Bbe™a- 
Ma CMHTawT KynbTypHoe B03aeHCTBne CoeanHeHHux 
IUtbtob b nepMOfl bomhh 6onee onacHWM. neM cpM3MHec- 
rae BOSfleiiCTBue (6oM6e>KKn, ncnorib30BaHne rep6nu.H- 

flOB M T.A-)- 

OflUH 143 MneHOB CoK>3a niicaTenew BbeTHaMa (CI~IB) 
CKa3an, mto b TeneHHe bomhu «MHnnnapau aonnapoe 
6binn noTpaneHbi na Bep6oBKy aBTopoB h nepeBOflHMKOB. 
nySnuKauMK), pacnpocTpaHenne. nMnopT m pa3MH0>t<eHne 
nMTeparypHoro Mycopa m HapKOTMKOB» («K)>4<HbiM BbeT- 



hsm b 6opb6e». u3flaHne CIIB, 30/6/75). Mmhhctp Kynb- 
Typw CPB HryeH BaH Xney (Nguyen Van Hieu) aan cneay- 
iomee onpeaeneHne KynbTypw «HeoKonoHnann3Ma»: 
«3to, nocymecTsy, - aHTMxynbTypa. MHCTpyMeHT arpec- 
cnn b pyKax aMepnKaHCKoronMnepnann3Ma, KOTopan npn- 
MHHHeT He MenbLiJHii Bpea n aawe 6onee onacHa, neM 
aMepuKaHCKMeaencTBUfl b BoeHHbix, nonnTunecKnx n sko- 
HOMMHecKnx o6nacTnx» (Vietnam News Agency, Xa- 
hoh, 14/1/78). 

yHnmo*eHne «aMeptiKaHCKOH HeoKonoHuanbHoti 
KynbTypbi» dano ocHOBHbiM aenoM KOMMyHncTOB nocne 
Toro, KaK ohh 3anHnn Kir BbeTHaMa. B peuiOHunx IV ct»e3- 

fl3 BbeTHaMCKOM KOMMyHMCTMHeCKOM napTMH, COCTOHB- 

Luerocn b 1976 r.. MfleonornnecKSB h KynbTypHan 3aflana 
HOBoro pe)KHMa onncaHa tsk: «...o6yHeHne cou,naraicTn- 
necKOki nAeononiM, 6opb6a c 6ypwya3H0ii naeonorneii h 
odaTKaMn (JjeoaanbHOii naeonornn. KpHTMKa MenKo6yp- 
xya3H0ii nfleonormi n yHMMToxeHMe ennjiHuii naeonornn 
h KynbTypw HeoKonoHnann3Ma Ha KDre». Mu bhahm. mo 

B TO BpCMS K3K apyTMC (pOpMbl MCKOMMyilUCTHHeCKOil 

KynbTypu paccMaipuBaioTCH KaK o6beKT flnn kphthkm. 
KynbTypa «HeoKonoHnann3Ma» noanexMT yHUHTOxeHmo. 
3to noATBepflnri h Xa KcyaH TpyoHr (Ha Xuan Truong). 

3aMMMHMCTpa KynbTypbl M MHCpOpMaUMM CPB, KOTOPblki 

CKa3an: «B to BpeMn kbk. 6opncb c 6ypxya3H0M m cfceo- 
AanbHOii KyribTypaMM. Mb) QOIDKHU npnAaB3Tb 3HaMeHne 
HacneAosaHnio none3Hbix ctopoh stux KynbTyp, to ecTb 
Tex hx acneirroB. KOTopwe 6nn3K0 censaHbi c nKJAtMM. c 
pasBMTHeM HaunH. to eA^HCTBeHHoe, mto mu MO>KeM 
AenaTb c KynbTypoti HeoKonoHnann3Ma, - yHHHTOxnTb. 
noTOMy hto OHa no/inocTbio peaKiiMOHHa» (Tap Chi Cong 
San, XaHoPi, MapT 1978). 

B flencTBHTenbHocTM. oAHaKO. pasnwMMe Me>KAy 
xynbTypoii «HeoKonoHnann3Ma» m APyrHMH cpopMaMM 
HeKOMMyHHCTMHecKOii KynbTypu bo BbeTHaMe HMKorAa He 
6wnoMeTKo onpeAeneHO KOMMyHMCTHHecKMMM anacTSMM. 
HaMMHan c ycTaHoeneHMn KOHTponn HaA KDroM a 1975 r . 
o0nqnanbHoe onpeAeneHne KynbTypu «HeoKonoHnann3- 
Ma» ncnonb30Banocb ana o6bflCHeHnn penpeccMM npo- 
tmb nio6oH HAeonorMHecKOM nnvi Ky/ibTypHOii TeHAeHU.nn. 
He ycTpanBaBiueM npaBHTenbCTBO. 

B nepBbiii >ne AeHb «ocBo6o>KAeHMn» iora BbeTHaMa, 
1 Mas 1975 r.. Komhtct BoeHHoro ynpaBneHHn (KBY) 
BunycTHn KOMMWHMKe. oSbHBnniomee BpeMeHHyto npM- 
ocTaHOBKy pacnpocTpaHeHMB «Bcex bhaob khhp, ra3eT. 



72 



4 



KPACHOE KOilEGO 



>KypHanoe m flpyroro nenaTHoro MaTepnana, Haxoa" mero- 
ch b co6cTBeHHOCTn b TeneHMe nepHoaa bomhw* (Saigon 
Domestic Service, 1/5/75). 

KoMMTeTOM soeHHoro ynpaBneHMs 6binn oprami3o- 
BaHbi MO/ioae>KHbie KOMaHflbi an« KOH^ncKauMn ace* 
«peaKUMOHHOM» nmepaTypbi n ra3eT. OeHOMeHanbHoe 
KonMwecTBo MaTepnanoB 6wno co6paHo b TeneHne ko- 
poTKoro BpeMeHM. HanpuMep, «K)>KHbiM BbeTHaM b 6opb- 
6e» (6/30/75) c ropaocTbio nucan: «B CaftroHe, ToribKo b 
oflHOM paviOHe. MeHbiue neM 3a Heaenio nwAM BepHynn 
482460 3K3eMnnflpOB pa3Bpa™oM JiMTepaTypw m 3000 
KunorpaMMOB peaKUMOHHbix ra3eT, M3flaHHwx BparoM>. 
TaM we 6wn ynoMHHyT oamh khm^hwm Mara3nH e HaTpaH- 
re (Nha Trang). ropoae b uewpanbHOM BbeTHaMe. koto- 
Pwm cflan 35530 «peaKunoHHbix khmd>. Paano Ocbo6o*- 
fleHun Xbhob coo6mnno 30 mkdhh 1975 r., hto >KMTenn 
ropoAa BaK (Bac) o6nacTM J1k> (Lieu) xnepeaann peBO/iK>- 
umohhom aaMMHMCTpauMM 6onee 3000 pombhob m necen- 
hmkob n cothm nnacTMHOK n MarHmo0OHHbix neHT peaic- 
unoHHoro coaep>KaHMfl m naoBMTwx ann MonoaewM*. 

KBV" opraMH30Ban b 1975 roay cneuMa/ibHbiM OTaen 
arm TujaTenbHoro nccneaoBaHun m xnaccMcfciiKauMM KHur, 
pacnpocTpaHeHHbix b nepnoa «MapnoHeTOHHoro pewM- 
Ma». 26 OKT96pn 1975 r. YnpaBneHne BHyrpeHHux aen 
CawroHa coo6iumjio , hto OTaen 3aKOHMnn nepByio CTaanc 
MccneaoBaHMB m «nocne MHorwx Mecouea M3yHeHMfl» 
onpeaenvin «56 aBTopoB n 489 khmp kbk hoco6hmkob 
Bpa>KeCKOH aHTMKOMMyHMCTMMeCKOM ncuxonorMHecKOii 
BOMHWi). 

fie <t>yoHr (Le Phuong), mmhmctp MHCpopMaqnn n 
xyribTypbi BpeMeHHoro PeBoniouMOHHoro npaBHTe/ibCTBa 
lOwHoro BbeTHaMa, B03rnaBMBWMH OTaen, KOTopbiM ic/iac- 
cnqJumipoBan KHurn m apyrne npon3BeaeHnn, o6*>ncHnn 
CMCTeMy KnaccM4)MKauMM b CTaTbnx, ony6/im<OBaHbix b 
caiiroHCKOM ra3eTe «Giai Phong» 21 h 22 SHBapa 1976 r. 

ny6nnKau.nn m apyrwe npon3BeaeHn$! KynbTypu. 
MMeBUJMecfl Ha tore BbeTHaMa nepea «ocBo6o)KaeHMeM», 
6binn pa3aeneHbi Ha luecTb KaTeropMH. rtepawe aoe xa- 
Teropnn: A - otkpwto anTMKOMMyHMCTMMecKMe m npoaMe- 
pHKancKMe npoM3BeaeHnn h B - «npon3BeaeHM«, HBnnK)- 
mnecsi npoBOKauMOHHbiMM m naoBMTbiMM, nooiapaiomMe 
ynaaHHHOCKHM pacnymeHHbivi o6pa3 >km3hm, BOCXBansio- 
WMe npecTynneHHB m pacoByw aHCKpMMMHaunio*. - 6binn 
no/iHOCTbK) sanpeiaeHbi. 



no cnoBaM OyoHra, «cpaKTHHecKM Bee khm™ b nep- 
bom cnMCKe 3anpeu4eHHbix KHur. HeaaeHO o6HapoaoBaH- 
hom MMHHCTepcTBOM MHQ>opMaunM m KyfibTypw. npMHaa- 
ne)KaT k KaTeropuHM A m B». 

KaTeropua C 6bina onpeaeneHa kbk «npon3Beae- 
hmh. BBoanuine b 3a6nyx<aeHMe, Bbi3biBaioujMe OTpMLia- 
TenbHbie. HepeanncTn^Hbie m anTMBoeHHwe Mbicnu. CMe- 
ujuBaioujue npaBMnbHoe m HenpaannbHoe m TeM ao>o>eK- 
thbho noMoraioiane MMnepnanncTaM». OHa BKriKJHana 
«weriTbie (ocmpadnbie - npuM. nep.) necHM. poMaHTunec- 
KMe noaMbi. MpanHbie ceHTMMeHTaribHbie poMaHbi, mcto- 
Phu o npn3paKax. a Taxxe npon3BeaeHnn, HanncaHHbie c 
cpeoflaribHOi* n MenK06yp>Kya3H0M ToneK 3peHnn. npon3- 
BeaeHun, pacnpocTpaHflK3u^ne CKenTMUM3M m OTaneKaio- 
inne ot KOHKpeTHOvi pa6oTw, 6opb5bi h T.fl.». 

Jle OyoHr peKoweHaoBan, HTo5bi KHurn KaTeropnn C 
6binn BwiKweHbi b onepeaHOM cnncoK 3anpeuieHHbix ny6- 
nuKaunii, ho «KaTeropnn C aonwHa 6wTb orpaHMseHa 
oneHb BpeanbiMM KHHraMM. KOTopwe nannioTCfl 6nn3KHMn 
k KHMraM KaTeropuM A m B. n Bonpoc o Bcex apyrux 
npoM3BeaeHnnx npoujnoro. He HMeioujHX npnuioro otho- 
uieHnq KflekiCTBiiTeribHOCTM. aonweH n3ysaTbcn m 6yaeT 
pemeH no3aHee». 

Hn»e Mbi yBnaMM, mto ny5nnKaunM KaTeropuM C m 
acTpaaHwe necHu cTanw o6beKT3Mn npecneaoBaHkin pe- 
WMMa b nocneayiooine roaw. 

KaTeropnn D 6bina cocTasneHa v\3 «none3Hwx» ny6- 
nuKauuM, He aHTHKOMMyHMCTunecKHx utim HenpacTotiHbix, 
ho TaKxe n He noaaepwuBaiotanx 6opb6y c CUJA b nepnoa 
boAhw. 

npon3BeaeHHH xaTeropnn E «MMeioT peanncTHMec- 
Koe. KpMTMHecKoe coaep>KaHne, m xots orpaHnnenbi no 
npMHHHe a6crpaKTHoro naeariM3Ma, ho ueHHw b ocyx<ae- 
hmm cpeoaanbHbix KonoHnanncTOB n npecTynneHHU CTa- 
poro pe>KMMa» 

Jle OyoHr CKa3an, mto KaTeropMn D n E MMeKiT HeKO- 
Topwe OTpnuaTeribHbie ctopohw, ho mowho pa3peainTb 
hm apeMeHHO odaBaTbcs b o6pameHnn 

HayJHblM, TeXHMMeCIOlM H MHOCTpaHHbIM KHMraM M 

KHMraM. MMeomMM aeno «MCK/iiomiTe/ibHO c periMrMeM. 
Tuna MoriMTBeHHMKoa, TeonorM^ecKMx khmd), mo>kho tbk- 
)kb no3BonMTb BpeMeHHo L|npKynMpoBaTb. riMcan OyoHr. 
no MHeHMK) <6yoHra. KSTeropMS F - caMbie nysujMe 
npoM3BeAeHnn, noTOMy hto ohm MMeiOT «HaqMOHanbHo- 






Bofus Pastbknak 




Doctor 

Zhii/a^o 



3anpemeHHt>ie eo Bbenwaue kbk xaHmuKouuyHucmu^ecKue u npoauepu><aHCKue» 
khuzu nucameneu-naypeamoe HoCeneecxou npeuuu. 



4 



KPyiUH MAPUlPyT BbETHAMA 



73 



fleMOKpaTmecKoe coaep>K3Hne, noflflepwuBatoT ocbo6o- 
flMTenbHyio 6opb6y m 6binn cosflaHti aBTopaMn w xyflow- 

HMKaMU B M3CCOB0M flBHJKeHHM K OCB060)KAeHHIO». 

Xo TpyoHr Ah (Ho Truong An), BbeTnaMCKMii nuca- 
Tenb, paSoTaBUJMJi b OTflene, B03rnaB/ineMOM fie OyoH- 
roM. onucan cwcTeMy KnaccMOpnKau.nn b ciaTbe, KOTopan 
nosiBHnacb b noHflOHCKOM ny6nMK3u.Hn wypHana «flocbe 
naueH3ypy» (Index on Censorship) (wonb-aBrycT 1978). 

B KaTeropnio A, ocy>KfleHHbie KaK SHTMKOMMyHHCTH- 
MecKne. 6bmn BK/iiOMeHbi nponsBeaeHnq MHOCTpaHHbix 
aBTopo8, tskmx. kbk: AHflpe >Kha (Andre Gide), Bopnc 
(lacTepHaK, Bhpa*mji Teoprny (Virgil Georghiu)*. ApTyp 
Kecmep (Arthur Koestler),AneKcaHflpCon>«eHMUbin,riep/i 
BaK (Pearl Buck)** n Bt>eTnawcKne aBTOpbi HryeH MaH Koh 
(Nguyen Manh Con), floaH Kyox Cbi (Doan Quoc Sy ),HraeM 
KcyaH XoHr ( Nghiem Xuan Hong), By KxaK XoaH (Vu Khac 
Khoan), Hxa Ka (Nha Ca), BaH KBaHr ( Van Quang), flbeH 
Ah (Duyen Anh), HxaT TyaH (Nhat Tuan), fie Kxanr (Le 
Khanh). Hro Khm Ty (Ngo Kim Thu) h flpyrne. 

B KaTeropmoB(ynaflHHHecKnenpon3BefleHnn)BKJiKj- 
neHbi KHurn tskhx MHOCTpaHHbix asTopoB. KaK reHpn 
Munnep (Henry Miller), 3nna Ka33H (Elia Kazan), cDpaHcy- 
33a CaraH (Francoise Sagan), KpucTHHa Poiudpop 
(Christiane Rochefort)***, fl. I~. floypeHC (D.H. Lawrence), 
3pcKHH Konayann (Erskin Caldwell). repMSH recce 
(Hermann Hesse), «m aBTopw, npHHaAnewamne k sk3hc- 
TeHunanncTCKOM LUKone bo OpaHu.nn: >KaH-no/ib Capip 
(Jean-Paul Sartre), Chmohb BoByap (Simone Beauvoir), 
A/ib6epT KaMio (Albert Camus)». 

Cpeflu BbeTHaMCKnx aBTopoe, BbiAeneHHbix b 3Ty 
KaieropnK), 6wna «rpynna aBTopoB wypHans "CaHr Tao' 
(Sang Tao)». «CaHr Tao» - nuTepaTypHoe o6o3peHne, 
opraHH30BaHHoe b 1 956 roay Man Tao (Mai Thao) BMecre 

C apyrMMH BbBTHaMCKHMM aBTOpaMM. TaKMMM. K3K HryeH 

Cw Te (Nguyen Sy Te), flosH KyoK Cw (Doan Quoc Sy). By 
XaKXoaH (Vu Khac Khoan), Tpan TxaHb Xnen (Tran Thanh 
Hiep), Txanr TaM TioeH (Thanh Tarn Tuyen) n Xw OaHb 
(Huy Oanh), nHTepecoBasiunMncR HOBbiMu tpi-nococpcKM- 
mm TenenMAMM Ha 3anaae. tskhmh, KaK3K3ncTeHunann3w 
n HOBbiii ryMaHM3M. Ohm npecneAOBanncb KOMMyHHCTH- 
necKUM pewnMOM, KOTopwPi o6bhhh/i wx b OTpsB/ienHM 
yMOB. B tom. mto, nponaraHjupyo MHOCTpaHHbie Cpuno- 
codjciuie LUKonbi, ohm 3acTaBn«nn ntofleii 3a6bin> peBo- 
niouMOHHbM ayx. aawe ecnn npn stom cawn aBTopw 
otkpwto He BWCTynanH npoTUB peBoniouMM. 

KaTeropun C, poMaHTMMecKne npon3BefleHH«i, bkjiio- 
nana khh™ tskhx nHOCTpaHHbix aBTopoB. ksk 3pm Curan 
(Erich Segal)****, CoMepceT Mosm (Somerset Maugham) 

n Po6epT HaTaH (Robert Nathan) , a TatoKe khm™ 

aBTopoe XIX Bexa: AnexcaMfipa fliowa. AnbcpoHcaJlaMap- 
thhs, PeHe LUaTo6pnaHa. >Kopx< CaHA h Teocpunfl ToTbe. 
BbeTHaMCKne aerapbi b 3tom KaTeropnn 6wnn npeflCTas- 
neHbi tbmm, kto BocneBan KpacoTy npnpoAbi m poMaHTuxy 
yyBCTB, noAo6HO Aonr Xo (Dong Ho). BaHr Ba Jlany (Bang 
Ba Lan), Bkdm Kxbh flsHy (Bui Khanh Dan), MoHr TtoeTy 
(Mong Tuyet), flao BaH KxaHio (Dao Van Khanh), Kbio 
XyoHry (Quy Huong), (OneH XyoHry (Uyen Huong), TK>e 
Hra (Tue Nga) n Hio XneHy (Nhu Hien). 

KaTeropun D BKniOMsna b ce6n pa6oTw no dJunoco- 
dpnti m pennrnM. 

npon3BeaeHHH, nepeHMcneHHbie b KaTeropusix A n B, 
6binn HSMTM enacTHMM Ha paHHMX CTaflHnx Ky/ibTypHOii 
peBoniounn Ha KDre BbeTHaMa. 



llo3flHee npon3BeAeHnn, oTHeceHHbie k KaTeropnn 
C, oco6eHHO «wenTafi» My3biica, CTann aicrnBHO npecne- 
AOBaTbca pokhmom. My3biKa KpnTuxoBanacb BnacTHMM. 
noTOMy mto, Kax cnnTanocb, nBnnnacb anonnTHMHoii, 
BwpaiKaiouieM ABOMCTBeHHoe OTHoaieHne, outyoteHne «nc- 

KyCCTBO AJ"lf MCKyCCTBa» 

My3biKa B0o6me CMHTanacb noBOflOM arm rpycTn, 
«necHeM noTepsHHoii nio6Bn», 3acTaBnHK3ujeM cnyojaTe- 
nefi CMOTperb Ha KM3Hb c MenaHxonneM, BMecro Toro 
hto6w BMfleTb nosnTMBHbie AeiiCTBMn napTMM. TaKan 

My3blKa CnyjKMT TOMy, MT06bl «C03AaTb aHTarOHH3M Me>K- 

Ay HHflMBMAyyMOM m xonneKTMBOM, mto nocTeneHHO BeAeT 
k neccnMM3My a HeyAOBneTBopeHHOCTM u b KOHeHHOM 
cneTe k onnosuLiMM KonneKTMBy» [«XaHOki TxaHb HneH» 
(Hanoi Thanh Nien), uto/ib-aBrycT 1980 r.]. 

O0nmianbHyK3 TOMKy 3peHnsi Ha acTpaflHyto MyauKy 
BwpasMna 1>aM TweH (Pham Tuyen) (u3eecmHan ebem- 
HaMCKan neeuua - npuM. nep.), KOTopan nwcana, mto 
My3biKa «co3AaeT BcnyujaTenax nyBCTBO KpacOTbi, 6e33a- 
6othoctm, He cBA3aHHoe c KaKHMn-nn6o nonnTtmecKHMM 
nflesMn; no cyujecTBy, 3to rnnHOTM3npyeT cnyujaTenew m 
OTBneKaeT ot npo6neM HauHonanbHOM m KnaccoBon 6opb- 
6bi» (TaM )Ke) CMeBnaHo. mto « )KeriTan My3biKa» nanneT- 

Cfl OMeHb UJUPOKMM TepMHHOM, HpHMCHMMblM K nK36blM 

CTunsiM MysbiKM, KOTopue He BOCXBsnnKJT npsBnmyio nAe- 
onorHio. TaKOBWMM HB/inioTca, no cnoBaM TioeH, «Bce 
eBpone^CKoe m aMepuxaHCxoe 6eccTbiflCTBO b Bbipa>Ke- 
hmm MyecTB, ncnojib30B3Hne aneMeHTOB My3biKM cpeo- 
AanbHoro o6iyecTBa, npoHM3aHHoro Bpa>KAe6HbiM penn- 
rwo3HbiM aypManoM n c^assmero 6ora». 

«ripoBoi4iipoBaHMe cexcyanbHtix >KenaHHM - bot mto 
xapaiaepn3yeT Bee stm CTspwe necHH», - nnujeT as/iee 
d>3M TioeH. H A3>Ke pennrM03Ha« My3WKa: «Oahm [necHu] 
noceameHbi My)KCKOM w >KeHCKO(i tpn3nonornn. AOBonbHO 
abho onucbiBaoT paAOCTHbie MyBCTBa m npn8neKaTenb- 
Hwe oco6eHHOCTM jkbhlahh. flpyrne 6onee ocTopo>KHbi m 
MHoraa fl3*e ynoMUHSKjT Tocnofla, CosAaTenn. BOCKpe- 
ujeHne n T.fl., ho hx nupuKs n MSHepa. b kotopom ohm 
McnonH»K)TCfi, BO36y>«Aai0T BpeflHbie ceKcyanbHbie nyB- 
ctb3». BpeflHbie -Ana koto? 

KsMnsHMfl ycTpaHeHHn KynbTypw «HeoKonoHMann3- 
Ma» MMena orpannMeHHbiiii ycnex, nocKonbxy MHorne BbeT- 
HaMUbi, b tom MMcne m wnBiune Ha Cesepe, n A3>xe 
KaApoBbie napTpaBoTHMKM Haxoannn sanpemeHHyio Kynb- 
Typy 60/iee npuBnexaTeribHOM, hbm xynbTypy, noAAep- 
)K3HHyK) npaBMTenbCTBOM. 3anpemeHHt>ie npon3BefleHnn 
MacTO OKa3biBanncb b pyKax huhobhmkob m conaaT, koto- 
pwe, B03BpaotaHCb hs CeBep, 6psnn mx c co6oii. 

y>Ke 15 AeK36pfl 1975 r. nosBMnscb CTSTbn b «Ky3H 
Aoii Hbh fl3H» (Qusn Doi Nhsn Dsn), odpuqusnbHOM 



■] Bupdmun reopiuy (1916-1992) - pyMbiHCicuu <ppam<o- 
n3bNHbiu nucamerib. c 1948 a. xun eo Qpamwu. c 1963 a. - 
npaeocnaeHbiu cbruishhuk. 

") riepn Ban (1892-1973) - auepuKaMCKan nucamenbmma. 
naypeam Ho6eneeci<ou npeuuu 3a 1938 a. 

'") KpucmuHa Poui<pop(191 7-1998) - <bpaHuy3CKan nuca- 
menbnuua-<peuuHucmKa. 

"") 3puK Cuaasi (p. 1937) - auepuKaHCKuQ nucamerib. 
aamop noeecmu «Hcmopup nio6eu». 

■mmj p g p m H*man (1894-1985) - auepuKanCKuu no3m u 
Hoeennucm. 



74 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 




«nnr»isfi\«i..M(*t»fc«:t 

Erich 
SEgAL 

Love 





Khusu. npu3HanHbie *ynadmjvecKuuu. ompaanaiomuMu co3Hanue u omeneKaioiMUuu om mpyda u 6opt>6bi». 



apMencKOki ra3eTe. H3AaBaeMOii b XaHoe, B03MymeHHo 
iincaBiiian o rpynne mophkob. KOTopue. B03Bpawancb r 
flPB. B3nnn c co6oii HeraTopwe sanpemeHHwe KHurw n 
My3biKa.nbHbie 3anncn 

HeM LUkipe TpaKToaanocb noH«Tne sanpemeHHOM 
KynbTypbi, TeM aKTHBHee npaBHTenbCTBO Hapamnaano 
KaMnamuo no ee yHMHTOweHwo. 

HanpuMep, 1 anpena 1976 r. KynbTypHO-kiH$opMa- 
unoHHoe ynpaBfieHne b XoiuuMMHe (paHee - CauaoH - 
npuM nep ) Bbinycrwno pacnopnxceHne. Tpe6yK>mee ot 

M3flaTenbCTB, KHMWHWX Mara3MHOB M yilMMHblX KHMrOTOp- 

roBLiea npeKparnTb pexnaMy n npoaawy Bcex Knur, raseT 
m hhwx npon3Beaennii KynbTypw, onygnnKOBaHHbix flo 30 
anpena 1975 r 

C SToro MOMeHTa KHHWHwe MaraaMHw flonxcHw 6binn 
nonynaTb cneu,nanbHoe paapeiueHne Ha aeaTenbHocTb 
[«Saigon Giai Phong» («OcBo6ox<AeHHWM CafiroH»), 4/4/ 
76; Taxxe coo6meHO AreHCTBOM France Presse b «New 
York Times*. 4/4/76]. 

riocne rofla npasneHnsi BpeMeHHoro npaBmenb- 
ctb3 K)x<Horo BbeTHaMa (cfcaKTHHecKn ynpaenneMoro 
CeBepoM) BbeTHaM 6bin 0(pnqnanbHo noeTopHO o6\,e,ou- 
HeH no MToraM tfeopManbHwx Bbi6opoB. npoeeAeHHwx 25 
anpenn 1976 r., m cran Ha3biBaTbca «Cou,nanncTMHecKan 
Pecny6nnKa BbeTnaMx. 

JleroM Toro we roAa HaunoHanbHoe co6paHne npo- 
aeno cbok) nepByw ceccwo. HryeH KoHr XoaH (Nguyen 
Cong Hoan)*, yHacTBOBaBWHM e «Bbi5opax» 1976 r. k3k 
KaHflnaaT ot L(eHTpanbHoro BbeTHaMa, 6wn nnenoM Ko- 
MMTeTa KynbTypbi HauuoHanbHoroco6paiinq c hioha 1976 
flo CBoeii OTCTaBKM b MapTe 1977. riocne OTcraBKM oh 
paccK33an penopTepy «New York Times» (18/5/77) o 
CBoeia pa6oTe AenyTaTa HauMOHanbHoro co6paHn«. 

Koht Xoan paccKa3an, hto pyKOBOflCTBO KoMHTeTa 
KynbTypw 6bino o6ecnoKoeHO pacnpocTpaHenneM Kynb- 
Typbi «HeoKonoHnann3Ma» Ha Cesep n npmuno k 3aKnio- 
HeHwo, hto nocKonbKy KynbTypa K)ra BbeTHaMa 6wna 
nonHOCTbio npo3anaflHOii, to OHa Aon*Ha 6biTb nMKBMAH- 

poeaHa. 



') HeyeH Kona Xoan (1903-1977) - nucamonb. odun U3 
podonauanaHUKoa ebemHaucKou peanucmuveCKOu npo3bi. 



KaTOMy MOMeHTy Bee ceMbu Ha (Ore nonyMnnn pac- 
nopflweHnn. b kotopwx Tpe6oBanocb npeACTaBHTb non- 
Hbie cnncKM cbomx AOMaujHMx 6n6nnoTeK MecTHOMy komm- 
TeTy napTMM. Mto6w M36ex<aTb aToro, paccKa3biaan XoaH, 
MonoAbie nioAn nepeAaaann khmtw, KOTopwe ohm xoienn 
coxpaHHTb. TeM cbomm Apy3bHM. poAHTenn kotopwx 6binn 
napTniiHbiMM (pyHKquoHepaMn, Haaeacb, hto stm aoMa He 
6yflyT o6bicKMBaTbcn. 

ripuBneKaTenbHOCTb 3anpeTHoii KynbTypw He Tonb- 
ko cpeAH MonoAe>Kn, ho m b ceBepHbix apMewcKMx MacTiix 
npofloniKana co3AaeaTb npo6neMbi a^" npaBHTenbCTBa. 
CTaTbn b «Quan Doi Nhan Dan» 14 aerycTa 1977 r. 
*anooanacb Ha «onacHyio sapasy » b HecKonbKnx ceBepo- 
BbeTHaMCKnx apMeiicKnx nacTqx. pasMeuaeHHbix Ha tore 
BbeTHaMa. OTMenanocb, hto «bo MHornx hbctax MMenncb 
cnynan HTeHna BpeflHbix KHur, npocnyiunBaHMn npoBOKa- 
Umohhom My3uKM mhh noApawaHnfl oTCTanoMy o6pa3y 
>km3hh». . flpyran cTaTbn b tom x<e HOMepe apMeiicKoii 
ra3eTw cooSujana, hto oflHa apMeiicKan nacTb «BbinonHn- 
na ocmotp oBopyaoBaHMB b AByx Ka3apMax n kohcJjmcko- 
Bana 119 peaKUMOHHbix, ynaAHMHecxnx khut. Oahh con- 
AaT nMen 84 3anncn KsnTOA My3biKM». 

ApMMfl. Hapflfly c cunaMM 6e3onacHocTn m Monoae- 
x<bio, opraHM30BaHHofi b 6oeBbie OTpnAtx. Ofalfla OTBeT- 
CTeeHHa 3a kohcphck3ijmio 3anpeuteHHbix npon3Beaennii 
KynbTypw. 

7 MapTa 1978 r. caiiroHCKafl ra3eTa «Tah 3aH» (Tin 
Sang) ony6nnxoBana peiueHiie caflroHCKofi MyHHL|nnanb- 
Hoii nocTOflHHOti napTMMHOM komhccmm (MnnK) o «Hana- 
ne MHOx<ecTBa KaMnaHMii» c TeKyiyero MOMeHTa m ao 
KOHi4a 1978 r., «npn3BaHHwx peujuTenbHO HanaaaTb m 
yHMHTOJKMTb cneAw HeoKonoHnanbHoii KynbTypbi)). 

PeiueHMe npuseano k npoBeAenMio BdpeM c Mono- 
Aewbw b ujKonax n yHMBepcuTeTax, «mto6w KpMTMKOBaTb 
h rny6oKO aHann3npoBaTb onacHwii ha 3tom ynaAHMHec- 

KOM M peaKUMOHHOM KynbTypbi*. 

MnnK npn3Bana k co3AaHnro «KynbTypHwx apMewc- 
khx nacTeii, npn Mcnonb30Bannn aKTMBHoii MonoAe>Kn us 
OKpecTHwx AepeBeHb, npeAnpuHTHti n T.n. Ann nononHe- 

HMfl 3TMX peBOniOUMOHHblX KynbTypHWX apMeMCKMX eAw- 

hmu». ffloTOKHbl MMeTbcn oamh nnn ABa B3BOAa b KawAOM 
OKpyre. c jkcctkhmh Tpe6oBaHnnMM m cooTBeTCTByKju4M- 
mm nonHOMOHMHMH Ann iioOnionOllHn, KOHTpona <a o6ec- 
neH6Hnq HeMeAneHnoro HanoMHHaHHn niOA^M o hobom 
KynbTypHOM o6pa3e >km3hm». 



4 



KPYTOM MAPUIPYT BbETHAMA 



75 



Ochobhom uenb(0 3Toi/iKaMnaHnw6binoB03flekicTBne 
Ha Monofloe noxoneHMe. 

BepoflTHO. MapKcucTCKne nnflepu cna6o Haaesnucb 
Ha to, hto CMoryr onucTMTb yMbi m aywM CTsptuero noxo- 
neHHH, sbipociuero b HeKOMMyHMCTunecKoii xynbiype. Ho 
ohm 6binn MpeaBbiuaiiHo o6ecnoxoeHbi Bosneiir.TRneM 
3anpemeHHOii xynbTypw Ha Tex, kto poc b ycnoBMHx cou,m- 
anncTMnecKoro o6mecTBa 06 stom cBwaeTeTibCTByeT 
ony6nnKOBaHHan b «Thh 3aH» 16 aexa6pfl 1978 r. peaax- 
MMOHHan 33MeTKa, noflnncaHHan «l"opoacxoM >KMTenb»: 

«Ecnn HenoBex nponMTaH onpeaeneHHOM xynbTy- 
poii, eMy oneHb TpyaHO pe3Ko oTxasaTbcn ot Hee. flawe 
ecnn oh numeH bo3mo>khoctm ycnbiiuaTb CTapyro necHio, 
to oh ace paBHO 6yaeT noMHHTb ee omghb Aonro CTapan 
necHn yMnpaeT TO/ibxo Toraa. xoraa ee hmkto ywe He 
noMHMT h He MoweT cneTb. H Han6onee BaxcHMM tpaxTop b 
aocTWKeHnn stom ue/iM - HenoBeK. cnyiuaioiuMM 3Ty My- 
3biKy . Ectim mw OTBepmeM necHio, noTOMy hto CHMTaeM ee 
ynaflHHHecKOrt, n ecnn hmxto ne CTaneT ee cnywaTb. 
necHn He cMoweT >KHTb aonro, aaxe ecnw ee KTo-Hn6yab 
6yaeT neTb. OaHaKO sto BepHO TonbKO b oTHOweHnw 
B3pocnbix, 3pexibix nioflePi, yMeroianx caMOCTonTenbHO 
MbicnuTb. Cno>KHeec noapocTKaMM n MonoaewbK). Ynaa- 
HunecKne necHM, McnonHneMwe aeHb 3a aneM, cunbHO 
B03aeiicTByK)T Ha 3tm B03pacTHbie rpynnw. lloaTOMy koh- 
cfcMCKauMH m sanpeT Ha pacnpocTpaHeHne 3anncePi ynaa- 

HUHeCKOti My3blKK Heo6xOaHMbl. HT06bl 3aiUHTHTb HMCTbie 

ayiun Hameii MonoaewM. noapocTKOB m aeTeii n aaTb mm 

B03MO)KHOCTb C TOTOBHOCTbK) npMHHTb nporpeCCHBHyK) 

KynbTypy n My3WKy HauieM Haunw w apyrux counarMCTw- 
MeCKMX CTpaH». 

B pea/ibHOCTn aocTMweHue stom qenn OK33anocb 
BecbMa TpyaHOM 3aaaneM ann xoMMyHMCTMnecxoro pewa- 
ina. 

B CTaTbe TaH Ahb (Than An) «Khmtm, c6nBaioL4ne c 
nyTM», ony6nnK0BaHHOH s «Tah 3aH» 28 ceHTn6pn 1978 
r.. aBTop c B03MymeHneM onucbiBan KjHOwy. cuanmero 
cpeflu apy3eii n HMTaiomero KHury : « KaKy kj ywacnyK) Bemb 
OHMHTaeT. 3a6bie 060 sceM BOKpyr? 3ia ToncTao. pacTpe- 
naHHan, M3oapaHHafl KHura hbho npoweawan nepes mho- 
rwe pyKM, - pombh, Ha3BaHne KOToporo n He xony Haau- 
BaTb, noTOMy hto oho hcho yxa3WBaeT Ha naoBHToe n 
ynaflHMMecKoe coaepwaHwe m 3ribie HaMepeHun asTopa». 
flanee TaH Ah cnpaiunBaeT: «noneMy sto b to BpeMfl, 
Koraa 6onbwnHCTBO naiunx Monoawx nwaeii CTpeMHTcn 
cTaTb cunoPi anoxn a oTaaTb cbom noT n KpoBb Ha 6naro 
poawHbi. ace eiue MMeeTCfl HeKOTopoe Konn^ecTBO (xotct 
h Mpe3BbwaMH0 Marioe) 6e3aenbHHK0B, paBHoayuJHbix K 
)km3hm o6mecTBa, nmymux yaoBonbCTBMe b npuKniOHeH- 
MecKnx, no6oBHbix n cxaHaanbHbix KHurax, aaBHO BuCpo- 
uieHHbix Ha csariKy ncTopnn?» 

BbeTHaMUbi npoaon)Kann Haxoa^Tb cnoco6w o6oh- 
tm npaenTeribCTBeHHbie orpaHMMeHMfl m HacnaxcaaTbca 
3anpeiaeHH0ii KynbTypovi. 06 stom CBnaeTenbCTByeT, Ha- 
npuMep, pacnopfl)KeHMe no 1 -My OKpyry XoiiiHMUHa, ony6- 
nuKOBanHoe b «Thh 3aH» 31 aHBapn 1978 r., sanpemaa- 
uee ncnonb30B3Hne mtih npoaa>Ky «ynaflHMMecKMX m pe- 
aKunoHHwx TOBapoB». Oho yxa3biBano, hto «b MecTax, 
rae ocymecTBnneTcn npoaaxo MarnnTocpOHOB h 3anncefi, 
ann npoBepxn pa6oTbi o6opyaoBaHnn aon>KHa ncnonb30- 
BaTbCn TonbKO peBoniOLinoHHafl My3bixa, He HapyujaK)- 
maa o6mecTBeHHoro nopnaxa (sto TaoKe xacaeTcn Kacpe 



m pecTopaHOB)». B pacnopsuKeHnn TaoKe CK33ano, hto 
KHapymnTenw 6yayr CTporo npecneaoBaTbcn no cyay M 
hm 6yaeT npeabfleneHo o6BHHeHne b «npeaHaMepeHHOM 
pacnpocTpaHeHMM ynaannHecKnx m peaxLinoHHbix TOBa- 
pOB, OTpaenstooinx yMbi moae* it pa3DyiiiaK)LLiMx coun- 
anbHbiii nopa.aoK n Miip» 

flpyraa CTaTbn b «Thh 3aH» (16 aexa6pa 1978 r.) 
npuBoa-ina npMMep Toro, xax HexoTopwe BbeTHaMUbi mc- 
nono30Bann ocpMquaribHyio nonMTuxy penpeccnii an* 
nonyHeHMB 3anpeujeHHbix My3bixanbHbix xacceT. 

B CTaTbe paccKa3biBanocb, xax HexoTopwe rpynnw 
Monoae>KM, BbiaaBaBujue ce6n 3a OTpnaw, nocnaHHbie 
ynpaaneHneM xy/ibTypbi n nHcpopMaunn, coBepujann Ha- 
6ern Ha Mara3MHw n xacpe. n3biMasi 3anwcM 3anpemeHH0H 
«ynaaHnnecKoii» MysuKH, Tax we xax m «nporpeccnBHOM» 
My3WKn, «TeM caMbiM nuiuan KOHCjjMCKaunK) CMbicna». 

CTaTbs B «Thh 3an»OT 26 anpenn 1978 r , HanncaH- 
Han ee peaaiaopoM Hro KoHr flyxoM (Ngo Cong Due) 
rmcaBtuMM noa ncesaoHMMOM Ty 5beH Tpoii (Tu Bien 
Troi), B03Myiaanacb TeM, hto nemvt BbeTHaueu Bbi6pacbi- 
Ban CTapbie kmhth. HOTbi n nnacTMHKn b MycopHbie 6aKM 
BMecra Toro HTo6t>i nepeaaTb mx BnacTnM «HecKO/ibK0 
ManeHbKuxaeTevi, >khblumx no coceacTBy, BWTaianfin HOTbi 
M3 Mycopa n pa3Becnnn mx no BceMy oxpyry; sto 6bino 
y>KacHo!» B CTaTbe OTMenanocb, hto «HeKOTopbie rpa>x- 
aaHe npoaorwaioT ncxaTb cnoco6u CKpbiBaTb m coxpa- 
HqTb CTapbie ynaaHnnecxne rnacTUHxn nrin CTSpue poMa- 
Hbi, Haaencb ncnonb30B3Tb nx noaanee. fleBOHxa-KSTo- 
nMHxa B oaHOM M3 oxpyroB npaTana MHOwecTBO peaKUMOH- 
hwx h ynsaHMMecKMX H3aaHMM m TaiiKOM npeaocTSBrwna 
mx apysbflM, roBopn, hto sto ana HccneaoeaHnnx. B 
CTSTbe roBopunocb, hto rpswaaHe He floracHbi caMOCTon- 
rciibHO QKuraTb nnn Bbi6pacbiBaTb «peaKUMOHHbie m ynaa- 
HMHecKne» n3aaHnn, a aon>KHbi nepeaaBaTb nx MeCTHbW 
BnacTHM, KOTopt>ie onpeaenBT, nMetoT nn usaanun iieH- 

HOCTb «aflf MCCrieaOBaHMfl» MTlHaO/WKHbl 6blTb0TnpaBTie- 

Hbi b nepepa6oTKy, «KaKCbipbeann 6yMan<Horonpon3Boa- 

CTB3». 

3anpeiaeHHt>ie npon3BeaeHns ncKycc-ea npoaonwa- 
jim pacnpocTpaHATbcn no BceM CTpsHe b TeneHMe cneay- 
omux HecxonbKMx neT - m Ha Ceeepe, h na MDre Tom 
BpeMeHeM skohommks crpaHfal npoaonwans yrpo>Kaioiae 
naaaTb, npMBoan MMnnMOHbi BbeTHaMueB hs rpaHb rono- 
aa. HTo6bi npeoaoneTb 3Ty TeHaeHumo m nonwTaTbCP 
cnacTM nono>«eHMe, pewwM ocenbto 1979 roaa 3aMeannn 
npouecc xonneKTMBMsauuM m pa3peujM/i BoccTsnoBneHMe 
Menxoro hscthoto 6M3Heca. 

B aono/iHeHne x 3T0My rpsxaaHe. aMnrpMpoBaeujMe 
M3 K3>KHoro BbGTHaMa. nonyMwiu B03MO>KH0CTb npMcw- 
nsTb poacTaeHHMxsM b CPB 6o/ibWoe xonMnecTBonoasp- 

KOB M BemeM, HeKOTOpwe M3 KOTOPWX 6blJlM npOflSHbl H3 

neranbHOM Mnn Ha mnpoxo npouBeTasuieM nepHOM pwH- 
xe. B pe3ynbTaTe stoto b o6paweHnn nosB^nocbflOBorb- 

HO MHOrO «3anpeUjeHHblXnpOM3BeaeHMM»,HTOOUJM6OHH0 
6blJ10 paCUeHCHO HexOTOpbIMM MHOCTpaHHbIMM BM3MTep3- 

mm xax npoHBneHne nn6epann3aunn b xy/ibTypHOii noriM- 
TMxe pewMMa. 

Ho 6onbWMHCTB0 MHOCTpaHuea, noceiaaBUJMX CPB, 
OTMensnM poor HeaosoribCTBa BbeTHSMueB xoMMyHMCTM- 
secxMM pewMMOM, xax Ha CeBepe, Tax n Ha tOre. 

AxTMBHoe pacnpocTpsneHMe xynbTypw «HeoxonoHM- 
3jim3M3» cBMaeTenbCTBOBano o Bee 6onee pacujMpnB- 
ujePics nponacTM Me*ay BbeTHaMCKMM HapoaoM m npa- 



76 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 



BMTe/lbCTBOM. 3tO BO MHOTOM OUjyiHanOCb H BbeTMaMC- 

kmm pyKOBOflCTBOM. nbiTaBtunMCH csannTb 6onbiiiyto nacTb 

BUHbl 33 BHyTpeHHee MHaKOMblC/IHe Ha KOMMyHMCTMHeC- 

KMfl KuTati. 

B nonwTKe npeofloneTb 3Ty npo6neMy nepeaoBaa 
CTaTbs. onySnuKOBaHHan «Tan Mm KoHr Can» - Teope™- 
necKUM wypnanoM KOMnapTMn BbeTHaMa - npM3bieana 
aKTMBHO npoflo/DKaTb «peujeHne saaaH, ccfcopMy/iMpo- 
BanHbix MeTsepTbiM cte3flOM KflB: TecHee KoopflUHnpo- 
BaTb MfleonornyecKyw n opraHnaaunoHHyto pa6oTy, npe- 
BpaiuaTb nflen b aewcTBH e ^epe3 opraHH3aunoHHwe Mepu, 
myowe BHeapflTb nfleonornio MapKCM3Ma-neHMHM3Ma b 
Maccw . 4To6bi cfleraTb ee o6pa30M wmshm Hawero o6me- 
CTBa». CTaTbn npn3biBana «o6v.eflHHMTb Hatuvt nfleonorn- 
HecKMe opraHbi. Mo6nnn3oeaTb u pa3sepH'/Tb cunw. OTBe- 
saioiyne 3a naeonornMecKyio pa6oTy, yny^waTb Maeono- 
runecKyK) paGoTy, co3flaTb cucreMy ynpaBneHns Mfleono- 
rweM» u T.fl. 

Bo3hhuio 6onbiiioe npoTHBope4ne Mexcay pe3Ko 
HapaiunBaeMOM,nocneKMTavicKoroBTop)KeHMfl1979rofla, 
MnnnTapn3aqneii CTpanw m 6wcTpbiM poctom «HeoKono- 
HuanbHOM" KynbTypw, oco6eHHO 33MeTHbiM b ropoaax, 
aax<e b XaHoe BecHow 1981 roaa KOMMyHncTMMecKne 
nuaepbi peuinnn nuKBunnpoaaTb 3to npoTHBopemie, npo- 
Boa» caMoe pe3Koe c 1975 roaa noaaanemie KynbTypbi 
•HeoKonoHManM3Ma» 

Kan m paHee. ocHOBHoe BHUMaHne BnacreM 6bino 
HanpaBneHO Ha npon3BeaeHHfl. o6paiueHHbie k Monoae- 
jkh, TaKne. xax «ynaaHHHecxafl My3WKa» mjih aeTCKne 
KHwru. 

Ha MMTMHre, nocBfliaeHHOM npa3flHoeaHHK> riepBoro 
Man. Bo BaH KneT (Vo Van Kiet), obhh us BwcoxonocTaB- 
neHHbix KOMMyHncTMMecKwx nnflepoB. B03Mymancn mo- 
noaewHbiMM necHAMM. KOTopwe «HanonHeHbi mhowbctbom 

3/ieMeHTOB, 06beaHHflKDiaHX MX C MOnOaeMCHOM My3WK0M 

MapnoHeTOMHoro pewHMa, yrox<aaiOT aroueHTpuHHbiM bkv- 
caM odaTKOB CTaporo o6iaecTBa, nwTawtaMMCH OBna- 
aeTb cn^HaHneM Monoaexn 3tm Menoauu npw3biBaiOT 
cnywaTeneii yKnoHSTbcn ot o6mecTBeHHbix o6fl3aTeribCTB, 
OTpwaaioT mx ot peanbHOCTM, OTBneKaiOT ot kmshh m 
6opb6bi Hamero Hapoaa. cowanetoT o npotunoM n npo- 
r.naenmoT wMnepMann3M» 

rio3)Ke, b ceHTs6pbCKOM BbinycKe «Tan Mm KoHr CaH» 
(Tap Chi Cong San). TpyoHr KyoK Mhh (Truong Quoc Minn) 



b CTaTbe noa 3aronoBKOM «Bopb6a Ha KynbTypHOM n 
naeonorMnecKOM cbpoHTe b XoiuMMMHe» KOHCTaTMpoBan. 
mto xoth Monoae>KHbie MysbixanbHbie rpynnu «6binn 
po*aeHbi aBM>KeHvieM Mace k saopoBoti nuTepaiype h 
MCKyccTBy», ho nocTenenHO OTwiOHMnncb ot npaBunbHO- 
ro nyTM n «cTann ,Qo6bmew ToproeueB KynbTyport. Konnpyn 
cyMacujeaujue c™nn aMepni<aHCKOM non-My3t>iKn». BMe- 
cto BocneBaHMfl MunMTapucTCKoro ayxa KOMMyHMCTunec- 
Koro pe«MMa 3TM rpynnw McnonH«nn necHu, Koiopwe 
<> Bbi3b.Bann y Monoaemn pOMaHTMMecKMe MyecTBa, C03fla- 
Bann omymeHMH, aaneKMe ot npaBaw >km3hm». 

Wuhmctp KynbTypw CPB HryeH BaH XMey (Nguyen 
Van Hieu) Bbipawan 6ecnoKOMCTBO, hto «bo mhotmx ceMb- 
bx etae npoaonwaioT xpaHMTb n ktcnonbsosaTb Bpeanue 
npon3BeaeHnn, OTpaBnnoiaMe co3HaHne aeTeM. 3to bb- 
neHMe pacnpocTpaHeHO n bo mhocmx ujKonax» (Hanoi 
Domestic Sen/ice, 31/5/81). KaK «BpeflHbie npon3Beae- 
Hna» 6wnM 3anpemeHbi KHurM, KOTopwe no ocpnunanbHO- 
My onpeaeneHnio «BBnnK)TCH unniocTpMpoBaHHbiMM uc- 
TopMdUM nnn necHSMn, He yxasbiBatoiatiMM aBTopa nnn 
kiaaaTenbCTBO, ho nweiomne saraaonHbie nnn CKaHaanb- 
Hbie Ha3B3HMfl, B036y>«aaioi4Me aeTCKoe nio6onbiTCTBO, 
Tuna "JlyMUJMM b Mupe cpexTOBanbujMK», «Bo3BpameHne 
H3 MMpa H3BHe». «OMapoBbiBaK)iaan ct>neMTa». «flBe 
Bonuje6Hbix xannM kpobm» ht.h.h (Hanoi Domestic Service 
broadcast, 27/5/81). 

«HeKOTopwe ae™ tsmho suraioT stm KHurn bo BpeMn 
yMe6w b K/iacce». roeopnTcn aanee b coo6ujeHMM, «n 
aoivia MHorne us hmx cnnujKOM nornoiaeHbi HTeHMeM, BMe- 
cto Toro 4to6w aenaTb aoMaujHWK) pa6oTy Mnn noMoraTb 
ceMbe no xo3fliliCTBy». 

BocbMqMaribHOMcoo6iaeHMM roBopMnocb, hto «o6ec- 
noKoeHHbie poamenM ropsso Tpe6yK)T, hto6w ara annae- 
mmsi 6wna yHMMTo>«eHa Ha kophw h mto6w tc, kto nbiTaeT- 
cn OTpaBMTb HeBMHHbie yMbi aeTeM, 6binu HaKa3aHbi». 
CornacHO Tpyonr KyoK Mmhio (Truong Quoc Minh) «ot 
•neTbipex ao nHTu Mun/inoHOB 3K3eMnnapoB khm«hom xan- 
Typw npoHMK/iM b ceMbM m LUKoribi. 3apax(aq aereii m 
noapocTKOB, He roBopn yxe o cothax nonnTmecxnx, Kynb- 
TypHbix. pennrno3Hbix n raaaTeribHbix KHur peaKUMOHHoro 
xapaiaepa, n3o6MnyK)iaMX HenpMCToPiHOCTnMM. cyeBepM- 

eM M MMCTMKOM, KOTOpbie 6bini1 OTKpblTO OTHpaBneHbl M3 

KanMTanncTHMecKnx m MMnepManMCTunecKHx cTpaH» («Tap 
Chi CongSan». 9/81). 




1 


' id 


>* 


w 1 


^ ^vl 



Khusu no 0unoc<xpuu. penuauu u ucmopuu. 3anpemeHHbie ao Bbemnaue. 



4 



KPYTDM MAPUIPyi BbETHAMA 



77 



KoMMyHMCTMnecKafl nenaTb Macro noBTopnna o6bm- 
Hemia b aflpec BbeTHaMCKnx 3MnrpanTOB. 3noynoTpe6- 
nnBUJux «MCKnK)HMTenbHO TepnuMoti)) nonnTnxon pewn- 
Ma. no3BonnBiuero OTnpaBiiHTb noaapxn wnn ryMaHMTap- 

HyK) nOMOlilb pOUCIBBHHUKdM HJIH JMSKOMblM. )KHByiUHM B 

CPB CornacHO otpnuna/ibHon npecce 3anpemeHHbie 
MaTepnanw, nocnaHHbie b cipaHy, BK/iKNann «aecHTxn 

TbICSH 3anpOCOB O nOKpOBMTe/lbCTBe» H «yBeflOMneHMM 

06 OAo6peHMM» (T.e. aoxyMeHTbi, no3Bonsiomne pofl- 
CTBeHHMKaM neranhHyio sMnrpaumo). HeneranbHbie no- 
nmnHecKiie n pennrnosHbie n3flaHHfl, BKKOM&fl SMurpaH- 
TCKHe iKypHanw, «peaKunoHHbie n ynaaHMMecxne» Mysw- 
KanbHbie kbccstm n aawe cfcyTGorwn c no3yHraMw Tuna 
«Let Me Go» nnn «l Will Live» («Van Nghe Thanh Pho Ho 
ChiMinh», 19/7/81). 

PacnpocTpaHeHMHj 3anpemeHHwx nponsBeaennn 
cnoco6cTBOBann HexoTopue xaApoBbie napTnnHbie pa- 
6othmkm, Te, kto «cTann onacHO pa3BpameHHbiMn. Bbipo- 
flMBLUMMncfl 11 nHaKOMbicrmiynMn. Ohm nonynann Heaa- 
KOHHbie aeHbrn, coTpyflHuwan co cneKyrwHTaMn, noMoran 
BOCCTaHOBHTb ynaannHecxyio Kynbrypy» («Tap Chi Cong 
San», 9/81). 

HeKOTopwe xaapoBbie napTpa6oTHnxn 6binn aa*e 
BOBneweHbi b noxas 3anpemeHHbix xnHocpnnbMOB «Bo 
MHorux yspexmeHUflx, npeanpnaTnsx n uiKonax coipya- 
hhkm KynbTypHbix ynpaBneHwi opraHH30BbiBann noxa3 
3anpeiueHHbix KnHO$nnbMOB, 0Ko6bi c'HCcneAOBaTenbc- 
khmm" ixenatMA, ho cpaicrnHecxn paan fleHer. M3 1200 
cnynaeB Taxnx napyweHnn 58 ObUW opraHM30BaHbi xaA- 
poBbiMn napTMMuaMM. \Az 107MenoBeKapecTOBaHHwx 11 
6binn KaApoBWMM napTHMqaMM, M3 73 aen, aoiueawnx ao 
cyaa, no TpeM 6binn npneneneHbi xaapoBbie napTnnu.bi» 
(«Tap Chi Cong San», 10/81). 

MMeioTcn Taioxe CBeaeHun o KHnrax n apyrnx 3anpe- 
ujeHHbix Maiepnanax. HeneranbHO nenaTaBwnxcR bo 
BbeTHaivie. CornacHO ocpnunanbHon cTaTncTnue «npo- 
BepKa 1804 MecT b XoiunMUHe noxaaana, mto ao 66.5% M3 
Hktx 6binn BOBneMewbi b peann3auuio, xpaweHne n pacnpo- 
cTpaneHne peaKu.noHHb.ix n ynaaHnMecKnxn3aaHnn, bkjik>- 
Man 507 Med. b KOTopbix xpaHnnncb n peann30BoiBanncb 

3TM KHUTH, n 205 - B KOTOpblX OCyUieCTBHHriCfl H63aK0H- 

HbiM neMaTHbiM 6n3Hec» (TaM me). Cpean Tex. kto SbUI 
apecTosaH 3a yMacrne b stom 6n3Hece. 6wnn Bmh Cy 
(Vinh Su) n XoaHr KyoK Xy (Hoang Quoc Huy), o6BMHeH- 
Hbie BM3roTOBneHnn n pacnpocrpaHeHnn KHur pa3nnHHbix 
waHpoB: «npnKrnoMeHMii. aeTexTMBOB. poMaHoa ycnexa. 
KHur kob6oax, 6aHamax, npn3paKax, nio6oBHbix poMa- 
HOB, peaKunoHHbix n ynaAHnMeo<nx» («Saigon Giai Phong», 
27/4/81 ). y hux 6wno KOH(|)ncKOBaHO 53000 khw. 

Han6onbLuyio M38ecTnoCTb nonywun ny6nnMHbiM cya 
Haa By fluHb Xa (Bui Dinh Ha), 29-neTHWM npoaaBqoM 
khui" M3 XoiiinMUHa, y KOTOporo 6binn o6Hapy>KeHbi 232 
«KHMrw n nnaKaia, Ka>tyit>iki H3 kotopwx viwen peaKunoH- 
Hoe. BpeaHoe m aMopanbHoe coaepwaHMe. a TaioKe apy- 
rue 3anpeiaeHHt>ie nponsaeaeHvin* («Saigon Giai Phong». 
26/6/81). ripeacTaBWMM 25 hkjhji 1981 r. nepea «Hapoa- 
hwm cyaoM» AviHb Xa 6wn npnaHan b^hobhwu b npecTyn- 
neHMBx no CTaTbflM 4, 7 n 8 aexpeia 267/SL . npMHtiToro 
CoBeTOM Mmhmctpob flPB 1 5 niOHfl 1 956 r., n npnroBopeH 
k no>KH3HeHHOMy 3aKniOHeHMK). TpyflHO noHaTb, noneMy 
Tax cypoao nocTynnnn c 66ibujiim conaaTOM BbeTHaMcxoii 
apMnn, He npeaCTasnfiBiuMM cepbe3H0rt naeonornyecxoM 
yrpo3w pe>KHMy. Bosmo>kho, npaavueribCTBO oeajnno 



ncnonb30BaTb ero b xaMecTBe npnMepaans 3anyrnBaHnfl 
apyrnx. 

06whho HaxaaaHne 3a noao6Hbie «npecTynneHMn» 
6bino He CTorib cypOBO. 

riocTaTbe15 3aKOHa CPB «0 KOHTppeeonomioH- 
hwx npecTynneHHflx» (ony6nMKOBaHHoro b «Hhh flaH» b 
0KT«6pe 1979 r. w nepeaaHHoro Paano XaHon 23 okt«6- 
pn). «nponaraHaa KonoHnanbHoii nonnTHKM h pa3Bpama- 
toiaeii KynbTypu MMnepnann3Ma» nnn «co3aaiMe. ny6nn- 
KailMH, pacnpocTpaHeHMe nnn coxpbiTue KHur. nepnoan- 
necKnx M3aaHMii, xapTMH. (foTorpacfiiiki nnn nK)6bixapyrnx 
MaTepnanoB c KOHTppeBontoijnoHHbiM coaepwaHWBM n 

L|enflMM» HaK33blBaiOTCn TKDpeMHblM 3aKTIIOHOHMCM OT 2 

ao 12 neT. 

BecHoii 1981 r. cocTosnocb TawKe HecxoribKO ny6- 
riMHHbix cyaoBHaa BnaaenbuaMM xacpe. 24 anpenn Tpoe 
enaaexibueB Kac}>e: TpaH Txn flbio Tmoh (Tran Thi Dieu 
Tien). TaHr Txn Tiost (Tang Thi Tuyel) n flao Txn Mati HroK 
(Dao Thi My Ngoc) - npeacTanw nepea «HapoAHbiM cy- 
aoM» 1-ro oxpyra Xou)HMHHa noo6BHHeHnio b «Hapywe- 
hhh 33KOHa o xpaHeHnn n pacnpocTpaneHnM peaKqMOH- 
Hwx, ynaaHMHecxnx npon3BeAeHHM m He33KOHHoe npea- 
npnHHMaTenbCTBO». Kax nncana «Saigon Giai Phong» 29 
anpenn 1981 r , npnroBop mm 6wn BbiHeceH «Ha ocHOBa- 
hmm cTaTbn 6 3aKOHa 03/SL 76. aaTMpoBaHHoro 15 MapTa 
1976 r., n CTaTbn 2 riocTaHOBneHMa npeMbep-MnHMCTpa 
Nfi 76-CP, aaTMpoBaHHoro 8 anpenn 1974 r.. a TaioKe Ha 
ocHoeaHnn PacnopsDKeHnPi Ns 148 ropoacxoro ynpaBne- 
Hno KyribTyiDbi u wncpoDMaunn n No 572 HapoA^oro komh- 
TeTa 1-ro OKpyra». TaHr Txn Tiost nonynnn 18 Mecauea 
TKjpeMHoro 3aKniOMeHHfl, aaoe apyrux ocyxmeHHbix nony- 
nnnn xajKflwM no 12 Mecau.eB TKipbMW. 

npeacTaBiune nepea «HapoanbiM cyaoM» 6-ro oxpy- 
ra XoujHMMHa 30 mkjhs 1981 r. By Txn JloHr (Bui Thi Long) 
n By Txn AbeH (Bui Thi Duyen) o5BHH«nncb b «ncnorib30- 
BaHnn ynaaHnMecKon MySfaHCM, a TaioKe b conpoTnaneHnn 
n 0CKop6neHHM coTpyaHMKOB npn ncnoriHeHnn hmh cny- 
*e6Hbix o6H3aHHocTen». 

KaK coo6mana «Saigon Giai Phong», «14 Man 1981 
r., b 20.00. OTpqfl ynpaeneHMn KynbTypbi n nut^opMaunn 
6-ro oxpyra. OTBenaBtuMK 3a yHHHTO>KeHne ynsanHMecxnx 
npon3BeaeHnn. o6H3py>Knn, hto b 6ape 20-ro panoHa, 
npnHaAne>KaBiueM By Txn flOHry, ncnonHneTcn 3anpe- 
ineHHan My3bixa. Koraa OTpna BbinonHsn cbok) aaMnHnc- 
TpainBHO-nHcnexunoHHyio 3aaaMy b cooTBeTCTBnn c 3axo- 
hom, Txn JloHr npocTHO conpoTnBnnncs n ocKop6nnn 
McnonHnTenen 3aKOHa». 

Txn JloHr nonyynn 24 Mec*>ua TtOpbMbl . a By Txn flbeH 
«6bin npnroBopeH k 16 MecnuaM b TioptMe 3a coynacTne 
b npecTynneHnn». 

Ho, xax npaBnno, cnynan apecTa n3BecTHbix nncaTe- 
nen. noaTOB. xyao>KHHKOB n wypHanncroB ne paarnauja- 
nncb enacTHMn pe*nMa. 

MsBecTHO, mto MHorne n3 Hnx 6binn apecTOBaHbi 
BCKope nocne KOMMyHncTnnecKoro nepeBopoTa 1975 
roaa n coaep*anncb b TiopbMax nnn narepax nepeBocnn- 
TaHnn 6e3 npeflbnBneHnn o6BnHeHnn n cyae6Horo pa36n- 
paTenbCTBa. 

B 3aoBneHnn, ony6nnxoBaHHOM b cpeepane 1981r. 
BbeTHaMCKon flnron npaB Menosexa n Kommtctom 3aiun- 
tw nonnTnnecKnx 3aKriK)MeHHbix bo BbeTHaMe, o6mee 
xonnMecTBO TBOpMecKon nHTen/inreHunn. ao cnx nop Ha- 
xoaniuencfl b 3aiuiK)MeHnn. oueHnBaeTco npn6nn3nTenb- 
ho b 500 nenoBex. 



78 



4 



KPACHDE KOJIECO 






tcT 


■1) %< 

fi NGHItl* HOA. H 






HAY MANH CON 







iMdeonoBuvecKu npaeunbHbie» o6pa3ubi ebemnaucKoeo ucxyccmea - nampuomuvecKue nnaxamoi 

Hn*e mw ny6nm<yeM ,iaHHhie o(pnLinanb-ion ct3th- San» (oiasi6pb 1981 r). KaK nwweT aBTop cTaTbn, 3Ta 
cthkm pe3ynbTaTax M3i>nTnn 3anpemeHHwx npon3Beae- CTaTucTMKa OTpawaeiaaHHbie To/ibxo 3a nepByio noxioBn- 
hum, noMemeHHwe b wypHane UK KflB «Tap Chi Cong Hy 1981 r. 



ropOAa M npOBMHU.HH 


Khmth 


AyAuoicacceTM 


KaprnHhi 


Ou/lbMbl 


KnHOnpOCKTOpi.1 


r. XaHoft (Hanoi) 


167 


1216 




29 


16 


r. Xouiumhh (HCM City) 


151200 


41723 


53751 


631 


93 


r. X;ui(i)on (Haiphong ) 


290 


6 








X;iiixy-i (Hai Hung ) 


500 


2259 


18 






XaHaMHMH (Ha Nam Ninh) 


32 










BuHTpnTbeH (Binh Tri Thien) 


129725 


239 


4252 


57 




KyaHr (Quang) 


25079 


3734 


115 


316 


32 


OyKxan (Phu Khanh) 


1858 


1467 


19 






TyaHxaii (Thuan Hai) 


1618 


2388 


1260 


34 




floHrHati (Dong Nai 


28C0 


283 


1864 






KynOHr (Cuu Long) 


422 


1358 


100 







B npuMewaHnn k daTbe yxasaHo, mto b XowHMMHe 
MMeeTcs npn5nn3MTenbHO eme okoho 60 tohh aanpemen- 
hwx KHur m x<ypHanoB, KOTopbie «etue He paccopmpoBa- 

Hbl». 

MTaK, Mbl BMflHM. HTO OrpOMHOe KOHMMeCTBO npon3- 

BeaeHMM nmepaTypbi m MCKyccTBa 6bino KOH(})MCKOBaHO 
ToribKo b nepaoii nonoBUHe 1981 roaa. 



06nnne KOHtpHcxoBaHHbix npon3BeaeHMii noK33bi- 
BaeT, K3K HeTepnuMoe OTHoujeHne BbeTHaMCKoro npaBn- 
TenbCTBa KnysKflOM Mflaonornn, TaK n orpoMHoe *e/iaHne 
MMnnnoHOB BbeTHaMqeB npno6uinTbCH *■ Ky/ibType. npo- 
TMBocToninevi MflesM. 8HeflpseMbiM m noAaep>KHBaeMbiM 

KOMMyHWCTHHeCKHMM BlldCIHr/H 

nepeeod c aHsnuucKozo: B. XOIlMOrOPCKHH 

Om pedaKuuu: 

Aemop smou cmambu - compydnux Kanucpopnuucxoao ymjeepcumama Cmueen Mohhou (Stephen Denney) - oduM U3 
opaaHU3amopoe u 6eccMeHHbiu pyKoeodumetib "MemdyHapodnoao Uenrnpa no iwyvewu/o MHdoKuma*: Kpymeuweao s uupe 
co6paHun doKyuenmoa (Ha aHznuucxoM numj no BbewHauy. Paocy u KaM6od*e. 3mom apxue, exeHedenbno nononnaeMbiu 
cowhumu cmpanuu nepeeodoe dOKyuenmoe. za3emHbix u xypnanbHbix cmameu. 3anuceu paduonepedai, omxpoim dm uaynenup 
acei* menaiomuM. Adpec Uanmpa: campus at 6701 San Pablo Avenue. Oakland, California 94608: menedXH: (510) 642-6539; e-mail: 
sdenney@uclink.berkeley.edu; http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/SSEAL/SoutheastAsia/seaindocenter.html 



...Mbi nepeaaAHM KMnrn M3 ycT b yda MaujuM A9TOM, a Haujn ae™, b cbokd onepeflb, nepeaaflVT 
flpyrnM. MHOroe. KOHenHO. 6yaeT noTepflHO... Ho y Henoeeica ecTb oaho 3aMeHaTe/ibHOe cbowctbo: 
ec/in npMxoAHTCH Bee HannHaTb CHasaaa, oh He OTsanBaeTCJi n He TepneT MyxedBa, n6o oh 3HaeT, hto 

3TO CTOUT yCM/lUM. 

P3H Ep3n6epn -451' no <t>apeMrefiTy, 1953 r. 



4 



KPyiOH MAPUJPYT BbETHAMA 



79 



Ot peflaKU,nn: 

PouaH. cpparMOHT noxoporo mu ny6nuKyeM b 3tom MOMope 
wypHana. KpuTuxa CMMTaer oahmm im nymiiwx nuTepaiypMwx 
nponaeefleHMM, C03AaHHbix bo BbeTHawe noc/ie 1975 roAa. Cpe- 
flw Knur. noeeciByioinMx o km3hm b aaK/noneHMM, -us MmpoBoii 
nur/eparype. h. TeM 6onee. bo BbeiHaMCKoii - «PaccKa3 2000- 
ro rofla» HanacaHHbifi 6yw HroK TaHOM. OT/iimaeTCH nan6o/iee 
nonHuM onucaMiiew raK Ha3biBaeMbix •xaM-Tao* (TOMHaa xonun 
Kwrawcxnx .jiaoraw-)* * mx o6uraTenei«. 

1 awns 2001 rofla 6yn HroK TaHy 6buia BpyweHa npeMns 
XennwaH XaMweTa Me»AyHapoAHOU opraH w3aunn XbWMaH PaiiTC 
Both 3a Mywec-TBO w BKnafl B 6opb6y 3a npasa He/iOBexa. dw/ih 
npeACTasneHbi Hecxo/ibKO ero npon3BefleHHM, jvymuMM us koto- 
pux sBnseTcn .PaccKaa 2000-ro roaa>. (flaypearoM. npMWM 
Xe/i/TMaM/XsMMera sa 200 1 ro^i cran ra**re pocchQckhR xtypHa- 
miCT rpuropuH nacbxo - npuu. nep.) 

LilecTMcoTCTpaHMHHbiH poMaH noeecTByei o xhshu TyaHa, 
ceBepoBbeTHaMCKoro wypHa/mcra nwweHHoro npasa ny6/iHKa- 
ijmm n He3aKOHHO aaKniOHeHHoro b narepb. (lpu coaeiicTBHn 
MoHpea/ibc«oiiaccounaunii saAewoKpaTwo soBbeTHawe c&par- 
MeHTw KHurn 6unu M3AaHbi Ha cfcpanuyscKOM n aHrnniiCKOM 

H3HKOX 

6yn HroK TaH doa^/icr a 1934 roAV a XaticpOHe b CeBepMOM 
BbeTMawe Pa6oTan KoppecnoHAenTOM a ceeeposbeTHawcKOi* 
apMnn. oopoBiueiics npoTKB cppaHuy3CKOii KonoHMaauMM. 

B 1954 rofly Hana/i nucaTb acce m CTaTbH A"" xaHoScKO* 
ra3eTbi -Tubm OoMr- (Tien Phong) n -Xart ©oh KbeH TbeT» (Hai 
Phong Kien Thiet). naAasaBujuxcs b Xaiicpone 

B 1 968 6yn HroK TaH 6un apecTOBaH no Aonocy n 3aKnio- 
MeH a narepb Ha 5 neT 6es cyAa n cneACTBun 3a skoom MMeomM- 
ecfl CBP3M c ynacTHMKaMM BonOTlfWCKOfO ABMxeHiui .Pean3no- 
HMCTbi npoTUB BbeTHawcKoii KOMMyHMCTHMecKoli napTMM>. 

BbiMA" na CBo6oAy b 1973 roAy. oh eiue 20 ner noABepra/i- 
cs npecneAOBaHMAM h AMCKpwMUHauMM. CoTpyAHMKM opraHOB 
6e3onacHOCTn HeoAHOKpaTHO oowcKHBann ero aom h kohcPwcko- 

Ba/in HOCKO/ibKO TbicnM CTparnm pyxonnceS. 




TonbKO b 1993 roAy yauAe/i 
CBeT ero nepeuii nocne ocBo6o*Ae 
HMD oaccxaa. ony6jiMK08aHHMM b 
xawcpOHCKOM xcypHa/ie -Kya BueH. 
(Cua Bien). 

Ill MUM c 1990 roAa. Byu HroK 
TaH IMUWI KHMry o pa6cKOM nono- 

KeHMM 3aK/IK)HeHHblX BO BbCTHaMC- 
KOM ry/lAre. C03AaHHOM KOMMyHM- 

CTn^ecKuM pe*HMOM. 3:a KHura - 

. PaccKaa 2000-ro roAa- - He ronbKO 

6norpadpnHecKoe onucanne n«TM 

TopewHbix neT nncaTe;iR ho m abo- ^X" Hi0K TaH 

HaAnaTb cyAe6 ApyrHX 3aK/ii0MeHHbix M3 pa3Hwx crioes o6iye- 

0780. 

/lnuib Mepe3 AecflTb neT. b qbeapane 2000 roAa, oh CMor 
naaaTb 3Ty KHinry. ho y*e b Mapre oHa 6bi/ia 3anpemeHa BbeT- 
HaMCKUM MuHnciepcTBOM KynbTypu n HHcpopMaunn. OTcasuiuM 
pacnopnxeHne Ha -aanpeT, KOHcDncKaunio v yHHHToweHne- 

Byn HroK TaH n peAaKTop n3AaHnn /JoaH JlaM JlioeH (Doan 
Lam Luyen) 6wnn Bbi3BaHbi Ha Aonpoc b opraHw roc6e3onacHo- 
cru. fjoan /laM ZlweHa yBO/innw c AonxtHOCTn peAanTopa b 

XOUJUMMHCKOM M3AaTeribCTBe 

B anpene 2000 roAa, nepea MHrepweT, Konns KHMrn CTajia 
AOCTynHOM Ai" BbeTHaMueB 3a rpaHHueJi. 

B wone Toro xte roaa Eyw HroK TaH us6paH noieTHuw 
nneHOM KaHaACKoro n.EH-K/vy6a 

•PaccKa3 2000-ro roAa> - B&Aaiomeecfl npon3BeAeHne 
BoeTHaMCKoii /lMTepaTypw He To/ibKO no npunnne MacrepcKoro 
BnaAeHMii nepoM. ho m noTOMy mto paccKa3biBaer o riOAflx. 
KOTopue b He^enoBevecKnx yc/ioaunx He yTpaTMnw AOCTonHCTea. 
BepHOCTM. cocTpaAaHns n iikdObh. 

rionuTKa aeTopa MSAaTb poMaH bo BbeTHaMe 6wna oneHb 
CMeAWM nocrynxoM. HenaaecTHO. mto CTano 6w c n^caTeneM 
6ea BMemaTeribCTBa MewAynapoAnoro coo6mecTBa CeMsac. 
HBCMOTpd Ha 3anpeT, 6yn HroK TaH nuiuer Hosyio KHury. 



Byn Htok TAH 



PACCKA3 2000-rO TOflA 



Afa npejucAOBua nepeeojvuKOB MonpeaAbCKOu ,n i miii njir.i 
3a jeMOKpamuio bo Bbcmna.«c: 

...Mbl He HCKamaeM KMO*KB)nO Tewy khiijii. ho mm He 
yTBepiitaaeM. hto iit'|>e,ia.Mi bcio KpacoTy ii )iiiikj.miwh ■<• ee 
CIHMi HTO HeB03M0)KH0 CAe.\aTb B AKJOOM cAyiae. Mbl npocHM. 
MTOObl aBTOp H MHTaTCVH npOCTHAH tUH HaUIV BCpOHTHyKI 

HeyK-MOjKecTb h oiuii6kh b 3tom nepeBoae. Mm BaH.Micb 3a aTy 
TpyaHyw 3aAany c HaMepeHHesi BHecTH iik.\,i.- ; b 3aijjHTy npaa 

CMeAWX H MeCTHblX AIOACH. KOTOpbIM Ht AaiOT CAOBa B HX 



cTpanax. 



Hacxb IV. CTAPbIM AO 



Oh ctoht TaM. thxo HaOAiojan 3a ceMeiicTBOM TyaHa. 
co6paBuiHMCn Ha aaBTpax. 

Oh ctoht TaK yjttt AaBHO. cTecHHHCb bohth. Mhohic H3 

npe>KHHX apy3eS TyaHa no Aarepio npHxoiiHAH mviThoi c 

hhm. ho hhkto He AeAa.\ SToro TaK, xaK CTapwfi ^o. 



Bee. mto y Hero ecTb. oh hocht c co6oh. noTOMy hto eMy 
npocro Herae nocTaBHTb cboh MeuioK. 

Oh oesjoMHMH. 

CTapbiii ^o He iumi'iiihu. Ah(Jo b MopUjHHax. 3th 
rAy6oKHe viipiMimw npH^aKiT eMy CBO«o6paaHbiH bha. koto- 

pblH AOAJKCH HpaBHTbCH (J)OTOrpaCpaM . Bopo.la CKpMH.i'- ! UieK) 

h rpyAb. BpoBH. wecTKHe h rycTwe. aaTeHHHjT MaAeHbKHe 
r.\aaa. HBMyMCHHbie, TpcBomHHC, HcciacTHwc. ho bcc eijjc 
ii|iiiii!iijaT<'AhHhio. Mowho CKa3aTb. hto ero cejan 6opoAa. 

BOAOCbl, 6pOBH OKpyWaWT Ma.\CHbKHH OCTDOB HCCeieHHOH 
MOpUJHHaMH KO?KH. Ha ero AH(je HeT paAOCTH. KOTOpyK) JOA«eH 
MyBCTBOBaTb TOAbKO TTO OCBOCK>XUieHHblH H3 TIOpbMbl HeAOBCK. 

C nepBoro »m 'ah.i.i Htok y3HaeT b rocTe CTaporo ,4o. 
My* paccKaabiBaA o HeM. Ho TOAbKO Tenepb ona bhaht, mto 

OH AeikTBHTeAbHO HaXOAHTCH B OTHaHHHOM, 6e3BblX0AH0M 

ii. . m i'kphhh. TaKOM *e, KaK y Mh h J[y. npne3>KaniiiHX cioAa 
b npouiAOM roAy. Htok 6bicTpo AoeAaeT pne h BCTaeT. Ee 



" Cm cmambto H. Ho3UHbCKoeo xApxunenaz Paoeau» e mypnano «Kapma» No 22-23 - npuu.ped. 

" Hau. nepeeediuuM itipazuenm hhuzu Byu Hiok Tana c aHznuucKoao na pyccKuu. ocmaemcsi monbKO npucoeduHumbCfi k cnoaau 
KaHadCKux xonnea u Bbipa3umb Hadexdy vmo HacmBHem apeun. xoaSa «Pacc*a3 2000-zo eoda». nonnocmbio nepesedeHHotu c ebemnau- 
ckoio. 3auuem g cc3hbhuu poccuuexux wumame/ieu uacmo pudou c KHuiauu ConmeHuubiHB u Wanauoea - npuu. nep. 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 



*ii.\iiinr nepenoAHeHO, saecb HeT AHiiiHeH KOMHaTM aaji tocth. 
TyaH KaK-TO nouiyTHA: «Mbi wimeM b pockouih: CTOAOBaH. 
KyxHH. Hauia cna.vbHH. APTCKaH cnaAbHH». Bcc sto — Ha 
aBajijaTH KBajpaTHbix MeTpax. 

TyaH 3a pyhy upnno.iin b KOMHaiy CTaporo /[o, npoBO- 
macMoro ;k,i \ocTAHBbiMH n.-i \ha<imh HroK H ACTeii — Xbcna 

h COyoHra: ei^e oahh HeyAaiHHK. ocyjtueHHbiH Ha HecnacrAH- 
ByK> /Kii.tiih. ToAbKo Ma^bim J\voht paAOCTHO yAHB.\deTcn ero 
BHyujHTeAbHOH 6eAoii fiopojr. noKasbiBan pyKofi. KaK eMy 
xoMeTCH ee norAaAHTb. 

HrOK npHHOCHT CTapOMV Ao Hafi. rioTOM yxOAHT BHH3 no 
AeCTHHUC HTo6bl OCTaBHTb I1X C MyHteM OAHHX. Ha CaMOM MM, 

y Hec MHoro aca: Ha6paTb im.irii b 6ohkm, nocTHpaTb, KynHTb 
oboijjh aaji yjKHHa. OHa pcuiH.\a npHrAacHTb CTaporo Ao 
noy«HHaTb 3THM BeiepOM BMecTe c ce.Mbefi. Htok HacTpocHa 
pcuiHTeAbHo h noaTOMy AOAWHa KynHTb MHomecTso BeyjeA: 

HCCKOAbKO K)'6llKOB TO<J>y*, HTOObl npHrOTOBHTb nOMHAOpbl 

(KOTopbic 6nah 6bi euje BKycHee c vacAoin), nauixy coAeHoro 
oBoiyHoro cyna, 3CAeHoro Ayxa. Haao nocTapaTbCH KynHTb ABa 

yTHHblX HHLia. HTOObl CACVaTb OMAeT. Co BCeM 3TH.M B KOp3HHC 
OHa BoaBpaujaeTcn Ha KyxHio. xcecTaMii aoBeT TyAa r.\aBy cexibii 
h menneT eMy necKOAbKO caob. KOTopbic Ka*eTCfl, ACAaioT ero 
CHaCTAHBWM. Oh HeCKOAbKO pa3 KHBdcI. corAauiancb. 

B KOMHaTC "tu.uH MaAbiui /XyuHT h A»a Apyra, ABa 
(JblBUIHX l-MKAHl'U'HHblX. KOTOpbie BMeCTC npOBClH TaK MHOrO 
HOHefi B TKJpbMC. 

CTapbiii Ao npHexaA Bsepa. 9to 3HdH>rr. hto oh Ha cboooac 
ywe ABa ahh. Bee Te >«e nopaAKH: oh y3Ha-\ oo ocboooikachhh 

TOAbKo vrpoM. KorAa noAyMMA ii|)HKa3 Ha pasBOAe ocTaTbcn b 
Aarepe h He xoahtt> Ha pa6oTy. 

KorAa oh Ao6pa.\cn ao Xawoji. to HoneBaA Ha BOK3aAe 
Xanr Ko. 

— Bw BHAeAH ^ly? Oh cnHT Ha toh we CTaHUHM. 

— fl He 3HaA. TaM hohvct mhoto aioach. 

— A BMCpa BCHCpOM TAC Bbl CndAH? 

— 3Aecb. Ha n.micM B0K3a.ve. Ho uecb He TaK. KaK b 
XaHoe. H oahh 6wa Taxofi. H MeHH BwraaAH. 

Oh B3AbixaeT. Ohcbhaho, CTapbiii j\o He HMeeT npeAcraB- 

V HUH. MTO C HHM 6yAeT. H OeCnOKOHTCIl .1-1+:'' CHAbHee. MeM 

npeiKAe. IloKa iiaoxoto 6oAbiue, nevi xopouiero. 

Oh Tepe6m- (pyi^aHKy, hto KorAa-TO oTAaA eMy TyaH. Ha 

HCC Hdlllil I bl ABC IIOAOCKH CCDOH TKaHM. CKptXBaKIUJHC AdrcpHWC 

HOMepa — oahh Ha cnHHe. Apyrofi Ha rpyAH. 3th MIIWTiai 

BW| H- .i.ilihl H3 MIT.IHC i:i ApyTOm MKAh I'lrllllun i. Cj)yi|i,iHK.I He no 

ce30Hy TenAaH. ho 6e3 Hee oh Mep3HeT. CTapwfl A° BbiHHMaeT 
H3 MeuiKa naHKV nan. 

— B .varcpe y MeHH 6bi.\o maAOBaHHC 42 u,eirra. fl KyiiHA 
aah Bac Mail. 

rloAapOK rOBOpHT o TOM. hto CTapbiii Ao HHHero He 3a6blA. 

— B stom MeuiKe — He TaK MHoro Beujeii. Oachao. Koropoc 
Bbl MHe AaAH. MHCKH. KOTOpbie Bw Aa\H ^y. a oh — MHC 
KnTi-AnK. I Iapa urraHOB H vaiiKa. 

TyaH cTaBin mhckh h kotcaok hs ctoa. Ohh 6vaht b hcm 

BOCnOMHHaHHD O Aece, BKyce AHCTbeB MaHHOKH. Mae. XIIIIHIUrM 
B KOTCAKe Ha KOCTpe. 

H CHOBa pasAaeTCH yAap roHra. KaK 6yATO 3B0HRT no 
yconuieMy h.\h npH3biBaK>T BcnoMHiiTb npeAKOB. 

TyaH noHHMaeT. hto 3th bcijjh (kotc\ok. mhckh. '1i> iJ'.ihk.i. 
OAe»Ao) 6yA)T conpoBowAaTb CTapHKa ao cavtoii CMep™. 
Pa3Be !i.iKi'iiAcmii>i\ i|iii.iiiaiii nHacTpoB XBaTHT eMy Ha 
ocTaBiuywcii WHaHb? Oh CMDnmr, KaK CTapbiS /In tobopht : 

— 3to 6biAa 6oAbiuafi ouiH6Ka. 




" Cbiponododnap coeea» nacma, ucnonb3yeuap eo uhoiux 6niodax 
UHdOKumauCKOu Kyxxu - npuu n»p. 



Ha xanoucKOM pbinxe 



Oh CHOBa noBTOpneT to. o neM HenpecTaHHO AyMacT. C toh 
me HHTi)H,iuneii. TyaH MHoro pas c.\biuia.\ bto b Aarepe. 
(BoAbuiofi oiiih6koh 6biAO noBepHTb KOMMyHHCTHHecKofi npo- 
naraiue H noKHHyrb MapceAb, rAe ocTa.\HCb ero mciia. AOib. 
eTO peCTOpaH. H B03BpaTHTbCH. HTOON nOMOraTb BOCCTaH.lll.MI- 

Ban> cTpany.) 

— Tenepb Bm mojkctc 6brrb ciiokoRhm. — VAbifiaeTCH 
TyaH. — Mbi ywe He yvpeM b TiopbMe. 

TyaH noMHHT. hto 3Ta MbicAb Bcer^a nyra.\a CTaporo ^lo. 
Ha noxopoHax Kaxuioro saKAioneHHoro CTapbifi ^o uierrra.\ 
cMy Ha yxo: «Mbi hc no3BOAHM cc6c 3Aecb yMepeTb". 

H npaBAa. TiopeMHbie noxopoHW 6mah nyraioujHMH: 6e3 

MV3blKH. ::\.lK,l.\I.IJHKOH. pOACTBeHHHKOB. HT06bl npOBOAHTb 

MepTBMX b noc.veAHHH nyTb. ToAbKo MnnnbiniiKH. 

TyaH iinjKiiMaeT pyny Craporo /lo. CTapHK neqa.\bHO 
roBopHT: 

— Moe noAojtteHHe OTAHHaeTCH ot Bamcro. He 3Haw. KaK 
6yAy cnpaBAHTbCH. 

Tenepb CTaporo Ao 6oAbiue BOAHyeT hc r.ie oh yMpeT. a 
KaK oh oy.ieT mnrb. 

3to nOABHr "■ npoAOA>KaTb WHTb. KorAa HeT ceMbH. Her 
aaijjHTbi. ;..i,i;r MeuiOK nocTaBHTb nerAe. 3to thjkcao h aab 
o6biHHoro neAOBCKa. a aah 6biBiuero noAHTHiecKoro 3aK.\K)HeH- 
Horo MHoro THJKe.vee. ?Kii3iib — Kan TevHbiS TyHHCAb 6e3 

HblXOAa. 

TyaH He MoweT eMy nonoHb. oh caM b HVJKAe: HeT 
AOCTaTOHHbix 3aKasoB Ha CHrapeTW. Aawe b ce30H (oh 
noAB03HT CHrapeTbi a-vh npoAaBUOB n ropoAe). 

3tb pa6oTa no3BOA>icT CMy noKynaTb HCMHoro pHca h 
OBOuieH. Actom. KorAa wapKo. .mkj:*ib HeT. noTOMy hto y 

.MOAefi HCT WCAdHMH KVpHTb. HaAO >KAaTb 3HMbl. llpOUlAblM 

actom, nocAC MHorax yHHmeHHii, TyaHy yAa.\ocb no.vyHHTb 
pa6oTy — niHTb MeuiKH b oahoh rocyAapcTBeHHOH KOMnaHHH. 
no Tpn ueHTa sa veuioK. Ecah paooTarb AeHb h HOHb. mowho 

CUlHTb 10 MCUIKOB. HO 3aKa308 HCMHOrii. 

Hct HyntAbi jicin K.i.ihiii.i 1 1> aTo, CrapbiH A" h TaK 3HaeT. 
hto ero H<H3Hb 6yaeT neAerxa. 

Oh ACAacT OOAbUlOH rAOTOK BOAbl H nOAXOAHT K CTJAV 

TyaHa b KpaiiHCM CMyiycHHH: 

— i\ XOTCA 6bl CKO 3.11b BaM KOC-HTO... 

CTapbifi Ao 3aM0AKaeT. BbinpHM.VJieTCII H 6ecnOKOHHO 

boaht rAaaaMH no croAy. 

rioneMy oh He pemaeTcn roBopHTb? HanepHoe. ami Hero 

3TO OMeHb BaWHO. 

CTapbiii ^lo euje HeKOTOpoe BpeMH or.mAWBaeT KOMHary. 
nepeA tcm KaK 3aroBopH~n> CHOBa: 

— Hy. Bcc-TaKH h CKamy. Ecah Bn hc corAacHTCcb. 
CKaiKHTe 06 stom npxMO. 



4 



KPYTOM MAPUlPyi BbETHAMA 



81 



— sew Bm. moh apyr? 

CTapwii /Ifl c.voTpHT HecMacTHbiMH r.\a3aviH. Ero cyab6a 
aaBHCMT ot Toro, mto eMy oTBeTHT TyaH. h xot* esiy He xoieTca 
npocHTb. y Hero Her apyroro Bwoopa. TyaH HHTaeT Bonpoc b 
ero r.\a3ax ii cnpauiHBacT ceon: hcm oh mowct rioMOHb CTapoMV 

4o? 

— H xony CKasaTh BaM... 3to KacaeTCH He TOAbKo Bac. 

HO M BaiUCli WCHbl... 3tO COBCC.M HCHajOArO... 3deCb HllKAdA 

coBceM He TaKofl. KaK b XaHoe, mcwi BbiroHmoT ... 

TyaH yjite CAbiuiaA sto. h noBTopcHHc noMoracT e.My 
aorajaTbtH... 

— fl AOAttceH nonbiTaTbca Hdiira patxrry. ho He Mory sto 
cae.\aTb c mcuikom 3a nAeiaMH. 

CTapuM J\,o co6HpaeT bck) cboio xpa6pocn> H CMOTpirr 
npHMo Ha TyaHa: 

— CnpocHTe Bauiy weny. no3BoAHT ah oHa MHe HoneBaTb 
y Bac? i\ .ii,ii.i. hto Bay sto oseHb Heyao6Ho, ho « 6yd}' 

npHXOAHTb TOAbKO HOHblO H CaM llaxn.TIITb Ce6e t0.y. 

TyaH He MowcTOTKa3aTb. r.uux b rAaaa CTaporo J\o. aa*e 
npn tom. hto HeT ooAbiue niecTa b ero aomc Ohh noTecHirrcH, 

XOTH H HapyUlHTCM npHBIMHHblH 1 rMCMilblll yKAaa. H euje eCTb 

onacHbie coceaH. m.ix i.wijih paaocrb b hx HHUjeTe. H. 
HaKOHeu. ecTb BAacTH. areHTbi roc6e3onacHocTH. TyaH He 
coBepuiHA HHKaxoro npecTyriAeHHJi, h Bee we ohh nocajHAH ero 

B TIOpbMy KSK 3ACMCHT. «>IUU HI.IH 1 '.'Hi <\l. >l_ll:oMHi >M\ npaBHTeAb- 

CTBy. Mto BAacTH caeaaiOT c hhm Tenepb — 6ubuihm 
noAHTHHecKHM MXAKPKHHttM, aaiouiHM npw6e>KHnje apyroMy 
noAimmecKOMy 3aKAK>HeHHOMy:> Ecah paHbiue TyaH h He 6biA 
<<peaKUHOHepoM», to Tenepb craHeT hm tomho. 

Oh 3HaeT He.\0BeKa. OTey KOTOporo 6na 3acTpeAeH no 
ouihokc bo Bpe\in TaK HasbmacMOH «arpapHOH pecpopMbi». Tot 
seAOBCK Bee euje iioao3pcBaeTCfi 11 BbmauiHBaHHH nAaHOB 
MecTH peBOAiouHOHHOMy npaBHTeAbCTBy>>. CTapbifi /loyrajbi- 
BaeT MbicAH Tyana no BbipameHHio ero AH.ua. Oh uienneT. KaK 
6yaT0 npo ce6n: 

— V mchh hct Bbixo.a.i Ecah bu corAacHTecb. h hc 6yay 
Bac flo.\ro 6ecnoKOHTb. 

TyaH thxo roBopHT: 

— A&. aeficTBHTeAbHO. HaM 6yaeT TpyaHOBaTo. ho Beab 
sto npeMeHHo. noKa He yc-Tpoirrecb. Mob mcHa Bpaa ah 6yaeT 
npoTHB. OcraHbTecb. noo6eaairre c HaMH. Mbi ao.\roe Bpevix 
He o6eaa.\H bmcctc 

TyaH KAaaer /lyoHra b KpOBaTxy. noTOMy mto tot KpenKO 

aacHyA. H npnrAauiaeT CTaporo Ji,o VMbrrbca. BbirABjbmaioT 

Aio6onbrrHbie cocean. Bha CTaporo Jifl npHBAeKaeT Bceo6ujee 
BHHMaHHe. TaK KaK oh HanoMHHacT CTaporo BirraAHca H3 
(J>paHiiy3CKoro poxaHa <• Bes ceMbH«*. Jipa apyra 6eceayKJT. 

roTOBH o6ea. Htok cKasa.\a hm. hto ae.\aTb. noKa OHa He 
BepHeTca. OHa Bee noHHMaeT h onenb TenAo othochtch k 
apy3bHM ee Mywa no saKAHoneHHio. Hh oaHoro H3 hhx OHa He 
iipomaAa. Koraa ohh oKa3uua.Micb a noaooHofi CHTyatjHH. 

Be3 Ko.\e6aHHH HroK pa3peuiaeT CrapoMy JXo ocTaTbco Ha 
HOMb. OHa BeaeT ceoa KaK BepvToiUHH MeAOBCK. HeBawHO KaKOH 

peAHI-HH CAeayWIJJHH: XpHCTHaHCKOH, 6yAAHHCKOH HAH AaJKC 
KOM.MyHHCTHMeCKOH. TAaBHOe — OCHO^aHHOH Ha MOpaAbHblX 

npHHUHnax: '.Ecah bw Aw6HTe Bcex Aioaefi. aeAairre ao6pbie 
ACAOi h BauiH aeTH 6yayT ti0Ab3OBaTbcii nAoaaMH Bauiero 
BCAHKoayuiBMu. TyaH aucMiiuacrcH /kchihi H CAeayeT efi bo 
bccm. OHa ao6pa. ayviaer o apyrwx npe*ae. MeM o ce6>. h 
HHKoraa He 0TKa3biBaetcH no.MOHb b 6eae. 




• BpodHijQ apmucm. nepconam nonynRpmeo eo Btamnaue pouana 
(ppaniyiCKoeo nucamenn rwrnopa Uano «6ej ceubu: snepswe onySnu- 
noaanHO!0 e 1878 g - npuu. nap 



Cmapbiu ebemwaiweu 



TyaH noHHMaer. hto tot VAOMK, KOTOporo HroK 3HaAa 
KDHbiM CTyaeHTOM. .KinpoBOAhijeM aHTHCJ>paHiiy3CKoro Conpo- 
THBAeHHH, Hcse3 n.iMcriaa. CaM TyaH Toa<e AOASWH 6bi.\ 
HCHC3Hyrb. ero CMepTb — nocAeaoBaTb 3a «cviepTbio» toto 
CTyaeHTa. ho oh He xoneT yMMpaTb. Oh aoAmeH 6opoTbCH. Oh 

aOAJKeH WHTb. H IIHC.lTb. 

[JeAb ero /kiuhh coctoht b tom, HTo6bi nncaTb. riHcaTb o 

TOM. HTO OH MO0HC H HTO HcH.lHH.lllT BoCC03aaTb CBeTAbie aHH 
cBoero aercTsa. naMirrb o KOTopux He aaeT CMy iiokoh. Tot. 
KTO nOAOJKHA KnMciJ 3T0My CHaCTAHBOMy H,m'\|i-hh. aO.UKCH 

6biTb npHKOBaH k cbohm npecTyn.veHHHM HaBceraa. Kawaati H3 
ero noaM cTaHeT BepeBKOH ami naAaseH. 

?na^\b. »rro sto TOAbKO MewTa. FlpHaeT ah tot aeHb, Koraa 
oh CHOBa oyaeT riHcaTb? TaK mhoto npoeKTOB h Haeii 6i>i.\h 
npea.\omcHbi npaBHTtAbCTBy, imnbiAii oTKAOHeHbi h «HcnapH- 
.\ncb 6es CAeaa». 3to BbipameHHe 5hhh. 

Oh eaHHCTBeHHMH WAOaeiC KOTopoMy TyaH MojKeT aoae- 
pHTbcii. BnHb cKasaA eMy oaHawabi: ..Mw DOMorajW cosaan. 

3TOT pextHM. Mn TOpaHAHCb HM CHaHaAa. H Tenepb, HeCMOTpH 

Ha Bee ycHAHa, a HHnero He Mory H3MCHim>. Mm HeceM mihh, hi 

OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a 3Ty CTpaHy». BHHb XOTeA 6bl BCTpeTHTbCH 

co CTapbiM 4o. ho tot npHxoaHT aoMoii oieHb :n)3aii i. Ero 
BeujH b yrAy noxomH Ha ockoakh pa36irroH >khshh. 

LTapbiS /lo noaxoaHT k ACCTHBge mxo, KaK KouiKa. Oh 
Tan noBopatHBaer pyHKy, hto He H3aaeT hh SByxa. ontpbiBaeT 

aBCpb H npOCKaAb3blBaCT B KOMHaTV CO CTapOH KOH<aHOH 

cyMKoii, noaapeHHOH HroK. BHyrpH — abc mhckh h kotcaok. 
PynKH iviiKii HroK cBR3a.\a nAa-rKOM. 

Koraa OH BXOaHT. MOCKHTHWe CeTKH yjtM HaTBHVTbl, HO 

Ha cTOAe b sjem-pe KOMHann euje ropm- MacAaHaH Aaima. Ee 

ctct npHrAyuiaer caMoaeAbHbiii aoamyp H3 nAacTHKOBoro 

MeuiKa aA» yao6peHHH. HHoraa Xnen. cTapuiHH cnh. euje 
chaht 3a ypoKaMH. HHoraa TyaH npHno3aH»rrcn c pa6oTbi. 
Htok saKaHHHBaeT y6opKy, h TyaH waeT CTaporo /to nHTb 
MaS. KlHoraa — sto cbokhh Hafi, imoraa — hct. CtapwH ^o 



12 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 



6epeT qauiKy h HaeT k cbocmv yr.\y. rae paccTe.\eHa UHHOBKa 
co cKaTaHHbiM oaenAOM. Oh ayeT Ha ropHHHH saS, nbeT ero c 

yAOBOAbCTBHCM. HO lircl.l.i OaHH. I~IoTOM CTaBHT HaillKV Ha 

ctoa, h« jiwno-iKax nepcccKaH KOMHaTy. B03BpaijjaeTcn k 
UHHOBKe. 3aKyTbiBaeTCH b oaeHAo h 3aTHxaer. 

Ecah oh npHxoam-, Koraa Bee yme ciiht h Mima 
noTyuieHa. to noKopHo Hanpaa\neTc« npnMO b cboh yro.v 
Hen-\oxo 6bi Bbinirrb nauiKy ropiiMero nan. ho oh aoBOAbCTBy- 
eTca TenAOM KOMHaTW. HarpeTofi cnmjjHMH AWAbMH. Thxo 
aokht. oopxcb co chom. Tyan 3HaeT, hto oh He cnHT. noTOMy 

HTO BO CHe CTapNH Af> 06UHHO CTOHeT. 

Xo-reAocb 6m yaHaTb. «rro oh aeAaer Becb aeHb u ecT ah 
oh Tro-HH6yab. Ho OrapMH A° H36eraeT BonpocoB, KaK 

TOAbKO npHXOAHT — HAeT B CBOH jflW H 3aKyTblBaeTCH B OAeHAO 

c Hor ao roAOBbi. A yTpoM ero yitte hct, TOAbKo cscpHyTan 
ljHHOBKa b yrAy. Tan we. KaK h b TiopbMe. 

Oh noKHjaeT aom. Koraa eiue TeviHO, thxo oTKpwBaeT 
ABepb, no-KouianbH cnycKaeTC* c AecTHHUW h bmxoaht Ha 
yAH^y. Acahhoh Bc-rcp aycT HaBcrpcHy. Ho 6oAbUiax iby<|>aHKa. 
k KOTopofi oh cavi npHUJHA 3aBH3KH, xopouio ero 3aiHHujaer. Oh 
OTKpwBaeT VAHHHbiH KpaH. yMbiBaeT ahu.0 h cnoAacKHBaeT DOT, 
nOTOM CBH3WBaeT nAaTKOM pyHKH CyMKH H yxoAHT. CTapixfi A,o 
BeaeT cc6h TaK, 6yaTO cneuiHT. npecAeays k,i;+;h\ io ijeAb hah 
iibim i.MiiiH HeoTAOWHoe nopyneHHe. Ha caMOM we aeAe flBMMJKb 
no Kpyry. TyaH ooHapyrnHBaer 3T0 fWMimiW. noAHHBUincb 
nocAe Toro. KaK CTapmB Ao yuieA. fyamtn oh bhwt ero. 
nepecenaioijjero ueirrp ropoaa. MomeT 6biTb. hhkto b OKpe- 
cthocth h He aoraawBaeTcii. hto cTapHK wHBeT b ero aoMe. 
CTapwii Ao B03BpaujaeTCH TOAMO DOCM toto, KaK 3aKaH- 
MHBaeTCH uporpdMMa o6y,jecTBeHHoro paano. YTpovi oh yxoaHT 
3aaoAro ao yTpeHHeii rHMHacTHKH, kotodoh npeaiuecTByioT 
TOAbKO n03WBHbie. Xopouio. hto ceHHac aoArae hohh. Ak>ah 

paHO AOJKaTCH H nO3aH0 BCTaiOT. 

TyaH 3aaepmHBaeTcn noaoAbiue, TroSbi noaowaaTb CTa- 
poro Ao. Paano 3aMOAHaAo. /leTH cnar noa oaeH.\aMH 3a 
mockhthoh ceTKoii. MeaAeHHO noBopaHHBaeTCH ABepHaa pyn- 
Ka. Bxoairr CllpHl Ao- TyaH KCCTOM noKa3WBaeT. hto6m oh 
noaouieA. HroK cKpbiBaeTca 3a cerKofi. CTapwii Ao Hacropa- 
WHBaeTCH. 

TyaH HaAHBaer nail h thxo cnpawHBaeT: 

— KaK npoBoaHTe ahh? 

CTapwii Ao oTBenaeT. He 3aayMbiBa»cb. noTOMy hto aaBHo 
npHayMa.\ otbct Ha aroT Bonpoc: 

— O! lloHeMHOJKKy. 

Ot CTapHKa HCXOaHT 1.III.IX yAHMHOrO MyCOpa H nOMOHKH. 

— y Hac ecTb ropjroaji Boaa. Bbi xotcah 6n yMbiTbca? 
CTapwii Ao KHBaeT. C naiiHHKOM ropHHeii boaw b pyKe 

TyaH npoBowaeT ero BHH3. Ohh cnycKaioTcx onenb thxo. TyaH 
paaMeuiHoaeT aoay, crapancb He uiyvieTb. CTapwii A° CHHMaeT 
(pycpaHKy h TUjaTeAbHo moct ahjjo h pyKH. TyaH 3Haer. hto 
AOCTaBAJteT e.My yAOBOAbCTBHe. Oh npHroTOBHA eijje oahh 
cwpnpH3. KOTopwfi hukt CTaporo A° » KowHaTe, - omhijjch- 
HaH MaHHoxa. CBapeHHaa n CAerxa noacOAeHHofi Boae. OHa ywe 
ocTbiAa. ho ace paBHO oneHb BKycHaa. CTapwH A° KT. Oh He 
0Txa3biBaeTCH. Kax o6nhho. B nepBbifi pa3 oh npHHHMaeT 
yroujeHHe, Koraa B03BpaiuaeTCH Hoibio. Oh aywaeT, hto y 
TyaHa xopoume hobocth. TyaH cmotpht Ha CTaporo Ao h thxo 
roBOpHT: 

— TaKoe cAynaeTCJi HenacTO? 

CTapbiH Ao KHBaeT: 

— KoHeHHO. 

ToAbKO CTapwii ^o 3HaeT, neM oh cnt. HanoAHJiioTCH ah 
Koraa-HH6yab ero mhckh? 

Oh Aer. He 3aKpbiBaxcb mockhthoh ceTKOH. 



TyaH 3acH\A. ho ckodo 6wa pa36y»cH rpoMKHMH yaapaviH 

B ABepb H KpHKOM! 

— OTKpoirre ABepb! IlpoBepKa iipohhckh! 

TyaH xcaaA stoto o6wcKa. Oh ywe noaroTOBH-\ OTBeTbi Ha 
Bee B03MO)«Hbie Bonpocw. Oh 3a«HraeT CBeT h OTKpwBaeT 
aBepb. ?I^HAHijjHbiH HHcneKTop h paooTHHK ao\ioynpaa\eHHH. 

Ohh 6ya>rr aioach cpcaH hohh. hto6w npoBcpHTb nponHC- 
Ky. 6e3 hi hkmx coma-\eHHH no noBoay npHHHHeHHoro 6ecno- 
KOHCTBa. (DaKTHHecKH 3T0 npoBOKauHOHHoe aeiicTBHe, koto- 

poe OHH. MOJKeT 6WTb. H He KCAaiOT, HO 06HMHM BbinOAHlITb 
BO HMD pCBOAlOlJHH. H 9TO yMCHblliaCT HX COBeCTb Ha 99 /0. 

.T.iiiH.m npoueaypa ao.uKHa Bbi3biBaTb y wepTSbi oiuyuje- 
HHe cTpaxa h yHHiKeHHH. 

ynoAHOMoneHHwe MOWM orAdawBaiOT ROMHaiy. Ohh nepe- 

CHHTblBaiOT. 

— Kto sto? 

Hx B3rA»A HanpasAeH Ha rpyay uon b yrAy. p«aoM c 

Ma.M'llbKHM XnenOM. Oae»Aa M.IMHH.IH il UieBCAHTBCH. H OTryaa 

noHBAaeTcn MopujHHHCToe ahuo CTaporo Ao co cnyTaHHbiMH 

BOAOCaMH H AWHHOH OODOAOH. Oh MHTaCT OT HpKOTO CBeTa. 

ripoBepHKHjjHe cmotpht Ha TyaHa. TorAa noAHHMaeTCH 
HroK, nonpaBAHeT oae»«ay. npHrAamHBacT boaocw h buxoaht 
Bnepea: 

— 9to Apyr Moero My ma. 

— Oh HMeeT BpeMeHHyio nponHCKy? 

— Eyjc HCT. 

TnuiHHa. HHcneKTop nowHMaeT umm. 

— ^airre MHe AOMOByio KHHry. 
HroK HujeT perHCTpaiiHio. 

— Y&e euje oahh pe6eHOKr 

— Moh aoHb yexaAa b AepeBHKJ. 

— Bbl CO06ujHAH BAaCTHM O ee BpeMeHHOM OTCyTCTBHH? 

— Oha noexa-\a k 6a6yuiKC c aeayuiKOH. 

— 3TO 3HaHHT. HTO Bbl HC CO061UHAH O ee BpeMeHHOM 
OTCyTCTBHH. TaK? 

TyaH moahmt, Htok Tome. 

— y rOCTH eCTb AOKyMCHTbl? 

CTapbiii Ao OTKHAbiBaeT oaeHAo. poeTCH b Meiune h Beujax 
h HaxoHeu HaxoAHT KaKHe-TO 6yMarH. 9to — cnpaBKa 06 

OCBOOOlKAeHHH. 

HHcneKTop 6epeT ahct. HHTaeT. rioBopaHHBaeT apyrofi 

CTOpOHOH — yaOCTOBepHTbCH. HTO He nOaatAKa. nOTOM rOBOpHT 

— yrpojtcaioijje h c HaMexoM: 

— 3.IM I I '.: Bbl 06a H BaiU TOCTb aOA«Hbl HBHTbCX B nOAHUHK) 
H 3aperHCTpHpOBaTbCH. 

riocAe yxoa«T. TyaH nbrraeTCH ycAbiuiaTb uiyM apjthx 
npoBepoK. Bee thxo. Ohh OpHCUAH, HT06W npoBcpHTb TCMbRO 
ero KHAHme. /^cth B03BpaiijaK>TCH 3a MocKHTHyio cerKy h 
saKyTMBaioTCH b oAenaa. CTapwii ^0 noAxoAHT k ctoav. hto6w 
Bee oocyAHTb, ho TyaH roBopHT: 

— y*e no3AHO. 4aBafiTe hcmhoto nocnHM. Ecah xothtc, 
noroBopHM 3aBTpa yrpOM. 

Bee MmUKM, ho KaK mowho cna-rb? TyaH hc xoneT 

npHBAeKaTb BHHMaHHC, BKAKJHaH HOHbK) CBeT. H BCAbM T0BO- 

pHTb B caAy: uienoT MoryT ycAbiuiaTb. 

BoAb. Boahchhc. Ohh othhm>t mow nponHCKy? H cnpaB- 
xy 06 ocBooomAeHHH CTaporo /k>? Eiye oaho oecnoxoflcTBo: 

OHH OCMOTpeAH TOAbKO eTO KOMHaTy. nOTOMy HTO .V.HI! > CAeAHT 
3a HCH H 3H8IOT. KTO npHXOAHT CK).ia. AaJKC eCAH yXOAHTb OHeHb 

paHO h npHxoAHTb oneHb no3AHO. Tenepb CTapmii Ao 6vact 

BHHHTb Ce6n 3a HenpHHTHblH HHUHAeHT. ho TyaH noHHMaeT, HTO 
3Ta npOBepKa 6biAa HanpaBAeHa npcrrHB Hero. Htok Towe. Ohh 
noHHAH HCTHHHyio noAonAeKy npoHcuieAUiero m HyBCTByioT 
ce6n 3arHaHHbiMH, KaK Ha oxotc 



4 KPyiOH MAPUIPYT BbETHAMA 



83 



CwaywiHHM yrpoM CTapwS 4° ocTa.\ca. Htok npHTOTO- 
BHAa kophh Aonyxa no.i pm6hmm coycoM h HaKpbua Ha ctoa. 
CeMcHHDifi 3auTpaK — 6oAbiuoc yAOBOAbCTBHe aa* CTaporo 
Ao. TyaH HacTaHBaeT, hto6w oh ct>ca ABe nauiKH. 

IlocAe 3aBTpaKa CTapbiH A° nonpocHA Htok cecn> » 
noroBopHTb c hhm. Oh CMOTpHT Ha n«THO Ha ctoac, mypwTCH. 
H MopijjHHKH coeraioTcn K yrXUI ero r.\a3. ToBopuT M BJU CTII O. 
TOpmeCTBCHHO. 

- fl aCHCTBHTCAbHO HaXOWyCb B OHCHb TpyAHOH CHTyaUHH. 

Bbi o6a noMorAH mnc, h h hc 3MaK>. KaK Bac 6AaroAapim>. 
Cbwui h AyMaA ocTaTbCH Ha TpH hah nuns AHeS. a npouiAO 
yjtsc abc hcacah. h 3to cAHiiiKOM Aajtte aa» Bauiero 6e3rpaHHH- 
Horo TepneHHH. TaK oaAbiue npoAOAwaTbca He mojkct. Baiua 

MiMHdTa OMCHb MOM H aah Bauiero cevieiicTBa. He rosops y»t 

npo MeH». ilern pacTyr. hm HywHo mccto aas Hrp h 3aHtn-Hii. 
H euje 3Ta npoBepKa hohmo. fl oieHb cowaAew, hto BocnoAb- 
SOMAC* Bauieii aooootoh. 

To, tto oh rosopHT — npaBAa. TyaHy oneHb TpyAHO AaBaTb 
npHK)T CTapowy Ao. 

4a*e Ha HeTbipe-nnTb nacoB b AeHb. /la*e ecAH oh 
3aHHMaer MaAeHbKHH yroA y BaAHeit ctchw. flume ccah oh 
nonBAHerc* h HCHe3aeT. KaK TeHb. Aawe ecAH oh CBeA Bee cboh 
HymAbi k MHHHMVMy. 0TKa3a8uiHCb ot nan. Ta6aKa. ot Bcero. 

tf»H3Hb HttCTOKa. BceM nOMOHb HeBO3MO?KH0. 

— CeroAHH b aac noKHAaio. fl He 3Haio. KyAa noiiAy. ho 
He Mory ocTaTbcn y Bac 6oAbiuc. Bw aoawhm Menu OTnycTHTb. 

Oh Bwr.vBAHT peuiHTeAbHo. ho BApyr c BOAHeHHeM cnpa- 
uiHBaeT: 

— Ohh OTHHMyT Bauiy nponHCKV? H mow cnpaBKy? 

Oh AaeT noHHTb. hto cHHTaeT ce6» BHHOBaTbiM. IlponHCKy 

H CnpaBKV BCpHVAH, HO C yCAOBHCM, HTO «HapyuiHTeAH» 
pacKaioTCH. Ohh aoaikhu npoBBAHTb yBaweHHe K MMtM 
wyHAHpaM*. y TyaHa aAAepnM Ha stot ubct. ho oh He CHHTaeT 

HH AK>ACH B (JlOpMC HH CTapOTO Jlfi BHHOBHHKaMH HeCHaCTbH 
B CBOefi JKH3HH. MhHOBHIIKH AHUIb BbinOAHHIOT ripHKa*. flUBC 

TaKHe, KaK HanaAbHHK AaM b Aarepe VQ. TyaH oohtcb 
jkcatoto (jBera, noTOMy hto oh Hepa3pwBHo ibhmh c wm 
BpeMeHein. KorAa ero «H<Hh 6mm noxowa Ha »H3Hb jkhbot- 
Horo. 

CTapMfi Ao npoiuaeTCH c HroK, KOTOpan ymt HAeT 3a 
BeAocHneAOM. hto6n exaTb Ha padkrry. Oh yeAyeT Ayoma, 
catioro MAaAuiero cbiHa TyaHa. TtMMCO ceroAH* tot noHHMaeT, 

HTO CTapHK C 3aMCHaTeAbHOH AAHHHOH OOpOAOH COM pMAOM C 

ero KpoBaTKoR. Tenepb. Ha pyxax y CTaporo Ao, oh MOweT 

HrpaTb C 3TOH OOpOAOH CKOAbKO 3aX0HeT. 4yOHra He OTTaAKH- 

BaeT HenpHBTHbiii 3anax ot oAemAbi cTapwKa, oh hc»ho rMAHT 
ero 6opoAy ot noAfSopoAKa ao rpyAH. CTapHK noAHOCHT ero 
pyKy k AHfly h BAbixaeT 3anax AeTCTBa. KOTopbrfi B03BpaiuaeT 
ero b HeAocTHJKHMoe npouiAoe, k cevtbe. 

Ero rAaaa TyMaHHTCB ot cacs. Biiah. hto CTapbiH A° 

turner, Ayour oTHHMaeT py*y. TorAa CTapHK 6mcTpo BCTaeT. 
ntKii.ii.iii.iH Ha iueHH cboh MeuioK c Bequa. 
— Bee. a yxowy. 

TyaH npoBOwaeT ero bhhs. 

no3*e, BcnoMHHaH CTaporo A°- TyaH noHHMaeT. hto sth 
BocnoMHHaHHR — caMwe T«*eAbie b ero KH3HH. Oh nyBCTByer 
ce6n BHHOBaTbiM. Oh bca cco» KaK spohct, oh coynacTHHK 
iipecTynAeHHa npoTHB CTaporo Ao. Kohchho, TyaH noHHMaeT. 

hto 3th o6bhhchhji Heo6oCHOBaHHbI H HecnpaBeAAHBbl, HO 

npoAOAwaeT pacKaHBaTbCH, He b CHAax CTepeTb H3 naMjrra yxoA 
CTaporo A°- 

Mecnuev no3«e CTapwfi Ao BCpHyACJL Oh BbirAHAeA Bee 

TeM We OAHHOKHM BnTaAHCOM C MeiUKOM, B BeTXOH OAOKAe c 

3anaxoM HHUICIM . Ho otahhhc 6wao: HecMOTpn Ha HecnacTHWH 

H yCTaAMH BHA. B l'W«\ nOBBVL\CB AyHHK ll,\.lc*.lbl. 



CTapwfi Ao cnpauiHBaeT: 

— y Bac ecrb KapaHAaui h 6yMara? 

Ero ohkh CAOMaHbi. >< oh He MoweT nucaTb. ripH6eraeT 
4yoHr norAaAHTb ero 6opOAy. 
CTapwS A° thxo roBopHT: 

— Hah. noHrpafi rAC-HH6vAb euje, AeAyuiKa noKa 3aHHT 

AeAOM. 

4yoHr HanpaBAHeTCH k nane. Tenepb oh moikct TOAbKO 
CMOTOeTb Ha 5opoA>'. 

CTapbtu Ao npoTaniBaeT KapaHAaui TyaHy: 

— Bw cMowere HaUHCtTb aa MeHd? 

TyaH noKa3WBaeT. hto totob. CTapbifi A" AHKTyeT: 

— ^CMOKpaTHHecKaH Pecny6AHKa BbCTHUI. Hc3aBHcn- 
MocTb. CBo6oAa. CiacTbe**. 

Cxjxfa roc6e3onacHOCTH. MnHyroHKy... MomeT 6l*Tb, 
Aynuie nncaTb b ynpaBAeHHe AarepH VQ? 

— O HCM Bbi rOBOpHTC? 

— H npomy cHOBa noMecTHTb MeH« b Mrepb, oroyaa owa 
ocBo6o?«AeH. 

TyaH ouieAOMAeH. Oh onycKaeT KapaHAaui h cmotpht Ha 

CTaporo A°- 

— f\ AywaA 06 3TOM. MHe Aynuie b Aarepe. y MeHH nei 
ceMbH. no3TOMy MHe Bee paBHO. 

TyaH noHHMaeT. ripenum* «H3Hb .\erne aak CTaporo ^o- 
Ho TorAa oh yjipeT TaM. Oh we oohtch yMepeTb b ReBOM? 

— fl ooAbuie TaK He Mory. 

Oh npaB. Ta «iunb, KaKyio oh BeAeT cefinac, eijje 
cTpauiHcc, hcm b Aarepe. 

— TorAa Bw aoajkhn CAMan 3anpoc b CAyjtc6y roc6e- 
3onacHocTH. Aarepb aah HHTepHHpoBaHHbix .\h\i iipHMer Bac 
TOAbKO no ee pacnopji>KeHHio. B tot Aarepb, rAe mw paooTBAH, 
Bac He nycruT. 

— Bw npaabi. IlHuiHTe. nowa-vyficTa. 

TyaH nHiueT. CTapHK Tepne.\HBo «AeT. Mepe3 HCKOTopoe 
B|Icmh TyaH roBopHT: 

— i\ BaM npoHHraio. 

«4eM0KpaTHHecKaa Pecny6AHKa BbemaM. 
He3aBHCHMocTb. CBoooAa, CnacTbe. 

ripotuy o B03o6HOBAeHHH saKAioHeHHH b Aarepe nepeBoc- 
nHTaHH«». 

CTapHK KaiaeT toaoboh: «A&- Aa...» 

— rioAnHUiHTecb .-.n-i i>. 

Oh noAnHCbiBaeTCH. rioTOM HaAewAa Ha ero AHjje ycTynaeT 
coMHeHHio. Oh rpycTHO roBopHT: 

— Ohh MoryT He corAacHTbCd. . . . 

9t0 6blA nOCAeAHHH pa3. Kcir.W CTapbiH A° npHXOAHA K 

Tyawy. Ero npocb6a TaK h He 6yAeT yAOBAerBopeHa. 

HaHHHasi c Toro ahb oh poeTCH b Kynax Mycopa nepeA 
pecropaHaMH h rocTHHHuaMH. 

noA6HpaeT ocTa-TKH cyna H3 HaiueK. CoOHpaeT KpouiKH 
x.\e6a. Oh npecAeAyeT abc ueAH: nepBa« — yTOAHTb toaoa. 
BTopax — ocyiuecTBHTb cboh nAaH: ohh MoryT apecTOBaTb ero. 
KaK 6pOA*ry, h noCAaTb b Aarepb aah ncpeBocnHTaiiH«. 
FlpaBAa. Ha cch pa3 oh 6yAeT yme yroAOBHMM npecTjTiHHKOM, 
KaK tot CTapbifi (ppaHuys, c KOTopNM oh CHAeA b Aarepe. 
o6BHHeHHbiH B Kpawe o&beAKOB B rocyAapcTBeHHbix pecTopa- 
Hax. 

Ho CTapwS A° HeyAaHAHB. PaHbiue npoBOAHAHCb KaMna- 
hhh ( «crystallyzing campaign* ) no saMHCTKe ropOAa or 6poA»r. 
Tenepb ropoA ywe hhct, KaK KpHCTa.\-\. h-\h He cobccm hhct. 



• Uyndupbi compydmjKoe BbemHaucKoJ zoc6e3onacHocmu - xenmoeo 
uaema - npuu. nep. 

" JloiyHZ hb ecex otpuuuant,Mbix dotyuenmax QPB/CPB do cezodwiw- 
Hezo dnt> - npuu nop 



14 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 



ho ohh He cHHTawT Hv>KHbi\i '<KpHCTa.\.\H3HpoBaTb>» ero eijje 
6o.\biue. 

KawnaHHH 3aKOHMeHa. pe3VAbTara 3aperHCTpHpoBaHbi. 11 
Tenepb sto — hctophji. 

y CTapHKa HeT apyroro Bbioopa. KaK ocraTbCH b ropoae. 
Cl)yi|i.iiiK.i cTa.\a coBceM aeAHKa 11 npHo6pe.\a HeonpeaeAeHHMH 
IjBeT. O.iHa/K.ibi TyaH BCTpeTHA ero. aocTaBAHS CHrapcTbi k 
IjeHTpaAbHOMy VHHBepMary. CTapwii Ap Hano\iHHa.\ mcuiok 
bstu. oh nepepbiBaA Kyty Mycopa Ha apyrofl CTopoHC y.wjjbi. 
9to 6t>L\o BecHOH 1975 roaa, b cepeaHHe ce30Ha aowaeH. 
cnycra 2 roaa nocAe toto, KaK TyaH buuica hs TiopbMM. 

CeBepHaH ApMH» HaiaAa HacrynAeHHe b IOjkhom Bbe™a- 

Me Ha BaHMeTxyoT. uiAa KaMnaiiiin aa BoccoeAHiiemic CTpaiibi. 
TyaH OKAHKHVA CTapHKa. HO TOT He OTBeTHA. nOAHOCTbK) 

cocpeaoTOHeHHbiii Ha CBoeM :<a>iHrmi. TyaH noaouieA. CTapHKa 
b aaiiAccHCBCAoM ip> ji.ihkc oKpymaA cHAbHbiH 3anax. KOTopwil 
BHceA b Bcoayxe. pacnpocTpaHHHcb .laAbiue no yAmje. Oh 
nooioTpeA Ha TyaHa. KaK Ha HcsHaKo.vina. h npoaoAWHA cboh 
noHCKH. He c Ka.i.m hh CAOBa. To ah oh He > :-tna a TyaHa. TO AH 

VTpaTHA I1.1MHT!.. Bo3MO}KHO. (ICIIIIIA OOOpDOTb BCC CBH3H C 

Utpymtaaqgrn h ocTaTbCH b oaHHonecTBe. KOTopoe Heo6xoaH- 

MO. HTOObl 3a6bm>. KTO Tbl TaKOH. H >KHTb B CBOeM MHpe. 

BpCMH OT Bpe.MeHH AKJAH BH.U'AH CTapHKa. OKpymeHHoro 
AeTbMH. MaAeHbKHH CTapHHOK C ryCTOH AAHHHOH 6opOAOH. C 

ueiiiKOM 3a nxentm. Oh xoaht no jBopaM, hto6m yxpacTb 
KaKyw-HH6yab OAeway. coxHyiyyio Ha BepeBKe. hah napy 
. .iii.i.i.Mi;i. ocTaBACHHbix nepea aomom. Ho ero bcc HHKan hc 
apecTOBMBaioT. /lame Koraa noiiMaioT Ha MecTe npecrynAeHHH. 
He ocy»saaioT. He pyrawT h hc 6bK>T ero. Hhkto hc Bbi3biBaeT 
iKMiqpao, ho name ecAH b noAHijHH y*nmr, to He oinpaBHT 
ero B Aarepb. Ero nAaH hhkoto He HHTepecyeT! 3aTO oh caM 
Bceraa HHTepeceH aeTHM. Koraa cTapHK BxoaHT b nepeyAOK, 
rae MHoro BepeBOK aA* cyuiKH. ohh uiyMHo npHBercTByioT ero. 
4eTH HCKpcHHe CMy paAw. rae 6m oh hh noHBHACH. Bhak 
Aio6oBb aeTefi. B3pocAbie wa.\eioT CTapHKa h He coooujaioT o 

HeM B nOAHlJHIO. 

TaK oh He nonaaeT b Aarepb HHKoraa. 





n*i ~m 

KamonwJecxuu xpau a Konmyue. 
nooie 1975 a ucnont>3yeubiu nan cxnad 

Oanawabi oh 3a6peA Ha yAHuy. rae jkhbct BHHb. Jlern 
cnpirraAHCb 3a yrAOM h thxo BbirAHANBa aii orryaa. KaK TOAbKO 
CTapHK B3hach 3a j >> OauiKy Ha sepesKe. ohh. cMencb. BbicbinaAii 
Ha y.\Huy. Hx paaocTb HenocpeacTBCHHa (ohh TaK >Ke paaw 
ynoAHOMOieHHbiM. npi(xn.inmii\i b hx ao.va aah npoBepKH). 
BeccAbifi cinex nc lanah.Mibdci CTapHKa. Oh onycKaeT pyKy H 
yxoam-, noKaHHBancb. H3 nepeyAKa. Amu noaoeraioT k He\iy. 
oKpymaioT h apa3Hirr. Oh yAw6aeTcn hm CHHcxoaHTCAbHo. 
4pynie aeTH jKAyr ero b apymx nepeyAKax h 6yavr oneHb 

oropMeHbi. ecAH CTapHK He aaiiAcr. Oh pajycT AeTeR. KaK 
CaHTa K.\ayc. ho CaHTa 6eccMepTeH. a CTapwfi ^o aowhmct 
nocAeaHHe ahh. 

Koraa oh ca notAtuHiiii pa3? Oh He noMHHT. Hto oh e.\ 
b tot aeHb? Oh ooAbiue He roAoaeH. 

LUaraeT, KaK AyxaTHK. Eiwy MTKO, oh He HVBCTByeT. KaK 
KacaeTca nn. 

llpHXoaHT aeHb. Koraa oh y*e He MojKeT hath. Ero avuia 
cbo6oaho napHT b Mefrax. 

9to oieHb npHHTHoe oijjyiHeHHe. oh paHbiue Tanoro He 
HcnbiTbma.v. HauiAocb h mecTo. rae mo?kho AeHb h MeiTaTb: 
pa3pyuieHHbiH xpau. flocM ?KeHeBCKHX corAameHHH 1954 
roaa* stot xpa.\t (Sua nepeaeAaH b ckotooohhio. Cbhhch 
npHBosHAH Tyaa b rpyMBHKax H3 aepeBHH. 3aKa.\wBa.\H h 

yBOBHAH muco Ha pbiHOK. 3aetb 6mao MHoro cyeTbi >i uiy>ia: 

ypiaHHe rpy3OBHK0B. bhst cbhhch. CKpHn TCAer. Ha Kcrropbix 

nOAB03HAH pHC, 4To6bl 06MeHHTb Ha CBHHOH noMeT, HCn0Ab3y- 

eMNH KaK yaoCpcHHe, 6yAbKaHbe b KOTAax c khiihii:i-h boaoh, 

HT06bl rOTOBHTb KOp.M CBHHbHM. 

BoHHa BblHVAHAa AKW(eS OCTaBHTb TOpOA H HCKarb y6e>KH- 

ijja b ceAbCKofi MecTHOCTH. noBToviy xpaM 6oAbiue hc ncnoAb- 
ayeTCH KaK ckoto6ohh«. Oh npHiucA b no.Mibiii ynaAOK. HeT 
6oAbiue 6orocAy>KeHHH. HHKaKHX cAeaoB cBHHoro no.MeTa. 

MoJKHO y'BHAeTb TOAbKO AeTyHHX MbllUCH. 9to — Haea.\bHoe 
mccto aam rpe3. Hhkto He TpeBowirr CTaporo ^o. 

9hi})OPh». Oh HHHera He noMHHT. TOAbKO lyBCTByeT. <rro 
nAWBCT no Bosayxy. 

CTapbift ,4o He yMep b TwpbMe, ero +ce vamic c6biAocb. Oh 
6oAbiue He npHaeT k acthm. KOTopwe ero mayr. 

CHanaAa ohh 6yayr no Heiny cKynaTb. 

FIoTOM HaHHyr 3a6biBaTb. 

H 3a6yayT coBceM. 

nepeeod c aHznuucKozo: 
MpuHa u BnaduMup XOJIMOrOPCKHE 



Oemu us npupancda Cafeona 



• 21 UK3MB 1954 a. e Menese 6binu nodnucanbt cosnauj0nup. coznacno 
Komopbiu BbamMBu 6bin pajdene* no 1 7-0 napannenu hiUPB u /Owmnu 
Bbemnau - npuui. nap. 



«J KPYTOfl MAPUIPYT BbETHAMA 



85 



nPABA HEJIOBEKA BO BbETHAME 

V\3 omeia Human Rights Watch. 2002 roA 




H3 OTseTa opraHM3aunn no npaaaM se- 

noeeKa cneayeT, hto b 2001 roAy Ha- 

6nioflanncb 3HaHMTenbHbie HapyweHHfl 

npaB nenoBexa bo BbeTHaMe, oco6chho 

a o6nacTn cBo6oflbi BeponcnoBeflaHun 

B (feeBpane CMnaMM 6e3onacHoc- 

tm, b oTaeT Ha HeoflHOKpaTHbie npoTec- 

tw no noBoay npaBa Ha 3eMmo b UeHTpanbHOii Tophom 

MecTHOc™. apecTOBaHbi MHorne BbeTHaMuu, npHHaA^e- 

waiUHe K STHUMeCKOMy MeHbWHHCTBy M0HT3Hb5!pOB (ebem- 

HaiucKux eopuee napodHocmu deaap - npuM. ped.). Cpe- 
nn 3aaep>KaHHbix. apecTOBaHHbix urn npecneAyeMwx - 
MHorne pennrnosHbie nuaepu m nonnTunecKne ahccm- 
neHTbi. nneHbi 3anpeiueHH0^ bo BbeTHaMe OBteflMHeH- 
hom ByAflnvicKoii LJepxBH. npnBep>KeHLiu 6yaflniiCK0M cex- 
Tbi Xoa Xao. xaTonnxn. /ioam, OTKa3aBLunecn ot MnencTBa 
bo BbeTHawcKoii KOMMyHncTtmecKOii napTnn. BeiepaHbi 
bomhw m napTnn, xpnTw<ytomne nonnTnxy napTUH. 

Ha6paHne b anpene 2001 roAa Ha IX ffbeafte napTnn 
HOBoro TeHepanbHoro cexpeTapn KI1B HoHr flyx Mann 
(Nong Due Mann), M3BecTHoro xax cTopoHHuxa KOHTaxTOB 
c 3anaflOM, AaBano Hafle>KAy, mto BbeTHaM (fopcupyer 
npoBeAenne pecfcopM. 3tm Haae>KAbi pasBennncb y>«e x 
OKTq6pio. 



B cpeepane 2001 rona 6ecnpeuefleHTHbie MaccoBbie 
npoTecTbi BcnuxHynn b nposuHunax fl>xnanavi (Gia Lai). 
flax/iax (Dak Lak) n KoHTyM (Kontum) b UeHTpanbHoti 
TopHOM MecTHOdn. TwcflHM MOHraHbspoB (MHorne M3 
kotopwx - xpucTnaMe) co6panncb. tnoSu noTpe6oB3Tb 
npaBa Ha 3eMnio n CBo6oay BepoMcnoBeaaHHH. B OTaeT 
Bnadu nocnann BOiicxa b pernoH, nonnunn npon3Bena 
TiuaTenbHWki po3wcK nono3peeaeMbix nwAepoB, apecTo- 
paB b (peBpane. no MeHbiueii Mepe. ABaauaTb ^enoBen. 
HecxojibKO apecTOBaHHbix bo apeMfl apecia m b TeMeHne 
Aonpoca 6binn h36htw nonnuePiCKHMM nnn noABepmyTw 
nwTKaM aneiapMHecTBOM. Bo MHorux ropHbix o6nacTax 
npaBmenbCTBO 3anpeTnno co6npaTbcn rpynnaMn 6onee 
neTbipex nenoBex. BBeaeHbi orpaHnneHns cbo6oaw ne- 
peflBM)xeHMfl, ycuneHw npecneaoBaHna npoTecTaHTOB- 
MOHTaHbnpoB m Ha6rnofleHne 3a hmmm. BHewHns h BHyr- 
peHHHfl TenecpoHHan CBH3b b pernoHe 6bma OTx/roneHa b 
Te^eHne Hecxonbxnx Heaenb. flunnoMaTbi m nHocipaH- 
Hbie cpeacTBa MHCpopMau.nn He MMetoT aodyna b 06- 
nacTb, xpoMe noAAepxoHHoro npaBMTenbCTBOM npecc- 
Typa b cepeflMHe MapTa n neTbipexAHeBHOM noesaxn aMe- 
puKaHcxoro nocna b urane. 

Bonee TMCMM MOHTanbapoB eexanu b KaM6oA*y, 
hto6w M36e>xaTb apecia. B ceHTn6pe HapoflHbie cyaw b 
npoBUHuunx flaxnax m flixnanaii npuroBopunn neTbipHafl- 

U3Tb MOHTaHbflpOB X TKjpeMHOMy 3aX/lK)MeHHK3 cpoxoM OT 

ujecTn ao ABeHaAuaTM neT no o6bhh6hvik) b HapyiueHnn 
rocyAapcTBeHHoii 6e3onacHOCTM, cornacHO cTaTbe 89 
YronoBHoro Koaexca. no xpaiiHert Mepe. aecnTb MenoBex 
6binn npuroBopeHbi Ha HecKonbxnx panoHHbix cyaax, 6e3 



ornacxn npoBeaeHHbix b flax/iaxe n flx<nanaiie b oxT«6pe. 
mo flOBOAHT o6iyee xoriMHecrBO ocy>KAeHHbix x Hon6pK) 
2001 r. ao ABaauaTu MBTbipex MenoBex. 

Human Rights Watch nonynnna coo6u»eHne o noA- 
>xorax opraH3Mw roc6e3onacHOCTn npoTecT3HTcxnx uepx- 
Bevi b LleHTpartbHOii TopHOPi mccthoctm. 10-ro MapTa 
conAaTw m BoopyixeHHan nonnunn c snexTpuMecxuMn 
Ay6nHxaMM npoBenn o6naBy b aepeBHe nnewnao (Plei 
Lao), oxpyr Myce (Chu Se) npoBMHunn flwHanaii, rAe 
HecxonbKo coTeH cenbcxnx xuTenefi h3poahocth A*apaM 
(Jarai) npoeoAnnn homhom Mone6eH Koraa nonMuewcxue 
apecTOBann OAHoro Monoaoro xpecTb^HMHa. coSpaBujan- 
cn Tonna nonbnanacb BbiTaiyiiTb tOHomy M3 nonnueiicKO- 
ro A"<nna nonnuHs m conaaTbi 6pocann b Tonny rpaHaTbi 
co cne30TOMMBbiM rasoM. a 3aTeM OTxpbinn oroHb MHorne 
6binn h36mtw \a paneHw, h, xax MHHMMyM, oahh xpecTbn- 
huh. no MMeHM PMax BnnH (Rmah Blin). 6bUl y6nT. Bnoc- 
neACTBun coTpyAHMXM opraHOB 6e3onacHOCTn co>xrnM 
AepeBeHcxyw uepxoab AOTna MeTBepo M3 apecTOBaHHbix 
npo6binn b TrapbMe b nneiixy (Pleiku) no okt«6ph. B 
ceHTfl6pe oflMH n3 jxnTeneiS AepeBHM nneiinao (Plei Lao). 
Cmh3 Box (Siu Boc), 6bin npnroBopeH cyAOM b fl^nanafie 
x oAMHHaAuaTu roflaM 3axntOHeHtin b TiopbMe. 

B Hanane mkjhb MecTHbie BnacTM npoBenn Hecxonb- 

X0 MaCCOBblX aXUMM, BO BpeMS XOTOpUX MOHTaHbHpOB. 

yMacTBosaBiuMx b cpeBpanbCxoii AeMOHCTpaunn. BbiHyw- 
AanM npM3HaB3Tbcn b npeAnonaraeMbix npocTynxax m 
OTxa3biBaTbcn ot xpucTnaHCTaa nepea )KMTennMM Hecxonb- 
xnx flepeeeHb, a b cxpenneHwe xnnTBw 3acTaBnnnn nuTb 
puTyanbHoe pucoBoe bmho. cMeaiaHHoe c xpoBbw >xepT- 
BeHHoro xoana. 

riOBCKJAy BO BbeTHaMe MeTOAMHHO npOBOAHTCS K3M- 

naHn« 3anyrnaaHMH n cnewxn 3a M3BecTMbiMM nonnTMHec- 
khmh AMccuneHTaMM. 9 (fceapanH axaaeMMx Xa Cm <t>y (Ha 
Sy Phu) 6wn noMeiueH noA aAMMHHCTpaTHBHwii apecT Ha 
flBa roAa b AanaTe (Dalat) no nofl03peHMto b coTpyaHMne- 
CTBe c «Bpa>KAe6HbiMM cnnaMn» 3a rpaHnuew. B tom we 
caMOM Mecnue aeMoxpaT-axTMBucT By Kao KsaH (Vu Cao 
Quan) 6bin Hecxoribxo pas Bbi3BaH b nonnqnK) nocne Toro. 




'^JLwaSSfiSS 



1 1 1 •■ 



^^ 




QewoHcmpauun abemHauuee e Kanade neped 3damj9M 

napnausnma e Ommaee e 3nat< npomecma npomue apecma eo 

Bbunmauv npenodoBHOio Cui Xyow Kyeia u Cuh Hyan £o 

1 o*ma6pfi '995 2 



IE 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 



k3k opraHki30Ban BCTpeny qiw oBcynvieHns AeMOKpaTH- 
yecKnx peqbopM b XaiicpOHre. 24 anpenn. wepe3 Aecsub 
flHeii nocne serpen* b XaHoe c apyrnMM aKTHBHCTaMn- 
aeMOKpaTaMM, By 6wn apecTOBaH. 26 anpenn rpynna 
xaHOMCKMx rioiinueiicKnx HBunacb b aom apyroro M3Becr- 
Horo flHCCWfleHTa XoaHr MuHb Hmha (Hoang Minn Chinh) c 
Tpe6oBamieM HBHTbcn b nonnueMCKUM ynacTOK. XoaHr 
MuHb MMHb OTKa3ancn n b TeneHne roaa Haxoannca noA 
H3A30POM nonnLiHn 

B MK)He TaMHan nonnunn 3aAepa<ana b Xolummuhb 
Han6onee annHTenbHoro BbeTHaMCKoro AnccufleHTa. 
TpaH flo (Tran Do), n KOHCpucKosana HepHOBMKn ero 
MeMyapoB. Bnoc/ieacTBUM TpaH flo o6pa™nc« k /infle- 
paM napTnn m Coi03y nMcaTenePi BbeTHaMa c nucbMOM. b 
kotopom Tpe6oBan BepHyTb ustflTbie npon3BefleHMH. 

npaBmenbCTBO ycnnnno npecneaoBaHun b ceHTn6- 
pe, Kor^a b Xanoe 6t>inn saAepooHbi nnTHaAuaTb anccti- 
aeHTOB, BioiioHan <I>aM Kbio floHra (Pham Que Duong). 
XoaHr TueHa (Hoang Tien), XoaHr MuHb Hmhs (Hoang 
Minh Chinh), TpaH BaH Kxioe (Tran Van Khue), HryeH By 
Buna (Nguyen Vu Binh) n HryeH TxaH fl>KaHra (Nguyen 
Thanh Giang). Bioporo cenTn6pn, KaK pa3 nepeA apec- 
tom, <DaM Kbto floHr h Tpan BaH Kxioe npeacTaemin Ha 
paccMOTpeHne npaenTenbCTBa 3anpoc o qoopMnpoBaHnn 
He3aBncnM0ti opraHMsaunn npoTUB KOppynuwu. 9-ro ok- 
th6ph TpaH BaH Kxioe 6wn oq^nunanbHO noMemen noA 
AOMaujHMM aped Ha cpoK ao AByx neT, b cooTBeTCTBun c 
nocTaHOBneHweM 31/CP. B (peBpane m b utone 2001 r. 
OaM Koe flyOHr n apyrne AMCCMfleHTbi noAnncann o6pa- 
meHne k pyxoBOAHTenaM KF1B c npn3biBOM OTMeHHTb 
nocTaHOBneHMe 31/CP, kotopwm paapewaeTsaKnioMeHvie 
ao AByx neT 6e3 cyAa. 

noriMUMn HeoAHOKpaTHo b TeneHne roaa Bbi3biBana 
na Aonpoc 6yAAniiCKoro MOHaxa Thm KBaHr flo (Thich 
Quang Do), BToporo no paHry cnywHTenH 3anpeiueHHOM 
O6te,anHeHH0H EyAAMMCKoii L(epKBM BbeTHaMa (OEL|B). 
HeTBepToro qaeBpann Tmh KBaHr flo 6wn apecTOBaH n 
o6bicKaH TaiiHOM nonnqneii nocne nocemeHMfi mm Bwc- 
uiero naTpnapxa OBL|B Tmh HryeH KBaHra (Thich Huyen 
Quang), KOTopbiw naxoAMTcn nofl AOMawHMM apecTOM a 
KBaHmae (Quang Ngai) c 1982 roaa. B MtOHe Tum KBaHr flo 
6wn noMemen noA aAMUHMCTpaTMBHbm aped Ha ABa 
roAa b CBoeii naroAe nocne Toro, xax oh o6faflBMn, mto 
HaMepesaeTcs conpoBOAMTb Tmh HryeH KsaHra b Xoujm- 
mmh pj\n neHeHHH. B to we caMoe BpeMn 6wnn 3aAep>Ka- 
Hbi Tpn Apyrux MOHaxa OBLJB - Tmh KxoHr TaHb (Thich 
Khong Tanh), Tmh KBaHr XbW (Thich Quang Hue) n Tmh 
Tan Ah (Thich Tan An). Braporo ceHTn6ps 2001 r Xo TaH 

AHb (Ho Tan Anh), nMAep 
sanpeuieHHoro flsuweHMH 
By/j-AMMCKOM MonoaewM 
(flBM), BxoAnujeroBO&UB, 
coBepujMn aia caMoawoKe- 
hmb b flaHaHre (Danang), b 
3Ha< npoTecTa npoTMB ot- 
cyTCTBMfl pennrno3HOi'i to- 
nepaHTHocTM bo BbeTHaMe. 
B TeneHMe nocneAytomux 
MecnueB nonMUMB HeoflHOK- 
paTHO npon3B0Anna o6wc- 
km b Aowax PMflepoB flBM 

KaK m b npoweflLune 
roAw. npaBMTenbCTBO no- 
3Bon«no penMmo3HyioAeB- 




BbemnaucKuO xpucmuamjH 

To JJuh TpyHb e miopbMe 

1998 a. 




EnucKon Hzyen Ban flu eo 
8peM» cyda. OKmn6pb 2001 z. 



Te/lbHOCTb TOnbKO otpn- 
unanbHo npMSHaHHbiM 
uepKBfiM m opraHM3auM- 
bm. B anpene 2001 roAa 
TocyAapcTBeHHoe 6io- 
po no pennrMM npM3Ha- 
no EBaHrenncTCKyw L\e- 
pxoBb BbeTHaMa, npe- 

AOCTaBMB 3aKOHHblM 

CTaTyc npM6nM3MTenb- 

HO TpeM COTHHM OT- 

oenbHbix uepKBeii Ha 

K)re, MrHopupys npn 3tom 5onee MHoronncneHHyra npo- 
TecTaHTCKyio o6mMHy Xpur.rnaH sthmmcckhx MeHbaiMHCTB 
ymeMnnnM b npaBax. 3acTaBnnfl OTKa3biBaTbcn ot Bepw 

He TOnbKO B UeHTpanbHOM TopHOM MeCTHOCTM, ho h b 

ceBepHbix npoBMHMMsix Jlansay (Lai Chau), JlaoKaM (Lao 
Cai) n XarMaHr (Ha Giang). no MeHbweM Mepe. tuecTHaA- 
uaTb npeACTaBHTeneiii napoAHOCTM xMOHr (Hmong) Haxo- 
AflTCfl a TiopbMe a npoBMHuunx flaMHay, ByHb$yK (Vinh 
Phuc) m TpaHbxa (Thanh Ha) c 0KTs6pa B anpene m MioHe 
nonMUMn XoujMMMHa 3anpeTMna cny>t(6bi. npoBOflMMbie 
MeHHOHMTCKMM nacTopoM HryeH 

XOHr KaaHroM (Nguyen Hong Quang), a 17 aBrycTa 
ero M36nnM n apecTOBanM no npMMMHe pa6oTbi b uiKone 
«6es ocpMLjManbHoro pa3peiueHMn». 

B fWBape Xa XaM (Ha Hai), reHepanbHbiM cexpeTapb 
3anpemeHH0M uepxBM Xoa Xao, 6bin npuroBopeH k nnTM 
roA3M TwpbMbi 3a HapymeHne AOMaujHero apecTa h «3no- 
ynoTpe6neHne aeMOKpaTMMecKHMM npaeaMM» 17 MapTa 
KyaHr flueM (Quang Liem), npeAceaaTenb ueHTpanbHoro 
coBera 6yAflHMCKOM uepKBM Xoa Xao, 6bin apecTOBaH b 
XoujMMMHe flByMti AHflMM no3>Ke nneH stom uepKBM HryeH 
TbM Txy (Nguyen Thi Thu) b 3Hax npoTecTa noKOHHM/ia c 
co6om b npoBMHUMM floHiTxan (Dong Thap). B TeneHMe 
rofla 6binM BbiHeceHbi npMroBopbi ApyrMM sneHw Xoa Xao: 
Xo BaH TpoHry (Ho Van Trong) h TpyoHr BaH flyxy (Truong 
Van Due). 

HecMOTpn Ha MOHbCKMii BM3MTAerierauMM BaTMxaHa 
80 BbCTiaw. ycTaHOBneHMe flMnnoMaTMsecKnx CBH3eM 
Me>KAy BbeTHaMOM u BaTMKaHOM npoABMraeTcn c TpyAOM. 
BbeTHaMcrae npaBMTenbCTBo npoAonwaeT HacTaMBaTb 
Ha ynacTMM b Ha3HaHeHMM oao6peHHbix BaTMKaHOM ennc- 

KOnOB, npMHflB B MK3H6 TpM KBHflMAaTypbl M OTWIOHMB TpM 

Apyrne. OAHaxo BnacTM BbeTHaMa paapetuMnn xaTonM- 
K3M noceiyarb eweroAHyio npa3AHMMHyio Meccy b necTb 
BoroMaTepM b ApeBHeM xpaMe Jla BaHr (La Vang Church ) 
b npoBMHu.Mii KyanrrpM (Quang Tri). B MapTe enncKon 
HryeH BaH Jin (Nguyen Van Ly) 6bin noMemeH noA AO- 
MaujHMM apecT e Xhd3 (Hue) n noABeprcn ocywAeHMto 
rocyAapcTeeHHbix cpefldB HHCpopMaqnM, nocne Toro Kax 
oSnapoAOBan OTneT AlMpMUttlCMOfl Kommccmm no Me>KAy- 
HapoAHOii PenMrM03HOM CBo6oAe. 17 Man oh 6wn apecTo- 
Ban nocne 6orocny>KeHMn. Ha kotopom, npeAnono>KMTenb- 
ho. pacnpocTpaHjin nMCTOBKM. HryeH BaH J1m 5bin o6bm- 
Hen b HapyiueHMn AOMaujHero apecTa m b noacTpeKaTenb- 
CTBe o6mecTBeHHbix 6ecnopnflKOB. B OKT«6pe oh 6bin 
npMroeopeH HapoAHbiM cyAOM b npoBMHUMM TyaTbeH-Xtoe 
(Thua Thien-Hue) k ntiTHaAuaTM toasm TKDpeMHoro 3awito- 
neHMa 3a «noAPbiB nonMTMKM HauMOHanbHoro eaMHCTBa» 
m HapyujeHMe McnbuaTenbHoro cpoKa (CTaTbM 87 m 269 
YronoBHoro KoAeKca). 

no MeHbiueii Mepe. Tpn nneHa KaTonMsecKoro BpaT- 
CTBa BoroMaTepM HcKynnTenbHMUbi (Catholic Congregation 



4 KPYTOH MAPUJPyi BbETHAMA 



17 




PanBHHbiO nonuuueu 

ytacmmjK deuoncmpauuu 

npomecma neped miopt>uou 

VomoG 7 deita6pn 2000 a. 



of the Mother Co-Rede- 
mptrix). 3aKmo>4eHHbix b 
TiopbMy b 1987 r. 3a npo- 
BeaeHne KypcoBo6yMeHna 
h pacnpocTpaHeHne khmt 
penwrno3Horo xapaiaepa. 

AO CMX nop HaXOflflTCS! B 

HeBone. 

CeoSofla opraHH3a- 
unii ocTaeTcn oneHb orpa- 
HMMeHHOti. Co3jaHne ne- 
3aBncnMwx accounaunvi. 
npodpcoi03OB m/ih Henpa- 
BMTenbCTBeHHwx opraHM- 
3aunvi no-npewHeMy 3an- 
peiyeHO. npasnTe/ibCTBO 
pa3peainno HecKonbKO He- 
6onbwnx aeMOHCTpauMti n «chahhmx 3a6acTOBOK» npo- 
tub 3axBaTa 3eMnn m KOppynu.un. B Mapie cocronnacb 
HeoSbiHHo 6o/ibiuan fleMOHcrpaunn npoTecia b XaHoe: 
naTbCOT MenoBeK M3 cesepHOM npoBUHLtnn Conna (Son 
La) co6panncb OKono MaB3onen Xo UJm MnHa, a°« Toro 
Mro6bi OTCTonTb npaBa Ha 3eMnio. rionnuna, paapeiunB- 
ujan npeACTaBnTenflMfleneraumi BcrpeTWTbCH CAonawo- 
CTHbiMM nnuaMH. 6biCTpo 8bicTaBnna Ha nnouiaAH 3arpa- 
fluTeribHbiki KopflOH. B KOHqe kohuob npeMbep-MMHUdp 
3anpeTnn o5mecTBeHHbie npoTecTbi b XaHoe, o6mchh$i 
3to co6nK)fleHneM Mep 6e3onacHOCTn a/in IX cteaaa 
napTHM. 

3a6acT0BKM, ao aToro peAKne, ysacTMnMCb b Tene- 
Hue roAa. rnaBHWM o6pa30M ohm 6binn nanpaBneHbi 
npoTUB HHOCTpaHHwx m MacTHbix KOMnaHHM. B Te-neHMe 
nepsoro nonyroAns npon30iuno 6onee ABBHaAuaTu 3a6a- 

CTOBOK B XOUJUMMHe HpOTMB KOMnaHMM C MHOCipaHHbiMH 

MHBecTnuMSMn B aBrycTe 6acTOBann 6onee neTwpexcoT 
xoluhmwhckmx pa6oMnx nerxoii npoMbiiuneHHOCTn c Tpe- 
6oBaHneM BbinnaTMTb 3apa6oTHyio nnaTy n npoiecTOM 
npoTHB cnynaeB n36.teHnq oepeMeHHwx paCoTHMu. Ha 
npeAnpMHTMM, npMHaAne*atueM KHKHOKopetiCKOki KOMna- 

HMM. 



Bee cpeACTBa Maccosoii MHCpopMau.nu no-npe>KHeMy 
npnHaA/ie>KaT rocyAapcTBy h wecTKO KOHTporwpyioTCfl. 
HeT hm oAHOfi nacTHoPi ra3eTbi n/in TenexoMnaHMH. Hhoc- 
TpanHbiM cpeACTBaM HHcpopMaunn Tpe6yeTcs aapaHee 
nonynnTb pa3peujeHne MHHHcrepcTBa MHOcrpaHHbix Aen 
Ann Bcex noe3flOK BHe XaHon m CTupaTb Bee MHTepBbo c 
BbeTHawcKHMn rpa>KAaHauM no npoiuecTBun neTwpex 



QHev\ B wone BCTynwn Benny HOBMfl AeKpeT 31/2001/ND- 
CP o cpencTBax iiHdpopMauHH. Oh npeAycMarpuBaeT na- 
no>KeHvie WTpadpa 3apa3Hoo6pa3HbieHapyweHM5i, bkxiio- 
naiomne nepen3flaHne sanpeiyeHHOH nnTepaTypw, npea- 
HaMepeHHyiony6nMKaL|niocpeACTBaMMHHct3opMaunnno>K- 
Hbix CBeAennii m M3AaHne npon3BeAeHnii. coAep>KamMx 
nopHorpa0nio nrin <>cyeBepMni>. 

BaBrycTe npaBmenbCTBonpuHtino AeKpeT, KOTopbiii 
ycTaHaBnueaeT eiye 6onee ciporne orpaHnseHnn Ha Ae- 
BTenbHOCTb MHTepneT-Kadae n ujTpadjbi sa «He3aKOHHoe» 
ncnonb30BaHne MHTepHeTa, b h3Cthocth 3a ncnonb30Ba- 
Hne nHTepneT-ycnyr MacTHux m HHOCTpaHHbix KOMnanmii. 
ripaenTenbCTBO CTporo cneAnT 3a AocrynoM HaceneHnn k 
HHTepHeTy, KOHTponnpyn AeiiCTBMn eA^HCTBeHHoro npo- 
saiiAepa. KpoMe Toro. npaBmenbCTBo ncnonb3yeT 6paH- 
AMayspbi onn 6noKnpoBaHnn AOCTyna k camaM. KOTopbie 
CHMTaeT npeAocyA^enbHbiMki nrai anccuncnTCKiiMH B 
aBryde AOCTyn b HHTepHeT 6wn npeKpaiyeH b npoanHunn 
OyvieH (Phu Yen) Ha tom ocHOBaHnn, mo MMenacb yrposa 
HaunoHanbHoti 6e3onacHOCTM. 



TtopeMHbie ycnoBna no-npe>KHeMy Hpe3BbiHai^HO cy- 
poBhi Human Rights Watch nweeT cBeflenns 06 ncnonb- 

30BaHHM KaHAanOB H OAHHOHHOrO SaWIKlHeHMfl B TeCHfcJX 

TeMHbix na wepax n36neHnnx , nuTKax apecTOBaHHbix snex- 
TpoujOKOM. B MKJMe ocpmjManbHan npecca coo6mnna. hto 
6onee MeM 1 7 npoueHTOB 3aAep>KaHHbix b TiopbMe Mnxoa 
(Chi Hoa) b XoiuMMMHe HaxoAnnncb b 3aKmoHeHnn nocne 
OKOHMaHnq cpokob, m oahh saKmoseHHbiti npo6bin b Tiopb- 
Me TpuHaAuaTb neT nocne Toro, ksk 6wn oceo6o>KAeH no 
anennnunn rionnue^CKne o6biMHO apecTOBbisanM n 3a- 
AeD*nBann noAOspeBaeMbix 6es opAepa Ha apecT, n ohm 
ocTaBanncb okoho roAa b 3aK/iiOMeHHM ao nonyHeHnn 
odpnunanbHbix o6bmh6hmm. nocTaiioBncnnc 31/CP nc- 
nonb30Banocb oneHb nacTo, HTO0U Aep»aTb AnccMAeH- 
TOB nOA AOMaiAHMM apecTOM. 



BbeTHaMCKoe npaBvuenbCTBO 3anpeoiaeT HeaaBM- 
cuMbiM accou^auHHM unn npaBOsaiAMTHbiM opraHH3aqn- 
AM b CPB BnacTM ynopHO npensTCTBOBanw KOHTaiaaM 
rpa>KAaH n opraHM3aunii c npeACTaBMTennMn MeayiyHa- 
Poahwx opraHM3ai4MM no npaBaM Hanosma. npaBMTenb- 
ctbo npoflonjKano OTKaabisaTb b pa3peujeHnn Mej^ayHa- 
POAhum npaB03aajMTHb.M cpraHM3aunflM TaKHM. Hanpn- 
Mep, K3K Human Rights Watch n Amnesty International, 
npoBOAMTb odpnunanbHwe muccmm bo BbeTHaine. 



AflPECA OPVMmM\V\V\ HO nPABAM HEJ10BEKA BO BbETHAME 

Free Vietnam Alliance Organization http://www.fva.org/ 

Vietnam Human Rights Network http://www.vnhrnet.org/ 

Vietnam Democracy Newsletter http://www.fva.org/vndemo.html 

Vietgate http://www.saigon.com/ 

Vietworld http://www.vietworld.com/index.html 



II 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 



TEMHblM KOOE 

CKpbiTbie MHrpeflneHTbi BbeTHaMCKoro Koc£>e 



CeroflHS BbeTHaM 3aHMMaeT BTopoe Mecro b Mupe 
no o6beMy npon3BOflCTBa Kocpe «Po6ycTa», m noMTH secb 
ypoMCafi 3Toro wxpe npnxoAHTcn Ha oflHy o6nacTb BbeT- 
HaMa - UeHTpanbHyio ropHyio MecTHOdb. 3ia o6nacTb 
HaxoflHTcn b ropax IO)KHoro BbeTHaMa n flenneTcn pofln- 
hom ManeHbKOM ropHoii HapoflHocTn aerap (MOHTaHbfl- 
poa) Kocpe. KOTopwii aaecb BbipamnBaioT. MoweT 6biTb 

XOpOUJMM H3 BKyC H HMeTb 3K30THMeCKOe H33BaHHe, HO Mbl 

MoweM nopyHMTbcn, hto ero 3epHa - sto ceMeHa HeHaBM- 
cth. B 3tot Kocpe Hy>KHo no/io>KMTb MHoro caxapa, 4to6w 
CKpwTb ero ropenb. 

rOPbKME CEMEHA HEHABMCTH 

ripO K3KyK> TOpeMb Mbl TOBOpUM? 

npo ropenb nblTOK, ropeMb penpeccHti, ropeMb 3Bep- 
CKoroo6paiyeHnn c mhphwm ropHWM nneMeHeM, KOTopoe 
HaxoflnTCH ceiiHac Ha rpaHM Bbi*nBaHns MoHiaHbspbi - 
o.iHa M3 caMbix ApeBHMX pac b Asmh - HaxoASTcn noA 
yrpo30ii no/iHoro HCMesHOBeHvw, noTOMy hto npaBmenb- 
ctbo BbeTHaMa KOHcpMcicyeT hx 3eMnn, cTepnnn3yeT weH- 
miiH, apecTOBbisac* nx>;jcu 

CeMeHa HenaBMCTu noceflHbi b 1975 roAy. Koraa 
KOMMynncTbi saHflnn tor BbeTHaMa. l~loflo6HO non riory, 
BnacTM flPB Hanann reHounfl npoTMB Hapoaa, KOTopwii 

KOMMyHMCTMMeCKMe HAeOTlOrM COMJTH HM3UJHM 

BO BpeMfl BbeTHaMCKOM BOUHbl MOHT3Hbnpbl coTpyA- 
HMMa/lM C aMepHKBHliaMH. CopoK TbICSW M3 HMX BoeBann 
Ha CTopoHe apMMn CILIA. 

Ohh 6oponncb h yMMpann BMecTe c aMepm<aHCKMMn 
conaaTaMU, 3acny>KHB mx flpy>tc6y n aoBepne. flo BbeT- 
H3MCKOM BOiiHbi 3tot ropHbiM Hapofl B TeneHHe MHorux neT 
npecnefloBancn snacTHMM CeBepHoro m KDxHoro BbeTHa- 
Ma, npeTeHflOBaBiuviMn Ha hx 3eMnn. y MOHTaHbupoB He 
6wjio apyroro Bbixoaa, KaK npucoeflUHMTbcn k AMepuKe b 
6opb6e npoTMB KOMMyHH3Ma. UPy n apMHH CLUA aaBep- 
6oBann nx tsk we, icax u cppaHqy3bi b nepBoii HHAOKUTaii- 
cko* BoiiHe. Ho BbeTHaMCKan BOHHa HeojKMflaHHO 3aK0H- 
Mimacb pna hhx nopa*eHneM. 



yPCOKAM TEHOUHAA H MECTH 

B1975r. ynoGeanBiunx KOMMyHncTOB nMenncb Bee 

B03MOWHOCTH AJTfl MeCTH. HaMaiTHCb Ka3HM 11 MBCCOBbie 

nenopTaunn b ncnpaBHTe/ibHO-TpyAOBwe narepn. 

KynbTypa MOHraHbsipoB noa 3anpeT0M. hx TeppnTo- 

pMM KOHCpMCKyiOTCfl. 

CeroflHH Ha 3eM/inx MOHTaHbflpoe BbipamnBaeTCfl 
Kocpe - tot caMbiPi SHaMGHMTbm BbeTHaMc<nn Kocfe 3a 26 
neT KOMMyHMCTHMecKoro pe>KHMa ceMena neHaBucTM 
npopocnn pocTKaMM reHOunAa n MecTM. 

Tenepb noHHTHo, noneMy BbeTHaMCKoe KO(pe rop- 
mmt. oneHb ropmiT. 

Mw paccKaweM bbm 06 nHrpenneHTax BbeTHaMCKoro 
Kocpe na tot cnyMaii, ecnn y Bac Bapyr ne xbstut caxapa 

M Bbl 3aXOTHTe y3HaTb, OTKyAa >K6 B3«nCS TaKOM OTBpaTH- 

TenbHO-ropbKMM npMBKyc. 

1. BoeHHoe nonoxemje. 

B cpeBpane 2001 r. BbeTHaMCKoe npaBHTenbCTBO 
o6bHBnno BoeHHoe noroweHne b LJeHTparibHOM TopHOii 
MecTHOCTn n Hasanacb pacnpaBa Haa ropHbiM HapOAOM. 

COTHM xpMCTMaH-MOHTaHbflpOB 6binn y6nTbl, 33MyMeHbl, 

apecTOBaHbi. TaHKn, BepToneTbi v\ 6onee 16000 coriAar 
Bee ewe HaxoAflTcn b stom o6nacTM m SnoKupyioT Bee 

CBS3M C BHeWHMM MHpOM. 

2. ribimKU, Ka3HU, mKipbMbl. 

Cny>K6a 6e3onacHOCTn nocneAOBana Bcnea 3a ap- 
Mneti, ^To6bi nwTaTb h apedOBbiBaTb MOHTaHbnpoB Be- 
weHUbi nwTanncb yKpwTbcn b KaM6oa>Ke. 

3. Cmepunu3au,usi. 

HannHan c 1990 roAa npaBUTeribCTBOocymecTBnfleT 
nporpaMMy no CTepnnn3aunn weHiitMH ropHoro HapoAa. 
Ohm BbinyoKAeHbi nn6o nnaTHTb iuTpa0, nn6o AaBaTb 

B3HTKH. HH60 6blTb CTepHHH30BaHHblMM. H 6e3 TOrO BblMM- 

paiowMki Hapoa MoweT coBceM ncHe3HyTb. 

4. npuHydume/ibHoe nepecenemje c KOH0uci<auueu 

36M/1U. 

HaMUHaa c 1975 roaa npaBMTenbCTBO BbeTHaMa 
npoBOA^T cMcreMaTMHecKoe nepecenenwe AepeBeHb moh- 




Tom caubiu ko&b.. 




Ktnaa uamb u3 nneueuu deaap 



4 



KPyTOl MAPIliPyi BbETHAMA 



TaHbnpoB, mto6w yHMHTowMTb 6onbiune neca M Ha MX 
Mede pa36nTb nnaHTaunn Kocpe, npHHaanewamMe BbeT- 
HaMCKOM BoeHiunHe. 

5. Penuauo3Hoe npecnedoeanue. 

fluflepw MOHTaHbnpcKOM uepxBu apecTOBaHbi m noa- 
BeprHyTw nbiTKaM aneiapuMecTBOM. HexoTopwe H3 hmx 
6eccneflHO ncMe3nn nocne apecia. ripecneaoBaHMn bo- 
3o6HOBnnncb c hobom cmtiom b 2001 roAy. conpoBO*aascb 

MaCCOBbIMM ap JCTaMM H M36neHHHMH 

6. Haapada 3a 6emeHu.ee-MOHmaHbftpoe - mex. xmo 
QbiHyMden dexamb U3 SbemwaMa u CKpbieambCff om 
opaanoe 6e3onacHocmu. 

BbeTHaMcroe npaBme/ibCTBo HasHannno Harpaay 
3a ronosy MOHTaHbnpa. B Mae 2001 roaa OOH m Human 
Rights Watch BMeaianncb. htoCw sammnTb 6e>KeHu.eB. 
cupbiBaioiiinxcfl ot opranoB 6e3onacHOCTn b KaM6o/w<e 
(KaMnyMnn). 

3tm «MHrpeflneHTbi» onacHbtons Hapoaaaerap. cpaK- 
TMHecKM- CMepte/ibHw. Mbi He yBepeHw. onactibi nn ohm 



TaioKe BHe BbeTMaMa, aeab ohm He aanpemeHN npaBM- 
TenbCTBaMM bo BceM Mnpe. 

fla, 3to HeBeposTHO. ho 3a npeaenaMM BbeTHaMa bw 

MOWeTB CBO6OflH0 KyriMTb 3T0T KOCpe M nMTb 6e3 BMaWMblX 

BpeflHbix nocneflCTBMM. MHorMe cTpaHw noKynaiOT ero m 
HacnawaaioTcn mm. ToproBwe caeriKH c BbeTHaMOM, KaK 
npoM3BOA^TeneM xocpe, noompnioTCH. a ero onacHbie 
cocTaBriHioaiMe ocTatoTcn 6e3 BHMMaHMa. 

OflHaKo Mbi He yBepeHbi, mto Te. KTOo6Hapy>«MT 3tm 
cocTaenniomMe, o6oMayTcsi Bcero nviuib flonoriHMTenb- 
Hoti nopu,neM caxapa. PaHO m/im no3flHo ropeMb aacT o 
ce6e 3HaTb noao6H0 ckpwtom onyxojiM. 

ribWUlMM 3T0T KOCpe MnM n03BO/lflK>WMM. MTo6bl OH 

6wn npoM3BeaeH, - MO>KeT oTpaBMTb cboio ayujy. 

no uamepuanau opaamnauuu 
«Montagnard Foundation, lnc.» 

riepeeod c anajiuucHoao: 
HpuHa XOJlMOrOPCKAR 




Mywutia u3 nneMemj deeep 



Qemu u3 nneueMu deiap e naeepe dim 6emeMu,ee 



>KeMUiUHa U3 nneuemj 
deaap. 



AOKJ1AA HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH O MOHTAHbflPAX 




23 anpeui 2002 roaa mmk- 
ayHapojHoii npaBoiatuiirHOH 
opi ami iauiicii Human Rights 
Watch uir.funkMH.iH aByxcoT- 
cTpaHHHHUM aoiuaa. B kotopom 

JOKVMCHTa.lbHO 3aCBHJCTe.il>- 
CTBOBaHbl CIICTCMaTII'ICCKMC lla- 

pyuiciiHH npaB McioBCKa b otho- 

UICHHII BbeTHaMCKHX MOHTailbH- 
POB CO CTOpOHM pC/KIIMa VlHOH. 

a TaK*e coaepjKaTca ccptmHue 
o6BHHeHim b aapcc KaMOoa>KH b 
HapyuicHHii \ic'/K.!>iiap,';iin.i\ 
kohbchuhh no iipjK.iv 6e>KCH- 
1KB. 
riocjic mhphoh acMOHcrpauiiH b (pcBpaac 2001 roaa. b 

XOaC KOTOpOH BbCTHaMCKHC MOHTaHbdpbl BblCTynillH npOTHB 

iiapyuieiiiia npaiia iiapc.iiiriiojiivio CBo6oay h nponm Kon<pnc- 

KaUHII MX ICMCTb. MTO lipilBC.TO K nOJIHOM)' 06HHUiaHHK> BbeT- 
HaMCKHX M.MII JHI.xpOR. 3aHHNiaK>UlHX B H3C IOHIUCC BpCMS 0.1HO 

in noc.icaHHx mcct Ha nnaHCTC no ypoBHw XH3HH, B.iacTH 
XaHOR oui.aHM hi MpciBbmaiiHce n.i. ioxchhc Ha TcppiiTopim 
npo*HBann>i MOHTanbupoB ii janpeTiuii .iioobie iiHcnck'miH b 



3TOM perHOHe CO CTOpOHbl MejKjyHapOaHblX HHCTHTyTOB II HC- 
3aBHCHMblX 3KCnepTOB. 

B xodc HCjaBHO cocroxBLUHxcx b EBponciicKOM nap-ia- 
mchtc jcoaTOB no BbeTHaMy. a otbct Ha HeojHOKpaTHuc Bon- 
pocu aenyTaTa EBponeiicKoro nap^asieHTa O.niBbe /JwniOH 
(Olivier Oupuisl.hBponcHCKHiiKoMHCcapnacKajibjlaMH (Pascal 
Lamy ) hc To^bKO rpirma.i OTBCTCTBCHHOCTb Komhcchii 3a 6c3- 
.'teiic i kir- KoMiiccapa EBponciicKoroCoioia no BonpocaM ry'Ma- 
HiiTapHoii noMoniH rio.ia He.ibCOHa (Paul Nielsen), ho h an 
cjiobo, mto Komhcchii npcinpHMCT Heo6xoanMbic uiarii c uc- 

.IblO .lOOHTbCS OT KaM6oj*H nsino IHl'llim CIO MCJK.lVHap03HMX 

o6»3aTenbCTB. KOTopwc ona Ha ce6a B3».ia. paTinhiiuiipoBaB b 
nuTiuecnTbie roau kohbchuhh no i ipanav 6c>f en i:ck. a i jk-zko c 
iit-.-i.K' .i«'i"iii'..-n ot BbCTHaMa na'ij.ia no.iHTHKii pecbopy. 

OaHaxo. cyan no iiHipopMaumi. nocTynaioiucH H3 jtoto 
pcnioHa. bmccto npoBcacHim pcipopM. o Koroptix roBopmia 
EBponcHCKanKoMiicciiii.BkCTHaMCKoeKOMMyHHCTHMecKoenpa- 
Biiio.ii.cino HanpaBiuio apMeiicKoe no.TKpen.neiiiie b K)*'Hbiii 
Hi.c i iKisi. r.ie npo/KHBaior MOHTaHbnpu. 11 ycwiiMO pc*"HM 
Mpe3BbiMafiHoro no.no*'CHii>i. acficTByiomcro b tiom paiione 

y*C OO.TCC lOja ll HaiipaBJICHHOlO lipOIHB KopCHHOlO iiaciMC- 

hh» ropHoro BheTHaMa. 

AaeHmcmeo «ripuMa» 



90 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 



...H a noMHO, hto Koraa b moux npOAO/ixnTe/ibHbix 6eceaax c xo3«hhom o xanecTBax rnoaeu. *nBymnx 
b apyrux Hacmx CBeia, MHe npuxoAHiocb ynoMUHaTb o jijkm n o6MaHe. to oh nuwb c 6o/ibwnM tpyaom 
noHMwa/i, hto n xony cxa3aTb, necMOTps Ma to, hto OT/iMnancn Go/ibuioPi ocTpoToii yMa. Oh paccyxAan Tax: 
cnoco6HOCTb penn aaHa HaM Ann Toro, HTo6bi noHHMaTb Apyr APyra u nonynaTb cseaeHnq o pa3/iwHHbix 
npeAMeTax; ho ec/in xTO-Hn6yAb cTaHeT yraepxAaTb to, nero HeT. to Ha3HaneHne Haujeii penn coBepweHHO 
M3BpamaeTca, noTOMy hto b stom cnynae tot, x xoMy o6pameHa penb, He MO*eT noHHMaTb cBoero 
co6eceAHMKa; h oh He To/ibxo He no/iynaeT HMxaxoro ocBeAOM/iennfl, ho 0Ka3biBaeTcn a coctohhhm xyAweM, 
neM HeBeAeHne. noTOMy hto ero yBepswT, hto 6enoe — nepHO, a A/iuHHoe — xopotko. 3tmm orpaHUMUBanncb 
Bee ero noHHTun OTHOcnTe/ibHO cnoco6HOCTM nraTb, b TaxoM coBepujeHCTBe n3BecTHOM h Tax mnpoxo 
pacnpocTpaHeHHOM bo Bcex nenoBenecxnx obmecTsax 

RMOHaran CbhQt -nyrewecTBHe ryunuBcpa b crpany rynrHrHMOB», 1726 r. 



KOMnAPTNH BbETHAMA flPOTMB MEMAVHAPDAHOM AMHHCTHH 

/le TXAHb 

«J10)KHOE nOHMMAHME nPAB HEJ10BEKA» 



KaKOBw ocHOBHwe npaBa nenoBexa? 

3to npaBO Ha >KH3Hb. npaBO 6wTb He3aaucnMbiM, cbo- 

60AHblM. HUeTb B03MO*HOCTb yflOBneTBOpnTb OCHOBHbie 

Hy)Kfloi B nuTaHnn. oaexue. <poae 

Ecru CBo6oAa m OCHOBHbie noTpe6HOCTn ymeMneHbi 
- 3to napyujOHMo npaB nenoBexa. 

Ecnn pacnpeAeneHne b GonbujuhCTBe CTpaH Mupa 
opraHM30BaHO Tax, hto MeHbWMHCTBO jxmbct b pockoujm, 
no3BonHfl ce6e Hepa3yMHyx) padOHHTenbHOCTb, - 3to Ha- 
pyiueHne npaB nenosexa. 

EcTb nwAn, Aonycxaramne 3th HapyweHna, .-. ecTb 
Apyme noan. ynopHWM rpy/joM npeoAoneBatomne hx. 

no6eflHbiii nyTb BbeTHaMa sicho noxasbiaaeT, mto 3Ta 
Haunt) npuHaAneixnT x dpyauM. HecMOTpq Ha yrBepacAeHMfl 
Me>xflyHapOAHOii Amhmcthm 06 o6pbthom. BbeTHaMijbi no- 
JKepTBOBann MMnnnoHawn wHSHeii. hto6u qo6^i=cn ocy- 
ujecTBneHnfl cbo^x ochobhhx npaB. Ohm He xoTenu bomhw, 
OHa 6bina nw HaBnsaHa. 

Bo epeMn bommw. HeBsnpan hb MewAynapoAHbie co- 
rnaiueHMfl, Bparn ncTpe6nflnn mmphwx wMTeneM. pacnwnn- 
nn flaoxuMMxaTbi, AO cwx nop npoAonxawmMe xanenMTb 

H3pOCnblX m aeTew. 

OnpeaeneHHO. HapoA BbeTHaua aannainn sa cbom 
OCHOBHbie npaea cnnwKOM Bbicoxyx) ueHy b HenoBenecicHx 
>xh3hax m MaTepnanbHbix 3aTparax, htoBw no3BonnTb ot- 
HBTb mx nio6biM cnoco6oM l~lo3TOMy BbeTHaMqea yquBnn- 
kjt yBepeHun MewyHapoAHOM Amhmctmh o «B03o6HOBne- 
hhh penpeccMti bo BbeTHaMe npoTus sthmhbckmx MeHb- 
ujmhctb. pennrno3Hbix m nonnTM-necxHX AnccMAeHTOB». Ohm 
xopoiuo 3Hax)T. hto BnacTM aenawT see B03MO)KHoe, HTo6bi 
6opoTbcn c ronoAOM m 6eAHOCTbX5, AoSneaflCb 6onbuiMx 
ycnexoB, m npeoaonewT nK>6bie npennTCTBMS, noTOMy hto 
C03AaK3T 6oraToe, MupHoe, cnpaBeA/inBoe o6iuecTBO. Bon- 
poc: «Kto 3anMMaeTCfl ncnoaTmuxa noACTpexaienbCTBOM, 
nwTaacb nycTMTb noA otxoc Ha6npaK)iunM cuny nporpecc 
BoeiHawa. m noneMy He Ha hux HanpasneHO BHUMaMne 
caM03saHHbix ciopoweabix ncoB n3 opraHM3auviM no saiuH- 
Te npaB HenoBexa?» 

ripaBMTenbCTBO BbBTHaMa cneAyeT kohctmtyumohho- 
My saKOHy o cso6oAe coBecTM n BeponcnoBeAaHnn. B TOixe 
BpeMA hmxto He Mo*eT HapyiuaTb saKOHw CTpaHw 6e3HaKa- 
38HH0, HesaBMcuvio ot seponcnoBefiaHH3 vtt\v\ y6e>KAeHMM. 
Bo BbeTHaMe npMopnTeTHw npaBa o6necTBa. ho rapaHTM- 
pyKDTcn m npaBa MHAMBMAyyMa. ripasa He cymecTByraT 6e3 
o6H3aHH0CTeM, ohm Bceiaa MAyT «pyxa 06 pyxy». 



ripeACTaBHTenbHuua MMHMCTepcTBa MHOCTpaHHbix Aen 
®3h Tyn TaHx chob3 n CHoaa noBTopneT, hto bo BbeTHaMe 

HST HM nOnMTMMeCXMX, HM pejlMTMOSHblX SaK/llOHeHHblX. B 

3axnioHeHMn HaxoA^TCfl rpa>KAaHe, npn3HaHHbie bmhobhw- 
mm b HapyuieHMM 3axoHOB CTpaHu. 

Bpa«ae6Hbie CMnai BcerAa MinyT npeAnorM OP^ o6bm- 
neHMfl, ho noneMy Me>KAyHapoAHafl Amhmctmh ne flosepneT 
Me>xAyHapoAHbiM Ha6nK>AaTennM, mmckjiahm Henocpea- 
cTBeHHyx) MHdpopMaumo o CMTyauMM b CTpaHe? 

ripM HSAaBHeM nocemeHMM TaftHryioeH (Tay Nguyen) 
(UeHTpanbHaa TopHan MecmocTb) HexoTopwe aMepMKaHC- 
KMe ocpnuManbHbie riMua m MHorMe MHOCTpaHHwe xtypHann- 
ctw Ha6nK5AanM xaiKAOAHeBHyo xcusHb mocthux >KMTeneM n 
pesynbraTbi rocyAapcTaeHHOM nonnTuxw, HanpaBnenHOM 
Ha ynyniueHMe counanbHO-sxoHOMMHecxoro nonoweHMH pe- 
ntoHa. 

Ohm oopaTunn BHMMaHMe Ha ynyniueHMe Maiepnanb- 

HOM M AyXOBHOM >KM3HM STHMHeCKMX MeHbOJllHCTB H Ha nOTlM- 

TMKy MunocepAMH n Ao6po»enaTe/ibHocTM x TeM, kto He3a- 
kohho 3MnrpMpoBa.n b KaM6oA>xy. 

BbeTHaM npMfio>xnn MHoro ycMnnti Ana coTpyAHnne- 
CTBa c KaM6oA)xevi m BepxoBHbiM xoMMCcapoM OOH no 
AenaM 6eixeHL(eB. ana Toro HTo6bi noMOHb rpawaaHa'.'. 
BBeAeHHWM b 3a6ny>KAeHMe apa>KAe6HbiMM cvinaMH n noxn- 
HyBUJMM CTpaHy, sepHyTbCfl b poAHbie flepeBHM m BOccoeAn- 
HMTbcn c ceMbnMM xax mowho CKopee 

B Mae npoujnoro roAa 6onbujan rpynna npeACTasnTe- 
neii OOH m pa3riMHHbix pennrno3Hwx KOHQ>eccnM BCTpeTM- 
nacb c rnasaMM ocHOBHbtx penMrno3Hbix xoHcpeccuM BbeT- 
Hawa - 6yAAMMCxoM, xaTo/iMHecxoii, npoTecTaHTCKOM. Ohh 
npM3HanM, hto MMenM mocto HeAopaayMeHMs n AesuHifop- 
MauMH oTHOCMTenbHO penur nosHoli cuTyauMM b CTpaHe. 

ycHriMH BbeTHaMa no pasaviTMK) aewoKpa™n m npaa 
nenoBeKa BTeneHMe npoujnoro AecnTMneTMH 6bifiM npw3Ha- 
hw TaxuMM MeiKAyHapoAHbiMM opraHM3auM$iMM. KaK Bce- 
mmphwu BaHK (World Bank), UNDP (nporpaMMa OOH no 
pa3BMTMK>) m MHornMn HenoaBHTenbCTBeHHbiwM opraHM3a- 
mMMM. 

Mncno npoKMBaiomMx 3a nepTOM 6eflH0CTM coxpaTM- 
nocb Ha 50 npoueHTOB, MHAexcpasBMTMs cTpaHbi noAHanca 
Ha 20 MecT no noxasaTenw BanoBoro HaunoHanbHoro npo- 
Ayxra na Aymy HaceneHMH. 

BbeTHaM - nepeae CTpaHa b A3mm m BTopas b MMpe, 
noAAepwaBiuas paTMdjMxauMK) MewyHapOAHOro comaiue- 
huh no ipaaaM pe6eHxa. 



4 



KPyTfll MAPIIIPyi BbETHAMA 



91 



3to CTpana, noflnncaBiiias MHorne cornauieHUfl m npo- 
TOKonw no npasaM Henoaexa 

TocyflapcTBO hcho 3a«Bnno o CBoeM HaMepenmi co- 
BepaieHCTBOBaTb HauaoHanbHyio topnawHecKyio CMcreMy, 
HToCbi crpana *nna TonbKO no 3aKOHy. Ana ocyuiecTBneHMH 
3tmx uenetf rtpaBHTenbCTBO npuHMMano noMOiub apywe- 
cTBeHHbix rocyaapcTB. 



Mw noBTopfleM: BbeTHaMuw neneioT cbok> CBo6oay. 
Ohm no6eannn. npnHec» orpOMHwe wepTBbi. n HacTpoeHbi 
Ha apyw6y co sceMn crpaHaMn aas paBHonpaBHoro w mup- 
Horo coTpyaHnnecTBa. 

Mo*eT CwTb, caM03BaHHwe copoweBbie new npaa 
MenoBeKa Moryr aenaTb sewn 6onee none3Hbie. ueui nanTb 
Ha KpuBoe aepeBO? 

«Hoeocmu MuHucmepcmaa 
uHOcmpaHHbix den CPB», 3 uiohp 2002 



a jnnc rnra 






j a 



— - hltp.f/www cpv org vn' 




THE COMMUNIST PAR FY Of VIETNAM 



TIE C8MMIMS1 PilTY IF VtnMM 



+... 



; VIE UAH : CPV ,H0 CHI HINH |CLASSIC WORkS^OOajMEtrSi .lN FORMATlON STUDIES 



EVENT 



UtRARYWORKS 



Getting human lights all wicng 



by Le Thanh 



What u the most fundamental human right 7 , 



The right to live m independence and freedom and strive for the basic needs of food, clothes and 
shelter If freedom and reasonable access to these banc needs are denied, there is a gross violation of 
human rights If access to food and shelter is denied to a large section of the world's population so 
that a minority can live m the lap of luxury, not to mention wasteful extravagance, there is gross 
violation of human rights 

There are people who are perpetrating such violations and there are those who are working hard to 
prevent them As a nation. Viet Nam's track record clearly shows that it firmly belongs to the latter 
category, assertions of Amnesty International and their ilk notwithstanding 



i 

tSCL 



v.tjaaarn^jmir; '- a~—w~> u—- 



: L_; 



!»■■—-"- ».«—.. 



»>»Kl*>'» ■ 



Cmpauuna cauma BbemnaucKOu xouuyHucmuiecxou napmuu 




THdUALAPTBAMTiCHXlJATSSCl 

rWKTlWBIBYEJIBnttQUte! 



nnaxam, noce*uj,ennbiQ 49-0 

BodoemuHe o6pa3ceanu9 

Oeuoxpamuiecxou 

Pecny6nuxu BbemnaM. 



...Ho cetfMac y Hac cosceM apyras anoxa, 
\a MMseTcti HaM. roBopn no npaBae, Hennoxo: 
mw o6ecneMeHw x/ieooM h TonnnBOM To>Ke 
m CTann Ha HopMantHbix nioRevi noxo*n. 
1/1 nydb y Hac xcueoTbi emo He Ha6nTbi. 
mw HaiueCi o6meio ueribio cwtu 
CBo6oaa cnoBa yKpenrmeT Haiu ayx, 
xoTb a He Bee roBopwTcn Bcnyx, 
u Koe-mo aa*e, HanpoTMB, - tuenoroM, 
b neM wb o6naaaet/ 6oraTbiM onwTOM 

U aa)t<e mh, b stom yHpex<A6HMH, 
ncnoriHeHbi iBepaoro y6ewfleHnn 
b tom, mo o Hac 3a6oTHTCR rocyaapcTBO, 
w b OTBei oxotho npuHMMaeM neKapcTsa. 
peujMTeribHO OTKa3t>iBa*cb 

OT KaKOM 6bl TO HH tbinO KPHTMKH 

csroAHflujHeii cxpHiwa/ioHoii nontfTuwu. 
noTOMy hto ToribKo MencnpaBUMwe u,mhhkm 
HeaoBOjibHbi nopnflKaMn b nawePi KniiHMKe. 
a aapaBOMbicriHiakie cyMaciueaujMe 
npuseTCTByiOT nepeMBHw npoyi30ujeaujne! 




nnaxam. noceniueHHbiu 55-u 
aodoawuHe o6pa3oeanus< 

BbemiiaucKou napodnou apMuu. 



rierep Batic «npec/ieflOBaHHe m yGhmctbo 

MaH-nonn Mapara, npencraB/ieHHoe rpynno* ncuxnarpunecxon 

/ieue6Hnubi a LUapaHTone no/t pyKOBOQCTaou rocnoRHHB fle Cafla», 1964 r. 



12 



4 MPACHOE KDJIECO 



Om pedaKuuu: 

3ma ucmopua nopa3umenbno nanoMuHaem cio*em cpunt.ua «BaHSKOK-Xunmon». nedaano noxasaHHoao no 
poccuucKOMy meneeudeHuio. C eonnenueM na6nioda» 33 cydbdou aecmpanuucKou deeyuiKu, npuaoeopeHHOu maunand- 
ckum cydOM k cMepmnou Ka3Hu nonoxnouy o6euH0Huio e KOHmpaGande napKomuKoe (e anaeHOuponu Chunacb nonynxpHaa 
axmpuca Huxonb Kuduan), mu ana/Ju, imo e kohi<o (pu/ibMa nac, no mkohom ixanpa, xdem «xennu ond». 

Mano Kmo dozadbieancft, vmo e me Me caubie wacw, e comianucmuvecxoM BbemtiaMe. e KOwye XXee/ra, npoucxodum 
ceou «XaHou-XunmOH». e KomopoM co6bimufi eeptuamcsi ho no 3aKonaM xanpa. a no 3a*OHy dxyHzneu... 

3AKOH A>KYHr/lEM 



OTMenasi 30 anpenn 2000 roaa 25-io roflOBmnHy 
no6eflbi BbeTHaMCKOii xoMMyHHCTMnecxoM CeeepHori ap- 
muh Haa (Owhwm BbeTHaMOM. npaBMTenbCTBO XaHon aM- 
HMCTupoBano 12000 3aKjNOHeHHwx, s tom Mucne nonn™- 
MecKMx n CMepTHUKOB. Ho BneMameHHe ot aToro *ecT3. 
HanpaBneHHoro Ha aeMOHCTpaumo cMnrseHnsi pewMMa. 
6wno ncnopneHO oahom CMepTbio - HesaxoHHO npuroBO- 

peHHOM H T3MH0 K33HeHHOii WeHiyUHbl 

HryeH Txu Xwen m ee 70-neiHBn MaTb - Tpan Txu KaM 
- 6binn apecTOBaHbi b 1996 rony. xor/ia TaMoweHHwcn 
aaponopTa Hov\&au (Noi Bai). npoBepsn nx 6ara>K, HaujJiM 
8Hyrpn nsnn naxoBbix xapTMH 1 2 (pyHTOB reponHa, ctommo- 
CTbK) 5 MriH. aonnapoB 06e weHinHHbi xaTeropunecKM 
OTpnuann, hto 3Hann Hannnnn HapxoTMxoe b napTMHax. 
rocnowa Xnen n ee MaTb paccKa3ann, hto 3HaKOMWM mx 
ceMbu nonpocnn noMOHb nepeBe3TM noflapxn b KaHaay n 
3annaTnn 1 00 .aonnapoB sa ycnyry. 

B 1997 rosy rocno>Ka Xnen. rpa*AaHxa KaHaflw c 
1982 roaa. 6bina npurosopeHa k cwepTHon ksshk a ee 
MaTb - k no>t<K3HeHHOMy 3a«nK)MeHnio KaHaacKwe Bnac~n 
h npaB03au4HTHwe rpynnu npocunn npaBMTenbCTBO BbeT- 
HaMa OTno>KHTb K33Hb no npuMMHe HeaaBHO o6Hapy>xeHHO- 
ro CBnaeTenbCTBa. AOxaabiBaiomero. hto x<eHmnHbi 6binn 
o6MaHyTbi HapKOToproBuaMn. CBnaeTenbCTBO ochob3ho 
Ha noxa3aHMfix apyroti xaHaflXM BbeTHaMcxoro nponcxo*- 

aeHMB, apecTOBaHHoCi xa- 
Ha/icxOM nonuuuew b aapo- 
nopTy riMpcoH (Pearson) 
nocne Toro. icax b naxoBbix 
xapTUHax. npnBe3ennbix 
eio M3 BbeTHaMa. 6wn HaPi- 
fleH reponH Ha cyMMy 3,5 
mto. aonnapoB >KeHmn- 
Ha paccxa3ana o nwnsix. c 
KOTopwMM no3HaxoMnnacb 
bo BpeMfl nepeneTa M3 To- 
POhto b ToHKOHr, nonpo- 
cuBiiinMn ee nepeBesTn 
3tm xapTUHbi 8 KaHafiy. 
3Ta *eHinnMa (ee mmh no- 
nnunB HasBaTb OTxa3a- 
nacb) flo6poBonbHo co- 
TpyflHMHana c KaHaacxofi 
nonwuneM Ann Bb'fBne- 
hmh cxeMw nocraBKM re- 
ponHa. OHa 6bina ocbo- 
6o>xfleHa nepe3 6 flHetf 
nocne 3aaep)KaHMJ? m 
o6wiBneHa HeBMHOBHOii B 
3thx flByx cny^anx MHoro 
coBnafleHMM: oamh m tot 
>xe Bufl reponHa, ynaxo- 













HiyeH Txu Xuer 










HiyeH Txu Xuen u e 

uarnb hb cyde. 0on 

cxpbimou xauepc 




10 






Tpaw Txu Kau nocne 

moao. xax eu 

coo6munu kb3hu 

dovepu 





BaHHWM b oaMHaxoBbie MeuoHKn. cnpBTaHHwe b naxoBbie 
Kapnwu, npeflH33HaMancB oflHOMy n TOMy yue nonynaTenK) 
b TopoHTo. M b tom n b flpyroM cny^ae 3a nepeB03xy 6wno 
ynnaneHO 100 aonnapoB - cjimujkom He3HaHMTenbHafl 

CyMMa. HT06bl puCKOBaTb )KH3HbK3, eC/IM >KeHlUHHbl 3H3J1H 

coflep>KMMOM ceoero 6ara>«a. 

KaHaflcxan nonnu^a nepeaana CBnaeTenbcxne noxa- 
2awa bo BbeTHaM. n xaHOMCxoe npaBHTeribCTBO o6emano 
nx paccMOTpeTb. fleno coaepixano 50-CTpaHmHbiM floxy- 
MeHT, ayanosanMCb TenecpOHHbix pasrosopos >xeHmMNbi n 
nonyMaTenn xapTMH c reponHOM. Bee nofl03peBaeMbie 8 
KaHaae Sbinn ocyxyjeHbi Ha TiopeMHbie cpoxn ro 14 neT. 
Ecnn rocnoixa Xuen co3HaTeiibHO 3aHMMaracb xoHTpa- 
6aHfloii 6onbiunx napTMti reponHa, OHa aacnyixuna cypo- 
Bbiki npnroeop. ToproBnfl HapxoTuxaMn aon>KHa xecnoxo 
xapaTbcs. OanaKO noxa3aHnn. npeaocTaBneHHbie xaHaac- 
xow cTopoHoii, Heo6xoflMMo 6bino TiuaTenbHO Mccneao- 
eaTb, HTo6bi co6niocTM npe3yMnuwo HeenHOBHocTM, xaxaTo 
npkiHRTo B unBn.in30saHHbix cTpaHax. 

rioMMMO xaHaflcxoro MMHMCTpa MHOCTpaHHbix nen 
flnoiiaa Akcbopth, xaHaflcxoro npeMbep-MUHMCTpa >KaHa 
KpeTbeHa, aMep^xaHCKoro npe3naeHTa Bwnna KnnHTOHa, 
ripenoflo6Horofl)Keccnfl>KexcoMa, Py6nHa KapTepa (Acco- 
unauMsi a 3amnTy He3axoHH0 ocyjxaeHHbix), Me>xayHapofl- 
Hoii Amhucthm eme MHorne opraHH3auwn vt ocpnqnanbHwe 
nnqa nocnsnn hotw npoTecTa unn sanpocu b xaHoticxoe 
npaBMTenbcreo OTHOCHTenbHO nepecMOTpa A©na. 

Ho 22 anpenn 2000 r. rocnowa Xuen 6bina paccTpenn- 
Ha TaiiHo n 6e3 npeaujecTeywmero yeeaoMneHun npaBM- 
Te/ibCTBa KaHaflu. flBa ee cwHa ocTanwcb 6e3 MaTepn. 

1 Mas 2001 rofla KaHaaa npexpaTuna npasnTenb- 
CTBeHHbie xoHTaxTbi c BbeTHaMOM u OTno>xnna e>xeroflHyio 
BCTpe^y no noMomn b pa3BMTnn, hto6w Bbipa3WTb npoTecT 
npoTMB Ka3Hn xaHaacxoM nooaaHHOM BbeTHaMCxoro nponc- 

XO)KAeHMfl 

«Mw B03MyiyeHbi HeflonycTHMbiM noseAeHMeM npa- 
BMTenbCTBa BbeTHaMa>, - Tax OTpeampoBan npeMbep- 
muhmctp Kanaflw )KaH KpeTbeH Ha xa3Hb 22 anpens 2000 
rofla rocno)xn Xnen. Kanaaa OT03Bana Cecn/ib flaTyp, cbo- 
ero nocna b XaHoe, n OTxa3a/iacb noaaep>xnBarb BbeTHaM 
npM BCTynneHnn b BTO 

BnacTn KaHaflbi 3anBnnn, hto BbeTHaMexoe npaBn- 
TenbCTBO He CMomo npeaocTaenTb yfloeneTBopnTenbHbix 
o6\»ncHeHMiS, noMBMy km 6bino HapyiueHO o6emaHne pac- 
CMOTpeTb npeaocTaB.neHHbie HOBbie noKa33HUB n3 KaHaflw 

H OTnO)KHTb xa3Hb. 

KoMMyHncTusecxoe npaBMTenbCTBO XaHoa esno ot- 
K/iMXHynocbHa co6t>iTns MnHncTepcTBOnHOCTpaHHbixaen 
yBeflOMM/10, mto. «xota BbeTHaMcxan CTopoHa nonyMnna 
AononHMTeribHyio nH0cpMaun>o ot xaHaacKMx areHTCTB <a 
BbeTHawcKHe cry>K6bi OTHecnucb k He£cepbe3HO. hotaoc- 
TaTOHHblX lOpuflMHeCXMX OCHOBaHHii A/1" BO306H0BneHHfl 



4 KPYTOH MAPMfT BbETHAMA 



93 



cyae6Horo npouecca. BbeTHaMcrae npaBMTenbCTeo cowa- 
neeT o peaKL(Mn KaHaflCKoro npaBMTenbCTsa Ha naaHb HryeH 
Txm Xnen BbeTHaMCKHMu cny>K6aMn m BbipawaeT wenaHne 
npoaon)KaTb coTpyflHMMecTBO flByx HapoflOB Ha ocHOBe 
yBaweHun n B3aMMHoii Bbiroflbix. 

Muhhctp HHOCTpaHHbixaeri KaHaflw JlnoMa Axcboptm 
o6paTnncn k npaBMTenbCTBy BbeTHaMa c Tpe6oBaHneM 
ocBo6owfleHMn MaTepn rocnoww Xnen - 75-neTHevi TpaH 
Txm Kbm - m B-3BpamennH oct3hkob rocnowM Xnen ceube. 
3anpoc 6wn otk/iohbh. 

Ysmcoh Mom (Wayson Choy ) b CTaTbe «KpacHbie 
nenecTKM Ha aaneKoii Miornne», ony6nMKOBaHHOM e eweHe- 
aenbHMKe «The Global and Mail» 2 Man 2000 r.. TaK 
onwcbiBaeT Ka3Hb: 

«3to cnynnriocb Ha pacceeTe b cyBoory. 22 anpens. 
3a 5 Anew ao ee 44-neTMS 6wna t3mho xa3HeHa HryeH Txn 
Xnen. xaHaacxafl rpaxcaaHxa n MaTb aboi-x cuHOBefi. Ee 
Teno. 6poweHHoe b npocToft hiamx. 3acunann 36MneM. 
HacoM no3>Ke noiuen aoayjb. flaia n BpeMa - sto 6bino b 6 
nacoB yrpa - He MMenn SHaMeHnn. HMen 3HaneHMe TonbKO 
aoacab. Tpo3a 6yweBana Becb AeHb n eiye HOHb. TonbKO b 
BOCKpeceHbe BenepoM BUUino conm4e. m Tonbxo b noHe- 
aenbHMK, gepe3 asa ana nocne xasnn, BbeTHaMCKMrt mmhob- 
hmx odpopMnn nucbMeHHoe CBMAeTenbCTBO CMep™ HryeH 
Txm Xkien noneMy Taxan 3aaepiKKa? 

Bo3mo>kho. He Hawnocb mmhobhmkob, pa6oTatoii|nx b 

AO>KAnHBblM yUKOHfl, Beflb CBUfleTenbCTBO flOIDKHO 6blTb 

flori)KHbiM o6pa30M noflnncaHo, 3acBMfleTenbCT80BaHO n 
3aperncTpnpoBaHO. nocne toto KaKMMHMaTtopHyioweHiAM- 
Hy npoaepwanM flsa roaa b cwpoii KaMepe. ee TK>p9MmMKM 
ayMann, HaBepHoe, MToeiaeABa AHfl-3TOMenoMb». 

B flpyroM MecTe craTbM yawcoH Mom nmuei: 

«My>K rocnowM Xnen paccxa3b<Ban, sto Ha mx nocne- 
anee canaaHKe. paspeweHHoe TonbKO pa3 b Mecnu. ohb 
rtpmuna, xpoMas, ee noaaep^neann c flByx ctopoh, mto6w 
OHaaoiunaflo Honmaru noceiAeHMtf. Ee rna3a Kocnnn, OHa 
rop6nnacb. noTOMy mto oxpaHa ocBo6onnna etf Tonbxo 
oaHy pyKy ot xaHAanoB, mto6w B3HTb Tpy6Ky neperoeopHoro 
ycTpoCtCTBa. "B mom aeHb poxyjeHMR, - tmxo cxa3ana OHa, - 
npuHecii MHe KpacHbie posu". 

rioMeMy xpaHMHM b TaMHe npoaeaeHne xa3HM b cy66o- 
Ty? (loneMy 3aaep*anMCb c yBeqoMneHneM o Ka3HM"? 

TpaH Xney. ee My*. MOweT Ha*™ HexoTopoe yTewe- 
Hue b npflMOM OTKa3e weHw noanncaib nmSoe npwsHaHne 
BMHbi. CneaoeaTenb aaxe co6na3Hnn ee npoflytaaMn. Ho 
OHa OTpmjaTe/ibHO Ka^a/ia ronosoM - ecnoMMHann apyrne 
3axnioueHHbie OHa cnoea m chobs roeopuna o cBoeii hobm- 
hobhoctm. Koraa ee yBoannn Ha paccTpen nacMypHWM 
yTpoM. nocneflHMM cjiobom 6wno hms ee My>Ka: "Xney! _ - 
CKa3aHHoeaocTaTOMHo rpoMKo, hto6w 6biTb ycnbiujaHHbiM 
apyrnMn 3aKnK3HeHHWMM. "Xney! Xney! Xney!" HaKOHeu 
rocno>Ka Xnen 6wna rpy6o CBS3aHa, m ee ronoc 3aTHx noa 
K/innoM. Ha paccaeTe pa3aanncb Bbidpefibi. CnycTA He- 
cxonbKO MUHyr o ks3hh no TenedpoHy coo6mnnn Mywy. 
Mepe3 nac nocne xasHM oh cMOTpen Ha aoacab. HM3sepr- 
ujMMcn c He6a. "Mornna 3aionneHa". - CKasan TpaH Xney 
cbiHOBbfiM. KaiKawii aeHb oh npHHOCMT Ha sto mocto xpac- 
Hbie po3u». 

Moii 3aKOHHnn cbow CTaTbto cnoBaMn: «BcKope Hexo- 
ropweBbeTHaMUbi, noaoOHo oaHOMypuMCKOMynnHOBHUKy, 
yMOKDT pyxM. CMHTan amkmm. HeunBunnsoBaHHbiM nocTynon 
MenxoM HenpunTHOCTbK). HHTepecHO, 3aMeMaoT hm ohh, 
4to moot nanbubi b naiue xpobh. a He Boaw?» 

9 Man b ra36Te «The London Free Press* 3. B. 
CawereM (E.W. Sashegyi). xwbwmm b BeHrpHM b 1945-1956 
rr. npn KOMMyHncrnMecxoM pe>KHMe, Hanncan: 



«Mon ncxpeHHue co6one3HOBaHM$i ceMbe HryeH Txm 
XMen, caMOH nocneaneM wepTBe naeonorMM m aBM)xeHMB, 

KOTOpwe OTBeTCTBeHHbl 3a CMepTM 100 MH/irMOHOB nKJfleM 

b XX Bexe no BceMy MMpy. Ka3Hb XMen - TpareaMfl. ho mw 
naaeeMcn. hto OHa eme pa3 npMB/ieseT BHUManne cpeacTB 
MaccoBOM MHdaopMauMM x npMpoae xoMMyHM3Ma m ero noc- 
neaoBaTenflM, oaHaxcflw Ha3BaHHbiM "MMnepneM3na" aMe- 
pnxaHCKMM npe3MaeHTOM PoHanbflOM PeiiraHOM». 

H aanee: «Ka3Hb HryeH Txn XMen - HanoMMHaHMe o 
uennx m MeToaax 6onbiueBM3Ma. Mw HaaeeMcn, hto sto 
CTaHeT pa3o6naHeHMeM ans BwcoxonocTaBneHHbix wmhob- 
huxob, Hb« raMHan n qMHMHHaB cTpaTervw npeanonaraeT, 
hto BpeMH 3arnaawT npecTynneHne n ycnoBMe co6nioae- 
hms npaB MenoBexaanfl MewyHapoflHwx ToproBbix nepe- 
roBopoB nsnneTCfl Meno^bm, o xoTopovi KaH KpeTbeH 
npo6opMOH6T HecKonbxo cnoe m nepeMaeT k 6n3Hecy. xax 
oSbiMHO. fl noTpaceH x<ecToxoM CMepTbio XMen, ho, b otjim- 
Mne ot Akcbopth, He yaMB/ieH». 

AaBOxaT RmewHic floxnep, Ha3H3HeHHbi(i AccouMauM- 
eii no saiUMTe HesaKOHHO ocyxaeHHyx npeacTaensTb roc- 
no>xy Xwen n ee MaTb, MMen 6onbiu0M onwT xoHTaxTos c 
KOMMyHMCTaMM. Oh 6wn npoTMB npea/>o>KeHMfl PySMHa Kap- 
Tepa opraHH30B3Tb MaccoBbie axquM b 3amMTy rocnown 
XMen, onacancb ocKop6MTb nuaepoB XaHon. nocne xa3HM 
HryeH Txm XMen aasoxaT npM3Han, hto aonycTMn 6onbiuyio 
oujM6xy n 6yaeT bck> ocTaBiuyiocfl >KM3Hb pacxanBaTbCH b 
tom, hto He BHJin coBeiy KapTepa. 

MHorMe CMHTa»T, HToaonx<Ha MMeTbca cxpbiTan npM- 
MMHa ann CTonb nocneujHO npon3BeaeHHOfi xa3HM. 3Ta 
npwinHa aon>KHa 6biTb HacTonbxo Ba»Ha, hto XaHOM pe- 
liiMncsi HaBnenb Ha ce6fl rHeB KaHa/jw - CTpaHbi, KOTopas 
Apy>t<ecxn noaflep>KMBana BbeTHaM b Te^eHne nocneaHMx 
AByx aecHTuneTMM. 

EcTb cnyxM. hto b KOHTpa6aHae HapxoTMxoB 6binn 
saMeiuaHbi MecTHwe MnM ueHTpanbHwe xoMMyHMCTMnecxMe 
nuaepw, Mnw ohm ewnn noaxynneHbi nMuaMM, sanHTepeco- 
BaHHbiMii b MonnaHMn rocno>KM Xnen. 

Apyras BepcMa coctout b tom, hto Hexoe aonjKHocT- 
Hoe ^mmo Morno peniMTbcn ycxopuTb Ka3Hb H3 KapbepHwx 
coo6pa>KeHMM. Bo BbeTHaMeTaxMe npeanonoweHMH nacTo 
He nuiueHbi ochob3hmm. 

Kor^a nocne HeoaHOKpaTHwxTpe6oBaHHM Teno rocno- 
*n Xnen 6bino HaxoHeu nepeaaHO poacTBeHHMxaM, o6Ha- 
py»Mnocb oTcyrrcTBue oanoro /xa. mto BbiaBano no/j03pe- 
HMA o nwTxax. EcnM, HecMOTps Ha aMnnowaTMnecxoe aaB- 
neHMe M3 KaHaaw, BbeTHaMCxne snacTM nwiann rocnox<y 
Xwen m xa3HMnn ee npewae, weM 6binM paccMOTpeHbi Bee 
CBMaeTenbCTBa. to xaxasi Haaex<aa Ha cnpaBeanMeoe 
paccneaoBaHMe moikot 6wTb y pnaoeoro rpax<aaHMHa 
BbeTHaMa? 

2 ceHTfl6p» 2000 roaa 74-neTHsa TpaH Txm KaM, npo- 
Beaiuafl HeTwpe roaa b xaHOiiCKMx 3acTeHxax, b THxcenoM 
coctohhmm 6wna ocBo6ox<aeHa M3 TmpbMbi m cnycTn ne- 
cxonbKo flHeii BepHynacb k ocupoTeBiuevi ceMbe H Tonbxo 
Toraa OHa yaHana o cmoptm aosepM. 

Tparea^n rocnox<M XMen m ee MaTepn cenaeTenbCTBy- 
eT o xecToxocTM pe*MMa, HecMoTps Ha ujMpoxo paapexna- 
MnpoBaHHoe HeaaBHee BOSBpameHwe bo BbeTHaM twcom 
6ex<eHueB, noKMHyBujMx CTpany nocne BoccoeaMHeHMA b 
1 975, HecMOTpq Ha 3anBneHMn npaBMTenbCTBa BbeTHaMa o 
roTOBHOCTM OTxpbiTo o6cy«aaTb npaBa lenoBexa. 

77o MamepuanaM VIETNAM. NEWS 
ANALYSIS. MAY 2000. 

rieppood c ansnuucHoso: 
HpuHa XOflMOrOPCKAfl 



14 



4 KPACHOE KOJIECO 



BbETHAMCKI/IE fll/ICCI/lflEHTbl 




HrYEHAAHKbK) 
Nguyen Dan Que 
Bpan 

riofl flowaiuHUM apecTOM, b npo- 

UjnOM - 3aK/1K)MeHHblM. 

Adpec: 102/7 Nguyen Trai. 05. TP 
HCM, Viet Nam 

TenecpOH (84-8) 835-6445 (owkhio- 
wew cm3« 1999 a.) 

Poflnncn a XaHoe b 1942 r. HryeH flaH Kbio oxoHMMn 
CawroHCxyio MeamjMHCKyio ujKony b 1966 r. 

B 1968 r. oh nonyMnn Harpaay MnpoBoii opraHH3aunn 
3flpaBooxpaHeHnn h npoflonrcwi o6yMeHne a &enbrnn, <DpaH- 
MMM w AMrnnn. B 1974 r., oixaaasoincb or npeanoateHwn 
pa60T3Tb b OOH. HryeH flaH Kbio BepHyncn bo BbeTHaM a 
npenoaaBan b CaftroHCKotf MeflnunHCKOii wrane 

riocne naaeHHA CaflroHa a 1975 r. aoktop HryeH flaH 
Kbw OTKasanca 3MnrpnpoBaTb B 1976 r.. B03MymeHHbiii 
HapyweHHBMM npaB HenoBexa no eceM CTpaHe, oh BMecie c 
6nn3KHMn apyabflMH ccpopynpoBan oprann3aunio «Hau,no- 
HanbHoe aBuwenne 3a nporpecc», naaasaBLuyio HecxonbKO 
noflnoribHbix ra3eT. B 1978 r. opraHM3auna 6wna pa3rpoM- 
neHa cunaMn roc6e3onacHOcrn. apecToeaBWHMM HryeH 
flaH Kb© n 47 aKTMBMCTOB. Be3 cyaa m cneacTBtwi HryeH flaH 
Kbio npoBen b riopbMe aecsub neT. 

B saK/ioneHHM oh nocroHHHO noflBepranca nwTKaM n 
M36neHnnM. Ero npuKOBbiBann uennMii k deHe oamhohhom 
xaMepbi flBa Mecsua oh npoBen ■ Taic MauBMMOfl «naMe- 
pe 5-6-4». Unojipbi 03HanaiOT pa3Mepu xaMepw b cpyTax, to 
edb- 1,5-1,8-1,2 m. Bstom KaMeHHOMMeuiKeoTcyTCTBOBa- 
na aa*e TiopeMHas «napauja», u KaMepy uiicTnnn cwnbHoii 
cipyen BOflbi, ocTaBnon 3aK/iK)HeHHOro Ha BpeMs «y6opKH» 

npMKOBaHHWM K CT6He. 

B pe3ynbTaTe ujmpokom KaMnaHMM npoiecTa, paasepHy- 
TOii Me>t<ayHapoaHOvi Amhhctmbm, b 1988 roay HryeH flaH 

KbK) 6blH OCB060>KAeH M3 TKjpbMW. 

B 1990 r. HryeH flaH Kbto n ero eauHOMbnu/ieHHUKu 
ocHosann «HeHacnnbCTB6HHoe aBMweHMe sa npasa neno- 
BeKa bo BbeTH3Me». 

11 Man 1990 r. H/ieHbi flBMweHMR ony6nnKOBariM o6pa- 
iueHne K Hapoay, npnabiBawmee k HeHacunbCTaeHHOM 6opt>- 
6e sa CBo6oaHbin k aeMOKpaTunecKui* BbeTHaM. flBuweHne 
npn3Bano BbeTHaMCKoe npaenTenbCTBO yaawaTb ochob- 
Hbie npasa tenoBeio. nptmnTb MHoronapTwiiHyio cucTeMy h 
o6ecneHMTb npaeo BbeTHaMcxoro Hapoaa Ha CBo6oanbie v\ 
cnpaBeanuBwe Bbi6opbi 

B oraei Ha o6pameHne 14 miohh npaBMTenbCTBO apec- 
TOBano HryeH flaH Kbio. rionTopa roaa cnycTfl, 29 hoh6ps 
1991 r, npoTMB Hero 6uno BbiaBHHyTO o6BnneHne «b 
nonbiTKe cBepweHMH counanncTHHecKoro CTpoax. B stot *e 
aenb. nocne kopotkoto cyaa. na kotopom HryeH flan Kbio 
6bino aanpeiaeHO roBopn-b. oh 6wn ocy>KaeH Ha 20 neT 
KaToprn i4 nHTb neT aoMaujHero apecTa. 

TepoMHecKHe ycMnHfl HryeH flan Kbio Bt>i3aarn bocxw- 
meHne mkpobom o6mecTBeHHOCTM. HneHW KoHrpecca CUJA 
BwflBMHynn ero KaHanaaTypy Ha Ho6eneBCKyio npeMmo 




Mupa 12 miohh 1994 r. HryeH flaH Kbio 6wn Harpa>KaeH 
npeMiie^ MMeHu Paynn BanneH6epra. PeiupnuPM MP*,iy- 
HapoflHbix npaBoaamnTHbix opraHH3aunvi. noaepwaHHbiw 
KoHrpeccoM CUJA n CeHaTOM AecTpannn. 11 Mas, aenb, 
xoraa HryeH flaH Kbio ony6nnKOBan CBoe o6paueH,ie. ot- 
MeyaeTCH KaK flenb 3aiaMTbi npaB nenoeeKa bo BberHaMe 

AKTHBHbie npoTecTw mmdobom o6iaecTBeHHocTn Bbiny- 
annvi Bb6THaMCKne BnacTM 3aMeHMTb HryeH flaH Kbio KaTop- 
ry aoMaujHMM apecTOM. 

Ho n Haxoo«Cb b M3onnunn ot o6mecTBa. oh npoflonxa- 
eT ynopHo KpnTMKOBaTb KOMMyHncTMMecnyio napTnio sa H3- 
pyiueHMH npaB nenoBexa m MOHononMio Ha enacTb. 

B aBrycTe 1 999 r. HryeH flaH Kbio o6bflBnn , mto «5poca- 
eT BH30B npaBHTenbCTBy, co6npancb opraHnsoBaTb ace- 
MnpHyio BCTpeiy 6biaujnx nonnTMiecKHx 3anni04eHHbix bo 
BbeTHaMe». 



XOAHrMUHbHUHb 
Hoang Minh Chinh 
BbiBUJMM napTHMHbiii pa- 
6othmk 

noa nonnuencKHM Ha6ntoaeHn- 
eM, paHee - 3aKnK>HeHHbiM. 

Adpec: 26 Ly Thuong Kiel. Hoan 
Kiem, Ha Noi. Viet Nam 
TenecpOH. (84-4) 824-9252 



Poanncs 16 H0fl6pn 1922 r. b npoBHHunn HaMxa (Ce- 
BepHbift BbeTHaM). 

B 1957-1960 rr. Xoanr MuHb MuHb nonynun Bbiciuee 
napTMiiHoe o6pa30BaHne b CCCP h nocne B03BpaujeHua b 
flPB 6wn HaaHaneH anpexTopoM HHCTHTyTa MapxcuaMa- 
neHHHM3Ma. KOTopbiM py<OBoann ao 1967 r. 

Ero xpnTHHecKan no3nunn b OTHOiueHnn Bropwenna b 
K3>KHbiM BbeTHaM m npeanoweHnsi c aeMOKpaTnaaunn aen- 
TenbHOCTM KflB np^senM k KowcppoHTauMM c nonnT6iopo 
UK. 

B 1967 r. XoaHr MuHb 4nHb HanpaBiin b U.K 200-CTpa- 
HUMHbiM aoicnaa «florM3Tn3M bo Bbernavie». coAep«amnM 
xpHTuxy aeiicTBuii napTnn. Otbotom eMy cTano oanHHaa- 
uaTuneTHee riopeMHoe 3aKniOMeHMe (1967-1972 m 1981- 
1987rr.)naoMaujHHMapecTB TeneHne 9 neT (1972-1978 m 
1987-1990 rr.). 

B xpaTKMe npoMemyTKn Me>Kay 3aioiiOMeHH5iMM XoaHr 
MuHb HuHb npoaon>Kan o6paujaTbC& k pyKOBoacTBy KnB c 
Tpe6oBaHMflMM npexpaTMTb npecneaoBaHne ero vt apyrax 

aUCCMaeHTOB M OTMOHMTb 4-K) CTaTblO KOHCTMTyUMM BbBT- 

Haua 

B Hanane 1995 r oh 6bin CHOBa apecTOBaH n npuroBO- 
peH k TiopeMHOMy aaioiiOHeHnio cpokom Ha 1 roa. 

19 Man 2000 r. XoaHr MuHb HuHb. BMecie c apyrMMM 
aanBuctaMn aeMoxpaTMHecxoro annweMna . oTnpaenn 06- 
paujeHne k HauMOHanbHOMy co6paHmo BbeTHaMa, npoTec- 
Ty« npoTMB npecneaoBaHMH yneHoro Xa Cm 5>y. 

B HacToniaee speMp XoaHr MuHb MuHb HaxoanTcn noa 
nocTOHHHwM nonnueiiCKMM Ha6nioaeHneM n yrpo30ii hobo- 
to apecTa. 



4 KPyTOM MAPU1PYT BbETHAMA 



15 




xa en <py 

Xa Si Phu 
Enonor 

rioBTopHbivi apecT, panee - no- 
peMHoe 3aiuiK)HeHMe m AOMaw- 
hdm apecT. 

Adpec. 4E Bui ThiXuan, Dalat. Lam 
Dong. Viet Nam 

Ten&pow (84-63) 823-510 (omKfin- 
weH c anpeim 1997 a.) 



Ponymcn 22 anpenn 1940 r b npoBMHunn BaxHMHb 
(CeBepHWM BbeTHaM). 

riMUWT nofl nceBflOHUMOM HryeH Kcyar Ty. 

Buonor no o6pa30BaHHK>. Xa Cm <t>y 3a«0HHMn acnupaH- 
Typy b MexocnoBaKMM. no BOSBpaiyeHMM Ha poAHHy pa6o- 
Tan bo BbeTHaMCKOM MHCTMTyre HayKM. Oh ycneuiHO npo- 
flBurancn no cny>xe6H0M necTHnue m 33HHn AOruxHOCTb 
33MecTHTenfl A^pexTopa HHCTvnyia HayxM b flanaTe. Ho 
0TK33 BCTynmb bo BbeTHaMcuy K) KOMMyHMCTmecKyto napTMK) 
npMBen k ero ysonbHeHmo ms MHCTmyTa. 

JlnLueHnbiii bo3mo>khoctm 3aHnvaTbCfl 6MonorwHecxoM 
HayKOM, Xa Cm <t>y o6paiMncH k M3yseHMw m ananM3y coljm- 
anbHbix npo6neM. B ceHm6pe1988 r. oh pacnpocipaHflei 
cpeflM apyseM 3cce, b kotopom aHa/iM3MpyeT KOMMyHMCTM- 
MecKMM pe>KMM m yKa3WBaei Ha MHOTM ero nporMBopenMH 
Koraa 3K3eMnnnp acce nonan b pyKM nneHOB nonMT6opo 
UK, b ocpMunanbHbix cpeaciBax MaccoBOM MncpopMauMM 
6bino ony6nMK0BaHO He weHee -piiaua™ ciaien. Hanpas- 
neHHbix npoTMB asTopa. 

B 1993-95 rr. Xa Cn <Dy nMiueT m HeneranbHO ny6nM*yeT 
emeaBa cpyHAaMeHTanbHwx MccneaoaaHMn: «Pa3Mbuune- 
hms) rpaxc/iaHMHa» m «npoiuaM, uaeonornn» 

B aeKaope 1995 r. Xa Cm Oy 6wn apecTOBaH b XaHoe. 
Kyaa npnexan b toctm k poacTBeHHMKaM. HecxonbKMMM 
flHHMM noaxe oh 6bin o6bmhoh «b paarnaiueHHM rocyaap- 

CTBeHHOM TaMHbl». llOCne BOCbMHMeCRHHOrO 3aK/1K>H6HMn B 

TiopbMe 6e3 cyaa oh 5wn npMrosopeH 3axpwTbiM cyaoM k 
oaHOMy roay TiopeMHoro 3aK/iK>neHMH (6e3 y^eia cpoKa. 
nposeaeHHoro noa CTpawert ao cyaa). 

4 aeKa6ps 1996 r. noa aaBneHMeu MewayHapoaHOM 
o6iaecTBeHHOCTM Xa Cm Oy 6bin BomymeH Ha CBo6oay- B 
uHTepBb>o. aaHHOM MHocTpaHHbiM KoppecnoHaemaM, Xa 
Cm Oy o6emari npoaonx<aTb homckm npasaw m npasocyaMH 
bo BbeTHanie. B OTBeT snacru otk/hohmom TeneopOH, pery- 
napHO npMHyaMTenbHO aocTasnanM Ha aonpoc b opranw 
roc6e30nacHOCTM, npensiCTBoaanM ydpoMCTBy ero Ha pa- 
6oTy. 

FlocKonbKy 3to He cnoMMno aMCCMaeHTa. no peweHMK) 
pyxoBoacTBa KI1B roc6e3onacHOCTbio BOKpyr aoivia Xa Cm 
Oy Own ycraHOBneH kopaoh. oCtJCKMBaBUJUM Ha Bxoae m 
Bbixoae Bcex. npMxoaMBWMx < HeMy 

B anpene 1997 r. npaBMTenbCTBO Bb4nycTMno nocTanoB- 
neHHe. 3anpeiaaBiuee Xa Cm Oy m apyrMM aMCCMaenTaM 
KOHiaKibi cnpeacTaBMTennMM CMM, oco66hho c mhoctpbh- 
HbiMM xoppecnoHaeHTaMM. 

B otbot, 10 anpens 1997 r., Xa Cm Oy o6paTM/ics c 
OTxpoiTbiM nMCbMOM, noanncaHHbiM n aeyMO /}pyrnvm amc- 
CMaeHTaMM, k HauMOHanbHOMy co6paHMto, b kotopom nM- 
can: «Koraa Haiua KoHCTMTyuns 3anBMna. mto rpax<aaHe 
mmbiot ipaao Ha c3o6oay MucnM, noa stmm noapasyMeBa- 
nocb, hto nioaM mmbiot noriHoe npaso nMcaTb m BWCKasbi- 

BaTb CBOM MWCnM». 

12 Mas 2000 r. Xa Cm ®y 6bino npeabnaneMo oGbUHe- 
hmo b rocyAapcTBeHHOM msmoho. EMy rpo3MT HaxasaHMe ot 

7 fieT TIOpbMW AO CMepTHOM 03HM. 




6YH MMHb KYOK 
Bui Minh Quoc 
no3T n >KypHajincr 

floa AOMaUJHMM apecTOM. 

Adpec; 3 Nguyen Thuong Men. 
Dalat. Lam Dong, Viet Nam 
Tene0OH: (84-63) 821-675 (omium- 
ve« c uiom 1997 a.) 



PoaM/iCH 3 oktb6p» 1940 r. b npoBMHUMM XaTay (Ce- 

BepHblM BbCTHaM). 

ny6nMKOBancH laione noa nceBaoHMMOM flyOHr XyoHr 
Jim. 

ByM MMHb KyoK 6wn nneHOM KI1B. Oh iumdoko M3BecT6H 
b CeBepHOM BbeTHaMe xaK nosT. nocne bomhw HasnaneH 
npeaceaaTenew AccouMaunn nucaienen m xyaoxtHMKOB 
npoBMHUMM JlaMAOHr, a nosAnee rnaBHMM peaaxTopoM >xyp- 
Hana «JlaHr6MaH». 

B KOHue 1988 roaa ByM MMHb KyoK opraHM3oaan m 
B03rnaBMn noe3axy Monoawx MHTennexTyanoB m xyaowHM- 
kob no ropoaaM m npoBMHijMflM BbeTHaMa Bo BpeMP noe3- 
aKM co6MpanMCb noanMCM noa o6pameHMeM b L4K KriB 06 
ycTaHOBneHMM aeMOxpaTMM m CBo6oabi neMarM Cpa3y we 
nocne OKOHnaHMd noe3axM BnacTM nMWMfiM ByM MMHb Kyoxa 
nocTa rnaBHoro peaaxTopa xtypHana m McxnioHMnM M3 napTMM. 
HecMOTpa Ha Haxa3aHMe m yrpo3bi /imhhom 6e3onacHOCTM, 
ByM MMHb Kyox npoaonxan OTxpuTo o5paiaaTbCH k HauMO- 
HanbHOMy co6paHMra. LJeHTparibHOMy KoMMTeTy KI1B. Ha- 
poaHOMy oppoHTy. KoMMTeTy HapoaHoro KOHTpons, cpea- 

CTBaM MaCCOBOM MHCpOpMaUMM. 

3 OKTfl6pn 1993 r. b otkpwtom nwcbMe UK oh nMcan: 
« .. ?l MCxpeHHe npeAnaraw cneAywiAMe cpoHHbie AeMCTBMH: 
1) 6biCTpbiM otbbt Ha o6paiaeHMe M3 7-mm nyHKTOB XoaHr 
MMHb Mmhh; 2) ny6nkixauMn m pacnpocTpaHBHwe BceM rpax<- 
aana\i SceoSmen ^exnapauMM npaB HenoeeKa, noAHMcaH- 

HyK3 HailJMM npaBMTBnbCTBOM: 3) MapKCM3M-neHMHM3M AOfl- 

mbh craTb ceo60AHbiM Bw6opoM niOAeM, a He npMHy»AeHM- 
eM; 4) OTMeHa 4-m cTaTbM KoHCTMTyuMM, o6bHBnsK)meM 
KoMnapTMK) BbeTHaMa eaMHCTBeHHOM nonMTMnecKOM napTM- 
ew b CTpaHe; 5) npM3H3HMe npomnbix HecnpaBeAnMBOCTeii 
ny6nwHHO, nonHOCTbK) m CMCTeMaTMHecxM; 6) paspeujMTb 
cosAaHMe nacTHbix CMM; 7) M3MeHeHMe saKOHa o Bbi6opax, 
c otmbhom o6fl3aTeribHbix napTMMHbix cnMCKOB xaHaMaaTOB; 
8) OTMena 3anpeTa Ha MHoronapTMMHyio CMCTeMy m npose- 
aeHMe pecpepenayMa no stmm BonpocaM, hto6w nwaM Mor- 

flM 06beBMHMTb CBOM yCMnMfl no AeMOKpaTM3aL(MM CTpaHbl». 

nocne Toro Kax b 1997 roay ccophmk ctmxob ByM MMHb 
Kyoxa «no3TMHecxMe osapeHMn Ha aonpoce» ujmpoko pa3o- 
aiencn bo BbeTHaMe m sa ero npeaenaMM, coTpyAHMKM 
roc6e3onacHOCTM, HaCMnbHO yaanuB ceMbK) noaTa ms AOMa. 
ycTpoMfiM a HeM TOTa/ibHWM o6wck, M3bHB 6onbujyKD nacTb 
nepenMCKM m pyKonncew 

B nocneayioiAMe ahm amccmaoht HeoAnoxpaTHo npMHy- 
AMTeribHO AOCTaBnnncH b MecTnoe OTAeneHMe roc6e3onac- 
hoctm, rAe noABepranc« AonpocaM, npoAODxaBiuMMCfl c 
paHHero yTpa ao no3AHero Benepa. B ero KBapTMpe 6tjn 
OTKJiwseH TenecpoH. 

Ha 0CH0B3HMM PeLuenna 31/CP, pa3peixjaK}iaero MecT- 
hum opranaM roc6e3onacHOCTM saaepwMBaib noA03peBa- 
eMux Ha cpox ao AByx neT 6es cyaa m cneacTBMH, enacTM 
noMecTMDM ByM MMHb Kyoxa noa AOMaujHMM apecT. B Ha- 
CTonuiee BpeMn eAMHCTBeHHbiM cdbactbom 3apa6oTKa on« 
ceMbM noaTa nameicn M3roTOBneHMe xyxon b HauMOHanb- 

HblX KOCTIOMaX. 



II 



4 KPACHOE KOJIECfl 




HryEHflMHbxy 

Nguyen Dinh Huy 
llpocpeccop 

15-neTHMM TWpBMHblM cpoK. 

Adpec. Trai Z30. Xuan Loc. Viet 
Nam. (flazepb Z30 a nposumtuu 
KcyannoK). 



HryeH fluHh Xy poanncp b 1932 r. flo 1975 r. - npo(pec- 
cop mctopmh b /He6Ht>ix 3aBeAeHM«x K))KHoro BbeTHaMa. 

Flocne naaeHMfl CaftroHa HryeH flMHb Xy 6wn aaK/noneH 
a TiopbMy, e KOTopoii npoaen 6e3 cyAa 17 neT. B Mae 1992 
r., cnycrn Tpw Mecaua nocne CBoero 0CB06o*aeHMH, oh 
opraHH30BbieaeT «flBn*eHne aa o6beanHeHue nioaeM h 
CTpomenbCTBO aeMoxpaTHM», npM3BaHHoe o6be«n-inib 
eauHOMbiujneHHUKOB BHyipn BbeTHaMa m 3a ero npeaena- 
mh riporpaMMa HeHacnribCtBeHHbix aeMCTBMti flsuweHHs 
Gwna oSbHBneHa 11 aexaGpn 1992 roaa 

1 7 HOfl6po 1993 r . a momoht noaroTOBKM MewayHapoa- 
hom KOHcpepeHunn no pa33nnno BbeTHaMa, npoBeaenne 
xotopom HaweHanocb b Xowmmmhc (CaiiroHe) Ha 27 hob6- 
pn, HryeH fluHb Xy u apyrMe opraHwsaToptJ 6binn apecTOBa- 
hw. HryeH flMHb Xy npoBen 6e3 cyaa b TKipbMe oxono aeyx 
neT. 

B aBrycTe 1 995 r. Ha 3axpbiTOM cyaeGnuM 3aceflaHnw oh 
6bin npuroBopen k 15-tm roaaM nopbMbi. BoceMbero copaT- 
hmxob iaK»e 6binn npuroBopeHbi x pas/iuHHbiM cpoxaM 
rwpeMHoro 3axn»HeHMH. 



o. HAH TMH 
Chan Tin 

KaTonnMOCKMii 

CBHLiieHHUK 

riofl h a6 j i WfleH new n on u nn m, pa - 
Hoe - TiopeMHoe jaKmosennc 

Adpec: 38 Ky Dong, P9, 03, TPHo 
Chi Minn. Viet Nam 
Tene<pOH (84-8) 843-9540 



OTeu HaH Thh dan n3BecT6H Snaroaapn CBoevi penn- 
tmoshom m counanbHOM aeaierbHOCTn eu»e ao 1975 roaa 
Oco6enHO 3HasnTe/ibH0M 6wna ero pa6oTa b « KoMHTeie no 
TKjpeMHOii pecpopMe» b IOwhom BbeTHaMe. P.potmbhmk 
BOMHbi n lOKHOBbeTHaMCxoro npaBmenbCTBa, oh h nocne 
36beameHna BbeTHaMa npoaon>xan noaaepwMBarb Maeio 
naunonanbHoro npuMnpeH^n 

B 1990 r. oh Hanncan TpaiaaT aPacxanHne Hau.MM», b 
kotopom o6paTnncn k KnB c ipe6oDaiinoM npn3HaTb co- 
HepmeHHbie eft owk6kh m npexpaTMTb r.pecneaoBanne cto- 
POhhuxob fleMoxpaTMsaunM. Bcxope nocne 3Toro MaH Tmh 
6bi/i apecTosaH h Haxoanrcn a TiopbMe, H3 xoTopoM 6bir 
ocBo6owaeH a 1993 r. noa aaBneHneM Me>tcayHapoflHOM 

06lueCTBeHHOCTM. 

HaMMHas c 1993 r., MaH Tmh HeofiHoxpaTHO aaBan mh- 

TepBblO MHOCTpaHHUM CpefiCTBaM MaCCOBOM MHCpOpMaUMM, 

BxniOHafl BBC m VOA. 

CooomeHne mm cpaxTOB o napyuieHMM npaB Menosexa 
bo BbeiHaMe ctinbHO pa3apa*ano npaBHTenbCTBO. 

Ytpom 3 Mas 1 998 r. . xoraa MaH Tmh m apyow amccma6ht 
HryeH Hrox flaH HanpaBnnnMCb Ha MOToijMxne b uepxoBb Ha 




noxopoHw M3BecTHoro flMCCMaeHTa HryeH BaH TpaHa, ohm 
6binM oxpyweHbi rpynnoii «xynMraHOB». xoTopwe c6wnM mx 
Ha 3eMnio m CTanM M36nBaTb. HryeH Hrox JlaH nonynnn 
Tflwenyw TpaBMy ronoBw, a Man Tmh - MHoxecTBeHHwe 
yinn6hi pyx m nor. 

B HHTepBbK), aaHHOM xoppecnoHaeHTy Deutsche Presse 
Bcxope nocne «HecHacTHoro cnyMan», o. Man Tmh cxa3an: 
«Bo3mo>kho, ohm He xoTe/iM, ito6w Mbi npMcyTCTBOBanM Ha 
noxopoHax... fl noaoapesato, xto 6binM stm nwan, ho He 
xoTen 6bi 06 stom roBopMTb...». M ao6aBMn: «fl BMaen 
HecKonbKnx nonMueMCKMx phaom c MecTOM HanaaeHMn, ho 
ohm HMnero He npeanpMHflnM*. 

B aexa6pe 2000 r. o. MaH Tmh BMecTe c TpeMa apyrMMM 
penMTMOSHbiMM nMaepaMM ony6nMKOBan o6paiaeHMe x KPIB 
c Tpe6oB3HMeM «yBa)xeHM$i noafMHHOM pennrM03HOM cbo- 
6oaw Bcex penMrMM, oco6chho b othoujchmm ochobhwx 
npaB - HesaBMCMMocTM m cBo6oaw BwOopa McnoBeayeMOM 
penMrMM. penMTM03Horo o6pa30BaHMs m HasHaneHns uep- 
xoBHbix nepapxoB». 

B nacTonmee speMn snacTM ycTaHOBMnM xpyrnocyTOH- 
Hoe Ha6nK>aenMe 3a aomom MaH Tmhb. 3aaep*nBaw n aon- 
pauiMBan 6onbiuMHCTBO noceTMTeneii CBHiyeHHMxa. 



XOAHrTMEH 
Hoang Tien 

("lncaTerib 

noa nonMueMCKMM Ha6;iioae- 

hmbm, npecneAyoTcsi 'menu 
CeMbM. 

Adpec; NhaA11. Phong 420. Khu 
Tap. The Thanh Xuan Bac. Ha 
Noi, Viet Nam 
TenetfiOH (84-4) 553-0377 



PofiMncn 15 aBrycra 1933 r. b XaHoe. 

B Hanane 60-x XoaHr Tmch npenoaasan b XaHOMCxoft 
ujKone xMHeMaTorpa^MM. Mnen KOMMyHMCTMnecxoM napTMM, 
TMeH ecran Ha nyTb anccMaeHcr Ba c cepeaMHu 60-x roaoB, 
xoraa KITB aaHnna 6ecxoMnpoMMCCHyio posmumk), noaflep- 
MaHHyw xoMnapTMeft KMTan, s aonpoce o BoccoeflMHeHMH c 

KOlKHbIM BbCTHaMOM. 

B nocneayiouiMe roaw mm 6wn HanwcaH pqa CTaTeft, 
nonyvMBiuMx ujMpoxoe pacnpocTpaHeHMe bo BbeTHaMexoM 
C8MM9Q8TB. 

B 1996 r cTaTbM m nMCbMa TueHa 6wnn ochobhlim 
mctomhmkom HesasMCMMOM nHopopMauMn o cyae6HOM cpap- 
ce, pa3wrpwBaeMOM BnacTHMM npoTMB BMaHoro AMCCMaeH- 
Ta Xa Cm *y. 

6 (peBpann 1997 r., HaxaHyHe JlyHHoro HoBoro roaa, b 
nepeoM paaMonepeaane PaaMO CBo6oflHan A3ma. TpaHC- 
nupoBaBiueMcn Ha BbBTHaM, XoaHr TneH npoMMTan OTxpu- 
Toe nMCbMO MMHMCTpy xynbTypw BbeTHaMa, CTpeSosaHMeM 
x npaBMTenbCTBy pa3peujMTb HeaaBMCMMyw npeccy. 

OcpMunanbHbie cpeacTBa MaccoeoM MHcJxspMauuM, Ha- 
xoaHiUMecfl noa KOHTponeM npasMTenbCTBa. o6pyujMnMCb 
Ha XoaHr TMOHa, o6bmhhh ero a oiCTynneHMM ot peBontouM- 

OHHblX npMHLJMnOB M n0CO6HMH6CTBe aHTMXOMMyHMCT3M. 16 

mk)hh 1997 r. XoaHr TMeH noaan b cya mcx 3a xneBeTy Ha 
raseTy «Hbh 3aH» - opraH KI1B. 

BbeTHaMCKMe cyaeSHbie opraHw HMxax hb orpearMpo- 
BanM Ha mcx XoaHr Tnena 

12 anpenfl 1999 r. b ijeHTpe Xanon XoaHr Tmoh 6bin 
cxBaneH cOTpyaHMxaMM cneucny5*6 m aaaans noflBeprancn 
aonpocaM b OTaene roc6e3onacHOCTM. MneHw ceMbM He 
MMenw b 3tm flHM CBeaeHMM o ero MecTOHaxo*aeHHM. 




4 



KPYTDM MAPIllPyi BbETHAMA 



97 



1 9 Man 2000 r. Xoanr TueH BMecTe c neTbipbun apyrviMM 
n3BecTHt>iMn fluccnAeHTaMn: HryeH TxaHb flwam-OM, Xoanr 
MuHb 4nHeM. OaM Kbio flOHron h TpaH flynr TvieHOM - 
o6paTnnncb k HauuoHanbHOMy co6paHn>o BbBTHaMa c rpe- 
6oeaHMeM npeKpaTMTb npecneaoeaHne nncaTe/in Xa Cm *y 
n npn3biBaMn k coaaaHMK) aeMOKpaTunecKoro o6iaecTBa. 

B HacToniuee bpomh XoaHr TueH HaxoanTcn noa nocTO- 
BHHbiM nonnaeMCKUM Ma6nK)fleMneM m yrpo30M HOBoro ape- 
da. 




#1 



HryEH xo 

Nguyen Ho 

BblBLUHU 

npo0coK}3Hbiti Ae«- 
Tenb, H/ieH UK KI1B 

riofl aoMaiuHMM apecTOM, paHee 

- 3aK/1tOHeKHblH. 



Adpec: 1 1 Tran Quoc Thao. TP HCM. Viet Nam 
Tenecpon: {84-8) 290-408 

HryeH Xo poauncn a 1916 roay a Cawrcme 

B 1936 roay oh BCTynwn b KOMMyHMCTHnecKyio napTwo. 
ApecToaaHHbiiii cppaHuy3CKHMn snacTHMM b 1940 r., oh 5wr 
cocnaH b narepb Ha ocTpoee Kohcoh, rae npoBen noTb ner 
riocne ocBo6o)KaeHns oh aenaeT 6wcTpyio Kapbepy b pyxo- 
BoacTBB BbeTMUHd u b 1950 r. B03maBnneT Kommtct Co- 
npoTMBneHns o6nacTn CaiiroH-LlJonoH. riocne pa3flena 
BbeTHaMaB 1954 r. HryeH Xo nepee3>xaeT BflPB M3aHHMa- 
bt Beayiane no3wunn b rocyaapcTseHHOM npocpcoio3HOM 
aBMiKeHviM. B 1964 r. no peiueHMio U,K om HanpaBnneTCH Ha 
nponaraHaMCTCKyio pa6oTy b KDwhwh BbeTHaM. C no6eaoi* 
KOMMyHncTunecKnx cwn b 1975 roay HryeH Xo exoam b 
Hucno Han6onee BnnflTejibHwx pyxoBoanTeneii BbeTHaMa 

riocne CBoeri OTCTaBxn b 1987 r.. b soapacTe 71 roaa. b 
pe3ynbTaTe o6iyeHMfl c npocTWMM nioabMn. ana kotopwx oh 
paHee 6wn HeaociyneH, npon3oiuno n3MeHenne BsrnnaoB 
HryBH Xo. 

B 1989 r. oh BMecre capyrMMM M3BecTHbiMM nuaepaMM 
ConpoTneneHMH opraHnaoBan «Kny6 BeiepaHOB Conpo- 
TMBneHHJi» n CTan naaaeaTb mypHan «Tpaanunn Conpo- 
rnBneHnn». Kny6, npHenexwHw moaert co Bceii CTpaHbi. 
CKopo dan Tpn6yHOti arm kphthkh aeticTBHM npaBMTenb- 
CTaa b oTMOajeHnn nMTennnreHunn n aeTepaHOB. riocne 
Bbixoaa a cbot aeyx nepawx HOMepos xypHana wiy6 6wr 
aaxpbiT no peiueHnc npaBHTenbCTsa. 

B aBrycTe 1990 r. npeMbep-MKHMCTp Bo BaH Knei noce- 
run HryeH Xo h npeanpMHnn nonwTxy yroBopmb ero OTxa- 
33Tbcn ot fluccnaeHTCKOii no3nuMn. ho 74-neTHnii BeTepaH 
OTBBTun OTK330M. 7 ceHTfl6pfl HryeH Xo 6bin apecTOBaH u 
nocne npeaBapHTenbnoro aaienic-ieHmi b nopbwe 6t>ir no- 
uemeH noa aoMawHMtf apecr ao 20 Man 1993 r. 

20 MapTa 1994 r. AreHTCTBO <t>paHC npecc M3 ("OHKonra 
coo6mMno, mto 77-neTHnii BOTepaH BbeTHaMcxoM KOMMy- 
HMCTMMBCKOiii napmii co daweM b 54 roaa 6wn BHOBb 
apecTOBaH aa HanncaHne n pacnpocipaHeHne aottyMBHTa 
noa Ha3B3HneM «ToHKa 3peHnn m >KM3Hb», npn3biBaBujero 
KIIB OTKa3aTbcn ot KOMMyHncnmecKoro nyTM n «ncKpeHHe 
npMHHTb KannTanncTMHecKnii nyib pa3BHTMfl». no MHeHwo 
asTopa. 3iot nyTb sceraa 6wn 6onee opraHM-neH ann BbeT- 
HaMa 

HryeH Xo yTBepjKflan: «Bonee hom 3a 60 neT KOMMyHM- 
CTMnecKoro nyTH BbeiHawcKnii napoa noHBC HeMCHHCJiM- 
Mwe )KepTBbi. Hunero hb nonynuB B3aMeH CipaHa no- 
npe*HeMy 5eaHas h OTCTanan. JlioaM Bee Tax xe ronoaHbi 




n HecMacrHw. OTcyTCTByeT CBoSoaa m aeMOKpaTus. 3to - 
no3op». 

Mepe3 HecKonbxo Heaenb nocne ero noBTopHoro apec- 
Ta 3aopoBbe HryeH Xo cepbe3HO yxyaiiinnocb. B hbctob- 
mee speMn oh HaxoanTcn noa cTpomM aombluhmm apec- 
TOM. 



HrYEH TXAHb A>KAHr 
Nguyen Thanh Giang 
Teonor 

HaxoAHTCH noa AOMauiHHM ape- 
ctom, perynnpHo noaBepraeTcn 

3aflep*aMHHM n qonpocaw 

Adpec: Nha A13P9 - TTPK Hoa 
Muz- Trung Hoa - TuLiem. Ha Noi. 
Viet Nam 
TenecpOH: (84-4) 858-601 2 (ommw- 

VBH) 



Poanncn b 1936 roay b npoBMHumi TxaHbxoa (Thanh 
Hoa), CeBepHwti BbeTHaM. 

riocne OKOHiaHMn XaHOMCKoro nonnTexHH^ecxoro yHM- 
BepciiTeTa b 1962 roay pa6oTan b Biopo reonormi XaHon 
BnnoTb ao yBonbneHns b 1996 roay. 

nonynun aoxropaHTypy no reonornn b 1980 roay n 
npeacTaBnnn BbeTHaM Ha MHor^x MewyHapoaHwx koh- 
cpepeHqunx no reonornn: Kyana-JlyMnyp (1982). BaiunHr- 
toh (1989), Huxaro (1991) h Jloc-AHaJKenec (1996). 

B 1992 roay 5annoTMpoaancB b HaunoHanbHoe co6pa- 
Hue. B nepBOM Type nonynan 96% ronocoB, 6onbiije. mom 
sneH L4K BKn. n36wpaBLun^cn b tom *e pauOHe. lapT^iH 
BBena HOBOMcneMeHHoe npaanno, no KOToponiy Bropotf Typ 
ronocoBaHnsi aonx<eH npoBoanTbCH b KonneKTMBax no wec- 
Ty pa6oTbi xaHanaara. 16 MneHOB napTnn H3 300 cnywaianx 
ero 6>opo 6wnu BbiseaHti na cneunanbHyio 6eceay. -iToGbi 
He aonycTMTb no6eaw Hryen TxaHb flwaHra Ha Bw6opax 

HryeH TxaHbflx<aHr 6bin obhhm M3 nepBwx BbeTHaMCKMX 
yseHbix. Bna"ianx 6yaymee 6e3 KOMMynnsMa Oh c(})opMy- 
ntipoBan ocHOBHbie npo6neMw BbeTHaMa n nanownn nx 
napTMM n npaBmenbCTBy b MHoroMUcneHHbix 3cce m OTxpu- 
toix nucbMax. 

B AHsape 1997 roaa HryeH TxaHb flwaHr Hanncan acce 
«ripaBa MenoBeKa - TwcnMeneTHee CTpeMneHne», b koto- 
poM aoxa3WBaeT yHMBepcanbHocTb npas senoBeKa m aena- 
eT BbiBoa. hto «CTpaHbi aonwHw o6t>eanHHTbCti ann npaso- 
3aiaMTH0ii aenTenbHOCTM*. B MapTe 1997 roaa HryeH TxaHb 
flxaHr 6un Bbi3saH b Kommtct no naeonornn m xynbType UK 

BKn H3 axUMK) «06u4eCTBBHH0r0 nopHL(aHM51». 

5 aBrycTa 1997 roaa HryeH TxaHb flwanry yaanocb 
ony6nnK0BaTb CTaTbra b npocpcot03HOki raaeTe «/lao floHr» 
(Lao Dong - Tpya) «BHHMaHne k yny^LueHUKi ycnoBMM ann 

OTKpblTOCTM H aeMOKpaTMM*. 

B CTaTbe paccMaTpuBanMCb MeptJ. Heo6xoanMbie ana 
sauiMTbi npaB TpyasmnxcH, BtcnioHan co3aaHne He3aBncn- 
mdix npoipcoiosoB. 

B anpene 1998 roaa HryeH TxaHb AwaHr 6bin apecTo- 
BaH snacTHMn na neTbipe ahh. 

BbeTHaMcxoe npaBmenbCTBO nwTanocb o6BnHHTb ero 
b He3axoHHOM pacnpocTpaHeHnn c6opHnxa ctmxob m noaM 
Byn MuHb Kyoxa «no3THHecKne 03apeHnn Haaonpoce», ho 
nocne Toro xax HryeH TxaHb flacaHr nauan ronoaoaicy, ero 
OTnycTunn. 

4 MapTa 1999 roaa oh 6un apecTOBaH m o6BHHen b 
«3noynoTpe6neHnn aewoxpaTiiMecKHMM npaB3Mn» Bnac- 
tm BwnycTunM HryeH TxaHb TwaHra H3 TiopbMbi nocne 



98 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 




AByxMecflMHoro npeOwBaHUH 6e3 cyaeoHoro paccneaoBa- 
Miifl. McnyraeuiMCb c»inbHoro MewayHapoflHoro aaB.neH.ifl 
B HacToamee BpeMs HryeH TxaHb TuaHr HaxoaMTCfl noa 
aoMaujHUM apecTOM. 



HEKBAHrJlMEM 
Le Quang Liem 
fluaep uepKBn Xoa-Xao 

noa flOMaujiiHM apecTOM, panee 
- TtopeMHoe 3aKiiK>neHMe. 

Adpec: E1 Cu Xa Nguyen Dinh 
Chieu, Phuong 4. Quan Phu Nhuan, 
TP HCM, Viet Nam 
Tenecpon: (84-90) 819-815 (uo- 

SuflbHblQ) 



Poanncn 1 Hon6pn 1 920 r b npoBMHU,MM AHrwaHr Ha ore 
BbeTHaMa. 

Jle KBaHr JlneM ABnnncn npeaceaaieneM AaMUHUdpa- 
TuBHoro KOMmeTa 6yaflMCTOB Xoa-Xao, nneHOM KoHrpecca 
KDwHoro BbeTHaMa n octwuepoM lOJKHOBbeTHaMCKOM apwun 
ao 1975 r. 

nocne BOiiiMbi naxopyincn a pa3nMHMbix narepsx nepe- 
Bocn^TaHun /le KsaHr Jlnew - aaBHnii 6opeu 3a pe.inri'03- 
Hwe npaBa. C 1992 no 1999 r, oh HanpaBun ujecTb xoaa- 
raiiCTB bwcujum aon>KHOCTHbiM nutjaM BbeTHaMCKoro npa- 
BMTenbCTaa c Tpe6oBaHuew pennrno3Hbix cao6oa ans 6ya- 
a^cTOB Xoa-Xao. 

Koraa ocenbto 2000 r HaBoaHBHue HaHecno ko/ioc- 
canbHbiH ymep6 wry BbeTHaMa. fie KsaHr flueM opraHtoo- 
Ban «KouMTeT noMomvi nocTpaaaBWMM or HaBoaneHUH b 
aeribTe MexoHra». 

KoMmeTOM 6bino pacnpeaeneHO 6onee 4000 nocwnoK 
c ryMannTapHOM noMOixibK) ana Han6onee HywaatouiMxcH 
ceMevi B sospacre 81 roqa Jle KsaHr fluew npeanpMHMMaeT 
flnnTeribHyio noe3axy b 3aionneHHbie o6nacTM. 

B aeKa6pe 2000 r. 6wno ony6nnKOBaHO coBMecTnoe 
3anBneHne nuaepoB pasHwx pennmoaHbix xowpeccMM: He 
KBawr JlneMa, npenoao6Horo Hryen BaH Jin, noiTBHHoro 
BxuxKy Tun TbeH XaHn m npenoao6Horo MaH TuHa. b koto- 
poM ohh npoTecTOBann npoTMB nonnTHKn KOMMyHMCTOB b 
OTHOiueHMM penwrMM. B (peBpane 2001 Ma BCTpene pen«rn- 
03Hbix nuaepos b Xk>3 no HHHunaTnee Jle KsaHr JlneMa 6bin 
opraHnsoBaH BbeTHaMCKnii CoBeT pasnuMHbix BepoMcno- 
noflmiiifl 

Jle KsaHr JImbm HeoaHOKpaTHO noaseprancn npecneao- 
BannBM BnacreM, opraHH303oiBaBiunx npOTMB Hero xawna- 
HMUKneBeTbiBCMH. Oco6eHHoaaBneHne BnacTeii Bospoc- 
no nocne Toro. xax oh o6bflBMn o BOCdaHOBneHnn rioariMH- 
Hoii 6yaflMMCKOM uepKsn Xoa-Xao, OTaenenHOM ot Haxcaa- 
merocs noa KOHTponeM npaBHTe/ibCTBa KoMHTeia Xoa- 
Xao. cosaaHHoro b 1999 r 

B Hacroamee BpeMn Jle Ksanr JlneM HaxoaMTCfl noa 
aoMaujHtiM apecTOM. 



BAOKY 
BaoCu 

rincaTe/ib 

noa flOMauiHHM apecTOM. 

Adpec: 35 Nguyen Dinh Chieu. 
Dalat. Lam Dong. Viet Nam. 
Teneepon: (84-63) 823-779 (om- 
WMPMH c 7 anpenn 1997 a.) 




Pofltmcfl b 1945 roay bt. Xioa (U,eHTparibHbiM BbeTHaM). 

Bun mhshom KI1B. nocTOflHHbiM nneHOM nozmepwuBae- 
mom rocyaapcTBOM Accounaunn xyaoxHUKOB b npoBUHunn 
JlaniaoHr M saMecimeneM rnaBHoro peaaxTopa wypHa/ia 
«J1aHr6naH» (Langbian). 

B KOHije 1989 r Bwecre c no3TOM Byn MuHb KyoxoM 
coeepuinn noe3axy no crpaHe. npoBoan xaMnaHMo cpean 
TBopnecKOii nHTennnreHmin no c6opy noannceM noa o6pa- 
uieHHeM b UK KI1B c npn3biB0M ocyuecTBMTb peanDHyto 
aeMoxpaTMio. 

Cpa3y we nocne noe3axn wypHan «J1aHr6naH» 6wn 
3axpbiT anacTOMn. a o6a opraHH3aTopa KaMnaHiin - Byn 
MuHb KyoK m Bao Ky - ncKnKweHbi M3 napTnn. 

HcKniOHeHne M3 napTHM Tonbxo yxpennno Bao Ky b ero 
npMHLiwnax. 

HanncaHHbie mm poMaHw \a CTaTbn, b KOTopbix oh pesxo 
KpMTuxoBan nonnTuxy npaBHTenbCTBa, noflnonbHO pacnpo- 
CTpaHnnncb bo BbeiHaivie ti ujnpoKO n3flaBanncb 3a rpaMn- 

ueA. 

nocne apecTa n cyaa Haa anccnaeHTOM Xa Cu Oy Bao 
Ky axTMBHO CTan *a ero saianry. Oh HanpaBun pna nuceM 
nneHaM npaBViTenbCTBa n nuaepaM KOMnapTMM c Tpe6oea- 
hmsmm npaaocyann vi CBo6oabi aim csoero TOBapuma. Oh 
TaK*e HanMcan Hecxo/ibKo CTaTeM. b kotopux paccxaaan o 
Henenoix o5BMHeHnnx n cyae6Hbix peiueHtiqx anacTeti v\ o 
ctomkoctm Xa Cm Oy. 

B Hanane 1996 roaa BbeTHaMCxoe npaBMTenbCTao ycM- 
jiMno aaBnenne Ha Tex nMcaTenevi, xyao)KMMKOB, MHTennen- 
Tyanos, Koropwe npoTecTosarM npoTMB apecia m «noxa3a- 
TerbHoro» cyaa Haa Xa Cm <I>y OcHOBHaa rnwecTb npecne- 
aoBaHMH npMiunacb Ha Bao Ky. 

HanMHan c HO«6pn 1996 r . Bao Ky m ero xena <CaM Tm 
Ban Men HeoaHOxpaTHO HacMDbCTBeHHO aocTaBnnntiCb b 
OTfleneHMS roc6e3onacHOCTM ann aonpocoB. 

B anpene 1997 r. b KBapTwpe riMcaTenq 6bin OTxriWHeH 
TenecpOH r"oc6e3onacHOCTb BeaeT nocTosiHHoe Ha6nioae- 
Hue 3a >KM3Hbio ceMbM Bao Ky, ocTaHaannBan m o6bicKnsas 
nioaeMnpMBxoae n BbtxoaeMsqoMa nncaTenn. JJoceroflHn 
Bao Ky naxoanTcs noa aoMauiHMM apecTOM. a sneHw ero 
ceMbM noaBepratoTCfl cepbe3H0My nckixonorMnecKOMy aas- 

IWNMIO. 



o. HryEH xy fl>KAiri 

Nguyen Huu Giai 

KaTO/iMHecKUki 

CBHLIteHHUK 




HaxoflMTCH noa nonnueiiCKUM 
HaonioaeHneM. perynnpHO aon- 

paUJMBaeTCR, 6bl8UJHM 3aKf1K)- 
HeHHblM. 



Adpec. do Nha Chung Giao Phan Hue, 37Phan Dinh Phung. 
Hue. Viet Nam 

Poanncs b 1941 roay 3 npoBMHUMM KsaHr6nHb (Quang 
Binh). 3aK0HHMn EriMCKonanbHbiM MHCTMTyT mmchm flufl X-ro 
b flanaTe. 

B 1976 apxMenMCxon HryeH Kmm flbeH (Nguyen Kim 
Dien) Ha3HaMM/i HryeH Xy fl«aMH HacTOBTeneM ceMMHapMM 
b XoaHTbeHe. 3To6bino ipyziHoe Ha3HaneHMe npti BBeaeH- 

HOM KOMMyHMCTMHeCKMM npaBMTenbCTBOM OrpaHMHCHMM H3 

penMrwo3Hoe o6pa30B3HMe. 

BnacTM Sbinn ocoBbhho B03MymeHbi cpaxTOM, mto HryeH 
Xy flwan npoaoaMn noanoribHbie cnyx6u, nMujeHHbie Tpa- 
aMUMOHHwx periMmosHbix aTpn6yTOB. HTo5bi n36e>KaTb Ha- 



4 KPYTOM MAPUIPyT GbETHAMA 



II 



6rioaeHHH Bnaciew. npaBurenbCTBo BbiHy>t<aano fl«aM« 
cornacMTbCH Ha nepeaany ceMMHapnn noa KOHTponb rocy- 
aapcTBa. ho BCTpemno ctomkmm OTKa3. Toraa ceMMHapwio 
OTobpann cunoii. noapo6nocrn 3Toro MHuwaeHTa 6wnn 
onucaHbi b nocnawMH HryeH Xy flwai/m pacnpocrpaneHHOM 
B 1994 roay. 

deii flwaii 6wn nepeMeiaeH apxnenncxonoM HryeH 
Khm flbeHOM b npoBHHunKj JlKJOHrBaH (Luong Van). Msnenb- 
kw/i OKpyr b 12 km k wry ot Xk)3 (Hue), rae oh npoaonwan 
npoBoanTb noanonbHwe Cfiyx<6bi. 

B OTBeT Ha ero axTMBHOCTb BnacTn 6es cyaa saxnioHMnH 
flxairf b TiopbMy c 1982 no 1988 roa. 3a wedb neT oh 
npouien HecKo/ibKO Han6onee nena/ibHO n3BecTHbix kohu,- 
narepevi. BxruonaH narepb floHrcoM b npoanHjun flo : xoh n 
narepb BuHbabeH b npoBUHumi TxyaTbBH. 

nocne ocBo6o)KaeHvifl flwaii 0T6waan ccwnxy a npo- 
bmhuhm HryeTBuey (Nguyel Bieu). 

CnycTfl HSCKonb<o neT o. JTwart 6bin eoccTaHOBnen b ero 
npe>KHeM npuxoae JliooHrBaH. KpoMe ero npmxoacxux o6n- 
3aHH0CTeM. oh npuHUMan ynacTue b aenTenbHOCTti Heodpn- 
L»nanbHbix pennrno3Hbix o6iumh. ocyiaecTBnHBiuux noxopo- 
hw 3m6phohob nocne a6opTOB. saiamaan He3aMy*Hnx He- 
coBepoieHHoneTHnx waiepen. opraHH30BbiBan, b cnynae 
Heo6xoanMOCTM, ycbiHOBneHwe MnaaeHueB b 6e3aeTHbie 
ceMbH. 

Bo BpeMH HaBoaneHUB 1999 roaa o. flwavi noMoran 
nocTpaaaBUikiu nK)6oio aeponctioBeaaHnw. HecMoipn na 
npennTCTBUs hhhobhhkob. Ero CBo6onHan LUKona ana ae- 
jev\ M3 6eaHwx ceMei-i raxxe HeoflHOxpaTHO 3aKpt>iBanacb 
npaBMTeribCTBOM. 

Oreu Hryen Xy Aaort a HacTonmee apeMs coctout noa 
nocroflHHbiM nonnueMCKMM H3fl3opoM m yrposoii noBTopHO- 
ro apeda. 



HryEH HroK jiah 

Nguyen Ngoc Lan 
flucaTe/ib 




HaxoanTCH noaaoMauiHMM ape- 
ctom M nonnueiiCKHM Haonioae- 
HMOM. 

Adpec: 256/13 Tan Phuoc. P6, Q10. 
TP HCM, Viet Nam 
Tene&OH: (84-8) 855-3862 



HryeH HroxJIaHpoanncflB 1921 
roay m ao 1 975 roaa 6un xaTonn- 
HecKMM CBHineHHuxoM b uepxBw Ha (Ore BbeTHaMa, cocTonn 
b aHTMBoeHHOft onnosnunn n aawniuan KOMMyHM3M 

nocne BotiHbi oh dan OTxpoaenHO xpnTHKOBaTb KOMMy- 
HticTMsecKoe npaBMTenbCTso 3a HeBwnorHeHne o6e.uaHnn 
m naaatomww ypoeenb xcm3hm HoBtie BnacTn scxope 3anpe- 
Tunn ero onno3Hu.noHHbie ny6nnKau.nn. 5 aBrycia 1990 
roaa HryeH Hrox JlaH 6bin noMeiueH noa aoMawHMM apecT. 

Haxoaf cb noa apecTOM, Haniican ocTpoe KpnTn^ecKoe 
acce «npecca xax HHCTpyMeHT napTnn». 

no3aHee HryeH Hrox JlaH Bocno/ib30BancH necKO/ibKO 
CMnrMMBUJUMncfl ycnoBMnMM aoMauiHero apecTa m opraHH- 
30Ban noanonbHym nepenncicy c apyrnMn anccwaeHTaMn. 

Ero CTaTbn «HHu.naeHT a Taii6nHe - BbeTHaMcxan nep- 
cneKTMBa» coaep)KHT nofiHWM OTMeT o xpynHwx KpecTbHHC- 
khx npoTecTax nawan^nBaeMbix oo^imManbHoti npeccovi). 
KOTopwe nponcxoannn bochom n neTOM 1997 roaa a 
HecKO!ib<nx ceBepnbix npoBMHunsx 

yipoM 3 Man 1998 roaa HryeH HroxJIaH cunbHO nocipa- 
aan BMede c apyruM anccnaeHTOM. cBBmeHHHKOM MaH 



Tubom (Chan Tin), b to BpeMH kbk ohh exann Ha noxopoHbi 
M3BecTHoro anccnaenTa Hryen BaH TpaHa (Nguyen Van 
Tran). HryeH Hrox JlaH npH6bin b uepKOBb Cnacmenfl, 
h rorjbi /BeaTu MaH Tuna Ohm 6binn oxpyweHbi Men3BectHbi- 
mu. xoTopue c6nnn motoumkh c nacca*npaMn na seunio 
HryeH Hrox JlaH nonynun M03roByio TpaBMy, KOTopas na- 
aonronpnKOBanaeroKnocTenn.OanHH3eroapy3evi. BpaM, 
ocMOTpeB 6o/ibHoro 30 hiohh 1998 r.. 3acBnfleient.ciBO- 
aan, hto npn pocTe 170 cm 72-neTHMiii HryeH Hrox JlaH 
BecuT Bcero 35 xr. 



O. HryEH BAH JIM 
Nguyen Van Ly 

KaTOJIMHeCKMM 
CBflUjeHHMK 




15-neTHMM cpox TtopewHoro 3ax- 
nroneHMn, panee - 10 neT Topb- 

Mbl. 



Adpec: do Nha Chung Giao Phan Hue, 37Phan Dinh Phung. 
Hue, Viet Nam 

Poannca 31 aarycra 1947 roaa b npoBnnu.nn KeaHrTpati 
(Quang Tri) IJeHTparibHoro BbeTHaMa. 

C 1974 roaa HBnxeTCH cexpeTapeM apxnenncxona Hry- 
eH Khm C^eHa 

B 1977 roay fn 6wn apecTOBan sa pacnpocTpaHeHne 
aByx acce apxnenncKona HryeH Khm flweHa. xpHTHxyioinMx 
nonMTMKy npasHTeribCTBa b othouj6hmh penwruM. m ornpaB- 
nen b TpyaoBoii narepb 6nn3 Xioa. HcnpaeMTenbHbivi cpox 
6wn Ha3HaseH b 20 neT. ho cnycTs HecKonbxo uecnueB ero 
OTnycTnnn. 3anpeTnB 3aHHMaTbcn pennrno3HOH aesTenb- 
HOCTbio. Hryen BaH Jin Hapyiunn sanpeT. m b siHBape 1983 
roaa ero yBeaoMnnw o Bwcwnxe. B otbct oh Hanncari 
pe3xoe nwcbMO npaBHTenbCTBy v\ ne noannHnnc« npnxa3y o 
BbiceneHMH. Ytpom 18 Man 1983 roaa nonnuua. HecMOTpn 
Ha noaaep>KKy nocneaoBaTenen Jin, cnno(i Bbiaaopnna ero 
H3 aowa. 

BnocneacTBMH Jin npnroBopnnn k 10 roaaM 3axnK3«-ie- 
hub. nocne ocBo6o>xaeHHH b 1992 roay oh 6wn noMemeH 
noa Ha6noaeHne h nniueH npaea Ha pennrno3Hyio aen- 

TenbHOCTb. 

24 HOs6pfl 1994 roaa HryeH BaH Jin pacnpocTpaHM/i 
«3aHBneHne M3 10 nyHKTOB o coctohhhm KaTonMHecKOii 
uepxBM b enapxMM Xk)3» o HapyiueHMM CBo6oaw Beponcno- 

IMyifflBHl 

BnacTM o _ pearnpoBann. cocnaB ero b aepesMK) Tbio- 
6ney (Thuy Bieu) B03ne Xioa, rae npoxnBaeT ManeHbxan 
KaTonMMecxan o6mnHa 

B HO«6pe 2000 roaa flu chobb M3aaeT CBoe 3anBneHne, 
ao6aBk<B o6pameHne «Mbi HyxmaeMCH b hctuhhom pennrn- 
o3hom CBo6oae bo BbeTHaMe». b kotopom Hassan non.unKy 
BKn «neTneii Ha ujee pennrnn». 

4 hob5p« 2000 roaa HryeH BaH Jin nposen axuwo 
npoTecTa npoTMB KOHCpncxauMM coScTBeHHocin uep<Bn n 
orpaHiineMnq ee npae. npn6biBiuMe coTpyaHnxn opraHOB 
6e3onacHOCTn HeMeaneHno npnHsnncb 3a ycMMpeHne n 
3anyrnBaHne ynacTHHKOB. 

B Hanane 2001 roaa npecneaOBaHne otlo Jin ywecTO- 
HMnocb, oaHaxo oh npoaonx<an 6opb6y. B tfceepane oh 
npeaocTaBMn nwcbMeHHoe cBnaeTenbCTeo afis MewyHa- 
poaHOM Kommccmh no cao6oae BeponcnoBeaaHnn. a raioxe 
ana 6pucpMHra b KoHrpecce CLUA no npaBaM HenoBeta (16 
Man 2001 roaa). 



Ill 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 



17 Man 2001 roaa 6onee 600 areHTOB TaiiHovi nonnu.nn 
aiTypMOBann uepKOBHbi* npuxoA Tpioen (Truyen). hto6w 
apedOBaTb OTu,a flu. Oh roTOBuncn k cny>K6e, Koraa ero 
curort yBenn M3 uepKBn m ornpaBmiH b TiopbMy. 

B OKT«6pe 2001 r. HryeM Ban flu 6bin npuroBopeH k 15- 
M roaaM TiopeMHoro 3aKJiKweHMH. 



<PAMKbK)flOHr 
Pham Que Duong 

BoeHHblH HCTOpHK 




HaxoA«iTcn noA no/iMuewcKm 
Ha6ntooeHMeM. 



Adpec: 37 Ly Nam De, Ha Noi. Viet Nam 
Tenecpon (84-4) 823-1372 

Poaunca b 1931 roay, SBnancfl nneHOM BKn. 

Mmbh 3B3HHB nonKoannKa. a 1982-87 roaax 6bin rnaB- 
kum peAaKTopoM BeAyuero ncTopuwecKoro wypHana Ha- 
poAHOii apMnn BbeTHaMa «Tan Mm Hum Cy KBaH Cy» (Tap 
Chi Lich Su Quan Su). 

Bbic-:a3biBaeMbie flonroM coMHenus a npaBH/ibHoc™ 
KOMMyHHCTMMecKnx MeTOAOB npasneHMfl noBnewin 3a co- 
6o(i paHHK)K) OTCTaaKy. B 1991 roAy ero npoBepann Tpn 
pasa no noaospenmo b pacnpocipanRHnn waieonanoa 
KpnTHKyomux BKn. B 1995 roAy. bo BpeMfl xaMnaHHH 
noAaB.neHns! nHaKOMbicnua, b ero aowe 6bin ipon3BeaeH 
o6uck. 

B nHBape 1999 Oaw Kbio Aoh; ny6nnHHO Bbiiuen na 
BKn, npOTecTyn npoTMB M3rHaHns reHepana TpaH flo. B 
nHTepBbto PaAno Cbo6oah3h A3mh oh noATBepAni cbom 
aeiicTBHH m cxasan, hto MHorne H3 apMetiCKOti BepxywKH 
pa3aenflKDT ero MyacTBa oTHOCHTeribHO reHepana TpaH flo 

19 Man 2000 roAa OaM KbK> flOHr BMecre c MeTbipbwa 
apyrHMM CTopoHHUKaMM AeMOKpaTnn: XoaHr MMHb Muhom. 
HryeH TxaHb TuaHroM, XoaHr Twchom u Tpan flyHr TueHOM 
- o6paTnncR c 6ecnpeueAeHTHt>iM nocnaHneM k BbeTHaM- 
CKOMy HaunoHanbHOMy co6panMio c Tpe6oBaHneM npexpa- 
TUTb npecneA08aHne nucaTens Xa Cn <Dy. 

Bnadu BCTpeBoxceHbi BnnBHueM <J>aM KbiofloHra. oco- 
6ghho Ha "tneHOB BKfl. 



o. OAH BAH JIOH 
Phan Van Loi 
KaTonMsecKMii 

CBflmeHHMK 

Ha«oflnnco s saKntonsHMM, b Ha- 
CTonuiee BpeMH - noa nonnueki- 
ckmm Ha6ntOAeHMeM. 



Adpec: c/o Nha Chung Giao Phan 

Hue. 37 Phan Dinh Phung, Hue, Viet Nam 

PoAnnca 9 MapTa 1951 roAaBnpoBHHunnTyaTbeH(Thua 
Thien) UeHTpanbHoro BbeTHaMa. 

no 0KOHH3HMM ceMUHapnn b 1976 roAy ne 6t>in nocBfl- 
iAeH b AyxoBHwrt caH M3-3a orpaHnneHMM. nanoiKeMHbix 
npaBHTenbCTBOM. 

B 1978 roAy <t>aH BaH JIom m 17 APyrnx ceMMHapucTOB 
yAaneHw ms ceMUHapnn KcyaH6MH (Xuan Bich) Oh BepHyn- 
cn k poAMTent»M b OKpyr (DyxaM (PhuCam)uBMae 1981 roaa 
5bin TaiiHO nocBsmeH b can apxnenncKonoM HryeH Ban 




TyaHOM, HaxoauBJjuMcn b ccwme HeAaneKO or CoHTaii 
(Son Tay). 

B ceHTfl6pe 1981 roAa, b AeHb BbeTHaMCKoro MyseHUKa 
CB.ToMaca TueHa. Hon m HecKonbxo 3HaK0Mbix ceMHHapvic- 
tob us oicpyra *yKaM (Phu Cam) Hannoann n cwrpanw 
KopoTKyio cueHKy. M3o6pa>KaK)iAyio npecneAOBaHne Bnac- 
thmm OTua HryeH BaH Jin bo epeMn nanoMHusecTBa b 
ZlaBaHr b aBrycie 1981. 

3a 3too. floM 6wn npuroBopeH k neTwpeM roaaM Tiopb- 
Mbi. Oda/ibHwe y^acTHUKn TaioKe nonyMnnn cpokh ot AByx 
ao Tpex c nonoBUHO^ neT. 

3a Bpeun ero npe6wBaHnq b nopbue Bnac™ o6Hapywn- 
nM, mto y OaH BaH Jlon He 6wno ocpnunanbHoro pa3peiue- 
HUfl Ha caH cBflujeHHHKa, n npoannnn cpoK saKmoHeHun 
eme Ha 3 roAa. 

nocne oCBo6o*AeHHH b 1988 roAy flon BepHynca k 
poAMTennM b OynaM. 

B anpene 1998 roaa o JIom 6wn Bbi3BaH a nonnun>o no 
noA03p6H«io b pacnpocTpaHeHMM HereranbHoro 5ionneTe- 
hs «Tmh Hxa» (Tin Nha -HOBOCTMMSAOMa), M3AaBaeMoro 
3MnrpaHTaMM-KaTojiMnaMii. 

HecMOTps Ha OTcyTCTBue AOKasaienbCTB n cenAeTe- 
neti, BnacTn o6Bnnnnn ero b He3axOHHOM ny5nnKaqiin pe- 
nnrno3Hbix MarepnanoB m KOHCpucKOBann npMHTep n KOMnb- 
WTep. CeMMac o <DaH Ban JIom HaxoAMTCB noa yrpo30M 
noBTopHoro apecia. 

TMH XKDEH KBAHr 
Thich Huyen Quang 

FlaTpnapx OobeAMHeH- 
hom EypAWMCKOu i\epK- 
bm BbeTHaMa (UBCV) 

Ccbinxa, AOMauiHMH apecT. 

Adpec: Chua Phuoc Quang, Nghia Hanh, 
Quang Ngai, Viet Nam 

PoAnncn 19 ceHTH6pfl 1919 roAa b npoBMHynn BuHb- 
AHHb (Binh Dinh). B eospacTe 13 neT npMHHn MOHawecnnvi 

C3H. 

B MapTe 1977 roaa. cnycTH ABa roaa nocne no6eaw 
KOMMyH^cTtiHecKOM CeaepHOM apMnn. Tmh Xiobh Kssht Ha- 
nucan ocpnunanbHoe nnct»MO npewbep-MUHncrpy Oau BaH 
AoHry, BKjiiOHaBiijee onucaHne 85 cnynaeB penpeccniii npo- 
TMB UBCV. 

OTBeTOM Ha 3T0 nucbuo 6bin ero apecT 9 hhdhsi 1977 
roaa. a TaioKe apecT nsiTu apyrwx nuAepoB uepuBn, o6bm- 
HeHHbix b onno3nunn npaBMTenbCTBy. 

CyAe6Hoe paccneaoBanne saKOHHiinocb 8 ASKa6pq 1 978 
roaa BWHeceHneM npurosopa: 2 roAa ycnoBHO «3a arnTa- 
Linto npoTHB 3araHa o HeceHUM bouhckom cny*6bi n apyrux 
comianbHbix o6d33HHOCTeii» 

M3-3a ynopHoro n annrenbHoro conpoTMBneHUR nonbiT- 
ksm npaBMTenbCTBa npespaTMTb UBCV b 6onee «nocnyuj- 
Hyio» uepKOBb Tus XtoeH KeaHr 6bin apecTosaH Ha 24 naca 
BOKTs6pe1981 roAa,3aTeMB06Bpane 1982roAancocnaH 
B naroAy XowcpyoK b npoBUHunn KsaHTHraii (Quang Ngai) 
noA nocTonHHoe Ha6moaeHne. 

Ero hmo npno6peno BceMnpHyio n3BecrHOCTb. Koraa 
ABa Ho6eneBCKnx naypeaTa BbiAannynn ero Ha concxaHne 
Ho6eneBCKOii npeMMH Mnpa. 

Tmm XoeH KBaHr. HaxoAna. a ccwnKe. ony6nnKOBan paa 
3anBneHMii BbeTHaMCKOMy npaBHTenbCTBy, KOTopwe eiye 
6onee ocno>KHMnn ero nonoxeHHe. 

B nucfeMax Tn4 Xkjbh KBaHra rosopnTcn o ponn 6yAAM3- 
Ma bo BbeTHaMcxoi* xynbType, nernTMMHOCTM uepKBn UBCV 




4 KPyiOfi MAPUIPyT BbETHAMA 



111 




m penpeccuBHoii BHyTpeHHert nonmnKe KOMMyHMCTMHecxo- 
ro npaBmeribCTBa. 

B 1992 roay naipuapx uepxBM UBCV Tmm Qoh Xay 
(Thich Don Hau) Ha cmbpthom OApe HaaHanun Tmm XweH 
KsaHra cbohm npeeMHMKOM. 

29 aexa6pn 1994 roaa cnyw6a 6e3onacHOCTM BTopr- 
nacb b naroAy XoucpyOK, KOHO>icKOBana ace ocpnunanbHwe 
6yMarn n nenaTb UBCV m nepecennna Tmm XweH KBaHra, 
nonnocTbio n3onnpoB3B ero ot o6iuecTBa. Oh cTpaaaei ot 
BwcoKoro aaBneHns, HywaeTcn b nocTOHHHOM MeanunHC- 
kom Ha6nK)AeHMH, ho b nw6bix xoHTaxTax ewy orxa3aHO. 

THH KBAHrAO 
Thich Quang Do 
reHepa/ibHbiM ccKpc- 

Tapb 06\.eflHHOHHon 
ByflflHUCKOn UepKBH 
BbeTHaMa (UBCV) 

BblTI B 3aK/1K>HeHMM, B HaCTOH- 

mee BpeMn noa flOMaujHUM ape- 

CTOM. 

Adpec: Thien Vien Thanh Minh, 90 Tran Huy Lieu, Q Phu 
Nhuan, TP HCM, Viet Nam 

PoflHncn 27 hoh6pa 1928 roa b npoBMHUMM Txaii6nHb 
(Thai Binh). 

B 1975 roay. nocne no6eaoi KOMMyHMCTMsecsoM Ceeep- 
hom apMMM BbeTHaMa. Tmm KBaHr flo. kbk nuaep UBCV. 
awpaan/i npoTecT npoTMB HapyueHUM peBonouMOHHbiM 
npaBHTeribCTBOM pennrno3Hwx cboCoa n KOHCpMcxauMM 

C06CTBeHHOCTM UBCV 

Oh m ewe rnuepo apyrux nuaepOB UBCV 6wnn apecTo- 
saHbi b anpene 1977 roaa 3a npoTMBoaetiCTBne npaBM- 
TenbdBy. B OKTn6pe 3Toro we roaa, cnoMneHHwo nuTKaMM, 
ohm npn3Hanwcb, mto pa6oTann Ha L|Py Tmm KBaHr flo Ha 
cyae 8 aexa6psi 1978 roaa 6bino npeatflBneHO o6BHH6Hne 
e «pacnpocTpaHeHnn BpeanOM ae3MH(popMaunM». l"lo3>Ke 
oh 6bin ocBo6o>KaeH. 

Mto6w noaopBaTb sriHHHue UBCV Ha HaceneHne, 
npaBHTeribCTBO co3aaeT a 1 981 roay co6cTBeHHyio 6yaaMM- 
cKyw BbeTHaMcxyio uepKOBb. Tmm KBaHr flo m apyrne nuae- 
pbi uep'Bn obinn 3aaepx<aHbi Ha 24 naca. ann "ore HTo6bi 
ohm He wornn STOuy noMetuaTb. 

nocne 3ioro npaBMrenbCTBO o6i>HBnno, mto HOBoe o6t>e- 
AMHeHHe 6yaauHCKMx uepKBen cocTosnocb. a UBCV 6=ma 
o6bflBneHa He3axoHHOM. 3thm onpasawBancfl aped Tmm 
KBaHr flo 25 (peBpan* 1982 roaa. 

Tmm KBaHr flo m Tmm XioeH KeaHr, asa Han6onee bhub- 
TenbHbix nnua H3 onnoaMUMOHHOM UBCV. 6binn Bfiocnea- 
ctbmm cocnaHbi. Tmm KBaHr flo nocenwin no MecTy pox<ae- 
hmh, a Byaoavi (Vu Doai). b npoBHHunn Txa(i6nHb. Ero 90- 
neTHAB MaTb 6wna cocnaHa BMecTe c hum m yMepna ot 
xonoaa sumom 1985 roaa 

B MapTe 1 992 roaa. 6onbiue «eM nepea 1 neT ccbinxM, 
Tum KBaHr flo no co6ctb6hhom Bone B03BpaTnncB a Xowm- 
muh (CariroH). 

B aerycTe 1994 roaa oh nocnan TeHepanbHOMy ceKpe- 
xapto KriB flo Mwok) 44-CTpaHMHHWM AOKyMeHT. rae ae- 
TanbHO M3no>KeHa ncTopun npecneAOBaHMH UBCV nocne 
npuxoaa KOMMyHncTOB k snacTn. 3to nucbMo nocnywuno 
noBoaoM ann onepeaHOro apecTa 4 «HBap« 1995 roaa. 

15 aBrycTa 1995 roaa b Xoujumhhb cocTonncn cya hba 
Thh KBaHr flo nnHTb»apy"HMMHjieHaMn UBCV. Ohm 6wnM 
ocyxcaeHbi «3a caSoTax npaBMTenbCTB6HH0M nonHTMKM h 




HaneceHMe epeaa rocyaapcTBeHHWM MHTepecaM». 0tb6t- 
mmkob o6aMHnnn b nonbiTKe opraHM3aqiiM HerocyaapcrBGH- 
hoh npoAOBonbCTseHHOM noMomM nocTpaaaBiuuM ot Ha- 
BoaneHMfl a aenbTe MexoHra n pacnpocTpaHeHHM tmccm 
narpnapxa UBCV, HaxoaHineroca noa aoMaujHMM apec- 
tom. Tmh KBaHr flo ocyaM/iM Ha 5 neT. OcBo6ox<aeH 30 
asrycTa 1998 roAa. 

noaaepraHCb nocTOHHHWM apecTaM m aonpocaM, Tmm 
KBaHr flo npoaoniKan ocyxtqaTb napytueHMe npaB Henoaexa 

B MHTepBbK} C MHOCTpaHHbIMM CpejCTBaMU MHtpopMajHH M 

b nMCbMax k nMaepaM mmpobwx aepwas. Oh CHMCxan ysa- 
*eHne bo BC6M Mupe m b 2000 roay 6bin suaBMHyT Ha 
Ho6eneBCKyio npeMMto Mupa napnaMCHTapMnuM CUJA. Ka- 
Haabi, ABCTpanMM. OpaHLjun m Benbrnn. 

C mk}hh 2001 roaa Tmm KbOHF floHaxoaMTCH noaaoMaiu- 
hmm apedOM 3a ero naMepeHMe conpoBoanTb b Csmtoh 82- 
neTHero nsTpMspxs UBCV, naxoaf laerocn noa bomsiuhmm 
apecTOM y«e 19 neT. 

B Hacroaiuee BpeMH nonMUMd aeaeT Ha6nioaeHue 3a 
naroaoM Tmm KeaHr flo 24 naca b cyTKM. 

TMHTbKDCH 
Thich Tue Si 
Teonor 

3aKnK3MeHMe, aoMaiuHMM apecT 

Adpec: Chua Gia Lam. TP HCM, 
Viet Nam 

PoaMJiCH 15 HpeBpann 1941 
roaa. 
Tmm Tbio Cm yMnncn y M3BecTHt>ix 6yaaHMCKMX MOHaxOB m 
6bin copeaaxTopoM 3HijmcnoneaMn BbeTMaMcxoro 6yaaM3- 
Ma. 

B 1978 roay 6bm apecTOBaH 3a opraHM3auMK> mmphux 
npoTecTOB npoTuB HapyiueHMH ceo6oabi BepoMcnoaeaa- 
hmh m noMemeH b narepb «nepeBOcnMTaHMn» Ha rpn roaa 

B anpene 1984 roaa 5oin CHoaa apecTosaH BMecTe c 
apyrMMM SyaaMMCKMMM MOHaxaMM b naroae TnanaM (Gia 
Lam) m HaxoAMncn b 3aKJTKD^eHMM weTupe roaa 6es cyae6- 
Horo pa36MpaTenbCTBa. 

30 ceHTn6pn 1988 roaa Tmm TbK3 Cm swhocsit CMepT- 
hwm npMroBop no o5bmhohmio b «noar0TOBKe CBepiKeHMn 
HapoAHoro npaBMTenbCTBa*. 

nocne npoTecTOB MewynapoaHOM o6inecTB6HHOCTM 
15 hos6p» 1988 roaa Bucujmm HapoanbiM cya BbeTHaMa 
aaMOHMn xa3Hb Ha 20-neTHee saK/itoneHMe. 

21 aBrycTa 1989 roaa TiopeMHan aaMMHucrpauuHnonbi- 
ianacb BUHyaMib ero Hanncarb npomeHMe o noMHnoea- 
hmm. Tmm Tbio CMOTK33ancflM Hanan ronoaoBKy. no MHtfcop- 
MaiiMki Me>KAyHapoAHoro mcpopMaunoHHoro 6yaa^^cxoro 
6iopo. oh OTKa3WBancn ot ynoTpeCneHMs nMia* m Boaw b 
TeneHMe 10 aHea. Ero cocTOBHMe BHyiuano cepbe3Hwe 
onaceHMo. m TiopeMiuMKM Mcnonb3oeanM npMHyavuenbHoe 
BHyTpMBeHHoe xopMneHMe. 

1 ceHTo6pn 1989 roaa oh awnymeH M3 TopbMbi M, He- 
cmotph na ero THwenoe cocTOBHMe, nocaweH Ha noeaa m 
OTnpaBnen b Xoujmmmh 6e3 conpoBoxaeHUH 

Tmm Tbio Cm paccxasbiBan potom: «fl CKaaan TiopeMHo- 
My HananbCTBy: bw ho aoixaeTecb ot m6hh npoiueHMn o 
noMMnoeaHMM. 3w ne MMenM HMxaxoro npasa apecTOBbi- 
saTb M6HH m 3aiaiK3HaTb b TiopbMy , TaK mto n npaBa noMnno- 
BaTb To>xe He MMeeTe. 

fl npuHjin peiueHMe o ronoaoBxe, 3Han, mto 6yay coaep- 
aieHHO oamh, 6e3 noaaepwxM, mtoo6 stom He HanMiueT hm 
oamh >KypHanMCT. a 6oponcs, hbcmotph Ha oaMHonecTBO m 



. 



112 



4 



KPACHOE KOJ1EC0 



OTnanHMe. 3to 6wn eflMHCTBeHHwii nyTb coxpaHMTb Moe 
HenoBesecKoe aocTonMCTBO». 

Tum Tbio Cm b HacToauiee BpeMH HaxoanTcn noa ao- 
MaujHUM apecTOM m nocTosHHWM KOHTponeM areHTOB 6e30- 
nacHOCTn b naroae TuanaM b Xoilmmuhb. 




TPAH flO 
Tran Do 



TeHepan b OTCTaBKe, 
6biBninn H/ieH UK KI1B 

riofl Ha6nK3fleHneM nonnmm 
npecneaoaaHHe H/ieHOB ceMbM. 

Adpec: 97 Tran Hung Dao. Ha Noi. 

Viet Nam 

Tenecpon: (84-4) 826-4673 



PoflMBLUniiCfl 23 ceHTfl6pn 1923 r. b npoenHunn Tau- 
6nHb Ha ceBepe BbeTHaMa. TpaH flo CTan MneHOM BbBTHaM- 
ckom KOMMyHUCTunecKOii napTMH b 1941 roAy. report o6enx 
I'lHflOKHTaiicKnx bomh, oh 6bin Harpa>KAeH bwcwmmk Harpa- 
aaMn BbeTHaMa. aocTMr 3BaHna reHepan-neMTBHaHTa, 6wn 
nneHOM UK KnB. B03rnaBnsn Kommtct no KyribType n nae- 
OtKKMM. 

B Hanane 1 998 roaa Tpan flo pacnpocTpaHMn OTKpwroe 
incbMO k UeHipanbHOMy KoMnreTy b kotopom aoosbiBar 
neo6xoanM0CTb npeo6pa30BaHnii b napinn nepea yrpo30ii 
Hen36e)KHoro caMopacnaaa. flucbMO Bbi3Bano 6onbtijyio 
ancKyccnio xax bo Bbe™aMe, rax m sa py6e>K0M. 

B ocptiunariDHOM 3aflereHnn BbeTHaMCxoe npaBMTerib- 
ctbo oxapaKTepn30Bano nucbMo TpaM flo xaK «Me3HaHM- 
renbHbiii cfiyMavi». B MHTepBbio MHOCTpaHHWM xoppecnoH- 
aeHTaM TpaH flo coo6mnn. hto pynoBoacTBO KnB h npaBM- 
TenbCTBO He oTBemnM Ha ero nucbMio. 

Ha caMOM aene BbeTHaMCxoe pyxoaoacTBo 6t>tno o6ec- 
noxoeHO nwcbMOM TpaH flo ropa3ao cunbHee. neM 3to 
Sbino npoaeMOHcrpupoBaHO 3anaaHbiMM CMH. no nnsHO- 
My yxasaHMio TsHepanbHoro cexpeTapa KnB Jle Kxa <t>Mey 
npoTMB TpaH flo 6wna HanaTa aTaxa «BceMn cpeacTBaMM». 



C-Hanana npecneaoBaHMsiM noaseprnncb sneHbi ceMbu 
MSTewHoro reHepana. Hx Bw3biBann Ha MHoroaHesHue 
aonpocw. 3a humm 6wna ycTaHOBneHa cneaoca. CwHy TpaH 
flo yrpowanu yaoribHeHneM c pa60Tw 

O nocTyrwe reHepana b ocKop6MTenbHOM (popMe MHoro- 
xpaTHO BbicKa3WBanncb ottinunanbHwe CMH. ho ynnTbiBas 
6onbujyio nonynnpHOCTb renepana, Hurae He Ha3biBanocb 
ero hmh, ncnonb30Banncb fimuo nnnmianbi nnn cnosa 
«HBKnii OTCTaBHOti reHepan». 

HecMOTpn Ha to hto hm nepsoe nucbMO (HHBapb 1998 
r.), hm MHoroMricneHHbie nocneaytomne nMCbua n oGpau.e- 
hmh TpaH flo He 6binn onyoniKOsaHbi b ocJwiiManbHOM 
nenaTn. ohm nonyHM/iM uiMpoxoe pacnpocipaHeHMe b ca- 
MM3aaie so BbeTHaMe, a 6naroaap» HHTepHery - m sa 
pyOextOM. 

B HHBape 1999 r. TpaH flo 6wn mck/ikdmbh m3 KnB. 

B anpene Toro we roaa Tpan flo HanpaenneT anacisM 
3anBneHne 06 M3aaHMM He3asMCMM0M raaoTbi, ccwnaBCb Ha 
KOHCTMTyuMK) CTpaHw, rapaHTupyioiayio CBo6oay neM3TM B 
OTBeTe MMHMCTepcTBa KynbTypw n MHOpopMauMM «pa3bsc- 
Honocb». 4io npaao usaaaarb raaeTbi mmciot ionbKO opra- 
HMsauMM, a He rpa>*aaHe. 

C 1999 roaa TpaH flo. nneHbi ero ceMbM, mx aow m Bee 
mx xoHTaxTbi HaxoaMnMCb noa xpyrnocyTOHHbiM Ha6n>oae- 
HMeM. B 2000 i bo Bpeun OMepeaHoro o6bicxa 6binM 
M3bHTw pyxoriMCM MeMyapoB a nuMHan nepenMCxa TpaH flo. 
B ero aapec HeoaHOKparno nocTynariM aHOHHMHbie yrpo3bi 
$n3MsecK0M pacnpaBbi 

9 aBryda 2002 roaa AreHTCTBO PeMTep M3 Xbhos coo6- 
ianno, mto «nocne TqwenoM 6one3HM a B03pacTe 78-mm neT 
CKOHHancs M3BecTHHM anccwaeHT, reHepan-neiiTeHaHT b 
OTCTasxe TpaH flo». BnacTM BbeTHaMa o6tflBMnM, mto 
noxoMHOMy OTxasaHO b BoenHbix nonecTfix npM norpe6eHMM 
vi hto nio6bie o6u46CTBeHHbie BbicTynneHMn no noBoay CMep- 
tm TpaH flo - 3anpemeHbi. 

B noanonbHO pacnpocTpaHeHHOM HeKponore CK33aHO. 
hto «CMepTb reHepana TpaH flo - HesawMBaiomafl paHa b 
cepaue BbeTHaMCxoro Hapoaa». 

no MamepuanaM FREE VIETNAM ALIANCE 

nepeood c aHa/iuucKoeo: 
Hpuna u BnaduMup XOIlMOrOPCKME 



Bo BaH AM 

BbETHAM: rJ106AJlH3AI4l/m flEMOKPATMM 



r.ioGaiiiiauMii acMOKpaTiin - Hacym- 
Ha» noTpcoHocTb b Aihh b uchom n bo 
BbCTHaMc b nacTHOCTH. rac b aaHHbiii 

MOMCHT CyiUCCTByCT .lllllll. 3KOHOMII- 

HCCKaH rjioSxiinauHii. Koraa npiiow.ib 

H3B.ieKaCTCH TO.lbKO C nOVIOUlbK) MCp- 

icaimuiR3Ma ii npnTccHcmm. to ecTb 
npoiicxoaiiT CBOcro poaa r.io6a.ni3a- 
mu pbiHKa paooB. HecMOTps Ha to mto 
6opb6anpoTiiBTcppopncTHHCCKHx rpynn ii OTac.nbHbix 4>a- 
HaTiiKOBiaHMMacTyMbiBCcrooomecTBa. bAihii. noco5enno 
bo BbemaMC. no.iVMacr pacupocrpaHeiuic nacTonuiHii Tcp- 
popniM Ha ypoBHe rocy.iapcTBa. 

Iloc.ie iiajeiiiix Bep.iiiHCKoii ctchw TOTa.iiiTapniM no- 
MyBCTBOBa.1 ceod ocupoTeBuniM h TpaHc4>opMnpoBa.ic>i B 
meppopuiv rocy()apcmneiiiihiu, TcppopniM, npiOBaHHUfl 
npiiciy-zKiiBaTb no.iHTHMCCKOMy Hiirn.iH3My ii nooacp-A'ii- 




BaTb npaaiCHiic accnoTOB. 3tot cocydapcmneHHrni meppo- 
pusM Kyaa mchcc oMCBiiacH. mcm TcppopniM. ycipanBaiouiiiii 
noKyuiCHim. oanaKO jto ckputoc cpeacTBo nopoii oKaibiBa- 
CTca oo^ee aeiicTBCHHUM. cnoco5no npenaTcrBOBan. ^io- 
6biM naeHHbiM acoaTaM. ayuiHTb b iapoawiue u acsioKpa- 
thk). h npaBa MC.iOBCKa. TaK ouaii o6y3aaHW it paiaaB.nenbi 
MHomc Hapoaw. 

C OToii tohkh jpenim. BbemaM - noci.va noKaiaTe.tb- 

HbirinpilMCp.CoaHOflCTOpOHbl.B3HB Ha CeOHOOdiaTC.IbCT BO 

nepca Me/KaynapoaHbiM cooomecTBOM rapaHTiipoBaTb ii ia- 
lUHinaTb npaBa Mc-iOBCKa. CPB ropao BocccaaeT b Komiicciiii 
no npaBaM nc.iOBCKa. c jpyroii CToponw. ona in bccx ch.i 
HapyuiacT coocTBeHHbie o6niaTaibCTBa. roaopiiT na hiwkc 
aBoilHOH MopajiH. nocTOHHHO ycHaHBafl MoryHiiH annapaT 
aaBacHHS. 3tot annapaT iio.iaH.icHiia KOHTpoanpycT nace- 
.icHHe pajae.icHHOH Ha yMacTKH crpum c noMombio i<yna- 
CTKOBoro no,THuei4CKoro». yno.nHOMOMCHHoro cncaMTb 3a 



4 



KPYTDH MAPUIPyT BbETHAMA 



103 



-IKlSblMII JKCCTaMII 11 ClOBaMII. MIOOW BblHB-IHIb «n.lOXH.X 

rpa*jaH». 3TOTyMacrKOBwii Ha.ie.ieH bccm no.iHOToii B.iac- 

TH. OH MO*CT BOHTH B JK>60H JOM. K KOMV yTOJHO. Oh 

pcmacT. kto H3 rpaiKjaH hbjuctch «Bpa>Kje5HbiM ucmch- 

TOM». OH MO-KCT KOIKpllCKOBaTb (It J II BbljaTb) Kpai'iHe hco6- 
xojhmoc «pajpeuieHue "a .»cume.ihcmeo» (xo-Kay) - jokv- 
mcht. 6c3 KOToporo hcjobck TcpaeT CBoe rpaaaaHCTBO n 
OKa jbiBacTcn Ha ne.ierajbHOM nojowetiHii. 

Hacc.icHite nocroHHHO jcp*aT b HcyBcpeHHOcra - oho 
Mo.Mcem no.ibiOBaTbCH <J>yHjaMeHTa.ibHbiMn upanavin h cbo- 
6oja\iH. rapaHTiipoBaiiHUMH KoHCTiiTyniicii 1992 roja... 
no npu yaioam no.iMiiHCHim npiiHunnaM MapKCiicTCko-je- 
hhhckoh iijco.ioritn h hc joj>kho «zioynompei~nnnib» sm- 

Mll lipaiUMH. C'OBCpuieHHOaCHO. WTO B npCJCraB.'lCHIIH BbeT- 
iuiMCKiix aiacTcii «3JoynoTpco.icHiic» coBnajaeT c npo- 

CTblM nO.Tb30BaHI1CM cbooojoh. 

B OKTHope 200 1 roja Kan uiH iecitHfl cbhiuchhiik HryeH 
BaH JTh (Nguyen Van Ly) obi.i npiiroBopcH k 15 rojaM 
3aK.nioHCHiia 3a KpffTHKy pc.iiini03Hbix npec.iejOBaHiiit. B 

IOM /K'e MCCaUC BCTCpaH KOMMyHHCTHHCCKOrO .3BH/KCHHB 

Tpan Kyc (Tran Khuc) 6bu «.ihuich cbooojm b ajMHHHCTpa- 
tiibiiom nopnjKC» 3a to. mto B03HaMepn.ics npiiMeHiiTb Ha 

IipaKTHKC IIO.IHTIIKV npaBHTC.lbCTBa. HCnpoCIIB paipCHICHHH 

ocHOBaTb i>;ii aim iamiKi. HanpaB.icHHVK> Ha oopboy c Kop- 
pynuHCii. 

Be3iiaKa3aHiiocTbB.3acTeHeiuc6o.neeycyry5.iiieTcs H3- 
3a noavicHw mepjuuHoe - Ha cweHy onpcjc.icHino «kohtpdc- 
bo.3K>uhohhwh» npuxojHT noHHTiic «yrpo3a HauHOHa-ibHoii 
6eionacHOCTH». noj kotodoh nojpa3VMeBaioTcn tc jefi- 

CTBIIH. KOTOpblC HCVJOOIIbl MCCTHbIM B-iaCTHM. BbCTIiaM JO- 

iiojhhj cbok) 3aKOHOjaTC.ibHVK) ciicTeMy nocTaHOB,ieHneM 
31'CP ot 1997 roja o «jimjciiiiit cBooojbi b ajMinincTpa- 

THBHOM HOp)UKC». KOTOpOC I103B0.1HCT 3ajCp)KIIBaTb HCTOJb- 

ko npaBOHapyuiiiTe.ieii. npejCTaB-imoumx yrpoTy Hauno- 
iia.ii.iioii ocionaciiocTH. ho h jioomx Jim. Hecor.iacHbix c 
MapKciicTCKOHiuco.ionieH.CTex nop Ka/KjbiHHiuHBiuyyM 
M03R6T co.iep>KaTbCB b Tiopbvie 5e3 cyja Ha npoTJUKCHHM 
jByx ;ict, ec.iH TaKOBa 6y.ieT bo.ih B.iacTeii. C npiiHSTHCM 
rioCTaHOB-lCHHH 31'CP HXJIHfl HeJOBCK OKaibiBaercH no- 
TCHUlia-lbHblM yjHIIKOM. Ka'/KJblH JOM OKa ihlliac I CH noTeH- 
I! Iia.l l.lli.l \l 3aCTCHKOM. Ka/K.KIK naTOja H.IH UCpKOBb - nOTCH- 

uiia.ibHoiiTiopbMOii. PaiVMeercH. npaKTMKa«.iHuiemin cbo- 
oojm b ajMHHHCTpaTHBHOM nopnjKe» cyiuecTBOBa.ia bo 
BbCTHaMC it jo npmunn 3T0ro nocTaHOB-ieHim. 3tot yKa3 
iiinib y3aK0Hii.i TeppopucTHHccKyio npaKTiiKy. ywe cyiue- 
cTBOBaBiuyio npracac bo BbCTHaxie. rocyaapcTBCHHbiii Tep- 
popii3M bo BbeTHavie - 3to. npeaue Bcero. npOHSKM Ha 
cjiyxoey TOTajHTapniMa. ripoH3BOJ. KOTopuii npiiBOjiiT k 
npcc.iejOBaHiiiiM. k narepm ncpcBocniiTaHim. K narojaxi, 
cTaBiuiiM nopuiaim. 

3to T0TajiHTapii3M. ocHOBaHHbiii Ha iijco.ioriui. iuy- 
meii no .loiKHOMy nyrii. Koropan yae c ipyjOM npsneT 
oobiHHoe CTpcMjieime k B^acTii h SoraTCTBy am cboch napniii. 
ii.ixo.iMineiicH b MCHbuiHHCTBC. I lap i mi. hc npHjaiouieii hii- 
KaKoro uia'K'iiiiH hii 'KixmiMM BbeniaMCKoro n.ipo.ia. hii 
BbCTiiaMCKOH KyjibTypc. riapTHii. Koiopaa onacacTC».iio6bix 
nyTCii jeM0KpaTH3amni CTpam. 

ripiiMep BbeTHa.Ma ACUDKCH npenoaaTb HaM ypoK, mo 
hc cicjycT noBTopsiTb ouhi6kh npoui.ioro, hoo ohh Moryi 

CTaTb pOKOBblMH ill) aCMOKpaTHHCCKOH r.io6a.nn3auHH. Ha 

KOTopyio Mbi Bonaraexi CBOH HajevKau. 

IImchho b otom noKaiaTe.ieH npiiMcp BbeniaMa: b 
oSiucctbo Hacii.ibHO BHCjpcHa iijco-ioma. r.iyooKO nyxuax 



Ky<lbTypCCTpaHbl ll, K TOMV Kte, HaBJIjaHHaH MCHbUJIIHClBOM. 
KOTODOC O.iapeHO TajiaHTOM BejCHim Hoiliua. OJH3KO n.ioxo 

noHHMaei HCTiiHHue ycTpcM.ieHiiii coocTBeimoro Hapoja. 

,1th r.io6a.iii3amui jeMOKpaTiin HeooxojiiMo. npc/K.ie 
Bcero. xopouio maTb ycTpoiicTBO o6mecTBa. b kotopom 

HyiKHO nVCTHTb poCTKH .ICMOK'paTHII II npHMCHIITb JCMOKpa- 

Tii'iecKiic npiiHuiinbi k pea.ibHbiM mccthwm yciOBiiiiM. npu 
3T0M, paivMCCTca. hc Hapyman 9THX npiiHunnoB. 

Bot yxe Ha npoTS-zKCHini jbvx twchh ,ict Ky.ibTvpa 
BbCTHaMa »pKo oTMCHCHa HcpTavni oyoaiUMa. h 3to BCCbMa 
6-iaronpnnTHaii noiBa aTd pa3BHTiw jcMOKpaTiui... Byaaa 

COBCpiHIl.T HCTIlHHyK) pCBO.HOUIHO Mbllll-ICHIIH. CUiC B V BeKe 

jo Hauicropu OTBcprnyBCHCTewy KacT ii npoiioBciyii paBen- 
ctbo j-iH xteHiuiiH ii napiiii. «HccymccTBycT pa3ac.ieiiH)i no 
KacraM, KpoBb y bccx KpacHan. a bkvc noTa - co,ichmh». - 
roBopii.i OH... 

By.xiii3M yxc hc pa3 noMOran Mo6n.iH30BbiBaTb cii.ibi 
Hapoja am oopbSu c yrHeTaTenaMH. ii upoTiiB KiiTailcKiix 
laBoeBaTc.ieii. n npoTiiB <J)paHuy3CKiix KO.TOHinaTopoB. a b 

HailJHJHH - npOTHB BbCTHaMCKHX KOMMyHIICTOB. 

OobeaiiHCHHaa ByoainlcKas UcpKOBb BbCTHawa. Tpa- 

JlltiilOHHaH. HC3aBIICHMa)l. II IIMCHHO 3a 3T0 ianpcilK'lllias B 

1 98 1 rony, BeacT iieHaciMbCTBeiiHyro. ojHaKo ynopny 10 oopb- 
6y npoTiiB yrHeTeHHH co ctopohu rocyaapcTBa 11 BbernaMC- 

kiix kommvhhctob. CerojHH npaKTHMeCKH BCeBblCUllie J0.1- 

•/Khocth we .1 una OobeaiiHcn Hon UepKBii Haxo jmca noj cTpa- 
"<Kcfi. FlaTpnapx 06t>cjiihchhoh ByjjiiiicKOH UcpKBii BbeT- 
HaMa Thh Xioch k'na i i Haxo.niTCH BTnpeMROM laK.noicHiiii 
6e3 cyaa b tcmchhc 20 .tct; BTopoe .nmo UfipKBH - Flpcno- 
aooHbiii Thh K'n.im Jlo coacp/KiiTc» noa cipaiKcii b cboch 
cooctbchhoh KOMHarc. Ho iaa>c la peuicTKoii n noj iiojih- 
ueiicKiiM npiiCMOTpoM ohh jep>KaTCJi no-npen<Heviy ctohko. 
B npouijioM roay Thh KBaHr Ro BWCTynii.T c «npinwBOM k 

JCMOKpaTHH BO BbCTHaMC". PCHb iuct o npocKTC. Bno.iHC 

ocymecTBHMOM Ha BbcraaMCKoil setuie, tub b BocbMii nymc- 
Tax H3,iaraeTcs cnocoo MiipHoro nepexoja R jcMOKpaTim. B 
TewcHiic jByx Heacib itot n.iaH no.Tynn.1 noflKpxxy oo.nee 
300000 BbeTHaMUCB. npo/KHBaiouiiix k.ik BHyrpn CTpaiibi. 
TaK 11 3a pyoe>KOM. 3to flBjmeTCH HaiuyiuiMM j0Ka3aTe.ib- 
ctbom Tore "ito jCMOKpaTim - HacyiiiHan noTpe6nocTb buct- 
HaMCKoro Hapoja. 

rio.iaraio. hto r.io6a.iinauim JCMOKpaTHH - 3TO. npcw- 
jc Bcero. npocBCiucHiie ii iiHtpopMiipoBamic HapoaoB 06 iix 

i|r. 1 1. UMCIIia.ll.il!,! \ lipaBaX II CBOOOjaX... CKO.lbKO » BlIJC.l 

BbCTHaMCKHX 6oKeiiucB. co c.iC3aMH Ha r.iaiax iMTaiouuix 
,'U'K.iapauni(> iipan ne.ioBCKa ii pacKpuBaioiuHX ,i.ia ceox 
HOBoe xih hhx npaBO Ha mora, y3HaiomHx. hto uvemm 

lipUHO CB06ojHO MblC.lHTb H CBOOOJHO TOBOpHTb! 

r.l06a.lH3ailHH JCMOKpaTHH - 3TO TOKJM VMeHIIC npH- 

cjiyuiHBaTbCH k tamuuat Hapoja h BonjoujaTb iix b 
peanbHOCTb. 3T0 noMouib 3thm Hapojav b paiBiiTim iix 

HCHOBTOpilMOTO CBOCo6pa3IIH . . . 

r.iooa.ibHaii jeMOKpaiHH jo.i*Ha BbiCTynaTb ni pa3- 
MHOwcHHbiii noBCiojy onbrr jeMOKpaTHMCCKiix npeo5pa3o- 

BaHltil, TO eCTb IOR nOHCK HOBUX jeMOKpaTHICCKIIX ipopM. 

HaH6o.ieeno.iHonpHcnoco6.ieHHbix k nxflOMy kohkpctho- 
My o6mecTBy h k Kawjoii kohkdcthoh Ky.ibType. 



Bo BaH AC (Vo Van Ai) - npedcedamenb KoMumema 
BbemHaua no samume npae •jenoeexa. euue-npe3udenm Mem- 
dyHapodHOii 0edapanuu nua no npaaau venoeexa. 



104 



4 KPACHOE KOJIECO 



AHApePi AHTOHOB 

KOJlJlEKTMBHAfl BMHA 3A BbETHAM 



21 ceHTn6pn 2002 roaa poccMMCKne aKTMBMCTbi 
TpaHCHaunoHanbHOM paawonbHoii napTMM (TPri) npoBe- 
nn b MocKee MaHncpecTaunio 803/ie noconbCTBa BbeTHa- 
Ma, npoTecTyn npoTMB HapyiueHHM npaB nenoBexa b stom 
CTpaHe. Poccmmckum KoopflUHaTopTPn HnKonaiS XpaMOB 
b CBoeM BbiCTynneHMM CK33an, hto 3a nonoweHMe bo 
BbeTHaMe Hawa CTpaHa HeceTCBOtoflonrooTBeTCTBeHHO- 
cth, nocKonbKy nweHHo OHa b CBoe BpeMS HaBnaana 

BbeTHaMy KOMMyHMCTMMeCKMM pewnM. 

C stum TpyflHO cnopnTb. KpeMnescKoe pyxoBoacTBO 
aeirfCTBOBafio b paMKax cBoeu hothkm «mhpobom peBonio- 
Umhb, mjih, ecru Tonnee, ycTaHOBneHUH MtipoBoro KOMMy- 
HMCTimecKoro rocnoflCTBa. Bca ncTopws KOMMyHMCTMnec- 
kom arpeccMM n 3aKn(0Hanacb a noaianHOM nonc«e «cna- 
6bix 3BeHbea KannTann3Ma». B 1960-x roaax TaxoBbiM 

CT3J1 BbeTHaM. 

3Tanbi BbeTHaMCKOii boAhu 1964-1975 roflOB xopo- 
ujo n3BecTHbi. npoHUKHOBeHne KOMMyHHCTOB M3 Ceaep- 
Horo BbeTHaMa b owHOBbeTHaMCKMe aepeBHu. npeapa- 
LueHne c noMOujbK) Teppopa m 3anyrnaaHnn stux aepe- 
BeHb b cboh 6a3bi. npuxofl b CTpaHy auepuKancKux bomck 
fleMarorMHecKne kphkm BbeTHaMCKnx KOMMyHMCTOB o bom- 
He npoTUB Hapofla. HeraniBHoe OTHOiueHMe MMpoBOti m 
sacTkiMHO ainepuKaHCKoii o6mecTBeHHOCTw k 3tom soiiHe 
Yxofl aMepuKaHueB. l"lo6eaa KOMMyHMCTOB b 1975 roay 
Co3flaHne BbeiHaMCKoro ryjlAra, b kotopom, no HexoTO- 

PWM flaHHUM, COflep>KMTCfl flO MHnnMOHa 3aKJ1K3HeHHblX 

(npn HaceneHnn okooo 20 MunrnoHos). 

DoMeMy 3T0 npon30iuno. n kto b stom bhhob3t? 
EcTecTBeHHo. BbeTHaMCKne KOMMyHMCTw n noaaepwHBa- 
loiyee mx pyKOBOflCTBo CCCP. flonio BMHbl, HaBepHoe. 




AonwHO B3nTb Ha ce6n h o6iuecTB8HHoe mhohmo aeMOK- 
paTHHecKoro MMpa, KOTopoe Bee ynpeKn aapecoBano py- 
KOBOflCTBy CLUA. fla, b 6onbiuMHCTBe csoeM oho pyxoBoa- 
CTBOBanocb ryMaHHbiMn cooSpaweHHAMM («non 6oM6a- 

MM rn6HyT fl6TM»). 

Ho Bee Tpe6oBaHna npexpaTMTb BoiiHy aapecoBa- 
nucb TOMy >Ke BaiunHrroHy, a «apyraa cropoHa* bwhoch- 
nacb 3a cko6km, xoth 4)aKTMHecKMM arpeccopoM 6wna 
MweHHO OHa. He 33MeManucb Maccosbie y6uiicTBa KOMMy- 
HucTaMM mhphwx wurenert b 3axBaMeHHOM hmm b 1968 
roay K»KHOBbeTHaMCKOM ropofle Tya. aa, b kohbhhom 
cneTe, n rpy6oe HapyueHne KOMMyHMCTaMM ycnoBHrt Mnp- 
Horo cornaiiieHMs 1973 roaa (3to m npuBeno k kohbmhom 
no6eae «KpacHbix») He 3aMeTnnn h npocTnnn. 

Tyr, KOHeMHO. nrpano cboio ponb y6e*aeHne neBOM 
HHTennnreHUMM b tom, mto «ManeHbKne» Bee aa npaBbi. 
HeaaBucuwo ot Toro. kto stm «ManeHbKiie» - KOMMyHMC- 
Tbi, BonHCTByiouiMe ncnaMncTbi nnn rnonoeaw. 

MnpoBoe coo6mecTBO n ceroflHB cneayeT no tom 
caMoti Konee. HeaaBHO BbeTHaMCKkie snacTM oTKasa.nn 
aeneraunn EaponapnaMeHTa bo BCTpe^e c apeciOBaH- 
hhmm pennrno3HbiMM aenTenflMM - Tmh XweH KBaHroM, 
Tmh KBaHr flo, HryeHy BaH Jin. EcTecTBeHHbiM 6bino 6w 
eBponeficKUM napnaMeMTapn»M b otbct Boo6we OTKa- 
3aTbCfl ot BM3HT3 bo BbeTHaM. Ho ohm. npomoTUB yHnx<e- 
Hue, TeM He MeHee HaHocnT «apy»ecTBeHHbiM bm3mt». 

BmA» TaKyiO nOKOpHOCTb, BbeTHaMCKMe KOMMyHMCTbl 

y»e He CTecHnioTCfl m o6bmh«k)t TpaHCHaMMOHanbHyio 
napTMio b «CBn3flx c TeppopncTaMM». rioBOflOM nocny»n- 
no saflBnenne nneHaTPn, npo>t(MBaKDiaero b SMurpaiinn, 
BbeTHaMCKoro ropua Kok Kcopa, KOTopwii paccKa3an o 
uaccoBbix penpeccMtix npoTMB CBoero Hapoaa - koh<pmc- 

K3UHBX 3eMe/lb y BbeTHSMCKMX TOPUeB, 0TK33e AOnyCKaTb 

b psMOHbi nx KOMnsKTHoro npowuBaHMH Kaxne-nn6o mho- 
CTpsHHbie aeneraunM. 

OcpuuuanbHbm Xanoii He cnyMaiiHo aaroBopun o 
«TeppopncTax». 

HMeHHO BbeTnaMCKne ropuw eme bo BpeMs BbeT- 
HaMCKOii BotiHbi OKa3WBann Han6onee cTotixoe conpoTne- 
neHnexoMMyHHCTMMecKHMBOMCKaM.BnpoHeM. nocneyxo- 
aa aMepunaHueB b 1973 roay " nacTn totKHOBbeTnaMCKOM 
apMMM cpajKanncb yMeno m xpa6po. Ho onenb TpyaHo 
BoeBaTb c oiuymeHneM nonHoro oanHonecTBa, c omyiae- 
HweM Toro. mto «eecb Mnp 6pocnn». A MnpaeMCTBMTerib- 
ho 6pocnn. 

MwpopMamjOHHoe aBeHmcmso «I1PMMA» 



BbeTHaM oTManHHO HyxaaeTca b npouecce aeMOKpaTH3aunn. 51 He roBopio, hto aeMOKpaTun - 
naHauea. noTpe6yeTcn MHoro apyrux <J)aKTopoa, 4To6bi BwaecTM CTpaHy Haiuy 113 6eaHOCTM n otcts- 
/ioctm. Ho AEMOKPATH3AUHH - OCHOBHOE M nEPBOE YC/IOBUE, rapaHTupyioiMee ycnex Hauno- 
HanbHoro paaBHTuq. floKa napoa nuiueH cBo6oabi Mbicnn, cBo6oabi BbipaxeHi^n, cbo6oaw nenaTii, 

CB060flW 06lUeHMflM APyrUX CpyHaaMeHTa^bHblXaeMOKpaTMHeCKMXCB060fl,BeCbpa3rOBOpOTHOCMTe/lb- 

ho HauMOHa/ibHoro pa3BHTMH n y/iyHweHUfl 6ecno/ie3eH. 

reHepan TpaH fto, mtmm ckhm ahcchabht 



4 



KPYTON MAPUIPyi BbETHAMA 



115 



AMepMKaHCKufi Ooha BeTepaHOB BbeTHaMCKOtf BOftHM, Bbicrynaiomnii npoTMB acKanaunn 
HacM/inn bo BceM Mupe, opraHM3yeT KOHuepTbi n BbinycKaeT KOMnaKT-flncKM b paMKax aKunn 
noAaep>KKM 6opb6bi 3a npaBa He/iOBei<a v\ aeMOKpa-ruio bo BbeTHaMe. 




PedaKuun xypnana *Kapma» 6naaodapum pynosodumena MexdynapodHoao Uenrnpa uayvewi/B UndoKuman y»ueepcumema Bapiuiu. 
KanutpopHUH. s-na Cmueena UeHxea. znaenoeo 6u6nuomeKapa omdena KOunneKmoeanun u oCpaBomnu PmaHCKou o6nacmHOu 
6u6nuome«u um. ropbxoeo z-my Hamanbio Boponaeoy u znaQHoeo padaxmopa uh<Popmbuuohho20 asGHmcmea «npuMa* a-na 
ArexcaHdpa nodpa6uHBi<a aa nououw e nodzomoene uamepuanoe Snota nKpymou uapuipym BaemHaua». 



PAfll/IO CBQBOflA 



RF£/RL 



HaCTOTbl BBUiaHHH 



Mac 111 00 01102 03 04 05106 
(MCK.1 



♦VJ'«":15!?jEnmfT5fHCBrPn3tBCE[B^'S]^S; 




4 



PRO MEMORIA 



117 



riAMflTI/ITATbJIHbl BEAIIKAHOBOfi 1932-2002 




19 ceHTB6pn 2002 roaa a 803pacre 70 neT yMepna 
TaTbHHa MuxaiinoBHa BennKaHOBa 3to hmh BW3biBano 
BOCxniueHne y Tex, kto y-iacT80Ban b asMOxpaTHMecxoM 
flBMxeHUM b CCCP b 60-80-x roaax, n Tex, kto ccwyBCTBeHHO 
cnean/i 3a nepuneTMHMM npoTMBOCTOSHHH anccnaeHTOB m 
enacTn 3to nun Bt>i3biBano paaapawemie n HeHaBHCTb y 
cneaoeaTenew n onepaTHBHwcoa Kr5. 

TaTbflHa BennxaHOBa 6wna mtibhom oahom m3 nepaux 
npaB03amnTHbix opraHH3aiivi(i - HHMMMaTMBHOw rpynnw b 
aamnTy npaB nenoBexa a CCCP. 3to 6wn 1969 roa. C toto 
BpeMeHU h flo caMoro CBoero apecTa ohb 6wna oohmm h3 
peaaxTopoB noanonbHoro 6ionneTeHq «XpoHnxa rexymux 
co6wthm». K nevi pynewxaMM cxoannacb MHCpopMauns H3 
nonnTHMecKnx TiopeM m rarepePi, ccbinox u ncnx6onbHnu. 
Ee 3nann ynacTHUKn caMbtx pa3Hbix anccnaeHTCxnx rpynn no 
Bceii CTpaHe. Ka3anocb, OHa b ueHTpe Bcero aToro Heopra- 
HM30BaHHoro, HuxeM He ynpaB/ineMoro, o6peseHHoro Ha 
norn6e/ib fleMOKpaTunecKOro aBuweHMfl. 

Koraa b non6pe 1972 roaa KrB pewnri noxoHMMTb c 
«XpoHnxovi» h o6bflBnn. hto 3a awxoa cneaytomero HOMepa 
ywe HasHaneHbi 3anowHMKM m apecTu HeMMHyeMbi, HsaaHwe 
ocTaHosunocb. Ho npoaon>xariocb sto Heaonro. B anpene 
1974 roaa Tpw CMenwx nenoBexa o6bHBM/in, hto OTBer- 
CTBeHHOCTb 3a pacnpocTpaHeHne 6K>nneTeH« ohm 6epyT Ha 
ce6st. Obhum H3 hmx 6bina TaTbflHa MuxavinoBHa. H «Xpohm- 
Ka» npoaonwana BwxoanTb, noxa b 1983 roay, noaxoweH- 
Han MHoroMMcneHHbiMM apeciaMn, OHa He 3aKpwnacb okoh- 
MaTenbHO. BerwxaHOBy apecTOBann a 1979 roay * 3a (Ohtm- 
coBeTcxyio arnraijHK) m nponaranay» npuroBopunw k 4 ro- 
aaM narepePi n 5 roaaM ccbinKn 

TaTbflHa BennxaHOBa 6bina Heo6wKHoaeHHbiM neno- 
BexoM. Tnyno BWCTpanBaTb no paHxcupy ancckiaeHTCxnx 
nuaepOB, ho MHOwecTBO juoaeti Hauiero xpyra onuTann Be- 
nnxaHOBy sennHaMUJMM aaTopnTBTOM. Ee MHeHne 6wno Be- 
como ann Bcex, necMOTpa Ha OTcyTCTBue TUTynoB, 3BaHnii, 
3apy6e>KHbix npewnii n cpopManaHoro nwaepcTBa a anccii- 
aeHTCKHx rpynnax Ee aeTopnTeT 6wn noannHHWM. Kax-To 
Ha aonpoce cneaoBaTe/ib KrB, nonysuB OTxa3 ot aann 
CBwaeTenbCKnx noxa3aHHki, c aocaaort cxa3an mho: «Hy 
kohbhho, a wto TaTbnna MuxawnoBHa CKa>xeT!>i H oh OTMa- 
ctm 6biri npaB - B3BewnBaH nocTynox, mm nacTO CBepsuw ero 
c no3ni(wei>i TaTwiMbi MwxakinoBHbi. 

YanBHTeribHO, OHa Huxoraa ne HaBWbiBana cbokj TOHxy 
3peHnn, npeanoMHTan cnyiuaTb apyrux, a BbiCKa3biBanacb, 
ro/ibKO xoraa ee npocunn. ToBopuna ohb, xax npaBMno, 
HecKonbxo CMymeHHO, tmxo m ynw6aacb, xaK 6yafo en Swrio 
ho no ce6e ot Toro, vio OHa o6bscHneT OMeBnaHwe semn. 



Ee apryMeHTbi 6binn 6e3ynpeHHbi. H He noTOMy, mto OHa, 
TajiaHTnuBwii MareMaTHK n nporpaMMMCT, no6e>xaara *e- 
ne3H0ti nornxow. Ee nOHMMaHneco6biTMW n Hawero wecTa b 
hmx ujho ot cepaua. ot noHMMaHun ao6pa m 3na, ot ocTporo 
oiaymeHnsi HecnpaaeannBOCTn, n xax sto hh noxaweTcn 

CTpaHHWM, OT MyBCTBa KpaCOTbl M rapMOHMM. 

Koraa b 1987 roay KrB npea/iomnn nonnT3aKrioMeH- 

HblM nOaaBaTb npOLiieHUH O nOMUnOBaHMH H nOMTH Bee 

HaceneHne nonnTnarepeM m ccbinoK nocnann a BepxoBHbiM 
CoBeT cbom nwcbMa, TaTbflHa MuxaiinoBHa. yxe Haxoaacb b 
ccbinxe b Ka3axcTaHe, OTxa3anacb hto-tim6o nucaTb. «fl He 
ocywaaw nx, - roBopvina OHa, - ho caMa nucaTb He 6yay. mho 
sto xaweTCH HexpacnBbiM». Ywe noMnwo ee Bonn eii npn- 
ujno ocBo6o>xaeHkie H3 ccbinxn, a ona see eme ocTaBanacb 
TaM, He >xenafl npuHHMarb noaasxM ot Bnaci h. 

0h3 6bina yauBMTeribHO xpacnaoii n o6an:enbHoii wen- 
lanHoii. Ee rno6nnn yneHMXn, kotopwm OHa npenoaaaana 
MaTeMaTHxy, nocrynuB nocne ocBo6oiKaeHMsi pa6oiaTb b 
ujxony Eio Bocxmuanncb apysbd. Ee yBawann Bparn. Taxne 
nioan BCTpe^aiOTCJi He nacTO. Ohh ocTaBnmoT wpxnii m 
ao6pw(i cnea b jkmshm Tex. xoMy nocHacTnMBunocb nx 3HaTb. 

Ajiexcandp nodpa6uHex. 
HH(f)opMai(UOHHoe azenmemeo «llpuMa» 



TaTbflHa BennxaHOBa poannacb b 1932 r., ee OTeu 6wn 
M3BecTHt>iM yneHbiM-rnaponoroM. B 1954 r. 3axoHHnna Me- 
xaHMKO-MaTeMaTnyecKMM (paxynbTeT Mry, pa6oTana ysM- 
TeribHvmeii a cenbCKOM oixone Ha Ypane. C 1957 r.- b 
MocxBe, coTpyaHnx BbwucnuTeribHoro ueHTpa, nporpaM- 

MMCT. 

My»T. M. BennxaHOBoii, nunrBUCT Kohctbhthh Ba6nu- 
Knii, 6bin cpean BOCbMepwx, BbiujeaiuMx 25 aarycTa 1968 r. 
Ha KpacHyw nnomaab, mto6w npoTecToaaTb npoTMB btop- 
weHns bovick BapiuaBCKoro aoroBopa b MexocnoBaxviK); ape- 
CT0B3H npnMO Ha nnou,aaw n cocnaH Ha 3 roaa b Komh 
ACCP. 

TaTbHHa MuxaiinoBHa - nneH HHnuwaTviBHOM rpynnw 
no 3aiume npaB nenoBexa a CCCP. 

B 1970 r. Taibpua BeriMxaHoea B3Pna Ha ce6o ochob- 
Hwe osraHusaTopcxne cpyHxunn s noaroTOBxe rnaeHoro ne- 
pnoanMecxoro n3aaHHA cobotckhx npaB03amMTHMKOB «Xpo- 
Huxa TexymMx co6biTMM» - MawMHonwcHoro nHtpopMatinoH- 
Horo 6iorineTeHn, abixoanaiuero c 1968 r. n ujupoxo paenpo- 
CTpaHflBujerocn b caMMsaaTe. 3a aeBBTb hot noa ee Ha^a- 
noM 6bino awnymeHO oxono TpnauaTu Bunyexos «XpoHM- 
KM». 

1 hoh6ph 1979 r. T. M. BennxaHOBy apecTOBann no 
o6BHHOHMioB«aHTMCOBeTCKoiinponaraHae»; BaBrycTe 1980 
r. Mocxobcxmm ropoaexoii cya npuroBopun ee k 4 roaaM 
narepew m 5 roaaM cewnxw. /larepHbiii cpox OHa or6biBana b 
MopaoBHH, ccbinxy - a 3anaaHOM Kasaxcrane. 

Ha cBo6oay TaTbnna Ben^xaHOBa Bwiura b 1987 r., b 
anoxy nepecTpoiiKM. >Kvina b MocxBe, pa6oTana ynnTenbHU- 
ueii b iiiKone 

TaTbstHa MuxaMnoBHa OTHOCunacb x nucny caMwx yBa- 
waeMwx m aBTopnTeTHbix axTMBMCTOB coBeTcxoro npaao3a- 
mviTHoro aBMweHnn. Ee nnHHOCTb b orpoMHOii CTeneHM on- 
peaennna HpaBCTBeHHwii * MHTennexTyanbHbiM ypoBeHb 
3Toro aBmxenns 

rpa>xaaHCKao naHMXnaa n npoiaaHMe c TaTbdHoii Mn- 
xaMnoBHOvi BennxaHOBOki npoxoannn 22 ceHTn6pfl b noMe- 
meHnn 06mecTBa «MeMopnan» Ha ManoM KapeTHOM nepe- 
yrxe. 

noxopoHOHa TaTbdHa BennxanoBa Ha HoBO-XosaHC- 
kom xnaa6nme Mockbu. 

O6mecmeo «MeMopuan» 



Ill 



4 



APXMB 



klCTOpClfl 

b AOKy Mem-ax 



«Bcezda rneoQ tl/ypa.„» 



3a 1 920 roa Pq.iaHCKn m BoeHHo-ueH- 
3ypHblM OTflenoM 6i,mo npocMorpeHO 
3920400 nuceM - 154618 3aKa3Hbix nu- 
ceM, 664508 TenerpaMM. B Pn3ry6HK 
obino nepec/iaHO 2072 nucbMa «wnnoH- 
CKoro m KOHTppeeomoMMOHHoro coflep- 
KMNM». 

riflTb nuceM us aena c aoxyMeHTami- 
eii OTflena BoeHHoii ueH3ypw 3a 1920 roa. 
^3bHTbie npn nepniocTpanmi. He6onbwoki 
KycoMeK )ku3hv 28 OKTn6pn - 3 Hon6pB 
1920 roaa. 

A/ieKcaHflp KonwiuKMH - no o6pa30- 
saHwo ynnTe/ib, pa6oTan b Ps«aHn b nonM- 
TOTAene pn3ancKoro rapHusona (mo6bi 
ns6e)KaTb Mo6nnn3aunn Ha cppoHT). Kom- 
MyHMCTkiMecKMe y6e>KaeHwn eMy a uenoM 

5nH3KH, HO B03MO>KHOCTb BCTyfineHUH B 

napTMio oh paccMaTpuBaeT cxopee kak ros- 

MOWHOCTb yCTDOMTb CBOK) )KM3Hb. E-Opb6a C 

ronoaoM, HeycrpoeHHOCTb, noronoBHan He- 
rpaMOTHocTb n HeAOCTaTOK o6pa30BaHnn 
Aawe y KOMaHAHoro cocTaBa. 

Ero weHa, oh Ha3WBaeT ee Hues 
(Hmh3? HaTaiua? Haa«?). ocra/iacb Bcene 
Kopa6nnHO, n nepeB63Tn ee b PwaHb oh 
noKa He Mower. Ot *eHbi He npuxoAST 
OTBeTbiHa nocneaHne nucbMa- pa3yMeeT- 
cn, seAb OHa hx He nony^ana - nucbMa 
nepexeaMeHbi ueH3opaMn! 

Cxopo 3th nucbMa 6yayT nepeaaHw b 
ry6KOMnapT, xaK m ero 3anBneHne o Bdyn- 
neHMM b napTMio - «dnn ceedeHbnn. 

MenoBex. CMHTaHDiiinti ce6n ToncTo- 

BLieM M BblCTynaKDlUMM npOTMB BOMHbl, H6 
M0W6T OCTaTbCB He3aMeHeHHblM, - BpeMfl 

cso6oAbi MHeHMw h nonMTmecKMx npMCTpa- 
ctmm yme npoxoam. Beab KonbiwKMH cwm- 
TaeT, «...HTOKOMMyHncTaM KaKMcxaTennM 
CBo6oabi m paBeHCTBa HenpocTMTenbHo 3a- 
HMMaTbcn MCTpe6neHneM HenoeenecKnx 

JKH3H6M»... 

EKamepuHa MAKAPEHKO, 

Pf>3aHCKoe Odiuecmeo «MeMopua/i» 



«Pfi3aHCKoe BoeHHO-UeH3ypHoe omdenemje. 14 HoaBpa 1920 soda. 

Ne170a. ProaHb. e ry6K0Mnapm'. 

Rpu C8M npenpoeoxdaemcn nucbMO u MeMopaHdyM ceao 3a No 1719/6 

drift ceedeHbfi. » 

HavanbHUK PBL40 u 3ae. CeKpemHO-oceedoMumenbCKUM omdenoM. 

Omnpaeumenb: P«33Hb. Tawxoecxuu nonumomden. KonbiuiKUH. 

Adpecam.cm. KopaOnuno, Pn3. Yp. >K.d., n/o Maxnaxoacxoe, yvumeribHu- 

Ue KOHblUJKUHOU. 

nucbMO nepeoe 
(e yeAy kopaigawHan no/uemka aemopa: "Coeemyio nucbMO no npcumemi 
uanpe6um>"). 

PasoHb - Taukooo 28 okmadpa 

< > Jl He jhoo ko?o euHumb s jwom, ho Mewi oMeHb nacmo ?A0*em mocka. 
komopyw Hukak He /wo?y humcm 30!Ayuium>\ 

ciwompfl cueHw, Mumaa makue eewu. kak "Muawu gpyz", HeeoAbwo 
Haeeeaeiub ho cefa kakyio-mo mocky mak xoMemca unoiga xopoweCt ceem/,od 
AK)Beu! T* 6oai>ho Hoem cepgue. uyecmoys cefa ogumkuM BpoweHHw/w. 
PaccmoAucb c mo&ou u kcDkernca. <mo kak-mo see nogopea/\ocb. Om meBii He 
eygem nuceM. kak Hem go cux nop! ogwj moAbko MynumeAbHwe gyMw! Auu*> 
uipegka MeAbkaiwn kak kuH€Mamo>paq>iMeckue AeHmw, meHu npouiAO?o. Kak hoc 
hu npumecusiAu, kak hoc hu npecAegoeaAu, ho ece-maku. mak MyecmeoeaAu cefki 
HenpuHy>kgeHHO, /vw 6wau xoMeeaMu ceoeio noA0>keHU9! AeAQAu see. nmo 
xomeAu! Tenepu *e coeceAn gpy^oe. ofecmoameAbcmea et>my>kgaiom omkAagw- 
eamb ceou HaMepenwi HagoA?o, ttaqorao. 

Hucfl! 51 Myecmeyw, nmo tuuy meBe 5e3 scakou AO?uku. Myecwayw urno 
nymaweb e aawcahx. 

Hy gaeau nozoeopuM o Me«-Au6o gpy?o«. AoexaA a 6ACKortOAynHO. xornfl 
npo3n6. CeA e mma. npuexaA 6 8 hoc. ee^pa, e coaawm paj gAH gesepmupa! 
Bee pajyiveemesi npouiAo 6Aa?onoAyi«o! HwHwe xooua a lopog. Bwa y 
roAowanoewx - hu Hog. Ma. hu <Peg. koc. He sugoA. 

BcmpemuA ogmio ceoezo moeopuu<a no a*0Ae, menepb cmygeHm 
UHcmumyma, xpOMoea (u3 Kopo6aumo). Oh CAy*um 6 ryBHagjope jaeegywwuM 
iwkoAbHO-kypcoeoCi cekuueo. a >keHa uncmpykmopoM no gemckuM goMaw 
roeopum, wm tew 9 He 6wa 6bi e opaamu ynumeAeAi, mo aaoAho 6wao 6w mcho 
nepermwymb e Vybnapc6pa3. Bom xopowo 6w huch, eMecme yempowmbes e 
kakot*-Hu6ygo gemckuo goM. Ha scs*i*> CAynaU 6ygy noggep*uearr»3 smo 
3HokoAAcmeo. npu?AaiuaA k ce6e u ofeiuattca noiHOkOMumb c jkeHOCi. AyMao kdk- 
Hu6ygb exogumb. kOHeuHO, ecAu moAbko pa3peujuujb mw. Ao meoeio pajpeweHuo 
He nougy. Tok *e ecmpemuA Kamx) Uiep6okoey. koaa ruuem, <mo ewejAaem 
s P«janB. OguH, nepewu siuenoh y*e omnpoeuAu U3 EkomepuHocAoea e PwaHb. 
ho He u3eecmno nonaAu oho c mum uau Hem. 



* B doxyuenmax coxpaHenbi op0oapa(pun u nyHxmyauun nodnuHHuxa. 



4 



APXHB 



119 



Peiuue Me numcimt 6oAbiue Monaccana. a um&o Ha/wepeHbe jamimbcs nrneHU€M 
AumepamypH e gpy?OM HanpaeAeHuu. B ToAcmoeckoAA wcwajuHe ceioqn9 kynuA 3a 500 
py6. 3 mo/wa com. H£»uBuho (Ha>kueuHa?) "Mo* ucnoeegb", "BocnoAAUHaHUH o TOAcmoM" 
u e jmoM gyxe. xony 3anQrm>c* jmuAA. Aa eme ho /whs noAumkoM sojaoAua 
o6«30HHocmB KumarTib u o6wcmimb "KOHcmumyuuw". u6o ohu He Moeym. ho u 9 ee 
eiue hu pasy He uumaA npugemcsi nopa6omamb. 

Cezogns ho Mewi houmo egoxHoeewie xmm>ci paseumueM cefa. Hogo 
noAtoJoeambca AAOMeHmoAA. 3*no M0)kem HeAAmwo omsAeuem mou aawcau om mefa 
JKuey humczo. TeA\nepamypa ygoeAemeopumeAwiafl cmaAa. Hy. Hmco, on<Hb 
xouemca o awojou no?oeopumb c mo6ou. ho wmo-mo 3anymaAC9 a aawcasix. 
Kpenko, kpenko ueAyo. TeoQ Ulypa. 

nutb/wo anopoe 

30 okrrfl6p<i 

Cewgwi 30-e, a 9 ewe ne cmoovaA 3tno a*bA*), HO^coHHOe gea gun moMy wuag. 
Kak a ogHako m6c»tiau8! Hogewcb. nmo npccmiufc Awe. Hucatka? 

npiwuHOU amoMy mo, nmo He 6wao CAyMOfi e zopog, nago HeofexoguAAO caAAOMy, 
3oempa nougy u cgcm smo nutb/vw. 

Cezognu h iu6paH e zapHUJOHHyio Koaaucojo no npoeegenjo npajgwecmea 
Okrvw6pbcko0 peeoAiouuu. B cocmae yrrca Koaautcuu eaum: HCwaAbHuk noAumomgeAa, 
eoeHkoM 4-w noAka u 9. BOAbu*M ofxuaHHOcmb sojAOzaemc* m amy koaaucojo. Tak*e 
A u3&pan npegcegameAeM makofl >ke koaauccuu e ApmcxAoge. 

< > xomb MO*em u 6ygem mpygHO, ho nocmapaoce nokcuamb, nmo » ne gypone 
ux, kak ohu npuewkAu CAAompemb eoo6me ho 6ecnapmuuHO?o. Mepe3 ? noca 6ygem 
jacegoHue koaauccuu. nocmapaxxb noBoAbwe gams ceoeo uHuuuamuebi. csepx noAoxkeH- 
hox uHcmpykuueu. 

Kak mw. gopoica aacm *ueeu*>? xonemcn *mo6bi mx Bwao nokocna. Ha gwix 
noAumomgeA nepexogum ho goaoAbcmeue a 4 noAk. so3aao*hd 6ygem Ayt*ue xorr* 

HeAAHCKO cmoA. 

Hoa»o HUMezo Hem. Ceiwac aawau noA. yxkaoo ycmoA - see epew9 ecnoAAUHOA rrefa 
u yguBAflAuCb kak 3tno *eHU*»*i cnaoeHW mak HU3ko hozu6«t*>c« u he 6oabho uaa cnuny. 
A mym cmaHeu* ho kOAenu u ognou pykou o6onpeu*cti u mo cnuny 6oAbHO. l*^iepecHoa 
6wAa kaprnwa. HoeepHoe, co cmopOHw, egeoeAA aawau naca noAmopa. 

Kak omHOUieHwe AAomepu? HacMem noAyiwyfika naeepHoe Hunezo He ebtigem, nomoMy 
mtw noprrwxe uwom noprruo odMyvgjpoecHM oasi cppoHma, cAegoeameAbno o HacmwAA 
npueAAe u eoeopumb nevex. 

Hy, xpanu mef» 6oe, \ao« AAUAka. 
Cauiensi. 

nucbAAO mpembe 

l/XI - 1920 

3gpaecmeyCi. woo gopozaa Cbisouka! 

Kpenko ueAyio rrnSr*. npocmu, mttio go cux nop ne AAwy omocAamb 3mo nuo>AAo 
- ece He ygoemca. &«pa xoguA e ?opog, ho eeugy mo20, nmo Bwao eockpeceHbe, cgan* 
nucbAAO He ygaAOCb, noagy kak-Hufiygb eu<e, HaeepHoe jaempa. 

A noMeMy *e om me/cn Hem nuceA*? Begb me6e cgoearnb mo He mak y* Heygo6HO. 
qfxkt Hao6opom Hekojga? 

)Kuey, ckyMOw. xewy janucambcii e naprruo c ueAwo nocmynumb kyga-Au6o 
ynumbca. 

0«Hb >kaAb, nmo mck feayotejvo npoxogum speMti. AAiaob! Tak dcyuao. mak 
HeygoeAemeopeHHO npoxogum epeAW. Bee epeM« makaa mocka, Mmo He 3Hoeu* kyga 
geeambCd. 

4acmo npuxogam aawcau 8:wmb meftt k ce6e, ho 6otoa> cgeAamb xy*e. Kak me6e 
mam hu nAoxo, ho sgecb MoAem dbm> xyike. 

M y* one* nAoxo 3gecb 6e3 meSti, gopwan! 

AeHb ewe mak cak npoxogum e cyeme, a y* kak npuxogvtn cyAAepku, kak ceQMOC 
eom HonpuAAep, mate zpycmHO, apyemro geAoemcu. xonemcii iwiofoi mw foiAa jgecb. 

TeAAHO nucamb. Ecau ace onucwaamb *no nepe*u9oeiub, mo «e xeamum speweHu 
e cyrrkax. tcaaho. humho ne eugHo. 

npowao, AAUAka. Teoo ajypa. < > 




Kpachoapweuubi Konen 20-x !odoe. 

PH3aHb 



It ■» 



I* it • 
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in/ i m> i 

m . 



■■■ --^-1. 


■••' •'• 






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am :« 


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IWl 1« 


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?^r: 



y^emHBP Kapmovxa 3/k KOHiwazepn. 
CnaccxuQ uoHacmbipb. PioaHb. 




MunuuuoHep. 
1920-e aodbi. Ptnanb 



Ill 



APXMB 




3daHue 6bieiueeo MleopuHCKcao coCpamjR 1 920-e eodti. PmaHb. 
Oomo U3 apxuaa Eaaenuti Katuupuna 

llHCbMO MeTBepToe 

2/XI - 1920 

mmvm Hucotko! Ceimx doiAO jocegoHue Ko/vwccuu. Ha wem 
eojAO>kuAU o6fl30HHamb npoujeecmu npai&ecmea e okpecmHbix 
gepeewix Tawkoee u MepeuHe. Cecwac ugy myga oas yAa*eHu« c 
SAocmflA'w eonpoca o epe/wenu. npoekm makoe 7-?o e 2m. gnu e 
TauAoee AfcimuH? - KOHMepm, a ewepoM Aekm* /von "Kpecmwn 
ckoe geu)k&ve u 25 okmaepo". Tojke caMoe 8-?o 8 MepeuHe. 
Pafxm* Bygem nponacmb opjohumuuohhozo xapakmepa, ga 
npumo/w Hago zomoeumb Aekuwo. 
iKenao ycnexa. 

rudmwM mefa meou ujypa 

rincbMO nsToe 

3/XI - 1920 

Miacm Huoohh! Hukak He A*»y, umofoi ceo6ogHoe epeMfi He 
ynompefjumb ho nua>AA0 k mefje. Tak mmo geA. Hy*H0 
iomoeumbC9 k Aekuuu, a si ne iwiy. MmoBw ne no6ecegoeamb c 
mo&ou Tak aahom ndane*a no gywe. xouemco nngeAumbco c 
moBoO. 

Tocka. ckyka zpboem avhb. nocAegHee epeMd see npoxogum 
e geAax, e koHumeAu, mo amo moAbko gHu, a kak eenepo«, mak 
He xoMemco hu Mumamb. hu zomoeumboi k Aekuuu, a moAbko 
xowerrKfl nucamb me6e. XOMemco Hieopumb me6e, nmo aw6ak> mefjs 
aaoh gopc«s, Mmo rmokeAO w« 6ei mefti. Hem HpaecmeeHHcro 
ygoeAemeopeHufl. 



xoMemc» *umo oohou *iohb«o c mo6ofl, no ne ygaemw u 
geAoemcd mak zpycrrwo. zpycroo. 

a%4aoh! Kak (i aio6aio mefa! Kak xonemcsi 6t>m> c mcGoti kak 
xoMemcn gbwan> cxjhum sojgyxoM c mo6oti! 

< > Ceaogmi nogaA e napmwo jaaeAeHue (ga Bygan ymo 
moAbko AAOkgy hoaau) ho e mswachuu ewckcoaA (jaswAeHue e gea 
nucbAAeHHwx Aucma!) Mmo coiAOuiaxb c npoepaAvuou napmuu. 
o&oywcb ucnoAHwrfc ece geAa napmw, kpoAie cwumawu m eony. 
BbckojaA AweHue ToAorxwo no omHcxueHuo k aoune. ueAb makoea: 
no 3moMy jaswAeHwo Met* HoeepHoe He npuMym, ho nycmt> 3Haom. 
mtto 9 UAneio koAAMyHucmiMeckue yfx>kgenjfi. A 3mo AV>*em 
noMOHb ay* e 6ygyweAA m.e. jgecu. xomn peiyAbmam He 
u38ecmeH. nogpalkoM omkcuaAoi om peiueHua mako?o iwekomAu- 
eoH), He6b«aA0» o6cmodmeAbcmaa! Bwxoaum geAo n - koAA/wy- 
Hucm-moAcmoeeu. a makoeou napmuu eiue Hem. nogpa*OMOM 
nepegaxo A\oe joswAeHue e ry6koM ho paccAwynpeHue. 3<weAeHue 
OMe* mhom HogeAOAo U4y«y. MHmepecHO Mmo cka>kem Py6k0M. 
Boocb kak 6w He npuHSAw geAo e wymky - nonagem ewe! 3Haeu*, 
kakoe uaa nocAanue HokamaA, onpegeAeHHO lammo mx) eo*a - 
ecmb HacuAue u urro koMMynuaraM kak uckameAfw ceofioaoi u 
pasencmea HenpocmumeAbHO 3CHAMcm>Ci ucmpe6AeHueM MeAOse- 
Meckux *u3Heo. Pa3AW3aA s gea Awcma. Bee ygusAeHw AweMy 
kpacHopeMMo, ewpajueweAaycsi e smoM janeAeHwu. Pag koHeMHo 
6ygy. ecAU ne npuwym aachs a MAenw. xruw doAttite enutpoo. 
T«ga Haniuy me6e pe^yAwnamw. xom« «o>kem 3mo nucbAAO 
goAokumcs. 

Pagu Bo?a npocrrn awhr, moo AMiAka. Ed Eoey, Hues, smo 
HeHaAAepeHHO. Bee Hekcago exogumb s aopog. 3ma npokAsnxw 
KOAAuccua. xoma ?ma Koaauccuh noAV«Aa Awe e moAA. Mmo Mepej 
Hee 9 dwkt noxakOAWACVi c znoovtwi naprrUHoum pObotrHiicamj 
KtpHuxna.Kck npoagym npajgHecmea u mou anewomAeHuo n me6e 
Hanuwy. 

A noka ocmaeaoa c bomm. 

Kpenko ueAyio. Begu ce6« xopouieHbko. 3hoU, '•no meoCi li/ypa 
mefti AK3&*n! 4mo oh -kueem moAoko nomoMy, Mmo Hageemcsi 
>kifMb gA« me6«. uhomc 6w oh ne nepokuA ecex A\yk menepeuHeii 
*iohu. TOAoko Hoge*ga ho CMOcmbe Bygyweu *u3hu c mofeou, 
jacmasAflem mepnemb, mepnemb. 

npowao - Bce2ga meou UJypa. < > 

rAPO 0n-1 on.1 d.107/1. 143 ■ 152 




nepeoe omdenemje uunuuwj r. Praam,. 1924 a. 



4 APXNB 



111 



«Tocnodu f Kozda x<e ece mo Komumcn?„» 

fli/icbMa c cfcpoHTa, nor\/6MBLuue co/maTa Muixawna EpMonoBa 



...Edb noTpacaioLUUM cBoeft npaBfloti hctom- 

HMK O BOMHe. Oh VI HblHB XpaHKTCfl BO MHOTMX 

ceMbflx. 3to 4>poHTOBbie nucbMa. ConaaTCKMe 
TpeyronbHHKM - nucTOHKM 6yMarn, noMeHeHHwe 
MepHbiMM nonocaMM BoeHHOki LieH3ypbi m LUTeMne- 
nnMM noneBOiii noHTw. - ocianncb nocneflHevi 
BecTOHKoii ot otuob n AeAOB, norn6ajMx Ha cppon- 
Te. Hx xpaHST b ceMbnx Kan naMflTb, KaK HaaexcAy 
Ha to, mto yxacbi bomhu ho noBTopnTcn. Ho mho- 
rue H3 OCT3BUJHXCH B JKUBblX He HMeiOT n 3Toro. 
flecnTMneTMSMn MiyyT ohh cBeaeHMH o norn6ujnx 
h nopoM HaxoaflT .. 

Aonrue roaw pa3biCKHBan cBoero OTua Cep- 
rert MuxaMnoBMM EpMonoB - caM cppohtobmk, npo- 
ujeflujMM floporaMM bomhu ot CTannHrpaAa ao 
aBCTpMMCKnx Aribn. Ero OTeu EpMonoB Mnxanri 
rieTpoBMH poflnncn a ceMbe pa6onero b ApxaH- 
renbcxoki cno6oae ripoHCKoro ye3Aa PsuaHCKOM 
ry6epHHM. B roAW nepeoM mmpobom Boeean noa 
Qbmhckom h Phtom, b rpaacAaHcxyio cpawancn npo- 
tmb HDaeHnna m BpaHrertH. Ewn MJieHOM BKn(6), 
ho b 1921 r. Bbiiuen 113 napTnn nocne roro, xaic 
y3Han H3 nucbMa poAHbix, hto npoAOTpsA oto- 
6pan y hmx nocneAHMe aea nyaa MyxM. octsbmb 
ceMbK) 6e3 xne6a. 

A noTOM cHOBa (IponcK, ujecTb ronoAHwx 
Ptob b ceMbe m pa6oTa, pa6oTa... 

B ceHTn6pe 1940 roAa Epmo/iobwx Bwcenn- 
nn b Kapeno-OnHCKyio CCP. TaM ohm m BCTpeTM/iM 
BOMHy. B MapTe 1942-ro Muxann rieTpoBMH 6bin 
npn3BaH b AeMCTBywLnyK) apuno ["locneaHsc Be- 
CTOHKa ot Hero npMwna b none. Ha Bee 3anpocw 
poACTBeHHUKOB o cyflb6e M. (1. EpMonoBa coo6- 
manocb, hto b cnncKax yMepiunx ot paH, y6nTwx. 
nponaBUJux 6e3 secTM oh He 3HawnTCfl. A b 1987 
roAy ceMbfl nonynnna yBeAOMneHwe or soeHHoro 
Tpn6yHana CeBepo-KaBxascxoro BoeHHoro oxpy- 
ra, hto M. n. EpMonoB 6bin o6bhh6h no CTaTbe 58, 
nyHKT 10, m paccTpennH b HHBape 1943 roAa noa 
Tyance. HwHe pea6nnnTnpoBaH. 

BeiyecTBeHHWMM AOKa3aTeribCTBaMH coBep- 
ujeHHoro mm «npecTynneHMti» nocnyxw/iM nucbMa 
k poAHWM, KOTopwe 6wnn nepexBaneHbi kohtp- 
pa3BeAbiB3TenbHbiM oTAenoM «CMEPLU» ero na- 
otm. B 1987 roAy coTpyAHMKaMM KrB HweBCKa 
incbMa EpMonoBa nepeaanbi ceMbe. Mepea 35 
neT ohm HaKoneu aoujjim ao aapecaTa. B stmx 
nMCbMax neKOTopwe npeAno^eHMn noAMepKHyrbi 
pyKOM cneaoBaTGnn. m Ha k3>k/iom noMeTxa: «Ao- 

<yMeHT3T0THanMC3HMH0K).M.EpMOnOB».B1994 

roAy cwh EpMonoBa nepeAan OTLtoBCKMe nMCbMa 
b TocyaapcTBeHHbiM apxMB Pw3aMCKovi o6nacTM 
(TAPO). 

O -ieM Me TaKOM «KpaMonbHOM» nMcan con- 
qaT EpMonoB? 3a KaxMe cnoBa paccTperinnM con- 
aaTa? 

AHdpeu MEJIbHHK, 
rocydapcmeeHHbiu apxue PasaHCKou odnacmu 







ymu. Am 






nucbMO nepBoe 

4 oeiycma 1942 ^oga. Aetocmeyxum ap/vt* 

Aopcxm Haga u gemku! Cooftuao, nmo « *ue u jgopoe. Cnokodcmeue 
Ha HaweM io*ho« tppoHme kot**wocb 8 utOAd, u eom c mex nop I «e u»£n 
80J/vio*Hocmu Hanucamb »3aa o ce6e hu onpoMku, mak kak c nepexogow 
HeMwes s HoonynAeHue no naueM AuciwanckOM HanpaeAeH« (8 uwasi) mw 
He uAAeeM nokoa hu gHeM, hu HOMbo. 12 u 13 uoa» rm eeAu 6ou 8 60 k« 
ceeepo- janaaHee BopoiuuAoe2pxjga. a e ho* ho 17-e oaraeuAu kpacaeeu 
BopotuuAOKpag, eecb noxrw nwAaowuu e o^. AOAbwe aaw HOMaAU 
awxogumb la okpyAenua, o6paMeoeu*?ocB e epopee 6yn*iAku. ?opAbu*o 
komopou ewxoguAO k Pocmoey. npu ewxoge ia 3mou «6ymwAku» /vw cweHb 
awcko nomepHAu om geucmeufi He/v\eukou aeuauuu, komopcm He/MUAocepgHo 
6om6uao hoc Ha npom»>keHuu okoAO 50 kAA. 22 uoasi ivw nogotuAu k 
Pamoey, ho e mpex kuAOAAempax om «» hoc ecmperaiAu apmuAAepuucko- 
/wuHO/wemHwu own* npomueHuka u e?o BoAifiapgupoeuwku cmmmi no 20- 
30 caAWAemoe. houu eodeka gpowyAu u no6e)kaAU k nepenpaeam Mepe3 
p. Akcau u Aoh, mym *e hou*< nonecAu 6oAbune nomepu a Aiogax u 
mexHuke, mak kak smu nepenpaew >«pe3 gee peku npomueHuk HewaoHO 
6oaa6ua c aojgyxa. ecau 6w ew eugeAu eecb ?mom kotuAvip. W0 npuwAu 
6w e y*ac. Hi* omxunu 3a Aoh hq 20 kn eocmo*«e Pamoea u cmaiAU 
maM go 27 uk>ar. noka Haue koAuxgoeaHue He omaoAo npuken o 
HaonynAeHuu gA« jchvtw Akcau u Pocmoea. u eom 28 woah aaw notuAu 
oepar-MO ho Pocmoe, ho npomueHjk geucmaawj ceoeu AiwoMMUCAeHHOu 
oeuauiM ecmpemuA hoc u ptu6uA egpe6e3Ju, omkyga mw 6e*aAM a 
pecnopagke ho eocmok. AaAbme mu y*e He e cootkhhuu 6wau okcubieamb 
e«y kakoe-Au6o conpomueAeHue u npogoAjkaAu omxogurrb ece goAbtue u 
goAuAK. u ceepnyAu no m, mak kak nemon wsu no houum ramem. n eom 
SMepa. mpembe?o. mm rpubcuu e ogHy 10 cmatuu no p. Ky6a*i 
(Boaopi*ickc«). e 30 kAA eocmonHee KpacHogapa. 3gea> howo guaouii 6ygem 
co6upamb ceou ocmamku u npi»*u«amb nonoABeHue, a 3«neM, kak eugHO, 
CHoea 6poc«m s 6od. Mw m 3mo epe/vw npa«Au okoAO 40 kA>. riumaAuCB. 
ga u ceCnac rumaeMca e 6oAbUJeu naam cppykma/Mu u oeauoAUj. mak kak 
om ceoeu 6ajbi CHa6*eHu(i aaw omopeaAucb u He 3hxm ige om. B gopoae 
6paAu y kOAxoJoe ceuHea u pejaAu ux gA« numawi) pomw. To, nrrio npuuMocb 
nepe>kumb ja jmo epeMH, onucamb Hukak HeAMH. Ecau Bygy *ue, nptiegy 
- pac*a*y. 

B BamaAbOHax nomepu uckwMjmewno eeAuku. Mod WUtk BaAodcuoe 
Muxoua MuxaGAoeun U3 Mo*\eu nptxm 6e3 eecmu, ho ex eugoAu no my 
cmopoHy 40Ha, Hago gyAwrrfc. nmo oh nonoA s gpy?yo Mocmb. a AAo*em 
femb, nonaA nog 6oAA6e>kky. CooBwu 06 3moAA e» *eHe no agpecy, 
komopwu 9 ecm nocAOA pa*iue. He jhoo, cyMao au » omocAamb bom 3mo 
nuajAw, mak kak ece nymu e ueHmp hcmuomu ompejaw. Bo3AW)kHO, nmo 
HaAagsm caub eoagyutiou nowKtt Aa, 3ma eouHa oguH y*ac. oiaoujhou 
ag, onpaujHee Hem u 6bfr»> He A«))kem. MckAWMumeAbHO houu HeygaMu 
cfiwicHumb AwkHo me», who y hoc ho nepegoewx no3uuuax wtx h» euguM 
hu ogjHOM HOuew cajwoAema, hu ogHOW nouex manka, a y ne*mee 
coAVJAemoe - kak pou rweA, mankoe He coaunamb. Pa38e /wo>kHO yemodmb 
nepeg makou jposnou mexHukcu epaza? EonecmeeHHO, nmo y hoc ecmb - 
3mo apmuAAepusi, komopaw /v\aAO-/v>OAbcku 3agep*u8aem npogawkenue 
epaea, ho ogHOO apmuAAepuu u Aiogeo, eoopyAeHHbix euHmoekaAui, gaAeko 



112 



4 



APXHB 




Be3eecmHan condamcKan uozuna. 0omo Cepeeri Pouanoea 



He gocmomowHO g/w fopdbt* c npomueHuko/w, eoopy*eHHMM makou 
moiwhou mexHukoo. nosmoMy oh npem u npem. 

Ko/v\OHgoe»we hmk cmoum He ho goA*HC* emcome. oho 
nepeoe Bpocaemca e naHuky. ocmaeAW Bouuoe wj npaoeOA cygb6w. 
Ormxamca *e ohu k Bofluaw kak k ckomy, He npuiHoeofl ux 3a 
Aiogeii. omaoga u omcymcmeue aemopumema ux cpegu 6ouuoe. 
Aa*e e cmapoii apmu u moeqa oqx*tepbi omHocuAucb k coAgamaM 
Aymue. ne« ceiXK 3mu AeCmeHOHrnw omHOCflmcs k kpacHoapAAeu- 
uaw. Aa, « coeceM He ojkugaA, t*no6w uA\enH0 cetuac, eo epe/vwi 



soft**, houj kOMOHgupbi Kpacnou apaauu mak noxafiHO crrwxuAucb 
k ceouAn 6ouuaAi. 

CeMgm s npocMompueaA ceoe 6eAbe u o6napy>kuA okOAO 50 
aueu, e moM mucac 20 - HaukpynHeuuero pcuMepa Bee amo 
pe3yAwnam noma, omeymema* mwao. ?p«3u, omcymcmeuii Bohu 
u coavx aACMHoe - He ptupeuwemoi kynambca. 3gea> cmoum 
y*acHOsi -kapa. C 1 6 uk>a« He Bwao hu kariAu grokgn. Xac6 ho noAax 
ocwwemc«, y6upam> HekoMy. koaxojh jeakyupyiomcfi. Mw ece 
*ge/u omkpwmus emoporo cppoHma, ho ezo ece Hem u nem. 
roenogu, ko^ga *e ece smo koHuumca? Hey*eAu hqaa He npugemcfl 
ceugembCfi? 

UeAyw eac ecex, eaui M. EpAWoe 

FlucbMO BTopoe 

8 cenwdpn 1942 2. AeucmeyxxMoa apAu« 

Mou gopceue, Hags u gemku 3uho. Mauw u avjamj 
AVJAbi*i<./\en«! Coofiwaw, >*no « rtue u jgopoe. * mhozo nuuiy 60m. 
ho om eac c 28 uomb hu cmpo»*u, HecAAompn ho mo. umo e 
nocAegnee epem mou moeapuwu uj Mockew cmaAu noAyucm> 
ruo>Ma, jHauum, c«Ub kak-mo HOAaguAu. Meno okOHnameAbHO 
jaegaom awu, meAO nokpwAOCb aiAOti*t>fAw cmpynwiMu om 
pacMecoe. Mwao Hem ga>ke gwi Bpurrw, He zoeopa o cmupke 6eAWt 
uau /wwmw Auua u meAa, komopwe cmaAu. kak gepeeaHHwe. Ecau 
e onenax Aona u KyfiaHu am* eAu amko c mskom (xAe6a He Bwao), 
mo jgecb, a yweAwx Koektuckux top. mm a smoAA omHoiueHUu 
mepnuM 6oAwuie mpygHOcmu. Bou ugym ka*gwti ge*, u 3gecb. 
e ?opax, HeAu<bi ne gaom hoaa nokon. ho me/* He AAenee mw gep*uM 
3gecb ux c 19 a«ycma ho oohoaa /v«cme. 3gecb homu cmaAu oneHb 
xoAogHwe, . a gneM *apko. >KgeM emopoM cppoHma. uncwe He 
yeuguAtffl. 

LteAyw ecex. tan Mjxoua epawaos 




3cKadpunt>p nod Pus 



sodbi Benuxou OmewecmeeHMOii eoiiHbi. 



^ nOPTFET 

«y lf MEMOPHAAA" ECTb EYAYIUEE - 
PABOTA HA AOAI"l/IE rOAbl...» 



113 




C HJieHOM npaeneHuu Poccuuckozo u 
MewdyHapodHoao ucmopuKO-npoceemu- 
menbCKoao. 6/iaaomeopume/ibHoeo u npa- 
eo3amurriHoao o6w,ecmea «MeMopuasi» 
BuxmopoM KMEPHHEHKO 6ecedyem 
Cepzeu POMAHOB 

- Buxmop, paccKaxu- 
me, no/Kanyucma, o Ba- 
uieu ceMbe 

- Mom ceMetiHbie <op- 
hm - c yxpaMHbi. Oieu - 
poflOM n3 cena KpacHUA 
KyroK. 3T0 Ha BenropoA- 
mmhb, Heflanera ot Xapb- 
KOBa. MaMa - H3 Bmhhm- 
Ubi. A BOTpeTunncb ohm b 
MocKBe. BMede yHMfiMCb 

B MOCKOBCXOM 3BT0AO- 
POWHOM MHCTHTyTe. 

B 1939 roAy nocne 

OXOHHaHMH HHCTHTyTa nx 

Hanpaannn Ha pa6oiy b 

MoHronnio - crpoMTb moc- 

tw. TaM ohm npoBeriM ace 

BoeHHoe BpeMH. nana TaM 

*e m BoeBan, Ha flanbHeM 

BocTOKe. 

fl nodBMncn Ha CBeT b Bmhhmuc b Aexa6pe 1946-ro. 

Korna acokma ao acbhtm MecaueB, poAMTenn pewMAii 

)KHTb n pa6oTaTb b MocKBe. C tom nopw n a cian mocxbm- 

hom. 3flecb Bbipoc, m hto nK)6onwTHo, na Ubcthom 6y/ib- 

sape - coBceM prqom c HWHeujHMM «MeMopManoM». c 

ManuM KapeTHbiM nepeynKOM. 3to mob «Manan poam- 

Ha». riporynKM Ha Ubbthom - ot CaMOTexM ao Tpy6HOki 

nnomaflM. Kono6oBCKMe, KapeTHbie nepey/iKM, CrapwO 

umpk. UeHTpanbHbiM pwhox - mom caMwe paHHMe OeTCKMB 

BocnoMMHaHMH. 3Aecb we m b wxone yHMncn - Ha ManoM 

CyxapeBCKOM nepeynxe. noTOM - Ha Tpy6H0fi ynnue. 

B 1964 rofly nocTynM/i Ha reo/iorMHecxMM <£aKy/ibTGT 
MocKOBCKoro rocyAapcTBeHHoro yHMeepcHTeTa. A nocne 
OKOHHaHMji b 1969 roAy Becb nam Kypc (My*cxyK), pa3yMe- 
eTcn. cocTaBHAKjiAyro) BMecTo pacnpeAeneHMH m pa6oTbi 
no cneqMaribHOCTM «3a6pMfiM» a apMuto Mw yApyneHHO 
Bopnanw, ho MMTMHr npoTecTa He ycTponnw... flBa roAa 
OTcnyxMn netiTeHaHTOM - xombhahpom B3BOAa b ropoAe 
HM*HeyflMHCKe b 3a6aMKanbCK0M BoeHHOM oKpyre. H Tonb- 
ko noTOM aaHflncs CBoeii cneuManbHOCTbio - reoo>M3MKOM 
24 roAa npopa60Ta/i b AxaaeMMM HayK. flo 95-ro roAa. 

M3 poACTBeHHMKOB b Moeii ceMbe 6wn penpeccMpo- 
saH ToribKO ABOKipoAHbiM A"A" T. M. flbaKOB rio npflMOM 
)Ke nMHMM. OTUOBCKOM, MaTepMHCKOM. Bee o6ownocb. V\ 
BCe-TaKM, HeCMOTpfl Ha TO 4TO y MeHfl nMHHO M3 6nM3KMX 

poAHbix hhkto He nocTpaAan ot penpeccM*. n cmmtbk), mto 
npmuen b «MeMopMan» He cxiyiaMHO. CeiiHac nocrapa- 

KDCb 06-bflCHMTb. 



fl BOCnMTtJBaXlCH B o6blMHOM, COBSTCKOM, HOfinbHOM 

ceMbe: nana, MaMa.AeAywxa, 6a6yujKa (MaMMHw poAMTe- 
nn> m MnaAwasi cecTpenxa UpMHxa. HwxaxMx pa3roB0poa o 
nonnTMKe b npMcyrcTBMM fleTe* He Be/iocb. PoAMie/iM m 
6a6ywKa 6wnM 6ecnapTMMHbiMM, fleAyiuxa - nneHOM 
napTMM, ho oTHtoAb He (fcaHaTMKOM. fleAyuJKa CeMeH OKa- 
3an Ha MeHn b AeTCTBe orpoMHoe BHMSiHMe, npMneM HMKor- 
aa hb arnTMpoBan hm 3a coeeTCKyw BnacTb, hm npoTMB. A 
mto KacaeTcn OTua. a Aanexo He cpa3y noHnn npuHMHy ero 
saMKHyTOCTM m HewenaHHH paccKa3biaaTb o ce6e. 06 3tom 
ero oco6eHHOCTM MHe roBopMnM HeMHoroHMcneHHbie ero 
3HaK0Mbie, coTpyAHMKM, flann caM 3to omyman. EMy bck> 
>KH3Hb npMXOAnnocb CKpwBaTb, mto ero otbu, mom peayw- 
Ka Ahtoh, KOToporo oh oneHb rno6nn m c kotopwm MHe 
T0)Ke nocnacTnHBMnocb b aeTCTBe MHoro o6iyaTbCH, 6bin 

flbBKOHOM B CenbCKOM LiepKBM HO npM MHe 06 3T0M He 

rosopujiM. 

ByAyHM CTyAeHTOM. a no3Bonnn ce6e AOMa STaKyio 
3aAnpMCTO-noflpocTKOByK5KpMTMKy BnacTb npeAepwaoiHX. 
OTuy 3to He HpaBMnocb. oh Menu o6pwBan. Ho Tenepb-ro 

H nOHMMaK), HTO K COBBTCKOM AeMCTBMTenbHOCTM caM OH 
OTHOCMflCn BeCbMS KpMTMMeCKM. riOCMOTpMTe Ha 3T0T CHM- 

mok. Ero CAenan oTeq. CaM CHnn m HanenaTan. Bhamtb. 
3to AHApeM flMHTpneBMM CaxapoB - nepeA 3AaHMeM. rAe 
ujen cyAnaA tOpMeM OpnoBbiM. 3to, no-MoeMy, MaM 1978 
roAa. 3h3hmt, nana MHTepecoBancn, SHanMT, He 6bin paB- 
HOAyiuHbiM. Beflb TorAa caM o>aKT npnxoaa k 3AaHMio cyAa 
6wn... - bu noHMMaeTe. Ho, noAnepKHBaio. hto 6bi hm 
AyMa/iM Ha caMOM Aerie mom poanTenn, AeAy^iKM m 6a- 
6yujKM, MHe 06 stom He roBopMnocb HHsero. TorAa Ctsamh 
6bin A/if MeHfl BeriMKMM CTanMHWM. 

KorAa npMiuen 56-m roA, « 6wn AecnTMneTHMM Ma/ib- 

HHKOM. H BOT «xpymeBCKMM Cbe3A» 06bHBJlHeT Ky/lbTe 

xiMMHocTM. (DaxTbi 6e33axoHMii. y6MMCTB. MaccoBbix pen- 
peccuM Tax nopasMAM moo Ayiuy. hto n cran AyMaTb 06 
3tom nocTOHHHO. WeHJi 6yKBanbH0 o6o>Krno tom asbmhom 
MHCpopMauHM. KoHeHHO, HeMa/iyio ponb 3Aecb cwrpana 
peaxuMfl Ha co6biTnn o6o)KaeMoro mhom AeAyaiKM CeMe- 
Ha. Oh hs Ben co mhom AnnTenbHwx AHCKyccuvi, ho npocTo 
no ero BHeiuHeMy BMAy, no coAep>KaHMK! m TOHy cAynaMHO 
o6poH6HHb4x <ppas n nyBCTBOBan, hto oh 6bin SyKsaribHO 
noTpnceH. Ba6yujKa MHe noTOM, ropa3AO no3>Ke. paccxa- 
3biBana, mto Sunn xaxMe-TO cnMCXM npeAHasHanaBiuMxcs 
x apecTy, b xoTopux 6bino m mmh Moero A^Aa. Ho nocne 
CMepTM CTanMHa 6ena Hac MMHOBana. 

ripaBAa npecTynneHMflx pe>KMMa nponHo Bowna b 
mow naMHTb. H xorAa b cepeAnne 60-x 3Ty npaBAy CTariM 
noHeMHory CBopanMBaTb n rnywvrrb, n, kohomho me, CTan 
AyMaTb: noneMy? IIomhk), b cbo&m Ml~y n 3aAan Bonpoc 
npenoAaeaTenio to nw MCTMaTa, to dm A^aMaTa: «Cxax<M- 
Te, no>xanyMCTa, a noneMy o xynbTe hmhhoctm ceiiMac 
nepecranM roBopMTb?» H npocpeccop oTeeTMn: «riapTMB 
CMMTaeT npo6neMy xynbTa jimmhoctm McnepnaHHoii». 3to 
6ua 1964 roA- 

fle^cTBMTenbHO, b xoHqe 60-x m b 70-e a npMnoMUHax) 
riMiub ABe o6meAOCTynHbie ny6AnxauMM (bo3mo>kho. 6biriM 
n APyrne), 3aTparMBax)mHe TeMy ct3Amhcxmx penpeccMii: 
y EBTyiueHKO b «HroAHbix MecTax» m y HnHrn3a AMTMaroBa 



114 



4 nOPTPET 



b «BypaHHOM nonycTaHKe». Ho bo MHe 3Ta TeMa, 3Ta 
6or\b, 6wna >KHBa m npoAon>xana *nTb. H mrpfi y*e b 1 987 
rofly h ycnbiujan, hto b MocKBe nosBunncb HHULinaTMBHbie 
MonoAwe nioflM. xoTopwe co6npaiOT noanncn nofl o6pa- 
meHneM aa yciaHOBKy naMHTHMxa >KepTBaM nonnTusec- 
kmx penpeccMii, a nx pa3wcxan. rioMHio: Ha nywxMHCxovi 
nnomaan - rpynna c6opa noannceM (cpeAM hmx 6bin Oner 
OpnoB). ft nofloiuen. noflnncancn m cxa3an: «Pe6nTa, n 
xony BaM noMoraTb». M c Tex nop n - b «MeMopnane». 

- A Kaxoea ObUia amuoopepa e Mry e sodbi Bauieu 
yw6bl? Mo>KHonu BbUM ceoSodno o6cy>ttdamb cmoeapu- 
maMu mo, vmo max Bac nompacno e decnmunemHeM 
eo3pacme? 

- B Te roAbi, a CMMTaio. Mry 6bin oa3ncoM b coaeTc- 
xom nycTbiHe Toh BceMy saAaean peiaop rieTpoBCKMM. 
Mbbh TeoprneBHH 6wn nnflepoM, xpynHWM yseHbiM-MaTe- 

MaTMKOM, MenOBeKOM OHeHb CKpOMHblM M AeMOKpaTMM- 

HbiM. Bbi Mo>KeTe ce6e npeACTaBmb, HT06W pexropoM 
Mry 6wn 6ecnapTHMHbiii? A oh He 6wn hjichom napinn: 
yHMKanbHbiM cnynaM. HeT, hbm, xoHenHO, He Hmann aHTM- 
coeeTCKnx nexu^M. Ho 6wna b «xpaMe». xax Mbi Mexyiy 
co6on Ha3biBann Haw yHMBepcMTeT, RBHan aTMOCtpepa 
CBo6oAbi. «ayx iuecTMflecnTHHKOB» ft Tenepb rOBOpHD, 
hto Mry Torfla «8bineHnn» Mens. Beflb HecMOTpa Ha to, 
mto a c AeTCTBa 6wn noTpaceH npecTynneHM^Mn cranv\- 
HM3Ma Bee paBHO 5i 6bin KOMcoMonbuew H nepecTan mm 
6biTb nMeHHO b yHHBepcuTeTe. CpeflH cTyAOHTOB n BCTpe- 
tmd eflnHOMbiiuneHHMKOB, KOTopwe pa3Aen«nM MOM yoe*- 

fleHMSI, C KOTOpbIMM MOr MWCT1HMM AeflMTbCH. H KOTOpbie 

noAAepwMBanM MeHR a Ha HexoTopue eemn pacxpwBa/iM 
rna3a. H bot TaK, nocTeneHHO, nocTeneHHO... Mw He 
co3flann onno3nunoHHyio opraHH3aumo, xoth npaBosa- 
muTHoe flBMJKeHne b CTpaHe y»e Hananocb. Ho «BHyTpen- 

HMMM» Onn03MUMOHepaMH COCTOHTIMCb. 

- B 68-m, Kan u3eecmH0, c «xpymeecKOu ommene- 
fit>io» 6bino noKOHveHO maHKaMU. KaK moada ebi- nemee- 
poKypcmjKu Ml~y- peaaupoeamiHa vexocnoeauxyio mpa- 
aeduio? 

- KaK pearnpoBanM? CTpaiUHO 6wno... OmymeHne 
Heo6paTMMocTM... y Bcex, kto noHUMan. A kto He noHn- 
Man, n MHorne cTyaeHTbi 8 nxHucne, Kpn^anw: «Ax. ax! Mw 
aon>KHbi saiymyaTb counann3M! Ecjim 6w He mw, b Mexoc- 
noBaKnw HenieaiieHHO aownw 6bi t3hkm 6yHAecBepa». 
TaKan 6wna ocpnunanbHan nponaraHAMCTCKan yTxa. Ilo- 
mhk), hto n Toraa co MHorMMM cnopun, pacToriKOBbiBan, 
hto 3anaflHbie HeMijbi HMKoraa, hm npn xaxnx o6cTORTerib- 
CTBax He BOiuriH 6w b HexocnoBaKHKi. ft AOKa3biBan 3to. 
HecKoribxnx nenoseK b yHHBepcuTeTe, noMHMTCfl, n nepe- 




Andpeu Quumpueew Catapoe neped 3danueu ede men cyd 
Mad K3puem OpnoabiM Mau 1978 e. 



y6eflnn, ohm noHnriM, hto HaM HaBfl3biBatoT noxb. Bot Tax 
Mbi pearnpoeann 

- y Mann ecmb maxoe omymemje, vmo aeonoaun, 
KaK npocpeccua. om6upaem ce6e niodeu ceo6odonio6u- 
ebix, co ceo6odnbiM MbiuinenueM... 

- Mo>xeT 6biTb. 06 stom n Bcepbe3 xaK-TO He ayMan. 
Bbinn y nac cpeAM cTyABHTOB m BecbMa KOHcepBaTMBHbie 
riMHHOCTn. A bot nio6oBb k ABMKeHMK), k nepeMeiyeHMK) B 
npocrpaHCTBe 6wna to^ho. ft Ha reoncfcax noiuen. HaBep- 
Hoe, noTOMy, hto c AeTCTBa aKTMBHO 3aHHManca TypM3- 
mom. c nnToro xnacca. y Hac b ujxone 6bin npexpacHbiM 
yHMTerib mctopmm, xony HasBaTb ero mmh: BnaflMMMp Bna- 

flMMMpOBMH CTpyKOB. C HMM MW MCX0AM/1M BCe IIOflMOCKO- 

Bbe. He3aypsAHbiM 6bin senoBeK. Bu 3HaeTe, hto oh HaM 
roBOpMn. npMneM - b loiacce, Ha ypoxe: «ft npenoAaio 

pOCCMMCKyK) MCT0PMK5 TOTlbKO DO 1861 TOAa». To eCTb flO 

OTMeHbi xpenocTHoro npaBa. Tax oho m 6wno: BceM, hto 
nonBMnocb no3>xe - pa3H0HMHuaMM. HapoAOBonbuaMM. 
peBoniouMOHepaMM. Hy m, pa3yMeeTc«, coBeTcxMM nepM- 
oaom, - c HaMM 33HMManMCb Apy^e yHMTenn. HanpnMyw 
BB, xax Mbi ero HajbiBd/m. Hunero KpaMonbHoro HaM. 
KOHeHHO, ne BHyuian. ho mmmoxoaom «ceMeHa» pa36pa- 
cbiBan: AyMaiiTe, Mon. rioMHio oamh pasroBop y Hero 
flOMa, xyaa Mbi, eroyneHMXM, nacTBHbKO 3axoAMnn. ft, Hy 
xyAa AeHeuJbcn, hto 6bino, to 6bino, npMHsncfi pacxBariM- 

BaTb CXpOMHOCTb M flOPHAOHHOCTb fleHMHa, XaKMM OH 6bin 
B 6blTy HenpMXOTTIMBblM, HM pocxoujM eMy He HaAO 6bino, 
hm BoraTCTBa. ABB Ha sto OTBenaeT: «OmymeHMe BnacTM 
Ann Toro. kto k hbm pbbtc$i, caMo no ce6e ywe BepoiMHa 
HacnajKAeHMn. oho caMOAOCTaTOHHO. KaK AopBancn ao 
BnacTM Haa ntOAbMM, HMHero Apyroro y>xe ne Haao». 

y Hac Ha reo/i(})aKe cpa3y nocne nepsoro xypca 6bina 
noneean neTHnn npaxTwxa. H tbm. Ha nepB0M>xe npaKTM- 
xe, « yBMAen m y6eAMncn, xaxoBbi MCTMHHbie B3aMM00TH0- 
LueHMn Mowiy Tax HaawBaeMbiMM npocTUMM nioAbMM m 
KOMnapTMeii. Koraa cnwuiMiub, ksk pa6oHne, noxypuBafi. 
6eceAyK)T npoMew co6om o «napTeMHwx», n He 3Haio, xeM 
HaAO 6uTb, htoSw He yBMAeTb nponacTM Mejxay nioAbMM 
m oipMUManbHOM MAeonorneM. BnonHe onpeAeneHHbiM 
6bino oTHOuieHwe x napTMM b Hapoae. Haiue - HacMeuinM- 
bwm, nopoM Aa>xe - npe3pnTenbHWM. B OTxpwTyK). pa3y- 
MeeTcn . He BwcTynanM, ho 3HanM ueHy m napTMM, m «napTeM- 

HblMX. 

MeM eme 3anoMHMnMCb CTyaeHMecxMe roflw. - xo- 
HenHO, necHAMM! BapAOBCxan necHn «cBeTMT» MHe no cew 
AeHb. TorAa 6un TaxoM noAteM! B yHMBepcMTeTe nenn 
Bee. TwTape ynnnMCb Apy y APya- TaxMe 6binM seuepa 
TaKMe nxjA^! BM36op, Aaa flxyiueBa. Hoeenna MaTBeeBa. 
OxyAXOBa, Kmm, TopoAHMUXMii, Hmxmtmh. TanMH, pa3Be 
Bcex TyT nepeHMCnniub? HyTb no3>xe - Bwcolikmm. Bw 
3HaeTe. a xax Ha nepBOM Kypce ycnbiujan "flesyiuKy ms 
xapHeBHM», Tax m BriK)6Mncn pa3 m HaecerAa b HoBenny 
MaTseeBy 3aBopa«n Ba kdt Me ha ee necHM, m Horne h 3Haio 
m nbiTaiocb caM neTb... 

A BM36op! Koraa CTaBnxD xacceiy c Bms6opom, npo 
Bee saBumo. TeM6p ero ronoca AeiicTByeT Ha Menu - 

HeoSblXHOBeHHO... 

A bot Ha nepBOM Kypce ocenbio 64-ro MHe noeesno 
Tax, hto ao cmx nop c eocToproM BcnoMMHaio h paccxa3bi- 
Baro. Mom oahoxypchmk ftn JleB npoBen weHfl Ha nyrb jim 
He cexpeTHoe, HurAe He o6t.HBneHHoe «MeponpMSTMe» a 
UQPH na riyiueHHOM ynnue. TaM, aawe He b 3ane, a a 
Kopuflope noA necTHMueti co6panacb He6onbiuan xynxa 
3pMTeneM, nenoBex 15-20. H BAPyr x HaM noAXOAHT TariMH 
m Kmm. C oahom, noneMy-TO. Ha abomx rMTapoM. H Hanancn 



4 



nDPTPET 



115 



BeMep, KOTopwPi ao cmx nop ctomt nepea rnaaaMM. fl eeAb 
He TonbKO yBHAen hx snepBue, a n necHM stw ycnbiiuan b 
nepBbiM pa3: «yxoA«T APy3bfl», «CTapaTenbcxn(i Banb- 
cok». «06naxa». «ry6w oxaflHHbie», «CTaKaHMnxM rpaHe- 
Hwe»... 

Mho AOBenocb He pa3 cnyuiaTb »a xoHuepTax w 
BCTpeHaTb y Hac na pa3nnMHbix Meponpunrnqx b «MeMo- 
pnane>< Bynaia UJanBOBusa OxyA*aay. Ero necHu «CAe- 
nann» Hac. fl/in MHorvix, n pj\* mbhb To>xe, OxyAJxaaa - 
3to He npodo no33nn m My3WKa, 3to HeorbeMneMaR 

•jaCTb XH3HH 

Abtop, Ann MeHn oco6eHHbia, - AnexcaHAP TopoA- 
hhijkmm. 9\ Bnepswe yBMAen ero b 66-m, b KpbiMy nop, 
BaxMMcapaeM, Ha reonorMnecxoM nonnroHe wry. H bot c 
tom nopw... Bw 3HaeTe, HasepHoe. sto xaxaa-To cpopMa 
Marnn, npn tom mto MenoBex h BOBce He penntrM03Hbiw. Ero 
necHM q 3Hato u now, ecnu He Bee. to oweHb MHorne. H. 
Ka3anocb 6w, neTo-nepeneio tuchmh pa3: «Ot snort tocxh 
ne MaTepncb...», «Ko)xaHbie xypTxa, 6poweHHbie b 
yron...». «nepexaTb<», «CHer»... a Bee paBHO - xax na 
oroHb mhm Ha BonHw CMOTpeTb - He HaaoeAaeT. fl crapa- 
KDCb xoflnTb Ha Bee ero xoHuepTw. M xawwii pa3 MyBCTByra 
ceBfl oKpwneHHbiM. Mw c hum MHoro pas nepecexanHCb. n 
no pa6oTe b AxaASMHM Hayx, m Ha neceHHbix senepax - o 
Aa*e HecKoribxo pas eMy axxoMnaHMpoean Ha rmape. 
AnexcaHAP MouceeBWM pa6oiaeT b HHCTviTyre oxeaHono- 
rnn, h 6bin b HHCTHTyre cpn3nxn 3eMnn. A cneunanbHOCTb 
y Hac o6man: Mopcxan reo(t>M3Mxa. >Karib Tonbxo. mto b 
axcneAMUMnx, a peiicax He AOBenocb coaMecTHO nopa6o- 
TaTb. flaBHO ywe xoMy npnrnacnT6 ero b «MeMopnan», 
ycTponTb neceHHbifi Benep, Aa noxa He yAaeTcn. BonbHO 
y>x AHHaMMHHbiii oh Henoaex, nocTOHHHO b pa3te3Aax. 

- Bbl, 3H3WUm, UOpCKOU ZBO0U3UK? 

- Aa. A eiue 6onee y3xan cnemianmaunH - rpaBn- 
MeipMCT. no aHOManMHM rpaBnTaunOHHoro m MamnTHoro 
none* mojkho cyAHTb o cocTaae nopoA 3eMHOi<i xopw n 
eepxHeii MaHTMn 3eMnn. B tom nucne Ha Mopax n oxea- 
Hax. Bot stmm mm m 3aHHManncb. y*e Ha CTyA6HHecxnx 
npaxruxax a no6wBan b axcneAnuunx Ha MeTwpex Mopax: 
BanTHwcxoM, KacnuwcxoM. Oxotcxom m MepHOM.flnnnoM 
nucan no rny6MHHOMy CTpoeHnw AHa MepHoro Mopn. A 
MHoro no3we - AnccepiauHio: «MeTOAHxa o6pa6oTxn n 
xoMnnexcHoii nHTepnpeTauMn rpaBMTaunoHHoro nons oxe- 
aHOB». rionyHM/i yMeHyxj cTeneHb xaHAHAaTa $n3nxo- 
MaTeMaTunecxMX Hayx. 

B MHCTHTyTe cpH3HKn 3eMnn y Hac 6binn xopoiune. 
Me/ioBenecxne OTHOiueHUH, MHoro cBeTnwx, tojixobwx 
nioAei> B ^Q>3 6bina aTMoccpepa, HanoMUHaeuan MHe 
CTyAeHsecKMe roAbi, aTMoafcepa cbo6oaw. TaM, b mhctm- 
Tyre. a BnepBwe y3Han 06 axaAeMuxe Caxapose. ero 
BbicTynnennflx aa npasa nenoBexa. Moi\ 6onbiuoii apyr, 
3aMeMaTenbHbiii nenoBex Uropb TaxiKHH (ero yxe hst b 
wuBbix) AOCTaBan Ann Mend MaainHonncHbie CTpaHnqbi c 
pa6oT3MM AHApen flMHTpneBUMa. MueHHO TaM n enepabie 
npoHMTan caxaposcxne «Pa3MbiiuneHiiH nporpecce.. ..». 
fla>xe npeACTaBMTb ce6e TorAa He Mor, mto HacTynuT 
BpeMfl, xoraa 6yAy ommho c CaxapoBbiM BCTpeMaTbCw. 
6eceA0BaTb... 

B 3arpaHpe*ct>i MeHH noHanany He nycxann. Bmam- 
mo, npncM3TpMBanncb. fl Aawe noA03pesan TorAa, mto 
npuMMHOK) Momn 6biTb necHM TannMa, xoTopwe n no6nn 
neTb Ha «xapToiuxe», Ha MHCTHTyrcxnx nocnaemax. Bw- 
nycxaTb Menu Hananw c 1 981 -ro. MHTepecMO, mto b peficax 
n TO>xe MHoro nen, b tom MMcne n rannMa. ho. cyA" no 
TOMy, mto cepbe3Hwx npoSneM c «3arpaHxoti» yxe He 




«5apdoocKBfi necHft "ceomum" mho no eou donb». 
Mean nanuKepoe, ^ynnaHOu AuanduzynoeB. Buxmop Kyvepu- 
hbhko. Muxaun 3apam<un 5-n KOMpepeHuua 'Meuopuana», 

dexadpb 1998 a. 



6bino, xax-TO ace o6xoA^nocb. 9\, HanpuMep, MnenoM 
napTnn He 6bin. Ho Bbinycxann. ripaBAa. napTMiiHbix 6pa- 
;in ropa3AO oxoTHee. 3to 6bino 3aMeTno. H Boo6iye, b 
cocTaae 3arpaHMMHoro 3xcneAHLinoHHoro OTp«Aa b o6n- 
3aTenbH0M nopHA^e aojdkho 6btno 6wTb He MeHbtue AByx- 
Tpex MneHOB KnCC. 

A BHyTpeHHMe - xa6ora*Hbie HayMHbie pePicbi - 6binn 
BcerAa. c caMoro HaMana pa6oTw. B ochobhom Ha flanb- 
HeM Boctokb. 

- CKO/ibKo me Bbi coeepmunu peucoe? 

- Ecnn Bee cocMHTaTb, to oko/io nsiTHaALtaTM. XoAnn 
m no OxoTcxoMy Mopro, 6wn Ha KaMMaTxe, CaxanHHe, Ha 
Kypunbcxnx ocTpoBax - ypyne, MTypyne, KynaujMpe. 
UlnxoTaHe. Oamh petic b Oxotcxom Mope oco6eHHO naMH- 
Ten. Bbino 3to b oxTB6pe. toa y>xe He noMHio. rae-TO b 
xoHue ceMMAecnTbix. LUnn M3 nopTa KopcaxoB, c KD)KHoro 
CaxannHa. Ha apeHAoaaHHOM xpyM3HOM TennoxoAe "Ma- 
pun CaBMHa» mmmo Kypwn Ha ceBep. k MaraAaHy. Ha 
nonnyTH nonaAaeM b hjtopm, oxono 10 6annoB. Mo>xeTe 
ceoe npeacTaenTb, nepes nnriK)MMHaTop BHAHa BonHa: 
BepTuxanbHan BOAHaa CTeHa bwcotom MeTpoB AecnTb. 
Taxoro n b oxeaHax ne 6wBano rioTOM cthxho. \A sot, 
HeAenn Mepes abc bxoamm b Ty caMyw 6yxTy HaraeBa. 
HaA BOflOM n 3acH6>xeHHbiMn conxaMn - Bbxjra. npoHH3bi- 
BaeT ao xocTeii. M npeACTaBMn ce6e. xaK b 3Ty 6yxTy 
BxoAnnn xapaBaHbi c 3ax/iK)MeHHbiMH us nopTa BaHMHo. A 
enepeAn y*e BHAen npiman «CTonnubi xo/ibiMCxoroxpaa». 
OmymeHne - cnoBaMM He nepeaaiub, omymeHMe *yrn... 

BonbUie ecero sxcneAnunii 6bino b Tmxom oxeaHe, 
MHorAa saaopaMMBann b Hhammckmm. BbiBan b CMHranype. 
B Tuxom mw cnycxanncb Ha nr ao Hobom 3enaHAMH, 
3axoAnnn b BenriMHrroH . Bwn Ha ocTpoBax <I)ha>kh. ToHra, 
CaMoa. b (lopT AAene. sto (OwHbifi 1/leMeH - y exoaa M3 
^HAnvicxoro oxeaHa a KpacHoe Mope. B oahom pei»ice - Ha 
«KeAAbiwe» Bwiunn H3 BnaAHBOCToxa, a sepHynncb b 
Hobodoccmmcx. Pa6oTann a Tmxom, noroM BOLunn b Hh- 
ahmcxhh. Mepe3 KpacHoe Mope m Cyauxnw xaHan Bwiunn 
b CpeAM3eMHoe Mope, Ha MeTwpe ahh 3aujnn a rpeunxj. b 
CanoHMXM. noTOM Mepe3 flapAaHe/inw m Boco>op - b 
MepHoe Mope, m saxoHMnncB peiic b HoBopoccniicxe 

Mu MHoro nenn b peticax, xoraa paccna6nnnncb 
nocne eaxTbi, oco6eHHO Hauiero TopoAHMuxoro. Kctbth, 
npn pa6oTe b TponwMecxoii 30He Me>XAy CeBepHbiM h 
lOwHbiM TponnxoM. to ecTb npuwepHO Ha 1400 wopcxnx 
Munb (oxono 2700 xm) x ceBepy n lory ot aKBaTopa. BceM 



Ill 



4 



nOPTPET 



Ha KopaSne nono*<eHO Tax HaabiBaewoe «TponwHecKoe 
aoBonbCTsne - cyxoe bhho. flBe ByTMfWM Ha MenoBeKa b 
Heflenw. rioaTOMy ecnn nocMOTpeTb Ha cxeMbi Mapwpy- 
tob, BMflHO, K3K Bee 3KcneanunoHHbie cyaa. BbiPifln m 
nopia, KpyTo 3a6npaK>T Ha tor k ceBepHOMy TporwKy PaKa 
m yx noTOM pacxoaflTcn no pafiOHaM pa6oT. KaK TonbKo 
nepeceKanacb 24-n napannenb, no cyflHy o6bHBJiHioT: 
«3xnna>Ky n HayMHOMy cociaBy nonyMHTb TponnnecKoe 
aoBoribCTBne!» H Bee, kto hs Ha eaxTe, 6eroM k apTexib- 
lynKy BKamepKy... 

3Haeie, rae noxopoHeH nucaienb Cthbohcoh? Ha 
BepiuuHe ropw Baea, Ha ocTpoBe Ynony apxHnenara Ca- 
Moa nocpean Twxoro oKeaHa, b ero sanaflHOM Madn. 
Koraa Ctubbhcoh cxoHHancs. caMoaHqw, HTneujue ero 
nyTb nn He 6oroM, 3a oflHy HOMb nponowM/iM M3 nanbMO- 
bwx ctbo/iob Tpony Ha BepujMHy ropw. CnynMnocb oto b 
aeKa6pe 1894 roaa, ho Tpona cymecTByeT ao chx nop. 
CaM no Heii B36npancn b 1985 roay Ha BepwHHy - k 
Mornne aBTopa «OcTpoea cokpobhiu». 

...14 bot b 1987-m q Haiuen Oxiera Opnosa Ha riyiu- 
khhckow nnoiaaan b Mocxae. EyKBa/ibHO Mepe3 HecxonbKO 
aHert MHe no3BOHnnu, n a caM BCTan B03ne «PenHoro 
BOK3ana» c nnaKaiaMn m noanncHbiM jihctom. PeaxquH 
npoxowHX. oco6eHHO no*nnbix nioaeii. 6bina pa3H0ii. OaHU 
noflnncbiBann, 6naroaapnnn. warn pyxn. Apyrne. no 6o/ib- 
ujeiiMacTn, noneMy-To, weHiyMHw, Ha6pacbiBanncbc6pa- 
Hbio: «Mep3aBL(bi, raflbi! CianMHa Bennnoro xoTme ono- 
poMHTb!» - nwTanncb aa)Ke no6nTb m njiaxaTbi nopaaTb. 
HeywTHo 6bino: He apaTbca xe c hhmh! 

Mw serin c6op noannceii, Kax n ywe roBopnn, 3a 
coopy»eHMe b Mockbo naMATHMna wepTBaM penpeccwrt. 

Toraa OHH CBS3blBanMCb B OCHOBHOM TOflbKO C MMeHBM 

Oramwa. BecHoiii 88-ro Ha «PenHOM BOK3ane», ecnn He 
oujn6a>ocb. y cnopTtcny6a, npoiuen nepBbm MMTMHT. Ha- 
poay 6bino HecxonbKO cot Henoeex. Mh/ihuhh cTonna, He 
BMeujMBascb. A oceHbro b floMe khho npoiuna nepBas 
KOHCpepeHUMH «i^eMopnana» Mbi xoTenki caenaTb ee 
ynpoanTorbHovi. ho nneHbi flecflTM tbopmsckhx cok>30b: 
apxmeKTopoB, KMHeMaTorpa<pncTOB, xyflo*HHKOB n T.a., 
KOTopwe HaMepeBanMCb OfafTfa yHpeflMTennMM xax nioan 
TepTbie, MHoroonwTHbie n OCTOpooKHfaW, - y6eAwnn Hac 
nepeHBCTM ocHOBaHne «MeMopnana» Ha 6onee nosflHHi* 



I 1 1 

i 






« f 



Ha nodiomoeumenbMOu KOH&epemtuu o6utecmea 
(tMe«opua/i». 1988 e AHdpeO JJuumpueewt Caxapoe. 
Bp»6cnae HmtHM, Ones Opnoe. 




MumuHB y ConoeeiiKoao naunp «a fly6nHKe 
30 OKmn6p/i 1991 a 

cpox. 3iy KOH(J)epeHi4viK) noTOM H33Bann «noaroTOBn- 

TenbHOMS. 

ynpea^TenbHas »e KOHCpepeHqMsi «MeMopwana» 
cocTonnacb 28 - 30 SHBapn 1 989 roaa bo flBopue KynbTy- 
pbi MAH Bee 3to spewp h aaHUMancn CBH3b>o c pa3Hb mm 
pernoHaMn. Ha ynuqe HepHnxoBCKoro, b noMeiyeHHn 
Coiosa KUHeMaTorpacpHCTOB, hbm Bbiaennnn KOMHaTy, m 
Mbi Benn npneM scex, kto npne3)Kan M3apyrnx ropoaoB n 
Boo6me Bcex, kto k hsm o6paaiancn. Ta« Mbi ro*OBnnn 
yMpeanTenbHyio KOHCfiepeHmiKJ. 3a mhom, BnnoTb ao He- 
aaBHero BpeMenn. Tax m 3aKpenwnocb - KOHTairrbi c pern- 
0H8MM. 

- Kmo me exodun e uHuuuamueHyio apynny? ft umbio 
e eudy mex, Kmo peanbHO pa6oman. a hb apoMKue nped- 
cmaeumePbCKue uMena. Cpedu nocnednux. Kaxemcn. 
daxe E/ibuuH 6bin.bi 

-P,a. EflbUMH 6bin nneHOM OGiaecTBeHHoro CoBeTa. 
3to 6wna y>ne BTopap cOasa riocne Toro xax co6paHHbie 
3a naMATHMK *epTBaM cTannHH3Ma noanncn 6binn nepe- 
aaHbi Ha 19-o napTMiiHyw KOHCpepeHUMw, npn otom Top- 
6aneB ny6nnMHO o6bflBnn o HaniepeHUM co3aaTb naMST- 
hhk B03Hnxna npo6neMa cpopMMpoBaHviH Bbi6opHoro 
06iyecTBeHHoro CoeeTa 6yaymero «MeMopnana». Ha 
HaiuMx ynnHHbix nnxeTax Mbi npn3biBann npoxo>Knx Ha- 
saaTb n sanncaTb nweHa HSBecTHbix, BbiaaioiuMxcn nio- 
aeii, KOTopwe momm 6w cocTaBMTb 06iaecTBeHHbiii Co- 
BeT. Ero b KOHue kohliob cocTaBMnw, ho eecb uennxoM OH, 
HacKonbKO n noMHra, hm pa3y Tax n He co6pancH. A pea/ib- 
ho b nMnunaTMBHoii rpynne pa6oTanu: Oner OpnoB. fles 
rioHOMapeB, lOpnti CaMoaypoB, riaBen KyaiOKHH, BnMec- 
naB ^rpyHOB, fluMa fleoHOB, ApceHMii PornHCKMii, fleHa 
>KeMKOBa, TaHH KacaTKMHa, Bonoaa /IbiceHKo, Kojih CTap- 
kob. Hmkht3 Oxothh, Cawa flaHvianb. 3to 6bin ochobhom 
koctak. Mo*eT, koto-to n ceiiHac m He BcnoMHun - ...He 
B3MQ(MT0. 

Ha y^pea^TenbHyo KOH^iepGHUMio co6panocb 6o- 
nee 400 aeneraTOB noMTM us 250-tm ropoaoB. OneHb 
MHoro 6wno Toraa «MeMopnanbCKnx» ropoaos. Ha koh- 
(pepeHmm AOMUHkipoeano oujyiueHne aiicpopnn. flyMa- 
r\\A, mto ropw cBepHBM! 

«MeMopuan» ynpeanncn m 6wn 3aperncTpnpoBaH 
xaK Bflnno - BcecoK53Hoe ao6poBonbHoe ncTopuKO-npo- 
CBeTMTenbcxoe o6mecTBO. H3 caworo Ha3BaHnn aecTBy- 

6T, HTO OCHOBOii fleflTenbHOCTM SblJlM MCTOpMKO-apXH- 

BHbie pa3biCKaHnn. nccneaoBaHMH, ny6nnKaunn. Kctsth. 
MHorne 3tmm 3aHHManncb n aocosaanwH «MeMopnana» 
fl >Ke npoflo/DKan pa6oTaTb no Hana>KMBaHMio can3eM m 

KOHTaKTOB C nK5BbMM H3 MeCTaX. Mbi CTapa/lMCb, MT06 B 



4 



nOPTPET 



117 



ropoA3* Pocchm pa3BopaHHBanncb n co3AaBanncb caMO- 
CTonTenbHbie o6inecTea «MeMopwana». 

ripaKTMHecKH oflHoepeMeHHO, to ecTb c Hawana 90-x 
roflOB. b aesTenbHocTn o6mecTBa Havana BbiKpucTannn- 
30BbiBdibCH m npaao3aiunTHafl nnHwn. riocTeneHHO Ta 
^acTb ruoneu. Koropan pa6oTana no 3Toii TeMaTwce, opM- 
annecKH ocpopMMnacb b caMOCTOflTenbHyio CTpyxrypy - 
npaB03aiynTHbiM UeHTp (nil) «MeMopna/ia» 

B KoopA HauMOHHOii kommccmm no CBH3M c pernoHa- 
mm n pa6oTan BMecie c CycaHHoii ConoMOHOBHoft riewy- 
po. flapucort flaHnnoBHOii rapMaiu. 6binn u apyrne xonne- 
rw. Xo^y OTflenbHO CKa3aTb, hto Ann mbhh. h 3Haio, mto He 
TonbKO Ana MeHo. CycaHHa ConoMOHOBHa - Menoaex 
HOMepoAMH b «MeMopnane». 3aMeHaTenbHbitf MenoBeK! 
OHa 6yKBanbH0 KaK MamuT, k Heft TflHyrcn nioflH. Mw c He* 
Apy>t<MM MHoro neT, h h naAetocb, hto Mama Apyw6a 
npoAntucn eme aonrne roAw. 

MHe yAanocb no6biBaTb bo MHorux pemoHanbHux 
OTAeneHMflx «MeMopnana» n MeMopaanbCKHx opraHMsa- 
ijmhx: CaHKT-rieTep6ypr, UpKyTCK, Ty/ia. BonrorpaA, Ap- 
xaHrenbCK, Ka3aHb, EKaTepnH6ypr, Open, PwaHb, riepMb. 
o. ConoBeuKMM, HoBopoccniicK, TeneHAWMK (noc. Ka6ap- 
AMHKa). ropoaa m nocenxn Pecny6nnKH Komm: CwKTbiB- 
xap, YxTa. EBMa (KHS*-riorocT). ycib-BbiMb (Amkhho), 
TponuKO-neMopcK. Ha yKpanne: XapbKOB, KneB. OAecca. 
flHenponeTpoBCK, BuHHuqa. MepHnroa. B Ka3axcTaHe - 
annia-aTMHCKoe o6mecTBO «AAnneT», a Octohhh - o6me- 
ctbo «Memento» b TannnHHe. 

Oco6o naMflTHWM co6biTneM dano OTxpbiTue na- 
MflTHwca - ConoBeuraro k3mhh - Ha Jly6nHCKOki nnomaAn 
30 OKTfl6pn 1990 roAa. Oner OpnoB m a 6binn HaaHaneHbi 
OTBeTCTBeHHbiMM 3a 3tot npoeKT ot npaBneHHH «MeMo- 
pnana». Mw aepwanH CBH3b c MoccoBeTOM, KOTopurt 10 
ceHTH6pfl 1990 roAa Ha 3aceAamin npe3MAnyMa npuHHn 
peuieHMe 06 ycTaHOBxe KaMHq, npnBe3eHnoro c ConoBeu- 
khx octpobob. KaK naMBTHMKa MunnnoHaM corpa>KAaH - 
*epTBaM ceMMAecnTuneTHero nonn™necKoro Teppopa. 
Ho npaxTMHecKan pa6oTa Hasanacb eme b Hanane roaa 
B MKJHe conpeAceAaienb apxaHre/ibCKoro «MeMopnana» 
Muxawn EyTopviH opraHM30Ban n ocymecTBun AociaBKy 
xawHS b MocKBy. ycTaHOBKoii naMATHUKa pyKOBOAnna 
kommcchs MoccoBeia, KOTopyo B03rnaBnsin B. Aopmm- 
Aohtob. Mbi T0>Ke ynacTBOBann. Hananocb nsroTOBneHne 
noctaMeHTa. Ilocne Aonrux noneMMK n cnopoB yTBepAn- 





CycaHHa nenypo u Buxmop KyvepuHeHKO. 
30 o«m»6pH 1994 a. 



Bontiujou ConoeeuHuu ocmpoe tlpedceOamenb nepucxogo 

'Meuopuana' AnoKcandp Kanux. BuKmop KyvepuneHKo. 

npedcedamenb eoponexcfozo nMeuopuanan 

Bp*ocnae BumtonKuu. 

nn. MaKOHeu, HaAnncb Ha nocTaMeHTe. O noArotoBKe k 
OTxpbiTHK) KaMHq n paccKa3an a CTaTbe «KoMy CTaBflT 
naMSTHMK Ha Jly6aHKe?». ony6nnKOBaHHOM Ha nepBoii 
nonoce ra3eTw «Mockobckum KOMC0Moneu» 20 OKTn6pn 
1990 r, 3a 10 Awevi ao OTKpbiTMn. 

HaMM 6bi/i paspaOoTaH cueHapnii OTKpwTMn naiMT* 
HHxa 30 OKTa6pn - b « fleHb nonnT3ai<niOHeHHoro b CCCP » . 
KonoHHa yHacTHMKOB noA TpaypHyio Myauxy n wTenne 
cpaMnnwii paccTpennHHbix nwAew ABMHynacb ot CpeTeH- 
ckhx bopot n MeAneHHO o6orHyna 3A3Hne KrB. H3 okoh 
((JlyGnHKHB Ha Hac rnsAenn, MHTepecHO, neu AyMann n 
KaK ce6s MyBCTBOBann? Mw BOiiinn b CKBep nepeA nonn- 
TexHMMecxnM My3eeM. rAe CTosin noA noKpyaanoM Ha 
rpaHMTHOM nocTaMeHTe KaMeHb-naMnTHMK. Hapoay 6bina 
Macca! npmuno oneHb mhoto AOdoiiiHbix moaeiii. Oner 
BonxoB, cTapoMLuiiiia poccuhckhx nucarcnovi iicoahok- 
paTHO penpeccupoBaHHwii, m 3oh flMmpneBHa MapneH- 
ko, Hauj BeTepaH, «3acny>KeHHaB KonwMHaHKa» - HeAaB- 
ho OHa CKOHManacb. ceemaH eft naMHTb! - BABoeM paape- 
3ann neHTOMKy. A noTOM OTeu Tne6 flxyHMH ocBtiTun sto 
Mecra naMfl-rn n ckop6m. 

Tpn roAa ft pa60Ta/i b Mockobckom XenbCMHKCKoii 
rpynne c flbBOM IHoHOMapeBbiM n JliOAMnnoH MuxakinoB- 
toii A/iexceeBoft. ripuneM n Tau h 3aHHMancn CBfl3bto c 
pernoHanbHwvM npaB03aiAMTHbiMM opraHM3auw5iMM. Pa- 
6oTaTb b MXr 6bino MHTepecHO. ho see we b Hanane 99- 
ro ft caenan Bbi6op b nonb3y «WeMopnana». 

Ceiinac n Tpywycb b npneMHOii 06beAHHeHMn nnu, 
nocipaaaBiiJux ot nonnTunecKnx penpeccnn o6mecTBa 
kMockobckum MeMopnan». KOTopoe B03rnaBnneT 3Hep- 
ruMHan. peujMTenbHan m. BMecTe c TeM. oneHb OT3biBMn- 
=ap m ^enoBeHHan Banepun OrroBHa flynaeBa. KpoMe 
Toro, npaBreHneM Ha MeHfl BosnoweHa paSoia no <oht3k- 
Ty c AenyraTaMM TocyAapcTBeHHOM AyMbi rt\(\ KoppeKqun 
w ycoBepiueHCTBOBaHMS 3aKOH0AaTenbCTBa. B nepByio 
osepeAb, 3aKOHa «Opea6nniiTaL|nn)KepTBnonMTMMecKMx 
penpeccnPi». 3to MM AenaeM cobmcctho c BflnecnaBOM 
UnbimeM Butkhjkmm. pyKOBoanTeneM BopoHewcKoro «Me- 
Mopnana». 9\ Aepwy nocTonHHyw cBn3b c AenyTaTOM 
TocAyMbi MeMopnanbueM BnaflUMnpoM HnKonaeBunew 
JlbiceHKo, KOTopwii ywe MHoro neT pa6oTaeT HaA nonpaB- 
naMn k 3aKOHy o peaonnniaunn BcTpenaiocb c APyruMU 
AenyTaTaMn - aBTopaMM 3aKOHonpoeKTOB. Kacatoiunxcs 
>«epTB noniiTHHecKnx penpeccuvi. Ho Aywa 6eccoBecTHO 
saTcrnBaer npuHPTue TaKux npoeKTOB, nepeHOCMT cpoKH 
cnyiuaHMM no BHeceHHio nonpasox n nsMeHeHnii b stot 
3axoH. flocneflHuti paa Haiun 3aKOHonpoenTbi 6wnn BHe- 



Ill 



4 nDPTPET 




Buxmop KyvepuHOHKO. npedcedamenb cbiKWbiexapcKOzo 

«Meuopuana» Huxonau Pozavee. dupexmop uocxoecxozo 

npedcmaeumenbcmea <Donda (Dopde Mepu Maxonu 

CbiKmbiBKap. 1998 a. 

ceHbi b noBecTKy aha ayMCKnx HTeHMii 12 anpena, xom 
nepBOHawanbHo njiaHnpoBanncb eiae b SHBape. noTOM b 
Mapie m T.fl. fl npwcyTCTBOBan a rocreBOM KawecTse Ha 
3thx HTeHUflx. ho ao Haiunx 3aKOHonpoexTOB fleno Tax m He 
AOiiino. (IbBUHan aons aenyTaTCxoro BpeMSHu 6t>ina no- 
CBnujeHa o6cy>xaeHMK> 33KOHoaaTenbCTBa o nwBHOM m 
BOflOMHOii pewiaMe. A HTeHne Haiuwx npoexToa onnTb 
nepeHeceHO, Hew3BecTHO. Ha Kaxoti cpox... 

B 06beflMHeHnn nnu. nocTpaaaawMx ot nonMTMnec- 
kmx penpeccMM, n Beay npneM noceTMTeneti. 3a Heaenio 
o6paiaaeTcn o6whho oxono 30-tm nenoBex. KoHeHHO, n 
hg rapMCT, ho 33K0H o pea6nnMTau,nn M3yMnn, ayMaio, 
Hennoxo. EcTb MHOro CMTyauMM, b xotopwx Moe* xoMne- 
TeHTHOCTM xBaTaer. hto6w Bee peiumb caMOMy: aaTb 
HeooxoanMbie pa3bncHeHki», noaroTOBMib cooTBeTCTBy- 
oiune AOKyMeHTw m t.a B cnowHbix cnyManx. 6e3ycnoBno. 
noA</iWMaK)TCf! npocJjeccnoHanbHbie topucTbi HatueM npn- 
eMHOM. flan aKTHBH3auMn couMa/ibHOM pa6oTbi b perno- 
Hax Mbi c pyxoBOAHTe/ieM nMTepcKoro «MeMopnana» Bna- 
Ahmupom 3AyapA0BnneM WHMTxe opraHH30Bann n noo- 
se/in b AeKa6pe npoiunoro roAa b CaHXT-DeTep6ypre 
6onbwoM ceMMHap no oSMeny onbJTOM couwanbHOi* pa6o- 
Tbi c yyacTneM 6onee 20 perMOHanbHwx MeMopwanbcxnx 
OprSHMSSMMA. 

3Ta pa6oia OTxpuna ana MeHn hobum. Hen3Be,aaH- 
hwm ao cevi nopw. ecnn mojkho Tax BwpaanibCH ayxoB- 
hum Mnp. fleno b tom. hto Taxoro o6iaeHnn y msha He 
6bino b JKM3HH HMrae m HMxoraa 3ia nocTOSHHaa conpuMa- 
CTHOCTb C XOHXpeTHbIMM HenoBenecxMMM cyab6aMM, C MX 
npo6neMaMn ncnx 6naroaapHOCTbio aana MHe HOBoe. 
oneHb Tennoe outyiaeHne >km3hm. Hbho He 3acnyx<eHHbiM 
mhoio noTOK, Mope, oxeaH HenoBenecxoM 6naroaapHOCTM 
noaroMy MHe oneHb aopora moh paSoTa b npneMHO«. 

-BuKmop. «MeMopuany» nowenmpuHaduambiuBod. 
KaK Bbi, ve/roee*, padomaeuiuu cmonbKO nem c pezuona- 
uu, omymaeme peanbHyio o6mecmeeHHyio cuny «MeMO- 
puana»? 

- 06iaee oiayweHne y MeH« Taxoe: xonvmecTBeHHO 
mw yMeHbujMnMCb no cpaBHeHMio c 89-m roaoM, a xane- 
CTBenHo, 6e3yc/iOBHo, Bwpocnu. CoxpaHUBUinecn opra- 
HM3amiM oxpennn, CTann b cbomx pemonax AOCTaTOMHO 
aeMCTBeHHbiMM, 3H3MMMbiMM n 3aMeTHbiMM cpean Apyrux 
HenpaBMTenbCTBeHHbix opraHH3aunii. (lonBunMCb n ho- 



Bwe. To>xe AocTaraHHO aBTopnTeTHwe y ce6n Ha MecTax. 
MeMopnanbCKwe rpynnw. 

Hauje 6yaywee - pa6oTa Ha flonrne-ao/irne roaw. 
Bee HanpaBneHna «MeMopnanbcxoii» aemenbHOCTM 6y- 
AyT *MTb n pa3BMBaTbCs. ripocBeTHTenbCTBO, npaB03a- 
lAHTa. 6naroTBopmenbHOCTb - ohm BeAb HyjKHbi BcerAa A 
MCTopuxo-apxuBHOM pa6oTbi - soo6iue HenoMaTbiM xpaii. 
KorAa. b caMOM eiae Hasane, nneHbi «MeMopnana» xoam- 
nw b apxnB KrB, - xoraa Hac TyAa eme nycxann, - b 
ruraHTcxnx noAsanax Ha fly6sHKe ohm BMAenM HeMMOBep- 
Hoe xonMnecTBO aoxyMeHTOB. ByxBanbHo 3a6MTbi xoMna- 
tw ot nona ao noTonxa. TaM paOoTbi Ha AecnTXM nen H 
3to Tonbxo Ha Jly6aHKe... 

06paTMTe BHMMaHMe, Ha TpMHaAuaTOM roAy cyme- 
CTBOBaHMn «MeMopnana» mw eme He 3HaeM pea/ibHoro 
xonMMecTBa penpeccnpoBaHHbix. B npecce MenbxaeT uncp- 
pa 60MunnnoHOB HenoBex. HaeepHoe. 3TOBce-TaxM npe- 

yBenMneHMe.HaceroAHflujHMMAeHbAOKyMeHTanbHonoA- 
TBep)«AaeTCH cpaxT paccTpena npMMepHO nonyiopa mmh- 
nnoHOB senoeex. 06iaee *e xoriMHecTBO penpeccMpo- 
aaHHbix, ecnn 6paTb b pacneT m KonneKTMBM3auMK>. a ee 
coBepiueHHo Heo6xoAMMo ynMTbiBaTb. oqeHMBaeTcn b 25 
MMnnnoHOB nenoBex Ho sto npM6nM>xeHHafl oueHxa. Ha 
ceoent cafiTe b 1/lHTepHeTe (http://www.memo.ru) mm npM- 
boamm Tonbxo AOKyMeHTa/ibHO noATBep>KAeHHbie aaHHwe 
o HMcnenHocTM penpeccMM m paccipenoB. Bot HeaaBHo y 
Hac Ha KapeTHOM mn aHOHcuposann BbinyiueHHbiM «Me- 
MopnanoM» KOMnaxT-aMcx c MapTMponoroM paccTpennH- 




S uy3ee momanumapu3ua «f7epMb-36» 



4 



H0P1PET 



119 



hwx no nuMHOMy npuKaay dannHa n ero 6nn>xawiijero 
OKpyxceHMD. 

-AKaK Bbi orriHOCumecb KpacnemaM Mocucpa /JhoV 
KUHa, MeMopuanbua U3 Teepu, Komopbiu, Kan u3eecmno, 
nepebiM nonbimancn nay^HO nodoumu k omou npo6neMe. 
3a imo u 6un penpeccupoeaH e 1980 zody. 

- fleno b tom, hto flOKyMemoB. HenocpeacTBeHHO 
noflTBep>tyiaK)innx mo6we pacneTHwe uno^pw m oTene- 
cTBBHHbix, n 3apy6e>KHbix nccneflOBaTeneii. 33HHMaio- 
iahxch 3tom TeuoM, oneMb Mario. IToaTOMy uncppbi Tax n 
pa3HnTcn: ot 18 ao 60 MnnnnoHOB. fl chht3K5, hto oueHxa 
Hocn$a reqeneBusa flaabXHHa, 6biTb 6iim3xhm 3Haxo- 
MbiM KOToporo n CMMTaio Ann ce6s 6onbujoiS HecTbw. to 
ecTb 45-46 MwnnnoHOB coBoxynHbix noTepb, BnoriHe pe- 
anbHaa quoppa. Kctbtm, HHTepBbK) c HocucpOM FeueneBu- 
neM, ony6nnKOBaHHoe a «KapTe» (Ns 28-29 2000 e. - 
npuM. ped). CMMT3K) oahom H3 caMwx nHTepecHbix ny6nn- 
Kaunii «ypHana. EcTb Taxoii 3aMeHaTenbHbiii flByxTOMHMx 
06 hctopmh 20-ro Bexa «C0BpeMeHH0CTb. Mup c aBaaua- 
Tbix no ABBflHOCTbie roaw» M3BeCTHOrO awnnMCKoro (pM- 
nocoqba m Mcropuxa riona flwoHCOHa. MuTaio rnaBy 06 
CCCP h Bapyr HaTbixatocb Ha ccwnxy: «aeMorpa$nHec- 
xoe nccneaoBaHMe Hocncpa fluabxnHa «Oi4eHxa HeecTe- 
CTBeHHOii CMepTHOCTM HaceneHun CCCP b 1927-1958 rr » 
flo nero x<e npunTHan Haxoaxa! 

3aBepwan noaHflTyio TeMy, xony eme pa3 cxasaTb. 
hto pa6oTbi 3aecb - Ha MHorne m MHorne roaw H ayMaw, 
hto 3Ta pa6oTa 6yaeT B03Mo>KHa. Oaho bpcma. nocne 
M36paHnn riyTHHa, nouinn naHnnecxne cnyxn hto, aec- 

K3Tb, BC6, KOHeq, 3axpOK)T, npHX/IOnHyT M T.fl. Ho H CHM- 
TaK). HTO BeKTOp pa3BMTHq, 33 HBKOTOpblMH MCKJIKJHeHMfl- 

mh, noKaeiae-no3HTMBeH. Ho3To-MonnnHHaaoueHxa. 

- Cxaxume, Buxmop, naKyto meMy u/iu npo6neMy Bu 
CHumaeme caMOu enaeHou dnn «MeMopuana» na ceeod- 
HfWJHUU deHb? 

- TnsBHOM, noixanyii, TeMoii, nBnnoTcn npoBoan- 
Mwe naMny>xe He nepswiii roa wxoribHbie KOHxypcw «ypo- 
km ncTopMM. PoccMfl - XX Bex». HwHero ceiSnac hot Baw- 
Hee, neM npocBeTHTenbCTBO, oco6eHHO - cpean aeTeii. 

EcTb eme oana Bawnan Tewa, xoTopan 3aHHMaeT 
moh mmctm ywe MHoro neT. Hmbhho OHa nocnyjKwna 
no6yanTeribHbiM motmbom - Hspnay capyrMMn. - xoraa n 
yxoann H3 AxaaeMnn Hayx. Mne xoTenocb Bcepbe3 efi 
3aHHMaTbCH b « WeMopnane». 3ts TeMa, 3T3 npo5neM3 - 
HannoHann3M. 

noHCHK) noapoSHee. Bot y Bac b P333hm HeasBHO 
nponsoiunn o>3iuMCTcxne Bbmasxu. \A b Mockbc h b apy- 
tmx ropoasx. Be3ae CTsno MHoro 3to^ «HeHMCTM». Hto we 
3T0My npoTMBOCTOMT? KoH^jepeHUMM no xceHO<t>o6nn m 
TonepaHTHOCTn, awnycx aHTMO^aujHCTcxnx nucTOBOx. 3to 
Bee. KOHenHo, Haao aenaTb. Ho, Boo6iye roBopn, 3to - 
Manoa<|3cfieKTMBHO. Haao «xonaTb» ropasao rny6a<e. 

MtoBw aeMCTBMTe/ibHO oaoneTb o>aujM3M. Tpe6yeT- 
cn HenTo MHoe, 6onee aeiicTBeHHoe Ochobs qoaiunsMa - 
naeo HsmioHsnbHoro (npaBunbHee aaecb cxa3aTb - mo- 
HoaTHMHecKoro) rocyaapcTBa. To ecTb xoraa rocyaapcTBo 
co3aseTCH mtim BOCC03aaeTcn npeacTSBUTenaMti oaHoro 
3THOca n Toribxo oaHOMy 3THOcy cnywMT. CxaweM, pyc- 
cxoe rocyaapcTBo - Tonbxoanfl pyccxiix. Hmchho OTCK>aa 
m neayr PHE a CKHHxeaw. Tax bot. Haao MeHSTb napaanr- 
My MOH03THMH6CKOM rocyflapcTBeHHOCTM. JlK)6oe rocy- 
aapcTBo aonwHOCTaTb nonnsTHUHecxMM c BBeaeHneM. no 
xpaHHBM Mepe, ABOHHoro rpa>xaaHCTBa h asyx, a MoweT 
6uTb, n ooribiue, o0MunaribHbix rocyaapcTBeHHwx S3bi- 

XOB. 




y naunmnuKa xepmeau penpeccuu e Ka6apduni<e. 



3to h 6yaeT BajxHekiQjMM npoTHBoaencTBiieM cDa- 
aiM3My. KoHeHno, aeno 3to He cxopoe, a oweHb aonroe m 
o6wnpHoe. B paMxax 3T0ii pa6oTbi o6fl3aTenbHO npea- 
ctomt xoppexTupoBxs noHBTMS «npaBO napoaoB Ha caMO- 
onpeaeneHne». Oho 6t>ino co>opMynnpoBaHo BcepeauHe 
20-ro sexa m Bouino bo MHorne Me>xayHapoaHbie aoxy- 
MeHTbi . lOpnaMnecxan npopa6oTxa stoto npMHi4nna, CTonb 
Bax<Horo arm pa3BHTna nenoBenecxnx coo6iyecTB , Taxan 
HenonHas n HeseTKan, hto 3to nopoanno Maccy npo6neM, 
6yxBanbHO conaojHxcfl xpoBbXj. A hto Taxoe Hapoa? Tpyn- 
na. cocTonman us npeacTaBHTeneti oanoro unw Hecxonb- 
xmx 3thocob. CeviHac b Mupe npaxTHHecKM Bee BOMHW 
csoaaHbi c B0»AeneHiieM HajnoHaribHoii rocyaapcTBeH- 
hoctm. 




flBH^mnn 



^m 



B noeopoccuOcKOM *Meuopuane» Bopuc repacuMBHito. 

Buxmop KyvepuHBHKO. reHnaduO Tcwwapoa 



121 



4 



nDPTPET 



JIkjam (Ha caMOM flene - He HaceneHne, a pByiunecfl 
k BnacTH nuaepw) xotst OTAenuTbcn u o6pa3oeaTb moho- 
3THMHecKoe t-inn MOHopennrno3Hoe rocyaapcTBO. A b ro- 
cyaapcTBe, npoB03rnaina(ow.eM b KanecTBe rnaBHOM cbo- 
eii nenn pa3Bmne oflHoro «TmynbHoro» STHOca, napyiuc 
huh npaB nenoBeKa Hen36e>KHbi no onpeAeneHnto. Cew- 
nac 3TH0Cbi TaK nepeMewsHbi, mto TpyaHo hsmth Teppmo- 
pmo, rfle *<nn 6w ToribKO oamh Hapofl. 

H Koraa HeKne nonnTHMecKne cunbi npoB03rnawaK)T 
CBoei* uenbK) C03flaHne rocyaapcTBa aaHHoro sthocb, mto 
6w ohm npn 3tom He roBopnjiM o paBeHCTBe npaB apyrux 

3TH0COB Ha TeppHTOpMH COBMeCTHOrO npoiKMBaHun, o6bm- 

ho sto mmcto nponsraHAHCTCKMe fleiaiapaunn KaK TonbKO 
o6pa3yeTCH He3aBncnMoe rocyaapcTBO. m sto othochtcs 
k 6onbWMHCTBy nocTCOBeTCKHx rocyflapcrB, Ha npaKTUKe 
naeT noaaeneHMe n ymeieHne MeHbiunHCTB. H STHHnec- 
kmx, m pennrM03Hwx. 

3tom Tewe 6bin nocBsmeH mom flowiafl Ha xapbKOB- 
ckom KOHcpepenunn Mex<flyHapoAHoro «MeMopnana» e 
1994 roay. fl npn3Ban MeMopnaribCKMe opr3HH3aunn Ha- 

M3Tb KOHTaKTbl C H3UH0H3nbH0-KynbTypHblMM 06beflHHe- 
HWHMH B CBOUX CTpBHaX. flOTOMy MTO KOHCTpyKTHBHbIM 

Bbixofl. no-MoeMy. coctomt b o6pa30B3Hnn HaiiHOHsnbHo- 
KynbTypHbix sbtohomhm. Hfleo o nepecwoTpe npaBa Ha 
caMoonpeaeneHne noaAepwuBSKJT h pa3BHBaioT BecbMa 
QOCToiiHbie raow Hanpuwep. Ceprei/i AoaiuoBUM Koea- 
nes n flapuca HocucpOBHa Boropa3 OHa. roras mu c Hew 
BCTpeMaeMcn. Bceraa BAOxHOBnneT MeHs Ha TSKyio aea- 

Te/lbHOCTb. 

OsHOH3MonxnoBceaHeBHbix«MeMopnanbCKnx»aer 
cewac - Hana«neaHne cssseii c HamiOHanbHbiMM o6mn- 
h3mm MocKBbi. H noAaepjKHBaio KOHTaKTbi c npeAdaBHTe- 
n«MM anacnop: c pocchmckhmu HeMusMw. c KpbiMCKMMM 
TaTapaMH (ohm, b wyTKy. aawe o6bflBnnn MeHH «noneT- 

HblM KpblMCKUM T3T3pHH0M»), C MOPAOBCKOM 06lHMH0fl, C 

KaaaxaMn. c TypKaMM-MecxeTMHijaMM, apyrnMH OTHnnec- 
khmh opraHH3aun«Mn. 

COBMeCTHO C POCCMMCKHMH HeMljaMH a 0AH0 BpeMH 

npoBOflun nocTosiHHbm ceMMHap «riyTb STHOca». HAea 
hch39 m noHHTHaH. riycTb Kswabirt HapoA pa3BMBaeT cbokj 
KynbTypy n ee ocHoay - aswk m xyaowecTBeHHoe TBopMe- 
ctbo - KaK mo*ho iunpe m CBo6oAHee. Bee sto mowho h 
Hy>KHO aenaTb a paMxax HaqMOHanbHo-KyribTypHbix aBTO- 
homhm. M coBepiueHHo He o6n3aTenbHo an« SToro rocy- 
AapcTBenHoe caMoonpeAeneHne. TeM 6onee c aBTOMa- 
tom b p/Kax. 

OanHM3nnAepoB<DeAepanbHOMHaLinoHaribHO-Kynb- 
TypHoii aBTOHOMUM poccuPicKMX HeMueB nucaTerib AneK- 
caHAP TaHmycKaK-To Bbipa3Mncn oneHb tohho m naKOHUH- 
ho: «Hai4MOHanbHOM Mo*eT 6wTb TonbKO KynbTypa. Bee. 
mto He KynbTypa, He Mo>«eT 6biTb HaunoHanbHWM». To 
ecTb - hm BnacTb. hm rocyAapcTBo, hm npaBHTenbCTBO, hh 

rpOHMUbl... 




•Offydwasa - imo He npocmo no33un u uy3biHB. smo 
Heombeuneuaii wacmb mu3hu» 



- B cmpaHe udem eo3pomdeHue Kasavecmea. Mho- 
aue u3 HOBoaaneHHbix Kasaxoe ymeepwdaicm, umo ohu - 
npedemaeumenu omdenbHoao amnoca. KaK 6w k omoMy 
omHocumecb? 

- MTo6bi OTBeTHTb, Hacio cHasana tomho onpeae- 
riMTb, mto TaKoe sthoc. MHorne coBpeMeHHbie STHorpa- 
cpw. n OTeMecTseHHbie. m 3apy6e>KHbie. b mbcthocth Haw 
KpynHbitf yMeHbiii npocfeccop B.A. Tmiukob. yTBep«AaK)T, 
mto cauo noHATMe <othoc» ne reHeTMMecKoe. a BbiMbiiu- 
neHHoe. 3to HMKaKoe He «poactbo no kpobh», a npoAyKT 
MenoBeMecKoropa3yMa,MHTenneKTya/ibHbiki«KOHCTpyKT». 

CxaiKeM. noHSTMe «paca» onupaeTcn Ha c£n3HMec- 
KMe pasnHMMa Me>KAy nioabMM. KcTaTn. mctkhx rpaHMu n 
Me>KAy pacaMu HeT. Ohu nnaBHo nepexoAf t Apyr b apyra. 
noHHTMe *e sthoc - cy6beianBHoe. 3to BooBpawa- 
eMas o6mHOCTb, k kotopom MenoBeK caM ce6n npncooan- 
H«eT, Maine Bcero-BceMbe.cpaHHeroaeTCTBa. Hjim, ksk 
roBopwTSTHorpa0bi, caMonaeHTn0nunpyeTCfl. H STOAeii- 
CTBHTeribHo TaK. Ectih B3rfis)HyTb Ha eBponekiua. nopoti 
TpyaHO noHATb . kto oh: HeMeu. aaTMaHMH. pyccKw* - ao 
Toro MOMeHTa, noKa nenoBeK He HaMHeT roBopnTb. 3thoc 
- sto oSman KynbTypa, n3biK, coBMecTHan ncTopun. (lo- 
3T0My. mto KacaeTcn K33aKOB. si ayMaKj, ecnn mm 3Toro tbk 
xoMeTcn, - nycTb 6yayT sthocom, 

- BoucmuHy monepaHmHbiu nodxod k jmhuvecKOMy 
eonpocy. Ho ecmb nu y npemendeHmoe e/iaeHoe - ceou. 
omnuHHbiu om dpyzux saw* ? 

- fla, h3wk - ocHOBa ochob sTHOca. Ho ecTb npeue- 
AeHT: KDrocnaBna. Cep6w, xopBaTbi, 6ocHMMUbi - cmhts- 
iot ce6n OTAenbHbiMn sTHMsecKHMn rpynnaMM, a si3biK y 
Bcex - oahh. TaM, npaBAa. ecTb eme vt KOHCpeccnoHanb- 
hwm acneia. 

y Hac b «MeMopnane», b ripaB03aiynTHOM LJeHTpe, 
ecTb nporpsMMS «3THMMecKan flucKpuwnHauMsi b perno- 
nax PoccwiiCKOii 5>eAepauMM.» TeMa: «HapyiueHMH npaB 
MenoBeKa no STHMMecKOMy npnHminy» - c6op, o6pa6oTKa 
m pacnpocTpaHenne CBeaeHnii OAncKpMMMHauMn no npw- 
3HaKaM sTHUMecKoii. cBflsaHHoii c He* pacoeoM, pennrno3- 
hom h H3biKOB0ii npnH3A"e>KH0CTM. B nporpaMMe pa6oTa- 
K)T AneKcaHflp OcunoB, Onbra Hepenosa, flMMTpw* rpym- 
kmh. Ho sto Bce-TaKM He MccneaosaHne noHSTim Hauno- 
HanbHoii rocyAapcTBeHHOCTii v\ npaaa HapoAOB Ha caMo- 
onpeaeneHne. 

Cepbe3Ho 3aHHMancn stom npo6neMoii CepreiS Aaa- 
mobum KoBaneB. Ho oh ceviMac TaK aaHHT, mto Ha Teopwio 
6yKBanbHO He xBaTaeT BpeMeHn. He mbcto. ho mu c hum 
BCTpeMaeMCH, oSMeHUBaeMCH MHeHnHMw, o6cy*aaeM 
Bonpocw. 3aaaMa-MaKCMMyM - n3veHUTb MewAynapoA- 
Hoe 3aK0H0AaTenbCTB0 b nacTn «npaBa HapoAOB Ha caMO- 
onpeaeneHne». Haao MHMunnpoBaTb Me)KAyHapoAHoe 
o6mecTB6HHoe MHeHMe pjin ee peiueHtin. npuBnenb mh- 
TenneKTyanbHbie cnnbi, cosaaTb CTpyicrypbi, pa3BepHyTb 
ujHpoKyto KaMnaHMio. KorAa nio6oki nonnTHMecKnii nuAep 
6yAeT anpnopn 3naTb, mto «MOHOSTHHMecKoe caMOonpe- 
aeneHne* . aa ewe - c noMOiubio Hacunun m Teppopa, — He 
6yAeT npn3H3HO MewyHapoAHbiM coo6iyecTBOM hm npn 
KaKHX ycnoBMHX, AyMaeTcn, oaho sto aoxdkho CHM3MTb 
ypoeoHb KpoeonponMTuB Ha aeMHOM aiape. 

PemeHne stom 33AaMM, KOHeMHO, aeno He 6nn3Koe, 

HO Hy>KHO ABMrSTbCH B STOM HanpaBneHMM. H K3K nK)6HT 

roBopnTbCeprekiAA3MOBMMKoBaneB: «D,aBa«\ie BbinbeM 
3a yenex Hamero 6e3Haaex<Horo aena'» 3to, KCTaTM, m 
MopcKoii toct. Mbi Bceras noannMann ero b peiicax. 

MocKea 
2002 a. 



KPACHOE KOJIEGD 



121 



bopnc COKO/10B 

HEP>KABEK3U4MH OEJ1I/IKC 



125 neT Hasaa, 11 ceHTs6pn 1877 roAa. a poaoaow 
nMennH flsepxuHOBO (Hbme b Benopyccum b o6eflHeB- 
wew nonbCKoii ABopnHCKoii ceMbe poanncn 6yAymnfi npea- 
ceAaTenb BcepoccnucKOM Mpe3BWHaMHOM Kommccmm no 
6opb6e c KOH-ppeaonwuneii u ca6oTa*<eM cSenuKC 3a- 
MyHAOBMM j3epx<nHCKnii, npo3BaHHbiii coBeTCKofi npona- 
raHAOM «)Kene3HbiM <De/iMKCOM». Ero He 6e3 ycnexa nwTa- 
rincb OTAennTb ot npeeMHuxoB - HroAbi, E^oea, 6epnn m 
A6axyMOBa. 3at<neMMeHHbix KaK «sparn HapoAa». 

npn fl3epx<MHCK0M ywe b cpeepane 1918 roAa BMK 
nonyMMna He TonbKo cneACTBeHHwe, ho m cyAe6Hbie qjyH- 
kumm, hto OTKpw/io wnpoKyto Aopory npon3BO/iy. 3to 
co6biTne fl3ep>KHHCKHM BocnpuHsin c BOOAyweBneHMeM: 
«Tenepb BMK HaAermeTcn xapaTenbHUMM cpyHKUHHMM... 
BecnomaflHO yHUHTowaTb Bparoe peBoniounn... 3to aod- 
>KHbj AenaTb mm...» Mflerann. TonbKO no nocTaHOBneHn- 
J1M, nOAnMCaHHbIM J1HHHO fl3ep>KMHCKHM, b 1918-1919 
roAax 6bino paccTpennHO, no Aa/iexo He nonHbiM A3H- 
hwv, OKono 10 twchh MenoBen. Eme AecnTKH u cothm 
Tucn^ niOAeH 6binn «a3HeHbi no nocTaHOBneHnnM mbct- 
hwx MK. CpeAM hux Sunn He TonbKO 3anoA03peHHbie b 
aKTMBHoii 6opb6e npoTMB 6onbiueBMKOB, ho n «cneKy/iflH- 
tw» — Te, kto npoASBan hjih MeHan Ha Beiyn x/ie6. 3to 
CMinanocb caMbiM CTpauiHbiM npecTynneHHeM e ycnoBn- 
six npoApa3BepcTKM h BoeHHoro «0MMyHH3Ma. A nocne 
o6bHBneHMn «xpacHoro Teppopa» 2 ceHTn6pn 1918 roAa 
b Hucne paccTpensHHbix oxa3anncb h 3ano>KHHKM - apec- 
TosaHHbie us MMcna He Tonb«o MMymux xnaccoB. ho u 
KpecTbJiH m pa6osMx. Hx Ka3Hnnn b OTBeT Ha Aei^cTBun 
«KOHTppeBoniounoHepoB». HanoMHUM: TaKas npaKTuxa 
6wna npn3HaHa npecTynHoii HtopH6eprcKMM Tpn6yHanoM 



Mnxan/1 rpn6, 6enopyccKnn KpaeBe/i: 
H HeMHOJKKO OTpMUaTe/lbHO OTHOliiyCb K TOMy, HTO 

CHnnMHaJ1y6nHKenaMflTHMKfl3ep)KHHCKOMy. Ho3Aecb 
(e My3ee Ha poduHe jQ3epx<UHCKoeo e Benopyccuu - 
ped.) 6bin Awperrop <t>C6 riaTpyuieB. Oh cxa3an, hto 

MW BOCCTaHOBMM T3M, Tfle CTOSn naMHTHHKfl3ep>KHH- 
CKOMy. 

«HaM«AHM» (HTB), 08.09.2002 



Bee 3to Aenanocb c BeAOMa m caHKqun flsepxuHcxo- 
ro. riocne we OKOHMaHna rpa>KAaHCKOH bomhw b Hos6pe 
1920 rofla «>Kene3HbiM ©ennKC» AOK/iaAbiBan HeHMHy o 
hobwx TpyAHwx 3aAanax: «. TlpeACTOMT opraHM30BaTb 
n3onnunK) b narepnx oxono 100 000 nneHHwx c lOwHoro 
oppoHTa m rpoMaAHbix Mace, BbicenneMwx M3 BoecTaBiunx 
CTaHMu TepeKa, Ky6aHH, floHa...» 3HaMMTenbHafl nacTb 
HecnacTHbix. b tom Muc/ie ocpMuepw n conAaTw BpaHre- 
neBCKOH apMnn b KpuMy . 6binn paccTpensHbi . A b SHBape 
1921-ro. xoth conpoTUBneHne 6enwx 6wno yxe cnoMne- 
ho. fl3ep>KHHCKHM Tpe6oBan: «B OTHOujeHMM 6yp>Kya3Hn 
penpeccuM ycn/inTb!» 

flo cnx nop xBa/iHT OennKca SAMyHAOBuna Kax hhm- 
unaTopa 6opb6w c AeTCKoii 6ecnpn3opHOCTbK). Ho ctomt 
BcnoMHHTb, mto MHorux 6ecnpn3opHbiMM cAenan oh, Kaa- 
hmb nx poAmeneii. 



AABOKaTbi H3ep>KiiHCKoro o6biHHO coBopflT: Mero Ha 
6eAHnry Oennxca Ha6pocn/incb. Bee peiuano nonnT6K)- 
po, a oh - npocTOM McnonnnTenb. fleHMHy, rnaBHOMy 
BMHOBHMKy «KpacHoro Teppopa», naMSTHMK Ha OKTsi6pbC- 
kom nnomaAn A° cnx nop ctomt. a CTaTyo ^3ep>KHHCKoro 
Ha Hy6flHKe CHeenw, xpaMHero M3 Hero CAenann 3a Bee 
npecTynneHMH cobctckom Bnacm 3to to we caMoe. hto 
CKa33Tb: TuTnep, TepMHr h Te66e/ibc npHHMMann nonMTM- 
necKoe peujeHne 06 «OKOHHaTenbHOM peaieHUM eBpenc- 
xoro Bonpoca» n ncTpe6neHnn scex BparoB penxa. ohh h 
BMHOBaTw, a TuMMnep m KanbTeH6pyHHep 6binn Bcero 
nmub ncnonHMTensMM. 

CywecTByeT nereHAa. mto nepBfalfi mckmct ecnn n 
yHMHTowan. to TonbKO HacTonmvix «BparoB peBornouMM», 
a HeBMH08Hbix caM we ocBo6o>KAan M3-noA apecTa. Bot 
Ejkob - Apyroe peno: paccTpennBan cothm twcah necT- 
hwx nioAew. Hy, HacneT Toro, kto Gonbtue yHUHTOwnn 
Hapoaa. mowho nccnopnib. Bo BpeMeHa «e«0BmnHbi» 
6wno paccTpendHO 682 twchhh nenoaeK, a b rpax<AaHC- 

KyK) BOHHy. no HBKOTOpblM OMBHKaM, - OKOnO Mnn/lHOH3 

(1pn 3tom e>KOBCKne HeKucTbi omyujann ce6a ncTMHHbiMM 
HacneAHUKaMM «x<ene3Horo <J>ennKca». H necHto b 37-m 
nenn: 

Mbi Asep>KkiHCKoro saBeTbi 

flpne nnaMBHH xpaHMu. 

Mbl CBOK3 CTpaHy COBeTOB 
riO-A3ep»<HHCKM CTOPOMMM. 

3ii. epam. a nuMMHax Hoawx 

Baiw He cnpnTaTb 3no6Hbix nnu, 

He yviTM bsm ot cypoBwx. 

Ot e>KOBblX pyKaBuq... 

Eute oamh mhc>: Zl3ep>KHHCKnii - rennanbHbin xo3rh- 
CTBeHHMK. fleMCTBMTenbHO. OennKC SAMyHAOBMH neTbipe 
roAa B03maBnnn HapxoMaT nyreii cooBmeHnn. Aaa roAa 

- BblCUJMM C0B6T liapOOHOrO X03flHCTBa. HO OTHK>Ab He 

npeyenen b noAfeeMe skohommkh. 3aMecTHTenb fl3ep- 
wuHCKoro no HKI1C B.B. Oommh OTxpoBeHHO nucan: «rioc- 
ne yxoAa TpoMKoro (KOToporo CMeHun fl3ep>KHHCKMii) c 
TpaHcnopTa TpaHcnopTHoe xo3bmctbo hb TonbKO hb npo- 
ABMHynocb enepea... ho Aawe He 3aAepx<a/iocb Ha oahom 
ypoBHe h nMeeT TeHAeHijuio onaTb HanaTb cnycKaTbca 
bhh3». no CBMAeTenbCTBy caworo TpoLixoro. fl3ep>KkiHC- 
kmm «He 6bin opraHH3aTopoM b ujupokom cMbicne cnoaa. 
Oh npnBfl3WBar k ce6e coTpyAHUKOB, opraHM30BbiBan mx 

CBOeii riMHHOCTbK), HO He CBOHM MeTOAOM)) JleHMH Towe 

He 6bin b BocTopre ot aKOHOMnnecKOki aesiTenbHOCTH 
fl3ep>KMHCKoro m cnen coeepiueHHO HeyAOBneTBopMTenb- 
hwm ero AOK/iaA no HKI1C. fleMCTBMTenbHO xopomo Oe- 
nnxc SAMyHAOBHH yMen TonbKO niOAeii Ha CMepTb ot- 
npaBnsiTb. 

KaK nucan Bopnc BawaHoa , 6biBiunii noMoajHUK Cia- 
nnHa b cepeAnne 20-x toaob, «fl3epxnHCKnti Bcer^a men 
3a AepxraTennMM enacTM n ecnn OTCTanBan mto-huBo c 

rOpflMHOCTbtO, TO TO/lbKO TO, MTO 6binO npMHSTO 6o/lblilHH- 

ctbom... AoAMHpa3 npeAceAaTenbCTBOBaBUJMM KaMeHeB 
cyxo cxa3an: "Oennxc, tw 3Aecb He Ha MUTHHre. a Ha 
saeeAaHUM nonnTgiopo". H o nyAo! BMecTo Toro hto6w 
onpaBABTb cboo ropn^HOCTb ... d>e/iMKC b jeuem^e oahom 
cexyHAbi ot ropnnero B3BonHOBaHHoro TOHa BApyr nepe- 



122 



4 



KPACHOE KOJIECO 



wen k caMOMy npocTOMy, npo3anHecroMy m cnoKOHHO- 
My». 

OennKc 3flMyHflOBHH 6bin Hennoxoii aKTep. H ncnon- 
HeHHan mm ponb npuiunac-b no aytue HeKOTopbiM ero 

HacneannKaM b OCB HbiHewnsn KaMnanua no peao.mn- 

TaMMM HeKMCTOB. KOTOpblX npeflCTaBnfltOT H3BeMHblMH Xpa- 

HUTensMM poccMiicKOki rocyaapcTBeHHOCTM. 3aKOHOMep- 
ho Tpe6yeT b KanecTBe nornMecKoro saBepweHHfl pea6n- 
nuTaqnn m nepeoro neKHcra - fl3ep>KHHCKoro. 

B 30-e roaw y flanbCTpon 6bin napoxoA «<J>ennKC 
fl3ep>KMHCKnii». Koraa KapaienbHbie opraHbi B03rnaenn 
Ewob, napoxofl nepenMeHOBann b «HnKonas E*<OBa». A 
Koraa «3opi<orna3biki Hap«oM» ncse3 c ra3eTHwx nonoc. 
napoxoA BHOBb CTan «OenwKCOM fl3ep>KHHCKnM». CeAnac 

B POCCHM HeT CyflHa C TaKHM HMeHeM. Ho CKOPO MOWeT 



noBBMTbcn. H KaK 3HaTb. He 6yaeT nn b MocKBe b ao6aB- 
neHne k coxpaHHBiueMyca c coBeTCKHX BpeMeH npocneirry 
AHflponoBa npocneia flsepxcuHCKoro. He tbk aaBHO 6pa- 
Bbiii arpapnii HnKonaii XapmoHoe (no coBMecTmenbCTBy 
- nonKOBHUK OCB) b flyMe npeanaran BoccTaHOBMTb 
naMtiTHMK fl3epx<MHCKOMy Ha Dy6fiHKe. CBepweHHe koto- 
poro c nodaMeHTa CTano CHMBonoM He3aBepweHHoii 
aBrycroBCKOM peaoniouMn 1991 roAa. Bpoae 6w o6ew.aeT 
BepHyTb OennKca Ha MecTo npn6nn>«eHHbii/i k npe3naeHTy 
riyTMHy A^pe<T0p OCB HnKonaii riaTpyiiies. Pas opranbi 
roc6e3onacHOCTM npn3BaHw nrpaTb nepByio CKpunKy b 
)km3hm dpaHw, ohm HacTOHTenbHO Tpe6yK>T yea>KaTb cbo- 
ero ocHOBonono>KHMKa. flnn aioro Haao TonbKO 33KpbiTb 
rnasa Ha xpoeaBbie aena «caMoro ^enoBeuHoro H3 neKn- 

CTOB»... 

«rpami» 



A/ieKcaHAp KPbl/lOB 

JIy6nHCKoe KOHcoMe 

O /bepwiiHCKOM b nony.mpHbix in.iaHnax cobctckoh inoxH 
mica.™ KaK o xcepTBe uapcKiix lacTeHKOB. KoiopwH TH*e.io 6o/ie.i 
Ty6epk'y.ie30M h najan b KpeMie b ro;ioaHbic oomopokii bo Bpeku 
rcpoiinecKOii 6opb6w c ro.ioaoM b rioBo.T/Kbe. HeKiicT ft. ByiiKHC 

BCMOMIIHXl. ITOillCpA'IIHCKHH 11 C.T n.TOXO. H nH.I "nyCTOH KlinHTOK 

M.iii KaKOM-Hiioyab cypporai". KaK Bee"... HoBo.ibHo 3aoaBHo Bwr.nji- 
aht i aKort pactKai: "Ocihkc 3aMV'HaoBim citaen, CK.ioHHBimicb Haa 
oyMaraMii. Oh paayiiiHo noaH».ic» HaBCTpeny HeoaouaHHbiM roc- 
tsm. Ha Kpaio doaa nepca hum ctoh.i HeaoniiTwii ciaKaH ocTbiBiuero 
■ian. hd o.iio.iue — Ma-iciibKiiii kvcomck scpHoro xjicoa. 

— A 3T0 hto? — cnpocuji C'Bepa-iOB. - Hct annentTa? 

— AnneTHT-To ectb, aa x.ieSa b pecnyo.iHKe Ma-iOBaro. — 
OTHiyrnaca /IsepwuHCKiiii. — Bot h pacmniBacM nacK Ha Becb 
aeHb..." 

npaBaa.apxHBHbicaoKyMCHTbiCBiiacTc.ibCTByioTo^pyroM.no 
onoBaM cbiHa .Hiep-KMHCKoro. ero oniy He 6mjio My«.io hhmto Me^o- 
BCMecKoe. b tom HHcne ii .iioooBb k xopoujeH KyxHe. B Te jhh. Koraa 
ro.ioj oxBaTH.i noBO-iaae H ciynaH KaHHn6a.iH3Ma ynw wiKoro He 
yjBmnnnn, veHio TOBapniua /l3ep*iiHCKoro oT.iMHa.iocb ocoowm 

HlblCKOM: 

•TIohci KoHcoMe inaHHii.jiocociiHa 
CBC*aJi. UBeTHas KanycTa no-no.ibCkn; 
Btoph. Co^nHKa rpHOHaH. KomeTbi 

TC.IHHbH. UJIIHHaT C HHUOM; 

Cpeaa. Cyn-niope hi cnap>KH. tobh- 
.niHa oy.i.iii. 6piocce.ibCKaji KanycTa; 
Mctb. rioxae6Ka ooapcKaa. CTepji»a- 
n napoBaa. 3e,ieHb. ropoiueK; 
riaTH. riK»pe in ub. KanycTM. oceTpii- 
Ha axi. 6o6h weTp-a-orejib; 
Cy6. Yxa in CTepjifljeH. mueiiKa c 
coneHbeM (mom. ao.i.. bhuihh. c.niBa). 
rpn6u b cMeiaHe; 

Bockp. Cyn in cbcvkhx inaMniiHbo- 

hob. nun.ieHOK MapeHro. cnap>Ka'... 

«Hoeaft K)HOcmb» 





<Dm.ioco<|> HiiKo^aH Bep.iaeB. ko- 
Toporo jonpauiHBan Jl3epAnnc- 
khh, oct3bii;i ero nopipeT: «...3mo 
obi.7 (j/aHamuK. Flo e?o ,\iasa.\i oh 
npouwodiLi eneianuenue le.io- 
Hena odep-ncuMoso. B iie.u 6bUO 
<4mo-mo jicyniKoe... B npouao.M 
oh xome.i cmamb Kamo.iutecKiiu 
Monaxo.u. u crow (paHamutecKYK) 
«epy on nepenec aa kommj/hiom*. 



4 KPACHQE KOJIECO 



123 



ELL4E PA3 nAMflTHI/IKE 
nPEflCEflATEJlHD BHK-Omy fl3EP>KI/IHCK0My 

3anB/ieHMe 06mecTBa «MeMopua/i» 



BHOBb saroBopunn o BoccTaHOBneHMM Ha Jly6«iHCKOM 
nnoiuaan MOHyMeHTa ©erwKcy A3ep>KMHCKOMy. Ha cert 
pas o HaMepeHHM BepHyTb Ha nocrraMeHT naMHTHHK, CBep- 
myTwfi b aBrycTe 1991 roaa. 3aHBnseT Map MOCKBM. Kan 
neronpefliuecTBeHHHKMB3T0Mflene, tO.M.riywKOBHano- 
MMHaeT HaM o HenpuMnpuMoPi 6opb6e fi3ep>KHHCKoro c 
npecTynnocTbio m o ero BK/iaae b nnKBwaaunio 6ecnpn- 
3opHnnecTBa. KpoMe Toro, oh ccbinaeTcn Ha xyaowe- 
CTBeHHyio ueHHOCTb cxyribnTypbi ByneTHHa. 

Cyan no ra3eTHbiM ny6nnxaunHM, 3ia naen noaaep- 
>KHBaercB BnMBTenbHbiMM cunawn b Bepxyuixe poccniic- 
kom nonnTMHecKOiii BnacTM. 

«MeMOpnan» MoixeT nuiub noBTopmb to, mto 6wno 
CKasaHO b HaweM 3a*iBneHnn noHTH neTbipe roaa Ha3afl, b 
OTBeT Ha aHanornHHoe nociaHOBneHne focyaapcTBeH- 
hom flyMw ot 2 aenaGpn 1998 r. 

1 . FnaBHbiM aenoM fl3ep>KHHCKoro Bceraa 6bina 6opb- 
6a He c yronoBHOM npecTynHOCTbio, a c nonnTHHecKMMM 

npOT.IBHMKaMH (nOaTMHHblMH U MHMMblMW) COBeTCKOH 

BnacTn. HMeHHO oh - ocHOBaTenb CHCTeMU noriHTMHecKO- 
ro cwcKa m nonnTHMecKOki pacnpaBbi b CoBeTcxoa Pocchm. 
l/lweHHO npn HeM HSManncb cfcanbcwcpuKaunw cneacTB9H- 
Hbix aen. hmchho b ero snoxy h noa ero pyxoBOflCTBOM 
co3flaeanacb coBeTcxaa cucieMa KOHqnarepeii (bchom- 

HHM XOTB 6bl TO/lbKO COHOBKH). C MMeHeM flaep)t<HHCK0rO 

HaBenHO cBR3aHbi Taxwe noHBTHfl. KaK 6eccyaHwe apecTw 
m KasHu, 3ano>KHHMecTBO, npecneAOBaHne KHaKOMwcnMH. 
MHorne twchmh M3 ocy>KfleHHbix npnfl3ep>KHHCKOM k pac- 
crpeny mjim TiopeMHO-narepHbiM cpoKaM hwhc pea6nnn- 
TupoBaHbi nocTaHOBneHHSMH cyaoB m npoxypaTypw. flpea- 
no>KeHne o BOCCTaHOBneHnn naMHTHHxa fl3ep>KHHCKOMy - 
3to aeMOHcrpaTMBHoe npeHe6pe>KeHne naMHTbio Munnn- 
OHoawepTB nonnTMMecKnx penpeccMii. Ecnn 6bi 3Ta MMCflb 
ocyiyecTBunacb Ha aerie, to sto osHaMano 6w chmbohh- 
MecKyio OTMeHy pea6nnnTau,noHHbix aicroB, BOCCTaHaBnu- 
Baiomux npeacTaBneHM« o cnpaBeflnnBOCTn. 

2. HMeHHo b snoxy fl3epx<MHCKoro n c ero npqMbiw 
ynacrneM naee npaBa 6wnn npoTHBonocTaeneHbi naen 
«peBonK)unOHHoii 3aK0HH0c™». nae« «nonnTHHeci<oii 
uenecoo6pa3HocTM» penpeccnii. rioaero HananoM n koh- 
TponeM pa3Bnnncb MHoroMMcneHHbie cpopMbi «Hecyae6- 
hom pacnpaBbi» - Konnernn HK, «tpomkm», Konnerwa 
Omy, OcoooecoBeiyaHMe h MH.aP- 3tm KBa3Hcyae6nbie 
opraHbi npuHUManM cboh peuieHun Ha ocHoeaHMM aaoMHo- 
ro paccMOTpeHun aen, 6e3 BbiaoBa o6BHHHeMoro, 6e3 
ynacTun aaBOKaTOB n npeacTaBMTeneki rocyaapcTBeHHO- 
ro o6BHHeHM«. CucrreMy «BHecyae6Hbix opraHOB» n pac- 
mnpeHne mx npas fl3ep*MHCKHM aneprnHHO n ycneuiHO 
OTCTanBan m nocne OKOHnaHHH rpaJwancKOM bomhw. fle- 
BTenbHOCTb fl3ep*MHCKoro 6wna HanpaBneHa He Ha yK- 
penneHMe npaBa, a Ha 6opb6y c hum. BoccTaHoeneHne 
naMSTHMKy fl3ep>KMHCKOMy - 3to aeMOHCTpaTHBHoe He- 
•/BaweHMe k naee npaBa. 

3. CcwnKa Ha 6opb6y fl3ep*MHCKoro c npecTynHOC- 
TbK> TaioKe Mo>KeT nnub HacTopowMTb Tex, xoMy aoporo 
6yaymee Pocchm. Mw - pnaoBbie poccwnHe. n b 3tJ)*eK- 
TUBHOii 6opb6e c yronoBHort npecTy nnocTbto 3anHTepeco- 



BaHw ropa3ao 6onbiue. weM nio6bie npeacTaBurenn no- 
nMTvmecKoii snuTbi. Ho mw rny6oK0 y6e)«aeHbi, mto 6opb- 
6y3TyHeo6xoanMo bcctm spaMKaxaaKOHa. «Mpe3Bt>iHa>i- 
Hbie» Mepw nepsbix nocnepeBonwunoHHbix neT, xoraa b 
npaKTHKy ujupoxo boujiih paccTpenw Ha MecTe. Heaonyc- 
tumw, npecTynHw m, xa< noxaaan onfalT cobbtckom hcto- 
pnn, - 6ecnone3Hbi. Oennxc flsepjKMHCKnii 6wn 3Heprim- 

HblM CTODOHHUKOM «Mpe3BblMaiiiaMHbl» K3K OHHOrO M3 OC- 

HOBHbix MeToaos 6opb6w c npecTynHOCTbio. FlosTOMy 
ccwrwa Ha 6opb6y c npecTynHOCTbio xax apryMeHT b 
nonbay BoccTaHOBnenna naMOTHnxa Ha Jly6nHCKOM nno- 
maan He MO)KeT 6uTb BOcnpuHHTa HHane, weM npnabiB k 
TaKoii >xe «Hpe3BbiHaMmMHe». 

4. B nuKBuaaqn-i 6ecnpn30pHHHecTBa, flertCTBwerib- 
ho. ecTb SHannTenbHbiM Bxnaa n "CSflsepwuHcxoro — m 
3Ta CTopoHa ero aenTenbHOCTM, Bepo^THO, MO»eT 6biTb 
nocTaBneHa eMy b 3acnyry. Ho npn stom Henb3n 8a6u- 
aaTb, hto D03KMKMOBCHHC 6ecnpn3opHHHecTsa - 3to pe- 
3ynbTaT. npewae Bcero, axoHOMHHecKOii pa3pyxn n rpa)K- 
aaHcxoii BOAHfal, k KOTopbiM npMBena mmchho nonnTno 
A3epx<MHCKoro n ero TOBapmaevi no napTnn. Henb3n 3a- 

6blBaTb M O TOM, MTO, K0rA3 B COBBTCKOM POCCMM B 1922 T. 

pa3pa3nncn CTpatuHbiii ronoa, cneacTBueM KOToporo CTa- 
no HOBoe pe3Koe yeexiMMeHne HHcna ocupoTeetunx n 
6ecnpM3opHbix Reien, MMeHHo fl3ep»MHCKMM no nopyne- 
hhio UK BKn/6/ >Kene3HOM pyxoM npecexan nonbiTxn pyc- 
cxoiii HHTennnreHunn m npaBOcnaBHOM uepxan CMnrnnTb 
nocneacTBMfi 3tom ryMannTapHoii KaTacTpocpw. flecnTKn 
MHTennnreHTOB, ynacTBOBaBijjux b pa6oTe KoMMTeTa no- 
moiah ronoaaioaiuM, 6binn 6pouieHbi b TiopbMbi BHK: 
cothh cBflLuenHUKoe - paccTpen&Hbi. 

5. Mw npeKpacHO noHUMaeM. hto naMHTHnx - He 
6onee hsm cuMBon. CTnxniiHbiM aeMOHTa>K mockbuhqmh 
naMSTHMxa fl3ep)KHHCK0My 22 aerycTa 1991 roaa TO»e 
6bin cMMBonoM - CMMBonoM no6eaw aeMoxpaTHM Haa 

KOMMyHMCTMHeCKMMM nyTHWCTaMH. CUMBO/IOM CTaHeT M 

BoccTaHOBneHMe 3Toro naMATHnxa - cumbohom OTxa3a ot 
aeMOKpaTnn m cBo6oabi. cumboiiom B03BpameHMH k 6ec- 
npasMO. 

«MeMopnan» 3asBnaeT, hto npnno>KMT Bee CM/1W, 
hto6w HeaonycTHTb BOCCTaHoaneHun naMHTHnxa OeriMK- 
cy fl3ep>KMHCKOMy Ha Jly6nHKe. Mw npusbmaeM Bee OTBeT- 
CTBeHHbie nonnTunecxne n o6iuecTBeHHbie cunbi cTpanbi 
noaAep>t<aTb Hac a tpothboasmctbhh stom naee. Haxo- 
Heu, mw npM3bisaeM caMoro KD.M.JlywxoBa noayMaTb o 
tom, k xaxoMy HenonpaBUMOMy pacxony b o6iyecTBe npw- 
seaeT peann3aunH ero npeanoKeHun, - n OTKasaTbcn ot 
Hero. 

Mto *e KacaeTcn xyao>KecTBeHHOM ueHHOCTn cxynb- 
nTypw, to, He BCTynan B MCKyccTBOBeflMecKne cnopw, MW 
MO)KeM nmilb saMeTMTb, mto xyao>xecTBeHHbie aocronH- 
CTBa naMSTHnxa. co3aaHnoro ByMeTuneM. Bnonne Moryr 
obiTb oueHeHbi no aoconHCTBy BceMM >xenaK)mnMn Ha 
tom MecTe, rae oh ceiiMac HaxoanTcn: b My3ee cxynbnTy- 
pbi noa OTKpbiTWM He6oM. 6nn3 LJeHTparibHoro floMa 
xyao*HMxa. 

ripaeneHue 06mecmea «MeMopuan» 



124 



4 



KPACHQE KOJIECO 



A^eKcaHAP CO/lXEHMUblH 

fl3EP>KI/IHCKl/ll7l l/l 

«a>i/inococt>CKi/i(7i nAPOxofl» 

*Toe. A3epxuHCKuu' Keonpocy o ebicbinxe aa apanuny 
nucameneu u npocpeccopoe. noMoaaiomux Konmppeeonio- 
nuu Hado smo nodaomoeumb mtname/ibHee. E03 nodaomoe- 
ku Mb/ HaanynuM. ..Hado nocmaeumb deno max. vmo6bi smux 
xeoeHHbix wnuoHoeu uanoeumb u U3naenueamb nocmonHHO 
u cucmeMamunecKu u abicbinamb sa apanuuy. ripoiuy noxa- 
3amb amo cexpemno. He pa3MH0xan. ^nenau nonum6icpo». 

( SIchuh B. H., Co6p. cow., 5 U30\, m. 54, c. 265-266.; 

EcTecTBeHHan b stom cnynae ceKpeTHOdb Bbi3Banacb 
aajKHOCibio m noynmeribMOCTbio Mepw. ripope3aiouie-HCMa« 
pacdaHOBKa xnaccoBwx c*n b CoaeTCKOvi Poccmm ranbxo k 
Hapymanacb stum CTyaeHucrbiM 6ecK0HTypHbiM twthom CTa- 
povi 6yp»tya3HO0 nHTennnreHUHM, KOTopan a Maeonornnec- 
xoiii o6nacTM nrpana nofl/iMHHyio portb eoemibix wnuOHoe - m 
Hunero Henbsn 6wno npnaywaTb nynuie, xsk stot ssctomhmk 
Mbicnn noCKOpeti coct<o6nn-b n BbiuBbipnyb 3a rpaHMi(y. 

CaM -oBapnui fleHMH ywe crier a cBoeM Heayre, ho 
4neHbi nonMT6iopo, oneBUflHO. oao6pnnn. u Toeapma fi3ep- 
wmhckmm npoaen nsnaa/inBaHne. h b xoHue 1922 oxono 
rpexcoT anflHeiiiiJux pyccxvix ryMaHMTapnes 6binn nocaxeHbi 
Ha... Capwy?.. HeT, Ha napoxoa. n ompaBneHbi Ha eBponefic- 
<yK> caariKy (/3 nwen yTBepflHBuiwxcs n npocnaBUBiunxcfl 
TaM 6binn cfnnoco(})bi H. O JloccKnii, C. H BynraxoB, H. A. 
Bepa«eB, * A. denyH, B. n. BbnuecnaBueB.fi. I"l. KapcaatiH, 
H. A. MnbMH; 33TeM mctopmkh C. n. MenbryHOB. B. A. Mhko- 
thh. A. A. Kn3eBerrep. M. H. JlanujMH; jiMTepaTopw n ny6nn- 
UMCTbi (O. H AkixeMBanbfl. A. C. HaroeB. M. A. OcoprnH, A. B. 
rieuiexoHOB. Ma/ibiwn rpynnaMn aocbinann eme n b Hanane 
1 923 . HanpuMep cexpeiaps DbBa ToncToro B. <P. BynrsKOBa. 
no xyauM 3HaK0MCTB3M Tyfla nonaaann h MaTeMa™«n - f4. *. 
COfMMHOBK.. 

xApxunenaa D/flAr* 

Ajim AJlklEB 

fl3EP>KI/IHCKI/li7l l/l 
BHECyaEBHblE PACnPABbl 

... no aanexo HenonHbiM cBeaeHMHM, no peweHMHM MK 
aa 1918 n nonoBUHy 1919 nnujb no flBaaaa™ ry6epHnnM 
ueHTpanbHOii Pocchw apecTOBann 874300 m paccipensnn 
8389 nenoeeK. CornacHO OcHOBHOMy nonoweHmo o peBonio- 
UMOHHbix Tpn6ynanax or 18 MapTa 1920 roaa BMK v, ry6epH- 
CKne MK MOOIM 3aK/iK)HaTb b KOHiyiarepb HapyuiMTeneM Tpy- 
QOBoii flucLinnnHHbi. peaoniounOHHoro noppflKa m napa3MTM- 
-iecKne 3neM6HTbi cpoxou Ha niwb neT. 

... npeflceaaTenbBMK<l).fl3ep>KMHCKMMi4MneH-fl0Knafl- 
4mk KaccaqiioHHoro Tpn6yHana H KpwneHXO a coBMecTHOii 
nupeKTMBe yKa3biBann, hto KopeHHbiM ori w iMeM Tpn6ynana 
aon*Ha 6biTb «Heo6wHaviHafi 6wcTpoTa, BO-nepBwx, m Heo- 
SbinaMHas cypoBocrb. ao-BTopbix. rae nozicyanMbiili MMeeT 
MMHUMyM npaB n rae era nHTepecw co3HaTeribHO npuHocni- 
ch 3aKOMOM 3 *epiBy MHiepecaM uenorox. 3aecb*ie pa3tac- 
Hunocb, hto «nneH xonnerviM ry6HeKa. Bxoanmnvi oaHOBpe- 
MeHHO b codaB Tpn6yHana. aonweH b 3tom cnyMae SBHTbcs 
wmbom CBfi3bK> o6enx KonnerMH, KOTopaa noMOweT ycTaHO- 
BuTb Mewayy^pewiieHUBMHTec-ieiiiijuviKOHraKT » rf nar.ee 
«Tpn6yHanbi m HK ■ naea/ie aon»Hbi npeacTaennTb co6oii 
eauHbiM opraH 6opb6bi». Mepe3 HecxonbKO MecnueB fl3ep- 
(KUHCxnii BHOBb nponanneT 3a6oTy, «HTo6bi Konnemn ry6Me- 
xa m TpuByHanbi 6wnn cneiw Me)«ay coSoti n cocTaenflnn 3 
pa6oTe ea"Hoe uenoe». 

Taxoe eauHCTBO opraHOB paccneaoBaHun n coBeTcxnx 
KBasucyaOB cosaaBann xpyroByio nopyxy. ocHOBy a/i« pac- 
npasbi npn Heaoxa3aHHO(i auHe Zl3ep)KHHCKMM npnMO yxa3bi- 



Ban Ha npenMyiaecTsa BHecyae6H0i^ peapeccnn. xoTopas 
«AaeT MK ao3MO)KHOCTb aaMUHncTpaT.iBMWM nopnaxOM M30- 
nupoBaTb Tex napyiunTene^i . b oTHomeHkin ko/x aaHHbix 
pjin cyae6Horo Haxa3aHMfl HeaocTaTOMHO n rae bcuxmm cya. 
aaxe caMwft cypoBbiii. nx scer^a wnw b 6oribuew uacTn 
onpaBQbiBaeTD. 

...nocTaHOBneHneM BLJUK ot 6 (feBpann 1922 roaa 
BMK ynpasannnn n o6pa30BartM TnaBHoe nonnTnnecxoe yn- 
paaneHne ripn HKBfl PCOCP. 16 0KTsi6pfl 1922 roaa my 
nonyn^no B03MO>KHOCTb «BHecyae6HOii pacnpaBbi BnnoTb ao 
paccTpena a OTHOiueHUM scex nua. B3BTbix c nonnnHbiM Ha 
Mede npedynneHUB npn 6aHanTCxnx nareiax m BoopyxeH- 
hux orpaGneHnaxn. A kto edb OaHflMT, onpeaenan He cya. a 
MexncT... 

CeprePi BO/1KOB 
fl3EP>KHHCKMl/l l/l KOHUHArEPq 

...B ripnica3e BMK «06 yneTe cneunanncToa n /imli, 
Morywux nansTbCB 3anox<HHKaMn», fl3ep>KHHCKnii noanep- 
Kvaan. hto 3a.Tox<HHKaMHflor>KHbi 6paTbcn n^ua. «kbm ohm 
(6enorBapAeiiubi) aopowaTi, n yTOHHanoCb: «BbiflaK)ujn- 
ecB pa6oTHMKM. yneHwe. poacTseHHUKu HaxoaBianxcB npn 
B/iacTM y mux nrnj. M3 3tom cpeaw m cneayeT 3a6npaTb 
3ano>«HMKOB. Btopom Bonpoc - 3to cneubi Haujn cneub4 - 
nwflu 6ypwya3Horo xpyra n yxxiaaa Mwcnu. Jlrnj noao6HOM 
xaTeropuM mm no o6wxHOBeHnio noaBepraeM apecTy xax 
3anox(HHKOB mjih noMemaeM b KOHLjeHTpauHOHHbie narepn 
Ha o6mecTaeHHbie pa6oTw». 

... Bnpnxa3e BMK 8.01. 1921 r. r>3ep>KMHCKHM noanep- 
Knaari, HTonoayHroM opraHOB BMKaon»Ho6biTb «Tx3pbMa 
aifl 6yp>t<ya3Mn. TosapnujecKoe B03aeiicT3ne anfl pa6oMtix 
n KpecTbOH». MpesBbmaiiHbiM komuccmbm npeanaranocb 
«Cyry6oe BHUMaHne o6paTHTb Ha aena noacneacTaeHHux 
pa6oinx n xpecTbBH, paccMaTpuBan nocnean.ix -e xax 
Haiunx xxiaccoBbix BparoB, a xax coBepujuauinx npocTynxn 
b cu/iy counanbHbix ycnosHM nepexoanoro nep^oaa ot 
xaniiTann3Ma x couMann3My. B uennx OTTeHeHun omnmiB 
paBoMux n xpecTbBH ot BpawaeSHOM hsm no xnaccy 6ypwy- 
a3MM - b OTHOuieHMn nocneflHeS penpeccnn ycunwTb: a) 
ocso6o>KAaTb Ha nopyxn nnu 6yp>Kya3Horo xnacca numb a 
KpatiHux cnynaax; 6) aocpOHHOro ocBo6ox<aeHHH k rjypxy- 
a3nu He npuMeHHTb CoaaaTb nun 6ypwya3nn oco6bie 
KOHueHTpauMOHHbie narep»» 

B aoK/isaHO* 3anncxe a L(KK PKn(6) 06 ochobhux 
npMHUMnax xapaTeribHOM nonnT^xn 17.02.1924 r. oh Hano- 

MUHan. HTO B OTHOLUeHMH 3THX riMu «HaK333H^e He HMeeT 

b snay aocnuiaHne npecTynHkixa, a orpawaeHne ot Hero 
pecny6nnKM m x/iaccoBoe Teppopn3npoB3Hne o6mecTBeH- 
Horo MHenun xnaccoBbix BparoB Tpyasmnxcn» 

A. n/lEXAHOB 

fl3EP>KI/IHCKI/ll/l 

1/1 «Bonq nAPTiin» 

...MexncTCKoe BeaoMCTBo Hvixorfla He nrpano cawocTo- 
HTenbHOii porin m TeM 6onee He «crosno H3a naprneiix. 
Hao6opoT. oho 6bino caMbiM nocnyujHbiM, Han6onee awc- 
unnnnHnpoBaHHbiM m ocTpbiM opya^GM 6onbiueBMKOB. onop- 
hom CTpyxTypoM cpean acex 3BeHbee rocannapsTs npn pea- 
nM3ai|MM cnoxcHbix nonnTHHecxnx peujeHnvi. OprsHw roc6e- 
sonacHOCTM npeTBopnnu b *M3Hb «bodio napTnw» b nnue ee 
BOx<aevi. Torib<o opopMaribHO noannHSHCb L|U1K w CHK CCCP. 
cpaxTMHecKM xce - nonnT&opo 14K BKn(6). 

4). 3. f43epx<nHCXMM OBnnncfl nneHOM UK PKn (6) m 

' opr6iopo, a c mom 1 924 roas - K3HanaaT0M b HneHbi noniiT- 

5opo. MneHbi xonnerMM nocTOBHHO M36npanncb aenera ra^n 

napTMMHbix cte3aoB n KOHO>epeHUkiii. np^HkiMaiTM axr^BHoe 



«$ KPACHOE KOJIECO 



125 



ynacTue b pa6oie ueHTpanbHbix h mccthwx naprxoMOB By- 
ayHM npeAceaaTeneM 8MK, fl3epwnHCKnii npocun xoMMynuc- 
roB-pyKOBOAHTenePi HMeTb b snay, hto C.MMMCT MoweT 
TonbKO roraa SwTbSopuoM saaeno nponeTapcxoe. noraa oh 
■4yacT8yeT wa nainaot* uiary ce6e noaaapwicy co ctopohu 
napTMH m oTseTCTaeHHbix nepea napmei^ pyxoBoanTeneiii». a 
ofjpamancb k neKMCTaM, npocnn He 3a6biB3Tb o tom, hto «mw 
aepwuMcn ronbKO Ha aoBepnn napTnu». n CTasun 3aaany - 

«H6 OTpb4B3TbCH OT napTKMHWX KOMMTeTOB, a CnnOTMTbCfl 

BOKpyr ry6xow , pyKOBOflCTByscb ero yx33aHHHMM». 

fl3eD*HHCKHkiciJ)opMynnpoBanoflHH n3rnaanbix KpnTe- 
ones noa6opa KaapoB a opraHbi 6e3onacH0CTn: « Ecnn npuxo- 
Ahtch BbioVpaTb Me>Kfly. 6e3ycnoBHO, MaiuuM HenoBexoM. ho 
ne cobcbm cnocoSHWM, n He cobcsm HawMM, ho 6onee 
cnoco6HbiM. y Hac, b 4K, Heo6xoflMMO ocTaBMTb nepBoro». 
npuxoflUBuine B opraHbi aonwHbi 6binn 6biTb npe>tyie acero 
«HawuMn». noaTOMy craBKa 6t>ina caensHa Ha xoMMyHHCTOB 
floHUMaHne Mopann n hopm hpsbctsghhocth 6wno aetpop- 
MnposaHO rocnoflCTByiomeili naeonorweM, rnaBHUM Kpmepn- 
eM w BbiciueM ueHHOCTbio CHMTanacb noaaep*<Ka m yxpenne- 
Hue BnacTn. 

B ocHoay nonmuKu 6bin nonoweH ho npuHitwn saxoHHO- 
cth (aa m caMa OHa npeanonarana He Tonbxo b Ha3B3Hnn, ho 
h no cymecTBy 3axoHHOCTb «peaonK)uHOHHyio», «counannc- 
rnHecxyio») Bee roflbi opraHbi Omy nonb30Banncb npaBOM 
BHecyae6Hbix penpeccH*. B pacxonoTOM o6wecTBe xnacco- 
3as. nonnTMMeCKas uenecoo6pa3H0CTb CHmanacb Bbiiue 
o6meHenoaeMecxnx hopm flawe «npocpnnaxTHMecxan pa6o- 
T3» 3anacTyio CBoannacb k ycrpaHeHwo He BBHoro, a BeposT- 
Horo npoTHBHMKB. BHecyae6Hbie penpeccnw He Tonbxo He 
orpaHUHUBanncb bdicwhmh opraHaMu snacTH. ho npuHUMann 
Bee 6onee ujmpokum xapaxTep... 

PoMaH ry/ib 

«...KaK BepHbirt CTopo>KeBo£i 
nee pacTep3aTb BparoB» 

«Hem 6o/ibLueu padocmu. Hem nyviuux uysbix. 

Kax xpycm noMaeMbix MU3neu u Kocmeu. 

Bom omveao, Koeda moMpmcn nawu esopbi 

H navuHaem 6ypHO empacmb e epydu eexunamb. 

'-lepKHymb mho xovemen Ha eaweM npuzoeope 

06ho SecmpenemHoo: «K cmoHKe! Paccmpennmb\» 

(Anexcandp 3udyx. vne» xonnezuu BmTC 
npu J23epxuHCKOM. c6opnUK tVnbi6x3 4e*a») 

...AnoreeM xpacHoro Teppopa 6bina 3mm3 1920 roaa, 
Kor,aaMocKBa3aMep3ana6e3APOB. •cBapTupbiOTannnBanucb 
neMnonano. Me6enbK>,6n6nnoTeKaMn. ronoaHbie/iKWi *nnn. 
He pasaeBancb. n MopoweHast xapTowxa xasanacb Hacane- 
HniocTonvmbi eepxoM nenoaeHecKoro CMadbH B how 3mmw 
3Toro roaa. a myTno* mx TeMHOTe Kone6ntoinMMCfl caeTOM 
HOMb Hanponei MaHHunn rpaHflno3Hbie areKTpusecKne ct>o- 
napH Ha BoobiuoM J1y6nHKe. Cioas xflsepxcuHCxoMy b Ksapian 
MK 6ea ycTann CB03nnn «BparoB» pesonramin. 3aecb b Mep- 
aribix OKpoBaBneHHbix noABanax b aiy 3nMy ot xonHHecTea 
Ka3Heii coiuen c yiua rnaBHw^i nanan MeKn. naibiw Ma r a. 
paccTpensB co6cTBeHHopyMH0 6onbiue twcshu ><enoBeK. ... 
Box<Ab reppopa QaepwuHCKnii Ha J1y6fiHKe npoeoann ahu h 
hohh. P36oT3Tb cnoxoiiHO 6bino He b ero xapaiaepe. aa n He 
•aKOBa 6wna 3Ta KpoBaBan pa6oTa. A3epx<nHCKnii pa6oTa/i 
no HOM3M. rianaHM - Towe. Honbio bcb Hy6nHKa wnna 6ypH0ii 
B3BonH0BaHHO(i )KM3Hbto. «9\ ce6n Huxoraa ne maann * hb 
iya>Ky», - roBOpun o ce6e copoxaneTHMvi fl3ep>xiiHCKMvi. npo 
3Ty «6ecnomaaHOCTb x ce6e» paccxaabiBaer u ero noMom- 
hhk. mokuct riaunc: «B MK OennKC 3flMyHaoanH eesae waw- 
aan aencTBOBaTb caM oh csm aonpaoinBan apecTOBaHHux, 
caM pbincn b nsofinn^aioiiinx Marepnanax. cau ycrpawean 
specTOBSHHbiM OHHwe CTaBKM n aa>xe cnan TyT we hs Jly6nH- 
Ke. b Ka6nneTe HK, 3a LunpMoPi. rae 6una npucnocoenena an" 
Hero xpoBaTb». ... Pa6oT3 6wna. aeiicTBuTenbHO. M3Hypnio- 



mafl. H3-noa n epa flsepwuHcxoro CMepTHwe npuroBopw iunn 
cothsmh «fl3ep)«HHCKMii noanncbiBan He6biBano 6onbiuoe 
KonnnecTBO CMepTHbix npuroeopoB, Huxoraa He HcnwTbiBaa 
npu 3tom hm jxanocTn. hm xone6aHHM», - nmueT 6biaujn^ 
MneH Konnemn BMKflpyroB. A nocne B3pwBa b JleoHrbBBC- 
kom nepeyxiKe flsepwuHcxnii nepemen y* x 6eccHeTHbiM 

MaCCOBblU K33HRM. 

...HanpocuBUJUiiCH Ha nod rnasw B4K. B3?iBiunii b 
pyKn «pa3nmnti Men peBo/iK)uviti», Q36p>k^hckmm Tax xapax- 
1 epusoaan cboio 3aaany: «fl Haxoxycb b ome 6opb6bi. >Kw3Hb 
conaaTa, y xOToporo neT OTawxa, n6o HyjKHO cnacaTb ropn- 
iuum aoM. Hexoraa ayMaTb cboux h ce6e. Pa6oTa n 
6opb6a aacKan. Ho cepaue Moe e 3Tovi 6opt»6e ocTanocb 
wuBbiM. TeM we caMwM, xaxMM 6bino n paHbiue Bee Moe 
apeMs, 3to - obho nenpepwaHoe aeiicTBMe, HTo6bi ycTosub 
Ha nocTy ao KOHua. ft BuflBUHyT hs nocT nepeaoBOii nunnn 
omfl, n mob Bonn: 6opOTbCn h CMOTpeTb OTKpwTbiMn r/ia33MH 
Ha bck> onacHOCTb rpo3Horo nonoweHUfl m caMOMy 6wTb 
6ecnomanHbiM, HTo6bi xax BepHufi CTOpoweBOii nee pacTep- 
33Tb BparoBn. 

...ABOTfl3ep>KHHCKiiM b xapaxrepucTHKe MeHMUHcxoro: 
■<fl3ep*nic«nii 6un He Tonbxo BeriHKMM TeppopucTOM. ho h 
sennKUM H6KMCT0M. Oh hb 6wn Huxoraa paccna6neHHO- 
MenoBeneH. Oh Huxoraa He nosBO/isn cbohm nnsHbiM xaMe- 
CTaaM 6paTb eepx Haa co6oii npw peuieHwn Toro nnn HHOro 
asna HaKaaanne, KaxTaxoBoe.OHOTMeTaiinpiiHi^nnnanbHO. 
x3x 6yp>xya3HbiM noflxoa. Ha Mepbi penpeccnu oh CMOTpen 
ToribKO xax Ha cpeacTBO 6opb6bi, npimeM Bee onoeaennnoco 
aaHHoii nonnTMMecxoM o6daHOBxoii v\ nepcnexTnaoii aanb- 
Hei/iujero pa3BHTHB peBonrounn npespmenbHO oTHOcncb xo 
Bcoxoro poaa KpoMKOTBopcTBy m npoxypopcxoMy cJ>opMann3- 
My, fl3epn<nHCKMii 4pe3Bbma&H0 nyTKO othocm/icb xo senxoro 
poaa *ajio6aM Ha HK no cymecTsy A^" H ero saweH Own He 
tot uni* MHOii, C3M no ce6e, nenoeex, nocTpaaaBiuMM spn. hb 
caHTHMeMTa/ibHwe coo6pa>;eHns nocTpaaaBiueM Henose- 
neexoti nnHHOcm, a to, hto Taxoe aeno nansnocb HBHbiM 
aoK33aTenbCTBOM HecoaepujeHCTBS nexncTcxoro annapaTa 
nonkiTMxa. a He HenoBenHOCTb, xax TaxoBan. bot xnon ero 
OTHoiueHkin k HeKMCTCxoti pa6oTe»... 

(Dpaeuenmbi us khuzu «t]3epx(UHCKUu», napuM, 1936 e. 




«ConoeeuKuu nauerio* - nauHmmjK MepmsaM nonumuvecKux 
penpeccuu «a flySPHCKOd rwoutadu a Mocxee 



126 



4 



nOHTA «KAPTbl» 



KOpuCi BflOBMH 

PNOEHUITAJIb, A3EPWHHCKNN, AAAEE - BE3AE 




CToneTue maBHOM 4>awMCTcxoM 
nponaraHflncTKM fleHu PMcpenuj- 
Tanb", BHecujuii cymecTBeHHWM 
BK/iaa b npec/iOByroe «(popMnpo- 
BaHi-e o6wecTBeHHoro MHeHnnn a 
cJjaiuncTCKOii TepMaHMn, dano 3a- 
weTHbiM co6biTueM b xoHqe aBryc- 

Ta M B pOCCHMCKHX CMH. OTMOMa- 

' Vtjl kit, hto BpeMn npoxoflHT. n evi ee 

\^^\ 3a6ryx<fleHMH mowho npociwb, 

mto OHa - BennKnii xMHopewuc- 
cep. ToBoptiT. 6nn3KMii k JlywKO- 
By MHorocTpaAanbHwii xaHsn TBC - TB6 - HTB noxa3an 
cpmibM o «reHnaribHOM flnccnfleHTKe» b (pawHCTCKoii l~ep- 
mbhum. AKoppecnoHfleHTbi, no/iHwe TpeneTHoro Bocxniue- 
Hun, 6biBiune y Hee b rocmx, Benu ce6n c neii B0o6me xax 
c KopoHOBaHHoii oco6om. O, BpeMena, o, HpaBbi! 

B npownoM roAy b paMxax KHHocpecTHBann «nocna- 
Hue k HenoBexy » b CaHXT-l~leTep6ypre 6bin noxaa ee cpMJib- 
MOB-«TpnyMcpBonM» h «OnnMnnn». ripaBfla, noAflaB/ie- 
HneM npoTecTOB. noKa3 caenann 3axpbiTWM - TonbKO «flnn 
Tex, kto noMHMaeT». Ho sot b penopTawe c (pecTMBann, b 
aBrycTe 2002 rofla, noK33ann 3pnTeneti aToro 33KpwToro 
noK33a, CTon npuBeTCTBOBaBiuMx 99-neTHK>K) «reHnanb- 
Hyto» nponaraHAncTKy, ycuriuBMM xoTopotf. b 3H3MHTeJib- 
hom cTeneHM. HeMUbi npeBpaiua/iMCb b 4>aujncTOB. I/I 3to b 
CaHKT-rieTep6ypre, rae MunnnoHbi yMeprw ot ronoaa m 
xonoca b Konbue B0criMT3HHbix e>o cpawncTOB! 

fla Bor 6w c Hen. c stom fleHu PucJjeHiinanb. riycTbee 
>KHBeT m CHUMaeT cbom noflBOAHbie Lue/ieBpbi. riory6/ieH- 
Hbix (n c ee noMOiubto To>Ke) mh/ijwohob rroflert He Bep- 
Heiub Ho 6eaa b tom. mto mm h b XXI Bene He ycBonnn 
ypoxoB HeflaBHero npotunoro. HyxcHbi om Mwpy TanaHT/iM- 
Bbie nponaraHflHCTbi n nponaraHancTKH, oco6enHO b totb- 
nuTapHbix rocyaapcTBax? HywHbi nn HaM /isnrn BepTOBW. 
HeB3opoBbi, neoMTbeBbi, flopeHKn win neBubi 6eH nafle- 
hob. nnn ewe xaKOM-HM6y/ib naen cnpaBflbiBatomeii Mac- 
coBbie, Aa n ne MaccoBwe y6nMCTsa? A Beab MHorne M3 hmx 
SnucTaTenbHO aenam cBoeaeno. Ksx aoBecTM HopMa/ib- 
Horo MenoBexa ao coctobhmp oiaxufla . mtih M/ieHa ruTnepKi- 
reHfla. m/im xoMcoMonbus. nnn nnaMeHHoro GonbiueBMxa. 
roTOBoro >xepTB0B3Tb CBoeii *M3HbK) bo mms yHMMTOweHMH 
«HeBepHbix», pacoBo «Heno/iHOueHHbix», coi4naribHO «fla- 
nexnx». 3a poAHoro tpwpepa mjim poaHoro CTannHa? Be3 
TaKux. K3K JleHM Pnc})eHiijTanb nnn fl3nra BepTOB, 3to 
HeB03MO)KHO Be3 hux TpyflHO onpaBflbiBaTb npecTynne- 
hhb. coBepujeHHbie JleHUHbiM. AsepwuHCKUM, CTa/iMHbiM. 
BepMfl, TuTnepoM, flrofloii. - nio6biM M3 stmx HeroaneB. 
TuTnepbi n CTannHbi He Moryr cocTonTbcn 6e3 «reHneB» n 
MepHopa6oHnx nponaraHflncTcxnx MaujwH. 

Kto CHMTan. kbkum KorwnecTBOM )KH3Heii 3annaTnno 
MenoBenecTBO 3a reHna/ibHwe ynpa>KHeHnn b nponaraHfle 
m arnTamin b yiuefliueM XX Bexe? Cxo/ibKO nwaeii norn6- 
HeT b HacTynnBiueM Bexe. b kotopom xyflowHuxw. apTMCTbi 
m >xypHariMCTbi BOCXMinaiOTcn npecTynHbiM TpyflOM npona- 



O flemj PucpeHwmanb cm. maxixe: XonMOBopcxan M. «/7ewu 
Putpemumanb unu Bonwe6Han (pneuma «pb/co/io«a», 
«Kapma» Ne 32-33. cmp. 65. 



raHflMCTOB M rOTOBbl noBTopwTb. m noBTopntoT nx onwTbi B 
hobwx yc/ioBunx? M caMoe CTpaujHoe - 3to xoraa npona- 
raHflncTbi pa6oTaioT BHe KOHKypeHTHoro npocTpaHCTBa, 
xorfla nx reHnanbHbie Haxoflxu He nMeioT anbTepnaTuBbi. 
Tax 6bino npn cpaiuM3Me. Tax 6t>ino npM xoMMyHH3Me. TaK 
Sbino b rieKMHe, Tax Ha Ky6e n b CeBepHow Kopee, Tax y 
CaflaaMa Xycei^Ha. TaK y TanviSoB, Tax y JlyxaujeHKO, m b 
HOBbix rocyaapcTBax CpeflHew A3hm... M TaM ecTb cbom 
TanaHT/iHBwe nponaranflMCTbi, arnTaTopw, ropnaHbi-rna- 
Bapn. HMeHHO ohh criaBHT B30iuefliiJMe connua Haa o6hh- 
maBWMNtH cpeflHea3naTcxnMn cTpaHaMn M Bee ohh He 
TepnnT KOHxypeHUMM. H6o b HopwanbHOM xoHxypeHTHOM 
MHCpopMauwoHHOM npocTpancTBe TaKoro poaa Hflen He 
nMeiOT waHca »a ycnex. 

V\ b Pocchu ohh, noxo>xe, CHOBa HywHbj onacTn. 

Hy»H0, MTo6bi poccuflHe CBeTuriMCb cnacTbeM ot re- 
poMSMa rn6Hymnx Ha cyuie n Ha Mope Monoawx nrafleti, ot 
yHM3HTenbHbix neHCuii, ot *nTbH b KOMMy HanbHbix KBapTn- 
pax, ot nocTOSHHO pacTyuanx ueH, CTpeMfliunxcn k ypoBHW 
6oraTbix n pa3BHTbix CTpaH, kotopwm He aocTancn xowMy- 
HM3M. Ho m 3Toro Ma/io. HyiKHO, MTo6bi ohm eiye HeHaBM/je- 
riM 3tm 6narononyHHbie CTpaHw, Bepn b to, mto mm >KHBeM 
nnoxo M3-3a mx nponcxoB... 

MeM MHbiM, xpoMe cTpeMJieHnq peaHMMMpoeaTb Tpa- 
AMUMOHHyKi fl/w TOTa/iMTapM3Ma 3aflaMy cpopMMpoBanMH 
o6mecTBeHHoro MHeHMd b MHTepecax BnacTM, MO>KHOo6'bnc- 

HMTb M 3XCKTlK)3MBHbie MHTepBbK) CTOneTHeM MaTepM 03- 

ujmctcxom nponsrsHflw m nonwTXM peaHMMnpoBaTb niofloe- 
fla fl3ep>KMHCKOro? 

MSP fly>KKOB paCCK33blB3eT, K3K fl3ep>l<MHCKMM H3Be/l 

nopnflox hb wenesHbix aoporsx m nMKBMflnpoBan 6ecnpn- 
30pHMMecTB0, ho «3a6biBaeT» o tom, mto 6onbiueBMKn 
cnaMana ycTpoM/in pa3pyxy. a noTOM penpeccMBMM HaBO- 
flMPM nopfiflox. flawe ecnn cobctckssi BnscTb m caenana 
mto-to none3Hoe, to sto Hecon3MepuMO c TeM 3nov, mto 
OHa npuMMHuna BceMy MenoBeMecTBy, He TO/ibKO Poccmm. 
TMTnep Toixe caenan «mto-to none3Hoe» - nocTpoMn b 
TepMSHMM aoporM, H3fl3eMKy m nofl3eMxy b BepnMHe, flan 
HeMuaM pa6oTy. H sto, 6e3ycnoBHo, mctopmr TepMaHMvi, 
M3 kotopom TMTnepa He BbmepKHyTb Kax He BblMepXHyTb M3 
Haiuefi MCTopMH flsepjKMHCxoro v\ JleHMHa, CTa/iMHa m flro- 
ay, m euje Kyny snoaeeB TMna ManioTbi CxypaTOBa. Ho b 

TepMaHMM HMKTO He BOCCTaHaBJIMBaeT naMJITHMKOB 0>ailJM- 

ctckmm 0yHXLiMOHepaM. Bce-TaxM naMJiTHMXM CTaBflT TeM, 
o kom xotat coxpaHMTb flo6pyK3 naMSTb. A y Hac x<MTenM 
ropofla CapoBO (OuBUlMfl Ap33Mac-l6) oMeHb npocM/in 
ycTaHOBMTb y hmx naMBTHMK JlaBpeHTMio BepMS m nepeMMe- 
HOBSTb ynnuy Mmps a yriMuy Bepun. 

rioxs fleHMH H3 KpscHOti nromsfln. noxs b noMeTe 
pMcpeHiijTanM, BeTpoBbi m nx coBpeMeHHbie nocneflOBaTe- 
riM, Mbi >KMBeM b nocTonHHOM yrpo3e peaHMMaqnn TOTanM- 
TapM3Ma co BceMM ero MCTopuMecxMMM «xp3C0T3MM», rnaB- 
H3fl M3 KOTopwx - npe3peHMe x MenoBeMecxoii jkm3hm. 

Pno>eHiuTanb, /JsepwMHCXMM. MTOTaMflanbiue? To- 

TOBbl, CneUMSflMCTb) no npOMWBSHMIO M03rOB? 

CanHm-nemep6ypa 
riy6fiuKyemcn e coxpameHuu 



JK.ipia PoccmhckmA HcadeucHMbai mctophhcckmA h npd«03du(UTHHu «jtnian Hiciotoll Inland E «p)mr( 



i £«an Qpaoia fim nopejsoo MaCpamo c , CnwcM 



! a«p*: |«L! http://www.karta.org 




POCCHMCKHll He3aBMCMMWM 

HCTopnnecKMH 
h npaB03aiynTHt>in *ypHan 



PoccMMCKan "KapTa" ocnooaHa e noaDpe 1992 ro*a no 
MHMUMatHee nontCKoro HeiaeHCHMoro NCTopHiecKoro 
ncypHsna "Karta", BbixojWHero c flHtapx 1962 ro«a h 
p938HCKoro osiiiecrea "MeMopMa/i" , yspexueHHOfo ■ 
OKTdope 1989 rojta. 




PcaaKum 



noH« ■ "Kapxe" 



|homcp 30-31 
HOMcp 28-29 




>J«j£UBa*^Qca^ssjatiW 



ffl*S*ajS 



NED, 



)KypHa/i «KapTa» buxoamt npn noAAepxcice cpoHAa 
National Endowment for Democracy (NED) 



Hac noAflep>Kn Ba/i h: 



ripaBMTe/ibCTBO KoponescTBa 
HnflepnaHflbi 



OupMa «Bpnr-<P» 
(Pa33Hb) 




OoHfl Oopaa 
(BaujMHrrpH) 



OPEN SOCIETY INSTITUTE 

HHCTHTyT "OTKpWTOe 

06mecTBo" (MocKBa), 
<l>OHfl A>Kop>Ka Copoca 




Me>«ayHapoAHoe hctophko- 
npocBeTHTe/ibCKoe m 
npaB03amnTHoe o6uiecTBO 
«MeMopnan» 



— — AreHTCTBO CUJA 
i SAID no MewayHapoAHOMy Pa3BHTnio 



HHCTMTyT fleMOKpaTWM B 

Boctohhom EBpone 

(BaLUHHrroH-BapwaBa) 

Ooha «EBpa3ns» 
(BaaiMHrroH) 

Mfl «fleKop» (PswaHb) 




nporpaMMa ManbfX rpaHTOB 

POCCMMCKO-AMepMKaHCKOM 

ripoeKTHOM rpynnw no npaBaM 
MenoBeKa (MocKBa) 



AO «Pokc» 
(Pn3aHb) 



OupMa opnexHMKH 

AHTOHMyca ryrrepMaHa 

(repMaHMfl) 



HeMeuKMM HapoAHbiii 

C0103 no yxoay 3a MornjiaMM 

*epTB bomhw m penpeccHii 




M 



06aiecTBeHHbiii Uemp 1/ -> t-4- -» 
(Bapujasa) 1XCU lcl 



rionurpacpHHecKaH cfcMpMa 
neTepa JloMMaHa (fepMaHns) 



OOHfl riOJlbCKO-MBUJCKO- 

CnoBaMKOfi Co/imasphocth 
(BaptuaBa) 




ripaBoaaaiMTHbiM (Jjoha «3a 
rpa)*<aaHCKoe o6mecTB0» 

(M0CKB3) 



KAPTA 



KAPTA KAPTA KAPTA 




KAPTA KAPTA 




4EMHS) B MOEM CEPAUE 



KAPTA 




>KYPHAAy «KAPTA» - AECflTb AET 



KAPTA KAPTA KAPTA 



•■ |J [■"• ■!•!■■■ -a 




1 ■ 



KAPTA 



KAPTA 




Hill 

i mil 

VIIIUI 



4+ .* 




*J!fik