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Keramic Studio 




Volume Eight 



{All %ights Reserved) 



MAY 1906 


Lilies of the Valley Maud E. Hulbert 3 

Plums H. Barclay Paist 10 

Violets Blanche Van Court Schneider. . ' 18 

JUNE 1906 

Roses Alice Seymour, Margaret Over- 
beck 25, 37 

Wild Roses Eouise E. Jenkins 31 

JULY 1906 

Roses Sara Wood Safford 52, 53, 65 

Buttercup Sketches Sara Wood Safford 55 

Poppy and Hollyhock Sara Wood Safford : 56 

Grapes Sara Wood Safford 61, 62 

Cowslip Sara Wood Safford 66 

AUGUST 1906 

Passion Flower F. B. Aulich 

Butterflies F. Alfred Rhead 

Gloxinia Paul Putzki 

Christmas Rose X 

Rocky Mountain Columbine Emma A. Ervin 

Purple Clematis Mrs. Chas. L. Williams 





Small Fruit Studies Ida M. Ferris 99 

Hops Louise M. Smith, Sarah Reid 

McLaughlin, Mrs. Brame Van 

Kirk 105, 111, 118 


Pears Sarah Reid McLaughlin 125 

Red Rambler Roses Hattie V. Young Palmer 127 


Apples Sarah Reid McLaughlin 

Grapes Miss Miles 

White Roses for Plate Anne Seymour Mundy . 

Plums for Jug Jeanne M. Stewart. . . . 





.154, 155 

Christmas Rose Studies. 

A. A. Robineau. 



Grapes Henrietta Barclay Paist . . . 

Birds, and Apple Blossoms, Birds and 

Blackberries Henrietta Barclay Paist. . . 

Geranium Panel Henrietta Barclay Paist . . . 


Roses Mrs. G. F. Camp 221 

Chrysanthemums and Gladioli Panels by Maud E. Hulbert. . . . 223 

White Clematis Ida M, Ferris 225 

Squirrels and Pine Cones From the Vorbilder 226, 227 

Yupon Berries Jeanne M. Stewart .228, 229 

Crab Apples Sarah Reid McLaughlin 232 


MARCH 1907 

Apples Margaret Overbeck 

Primrose Study Margaret Overbeck 

Asters for Plate Margaret Overbeck 

APRIL 1907 

Plum and Apple Blossoms Photographs by Helen Patter 265, 275 

Pussy Willows Maud E. Hulbert 270 

Cyclamen X 267, 276 

Ferns Maud E. Hulbert 277 

Pink Eucalyptus H. L. Bancroft 286 


MAY 1906 

Fruit Plate and Bowl Alice Witte Sloan 

Tree Design for Stein Henrietta Barclay Paist. 

Tree Design for Bowl Mary Overbeck 

Punch Bowl and Cup in Grey Blue. . . .Sabella Randolph 

Leaf Border Plate in Greens Katherine Sinclair 

Bonbon Dish, Bird Design Edith Alma Ross 

Laurel Design for Plate < S. Evannah Price 

Conventional Design for Cup and Sau- 
cer F. Alfred Rhead 

Fleur de Lis Design Frank S. Browne 

Salad Bowl Helen Patterson 

Jonquil Bowl M. Mae Woods 





.16, 17 


JUNE 1906 

Decorative Roses Ophelia Foley, Margaret Over- 
beck, Mary Overbeck, Albert 
Pons . . 26, 27, 29, 32, 33, 38, 39, 42, 

Rose Designs for Salad Sets Ophelia Foley, Marie Crilley 

Wilson, Margaret Overbeck .... 

28, 34, 35, 40, 41 
Rose Borders F. Alfred Rhead 30, 36 

JULY 1906 

Buttercup Motif for Bowl Sara Wood Safford 54 

Borders for Table Service Sara Wood Safford 57, 58, 59 

Fruit Plates, Apples and Grapes Sara Wood Safford 60, 63 

AUGUST 1906 

Borders for Punch Bowls and Cups ... A. Witte Sloan, Russell Good- 
win, Mary Overbeck 77 

Dragon Fly Plate Nancy Beyer 81 

Border Motif for Plate Edith Alma Ross 85 

Decorative Wild Rose and Pitcher .... Hannah Overbeck 87, 89 

Fruit Bowl in Blue and White Sabella Randolph 89 

Water Border for Salad Set Marie Crilley Wilson 90 


Zinnias Study, and Vase and Bowl Mary Overbeck 101, 102, 103 

Hop Design for Stein Ophelia Foley 104 

Pumpkin Vine Study and Borders. . . .Hannah Overbeck 106, 110 

Rose Study and Vase Margaret Overbeck 112, 113 

Rosebud Design for Salad Set Margaret Overbeck 114 

Child's Plate, Bird Design Maud Myers 119 



Stein, Grape Design Mabel C. Dibble 

Coupe and Salad Plates, Cup and Sau- 
cer Mabel C. Dibble 129, 130, 131 

Daisy Vase Mabel C. Dibble 132 

Service Plate Mabel C. Dibble 133 

Fruit Plate Mabel C. Dibble 134 

Invalid's Tea Set Mabel C. Dibble 135 

Ice Cream Plate and Candlestick Mabel C. Dibble 136, 137 

Wild Rose Vase Mabel C. Dibble 138 

Conventional Design for Plate Mabel C. Dibble 139 



Rose Motif, for Salad Set Alice B. Sharrard 

Punch Cup, Peacock Design Alice Witte Sloan 

Designs for Bonbonnieres, Plates and 

Tea Caddies Miss Mason's Class in Design 

156, 157, 158, 159 
Rose Design for Plate Dante C. Babbitt 160 


Fireplace, Bowl and Pitcher, Elephants 

and Clowns Design Ophelia Foley 170, 180, 181 

Camel and Tree Design for Child's 

Table Set Mary Overbeck 174 

Humming Birds, Design for Fireplace, 

Bowl and Pitcher Hannah Overbeck 175, 178, 179 

Dutch Babies Grace Blethen 177 


ftERAMIC STVDlO-lndex 



Fireplace, Bowl and Pitcher, Knights 

Design Mary Overbeck 182, 187 

Landscape for Fireplace Albert Pons 182 

Child's Set, Poodle Design Ophelia Foley 183 

Child's Set, Stork Design Nancy Beyer 184, 189 

Child's Set, Cat, Boy and Bowl Design . Clara Wakeman 185 

Child's Set, Goody Two Shoes Design . . Albert Pons 186 

Child's Set, Japanese Lanterns Design . Carrie Brosemer. 188, 189 



Decorative Scotch Roses Marion H. Nelson 230, 231 

Aster Design for Vase . A. A. Frazee 233 

Eve, Decorative Plaque D. M. Campana 233 

MARCH 1907 

Decorative Studies of Fish H. 

Nasturtium Borders H. 

Bitter Sweet, Mountain Ash and Flam- 
ing Bush Borders H. 

Grapes and Cranberries H. 

Birds and Apple Blossoms, Blackber- 
ries and Hawthorn H. 

Fern Dish, Butterfly Motif H. 

Plates, Peacock Feather and Turkey 
Motifs H. 

Plates, Eagle and Flying Geese Design sH. 

Bowls, Byzantine and Aztec Designs. ,H. 

Barclay Paist 199, 200 

Barclay Paist 201 

Barclay Paist 202, 203 

Barclay Paist 197, 204 

Barclay Paist 206, 207 

Barclay Paist 207 

Barclay Paist 209 

Barclay Paist 211 

Barclay Paist 212 

Walnut, Pine Cone and Tree Borders . . 

Teapot, Conventional Flower and Leaf 

Bowl, Wild Touch-me-not Design 

Platters, Plates and Mugs, Poppy Seed 
Pod Motifs 

Vase, Peacock Feather Motif. . . 

Chop Plate, Sugar Tree Blossom 

Cups and Saucers, Primrose and Con- 
ventional Motifs 

Borders for Dinner Plates 

Child's Bowl 

Milk Pitcher, Milk Weed Pod Motif. . . 

Landscape for Bowl, Vase and Fernery 

Margaret Overbeck 240, 242 

Margaret Overbeck 243 

Margaret Overbeck 243 

Margaret Overbeck. 244, 245, 250, 251 

Margaret Overbeck 246 

Margaret Overbeck 247 

Margaret Overbeck 248, 256 

Margaret Overbeck 252 

Margaret Overbeck 253 

Margaret Overbeck 255 

Margaret Overbeck 256, 257 

Decorative Azalea Edith Alma Ross . 


APRIL 1907 

Calla Lily Design for Vase Russell Goodwin . 

Powder Puff Box Chas. Babcock. . . 

Snow Drop Design for Tile Maud Meyers .... 

Borders for Plates Ophelia Foley . . . 

Decorative Primroses Nancy Beyer .... 

.. 269 

. . 272 

.270, 271 


MAY 1906 



1-9 Class Room(The Art of Teaching) 121-126 


Class Room (The Art of Teaching) 146-152 


Taxile Doat Irene Sargent 171-173 


Class Room (The Art of Teaching) 195, 196 

Class Room (Groundlaying, Tinting, 

Dusting, etc) 73-84 Class Room (The Art of Teaching) 218-224 

Y. W. C. A. Art School, 84, 85 

Tin Enameled Ware (4th paper) Prof. Chas. F. Binns 86 APRIL 1907 

SEPTEMBER 1906 Class Room (The Art of Teaching) 264-26S 

Alhambra Ceramic Works 272, 273 

Class Room (Raised Paste) 98-101 Mrs. Loomis' Hand Built Pottery 274 

Class Room (Firing) 

Tin Enameled Ware (2d paper) Prof. Chas. F. Binns 12, 13 

JUNE 1906 

Class Room (Firing) 28-30 

Tin Enameled Ware (3d paper) Prof. Chas. F. Binns 36-40 

JULY 1906 

Class Room (Etching) 49 

Exhibitions of Chicago Ceramic Society and National League 50, 51 

AUGUST 1906 




.44, 45, 46 

Raffia Stitches Madge E. Weinland 20, 21 Art in Pewter (lst Paper) yules Brateau 

Suggestions for Metal Workers Emily F. Peacock . . . . 21, 22 Rug Weaving and Dyeing (2d paper) . . Mabel Tuke Priestman 164 _ 167 


Printing with a Wood Block Haswell Clarke Jeffery 190-192 


Art in Pewter (2d paper) Jules Brateau 213-215 


JUNE 1906 

The Making of a Metal Sconce F. S. Sanford 

JULY 1906 

The Making of a Palm-leaf Basket(lst 

paper) Lucy E. Shields 67, 68, 69 

New York Guild of Arts and Crafts 69, 70, 71 

AUGUST 1906 

National Society of Craftsmen Exhibition 234-236 

Work of Pratt Institute Students 236, 237 

MARCH 1907 

The Making of a Palm-leaf Basket (2d 

paper) Lucy E. Shields 93, 94 

Design for Portfolio or Frame Edith Alma Ross 92 

Providence Technical High School 94, 95 Fabric Stenciling Harry Barnes Goundrey 258-260 

Art in Pewter (3d paper) : . Jules Brateau 260, 261 

APRIL 1907 


The Making of a Metal Lantern F. G. Sanford 1 15-118 

OCTOBER 1906 Art in Pewter ( 4th P a P er ) .• ■ Jules Brateau 279-281 

Arts and Crafts Society of Detroit, Mich 282, 283 

Rug Weaving and Dyeing (1st paper) . Mabel Tuke Priestman 140-142 Barum Guild of Arts and Crafts, Barnstaple, England 284, 285 




Plums Teana McLennon Hinman. .May 1906 

Yellow Wild Roses Ida M. Ferris June 1906 

Strawberries Sara Wood Safford July 1906 

Marigolds Laura B. Overly August 1906 

Zinnias Mary Overbeds: September 1906 

Peacock Bowl Mabel C. Dibble October 1906 

Orchids Paul Putzki November 1906 

Child's Plate (Camels and Trees) Mary Overbeck December 1906 

Poppy and Hawthorn Blossoms Henrietta Barclay Paist January 1907 

Jacqueminot Roses F. B. Aulich February 1907 

Decorative Landscape Margaret Overbeck March 1907 

Cyclamen Paul Putzki April 1907 


K-E-E./P TH 

F^l R-l 

R_UI V-EZ-, 


MR. F. B. AULICH > ^ o» > > 



MISS M. E. HULBERT .* .* .* 



MRS. H. B. PAIST ^ j» ^ > > 

MRS. S. E. PRICE ^ j»: > > > 




MR. F. A. RHEAD * jt * jt * 







MAY MCMVI Price 40c. Yearly Subscription $4.00 

fl noMTHLT jiagazine for the potter and decorator- 

[ The entire contents of this Magazine are cohered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted Without special permission. 



The Glass Room — "Firing" 

Lilies of the Valley 

Fruit Plate and Bowl 

Tree Design for Stein 

Tree Design for Bowl 

Punch Bowl and Cup 


Treatment for Heliotrope 

Deaf Border Plate 

Tin-Enameled Ware — (2d paper) 

Bonbon Dish 

Daurel Design for Plate 

Cup and Saucer 

League Notes 

Fleur De Eis Design 

Salad Bowl 

Plums (Supplement) 


Jonquil Bowl 

The Crafts- 
Raffia Stitches 
Suggestions for Metal Workers 

M. E. Hulbert 

Alice Witte Sloan 

H. B. Paist 

Mary Overbeck 

Sabella Randolph 

H. B. Paist 

F. B. Aulich 

Katherine Sinclair 

Chas. F. Binns 

Edith Alma Ross 

S. E. Price 

F. A. Rhead 

Belle Barnett Vesey 

Frank Browne 

Helen V. Patterson 

Teana McLennon-Hinman 

Blanche Van Court Schneider 

M. Mae Woods 

Madge E. Weinland 
Emily F. Peacock 



1 to 9 




















Some Leading Agencies of Keramic Studio 

We take pleasure in mentioning a few of the leading agencies for the sale 
of the Keramic Studio, where, also, subscriptions may be placed: 

Boston, Mass.— Miss E. E. Page, 286 Boyslton St.; Smith & McCance, 

Old Corner Book Store. 
Brooklyn — A. D. Mathew's Sons, Fulton Street. 
Buffalo— Mrs. Filkins, 609 Main Street. 
Chicago — A. H.- Abbott & Co.; A. C. McClurg & Co.; Brentano's; Burley 

Cincinnati— Miss M. Owen, 245 Elm Street; A. B. Closson, 110 W. 4th St. 

Traxel & Maas, 4th Street, near Elm. 
Cleveland, Ohio — Vinson & Korner, 150 Euclid Ave. 
Columbus, Ohio — Lee Roessler, 116 So. High Street. 
Denver, Colo.— H. R. Meininger, 409 16th Street. 
Detroit, Mich.— L. B. King & Co. ; Art China Co. 
Hartford, Ct.— E. M. Sill. 
Grand Rapids, Mich— Miller, Wolfe Co. 
Indianapolis, Ind. — Keramic Supply Co., Lemcke Building. 
Kansas City, Mo. — Emery, Bird, Thayer Co.; Geo. B. Peck Co. 

Minneapolis, Minn. — Minn. Art China Co., 607 1st Ave. So.; Elizabeth 

Hood, 18 W. 6th St., St. Paul, Minn. 
New York City — Brentano's, Union Square; M. T. Wynne's, HE. 20th 

St.; The Fry Art Co., HE. 22d St.; Wanamaker's; American News Co.; 

J. B. Ketcham, 107 W. 25th Street. 
Newark, N. J. — Keramic Novelty Co. 
Oakland, Cal.— Smith Bros. 
Omaha, Neb. — Megeath Stationery Co. 
Philadelphia — Wanamaker's. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. — Otto Schaffer & Bros.; Kurtz, Langbein & Schwartz, 

R. S. Davis & Co., 346 Fifth Ave.; John G. Yergan, 420 Penn Ave. 
San Francisco — Mrs. M. E. Perley, 207 Post Street. 
St. Louis— F. Weber & Co.; A. S. Aloe & Co., Erker Bros Optical Co. 
Syracuse — Wolcott Book Shop; W. Y. Foote; O. W. Conger; A. L. 

Vs.mey & Co., 336 S. Salina Street. 
Toronto — The Art Metropole. 
Washington, D. C. — Wood & Lothrop. 

The Magazine may also be ordered from any news dealer or book store 
in this country, who can procure it through the American News Company 
New York, its branches, or at the office of 

Keramic Studio Pub. Co., 108 Pearl St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Vol. Vlll[ No. i 


May, J906 

HE June Rose Competition closed 
April 15th. The prize designs 
will be given in the June Ker- 
amic Studio. The next compe- 
tition will be the Christmas com- 
petition closing October 1st in 
order to give time for making a 
special Christmas supplement 
and holiday number. It has 
been thought best to discontinue 

the summer competitions as decorators are all too busy 

resting or gathering material to send in their best efforts. 
The subjects for the Christmas Competition are as 

follows — we are giving plenty of time to be sure of results 

surpassing any former efforts. 

I. Decoration for child's [room, dado, fireplace and 
wash stand top in tiles, washing set to match. (Shapes 
of ceramic forms to be considered.) 

To be executed in black and white wash with a section 
in color. Enough tiles only need be given to carry the 
design, a small sketch in pen and ink showing the com- 
pleted effect. 

First prize, $25.00, Second prize $15.00. 

II. Decorative study of Christmas Rose in three to five 
colors, panel 8x10, with conventionalized application to 
punch bowl and cup, claret pitcher, and stein, in black and 
white wash accompanied by a color scheme. (Shapes of 
ceramic forms to be considered.) 

First prize $25.00, Second prize $15.00. 

Child's table set — Tray, bowl, plate and pitcher, con- 
ventionalized design in black and white wash with a sec- 
tion in color, (Shapes of ceramic forms to be considered.) 

First prize $25.00, Second prize $15.00. 

We will be glad to publish any notices of ceramic or 
arts and crafts exhibitions to be held, if sent in time; or 
any after notices with or without illustrations, reserving 
only the right to cut where necessary to occupy space. 

It has been suggested that it would be interesting to 
our readers to give occasionally the larger part of an en- 
tire number to the illustrating of the work of some prom- 
inent ceramic decorator. We have decided to try this 
every third month. The initial number July will be devoted 
to the work of Mrs. Sara Wood Safford of'New York. The 
second number, October, will illustrate the art of Miss 
Mabel Dibble of Chicago, the other artists will be announced 
later, with their months. 


Want of space prevents us from publishing the usual 
"Answers to Inquiries" and 'Answers to Correspondents," 
in this issue. 

Mr. F. B. Aulich, of Chicago, has been on an extended 
trip to California which has proved not only very pleasant 
but also very profitable. 

We are pleased to announce that Miss Maud Mason 
will be the next president of the New York Society of 
Keramic Arts. 


Articles must be submitted by 5th of May for June 
competition. In order to fill up chinks in the Class Room 
instruction before going on to new subjects, the follow- 
ing subjects will be given: 

Ground laying (Grounding, Tinting, Dusting, both in 
bright and mat colors, and backgrounds for flowers, etc.) 
Raised paste and etching for gold work (includes 
causes of defective work with remedies.) 
Third Prize, Ella L. Adams, Yellow Springs, Ohio. 

I HAVE had 'a limited experience with gas, gasoline, 
* oil and charcoal kilns and found that satisfactory result 
could be secured with all. The only objection to gas is 
the fact that often sufficient pressure is lacking for a good 
strong flame. 

Decide upon the kiln you purchase not from allur- 
ing notices but from talk with people who have tried 
certain kilns and found them not wanting. 

See that your kiln is set up properly, so that the ven- 
tilation of the fire pot is good and make sure that your 
pipe is high enough to secure a good draught to carry 
away all gases and smoke from the oils and paints. 

Almost all firers heat their kilns a few minutes before 
stacking and then turn them off. This is to make sure 
there is no dampness in the kiln, which would be liable 
to spot the china. While the kiln is cooling from this 
preliminary heating is a good time to carefully examine 
your china, to make sure there are no paint spots from 
fingers or brushes. Place your stilts, platten sheets and 
asbestos sheets where they are easy of access, for all these 
may be needed as the stacking develops. 

Now is the time to decide just where you intend plac- 
ing the various pieces so that there will be no waste of time 
and patience in stacking and unstacking through indecis- 

A good rule to follow is to give a hard firing after 
the first painting, for, when a good glaze is secured, the 
other paintings are simplified. The hottest part of the 
kiln is the bottom, so stack your "first firing" china here. 

China is not injured if it touches the kiln, provided 
that two sides do not touch it, for, since china expands 
in the firing, allowance must be made for this. 

China pieces should not touch each other for two 
reasons; they are apt to stick together when the glaze 
softens, and they need spaces for the hot air to circulate. 

Cups may be stacked inside each other with stilts 
between, or on some larger piece. Is there a tankard or 
large pitcher for the first firing? Do not fail to set it on 
a stilt to prevent its breaking in firing, for, unless so placed, 
large pieces, being apt to heat sooner at the bottom than 
at the top, may develop an annoying crack. A punch 
bowl for the first firing should be placed on stilts top down. 
This does not waste space in the kiln, for smaller pieces 
may be placed under the bowl, making sure of course that 
they do not touch each other. The inside of a pitcher, 
salad bowl or some other piece of similar shape may be 


stacked with various small objects. If there be an un- 
painted surface or one that has no fresh tint, an asbestos 
sheet may be placed on this as a receptacle for buttons, 
pins and various small objects hard to stack on stilts. 

In stacking plates on top of each other, make sure 
that the stilts are of uniform size and are evenly arranged, 
either around the rim or inside, to prevent the plates 
from tilting. Make sure that all the pieces which re- 
quire a hard firing are on the bottom, utilizing every nook 
and corner. 

All pieces decorated with hard enamel require a hard 
firing to bring out the glaze, so save a space for china so 
decorated, Eustres should be placed at the bottom, 
since a hard firing is always the most satisfactory for them. 
Now put on the shelf, making sure that no china touches 
its underside. 

What is left for this middle part of the kiln? Mat 
colors do not require a hard firing, so place all first paint- 
ing mat colors in the middle of the kiln. English and 
Belleek china do not require as hard a firing as French 
makes, so quite often (especially if painted with iron colors) 
they may be fired here the first time. 

Is there paste to be fired? Here is the place for it 
with one exception: if water paste is used, the bottom of 
the kiln is where it belongs. 

Gold work will stand a hard firing unless over color or 
on Belleek or English china when the glaze absorbs it, so 
it is always safer and more satisfactory to fire gold here. 

All carmines, roses or pinks should be in the middle 
of the kiln. Hence they should not be used in the first 
painting if the other colors require a hard firing. All soft 
enamels should be fired here, also hard enamel which has 
been mixed with £ flux to give it glaze. 

The top of the kiln may be used for pieces upon which 
are the finishing touches, or pieces decorated the second 
time with highly fluxed colors such as apple green, pearl 
grey and mixing yellow; or English and Belleek for either 
second or final firing. 

Are all your pieces stacked with none touching another? 
Then close the kiln, and, if the kiln has the addition of a 
hood, be sure that the little hole in the hood is directly 
over the funnel shaped opening in the lid, for through 
this hole the changing process of the kiln is seen. 

Eight the burner and turn on very low for ten or 
fifteen minutes, that the china may not become heated 
too fast. After this first stage of low flame, turn on full 
head and hope for no failures. 

Since different kilns require different lengths of time 
for firing and the same kiln will one day be ready to turn 
off sooner than on another day, firing cannot be done by 
the clock. When the inside of the kiln shows a rosy, 
misty glow, keep it on for about five minutes, and then 
turn off. If this misty glow is not explicit enough, another 
good test is when the china seems blacker than the iron 

Pyrometric cones may be secured and experimented 
with until one is found which melts at the heat needed 
for some desired effects. 

Do not attempt to open the kiln for several hours 
after it is turned off, for the larger pieces are liable to 
crack, if exposed to the air when hot, and the kiln is apt 
to warp. Never under any circumstances open the kiln 
while the china is being fired. 

It is a good plan to have a damper in the kiln pipe. 
This may be shut after the kiln is turned off and it will 
prevent the china from cooling too rapidly. 

The inside of the kiln should be whitewashed fre- 
quently since this helps the firing process. 

If the kiln be full, a better firing is insured. 

It is an excellent idea to keep a note book for the 
record of all your successes and failures. These notes 
may prove invaluable in time. 


Deep Blue Green, blues and violets should have a 
good glaze if fired at the right temperature in the bottom 
of the kiln. 

Red with a blue tone has had too hard a firing or has 
been mixed with too much oil or flux. 

Rose that fires a purplish tone is overtired. If it is 
brownish it is underfired. This can be retouched with 
Rose and fired lightly. 

If Mixing Yellow comes from the kiln a grey green, 
it is overtired. 


I would like to enter here a plea for glass painting 
and firing. This fascinating work seems so little appre- 
ciated. Difficulties are no greater than those of china, 
and the firing does not require as much time. 

Glass may be fired in the bottom of the kiln upon 
powdered lime or asbestos, or on a shelf on asbestos, or 
its equivalent, platten. All kinds of glass may be used, 
but of course Bohemian glass is the best. The other glass 
may melt down, especially if a stem cup or bowl, and leave 
an undistinguishable mass. 

The kiln should be turned off as soon as a cherry red 
heat develops, more is ruinous. No piece should be stacked 
on another, for glass is too frail for such treatment. 

Glass for window or screen decoration should always 
be laid flat since otherwise it may bend. 
SOME don'ts. 

Don't paint Moss Green or Brown Green on Belleek, 
they fire brown. 

Don't use Ivory Glaze over iron reds or browns, 
it eats both of these. 

Don't use Yellow with reds or other iron colors, for 
Yellow is also a cannibal. Use Silver Yellow with reds 
and Mixing Yellow with greens. 

Don't give the pinks too hard or too frequent a firing. 

Don't fire outlining black too often, it may chip off. 

Don't fire enamel too often, it too may chip off. 

Don't wash your china with water just before paint- 
ing. It is too liable to be held on the china by the paint, 
and when fired the steam throws off the paint, leaving un- 
sightly and often irreparable spots. Use turpentine or 
alcohol for cleansing. 

Don't put on too much paint or oil, they will cause 
blisters on the china. 

Don't paint china that has been used on the table. 
It is too apt to have absorbed soap or grease, thus injur- 
ing the china and often spoiling other pieces in the kiln. 

Don't put stilts on Belleek or English china, they 
are liable to stick to it and spoil the piece. 

Don't attribute failures to a defective kiln. The 
fault may lie in yourself, the china or the colors. A strong 
yellow when fired near iron colors may with its fumes 
destroy their effects, a yellow next to a bright green may 
turn it into an olive. 

Don't feel satisfied unless a good glaze is secured, 
otherwise the china will in time grow dingy. 

Don't be discouraged at the first failure, nothing 
worth doing is really easy. 


LILIES OF THE VALLEY— M. E. HULBERT (Treatment page 9) 


Fourth Prize —Mrs. Louise Brittain, Dayton, Ohio. 

[extracts only.] 
There are many different makes of kilns in the market 
now. The particular one of which I write is a Fitch gas 
kiln. Fuel used is natural gas. 

The first point to be considered in firing a kiln is 
cleanliness and dryness of the firing pot in which the china 
is to be placed. Give the pot a wash of plaster of Paris 
as often as need be, not every time it is fired but when 
burned off so that it flakes away from the iron. After 
applying the wash, light the gas long enough to thorough- 
ly dry the plaster coat, before putting any china into the 

Always before firing, heat the kiln sufficiently, lid 
and all, to remove all moisture which gathers from stand- 
ing. Turn out the gas, open the kiln and stack the china 
while the pot is still warm. 

By the time the china is all placed, the pieces in the 
bottom and sides of the kiln are already warm and dry, 
so that when finally heat strikes them, they are ready to 
receive it. In most kilns, the heat is from the bottom, 
the burner being under the pot. A gradual heat is always 

Have the china to be fired, ready, all at one time 
upon a table or shelf near your kiln. 

Separate pieces, upon which gold colors, such as 
Rose, Carmine, Ruby, etc., are used, from the pieces, 
upon which iron colors, such as Carnation, Blood Red, 
Capucine Red, etc., are used, giving the gold colors the 
places in the kiln where the heat is most intense. 

Stilts made of fire clay must be placed between all 
pieces that are stacked one upon the other, to allow the 
heat to pass freely between and to keep the glazed surfaces 
from adhering one to the other. If the piece used as a founda- 
tion for the stack has an unglazed rim, it will not be nec- 
essary to place a stilt between it and the bottom of the 
kiln. If possible select a piece which is so made, as by 
directly resting the first piece upon the bottom of the pot 
the stack will be much firmer. 

Stand as many pieces upright around the walls of the 
kiln as possible. See that all stacks of pieces are straight 
and firm, so that they will not slip, causing breakage when 
the jar of fitting the lid on the pot comes. 

When all is ready, close the kiln securely, some cement 
the lid on with plaster of paris, or asbestos cement, but I 
prefer a rope of asbestos closely fitted around the seam 
where the lid fits into the pot. After the muffle is fitted 
on, and the vent pipe into the chimney is in place, see to 
it that your damper is all right, allowing the burnt gas to 
escape. You are now ready to light the gas. A very 
low blaze at first. At the end of ten minutes turn up gas 
one notch higher and so on every ten minutes for the first 
hour. A steam rising from the drying of the colors will 
be seen issuing from the two small vent pipes, soon after 
the fire is started. That is one reason why a gradual 
and slow fire is best at first, so that all the gas from the 
paints may escape from the kiln and not interfere with 
the clearness of the colors. At the end of the first hour, 
turn on the amount of gas necessary to finish the firing. 
The blaze should come up around the sides and over the 
lid of the kiln. Do not turn on the full pressure of gas as 
it is always more than can be consumed and will cause 
trouble. The kiln should be bright red inside at end of 
first hour. Keep the same amount of gas burning for 
one hour longer, making in all two hours from the time of 
starting the fire. At the end of the second hour the kiln 

should show a bright haze inside. Articles that were 
plainly discernible a half hour before, should now be dimly 
visible. When this condition is reached, which should 'be 
in the time named, turn off the gas entirely and allow the 
china to remain within the kiln until perfectly cold, all 
night usually. Exposing china to the air before entirely 
cold causes the glaze to craze and sometimes if too hot 
the breakage of the piece. The greatest care should be 
taken to have the heat regular from the beginning of a 
firing, carefully timing the intervals of increasing the heat. 
Firing can be done in less time than I have mentioned but 
in my experience it is not getting the heat quickly which 
is desirable, but holding it, after acquired, long enough to 
produce perfect fusion of the colors. 

Underfiring is a fault not easily corrected ; even when 
retouched entirely and retired the piece never has the 
brilliant glaze of a perfectly fired one. Different colors 
from different manufacturers require different handling, 
some glaze more readily than others, while some lose in 
value, when others are intensified by firing. One can 
only learn from experience just how to allow for these 

In case the china comes from the kiln with all the 
beautiful colors turned a dull smoke grey, then first of all, 
look for a break in the pot, which has allowed the gas to 
leak in. If no break is found then you have used more 
gas than could be consumed, or your damper was not 
open enough to allow the burnt gas to escape. 

There are many chemical changes, which take place 
during firing that cannot be accounted for and that cannot 
be reproduced. 

Do not put freshly painted china into the kiln with- 
out first drying it thoroughly as moisture from the fresh 
paint is liable to cloud some other piece near it. 

When the colors come from the kiln, having a crawled, 
separated appearance, too much oil has been used, or 
when the color burns off in spots it is nearly always from 
the same cause. 

Dust in the paint will give a specky appearance. 
Figure painting should be fired alone, as ofttimes the 
iron colors, lustres or other work which creates a strong- 
gas, will mar the delicate color of a figure piece. 

Work can sometimes be finished in two fires but usually 
three are required to thoroughly develop it. 
o o o 
Fifth Prize— Mrs. J. W. Gowie, Sarnia, Ontario, Canada. 

[EXTRACTS oni/y.] 

After finishing the decoration of the article prior to 
firing, make a careful examination of it, particularly on 
the underside, to see that there are no daubs of paint, or 
gold, or finger marks. Clean all off carefully with turpen- 
tine, and place in a warm oven to dry. 

A studio oven is a great convenience as china may be 
dried in it as soon as painted, thus insuring safety from 
dust; as any dust which may settle on it after it is dry 
may be brushed off with a piece of soft silk. 

Lustre must be dried immediately after painting, as 
every particle of dust which settles on it will leave a white 
spot after being fired. 

After drying the china do not handle till it is cold, for 
all paint is soft while warm, and finger marks will show 
plainly in soft paint. 

Always wipe each piece gently, with a soft piece of 
silk, before placing in the kiln. 

Dampness and dust are two of the greatest foes china 
decorators have to contend with. If the kiln is in a damp. 



4-W. B /»«--n. 



or cold room, warming before stacking is very necessary 
as any moisture which may be there will surely accumulate 
and settle in round drops on the china, leaving light spots 
which will be plainly discernible after firing. A good plan 
is to whitewash the firing pot and shelves with a good 
heavy coat of lime about every three months or as often 
as it needs to be renewed. This will absorb the moisture 
and prevent its settling on the china. 

To stack the kiln requires good judgment, careful 
calculation and good management. If plates and saucers 
are not tinted they may be separated by two or three 
strands of asbestos cord, if care is taken where each strand 
is placed. This takes up less room than the stilts and is 
a little more steady. It is a good plan to tie the pile of 
plates or saucers together with asbestos cord, as this will 
prevent their falling over. Cups and bowls, if not edged 
with gold may have other pieces placed on top of them, 
if a platten is put there for them to rest upon. All the 
spaces may be filled with small pieces. In stacking the 
kiln, be sure to leave sufficient room for expansion and 
contraction between the pieces or they will either break 
in the kiln or be fired together, and will have to be broken 
apart afterwards. Utilize every part of the kiln but do 
not overcrowd it. Do not allow the decoration to rest 
against the side of the firing pot or discoloration may 
result from the iron in the pot. 

When decorating with lustre and mineral color it is 
well to do the lustre work and have it fired first as some 
of the mineral colors will not stand the heat required for 
the lustres. Over gold or gold scrolls, where unfluxed 
gold is used, requires a very light fire. This should be 
placed in the coolest part of the kiln. 

Belleek china must never have a hard fire . Too great 
heat on this particular make of china will spoil the color 
and absorb the gold. 

Paste for gold, and enamels are not so apt to crack or 
peel off if dried slowly, before firing. 

Moisture in the kiln is very injurious as it prevents 
the colors from glazing and the gold from adhering to the 

During the process of firing the gold will first appear 
quite black and will remain so, until almost done, then 
this blackness will gradually disappear, the entire firing 
pot will be filled with an orange color, and all the articles 
will be enveloped in a white haze. When it is sufficiently 
fired the black appearance of the gold will have entirely 
disappeared and everything will be in a mist. When 
done turn off the gas all at once, not gradually asweturned 
it on. It is a good plan to fire in the evening and let the 
kiln cool over night, then open it in the morning. 

Sometimes a small grain of sand may be hidden away 
in the china where it cannot be seen and this when exposed 
to the fire will cause a separation. 

It is a mistake to think that anything will do for the 
first fire. Experience teaches that if the first painting is 
correct the second will be comparatively easy. 

As a rule, dust, smudges, daubs of paint, mistakes, 
crooked lines, poor drawing, are more glaring after being 
fired than before, and in many instances can never be 
obliterated or rectified. 

Always use a perfectly dry cloth in cleaning the kiln. 
A whisk broom is better for this purpose. 

I use a Wilke Studio Kiln, and find it highly satis- 
factory. It is convenient, clean and odorless and always 
ready for use. In three years it has cost nothing for re- 
pairs and the cost of operating is very small. 

Artie E. Rogers, Dubois, Pa. 

[EXTRACTS only] 

To ascertain the hottest and coolest parts of your kiln, 
apply carmine to bits of broken china and distribute them 
through the kiln. On taking these pieces out, make a 
memorandum of the places where the color fired most satis- 
factorily. Gold may be tested in the same way. 

Discolorations caused by drying in the oven all dis- 
appear when fired. 

All lustres except silver require a very hard fire. Lus- 
tres may be fired with other colors, but care should be 
taken not to place them near the air hole, as spots are apt 
to appear, if you do. 

When colors are underfired or come out without a 
glaze, they may be restored by applying a thin wash of 
ivory glaze or a wash of one part flux and three parts color, 
over each color. 

During the process of firing the kiln should be care- 
fully watched, lest the gas should burn too high, or there 
is danger of the gas going off if the pressure is poor. 

On taking the china from the kiln, it should be exam- 
ined to see if there is any roughness. If there is, the piece 
may be rubbed carefully with very fine emery cloth, or 
some water placed on it and the roughness ground care- 
fully with a prepared pumice stone. 

The gold should be burnished with either a glass bur- 
nisher or burnishing sand. The glass burnisher always 
becomes more or less discolored, but should it get very 
dark the gold is not fired hard enough. Care should be 
taken that none of the particles of glass from the burnish 
get into the kiln or remain on any of the pieces that are to 
be retouched, for if they do they will fire into the china 
and cause ugly marks. 

o o o 

Augusta H. Knight, Carthage, Mo. 

[Extracts only] 

If one has even a moderate amount of firing and can, 
in addition, do a little for others she will not regret the 
investment. One experiments in so many different ways 
and learns so much as to action of colors, when doing her 
own firing, besides saving time and being independent 
of the convenience of others. 

Having decided on the make of kiln and the fuel, 
be it oil or gas, the printed instructions accompaning the 
same must be carefully followed; especially should one 
be careful with flue connections, draught, plumbing, etc. 
These directions as well as those pertaining to firing are 
sufficient for the mechanical manipulation of that particu- 
lar kiln but there are so many points concerning which 
one is still in doubt. Indeed something can always be 
learned about firing. 

Plates are best placed on edge and may rest against 
the sides of the kiln but must not touch each other. If 
placed one in front of another, they must be separated 
by stilts (which come with the kilns) and may also be 
stayed at the bottom to prevent slipping or rolling. 

When stacking other pieces such as vases, bowls, cups, 
etc., place a large heavy piece on bottom, small pieces 
may be placed inside the larger ones providing they do 
not touch the sides and are not covered tightly enough to 
prevent a circulation of air around theni. 

A stilt may be placed on the large piece on which to 
place another piece and so on. One must make sure the 
pile is not too heavy for the lower piece, that it stands 
firmly and does not "wobble". If it seems at all uncertain 



f ^i^Btar ^ f^Ur>. /Air ^ .im ^ Zi 


In dull blues or reds. 



give it the benefit of the doubt and put less in the kiln 
rather than risk an accident. 

Punch bowls should never have anything placed within 
them as they are difficult to fire, being large and heavy. 
Tilt them slightly or raise from the bottom of the kiln on 
stilts so that uneven expansion will not crack the bowl. 
Neither must articles fit too tightly a given space, 
room must be allowed for expansion, at least a quarter 
of an inch on each side. With Belleek one must exercise 
still more care. The ware is very soft and easily chipped 
or marred. Stilts or other pieces of china must on no 
account be allowed to touch it save as it rests upon them. 
Hence it is more expensive to fire than other pieces. Do 
not allow two decorated surfaces to "kiss" or the result 
will be disastrous to both. 

The only probable difficulty in lighting a gas kiln is 
that the gas may fly back in the mixer, in which case it 
becomes necessary to turn off the gas and light again. 
The gas has been known to perform this feat toward the 
end of the firing and willing to light without any 
trouble and at once. Occasionally it is impossible to light 
it again until the burner has somewhat cooled, thus re- 
tarding the firing. However this seldom happens. 

If one has insured a good draught and good chimney 
connections, the only stumbling block with oil as a fuel 
is a too rapid feeding of oil ; the burner must be hot before 
it will consume much oil and the proper amount for the 
first fifteen minutes is to have only a quarter of the surface 
of the pan moist increasing the amount until at the end of 
forty five minutes the entire bottom of the pan is wet with 

As soon as the first red glow appears in any kiln, 
the heat can be increased and after the first hour the fir- 
ing should be pushed as rapidly as possible. The length 
of time required varies with the size of the kiln and with 
gas depends on pressure and quality of gas. Usually the 
time taken is from an hour and a quarter up. A quick 
firing for rose gives the best results. There is first the dull 
red, then a faint glow throughout the kiln; gradually each 
piece becomes distinct in form, then the decoration is 
visible, soon this blurrs a little, and the color becomes 
uniform throughout the kiln. This is the proper time to 
turn off the heat for a light firing. When the shapes be- 
come less distinct, the decoration can no longer be seen 
and there is an intense glow within, the firing has reached 
white heat. The forms are much more distinct through- 
out the firing in an oil than in a gas kiln. The period 
during which the color changes from red to black is said 
to be the most critical period of cooling as large pieces if 
cooled too quickly may break or crack. Pieces under- 
fired may be fired again. Enamel underfired may chip 
when retired. Gold underfired will burnish off, hence 
should not be burnished if it shows an inclination in tnat 
direction. Roses and reds are the chief colors which are 
hard to remedy if overtired, but may be improved by re- 
touching and a light firing. 

The amateur more often underfires than overfires. 
When one begins to realize all these points, to understand 
her kiln and its pecularities then firing looses its power to 
terrorize and becomes a means of education. 


The Misses Mason sailed for Europe in April for a 
trip of several months. The Studio will be kept open for 
sale of colors, etc., by the youngest Miss Mason. 


Ella L. Adams, Yellow Springs, Ohio 
SXF course, the kiln is stacked the same as all kilns, but 
^ the test of one's patience is in filling the space between 
the iron fire pot and the outside (which is of fireclay bricks) 
with kindling wood and charcoal. The kindling must be 
fine and dry and alternate layers of kindling and charcoal 
should be placed for three or four layers to insure a good 
start. The charcoal should be well packed using pieces 
the size of walnuts for the most part. Pack the space up 
to the fire pot (I have sometimes put charcoal over the lid 
but I should not advise it.) The iron hood is then ad- 
justed, the pipes put in place, and the kiln lighted from 
the bottom. 

The time required for firing is from two and a half to 
three hours. 

When the kiln, through the funnel-shaped opening 
in hood, shows the requisite color for a good firing the grate 
is let down and the coals fall. Thus, the fire goes out. 
My kiln was set on a stone floor, so the coals fell with no 
danger of setting anything on fire. I believe some use 
zinc as a mat under the kiln, always use some substance 
that wont take fire as a ground. A cement floor is probably 
the best. 

On one eventful day no charcoal could be purchased 
in the village. In desperation I resolved to use corn cobs 
which I had used at times for kindling the fire. The corn 
cobs answered, but a replenishing was needed before the 
kiln was brought up to the proper heat. However, the 
china was fired to my satisfaction and I soon forgot my 
corn cob trials. 

In talking with a china painter who lived remote from 
charcoal she told me she always used corn cobs but em- 
ployed a boy to throw in the cobs. My sympathy has 
always gone out to that boy. 

The charcoal kiln can only heat gradually so there is 
no danger of too strong a heat at first. Another good fea- 
ture is that there are no pipes to become clogged, no plumb- 
ing to overhaul, in fact nothing to get out of order. 

Some prefer charcoal to gasoline since there is no 
danger connected with it. It is cheaper than gas which 
seems an advantage to slim purses. 

I have said nothing about the setting of the kiln, 
for full directions always come with the kiln and this surely 
seems superfluous. 


Ella L. Adams, Yellow Springs, Ohio 
V\/HAT impulse or deliberation leads one to purchase 
* * a gasoline kiln? 

First — One is often situated so that a gas kiln is an 

Second- — The pressure of heat can always be regulated 
and an even heat insured. I have known china decora- 
tors who depended on gas to be compelled to fire late at 
night since the gas supply was poor at other times; there- 
fore, gasoline seems a more independent way of firing. 

Third— A gasoline kiln is cheaper in price than a ker- 
osine kiln and cost is sometimes worth considering. 

After having purchased a gasoline kiln, study the 
working parts thoroughly, which can be done through the 
instructions which are sent with the kiln. 

A gasoline kiln should be placed on a cement floor 
or one that has the protection of a sheet of zinc or sheet 


'ron under the kiln to prevent the floor from becoming 
over-heated. The directions for setting up a kiln are 
always sent with the kiln and are always explicit enough. 

One thing can not be emphasized too strongly and 
that is to be sure to have good drawing qualities in the 
flue, for this aids in heating the pot and also in carrying 
off the fumes from the china. I placed the tank for the 
gasoline outside the kiln room which was easily done by 
the addition of a little more connecting pipe. This takes 
away any possibility of an explosion, but I have never 
heard of an accident in connection with a gasoline kiln. 
The tank is well supported with wooden braces, which 
seems necessary with its weight of gasoline. 

Always make sure that the tank is filled with gasoline 
before firing for it should never be filled during the firing 
after stacking the kiln (some never warm a gasoline kiln 
first), put on the iron lid, then the iron top, then the iron 
hood, the openings in all three should be on aline, for these 
are the peep holes. After the gas is generated the burner 
is lit with a taper and r turned on very low, not too 
low, however, for this may cause the gas to ignite at the 
mixing pipe. Should this occur the gas should be turned 
off and the burner lighted again. After fifteen minutes 
the gas can be turned on full head. When the color 
through the hood shows a white, misty heat the kiln 
should be turned off. The time required for firing varies 
from two to three hours, the degree turned on at first in- 
fluencing this. 

It is well not to hurry the first part of the firing es- 
pecially if there should be large pieces in the kiln. These 
should heat gradually. 

It is a good plan to let the kiln stand untouched at 
least three hours after the gas is turned off, for this pre- 
vents the china cooling too rapidly and also takes away 
the possibility of injury to the iron pot by too sudden ex- 
posure to the cold air. The inside of the kiln should be 
whitewashed occasionally since this is a special benefit. 

Above all things insist upon good gasoline. Poor 
gasoline is apt to be diluted with water and in consequence 
burns a sickly yellow color instead of a clear blue flame. 

A gasoline kiln should be overhauled yearly to make 
sure the pipes and burner are free from the sticky sub- 
stance that seems to belong to all gasoline stoves. 

If the burner or pipes become clogged a good strong 
head of gas is not possible, and the china will be under- 

. I can think of no unsurmountable difficulties con- 
nected with a gasoline kiln and can only repeat what I 
said once before : thoroughly understand your kiln before 
trying to fire it and your firings will prove successes. 

•f # 


Maud E. Hulbert. 

For china. For the leaves use Deep Blue Green, 
Yellow Green, Moss Green, Shading and Brown Greens. 

For the flowers, Brown Grey, Brown Green very thin 
or Grey for Flowers in the shadows. A very light wash 
of Deep Blue Green over the lightest ones, and Lemon 
Yellow over some that are in shadow. 

For water color. New Blue, Crimson Lake, Brown 
Pink (these make a good grey for the flowers), Payne's 
Grey, Sap Green, Hooker's Green No. 2, Olive Green and 
Lemon Yellow. 





T^HE colors for this study are Copenhagen Blue, Dres- 
* den Dark Blue, Albert's Yellow and Yellow Ochre, 
Lacroix Ruby Purple, Moss Green or Brown Green 6, 
Dark Green 7. The plums are painted with Copenhagen 
(in the lightest parts) and a mixture of Ruby Purple \ 

Dark Blue for modeling. Use all three Greens for leaves — 
paint the stems with Copenhagen and shade with Brown 
Green and Yellow Brown or Sepia. Use the Yellow, 
Yellow Brown and Greens for background, letting the 
Yellow sift in to give a sunshiny effect. 



F. B. Aulich 

This study was published in the April number and was 
by mistake given as Lilac. 

This flower which grows only a foot or two in the 
East attains a height of five and six feet in Southern Cali- 
fornia. There are several different varieties and colors. 
The kind we know best is the blue violet with yellow- 
ish center. 

Take Blue Violet and' mix some Turquoise Blue with 
it for the lighter tints, Deep Violet for the shades and 
accents. Yellow Green for the centers. For leaves use 
Yellow Green and Olive Green with a little Blue Green 

in it. The distant flowers paint in Blue Violet and let 
the tint run over them to give them perspective. Use 
tint harmonizing with the flowers. 

Lay in the foliage and stems with Apple Green or 
Moss Green . The background behind the foliage with 
Shading Green or Dark Green — not too heavy — and fill 
in the remainder of the upper half with Gold, Platinum or 
Platinum Lustre. The lower half may be Apple Green 
or Black Lustre. Outline the design carefully with Out- 
lining Black. This design is intended for cylinder vase. 





Charles F. Binns 
[Second Paper] 
F)ERHAPS a few words of explanation should be added 
* with regard to the soaping of the plaster mentioned last 
month. This soaping is necessary in order to prevent two 
plaster surfaces adhering to each other. New plaster 
poured upon old will unite with it so that the two form one 
block unless some kind of a greasy surface be interposed. 
Shellac or oil would answer but there is nothing more con- 
venient than soft soap. A packet of "Pearline" is pro- 
cured and on it will be found directions for making soft 
soap. A small quantity can be mixed and this is a great 
convenience. A vessel to contain the soap, another of 
clean water, a small paste brush and two soft sponges are 
provided. One of the sponges is reserved for the soap and 
the other for the water. 

The plaster dish of which the reverse or "case" is to 
be made is brushed over thoroughly with the soap jelly 
and wiped off with the soap sponge. The water sponge 
is squeezed nearly dry and the soap thoroughly washed off. 
Then a second coat with the brush, wiped off with the soap 
sponge and washed with the water sponge as before. 
Then a third application of the soap and a final polishing 
with the soap sponge but this time the water sponge is 
not used. The plaster should now show a smooth and 
slightly greasy surface and is ready for the new mix to be 
poured. A little practice will show when the soap has 
been applied sufficiently. New plaster requires three or 
even four treatments with soap but afterwards, if the 
same plaster block is used a second time, one or two applica- 
tions are sufficient. The mold or dish which has been 
soaped cannot now be used for the drying of clay. The 
pores which constitute its value have been closed. 

The "case" is now ready for making new molds and 
can be used indefinitely. It takes the place of the clay 
mound on the turntable and is always at hand when new 
molds are needed. The metal band is tied around it and 
the plaster mixed and poured exactly as in the first case. 
The newly poured plaster should be allowed to heat which 
it will do in a few moments and if there be any difficulty 
in dividing the two parts the blade of a knife may be ap- 
plied at the junction and one or two taps upon it with a 
light hammer will bring about a separation. The new 
plaster must be well dried before it will be of service in 
drying the clay. 

To produce successful work in tin-enameled pottery 
the whole design should be completed before the form is 
begun. Much depends upon having shape and decoration 
in agreement. There are certain forms suitable to por- 
celain and certain others proper for faience and due regard 
should be had to this 'fact. A correct harmony in all 
parts of the design is essential to the production of a pleas- 
ing result. In both throwing and building the beginner 
will find a difficulty in persuading the clay to follow a 
chosen line. It is well in such cases to pay attention to the 
shape of the inside of the piece. The outside can be changed 
when partially dry, the inside cannot. In order to help 
this the line of the inside should be indicated on the draw- 
ing and a plaster "rib" cut to this line. In pouring plaster 
a little may be spilled on a flat surface so as to form a sheet 
about half an inch in thickness. The line of the shape can 
be marked on this and with a knife the form can be cut out. 
This form is slipped inside the vase as the shaping goes on 
and serves to keep the line where it is wanted. On the 

wheel the same rib serves as a guide and while it is held in 
the left hand the right hand guides the clay from the out- 
side. In the case of a jar or vase with a narrow mouth 
the rib must be cut in the shape of a sickle or crescent so 
that it can be removed from the opening. 

Another convenient tool for use in throwing is a flat 
piece of wood about ten inches long with a slightly enlarged 
end, something like a small tennis bat with a very long 
handle. This greatly facilitates the shaping of the inside 
of vases in which the opening is too small to admit the hand. 
In preparing the body, red clay need not of course be 
insisted upon, a white clay is quite as good, if not better, 
but white clays are more difficult to procure and much 
more expensive. There is moreover a certain pleasure, 
not only in making this ware as it was originally made 
but in using the commonest materials to produce fine 

The pottery being duly made and dried it must be 
fired in biscuit. The lime in the clay will reduce the shrink- 
age considerably and will make the biscuit very porous. 
In fact it must be so. If a hard burn be given and the 
ware brought to vitrification not only will it not take the 
glaze so well but there will be a danger of the pottery col- 
lapsing entirely, for lime, while it is refractory up to a cer- 
tain point, melts down a clay with great rapidity when 
that point is exceeded. 

The next thing is the preparation of the glaze and 
here every worker must be prepared to do some experi- 
mental work. No two clays are exactly alike and while 
an enamel may be given which works to perfection under 
a given set of conditions it is by no means certain that 
with another clay and under other conditions the results 
will be as good. 

The following are both pure white opaque enamels: 

White lead 33 White lead 34 

Whiting 9 Whiting 8 

Feldspar 21 Feldspar 15 

Flint 17 Zinc oxide 3 

Tin oxide 20 Kaolin 3 

Flint 17 

100 Tin oxide 20 

The materials can all be bought ready for use from 
the Roessler and Hasslacher Chemical Co., 100 William 
Street, New York. Feldspar, flint and kaolin are the 
same as those used in bodies. 

If a mill is available the mixture can be ground but 
care must be taken not to grind too fine. The best plan 
is to weigh out the white lead, whiting and tin oxide and 
to grind these for an hour, then to add the other ingre- 
dients and to grind for ten minutes more. The glaze thus 
prepared will have a slightly gritty feeling and will be less 
liable to crawl and peel off than one which is ground fine. 

In preparing by hand no fear of fine grinding need 
be felt. The difficulty will be to secure a perfect mix. 
A brass sieve should be procured having eighty meshes to 
the linear inch. Each material is weighed out, mixed 
separately with water to a thin cream and poured through 
the sieve. Lumps must be rubbed through but gritty 
particles rejected. The sieve should not be washed until 
after all the ingredients have been rubbed through. The 
batch is now thoroughly stirred and poured through the 
sieve two or three times. This insures a perfect mixture. 
Set aside for a day there will be found some clear water 
on the surface of the glaze. This must be carefullv si- 


MAY, 1906 





phoned off, it is scarcely possible to remove it all by pour- 
ing. The glaze should be nearly as thick as buckwheat 
batter, just so thick as to flow sluggishly when poured. 
It will be found useful to add a little gum tragacanth mu- 
cilage to the glaze so that the glazed pottery may be the 
more freely handled. Without the gum the glaze is very 
liable to dust off. The mucilage is prepared in the fol- 
lowing manner: half an ounce of gum tragacanth is put 
to soak in a quart of cold water. The gum can be bought 
at any drug store either as flake or powdered. The flake 
is a little the cheaper but either form will do. After soak- 
ing for twenty-four hours the mixture is to be vigorously 
stirred with a Dover egg beater or some similar tool. This 
breaks the lumps of jelly into which the gum has softened 
and gives a further chance for the water to soak in. After 
standing for another twelve or eighteen hours the stirring 
is repeated and all lumps should have disappeared. If 
they have not the whole mass may be rubbed through the 
sieve but this is a troublesome and tedious process and is 
not really necessary. Of the mucilage thus made a good 
tablespoonful is to be added to the batch of glaze and well 
stirred in. If the glaze is to be kept a long time a few drops 
of carbolic acid will keep the gum from turning sour. 

One word here as to the storing of this or any other 
glaze. The best plan is to use ordinary glass fruit cans, 
screwing down the cover air tight. The glaze will thus 
keep wet and good almost indefinitely but care must be 
taken to empty it all out of the jar when it is to be used 
because the heavier parts will settle to the bottom. 

The glazing can only be satisfactorily accomplished 
in the studio by soaking the pottery to saturation first. 
This is not done in the factory because there one has a 
large tub of glaze and an expert dipper. If any one doubt 
the advisability of soaking let the experiment be made. 
Take a dry piece of ware and attempt to glaze it smoothly 

in a quart of glaze fluid. No further advocacy of soaked 
ware will be necessary. 

The pieces, then, are put to soak in clean water 
They will not hurt by continued immersion but the satura- 
tion should be thorough. They are then taken out, two 
or three at a time, drained and wiped dry. No moisture 
should appear on the surface but the pores should be full. 
Now, the glaze being of the thickness of batter as afore- 
said, the piece of pottery is taken in the left hand and the 
glaze scooped up with the right. First there should be a 
little practice as to the best way to hold the piece with one 
hand so as to leave no finger marks. For a very large 
piece it will be necessary to have assistance in pouring 
the glaze so that both hands may be used in holding. 
Also a stilt to fit the bottom should be placed in readi- 

The inside is attended to first, a little glaze being poured 
in and the vase turned around until every part is covered. 
Then taking a comfortable hold and one which will permit 
of several positions of the hand the glaze is gradually dis- 
tributed over the whole surface. There is no hurry. Hvery 
movement should be deliberate. For a rest or to secure a 
fresh hold the piece may be set down in the bowl of glaze. 
It will take no harm and, being already satisfied with all 
the water it will hold, no more of the glaze is attached to 
the surface in one place than another. Finally, the vase 
being covered thickly both inside and out it is taken in 
one hand if small, in both if large and with second finger 
on the top and thumb beneath the bottom is shaken, 
mouth downwards, to remove all unnecessary glaze and 
evenly distribute that which remains. Lumps are to be 
removed by gently shaking, they must not be touched. 
Then the glazed piece is set upon the waiting stilt to dry 

(To be continued.) 


In gold and ivory. 




Flowers in pink and red, leaves and stems olive green. 




HpHERE will be a phenomenal growth of American cer- 
*■ amies in the next few years. States are appropriat- 
ing funds for properly equipping departments in their 
universities. Specialists in mineralogy and geology are 
in demand and potters are experimenting more widely 
with native chemicals. 

Mural paintings, mosaics, tiles in relief and flat mineral 
colors are seen in our exhibitions. Good American por 
celains are possible and their decoration is a necessity. 

Our educational work the past three months has 
been a revelation. The designs for criticism show clever- 
ness and originality, but lack of study, and an inadequate 
knowledge of the characteristics of the natural forms 
used. For instance, a currant decoration had a grape 
leaf, and the leaf of a dandelion was used with a poppy. 

The first problem therefore, for the year 1906-7, 
will be facts from flowers. Study them carefully this 
summer and make pen drawings on ordinary writing 
paper, the roots, stem, leaves, buds, blossom and seeds. 
Make carefully, omitting accidents of growth and freaks. 

Also give colors. Send the first week of September to 
Belle B. Vesey, 6228 Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. 
Study Course eor 1906-7. 

Problem 1 . Facts from flowers and fruit. 

Grapes and Poppy, Western states. Grapes and 
Dandelion, Middle states. Grapes and Field Daisy, East- 
ern states. 

Problem 2. Outline drawing for sugar bowl with 
two handles, to hold not less than one pint. 

Problem 3. Nut bowl of clay built by hand, molded 
or thrown on a wheel. 

Problem 4. Coupe cake plate, geometrical decoration. 

Problem 5. Vase (to be selected). 

Problem 6. League punch bowl, conventional grape 

If one of this year's outline drawings for punch bowl 
is accepted by the committee, Mr. S. Linderoth will man- 
ufacture it for us, using a porcelain body and the tin- 
enamel, of which Mr. Chas. Binns is now writing in the 
Keramic Studio. Belue Barnett Vesey, 



In flat enamels and gold, with black outline on an ivory and yellow brown ground. 













Teana McLennon Hinman. 

'T^HIS study is painted on tinted paper in opaque color. 
* The paper tint makes a good background and has the 
advantage of being colored from the beginning, and in/this 
way much time is saved if one desires to work from nature. 
It is always advisable for one who does much copying to 
try a study from nature occasionally, and having done 
this, it will be noticed that the result resembles very much 
in color and handling that scheme which appeals most 
to the one who copies, for if one is unable to secure lessons 
from the teacher whose work they admire a very good 
idea and much knowledge may be gained by copying 
that teacher's work. With always the studies from nature 
to prove how much has been gained and for steady prog- 
ress and a definite idea of what one is trying to do, opaque 
color is undoubtedly the best. In painting the plums, 
tinted paper should be used and a charcoal drawing made 
first, then dusted over, leaving only a suggested outline. 
The first tone of the plums is laid in with clear color, no 
White, New Blue and Carmine, as the key note is the 
same the color may be used in each plum on the shadow 
side, varying the tone as one sees fit by adding more 
paint or more water. It would be impossible to give any 
rule on this part of the work, for if one is unable to secure 
the desired result, it is simply lack of practise, for every 
one who follows these rules can in time make a good copy. 
If one fails as some times happens, it is for this reason 
that one has an idea which is sure to be better than the 
one advanced here and the result proves that the idea 
was not entirely right. If the first tone is a good purple, 
light and dark according to light and shade of the study, 
lay in the lights with a little White, New Blue, and Safflower 
(Carmine in the half tones.) 

The greens are painted in the same way, first the clear 
dark tone of Hooker's Green, Prussian Blue and Paynes' 
Grey, and for the lights a clear tone 
of Hooker's Green and then White and 
Emerald Green with a little Lemon 

The stems are made by } 'using 
Burnt Sienna, Payne's [Grey and Van 
Dyke Brown for the lights, brown, pink 
and white. 


Sarah Reid McLaughlin 

For plums use two-thirds Banding 
Blue, one-third Crimson Purple and 
Black. Leaves, usual greens. Back- 
ground, use Alberts Yellow, with Tur- 
quoise Green shading into darker green 
with Olive Green and Black Green. 
Stems, Yellow Brown, retouched in 
second firing with Auburn Brown, with 
accents of Crimson Purple. Second 
firing, strengthen above colors. 














Blanche Van Court Schneider 


\ 7I0LETS are painted with a violet color made by 
* mixing Banding Blue and Ruby. Leaves with 
Yellow Green shaded with Moss and Brown Green. Stems 
a mixture of Shading Green and Yellow Brown. Care must 
be taken in the first work to wipe out light violets and 
lights in the leaves and stems. 


Lay in background starting with a tone of blue grey 

made by using Pearl Grey and Turquoise Green. A 
dash of blue at the top of the bunch of violets. Greys 
and Yellow Brown used in the other tints. Dark part a 
mixture of Shading Green, Yellow Brown and Black, 
and a little Dark Violet. 

Wash violet tone over the violets and wipe out the 
high lights. 


Strengthen background using same colors as in sec- 
ond fire and finish violets, leaves and stems. 

Powder the last fire using same colors as used in 


In greens and yellows. 



Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, Room 23, 22 East 16th St., New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 

Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 
All questions must be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 

stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 






Madge E. Weinland. 

In each of the five following stitches use the natural 
raffia for filling and work with a number two darning 

Stitch No. r. The first and most simple stitch to 
be learned is that of the "Lazy Squaw" reproduced 
from a former number of Keramic Studio. With this 
stitch it is not as difficult to get a good shape and a firm 
basket as when using any of the following stitches. We 
may obtain different results by varying the number of wind- 
ings between stitches in the ' ' Lazy Squaw ' ' stitch. 

Stitch No. 2. The Bridge stitch is similar in charac- 
ter to the Lazy Squaw Stitch. With a weaver of the de- 
sired size, wind three times around, but instead of insert- 
ing the needle into the previously made roll, carry it around 
and underneath the roll. Repeat. (See Illus.) In this 
stitch the reed may be used for filling, but for a beginner 
raffia filling is preferable. 

Stitch No. 3. The Knotted Stitch is the next in 
the series to be made. With the same sized weaver wind 
three times around and insert the needle underneath the 
previously made roll as in the Bridge Stitch. From this 
point bring the weaver forwai d between the two rolls and 
to the right of the stitch; now cross and insert the needle 
between the rolls and to the left of the stitch. Repeat 
(See Illus.) 

Stitch No. 4. This is the Pineapple Stitch which 
gives a rough appearance to the basket. Wind three times 
around and after the third winding, make a loop with the 
raffia weaver, pass the needle from the back underneath the 
previously made roll, catch in the loop (see Illus.), draw a 
little tight and pass it back underneath the roll at exactly 
the same point it was brought forward. Repeat from be- 
ginning. (See Illus.) 

Stitch No. 5. The fifth stitch is a typical Indian 
stitch and consists of a succession of figure eights. The 
weaver is carried once around the filling from back to front, 



The meeting of representatives of various art handi- 
crafts at the National Arts Club was attended to the full 
limits of seating capacity of the galleries, and great interest 
was displayed in the discussion. A resolution was passed 
at the close authorizing the Chairman to appoint a large 
committee to include representatives of all the leading art 


then pass the needle back between the filling and the roll 
previously made, thence from back to front under the pre- 
vious roll and then over and back between the two rolls. 
Repeat from the first. Carefully notice the illustration. 

*• «r 


Emily F. Peacock 

THE copper bowl and pitcher (Illus. No. i,) by C. F. 
A. Vosey, London are very practical in shape, and the 
simple lines in both very pleasing. 

The pewter bowl and pitcher (Illus. No. 2,) are- good 
in shape and decorative quality. 

The altar candlestick in silver (Illus. No. 3,) by R. 
Hilton, is beautiful in line and offers suggestions for other 

The candlesticks in hammered brass by Frances 
MacDonald (Illus. No. 4,) are simple in treatment and 
design and in Illus. No. 5, the rings of Indian workman- 
ship are very suggestive. They are made from coin silver 
and with the rudest tools. Nearly every one is set with 
turquoise matrix, which of course the Indians cut and 
polish themselves. 

No. 2. Pewter Bowl and Pitcher designed by George Logan, Courtesy of International 

crafts, who are to report to another meeting to be called 
whenever convenient. 

In his opening remarks Mr. Spencer Trask, President 
of the club, after welcoming the invited guests, expressed 
the feeling of the members that while the club was equally 
interested in what are called the fine arts, from the incep- 
tion of the work of the club, a large share of energy had 
been directed to such encouragement of the so-called in- 
dustrial arts as the present quarters allowed. Prior to 
moving to the Tilden Mansion on Gramercy Park and the 

No. 4. Candlesticks 

beaten brass designed and executed by Frances Mac Donald 
Courtesy of International Studio. 

No. 1. Copper bowl and Pitcher by.C F. A. Vosey, Londo: 
courtesy of DeUorative Yorbilder. 

Studio Annex on East Nineteenth Street it was desira- 
ble to discuss the situation as presented by the prospect 
of larger quarters and of galleries for exhibition, having 
an entrance separate from the clubhouse itself. Various 
suggestions had been made, such as the establishment of 
a school of crafts under the direction of the club and 



Chased silver locket designed and executed by 

the opening of a permanent exhibition of objects of the 
arts and crafts. 

Mr. Frederick S. Lamb advocated a permanent ex- 
hibition for objects of industrial art, calling attention to 
the fact that exhibitions held by societies of painters are 
arranged to include the sale of paintings. He saw no reason 
why men and women who make their living by work apart 
from easel paintings and sculpture should pretend to 
ignore the necessity of selling their wares. As to a school 
of arts and crafts, he was not prepared to say that this 
would be feasible without a proper endowment. 

Mr. Arthur Dow of the Teachers' College, Columbia 
University, protested against the false impression made 
by the use of the terms fine arts and arts and crafts, a divi- 
sion which confused the public, seeing that all art works 
are the product of craftsmen, while the superiority of fine 
art implied by that mode of expression did not necessarily 
exist. Painting and sculpture when poor are not fine art, 
while industrial art works, when good, are as fine as any- 
thing on canvas or in bronze. 

Mrs. Anna B. Leonard, President of the New York 
Society of Keramic Arts, spoke for the decorators, and a 
letter was read from Mr. Chas. Volkmar as a representative 
of the art potters. Miss Amy Hicks spoke briefly as the 

No. 3. Altar Candlestick in sit 

leading spirit in the New York Guild of Arts and Crafts, 
and from Cincinnati Mr. William Watts Taylor, President 
of the Rookwood Pottery, sent greetings by letter. Mrs. 
Johnston of Richmond, Ind., described the progress of an 
organization of art workers in her town, showing how they 
had enlisted the interest of the Common Council of Rich- 
mond through the educational side of such efforts as her 
society had been able to make, so that it now receives 
financial aid from the city. The work of Berea College, 
Kentucky, was described by one speaker. William Taber 
Sears spoke of the Arts and Crafts Society of Boston and 
the textile handicraft pursued by ladies in Deerfield, Mass. 
Mr. John Ward Stimson reviewed the efforts once 
made by the Metropolitan Museum to conduct a school 
of the arts and crafts, spoke of the Artist-Artisan Institute, 

Cloak clasp in silver and amethysts designed and executed by Harry S, Whilbcck. 

now merged in the New York School of Art, and of the 
school established by him at Trenton, N, J,, ending with a 
fiery exhortation to those present not to let the matter drop. 

Charles de Kay reviewed the situation in New York, 
maintaining that the local art world was like a pyramid 
poised on its apex, because everthing had been done for 
the fine arts, so called, while the fruitful industrial arts, 
out of which the fine arts should grow, had been neglected. 
The Arts Club is a product of the twentieth century, and 
should stand for modern ideas. It should do what is pos- 
sible to reverse the pyramid and stand it on its base, us- 
ing the widest possible spread of art crafts as an education 
for the people in order to prepare the ground for a greater 
and better-founded taste in the arts. 

Other speakers considered the two questions of a 
school and a permanent exhibition, the majority favoring 
a permanent salesroom and rejecting, at least for the present, 
the establishment of a school. It appeared to be generally 
conceded, however, that these matters should be left to 
the committee of art workers to be appointed by the Chair. 
Laymen who spoke or sent letters included John J. Murphy, 
John DeWitt Warner, and Walter S. Logan. 

K-E-E./P "TH 


A_*L*1 V-EZ-, 


MR. ALBERT PONS * -j» .* 
MR. F. S. SANFORD ^ ^ * 

JUNE MCMVI Price 40c. Yeariy Subscription $4.00 


The entire contents of this Magazine are cohered by the general copyright, and the articles mast not be reprinted Without special permission. 



League Notes 

Club Notes— Studio Notes 

Scotch Yellow Rose (supplement) 

Roses — ist Prize Naturalistic 

Roses — 2d Prize Decorative 

Salad Plate— 3d Prize 

The Class Room Firing contd 

Rose Borders 

Wild Rose — 2d Prize Naturalistic 

Roses — ist Prize Decorative 

Salad Set— ist Prize 

Tin-Enameled Ware 

Roses — 2d Prize Naturalistic 

Decorative Rose — 2d Prize 

Salad Set— 2d Prize 

Decorative Rose — 3d Prize 

The Crafts— 

The Making of a Metal Sconce 

Answers to Inquirers 
Answers to Correspondents 


The Rose Book, containing some of the best 
rose studies and designs published in 
Keramic Studio postpaid 

The Fruit Book, containing some of the best 
fruit studies and designs published 
in Keramic Studio postpaid 

Composition, by Arthur Dow postpaid 

Principles of Design, by E. Batchelder postpaid 

Decorative Studies, by J. Foord postpaid 

Plant Forms and Designs, by Midgley and 

Lilley postpaid 

Practical Pottery, elementary instruction 

for students, by Richard Dunn postpaid 

Grand Feu Ceramics, a practical treatise on 
the making of hard porcelain dec- 
orated with high temperature glazes 
by Taxile Doat of the Manufactory of 
of Sevres, France postpaid 

Seger's Collected Writings, 2 volumes postpaid 

For the Collector: 

Vol. II Old China, bound blue cloth . . postpaid 
Vol. Ill Old China, bound blue cloth . postpaid 

Anglo-American Pottery, a manual for col- 
lectors, by Edwin Atlee Barber, Cura- 
tor of the Pennsylvania Museum, sec- 
ond edition postpaid 

American Glassware, old and new, by Edwin 

A. Barber postpaid 

Marks of American Potters, by Edwin A. 

Barber postpaid 

Pottery and Porcelain of the United States 

by Edwin A. Barber postpaid 

The Dace Book, by N. Hudson Moore postpaid 

M. E. Iglehart 

Ida M. Ferris 
Alice Seymour 
Ophelia Foley 
Ophelia Foley 

F. Alfred Rhead 

E. Louise Jenkins 
Margaret Overbeck 
Marie Crilley Wilson 
Chas. F. Binns — 3d Paper 
Margaret Overbeck 
Mary Overbeck 
Margaret Overbeck 
Albert Pons 

F. S. Sanford 
















$ 3-00 










Tulip Ware of the Pennsylvania German 
Potters, by Edwin A. Barber, in pa- 
per cover postpaid 

Tulip Ware of the Pennsylvania Potters, by 
Edwin A. Barber, cloth, limited edi- 
tion postpaid 

Encyclopedia of Ceramics, by W. P. Jervis . . postpaid 
The Old China Book, by N. Hudson Moore . . postpaid 
The Old Furniture Book, by N. Hudson 

Moore postpaid 

Old Pewter, by N. Hudson Moore postpaid 

Chats on English China, by Arthur Hayden . postpaid 
Chats on Old Furniture, by Arthur Hayden . postpaid 
China Collecting in America, by Alice Morse 

Earle postpaid 

Pottery and Porcelain, a guide to collectors, 
by Frederick Litchfield, the English 

expert postpaid 

French Pottery and Porcelain by Henri 

Frantz postpaid 

Dutch Pottery and Porcelain, by W. Pit- 
cairn Knowles postpaid 

Old English Furnitixre, by Fred Fenn and 

B. Wyllie postpaid 

English Embroidery, by A. F. Kendrick. . .postpaid 

French Furniture, by Andre Saglio postpaid 

Old Pewter, by Malcolm Bell postpaid 

Sheffield Plate, by B. Wyllie postpaid 

The Oriental Rug Book, by Mary Churchill 

Ripley postpaid 

Home Furnishing, practical and artistic, by 

Alice M. Kellogg postpaid 

William Adams, an old English potter, by 

William S. Turner postpaid 

Keramic Studio Pub. Co., Syracuse, N. 












Vol. Vlll No. 2 


June, 1906 

HE June competition was in 
every way a success; in fact so 
much good material was sub- 
mitted that much had to be 
returned, notwithstanding that 
Keramic Studio bought enough 
to supply the magazine with rose 
studies and designs in black and 
white for a long time. 

It is to be regretted however 
that so many made their studies in brown tones, we find 
in the reproductions that several studies which were 
awarded first or second prizes, did not reproduce to look 
asjwel^as some which were awarded lower prizes. Bear this 
in mind for the next competition and work only in pure 
greys, black and white for reproduction. Many details 
and soft gradations of tone were lost as the browns repro- 
duce so low in tone. 

T^he prizes were awarded as follows : 
■ ^Naturalistic Rose Study : First prize, Alice Seymour. 
Second prizes, E- Louise Jenkins and Margaret Overbeck. 
Third prize, Mrs. G. F. Camp. Mention, Hattie V. Young 

Decorative Rose Study with application : First prize, 
Margaret Overbeck. Second piizes, Ophelia Foley and 
Mary Overbeck. Third prizes, Albert Pons and Hannah 

Salad Set in Conventionalized Rose: First prize, 
Marie Crilley Wilson. Second prizes, Margaret Overbeck 
and Ophelia Foley. Third prize, Alice Sharrard. 

The July Keramic Studio will be devoted mainly 
to the work of Mrs. Sara Wood Safford of New York. It 
will be a very attractive and popular number. The color 
study will consist of four small panels of strawberries. 

Readers of Keramic Studio will be interested to 
hear news of our fellow workers in San Francisco. Im- 
mediately after the disastrous earthquake and fire, we 
wrote to all our subscribers and dealers there to see what 
we might do in our small way to help them. There 
are many still unheard from, among these Mr. Dorn, 
but we trust nothing worse than preoccupation prevents 
their writing. The following evidently have not suffered 
from the fire as they write that their address continues 
the same, i. e., A. A. Blumenthal, Miss O. Oscar, Ina 
Hansb rough, Eottie Gerichten, Anna C. haw, Miss J. J. 
Dorland, Anna Oesterman, Mrs. F. E. Atkinson. These 
send simple change of address, so we presume their homes 
were destroyed: Emily Hesselmeyer (winner of ist prize 
in former competition), R. M. Drake, Joseph W. Phillips, 
Martha Korbel. "Camera Craft" lost everything except 
books and subscription list. The following extracts from 
letters will tell, better than talking, both of courage and 
discouragement : 

Keramic Studio: By the dreadful disaster that befell our city I lost 
everything I possessed, my home and studio was in the heart of the burnt 

district, so all is gone and from the present outlook it will be a long time before 
art and my work will be needed here. I have not decided what I shall do in 
the future. Thank you most greatfully for your kindness and sympathy. 

Sincerely yours, M. E. PEREEY. 

Keramic Studio Publishing Co.: Your very thoughtful letter received 
and I thank you for it and your kind wishes. I lost my place of business but 
long before the fire reached it I saved my paints and china. I walked into 
town and out three times on the 18th (something like 12 miles) in order to 
save them, other things like furniture and carpets can be replaced. I don't 
suppose there is a piece of white china to be had for love or money to day in 
San Francisco and I have enough to keep me busy for a month after I settle 
down to work. My greatest loss was at my home, an old fashioned book- 
case was filled with white china, the door flew open and it crashed down 
breaking everything, two high shelves filled with decorated pieces, some of it 
the work of my teacher and valued on that account, only two pieces are 
perfect (a big tankard and tray), some of the heavy Austrian pieces can be 
mended and used for show pieces but the French china went all to pieces. 
The earthquake did not chip or crack a thing in the kitchen closets, preferred 
the sound of china crashing in other parts of the house. The house moved 
east and south three inches and everything inside moved with it. I mourned 
over my china two or three hours. Then word came out from the 
thousands of fleeing people of the fire that was eating up our beautiful city. 
The earthquake sank into insignificance for the fire has taken seven square 
miles, there is nothing but suburbs left, over 250,000 people have left, but 
the fire cleaned up Chinatown and thousands of old shacks that were a blot 
on the city. In five years we will have a beautiful city without those blem- 
ishes, in the meantime I am wondering if there will be any demand for teachers 
and decorators in china on the coast. If you know of an opening for a teacher 
will you kindly let me know? DEB WorThingTon. 

Kindly send Keramic Studio. 

Have lost everything by fire. 

M. L. Thompson. 

Gentlemen: We lost everything through the fire. A. E. Bennett 

Keramic Studio: Am sorry to say that I, like hundreds and thousands 
of others, am homeless and penniless. Will take new courage, however, in 
near future and remain here. E. M. Van Blarcom. 

Gentlemen: My address is the same as before. I was not burnt out but 
lost considerable from the shock of the earthquake. 

Mrs. Eva M. Jakobs. 

Keramic Publishing Co.: My address is the same as before the fire, al- 
though my salesroom and stock of decorated china was burned and kiln and 
great quantities of white china were overthrown and broken by earthquake. 
Thanking you for sympathy, I remain, Mrs. F. D. AshworTh. 

Keramic Studio Co.: Am thankful to be able to say that I am still at 
my old address. My loss in china through shake is about $300, and by fire 
we lost several pieces of property, but are thankful to have our lives. 

Anna Oestermann. 

Keramic Studio Publisliing Co.: I lost all by fire after the earthquake, my 
magazines for four years also. Can I get the back numbers commencing with 
the educational articles, I think September to present one and how much 
will they be. I hope a little less than usual price as I am at present "flat 
busted" Mrs S. F. Lockwood. 

Thanks for your kind wishes. My troubles are little compared with 
others, only loss of money. (Mrs. E. J.) Josephine H. Foster. 

We have lost everything in the fire. 

Nettie W. King. 

Keramic Studio Publishing Co: I have lost everything by the earth- 
quake and fire. Yours sincerely, S. V. Gulp. 

A letter from Mrs. Irelan, maker of the Roblin pottery, states that 
she was able to save only a few pieces of her ware, while a large collection 
of valuable wares, which she prized highly, was lost and can never be 




The annual election of the Chicago Ceramic Club 
was held May 5th, the following were chosen officers for the 
coming year. 

Evelyn B. Beachey, President. 

Nellie A. Cross, 1st Vice-President. 

Mary J. Coulter, 2d Vice-President. 

Lulu C. Bergen, Recording Secretary. 

Cora A. Randall, Corresponding Secretary. 

Mary A. Farrington, Treasurer. 

The Kansas City Keramic Club enjoys a membership 
of ninety, during the last year the study course consisted 
of Modern Design and Flower Drawings. 

The recent Exhibit is considered to be the best the 
Club has ever offered the public and more visitors were 

Each piece, the individual work of the exhibitor, 
was passed upon by a Jury composed of the officers and 
members of the Executive Committee. 

The following prominent Artists were represented 
in the Loan Exhibit. Mr. M. Fry, Mrs. K. E. Cherry, 
Mr. Franz Bischoff, Mr. F. Aulich, Mr. H. O. Punsch, Miss 
Dorothea Warren. 



At the close of the annual meeting held at the Art 
Institute on May 4, 1906, after listening to the reports and 
letters from the presidents of the various clubs, we realized 
what splendid work had been accomplished and what pro- 
gress the National League of Mineral Painters had made 
in the past year and how the art world had at last awak- 
ened to the fact that art could be executed in ceramics 
as well as in any other medium. It was most gratifying 
to the workers to know that the New York and Pittsburgh 
clubs, now enjoy the same privileges as Chicago in having 
the doors of the art galleries open to them for their annual 

Our President in her address spoke of the work as hav- 
ing passed a severe jury and having been admitted on 
merit alone, our pieces being of a high standard and of 
improved design being our greatest need. We want a 
school of Ceramics beginning with American clays and 
carrying it through all the processes of fire. Examples 
of coarse pottery, finer porcelains and the finest enamels 
are in our exhibition this year. The Correspondence 
Class in which we have been experimenting is now fully 
established and it promises to be the most successful 
undertaking of the League. The corrected lines are 
easily understood, while technical terms of critics pre- 
viously used are as unintelligible to most of us as Greek. 
A careful study of the exhibition shows there is not the 
influence of friends or superior ability that has put a few 
in the lead, but an early start along the right lines and 
ceaseless toil. Ruskin says "If you want knowledge, 
you must toil for it." 

The principal business was the election of six new 
advisory board members. The tellers reported the fol- 
lowing unanimous elections: 

Mrs. Minnie Parker, of Portland, Oregon. 

Mr. Suffolk of Pittsburgh, Duquesne Club. 

Miss S. Sanborn of Denver. 

Mrs. Katharine Lindsay of Topeka, Kansas. 

Mrs. Ida Johnson of New York. 

Mrs. J. R. Thompson, Augusta, Me. 

A complete and ' audited report from the treasurer 
showed the debits to be $518.61; credits $3 6 2. 5 8, leaving 
a balance on hand of $156.03. 

To Mrs. Burgen, Chairman of the Transportation Com- 
mittee, is due the credit of a carefully planned travelling 
exhibition, after a two weeks successful exhibition held 
at the Art Institute; the comparative study course of 96 
pieces left Chicago the last of May, visiting 15 cities and 
returning in perfect order. 

The Portland Oregon exhibit was one of interest and 
while small, was one of excellent design and resulted in 
the members receiving one gold medal, one silver and 
seven bronze medals. 

It was with pleasure that the advisory board received 
the new club from Topeka, Kansas, and the following in- 
dividual members : 

Miss. Ophelia Foley of Owensboro, Ky. 

Mrs. Margaret Daniels of Valley City, N. D. 

Mrs. Chas, Williams, of Glen Falls, N. Y. 

There was a general discussion of next year's study 
course followed by an instructive talk from Mr. Linderoth 
on "The Practicability of Clay Work, Composition of Dif- 
ferent Bodies and of Glazing, and the Possibility of Decora- 
tion on the Unfired Clay." 

Meeting adjourned. 

Respectfully submitted, 

M. ELLEN IglEhart. 
Recording Secretary. 



Ida M. Ferris. 


For first tire use Lemon Yellow and shade with Grey 
for white roses. For darker flower use Yellow Brown 
with same Grey. Keep the main part of background 
yellow on the light side shading with Copenhagen Blue and 
a little Black. In second fire lay in shadow leaves in back- 
ground with Copenhagen Blue and Dark Green and a little 
Ruby with the blue. Use some Ruby in darker part of 

Retouch roses with Dark Yellow and Grey as in first 
fire, with Yellow Brown in centers. A third fire with 
softening washes will improve it. 


Paint flowers with Lemon Yellow and Cadmium, 
shade with Hooker's Green No. 2 and Indian Yellow. 
Leaves, No. 1 and No. 2 Hooker's Green, Burnt Sienna and 
Payne's Grey. Background, Lemon Yellow with over- 
laying shadows of Green and Payne's Grey letting the 
yellow shine through. Darker background, New Blue 
and Payne's Grey, touches of Burnt Sienna on stems and 

1? & 

Mr. F. B. Aulich has just returned from his trip to the 
coast. He lost everything, but is in good spirits and will 
be ready to open his classes in Chicago July 1st. 

Mrs. Anne Seymour Mundy and Miss Venicy M. Bar- 
low will hold an Arts and Crafts exhibition, in connection 
with their summer school, from July 9th to August ist, at 
Coudersport, Pa. 




(Treatment page 26) 





Ophelia Foley 
DACKGROUND and outline of roses, i part Grey 
*-* for Flesh, i part Yellow Brown, i part Grey Green, 
For roses, i part Pearl Grey, § part Yellow Brown, 
r-J part Yellow Red. For leaves, i part New Green, 
i part Grey for Flesh. 


Alice Seymour 
PRINCIPAL rose and bud, very thin wash of Rosa. 
Touches of Copenhagen Grey where petal curls over, 
and little Albert Yellow on turned back petals where they 
join calyx. Centers and dark shades, American Beauty 
Rose; in background American Beauty Rose shaded with 
Crimson Purple. Light leaves, blueish green, use | Yel- 
low Green and J Sea Green. Dark leaves, Olive Green 
and Black Green. Background, dark blueish green at top 
to Copenhagen Grey at bottom. For dark color use 
Black Green, Dark Blue and little Black. Powder top 
with Copenhagen Blue and lower part with Copenhagen 
Grey, powder over some of the design. Same colors used 
in second and third fires. Add shadow leaves in second 
fire, Dark Blue and Pompadour. 
•f & 


E. Louise Jenkins. 
PLAINT the background first, using for the lighter parts a 
* soft grey lavender tone made of Yellow Green with Violet 
No. i, and a bit of Rosa in the brush now and then. For 
the darker portions use Dark Green and Brown Green, 
and a little Yellow Brown to liven it up some, under the 
roses. Paint next the background leaves, then the lighter 
toned ones, using Yellow Green, and keep them flat and 
simple. The roses next with Bischoff's Rose, dragging the 
background color into the darker ones, to give them their 
proper greys. Retouch with the same colors for the second 
painting, and bring up the detail, as much as is desired. 

For the third painting put a flat wash of Violet No. 2 
over the background and most of the leaves. Retouch 
the roses with a wash of Rosa in the darker parts, and a 
very little of Aulich's American Beauty, for a crisp little 
touch of strength near the centers. 


Margaret Overbeck. 
F)AINT the roses in the light with Rose, a little Grey 
* Green and Yellow toward the base_pf petals in top rose. 
Also use a little Grey Green in the tender shadows of less 
prominent ones to right and below. 

For shadows use Rose darker and Ruby for a few 
crisp darks in centers and deepest shadows. Carry the 
background on while flowers are wet, blending colors 
slightly when forms are less distinct. Use Grey Green at 
top and to the left, shading into Blue, Violet and a little 
Rose toward the right. Make lighter part of background 
of Albert Yellow to left and above flowers. Let 
it shade into Grey Green at left, and down work into Yel- 
low Brown, Dark Green and a little Violet of Iron in the 
indistinct foliage. Paint prominent leaves in Apple Green 
and Yellow, Olive Green shading with BroAvn, and Dark 
Green, keeping the foliage richest in the most distinct parts, 
letting roses and background and foliage all blend together. 







The publication of articles on Grounding, Tinting, etc., is postponed for 
lack of space. 


Edith Cornelia Wherritt. 
A GASOLINE kiln is a great convenience in small towns 
** where there is no gas and I believe is less expensive than 
some of the other kilns. China well fired is a source of 
great pleasure but badly fired most disappointing. Firing 
with gasoline gives the same results as those of any good 
kiln when fired with judgment and intelligence. 

Anyone wishing to fire with gasoline, who has a Wilke 
gas kiln, can do so by adding the gasoline attachment, 
consisting of tank, generator and supply pipe and costing 
$8.00. I have used a Wilke kiln with gasoline attachment 
for eleven years. This kiln will last a long time by re- 

newing portions which may have become warped or other- 
wise unfit for use. Some parts of my kiln have never 
been replaced. A No. 4 kiln stacks to very good advantage 
and is about the correct number for firing articles of med- 
ium size, the firing pot being 15 inches in diameter by 
19 inches deep. 

The first thing to consider is a safe place for the kiln, 
safe, as regards the remainder of the house. The base- 
ment, if dry, is excellent for this purpose. Cover the 
ceiling above the kiln with asbestos paper. Protect the 
floor beneath with a sheet of zinc or sheet iron. 

Fire with a pipe. It carries off the fumes and gives 
a better draft. If there is no chimney handy put pipe 
through a window. Surround the pipe with tin. Use the 
same test of gasoline which is used in stoves. The high- 
er tests are more explosive. The tank holds two gallons 





and can be filled any time before lighting the generator. 
If you are careful in handling gasoline there is no danger. 
A new kiln must be fired to rose heat before using. Wipe 
off the shelves, lids and inside of pot and the kiln is ready 
for use. 

The kiln must always be dried out before stacking 
or the moisture will cause white spots on the china which 
at times are almost impossible to cover. Before drying 
your kiln, put the shelves in and all the lids on. 


Open valve of generator and let the little cup run full 
of oil, close and light. When it is almost burned out 
slide the cup around to the right as far as it will go and 
open valve again so that the gas will ignite at top of genera- 
tor. Let the generator burn until it burns evenly with- 
out puffing. Light burner with a long taper inserted 
through one of the openings in base. Turn on about a 
half head of gas for five or ten minutes until the kiln is 
thoroughly heated. After this is done put out the burner, 
leaving the generator burning low and proceed to stack 
the kiln. Stacking immediately after drying saves the 
time of generating which is from twenty to thirty minutes. 
If flame should fly back in mixing pipe when starting the 
burner, turn out burner for a few moments and light again. 


Relight burner and let burn low for fifteen minutes. 
Turn on gas gradually until a full head of gas is obtained. 
It is not wise to allow flame to pass through hole in the 
second lid more than four or five inches as small particles 
of soot are apt to settle back in the kiln. 

Watch your china through the cone shaped opening 
in first lid. The firing-pot first becomes rose color, then 
white and the china is clearly defined. When it grows a 
little indistinct again turn off burner and generator. Ex- 
perience will teach you when to turn off your kiln. If the 
kiln is properly stacked according to the colors, it will not 
injure any of the colors to allow all of the gasoline to burn 
out. The time required for a firing is from 2 to 2h hours, 

but your chief object is to fire the china well whether it 
takes 2 or 3 hours. Be careful that the generator burns 
all the time during the firing or the gasoline will run into 
the mixing pipe, ignite and smoke badly. 

The kiln will cool in about four hours but the best 
time to fire is in the evening so that it can cool over night. 
This prevents warping and prolongs the usefulness of the 



L. L. Marsh, Beloit, Wis. 

The Wilke kiln looks very much like a large round 
stove. It consists of a firing-pot, jacket, and large burner 
under the firing-pot. The opening is at the top; and there 
are three covers, one for the firing-pot, one for the jacket 
and the hood to carry the smoke to the chimney pipe. 
The covers should be arranged so that the openings are in 
line, that it will be possible to see into the kiln while firing. 

The generator is at one side near the floor. There are 
two screws and a switch to manipulate. The screw nearest 
the kiln is for the kiln burner; the other is the generator 
screw. Turning either screw to the left, turns on the gas or 
gasoline; turning to the right, shuts it of. 

The switch has a cup and opening, and is used in 
starting the generator. 

The kiln should be placed some feet away from the 
wall, with plenty of zinc and asbestos paper on the floor, 
and bricks under the feet. A good chimney connection 
is very desirable. 

Fill the tank in the daytime and some time before fir- 
ing, taking care that no gasoline is left on top of the tank 
after the cover is on. It is well to warm the kiln before 
firing, as this expels the dampness. When firing often, 
it is sufficient to dry the shelves and cover. 

Some dry the kiln while placing the covers, but there 
is danger of soot from the pipe above falling into the kiln 
on the china. A cloth over the pipe will prevent this, 
while stacking, and one over the edge of the kiln will pro- 
tect the sleeve, as well as the china. 



In lighting the fire, have plenty of matches and a 
taper with one end dipped in kerosene. The first thing 
to be done is to heat the generator. To do this, turn the 
switch cup under the generator screw. Turn the screw 
so that the gasoline will run into the cup and fill it full. 
Turn the screw back and light the gasoline in the cup 
taking care that a breeze does not blow the flame away 
from the generator. When the gasoline is consumed, 
turn the switch to the right, so that the opening is now in 
front of the generator screw. Turn on the gasoline and 
light the generator at the same time. The Generator should 
be kept burning all through the firing. If this effort is not- 
crowned with success, wait until the little cup has cooled 
before trying again, as the hot cup will evaporate the 
gasoline as fast as you try to fill it. All this is very much 
like the gasoline stove. Burning inside the generator 
may be corrected by increasing the flame a little, or by 
turning off and relighting. Water in the gasoline will 
make it sputter. Much depends on the generator work- 
ing well, so it is wise to protect the flame from drafts. 
After ten or fifteen minutes remove the damper near- 
est you to light the kiln burner. As you turn the screw 
nearest the kiln, put your lighted taper through the open- 
ing over the burner, and your fire is started. If it should 
burn in the mixer (the pipe to the kiln burner), it will 
make considerable noise, but no harm will be done. Only 
turn out the flame and light again. 

Note the time. Increase the flame a little every 
five minutes until you can see the flame over the firing- 
pot, taking care to turn on gradually so as not to crack 
the china. Noises caused by the expansion of the kiln 
may make you think the china is cracking, but need cause 
you no alarm. In half an hour the fire should be going 
at full head and your part is to watch and wait. 

At the end of the first hour, there should be a little 
redness in the bottom inside the kiln. By the end of the 
second hour the china should be red. At the end of the 
third hour, the cover to the firing-pot should be a bright 
red and inside the kiln a cherry red color. This is soon 
followed by a white mist which indicates that your firing 
is done. Three, or three and a half hours is needed for 
firing with the No. 3 Wilke kiln, and about five for cooling 
Bess time is needed with a smaller kiln and more with a 
larger one. 

Berhaps a word should be added in regard to care of 
the kiln. The burners should be cleaned occasionally 
with a wing, as soot collects. Whiting on the shelves 
and on the inside of the fire pot is good. Beakage in 

the screws and tank should be looked after by the hardware 
man. Worn out parts may be replaced. 

Eleanor C. Small, Belief our die, S. D. 
If there are others like myself, who work alone, and 
find experience a dear teacher, perhaps what I can tell 
them may be of some assistance. I use a Fitch charcoal 
kiln No. 3 and find the work just as good as some I have 
done with the Revelation. 

The first thing to do is to have a good shed or out- 
building, where there is no floor, plenty of good charcoal 
and kindling. In starting the fire, I usually take a big 
dripping pan full of charcoal and put it in the oven in 
the kitchen range an hour or so before I want it, and by 
the time I have the kiln stacked, that is burning well 
and gives the rest a good start. 

The same care must be used to have the color dry 
and china clean, that is necessary in any kiln. Do not 
allow the least bit of moisture in the fire-pot, as it will 
settle on the china and injure tinting and glaze. 

Stack carefully with stilts, or with unglazed portions 
touching. The closer the pieces are stacked without touch- 
ing, the better they fire. I find more pieces can be put 
in at one time by putting plates and saucers flat, until 
stacked six high, putting the small pieces around the edge, 
and a grate in for the larger pieces. 

Gold, enamel and lustre fire at the same time, and 
come out all right, if all are thoroughly dry. 

After the kiln is well stacked and cover on, put a 
scrap of paper or cloth in the ventilator tubes, pile in the 
red-hot charcoal dividing it evenly on all sides, fill up to 
the top of the fire bricks with good coarse charcoal; wait 
a minute or two for the dust to settle, then open the ven- 
tilator and in a few minutes the charcoal will be red. 
Fill up, and stack on top of the fire-pot, and in an hour or 
little more you will have a good even heat. 

Watch that all sides are heated alike and when you 
can look into the ventilator and see the "bright rose heat " 
do not put on any more charcoal. Bet the kiln cool slowly. 
Any cracks in the fire-pot, I fill with common clay. 
I also cover the grates and inside of the muffle or the fire- 
pot with a clay lining for which I use about a quart of water, 
a table spoon of powdered borax and clay enough to make 
a solution about like thin paint so I can apply it with a 
paint brush; after that is dry I fire red and never have 
any trouble with the iron muffle. 


Roses in natural colors on lilac ground, alternate edge panels, black tracery on gold ground 
and white dots on dark blue ground. Gold edge. 







TpINT entire vase with Ivory tone, and fire. Draw de- 
* sign in India ink. Tint vase a warm light brown 
olive, use Moss Green with Yellow Brown; wipe out design 
and sufficient margin to leave ivory outlines. 

Paint leaves and stems in a darker olive. Tint 
roses either Yellow Brown with a touch of Pompadour, 
or reverse the proportions of Yellow Brown and Pompa- 
dour to make roses pink. 




[water color treatment] 
Tone paper first with Raw Sienna and Black. Draw study in ink and use Aligarin Crimson for 
roses, and Hooker's Green and Raw Sienna for foliage. 










Charles F. Binns. 
(Third Paper.) 

Tiles are so admirably adapted to tin-glaze work 
and there is such an irresistible fascination about making 
and decorating thetmthat some instruction in the proced- 
ure will now be given. First of all a mold must be pre- 
pared, for if the tiles are to be properly set they must be 
quite uniform in size and thickness. Most tiles are made 
from pulverized clay by heavy pressure but this is not 
possible in the studio. The plastic tile, moreover, has 
many advantages, it is more like pottery and less mechan- 
ical in surface and is more easily glazed. The blank tile 
from which the mold is to be made may be formed either 
from clay or plaster. In the former case a perfectly true 
surface, such as a sheet of glass should be prepared and 
upon this the clay tile is set. If a sheet of clay be rolled 
out half an inch, or better, five-eighths in thickness a true 
form can be cut from it. A convenient size is five inches 
square though in this individual taste must rule. The 
face of the tile, the angles and corners must be perfectly 
square and true but the edges must taper upwards a trifle 
making the top face about one-sixteenth of an inch smaller 
than the bottom. 

More accurate work can be done if plaster be chosen 
for the model as this can be turned about in the hands as 
a carpenter would a piece of board. A slab of plaster of 
the required thickness is poured and both faces are made 
true and parallel. With ruler and square the tile is now 
marked out and cut to shape, the edges being tapered as 
in the case of the clay. The model, whether of clay or 
plaster being ready for molding — in the latter case having 
been well soaped — four strips of wood are prepared, each 
ab out three inches longerj than the tile and two inches wider. 
These are to form a frame to hold the mold. The model 
tile is now arranged on the glass slab and the wooden pieces 
set up around it on edge, leaving a space of an inch and a 
half or thereabouts on every side of the tile. The frame 
may be held at the corners with a morsel of soft clay, and 
four bricks, one against each board, will hold them against 
inside pressure. 

Plaster is now mixed and poured as already described 
and when firmly set the boards are removed, the mold 
turned over and the tile model taken out. The mold is 
now ready for use but as it is advisable to have several of 
these a case should be made in order to avoid the tedium 
of preparing a new model each time. In making the case 
the same process is gone through except that the mold, 
thoroughly soaped, is set, face upward, on the table, the 
four boards placed around it and the whole filled with 
plaster to the depth of two inches. This will give a model 
tile fast to a platform of the size of the mold and one mold 
after another can be made from this, simply soaping it 
each time and placing the boards as before. It may hap- 
pen that in the first pouring the mold and case will not 
separate. Plaster swells on setting and while this helps 
a mold to loosen itself from a case it causes the case to tight- 
en in the mold when being made. If this happens the 

Site model prepare!) \qt molding. 

mold should be broken rather than damage the case. New 
molds can easily be made but the case is more difficult 
and therefore more valuable. 

A stock of molds being made, while these are drying, 
attention may be turned towards the clay. The main 
difficulty in making tiles is to keep them straight. Clay 
has always a tendency to warp and unless some steps be 
taken to prevent this it will be impossible to secure a level 
lot of tiles. The reason for the warping is the plasticity 
of the clay. It cannot be made to shrink evenly and there- 
fore the mass twists. The remedy is to make the clay 
very porous. Tiles cannot be cast, they must be made 
from rather stiff clay. The necessary porosity is caused 


Roses in natural colors; panels, gold tracery on dark cobalt blue ground. Gold edge. 





RFRAMIC studio 


MAKE all outlines and the flowers black. Place a little Black. Background rather light tone of Black with 
light tone of Raw Sienna and a little Black over whole a little Carmine. When dry, wash over whole study with 
study. Leaves and stems Hooker's Green No, i, with a bristle brush and water. 



by the use of grog. Grog is the potters' name for burned 
clay, broken pottery and the like which is crushed to 
small fragments. Grog is troublesome to prepare but no 
artist who desires perfect work will grudge the labor. 

When a beginning has been made in the production 
of pottery there is never any lack of broken pieces. These 
may be of the ordinary red clay or of any other clay, in 
fact if there be not enough at hand broken bricks will 
answer quite well but whatever is used it must be biscuit, 
not glazed. An ordinary pestle and mortar will do with 
which to crush the pieces and two sieves must be procured 
one of sixteen meshes to the inch the other of thirty-five 
or forty meshes. The pounded pottery is sifted through 
the coarser on to the finer and then the dust is sifted through 
the latter so that the resulting grog is what will pass through 
a sixteen and lie upon a forty or, as described in brief, 
16-40 grog. 

The dust is sifted out because if it were not it would 
render the clay too short for use. It is not possible to 
say exactly how much grog is to be added to the clay for 
no two clays are quite alike as regards plasticity. Gen- 
erally speaking the dry clay and grog are about equal in 

weight, making about three parts of grog to two of dry 
clay by measure. To insure a repetition of results some 
such proposition should be weighed or measured and 
the mass then worked up with water. The clay should 
first of all be crushed and sifted through the sixteen sieve. 
The working of the mixed material will prove the best 
guide, the rule being to add all the grog that the clay will 
bear. The more the better so long as the mixture be 
plastic enough to be worked. The clay and grog as pre- 
pared should be rather soft, a little softer than would be 
used for building or throwing. 

And now to make the tiles. It is presumed that 
they are to be perfectly plain and not embossed. Any 
embossement must be prepared in the model. 

The clay is rolled out into a sheet a little thicker than 
the proposed tile and from this sheet blank tiles are cut 
with ruler and knife of the exact size of the mold. If 
true sharp edges are expected these blanks must drop 
cleanly into the molds and yet fit closely. One of the 
blanks is transferred to a smooth plaster bat and the face 
of it is polished with a steel blade. A long kitchen knife 
will do. If the polishing presses down the edges as it is apt 




to do the overplus must be neatly trimmed off. One of 
the molds is now turned over on to the clay tile and gent- 
ly lowered so that the sides are not dragged in entering, 
then the mold, bat and tile are turned over together, the 
bat removed and the blank tile lies snugly in the mold with 
its polished face beneath against the plaster. The tile 
must now be pounded and pressed firmly into the mold. 
Professional makers use a tool like a sand bag. It is a 
roll of sacking or cloth in form like a stocking. In the 
end there is a pad of wool or lint in the middle of which is 
a small bag of sand to give weight. This must be made 
of close grained goods so that the sand will not leak out. 
This weapon swung in the hand forms a very effective 
pounding tool and the clay is pressed close in to every 
angle of the mold. A wire modeling tool is now taken 
and three or four deep grooves are scored in the back of 
the tile and the surface is struck off, with a straight-edge, 
level with the mold. After drying for an hour or so a 
plaster bat is placed on the mold, the whole turned over 
again, the mold lifted off and the tile set to dry. 

The tiles thus produced will need watching. Even 
with all the grog one can use they are apt to warp and a 
flat board should be kept at hand with which they may 
be pressed down once or twice. As they become 
harder there will be less tendency to twist. The plaster 
bats upon which they lie should, of course, be perfectly true. 

On a large scale tiles are made by slapping pieces of 
clay into the mold but if the studio worker will make one 
tile by each method and compare the results no argument 
will be necessary as to the advantages of the plan de- 
scribed. It is a little more trouble but the tiles are all good 
and well finished at once, whereas by the piecemeal plan 
more time has to be spent on the tile after molding than 
would be spent as directed upon the clay beforehand. 

The tiles Jare burned just as vases would be but care 
must be taken to have them perfectly dry and to fire very 

slowly. Solid masses of clay need time to allow the heat 
to permeate. In the kiln they are best set on edge with a 
slight air space between. The tiles are thick enough to 
stand so and the bevel edge which was necessary in making 
the molds is not now needed so it can be scraped off or 
rubbed down. 

(To be continued) 


Mary Overbeck. 

C>ODY of vase, dull olive, light wash of Yellow 'Brown 
*-* with a touch of Pompadour on roses. Outlines and 
designs made of [same mixture with more red. Outlines 
and stems of rose should be lighter than balance of design. 


Ophelia Foley. 

/^VUTLINE of rose, Pearl Grey, leaves and stems, Grey 
^J for Flesh. For second firing, Tinting oil and very little 
Yellow Brown over the whole, padding off nearly all of it 
from the flowers. Dust: Roses, \ part Ivory Glaze, 
f Albert Yellow; background, \ part Violet, \ Albert Yel- 
low, \ Pearl Grey. 

For third fire, Leaves and stems, \ part New Green, 
\ Grey for Flesh. Yellow Red on the small background 


Mr. A. B. Cobden, Philadelphia, Pa., held his twentieth 
annual exhibition of the work of his pupils on May 17th to 
19th, at his studio, 13 South Sixteenth street. 




First treatment. — Use Copenhagen Blue for leaves and background, and add to it Banding Blue for the flowers and band. 

Second treatment. — Go over whole space with Meissen Brown and Yellow Red and fire. Outline design in 

black and paint flowers in Meissen Brown and Yellow Red, and leaves in Olive Green. 




Marie Crilley Wilson 
/~»OTOR Scheme No. i. Tint ground Ivory with a 
^ touch of Black and fire. Paint rose and irregular dark 
band above dull blue either Copenhagen Blue or Dark 
Blue with a touch of Black. Paint rim, leaves and stems 
Moss Green with a touch of Apple Green and Black. 
In the horizontal openings at bottom of dish put same 
blue as at top — in vertical openings of stems near bottom 
put a touch of Capucine or Orange Red — also a touch 
may be put in the widest part of blue border, taking care 
always to leave a margin of the background. The straight 
lines connecting roses are green. The darker panels at 
base and light line next edge should be tinted again as for 

first fire. Tint entire vase rich ivory tone and fire. Draw design 
in India ink. Tint vase a warm light brown olive, use 
Moss Green with Yellow Brown. Wipe out design and 
sufficient margin to leave ivory outlines. Paint leaves 
and stems in a darker olive, tint roses either Yellow Brown 
with a touch of Pompadour or reverse the proportions of 
Yellow Brown and Pompadour to make pink roses. 

Color Scheme No. 2. Tint light olive, design dark 
olive. Tine just below edge, horizontal lines connecting 
roses, thorns just inside leaves and line just above base 
orange red. 

Color Scheme No. 3. Tight and dark olive brown, 
darker outlines. — Rose, thorns and touch in openings, 
reddish violet. 


The wild rose a pale yellow, the background a grey green, and the stems, bands and leaves a darker shade, 

outlined in dark green. 




Roses yellow, background grey violet and leaves and stems a grey green. 



Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, Room 2j, 22 East 16th St., New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be ansivered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns . 

several designs, all of them as regards the decoration, 
executed like the one we are to consider. 

In designing for all of this metal work you will arrive 
at results most easily with the use of shears and a medium 
thick unglazed manilla paper. 

By folding and snipping we can design outline forms 
in far less time than we could draw them. So in this 
case cut a sufficiently large piece of paper to cover your 
design and fold this paper lengthwise. Then cut the out- 
line form as in Fig. 2, and so by cutting double you will 
produce a symmetric pattern. Now all designing is done 
on + this sheet. Spaces must be planned for — reflector, 
border, decorated space and candle bracket. (See Fig. 
3, 4.) The ornamental motive is then sketched in to its 
alloted space and finished with a clean black line. (Fig. 


Now having this clear blackline upon one half the 
sheet it is a simple matter to transfer to the other half by 
rubbing hard on the back of the lines. The completed 
Method of holding tool in the making of a metal sconce. design is pasted by the two upper corners to the brass 


F. S. Sanford. 

The following method of constructing a brass or cop- 
per sconce is simple and effective. It is really a kind of 
repousse, although lacking the fineness and possibility of 
that method of workmanship. But as far as it goes it 
is honest and although rude may be handled in a most 
artistic manner. 

It has these two great advantages, an extremely 
simple equipment and it does not require heating. 

Procure a piece of soft board — pine, cypress, bass 
wood or poplar — or better still a 2" plank free from knots 
and measuring about io"xi5". 

Gauge 19 or 20 is about right for the metal. Cut 
from this metal a piece large enough to allow \" margin 
over the size required for your design and flatten carefully 
with the mallet. This piece is then fastened to the wood 
blocks with heavy tacks or roofing nails placed not less 
than 2" apart all around close to the edge. 

By first placing the centre nails on each side and then 
working toward the corners one is more likely to prevent 
bending up in the middle. (See Fig. 1) I have given 



Ficj.'t. F, .3< r 

Fv^. 1 

so that the outline comes well within the nail heads, and 
transferred by slipping a sheet of carbon paper under- 
neath and going over the outline. 

The stamping tool is a od nail filed to resemble Fig. 
5, that is with the sharp point filed off squarely. 

The backgound spaces, which are indicated by the 
dots as also the connecting lines, are all stamped in with 
this tool. The photograph of the boy at work shows the 
method of holding and striking this tool. The result is 
to depress and of course roughen the background and to 
raise the reflector and other parts in relief. 

It is not desirable to get the stamping in regular rows 
but it is desirable to have it of even depth and scattered 
in a generally even way over the space. 

There remains to pry off the sheet, trim it with the 
shears to the proper line and file and smooth these edges 

Any humping in the middle or wrinkling of the edges 
may be lightly tapped out witha wood mallet. 

The size of the impression of this nail stamp should 



be varied according to the nature of the design — whether 
coarse in space or fine. 

A could be done advantageously with a rather large 
end because the motive (the tulip) is open and large in 

B and C will look best with a small point. 

We have now to consider the shapes and construction 
of bracket and candle socket. 

These parts in sconce B are a simple bracket form 
bent to a right angle, the lower part shaped to fit the space 

Beaton exge 


allowed on the sconce back, the Upper beaten upon a hol- 
low block to form a saucer like shape sufficiently large and 
deep to catch the candle drippings (not less than 2" dia- 
meter) . This also is the form of bracket used in sconce D. 
The socket is like those constructed for the candlestick 
except that it need have only two legs instead of four. (See 
Fig. 6.) In B this is rivetted like the description in the 
previous article on candlesticks, but in D it is simply 
tacked to the wood with the brass escutcheon pins. 

The horizontal or tray parts of sconces A, C, and K 
are square cornered and consequently formed in a differ- 
ent manner. 

As an example take the form given in A. Cut the 
lower part to fit the space allowed on the sconce back 

F- 1 <v 11 

(See Fig. 7) then extended from this is \" of metal for 
the bend and this spreads to a tray form having a base 
of at least 2 /A x 4" and a \" border. 

Fig. 8 shows the complete pattern before bending and 

This pan shape is formed by [beating [the border down 
over a square block as in Fig. 9 and then finishing corners 
as in Fig. 10. 

Sconces D and B have wooden backs, preferably well 
seasoned oak. These of course require saw, plane, etc., 
not given in our list of tools. Or you can get these cut to 
size by any carpenter. 

The edges have a \" bevel. 

The candle sockets in these sconces are made of 1" 
strips of metal coiled up around stick or directly around 
a candle. 

Cut the strip i"x 8", punch the two holes in the.' centre 
line vertically, coil up and bend with the pliers to resemble 
Fig. E, and fasten by small round head brass screws so 
that this piece may be taken off and cleaned. 

Fig. 1 1 shows the strip and manner of forming. The 
reflector in sconce D is a disk of metal beaten to a shallow 




*~\ c 

K 1 

1 1 ( 

5 *L 




'c ■ — ™ 

III 1 

III) 11 ! 

with clean rags, the second allowed to stand for a few hours 
and then rubbed off. 

Sconces A, B, and C may be stained an antique green 
by using the following chemical solution: 

i part ammonia muriate. 

i part ammonia carbonate, 

12 parts cold water. 

Clean the metal thoroughly. Brush over it the solu- 
tion and dry and apply again and again until the proper 
thickness of rust is produced. 

concave curve. The reflector in K is simply a large tray 
with two stamped lines upon it to break up the surface. 
Before attaching the metal to the wooden backs, stain 
these with a dark grey green, grey brown or black oil 
stain made by diluting common oil colors with linseed oil. 
A good selection of colors is black burnt umber, bright 
green, burnt sienna. The first coat is rubbed off thinly 

Many other forms and combinations of metal and wood, 
as in Figs. 12, 13 and 14, will be suggested to the worker 
as he proceeds. 

Fig. 13 


B. B. — The best cabinet makers glue is used in bindings books. Soak 
the glue over night and, just before it is needed, work in boiling water until 
it is smooth and clear, of rather thin consistency. 

Mrs. S. — Holes in the edges of your leather cover could best be made 
with a conductor's punch having a large or small tooth. For holes in the 
cloth, use an agate pointed stiletto. 

M. P. — To stain a green background on your cabinet, mix a little chrome 
yellow, a little Prusian blue, and some light red or black with benzine or tur- 
pentine. Cover the whole surface with this, using a soft cloth and rubbing 
well into the wood. A brush would make a streaky effect. Be sure to fill in 
every crevice and rub clown to a clear even tone. If there are any markings 
in the wood this process will bring them out. Avoid the effect of paint. 
If your mixture is too thick, dilute it, if too thin, put on annother coat. Several 
days are required to dry this stain. For a finish thin beeswax with turpen- 
tine over heat, until it is like cream and apply sparingly with a soft cloth, 
rub off to a thin even tone. 

T. K. — Acid coloring for metal is more permanent but very beautiful 
colors are produced on copper by polishing well with powdered rouge and 



oil. Then apply a gentle heat with a Bunsen burner, taking care not to get 
the metal too hot. 

]. T. — A fine grained wood is the best for burning . Basswood and 
white wood are usually used. 

Basketry — Rattan grows in tropical forests where it twines about the 
trees in great lengths. It is numbered by dealers according to its thickness, 
and Nos. 2, 3 and 4 are the best sizes for small baskets. For scrap baskets 
3, 5 and 6 are the best sizes. It must be thoroughly soaked before using. 

Raffia is the outer cuticle of a palm and comes mostly from Madagascar. 
It is advisable to wash the natural colored raffia in warm water with pure 
white soap, rinsing well and letting it get almost dry before using. 

K. B. — Polish the ebony, by putting on two coats of copal varnish; 
when this is dry, rub quite smooth with fine pumice stone. Put on another 
coat of the varnish and rub with rotten stone. Clean and put on a flowing 
coat of best spirit copal varnish, when this is quite dry, polish with chamois 
and the palm of the hand. 

T. C. — The blue color in turquoise is sometimes though not always un- 
stable. The original, which has been bleached or exposed to sunlight, can 
Sometimes be restored by immersing it in ammonia or by wearing the stones 
in such a way that they come in contact with the hand. 

K. S. T. — Armenian cement has been used by the Oriental jewelers 
for many years. It is made by dissolving 10 parts of gum mastic in 60 parts 
of grain alcohol. Dissolve separately 20 parts of fish glue in 100 parts of 
water by slowly heating: add to this 10 parts of alcohol. Then dissolve 5 
parts of ammonical gum in 2.5 parts of alcohol. Mix the first solution with 
the second and stir well together, add the third solution and stir. The whole 
must then be treated over hot water and reduced to 170 parts lay evapora- 

C. P. — The leather must always be thoroughly dampened, before the 
color (spoken of in Miss Wilson's article) can be used. 

K. R. — The ordinary coppers make a fast nankeen colored dye. Dip 
your material in this and then in the indigo both for dull greens. 

Mrs. W. — The gilding of a mirror frame is quite a difficult undertaking 
The frame must first be sized carefully then the gold leaf applied. Later 
we hope to have an article on "The making of a mirror frame." 

T. O. — Aqua Regia is made from equal parts of nitric acid and muria- 
tic acid mixed; sometimes 2 parts of nitric acid to one part muriatic is used 

W. H. — Etching can be done on steel with a solution, made by mixing 
one ounce of sulphate of copper, one quarter of an ounce of alum, and one- 
half a teaspoonful of salt reduced to a powder, with 1 gill of white wine vine- 
gar and 20 drops of nitric acid. This solution will also give a frosted surface 
to the steel. 

Mrs. C. Clute— Address The Hingham Society of Arts and Crafts, 
Bingham, Mass. The industry of making Bayberry candles was revived by 
them. There was an article in Good Housekeeping last fall on the making 
of a Bayberry candle, but we do not know of any book on the subject now. 


S. M. H. — Liquid silver is used the same as liquid bright gold. Use 
from the vial as it comes, if too thick to go on smoothly thin with oil of 
lavender, if too thick it rubs off after firing or forms crackled lines, if too 
thin it may be put on and fired again, firing should be the same as for liquid 
gold or lustre, a medium hard fire. The blurred effect comes either from 
being put on too thick, moisture on the china or handling after it is put on ; 
the hand should never touch lustre or liquid bright gold or silver. Use al- 
ways a soft old piece of silk. If once blurred no succeeding fire will improve 
it. Better pat a tracing of gold over the blurred silver. 

G. — Section of Chinese plate, September 1899, page 92, all black spaces 
and outlines should be gold. The flower forms in pink flat enamels of two 
shades. The leaf scrolls in Apple Green flat enamel and an Olive Green flat 
color. The dotted background should be an ivory tint, in the border it may 
be a deep yellow or a deep blue or green. Some touches of this border color 
must be introduced somewhere in the flower forms. The design on the gold 
ground in the border may be white if the background is yellow, or if a darker 
color is used, then introduce Deep Yellow, Turquoise Blue or a rich Yellow 
Green. This design would also be very effective carried out in gold and red 
only, on an ivory ground. We will endeavor to give as handsome plate bor- 
ders in the new style as possible. 

G. B. — The best way to know what any artist who makes his own colors 
uses for rose painting is to write to him personally to recommend the proper 
colors. Each one has his own specialty and only he and his pupils can tell 
you the names of the colors. You do not say what effect you wish, so we 
can not suggest what color to wash over Ruby to tone it. Yellow Brown 
with a touch of Silver Yellow should give a tint similar to champagne color. 

Mrs. C. — Your color which chipped off on the handle was probably too 
thick, especially if you used Ruby over Black. When ground color begins 
to chip it is useless to refirc as it will continue to chip. Nothing will remove 

such a heavy color even Hydrofluoric Acid, without ruining the piece The 
only thing to do is to fill in the chips with finely ground china mixed with 
Silicate of Soda, then paint it to match the color and varnish it. 

Mrs. W. H. H. — To dust a painting when partly dry means to take pow- 
der color and brush it over the painting till no more will adhere, then brush 
off the surplus. 

Mrs. S. — The use of enamel in retouching flowers has been entirely dis- 

P. — For tinting with Iron Reds, add } to J flux. The more flux the 
lighter the tint. 

Mrs. N. — Underglaze painting is painting on the "biscuit" or unglazed 
china, then glazing and firing at a temperature much higher than overglaze 
or painting on the glazed china. Gold in powder form comes both fluxed 
and unfluxed. Tinting oil and grounding oil are quite different. Tinting 
oil is used for light tints and grounding oil for heavy dusted color. Burnish- 
ing sand is a fine white sand which comes specially for this purpose. The 
Agate Burnisher is used on the flat side for large surfaces, on the point for 
lines and small spaces. Liquid bright gold can be used over fired color only, 
and then only over light tints. The conditions of the prize competitons will 
be found on the back cover of Keramic Studio. 

R. — Gold will fire out. or rather in if over fired; it looks then a pale 
thin yellow which will not burnish. Red fires with a blueish tone if fired too 
hard but should be fired hard enough to glaze. No painted china is proper- 
ly fired if it has not a good glaze, the higher the better, except for mat colors. 
If the gold looks pale and thin but still burnishes, it was put on too thin. 
Reds are liable to fire out and must be painted a little stronger than you 
wish them to appear. If Carmine or Rose put on medium heavy come out the 
right color, not too blue or too bricky, you have fired right. 

Mrs. E. G. F. — Add a little deep blue green to your greens if too yellow 
— ivory black may be used with greens to grey them if desired. 

The fruit borders in January Keramic Studio are supposed to extend 
around the entire rim of plate. 

Mrs. L. N. — The best color to use over the pearl grey on the plate where 
it has destroyed the reds would be a green or delft blue, but doubt if you 
would obtain entirely satisfactory results as the glaze is already loaded with 
flux from the grey and reds. 

L. G. — You will find articles on conventional work in Keramic Studio 
also in the Class Room, October to present date. Plain tints. may be 
obtained by tinting, grounding or dusting, tinting is of course padded, see 
articles in next Class Room. The only remedy where yellow eats up red in 
firing is to retouch with the red alone rather heavily. A kiln may be fired as 
often as desired, naturally the more often it is fired the quicker it will wear out. 

Mrs. H. D. W. — Gold may be removed with Hydro-fluoric acid, but the 
acid is dangerous and the glaze is also removed. Try acqua regia and save the 
washings, possibly they might be made up into working gold by following 
the recipe in Keramic Studio, we have never tried it. 

M. G. — As a general rule the names of colors of all makes correspond or 
nearly so but some individual makes have their specialties which do not ex- 
actly correspond with anything else. The principal differently named colors 
which correspond to some degree to La Croix colors are as follows : 

Albert Yellow — a mixture of Jonquil and Orange Yellow. 

Grey Green — Celadon — or for painting, Pearl Grey with a touch of Moss 
Green and Delft Blue. 

Royal Green — Emerald Stone Green and Moss Green mixed. 

Neutral Yellow — a mixture of Ivory Yellow, Capucine and a touch of 
Black, giving a greyish olive yellow. 

Orange Red — Capucine 

Pompadour Red — Carnation No. 1. 

Blue Grey or Copenhagen Blue — -Delft Blue with a touch of Black. 

Chestnut or Hair Brown — Meissen Brown or Brown 14 with a mixture 
of Yellow Brown and Carnation to make a reddish warm tone. 

Rose — Carmine 2. 

Finishing Brown— Brown 14. 

Royal Purple — Ruby Purple with Dark Blue. 

Banding Blue is a pure bright blue which does not correspond with any- 
thing in La Croix color Shading Green is Dark Green 7. We know of no list 
of colors corresponding with the La Croix make exactly. You will have to use 
your judgment as to what color effect is intended and usually you can find 
something in La Croix which will approximate. Any special color we will 
try and describe to you if you will inquire. Powder colors are mixed to the 
consistency of tube colors with an oil composed of 6 drops oil of Copaiba to 
one of oil of Cloves, then thinned for painting with spirits of turpentine. If 
you have only subscribed recently we would advise you to send for back 
numbers containing the "Class Room" from the beginning, October 1905. 
You will find in these articles every detail of the work of mineral decoration. 
For dark red roses in La Croix use Ruby Purple with Carmine 1 and 2 in 
high lights and a touch of Black or Dark Green .7 in shadows. For pink roses 
Carmine I and 2, Apple Green in greyish shadows, Jonquil or Orange Yellow 
in creamy tones. 




"WW W m W ip" "^""" !! ni P" iip n" iimin ' iniifflr 

Drawing Inks, Blacks and 


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Taurine Mucilage 

Photo Mounter 

j Drawing Board and Library 

I Mucilage 

| Office Paste 

I Liquid Paste 

\ Vegetable Glue, etc., etc. 

and learn what's what in inks and adhesives for tracing designs 
on china, photograph mounting, and general office and home 
use. Emancipate yourself from ill-smelling and dirty pastes 
and mucilages, and corrosive and weak-colored inks, and adopt 
the HIGGINS' INKS AND ADHESIVES. Their high qualities 
will be a revelation to you. At Dealers Generally. 

CHAS. M. HIGGINS & CO °"f na a to . rs K and M M ai k u it ct ^ rers 

Kenned mtis and Adhesives. 
Main Office and Factory, Brooklyn, N. Y.. U. S. A. 

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White China for Decorating 

jj E are pleasing others and we can please you if you 

will give us the opportunity. We have had 
many letters of late complimenting us on 
our prompt shipments of White China. We 
are able to make prompt shipments only by 
carrying a very large and complete stock, Our large 
Illustrated Catalogue of White China and Materials free for the 
a sking. end to-day. 

The A. T. Osborn Co. 


224-226 Seneca Street 

Cleveland O. 




Are sold by the leading merchants throughout the 
United States. All the latest shapes are illustrated 

Now ready for mailing. Write for copy to-dav. 



26 to 34 Barclay St., New York 



Fry's Celebrated Vitrrf iable Color* 







Agents for Hasburgf s and MarscHing's Gold, The Revelation CKina Kiln, 
The Reramic Studio. Send for catalogue, mentioning "Keramic Studio." 

11 East 22nd Street, 

New YorK 

TUp pt*\/ ^flirlift I n f° rma tion in regard to Mr. Marshal Fry's New York classes can be had at his 

New York Studio, 58 W. 96th St. 


The entire contents of this Magazine are cohered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted Without special permission. 




The Class Room — Etching 

League Notes — Club Notes, Studio Notes 

Chicago Exhibition 

The following contributions are made by 

Arrangements of Roses for decoration 

White and Pink Roses 

Bowl — Buttercup Motif 

Strawberries (Supplement) 

Buttercup and Clover 

Poppy and Hollyhock 

Border Suggestion for Table Service 

Fruit Plate — Apple Motif 

Fruit Bowl 


Fruit Plate— Grape Motif 


Cowslip Sketches 
The Crafts 

The Making of a Palmleaf Basket 
Art Workers Organization 
Crafts Exhibitions 
Answers " to . Correspondents . 


The Rose Book, containing some of the best 
rose studies and designs published in 
Keramic Studio postpaid 

The Fruit Book, containing some of the best 
fruit studies and designs published 
in Keramic Studio .postpaid 

Composition, by Arthur Dow postpaid 

Principles of Design, by E. Batchelder . . . . .postpaid 

Decorative Studies, by J. Foord postpaid 

Plant Forms and Designs, by Midgley and 

Lilley postpaid 

Practical Pottery, elementary instruction 

for students, by Richard Lunn postpaid 

Grand Feu Ceramics, a practical treatise on 
the making of hard porcelain dec- 
orated with high temperature glazes 
by Taxile Doat of the Manufactory of 
of Sevres, France postpaid 

Seger's Collected Writings, 2 volumes postpaid 

For the Collector: 

Vol. II Old China, bound blue cloth . . postpaid 
Vol. Ill Old China, bound blue cloth . postpaid 

Anglo-American Pottery, a manual for col- 
lectors, by Edwin Atlee Barber, Cura- 
tor of the Pennsylvania Museum, sec- 
ond edition postpaid 

American Glassware, old and new, by Edwin 

A. Barber postpaid 

Marks of American Potters, by Edwin A. 

Barber postpaid 

Pottery and Porcelain of the United States 

by Edwin A. Barber postpaid 

The Lace Book, by N. Hudson Moore postpaid 

Sara Wood Safford 

Lucy E. Shields 






















1. 00 


Tulip Ware of the Pennsylvania German 
Potters, by Edwin A. Barber, in pa- 
per cover postpaid 

Tulip Ware of the Pennsylvania Potters, by 
Edwin A. Barber, cloth, limited edi- 
tion postpaid 

Encyclopedia of Ceramics, by W. P. Jervis . . postpaid 
The Old China Book, by N. Hudson Moore . . postpaid 
The Old Furniture Book, by N. Hudson 

Moore postpaid 

Old Pewter, by N. Hudson Moore postpaid 

Chats on English China, by Arthur Hayden . postpaid 
Chats on Old Furniture, by Arthur Hayden . postpaid 
China Collecting in America, by Alice Morse 

Earle . postpaid 

Pottery and Porcelain, a guide to collectors, 
by Frederick Litchfield, the English 

expert postpaid 

French Pottery and Porcelain by Henri 

Frantz postpaid 

Dutch Pottery and Porcelain, by W. Pit- 
cairn Knowles postpaid 

Old English Furniture, by Fred Fenn and 

B. Wyllie postpaid 

English Embroidery, by A. F. Kendrick. . .postpaid 

French Furniture, by Andre Saglio postpaid 

Old Pewter, by Malcolm Bell postpaid 

Sheffield Plate, by B. Wyllie postpaid 

The Oriental Rug Book, by Mary Churchill 

Ripley postpaid 

Home Furnishing, practical and artistic, by 

Alice M. Kellogg postpaid 

William Adams, an old English potter, by 

William S. Turner postpaid 

HLeramic Studio Pub. Co., Syracuse, N. 











Vol. VIII, No. 3 . 


July, 1906 

HIS issue of Keramic Studio 
is edited almost entirely by Mrs. 
Sara Wood Safford of New York. 
The October number will be 
edited in the same way by Miss 
Mabel Dibble of Chicago. Other 
issues by other artists will be 
arranged and will be announced 

We feel that this number 
speaks for itself and needs no justification or commenda- 
tion. We are sure that our readers will not only be pleased 
but will find Mrs. Safford 's work very helpful. 


The "Class Room" will have to be shortened for 
this issue but will go on as usual hereafter. The next 
subject for the Class Room will be "The Art of Teaching" 
a course for beginners referring to some designs published 
in Keramic Studio for illustration. This should explain 
just how to start a beginner, what kind of piece to work 
upon, what style of work to attempt, what steps to take 
in the work, etc., up to the advanced and finished work. 

A special extra first prize of $10.00 will be added to 
the usual prizes if a sufficiently good article is sent. Ar- 
ticles should be received not later than August 5th. 
First Prize — Mrs. G. B. Strait, Cazenovia, N. Y. 

Etching is the process of eating out a part or the 
whole of the glaze on china, covering the etched portion 
afterwards with gold to give a relief effect. The gold 
should be applied rather thickly with a small stiff brush, 
and the china should be the best quality of French ware 

Etched china ready prepared for decorating is on the 
market, but the work may be done at home in an equally 
satisfactory manner. 

A small, rather plain design is best adapted to this 
purpose, such as a grape vine with tendrils, a simple frost 
design, Roman key pattern, delicate scrolls, or even 
rows of dots. 


To prepare the ground for etching, draw carefully 
a design in India ink. Next heat the piece and while it 
is still warm pour over it some melted paraffine or wax, 
turning it about until as much of it is covered as is nec- 
essary, allowing the extra amount to run off. This will 
leave a thin coat of wax all over the portion to be orna- 

Some successful workers melt beeswax in turpentine 
until it is perfectly fluid, after which it is strained through 
thin, fine silk. To this is added black Japan or Japan 
varnish in the proportion of 1 to 5, allowing more of the 
latter if the weather is very warm, and less if it is cold. 

The design may now be retraced with a steel point, 
leaving the pattern white. 

To this the pure hydrofluoric acid is applied either by 
pouring on, immersing, or applying with a thin piece of 
damp cotton batting wound tightly about the end of a 
stick. If the cotton is used, run the stick into the bottle 
until the cotton is wet, dip in a cup of water and at once 
apply to the china. The acid is allowed to remain 5 or 10 
minutes, or until the glaze is bitten into sufficiently. 

This may be determined by holding it under running 
water until perfectly cleaned, and if after removing a 
portion of the wax it is found that any part is not etched 
deeply enough, the process may be repeated as many 
times as is necessary. Flat pieces may be immersed in 
an acid "well" made in the form of a square wooden frame 
having a square three inches deep sunk in the center, 
painted several times inside with Japan black. This may 
be covered with thin cambric. 

Another method, the effect of which is the reverse 
of that produced by the use of the steel point in drawing 
is to draw the design and cover it with a thick coat of 
asphaltum which has been allowed to stand at least a day 
before using, moistening with turpentine as it grows thick. 
Draw a band on each side of the border with asphaltum. 

Now apply the acid to the background of the design 
until the glaze is nearly gone, and when the piece is washed 
the asphaltum may be removed by the use of turpentine. 
Wax may be removed by heating the piece. After the 
design has been covered with gold and fired it may be 
rubbed with sand or glass brush, and the raised parts 
and bands brightened with the agate burnisher. Ex- 
tremely delicate and rich effects may be produced in this 

Another method of etching is the use of the vapor 
bath. Fluor spar is placed in a shallow vessel and sul- 
phuric acid poured on it until the spar is covered. This 
produces hydrofluoric acid in vapor, and the article to 
be etched is placed over it until the fumes act upon the 
glaze and destroy it to any extent desired. 

No matter whether used in vapor or liquid form, ex- 
treme care in its handling must always be maintained, 
the operator being careful to avoid inhaling the fumes or 
allowing the acid to touch the flesh. 

The wearing of rubber gloves is advisable; and al- 
though the acid comes in gutta percha bottles it should 
not be allowed to stand near any china to be decorated, 
for even though tightly corked enough fumes will escape 
to injure the glaze. 

Clear water or soda water will relieve acid burns, 
after which vaseline may be applied. 
Fourth Prize — Bertha Morey, Ottumwa, la. 
[extracts only] 

You can tell if the acid has eaten into the china by 
taking a hat pin and scratching along a line, if it seems 
rough, it is done; pour hot water on the piece and it will 
melt off the wax. 

Be careful not to inhale the fumes as they are injur- 
ious to the lungs and cause a heavy cough. 





Report of Chairman on Transportation. 

The work of the Transportation Committee last year 
was somewhat difficult as the Exhibit had to start from 
the center of the circle as it were, and to work in two 
directions. To please all as to time of entertaining was 
many times puzzling and often impossible. As it was it 
had to go over the same route twice in many cases, there- 
by incurring extra expense to the League. We are hop- 
ing to avoid all of that this year. 

On May 3d, this year's exhibit started at Chicago and 
was entertained by the Chicago Ceramic Art Association at 
the Art Institute until May 27th when it was put on ex- 
hibition at Burley & Co.'s. china store, to remain for two 

It being so late in the summer before it could leave 
Chicago it was thought advisable to hold the work in stor- 
age in Chicago until fall, any members wishing to add to 
the exhibit can do so by sending in before the second 
week in August. 

Send the work to Lulu C. Bergen, 7404 Harvard Ave., 


The route for the exhibit is as follows: 

Chicago, May 3d to the 27th. 

Detroit, Mich., Sept. 1st to 8th. 

Pittsburg, Pa., Sept. 12th to the 15th. 

Augusta, Me. Sept. 19th to the 2 2d. 

Portland, Me. Sept. 24th to the 28th. 

Boston, Mass. Oct. 1st to the 8th. 

Providence, R. I. Oct. 10th to the 13th. 

Newark, N. J. i AT T ^ , ,, , ... ,, 

A-. - N. T. Oct. 20th to the 27th. 

Jersey City, I J 

New York City, Oct. 30th to Nov. 6th. 

Brooklyn, N. Y. Nov. 8th to the 15th. 

Kansas City, Mo. Nov. 21st to the 27th. 

Denver, Col. Dec. 10th to the 17th. 

San Francisco, Cal. Jan. 2d to the 9th. 

Portland, Ore. Jan. 18th to the 25th. 

Respectfully submitted, 


Chairman on Transportation. 


A meeting of the California Keramic Club was held 
at the studio of the president, Miss Taylor, May 26th. 
This being the first meeting since the disaster, much interest 
was shown by the members. 

The general feeling among the ladies was to cling to- 
gether and help each other. Many of the members lost 
all their possessions both at home and in the studios. The 
more fortunate ones kindly offered their studio materials, 

kilns and so on, to any of the members who suffered loss 
in the recent calamity./ 

A vote of thanks was given the Keramic Studio 
Publishing Co. for their generous assistance, which was 
very much appreciated. 


'•■"Miss Jeanne ,M. Stewart will spend the months of 
August and September in Europe, studying, and her classes 
will be reopened October 15th. 

Miss Mabel C. Dibble of Chicago will spend July and 
August in Northern Michigan. 


The fourteenth annual exhibition of the Chicago 
Ceramic Art Association and the annual exhibition of the 
National League of Mineral Painters have filled a series of 
cases in the South galleries of the Art Institute. 

The articles have passed the inspection of a critical 
jury demanding from six to ten points in excellence of 
shape, design and its application to shape and to the pur- 
pose of the vessel, in color and harmony in combination. 

Owing to the rigid restrictions placed by the Art 
Institute upon ceramic entries the jury went about its 
task last year with the determination to rise above all 
difficulties and produce a showing that would be distinct- 
ly creditable, with the result of opening a small but rather 
extraordinary exhibition. 

Anyone who looks for the old-style flower painting 
or imitations of Dresden or Sevres will be disappointed. 
The rules of the society require conventionalized forms or 
abstract ideas, and naturalistic painting is frowned upon. 
The newest efforts are seen in the low tones and the subtle 
contrasts of tones in the same color. The beauty de- 
veloped in cool greens and blues and pale browns is fascinat- 
ing and satisfying to the most exacting colorist. 

Mrs. Mary J. Coulter, retiring president of the organiza- 
tion, has an interesting group, including a plate with apple 
motif, bowl with tree motif, a delicately treated bowl in 
pale green Sedji, and incense burners, a bowl and jar in 
quaint Satsuma. 

A vase of oriental reflections with designs in enamel 
by Mrs. J. C. Long has no rival. Mary A. Farrington's 
plate in green and blue is unusual. Helen H. Goodman 
has a group beautifully executed from designs by Marshal 
Fry, and a green vase in which both design and execution 
are her own is very good. 

An elaborate plate of violet motif, and a series of 
artistic combinations in mushroom motifs, peacock and 
blue — in all, seven plates — by Evelyn Brackett Beachey, 
show versatile talent. lone Wheeler exhibits a delight- 
ful placque in the peacock thought. The development 
of a motif finds as much favor among the china painter 
as among writers of music, and the themes are unerringly 
worked out to logical conclusions. 

The Chicago Ceramic Art Association registers sixty 

The National League of Mineral Painters has repre- 
sentatives from the Denver Mineral Art Club, Newark 
Keramic Society, New York Society of Keramic Arts, 
Chicago Ceramic Art Association and individual members. 
Miss Ophelia Foley from Owensboro, Ky., and Mrs. Charles 
C. Williams of Glen Falls, N. Y. Included in this special 
section is a New York loan exhibit. 



Estella McBride Mary A. Farrington Helen Goodman 

Mary J. Coulter Mrs. J. C. Long Mary J. Coulter 



Helen C. Burdette 
Blanche Wight 


.Mary J. Coulter 

Helen Goodman 


Evelyn Beachey lone Wheeler 

Lulu C. Bergen Helen Goodman Belle Vea 








"-*'!%' >A4» 

-,- 1 *- 







REETINGS to you who live with 
flowers and wild things — you who 
long for the "advantages" of the 
city — you who feel shut away 
from the world — rather, indeed, 
extend to us your sympathy, we, 
who have no gardens — we who 
send miles for a buttercup and then 
keep it on ice till we may steal 
time in which to draw it and pet 
it and paint it. So few realize the value of making careful 
drawings from the flowers and trees growing with them — 
the wild flowers and grasses — wild fruits and berries and 
nuts. Aside from the material value of these drawings, 
how many know the keen joy to be had in the mere doing 
of them. 

greens or browns for leaves and stems, keeping the 
flower as simple in its treatment as may be satisfying 
to one, personally. In making these first drawings one 
must be true to one's self. No one has the right to insist 
that another "follow a light which he does not see." As 
the mind and eye become trained and the hand acquires 
an easier grace of technique, the sketches will become 
simpler and freeer and more artistic; but never sacrifice 
the truth to an artistic effect in any of these first studies. 

The pencil outlines and shadings are particularly 
valuable keeping one, as it does, within bounds. It is a 
temptation to become flighty with color, and one should 
not trifle with the flower that will never be in one's life 
again. Accept it as a help-mate and treat it fairly. 

These color wash and pencil drawings on the tinted 
papers, make for the most interesting and valuable ma- 



Do not try to make a pretty picture, do not think 
of a picture at all — but take a nice clean page and on it 
register a truth about some bud or leaf, some fruit or 
flower that appeals to you. If the eye and hand are not 
yet quite trained to express gracefully what the mind 
really sees, what matters it? If you have made an honest 
drawing the grace and charm of expression will 

One is helped greatly by working with pencil and 
"color wash" on tinted papers — these papers may be 
had in tints of gray, gray green, gray yellow and soft browns 
and blues. 

First make a careful pencil outline drawing, with 
shading in leaf and stem, and where wished, suggest the 
shadow in the flower with pencil as well. This will make 
a foundation for the color wash. Use flat washes of soft 

terial in my possession. No attempt at composition has 
been made (that comes when the flowers are gone and 
one's winter garden not so rich.) The hollyhocks and 
poppy reproduced in this number are done as described 
and the cowslip and clover and buttercup (the one that 
was "iced") are from drawings made in the same way. 
And from the buttercup grew the bowl. It isn't 
always that one finds a composition so near at hand, but 
it will be seen that very little change has been made from 
the original growth, in the spacing as applied to the bowl. 
It had to become simpler — more abstract, in order to be 
harmonious with the whole and to enhance the beauty of 
the bowl. Its mission was to enrich it ; it could no longer 
remain an independent little buttercup. It was needed 
to make another thing more beautiful 

Sara Wood Safford 




A/ANCE Phillips' Albert Yellow, Yellow Brown, Carnation, Blood Red, Ruby, 
* Violet, Pearl Grey, Blue Grey, Apple Green, Yellow Green, Shading Green, 
Brown Green, Dark Green, Black. 

Follow the directions for painting of other fruit and flowers for the different 
fires, use Blood and Ruby for darkest red in the first painting of berries and glaze 
with Carnation in the second. Paint the light berries with Yellow and Carnation, 
greying the more tender ones with Violet. 


Dorn's Ceramic Supply Store, (late 
of San Francisco) is now located at 
418-420 West 21st Street, Bos Angeles, 
Cal. Mrs. Dorn's studio at same ad- 

A neat little card received at this 
office informs us that Mrs. Magill and 
Miss Jessie Ivory, teachers of china 
painting, have opened a store at 297 
5th Ave., New York, for the sale of 
porcelain and artists materials. Studio 
at same address. 


These pencil and color 
sketches reproduced are not 
in any sense compositions, or 
"ready for use" material, but 
are intended to show how 
pleasingly studies may be col- 
lected. Not an elaborate sug- 
gestion, but a simple truth 
expressed as tenderly as pos- 
sible. Somewhere, some one 
has said something about 
being "afraid to sing one's 
song for fear the method was 
wrong." Don't be afraid to 




For sketch in pencil and color work. 







A SIMPLE motif has been chosen that beginners may be 
interested, if possible, to do that which there is such a 
need of — good, quiet table service. The designs as sug- 
gested on the bowls, will make pleasing reserved border 
decorations for plates or cups and saucers, carried out in 
gold, matt silver, or in blues for a breakfast service, or 

ice would be done by our painters if their first excitement 
was not cooled by the doing of "holding in" lines. One 
must feel the line and border limit, but there is something 
irritating in seeing it ahead of one on dozens of plates, 
cups or bowls. Do not mistake the thought — lawlessness 
is not to be encouraged in design. Flowers, lovely as they 

in soft greens for a cool luncheon set. No tracing is nec- 
cessary. A careful planning of shapes and spaces will en- 
able the worker to paint quite freely and easily without the 
aid of a traced limit line. The same, or nearly the. same 
spacing, has been kept throughout the six bowl borders. 

are, running wildly over a plate do not make for a restful 
table. Our plates should not intrude. 

In the delight of painting a flower, one is apt to for- 
get the use to which the thing decorated is to be put. A 
plate should not be a picture. Plates are not merely 

Note the different designs evolved by the changing from 
ovals to diamonds and squares — by varying the open grey 
space outlined shapes, with solid dark space shapes. 

Great care has been taken to prepare designs that 
may be done with freedom without the drudgery of tracing 
— a strong belief being held that more and better table serv- 

plates — they are a table decoration. We can live best 
and longest with that which conforms to the laws of de- 
sign — or of life. One does not admire anyone or any- 
thing so conventional as to be stupid, but one is happy and 
content with originality, strength, tenderness and re- 










D LUES and greens as described on page 63 may be used, 
*-* or design carried out in gold and white, or matt silver and 
white. If gold or silver is used, the under running border 
leaf may be painted in black. If a worker wishes to apply 
this motif to a cider jug or stein, a happy effect may be 
produced by laying the apple in flatly, with a strong tone of 
Carnation — the leaves with Dark Green, but strong enough 
only, to make a dull grey, and dry dust with Brown Green. 
Dry dust apples with Carnation, paint in stems with a mixed 
color of Brown Green and Blood Red, ground lay the body 
of jug with Empire Green. In the second painting, glaze 

the entire border with Vance Phillips' Warm Grey. 
The third working is for outlines only, if they should 
be desired at all, and if used, make a firm bold carrying 
line using Finishing Brown. 

After all parts of body and design are perfect and 
fired, envelop the entire surface with a wash of 
Finishing Brown, pounced evenly and firmly. A color 
may be pounced and left even, but if too full yet of oil, 
a coarse looking surface will be the result. A fifth firing 
may be necessary — it quite depending upon the success 
of various workings and firings. 




^&sv>NomJ .^WjC^y 



! * 


K e: R A M I C 

STRAWBERRIES sara wood ©afford 

S T U D I O 

1 j HuTii CHRuMoTYl'K ENO. CO,, PH1LA, 




'"pHREE different arrangements of the grape are given, a 
* picture panel, a page of small decorative compositions, 
and a plate border design with grape motif. In copying 
the panel, one may paint the grapes all in purples, or in 
purples and reds, make a deep purple by mixing Banding 
Blue (two parts) and one part of Ruby, and again mix 
the Banding Blue and Ruby, and add enough Black to 
grey the mixture, mix thoroughly with the knife upon the 
palette, do not trust to the brush, and keep as two dis- 
tinct colors. For the light soft bloom, use Vance Phillips' 
Violet and Deep Blue Green softly blended in the brush. 
For the darkest dark use the second mixed color, that is, 
Banding Blue, Ruby and Black, and for the medium darks 
use the first mixed color of Blue and Ruby. 

In painting red grapes, brush with Blue and Violet 
over the lights to suggest a bloom. Mix with the brush 
Blood Red and Ruby for the deepest tone. Blood Red and 
Ruby with Banding -Blue added, will make a warm soft 

color, for the medium darks. For light leaves use Apple 
Green and Yellow Green greyed with Violet, for darkest 
leaves running into background, use the mixed purple 
grape color with Shading Green and Dark Green. 

A warm sunny glow may be suggested back of the 
grapes with Yellow and Yellow Brown, but care must 
be taken lest too sharp and harsh a contrast be left; by 
toning into the background with Violet land Pearl Gray 
this danger may be avoided. fe Treat like the roses for 
various fires, that is, first, clean flat modeling, second, 
glazing with soft color washes over fruit, leaves and back- 
ground. Soft blues over grapes, and sunny yellow greens 
or cooler blue and dark greens over leaves. Third, de- 
tail work, accenting of leaf, grape or stem. 

If a fourth painting is given do not add more de- 
tail, but deepen shadows, soften edges, and work for har- 
monious whole. Pearl Grey washed over the entire surface 
helps greatly to soften and hold design and background 


HPHIS design may be carried out in tones of blue and 
*■ green, gold and white or white and matt silver. If blue 
is desired paint smoothly and flatly with Vance Phillip's 
Rich Blue, using only enough oil to enable color to work 
easily — great care should be taken to avoid the too free 
use of oil, chipping is more often caused by an over amount 
of oil than by too much paint. If possible, while this 
color is yet not quite hard, dust over the entire design 
with some of the dry color used in painting, but before 
firing clean all color from the background, which must be 
left clear and white in order to preserve the suggested 
stencil effect. In the second painting deepen the blue, 
make firm the edges. In the third working glaze over 
the entire plate, border design and center as well, with a 

mixed color of Pearl grey with an added "touch" of Rich 

Pounce this color till it is flat, fine and firm. If 
green is used, lay in design with Vance Phillip's Empire 
Green and for the second painting, work with the green 
as with the blue, that is, make firm any shabby edges, 
deepen the tone when necessary. For the third painting, 
glaze the entire surface with a color made of Pearl Grey, 
(two parts,) and one part of Rich Blue. Pounce till firm 
and even and well set, though not quite hard, then dry 
dust with Pearl Grey. Still another fire might improve 
the whole, giving an opportunity for an added wash of 
color over the border alone. The center of the plate will 
hardly need to be made darker. 

6 4 




Nearly everybody knows and loves a rose — that is 
probably why we all like to paint them. And even 
though our sketch is not always quite happy or successful, 
our attempt means something to almost everyone 
privileged to look at it. It certainly gives more 
pleasure than an equally good sketch of a rarer or a less 
known flower. But learn to know your rose well. 

Paint the particular rose that appeals to you, the 
soft creamy white one or the deep hearted red one. 
Draw it in all positions — paint it in different lights — cover 
dozens of sheets with notes and facts of leaf and bud and 
flower, then when this is done, if it has been done honestly, 
the rose is yours, it is in your mind and in your heart, 
in your fingers, the drawings may be turned face down, 
and the composition made from your memory of the rose 
will have a charm and freedom not to be had in the direct 
copy of your own or another's study drawing. 

The roses in the first sketch enclosed within these 
covers, may be treated as white and soft yellow, or as 
white and pink ones. A white rose is such a delicate 
filmy thing with its soft shadows and tender warm heart. 
But it will have in its shadows and in its heart something 
of the tones of the flowers and foliage around it. If massed 
with yellow ones, its petals will take a warmer note. If 
with pink ones, then a light blush will seem to have caught 
it here and there. The eye carries color from flower to 
flower, from leaf to leaf, from leaf to flower and back again. 


For soft shadows in white roses use Vance Phillips' 
Violet and Yellow with Pearl Grey added to deepen and 
cool the tones. In the very light and most delicate shadows 
Yellow and Pearl Grey without Violet may be used. If 
the heart of the rose is well open, keep it rich and sunny 
with Yellow and Yellow Brown. If partly closed it may 
be deepened with Brown Green added to the Yellow 

Use the same colors for shadows in petals of pink 
roses. But in the deep heart of the yet delicate pink rose, 
use Vance Phillips' Special Rose, a color for deep notes 
and first, hard fires. Glaze the lighter parts with Rose 

and Yellow and save the high lights with thin washes of 
Yellow. The mixing of Yellow with Rose in the first 
painting of all pink flowers will greatly refine the color 
and help to protect the rose from turning purple under 
fire. If deep pink roses are desired.then add Ruby to 
Special Rose in the heart, and tone the whole flower lower, 
deepen shadows in petals, use a deeper Rose in lighter parts! 

In the first painting, gray the leaves with Vance 
Phillips' Violet, Violet mixes well with all colors, graying 
without chilling the tone. A very little pure green will 
carry a long way, and do not fear to lay in the foliage 
in rather flat low tones. The lightest leaves, however, 
may be kept quite a clear green through the first fire until 
the worker knows from experience just how gray they 
may be painted and yet be green. 

If possible, cut out the stems from against the foliage 
and leave clear until the second painting; then glaze with 
a thin wash of pure light Green. Either Blood Red or 
Carnation may be used with the greens, particularly with 
Brown Green, for a warm tawny foliage mass, and tender 
young leaves and stems can be suggested with Carnation 
and Violet. 


Glaze the flower with Yellow over its heart, and 
across the tips of petals into the background. Glaze 
leaves with washes of Yellow Green in the light and Dark 
or Brown Green in the shadow. Carry Dark Green, which 
is in itself a deep gray green, into the background. Very 
little Violet, if any, is needed in the second painting which 
is for the purpose of softening or "pulling together" 
flowers, foliage and background. 


The detail drawing and accents should be added for 
this fire. The sharp thorn to the stem, the point to the 
leaf, the decided curl to the petal. 


Work for quiet subtle harmonies. Wash Pearl Grey 
with Violet over the entire surface, but softly blending 
over the edge of the petals and barely brushing the warm 
lights one may wish to save. 

The above directions may be followed in the painting 
of pink roses — with the exception of special care in the 
use of Rose, deep hearts of flowers being painted with 
Vance Phillips' Special Rose. 

Vance Phillips' Albert Yellow, Violet, Pearl Grey, 
Yellow Brown, Blue Green, Brown Green, Apple Green, 
Yellow Green, Shading Green, Dark Green, Black, Blood 
Red or Carnation, Rose, Special Rose. 










Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, Room 23, 22 East 16th St., Nezv York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must be received before the JOth day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

very damp, many times too damp for immediate use, 
though it must always be slightly so for the best results. 

The worker's first process is trimming the leaf. Take 
the large end of a bunch and try each straw separately. 
If pliable it is all right. If not, pull up the straw till it is 
found to be soft and pliable. Cut off and throw away 
all the stiff part. When all the stiff straws have been 
disposed of, retie the bunch, and make the straws at this 
end of equal length from the tie. Now it is ready for use. 

There are many kinds and shapes of baskets. The 
one I shall describe is a small square one, one of the simplest 
forms. The button is the foundation of every basket. 
These buttons are of many shapes and sizes, from the 
tiny one of the round basket, which seems but a peg to 
hang the basket on, to the large one which forms the 

THE MAKING OF A PALMLEAF BASKET whol £ bott ° m ° f ** ? V 7 b + ?*f : A , f + 

For ours we will take from the trimmed leaf 40 straws 

y ' from twelve to fourteen inches in length. Double them and 

THE material from which a palm leaf basket is made 
comes (as its name implies) from the leaves of a 
species of palm that grows in the West Indies. These 
leaves are long, measuring from one to two yards from 
base to tip in center, decreasing gradually in length from 
the center to the outer edge on either side, being, in fact, 
shaped like an immense fan. These leaves are put up in 
large bales and shipped to the manufactories. 

In the early days of the industry each worker or 
group of workers split her own leaf, using for the purpose 
an implement somewhat resembling the hatchel of our 
grandmothers. It was set with sharp-pointed teeth, 
but was unlike the hatchel in having but one set of teeth, 
which were set in a long narrow board in groups of two, 
the distance between the two being determined by the 
width of the straw required. 

For many years, however, the manufacturers have 
whitened and split the leaf in different widths, the straws, 
as they are called, ranging from \ to 1-16 of an inch in 
width. Then it is ready for the worker's order. It comes 
in bunches of from one to two pounds in weight and is 

crease them in the middle. Next we must have something 
to tie these together so they will stay in place, while in 
use. For this, white thread, split straws, or raffia may 
be used. We will take about ten inches of thread, and 
in the middle of that, place one of your selected straws 
where it is creased. Bring either end of the thread around 
to the right side of the straw, so that one strand is over 
and one under the straw. Bring the under thread up 
and cross it over the upper, thus reversing the position of 
the two ends of the thread. Place another straw to the 
right of the first, draw the ends of the thread about this 
as before, crossing the under over the upper, and keep on 
in this manner, till you have tied twenty straws, or half 
the button. Tie the ends of the thread in a hard knot, 
close to the right of the last straw and cut these off within 
\ inch of the straw. Tie the other twenty in the same 
manner. Then lay half the button on a flat surface — your 
lap will do — the straws spreading out to right and left, 



the tie in the center. Lay the other half across this in the 
opposite direction, the two ties meeting. Then from the 
upper half of the button above the tie, take the first ten 
straws at the right and put them under those beneath. 
Then from below the tie, take the ten upper straws at the 
left of this half, and put them under the ten below. (See 
illustration No. i ) . Now you have in your button four quarters, 
each containing ten upper and ten under straws. From 
one of these quarters take the upper straws and turn them 
back upon the next quarter. Then of the lower ten, leave 
four straws at the left. Take up and turn back the first 
two at the right of these, leave the next two at the right, 
and take up the two at the extreme right. Then lay across 
under the two pairs bent up, the first upper pair that were 
turned back. 

Now beginning at the right, bring down the first pair 
bent up over the pair laid across. Take up the next pair 
at the left, bring down the next pair to the left of these, 
and lay the next upper pair across under those bent up. 
Bring down over these the pair left standing, and take up 
the pair farthest to the right. Lay the next upper pair 
across, and bring down the last pair. You have four 
upper straws left unused. 

Lay these across like the others and leave them. Braid 
the other three quarters in like manner. 

Thus far the button has been braided with the straws 
in pairs. Now starting from either corner, counting 
toward you, take the third pair and turn back the two 
upper straws. Then counting to the left from these, 
take up the fourth under straw. Lay across under it the 
first of those turned back. Take up the next under straw 
to the right of that one up. Put across the next upper 
straw. Bring down the left of the two up, and take up 
the next under straw to the right of the one standing. Put 
across the next upper straw; bring down over it the left 
one that is up, and take up the next right under one. Keep 
on like this till you reach the next corner. Here you will 
have one straw left up. Take up with this the first under 
straw in the next quarter and put under them the first 
upper straw in the next quarter. (It is awkward, but the 
thing to do, and it forms the corner of your button.) Put 
down as before the outer one up, and, with the one left 
up, take up the next under straw to the right. Lay 
across the next upper straw. Go on in this way till you 
reach the starting point, when there will be no more to 
take up, but put down the outer of the two up. Lay 
the next upper one across and bring down the last straw 
up. Now your button is complete. (See illustration No. 2.) 

Anywhere between the corners, counting from right 
to left, take up the third under straw. Put the first upper 
one across under it. Take up the next straw to the right 
of the one up, put the next upper one across; bring down 
the outer one of the two up. Take up the next straw to 
the right of the one up, put the next upper one across. 
Continue in this manner till, as in finishing the button, 
you come to the place where you started, and, as before, 
bring down the outer of the two up. Put across the next 
upper straw and bring down the last one up. 

We have braided a plain turn, and can keep on with 
these turns till the basket is five inches deep, or we can 
insert here a border braided "in twos." 

For this we will take up the third and fourth under 
straws to the left, leaving two down at the right of these. 
Lay two upper straws across. Bring down the two left 
up and take up the next two at the right. Put the next two 
upper straws across. Keep on in this way till the turn is 

completed. For the next turn, take up two under straws 
where there are two at the right of them down. Put the 
two upper ones across. Bring down over these the two 
up and take up the next pair at the right. Through this 
turn, the two straws that are put across must be over two 
and under two. For the next turn, bend back a pair 
of upper straws, and of the under ones, take up the fourth 
straw to the left. Lay the first upper straw across. Take 
up the next straw to the right. Put across another and 
then do as in a plain turn, the only difference being that 
half the time the upper straw will be over three straws 
and under two; the rest as before. This completes the 
border. The rest of the turns are plain till the basket is 
of the required height. 

The last process is called "binding off". In this we 
use two three-quarter turns. These differ from the plain 
turn only in using one under straw at a time, so that the 
upper straw, when laid across, goes over two and under 
one. As usual, take up one under straw that has two at 
the right. Lay the upper one across, bring down the 
straw left up, and take up the next straw to the right. 
Do this twice more, and the third time, when you take up 
the straw at the right, there will be three under straws 
at the left of that. Take up the outer one of these, then 
lay your next straw across, bring down both straws left 
up, and take up the one at the right of each. Put the 
upper straw across. Do this once more. Then there 
will be two under straws down at the extreme left, one up, 
two down to the right of that, one up, and two down. 
Put the next upper straw across, then take the under straw 
at the extreme left and turn it back on the one laid across. 
Bring down the two straws up, over the two across; take 
up as before the one at the right of each one brought down. 
Lay the next upper one across, and turn back on it the 
under one at the extreme left. Keep on in this manner 
until you come to where there are no more straw at the 
extreme right to take up. Bring down the two straw 
left up, the one at the right finishing the first turn. Go 
on with second turn as before (except that the straws 
turned back must be slipped under the straws at right, 
which is the beginning of first turn), till there are no more 
straws to take up. There are two under straws at the 
left and two upper ones held down by one straw from each 
turn at beginning. Bend back the outer straw, slip it 
under the first of these, carry it to next, slip it under that. 
Repeat this operation and the basket is bound off. 

No. 3. 



Take the basket in left hand, and with right, pull 
tight each straw turned back, so that the edge thus made 
may be even. Cut off both sets of straws close to basket. 
Dampen it, turning the edge inside the basket to the bot- 
tom, making the sides double. 

Procure a square wooden block same size and depth 
as basket, on which place the basket. Cover with a damp 
cloth and that with a dry one. 

Press it all over, especially the edge, with a moderately 
hot iron. This finishes the basket. (See illustration. 
No. 3.) 

The cover is made exactly like the basket except 
that it is two, instead of five inches deep. Half of this is 
also turned in, making the rim double. 

In pressing, stretch the cover slightly that it may fit 
over the basket. The covers of fine baskets must have 
four more straws than the basket because the button is in 
two parts and when put together must be halved again. 



The annual exhibition of The Guild of Arts and Crafts 
East 23d St., New York City, was held at the above address 
during the last week in April. The following Craftsmen 
sent work: Mr. Volkmar some fine big bowls and some 
candlesticks in matt green, Miss Frances Mac Daniel a 
small but good exhibit of black pottery, The Hartford 
Arts and Crafts some delightful candlesticks and vases. 
There were several attractive pieces of porcelain from 
The Robineau Pottery, two violet holders in quaint design 
and of nice color, a tall vase exquisite in tone and model- 
ing. Mr. Herman Murphy had several of his well known 
mirror frames. The Misses Steel and Walker also had 
some very attractive ones. A. O. Westerling sent some 
tall, wood candlesticks carved and gilded, colonial in shape. 
Miss Clara Price had a very interesting portfolio of leather 
slightlyTjnodeled and very harmonious in color. Mrs. 
Busck a chair, with carved leather seat and back. Miss 
Hicks some stenciled fabrics. 

Among the textiles a stenciled table cover in blue 
and white from the Trenton School of Industrial Arts 
deserved much credit, also the embroidered and woven 
table covers made by Sarah Frances Dorrance. The 
exhibit of metal work was not large or particularly good. 
Mr. Rodgers' copper bowls were interesting in color and 
Dr. Busck's copper tray and brass box showed good 
workmanship. The jewelry was not up to the usual 
standard and only a few of the good pieces sent were 

shown to advantage, because of the poor arrangement. 
The Handicrafters, Brooklyn, held their exhibition 
at The Club Rooms, 192 Schermerhorn St., the 5th, 6th 
and 7th of April. The exhibition was small, but there 
was some good work from the various members and other 
Craftsmen. The exhibits were also very well arranged. 
Miss Jane Hoagland sent a group of interesting pottery, 
Miss J. Husson and Mr. H. C. Jeffery some well carved 
wood, Miss M. Behr some delightful stenciled work. Miss 
M. Zimmerman, Miss Emily F. Peacock, Miss M. Peckham 
and others some very attractive and well made jewelry. 




A call issued by Spencer Trask, president of the Nat- 
tional Arts Club, to workers in arts and crafts throughout 
the country brought about one hundred and fifty crafts- 
men to the clubhouse in West 34th street. Among 
those present were workers in wood carving, metal work, 
including jewelry; textiles, all forms of woven stuffs and 
loom work, bookbinding, stained glass and ceramics. 

A permanent organization was effected, and arrange- 
ments were made for an exhibition of arts and crafts next 
fall in the new home of the National Arts Club in Gramercy 
Park, to be the home of the organization. The announce- 
ment was made that Sir Caspar Purdon Clarke, director of 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art, was in hearty sympathy 
with the movement and would give to it his active support 
in every possible wav. 

Frederick S. Lamb presided. The organization was 
effected with the election of Spencer Trask, president; 
Arthur W. Dow, vice-president; John J. Murphy, secretary; 
and Emerson McMillin, treasurer. Directors, elected to 
serve three years, were Amy M. Hicks, Frederick S. Lamb, 
Charles Volkmar and Charles de Kay; directors elected to 
serve two years were Anna B. Leonard, Florence Foote, 
Charles H. Barr and Edward D. Page, and directors, elected 
to serve one year were Mrs. Charlotte Busck, Miss E. M. 
Heller, J. William Fosdick and Miss Louise Cowperthwaite. 

The name of the organization will be the National 
Society of Craftsmen, and its object will be to promote 
the creation and sale of products of the arts and crafts; to 
maintain a permanent exhibition, and to establish a bureau 
of information for craftsmen and clients. The member- 
ship will be professional and associate, the former to pay 
an annual fee of $5 and the latter $10. 

One of the provisions of the constitution is that there 
shall be a jury committee of fifteen, with power to add to 
their number, to be elected by the professional member- 
ship, whose duty it shall be to pass upon all work submitted 
for exhibition or sale. Five members will constitute a 
quorum, one member of which must be a craftsman in the 
work judged. 

This society, as the name implies, will embrace the 
entire United States The initiative thus taken by the 
National Arts Club has already borne fruit. 

The important question of a place for the new National 
Society of Craftsmen is as good as settled; it will occupy 
the present quarters of the Arts Club, 37 West Thirty- 
fourth Street, when that club takes possession of its larger 
clubhouse in the Tilden mansion in Gramercy Park. This 
is rapidly approaching completion, and the Studio Annex, 



Scarf, Russian homespun, by Frances Dorrance. Pottery, by Chas. Volkmar, 
New York Guild of Arts and Crafts. 

Hammered copper tray by G. F. Busck; carved candlestick overlaid with gold 

by A. O. Westerling; candlesticks, Nevvcomb Pottery and Chas. Volkmar. 

New York Guild of Arts and Crafts. 

Embroidered table cover in blue and white. 
New York Guild of Arts and Crafts, 


■■■-.' ■ '^ ; 



Pottery, Jane Hoagland. Handicrafters Exhibition, Brooklyn, 

Stencilled table cover in blue and white, from Trenton School of Industrial Arts. 
New York Guild of Arts and Crafts. 



Table Cover, border darned in with blue thread. 
New York Guild of Arts and Crafts. 

which was retarded for six weeks by the strike of the house- 
smiths, is rising swiftly on Bast Nineteenth Street. 

The organization of the Society Craftsmen at its 
present stage includes as Chairman Miss Amy Mali Hicks, 
and Secretary Mr. J. J. Murphy. Art jewelry is represented 
by Mr. Walter Lawrence, pottery by Mr. Chas. Volkmar, 
ivory carving by Mr. Fred W. Kaldenberg, printing by 
Mr. Theodore de Vinne, bookbinding by Miss Foote and 
Miss Emily Preston, textiles by Mrs. Douglas Volk, ceramics 
by Mrs. Leonard, metal work by Miss Charlotte Busck. 


S. M. H. — Liquid bright silver comes from the kiln blurred when it 
has been put on too heavily. The only remedy is to remove with aqua regia 
or some erasing fluid. Hydro-fluoric acid is the only acid with which one 
can remove fired paint, use it with a pointed stick, do not breathe the fumes 
or let it touch the skin, wash the piece in running water when the color is 
loosened. We do not know the cause of opal lustre blurring glass as we 
have never used lustre on glass. We did not know it could be so used, but 
as lustres are all somewhat opaque they would naturally give glass a heavy 
look, the iridescence seen sometimes on glass is obtained by an entirely 
different process which is known only to the manufacturers. 

Mrs. A. L. W. — Greens are very liable to come out a mottled brown- 
ish color on Belleek, especially Royal Moss, Sevres and Brown Green. Never 
use these colors on Belleek. Some times part of the color will be brownish 
and the balance green. 

M. H. M. — For your jardiniere with lion handles and separate base, 
we would advise finishing in black, either mat or bright. This will set off 
the color better than gold or a lighter color although a dark color might be 
used, which harmonized with the color scheme, a brown or green perhaps 
or a dark bronze could be used with good effect. 

Mrs. J. H. P. — For the Tobacco Jar by Lottie Rhead in December 
Keramic Studio use ochre tinted for the lightest tone, painted for the medium 
light tone, Meissen Brown for the dark tone and Black for outline. 

G. — For your loving cup which has been painted in currants and which 
you would like to redecorate, we would suggest redecorating in mat colors, 
raised paste or enamels and gold could be added if desired. It would, in 
such a case, be hardly necessary to remove the original colors. 

Mrs. P. J- W. — For a rich dark blue use Dark Blue with a touch of 
Purple 2 if using La Croix Colors. If you use powder colors, write to the 
makers and ask their advice, most of the makers of colors have a special 
mixture for this purpose. To get a really dark color, rely on two fires; if 
put on heavily, for one fire, the color is liable to chip off. 

R. M. — To soften water colors in pans, rub them down with water and 
glycerine on ground glass with a muller. It is impossible to exactly match 
water colors in mineral colors. We will reprint the color chart as soon 
as we can have it put in better shape adding the suggestions for executing 
water colors in mineral paints. We do not know of any good book on water 
color painting but any possible information we will be glad to give if you 
will let us know what information you wish. 

M. A. C. — Chinese white in mineral colors was once used for touching 
in relief the tips of flowers, etc, yellow relief for gold is to be used like raised 
paste and gilded with liquid bright gold. 

A. R. — Winsor and Newton water colors are the best. Soak your water 
color paper until evenly wet, perhaps J hour. Soak your blotter letting the 
■ surplus run off, lay blotter on board or pane of glass on board — as board will 
eventually warp — spread paper on blotter beginning with one edge and 
slowly laying down to avoid air bubbles and wrinkles. When quite smooth 
and free from bubbles, fasten with four \ inch rubber bands, each crossing 
the other at the corners. These can be lifted and the paper straightened if 
necessary. We have no recipe for grounding oil but will try to obtain one 
for publishing. Your study was returned to the office before your letter was 
received by the editor so will be unable to criticize it. It is always worth 
while to make studies, even if not purchased or "used. No one ever starts at the 
top. We have many, many studies and designs submitted, many of which 
we purchase and never use as we have more material on hand than we can 
publish, so often we have to refuse quite good work, but no one should be 
discouraged as continued and earnest work must bring success in time. 


"Camera Craft" (one of the most interesting maga- 
zines on the subject of "Amateur Photography") which 
suffered a total loss in the San Francisco disaster and is 
temporarily moved to Sacramento, writes to us that on 
account of limited facilities the May and June issues will 
not be up to their usual standard but will contain interest- 
ing personal experiences of the earthquake and fire. As 
brother publishers, we sympathize with "Camera Craft" in 
its loss and hope that the future will have for it a full 
measure of prosperity. 


Ceramic Summer School 


Instructors : L. Vance-Phillips \ 

Sara Wood Saff ord > New York 
Lillian Forbes Sherman) 
Blanche Van Court Schneider, Chicago 
For Summer School Circular Address 

L. Vance-Phillips, Chautauqua, N. Y. 

Vance-Phillips Flesh Palette 

Mineral Colors in Powder. Each combination care- 
fully prepared and tested. Sold in sets of ten colors. 
Sold in complete sets, including brushes, stipplers, 
mediums, etc., together with a folder giving brief 
instructions for use. 

Vance-Phillips Condensed Painting Palette 

High Grade Mineral Colors in Powder, containing 
the essentials for painting. 

Line of Selected Brushes, Mediums and Materials 

Until Sept. IstjPrice 1 Lists will be sent and mail orders promptly filled from the Studio at Chautauqua, New^York 






Drawing Inks, Blacks and 

Eternal Writing Ink 
Engrossing Ink 
Taurine Mucilage 
Photo Mounter 
Drawing Board and Library 


Office Paste 

Liquid Paste 

Vegetable Glue, etc., etc. 

and learn what's what in inks and adhesives for tracing designs 
on china, photograph mounting, and general office and home 
use. Emancipate yourself from ill-smelling and dirty pastes 
and mucilages, and corrosive and weak-colored inks, and adopt 
the HIGGINS' INKS AND ADHESIVES. Their high qualities 
will be a revelation to you. At Dealers Generally. 

and Manufacturers = 
Refined IrvKs and Adhesives 
Office and Factory, BrooKlyn, N. ~Y., \J . S. A. 

CHAS. M. HIGGINS & CO.^jgj," 

'ii .irti ^ - * ^ ^ ^ V ^ 

White China for Decorating 

WE are pleasing others and we can please yon if you 
will give us the opportunity. We have had 
many letters of late complimenting us on 
our prompt shipments of White China. We 
are able to make prompt shipments only by 
carrying a very large and complete stock. Our large 
Illustrated Catalogue of White China and Materials free for 
the asking. Send to-day. 



224-226 Seneca Street Cleveland, Ohio 


Importers and 

Sole Agents for 

Hancock's China and Glass Colors 

An Immense Variety of 

German Colors 
French Colors 
English Colors 
Liquid Lustre Colors 

Lacroix Fat Oil 
Dresden Thick Oil 
"Elarco" Tinting Oil 
All Other Mediums 

By the 


, By the 

"Elarco" Mat Roman Gold— i, \ and i oz. Pots. 
Hand-made French Pencils and Brushes 

Of Unsurpassed Quality. 
All China Painters' Requisites. Write for Illustrated Catalogue. 

71-73 Park Place, New York 





Are sold by the leading merchants throughout the 
United States. All the latest shapes are illustrated 

Now ready for mailing. Write for copy to-dav. 



26 to 34 Barclay St., New York 

We are constantly creating and devising new ideas in 
Decalcomanias to meet every requirement. 

The Tiny Todkins Series is one of our latest. Send 
for samples. 

Onr Decalcomanias are the exclusive, special kind you 
can't get elsewhere. Cost less, too. 


656 Broadway, New York 







F. B. AULICH jt * »* Ji * 

NANCY BEYER * * j* j* 


LUCY E. CHILDS ^ J ^ j* 

EMMA A. ERVIN ^ ^ ^ ^ 



LAURA OVERLY ^ ^ .* ^ 



PAUL PUTZKI ji > .* ^ ^ 









AUGUST MCMVI Price 40c. Yeariy Subscription $4.00 


The entire contents of this Magazine are cohered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted ^Uhoui special permission. 


—^■a aBSS OSSgg *-» 


League Notes 

The Class Room — "Ground Laying and Tinting" 

Passion Flower 

Borders for Punch and Salad Bowls 

Bowl Border and Punch Cup 

Punch Cup and Bowl Border 

Study of Butterflies 

Dragon Fly Plate 


Marigold (Supplement) 

Y. W. C. A. Art School 


Tin-Enameled Ware— (4th paper) 

Wild Rose — Decorative Study 

Christmas Rose (See editorial) 

Club Notes 

Rocky Mountain Columbine 

Fruit Bowl 

Water Pitcher— Wild Rose Motif 

Water Borders for Salad Sets 


Purple Clematis — (Virgin's Bower) 

Design for Portfolio or Frame 

The Crafts— 

The Making of a Palmleaf Basket 
Providence Technical High School 

Answers to Correspondents. 

Belle Barnett Vesey 

F. B. Aulich 
Alice Witte Sloan 
Mary Overbeck 
Russell Goodwin 
F. A. Rhead 
Nancy Beyer 
Paul Putzki 
Laura Overly 
Sophia A. Walker 
Edith Alma Ross 
Chas. F. Binns 
Hannah Overbeck 

Emma A. Ervin 
Sabella Randolph 
Hannah Overbeck 
Marie Crilley Wilson 
Mary Turner Merrill 
Carrie Williams 
Edith Alma Ross 

Mrs. Lucy Childs 


73 to 84 
77 and 90 








list or boohs 

The Rose Book, containing some of the best 
rose studies and designs published in 
Keramic Studio postpaid $ 3.00 

The Fruit Book, containing some of the best 
fruit studies and designs published 
in Keramic Studio postpaid 3.00 

Composition, by Arthur Dow postpaid 1.65 

Principles of Design, by E. Batchelder postpaid 3,00 

Decorative Studies, by J. Foord. . ; postpaid 12.50 

Plant Forms and Designs, by Midgley and 

Lilley postpaid 2.20 

Practical Pottery, elementary instruction 

for students, by Richard Lunn postpaid 2.50 

Grand Feu Ceramics, a practical treatise on 
the making of hard porcelain dec- 
orated with high temperature giazes 
by Taxile Doat of the Manufactory of 
of Sevres, France postpaid 7.50 

Seger's Collected Writings, 2 volumes .postpaid 15.50 

For the Collector: 

Vol. II Old China, bound blue cloth . . postpaid 2 . 50 
Vol. Ill Old China, bound blue cloth . postpaid 3.50 

Anglo-American Pottery, a manual for col- 
lectors, by Edwin Atlee Barber, Cura- 
tor of the Pennsylvania Museum, sec- 
ond edition postpaid 2.00 

American Glassware, old and new, by Edwin 

A. Barber postpaid 1 .00 

Marks of American Potters, by Edwin A. 

Barber postpaid 2.25 

Pottery and Porcelain of the United States 

by Edwin A. Barber postpaid 3.75 

The Lace Book, by N. Hudson Moore postpaid 5.30 

Tulip Ware of the Pennsylvania German 
Potters, by Edwin A. Barber, in pa- 
per cover postpaid 

Tulip Ware of the Pennsylvania Potters, by 
Edwin A. Barber, cloth, limited edi- 
tion postpaid 

Encyclopedia of Ceramics, by W. P. Jervis . .postpaid 
The Old China Book, by N. Hudson Moore . . postpaid 
The Old Furniture Book, by N. Hudson 

Moore postpaid 

Old Pewter, by N. Hudson Moore postpaid 

Chats on English China, by Arthur Hayden . postpaid 
Chats on Old Furniture, by Arthur Hayden . postpaid 
China Collecting in America, by Alice Morse 

Earle postpaid 

Pottery and Porcelain, a guide to collectors, 
by Frederick Litchfield, the English 

expert postpaid 

French Pottery and Porcelain by Henri 

Frantz . . . . postpaid 

Dutch Pottery and Porcelain, by W. Pit- 
cairn Knowles postpaid 

Old English Furniture, by Fred Fenn and 

B. Wyllie postpaid 

English Embroidery, by A. F. Kendrick. . .postpaid 

French Furniture, by Andre Saglio postpaid 

Old Pewter, by Malcolm Bell postpaid 

Sheffield Plate, by B. Wyllie postpaid 

The Oriental-Rug Book, by Mary Churchill 

Ripley postpaid 

Home Furnishing, practical and artistic, by 

Alice M. Kellogg postpaid 

William Adams, an old English potter, by 

William S. Turner postpaid 

lieramic Studio Pub. Co., Syracuse, N. 













Vol. VIII. No. 4 


August, J 906 

EVERAL have written asking 
for information in regard to the 
"Christmas Rose" subject of the 
Christmas competition. We have 
no very clear study, but pub- 
lish in this number the only 
one we could find. The Christ- 
mas Rose is not a rose at all; 
it is a sort of Anemone which 
comes up through the snow and 
blooms about Christmas time, it is white with sometimes 
a tinge of pink and a yellow center. We will try to pub- 
lish another study next month. 

There seems to be a general exodus of craftsmen 
and china decorators in Europe this summer. Among 
our well known workers are Miss Emily Peacock, Mr. 
Marshal Fry, The Misses Mason, Miss Stewart. 

We may look for some newly inspired work in the 
fall and trust that the readers of Keramic Studio may 
reap the benefit. 


Do not forget to gather material for the winter work 
and to gather new material, find for yourselves subjects 
that have not been overworked and color harmonies in 
nature that will lend a new charm to your interpretation 
of her offerings. There is a large and fertile field hardly 
touched both in wild and garden flowers, in insects and 
other forms of life, in landscape and in sky. 


The greatest opportunity of the members of the 
League confronts us now, the re-establishment of the 
San Francisco club, only those who have passed through 
a like experience can understand the difficulties which 
must be overcome. No materials, no utensils, no demand 
for the work, almost broken hearts but indomitable wills, 
is the key to the situation. The League treasury is low, 
but at the last Board meeting fifty dollars was voted them 
and a motion passed to request every member of the 
N. L. M. P. to give from his studio at least one study. 
This is asking very little, so we beg of you not to neglect 
or defer it. Send to day to Miss Minnia Taylor, 31 Par- 
nassus Ave., San Francisco, Cal. 

Our study course, which is no longer an experiment, 
will be equal to a course in design. As previously stated 
in the Keramic Studio, we have selected three (3) 
flowers; the Poppy for the west, the Dandelion for the 
Middle States and the Field Daisy for the East. Three 
vase forms are to be selected later, on which to use these 
flowers. Study the flower during the summer months and 
in September send drawings with color scheme to Belle 
B. Vesey, 6228 Wabash Ave., Chicago, 111. Do not un- 
dervalue this problem. Study also the grape as that will 
be used later on the "Farrington" punch bowl. 

In the travelling exhibition the steins only will give 
an idea of our work, as the bowl and plate designs were 
received too late to be used and sent to the exhibition. 

Belle Barnett Vesey, 



The next subject for the Class Room will be "The Art 
of Teaching," a course for beginner, referring to some 
designs published in Keramic Studio for illustration. 
This should explain just how to start a beginner, what kind 
of piece to work upon, what style of work to attempt, what 
steps to take in the work, etc., up to the advanced and 
finished work. A special extra first prize of $10.00 will be 
added to the usual prizes if a sufficiently good article is 
sent. Articles should be received not later than Sept. 5th. 



First Prize— Mrs. G. B. Strait, Cazenovia, N. Y. 

^TECHNICAL skill may only be obtained at the price 
* of much labor, for there are no "bargain", methods for 
the one who aspires to be a good painter in ceramics. 

The subject of ground laying is especially important, 
as a successfully laid ground will enhance the beauty of 
any piece, while one with muddy tones or ill chosen colors 
will destroy the harmony of the most excellent subject. 


Before beginning a piece, place all necessary materials 
near at hand, where they may be readily obtainable. Now 
draw with India ink any design desired. Cover the sur- 
face to be grounded with good grounding oil, painted on 
with a large brush as smoothly as possible, and pad lightly 
with a bit of cotton loosely covered with soft silk, until 
the surface is even and possibly slightly "tacky". 

If the surface is even before the oil grows sticky, set 
the piece in some place where it will be free from dust, 
until it becomes so. Many put a tiny bit of lamp black in 
the oil so that any variation in the coat may be readily 
discernible. If a rather thin coat is desired add an equal 
amount of turpentine to the oil. 

In this way it will dry quickly, the color may be laid 
on without delay, and the danger arising from the collection 
of dust will be avoided. 

Now carefully remove the oil from any part not to be 
grounded, and with a palette knife drop on the oily surface 
a good quantity of powdered color which has been re- 
ground or sifted through a copper wire sieve or fine bolting 
cloth. This will prevent the heavier particles of paint 
making dark spots when fired. 

When the surface has been covered with the paint, with 
a very soft brush, or a bit of cotton, push the color about 
until it is evenly distributed and the oil has absorbed all 
the color possible, while every bit of the surface appears 
dry. Be careful not to allow the cotton or brush to touch 



the uncovered oil. The extra color may now be dusted 
off on a paper laid under the piece for the purpose, and re- 
placed in the vial. 

If after firing the tone is not deep enough, the process 
may be repeated the next fire. 

When Velvet Rose, Ruby, Roman Purple or Maroon 
are used for grounding, the oil must be used thinner than 
for other colors, as otherwise they may scale in firing, or 
what is equally unfortunate, may fire a heavy, disagreeable 
brown, with no richness or transparency. 

Whether grounded or dusted, all extra powder color 
must be carefully blown off before firing, as otherwise it 
is liable to come off and settle on some other piece in the 

Dusted colors should never be dried by artificial heat, 
as the oil, which keeps open for a considerable time, may 
cause the colors to run. 

In case the paint blisters in firing, the defective spot 
may be sanded off and retouched wth the color used or 
if in a really serious condition the place may be cut out 
with a small knife until in as even a condition as possible 
when it may be further smoothed by the use of pumice stone 
then repainted. 

Never remove a grounding color from a design, no 
matter whether mat or bright colors are used, until the 
surface is hard and dry. A sharp knife or erasing oil 
may then be used. 


A good, practical eraser for removing dry, unfired 
color, is made by pouring several drops of fresh tar oil, 
procurable at any drug store, on the palette, rubbing a 
few shavings of good hard soap into it with a palette 
knife until it may be put on the painting without running. 

The tiniest particle of lamp black may be added so 
as to render it plainly visible when applied. As this 
preparation thickens it may be thinned with turpentine. 
Take a brush heavily charged with the eraser, and paint 
over the thoroughly dry color that must be removed. 
In a short time, by wiping over the place with a small 
piece of cloth, the eraser and paint will both come off, 
leaving the china perfectly clean. In order to avoid in- 
juring the adjacent tint, it is advisable to wipe from the 
edge toward the middle. 

Fire hard enough to produce a good glaze at first, 
for if the strength is lost it may be regained by the after 
paintings, while it is impossible to obtain an underglaze 
effect without this hard fire. If the coat is heavy it must 
be fired slowly to avoid blistering. 


In a background always avoid a medley of colors. 
Do not overwork, but strive for fresh, pure tones in a 
broad, simple way, working with as large brushes as are 
permissible, keeping the background really subordinate 
to the subject. 

An artist once remarked that the greatest compliment 
he ever received on backgrounds was when a critic, on 
being asked concerning a ground he had painted, said, 
"I didn't notice what it was like, though of course it had 

Decide what colors are to be used before beginning 
to tint, using such as will produce a harmonious effect, 
allowing no overworking of them. Let there be no sudden, 
"jumping off" place in the tints, but let the gradation be 
so subtle that one color really melts into another, as del- 
icacy is one of the principal qualities sought for. 

In naturalistic work use the same colors in the back- 
ground that are found in the subject painted, possibly 
adding blue to give atmosphere. When large white 
lilies and lilies of the valley are painted, the addition of 
soft pinks and yellows in the ground will be charming; 
while with blood root blossoms a touch of the blue of the 
scylla will be effective. 

In flower or fruit decorations the darkest color should 
come from back of the brightest part of the design, shadowy 
foliage being softly painted into the background, making 
them supplementary to the prominent cluster, and leav- 
ing no hard, tight edges. 

When several colors are used in a background they 
are usually put on clear and blended into each other, 
though occasionally they are mixed before applying. Re- 
peated paintings and firings are the best way to secure 
rich dark tints free from streaks. 

For tinting, the mediums that may be bought ready 
prepared for the purpose are good or any of the formulas 
recently published in the "Class Room" may be used. 
The rule— as much fat oil as color, made thin with laven- 
der oil, — is excellent. 


It is well for the beginner to tint some flat object 
in monochrome until accustomed to the handling of the 
brush, then with a large brush slightly moistened with 
the medium and the tip touched into the color, go quick- 
ly over the whole surface to be covered with light firm 
strokes, allowing the brush marks to touch each other. 

While still moist, pad lightly over the entire surface 
not touching the same place twice unless it is to remove 
some spot where the tint is too heavy; or if left too oily 
and it settles in spots it may be softly repadded when part- 
ly dry. Where one part of the tint is to be darker than 
the rest, paint heavier in that portion and pad from the 
lighter part of the tint toward the dark. 

The iron reds may fire out if too thinly painted, but 
this can be remedied in subsequent firings, as the same 
colors may be used again. 

If the paint settles in spots that will not soften under 
the blender, it proves that the paint is too dry and should 
be removed. 

Where one is skillful it is well to paint the background 
before the design, then finish the piece at one sitting, as 
in that way the edges are kept softened. 

A wash of color over a well dried tint is possible, but 
requires considerable skill to do well. Defective work 
may sometimes be covered by an irregular design of lines 
in gold or black, etc., but this is seldom satisfactory. 

If a tint is marred by a touch or by dropping oil or 
turpentine upon it, pad as quickly as possible in order to 
remedy the accident. 

If this cannot be done, remove at once with alcohol 
or turpentine and begin again. 


As it is a difficult matter to put on a deep tint wet, 
the practice has grown of putting dry powder color on a 
damp surface painted over with colors in the usual manner. 
This treatment not only deepens the color tones, but 
the additional flux from the extra amount of paint pro- 
duces an unusually high glaze. 

The dusting process may be repeated any number 
of times if retired between each coat, and the same color 
used on the painted surface is generally used in dusting. 

The method of application may be briefly described 


(See Treatment page Z(s) 

7 6 


as follows: Paint a piece with any colors desired, and 
when nearly dry, or so as to admit of bearing on rather 
heavily when rubbing in the colors, but while still moist 
enough to hold a thin coat of powdered paint, with a 
piece of cotton batting or surgeon's wool dipped into 
color rub over the surface, always being careful to keep 
color between the wool and the ground that is being cov- 
ered. It is advisable to have a pile of each color used, 
on a separate piece of paper, with a bit of wool for each 
color, in order to more readily keep the colors pure. 
o o o 
Second Prize— Sydney Scott Lewis, Georgetown, Ky. 

Under the head of Ground Laying come four very 
important subjects that should be thoroughly under- 
stood by the china decorator. 

1 . Grounding. 

2. Tinting. 

3. Dusting. 

4. Painting in backgrounds for naturalistic work 


The^color is generally grounded on if you wish a high- 
ly glazed surface, more especially if a deep tint is desired. 
Have the piece clean and free from dust, paint the sur- 
face to be grounded with Hancock's English grounding 
oil (for small spaces Osgood's oil, it dries too quickly 
for large spaces) . Put the oil ; on as smoothly as 
possible with a large soft brush. With pads of surgeon's 
cotton covered with two thicknesses of clean soft silk pad 
until the oil sounds tacky. The longer you pad the less 
oily and more even the finished ground. It will be of 
course thinner which is more to be desired than a thick 
ground, for you can always get the desired depth by a 
second coat after firing. And thus avoid a possible chip- 
ping or scaling if the ground is put on too thick. After 
the oil has been padded sufficiently pour out on a plate 
a good lot of powdered color that is free from lumps and 
grit, made so by passing through bolting cloth or copper 
sieve. Place a clean paper under plate to collect the 
loose powder, this can be put back in the bottle and used 
to the last bit, provided it is "bolted" when it begins to 
be linty or lumpy. If there is to be a design wiped out 
on the ground for color, gold, paste or enamel, draw in 
the design with India ink before putting on the oil, then 
after oil is padded wipe out the oil from the design. Next 
take up a lot of color (powder) on your palette knife 
and drop it on the oiled surface, with a wad of cotton 
(or brush) push the powder evenly and gently over the sur- 
face, being very careful to keep a good lot of color between 
the oil and the pad, keeping the powder well ahead of 
the cotton. When the entire oiled surface has been cov- 
ered with color, dust back over it several times, then wipe 
off all loose powder, and if there are any wet or thin look- 
ing spots, dust on some more powder until the oil has 
absorbed all the powder it can, then remove all loose pow- 
der, wipe out all that has adhered where the design is to 
be and the result should be a smooth, velvety looking 
ground. Set away to dry before doing more work on the 
piece, as it is very soft and easily scratched. Should it 
have a small scratch or spot this can be remedied in the 
second fire by painting over the spot with wet color. A 
larger spot can be remedied before first fire, by putting 
on a little oil, bringing it up to but not touching the edge of 
the spot and dusting powder on, then retouching with wet 
color the second fire. Mat colors are much used for 
grounding in conventional work, used with gold over 

raised paste. They are grounded on just the same as 
bright colors. If a mat ground chips in repeated fires, fill 
up the chips with hard enamel and touch with powder 
colors. Roman Purple, Ruby and Maroon are difficult 
colors to ground. They should be sifted and ground 
down with a glass muller, the oil used very thin, else 
they will not be transparent and will turn brown. Maroon 
is a rich red when grounded. If grounded color chips 
off, too much oil has been used and absorbed more color 
than the glaze can hold, sometimes it does not chip until 
the second or third fire, fill up the chips with hard enamel 
and touch with color. Color grounded on is especially 
fine for borders for plates, outside of bowls, bottoms of 
steins and pitchers in any conventional work when a 
rich glazed surface is desired. A luminous black is obtained 
by grounding Red Brown for first fire and Dark Blue for 
second. The best grounded black is obtained by putting 
with the black either Banding Blue or Pompadour. If 
a very light ground is desired have oil very thin (thinned 
with lavender oil) pad a long time and let stand before 
putting on color. If the ground comes out thin and 
spotted when a dark ground is wanted, for the second 
fire mix the color and put on as a tint. 

To dust on a ground of different colors, say some 
pure color and some mixed color, make a mixture of the 
colors you wish, pad in the oil, put on some pure color, 
then the mixture, then another pure color that has been 
used in the first mixture or in the second if more than one 
mixture has been used, then the second mixture, then 
pure color, working one color well into the other so there 
will be no spotted appearance. In the second fire bring 
the whole together by dusting on some single color. A 
heavily grounded color will not stand many fires. 

Grounding oil can have a little bit of the color you 
are to use put in the oil to make it show plainer and you 
can see if the entire surface is covered and if it is padded 
evenly. If the ground after firing feels rough to the 
touch smooth with fine sand paper. 


One of the most important things about china 
painting is to be able to put on a good tint, smooth, free 
from dust and oil and of the desired shade. Have the 
piece clean and dry. If a design is to be wiped out on 
the tint, draw it in with India ink, before tinting. Have 
at hand plenty of clean surgeon's cotton in different size 
wads, when ready to use place over this cotton two thick- 
nesses of soft silk, this will keep the cotton from pulling 
through into the paint. Tube colors are better for tint- 
ing than powder, but the latter are good if rubbed thorough 
ly or sifted; and they require no flux, except that the iron reds 
like Carnation and Red Brown when put on lightly are apt 
to fire out, use a little flux to prevent. 

Rub the powder colors to the consistency of stiff 
tube color, with Fry's medium, then put in about as 
much fat oil as you have color, rub well together and 
thin to the desired thinness with lavender oil. Light 
tints can be put on by using a good deal of medium, less 
lavender oil and no fat oil. After the paint seems to be 
mixed right try a little sample of it on an odd bit of china, 
if it separates and looks lumpy it needs more rubbing, 
if it pulls from the china it needs more oil, if it looks 
bubbly it is too oily. When it pads evenly and smooth- 
ly it is ready for use. For a large surface put on rapidly 
with a large tinting brush, be sure and have the brush 
perfectly clean and soft, pad rapidly, lightly and evenly 
over the entire surface, not in spots here and there. When 

MARIGOLDS laura b. overly 

August 190a 













the pad becomes charged with color take a fresh one, pad 
until the space desired tinted is covered with a clean 
velvety looking tint. The design then can be easily- 
wiped out while the tint is still wet. 

Mat colors are used in tinting just the same as the 
bright colors, they may be semi-glazed by adding i part 
flux to 4 parts color. The dark mat colors require less 
oil ; after firing, smooth the mat surface with fine emery 
paper. For tinting have a few stipplers and a blender 
for use under handles, etc. 

When the tube colors are used use | flux — except in 
Apple Green, Mixing Yellow and Pearl Gray. The best 
tinting is done with Dresden thick oil, Fry's medium 
and lavender oil and not with a prepared tinting oil. To 
blend a tinted color into a powder color take some of the 
powdered color used in dusting and rub into the tinted 
edge with a brush before the tint is dry. If you wish to 
tint part of a piece one color and blend into another, 
have both tints mixed ready to use, paint on one then 
bring the other up to it and blend together with the dab- 
ber. After a tint is dry look over it and remove any 
speck of dust with a fine point or dust scraper. 


Color is dusted on different parts of nearly dry painted 
china to get atmosphere, soft effects, depth and glaze, 
using blues to blend into skies, brown and reds to blend 
into dark backgrounds, also to give tone and balance 
to the whole. 

The glazes such as Lavender, Ivory, etc., are dusted 
on to give a higher and more uniform glaze to the whole 
or part of the painting. Ivory glaze gives a cream tint 
but eats up reds and turns them brown. Dusting is 
done by rubbing gently the half dry painted surface with 
powdered colors. When the paint is too dry the powder 
will not stick, either take the paint off and do over or 
wait until next fire. Drop on color with palette knife 
and push it gently over surface with a piece of lamb's 
wool. In naturalistic work the color used is the same 
as that used in the painting, after dusting the high lights 
are not taken out and no patching can be done. Be 
careful to wipe off all loose powder as it will fly in the 
firing and settle on other pieces. Dark Green, dusted 
over Brown Green makes a rich color for backgrounds. 
Quite a good underglaze effect is obtained by painting 
the piece as usual and firing, then for the last fire ground 
on Ivory, Green, Lavender or any glaze, just as you would 
for a grounded ground. When you wish to dust with two 
or more colors mix on the palette with alcohol in given 
proportions and when dry use the mixture for dusting. 
After a piece has been painted in and fired for second fire, oil 
piece with special tinting oil, pad until tacky, allow it 
to stand 2 or 3 hours or sometimes over night then dust 
it with any mixture or pure color that is desired and you 
get very rich effects. This treatment is good for land- 
scape panels, steins and pitchers. In conventional work, 
done in greens, reds, greys, browns, dust a part or the 
whole in this manner with Neutral Yellow, Pearl Gray, 
Gray for Flesh or Flowers, or Meissen Brown. In this way 
you get many beautiful and soft effects. The special 
tinting oil is very good mixed with these or other colors 
and the piece flushed and padded just as in a tint and 
when almost dry it can be dusted in the usual way. If 
you wish to put Ivory glaze on a piece already fired tint 
it on lightly as color, then when dry rub the powder in the 
surface until it has an even mat appearance. To success- 
fully dust powder color into a painted surface the sur- 

face must be just right, neither too wet nor too dry, if too 
wet it will lump up and rub off, if too dry it will not adhere. 


The subject of backgrounds for flowers, fruit, etc., 
in naturalistic work is a most important one. Generally 
the same colors are repeated in it that are used in paint- 
ing the design itself. The darkest color in the background 
should come from behind the lightest spot to keep the 
centre of interest. There should be no great contrast of 
color, and a gradual passing from one color to another 
working the fruit, flowers, along with the background 
while the paint is open thus blending together the whole 
and avoiding hard lines. The blending may be done 
with a silk pad or the brush, many use the ball of the mid- 
dle finger for small spaces or the soft part of the hand in 
fact anything that will work to the best advantage and 
get the best results. The background should not have 
a worked over look but be fresh and luminous. Much 
attention should be paid to harmony in color, and the 
relation of subject and background. 

In a subject where yellow predominates, the compli- 
mentary color is violet, so we find violet shadows and tones, 
for red the complimentary color is green, so there we would 
find green and yellow and blue that go to make green. 
So for blue we find red and yellow. If one has a good 
naturalistic colored study to follow one is not apt to go 
astray on the background but when one has no study and 
just one in black and white the background is often a 
difficult matter and becomes more a matter of nice feeling 
for harmony in color. It is here that a good "sense of 
color" will help one out of the difficulty for without that 
there is apt to be discord. 

When the piece is dusted, with a large soft brush 
clean off any superfluous paint, to prevent spots after 

Sometimes a background alone is dusted, while the 
remainder of the design is painted in the usual way. But 
a softer, more harmonious effect is produced if the dusting 
is made to go over the shadowy parts of the design, and 
over at least the edges of the prominent portions. Over 
the shadowy portion dust the background color on which 
it rests. This gives an underglazed effect. 

Usually not more than two or three, and frequently but 
one color is used in dusting, and if the latter, it is put over 
the entire piece, lights and all. If this is done it should 
be a color found in both background and design, and in 
both lights and shades. A very heavy grounded color 
is liable not to bear repeated fires; but a surface lightly 
dusted may receive a succession of dustings and firings, 
with an even superior depth of color. A piece cannot 
be worked into after dusting, and not even a high light 

Colored glazes, Ivory, Green, Lavender, etc., are to be 
dusted on a dry, unfired decoration to increase the glaze 
and are not mixed with the color. They are applied the 
same way as dusted color, but must not be put over reds 
or flesh tones. 

Powdered paint may also be put over a perfectly dry 
surface, in which case a very small amount will adhere. 
This will slightly tone the whole, and is called "dry dust- 
ing." If a design has been allowed to become dry before 
the background is painted in, when the latter is dusted 
the color should be allowed to go up on the shadowy por- 

To obtain an even tone of the purple found in the 
pansy, dusted Royal Purple may be used. New Peach 








t- 1 





dusted over the same produces a good pink if thin, though 
it is liable to chip if used heavily. Wild Rose Pink, or 
Pink 26 over New Peach makes an admirable color well 
suited to wide borders and surfaces, while Velvet Rose, 
Dark Blood, Celadon, Apple Green, and Olive Green 4 
are good used alone. A good dusted Black of a deep 
tone may be obtained in any of the three following ways: 
Two thin coats of Black; a coat of Pompadour, then one 
of Banding Blue; or one of Banding Blue, then Black; in 
each instance firing between. 

Blacks are said to be useful to dust over greens that 
have turned brown by firing. 


Mat colors, which on account of a lack of flux do not 
glaze, are particularly adapted to grounds, and espe- 
cially in combination with gold work for conventional 
designs, though charming for such flowers as azaleas, 
against a soft creamy ground. 

The colors come in powder form, and being of a hard 
composition, it is well to first rub them down on the palette 
with either turpentine or alcohol, the latter acting more 
quickly. Then mix with fat oil until of a creamy con- 
sistency, and spread with a brush moistened with lav- 
ender oil. Any medium sold for the purpose will doubt- 
less answer as well. The mat colors must be spread over 
a surface as evenly and smoothly as possible, and the tint 
blended at once with a dabber. Or it may be dusted in 
the same manner as bright colors. 

If ivory or some light tint be chosen for the ground 
the design may be drawn on with a pencil when the paint 
is dry, and the paint removed with the eraser. 

If the color has been made too thin it will show the 
china through, and if too much oil is used it will be sticky 
and attract dust. 

Do not dry by artificial heat but allow the piece to 
stand overnight. If it is not perfectly dry by this time, 
remove and repaint. 

Sometimes one tinting will not be sufficient, in which 
case the painting Or dusting may be repeated. With 
plenty of practice, it is possible to put on a second coat 
before firing. 

Any mat colors may be mixed at will with the ex- 
ception of Coral Red, which not only must be used alone 
but can have but one fire. Any of the yellows harmon- 
ize with the browns, dark greens with light greens, reds 
with brown, and purple with lilac, only a light mat color 
cannot be used very successfully over a dark one. 

If wanted in more delicate tints than they come, 
they may be made lighter by the addition of Mat White, 
remembering that light tints must be as heavily painted 
as dark ones. 

Mat colors combine well with lustres and bronzes, 
and if well dried will take enamels or raised paste before 
firing, and the latter may also be gilded. Flat outlines 
of unfluxed gold may also be applied to unfired mat color. 

Too light a fire, or too thin paint may cause color to 
rub off, while overfiring will cause a smooth appearance. 

While mat colors are only suited to decorations of 
a simple character, except where gold is used elaborately 
they may be made both pleasing and effective. 

Dusted bright color will not usually take gold well, 
so before firing the color may be removed from where the 
gold is to be placed. 

Enamels cannot be placed over unfired dusted bright 
color, without their sinking in more or less, though it is 
possible to do this over an ordinary tinted ground. 

Dead gold grounds are seldom seen, but are best used 
on panels for Japanese effect, swallows in black, gray or 
brown, with white breasts, being most pleasing. 

Gold may also be used as a background surrounding 
tiny panels of marines or flowers, outlined with paste, 
leaving a place for monogram and such inscriptions as 
would make it suitable for a golden wedding. 


Third Prize— Ella L. Adams, Yellow Springs, O. 

"If to do, were as easy as to know what were good 
to do, chapels had been churches and poor men's 
cottages princes' palaces." 

To one making his first effort in grounding, this quota- 
tion seems very appropriate, for all that is necessary, 
according to most instructions is: 

To apply a coat of grounding oil, pounce it with a 
dabber, pour the color on the surface, spread with a piece 
of cotton or soft camel's hair brush and lo! the victory 
is yours. Of course as a side issue the china should be 
cleansed of paint where not needed, but to the uniniated 
this consumes but a moment. This sounds alluring and 
free from drudgery, or is the wiping out process a joy to 
the majority? True, the art of grounding is not difficult 
only a little dexterity is necessary. If a plain band of 
color is the ground the china can be cleansed very rapid- 
ly, but, if some conventional or semi-conventional design 
is to be wiped out, the drudgery is more than semi-apparent. 
So many little points seem to spring up for the amateur 
to solve for himself. This seems a good method to follow : 

First cleanse the china with alcohol or turpentine 
then with soap and water and let dry thoroughly. The 
alcohol or turpentine if left on is too apt to hold the oil 
or color where not wanted. Pour the powder color to be 
used on a dry palette or china plate and pour on enough, 
yes, more than enough, for it is not wasted, since what 
is left over can be used again. With a dry palette knife 
or muller rub the color until perfectly smooth and free from 
grain. Some use a silk sieve for this process and sift 
the color to make it smooth. Mix the grounding oil 
with water color Carmine to make a decided pink since 
this shows much plainer than the grounding oil alone, 
hence is easier wiped out where not wanted and a firing 
obliterates all traces of the water color. Often a little 
of the color to be used in grounding may be carefully 
mixed with the grounding oil instead of the water color. 

Apply the colored grounding oil with a broad brush 
and then pounce with a silk dabber which has been filled 
with a good quality of cotton batting, for this seems to 
keep its shape better than surgeon's cotton. Be sure to 
pad until smooth and tacky. 

Now, with the palette knife take up all the color and 
place it on one side of the china. With surgeon's cotton 
or a soft camel's hair brush draw the color over the oil 
being careful not to touch the oil with the brush or cotton. 

With careful manipulation in one distribution the 
oil should take up its full quota of color. This is shown 
when the surface is not oily and is free from spots. If 
one application does not produce a dry, dusty surface 
apply more color. On to a piece of glazed paper brush 
all the superfluous powder color for it is easier poured 
into its vial from glazed paper. With a silk rag or pointed 
stick covered with cotton wipe off all the mixture of color 
and oil where not needed, and make sure that not even a 
dot of powder color remains where not wanted for this 
has an annoying way of proving very conspicuous when 



To be executed in dark blue and green on a cream or grey green ground. 


RERAMIC studio 

fired. If all this is carefully done the grounding will 
prove a success. 

Should a design in paste or enamel be desired upon 
this grounding color, the color should be wiped off where 
the design is to be placed since paste or enamel is apt to 
chip off over ground color. 

If a very light tint is desired either thin the ground- 
ing oil with turpentine or after applying the oil let the 
piece stand for some time so that it will not take up so 
much color. If different tones are desired in the ground- 
ing, the china should be prepared with the oil padded as 
before and then apply the lightest tone where desired. 

Carefully brush off all superfluous powder and apply the 
next tone, blending into the first color. Proceed with 
other tones in the same manner. 

If, by any perversity of fate the grounding should 
develop uneven places in firing, they may be smoothed 
out by retouching, but always strive for perfection in the 
first firing and if the faults are glaring rub out and try 
again, for this will give more satisfaction in the end. 

Mat colors seem to need a more careful rubbing down 
than glazed colors but otherwise the same rules apply to 
both. There is this exception; a mat ground should not 
have as hard a firing as a glazed ground. 

Ruby, Purple, Maroon, Coalport and Sevres Green 
are all difficult colors to use in grounding or its sister, 
dusting. For the reds thin the oil with turpentine 
since too] thick an application may chip off in firing. The 
greens mentioned are apt to fire either a brown tone or a 
spotted effect so don't use them. 


Good mediums for tinting should first be considered. 
What seems satisfactory and easy for one person to handle 
seems not the medium for another. Surely usage has 
something to do with this for let us hope that all tinting 
mediums have their merits. 

A very little Dresden thick oil mixed with the color 
and the Sartorius tinting oil added until the mixture con- 
tains bubbles while being mixed is a good plan to follow 
in tinting large surfaces. 

The tinting oil keeps the color open until it is evenly 

Copaiba with } clove oil is a good medium on small 
surfaces, for this dries more rapidly than the former. 

Lavender oil may be used as a tinting oil after the 
color has been mixed with thick oil. Many more mediums 
give just as satisfactory results as these. 

Some find the tube colors more satisfactory for tint- 
ing than vial colors, since they are not so grainy, but 
a careful mixing will remove this trouble. If tube colors 
be used mix with turpentine before using the tinting med- 
ium. Be supplied with a good tinting brush, cotton 
and silk for padding. 

It is best to test the tinting mixture first upon some 
stray piece of china. Fill the brush and convey the color 
to the china. Pounce with a dabber made of the silk filled 
with cotton. If the mixture has a tendency to cling to 
the pad or in other words if it makes a "sticky" noise while 
being padded, the proportion of tinting medium is 
correct. If faulty add more' tinting medium. Never 
add turpentine since this is too rapid a dryer. 

Should the silk seem to take up too much color let 
stand a few minutes to become drier. Color, however, 
is bound to be taken up with the silk. Pad rapidly over 
all the surface with the same dabber and some of the 
color on the silk will be transferred to the china in the 

process. Of course the same dabber should not be used 
over different colors since this might make a muddy tint. 

If the tint seems very wet and too dark after the first 
dabbing use a fresh silk and pounce again. The dryer 
a tint is pounced the less dust it will gather. 

If too light in tint a deeper color may be dusted on 
when the tint is dry or else it may be deepened for the 
second firing. Never rest content unless the tint is even- 
ly padded. 


Dusting is invaluable for strengthening backgrounds, 
deepening flowers or leaves or making a deeper tone in 
conventional work. First tint the china the desired color, 
let stand several hours and then it is ready to dust. 

A good way to test this required time is to take a 
piece of surgeon's cotton (which is used for dusting) and 
lightly brush back and forth on the tint. If a faint scrap- 
ing noise can be heard it is dry enough to begin dusting. 
Your powder colors should be well rubbed down and 
placed on a stiff paper. Blotting paper is very good. 

Have a separate piece of cotton for every color and 
beginning with the lightest tone rub the cotton in the 
powder and apply to the china. This dusting should be 
done with a light movement and one color should be care- 
fully blended into another. 

Some prefer a camel's hair brush for dusting but the 
same effect is produced with either. In dusting back- 
grounds always decide beforehand just where you want 
your various colors and do not attempt any rainbow effects. 
The background might with this treatment prove a 
foreground. The simpler a background the truer to its 

In naturalistic designs the greys and other back- 
ground colors should be made up of the colors in the design. 
In other designs a contrast is permissible and sometimes 
preferable. Some of the background (in naturalistic 
work) should be dusted over the edges of the design or 
vice-versa for this holds them together and takes away 
the effect of the design having been cut out and pasted 
on. In painting a background in naturalistic work al- 
ways have its darkest spot under the lightest flower or 
fruit for this helps to accentuate the prominent feature 
of the design. Strengthen this still further in dusting. 

It is a very good plan to keep the dusting colors 
in a box ready for use with the same colors in the same 
places just as if they were on a palette. This plan saves 
time and color. 

There are two ways of laying in backgrounds for 
naturalistic work. One is to paint the design, fire, then 
lay in the background and retouch design. The other 
way is to lay in background first and while still wet 
paint in the design. The second method is more difficult 
but it gives a softer effect. In either paint rapidly 
with firm even brush strokes, obliterating brush marks 
with soft cross strokes only using the silk dabber where 
absolutely necessary, for the silk pad takes away many 
of the strong brush effects. After this is dry strengthen 
the tones by dusting as previously directed always mak- 
ing sure there is no superfluous powder color. As a finish 
it is well to blow over the plate to remove any extra powder. 
o o o 
Fourth Prize— Bertha Morey, Ottumwa, la. 
[extracts only] 
Use English grounding oil as a medium and if it is 
too thick it should be thinned with turpentine which has 
stood open for a while so that any water in it will evaporate. 




(See Treatment page < 

8 4 


Paint the oil over the surface with a tinting brush 
using it as thinly as possible. Then pounce with a dabber 
made of a piece of cotton covered with two thicknesses 
of old china silk. Pounce until it looks even and not in 
the least bubbly as these little bubbles cause the color to 
be spotty. The more oil is removed in this way the less 
color the oil will hold and the lighter the tint will be after 


If more than one color or shade is used, always begin 
at the lighest and work into the darkest. Do not work 
with a dabber that is too wet as it will give your work 
a muddy appearance. 

Dark or light mat colors tinted on and then painted 
over for the second fire with the mat color mixed with a 
painting medium gives an effect almost if not quite equal 
to that when the color is dusted on. 

MARIGOLD (Supplement) 

Laura Overly 

CIRST fire — For shadows in the flowers use Violet 
* mixed with Yellow Brown. Keep the high lights clear 
and crisp. 

Second fire — Use Primrose Yellow and Albert Yellow. 
In the third fire strengthen shadows with Warm Shadow, 
Yellow Brown and Violet mixed. 

Leaves — Yellow Green, Brown Green and Dark Green. 

The background can be painted with Violet and Yel- 
low Brown using Primrose and Albert for the last fire. 

And Miss Mary Krackowizer in her first year, — the one 
who is outlining kittens and balls upon a knitting-bag, — 
modeled that gargoyle with an extra si?ed mouth for the 
swallowing of an electric wire. 

The remaining work photographed was done by 
classmates of these girls in the first or second years of 
the course, all having entered without examination to 
learn what art is by designing and painting, drawing 
and composing in various materials and mediums. 

The triangular lantern is by Miss Mimi Kohlmann 
who received the second year scholarship 1906 for the 
usual round of water color, cutting stencils or blocks for 
stamping (as upon the sash curtain in the embroidery 
picture), cast drawing, charcoal compositions illustrating 
a story, studies of museum textiles, etc. She did not 
take embroidery this year but it is necessary to a third 
year certificate. 

All this time we have not introduced the teacher of 
art embroidery, Miss Mary Bacon Jones, who has received 
her art education in this school. She designed the poster 
behind her and has shown in other ways a fine sense of 
color and design in water colors as well as in clay. 

Our second picture shows the famous "Griffon" of 
Notre Dame adapted as a lantern by Miss Genevieve 
Wilgus who took the 1906 scholarship for the first year 
work. It looks extremely devilish when the candle 
flashes light over face and chest. This is a part of her 
product in the correllated course of manual training, 
"Design, Mechanical Drawing, Wood Carving, and Model- 
ing based on Historic Ornament." The girls spend a 
fifth of their twenty hours per week class time upon clay, 
but it is generally found too fascinating to drop there and 
much is done out of class hours; Miss Tilda Jellinghaus' 
swan vase was fashioned in that way from a suggestion 
in "the Studio". (111. 4.) 

We do not use the potter's wheel since our aim is 
not trade but education; our clay is fired at a fireproofing 
place since we cannot have a kiln at present. 

And now we turn back to justify ourselves for the 
reproduction of the first illustration. We are trying to 
enrich the life of the Nation by our contribution of the 
"all around" art girl who is cultured and can be of use 
and earn her salt whether at home or in a salaried posi- 
tion and who knows what art is because she has touched 
it on many sides. And whatever refinement and character 
she may gain in embroidery or otherwise will appear in 
her clay. Sophia A. Walker. 

Director of the Art School of the Y, II'. C. A. of New York City. 

Y. W. C. A. Art School, New York. No. 1. 


IF any question why a picture of girls embroidering 
* finds place in the Keramic Studio, a visit under 
the skylights of the Young Womens' Christian Associa- 
tion of New York City will answer the query effectually. 
In the meantime we explain that all these girls do good 
modeling and some of it is shown in the following illustra- 
tions. For instance the girl who is working a border in 
her own design of exquisite coloring on a black lace scarf, 
Miss Sylvia Williams, finished perhaps this very morning 
her pentagonal lantern shown in illustration No. 3. She 
is in the second year of the course and she has adapted 
here to clay her stenciled design handed in as a class exer- 
cise to the instuctor in that line, Miss Hellra M. Turner 

Y. W. C. A. Art School, New York. No. 2. 



Y. W. C. A. Art School, New York" No. 3. 

Y. W. C. A. Art School, New York, No. 4. 


Design in gold outlined in black on a tinted ground. 



Charles F. Binns. 
[Fourth Paper.] 

'"pHE ware, whether vase or tile, being glazed and 
* : dried is now ready for the decoration. An im- 
portant characteristic of Delft ware is that the blue pig- 
ment is laid upon the unburned glaze. This treatment 
develops the peculiar tint of color which is well known to 
collectors and which seems impossible of attainment 
under any other method. 

The use of gum in the glaze as advocated here has 
an important bearing upon the work because a glaze 
containing gum is, when dry, much more easy to handle 
and is not nearly so liable to work up under the brush of 
the^ painter. It has, however, this disadvantage. The 
work being more easy to perform the skill and freedom 
of line which belonged to the ancient workers are, to a 
large extent, lost, moreover the very fact of the glaze 
working up with the color, however troublesome it might 
be, was largely responsible for the pleasing tones of the 
blue and the perfect harmony between base and decora- 
tion. There is no need, however, to court difficulties 
unless some superiority be thereby gained. The surface 
containing the gum can be worked upon with greater 
freedom than the pulverulent glaze which is simply mixed 
in water, and if the color effect of the old style be desired 
a little of the glaze itself may be mixed with the blue. 

The tint of color will probably cause some trouble. 
The underglaze blues which are made in modern times are, 
as a rule, crude in tint because of the purity of the ingre- 
dients from which they are made. In olden times pure 
chemicals could not be procured and hence the colors 
made were soft and harmonious. The remedy is to buy 
several colors and to mix them. Any firm of dealers in 
ceramic colors will supply samples of underglaze blues, 
blacks and browns and a few experimental mixtures 
will result in the desired hue. Blue, of course, is the 
foundation and a little black or brown is usually sufficient 
to tone down the brilliance of the commercial color. A 
little glaze should also be mixed with the blue. This 
not only helps the old fashioned appearance of the blue 
but also makes it melt into the glazed surface more readily. 

Before sending the wares to the kiln due provision 
should be made for proper placing. Stilts are not very 
satisfactory because, if a drop of glaze does run down 
it attaches the stilt firmly to the piece and the result is 
considerable trouble, if not total loss. A better plan is 
to make small discs of a refractory clay and to have these 
exactly the size of the bottom of the vase to be burned. 
These discs should be burned first and then coated with 
an infusible wash, either equal parts of kaolin and flint, 
or equal parts of bone-ash and flint. If a vase be placed 
on one of these and if the glaze does flow it only fastens 
the disc and this, being of a soft clay, is easily ground off. 
If the glaze does not flow the disc can be used over many 

For the successful burning of tiles some little con- 
trivance is necessary. They must be burned flat and 
not reared and they must be completely protected from 
dust. There is no better plan than to make a number 
of little square saggers, each large enough to hold one 
tile. The tiles are not placed in these but beneath them, 
that is, one tile is set on a level foundation and a sagger 
is inverted over it. Upon the bottom of this sagger, now 
turned upwards, a second tile is set, then another sagger 

inverted and so on. Each tile rests secure from dirt 
beneath its own covering and the pile can be raised as 
high as the kiln will allow. These little square saggers, 
commonly called setters, can be easily made from plastic 
fire clay and if a groove is formed at the base of each so 
that it will lock with its neighbor the work will be the 
more complete. 

Delft ware, to be perfect, should be glazed with a 
second coating after the first one with the decoration, 
has been fired. The glaze so used is the same as the under- 
glaze but without the tin oxide. Either of the glazes 
or enamels already given will form a clear, transparent 
glaze if the tin oxide be omitted. The procedure is the 
same as that already described except that the second 
glaze is put on very thinly. The pieces should be soaked 
as usual and carefully dried for even though glazed the 
body is still porous. The clear glaze is applied exactly 
as the opaque glaze was but mucilage will not be needed. 

The fire should not be so severe as that for the blue 
and enamel but a low heat just sufficient to nicely fuse 
the glaze. 

This second glazing is not, of course, a necessity 
but it adds greatly to the brilliance and quality of the 

The Delft potters did not confine themselves to blue 
and it is quite permissible to decorate further with over, 
glaze colors if one so desire. There is, in fact, no end to 
the variety of effects possible. Reds and greens may be 
freely used and even lustres are appropriate. These can 
be fired in the regular overglaze kiln but care must be 
exercised at first lest the colors be over burned. The 
enamel is softer than the usual run of glazes and the colors 
are apt to sink in more easily. The fire should, therefore, 
be very gentle at first until it is seen what the glaze will 

It may be well to add a word of caution with regard 
to the thickness of the enamels. In explaining the use 
of matt glazes it has been stated that they can scarcely 
be used too thick and while this is true the same does not 
apply to glazes and enamels of the brilliant type. These 
are apt to flow under fire and if too thick will run and 
spoil the work. Here again a little experience will be 
helpful. If the enamel flows off at the bottom of the vase 
or if the color runs in streaks the coating is too thick. A 
little water must be added to the dip — a very little will 
suffice — and the piece must be shaken more vigorously. 

It is a good plan to place vases after glazing, mouth 
downwards on the stilts, the glaze or enamel will then 
drain towards the upper part of the piece and the top will, 
therefore, have the thicker coating. Then on burning, 
the piece, of course, being set upon its base, there is not 
so great a liability of the enamel flowing down. 


F.B. Aulich. 

THIS is a beautiful flower. Some are able to depict 
the sufferings of Christ by showing in the formation 
of the stamens the nails used to crucify our Saviour. 

Take Rosa or American Beauty for the flowers and 
Crimson Purple for the halo around the centers. The 
stamens can be erased with a knife after being dry. For 
the greens use Blue Green, Warm Green and Olive Green. 
Take warmer tones for the point leaves and blueish tones 
for the distance. Tint to suit yourself. 


8 7 




Paul Putzki. 

THESE flowers come in four different shades, white, 
pink, violet and purple, and to produce the best 
effect, mass white, light violet and dark purple. 

In painting the white flower use Grey, and lay in the 
center with Albert Yellow shaded with Brown Green. 

For the violet flower, use Putzki 's Light Violet and 
shade with Dark Violet. 

Paint purple flower with Ruby Purple shaded with 

Lay in the leaves with Yellow Green, Dark Green 
shaded with Brown Green, and in the background use all 
the colors mentioned for flowers and leaves. 



Miss Emily F. Peacock left New York on July 14th 
for a trip to France and England. All correspondence in 
regard to Crafts Department should be addressed to 
our Syracuse office during her absence. 

•f •? 

THE Mineral Art League of Boston, held its fourteenth 
annual meeting at the Westminster, Saturday after- 
noon, May 19, the president, Miss Ella A. Fairbanks, 

The report of the recording secretary, Mrs. C. L. 
Swift, showed that the year had been one of unusual in- 

In addition to the regular league exhibition, held in 
October, the members exhibited with the National League 
also at Rochester, N. H., while fine lectures by Mr. C. 
Howard Walker, Mr. Vesper L. George, Mr. Peter Roos, 
Miss Amy Sacher and Miss Minnie S. Seaver were arranged 
for by the educational committee. 

The report of the corresponding secretary, Miss 
Marianna Heath, was read and the report of the treasurer, 
Miss Augusta I. Johnson, showed that the financial 
affairs gave occasion for congratulation. The president, 
Miss Ella A. Fairbanks, was re-elected, as was also Miss 
E. E. Page, vice president; Miss Caroline L. Swift re- 
cording secretary; and Miss Augusta I.Johnson, treasurer; 
the new officers elected being Miss Elizabeth Carter, 
second vice-president and Miss J. Pauline Haskell, cor- 
responding secretary. The meeting was followed by 
informal luncheon to active members, at which the plans 
for the coming year were discussed. 






To be executed in three tones of olive green. 



which a trifle of Black has been added. Bracts at base 
of leaf whorl are Yellow Brown shaded with Hair Brown. 
Clusters of filament, Canary Yellow with just enough 
Apple Green to give a greenish tint, shading with Night 
Green and Brown Green. The little twig held in one of 
the petioles is in dark grey tones. Lightest part of 
background Imperial Ivory, running into Yellow Brown for 
the middle tone. Darkest part Brown Green and Dark 
Brown. Two fires will be sufficient. Use the same colors 
for second fire deepening the tints where necessary. It 
would be well to use a little Lavender Glaze in the Violet 
for first fire. 



Mrs. Carrie Williams. 

SKETCH the design with India Ink. Paint the two 
prominent flowers in warm violet tones, shading 
from light to very rich deep tones in the shadows and 
markings. The shadowy flower is more greyish. The 
stamens showing between the sepals are greenish white. 
Paint the leaves with Yellow Green for lightest tones, 
shading with Night Green and Brown Green. Backs of 
leaves a greyish green. Branches and broken petioles 
are painted with Warm Grey shaded with Gold Grey to 



Mary Turner Merrill. 

FOR first fire: Paint the flowers a soft grey (Fry's 
White Rose) being careful to preserve all the high 
lights. The leaves, Apple Green and Mixing Yellow 
shaded with Shading Green. Background same colors 
as are used in flowers. 

For second fire: Some of the flowers are almost pure 
rose color while others shade down to almost the purple 
of the common wild aster. For the rose flowers use Rose 
(or Osgood's Standard Pink) gradually shading down to 
Roman Purple, for the others use Violet No. 2 and Deep 
Blue with a touch of Black for the deepest tones. The 
leaves should only need accenting in the second fire — 
use Brown Green with a touch of Black and Dark Green. 
Centers Yellow Brown with touch of Meissen Brown. 




9 2 





Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, Room 23, 22 East 16th St., New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 

Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

Summer Address, care of Keramic Studio Pub. Co , Syracuse, N. Y. 

All questions must be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under " Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do no', send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

the "three-quarters turn" the upper straws go over 
two and under one. In the "half turn" the upper straw 
is over one and under one. This, however, is rarely used. 

For the first turn after the button is made, select 16 
straws, 12 inches long, and double them. Take up one 
under straw with two down at right and in between these 
two, place one of your straws so that half its length stands 
up above the turn, the other half below. Take another 
straw, slip the end under the right one of the two straws 
down and draw it out to the right to half its length. The other 
half forms the first upper straw. With the straw left up, 
take up the next under one to right. Lay across the first 
upper straw, bring down the left one up, and take up the 
next to right. Do the same again. Now bend down the 
second straw inserted and place it between the two under 
ones down. Take another straw and slip it under the one 
to the right of the one just brought down, drawing it out 
to the right to half its length. Braid two straws as be- 
fore, then bend down the last straw inserted, turning it 
as it bends, and place it between the two down. Put 
another straw as before, tucking it under the straw at 
right of the one brought down. 

Continue braiding like this, always braiding two straws 
between every two widenings, until there are but two 
upper straws left. Bend down the last straw inserted, 
take the straw left standing at beginning of turn, turning- 
it as it bends, so that the upper side of it becomes the under, 
and slip it under the right of the two down and draw it out to 
its full length to the left. Braid the next two straws, 
then there is one under straw left up, which you bring 
down over the next upper straw. This finishes the turn. 
You have "widened" the first time. Now braid a three- 
quarters turn, then widen again "once in two," i. e., 
braiding two straws between every two widenings. Braid 
another three-quarters turn, and then widen "once in. three". 
Braid one whole turn and one three-quarters turn and 
widen again once in three. Now braid two whole turns 
and turn this part (which is called the top) inside out. 
Press it, taking special pains to make the button flat. 

Turning the top loosens the last turns so the straws 
must be pulled together till tight again. Braid three 

Photograph kindly loaned by the Misses Frances and Mary Allen. 


Mrs. Lucy E. Childs* 



A ROUND basket is made somewhat differently from 

**■ the square basket just described. We have shown that 

the button of the square basket contains all of the straws 

used in the basket. 

The button of the round basket is quite small and 
after it is completed other straws are added at regular 
intervals until the basket is of the required size. This 
process is called "widening". 

No. 4 or 5 leaf is used for the round baskets and the 
leaf must be trimmed the same way as the coarse. Then 
take 32 straws 14 inches long, divide them into two equal 
parts, tie and put together in the same- manner as in the 
square button but this is braided differently and there are 
but eight upper and under straws in each quarter. Bend 
back the upper straws in a quarter, and leaving two under 
ones down at the right, take up the next two at the left, lay 
first upper straw across under these, bring down the left 
of the two up, and take up the next one to the right. Lay 
next upper straw across, bring down left one up again, 
and take up the last one to the right. Lay next upper 
straw across, bring down left one up, lay next upper straw 
across and bring down the last one up. Now take up 
the two under straws at the left of this quarter. Lay 
under them the first upper straw and proceed as in the 
plain turn, to the end of the quarter. Braid the other 
quarter in the same manner. Then, anywhere between 
two corners, take up one under straw that has two down 
at the right. Lay upper straw across and bring down 
over it the one left up. Take up the next to the right. 
Go on in this manner till you reach the starting point. 
You have completed your button with a three-quarters 

There are three kinds of plain turn beside the dou- 
ble one (which means two turns braided at the same time, 
as in binding off.) The "whole turn" is one in which 
the upper straws are laid over two and under two. In 

* The name ol the author of this article was by mistake given in last issue as 
Mrs. Shields. The article is by Mrs. Lucy I-;. Childs, of Deerrield. Mass. 

Photograph kindly loaned by the Misses Frances and Mary Allen. 



whole turns and either keep on with them till the basket 
is of the desired depth, or braid a border. This can be 
in twos, as described in the square basket or in threes. 
For the latter take up three under straws leaving three 
down at right and put across under them three upper 
straws, these last being over three and under three. Bring 
down the three up, and take up in their place the next 
three to right and lay thre upper straws across. Keep 
on in this manner through the turn. 

There are three under straws beneath each set of 
three upper ones and in the next turn both sets of three 
must be braided together. You must take up together 
the same "threes" that were used together before. 

Turn back any upper set of threes. Leave down the 
first three under ones and take up the three at left of 
them. Lay the three turned back across and bring down 
over them the three standing, taking up the next three to 
right. Proceed in this way through the turn. 

For the last turn of the border bend back as in the 
last turn a set of three upper straws. Take up the outer 
one of the second set of under straws i. e., counting 
from righ to left, take the 6th straw, lay the first of 
the set turned back, across, take up the next under straw 
to right of one up, and braid the rest like any whole turn, 
except that the upper straws will be over five, four or three, 
instead of over two. 

The rest of the basket is in plain turns till four and 
one-half inches deep. Bind off with two three-quarters 
turns as in the square basket, and finish in the same way. 
Turn the edge of the basket inside, and press on a round 
block four inches across. 

The cover is exactly like the basket till you have wid- 
ened the second time, once in three. See Illustration. 
As the cover must be a little larger than the basket in the 
next turn widen one in twelve. Before you have used 
double straws in widening. Now take single ones seven 
inches long. Take up one under straw with two down at 
right, and between these two place one of the seven inch 
straws leaving the end an inch above the turn. Take an- 
other straw and slip one end under the right one of the 
two down, leaving the end out an inch to right. Braid 
twelve straws, then repeat the widening. Keep on in this 
way through the turn. Braid another plain turn, then turn 
and press the top of the basket. Braid whole turns till the 
sides are i\ inches deep. Bind off with two three-quarters 
turns. Finish same as basket, turning in the edge half 
way, and pressing. In describing baskets, I have used the 
terms used by the basket makers. For instance, they 
never "weave" a basket, they braid it. Though there are 
many shapes and sizes of baskets, if any one can make a 
button, braid a plain turn, widen and bind off, she holds 
the key to the making of any palm basket. 


H. E. L. — It is not considered good technique to use enamel to raise 
any part of a naturalistically painted subject. A smooth even surface is 
the desideratum. You must rely on your color tone for depth. You will 
find in July Keramic Studio the information you desire as to shadow color 
of pink roses. For a pink tinting use Rose. 

B. C. L. — The same principle holds good in any art. No one has a 
right to sign with his or her own name any study or design copied from the 
original of some one else. Many desiring the credit of the technical execu- 
tion of the work sign innocently without considering this point, they should 
add "after design by ." 

A. M. H. — We can see no objection to having the entire dinner service 
of 120 pieces in gold band and monogram, it would be quiet, unobtrusive, 
and in good taste. However, it would also be in good taste and more enter- 
taining if some of the courses were decorated in appropriate conventional 

designs in gold, into which the monogram can be worked if desired. The 
sets which might be thus decorated are the fish, salad, game, entree, dessert 
and fruit. The most elaborate decoration should be found in the dessert set. 

Mrs. L. P. M. — We should judge that the trouble with your gold which 
you made from the Keramic Studio recipe by Miss Peacock and which, 
you say, peels off after firing and has no glaze, is that you used "the general 
flux No. 8, instead of making it as directed. The gold is evidently not fluxed 
enough to use on white china. Perhaps it will work all right over color or 
raised paste. You can not do anything now to change it without a great 
deal of trouble. If the oil mixed with it is too fat wash it all in alcohol, pour 
off the fluid and mix up freshly. 

Mrs. H. A. — The Fleur de Lis design by Miss Patterson in April Keramic 
Studio may be executed as follows: Draw design carefully in India ink. 
Lay in part of the flowers with Purple lustre, part with Violet, leaves in Light 
and Dark Green lustre. Tint inside of bowl with Ivory or Yellow Brown 
lustre, when dry carefully remove with a pen knife any lustre that may over- 
lap the design. Paint in the dark ground with Roman Gold, using a good 
sized square shader. When dry give a second coat making the strokes at 
right angles to the first coat. Paint design on inside in gold, two thin coats 
Second fire. First scour the gold well then go over the Purple lustre with 
Dark Green lustre, shade the Violet with the same color again and strengthen 
the Greens. Retint inside if necessary. Outline the design in Black paint. 
Use the Black powder color mixed with a thin sugar and water syrup. You 
will do well to go over the outlines twice if not practiced in making firm 
black lines. Retouch gold where thin. If necessary, the design may be 
retouched for a third fire. 

Mrs. E. G. F. — White china which has been used but not discolored 
may be boiled up in soda and water. It will then probably decorate and 
fire successfully. 

Technical High School, Providence. R. I. Pottery. 


Amongst the many institutions in which the Arts and 
Crafts have an assured place is Providence Technical High 
School. This institution, founded in 1892, has been too 
small for a number of years,, and is now in the hands of 
contractors by whom it will be transformed into a build- 
ing capable of accomodating three times as many pupils 
as at present. 

The students of this school have large opportunities 
in artistic lines, for, beside the usual shops, drafting rooms 
and laboratories, there is provision for photography pro- 
cess reproduction, copper work, wood carving, pottery, 
modeling, basketry and domestic arts. 

Pottery, modeling, carving, cabinet work and copper 
work are taken in the first and second year of high school. 
The objects represented in the above illustrations were 
produced in the first and second year classes, and all in a 
single room in charge of Mr. W. W. Dove. The boys also 
took the photographs. The work in pottery is most in- 
teresting also the work in wood, particular mention should 
be given to the chair illustrated, also the frames. 

When the new building is completed, it will be thrown 
open in the evening to the workers in Arts and Crafts. 



Technical High School, Providence, R. I. Metal Work. 

Technical High School, Providence, R. I. WoodjWork. 

Technical High School, Providence, R. I. Wood Work. 

Technical High School, Providence. R. I. Wood Work 

Technical High School, Providence, R. I. Pottery. 

Technical High School, Providence, R. 1. Pottery. 

9 6 




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is t useful and practical information : 
64 pages, many cuts, price 10 cents. 
We sell colors, brushes, studies, 
transfer , gold, kilns 


Ceramic Summer School 


Instructors: L. Vance-Phillips \ 

Sara Wood Saff ord > New York 
Lillian Forbes Sherman) 
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For Summer School Circular Address 

L. Vance-Phillips, Chautauqua, N. Y< 

Vance-Phillips Flesh Palette 

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A Line of Selected Brushes, Mediums and Materials 

Until Sept. 1st Price Lists will be sent and mail orders promptly filled from the Studio at Chautauqua, New York. 


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The entire contents of this Magazine are cohered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted Without special permission. 


Editorial Notes 

League Notes 

The Class Room — Raised Paste 

Small Fruits 

Vase and Bowl — Zinnias 

Zinnias — A Study 

Hop Design for Stein 

Hops — Plate 

Designs and Studies from Pumpkin Vine 


Rose Designs and Studies 

The Crafts 

The Making of a Metal Lantern 
Answers to Correspondents 
Zinnias — (Supplement) 
Hop Study 
Child's Plate in Blue Greys 

Belle Barnett Vesey 

Ida M. Ferris 
Mary Overbeck 
Mary Overbeck 
Ophelia Foley 
Louise M. Smith 
Hannah Overbeck 
Sara Reid McLaughlin 
Margaret Overbeck 

F. G. Sanford 

Mary Overbeck 

Mrs. Brame Van Kirk 

Maud Myers 














list or books 

The Rose Book, containing some of the best 
rose studies and designs published in 
Keramic Studio postpaid $ 3.00 

The Fruit Book, containing some of the best 
fruit studies and designs published 
in Keramic Studio postpaid 3.00 

Composition, by Arthur Dow postpaid 1.65 

Principles of Design, by B. Batchelder postpaid 3.00 

Decorative Studies, by J. Foord postpaid 12.50 

Plant Forms and Designs, by Midgley and 

Lilley postpaid 2.20 

Practical Pottery, elementary instruction 

for students, by Richard Lunn postpaid 2.50 

Grand Feu Ceramics, a practical treatise on 
the making of hard porcelain dec- 
orated with high temperature glazes 
by Taxile Doat of the Manufactory of 
of Sevres, France postpaid 7.50 

Seger's Collected Writings, 2 volumes postpaid 15.50 

For the Collector: 

Vol. II Old China, bound blue cloth . . postpaid 2.50 
Vol. Ill Old China, bound blue cloth . postpaid 3.50 

Anglo-American Pottery, a manual for col- 
lectors, by Edwin Atlee Barber, Cura- 
tor of the Pennsylvania Museum, sec- 
ond edition postpaid 2.00 

American Glassware, old and new, by Edwin 

A. Barber postpaid 1.00 

Marks of American Potters, by Edwin A. 

Barber .postpaid 2.25 

Pottery and Porcelain of the United States 

by Edwin A. Barber. postpaid 3.75 

The Lace Book, by N. Hudson Moore postpaid 5.30 

Tulip Ware of the Pennsylvania German 
Potters, by Edwin A. Barber, in pa- 
per cover postpaid no 

Tulip Ware of the Pennsylvania Potters, by 
Edwin A. Barber, cloth, limited edi- 
tion postpaid 5.00 

Encyclopedia of Ceramics, by W. P. Jervis . . postpaid 6. 75 

The Old China Book, by N. Hudson Moore . . postpaid 2.18 

The Old Furniture Book, by N. Hudson 

Moore postpaid 2.18 

Old Pewter, by N. Hudson Moore postpaid 2.18 

Chats on English China, by Arthur Hayden . postpaid 2.16 

Chats on Old Furniture, by Arthur Hayden . postpaid 2.18 

China Collecting in America, by Alice Morse 

Earle postpaid 3.20 

Pottery and Porcelain, a guide to collectors, 
by Frederick Litchfield, the English 
expert postpaid 6.25 

French Pottery and Porcelain by Henri 

Frantz. postpaid 2.68 

Dutch Pottery and Porcelain, by W. Pit- 
cairn Knowles postpaid 2.68 

Old English Furniture, by Fred Fenn and 

B. Wyllie postpaid 2.68 

English Embroidery, by A. F. Kendrick. . .postpaid 2.68 

French Furniture, by Andre Saglio postpaid 2.68 

Old Pewter, by Malcolm Bell postpaid 2.68 

Sheffield Plate, by B. Wyllie postpaid 2.68 

The Oriental Rug Book, by Mary Churchill 

Ripley postpaid 3.20 

Home Furnishing, practical and artistic, by 

Alice M. Kellogg postpaid 1.65 

William Adams, an old English potter, by 

William S. Turner postpaid 8.00 

Reramic Studio Pub Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Vol. VIII, No. 5 


September, 1906 

MONG the old fashioned garden 
flowers to be found at this season, 
are many very decorative ones 
that have been little used by 
ceramists. The Foxglove, Lark- 
spur, Snapdragon, Hollyhock, the 
Coreopsis, Marigold, Zinnia, 
Dolichos, Plumbago, Tuberose 
and Bachelor's Button, together 
with the old standbys, furnish a 
Now is the time to gather all the 
They will 

rich harvest of designs. 

quaint seed pods of garden, wood and meadow. 

yield abundantly also to the seeker after new motifs. 

The color study for this month, "Zinnias" by Mary 
Overbeck, was the first prize decorative color study of the 
last competition but one. We consider it one of the most 
artistic studies we have yet produced. Most of the designs 
in this number are from the three Misses Overbeck of Cam- 
bridge City, Ind. It will be interesting and instructive 
to follow the evolution of the design from the study especially 
in theTcase of the Zinnias of Miss Mary and the Pumpkin 
flower of Miss' Hannah. Miss Margaret is instructor at 
De Pauw Institute, Greenville, Ind. Several of her designs 
and studies received prizes in the last Rose Competition. 

The October number of Keramic Studio will be 
almost entirely the work of Miss Mabel Dibble, of Chicago, 
.one of the leading disciples of the Conventional School. 

The Color Supplement will be a Punch Bowl with 
Peacock decoration. 

From the circular of the Jamestown Exposition we 
find under the Fine Arts Division the following classifica- 

CLASS 25. 
Paintings and Drawings. 
Paintings on canvas, wood, metal enamel, porcelain, 
faience, and on various preparations, by all direct methods 
in oil, wax tempera and other media; mural paintings; 
fresco paintings on walls. 

Drawings and cartoons in water color, pastel, chalk, 
charcoal, pencil and o.ther media, on any material. Min- 
iatures on ivory. 

CLASS 30. 
Art work in glass other than Mosaics. 
Art work in earthenware: pottery or porcelain. 
Art work in metal other than sculpture. 
Art work in leather. 

Art work in wood other than carvings. 
Art work in textiles. 
Artistic book-binding. 

Art work not covered by any other group. 
This will be good news to ceramic workers. It will be 

noted that paintings on porcelain will be admitted /on the 
same footing as on canvas or any other medium. 

The design of Purple Clematis in August number was 
by mistake given as a design by Mrs. Carrie Williams The 
designer is Mrs. Chas. L. Williams of Glens Falls, N. Y 


Miss Bennett who is to criticise our study course 
again this year, was recently secured to deliver seven 
lectures on arts and crafts, at the biennial meeting of the 
General Federation of Women's Clubs. She asked for some 
National League pieces with which to help illustrate her 
talk on porcelain. She writes me that instead of one 
lecture a day, she averaged three a day. One formal, 
and two in which the women questioned, and applauded. 
She says, "The china was carefully installed and made a 
handsome showing and was of deep interest to one and 
all. Perhaps more so as the impression that prevails 
seems condemnatory to hand painted china. Some few 
read in art magazines that there are pieces that are liked 
by the most critical art workers, they are, therefore, most 
glad of an opportunity to see for themselves what is meant. 
The questions were so numerous that it kept'the ladies in- 
terested in spreading art crafts knowledge, and me more than 
busy answering. In the display were pieces that I used, 
to show the proper use of floral decoration. To show that 
flowers are legitimate ornaments if conventionalized, 
that is eliminating the accidents and incidents of natural 
growth, and accepting and using the main character- 
istics in simple form. There were pieces with no floral 
motifs at all, purely geometrical arrangements of straight 
and curved lines; and again pieces that combined both 
floral and geometric patterns. Needless to state that the 
color, whether bright and jewel like, or low in tone, was 
always interesting and satisfactory. For it seems to me 
that no man or woman who succeeds in china decoration, 
ayouW ever have taken it up, who did not possess a strong 
sense of color. Some of the work was almost complica- 
ted it was so ornamental, while other pieces were so simple 
and delicate they suggested fine stenciling. Several 
of the fine examples of the simpler type from National 
League members I mention as especially good. I had 
difficulty sometimes in convincing the spectators that 
some of the work did not come from abroad. I am sorry 
not to write more on this absorbing division of art handi- 
craft, but you might not be prepared for a lengthy burst 
of eloquence and I will promptly close thanking you for 
your interest in the matter." 

Miss Bennett's lecture has reached thousands of 
representative women who are working for a better, and 
more beautiful America. They are stimulating the artistic, 
musical and literary imagination, and refining the taste. 
Our work has been introducted, let us recognize our 
responsibilities. Charles B. Wyrick, 6228 Wabash Ave., 
Chicago, has applied for individual membership. 

Belle Barnett Vesey 





The next subject for the Class Room will be "The Art 

of Teaching," a course for beginners, referring to some 

design published in Keramic Studio for illustration. 

This should explain just how to start a beginner, what kind 

of piece to work upon, what style of work to attempt, what 

steps to take in the work, etc., up to the advanced and 

finished work. A special extra first prize of $10.00 will be 

added to the usual prizes if a sufficiently good article is 

sent. Articles should be received not later than Sept. 5th. 



First Prize— Mrs. G. B. Strait, Cazenovia, N. Y. 

Raised paste which is to be covered with gold, is 
useful for scrolls, conventionalized flowers or geomet- 
rical figures, for tiny wire like lines around conventional 
or semi-conventional designs, for modeling delicate roses 
to be formed into garlands whose daintiness is their chief 
beauty, or even rococo ornaments if the scrolls are well 
balanced and reversed so as to produce a dainty and 
pleasing effect. 


The materials needed are, powder paste, fat oil, lav- 
ender oil, turpentine, small ground glass slab, paint rag, 
pointed sables 00 and o and 1 for use in fine work, 
flat sables 1 and 2 for larger work, a small square shader 
for flat paste work, and a stiff palette knife. 

Paste may be purchased in various forms. Water 
paste, requiring only the addition of water to make it in 
working condition, is not considered as durable as other 
kinds, but is fairly satisfactory for pieces not requiring 
much handling. This kind of paste should only be used 
on the plain china, never over tints. If too much water 
is added when working it, the moisture must be allowed 
to evaporate, which may take some hours, or additional 
paste may be taken from the tube and mixed with it. If 
too wet it will spread as it dries. 

Gold cannot be applied until the paste is fired, and 
the firing must not be at a temperature above rose heat. 
If very high modeling is desired apply one coat, and then 
another when the first is nearly dry. 

To avoid a rough appearance, see that the surface 
of the paste is smooth and even in every place, remov- 
ing any irregularities in line with a brush dampened in 
water. Good paste may be bought in tiny jars prepared 
ready for use except that turpentine is to be added to 
facilitate its manipulation. This is a great convenience 
to beginners. But the usual way of preparing paste for 
gold is to buy it in powder form (preferably Hancock's) 
and prepare it in the following manner. Take some of 
the powder, which is a heavy dull yellow paint, on the 
palette, and with a stiff palette knife mix in thoroughly 
a little turpentine. Now rub until every trace of grit 
has disappeared and the mass is perfectly smooth and 
free from grains; then add just enough fat oil so that the 
mass is thoroughly incorporated with the oil, but is not oily. 
It should cling together when pressed with the knife, as 
flour will hold together if pressed into a mass in the hand. 
Breathe on it several times to give a little moisture to the 
mixture and prevent too rapid drying out. Add enough 
oil of lavender to make it a trifle more thin than wanted, 
breathing on it again occasionally as it is worked, and until 
it becomes hard enough to adhere to the knife in a stringy 
way and will stay exactly where it is placed. 

The breathing is to cause the mass to stiffen. It is 

now ready for use, and should be about the thickness of 
heavy cream; stringing easily from the brush in a steady 
firm line. If it becomes thinner as it is used, and flattens 
out when applied, it may be breathed upon and worked 
over until of the right consistency. But if it becomes 
too hard to work well add more lavender oil or turpentine, 
preferably the latter. It is well to prepare a quantity 
of paste at once, as it may be safely kept in a small jar 
any length of time. Paste may also be mixed with fat 
oil and oil of tar, in the proportion of 2 to 1. Or with 
lavender oil alone. Or with Dreseden thick oil to dampen 
the paste, and an abundance of turpentine, the evapora- 
tion of which will create the necessary oil. 

Or after using enough turpentine to hold the powder 
in a mass, it may be mixed into a thin paste with oil of 


No matter how the paste may be mixed, the method 
of application is the same. Take a small bit on the tip 
of the brush and apply it to the china in a smooth raised 
mass if flowers and leaves are to be attempted. If large 
dots are desired, apply in much the same manner as enamel 
dots, touching the china delicately with a slightly rotary 
motion, holding the loaded brush in an upright position. 
For small dots, suitable for flower centers, etc, just 
touch the lump of paste to the china, lift the brush 
straight up, and if the paste is in exactly the right condi- 
tion it will settle down into the round dot wanted. If 
any projection or point remains it may be removed by 
touching lightly with a dampened brush or finger tip. 
If the pressure of the brush is too heavy the dot will be 
flattened. If misplaced it should be allowed to remain 
until dry, when it may be removed with the point of a 
pen knife without injury to adjacent dots. 

In case the first application does not make the work 
of the desired height, a second or more applications may 
be made provided the first be surface dried, and looks 
dull and hard, which will be in from 10 minutes to one- 
half hour. If it takes a longer time than this to look 
dull, it is probable that too much oil has been used. The 
addition of a little alcohol will overcome this difficulty 
or more paste may be added. 

Paste lines should be fine, firm and even in width, 
and free from the least roughness. This is produced by 
using rather more oil than is required for modeling scrolls 
or dots, and in drawing with rapid, short, steady strokes 
the bit of paste along the design drawn on the china, at 
each refilling of the brush going back a little on the line 
that no break may be discernible. If the brush becomes 
clogged clean it in turpentine and wipe on cloth. 

When fairly large surfaces or flowers are to be covered 
with flat paste, the paste is prepared in the usual way and 
is still further thinned by the addition of lavender oil till 
more fluid than heavy cream, and is painted on with no 
trace of a brush mark. 

In every instance let the size of the brush used be 
governed by the space to be covered, and if the design 
is heavily laid let the brush be used in much the same 
manner as though color was the medium employed. 
Where heavy shaded effects are desired let the shadows 
be more heavily painted than the lights. 

If at any time the paste becomes too thick to work 
easily, add a very little turpentine rather than more oil, 
as the latter might cause the paste to blister or scale off 
during firing, or else cause the paste to run in an unsight- 
ly manner. Neither should any paste left on the palette 








at some previous time be added to, as the evaporation 
will cause excessive oiliness. While paste may be ground 
too much to produce good results, poor work is more liable 
to come from lack of grinding. Too little oil or a poor 
paste will also make work grainy. 

When paste is cracked while it still adheres to the 
china, the disaster may be remedied to some extent, if 
not made perfect, by working fresh paste into the crack 
until no more can be forced in. It may then be dried, 
gilded and fired. 

Paste should never be dried by artificial heat unti 
the surface looks dull, when the warmth will not injure 
it; and it must be thoroughly dry before the gold is applied. 
While this may be safely done before firing, by an ex- 
perienced worker, it is unwise for the beginner, who should 
first have the piece fired. 

Paste may be placed over either heavy or light coats 
of unfired mat colors provided they are well dried, and 
also over light tints of dry over glaze colors. But when 
placed over heavy overglaze colors without removing the 
color underneath, the paste will be almost sure to blister. 

Unfiuxed gold, which contains but little flux, some- 
times none, is best for use on raised paste. However, 
the home prepared fluxed gold serves the purpose admir- 

Paste is frequently used to set jewels on china. Put 
a dot of paste where the jewel is to be needed, then press 
it firmly down upon the paste allowing the paste to set up 
around it. This may be gilded when dry. 

Raised paste may be painted over with powder colors 
prepared in the usual way and produce a slightly similar 
effect but are not as highly glazed as enamels. As the 
paste absorbs much color the fired colors are much darker 
than if the same color were placed on the white ware. 

Where paste is used with lustre it is well to fire the 
lustre first and retouch before putting on the paste, as 
the least trace of lustre on paste will prevent the gold 
firing a good color. It is well to avoid a very hard kind 
of china for use with paste. 

A rather uncommon but effective way of using the 
powder paste is to paint on the china a design suitable 
for a border, one of leaves and stems is good, with fat oil, 
to which has been added a little dry water color paint, 
just enough to enable one to see where the oil has been 
placed; and then, with a shader heavily charged with 
Marsching's powder paste, cover the oil until it will absorb 
no more. After being hard dried and covered with two 
coats of gold and fired, divisions or overlapping leaves 
may be indicated by touches of blood red paint ; retire and 

Beginners usually find the management of paste 
work difficult, but practice and patience will in time en- 
able one to do creditable work, neatly executed. 
o o o 
Second Prize — Sydney Scott Lewis, Georgetown, Ky. 

Paste skillfully applied and appropriately used is a 
joy. Abuse the use of it and it is an abomination. 

Of all the branches of china painting it is one of the 
most difficult to do well, and has many terrors for the 
amateur and often one with a good deal of experience 
meets with disaster. 

Hancock's paste is the best make. Put the powder 
on a ground glass slab, put in just enough fat oil to hold 
it together, not enough to make a paste of it, but to darken 
and make it crumbly. Breathe on it (not blow) and mix 
with palette knife (horn or steel). The breath gives 

moisture, and takes the place of too much oil, cuts the oil 
and makes the paste work better. After the fat oil is 
worked in add enough lavender oil (dilute lavender oil 
with a little alcohol, to keep it from being too oily) to thin 
it, rub this into the powder with a ground glass muller, 
then after it has been well ground turn over and over with 
the palette knife, breath and mix, any number of times, 
adding more lavender oil as it dries out. When it is a 
thick, smooth, creamy paste and does not flatten out, 
stays put, and follows the brush in a smooth even line, 
it is in a condition for modeling and making dots ; for lines 
it needs to be a little less stiff and for flat spaces, thin with 
lavender oil until it flows readily from the brush and covers 
the space desired. 

To make a dot or fine line, take a little on the tip of 
the brush, do not fill the brush with the paste, insert the 
tip of the brush under the paste and pull it out with a 
quick upward movement, so as to keep the lump of paste 
on the upper side of the brush. To make dots hold the 
brush at right angles to the surface and touch lightly 
with the brush. If there is a point to the dot moisten 
the end of the brush or finger and touch it and it will flat- 
ten down. For a fine line fill the brush the same way and 
draw it along the outline. If you wish the line wider in 
some places put more pressure on the brush where you wish 
to widen it. 

Modeling in paste means to raise some parts and 
leave others low, giving the look of the real flower. When 
you want some parts more modeled than others put on 
some of the paste, then, when that is partly dry, put on 
more paste. 

Paste for flat spaces should be soft enough to smooth 
itself and not show the brush marks. To use a pen with 
paste, mix the powder with ^ sugar and dilute with water, 
rub until smooth. This is good for fine lines and mono- 
grams. A fine well executed paste line should look like 
a gold wire encircling the design. All irregular paste lines 
can be retouched before firing by smoothing with a tracer 
wet with a very little turpentine. 

For paste lines and dots use sable outlines No. oo and 
No. i and flat pointed sables for modeling. Paste, provided 
it is kept very clean, can be kept indefinitely. Indeed 
some claim that the longer the better. 

Paste should not be put over heavy color, may be put 
over a light unfired color. Gold may be put over perfectly 
dry unfired paste, silver should not. Paste should not 
be dried artificially, should not be raised too high.. The 
dots should not have little holes, bubbles, or points, but 
should be smooth, round and flat on top. When paste is 
cracked though still staying on the china it had too much 
oil; take some fresh paste that has very little oil, moisten 
by breathing and fill up the cracks, press in as tightly as 
possible, put on the gold and fire 

If the paste work, however, has many defects gold 
will not hide them. If paste rubs off from an under fire 
a hard fire will remedy it. Paste will chip off over heavy 
color, when put in too fat, when artificially dried, or too 
much oil. Fill up the chips with aufsetzweis and after 
firing put in gold and fire again. It will burnish a little 
brighter than over the paste. If the paste rubs off like 
powder it is under-fired. It should always look dull be- 
fore firing. If when working with paste it does not hold 
together put in a little more oil. 

Paste can be grounded on just like powdered color 
and treated so as to look very much like etched china. 
Use the grounding oil and ground on the powder paste 


just as you would ground a powder color. Then while 
the ground is still soft with a sharp point scratch out any 
conventional design or scroll work and fire. Then put 
on gold and retire and burnish and the effect will be very 
much the same as china etched with acid. A very much 
safer way of doing it than the acid used in inexperienced 
hands. Always use the unfluxed gold over paste. 
o o o 
Third Prize— Ella J. Adams, Yellow Springs, O. 
Paste may be purchased in tubes ready for use, this 
is the water paste. A very little water is necessary for 
mixing. Only about half of what you think is needed 
is a very good rule. Water paste needs a harder fire than 
the oil paste and it has a tendency to chip off. 


Pour on a ground glass slab the quantity of paste 
needed and rub down with a small amount of Dresden 
thick oil, just enough oil to hold it together. Breathe 
heavily on this for the moisture will keep the paste from 
drying too rapidly. Mix again and repeat several times. 
Now thin the paste with lavender oil or turpentine. Tur- 
pentine dries more rapidly so is better for dots. Do not 
get the paste too thin. The proper consistency is when 
the paste stays in place on the china without spreading 
and follows the brush like a slender wire. If in using, it 
grows thinner and spreads, use the "breathing process" 
again and mix with the palette knife. If the paste be- 
comes too stiff and unwieldy add a little more turpentine 
or lavender oil. 

Never raise the brush from the china if you want a 
clear even line. Lines that are to be joined should be 
finished before the paste dries. 

Do not attempt too much relief in paste, for the 
application of gold will bring it into prominence and too 
heavy a paste line is prone to chip off. The paste should 
be allowed to dry without artificial heat for otherwise it 
may blister. 

Do not fire paste until it is a dull dry color. This 
shows that all superfluous oil has evaporated. 

Gold may be applied on paste before it is fired if it 
is thoroughly dry. However, it is more satisfactory to 
fire it first. 

Should paste come from the kiln uneven in effect 
(blistered) too much oil has been used. The rough places 
can be sand papered, filled in with paste and fired again. 
Paste may be put on over unfired color but if so used there 
is no good way to correct a mistake. Lines can be straight- 
ened with a brush slightly moistened in water since the 
water does not affect the oil mediums. 
o o o 
Fourth Prize — Bertha Morey, Ottamwa, la. 

Mix Hancock's paste with Fry's medium for raised 
paste until quite thick and let it bubble up and work with 
a palette knife. Or mix in a little saliva until it pulls 

Paste should not be fired more than three times as 
it will be apt to scale off. Do not use fluxed gold over 
paste as it soaks in and will not burnish. Allow it to 
stand for several days and it will get quite stiff and dry, 
then mix with turpentine until it works smoothly and will 
stand up If used in this way it will almost never give 
any trouble. If it will not work, heat it over a candle 
and do not put wet paste into an oven to dry as it is apt to 
bubble up and ruin the work. Paste should be dried 
slowly and thoroughly before putting into kiln 


Mary Overbeck. 

Flowers, Imperial Ivory and a little Black. Stems, 
leaves, etc., Olive Green, Black and a little Blue. Back- 
ground, Dark Green and Deep Blue 



Mary Overbeck. 
HpHE study of Zinnias, in grey tones, can be carried out 
* in a color scheme of dull red (orange red or pompadour 
with a touch of black) and black, for the flowers with a 
touch of orange yellow in centers. The leaves and stems 
should be a dark grey green (green 7) and black. The 
background should be a medium dark violet grey or a grey 

The bowl might be a warm brown, (Meissen with a touch 
of red) on a green grey ground. The color study may be 
carried out in any other color scheme as the shades of 
Zinnias are varied. A dark pearl grey for the flowers 
with grey green leaves makes an interesting study with 
various backgrounds. 


I. M. Ferris. 
A LL but the Blackberry design may be treated in the 
**■ yellows and browns with a little olive green mixed in 
darker places in background. For fruit, use Poppy Red 
with some Yellow Brown in lightest parts and Dresden 
Brown Red in darker ones. The Dresden Coral Red when 
dusted and fired gives a pretty tone for background. 
It is deeper and brighter than Yellow Brown and goes 
well with yellows and browns. 

For leaves use Verdigris, Brown Green and Shading 
Green. The blackberries may be done with Sevres Blue 
Black and Deep Violet, some more red than others. 

Make background Grey, Blue, Green and Purple 
Black. Blossoms, Grey and shadowy. 


Tint over the whole with Brown 4 or 17 with a touch of Black, and fire. Figures, Deep 

Blue Green and a little Black. 











Mr. Edwin A. Barber, curator of the Pennsylvania 
Museum has begun the publication of a series of Art 
Primers designed to furnish in a compact form for the use 
of collectors, historical and art students, and artisans, the 
most reliable information relating to the various indus- 
trial arts. The first monograph is one of the series of 
ceramic books, which, when completed, will cover the 
entire subject, and is on Salt Glazed Stoneware. Mr. 
Barber divides the subject into three groups: Stoneware 
of Germany and the Bow Countries; Salt Glazed Wares 
of England; Stoneware of the United States; and every 
group is profusely illustrated with the most character- 
istic specimens in the Museum, and some from private 

In review of stoneware in the United States much 
praise is given to Mrs. Frackelton who has been the first 
to revive the making of artistic salt glazed stoneware in 
our times. There are great artistic possibilities in the 

making of this ware. Another woman, Miss Hannah B. 
Barlow, at the Doulton Works in Lambeth, England, has 
in recent years attained a worldwide celebrity by her 
clever rendering of animals and rustic life in a few lines 
scratched on the wet surface of the ware before firing and 
salt glazing. 

The price of the Pennsylvania Museum booklet is 
50 cents and it is for sale at the Museum. This price 
will hardly pay expenses, but as Mr. Barber writes to us, 
this publication is a labor of love entirely. It will be a 
valuable addition to the library of both artisans and collect- 


Mrs. Vance Phillips reports a very successful season 
at Chautauqua with a high class of work under the tuition 
of Mrs. Sara Wood Safford, Mrs. Blanche Van Court 
Schneider, Miss Lilian Sherman and Mrs. Phillips herself. 





The color scheme is very simple. Model the more prominent hops and foliage with Brown Green and Yellow Brown, 
using Yellow Green for the lighter tones. For darker background effects use Dark Green strength- 
ened with a little Black. For shadowy effects use Grey Green. 2d Fire. — Wash with 
Albert Yellow, retouch with Brown Green and Yellow Brown adding a 
few touches of Hair Brown. 3d Fire, consists of washes to 
harmonize the whole. 




THE study is in dull yellow and grey green with 
black outlines on a grey ground. The borders and 
stencils can be used in any desired color combination. 
For the plate, is suggested a cream ground, a dull ochre 
edge and line, a grey green ornament with a touch of red ; 
black outlines. The stein might be in dull reds and browns 
on a tint of ochre. 

Plate with pumpkin design: outer band and inner 
line, Yellow Brown and Imperial Ivory; figure, Dark Blue 
and Black; small spot, Deep Red Brown and Yellow 
Brown; inside tint, pale Imperial Ivory and Black. 

For Cups: Tint over whole with Warm Grey and lire. 
Flowers, a little Rose Pompadour, Background, Dark 
Blue and a little Dark Green. 



'' ' * ^ 5^i&jk^lfc 









lump K-i n 

\ \^2 











Ground, grey green over fired ivory tint, leaving ivory outlines. Roses, a delicate salmon pink 
(tint with Pompadour Red) leaves, grey green. 




ii 4 



Leaves, stems, etc., Black Green. Background, Grey Green. Centres, Orange Yellow and Black. Outline in Black. 
Or : Ivory tint, fired ; grey green background leaving ivory outlines ; olive green stems and 
lines; ochre with touch of ivory yellow for bud. 



Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, Room 23, 22 East 16th St., New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 

Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

Summer Address, care of Ker antic Studio Pub. Co , Syracuse, N. Y. 

All questions must be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries'''' 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

only. Please do not send 


F. G. San ford 

The present Chapter deals with the construction of 
lanterns and involves some processes described in the two 
previous articles (The Making of a Metal Candlestick, 
April, 1906; The Making of a Metal Sconce, June, 1906), 
which will be referred to for details of rivetting, etc. 

These are lanterns for porch or hall decoration where 
not quantity but quality of light is wanted. We see 
many delightful forms on sale in our great stores, or find 
them in the shops of craftsmen friends. All sorts and 
conditions of lanterns, many of which one would like to 
own. But none have to me quite the charm of the old 
perforated brass or tin lantern of our forefathers. It is 
such a lantern, a little modified to fit our simple equipment 
and methods, that I would first consider. 

Two thicknesses or gages of metal are needed. For 
the perforated body and roof 28 or 30 soft sheet brass, 
for the bottom and other parts 20 or 21 is needed. 

Sheet brass may be had in rolls 12" wide. For either 
of the lanterns shown in Fig. 1 you will need a piece of 
thin metal 24" long, 12" wide. 

First square one end of this piece and then mark off 
a piece io"xi6" for the lantern body and cut this out 
square and true (Fig. 2.) Mark lines carefully as shown 
in Fig. 3, that is 1" top and bottom, \" sides and cut out 
the corners as shown Fig. 3. The design comes between 
these inner lines, the upper 1" margin forming and the 
lower forming the turned over borders and the end ones 
forming the joint. Divide the design space into sixths; 
it should measure just 15" and this makes an easy divi- 
sion into 2\" spaces. Three tabs or ears are left at thirds 
as dicated in Fig. 4, these measure \" in width and come 
in such a way that they will not interfere with the joint. 
The rest of the upper and the whole of the lower borders 
are bent over a bevelled edge rule and then beaten down 
flat. Now having strengthened the edges and allowed 
for attaching to the roof andljoining the sides the middle 
space is free for design. But it is seldom well to fill all 
of the space and in this case a 1" border top and bottom 
is advisable. 

The patterns shown in Fig. 1 are severe and purely 
line and dot patterns. They are however sufficient and 
effective. Perhaps the tree design shown in the photo 
may appeal to some. In general large blank spaces should 
be avoided for two reasons. They do not diffuse enough 
light and they make an uneven bulging of the design. 

The laying out of the geometric motives seems to need 
special description. It is simply a frame work of inter- 
secting straight lines or parallels, capable of infinite variety. 
The actual drawing may be done right on the metal upon 
that side which will finally be the inside i. e. where the 
borders are bent over. 

Punching is done upon a soft wood block with a \" 
or suitable width chisel and a sharpened 9d nail, the curves 
of course with a gouge. In perforating a mass of holes 
try and drive the nail or chisel through with one stroke 
to insure evenness of size. Also take care to distribute 
at even distances and not to run together. After this has 
been finished form the joint by bending one edge one way 
over the other opposite. See Fig. 5. The metal will have 
bulged with the stamping and it is necessary to beat some 
of this out gently with the mallet, beating in the direction 
of the length of the cylinder, and this will curl it up near- 
ly to shape. The rest of the curling may be done with 
the hands and the joint hooked together, and pressed down 
with the fingers. Finish this joining by stringing the 
cylinder over a rod or bar set in a vise or nail strongly in 
some good place. Fig. 6. Beat down closely and clinch 
into place by denting the joint at intervals with a nail 

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point. See Fig. 7. The cylinder or body then resembles that in the photo. 
Next describe a semi-circle with a six inch radius as in Fig. 8, and allow \" 
more metal on each straight edge for the joint. In order to facilitate bend- 
ing file out a hole at the centre. About \" from this punch a row of good 
sized holes quite close together for ventilation, else the heat from the candle 
or small lamp will be too great. 

A border along the circumference of say 1" is left, then the interval 
may be perforated with some motive appropriate to the lantern body- 
The joining of the edges is as described for the body. It will be a little more 
difficult but can be accomplished with a little assistance. 

The proper fastening of the lantern top upon the body is explained later. 

A simple form of lantern bottom is made as follows: Cut a circle of the 
heavier brass to fit inside the cylinder rather loosely. Beat in the centre to 
form a hollow drip pan, (either on a wood block or upon the pad) make and 
rivet to the centre a holder for the candle, (see photo). Cut equilaterial 
notches from the edges measuring about \" on a side and coming at thirds 
of the circumference. (Fig. 9.) Now cut from the thick metal three pieces like 
Fig. 10, one part square, the other cut a little smaller than the V shaped 
cuts in the bottom. These pieces are perforated on the square end and bent 
to a right angle and rivetted in the proper position directly on a line with 
the laps which come at the top. To adjust the bottom set it up though 
allowing the slits to pass these V shaped ears and turn so that it will be held 
upon them. It will be necessary to punch a row of holes near the edge of the 
bottom piece to allow a draft of air to pass up through the lantern. 

In the photograph a somewhat different, but clumsier method is used. 
The ears are of different shape and rivetted outside with the lantern bottom 
bent up to catch over the points. This photo is shown as an example of 

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an tern in Wrought Copper, designed 1 
Claude New 

Courtesy of International Studio 

Horn Lantern made by R. R. Jarvis 

the perforating and rivetting of the separate parts. The 
work is that of two Allendale Boys of the 7th grade. 

To prevent too much heat at the top make a small 
hood from a 3" circle of thin brass. This is marked with 
diameters and bent with the pliers to resemble the one 
on the lantern in the photo. It is perforated in the centre 
with a small hole. The handle consists of a loop of heav- 
ier metal formed by cutting a strip f" wide by 12" long. 
(Fig. 11.) Perforate at the ends and beat with the mallet 
so that it will curl up into an even circle. 

A piece of medium thick, soft brass wire about 4" 
long will be needed for a fastening. Or copper wire can 
be used if it is easier to obtain. Roll one end of this into 
a loop and thread it up through the roof, the hood and the 
two ends of the handle and twist down tightly. (See Fig. 12) 

The roof is placed upon the body and the position 
of the square ears carefuflly marked. Punch slits at 
these places and thread the ears up from underneath, 
rolling them down tightly with the pliers (See photo, also 
Fig. 13). The adjustment of the bottom then completes 
this form of lantern. After trial, if the candle within 
melts too rapidly enlarge the holes at the top and in the 
bottom for more ventilation. 

The other forms of lantern (Fig. 14) are made from 
gage 21 soft sheet copper, the design being cut out into 
open spaces with a chisel. For the sides of lantern 
cut four pieces measuring 6f"x7" marking each piece 
accurately like Fig. 15. The finished side will be 6"x6". 
This allows f" lap for rivetting to the next piece and one 
inch for the bottom. All four pieces should fit each other 
accurately. The severe, square design is then cut out 
upon a wood block. Would advise a little practice first 
on a scrap of metal. Now the J" edge is punched for 

Horn^Lanteniiinade by" t .R. R. Jarvis 

three copper rivets and bent inward to a right angle the 
bottom is also bent inward. 

Fig. 16 shows in diagram the rivetting of one side to 
the next. In each case the lap comes inside so that the 
outside presents a smooth surface and even corners except 
for the rivets. These corners may then be finished by 
rounding slightly with a file. It is now necessary to punch 
and rivet together the four corners of the inside flaps at 
the bottom. Wherever possible place the outside rivets 
from the inside, beating down upon them as this is the 
more ornamental way. 

Four pieces, each measuring fxij* are rivetted at the 
middle (inside) of each surface at the top edge, and punched 
with a single hole for wirng. (Fig. 17.) Or the end may be 
brought up through the top and rolled down as in the 
cylindrical lantern. 

The roof may be cut from one piece as in Fig. 18 or 
made as four equilateral 6h" triangles and rivetted as in 
the sides. To make the bottom cut a square of metal 
which will just fit into the square opening. Attach holder 
and drip pan as in Fig. 19, bending the corners slightly 
as shown. Bottom is then set in and turned corner wise 
thus resting by its corners against the bent over edges. 

Both the geometric lantern here shown may be con- 
structed in this way. Instead of a candle holder a small 
frame made to hold a lamp of given size may be rivetted 

The drawings show simple loop handles difficult to 
rivet but easily attached by copper wire. 

Instead of the open work patterns sheets of colored 
glass may be set behind and held in place by small but- 
tons of metal above and below. Get a glazier to cut 
them the size for you. The student who has followed 
thus far should be able to go on and create other and 
original forms. 



ZINNIAS— (Supplement) 


Miss M. Helen E. Montfort will open her new studio 
318 Lenox Ave., cor. 126th St., N. Y. City, on October 1st. 


Mrs. S. R. — If you keep your bottles of oils well corked during the 
summer, they should be in good condition to use in the fall. Fat oil of tur- 
pentine can be thinned with the spirits of turpentine. Other oils can be 
thinned with oil of cloves if you want them to keep open a long time, or with 
spirits of turpentine or alcohol if you wish them to dry quicker. 

Mrs. P. W. — Wash your gold drainings in alcohol and pass through 
bolting cloth, when settled, pour off liquid and when dry, rub up with a 
very little fat oil and spirits of turpentine. You can use the gold then for 
first washes. 

Mrs. H. B. — If your paste for gold is brown instead of yellow it is under- 
fired or some dirt or color has gotten into it. If underfired it will rub off 
easily with a knife. Overtired or pale colors can be retouched and retired 

L. C. — Place plates or Service plates are in better taste decorated alike 
and simply. They are not the plates on which one expects to see elaborate 
decoration. We can not think that for such a purpose, any thing would be 
in good taste except a narrow conventional border in gold or color, with or 
without a monogram. The dessert set allows more latitude, but if land- 
scape or flowers are used naturalistically, they should be confined to medal- 
lions in the border. One does not care to look at a landscape, a figure or 
flowers through a veil of pudding sauce, pie crust or even ice cream. In 
making a set of plates where variety is desired, the best idea would be to 
make the same medallion border on all and insert in the medallions different 
subjects as desired. 

M. C. — Your vase dusted with black which is glazed on one side and 
not on the other, may perhaps be underfired on one side. Possibly by simply 
refiring, you may correct the trouble turning the unglazed side toward the 
hottest part of the kiln. If this does not have the desired- effect dust lightly 
with flux and retire,. If the dusted black has been put on evenly it probably 
will not scale in a second fire but thick spots are liable to scale off. 

M. A. C. — The unfluxed gold or "Hard gold" should be used over unfired 
color, as well as over fired color, although the ordinary Roman gold can be 
used over very light tints. We will publish a design for a choclate set in 
the November issue and a tea set either in October, December or January. 
P'or English violets use Banding Blue, Roman Purple and a little Black, 
Violet 1 and 2. The latter 2 may be used for tints adding Banding Blue if 

Mary Overbeck. 
The original of this study is a tinted charcoal draw- 
ing, a most interesting treatment of the subject. For 
reproduction on porcelain, the charcoal graining will have 
to be omitted, but an attractive result may be obtained 
by tinting with Yellow Ochre, Pompadour and a little 
Black, after firing, tint again to obtain greater depth of 
color. Then paint on the design with the same colors 
adding Olive Green. Also use a touch of Orange or Al- 
bert Yellow on centers of flowers. The study is very 
attractive mounted on a dark manilla paper with a brown 
passe par tout. 






Supplement for November, 190o 



W-" ■ v- 

Ml]-*''-. .,Mf__ c3 ^C~ 

Sir ^-'<fS?§* 

Supplement for October, 1906 
















Containing some of the best fruit studies and designs published in 

Keramic Studio, $3 00 net postpaid. 

Size J J x 14. Number of pages 48. Color Inserts 8. Monochrome Inserts 7. 

Keramic Studio Pub. Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 

The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted without special 

t special permission. 


Editorial Notes — League Notes 

The Class Room 

The Art of Teaching 



Red Rambler Roses 



Coup Plate 

Salad Plate 

Cup and Saucer 

Peacock' Bowl (Supplement) 

Daisy Vase 

Service Plate 

Fruit Plate 

Invalid's Tea Set 

Small Bowl 

Ice Cream Plate 


Wild Rose Vase 

Plate — Historical Ornament 

The Crafts- 
Rug Weaving and Dyeing 

Answers to Correspondents 

Blanche Van Court Schneider 
Sarah Reid McLaughlin 
Hattie V. Young Palmer 
Mabel C. Dibble 

Mabel Tuke Priestman 








The Rose Book, containing some of the best 
rose studies and designs published in 
Keramic Studio postpaid 

The Fruit Book, containing some of the best 
fruit studies and designs published 
in Keramic Studio .postpaid 

Composition, by Arthur Dow postpaid 

Principles of Design, by E. Batchelder postpaid 

Decorative Studies, by J. Foord postpaid 

Plant Forms and Designs, by Midgley and 

Lilley postpaid 

Practical Pottery, elementary instruction 

for students, by Richard Lunn postpaid 

Grand Feu Ceramics, a practical treatise on 
the making of hard porcelain dec- 
orated with high temperature glazes 
by Taxile Doat of the Manufactory of 
of Sevres, France postpaid 

Seger's Collected Writings, 2 volumes postpaid 

For the Collector: 

Vol. II 014 China, bound blue cloth . . postpaid 
Vol. Ill Old China, bound blue cloth . postpaid 

Anglo-American Pottery, a manual for col- 
lectors, by Edwin Atlee Barber, Cura- 
tor of the Pennsylvania Museum, sec- 
ond edition postpaid 

American Glassware, old and new, by Edwin 

A. Barber postpaid 

Marks of American Potters, by Edwin A. 

Barber postpaid 

Pottery and Porcelain of the United States 

by Edwin A. Barber postpaid 

The Lace Book, by N. Hudson Moore postpaid 











Tulip Ware of the Pennsylvania German 
Potters, by Edwin A. Barber, in pa- 
per cover postpaid 1.10 

Tulip Ware of the Pennsylvania Potters, by 
Edwin A. Barber, cloth, limited edi- 
tion postpaid 5.00 

Encyclopedia of Ceramics, by W. P. Jervis . . postpaid 6.75 

The Old China Book, by N. Hudson Moore . . postpaid 2.18 

The Old Furniture Book, by N. Hudson 

Moore postpaid 2.18 

Old Pewter, by N. Hudson Moore. postpaid 2.18 

Chats on English China, by Arthur Hay den . postpaid 2.16 

Chats on Old Furniture, by Arthur Hayden . postpaid 2.18 

China Collecting in America, by Alice Morse 

Earle postpaid 3.20 

Pottery and Porcelain, a guide to collectors, 
by Frederick Litchfield, the English 
expert postpaid 6.25 

French Pottery and Porcelain by Henri 

Frantz postpaid 2.68 

Dutch Pottery and Porcelain, by W. Pit- 
cairn Knowles postpaid 2.68 

Old English Furniture, by Fred Fenn and 

B. Wyllie postpaid 2.68 

English Embroidery, by A. F. Kendrick. . .postpaid 2.68 

French Furniture, by Andre Saglio postpaid 2.68 

Old Pewter, by Malcolm Bell postpaid 2.68 

Sheffield Plate, by B. Wyllie postpaid 2.68 

The Oriental Rug Book, by Mary Churchill 

Ripley postpaid 3.20 

Home Furnishing, practical and artistic, by 

Alice M. Kellogg postpaid 1.65 

William Adams, an old English potter, by 

William S. Turner. ...".' postpaid 8.00 

fteramic Studio Pub Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Vol. VIII, No. 6 


October, 1906 

HE present number of Keramic 
Studio is chiefly edited by Miss 
Mabel Dibble of Chicago." This 
is the second of our series of ' ' Per- 
sonally conducted tours" of the 
studios of the most prominent 
decorators; and we feel sure our 
company will enjoy the trip. 

Do not forget that the Christmas competition closes 
October ist. See back of cover. 

We are in receipt of some very interesting little relics 
of the San Francisco fire and earthquake. They resem- 
ble very much in color and texture the celebrated Massier 
lustres, being rather rough and crackled with much irrides- 
cence. The following extract from a letter explains the 
circumstances of their finding : 

' ' These little jars are part of a crate that were buried in 
the brick and ashes for sixty-three days and were still hot 
when taken out. Originally they were green, the common 
ware of Japan imported by my brother for cold cream jars 
in his drug store. The crates had not been unpacked, and 
the jars were wrapped in straw, just as they arrived from 
Japan. They were on the ground floor of a seven-story 
brick building and buried in several feet of brick and debris. 
When taken out, in some cases the straw that had encased 
them was in ashes but still in shape. They have burned in 
most curious colors, and yet they were packed in a space 
of about 4x6 feet. Very few are alike. In some the glaze 
is completely gone and others are red or copper. If one 
could know the proper fire beautiful effects could be had in 
the large green wares to be had in the Japanese stores. 
There were no chemicals in the building near them, only 
cottons and surgical goods. Adella E- Dugan." 


The Misses Mason have returned from a delightful four 
months' holiday in Europe. Miss Mason writes": ' ' We are 
bubbling over with enthusiasm over what we have seen and 
wish to do ourselves." They spent some time with Mr. 
Snell's class at St. Briac in Brittany, Miss Maud Mason, 
having studied with Mr. Snell several years. 


Our facts from the dandelion, poppy and daisy are here. 
Some of them clever [and intelligent, others vague 
and incoherent, perhaps because our directions were not 
clearly enough defined. Let us, therefore, try again. In- 
stead of a flower we will take an oak tree. We would not 
say its bark is white, and that it splits and peals around the 
trunk showing a rich yellow color, under which is still an- 
other layer of beautiful yellow brown ; because w T e would be 
giving a description of a birch tree trunk ; nor that the 
branches high on its trunk are symmetrical and regular, 

spreading out like a fan and drooping gracefully; as that is 
characteristic of the elm. We would not give it whip-like 
twigs with tapering yellow green leaves that wave gently 
in the breeze, for such is distinctive of the willow We would 
say of the oak that its roots reach down from the base of its 
trunk in a tragential line, not creeping along near the sur- 
face nor perpendicularly from the trunk. That its trunk 
is gnarled, rough, and rugged, with deep incisions; often 
leaning away from its natural line of growth, exposing roots 
bleached to whiteness. Its branches growing out and up 
at the same angle that the roots grow out and down, warped 
and twisted, one dead and bare extending beyond the 
foliage, others wrenched from the trunk by the winds; all 
telling a story of conflict with the elements, which has won 
for it the name ' ' King of the Forest. ' ' The leaf at first 
salmon pink in color, with the softness and bloom of velvet, 
later develops into a dark glossy green on top, and silvery 
white reflection underneath, lobed and about the size of a 
woman's hand. Thickly massed, the leaves show purples, 
almost black in their intensity, while those still clinging to 
the tree in spring are a rich golden brown. As each tree 
has its individuality, so has each flower, and our educational 
committee has been wise in selecting this line of study. 
We need a perfect flower, from which we must get a correct 
interpretation or we will injure our cause and impose upon 
the public. 

The problem for October is an outline drawing of a sugar 
bowl. Please send as before to Belle B. Vesey, 6228 Wabash 
avenue, Chicago, as early in the month as possible. 


Special First Prize — Anne Seymour Mundy, Coudersport, Pa. 

Before starting a beginner it is well to have a thorough 
understanding between pupil and teacher, to establish mu- 
tual confidence; and find out the motive which has led to 
the desire for lessons; and then, consider yourself fortunate 
if the result anticipated be knowledge rather than china. 
But whether it be ability to work independently or a desire 
to possess beautiful china, appreciate each pupil as a rare 
privilege, from whom you may learn more yourself than you 
can possibly impart. That is to say, if you would be sure 
of your own knowledge, try to tell some one else and you 
may find that you have a hazy idea of the subject, but not 
a solid rock of accurate information. To recognize your own 
weak points gives opportunity to strengthen your own 
foundation. Hence, practical knowledge is better than 


To get a thorough and practical course in teaching your- ■ 
self have a class rather than private pupils. One pupil 
strengthens another and you can inspire more enthusiasm 
among students when each has an opportunity to see the 
other at work and profit by the mistakes or successes of 
others. Some teachers take no more than three or four 
pupils in a class, but while it is harder on the teacher it is 
possible to do good and successful work with a much larger 
class at less individual expense, provided the work is planned 


carefully beforehand. The more the pupil is thrown upon 
his or her own resources the greater the individual benefit. 
It rests with the teacher of a large class to plan each step 
in such a way that there can be no serious mistake made 
that is not corrected at once. 


There should be a moral question with every teacher of 
the greatest good to the greatest number. The question of 
first expense keeps back many an otherwise interested pupil. 
The stock paint box with supply palette and nominal sum 
each week for use of teacher's paints would give more people 
an opportunity to find out not only whether they have 
ability along this line, but whether they have a strong 
enough desire to become proficient to carry them through 
the drudgery and discouragement of every day practice. 

Ability to do generally comes with intensity of desire; 
and if the pupil ' ' wants to hard enough," no effort will seem 
too great, and success will come. 

That the lessening of expense would encourage many more 
to take lessons, does not mean to cheapen yourself or your 
lessons: but what are they worth, and what do the pupils 
get? Is it not possible to proportion the expense in such 
way that it may be fair to teacher and pupil and reduce to 
the minimum the money question if the best of art is to be 
produced ? 


This plan is particularly 
over a course of study and 
work : — 

i Silver Yellow 

i Yellow Red 

i Deep Red Brown 

4 Peach Blossom 

2 Pink No. 26 

2 Deep Blue Green 

1 Banding Blue 

2 Moss Green 

1 Brown Green 

2 Pearl Grey 
2 Grey Green 

1 Finishing Brown 

good when a class is to be taken 
the box may contain for general 

1 Yellow Brown 
1 Capucine Red 
1 Blood Red 
1 Roman Purple 
1 Ruby 

3 Light Violet of Gold 

4 Apple Green 
1 Royal Green 
1 Dark Shading Green 
4 Grey for Flesh 
1 Chocolate Brown 
1 each Black and flux 


While some ground may be gained by weekly lessons, 
courses of daily lessons by week or month mean more in 
proportion to the pupil, in the long run, than less frequent 
instruction. The oftener the lessons, the more inspira- 
tion gained, the more "getting into the spirit" which is 
necessary to do one's best work; the fewer mistakes become 
bad habits; the less opportunity to lapse or forget. 


1 . At beginning of lesson put clean paper on table, clean 
glass, fresh turpentine, brushes and necessary silk, cotton 
cloth, china and selected study if not already provided by 

2. Work of grinding paint for supply palette divided 
among individual members. 

3. Selection, under direction from teacher, of paint needed 
for individual work ; the last one to cover the box. No pupil 
shall take all of any one color or colors without grinding 
more to keep supply palette intact. 

4. On finishing work, clean off all paint spots or dirt from 
china, clean palette or slab, returning all good clean color 
to its individual place on the supply palette; clean brushes, 
soften with oil, put in place, filter turpentine, put old paint 

rags in waste basket, return studies to drawer in good con- 
dition, fold or hang up apron, etc. Attention to these de- 
tails by pupils is more than money, and keeps the teacher's 
mind free to guide the more important steps of the day. 
teacher's supply. 

This should include palette knives, brushes, medium, small 
glasses, silk squares, lamb's wool, cotton cloth, tracing and 
transfer paper, wax, china pencils, plate divider, and designs 
suitable for copy or re-arrangement. It saves time to have 
an assistant to attend to this department. 

While pupils may use paint from supply palette for daily 
practice they should provide or possess the following: 
pupil's supply. 

1 Tile or Paint Slab. 

1 Palette Knife (or two). 

Set of Brushes, silk handkerchief, cotton, paint, rags and 
apron — all piled neatly together when day is finished. 


While the presence of a pupil presupposes confidence in 
the teacher, do not be afraid of telling too much when you 
explain the reason for each step in the course of instruction. 
Some will accept blindly, others must have reasons, all work 
more intelligently and with greater confidence in the result 
if they know the reason for each step. Let us hope the 
teacher knows! Do not spare yourself in explanation. 

Do not expect success as a teacher if you are not willing, 
yes glad, to give yourself for the benefit of pupils who are 
eager to learn. 


Any shape in china can be successfully managed by a 
beginner with proper and sufficient attention from the 
teacher, and with probable extra firings; but a beginner 
may learn with more ease and rapidity to do more things 
in a given time if flat china such as plates, placques or tiles 
are used. Some teachers will not allow a pupil to go on 
until at least two plates or tiles have been done well. 


' ' Notan," or the pleasing arrangement of light and dark 
masses should be taught from the first, and no daintier illus- 
tration of this could be made than a border for small plate 
or bowl, done in two or three shades of green, given by Mrs. 
Sara Wood Safford in July number of Keramic Studio. 


The plate design by L. Knotts, of Mr. Fry's New York 
class and illustrated in Keramic Studio, July 1904, affords 
a bolder design suitable for a breakfast plate and was done 
by a beginner, thus: 

First Step — Use of plate divider learned, and plate divided 
into eight parts with china pencil, lines extended over the 
edge and on to the face of the plate. For breakfast plate, 
make extreme inside limit of design little more than two- 
thirds from the outside edge; line drawn with china pencil. 

Second step — A section of paper was then cut exact size of 
one-eighth of this narrow band . This paper was folded in the 
middle exactly and a tiny strip cut from both ends alike. 
Then the design was drawn by eye as it appears in cut and 
to fit the paper pattern, with careful attention to propor- 
tion. Where lines did not appear true, it was done over 
and refined by placing tracing paper on top and with ink 
and fine pen correcting the mistakes. This the Japanese 
call refinement of design. When perfect, the center of the 
tracing paper which was cut an inch larger all round than 
the pattern, was fastened on side and end with wax, putting 






center of design on line which marked one-eighth of the 
border surface. A small piece of graphite transfer paper 
was slipped underneath and with a sharp point the design 
was traced over accurately. Never go over the same line 
more than once, else it may look double. Be sure to trace 
every line. If the tracing paper does not fit on plate per- 
fectly, cut the paper up to the defined and inked edge of 
design; then the paper may be made to fit closely over the 
edge and be fastened underneath with wax. When the 
first section is traced, take off tracing paper and apply mid- 
dle of design to the next perpendicular line on the plate and 
fasten paper with wax, transferring as before. 

Third step — Take out small quantity of Fry's special tint- 
ing oil, a tiny bit, as it dries so quickly; mix with it a few 
grains of grey for flesh, black or whatever the color outline 
is to be, and then with red sable rigger No. o outline the 
pattern carefully and smoothly, keeping oil always same 
consistency and having dried sufficiently, dust with same 
color and fire. 


First step — Oil all background of design, also the lines of 
the circle on edges with special tinting oil and grey green, 
just enough to show whether oil is even as it goes on. With 
the edge of the square shader paint first along the edges of 
this background with sharp clear strokes. If you can keep 
the edges crisp there will be no wiping out process. Then, 
keeping brush flat, blend all together from edges of back- 
ground to center, brushing over it both ways — (cross-ways) 
but not working it over only to even without padding. Do 
not pad. When dried just right dust with grey green. Give 
it all it will hold. Let stand a while and dust again. Fry's 
special oil absorbs so much even after it seems dry. This 
makes a more solid even ground. If this is true and even 
fire, but if not take out and do over. There is no merit in 
a conventional design done in a slipshod manner. The 
beauty of the piece is in the accuracy of the lines and the 
color scheme. But no matter what the color scheme, the 
beauty is all lost if not accurate in every particular. 
Third firing. 

First step — Paint all over everything with special tinting 
oil and grey for flesh (just a little.) This is called the en- 
velope. Pay attention, go over everything, pad evenly. 
See that there is no dust or lint. 

Second step — Dry rather dry and dust, being careful to 
keep plenty of powder under the lamb's wool and do not 
stop to look or rest till you have gone over all, or you will 
have a dark spot. Do not rub more in one spot than an- 
other. With a rotary motion keep moving over the powder 
color till all is even. For envelope use i part grey green, i 
part pearl grey. Fire. 


Do not go on until you can do one plate perfectly. It 
may have to be taken out several times. Dont be dis- 
couraged, for when you can do this one perfectly you have 
learned the mechanical principle of all the rest. 

Whether you intend to do conventional or naturalistic 
work in the end, do not neglect this ' ' start" either by doing 
a tile or plate in these flat tones. It is the foundation of 
all work, and if you can not do this well, do not expect to 
make a success even of naturalistic work; for the day has 
gone by when you can slap paint on china with ' ' artistic 
carelessness" just anywhere and have it called art. Think! 


Study soft color and harmony. Make nothing finished 

which has not an envelope containing some grey or grey 
yellow to hold the color scheme together. It need not be 
dark. Try to make your own designs, remembering that 
china is dainty and beautiful in itself. So designs which 
might be appropriate for wood or coarser material or textiles 
may be quite out of place"on china. 

Consider the use to which the piece is to be put in deciding 
character of design as well as color scheme. 

Much gold is only appropriate for elaborate dinner service 
or for ornaments. Yellow and browns are nice for coffee 
or chocolate service. Grey greens with orange or yellow 
pinks, as capucine red used thinly, etc., are appropriate 
colors for salad sets. Shades of blue for a breakfast set. 
Green for tea or luncheon sets, and so on. Don't put cupids 
in salad bowls or roses on meat platters. Consider the use, 
and if you are any good as a teacher you can make the pupil 
soon see the principle as you do. 

Do not antagonize; do not be arbitrary; respect others' 
views, but never sacrifice your principle by allowing things 
to go out which you know to be wrong, if an effort on your 
part can change it. 

You can teach, but you can not force people to see cer- 
tain things when their whole education has been on the 
other side. Be patient, and be confident that in the end of 
all things only the true will survive, and be content with 
the survival of the fittest. 

o o o 
Teana McLennan Hinman 

To succeed as a teacher one must be absolutely sure 
of what one is trying to teach and know how to tell 
what one knows, so that the pupil will understand what is 

Teaching is an art, most painting is a trick. 

To show a beginner how to find what he is to draw is 
first, how best to place on paper what he has found, second, 
and the simplest method of making a composition of what 
he has placed on paper, the third. 

All beginners should be taught how to outline the mass 
or main part of the study they are to undertake, and a study 
that one may see every day is best, for in each glance one 
sees a new line, a new shadow or a different composition of 
color effect. The every day garden flowers and the fruit 
and vegetables we have every day are in my opinion the 
studies that all beginners should have, and each day as the 
eye grows accustomed to the form and the value of light 
and shade, the hand finds it much easier to draw, for one 
can not put on paper what is not in the mind first. Have 
the study photographed in the mind and the drawing is 
three-quarters finished. 

' ' Avoid complication of form and hold to values, ' ' is one of 
the most difficult things for a pupil to understand, and as a 
matter of fact very few teachers know the real meaning of 
the word value in painting.* Another error that most be- 
ginners make is that they always wish to put in a picture a 
number of things that really are not in the study from 
which they are working. Many times have I been asked by 
pupils, "Shall I paint only what I see." This is a very 
important part of the teacher's Avork, impressing on the 
minds of the pupils that only what they see is to go on 
paper. For example, most children given an object to 
draw — a wooden box, for instance — will not only make a 
drawing of that portion of the box which they see, but of 

*Value in painting is the relative light and dark, or relative purity Ui 
ntensitv of color. — Editor. 






the part which they know to be at the other side, as if the 
box were transparent. 

When a pupil has learned how to make an outline of what 
he sees, and by that I do not mean an exact portrait, he has 
the essential part of drawing, and any one can learn to 
draw if properly taught, as every one can learn to write. 
To be sure all may not be first-class draughtsmen, as all who 
write do not write a good hand. All students wish to ac- 
quire knowledge with as little effort as possible, and the 
teacher must understand how to make a fact clear. A 
simple fact simply told means much to a student. The 
teacher who does not know just what he is trying to do and 
why, is a most discouraging person, for when a pupil loses 
faith in his teacher's ability, both might as well stop, for it 
is a waste of time. 

As a study for showing simple lines and one for the pur- 
pose of explaining how a pupil should go to work, I think 
the black and white study of Zinnias in the last issue of 
Keramic Studio one of the best I have seen. For a begin- 
ner I would suggest a charcoal study, leaving the back- 
ground white, as it would be more confusing to lay in a flat 
tone and work into that, the study. 

Make a direct line for the top of the mass of flowers, from 
left to right as it faces you, then down and across from right 
to left to the starting point. Then a square outline for the 
flower just below the massed outline and see that it comes 
just under the second flower in the body of the study, the 
under line being on a level with the center of the fifth 
flower. Next place the centers and square the petals in the 
outlined mass. Place a line for the top of the mass of 
leaves; this line will be almost at right angles with the top 
line in the flowers. Be always careful to keep the right 
proportion of the leaves as compared with the flowers. The 
mid-rib of the center leaf is directly below the middle of the 
fourth flower. This mid-rib is almost a perpendicular line. 
The length of the leaf is about the same as that of the flower 
above it, and by comparison find the length and width of 
each leaf and the position of them, and find that each line 
goes in its place as easily as if it were traced already to be 
worked over. This done, place the flower on the left, not 
in the main body, then the three at the right ; the stems next, 
as it is always well to leave the stems for the last, a line to 
indicate where they are to go may be used, but I have 
found it better to leave them out entirely, placing the calyx 
when outlining the flowers. 

The study is now ready for criticism. Go over each 
flower and leaf carefully, see that it is in the proper place 
and proportion. One can in this way correct any defects 
there may be in the drawing. The construction being 
right make careful outline of the outside petals and place a 
flat tone over the flowers, leaves and stems, then place the 
darkest shadows in the flowers and see why they are caused. 
Then the darkest shadows for the leaves and stems, and I 
have found that a careful drawing of the petals always helps 
in any flower study, even if it is to be painted, as it gives a 
good idea of how to proceed and an acquaintance with the 
flower that is invaluable. By using a sharp eraser the cen- 
ters may be pushed out and the darker lines be placed to 
bring out the white in the centers. 



Blanche Van Court Schneider. 

SE Rosa for first firing of all roses. 

Leaves, Yellow Green, Moss and Olive Green. 
Stems, Yellow Green. 

Tint for second firing, using Ivory at the top of piece, 
a little Turquoise Green dashed above the bunch of roses. 
Under bunch, Yellow Brown shaded into Olive for the dark 
part under the leaves. Bower part of piece, Ivory. 

Strengthen roses with American Beauty, stems and 
leaves with Olive Green. 

For third firing strengthen background with same 
colors as used in second firing, retouch darkest rose with 
Ruby. A little Dark Brown in stems. 


Sarah Reid McLaughlin. 
PLAINT the design in mellow tones; let yellow predonr 
* inate. For pears, use Lemon Yellow, Alberts Yellow, 
Yellow Green, Yellow Brown. Shadow pear with leaves 
surrounded in Grey Greens. Second firing, strengthen above 
colors. A dash of Yellow Red on main pear will give a 
good effect. Use Sepia where it is needed. Pips and 
stems, Yellow Brown, strengthened in second firing with 
Auburn Brown. Greens as usual, using Yellow Greens, 
some Yellow Browns. Background, Fgg Yellow near 
the center, Alberts Yellow, Yellow Green, Yellow Brown 
and Olive Green in the dark parts. Keep the tones in 
the pears well blended. 


Hattie V. Young Palmer. 
pvRAW lightly prominent roses, leaves and stems. 
U Wash in background with quite moist color and large 
quill brush. Commencing at top, use Ashes of Roses 
softening into Lavender Glaze, and down into Lavender 
Glaze and Violet (mixed) under shadow side of roses and 
leaves, then into Russian Green and Ashes of Roses to the 
base of study. 

Paint leaves with Purple Black and dark roses with 
Ruby and Purple Black (mixed). Paint light roses very 
delicately with Rose and Ashes of Roses (mixed). 

Intensify with dry color, using Albert Yellow over 
background at top and shadow parts with same colors 
used in painting. Powder light roses with Rose and dark 
roses with Ruby, allowing the color to soften out into 
background, leaves with Verdigris. 

For second fire, darken center of light roses with Rose 
and Ashes of Roses, wash leaves in dark part with Dark 
Yellow, other leaves in Verdigris and darkest leaves in 
Dark Yellow. Accent dark roses with Ruby and Purple 
Black, and stems with Purple Black and just a touch of 
Ruby. Wash background under roses and down to base 
of study with Albert Yellow, softening into Lavender 

** r 


Keramic enthusiasts of San Francisco are flocking back 
to their studios. 

The California Keramic and Kraft Shop announces its 
opening at 1146-48 Geary street, near Van Ness Avenue. 
Classes in china, water color, oil painting and leather craft 
by Helen A. O'Malley and Minnie C. Taylor. 

Mrs. Blanche McCalvy, formerly of 460 Turk strees, an- 
nounces the opening of her studio at 804 McAllister street. 

Mrs. G. Dorn has returned from temporary quarters in 
Los Angeles, and reports a new and busy studio at 761 
McAllister street. 






FTER spending my summer in the 
wilds of northern Michigan, I am 
more firmly convinced than ever 
that we can always find material 
for original designs, but not all can 
branch out at once into conven- 
tionalizing flower, leaf and branch 
into satisfactory designs. Do not 
despair, study and work — and then 
study and work again. I am 
glad so many teachers are advising this individual study, 
for now we may hope to see our Ceramic exhibitions show a 
higher and more original style of work each year. 

Take anything that appeals to you. Make a sketch of 
flower — full front, side and back, study the way the flower 
and stem join, then tear it apart; sketch petal, calyx, sta- 
men, seed-pod and leaf separately. Color these as nearly 
exact as possible, then lay the study away for future con- 
ventionalizing. In the winter, when one can not have the 
inspiration of field, forest and garden, then is the time to 
work out the summer's gathered treasures. So let nothing 
escape you. And when this message reaches those who are 
fortunate enough to live where there are ' ' green things 
growing," let them go out and gather the nuts, leaves and 
berries touched by Jack Frost, and see what beauties lie all 

If one has never seriously studied conventional work in 
china, but always the naturalistic, it may seem like a diffi 
cult proposition, but the pleasure you can find in it will 
more than repay you for the necessary serious study. At 
first copy good designs; study the color tones, the spacing, 
the arrangement of design suitable to the shape, the care- 
ful and correct drawing. You will soon find yourself able 

to distinguish between good and poor conventional work 
and to be satisfied with only the best. And, also, you will 
never want to say that ' ' conventional work is purely me- 
chanical." Only those who know nothing about design 
could say that. 

Do not be afraid to make tests of color schemes before 
applying the color to the piece of china. Make these tests 
and keep a memorandum of each; it will be of great value 
in future work. 

One word more — simplify. Do not attempt merely to 
make an elaborate design for itself alone, with the china sim- 
ply as a background for your work, but carry the thought 
always to make the design a part of the china, to add to its 
beauty solely, that the observer may say, ' ' What a beauti- 
ful satisfying bowl or plate!" not "What a perfect rose, or 
bunch of grapes!" Let the shape aid the design, and the 
design fit the shape, making one perfect whole. And only 
study will enable you to compass this. 

In order to avoid repetition and simplify the direc- 
tions for each design, let me give a few general rules 
here. Where the make of paint is not specially mentioned, 
use Da Croix. The outlining colors are Black, made of 
Ivory Black, two-thirds, Dark Blue one-third; Blue, made 
of Dark Blue, with a little Deep Purple and Dresden Bruns- 
wick Black; Red, made of Capucine Red, one-half, and Deep 
Red Brown, one-half; Brown, made of Brown No. 4 or 17, a 
little Dark Blue, Deep Purple and the Brunswick Black. 
These four are the only outlining colors I use. They can be 
bought mixed ready for use under the names of Outlining 
Black, Outlining Blue, Outlining Red, Outlining Brown — 
the "M. D. "colors if one prefers. 

There are two ways of outlining. Grind the colors with 
turpentine only, and use a fine No. 1 Tracer, or grind the 




colors with Anise Oil only and use a fine pen. I prefer a 
crow-quill, but that is a matter of individual taste. The 
latter way is more rapid, and for many a much neater and 
more perfect outline can be made, but even then, when the 
line comes too close to a tint or color it must be washed in. 
Next to an unfired outline, the brush and turpentine mixed 
paint is much safer than the oil. 

The proportion of colors and enamels given are for French 
china only. For softer glaze wares the proportions should 
be different. With these points in mind, and careful study 
of the treatment for each design, a student should be able 
to do most satisfactory work. If in doubt about a color, 
where several are combined, make a test by firing it on a bit 
of broken china, placing it exactly where the finished piece 
will be fired later. This is important. 

The service plate in the original was ten and a quarter 
inch, but has been reduced in printing. Also the plate 
with the two narrow bands in original was eight inch. The 
medlar flower plate was nine inch, and the plate with his- 
toric ornament a nine and three-quarter inch. These sizes 
are much more effective for the designs than smaller. 

Mabel C. Dibble 


HpHE plain Belleek stein is the most satisfactory for this 
* design. Dividing into thirds, outline in black, and 
fill in the top above design with un fluxed gold, using a little 
Lavender Oil to make it flow smoothly. A heavy line on 
handle is better than solidly gilded. Below the branches 
at base wash in Brown No. 4 or 17 and Brown Green No. 6, 
not blending them too much. Fire. For second fire, see 
that your gold is retouched where needed. Grapes in pur- 
ple and white, alternating. For the purple, Tight Violet of 
Gold, Dark Blue, touch of Brunswick Black and one-eighth 
of Hancock's Medium Enamel; shading the grapes and mak- 
ing some in a darker enamel of Deep Purple and Dark Blue, 

with Brunswick and the Medium Enamel. White grapes, 
use the Hancock's Medium Enamel — of course all the read- 
ers know that it must be first ground down with small 
quantity of Dresden Thick Oil and turpentine, as all powder 
colors must be when used as enamels — slightly tinted with 
mixture of Apple Green and Brunswick Black, making a 
greenish grey. When dry shade the grapes with a thin 
wash of this mixture. Leaves and stems or branches, green, 
using the lighter and darker greens as in other designs, the 
lighter for upper leaves, and shading some with touches of 
Brown or Violet of Iron, and making the under leaves of 
almost clear Brown Green No. 6 and Grey for Flowers, with 
the one-fourth Hancock's Medium Enamel. Work up the 
base with the Brown and Brown Green, using no enamel in 
the wash. Always use Hancock's Medium Enamel, or half 
and half of the Hard and Soft, on Belleek, and give a Belleek 
fire, and there will be no trouble with enamels chipping if 
they are properly applied to the china. 


LINE the plate with seven circles in black. Outline 
entire design in black. Fire. Then fill in narrow 
bands behind single leaf design with dark blue enamel, Dark 
Blue, little Deep Purple and Brunswick Black (Dresden) 
and one-eighth Aufsetzweis, floating it in smoothly, but not 
too heavily. The large flower in dull soft blue. Use same 
mixture as above, only omit the Aufsetzweis; use a tinting 
oil to make it flow smoothly, and paint each petal, shading 
as in naturalistic work. Make the three small bands divid- 
ing petals in the dark blue enamel. The edge of plate and 
the other three narrow little bands, all of the leaves and the 
scrolls on edge of blue flower, all where it is left white in the 
design, make green, a soft dull green, Apple Green, a little 
yellow for mixing, equal amount of Grey for Flowers (Sar- 
torius) and small quantity of Brunswick Black, one-fourth 





MAKE the three circles in brown, and outline the entire 
design in the brown, single stem, leaf, mushroom and 
circle in center. Fire. Leaves dull green of Apple 
Green, Brown Green, one-fourth Aufsetzweis. Mushrooms, 
mixed enamel. When dry, wash over the white enamel 
with Violet of Iron, Brown No. 4, and Deep Red Brown, 

with some touches of Yellow Ochre or Yellow Brown. 
Not a mixture of these, but dashes of each, or two, blending 
into each other ; the centers the same, only lighter shading. 
Do not be afraid to darken the shading quite decidedly, as 
it is over unfired white enamel and will fire out a 
great deal. 




OUTLINE entire design in gold, and fire. Fill in all 
straight bands, and also the leaves, with a soft dark 
brown, any good brown that will harmonize with yellow. 
For blossoms use mixed enamel, adding Egg Yellow until 

quite a rich golden color, for the five larger petals, and 
mixed enamel with Silver Yellow added for the tiny back 
petals. Gold centers. Gold edge on cup and saucer. Gold 
lines on handle, or solid gold handle. 



PEACOCK BOWL (Supplement) 

TPHIS design repeats just four times, that is, — four 
" groups — on a belleek bowl 8^" in diameter by 4" high. 
The band for the inside exactly fits this size bowl. Outline 
the band and part of the peacock in black, the rest of the 
peacock and branches in gold. Use unfluxed gold on bel- 
leek; outline the leaves and oranges in blue; also fill in 
the gold spaces for the first fire. 

For second fire, make oranges in yellow enamel, using 
Hancock's Medium Enamel, ground down with Dresden 
Oil, and thinned with turpentine; into this put Egg Yellow; 
if in powder, grind it with Dresden Oil and turpentine be- 
fore adding it to enamel. Green leaves, Apple Green, yel- 
low for mixing, and Sartorius Grey for flowers; add one 
fourth medium enamel; use same yellow and green in band. 

For peacock tones, make them more brilliant and vibrat- 
ing than the colors in study. It was not possible to print 
in just the tones we wished. For the darkest blue, use 
Dark Blue, Deep Purple and Brunswick Black; add one- 
eighth medium enamel; this use also in band. For next 
tone, use Deep Blue Green, Apple Green, Dark Blue, touch 
of Brunswick Black, one-eight medium enamel. For third 
tone, Chrome Green B, Deep Blue Green, Apple Green, 
medium enamel; and for lighter green, Apple Green, yellow 
for mixing, touch of Brunswick Black and medium enamel. 
For these last two,, put the mixed color into the medium 
enamel until you have the color desired. These four colors 
should tone one into the other with no violent contrasts. 
Have all mixed carefully, and then rapidly lay in first the 
head and back, the second tone on breast and blending into 
the darker on back ; then the third tone finishing the breast 
and on upper part of tail, with the fourth tone finishing off 
the tail feathers. Fill in eyes of tail with the dark blue, 
also feet in blue between the tinted branches. 

When perfectly dry, add the gold touches on peacock 
body and tail, using unfluxed gold. Also add blue dash in 
oranges. Touch up all gold and give a regular Belleek 

*• -f 

DIVIDE plate into fourteen parts. Place the flower 
section, having carefully traced it off, directly on a 
line, and with stylus or ivory point trace it clear and per- 
fect, using the fine graphite tracing or impression paper. 
Repeat on every other line, and you will find the small leaf 
section will fall into place on the remaining seven lines. 
Trace all with India ink, then make the gold lines on plate. 
Erase where flowers cover line. Outline design in black, and 
fire. For second fire, tint the broad band with Chinese Yel- 
low. Wipe out color from design and dry thoroughly be- 
fore filling in the enamel. For leaves use Apple Green, one- 
half, Sartorius Grey for flowers, one-half; divide, and into 
one part add Yellow for mixing to lighten it ; into the other 
part put more Grey for Flowers and a little Brunswick 
Black, then add one-fourth Aufsetzweis to each. Use the 
lightest green on calyx, stems and smaller leaves, and tips 
of large leaves, the rest in the darker green. For flowers, 
use Silver Yellow in mixed enamel for lighter petals, the 
outside of the flowers, and use Egg Yellow in mixed enamel 
for the inside or darker petals. When dry, wash in shadows 
lightly with Brown Green. The tiny dots or stamens are 
Brown No. 4 or 1 7 and Yellow Brown or Ochre mixed. For 
inside band the flowers are in stronger Egg Yellow, and leaves, 
the darker green. This inside band is all outlined in gold, 
and the circles or bands are in gold with gold edge. 


HpHIS vase can be treated in a monochrome tone of blue 
* or grey, but the most satisfactory effect is given by 
blending the two. Use powder colors. Copenhagen Grey 
and Delft Blue make a good combination. Sketch in the 
design and then tint the background, that below the daisies 
a grey, above a blue, and delicately shade the daisy petals 
in the blue. For second fire, powder or dust on grey again 
below the twisted stems at base, and dust blue heavily above 
the daisies. Work up the centers of the flowers, strengthen 
the petals and stems, and wash in a few shadowy stems. 
With a dark blue band at base, the twisted stems all in blue, 
this is simple and yet effective. 







OLATE H", coup. Divide into fifths. Make the four 
* circles and edge gold, outline the design in Black and 
fire. Next, tint the two bands in Satsuma tone, using 
Brown 4 or 17, Dark Blue,, Silver Yellow — all La Croix 
colors — and a little Brunswick Black, Dresden. Carefully 
remove all trace of color from gold lines, retouching these 
where necessary; also take color from design. Flowers are 
of mixed enamel, two-thirds Aufsetzweis, one-third Hancock's 
Hard White Enamel, slightly colored with Chinese Yellow 
and Brunswick Black, until it is a dull cream color. When 
enamel is thoroughly dry, wash over the outer edge of petals, 
a dull red, Deep Red Brown and Yellow Ochre mixed. Use 
this on the flower at left side; for the one at right wash the 
petals with Brown No. 4 or 17 quite lightly. For leaves 
marked with a cross, make an enamel of Apple Green, half 
as much Yellow for mixing, and add Brown Green No. 6 — 

all La Croix colors — until a dull dark green, then add one- 
fourth as much Aufsetzweis as you have of the paint. When 
dry, shade at base of leaves with Brown No. 4 or 17. In 
washing in these shadings over enamel, use only turpentine 
to grind the paint; take very little on brush and have it 
thin. Use a square shader. For remaining leaves use 
Brown No. 4 or 17, Yellow Ochre and Brown Green 6. 
Shade with self mixture and keep leaves light; calyx of 
flowers, very dark brown — Brown No. 4 or 1 7 and Brunswick 

The three burr-shaped fruits of the medlar tree in 
each group must be brown also, but not so dark as the calyx 
of the flower; use Brown 4 or 17 alone. The lines of the 
stamens are brown, but the little round tip is filled in with 
Brown 4 or 17, and Deep Red Brown mixed. Dots in white 
band, gold. 




DIVIDE the pieces into sections corresponding to these, 
if your china is not exactly the same size and style. 
All lines and bands, handles and Greek key, in gold. 
Outline the design in black, and fire. Then fill in the back- 
ground with dull red, two-thirds Deep Red Brown, one- 
third Capucine Red, using a very little anise oil to make the 

color flow smoothly. The larger ornaments are filled in 
with blue enamel, Dark Blue, Deep Purple and Brunswick 
Black, with one-eighth Aufsetzweis. All the small scrolls 
and leaves in gold. 

Be sure that the red is a dull dark Pompeiian red and the 
blue not too bright. 


FOR bowl i of" in circumference divide into fourteen 
sections. Make upper line red, the other lines black. 
In the dividing perpendicular lines, the single line is red, 
the others black. Every other block is left white with the 
flower outlined in gold, the leaves and curved lines in red ; 
the other section is in solid gold, with entire design outlined 
in red. Fill in between the black lines with red, half 
Capucine, half Deep Red Brown; also the flower in the white 
section and center of flower in gold section. Flower in gold 

section, the mixed white enamel; also little bud at top. 
Leaves all alike, Apple Green, Brown Green, Yellow for 
mixing and one-fourth Aufsetzweis. For band at base, 
center of diamonds are green, next band red, and the back- 
ground gold. This is especially good in small Satsuma 

But if one does not like the white background of the 
French china, tint it with a delicate tone of Chinese Yellow 
inside and out. 




THIS is one of the new designs in china, and unusually 
good. The border or shoulder is perfectly flat, while 
the center rounds down into an extremely shallow bowl 
effect, just the thing for ice cream in forms now used so 
much, and equally satisfactory for ice cream served in bulk, 
or home-made cream or ices; and just the thing to stand 
frappe or sherbet glasses on. Outline in black, and make 
the tiny ring background in gold, using Lavender Oil to thin 
the gold a trifle, and then turpentine. Always use pen for 
this work. Any fine pen; I prefer a crow-quill. A solid 
gold background can be used, but the circle gives a more 
dainty, shimmering effect. The outer band is Empire Green 
washed in also for first firing. For second fire touch up 
the gold rings, and go over the Empire Green. Branches 
are in Yellow Ochre, Brown No. 4 or 17, and touch of Bruns- 
wick Black, shading with Brown No. 4 and Black. No 

enamel in this. Leaves are a grey green. For these use 
mixed enamel as a foundation and add Apple Green, Sar- 
torius Grey for Flowers, touch of Brunswick Black; do not 
make the enamel very dark but shade the leaves with the 
mixture, without enamel in it. The mistletoe berries are 
of the mixed enamel shaded with Apple Green and Bruns- 
wick Black, just enough to give a waxy look to enamel. 
When dry, shade each berry with the Apple Green and 
Brunswick Black, using enough black to give it a dark grey 
look. A touch of black makes the little blow end. Gold 
lines, and design in dark green border is gold with white 
enamel little band in each circle. If you are careful to pre- 
pare the gold just right, the little rings are not difficult to 
do, in fact are easier to manage than the solid gold back- 
ground which shows brush marks and ragged edges unless 
very carefully managed. 




DIVIDE candlestick into even divisions and outline the 
design in black, every other one ending with the seed pod. 
Fill in each section of seed pod with paste for gold, and 
make band at base in flat gold. For second fire, flowers 
and buds in red — one-half Capucine, one-half Pompadour — 
(Dresden) — adding touch of Yellow Ochre; shade with Pom- 
padour with touch of Brunswick Black, (Dresden) . Leaves : 
Large flat leaf in Apple Green, Sartorious Grey for flowers, 
equal parts; add a little Brunswick Black and one-fourth 
Aufsetzweis; float color over the leaf evenly, and when dry 
shade at base with Apple Green, Grey and Black, adding 
more black, and no enamel, using flat shader instead of the 
fine tracer for enamel, which you are to always use for the 
enamel work. For stems, smaller leaves, calyx, use lighter 
green, Apple Green, the Grey for flowers and yellow for 
mixing, with one-fourth Aufsetzweis. Cover the raised 
paste with gold. Make the four little tips of calyx showing 
from behind flowers, and center dot in gold, also upper rim 
of candlestick. Fill in the blocks in band with red, alter- 
nating dark and light. 




jyi ANY of these Japanese prints are 
■*•"*■ effective when adapted to vases that 
are Japanese in shape. Outline in black. 
The large rose and a few of the buds in 
white enamel, just the mixed enamel floated 
in smoothly. When dry, wash in yellow for 
mixing under the stamens, and shade petals 
with a soft grey of Chinese Yellow and 
Brunswick. All flowers can be in white, or 
make the half flowers in soft dull blue. 
Branches in greyish brown, using Yellow 
Ochre, Brown No. 4 or 17, and Brunswick 
Black; calyx to buds the same only lighter. 
In making the two tones of green, see that 
there is great contrast, which adds much to 
the effectiveness. Keep the light leaves 
very light, Apple Green, Grey for Flowers 
(Sartorius) and yellow for mixing, quite a 
yellowish green; add one-fourth Aufsetzweis. 
For the darker leaves use Apple Green, Grey 
for Flowers, a little Chrome Green B, and a 
larger quantity of Brunswick Black, with 
one-fourth Aufsetzweis. Bands at base can 
be in two shades of green or black and green. 
The entire vase can be tinted in soft grey, 
or when finished and fired the second time 
cover all, vase and enamels, with thin wash 
of Ivory Lustre, and fire lightly. 




/"OUTLINE the design in black and fire before applying 
^-^ the enamels. The two bands, scrolls and small spray 
of leaves are in blue enamel. Dark Blue, a little Deep Pur- 
ple, Brunswick Black (Dresden) and one-eighth Aufsetz- 
weis. The leaves and calyx, also small scrolls that spring 
from outer rim, in green. Apple Green, half as much Yel- 
low for mixing, enough Brown Green No. 6 to darken 
greatly, and one-fourth Aufsetzweis. The large flowers in 
a brownish lavender. Dark Blue, Light Violet of Gold, 
touch of Brunswick Black, and enough Brown No. 4 or 17 
to give it a decided brown tone. Add this to mixed enamel, 
and by all means make tests of this mixture before applying 

to the plate. Use a very small quantity of the Light Violet 
of Gold. The small detached forget-me-nots, centers of 
flowers, where there is only one circle in center, and the five 
small petals in upright flower, are a delicate grey blue. 
Deep Blue Green with touch of Apple Green and Brunswick 
Black, added to the mixed enamel. The lower circle in 
upright flower is dark blue enamel, also centers of forget- 
me-nots, and the band dividing the dark and light blue in 
upright flower, the small circles and base of flowers attached 
to scrolls in plain white mixed enamel. By mixed enamel 
I mean two-thirds Aufsetzweis and one-third Hancock's 
hard white enamel. 



Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, Room 2 3 , 22 East 16th St., New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 

Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

Summer Address, care of Keramic Studio Pub. Co , Syracuse, N. Y. 

All questions must be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do noi send 

stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

made on ordinary rag carpet weaving, and in that way 
was able to keep up their interest in carrying out my 
ideas, and although they had a supreme disdain for my 
experiments in color effects and pattern making, they 
were not going to quarrel with their means of support. 
It was not long before the weaver who did the best work 
became a complete convert and John became my most 
loyal and ardent supporter. Many an hour have I spent 
watching him weave as I directed how the borders and 
patterns should be evolved. He was a great favorite, 
not only among other weavers, but with laborers who 
were out of work, who used to spend their time in his 
workroom, debating on the subjects of the day- When 
I first made my appearance among this group, they used 
to sit like mutes, with their chairs tilted against the wall, 
and never uttered a word, but this was too good an op- 
portunity to be lost, and I improved the occasion by draw- 
ing the men out, and hearing their views on the questions 
of the day. It was interesting to note the gradual in- 
crease of friendliness on their part, and they became so 
loquacious that I was able to get their view of many 
phases of life, that most of us do not have the opportunity 
of hearing first hand. 

At that time it was all experimental work, as I had 
not the opportunity of seeing other rugs, or of knowing 
what was being done by other craftsmen. The chief dif- 
ference between the Colonial rugs and those made to- 
day is, that the former were made from worn out cloth- 
ing, which was torn up into strips. These were sewn and 
wound into balls, and a motley chain of materials and 
color were woven "hit or miss" into rag carpeting. Roots 
and barks of trees were sometimes employed from which 
to make vegetable dyes, and from the dye pots, the old 
clothing reappeared in charming rich colors, which in many 
cases, have retained their brilliancy after years of hard 
wear. These home dyed rugs, and the "hit or miss" 
varieties, fitted in with their simple surroundings, but 

No. 1— Cutting male 

ial with a weighted knife, which s 
cutting with scissors, or tearing. 

ves hours of tedious 


Mabel Tuke Priestman 
I T is a far cry from the days of our great grandmothers to 
* the present day, but it seems strange that the same 
handcrafts that were occupying their leisure hours, 
should be of such deep interest to the women of to-day. 
The intense interest which is taken in all handcrafts, has 
brought about a wonderful revival of the useful and well 
made products of our ancestors,. Not the least interest- 
ing of these is the art of weaving, and the demand for 
good hand made work has made of it an industry where- 
by women are able to make at home beautiful rugs and 
curtains, which, when they are well designed and well 
made, can always find a ready market. It seems strange 
that more has not been written on this interesting subject, 
especially as it is not difficult for a woman of ordinary 
intelligence to become an expert weaver, and also learn 
to make her work express her own individuality. 

It is now quite a number of years since the revival of 
these rugs was started in America, and I have followed 
its advance ever since I came across the first rugs, which 
were an outcome of the Arts and Crafts movement. There 
was so little written on the subject, that in order to under- 
stand it thoroughly, I had to make personal experiments, 
not only in the weaving, but in the kind of materials to 
use, and in the dyeing of the fabrics, and therefore I can 
speak from my own experience in the early days. 

As my desire was not to become a weaver, but to 
gain all the knowledge possible, for the sake of having 
beautiful rugs made, I at first made use of crude rag car- 
pet weavers, who no doubt thought that I was crazy, 
and made feeble protests against my innovations. It was 
necessary for me to understand the process of weaving, 
as well as to gain experience from results, and I greased 
the wheels by paying the men just double what they 

No. 2 — Making experiments in weaving border designs in a narrow loom. In chang- 
ing the color of the warp the brown threads have been tied to the white which 
was already on the loom. The lay-to is brought sharply forward to make the 
warp firm. 


m w n 








No. 3— A Priscilla R 

the needs of to-day are more stringent, and rugs must be 
made of new material, or of remnants, which when dyed, 
possess the same qualities as new material. 


Rugs can be made from many kinds of materials 
such as lawns, prints, cretonnes, denims, staeens, ging- 
hams, ducks, cotton flannels, ticking, rope, roving yarns, 
and canton flannels. It will be seen that there is indeed 
a large variety to choose from. Unbleached muslin of- 
fers a field of great variety, as it can be dyed the exact 
colors required. The question of cost is not determined 
by the price of material per yard, as sometimes light 
material at four cents will make a more costly rug than 
a heavy material at 15 cents. If light material is used, 

it must be torn into wider strips, as it weaves into such 
a small space, so that it is more economical to buy a 
bulky material that can be cut into narrow strips. 

Labor is another important item to be saved in the 
making of rugs. It has been proved that to buy short 
remnants is extravagant, as the time spent in sewing the 
pieces together, and in the delay in tearing and cutting 
them afterwards in the strips, owing to the seams, is 
more costly than paying more for material that is better 
adapted for the purpose. Remnants that have become 
marked, or have been discarded on account of imperfect 
weaving and are known as seconds, are the best kind to 
buy, as they can often be found in pieces of ten and fifteen 
yards in length. After experimenting in widths of material 
from half an inch to two inches, it has been found that 
one inch is the most attractive for all purposes. 


If a rough fuzzy rug is required, the material must 
be torn, as the rough edge can only be obtained in this 
way. Denims are particularly attractive after they are 
woven, because of this soft, fluffy edge, which shows on 
the surface of the rug when completed. Unbleached 

muslin also has the same quality. If a very neat rug is 
required, new material must be purchased, and after re- 
moving the piece of wood upon which it is wound, it can 
be tightly bound and fastened securely with tape. It can 
then be placed upon a table, and a heavy meat saw with 
a weight at the end can be used to cut it in slices one inch 
thick, so that in a few minutes a belt of 50 yards is ready 
to be wound on the cops. (See illus.) To insure the strips 
being perfectly even the table should be marked out 
in inches, as it is essential to good workmanship that 
each strip should be exactly the same width. Most 
people cut with scissors when they require a smooth fin- 
ished rug, and this is an appalling waste of time, and if 
the work is given out, costs six cents a pound to have it 
done by some old woman who makes her living by cutting 
materials for rag carpet weavers. The small outlay 
required in purchasing a good knife will pay for itself 
in the saving of time in the first few rugs. The strips 
being fifty yards long, no sewing is necessary, and this 
also saves time and makes the work even. 

In tearing material long lengths should also be aimed 
at and a whole bolt of denim can quickly be torn by a 
little care in starting the work right. Take a tape meas- 
ure and cut the cloth for a couple of inches. It is not 
necessary to cut off the selvage unless it is a different 
color, as that folds in the weaving and is not noticed. 
Having started the material right, it can be quickly torn, 
and it is often a great pleasure to children to be allowed 
to do this work. If they have a large room in which to 
do it, two strips can be taken by one child, and the next 
two strips by the other, and if they run in opposite direc- 
tions four strips will come off simultaneously, and give 
the children a fine frolic at the same time. It is amusing 
to see how slowly beginners tear up material. They sit 
at a table and start to tar with both hands a few inches 
at a time, proceeding in this way their arms will be com- 
pletely tired out by the time they have torn a 50 yard belt. 
A big room in the attic is the best place for such work, as 


No. 4 — A cretonne bi 

rder on a plain ground relie 
in contrasting color. 

,-ed by a center ornament 

I 4 2 


No. 5 — An interest!] 

; border formed by using material with massed 
groups of flowers. 

the duff off the material makes a fearful lint and this 
work is not suitable to be done in a room where there is a 
carpet. If the color is not too pale, it can be done in the 
garden, but asfl said before, it is very important to take 
great care in seeing that the strips are started exactly the 
same width. If only one person is to do the tearing, 
fasten, the end of the denim to a screw-eye fastened to 
a window or table and then run away with the denim. 
The material must be wound into balls as it is being 
torn, or it will get into knots and become tangled. It is 
important to do this work quickly, as if it lies around the 
material frays too much, and the part that comes off is 
of course only waste. When buying denim it is impor- 
tant to try a piece first, to see if it tears, as one make of 
denim cannot be torn, and when cut, a thread works up 
which completely spoils the effect of the rug. 


Experience alone teaches us how much material will 
be required for weaving rugs, and it is best therefore to 
weigh every piece of material which is bought, and give 
the number of yards contained in the piece. When it is 
woven the rug can be weighed and the exact amount used 
in the rug ascertained in weight and in the number of 
yards. About 2 J pounds, or from 5 to 7 square yards of 
material will make one yard of weaving. If however, 
the strips are cut the least little bit wider than an inch, 
three or four yards would be wasted in a 3 x 6 rug without 
inproving the appearance of it. 

It is not always possible to obtain materials that 
will hold their color, but there is a great difference in the 
quality of the dyes used in the materials obtainable. Indigo 
blues and turkey reds can be bought in two qualities. 
Those with "oil dyed" written on the package will be found 
to be very much better than the ordinary dyed ones. In 
selecting materials from which to make a variegated rug, 
cretonnes, percales and prints can be utilized, and the 
beauty of these depends not on the design, but on the massing 

of colors. Sometimes a large red cabbage rose and very 
strong green leaves and altogether garish piece of material, 
in the end will weave into a most beautiful rug, the large 
spots of red giving a pleasing variety to it. A very small 
design will naturally only weave up into a broken surface. 
The denims, although not considered fast colors, do not 
fade in patches, so that a rug made of this material softens 
in color, but of course it is advisable when plain mater- 
ials are used, to dye them of absolutely fast dye, and noth- 
ing gives better results than the homemade vegetable 
dyes. It will be found cheaper to get unbleached materials 
for dyeing, than pure white, the white have been bleached, 
thereby deteriorating the fabric, and not improving it for 
dyeing. I would therefore advise unbleached muslins 
and a coarse cheap khaki, from which soldier's uniforms 
are made. This is much cheaper than denim and is often 
heavier, and will take any of the dark colors. Whenever 
the khaki color can be used it would not be necessary to 
redye it, as it is one of the best materials to be obtained for 
rug making, and is more or less fast in color. 

. ' " V: ' l, 

No. 6— A light border on a dark rug is always in good taste. Two rows 


/~*ELLULOID is a chemical substance made mainly of paper 
^ and crude camphor, to imitate ivory, tortoise shell, 
coral, amber, glass, etc. Considerable secrecy is main- 
tained by the makers of celluloid as to their respective 
methods of manufacture, but apart from dyestuffs and 
acid, it may be said to consist of about equal quantities 
of paper and camphor. The process of its making is not 
a complicated one, although it is one that is highly injur- 
ious to the health of those employed in handling the ingre- 
dients. The workingmen are compelled to wear clothing 
of rubber, and invariably bear traces of the strong action 
of the chemical used, their faces appearing corpselike and 
ghastly. The first operation in the manufacture of celluloid 
is the preparation of the paper, which is composed of cot- 
ton and birch wood. 



This made, it is wound upon a hollow spindle hold- 
ing several hundreds yards in length. A roll of the paper 
is slowly unwound, being saturated with a mixture of five 
parts of sulphuric acid and two parts of nitric acid, which 
falls upon it in a fine spray. This changes the cellulose 
of the paper into propylin gun cotton. The excess of the 
acid is expelled by pressure and the paper washed. It 
is then ground to a pulp and bleached. 

After thoroughly drying the pulp there is added to it 
a due proportion of camphor. This is done by carefully 
weighing, mixing the two ingredinets thoroughly, and 
pressing in canvas jackets between plates. It is at this 
point that the dye matter is added to make the celluloid 
any desired color. In the next operation the mixture is 
subjected to the grinding and pressure of masticators. 
These machines are simply heavy iron rollers about four 
feet long, geared together to turn inward. As the grind- 
ing continues the mass becomes more and. more homogen- 
eous and nearer to the finished appearance of celluloid. 

It is then taken from the masticators in the form of 
huge sheets, eight feet by four feet in size and one inch 
thick. These sheets are piled one on top of the other un- 
til they fill a heavy iron box. which latter is run under a 
steam-heated hydraulic press, where it remains under 
enormous pressure for about two hours. This is done for 
the purpose of welding the superimposed sheets together 
in the form of a solid cake. 

On removal the big celluloid cake is cut into sheets 
of the desired thickness. This may vary from one-thous- 
sandth of an inch to a full inch or more, according to 
the variety of goods into which the material is to be worked. 
After cutting, the sheets are hung up in drying-rooms 
six or seven months to "season," celluloid having the pecul- 
iar warping qualities of wood if worked up without due 
regard to this fact. 

From the seasoning rooms the sheets go to the various 
departments of the factory. Those taken to the novelty 
department are cut, turned, and pressed into any number 
of fancy articles. The smaller articles are cut out of the 
sheets of celluloid, while cold, then dipped into hot water, 
bent and shaped, and plunged into cold water again to 
retain their shape. The comb manufacture is simpler 
than with hard rubber. The teeth are stamped out with 
dies, either by hand or machinery, and are then polished 
with cold water and pumicestone. Combs are cut from 
sheets of "amber," "tortoise-shell" and "ivory" celluloid. 
All three of these compositions are carefully made, and 
the imitations of the genuine substance are so faithful as 
frequently to pass through the hands of experts unde- 
tected. — Fabrics, Fancy Goods and Notions. 
. •? ? 

A. J. L. — For the Russian design for cup, page 3 May 1899, dust center 
of saucer and lower part of cup with Empire Green. For a light green use 
Dresden Yellow Green. All black portions of design to be dark blue ; all white 
parts, scrolls, etc., light green; enamel dots, turquoise blue; handle, gold, also 
band at base of cup. Your plan for a decoration in ivory, yellow and gold 
with raised paste rose border sounds very attractive. Use the ivory padded 
delicately then use Albert Yellow or Orange Yellow for the deeper tone. 
Sorry we can not answer by mail but it is against rules. 

R. F. O. — The various makes of colors may be mixed with the mediums 
issued by the different manufacturers. 

L. G. — Decoration should always be subordinate to the shape of the 
china but in the case where a handle is made to look as if applied instead of 
being a natural outgrowth of the form, as in a ribbon handle, then the pattern 
should pass under the handle so that the latter is applied over the design. 

A. C. H. — Light tints of blue are liable to have a greenish tone on Belleek 
on account of the cream tone of the china. Try Deep Blue Green for tinting. 

G. B. — If you have white spots appear on your china in firing, moisture 
must have collected upon it. Leave the peep hole open until you have color 
in the kiln to let moisture escape. 

S. F. O. — Powdered gold is rubbed down with a horn palette knife on a 
ground glass slab, using one-half fat oil and one-half tar oil, enough only to 
hold the powder together. Thin with spirits of turpentine. 

To retouch under-fired color use a thin wash of flux slightly tinted with 
color used in first painting. Fire hard, then strengthen where necessary and 
fire again. Sometimes simply retiring hard will bring out the glaze. 

For American Beauty roses Mr. Bischoff makes a special color. Write 
him for list of colors used in painting the roses. 

E. C. B. — If turpentine disagrees with you, use oil of lavender with about 
one-quarter alcohol, more or less, to make it dry quicker. Instead of fat oil 
use copaiba with a little clove oil if it dries too fast, one drop of clove or less 
to six of copaiba. 

S. P. H. We prefer the initial on the border of the plate. It does not 
seem right to see any One's name through a screen of gravy or tea. Either 
way of executing the monogram would be good, either flat outlined in color 
or raised in gold if not raised too high, perhaps with roses and cream tint the 
raised gold would be more in harmony, as the black would make almost too 
strong a note. You could, however, use a green, red or brown outline. 

M. M. C. — Try heating the glass slab if the gold rolls up; may be it is old 
and the oil hardened. Or try oil of lavender with or without a little alcohol 
in place of turpentine. Possibly the trouble comes from the plate being moist 
with perspiration this warm weather, so the oil in the gold naturally rolls 
away from it. Wipe off your piece with a silk rag before gilding. 

Proofs of Pouyat China for the Amateur Decorator. 

As white china is the genesis of all decorative effort in 
ceramics it is sound logic to assume that the white china which 
gives the greatest amount of satisfaction to the professional, 
or commercial decorator must of necessity be the best for the 

This is precisely the reason why Pouyat white china is 
so highly appreciated by amateur decorators of experience. 
They know that when the professional artist secures brilliant 
results in color and gold, they are due almost entirely to the 
receptive character of the glaze The}' also know that these 
results are not those of mere chance and the caprice of fire, 
for the splendid color effects produced on Pouyat china may 
be seen in every city of the United States and Canada year 
after year as indisputable evidence of exact uniformity of 
texture which characterizes the Pouyat glaze. 

Every amateur decorator realizes the desirability of de- 
pendable quality in a glaze upon which time, money and 
artistic effort are expended, and if further argument were 
needed to prove the excellence of the Pouyat glaze it is most 
substantially furnished in the fact that the foremost profes- 
sional china decorator in America is using Pouyat white china 
exclusively for his best productions. 

Pouyat china stands alone for that peculiar velvety qual- 
ity of glaze which every experienced amateur recognizes as 
that desirable condition in a porcelain glaze which indicates 
perfect receptivity of ceramic colors. Another strong point 
of quality in Pouyat china is that of selections in white china 
for amateur decorators. When it is sold as first choice it can 
always be depended upon as first in every particular as it is a 
standard regulation of the makers of Pouyat china not to 
make goods cheaper than other makers but to make the best 
that can be made at the lowest possible price. 

China decorators, using white china, whether amateur 
or professional, are requested to examine closely into the 
models and forms of Pouyat china and to suggest any changes 
which may be desired. Wherever it is possible to improve 
the forms and ornamentation of their models the manufac- 
turers are ready and willing at any time to do so and it is their 
desire that amateurs as well as professionals shall take ad- 
vantage of the opportunhw to secure something they can refer 
to as a special model — look for the Pouyat Marks. 

Paroutaud & Watson. 37-33 Murray St., New York, sole agents. 

1 44 




October First we will mail 10,000 supplements to our 
"Ninety Page" Catalogue. 

Are "You on Ovir Mailing List? 

This Supplement will contain entire new shapes and 
styles in both novelties and staples in 

White CKina for Decorating 

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For the china painter and decorator, 
. containing the best naturalistic and 
conventional studies of fruit, both in 
black-and-white and in colors, which 
have been published in Keramic 
Studio, with eight studies in color 
and seven monochromes as supple- 

Price Postpaid $3.00 

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League Notes 

The Class Room 

The Art of Teaching 


Salad Set — Roses 


Orchid Study (Supplement) 

Punch Cups 

White Roses 

Jug — Plums 

Work of Design Class 

Rose Design for Plate 

Wild Rose Border 

The Crafts- 
Art inTewter 
Rug Weaving and Dyeing— continued 

Answers to Correspondents 

Belle B. Vesev 

Sarah Reid McLaughlin 

Alice B. Sharrard 

Miss Miles 

Paul Putzki 

Alice Witte Sloan. . 

Anne Seymour Mundy 

Jeanne M. Stewart 

Maud M. Mason 

Mrs. Dante C. Babbitt 

Anne Seymour Mundy 

Jules Brateau 

Mabel Tuke Priestman 










The Rose Book, containing some of the best 
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Keramic Studio postpaid $ 3.00 

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fruit studies and designs published 
in Keramic Studio postpaid 3.00 

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for students, by Richard Lunn ...... postpaid 2 .50 

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FLeramic Studio Pub Go., Syracuse, N; Y. 

Vol. VIII. No. 7 


November, 1906 

HE exhibition season is at hand 
and everyone will soon be mak- 
ing his or her supreme effort of 
the year. The National Soc- 
iety of Craftsmen will make its 
initial bow to the public Novem- 
ber 30th at the rooms of the 
National Arts Club, Grammercy 
Park, New York. Great things 
are expected of this Society and 
we do not look to be disappointed. 

The Art Institute of Chicago will hold its annual ex- 
hibition of arts and crafts in December. At both of these 
exhibitions keramics will have a prominent place. 

The New York Society of Keramic Arts having omitted 
its annual showing last year is expected to do great things 
this year to make up for its delinquency. 

We will be glad to receive notices of coming exhibitions 
of the various keramic clubs, with illustrations of the 

This extract from a personal letter to the editor will 
be of interest to our readers: 

"As you know, we have been abroad all summer, paint 
ing in England and France besides making a flying trip 
through Holland and Belgium. You will however be sur- 
prised to learn that we are as busy as we can be, preparing 
to return to London on November 3d. My mother goes 
with me and I shall work all winter under Swan for draw- 
ing and Paul Brangwyn for painting. I am hoping to 
get inspiration in London not only for painting but for 
ceramics. Many imagine that, because I devote so much 
time to landscape painting, I am necessarily giving up 
interest in ceramic work. On the contrary I shall devote 
much time and thought to the subject this winter, and 
shall have a summer class next season, perhaps some- 
where in Long Island. Marshal Fry." 

The May, 1907, number of Keramic Studio will be 
edited by Mr. Marshal Fry. January, 1907 will be de- 
voted to the work of Mrs. Henrietta Barclay Paist, and 
March, 1907 to that of Miss Margaret Overbeck. while 
Miss Leta Horlocker, who is now in California, has offered to 
edit a California flower number, which will probably 
make one of the summer issues. 

An interesting lot of class work from the pupils of 
Miss Maud Mason appears in this number, a little late, 
but it was crowded out by our special numbers. 

The competitions for Christmas have been closed and 
the results will be illustrated in the Christmas number. 
Some very clever work has been submitted, very little was 
sent in that did not have some merit of originality. We 
regret to say, however, that no one seems to be acquainted 
with the "Christmas Rose." 

The treatment for the plum study of Miss Jeanne M. 
Stewart was delayed and is published on page 167. 

We begin in this number an extremely interesting 
series of articles on pewter by Jules Brateau, the famous 
French pewterer and craftsman. The artistic possibil- 
ities of pewter are little realized in this country, except 
perhaps by the few people who have noticed at the St. 
Louis Exposition the finely chased articles which were 
exhibited by Jules Brateau and a few other French pewt- 

The first articles will treat of the history of pewter 
and will be profusely illustrated with specimens from the 
different countries and periods. The second part will 
treat of the technique of the work, giving thorough and 
practical instruction. Tin is a soft metal, its lack of hard- 
ness and resistance makes it poorly adapted to the making 
of table ware and common utensils, although at times it 
has been so' used in large quantities. But the beautiful 
soft grey color of the tin alloy called pewter, its flexibility, 
its non-oxidation under atmospheric conditions which 
would badly oxidise silver, make it eminently suitable to 
the production of fine works of art which will not be rough- 
ly handled. 

& i? 


We need more hours in the day, more days in the week, 
and more weeks in the month to accomplish what we plan. 
We need more love for the best, and more, the spirit of 
truth and demand of reason. Our standard must be high, 
and our work up to the standard. Japanese children in 
school learn to draw. American children in school learn to 
write. It is a matter of instruction. Hugo says, "There 
are no bad weeds and no bad children ; there are only bad 
cultivators." We are children in Ceramic art, we need 
instruction and cultivation. It is the purpose of the League, 
and the course of study is prepared with that view. We 
cannot multiply the hours, lengthen the days, nor increase 
the months or years, but we can systematize our work, sim- 
plifying and eliminating, until we have made time for these 
lessons. The problems of this month are coming in, but not 
enough of them. We will not be satisfied until all the 
members are studying the course. Send Problem 3. 
Drawings for a nut bowl, to be made of clay, with a simple 
design or decoration, to 

Belle Barnett Vesey, Pres. 
6228 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 

N. Y. S K. A. NOTES 

The first meeting of the season was held at Miss 
Mason's studio on October 8th. A contest of sketches for 
a tea jar and stein had been previously planned. The 
sketches were displayed in an attractive manner on a 
screen and were criticised by Mr. Ralph Johonnot of Pratt 
Institute. After the criticism Mr. Johonnot gave a most 
interesting talk on the beauty of line and form, and those 
who failed to attend the meeting missed a rare treat. An 
equally enjoyable and instructive programme will be ar- 
ranged for each meeting of the year. For the next one 
members are expected to submit sketches for a bowl and cup 
and saucer, also drawings for a club monogram or insignia. 



The traveling exhibit of the National League of Mineral 
Painters will be installed at Miss Wynne's, 39 West 21st 
Street, and will be displayed from October 30th to Novem- 
ber 3d. It was also voted to hold a small exhibition of the 
work of the New York Society in connection with the League 
exhibit. Each member is requested to send in a limited 
number of pieces. All articles should be plainly marked 
with the price and the owner's name, and should be de- 
livered at Miss Wynne's on Monday, October 29th. 

A fund for the benefit of the San Francisco Mineral 
Club is proposed toward which the members of the N. Y. 
S. K. A. are asked to contribute $1 each. 

B. Maie Weaver, 

Cor. Sec. 


First Prize— Mrs. G. B. Strait, Cazenovia, N. Y. 

HTHK ornamentation of ceramics is no trifling affair. It 
* has by its merits won a place in the world of art, dis- 
tinctively its own, and can not be overlooked or ignored. 

In any art school there is never any inquiry as to the 
method of teaching to be adopted. The plan is established 
and is seldom questioned. But in private classes there are 
almost as many variations in the methods of instruction as 
there are teachers. 

While recognizing the fact that many pupils in private 
classes begin the study of china decoration mainly to pro- 
duce something attractive for use or for a display in the 
home, the one who has some native ability and who is willing 
to work for future achievement is the one for whom these 
directions are given, for hard work lies at the root of all 
successful work in ceramics. 

' ' The teacher should never attempt to impress his style 
upon the pupil, but his methods, that the pupil may learn 
to think and act for himself. ' ' 

This will so inspire the earnest worker with confidence 
that he will not only be encouraged to grasp all technical 
difficulties, but will give attention to the necessary prelim- 
inary practice and the laborious collection of facts so essen- 
tial if nature is to be rightly understood and interpreted. 
The student should be encouraged in all that will advance 
him in his art, and taught that the habit of observation is 
as necessary to the artist as to the surgeon; that art prin- 
ciples can not be violated; to know why and how certain 
effects coming under his observation are produced ; and to 
discriminate between conscientious work and that which is 

More than all, to retain enthusiasm the teacher must 
take a personal interest in the work of the individual student, 
encouraging, directing and guiding, not sparing kindly crit- 
icism, until the learner is literally enabled to ' ' stand alone." 


For the beginner, a plaque, tile or plate, something that 
will present a rather flat surface, will doubtless be most de- 
sirable, not only on account of the ease with which it may 
be handled, but because all parts may be seen at a glance, 
the general effect be more readily obtained, while the hand- 
ling of the brush may be more quickly mastered than if a 
rounding surface be decorated. 

Moderately hard glaze china, which is of a pure white, 
rather creamy tone, is generally considered preferable to 
the ware that is slightly blue, as it is not only more trans- 
lucent, but because of the ware and glaze being similar, the 

union of the two is more complete, and consequently less 
liable to chip, while the glaze of the extremely hard ware 
is only attached to, instead of being incorporated with the 
ware. The hardness of some wares is said to frequently 
account for the chipping of enamels. However, the 
beginner should experience no difficulty in securing a de- 
sirable bit of plain ware, free from black specks, blisters, or 
other flaws. Foreign china, especially the French and Ger- 
man makes, are usually satisfactory, but it will be wise 
not to choose any unmarked pieces, as they are not always 

The raised designs frequently found in china, such as 
fancy borders, bow-knots and floral effects, which charac- 
terize certain kinds of ware, are a hindrance to the best 
styles of decoration, and should if possible be avoided. 
Poor ware, which not unfrequently is more or less warped 
or otherwise defective, does not bring out the colors, espe- 
cially reds, greens, and rose, so satisfactorily as the better 
ware, and refuses the finest glaze when fired. One china 
dealer of long experience says if, on holding a thin piece of 
ware against the light, a dark spot appears, it should be 
rejected lest it check in firing. The good results following 
the selection of choice material will encourage the beginner 
to stronger efforts. 


Having selected the piece to be decorated, the next step 
is to decide upon an appropriate design. Ornamentation 
is designed to increase the beauty of the ceramic form, and 
must in a measure conform to the shape of the object and 
heighten its beauty without attracting more attention to 
the decoration than to the shape of the article decorated. 
Each should tend to the advantage of the other. The use 
for which the piece is designed will help determine the ap- 
propriateness of the decoration. 

While in general it is unquestionably true that conven- 
tional designs are in the best possible taste for all styles of 
ceramic forms, yet if the naturalistic appeals more to the 
individual, that is the line along which the student is to be 

In the conventional style there is no shading, the flat 
tones showing the form of the object to be depicted without 
any attempt being made to secure perspective, simply sug- 
gesting nature without representing it. One plea for the 
use of conventional designs is that they may not only be 
adapted to any and all shapes of china, but colors may be 
used ranging from soft greys and browns in monochrome, 
presenting exquisite contrasts of tones in the same color, 
to the richest colors obtainable from the china palette. 
But the beginner should be careful to use the simplest 
palette possible, as gorgeous colors will not necessarily pro- 
duce harmonious and satisfying color schemes, and are not 
essential to the securing of artistic combinations. 

But whether the conventional or naturalistic treatments 
are decided upon, the principles of decorative art must be 
studied and followed, remembering that all good work, 
irrespective of style, is based on positive knowledge; and 
that the skilful worker can not become such without careful 
training and thoughtful study. Short cuts to success in 
china decoration are broad thoroughfares to failure. 

Before attempting any work, the pupil will find it advan- 
tageous to study the following illustrated articles to be 
found in the Keramic Studio, though by no means con- 
fining himself to these, if others equally instructive are ob- 

First, a series of articles on historic ornament, or motifs 






used in design by the Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, etc., may 
be found in the first two years of the Keramic Studio. It 
is not to be understood that these designs are to be used for 
copies, but that a proper understanding of them must be 
secured " as a foundation upon which to build an individual 

Next, the articles by Mrs. Adelaide Alsop-Robineau on 
Modern Design, Pond Lilies, to be found in the October 1900 
number of Keramic Studio, Tulips, July 1901, Trillium, 
September 1904, Poppy, October 1901, and Mr. Hugo 
Froehlich's recent articles on Principles of Design, where 
the principles of decorative lines, color, spacing, etc., are 
given, should receive the pupil's attention. 

Note that in all these examples as much attention is given 
to the spaces as to the designs themselves. 

A careful study of these and similar articles, proving each 
theory by a practical demonstration, and also a little pains- 
taking study of plants and flowers, will do more for the ad- 
vancement of the student than the copying of many pub- 
lished designs. The pupil must study natural forms and 
learn to see well, before he can draw or use color well. 

While all will concede that a sketch book full of drawings 
made directly from nature is to be preferred above any book 
of instruction, only those who have faithfully worked out 
the problems presented in the above mentioned articles, can 
in the least degree appreciate their inestimable value to the 


The beginner frequently needs a word of caution concern- 
ing the position assumed during work, as in the anxiety to 
do creditably the pupil is liable to bend over the piece too 
closely. This not only prevents the worker getting an idea 
of the design as a whole, and results in a failure to secure 
any idea of relative values, but will in time surely weaken 
the eyes. A north or east light coming from the left is most 
desirable, and sunlight should never be allowed to fall 
directly on the work. 

With chair standing firm, let the table be arranged in 
front of the pupil in the most get-at-able way possible, with 
the following materials, having the piece to be decorated 
directly in front of the worker. A bottle of Higgins' India 
ink, a crow-quill or other pen, plate divider, color outfit, a 
sheet of tracing and one of drawing paper, turpentine, old 
muslin, a hard and a soft pencil. A pair of dividers with 
reversible point, for either pencil or pen, is also desirable. 

These, together with the necessary stock of patience, 
should soon result in creditable work. 


In the selection of a subject, the beginner will naturally 
be influenced to choose one that will appeal to him; and this 
is wise, as the learner will naturally be drawn toward that 
which is attractive to him and take an additional interest 
in its execution. But it will not be found advisable to at- 
tempt the most difficult thing at first, not only because of 
the difficulty of the manipulation of that ofttimes unruly 
member when in the hands of a novice, the brush, but on 
account of lack of knowledge of the colors. Practice in the 
handling of the brush can not be dreamed out. The color- 
ing of broad surfaces and borders for practice is helpful and 
should not be considered a waste of time. 

If the pupil knows something of drawing and is not too 
timid, the teacher can at the outset have him make his own 
designs subject to the rules and conditions of the articles 
suggested for preliminary study. If otherwise, some clear 

subject, such as Miss French's lotus design, September 1903, 
may be chosen. As a matter of education, it will be well 
for the worker to select his own color scheme. 

Secure a good, clean drawing at the outset. It is an easy 
matter to copy a design which is to be repeated exactly, or 
nearly so. If exact, take a thin piece of paper, place over 
the design to be copied, and with a soft lead pencil trace off 
a single repeat. If the design has to be changed to fill in 
the allotted space, make one-half of the repeat perfectly on 
drawing paper, draw on the thin paper, fold this and trace 
the other half. This of course applies when the halves are 
exactly reversed. A simple repeat design may be made 
shorter or taller as desired, by deciding on the width of bor- 
der, making it narrow or wide, then dividing it into as many 
perpendicular sections as the times it is necessary for the 
design to be repeated. The design must then be broad- 
ened or shortened where the sections meet. 

The beginner should only choose such designs as are easy 
of adaptation, not attempting the more difficult ones until 
fairly expert. 

When the design is satisfactorily drawn, rub a little oil of 
turpentine over the china to be decorated, and dry by arti- 
ficial heat. The hardened oil, though invisible, affords a 
sort of roughness to the piece which will hold pencil marks. 
The plate divider is a sheet of paper with circles marked 
accurately into halves, sixths, fourteenths, etc. Place the 
plate face downward on this, and with a pencil mark on the 
rim whatever divisions are desired, allowing a section for 
each repeat. Turn the plate over and continue these marks 
so they are visible on the face. It is necessary that this be 
carefully done, as these are the points from which lines are 
to be drawn toward the center, and which arc to divide the 
plate into sections. Put the side of the drawing where the 
pencil marks are next to the china, in one of these sections, 
and retrace the lines carefully with a hard pencil, steel 
tracer or sharpened stick. This will leave a faint outline 
on the ware, which may be traced over with a pen and 
India ink in order to prevent its becoming rubbed. The 
same tracing is to be used for the several sections, for if the 
lines grow too dim they may be marked over again with the 
soft pencil and be as good as new. Carbon paper which has 
been softly rubbed over with a bit of cloth to remove super- 
fluous color, may be used, but the method just described 
will be found much neater. To adapt straight borders to 
circles, follow the directions in the illustrated article in the 
Keramic Studio for July 1901. Nothing could be more 
concise or more easily understood. Occasionally it becomes 
necessary to draw a perfect Circle inside the rim of plaque 
or plate. It seldom happens that the edges of these are 
absolutely true circles, so the following suggestion may be 
helpful if one does not possess one of the gauges that locates 
centers. With the aid of the plate divider mark some sec- 
tions on the rim. Use a ruler and draw lines from these 
clear across the plate, noting that where these meet is the 
center. Using this point as center, draw desired circle with 
compass and pen. 


It is important that outlining in conventional work be 
done with a steady, smooth movement, free as possible from 
wavering strokes, firm in quality throughout its length. 
Nearly all designs are improved by using outlines, some- 
times of gold, and again of color, so the beginner will spend 
much time in practicing this very necessary part of the work. 





Tint all over Ivory and fire. Tint outside border leaves and space between roses, a light olive, 

inside border pink, outside in gold. 



A helpful way to steady the hand is to take large sheets of 
ruled paper, and with pen and ink to retrace these lines, 
first to the right, then to the left, without lifting the pen 
from the paper. A brush outline may be used, but a pen 
will do better work for gold, for colors ground with medium 
and turpentine, or for color mixed with sugar and water. 
For the latter make a thin syrup of sugar dissolved in hot 
water, and rub it well into dry powder color. These lines 
should be painted twice before firing. Place color to be 
used with a pen in a tiny cup or dish in order to fill pen 


The simplest style of conventional decoration is that of 
one color, and may be done under the guidance of a careful 
teacher by the one who has ability for it, but no special 
training in drawing or painting. 

Designs such as the plates by Emily F. Peacock in the 
November 1904, Keramic Studio, plate by Alice Witte 
Sloan or the one by Katherine Sinclair, May 1906, harebell 
design by Emily Hesselmyer, December 1903, or the one 
by Alice Joslyn in January 1904, are excellent examples of 
what may be done in monochrome. This style affords 
great opportunity for delicacy and beauty, though compar- 
atively few realize the delightful effects to be obtained by 
it. Different shades of blue, green, dull reds, blue greys, 
or browns ranging from rich dark shades to pale ochre, out- 
lined with gold or dark tones of the same, may be selected 
according to the taste of the worker. Copenhagen, deep 
red brown, chocolate brown S-, shading green, delft green S., 
etc., are desirable colors for monochrome. 

Whether one of these, or a design requiring several colors 
is chosen, it is well to put a soft tone of the prevailing color 
over the entire piece, and fire before putting in the design. 

It is often advisable to make the border darker than the 
center, as in the case of the plate designed by A. W. Sloan, 
which we will consider as to method of applying color, as it 
plainly shows three color tones instead of two, as occurs in 
many conventional monochromes. These will be found in 
the center, the border, and the units of the design and nar- 
row lines. The same ideas may be applied to tiles, etc. 

When the design is delicately drawn on the tinted and 
fired surface, tint the border evenly, section by section, pad- 
ding lightly as the work progresses, and when satisfactorily 
done wipe off any color that has been padded on to the mid- 
dle of the plate or the dark portion of the design. 

Now fill a large square shader with color which has been 
mixed to the consistency of tube color with medium and 
thinned with turpentine until it flows easily from the brush. 
With an even pressure of the brush paint over the portion 
of the design to be made dark, going to, but not over the out- 
lines, laying the color so evenly that no brush marks show, 
although it may be heavier in some places than others. An 
excellent example of the effectiveness of inequality of color 
is to be found in the plate design by Marie Crilley Wilson, 
May 1904, Keramic Studio. 

If the result is not satisfactory, rub the color off and start 
again. A poor beginning, patched up, will never pay in the 
long run. 

When the color is laid and dry, outline with a pen dipped 
in color or gold. While color outlines are usually good 
when applied in two coats, dried between, it is better to use 
three applications of gold for a flat outline, put on after the 
plate is fired. As one acquires skill it is possible to finish 
in one fire. 

Beginners in china decoration having some experience in 
drawing and brush work, may be able to attempt designs 
having more than one color, provided the designs are not 
too intricate. 

In combining colors try to select the best color scheme 
from a decorative point of view, varying it from the natural- 
istic so far as it is essential in order to secure this, keeping 
the tones perfectly harmonious. When several colors are 
used as may be the case in the lily design by Anna B. Leon- 
ard, December 1904, they may be painted in the following 
or a similar color scheme: Deep cream center, dull red 
background for blossoms, buds and blossoms a stronger and 
but slightly brighter red, leaves and border dull green, tur- 
quoise ground for buds, the whole outlined with black or 
raised paste, and the stamens raised. 

Do not paint first one color, then another, but fill in every 
space of a given color at one time, in order to be able to de- 
tect any variations of tone. Where the colors are padded 
it must be more evenly done than is necessary in natural- 
istic painting. When paste is used it may be applied for 
the first fire, then two coats of gold put on after the color is 
painted and dried. 

Enamels are attractive, prepared according to directions 
given in the class Room, and applied to such designs as the 
dragon fly plate by Nancy Beyer, August 1906, where every- 
thing vivid should be avoided in combining the colors. A 
touch of black added to any color will tone it sufficiently. 
A pale tan ground, with design in dull red, buff, and a little 
green or blue on the flies, with black outline of raised enamel, 
will make an interesting study. If enamels are used with 
paste, it is best to apply them after the paste has been fired, 
and to put the gold on after the enamels are dry. 

Many designs, of which Mrs. Sara Wood Safford's apple 
motif, July 1906, is an example, require to be dusted and 
to have repeated paintings and firings in order to draw the 
colors together to produce the elegance of finish and delicate 
softness of effect so marvelous to the uninitiated. The 
color used for dusting is some soft neutral tint which may 
be applied over the entire piece, or on the border, or over 
some particular portion of the design as judgment may dic- 
tate. When only used over a portion of the design, be care- 
ful to clean out the rest with a cloth slightly moistened 
with alcohol, before going on with the painting. Occasion- 
ally a very dark tone is wanted, and in such places grounding 
oil may be used, and the color dusted on before the painting 
is continued. 

Dusted work should not be dried by artificial heat, as 
that will cause the oil to soften and the color to run. For 
an example of dusting take a design in pinks, sage or olive 
greens, and browns, which may be brought into beautiful 
harmony by a dusting of pearl grey. 

If a lustre treatment be wanted, the beginner will find it 
advantageous to draw the design as usual, then paint the 
outlines lightly in black and fire before proceeding further. 
This is done to prevent the turpentine used in the outline 
color from spreading and marring the lustre. (The out- 
lines of any color design may be fired before the spaces are 
filled in, if more convenient.) Then apply the lustre, dry, 
and remove with a pen-knife any that has overspread the 
outline, repainting the latter with black. 

If the inked drawing is not entirely covered with the 
gold or color, it will eat out the lustre when fired and leave 
an unsightly mark. When paste is used with lustres, the 
lustre should be applied first and thorougly dried, and even 
then it is better if they do not quite touch, as by contact 
one is liable to injure the other. 

ORCHIDS f-aui- putzki 











If the naturalistic treatment be decided upon, and at the 
outset it is probable that more are attracted to this than to 
the conventional, a plaque or tile will make a suitable piece 
to paint. If a flower subject is chosen, the poppy design 
by Sara Wood Safford, January 1904, the prize study of 
arbutus by M. Fy. Hulbert, July 1904, or jonquils, April 1905, 
will afford good topics for a discussion of methods of appli- 

Before beginning the work, an arrangement must be de- 
cided upon, and great care taken with the drawing, which is 
to be done in the simplest way possible ; for until the student 
has gained sufficient confidence to paint in a design directly, 
the main masses may be lightly sketched in, rigidly guarding 
against drawing minute details before securing the general 
form. The more prominent portions only are to be indicated 
by the pencil, all stiffness being carefully avoided, as the 
grace of an arrangement frequently constitutes its chief 
charm, while many lines only cause confusion. 

There are two ways of painting naturalistic designs. 
First the object may be painted, then the background; or, 
the background may be painted in and softly blended, and 
while still moist wipe out the prominent leaves, stems and 
flowers. The latter method is more satisfactory if it can 
be done at first, as by so doing all hard lines will be avoided, 
and the crisp brush touches be retained. This necessitates 
more rapid work, but will amply repay the extra exertion. 
Have the work so carefully planned that there will be as 
little hesitation as possible in applying the color, which 
should be done with a free, clean touch. 

It is not advisable for the beginner to try to remedy de- 
fective work. Better wipe off the whole piece than have 
muddy, patched colors stand as a testimonial to the poor 
judgment of the worker. 

Remember that every plant and each fruit has its peculiar 
characteristics of growth, not only of flower, but in the tex- 
ture of leaf, and habit and formation of stems, leafy bracts, 
and hairy or spiny projections. And these are to be sug- 
gested, if not made prominent. 

Much of the success of a piece depends upon the first 
painting, at which time the sparing of lights is to be empha- 
sized, as a defect here can not be remedied in subsequent 
paintings. Having put in the background with the prin- 
cipal colors to be used in the design, to which blue has been 
added to give a feeling of atmosphere, and carefully avoid- 
ing great contrasts of color, wipe out the prominent parts 
of the design. Paint in some of the misty, shadowy por- 
tions, omitting detail, and grey them so as to be subordinate 
to the main masses of the composition. These to be added 
to in second fire. Where leaves should appear dark, make 
them rich, and heavier in color than in the lighter portions, 
which in places may be so thin the china shows through. 
Bright touches of clear green may be used where the light 
shines through the leaf, the colors being softly melted to- 
gether. Let the brush strokes go in the way the leaf curls, 
representing the rough surface of the fall anemone, or morn- 
ing glory, with softened lights, and those having smooth 
surfaces with sharp, clear lights. 

In the delineation of the flowers, fill the brush with color, 
and draw it carefully from the outside edge of the petal to 
the center, forcing the color to the darker portions, and 
avoiding all unnecessary manipulation of the brush. Be 
sure to preserve the character of the petals, but above all, 
avoid all sharp lines in the first painting, as these may be 
supplied later if necessary. Keep every edge soft and 

graded carefully into the background. Apply the gold 
where desired, and fire. 

For the second painting strengthen the leaves, flowers 
and background, add little marks of detail where one petal 
overlaps another, and accent the stems and blossom centers. 
Before firing again the second coat of gold may be added. 

If a third painting be given, put in any additional accent 
marks, use light washes occasionally to bring the whole into 
harmony, and lightly dust the ground with the colors used 
in the first painting to give a richer effect. Any of the col- 
ored naturalistic studies will illustrate well the massing of 

While first pieces may not be entirely pleasing to the be- 
ginner, this need be no cause for discouragement, as a careful 
and critical examination of every piece will show exactly 
what to avoid; and with each experiment new revelations 
of the possibilities open to the china decorator will be re- 
vealed to the serious student. 

ORCHID STUDY (Supplement) 

Paul Putzki 

TPHE tone of the whole study should be kept in browns, 
* using for the flowers Albert Yellow, Yellow Brown, 
Yellow Red shaded into Carnation and Dark Brown for 
the darker touches. The light green effect in the centre 
and around is gotten by using Yellow Green shaded with 
Brown Green and Yellow Brown mixed. For lighter 
shade of leaves use Dark Green, Canary Yellow- and Yellow 
Brown together, shaded with Brown Green and Yellow 
Brown mixed. The darker leaves are produced by 
using same colors heavier with rather more of Brown Green. 
The background should be laid in with colors to har- 
monize with design. 


Miss Miles. 

CIRST fire. Wash in background. Bay in large bunch of 
* grapes with Violet of Iron. Underpart of grapes soft 
green, small bunch green ; lay it in with Moss Green and 
Silver Yellow; shade with Brown Green. Green leaves, 
Silver Yellow, Moss Green, Olive Green and Dark Green. 
Brown leaves, Yellow Brown, Auburn Brown and Silver 
Yellow (dust.) 

Second fire. Bring out red grapes, keeping back 
ones flat, using Violet of Iron, top ones light and soft, 
Shade green ones with Olive Green. Work up leaves 
with same colors as used in first fire. Strengthen back- 
ground with Finishing Brown, (dust) 

Third fire. Strong and sketchy lines for detail. 


Mrs. Henrietta Barclay Paist announces a change of 
location from her studio in St. Paul to S04 Nicollet Ave.* 

Miss Caroline Hofman opens her new studio at 334 
Madison Avenue, with a study course in design. 

To blacken flat pieces of aluminum, wash them in 
gasoline and allow to dry by evaporation. Then paint 
over with olive oil and hold over a gas burner or alcohol 
lamp. When the oil begins to dry the aluminum will turn 
black. Repeat the operation if the articles are not quite 
dark enough. 



^ <>.. .<-■ ' ' 



To go with Punch Bowl in Keramic Studio, August 1906. 


SILVER Yellow with tiny bit of Black to tone it; use and Shading Green mixed for borders, or Brown Green 

very thin to shade, white china making its own high with Apple dusted over. Be sure that design cuts tint 

lights. Leaves and stems same as wild rose. clearly and flowers are washed softly out of tint, which 

If the plates are done as a set for grey green use Apple helps to shade them. 




i 5 6 


Mrs. Turtle— Brooklyn Class. 

Mrs. Hale— Brooklyn Class. 

Miss Belknap— New York Class. 

Bessie H. Proctor— Brooklyn; Clas 

Miss Walsh — New York CI; 

Miss Cassamajor — Brooklyn (.'lass. 




Mrs. Waterfield— New York Class. 

Mrs. Waterfield— New York Glass. 

Miss Cassamajor — Brooklyn" Class. 

Mrs. Unger — New York Class. 

Miss Smith— Brooklyn Class. 

Mrs.. Prince— Brooklyn Clai 




M. E. Chichester — Brooklyn Class. 

Mrs. Waterfield— New- York Class. 

Miss Cassamajor — Brooklyn Class. 

Bessie H. Proctor — Brooklyn Class. 

Bessie H. Proctor — Brooklyn Class. 

Mrs. Cuthbertson — New York Class. 

Bessie H. Proctor— Brooklyn Class. 

Mrs. Waterfield— New York ( la 



1 59 

<«> #> 

m> m 

Miss Smith— Brooklyn Class. 

Mrs. Waterneld— New York Cla 

Mrs. Hale— Brooklyn Clai 




Mrs. Helen Walsh— New York Cla 

Bessie H. Proctor — Brooklyn Class. 

Miss Walsh— New York Cla 





Trace design and outline in Meissen Brown. Fill in stems and leaves in Brown and Moss Green and 
touch of Black, Rose, Albert Yellow. Fire and strengthen with same colors. 


ROSES, Peach Blossom and Moss Green; centers, Silver 
Yellow, Yellow Brown, touch of Brown Green; sta- 
mens, Yellow Brown and Yellow Brown and Black. 
Leaves. — Apple and Moss Green, shaded at base with 

Brown Green. Shadow leaves, Peach and Apple Green, 
Yellow Brown, Apple Green and Blue. Stems of Green 
with a very few woody stems of Yellow Brown and Black. 
Prickers, thorns of same as stem. 



Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, Room 23, 22 East 16th St., New York. All inquiries in regard to the variou 

Crafts are to be sent to tJie above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

Summer Address, care of Keramic Studio Pub. Co , Syracuse. N. Y. 

All questions mast be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

Salt Cellar in pewter— Jules Brate: 


Jules Brateau 

[Translated from fie French by Julie Flusson] 


Retrospective view op the evolution op this 
branch of decorative art. 

IN the comparison of those metals which during cen- 
* turies have aided races to beautify their homes, 
to decorate their implements and to adorn their persons, 
the relative importance of each must be judged from the 
extent of its use and the value of the part it has played 
as a decorative medium, rather than from its classifica- 
tion as a precious or a common material. These metals 
may differ in color, resistance and malleability, but they 
are equally beautiful under the hand that bends them 
to its will and makes them yield the best which they possess. 

Tin, which is the subject of this article, has import- 
ant qualities as a metal. Almost any result can be 
obtained from its flexibility which lends itself to the most 
delicate decoration. Its soft whiteness, when it is pure 
and of standard quality, is superior to that of silver, the 
cold bright surface of which is easily oxidized by the action 
of air and gases to the great annoyance of the silversmith. 
The superiority of silver over tin, as a hard material, is 
evident, but it disappears when only decorative qualities 
are considered. Tin lends to decoration a softness and 
delicacy which charm both the eye and the touch. 

These qualities were recognized in the most ancient 
times, if one judges by the antiquity of the objects hand- 
ed clown to us; for, in museums and in private collections 
we find pieces of money of cast, or stamped tin, and from 
China, Hindostan and Persia small objects more or less 
decorated. No one questions the antiquity of Chinese 
decoration of porcelain, and evidently tin was used in 
these remote times. Many of the colors employed by 
the old Chinese potters have a basis of tin oxide. They 
must have thoroughly understood the trituration of tin to 

have been able to extract its precious oxide, and to use it in 
their colors. The flexibility of the metal made the process 
of manufacture simple, so that this process could be handed 
down easily by tradition, from century to century, without 
danger of being lost. 

Ancient Egypt also practiced the casting of tin. The 
Egyptians used this metal in the manufacture of many 
small objects, like scent boxes, toilet articles, etc., as well 
as in incrustations. The enamels of the Egyptians also, 
like Chinese porcelains, show knowledge of the use of 
tin oxide, since some of them could not be produced 
without it. 

Passing from Egypt into Greece, we must refer with 
pleasure to the great authors who alluded to the combina- 
tion of tin with the most precious materials. Homer, in 
the Illiad, Canto XVIII, describes the arms which Thetis 
asked of Vulcan for her son, Achilles. The god, glad to 
please Thetis, forged, soldered, hammered, and incrusted 
the famous shield and arms of Achilles, and, according to 
Homer's description, used tin in the production of this 
chef d'oeuvre of the goldsmith's art: "The god puts in the 
forge indomitable brass, tin, silver, precious gold; the 
decoration represents a beautiful vine with golden branches 
bending under the weight of purple grapes; silver stakes, 
carefully spaced, hold it up, and a hedge of tin surrounds 
it . . . Farther on is a herd of oxen with superb 
heads, in which gold and tin are combined. When the 
shield is finished, large and solid, the god makes the armor, 
the brightness of which surpasses that of the flame; he 
forges a heavy helmet, which is adjusted to the hero's 
head, and he adds to it a mane of gold; and at last he makes, 
with the flexible tin, beautiful knee-pieces (cnemides)." 

Homer lived nine or ten centuries B. C, as also did 
Hesiod, who is regarded as his contemporary. The latter 
is no less explicit when he describes the shield of Hercules, 
which in beauty of composition and execution could com- 
pare with that of Achilles. In verse 207 the bucolic poet 
says: "Vulcan has engraved the picture of a port, easy of 
access, the agitated waves being made of tin." 



No. 2. 
Greek weights in lead, 300 years B. C. Ex; 
will be described later on — Louvre Mus 

Was this metal incrusted or soldered with the gold 
and silver which surrounded it? We leave the solution 
of this problem to the imagination of the reader, and 
simply state that tin entered quite largely into the 
decoration of these pieces, and that poets knew of the 
artistic use of this metal, since they named it among those 
used to embellish the finest works of art. 

After this for a long time we lose all trace of tin. In 
the ancient documents in which tin is mentioned, its use 
is not given. Even Homer, who often refers to the kettles 
of brass used by the heroes to boil their meat, says nothing 
of tin as used in domestic utensils. 

Beckman, in his "History of Inventions, Discover- 
ies, and Origins",* says that there must have been in 
ancient times art objects in tin; but he adds: "If these 
objects are not mentioned, and if no examples are found 
among Greek and Roman antiquities, it is because tin has 
less durability than lead or bronze, specimens of which 
are numerous." However this may be, we must pass 
over a long period before tin is again mentioned by a 
Greek author. Aristotle (384-322 B. C.) speaks of a tin 
statue attribtued to Daedalus, which was greatly valued 
in the Electride Islands (Adriatic Sea) . 

In Rome we find ample data referring to tin, and a 
profusion of objects which, becoming more and more 
common, form a much more striking illustration than the 
most beautiful and plausible descriptions. Mr. Germain 
Bapst,| in his learned work on pewter, gives many facts 

translated from the German bv William Johnston, 4th. Ed., 
London, 2 Vol. 1856. 
fEtude sur l'Etain. G. Bapst, 1884. Paris. 

Nos. 3 and.4. 

Tin mirrors (one complete) Roman period II. Century B. C. Found in Trebizon- 
de — Louvre Museum, Paris. 

instead of probabilities. In the second Century B. C. we 
find pewter used in table service. Plautus depicts, in one 
of his comedies, a feast of his time, at which all the meats 
are served in pewter basins. The luxury of the dishes 
doing service at this repast leads us to believe that tin, 
though an ordinary metal, was used by the rich as well as 
by the poor, and even in important ceremonies. Beside 
the pewter used in art objects, another metallic composition 
was used in Rome for every day purposes, and this latter 
may be called pewter pottery. Gallienus and Pliny indicate 
pewter as the best metal for pharmaceutical utensils, medi- 
cine boxes, pixidia, basins, etc. Another author recommends 
it for cooking utensils , for the reception of wine and preserves . 
Roman soldiers carried a tin pot. The common people used 
vessels of tin, as well as bowls of clay and wooden trays. 
Plautus and Seneca speak of tin mirrors as much used by 
the Romans and by the people under their rule. 

The writer owns a pewter spoon of the Gallo-Roman 
period, found in the Grand Duchy of Baden, and which had 
beeu buried in the ground with a copper utensil resemb- 
ling a pot. The Romans made small funeral vases of 
tin, with inscriptions and simple decorations, but, as Mr. 
Beckman, already quoted, remarks, "tin, especially if 
used in thin sheets, is easily oxidized when buried; then 
it decomposes and disappears in the earth. " 

We pass over another long period, without finding any 
exact documents relating to our subject; although in the 
Gallo-Roman epoch tinning holds a prominent place. The 
Gauls to whom all authors attribute the tradition of tin- 
ning, used this process to make their culinary vessels sani- 

Nos. 5 and 6. 
a pewter-Smyrna-Ron: 

ill period II. Century B. C. 



No. 8. 
on of the design of a chalice found in old do< 
des Arts Decoratifs, Paris, 1883-84. 

tents in Montfaucon 

the year 813, it would be a serious mistake to believe that 
tin was not used before that time. Illustration No. 8 
represents an old chalice, perhaps two hundred years older 
than the Council of Rheims. At least Bapst in his "Study 
of Pewter" attributes this work to the VII., but other 
critics think it belongs to the XII. Century. However 
this may be, there is undeniable proof that the art of 
decorating pewter was encouraged by the Church, and that 
theologians ranked this beautiful metal next to gold and 

Cruets, ampullae, chrismatories, and all the access- 
ories of the cult were nearly always of pewter. The same 
metal was used in the reproduction of the insignia of 
ecclesiastical dignitaries. In excavations made at (lif- 
erent periods, tombs of bishops have been discovered, 
which contained pewter crosiers, an exact reproduction 
of those used by the bishops during their life. The use 

Pewter spoon — Gallo-Roman period — Front and side views. 
Belongs to J. Brateau. 

tary, to decorate their vases or fibulae, or to protect the 
buckles of their belts from oxidation. During the Mero- 
vingian period*, the custom of tinning was general, so much 
so that nine-tenths of the objects of these times found in 
excavations are buckles for clothing, or plates for sword 
belts, all being tinned. Tin was applied in thin coats to 
the hard, resisting brass, giving it a whiteness and brilliancy 
which were lasting 

The Franks do not seem to have known tin utensils. 
Gold and silver were reserved for the chiefs while the sol- 
diers used bowls of wood or of clay. 

Incrustations of tin were in favor with the Mero- 
vingians, as nearly all excavated objects show, but there 
does not remain a trace of what we have called pewter 
pottery. We must wait until the introduction of Chris- 
tianity into Gaul to find mention of pewter vases. These 
vases were chalices, which at first were of wood, glass, 
tin, gilded' copper, even of lead, or of horn. The Council 
of Rheims (803-813) gives rules for the use of pewter in 
chalices. It tolerates this metal in cases of poverty, pre- 
scribes the use of gold and silver when possible, and for- 
bids the employment of all other materials. Though we 
have no documents regarding church vessels previous to 

*G. Bapst 

No. 9. 

Pewter crosier of Robert de Torigny-XII. Century-found in his tomb (Abbaye 

du Mont St. Michel. Ed. Corroyer, Architecte. We are.indebted to Mrs. 

Corroyer for the right of reproducing all illustrations from M. Cor- 

royer's book.) 



Pewter crosier of Doi 
Ed. Corroyer). 

No. 10. 
1 Martin found in his tomb (Abbaye du Mont St. Michel, 

of pewter in the Church service has come down to us, 
and although artistic beauty in tin work has not been 
developed solely through the [making of sacred vessels, 
these have undoubtedly played an important part in 
the evolution of the art. 

(To be continued) 



Mabel Tuke Priestman 

This is another department in successful rug mak- 
ing, but a most important one, and the fascination of the 
dye pot beguiles many women in country districts into 
evolving all sorts of beautiful color schemes, not obtain- 
able in any other way. Some rugs are poorly made, but 
their color qualities are so apparent that they are readily 
bought up at the various Arts and Crafts Exhibitions 
where they are found. 

The chief difficulty in vegetable dyeing is that those 
who do it, jealously guard their secrets, and will not give 
them away to others who want to become experts in this 
line. It is an advantage to use spring water, as this has 
some peculiar merit known only to experts. I am told 
that the fastness of some of the Scotch and English dyed 
materials depends largely upon the qualities of the water 
in certain parts of these two countries. I also know a 
country woman who has a spring in her garden and who is 
able to dye her material with the most permanent dyes, 
whereas the same process used with the water from the 
spigot cannot be depended upon in the same way. The 
truth of these statements I have not verified myself. 

The following dye receipts are used by many women 
in Canada and New England, and many of them are handed 
down from mother to daughter: 

indigo blue. 

Blue is the most universally used of all colors for 
dyeing materials for rug making, as all shades of blue 
from sky blue to a deep blue black can be dyed in the in- 
digo tub. This dye has the merit of being cheap as well as 
fast. It can be used with yellow or orange or with cop- 

peras or walnut dye. A good receipt for indigo dye con- 
sists of 

1 pound of finely powdered indigo 

2 1 to 3 pounds of green copperas (clean crystal) 

3 J to 4 pounds of newly slaked lime 
Rub or grind to a very fine powder the indigo with a 
little water or an alkaline lye. It must then be mixed 
with hot water after which the lime can be added when it 
must be well stirred. Now add the copperas, stirring 
slowly while it is being poured in. Continue to mix it 
when all the ingredients are added, and continue this at 
intervals for twenty-four hours. When ready to dye the 
material, ladle out what is needed into the dye vat. When 
it has been used several times it will need to be refreshed 
with a little more copperas and fresh slaked lime, always 
remembering to stir the sediments well from the bottom. 

The indigo dye powder is a manufactured article, 
prepared from the plant which produces it, and can be 
bought when the plant cannot be obtained for dyeing. 
A very great quantity of the plant is required, as 250 
pounds of plant will be required to produce a single pound 
of the prepared indigo. Some people believe that if they 
cannot themselves get the plant they are not getting the 
real indigo but this is a mistake. This dye is especially 
recommended for cotton. 

Another receipt which is preferable for wool but can 
also be used for cotton is made from 

12 pounds of fine indigo powder 

8 pounds of madder 

9 pounds of bran 
24 pounds of potash 
water at 125 Farenheit 

Mix indigo powder, madder, bran and water well. The 
potash is not added until later. At the end of 36 hours 
14 pounds of potash, and 12 hours later the remaining 10 
pounds are added. When fermentation and reduction of 
indigo are well developed, which will take about 72 hours, 
add the fresh slaked lime. When properly prepared a 
vat of this dye can be used for several months, adding, as 
needed, any of the constituents required. 

Another blue dye recommended is made from berries 
and logwood. 

red dye. 
The dyeing of red with madder is a very complicated 
process, and the receipts given for it are so involved 
that very few ameturs will trouble to go through all the 

Hand woven rugs shown ; 

No. 7. 
a recent Arts 



laborious processes of mordanting and oiling the material 
to be dyed. The ordinary turkey red and cardinal red 
are extremely good dyes, and the turkey red especially 
is a fast dye. If the red is required, I would suggest 
buying the material called turkey red, termed "oil dyed." 
It could be deepened in tone by madder or brown when 
it is found that the red is too bright for ordinary use. 
This is a good dye for wool: f of a pound of good 
madder to each pound of woolen cloth. The cloth is 
immersed in a weak alkaline bath at boiling temperature, 
and is then rinsed and dried. It is afterwards impreg- 
nated with a decoction of gall nuts, when it is again dried 
and put into a solution of alum. After rinsing and dry- 
ing it is put through a madder bath which is slowly raised 
to the boiling point in about an hour, the intensity of 
color depending upon the length of time it is boiled. Re- 
move the material and wash slightly. This operation is 
repeated after which it is washed in a hot soap bath and 
dried. As it is impossible to get the exact quantities, it 
will be seen how very difficult it is for an amateur to work 
this out for herself. 

A French recipe is used by some and this dye is said 
to possess extra lustre and beauty. Boil one pound of 
powdered cochineal in three gallons of water for 15 min- 
utes. Add one ounce of cream of tartar and continue 
boiling for 10 minutes. Add i\ ounces of powdered alum, 
continue boiling for 2 minutes, and remove from the fire, 
allowing it to stand 5 or 6 minutes. Pour into porcelain 
vessels until it settles. Drain and dry the deposited 
carmen for future use. 


This is of course a very easy dye to make, as it is 
obtained by allowing old iron to be left standing in water. 
It is absolutely permanent and makes the material a 
beautiful yellow. 


One pound of fustic will dye 5 pounds of wool material. 
Alum, tartar, and spirits of tin make the fustic yellow light 
or bright. Acetate and sulphate of iron, and common 
salts darken it. The material dyed with this dye can 
be used when yellow is required, but by dipping it in the 
indigo vat a very permanent shade of green is given to it. 
Another good yellow can be obtained from dyeing with 
smart weed. 


Immerse the material in alum, after which it should 
have a bath of madder. Next a bath of fustic to which 
a little green copperas has been added, this makes a 
beautiful clear brown. 


This is made from walnut or butternut stain by steep- 
ing the bark of the tree or the shell of the nut in the water, 
until the water is dark with color. Various shades of 
yellow, brown, dark brown, and green brown, can be 
obtained according to the strength of the decoction. If 
the nut or bark is used when green, yellow brown will be 
the result. It is also valuable in assisting to make blue 
green. The material is first dipped in the walnut stain, 
and then immersed in the indigo dye. It is also a very 
useful stain in setting the color of other dyed materials. 
A beautiful red can be obtained from poke berry but its 
fastness of color is obtained by dipping in the walnut stain. 


This can be made from boiling logwood chips in water, 
and the depth of the color is determined by the amount 
of logwood used. 


Copperas can be bought at any country store and 
gives a fast nankeen colored dye. A beautiful pale green 
can be made by dipping the nankeen colored material 
in the indigo tub. 


Immerse 10 pounds of cloth into a boiling bath of 
water, which contains 3 pounds of sumac. Let the mate- 
rial steep until the concoction is quite cold, stirring it 
occasionally so that it is dyed equally all over. The next 
process is a bath of lime water. Drain the material for 
a few minutes and put into a solution of warm water con- 
taining two pounds of copperas. The material can now 
be hung up for an hour on the clothes line, when it is again 
passed through the bath of lime water. When it is al- 
most dry it requires another bath in which three pounds 
of logwood and one pound of fustic have been added. Re- 
move the material and add a quarter of a pound of cop- 
peras after which the material is returned to its bath, 
and worked well with a couple of sticks for half an hour. 

Another black dye much used by the Navajo Indians 
is made from the twigs and leaves of the aromatic sumac, 
yellow ochre, and the gum of the pinon. A quantity of 
leaves and branches of the sumac are put into the boiler 
and boiled for five or six hours until a strong concoction 
is made. While the water is boiling the ochre can be ground 
to a fine powder, when it is slowly roasted over the fire 
until it assumes a beautiful pale brown color. It is then 
removed and mixed with an equal quantity of pinon gum. 
The mixture is then put on the fire and constantly stirred 
until the whole mass becomes mushy. As the roasting 
proceeds it gradually becomes dryer and darker until at 
last it is reduced to a fine black powder. When it is cool 
it is thrown into the decoction of sumac. This is essen- 
tially a fast black dye. Any of the dyes I have recom- 
mended would also be valuable for dyeing material for 
making pulled rugs. 

In dyeing with vegetable dyes it will be found that 
natural stains and dyes can be made from numerous 
roots, barks, and bog plants. One reason why it is so hard 
to get recipes for these dyes is because the women find 
them out for themselves and choose to have a "dog in 
the manger" attitude towards others working in the same 
direction. How much better it would be if a co-opera- 
tion in exchanging recipes and experiments could be 
evolved. It seems so contemptible to be selfish about 
helping others in the same direction. 


The best warp to buy is known in the trade as 4-8 
and a white warp is the most useful for all purposes, as 
nearly all the warps that come ready dyed fade, and it is 
extremely difficult for an amateur to keep warps in good 
condition if she dyes them herself. If the warps once get 
mixed up nothing can be done with them. The ready 
dyed tobacco brown warp holds its color fairly well, and 
the bright red also holds its color, but it is so rarely that 
one can ever use a red warp that it is practically ruled 
out for utilitarian purposes. I know that many people 
advise the home dyeing of warps, but after a great deal 
of experimenting in this direction, I have concluded that 

1 66 


it is impractical except in the case of blue, where the 
quantity of dye made is so large that one can have an 
even color in dyeing a large quantity. I find that the 4-8 
weight of warp is not heavy enough to give the rug a very 
light appearance, as it sinks into the cloth and the rug 
possesses the color value of the weft rather than the warp. 


We have a wide range to choose from among the looms 
of to-day. They can be purchased as high as $75.00 if 
the modern steel ones are preferred, but as the old wood- 
en looms make just as good a rug, this expense seems 
unnecessary. Many an old loom can be picked up in a 
country junk shop or at country fairs, and often an adver- 
tisement in a city paper will bring you in touch with 
possessors of looms who are willing to sell them for from 
$5-oo to $25.00. 

A very handy table loom can be bought from Lynn, 
Mass., and is called the Woodbury loom, and this can be 
used if narrow rugs can be utilized. This costs $12.00, 
but of course the $12.00 size could only be used for stair 
carpet width or portieres and bath rugs. Possibly they 
can be bought in larger sizes, but the work is not so quick- 
ly done on them as on an old fashioned treadle loom, 
which makes a rug a yard wide, or any narrower width 
desired. In buying a loom it is important to know what 
it should consist of as if an odd piece is missing, it might 
be quite expensive to have it made. 

A T loom consists of a frame, a beam, heddles, a lay, 
a reed, several shuttles, and a wheel for winding the 
material usually goes with the loom. In buying one 
secondhand it is very important that all and every piece 
should be examined by a practical weaver before the 
purchase is made. 


The beaming of the warp is rather a difficult process 
and wherever possible should be done by a beamer. 
After the beam is placed in the loom the warp threads are 
thrown from the beam over the back cross bars, and 
threaded through the heddles, then through the reed, 
and over the front cross bar of the loom, where it is at- 
tached by an iron bar and rolled under the front cross bar. 
The heddles are arranged in two frames which are on two 
different horizontal planes when the shuttle is thrown 
through the warp. 


Having divided the material up into strips and 
wound it in balls, it must then be wound off the balls on to 
an iron rod, which is attached to a wheel, a small quantity 
is wound which, after having been removed from the iron 
bar, is ready for the shuttle. After pulling the end of the 
material through the hole in the shuttle, it is now ready 
for weaving. A seat must be placed in front of the loom 
at the right height for having a good command of the 

The left treadle must be pushed down with the foot 
which will cause a gap between the two layers of warp. 
Take the shuttle in the right hand and throw it between 
the warps, holding with the left hand that part of the 
loom which contains the reed; this is called the lay. Leave 
a couple of inches of the material sticking out at the side 
of the rug, this must be turned back and lapped round the 
warp at the side of the rug. After the shot has been 
thrown, pull the lay forward, and press the right foot down, 
releasing the left, which will make a reverse gap between 

the two lays of warp. The shuttle is now placed in the 
left hand and is thrown from left to right between the 
warps, after which the lay is pulled forward as before. 
This simple process is repeated over and over again, until 
the shuttle is empty. When the new shuttlefull is added 
do not sew the two strips together, but cut each end 
into a tapered point and overlap them. This join will 
then be invisible, which cannot be said of work which 
has been sewn together. 

The first four or five inches of a rug is always the same 
as the center. Plain bands of contrasting color can be 
used about a couple of inches wide. An uneven number 
looks better than an even. A 3x5 rug could have three 
stripes for borders, while a 3x7 would need five. The 
rug is finished off at either end with a half inch heading 
of warp, which keeps it from fraying. In starting the 
rug this must be done before the material is woven and 
when the rug is completed it is finished off with the warp. 
It is not usual to take the rugs out of the loom until the set 
we have in hand are completed. Sometimes as many as 
fifty rugs can be on the roll underneath. About twelve 
inches of warp must be left between each rug. 

It is a little hard to weave from only reading a des- 
cription, and a beginner will comprehend it much more 
readily by having a weaver show her how to use the loom. 
Half an hour spent in working under the guidance of some- 
one who knows is worth a great deal in simplifying weav- 
ing. Like everything else it is very easy when you know 
how, but it is very bewildering at first, as one is apt to 
press the wrong treadle and throw at the wrong side 
unless one has had experience. After the rudiments are 
mastered it rests with each worker to become a good weaver. 


While the plain bands of color are very pleasing for 
borders, there are several ways of introducing attrac- 
tive variations. Twists, or crow's feet are done by tightly 
twisting two contrasting colors together. These are 
wound on to a ball as if they were one piece, and shots 
of this are run across the center of a border or used to out- 
line it. The crow's foot effect consists of two rows of 



twists thrown in alternate directions. Striped materials 
cut horizontally can be used in rug making and give a 
blurred effect that makes one of the most effective kinds 
of borders. 

In portiere making a different sort of border is ad- 
visable. The darkest color should be at the bottom of 
the portiere and extend up from 8 to 12 inches. A series 
of narrow bands either 1, 3, or 5, according to the desire 
of the designer, can then be added. The upper part needs 
no border. Another way of making patterns is to run 
in a few lines of white with a bodkin after the rug is finished. 
The disadvantage of this is that the rug will not be the 
same on both sides. There is no end to the developments 
that can be obtained in border making and as I feel that 
each worker should express her own indviduality in her 
work, I would advise that every weaver strikes out a 
new line for herself. 

Sometimes a white line thrown "hit or miss" through 
the rug is pleasing. In a dark blue rug, for instance, 
weave the white strip five inches long, and on the next 
pick to it add another line three inches long, and repeat 
these touches at intervals throughout the rug and the 
effect will be good. If it is too regular it loses all its 
charm. There are several designs in Indian rugs which 
suggest motifs for what is called the "inlay" work. In- 
dian arrows, diamonds, and squares can be evolved, but as 
I said before, think up your own designs, and do not 
be guided by others. 

The work of experimenting is fascinating, not only 
in designing borders, but in evolving good color schemes. 
It is a great help to make little sketches of the rugs with 
water colors, before you begin to experiment in the loom. 
A small table loom would be invaluable for experiment- 
ing with border work, as it would use so little material 
in width, and the strips of a series of borders could be kept 
at home as a guide to future rug designing. 

Another variety in rug making is caused by group- 
ing the warps three or four together by threading two 
or three warp threads through one heddle, but this work 
is too much trouble to do for one or two rugs, so that I 
only advise it where a number can be done at the same 
time. It is always advisable to group the warp separate- 
ly for portiere making, as the work should be so much 
more loosely woven and the warps further apart. It 
is not necessary to change the warps on the beam only 
to thread them in groups through the heddles. One 
lay-out of warp consists of two threads in every other 
heddle hole, instead of one warp thread in each hole. 

The demand for these rugs is so great at the present 
time, and the market for them is so rapidly increasing, 
that there is a wide field for those who enter into it in a 
business like way. If rugs are ordered for one of the 
stores, they must have a very neat and finished appear- 
ance, which would not be so attractive to an artistic class, 
who would buy them at an Arts and Crafts Exhibition. 
It is very important to remember the difference in the 
two markets, as the most artistic looking rug, that an 
artist would rave over, would be looked upon as de- 
fective by a rug buyer in a store. 


G. — We will soon give some good nut borders. 

I.. M. D. — Read the "Class Room" articles on "Backgrounds" in August 
number Keramic Stidio. 

Y. Z. — Burnish well your gold ground which is uneven, then give it two 
thin coats of gold making the brush strokes the second time at right angles 
to first coat. Fire quite hard. 

S. B. P. — When paint blisters, the color is either too oily or put on too 
thick. We do not think firing too quickly would cause blistering, still it is 
a bad plan to fire quickly. All paints of various manufacturers may be used 
together, the tube colors as well as powder. We prefer powder colors for 
most things but tube colors are easier to tint with. 

Mrs. C. B. S. — The scaling of the color on your pink and red roses came 
from too many firings. Pinks should be put on for the last firing only They 
are very liable to be spoiled if retired, also the color will scale if put on too thick- 
ly. If the acid from the pickles turned the color and took off the glaze on 
your dish, the color was much underfired. 

M. M. — The various glazes such as Ivory, Lavender glaze, etc., are sup- 
posed to be dusted over the half dry painting to give a uniform glaze. They 
are not used for painting. The black you mention can be used for outlining 
as can almost any black. You can mix colors of one make with those of 
another safely, if both makes are good. Black added to any color makes it 
darker and greyer, that is not so vivid. The Royal Worcester finish is a 
mat ivory glaze, it comes in powder form. It is not much used now but 
can be procured from any wholesale house. 

*• -f 


Sarah Reid McLaughlin 

For apples use Lemon Yellow, Albert Yellow, Yellow Red, 
Carnation, Pompadour Red, blending the yellows or reds 
into soft yellow greens, with Copenhagen Blue for greyish 
blue. Keep high lights clear and brilliant; the reflected 
lights softer in tone. Leaves Apple Green, Yellow Green, 
Moss Green for lighter ones, Brown Green and Shading 
Green for darker ones. For shadowy leaves use Violet of 
Iron or color which will be harmonious with background. 
For stems use Copenhagen Blue for blue grey lights, 
strengthened in second firing with Auburn Brown. Use 
Yellow Brown for pips strengthened in second firing with 
Auburn Brown. Background Copenhagen Blue, Violet of 
Iron to Warm Grey, Yellow Red to Blood Red. For second 
firing deepen above colors adding detail. 


Jeanne M. Stewart 

THIS piece in blue plums is most effective with a back- 
ground in dark green and purple or it may be 
worked in monochrome. 

In case the naturalistic treatment is desired the fol- 
lowing palette may be used: 

Plums: Banding Blue, Ruby Purple, Brunswick Black, 
Lemon Yellow, Yellow Green. 

Leaves: Yellow Green, Turquoise Green, Shading 
Green, Olive Green. 

Background: Ivory Yellow, Lemon Yellow, Shading 
Green, Ruby Purple, Banding Blue. 

Both depth and transparency are desirable in the first 
painting of the plums, the lightest tone or the "bloom" 
being obtained with a very thin wash of Banding Blue, 
while the dark is a mixture of Banding Blue, Ruby Purple 
and Brunswick Black. 

The background may be applied in the second and third 
firings with a dusting of the darkest colors in the third fire. 


The National Society of Craftsmen will hold a recep- 
tion on the evening of November 30th, at the National 
Arts Club, but the exhibition will be formally opened only 
•on December 3d. 


Magill CSL Ivory 

Importers and Dealers in 


A premium given with all orders amounting to ten 
dollars and upwards. Write lor list and catalogue. 
Classes in decorating four days every week. Estimates 
on large or small orders. China fired with care. 

297 5th Avenue, New YorK City 




A Special Bargain sheet gotten out every month ; write for it. 

Here is a sample of the 

G2758 Spoon Tray 9-in. long, plain 
and graceful, 26c each. 

Send us your name for catalogue and new sheets. 

W. A. Maurer, Council Bluffs, Iowa 


18th Illustrated Edition of the OSGOOD ART SCHOOL PRACTICAL HAND BOOK 
in Flexible Cloth Covers, 200 pages. Sent post-paid for 75 cents. Stamps not accepted. 

HOW f |^£' ZE I TO A Com P' ete and Reliable 

TO <^ LACROIX. } „"„ , Guide for China . . . 


APPLY [.AND GOLD j *- -n-XINA p ainters 

Calling attention to the principal difficulties, it tells how to remedy them. 
HISS A. H. OSGOOD, ... 46 West 21st Street, NEW YORK 

Mineral Transfer* 

for China Decoration in all it* Branches 


80 TIFTri AVE., 



Af}|)ly to Your Su^li'y House for Samples and Information. 




Best White China Made in Limoges 

PAROUTAUD FRERES, Manufacturers 


Catalogue and price list on application. 

Ceramic Importing Co. 

37-39 Murray St., NEW YORIL 


Among the most successful noveltie 
ever offered china decorators is our 


(sarrnle ocstpaid) complete with 
china medallion to decorate. Large 
decorators are using hundreds to sup- 
ply their trade, and home workers 
are ordering by the dozen to care for 
their friends. New china book mailed 
you free (postage 5c) showing oyer 200 new articles. 

Geo. W. Davis &. Co., 2356 State St., Rochester, N. Y. 


LEE ROESSLER, 116 S. Hig'H St. Columbus O 

We have a fine stock of T. and V. and Haviland's Ransom shape of 


Also a full line of German and Austrian Novelties. Shirt Waist Buttons 
and Medallions at 40 cents a dozen or $4.50 a sross delivered in your home. 
Gold plated backs 19 cents each or $1.80 a dozen. We deliver Fry's Paints 
and Lustres and Sherratt's Gold. 


Dept. D 34-9 So. Salina St., Syracuse, N. T. 

IP T\ Y? T? One KLEIN 6-inch by 1 l-inch Flower Study 
M. JxXyJL/""™* with every order for 

China Painting Materials 

Note — We have only a few of these large Studies by 
Catherine Klein left. Send your order in early 
and secure one of these Beautiful Studies Free. 
Do not hesitate as they will not last long. 
Established 1879. 


608 Olive Street. 





New prices on hat or brooch pins complete. Special prices in 
gross lots. 

Also baby or large bar pins complete. 

Doehler's Block, Rochester, N. V. 

211-213 Clinton Ave. North. One minute walk from N. Y. C. station. 


Largest Store on Pacific Coast 

Devoted Exclusively to WHite CHina, BeleeK 
and CHina Decorator's Supplies 

Agent Ideal China Kilns and Ceramic Gold. Mail Orders filled same day as received. 

759-761 McAllister Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

I-S-E-E--R TH 

F"| R_E- ^_L-IV^E1- 








J ! 


DEC. MCMVI Price 40c. Yearly Subscription $4.00 

A MOHTHlY MAGAZINE TOR the potter and decorator- 

The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted without special 



Editorial and Introductory Illustrations of the Christmas 

Fireplace and Dado — First Prize Decoration for Child's 

Taxile Doat 

Child's Table Set— First Prize 
Water Pitcher and Bowl — Humming Birds 
Fireplace Dado and Wash Stand Top — Second Prize 
Fireplace Dado and Washing Set — Third Prize 
Dutch Babies — Third Prize Decoration for Child's Room 
Enlarged Section of Design for Fireplace 
Dado and Fireplace — "Humming Birds" 
First Prize Decoration for Child's Room — "Clowns" 
Bowl and Pitcher "Knights" — Second Prize 
Suggestions for Fireplace and Dado 
Child's Set 

Child's Set in Blue Grey— Third Prize 
Child's Set 

"Goody Two Shoes" Child's Table Set — Second Prize 
"Knights" — Second Prize Decoration for Child's Room 
Child's Set— Japanese Lanterns 
Bowl and Pitcher for Child's Set 
League Notes 
The Crafts— 

"Printing with a Wood Block" 
Center Design for Fire Place 
Answers to Correspondents 
Child's Plate (Supplement) 

Ophelia Foley 
Irene Sargent 
Mary Overbeck 
Hannah Overbeck 
Mary Overbeck 
Grace Blethen 
Grace Blethen 
Hannah Overbeck 
Hannah Overbeck 
Ophelia Foley 
Mary Overbeck 
Albert Pons 
Ophelia Foley 
Nancy Beyer 
Clara Wakeman 
Albert Pons 
Mary Overbeck 
Carrie Brosemer 
Nancy Beyer 
Belle Barnett Vesey 

Haswell Clarke Jeffery 
Mary Overbeck 

Mary Overbeck 




.180-18 1 






The Rose Book, containing some of the best 
rose studies and designs published in 
Keramic Studio postpaid 

The Fruit Book, containing some of the best 
fruit studies and designs published 
in Keramic Studio postpaid 

Composition, by Arthur Dow postpaid 

Principles of Design, by E. Batchelder postpaid 

Decorative Studies, by J. Foord postpaid 

Plant Forms and Designs, by Midgley and 

Billey postpaid 

Practical Pottery, elementary instruction 

for students, by Richard Dunn postpaid 

Grand Feu Ceramics, a practical treatise on 
the making of hard porcelain dec- 
orated with high temperature glazes 
by Taxile Doat of the Manufactory of 
Sevres, France postpaid 

Seger's Collected Writings, 2 volumes postpaid 

For the Collector: 

Vol. II Old China, bound blue cloth . . postpaid 
Vol. Ill Old China, bound blue cloth . postpaid 

Anglo-American Pottery, a manual for col- 
lectors, by Edwin Atlee Barber, Cura- 
tor of the Pennsylvania Museum, sec- 
ond edition postpaid 

American Glassware, old and new, by Edwin 

A. Barber postpaid 

Marks of American Potters, by Edwin A. 

Barber postpaid 

Pottery and Porcelain of the United States 

by Edwin A. Barber postpaid 

The Dace Book, by N. Hudson Moore postpaid 

$ 3-oo 











Tulip Ware of the Pennsylvania German 

Potters, by Edwin A. Barber, in pa- 
per cover postpaid 

Cloth, limited edition .postpaid 5.00 

The Primers of the Pennsylvania Museum 

(two already issued, Salt-glaze ware 

and Tin-enamelled ware) postpaid, .50 and .60 

Encyclopedia of Ceramics, by W. P. Jervis . . postpaid 6.75 
The Old China Book, by N. Hudson Moore . . postpaid 2.18 
The Old Furniture Book, by N. Hudson 

Moore postpaid 2.18 

Old Pewter, by N. Hudson Moore postpaid 2.18 

Chats on English China, by Arthur Hayden . postpaid 2.18 
Chats on Old Furniture, by Arthur Hayden . postpaid 2.18 
China Collecting in America, by Alice Morse 

Earle postpaid 3.20 

Pottery and Porcelain, a guide to collectors, 

by Frederick Litchfield postpaid 6.25 

French Pottery and Porcelain by Henri 

Frantz postpaid 2.68 

Dutch Pottery and Porcelain, by W. Pit- 
cairn Knowles postpaid 2.68 

Old English Furniture, by Fred Fenn and 

B. Wyllie postpaid 2.68 

English Embroidery, by A. F. Kendrick. . .postpaid 2.68 

French Furniture, by Andre Saglio postpaid 2.68 

Old Pewter, by Malcolm Bell postpaid 2.68 

Sheffield Plate, by B. Wyllie postpaid 2.68 

The Oriental Rug Book, by Mary Churchill 

Ripley postpaid 3.20 

Home Furnishing, practical and artistic, by 

Alice M. Kellogg postpaid 1.65 

William Adams, an old English potter, by 

William S. Turner postpaid 8.00 

Ileramic Studio Pub Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Vol. VIII, No. 8 


December, 1906 

HE awards in the Christmas 
competition were made as follows : 
Decoration for Child's Room, 
First Prize — "Clowns and Ele- 
phants," Ophelia Foley, Owens- 
boro, Kentucky. Second Prize — 
P*§nV\wl ml)iks$mt "Knights", Mary Overbeck, Cam- 
bridge City, Indiana. Third 
Prize — "Dutch Babies", Grace 
Blethen, Eos Angeles, Cal. 
Child's Table Set — First Prize, "Palms and Camels", 
Mary Overbeck, Cambridge City, Indiana. Second Prize, 
"Goody Two Shoes", Albert Pons, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Third Prize, "Storks", Nancy Beyer, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

The First Prize decoration of Child's Room unfortu- 
nately was not shown in pen and ink sketch to give a gen- 
eral idea of the effect. The wash stand border is not 
easily understood but on all counts the scheme seemed 
most worthy of first mention. The Second Prize failed 
in the forms of the washing set and the subject was per- 
haps a little old for a child. The Third Prize would have 
been better had there been a continuous border instead of 
the spotty effect given by so many repeated units. The 

shelf in the pen and ink sketch needs support but both 
this sketch and the one by Miss Overbeck suggest very 
pleasing arrangements for decoration. A more harmonious 
design is the one by Miss Hannah Overbeck but the subject 
was not considered especially appropriate while the 
shapes of bowl and pitcher were not up to the standard. 

The Child's Table Set by Miss Overbeck is especially 
pleasing in the color which we were unable to exactly re- 
produce. The subject seemed to suggest the coming of 
the wise men of the east on Christmas Eve and the whole 
idea seemed original and well carried out. The set by 
Albert Pons, while not so restful, is clever and well spaced, 
the border of the tray, showing the two shoes and skirts 
of the little girl, being well proportioned and cleverly thought 
out. The design of storks by Miss Nancy Beyer is clever 
and attractive but is so thoroughly Japanese that it sug- 
gests a simple adaptation and while no doubt original 
and little to be criticized, an American inspiration rather 
than a foreign one is the object sought in our competitions. 

No sufficiently worthy study or design of Christmas 
Rose was submitted. A few suggestions are given by the 
editor on this page and the cover to introduce this dec- 
orative flower which is just now in bloom. 




SEVERAL color schemes are suggested for this set. ist, 
light grey green ground, border design dark green blue on 
lighter green blue ground, clown in white or very pale tint. 
2nd design, red brown, or two shades of greyed yellow brown. 
3rd, light brownish grey ground, bands and globe red 

brown, clown light grey, elephant Brown 4 or 1 7 on lighter 
shade of same for border. 4th, light yellow olive ground; 
dark olive globe and bands, a warm greyed yellow for back- 
ground of border, clown white, elephant brown, outlines 
of clown and narrow line below border, orange. 


Ear of corn vase with two cameos representing the planting and harvest of corn, white on 
green ground. Tassels in white, kernels in mat ivoryjsyellow, leaves in mat brown. 

Small vase with concentric crystallizations, dark green on light green ground. 

Fusele' vase in mat ivory, with veins of bright color. Stand in gres, mat iron wood 
color with white pearls. 

Apple vase with white crystallizations on sea green ground. Stand in gres, mat iron 
wood color. 


Irene Sargent 
The grand feu porcelains of M. Taxile Doat attract 
the critical observer like the work in other branches of decor- 
ative art produced by Lalique, Thesmar, Naudot and Bra- 
teau. They show the hand of a master technician which 
has put aside the obstacles raised by a stubborn medium. 
They often display, it is true, a complicated system of decor- 
ation undertaken with a view of seeking and multiplying, 
rather than of simply meeting difficulties. Therefore, such 
pieces do not hold the admiration of the lovers of simplicity, 
but even those persons must admit their claims to future 
honor in company with the objects of their own kind which 
are now recognized as classic. For surely these modern 
ceramics have precisely the same qualities, the same limita- 
tions which characterize the faiences of Palissy and the 
porcelaines tendres of Sevres. That is, the shapes and the 
decoration of all these works are highly specialized, and 
therefore capable of appealing only to the taste of a certain 
period, of a certain class of individuals; while, on the other 
hand, their technical perfection is instantly recognized 
everywhere and alike by all classes of critics. Style and 
taste change with the coming and going of each generation. 
But the standards of skill are permanent, and such objects 
as reach the strict requirements of these standards, whether 
they owe their creation to an ancient or a modern master, 
to a man of Latin or of Germanic race, will continually ad- 
vance in both artistic and commercial value. 

The ideal of technical perfection is one which is espec- 
ially desirable to keep before those who practise the decor- 
ative and industrial arts in our own country; consequently, 
all objects approaching or fulfilling this ideal should receive 


the most careful study from both workers and critics. 
For by such means alone may be counteracted that danger- 
ous tendency toward middle-class artistic production in 
quantity, which is so prevalent among us; the origin of 
the tendency lying in the fact that good taste is possessed 
by large numbers of almost amateur workers, who have 
not the patience and devotion, together with the fine percept- 
tion requisite to assure, after long experiment, the complete 
mastery over some special material. 

Such crude, yet ambitious attempts would seem to be 
the necessary evils attached to the present stage of devel- 
opment of the Arts and Crafts Movement in America, 
which, on the other hand, has proved to be of infinite good. 
With the view, therefore, of arresting those evils, and of 
fulfilling literally the purpose of its organization, the Boston 
Society has expressed itself, through its jury, in strong 
terms which have already gained wide publicity, and deserve 
still to be repeated. 

In direct quotation the severest paragraph of these 
strictures reads : 

"As to study, the ignorance of the simplest and most 
ordinary expression of materials on the part of a large body 
of the workers is amazing. There are certain methods of 
treating materials, forms and surfaces which had reached 
a moderate degree of perfection even in prehistoric times; 
and all similar combinations to-day are but variants of 
these methods. They are the root methods, so to speak, and 
should be known as thoroughly as are the letters of an 
alphabet. They naturally, having occurred in the past, 
have become historic design, and the name has been laid 
against them as indicating poverty of imagination, if they 
are re-used. This little dogma and reproach has frightened 
designers and they have found it easier to invent than to 
develop ideas; but such ease is gained at the expense of 
success. The designer finds himself spending hours fumb- 
ling over portions of his work of which he has no sense of 
the relative proportions, or being balked by miniature ob- 
stacles which were overcome centuries ago, and by wasting 
his energies in repeating the labors of his prehistoric an- 

;s" — Large cameo of pate sur pate hard porcelain inlaid o: 
m platinum grey ground. Frame in natural mahogany. 



"Walkyrie" — Dish in hard porcelain. Figure in polychrome glazes on a sea green 
ground. Center and rim with iridescent crystalline glaze. 

cestors. It is Vart nouveau indeed, the work of the un- 
trained, undeveloped, unstocked brain and the faltering 

At the conclusion of this straightforward criticism — 
surely the result of much courageous thought — the jury 
of the Boston Society thus formulates the requisites of the 
objects upon which it is willing to pass judgment : 

"We desire each piece, however small, to be done with 
skill of hand, to be finished and not left crude, and for the 
designs to show study of the simple fundamental principles 
of applicability to material, scale of areas, and of organic 

In these words, if they be restricted in their reference 
to the sole field of ceramics, we have a condensed technical 
description'of^the work produced by M. Taxile Doat, as may 
be shown by a mere passing allusion to our accompanying 

These, at a first glance, are found to fulfil the two 
great essentials of well-designed vases; while, unhappily, the 
superb technique of their originals must be imagined rather 
than perceived. The two essentials mentioned, it is per- 
haps trite to insist, are good proportions and a clear pro- 
file; but since, although theoretically well-known, they are 
often disregarded by designers, it may not be useless to 
indicate how they are fulfilled in our present examples. 

If we select for study the ovoid, or cup-shaped vases, 
we shall find in these the height so far dominating the 
breadth, that the eye does not hesitate as to the relative im- 
portance of the elements of form; rather, it at once starts 
upon its agreeable journey of following the long, graceful, 
vitalized line springing from the base to the mouth of the 
objects. By such decisiveness of proportion the impres- 
sion upon the mind of the spectator, received through the 
visual sense, becomes simple, clear and strong, or, in other 
words, pleasurable. These vases, therefore, are eloquent 
examples of the "organic planning" demanded by the 
Boston Society of Arts and Crafts. 

Again, the more subtile forms occurring in the spindle- 
shaped and in the ear-of-corn vase, while much more dif- 

ficult of attainment, are no less successful. In the first 
instance, equality of division between the body and the 
neck of the vase is not even suggested, as, owing to the 
constantly, imperceptibly diminishing swell, it is impos- 
sible to detect the point at which the one ends and the 
other begins. This form apparently so simple, is in reality 
a tour de force, and in some mysterious way recalls those 
triumphs of beauty in plant-life which Nature herself at- 
tains but occasionally in certain species of orchids. As to 
the ear-of-corn vase, it might have been designed by a 
Greek. In this we find great delicacy without weakness, 
and great richness of line without a hint of decadence. The 
bending of the husks about the upper part of the body is a 
beautiful artistic device, adjusted with extreme cleverness, 
yet addressing the eye so naturally and spontaneously that 
the spectator wonders why he has not seen it employed a 
hundred times before. This detail of treatment was plainly 
adopted from the suggestions offered by antique amphora 
of the best period, which thrust out small handles at the 
same relative point; while the later, more elaborate and 
decadent types projected these parts far above the neck, 
thus presenting an aggressive and fantastic profile. The 
vase of M. Doat is really a masterpiece. Its charming 
effect is due to a combination of the most refined, yet easily 
conceived lines : the body being a variation of the egg-form ; 
the simulated handles showing the curves of corn-stalks 
moved by the wind ; and the neck composed upon an un- 
usual, but beautiful and suggestive motif, adapted from 
the "tassel" or mass of silky fibre crowning the ear. 

As the vases already noted are, first of all, examples of 
exquisite forms, so the remaining pieces show technical 
skill as the chief of their many remarkable qualities. 

The apple, grouped with the spindle-shaped and the 
ear-of-corn vases, offers an admirable field for the display 
of the crystals which have gained a world-wide reputation 
for M. Doat. In this instance, their brilliant effect against 
the sea-green background is not unlike that of newly-fallen 
(concluded on page 193) 


mazones" — Vase in hard porcelain. The cameos are raised on » 
ments are in platinum grey pate sur pate, Lower : ,part of vase in mat yellow 
brown. ^.The vase is entirely glazed, 



Small vase with frosty crystals in mat white on a pearl grey ground. 

iines Bachiques" — Large vase in hard porcelain, polychrome "Poeme Rustique" Large vase in hard porcelain. Nymphs 

pates sur pates. The whole decoration is mat, except the in low relief personify the meadows, the woods, the spring, 

cartouches and the lower part of the vase which are glazed. the grotto and the echo. Landscapes engraved in the paste 

join the different parts of the composition. The decoration 
is mat, except the lower and upper bands which are in milky 
white glaze. 

"La Flute de Pan" — Hard porcelain in mat white. The ornaments holding two low reliefs and four cameos are in pate sur pate. The branches and pine cones which 
support the piece are in mat green. The low reliefs represent: 1st, The nymph Syrinx pursued by Pan and changed into reeds; 2d, A shepherd pasturing his goats. 




Design in sage green and grey brown on tint of grey brown. 


DEC EM 3 ER 1906 














(See design page 187.) 


To be executed in white grey and blue grey. (See design page 177.) 



What designer of "commercial art" has not been 
made weary by the vagueness and assumption of "Arts 
and Crafts" outgivings? We heartily accept Lowell's 
"indefinable something called style," but the other fellows' 
half-described and half -realized somethings are not good 
enough. Generally these gentlemen are, as you say, 
"dilettante carpenters, metal workers, etc." They talk 
vaguely about personality in art, but will not learn that 
their working material has a personality to which their 
own must be subordinated— that the object in life of cast 
iron is to be and to look strong and solid — of wrought iron 
to be and manifestly to be pliable and tough— of wood 
construction to be framed together and look so, and to be 
worked with edged tools — and of pottery to be and to appear 
exactly the reverse, plastic, smooth moulded, following 
the hand. These things are elementary — • and constantly 
ignored, In industrial art practicability, soundness of 
construction must come first. Owen Jones was right: 
"Construction may be decorated; decoration must not be 
constructed." A chair that won't hold up a healthy man 
may be lovely; but it is not a chair. The first duty of a 
lock is to fast bind. It is the ladies, bless 'em, not the men, 
who buy arts and crafts things. Why? "It is absurd to 
offer originality as a substitute for efficient workmanship." 
An excellent theory! Let me thank you again on behalf 
of the men who make anvils that you may hit, hammers 
that you may hit 'em with, chairs that you can sit in, locks 
that will lock, (and open afterward on request), also screens 
that will stand up. Technique is not all, of course, but 
much of the arts and crafts product is like the hencoop 
of which the ingenuous one said, "It looks as though some 
one had made it himself." — (New York Sun.) 


i 7 8 





Hannah Overbeck. 
'T'lLES; ground; light olive brown: lilies and throat of 
* humming birds, dull red; leaves, stems and birds, olive 
green; eyes of birds, white. For the washing set, body of 
design, light olive brown; background of border, a lighter 
shade of same; lilies and throat of birds, dull red; birds and 
leaves and stems, olive green. A cream margin around 
design with black outlines 


For years, or ever since the emancipation of the artis- 
tic mind from oldtime hideousness in house-furnishing, 
women with charming homes have struggled with the mural 
decorations of their dining rooms. From the chromo 
nightmares which pictured impossible fruits and vegetables, 
down through assassinated game and mounted fish, the 


gamut has been run by the housewife with sublime satis- 
faction at the beginning of each period, and distress of 
mind at the end. Now she bids fair to have struck the 
artistic thing at last. This is no more or less than the 
decorative wall plaque. 

These plaques are, in the main, of china, which estab- 
lishes their claim to the dining room at once. Always the 
thing that was needed for the dining room was a dis- 
tinctive something which exactly fitted. Of course these 
plaques are seen upon the walls of country homes in the 
main halls or living room, when the dining room is but a 
corner, and particularly is this effective when the furniture 
is the dark mission wood. In these cases the plaques are 
not confined to the plate rail, but fill in empty spaces be- 
tween bookcase and window, or above or below the rail. 
They are suspended invisibly by wire running around the 
under rim. — (Chicago Chronicle.) 

















1 84 










1 86 




















Design in grey, green on two shades of yellow olive blown, white helmets, plumes and outlines. 



FIRST Fire — Sketch in design with India Ink, and 
dust in background with Fry's Black. Clean out 

Second Fire — Paint in figure with Baby Blue, and a 

touch of Violet II; lanterns in Pompadour, Albert Yellow 
and Blue Green. Back of handle of pitcher, gold, with 
Japanese lettering in Black. 

Third Fire — Retouch with same colors. 





There will be no problem for December, but for January 
comes the coupe cake plate with or without handles. A 
geometrical all over design is preferable, but a border will 
receive criticism. Please try to send these early in order 
to make way for the vases and Farrington punch bowl. We 
hope to publish pictures of these vases and bowl in the Jan. 
Keramic Studio. 

The sugar bowl forms, submitted in outline for criticism, 
are so much better than anything we have had during this 
term of office, that we cannot refrain from mentioning 
them. Have you noticed those curling, almost wriggling, 
lines in relief around the base and top of nearly all the sugar 
bowls in our shops, with handles patterned after the human 
ear, stuck on as an afterthought, with bases threatening to 
tip over, spilling the contents, and marbles or rings to lift 
the cover? A design in subdued color no matter how good 
looses all dignity on such a shape. At least a half dozen 
of our outlines ought to be accepted by the manufacturer. 
They have good lines, strong bases, handles that are an 
adequate part, necessary to the beauty as well as a support 
in holding, with covers as carefully thought out as the body 
and with nobs that conform to the general shape. The 
nut bowls are not all in, but they promise well. 

We are happy to announce the addition of two clubs, 
those of Los Angeles, Cal., and Providence, R. I.; also two 
individual members, Miss Helen M. Haines, Duluth,lMinn., 
and Miss Madge L. Gibbons, Alma, Colo. 

Belle Barnett Vesey, President, 

6228 Wabash Ave., Chicago. 




Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, Room 23, 22 East 16th St., New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 

Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

Summer Address, care of Keramic Studio Pub. Co , Syracuse, N. Y. 

All questions must be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

wood carving, using an iron clamp, or a hand-screw, or the 
simple device shown in Illustration No. 1 . For this method 
take two pieces of wood longer than the block as A B and 
C D. Make a wedge E F and place all in position given. 
Nail down A B and C D and tighten the wedge against the 
block G. 

To carve the block use a sloyd knife, or a chisel sharp- 
ened to an angle of 45 degrees, giving one side a pointed 
edge, as in figure No. 1. in Illustration No. 2. The 
quickest and deepest cutting can be done with this chisel, 
using both hands, one for pressure and the other to guide 
the blade. First draw the point around the pattern, follow- 
ing the line closely. As the chisel sinks into the wood, the 
path of the blade becomes wider, and there is danger in 
small designs of wedging into the pattern. Avoid this by 
keeping just to the line, not on it, and later by trimming 
exactly on the line. After going around the design, cut 
out the background spaces, leaving a clean edge on the 


Haswell Clarke Jefjery. 

FOR years the people of India, as well as of other coun- 
tries, have employed the art of wood-block printing 
to decorate their fabrics. Both wearing apparel and hang- 
ings have thus been treated, and many examples show skill 
in design and excellence in application. Many designs now 
woven in the fabric were once stamped upon the surface. 
Recently the art in a simple form has been introduced into 
the schools. The children have taken happily to the work 
with interesting results; and the students more advanced 
in design have obtained finished pieces of good color and 

The design is first drawn in charcoal on suitable paper 
(lead pencil can be used), and it is then traced upon Japan- 
ese paper or upon any transparent paper. The masses are 
filled in solid black against the white ground, and the pat- 
tern is pasted face down upon the block to be cut. As this 
paper is very thin, the design shows through in a reversed 
position. When stamped upon the cloth the reversed de- 
sign on the block prints like the original drawing on the 
paper. In a symmetrical design it is not necessary to re- 
verse it. 

To apply the ink drawing, put the paste upon the block, 
lay the paper upon it ink-side down, and smooth out all 
creases. The ink on the design does not then become 
blurred. Allow the paste to dry before cutting into the 

The block should be made of firm wood, not too hard, 
and of close grain. For ordinary uses gum wood is most 
satisfactory. This does not split easily, and it is firm enough 
to resist the pressure of printing. Pine is apt to allow the 
edges to become rounded and to give an indistinct outline 
to the finished print. Cherry can be used or any hard wood 
if desirable; but the difficulty of cutting it is greater. For 
ordinary printing a block carved on the side grain is firm 

Clamp the block upon the bench or table as for any 










Sfirt M ti**' 


S. 3 



stamping surfaces. A narrow chisel or a flat gouge, Nos. 
2, 3, 4 in Illustration No. 2, are all that are necessary. A 
variety of gouges will facilitate the work. The difficulty 
in using a knife is shown when cutting under a space to be 
taken out. It presses over on to the pattern and dents the 
wood, giving an irregular edge. 

A chisel 1-16 inch wide, another 1-4 inch wide, and a 
flat gouge 5-16 inch wide will get out the ground work easily. 
The "flat gouge" has a slightly curved cutting edge. 

The depth of the cutting need not be more than an 
eighth of an inch, and in very narrow places it can be less. 
However, the East Indian stamps are cut from hard wood 

E A B 

to a depth greater than a quarter inch. In Illustra- 
tion No. 3 the space at B is very narrow and the depth is 
less than that of the wide space C. These represent the 
background, and the elevated parts are the printing sur- 
faces. Space C, being wide, it is cut lower at the middle, 
so that when printing, the cloth will not touch any part of 
it. When the ground work has been taken out and the 
pattern stands in relief, as shown in Illustrations No. 4 and 
No. 5, cut away the wood all around the outside, following 
the pattern edge as at E and F in Illustration No. 3. Then 
trim off the back edges of the block, as G and H, to avoid 
hurting the hands, under pressure of printing. 

Small blocks can be f inch thick and those over 3 
inches in diameter ought to be an inch thick to prevent 

To finish the block take a piece of fine sand paper and 
lay it face upward upon glass, or upon any perfectly flat 
surface, and grind the surface of the block upon this till 
all the paper is removed. It will then be perfectly level. 
Never remove the pattern by wetting, for it will injure the 
grain and make the surface rough. Last of all, oil the block 
with linseed oil. 

For printing, mix oil colors with turpentine to the con- 

sistency of cream. Paint on with a brush, spreading evenly, 
but do not let the color drag over the edges. Keep these 
clean. If several colors are used, paint them on their re- 
spective parts of the stamping surface, and stamp firmly 
upon the cloth on an ironing board. Press all parts of the 
block so that the cloth will take the color thoroughly. 
Some strike the block with a small mallet instead of using 
the palm, but there is danger of splitting the wood. Should 
a spot of paint cling to an edge and show on the cloth, scrape 
it with a palette knife toward^the center of the color mass 

This will help to blend it. For practice cheese cloth is good ; 
and unbleached linen, silk, and even burlap will afford 
many problems of interest. The coarser the material, the 
more color is required on the stamp. The tone and texture 
of the cloth will affect the colors used, and the colors dry 
darker than when applied. 

The placing of the pattern upon the material is a problem 
in spacing. Trials can be made upon paper the size of the 
cloth, and, when satisfactory spacing is shown, it can be 
duplicated on the cloth. Trials upon small pieces of cloth 
will determine the texture and color effects. 

In printing several colors, some have used a separate 
block for each color. This requires care in cutting and in 
stamping, for a slight move in any direction will affect all 



the spaces of the design unit. Where a large repeat pattern 
seems to need additional spotting, according to its spacing, 
a supplementary block of harmonious design can be used 
between the larger printed masses, bringing them together. 
The use of blocks in this way will afford many interesting 

The block in Illustration No. 4 is repeated in Illustra- 
tion No. 6 on unbleached linen for a pillow top, and No. 5 is 
used in Illustration No. 7 on silk for a scarf. The back- 
ground of this border is filled in with embroidery. No. 8 
shows a ship pattern on unbleached linen. A unit has been 
inked on the photograph. The other illustrations show 
design units as registered from wood blocks. With the 
exception of Illustration No. 8 the blocks illustrated were 

made by the students of the normal graduating class, 
Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

As oil colors are apt to run on silk, the following mix- 
ture might be used for it : 

1 oz. acetic acid. 

1 oz. oil of wintergreen. 

1 pt. spirits of turpentine. 
Mix these in a bottle, let stand awhile, and shake thoroughly 
before using. Use smaller quantities in proportion . 

To insure the permanence of printed cloth, let it stand 
thirty days. The thinning fluid is then dried out and the 
body color remains firm. 


S. F. P. — The old piece you speak of is either glass or old glassy soft porce- 
lain, cannot say surely, from your description. It would be very unsafe to 
fire it in your overglaze kiln, as you do not know to what temperature to fire 
it. If you put it in the same firing as your overglaze painting, it will be 
absolutely spoiled. You might try to fire it at glass firing or a little higher, 
but it is exceedingly risky. 

Mrs. G. D. — For banding large pieces in color mix as for tinting,"as"much 
fat oil as color and flux combined and thin with oil of lavender to the desired 
depth of color. 

Mrs. C. E. F— See article on gold etching in July, 1903, Keramic Studio. 

M. D. B. — For thinning bright gold and lustres use oil of lavender. We 
will give articles on the making of grounding oil and other mediums in an 
early number of the "Class Room." We have no formula at present. 

M.L. — See articles on Enamel in November, 1905, Keramic Studio for a 
mixture of color such as § Royal Blue, ^ Copenhagen Blue to which is added 
^ Black. When the color is mixed then add it to the enamel in the pro- 
portions mentioned in the "Class Room," as if you were using a single color 
Write to the President of the National League, Mrs. Belle Vesey, 6228 Wabash 
Ave., Chicago, 111. She will give you the desired information as to the 
league, its exhibitions and its aims. For burnishing Bronzes usually the 
glass brush is sufficient; if not, use burnishing sand and water. If you bur- 
nish carefully there is no need of taking off the lustre which is next to it and 
which should be put on first for the same fire. Blue lustre* harmonizes best 
with soft yellow browns, of various shades. For the tree vases, the high 




polish over all is given by dusting all over with one color in which PearlGrey 
predominates or with'a specially prepared glaze like Ivory glaze, Azure glaze, 
etc., Any of these glazes can be used over any colors except that Ivory glaze 
is liable to destroy Iron Reds, such as Pompadour, Blood Red, Carnation, 
Orange Red, etc. Ruby lustre or Covering for gold give a reddish tone over 
gold; dark green also is good over gold. See articles on' Lustres in "Class 
Room" Keramic Studio, which also explain how to line cups with lustre. 


(Concluded from page 172) 

and melting snowflakes, although, unhappily, their beauty 
can not be described in words. 

The cup-shaped vases previously admired for their 
forms, must again be praised for their polychrome decora- 
tion, and, above all, for a superb pate-sur-pate treatment 
which can come only from the hands of such supreme 
masters of the ceramic art as Solon and Doat. 

In passing in review these cameo pieces, each one seems 
especially attractive by reason of its distinctive subject, 
color-combinations, and surface-effects; but the master- 
piece among them, as acknowledged by M. Doat himself, 
is the sevenfold vase, simulating reed-pipes and known 
as "The Flute of Pan." From the reproduction we can 
judge of the almost microscopic delicacy of the cameos, 
and the admirably devised reed motif which binds together 
the separate pipes; but we are left to imagine the quiet 
color-harmony made by the body of the flute with its sup- 
porting branches of pine leaves and cones. 

Perfection of the kind and degree incorporated in this 
vase is the direct outcome of the traditions of the Sevres 
factory. Enough of the old exists in the work to assert its 
ancestry, as the classic subject, forms, and emblems amply 
testify. Enough of the new vitalizes the work to witness 
that its parents were the brain and the hand of a thoroughly 
modern ceramist. Therefore, as the artistic conditions of a 
period may be judged by the highest attainments of that 
period, French ceramic art need not fear an approaching 
decline. Nor has it to apprehend harm resulting from the 
rapid progress made by the same art in Denmark. Distinc- 
tions between races are sharp. They can not be obliterated 
even by the free intercourse now everywhere established 
between nation and nation. Frenchmen keenly appre- 
ciate the beautiful; they have logical minds, and a longing 
after perfection that is not easily silenced. The Republic 
has thus far fostered the arts with the same care and en- 
thusiasm as was earlier done by the monarchical govern- 
ments. Finally, French art now stands free from any 
fault dependent upon chauvinisme. It recognizes the genius 
of other peoples. But it is to be hoped that it will remain 
faithful to its own great past; that it will renew and re- 
juvenate itself, but never seek to change its historical 

Magill CgL Ivory 

Importers aud Dealers in 


A premium given with all orders amounting to ten 
dollars and upwards. Write for list and catalogue. 
Classes in decorating four days every week. Estimates 
on large or small orders. China fired with oare. 

297 5tK Avenue, New YorK City 

Gold on Pouyat China. 

"All that glitters is not gold," is an old adage which 
does not apply to gold employed in the decoration of china, 
for all gold mixtures, whether they be "bright" or "burn- 
ish," must be developed by fire and therefore of necessity 
must be produced from pure gold as a basis, no matter how 
far they may be extended by the admixture of oils or es- 

Much of the success in perfect and permanent gilding 
depends upon the nature and quality of the glaze to which 
it is applied. If the glaze is not receptive in its action 
under fire, or is lacking in perfect uniformity of texture, 
"burnish" gold is very apt to appear "milky" in streaks 
when it comes from the kiln. 

This is especially true in cases where the amateur deco- 
rator attempts the risky method of "spinning out" a modicum 
of gold by putting in too much fat oil and turpentine. When 
gold thus thinned out strikes a spot or edge in the glaze 
that is dry or "starved," as the professional terms it, the 
result is a thin milky deposit which will not burnish. As 
this involves re-gilding and another firing, it becomes a 
heart-breaking operation to the amateur, as many of them 
will testify. 

Under the same conditions, "bright" gold will turn a 
purple hue which is in reality an elementary purple lustre. 

As previously stated the glaze to which gold is applied 
has much to do with the result and the amateur decorator 
should give as much consideration to this important factor 
as to any other requirement of the art. 

f In this respect the glaze of Pouyat Ghina presents a 
perfect surface for the reception of gold and every form of 
gilding properly applied to Pouyat China is certain to de- 
velop under fire into a rich, full rounded line, band or scroll. 
Years of patient study and experiment have brought the 
glaze on Pouyat China to a degree of perfection that makes 
for the highest satisfaction in gilding. There is an in- 
describable texture in the Pouyat glaze that gives a firm 
foundation for gold and color, and the method of selecting 
the white china for amateur decorators leaves nothing to 
be desired as a uniformly satisfactory porcelain for dis- 
criminating amateurs. 

Paroutaud & Watson, 37-39 Murray Street, New York. 



Best White China Made in Limoges 

PAROUTAUD FRERES, Manufacturers 
Catalogue and price list on application. 

Ceramic Importing Co. 

37-39 Murray St., NEW YORK. 



We handle only the first qualities of German and French wares. We have no 

expensive establishment to keep up. No high pricedlrentj tojipay. You get the 
benefit of these savings. Send for our price list. 

113 N. Center St., CORRY, PA. 





The Teacher of 
China Painting 


Better than six months lessons. 43 separate 
chapters of different branches of china decora- 
tions with illustrations. 

Conventional painting and its fundamental prin- 
ciples. Separate lessons in figure, flowers, fruit, 
leaves. Remedies for mistakes in firing, painting, 
glazing, etc. Everything about lustres, firing 
(thoroughly explained), ground-laying paste, etch- 
ing and transfers, recipes for gold, oils, silver, and 
everything belonging to china painting. Also 
opaque glass painting, silk painting, tapestry, oil 
painting, miniature. Every one of these chapters 
is worth the value of the book. 

Price 75 cents, postage 5 cents. 


1 12 Auditorium Building, 



Largest Store on Pacific Coast 

Devoted Exclusively to "WKite China, BeleeK 
and CHina Decorator's Supplies 

759-761 McAllister Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Mineral Transfer* 

for China Decoration in all it* Branches 


LEE ROESSLER, 116 S. High St. Columbus O 


A full line of Austrian Novelties in White China. Shirt Waist Buttons 40 cts. a 
dozen delivered at your homes. Gold Plated Backs at $1.80 a dozen. We deliver 
Fry's Paints and Sherratt's Gold. We have no catalogues, but will send you a sample 
barrel full of novelties upon request with references. 


Dept. D 34-9 So. Salina St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

White China for Decorating 

We are now prepared to fill orders for plain 
white china. Send for illustrated Catalogue. 


510 North Grand Ave. 608 Olive Street, 



so firm avc, 




*[)t>ly to Your Sut»|>1y House for Samples and Information. 




New prices on hat or brooch pins complete. Special prices in 
gross lots. 

Also baby or large bar pins complete. 

Doehler's Block, Rochester, N. Y. 

211-213 Clinton Ave. North. One minute'walk from N. Y. C, station. 



Store 59 Randolph St., 
Masonic Temple (oppo- 
site Marshall Field & Co.) 


Save Time ! ! — and Money ! ! 

Artists' Materials, All 
at Lowest Prices. J& J& & 

Mail Orders a Specialty. Write for Catalogue No. 5 


JAN 2 1907 

The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles mast not he reprinted -without special permission. 



The Class Room — The Art of Teaching- 
Editorial by Henrietta Barclay Paist 
Grapes — Naturalistic and Semi-Conventional 
Mountain Ash 
Decorative Studies of Fish 
Plate and Tile— Fish Motif 
Flaming Bush Borders 

Plate Borders — Bitter Sweet — Flaming Bush — Mountain Ash 
Border of High Bush Cranberries 
Grapes in Triangle 
Birds and Apple Blossoms, Panel 
Birds and Blackberries, Panel 
Cup and Saucer — Birds and Hawthorn 
Plate — Birds and Blackberries 
Design for Stein — Birds and Apple Blossoms 
Fern Dish — Butterflies 
Poppies and Cherry Blossoms (Supplement) 
Peacock Feather Motif for Plate Design 
Turkey Design for Plate 
Panel — Geranium 
Eagle Design for Plate or Bowl 
Flying Geese Design for Game Plate 
Small Bowls — Byzantine and Aztec Motifs 
The Crafts 

Art in Pewter continued Jules Brateau 

Answers to Correspondents 





The Rose Book, containing some of the best 
rose studies and designs published in 
Keramic Studio postpaid 

The Fruit Book, containing some of the best 
fruit studies and designs published 
in Keramic Studio postpaid 

Composition, by Arthur Dow postpaid 

Principles of Design, by E. Batchelder postpaid 

Decorative Studies, by J. Foord postpaid 

Plant Forms and Designs, by Midgley and 

Dilley postpaid 

Practical Pottery, elementary instruction 

for students, by Richard Dunn postpaid 

Grand Feu Ceramics, a practical treatise on 
the making of hard porcelain dec- 
orated with high temperature glazes 
by Taxile Doat of the Manufactory of 
Sevres. France postpaid 

Seger's Collected Writings, 2 volumes postpaid 

For the Collector: 

Vol. II Old China, bound blue cloth . . postpaid 
Vol. Ill Old China, bound blue cloth . postpaid 

Anglo-American Pottery, a manual for col- 
lectors, by Edwin Atlee Barber, Cura- 
tor of the Pennsylvania Museum, sec- 
ond edition postpaid 

American Glassware, old and new, by Edwin 

A. Barber postpaid 

Marks of American Potters, by Edwin A. 

Barber postpaid 

Pottery and Porcelain of the United States 

by Edwin A. Barber postpaid 

The Lace Book, by N. Hudson Moore ...... postpaid 

$ 3.00 











Tulip Ware of the Pennsylvania German 

Potters, by Edwin A. Barber, in pa- 
per cover , postpaid 1 . 10 

Cloth, limited edition. . postpaid 5.00 

The Primers of the Pennsylvania Museum 

(two already issued, Salt-glaze ware 

and Tin-enamelled ware) postpaid/. 50 and .60 

Encyclopedia of Ceramics, by W. P. Jervis . . postpaid 6.75 
The Old China Book, by N. Hudson Moore . . postpaid 2.18 
The Old Furniture Book, by N. Hudson 

Moore postpaid 2.18 

Old Pewter, by N. Hudson Moore postpaid 2.18 

Chats on English China, by Arthur Hay den . postpaid 2.18 
Chats on Old Furniture, by Arthur Hay den . postpaid 2.18 
China Collecting in America, by Alice Morse 

Earle postpaid 3.20 

Pottery and Porcelain, a guide to collectors, 

by Frederick Litchfield postpaid 6.25 

French Pottery and Porcelain by Henri 

Frantz postpaid 2.68 

Dutch Pottery and Porcelain, by W. Pit- 
cairn Knowles postpaid 2.68 

Old English Furniture, by Fred Fenn and 

B. Wyllie postpaid 2.68 

English Embroidery, by A. F. Kendrick. . .postpaid 2.68 

French Furniture, by Andre Saglio postpaid 2.68 

Old Pewter, by Malcolm Bell postpaid 2.68 

Sheffield Plate, by B. Wyliie postpaid 2.68 

The Oriental Rug Book, by Mary Churchill 

Ripley postpaid 3.20 

Home Furnishing, practical and artistic, by 

Alice M. Kellogg postpaid 1.65 

William Adams, an old English potter, by 

William S. Turner postpaid 8.00 

Heramic Studio F\ib Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Vol. VIII, No. 9 


January, 1907 

E extend a New Year's Greeting 
to our Keramic friends with 
full assurance that they will 
indeed enjoy this New Year's trip 
to the work-shop of Henrietta 
Barclay Paist, of Minneapolis, 
and that they will find in the 
West a vigor and originality 
which will be both instructive 
and inspiring. The next individ- 
ually edited number will be given in March. Margaret 
Overbeck is also a Western girl, teacher at DePaw In- 
stitute, Greencastle, Indiana. In May we return again 
to the East, our anniversary number being edited by Mr. 
Marshal Fry of New York. 

The next subject for the Class Room will be "Flower 
Painting" under which heading will be included the sub- 
divisions: Roses, white, pink, and crimson; Violets; Daf- 
fodils; Nasturtiums; Geraniums; Pansies; Forget-me-nots. 
Other flowers, white, pink, crimson, violet, purple, blue, 
yellow, orange and red. Miniature flowers. Prizes as 


Second Prize — Sydney Scott Lewis, Georgetown, Ky. 

Truly the art of teaching china painting is an art. 

To know how to take a piece of china and decorate it, 
then to be able to teach others how to do it, the teacher of 
china painting must not only train the eye and hand, but 
the taste as well, and to so direct it that the pupil will learn 
not only what is best to decorate for different uses, and how 
to decorate, but why. 

The writer of this article has for six years taught china 
painting, with but few exceptions the pupils have geen 
beginners, the class generally changing from year to year, 
only an occasional one remaining long enough to become in a 
measure an advanced pupil, and the experience so gained 
may be useful to others, especially in the teaching of be- 
ginners. When she began teaching, she was a beginner 
herself, although having had more training than the young 
woman who wanted to take five or six lessons "not to be- 
come an artist but to be able to teach." She was obliged 
to do simple things, so naturally the pupils had to begin 
with simple things also, and gradually, as experience grew, 
to work up to more ambitious things. This plan has 
seemed so good to the teacher that even with the gaining 
of greater experience and confidence this early method 
has been followed. 

The majority of the pupils were boarding school girls 
who "wanted some pretty things to take home." So 
it has been a fight to keep to quality of work and not quan- 
tity, to stand up for simple conventional designs on table 
ware, especially to wage war against bunches of flowers 
painted on the center of plates and dishes. However, 
as a result of judicious advice and the exhibition of some 
well chosen pieces, they were generally sent home with a 
fair amount of cups and saucers, plates and bowls, with 

which they will be able to live in peace and pleasure, and 
out of which they may eat in the same state of mind. 

Surely it is best that the would be china painter should 
have some training in drawing, but if this is not the case, 
try and alternate painting lessons with drawing, and if that 
is not to be, by all means keep them to the purely con- 
ventional style, teaching them how to make an exact trac- 
ing of a design, and how to accurately transfer it to the 
piece to be decorated. 

If one is starting a class of beginners, say six or more, 
or even a less number, much can be taught them by the 
class method, at least much of the elementary work. See 
that each one has a full list of good colors, first class oils 
and mediums, well selected brushes and an improved 
palette. The first step is to show them how to mix colors 
and set a palette. Take one of the palettes and let them 
watch you mix such colors as they will need for general 
painting. Let them see a palette arranged "decently and 
in order" with clean well mixed colors, and impress on 
them the necessity of this in order to do satisfactory work. 

Suppose one of the pupils is to do a set of plates in 
some simple conventional design on the border, with de- 
sign wiped out from the tint, filled in with color and the 
whole outlined. Here is an excellent chance to instruct 
the entire class in dividing the plate into the desired parts, 
drawing and transferring the design, mixing and putting 
on a tint, explaining just the proportion of flux, color, 
medium or oil required. Have them watch the stroke 
with which the paint is put on, the kind of brush used, 
the way to make and handle the pad, the way the tinted 
surface should look when finished ; then the very important 
step, cleaning out the paint from the design carefully and 
accurately. Next how to fill in the design with any de- 
sired color ; then outline (only when the pupil does the 
work the piece should be fired before outlining), showing 
them how to take up the paint and hold the brush, in order 
to make long, even, unbroken lines, calling their attention 
to the way the piece is held, so as to avoid finger marks 
and spots on the fresh color. When you are doing the 
work yourself, be so careful, so neat, that spots and specks 
will be out of the question. When you make a mistake 
never hesitate to rub out and begin again, thus setting a 
good example. When you are working, impress on the 
students that this is the way you want them to do similar 
work and the chances are 9 to 10 that they will have fol- 
lowed you so closely in many things that they will be able 
to bring a piece of work through these steps without much 
more instruction. 

Having them imitate you does not mean that their 
individuality is not to be encouraged, but start them the 
right way and their individuality will adapt itself to that 
just as easily as it would the wrong way. Then as ex- 
perience comes, let them go at the work by any method by 
which they can reach the best results. But you will find 
that their method will more or less follow the teacher's. 
All well, if they have been correctly started, but, alas! 
quite the reverse if not. 

In this class method teach them to mix and use paste 
and enamel, to put on gold and silver, telling them Roman 



gold is for white china, unfluxed for tinted, etc. Give them 
a general lesson in the way to wash and put away brushes. 
Let them watch you put on a grounded color and paint in 
a background, explaining fully the difference in a ground, 
a tint and a background. Encourage them to ask questions 
of you and of each other, and to help each other. Often 
one will excel in putting on a design, another in grounding 
a color, another in outlining. Let them help each other 
over some of these hard places, by showing others how to 
do what they understand best. It makes them feel that 
there is something that they really can do, and gives them 
confidence, and will teach them how to teach, if ever the 
need be. Show them how to fire a kiln, to stack it and 
understand it in an intelligent way. Make friends with 
them and let them feel how personal your interest is in each 
one. Praise their work when it is good or shows earnest 
work. Teach them to have a fine enthusiasm for it all, 
but never allow careless or badly executed work to stand, 
let them understand that work like that is without merit, 
and have it taken out, even though it loses the work of 
days. Teach them that a simple design well placed and 
well executed is worth all the badly done, overdone pieces, 
even though they be gay with gold and enamel, that the 
use of gold is to beautify and not to cover defects, and is 
only beautiful when rightly used. 

If some insist on trying at the first naturalistic work, 
let them attempt the simplest things possible, on a panel 
for instance. It is more difficult to select simple naturalistic 
designs than conventional ones, but if one must have them, 
most excellent ones are found in almost every number 
of Keramic Studio. Taken as a whole, often many of 
them are too complicated for the beginner, but parts of 
them may easily be worked out by following the directions 
given by the designers and the advice of the teacher. 
For small roses Mrs. Safford gives many designs and very 
explicit directions, follow as nearly as possible her designs 
and directions. 

Of course the class lessons are only to show a few 
general elementary principles, as they come up from time 
to time and in such a way that beginners can take ad- 
vantage of them. The more advanced students have 
already been taught these things and what they need the 
most is personal aid and advice, as their work requires. 
Every teacher of china painting, to be successful, must 
adapt herself more or less to the individual need of each 
pupil. There are even in a small class every variety of 
pupils. There will be the persevering, painstaking, hard- 
working one, who works for the pure love of it, but who 
somehow seems never to get along or turn out any cred- 
itable work. They just cannot learn how to paint china 
and yet insist on doing it. There is the pupil who is careless, 
the one who is inattentive to your instruction, the one who 
shirks at the hard work, expecting the teacher to do that, 
the one who is taking lessons to kill time or because her 
mother wants her to. Then there is the really talented 
pupil who with time and instruction will make a good 
decorator but who after a few lessons knows more than 
her teacher. For all these pupils the teacher needs to put 
on the armor of patience, perseverance and impartiality. 
Once in a while, there is the student working for art's 
sake, careful, painstaking, always Avilling to do over and 
over to bring a piece of work to perfection, who may never 
be doing any very original and brilliant work but always 
work that can be pronounced good. Then rarely, 
very rarely indeed, there comes a student both original 
and brilliant, who will be a joy and an inspiration for the 

teacher, and may be a compensation for all less satisfactory 

Many of the best teachers teach entirely by giving 
private lessons and doing all the work, letting the student 
watch the entire process from first to last. Generally the 
pupil watches them through the lesson and then duplicates 
the piece of work as nearly as possible under their super- 
vision. Instruction in this way is only advisable after 
one has studied and worked enough to be able to follow one 
of these expert painters intelligently. But a few hours 
instruction from them is worth months and months of lessons 
from less experienced teachers. 

A plain, flat piece of china (not too small) is the most 
advisable for a beginner to start on. A very good piece 
is a plate, say, a dinner plate. The beginner is to put on 
it some conventional design on the order of those by Mrs. 
Price in the Keramic Studio, May 1905, or some of Miss 
Mason's designs, many of which are to be found in the 

First make a correct tracing of design, divide plate 
into the desired number of parts, trace design on plate 
and outline in India ink. Next outline with a mixture 
made by using ^ Copenhagen Blue, + Banding Blue and 
a little Black. Fire. 


Paint in background § Copenhagen Blue, ^ Banding. 
Mix with enough medium to paint on evenly. When 
nearly dry, dust with Copenhagen Blue. 


Tint the whole plate with Neutral Yellow (mix this 
with Fry's Tinting Oil) put on as a tint and padded. If 
desired, dust with Copenhagen Blue. 


Tint whole plate Deep Blue Green. 

This treatment gives a charming effect in a soft grey- 
ish greenish blue, and, in doing this piece, the pupil is 
taught to put on a conventional design, to outline, to 
paint in a one tone background, to dry dust a surface and 
to put on a tint. The plate is also very effective carried 
only through the third fire. The designs can also be 
treated by omitting the outline and painting in the back- 
ground and wiping out the design, for first fire. 

Another simple design is plate in seaweed Keramic 
Studio, November 1902, carried out in two tones of green 
and outlined in gold or black. The plate by Miss Smith, 
Keramic Studio, May 1905, was very easily done by a 
beginner by doing flowers and border in gold, leaves and 
stems in green gold, no outline. |jM 

For a vase the China Lily design by EmmaTErvin 
Keramic Studio, July 1904, is simple and effective, 
adapting itself readily to simple vase forms. 

In the Studio may be found any number of tea tiles 
in conventional designs that are especially recommended 
to beginners. They are simple in treatment, easy to handle, 
and may be carried out in color, lustre or enamel. See 
tile by Miss E. Mason, Keramic Studio, September 1904. 

For work in enamel, Mrs. Leonard has given many 
designs. A cup and saucer, October 1901, may be carried 
out in various enamels but is very good in blue and green. 
Also design in enamel by Emily F. Peacock, July 1902. 

For lustre, Miss Mason's design for coffee set could 
be used by a beginner to good effect on a tall straight vase 
or one shaped somewhat like coffee pot, or on stein. The 
greatest difficulty would be in tracing and placing cor- 
rectly the design on the piece of china. After that, outline 
in black paint, then put on gold where gold is indicated. 




GRAPES (Treatment page 204) 



IS there not more than 
*■ one legitimate type of 
decoration ? After all that 
has been written on this subject 
in favor of conventionalism, this is 
still the cry that goes up from the 
vast number of students, who, as lovers 
of Nature, loath to sacrifice any of her 
charming irregularities of form or color, 
plead for more liberty than is permitted by 
the canons of pure design. . We, who are in 
touch with this army of workers, helping, sug- 
gesting, supplying their needs, realize that there 
must be compromises; that there should be a 
platform upon which those of different tastes 
may meet. 

For the majority of us, the journey from the 
natural to the abstract has been slow, having 
been begun with the study of methods instead 
of principles. We cannot all see through the 
same eyes, and what is beautiful to one does 
not appeal to another. "There is nothing ab- 
solute in art, art is not a science," but there are 
principles which govern it, and which if violated 
lead to confusion. It is these which must be 
studied first, methods and technique afterwards. 

Now let us see if we cannot, through an under- 
standing of these principles, effect a comprom- 
ise which will result in a type of decoration that 
will satisfy us as lovers of nature, without offend- 
ing the advocates of pure design. Naturalism 
is defined as "truth of aspect," conventionalism 
as "truth of construction and detail"; nature 
the inspiration, the foundation of both. An 
accepted authority on this subject defines de- 
sign as the orderly expression of an idea, and 
rhythm, balance and harmony as the princi- 
ples of order and beauty. A conventional ar- 
rangement and treatment of a motif is undoubt- 
edly the surest way of obtaining order in a de- 
sign. However, because a decoration is con- 
ventional in treatment, it is not necessarily 
orderly or beautiful; because a decoration is 
naturalistic in treatment it does not follow that 
it is disorderly or in bad taste, het us then 
waive the terms naturalistic and conventional, 
and take for our standard the orderly arrange- 

The Japanese type of decoration 
bears witness that a naturalistic or 
semi-naturalistic arrangement need not 
violate the principles of rhythm, bal- 
ance and harmony. On 
the contrary these princi- 
ples are the basis of Japa- 

nese art. Rhythm is the 
concerted movement 
throughout a design or deco- 
ration which carries the eye 
from one part to another. That 
movement may be swift or slow, 
it may be secured by repetition or 
otherwise, but it must be continu- 
ous, always carrying the eye back into 
and not away from the design. Rhythm 
may be expressed through the orderly ar- 
rangement of a decoration even though the 
treatment be naturalistic or semi-naturalistic. 

There are two ways of obtaining balance, 
either through symmetry, the opposition of 
equal attraction, or by the opposition of unequal 
attraction, which is a higher type of balance 
and which characterizes the best in the art of 
Japan. The word harmony, though itself sug- 
gesting what it comprehends, may be said to be 
the delicate adjustment of the component parts, 
making them mutually dependent, and consider- 
ing the relation of lines and tones as well as color. 
A harmonious effect may be secured in a dec- 
oration having a naturalistic treatment, but 
the question arises how to discriminate between 
decorative naturalism and realism. The one 
is impressionistic, the other a literal rendering 
of the subject. The latter draws attention to 
itself to the exclusion or the object decorated, 
the former deals only with the main character- 
istics, emphasizing them, eliminating unnecessary 
detail, and, by a refinement of color, bringing out 
the poetic qualities. Thus an impression is 
produced rather than a reality, which contri- 
butes to the beauty of the form without over- 
shadowing it. "Put away the allurements of 
imitative naturalism, except in so far as they 
may be made to contribute and be subservient 
to the effect and purpose of the whole." The 
decorative quality is hard to define. Its domin- 
ant characteristics may be said to be simplicity 
in color and construction. In the realm of 
flowers, the wild varieties are consequently more 
easily adapted than the cultfvated. with a few 
notable exceptions, such as the poppy and nas- 
turtium of the garden. 

Birds and fish are extremely decora- 
tive in color, especially when in mo- 
tion, their ryhthmic qualities lend- 
ing themselves admirably to design. 

Order and simplicity 
should characterize the 
decoration of china for 


POPPY AND CHERRY BLOSSOMS — Henrietta Barclay paist 







table service and here must be considered not only the effect 
of the single piece, but of a number of pieces upon each 

Mrs. Safford's arrangements of the grape motif on 
page 62 of the July number are interesting examples of 
rhythm and balance, coupled with a decorative or semi- 
naturalistic treatment. An orderly and most pleasing 
arrangement may be obtained by a repetition of one such 

Border decorations are particularly appropriate to 
plates. A pleasing compromise in borders is a combina- 
tion of the abstract design with a delicate suggestion of 
flowers in the background. The design tends to hold 
the flowers in place, and the effect of the whole is orderly. 
Let us then at least make our decorations more orderly 
in arrangement and more decorative in treatment, even 
though preserving entirely the identity of the motif. 

So far, we have considered the decoration of objects 
of use. There is also a class known as objects of art. Here 
the article should be judged from the standpoint of beauty 
alone, utility not being considered. Room for interest- 
ing experiment thus is afforded in new adaptations and 
applications, the same principles being carefully observed, 
for, while art is long, it is also broad, and classifications 
will multiply to make room for successful experiment. 

Considering the illustrations in this number, this 
article is not likely to be construed as an argument in 
favor of the naturalistic as opposed to the conventional 
in decoration, rather is it intended to encourage and make 
room for the conscientious student, who, while not entirely 
in sympathy with the purely conventional, is nevertheless 
open to conviction. The desire to make something beau- 
tiful is innate, and no effort in this direction should be 
discouraged, but instead, directed with patience and 
charity past the mile-stones which mark the development 
of taste and judgment. 

Henrietta Barclay Paist 


After placing the design, tint all over with Grey Green, 
outline with Black and fire. Lay a wash of Grey Green 
over the finish and make the bodies a tone darker by dry 
dusting with same color. 

The outline is so strong as to suggest a path around 
the design, this will need a second painting, to strengthen 
and make it uniform; clean out the eyes and fire. The 
effect is heightened by a wash of Dark Red or Yellow 
Green lustre over the whole. 

The panels, same motif, are problems in rhythm and 
balance. The color and treatment same as for plate and tile. 



20 1 


(Treatment page 211) 





OR carrying out the designs a few general directions 
fffittg will simplify and lead to a clearer understanding. 
[JL ** j n the first place it is understood that the designs, 
YYjf with few exceptions, are traced and outlined on 
/FgJ china with India ink before the work is begun. 

To avoid repetition this is dropped from the in- 
dividual directions. For outlining, when black is 
mentioned, Dresden Outlining Black is meant. 
La Croix Dark Green and Violet of Iron, Dresden 
Banding Blue and Finishing Brown are satisfac- 
tory colors. Outlining may be done either. with 
brush or pen. For delicate lines the pen is best. For strong 
outlining the brush (a number one tracer) gives the best 
results. The brush outline expresses more "feeling" than 
the pen. 

Where Neutral Yellow is recommended, Miss Mason's 
is the most satisfactory, but this color needs thorough 
grinding. A substitute may be made with a mixture of 
Ivory or Yellow Ochre and a touch of Black to gray it. 
If Yellow Ochre is used add a touch also of Deep Red 
Brown to keep it from turning green. Where Gray Green 
is mentioned, use the prepared color or, for substitutes, 
La Croix Dark Green softened with Neutral Yellow and 
used thin, or Aulich's Olive Green are satisfactory. 

The frequent suggestion of the use of Neutral Yellow 
and Gray Green is because they are so harmonious with 
the majority of colors. Variety is not so much our aim 
as harmony, which explains the use of a limited palette. 
The promiscuous use of lustres is not favored, but 
in the painting of butterflies and birds, especially peacocks, 
the judicious use of lustres will result in the most charming 



FEP Red Brown is used for the Flaming Bush 
(central plate design) very thin on the calyx and 
stem and deep on the berry. Blood Red may be 
used instead for the berry as it is stronger. For 
the inner band, lay a thin wash of Deep Red 
Brown with a line of Gold either side . 

For the Bitter-Sweet, paint the calyx and stems 

Yellow Brown and the berry with Capucine Red.. 

the inner band with Capucine Red (thin), with Gold 

boundary line. 

for a 

The Mountain-Ash berry is painted with Capucine 
Red, stems with Olive Green. The color is laid flat in 
every case and one can with care and practice make one 
painting do. The outline should be gone over, however, 
a second time as the color has dimmed the first painting. 

& & 

TPHESE are two different positions of the same motif, 
' and for the coloring of both see directions for this motif 
in plate border. A gold background is wonderfully effec- 
tive if used as a border for steins, the outlines in black 
must be kept sharp and clean, and left for the third firing. 
The gold will require two coats. 


C^OR the adaptation of this design we would suggest 
* the use of a vase or large bowl or stein. The stem may 
be abbreviated to suit the height of the piece. For a 
background for this decoration make a choice between 
Vandyke Brown, Neutral Yellow and Grey Green. The 
berries are painted with Capucine Red, leaves and stems 
in Grey Green. The outlining may be done with Dark 
Green, Violet of Iron or Black. 

The berries are not outlined, but a path is formed 
around them by letting in the background. If the edges 
are clean and sharp, no other outline is necessary. 

*• «r 


THE report that a Swedish company has leased the old 
quarries in Iona Island, and that their famous white 
and serpentine marble will soon be placed on the market, 
calls to mind that the quarries were wrought ages ago. 
Their output, however, says the Westminster Gazette, has 
long been limited to a few occasional stones for the purposes 
of charm and local jewelry manufacture. 

The altar in the old cathedral was made entirely of 
white marble, quarried and cut in the island, and, although 
there is no record of the material being exported, it is sur- 
mised that a similar use had been found for the stone in ec- 
clesiastical buildings elsewhere, both in this country and on 
the continent. 

The marble of which the Iona charms and jewelry are 
mosty manufactured is of a fine pale greenish hue. 










HpHB design is intended for a stein, and the treatment 

* is the same as^that given for the mountain ash suggested 
for^bowl or vase. It may also be carried in lustres, Orange 
Yellow for the berries, Dark Green for leaves and stems, 
and Yellow for background. 

GRAPE DESIGN (Page 197) Naturalistic Treatment 

'T'HIS decoration illustrates the suggestion already made 

* of a conventional arrangement carried out with a 
naturalistic treatment. The decoration repeats three 
times on the tankard, and may be carried out in any of the 
natural colors. The values given in the cut would suggest 
the Tokay grape, the colors for these being Moss Green, 
Olive Green, Deep Red Brown and Violet of Iron, a 
thin wash of Copenhagen Blue being laid on the upper 
left hand portion next to* the high lights. This suggests the 
bloom of the fruit. The stems are carried out in Yellow 
Brown, and Shading Brown, the leaves as usual in Olive, 
Moss and Dark Green. The reverse side of the lower 
leaf where seen, is first modeled with Copenhagen Blue 
glazed with Moss Green in second painting. The choice 
of background is between Grey Green, Vandyke Brown 
or Ivory, or it may be shaded, beginning at the top with 
Olive Green, and running into Brown Green, and Dark 
Green at the base. 


f\NE pleasing color scheme for this panel is in Purple, 
^^ Yellow and Green. Tint the panel with Ivory Yellow 
to which has been added one-fourth Demon Yellow, clean 
out the grapes and leaves, lay in the grapes and with a 
flat wash of Purple made by mixing one-half Da Croix, 
Violet of Gold (or any Violet preferred), one-fourth Dark 
Blue, one-fourth Black, lay in leaves with Grey Green, 
.stems, not too dark, with Dark Brown to which a little 
Black has been added to grey it. After firing, strengthen 
the design with the same colors keeping the washes flat 
with the exceptions of the stems which are accented with 
the original color. Outline the leaves with Dark Green. 
Another suggestion for this panel would be a monochrome, 
using grey green background, pale green grapes and 
darker grey green leaves. 


IN the original design the unit was large enough to re- 
* peat five times on a fourteen inch punch bowl. The 
present size is adaptable to the cups. A suggestion for 
its treatment is as follows: 

The triangular enclosure would be better omitted, 
as the unit itself is suggestive of that form. Tint the 
bowl with Ivory, clean out the grapes and leaves, and 
dry thoroughly. The leaves may be laid in with Olive 
Green, the stems with Black and the grapes with Green 
Gold, the veins of the leaves and the tendrils cleaned 
out and filled with Green Gold. The same treatment is 
repeated for the second painting, care being taken to have 
the edges everywhere clear and sharp. 

The leaves and tendrils may be outlined with "Dark 
Green, but the grapes are most pleasing with only the 
path made by the background. This design may also be 
carried out in two shades of Gold, using Green Gold for 
the leaves, tendrils and stems, veining the latter with Dark 
Green, and the Grapes laid in with Roman Gold. In this 
case the entire design would be outlined with. Black, leav- 
ing this to the last firing. If the gold scheme is used a 
still richer effect is secured by tinting the entire bowl 
with Dark Green Lustre for a third firing. 





(Treatment page 208) 



^^^l^e^r5 > ^^^2S^ L 


(Treatment page 208) 


(Treatment page 208) 




THIS combination of birds and spring blossoms is 
a happy one, suggesting bird life in its natural surround- 
ings. This little design may be adapted to a stein, cylinder 
vase or any article severe in outline. Let us choose Black 
for the band as a background for the yellow birds and 
pink blossoms, and for the lower portion and space above 
the band Ivory or Grey Green, stems in a thin wash of 

Shading Brown, leaves in Grey Green, two tones darker 
than background. Paint the birds and center of flowers 
in Orange Yellow, markings of birds in Black and the 
flowers and buds in a thin wash of Deep Red Brown. The 
path around the design is the color of the lower background, 
the whole outlined with Black. Orange and Black Lustres are 
effective for birds and background in place of colors given. 

*T*HIS design is an abstract rendering of butterfly motif, 
* and because of the use for which it is intended, a treat- 
ment in three shades of green is suggested. The body of the 
dish as well as the background of the unit may be tinted 
with Moss Green; the wings and the lower part of the 
body in Olive Green and upper part of the body in Dark 
Green. The outlining of the legs, antennae and the two bands 


confining the border may be either Dark Green or Black. 
For variation Green Gold may be substituted in place of 
Moss Green. 

The wings will be made iridescent in effect by a wash 
of Dark Green Lustre, or if Gold be chosen for the back- 
ground the entire band may have a wash of Green Lustre 
for the last fire. 





N carrying out the treatment for the poppy panel, 
use Vandyke Brown, Capucine Red, Grey Green 
and Black. 

Tint the panel all over with Vandyke Brown, 
clean out the leaves, stems, and the pod in the 
centre of the flower and lay in a flat wash of Grey 
Green. Paint the stamens with Black, outline the 
leaves with Dark Green, the flower with Violet of 
Iron and fire. For the second painting, model the 
flower with a mixture of Vandyke Brown and one- 
fifth Capucine Red, strengthen the leaves where they 

turn over with Olive Green, and the stamens with Black. 

The effect is more pleasing if the outline is not too sharp. 


For this background use also Vandyke Brown. For the 
first firing, tint, cut out the flowers and leaves, and 
dry. Lay in the leaves with Olive Green, stems with 
Copenhagen Grey, shade the flowers just enough to separ- 
ate them and outline with Grey Green. Use a touch of 
Albert Yellow in the centres, and suggest the stamens 
with Grey Green. 

After firing, strengthen the leaves where necessary, 
shade the stems with Black, strengthen the stamens and 
outline the leaves with Dark Green. 


A FTKR placing the drawing, tint the panel with Grey 
**• Green. Clean out the bird and flowers, paint the bird 
with Yellow Brown, greyed with Black, and Black mark- 
ings. For the blossoms, model delicately with Grey 
Green and touch the edges of the flowers and the buds 
with Deep Red Brown, use a touch of Yellow in the cen- 
tres and Yellow Brown for the stamens. Lay a wash of 
Olive Green over the leaves and a wash of Yellow Brown 
and Black over the stems. 

For the second firing, wash the bird delicately with 
Yellow Ochre to which has been added a touch of Black. 
Strengthen the Black markings again, paint the darkest 
leaves with Dark Green, strengthen the centres of the 
flowers, accent the stems with touches of Black, and fire. 


LET us choose as a background for this composition a 
rich yellow. For this mix Yellow Ochre and Orange 
Yellow in equal parts. The bird will be yellow and black, 
the Orange Yellow on the breast and head. For the back 
and wings a mixture of Yellow Ochre and Black, accented 
with pure Black. The berries are in varying tones of purple 
and black, using Copenhagen Blue for the lightest ones, 
modeled with the same. For the darker ones the lights 
are Copenhagen Blue and the modeling done with a mix- 
ture of Dark Blue, Ruby and Black in equal parts. It 
would be well to suggest an unripe condition in one or two 
of the smallest berries, this being secured with the use of 
Moss Green and Olive Green, with a touch of Violet of Iron 
to suggest the ripening process. The leaves are painted 
with Moss Green, Olive Green, Dark Green, Violet of Iron 
and Copenhagen Grey. The reverse side of the leaves 
painted in the latter color for the first fire, the other leaves 

modeled with the first three colors, stems in Moss Green, 
and shaded with Violet of Iron. In the suggestion of the 
blossoms after the petals have fallen the center is Albert 
Yellow, and Moss Green for the sepals, these with the 
stamens being touched with Violet of Iron. 


I F this is carried out in mineral color use Orange Yellow 
* for birds, Olive Green stems, a touch of Deep Red 
Brown or Rose on the blossoms. Lay the background 
in Green Gold, outlines and flower centers in Black. 

i? *> 

A FTBRplacing the design with India Ink, tint all over with 
■**■ Neutral Yellow. Clean out the design and the path 
around the design. Lay birds with Albert's Yellow, 
leaves with Grey Green or Olive Green, berries with a color 
made by mixing Banding Blue, Ruby Purple and Black, 
(equal parts), lay in stems with Yellow Brown, make the 
path .around the design and the inner band with Gold. 
Be sure that the china is perfectly clean before applying 
the Gold. Now dry thoroughly and outline with Black 
to hold the drawing. After firing, the birds may be 
strengthened by having a wash of Orange Yellow. If 
the leaves and berries seem weak or uneven in color, re- 
peat the wash, using same colors, lay on a second coat of 
Gold if it looks thin or uneven. Dry, outline again and 

The birds may be painted with Orange Lustre; if this 
is done, leave the Lustre for the third fire as the outline 
should be perfect and should have been fired twice before 
the Lustre is applied. 

*• ■? 


TINT the borders with Neutral Yellow. After drying shade 
the birds with Yellow Brown and Shading Brown, 
leaving the Neutral Yellow for the lightest spots in the 
tail. For the red part of the head, use Pompadour Red; 
for the inner band, suggesting grass, the path around the 
turkeys and the outer border, Olive Green. The outline 
is Black. After firing, strengthen the color and outlin- 
ing where the}" appear to be weak. 

•e *• 


RECENT advices from England say that Sherard Cowper 
Coles has invented a new process by which, it is 
claimed, metals can be burned into one another at a temper- 
ature hundreds of degrees below the melting point of any 
one of the metals, thus enabling new effects to be obtained 
and also the blending of various metals, which hitherto has 
been impossible. Inlaid metal work can be produced similar 
in effect to the finest damascening, or, on the other hand, the 
process readily lends itself to larger work requiring greater 
boldness, such as panels. 

By a variation of temperature the depth of the inlay 
can be regulated, and at the same time one metal can be 
considerably raised above the other, at the will of the oper- 
ator. Very pleasing effects can be obtained by the process. 

— Jewelers Circular. 








THIS is just a little composition, purely naturalistic in 
growth, conventional in treatment and quite Japanesque 
in effect. In the original sketch which was twice this 
size the background was Grey Green, the leaves and stems 
three tones of Grey Green, the flower a flat wash of Pompa- 
dour Red and the branch in Yellow Brown, which had 
been grayed with Black. The outlines were in Black. 
These different panels illustrative of composition 
may be carried out on china, or in water color on Japanese 
paper, mounted on some harmonious background, and 
framed with a narrow molding of black. 

*? *• 

TINT the plate all over with Neutral Yellow, outline 
design and fire. For the second painting, lay over the 
birds a flat wash of Yellow Brown, accenting with Fin- 
ishing Brown and Black. For the part of the background 
indicated by the darker tone, tint with Vandyke Brown. 
Outline and fire. If the colors are not strong repeat the 
directions for second painting and fire again. 


HpHIS decoration was intended for a ten inch plate, 
having a two inch border, the inner band being carried 
into the centre of the plate. This may be done in mon- 
ochrome in two tones of Copenhagen Grey, outlined with 
Black, or in two tones of Brown. The unit repeats three 


A FTER tracing the design, tint the border of the plate 
•**■ exclusive of the design with Neutral Yellow. The central 
figure of the design as well as the small unit in the inner 
border are in Black. The light background behind the 
design is in Moss Green or Emerald Green. The dark 
spots around the central figure are in Night Green. The 
enclosing line and all outlines are Black, the panels of 
the inner band being Moss or Emerald Green. For the 
second painting strengthen the colors of the design and 
outline again. This is beautiful in Lustres, using only 
Black and Dark Green or Yellow Green, with a touch of 
Orange Yellow in the two little spots at base of unit. 


TINT with Neutral Yellow, clean the flowers and 
leaves, lay in the flowers flat with Capucine Red except 
where the calyx shows through the petals, touch this in 
with Albert's Yellow. 

For the leaves, use Grey Green, laying flat and not 
too heavy. The inner band is laid on with Capucine and 
the stems of Grey Green, cut the band at intervals and 
form a finish to the lower edge. Dry well before firing 
and outline with Outlining Black or Dark Green. After 
firing, repeat the wash on the flowers and leaves, outline 
again and fire. Any nasturtium color may be substituted 
for the one suggested, as the background tint will har- 
monize with all. The soft tan color found in some is 
beautiful and may be obtained by painting with Vandyke 
Brown and then dry dusting with Neutral Yellow. Van- 
dyke Brown alone is a good nasturtium color. 


THE stem and calyx of the flowers are in Grey Green, 
the tip of the bud and the inner band are in Capucine Red, 
finished on either side with Gold, the outlines Black. Neu- 
tral Yellow or Yellow Ochre is the best background for 
these designs. 







COR the little bowl with border suggestive of the Byzan- 
* tine motif a combination of Green and Black is effect- 
ive. Tint the bowl with Moss Green, dry dust, and 
fire. After spacing, lay in a design (free hand) with Black. 
The_ inside of the bowl may be lined with Dark Green 

Lustre. Another stunning combination is that of Fry's 
Imperial Ivory and Black. Proceed in the same way as 
for the Green and Black scheme, by tinting first with 
Ivory, then dry dusting to darken the color, Tint the 
inside of the bowl with Orange Lustre. 


THE little bowl with Aztec border is pretty in Ivory and bands, and fire. After firing, the Black only will need 
Black. Tint the bowl all over with Neutral Yellow except retouching. A free hand rendering of this design is entirely 
for the two black bands. Dry, and paint on the design and possible if the bowl is properly spaced before beginning. 


Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, Room 23, 22 East 16th St., New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 

Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine u?ider this head. 

Summer Address, care of Keramic Studio Pub. Co , Syracuse, N. Y. 

All questions must I 

: received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries'" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

Mereaux, Medals, Coins, Insignia in Pewter, XII, XIII. XIV. Centuries— Cluny Mu 


Jules- Brateau 

FOR several centuries during the Middle Ages, West- 
ern Europe was troubled by wars and internal dis- 
orders. There was no security in town or country. The 
monasteries alone were respected, and there important 
communities were formed, in which the artisans found a 
refuge and a place where they might work in peace. Charm- 
ing objects were executed in these retreats, and it is doubt- 
ful whether some of them could have been made under 
other conditions. 

The illumination of manuscripts was one of the me- 
diaeval arts, and we speak of it because tin was used in 
the process of illumination, in thin pressed sheets; the soft 
whiteness of the metal showing beneath the interlacing of 
delicate ornaments. This tin is to-day as bright as when 
it was applied, while silver would have oxidized. 

It was in monasteries that the traditions of civiliza- 
tion were preserved; that letters and arts still flourished 
in freedom. Thanks to such protection, when peace was 
finally restored, a galaxy of skilled artisans, sculptors, 
painters, architects, illuminators, pewterers, and gold- 
smiths, were ready to work for the newborn bourgeoisie, 
and for a nobility, still restless, but willing to spend its war 
booty in the decoration of castles. 

Security having been assured in cities by the estab- 
lishment of the Commons, the trade corporations were able 

to work in peace. Pewterers fashioned many pitchers, 
bowls and plates, and, among peasants and people of 
moderate means, originated the custom of placing on the 
mantelpiece the utensils of daily use. Out of tin were 
made the measures for liquids, and other vessels for com- 
mercial purposes. Pewterers cast for the middle classes 

No. 11 
Chalice, Pewter, XIII. Century — Cluny Museum, Paris 



No. 12 
Salt Altar, Pewter, XIII. Century— Cluny Museum, Paris 

many dishes of fine shapes, but simple, and with little 
decoration. We see nothing yet of the beautiful work 
which makes the glory of the XVI. century. Notwith- 
standing an abundant manufacture, we do not find any 
objects modeled and chased in fine relief. But the great 
development of the industry at that time led to a 
perfection and quality of work which we do not find in the 
earlier periods. 

When royal ordinances reserved the use of gold and 
silver for the nobility, and forbade it to the middle classes, 
the richer men of the latter station had objects made of 
pewter, which were both useful and sufficiently decorated 
to be classed as ornaments. These they placed on dressers, 
so that the beauty and brilliancy of the pieces might dec- 
orate the room in which they held their feasts and gather- 

In addition to utensils for the decoration of dressers, 
pewterers made small plaques, called mereaux, many of 
which are found to-day. According to G. Bapst, these 
mereaux varied much in shape, purpose, and decoration; 
they even passed as money in places where such use was 
authorized. But their most important employment was 
as badges for members of societies and corporations, or 
in the markets as a means of supervision, and on mer 
chandise as a sign of guarantee. Some of them were dec- 
orated with the effigy and the insignia of the saint of the 
church in which they were sold to pilgrims. Inscribed on 
them were the prayers which the saint had the power to 
grant, and words in remembrance of the pilgrimage. There 

were other mereaux representing profane or popular sub- 

Tiny boxes were also made, having handles, and 
pierced with a hole through which evidently a cord was 
passed, by which to suspend them. As these boxes are 
often delicately decorated in interesting relief, the con- 
stant handling and rubbing has given to the salient points 

No. 15 
Insignia in Pewter, XV. Century. (Abbaye du Mont St. Michel — Ed. Corroyer) 

a brilliancy of charming effect, while the background has 
remained dull. 

The production of these pewter objects being easy, 
their manufacture was extensive. In France, as well as 
in Germany, where the pewter industry became of great 
importance, the rules of the "Corporation of Tin Potters" 
were modified or increased as needs required, and when- 

; \ 

Pilgrim Horns. Pewter, XV. Centur; 

<lu Mont St. Michel— Ed. Corroyer) 

No. 13 
XIII. Century. XIV. Century. XVI. Century. 

Small ampullae. Pewter. Traces of gilding found on the XVI. century ampulla 
Cluny Museum, Paris. 

ever new objects were manufactured, which had not yet 
been made of this material. These rules became more and 
more strict, and there were even some which related to 
affairs outside the workshop. The master or chief of the 
workshop was selected after a competition in which he 
was expected to produce a master piece. The artisans 
were called "valets." 

The book of rules for the different trades controlled 
by the Corporations was written by Etienne Boileau (1254- 
1270), but from this it does not follow that pewterers had 
no rules of their own before that time. They were, it is 



1> U. 1 I 

Pilgrim bell, pewter, XVI. century (Abbaye du Mont St. Michel. Ed Corroyer.) 

true, well scattered over the country, or had taken refuge 
in monasteries, as already mentioned. Still, if for this 
reason we find few documents, many small facts and local 
details reveal to us the existence of an organized industry, 
which becomes easier to study after these troublous times. 
If the XIV. and XV. centuries have left us few speci- 
mens worth reproducing, such is not the case with the 
XVI. century, which, with its unrivaled production of 
master pieces, has forever ennobled the beautiful metallic 

No. 19 
Ampulla, pewter, XVI. century. Louvre Museum, Paris. 

composition called pewter. We could give an uninter- 
rupted list of charming articles of this period, having 
harmonious proportions, and notable for fine chasing, 
and for well conceived decorative designs. 

All the museums of Europe possess art work in pew- 
ter, those of Nurnberg, Munich and Breslau containing a 
great variety of specimens. Collections are found also 
at South Kensington, in the Cluny Museum, Paris, and 
at the Louvre, where the examples, although few in num- 
ber, are of excellent quality. The Nurnberg Museum 
alone, by the variety of its specimens, could illustrate the 

whole subject of artistic pewter. The last named collec- 
tion is especially remarkable for an abundance of drink- 
ing vessels, pots, tankards, steins, etc.; the production 
of the Nurnberg pewterers of the XV. and XVI. centuries, 
the most prosperous period of the industry, being here 
fully represented, although the quantity of the examples 
quite obscures the quality of a few really fine pieces. 
(to be continued) 

No. IS 
Ciborium, pewter, XIV. century. 

Louvre M 

., Paris. 

No. 20. 
Box for Holy Oils, pewter, XVI. century. Louvre Museum, Paris. 


C K. — Ruby is very liable to flake off if painted too thickly or subjected 
to repeated firings. It is almost impossible to remedy flaking as each re- 
peated fire is liable to bring new flakes. The only thing to be done is to re- 
move all flakes with a pen knife and repaint and refire, hoping for favorable 
results. The powdered colors for china are sold by many of our advertisers 
whose names you will find in our advertising columns, they are all good. Di- 
rections for using will be found in the October 1905 Keramic Studio. 
"The color palette and how to use it." 

H. T. — Your inquiry came too late for the December Keramic Studio. 
We have been promised some articles on under glaze painting which will be 
published as soon as received. 

Mrs. R. — In rubbing down old hard paints, use a little more oil of cloves 
than for powder colors, say 2 drops to 6 of Copaiba. When the oil has sep- 
arated from the color, take it out on blotting paper and then mix the 
balance with clove and Copaiba; oil of lavender can be used in place of tur- 
pentine to keep color open longer. 

Plattens are used to place or rest on top of cups bowls, etc., so that 
other pieces may be placed upon them which otherwise might not balance. 

M. M. C. — Unfluxed gold may be used over unfired color which is well 
dried, care must be taken that the gold is not too thin or oily, otherwise it 
will spread. You can not tint with flux or ivory glaze over a painting in 
which the iron reds are used, especially flesh tones in which the tints are 
delicate, the glaze will eat out the reds. A hard fire would probably bring 
an even glaze over the painting and if the flesh tones paled too much they 
could be restored by repainting, while in the case of too much flux or glaze 
it would be next to impossible to restore the reds by repainting. 

A. J. L. — So many shapes of china are illustrated in Keramic Studio 
it is impossible for us to know where they may be obtained. Write to our 

In following a color treatment where the ornament is light green, also 
the background, the ornament may either be in enamel or a shade lighter 
than ground, with the gold outline it will be distinct enough from the ground. 

We do not keep anything for sale except books on art and Keramics. 
Write to our advertisers for the green bronze mentioned. 



Franz A, Bischof f 

Begs to announce his removal to Los Angeles, 
Cal., where he will continue the manufactur- 
ing of colors for china. 

High Grade Specialties 

Dealers are asked a favor, to secure their 
stock by placing their order early to save 
shipping expense and delay. 

We have made arrangements with Favor, 
Ruhl & Co., of New York, and L. B. King 
& Co., of Detroit, Mich., who will take pleas- 
ure in filling all orders, if quick shipment is 

Thanking my patrons for past favors, I 
hope for future continuance; address all 


Los Angeles, 




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Tor China Decoration in all its Branches 


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orating include Belleek, French, German 
and Austrian, in all the newest shapes and 

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Colored Golds, is most complete. 

II A large assortment of Mineral Transfers, 
Brushes, Oils, Mediums, etc., etc. 

| Mail orders will receive most careful atten- 






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barrel full of novelties upon request with references. 


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For Amateur Painters can be had of 
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Catalogue sent on receipt of three cents -postage. 

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Also baby or large bar pins complete. 

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A|>ply to Your Supply House for Samples and Information. 



F. B.AUUCH ******* 
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The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles must not be reprinted without special permission. 


League Notes 

The Art of Teaching — 3d Prize 
The Art of Teaching — 4th Prize 

White Clematis 

Study of Squirrels from The Vorbilder 
Squirrels by. Prof. G. Sturm for The Vorbilder 
Yupon Berries, Bowl and Plate 
Jacqueminot Roses (Supplement) 
Scotch Roses by "Virginia" 
Crab Apples 
Aster Design for Vase 
Eve — Decorative Plaque 
Answers to Correspondents 

The Crafts — Exhibition of National Society of Craftsmen 
Work of Pratt Institute Students 

Belle Barnett Vesey 

Edith Alma Ross 
Mrs. J. F. Camp 
Maud E. Hulbert 
Maud E. Hulbert 
Ida M. Ferris 
K. Soderberg 

Jeanne M. Stewart 
F. B. Aulich 

Sarah Reid McLaughlin 
A. A. Frazee 
D. M. Campana 



















233 and 238 



39 Murray Street, New YorK 


Import Lines Now Ready 

We Have a splendid line of up-to-date £ We can fill orders for immediate de- 
samples on display at the above address 5 livery from our Cleveland Store, where 
which you cannot afford to overlooK \ we carry a large stocK of French and 
when in New YorK. i German White China. 

Vol. VIII, No. JO 


February, \ 907 

EQUESTS, now and then, are 
received from subscribers ask- 
ing that designs be given on the 
shapes for sale in the stores, as 
it is difficult for them to imagine 
putting any given design on 
anything but the shape illus- 
trated. This general lack of im- 
agination is a serious problem 
with which we have to contend, 
as we can only repeat the suggestion to our designers, but 
must accept designs on whatever shape is submitted. 
We are under the necessity of publishing what designs 
we may be able to secure at whatever time we may be 
able to secure them. We cannot go out into the woods 
with our little shot gun and bag exactly what each sub- 
scriber desires at exactly the moment it is desired. As a 
matter of fact, what is the advantage of having a design 
displayed on any particular shape? The drawing is nec- 
essarily flat and can not, as a rule, be directly applied to 
any shape. One must exert one's intellect sufficiently to 
adapt a flat design to a round surface. Then what ad- 
vantage if it is shown on a cream pitcher, say, of the Ran- 
som pattern, instead of as a straight border to be adapted 
to anything? A curve more or less on the rim or a curl 
more or less on the handle cannot be taken into account 
in designing when the designer wants to give a suggestion 
to be used wherever desired on whatever shape one may 
select. Probably if that design were shown on the afore- 
said Ransom cream pitcher the majority of our subscribers 
would not immediately purchase cream pitchers of that 
pattern in order to use the design, but would either have 
to struggle with the problem of disengaging the design 
from that particular shape and applying it to some other, 
or would be reduced to the same condition as those who 
make this request, the condition of being unable to use 
it at all. 

To tell the truth, personally we prefer the designs 
shown on some simple form suggested by the design, 
as it helps our readers to form good taste in selecting 
shapes as nearly like the design as possible. This will 
stimulate the factories to make better and simpler shapes, 
to fill the demand, and so an educational feature is intro- 
duced while no advantage is lost, as it would be a real in- 
jury to our subscribers to deprive them of the necessity 
of using their brains. One should rather "wear out" 
one's thinking apparatus by use, than let it "rust out" 
by having no occasion for thought. 

On the color supplement of the January number the 
title "Cherry Blossoms" was given to a panel of Hawthorn 
Blossoms. The artist notified us of the mistake when too 
late to change it, so she kindly gave the treatment for 
Cherry Blossoms, as the color scheme is identical, and so 
took upon herself the onus of the mistake, which is mani- 
festly unfair. So far no one has called our attention to 
the misnomer. But we can not hope to escape the vigi- 
lant eye of our critic. We wish to apologize in advance 
and at the same time suggest to our contributors that 

they would kindly label their studies or designs so we 
would have no excuse for mistakes. 
•&" jf 
Ranged around the walls, grouped in nooks, alcoves, 
and in mid-floor cases, at the exhibition of arts and crafts 
held in The Art Institute, Chicago, during December, 
were over a hundred pieces of decorated porcelain, and 
more than two hundred pieces of pottery, silent testimonies 
of truth, beauty, and harmony. We viewed these ex- 
pressions of experience, gained in a few short years, with 
reverence akin to awe. A joy of what we are to accom- 
plish, "like tumultuous music, surges through every vein." 
No longer need we feel depressed at the heroic efforts of 
Palissy or the misfortune which proved the success of 
Wedgwood. We need not grieve over the tiles of Granada, 
nor believe that the present and future hold no such 
glories as the past. Already we have glazes which sug- 
gest the mystic, prysmatic colors of the rainbow, and the 
velvety blue green mouldy look seen on ancient ware, 
and are fully up to the times in form and design. There 
were no silent deceptions, no great effort resulting only 
in sham, no plagiarisms. There was only truth uniting 
use and beauty. Foreigners questioning about ceramics, 
were incredulous when told that all were American pro- 
ductions, by people who had not even studied abroad. 
A lecture on "Recent developments in American pottery," 
was given during the exhibition, followed by introduc- 
tions to the lecturer and light refreshments in the pottery 
section. Public admiration is abundant; artists are sym- 
pathetic. The value and sacredness of this new career 
of power open to the ceramist must not be underrated. 
Every advantage for more knowledge should be seized, 
our failures turned to success. We should not be con- 
tent until the art world is apace with the commercial and 
scientific world of to-day. No duty should crowd out 
the problems for each month. There is still a week in 
which to send the designs for the cake plate. Letters 
containing vase shapes, numbers, and more explicit direc- 
tions will soon be mailed to each member, as we have not 
the outlines for this issue of Keramic Studio. 

Belle B. Vesey, Pres. 


The New York Society of Keramic Arts will hold 
an exhibition of the work of its members from April i 
to April 15, 1907 in the galleries of the National Arts Club, 
Gramercy Park, New York. 

The fourteenth annual exhibition of the Brooklyn 
Society of Mineral Painters, held at the Pouch Gallery, 
December fourth and fifth showed interesting progress 
in the work of the society. Original designs in water 
color applied to ceramic forms were displayed by the mem- 
bers of Miss M. M. Mason's class in design. 

The officers of the society are: Mrs. James Master- 
man, President; Mrs. Theodore Field, Vice-President; Mrs. 
Eugene L. Hale, Recording Secretary; Miss B. H. Proctor, 
Corresponding Secretary; Mrs. Frank Baiseley, Treasurer; 
Mrs. M. F. Prince, Historian. 




The next subject for the Class Room will be "Flower 
Painting" under which heading will be included the sub- 
divisions: Roses, white, pink, and crimson; Violets; Daf- 
fodils; Nasturtiums; Geraniums; Pansies; Forget-me-nots. 
Other flowers, white, pink, crimson, violet, purple, blue, 
yellow, orange and red. Miniature flowers. To be re- 
ceived not later than March ist. For list of prizes see 
back cover. 

o o o 


Third Prize — Mrs. Dante C. Babbitt 

THE teacher of keramic art has more to contend with, 
I believe, than in any other branch of art. One 
of the greatest difficulties is that about ninety-nine per 
cent of the persons who attempt china painting, to use 
their own expression, "can't draw a straight line." When 
one considers that the average teacher endeavors to teach 
drawing, composition, coloring and the handling of china 
paints and their mediums all on one piece of china, it hard- 
ly causes wonder there is so much poor work seen. The 
fact that a pupil cannot sketch his or her own design does 
not necessitate the teacher doing it for them. Insist on a 
pupil's honest effort to sketch her designs at the very 
start. It is taken for granted every one taking up china 
painting expects to become an independent worker and 
sketching is the first step. Personally I prefer conven- 
tional work, but as taste must be trained and not forced 
I do not insist on pure conventional in direct opposition 
to a pupil's taste. Generally speaking one does his best 
work where his interest lies. Quite often the devotee to 
floral and other naturalistic designs will in reasonable 
time see the superiority of a well chosen conventional 
design. I impress upon pupils the value of having the 
necessary materials to work with and having them with 
them. It is hardly satisfying to ask for a bit of clean 
silk for tinting and either have a rumpled piece given you 
or be told they forgot it at home and then comes the bor- 
rowing habit which cannot be too severely frowned upon 
in a studio. Aside from the materials used there are a 
number of little conveniences within the reach of all. 
Plenty of soft, clean rags, cut, in preference to torn, on ac- 
count of lint, in medium sized pieces, for cleaning brushes 
etc. A firm but soft piece of china silk washed and ironed 
free from all wrinkles, as the least crease in a silk pad 
leaves its mark on tint. This silk may be used indef- 
initely by washing before the paint sets and either ironed 
or while still wet smoothed out on a window. A separate 
box for brushes amply long to prevent the brush being 
crowded and, if care is taken to put them away clean and 
dry, good brushes will last a long while. An occasional 
wash in soap and water is good for them. Show a pupil 
how to gently roll a brush from side to side instead of 
pouncing up and down. The latter method breaks the 
fine hairs of which the brush is composed and shortens 
its time of usefulness.. 

A perfectly plain coupe plate is the best piece for a 
beginner. If your pupil prefers naturalistic designs, by 
the aid of a narrow border say three-eighths or three 
quarters according to size of plate, a certain style mav 
be obtained not found in a purely naturalistic treatment. 
After drawing the line for the band, sketch the design. 
I prefer selecting half a dozen designs a pupil would be 
most liable to handle successfully and allowing them to 
select from that. It saves their time and is less confus- 

ing than going through dozens of designs entirely beyond 
them. For a medium size plate, say six and a half or 
seven and a half inches, draw a line for a band three- 
eighths or one half inch wide. This may be done with a 
bander or by holding a slip of paper tapped over the edge 
of the plate and using the inner edge for a guide line. 
Care must be taken not to slip the paper except to move 
around or the band will be of uneven width. Use a fine 
liner No. o and India ink for drawing this. After your 
design is sketched and painted this line should be gone 
over in gold before first firing. In the second firing a 
tint that will be pleasing either through force of harmony 
or by contrast should be put on before retouching the 
inner design, and any color which pads over the gold line 
thoroughly cleaned before beginning to retouch. The 
little fruit designs by Sara Wood Safford could be made 
into a very pleasing fruit set. The strawberry design in 
July 1906 number is good, also a study of grapes of 
some months before. 

Then there have been so many black and white studies 
of small fruits it would not be a difficult matter to make 
a simple and charming set of small plates. A border 
tint of rich Old Ivory would harmonize well with such 
a set. For the third fire any simple design could be used 
over the tint very effectively. I would suggest using 
one design for the entire set. In the March 1906 number 
is a toilet set by Edith Alma Ross. The mirror back is 
very suitable for a plate. The dark parts would be rich 
in a deep blue having a high glaze. The lines should be 
gold. The Keramic Supply Co., of Indianapolis, have 
a good blue for the purpose, Royal Shading Blue. Aside 
from the dainty violet design in that study little sweet 
brier roses, lilies of the valley, butter cups, forget-me-nots 
and baby roses would make a good set, keeping the bor- 
der the same throughout. 

If one contemplates doing the set it is a good plan 
to draw in border on all and tint at the same time. One 
is more liable to secure exactness of tone. As soon as 
possible give beginners some simple design to try by 
themselves at home. It throws them on their own respon- 
sibility and as it is through errors we learn no harm is 
done and often much good. Be frank with a pupil and 
if the piece attempted alone is too poor to fire and ever 
hope to redeem, tell them so. Forever hold the standard 
of quality before quantity. Bad work may be removed 
before firing but nothing ever totally obliterates it after- 

Where the pupil's taste inclines toward conventional, 
the field of design is broad and unlimited. A steady 
hand, true eye and unlimited patience are the chief re- 
quisites for the making of a good conventional painter. 
A very pretty salad plate is the design of Mrs. Anna B. 
Leonard, February 1903 supplement. The design for the 
inside of salad bowl is admirable for a round plate. It is 
very simple and does not task either nerve or patience. 
The roses are also good done in a dull yellow, add a touch 
of Black to Silver Yellow, Lacroix, or Fry's Egg Yellow. 
Outline this in Meissen Brown. Then there are the quan- 
tities of simple designs to be done in soft greens and blues, 
or either alone, depending on the quality of the tone for 
the effect. There is no limit to the simple good conven- 
tional designs. 

If a pupil cannot be converted to the conventional 
then strive to impress the necessity of appropriateness of 
design. Dainty little roses could be used very sweetly 
for some things but would hardly be satisfying for dinner 






plates and no matter how beautiful the roses may be 
done it isn't appetizing to view them through a sea of 
gravy. Even in dessert plates it is better taste to have 
the center plain. Force of comparison is a good method 
in training the taste, as a plate in natural roses shown 
by one done from one of the beautiful rose borders given 
in recent numbers. If this is not sufficient I would then 
trust some to time and expend the extra energy on more 
fertile ground. 

Teaching should be a matter of love of the work 
and not simply one of dollars and cents. The conscien- 
tious teacher must give of herself and the best to be suc- 
cessful, always planning how best to present some truth 
in a way the pupil can most readily grasp it. Endeavor 
to have )< T our pupils see and paint in masses instead of 
giving a vast amount of attention to the unimportant. Most 
pupils feel the necessity of lines and plenty of them. In 
sketching in a design avoid all lines but those necessary 
to block in the most salient features. Explain the nec- 
essity of broad clear washes for first firing, the avoidances 
of hard lines or attempt at detail or working up for the 
first fire. After a piece is ready for the kiln call attention 
to the cleaning from the back of china any finger prints, 
as it is none of the firer's business to clean such blemishes. 
Attention to such little matters often saves unsightly 
marks and the trouble of getting them off with acids. 
Endeavor to cultivate an observing eye. Happy the 
person to whom a rose is something more than a rose. 
Some attention given when looking at flowers will save 
numerous blunders. No two roses have foliage just 
alike but the manner in which some painters graft Amer- 
ican Beauty Roses to La France stems and foliage is worthy 
of Burbank. 

China painting must be taken up seriously, the same 
as drawing and painting from life, if any great success is 
to come of it. 

o o o 
Fourth Prize— Ella F. Adams, Yellow Springs, O. 
The first lessons — what magic they seem to hold and 
yet what untold mysteries and miseries are there. Let 
us fervently hope that no one even dreams of learning to 
paint on china without first having learned something of 
drawing. I feel like saying, "learn to swim before going 
near the water" for one has so many hard trials to encoun- 
ter in painting china without the additional one of learn- 
ing to draw. True, one is drawing all the time one is 
painting but there are so many other mediums easier to 
handle than vitrifiable colors in the art of drawing. 

In a large class I feel sure that too much is taken for 
granted by the teacher, and the new pupils usually dread 
to ask questions and thus display their lack of knowledge. 
There are so many minds of such a variety of executive 
ability that an explanation that seems sufficient to one 
is only a starting point for another. I regret to say 
that some will hold a brush wrong end up if not told other- 
wise while others dash madly on like runaway horses if 
only the color box is given them. Oh! for a happy med- 
ium where all pupils paint as directed and guess cor- 
rectly at the omissions of their teachers. 

I would not advise naturalistic work for the first 
lessons for several reasons. Naturalistic work does not 
seem appropriate for table ware and table ware is what 
a beginner should start upon. Avoid vases, panels and 
bonbonieres, all of which should be pieces of satisfaction 
produced by preliminary steps upon other china. Don't 

think by this that table ware can be slighted. It should 
be dainty and artistic. It should have hours of time and 
patience spent upon it. I only wish to emphasize the 
fact that naturalistic work should be used more in the 
nature of a picture, in other words, to twist a trite phrase, 
"ornamental but not useful." 

Naturalistic work means the using of a variety of 
colors and the fewer colors used by beginners the better. 
A large box of colors thrust upon a new pupil is like of- 
fering her Pandora's box. Alas! quite often, Pandora 
like, nothing but hope remains in the panic 

I would advise something semi-conventional to start 
with since the exact precision of conventional design is 
not there to puzzle and discourage the beginner. I have 
chosen an apple design for the first lesson and the follow- 
ing list of materials is necessary for the work. 

Materials required for painting plate design of apples. 
Palette knife, 
Ground glass slab, 
Covered palette, if possible, 
i large square shader, 
i medium square shader, 
i outlining brush, 

i ten cent bottle of copaiba and clove oil, mixed, 
i ten cent bottle turpentine, 
i five cent bottle lavender oil, 
i pencil for marking on china, 
i china silk rag, 
Small amount of cotton, 

Rags for cleaning china, wiping brushes, etc., 
Small receptacles for oil and turpentine, 
Pointed stick for wiping off extra paint, 
i vial Carnation, 
i vial New Green, 
i vial Black, 
i vial Chinese Yellow, 
i vial Pearl Grey. 

The list may seem a long one for a single piece of china 
but most of the list consists of tools necessary for all china 


For the first lesson secure a plate since a flat surface 
is easiest to handle. I believe every one who has never 
worked in colors objects to working in monochrome as 
a first lesson so I would suggest the plate design of Minna 
Meinke in the December Keramic Studio of 1905. This 
may be carried out in red and green as the treatment 
suggests and will not prove too difficult for a beginner. 
I advise the apple design because it is simple and effective. 
It has no inner band to puzzle the unskilled hand, for 
a practiced stroke seems necessary to secure a tone circle 
other than on the edge of a plate even if a banding wheel 
be available. 

Purchase an eight inch rimless plate for your design. 
After washing the plate and drying it thoroughly divide 
the plate in twelve sections. A plate divider can be used 
for this, and since a plate divider "speaks for itself" it 
can be used without directions. If a divider is not avail- 
able cut a paper the size of the plate. Fold this carefully 
once, then fold again. Divide this into thirds and thus 
you have the twelve sections for the plate. From this 
guide, mark off the plate with a "pencil for china". In 
each section draw (in free hand) the design of two apples, 
three leaves and stems, using the sectional marks as the 
points where the branch joins the main limb. In draw- 



THIRST fire. Paint roses with Ruby and Purple Black, 
* high lights in principal roses, Peach Blossom. Leaves, 
model with Purple Black leaving lightest parts white. 
Tint background cream in lightest part, using Lavender 
Glaze and Purple Black in shadows. 

Second fire. Strengthen roses with Ruby and Purple 
Black, wash over leaves with Verdigris. Deepen tinting 
where necessary. 

Third fire. Same as second for roses. Retouch leaves 
with both Verdigris and Purple Black. 


ing this design observe the gnarled limb in contrast to the 
smooth stems and study carefully the character of the 
leaves emphasized in their tips. Don't fail to notice that 
the apples are not round but have characteristics of their 
own. If these points are studied carefully before making 
a line, the drawing as well as the painting will prove much 

Paint the apples in red (Carnation), the leaves in 
New Green, the background in a mixture of Pearl Grey 
and Chinese Yellow, and the outlines in Black. 

The first thing to be done after the design is drawn 
is to "set your palette" or in other words, prepare your 
paints ready for use. This may seem drudgery to some, 
but it is the chrysalis out of which good and bad emerge, 
let us hope always the good. 

For the first painting the apples, branches and leaves 
should be laid in with flat color. So, for the first lesson, 
only two paints are necessary, Carnation and New Green. 

Upon your ground glass slab pour a small amount 
of Carnation (a quarter of an after-dinner coffee spoonful 
is what you will probably need) but do not be stingy with 
your paint ( for what is not used can be covered (to keep 
away dust) and be used at some other time. With your 
palette knife mix this Carnation with the copaiba mix- 
ture using only enough oil to make the paint the consist- 
ency of thick cream. Mix well so that no grains are left. 
With your palette knife gather your paint together and 
put upon your covered palette (if you are the fortunate 
possessor of one), or in one corner of the ground glass slab, 
if that be your only palette. Clean the slab with turpen- 
tine where the carnation was mixed and mix the Green 
in the same way, using \ more Green than Red. After 
the green has been mixed and gathered together you are 
ready to paint. Wash the medium square shader in tur- 
pentine, wipe dry on a rag, keeping it in shape. Fill the 
brush with Carnation using a zigzag motion for this. Do 
not attempt to put too thick a wash of color, for a thick 
coat may chip off after firing. Try to cover the design 
smoothly and not in uneven lumps. A thin coat of paint 
is better than a thick one, for it can be strenghthened 
after it is fired. Paint the apples with firm decisive strokes. 
Two sweeps of the brush should fill in each apple. A 
firm stroke will place the paint smoothly and leave no 
brush marks. Should brush marks appear, cross stroke 
lightly, but remember the less paint is worried the better 
the effect and the less liable it is to gather dust. Paint 
with the intention of having the first strokes smooth. 
It may be easier to fill in each apple paying no attention 
to the blossom end. After the apples are painted, with 
a pointed stick Avrapped in cotton wipe out the blossom 
end, wash well your brush in turpentine. Fill in leaves, 
stems and branch in Green in same way that Red was ap- 
plied. Make sure there is no paint where not wanted 
both on upper and under side of plate. The plate is now 
ready for the first firing. This should be a hard firing to 
secure a good glaze for the design. 


Make sure the surface is smooth, if not so rub very 
lightly with a very fine quality of emery paper that has 
had the freshness rubbed off. Wash the plate with tur- 
pentine and it is now ready for the second painting. Very 
likely the carnation has become dimmer in the firing and 
needs to be retouched. In fact the apples should be painted 
a tone brighter than wanted, for the yellow used in the 
final firing will absorb some of the red. If the leaves 

are not an^even tint, now is the time to remedy this defect. 

If any red or green mixture was left over use it now. 
Soften it with turpentine and mix with the palette knife 
until it is smooth, then place on side of palette as in first 
lesson. Of course, if none of the paint is left over from 
the first lesson or if it has not been covered and has gath- 
ered dust, fresh color must be mixed. After the apples 
and leaves are retouched you are ready for the outlines 
which are in black. I would advise having the red and 
green partly if not entirely dry before outlining in black, 
so that there will be no oily surface for the black to flow into 
and thus loose the decisive outline. So mix the black after 
the leaves and fruit have been retouched thus giving them 
time to dry. 

Mix almost as much black as was mixed of the red 
in the first lesson. This should be mixed in the same 
way as the red and green was mixed, using always only 
enough oil to make the ' paint the consistency of thick 
cream. "Gather" the black after mixing and place on 
one side of palette. Wash the outlining brush in turpen- 
tine, wipe dry and fill well with the black. Outline design 
in a firm, even line but do not make it too heavy. Make 
'sure the plate is clean and give it a medium firing. 


The plate is now ready for the background which 
should cover the entire surface, design included, since 
the grayish-yellow will help to hold together the design. 

Take out a much greater quantity of Yellow than 
you did of the green in the first lesson, possibly three times 
as much, using f as much Pearl Grey as Yellow. Mix 
with the copaiba mixture until about the consistency of 
the former mixtures. Now add one or two drops of 
lavender oil to thin it, for, in tinting, the mixture should 
be much thinner than for brush work. Add a little 
more copaiba mixture so that the paint shows bubbles 
when mixed with the palette knife. 

Before applying this to the plate make a test. Apply 
a little of the tint on the plate. With a piece of silk filled 
with cotton "dab" this sample. If it dries immediately 
it has not enough oil. If it forms in oily bubbles when 
dabbed it has too much oil. Fither way may be remedied , 
the first by adding more lavender oil, the second either by 
letting it stand until the extra oil dries out, (ten or fifteen 
minutes) or by adding more paint. If the tint is just 
right a sticky noise is made with the dabber. This is 
always a welcome sound. 

Frase your test and cover the plate with the tint 
using the large square shader. Dab with the silk dabber 
until the tint seems even. The dabber will, of course, 
take up some of the paint but continued dabbing will 
replace some of this. Do not dab in one spot but rapidly 
cover all the surface and then retrace your steps using 
the same dabber. Bet stand a very few minutes, then, 
with a fresh silk dabber dab lightly until the surface seems 
dull and free from oil. It is now ready for the inevit- 
able cleaning process and then for the final firing which 
should be rather light since the Pearl Grey acts as a fusing 
medium, so does not require a hard firing. 


The border designs of July, 1906, pages 57, 58 and 59 
are all good for a beginner. They may be used on a cup 
and saucer if a plate is not desired. The first step is to 
divide the china into sections, just as for the apple plate. 






These designs need not be sketched but may be drawn 
with the brush as suggested. A Delft blue cup and saucer 
painted in any of these designs will not prove too difficult. 
It will be found that the saucer must be divided into more 
sections than the cup. One or two more sections is the 
rule, so much depending on the flare of the cup. A band 
of paper the size of the rim of the cup may be folded the 
number of sections desired for the cup. Always remember 
that the sections should start at the handle. Do not 
make the mistake of making too many sections and in 
consequence making the designs too small. I would 
suggest the exact number of sections but since this is 
lesson number four, do a little thinking for yourself and 
thus feel that you are learning to walk, without the aid of 

After dividing the cup and saucer in sections, mix a small 
amount of Delft Blue with the copaiba mixture just as the 
colors were mixed for the apple plate. With a medium 
pointed brush paint the design, being careful to make 
the bands true. 

Bowl number two seems the easiest design, so attempt 
this first if you are content to go slowly but surely. After 
the design is painted wipe off the china all superfluous 
color and fire hard. 


This time the china (I hope you have been brave 
enough to attempt a cup and saucer) should be tinted 
over the entire surface, mixing the Delft Blue with the 
copaiba mixture and lavender oil just as for tinting the 

The lighter tones of the border should be wiped out 
with the pointed sticks wrapped in cotton if three tones 
are desired. 

The triangular dark spots may be strengthened after 
the tint is entirely dry but do not use the tinting mixture, 
since it is so thin it is prone to run. Mix a small portion 
of Delft for this, using as little oil as possible. 

The china is now ready for the kiln and should have 
a hard firing since blue does not fuse at a low temperature. 
Two firings are all that is necessary unless a deeper tone 
is desired, when the china may be treated as for the second 
firing and fired again. 

Should your ambition carry you into more elaborate 
fields of conventional design, painting, without first draw- 
ing the design, may prove too great a problem. For 
larger conventional designs the oat meal set and tea caddy 
of Emily F. Peacock in the October Keramic Studio 
of 1902 are good designs for a beginner. These designs 
may be carried out in Delft Blue as were the former ones, 
but I would advise transferring them instead of the free 
hand drawing. Either paint them as the illustrations 
suggest or else paint the white design in color and leave 
the rest of the china white or else tint it a lighter tone than 
the design, not forgetting to paint in the bands, using a 
pointed brush for this work. For either scheme trans- 
ferring seems necessary. 

Place a piece of transfer paper upon the design and 
draw one section. Upon the reverse side of this, with a 
small piece of cotton, rub some pencil powder, previously 
prepared by pulverizing some lead from a pencil. Rub 
turpentine or alcohol over the china and divide it into the 
requisite number of sections as in former lessons. Trans- 
fer the design by placing the transfer paper on the china, 
powder side next to the china and using either a pencil 
or some blunt point for marking the design, the powder 
acting as impression paper. A more expiditious way is 

to prepare a perforated pattern on transfer paper or tin 
foil. The pattern is prepared in this manner. Upon 
the transfer paper or tin foil draw carefully one section 
of the design. Now with a needle, prick the design using 
a pillow as a surface upon which to work. Put the pin- 
holes rather close together so that the design is followed 
very distinctly. After washing the china either with 
turpentine or alcohol (to hold the transfer) , divide into 
sections and place the perforated designs over one section. 
Prepare some powdered lead pencil dust, make sure that 
it is dust and not grains. Now with a piece of cotton 
transfer some of the pencil dust on to the design and 
brush over the paper, making sure that the pin pricks 
are all filled with pencil dust. Continue in the same 
way in each section, using the same perforated design. 
It may take longer to prepare the design in this way but 
it is much more speedy in transferring than the former 
method. After the design has been transferred, proceed 
to paint the bands with some blue, Delft, Old Blue or Deep 
Blue, using in addition J enamel (Dresden enamel), add a 
drop or two of lavender oil to help the enamel to flow from 
the brush. A simple way would be to outline the design, 
using black or blue for this, then fire a medium firing, 
with Delft or some other blue paint in the design leaving 
the rest of the china white, or else in addition, after firing 
the second time, tint the china all over in the same blue 
that was used before. 

After these lessons I feel sure you will attempt some- 
thing by yourself if you have not already done so. What- 
ever it is don't attempt anything too elaborate. Choose 
simple designs but don't be afraid to work by yourself and 
be independent enough to not always want your teacher 
by your side to direct your every brush stroke. On the 
i other hand don't think that a few lessons are all that you 
will need, but strive to have your teacher give you good 
wholesome criticisms on all your work. Remember that 
china painting requires time, patience, thought, a little talent 
and a great power of concentration. 


Always wash your brushes in turpentine after using 
them and keep them in shape. A square shader should 
be wiped flat and a pointed brush rolled into a point. 

A silk dabber may be cleaned by moistening in tur- 
pentine, then soaking in soap suds for half an hour, then 
the paint may be easily washed out. Dry on a mirror, 
smoothing out all wrinkles, and the surface is pleasanter 
to work with than if it is ironed smooth. 

If you are not satisfied with your work erase and try 
again. He who is not afraid to erase is learning. After 
your work is fired it is there to stay with all its glaring 

Always wash your brush in turpentine before using 
another color and thus avoid muddy effects. 

AZALEA (page 219) 

Edith Alma Ross 

THIS can be used as the Japanese decorate, the one 
spray with just a suggestion of another peeping out from 
the base or top on the opposite side of the vase; or it can 
be used as a repeat. A good color scheme could be, ground, 
deep pearl grey; leaves, two shades of olive green; stems, 
medium brown. Azaleas, a delicate rose with deeper 
markings, and stamens and outlines of flowers in green, 
or a creamy pink, almost buff, could be used, making the 
background a deeper greyed yellow brown. 

2 r 













LEAVE white china for a few of prominent flowers 
with light shading of Albert Yellow and Brown Green, 
and in cooler tones Dark Green. For back-ground use 
Turquoise Blue and Copenhagen Blue with a little Pur- 
ple and Dark Green in deeper places and Ivory Yellow 

in lightest ones. Use gray tones made of these colors to 
blend shadow flowers and back-ground together. Centers 
of flowers are Light Green. 

Leaves, Moss Green, Brown Green and Dark Green 
with back-ground colors dusted to blend and soften. 




Maud E. Hulbert 
I F I were to paint the chrysanthemums in monochrome on 

* a tall slender vase, I should use Copenhagen Blue, and 
bend the design so that it would bend about the vase, 
painting them for the first firing so as to give the light and 
shade as nearly as possible, and with a much stronger 
ground at the bottom than the study suggests. 

In the second firing I should strengthen both the 
flowers and the ground, and put in the washes that make 
some of the flowers look a little back of the others. 

In the third firing the vase might be tinted with the 
color stronger at the bottom and quite light at the top, 
and most of the flowers and some of the leaves wiped out, 
being careful not to have any hard edges (avoiding hard- 
ness everywhere). I should glaze it for the last fire with 
an even light tint of Copenhagen Grey. 

A good color scheme would be very delicate yellow 
flowers, and the leaves a bluish green, with a grey ground 
deepening into a dull blue near the flowers. For the 
flowers use Lemon Yellow, Warm Grey, a little Yellow 
Ochre, and in some of the lower flowers a little Orange 
Yellow. For the leaves, Deep Blue Green, Moss Green, 
Yellow Green and Brown Green. For the ground, Copen- 
hagen Grey and Old Blue. 

•f -? 

GLADIOLI (page 223) 

Maud E. Hulbert 
'T'HE center stalk of flowers should be a delicate yel- 

* lowish pink with a red marking, use Deep Red Brown 
(or Pompadour), Warm Grey, Silver Yellow (or Lemon) 
with a little Ochre and Brown Green in the center to give 
the deep look, and Yellow in the stamens. 

In the flowers to the right in the background, use more 
Warm Grey and Ochre and less Deep Red Brown. 

In the lower flowers at the left use some Blood Red and 
Violet of Iron with the other colors. And for the leaves, 
which are a bluish green, use Shading Green, Yellow and 
Moss Green, Brown Green and Deep Blue Green. 

In the ground, Brown Green, Deep Blue Green and 
Ivory Glaze, or to obtain a deeper and richer effect, use 
Blood Red, Violet of Iron and Ivory Glaze. 

A flat dull gold band, partially covered with a design 
done either in Outlining Black or Violet of Iron, with a 

pen, might be introduced on some pieces of china with 
good effect. 

CRAB APPLES (page 232) 

Sarah Reid McLaughlin 
COR apples use Lemon Yellow, Albert Yellow, 
* Yellow Red, Carnation, Pompadour Red, blending the 
yellows or reds into soft yellow greens with Copenhagen 
Blue for greyish blue. 

Keep high lights clear and brilliant, the reflected lights 
softer in tone. 

Leaves, Apple Green, Yellow Green, Moss Green for 
lighter ones, Brown Green and Shading Green for darker 
ones. For shadowy leaves use Violet of Iron or a color 
which will be harmonious with background. For stems 
use Copenhagen Blue for blue grey lights, strengthened 
in second firing with Auburn Brown. Use Yellow Brown 
for pips, strengthened in second firing with Auburn Brown. 
Background, Copenhagen Blue, Violet of Iron to Warm 
Grey, Yellow Red to Blood Red. For second and third 
firing deepen above colors adding detail. 


Miss Mariam L. Candler of Detroit, Mich., has moved 
her studio to the Fine Arts Building 30 Adams Ave., West. 
She held in December in her new studio an exhibition 
which was very successful, her work in porcelain deco- 
ration as well as oil and water color attracting much at- 

*• -f 

The page of squirrel designs is from the "Vorbilder". 
the other border is an adaptation by Mrs. K. Soderberg. 
These designs are appropriate for nut bowls. 

Suggestions for color schemes are as follows: Round 
Panel, ground, dark olive (Green No. 7. and Olive Green). 
Squirrels, white underneath shaded with Pearl Grey and 
Yellow Brown backs and tails, Yellow Brown shading to 
Meissen with a little Grey on high lights. For the borders 
the squirrels may be black with white and Meissen Brown 
trimmings or they may be a reddish brown (Meissen) 
with white and yellow (Yellow Ochre) trimmings. Ground 
dark olive; leaves, light olive; nut sheaths still lighter 
olive; stems and nuts in Meissen Brown. 
















T^HESE bright little Southern berries are very effective 
* with a grey background, rather dark in tone. 

Careful attention should be given to light and shade 
on the cluster, very little detail being given in the shadows 
while the berries in light are brought out clearly and dis- 
tinctly. Dresden Yellow, Red and Pompadour Red No. 
23 in equal parts may be used for the brightest reds, Pom- 
padour Red No. 23 alone for medium, and Stewart's Pom- 

peian Red to which has been added one-third Ruby Purple 
for the darkest tones in the berries. After the first firing 
the background may be applied with Stewart's Grey to 
which a little Ivory Yellow is added for the lightest 

Above the berries in the center of the cover throw in a 
light tone of Lemon Yellow. To obtain depth and glaze 
in background dust on color in the last painting. 




F. B. Aulich 
\ FTER drawing in the design, which is suitable to al- 
■**• most any shape of vases, tiles, etc., paint in the roses 
first with Aulich's Pompadour and Superior Black, using 
the Pompadour for first wash and finish with Black. 

This should be done carefully and modeled nicely, taking 
out the high lights with the paint brush. The softer you 
can do this first painting, the better the result. Then let 
it stand until almost dry. To ascertain this, put the end 
of your finger softly on the paint and if sticky prepare 
some powder Crimson Purple on a tile and with some soft 
cotton batting apply this paint all over the roses. Where 
you left your paint light the color will adhere only slightly, 
while on the thicker parts it will be quite heavy. You 
will be astonished at the result. Of course it needs prac- 
tice to do this properly. After this you can wash in the 
background, beginning with Dark Blue, Blue Violet and 
Black Green and Albert's Yellow and Yellow Brown for 
the foreground, finishing off with Van Dyke Brown; 
modeling leaves etc., with the larger brush and finishing 
off with a pointed one. 

For the second fire give the whole a general wash in 
the same tones, adding a little Rose to the greens and 
blues. Put a wash of American Beauty over the entire 
Roses, Turquoise Blue for lighter and more distant parts, 
and shade with Crimson Purple. Do not apply the color 
too thick as it would blister or oxidize. 

The study can be used as a picture, but a dark mat 
should be used to bring out the colors. 


Wash in the background first with Cobalt Blue 
Rose Madder, Payne's Grey, Indian Yellow, Ochre 
and Van Dyke Brown for the foreground. 

For the roses use Carmine, Burnt Carmine and Cobalt 
Blue and Neutral Tint mixed in for the dark parts ; a slight 
wash of Safnower Red on the reflected lights will add 
brilliancy to the Rose, but use this color very sparingly. 


" Virginia' '* 

OUTLINE with Brown Green and Grey for Flesh and dry 
thoroughly. Paint in leaves with Brown Green, Moss 
Green and Grey for Flesh; stems and centers of flowers 
with Deep Red Brown. Second Fire. Tint all over with 
Brown Green, Pearl Grey and Grey for Flesh equal parts. 
Wipe out flowers and tint them with light coat of Albert's 
Yellow (Dresden). When dry enough dust all over with 
Pearl Grey. Third Fire. Tint all over with Deep Blue 
Green. Wipe out flowers and re-touch if necessary, with 
Albert's Yellow or Ivory. After setting aside for twelve 
hours dust Pearl Grey over all or outline with black and 
fire. Make background with Meissen Brown and one- 
third Grey for Flesh; Flowers, Albert's Yellow and one-fifth 
Pearl Grey; Leaves, Moss Green and one-third Grey for 
Flesh. Centers and stems, Yellow Red. Dust all over 
with Pearl Grey. In next fire strengthen all colors to gain 
a warm, rich, yet soft color over all. 

*The name of the designer of this study has been lost. The study sent 
in competition was marked "Virginia." 









(intertwining) to be a medium shade of dull brown. The 
leaves of course to be two shades of green, using any greens 
convenient but do not mix them too hot in color. The 
very dark background to the bands and small panels, a 
dark dull blue, using Dark Blue, a little Purple and Black. 
The outer petals of the flowers to be painted in soft Japa- 
nese red, shaded toward the center, using Capucine Red 
with a little Yellow Ochre. Outline very carefully done 
in gold. Remember a good outline makes the 1 flower. 
Centers of flowers can be cream enamel with the center 
of this gold. For cream enamel use two parts Relief and 
one part Hard White enamel, tinting it with Mixing Yellow. 
Buds may be a dull blue, or soft red or cream enamel. 


A. A. F razee 
'TpHIS study is for a twelve inch vase. For the scheme of 
*■ color here given it is better to use a gold outline. 
The plain panels to be soft cream. All narrow bands 


D. M. Camp ana 

HIGH part of plaque in olive green with fruit in light 
blue. Lower part, dark grey with flower in pearl 
grey. Outlining in darkest green. Figure covered with 
bluish grey, nearly white. Background pearl grey. Dec- 
orative motive is the curve of the tree, and the snake. 
The leaning light figure in the center conveys also a round- 
ing impression, well adapted to plaque decoration. 
•f ** 

Mrs. J. H. E. — If in putting lustre on a piece of china in which the design 
is already painted, the lustre should be washed over a portion of the painting, 
no particular harm would be done if the painting were quite dry except that 
the paint would necessarily be affected by the color of the lustre, also the 
glaze might not be quite as brilliant. As a matter of fact some decorators 
paint little flowers right over the dry lustre without ill effects except the 
change in color. However it is a dangerous practice, for if the color or 
lustre should be too wet a nasty mess would be made which could not be 
remedied except by taking off everything and starting fresh. 

A. R. — In the public schools, drawing is taught by the teacher, putting 
on the blackboard an outline of some object or animal which the children copy. 
The blocks are a little difficult for young children as they are apt to wish to 
draw all four sides at once because they know they are there. There is a set 
of six elementary text books of art for children, published by Prang & Co., 
University Place, New York., which are exceptionally good, teaching color 
as well as black and white. If the child wishes to draw encourage him to 
make memory sketches. That seems the best beginning. My boy of six 
draws more or less every day, starting with a house with door, window, chim- 
ney, etc., he adds something new almost every time, showing that he is stock- 
ing his memory. He has a child's "painting book" which he colors. For a 
few days he traced the outlines of animals, figures, etc., through tracing paper, 
then he began to draw the outlines to see how well he could do without trac- 
ing. If a child takes naturally to it you can trust him to show you when he is 
ready to go a step further ; if he has no particular taste for it, it would be better 
to follow a course such as the Prang Books. The first step in designing is 
the repetition of some simple unit between two horizontal lines, making a 
(continued on page 238) 


Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 232 East 2jtk Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under "Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

Plate, Ne 
Armstrong. B 

>mb College Pottery. Bowl, boat design, Miss Mason. Bowl, conventional design, Miss Ma; 
lion, Martha Beaeh. Tea jar, Johanna Hibler. 




Mrs. A. M. Froehlich 

ON December third, the National Society of Craftsmen 
opened its rooms with an interesting exhibition of 
artistic crafts work. The new quarters of the Craftsmen 
are at 119 East 19th St., and the society plans to maintain 
there a permanent salesroom for the purpose of displaying 
work done by craftsmen from all parts of the country. 
The attractive, well-lighted, gray-toned rooms are admir- 
ably adapted to exhibition purposes. 

The Craftsmen have organized in order to further the 
interests of all the crafts, and to encourage both professional 
and amateur workers. This, their initial undertaking, 
has more than fulfilled their expectations, both in regard 
to the quality of work received and the extent of territory 
represented. The exhibition as a whole, surpasses previous 

. fly design and dragon fly knob 
1 background of design. 

d brown glaze 

1 & Hardenburg. Low vase with handles, Henrietta 
Ul =ize, Mary S. F. Darrence. Low flat vase. Henrietta 
Jones Large open mouth vase, three parted design, Jane Hoagland. vase, smaller 
at top, fine violet red color. Van Briggle Pottery. Medium size vase, Grueby Pottery. 
Low vase to right, Charles Volkmar. 

an vase, Misses Penu 
; grey vase, mediun 

ged lobe design in greens, Clara Rice. . 

Card case ,with < 
leaf design in'tgreen a 
portfolio, maple leaf „„, 

land. Brass powder box, C Ogden. Covered copper 
sticks, JarviejShop. 

I ],,!„, dc-i"ii 111 mwns, Clara Hut. Cunl case, conventional 

Uiright mild, Carrie Collin. Small portfolio. Mrs. Busck. Large 
id seed design, Mabel Rodebaugh. Ink stand, copper, H. Cleve- 

1, Caroline Ogdei 



Pendants, Ethel Walbridge. Stick pin, E. N. de Neergard. Stick pin, J. B. Thresher. 
Ring, garnet, Fred. Gardiner. Jade ring, Louise Williams,. Amethyst pendant, 
Elizabeth Copeland. Brooch, Emily F. Peacock. 

displays of like nature in New York, and its promoters ex- 
pressed large hopes for future progress. 

To avoid all undue advantage of place and arrange- 
ment, the usual custom of grouping all articles sent in by 
a single contributor was set aside. The experiment proved 
unfortunate, and it rendered impossible a fair judgment 
of any one's work as a whole. 

The Pottery Exhibit. 

In the pottery exhibit was representative work from 
leading potters as well as from promising amateurs. The 

Pottery tea set, Edith Lyon. Plate, Martha Beach. 

Van Briggle contributions showed the usual individuality 
of form and color. Especially good were a- few pieces in 
tones of gray violet. Grueby sent a typical collection of 
vases, and some excellent decorative tiles, which were 
commendable for their severe and dignified treatment; 
while the Newcomb exhibit was noticeable on account of 
its departure from their earlier styles, new forms being 
used which were excellent both in line and color. 

Mrs. A. A. Robineau's porcelains were unique — well 
conceived in form and remarkable in color treatment. 
Her work shows the resourcefulness of the artist in the 
refined treatment of keramics. Especially to be com- 
mended for its completeness and delicacy, was the carving 
in pale ivory, combined with its own deeper tones. 

Mr. Chas. Binns contributed some fifteen pieces, whose 
rare color effects are the satisfying results of years of in- 
telligent experimentation. Volkmar, also, showed some 
vases in his usual good vein, and some pictorial effects in 
tiles, suitable for interior decoration. 

Special mention should be made of the work done by 
Misses Penman and Hardenburgh, Jane Hoagland, Hibler 
and Mason. 

Three spoons, H. S. Whitbeck. Orange spoon, Student from Pratt Institute 
Cream jar and silver cover with design in high relief. Robert Dulk. Two bowls, Flora 
Skinner. Porringer, Ida Conklin. 

Comb. J. B. Thresher. Pendant, Ava M. Froehlich. Ring, turquoise matrix, H. C. 
Jeffery. Small ring, Ruth Harlow. Bracelet, Grace Hazen. Butterfly brooch, Mabel 
Luther. Enamel brooch, Mabel Luther. 



Overglaze Work. 
Miss Joanna M. Hibler displayed an excellent tea-jar 
of gray, with a well adapted border in two tones of gray- 
greens, and a bowl in the Indian treatment and color. 
Miss Mason had several good pieces, among them a plate 
with a narrow border of well arranged, abstract forms in 
dull blue coloring, and a bowl in warm gray-green, with a 
border decoration in two tones of gray orange. The best 
work of Miss Martha Beach was a plate which had for its 
finely proportioned border an arrangement of the always 
decorative laceflower. 


Frog design. Browns shading from light to dark, black and green mat glazes. 
Touches of dark blue m background of design. 

L. Carpenter sent from Montclair, N. J., a bouillon set 
in gray, with a hen and chickens as a design motive, carried 
out in white with touches of red. Mrs. Anna B. Leonard, 
also, had a representative exhibition which attracted 
much attention. Especially noticeable were a low bowl, 

open'pattern border, in green and blue, and a plate in gold 
with the rose tree pattern. 

It is to be regretted that the display of overglaze 
work was so limited. Many well known workers did not 
contribute at all. 

Leather Work. 

Many articles in modeled leather, such as purses, card- 
cases and belts, received favorable attention. Chief among 
them were Mrs. Busck's decorative panel of a gourd design 
on a background of gold. The Misses Ripley's designs 
executed in the 16th Century spirit were unique. 

The jewelry workers were very largely represented 
and made a most creditable showing with their various 
treatments of precious and semi-precious stones, metals, 
enamels and horn. Among those contributing were Miss 
Grace Hazen, Miss Margaret Rogers, Mr. H. Jeffery, Miss 
Emily Peacock, Miss Louise Williams, Mrs. Ida Conklin, 
Misses Norton and Mills, Miss Zimmerman, and Mr. Thresh- 


The Misses Steele and Walker sent a good collection 
of carved and gilded wood frames, while Mrs. Helen Albee 
and Mrs. Bratten of Brecksville, O., contributed largely 
to the decoration of the rooms with their. excellent woven 

On the whole there was an absence of the weak and 
amateurish efforts so noticeable in former exhibitions, the 
work, almost without exception, taking on a more pro- 
fessional character. Possibly this is due to the discriminat- 
ing judgment of the jury no less than to the steady improve- 
ment evidenced by workers in this field. 

•f •& 


We are sorry that we have been unable to publish 
before the following interesting illustrations of the work 
exhibited by the students at Pratt Institute, Brooklyn 
last June. The copper lantern, candle shades and stand 
for a kettle, should appeal to the lover of simple things, 
they all show fine feeling for proportion and design. 

The work in wood has much the same quality, the clock 
with the latin inscription makes one wish that there were 

Friedman. Miss Harlow. 

Miss Hazen. 

Miss Harlow. 

Miss E. F. Peacock. 




Johonnot. Miss E. Walbridge. 




Miss E. F. Peacock. 



Mrs. Conkl: 

Mrs. Conklin. 



r bowls, box and spoon — Made by students of Pratt Institute. 

Leather — Made by students of Pratt Institute. 

more like it. Three pieces of oak were carefully put to- or anything attempted beyond the capacity of the student, 
gether to get the required thickness, and the whole was It was refreshing to see amateur work, that could compete 
stained a dark green. with that done by a professional. Not that we want to be 
The leather work was interesting in color and good commercial, but we do want goldsmith's work and silver- 
in workmanship. In the portfolio and bag, the back smith's work at exhibitions, instead of such an array of so 

Copper — Made by students of Pratt Institute. 

ground of design was cut out and lined, the centrepiece 
and cover for a book were tooled. 

Particular mention must be made of the very excel- 
lent exhibit in jewelry. The work showed professional 
skill and artistic merit. There was nothing pretentious 

Wood — Made by students of Pratt Institute. 

called jewelry, that has the made for sale mark, instead of 
the work of the hand and brain of the true craftsman. 
The foundation of all good art is good workmanship, and 
each piece of jewelry at this exhibition showed that the 
student had been trained with this end in view. 

Miss E. F. Peacock. 
Min ins. 
Miss E. F. Peacock. Miss A. Walbridge 

Miss E. F. Peacock. 


Kobayashi. Kobayashi 

Miss E. F. Peacock 

liss A. Walbridge. 
Miss A. Walbridge. 

2 3 8 


Miss Harlow. 
Miss E. F. Peacock. Miss E. Walbridge. 



(continued from page 233) 
narrow border. Then coloring the design, or they could be drawn with 
colored crayons. We will try to secure articles on teaching children to draw 
and design. 

X. Y. — When the background of a design is grounded, before putting on 
the powder color, go over the spaces which you do not wish grounded, with a 
piece of damp absorbent cotton on a stick, this will remove any of the tur- 
pentine or grounding oil which may have run over the lines. 

To clean out a small design, such as a line or small scroll, use a wet sharp 
pointed hardwood stick. Orange wood is very good. For outlining in color 
with a pen, make a thin syrup but plenty of color, if you thin the syrup after 
mixing with color you must add more color or it will be too weak. Use a 

♦♦♦ »♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦,♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦*♦♦<>♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ 



The Ceramic Art 
| Importing Company 

Of Toronto, Canada 






Have opened with a full stock of everything 
required by ceramic artists. 

| Their importations of White China for dec- 
orating include Belleek, French, German 
and Austrian, in all the newest shapes and 

D Their stock of Paints, Lustres, Roman and 
Colored Golds, is most complete. 

1f A large assortment of Mineral Transfers, 
Brushes, Oils, Mediums, etc., etc. 

\ Mail orders will receive most careful atten- 

I 181 Yonge Street, Toronto, Canada 

♦ ♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦ 

fine Inda ink pen if you are not accustomed to a quill pen. If the syrup and 
color is the right consistency you should have no trouble, you will, of 
course, have to experiment to find just the right proportions of syrup and color. 
A raised paste line can be put on over a dry or fired tint but not over grounded 
color fired or unfired, it must not touch the grounded color. You must trust 
to the gold to make the line touch the color. You can put on your paste line 
next the grounded color in the first fire if you are very careful not to let it 

Good gold should stand quite a hard fire, if it looks thin after two good 
coats, either the make of gold is poor or it has been badly put on, perhaps two 
good coats the first fire and two thin coats the second fire would be better. 

Copper— Made byjstudentajof Pratt Institute. 


After a three year's absence in other states where 
she has been teaching and at the same time studying new 
methods, Miss Mellona Butterfield has returned to her 
studio in Omaha where she will be pleased to receive her 

The managers of the Chautauqua Summer School 
are very fortunate in securing the services of Mrs. M. B. 
Perley of San Francisco for this next season. She is now 
studying with Mr. Aulich of Chicago and will spend June 
in the New York studios. Mrs. Perley is not discouraged 
by her bitter experience at San Francisco; but is full of 
hope for the future and will doubtless meet with full 
measure of success. 


A full line of Austrian Novelties in White China. Shirt Waist Buttons 40 cts. a 
dozen delivered at your homes. Gold Plated Backs at $1.80 a dozen. We deliver 
Fry's Paints and Sherratt's Gold. We have no catalogues, but will send you a sample 
barrel full of novelties upon request with references. 


34-9 So. Salina St., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Dept. D 


Wishes to announce that their new catalog is <| 

now in preparation, and will be issued about <& 

March 1st. || 

The catalog will be printed on white paper of 
fine quality, illustrated throughout, and hand- 
somely bound. It will contain over two hun- $ 
dred pages descriptive of supplies for KIN DER- 

A Limited Number will be printed, and those | 

wishing to procure copies should apply for 
them not later than February 15th, and enclose §> 

twenty-five cents. j| 


255 East Broadway 

Merchants and Manufacturers of Tools and Supplies 
for the Arts and Crafts. 


The entire contents of this Magazine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles mast not be reprinted ^without special permission. 


•—""—"sSKSSfK ' 

Editorial Notes — Studio and Shop Notes 

League Notes 


Border — Walnut, Cone and Tree designs 

Apple Study 

A Few Suggestions 

Teapot — Conventional Flower and Leaf 

Bowl — Wild Touch-me-not 

Platters— Poppy Seed Pod Motif 

Plates and Mugs — Poppy Seed Pod Motif 

Vase — Peacock Feather Design 

Chop Plate — Sugar Tree Blossom 

Cup and Saucer — Primrose Motif 

Primrose Study 

Border for Dinner Plates 

Naturalistic Plate Design — Asters 

Childs Bowl 

Landscape for Tile — (Color Supplement) 

Studies of Milkweed Seed Pod and Wild Touch-me not 

Milk Pitcher — Milkweed Pod Motif 

Design for Clip and Saucer 

Adaptation of Landscape Motif to Bowl 

Adaptation of Landscape Motif to Vase 

Fernery and Palm Stand with Landscape Tile 

The Crafts— Fabric Stenciling^ 

Art in Pewter (con'd) 

Studio and Club Notes 

Answers to Inquiries 
Answers to Correspondents 

Margaret Overbeck 

Harry Barnes Goundrey 
Jules Brateau 














The Rose Book, containing some of the best 
rose studies and designs published in 
Keramic Studio postpaid $ 3.00 

The Fruit Book, containing some of the best 
fruit studies and designs published 
in Keramic Studio postpaid 3.00 

Composition, by Arthur Dow postpaid 1 .65 

Principles of Design, by E. Batchelder postpaid 3.00 

Decorative Studies, by J. Foord postpaid 12.50 

Plant Forms and Designs, by Midgley and 

Lilley postpaid 2.20 

Practical Pottery, elementary instruction 

for students, by Richard Lunn postpaid . 2.50 

Grand Feu Ceramics, a practical treatise on 
the making of hard porcelain dec- 
orated with high temperature glazes 
by Taxile Doat of the Manufactory of 
Sevres, France postpaid 7.50 

Seger's Collected Writings, 2 volumes postpaid 15-5° 

For the Collector: 

Vol. II Old China, bound blue cloth . . postpaid 2 . 50 

Anglo-American Pottery, a manual for col- 
lectors, by Edwin Atlee Barber, Cura- 
tor of the Pennsylvania Museum, sec- 
ond edition postpaid 2.00 

American Glassware, old and new, by Edwin 

A. Barber postpaid 1.00 

Marks of American Potters, by Edwin A. 

Barber postpaid 2.25 

Pottery and Porcelain of the United States 

by Edwin A. Barber postpaid 3.75 

The Lace Book, by N. Hudson Moore postpaid 5.30 









Tulip Ware of the Pennsylvania German 
Potters, by Edwin A. Barber, in pa- 
per cover postpaid 1, 

Cloth, limited edition .postpaid 5. 

The Primers of the Pennsylvania Museum 
(two already issued, Salt-glaze ware 
and Tin-enamelled ware) postpaid, .50 and 

Encyclopedia of Ceramics, by W. P. Jervis . . postpaid 6 

The Old China Book, by N. Hudson Moore . . postpaid 

The Old Furniture Book, by N. Hudson 

Moore postpaid 

Old Pewter, by N. Hudson Moore postpaid 

Chats on English China, by Arthur Hay den . postpaid 2 

Chats on Old Furniture, by Arthur Hayden . postpaid 2, 

China Collecting in America, by Alice Morse 

Earle postpaid 3.20 

Pottery and Porcelain, a guide to collectors, 

by Frederick Litchfield . . . postpaid 6.25 

French Pottery and Porcelain by Henri 

Frantz postpaid 2.68 

Dutch Pottery and Porcelain, by W. Pit- 
cairn Knowles postpaid 2.68 

Old English Furniture, by Fred Fenn and 

B. Wyllie postpaid 

English Embroidery, by A. F. Kendrick. . .postpaid 

French Furniture, by Andre Saglio postpaid 

Old Pewter, by Malcolm Bell postpaid 

Sheffield Plate, by B. Wyllie postpaid 

The Oriental Rug Book, by Mary Churchill 

Ripley postpaid 3.20 

Home Furnishing, practical and artistic, by 

Alice M. Kellogg postpaid 1 .65 

William Adams, an old English potter, by 

William S. Turner postpaid 8.00 

Keramic Studio Pub Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 


Vol. VIII, No. U 


March, 1907 

ERAMIC Studio presents in this 
number the work of Miss Mar- 
garet Overbeck of De Pauw Uni- 
versity, Greencastle, Indiana. 
Our old subscribers who have 
seen designs from her pen from 
time to time in our pages will be 
glad to see more from the same 
source, and we are sure those 
who are new to Keramic Studio 

will be pleased to make her acquaintance. 

The subject of the next Class Room will be "Flower 
Painting" under which heading will be included the sub- 
divisions: Roses, white, pink, and crimson; Violets; Daf- 
fodils; Nasturtiums; Geraniums; Pansies; Forget-me-nots. 
Other flowers, white, pink, crimson, violet, purple, blue, 
yellow, orange and red. Miniature flowers. To be re- 
ceived not later than March 15th. For list of prizes see 
back cover. 

Subscribers who wish any special subject to be taken 
up in the Class Room will please notify the editor. 

The May issue of Keramic Studio will be devoted to 
the work of Marshal Fry of New York and his pupils. 

September will be a water color number from the 
studio of Mrs. Teana McLennon Hinman of New York, 
though treatments of the flower studies will be given also 
in mineral colors. November will be a naturalistic number 
from the clever, brush of Miss Jeanne Stewart of Chicago. 

The designs published in February under the name 
"Virginia" are by Miss Marion H. Nelson of St. Catherines, 
Ontario, Canada. 

In the account of the National Society of Craftsmen 
exhibition in New York, in our February number, one of 
the bowls was by mistake attributed to Miss Mason. This 
bowl, the central one in the group, is by Mrs. C. B. Dore- 
mus of Bridgeport, Conn. 

We call attention to the editorial note in Crafts depart- 
ment, suggesting that designers submit to us designs for 
the different crafts as well as for china decoration. 


The vase designs are coming in slowly, too slowly, 
because there is still the March problem to be criticised, re- 
turned, painted upon the bowl, and then sent back for ex- 
hibition. This year the exhibition should show the value 
of our monthly problems by correspondence. Do not 

hesitate to send your designs, no matter how crude or 
limited. Ideas that take tangible shape, intelligible to 
the critic, are made practical for application. 

The "Farrington" punch bowl, a new and most inter- 
esting shape, was difficult to manufacture, and the price 
necessarily too high to take the risk of possible damage in 
transportation. The advisory board substituted bowl 579^, 
manufactured by the Willetts Manufacturing Co., Trenton, 
N. J. For this bowl, instead of a specified motif for design, 
we suggest that it be treated in the Colonial style, that is, 
panels, bands ornamented with little clusters of flowers, 
etc., with the following color -scheme: coral pink, laven- 
der, purple, a light and dark blue, light and dark green, 
and dahlia colors. 

We are gladdened by these additions to our member- 
ship roll. Mrs. Bird S. George, Greely, Colo; Mrs. Sallie 
Patchin, Wayland, N. Y; Miss Maude M. Lapham, Spring- 
field, Mo. and Mrs. Anna Bogenholm Sloane, Principal depart- 
ment of Arts and Crafts, of the Washington, D. C, School 
of Decorative, Industrial, and Fine Arts. 

Belle Barnett Vesey, Pres. 

A vase designed by lone Wheeler of Chicago and made 
by the Belleek factory, has been chosen by the National 
League of Mineral Painters for their traveling exposition 
for the coming year. 

i? ^ 

We hear with great regret that Mrs. T. McLennon 
Hinman 's studio in New York has been destroyed by fire 
and that she is suffering from the shock. We hope she 
will promptly recover and resume her excellent work as 
teacher and water colorist. We call attention to her 
advertisement in which she offers to sell her china studies 
at $1 each, and pictures at $2 each. All these studies are 
more or less damaged but will not lose their value for 
students who wish to reproduce them either on china or 
in water colors, and we trust that there will be prompt 
response to that advertisement from many of our sub- 
scribers. Mrs. Magill and Miss Ivory, the importers and 
decorators, who had their studio and shop in the same 
building as Mrs. Hinman, had their stock also seriously 
injured by the fire. 

Miss M. Helen E. Montfort, after a busy season in her 
studio, 318 Lenox Avenue, New York, will sail for Italy 
on March 9th, to be gone for a stay of seven months. On 
her return in October, she intends to reopen her studio 
at the same address. 

Mrs. A. Neble announces the opening of a studio at 
Room 2 in the Conservative Building, 16 14 Harney Street, 
Omaha, Neb., additional to her residence studio. 


We acknowledge with thanks the receipt of an artistic 
calendar from L. Reusche & Co., New York, 




HAT this is a period of advance in 
art all will admit. But it is a 
question whether the importance 
and scope of the field of keramics 
is as well understood as it should 
be even by its own devotees. 
When we consider that in point 
of usefulness alone the table equip- 
ment is one of the first require- 
ments in every home, what a wide 
opportunity presents itself, and we must meet it at least 
with the right intentions, whatever the result. 

If we could eliminate the commercial side, we say, 
but commercialism must be taken largely into account, 
since most articles of use come through its avenues, and it 
is there, most of all, that art influences are needed. A 
glance at the shop windows, from which stock the buyer 
of limited means must choose and which at the same time 
sets his standards, is sufficient reason why many of our 
pupils come to us with distorted ideas of decoration, and 
why there is a taste for the more or less gaudy style. 

On the other hand, utility, to many, is the only requi- 
site worth considering. But may it not be possible that 
when the highest degree of utility is reached, the elements 
of beauty have been attained, and that utility is close kin 
to beauty. 

If keramic workers would make a more careful study 
of the principles of decoration and be willing to let the de- 
sign be subordinate and supplementary to the thing dec- 
orated instead of its being the whole thing, then the pub- 
lic would learn to respect our art and follow our lead. 

Consider first the piece and its use. Avoid over-ornate 
decoration on all pieces in the service used for meats, veg- 
etables, etc. One has seen an exquisite tiny edge of green 
and gold or dull blue on a set of dinner plates, and it has 
seemed so satisfying, yet strange to say many a one, in 
painting a set of plates, will want them to look more like 
"hand painting," which may mean a spreading cluster of 
some favorite flower, never suspecting that if a plate has 
a decoration that is so strinkingly real it is everlastingly 
unfitted for contact with a meat course, unless a generous 
treatment of hydrofluoric acid is administered. Let the 
more elaborate designs be reserved for other parts of the 
service and odd pieces. 

This is only an echo of what has been said many times 
in the Studio, but it must be repeated. 

There may be cases wherein a naturalistic treatment 
is advisable, and one can hardly insist upon a complete 
elimination of that style in the beginning. The pupil must 
be led gradually and cannot be expected to reach the high- 
est point of appreciation at one jump. The route may be 
by way of garlands of roses, violets, and forget-me-nots, 
but have patience and persevere. Some say they do not 
like conventional designs, neither do any of us like all con- 
ventional designs, because not all are good. We must again 
cultivate our appreciation. Then too the simple design is 
not a waste of time, far from it. The truth is that the de- 
sign with the fewest forms is often the best test of artistic 
skill, since the placing of one form in space may call for 
greater refinement of feeling, as to balance of line, mass, 
and color, than another where one may add here and there, 
and possibly produce, by a process of guessing, something 
fairly good. 

Of composition, one cannot urge too strongly its im- 
portance. Your plate is a space to be broken by masses 
of color in a way so pleasing to the sense of proportion that 
it is better than the plain white plate, otherwise it is a 
mistake. If a border is used, it must be first wide enough, 
just narrow enough to leave the space within of the proper 
proportions for the size of the plate. 

The background spaces must be as carefully studied 
as the forms in the design itself. And moreover the shapes 
in both background and unit of design must be related, 
not only to each other, but to the space occupied, that 
there may be balance and rythm in the whole. 

It hardly needs saying again that Nature is the great 
source of design. Careful drawings and color schemes 
from all sorts of plant and animal life furnish a rich store 
to draw from when one cannot go direct to the source. 
However, don't stick too closely to Nature, but set the 
invention to work, with the naturalistic form as a basis for 

To study color harmony, make scales of color running 
through the pure spectrum colors into tints and shades, 
as a help toward feeling the refinement of subdued color. 
Experiment with the different harmonies, and take color 
schemes from dead twigs, mosses, lichens — anything. 
One must not fail to mention that invaluable source, Jap- 
anese prints. One cannot go far wrong in selecting color 
schemes from good prints. 

Many an otherwise fair design has been spoiled by 
using too many strong pure colors. Two equally strong 





(Treatment page 252) 



colors, whether contrasting or harmonizing, in theory, 
will in reality fight if used in such quantities as to make 
them complete for first place. It is possible, certainly, 
to use rich pure color with fine effect, but another equally 
strong color must not be opposed to it either in point of 
quantity or strength of tone. Safety lies in the greyed 
tones with sometimes a bit of rich brilliant color. 

And let us enter a plea for better shapes. Oh! that 
we could be our own potters! What china painter has 
not felt a thrill of joy upon discovering a bowl of really 
fine contour, such as one cannot find in the catalogs, but 
which can only be picked up here and there on rare oc- 
casions. A good milk pitcher is almost as rare. One that 
will pour in a genteel fashion, will stand firmly, is of a 
shape easily cleaned, and has a handle not for ornament 
but by which the weight of the filled pitcher may be held 
with the least possible strain to the hand. When all this 
is accomplished in the best way it is safe to say that it will 
be a thing of beauty. 

The difference is wide between real art and the desire, 
devoid apparently of any aim except to "decorate" and 

gold. The designs have the same general arrangement 
with different motifs in each case. This plan admits of 
variety and yet the effect is somewhat uniform, which is 
very desirable. 

A scheme of violet tones, dull blue violet for the 
largest spaces, with a tone a little purer and a little less 
blue, with a gold background, in a design that is not too 
open, would be pleasing for a dainty tea service. 

Flat enamels applied over both the background as 
well as the design, leaving all about the forms a narrow 
band of white china as an outline, gives a charming effect 
for a piece that admits of a very elaborate treatment. 
A vase might have an allover design done in this way, 
with a band of design to give added interest. With a 
careful selection of colors the effect could be made very 

Shades of brown with dull red, gray blues with purer 
greens, and the reverse, dull orange with gray of a more 
or less violet quality, rose and warm gray, and a dozen 
more color schemes might be named, all of which might 
have numberless variations. 


make "pretty" regardless of use. We can learn from the 
primitive man who in his need of some article of use, 
creates not only the thing of use but at the same time a 
thing that is a joy to the eye. 

Let us think about quality and not quantity, and be 
satisfied with nothing that is not sanctioned by our own 
best judgemnt. Then keramic decoration will have 
reached the high place that is its right. 

Margaret Overbeck 
De Pauw University, Greencastle, Ind. 


TO those beginners who have not acquired the skill to 
make their own designs and who must copy, the 
best advice one can give is to draw freehand from the 
start. The experience of at least one teacher is that if a 
pupil cannot draw with a pencil she cannot draw with a 
brush, and since one must draw with every stroke of the 
brush in painting, is it not better to have had that intimate 
acquaintance with the forms in the design that only a 
free hand application can give? It is, however, to be de- 
plored that such advice is necessary, since success in any 
line comes only with proper preparation. 

A very pretty and interesting set of tea cups has the 
same color scheme used throughout — dull gray green back- 
ground, clear warm green for design and narrow connect- 
ing band. In this band there are at intervals small oval 
medallions of ruby purple, and the whole is outlined in 



r>ARKS, Brown Green with a little Olive Green, or 
*-* use Black Green alone. Light parts, Apple Green and 
Black. Paint all on a fired ground of Gray Green and Pearl 
Gray. Browns or blues would also be effective. 
-f •$> 

INT cones Yellow Brown and needles Yellow Green. 
Background Dark Green, very dark. Partially out- 
line cones in same Dark Green. 
& •? 

HpWO shades of brown, Brown 4 or 17 and a little 
*■ Yellow Brown, on a cream ground. Greens might be 
used with good effect. Outline nuts with Black or the 
color used in the design. 


(pages 250 and 251) 

f)OD and leaf dull dark blue, Dark blue, Black and 
* Ruby Purple. Medium grey parts of design, green 
made of Olive Green and Black. Background, Apple 
Green and Black. The latter may be put on after the first 
firing and carried over the whole design except the blue 
parts, which will need a second painting of the same dull 




Flowers, Blood red, and leaves and stems Meissen Brown on a light yellowish ground, Yellow Brown, 
Imperial Ivory and Black. 


Paint flower forms in a rich yellowish tone, Imperial Ivory with a little Meissen Brown and Black. Background, 
Copenhagen Blue. Body of bowl also Copenhagen Blue. For the second painting tint background in band again 
with Copenhagen Blue and dust with dry color. The flower forms willjprobably need a second painting as will also 
the body of bowl. 













(Treatment page 248) 






A FTKR design is drawn in India ink, put in back- 
^* ground with Violet No. 2 and dust with Pearl Grey. 
Paint dark eyes with Deep Blue and Black, shading to 
Violet at the lower part of the form; light grey forms at 
either side of dark, Grey Green. When fired tint whole 
with Pearl Grey and a very little Violet. Wipe out small 
upper light and paint with Orange Yellow toned with Black. 
A third painting may be necessary to obtain the desired 
depth of color. Design will be most effective if kept sub- 
dued in color. 


For a treatment in lustres and matt colors, first paint 
main parts of design in Olive Green Lustre, taking 
great care to have china and brushes perfectly clean. Use 
alcohol for cleaning. Paint dark parts Deep Blue and 
Black. Small light above, Orange Dustre. Larger lights 
asides, Olive Green (tube or powder color) . 

After firing, tint background with Matt Bronze Green 
and when sufficiently dry dust with same color. Clean 
out design perfectly with clean brush and alcohol and go 
over Olive Green Lustre again, also the Orange Lustre, 
carrying it over the olive green forms at either side of darks. 
Paint dark forms again same as before. 

A third painting with the same colors as for second 
will probably be necessary. 



2 4 8 



FLOWERS a violet pink, Carmine No. i and a touch 
of Violet of Gold. 
Leaves and stems, Olive Green with a little Carmine 
shaded into the stem. Outline, Deep Red Brown with 
one-fourth Ruby Purple — cream background. 

A treatment in Rose and Olive Green lustres might be 
interesting. Outline in Black and tint whole after the 
second firing with Orange Lustre. 


F)AINT flowers in shades of Rose with Ruby for the 
* strong darks. For shadows, Apple Green or Dark 
Green with Rose for the various tones. Bear in mind that 

the flowers newly opened are almost white and that they 
grow a deep pink before they wither. Keep white around 
centers and make center of Yellow Green, a little Yellow 
toward the white and a touch of Dark Green for the deep- 
est parts. Green parts including leaves, Apple Green, Yellow 
Green and a little Yellow Ochre for lights. For darks, New 
Green, Olive Green and Dark Green with a little Rose in 
stems, growing deeper farther down. Carry on back- 
ground with other parts. Use Pearl Gray, Gray Green 
and a little Imperial Ivory at top and shade downward 
into Dark Green and a little Ruby, the latter dusted on 
after the paint is almost dry. Use same colors for second 


(pages 244 and 245) 

HPREATMLNT in enamels is very suitable for this 
" design. If Fry's enamel is used, mix first with a 
very little of Fry's Medium, thin with the Enamel Medium 
until thin enough to flow freely, if necessary add turpentine 
as it dries out. If Aufsetzweis is used, no oil is needed ex- 
cept turpentine or lavender oil to thin. To the latter add 
one-eighth flux to prevent chipping which sometimes occurs 
on hard ware. 

For black parts of design use Dark Blue enamel — 
Dark Blue (Dresden), Ruby Purple and Black added to 
the enamel. It will require perhaps two parts mixed color 
to one of enamel to make it dark enough. Leaves and 
other dark gray parts, warm mellow green, Grass Green, 
Brown Green and Yellow for Mixing added to the enamel. 
Background is tinted with Dark Green. Fire only once 
for enamels. 

















m » 


y ■■■■ """»' 


















u ^ n 





(Treatment page 242) 



APPLE STUDY (Page 241) 

*TPINT first with Orange Yellow and Brown 4 or 17 and 
* fire. Paint leaves in Olive Green and Black, mak- 
ing black turned over parts in a dark blue green tone — 
Russian and Dark Green. Stems, Brown 4 or 17 modeled 
a very little. Apples, Blood Red, Meissen Brown, Yellow 
Brown and Olive Green. Keep strongest color in largest 
one and small one above it, using more red in parts where 
the light and shadow meet and more green toward lower 
part. Darkest parts Blood Red running into Meissen 
Brown lower down. Use Yellow Brown with Blood Red 
in lights. More green and brown in the less important 


First lay on a wash of Raw Sienna and Black over 
the entire surface. Leaves, Flat Green, Hooker's Green 
No. 2, and Raw Sienna to make it quite warm. 

Stems, Van Dyke Brown with a little Crimson Lake. Model 
slightly. For apples use Yellow Ochre, Burnt Sienna, 
Vermillion and Sap Green, following same plan as suggested 
in the mineral treatment. Outline in Ivory Black with 
Japanese brush, accenting lines here and there. 


nPINT with Yellow Ochre and Black and fire. Outline 
with Black mixed with sugar and water, using either 
pen or brush. Draw figures with care to keep the char- 
acter. Do whole design in Copenhagen Grey and dust, 
then tint body of bowl in same color. A treatment in 
greens would be good. First fire a tint of Brown Green. 
Then put in forms in Olive Green and outline in Black. 
Lastly a coat of Orange Lustre might be added over the 
entire band. 


*TpWO shades of green, blue, red, or brown— all more 

*■ or less subdued — and gold for black parts would be 

an effective treatment for these simple designs. In any 

case the color in the largest masses should be most sub- 
dued, depending for richness upon the gold background, 
and purer color in the smaller forms. 




(Treatment page 254) 





DKGIN by painting flowers in main cluster with light 
*-* and medium tones of Violet, with Banding Blue in the 
lighter parts. Crisp darks, Ruby. Leave highest lights 
white. Centers, Albert Yellow and Yellow Brown. Leaves, 
Yellow Green and Apple Green. In putting in background 
Dark Green with Violet toward edge and Yellow Brown 
inside, care must be taken to keep the sharp edges in a few 
of the most prominent parts. Let colors blend in other 
parts. Albert Yellow for light tone at light side of larger 
cluster, running into Gray Green, and use Dark Green 
about the other clusters, connecting with Blue and Violet 
and Gray Green. Paint flowers at same time with back- 
ground, padding in some parts to blend colors. Bands, 
Dark Green. 

Second painting; use same colors, aiming at more 
strength in darks of background and in some of the more 
subdued parts, carrying background over flowers as well, 
wiping out lights. 

If handled carefully two paintings will be sufficient 
but a third may be given if needed. 




(Color Supplement) 

TINT the entire surface with Brown Green. If powder 
colors are used, proceed as follows: draw the 
design in India ink and put on outlines with German Black 
mixed with sugar and water. Paint sky, water and houses 
with Banding Blue and Black. 

Trees, Olive Green with a little Yellow Brown. Tree 
trunks and roofs, Blood red and Meissen Brown. Distance 
and foreground, Black Green. Use the same colors for a 
third firing, observing carefully the relation of tones and 
colors. Have the first tint of Brown Green dark enough 
to hold the whole design together. 

If preferred, after the first tint has been fired, the 
masses of color may be laid on first and the outline, (tube 
color or powder mixed with oil), may be put on last. 


Tint paper first with Raw Sienna and Ivory Black. 
When sufficiently dry, so color does not run, wash in sky, 
water and houses with Cobalt, to which has been added a 
little Hooker's Green and Light Red. Foliage should be 
painted with Sap Green subdued somewhat with Indigo 
and Raw Sienna. 

Use a wash of Sap Green and Black for distance and 
foreground. Tree trunks and roofs, Light Red and a little 




PAINT whole surface with Meissen Brown, Imperial Ivory, 
and a little Black, and fire. Draw design in India ink 
and tint all black parts with German Black. When sufficiently 
dry, depending upon temperature from four to twenty hours, 

dust with the same Black. Outline next with Black mixed 
with sugar and water. Tint all other parts except those 
to be left the original tint, with Meissen Brown and a little 
Black. If necessary strengthen for a third firing. 




Paint entire design with Grass Green to which has been added a little Yellow Brown. 
Blue might be used, or gold if preferred. 





IN the adaptation of landscape motif to the vase form 
* it will be necessary to somewhat elongate the trees, 
and to widen them for the bowl border. In the latter about 
three repeats, connected as suggested in the sketch, would 
be best. 


HTHIS stand, if made about fourteen inches high, for 
* eight by ten inch tiles, may be used as a jardiniere, 
or it might be made high enough to stand upon the floor, 
about forty inches with the open box to receive the pots, 
and with a shelf ten inches from the floor. The wood used 
is oak, the joints are mortised and the tiles carefully fitted. 
Only one design is given but the other three should be a 
simple continuation of the landscape, done in the same 
colors. Finish the wood in dull brown. 





Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 232 East 2Jth Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

All questions must be received before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under ''Answers to 

stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

^INCE the crafts department has been established in Ker- 
*- ? amic Studio we have published technical instructions 
for nearly all the important branches of craftswork. We 
will in the coming numbers treat of new subjects, such as 
work in pewter by Jules Brateau, the Javanese Batik, etc. 
Meanwhile we would be glad to receive designs for appli- 
cation* to the different crafts as well as for china decoration, 
and would purchase all such designs which seem to us 
worth publishing. As much as possible, treatments should 
be sent with them. For instance, if a design is intended 
for a leather portfolio, or a carved wood tray, or a piece of 
pottery etc., the treatment should explain how the work 
must be done. However, many designers, though un- 
familiar with special craftwork, may wish to submit good 
designs without treatment. These will be acceptable, but 
will not be as valuable to us as those accompanied with 
treatments. All designs should be submitted to Miss 
Emily F. Peacock, 232 East 27th Street, New York. 

Inquiries" only. Please do not send 


there is also great variety, cheese cloth or cotton bunting 
looks exceptionally well when stenciled, and chambray, 
unbleached muslin, light weight linen, scrim, china silk, 
pongee and raw silks are a few of the numerous materials 
which may be used to good effect. 

One advantage of this method is that one may have in 
his or her own home designs especially adapted to personal 
taste. The whole furnishings of a room may be carried 
out in different adaptations of one design using colors 
which blend well into a harmonious general effect. A 
living room in a sea shore cottage had designs of sea shells, 
sea weed, etc. stenciled on the couch cover, curtains and 
draperies. The colors used were principally blues, greens 
and a few suggestions of the violet tones of the sea. As 


Harry Barnes Goundrey 

TO lovers of the original and beautiful in decoration 
the art of stenciling on fabrics makes a direct appeal. 
To be sure the stencil has been employed for years as a 
means of transferring designs, and people of other countries, 
the Japanese particularly, have become proficient in its 
use, producing with stencils the most artistic effects, but 
it is only of late years coming into use for house-furnish- 
ings in this country. While by a study of the Japanese 
stencils a beginner may get hosts, of ideas, they are mostly 
too elaborate and complicated to commence with and it 
is better to start with the more simple designs. 

It is astonishing the great number of uses to which 
Fabric Stenciling may be put. Curtains, door hangings, 
sofa-pillow tops, table covers and so on, even to neck scarfs, 
collars, waists and opera bags, may be decorated in this 
way. The choice of materials is very great and as in the 
foundation material lies the principal cost it may be varied 
to suit all pocketbooks. For drapery stuffs there is a 
wide range from velour, arras-cloth, linen crash, shaiki 
silk, denim and so on down to unbleached factory which 
retails at about 15 cents a yard. For window curtains 



stenciled fabrics may be washed if care is taken and not 
much soap or hot water used, they are particularly well 
suited to use in the country home where of course they 
need it less frequently than in the city. 

Some time ago directions for Fabric Stenciling were 
given in this magazine but for the benefit of those who 
have not learned the methods a few directions may not be 
amiss. After selecting material the design is the next 
point to consider. Here let it be said that the more simple 



the design the more effective and easier to apply. Per- 
sons possessing a slight knowledge of drawing can get 
suggestions from flowers, leaves, good wall papers, cre- 
tonnes and so on which with some adaptations may be 
used for a stencil. By a study of the designs accompany- 
ing this article one will see that a flower form has to be 
much conventionalized and that there must be certain 
parts of the design used to hold the other parts together 
so that when the stencil is cut, it will not fall apart. After 
the design is drawn trace it with carbon paper on to stencil 
board. This may be purchased under the name of oil 
board or stencil paper or made at home by coating both 
sides of a heavy manilla paper with boiled linseed oil and 
allowing it to dry thoroughly before using. When the 
design is traced on, place the stencil board on a pane of 
glass and, with the point of a sharp penknife, carefully cut 
through the outline of the design. To give the necessary 
clean cut edge sharpen the knife frequently on an oil stone. 
Allow about an inch margin all around the design. The 
next step is to mix the colors. Tube oil paints thinned 
with turpentine are the most satisfactory, the separate 
colors being mixed in deep saucers or old cups and a small 
flat bristle brush provided for each color. A most conven- 
ient thing to work on is an old drawing board or kitchen 
table to which the work may be securely fastened. Place 
a sheet of blotting paper under the material and pin it 
firmly down with pins or thumb tacks. After the colors 
are mixed try them on a sample of the cloth and it is wise 
to practice on some samples before beginning actual work. 
When ready place the stencil in position and pin it firmly, 
dip the brush in the color and drain off as much paint as 
possible on the side of the dish, then wipe it once or twice 
over a blotter, as the brush must be nearly dry or the colors 
will run under the edge of the stencil and spoil the design. 
Apply the paint through the openings of the stencil by 
holding the brush in a nearly upright position and brush- 
ing it with short quick strikes across that part of the ma- 

terial showing through. At first while the brush is well 
filled with paint one must be very careful to go lightly 
and especially on the smaller openings, but after a few 
strokes it is perfectly safe to work the color well into the 
material and be sure and fill it in completely to the cut 
edge. Carry one color over all the parts of the design for 
which it is intended and repeat for each color till all the 
spaces have been filled, then remove the stencil and place 
it in position for the next repeat. The work must be done 
with care and deliberation as it can not be hurried without 
danger of having the colors run. After some of the work 
has been done it will be easier to know just how much 
color can be applied at one time without spreading. In 
regard to the colors used do not have them too bright, 
the soft subdued tones being always more satisfactory and 
restful to the eye. For general work try to have the foun- 
dation material as light a tone as possible but where dark 
materials are necessary one or too darker shades of the 
same color and a strong contrasting color will give a rich 
effect, but of course a light color will not show on a dark 
background as the turpentine makes the paint transparent. 
If white were used, that would make the colors look painty 
and would simply pile up on the material and not sink in. 
Stenciling should be done with such delicacy that the de- 
sign appears almost as if woven into the material and 
leaves the texture the same as before the paint was applied. 
In illustration No. i the sofa-pillow top was stenciled 
on pongee silk in the natural shade, the decoration was 
carried out in a soft brick red, pale green and dull pur- 
plish blue. 

The dainty little opera bag shown in illustration No. 
2 is made of cream colored Nagasak silk and the decoration 
is in pale blue and green. Naturally the stenciling has to 
be done before the bag is made up. It is completed with 
a cream silk lining and cord to draw it up. 

The stencil in illustration No. 3 was used on a curtain 
of cream colored cheesecloth to form the border just in- 
side a deep hemstitched hem. The design was in two 
tones of grey blue. Illustration No. 4 is suitable for the 
end of a table runner or scarf and could be worked out in 
several color schemes. It is well adapted for a heavy 
crash or linen. 

We are indebted to Messrs Liberty & Co., London, 
England for the delightful scarf in illustration No. 5. The 
original was a soft silk, light coffee in color, and stenciled 
in dull green and black. The background was used in 
the small oval motive in the centre of the stencil, which 
gave the border a better variety of tone. 



As the variety in stenciled designs is limitless, this 
decoration can be used for a great many things in a house 
without danger of monotony. The work is fascinating 
and with care and patience beautiful things can be made 
which are very satisfactory because they show originality 
and have a personal touch. 

No. 21. 
representing the Gods of Olympus. Pewter, Germ 
century. Belongs to Jules Brateau. 

Tiake, XV. to XVI. 



Jules Brateau 
In the Breslau Museum, there is a large tankard, 
cylindrical in shape, with a hinged lid surmounted by a 
ball. This tankard has feet and a handle, also a faucet 
soldered at the base. The cylinder has been broadly 
beveled with the hammer in panels, the flat surfaces thus 

Tankard, Museun 

No. 22. 
;slau, Pewter. From the Re- 
1883. Paris. 

le des Art Deooratil's, 

No. 23. 
Small pewter objects: Book covers, clasps, coins, sheath for knife, and medals, after the manner of Jean Goujon. 
Very rare specimens, XVI. century. Belongs to Jules Brateau. 



produced, being decorated with religious subjects, and 
offering a pleasing effect. We give in 111. No. 22, a repro- 
duction of this fine piece, which, it must be observed, was 
not made according to the process to be explained later, 
as the engraving was done directly on the piece with the 
graver's tool. 

This brief mention is sufficient to emphasize the fact 
that the XVI. century was the most remarkable period 
of the pewter art-industry, as well as to show the impor- 
tance of a movement culminating in a master piece: a 
work of art, which, by its artistic and technical qualities, 
surpasses all others of its kind. This is the ewer and 
basin: "Temperance," by Francois Briot, whose name, 
engraved on the facades of our monuments, has not been 
forgotten after 400 years. 

[to be continued] 

We regret that lack of room has prevented us from giving in every 
number part of the series of articles on pewter by M. Jules Brateau. In 
our April number the work of Francois Briot, the famous pewterer of the 
XVI. century will be commented on and illustrated. 


Miss Emily F. Peacock has returned from Europe and 
resumed work at her vStudio 232 East 27th St. 

Mr. C. T. Hamann, instructor at Pratt Institute, Brook- 
lyn, will have a class in advanced work in jewelry and carv- 
ing in shell and horn at Miss Peacock's studio, commenc- 
ing the middle of February. 


The National Society of Craftsmen are holding a re- 
ception and tea every Wednesday at 4 o'clock in their 
galleries at 119 East 19th St. New York City. The Society 
expect to hold an exhibition of craft work the first part of 
April, emphasizing particularly needs for summer homes. 
They are also arranging for a course of lectures to be given 
during the winter; among the first given will be one, on 
the wood block print, by Mr. Arthur Dow. 


M. J. C. — Colors prepared for use on leather can be obtained from Mrs. 
B. Van Court Schneider, 102 Auditorium Building, Chicago, 111. Russian 
calf is the best leather for tooling and coloring. A good deal of experimental 
work has to be done in coloring leather, try using the alcohol with the dye. 

T. J. O. — Metal articles to be oxidized must be very thoroughly cleaned 
in hot potash. The simplest oxidizer is made by dissolving potassium sul- 
phide in hot water and using the solution while hot. A piece of potassium 
sulphite, as large as a small nut and about a quart of water will make quite a 
strong solution, it can be made any desired shade by using more or less of 
the potassium. 

M. C. — A tablespoonful of sulphuric acid in about a quart of water is 
the proportion for the pickle for cleansing silver, copper or brass. Mix the 
sulphuric acid and w r ater in a porcelain dish, and keep it hot by placing the 
dish in another vessel filled with water. 


J. A. H. — The trouble with your kiln is not due to the new muffle, but 
to the draught. There is something wrong somewhere with the draught. 
otherwise the smoke would go through the chimney instead of coming back 
into the muffle through the top opening. Through the spyholes with mica 
shutters at top of the kiln you should be able to find out why the smoke does 
not go freely from the flues to the chimney. 

Miss J. N. — You can procure molding clay from any dealer in art ma- 
terials. You might write to the Handicraft Co., 255 E. Broadway, X". Y., 

mentioning Keramic Studio. We do not quite understand what you mean 
by "velvet" appearance of Blues for china. Possibly you mean the matt 
colors which give a dull velvet}' finish. Miss Mason's matt colors you will 
find give this effect. See adv. 

M. D. B. — We have not the formula for essence for bright gold nor for 
grounding oil. If we obtain reliable formulas we will publish them. In 
place of essence for bright gold, use oil of lavender, it is much more satisfac- 
tory as it keeps the lustre open longer, so that it may be padded. 

Mrs. A. W. — Dresden Thick oil and Fat oil of turpentine are made by 
evaporating spirits of turpentine. The thick oil is more evaporated than 
the fat oil. Put the spirits in a wide bowl on the back of the stove till suffi- 
ciently thickened. 

X. Y. — If the color on your stein, which came out grey instead of black, 
does not seem too thick already, you might safely paint it over with black 
and dust black powder color into the partly dry padded color. Almost any 
black ought to dust on well but we consider the best black effect is gotten 
by dusting Banding Blue over fired Pompadour Red. There is more color 
in the black. 

E. P. — In decorating a complete dinner set we would prefer at least a 
"family" resemblance all through. At least all pieces to be on the table at 
one time should have the same design and color. A simple narrow border 
for service plates and soups can be elaborated for the main course with 
special designs for special courses, such as game, salad, etc. If the same 
color scheme is continued all through, more latitude might be allowed in 
design. One color for tinting and gold for the design is dainty and effective. 

K. H. C. — The methods of decorating glass are very similar to china 
technique. The gold, enamel, paste and color are applied in the same man- 
ner. The enamels used are the soft enamels, the Roman gold for china is 
about right to use over paste, a special gold for glass will have to be pur- 
chased for the flat work. The Hancock's paste for gold is suitable for glass 
decorating. Special colors for glass must be used. Some lustres come out 
very well on glass, such as the opalescent and yellow r . Try all your lustres 
on broken bits of glass then you will have samples by which to be guided. 
The kiln should be fired to a dark red only. The glass being soft will adhere 
to the enamels, etc., at a much lower temperature than demanded on china. 
Almost any kind of glass can be decorated, but the safest for amateur is the 
Bohemian or Baccarat. 

L. — The direction for painting the roses of Aulich to which you refer in- 
tends that you should use the Black to touch up the Pompadour before firing. 

M. N. A. — Definitions of terms used in drawing. Harmony, i. e., agree- 
ment in line and color, etc., so that the entire design "moves together." 
Balance, i. e., division of space so that the light and dark areas are equiva- 
lent, also so that one part of the design does not have undue prominence. A 
balanced design in its simplest form is one in which the unit is reversed so 
that both sides are identical. Repose: a feeling of restfulness given by sim- 
plicity of line which is balanced so that the idea of motion is completed, i. 
e, a line slanting from left to right is repeated from right to left, thus com- 
pleting the movement. In cases where the lines move in too many directions, 
a restless feeling is given. Where the slanting motion is given from left 
to right or right to left without balance a whirling effect is felt. Up and down 
and horizontal lines are most restful. Oblique lines suggest movement. 
Repose is the effect felt where a design is simple, dignified, few forms and com- 
plete in themselves and little or no movement. Rhythm, is the repetition of a 
unit at regular intervals so as to "mark the beat" as in music. 

Colors bought in the bulk need to be both reground and fluxed. We 
have no formula for grounding oil at present. 

Iowa. — You will find all information in regard to lustres in the Class 
Room Keramic Studio. You will find designs of water lilies in May, 1901 
Keramic Studio, also in October, 1900 Keramic Studio and Dec, 1903 
Keramic Studio. Color study by Miss Maud Mason, May, 1902. Try fir- 
ing your oil kiln, turning on more oil from time to time, watching the chim- 
ney and giving only as much oil as you can burn with just a suspicion of 
smoke. We think your china will be fired quite as quickly and with less 
trouble than if oil is crowded on. The flame is just as hot, for only a certain 
amount of oil can find air enough for perfect combustion, the rest goes off in 
smoke, not heat. You will find all information in regard to paste for gold 
in Class Room Keramic Studio. 

Relief enamels usually in powder are sometimes hard fire enamels, some- 
times for light fire. Aufsetzweis is a hard fire enamel put up in tubes and 
much The most reliable for a beginner. Tube colors are mixed with oils 
which harden rapidly. Mix a little tar oil to keep open on palette or clove 
oil or oil of lavender, whichever medium you prefer. See answer to Mrs. 
A. W. in regard to fat oil and thick oil. 




I The Ceramic Art 



I Importing Company 

♦ ■ 


♦ Of Toronto, Canada 







Have opened with a full stock of everything 
required by ceramic artists. 

I Their importations of White China for dec- 
orating include Belleek, French, German 
and Austrian, in all the newest shapes and 

f Their stock of Paints, Lustres, Roman and 
Colored Golds, is most complete. 

I A large assortment of Mineral Transfers, 
Brushes, Oils, Mediums, etc., etc. 

I Mail orders will receive most careful atten- 

♦ 18 t Yonge St., Toronto, Canada* 


i Marsching's 

Roman Gold 



Gold for China Painting 

Other Golds have come and gone, but Marsch- 

ing's Gold still holds its place as the 

best Gold on the market. 


If you want your Gold work to last, use Marsch- 
ing's. Have no other. 



NEW \ 49 Barclay St. » 
I YORK: 54 Park Place. ♦ 


108 Lake Street. 


♦ artist's materials of every description * 


39 Murray Street, New YorK 


Import Lines Now Ready 

We Have a splendid line of up-to-date We can fill orders for immediate de- 
samples on display at the above address 5 livery from our Cleveland Store, where 
which you cannot afford to overlooK £ we carry a large stocK of French and 
when in New YorK. J German White China. 


The entire contents of this Marine are covered by the general copyright, and the articles most not be reprinted without special permission. 


Editorial Notes 

League Notes 

The Class Room— The Art of Teaching— Contd. 

Plum Branch 

Treatments Plum Branch and Apple Blossoms 


Calla Lily Design for Vase 

Powder Puff Box 

Pussy Willow 

Plate Borders in blue and white 

The Alhambra Ceramic Works 

Snow Drop 

Some Hand-painted Pottery 

An Historical Collection of Rookwood Pottery 

Apple Blossoms 

Arts and Crafts 


Cyclamen (Supplement) 

Primrose Study 
Answers to Correspondents 
The Crafts 

Art in Pewter 

Exhibition Arts and Crafts Soc. of Detroit 

Barnstable Guild of Handicraft 
Pink Eucalyptus 

Belle B. Vesey 

Helen Patter 
H. B. Paist 

Russell Goodwin 
Charles Babcock 
Maud Hulbert 
Ophelia Foley 

Maud Myers 

Helen Patter 

Paul Putzki 
Maud E. Hulbert 
Nancy Beyer 

Jules'-Rrateau ' 

Mrs. H. L. Bancroft 


268 & 270 






The Rose Book, containing some of the best 
rose studies and designs published in 
Keramic Studio postpaid $ 3.00 

The Fruit Book, containing some of the best 
fruit studies and designs published 
in Keramic Studio postpaid 3.00 

Composition, by Arthur Dow postpaid 1 .65 

Principles of Design, by E. Batchelder postpaid 3.00 

Decorative Studies, by J. Foord postpaid 12.50 

Plant Forms and Designs, by Midgley and 

Wiley postpaid 2.20 

Practical Pottery, elementary instruction 

for students, by Richard Dunn postpaid 2.50 

Grand Feu Ceramics, a practical treatise on 
the making of hard porcelain dec- 
orated with high temperature glazes 
by Taxile Doat of the Manufactory of 
Sevres, France postpaid 5.00 

Seger's Collected Writings, 2 volumes postpaid 15.50 

For the Collector: 

Vol. II Old China, bound blue cloth . . postpaid 2.50 

Anglo-American Pottery, a manual for col- 
lectors, by Edwin Atlee Barber, Cura- 
tor of the Pennsylvania Museum, sec- 
ond edition postpaid 2.00 

American Glassware, old and new, by Edwin 

A. Barber postpaid 1.00 

Marks of American Potters, by Edwin A. 

Barber postpaid 2.25 

Pottery and Porcelain of the United States 

by Edwin A. Barber postpaid 3.75 

The Lace Book, by N. Hudson Moore postpaid 5.30 

Tulip Ware of the Pennsylvania German 
Potters, by Edwin A. Barber, in pa- 
per cover postpaid 

Cloth, limited edition .postpaid 

The Primers of the Pennsylvania Museum 
(two already issued, Salt-glaze ware 
and Tin-enamelled ware) postpaid,, .50 and .60 

Encyclopedia of Ceramics, by W. P. Jervis . . postpaid 6.75 

The Old China Book, by N. Hudson Moore . . postpaid 

The Old Furniture Book, by N. Hudson 

Moore postpaid 

Old Pewter, by N. Hudson Moore postpaid 

Chats on English China, by Arthur Hayden . postpaid 

Chats on Old Furniture, by Arthur Hayden . postpaid 

China Collecting in America, by Alice Morse 

Barle postpaid 

Pottery and Porcelain, a guide to collectors, 

by Frederick Litchfield postpaid 

French Pottery and Porcelain by Henri 

Frantz postpaid 

Dutch Pottery and Porcelain, by W. Pit- 
cairn Knowles postpaid 

Old English Furniture, by Fred Fenn and 

B - Wyllie postpaid 

English Embroidery, by A. F. Kendrick . . . postpaid 

French Furniture, by Andre Saglio postpaid 

Old Pewter, by Malcolm Bell postpaid 

Sheffield Plate, by B. Wyllie postpaid 

The Oriental Rug Book, by Mary Churchill 

Ripley postpaid 

Home Furnishing, practical and artistic, by 

Alice M. Kellogg postpaid 

William Adams, an old English potter, by 

William S. Turner postpaid 6.00 

1. 10 









Keramic Studio Pub Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 

Vol. VIII, No. 12 


April, 1907 

INCE it will be impossible for 
lack of space to give the Class 
Room Articles on Flower Paint- 
ing before the June issue, the 
competition as announced on 
back of cover will remain open 
until May ist to give any late 
comer a chance to add her quota 
to the 'symposium." Make ar- 
ticles as concise as possible — 
we like to give every one a chance, but too wordy articles 
take up so much space that they will have to be cut down. 
This advice should be followed in all future articles. Make 
them short and to the point. Otherwise the one subject 
stretches over too many issues of Keramic Studio. 

We call special attention to the photographic studies 
of flowers by Miss Helen Patter, of Minneapolis. The orig- 
inals are extremely artistic in tone and mounting, as well 
as well arranged and composed. We expect to reproduce 
a number of these studies which we recommend to the 
artist and designer who has no time or opportunity to 
make her own studies. 


Our next issue will be the eighth anniversary number 
of Keramic Studio. We always try to have something 
special for our birthday issue and this year we greet our 
old friends and new with a number edited by Mr. Marshal 
Fry. We feel sure that this will be considered a treat by 
one and' all. 


We finish in this month's Class Room the series of 
articles on the 'Art of Teaching". The next subject to 
be taken up is "Flower Painting." 

Any one who has already sent in her article may 
send any additional instruction she may see fit. Many 
of the articles on hand so far show a general misunderstand- 
ing of the kind of instruction called for on the subject. 
Some have sent color studies with treatments. Some have 
sent a sort of general article which although interesting 
does not give instructions so that a beginner who can not 
have a teacher would know how to go to work. Some give 
just a list of colors. It is intended that thoroughly com- 
prehensive instructions should be given and to that end 
a $10.00 extra prize will be given to an article which 
will leave little to be added in the way of complete instruc- 
tion. Here should be the general plan: — Flower Painting 
— General remarks, applicable to all flower painting. 

Roses — Backgrounds, how to paint Roses, manipula- 
tion of brush, colors, etc., foliage, green and reddish. Colors 
for pink roses in full light and shadow, remarks. White 
roses, colors in light and shade, remarks. Red roses, light and 
dark, colors in light and shade, remarks. It is supposed 
that directions will be given for colors to be used for laying in 
for first fire and for each necessar)^ retouching, and firing. 
It would be more interesting if the instructions were given 
under the heading of the different kinds of Roses, for in- 
stance, White "Marxian Cochet" or some other white rose. 

"La France" or other pink rose, "Paul Neyron" or other 
rose color rose, "American Beauty" or other deep rose, 
"Jacqueminot" or other crimson rose, etc. "Marechal Niel", 
or other yellow rose. 

Violets — General instructions, manipulation of brush, 
for single or double varieties, colors for white violets and 
for the different shades of violet foliage, backgrounds, re- 

Daffodils — General instructions, foliage, manipulation 
of brush, colors for white, yellow and orange varieties, red 
edge to cups of same as in "Poeticus", general remarks, 

Nasturtiums — This should give full instructions in the 
obtaining of the various shades of yellow, buff, orange, 
pink, scarlet, dark red and mahogany tints, also color of 
foliage both dark and light, backgrounds. 

Geraniums — Colors and manipulation, backgrounds, 

Pansies and Forget-me-nots. 

Under the sub-title "Other flowers" opportunity is 
given for each to treat of their specialty if they have been 
painting well some flower not given in the list. It would 
be especially well to treat of the handling of blues in flowers, 
for instance, Corn flowers or Asters. 

Under the sub-title "Miniature flowers," it is under- 
stood that the best method to paint simply these little 
flowers should be given, the number of fires required and 
the colors. Example : for miniature roses paint the pink 

ones for first fire with . Red roses Yellow 

foliage should be — — retouch with — ■ — Shadow flowers 
and leaves, etc. 

General remarks. This will give opportunity for each 
to give any special ideas she may have on the subject. 


The Annual Meeting of the National League of Mineral 
Painters will be held in room 36, The Art Institute, Chicago, 
111. on Friday, May 3d, at ten o'clock, a. m. 

The triennial election of officers will be held. No 
officer having served the full term shall be eligible for re- 
election according to Article IV, Section 7, of our constitu- 

The annual exhibition will open with a reception, 
Tuesday evening, April 30th, at 8 o'clock p. m. at The Art 
Institute, and continue until May 26th. All members of 
the League, and their friends, are cordially invited to be 
present at both the meeting and reception. 

Circulars containing instructions for the exhibition 
will be mailed to members. We welcome Mrs. Alta Lyons- 
Irons, of Glenwood, Iowa, whose name has been added to 
our membership roll. 

Belle Barnett Vesey, Pres. 


The exhibition of the Mineral Art League of Boston, 
which was to take place about the middle of April at 
Westminster Hotel, has been postponed till Fall. 




Fifth Prize— Nellie DuBois Henderson 

ff ET the beginner get a good assortment of powder colors. 

*-* The powder colors stay moist longer after being mixed 
up, and are cleaner to have about than the tube colors. 
The following list will constitute a good working outfit : 
Mixing Yellow Brown Green Violet No. 5 

Yellow Brown Dark Brown Banding Blue 

Blood Red Grey for Flesh Apple Green 

Ruby Purple Sea Green Shading Green 

Deep Blue Green Orange Yellow Black 

Copenhagen Blue Pompadour Pearl Grey 

Moss Green Rose Copenhagen Grey 

China pencil 3 regular square shaders Nos. 

Agate burnisher, 4, 7, and 9, 

Bottle of sand for burnishing, 1 pointed shader No. 7, 
Bottle of Fry's medium, An outlining brush, 

Bottle of Fry's special tinting Grounding brush, 

oil, Box of Roman Gold, 

Small palette knife, Plate Divider, 

Scraper or curved eraser, Turpentine and paint rags. 

Use the border for a fruit bowl by Sabella Randolph 
given in the Keramic Studio, for Angust 1906, on page 89. 

Take the plate divider, place the plate on the circle 
corresponding with the plate, and mark the plate in equal 
sections, then with a piece of tracing paper, just the size 
of one of these sections, trace off the design from the book, 
and make it fit to the curve of the plate. The tracing 
paper may be fastened to the plate by little pieces of wax, 
and by means of transfer paper the design may be trans- 
ferred on to the plate. An agate burnisher makes a 
splendid tracing tool. Pour out a little of the special 
tinting oil, and mix with it enough Grey for Flesh to show 
a plain mark, then with the outline brush trace the design 
with a good firm even line of the oil. Let this stand until 
nearly dry, perhaps an hour or two, and then with a little 
piece of cotton, or lamb's wool preferred, rub gently into 
the outline some of the powder Grey for Flesh. In this 
dusting process, be always careful to keep the paint be- 
tween the oil and the cotton. Clean off everything but 
the outline and have this fired. If greater haste is nec- 
essary, one may put in the outline with a little Grey for 
Flesh mixed with a thin syrup of sugar and water. This 
does not make quite as good an outline and is apt to need 
an extra firing to strengthen it at last. One may then 
proceed with the second fire treatment immediately, as 
the oil will not touch this outline. 


With special tinting oil and a little Grey for Flesh, 
paint in the leaves and stems with a smooth thin wash of 
the oil, keeping the edges firm to the outline. The Grey 
for Flesh fires out a good deal and therefore has very little 
effect on the dusted color. Let this stand until almost 
dry, two or three hours, and then dust in, as before, the 
following mixture, well ground together: One part Sea 
Green, one part Copenhagen Grey and one part Grey for Flesh. 
After this is dusted and cleaned, the grapes and bands 
may be painted in with the oil in the same manner as 
before, and after drying, dusted with two parts Copenhagen 
Blue, one Banding Blue and one Pearl Grey. Be careful not 
to touch the dusted colors with the fresh oil. 


This is an all over tint called envelope. The tinting 
oil with a little Grey for Flesh is painted swiftly over the 

whole plate and with a small pad of cotton covered with 
an old soft silk cloth pad the plate until a smooth even 
surface is obtained, and the oil sounds tacky when padded. 
Let this stand for an hour and a half or two hours, where it 
will be free from dust, and then carefully dust with one 
Copenhagen Grey and one Pearl Grey. This firing will 
bring out a very harmonious plate in blue green and grey. 

In beginning something in the naturalistic work, also 
start in on a smooth plate, and try at first some simple 
flower since it is easier and will teach the painting of color 
in smooth washes. Take the wild rose study by E. Louise 
Jenkins, given in the Keramic Studio for June 1906, on 
page 31. In mixing up the paints, it will be well to keep 
the colors always in the same order, somewhat like that 
given in the list, since it avoids confusion and one learns 
to know the colors quicker. Pour out about a half a 
thimbleful of the powder on the palette and mix with it 
a few drops of the medium. Grind well with the knife 
until all the bits of grit are out. Do not let the paint get 
thin, but mix with it just enough oil so that it will not run. 
For this piece one will need the following colors : 
Mixing Yellow, Brown Green, Copenhagen Blue, 

Rose, Dark Green, Moss Green, 

Violet No. 2, Yellow Brown, Shading Green, 

Apple Green, Ruby Purple, Pearl Grey. 

If necessary sketch in the design with the china pencil, 
making the stem curve gracefully with the plate. Take 
the square shader No. 9, dip it in the turpentine and then 
in some of the Medium which is poured out in a small 
dish. Work the oil all through the brush, wriggle it back 
and forth on the palette until the hairs are all even and 
smooth, and then wipe off the brush carefully on a cloth, 
keeping it broad and flat. This process will have to be 
repeated often. Shove the brush up into the rose color 
pink, working the paint in and then draw back until it 
looks as if it would make a smooth, thin wash. Paint 
in thinly the petals of the roses, bearing clown on the brush, 
so as to give a thinner wash on the high lights. Do it 
all with one brush stroke if possible. A bit of Mixing 
Yellow may be taken in the brush with the Rose for the 
highest lights. Toward the center shade it a little darker, 
taking in the brush a little Ruby with the Rose. The 
blossoms underneath need more Ruby and a little Pearl 
Grey mixed with the Ruby to lower the tone and put them 
in shadow. Leave the centers large and white, and paint 
these in with Yellow, shading with Brown anc: a tiny bit 
of Green in the center. Then with the outline brush and 
a little Dark Brown, softened with a bit of Yellow and Red, 
mark in the stamens. For the light leaves, use Moss Green 
shaded with Brown and Shading Green. Stroke the brush 
from the point of the leaf to the center, and then around 
from the center to the point again, shading it in toward 
the center, and suggesting a center vein. In the dark 
foliage under the flowers, use Brown Green and Shading- 
Green and a little Blood Red mixed with the greens for a 
brownish tone. Violet No. 2 may be used with the green 
for a half tone foliage, and the shadow foliage put in with 
Copenhagen Blue. With the edge of the brush cut out 
the stems from the darkest back ground and leave white 
for the next painting. Paint in the dark stems with 
Brown Green and Brown, and some in the shadow green 
colors. Put the paint on smoothly and do not get any 
hard lines. A rim of gold will finish the plate for the first 
firing. Be sure that the edge is free from paint. It is best 
to have a separate knife for gold and be sure to have clean 
turpentine. Mix up part of the gold with the turpentine. 











r 1 





If the gold is hard it may be warmed by a match under- 
neath the glass. Also have a brush to use in the gold alone, 
as much will be wasted in cleaning out the gold each time. 
For a rim the tip of the finger may be dipped in the gold 
and holding it to the edge of the plate, turn the plate in 
the other hand. This gives a good even band and the gold 
will not be too thick. If put on with the brush too thick, 
it will chip off. Be sure there are no finger marks on the 
bottom of the plate. Dry in an oven before sending to 
the kiln as the paint is apt to get rubbed off in stacking. 


Wash thinly over the high lights of the flowers with 
rose strengthen the shadows and centers, strengthen 
leaves, suggesting veins and markings. Wash Yellow 
Green over high lights, and over the stems left from the 
last firing. Strengthen the background foliage with Brown 
Green and Shading Green mixed in the brush, and carry 
this tone out into the background. In leaving the back- 
ground for the second fire, one may paint over the edge 
of the leaves and blend them so as not to form hard lines. 
Let some yellow run through the background where it 
is lightest in the study. The rest may be painted in a 
greyish green, using Violet with the greens and shading 
out into the light grey, with a suggestion of rose very thin 
on the opposite side of the plate from the flowers. 


Details may be added, such as thorns, and things 
left undone in the other fires. A wash of Pearl Grey with 
Violet over the entire background and Grey over some 
portions of the leaves, all being blended on the edges, will 
bring the whole into a harmonious piece of work. Put 
another wash of gold on the edge as the gold will wear 
better if it has a second coat. 

o o o 
Emma J. Evans, Houston, Tex. 

When a pupil comes for her first lesson in painting, 
the point to begin with, of course, is to select the piece of 
china on which she is to work. I always endeavor to 
have the pupil decide on a plate, a plaque, or something 
that is nearly flat. The reasons for this are many. I tell 
her that a plate is easily handled, that she will succeed 
better having all the work before her at once, that inex- 
perienced fingers often rub off the work on one side, while 
working on the other, as on a cup, or a vase, etc. As a 
general thing the plate is selected. Now then, "What 
are we going to have on it." As a rule she will want 
some kind of flowers and most likely a morning glory, a 
trumpet vine or some double flower that is most difficult 
to do. Then I begin to advise again, I say, "Now you 
want something that you can learn the most on with the 
least difficulty, don't you?" You must not have so 
many things to think about in the beginning or you will 
not do so well." She agrees to this. "Then suppose 
we have a single wild rose, autumn leaves, or something 
of that kind " Generally I carry my point, and perhaps 
we have the wild rose. The Wild Roses, by Miss Jenkins, 
published in the Keramic Studio of June 1902, is a good 
study, so we will take some part of that. In a moment 
I have the brushes, paints and oils necessary for the. study, 
and begin the arrangement on the plate, unless the pupil 
wishes to do it herself. I simplify the study somewhat, 
giving only what is necessary for an artistic effect, accord- 
ing to the size of the plate. This being done, I ask my 
pupil to pour out about half a teaspoonful of thick oil 
in a little dish provided for the purpose, add four or five 

drops of clove oil and to stir them thoroughly together 
with the palette knife. From the first, I have the pupil 
do every thing she can. I now take out the necessary 
paint of one color and with the medium on the end of the 
palette knife rub the paint down to the consistency of thick 
cream, explaining that the paint must be perfectly smooth 
and free from grains. . She sees how this is done and I 
tell her to do the same with all the colors, keeping them 
far enough apart so that they will not run together. When 
the colors are ready we are prepared to start the painting. 
And here come two of the most important steps to the 
beginner; viz., how to handle the brush and how to get 
the paint into it properly. I explain that she never can 
paint, holding the brush in a vertical position, but must 
hold it more like the pen when writing, that a broad, wide 
sweep of the brush may be obtained — and I demonstrate 
as I talk. I wet the brush first in the turpentine and 
wipe it to see that it is clean and then apply the edge of the 
brush to the edge of the oil, showing how to draw out the 
oil into the brush. I nearly always pinch the edge of the 
brush lightly to be sure I have not too much oil. Usually 
I take up the leaves first. So with a square shader, I 
pass the brush a couple of times from right to left through 
the edge of the Yellow Green which is the foundation color 
of most of the leaves in this study. I wash in a leaf on 
a vacant part of the plate, and with the pad work it off 
till clear and smooth. The pad, by the way, is a bunch 
of cotton about the size of a walnut tied up in white china 
silk, or any white silk that is free from cords or figures 
that would leave an impression in the paint. The pad is 
pressed down on the paint going all over the leaf, taking 
up the paint and oil till one even surface is obtained. This 
operation is repeated by the pupil until she gets the idea. 
The next thing is to shade the leaf. I lay in a fresh leaf 
of Yellow Green and then take up a darker color, say Brown 
Green, sweeping the brush in the edge of the paint from 
right to left a couple of times and turning the brush to 
the left the last time, I thus get most of the paints on the 
left corner of the brush. I ask the pupil to notice how I 
put down that corner of the brush when starting, and how 
I spread it as the strokes come around the base of the leaf 
and up the midrib or outer edge as the case may be. I 
caution the worker that the shading must be done while 
the first wash is still damp, to keep from making the work 
looking muddy and bad generally. She gets this last 
idea firmly after having to take out several spoiled parts. 
The pupil with the study before her now goes forward 
with the leaves and stems, I assisting when necessary. 
To teach the veining, I have the pupil make some lines 
on the side of the plate, for criticism. Some of them will 
be ragged, some too thick, and perhaps she has used oil 
in the liner, and some has spread. I make a few strokes 
to show how the line should look, straight and even, and 
explain that she must not use oil in the brush for small 
lines, as she can not make sharp crisp lines if she does. 
I vein one leaf and the pupil finishes. Instructions for 
the flowers are much the same as for leaves. The light 
pink part of the roses is laid in first, covering the whole 
petal, the darker part laid over the light, and all tapped 
over with the pad till the surface is even and clean looking. 
After all the petals have been painted, the centres are 
made. I always leave the centres till the last, and hav- 
ing a brush cleaned in turpentine and dried by pinching 
or wiping on a clean cloth, I wash out the space for centres, 
giving the proper shape and size. 

In centre of roses referred to, wash in the centres 





(Treatment page 276) 


RERAMIC studio 

with the Yellow, and where indicated wash over lightly 
with Yellow Brown and pad off. Put in the stamens 
with nice lines like the veining, anthers and other parts 
as indicated by the study, with the liner. 

I always put in the first background myself, using 
a large flat brush and plenty of the medium to keep the 
paint open till it can be worked down. The back- 
ground is no exception to other parts of the work. It 
must be clear and clean. If you do not use sufficient oil 
in the brush the paints will dry before they can be worked. 
If they do there is no remedy but to take them off and 
start again. If too much oil is used the work will have a 
woolly look, and that won't do either. All the paints 
will dry more or less on the palette while one is at work, 
and to thin them dip the palette knife in the turpentine 
and with a drop or so, stir the paints up to their proper 
consistency. For the backgrounds I always get fresh 
turpentine to rinse the brush in when going from one 
shade to another, and have three or four fresh pads made 
so as not to mix the colors when blending. For turpen- 
tine have a large mouthed bottle that the brushes can be 
put into and keep stopped when the turpentine is not in 
use. For instance when you have used a pad on the pink 
roses don't use that on the yellow centres or you will mix 
the color. After the background is finished the plate is 
ready for the first firing. To paint for the second firing 
is simply a repetition of the first in order to strengthen 
the colors. After the plate is perfectly dry, look it over 
carefully and if there are any specks on it, pick them off 
with a needle, before sending to the kiln. If more depth 
of color is required on the first or second firing than what 
the painting gives, before the plate is dry (when perfectly 
dry it will feel crusty and hard to the touch) smooth some 
of the color that you wish to darken with the palette 
knife, and with a piece of cotton pick up some of the dry 
paint and rub it over the part to be darkened. With a 
soft brush dust off all that will come off. 

After finishing a lesson always rinse the brushes well 
in turpentine and dry to preserve them. 
o o o 
Bertha G. Morey, Ottumwa, la. 

To teach china painting successfully, arrange a course 
and start a class of beginners at the same time. 

Have all the pupils paint the same thing, as it is easier 
for each pupil to see her own advancement. 

Have each pupil keep a note book and, after the lesson 
is over, have them write down the way they learned to 
apply the paint; how they mixed it and what colors they 
used on the piece just painted. A note book may seem 
to take a great deal of time but it saves answering the 
same questions over a dozen times. 


The pupils should get china that will give good re- 
sults in firing. It is a waste of time and worry for the 
pupil to indulge too freely in cheap china. 

Give them a lesson or so in simple things until they 
have learned their colors and the use of their brushes. 
Demonstrate to the class the care of their brushes and 
try to impress upon them the importance of cleanliness 
in all things in china painting. 

I have arranged a list of subjects which, if taken 
straight through, will give a pupil a pretty good idea of 
naturalistic work. The use of colored studies is a help 
until a pupil is quite advanced and knows the colors. 

I. — Currants, T. McLennan Hinman, March 1903. 
II. Plums — Teana McLennan Hinman, May 1906. 

III. Tittle grapes — Sara Wood Safford, Nov. 1904. 

IV. Strawberries — Sara Wood Safford, July, 1906. 

V. Apples — Miss M. Mason, October, 1905. 
VI. Oranges — Miss M. Mason, December, 1905. 

VII. Pine cones — F. B. Aulich, September, 1905. 
VIII. Double violets — Marshal Fry, November, 1900. 

IX. Yellow wild roses — Ida M. Ferris, June, 1906. 

X. Fleur de lis — F. B. Aulich, September, 1901. 


VI. Design for Stein — Albert Pons, p. 42, June, 1906. 
Flowers in yellow lustre and leaves in green lustre, the 

background of cream in matt colors and the base of the 
stein in green matt with gold handle and outlines. 


VII. Bunch Berry Design for plate, November, 1904. 


VIII. Peacock Design for Bonbonniere, 1904. 
Etch in design and use scheme given by designer. 

& -f 
PLUM BRANCH (Page 265) 

Photograph by Helen Patter Treatment by H. Barclay Paist. 

A FTBR sketching in the main outline of the branch 
^* tint the entire vase or panel with Grey Green or Sar- 
torius Pearl Grey which is a delicate Grey Green. With 
a cloth over the finger wipe out the masses and finish the 
detail with cloth or bit of cotton over a stick. Dry dust 
with same color, clean again any color that has adhered 
to the design and fire. The directions for modeling same 
as for water color treatment, using Grey Green for flowers. 
Olive Green and Dark Green for leaves and glazing. Then 
with Moss Green for third fire. 

The color for stems are Copenhagen Blue for lights and 
Purple Brown or Violet of Iron for modeling and glazed 
with Moss Green for third fire to soften. 

Another pleasing background would be Van Dyke 
Brown. The background may be laid flat or shaded from 
light to dark. In case the warm pinkish background is 
chosen (Van Dyke Brown) the same color may be worked 
into the flowers also along with the Grey Green as the 
background color determines the modeling tint of white 


After sketching the main outlines of the branch care- 
fully — lay on a flat wash of Grey Green (made by mixing 
Paines' Grey and Gamboge) . After drying repeat if the wash 
seems too pale. It must be lighter than the lightest leaf 
but dark enough to throw out the blossoms. Use the same 
mixture to model the flowers, paying the strictest attention 
to values, as that is nearly all there is in a white flower 
unless color is borrowed from surroundings. The same 
mixture can be used for the first wash of leaves using less 
water so as to make the color stronger. The leaves may 
then be darkened and modeled with a mixture of Ultra- 
marine Blue and Indian Yellow. (This makes a fine 
strong green.) The lights on the stems are made by mix- 
ing Ultramarine Blue with a touch of Vermilion — (this 
makes a fine blue grey) — and the stems are modeled with 
a purplish brown made by mixing Ultramarine Blue, 
Crimson Lake (or Carmine) and Indian Yellow. Just 
enough yellow to soften the purple. This is a difficult 
subject and will require the closest attention to drawing 
and values — repeat the directions until both are attained. 

Another suggestion for background is a soft pinkish 
brown made bv greying Vermilion with Charcoal Grey. 
Two washes of this tint makes a beautiful color answering 
to Van Dvke Brown in the mineral colors. 




Background, Royal Green. Lily, Violet No. 2. Leaves, Moss Green. Stems, a lighter shade of Moss 
Green. Tongue of Lily, Silver Yellow Pale. Seed pods, Carmine. Outlines, Meissen Brown or Gold. 


Black bands, gold; black figures, rich brown; middle tone, yellowish grey; flowers and background, 
cream; small figures could be pink and white enamels; outline, brown. 




Maud E. Hulbert. 
t^OR the Pussy- Willows use Copenhagen Grey, Warm 
* Grey, and Brown Green. They often show a little 
green through the grey and for that use Apple Green. 
The little bud from which the blossom has come is hard and 
of a dark reddish color, Violet of Iron, and the stems them- 
selves are sometimes red and sometimes green, with a 
bluish bloom like that in the plums; use Brown Green, 
Moss Green, Finishing Brown, Copenhagen Grey and 
Violet of Iron. 

Stems. Paint the nearer stems with Moss Green and 
Yellow Green and some of the larger ones in the background 
with Brown Green rather thin. Flush with Yellow Green 
and Apple Green. For the second firing tint with either 
Apple Green and a little Yellow Ochre or Yellow Green, 
picking out some of the more prominent ones and then 
touching them up. 


Maud E. Hulbert 

P>AINT the nearer ferns with Moss Green and Yellow 
* Green and some of the larger ones in the background 
with Brown Green rather thin. Flush with Yellow Green 
aand Apple Green. 

For the second firing tint with either Apple Green and 
a little Yellow Ochre or Yellow Green, picking out some of 
the more prominent ones and then touching them up. 


Ophelia Foley. 

IN actual practice, I have never used the blue and 
white but the blue and grey. 

First treatment. Paint in the outlines, bands and 
dark parts with one part Banding Blue, two parts Copen- 
hagen Blue. Do not make the blue too dark. 

Second treatment. Paint in the outlines and all 
darkest portions with one part Banding Blue, two parts 
Copenhagen Blue, dusting with the same. Second fire, 
tint with Deep Blue Green, very thin, padding off nearly 
all the oil from the lightest parts; dust with Pearl Grey. 
A third fire may be necessary to strengthen the blue. 

Two parts Grey for Flesh, one part New Green for the 
darks and an "envelope" of Grey Green are satisfactory; 
also two tones of grey (Grey for Flesh and Pearl Grey) 
with a touch of pink (Yellow Red) on the flowers. 


I ^ I ^ L.- i . 


w> Mtw c#j <»r c*? w 







In the outskirts of Chicago, past the well known and 
malodorous Packingtown, stands a small pottery owned 
and managed by Mr. S. Linderoth, whose name is familiar 
to the readers of Keramic Studio, on account of the interest 
he has taken in the work of the National League of Mineral 
Painters. Within the walls of this small pottery also, the 
members of the Atlan Club, these conscientious and clever 
decorators of porcelain, have tried their hand at pottery 
work. And a few minutes talk with such an enthusi- 
astic and versatile keramist as Mr. Linderoth are sufficient 
to leave the impression that good and interesting work 
should in the future come from the Alhambra Ceramic 

Mr. Sven Linderoth is an architect who came from 
Sweden in 1884, after having studied architecture under 
an excellent master in Stockholm. Although he knew not 
a word of English and was not familiar with the usages and 
building practices of this country, in seven years he had 
saved about $25,000. Wishing to introduce here the use of 
white tin enameled tiles, such as were made in Europe and 
could not be imported at a cost of less than $125 per M., 
he built a small factory. From the beginning he met with 
nothing but failure and disappointment. American mate- 
rials were not the same as Swedish materials; formulas 
which were used in Europe, when applied to these materials 
did not give the same results. A Swedish, a German and 
an English assistant, all experienced in the tile work of 
Europe, were successively employed but kiln after kiln 
was a failure, even with the use of imported clay, as the 
metallic oxides which entered into the composition of 
the enamel, were not as pure as those used in the old coun- 
try. In a short time all Mr. Linderoth 's savings were 
gone and his house mortgaged, but he was close to the 
solution and resolved to lose everything rather than give 
it up. A last firing was prepared, after weeks had been 
spent analysing and purifying all materials. This firing 
was made with wood, the fuel used in Sweden and lasted 
fifty-one hours during which Mr. Linderoth stood feeding 
the kiln. When the kiln was drawn two days later, it 
was found that a beautiful white enamel had been de- 
veloped and that at last the goal had been reached. 

However, Mr. Linderoth was not at the end of his 
trials. He was unable to obtain capital with which to 
continue making his enameled tiles. Forced to make an 
assignment, he lost everything he had and his health was 
badly impaired by the arduous work of his experiments. 
But sustained by the knowledge of his success, he immedi 
ately put up a little shanty to continue his work and began 
to experiment with filter tubes. He is now furnishing 

filter tubes to all the big companies that use a manufactured 
tube in their filters, and this pays his expenses while he 
can devote his spare time to art work. 

The illustrations we give are of work done at present 
at Mr. Linderoth's pottery by Mr. Le Veau, a clever Swedish 
modeler who has worked in European factories, among 
them at Rorstrand. Mr. Le Veau's taste in decoration 
seems to lean a little toward classic, rococo and old fash- 
ioned styles which do not appeal very much to modern 
ideas, but his handling of the modeling tools and especially 
his modeling of figures are remarkably good. We have 
seen a couple of statuettes in clay, one of them, a lifelike 
bust of Ericson, which showed better than anything else 
his talent as a modeler. 

Mr. Linderoth has turned his attention to the manu- 
facture of tiles. He uses a very refractory body, an in- 
expensive fireclay which practically shows no shrinkage in 
firing and permits of a firmer adherence to the cement 
setting than ordinary tiles. On such a body it is possible 
to develop good mat glazes. 

In addition to mat glazes Mr. Linderoth has recently 
made some experiments in red glazes, both from copper and 
tin, his object being to reproduce the Doulton red which 
he claims is a tin pink enamel and not a copper glaze. 
But the most interesting glaze he has developed so far 
is certainly this beautiful white enamel which cost him 
his little fortune. It is absolutely white and of great 
purity and it is to be hoped that he will be able to place 
it on the market in the manufacture of white tiles. Mean- 
while we would like to see the members of the Atlan Club, 
who work at the Alhambra Ceramic Works try their hand 
at the decoration of this tin enamel. This is the work 
in which the old faience makers of France, Italy and Hol- 
land were so wonderfully expert. It is not easy work but 
should tempt true artists. 


Maud Myers 

LEAVES, stems and cap of flower, Pale Green. Large 
petals and bud, Grey Blue. Center spot of flower, 
Albert Yellow. Outline in darker Grey Blue. Tile in 
Grey Blue and Green with a touch of Yellow. 







Mrs. Maria A. Loomis 

We illustrate on this page the interesting work of Mrs. 
Maria A. Loomis of Syracuse. 

Her hand built pottery is made of various clays fired 
at quite different temperatures, some being of Lyons 
clay and some of stoneware. The styles of decoration 
and forms are quite as varying as the clays, like the 
work of one so fascinated with it that she can not resist 
trying every method for the mere pleasure of seeing how 
it is done. It is probable, however, that for her own work 
she will settle finally upon stoneware although using a variety 
of materials with her pupils. Mrs. Loomis is an extremely 
painstaking and conscientious worker and no doubt will be 
better known to crafts workers before long. 


Established in 1880 by Mrs. Maria Longworth Storer, 
the first kiln was drawn on Thanksgiving Day of that year. 
Early in the history of the Pottery it became a custom to 
retain every year some representation of each variety of 
ware as it was developed. The Rookwood Museum begins 
with one piece from the first kiln in 1880, contains a good 
many pieces made in 1881, within the first twelve months 
of its existence, and thenceforth represents every year. 
The collection of two thousand specimens publicly shown 
in 1 906 for the first time is of the greatest interest as illus- 
trating the gradual development of an art industry from a 
purely local to a world-wide reputation. Though it re- 
mains the property of the Rookwood Pottery it has for 
safe-keeping been deposited in the Cincinnati Museum 
where it will be permanently installed when space can be 
found. For the present it can be shown only temporarily. 

In connection with this collection attention should be 
given also to the large case of Cincinnati Pottery, in the 
Ceramic Gallery, where the experiments from 1875 to 1880, 
prior to the establishment of Rookwood, can be studied. 

In examining the Rookwood Collection the following 
data will be helpful : 

The earliest wares were light and not dark, as is usually 

The yellow glaze, brown ware became characteristic 
of the Pottery in 1884. The Tiger Eye first appeared at 
the same time, and is the highest attainment in that line, 
being the first of all crystalline glazes, antedating those of 
different type afterwards produced in Europe. 

At the Paris Exposition of 1889 a Gold Medal was 
awarded for the yellow glaze and Tiger Eye. 

At the Paris Exposition of 1900 the Grand Prize was 
awarded in recognition of the very great variety of wares, 
including notably the "Iris," a light ware, then matured. 
Here also the mat glazes first appear. 

At St. Louis in 1904 the mat glazes, added to the earlier 
types, secured two Grand Prizes. The most notable vari- 
ety here is the "Vellum." 

"Standard" or yellow glaze, including Tiger Eye, was 
fairly well matured by 1889. 

"Iris" which began about 1886 was matured in 1900. 

Mat glazes of the enamel type, starting about 1900, 
have advanced greatly in 1905. 

"Vellum," attained in 1904, is the result of long ex- 
periment since 1886; a direct development from the "smear 
glaze," though altogether different in character. 




Photograph by Helen Patter Treatment by H. Barclay Paist. 

HpHE mineral colors for this study are 
' Grey Green, Brown Green or Olive Green, 
Dark Green and Moss Green. Rose or Capucine 
Red for the pink of flowers (Capucine makes 
a beautiful Japanese pink if used thin) and 
Copenhagen Blue and Purple Brown for stems. 
If you are adapting these studies to a 
vase form be sure you adapt and not stick 
slavishly to the drawing as it appears in the 
panel. Study the characteristics and ar- 
range the drawing to suit your piece. 


I can think of no better background for 
this study than the same soft Grey or Olive 
Green as suggested for the companion, the 
Plum. The modeling or shadow color is the 
same Green used delicately or stronger as the 
values suggest. And for the local color, the 
pink of the blossom, we may use Rose Mad- 
der or if a more Japanese effect be wished use 
Chinese Vermilion thin. The centers (stamens) 
are touched with Gamboge or Indian Yellow, 
and the leaves strengthened the same as sug- 
gested for Plum. The branches (stems) are also 
the same in color as the Plum, not as brown as 
we usually think of tree branches but grey in 
the lights and a purplish greyish brown in the 
strongest parts. 

•f & 

The Arts and Crafts idea embodies the 
thought that the workman shall do his task as 
a development of his inner self, not as a thing 
imposed from a driving necessity of an out- 
ward whirling, grinding machine. If it is a 
temporary fashion, a fad of the moment, so be 
it. We rejoice in even a fleeting effort to re- 
gain our normal condition of masters of our 
hands. We, undoubtedly, live in a time when 
the highest inspiration in art lies dormant, 
waiting for a coming spring to bring it to a new 
life, but the thread of effort which appears in 
the revival of handicrafts may be attached 
to a life line to bear us to some such period of 
artistic and spiritual safety. 

Nobody, for a moment, will expect that 
we shall ever go back to a general time of hand 
labor, but the day must come when some shall 
do more and others not be obliged to do so 
much, for we still hold our vision of Utopia. 
The disciple of the modern Arts and Crafts 
school strives to reach a simplicity of living 
that lessens the daily round of useless drudgery, 
but he delights in the opportunity to use 
skilled hands for the production of some beauti- 
ful object, which serves a daily need and gives 
expression to his soul in his work. Like the old 
"Gathering from the pavement's crevice, as a 

floweret of the soul, 
The nobility of labor — the long pedigree of toil. ' ' 








FOR the background use Shading Green and Violet, 
very thin, blending into Peach Blossom and Yellow 
near the flowers. 

For the blossoms use Peach Blossom very delicately 
in the lightest parts with Yellow and Violet in shadows. 
For dark parts of flowers use Ruby thin, on the light side, 
heavy touch of Ruby on the dark side. 

Leaves. — Yellow Green, Shading Green and a little 
Violet. Stems. — Yellow Green, Brown Green with touch 
of Violet of Iron and Ruby near the base. 

In the second firing the same colors are used, stronger 
where necessary. 

CYCLAMEN (Supplement.) 

Paul Putzki. 

TO paint the study of cyclamen on china use the follow- 
ing: For the white flower take Grey blending towards 
the centre into Dark Violet and for some blossoms blend 
the Grey to Ruby Purple. 

For the light pink flower take Carmine shading towards 

*The name of the author of this study has been mislaid. 

centre to Ruby Purple. In some petals there is a grey 
tone, obtained with Grey and Yellow Brown mixed. 

For the darkest flower use for the ground Dark Car- 
mine shaded with Ruby Purple. 

Leaves. — Lay in some of the green leaves with 
Yellowish Green shaded with Brown Green. The darker 
and greater number of leaves make with Dark Green 
shaded with Brown Green and Black Green. 

For background use colors corresponding with flowers 
and leaves. 


For white flowers use Neutral Grey shading to centre 
with Crimson Lake or on some, shade to Mauve in 
centre. The lighter pink blossom is produced with a wash 
of Rose Madder shading towards centre into a Burnt Car- 
mine and the ends of petals should show touches of Car- 
mine. Get the grey tone with Neutral Tint. For the 
darker flowers use Carmine shading with Burnt Carmine. 
Paint the leaves with Cobalt Blue and Sap Green shading 
with Olive Green and a touch of Prussian Blue. In the 
background use Neutral Grey, Cobalt Blue and Burnt 
Carmine and Olive Green, keeping the whole tone in grey 




(Treatment page 270) 


U;;-.;,-.,, ....... ■■ 



Nancy Beyer 


CIRST fire — Background, Violet No. 2 with Copenhagen 
*■ Blue, qualified with a little Black. 

Leaves, Copenhagen Blue and Aztec Blue. 

Flowers, Pearl Grey and Yellow Brown. 

Center of flower, Pompadour Red. 

Enveloping tone (very thin) Copenhagen Grey, if it 
seems cold at the end of this fire warm with Grey Yellow, 
take out the Pompadour spots. 


Tone a piece of heavy charcoal paper, or German 
white paper, with Raw Sienna and Black (light tone). 
While the paper is damp, working on a wet blotter, 
lay in the study using for the darkest value, which is the 
leaves, Madder, Lake Deep, Prussian Blue and Indian 
Yellow, a light wash of Madder, Lake Deep over the flow- 
ers, in the centre of the flowers use a thin wash of Prussian 
Blue and Madder Lake, finally before scrubbing, wash 
Indian Yellow and Raw Sienna with a little Black over 
the entire background, then when thoroughly dry dip 
in a basin of water for two minutes, remove, placing it 
on a piece of oil cloth which has been tacked to a board, 
with an inch bristle brush pass quickly, but gently back 
and forth over the whole study holding it together with a 
beautiful tone. 


First fire — Background, Grey Yellow, Yellow Brown 
and Grey Yellow. 

Leaves, Gold Grey, Copenhagen Blue. 

Flowers, Blood Red used thinly, lighter Violet spots, 
Gold Grey and Banding Blue. 

Second fire— Retouch the colors that have fired out, 
using the same colors as before, enveloping tone, Gold 
Grey and Dark Yellow Brown. 


Tone paper a Warm Grey tone, over the flowers wash 
Raw Sienna, center of flowers Vermilion, leaves and 
stems, Prussian Blue and Black. Before scrubbing 
wash a thin wash of Prussian Blue over the background, 
when dry scrub with a bristle brush, finally over the back- 
ground wash Vermilion (very thin), allow to dry and 
scrub again lightly. 


Miss H. — You will find many designs for Tobacco Jars in Keramtc 
Studio, October 1905, also scattered ones in December 1905, January 
1902, December 1900, July 1900. 

Mrs. C. — A high temperature kiln could be used easily for overglaze work. 
Matt colors are fired at the same temperature as other colors. The same oils 
are used for grounding with them as for other powder colors. They are ap- 
plied on the same surface of china. They are used only for grounds in com- 
bination with gold and lustre. 

S. W. — Miss Ida Failing (see directory) makes an enamel for mending 
chips on china which is very good. Sartorius makes a good cement for re- 
pairing broken pieces. These cements are for repairing in firing. 

In order to paint on glass, colors especially fluxed for that purpose must 
be used. Hancock's paste for raised gold, same as for china. Roman gold 
can be used over the paste but for flat gold one must have a special prepara- 
tion. Enamels also are specially prepared for glass. We have frequently 
given these instructions in these columns. 


The Exhibition of the New York Society of Keramic 
Arts which was to be held from April 2d to April 1 5th, at 
the National Arts Club, Grammercy Park, New York, will 
open only on April 4th. 


Under the management of Miss Emily Peacock, 232 East 27th Street, New York. All inquiries in regard to the various 
Crafts are to be sent to the above address, but will be answered in the magazine under this head. 

A II questio 

must be receired before the 10th day of month preceding issue, and will be answered under ''Answers to Inquiries" only. Please do not send 
stamped envelope for reply. The editors will answer questions only in these columns. 

1 pewter, "Temperance" by Francois Briot, Louvre Museum, Paris. Diameter, 0.45 centimete 


Jules Brateau 

Documents of great exactitude, recently found by 
M. Teuty, in the archives of Montbeliard,* now give authen- 
tic information regarding the life of Francois Briot, which, 
until the time of this discovery, was obscured by indeci- 
sion and probabilities. 

This great craftsman was born at Damblin in Bas- 
signy, on the borders of Lorraine, France, but was forced 
to leave his native place on account of religious troubles, 
He took refuge in Montbeliard at the end of the year 1579. 
and, in this place, assumed the title of "pewter potter"; 
no doubt in order to receive help from the Corporation of 
that craft, which accepted him as a member, and whose 
registers show the names of his two witnesses, as well as 
that of his comrade, Jean Jacquemart, blacksmith, who 
was presented with him and who signed for both. 

Briot was called upon to experiment on the press, just 
then invented for coining money. For such work he was 
fitted by his experience as a medal engraver. All the 
wonderful skill, acquired in the practice of medal engrav- 
ing, he lavished upon the pewter basin and ewer, produc- 
ing effects unknown until his time, making the metal 
yield all its treasure of softness and color, and, by fine 
decorative design, creating a lasting chef d'oeuvre. The 

*Memoires de la Societe d'Emulation de Montbeliard, Charavay, 
1SS7, Paris. 

composition, the execution of the smallest ornaments of 
this piece are in harmony with the use of the basin (the 
washing of the hands), and make this unique example 
of pewter comparable with the most artistic objects in 
the precious metals. It could well stand on the dressers 
of princes, together with the works of the celebrated Ben- 
venuto Cellini. There is in the execution and in the dis- 
tribution of the molds, in the divisions of the body of the 
ewer, a perfect knowledge of the possibilities of pewter. 
Nothing has been overlooked, nothing neglected. 

In examining an authentic pewter cast of this piece, 
one observes that there were slight defects in the copper 
mold of the large basin, and that these blemishes were 
repaired with great ingenuity; the basin being thus pre- 
served from total loss. 

Portrait of the master engraver, Francois Briot, drawn by himself on the reverse 
side of the basin, "Temperance," in the Louvre Museum, Paris. 


No. 26. Pewter Basin "Ma 

' by Francois Bri 
Enderlein. Di; 

t. Louvre Museum. Wrong 
neter .50 centimeters. 

During the thirty years which Francois Briot spent 
in Montbeliard, his time was well employed by commis- 
sions for medals, portraits, etc., which, added to his title 
of engraver to the Prince Regent, Frederick of Wiirtem- 
berg, must have raised him to a relative prosperity. But 
under Prince John Frederick, who succeeded his father, 
a change in Briot 's finances must have taken place al- 
though he did not lose his official position. We find in 
judicial papers the record of a series of lawsuits, instituted 
against him for debts which he seemed unable to pay. 

Little by little, poverty advanced upon him 
and he lost by seizure furniture, materials 
and tools. The inventory of this forced sale 
mentions especially the copper molds of a 
basin and ewer, the magistrate recommend- 
ing that these molds be watched and not in- 
jured in any way. Then, from judgments 
rendered during his absence, we find that 
our poor artist disappeared at times from 
Montbeliard. Where did he go? Where 
did he take refuge? Having no family re- 
quiring his presence, did he seek only to es- 
cape from his many laAvsuits? It appears 
that at every return he brought back some- 
thing with which to satisfy his most press- 
ing debts, since his credit was extended. It 
is probable that, receiving no orders for en- 
graving, or for pewter objects of his design 
(Montbeliard had been ruined by the wars) , 
Briot, who did not do all kinds of work, was 
forced to go elsewhere, that he might gain 
a livelihood. This purpose he could most 
easily accomplish in a center of large pro- 
duction, and the position of Montbeliard, 
on the frontier of Germany, where the pew- 
ter industry flourished, especially at Nurn- 
berg, leads us to believe that our master- 
engraver went to that country in order to 
avail himself of his talents. 

We insist on this point, because there is 
in the Museum of the Louvre another 
large pewter basin in fine condition, hav- 
Mars as its central decorative motif, which 
attributed to Gaspard Fnderlein. This 
man was a rich manufacturer, who could well afford to 
hire as assistant, at a small expense, a poor artist having 
no other capital than his skill. Our technical knowledge 
of pewter enables us to recognize the method of chasing 
peculiar to each craftsman, and to affirm that the pater- 
nity of this work cannot be attributed to Gaspard Fnder- 
lein. The composition in the manner of Etienne Delaune, 
the arrangement of figures, the modeling, the details of 

attributed to Gaspard 

ing the god 
is generally 

No. 27. Stein in Pewter. The figures borrowed from the 
basin "Mars." The allegorical accessories alone, are 
modified. XVI. century. Belongs to J. Brateau. 

No. 28. Salt, cellar in Pewter. Style XVI. century. 
Modern interpretation. Composition of J. Brateau. 

Io. 29. Salt cellar in Pewter. French work 
XVJ. century. Musee Cluny — Paris. 


ornamentation, are characteristic of Francois Briot, and 
in the backgrounds we find the marks of the small punches 
which were used by him in the chasing of the basin "Tem- 

It seems then logical to believe that Gaspard Ender- 
lein secured the assistance of the poor engraver, and if, 
in addition to other proofs, we add that Enderlein repro- 
duced the basin "Temperance" (engraving on the reverse 
his own protrait in medallion, with the same inscription 
found on the Briot medallion), we must conclude either 
that Briot authorized Enderlein to reproduce his piece, 
or that Enderlein unscrupulously effaced the artist's image 
and substituted his own; a thing which is sometimes par- 
alleled even in our own times. It may be said also that 
the reproductions of the "Temperance" ewer and basin 

XVI. century. 

3 Museum — Paris 

No. 30. Stein in Pewter. German work. XVI. 

ngs to J. Brateau. 

made in Enderlein's large factory, appear hopelessly 
inferior, when they are compared to specimens signed by 
Francois Briot and bearing his portrait. 

This is a long digression, but we could not pass over 
in silence the work of a craftsman who has contributed 
so much to the beauty of pewter objects, and to the glory 
of our industrial arts. 

No. 32. Pewter Plates. German w»rk._XVI.— XVII._centuries. Belong to J. Brateau. 



s by Marie Little 

Metal work by the Busck Studios, R. R. Jarvie, Laun 

e Smith. Pe wabic -Pottery, by Mary Chase 'Perry. 



AN exhibition showing activity, healthy striving and 
fair accomplishment in some of the most important 
decorative arts, those upon which the seemliness of life 
depends, is that recently given at the Arts and Crafts 
Society of Detroit, Michigan. 

Organized in 1906, its permanent salesroom and ex- 
hibition opened in November of the same year. The 
Detroit Society owes its existence primarily to the initiative 
of two exhibitions held in 1904 and 1905 at the Museum 
of Art. The public interest thus aroused, resulted in the 
foundation of this Society, to develop a better apprecia- 
tion of artistic handicraft and to be of direct educational 
benefit through frequent special exhibitions of modern 
and ancient work, and through illustrated lectures. 

The setting and arrangement of the collections are in 
themselves a part of the exhibition, yet, of the many good 
things shown, nothing has been sacrificed to the decorative 
effect of the whole. 

One of the most noteworthy, as it is numerically the 
strongest, of the exhibits shown, is that of the Deerfield 
Society of Arts and Crafts, which has seldom, save at their 
own "Crafts Barn", been seen to such advantage. Mrs. 
Madeline Yale Wynne, long associated with the Society 
as its founder, was represented by a number of daringly 
successful examples of jewelry and enameling, the metal 
well worked and developed to its capacity, the designs 
showing much feeling for line, mass and color. In stitch- 
ery, the "Blue and White Society" excel, and their table 
sets in the well known cool blues, and their scarfs and 
curtains in the quaintly designed cross-stitch of varied 
colors, prove them again masters of their craft. 

At once practical and artistically satisfying were the 

In the illustration in right column are: Baskets by Pucumtuck basket weavers, 
Deerfield baset wkea vers and New Clairvaux Society; Markham vase, Grueby vase, 
Candlestick, by George Parker; Rug woven by Massachusetts Institution for Blind. 



Abnakee Rugs c 

all by Helen R. Albee. — Other weavings by the Deerfield Society. — Metal work by George F. Parker.— Pewabic lamp by Mary Chase Perry. 

baskets in reed, willow, raffia, grasses, palm and pine 
needles, in a variety of pleasing shapes, sizes and qualities. 
Mrs. Thorn's woven rugs and Mrs. Henry's dimity tufted 
coverlets, with netted borders of "matrimony" and "moon 
light" stitch, almost complete the range of Deerfield activ- 
ity, which however is rounded out and faithfully and ex- 
quisitely portrayed in Mary and Frances Allen's photo- 
graphs of local scenes and subjects. 

In silverware alone, this exhibition ranks well to the 
fore, with a coffee service of tooled and inlaid design by 
Mary Knight; a large compote with nicely carved border; 
and several smaller bowls and platters by the same artist. 
These pieces are all destined later for the Boston exhibition 
at Copley Hall, as are Jane Carson's salad set and salts 
and peppers, etc. Arthur Stone shows some beautifully 
worked spoons and ladles, a large porringer, and silver cup. 
Horace Potter, George F. Hunt, Adolph Kunkler, Seth 
Ek, and G. Gebelein are other exhibitors of finely wrought 
ware. The jewelry and enameling showing is of uncom- 
mon interest; for example, Grace Hazen's finely conceived 
"Swan" pendant, the body of the bird being of a rarely 
marked piece of malachite, and her poetic treatment of 
pink and white Baroque pearls, and silver in the "Seaweed" 
chain; Ethel Lloyd's Etruscan filagree work. Blanche 
Dillaye's sympathetic feeling for the requirements of her 
Egyptian scenes, and Brainerd Thresher's rhythmical 
combinations of line; Miss Peacock's work shows dignity 
and reserve, a small gold and opal brooch is one notable 
piece, and two chains, the links revealing unusual technical 
skill and intelligence united to still finer qualities. Thomas 
S. Clark, Mary Wright, R. R. Jarvie, Charles King, George 
Parker, Lawrence Smith, and G. Busck have all good 

things in fire irons, candlesconces, casseroles, candlesticks, 
trenchers, large and small bowls. G. Busck especially 
has several carefully thought out and well executed cigar 
boxes, cedar lined; a gong of resonant tones; a desk set, 
etc. The Busck studios are further represented by leath- 
ers from Mrs. Amalie Busck Deady and Charlotte Busck. 
Elizabeth Copeland, Margaret Jones, May Winlock, Cath- 
erine Jameson, Flora H. Skeimer, Margaret Rogers and 
Mrs. Eda Lord Young are other noted metal workers 
worthy of mention. 

Besides the Deerfield textiles other good weavings 
shown are the Abnakee hooked rugs of Helen R. Albee, 
with their adaptation of old designs, in rich and varied 
vegetable colorings. Great is the range of work produced 
by the Massachusetts Commission for the Blind, of many 
textures and colors, and purposes, — towels, bedding, dress 
fabrics, curtains, etc., draperies, rugs. There is also Swed- 
ish weaving by Christina Nystrom, of the Wilro Shop, 
also represented by the etched leather of the Dolese Sisters ; 
Louise Peppers orderly designs for hangings; the Isle La 
Motte Rug industry; the Kalo Shop, New Clairvaux Soci- 
ety, — the latter showing baskets as well, and last, the 
weavings of Marie Little of Woodstock, N. Y., whose per- 
fection of coloring runs the chromatic scale of mauves, 
violets, warm madder, orange tawny, golden brown and 
green, and is almost lyrical in beauty and depth of tone. This 
briefly covers the more striking and meritorious of the 
various displays in the "Special" exhibition, which does not 
at all take into account the permanent exhibit of members' 
work in all classes of handicrafts, an exhibit designed to 
elevate as well as support the workers and to give to the 
world products both valuable and charming. H. P. 



The work illustrated was designed and executed by 
the members of the Barum Guild of Metal Workers, 
Barnstaple, England. The Guild was formed four years 
ago by G. L. C. Morris, architect, of London. Previous 
to that, some classes in metal work had been held in the 
local Art School, which had aroused interest in the work 
and really suggested the idea of a Guild. The membership 
at present is not very large but it is gradually increasing 
and some very creditable work has been exhibited. 

There are some very simple and attractive buckles in 
Illus. Nos. i, 2, and 3 mounted on linen crash, leather 
and other materials. In Illus. No. 5, the pendant, and in 
Illus. No. 7 the brooches are particularly pleasing. 

Among the copper sconces in repousse, Illus. No. 8, 
9 and 1 1 show varied treatments of a simple motive with 
good effect. 

Illus. No. 2. Buckle; 

. No. 4. Buckles i 

Illus. No. 3. Buckle: 

nd copper. 


Mrs. E. N. C. — The illustration of desk you sent would be better stained 
brown all over. Get some burnt umber and thin it down with turpentine, 
adding a little linseed oil or let the stain thoroughly dry and then rub in a 
finish made of beeswax and turpentine. 


The home of the future will be built of porcelain. It 
is now possible to build cheap, simple and cleanly houses 
with sheets of porcelain instead of bricks and slate and 
concrete, and to dispense with paint, wall paper and spring 

The sheet porcelain, glazed and decorated on both 
sides, can be produced at about $2.50 the square yard. 
This cheapness and cleanliness make the porcelain house 
the ideal home for working people, and it is hailed as a 
possible solution of the problem which besets English cities, 
the housing of the poor. 



Illus. No. 6. 
Pendants and brooches ir 


lllus. No. 10. 













a j 






































































































^ 5 

Orders May Be Placed Now 

The Second Rose Book 

Will be ready for delivery about May 15th. 

With the exception of a few colored inserts 
which will be repeated, this book will con= 
tain material not published in the first 
"Rose Book," now out of print. 

The following Color Inserts will brighten the pages 

of the new book: 

Pink Roses, Rhoda H. Nicholls Wild Roses, 

Miss Jenkins 

Jacqueminot Roses, F. B. Aulich Rose in Vase, Rhoda H Nicholls 

Yellow Wild Roses, Ida M. Ferris Salad Set, A. B. Leonard 

Little Roses, Sara Wood Safford Plate in Blue and Gold, Leonard 

Roses, Miss Jenkins Red Roses, McLennon 

Price, postpaid, $3.00 

Kcramic Studio Pub. Co., - - Syracuse, N. Y. 



The "Simplex Binder" for Keramic Studio is now 
made and may be ordered of any dealer in the country or 
at this office. 

We will deliver postpaid to any part 
of the United States or Canada on 
receipt of the price, 

Keramic Studio Pub. Co., Syracuse, N. Y. 



A moat artistic volume of the greatest value to Decorators. 
Contains the following studies of flowers: 
Oriental Poppy, Horse Chestnut, Lilac, Larkspur, Carnation, Columbine, Sweet Pea 
Love-in-a-Mist, Rose Safrano, Lily, Wistaria, Peony, Cornflower, Escholtzia, Lavender' 
Parrot Tulip, Plumbago, Japanese Anemone, Laburnum, Clematis, Zinnia, Nasturtium' 
Campanula, Briar Rose, Michaelmas Daisy, Pink Poppy, Periwinkle, Marsh Marigold' 
Wild Ins, Arrowhead, Viper's Bugloss, Yellow Chrysanthemum, Single Pink Chrysan- 
themum, Honeysuckle, Heather, Pine, Black Bryony, Gorse, Thistle, Bramble. 

The studies are in color, following closely the natural forms, but treated in a deco- 
rative way. Each study is accompanied with pen and ink drawings of motifs, seed 
pods, leavess, tamens, etc. Average size of studies 7 x 10 inches. Postpaid $12.50. 

Keramic Studio Publishing Co., 
Syracuse, N. Y. 



Closes May 1st, 1 907 

The next subject for the Class Boom will be "Flower Painting," under which heading will be Included the sub- 
divisions: Roses, white, pink, and crimson; Violets; Daffodils; Nasturtiums; Geraniums; Pansies; Forget-me-nots. Other 
flowers, white, pink, crimson, violet, purple, blue, yellow, orange, and red. Miniature flowers. See particulars on editorial 
page of this issue. 

First Prize, $500 Second Prize, $400 Third Prize, $3.00 

Fourth Prize, $2.00 Fifth Prize, $1.00 

v ■':'; Extracts Only, 50 cents. 


The Book of Back Numbers 


From 1899 to September 1906, with contents and contributors of each number. 
Mailed FREE on application to any address in the world. 

PRICE (postpaid) of these back numbers 

Published previous to May 1906, 35 cents per copy; $3.00 for twelve numbers; 

$1.75 for six; $1.00 for three. 

From May 1906, to date, the price is 40 cents per copy; $4.00 for twelve; 

$2.00 for six; $1.00 for three. 

Keramic Studio for 1907 

THERE are some attractive numbers in preparation The September and November numbers will be specially 

for the coming year. The January number which edited, respectively by Mrs. T. McLennon Hinman and Miss 

has been personally conducted" by Mrs. Henrietta Jeanne M. Stewart, and these two numbers will undoubtedly 

Barclay Palst of Minneapolis, with many new ideas be welcome to the lovers of good naturalistic work. 
in decoration, studies of birds, flowers, suggestions for fish-sets, January 1908 will be a California flower number by Miss 

etc., has been received with much favor and praise on every Leta Horlocker. 

side. We mention a few of the Supplements for 1907 : 

March was strongly edited by Margaret Overbeck, whose January— Poppy and Cherry Blossoms, H. B. Palst. 

work this past year has called forth so much deserved admira- February— Jaqueminbt Red Rose, F, B. Aulich. 

tion. March — Decorative Landscape, Margaret Overbeck. 

Marshal T. Fry, the foremost decorative artist of his time, April— Cyclamen, Paul Putzkl. 

will edit the May number. With his knowledge of ceramic May— Cactus decoration for vase, Marshal Fry, Jr. 

art there will be evolved a number of Keramic Studio that will June— Apple Blossoms, F. B. Aulich. 

be of vital interest to the china painters of this and other coun- August— Fleur de lis, Rhoda Holmes Nlcholls. 

tries, as Mr. Fry has been, for years, looked up to as authority October— Asters, T. McLennon-Hinman. 

upon those subjects. The above three numbers will be well Will you not place your renewal at once so that we may 

worth the subscription price, not to speak of other numbers keep your name on our list? 
during the year, which will have Interesting features. Respectfully yours, 

Keramic Studio Pcib. Co., Syracuse, N. Y. ' I 


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