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ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

JUDAICA 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA 

JUDAICA 



SECOND EDITION 



VOLUME 1 

Aa-Alp 



Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief 
Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor 



MACIVIILLAN REFERENCE USA 

An imprint of Thomson Gale, a part of The Thomson Corporation 



IN ASSOCIATION WITH 
KETER PUBLISHING HOUSE LTD., JERUSALEM 



THOMSON 
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ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition 

Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief 

Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor 

Shlomo S. (Yosh) Gafni, Editorial Project Manager 

Rachel Gilon, Editorial Project Planning and Control 

Thomson Gale 

Gordon Macomber, President 
Frank Menchaca, Senior Vice President and Publisher 

Jay Flynn, Publisher 
Helene Potter, Publishing Director 

Keter Publishing House 

Yiphtach Dekel, Chief Executive Officer 
Peter Tomkins, Executive Project Director 

Complete staff listings appear on pages 33-36 



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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOGING-IN-PUBLICATION DATA 

Encyclopaedia Judaica / Fred Skolnik, editor-in-chief ; Michael Berenbaum, executive editor. -- 2nd ed. 
v. cm. 
Includes bibliographical references and index. 
Contents: v.1. Aa-Alp. 

ISBN 0-02-865928-7 (set hardcover : alk. paper) - ISBN 0-02-865929-5 (vol. 1 hardcover : alk. paper) - ISBN 0-02- 
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18: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865948-1 (vol. 20: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865949- 
X (vol. 21: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22: alk. paper) 
1. Jews -- Encyclopedias. I. Skolnik, Fred. II. Berenbaum, Michael, 1945- 
DS102.8.E496 2007 
909'.04924 -- dc22 

2006020426 



978-0-02-865928-2 (set) 
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978-0-02-865930-5 (vol. 2) 
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PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 



In the past thirty- five years the Encyclopaedia Judaica has come to occupy a rarefied 
space in the world of Jewish learning. Authoritative, comprehensive, serious yet ac- 
cessible, it graced the library shelves of scholars and rabbis, of the learned and the 
studious, and even of the would-be studious, consulted by the curious and the in- 
quisitive, an important starting point for a journey of learning. 

It also was that rare work in Jewish life and learning that covered controversy and 
yet was not controversial. It could not be identified with one school of thought, with 
one religious, political, or social perspective. Written by Zionists who believed ar- 
dently in Jewish peoplehood and the centrality of the land of Israel and the renascent 
State of Israel for the Jewish future, it also respected the many forms that Jewish life 
had taken. It performed its task admirably, sharing with the reader what was known 
and knowable in 1972, the year when it was first published. For a time through Year 
Books and Decennial volumes, it sought to update its readers on more recent learn- 
ing, trends, and issues, and for the first time in 1997 it migrated to an electronic ver- 
sion with a wonderful search engine that freed the reader from taking volumes off 
the shelf and moving from the index to yet another volume. 

So we understood as we embarked upon the task of updating the masterful work 
that much could be lost. We were also confident of what could be gained. 

Why a new edition? 

The answer is quite simple. Knowledge is dynamic, not static. Much has changed 
in the last thirty- five years. 

Israel of 2006 is quite different from Israel of 1972, when Golda Meir was prime 
minister. Israel has faced two wars - the war of 1973 (Yom Kippur War) and the 
war in Lebanon - two Intifadas, the Camp David Accords, the withdrawal from 
Sinai, the Oslo Accords, the Disengagement, the rise of militant radical Islam, 
and so much more. Israel has become the home of almost half the worlds Jewish 
population, absorbing Jews from the former Soviet Union, from Ethiopia, Argen- 
tina, France, and elsewhere. Soon a majority of the worlds Jews will live in Israel, 
which has become a regional military superpower and a developed country in an 
increasingly globalized world. Israeli culture has been transformed and its insti- 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 



tutions have evolved. Quite simply, the Israel described in 1972 is unrecognizable 
today. 

The Soviet Union is no longer. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia have become inde- 
pendent countries; so too have the Ukraine and many of the former Soviet Repub- 
lics. Jewish life has been transformed by these changes. The Iron Curtain has fallen 
and thus the Jews of Poland and Hungary, of the Czech Republic and Slovakia live 
under different conditions; and their world - the possibilities of their world - has 
changed. East and West Germany have been reunited and the German Jewish com- 
munity - which once lived with a fascinating past that had been eclipsed by its cata- 
strophic recent history but had no discernible future - is now growing rapidly as it 
has become home to many Jewish immigrants from the former Soviet Union. 

In the United States, Las Vegas and Phoenix are growing most rapidly as Jew- 
ish communities as tens of thousands of Jews have moved to these Sun Belt cities 
and built not only new homes but also new institutions and new environments. 
Southern Florida has become the third most populated area of Jewish settlement. 
In the rural South, where Jews had lived for a century or more, synagogues have 
become museums, thus marking the end of many small communities, while the 
Jewish population of Atlanta and Jewish life in Atlanta, Dallas, and Houston have 
expanded dramatically. Once Jewish Day Schools were the province of Orthodox 
Jews living in major cities. They can now be found wherever there is a significant 
Jewish population and they serve the entire spectrum of those interested in Jewish 
learning. In light of such developments, each entry on the fifty states had to be up- 
dated; so too the entries on each of the cities in which almost all of American Jews 
reside. 

Religiously, American Jewry has evolved dramatically. Orthodoxy is no longer 
in danger of extinction but confident and self-sustaining. It is no longer character- 
ized by loss but by gains, and modern Orthodoxy, which once appeared dominant, 
has been sliding to the right. Chabad has developed as a global presence to be en- 
countered wherever Jews live, wherever Jews travel. It has endured the passing of the 
Rebbe, centralized charismatic leadership has been replaced by management and by 
the charisma and dedication of many individual leaders. It has endured a messianic 
crisis. Liberal forms of Judaism have become more diverse, more creative and more 
diffuse. New institutions for the training of rabbis have evolved and the neat tripar- 
tite division of Jews - Orthodox, Conservative and Reform - has become far more 
fascinating as multiple forms of Jewish identity and Jewish engagement have become 
available. Reconstructionist Judaism has created its own institutions; even the anti- 
institutional world of Renewal Judaism is creating institutions of its own with its own 
journals, its own publishing house and its own rabbinical and cantorial schools. Non- 
denominational rabbinical seminaries are flourishing. Rural Jews gather for confer- 
ences; Jewish life is alive and flourishing in cyberspace as well as real space, even as 
a more individualized and less institutionalized Jewish identity takes root. 

American Jews live in a world with few barriers, with no glass ceilings. Their Jew- 
ishness is not regarded as a handicap but a privilege; highly individualized for many, 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 



celebrated or even ignored, it takes a variety of forms and expresses itself in many 
creative endeavors. The editors of this new edition of the Encyclopaedia Judaica are 
acutely conscious of these changes, both in the choice of individual entries and in 
the description of various Jewish communities. But along with this extraordinarily 
positive picture, American Jewry is in the decline numerically; simply put, Ameri- 
can Jews are not reproducing, and the rate of intermarriage exceeds even the most 
alarming predictions of a generation ago. Survivalists are deeply concerned about 
survival, about the viability of the American Jewish community, in part because of 
the freedom it enjoys. And with freedom comes the easy freedom not to identify 
as a Jew, for one is not forced to identify as a Jew. One can embrace any number of 
other identities, professional and personal, without betrayal. 

Yet there is a cross fertilization between Israel and the United States. American 
Jewish scholars spend sabbatical years in Israel, many have studied in Israel as part 
of their undergraduate and graduate training, and Israeli scholars spend signifi- 
cant time in the Diaspora. They read each other s work; they publish in each other s 
journals. Scholarly works initiated in Israel are published in English and American 
scholarship is read in Israel and often translated into Hebrew. 

Thirty- five years ago the women's movement was just beginning and all rabbis 
were men. Feminist Studies as a discipline was but in its infancy and women were 
not considered by many an integral part of the Jewish community or the Jewish ex- 
perience. Much has changed, and this new edition represents a deliberate attempt 
to include women and the experience of women within its pages; the inclusion was 
not for inclusions sake but because we cannot understand Jews or the Jewish expe- 
rience without understanding the role of Jewish women. Permit a simple example. 
An earlier entry on "Mikveh" considered Jewish religious teaching on the mikveh 
and its halakhic requirements. A woman's perspective was not included, which we 
now understand was a serious omission, one not repeated in this volume. 

A new generation has arisen and, with each new generation, new scholarly ques- 
tions are asked, new methodologies are employed. Thus, even though the giants of 
the last generation played an important role in editing the Encyclopaedia Judaica, 
extraordinary scholars such as Professors Gershom Scholem, Salo Baron, Menachem 
Stern, H.L. Ginzburg, and Cecil Roth among others, the fields they developed and 
in some cases pioneered have moved beyond them; their findings have been built 
upon, their methodologies refined, enhanced, expanded, and disputed, and the re- 
sult transforms our understanding even of the fields they illuminated so masterfully 
a generation ago. We have endeavored to preserve much of their original writing, 
to add what must be added, to refine where refinement was in order and to change 
what must be changed with the passage of time. Thus, even while the masterful work 
of Gershom Scholem has been preserved in its entirety, the intellectual discussion 
he initiated has gone well beyond his work and his students and their students have 
begun to ask different questions and reach different conclusions, as is reflected in 
the second edition addendum to his classic Kabbalah entry. The presentation of the 
historicity of the Talmud (see below) takes cognizance of the important work of 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 7 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 



Jacob Neusner and David Weiss Halivni and others as well as Saul Lieberman and 
Efraim Urbach. 

The generation that created the first edition of the Encyclopaedia Judaica was pri- 
marily trained in Germany in the great institutions and the extraordinary culture of 
the Weimar Republic or at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, perhaps the greatest 
German university outside of Germany Alas, that generation has passed. Many of 
the scholars who wrote for this edition were trained in the United States and, even if 
trained in Israel, were influenced by the dominance of American culture and Ameri- 
can scholarship. Native-born Israel-trained scholars have written with brilliant com- 
petence. Historians dominated the first edition; in this new work, the approach of 
scholars even in the field of Judaic Studies is far more multi- disciplinary. 

Entries written for the first edition had to be written differently for the second 
edition for their fields had evolved in the ensuing decades. Special treatment is ac- 
corded to the subject of Jewish Law (Mishpat Ivri) under the direction of Justice 
Menachem Elon, where it is now possible to examine the principles of Jewish reli- 
gious law (halahkah) as they are reflected in the courts of a sovereign Jewish state. 
Elon, who had pioneered this field, has expanded his treatment of Jewish law as it 
has grown in the recent past, confronted new questions and grappled with issues 
unknown thirty-five years ago. 

Certain dramatic changes have occurred within the most classical of fields of 
studies. As our Bible editor notes: 

"Modern critical Bible study as it arose in the 19th century was often couched in 
terminology affirming that the Old Testament was inferior to the New Testament and 
that Judaism had been superseded by Christianity. Some notable Christian biblicists 
were also antisemites. As a result Wissenschaft des Judentums, 'the scientific study 
of Judaism,' neglected the critical study of the Bible. At Reform Judaisms Hebrew 
Union College and Conservative Judaism's Jewish Theological Seminary it took years 
before critical study of the Bible was fully embraced. Similarly, the Hebrew Univer- 
sity of Jerusalem opened with a chair in biblical exegesis rather than Bible proper. 
To some extent the first edition of the Encyclopaedia Judaica retained this gingerly 
approach to Bible so that in contrast to most subject areas, apologetic writing was 
not always discouraged. By the 1990s the American and Israeli Jewish communities 
had reached a level of self-confidence and maturity that permitted even Orthodox 
scholars to participate fully in the critical study of the Hebrew Bible. In addition, 
the 20th century witnessed renewed interest in the great Bible commentators of 
medieval times. Largely neglected in early modern critical Bible scholarship, these 
commentaries, which anticipated modern 'discoveries' are regularly studied by con- 
temporary Biblicists, Jewish and Christian." Critical literary studies of the Bible not 
only dissect the Bible by pointing to the sources of its composition, but consider it 
as an integrated whole which must be read as one work. 

The editors of our Talmud division note that the past thirty years have seen a 
number of developments in talmudic studies, which required the significant revi- 
sion of many of the first edition entries dealing with talmudic and midrashic litera- 



8 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 



ture. First of all, since the 1970s, we have been witness to a dramatic increase in the 
study of talmudic literature, not just within the rapidly expanding world of academic 
Judaic studies, but even more so among the public at large. Many new editions and 
translations in nearly all branches of talmudic and midrashic literature have been 
published, often accompanied by reliable and user- friendly commentaries. These in 
turn have opened up the study of the Mishnah, the Talmud, and other related texts 
to a wide audience of interested non-professional students. Many of the core entries 
in the previous edition of the Encyclopaedia were written with a pronounced bias 
toward the agenda of professional scholarship, and it has been one of our concerns 
both to widen this agenda and to provide the necessary foundation in order to make 
entries accessible to the public at large (see, for example, Mishnah and Talmud, Bab- 
ylonian). At the same time two developments in academic scholarship have also had 
an impact on editorial policy. First of all, the application of modern critical histori- 
cal methodology to the field of Aggadah and rabbinic biography has brought about 
no less than a revolution in the attitude toward talmudic and midrashic traditions 
concerning the lives and deeds of the rabbis (see Aggadah). This profound devel- 
opment has led to the revision of well over a hundred entries describing the lives 
of greater and lesser rabbinic figures (e.g. Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, Beruryah, Imma 
Shalom, Johanan ben Zakkai, Meir, Elisha ben Avuyah, Johanan ben Nappaha, etc.), 
while numerous traditional biographies of lesser rabbinic figures who have yet to 
be critically reexamined have been reproduced intact. Secondly, the increasing so- 
phistication of critical and historical tools for the analysis of talmudic literature as a 
whole has brought about an equally profound revolution in our understanding of the 
internal historical development of this literature, and specifically of the relationships 
between parallel traditions found in the different finished talmudic works (see, for 
example, Tosefta; Talmud, Babylonian - The Bavli and the Extant Tannaitic Works, 
The Bavli and the Yerushalmi). The description and dating of the various talmudic 
compositions - Mishnah, Tosefta, the halakhic and aggadic Midrashim, the Babylo- 
nian and Jerusalem Talmudim - included in the earlier edition of the Encyclopaedia 
could not, of course, have taken these new developments into account. As a result, 
all of the entries dealing with this literature were reviewed, and in many cases (e.g. 
the Midrashei Halakhah) thoroughly revised. 

Judaic Studies in the United States was limited thirty-five years ago. The Asso- 
ciation of Jewish Studies had just been founded; its members knew each other. Po- 
sitions were few. Membership has since then increased a hundredfold, and interest 
in Jewish Studies is wide throughout the Diaspora, as it has come to be seen as an 
essential component of Western civilization, though not just of Western civilization. 
American-trained Judaic Studies academics are on the faculty of every Israeli uni- 
versity, often holding distinguished chairs, so the cross fertilization of Israeli and 
American scholarship is a daily fact of life in both countries. 

My own field of Holocaust Studies was but in its infancy thirty-five years ago. 
The scholars were mostly survivors or refugees writing of their experience. Many 
archives were closed, records were unavailable, many survivor memoirs had not yet 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 



been written and one could convene a meeting of the significant figures in the field 
in a conference room large enough for a dozen people. Holocaust Studies as a field 
could be confined to several paragraphs, a few major works, and an occasional con- 
ference. There was no major museum and no Holocaust educational resource cen- 
ters, no sense of a "Holocaust industry." With the passage of time came the insights 
of time. There was a more personal intensity to the scholarly battles of the first gen- 
eration, as many had lived through the events. The works of Bruno Bettelheim, who 
wrote of the infantalization of the victim; of Hannah Arendt, who condemned Jew- 
ish leadership in the Holocaust; and of Raul Hilberg, whose magisterial work mini- 
mized the role of Jewish resistance, severely stung. In response, other Jewish schol- 
ars fought back angrily, defensively, as if the pride of the living seemingly could be 
enhanced by a positive depiction of the conduct of the dead. In the past thirty-five 
years, records were declassified, documents from the former Soviet Union and else- 
where became available as so many archives were opened. Documents and copies of 
originals could be read in Washington, New York, and Jerusalem and not just War- 
saw, Budapest, or Berlin. We have broadened our perspective and sought to come to 
terms with the dynamics of a growing field of study. And the contributions to this 
new edition reflect how much more is now known about an event that was in the 
immediate past thirty- five years ago. 

From time to time, as we worked with the vastness of this material, colleagues 
and friends - especially our children - would ask what place an encyclopedia holds 
in the world of the web, where access to information is instantaneous and the web 
so vast. We have endeavored to preserve the sense of authority of the original edi- 
tion - its reliability. We were mindful of the fact that this work would be consulted 
for years and years; thus, it is intended to be more than a snapshot of what is known 
at this time; its insights are meant to withstand the passage of time. Still, in a gen- 
eration or two, when scholars and students want to know what was known in the 
first decade of the 21st century, who were the Jews, what they thought, how they 
lived, they will be able do no better than to consult this work and to understand its 
ramifications. 

The Encyclopaedia Judaica grapples with Jews and Judaism, how Jews live, how 
they perceive themselves, how they encounter the world and shape the world they 
encounter. From medicine to mysticism, from resurgent Hasidism to renewal Ju- 
daism, from economics to science, from politics to art, music, theater, and cinema, 
even cartoons and comedy, sports and entertainment, we have endeavored to be 
comprehensive and creative. 

Keter Publishing House and Macmillan Library Reference (an imprint of Thom- 
son Gale), the publisher and distributor, respectively, of the first edition of the En- 
cyclopaedia Judaica, initiated this project. Under the watchful eye of Peter Tomkins, 
Keter turned to the Jerusalem Publishing House, which has long been known for ini- 
tiating encyclopedias in many languages all over the world, to organize the project. 
Frank Menchaca initiated this project for Macmillan, Helene Potter was assigned 
to bring it to life. When Menchaca went on to even higher levels of management, 



10 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION 



Helene Potter capably filled the vacuum. Jay Flynn has been entrusted with the all 
important task of bringing this work to completion. 

The scope of a second edition of the Encyclopaedia was far too large to be covered 
by minor revisions and cosmetic updates - too much had changed, too much more 
had become known. In sum, as the project evolved, half of the original entries had 
to be changed; more than 2,650 were added. 

Over time, it also became clear that an American editor would have to be added 
to the core staff, to work with Jerusalem-based editor-in-chief Fred Skolnik. Shlomo 
(Yosh) Gafni, president of the Jerusalem Publishing House (JPH), and his managing 
editor Rachel Gilon, were a source of guidance and wisdom, with the assistance of 
Leonardo Szichman, who executed the huge data control. JPH undertook the diffi- 
cult task of coordinating this project with enormous energy, skill, and dedication. 
Fred Skolnik was indefatigable and so wonderfully skilled. Associated with the Ju- 
daica for 35 years, he was both its champion and the driving force in its enlargement 
and transformation. 

The writers of the Encyclopaedia are many. They write with passion and confi- 
dence of the fields they know, of the persons, the ideas and the issues they describe. 
Many could write - and have written - volumes on their subjects. Here they were 
asked to be concise and precise, to write in a manner that reflected what is known, 
to avoid polemics, to be scrupulously fair. We have endeavored not only to furnish 
important details but also to present them in an interesting manner, knowing that, 
unlike the stuff of journalism, which will not be read tomorrow, this work will be 
read by many on many tomorrows. It has to endure the test of time. 

This edition is a unique partnership. Initiated by Israelis, it brought together 
Israelis and Americans and scholars from many different countries and many spheres 
of learning. It took cognizance of the centrality of Israel in the contemporary Jewish 
world but also of the enduring life, creative vitality, and intensity of the Jewish experi- 
ence in the Diaspora. It was mindful of the many forms that Jewish life has taken and 
the diverse ways in which Jews have contributed to their people and the world. 

It has been built on a strong foundation; time and again the editors have come to 
appreciate how comprehensive and authoritative was the work of their predecessors. 
We have endeavored to take the work of our predecessors forward in the ongoing 
quest for knowledge and understanding of the Jewish experience. 

Michael Berenbaum 

Executive Editor 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 11 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Preface to the Second Edition 



5 



General Introduction 



15 



Editorial and Production Staff (Second Edition) 

33 



Editorial and Production Staff (First Edition) 

37 



Contributors 

45 



Abbreviations 

177 

General Abbreviations 

177 
Abbreviations Used in Rabbinical Literature 

178 
Bibliographical Abbreviations 

184 



Transliteration Rules 

197 



Glossary 



200 



Entries Aa-Alp 

207 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



The Encyclopaedia Judaica, first published in 1972, has a long history, antedated by a 
number of predecessors. The English-language Jewish Encyclopedia, the first complete 
work of this nature, appeared in New York at the beginning of the 20th century (its 
twelfth and final volume was published in 1906). This pioneering work summed up 
the state of Jewish scholarship and the condition of the Jewish world at the time. It 
was an extraordinary achievement - especially if one considers the relatively small 
numbers of the English-speaking and English-reading Jewish population at the 
time. It was able, however, to call upon the collaboration of Jewish scholars in many 
countries - in particular the representatives of the Wissenschaft des Judentums, the 
School of Scientific Jewish Scholarship, then at its height. There were aspects that 
it tended to overlook or underplay, such as the world of East European Jewry, Kab- 
balah and Hasidism, Yiddish language and literature, and the life and culture of the 
Jews in Muslim lands, but seen as a whole, it was a monumental work incorporat- 
ing many entries which became classic statements on their subject. The 16 -volume 
Russian Jewish encyclopedia Yevreyskaya Entsiklopediya, which also appeared before 
World War I, was well conceived and in some respects brilliantly edited. Particularly 
outstanding was its expertise on East European Jewish subjects. The 10-volume He- 
brew Ozar Yisrael (1924), an almost single-handed achievement by J.D. Eisenstein, 
was on a far smaller scale and had less rigorous standards, although in certain areas 
its articles presented useful material. 

At the time of the revival of Jewish interest and learning in Germany after World 
War 1, Jacob Klatzkin, Ismar Elbogen, and Nahum Goldmann planned a new ency- 
clopedia in the German language. This was intended to incorporate the results of the 
intervening years of intensive scholarship and research, to reflect the intellectual at- 
titudes which had become established during this period, and to correct certain im- 
balances found within the Jewish Encyclopedia. Klatzkin and Goldmann gathered a 
galaxy of scholars to produce a new work. This work - called Encyclopaedia Judaica 
- progressed notwithstanding the obstacles and difficulties of those troubled times, 
until the Nazis rose to power in Germany. Publication had to be suspended after 
Volume 10 (completing the letter L), leaving incomplete this last monument of the 



15 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



intellectual greatness of German Jewry. Under the same auspices, a Hebrew version 
- the Eschkol encyclopedia - appeared, but only two volumes were issued. Mention 
should also be made of the five-volume Juedisches Lexikon, edited by Georg Her- 
litz and Bruno Kirschner, published by the Juedischer Verlag in 1927-30. Although 
more modest in scope than the other works mentioned, it made a useful contribu- 
tion to Jewish studies and also paid more attention than its predecessors to illustra- 
tive material. 

In the five first years of World War 11 the Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, edited by 
Isaac Landman, was issued in the United States in 10 volumes. It was able to reflect 
the growing importance of U.S. Jewry and to take into account late developments, 
especially in American Jewish history and biography. It had considerable merits, but 
was not an ambitious work. Moreover the fact that it was published in a period of 
major transition in itself set a limit to its utility. It was, however, the Universal Jewish 
Encyclopedia which constituted the basis of the 10-volume Spanish-language Enci- 
clopedia Judaica Castellana produced in Mexico between 1948 and 1951. The major 
contribution of this latter work lay in its original entries dealing with the develop- 
ment of Jewish life in Latin America. 

After the establishment of the State of Israel, the Hebrew language Encyclopaedia 
Hebraica began to be published in Jerusalem by the Massada Publishing Company, 
directed by the Peli family. This was the first large-scale general encyclopedia in the 
Hebrew language - and naturally it emphasized the Jewish aspects of various sub- 
jects, some of them of high scholarly importance and in certain cases even pioneer- 
ing studies in their field. But though it contains the elements of a Jewish encyclope- 
dia, it was not - nor was it intended to be - a Jewish encyclopedia as such. 

The Development of the Encyclopaedia Judaica 

For many years, and especially since the cataclysmic events in Jewish history of the 
1940s, the need had been felt for an entirely new Jewish encyclopedia, especially 
in the English language for English-speaking Jewry, who now accounted for about 
half of the Jews of the world. Furthermore the survivors of the editorial board of 
the German Encyclopaedia Judaica had always been determined that the Nazi at- 
tack on their work could not be accepted as a final defeat and that the unfinished 
publication must be completed. However, they too recognized that now only a rel- 
atively small proportion of the Jewish people had access to a work in German and 
that any new endeavor in this field must be, first and foremost, in English. Dr. Na- 
hum Goldmann, the last active survivor of the original board of editors, had long 
had this objective. 

Initial funding of the project was made possible through an allocation obtained 
by Dr. Goldmann from the German reparations fund earmarked for cultural pur- 
poses. The Rassco Company in Israel also became interested and provided some of 
the funds during the early stages. In the U.S., the Encyclopaedia Judaica Research 
Foundation was established to raise further support for the project. 

During this early period, when the preliminary work was centered in the U.S., 



16 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



Prof. Benzion Netanyahu (father of Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu), 
then editor of the Encyclopaedia Hebraica, served as editor in chief. The main edi- 
torial offices were established in Philadelphia in 1963. 

In 1965 Prof. Netanyahu was compelled through pressure of work to retire from 
his post, and the editorial center was transferred to Jerusalem. This move was re- 
garded as advisable because Jerusalem had become the unquestioned pivot of Jew- 
ish studies in the world, with the greatest concentration of scholars in the subject 
as well as possessing unrivaled research facilities. Moreover it was now the home of 
Prof. Cecil Roth, who had been appointed to succeed Prof. Netanyahu as editor in 
chief. 

The publishing responsibility was assumed by the Israel Program for Scien- 
tific Translations (at that time an Israel government corporation, later owned by 
CLAL Israel Investment Company Ltd.). The Israel Program for Scientific Trans- 
lations had already begun diversifying its publishing program and subsequently 
set up the Keter Publishing House Ltd. under whose imprint the Encyclopae- 
dia appeared. In the U.S. the Encyclopaedia Judaica also appeared for a limited 
time with the imprint of Macmillan under an agreement by which the Macmil- 
lan Company would distribute the Encyclopaedia in the Western Hemisphere. 
The financing of the Encyclopaedia during the five years of actual work in which 
it was produced in Israel was made possible initially by a generous loan from the 
United States government out of counterpart funds available in Israel at a nominal 
interest. This was supplemented by a considerable investment made by the publisher 
to bring the project to a successful conclusion. 

Work started in earnest in 1967 and a period of five years was allocated for the com- 
pletion of the entire Encyclopaedia. It was decided early on that with well-planned or- 
ganization and by proper exploitation of technological advances it would be possible 
to achieve the highly desirable goal of publishing the entire Encyclopaedia at one time. 
This would obviate the time gap inevitable in works that appear gradually, avoid the 
frustration of having the first volumes of a series but not the continuation to which 
references are made, and make possible the simultaneous publication of an index vol- 
ume which the editors saw as basic and indispensable to the whole work. 

To complete the Encyclopaedia within the given time, it was decided to adopt the 
principle of maximum subdivision so as to involve the greatest number of editors 
and contributors. The subject matter was broken down into some 20 divisions and 
these were again subdivided into departments. Some divisions had only two or three 
departments, but others included many more - 35 in the history division and more 
than 70 in the division dealing with the participation of Jews in world culture. 

The general flow of an entry was from the contributor to the departmental and 
divisional editors, then to the central office for translation (where necessary), check- 
ing, styling, transliterating and bibliographical verification, approval by the relevant 
associate editor and by the editors in chief, and then back to the contributor for his 
approval of the final version (in cases where substantial editorial changes had been 
inserted). Finally the entry was sent to the index department and then to press. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 17 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



A number of outstanding scholars served as consulting editors. They advised the 
Encyclopaedia staff in their fields of specialization when requested, but did not bear 
any editorial responsibility Nor did any departmental, divisional, or associate edi- 
tor or deputy editor in chief have any editorial responsibility for the contents of the 
Encyclopaedia apart from those which were his own direct responsibility The final 
responsibility for all entries rested with the editors in chief. 

Dr. Geoffrey Wigoder was appointed deputy editor in chief and the various di- 
visions were grouped into sections each headed by an associate editor. The associ- 
ate editors - Prof. Louis Rabinowitz, Prof. Raphael Posner, Dr. Binyamin Eliav, and 
Mr. Simha Katz - together with the editor in chief and his deputy constituted the 
editorial board. After the death of Prof. Roth in 1970, Dr. Wigoder was appointed 
editor in chief. The New York office was headed by Dr. Frederick Lachman, who 
coordinated the departments and divisions whose editors were in North America. 
Working parallel with those preparing the text was the illustrations and graphics 
department headed by Mr. Mo she Shalvi. This complex administration was directed 
by Mrs. Rachel Sabbath. The immensity of the operation can best be illustrated by 
the fact that apart from the 300 editors and 1,800 contributors with whom contact 
was maintained, the Encyclopaedia employed an internal staff of 150 - not including 
those who worked on the printing and binding stages. The entire publishing opera- 
tion was directed by Mr. Yitzhak Rischin, managing director of the Keter Publish- 
ing House Ltd. 

The Year Books and Decennial Books 

It was obvious on the publication of the Encyclopaedia Judaica that to maintain its 
usefulness a mechanism would have to be found to ensure that it remained up to 
date. The method chosen was the periodic publication of Year Books. These incor- 
porated feature articles on subjects of current interest in the Jewish world as well as 
extensive photo spreads on relevant topics. Many entries were updated, notably the 
major countries of Jewish settlement which received special consideration in each 
volume. Moreover new entries were devoted to personalities, organizations, Jewish 
studies, and other items that had come into the news or to public attention since the 
publication of the Encyclopaedia. 

The Yearbooks continued to be published by Keter Publishing Company and the 
editors included Rabbi Louis I. Rabinowitz, Professor Pinchas Peli, Dr. Geoffrey Wi- 
goder, and Ms. Fern Seckbach. 

In addition, two special Decennial books covering the decades preceding 1982 and 
1992 were published, incorporating and supplementing Year Book material. 

The CD-ROM Edition 

The CD-ROM edition, appearing in 1997, included the complete text of the origi- 
nal 16-volume edition of the Encyclopaedia Judaica, as well as the subsequent Year 
Books and the Decennials published in 1982 and 1992. In the limited time allotted 
for the Encyclopaedia Judaica CD-ROM project, there was no possibility for updat- 



18 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



ing the entire work. Rather, the entire content of the Encyclopaedia Judaica was re- 
viewed editorially and items selected for update or expanded coverage, under the 
supervision of Dr. Geoffrey Wigoder, as editor in chief, together with Fern Seck- 
bach, as deputy editor in chief. 

The Second Edition 

With the need acutely felt to bring the Encyclopaedia into the 21 st century, it was 
now determined to produce a thoroughly revised and updated new edition of the 
Encyclopaedia with the accumulated material in the CD-ROM as its starting point. 
Accordingly, Thomson Gale signed a licensing agreement with the Keter Publish- 
ing House and work on the second edition commenced in August 2003. The project 
was concluded editorially in the first months of 2006, though last-minute emenda- 
tions continued to be made until the Encyclopaedia went to press in the autumn of 
2006. It employed over 50 divisional editors and around 1,200 contributors from all 
around the world. 

To prepare the second edition all entries were systematically reviewed by the 
divisional editors to select those requiring updating, revision, or rewriting and to 
propose new entries. Those selected were assigned to the appropriate scholars and 
writers and the process culminated in the review and editing of all entries received 
from the contributors. At the end of the process, about half of the original entries 
had been revised and about 2,650 new entries were produced. In addition, around 
30,000 new bibliographical items were added. In all, 4.7 million new words were 
written for the second edition. 

Principles of Selection 

An obvious problem in the compilation of any encyclopedia is the decision as to 
which entries are to be included and which excluded. For the first edition, guide- 
lines were drawn up as a result of which certain subjects were earmarked for definite 
inclusion while others clearly fell short. But there is always a body of "borderline" 
entries which potentially could fall in either category. This problem becomes par- 
ticularly sensitive when dealing with biographies of contemporaries. Which schol- 
ars receive entries and which do not? Where is the line to be drawn for rabbis or 
businessmen or lawyers or scientists? 

The Editorial Board laid down general principles, but was fully aware of the po- 
tential risk of inconsistency. The Editorial Board considered the entire entry list and 
paid special attention to the "borderline" entries according to the principles of se- 
lection it determined. 

Various methods and criteria were established. For example, editors were cir- 
cumscribed by the word allocation. For example, the editors of the section on Jews 
in medicine listed many hundreds of Jews who had distinguished themselves in the 
field. They were asked to subdivide the list into those of major importance of whose 
inclusion there was no doubt; those who should appear if possible; and those who 
should at least be mentioned and characterized in the main entry. In this way, the 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 19 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



maximum of names appear in the Encyclopaedia. But at the same time, it was obvi- 
ous that along the borderline, different selections would be made by different ex- 
perts. In certain categories, it is impracticable to talk about objective standards and 
an element of subjectivity must enter the final selection. This inevitably provides a 
happy hunting ground for discussion and criticism. However, it must be noted that 
the editors of this and any such work have no alternative in such instances but to rely 
on their judgment, formed after consultation with the expert editors and advisers in 
each field. With contemporary scholars, the tendency was to be more generous with 
the older generation, whose major work had been completed, and to be more selec- 
tive with younger scholars who are in the process of producing their major works 
and where it is therefore more difficult to reach an assessment. 

In some subjects, it was possible to fix objective criteria. For example when it came 
to U.S. Jewish communities, it was decided to include only those numbering more 
than 4,500 (although here too exceptions had to be made where the community 
has historical or other social importance). For places in Israel, it was decided that 
all municipalities would have their own entry as well as kibbutzim and moshavim 
which were in existence at the time of the establishment of the State in 1948. For 
those settlements founded subsequently, only those of special interest have their own 
entry. With regard to the kibbutzim, the process of "privatization" which most have 
undergone or are undergoing is not noted in each of the many kibbutz entries but 
rather discussed in general terms in the Kibbutz Movement entry. 

In certain biographical entries a problem was to determine who was a Jew. The 
first principle adopted was that anyone born a Jew qualified for inclusion, even if 
he or she had subsequently converted or otherwise dissociated himself from Jewish 
life (where these facts are known, they are stated). The second principle was that 
a person with one Jewish parent would qualify for inclusion (with the relevant in- 
formation stated) if he or she were sufficiently distinguished. A person whose Jew- 
ish origins were more remote would only be the subject of an entry in very unusual 
cases. However, a more generous attitude was taken in the case of Marranos, in view 
of the special circumstances surrounding their history. 

A number of non-Jews are also the subject of entries in the Encyclopaedia. They 
have been included because of their relationship to Jewish life or culture (to avoid 
misunderstanding, the sign ° has been placed before their name at the head of the 
entry). These have been selected to ensure the completeness of the Encyclopaedia, for 
example in matters of history (e.g., Alexander the Great, Napoleon, Balfour, Stalin), 
philosophy and thought (e.g., Aristotle, Avicenna, Kant), or literature (e.g., Dante, 
Shakespeare, Goethe). In these cases, the entry concentrates only on those elements 
of the subjects life and thought which are of Jewish interest, and for a biography and 
assessment, the interested reader should refer to a general encyclopedia. 

By and large the editors of the second edition have followed the above principles 
in selecting new subjects for inclusion in the Encyclopaedia. At the same time, given 
the widespread availability of perpetual Jewish calendars on the Internet, it was de- 
cided to omit this feature from the new edition. It was thought more beneficial to 



20 ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



devote the space to additional text and such new features as the Thematic Outline 
(see below). On the whole, it has been the explicit aim of the editors to offer entries 
that the general as well as the specialized reader will expect to find in an encyclope- 
dia of this nature. 



Consistency 

Notwithstanding all efforts, it has been impossible to maintain perfect consistency in 
the Encyclopaedia Judaica. For one thing, scholars who have written the entries have 
been allowed a certain latitude in incorporating their own conclusions and this leads 
occasionally to internal contradictions. For example there are differing views about 
biblical chronology. It is possible that a scholar writing on a king of ancient Israel 
may maintain a certain year to have been that of his death; another scholar writing 
about his successor may be of the view that he began to reign a few years earlier or 
later; while the author of the general survey of the period may give still different 
dates. Since the entire subject is a matter of conjecture and all scholars regard their 
own chronology as well founded, it is impossible to compel them to use dates with 
which they disagree. Wherever possible, such dates have been coordinated, but the 
editors are aware of such discrepancies, which must be seen against the differences 
of opinion among the scholars. 

Similarly there can be inconsistencies regarding the transliteration of places and 
names. The name Leib represents the accepted English version of a Yiddish name; 
but many with that name who lived in German-speaking countries themselves wrote 
it Loeb, so that both forms are to be found in the Encyclopaedia. Accepted usage is 
followed in most cases, but there are many problems. In some instances, it is cus- 
tomary in English to anglicize names, such as those of foreign rulers: Empress Cath- 
erine - and not Yekaterina or Caterina; Frederick the Great - and not Friedrich; Vic- 
tor Emmanuel - and not Vittorio Emmanuele. But usage differs in other instances: 
Christopher (not Cristobal or Cristoforo) Columbus, but Johann (not John) Sebas- 
tian Bach, Leo (not Lev) Tolstoy, but Albrecht (not Albert) Duerer. Just as inconsis- 
tency occurs in general usage, so it occurs in specific Jewish contexts. It is common 
to adapt the better-known names into English and to write Salomon as Solomon 
or Josef as Joseph, but what about Salomone and Giuseppe? Biblical names have a 
familiar English form that has been accepted, but it would hardly be appropriate to 
anglicize Hebrew names in modern Israel and to refer to Moses Dayan. 

Whether Slavic names should end with the form -ich, -icz, -itz, or -itch must de- 
pend on usage and not logic; and usage is sometimes confusing as, for example, when 
persons could have spelled their name according to German or Czech usage. 

For a number of reasons (in part because of the ambiguity and interchangeability 
of the forms Aben and Ibn, but mainly because of the sheer weight of numbers) the 
Encyclopaedia has generally entered persons with quasi-surnames beginning with 
Ibn under the second name - but not in the case of accepted usage such as that of 
Abraham ibn Ezra who is always referred to as Ibn Ezra. Here too inconsistencies 
occur. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 21 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



Problems have also arisen concerning the consistency of place names: the mod- 
ern Slovakian town of Bratislava, for example, was famous in Jewish life as a center 
of scholarship as Pressburg, and is frequently referred to as such within a historical 
context. Both forms will therefore be found in the Encyclopaedia. In such instances 
the Index will prove an invaluable guide in coordinating the various references. 

Certain concessions have led to inconsistencies with regard to Hebrew transliter- 
ation. Apart from the different systems that have been employed, common English 
usage has been taken into consideration in some cases. According to Encyclopaedia 
rules, the word for commandment should be transliterated mizvah - but the spell- 
ing "bar mitzvah" has in fact passed into the English language as has "kibbutz" (not 
kibbuz) and matzah (or matzoh) and it is the accepted usage that has been adopted. 
Current Anglo-American usage refers, even in legislation, to ritually prepared food 
as "kosher" but in other contexts the term is transliterated according to Hebrew us- 
age as kasher. 

There are similar problems regarding the transliteration of terms in modern He- 
brew which embody the "mobile sheva" which is normally not pronounced in the 
middle of a word in modern Hebrew. Thus the organization nvnrion should be trans- 
literated in accordance with the rules as Histadderut, but it is universally known as 
Histadrut. And then there are transliterations officially adopted by various bod- 
ies - the name of the Religious Zionist movement is Mizrachi by which it appears 
throughout the world, and so it appears in the Encyclopaedia even though accord- 
ing to the rules it should appear as Mizrahi. 

Inconsistencies also occur with regard to italicization. Foreign words are gener- 
ally italicized - but not where they have become part of the English language, or are 
in German, French, Spanish, or Italian languages. But this too leads to anomalies. 
Yeshivah is now an English word and is not italicized; but the principal of a yeshivah 
is a rosh yeshivah, which is italicized. Hasidim have joyfully entered the English lan- 
guage, but their opponents, the Mitnaggedim, remain italicized outsiders. 

Cross References and Glossary 

The Encyclopaedia has been planned as a unit. To avoid unnecessary duplication, 
cross-references are made to complementary entries and the fullest treatment of any 
subject will be obtained by consulting both the cross-references given in any entry 
together with any other references listed under the subject in the Index. However, 
the Encyclopaedia has avoided a plethora of text cross-references which send the 
reader from volume to volume (such as Ribash see Midrash, Genesis Rabbah, Exo- 
dus Rabbah, etc.). Such information will be found by turning to the Index volume 
which gives all relevant references. 

In the text, cross-references are indicated in two ways. The first is by the direct 
statement "See ..." referring to entries that have directly relevant additional infor- 
mation. The second is by the use of an asterisk (*). The asterisk is placed before the 
word under which the entry appears. Thus "Abraham *ibn Ezra" indicates that fur- 
ther information related to that entry is to be looked for in the article on Ibn Ezra. 



22 ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



In occasional instances the asterisk has been used to refer the reader to an entry in 
the Index rather than an article in the text. 

Generally speaking, asterisks indicate those further entries which, it is felt, throw 
additional light on the subject under discussion. For example, in the statement 
"Benjamin Cardozo was born in New York," there is no cross-reference to New 
York, both because it is unnecessary and because the entry on New York contains 
no supplementary information on Cardozo. But the first reference to New York in 
the entry on "United States" will have a cross-reference because the New York entry 
in many ways supplements the "United States" entry. Occasional exceptions have 
been made where some more obscure name or phrase is mentioned, the explana- 
tion of which would unduly complicate the text. In most cases, only the first refer- 
ence to a subject receives a cross-reference, but on occasions it is repeated for special 
reasons. 

It is inevitable in a work of this nature to use a considerable number of Hebrew 
and technical terms which may not be familiar to the general reader. To explain 
these on every occasion would make the work far too cumbersome. Therefore, where 
necessary the cross-reference is given. However, for the convenience of the reader 
a glossary has been prepared of the most frequently recurring Hebrew terms and 
specialized names. This glossary is printed at the front of Volume 1, before the start 
of the entries and at the end of the text in volumes 2 through 21. 

Transliteration 

For its basic transliteration from the Hebrew, the Encyclopaedia has adopted a sim- 
plified system. It has been devised with particular regard to the usages of the Eng- 
lish-speaking reader. However, certain exceptions have been necessary: 

a) The editors of the section dealing with Hebrew and Semitic languages felt that 
the Encyclopaedias simplified system could not convey all the nuances required 
in technical linguistic entries. All entries in this section use the transliteration ad- 
opted by the Academy of the Hebrew Language. However, to avoid inconsistencies 
in proper names, the basic system used in the rest of the Encyclopaedia has also been 
retained for names in these entries. 

b) The editors of the Bible section felt the need for a few modifications in the En- 
cyclopaedia's system in order to convey certain nuances. To preserve the maximum 
unity, these have generally been added in parentheses after the usual transliteration, 
although in certain cases where it makes no difference to the ordinary reader (use 
oft in place oft), only one form has been given. 

c) Other forms of transliteration will be found in some of the musical notations. 
This is in accordance with the system that has been developed so as best to print 
Hebrew transliteration together with music. 

d) As already mentioned, in a few instances, Hebrew words have become part of 
the English language and their spelling standardized. In such cases, the term must 
be regarded by now as an English word, and the spelling in Webster s New Interna- 
tional Dictionary (Third Edition) has been followed. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 23 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



See accompanying tables regarding transliteration for Hebrew, Arabic, Yiddish, 
Greek, and Russian. 

Furthermore, certain English usages have been taken into account inasmuch as 
certain words and names have received accepted English forms — for example Koran 
(rather than Quran), Saladin (rather than Salah al-Din). Often, in place of the um- 
laut in German names an "e" has been added after the accented vowel - thus Koe- 
nigsberg, not Konigsberg. 

Bibliographies 

The bibliography available for an entry is integral to the treatment of the subject as 
a whole. On the basis of these references, the reader who wishes to pursue the sub- 
ject in greater depth can turn to these basic books and articles. 

For the first edition a principle of selectivity had to be adopted in view of the vast 
amount of material that had accumulated. It had to be be recognized that the Ger- 
man language, in which so much of Jewish research was written, had become inac- 
cessible to most Jewish students. On the other hand, a considerable body of scien- 
tific publication on Jewish subjects had now become available in English while the 
corresponding literature in Hebrew had assumed vast proportions. 

Preference was thus given to works in the English language provided they were 
of an adequate scientific standard. Moreover, where translations were available in 
English they were listed in some cases in preference to a (generally German) origi- 
nal. However, exceptions were made in some cases where the English translation 
did not represent the entire original (e.g., in some sections of Graetz s History of the 
Jews). Generally, only the most important and significant works are listed. Full bib- 
liographies can usually be found in the works referred to and where there is a full 
bibliography on the subject in a work cited, this fact is mentioned. 

Many problems were encountered in the course of compiling the bibliography of 
the first edition, not all of which found an ideal solution. For example, there is the 
problem of which edition to cite - the first or latest? A book can have its first edition 
in England in a different form than its first U.S. edition - and even have a different 
name for each; an article can appear in a periodical and be reprinted as part of a 
book; many volumes are now being reprinted photographically and are designated as 
"second editions" although - where no extra material is added - this is inaccurate. 

The organization of the bibliographies (basically supplied by the authors) is also 
not consistent. An attempt was made to give precedence to the major works on the 
subject and to works in English, while generally speaking, books precede articles. 
However, in certain cases other arrangements (e.g., chronological) were followed. In 
the first edition, names of articles in periodicals were usually not listed for reasons of 
space, but the author and full details of the periodical served to direct the reader to 
the major studies in such publications. For the bibliographical updates in the second 
edition of the Encyclopaedia, the editors have endeavored to supply full article titles. 
Bibliographical items added to updated or revised first edition entries are preceded 
by the heading "Add. Bibliography" in bold face and appear immediately after the 



24 ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



old bibliography where one exists, unless the latter is arranged by subtopic. Bibliog- 
raphies of entries new to the second edition are simply headed "Bibliography" 

The standard histories - Graetz, Dubnow, Baron - have not been cited for every 
article, but only in those cases where they provide material of special significance 
for the subject in hand. Similarly, regarding individual countries, the standard re- 
gional histories have been mentioned only when specially called for and the reader 
should remember that they must be consulted. 

Most of the bibliographical checking for the first edition was done at the Jewish 
National and University Library, Jerusalem. The unrivaled richness of its collection 
made possible a thorough investigation of most subjects dealt with and most works 
cited, but there were cases when certain works or editions were not available and 
the facts given by the contributor could not be verified. 

To make the bibliographies less unwieldy a large number of standard works are 
quoted by abbreviation. A full list of these abbreviations will be found at the front of 
Volume 1 of the Encyclopaedia and the back of volumes 2 through 21. Such works can 
be distinguished in the bibliographies by the fact that their titles are not italicized. 

Biographical Entries 

The title entry for an individual is given according to the name by which he or she 
was most commonly known. Other names by which a person was known or ver- 
sions of the name are also in the Index, allowing direct access to the entry, where 
the alternative names appear in parentheses following the entry title. 

Wherever possible, biographical entries are given under the surname if the per- 
son had one. Where a combined rendering has become accepted in Europe (e.g., 
Abenatar) this is followed in the Encyclopaedia. In the case of Spanish and Portu- 
guese names (e.g., Texeira de Mattos, Mendes da Costa), accepted usage is followed 
even though the first component of these names is the basic part. 

The place of birth and death are not always given. The reason is that the infor- 
mation given customarily is in many cases conjectural, in others irrelevant. Places 
of birth are usually mentioned in the text when these have been found to be verifi- 
able. Place of death is not mentioned unless there is a specific reason for giving it. 
Generally, it can be assumed that a subject died in the place where the person is last 
mentioned as having resided. To keep the entries within allotted proportions, places 
of education have generally been omitted as have details concerning awards such as 
honorary degrees, visiting professorships, prizes (except for major ones such as the 
Nobel Prize and the Israel Prize), promotion details (e.g., for military figures only 
the last rank attained is usually given), etc. Though the second edition has been more 
liberal in this respect, the above principles have generally been followed. 

Family Entries 

A single entry often covers various members of the same family. This has been es- 
pecially the case when there are a number of members of the family who are of suf- 
ficient interest to warrant a description but where space would not allow individual 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 25 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



entries. In such cases the various members are generally treated in chronological 
order within the entry. It often occurs that in such families there are several mem- 
bers mentioned in the body of the entry but one or two members are of exceptional 
importance, warranting a separate entry. In this case they are listed with few details 
in their appropriate chronological context within the family entry together with an 
asterisk indicating that they are the subject of separate entries. 

In certain instances, two or more members of the same family have been combined 
into a single entry. There are also examples of composite entries of several people 
with the same name as in the case, for example, of biblical persons and places where 
a single entry covers more than one person or place of the same name. In all such 
cases, each individual subject can be traced through the Index, where an individual 
listing will be found. If the family name is not repeated in the article following a per- 
sonal name, it is understood that the name is identical with that of the title entry. 

Special Terminology 

In a few instances, the Encyclopaedia staff had to make decisions regarding the adop- 
tion of basic terminology. One such term is "Holocaust" referring to the fate of the 
Jews resulting from Nazi policies, from 1933 to 1945. Another is "Mishpat Ivri," fa- 
miliarly called "Jewish Law." 

Another is the use of the term Erez Israel. The name Palestine was specifically 
created by the Romans in order to invalidate the association of the Jewish people 
with the country they had formerly called Judea. The name Palestine was virtually 
unknown even when the country was under Muslim (as well as Crusader) rule. The 
Encyclopaedia therefore terms the country by its proper name Erez Israel (literally, 
the Land of Israel) using the term "Palestine" only in certain contexts (especially 
with regard to the later Roman period and to the period of the British Mandate 
when it was the official name of the country). This applies as well to such historical 
West Bank cities as Hebron, Jericho, and Nablus (Shechem), which are accordingly 
defined as cities in Erez Israel. 

Israel, on the other hand, generally implies in these pages the modern State of 
Israel. Since the origins of a great part of Israeli institutions and life go back to the 
1880 s, for certain purposes the term Israel is used retrospectively to this seminal pe- 
riod. For example, the section of the comprehensive entry Israel (by far the largest 
in the Encyclopaedia) headed "State of Israel" covers not only the period from 1948 
but also the pre-State period. Though according to official government usage, Israel 
(and not Israeli) is the adjective relating to Israel and Israeli is a citizen (or perma- 
nent resident) of the State of Israel, in most cases "Israeli" has been also used as an 
adjective in compliance with common usage. 

Israels wars, discussed in the context of Israels history, are given their Israeli no- 
menclatures. Thus, for example, Six-Day War for the war of 1967 and Yom Kippur 
War for the war of 1973. 

The Encyclopaedia uses the term Jerusalem Talmud rather than Palestinian Tal- 
mud because although the latter is more accurate (the work was not written or 



26 ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



compiled in Jerusalem) the former conveys the traditional Jewish title Talmud Ye- 
rushalmi. 

Place Names 

The basic guide for the form of place names in the first edition was the Columbia 
Lippincott Gazetteer of the World (Columbia University Press, 1966) and where vari- 
ous alternatives are cited there, the preferred form has been adopted. For the sake of 
consistency the same guidelines have been used for the second edition. Place names 
occurring in the Bible are given according to The Holy Scriptures (according to the 
Masoretic text; The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1955). Other places in 
Israel are cited according to the Encyclopaedia's rules of transliteration. This has led 
to some inconsistencies in cases where ancient and modern places (not always on the 
same site) have identical names. Thus readers will find that some towns mentioned 
in the Bible will begin with Beth (e.g., Beth Shean) but others not mentioned there 
will begin with Bet (Bet Shearim). There will be a similar problem with "En" and 
Bin. 



Another problem with place names is that in many instances, places had differ- 
ent names at different periods. The usage of the Encyclopaedia is that where a place 
is still in existence, the entry appears under its current name (in a very few cases, 
an exception has been made where the alternative name is so strong in Jewish tradi- 
tion that any variant would look bizarre). Variants are given at the beginning of the 
entry on the place and all these variants are cited in their appropriate places in the 
Index. When place names occur in the body of entries, it has often been necessary 
to change the usage according to the period. For example it would be absurd to talk 
of a person in "Wroclaw" in the first half of the 20 th century - he was in Breslau; a 
book in the 18th century was published in Constantinople, not Istanbul. 

A special problem was posed by East European names not to be found in the gaz- 
etteer. Many Jews were born or lived in small places which had a reputation in the 
Jewish world but are not large enough to figure in Western works of reference. Such 
places were identified in standard atlases and where necessary the Encyclopaedia's 
regular rules of transliteration for the appropriate language were followed. 

A number of major geographical changes have occurred since the original edition 
of the Encyclopaedia Judaica appeared, notably the break-up of the Soviet Union, 
Yugoslavia, and Czechoslovakia and the reunification of Germany. The reader is ad- 
vised to look under both the original and former names of these countries. Thus, 
the major history of many members of the Commonwealth of Independent States 
(formerly the U.S.S.R.) will be found under Russia and only developments since 
their independence are under their particular name. Appropriate cross-references 
will be found in the text. 



Proper Names 

Some of the problems relating to consistency in the use of proper names have already 
been mentioned. As noted, the tendency has been to anglicize first names where ap- 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 27 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



propriate. This has been done even though in certain instances the person himself 
did not use the form. Thus a German Jew would have signed himself (probably in 
Hebrew letters) as Schlomo or Salomon but - as is customary in standard works of 
reference in English - these all appear as Solomon. 

Every effort has been made to give the spelling of the surname as the person him- 
self spelled it - even if this means that the more usual Berdichevski appears as Berdy- 
czewski and Moshe Glikson appears as Gluecksohn, these being the forms they them- 
selves used. However, problems remain. What about a person who never signed his 
name, as far as is known, in Latin characters? For example, if such a persons name 
was f mrm, is it to be transliterated Rabinowitz, Rabbinowitz, Rabbinowicz, Rabbi- 
novich, Rabinovitch, or by any other of the known transliterations, all of which are 
legitimate? There is no ready-made answer. In some instances, there are precedents 
to follow; in others, the precedent has to be invented. We are aware that consistency 
has not always proved possible. Sometimes an apparent inconsistency is deliberate. 
A man living in a German -speaking country would have written his name Hirsch. 
But for a man with this name in Eastern Europe there is no reason to use a German 
form of transliteration; in such instances the rules of Yiddish (or familiar English) 
transliteration have been followed and the name appears as Hirsh. 

Dates 

The Hebrew year begins in the fall, three months approximately (in recent centu- 
ries) before the Gregorian year. Where the Hebrew year is known (but not the exact 
date) the probability is that the Gregorian date corresponds to the last nine months 
rather than the first three months of the Hebrew year. So the Encyclopaedia has nor- 
mally used, e.g., 1298 and not 1297/98 to correspond to the Hebrew year 5058, etc. 
Where, however, the exact Hebrew date is known, it is possible to be more precise. 
Where precision is significant the form 1527/28 is used; this implies that the event 
took place in the Hebrew year 5388 but the period of the year cannot be determined. 
Before the Gregorian reform of the calendar in 1587 the secular-Christian New Year 
was considered in most places to have been in March; the Gregorian reform estab- 
lished January 1st but this was adopted only gradually in Europe. The Encyclopae- 
dia Judaica assumes, however, in most cases (in accordance with modern historical 
practice) the beginning of the new year in January, even before the Gregorian re- 
form. To avoid unnecessary complications, account has not been taken of the ten- 
(to 12- or 13-) day discrepancy between the Gregorian and Julian calendars, which 
has continued in some areas until our own day. (The 1917 revolutions in Russia are 
mostly called the February and October Revolutions, although by Western calen- 
dars they occurred in March and November.) 

Statistics 

The whole area of Jewish demography is highly problematical and in many cases 
precise numbers cannot be determined. Only in recent decades have systematic at- 
tempts been made to determine Jewish statistics. Moreover, different criteria have 



28 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



been adopted in different places, and results will vary with such factors as whether 
any sort of Jewish definition appears in an official census, whether the particular 
community has been subject to a scientific analysis - and how one defines a Jew! Oc- 
casional discrepancies are inevitable. Moreover, in the case of France and the former 
Soviet Union the problem has proven to be particularly acute. In the former case 
this derives from the reluctance of community leaders to publicize Jewish popula- 
tion figures. In the latter case, figures vary widely depending on the body produc- 
ing them and the criteria used. In both cases, other than for the largest communi- 
ties where current information is available, older figures are often used rather than 
arbitrary or unsubstantiated later figures. For U.S. communities, the 2001 figures 
appearing in the American Jewish Year Book have been used in the Encyclopaedia's 
standardized state maps, together with the 2000 U.S. Census figures for the general 
population, with later figures given in the text where available. 

Alphabetization 

Entries have been arranged (both in the body of the Encyclopaedia and in the In- 
dex) in strict alphabetical order - disregarding spaces and hyphens. The criterion is 
the order of the letters up to the first punctuation sign (comma, period, etc.). This 
makes for easy reference as well as facilitating the work of the computer. 

For example, Ben-Gurion should be sought somewhere after Benghazi and be- 
fore Benjamin; El Paso will be after Elephantine but before Elul. 

The following elements are not considered in alphabetization: definite and indef- 
inite articles; personal titles (e.g., Sir or Baron), with the exception of "Saint"; ma- 
terial that appears in parentheses; the ordinal number of a monarch or pope. In the 
event of absolutely identical title entries, the following order of precedence prevails: 
places, people, things. Where persons have identical names, the one who lived ear- 
lier comes first. Where the same name is used as a first and family name, entries of 
the first name precede those of the family name. 

For example in looking for an ABRAHAM one would find the order: 
ABRAHAM (the patriarch) 
ABRAHAM (family name) 

ABRAHAM, APOCALYPSE OF (the comma after Abraham acting as a cae- 
sura) 
ABRAHAM, MAX 
ABRAHAM ABELE BEN ABRAHAM SOLOMON (considered as a unit in 

the absence of a comma) 
ABRAHAM A SANCTA CLARA 
ABRAHAM BAR HIYYA 
ABRAHAM BEN ALEXANDER (note that "bar" and "ben" are considered 

as spelt in full) 
ABRAHAM HAYYIM BEN GEDALIA 
ABRAHAMITES 
ABRAHAM JOSHUA HESCHEL OF APTA 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 29 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



ABRAHAM (ben Aaron) OF BAGHDAD (note that variants in parentheses 

are ignored for alphabetization purposes) 
ABRAHAM OF SARAGOSSA 
ABRAHAMS 
ABRAHAMS, ISRAEL 
ABRAHAMS, SIR LIONEL (note that titles such as Sir and Lord are ignored 

for alphabetization purposes) 
ABRAHAMS, MOSES 
ABRAHAM'S BOSOM 
ABRAHAMSEN, DAVID 
ABRAHAM ZEVI BEN ELEAZER 

Style 

Although basing itself on standard rule of style, the Encyclopaedia has in many cases 
had to establish its own rules to meet its own particular requirements. Spelling was 
based on Webster's Third International Dictionary, except for a number of specific 
Jewish and Hebrew words. Italicization is used in the text for non-English words 
and phrases. (See also section on Consistency.) 

Familiar abbreviations of rabbinical authorities (e.g., Rif for Isaac Alfasi or Rashba 
for Solomon ben Adret) are generally not employed in the text but are used in bib- 
liographical references in articles on rabbinical literature and Jewish law (see sec- 
tion on Abbreviations). The exception here is Rashi (Rabbi Solomon Yizhaki) who 
is so universally known by his acronym that it would be unnecessarily pedantic to 
insist on his full name in usual references to him. In other cases, a decision had to 
be made with regard to the form regularly used; thus the Encyclopaedia uses Mai- 
monides rather than Moses ben Maimon or Maimuni and Nahmanides rather than 
Moses ben Nahman. Here again the reader should consult the aliases appearing in 
the alphabetized Index. 

Illustrations 

Supplementing the text are over 600 tables, maps, charts, and archaeological plans 
including a full list of Jewish settlements in Israel and detailed chronologies of Jew- 
ish history and of the Holocaust period, as well as an eight-page full-color insert in 
each volume illustrating all facets of Jewish life in hundreds of photographs. A spe- 
cial section of Holocaust photographs follows the main Holocaust entry. 

Signatures and Contributors 

Authors' names generally appear at the end of each entry. Where different contribu- 
tors have written sections of an entry, their names are found at the end of the section 
they have written. When two (or more) contributions have been merged into a single 
article a joint signature appears at the end of the entry. Contributions to the second 
edition are indicated by the words (2 nd ed.) after the contributor's name. However, in 
cases where updates or revisions to a first edition entry are minor, or only new bibli- 



30 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



ography has been added (see Bibliographies above), the second edition contributor 
has generally not been cited, lest the mistaken impression be created that the entry 
was a joint effort. Furthermore, with the removal of the ubiquitous "ed." (for "Edi- 
tor") signature from first edition entries produced by the EJ editorial staff, such en- 
tries are now unsigned, unless the second edition update or revision was significant 
enough to warrant its attribution to the second edition contributor alone. 

Information on the authors (as of the date of writing the entry) can be found in 
the List of Contributors along with a list of all entries partially or entirely written 
by each author. 

For the first edition the Encyclopaedia Judaica received permission to utilize en- 
tries appearing in two other encyclopedias in other languages - the German Ency- 
clopaedia Judaica and the Hebrew Encyclopaedia Hebraica. Where contributors of 
such entries were living, the English version was sent to them for their approval and 
where received, the author's initial is given. In a few cases, for one reason or another, 
the author was not available or not prepared to check the English version; in such 
cases the entries are merely signed [Encyclopedia Judaica (Germany)] or [Encyclo- 
paedia Hebraica] to indicate that the source is to be found in these works. For the 
second edition, permission was received to use material from two other sources: Yad 
Vashems Pinkasei Kehillot and its English abridgment (Encyclopedia of Jewish Com- 
munities Before and During the Holocaust) and The Shorter Jewish Encyclopedia in 
Russian (Kratkoy Evreyskoy Entsiklopedii). Material from these sources was incorpo- 
rated into entries written and generally signed by second edition contributors. 

Index 

One of the highlights of the Encyclopaedia is its comprehensive index, originally 
edited by Prof. Raphael Posner for the first edition. This provides the key which un- 
locks the Encyclopaedia so that each detail becomes readily available for consulta- 
tion. Ordinarily, an encyclopedia can be consulted only through the alphabetical 
list of entries. In the case of the Encyclopaedia Judaica this would give the reader 
some 22,000 subjects. With the aid of the Index the option is expanded more than 
eightfold, and the reader can at once see where information on topics that have not 
received independent entries but have been treated under other headings can be 
found. In addition a subject can be followed through all aspects of its treatment in 
the Encyclopaedia. For example, if the reader is interested in Maimonides, he or she 
will discover not only that there is a major entry on Maimonides but that there are 
further extensive treatments of Maimonides' thought and work in dozens of other 
entries - such as the entry Mishpat Ivri (Jewish Law), Philosophy, Medicine, Aris- 
totle, Attributes, etc. 

The Index is an indispensable tool for the use of the Encyclopaedia and the edi- 
tors recommend that the reader always start by turning to it. Only by consulting the 
Index will he or she grasp the full treatment of any subject. (Where a person can be 
referred to under various names or pseudonyms, the Index will guide the reader to 
the relevant entry.) In planning the Encyclopaedia, the editors endeavored to main- 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 31 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 



tain an overview of the complete work and to avoid overlapping, as far as possible. 
Without the Index, the reader would not be aware of the carefully planned structure 
of each subject and might conclude that certain important facets had been omitted 
or overlooked or that in certain cases treatment was inadequate. But by referring 
to the Index the user will immediately find out under what heading each subject is 
treated and where the supplementary aspects are dealt with. 

It should be noted that the captions to the illustrations have also been indexed. 
Thus, under Israel, the reader will find page references to all maps and tables in the 
entry. In this way, the reader has easy access to all the visual material in the Ency- 
clopaedia. 

For full details on the Index and its use, the reader is referred to the Introduction 
to the Index in the Index volume. 

Thematic Outline 

The Thematic Outline, at the front of the Index volume, is an entirely new feature 
listing all entries in the Encyclopaedia under their appropriate subject headings, more 
or less corresponding to the Encyclopaedia's editorial divisions. Thus, for example, 
a typical heading of this kind would be "Canada," broken down into Main Entries, 
General Entries, Community Entries, and Biographical Entries. For the larger divi- 
sions (U.S., Israel, Germany, etc.) biographical entries are further subdivided into 
Public and Economic Life, Academic Life, Popular Culture, Art, Science, etc. Many 
entries will appear under more than one heading. Scientists, for example, will ap- 
pear under both the country they are identified with (or more than one country in 
certain cases) and the Science heading. As definitions are sometimes not clearcut, 
the existence of an entry can always be checked against the Index. 

The aim of the Thematic Outline is to provide at a glance a picture of what is con- 
tained in the Encyclopaedia as well as to serve as a teaching and research tool show- 
ing all the entries available on a given subject. 

Conclusion 

The preparation of the second edition of the Encyclopaedia Judaica was a labor of 
devotion and dedication on the part of those responsible. It is the product of the 
diligent work of many hundreds of participants making very special efforts to en- 
sure its successful conclusion. In this, they have been motivated by an awareness 
of the historic and cultural value of this work and the significant role it can play in 
Jewish education and culture, in the spread of Jewish knowledge - which is such an 
urgent priority in the Jewish and non-Jewish world today - and in the closer linking 
of Israel with Jews as well as non-Jews the world over. The editors are aware that for 
objective reasons, they have not always attained the desired perfection and that, as 
is inevitable in any work of comparable size and scope, errors have crept in. But they 
feel that the final product, seen in its entirety, is indeed a historical contribution to 
Jewish culture with which they feel privileged to have been associated. 



32 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION STAFF (SECOND EDITION) 



EDITOR IN CHIEF 
Fred Skolnik 



EXECUTIVE EDITOR 
Michael Berenbaum 



EDITORIAL PROJECT MANAGER 
Shlomo S. (Yosh) Gafni 



EDITORIAL PROJECT PLANNING AND CONTROL 
Rachel Gilon 



DIVISIONAL EDITORS 



ASIA AND AFRICA 
Tudor Pariitt 

M.A., Dr. Phil.; School of Oriental and African Studies, University 
of London, U.K. 

BIBLE 

S. David Sperling 

Ph.D.; Rabbi; Professor of Bible, Hebrew Union College, New York 

BULGARIA 

Emil Kalo 

Ph.D.; President of the Organization of the Jews in Bulgaria "Shalom"; 
Bulgarian Academy of Science, Bulgaria 

CANADA 

Richard Menkis 

Ph.D.; Associate Professor, University of British Columbia, Canada 

Harold Troper 

Ph.D.; Professor, Department of Theory and Policy Studies, Ontario 
Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto 

CHRISTIANITY AND SECOND TEMPLE 

Shimon Gibson 

Ph.D.; Archaeologist and Senior Research Fellow, W.F. Albright In- 
stitute of Archaeological Research, Jerusalem 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA 

Yeshayahu Jelinek 

Ph.D.; Associate Professor Emeritus, Ben-Gurion University of the 
Negev, Beersheba 



ENGLAND 

William D. Rubinstein 

Ph.D., B.C.; Professor of History, University of Wales- Aberystwyth, 
U.K. 

FRANCE 

Sylvie-Anne Goldberg 

Ph.D.; Associate Professor, Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences So- 
ciales, France 

Ilan Greilsammer 

Ph.D.; Professor, Department of Political Science, Bar-Ilan Univer- 
sity; Director, Center for European Community Studies, Bar-Ilan 
University 

GERMANY 

Michael Brenner 

Ph.D.; Professor of Jewish History and Culture, Ludwig-Maximil- 
ians-Universitat, Munich, Germany 

GREECE 

Yitzchak Kerem 

Professor, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, Greece; Lecturer and 
Researcher, Hebrew University of Jerusalem 

HEBREW, SEMITIC, AND JEWISH LANGUAGES 

Aharon Maman 

Ph.D.; Professor of Hebrew, Hebrew University of Jerusalem 

HEBREW LITERATURE, MEDIEVAL 

Angel Saenz-Badillos 

Ph.D.; Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature, Universidad 
Complutense, Madrid, Spain 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



33 



EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION STAFF (SECOND EDITION) 



HEBREW LITERATURE, MODERN 

Anat Feinberg 

Ph.D.; Professor of Jewish and Hebrew Literature, Hochschule fur 
Judische Studien, Heidelberg, Germany 



MUSIC 

Amnon Shiloah 

Ph.D.; Professor Emeritus of Musicology, Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem 



HOLOCAUST AND UNITED STATES 

Michael Berenbaum 

Ph.D.; Professor of Theology (Adjunct), Director, Sigi Ziering Insti- 
tute, University of Judaism, Los Angeles, CA 

ISLAM AND MUSLIM COUNTRIES IN THE MIDDLE 
EAST AND NORTH AFRICA 

Jacob M. Landau 

Ph.D.; Professor Emeritus of Political Science, Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem; winner of the Israel Prize 

ISRAEL 

Fred Skolnik 

Editor in Chief, Encyclopaedia Judaica (2nd edition) 

ITALY 

Robert Bonfil 

Ph.D.; Professor Emeritus of Jewish History, Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem 

JEWISH LAW 

Menachem Elon 

Ph.D.; Deputy President of the Supreme Court of Israel; Professor of 
Law, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, School of Law; Visiting Pro- 
fessor of Law, New York and Harvard Universities Schools of Law; 
winner of the Israel Prize 



NETHERLANDS 

Irene Zwiep 

Ph.D.; Professor of Hebrew and Jewish Studies, Universiteit van Am- 
sterdam, Holland 

Resianne Fontaine 

Ph.D.; Lecturer in the Department of Hebrew and Jewish Studies, 
Universiteit van Amsterdam, Holland 

Barend Theodoor Wallet 

M.A.; Junior Researcher, Hebrew, Aramaic and Jewish Studies, Uni- 
versiteit van Amsterdam, Holland 

POLAND 

Shlomo Netzer 

Ph.D.; Modern East European Jewish History, Tel Aviv University 

ROMANIA 

Leon Volovici 

Ph.D.; Senior Researcher, The Vidal Sassoon International Center 
for the Study of Anti-Semitism, Jerusalem, Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem 

RUSSIA 

Shmuel Spector 

Ph.D.; Historian, Jerusalem 



JEWISH THOUGHT AND PHILOSOPHY 

Aviezer Ravitsky 

Ph.D.; Professor, Department of Jewish Thought, Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem; Senior Fellow, Israel Democracy Institute, Jerusalem; 
winner of the Israel Prize 

Raphael Jo spe 

Ph.D.; Professor; Researcher; Jewish Philosophy Lecturer, Bar-Ilan 
University 

KABBALAH AND HASIDISM 

Mo she Idel 

Ph.D.; Professor of Jewish Thought and Kabbalah, Hebrew Univer- 
sity of Jerusalem; Shalom Hartman Institute, Jerusalem; winner of 
the Israel Prize 

KARAITES 

Haggai Ben-Shammai 

Ph.D.; Professor of Arab Language and Literature, Hebrew Univer- 
sity of Jerusalem 

LATIN AMERICA 

Margalit Bejarano 

Ph.D.; Researcher and Teacher, Hebrew University of Jerusalem 

Efraim Zadoff 

Ph.D.; Historian, Editor, Research Association on Latin American 
Jews, Jerusalem 



SCANDINAVIA 

Ilya Meyer 

B.Ed.; Translator, Transtext Ab, Gothenburg, Sweden 

SCIENCE 

Bracha Rager 

Ph.D.; Professor of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Health 
Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beersheba; Ministry 
of Health 

A. Michael Denman 

M.D., F.R.C.P; Emeritus Consultant, Northwick Park Hospital, Lon- 
don, U.K. 

Dan Gilon 

M.D., F.A.C.C. Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), Director of Non- 
Invasive Cardiology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, 
Jerusalem 

SPAIN, PORTUGAL, AND MARRANOS 

Yom Tov Assis 

Ph.D.; Department of Jewish History, World Center for Jewish Stud- 
ies, Hebrew University of Jerusalem 

SPORTS 

Eli Wohlgelernter 

B.A.; Journalist, Jerusalem 



34 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION STAFF (SECOND EDITION) 



SWITZERLAND 

Uri Robert Kaufmann 

Ph.D.; Historian, Wissenschaftliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft, Leo Baeck 
Institut, Heidelberg, Germany 

TALMUD 

Shamma Friedman 

Ph.D.; Benjamin and Minna Reeves Professor of Talmud and Rab- 
binics, Jewish Theological Seminary; Professor, Department of Tal- 
mud, Bar-Ilan University 

Stephen G. Wald 

Ph.D.; Talmud and Rabbinics, Jerusalem 

UNITED STATES LITERATURE 

Lewis Fried 

Ph.D.; Professor of English, Kent State University 

WOMEN AND GENDER 

Judith R. Baskin 

Ph.D.; Knight Professor of Humanities; Director, Harold Schnitzer 
Family Program in Judaic Studies, University of Oregon 

YIDDISH LITERATURE 

Jerold C. Frakes 

Ph.D.; Professor of German and Comparative Literature, University 
of Southern California, Los Angeles 

YUGOSLAVIA 

Zvi Loker 

M.A.; Ambassador Retired; Director, Even Tov Archives, Jerusalem 

ZIONISM 

Isaiah Friedman 

Ph.D.; Professor Emeritus of History, Ben-Gurion University of the 
Negev, Beersheba 



CONSULTING EDITORS 

ANTISEMITISM 
Dina Porat 

Ph.D.; Professor, Stephen Roth Institute for the Study of Contempo- 
rary Racism and Anti-Semitism, Chaim Rosenberg School of Jewish 
Studies, Tel Aviv University 

ART 

Ziva Amishai-Maisels 

Ph.D.; Professor of Art History, Hebrew University of Jerusalem; win- 
ner of the Israel Prize 

Shalom Sabar 

Ph.D.; Chair, Dept. of Jewish and Comparative Folklore, Dept. of Art 
History, Hebrew University of Jerusalem 



DEMOGRAPHY 

Sergio DellaPergola 

Ph.D.; Shlomo Argov Chair in Israel-Diaspora Relations, A. Harman 
Institute of Contemporary Jewry, Hebrew University of Jerusalem; 
Senior Fellow, Jewish People Policy Planning Institute 

ISRAEL 

Gideon Biger 

Ph.D.; Professor of Geography, Tel Aviv University 

MUSLIM COUNTRIES IN ASIA 

Jacob M. Landau 

Ph.D.; Professor Emeritus of Political Science, Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem; winner of the Israel Prize 

RABBINICS 

Menachem Friedman 

Ph.D.; Professor, Dept. of Sociology, Bar-Ilan University 

UNITED STATES 

Jonathan Sarna 

Ph.D.; Joseph H. and Belle R. Braun Professor of American Jewish 
History, Brandeis University 



DEPARTMENTAL EDITORS 

Samantha Baskind (U.S. Art) 

Ruth Beloff (U.S. General Culture) 

Hannah Brown (Israel Film) 

Yoel Cohen (Israel Media) 

Barry Davis (Israel Popular Music) 

Susan Hattis Rolef (Israel Political Life) 

Stewart Kampel (U.S. Business, Media, Theater) 

Mort Sheinman (U.S. Fashion) 

Tom Teicholz (U.S. Film) 

Annette Weber (German Art) 



ASSISTANT EDITORS 

Robert DelBane (U.S. Literature) 
Daryl Green (U.S. Literature) 
Susan Nashman Fraiman (Ritual Art) 
Jonathan S. Milgram (Talmud) 
Jeffrey Schooley (U.S. Literature) 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



35 



EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION STAFF (SECOND EDITION) 



STAFF 



Assistant Editor in Chief 
Fern Seckbach 

Macmillan Publishing Director 
Helene Potter 



Executive Data Control 
Leonardo Szichman 

Editorial Secretary 
Shoshana Lewis 

Translators 

Raphael Blumberg; Jonathan Chipman; 

Nathan Ginsbury; Penina Goldstein; Atar Hadari; Jill 

Harris; Simon M. Jackson; Dov Lapin; Edward Levin; 

David Louvish; Michelle Mazel; Michael Prawer; 

Peretz Rodman; Avinoam Sharon; Penina Tadmor; 

David Strauss; Shmuel Wozner; Amy Yourman 

copyediting and proofreading control and cross 

Referencing 

Fern Seckbach 

Macmillan Project Editors 
Jason M. Everett, Scot Peacock 

COPYEDITORS AND PROOFREADERS 

Alan D. Abbey; Judith Appleton; Shai Ben Ari; 
Sheira Cashman; Dahlia Friedman; Aviva Golbert; 
Rabbi Dr. Shmuel Himelstein; Esther Herskovics; 
Darlene Jospe; Ronna Katz; Naomi Lehrfeld; 
Esther Rosenfeld; Mark Elliott Shapiro; 
Nurit Tomkins; Shachar Yaari; Shirley Zauer 

American Manuscript Liaisons 
Mark Drouillard, Tosha Petronicolos 

Text Reviewers 

Randy Bassett; Patti Brecht; Thomas Carson; 

Justine Ciovacco; Monica M. Hubbard; 

Gina Misiroglu; Drew Silver; 

Kathy Wilson 

Illustrations Researchers 
Rachel Gilon, Fern Seckbach 

Color Inserts Permissions Manager 
Robyn V. Young 



Map Drawing 
Manipal Press, India 

Charts and Diagrams 
Judith Sternberg, Miri Revivo 

Manuscript Processing 

Raphael Freeman, Chaya Mendelson and Ricky Fleischer 

Layout Consultants 
Raphael Freeman, Tal Zeidani 

Electronic Preparation of the Original Manuscript 
n- Cyclop technology developed by VERY Ltd in Israel. 

Software and Entry Sorting 
Avi Burstein 

Typesetting 
Raphael Freeman 

Page Make-up 

Judith Sternberg, Diana Steigler 

Scanning 
Ami Green 

Index Coordinator 
Lynne Maday 

Indexing 

Factiva, a Dow Jones & Reuters Company 

Cover Design 

Pamela A.E. Galbreath, Brenda S. Grannan 

Color Inserts Coordinators 
Pamela A.E. Galbreath, Rachel J. Kain 

Color Inserts Design 
Kathy Krechnyak 

Color Inserts Imaging 
Randy Bassett, Lezlie Light 

Manufacturing Coordinator 
Wendy Blurton 



36 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION STAFF (FIRST EDITION) 



RESEARCH FOUNDATION 

Hon. CHAIRMAN, International Board 



HON. PRESIDENT 



HON. VICE PRESIDENTS 



PRESIDENT 



VICE PRESIDENTS 



TREASURER 



SECRETARY 



EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT 



EXECUTIVE SECRETARY 



Ambassador ARTHUR J. GOLDBERG 

Dr. NAHUM GOLDMANN 

SAMUEL BRONFMAN (deceased) 
JIM NOVY (deceased) 

Dr. JOSEPH J. SCHWARTZ 

Rabbi ISADORE BRESLAU 
ABRAHAM FEINBERG 
SAMUEL ROTHBERG 

WALTER ARTZT 

JOACHIM N. SIMON 

Dr. FREDERICK R. LACHMAN 

MARILYN R. SWIST 



EDITORIAL BOARD 



EDITORS IN CHIEF 



DEPUTY EDITORS IN CHIEF 



ASSOCIATE EDITORS 



CONSULTING EDITORS 



ILLUSTRATIONS CONSULTANT 



EXECUTIVE EDITORS 



Prof. CECIL ROTH, 1966-1970 
Dr. GEOFFREY WIGODER, 1971* 

Prof. RAPHAEL POSNER** 
Prof. LOUIS I. RABINOWITZ*** 

Dr. BINYAMIN ELIAV 
Mr. SIMHA KATZ, M.A. 

Prof. ISRAEL ABRAHAMS, Jerusalem 
Prof. SALO W. BARON, New York 
Prof. MOSHE DAVIS, Jerusalem 
Prof. MENAHEM HARAN, Jerusalem 
Prof. ARTHUR HERTZBERG, New York 
Prof. ANDRE NEHER, Strasbourg 
Prof. CHAIM M. RABIN, Jerusalem 
Dr. JACOB ROBINSON, New York 
Prof. GERSHOM SCHOLEM, Jerusalem 
Prof. CHONE SHMERUK, Jerusalem 
Prof. R.J. ZWI WERBLOWSKY, Jerusalem 

Dr. BEZALEL NARKISS, Jerusalem 

Dr. FREDERICK R. LACHMAN, New York 

Mr. ISRAEL SHAMAH, Jerusalem, Dec. 1965-May 1967 



Deputy Editor in Chief, 1966-June 1970: 
Acting Editor in Chief, June 1970-May 1971 
Associate Editor until 1970: 
Deputy Editor in Chief until May 1971 
*** Associate Editor until 1970 



** 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



37 



EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION STAFF (FIRST EDITION) 



DIVISIONAL AND DEPARTMENTAL EDITORS 



AMERICANA 

Divisional Editor 

Prof. Lloyd P. Gartner, New York 

Assistant Divisional Editor 
Hillel Halkin, Jerusalem 



BIBLE 

Divisional Editor 

Prof. Harold Louis Ginsberg, New York 

Associate Divisional Editor 

Prof. Shalom M. Paul, New York 

Departmental Editors 
The Ancient Near East (except Egypt) 
Prof. Pinhas Artzi, Ramat Gan 

Period of the Pentateuch, Desert, Joshua, and Judges 
Prof. Nahum M. Sarna, Waltham, Massachusetts 

Period of the Kingdom 

Prof. Hanoch Reviv, Jerusalem 

Period of the Second Temple 

Dr. Bezalel Porten, Jerusalem 

Biblical Books and Literature; Bible Scholars and Research 
Prof. Menahem Haran, Jerusalem 

Ideas and Religion 

Prof. Shalom M. Paul, New York 

Society and Law 

Prof. Moshe Greenberg, Jerusalem 

Realia 

Dr. Moshe Dothan, Jerusalem 



Arab and Oriental Countries 

Dr. Hayyim J. Cohen, Jerusalem 

East Europe 

Dr. Binyamin Eliav, Jerusalem 

Latin America 

Dr. Haim Avni, Jerusalem 



EREZ ISRAEL 

Departmental Editors 

Historical Geography 

Prof. Yohanan Aharoni, Tel Aviv 
Prof. Michael Avi-Yonah, Jerusalem 

Flora and Fauna 

Prof. Jehuda Feliks, Ramat Gan 

MODERN EREZ ISRAEL 

Divisional Editor 

Dr. Binyamin Eliav, Jerusalem 

Deputy Divisional Editor 
Misha Louvish, Jerusalem 

Departmental Editors 

Erez Israel from 1880 to 1948 

Dr. Moshe Avidor, Jerusalem 

The State of Israel 

Edwin, Viscount Samuel, Jerusalem 

Personalities in Modern Erez Israel 
Benjamin Jaffe, Jerusalem 

Places in Modern Erez Israel 
Efraim Orni, Jerusalem 



CANADA 

Departmental Editor 

Rabbi Dr. Stuart E. Rosenberg, Toronto 



CONTEMPORARY JEWRY 

Divisional Editor 

Dr. Chaim Yahil, Jerusalem 

Departmental Editors 

Demography 

Dr. Usiel O. Schmelz, Jerusalem 



HEBREW AND SEMITIC LANGUAGES 

Divisional Editor 

Prof. Zeev Ben-Hayyim, Jerusalem 

Assistant Divisional Editor 
Dr. Uzzi Oman, Jerusalem 



HISTORY 



Divisional Editors 



General topics: Central and Eastern Europe 
Prof. Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson, Jerusalem 



Places after the names of editors refer to their academic institutions, where appropriate. For further details see biographical notes in List of Contributors on pages 
45-176. 



38 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION STAFF (FIRST EDITION) 



Muslim Countries 

Prof. Ha'im Z'ew Hirschberg, Ramat Gan 

Western Europe and Central and East Asia 
Prof. Cecil Roth (deceased), Jerusalem 

Departmental Editors 

General articles on Jewish History 

Prof. Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson, Jerusalem 

Antisemitism 

Dr. Leon Poliakov (deceased), Massy, France 

Autonomy and Social Institutions 
Prof. Isaac Levitats, New York 

The Church and the Jews 

Dr. Bernhard Blumenkranz, Paris 

Economic History 

Prof. Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson, Jerusalem 

Hasidism 

Dr. Avraham Rubinstein, Ramat Gan 

Islam and Judaism 

Prof. Haim Z'ew Hirschberg, Ramat Gan 

The Karaites 

Dr. Leon Nemoy, Philadelphia 

The Jewish Labor Movement 

Dr. Mo she Mishkinsky, Tel Aviv 

Marranos 

Prof. Martin A. Cohen, New York 

Period 135-663 c.e. 

Prof. Alan R. Schulman, New York 

The Samaritans 

Ayala Loewenstamm, Jerusalem 

REGIONS 

Arabia 

Prof. Ha'im Z'ew Hirschberg, Ramat Gan 

Austria 

Meir Lamed (deceased), Kibbutz Nebt Mordekhai 

The Balkan States 

Dr. Simon Marcus, Jerusalem 

The Baltic States 

Dr. Yehuda Slutsky, Tel Aviv 

Bukovina 

Dr. Yehouda Marton, Jerusalem 

The Byzantine Empire 

Prof. Andrew Sharf, Ramat Gan 

China 

Dr. Rudolf Loewenthal, Los Angeles 



Czechoslovakia 

Meir Lamed (deceased), Kibbutz Nebt Mordekhai 
Dr. Oskar K. Rabinowicz (deceased), New York 

England 

Peter Elman, Jerusalem 

Erez Israel (640-1917) 

Prof. Ha'im Z'ew Hirschberg, Ramat Gan 

Western Europe (Modern France, Switzerland, Belgium, The 
Netherlands, Scandinavia) 

Dr. Baruch Mevorah, Jerusalem 

Medieval France 

Dr. Bernhard Blumenkranz, France 

Germany 

Prof. Ze'ev W. Falk, Jerusalem 

Hungary 

Prof. Alexander Scheiber, Budapest 

Hungary: Assistant Departmental Editor 
Dr. Baruch Yaron, Jerusalem 

India and Southeast Asia 

Prof. Walter J. Fischel, Santa Cruz, California 



Italy 



Dr. Attillio Milano (deceased), Hod Ha-Sharon, Israel 



Japan 

Prof. Hyman Kublin, New York 

Latin America (Colonial Period) 

Prof. Martin A. Cohen, New York 

The Maghreb 

David Corcos, Jerusalem 

Asian Regions of the Ottoman Empire (Iraq, Syria, and 
Turkey) 

Aryeh Shmuelevitz, Tel Aviv 

Persia and Afghanistan 

Prof. Walter J. Fischel, Santa Cruz, California 

Poland (until 1800) and Lithuania 

Prof. Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson, Jerusalem 

Poland (from 1800) 

Moshe Landau, Tel Aviv 

Portugal 

Prof. Martin A. Cohen, New York 

Romania 

Dr. Theodor Lavi, Jerusalem 

Russia 

Dr. Yehuda Slutsky, Tel Aviv 

South Africa 

Gustav Saron, Johannesburg 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



39 



EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION STAFF (FIRST EDITION) 



Moslem Spain 

Prof. Haim Z'ew Hirschberg, Ramat Gan 

Christian Spain 

Prof. Haim Beinart, Jerusalem 

Transylvania 

Dr. Yehouda Marton, Jerusalem 

Yemen 

Prof. Haim Z'ew Hirschberg, Ramat Gan 

Consulting Editor 

Economic History 

Dr. Nachum Gross, Jerusalem 



THE HOLOCAUST 

Divisional Editors 

Dr. Shaul Esh (deceased), Jerusalem 
Dr. Jozeph Michman, Jerusalem 



JEWISH LAW 

Divisional Editor 

Prof. Menachem Elon, Jerusalem 

Departmental Editors 

General Articles on Jewish Law; the Legal and Literary Sources 
of the Law; the Laws of Obligation; Public and Administrative 
Law; Conflict of Laws 

Prof. Menachem Elon, Jerusalem 

Criminal Law; the Laws of Procedure and Evidence 
Justice Haim H. Cohn, Jerusalem 

The Laws of Property; the Laws of Tort 
Prof. Shalom Albeck, Ramat Gan 

Family Law and Inheritance 

Justice Dr. Ben-Zion (Benno) Schereschewsky, Jeru- 
salem 

Translator, Jewish Law 

Julius Kopelowitz, Advocate, B.A., L.L.B. (Rand), 
Rishon le-Zion 



Folklore 

Dr. Dov Noy, Jerusalem 

Judaism, Liturgy 

Rabbi Dr. Raphael Posner, Jerusalem 

Consulting Editor 

Liturgy 

Meir Medan, Jerusalem 



LITERATURE 

MEDIEVAL LITERATURE 

Departmental Editors 

Medieval Hebrew Poetry 

Prof. Abraham M. Haberman, Tel Aviv 

Medieval Hebrew Prose 

Prof. Joseph Dan, Jerusalem 

Translations and Judeo-Arabic Literature 
Prof. Abraham S. Halkin, Jerusalem 

Christian Hebraists 

Raphael Loewe, London 

MODERN HEBREW LITERATURE 

Divisional Editor 

Prof. Ezra Spicehandler, Jerusalem 

Departmental Editor 

Prof. Avraham Holtz, New York 

Assistant Departmental Editor 

Modern Hebrew and Yiddish Literature 

Prof. Curt Leviant, New Brunswick, New Jersey 

RABBINICAL LITERATURE 

Divisional Editor 

Rabbbi Sir Israel Brodie, London 

Deputy Divisional Editor 

Dr. Yehoshua Horowitz, Ramat Gan 

Assistant Divisional Editor 
Dr. David Tamar, Jerusalem 



JUDAISM 

Divisional Editor 

Prof. R.J. Zwi Werblowsky, Jerusalem 

Departmental Editors 

Christianity 

Dr. Yona Malachy, Jerusalem 

Education 

Dr. Judah Pilch, New York 



MODERN JEWISH SCHOLARSHIP 

Divisional Editor 

Prof. Seymour Siegel, New York 

Associate Divisional Editor 

Dr. Menahem H. Schmelzer, New York 



PHILOSOPHY, JEWISH 

Divisional Editor 

Prof. Arthur Hyman, New York 



40 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION STAFF (FIRST EDITION) 



SECOND TEMPLE PERIOD 

Divisional Editor 

Prof. Abraham Schalit, Jerusalem 

DEPARTMENTAL EDITORS 

Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha 

Dr. Michael E. Stone, Jerusalem 

Dead Sea Scrolls 

Prof. Frederick F. Bruce, Manchester 

Hellenistic Literature 

Prof. Louis H. Feldman, New York 



TALMUD 

Divisional Editor 

Prof. Yitzhak Dov Gilat, Ramat Gan 

Departmental Editor 

Midrash and Aggadah 

Dr. Joseph Heinemann, Jerusalem 



ZIONISM 

Divisional Editor 

Getzel Kressel, Holon 



THE PARTICIPATION OF JEWS IN WORLD 
CULTURE 

Divisional Editor 

Israel Shamah, London 

ART 

Divisional Editor 

Dr. Alfred Werner, New York 

Departmental Editors 

Illuminated Manuscripts 

Dr. Bezalel Narkiss, Jerusalem 

Israel Art 

Yona Fischer, Jerusalem 

Numismatics 

Arie Kindler, Tel Aviv 

LITERATURE 

Departmental Editors 

Balkan Literature 

Prof. Zdenko Lowenthal, Belgrade 

Canadian Literature 

Prof. Miriam D. Waddington, Toronto 

Czechoslovak Literature 

Dr. Avigdor Dagan, Jeruslaem 



Dutch Literature 

Gerda Alster-Thau, Ramat Gan 

English Literature 

Prof. Harold Fisch, Ramat Gan 

French Literature 

Dr. Denise Goitein, Tel Aviv 

German Literature 

Prof. Sol Liptzin, Jerusalem 

Greek Literature 

Prof. Rachel Dalven, New York 

Hungarian Literature 

Dr. Baruch Yaron, Jerusalem 

Italian Literature 

Dr. Joseph B. Sermoneta, Jerusalem 

Ladino Literature and Jewish Dialects 
Prof. Mo she Lazar, Jerusalem 

Middle Eastern Literature 

Dr. Hayyim J. Cohen, Jerusalem 

Polish Literature 

Stanislaw Wygodzki, Givatayim, Israel 

Romanian Literature 

Abraham Feller, Tel Aviv 

Russian Literature 

Prof. Maurice Friedberg, Bloomington, Indiana 

Scandinavian Literature 

Dr. Leni Yahil, Jerusalem 

Spanish and Portuguese Literature 

Prof. Kenneth R. Scholberg, East Lansing, Michigan 

United States Literature 

Prof. Milton Hindus, Waltham, Massachusetts 

Consulting Editors 

Polish Literature 

Prof. Mo she Altbauer, Jerusalem 

Romanian Literature 

Dora Litani-Littman, Jerusalem 

MEDICINE 

Departmental Editor 

Prof. Suessmann Muntner, Jerusalem 

Consulting Editor 

Dr. Shabbetai Ginton, Jerusalem 

MUSIC 

Divisional Editors 

Dr. Israel Adler, Jerusalem 
Dr. Bathja Bayer, Jerusalem 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



41 



EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION STAFF (FIRST EDITION) 



Departmental Editor 

Music Illustrations 

Avigdor Herzog, Jerusalem 

THE SCIENCES 

Consulting Editor 

Dr. Harry Zvi Tabor, Jerusalem 

Departmental Editors 

Aeronautics, Astronautics, Aviation, Engineering, Invention 
Dr. Samuel A. Miller (deceased), London 

Astronomy, Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics, the History and 
Philosophy of Science 

Maurice Goldsmith, London 

Biology, Botany, Zoology 

Prof. Mordecai L. Gabriel, New York 

Geology 

Prof. Leo Picard, Jerusalem 

Meteorology 

Prof. Dov Ashbel, Jerusalem 

OTHER DISCIPLINES 

Anthropology 

Prof. Ephraim Fischoff, Eau Claire, Wisconsin 

Archaeology 

Dr. Penuel P. Kahane, Jerusalem 

Bridge and Chess 

Gerald Abrahams, Liverpool 

Criminology 

Dr. Zvi Hermon, Tel Aviv 

Dance 

Dr. Selma J. Cohen, New York 

Economics 

Dr. Joachim O. Ronall, New York 

Education 

Prof. William W. Brickman, Philadelphia 

Geography 

Prof. Mo she B rawer, Tel Aviv 



Historiography 

Prof. Oscar I. Janowsky, New York 

Journalism 

Kalman Seigel, New York 

Law and Politics 

Peter Elman, Jerusalem 

Law and Socialism in the United States 

Prof. Milton R. Konvitz, Ithaca, New York 

Linguistics 

Prof. Herbert H. Paper, Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Military Service 

Lt. Col. (Res.) Mordechai M. Kaplan, Tel Aviv 

Jewish Newspapers and Periodicals 
Joseph Fraenkel, London 

Philosophy 

Prof. Richard H. Popkin, San Diego, California 

Photography 

Peter Pollack, New York 

Psychiatry 

Dr. Louis Miller, Jerusalem 

Psychology 

Prof. Helmut Adler, New York 

Public Relations 

Bernard Postal, New York 

Printing and Publishing 

John M. Shaftesley, London 

Social Welfare 

Dr. Joseph Neipris, Jerusalem 

Socialism and the Labor Movement 
Dr. S. Levenberg, London 

Sociology 

Prof. Werner J. Cahnman, Newark, New Jersey 

Sports 

Jesse Silver, Surfside, Florida 

Theatre and Film 

Stewart Kampel, New York 
Stephen Klaidman, Washington D.C. 



42 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



STAFF 



EDITORIAL AND PRODUCTION STAFF (FIRST EDITION) 



MANAGEMENT 

Administrative Manager 
Rachel Sabbath 

Production Planning 
Moshe Shalvi, B.A. 

Assistant 

Walter Zanger, M.A. 



EDITORIAL STAFF 

Assistant Editors 

Rabbi Morton Mayer Berman, M.H.L. 

Rabbi Alexander Carlebach, D.en.D. 

Staff Editors 

Emanuel Beeri, MA. 

Joan Com ay 

Arthur Cygielman 

Rabbi Michael J. Graetz, M.H.L 

Prof. Judith Rosenthal, Ph.D. 

Moshe Rosetti 

Rabbi Aaron Rothkoff, D.H.L. 

Alexander Shapiro, Ph.D. 

Godfrey Edmond Silverman, M.A. 

Michael Simon, Ph.D. 

Lewis Sowden, M.A 

Research Editor (History and Illustrations) 
B. Mordecai Ansbacher, M.A 

Revising Editor 
Dereck Orlans 

Writers 

Laurentino Jose Alfonso, B.D.; Essa Cindorf, B.A.; Stuart 
Cohen M.A.; Jonathan Covan, LL.M.; Abraham David, M.A. 
David Goldberg, B.A.; Edward L. Greenstein, B.A., B.H.L. 
Yuval Kamrat; Joseph Kaplan, M.A.; Sinai Leichter M.A. 



Avital Levy B.A.; Mervyn Lewis M.A.; Aaron Lichentstein, 
Ph.D.; Ester (Zweig) Liebes, B.A.; David Maisel, M.A.; Rabbi 
Sefton D. Temkin, Ph.D.; Nechama Unterman, M.A.; Henry 
Wasserman, B.A.; Adela Wolfe, M.A.; Rabbi Meir Ydit, Ph.D; 
Moshe Zeidner, B.A. 

Stylists 

Yehuda Ben-Dror (James Marshall), B.A.; Ruth Connell 
Robertson, LL.B.; Ina Friedman, M.A.; Reva Garmise, B.A.; 
Yvonne Glikson, B.A.; Avie Goldberg, B.A.; Manya Keller; Ju- 
dith Krausz, B.A.; Sandra Litt Hai, B.A.; Penina Mellick; Moira 
Paterson, B.A.; Dip. Ed.; Jack Rosenthal, M.A.; Judith Shalow- 
itz, M.A.; Alice Shalvi, Ph.D.; Claire Sotnick, B.A. 

Translators 

Josephine Bacon; Rabbi Chaim Brovender, Ph.D.; Rivkah 

Duker, M.A.; Priscilla Fishman; Rabbi David Goldstein, 

Ph.D.; Rabbi Barnet David Klien, M.A.; Rabbi Israel Han- 

naniah Levine, Ph.D.; Yael Lotan-Hairston; Anita Matza, 

M.A.; Fern Seckbach, B.A.; Rabbi Kalman Szulewicz; Leontine 

Williams 

Bibliographers and Checkers 
Shelomo Shunami, Chief Bibliographer (1967-69) 
Dina Bachrach, B.A.; Martha Baraz, M.A.; Ruth Berger; Kath- 
erine Bloom, B.A.; Rabbi Judah Brumer; Claire Dienstag, 
M.A.; Daniel Efron, M.A.; Michael J. Frenkel, M.A., Dip. Lib.; 
Gideon Fuks, B.A.; Daniel Furman; Henri Guttel, B.A.; Abra- 
ham Herman; Eva Herman; Giza Kamrat; Eva Kondor; Sim- 
cha Kruger, B.S.; Benjamin Lubelski, B.A., Dip. Lib.; Samuel S. 
Matza, Mag. Jur, M.A.; Mirjam Mundsztuk; David M.L. Ol- 
ivestone, B.A.; Miriam Prager; Benjamin Richler; Betty-Lou 
Rosen, M.A.; Janet (Zander) Shvili; Rabbi Andrew Silberfeld, 
Ph.D.; Rita Sirota, B.A.; Sophie Winston, M.L.S.; Michael 
Yaakobi, Dr. jur, Dipl. sc.pol. 

Transliterators 

Hanna Avituv, B.A.; Amikam Cohen B.A.; Uri Davis, B.A.; 

Leah (Rosen) Teichthal, B.A. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



43 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



The following List of Contributors includes contributors to the first and second editions of the Encyclopaedia and all entries 
entirely or partially written by them. Contributors to the second edition are noted with an asterisk (*). Information about 
writers applies to the time of submission of the entry. In cases where a writer contributed to both editions the later infor- 
mation is given along with an asterisk. Writers with no entries opposite their names contributed to unsigned entries. 



Mahmoud Abassi, B.A.; Writer, 
Shefaram, Israel: Israel, state of: 

ARAB POPULATION 

Isaac Abraham Abbady, Journalist, 

Jerusalem: auster, daniel 

Alan D. Abbey*, M.S.; Journalist, 
Businessman, Jerusalem: merchant, 

LARRY; MICHAELS, ALAN RICHARD; ROSE, 
MAURICE; ROSENBLOOM, CARROLL; 
ROTHSTEIN, ARNOLD; SEDAKA, NEIL; 
SIMON, CARLY ELISABETH; SIMON, PAUL 
FREDERIC; SPECTOR, PHIL 

Irving Abella*, B.A., M.A., Ph.D.; 
Shiff Professor of Canadian Jewish 
History, York University, Toronto, 
Canada: Canadian Jewish congress; 

GERSHMAN, JOE; HAYES, SAUL 

Moses Aberbach, Ph.D.; Baltimore 
Hebrew College, Maryland: eldad 

AND MEDAD; ELIJAH; EZEKIEL; GOLDEN 
CALF; HOVAH; JACOB; JOSEPH; JUDAH 
IV; JUDITH; KETI'A BAR SHALOM; MAR 
BAR RAVINA; NEBUCHADNEZZAR; 
NICARAGUA; PAPI; PHARAOH; SHEM; 
SIMEON; YESHEVAV THE SCRIBE; YOSE 
BEN AKAVYAH 

Abraham Abraham, Rabbi; 
Jerusalem 

Gerald Abrahams, M.A.; Barrister 
at Law, Liverpool: boleslavski, 

ISAAC; BRONSTEIN, DAVID; CARDS 
AND CARDPLAYING; CHESS; CZERNIAK, 
MOSHE; FINE, REUBEN; FLOHR, SALO; 
GOREN, CHARLES HENRY; HOROWITZ, 
ISRAEL ALBERT; LASKER, EMANUEL; 
NAJDORF, MIGUEL; NIMZOVITCH, AARON; 
RESHEVSKY, SAMUEL HERMAN; RETI, 
RICHARD; RUBINSTEIN, AKIVA; STEINITZ, 
WILHELM; TAL, MIKHAIL; TARRASCH, 
SIEGBERT 

Israel Abrahams, M.A., Rabbi, 
Emeritus Professor of Hebrew, the 
University of Cape Town; Former 
Chief Rabbi of Cape Province, 
South Africa; Jerusalem: belief; 



CASSUTO, UMBERTO; GOD; MAN, THE 
NATURE OF; MOSES; NUMBERS, TYPICAL 
AND IMPORTANT; PRAYER; TABERNACLE; 
WORD; WORSHIP 

Shlomo Zalman Abramov, 

Lawyer, former Member of Knesset, 
chairman of the Editorial Board of 

the New Zionist Encyclopaedia 

Stanley Abramovitch, M.A.; 
Director of the Education 
Department, American Joint 
Distribution Committee, Geneva: 

EDUCATION, JEWISH 

Daniel Abrams* , Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer, Philosophy, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: asher ben 

DAVID; BAHIR, SEFER HA-; MOPSIK, 
CHARLES 

Jeanne E. Abrams*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor at Penrose 
Library, University of Denver, and 
Director of the Rocky Mountain 
Jewish Historical Society and Beck 
Archives, University of Denver, 
Colorado: Colorado-, Jacobs, 

FRANCES WISEBART; NATIONAL JEWISH 
CENTER FOR IMMUNOLOGY AND 
RESPIRATORY MEDICINE 

Samuel Abramsky, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Jewish History and in 
Bible, the University of the Negev, 
Beersheba: amalekites; bar kokhba; 

BREAD; ISSACHAR; JERUSALEM; LEVI; 
MEDES AND MEDIA; MEPHIBOSHETH; 
MICAIAH; MICHAL; MIDIAN, MIDIANITES; 
NATHAN; RECHABITES; SOLOMON; 
WILDERNESS 

Claude Abravanel, Lecturer, 
the Rubin Academy of Music, 
Jerusalem: alkan, charles henri- 

VALENTIN; BONAVENTURA, ENZO 
JOSEPH; CASTELNUOVO-TEDESCO, 
MARIO; GOODMAN, BENNY; HELLER, 
STEPHEN; JUDAH BEN ISAAC; 
KREIN, ALEXANDER ABRAMOVICH; 
LANDOWSKA, WANDA; MONTEUX, 



PIERRE; MOSCHELES, IGNAZ; PEERCE, JAN; 
TANSMAN, ALEXANDER; TOCH, ERNST; 
VOGEL.WLADIMIR 

Butrus Abu-Manneh*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor, University of 
Haifa: abdul mejid i; selim i; selim ii 

Annalucia Accardo*, Laurea; 
Associate Professor, University of 
Rome "La Sapienza", Italy: paley, 

GRACE 

Joseph Adar, M.Sc; Israel Atomic 
Energy Commission, Ramat Gan 

Abraham Addleson, Attorney; 
Former Mayor of East London, 
South Africa: east London 

Howard Tzvi Adelman*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor, Rothberg 
School, Hebrew University, 
Jerusalem; Hebrew College: 

ABRABANEL, BENVENIDA; ASCARELLI, 
DEVORA; MODENA, FIORETTA; MODENA, 
LEON; MORPURGO, RACHEL LUZZATTO; 
SHEHITAH 

• 

Howard L. Adelson, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Medieval History, City 
College of the City University of 
New York: bloch, gustave; cohen, 

GUSTAVE; DAVIDSOHN, ROBERT; GROSS, 
CHARLES; JANOWSKY, OSCAR ISAIAH; 
LOPEZ, ROBERT SABATINO; SIMSON, 
BERNHARD VON 

Zvi Adiv, M.A.; Assistant in History, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem 
and Tel Aviv University: disraeli, 

BENJAMIN, EARL OF BEACONSFIELD 

Eliyana R. Adler*, Ph.D.; Fellow 
and Lecturer, University of 
Maryland: Berlin, rayna batya ; 

PROSTITUTION 

H.G. Adler, Ph.D.; Historian, 
London 

Helmut E. Adler, Ph.D.; Professor 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



45 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



of Psychology, Yeshiva University, 
New York: buhler, charlotte; 

GINOTT, HAIM G.; HEYMANS, GERARDUS 
R; LEHRMAN, DANIEL S.; MUENSTERBERG, 
HUGO; MYERS, CHARLES SAMUEL; 
PSYCHOLOGY; RAZRAN, GREGORY; RUBIN, 
EDGAR; SELZ, OTTO; STERN, WILLIAM 

Israel Adler, Dr. du 3e cycle; 
Director of the Center for Research 
in Jewish Music, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: arpa, 

ABRAMO DALL'; BOLAFFI, MICHELE; 
CACERES, ABRAHAM; CANTATAS AND 
CHORAL WORKS, HEBREW; CIVITA, DAVIT; 
OBADIAH, THE NORMAN PROSELYTE; 
ORGAN; PADDAN-ARAM 

Saul Aaron Adler, D.T.M., ER.C.R, 
F.R.S.; Professor of Parasitology, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

GRUBY, DAVID 

Selig Adler, Ph.D.; Professor 
of American History, the State 
University of New York, Buffalo: 

ROOSEVELT, THEODORE; WILSON, 
WOODROW 

Shalom Adler-Rudel, Director of 
the Leo Baeck Institute, Jerusalem: 

BERMUDA CONFERENCE; COUNCIL 
OF JEWS FROM GERMANY; REFUGEES; 
SALOMON, ALICE; WUNDERLICH, FRIEDA 

Evelyn Adunka*, Dr. Phil.; 
Historian, Vienna, Austria: Austria; 

EHRLICH, JACOB; KREISKY, BRUNO; 
NATIONALRAT; SCHOENERER, GEORG 
VON; SCHUTZBUND, REPUBLIKANISCHER; 
VIENNA; VOLKSPARTEI, JUEDISCHE 

Laurentino Jose Afonso, 

B.D.; Jerusalem: nabonidus; 

NETHERWORLD; PROSTITUTION 

Irving A. Agus, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Jewish History, Yeshiva 
University, New York: avigdor ben 

ELIJAH HA-KOHEN; MEIR BEN BARUCH OF 
ROTHENBURG 

Jacob Bernard Agus, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Adjunct Professor of Modern Jewish 
Philosophy, Dropsie University; 
Professor of Rabbinic Judaism, 
the Reconstructionist Rabbinical 
College, Philadelphia: good and evil 

Abraham Aharoni, Journalist, Tel 

Aviv: BARATZ, JOSEPH; BAR-YEHUDAH, 
ISRAEL; BEJERANO; BEN-YEHUDAH, 
BARUKH; BOGER, HAYYIM; BOGHEN, 
FELICE; CHIZHIK; DAYYAN; HARARI, 



HAYYIM; ISRAELI, BENZION; KRINITZI, 
AVRAHAM; LEVI, SHABBETAI; METMAN- 
COHEN, YEHUDAH LEIB; MEYUHAS, 
YOSEF BARAN; MOHILEWER, SAMUEL; 
MOSSINSON, BENZION; NISSAN, 
AVRAHAM; SHAREF, ZE'EV; SHENKAR, 
ARIE; SUKENIK, ELIEZER LIPA; SUPRASKY, 
YEHOSHUA; TABIB, AVRAHAM; ZISLING, 
AHARON 

Yohanan Aharoni, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Archaeology and of the Historical 
Geography of Palestine, Tel 
Aviv University: ahlab-, almon- 

DIBLATHAIM; ANAHARATH; ARAD; BAAL- 
GAD; BESOR, BROOK OF; BET-CHEREM; 
BET-SHEMESH; CALEB, CALEBITES; 
CHINNERETH, CHINNEROTH; DIBON; 
GEBA; GILEAD; JABIN; JOSHUA; JOSHUA, 
BOOK OF; KADESH; KENITE; MADON; 
NABAL 

Abba Ahimeir, Ph.D.; Journalist 
and Writer, Tel Aviv: antokolski, 

MARK; BATUMI; BRUTZKUS, JULIUS; 
DERZHAVIN, GABRIEL ROMANOVICH; 
DIMANSTEIN, SIMON; GUENZBURG, 
MORDECAI AARON 

Ora Ahimeir*, Director General, 
The Jerusalem Institute for Israel 
Studies, Jerusalem: Jerusalem 

INSTITUTE FOR ISRAEL STUDIES 

Shmuel Ahituv, M.A.; Staff, Biblical 
Encyclopedia, Jerusalem: azazel-, 

DIVINATION 

Reuben Ainsztein, Writer and 
journalist, London 

Edna Aizenberg, Ph.D.; Instructor 
in Spanish Literature, Maritime 
College, New York: Spanish and 

PORTUGUESE LITERATURE 

Golda Akhiezer*, M.A.; Doctoral 
Student of Jewish History; 
Researcher at the Ben-Zvi Institute 
and Teacher in the Rothberg School 
for Overseas Students, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: Abraham 

BEN JOSIAH TROKI; ABRAHAM BEN 
JOSIAH YERUSHALMI; AGA; AZARIAH 
BEN ELIYAH; BABOVICH, SIMHAH 
BEN SOLOMON BEN NAHAMU; BEIM, 
SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM; BENJAMIN 
BEN ELIJAH DUWAN; EZRA BEN NISAN; 
ISAAC BEN SOLOMON; KALT, SAMUEL 
BEN JOSEPH; KALFA ISAAK BEN JOSEPH; 
LABANOVICH; LEONOWICZ; LUZKI, 
SIMHAH ISAAC BEN MOSES; MOSES BEN 
ELIJAH HA-LEVI; MOSES BEN ELIJAH 
PASHA; PIGIT, SAMUEL BEN SHEMARIA; 



SALMON BEN JEROHAM; SHAPSHAL 
SERAYA BEN MORDECHAI; SOLOMON 
BEN AARON; SULTANSKY, MORDECAI 
BEN JOSEPH; ZEFANIA BEN MORDECHAI; 
ZERAH BEN NATHAN OF TROKI 

Shalom Albeck, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Talmud and Law, 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

ACQUISITION; ASSIGNMENT; AVOT 
NEZIKIN; DAMAGES; GERAMA AND 
GARME; GIFT; HEFKER; LIABILITY; LOST 
PROPERTY; MARITIME LAW; MAZRANUT; 
MISTAKE; NUISANCE; OWNERSHIP; 
PROPERTY; SALE; SERVITUDES; THEFT 
AND ROBBERY; TORTS; YE'USH 

William Foxwell Albright, Ph.D.; 
Emeritus Professor of Near Eastern 
Studies, Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, Maryland 

David Alcalay, Jerusalem: vajs, 

ALBERT 

Ora Alcalay, B.A., Dip.Lib.; Director 
of the Library of Yad Vashem, 
Jerusalem: belev, Alexander 

Harry J. Alderman, B.A., B.S.; 
the American Jewish Committee, 
New York: Goldstein, fanny; 

SCHNEIDERMAN, HARRY 

Gabriel Eitan Alexander*, Ph.D.; 
Head of Keren Kayemeth Lelsrael 
(JNF), History Research Institute for 
Zionism and Settlement, Jerusalem: 

WEISER-VARON, BENNO 

Itzhak Alfassi, General Secretary, 
B nai B 'rith, Tel Aviv: arollia, 

ISAAC BEN MOSES; ARYEH LEIB OF 
OZAROW; BAMBERG, SAMUEL BEN 
BARUCH; BARBY, MEIR BEN SAUL; 
BARDAKI, ISAIAH BEN ISSACHAR BER; 
BASCHKO, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN BENJAMIN; 
BEJERANO, BEKHOR HAYYIM BEN 
MOSES; BELZ; BENGIS, SELIG REUBEN; 
BERLIN, ISAIAH BEN JUDAH LOEB; 
BERNSTEIN, ARYEH LEIB; BERNSTEIN, 
ISSACHAR BERUSH BEN ARYEH LOEB; 
BEZALEL BEN MOSES HA-KOHEN; BLOCH, 
JOSEPH LEIB; BOSKOWITZ, HAYYIM BEN 
JACOB; BROIDA, SIMHAH ZISSEL BEN 
ISRAEL; CARO, JOSEPH HAYYIM BEN 
ISAAC; CHELM, SOLOMON BEN MOSES; 
CIECHANOW, ABRAHAM BEN RAPHAEL 
LANDAU OF; CORONEL, NAHMAN 
NATHAN; DEUTSCH, ELIEZER HAYYIM 
BEN ABRAHAM; EGER, SIMHAH BUNIM 
BEN MOSES; EISENSTADTER, MEIR BEN 
JUDAH LEIB; ENGEL, JOSEPH BEN JUDAH; 
EPHRATI, DAVID TEVELE BEN ABRAHAM; 



4 6 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



ETTINGER, MORDECAI ZE'EV BEN ISAAC 
AARON SEGAL; EULENBURG, ISAAC 
BEN ABRAHAM MOSES ISRAEL; FINKEL, 
NATHAN ZEVI BEN MOSES; GEDALIAH, 
JUDAH BEN MOSES; GESUNDHEIT, 
JACOB BEN ISAAC; GRUNWALD, AMRAM; 
HASIDISM; HAYYOT, MENAHEM MANISH 
BEN ISAAC; HOROWITZ, ISAAC HA-LEVI 
BEN JACOB JOKEL; ISRAEL, STATE OF: 
ALIYAH; JACOB BEN AARON OF KARLIN; 
JACOB BEN EPHRAIM NAPHTALI HIRSCH 
OF LUBLIN; JENER, ABRAHAM NAPHTALI 
HIRSCH BEN MORDECAI; JERUSALIMSKI, 
MOSES NAHUM BEN BENJAMIN; JUDAH 
BEN MOSES OF LUBLIN; KAHANA, JACOB 
BEN ABRAHAM; KAHANOV, MOSES 
NEHEMIAH; KALLIR, ELEAZAR BEN 
ELEAZAR; KARFUNKEL, AARON BEN 
JUDAH LEIB HA-KOHEN; KATZ, REUVEN; 
KLAUSNER, ZEVI HIRSCH; KLEIN, SAMUEL 
SHMELKA; KRENGEL, MENAHEM MENDEL; 
KRISTIANPOLLER; LANDAU, ELEAZAR 
BEN ISRAEL; LANDAU, ISRAEL JONAH BEN 
JOSEPH HA-LEVI; LERNER, MAYER BEN 
MORDECAI OF ALTONA; LEWIN, AARON 
BEN NATHAN OF RZESZOW; LIBSCHITZ, 
BARUCH MORDECAI BEN JACOB; LIPKIN, 
ISRAEL BEN ZE'EV WOLF; LIPSCHUETZ, 
HILLEL ARYEH LEIB BEN ZE'EV DOV; 
LIPSCHUTZ, SOLOMON BEN MORDECAI; 
MARGOLIOTH, EPHRAIM ZALMAN BEN 
MENAHEM MANNES; MARLI, SAMUEL 
BEN MAZLI'AH; MEISELS, DOV BERUSH; 
MICHAELSON, EZEKIEL ZEVI BEN 
ABRAHAM HAYYIM; MUSSAFIA, 
BENJAMIN BEN IMMANUEL; 
NIEMIROWER, JACOB ISAAC; ORNSTEIN, 
MORDECAI ZE'EV BEN MOSES; PLOTZKI, 
MEIR DAN OF OSTROVA; POSNER, 
SOLOMON ZALMAN BEN JOSEPH; 
RABINOWITZ-TEOMIM, ELIJAH DAVID 
BEN BENJAMIN; REICH, KOPPEL; RIVKES, 
MOSES BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH; ROSANES, 
ZEVI HIRSCH BEN ISSACHAR BERISH; 
ROSEN, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC; SAFRAN, 
BEZALEL ZE'EV; SALANT, JOSEPH SUNDEL 
BEN BENJAMIN BENISH; SCHICK, 
ABRAHAM BEN ARYEH LOEB; SCHIFF, 
MEIR BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN; SCHMELKES, 
GEDALIAH BEN MORDECAI; SCHOR, 
ALEXANDER SENDER BEN EPHRAIM 
ZALMAN; SCHOR, EPHRAIM SOLOMON 
BEN NAPHTALI HIRSCH; SHAPIRA, ELIJAH 
BEN BENJAMIN WOLF; SOFER, HAYYIM 
BEN MORDECAI EPHRAIM FISCHEL; 
TAUBES, AARON MOSES BEN JACOB; 
TEOMIM, ARYEH LEIB; TEOMIM, JOSEPH 
BEN MEIR; WEINGARTEN, JOAB JOSHUA; 
WESEL, BARUCH BENDET BEN REUBEN; 
YOSEF, OVADIAH; ZIRELSON, JUDAH LEIB; 
ZUENZ, ARYEH LEIB BEN MOSES 

David Algaze, M.H.L., Rabbi; New 

York: Guatemala 



Uri Algom, Military Historian, 
former Chief Historian of the Israel 
Army 

Moshe Allon, Jerusalem: Israel, 

STATE OF: LABOR; SOLEL BONEH 

Yigal Allon, Major General (Res.), 
Israel Defense Forces; Deputy Prime 
Minister and Minister of Education 
and Culture, Kibbutz Ginnosar: 

PALMAH; SADEH, YIZHAK 

Nehemya Allony, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Hebrew Language and 
Literature, the University of the 
Negev, Beersheba: hayyuj, judah ben 

DAVID 

Dan Almagor, Ph.D.; Writer, Haifa: 

BERDYCZEWSKI, MICHA JOSEF; SOMMO, 
JUDAH LEONE BEN ISAAC 

Shlomo Alon*, M.A.; Senior 
Lecturer, School of Education, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

DHIMMA, DHIMMI 

Yehoshua Alouf, Supervisor of 
Physical Education, Ministry of 
Education and Culture, Ramat Gan: 

A.S.A.; HAPOEL; MACCABI; MACCABI 
WORLD UNION; SPORTS 

Sara Alpern*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor, Texas A. & M. University, 
Texas: albert, mildred Elizabeth 

LEVINE; CARNEGIE, HATTIE; HANDLER, 
RUTH MOSKO; LAUDER, ESTEE MENTZER; 
LEIBER, JUDITH MARIA; MALSIN, LANE 
BRYANT; MARGARETEN, REGINA; PARNIS, 
MOLLIE; POLYKOFF, SHIRLEY; ROSENBERG, 
ANNA MARIE LEDERER; ROSENTHAL, IDA 

Carl Alpert, Executive Vice 
Chairman of the Board of 
Governors, the Technion, Haifa: 

REINER, MARKUS 

Rebecca Alpert*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Religion and Women's 
Studies, Temple University, 
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 

LESBIANISM; NEWMAN, PAULINE 

Paul Awraham Alsberg, Ph.D.; 
Israel State Archivist; Lecturer in 

Archival Management, Graduate 
Library School, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: archives 

Gerda Alster-Thau, M.A.; Lecturer 
in Hebrew and World Literature, 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 



DUTCH LITERATURE; LOGGEM, MANUEL 
VAN; MULISCH, HARRY; VROMAN, LEO 

Moshe Altbauer, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Slavic Linguistics and 
of Russian Studies, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: biegeleisen, 

HENRYK; BRANDSTAETTER, ROMAN; 
FELDMAN, WILHELM; KLACZKO, JULIAN; 
PUBLISHING; SLONIMSKI, ANTONI 

Harry Alter, Editor, Youngstown, 

Ohio: YOUNGSTOWN 

Avraham Altman, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Japanese Studies, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem 

Alexander Altmann, Ph.D., 
D.H.L., Rabbi; Professor of Jewish 
Philosophy, Brandeis University, 
Waltham, Massachusetts: 

ANGELS AND ANGELOLOGY; 
ARISTOTLE; ASTROLOGY; BEATITUDE; 
COMMANDMENTS, REASONS FOR; GOD; 
ISRAELI, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON; MOSES 
BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI; PROVIDENCE; 
ZADDIK, JOSEPH BEN JACOB IBN 

Mordechai Altschuler, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor, Institute for 
Contemporary Jewry, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: Russia 

Hadas Altwarg, Researcher, 
Institute of Jewish Affairs, London: 

ANTISEMITISM 

Helen Aminoff*, B.A.; Historian, 
Beth Israel Congregation; Past- 
President of Hadassah, Ann Arbor, 

Michigan: ANN arbor 

Aharon Amir, Writer and Editor, 
Tel Aviv 

Amihood Amir*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Computer Science, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: computer 

SCIENCE 

Shimeon Amir, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in the Department of 
Developing Countries, Tel Aviv 
University; Deputy Director 
General, Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs, Jerusalem: Portugal 

Yehoshua Amir (Neumark), 

Dr.Phil., Rabbi; Senior Lecturer 
in Jewish Philosophy, Tel Aviv 
University: maccabees, fourth 

BOOK OF; MACCABEES, THIRD BOOK 
OF; OSIANDER, ANDREAS; SIBYL AND 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



47 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



SIBYLLINE ORACLES; SIMON, AKIBA 
ERNST 

Yehoyada Amir*, Professor, 
Director, Israel Rabbinic Program, 
Hebrew Union College, Jerusalem: 

ASCHER, SAUL; BAECK, LEO; BERGMAN, 
SAMUEL HUGO; BREUER, ISAAC; COHEN, 
HERMANN; CREATION AND COSMOGONY; 
GANS, EDUARD; GUTTMANN, JACOB; 
GUTTMANN, JULIUS; HIRSCH, SAMSON 
RAPHAEL; PHILO JUDAEUS; SCHWEID, 
ELIEZER 

Ziva Amishai-Maisels*, B.A., M.A., 
Ph.D.; Professor of Art History, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ART: INFLUENCED BY THE HOLOCAUST; 
ART: MODERN JEWISH ART; BARASCH, 
MOSHE 

Jacob Amit, Editor, Tel Aviv: yaari, 

MEIR 

Reuven Amitai*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor, Institute of African 
Studies, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: ayalon, david; mamluks; 

MONGOLS; SELJUKS 

Shimshon Avraham Amitsur, 

Ph.D.; Professor of Mathematics, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

LEVITSKY, JACOB 

Moses Bensabat Amzalak, Ph.D.; 
Honorary Rector and Professor of 
the Technical University of Lisbon; 
Former President of the Academy of 
Sciences of Lisbon: benarus, adolfo; 

BENOLIEL, JOSEPH 

Jean Ancel*, Ph.D.; Independent 
Historian, Yad Vashem, 
Jerusalem: ataki; belgorod- 

DNESTROVSKI; BELTSY; BENDERY; 
BRICEVA; BRICHANY; DOMBROVENI; 
FALESHTY; KALARASH; KAUSHANY; 
KHOTIN; KISHINEV; KOTOVSKOYE; 
LEOVO; LIPKANY; NOVOSELITSA; 
ORGEYEV; SEKIRYANY; YEDINTSY; 
ZGURITSA 

Pierre Anctil*, Ph.D.; Director, 
Institute of Canadian Studies, 
University of Ottawa, Canada: 

BELKIN, SIMON; BOSCO, MONIQUE; 
CANADIAN LITERATURE; WISEMAN, 
SHLOIME 

Marc D. Angel*, B.A., B.S., Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Congregation Shearith Israel, 
New York: union of sephardic 

CONGREGATIONS, THE 



Charles Angoff, B.A.; Professor 
of English, Fairleigh Dickinson 
University, Rutherford, New Jersey: 

NATHAN, GEORGE JEAN 

B. Mordechai Ansbacher, M.A.; 
Historian, Jerusalem: arndt, 

ADOLF; ARNHEIM, FISCHEL; BADGE, 
JEWISH; BEHREND, JACOB FRIEDRICH; 
BOOKS; BUCER, MARTIN; COINS AND 
CURRENCY; ELLSTAETTER, MORITZ; 
FRANKENBURGER, WOLF; JUEDISCHER 
KULTURBUND; KANTOROWICZ, 
HERMANN; KEMPNER, ROBERT MAX 
WASILII; LABAND, PAUL; LUBETKIN, 
ZIVIA; LUTHER, MARTIN; MALINES; 
REUTLINGEN; SHUM; SPEYER; 
TRIER; WALLICH; WIENER GESERA; 
WITTENBERG, YIZHAK; ZUCKERMAN, 
ITZHAK 

Heinz L. Ansbacher, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Psychology, the 
University of Vermont, Burlington, 
Vermont: adler, Alfred 

Joyce Antler*, Ph.D.; Samuel Lane 
Professor of American Jewish 
History and Culture, Brandeis 
University, Waltham, Massachusetts: 

ABZUG, BELLA SAVITZKY; LERNER, GERDA 
KRONSTEIN 

J. Aouizerate-Levin*, M.A.; 
Student, Musicology, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: shlonsky, 

VERDINA 

John J. Appel, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of American Studies, the 
James Madison College of Michigan 
State University, East Lansing: 

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE CHURCH 

James L. Apple, Th.D., Rabbi; Great 
Lakes, Illinois 

Raymond Apple, B.A., LL.B., Rabbi; 

London: marriage 

Shimon Applebaum, D.Phil.; 
Associate Professor of Classical 
Archaeology and of Jewish History, 
Tel Aviv University: decapolis; 

HEROD I; LIBYA 

Miriam Arad, Literary Critic, 

Jerusalem: ben-amotz, dahn 

Shimshon Arad, Israel Diplomat, 
Jerusalem: white, Theodore h. 

Yitzchak Arad, Librarian and 

Teacher, Jerusalem: chajes, isaac 



BEN ABRAHAM; KIRSCHBRAUN, ELIJAH; 
MAZUR, ELIYAHU; PERLMUTTER, 
ABRAHAM ZEVI 

• 

Mordechai Arbell*, M.A.; 
Former Israel Ambassador to 
the Caribbean; Ben Zvi Institute, 
Jerusalem: Barbados; caribbeans, 

SPANISH-PORTUGUESE NATION OF THE: 
LA NACION; COLOMBIA; CURAgAO; 
DELVALLE LEVI MADURO, ERIC ARTURO; 
DELVALLE, MAX SHALOM; DOMINICAN 
REPUBLIC; GUIANA; HAITI; MADURO, 
RICARDO; PANAMA; SURINAME; 
TUCACAS; VALONA 

Archiv Bibliographia Judaica 
Staff, Johann Wolfgang Goethe- 
Universitat, Frankfurt, Germany: 

ISAACSOHN, SIEGFRIED; KELLNER, 
LEON; KOMPERT, LEOPOLD; KOREFF, 
DAVID FERDINAND; KRACAUER, ISIDOR; 
REICHER, EMANUEL; RIESSER, GABRIEL; 
ROSIN, DAVID; SCHWAB, HERMANN; 
SPANIER, ARTHUR; STERN-TAEUBLER, 
SELMA; SUEDFELD, GABRIEL; SULZBACH, 
ABRAHAM; TAEUBLER, EUGEN; ULLSTEIN; 
VEIT, MORITZ; YORK-STEINER, HEINRICH 
ELCHANAN 

Morris Ardoin*, M.A.; Director, 
Communications, Hebrew 
Immigrant Aid Society, New York: 

HEBREW IMMIGRANT AID SOCIETY 

Moshe-Max Arend, Ph.D.; Lecturer, 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

KARA, JOSEPH 

Ramie Arian* : young judaea 

Eliyahu Arieh, M.Sc; Director 
of the Seismological Laboratory, 
Geological Survey of Israel, 
Jerusalem: earthquake; samuel ben 

HANANIAH 

Nachum Arieli, B.A.; Jerusalem: 

ABRAHAM BEN DOV OF MEZHIRECH; 
BARUCH BEN JEHIEL OF MEDZIBEZH 

Allan Arkush*, Ph.D.; Judaic 
Studies, Binghamton University, 
Binghamton, New York: 

MENDELSSOHN, MOSES 

Abraham Arnold*, L.L.D.; Author, 
Historian, Journalist; Member 
Order of Canada, Association for 
Canadian Jewish Studies, Jewish 
Heritage Centre of Western 
Canada, Winnipeg, Canada: 

CHERNIACK, SAUL MARK; FREEDMAN, 
SAMUEL; GRAY, MORRIS ABRAHAM; 



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ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



MANITOBA; ORLIKOW, DAVID; WINNIPEG; 
ZOLF 

Yaakov Arnold*: lieber, david 

Walter L. Arnstein, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History, the University of Illinois, 
Urbana- Champaign: stern, Alfred 

Wellesley Aron, B.A.; Major 
(Ret.), British Army; Tel Aviv: ihud 

HABONIM 

C.C. Aronsfeld, Researcher, 

London: grueber, heinrich 

Shlomo Aronson, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Political Science, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: adenauer, 

KONRAD; GESTAPO; JAFFA; SS AND SD 

Elia Samuele Artom, Dott.in 
lett., Rabbi; Teacher of Hebrew 
Language and Literature, Universita 
degli Studi, Florence; Director and 
Professor of the Collegio Rabbinico 
Italiano, Florence and Rome: 

ABISHAG THE SHUNAMMITE; SEGRE 

Menachem E. Artom, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Civil Service Commission, 

Jerusalem: capistrano, john; 

MITHRIDATES, FLAVIUS; MORTARA, 
MARCO; PESARO, ABRAMO; PISA, DA; 
SARDINIA; SEGRE, JOSHUA BENZION; 
SEGRE, SALVATORE; SIXTUS OF SIENA; 
TUSCANY; VOLTERRA; VOLTERRA, 
MESHULLAM BEN MENAHEM, 
DA 

Pinhas Artzi, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Associate Professor of Hebrew 
and Semitic Languages, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan; Associate 
Professor of Akkadian and Ancient 
Near Eastern History, Tel Aviv 
University: cuth, cuthah; dagon; 

EUPHRATES; GELB, IGNACE JAY; GOSHEN; 
GOZAN; KARKAR; MARDUK; PEKOD; 
PERIZZITES; PICK, HAYYIM HERMANN; 
RESEN; RESHEPH; RODANIM; SIHON; 
TADMOR 

Abraham Arzi, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Senior Teacher in Talmud, Bar- 
Ilan University, Ramat Gan: al 

TIKREI; DELITZSCH, FRIEDRICH; 
DREAMS; ETIQUETTE; KODASHIM; LEKET, 
SHIKHHAH, AND PEAH; MO'ED; RABBAH 
BAR BAR HANA; RESHUT; TEREFAH; 
TIKKUN SOFERIM; TOHOROT; ZAKEN 
MAMRE 

Solomon Asch, Ph.D.; Psychologist, 



Rutgers University, New Jersey: 

WERTHEIMER, MAX 

Dov Ashbel, Dr. Phil.; Emeritus 
Associate Professor of Meteorology, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ATLAS, DAVID; BERSON, ARTHUR JOSEPH 
STANISLAV; CONRAD, VICTOR; ISRAEL, 
LAND OF: GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY; LESS, 
EMIL; MACHTA, LESTER; MARGULES, MAX; 
NAMIAS, JEROME; PEPPER, JOSEPH; RUBIN, 
MORTON JOSEPH; WEXLER, HARRY 

Robert Asher, M.A.; Lecturer in 
History, City College of the City 
University of New York: fels; filene 

Shmuel Ashkenazi, the Rabbi 
Kook Institute, Jerusalem: aaron 

BERECHIAH BEN MOSES OF MODENA; 
DAVID BEN SAMUEL HA-LEVI; EDELS, 
SAMUEL ELIEZER BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI; 
EISENSTADT, ABRAHAM ZEVI HIRSCH BEN 
JACOB; GOMBINER, ABRAHAM ABELE BEN 
HAYYIM HA-LEVI; IBN HAYYIM, AARON; 
SABA, ABRAHAM BEN JACOB; TYRNAU, 
ISAAC 

Dianne Ashton* , Ph.D.; Professor, 
Rowan University, Glassboro, New 
Jersey: gratz, rebecca 

Eliyahu Ashtor, Ph.D., Dr. Phil.; 
Professor of Moslem History and 
Civilization, the Hebrew University 

of Jerusalem: Abraham ben david 

MAIMUNI; ABRAHAM BEN MAZHIR; ABU 
AL-MUNAJJA SOLOMON BEN SHAYA; ABU 
TMRAN AL-TIFLISI; ABU SAD AL-TUSTARl; 
ALEPPO; ALEXANDRIA; ALMERIA; 
AMRAM; BAQUBA; BAR HEBRAEUS, 
JOHANAN; BASRA; BEN SIMEON, RAPHAEL 
AARON; BILBEIS; CAIRO; DAMANHUR; 
DAMIRA; DAVID BEN ABRAHAM 
MAIMUNI; DAVID BEN DANIEL; DAVID 
BEN JOSHUA MAIMUNI; DUMUH; EDESSA; 
EGYPT; EPHRAIM BEN SHEMARIAH; EZRA 
BEN ABRAHAM BEN MAZHIR; FAIYUM; 
FATIMIDS; HANOKH BEN MOSES; HASSAN 
IBN HASSAN; HIBAT ALLAH, IBN JUMAY' 
IBN ZAYN; HILLA; HISDAI IBN HISDAI, 
ABU AL-FADL; HISDAI IBN SHAPRUT; IBN 
AL-BARQULI; IBN KILLIS, ABU AL-FARAJ 
YA'QUB IBN YUSUF; IBN YASHUSH, ISAAC 
ABU IBRAHIM; IBRAHIM IBN YA'QUB OF 
TORTOSA; IRBIL; JAZIRAT IBN 'UMAR; 
JEHOSEPH HA-NAGID; JERUSALEM; JESSE 
BEN HEZEKIAH; JOSHUA BEN ABRAHAM 
MAIMUNI; JUBAYL; KHARAj AND JIZYA; 
LEBANON; LEVI-PROVENCAL, EVARISTE; 
MAHALLA AL-KUBRA; MAMLUKS; 
MANN, JACOB; MANSURA; MEVORAKH 
BEN SAADIAH; MINYAT ZIFTA; MOSES 
BEN HANOKH; NAHRAI BEN NISSIM; 



NAHRAWAN; NETHANEL BEN MOSES 
HA-LEVI; NISIBIS; QASR IBN HUBAYRAH; 
RAHBAH, AL-; RAQQA; RASHID; SAHLAN 
BEN ABRAHAM; SAID IBN HASAN; SARUJ; 
SELJUKS; SHEMARIAH BEN ELHANAN; 
SHIM'ON, JOSEPH BEN JUDAH IBN; 
SHOLAL, NATHAN HA-KOHEN; SIDON; 
SOLOMON BEN ELIJAH HA-KOHEN; 
SPAIN; SUNBAT; SYRIA; TADEF; TANTA; 
TRAVELERS AND EXPLORERS; TRIPOLI; 
TYRE; UKBARA; WASIT 

Cyril Aslanov*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: Jewish languages; judeo- 

FRENCH; JUDEO-GREEK; JUDEO-ITALIAN; 
JUDEO-PROVENCAL 

Simha Assaf, Rabbi; Rector and 
Professor of Rabbinical and Geonic 
Literature, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem; Justice of the Supreme 
Court of Israel: aaron ben Joseph 

HA-LEVI; ABBAHU; ABIATHAR BEN ELIJAH 
HA-KOHEN; ABRAHAM BEN ELIJAH 
OF VILNA; ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC OF 
NARBONNE; ABRAHAM BEN NATHAN; 
ADRET, SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM; AHA 
OF SHABHA; ALFASI, ISAAC BEN JACOB; 
BUSTANAI BEN HANINAI; ELHANAN BEN 
HUSHIEL; ELHANAN BEN SHEMARIAH; 
ELIJAH BEN SOLOMON HA-KOHEN; GAON; 
ISAAC; YESHIVOT 

Yom Tov Assis*, Ph.D.; Department 
of Jewish History, World Center 
for Jewish Studies, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: aboab, 

IMMANUEL; ALCONSTANTINI; ALEMAN, 
MATEO; ANUSIM; AUTO DA FE; AVILA; 
BADAJOZ; BARBASTRO; BARCELONA; 
BARCELONA, DISPUTATION OF; BARRIOS, 
DANIEL LEVI DE; BARROS BASTO, ARTURO 
CARLOS DE; BEJA; BELMONTE; BESALU; 
BRAGANZA; BUITRAGO; BURGOS; 
BURRIANA; CALAHORRA; CALATAYUD; 
CANARY ISLANDS; CANTERA BURGOS, 
FRANCISCO; CARDOZO, ISAAC; CARRION 
DE LOS CONDES; CASTRO QUESADA, 
AMERICO; CASTRO SARMENTO, JACOB 
DE; CASTRO TARTAS, ISAAC DE; CASTRO, 
PEDRO DE; CERVERA; CHILLON; CHUETAS; 
CIUDAD REAL; CIUDAD RODRIGO; 
COIMBRA; CUENCA; CUR1EL; DAROCA; 
DUENAS; ELCHE; ENRIQUEZ GOMEZ, 
ANTONIO; ESCALONA; ESCUDERO, 
LORENZO; ESTELLA; FERNANDES 
VILLAREAL, MANOEL; HUESCA; IBN 
ZADOK, SOLOMON; INQUISITION; JACA; 
JAEN; LEON, LUIS DE; LERIDA; LIMPIEZA 
DE SANGRE; MADRID; MAJORCA; 
MURVIEDRO; OROBIO DE CASTRO, ISAAC; 
PALENCIA; PAMPLONA; PLASENCIA; 
SALAMANCA; SANTA COLOMA DE 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



49 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



QUERALT; SARAGOSSA; SEGOVIA; SEVILLE; 
SORIA; TOLEDO; TUDELA 

Alexander Astor, B.A. O.B.E., 
Rabbi; Auckland, New Zealand: 

DAMASCUS; DAVIS, SIR ERNEST HYAM; 
FISHER, SIR WOOLF 

Alan Astro*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Trinity University, San Antonio, 
Texas: ayalti, hanan j. ; Berliner, 

ISAAC; BOTOSHANSKY, JACOB; GLANTZ, 
JACOB; KHALYASTRE; WARSZAWSKI, OSER 

Maurice (D.) Atkin, M.A.; 
Economist, Washington, D.C.: 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 

Tsevi Atsmon, M.A.; Rishon le- 
Zion, Israel: rishon le-zion 

Robert Attal, Librarian, the Ben- 
Zvi Institute and Yad Vashem, 
Jerusalem: Algeria-, aydan, david; 

BAHUZIM; BEKACHE, SHALOM; 
CONSTANTINE; GOZLAN, ELIE; HAJjAj, 
DANIEL; LIBYA; SAMAMA, NESSIM; 
SCIALOM, DAVID DARIO 

David Atzmon, M.Jur.; Ministry for 
Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem 

Pierre Aubery, Ph.D.; Professor 
of French Literature, the State 
University of New York, Buffalo: 

LECACHE, BERNARD; MANDEL, 
ARNOLD 

Bernard Auerbach*, L.L.M.; 
Professor of Law (Retired), 
University of Maryland: contract; 

THEFT AND ROBBERY 

Jacob Auerbach, Jerusalem: temple 

MOUNT; WESTERN WALL 

Rachel Auerbach, Dipl.HistPsych.; 
Historian, Jerusalem: treblinka 

Hanoch Avenary, Dr.Phil.; Senior 
Lecturer in Musicology, Tel Aviv 
University: addir hu ; akdamut 

MILLIN; ALEINU LE-SHABBEAH; ALGAZI, 
ISAAC BEN SOLOMON; ALGAZI, LEON; AL- 
HARIZI, JUDAH BEN SOLOMON; ALMAN, 
SAMUEL; ALTSCHUL, JOSEPH; AMEN; 
AMIDAH; AVI AVI; AVODAH; BACHMANN, 
JACOB; BAUER, JACOB; EDIRNE; 
HAGGADAH, PASSOVER; IBN ABl AL-SALT; 
KADDISH; MI-SINAI NIGGUNIM; MOSES 
BEN JOSEPH HA-LEVI; MUSIC; NUSAH; 
SHTAYGER 

Mo she Avidan, Ambassador, 



Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 
Jerusalem: Finland; Poland 

Mo she Avidor, Ph.D.; Former 
Ambassador and Director General 
of the Israel Academy of Sciences 
and Humanities, Jerusalem: 

ISRAEL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND 
HUMANITIES; ISRAEL, STATE OF: 
EDUCATION AND SCIENCE 

Nachman Avigad, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Archaeology, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: bet 

SHEARIM; JERICHO 

Avraham Avi-Hai, Ph.D.; Vice- 
Provost, School for Overseas 
Students, Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem 

Gitta (Aszkenazy) Avinor, M.A.; 
Critic, Haifa: amir, aharon; 

BARTOV, HANOCH; MEGGED, AHARON; 
MOSSINSOHN, YIGAL; TAMMUZ, 
BENJAMIN 

Joseph Aviram, M.A.; Director of 
the Institute of Archaeology, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem 

Isaac Avishur, M.A.; Instructor 
in Bible and Biblical History, the 
University of the Negev, Beersheba: 

BIBLE; DAN; EDOM; GEHAZI; ISAIAH; 
NAOMI; NAPHTALI; SEPHARVAIM 

Benad Avital, Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs, Jerusalem: Israel, state of: 

HISTORICAL SURVEY 

Efrat E. Aviv*, M.A.; Jewish 
History, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat 
Gan: izmir 

Michael Avi-Yonah, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Archaeology and of 
the History of Art, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: abel 

SHITTIM or SHITTIM; ABEL, AVEL; ABEL, 
LOUIS FELIX; ABEL-BETH-MAACAH; 
ABEL-MEHOLAH; ABILENE; ACHOR, 
VALLEY OF; ACHSHAPH; ACHZIB; ACRE; 
ADAM; ADORAIM; ADULLAM; AGRIPPINA; 
AI or HA-AI; AKHBAREI/ACCHABARON; 
ALAMAH; ALBRIGHT, WILLIAM FOXWELL; 
ALMON or ALEMETH; ALT, ALBRECHT; 
AMANA; AMMATHA; ANAB; ANATHOTH; 
ANTHEDON; ANTIPATRIS; ANTONIA; 
APHEK; APOLLONIA; ARABAH, THE; 
ARBEL; ARCHELAIS; ARETHUSA; 
ARGOB; AROER; ASHDOD; ASHKELON; 
ASHTAROTH, ASHTEROTH-KARNAIM, 
KARNAIM; ATAROTH; ATHLIT; AVELIM 



or OVELIM; AZEKAH; AZMON; AZNOTH- 
TABOR; BAALAH; BAAL-HAZOR; 
BAAL-MEON; BAAL-PERAZIM; BAAL- 
ZEPHON; BADE, WILLIAM FREDERIC; 
BAHURIM; BANIAS; BASILICA; BEER; 
BEEROTH; BEERSHEBA; BEN-DOR, 
IMMANUEL; BENE-BERAK; BENJAMIN 
OF TIBERIAS; BENZINGER, IMMANUEL; 
BET AGLAYIM; BET ALFA; BET GUVRIN; 
BET HARODON; BET NETOFAH; BET 
YERAH; BET ZEKHARYAH; BET-ANATH; 
BET-DAGON; BET-EL; BETHANY; BET- 
HARAM; BETHBASI; BETHLEHEM; 
BETHLEPTEPHA; BET-HORON; 
BETHPHAGE; BETHSAIDA; BETHULIA; 
BET-MAON; BET-NIMRAH; BET-REHOB; 
BET-ZUR; BEZEK; BLISS, FREDERICK 
JONES; BOZRAH; BURCHARDUS 
DE MONTE SION; BURCKHARDT, 
JOHANN LUDWIG; BUTNAH; CABUL; 
CAESAREA; CAPERNAUM; CAPITOLIAS; 
CARMEL; CARMEL, MOUNT; CHERITH; 
CHORAZIN; CLERMONT-GANNEAU, 
CHARLES; CONDER, CLAUDE REGNIER; 
COZEBA; CROWFOOT, JOHN WINTER; 
DAN; DEAD SEA; DEBIR; DEUTSCHER 
PALAESTINA-VEREIN; DIUM; DOBRATH; 
DOK; DOTHAN; DURA-EUROPUS; EBEN- 
EZER; EDREI; EGLON; ELASA; ELATH; 
ELEALEH; ELTEKEH; ELUSA; EMMAUS; 
EN-DOR; EN-GANNIM; EN-HAROD; 
EN-RIMMON; EN-ROGEL; EPHRON; 
ESHTAOL; ESHTEMOA; ETAM; EUSEBIUS 
PAMPHILI; FABRI, FELIX; GADARA; 
GALILEE; GAMLA; GARSTANG, JOHN; 
GATH; GATH-HEPHER; GATH-RIMMON; 
GAZA; GEBA; GEDERAH, GEDEROTH; 
GEDOR; GERASA; GEZER; GIBBETHON; 
GILGAL; GISCALA; GITTAIM; GOFNAH; 
GOLAN; GUERIN, VICTOR; GUY, PHILIP 
LANGSTAFFE ORD; HABOR; HADAD; 
HADID; HADRACH; HALHUL; HAM; 
HAMMATH; HANNATHON; HAPHARAIM; 
HAR HA-MELEKH; HAROSHETH-GOIIM; 
HAURAN; HAVVOTH-JAIR; HAZER, 
HAZERIM; HAZEROTH; HEBRON; 
HEPHER; HERMON, MOUNT; HERODIUM; 
HESHBON; HISTORY: THE AFTERMATH OF 
THE FIRST ROMAN WAR; HOR; HORMAH; 
HORONAIM; HUKOK; HULEH; HYRCANIA; 
IBLEAM; IJON; IR-NAHASH; IRON; ISRAEL 
EXPLORATION SOCIETY; ISRAEL, LAND 
OF: GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY; JABBOK; 
JABESH-GILEAD; JABNEEL; JABNEH; 
JAHAZ, JAHAZA; JANOAH, JANAH; JAPHIA; 
JARMUTH; JATTIR, JETHIRA; JAZER; 
JEHOSHAPHAT, VALLEY OF; JERUSALEM; 
JEZREEL; JEZREEL, VALLEY OF; JOKNEAM; 
JORDAN; JOTABAH; JOTAPATA; JOTBATH, 
JOTHBATAH; JUDEAN DESERT CAVES; 
KABRITHA; KANAH; KARKAR; KARNAIM; 
KEDEMOTH; KEFAR AKKO; KEFAR 
BARAM; KEFAR DAROM; KEFAR GAMALA; 
KEFAR HANANYAH; KEFAR HATTIN; 



50 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



KEFAR KANNA; KEFAR MANDI; KEFAR 
NEBURAYA; KEFAR OTNAY; KEILAH; 
KENATH; KENYON, DAME KATHLEEN 
MARY; KERAK or CHARAX; KIDRON; 
KINNERET, LAKE; KIR-HARESETH; 
KIRIATH-JEARIM; KISHON; KLEIN, 
SAMUEL; LEBANON; LEGIO; LIBNAH; 
LO-DEBAR; LUZ; LYDDA; MA'ON; MA'ALEH 
AKRABBIM; MACALISTER, ROBERT 
ALEXANDER STEWART; MACHAERUS; 
MADABA, MEDEBA; MAHANAIM; 
MAIUMAS; MAKKEDAH; MAMPSIS; 
MAMRE; MARESHAH; MAYER, LEO ARY; 
MAZAR, BENJAMIN; MEGIDDO; MEROZ; 
MICHMASH or MICHMAS; MIGDOL; 
MINNITH; MISREPHOTH-MAIM; MIZPEH 
or MIZPAH; MOAB; MODITN; MOLADAH; 
MORESHETH-GATH; MORIAH; MOUNT OF 
OLIVES; MOZA; MUSIL, ALOIS; NAARAH; 
NABLUS; NAHALAL or NAHALOL; NAIN; 
NARBATA; NAVEH; NAZARETH; NEBO; 
NEGEV; NETOPHAH; NIZZANAH; NOB; 
ONO; OPHEL; OPHRAH; OSSUARIES and 
SARCOPHAGI; PALESTINE EXPLORATION 
FUND; PALMER, EDWARD HENRY; PARAH, 
PERATH; PARAN; PEKITN; PELLA or PAHAL; 
PENUEL; PERROT, JEAN MICHAEL; PETRA; 
PHASAELIS; PHOTIS; PISGAH; POCOCKE, 
RICHARD; PRESS, YESHAYAHU; PUNON; 
QUARESMIUS, FRANCISCUS; RABBAH; 
RABBATH-AMMON; RAFA; RAMAH or 
HA-RAMAH or HA-RAMATHAIM-ZOPHIM; 
RAMLEH; RAMOTH; RAMOTH-GILEAD; 
RED SEA; REHOBOTH; RIMMON-PEREZ; 
ROBINSON, EDWARD; ROEHRICHT, 
REINHOLD; RUMA or ARUMAH; SAFED; 
SALCHAH; SARID; SARTABA; SAULCY, 
LOUIS FELICIEN DE JOSEPH CAIGNART; 
SCHICK, CONRAD; SCHUMACHER, 
GOTTLIEB; SEETZEN, ULRICH JASPER; 
SEIR, MOUNT; SENAAH or MIGDAL 
SENAAH; SENNABRIS; SHAALBIM; SHALEM; 
SHECHEM; SHEFARAM; SHEPHELAH; 
SHIHIN or ASOCHIS; SHIHOR, SHIHOR- 
LIBNATH; SHILOAH, SILOAM; SHILOH; 
SHIMRON; SHIVTAH or SOBATA; SHUNEM; 
SHUSHAN; SICHAR; SIKHNIN or SOGANE; 
SIN, WILDERNESS OF; SINAI; SMITH, SIR 
GEORGE ADAM; SOCOH OR SOCO; SODOM 
AND GOMORRAH; SOREK, VALLEY OF; 
STARKEY, JOHN LLEWELYN; STEKELIS, 
MOSHE; SUCCOTH; SUKENIK, ELIEZER 
LIPA; SUSITA OR HIPPOS; SYNAGOGUE; 
TAANACH; TABGHA; TABOR, MOUNT; 
TAMAR; TEKOA; TEMPLE; THEBEZ; 
THOMSEN, PETER; TIBERIAS; TIMNATH- 
HERES, TIMNATH-SERAH; TIRZAH; TIVON; 
TRANSJORDAN; TYRE OF THE TOBIADS; 
USHA; VINCENT, LOUIS HUGUES; VOGUE, 
CHARLES EUGENE MELCHIOR, COMTE 
DE; WADI DALIYA; WAR AND WARFARE; 
WARREN, SIR CHARLES; WATZINGER, 
CARL; WEIGAND, THEODOR; WILSON, SIR 
CHARLES WILLIAM; WINCKLER, HUGO; 



WOOLLEY, SIR CHARLES LEONARD; 
YARKON; YARMUK; YEIVIN, SHEMUEL; 
ZANOAH; ZAPHON; ZAREPHATH; 
ZARETHAN; ZEMARAIM; ZERED; 
ZEREDAH; ZIKLAG; ZIPH; ZORAH 

Jane (Adashko) Avner*, Ph.D.; 
Archivist and Consultant, 
Milwaukee Jewish Historical Society, 
Milwaukee; Former Associate 
Curator of Jewish History at the 
Western Reserve Historical Society, 
Cleveland: akron; Cleveland; 

LAURA AND ALVIN SIEGAL COLLEGE OF 
JUDAIC STUDIES; LEWIS, PETER B.; OHIO; 
SAPIRSTEIN-STONE-WEISS 
FAMILY 

Zvi Avneri (Hans Lichtenstein), 

Dr.Phil.; Senior Lecturer in Jewish 
History, Haifa University: aaron ben 

JOSEPH HA-ROFE; ABNER OF BURGOS; 
ABOAB, ISAAC II; ABRABANEL, ISAAC 
BEN JUDAH; ABU 'ISA, ISAAC BEN JACOB 
AL-ISFAHINI; ABUDARHAM; ABUDARHAM, 
DAVID BEN JOSEPH; ABULAFIA, SAMUEL 
BEN MEIR HA-LEVI; ABULAFIA, SAMUEL 
HA-LEVI; ADLER, NATHAN BEN SIMEON 
HA-KOHEN; ALBALIA, BARUCH BEN ISAAC; 
ALBALIA, ISAAC BEN BARUCH; ALDUBI, 
ABRAHAM BEN MOSES BEN ISMAIL; 
ALFONSO DE OROPESA; ANDERNACH; 
ANHALT; ANSBACH; ARONIUS, JULIUS; 
AUGSBURG; AVELEI ZION; BACHARACH; 
BARCELONA; BASLE; BAVARIA; BAYONNE; 
BEAUCAIRE; BEDERSI, ABRAHAM 
BEN ISAAC; BENVENISTE DE PORTA; 
BENVENISTE, ABRAHAM; BENVENISTE, 
SHESHET BEN ISAAC BEN JOSEPH; 
BERG; BERGHEIM; BERNE; BESANCON; 
BEZIERS; BIELEFELD; BINGEN; BLOIS; 
BRESSLAU, HARRY; BRUNSWICK; BURGOS; 
BUXTORF, JOHANNES; DUESSELDORF; 
DUISBURG; EISENMENGER, JOHANN 
ANDREAS; EMDEN; EPSTEIN, ABRAHAM; 
ERFURT; FERRER, VICENTE; GENEVA; 
HALBERSTADT; HALLE; HAMBURG; 
HAMELN; HANOVER; HEIDELBERG; 
HEINEMANN, JEREMIAH; HESSE; 
HILDESHEIM; IBN ALFAKHAR; IBN 
SHOSHAN; IBN WAQAR; MEHLSACK, 
ELIAKIM BEN JUDAH HA-MILZAHGI; 
OBERMEYER, JACOB; OFFENBACH; 
OFFENBURG; OLDENBURG; OPPENHEIM; 
OPPENHEIMER, JOSEPH BEN ISSACHAR 
SUESSKIND; SHEMARIAH BEN ELIJAH 
BEN JACOB; VERBAND DER VEREINE 
FUER JUEDISCHE GESCHICHTE UND 
LITERATUR; WANDSBECK; WASSERMANN, 
JAKOB; WESTPHALIA; WOLF, GERSON; 
WORMS; WUERTTEMBERG 

Arie Avnerre, M.A.; Israel 
Broadcasting Authority, Jerusalem 



Haim Avni, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Contemporary Jewry, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

AGRICULTURE; AMIA; ARGENTINA; CHILE; 
ENTRE RIOS; LATIN AMERICA; PORTUGAL; 
SPAIN 

Yitzhak Avni, Director of the Israel 
Government Coins and Medals 
Corporation, Jerusalem: 

MEDALS 

Moshe A. Avnimelech, Ph.D.; 
Emeritus Professor of Geology and 
Paleontology, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: 

BLANCKENHORN, MAX; OPPENHEIM, 
PAUL LEO 

Mindy (Beth) Avrich-Skapinker*, 

Ph.D.; Member, Immigration and 
Refugee Board, Toronto, Canada: 

LASTMAN, MELVIN DOUGLAS; NEWMAN, 
PETER CHARLES; REISMAN, HEATHER; 
SCHWARTZ, GERALD 

Leila Avrin, Ph.D.; Teaching Fellow, 
School of Library and Archive 
Studies, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: calligraphy, modern 

HEBREW; SPITZER, MOSHE 

Dov Avron, Ph.D.; Historian, 

Tel Aviv: gniezno; great Poland ; 

POZNAN 

Benjamin Maria Baader*, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor, University of 

Manitoba, Canada: die deborah 

Menachem Babitz, M.A., 
Ing.; Senior Research Fellow, 
the Technion Research and 
Development Foundation, Haifa 

Gabriel Bach, LL.B.; State Attorney 
of the State of Israel, Jerusalem 

Gideon Bach*, Professor, 
Chairman, Department of Human 
Genetics, Hadassah University 
Hospital, Jerusalem: genetic 

DISEASES IN JEWS 

Roberto Bachi, Ph.D., Dr.Jur.; 
Professor of Statistics and 
Demography, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem 

Bernard Bachrach, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of Medieval History, 
the University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis: clotaire ii ; 

RECCARED 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



51 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Gershon Bacon*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Jewish History, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ram at G an: idolatry; 

JUDGES, THE BOOK OF; SCHENIRER, 
SARAH; SHIMEI; TABEEL, THE SON OF; 
ZAMZUMMIM; ZEBAH AND ZALMUNNA; 
ZIMRI; ZIMRI 

Yohanan Bader, Dr.Jur.; Member 
of the Knesset, Ramat Gan: begin, 

MENAHEM 

Avner Bahat, B.A.; Kefar Masaryk: 

ZEFIRA, BRACHAH 

Dan Bahat*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
University of St. Michael College, 
University of Toronto, Canada: 

WESTERN WALL 

Jacob Bahat, Senior Lecturer in 
Hebrew Language and Literature, 
Haifa University: hazaz, hayyim 

Henry Eli Baker, B.C.L., LL.B.; 
President of the District Court, 
Jerusalem; Research Fellow in the 
Law Faculty, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: Israel, state of: legal 

AND JUDICIAL SYSTEM 

Zachary M. Baker*, B.A., M.A., 
M.L.S.; Reinhard Family Curator 
of Judaica &Hebraica Collections, 
Stanford University Libraries, 
Stanford, California: abramowicz, 

DINA 

Carol Bakhos*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Late Antique Judaism, 
University of California, Los 
Angeles: aggadah 

Avraham Balaban*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Modern Hebrew 
Literature, University of Florida: 

AVID AN, DAVID; HOURVITZ, YATR; 
KAHANA-CARMON, AMALIA; OZ, AMOS; 
ZELDA 

Meir Balaban, Dr.Phil.; 

Encyclopaedia Judaica (Germany); 
Professor of Jewish History, Warsaw: 

CALAHORA; SAMBOR 

Rifat Bali*, Graduate of Sorbonne 
University, Ecole Pratique Des 
Hautes Etudes, Istanbul, Turkey: 

ALATON, ISHAK; ASSEO, DAVID; 
BENAROYA, AVRAM; CHALOM, MARCEL; 
FARHI, MORIS; FRANCO, GAD; FRESCO, 
DAVID; GARIH, UZEYIR; GEREZ, JOSEF 
HABIB; HALEVA, ISAK; HUBES,, ROZET; 
KAMHI, JAK V; KANETI, SELIM; KARASU, 



ALBERT; KOHEN, ALBERT; KOHEN, SAMI; 
LEVI, MARIO; LEYON, AVRAM; MENDA, 
ELIEZER; VENTURA, MICHON 

Carole B. Balin*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of History, Hebrew Union 
College- Jewish Institute of Religion, 
New York: dubnow-erlich, sophia; 

MARKEL-MOSESSOHN, MIRIAM 

Ivan Jay Ball, Jr., B.A., B.D.; Foothill 
Community College, Los Altos 
Hills, California: zephaniah 

Kurt Jakob Ball-Kaduri, Dr.Jur.; 
Historian, Tel Aviv: Berlin; stahl, 

HEINRICH 

Shlomo Baiter, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Lecturer in Bible, the City 
University of New York: en-dor, 

WITCH OF; GERSHON, GERSHONITES; 
JONATHAN; PUT; ROD OF AARON; ROD OF 
MOSES; SHAMMAH 

Bernard J. Bamberger, D.D., Rabbi; 
President of the World Union for 
Progressive Judaism, New York: 

ANGELS AND ANGELOLOGY; BLANK, 
SHELDON HAAS; BUTTENWIESER, 
MOSES; LAUTERBACH, JACOB ZALLEL; 
MORGENSTERN, JULIAN; NEPHILIM; 
PARADISE 

Arnold J. Band*, Ph.D.; Professor 
Emeritus of Hebrew, the University 
of California, Los Angeles: agnon, 

SHMUEL YOSEF; ASSOCIATION FOR 
JEWISH STUDIES; BERDYCZEWSKI, MICHA 
JOSEF 

Menahem Banitt, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of French, Tel Aviv 
University: blondheim, david simon; 

JUDEO-FRENCH; LAAZ 

Rivka Irene Banitt, M.A.; Research 
Assistant in Sociology, the Institute 
of Criminology, Tel Aviv University: 

BELGIUM 

Judith Barack, M.S.; Writer, New 
York 

Pessah Bar-Adon, Director, 
Archaeological Expedition in the 
Judean Desert, Jerusalem: judean 

DESERT CAVES 

Dan P. Barag, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Archaeology, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: glass 

Oren Barak*, Ph.D.; Lecturer of 



Political Science and International 
Relations, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: Beirut; Lebanon; 

SIDON 

Zevi Baras, Jerusalem: loisy, Alfred 

FIRMIN 

Jerry Barasch, Department of 
External Relations, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: Hebrew 

UNIVERSITY OF JERUSALEM 

Mo she Barasch, Professor of 
Architecture and Fine Arts, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem 

Shalom Bar-Asher*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Jewish History, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

BACRI; CASABLANCA 

Jack Barbash, M.A.; Professor 
of Economics, the University of 
Wisconsin, Madison: advertising 

Molly Lyons Bar-David, Journalist, 
Tel Aviv: food; haroset 

Haim Bar-Dayan, Dr. Phil.; 
Instructor in the History of Music 
and Art, the Rubin Academy of 
Music, Jerusalem: baer, Abraham; 

BIRNBAUM, EDUARD; ELI ZIYYON VE- 
AREHA; GNESIN, MIKHAIL FABIANOVICH; 
KIPNIS, MENAHEM; MILNER, MOSES 
MICHAEL; VINAVER, CHEMJO 

Elinoar Bareket*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer (History of the Jewish 
People in the Middle Ages), Achva 
Academic College, Shikmim, Israel: 

NAGID 

Adina Bar-El*, Ph.D.; Researcher, 
Author, Lecturer, Achva College of 
Education, Achva, Shikmim, Israel: 

CHILDREN'S LITERATURE 

Naftali Bar-Giora, Jewish Agency, 

Jerusalem: bene Israel 

Yehoshua Bar-Hillel, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Logic and the 
Philosophy of Science, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: chomsky, 

NOAM AVRAM 

Avraham Barkai*, Ph.D.; 
Independent Scholar, Leo Baeck 
Institute, Jerusalem: c. v.-zeitung; 

CENTRAL-VEREIN DEUTSCHER 
STAATSBUERGER JUEDISCHEN 
GLAUBENS 



52 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Haim Barkai*, Ph.D.; Economics, 
Professor Emeritus, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: Israel, state 

OF: ECONOMIC AFFAIRS 

Zeev Barkai, M.A.; Jerusalem: 

SUGAR INDUSTRY AND TRADE; TEXTILES; 
TOBACCO TRADE AND INDUSTRIES 

Menahem Zvi Barkay, M.A.; Senior 
Librarian, the Jewish National and 
University Library, Jerusalem 

Isadore Barmash, Journalist, New 

York: bernbach, william; rubinstein, 

HELENA 

Jacob Barnai, M.A.; Assistant 
in Jewish History, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: david 

BEN SHIMEON; RABINOWICH, ELIYAHU 
AKIVA; ROKEAH or ROKAH, ELAZAR BEN 
SHMELKE; VA'AD HA-PEKIDIM VE-HA- 
AMARKALIM; VA'AD PEKIDEI EREZ ISRAEL 
BE-KUSHTA 

Victoria J. Barnett*, M.Div, Union 
Theological Seminary, New York, 
Staff Director, Church Relations, 
U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, 
Washington, D.C.: holocaust 

Hanan Bar-On, Ministry for 
Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: Ethiopia 

Lawrence Baron*, Ph.D.; Nasatir 
Professor of Modern Jewish History, 
San Diego State University, San 
Diego, California: holocaust 

Lori Baron*: Friedman, Herbert a. 

Salo W. Baron, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Emeritus Professor of Jewish 
History, Literature and Institutions, 
Columbia University, New York: 

CALVIN, JOHN; CHAJES, HIRSCH 
PEREZ; CONFERENCE ON JEWISH 
SOCIAL STUDIES; ECONOMIC HISTORY; 
ISRAELITISCH-THEOLOGISCHE 
LEHRANSTALT; POPULATION 

Zvi Avraham Bar-On, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Philosophy, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem 

James Barr, D.D., F.B.A.; Professor 
of Semitic Languages and Literature, 
the University of Manchester, 
England: linguistic literature, 

HEBREW 

Sylvia J. Barras, Wilkes- Barre and 
Kingston. 



David Bar-Rav-Hay, Advocate; 
Former Member of the Knesset, 
Haifa: blumenfeld, Hermann 

FADEEVICH; GOLDENWEISER, 
ALEXANDER SOLOMONOVICH; PASSOVER, 
ALEXANDER 

Joel Barromi, Dr.Jur.; Ministry for 
Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem 

Israel Bar Tal, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Jewish History, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: baum, 

MENAHEM MENDEL BEN AARON OF 

■ 

KAMENETZ 

Yossi (Yosef ) Bartov*, Ph.D.; Chief 
Scientist, Ministry of National 
Infrastructure, Jerusalem: bentor, 

JACOB 

Lois Bar-Yaacov, B.A.; Tel Aviv: 

HISTADRUT 

Elinor Barzacchi-Kommisar, 

D.E.A.; District Architect of the 
Jerusalem District, Ministry of 
Housing, Jerusalem: Israel, state of: 

CULTURAL LIFE 

Hillel Barzel, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Hebrew and World 
Literature, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: kurzweil, baruch 

Joshua Barzilay (Folman), M.A.; 
Ramat Gan: wessely, naphtali herz 

Eliezer Bashan (Sternberg), 

M.A.; Instructor in Jewish History, 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

EXILARCH; HASAN, ABU AL1 JEPHETH 
IBN BUNDAR; JOSEPH BEN JACOB BAR 
SATIA; JOSIAH BEN AARON HE-HAVER; 
JUDAH BEN JOSEPH OF KAIROUAN; 
KOHEN ZEDEK OF PUMBEDITA; MADMUN 
BEN JAPHETH BEN BUNDAR; NAGID; 
NEHARDEA; OMAR IBN AL-KHATTAB; 
OMAR, COVENANT OF; PUMBEDITA; 
SOLOMON BEN JUDAH; SURA; UMAYYADS 

Judith R. Baskin*, Ph.D.; Knight 
Professor of Humanities; Director, 
Harold Schnitzer Family Program 
in Judaic Studies, University of 
Oregon: ablution; abrass, osias; 

ADLER, POLLY; ALEXANDER, BEATRICE; 
AMULET; ARENDT, HANNAH; ASCETICISM; 
BARRENNESS AND FERTILITY; BARRON, 
JENNIE LOITMAN; BLOOD; BRINIG, 
MYRON; CHAGALL, BELLA ROSENFELD; 
CIRCUMCISION; DULCEA OF WORMS; 
FESTIVALS; FLORETA CA NOGA; FREHA 
BAT AVRAHAM; GINSBURG, RUTH JOAN 



BADER; GREENBLATT, ALIZA WAITZMAN; 
HALLAH; HASIDISM; HASKALAH; HEAD, 
COVERING OF THE; HISTORIOGRAPHY; 
JEWISH STUDIES; JOB, BOOK OF; 
JOCHSBERGER, TZIPORA; KARFF, MONA 
MAY; KRESSYN, MIRIAM; LIEBMANN, 
ESTHER SCHULHOFF AARON and JOST; 
MIKVEH; NIDDAH; PETERS, ROBERTA; 
PIONEER WOMEN; POWDERMAKER, 
HORTENSE; PRIESAND, SALLY JANE; 
PULCELINA OF BLOIS; RABBI, RABBINATE; 
RASHI; REBBETZIN; RESNIK, JUDITH 
ARLENE; SIMON, KATE; TUSSMAN, 
MALKA HEIFETZ; WASSERSTEIN, WENDY; 
WOMAN: EARLY MODERN PERIOD TO 1800 
IN EUROPE; WOMAN: ISRAEL; WOMAN: 
MEDIEVAL, CHRISTIAN WORLD; WOMAN: 
MODERN PERIOD IN CENTRAL AND 
WESTERN EUROPE 

Samantha Baskind*, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor, Art History, 
Cleveland State University, 
Cleveland, Ohio: adler, samuel 

M.; ART: UNITED STATES; BAIZERMAN, 
SAUL; BARNET, WILL; BASKIN, LEONARD; 
BENN, BEN; BEN-ZION; BERNSTEIN, 
THERESA; BLOOM, HYMAN; BLUME, 
PETER; BOLOTOWSKY, ILYA; BOROFSKY, 
JONATHAN; CARVALHO, SOLOMON 
NUNES; CHICAGO, JUDY; DAVIDSON, 
JO; DINE, JIM; EILSHEMIUS, LOUIS 
M.; EZEKIEL, MOSES JACOB; FERBER, 
HERBERT; FRANKENTHALER, HELEN; 
GOLUB, LEON; GOTTLIEB, ADOLPH; 
GREENBERG, CLEMENT; GROPPER, 
WILLIAM; GUSTON, PHILIP; GUTMANN, 
JOSEPH; HIRSCH, JOSEPH; KATZ, ALEX; 
KITAJ, R. B.; KRASNER, LEE; KRUGER, 
BARBARA; LASSAW, IBRAM; LEVINE, 
JACK; LEWITT, SOL; LICHTENSTEIN, 
ROY; LIPTON, SEYMOUR; LOUIS, 
MORRIS; LOZOWICK, LOUIS; MOSLER, 
HENRY; NEVELSON, LOUISE; OLITSKI, 
JULES; PEARLSTEIN, PHILIP; RATTNER, 
ABRAHAM; RIVERS, LARRY; ROTHKO, 
MARK; SEGAL, GEORGE; SERRA, RICHARD; 
SOYER, MOSES; SOYER, RAPHAEL; 
ZORACH, WILLIAM 

Jack Bass, B.A.; New York 

Yomtov Ludwig Bato, Dr. Phil.; 
Historian, Ramat Hen, Israel: 

VIENNA; WERTHEIMER, SAMSON 

Geulah Bat Yehuda (Raphael), 

M.A.; Writer, Jerusalem: elyashar, 

JACOB SAUL BEN ELIEZER JEROHAM; 
HAUSDORF, AZRIEL ZELIG; LAPIDOT, 
ALEXANDER MOSES; LAPIN, ISRAEL 
MOSES FISCHEL; MEIR, JACOB; PANIGEL, 
ELIYAHU MOSHE; SALANT, SAMUEL; 
SPEKTOR, ISAAC ELHANAN 



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53 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Fritz Bauer, Dr.Jur.; Prosecutor 
of War Criminals, Frankfurt on 
the Main: zentrale stelle der 

LANDESJUSTIZVERWALTUNGEN 

Yehuda Bauer, Ph.D.; Historian, 
Professor and Head of the Institute 
of Contemporary Jewry, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: b aerwald, 

PAUL; BECKELMAN, MOSES W; BERGEN- 
BELSEN; BERIHAH; HOLOCAUST; 
HOLOCAUST, RESCUE FROM; HYMAN, 
JOSEPH C; JORDAN, CHARLES 
HAROLD; LEAVITT, MOSES A.; ROSEN, 
JOSEPH A. 

Dorothy Bauhoff*, M.A.; 

Independent Author and 
Researcher, East Taghkanic, New 
York: abrams, meyer h.; akerlof, 

GEORGE A.; DINER, HASIA R.; EISEN, 
ARNOLD; ELIAS, NORBERT; ENDELMAN, 
TODD M.; FEINBERG, KENNETH; 
FELDMAN, LOUIS H.; FISH, STANLEY; 
FREEDMAN, JAMES O.; FRYMER-KENSKY, 
TIKVA; GLOCK, CHARLES Y; GOLB, 
NORMAN; GOLDBERG, HARVEY E.; 
GREENBERG, JOSEPH; GUTMANN, AMY; 
KAUFMAN, IRVING R.; KORMAN, EDWARD 
R.; KOZINKSI, ALEX; KRAVITCH, PHYLLIS; 
KUHN, THOMAS S.; LEVIN, RICHARD 
C; LEWIS, I. M.; LINGLE, LINDA; MIKVA, 
ABNER J.; MILGRAM, STANLEY; NOVAK, 
DAVID; PUTNAM, HILARY; REINHARDT, 
STEPHEN R.; RODIN, JUDITH; ROSENBERG, 
HAROLD; ROSKIES, DAVID G.; RUBIN, 
ROBERT E.; SAHLINS, MARSHALL; 
SHAPIRO, HAROLD; SMITH, JONATHAN 
Z.; SOFAER, ABRAHAM; SONNENFELDT, 
HELMUT; SPERBER, DAN; SPITZER, LEO; 
SPORKIN, STANLEY; WEINER, ANTHONY; 
WEINFELD, EDWARD; WEINSTEIN, JACK 
B.; WISSE, RUTH R.; WOLFE, ALAN S.; 
WOLFSON, ELLIOT; WOLPE, HOWARD 
ELIOT 

Mark K. Bauman*, Ph.D.; Editor, 
Southern Jewish History; Professor of 
History (retired), Southern Jewish 
Historical Society, Ellenwood, 
Georgia: epstein, harry h. 

David Baumgardt, Dr. Phil.; 
Professor of Philosophy, the 
University of Berlin; Consultant 
on Philosophy to the Library 
of Congress, Washington, D.C.: 

CASSIRER, ERNST; HERDER, JOHANN 
GOTTFRIED; LAZARUS, NAHIDA RUTH; 
LEVI-STRAUSS, CLAUDE 

Albert I. Baumgarten, M.A.; 
Adjunct Lecturer in History, the 
Herbert H. Lehman College of the 



City University of New York: scroll 

OF ESTHER 

Elisheva Baumgarten*, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer, Department of Jewish 
History and Gender Studies 
Program, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat 
Gan: birth, gender 

Jean Baumgarten*, Ph.D.; 
Professor, Directeur de recherche, 
Centre National de la Recherche 
Scientifique (CNRS), Paris, France: 

BOBE-MAYSE; HARKAVY, ALEXANDER; 
LIEBERMAN, CHAIM; SHMERUK, CHONE; 
WEINREICH, MAX; ZINBERG, ISRAEL 

Walter Baumgartner, Dr. Phil.; 
Emeritus Professor of Bible and 
Oriental Languages, the University 
of Basle: prijs, Joseph 

Diane Baxter*, Ph.D.; Instructor, 
Anthropology, The University of 
Oregon: anthropology 

Steve (Harold Steven) Bayar*, 

B.A. M.A., Rabbi; Congregation 

Bnai Israel, Millburn, New Jersey: 

GRUENEWALD, MAX 

Bathja Bayer, Ph.D.; Librarian of 
the Music Department, the Jewish 
National and University Library, 
Jerusalem: Abraham; aguilar, 

EMANUEL ABRAHAM; AUER, LEOPOLD; 
BEKKER, PAUL; BELSHAZZAR; BEN SIRA, 
WISDOM OF; BENTWICH; BIBLE; BINDER, 
ABRAHAM WOLF; CANTILLATION; COSTA, 
URIEL DA; DA PONTE, LORENZO; DAVID; 
EL MALE RAHAMIM; ELIJAH; GERNSHEIM, 
FRIEDRICH; GERSHWIN, GEORGE; 
GOLDFADEN, ABRAHAM; GUSIKOW, 
JOSEPH MICHAEL; HALLELUJAH; 
HASMONEANS; HA-TIKVAH; HEROD I; 
HOLLAENDER; ISAIAH; JACOB; JACOB; 
JEPHTHAH; JEREMIAH; JERUSALEM; 
JOACHIM, JOSEPH; JOB, BOOK OF; JONAH, 
BOOK OF; JOSEPH; JOSEPHSON; JOSHUA; 
JUDITH, BOOK OF; KALMAN, EMMERICH; 
KARACZEWSKI, HANINA; KEDUSHAH; 
KOL NIDREI; LAMENTATIONS, BOOK 
OF; LAVRY, MARC; LEKHAH DODI; 
LEWANDOWSKI, LOUIS; LOVY, ISRAEL; 
MA'OZ ZUR; MAQAM; MOSES; MUSIC; 
NADEL, ARNO; NARDI, NAHUM; NATHAN, 
ISAAC; NAUMBOURG, SAMUEL; NAVON, 
ISAAC ELIYAHU; OFFENBACH, ISAAC; 
ORGAN; PARTOS, OEDOEN; PSALMS, 
BOOK OF; RACHEL; ROMANOS MELODOS; 
ROZSAVOLGYI, MARK; SALMON, KAREL; 
SALOME; SAMBURSKY, DANIEL; SAMSON; 
SAUL; SCHMIDT, JOSEPH; SECUNDA, 
SHOLOM; SEIBER, MATYAS GYORGY; 



SETER, MORDECHAI; SHARETT, YEHUDAH; 
SHELEM, MATTITYAHU; SHESTAPOL, 
WOLF; SINGER, JOSEF; SOCIETY FOR 
JEWISH FOLK MUSIC,; SODOM AND 
GOMORRAH; SOLOMON; SONG OF SONGS; 
STERNBERG, ERICH-WALTER; STRAUS, 
OSCAR; STUTSCHEWSKY, JOACHIM; 
SUSANNA AND THE ELDERS; TALMUD, 
MUSICAL RENDITION; THALBERG, 
SIGISMUND; TOBIT, BOOK OF; WERNER, 
ERIC; YIGDAL; ZEIRA, MORDECHAI 

Steven Bayme*, Ph.D.; National 
Director, Contemporary Jewish 
Life Department; American Jewish 
Committee, Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America, New York: 

EDAH 

Michael J. Bazyler*, Professor 
of Law and The "1939" Club Law 
Scholar in Holocaust and Human 
Rights Studies, Whittier Law School, 
Costa Mesa, California: calabresi, 

GUIDO; REPARATIONS, GERMAN; WAR 
CRIMES TRIALS 

Walton Bean, Ph.D.; Professor of 
History, the University of California, 
Berkeley: ruef, Abraham 

Elieser Beck, Kibbutz Kefar ha- 

Maccabi: zilina 

Arthur Beer, Ph.D., F.R.A.S.; 
Lately Senior Observer at the 
Observatories, the University 
of Cambridge: abelmann, ilya 

SOLOMOVITCH; ASTRONOMY; 
BEMPORAD, AZEGLIO; COHN, 
BERTHOLD; COHN, FRITZ; EPSTEIN, 
PAUL SOPHUS; FINLAY-FREUNDLICH, 
ERWIN; GOLDSCHMIDT, HERMANN; 
IBN SAID, ISAAC; ISRAELI, ISAAC 
BEN JOSEPH; LOEW, MORITZ; LOEWY, 
MAURICE; MASHAALLAH B. ATHAN; 
PRAGER, RICHARD; RUBENSON, ROBERT; 
SCHLESINGER, FRANK; SCHUSTER, SIR 
ARTHUR; SCHWARZSCHILD, KARL 

Helen Beer*, Dr.Phil.; Lecturer 
in Yiddish, Hebrew, and Jewish 
Studies, University College of 
London, England: manger, itzik 

Moshe Beer, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Jewish History, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: abba bar 

MARTA; ABBA OF AKKO; ABBA OSHAYA 
OF TIRIAH; ACADEMIES IN BABYLONIA 
AND EREZ ISRAEL; ARDAVAN; BE-HOZAI; 
DIMI OF NEHARDEA; HABBAR, HABBAREI; 
HAGRONIA; HUZAL; ISSACHAR; MAHOZA; 
MATA MEHASYA; NARESH; NEHUTEI; 



54 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



NISIBIS; PUMBEDITA; RABBAH BEN 
SHILAH; RAV; RAVA; RAVINA; SAMUEL; 
SHAPUR; SHEKANZIB; SIMEON BEN 
LAKISH; TANHUMA BAR ABBA 

Emmanuel Beeri, M.A.; Jerusalem: 

AMENITIES, COMMUNAL; BERTHOLD 
OF FREIBURG; CALMER, MOSES 
ELIEZER LIEFMANN; CHATEAUBRIAND, 
FRANCOIS RENE, VICOMTE DE; CIVILTA 
CATTOLICA, LA; CLERMONT-TONNERRE, 
COUNT STANISLAS DE; KAHN, LOUIS; 
LANGALLERIE, PHILIPPE GENTIL DE; 
LEVEN, NARCISSE; MIRABEAU, HONORE 
GABRIEL RIQUETI, COMTE DE; MONTI DI 
PIETA; MORPURGO; MUSSOLINI, BENITO; 
PREZIOSI, GIOVANNI; ROEDERER, COUNT 
PIERRE LOUIS; STUDENTS' FRATERNITIES, 
GERMAN 

Doron M. Behar*, M.D., Ph.D.; 
Physician, Research Scientist, 
Rambam Medical Center, Haifa: 

GENETIC ANCESTRY, JEWISH 

Arnold Beichman, M.A.; Lecturer 
in Politics, the University of 
Massachusetts, Boston: Goldberg, 

ARTHUR JOSEPH 

Alexander Bein, Dr. Phil.; Former 
State Archivist, Former Director 
of the Central Zionist Archives, 
Jerusalem: archives; blumenfeld, 

KURT YEHUDAH; BODENHEIMER, 
MAX ISIDOR; ETTINGER, AKIVA JACOB; 
OLIPHANT, LAURENCE; RUPPIN, ARTHUR 

Haim Beinart, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Medieval Jewish History, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ALBARRACIN; ALCONSTANTINI; ALFONSO 
DE ESPINA; ALMAGRO; ALMERIA; 
BADAJOZ; BALAGUER; BARBASTRO; 
BARCELONA; BARCELONA, DISPUTATION 
OF; BESALU; BIEL; BRIVIESCA; BUITRAGO; 
BURRIANA; CADIZ; CALAHORRA; 
CALATAYUD; CALATRAVA; CANARY 
ISLANDS; CARMONA; CARRION DE LOS 
CONDES; CARTAJENA; CASTELLON DE 
LA PLANA; CASTROJERIZ; CAVALLERIA, 
DE LA; CEA; CERVERA; CHILLON; 
CIUDAD REAL; CIUDAD RODRIGO; 
COCA; CORDOBA; CORUNNA; CUENCA; 
DAROCA; DENIA; DUENAS; ECIJA; ECIJA, 
JOSEPH; ELCHE; ELVIRA; ESCALONA; 
ESTELLA; FERRER, VICENTE; FERRIZUEL, 
JOSEPH HA-NASI; GERONA; GRANADA; 
GUADALAJARA; GUADALUPE; HARO; 
HERRERA DE PISUEGRA; HUESCA; HUETE; 
ILLESCAS; JACA; JAEN; jATIVA; JEREZ DE 
LA FRONTERA; LA GUARDIA, HOLY CHILD 
OF; LEA, HENRY CHARLES; LEON; LERIDA; 
LLERENA; LORKI, JOSHUA; LUCENA; 



MADRID; MAJORCA; MALAGA; MAQUEDA; 
MEDINA DE POMAR; MEDINA DEL 
CAMPO; MEDINACELI; MERIDA; MILLAS 
VALLICROSA, JOSE MARIA; MINORCA; 
MIRANDA DE EBRO; MONTCLUS; 
MONTIEL; MONZON; MURCIA; 
MURVIEDRO; NAjERA; OCANA; OLMEDO; 
ORABUENA; ORENSE; ORIHUELA; 
PALENCIA; PALMA, LA; PAMPLONA; 
PERPIGNAN; PLASENCIA; SALAMANCA; 
SANTA COLOMA DE QUERALT; 
SARAGOSSA; SEGOVIA; SEPULVEDA; 
SEVILLE; SORIA; TARRAGONA; TOLEDO; 
TORTOSA; TORTOSA, DISPUTATION OF; 
TUDELA; VALENCIA 

Malachi Beit-Arie, Ph.D.; Research 
Worker, the Jewish National and 
University Library, Jerusalem: 

COLOPHON; PEREK SHIRAH 

Michael Beizer, Ph.D.; 
Director, Centre for the Study 
and Documentation of East 
European Jewry, Jerusalem: 

AZERBAIJAN; BELARUS; GEORGIA; 
KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; LATVIA; 
LITHUANIA; MOLDOVA; PRESS; RUSSIA; 
TADZHIKISTAN; UKRAINE; UZBEKISTAN 

Margalit Bejarano*, Ph.D.; 
Researcher and Teacher, Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: avni, haim; 

BACHI, ROBERTO; BLIS, DAVID; COSTA 
RICA; CUBA; EL SALVADOR; FESELA; 
GROBART, FABIO; HAVANA; KAPLAN, 
SENDER MEYER; LATIN AMERICA; LEVY, 
SION; LIWERANT SZCLAR, DANIEL; 
SITTEON DABBAH, SHAUL DAVID 

Avi Beker: united nations 
Judith Belinfante: an-ski 

COLLECTIONS 

Randall C. Belinfante*, M.A., M.S., 
M.A., M.S.L.; Librarian/Archivist, 
American Sephardic Federation, 
New York: levy, albert j. 

David Bellos, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Literature, University of 
Manchester: perec, georges 

Ruth Beloff*, B.A.; Writer, Editor, 

Jerusalem: abel, elie; abelson, 

HAROLD HERBERT; ABRAHAMSEN, DAVID; 
ABRAM, MORRIS BERTHOLD; 
ABRAMOVITZ, MOSES; ABRAMOWITZ, 
BINA; ACKERMAN, NATHAN WARD; 
ADAMS, FRANKLIN PIERCE; ADELSON, 
HOWARD LAURENCE; ADLER, MORTIMER 
JEROME; ADLER, SELIG; ALEXANDER, 
MOSES; ALLEN, WOODY; ALMOND, 



GABRIEL ABRAHAM; ANTHONY, JOSEPH; 
APTER, DAVID ERNEST; ARKIN, ALAN W; 
ARNSTEIN, WALTER LEONARD; ARONSON, 
BORIS; ARROW, KENNETH JOSEPH; 
ASIMOV, ISAAC; ASNER, EDWARD; 
AUERBACH, CARL A.; AUSUBEL, DAVID 
PAUL; AXELROD, GEORGE; BACALL, 
LAUREN; BAILYN, BERNARD; BAKAN, 
DAVID; BALABAN, BARNEY; BALIN, 
MARTY; BALINT, MICHAEL; BARA, THEDA; 
BARR, ROSEANNE; BAZELON, DAVID L.; 
BEAME, ABRAHAM DAVID; BECKER, GARY 
STANLEY; BEDACHT, MAX; BELASCO, 
DAVID; BENARDETE, MAIR JOSE; BENDIX, 
REINHARD; BENNY, JACK; BERG, 
GERTRUDE; BERGSON, ABRAM; BERLE, 
MILTON; BERLIN, IRVING; BERMAN, 
PANDRO S.; BERNARDI, HERSCHEL; 
BERNBACH, WILLIAM; BETTELHEIM, 
BRUNO; BIKEL, THEODORE MEIR; BLACK, 
MAX; BLANK, LEON; BLAU, HERBERT; 
BLAU, PETER MICHAEL; BLAUSTEIN; 
BLOCH, HERBERT; BLOOM, BENJAMIN 
SAMUEL; BLOOM, SOLOMON FRANK; 
BLOOMINGDALE; BLUM, JEROME; 
BLUMENTHAL, JOSEPH; BLUMENTHAL, 
WERNER MICHAEL; BOAS, GEORGE; 
BONDY, MAX; BOONE, RICHARD; BORAH, 
WOODROW WILSON; BORGE, VICTOR; 
BOSKOFF, ALVIN; BOYAR, LOUIS H.; 
BOZYK, MAX; BRANDEIS-BARDIN 
INSTITUTE; BRENTANO; BRICE, FANNY; 
BRODSKY, STANLEY L.; 

BRONFENBRENNER, MARTIN; BRONFMAN, 
EDGAR MILES; BROOKS, MEL; BROOKS, 
RICHARD; BROTHERS, JOYCE; BROUDY, 
HARRY SAMUEL; BRUSTEIN, ROBERT 
SANFORD; BUCHWALD, ART; BUHLER, 
CHARLOTTE; BULOFF, JOSEPH; BUNZEL, 
RUTH LEAH; BURNS, ARTHUR FRANK; 
BURNS, GEORGE; BURROWS, ABE; 
BUTTONS, RED; CAESAR, SID; CANTOR, 
NORMAN FRANK; CAPLAN, HARRY; 
CARNOVSKY, MORRIS; CARTER, VICTOR 
M.; CHEIN, ISIDOR; CHODOROV, EDWARD; 
CHODOROV, JEROME; CHOMSKY, NOAM 
AVRAM; CLURMAN, HAROLD; COBB, LEE J.; 
COHEN, ALEXANDER H.; COHEN, GERSON 
D.; COHEN, NATHAN EDWARD; COHEN, 
SAUL BERNARD; COHEN, WILBUR JOSEPH; 
COMDEN, BETTY; COSER, LEWIS A.; 
CREMIN, LAWRENCE ARTHUR; CROWN, 
HENRY; CRYSTAL, BILLY; CURTIS, TONY; 
DASH, SAMUEL; DASSIN, JULES; DAVIS, 
MOSHE; DERSHOWITZ, ALAN M.; 
DIAMOND, I. A. L.; DIAMOND, NEIL; 
DIAMOND, SIGMUND; DINITZ, SIMON 
DONEN, STANLEY; DORFMAN, JOSEPH 
DOUGLAS, KIRK; DOUGLAS, MICHAEL 
DREYFUSS, RICHARD; DUBERMAN, 
MARTIN B.; DUBINSKY, DAVID; DUKER, 
ABRAHAM GORDON; DWORKIN, RONALD; 
EATON, JOSEPH W; ECKARDT, ROY A.; 
EDWARDS, PAUL; EISENSTADT, ABRAHAM 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



SELDIN; ELAZAR, DANIEL J.; ELLSBERG, 
EDWARD; EPSTEIN, ALVIN; EPSTEIN, 
JUDITH; EPSTEIN, JULIUS J. and PHILIP G.; 
EPSTEIN, MORRIS; ERIKSON, ERIK 
HOMBERGER; ETHICAL CULTURE; EULAU, 
HEINZ; EVANS, ELI; EZEKIEL, MORDECAI 
JOSEPH BRILL; FABRICANT, SOLOMON; 
FACTOR, MAX; FALK; FALK, PETER; 
FARBER, MARVIN; FEIFFER, JULES; 
FEINBERG, ABRAHAM; FEIS, HERBERT; 
FELDMAN, HERMAN; FELLNER, WILLIAM 
JOHN; FERKAUF, EUGENE; FERNBERGER, 
SAMUEL; FEUER, LEWIS SAMUEL; 
FEUERSTEIN, REUVEN; FILLER, LOUIS; 
FINE, REUBEN; FINE, SIDNEY; FISHER, 
EDDIE; FISHER, MAX M.; FISHMAN, 
JOSHUA AARON; FLEISCHER, MAX; FORD, 
HARRISON; FOREMAN, CARL; FOX, 
MARVIN; FOX, WILLIAM; FRANKEL, 
SAMUEL BENJAMIN; FRANKENHEIMER, 
JOHN MICHAEL; FRANZBLAU, ABRAHAM 
NORMAN; FREUND-ROSENTHAL, MIRIAM 
KOTTLER; FRIED, MORTON HERBERT; 
FRIEDAN, BETTY; FRIEDLANDER, WALTER; 
FRIEDMAN, MILTON; FRIENDLY, FRED W; 
FULD, STANLEY HOWELLS; GABEL, MAX; 
GABRIEL, GILBERT W.; GARFIELD, JOHN; 
GARFUNKEL, ART; GARMENT, LEONARD; 
GAY, PETER JACK; GEFFEN, DAVID; 
GERSHOY, LEO; GERSTEN, BERTA; GERTZ, 
ELMER; GILBERT, FELIX; GILBERT, MILTON; 
GIMBEL; GINSBERG, EDWARD; GINSBERG, 
MITCHELL L; GINSBURG, NORTON 
SIDNEY; GINZBERG, ELI; GLAZER, 
NATHAN; GODDARD, PAULETTE; 
GOLDBERG, BERTRAND; GOLDEN, JOHN; 
GOLDIN, JUDAH; GOLDSCHMIDT, NEIL 
EDWARD; GOLDSMITH, RAYMOND 
WILLIAM; GOLDSMITH, SAMUEL 
ABRAHAM; GOLDSTEIN, ABRAHAM 
SAMUEL; GOLDWYN, SAMUEL; 
GOODMAN, NELSON; GORDON, MAX; 
GORDON, MICHAEL; GORDON, MILTON 
M.; GOREN, CHARLES HENRY; GORNICK, 
VIVIAN; GOULD, MILTON S.; GOULD, 
SAMUEL BROOKNER; GRANT, LEE; GREEN, 
ADOLPH; GREENACRE, PHYLLIS; GREENE, 
LORNE; GREENSPAN, ALAN; GREY, JOEL; 
GRINKER, ROY RICHARD Sr.; GROSSINGER, 
JENNIE; GRUNWALD, HENRY ANATOLE; 
GUTTMAN, LOUIS; HABER, SAMUEL L.; 
HACKETT, BUDDY; HALLE, MORRIS; 
HAMEROW, THEODORE STEPHEN; 
HAMLISCH, MARVIN; HANDLER, MILTON; 
HANDLIN, OSCAR; HANFMANN, GEORGE 
MAXIM ANOSSOV; HARBURG, E.Y; HARRIS, 
BARBARA; HARRIS, SAM HENRY; HARRIS, 
ZELLIG SABBETAI; HAUSER, PHILIP 
MORRIS; HAWN, GOLDIE; HELLINGER, 
MARK; HENRY, BUCK; HERSHEY, BARBARA; 
HEXTER, JACK H.; HIMMELSTEIN, LENA; 
HIRSCH, JUDD; HIRSCHMAN, ALBERT 
OTTO; HOFFMAN, DUSTIN; HOFFMAN, 
JEFFREY; HOLLIDAY, JUDY; HOOK, SIDNEY; 



HOSELITZ, BERTHOLD FRANK; HUROK, 
SOLOMON; HURWITZ, SAMUEL JUSTIN; 
HYMAN, HAROLD MELVIN; IAN, JANIS; 
INKELES, ALEX; IRVING, JULES; ISAACS, 
EDITH JULIET; JACOBY, OSWALD; JAFFE, 
SAM; JANOWITZ, MORRIS; JAVITS, JACOB 
KOPPEL; JESSEL, GEORGE ALBERT; 
JESSELSON, LUDWIG; JEWISH 
PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA; 
JOEL, BILLY; JOLSON, AL; JUSTMAN, 
JOSEPH; KABAKOFF, JACOB; KAHN, 
ALFRED JOSEPH; KAMPELMAN, MAX M.; 
KANE, IRVING; KANIN, GARSON; KANTOR, 
JACOB ROBERT; KAPLAN, LOUIS LIONEL; 
KARDINER, ABRAM; KASHDAN, ISAAC; 
KATZ, DANIEL; KATZ, SOLOMON; 
KATZENBERG, JEFFREY; KATZMAN, SAM; 
KAUFMAN, BORIS; KAUFMANN, WALTER; 
KELLER, MORTON; KING, CAROLE; KING, 
LARRY; KLEIN, JULIUS; KLEIN, LAWRENCE 
ROBERT; KLUTZNICK, PHILIP MORRIS; 
KNOPF, ALFRED A.; KNOPFLER, MARK; 
KOBRIN, SOLOMON; KOCH, EDWARD 
IRVING; KOLTANOWSKI, GEORGE; 
KOMAROVSKY, MIRRA; KONVITZ, MILTON 
RIDVAS; KRAFT, LOUIS; KRAMER, STANLEY 
E.; KRASNA, NORMAN; KRAUS, MICHAEL; 
KRIEGER, LEONARD; KRISTELLER, PAUL 
OSKAR; KROCK, ARTHUR; KROSS, ANNA; 
KRULEWITCH, MELVIN LEVIN; KUBLIN, 
HYMAN; KUBRICK, STANLEY; LAHR, BERT; 
LANDES, DAVID SAUL; LANDES, RUTH; 
LANG, FRITZ; LASKY, JESSE L.; LASSER, 
LOUISE; LAURENCE, WILLIAM L.; 
LAZARSFELD, PAUL F.; LAZEROWITZ, 
MORRIS; LE ROY, MERVYN; LEAF, HAYIM; 
LEAR, NORMAN; LEHMAN, ERNEST; 
LENGYEL, EMIL; LEONTOVICH, EUGENIE; 
LERNER, ABBA PETACHJA; LERNER, MAX; 
LESLAU, WOLF; LESLIE, ROBERT L.; 
LEVENE, SAM; LEVENSON, SAM; LEVI, 
EDWARD H.; LEVIN, A. LEO; LEVINE, 
JOSEPH E.; LEVINSON, BARRY; LEVY, 
LEONARD WILLIAMS; LEVY, MARION 
JOSEPH, JR.; LEWIS, JERRY; LICHT, FRANK; 
LIEBERMAN, MYRON; LILIENTHAL, DAVID 
ELI; LINOWITZ, SOL MYRON; LIPSET, 
SEYMOUR MARTIN; LITVAK, ANATOLE; 
LOEW, MARCUS; LOEWENSTEIN, 
RUDOLPH MAURICE; LOPEZ, ROBERT 
SABATINO; LORRE, PETER; LOVESTONE, 
JAY; LOWE, ADOLPH; LUBIN, ISADOR; 
LUKAS, PAUL; LUMET, SIDNEY; LYONS, 
LEONARD; MACHLUP, FRITZ; MAHLER, 
MARGARET; MAIER, JOSEPH; MALACHI, 
ELIEZER RAPHAEL; MANDEL, MARVIN; 
MANDELBAUM, DAVID GOODMAN; 
MANILOW, BARRY; MANKIEWICZ, JOSEPH 
LEO; MANN, DELBERT; MANN, THEODORE 
R.; MANUEL, FRANK EDWARD; 
MARKOWITZ, HARRY M.; MARSCHAK, 
JACOB; MARTIN, TONY; MARWICK, 
LAWRENCE; MASSERMAN, JULES HYMEN; 
MATTHAU, WALTER; MAYER, ARNO 



JOSEPH; MAZURSKY, PAUL; MELTON, 
SAMUEL MENDEL; MERTON, ROBERT 
KING; MIDLER, BETTE; MIDSTREAM; 
MINOW, NEWTON NORMAN; MINSKY, 
LOUIS; MIRISCH BROTHERS; MODIGLIANI, 
FRANCO; MONTOR, HENRY; MOREEL, BEN; 
MORGENSTERN, OSKAR; MORGENTHAU, 
HANS JOACHIM; MORRIS, RICHARD 
BRANDON; MORSE, DAVID ABNER; 
MORTON, LOUIS C; MOSES, ROBERT; 
MOSSE, GEORGE L.; MOSTEL, ZERO; 
NAGEL, ERNEST; NASATIR, ABRAHAM 
PHINEAS; NATHAN, ROBERT ROY; 
NAUMBURG, MARGARET; NEISSER, HANS 
PHILIPP; NELSON, BENJAMIN; NEMOY, 
LEON; NEWHOUSE, SAMUEL IRVING; 
NEWMAN, ARNOLD; NEWMAN, PAUL; 
NICHOLS, MIKE; NIZER, LOUIS; NOVY, JIM; 
OCHS; OHRBACH; OPLER, MARVIN 
KAUFMANN; OPLER, MORRIS EDWARD; 
PASSOW, AARON HARRY; PASTERNAK, 
JOSEPH; PATINKIN, MANDY; PERLMAN, 
ALFRED EDWARD; PERLMAN, HELEN 
HARRIS; PIPES, RICHARD EDGAR; 
POLANSKI, ROMAN; POLLACK, SYDNEY; 
PREMINGER, OTTO LUDWIG; PRINCE, 
HAROLD; RABB, MAXWELL MILTON; 
RABINOWICZ, OSKAR K.; RADO, SANDOR; 
RAINER, LUISE; RAPPAPORT, ARMIN H; 
RATNER, SIDNEY; REDLICH, FREDERICK 
C; REDLICH, NORMAN; REINER, CARL; 
REINER, ROB; REVSON, CHARLES 
HASKELL; RIBICOFF, ABRAHAM A.; 
RIESMAN, DAVID; RIKLIS, MESHULAM; 
RISCHIN, MOSES; RITZ BROTHERS; 
ROBINSON, EDWARD G.; RODELL, FRED M.; 
ROSENTHAL, ERICH; ROSENTHAL, FRANZ; 
ROSSEN, ROBERT; ROSTOW, WALT 
WHITMAN; RUBINSTEIN, HELENA; RUBY, 
JACK; RUKEYSER, MERRYLE STANLEY; 
RYDER, WINONA; SACHAR, ABRAM LEON; 
SAFIRE, WILLIAM; SAHL, MORT; 
SAMUELSON, PAUL ANTHONY; SCHAFER, 
STEPHEN; SCHAPPES, MORRIS U; SCHARY, 
DORE; SCHEFFLER, ISRAEL; SCHISGAL, 
MURRAY; SCHOTTLAND, CHARLES IRWIN; 
SCHUSTER, MAX LINCOLN; SCHWAB, 
JOSEPH J.; SEGAL, GEORGE; SEINFELD, 
JERRY; SELTZER, LOUIS BENSON; SEMMEL, 
BERNARD; SEYMOUR, JANE; SHAPIRO, 
HARRY LIONEL; SHEINKMAN, JACOB; 
SHORE, DINAH; SHULIM, JOSEPH ISIDORE; 
SIDNEY, SYLVIA; SILVERMAN, SIME; 
SILVERS, PHIL; SIMON, HERBERT 
ALEXANDER; SIMON, NORTON; SINGER, 
MILTON B; SKLARE, MARSHALL; SMELSER, 
NEIL JOSEPH; SMITH, MORTON; SOLOW, 
ROBERT MERTON; SOROS, GEORGE; 
SOVERN, MICHAEL IRA; SPIEGEL, SAMUEL 
P.; SPIEGEL, SHALOM; SPIEGELBERG, 
HERBERT; SPIELBERG, STEVEN; SPIRO, 
MELFORD ELLIOT; SPOEHR, ALEXANDER; 
STEIN, HERBERT; STEIN, HERMAN D.; 
STONE, LE; STONE, OLIVER; STRASBERG, 



56 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



LEE; STRAUS; STRAUSS, LEVI; STREISAND, 
BARBRA; STRICK, JOSEPH; STROHEIM, 
ERICH VON; SULZBERGER, ARTHUR HAYS; 
SUSSKIND, DAVID; SWIG, BENJAMIN 
HARRISON; SZASZ, THOMAS STEPHEN; 
SZOLD, ROBERT; TAUBENSCHLAG, 
RAPHAEL; TAX, SOL; TERKEL, STUDS; 
THALBERG, IRVING GRANT; TITIEV, 
MISCHA; TODD, MIKE; TUCKER, SOPHIE; 
TWERSKY, IS AD ORE; UNGER, IRWIN; 
WACHTLER, SOL; WALINSKY; WALLACE, 
MIKE; WALLACH, ELI; WALTERS, BARBARA; 
WARNER; WASSERMAN, DALE; WECHSLER, 
HERBERT; WECHSLER, JAMES ARTHUR; 
WEINBERG, HARRY; WEINBERG, SAUL S.; 
WEISBERGER, BERNARD ALLEN; WEISS, 
PAUL; WELLER, MICHAEL; WESTHEIMER, 
RUTH; WHITE, MORTON GABRIEL; 
WIENER, PHILIP PAUL; WILDER, BILLY; 
WILDER, GENE; WILENTZ, ROBERT N.; 
WINCHELL, WALTER; WINGER, DEBRA; 
WINTERS, SHELLEY; WISE, ROBERT EARL; 
WOLFE, BERTRAM DAVID; WOLPER, 
DAVID LLOYD; WYLER, WILLIAM; WYNN, 
ED; WYNN, KEENAN; WYZANSKI, 
CHARLES EDWARD, JR.; ZEICHNER, 
OSCAR; ZINNEMANN, FRED; ZUKOR, 
ADOLPH 

Miriam Ben-Aaron, M.A.; Ministry 
of Health, Haifa: mahler, 

MARGARET 

Yehuda Benari, D.en D.; Director 
of the Jabotinsky Institute, Tel Aviv: 

JEWISH STATE PARTY 

Yehoshoua Ben-Arieh, Ph.D.; 
Senior Lecturer in Geography, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

GESHER BENOT YAAKOV; KINNAROT, 
VALLEY OF 

Schalom Ben-Chorin, Writer and 

Journalist, Jerusalem: Israel, state 

OF: RELIGIOUS LIFE AND COMMUNITIES 

Shmuel Bendor, B.A.; Secretary of 
the Council for Higher Education, 
Ministry of Education and Culture, 
Jerusalem: eden, sir anthony, earl 

OF AVON; KOHN, LEO 

Yehuda Ben-Dor*, B.A., L.L.B.; 
Faculty Member, Mandel Leadership 
Institute, Jerusalem: izbica radzyn; 

KOTSK, MENAHEM MENDEL OF; LEINER, 
GERSHON HANOKH BEN JACOB; 
PRZYSUCHA, JACOB ISAAC BEN ASHER; 
SIMHAH BUNEM OF PRZYSUCHA 

Yehuda Ben-Dror (James 
Marshall), B.A.; Jerusalem: new 

JERSEY; NEW YORK CITY 



Binyamin Zeev Benedikt, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Senior Lecturer in Rabbinical 
Literature and Halakhah, Tel Aviv 
University: ephraim ibn avi alragan; 

FRIEDMANN, MEIR; MOSES BEN JOSEPH 
BEN MERWAN LEVI; SAMUEL BEN DAVID 

David Ben-Gurion, Former Prime 
Minister and Minister of Defense 
of the State of Israel, Sedeh Boker: 

AHDUT HA-AVODAH; DECLARATION OF 
INDEPENDENCE, ISRAEL 

Zeev Ben-Hayyim, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Hebrew Philology, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem; Vice 
President of the Academy of the 
Hebrew Language, Jerusalem: ben- 

ASHER, AARON BEN MOSES; HEBREW 
GRAMMAR 

Eliashiv Ben-Horin, LL.B.; 
Ambassador, Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs, Jerusalem 

Meir Ben-Horin, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Education, Dropsie University, 
Philadelphia: dropsie college; 

HALPER, BENZION; NORDAU, MAX 

Ernest Frank Benjamin, Brigadier; 
Commander of the Jewish Brigade, 
England 

Robert M. Benjamin, M.A., 
Rabbi; Adjunct Assistant Professor 
of Humanities, Indiana State 
University, Terre Haute 

Jacov Benmayor, B.A.; Salonika: 

SALONIKA 

Moti Benmelech*, M.A.; Jewish 
History, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: benevento, immanuel 

BEN JEKUTHIEL; DEL BANCO, ANSELMO; 
ELIJAH OF LA MASSA; FANO; REUVENI, 
DAVID 

Naphtali Ben-Menahem, Executive 
Director of the Institute for Hebrew 
Bibliography, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: adler, shalom 

BEN MENAHEM; BLUM, AMRAM BEN 
ISAAC JACOB; BRACH, SAUL; BRISZK; 
DEUTSCH, JUDAH JOEL; EHRENFELD; 
EHRENREICH, HAYYIM JUDAH BEN 
KALONYMUS; EISENSTADT, MENAHEM 
ZEVI; ENGELMANN, GABRIEL; FRENK, 
BEER; FRIEDBERG, BERNARD; FUCHS, 
MOSES ZEVI; FUNK, SOLOMON; GLUECK, 
ABRAHAM ISAAC; GRUENFELD, JUDAH; 
GRUNWALD, AMRAM; GRUNWALD, 
JUDAH; GUENZLER, ABRAHAM; HELLER, 



JUDAH; JOSEPH SOLOMON ZALMAN 
BEN MEIR; JUNGREIS, ASHER ANSHEL; 
KAHANA, NAHMAN; KATTINA, JACOB; 
LANDSOFER, JONAH BEN ELIJAH; 
MICHAEL, HEIMANN JOSEPH HAYYIM; 
MODERN, JUDAH; PERLES, ISAAC 
MOSES; POLLAK, MOSES HA-LEVI; 
ROSENBAUM, MOSES HAYYIM LITS; 
SCHWARTZ, ABRAHAM JUDAH HA- 
KOHEN; SCHWARTZ, JOSEPH HA-KOHEN; 
SCHWARTZ, PHINEHAS SELIG HA-KOHEN; 
SHAG, ABRAHAM; SILBERSTEIN, DAVID 
JUDAH LEIB; STERN, GERSHON; STERN, 
JOSEPH; STERN, MENAHEM; TABAK, 
SOLOMON LEIB; TENNENBAUM, JACOB; 
ULMAN, ABRAHAM; WALDEN, AARON 
BEN ISAIAH NATHAN 

Haim Hillel Ben-Sasson, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Jewish History, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

AGE AND THE AGED; ANUSIM; 
APOSTASY; ASHKENAZI, ELIEZER BEN 
ELIJAH THE PHYSICIAN; ASSIMILATION; 
AUTONOMISM; BLACK DEATH; BLOOD 
LIBEL; BUDNY, SZYMON; CHARITY; 
COMMUNITY; COUNCILS OF THE 
LANDS; CRAFTS; DAVID BEN ZAKKAI; 
DISPUTATIONS AND POLEMICS; DOHM, 
CHRISTIAN WILHELM VON; DUBNOW, 
SIMON; ELDER; EXPULSIONS; GALUT; 
GERMANY; GERONDI, ZERAHIAH BEN 
ISAAC HA-LEVI; GLADIATOR; GOLOMB, 
ELIYAHU; GRODZINSKI, HAYYIM 
OZER; GRUENBAUM, YIZHAK; GUILDS; 
HADASSI, JUDAH BEN ELIJAH; HAI BEN 
SHERIRA; HISTORY: FOURTH TO SEVENTH 
CENTURIES; HISTORY: MODERN TIMES 

- FROM THE 1880S TO THE EARLY 21ST 
CENTURY; HISTORY: MODERN TIMES 

- TO 1880; HISTORY: THE MIDDLE AGES; 
HOROWITZ, ABRAHAM BEN SHABBETAI 
SHEFTEL; HOROWITZ, ISAIAH BEN 
ABRAHAM HA-LEVI; ISRAEL BEN ELIEZER 
BAAL SHEM TOV; JACOB OF BELZYCE; 
JOSEPH BEN ELIJAH OF ZASLLAW; 
KIDDUSH HA-SHEM AND HILLUL 
HA-SHEM; MAGGID; MAIMONIDEAN 
CONTROVERSY; MESSIANIC MOVEMENTS; 
MUSAR MOVEMENT; POLAND; SELF- 
DEFENSE; WIENER NEUSTADT; WINE AND 
LIQUOR TRADE; ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC 
HA-LEVI 

Menahem Ben-Sasson*, Ph.D.; 
Professor, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem, Knesset Member: ben-zvi 

INSTITUTE FOR THE STUDY OF JEWISH 
COMMUNITIES OF THE EAST; GENIZAH, 
CAIRO 

Haggai Ben-Shammai*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Arabic, Department 
of Arabic Language and Literature, 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



57 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ABU AL-FARAJ HARUN IBN AL-FARAJ; 
FIRKOVICH, ABRAHAM; JAPHETH BEN ELI 
HA-LEVI; KALAM; KARAITES; SAADIAH 
GAON 

Meir Hillel Ben-Shammai, Dr.Phil.; 
Editor and writer, Jerusalem: aldabi, 

MEIR BEN ISAAC; ELIJAH PHINEHAS BEN 
MEIR; PORTALEONE, ABRAHAM BEN 
DAVID II 

Joseph Ben-Shlomo, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Philosophy, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: cordovero, 

MOSES BEN JACOB; SOSKIN, SELIG EUGEN 

Daniel Ben-Simhon, Jerusalem: yad 

IZHAK BEN-ZVI 

Doris Bensimon-Donath, D.esL.; 
Professor emerite, Institut National 
Langues et Civilisations, Paris: 

FRANCE; PARIS 

Asher Benson*, Journalist, Dublin: 

IRELAND; WEINGREEN, JACOB 

Yaakov Bentolila*, Ph.D.; Professor 
Emeritus, Ben-Gurion University of 
the Negev, Beersheba: haketia 

Yakov K. Bentor, Ph.D.; D.es Sc; 
Professor of Geology, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: ancona, 

CESARE D'; BERENDT, GOTTLIEB 
MICHAEL; GOLDSCHMIDT, VICTOR 
MORITZ 

Haim Bentov, M.A., Rabbi; Lecturer 
in Talmud, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: meknes; raccah, 

MAS'UD BEN AARON; SARFATY; SERERO; 
TOLEDANO; UZIEL 

Joseph Bentwich, M.A.; Former 
Lecturer in Education, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: biram, 

ARTHUR 

Norman Bentwich, Ph.D.; Emeritus 
Professor of International Relations, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

HEBREW UNIVERSITY OF JERUSALEM; 
JEWISH SUCCESSOR ORGANIZATIONS; 
UNITED RESTITUTION ORGANIZATION 

Aviva Ben-Ur*, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor, University of 
Massachusetts at Amherst: Phillips, 

REBECCA MACHADO 

Meron Benvenisti, B.A.; Jerusalem: 

JERUSALEM 



Abraham Ben-Yaacob, B.A.; 
Researcher in Jewish History, 
Jerusalem: Baghdad; diyala; ezekiel-, 

EZEKIEL BEN REUBEN MANASSEH; 
EZRA; EZRA; GABBAI; GAGIN, HAYYIM 
ABRAHAM BEN MOSES; HALEVI, EZEKIEL 
EZRA BEN JOSHUA; HA-LEVI, SASSON BEN 
ELIJAH BEN MOSES; HOZIN, ZEDAKAH 
BEN SAADIAH; ISAAC BAR ISRAEL IBN AL- 
SHUWAYK; KAZIN, RAPHAEL BEN ELIJAH; 
KURDISTAN; MANI; MARDIN; MASLIAH 
SALIH; MA'TUK, SULAYMAN BEN DAVID; 
MAYMERAN; MEDINI, HAYYIM HEZEKIAH 
BEN RAPHAEL ELIJAH; MOSUL; NAHUM, 
AARON SASSON BEN ELIJAH; RUWANDIZ; 
SHINDOOKH, MOSES BEN MORDECAI; 
SOMEKH, ABDALLAH BEN ABRAHAM; 
SULEIMANIYA; ZAKHO 

Mordecai Ben-Yehezkiel, Writer, 

Jerusalem: Abraham hayyim ben 

GEDALIAH; ADEL 

Aharon Zeev Ben-Yishai, Writer 
and Critic, Tel Aviv: frischmann, 

DAVID; GORDON, JUDAH LEIB; PARODY, 
HEBREW; SHNEOUR, ZALMAN 

Isac Bercovici, Journalist, Bat Yam: 

CILIBI MOISE; GHELERTER, LUDWIG 
LITMAN; ISER, JOSIF; PAUKER, ANA; PRESS; 
PSANTIR, JACOB 

Michael Berenbaum*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Theology (Adjunct), 
Director, Sigi Ziering Institute, 
University of Judaism, Los Angeles, 
California: Abraham ezra millgram; 

ABRAMSON, JERRY EDWIN; ADLER, 
SAMUEL; AMERICAN COUNCIL FOR 
JUDAISM; ANIELEW1CZ, MORDECAI; 
ATLAS, JECHEZKIEL; BAAR, HERMAN; 
BABI YAR; BARSHEFSKY, CHARLENE; 
BAUM, SHEPARD; BELZEC; BERKOWITZ, 
HENRY; BERLIN; BERMAN, MORTON 
MAYER; BERNSTEIN, PHILIP SIDNEY; 
BESSO, HENRY; BETTAN, ISRAEL; BITBURG 
CONTROVERSY; BOKSER, BEN ZION; 
BOLTEN, JOSHUA B.; BORMANN, MARTIN; 
BRAND, JOEL JENO; BRICKNER, BARNETT 
ROBERT; BUCHENWALD; BULGARIA; 
CAMPS; CHELMNO; CHURCH COUNCILS; 
CHURCH, CATHOLIC; COHEN, BOAZ; 
COHEN, MORTIMER JOSEPH; COLOGNE; 
COUNCIL OF JEWISH FEDERATIONS AND 
WELFARE FUNDS; CRESSON, WARDER; 
CZERNIAKOW, ADAM; DACHAU; DAVIS, 
SUSAN A.; DENAZIFICATION; DENMARK; 
DEUTCH, JOHN M.; DORTMUND; 
DRACHMAN, BERNARD; DRANCY; 
DROB, MAX; DUISBURG; EISENDRATH, 
MAURICE NATHAN; ELKES, ELHANAN; 
ELLSBERG, DANIEL; ENGEL, ELIOT L.; 
EPSTEIN, CHAIM FISCHEL; EPSTEIN, 



GILBERT; EUROPA PLAN; EVANS, JANE; 
EVIAN CONFERENCE; FEINGOLD, 
RUSSELL; FELDHEIM, PHILIPP; FINEBERG, 
SOLOMON ANDHIL; FINKELSTEIN, 
ARTHUR; FINKELSTEIN, LOUIS; 
FINKELSTEIN, SHIMON; FLEISCHMANN, 
GISI; FRANK, BARNEY; FRANK, HANS 
MICHAEL; FRANK, KARL HERMANN; 
FREIBURG IM BREISGAU; FRIEDMAN, 
THEODORE; FUERTH; GADOL, MOISE S.; 
GEFFEN, JOEL; GELB, MAX; GERMANY; 
GHETTO; GLASER, JOSEPH; GOLDMAN, 
ISRAEL; GOLDMAN, SOLOMON; 
GOODBLAT, MORRIS; GORDON, ALBERT 
I.; GREENBERG, IRVING; GREENBERG, 
IRVING; GREENBERG, LOUIS; GREENBERG, 
SIMON; GREENWALD, JEKUTHIEL JUDAH; 
HAGEN; HALLE; HARLOW, JULIUS; HARRIS, 
LOUIS; HARRISON, LEON; HEBREW 
THEOLOGICAL COLLEGE; HELLER; 
HELLER, BERNARD; HENKIN, JOSEPH 
ELIJAH; HEYDRICH, REINHARD TRISTAN; 
HIRSHENSON, HAYIM; HISTADRUT 
IVRIT OF AMERICA; HOESS, RUDOLF 
FRANZ FERDINAND; HOLBROKE, 
RICHARD; HOLOCAUST; HOLOCAUST 
REMEMBRANCE DAY; HOLOCAUST 
RESCUERS, JEWISH; HOLOCAUST, 
THE; HOLOCAUST: AFTERMATH; 
HOLOCAUST: BEHAVIOR OF THE VICTIMS; 
HOLOCAUST: SPIRITUAL RESISTANCE IN 
THE GHETTOS AND CONCENTRATION 
CAMPS; HOLOCAUST: THE WORLD; 
HURWITZ, SHMARYA LEIB; INDYK, 
MARTIN; INTERNATIONAL TRACING 
SERVICE; ISRAEL, RICHARD J.; ISRAEL, 
STEVE; JACOBS, GEORGE; JANOWSKI, MAX; 
JEWISH COUNCIL ON PUBLIC AFFAIRS; 
JOHN XXIII; JUDENRAT; JUEDISCHER 
KULTURBUND; JUNG, LEO; K. ZETNIK; 
KADUSHIN, MAX; KAHN, ROBERT I.; 
KARP, ABRAHAM J.; KASZTNER, REZSO 
RUDOLF; KELMAN, WOLFE; KIDDUSH 
HA-HAYYIM; KLARSFELD, SERGE; KOHN, 
EUGENE; KOHN, JACOB; KOLDYCHEVO 
CAMP; KRISTALLNACHT; KURTZER, 
DANIEL CHARLES; LANDESMAN, ALTER; 
LANDMAN, ISAAC; LANGER, LAWRENCE 
L.; LANTOS, TOM; LAUTENBERG, FRANK 
R.; LAZARON, MORRIS SAMUEL; LEESER, 
ISAAC; LEFKOWITZ, LOUIS; LEHRMAN, 
IRVING; LEVI, PRIMO; LEVIN, CARL; 
LEVITSKY, LOUIS MOSES; LEW, JACOB; 
LIEBMAN, JOSHUA LOTH; LUBETKIN, 
ZIVIA; MAJDANEK; MALINES; MARGOLIS, 
GARVIEL ZEV; MASSACHUSETTS; MATLIN, 
MOSHE MEIR; MATT, C. DAVID; MATTUCK, 
ISRAEL I.; MAYER, SALY; MEED, BENJAMIN; 
MEMPHIS; MENGELE, JOSEF; MONTANA; 
MORAIS, SABATO; MUSELMANN; 
NADICH, JUDAH; NATIONAL SOCIALISM; 
NAZI MEDICAL EXPERIMENTS; NAZI- 
DEUTSCH; NEW HAVEN; NEWSPAPERS, 
HEBREW; NINTH FORT; NORWALK and 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



WESTPORT; NOVECK, SIMON; OFFNER, 
STACY; OKLAHOMA; OMAHA; ORANGE 
COUNTY; OVADIA, NISSIM J.; PARDES, 
SHMUEL AARON; PARZEN, HERBERT; 
PITTSBURGH; PITTSBURGH PLATFORM; 
POHL, OSWALD; POLLARD AFFAIR; 
PONARY; PREIL, ELAZAR MEIR; PRINZ, 
JOACHIM; RADEMACHER, FRANZ; 
REFUGEES; REICHSVEREINIGUNG; 
REICHSZENTRALE FUER JUEDISCHE 
AUSWANDERUNG; REINES, ALVIN JAY; 
RINGELBLUM, EMANUEL; ROSENAU, 
WILLIAM; ROSENBERG CASE; RSHA; 
RUBENSTEIN, RICHARD LOWELL; 
RUDIN, A. JAMES; RUDMAN, WARREN; 
SACHSENHAUSEN-ORANIENBURG; SAN 
GABRIEL-POMONA VALLEYS; SANDERS, 
BERNARD; SAUCKEL, FRITZ; SCHAALMAN, 
HERMAN E.; SCHACHT PLAN; 
SCHACHTER, JACOB J.; SCHELLENBERG, 
WALTER; SCHERMAN, NOSSON; SCHEUER, 
JAMES H.; SCHIFF, ADAM; SEYSS- 
INQUART, ARTHUR; SHANKMAN, JACOB 
K.; SHARLIN, WILLIAM; SIEGEL, MARK; 
SIEGEL, MORTON K.; SILVERMAN, IRA; 
SILVERMAN, JOSEPH; SIMON, ABRAM; 
SINGER, ISRAEL; SIVITZ, MOSHE; SOBIBOR; 
SOLOVEICHIK MOSHE; SONDERLING, 
JACOB; SPECTER, ARLEN; SS AND SD; 
STEINBERG, MILTON; STERNSTEIN, 
JOSEPH PHILIP; STOLZ, JOSEPH; 
STREICHER, JULIUS; STROOP, JUERGEN; 
STUERMER, DER; STUTTHOF; SURVIVORS 
OF THE SHOAH VISUAL HISTORY 
FOUNDATION, THE; TENENBAUM, 
MORDECAI; TISO, JOSEF; TREBLINKA; 
UNRRA; VOORSANGER, JACOB; VUGHT; 
WALDHEIM AFFAIR; WALLENBERG, 
RAOUL; WAR CRIMES TRIALS; WASKOW, 
ARTHUR; WASSERMAN SCHULTZ, DEBBIE; 
WEINBERGER, MOSHE; WEINSTEIN, 
JACOB; WEISSMANDEL, MICHAEL DOV; 
WESTERBORK; WILLIAM LEHMAN; 
WIRTH, CHRISTIAN; WISLICENY, DIETER; 
WITTENBERG, YIZHAK; WYDEN, RON; 
YOUNGSTOWN; YUDELOVITZ, ABRAHAM 
AARON; ZENTRALE STELLE DER LANDE 
SJUSTIZVERWALTUNGEN; ZLOTOWITZ, 
MEIR; ZUCKERMAN, ITZHAK; ZUROFF, 
EFRAIM 

Esme E. Berg*: American sephardi 

FEDERATION 

Roger Berg, D.Econ.; Editor, 

Paris: BELFORT; BENFELD; BIARRITZ; 
BISCHHEIM; UNIVERS ISRAELITE 

Abraham Berger, M.A.; Former 
Director, Jewish Division, the New 
York Public Library; Lecturer in 
Jewish History, the Academy for 
Jewish Religion, New York: bloch, 

JOSHUA 



Jack S. (Jacob Solomon) Berger*, 

Ph.D.; Mahwah, New Jersey: 

ETTINGER, SOLOMON; KOL MEVASSER 

Joseph Berger*, M.A.; B.A.; English 
Literature, Journalism, Senior 
Reporter for the New York Times, 
New York: displaced persons 

Shlomo Z. Berger*: fuks, lajb 

Joseph Berger-Barzilai, Professor 
of Political Science, particularly 
of the Soviet Union, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: trepper, 

LEOPOLD 

Samuel Hugo Bergman, Dr.Phil.; 
Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, 
the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: baumgardt, david; 

BENDAVID, LAZARUS; BENRUBI, ISAAC; 
BUBER, MARTIN; COHEN, HERMANN; 
COHEN, MORRIS RAPHAEL; EISLER, 
RUDOLF; FEIWEL, BERTHOLD; FICHTE, 
JOHANN GOTTLIEB; FRANK, PHILIPP; 
GORDON, AHARON DAVID; HEINEMANN, 
FRITZ; HERZ, MARCUS; HOENIGSWALD, 
RICHARD; ILNA'E, ELIEZER ISAAC; 
ITELSON, GREGOR; KRONER, RICHARD; 
LANDAUER, GUSTAV; LASK, EMIL; 
NELSON, LEONHARD; SIMMEL, GEORG; 
SOUL, IMMORTALITY OF; UTITZ, 
EMIL; WELTSCH, FELIX; WOLF, 
ABRAHAM 

Burton Berinsky, B.A.; Freelance 

Photographer, New York: abram, 

MORRIS BERTHOLD 

Harvey Berk*, B.A.; Principal and 
Associates Harvey Berk, Silver 
Spring, Maryland: b'nai b'rith 

Eliezer Berkovits, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Jewish Philosophy, the 
Hebrew Theological College, Skokie, 
Illinois: talmud 

Joel Berkowitz*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor and Chair, Judaic Studies, 
University at Albany, New York: 

GOLDFADEN, ABRAHAM; GORDIN, JACOB; 
HIRSCHBEIN, PERETZ; THEATER 

Simcha Berkowitz, M.A., M.H.L., 
Rabbi; the College of Jewish Studies, 
Detroit: agus, irving Abraham; 

GRAYZEL, SOLOMON; SZOLD, ROBERT 

Chip Berlet*, Senior Analyst at 
Political Research Associates, 
Somerville, Massachusetts: neo- 
nazism 



George L. Berlin*: Baltimore 

HEBREW UNIVERSITY 

Jacques Berlinerblau*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor Religious 
Studies, Hofstra University, New 
York: bible 

Yaffah Berlovitz*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Department of Literatures of the 
Jewish People, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: Hebrew literature, 

MODERN; MICHAEL, SAMI 

Harold Berman*, Dr.; Executive 
Director, Jewish Federation of 
Greater Springfield, Massachusetts: 

SPRINGFIELD 

Lawrence V. Berman, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of Religious 
Studies, Stanford University, 
California: al-batalyawsi, abu 

MUHAMMAD ABDALLAH IBN 
MUHAMMAD IBN AL-SlD; AVEMPACE; 
BRETHREN OF SINCERITY, EPISTLES 
OF; CAUSE AND EFFECT; EMPEDOCLES; 
HERMETIC WRITINGS; KALAM; PLATO 
AND PLATONISM; STOICISM 

Morton Mayer Berman, M.H.L., 
Rabbi; Honorary Director, 
Department of English-Speaking 
Countries, Keren Hayesod United 
Israel Appeal, Jerusalem: adler, max; 

BAMBERGER, LOUIS; BAMBERGER, SIMON; 
BUCHALTER, LOUIS; DAVIS, EDWARD; 
EISENBERG, SHOUL; GERTZ, ELMER; 
LANDAU, EUGEN; MERTON; ROSENBLUM, 
SIGMUND GEORGIEVICH; SIEGEL, 
BENJAMIN; WEINSTOCK, SIR ARNOLD, 
BARON; WERTHEIMER, JOSEPH RITTER 
VON; WISE, STEPHEN SAMUEL 

Moshe Eli aim Berman, M.Eng., 
F.I.E.E.; Director of Engineering, 
Ministry of Communications, Tel 

Aviv: BAGRIT, SIR LEON; PHILANTHROPY 

Saul Berman, M.A., M.H.L., Rabbi; 
Brookline, Massachusetts: law and 

MORALITY; NOACHIDE LAWS 

Isaak Dov Ber Markon, Dr.Phil.; 
Historian, Ramsgate, England: 

AARON SELIG BEN MOSES OF ZOLKIEW; 
BAER, SELIGMAN ISAAC; BALI, ABRAHAM 
BEN JACOB; BALI, MOSES BEN ABRAHAM; 
BASIR, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM HA-KOHEN 
HARO'EH AL-; BEGHI; BEIN, ALEXANDER; 
BIBLE; CARMOLY, ISSACHAR BAER BEN 
JUDAH LIMA; FlRUZ; GIBBOR, JUDAH 
BEN ELIJAH; IBN ABBAS, JUDAH BEN 
SAMUEL II; JACOB BEN REUBEN; JAPHETH 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



59 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



BEN DAVID IBN SAGHlR; JOSEPH BEN 
NOAH; JOSEPH BEN SAMUEL BEN ISAAC 
HA-MASHBIR; JOSIAH BEN SAUL BEN 
ANAN; JUDAH HA-PARSI; KALT, SAMUEL 
BEN JOSEPH; KAZAZ, ELIJAH BEN 
ELIJAH; KIRIMI, ABRAHAM; KUKIZOW; 
LICHTENSTEIN, HILLEL BEN BARUCH; 
LUZKI, JOSEPH SOLOMON BEN MOSES; 
POKI, JUDAH BEN ELIEZER CHELEBI; 
POTTERY 

Leo Bernard, Antiquarian 
bookseller, Member of the Czech 
Memorial Scrolls Committee, 
London: czech memorial scrolls, 

THE 

Suzan Berns, Jewish Community 
Federation of San Francisco 

Louis Bernstein, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Jewish History, Yeshiva 
University, New York: klavan, 

ISRAEL; LOOKSTEIN, JOSEPH HYMAN; 
MIZRACHI; POUPKO, BERNARD 

Selma Berrol, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of History, the Bernard 
Baruch College of the City 
University of New York: leipziger, 

HENRY M. 

Mel Berwin*, M.A.; Education 
Consultant, Jewish Women's 
Archive, Brookline, Massachusetts: 

B'NAI B'RITH 

Paul Bessemer*, M.A., M.E., 
C.Phil.; in Middle Eastern History; 
High School Teacher, Freelance 
Translator; Eugene, Oregon: javid 

BEY, MEHMED 

James D. Besser*, B.A.; Washington 

Correspondent, New York Jewish 
Week, Baltimore Jewish Times, 
Fairfax, Virginia: klein, morton; 

ZIONIST ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA 

Sonja Beyer*, Student for Magister 
Artium, Hochschule fur Judische 
Studien Heidelberg, Heidelberg, 
Germany: ehrlich, georg; 

FREUNDLICH, OTTO; KOPF, MAXIM 

Rachel Biale, M.A., M.S.W.; Author 
of Women and Jewish Law 

Yehuda Leib Bialer, Jerusalem: 

STEIN, ISAAC 

Frank (Franklin) Bialystok*, Ph.D.; 
Historian, Association of Canadian 
Jewish Studies, Toronto, Canada: 



FEDERMAN, MAX; GIVENS, PHILIP; 
HARRIS, SYDNEY; JEWISH IMMIGRANT 
AID SERVICES OF CANADA; KAPLAN, 
ROBERT P.; KAPLANSKY, KALMEN; 
KAYFETZ, BEN; KUPER, JACK; LANTOS, 
ROBERT; LENKINSKI, LOUIS; MARMUR, 
DOV; MARRUS, MICHAEL R.; PHILLIPS, 
NATHAN; SAMUEL, SIGMUND 

Shlomo Bickel, Dr.Jur.; Writer and 

Critic, New York: altman, moishe; 

ASHENDORF, ISRAEL; AUERBACH, 
EPHRAIM; AUSLAENDER, NAHUM; 
AYALTI, HANAN J.; BAAL-MAKHSHOVES; 
BOMZE, NAHUM; BOTOSHANSKY, JACOB; 
CHARNEY, DANIEL; GROSS, NAPHTALI; 
HALPERN, MOYSHE-LEYB; JUSTMAN, 
MOSHE BUNEM; LICHT, MICHAEL; 
LIEBERMAN, CHAIM; LUTZKY, A.; 
MINKOFF, NAHUM BARUCH; MUKDONI, 
A.; SHTERN, ISRAEL; YAKNEHAZ 

Elias J. Bickerman, Ph.D.; Emeritus 
Professor of Ancient History, 
Columbia University, New York: 

PERSIA 

Israel M. Biderman, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Education, New York University; 
the Jewish Teachers' Seminary, New 
York: orland, hershl 

David Bidney, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Anthropology and Education, 
Indiana University, Bloomington: 

ANTHROPOLOGY 

Konrad Bieber, Ph.D.; Professor of 
French and Comparative Literature, 
the State University of New York, 
Stony Brook: vercors 

Rose Bieber, B.A., Lie. en Sc. 
Comm.; Brussels: errera, paul 

JOSEPH; LIPSKI, ABRAHAM 

Erwin Bienenstok, LL.M.; 
Journalist, London: television and 

RADIO 

Anat Biger*, M.A.; Ph.D. student, 
Faculty of Arts, Tel Aviv University: 

ISRAEL, STATE OF: BROADCASTING, FILM, 
TELEVISION 

Gideon Biger*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Geography, Tel Aviv University: 

BANIAS; CARMEL, MOUNT; HYENA; 
ISRAEL, LAND OF: GEOGRAPHICAL 
SURVEY; ISRAEL, STATE OF: HISTORICAL 
SURVEY 

Max Bilen, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in French Literature, Tel Aviv 



University: jacob, max; vigee, 

CLAUDE 

Israel Ch. Biletzky, B.A.; Writer, 

Tel Aviv: epstein, melech; feinberg, 

LEON; GRADE, CHAIM; GROSS- 
ZIMMERMANN, MOSHE; HERSHELE; 
KARPINOVITSH, AVROM; LEHRER, 
LEIBUSH; LEV, ABRAHAM; MENDELSOHN, 
SHELOMO; MENDELSON, JOSE; MENES, 
ABRAM; NEUMANN, YEHESKEL MOSHE; 
OLEVSKI, BUZI; PAPIERNIKOV, JOSEPH; 
YUD, NAHUM 

Frederik Julius Billeskov-Jansen, 

Ph.D.; Professor of Danish 
Literature, Copenhagen University: 

BRANDES, CARL EDVARD; BRANDES, 
GEORG; GOLDSCHMIDT, MEIR ARON; 
HERTZ, HENRIK 

Frederick M. Binder, Ed.D.; 
Professor of Educational History, 
City College of the City University 
of New York: sachs, julius 

Emanuel Bin-Gorion, Writer and 
Scholar, Holon, Israel: horodezky, 

SAMUEL ABBA 

Avraham Biran, Ph.D.; Director of 
the Department of Antiquities and 
Museums, Ministry of Education 
and Culture, Jerusalem: Israel 

MUSEUM; MUSEUMS; ROCKEFELLER 
MUSEUM 

Yoav Biran, B.A; Ministry for 
Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: kenya 

Solomon Asher Birnbaum, 

Dr.Phil.; Former Lecturer in Hebrew 
Palaeography and Epigraphy, the 
School of Oriental and African 
Studies, the University of London: 

ALPHABET, HEBREW 

Maurice Bisgyer, M.A.; Honorary 
Executive Vice President of B nai 
B rith, Washington, D.C.: klutznick, 

PHILIP MORRIS 

Eugene C. (Charlton) Black*, 

Ph.D.; Otillie Springer Professor of 
Modern European History, Brandeis 
University, Waltham, Massachusetts: 

BIGART, JACQUES 

Haim Blanc, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Linguistics, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: bloomfield, 

LEONARD 

Simha Blass, Engineer; Former 



60 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Director General of Tahal Water 
Planning for Israel, Tel Aviv 

Joseph L. Blau, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Religion, Columbia University, 

New York: adams, hannah; ethical 

CULTURE; RECKENDORF, HERMANN 
SOLOMON; ROTH, LEON 

Joshua Blau*, Ph.D.; Professor 
Emeritus of Arabic Language and 
Literature, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: Arabic language; 

BARTH, JACOB; HAPAX LEGOMENA; 
HEBREW LANGUAGE; IBN BAL'AM, JUDAH 
BEN SAMUEL; IBN BARUN, ABU IBRAHIM 
ISAAC BEN JOSEPH IBN BENVENISTE; IBN 
QURAYSH, JUDAH; MENAHEM BEN JACOB 
IBN SARUQ 

Paul Blau, Encyclopaedia Judaica 
(Germany); Vienna: makai, emil 

Rivkah (Teitz) Blau*, Ph.D.; Author 
and Lecturer, New York: teitz, 

PINCHAS; UNION COUNTY 

Gerald Y. Blidstein*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Jewish Thought, the 
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 
Beersheba: commandments, reasons 

FOR; EVEN SHETIYYAH; ISRAEL, KINGDOM 
OF; NASI; PRIESTS AND PRIESTHOOD 

Ruben (Victor) Bloemgarten*, 

Translator and Unix Systems 
Engineer, The Netherlands: polak, 

HENRI 

Salvador (Edmond) Bloemgarten*, 

Ph.D.; Historian, Menasseh ben 
Israel Institute, Amsterdam, The 
Netherlands: polak, henri 

Douglas M. Bloomfield*, B.A. 
M.A.; Journalist, Syndicated 
Columnist, Washington, D.C.: 

NATIONAL JEWISH DEMOCRATIC 
COUNCIL; ROSENTHAL, BENJAMIN 
STANLEY 

Richard N. Bluestein, LL.D.; 
Executive Vice President, the 
National Jewish Hospital, Denver, 
Colorado 

Harry Bluestone, B.A., A.C.S.W.; 
Former Executive Director of the 
Jewish Federation of Delaware, 
Wilmington 

Albert A. Blum, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Labor History, Michigan State 
University, East Lansing: gitlow, 



BENJAMIN; GOLD, BENJAMIN; LEISERSON, 
WILLIAM MORRIS 

Haim Karl Blum, Dr. Phil.; 
Historian, Jerusalem: galati 

Samuel M. Blumenfield, D.H.L., 
Rabbi; Professor of Hebrew 
Literature and Culture, Hofstra 
University, Hempstead, New York: 

SPERTUS INSTITUTE OF JEWISH STUDIES 

Bernhard Blumenkranz, Ph.D., 
D.es-L.; Maitre de Recherches, 
Centre National de la Recherche 
Scientifique, Paris: agde; agen; 

AIX-EN-PROVENCE; ALBI; ALCUIN; ALES; 
ALFONSUS BONIHOMINIS; ALPHONSE 
OF POITIERS; ALSACE; AMBROSE; 
AMMERSCHWIHR; AMULO; ANDREW OF 
RINN; ANGERS; ANGOULEME; ANJOU; 
ANSELM OF CANTERBURY; ANTOINE, 
NICOLAS; APT; AQUINAS, THOMAS; ARLES; 
AUVERGNE; AUXERRE; AVIGNON; AVITUS; 
BADGE, JEWISH; BAIGNEUX-LES-JUIFS; 
BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX; BERTHOLD OF 
REGENSBURG; BIBLE SOCIETIES; BIDACHE; 
BODIN, JEAN; BORDEAUX; BORROMEO, 
CARLO; BOSSUET, JACQUES BENIGNE; 
BOUDIN, JEAN-FRANCOIS; BOURG-EN- 
BRESSE; BOURGEOIS, JEAN; BOURGES; 
BRAY-SUR- SEINE; BRESSE; BRITTANY; 
BURCHARD OF WORMS; BURGUNDY; 
CADENET; CAEN; CAPESTANG; 
CARCASSONNE; CARPENTRAS; 
CASTELSARRASIN; CAVAILLON; 
CHALONS-SUR-MARNE; CHALON-SUR- 
SAONE; CHAMBERY; CHAMPAGNE; 
CHARLEMAGNE; CHARLES IV; CHARLES 
V; CHARLES VI; CHARLEVILLE; 
CHARTRES; CHATEAU-LANDON; 
CHATEAU-THIERRY; CHINON; CHURCH 
FATHERS; CLERMONT-FERRAND; CLUNY; 
COLBERT, JEAN BAPTISTE; COLMAR; 
CORBEIL; CREMIEU; CRISPIN, GILBERT; 
DAMIAN, PETER; DAMPIERRE-DE-LAUBE; 
DAUPHINE; DIGNE; DIJON; DOMINICANS; 
DRAGUIGNAN; DREUX; ENSISHEIM; 
EPERNAY; ETAMPES; ETTENDORF; 
EUGENIUS; EVREUX; FALAISE; FLORUS 
OF LYONS; FOIX; FONTAINEBLEAU; 
FORCALQUIERS; FRANCE; FRANCHE- 
COMTE; FULBERT OF CHARTRES; 
GASCONY; GELASIUS I; GEVAUDAN; 
GRATIAN; GREGORY; GREGORY OF 
TOURS; GUEBWILLER; HADRIAN I; 
HAGUENAU; HAVRE, LE; HEGENHEIM; 
HILDEBERT OF LAVARDIN; HILDUIN; 
HONORIUS; HRABANUS MAURUS; HYERES; 
INGWILLER; INNOCENT; ISLE-SUR-LA- 
SORGUE, L'; IVO OF CHARTRES; JACOB OF 
PONT-SAINTE-MAXENCE; JOHN II; JOHN 
XXII; JOIGNY; JULIUS III; JUNGHOLZ; 
LANGUEDOC; LEO; LIMOGES; LIMOUX; 



LODEVE; LONS-LE-SAUNIER; LOUIS; 
LUNEL; LYONS; MACHAUT, DENIS DE; 
MACON; MACON; MANESSIER DE VESOUL; 
MANOSQUE; MANS, LE; MARSEILLES; 
MELUN; MONTELIMAR; MONTEREAU; 
MONTPELLIER; MORHANGE; MULHOUSE; 
NANTES; NARBONNE; NEVERS; NICE; 
NIMES; NIMES; NYONS; OBERNAI; 
ODO OF CAMBRAI; ODO OF SULLY; 
ORANGE; ORLEANS; PAMIERS; PARIS; 
PASTOUREAUX; PETER OF BLOIS; PETER 
OF CLUNY; PEYREHORADE; PHILIP; 
POITIERS; POITU; PONTOISE; POSQUIERES; 
PROVINS; PUY, LE; RAMERUPT; RAOUL 
GLABER; RHEIMS; RIBEAUVILLE; 
ROCHELLE, LA; ROSENWILLER; ROSHEIM; 
ROUEN; ROUFFACH; ROUSSILLON 
RUDOLPH; SAINT-DENIS; SAINTES 
SAINT-GILES; SAINT-JEAN-DE-LUZ; SAINT- 
PAUL-TROIS-CHATEUX;SAINT-REMY-DE- 
PROVENCE;SAINT-SYMPHORIEN-D'OZON; 
SAVERNE; SAVOY; SELESTAT; SENLIS; SENS; 
SERRES; SIMON, RICHARD; SISTERON; 
SOISSONS; SOULTZ; STRASBOURG; 
TARASCON; TITHES, CHURCH; TOULON; 
TOULOUSE; TOURAINE; TOURS; TRETS; 
TREVOUX; TROYES; VALENCE; VALREAS; 
VERDUN-SUR-GARONNE; VESOUL; VIBERT 
OF NOGENT; VIENNE; VILLEFRANCHE-DE- 
CONFLENT; VITRY 

Nachman Blumental, Historian, 

Jerusalem: barash, ephraim; 

BUEHLER, JOSEF; DACHAU 

H. Elchanan Blumenthal, M.A., 

Rabbi; Jerusalem: ha lahma anya; 

HASIDEI UMMOT HA-OLAM; KAVVANAH; 
NEW MOON, ANNOUNCEMENT OF; 
NIGHT PRAYER 

Henriette Boas, Ph.D.; Journalist, 

Amsterdam: elkerbout, ben ; fuks, 

LAJB; GANS, MOZES HEIMAN; GODEFROI, 
MICHAEL HENRI; GOUDSMIT, JOEL 
EMANUEL; HAAN, JACOB ISRAEL DE; 
HERZBERG, ABEL JACOB; HORODISCH, 
ABRAHAM; MEIJER, JACOB; MEIJERS, 
EDUARD MAURITS; MEYER, JONAS 
DANIEL; MIRANDA, SALOMON 
RODRIGUES DE; NETHERLANDS, THE; 
NIEROP, VAN; OPPENHEIM, JACQUES; 
ORNSTEIN, LEONARD SALOMON; 
SARPHATI, SAMUEL; SCHUSTER, AARON; 
VISSER, LODEWIJK ERNST; VORST, 
LOUIS J. 

Charles Boasson, LL.D.; 
the Truman Center for the 
Advancement of Peace, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: asser 

Mendel Bobe, Engineer, Tel Aviv: 

COURLAND; LATZKY-BERTHOLDI, JACOB 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



61 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



ZE'EV WOLF; NUROCK, MORDECHAI; 
YOFFE, ALTER 

Y. Michal Bodemann, Ph.D.; Assoc. 
Professor of Sociology, University of 
Toronto 

Frederick Simon Bodenheimer, 

Dr. Phil.; Emeritus Professor of 
General Zoology and Entomology, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

HA-REUBENI, EPHRAIM 

Yohanan Boehm, Music critic, 

Jerusalem: zukerman, pinchas; 

DANCE; DA-OZ, RAM; DAUS, AVRAHAM; 
EDEN-TAMIR; FRIED, MIRIAM; GILBOA, 
JACOB; GRAZIANI, YITZHAK; HORAH; 
INBAL DANCE THEATER; INBAL, ELIAHU; 
ISRAEL PHILHARMONIC ORCHESTRA; 
JACOBI, HANOCH; JAFFE, ELI; KADMAN, 
GURIT; KALICHSTEIN, JOSEPH; LAKNER, 
YEHOSHUA; MAAYANI, AMI; NATRA, 
SERGIU; ORGAD, BEN ZION; PRESSLER, 
MENAHEM; RONLY-RIKLIS, SHALOM; 
SADAI, YIZHAK; SCHIDLOWSKY, LEON; 
SETER, MORDECHAI; SMOIRA-COHN, 
MICHAL 

Harm den Boer*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Chair of Spanish Literature, 
University of Basel, Switzerland: 

ABENDANA, JACOB BEN JOSEPH; CORREA, 
ISABEL DE; COSTA, URIEL DA 

Gunter Bohm, B.A.; Professor of 
Jewish Art and Vice Director of the 
Institute for the Study of Judaism, 
the University of Chile, Santiago: 

CHILE; KOSICE, GYULA 

Anne Bohnenkamp-Renken*, 

Ph.D.; Director, Freies Deutsches 
HochstifV Frankfurter Goethe- 
Museum, Frankfurt University, 
Germany: goethe, johann 

WOLFGANG VON 

Leon Boim, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Political Science, Tel 
Aviv University 

Willy Bok, M.A.; Acting Director 
of the Centre National des Hautes 
Etudes Juives, Brussels: Antwerp; 

BRUSSELS; WIENER, ERNEST EDOUARD 

Ben Zion Bokser, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Adjunct Professor of English, 
Queens College of the City 
University of New York: justin 

MARTYR; LIFE AND DEATH 

Robert G. Boling, Ph.D.; Professor 



of Old Testament, McCormick 
Theological Seminary, Chicago: 

BAAL-BERITH; BOOK OF JASHAR; JOTHAM; 
SISERA 

Sidney Bolkosky* : Detroit; 

HOLOCAUST 

Shimon Bollag*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer, Department of Science 
Teaching, Jerusalem College of 
Technology: mathematics 

Ruth Bondi*, Writer and Historian, 
Ramat Gan: theresienstadt 

Robert Bonfil*, Ph.D.; Professor 
Emeritus of Jewish History, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ITALY; PIPERNO BEER, SERGIO 

Marlene Booth*, M.F.A.; 
Documentary Filmmaker and 
Lecturer, Academy for Creative 
Media, University of Hawaii, 
Honolulu, Hawaii: iowa 

Paul Borchardt, Encyclopaedia 
Judaica (Germany); Munich: mosul 

Poul Borchsenius, M.A., Reverend; 
Historian, Randers, Denmark: 

SCANDINAVIAN LITERATURE 

Howard Borer*: Worcester 

Linda J. Borish*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of History and Women's 
Studies Program History, Western 
Michigan University, Kalamazoo, 
Michigan: cohen, natalie; epstein, 

CHARLOTTE; HELDMAN, GLADYS 
MEDALIE 

David Joseph Bornstein, 

Encyclopaedia Judaica (Germany); 
Berlin: maaserot; makkot; mar bar 

RAV ASHI; MARI BEN ISSUR; MEREMAR; 
NAHMAN BAR RAV HUNA; NAHMAN BEN 
ISAAC; NAHMAN BEN JACOB; NAHUM OF 
GiMZO; NAHUM THE MEDE; NAKDIMON 
BEN GURYON; NASHIM; NATHAN 
DE-ZUZITA RESH GALUTA; NATHAN 
HA-BAVLI; NEGATM; NEHORAI; NEZIKIN; 
NITTAI OF ARBELA; ORLAH 

Leah Bornstein-Makovetsky*, 

Ph.D.; Senior Lecturer in Jewish 
Studies, College of Judea and 
Samaria, Ariel, Israel: adjiman; 

ALEPPO; AMASIYA; ASHKENAZI, BEHOR; 
BENVENISTE, MOSES; BURSA; BUSTANAI 
BEN HANINAI; CAPITULATIONS; 
DAMANHUR; DAMASCUS; EDESSA; 



EL-ARISH; FARHI; GALLIPOLI; HAMON; 
ISTANBUL; IZMIT; JADlD AL-ISLAM; 
KHARAJ AND JIZYA; KHAYBAR; KIERA; 
MAHALLA AL-KUBRA; MANISSA; 
MANSURA; MENASCE, DE; MOLCHO, 
DAVID EFFENDI ISAAC PASHA; OTTOMAN 
EMPIRE; PALTIEL; PORT SAID; RABBI, 
RABBINATE; RASHID; SAMUEL IBN ADIYA; 
SAPHIR, JACOB; SARUJ; SIJILMASSA; 
SOLAL; SUAREZ; SULEIMAN I; TANTA; 
TLEMCEN; TOKAT; TRIPOLI; VALENSI 

Eugene B. Borowitz, D.H.L., Ed.D., 
Rabbi; Professor of Jewish Religious 
Thought and of Education, the 
Hebrew Union College-Jewish 
Institute of Religion, New York: 

FRIENDSHIP; LOVE 

Elijah Bortniker, Ph.D.; the Jewish 
Education Committee, New York: 

EDUCATION, JEWISH 

Jacob Borut*, Ph.D.; Historian, 
Yad Vashem, Jerusalem: verband 

DER DEUTSCHEN JUDEN; VERBAND DER 
VEREINE FUER JUEDISCHE GESCHICHTE 
UND LITERATUR 

Shira Borut, Ph.D.; Research 
Associate in Parasitology, the 
Hebrew University- Hadassah 
Medical School, Jerusalem: rayss, 

TSCHARNA 

Alvin Boskoff, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Sociology, Emory University, 
Atlanta, Georgia: aron, Raymond ; 

CAHNMAN, WERNER J.; DIAMOND, 
SIGMUND; GUMPLOWICZ, LUDWIG; 
GURVITCH, GEORGES 

Philippe Boukara*, Doctoral 
Candidate, Lecturer in History, 
Institute detudes politiques - 
Training Department, Memorial 
de la Shoah, Paris, France: kagan, 

ELIE; KAHN, ALBERT; KRYGIER, RIVON; 
LUSTIGER, JEAN-MARIE ARON; SCHWARZ- 
BART, ANDRE; SIRAT, RENE SAMUEL 

Alan Keir Bowman, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor of Classics, 
Rutgers University, New Jersey: 

PAPYRI 

Daniel Boyarin, M.H.L.; New 

York: mene, mene, tekel, u-farsin; 

RESURRECTION; TUBAL-CAIN; URIAH; UZ; 
WATCHERS 

Rachel Bracha*, M.A.; Archive 
Coordinator, World ORT, London, 
England: ort 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Marshall (A.) Brachman*, M.B.A.; 
Lobbyist, Washington, D.C.: frost, 

MARTIN 

Harry M. Bracken, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Philosophy, McGill University, 
Montreal 

Randolph (L.) Braham*, Ph.D.; 
Distinguished Professor Emeritus, 
Graduate Center of the City 
University of New York: abony; 

ALBERTI-IRSA; ASZOD; BAIA-MARE; 
BAJA; BALASSAGYARMAT; BEKESCSABA; 
BELED; BERETTYOUJFALU; BISTRITA; 
BODROGKERESZTUR; BONYHAD; BORSA; 
BUDAPEST; CLUJ; DEJ 

Andreas Bramer*, Dr.Phil.; 
Associate Director, Institut fur die 
Geschichte der deutschen Juden, 
Hamburg, Germany: zuckerman, 

BENEDICT 

Emmanuel Brand, Dipl. Archiv.; 

Jerusalem: Lvov mengele, josef; war 

CRIMES TRIALS 

Jehoshua Brand, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Talmudic Archaeology, 
Tel Aviv University: baron de hirsch 

FUND; CIRCUSES AND THEATERS; 
GAON 

Paul Anthony Brand*, Dr.Phil.; 
Senior Research Fellow, All Souls 
College, Oxford, England: henry of 

WINCHESTER; ISAAC OF SOUTHWARK 

Joseph Brandes, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History, Paterson State College, 
Wayne, New Jersey: agriculture; 

BACHARACH; JEWISH AGRICULTURAL 
SOCIETY; SABSOVICH, H. L.; VINELAND 

Rainer Brandle*, Dr.Phil.; 
Assistant, Archiv Bibliographia 
Judaica, Johann Wolfgang Goethe- 
Universitat, Frankfurt, Germany 

Samuel G.F. Brandon, D.D.; 
Professor of Comparative Religion, 
the University of Manchester: sicarii 

Yehuda Zvi Brandwein, Rabbi; 
Author, Jerusalem: ashlag, yehudah 

Joseph Braslavi (Braslavski), 

Historian, Tel Aviv: jaffa-, kefar 

YASIF; KHAYBAR; MACHPELAH, CAVE OF; 
MOUNT OF OLIVES; PEKITN; RACHEL 

Chaya (R) Brasz*, M.A.; Freelance 
Historian and Publicist; Former 



Director of the Center for Research 
on Dutch Jewry, Jerusalem: 

AMSTERDAM; GOUDEKET, MAURITS; 
NETHERLANDS, THE 

Alisa Braun*, M.A.; Lecturer, 
University of California, Davis, 
California: mani leib 

David S. Braun*, Preceptor in 
Yiddish, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts: cahan, 

JUDAH LOEB 

Eliot Braun*, PH.D.; Archaeologist, 
Associate Fellow, WF Albright 
Institute of Archaeological Research, 
Jerusalem; Associate Researcher, 
Centre de Recherche Francais de 
Jerusalem: epstein, claire 

Sidney D. Braun, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Romance Languages, the Herbert 
H. Lehman College of the City 
University of New York: hertz, 

HENRI; MAUROIS, ANDRE; MENDES, 
CATULLE; SUARES, ANDRE; THARAUD, 
JEROME and JEAN 

Susana Brauner*, M.A.; Senior 
University Teacher and Investigator, 
UADE-UBA, Argentina, South 
America: teubal, ezra 

Susan L. Braunstein*, Ph.D.; 
Curator of Archaeology and Judaica, 
The Jewish Museum, New York: 

HANUKKAH LAMP 

■ 

Zeev Braverman, Elitzur, Tel Aviv: 

ELITZUR 

Sandee Brawarsky*: new york city, 

UPPER WEST SIDE 

Abraham J. Brawer, Dr. Phil.; 
Geographer and Historian, Tel Aviv: 

ABU GHOSH; BASHAN; BATUMI; BIELSKO; 
BIRKENTHAL, DOV BER; BUCHACH; 
DAMASCUS AFFAIR; GEOGRAPHY; 
GILBOA; GINNOSAR, PLAIN OF; HOLON; 
HOROWITZ, ISRAEL ZE'EV; ISRAEL, LAND 
OF: GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY; JORDAN; 
LUNCZ, ABRAHAM MOSES; NAPOLEON 
BONAPARTE; PALESTINE; SAPIR, ELIYAHU; 
SCHWARZ, YEHOSEPH; TABOR, MOUNT; 
TEMPLERS; TIBERIAS; WOLFENBUETTEL; 
YARMUK 

Moshe Brawer, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Geography, Tel 
Aviv University: Israel, state of: 

HISTORICAL SURVEY; PHILIPPSON; RED 
SEA 



Menachem M. Brayer, Ph.D., 
D.H.L., Rabbi; Clinical Psychologist, 
Professor of Biblical Literature and 
Education, Yeshiva University, New 
York: fromm, erich; lewin, kurt 

ZADEK; MALLER, JULIUS BERNARD; 
PSYCHOLOGY; ROBACK, ABRAHAM 
AARON 

Jennifer (Stern) Breger*, B.A., 
M.A.; Silver Springs, Maryland: 

PRINTING, HEBREW 

Marshal Breger*: bush, george 

HERBERT WALKER; BUSH, GEORGE 
WALKER 

Marc Bregman*: tanhuma 

YELAMMEDENU 

Sol Breibart*: Charleston 

Shlomo Breiman, Ph.D.; Writer and 

Scholar, Jerusalem: helpern, michael 

Michael Brenner*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Jewish History and 
Culture, Ludwig-Maximilians- 
Universitat, Munich, Germany: 

AUERBACH, PHILIPP; BECKER, JUREK; 
BUBIS, IGNATZ; COHN-BENDIT, 
DANIEL; GALINSKI, HEINZ; GERMANY; 
HERMLIN, STEPHAN; HOCHHUTH, ROLF; 
JUEDISCHE VOLKSPARTEI; NACHMANN, 
WERNER; SPIEGEL, PAUL; STERN, FRITZ 
RICHARD; ZENTRALRAT DER JUDEN IN 
DEUTSCHLAND 

Maria Brettschneider*, Ph.D.; 
Professor, Political Philosophy, 
University of New Hampshire: 

COHEN, FANNIA; HAUSER, RITA ELEANOR; 
MESSINGER, RUTH WYLER 

Mordechai Breuer, Ph.D.; Educator, 

Jerusalem: delitzsch, franz ; 

FRANKFURT ON THE MAIN; PHILIPPSON; 
PILPUL; ROSOWSKY, SOLOMON; YESHIVOT 

Yochanan Breuer*, Ph.D.; the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

HEBREW LANGUAGE 

Herbert Chanan Brichto, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Professor of Bible, the 
Hebrew Union College- Jewish 
Institute of Religion, Cincinnati: 

BLASPHEMY; BLESSING AND CURSING; 
PRIESTLY BLESSING 

Ravelle Brickman, B.A.; New York: 

RACHEL; RUBINSTEIN, IDA 

William W. Brickman, Ph.D.; 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



63 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Professor of Educational History 
and Comparative Education, 
the University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia: education; 

ENGELMANN, SUSANNE CHARLOTTE; 
FLEXNER, ABRAHAM; GOULD, SAMUEL 
BROOKNER; KANDEL, ISAAC LEON; 
KARSEN, FRITZ; PEREIRE, JACOB 
RODRIGUES; RICHMAN, JULIA; 
STERN, ERICH; STERN, WILLIAM; 
UNIVERSITIES 

Bernhard Brilling, Dr. Phil., Rabbi; 
Lecturer in Jewish History, the 
University of Muenster, Germany: 

BADEN; BRESLAU; GOERLITZ; HOMBURG; 
MINDEN; PADERBORN; SILESIA; SOEST; 
STETTIN; WARENDORF 

David Brinn*, B.Sc; Editorial 
Director, Israel 21c, Jerusalem: 

RAMONE, JOEY; ROTH, DAVID LEE; WEISS, 
MELVYN I. 

Dvora Briskin-Nadiv, B.A., B.Ed.; 
Assistant in Biblical Studies, the 
University of the Negev, Beersheba: 

HABAKKUK 

Sir Israel Brodie, B.A., B.Litt., 
Rabbi; Former Chief Rabbi of the 
British Commonwealth, London: 

MILITARY SERVICE 

Heinrich Haim Brody, Ph.D.; 
Scholar of Medieval Hebrew Poetry 
and former Chief Rabbi of Prague, 
Jerusalem: aaron simeon ben 

JACOB ABRAHAM OF COPENHAGEN; 
AL-AVANI, ISAAC; ANKAWA, ABRAHAM 
BEN MORDECAI; BANET; CASTELNUOVO, 
MENAHEM AZARIAH MEIR BEN ELIJAH 

Ephraim Broido, Writer and Editor, 

Jerusalem: Shakespeare, william 

Abraham Isaac Bromberg, Rabbi; 
Writer, Jerusalem: sochaczew, 

ABRAHAM BEN ZE'EV NAHUM 
BORNSTEIN OF 

Maury A. Bromsen, M.A.; Boston, 

Massachusetts: harrisse, henry 

Fred Bronner, M.A.; Lecturer in 
Latin American History, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: Argentina 

Lawrence Brook*, B.A.; Publisher, 
Deep South Jewish Voice, 
Birmingham, Alabama: Alabama; 

BIRMINGHAM 

Simcha Shalom Brooks*, B.A., 



M.A., Ph.D.; Freelance Scholar, 
London, England: gibeah, geba; 

GIBEON 

Chaim Brovender, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Instructor in Bible, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: Hebrew 

LANGUAGE 

Hannah Brown*, B.A.; Writer, 
Jerusalem Post, Jerusalem: almagor, 

GILA; BAKRI, MOHAMMED; CEDAR, 
JOSEPH; DAYAN, ASSAF; FOX, EYTAN; 
GITAI, AMOS; GLOBUS, YORAM; IVGY, 
MOSHE 

Michael Brown*, B.A., M.A., 
M.H.L., Ph.D., D.D.; Professor 
Emeritus, York University, Toronto, 
Canada: Joseph; Rosenberg, stuart 

E.; SCHEUER, EDMUND 

Theodore M. Brown, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor of History, City 
College of the City University of 
New York: singer, charles Joseph 

Tracy L. Brown*, M.A., B.A.; 
Researcher, United States Holocaust 
Memorial Museum, Washington, 

D.C.: HOLOCAUST 

Rosalind Browne, Art critic, New 
York 

Christopher R. Browning*, Ph.D.; 
Frank Porter Graham Professor 
of History University of North 
Carolina at Chapel Hill, North 
Carolina: hilberg, raul 

Josef Brozek, Ph.D.; Research 
Professor, Lehigh University, 
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania: luria, 

ALEXANDER ROMANOVICH; VYGOTSKI, 
LEV SEMYONOVICH 

Frederick Fyvie Bruce, D.D.; 
Professor of Biblical Criticism 
and Exegesis, the University of 
Manchester, England: asceticism; 

COPPER SCROLL; DAMASCUS, BOOK OF 
COVENANT OF; DEAD SEA SCROLLS; 
KITTIM; LIES, MAN OF; LIES, PROPHET 
OF; LION OF WRATH; MURABBAAT 
SCROLLS; PESHER; QUMRAN; SEEKERS 
AFTER SMOOTH THINGS; SEREKH; 
SHAPIRA FRAGMENTS; SONS OF LIGHT; 
TEACHER OF RIGHTEOUSNESS; WAR 
SCROLL; WICKED PRIEST; YAHAD; 
ZADOKITES 

Gerald Bubis*: united Jewish 

COMMUNITIES 



Arthur T. Buch, D.S.Sc, Rabbi; 
Teacher, New York 

Nancy (Nield) Buchwald*, Ph.D.; 
Independent Scholar, Columbus, 

Ohio: MANSO, LEO; MARGO, BORIS; 
MARGOULIES, BERTA; MARIL, HERMAN; 
MARYAN; MENKES, ZYGMUNT; MOHOLY- 
NAGY, LASZLO; MOISE, THEODORE 
SYDNEY; MOPP; NICHOLS, JACK; 
PANOFSKY, ERWIN; RASKIN, SAUL; 
REDER, BERNARD; REISS, LIONEL; ROSE, 
HERMAN; ROSENTHAL, MAX; ROTHSTEIN, 
IRMA; SCHAMES, SAMSON; SCHANKER, 
LOUIS; SCHAPIRO, MEYER; SCHOR, ILYA; 
SCHWARTZ, MANFRED; SIMON, SIDNEY; 
SPIRO, EUGEN; STERNE, HEDDA; STERNE, 
MAURICE; TEWI, THEA; TWORKOV, JACK; 
WILSON, SOL; ZUCKER, JACQUES 

Emmanuel Bulz, LL.D., Rabbi; 
Chief Rabbi of Luxembourg: 

LUXEMBOURG 

Nicolas Burckhardt, Director of 
the International Tracing Service, 
Arolsen, Germany: international 

TRACING SERVICE 

Yosef Burg, Ph.D., Rabbi; Minister 
of the Interior, Jerusalem: aviad, 

YESHAYAHU 

Israel Burgansky, M.A.; Instructor 
in Talmud, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: hallah-, simeon bar 

YOHAI; SIMEON BEN ABBA; SIMEON 
BEN ELEAZAR; SIMEON BEN GAMALIEL 
I; SIMEON BEN HALAFTA; SIMEON BEN 
JUDAH HA-NASI; SIMEON BEN NANAS; 
SIMEON BEN NETHANEL; SIMEON HA- 
PAKULI; SIMEON HA-TIMNI; SIMEON OF 
MIZPAH 

Janet (Handler) Burstein*, Ph.D.; 
Professor Emeritus of English 
Literature, Drew University, 
Madison, New Jersey: heilbrun, 

CAROLYN G. 

Giulio Busi*, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Jewish Studies, Free University 
Berlin, Germany: beck, Matthias 

FRIEDRICH; BOESCHENSTEIN, JOHANN; 
DI GARA, GIOVANNI; FAGIUS, PAULUS; 
FORSTER, JOHANN 

Mervin Butovsky*, M.A.; Professor 
of English Literature, Concordia 
University, Montreal, Canada: 

LAYTON, IRVING; LEVINE, NORMAN 

Gilbert Cahen, Archiviste- 
Paleographe; Conservateur aux 



64 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Archives Departementales de la 
Moselle, Metz, France: boulay; levy, 

RAPHAEL; LORRAINE; LUNEVILLE; METZ; 
NANCY; PHALSBOURG; SARREGUEMINES; 
THIONVILLE; TOUL; VERDUN 

Werner J. Cahnman, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Sociology, Rutgers 
University, Newark, New Jersey; 
Member of the Faculty, New 
School for Social Research, New 

York: ADLER, MAX; ARON, RAYMOND; 
BENDLX, REINHARD; BOSKOFF, ALVIN; 
DIAMOND, SIGMUND; DRACHSLER, 
JULIUS; DURKHEIM, EMILE; EISENSTADT, 
SAMUEL NOAH; FRIEDMANN, GEORGES; 
GINSBERG, MORRIS; GLAZER, NATHAN; 
GOLDSCHEID, RUDOLF; GORDON, 
MILTON M.; GUMPLOWICZ, LUDWIG; 
GUTTMAN, LOUIS; HALPERN, BENJAMIN; 
HAUSER, PHILIP MORRIS; HORKHEIMER, 
MAX; INKELES, ALEX; JANOWITZ, 
MORRIS; JOSEPH, SAMUEL; KRACAUER, 
SIEGFRIED; LANDSHUT, SIEGFRIED; 
LAZARSFELD, PAUL R; LEVY, MARION 
JOSEPH, JR.; LEVY-BRUHL, LUCIEN; LIPSET, 
SEYMOUR MARTIN; MAIER, JOSEPH; 
MANNHEIM, KARL; MERTON, ROBERT 
KING; MORENO, JACOB L.; NELSON, 
BENJAMIN; OPPENHEIMER, FRANZ; 
RIESMAN, DAVID; ROBISON, SOPHIA; 
ROSE, ARNOLD MARSHALL; ROSENTHAL, 
ERICH; SALOMON, ALBERT; SALOMON, 
GOTTFRIED; SIMMEL, GEORG; SKLARE, 
MARSHALL; SMELSER, NEIL JOSEPH; 
SOCIOLOGY; STERN, BERNHARD JOSEPH; 
SULZBACH, WALTER; TUMIN, MELVIN 
MARVIN; WIRTH, LOUIS; WORMS, RENE 

Ivan Caine, M.H.L., Rabbi; 
Associate Professor of Bible, 
Reconstructionist Rabbinical 
College, Philadelphia: numbers, 
book of 

Justin D. (Daniel) Cammy*, 

Ph.D.; Assistant Professor of Jewish 
Studies and Comparative Literature, 
Smith College, Northampton, 
Massachusetts: sutzkever, Abraham; 

WOLF, LEYZER; YUNG-VILNE 

Hyman Joseph Campeas, M.A.; 
Educator, New York: sephardim 

Judith L. (Levine) Cantor*, B.A.; 
Archivist, Congregation Shaarey 
Zedek; Jewish Historical Society 
of Michigan; Past President, 
former Editor; Historical Society 
of Michigan, Board of Trustees; 
Women's Studies Association, Board 
of Directors, Emeritus, Michigan: 

MICHIGAN 



Kimmy Caplan*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: friederman, zalman 

JACOB; GORDON, JACOB; SILVERSTONE, 
GEDALYAH 

Richelle Budd Caplan*, M.A.; 
Director, International Relations, 
International School for Holocaust 
Studies, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem: 

HOLOCAUST 

Brenda Cappe*, B.A.; Researcher, 
O I SE/ University of Toronto, 
Canada: luftspring, sammy; 

RUBENSTEIN, LOUIS; UNGERMAN, IRVING; 
WEIDER, BEN 

Jacob Carciente*, C.E.; Civil 
Engineer, Professor Universidad 
Central de Venezuela and 
Universidad Metropolitana; Former 
Dean of Engineering, Caracas, 
Venezuela: brener, pynchas; 

CARACAS; CORO; DE SOLA, JUAN 
BARTOLOME; VENEZUELA 

Michael Hart Cardozo, B.A., LL.B.; 
Executive Director, Association 
of American Law Schools, 
Washington, D.C.: lehman, irving; 

POLLAK, WALTER HEILPRIN 

Alexander Carlebach, D.en 
D., Rabbi; Jerusalem: aaron 

OF NEUSTADT; AARON OF PESARO; 
ADASS JESHURUN, ADASS JISROEL; 
AKADEMIE FUER DIE WISSENSCHAFT 
DES JUDENTUMS; ARVIT; AUERBACH; 
BARRENNESS AND FERTILITY; BERLINER, 
ABRAHAM; BRAUDE, JACOB; CHOTZNER, 
JOSEPH; COLOGNE; DORTMUND; 
FERRARA; GOLDSCHMIDT, ERNST 
DANIEL; HAMBURGER, JACOB; 
HILDESHEIMER, MEIR; HOLLAENDER, 
LUDWIG; HOMILETIC LITERATURE; 
JAFFE, SIR OTTO; KAFAH, YOSEF; 
LEHMANN, EMIL; RABBI, RABBINATE; 
WAHL, SAUL BEN JUDAH; WEISS, ISAAC 
JACOB 

Ezriel Carlebach, Dr.Jur.; Editor 
and Writer, Tel Aviv: allgemeine 

ZEITUNG DES JUDENTUMS 

Alex Carmel, Ph.D.; Instructor in 
International Relations and History, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

HAIFA 

Ram Carmi, Architect, Tel Aviv 

Mo she Carmilly- Weinberger, 

Ph.D., Rabbi; Professor of Jewish 



Studies, Yeshiva University, New 
York: censorship; haskamah 

Yaacov Caroz, Formerly second in 
command of the Mossad; Journalist, 
Tel Aviv 

Daniel Carpi, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Jewish History, Tel 
Aviv University: bolzano; c as ale 

MONFERRATO; CHIERI; DONATI, ANGELO; 
FARINACCI, ROBERTO; FOSSANO; 
FRIULI-VENEZIA GIULIA; ISTRIA; ITALY; 
LAMPRONTI, ISAAC HEZEKIAH BEN 
SAMUEL; LATTES, BONET; LATTES, ISAAC 
BEN JACOB; LATTES, ISAAC JOSHUA; 
MONCALVO; ROME; SERVI, FLAMINIO 

Judy Feld Carr, Mus. M., Mus. Bac; 
Musicologist and Music Educator; 
Chairman, National Task Force 
for Syrian Jews, CJC; Chairman, 
Dr. Ronald Feld Fund for Jews in 
Arab Lands, housed in Beth Tzedec 
Congregation, Toronto: syria 

Hayden Carruth, M.A.; Poet and 
critic, Johnson, Vermont: reznikoff, 

CHARLES 

Greer Fay Cashman, Journalist, 

Sydney: martin, david; waten, judah 

Umberto (Moses David) Cassuto, 

Litt.Doct., Rabbi; Professor of 
Bible, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: Abraham ben daniel; 

AHITUB BEN ISAAC; AL-BAZAK, MAZLIAH 
BEN ELIJAH IBN; ALEMANNO, JOHANAN 
BEN ISAAC; ANATOLI, JACOB BEN ABBA 
MARI BEN SAMSON; APULIA; BENEVENTO, 
IMMANUEL BEN JEKUTHIEL; BERGAMO; 
BIBLE; BRESCIA; BRUNETTI, ANGELO; 
CAGLIARI; CANTARINI, ISAAC VITA HA- 
KOHEN; CASTELLO, ABRAHAM ISAAC; 
COMO; CONAT, ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON; 
DEL BENE, ELIEZER DAVID BEN ISAAC; 
FLORENCE; FOLIGNO, HANANEL; 
FORTI, BARUCH UZZIEL BEN BARUCH; 
GENNAZANO, ELIJAH HAYYIM BEN 
BENJAMIN OF; GENTILI; HALFAN, ELIJAH 
MENAHEM; IMMANUEL OF ROME; ISAAC 
BEN JACOB MIN HA-LEVIYYIM; JEDIDIAH 
BEN MOSES OF RECANATI; JUDAH BEN 
JEHIEL; KALONYMUS BEN KALONYMUS; 
LATTES, ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC; LEONE, 
LEON DI; LEVI, BENEDETTO; LUZZATTO; 
LUZZATTO, JACOB BEN ISAAC; MANETTI, 
GIANNOZZO; MARGULIES, SAMUEL 
HIRSCH; MOROSINI, GIULIO; MOSES OF 
PAVIA 

Calev Castel, M.D.; Kibbutz Netzer 

Sereni: sereni, enzo hayyim 



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65 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Moshe Catane, Dr. du 3e cycle, 
Archiviste Paleographe; Senior 
Lecturer in French Civilization 
and Literature, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan; Librarian, the Jewish 
National and University Library, 
Jerusalem: alsace; aron, Robert-, 

BEER-BING, ISAIAH; BERNARD, TRISTAN; 
BERR ISAAC BERR DE TURIQUE; BERR, 
MICHEL; CONSISTORY; DRACH, PAUL- 
LOUIS-BERNARD; DREYFUS, ALFRED; 
DRUMONT, EDOUARD-ADOLPHE; GARY, 
ROMAIN; HALEVY; HARRY, MYRIAM; 
HIRSCH, BARON MAURICE DE; JAVAL; 
KAHN, GUSTAVE; KESSEL, JOSEPH; KLEIN, 
SALOMON WOLF; LAHARANNE, ERNEST; 
LEHMANN, JOSEPH; LEVI ALVARES, DAVID; 
LOEWENSON, JEAN; LUNEL, ARMAND; 
LYONS; NEHER, ANDRE; PORTO-RICHE, 
GEORGES DE; RABBINOWICZ, ISRAEL 
MICHEL; SACHS, MAURICE; SINZHEIM, 
JOSEPH DAVID BEN ISAAC; 
SPIRE, ANDRE 

Shulamith Catane, B.A.; Jerusalem: 

BLOCH, PIERRE; BOKANOWSKI, MAURICE; 
GOUDCHAUX, MICHEL; GREENSTONE, 
JULIUS HILLEL; GRUMBACH, SALOMON; 
KLOTZ, LOUIS-LUCIEN; LYON-CAEN, 
CHARLES LEON; MAYER, DANIEL; 
MAYER, RENE; MEYER, LEON; RAYNAL, 
DAVID; SCHRAMECK, ABRAHAM; STERN, 
JACQUES; TORRES, HENRY 

Georges Cattaui, L.en D., Dip. 
Sc.PoL; Paris: proust, marcel 

Alberto Cavaglion*, Ph.D.; 
Teacher, Istituto piemontese per 
la storia della resistenze e della 
societa contemporanea, Turin, Italy: 

ALESSANDRIA; CUNEO; GENOA 

Henri Cazelles, D.en D.; Professor 
of Biblical Exegesis and Hebrew, 
Institut Catholique de Paris: micah 

Adonella Cedarmas*, Ph.D.; 
Researcher, University of Udine, 

Italy: gorizia; Trieste 

David Cesarani*, Ph.D.; Research 
Professor; Royal Holloway, 
University of London; London, 
England: England ; gilbert, sir 

MARTIN; KINDERTRANSPORT; MAXWELL, 
ROBERT; RIFKIND, SIR MALCOLM; 
ROTHSCHILD, NATHANIEL CHARLES 
JACOB; SACKS, JONATHAN HENRY; 
TAYLOR, SIR PETER MURRAY 

J.H. Chajes*, Ph.D.; Lecturer, Jewish 
History, University of Haifa: aberlin, 

RACHEL 



Scott Chamberlin*, B.A.; 
Writer and Editor, Los Angeles: 

KINDERTRANSPORT 

Leon Chameides*, M.D.; Emeritus 
Director of Pediatric Cardiology, 
Connecticut Children's Medical 
Center, Clinical Professor University 
of Connecticut School of Medicine; 
Member of the Board and Executive 
Committee of the Jewish Historical 
Society of Greater Hartford, 
Connecticut: hartford 

Jerome A. Chanes*, Faculty 
Scholar, Cohen Center for Modern 
Jewish Studies, Brandeis University, 
Waltham, Massachusetts: American 

JEWISH COMMITTEE; AMERICAN 
JEWISH CONGRESS; ANTI-DEFAMATION 
LEAGUE; ASSIMILATION; CLAL; 
COMMUNITY; CONFERENCE OF 
PRESIDENTS OF MAJOR AMERICAN 
JEWISH ORGANIZATIONS 

Zevulun Charlop, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Director of RIETS and of Yeshiva 
Program/Mazer School of Talmudic 
Studies, Yeshiva University, New 
York 

Yosef Chavit, Researcher, Kiryat 
Arba: renassia, yossef 

Barry Chazan, Ed.D.; former 
Director, Melton Center for Jewish 
Education in the Diaspora, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem 

Robert Chazan, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of History, Ohio State 

University, Columbus: names 

Mordecai Chenzin, Rabbi; 
Columbus, Ohio: lewin, judah leib 

Mordecai S. Chertoff, D.H.L.; 

Director of Public Information, 
World Zionist Organization - 
American Section; Executive 
Director, American Histadrut 
Cultural Exchange Union, New 
York: sternstein, Joseph philip 

Bryan Cheyette, Ph.D.; Lecturer, 
Dept. of English, Queen Mary and 
Westfield College, University of 
London: feinstein, elaine; jacobson, 

HOWARD; JOSIPOVICI, GABRIEL; RUBENS, 
BERNICE; STEINER, GEORGE 

Arthur A. Chiel, M.A., D.H.L., 
Rabbi; Woodbridge, Connecticut: 

NEW HAVEN 



Jonathan Chipman, M.A.; Writer 
and Lecturer, Jerusalem: ba'alei 

TESHUVAH 

Dov Chomsky, Poet, General 
Secretary of the Hebrew Writers' 
Association, Tel Aviv: writers' 

ASSOCIATION IN ISRAEL 

Noam Chomsky, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Linguistics, Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, Cambridge: Harris, 

ZELLIG SABBETAI 

William Chomsky, Ph.D., D.H.L.; 
Professor of Hebrew and Jewish 
Education, Dropsie University, 
Philadelphia 

Andre N. Chouraqui, Ph.D.; 
Historian, Jerusalem: cassin, rene 

SAMUEL 

Anatole Chujoy, Dance critic 
and Historian, New York: hurok, 

SOLOMON 

Stanley F. Chyet, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of American Jewish 
History, the Hebrew Union 
College-Jewish Institute of Religion, 
Cincinnati: Hebrew union college- 

JEWISH INSTITUTE OF RELIGION; HENRY, 
JACOB; JONAS, JOSEPH; LOPEZ, AARON; 
MARX, ALEXANDER; RIVERA, JACOB 
RODRIGUEZ; TRADE AND COMMERCE 

E.Cindof: hammat gader 

Eli Citonne, Businessman and 
Photographer, Istanbul: Karaites 

Mordechai Cogan, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer and Chairman of the 
Department of Bible, Ben-Gurion 
University of the Negev, Beersheba 

Amnon Cohen*, Ph.D.; Eliahu 
Elath Professor of History of the 
Muslim Peoples, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: sijill 

Ariel Cohen: lippmann, gabriel-, 

LIPSCHITZ, RUDOLF OTTO SIGISMUND 

Aryeh Cohen*: progressive Jewish 

ALLIANCE 

Benjamin Cohen, M.A., Rabbi; 

Jerusalem: phinehas ben hama ha- 

KOHEN; PHINEHAS BEN JAIR; YANNAI 

Beth (B.) Cohen*, Ph.D.; Historian, 
Chapman University, Los Angeles, 



66 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume i 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



California: arad, yitzhak; bauman, 

ZYGMUNT; BIELSKI, TUVIA, ASAEL 
and ZUS; BROWNING, CHRISTOPHER 
R.; DAMATO, ALFONSE M.; DICKER- 
BRANDEIS, FREDERIKE; FORTUNOFF 
VIDEO ARCHIVE FOR HOLOCAUST 
TESTIMONY; HARTMAN, GEOFFREY; 
RAVENSBRUECK 

Burton I. Cohen*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor Emeritus of Jewish 
Education, Jewish Theological 
Seminary, New York: Jewish 

CAMPING 

Chaim E. Cohen*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Hebrew Language, Tel 
Aviv University: dotan, aron 

Chayim Cohen, B.A., B.H.L.; 
Columbia University, New York: 

MINOR PROPHETS; POISON; RAHAB; 
RIGHT AND LEFT; RIMMON; TREASURE, 
TREASURY; WIDOW 

Daniel J. Cohen, Ph.D.; Director of 
the Central Archives for the History 
of the Jewish People, Jerusalem: 

ARCHIVES; LANDJUDENSCHAFT 

David Cohen, M.A.; Teacher in 
Hebrew and Semitic Languages, 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

NEO-ARAMAIC 

Elisheva Cohen, Chief Curator 
of the Israel Museum, Jerusalem: 

BUDKO, JOSEPH; JESI, SAMUEL; KAPLAN, 
ANATOLI LVOVICH; KIRSZENBAUM, 
JESEKIEL DAVID; STRUCK, HERMANN; 
SZALIT-MARCUS, RACHEL 

Evelyn (M.) Cohen*, Ph.D.; Art 
Historian, Jewish Theological 
Seminary, New York: illuminated 

MANUSCRIPTS, HEBREW 

Gerson D. Cohen, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
President and Professor of Jewish 
History, the Jewish Theological 

Seminary of America, New York: 

HANNAH AND HER SEVEN SONS 

Hayyim (Haim) J. Cohen, Ph.D.; 
Senior Lecturer in Contemporary 
Jewry, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: Afghanistan; aleppo; 

ANTIBI; ARABIA; ASHKENAZI, BEHOR; 
ATLAS; BATTAT, REUBEN; BAGHDAD; 
BEIRUT; CAIRO; CASABLANCA; CATTAUI; 
DAMASCUS; DANIEL, MENAHEM SALIH; 
DUWAYK; EDIRNE; EGYPT; ELIAS, JOSEPH; 
FARAJ, MURAD; FARHI; FEZ; HADDAD, 
EZRA; HARARI; HARARI, SIR VICTOR 



RAPHAEL; HARIRI; ISFAHAN; ISTANBUL; 
IZMIR; KABIR, ABRAHAM SALIH AL-; 
KADOORIE, SASSON; KIRKUK; LIBYA; 
MEKNES; MENASCE, DE; MOROCCO; 
MOSSERI; MOSUL; MOYAL, ESTHER; 
NAHOUM, HAIM; NISSIM, ABRAHAM 
HAYYIM; PICCIOTTO; PORT SAID; 
SALE-RABAT; SAMRA, DAVID; SASSOON, 
SIR EZEKIEL; SHAUL, ANWAR; SHIRAZ; 
TANGIER; TETUAN; TRIPOLI; ZILKHA, 
NATM 

Isaac Cohen, Ph.D., Rabbi; Chief 

Rabbi of Ireland, Dublin: Ireland 

Israel Cohen, Writer and Editor, 
Tel Aviv: aharonovitch, yosef; 

AHARONOVITCH, YOSEF; LAUFBAHN, 
YITSHAK 

Jack (Joseph) Cohen*, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Retired Director, Hillel Foundation, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; 
Retired member of faculty, 
Reconstructionist Rabbinical 
College; Founding Member, Kehillat 
Mevakshei Derech, Jerusalem: 

KAPLAN, MORDECAI MENAHEM 

Judah M. Cohen*, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor, Lou and Sybil Mervis 
Professor of Jewish Culture, Indiana 
University, Bloomington, Indiana: 

CARLEBACH, SHLOMO 

Judith Cohen, Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
Musicology, Tel Aviv University: 

ADLER, GUIDO; DEUTSCH, OTTO ERICH; 
EINSTEIN, ALFRED; HERZ, HENRI; HESS, 
DAME MYRA; HESS, DAME MYRA; LEVI, 
HERMANN; LEVI, HERMANN; MOTTL, 
FELIX JOSEF 

Julie-Marthe M. Cohen*, M.A.; 
Curator, Jewish Historical Museum, 
Amsterdam, the Netherlands: 

CITROEN, ROELOF PAUL; ELTE, HARRY 

Lionel Cohen, M.A.; Instructor 
in French and Classical Studies, 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

LANGFUS, ANNA; PASCAL, BLAISE 

Margot Cohen*: Rochester 

Mark R. Cohen*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Near Eastern Studies, Princeton 
University, New Jersey: goitein, 

SHLOMO DOV; OMAR, COVENANT OF 

Martin A. Cohen, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Jewish History, the 
Hebrew Union College-Jewish 
Institute of Religion, New York: 



CARVAJAL; COIMBRA; DIAS, LUIS; ESTE, 
JOAO BAPTISTA DE; GRANADA, GABRIEL 
DE; LATIN AMERICA; MALDONADO DE 
SILVA, FRANCISCO; MARRANO; MARRANO 
DIASPORA; NAVARRO; NETANYAHU, 
BENZION; NEW CHRISTIANS; NORONHA, 
FERNAO DE; RIVKIN, ELLIS; VECINHO, 
JOSEPH 

Michael Cohen*: Fleischer, charles 

Naomi W. Cohen, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of History, Hunter College 
of the City University of New York: 

AMERICAN JEWISH COMMITTEE; STRAUS 

Nathan Cohen*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Cultural History, Bar- 
Ilan University, Ramat Gan: ah aron 

BEN SAMUEL; ALTMAN, MOISHE; ANSHEL 
OF CRACOV; BIMKO, FISHEL; BOMZE, 
NAHUM; BRYKS, RACHMIL; SINGER, ISAAC 
BASHEVIS 

Nilli Cohen*, Director, The 
Institute for the Translation of 
Hebrew Literature, Tel Aviv: Hebrew 

LITERATURE, MODERN 

Rachel Cohen, B.A.; Jerusalem: 

LEBANON; LIBYA 

Richard Cohen, B.A.; Associate 
Director, the American Jewish 
Congress, New York: spingarn 

Robert Cohen, B.A.; Jerusalem: 

CARIBBEANS, SPANISH-PORTUGUESE 
NATION OF THE: LA NACION 

Robert S. Cohen, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Physics and Philosophy, Boston 
University, Massachusetts: chwistek, 

LEON; MEYERSON, EMILE; SCHAFF, ADAM 

Selma Jeanne Cohen, Ph.D.; Editor, 

New York: dance; marceau, marcel 

Tova Cohen*, Ph.D.; Professor, Bar- 
Ilan University, Ramat Gan: Hebrew 

LITERATURE, MODERN 

Yoel Cohen*, B.Sc, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer, Netanaya Academic 
College; Lifshitz Religious 

Education College Jerusalem; The 
Holon Institute of Technology; 
Israel: al ha-mishmar; bar-ilan, 

DAVID; BARNEA, NAHUM; DANKNER, 
AMNON; DISSENTCHIK, ARYEH; GLOBES; 
HAARETZ; HA-MODIA; HA-ZOFEH; 
ISRAEL, STATE OF: CULTURAL LIFE; 
JERUSALEM POST; JERUSALEM REPORT; 
KIRSCHENBAUM, MORDECHAI; LANDAU, 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



DAVID; MAARIV; MARGALIT, DAN; 
MARMORI, HANOKH; MOZES; NIMRODI; 
PRESS; ROSENBLUM, HERZL; RUBINGER, 
DAVID; SCHNITZER, SHMUEL; SCHOCKEN; 
VANUNU AFFAIR; VARDI, MOSHE; YATED 
NEEMAN; YEDIOTH AHARONOTH; 
YUDKOVSKY, DOV; ZEMER, HANNAH 

Cedric Cohen Skalli*, Ph.D.; 
Postdoctoral Research, Alumnus Tel 
Aviv University: abrabanel 

Yohanan (J.-G.) Cohen-Yashar 
(Kahn), Ph.D.; Lecturer in Classical 
Languages and in Philosophy, Bar- 
Ilan University, Ramat Gan: renan, 

ERNEST 

Alexander Cohn, M.Sc; Municipal 
Engineer, Bene-Berak: bene-berak 

Gabriel H. Cohn, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Bible, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat 
Gan: jonah, book of 



Haim Hermann Cohn, Justice 
of the Supreme Court of Israel, 
Jerusalem; Associate Professor 
of Law, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: abduction; admission-, 

ADULTERY; ASSAULT; ATTORNEY; BET DIN 
AND JUDGES; BLOOD-AVENGER; BRIBERY 
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT; CITY OF REFUGE 
COMPOUNDING OFFENSES; CONFESSION 
CONFISCATION, EXPROPRIATION, 
FORFEITURE; CONTEMPT OF COURT; 
CRUCIFIXION; DIVINE PUNISHMENT; 
EVIDENCE; EXTRAORDINARY REMEDIES; 
FINES; FLOGGING; FORGERY; FRAUD; 
GAMBLING; HEREM; HOMICIDE; INCEST; 
INFORMERS; OATH; OPPRESSION; 
ORDEAL; PENAL LAW; PERJURY; PLEAS; 
POLICE OFFENSES; PRACTICE AND 
PROCEDURE; PUNISHMENT; REBELLIOUS 
SON; SEXUAL OFFENSES; SLANDER; 
SLAVERY; SORCERY; SUICIDE; TALION; 
THEFT AND ROBBERY; USURY; WEIGHTS 
AND MEASURES; WITNESS 

Robert A. Cohn*, B.A., J.D., B.S.; 
Editor-in-Chief Emeritus of the St. 
Louis Jewish Light, St. Louis: saint 

LOUIS 

Baruch J. Cohon: idelsohn, 

ABRAHAM ZVI 

Margaret L. Coit, Dr. of Letters; 
Associate Professor of Social 
Science, Fairleigh Dickinson 
University, Rutherford, New Jersey: 

BARUCH 

Saul Paul Colbi, Dr.Jur.; Former 



Director, Department of Christian 
Communities, the Ministry of 
Religious Affairs, Jerusalem: holy 

PLACES; JEWISH-CHRISTIAN RELATIONS 

Yoseph Colombo, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Jewish Studies, the Luigi Bocconi 
Commercial University, Milan: 

PRESS; RASSEGNA MENSILE DI ISRAEL, LA 

Vittore Colorni, Ph.D.; Professor 
of the History of Italian Law, the 
University of Ferrara, Italy 

Michael Comay, B.A., LL.B.; 
Ambassador, Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs, Jerusalem: Israel, state of: 

HISTORICAL SURVEY 

Manuela Consonni*, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: Alessandria; almansi; 

AQUILA; AREZZO; ASTI; CATTANEO, 
CARLO; MUSSOLINI, BENITO 

Alan Cooper*, Ph.D.; Elaine Ravich 
Professor of Jewish Studies, Jewish 
Theological Seminary, New York: 

LAMENTATIONS, BOOK OF 

Harvey A. Cooper, B.A.; Journalist, 

New York: mayer, louis burt ; 

PREMINGER, OTTO LUDWIG; THEATER 

Jacob H. Copenhagen, Librarian, 

Jerusalem: hirschel, levie; 

ROSENTHAL, LESER 

Renee Corcoran*: Nebraska; omaha 

David Corcos, Historian, 

Jerusalem: aaron ben batash; 

ABENSUR; ABUDARHAM; ABULKER; 
ALGERIA; ALGIERS; ARCILA; ATAR; 
ATLAS; AVILA, DE; AYASH; AZANCOT; 
AZEMMOUR; AZEVEDO; BELAIS, 
ABRAHAM BEN SHALOM; BELISHA; 
BENCHIMOL; BENGALIL; BENGHAZI; 
BENIDER; BENOLIEL; BENREMOKH; 
BENSUSAN; BENWAISH, ABRAHAM; 
BENZAMERO; BERBERS; BERGEL; BESSIS, 
ALBERT; BIBAS; BORDJEL; BOUCHARA; 
BOUGIE; BRUNSCHVIG, ROBERT; 
BUENO; BUSNACH; CABESSA; CANSINO; 
CARDOSO; CASABLANCA; CATTAN; 
CAZES, DAVID; CEUTA; CHOURAQUI; 
CHOURAQUI, ANDRE; CHRIQUI; COHEN, 
LEVI-ABRAHAM; CONSTANTINE; CORIAT; 
DAHAN; DARMON; DELMAR; DELOUYA; 
DJERBA; DRA; DURAN; FEZ; GABES; 
GAGIN, HAYYIM; HASSAN; HATCHWELL, 
SOL; HONEIN; KAHINA; KAIROUAN; 
LEVY; LEVY-BACRAT, ABRAHAM BEN 
SOLOMON; LUMBROSO; MACNIN; MALCA; 



MOROCCO; NARBONI; OFRAN; OKHLAH 
VE-OKHLAH; PALACHE; PINTO; QALAT 
HAMMAD; ROSALES, JACOB; ROTE; SEBAG; 
SEROR; SERUYA; SIJILMASSA; SOLAL; 
SOUS; TANGIER; TETUAN; TLEMCEN; 
TUAT; TUNIS, TUNISIA; UZAN; VALENSI; 
WAQQASA 

David Coren, Member of the 
Knesset, Kibbutz Gesher ha-Ziv: 

GADNA 

Mort Cornin, B.Litt.; Journalist, 
Jersey City, New Jersey: Hudson 

COUNTY 

Maritza Corrales*, M.A.; 
Researcher, University of Havana, 
Cuba: wolf, richard riegel 

Alan D. Corre, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Hebrew Studies, 
the University of Wisconsin, 
Milwaukee: sephardim; solis-cohen 

Lewis A. Coser, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Sociology, the State University 
of New York, Stony Brook: scheler, 

MAX FERDINAND 

Aliza Craimer*, M.A. Phil.; Modern 
Jewish Studies, University of Oxford, 
England: alberta; calgary-, safdie, 

MOSHE; VEINER, HARRY 

Lawrence A. Cremin, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Education, Columbia 
University, New York: rice, Joseph 

MAYER 

David (M.) Crowe*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of History, Elon 
University, North Carolina: plaszow; 

SCHINDLER, OSKAR 

June Cummins*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor, Department of English 
and Comparative Literature, San 
Diego State University: taylor, 

SYDNEY 

Louisa Cuomo, Dott. in lett.; 
Assistant in Italian Language and 
Literature, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem; Assistant in Judaica, 
New York University: baur, harry; 

FUBINI, MARIO; LEVI, GIULIO AUGUSTO; 
MOMIGLIANO, ATTILIO; MORPURGO, 
GIUSEPPE; MUSSAFIA, ADOLFO 

Michael Curtis, Ph.D.; Professor of 

Political Science, Rutgers University, 
Editor of Middle East Review: 

ANTISEMITISM 



68 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Irving Cutler*, Ph.D.; Emeritus 
Professor of Geography, Chicago 

State University: Chicago 

Charles Cutter, M.A., M.L.S.; 
Hebrew Bibliographer of the 
Library, Ohio State University, 
Columbus: bernstein, ignatz-, 

CAHAN, JUDAH LOEB; CASSEL, DAVID 

William Cutter*, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Steinberg Professor of Human 
Relations and Professor of Hebrew 
Literature, Hebrew Union College, 
Los Angeles: davis, david brion 

Arthur Cygielman, Cand. S.C.; 
Teacher in Seminar ha-Kibbutzim, 
Tel Aviv: boleslav v ; cracow; 

DABROWA GORNICZA; DAVID-GORODOK; 
DIVIN; FISHEL; FRANK, MENAHEM 
MENDEL; GORODENKA; GORODOK; 
HIRSZOWICZ, ABRAHAM; IVANOVO; 
IVYE; JEDRZEJOW; JEKELES; JOSKO; 
JOZEFOWICZ; KALISZ; KALUSH; KLETS; 
KOBIELSKI, FRANCISZEK ANTONI; 
KOBRIN; KOCK; KONIN; KOSOV; KRYNKI; 
LACHVA; LANCUT; LASK; LECZYCA; 
LELEWEL, JOACHIM; LEWIN, GERSHON; 
LEWKO, JORDANIS; LEZAJSK; LOWICZ; 
MEISEL, MOSES BEN MORDECAI; MEISELS, 
DAVID DOV; MENAHEM MENDEL 
BEN ISAAC; MICZYNSKI, SEBASTIAN; 
MIEDZYRZEC PODLASK; MIELEC; 
MIR; MLAWA; MOJECKI, PRZECLAW; 
NACHMANOVICH; NATANSON, LUDWIK; 
NOVAYA USHITSA; NOVY DVOR; NOWY 
DWOR MAZOWIECKI; NOWY SACZ; 
ORGELBRAND, SAMUEL; OSHMYANY; 
OSTROW MAZOWIECKA; PARCZEW; 
PIATTOLI, SCIPIONE; PIOTRKOW; PLOCK; 
POPPER BOZIAN, WOLF; POTOCKI, 
VALENTINE; PROHOVNIK, ABRAHAM; 
PULAWY; PULTUSK; RADOMSKO; 
RADZIWILLOW; REIZES; ROZWADOW; 
SAMBOR; SANDOMIERZ; SIERADZ; 
SKARGA, PIOTR; SKIERNIEWICE; 
SOCHACZEW; SOSNOWIEC; SREM; 
TOMASZOW LUBELSKI; TOMASZOW 
MAZOWIECKI; VOLCHKO; WEGROW; 
WEIGEL, CATHERINE; WIELUN; 
WOLOWSKI; WYSZKOW; ZALCSTEIN, 
GECL; ZAMBROW; ZDUNSKA WOLA; 
ZGIERZ 

Roney Cytrynowicz*, Ph.D.; 
Historian, Arquivo Historico 
Judaico Brasileiro, Sao Paulo, Brazil: 

BAHIA; BRAZIL; KOCH, ADELHEID LUCY; 
POLITICS; PORTO ALEGRE; RECIFE; RIO DE 
JANEIRO; SAO PAULO 

Leon Czertok, Dr.Jur.; General 
Secretary, Centre de Documentation 



Juive Contemporaine, Paris: 

SCHNEERSOHN, ISAAC 

Moshe M. Czudnowski, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer in Political Science, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ALMOND, GABRIEL ABRAHAM 

Larissa (Dammig) Daemmig*, 

University Diploma, Librarian, Bet 
Debora and The Ronald S. Lauder 
Foundation, Berlin, Germany: 

FREIBURG IM BREISGAU; FUERTH; 
FULDA; HAGEN; HALBERSTADT; HALLE; 
HAMELN; HANOVER; HEIDELBERG; 
LANDAU; LEIPZIG; LIPPE; LUEBECK; 
MAGDEBURG; MAINZ; MANNHEIM; 
MARBURG; MEININGEN; MEMMINGEN; 
MUEHLHAUSEN; MUNICH; NAUHEIM; 
NOERDLINGEN; NUREMBERG; 
OFFENBACH; OFFENBURG; OLDENBURG; 
OPPENHEIM; OSNABRUECK; PFORZHEIM; 
RECKLINGHAUSEN; SAXONY; 
SCHNAITTACH; SPEYER; STRAUBING; 
STUTTGART; THURINGIA; TRIER; ULM; 
VILLINGEN; WEINHEIM; WESTPHALIA; 
WUERTTEMBERG; WUPPERTAL 

Avigdor Dagan, Dr.Jur.; Author 
and former Ambassador, Ministry 
for Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: 

ASKENAZY, LUDVIK; BORNFRIEND, 
JACOB; CZECHOSLOVAK LITERATURE; 
CZECHOSLOVAKIA; EISNER, PAVEL; 
FEIGL, BEDRICH; FEUERSTEIN, BEDRICH; 
FISCHER, OTOKAR; FRITTA; FUCHS, 
ALFRED; GELLNER, FRANTISEK; 
GOLDSTUECKER, EDUARD; GOTTLIEB, 
FRANTISEK; GROSMAN, LADISLAV; 
GROSSMAN, LADISLAV; GUTFREUND, 
OTTO; GUTTMANN, ROBERT; HAAS, LEO; 
HOSTOVSKY, EGON; JUSTITZ, ALFRED; 
KAFKA, FRANTISEK; KAPPER, SIEGFRIED 
or VITEZSLAV; KARS, JIRI; KNIEZA, EMIL; 
KOHN, JINDRICH; KOPF, MAXIM; KRAUS, 
FRANTISEK R.; LANGER, FRANTISEK; 
LANGER, JIRI MORDECHAI; LEDA, 
EDUARD; LUSTIG, ARNOST; OLBRACHT, 
IVAN; ORTEN, JIRI; POLACEK, KAREL; 
PRESS; RAKOUS, VOJTECH; SCHORSCH, 
GUSTAV; SIMONE, ANDRE; SLANSKY 
TRIAL; TRIER, WALTER; VRCHLICKY, 
JAROSLAV; WINTER, GUSTAV; ZELENKA, 
FRANTISEK; ZEYER, JULIUS; ZIDEK, PAVEL 

Shaul Dagoni, M.D.; Haifa: stamps 

Rachel Dalven, Ph.D.; Professor of 
English, Ladycliff College, Highland 
Falls, New York: caimis, moisis-, 

ELIYIA, JOSEPH; GREEK LITERATURE, 
MODERN; JUDEO-GREEK; MATSAS, 
NESTORAS; SCHIBY, BARUCH; SCIAKI, 
JOSEPH 



Joseph Dan, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Hebrew Literature, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

AARON OF BAGHDAD; ABRAHAM; 
ALEXANDER THE GREAT; APOCRYPHA 
AND PSEUDEPIGRAPHA; BEN SIRA, 
ALPHABET OF; BIOGRAPHIES AND 
AUTOBIOGRAPHIES; CALAHORA, JOSEPH 
BEN SOLOMON; CANPANTON, JUDAH 
BEN SOLOMON; DERASHOT HA-RAN; 
DEVEKUT; DONNOLO, SHABBETAI; 
ELEAZAR BEN JUDAH OF WORMS; 
ELEAZAR BEN MOSES HA-DARSHAN OF 
WUERZBURG; ELHANAN BEN YAKAR; 
ELIEZER BEN MANASSEH BEN BARUCH; 
ETHICAL LITERATURE; EXEMPLA OF THE 
RABBIS; EXEMPLUM; FICTION, HEBREW; 
FRANCES, ISAAC; GORDON, JEKUTHIEL 
BEN LEIB; HAGIOGRAPHY; HASIDEI 
ASHKENAZ; HASIDIM, SEFER; HEMDAT 
YAMIM; HOMILETIC LITERATURE; IBN 
YAHYA, GEDALIAH BEN JOSEPH; IGGERET 
HA-KODESH; ISRAEL HARIF OF SATANOV; 
ISRAEL ISSERL BEN ISAAC SEGAL; JABEZ, 
JOSEPH BEN HAYYIM; JACOB KOPPEL BEN 
MOSES OF MEZHIRECH; JAGEL, ABRAHAM; 
JOSEPH BEN UZZIEL; JOSEPH DELLA 
REINA; JUDAH BEN SAMUEL HE-HASID; 
KALONYMUS; LETTERS AND LETTER 
WRITERS; LUZZATTO, MOSES HAYYIM; 
MAGGID; MAGIC; MANN, ABRAHAM 
AARON OF POSNAN; MENAHEM ZIYYONI; 
MICHAEL AND GABRIEL; MIDRASH 
ASERET HA-DIBBEROT; MIVHAR HA- 
PENINIM; MOSCATO, JUDAH BEN JOSEPH; 
MOSES, CHRONICLES OF; MUSAR HASKEL; 
NEVUAT HA-YELED; ORHOT HAYYIM; 
POLEMICS AND POLEMICAL LITERATURE; 
RAZIEL, BOOK OF; SACRIFICE; SAMUEL 
BEN KALONYMUS HE-HASID OF SPEYER; 
SASPORTAS, JACOB; SEFER HA-HAYYIM; 
SEFER HA-YASHAR; SEFER HUKKEI HA- 
TORAH; SHEKHINAH; TAKU, MOSES BEN 
HISDAI; TISHBY, ISAIAH; TOLEDOT HA- 
ARI; TOLEDOT YESHU; UZZA AND AZA'EL; 
VISIONS; WILLS, ETHICAL; ZERUBBABEL, 
BOOK OF; ZEVI HIRSCH OF NADWORNA 

Robert Dan, Ph.D.; Research 
Fellow of Orientalia and Librarian, 
National Szechenyi Library of 
Hungary, Budapest: komAromi 

CSIPKES, GYORGY 

Suzanne Daniel, D.es-L.; Associate 
Professor of Judeo -Hellenistic 
Literature, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: bible 

Uriel Dann, Ph.D.; Senior Lecturer 
in the History of the Modern 
Middle East, Tel Aviv University: 

ABDULLAH IBN HUSSEIN; HUSSEIN; 
JORDAN, HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF 



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Haim Darin-Drapkin, Ph.D., 
Scientific Director, International 
Research Centre for Cooperative 
Rural Communities, Tel Aviv: 

ISRAEL, STATE OF: ALIYAH 

Joseph J. Darvin, B.S.; Chemist, 
Spring Valley, New York 

Jacob Dash, B.Arch, A.M.T.P.I.; 
Head of the Planning Department, 
Ministry of the Interior, Jerusalem: 

ISRAEL, STATE OF: ALIYAH 

Abraham David*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Researcher, The Jewish National 
and University Library, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: aboab, 

SAMUEL BEN ABRAHAM; ABRAHAM 
BEN N... HA-BAGHDADI; ABRAHAM BEN 
NATHAN; ABULAFIA, HAYYIM NISSIM 
BEN ISAAC; ALASHKAR, SOLOMON; 
ALFANDARI, SOLOMON ELIEZER 
BEN JACOB; ALGAZI, SOLOMON BEN 
ABRAHAM; ALI BEN ZECHARIAH; 
ANAU, PHINEHAS HAI BEN MENAHEM; 
ARYEH LEIB BEN ELIJAH; ASHKENAZI, 
BEZALEL BEN ABRAHAM; ASHKENAZI, 
JUDAH BEN SIMEON; ASTRUC, SAUL HA- 
KOHEN; AUERBACH, MEIR BEN ISAAC; 
AZARIAH BEN SOLOMON; BADHAV, 
ISAAC BEN MICHAEL; BASOLA, MOSES 
BEN MORDECAI; BEN-KIKI; BENVENISTE, 
JOSEPH BEN MOSES DE SEGOVIA; BERAB, 
JACOB BEN HAYYIM; BERLIN, SAUL 
BEN ZEVI HIRSCH LEVIN; BERTINORO, 
OBADIAH BEN ABRAHAM YARE; BLOCH, 
SAMSON BEN MOSES; BONASTRUC, 
ISAAC; BRUDO, ABRAHAM BEN ELIJAH; 
CANPANTON, ISAAC BEN JACOB; 
CAPSAL1, MOSES BEN ELIJAH; CAPUSI, 
HAYYIM; CARO, ISAAC BEN JOSEPH; 
CASTELLAZZO; CASTRO, ABRAHAM; 
CASTRO, JACOB BEN ABRAHAM; 
CORDOVERO, GEDALIAH BEN MOSES; 
CURIEL, ISRAEL BEN MEIR DI; DANGOOR, 
EZRA SASSON BEN REUBEN; DANIEL 
BEN HASDAI; DANIEL BEN PERAHYAH 
HA-KOHEN; DANIEL BEN SAADIAH HA- 
BAVLI; DANIEL BEN SAMUEL IBN ABl 
RABI'; DAVID BEN HAYYIM OF CORFU; 
DAVID BEN HEZEKIAH; DAVID BEN 
JUDAH; DAVID BEN SAMUEL; DAYYAN; 
DEL VECCHIO, SHABBETAI ELHANAN BEN 
ELISHA; DIENNA, AZRIEL BEN SOLOMON; 
ELEAZAR BEN HALFON HA-KOHEN; 
ELIJAH BEN BENJAMIN HA-LEVI; EPHRAIM 
SOLOMON BEN AARON OF LUNTSHITS; 
EXILARCH; EZEKIEL FEIVEL BEN ZE'EV 
WOLF; FINN, JAMES; FOUR CAPTIVES, 
THE; HAKAM, AL-; HAKIM, SAMUEL 
BEN MOSES HA-LEVI IBN; HALFON BEN 
NETHANEL HA-LEVI ABU SAl'D; HASDAI; 
HAVER; HAYYIM SHABBETAI; HEZEKIAH 



BEN DAVID; HEZEKIAH BEN DAVID DA 
SILVA; IBN HABIB, MOSES BEN SHEM 
TOV; IBN SHUAIB, JOEL; ISAAC; ISAAC 
BEN ABRAHAM DI MOLINA; ISRAEL 
BEN SAMUEL HA-KOHEN; ISSACHAR 
BAER BEN TANHUM; JACOB BEN 
ELEAZAR; JACOB BEN HAYYIM TALMID; 
JACOB BEN NETHANEL BEN FAYYUMl; 
JOSEPH BEN KALONYMUS HA-NAKDAN 
I; JOSEPH BEN PHINEHAS; JOSEPH 
DAVID; JOSEPH HAYYIM BEN ELIJAH 
AL-HAKAM; JOSIAH BEN JESSE; KARA, 
AVIGDOR BEN ISAAC; KAZIN, JUDAH 
BEN YOM TOV; KHALAZ, JUDAH BEN 
ABRAHAM; LANIADO, ABRAHAM BEN 
ISAAC; LANIADO, RAPHAEL SOLOMON 
BEN SAMUEL; LANIADO, SAMUEL BEN 
ABRAHAM; LANIADO, SOLOMON BEN 
ABRAHAM; LAPAPA, AARON BEN ISAAC; 
LEON, ISAAC DE; LIPSCHUTZ, ISRAEL 
BEN GEDALIAH; LONZANO, ABRAHAM 
BEN RAPHAEL DE; MAHALALEL BEN 
SHABBETAI HALLELYAH; MALACHI 
BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN; MARGOLIOT, 
MOSES BEN SIMEON; MARGOLIOTH, 
JACOB; MASHA'IRI, AL; MAZLIAH BEN 
SOLOMON HA-KOHEN; MEIR BEN ISAAC 
SHELIAH ZIBBUR; MEYUHAS, ABRAHAM 
BEN SAMUEL; MEYUHAS, MOSES JOSEPH 
MORDECAI BEN RAPHAEL MEYUHAS; 
MEYUHAS, RAPHAEL MEYUHAS 
BEN SAMUEL; MONZON, ABRAHAM; 
MORDECAI BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI; MOSES 
BEN LEVI; MOSES BEN YOM-TOV; MOSES 
ESRIM VE-ARBA; MOSES KAHANA 
BEN JACOB; MOSES NATHAN; MOTAL, 
ABRAHAM BEN JACOB; MUBASHSHIR 
BEN NISSI HA-LEVI; MUBASHSHIR BEN 
RAV KIMOI HA-KOHEN; NAJARA; NAJARA, 
ISRAEL BEN MOSES; NATHAN BEN 
ABRAHAM I; NATHAN BEN ABRAHAM 
II; NATHAN BEN ISAAC HA-KOHEN HA- 
BAVLI; NATHAN BEN JEHIEL OF ROME; 
NATHAN, MORDECAI; NATRONAI BEN 
HAVIVAI; NAVON, BENJAMIN MORDECAI 
BEN EPHRAIM; NAVON, EPHRAIM BEN 
AARON; NAVON, JONAH BEN HANUN; 
NAVON, JONAH MOSES BEN BENJAMIN; 
NEHEMIAH BAR KOHEN ZEDEK; 
NEHEMIAH HA-KOHEN; NETHANEL 
BEN MESHULLAM HA-LEVI; NETIRA; 
NISSI BEN BERECHIAH AL-NAHRAWANI; 
PALTIEL; PANIGEL, RAPHAEL MEIR BEN 
JUDAH; PARDO, JOSEPH; PERAHYAH, 
AARON BEN HAYYIM ABRAHAM 
HA-KOHEN; PERAHYAH, HASDAI BEN 
SAMUEL HA-KOHEN; PHINEHAS BEN 
JOSEPH HA-LEVI; PORTALEONE; PORTO; 
PORTO, ABRAHAM MENAHEM BEN JACOB 
HA-KOHEN; PORTO-RAFA, MOSES BEN 
JEHIEL HAKOHEN; PROVENgAL, MOSES 
BEN ABRAHAM; QAZZAZ, MANASSEH 
BEN ABRAHAM IBN; REGGIO, ABRAHAM 
BEN EZRIEL; REGGIO, ABRAHAM BEN 



EZRIEL; RICHIETTI, JOSEPH SHALLIT BEN 
ELIEZER; RUNKEL, SOLOMON ZALMAN; 
SAGIS; SAMEGAH, JOSEPH BEN BENJAMIN; 
SAMUEL BEN AZARIAH; SAMUEL HA- 
SHELISHI BEN HOSHANA; SAR SHALOM 
BEN MOSES HA-LEVI; SARAVAL, JACOB 
RAPHAEL BEN SIMHAH JUDAH; SARAVAL, 
JUDAH LEIB; SCHICK, BARUCH BEN 
JACOB; SHALOM, ABRAHAM; SHELUHEI 
EREZ ISRAEL; SHOLAL, ISAAC; SHOLAL, 
NATHAN HA-KOHEN; SID, SAMUEL IBN; 
SILANO; SIRILLO, SOLOMON BEN JOSEPH; 
SOLOMON BEN HASDAI; SOLOMON 
SULIMAN BEN AMAR; SONCINO, JOSHUA; 
STEINHARDT, MENAHEM MENDEL BEN 
SIMEON; TERNI, DANIEL BEN MOSES 
DAVID; UKBA, MAR; UZIEL, ISAAC BEN 
ABRAHAM; WILNA, JACOB BEN BENJAMIN 
WOLF; YIZHAKI, DAVID; ZARKO, JOSEPH 
BEN JUDAH; ZAYYAH, JOSEPH BEN 
ABRAHAM IBN; ZE'EVI, ISRAEL BEN 
AZARIAH; ZECHARIAH MENDEL BEN 
ARYEH LEIB; ZEMAH ZEDEK BEN ISAAC; 
ZUTA 

Preston David, M.S.; Executive 
Director, New York City Human 
Rights Commission 

Yonah David, Ph.D.; Professor 
Emeritus of Medieval Hebrew 
Literature, Tel Aviv University: 

ANAN BEN MARINUS HA-KOHEN; ANAV, 
BENJAMIN BEN ABRAHAM; FRANCES, 
IMMANUEL BEN DAVID; JERAHMEEL BEN 
SOLOMON; MATTATHIAS; MESHULLAM 
BEN KALONYMUS; MOSES BEN JOAB; 
OLMO, JACOB DANIEL BEN ABRAHAM; 
POETRY; REMOS, MOSES BEN ISAAC; 
RIETI, MOSES BEN ISAAC DA; RIMON, 
JOSEPH ZEVI; SHEPHATIAH BEN AMITTAI; 
YESHURUN, AVOT 

David Davidovitch, Eng.; Director 
of the Museum of Ethnography 
and Folklore, Tel Aviv: ketubbah-, 

SYNAGOGUE; TOMBS AND TOMBSTONES 

Esther B. Davidowitz*, B.Sc; 
Editor and CommunityActivist 
Jewish Community Center of 
Wilkes-Barre; Board of Trustees of 
the Wilkes University; Kingston, Pa.: 

WILKES-BARRE AND KINGSTON 

Steven Davidowitz*, B.A. M.A., 
M.B.A.; Registered Representative, 
Sammons Securities Corp. 
Kingston, Pennsylvania: wilkes- 

BARRE AND KINGSTON 

Herbert Davidson, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of Philosophy, 
the University of California, Los 



70 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Angeles: shalom, Abraham ben isaac 

BEN JUDAH BEN SAMUEL 

Philip (R.) Davies*, M.A., Ph.D.; 
Emeritus Professor of Biblical 
Studies, University of Sheffield, 
England: dead sea scrolls; dead sea 

SECT; ESSENES; YAHAD 

Barry Davis (Yid. Div.)*> B.A.; 
Senior Lecturer in Jewish History, 
London Jewish Cultural Center, 
London, England: trunk, yehiel 

YESHAIA 

Barry Davis (Isr. Div.)*> B.A.; 
Journalist, Translator; Jerusalem 
Post, Downbeat; Moshav Matta: 

ARTZI, SHLOMO; BANAI; CASPI, 
MATTI; DAMARI, SHOSHANA; DESHEH, 
AVRAHAM; EINSTEIN, ARIK; FISHER, 
DUDU; GAON, YEHORAM; GEFEN, AVIV; 
HADDAD, SARIT; HA-GASHASH HA-HIVER; 
HANOKH, SHALOM; HITMAN, UZI; NINI, 
ACHINOAM; POLIKER, YEHUDAH; ZOHAR, 
URI 

Eli Davis, M.D.; Associate Professor 
of Medicine, the Hebrew 
University - Hadassah Medical 
School, Jerusalem: yassky, haim 

Joseph W. Davis, Ramat Ha-Sharon, 

Israel: de vries, andre 

Moshe Davis, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Head of the Institute of 
Contemporary Jewry of the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem 

Natalie Zemon Davis*, Ph.D.; 
Henry Charles Lea Professor 
of History Emerita, Princeton 
University, New Jersey: glueckel of 

HAMELN 

Moshe Dayan, Lieutenant General 
(Res.), Israel Defense Forces; 
Minister of Defense, Tel Aviv: 

WINGATE, ORDE 

Alan H. Decherney*, M.D.; Chief 
Reproductive Biology and Medicine 
Branch, National Institute of Child 
Health and Human Development, 
National Institutes of Health, 
Bethesda, Maryland: lieberman, 

JOSEPH 

Robert L. (Louis) DelBane*, 

B.A.; Research Fellow, Kent State 
University, Ohio: kaufman, george 

SIMON; MAMET, DAVID; MILLER, ARTHUR; 
PERELMAN, SIDNEY JOSEPH; SIMON, NEIL 



Sergio DellaPergola*, Ph.D.; 

Shlomo Argov Chair in Israel- 
Diaspora Relations, A. Harman 
Institute of Contemporary 
Jewry, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem; Senior Fellow, Jewish 
People Policy Planning Institute, 
Jerusalem: blayer, pietro-, cantoni, 

RAFFAELE; DEMOGRAPHY; FERRARA; 
GENOA; ITALY; LEGHORN; MERANO; 
MIGRATIONS; MILAN; MIXED MARRIAGE, 
INTERMARRIAGE; NAPLES; PARMA; 
PIPERNO BEER, SERGIO; PISA; ROME; 
STATISTICS; TOAFF; VITAL STATISTICS; 
ZOLLER, ISRAEL 

Aaron Demsky, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Senior Lecturer in Jewish History, 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat 
Gan: education, Jewish; scribe; 

SHALMANESER III; SHALMANESER V; 
TIGLATH-PILESER II; WRITING 

Hugh Denman*, B.A., M.A.; 
Honorary Research Fellow in 
Yiddish, Hebrew and Jewish 
Studies, University College, 
London, England: imber, samuel 

JACOB; KOBRIN, LEON; LEIVIK, H.; 
MANN, MENDEL; RABOY, ISAAC; REISEN, 
ABRAHAM; SHALOM ALEICHEM; SHAPIRA, 
KALONYMOUS KALMAN 

Michael Denman*, M.D., F.R.C.P; 
Emeritus Consultant, Northwick 
Park Hospital, London, England: 

ALFEROV, ZHORES I.; ALTSCHUL, 
AARON MEYER; ANFINSEN, CHRISTIAN 
BOEHMER; AVIGAD, GAD; AVIV, HAIM; 
AXEL, RICHARD; BENACERRAF, BARUJ; 
BENZER, SEYMOUR; BETHE, HANS 
ALBRECHT; BLOCH, FELIX; BODMER, 
SIR WALTER; BOHM, DAVID; BRENNER, 
SYDNEY; CEDAR, CHAIM; CHARGAFF, 
ERWIN; COHEN, I. BERNARD; COHEN, 
PHILIP PACY; COHEN, SIR PHILIP; 
COHEN, STANLEY N.; COHEN, YIGAL 
RAHAMIM; COHN, MILDRED; COOPER, 
LEON N.; CORI, GERTY THERESA; CROHN, 
BURRILL BERNARD; DASSAULT, MARCEL; 
DIAMOND, LOUIS KLEIN; DJERASSI, CARL; 
DRUCKER, DANIEL CHARLES; EDINGER, 
TILLY; ELION, GERTRUDE BELL; EPHRUSSI, 
BORIS; FISCHER, EDMOND; FOLKMAN, 
JUDAH; FRANK, ILYA MIKHAILOVICH; 
FRISCH, OTTO ROBERT; FURCHGOTT, 
ROBERT R; GELFAND, IZRAIL MOISEVICH; 
GELL-MANN, MURRAY; GILMAN, ALFRED 
G.; GINZBURG, VITALY LAZAREVICH; 
GLASER, DONALD ARTHUR; GLAUBER, 
ROY J.; GOLDBERG, EMANUEL; 
GOLDSTEIN, JOSEPH LEONARD; GREEN, 
DAVID EZRA; GREENGARD, PAUL; GROSS, 
DAVID J.; HAREL, DAVID; HAUPTMAN, 



HERBERT AARON; HAURWITZ, BERNARD; 
HERSHKO, AVRAM; HORWITZ, H. ROBERT; 
JACOB, FRANCOIS; JACOBSON, KURT; 
JAMMER, MAX; JANOWITZ, HENRY 
D.; JORTNER, JOSHUA; KALNITSKY, 
GEORGE; KANDEL, ERIC RICHARD; 
KANTROWITZ, ADRIAN; KAPLAN, JOSEPH; 
KARLE, JEROME; KATZ, ISRAEL; KLEIN, 
GEORGE; KLINE, NATHAN S.; KOGAN, 
ABRAHAM; KOHN, WALTER; KOLTHOFF, 
IZAAK MAURITS; KORNBERG, ARTHUR; 
KORNBERG, SIR HANS LEO; KROTO, SIR 
HAROLD WALTER; LACHMANN, SIR PETER 
JULIUS; LANGER, ROBERT S; LEDERER, 
JEROME E; LEDERMAN, LEON MAX; LEE, 
DAVID; LEES, LESTER; LIBAI, AVINOAM; 
LIFSON, SHNEIOR; LOEWE, FRITZ PHILIPP; 
LOEWI, OTTO; MASTER, ARTHUR M.; 
MESELSON, MATTHEW; MOTTELSON, BEN 
R.; NATHANS, DANIEL; NEUGEBAUER, 
OTTO; NIRENBERG, MARSHALL WARREN; 
OLAH, GEORGE A.; OSHEROFF, DOUGLAS 
DEAN; PAULI, WOLFGANG; PERL, MARTIN 
LEWIS; PICARD, LEO YEHUDA; PINKEL, 
BENJAMIN; PNUELI, AMIR; POLANYI, 
JOHN C; POLANYI, MICHAEL; POLITZER, 
H. DAVID; PRESS, FRANK; PRESSMAN, 
DAVID; PRIGOGINE, ILYA; PRUSINER, 
STANLEY S.; PTASHNE, MARK STEPHEN; 
RACKER, EFRAIM; RAHAMIMOFF, RAMI; 
RAPHAEL, RALPH ALEXANDER; RODBELL, 
MARTIN; ROSE, IRWIN; ROSEN, FRED 
SAUL; ROTBLAT, SIR JOSEPH; ROTH, KLAUS 
FRIEDRICH; SABIN, ALBERT; SALITERNIK, 
ZVI; SALK, JONAS; SCHALLY, ANDREW 
VICTOR; SCHAWLOW, ARTHUR L.; 
SCHWARTZ, LAURENT; SHARON, NATHAN; 
SHELAH, SAHARON; SILVERMAN, LESLIE; 
SLEPIAN, JOSEPH; SONDHEIMER, FRANZ; 
SOSKIN, SELIG EUGEN; SPIEGELMAN, 
SOL; STEG ADOLPHE; STEIN, YEHEZKIEL; 
STEINBERG, AVRAHAM; STENT, 
GUNTHER SIEGMUND; STROMINGER, 
JACK; SZILARD, LEO; TABOR, DAVID; 
TABOR, HARRY ZVI; TALMI, IGAL; 
TAMM, IGOR YEVGENYEVICH; TARSKI, 
ALFRED; TELLER, EDWARD; TEMIN, 
HOWARD MARTIN; TEPPER, MORRIS; 
ULAM, STANISLAW MARCIN; VANE, 
SIR JOHN R.; VARMUS, HAROLD ELIOT; 
VOET, ANDRIES; WEINBERG, STEVEN; 
WEINHOUSE, SIDNEY; WEISSKOPF, VICTOR 
E; WESTHEIMER, FRANK HENRY; WIGNER, 
EUGENE PAUL; WINTROBE, MAXWELL 
MYER; YALOW, ROSALYN SUSSMAN; 
YOUNG, ALEC DAVID; ZAIZOV, RINA; ZIFF, 
MORRIS 

Shlomo Derech, Editor, Kibbutz 
Givat Hayyim: kibbutz movement 

David (Jay) Derovan*, M.A.; 
Jewish Education, Director, 
Draitch Adult Jewish Education, 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Beit Shemesh, Israel: Abraham 

BEN DAVID OF POSQUIERES; ADLER, 
NATHAN BEN SIMEON HA-KOHEN; ADRET, 
SOLOMON BEN ABRAHAM; AHARONIM; 
ALSHEKH, MOSES; ASHER BEN JEHIEL; 
BAALEI TESHUVAH; BAKSHI-DORON, 
ELIAHU; BIBLE CODES; BLAU, AMRAM; 
BOBOV; BREUER, MORDECHAI; ELIJAH 
BEN SOLOMON ZALMAN; ELIYAHU, 
MORDECHAI; FEINSTEIN, MOSES; GAON; 
GEMATRIA; GERONDI, ZERAHIAH BEN 
ISAAC HA-LEVI; GERSHOM BEN JUDAH 
ME'OR HA-GOLAH; HAI BEN SHERIRA; 
HAKHAM BASHI; HAYYIM BEN ISAAC "OR 
ZARUA"; HAYYIM BEN BEZALEL; HELLER, 
YOM TOV LIPMANN BEN NATHAN HA- 
LEVI; HERMENEUTICS; HERZOG, ISAAC; 
HILDESHEIMER, AZRIEL; HOFFMANN, 
DAVID ZEVI; ISAAC BEN SHESHET PERFET; 
ISRAEL MEIR HA-KOHEN; ISSERLES, MOSES 
BEN ISRAEL; JACOB BEN ASHER; JONAH 
BEN ABRAHAM GERONDI; KAFAH, YOSEF; 
KAHANEMAN, JOSEPH; KALISCHER, 
ZEVI HIRSCH; KARA, JOSEPH; KARELITZ, 
AVRAHAM YESHAYAHU; LANDAU, 
EZEKIEL BEN JUDAH; LAU, ISRAEL MEIR; 
LEIBOWITZ, NEHAMA; LIPKIN, ISRAEL 
BEN ZE'EV WOLF; LURIA, SOLOMON BEN 
JEHIEL; LUZZATTO, SIMONE BEN ISAAC 
SIMHAH; MALBIM, MEIR LOEB BEN JEHIEL 
MICHAEL WEISSER; ME-AM LO'EZ; MEIRI, 
MENAHEM BEN SOLOMON; SHAPIRA, 
AVRAHAM ELKANA KAHANA; TA-SHMA, 
ISRAEL MOSES 

Lisa (C.) DeShantz-Cook*, B.A.; 
Freelance Writer and Editor, 
Detroit, Michigan: fischer, Stanley; 

KAHNEMAN, DANIEL; KOHL, 
HERBERT; NADLER, JERROLD 
LEWIS; STIGLITZ, JOSEPH E.; WALZER, 
MICHAEL 

Dawn (M.) Desjardins*, B.A.; 
Freelance Editor and Writer, 
Westland, Michigan: levitt, Arthur, 

SR.; MERTON, ROBERT C; SCHOLES, 
MYRON S. 

Elisabeth Dessauer*, University 
Student, University of Munich, 
Germany: tausk, viktor; thieme, 

KARL OTTO; URY, ELSE 

Nathaniel Deutsch*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor, Swarthmore 
College, Pennsylvania: ludomir, 

MAID OF 

Shabbetai Devir, Jerusalem: frank, 

ZEVI PESAH 

* * 

Benjamin De-Vries, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Talmud, Tel Aviv 



University: halakhah; maarsen, 

ISAAC 

Paul Joseph Diamant, Dr.Phil.; 
Genealogist, Jerusalem 

Adam Dickter* : new york city, 

WILLIAMSBURG 

Alain Dieckhoff*, Ph.D.; Research 
Director, Centre for International 
Studies and Research, Alumnus 
of the University of Paris, France: 

FRANCE 

Jacob I. Dienstag, M.A.; Professor 
of Bibliography, Yeshiva University, 
New York: maimonides 

Devora Dimant, Ph.D.; Lecturer, 
Department of Biblical Studies, 
Haifa University 

Yedidya A. Dinari, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Talmud, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: hillel of erfurt; Israel 

OF BAMBERG; ISRAEL OF KREMS; JACOB 
OF VIENNA; JOSEPH BEN MOSES 

Leonard Dinnerstein*, B.S.S., M.A.; 
Professor Emeritus, University of 
Arizona, Tucson, Arizona: tucson 

Yoram Dinstein, Dr.Jur.; Senior 
Lecturer in Public International 
Law, Tel Aviv University: united 

NATIONS 

Benzion Dinur (Dinaburg), 

Emeritus Professor of Jewish 
History, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem; Former Minister of 
Education and Culture, Jerusalem: 

BAER, YITZHAK; BASNAGE, JACQUES 
CHRISTIAN; BENJACOB, ISAAC; 
EMANCIPATION; JAWITZ, ZE'EV; 
ODESSA; TAEUBLER, EUGEN; UKRAINE; 
WISSENSCHAFT DES JUDENTUMS; 
YELLIN 

David Diringer, Litt. D.; Emeritus 
Reader in Semitic Epigraphy, the 
University of Cambridge; Director 
of the Alphabeth Museum, Tel Aviv: 

ALPHABET, HEBREW; LIDZBARSKI, MARK 

Daniel Dishon, Former Senior 
Research Associate, Shiloah Center 
for Middle Eastern and African 
Studies, Tel Aviv University 

Abraham (H.A.) Diskin*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor, Department 
of Political Science, the Hebrew 



University of Jerusalem: Israel, state 

OF: HISTORICAL SURVEY 

Eial (Yosef ) Diskin*, M.B.A.; Tel 
Aviv University, Tel Aviv: kaplan, 

ABRAHAM 

Elliott Dlin*, M.A.; Executive 
Director, Dallas Holocaust Museum, 
Dallas, Texas: holocaust 

Eli Dlinn, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem 

Shawna Dolansky Overton*, Ph.D.; 
Adjunct Faculty, University of 
California, San Diego: pentateuch 

Marc Dollinger*, Ph.D.; Richard 
and Rhoda Goldman Chair 
in Jewish Studies and Social 
Responsibility, San Francisco State 
University, San Franciso: lerner, 

MICHAEL; NEW LEFT; TIKKUN 

Danuta Dombrowska, M.A.; 
Historian, Jerusalem: belchatow; 

BOLEKHOV; BRODY; BRZESC KUJAWSKI; 
BRZEZINY; BYDGOSZCZ; CIECHANOW; 
CRACOW; GNIEZNO; GORLICE; 
GOSTYNIN; INOWROCLAW; KALISZ; 
KLODAWA; KOLO; KONIN; KROSNO; 
KROTOSZYN; KUTNO; LASK; LECZYCA; 
LESZNO; LODZ; LUTOMIERSK; MAJDANEK; 
NASIELSK; OLESKO; OLKUSZ; OPATOW; 
OZORKOW; PABIANICE; PLOCK; POZNAN; 
RUMKOWSKI, CHAIM MORDECHAI; RYPIN; 
SIERADZ; SOBIBOR; SREM; STOPNICA; 
STRYKOW; SZCZERCOW; WARSAW; 
WIELUN; WOLBROM; WRONKI; ZDUNSKA 
WOLA; ZELOW; ZGIERZ; ZYCHLIN 

Stephen G. Donshik, D.S.W.; 
Director, Israel Office of UJA- 
Federation of New York, UIA, 
Jerusalem 

Elliot N. Dorf, M.H.L., Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Provost and Professor of 
Philosophy, University of Judaism, 
Los Angeles 

David Dori, Kibbutz Ein ha- 

Horesh: wloclawek 

• 

Yaakov Dori, Dipl. Ing.; Lieutenant 
General (Res.), Israel Defense 
Forces and former Chief of Staff; 
Former President of the Technion, 
Haifa: technion, Israel institute of 

TECHNOLOGY 

Abraham Doron*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Paul Baerwald School of Social 
Work, the Hebrew University of 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Jerusalem: Israel, state of: health, 

WELFARE, AND SOCIAL SECURITY 

Israel Dostrovsky, Ph.D.; Vice 
President and Professor of Physical 
Chemistry, the Weizmann Institute 
of Science, Rehovot, Israel 

Aron Dotan*, Ph.D.; Professor 
Emeritus, President, International 
Organization of Masoretic Studies; 
Member, Hebrew Language 
Academy; Head, Cymbalista Jewish 
Heritage Center, Tel Aviv University: 

BEN-ASHER, MOSES; MASORAH 

Moshe Dothan, Ph.D.; Director 
of Excavations and Surveys and 
Deputy Director, Department 
of Antiquities and Museums, 
Jerusalem: ashdod 

Trude Dothan*, Ph.D.; The Philip 
and Muriel Berman Center for 
Biblical Archaeology, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: ekron 

Alan Dowty, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in International Relations, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

MORGENTHAU, HANS JOACHIM 

Noah W. Dragoon, M.A.; 
Jerusalem: harbin 

Paula Draper*, Ph.D.; Historian, 

Toronto, Canada: bayefsky, aba; 

COHON, GEORGE A.; CRONENBERG, 
DAVID; DAN, LESLIE L.; RASMINSKY, 
LOUIS; ROTHSCHILD, KURT; SCHILD, 
EDWIN; SCHLESINGER, JOE; SPRACHMAN, 
ABRAHAM AND MANDEL; WOLFE; 
ZNAIMER, MOSES 

Israel Drapkin-Senderey, 

M.D.; Professor of Criminology 
and Director of the Institute of 
Criminology, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: delvalle, max shalom; 

TOPOLEVSKY, GREGORIO; WALD, ARNOLD 

Daniel Dratwa, DEA Paris X; 
Curator of Jewish Museum of 
Belgium, Brussels: Belgium 

Adina Dreksler, Yad Vashem, 

Jerusalem: holocaust: spiritual 

RESISTANCE IN THE GHETTOS AND 
CONCENTRATION CAMPS 

Willi Dressen, Public Prosecutor, 
Zentralle Stalle der Landesjustizver 
waltungen, Ludwigsburg, Germany: 

WAR CRIMES TRIALS 



A. Stanley Dreyfus, Ph.D., Rabbi; 

New York: cohen, henry 

Jean-Marc Dreyfus*, Ph.D.; 
Historian, Affiliate Researcher, 
Institut d'histoire du temps present 
- CNRSJParis: union generale des 

ISRAELITES DE FRANCE; WARSCHAWSKI, 
MAX; WIEVIORKA, ANNETTE 

Walter Driver*, B.A.; Screenwriter, 
Los Angeles: abbott, bud ; aldrich, 

ROBERT; AVNET, JON; BARRIS, CHUCK; 
BERGEN, POLLY; BERGMAN, ALAN 
and MARILYN; BERGMAN, ANDREW; 
BERMAN, SHELLEY; BERNHARD, SANDRA; 
BISHOP, JOEY; BLANC, MEL; BRODERICK, 
MATTHEW; KAHN, MADELINE; KANE, 
CAROL; KAVNER, JULIE; KAZAN, LAINIE; 
KEITEL, HARVEY; KLUGMAN, JACK 

Yosef Dror*, Ph.D.; Institute of 
Biochemistry, Food Science and 
Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

BONDI, ARON 

Moshe Drori*, LL.B., LL.M.; Judge, 
Jerusalem District Court, Jerusalem: 

ABDUCTION; ADULTERY; BET DIN 
RABBANI; DIVORCE; LEVIRATE MARRIAGE 
AND HALIZAH; MAINTENANCE; 
MATRIMONIAL PROPERTY 

Alejandro (Daniel) Dubesarsky*, 

Journalist and Translator for 
Agencia Judia de Noticias, Buenos 
Aires, Argentina: najnudel, leon 

DAVID; PEKERMAN, JOSE NESTOR 

Bernard Dubin, M.S.W.; Executive 
Director of the Jewish Federation 
of Camden County, New Jersey: 

CAMDEN 

Thomas Dublin*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
State University of New York, 
Binghamton, New York: cohen, 

ROSE GOLLUP; MALKIEL, THERESA 
SERBER 

Melvyn Dubofsky, Ph.D., Associate 
Professor of History, the University 
of Wisconsin, Milwaukee: breslaw, 

JOSEPH; DUBINSKY, DAVID; FEIGENBAUM, 
BENJAMIN; FEINSTONE, MORRIS; 
HOCHMAN, JULIUS; NAGLER, ISADORE; 
ROSENBERG, ABRAHAM; SCHLESINGER, 
BENJAMIN; SCHLOSSBERG, JOSEPH; 
SIGMAN, MORRIS 

Brother Marcel- Jacques Dubois 
O.P., Professor, Department of 
Philosophy, the Hebrew University 



of Jerusalem: maritain, jacques and 

RAISSA 

Yael Dunkelman, Toronto: 

BORNSTEIN, ELI 

Douglas Morton Dunlop, M.A.; 
Professor of History, Columbia 
University, New York: atil, bAb 

AL-ABWAB; BALANJAR; BULAN; JOSEPH; 
KHAZARS; OBADIAH; OBADIAH; 
RADANIYA; SAMANDAR; SARKIL 

Alexander M. Dushkin, Ph.D.; 
Emeritus Professor of Education, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

RIEGER, ELIEZER 

Deborah Dwork*, Ph.D.; Rose 
Professor Holocaust History; 
Director, Strassler Center for 
Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 
Clark University, Worcester, 
Massachusetts: Auschwitz 

Shlomo Dykman, Translator, 

Jerusalem: tuwim, julian 

Abba Eban, M.A.; Minister 
for Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: 

WEIZMANN, chaim 

Irene Eber, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor in Chinese History, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

CHINA 

Michael H. Ebner, M.A.; Lecturer 
in American History, the Herbert 
H. Lehman College of the City 
University of New York: passaic- 

CLIFTON 

Nathan Eck, Dr.Jur.; Historian, 
Tel Aviv: holocaust remembrance 

DAY; MARK, BERNARD; RINGELBLUM, 
EMANUEL; SOMMERSTEIN, EMIL; 
TENENBAUM, MORDECAI 

A. Roy Eckardt, Ph.D.; Clergyman, 
United Methodist Church; professor 
and chairman of the Department 
of Religious Studies, Lehigh 
University. 

Shuki (Yehoshua) Ecker*, M.A.; Tel 
Aviv University: zonana 

Willehad Paul Eckert, Dr.Phil.; 
Professor of the History of 
Philosophy, Hochschule der 
Dominikaner, Walberberg, 
Germany: church councils-, 

CHURCH, CATHOLIC; DANIEL-ROPS, 



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73 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



HENRI; LEO; PAUL VI; PIUS X; PIUS XI; 
PIUS XII; THIEME, KARL; THIEME, KARL 
OTTO 

Rafael Edelman, Ph.D.; Director 
of Jewish Studies, Copenhagen 
University; Head of the Jewish 
Department, the Royal Library, 
Copenhagen: aslakssen, corT; 

DENMARK 

William B. Edgerton, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Slavic Languages and 
Literature, Indiana University, 
Bloomington: leskov, nikolay 

SEMYONOVICH 

Elisha Efrat*, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Geography, Tel Aviv University: 

ISRAEL, STATE OF: ALIYAH, POPULATION, 
HUMAN GEOGRAPHY; JERUSALEM; 
LACHISH REGION 

Natan Efrati, M.A.; Ben Zvi 
Institute, Jerusalem: ashkelon; 

BET-MIDRASH; CAPTIVES, RANSOMING 
OF; CHORTKOV; CIECHANOW; DAVID 
BEN MANASSEH DARSHAN; DLUGOSZ, 
JAN; MAAMAD or MAHAMAD; PARNAS; 
PLETTEN; SHULKLAPPER; SICK CARE, 
COMMUNAL; TANZHAUS 

Daniel Efron, M.A.; Jerusalem: 

LAWRENCE, THOMAS EDWARD; 
LLOYD GEORGE, DAVID; MANDATE 
FOR PALESTINE; PALESTINE, INQUIRY 
COMMISSIONS; PALESTINE, PARTITION 
AND PARTITION PLANS; SAINT JAMES'S 
CONFERENCE; SAMUEL, EDWIN; SAMUEL, 
HERBERT LOUIS; WHITE PAPERS; ZIONIST 
COMMISSION 

Zusia Efron, Director of the Art 
Museum, Kibbutz En Harod 

Yulia Egorova*, Ph.D.; Research 
Fellow, School of Religious and 
Theological Studies, Cardiff 
University, England: bene Israel; 

BOMBAY; CHENNAMANGALAM; 
CRANGANORE; DIVEKAR, SAMUEL 
EZEKIEL; GANDHI, MOHANDAS 
KARAMCHAND 

Robert M. Ehrenreich*, Dr.Phil.; 
Director, Academic Programs, 
Center for Advanced Holocaust 
Studies, United States Holocaust 
Memorial Museum, Washington, 

D.C.: HOLOCAUST 

Albert A. Ehrenzweig, J.D., S.J.D., 
Dr. Utr. Jur.; Professor of Law, the 
University of California, Berkeley; 



Honorarprofessor, the University of 

Vienna: radin, max 

Ariel Ehrlich*, L.L.B.; Lawyer, Ofra, 

Israel: military law 

Carl Stephen Ehrlich*, Dr.Phil.; 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

EDOM 

Dror Ehrlich*, Ph.D.; Department 
of Philosophy, Bar-Ilan University: 

ALBO, JOSEPH 

Uri Ehrlich*, Ph.D.; Jewish 
Thought, Ben-Gurion University 
of the Negev, Beersheba: amidah; 

BIRKAT HA-MINIM 

Arnost Zvi Ehrman, Dr.Jur., F.J.C., 
Rabbi; Talmudic Scholar, Ramat 
Gan: antichresis; asmakhta; 

CONDITIONS; EDUYYOT; HORAYOT; 
KELIM; KERITOT; KETUBBOT; KIDDUSHIN; 
KINNIM; MEGILLAH; METLAH; MENAHOT; 
MIDDOT; MIKVA'OT; MO'ED KATAN; 
SELDEN, JOHN; SHEVITT 

H. Bruce Ehrmann, M.H.L., Rabbi; 

Brockton, Massachusetts 

David Max Eichhorn, D.H.L., 

Rabbi; Cape Kennedy, Florida: 

JEWISH WAR VETERANS OF THE USA. 

Shlomo Eidelberg, Ph.D., D.H.L.; 
Professor of Jewish History, Yeshiva 
University, New York, and Haifa 
University: ettlinger, jacob; falk, 

JOSHUA BEN ALEXANDER HA-KOHEN; 
GERSHOM BEN JUDAH ME'OR HA- 
GOLAH; HAYYIM BEN ISAAC "OR ZARUA"; 
HESCHEL, ABRAHAM JOSHUA BEN JACOB; 
KLATZKIN, ELIJAH BEN NAPHTALI HERZ; 
KOIDONOVER, ZEVI HIRSCH; LUBLIN, 
MEIR BEN GEDALIAH; MENAHEM BEN 
AARON IBN ZERAH; MINZ, ABRAHAM 
BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI; MINZ, JUDAH BEN 
ELIEZER HA-LEVI; MOSES BEN JACOB 
OF KIEV; MOSES OF KIEV; RAPOPORT, 
ABRAHAM BEN ISRAEL JEHIEL 
HAKOHEN; SHABBETAI BEN MEIR HA- 
KOHEN; SHALOM SHAKHNA BEN 
JOSEPH 

Amnon Einav, Chief Scientist, Israel 
Ministry of Energy 

Yizhak Einhorn, M.A.; Teacher, Tel 

Aviv: PEWTER PLATES 

Alfred Einstein, Dr. Phil.; 
Musicologist, Professor of Music, 
Smith College, Northampton, 



Massachusetts: marx, adolf 

BERNHARD 

Sydney Eisen, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History and Humanities, York 
University, Downsview, Ontario: 

HEICHELHEIM, FRITZ MORITZ 

Esty (Esther) Eisenmann*, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer, Open University of Israel, 
Tel Aviv University: katz, Joseph ben 

ELIJAH; MOSES BEN JUDAH, NOGA 

Abraham S. Eisenstadt, Ph.D.; 
Professor of American History, 
Brooklyn College of the City 
University of New York: beer, 

GEORGE LOUIS; BOORSTIN, DANIEL J. 

Ira Eisenstein, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Former President of 
Reconstructionist Rabbinical 
College, Philadelphia 

Yizchak Jacob Eisner, Ph.D.; 
Ministry of Education and Culture, 
Jerusalem 

Daniel J. Elazar, Ph.D.; Paterson 
Professor of Intergovernmental 
Relations, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan, and Chairman, Center 
for Jewish Community Studies, 
Jerusalem and Philadelphia: 

COMMUNITY 

Edna Elazary, B.A.; Jerusalem: 

AGRIPPA I; BASSUS, LUCILIUS; 
DEMETRIUS; ELIONAEUS, SON OF 
CANTHERAS; HEROD; HEROD II; HEROD 
PHILIP I; HEZEKIAH, THE HIGH PRIEST; 
JACOB BEN SOSAS; JONATHAN SON 
OF ABSALOM; JOSEPH OF GAMALA; 
JOSHUA, SON OF SAPPHAS; JUDAH, 
SON OF ZIPPORAI; JULIUS ARCHELAUS; 
KIMHIT; PHERORAS; PHILIP OF BATHYRA; 
PHINEHAS BEN SAMUEL; TETRARCH; 
VALERIUS GRATUS 

Jacob Elbaum, M.A.; Assistant in 
Hebrew Literature, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: ahithophel 

THE GILONITE; ELNATHAN BEN ACHBOR; 
ESTORI HA-PARHI; GENESIS RABBATI; 
MIDRASH LEKAH TOV; MIDRASH 
PROVERBS or AGGADAT PROVERBS; 
MIDRASH SAMUEL; MIDRASH TEHILLIM; 
TANNA DE-VEI ELIYAHU; YALKUT 
MAKHIRI; YALKUT SHIMONI 

Aliza El-Dror, Public Relations, 
WIZO, Tel Aviv: wizo 

Yaffa Eliach, M.A.; Lecturer in 



74 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume i 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Jewish and European History, 
Brooklyn College of the City 
University of New York: ysander, 

TORSTEN 

E. Elias, Journalist, formerly of 
Ernakulam, Cochin, India; Haifa, 
Israel: Pakistan 

Flower Elias, London: ferris, iris 

Ben-Zion Eliash*, Ph.D., Dr.Jur.; 
Senior Lecturer, Tel Aviv University 
School of Law: usury 

Aryeh Eliav, Former Member of 
Knesset, Tel Aviv: eliav, binyamin 

Binyamin Eliav, Dr. Phil.; Editor 
and Official, Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs, Jerusalem: "canaanites"; 

ANTISEMITISM; ARLOSOROFF, CHAIM; 
ASSIMILATION; BERGER-BARZILAI, 
JOSEPH; COMMUNISM; GERSHUNI, 
GRIGORI ANDREYEVICH; LENIN, 
VLADIMIR ILYICH; LIFSHITZ, NEHAMAH; 
LITVINOV, MAXIM MAXIMOVICH; 
MIKHOELS, SOLOMON; NUMERUS 
CLAUSUS; POLITICS; RUSSIA 

Mordechai Eliav, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Jewish History and 
Education, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: ahlem; hildesheimer, 

AZRIEL 

Eliezer Eliner, M.A.; Senior Teacher 
in Talmud, Tel Aviv University: 

HOSHANOT 

Rachel Elior*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Cohen Chair of Jewish Philosophy, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

AARON BEN MOSES HA-LEVI OF 
STAROSIELCE; CHABAD; FRANK, EVA; 
JACOB ISAAC HA-HOZEH MI-LUBLIN 

Yehuda Elitzur, M.A.; Associate 
Professor of Biblical Historiography, 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

GAD; ISHMAEL; ISHMAEL; PARHON, 
SALOMON BEN ABRAHAM IBN; ZEBULUN 

Yuval Elizur, M.A.; Journalist, 
Jerusalem 

Judith Laikin Elkin* , Ph.D.; 
Independent Scholar, The University 
of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan: 

LAJSA 

Gedalyah Elkoshi, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Hebrew Literature, Tel 
Aviv University: almanzi, Joseph ; 



ASEFAT HAKHAMIM; BACHER, SIMON; 
BEILINSON, MOSES ELIEZER; BEN-AVI, 
ITHAMAR; BEN-ZION, S.; BERSHADSKY, 
ISAIAH; BICK, JACOB SAMUEL; BLOCH, 
SAMSON; BRESSELAU, MEYER ISRAEL; 
BRILL, JEHIEL; BRILL, JOSEPH; CARO, 
DAVID; COHEN, SHALOM BEN JACOB; 
DOLITZKI, MENAHEM MENDEL; 
EHRENPREIS, MARCUS; ELISHEVA; 
EPSTEIN, ZALMAN; EUCHEL, ISAAC 
ABRAHAM; FARMERS' FEDERATION OF 
ISRAEL; FRAENKEL, FAIWEL; HACOHEN, 
MORDECAI BEN HILLEL; HALEVY, ELIE 
HALFON; HALPERIN, YEHIEL; HAMEIRI, 
AVIGDOR; HANKIN, YEHOSHUA; 
HARZFELD, AVRAHAM; HAYNT; HEILPRIN, 
PHINEHAS MENAHEM; HERZBERG, 
WILHELM; HILLELS, SHELOMO; 
HIRSCHKAHN, ZVI; HISIN, HAYYIM; 
HURWITZ, JUDAH BEN MORDECAI 
HA-LEVI; LOEWE, LOUIS; SHALKOVICH, 
ABRAHAM LEIB; SILBERBUSCH, DAVID 
ISAIAH; SIMHAH HAYYIM WALKOMITZ; 
SUEDFELD, GABRIEL; TAWIOW, ISRAEL 
HAYYIM; WARSHAWSKY, ISAAC; 
WAWELBERG, HIPOLIT; WEISSBERG, ISAAC 
JACOB; WEISSBERG, MEIR; WEITZ, JOSEPH; 
WERBEL, ELIAHU MORDECAI; WERBER, 
BARUCH; WETTSTEIN, FEIVEL HIRSCH; 
WIENER, SAMUEL; ZEID, ALEXANDER; 
ZHERNENSKY, MOSHE ELIYAHU; ZMORA, 
YISRAEL; ZMORA, YISRAEL; ZUTA, 
HAYYIM ARYEH 

• 

David (H.) Ellenson*, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
President, Hebrew Union College- 
Jewish Institute of Religion, New 
York: rabbinical training, 

AMERICAN 

Richard S. Ellis, Ph.D.; Associate 

Professor of Near Eastern 
Archaeology, Yale University, New 
Haven, Connecticut: erech 

Peter Elman, Departmental Editor, 
Law and Politics, Encyclopaedia 
Judaica (1st ed.), Jerusalem: kahan 

COMMISSION 

Yaakov Elman*, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Judaic Studies, Yeshiva University, 
New York, and Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts: talmud 

AND MIDDLE PERSIAN CULTURE 

Menachem Elon*, Ph.D.; Deputy 
President of the Supreme Court of 
Israel; Professor of Law, Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem, School 
of Law; Visiting Professor of Law, 
New York and Harvard Universities, 

Schools of Law: ABORTION; AGUNAH; 
APOSTASY; ARBITRATION; ASSAULT; 



AUTHORITY, RABBINICAL; BIGAMY 
AND POLYGAMY; BRIBERY; BUSINESS 
ETHICS; CAPITAL PUNISHMENT; 
CHILD MARRIAGE; CITY OF REFUGE; 
CODIFICATION OF LAW; COMPROMISE; 
CONCUBINE; CONDITIONS; CONFESSION; 
CONFLICT OF LAWS; CONTRACT; 
DAMAGES; DETENTION; DINA DE- 
MALKHUTA DINA; DIVINE PUNISHMENT; 
DOMICILE; DOWRY; EXECUTION; 
EXTRADITION; EXTRAORDINARY 
REMEDIES; FINES; HAANAKAH; HAFKAAT 
SHEARIM; HASSAGAT GEVUL; HAZAKAH; 
HEFKER; HEKDESH; HOMICIDE; HUMAN 
DIGNITY AND FREEDOM; HUSBAND AND 
WIFE; IMPRISONMENT; IMPRISONMENT 
FOR DEBT; INFORMERS; INTERPRETATION; 
KETUBBAH; LABOR LAW; LAW AND 
MORALITY; LAW OF RETURN; LEGAL 
PERSON; LEVIRATE MARRIAGE AND 
HALIZAH; LIEN; LIMITATION OF ACTIONS; 
MAASEH; MAJORITY RULE; MAMZER; 
MARRIAGE; MARRIAGE, PROHIBITED; 
MEDICINE AND LAW; MEHILAH; MINHAG; 
MISHPAT IVRI; MISTAKE; NOACHIDE 
LAWS; NUISANCE; OATH; OBLIGATIONS, 
LAW OF; ONAAH; ONES; PARTNERSHIP; 
PENAL LAW; PLEDGE; POLICE OFFENSES; 
PUBLIC AUTHORITY; PUNISHMENT; 
RIGHTS, HUMAN; SEVARAH; SEXUAL 
OFFENSES; SHOMERIM; SLANDER; 
SUCCESSION; SUICIDE; SURETYSHIP; 
TAKKANOT; TAKKANOT HA-KAHAL; 
TAXATION; THEFT AND ROBBERY; VALUES 
OF THE JEWISH AND DEMOCRATIC 
STATE; WILLS; WOMAN: AND THE ISRAELI 
COURTS; YUHASIN 

Aya Elyada*, M.A.; Graduate 
student for German- Jewish History, 
Tel Aviv University, Lehrstuhl fur 
judische Geschichte und Kultur, 
Munich, Germany: muenster, 

SEBASTIAN; OSIANDER, ANDREAS; 
PELLICANUS, CONRAD; SCHICKARD, 
WILHELM; SCHUDT, JOHANN JAKOB; 
WOLF, JOHANN CHRISTOPH 

Zeev Elyashiv, M.A.; Ministry 
of Communications, Jerusalem: 

MOLODECHNO 

Barnett A. Elzas*: poznanski, 

GUSTAVUS 

Frank Emblen, Journalist, New 

York: robinson, edward g. 

Isaac Samuel Emmanuel, Sc.D., 
Rabbi; Historian, Cincinnati, Ohio: 

MICHAEL, MOSES 

Charles J. Emmerich*: adams, arlin 

MARVIN 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Encyclopaedia Hebraica: aboab, 

ISAAC I; ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON OF 
TORRUTIEL; ABSALOM; ADONIJAH; 
AGGADAH; APOLOGETICS; ARENDT, 
OTTO; ASHER BEN JEHIEL; ASHKENAZ; 
AVILA; AZ ROV NISSIM; BADT, HERMANN; 
BALFOUR, ARTHUR JAMES, EARL OF; BEN 
MEIR, AARON; BILHAH; CHAJES, ZEVI 
HIRSCH; CHASANOWICH, LEON; DREAMS; 
EPHRAIM; ESZTERGOM; FREEMASONS; 
GEMATRIA; GOITEIN, BARUCH BENEDICT; 
HASIDIM; HAVER, HAVERIM; HILLEL; 
HOMBERG, NAPHTALI HERZ; HOROVITZ, 
JOSEF; HOS, DOV; IBN GABIROL, SOLOMON 
BEN JUDAH; ISRAEL, LAND OF: HISTORY; 
JERUSALEM; JOEL; JOHANAN BEN ZAKKAI; 
JOTHAM; JUDAH; JUDAH HA-LEVI; 
JUDAH HA-NASI; LAMED VAV ZADDIKIM; 
LAVI, SHELOMO; LESTSCHINSKY, JACOB; 
LILIENTHAL, MAX; LILIENTHAL, OTTO; 
LOEW, ELEAZAR; LOEWENSTEIN - 
STRASHUNSKY, JOEL DAVID; MEZHIRECH; 
OSTRACA; PROSELYTES; UNION OF THE 
RUSSIAN PEOPLE; UR; WAHRMANN, 
ABRAHAM DAVID BEN ASHER ANSCHEL; 
WARBURG, OTTO; ZACUTO, ABRAHAM 
BEN SAMUEL 

Encyclopaedia Judaica (Germany): 

ABELSON, JOSHUA; AKIVA BAER BEN 
JOSEPH; BENVENISTE, IMMANUEL; 
CRESCAS, HASDAI BEN JUDAH; 
HERZBERG-FRAENKEL, LEO; HIBAT 
ALLAH, ABU AL-BARAKAT BEN AL1 AL- 
BAGHDADI; IBN DAUD, ABRAHAM BEN 
DAVID HALEVI; IBN EZRA, JOSEPH BEN 
ISAAC; JOEL, MANUEL; JOSEPH MOSES BEN 
JEKUTHIEL ZALMAN; KAHANA, DAVID; 
KALLIR, ELEAZAR; KAMENKA-BUGSKAYA; 
KIRSCHSTEIN, MORITZ; KLODAWA; 
KORNIK; KOZIENICE; KRZEPICE; 
KUTY; LECZYCA; LELOW; LESHNEV; 
LEVY, SAMUEL; LIDA; LIPNO; LOSICE; 
LUBARTOW; LUTOMIERSK; LYAKHOVICHI; 
LYUBOML; MARCUS, AARON; NOTKIN, 
NATA; OLDENBURG; OPOLE LUBELSKIE; 
OTWOCK; PRINTING, HEBREW; SCROLL 
OF ANTIOCHUS 

Avraham (Alfred) Engel, Tel Aviv 

Paul Engel, M.D.; Professor of 
Biology, the Central University of 
Ecuador, Quito 

Morton S. Enslin, Th.D.; Professor 
of Early Christian History and 
Literature, Dropsie University, 
Philadelphia: bible 

Israel Eph'al, M.A.; Instructor in 
Biblical History, Tel Aviv University: 

ISHMAELITES; KEDAR; KETURAH; 
MEUNITES 



Jacob Eliahu Ephrathi, D.H.L.; 
Senior Lecturer in Talmud, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: even ha- 

TOIM; GEBIHA OF BE-KATIL; GEBINI; YOSE 
BENDORMASKOS 

Ury Epp stein, Ph.D.; Lecturer, 
Musicology Dept., the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: abileah, 

ARIE; BERGEL, BERND; BOEHM, 
YOHANAN; EVEN-OR, MARY; ISRAEL, 
STATE OF: CULTURAL LIFE 

Morris Epstein, Ph.D.; Editor and 
Professor of English, Stern College 
for Women, Yeshiva University, New 
York: marx, Alexander 

Seymour Epstein*, B.S., B.H.L., 
M.A., Ed.D.; Senior Vice President, 
Jewish Education and Identity, 

UJ.A.-Federation, Board of Jewish 
Education, Toronto, Canada: 

EDUCATION, JEWISH 

Amira Eran*, Ph.D.; the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: ghazAlI, 

ABU HAMID MUHAMMAD IBN 
MUHAMMAD AL-TUSl AL-; KINDl, ABU 
YUSUF YA'QUB IBN ISHAQ AL 

Shlomo Erel, Ministry of Defense, 

Tel Aviv: chile; latin America 

Patricia Erens, Ph.D.; Department 
of Communications, Rosary 
College, River Forest, Illinois 

Yehudah Erez, Editor and Writer, 
Kibbutz Givat Hayyim: golomb, 

ELIYAHU 

Abraham Erlik, B.A. (Arch.); 
Architect, Tel Aviv: baerwald, alex; 

KARMI, DOV; KAUFMANN, RICHARD; 
MANSFELD, ALFRED; MENDELSOHN, ERIC; 
RECHTER; SHARON, ARYEH 

Shimon Ernst, Ph.D.; Librarian, Tel 

Aviv: HIRSCHENSOHN-LICHTENSTEIN, 
JEHIEL ZEVI HERMANN 

Lewis John Eron*, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Jewish Community Chaplain, 
Jewish Federation of Southern New 
Jersey, Cherry Hill, New Jersey: 

CAMDEN 

Shaul Esh, Ph.D.; Senior Lecturer 
in Contemporary Jewry, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: anielewicz, 

MORDECAI; COHEN, DAVID; DRANCY; 
FRIEDMAN, PHILIP; GRYNSZPAN, 
HERSCHEL 



Ruth Eshel*, Ph.D.; Dance Critic 
for Haaretz Daily; Editor of Dance 
Today, the Dance Magazine of 
Israel; Lecturer at the University of 
Haifa; Artistic Director of Beta and 
Eskesta Dance Troupes-Dance of 
Ethiopian Jewry, Israel: batsheva 

AND BAT-DOR DANCE COMPANIES; BE'ER, 
RAMI; BERTONOFF, DEBORAH; DANCE; 
NAHARIN, OHAD; SCHUBERT, LIA 

Gennady Estraikh*, Dr.PhiL; 
Associate Professor, New York 
University, New York: abtshuk, 

AVRAHAM; BEIDER, CHAIM; CHARNEY, 
DANIEL; DOBRUSHIN, YEKHEZKEL; 
FEFER, ITZIK; GOLOMB, ABRAHAM; 
GORDON, SHMUEL; GORSHMAN, 
SHIRA; HALKIN, SHMUEL; HOFSTEIN, 
DAVID; JEWISH DAILY FORWARD; 
KALMANOVITCH, ZELIG; KULTUR-LIGE; 
KUSHNIROV, AARON; OLEVSKI, BUZI; 
ORLAND, HERSHL; PERSOV, SHMUEL; 
RAZUMNY, MARK; REZNIK, LIPE; SFARD, 
DAVID; SHTIF, NOKHEM; SMOLAR, 
HERSH; SOVETISH HEYMLAND; TEITSH, 
MOYSHE; VERGELIS, AARON; WEITER, 
A.; WENDROFF, ZALMAN; YAKNEHAZ; 
ZARETZKI, ISAAC 

Shmuel Ettinger, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Jewish History, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

BERDICHEV; BERSHAD; BERSHADSKI, 
SERGEY ALEXANDROVICH; BRATSLAV; 
CHMIELNICKI, BOGDAN; GRAETZ, 
HEINRICH; HAIDAMACKS,; REUVENI, 
DAVID; VIENNA, CONGRESS OF; 
VOLOZHIN; ZIONISM 

Yona Ettinger 

Jehonatan Etz-Chaim, Instructor in 
Talmud, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat 
Gan: dukhan; eleazar ben damma; 

ELEAZAR BEN JUDAH OF BARTOTA; 
ELEAZAR BEN PARTA 

Yakir Eventov, Haifa: licht, 

ALEXANDER; ZIONISM 

Ephraim Evron, Ambassador and 
Deputy Director General, Ministry 
for Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem 

Yosef Ewen, M.A.; Lecturer in 
Hebrew Literature, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem and the 
University of the Negev, Beersheba: 

BARASH, ASHER 

Eli Eytan, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Hebrew Language, 
Tel Aviv University; Scientific 



76 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Secretary of the Academy of the 
Hebrew Language, Tel Aviv: Hebrew 

LANGUAGE 

Alexander Ezer, Editor, Jerusalem 

Sidra Ezrahi, Ph.D.; Researcher, 
Jerusalem: holocaust 

Salamon Faber, D.H.L., Rabbi; New 
York 

Emil Ludwig Fackenheim, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Professor of Philosophy, the 
University of Toronto: hegel, georg 

WILHELM FRIEDRICH; SCHELLING, 
FRIEDRICH WILHELM JOSEPH 

Karen L. Falk*, M.A., Project 
Coordinator, Jewish Museum of 
Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland: 

MEYERHOFF, HARVEY 

Stanley L. Falk, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of National Security 
Affairs, Industrial College of the 
Armed Forces, Washington, D.C.: 

BLOOM, SOL; BLUMENBERG, LEOPOLD; 
JOHNSON, LYNDON BAINES; MORDECAI, 
ALFRED; MORDECAI, JACOB; RICKOVER, 
HYMAN GEORGE 

Ze'ev Wilhem Falk, Ph.D., 
Advocate; Jacob I. Berman Associate 
Professor of Family Law and 
Succession, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem; Senior Lecturer in 
Jewish Law, Tel Aviv University: 

ALTENSTADT; ASCHAFFENBURG; 
BAIERSDORF; BAMBERG; BAYREUTH; 
BONN; BREMEN; BRUNSWICK; 
CARLEBACH, JOSEPH; CENTRAL- 
VEREIN DEUTSCHER STAATSBUERGER 
JUEDISCHEN GLAUBENS; COBURG; 
DAVID, MARTIN; DE VRIES, BENJAMIN; 
DUEREN; ELBLAG; FUERTH; HAGEN; 
HAMELN; HEILBRONN; HILFSVEREIN DER 
DEUTSCHEN JUDEN; LYCK; RABBINICAL 
CONFERENCES; WIESBADEN 

Kochava Fattal-Binyamin*, 

Ph.D.; Clinical Instruction and 
Coordinator of Human Resource 
Development, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: orpaz averbuch, 

YITZHAK 

Jose Faur, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Rabbinics, the Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America, 
New York: idolatry 

Zvi Hermann Federbush, M.A.; 
Ministry of Education and 



Culture, Jerusalem: alphabet, 

HEBREW 

Nira Feidman, Ph.D.; Research 
Fellow in Contemporary Jewry, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

CAMPS 

Ricardo Feierstein, Director 
Editorial Mila, AMIA, Buenos 
Aires 

Julian B. Feigelman, LL.D., Ph.D., 
Rabbi; New Orleans 

Aryeh Feigenbaum, M.D.; Emeritus 
Professor of Ophthalmology, 
the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: benevenutus grapheus 

HIEROSOLYMITANUS; HIRSCHBERG, 
JULIUS 

Lawrence H. Feigenbaum, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer in Education, City College 
of the City University of New York: 

DUJOVNE, LEON; KOENIGSBERG, MOSES; 
LAQUEUR, WALTER ZE'EV; LERNER, MAX; 
SCHIFF, DOROTHY; SELDES, GEORGE; 
SONNEMANN, LEOPOLD 

Konrad Feilchenfeldt*, Dr. Phil.; 
Germanist, Ludwig-Maximilians- 
Universitat, Munich, Germany: 

HEILBORN, ERNST; HEYMANN, WALTHER; 
HEYSE, PAUL; LEONHARD, RUDOLF; 
MEYER, RICHARD MORITZ; NEUMANN, 
ALFRED; WALDEN, HERWARTH 

Gil Feiler*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Researcher, Besa Center, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: boycott, 

ARAB 

Isaac M. Fein, Ph.D.; Emeritus 
Professor of Jewish History, 
Baltimore Hebrew College: cohen; 

ETTING; REHINE, ZALMA 

Anat Feinberg*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Hochschule fur Jiidische Studien, 
Heidelberg, Germany: adelman, uri; 

ALMOG, RUTH; ALTERMAN, NATHAN; 
AMIR, ELI; AVIGUR-ROTEM, GABRIELA; 
BALLAS, SHIMON; BARTOV, HANOCH; 
BAR-YOSEF, YEHOSHUA; BE'ER, HAIM; 
BEJERANO, MAYA; BEN-NER, YITZHAK; 
BERNSTEIN, ORI; BIRSTEIN, YOSSEL; 
CASTEL-BLOOM, ORLY; DOR, MOSHE; 
EYTAN, RACHEL; GELDMAN, MORDECHAI; 
GUR, BATYA; HAREVEN, SHULAMITH; 
HEBREW LITERATURE, MODERN; HENDEL, 
YEHUDIT; HOFFMANN, YOEL; JERUSALEM; 
KAHANA-CARMON, AMALIA; KANIUK, 
YORAM; KATZIR, JUDITH; KENAN, AMOS; 



KENAZ, YEHOSHUA; KERET, ETGAR; 
LAOR, YITZHAK; LAPID, SHULAMIT; 
LIEBRECHT, SAVYON; MATALON, RONIT; 
MEGGED, AHARON; MISHOL, AGI; OREN, 
RAM; ORLEV, URI; PAGIS, DAN; PINCAS, 
ISRAEL; RAAB, ESTHER; RAVIKOVITCH, 
DALIA; REICH, ASHER; SADEH, PINHAS; 
SENED, ALEXANDER; SERI, DAN BENAYA; 
SHABTAI, AHARON; SHAHAM, NATHAN; 
SHAHAR, DAVID; SHALEV, MEIR; SHALEV, 
ZERUYA; SHIMONI, YOUVAL; SIVAN, 
ARYEH; SOMECK, RONNY; TAMMUZ, 
BENJAMIN; TSALKA, DAN; WIESELTIER, 
MEIR; YONATHAN, NATHAN; ZACH, 
NATHAN 

Lynn Claire Feinberg*, Historian 
of Religion, Jewish Museum of 
Oslo, Norway: benkow, jo; eitinger, 

LEO S.; NORWAY; OSLO; SCANDINAVIAN 
LITERATURE; WERGELAND, HENRIK 
ARNOLD 

Nathan Feinberg, Dr.Jur.; Emeritus 
Professor of International Law, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

BERNHEIM PETITION; BLIOKH, IVAN 
STANISLAVOVICH; COMITE DES 
DELEGATIONS JUIVES; LEAGUE OF 
NATIONS; STREICHER, JULIUS; STUERMER, 
DER 

Shmuel Feiner*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Modern Jewish History, Bar- 
Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

MENDELSSOHN, MOSES 

Henry L. Feingold, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor of Americana 
and Diplomatica and American 
Jewish History, the Bernard Baruch 
College of the City University of 
New York: Mcdonald, james grover; 

NIXON, RICHARD MILHAUS; ROOSEVELT, 
FRANKLIN DELANO; TRUMAN, HARRY S. 

Edward Fein stein*, M. A., Rabbi; 
Rabbi, Valley Beth Shalom, Encino, 
California; Instructor, University of 
Judaism, Los Angeles, California: 

SCHULWEIS, HAROLD MAURICE 

Stephen C. Feinstein*, Ph.D.; 
Director, Center for Holocaust 
and Genocide Studies, University 
of Minnesota: eisenman, peter; 

HOLOCAUST; MEIER, RICHARD; POLSHEK, 
JAMES; TIGERMAN, STANLEY 

Moshe M. Felber, Ministry of 
Finance, Jerusalem 

Marjorie N. Feld*, Ph.D., Assistant 
Professor of History, Babson 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



77 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



College, Massachusetts: settlement 

HOUSES 

Michael Feldberg*, Ph.D.; 
Researcher, American Jewish 
Historical Society, New York: 

BRESLAU, ISADORE 

Meyer S. Feldblum, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Associate Professor of Rabbinics, 
Yeshiva University, New York: weiss, 

ABRAHAM 

Abraham J. Feldman, B.H.L., 
Rabbi; Hartford, Connecticut: 

CONNECTICUT 

David M. Feldman, D.H.L., Rabbi; 

New York: chastity; omer ; onanism 

Egal Feldman, Ph.D.; Professor of 
History, Wisconsin State University, 
Superior, Wisconsin: church, 

CATHOLIC; PROTESTANTS 

Eliyahu Feldman, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Jewish History, Tel 
Aviv University: astrakhan; ataki; 

AZERBAIJAN; BACAU; BAKHCHISARAI; 
BALLY, DAVICION; BARASCH, JULIUS; 
BARLAD; BECK, MORITZ; BELGOROD- 
DNESTROVSKI; BELTSY; BENDERY; 
BESSARABIA; BOJAN; BOTOSANI; BRAILA; 
BRICEVA; BRICHANY; BROCINER, JOSEPH; 
BUCHAREST; BUHUSI; BURDUJENI; BUZAU; 
DOMBROVENI; EMANUEL; GRUNWALD, 
MAX; IZMAIL; KALARASH; KAUSHANY; 
KHOTIN; KILIYA; KOTOVSKOYE; LEOVO; 
LIPKANY; MARCULESTI; NOVOSELITSA; 
ORGEYEV; REZINA; RYSHKANY; 
SEKIRYANY; SOROKI; TELENESHTY; VAD 
RASHKOV; YEDINTSY; ZGURITSA 

Gerald D. Feldman*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of History, University 
of California, at Berkeley: 

GOLDSCHMIDT, JAKOB 

Leon A. Feldman, Ph.D., D.H.L., 
Rabbi; Professor of Hebraic Studies, 
Rutgers University, New Brunswick, 
New Jersey: nissim ben reuben 

GERONDI; TAMAKH, ABRAHAM BEN 
ISAAC HA-LEVI 

Louis Harry Feldman, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Classics, Yeshiva 
University, New York: antigonus 

OF CARYSTUS; BEROSUS; BLOCH, 
HERBERT; CAPLAN, HARRY; CENSORINUS; 
HELLADIUS OF ANTINOUPOLIS; 
HELLENISM; HORACE, QUINTUS 
HORATIUS FLACCUS; ITINERARIUM 
ANTONINI; JUVENAL; LEVY, HARRY 



LOUIS; LOWE, ELIAS AVERY; LUCIAN OF 
SAMOSATA; MARCUS, RALPH; OROSIUS, 
PAULUS; THRASYLLUS OF MENDES; 
TRAUBE, LUDWIG; VIRGIL; VITRUVIUS, 
POLLO 

Mark B. Feldman*, A.B., L.L.B.; 
Attorney, Garvey Schubert Barer, 
Washington, D.C.: feith, douglas j. 

Myer Feldman, B.A., B.S., LL.B.; 
Attorney, Washington, D. C: 

KENNEDY, JOHN FITZGERALD 

Seymour Feldman*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Philosophy, Emeritus, 

Rutgers University, New Jersey: 

ARISTOTLE; COSMOLOGY; CREATION AND 
COSMOGONY 

Yael S. Feldman*, Ph.D.; 
Abraham I. Katsch Professor of 
Hebrew Culture and Professor of 
Comparative Literature and Gender 
Studies, New York University, New 
York: ben yehuda, netiva 

Jehuda Feliks, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Botany, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat 
Gan: aaron ben samuel; acacia; 

AGRICULTURAL LAND-MANAGEMENT 
METHODS AND IMPLEMENTS IN ANCIENT 
EREZ ISRAEL; AGRICULTURE; ALGUM; 
ALMOND; ANIMALS OF THE BIBLE AND 
TALMUD; ANT; ANTELOPE; APE; APPLE; 
ASS; BALSAM; BARLEY; BAT; BAY TREE; 
BDELLIUM; BEANS; BEAR; BEE; BEET; 
BEHEMOTH; BITTERN; BOX; BROOM; 
BUFFALO; BURNING BUSH; BUZZARD; 
CABBAGE; CALAMUS, SWEET; CAMEL; 
CAPER; CAROB; CASTOR-OIL PLANT; 
CAT; CATTLE; CEDAR; CENTIPEDE; 
CHAMELEON; CHICKEN; CINNAMON; 
CORAL; CORIANDER; COTTON; 
CRANE; CRIMSON WORM; CROCODILE; 
CUCUMBER; CUMIN; CYPRESS; DEER; 
DIETARY LAWS; DOG; DOVE; DYE PLANTS; 
EAGLE; EBONY; ELEPHANT; ETROG; 
EVOLUTION; FENNEL; FIG; FIVE SPECIES; 
FLAX; FLEA; FLOWERS; FLY; FODDER; 
FOX; FRANKINCENSE; FROG; GALBANUM; 
GARLIC; GAZELLE; GECKO; GNAT; GOAT; 
GOOSE; GOURD; GRASSHOPPER; GULL; 
HARE; HAWK; HEMLOCK; HEMP; HENNA; 
HERBS, MEDICINAL; HOOPOE; HORNET; 
HORSE; HYENA; HYRAX; HYSSOP; IBEX; 
INCENSE AND PERFUMES; ISRAEL, LAND 
OF: FLORAN AND FAUNA; IVY; JACKAL; 
JUJUBE; JUNIPER; KITE; LAUDANUM; 
LEECH; LEEK; LEGUMES; LENTIL; 
LEOPARD; LETTUCE; LEVIATHAN; LION; 
LIZARD; LOCUST; LOUSE; MALLOW; 
MANDRAKE; MANNA; MAROR; MELON; 
MILLET; MIXED SPECIES; MOLE; 



MONITOR; MOTH; MOUSE; MULBERRY; 
MULE; MUSHROOMS; MUSTARD; MYRRH; 
MYRTLE; NIGHTINGALE; NUT; OAK; 
OLEANDER; OLIVE; ONAGER; ONION; 
ONYCHA; ORACH; OSTRICH; OWL; PALM; 
PAPYRUS; PARTRIDGE; PEACH; PEACOCK; 
PEAR; PELICAN; PEPPER; PHEASANT; 
PHOENIX; PIG; PINE; PISTACHIO; PLANE 
TREE; PLUM; POMEGRANATE; POPLAR; 
QUAIL; QUINCE; RADISH; RAT; RAVEN; 
REED; RICE; ROCKET; ROSE; SAFFRON; 
SCORPION; SHEEP; SILK; SKINK; SNAKE; 
SOAP; SORGHUM; SPARROW; SPICES; 
SPIDER; SPIKENARD; SQUILL; STORAX; 
STORK; SUMAC; SWIFT; SYCAMORE; 
TAHASH; TAMARISK; TARES; TEKHELET; 
TEREBINTH; THISTLES AND THORNS; 
TORTOISE; TRAGACANTH; TURTLE DOVE; 
VEGETABLES; VINE; VULTURES; WEEDS; 
WHEAT; WILD BULL; WILLOW; WOLF; 
WORM; WORMWOOD 

Abraham Feller, Journalist, Tel 

Aviv: BALTAZAR, CAMIL; CALUGARU, 
ION; DAN, SERGIU; DORIAN, EMIL; 
FURTUNA, ENRIC; FURTUNA, ENRIC; 
GRAUR, CONSTANTIN; LAVI, THEODOR; 
LAZAREANU, BARBU; LUDO, ISAC 
IACOVITZ; NEMTEANU, BARBU; PELTZ, 
ISAC; RELGIS, EUGEN; SAINEANU, LAZAR; 
STEUERMAN, ADOLF RODION; ZISSU, 
ABRAHAM LEIB 

Abraham Fellman, F.A.C.C.A., 
C.P.A.; Accountant, Tel Aviv: 

FREEMASONS 

Sarah B. Felsen*, Ph.D. (German 
Lit.); University of California, at 
Berkeley: liessin, Abraham; shomer 

Vivian Felsen*, M.A., L.L.B.; 
Translator, Toronto, Canada: berger, 

LILI; MEDRES, ISRAEL JONAH; SHULNER, 
DORA 

John Felsteiner, Ph.D.; Professor 
of English, Stanford University, 
Stanford, California 

Mary Lowenthal Felsteiner, Ph.D.; 
Professor of History, San Francisco 
State University, San Francisco: 

BRUNNER, ALOIS 

Paul (B.) Fenton*, Ph.D.; 
Ambassador (retired), Professor, 
Director of Jewish Studies, 
Universite de Paris- Sorbonne: 

ABRAHAM BEN MOSES BEN MAIMON 

Bonny V. Fetterman*, B.A., M.A.; 
Literary Editor, Reform Judaism 
Magazine, New York: wiesel, elie 



78 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Bernd Feuchtner*, Dr.Phil.; 
Publicist, Berlin, Germany: barshai, 

RUDOLF 

Leon I. Feuer, Rabbi; Toledo, 
Ohio 

Robert E. Fierstien*, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Temple Beth Or, Brick, New Jersey: 

RABBINICAL ASSEMBLY 

Louis Filler, Ph.D.; Professor of 
American Civilization, Antioch 
College, Yellow Springs, Ohio: 

HOFSTADTER, RICHARD 

Leon Fine*, B.A.; Attorney, Tel 

Aviv: AVI-YITZHAK, DAN; BEINISCH, 
DORIT; BEN-ISRAEL, RUTH; BERENSON 
ZVI; COHEN, SHLOMO; ENGLARD, 
YITZHAK; HESHIN, SHNEUR ZALMAN; 
MAZUZ, MENI; ZAMIR, ITZHAK 

Irving Fineman, B.S.; Author, 
Shaftsbury, Vermont: rosten, leo 

CALVIN 

Uzi Finerman, Member of the 
Knesset, Kefar Yehezkel: moshav or 

MOSHAV OVEDIM; MOSHAV SHITTUFI 

Israel Finestein, M.A., Q.C.; 
Barrister, London: cohen, Lionel 

LEONARD, BARON; GOODHART, ARTHUR 
LEHMAN; HEILBRON, DAME ROSE; JESSEL, 
SIR GEORGE; KARMINSKI, SIR SEYMOUR 
EDWARD; LAUTERPACHT, SIR HERSCH; 
SALMON, CYRIL BARNET, BARON 

Dan Fink*: idaho 

Haim Finkelstein*, Ph.D.; Ben- 
Gurion University of the Negev, 
Beersheba: art: modern erez Israel; 

ISRAEL, STATE OF: CULTURAL LIFE 

Israel Finkelstein*, Ph.D.; 
Professor, Institute of Archaeology, 
Tel Aviv University: megiddo 

Jacob Finkelstein, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Assyriology and Babylonian 
Literature, Yale University, New 
Haven, Connecticut: Mesopotamia 

Norman Finkelstein*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of English, Xavier 
University, Cincinnati: op pen, 

GEORGE; REZNIKOFF, CHARLES; UNITED 
STATES LITERATURE 

Gerald Finkielsztejn*, Ph.D.; 
Senior Archaeologist of the Israel 
Antiquities Authority, Jerusalem: 



AGORANOMOS; ASINIUS POLLIO, GAIUS; 
MARESHAH 

Jordan Finkin*, Ph.D.; University 
of California, Berkeley: liessin, 

ABRAHAM; SHOMER 

Bert Fireman, B.A.; Lecturer in 
Arizona History, Arizona State 
University, Tempe: Arizona 

Harold Harel Fisch, B. Litt.; 
Professor of English and former 
Rector, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat 

Gan: blake, william; chaucer, 

GEOFFREY; CUMBERLAND, RICHARD; 
DICKENS, CHARLES; DISRAELI, BENJAMIN, 
EARL OF BEACONSFIELD; DTSRAELI, 
ISAAC; ELIOT, GEORGE; ENGLISH 
LITERATURE; HA-TENUAH LE-MAAN 
EREZ ISRAEL HA-SHELEMAH; HENRIQUES; 
KOESTLER, ARTHUR; MARLOWE, 
CHRISTOPHER; MILTON, JOHN; 
SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM; SCOTT, SIR 
WALTER; TARN, NATHANIEL; ZANGWILL, 
ISRAEL 

Solomon Fisch, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Leeds: midrash ha-gadol 

Henry Albert Fischel, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Professor of Near Eastern 
Studies, Indiana University, 
Bloomington: cynics and cynicism; 

EPICUREANISM; GREEK AND LATIN 
LANGUAGES, RABBINICAL KNOWLEDGE 
OF; HELLENISM; STOICISM 

Walter Joseph Fischel, Professor 
of Judaic Studies and History, the 
University of California, Santa Cruz: 

AARON BEN AMRAM; ABENDANA, ISAAC 
SARDO; ABRAHAM, SAMUEL; ABRAHAO, 
COJE; AFGHANISTAN; AHMADNAGAR; 
AHWAZ; AKBAR THE GREAT; AKLAR 
MORDECAI BEN RAPHAEL; ALIBAG; 
AMADIYA; ASHER, ISAIAH BEN MOSES 
HA-LEVI; AZERBAIJAN; BAHRAIN; 
BALKH; BENARES; BENE ISRAEL; BOMBAY; 
BUCHANAN, CLAUDIUS; BURMA; 
CALCUTTA; CALICUT; CASTRO; CEYLON; 
CHENNAMANGALAM; CRANGANORE; 
DAMAVAND; DAVID D'BETH HILLEL; 
DIVEKAR, SAMUEL EZEKIEL; ELEAZAR 
BEN JACOB HA-BAVLI; ERNAKULAM; 
FEINSTEIN, HAYYIM JACOB HA-KOHEN; 
FONSECA, ALVARO DA; GAMA, GASPAR 
DA; GOA; HACOHEN, RAPHAEL HAYYIM; 
HAKHAM, SIMON; HALLEGUA; HORMUZ; 
ISFAHAN; JADlD AL-ISLAM; JOSEPH 
MAMAN AL-MAGHRIBI; JUDEO-PERSIAN; 
KASHMIR; KEHIMKAR, HAYIM SAMUEL; 
KHURASAN; KODER, SAMUEL SHABDAI; 
KORNFELD, JOSEPH SAUL; LAR; LESLAU, 



WOLF; MADRAS; MELAMED, RAHAMIM 
REUVEN; MELAMED, SIMAN TOV; MERV; 
MOSES, MARCUS; NAJlB AL-DAWLA; 
NATHAN, MULLA IBRAHIM; NAVARRO, 
ABRAHAM; NEUMARK, EPHRAIM; 
NISHAPUR; ORTA, GARCIA DE; PAIVA, 
JACQUES; PAKISTAN; PERSIA; POLAK, 
JACOB EDUARD; POONA; POPPER, 
WILLIAM; RAHABI, EZEKIEL; RAJPURKAR, 
JOSEPH EZEKIEL; REINMANN, SALOMON; 
RIZAIEH; RODRIGUES, BARTHOLOMEW; 
ROTENBURG; SAD AL-DAWLA AL-SAFl 
IBN HIBBATALLAH; SANANDAJ; SARMAD, 
MUHAMMAD SAID; SASSOON; SHIRAZ; 
SOLOMON BEN SAMUEL; TABRIZ; 
TAVUS, JACOB BEN JOSEPH; TEHERAN; 
TRANSOXIANA; WOLFF, JOSEPH; YAHUDI, 
YUSUF; YEZD 

Jens Malte Fischer*, Ph.D.; 
Professor, Ludwig-Maximilians- 
Universitat, Munich, Germany: 

JESSNER, LEOPOLD; KORTNER, FRITZ; 
PALLENBERG, MAX; SONNENTHAL, ADOLF 
RITTER VON 

Jerome E. Fischer*, M.A.; Executive 
Director, Jewish Federation of 
Eastern Connecticut, New London, 
Connecticut: new London 

Yona Fischer, Curator of 
Contemporary Art, the Israel 
Museum, Jerusalem: aschheim, 

ISIDOR; FEIGIN, DOV; HABER, SHAMAI; 
KRAKAUER, LEOPOLD; LEVANON, 
MORDECAI; PALDI, ISRAEL; PALOMBO, 
DAVID; SCULPTURE; SHEMI, MENAHEM; 
STEMATSKY, AVIGDOR; ZARITSKI, YOSEF 

Ephraim Fischoff, D.S.Sc, 
Rabbi; Professor of Sociology, 
Wisconsin State University, Eau 
Claire: benedikt, moritz; bidney, 

DAVID; BOAS, FRANZ; BOGORAZ, 
VLADIMIR GERMANOVICH; BURCHARDT, 
HERMANN; ELKIN, ADOLPHUS PETER; 
FISHBERG, MAURICE; FORTES, MEYER; 
FRIED, MORTON HERBERT; GLUCKMAN, 
MAX; GOLDENWEISER, ALEXANDER 
ALEXANDROVICH; HALBWACHS, 
MAURICE; HENRY, JULES; JOCHELSON, 
VLADIMIR; KARDINER, ABRAM; LANDES, 
RUTH; LEVIN, MAKSIM GRIGORYEVICH; 
LEVI-STRAUSS, CLAUDE; LEVY-BRUHL, 
LUCIEN; LEWIS, OSCAR; LOWIE, 
ROBERT HARRY; LUSCHAN, FELIX VON; 
MANDELBAUM, DAVID GOODMAN; MAUSS, 
MARCEL; MONTAGU, MONTAGUE FRANCIS 
ASHLEY; MUNKACSI, BERNAT; NADEL, 
SIEGFRED FERDINAND STEPHAN; OPLER, 
MARVIN KAUFMANN; OPLER, MORRIS 
EDWARD; OPPERT, GUSTAV SALOMON; 
OPPERT, JULES JULIUS; OSCHINSKY, 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



LAWRENCE; RADIN, PAUL; ROHEIM, GEZA; 
SAPIR, EDWARD; SCHAPERA, ISAAC; 
SELIGMAN, CHARLES GABRIEL; SHAPIRO, 
HARRY LIONEL; SINGER, MILTON B; 
SPIER, LESLIE; SPIRO, MELFORD ELLIOT; 
SPOEHR, ALEXANDER; STERNBERG, LEV 
YAKOVLEVICH; SWADESH, MORRIS; 
TAX, SOL; TITIEV, MISCHA; VAMBERY, 
ARMINIUS; WEIDENREICH, FRANZ; 
WEISSENBERG, SAMUEL ABRAMOVICH; 
ZOLLSCHAN, IGNAZ 

Michael Fishbane, M.A.; Instructor 
in Hebrew and of Biblical Studies, 
Brandeis University, Waltham, 
Massachusetts: ark of noah; copper 

SERPENT, THE; JAVAN; LAMECH; SERAPH 

Eugene J. (Joseph) Fisher*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Director, Secretariat for 
Ecumenical and Interreligious 
Affairs, U.S. Conference of Catholic 
Bishops, Washington, D.C.: john 

PAUL II 

Aleisa Fishman*, Ph.D.; 
Editorial Coordinator, Academic 
Publications, United States 
Holocaust Museum, Washington, 

D.C.: BRENNER, ROSE; SPIEGEL, DORA 

Donna Fishman*, M.A., B H.L.; 
Executive Director, Gildas Club 
Westchester, New York: gillman, neil 

Robert (J.) Fishman*, M.A., 
M.S.W.; Executive Director, 
Jewish Federation Association of 
Connecticut, Hartford, Connecticut: 

CONNECTICUT 

Sylvia Barack Fishman, Ph.D.; Asst. 
Prof, of Jewish Studies, Brandeis 
University, Waltham, Massachusetts: 

GORNICK, VIVIAN; RICH, ADRIENNE; 
ROTH, PHILIP MILTON 

Artur Fiszer, B.A.; Researcher, 

Jerusalem: moment, der ; press 

Gila Flam*, Ph.D.; Director of 
Music, National Library, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ADLER, ISRAEL; ALDEMA, GIL; ARGOV, 
ALEXANDER; AVENARY, HANOCH; BARNEA, 
EZRA; BEREGOVSKI, MOSHE; BOSCOVITCH, 
ALEXANDER URIYAH; BRAUN, YEHEZKIEL; 
CHASINS, ABRAHAM; DA-OZ, RAM; GILBOA, 
JACOB; HERZOG, GEORGE; HESKES, IRENE; 
IDELSOHN, ABRAHAM ZVI; ISRAEL, STATE 
OF: CULTURAL LIFE; JACOBI, HANOCH; 
LACHMANN, ROBERT; MIRON, ISSACHAR; 
MUSIC; NOY, MEIR; RUBIN, RUTH; SHEMER, 
NAOMI 



Dov Shmuel Flattau (Plato), Dr. 

Phil., Rabbi; Encyclopaedia Judaica 
(Germany); Teacher and scholar, Tel 

Aviv: ANGELS AND ANGELOLOGY 

Ezra Fleischer, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Hebrew Literature, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

KRAUSS, FRIEDRICH SALAMO; PHINEHAS 
BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN; PIYYUT; 
SCHIRMANN, JEFIM; SIMEON BEN MEGAS 
HA-KOHEN; SOLOMON BEN JUDAH HA- 
BAVLI; YOZEROT 

Eugene Jacob Fleischmann, 

Ph.D.; Maitre de Recherche au 
Centre National de la Recherche 
Scientifique, Paris: weil, eric 

Lazar Fleishman, Ph.D.; 
Senior Lecturer, Department of 
Russian Studies, The Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: belinkov, 

ARKADIIVIKTOROVICH 

Daniel (E.) Fleming*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Assyriology and 
Hebrew Bible, New York University: 

EMAR 

Heinrich Flesch, Ph.D., Rabbi; 

Encyclopaedia Judaica (Germany); 
Czechoslovakia: oppenheim; 

OPPENHEIM, BEER BEN ISAAC; 
OPPENHEIM, DAVID BEN ABRAHAM 

Rachel Floersheim, Ph.D.; New 
York: kuznets, simon 

David Flusser, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Comparative Religion, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: Abraham, 

TESTAMENT OF; APOCALYPSE; DAVID; 
ENOCH; GNOSTICISM; ISAIAH, ASCENSION 
OF; JEROME; JESUS; JOSIPPON; KLAUSNER, 
JOSEPH GEDALIAH; LEVI, TESTAMENT OF; 
MASTEMA; MELITO OF SARDIS; MIDRASH 
VA-YISSA'U; MOSKONI, JUDAH LEON 
BEN MOSES; NAPHTALI, TESTAMENT 
OF; PATRIARCHS, TESTAMENTS OF THE 
TWELVE; PAUL OF TARSUS; REDEMPTION; 
SEVENTY SHEPHERDS, VISION OF; SMITH, 
MORTON; SOLOVIEV, VLADIMIR; SON OF 
MAN; VISIONS; WENDLAND, PAUL 

Yeshayahu Foerder, Dr.Phil.; 
Chairman of the Board of Directors, 
Bank Leumi le- Israel, Tel Aviv: 

HOOFIEN, ELIEZER SIGFRIED 

Eva Fogelman*, Ph.D.; Social and 
Personality Psychology, Co-Director 
Psychotherapy with Generations of 
the Holocaust and Related Traumas 



Training Program, Training Institute 
for Mental Health, New York: 

HOLOCAUST 

Jerome D. Folkman, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Adjunct Professor of Sociology, 
Ohio State University, Columbus 

Resianne Fontaine*, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer in the Department 
of Hebrew and Jewish Studies, 
Universiteit van Amsterdam, The 
Netherlands: ibn daud, Abraham ben 

DAVID HALEVI; MATKAH, JUDAH BEN 
SOLOMON HA-KOHEN 

Linda (B.) Forgosh*, B.A., M.A.; 
Curator and Outreach Director, 
Jewish Historical Society of Metro 
West, New Jersey: essex county; 

MORRIS AND SUSSEX COUNTIES 

Morris D. Forkosch, Ph.D., J.S.D.; 
Professor of Law, Brooklyn Law 
School; Professor of Economics, 
New School for Social Research, 
New York: sobeloff, simon ernest 

Ira (N.) Forman*, B.A., M.B.A.; 
Executive Director, National Jewish 
Democratic Council, and the 
Solomon Project, Washington, D.C.: 

CARTER, JIMMY; CLINTON, WILLIAM 
JEFFERSON; POLITICS 

Umberto Fortis*; Professor, 
Biblioteca Archivio Renato Maestro 
Comunita Ebraica di Venezia: 

VENICE 

Everett Fox*, Ph.D.; Allen M. Glick, 
Professor of Judaic and Biblical 
Studies, Clark University, Newton, 
Massachusetts: bible 

Marvin Fox, Ph.D., Rabbi; Professor 
of Philosophy, Ohio State University, 
Columbus: freedom; god-, god, 

NAMES OF 

Michael V. Fox*, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Hebrew, University of 
Wisconsin, Milwaukee: agur son 

OF JAKEH; BOOKS OF THE CHRONICLES 
OF THE KINGS OF JUDAH AND ISRAEL; 
ECCLESIASTES or QOHELET; LEMUEL; 
MOSES, BLESSING OF; NOTH, MARTIN; 
SEA, SONG OF THE 

Nili S. Fox*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Bible, Hebrew Union 
College-Jewish Institute of 
Religion, Cincinnati, Ohio: numbers, 

BOOK OF 



80 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Abraham H. Foxman, J.D.; Anti- 
Defamation League of B'nai B rith, 
New York: vilna 

Joseph M. Foxman, Research 
Associate, YIVO Institute for Jewish 
Research, New York: koldychevo 

CAMP 

Abraham Halevy Fraenkel, 

Dr. Phil.; Emeritus Professor of 
Mathematics, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: bornstein, hayyim 

JEHIEL 

Carlos Fraenkel*, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor, McGill University, 
Montreal, Canada: spinoza, baruch 

DE 

Jona Fraenkel, Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
Hebrew Literature and in Talmud, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

RASHI 

Josef Fraenkel, Journalist, 

London: chamberlain, Joseph; 

COHEN, ISRAEL; DUGDALE, BLANCHE 
ELIZABETH CAMPBELL; EHRLICH, JACOB; 
FRIEDMANN, DESIDER; GOLDBLOOM, 
JACOB KOPPEL; GOODMAN, PAUL; 
JEWISH CHRONICLE; JEWISH WORLD; 
PRESS; SONNENSCHEIN, ROSA; 
STEINBERG, AARON; STRICKER, ROBERT; 
WELT, DIE 

Vadim (E.) Fraifeld*, M.D., Ph.D.; 
Senior Research Scientist, Ben- 
Gurion University of the Negev, 
Beersheba: frolkis, vladimir 

VENIAMINOVICH 

Jerold C. (Coleman) Frakes*, 

Ph.D.; Professor of German and 
Comparative Literature, University 
of Southern California: bove- 

BUKH; BRESCH, JUDAH LOEB BEN 
MOSES NAPHTALI; BRIYO VE-ZIMRO; 
BRODERZON, MOYSHE; CAMBRIDGE 
YIDDISH CODEX; FEINBERG, LEON; 
GOLDBERG, ABRAHAM; GOLDBERG, BEN 
ZION; GUTMAN, CHAIM; HAIMOWITZ, 
MORRIS JONAH; HARSHAV, BENJAMIN; 
HERMAN, DAVID; JUSTMAN, MOSHE 
BUNEM; KATZ, ALEPH; KI-BUKH; KRANTZ, 
PHILIP; LANDAU, ZISHE; LEHRER, 
LEIBUSH; LEV, ABRAHAM; LITERATURE, 
JEWISH; MARMOR, KALMAN; MELOKHIM- 
BUKH; MENDELSON, JOSE; ORNSTEIN, 
LEO; PARIZ UN VIENE; RAVITCH, 
MELECH; SAPHIRE, SAUL; SCHNAPPER, 
BER; SHEKHTMAN, ELYE; SHMUEL-BUKH; 
SIMON, SHLOME; TABACHNIK, ABRAHAM 
BER; TKATCH, MEIR ZIML; TOLUSH; 



TSANIN, MORDKHE; VIDVILT; WELNER, 
PINCHES; YOFFE, MORDECAI 

Federica Francesconi*, Ph.D.; 
History, University of Haifa: ascoli, 

GRAZIADIO ISAIA; BASEVI; BOLOGNA; 
BOLZANO; BORGHI, LAMBERTO; 
BOZZOLO; CANTONI, RAFFAELE; 
CENTO; CONEGLIANO; CREMONA; 
FAENZA; FINALE EMILIA; FINZI; FORLI; 
FORMIGGINI, ANGELO FORTUNATO; 
FRIZZI, BENEDETTO; GUASTALLA, 
ENRICO; IMOLA; LATTES, DANTE; LODI; 
MANTUA; MODENA; REGGIO EMILIA; 
VENTURA, RUBINO 

Israel Francus, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Associate Professor of Rabbinics, 
the Jewish Theological Seminary 
of America, New York: abramson, 

SHRAGA 

Moshe Zvi Frank, B.A.; LL.B.; 
Journalist, Tel Aviv: biltmore 

PROGRAM 

Alex Frankel*: matlin, marlee 

Giza Frankel, Ph.D.; the Ethno- 
logical Museum, Haifa: paper-cuts 

Jonathan Frankel*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Modern Jewish and Russian 
History, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: "doctors' plot"; 

DAMASCUS AFFAIR 

William Frankel, Former Editor of 
the Jewish Chronicle, London 

Norma Franklin*, Ph.D.; 
Archaeologist, Tel Aviv University: 

SAMARIA 

Harry Freedman, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Caulfield, Victoria, Australia: 

ACADEMY ON HIGH; AKIVA; ARK OF 
THE COVENANT; BARNACLE GOOSE 
MYTHS; DEATH, KISS OF; GELMAN, 
MANUEL; HAVER IR; HISDA; ISHMAEL 
BEN JOHANAN BEN BEROKA; JOSIAH; 
LEVI; LEVI; MANI; MEGILLAT SETARIM; 
PARAPET; PATRIARCHS, THE; SEA OF THE 
TALMUD; SINAI, MOUNT; TRIBES, THE 
TWELVE; YALTA 

Shalom Freedman*, Ph.D.; 
Freelance Writer, Jerusalem: 

GREENBERG, IRVING; KAPLAN, ARYEH; 
LAMM, NORMAN; TENDLER, MOSHE 

ChaeRan Freeze*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of East European Jewish 
History, Brandeis University, 



Waltham, Massachusetts: shtetl; 

WOMAN: EASTERN EUROPE 

Harriet Pass Freidenreich*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of History, Temple 
University, Philadelphia: cohen, 

ELIZABETH D. A. MAGNUS; COSER, ROSE 
LAUB; DENMARK, FLORENCE LEVIN; 
FRANKENTHAL, KATE; HELLMAN, 
CLARISSE DORIS; HYDE, IDA HENRIETTA; 
HYMAN, LIBBIE HENRIETTA; JACOBSON, 
ANNA; KAUFMAN, JOYCE JACOBSON; 
KRIM, MATHILDE; LEICHTER, KAETHE 
PICK; MARCUS, RUTH BARCAN; 
PEIXOTTO, JESSICA BLANCHE; PEIXOTTO, 
JUDITH SALZEDO; RICHTER, ELISE; 
SCHWARTZ, ANNA JACOBSON; WEINBERG, 
GLADYS DAVIDSON; WOLFF, CHARLOTTE 

Jacob Freimann, Dr.Phil., Rabbi; 
Lecturer in Rabbinics and Jewish 
History, the Berlin Rabbinical 
Seminary: abba mari ben moses ben 

JOSEPH ASTRUC OF LUNEL; ABRAHAM 
BEN SAMUEL HE-HASID; ISAAC BEN NOAH 
KOHEN SHAPIRA 

Paul Freireich, M.S.; Journalist, 

New York: kramer, Stanley e. 

Gad Freudenthal*: zamosc, Israel 

BEN MOSES HA-LEVI 

Jonathan (G.) Freund*, M.A. Ed.; 
Program Director, Board of Rabbis 
of Southern California, Los Angeles: 

NEUMANN, EMANUEL 

Paul A. Freund, S.J.D.; Professor 
of Law, Harvard University, 

Cambridge, Massachusetts: 

BRANDEIS, LOUIS DEMBITZ; 
FRANKFURTER, FELIX 

Richard Freund*, Ph.D.; Director 
and Professor, Maurice Greenberg 
Center for Judaic Studies, University 
of Hartford, Connecticut: siegel, 

SEYMOUR 

George H. Fried, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Biology, Brooklyn 
College of the City University 
of New York: bernstein, julius; 

BRONOWSKI, JACOB; COHN, FERDINAND 
JULIUS; EMBDEN, GUSTAV; HABERLANDT, 
GOTTLIEB; KATZ, SIR BERNARD; MULLER, 
HERMAN JOSEPH; PINCUS, GREGORY 
GOODWIN; SALAMAN; SALAMAN, 
REDCLIFFE NATHAN; WALD, GEORGE 

Lewis (Frederick) Fried*, Ph.D.; 
Professor, Kent State University, 

Ohio: AUSTER, PAUL; bukiet, 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



MELVIN JULES; CALISHER, HORTENSE; 
DOCTOROW, EDGAR LAWRENCE; 
EPSTEIN, LESLIE; FADIMAN, CLIFTON; 
FAST, HOWARD MELVIN; FELDMAN, 
IRVING; GOLD, HERBERT; GOLDSTEIN, 
REBECCA; GOODMAN, ALLEGRA; GREEN, 
GERALD; GROSSMAN, ALLEN; HARRIS, 
MARK; HELLER, JOSEPH; HELLMAN, 
LILLIAN; HOWE, IRVING; IGNATOW, 
DAVID; KAZIN, ALFRED; KUNITZ, 
STANLEY JASSPON; LEVIANT, CURT; 
MAILER, NORMAN; MALAMUD, BERNARD; 
NEMEROV, HOWARD; NISSENSON, HUGH; 
PROSE, FRANCINE; RICH, ADRIENNE; 
ROTH, PHILIP MILTON; SALINGER, 
JEROME DAVID; SONTAG, SUSAN; STERN, 
STEVE; UNITED STATES LITERATURE; 
WALLANT, EDWARD LEWIS; YEZIERSKA, 
ANZIA 

Nathan Fried, Rabbi; Bene-Berak: 

SUSAN, ISSACHAR BEN MORDECAI 

Lillian A. Friedberg, M.A.; Former 
Executive Director of the Jewish 
Community Relations Council 
of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: 

PITTSBURGH 

Maurice Friedberg, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Slavic Languages and 
Literature and Director of the 
Russian and East European Institute, 
Indiana University, Bloomington: 

ADMONI, VLADIMIR GRIGORYEVICH; 
AIKHENVALD YULI ISAYEVICH; AIZMAN, 
DAVID YAKOLEVICH; ALDANOV, MARK; 
AVERBAKH, LEOPOLD LEONIDOVICH; 
BABEL, ISAAC EMMANUILOVICH; 
BAGRITSKI, EDUARD GEORGIYEVICH; 
BILL-BELOTSERKOVSKI, VLADIMIR 
NAUMOVICH; BRODSKI, YOSIF; 
BYADULYA-YASAKAR, ZMITROK; 
CHERNY, SASHA; DANIEL, YULI 
MARKOVICH; EHRENBURG, ILYA 
GRIGORYEVICH; GERSHENZON, 
MIKHAIL OSIPOVICH; GRANIN, DANIEL 
ALEKSANDROVICH; GROSSMAN, VASILI 
SEMYONOVICH; HAGAR; ILF, ILYA; 
INBER, VERA MIKHAILOVNA; KASSIL, 
LEV ABRAMOVICH; KAVERIN, BENJAMIN 
ALEKSANDROVICH; KAZAKEVICH, 
EMMANUIL GENRIKHOVICH; 
KHODASEVICH, VLADISLAV 
FELITSIANOVICH; KIRSANOV, SEMYON 
ISAAKOVICH; KOROLENKO, VLADIMIR 
GALAKTIONOVICH; KOZAKOV, MIKHAIL 
EMMANUILOVICH; LIBEDINSKI, YURI 
NIKOLAYEVICH; LIDIN, VLADIMIR 
GERMANOVICH; MARSHAK, SAMUEL 
YAKOVLEVICH; PASTERNAK, BORIS 
LEONIDOVICH; RUSSIAN LITERATURE; 
SELVINSKI, ILYA LVOVICH; SLONIMSKI, 
MIKHAIL LEONIDOVICH; SLUTSKI, 



BORIS ABRAMOVICH; TUR BROTHERS; 
TYNYANOV, YURI NIKOLAYEVICH; 
UTKIN, JOSEPH PAVLOVICH; WENGEROFF, 
SEMYON AFANASYEVICH; YEVTUSHENKO, 
YEVGENI ALEXANDROVICH 

Ken Frieden*, Ph.D.; B.G. Rudolph 
Professor of Judaic Studies, Syracuse 
University: abramovitsh, sholem 

YANKEV; PERETZ, ISAAC LEIB 

Daniel M. Friedenberg, B.A.; 
Curator of Coins and Medals, 
the Jewish Museum, New York: 

ARON; FURST, MORITZ; FURST, MORITZ; 
GRILICHES, AVENIR; JUDIN, SAMUEL; 
MEDALISTS; MINTMASTERS AND 
MONEYERS; SIMON, JEAN HENRI; VINCZE, 
PAUL; WIENER 

Eric Lewis Friedland, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Judaic Studies, Wright 
State University, Antioch College, 
University of Dayton, and United 
Theological Seminary, Dayton, 

Ohio: PRAYER BOOKS 

Henry Friedlander* : euthanasia 

Saul Friedlander, Dr.Phil.; 
Professor of International Relations 
and Contemporary History, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem 

Ellen Friedman, New York: 

BLUMENTHAL, WERNER MICHAEL; 
BUNZEL, RUTH LEAH; ELKIND, ARKADI 
DANIILOVICH; LOMBROSO, CESARE; 
ZUCKERKANDL, EMIL 

Isaiah Friedman*, Ph.D.; Professor 
Emeritus of History, Ben-Gurion 
University of the Negev, Beersheba: 

AARONSOHN; BALFOUR DECLARATION; 
HERZL, THEODOR; LANGUAGE WAR; 
MORGENTHAU; OTTOMAN EMPIRE; 
SYKES, SIR MARK; SYKES-PICOT 
AGREEMENT; UGANDA SCHEME; ZIONISM 

Jeanette Friedman*, B.A.; Editor- 
in-Chief, The Wordsmithy; Editor, 
Together, American Gathering of 
Jewish Holocaust Survivors and 
Their Descendants', Chairman, The 
Brenn Institute, American Jewish 
Press Association/Folksbiene 
Yiddish Theater/Second Generation, 
New Jersey: aaronsohn, moses; 

ADAMS, THEODORE L.; AISH HATORAH; 
AMERICAN GATHERING OF JEWISH 
HOLOCAUST SURVIVORS; ARONOWITZ, 
BENJAMIN; BARISHANSHKY, RAPHAEL; 
BAUMOL, JOSHUA; BLEICH, J. DAVID; 
BLOCH, CHAIM ISAAC; BLUESTONE, 



JOSEPH ISAAC; BRILL, ISAAC LIPA; 
BUERGENTHAL, THOMAS; CARDIN, 
SHOSHANA SHOUBIN; CHARLOP, YECHIEL 
MICHEL; CHAZAN, ELIYAHU SIMCHA; 
KAMINETSKY JOSEPH; KENT, ROMAN 
R.; MENDLOWITZ, SHRAGA FEIVEL; 
SCHACHTER, HERSCHEL; SINGER, ISRAEL; 
U.S. ARMY AND THE HOLOCAUST; YOUNG 
ISRAEL, NATIONAL COUNCIL OF 

Judith Friedman Rosen*, Ph.D.; 
Historian, Graduate Center City 
University of New York: holtzman, 

ELIZABETH J.; KAYE, JUDITH S.; LOWEY, 
NITA MELNIKOFF; UDIN, SOPHIE A. 

Mark Friedman, Mhil.; Director 
of Cultural Affairs, World Jewish 
Congress, New York: Bronfman, 

EDGAR MILES 

Maurice Friedman, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Religion, Temple 
University, Philadelphia: 

EXISTENTIALISM 

Menachem Friedman*, Ph.D.; 
Professor, Dept. of Sociology, Bar- 
Ilan University, Ramat Gan: agudat 

ISRAEL; BLAU, AMRAM; EZ HAYYIM; 
KAHANA, KALMAN; LEVIN, YIZHAK MEIR; 
MINZ, BENJAMIN; NETUREI KARTA 

Mira Friedman, Ph.D.; Department 
of History of Art, Tel Aviv 
University; Curator, Tel Aviv 
Museum: merzer, arieh 

Murray Friedman*: commentary; 

PODHORETZ, NORMAN 

Reena Sigman Friedman*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of Modern 
Jewish History, Reconstructionist 
Rabbinical College, Wyncote, 
Pennsylvania: orphan, orphanage 

Richard Elliott Friedman*, 

Th.D.; Katzin Professor of 
Jewish Civilization, University of 
California, San Diego: pentateuch 

Shamma Friedman*, Ph.D.; 
Benjamin and Minna Reeves 
Professor of Talmud and Rabbinics, 
Jewish Theological Seminary; 
Professor, Department of Talmud, 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

BAVA BATRA; BAVA KAMMA; BAVA MEZIA; 
DIMITROVSKY, CHAIM ZALMAN 

Theodore Friedman, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Jerusalem: gentile; isaiah; 

ISRAEL, STATE OF: RELIGIOUS LIFE AND 



82 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



COMMUNITIES; JOB, THE BOOK OF; 
KEDUSHAH; KETUBBAH; LOANZ, ELIJAH 
BEN MOSES; MAN, THE NATURE OF; 
MORDECAI BEN HAYYIM OF EISENSTADT; 
STUDY 

Carrie Friedman-Cohen*, Lecturer, 
Department for Yiddish Language 
and Literature, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: auerbakh, 

ROKHL; ZYCHLINSKA, RAJZEL 

Yohanan Friedmann*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Islamic Studies, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ISLAM 

Avyatar Friesel, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Jewish History, the University 
of the Negev, Beersheba: 

OESTERREICHISCHES CENTRAL-ORAGAN 
FUER BLAUBENSFREIHEIT, CULTUR, 
GESCHICHTE UND LITERATUR DER 
JUDEN 

Dov I. Frimer*, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor; Advocate and Attorney 
at- law, Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: civil marriage 

Hillel Frisch*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer, Political Science and 
Middle Eastern History, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: gaza strip; 

PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY 

Tikva S. Frymer, M.A.; Associate 
Professor of Near Eastern 
Languages, Wayne State University, 

Detroit: ARARAT; ARIEL; ASHERAH; 
ASHTORETH; AVVIM; GROVES, SACRED; 
HAZAEL; HONEY; HULDAH; HUSHAI THE 
ARCHITE; MILK 

Aharon Fuerst, Dr. Phil.; Historian, 

Jerusalem: burgenland; einhorn, 

IGNAZ; EISENSTADT, MEIR; EPHRAIM BEN 
JACOB HA-KOHEN 

Alexander Fuks, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History and Classics, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

TCHERIKOVER, VICTOR 

Daniel Furman, Jerusalem: 

DUBROVNIK; SPLIT 

Ben Furnish*, Ph.D.; Managing 
Editor, University of Missouri: 

ADLER, JACOB; PINSKI, DAVID 

Abraham M. Fuss*, M.A., J.D., 
Ph.D.; Attorney, New York: shetar 



Mordecai L. Gabriel, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Biology, Brooklyn 
College of the City University 

of New York: aharoni, Israel; 

ARTOM, CESARE; ASCHERSON, PAUL 
FRIEDRICH AUGUST; ASKENASY, EUGEN; 
BODENHEIMER, FREDERICK SIMON; 
BRESSLAU, ERNST; ENRIQUES, PAOLO; 
EZEKIEL, MOSES; GOLDSCHMIDT, 
RICHARD BENEDICT; HAAS, FRITZ; 
HAAS, GEORG; LEVI, GIUSEPPE; LURIA, 
SALVADOR EDWARD; LWOFF, ANDRE 
MICHEL; MAGNUS, PAUL WILHELM; 
METCHNIKOFF, ELIE; RITTENBERG, 
DAVID; SACHS, JULIUS; SEMON, RICHARD 
WOLFGANG; SORAUER, PAUL KARL 
MORITZ; STRASBURGER, EDUARD; 
WIESNER, JULIUS VON 

Edward Mc Glynn Gaffney 
Jr.*, Ph.D.; Professor of Law, 
Valparaiso University School of 
Law, Valparaiso, Indiana: frankel, 

MARVIN EARL; GREENE, HAROLD H.; 
HELLERSTEIN, ALVIN K. 

Isaiah Gafni, M.A.; Special Teacher 
in Jewish History, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem; Assistant 
in Jewish History, the University 
of the Negev, Beersheba: adiabene; 

ADMON BEN GADDAI; AGRIPPA, CAIUS 
JULIUS; AGRIPPA, MARCUS VIPSANIUS; 
AHASUERUS-XERXES; ALEXANDER 
THE FALSE; ALEXANDER THE ZEALOT; 
ALEXANDRIA; ALEXANDRIAN MARTYRS, 
ACTS OF; ALEXAS; ANANIAS OF 
ADIABENE; ANANIAS SON OF ZADOK; 
ANILAEUS AND ASINAEUS; ANTIOCHUS; 
APAMEA; ARADUS; ARDASHIR; AREIOS; 
ARISTOBULUS; ARTEMION; ASARAMEL; 
ASS WORSHIP; ATHRIBIS; ATHRONGES; 
AUGUSTUS; AURUM CORONARIUM; 
BACCHIDES; BANUS; BATHYRA; BEN 
STADA; BEN-HADAD; BET GARMU; 
BET ZERIFA; CALLISTHENES; CARIA; 
CASSIUS LONGINUS; CHARES; CILICIA; 
CLEOPATRA OF JERUSALEM; COELE- 
SYRIA; COMMAGENE; COSTOBAR; 
CYRENE; DORIS; DOROTHEUS; DRUSILLA; 
EDESSA; ELEAZAR; EMPEROR WORSHIP; 
ETHNARCH; FLAVIUS, CLEMENS; FULVIA; 
GERUSIA; GLAPHYRA; GORGIAS; GREECE; 
GYMNASIUM; HASMONEAN BET DIN; 
HEZEKIAH, THE HIGH PRIEST; HIGH 
PRIEST; JANUARIUS; JOSEPH BEN ELEM; 
JOSHUA, SON OF SETH; JOSHUA BEN 
PHABI; LAMPON AND ISIDOROS; LUCUAS; 
LYSANIAS; MACEDONIA; MARSUS, C 
VIBIUS; MATTATHIAS; MATTATHIAS 
BEN SIMEON; MENAHEM THE ESSENE; 
MERCURY; MILETUS; MUCIANUS, 
CAIUS LICINIUS; NUMENIUS; OBEDAS; 
OSROENE; PAMPHYLIA; PERGAMUM; 



PHINEHAS; PHRYGIA; POLEMON II; 
PTOLEMY; QUADRATUS, UMMIDIUS 
CAIUS; QUINTILIUS VARUS; SALOME 
ALEXANDRA; SCHALIT, ABRAHAM 
CHAIM; SELEUCIA; SELEUCID ERA; 
SELEUCUS IV PHILOPATOR; SEVERUS, 
ALEXANDER; SILAS; SOSIUS, GAIUS; SYRIA; 
THEODOSIUS; TOPARCHY; VENTIDIUS, 
PUBLIUS; YANNAI, ALEXANDER; ZADOK 
THE PHARISEE 

Bernhard Gajek*, Dr.Phil,; 
Professor Emeritus, University 
of Regensburg, Germany: fulda, 

LUDWIG 

Michael Galchinsky*, Ph.D.; 
Director of Program in Jewish 
Studies, Georgia State University, 
Georgia: gaer, felice d. 

Israel Gal-Edd, B.A., A.C.I.S.; 
Senior External Lecturer in 
International Trade Relations, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem; 
Former Director General, Ministry 
of Development, Jerusalem: 

CHEMICAL CRAFTS AND INDUSTRIES 

James S. Galfund*, B.A.; Senior 
Communications Manager, State 
of Israel Bonds, Washington, D.C.: 

BONDS, STATE OF ISRAEL 

Israel Galili, Minister without 
Portfolio, Kibbutz Na'an 

Marie Claire Galperine, Ph.D.; 
Charge de Recherches au 
Centre National de la Recherche 
Scientifique, Paris 

Eithan Galun*, M.D.; Professor of 
Medicine, Sam and Ellie Fishman 
Chair in Gene Therapy; Director, 
Goldyne Savad Institute of Gene 
Therapy, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem, Hadassah Hebrew 
University Hospital: Aschner, 

MANFRED 

Riva Gambert* : Oakland 

Denise Gamzon, Ph.D.; Instructor 
in French Literature, Tel Aviv 
University: scouting 

Claude Gandelman, M.A.; 
Jerusalem: ionesco, eugene; 

STAROBINSKI, JEAN 

Evelien Gans*, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Modern Jewish History, University 
of Amsterdam and Netherlands 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



S3 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Institute for War Documentation, 
Amsterdam, The Netherlands: gans, 

MOZES HEIMAN; KLEEREKOPER, ASSER 
BENJAMIN; WIJNKOOP, DAVID 

Bernard Dov Ganzel, Ph.D.; 

Historian, New York: landsberg, 

OTTO; LASKER, EDUARD 

Salomon Gaon, Ph.D., Rabbi; Chief 
Rabbi of the Spanish and Portuguese 
Associated Congregations of the 
British Commonwealth, London: 

PRESS 

Joseph Gar, Historian, Jerusalem: 

KAUNAS; KELME; KRASLAVA; KRUSTPILS; 
LATVIA; LEVIN-SHATZKES, YIZHAK; 
LIEPAJA; LITHUANIA; MEISEL, NOAH; 
MEMEL; MINTZ, PAUL; OVCHINSKI, 
LEVI; PALANGA; PANEVEZYS; RASEINIAI; 
REZEKNE; RIGA; SAMOGITIA; SCHATZ- 
ANIN, MAX; VILKAVISKIS; ZARASAI 

Jonathan Garb*, Ph.D.; Lecturer, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

IDEL, MOSHE 

Irene Garbell, Dr.Phil.; Associate 
Professor of Semitic Linguistics, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

DALMAN, GUSTAF HERMANN; DURAN, 
PROFIAT; GESENIUS, HEINRICH 
FRIEDRICH WILHELM; GOOR, YEHUDAH 

Morris W. Garber, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of History, Rutgers 
University, New Brunswick, New 
Jersey: paterson 

Zev Garber*, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Jewish Studies, Los Angeles Valley 
College: bate, julius; baudissin, wolf 

WILHELM; BAUMGARTNER, WALTER; 
BENTZEN, AAGE; BERTHOLET, ALFRED; 
BLEEK, FRIEDRICH; COOK, STANLEY 
ARTHUR; COOKE, GEORGE ALBERT; 
CORNILL, CARL HEINRICH; CORNILL, 
CARL HEINRICH; DILLMANN, AUGUST; 
DUPONT-SOMMER, ANDRE; EERDMANS, 
BERNARDUS DIRKS; FISHBANE, MICHAEL; 
GUNKEL, HERMANN; HAUPT, PAUL; 
HENGSTENBERG, ERNST WILHELM; 
HUPFELD, HERMANN CHRISTIAN KARL; 
JEREMIAS, ALFRED; KATZ, STEVEN T.; 
KAUTZSCH, EMIL FRIEDRICH; KEIL, KARL 
FRIEDRICH; KIRKPATRICK, ALEXANDER 
FRANCIS; KITTEL, RUDOLF; KUGEL, 
JAMES L.; LEHMANN-HAUPT, CARL 
FRIEDRICH; LEVENSON, JON D.; MARTI, 
KARL; MEINHOLD, JOHANNES FRIEDRICH; 
MEYER, EDUARD; NOWACK, WILHELM 
GUSTAV HERMANN; ORLINSKY, HARRY 
MEYER; PARROT, ANDRE; PFEIFFER, 



ROBERT HENRY; ROSENMUELLER, ERNST 
FRIEDRICH KARL; ROWLEY, HAROLD 
HENRY; RYSSEL, VICTOR; SCHAEFFER, 
CLAUDE F. A.; SEGAL, MOSES HIRSCH; 
SIEVERS, EDUARD; SMEND, RUDOLF; 
SMITH, JOHN MERLIN POWIS; SMITH, 
WILLIAM ROBERTSON; STEUERNAGEL, 
CARL; THEODORE OF MOPSUESTIA; 
TORREY, CHARLES CUTLER 

Yosef Garfinkel*, Professor, 
Archaeologist, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: shaar ha- 

GOLAN 

Leib Garfiinkel, M.A.; Attorney, 

Jerusalem: yidishe shtime 

Leah Garrett*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor, University of Denver: an- 

SKI, S.; SHAPIRO, LAMED 

Isaac Garti, B.A.; Teaching 
Assistant in Italian Literature, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

BOCCACCIO, GIOVANNI 

Lloyd P. Gartner, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of History, City College 
of the City University of New 

York: ADLER, SELIG; HASIDISM; 
HISTORIOGRAPHY; HOROWITZ, AARON 
JUDAH LOEB; INDUSTRIAL REMOVAL; 
NEW YORK CITY; PEIXOTTO; SOCIALISM; 
TRADE AND COMMERCE; UNITED STATES 
OF AMERICA 

John W. Gassner, M.A.; Professor of 
Drama, Yale University, New Haven, 
Connecticut: gruenberg, louis 

Theodor H. Gaster, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Religion, Barnard College, 
Columbia University, New York: 

BEHEMOTH; BELIAL; DEEP, THE; DREAMS; 
EARTH; HADAS, MOSES; HOST OF HEAVEN 

Yehuda Gaulan, Advocate; 
Ambassador, Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs, Jerusalem: Finland 

Daniel Gavron, Writer, Jerusalem: 

ARAD 

Miriam Gay, M.A., M.Sc; Senior 
Teacher in Psychology, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan; Ministry 
of Health, Tel Aviv: eissler, kurt r.; 

REICH, WILHELM 

David Geffen*, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Director of Information, Gesher 

Institute, Jerusalem; Researcher 
and Writer, Jerusalem: Atlanta; 



BAHYA; EVANS, ELI; GEFFEN, TOBIAS; 
HAMMER, ARMAND; REAGAN, RONALD 
WILSON; SAFIRE, WILLIAM; SCRANTON; 
WEINBERG, HARRY 

Rela Mintz Geffen*, Ph.D.; 
President and Professor of 
Sociology, Hebrew, University 
Baltimore, Maryland: aufrufen; 

CANDLES; DIETARY LAWS; FAMILY, 
AMERICAN JEWISH; HAKKAFOT; HAZZAN; 
MARRIAGE; PASSOVER 

Manfred Moshe Geis, Theater 
Critic, Tel Aviv: gronemann, samuel 

Ignace J. Gelb, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Assyriology, the University of 
Chicago: hittites 

Saadia Gelb, M.A., Rabbi; Kibbutz 
Kefar Blum: ihud habonim 

• 

Nathan Michael Gelber, Dr.Phil.; 
Encyclopaedia Judaica (Germany); 
Jerusalem: Abraham ben Israel of 

BRODY; ALEKSANDER JAGIELLONCZYK; 
ALLIANZ, ISRAELITISCHE, ZU WIEN; 
ASKENAZY, SIMON; AUGUSTOW; AUSTRIA; 
BARUCH BEN DAVID YAVAN; BEDZIN; 
BELZ; BELZYCE; BENISCH, ABRAHAM; 
BERGSON; BERLIN, CONGRESS OF; 
BIALYSTOK; BOLEKHOV; BORISLAV; BREST- 
LITOVSK; BRODY; BYDGOSZCZ; BYK, 
EMIL; DROGOBYCH; EISENBAUM, ANTON; 
GALICIA; HRUBIESZOW; INOWROCLAW; 
JASLO; JOSELEWICZ, BEREK; KATZ, 
ALBERT; OLESKO; OLIPHANT, LAURENCE; 
OLKUSZ; OPOCZNO; OSTROLEKA; 
OSTROWIEC; TARNOBRZEG; TARNOGROD; 
TARNOW; WINNINGER, SOLOMON; 
WODZISLAW; WOJDA, CAROL 
FREDERICK 

Arden J. Geldman, M.A.; Grants 
Officer and Projects Administrator, 
Joint Program for Jewish Education, 
JAFI and WZO, Jerusalem: family, 

AMERICAN JEWISH; UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA 

Victor Geller*: besdin, morris j. 

Yaacov Geller, M.A.; Research 
Assistant in the Institute for 
Research in the History and 
Culture of Oriental Jewry, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: Istanbul; 

OTTOMAN EMPIRE; PALACHE, HAYYIM 

Edith B. Gelles*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Scholar, Stanford University, 
California: franks, bilhah Abigail 

LEVY 



8 4 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Dov Genachowski, B.A.; Journalist, 
Former Senior Economist of the 
Bank of Israel, Jerusalem: coins and 

CURRENCY; SANBAR, MOSHE 

Carol Gendler, M.A.; Instructor in 
History, College of St. Mary, Omaha, 
Nebraska: omaha ; rosewater, 

EDWARD 

Yehuda Gera, Dr.Jur.; Ministry 
for Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: 

GOLDSTEIN, ANGELO; KAFKA, BRUNO 
ALEXANDER 

Daniel E. Gershenson, Ph.D.; 
Acting Associate Professor 
of Classics, the University 
of California, Los Angeles: 

LOGOS; POSIDONIUS; PYTHAGORAS; 
THEOPHRASTUS OF ERESOS 

Jonathan (M.) Gershoni*, Ph.D.; 
Professor, Tel Aviv University: 

FRANKLIN, ROSALIND ELSIE 

Gershon K. Gershony, Theater 
Critic, Jerusalem: gnessin, menahem; 

GRANACH, ALEXANDER; GRANOVSKY, 
ALEXANDER; SONNENTHAL, ADOLF 
RITTER VON 

Allan Gerson*, J.S.D., J.D., L.L.M.; 
Attorney, AG International Law, 
PLLC, Washington, D.C.: reagan, 

RONALD WILSON 

Edith Gerson-Kiwi, Dr.Phil.; 
Associate Professor of 
Ethnomusicology, Tel Aviv 
University: kurdistan; kestenberg, 

LEO; LACHMANN, ROBERT; VEPRIK, 
ALEXANDER MOISEYEVITCH; 
WEINBERG, JACOB; WELLESZ, EGON 
JOSEPH 

Dan Gerstenfeld*, M.A.; Business 
Editor, Makor Rishon and Israeli 
Newspapers, Jerusalem: akirov, 

ALFRED; ALEXANDER, KOBI 

Zev Gerstl*, Ph.D.; Institute Soil, 
Water and Environmental Sciences, 
Agricultural Research Organization 
- Volcani Center, Beit Dagan, Israel: 

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES 

Elmer Gertz, J.D.; Attorney, 
Chicago: loeb-leopold case; 

ROSENBERG CASE 

Devorah Getzler, The Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: Hebrew 

UNIVERSITY OF JERUSALEM 



Israel Getzler, Ph.D.; Professor 
in European History, La Trobe 
University, Melbourne: martov, 

JULIUS 

Haim M. I. Gevaryahu, Ph.D.; 
Chairman of the Israel Society 
for Biblical Research, Jerusalem: 

KAUFMANN, yehezkel 

Brenda Gevertz*, M.S.S.A.; 
Executive Director, Jewish 
Communal Service Association of 
North America, New York: Jewish 

COMMUNAL SERVICE ASSOCIATION OF 
NORTH AMERICA, THE 

Shimon Gibson*, Ph.D.; 
Archaeologist and Senior Research 
Fellow, W.R Albright Institute of 
Archaeological Research, Jerusalem: 

ABBA SIKRA; ABSALOM; ABSALOM, 
MONUMENT OF; ACRA, THE; ACRABA; 
ACRE; ADASA; AELIA CAPITOLINA; 
AGATHARCHIDES OF CNIDUS; 
AGRICULTURAL LAND-MANAGEMENT 
METHODS AND IMPLEMENTS IN ANCIENT 
EREZ ISRAEL; AGRICULTURE; AGRIPPINA; 
AKHBAREI/ACCHABARON; ALCUIN; 
ANSELM OF CANTERBURY; ANTIPATRIS; 
ANTONIA; APHEK; ARAD; ARBEL; 
ARCHAEOLOGISTS; ARCHAEOLOGY; 
ARCHELAIS; ARCHITECTURE AND 
ARCHITECTS; ASHKELON; AUGUSTINE; 
AVEDAT; AVIGAD, NAHMAN; AVIRAM, 
JOSEPH; AVI-YONAH, MICHAEL; BANIAS; 
BAR KOKHBA; BAR-YOSEF, OFER; BET 
GUVRIN; BET SHEARIM; BET-CHEREM; 
BETHBASI; BETHPHAGE; BETHSAIDA; BET- 
NIMRAH; BOZRAH; CAESAREA; CAIAPHAS, 
JOSEPH; CANAAN, LAND OF; CAPITOLIAS; 
CHORAZIN; CIRCUSES AND THEATERS; 
CISTERN; CITY; COPPER SCROLL; 
CRUCIFIXION; CULT PLACES, ISRAELITE; 
CYPROS; DAMASCUS; DAMOCRITUS; DAN; 
DECAPOLIS; DIBON; DIODORUS OF SICILY; 
DIOGENES LAERTIUS; DIOS; DIOSCORIDES 
PEDANIUS; DISCIPLINE, MANUAL OF; 
DOBRATH; DOK; DOLMENS; DOR; DORIS; 
DOTHAN, TRUDE; DURA-EUROPOS; 
EDESSA; EIN KEREM; ELEPHANT; 
ELUSA; EPHESUS; EUSEBIUS PAMPHILI; 
GADARA; GAMLA; GAZA; GERASA; 
GERIZIM, MOUNT; GEZER; GISCALA; 
GITIN, SEYMOUR; GOFNAH; GOLAN; 
GOLDMAN, HETTY; GOOD ENOUGH, 
ERWIN RAMSDELL; GOPHNA, RAM; 
HAMMAT GADER; HAR HA-MELEKH; 
HAZOR; HELENA; HELENA AUGUSTA; 
HEROD PHILIP I; HERODIUM; HESHBON; 
HOLOFERNES; JERICHO; JERUSALEM; 
JEZREEL; JOHN THE BAPTIST; JOTAPATA; 
JUDEAN DESERT CAVES; KEMPINSKY, 
AHARON; KENYON, DAME KATHLEEN 



MARY; LACHISH; LIVY; LUCAN; MA'ON; 
MACCABEE; MACHAERUS; MACHPELAH, 
CAVE OF; MADABA, MEDEBA; MAIUMAS; 
MAMPSIS; MAZAR, AMIHAI; MELITO 
OF SARDIS; MEMPHIS; MICHMASH or 
MICHMAS; MIKVEH; MODITN; NAARAH; 
NABLUS; NAIN; NEGEV; NICANOR; 
NIZZANAH; OSSUARIES and SARCOPHAGI; 
PALESTINE; PELLA or PAHAL; PETRA; 
PHOTIS; PONTIUS PILATE; POTTERY; 
RABAN, AVNER; RABBATH-AMMON; 
RAMAT HA-GOLAN; REHOBOTH; SALOME; 
SARTABA; SHALEM; SHANKS, HERSHEL; 
SHILOAH, SILOAM; SHILOH; SHILOH, 
YIGAL; SHIPS AND SAILING; SHIVTAH 
or SOBATA; SIDON; SILK; SINAI; SINAI, 
MOUNT; STATIUS, PUBLIUS PAPINIUS; 
STERN, EPHRAIM; TAMAR; TEKOA; 
TIBERIAS; TILLICH, PAUL JOHANNES; 
URMAN, DAN; USSISHKIN, DAVID; 
VERMES, GEZA 

Nahum Tim Gidal, Ph.D.; 
Photojournalist, Jerusalem 

Ludy Giebels*, Ph.D.; Retired 
Historian, Amsterdam, The 
Netherlands: de lieme, nehemia; 

HAAN, JACOB ISRAEL DE 

Yisrael (Zvi) Gilat*, Senior 
Lecturer, Law School, Netanya 
Academic College, Israel: adoption 

Yitzhak Dov Gilat, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Talmud, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan; Senior 
Lecturer in Talmud, Tel Aviv 
University: abba; abba bar kahana; 

ABBA BAR MEMEL; ABBA BAR ZAVDA; 
ABBA BENJAMIN; ADDA BAR AHAVAH; 
ALEXANDRI; AMEIMAR; AMRAM; ARBA 
AMMOT; ASSI, RAV; AVDIMI OF HAIFA; 
AVIN; AVIN THE CARPENTER; AVINA; 
BAR HEDYA; BAR KAPPARA; BARAITA DE- 
MELEKHET HA-MISHKAN; BEBAI; BEBAI 
BAR ABBAYE; BEI AVIDAN; BENJAMIN BEN 
JAPHETH; DESKARTA; DIMI; ELEAZAR 
BEN MATYA; ELEAZAR BEN YOSE; 
ELEAZAR BEN YOSE II; ELEAZAR BEN 
ZADOK; ELEAZAR HISMA; ELIEZER BEN 
HYRCANUS; ELIEZER BEN JACOB; ERUVIN; 
GITTIN; HANINA; HULLIN; HUNA BEN 
NATHAN; ILAI; IMMA SHALOM; ISAAC 
NAPPAHA; JACOB; JOSIAH; KALLAH, 
MONTHS OF; MEGILLAT YUHASIN; 
NEHARDEA; NEHUNYA BEN HA-KANAH; 
RAVINA; SIMEON BEN JEHOZADAK; 
SIMEON BEN SHETAH; SOFERIM; YUDAN 

Gad Gilbar*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
University of Haifa: sarrAf 

Shaked Gilboa*, MSc, Ph.D.; 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Lecturer in Geography, Tel Aviv 
University: absalon; abu ghosh; 

ACRE; ADULLAM REGION; AFULAH; ALFEI 
MENASHEH; ALLONEI ABBA; ALLONEI 
YIZHAK; ALLONIM; ALMAGOR; AMIDAR; 
AMIR, MENAHEM; AMIRIM; ANATHOTH; 
APELOIG, YITZHAK; APHEK; APOLLONIA; 
ARABAH, THE; ARAD; ARAD, RON; ARARA; 
ARIEL; ASHDOD; ASHDOT YA'AKOV; 
ASHKELON; ATHLIT; AVELIM or OVELIM; 
AVINERI, SHLOMO; AYALON, AMI; 
AYANOT; AZOR; BAR-ILAN UNIVERSITY; 
BARKAI; BASHAN; BAT HEFER; BAT 
YAM; BE'ER YA'AKOV; BE'EROT YIZHAK; 
BEERSHEBA; BEIT JIMAL; BEN-ARIEH, 
YEHOSHUA; BENE-BERAK; BENEI AISH; 
BEN-PORAT, MIRIAM; BEN-SHAKHAR, 
GERSHON; BET GUVRIN; BET-DAGON; 
BET-EL; BETHLEHEM; BETH-SHAN; BET- 
SHEMESH; BINYAMINAH; BLUM, LUDWIG; 
BOGEN, ALEXANDER; BRAVERMAN, 
AVISHAY; BRINKER, MENACHEM; 
CAESAREA; CARMEL, MOSHE; CARMEL, 
MOUNT; CAROL, ARYEH; CITRUS; COHEN 
GAN, PINCHAS; CONFINO, MICHAEL; 
COOPERATIVES; CRIME; DABBURIYYA; 
DAFNAH; DALESKI, HILLEL; DALIYAT 
AL-KARMIL; DALIYYAH; DALTON; 
DAN; DAVAR; DEAD SEA; DEGANYAH; 
DIMONAH; DORON, ABRAHAM; 
DOSTROVSKY, ISRAEL; EILOT; EIN GEV; 
EIN HA-EMEK; EIN HOD; EIN SHEMER; 
EIN ZEITIM; EIN ZURIM; EISENBERG, 
SHOUL; EL AL; ELAD; ELATH; ELYASHIV; 
EN-DOR; EN-GEDI; EVEN YEHUDAH; 
EYDOUX, EMANUEL; FISH, HAREL; 
FRANKEL, YA'AKOV; GALIL, UZIA; GALON; 
GAN SHEMU'EL; GAN YAVNEH; GANNEI 
TIKVAH; GANNEI YEHUDAH; GAT; 
GAVISON, RUTH; GAZIT; GEDERAH; GELIL 
YAM; GERSHON, PINCHAS; GE'ULIM; GEVA; 
GILADI, ALEX; GILBOA; GINNOSAR; GIVAT 
ADA; GIVAT BRENNER; GIVAT HEN; GIVAT 
SHEMUEL; GIVAT ZE'EV; GIVATAYIM; 
GROSSMAN, AVRAHAM; GUSH ETZYON; 
GUSH KATIF; HABIBI, EMIL; HA-BONIM; 
HADERAH; HAGAI, BARUCH; HA- 
GOSHERIM; HAIFA MUNICIPAL THEATER; 
HAIFA, UNIVERSITY OF; HA-KIBBUTZ HA- 
ARZI HA-SHOMER HA-ZA'IR; HA-KIBBUTZ 
HA-DATI; HA-KIBBUTZ HA-ME'UHAD; 
HAMADYAH; HA-MA'PIL; HA-OGEN; 
HAPOEL; HAREL; HAREL, MENASHE; HA- 
SOLELIM; HAZER, HAZERIM; HAZEVAH; 
HAZOR; HAZOR ASHDOD; HA-ZORE'A; 
HA-ZORETM; HEBREW UNIVERSITY OF 
JERUSALEM; HEFZI BAH; HELEZ; HEREV 
LE-ET; HERUT; HERZLIYYAH; HEVRAT 
HA-OVEDIM; HISTADRUT; HISTADRUT HA- 
OVEDIM HA-LE'UMMIT; HOD HA-SHARON; 
HOLON; HUKOK; HULDAH; HURVITZ, 
ELI; ILANIYYAH; INBAL DANCE THEATER; 
ISRAEL MUSEUM; ISRAEL PHILHARMONIC 
ORCHESTRA; JERICHO; JEZREEL, VALLEY 



OF; JOKNEAM; KABRI; KALIR, AVRAHAM; 
KANEV, ISAAC; KARMI, DOV; KARMI'EL; 
KARNEI SHOMRON; KATZ, ELIHU; KAZIR 
HARISH; KAZRIN; KEFAR AZAR; KEFAR 
BARAM; KEFAR BARUKH; KEFAR BILU; 
KEFAR BLUM; KEFAR DAROM; KEFAR 
HA-HORESH; KEFAR HA-MACCABI; 
KEFAR HA-NASI; KEFAR HA-RO'EH; KEFAR 
HASIDIM; KEFAR HESS; KEFAR MASARYK; 
KEFAR MENAHEM; KEFAR NETTER; 
KEFAR ROSH HA-NIKRAH; KEFAR RUPPIN; 
KEFAR SAVA; KEFAR SHEMARYAHU; 
KEFAR TAVOR; KEFAR VERADIM; KEFAR 
YEHEZKEL; KEFAR YEHOSHUA; KEFAR 
YONAH; KHOURI, MAKRAM; KIBBUTZ 
MOVEMENT; KINNERET; KINNERET, LAKE; 
KIRYAT ATA; KIRYAT BIALIK; KIRYAT 
EKRON; KIRYAT GAT; KIRYAT HAROSHET; 
KIRYAT MALAKHI; KIRYAT MOTZKIN; 
KIRYAT ONO; KIRYAT SHEMONAH; KIRYAT 
TIVON; KIRYAT YAM; KLEIN, RALPH; 
KOKHAV YAIR; KORIAT, ASHER; LACHISH 
REGION; LAPIDOT, RUTH; LAUTMAN, 
DOV; LEHAVIM; LEIBOWITZ, KEREN; LEO 
BAECK INSTITUTE; LEVIEV, LEV; LIBRARY, 
JEWISH NATIONAL AND UNIVERSITY; 
LIEBMAN, CHARLES; LIEBMAN, 
YESHAYAHU; LIPKIN-SHAHAK, AMNON; 
LOHAMEI HA-GETTA'OT; LYDDA; MA'ALEH 
ADUMIM; MA'ALEH HA-HAMISHAH; 
MA'ALOT-TARSHIHA; MA'BAROT; 
MACCABI; MACCABIAH; MACCABIM- 
RE'UT; MAGHAR, AL-; MAGIDOR, 
MENACHEM; MAHANAYIM; MANHEIM, 
BILHAH; MAOR, GALIA; MA'OZ HAYYIM; 
MASSADAH; MASSU'OT YIZHAK; MA'YAN 
BARUKH; MA'YAN ZEVI; MAZKERET 
BATYAH; MAZLI'AH; MAZZUVAH; 
ME'IR SHEFEYAH; MEITAR; MEKOROT 
WATER COMPANY; MENAHEMIYYAH; 
MERHAVYAH; MESILLOT; METULLAH; 
MEVASSERET ZION; MIGDAL; MIGDAL 
HA-EMEK; MIKVEH ISRAEL; MISGAV AM; 
MISHMAR HA-NEGEV; MISHMAR HA- 
SHARON; MISHMAROT; MIZPAH; MIZPEH 
RAMON; MIZRA; MIZRACHI, SHIMON; 
MO'EZET HA-PO'ALOT; MOLEDET; 
MOSHAV OR MOSHAV OVEDIM; MOZA; 
NA'AN; NAHAL; NAHAL OZ; NAHALAL 
or NAHALOL; NAHALAT YEHUDAH; 
NAHARIYYAH; NATIONAL PARKS IN 
ISRAEL; NATURE RESERVES IN ISRAEL; 
NAVON, DAVID; NAZARETH; NEGEV; 
NE'OT MORDEKHAI; NES ZIYYONAH; 
NESHER; NETANYAH; NETIV HA-LAMED- 
HE; NETIVOT; NEVATIM; NEVEH EITAN; 
NEVEH YAM; NIR AM; NIRIM; NIZZANAH; 
NIZZANIM; OFAKIM; OFIR, SHAIKE; 
OLIVE; OMER; OR AKIVA; OR HA-NER; OR 
YEHUDAH; ORANIT; OROT; PALESTINE 
ECONOMIC CORPORATION; PARDES 
HANNAH-KARKUR; PARDESIYYAH; PERI, 
YA'AKOV; PETAH TIKVAH; POLLACK, 
ISRAEL; PROPPER, DAN; RA'ANANNAH; 



RABINOVICH, ITAMAR; RAMA, AL-; 
RAMALLAH; RAMAT DAVID; RAMAT GAN; 
RAMAT HA-GOLAN; RAMAT HA-KOVESH; 
RAMAT HA-SHARON; RAMAT HA-SHOFET; 
RAMAT RAZIEL; RAMAT YISHAI; RAMLEH; 
RAMON, ILAN; RAMOT MENASHEH; 
RAND, YA'AKOV; RECHTER; REGBAH; 
REHOVOT; REKHASIM; RISHON LE-ZION; 
ROSEN, YEHOSHUA; ROSH HA-AYIN; 
ROSH PINNAH; ROTH-SHACHAMOROV, 
ESTHER; SA'AD; SAFED; SAFRAI, SHMUEL; 
SALOMON, GAVRIEL; SAVYON; SEDEH 
BOKER; SEDEH ELIYAHU; SEDEH 
NEHEMYAH; SEDEROT; SHA'AREI TIKVAH; 
SHA'AR HA-AMAKIM; SHA'AR HA-GOLAN; 
SHA'AR HEFER-BEIT YIZHAK; SHACHAR, 
ARIE; SHADMOT DEVORAH; SHAHAR, 
SHULAMIT; SHAMGAR, MEIR; SHAMIR; 
SHARON, ARYEH; SHAVEI ZION; SHEAR 
YASHUV; SHEFAYIM; SHELOMI; SHOHAM; 
SHOHAM, SHLOMO-GIORA; SHOMRAT; 
SHOVAL; SHUVAL, JUDITH; SHWED, GIL; 
SIMONSOHN, SHLOMO; TAANACH; TAHAL; 
TEKUMAH; TEL ADASHIM; TEL AVIV 
UNIVERSITY; TEL AVIV-JAFFA; TEL KAZIR; 
TEL MOND; TEL YOSEF; TIMNA; TIRAT 
HA-KARMEL; TNUVA; TURNER, YA'AKOV; 
UDIM; URIM; VAN LEER, LIA; WESTERN 
WALL; YA'ALON, MOSHE; YAD HANNAH; 
YAD IZHAK BEN-ZVI; YAGUR; YAKUM; 
YARKON; YARMUK; YAVETS, ZVI; YAVNEH; 
YEDIDYAH; YEFET, SARAH; YEHUD; 
YEROHAM; YESUD HA-MA'ALAH; YIZRE'EL; 
YOVEL, YIRMIYAHU; ZIKHRON YA'AKOV; 
ZIM; ZOFIT; ZORAH; ZUR YIGAL 

Baruch Gilead, M.A.; Ministry for 
Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: turkey 

Sharon Gillerman*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of Jewish 
History, Hebrew Union College- 
Jewish Institute of Religion, Los 
Angeles: wronsky, siddy 

Joseph Gillis, Ph.D.; Professor 
Emeritus, The Rudy Bruner 
Professor of Science Teaching, 
Weizmann Institute of Science, 
Rehovot: ulam, stanislaw marcin 

Philip Gillon, Journalist, Jerusalem 

Neil Gilman, Ph.D.; the Aaron 
Rabinowitz and Simon H. Rifkind 
Associate Professor of Jewish 
Philosophy, the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America, author of 
Conservative Judaism, The New 
Century 

Dan Gilon*, M.D., F.A.C.C; 
Professor of Medicine (Cardiology), 
Director of Non- Invasive Cardiology, 



86 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Heart Institute, Hadassah- Hebrew 
University Medical Center, Ein- 
Kerem Jerusalem: medicine; 

MIROWSKI, MICHEL 

Joseph Ginat, B.A.; Deputy Adviser 
to the Prime Minister on Arab 
Affairs, Givatayim, Israel: Israel, 

STATE OF: ARAB POPULATION 

Eyal Ginio*, Ph.D.; Lecturer, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

EDIRNE 

Rosa Ginossar, L.en D., Honorary 
President of WIZO, Jerusalem: sieff, 

REBECCA; WIZO 

Harold Louis Ginsberg, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Biblical History and 
Literature, the Jewish Theological 

Seminary of America, New York: 

ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION; AHAB; 
AHASUERUS-XERXES; ANCIENT OF 
DAYS; ARIOCH; ARTAXERXES; BABEL, 
TOWER OF; BEN-HADAD; CULT; DANIEL; 
DANIEL, BOOK OF; ECCLESIASTES; ELIHU; 
ELIPHAZ; HEART; HIEL; HOSEA, BOOK OF; 
IMMANUEL; ISAIAH; JEPHTHAH; JOB, THE 
BOOK OF; KEDEMITES or EASTERNERS; 
LEMUEL; MAHER SHALAL HASH BAZ; 
MICHAEL AND GABRIEL; NAMES; PEACE; 
SHEBA BEN BICHRI; SO 

Louis Ginsberg, Petersburg, 
Virginia 

Shabbetai Ginton, M.D.; Ministry 
of Health, Jerusalem: sheba, chaim 

S. (Seymour) Gitin*, Ph.D.; 
Dorto Director and Professor of 
Archaeology, W.F. Albright Institute 
of Archaeological Research, 
Jerusalem: ekron 

Marcia Gitlin, B.A.; Jerusalem 

Rudolf Glanz, Dr.Jur.; Historian, 

New York: new Bedford 

Ruth Glasner*, Ph.D.; Professor of 
History and Philosophy of Science, 
the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: jedaiah ben Abraham 

BEDERSI 

Nahum N. Glatzer, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Jewish History, Brandeis 
University, Waltham, Massachusetts: 

GANS, EDUARD; MAYBAUM, SIGMUND; 
MEGILLAT TAANIT; MONATSSCHRIFT 
FUER GESCHICHTE UND WISSENSCHAFT 
DES JUDENTUMS; ZUNZ, LEOPOLD 



Nathan Glazer, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Education and Social Structure, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts 

William Glicksman, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer in Jewish History, Gratz 
College, Philadelphia: czestochowa; 

KIELCE; RADOM 

Paul Glikson, B.Sc; Institute for 
Contemporary Jewry, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem 

Yvonne Glikson, B.A.; Jerusalem: 

PILGRIMAGE; TALMUD, BURNING OF; 
WANDERING JEW 

Eliezer Gluzberg, Kibbutz Hazerim: 

IHUD HABONIM 

Hans Goedkoop* : heijermans, 

HERMAN 

Denise R. Goitein, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in French Literature, 
Tel Aviv University: bernstein, 

HENRI-LEON; BLOCH, JEAN-RICHARD; 
BLOY, LEON; CHALIER, CATHERINE; 
COHEN, ALBERT; FRENCH LITERATURE; 
LACRETELLE, JACQUES DE; MIKHAEL, 
EPHRAIM; MONTAIGNE, MICHEL DE; 
SCHWIEFERT, PETER; SCHWOB, MARCEL; 
TRIOLET, ELSA 

Shelomo Dov Goitein, Dr.Phil.; 
Emeritus Professor of Islamic 
Studies, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem; Emeritus Professor 

of Arabic, the University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia: aaron; 

ABD AL-MALIK IBN MARWAN; ABRAHAM; 
ADEN; ASHTOR, ELIYAHU; BANETH; 
BILLIG, LEVI 

Norman Golb, Ph.D., Professor of 
Hebrew and Judeo-Arabic Studies, 
Department of Near Eastern 
Languages and Civilizations, 
University of Chicago: rouen 

Dore Gold*, Ph.D.; Former Israeli 
Ambassador to the UN; President, 
Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, 
Jerusalem: saudi Arabia 

Abraham Goldberg, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Senior Lecturer in Talmud, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ABBA BAR ZEMINA; ABBA KOHEN 
BARDELA; ABBA SAUL BEN BATNIT; 
ABBAYE KASHISHA; OHOLOT 

Avie Goldberg, B.A.; Jerusalem: 



DAVID; JERUSALEM; SFORNO, OBADIAH 
BEN JACOB 

Dara Goldberg*, B.A.; Director, 
External Affairs, United States 
Holocaust Memorial Museum, 
Washington, D.C.: united states 

HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM 

Florinda Goldberg*, M.A., 
Lecturer, Spanish and Latin 
American Studies, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: chocron, 

ISAAC; CONSTANTINI, HUMBERTO; 
DINES, ALBERTO; EICHELBAUM, SAMUEL; 
ESPINOZA, ENRIQUE; FEIERSTEIN, 
RICARDO; FUTORANSKY, LUISA; 
GELMAN, JUAN; GERCHUNOFF, ALBERTO; 
GLANTZ, JACOBO; GLANTZ, MARGO; 
GOLDEMBERG, ISAAC; ISAACS, JORGE; 
ISAACSON, JOSE; KOZER, JOSE; LIACHO, 
LAZARO; LISPECTOR, CLARICE; PIZARNIK, 
ALEJANDRA; PORZECANSKI, TERESA; 
RABINOVICH, JOSE; ROVINSKY, SAMUEL; 
SVERDLIK, ODED; TOKER, ELIAHU 

Gerald Goldberg, M.A.; Former 
Lord Mayor of Cork, Ireland 

Hillel Goldberg, Ph.D., Rabbi; 

Jerusalem: hurvitz, Joseph yozel 

Jacob Goldberg, Ph.D.; Teacher 
in History, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: agriculture; 

BUTRYMOWICZ, MATEUSZ; CASIMIR 
III; GDANSK; OLESNICKI, ZBIGNIEW; 
PAWLIKOWSKI, JOZEF; SIEDLCE; 
TORUN; WINE AND LIQUOR TRADE; 
WISNIOWIECKI, JEREMI 

Lea Goldberg, Dr.Phil.; Author and 
Associate Professor of Comparative 
Literature, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: ben yizhak, avraham; 

GNESSIN, URI NISSAN 

Samuel P. Goldberg, B.S.S., 
C.S.W., Lecturer in Communal 
Organization, Columbia University, 
New York: council of Jewish 

FEDERATIONS AND WELFARE FUNDS 

Sylvie Anne Goldberg*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor, Ecole des 
Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales; 

Paris: hevra kaddisha; Jewish 

STUDIES; MORIN, EDGAR; OUAKNIN, 
MARC-ALAIN; VIDAL-NAQUET, PIERRE; 
ZAFRANI, HAIM 

Harry Golden, B.A.; Writer and 
Editor, Charlotte, North Carolina: 

CONE; FRANK, LEO MAX 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



87 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



David M. Goldenberg*, Ph.D.; 
Cohon Professor in Jewish Religion 
and Thought, University of 
Pennsylvania: dropsie college 

Esther Goldenberg, M.A.; Assistant 
in Hebrew Language, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: Hebrew 

LANGUAGE 

Myrna Goldenberg*, Ph.D.; 
Professor Emerita, Montgomery 
College, Maryland: klepfisz, irena; 

MEYER, ANNIE NATHAN; SKLAREW, MYRA 

Yossi (Yosef ) Goldenberg*, 

Ph.D.; Researcher, Head Librarian, 
Jerusalem Academy of Music and 
Dance, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: hajdu, andre; Jadassohn, 

SALOMON; MANOR, EHUD; SCHACHTER, 
CARL; SCHENKER, HEINRICH; 
SCHILLINGER, JOSEPH; YARKONI, YAFFA; 
ZUR, MENACHEM 

Samuel Goldfeld, M.D.; Jerusalem 

Judah Goldin, D.H.L.; Professor of 
Classical Judaica, Yale University, 
New Haven, Connecticut: 

FINKELSTEIN, LOUIS 

Steven Goldleaf*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Pace University, New York: 

NEUGEBOREN,JAY 

Alex J. Goldman, LL.B., Rabbi; 

Stamford, Connecticut 

Bernard Goldman, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Art History, Wayne 
State University, Detroit: marianos; 

PORTAL 

Cecilia Goldman*, M.A.; 
Researcher, Jerusalem: goldman, 
martin 

Israel M. Goldman, M.A., D.H.L., 
Rabbi; Baltimore: herford, Robert 

TRAVERS; SCHNEEBERGER, HENRY 
WILLIAM 

Jacob Goldman, Rabbi; Jerusalem: 

HERZOG, ISAAC; KAHANA, SOLOMON 
DAVID; UNTERMAN, ISSER YEHUDA 

Karla Goldman*, Ph.D.; Historian 
in Residence, Jewish Women's 
Archive, Brookline Massachusetts: 

AMERICAN JEWESS; SIMON, CARRIE 
OBENDORFER; SYNAGOGUE 

Michael James Goldman, M. Phil., 



Minister, Newbury Park, Essex, 
England: baraita de-niddah 

Perry Goldman, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of History, City College 
of the City University of New York: 

LEVIN, LEWIS CHARLES 

Robert S. Goldman, M.A.; New 

York: hartogensis, benjamin henry; 

RABINOFF, GEORGE W. 

Annie Goldmann*, Ph.D. 
(Sociology).; Research, Ecole des 
hautes etudes en sciences sociales, 
Paris: motion pictures 

Abram Juda Goldrat, Rabbi; Tel 

Aviv: GORA KALWARIA; ISAAC BEN 
SAMUEL HA-LEVI; ISAIAH BEN 
ABRAHAM; ISAIAH MENAHEM BEN 
ISAAC; JELLIN, ARYEH LOEB BEN SHALOM 
SHAKHNA; JOEL BEN MOSES GAD; 
KOPPELMAN, JACOB BEN SAMUEL 
BUNIM; KRAMER, MOSES BEN DAVID, OF 
VILNA 

Ernst Daniel Goldschmidt, Ph.D.; 
Scholar and Librarian, Jerusalem: 

ADDIR HU; AKDAMUT MILLIN; 
BAKKASHAH; HAGGADAH, PASSOVER; 
LANDSHUTH, ELIEZER; LITURGY; PRAYER 
BOOKS; SACHS, MICHAEL; WEINTRAUB, 
SOLOMON; ZEMIROT 

Itzhak Goldshlag, Journalist, 

Jerusalem: bnei akiva; landau, 

SHEMUEL HAYYIM; MAIMON, JUDAH 
LEIB; MIZRACHI; NERIAH, MOSHE ZEVI; 
NISSIM, ISAAC; OUZIEL, BEN-ZION MEIR 
HAI; SARNA, EZEKIEL; SHAPIRA, HAYYIM 
MOSHE; SHRAGAI, SHLOMO ZALMAN; 
SOLOVEICHIK, ISAAC ZE'EV HA-LEVI; 
SOROTZKIN, ZALMAN BEN BEN-ZION; 
SUROWIECKI, WAWRZYNIEC; TOLEDANO, 
JACOB MOSES 

Maurice Goldsmith, B.Sc; Director 
of the Science Policy Foundation 
Ltd. and of the Science Information 
Service, London: balint, michael; 

BORN, MAX; HOFSTADTER, ROBERT; 
LANDAU, LEV DAVID OVICH; LEVY, 
HYMAN; MEITNER, LISE; MICHELSON, 
ALBERT ABRAHAM; VEKSLER, VLADIMIR; 
WEIL, ANDRE; WIENER, NORBERT; 
ZARISKI, OSCAR 

Bernard R. Goldstein, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of the History 
of Science, Yale University, New 
Haven, Connecticut: bonfils, 

IMMANUEL BEN JACOB; LEVI BEN 
GERSHOM; MAIMONIDES 



Eric L. Goldstein*, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of History and Jewish 
Studies. Emory University, Atlanta, 
Georgia: Maryland 

Israel Goldstein, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Former Chairman of the Board 
of Directors, Keren Hayesod, 
Jerusalem: keren hayesod 

Marcy Braverman Goldstein*, 

Ph.D.; History of Religions Scholar, 
University of Judaism, Los Angeles, 
California: lehigh valley 

Michael Goldstein, Professor of 
Music, Staatliche Hochschule fur 
Musik und Darstellende Kunst, 
Hamburg: ashkenazy, vladimir 

DAVIDOVICH; BRUSSILOVSKY, 
YEVGENI GRIGORYEVICH; DAVYDOV, 
KARL YULYEVICH; GILELS, EMIL 
GRIGORYEVICH; GLIERE, REINHOLD 
MORITZEVICH; KOGAN, LEONID 
BORISSOVICH; LAMM, PAVEL 
ALEKSANDROVICH; OISTRAKH, 
DAVID FEDOROVICH; RUBINSTEIN, 
ANTON GRIGORYEVICH; STOLYARSKI, 
PETER SOLOMONOVICH; TSFASSMAN, 
ALEXANDER NAUMOVICH; VEINBERG, 
MOISSEY SAMUILOVICH 

Neil (B.) Goldstein*, S.B.; 
Executive Director, American 
Jewish Congress, New York: new 

YORK CITY 

Raymond Goldstein*, B. Mus.; 
Musician specializing in Jewish 
Music; Accompanist, Rubin 
Academy of Music, Tel Aviv: aroni, 

TSVI; BAGLEY, DAVID; DANTO, LOUIS; 
GANCHOFF, MOSES; GREENBLATT, 
ELIYAHU; HAINOVITZ, ASHER; 
HEILMANN, YITZHAK; HERSTIK, NAFTALI; 
KALIB, SHOLOM; LERER, SHMUEL; 
LUBIN, ABRAHAM; MALOVANY, JOSEPH; 
MEISELS, SAUL; MILLER, BEN-ZION; 
MULLER, BENJAMIN; NULMAN, MACY; 
RAPPAPORT, JACOB; SCHULHOF, MOSHE; 
STERN, MOSHE; TAUBE, SAMUEL BARUCH; 
VIGODA, SAMUEL; WOHLBERG, MOSHE 

Sidney Goldstein, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Sociology and Anthropology, 
Brown University, Providence, 
Rhode Island: Springfield 

Yossi (Jorge) Goldstein*, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer, Head of Long Term 
Academic Programs Unit (YAFI), 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem 
and Jewish Agency for Israel: 

HARKAVI, YITZHAK 



88 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Chaim Ivor Goldwater, LL.M.; 
Ministry of Finance, Jerusalem: 

GULAK, ASHER; SILBERG, MOSHE 

Sharon Goleman*: Raphael, 

WILLIAM 

David Golinkin*, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
President and Professor of Jewish 
Law, Jerusalem: conservative 

JUDAISM; GINZBERG, LOUIS; GOLINKIN, 
MORDECHAI YA'AKOV; KIEVAL, HAYYIM; 
KLEIN, ISAAC; LEVI, SAMUEL GERSHON; 
PERLBERG, ABRAHAM NATHAN; 
SCHECHTER INSTITUTE OF JEWISH 
STUDIES, THE 

David Goodblatt, M.H.L., Rabbi; 
Providence, Rhode Island 

Erwin Ramsdell Goodenough, 

Ph.D.; Professor of the History 
of Religion, Yale University, New 
Haven, Connecticut: dura-europus 

Abram Vossen Goodman, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; President of the American 
Jewish Historical Society, New York: 

FEIBELMAN, JULIAN BECK; FELDMAN, 
ABRAHAM JEHIEL; FINESHRIBER, 
WILLIAM HOWARD; GITTELSOHN, 
ROLAND BERTRAM; GOLDENSON, 
SAMUEL HARRY; NONES, BENJAMIN; 
PHILLIPS; SOLOMONS, ADOLPHUS 
SIMEON 

Jerry Goodman*, B.A., M.A.; 
Executive Director, National 
Committee for Labor Israel, New 
York: national conference on 

SOVIET JEWRY 

Karen Goodman*, M.A.; 
Independent Scholar, Los Angeles, 
California: lewitzky, bella; oved, 

MARGALIT 

Philip Goodman, Rabbi; Executive 
Secretary of the Jewish Book 
Council of America, New York: 

BOOKPLATES; KRAFT, LOUIS; WEIL, 
FRANK LEOPOLD 

Sheldon (M.) Goodman*, Ph.D.; 
Clinical Psychologist in private 
practice, New York Department 
of Education, New York: freud, 

SIGMUND 

George M. Goodwin*: Newport; 

RHODE ISLAND 

Marjanne E. Gooze*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor, Germanic and 



Slavic Languages, University of 
Georgia: herz, henriette 

Jacob Gordin, Dr.Phil.; 
Encyclopaedia Judaica (Germany): 

HERRERA, ABRAHAM KOHEN DE 

Robert Gordis, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Religion, Temple 
University, Philadelphia; Professor 
of Bible, the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America, New York: 

MARGOLIS, MAX LEOPOLD 



Bezalel Gordon*, M.A.; Near 
Eastern Studies, University of 
Michigan: American, sadie; 

APPELMAN, HARLENE; BAAR, EMIL N.; 
BACKMAN, JULES; BARDIN, SHLOMO; 
BARNSTON, HENRY; BARON, JOSEPH 
LOUIS; BEERMAN, LEONARD; BENJAMIN, 
RAPHAEL; BERGER, ELMER; BERMAN, 
MYRON R.; BERNSTEIN, LOUIS; 
BETTMANN, BERNHARDT; BLUMENTHAL, 
AARON H.; BOARD OF DELEGATES OF 
AMERICAN ISRAELITES; BOHNEN, ELI 
AARON; BOSNIAK, JACOB; BRICKNER, 
BALFOUR; BRICKNER, BARNETT 
ROBERT; BRONSTEIN, HERBERT; 
BROWNE, LEWIS; CANTOR, BERNARD; 
CHANOVER, HYMAN; CHIEL, ARTHUR 
ABRAHAM; CHIEL, SAMUEL; COFFEE, 
RUDOLPH ISAAC; COHEN, ARMOND 
E.; COHEN, JACK JOSEPH; COHEN, 
JACOB XENAB; COHEN, SEYMOUR 
J.; COOK, SAMUEL; CURRICK, MAX 
COHEN; DAVIDSON, DAVID; DAVIDSON, 
MAX DAVID; DONIN, HAYIM HALEVY; 
DRESNER, SAMUEL HAYIM; DREYFUS, 
STANLEY A.; EHRENREICH, BERNARD 
COLONIUS; EICHHORN, DAVID MAX; 
EICHLER, MENACHEM MAX; ELIASSOF, 
HERMAN; ETTELSON, HARRY WILLIAM; 
FALK, JOSHUA; FEUER, LEON ISRAEL; 
FEUERLICHT, MORRIS MARCUS; FINK, 
JOSEPH LIONEL; GOLDFEDER, FISHEL; 
HABERMAN, JOSHUA O.; HAILPERIN, 
HERMAN; HALPERN, HARRY; HIRSCH, 
RICHARD; ISRAEL, EDWARD LEOPOLD; 
ISSERMAN, FERDINAND M.; JACOB, 
WALTER; KLENICKI, LEON; KOLATCH, 
ALFRED JACOB; KREITMAN, BENJAMIN 
ZVI; KUSHNER, HAROLD S.; KUSHNER, 
LAWRENCE; LELYVELD, ARTHUR JOSEPH; 
MALEV, WILLIAM S.; MARK, JULIUS; 
MIELZINER, MOSES; MILLER, ISRAEL; 
MINDA, ALBERT GREENBERG; MINKIN, 
JACOB SAMUEL; MOWSHOWITZ, ISRAEL; 
NEULANDER, ARTHUR H.; NEWFIELD, 
MORRIS; NEWMAN, LOUIS ISRAEL; 
NUSSBAUM, MAX; OLAN, LEVI ARTHUR; 
OLITZKY, KERRY M.; PETUCHOWSKI, 
JAKOB JOSEF; PILCHIK, ELY EMANUEL; 
PLAUT, W. GUNTHER; POLISH, DAVID; 



PRAGER, DENNIS; REGNER, SIDNEY L.; 
RICE, ABRAHAM JOSEPH; ROSENBAUM, 
SAMUEL; ROSENBERG, ISRAEL; 
ROTHSCHILD, JACOB M.; ROUTTENBERG, 
MAX JONAH; RUDERMAN, DAVID B.; 
SCHWARTZMAN, SYLVAN DAVID; SEGAL, 
BERNARD; SHAPIRO, ALEXANDER M.; 
SILVER, ABBA HILLEL; SILVER, DANIEL 
JEREMY; SILVERSTEIN, ALAN; SIMON, 
RALPH; SOBEL, RONALD; SOLOMON, ELIAS 
LOUIS; STAMPFER, JOSHUA; STEINBERG, 
PAUL; STERN, CHAIM; STERN, JACK; 
STERN, MALCOLM HENRY; TEPLITZ, 
SAUL I.; WASHOFSKY, MARK E.; WAXMAN, 
MORDECAI; WECHSLER, JUDAH; 
WEINSTEIN, JACK B.; WOLF, ARNOLD 
JACOB; ZELIZER, NATHAN; ZIMMERMAN, 
SHELDON; ZOLA, GARY PHILLIP 

Arthur Aryeh Goren, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer in American History, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

NEW YORK CITY 

Asher Goren, M.A.; Writer, 
Jerusalem 

Haim Goren*, Associate Professor, 
Tel-Hai Academic College, Israel: 

GUTHE, HERMANN; SCHICK, CONRAD 

Yosef Gorny, Ph.D.; Professor, 
History of the Jewish People, Tel 
Aviv University 

Shmuel Gorr, B.A.; Rabbi; 

Jerusalem: ballarat-, cassab, judy; 

KAHAN, LOUIS; SPIELVOGEL, NATHAN; 
TASMANIA 

Peter Gossens*, Dr. Literary 
Scholar, Westfalische Wilhelms- 
Universitat, Munster, Germany: 

CELAN, PAUL 

Harvey Leonard Gotliffe*, 

Ph.D.; Professor of Journalism, 
School of Journalism and Mass 
Communications, San Jose, 
California: press 

M.J. Gottfarstein: franck, henri 

Erich Gottgetreu, Journalist, 

Jerusalem: adler, Hermann; 

BERENDSOHN, WALTER A.; 
BORCHARDT, RUDOLF; HEYM, STEFAN; 
KALEKO, MASCHA; KRAFT, WERNER; 
LOEWENSTEIN, KURT; MARGOLIN, 
JULIJ; STURMANN, MANFRED; WOLFF, 
THEODOR; ZUKUNFT; ZUKUNFT, DIE 

Efraim Gottlieb, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Jewish Philosophy and 



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Mysticism, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: alcastiel, Joseph; 

BAHYA BEN ASHER BEN HLAVA; DATO, 
MORDECAI BEN JUDAH; EZRA BEN 
SOLOMON; GERONDI, JACOB BEN 
SHESHET; ISAAC BEN SAMUEL OF ACRE; 
MAAREKHET HA-ELOHUT; MENORAH; 
NAHMANIDES; RECANATI, MENAHEM BEN 
BENJAMIN; RICCHI, RAPHAEL IMMANUEL 
BEN ABRAHAM HAI; SABBATH; SHAPIRA; 
TEMUNAH, THE BOOK OF 

Isaac B. Gottlieb, M.A., Rabbi; 

Jerusalem: breuer, Joseph 

Moshe Gottlieb, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Beit Berl, Zofit, Israel: boycott, 

ANTI-NAZI; LIPSKY, LOUIS; TENENBAUM, 
JOSEPH L. 

Paul Gottlieb, B.A.; Jerusalem: 

BOMBAY; PAKISTAN 

Yemima Gottlieb, B.A.; Jerusalem: 

GOLINKIN, MORDECAI; PELLEG, FRANK; 
PELLEG, FRANK 

Alfred Gottschalk, Rabbi; 
President, Hebrew Union College, 
Cincinnati 

Max Gottschalk, Ph.D.; Research 
Professor of Sociology, the Free 
University of Brussels: Antwerp; 

BELGIUM; BRUSSELS; PHILIPPSON; 
PHILIPPSON 

Norman K. Gottwald, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Old Testament and 
of Biblical Theology and Ethics, 
the Graduate Theological Union, 
Berkeley, California: amorites; 

JACOB, BLESSING OF; MANASSEH; 
NOMADISM; SAMUEL, BOOK OF 

Percy S. Gourgey, M.B.E.; 
Journalist, Twickenham, Middlesex, 
England: koder, shabdai samuel; 
press 

Melissa (J.) de Graaf*, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer, Brandeis University/ 
Northeastern University, Boston: 

BAUER, MARION EUGENIE; WERTHEIM, 
ROSALIE MARIE 



FUER KULTUR UND WISSENSCHAFT DES 
JUDENTUMS 

Michael J. Graetz, M.A., Rabbi; 

Jerusalem: friedlaender, david; 

GOMPERZ; GOOD AND EVIL; LESSING, 
GOTTHOLD EPHRAIM; MOMMSEN, 
THEODOR; RAILROADS; REDEMPTION; 
SABBATH 

Naomi Graetz*, M.A.; Senior 
Teacher, Ben-Gurion University 
of the Negev, Beersheba: domestic 

VIOLENCE 

Gil Graff*, Ph.D.; Executive 
Director, Bureau of Jewish 
Education of Greater Los Angeles, 
California.: education, Jewish 

Frank D. Grande, M.A.; Lecturer 
in History, City College of the City 
University of New York: errera, 

CARLO; LUMBROSO 

Anna Grattarola*: bologna 

Bernhard Grau*, Dr.Phil; Archivist, 
Staatsarchiv Munich, Munich, 
Germany: eisner, kurt 

Alyssa M. Gray*, J.D., Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor of Codes and 
Responsa Literature, Hebrew Union 
College- Jewish Institute of Religion, 

New York: amoraim; johanan ben 

NAPPAHA 

John Gray, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Hebrew and Semitic Languages, the 
University of Aberdeen, Scotland: 

KINGS, BOOK OF; SABEA 

Solomon Grayzel, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Editor Emeritus of the Jewish 
Publication Society of America; 
Professor of History, Dropsie 
University, Philadelphia: Alexander-, 

ANACLETUS II, PETER PIERLEONE; BEA, 
AUGUSTIN; BENEDICT; BULLS, PAPAL; 
CALIXTUS; CHURCH COUNCILS; 
CLEMENT; HUSIK, ISAAC; JEWISH 
PUBLICATION SOCIETY OF AMERICA; 
MALTER, HENRY; NEUMAN, ABRAHAM 
AARON 



President, Reconstructionist 
Rabbinical College, Wyncote, Pa. 

Daryl Thomas Green*, B.A.; 
English, Kent State University, Ohio 

Emanuel Green, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Associate Professor of Hebrew 
and Judaica, Hofstra University, 
Hempstead, New York: kaufmann, 

YEHEZKEL 

Wm. (William) Scott Green*, 

Ph.D.; Professor of Religion, 
University of Miami, Coral Gables, 
Florida: neusner, jacob 

Aaron Greenbaum, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
American Joint Distribution 
Committee, Jerusalem: samuel ben 

HOPHNI 

Alfred Abraham Greenbaum, 

Ph.D.; Librarian of the University of 
Haifa 

Avraham Greenbaum, Ph.D.; 
Senior Lecturer, Modern Jewish 
History, Haifa; University, and 
Research Associate, Dinur Institute, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

JEWISH STUDIES 

Fred Greenbaum: celler, emanuel 

Nathan Greenbaum, M.A.; Lecturer 
in Hebrew Literature and Language, 
Gratz College; Lecturer in Hebrew, 
Temple University, Philadelphia: 

DUSHKIN, ALEXANDER MORDECHAI 

Cheryl Greenberg*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of History, Trinity College, 
Hartford, Connecticut: black-jewish 

RELATIONS IN THE UNITED STATES 

Evelyn Levow Greenberg, 

Journalist, Washington, D.C. 

Joel Greenberg*, B.A., B.Ed.; 
Professor, University of Waterloo, 
Canada: donalda, pauline; hirsch, 

JOHN STEPHEN; RASKY, HENRY; 
SALTZMAN, HARRY; WAXMAN, AL; WAYNE 
AND SCHUSTER 



Peter Emanuel Gradenwitz, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer in Musicology, Tel Aviv 
University: ben-haim, paul; dessau, 

PAUL; KORNGOLD, ERICH WOLFGANG; 
MILHAUD, DARIUS 

Michael Graetz, M.A.; Jerusalem: 

SYMMACHUS BEN JOSEPH; VEREIN 



Bernard Grebanier, Ph.D.; 

Emeritus Professor of English, 
Brooklyn College of the City 
University of New York: behrman, 

SAMUEL NATHANIEL; BELASCO, DAVID; 
HART, MOSS 

Arthur Green, Ph.D., Rabbi; 



Moshe Greenberg, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Bible, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: am ha- 

AREZ; DECALOGUE; EXODUS, BOOK OF; 
EZEKIEL; GINSBERG, HAROLD LOUIS; 
HABIRU; HEREM; INCEST; LABOR; 
LEVITICAL CITIES; MOSES; NASH 
PAPYRUS; OATH; PLAGUES OF EGYPT; 



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RESURRECTION; SABBATICAL YEAR AND 
JUBILEE; SEMITES; SPEISER, EPHRAIM 
AVIGDOR; URIM AND THUMMIM 

Daniel Greene*, Ph.D.; Historian, 
Division of Exhibitions, United 
States Holocaust Memorial 
Museum, Washington, D.C.: 

PHILLIPS, WILLIAM 

Jonas C. Greenfield, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Ancient Semitic 
Languages, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: darius; darius the 

MEDE; MALKIEL, YAKOV; PHILISTINES; 
WRITING 

Larry (Lawrence) R. Greenfield*, 

J.D., B.A.; California Director, 
Republican Jewish Coalition, 
Los Angeles: republican Jewish 

COALITION 

Ari Greenspan*, DMD; Efrat, 
Israel: matzah 

Charlotte (Joyce) Greenspan*, 

Ph.D.; Independent Scholar, 
Alumna of University of California, 
Berkeley, California: fields, 

DOROTHY 

Leonard J. Greenspoon*, Ph.D.; 
Professor, Klutznick Chair in 
Jewish Civilization, Creighton 
University, Omaha: bible, ancient 

TRANSLATIONS, SEPTUAGINT 

Edward L. Greenstein, B.A., 

B.H.L.; New York: altschul, frank; 

ALTSCHUL, LOUIS; AMTER, ISRAEL; 
BARRON, JENNIE LOITMAN; BECKER; 
BEDACHT, MAX; BEHRMAN, MARTIN; 
BIEN, JULIUS; BITTELMAN, ALEXANDER; 
BORINSTEIN, LOUIS J.; BRAUDE, MAX A.; 
BROIDO, LOUIS; BUBLICK, GEDALIAH; DE 
CORDOVA, JACOB; EISENMAN, CHARLES; 
HENDRICKS; JAFFA; JOACHIMSEN, 
PHILIP J.; LOUISIANA; MADISON, JAMES; 
MELTON, SAMUEL MENDEL; NEW YORK 
CITY; NEW YORK STATE; PENNSYLVANIA; 
RATSHESKY, ABRAHAM CAPTAIN; RICE, 
ISAAC LEOPOLD; ROOSEVELT, FRANKLIN 
DELANO; ROSENBLATT, SOL ARIEH; 
STOKES, ROSE PASTOR 

Michael Greenstein*, Ph.D.; 
Professor (retired), Toronto, 
Canada: Canadian literature 

Gideon (M.) Greif*, Ph.D.; 
Historian, Director, Polish Desk, 
International School for Holocaust 
Studies European Department, 



Yad Vashem, Jerusalem: 

SONDERKOMMANDO, JEWISH 

Ilan Greilsammer*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Political Science, Bar- 
Ilan University, Ram at Gan 

Beth (A.) Griech-Polelle*, Ph.D.; 

Associate Professor of Modern 
European History, Bowling Green 
State University, Bowling Green, 

Ohio: LICHTENBERG, BERNHARD 

Zeev Gries, Jerusalem 

Tobias Grill*: kaminka, armand 

Hyman B. Grinstein, Ph.D.; 
Professor of American Jewish 
History, Yeshiva University, New 

York: bluestone, Joseph isaac-, 

JACKSON, SOLOMON HENRY 

Yehoshua M. Grintz, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Biblical Studies, 
Tel Aviv University: apocrypha 

AND PSEUDEPIGRAPHA; ARK OF THE 
COVENANT; ASHKENAZ; ASHKENZAZ; 
BALAAM; BARAK; BARUCH; BARUCH, 
APOCALYPSE OF; BATH-SHEBA; 
BEL AND THE DRAGON; BENAIAH; 
BEZALEL; BORSIPPA; ELISHA; ENOCH, 
ETHIOPIC BOOK OF; EPHOD; GERAR; 
GERIZIM, MOUNT; GOD; HABAKKUK; 
HAGGAI; HAMAN; HANANIAH SON OF 
AZZUR; HANNAH; HEMAN; HEZEKIAH; 
JAAZANIAH, JAAZANIAHU; JAIR; JAIR; 
JAMPEL, SIGMUND; JEHOIADA; JEHOIARIB; 
JEW; JONATHAN BEN UZZIEL; JUBILEES, 
BOOK OF; JUDITH, BOOK OF; MACCABEES, 
FIRST BOOK OF; MACCABEES, SECOND 
BOOK OF; PROVIDENCE; SOLOMON, 
WISDOM OF; SOUL, IMMORTALITY OF; 
TEMPLE; TOBIT, BOOK OF; VASHTI; 
ZECHARIAH (h. pr.); ZECHARIAH (k.); 
ZECHARIAH (prophet); ZECHARIAH 
(son of Jeberechiah); ZERAH THE 
CUSHITE 

Alex Grobman*, Ph.D.; President, 
Institute for Contemporary Jewish 
Life, Englewood, New Jersey: 

HOLOCAUST: AFTERMATH; KLAUSNER, 
ABRAHAM J. 

Alfred S. Groh*: wilkes-barre and 

KINGSTON 

David C. Gross*, M.A.; Journalist, 

New York: publishing 

Jack Gross, Ph.D., M.D.C.M.; 
Professor of Experimental Medicine 
and Cancer Research, the Hebrew 



University- Hadassah Medical 
School, Jerusalem: berenblum, isaac 

Walter (Shlomoh) Gross, Dr.Phil.; 
Journalist, Tel Aviv: weltsch, Robert 

Bernard Grossfeld, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Assistant Professor of Hebrew 
Studies, the University of Wisconsin, 

Milwaukee: bible 

Alan J. Grossman*, Director of 
Marketing & Communications, UJA 
Federation of Northern New Jersey: 

BERGEN COUNTY; HUDSON COUNTY; 
PATERSON 

Avraham Grossman, M.A.; 
Instructor in History, the University 
of the Negev, Beersheba: abrabanel, 

ISAAC BEN JUDAH; BEKHOR SHOR, 
JOSEPH BEN ISAAC; BIBLE; ELIEZER OF 
BEAUGENCY; KARA, JOSEPH; MENAHEM 
BEN HELBO; RASHI; SAMUEL BEN MEIR 

Grace Cohen Grossman*, Senior 
Curator, Skirball Cultural Center, 
Los Angeles: museums 

Lawrence Grossman*, Ph.D.; 
Editor, American Jewish Year Book, 
New York: yeshiva chovevei torah; 

YESHIVA UNIVERSITY 

Kurt R. Grossmann, Writer, New 
York 

Mayer Irwin Gruber*, A.B., 
M.H.L., Ph.D., Litt.H.D.; Professor 
of Bible and Ancient Near East, 
Ben-Gurion University of the 
Negev, Beersheba: havilah; 

HIVITES; HONOR; JOB, THE BOOK OF; 
MOURNING; OILS; RED HEIFER; SCEPTER; 
TIBNI;YEAR 

Ruth E. Gruber, B.A.; Journalist, 
Writer, correspondent for JTA, 
(London) Jewish Chronicle and 
others, photographer specializing 
on Jewish issues in East- Central 
Europe, Italy: czech republic 

AND SLOVAKIA; CZECHOSLOVAKIA; 
YUGOSLAVIA 

Judy Gruen*, M.S. J.; Writer, Los 

Angeles: avrutick, Abraham n.; 

KAMENETSKY, YAAKOV 

Kurt Gruenberger, Dr.Jur.; Haifa: 

MOLLER, HANS 

Aaron Gruenhut, M.A.; Librarian, 
the Jewish National and University 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Library, Jerusalem: gurwitsch, 

AARON; JOEL, KARL; LIEBERT, ARTHUR 

Ithamar Gruenwald, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer in Jewish Philosophy, Tel 
Aviv University: melchizedek; song, 

ANGELIC 

Irene Grumach, Ph.D.; Jerusalem: 

PERIZZITES; RAMSES; SHISHAK; 
TIRHAKAH; UZAL 

Ralph (E.) Grunewald*, M.A.; 
Executive Director, National 
Association of Criminal Defense 
Lawyers, Washington, D.C.: 

LERMAN, MILES; OFFICE OF SPECIAL 
INVESTIGATIONS.; SHER, NEAL 

Judith Grunfeld-Rosenbaum, 

Ph.D.; Educator, London: 

DEUTSCHLAENDER, LEO 

Kurt Grunwald, Dr.rer.Pol.; 
Economist, Jerusalem: Jewish 

COLONIAL TRUST 

Inger-Lise Grusd, Oslo: eitinger, 

LEOS. 

Noe Gruss, Ph.D.; Librarian, 
Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris: 

BEUGNOT, AUGUSTE ARTHUR 

Regina Gruter (Grueter)*, Ph.D.; 
Head World War II Research and 
Archives Unit, Netherlands Red 
Cross, The Hague, Netherlands: 

WEINREB, FRIEDRICH 

Anne Grynberg*, Ph.D., H.D.R.; 
Professor of Universities, National 
Institute of Oriental Languages and 
Civilizations and Sorbonne, Paris, 
France: French literature 

Shlomo Guberman*, M. Jur.; 
Deputy Attorney- General 
(Legislation), Retired, Ministry of 
Justice, Jerusalem: Israel, state of: 

LEGAL AND JUDICIAL SYSTEM 

Alessandro Guetta*, Professor 
Jewish Thought, Institut National 
des Langues et Litteratures 
Orientales, Paris: alatrini; alatrini, 

ANGELO; BARUCH, JACOB BEN MOSES 
HAYYIM; BASSANI, GIORGIO; BELFORTE, 
SOLOMON; BENAMOZEGH, ELIJAH BEN 
ABRAHAM; CALIMANI, SIMONE BEN 
ABRAHAM; CASTELNUOVO, ENRICO; DA 
VERONA, GUIDO; DANTE ALIGHIERI; 
DE BENEDETTI, ALDO; DEBENEDETTI, 
GIACOMO; FIORENTINO, SALOMONE; 



FUBINI, MARIO; GORNI; ITALIAN 
LITERATURE; JEDIDIAH BEN MOSES OF 
RECANATI; JOHN OF CAPUA; LEGHORN; 
MOMIGLIANO, ATTILIO; MOMIGLIANO, 
FELICE; MUSSAFIA, ADOLFO; RIETI 

Jacques Yakov Guggenheim, 

Jerusalem: baruch, greek 

APOCALYPSE OF 

Florence Guggenheim- Gruenberg, 

Dr.Sc.Nat.; Historian, Zurich: 

AARGAU 

Terry Guild, Office of Public 
Affairs, Brandeis University, 
Waltham, Massachusetts 

Yehiel G. Gumpertz, M.D., 

Jerusalem: bArAny, Robert; jekuthiel 

BEN JUDAH HA-KOHEN 

Herman S. Gundersheimer, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Art History, Temple 
University, Philadelphia: art 

HISTORIANS AND ART CRITICS 

Yosef Guri, M.A.; Senior Teacher 
in Russian Language, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: pechersky, 

ALEXANDER 

Aron Gurwitsch, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Philosophy, the New School for 
Social Research, New York: husserl, 

EDMUND GUSTAV ALBRECHT 

Hans G. Guterbock, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Hittitology, the 
University of Chicago: hittites 

Simeon L. Guterman, Ph.D.; 
Professor of History, Yeshiva 
University, New York: juster, jean 

Oren Gutfeld*, M.A.; 
Archaeologist, Institute of 
Archaeology, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: hyrcania 

Itta Gutgluck, B.A.; Jerusalem: 

BREIDENBACH, WOLF 

Israel Gutman, B.A.; Historian, 
Kibbutz Lehavot ha-Bashan: 

PARTISANS 

Edwin Emanuel Gutmann, Ph.D.; 
Senior Lecturer in Political Science, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

EULAU, HEINZ; FINER, HERMAN; HELLER, 
HERMANN; KIRCHHEIMER, OTTO; KOHN, 
HANS; LOEWENSTEIN, KARL; ROBSON, 
WILLIAM ALEXANDER 



Joseph Gutmann, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Art History, Wayne 
State University, Detroit: aggadah; 

HAGGADAH, PASSOVER; JAFFE, MEIR OF 
ULM 

Joshua Gutmann, Emeritus 
Associate Professor of Jewish 
History and Jewish Hellenism, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ACHISH; AHASUERUS; AHIKAR, BOOK 
OF; AMAZIAH; ANGARIA; ANGELS 
AND ANGELOLOGY; ANTISEMITISM; 
ANTONINUS PIUS; ARISTOBULUS OF 
PANEAS; ELIJAH; GOD; IDI; OPHIR; URIEL; 
WARHAFTIG, ZERAH 

Linda Gutstein, B.A.; Journalist, 

New York: Bernhardt, sarah; dassin, 

JULES; FOX, WILLIAM 

Morris A. Gutstein, Ph.D., D.H.L., 
Rabbi; Associate Professor of 
Jewish History and Sociology, 
the College of Jewish Studies, 
Chicago: brith Abraham-, Chicago; 

GREENEBAUM; HORNER, HENRY; 
MAYER, LEOPOLD; MAYER, 
LEVY 

Henri Guttel, B.A.; Jerusalem: 

JUDEO-PROVENCAL; LADINO; ME-AM 
LO'EZ 

Louis (Eliahu) Guttman, Ph.D.; 
Director, Israel Institute of Applied 
Research, Jerusalem 

Julius Guttmann, Dr.Phil., Rabbi; 
Professor of Jewish Philosophy, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ALEXANDER OF APHRODISIAS 

Awni Habash, Ph.D., LL.B.; 
Lawyer and Sociologist, Bethlehem 
University: Israel, state of: 

RELIGIOUS LIFE AND COMMUNITIES 

Jacob Haberman, Ph.D., Dr.Jur., 
Rabbi; Attorney, New York: 

ABRAHAM BEN MOSES HA-KOHEN HA- 
SEPHARDI; ASCETICISM; ASHKENAZI, 
SAUL BEN MOSES HA-KOHEN; 
BACHARACH, JAIR HAYYIM BEN MOSES 
SAMSON; BACHARACH, MOSES SAMSON 
BEN ABRAHAM SAMUEL; BELIEF; DASH, 
SAMUEL; DELMEDIGO, JOSEPH SOLOMON; 
EGER, AKIVA BEN SIMHAH BUNIM; EGER, 
SAMUEL BEN JUDAH LOEB; ELIAKIM 
GOETZ BEN MEIR; ELIJAH BEN HAYYIM; 
ELIJAH BEN LOEB OF FULDA; GRUENHUT, 
ELEAZAR; JOSEPH BEN ZADDIK; JUDAH 
BEN NISSAN; LICHTENSTADT, BENJAMIN 
WOLF BEN JUDAH; LICHTSTEIN, 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



ABRAHAM BEN ELIEZER LIPMAN; 
LIPSCHUETZ, ISRAEL BEN ELIEZER; LOGIC 

Jacob Hirsch Haberman, M.A., 
Rabbi; Librarian, the Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America, 
New York: ehrentreu, heinrich; 

ENOCH BEN ABRAHAM; FRANKFURTER, 
MOSES; GEDALIAH, JUDAH; HEILBRONN, 
JACOB BEN ELHANAN; HELLER, JEHIEL 
BEN AARON; HELLER, JOSHUA BEN 
AARON; KAEMPF, SAUL ISAAC; KOERNER, 
MOSES BEN ELIEZER PHOEBUS; KRONER, 
THEODOR 

Joshua O. Haberman*, D.H.L., 
Rabbi; Chairman, Foundation for 
Jewish Studies, Washington, D.C.: 

HIRSCH, SAMUEL; STEINHEIM, SALOMON 
LUDWIG 

Abraham Meir Habermann, 

Associate Professor of Medieval 
Hebrew Literature, Tel Aviv 
University: aaron hakiman; abi 

ZIMRA, ISAAC MANDIL BEN ABRAHAM; 
ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC BEN GARTON; 
ABUN; ADELKIND, ISRAEL CORNELIUS; 
ADONIM BEN NISAN HA-LEVI; ALAMANI, 
AARON HE-HAVER BEN YESHU'AH; 
ALHADIB, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON BEN 
ZADDIK; ALI; ALVAN BEN ABRAHAM; 
AMITTAI; AMITTAI BEN SHEPHATIAH; 
AMNON OF MAINZ; ATHIAS, JOSEPH 
and IMMANUEL; AZHAROT, AZHARAH; 
BAK; BASS, SHABBETAI BEN JOSEPH; 
BENJAMIN BEN AZRIEL; BENJAMIN BEN 
ZERAH; BERECHIAH BEN NATRONAI HA- 
NAKDAN; BERGMANN, JUDAH; BERLIN; 
BIBLIOGRAPHY; BIRNBAUM, SOLOMON 
ASHER; BLOCH; BOMBERG, DANIEL; 
BOOK TRADE; BRODY, HEINRICH; CARMI, 
JOSEPH JEDIDIAH; DAVIDSON, ISRAEL; 
EISENSTEIN, JUDAH DAVID; EPHRAIM 
BEN ISAAC; EPHRAIM BEN JACOB OF 
BONN; FRANCES, JACOB BEN DAVID; 
GANSO, JOSEPH; GENIZAH; GIKATILLA, 
MOSES BEN SAMUEL HA-KOHEN; HAKIM 
BI-AMR ALLAH, AL; IBN ALTABBAN, LEVI 
BEN JACOB; IBN SASSON, SAMUEL BEN 
JOSEPH; JERUSALEM; KALILA AND DIMNA; 
KEROVAH; KINAH; LONGO, SAADIAH; 
MAARAVOT; MAQAMA; MEIR BEN ELIJAH 
OF NORWICH; PIZMON; POETRY; SAHULA, 
ISAAC BEN SOLOMON; SAMUEL HA- 
NAGID; SANTOB DE CARRION; SIMEON 
BAR ISAAC; SINDABAR; SONCINO; 
TEHINNAH; TEHINNAH; TEKIATA; WOLF, 
JOHANN CHRISTOPH; ZARCO, JUDAH 

Joseph Hacker, M.A.; Instructor 
in Jewish History, the Hebrew 

University of Jerusalem: ibn habib, 

JACOB BEN SOLOMON; LERMA, JUDAH 



BEN SAMUEL; LEVI; LEVI, SOLOMON BEN 
ISAAC; LEVI, ABRAHAM BEN JOSEPH; 
LEVI, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON; LEVI, JACOB 
BEN ISRAEL; LEVI, SOLOMON BEN ISAAC; 
MEDINA, SAMUEL BEN MOSES DE; 
MIZRAHI, ELIJAH; SASSON, AARON BEN 
JOSEPH 

Aviad Hacohen*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer and Dean, Sha'arey Mishpat 
Law College; Faculty of Law, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ELON, MENACHEM; PLANNING AND 
CONSTRUCTION; PUBLIC AUTHORITY; 
RIGHTS, HUMAN; SEPARATION OF 
POWERS; TAKKANOT HA-KAHAL 

Elisheva Hacohen*, LI.M.; 
Advocate, Ministry of Justice, 
Jerusalem: mediation 

Mordechai Hacohen, Rabbi; 
Author, Jerusalem: abramsky, 

YEHEZKEL; AMIEL, MOSHE AVIGDOR; 
EPSTEIN, BARUCH HA-LEVI; FINKEL, 
ELIEZER JUDAH; HUTNER, ISAAC; ISRAEL 
MEIR HA-KOHEN; ISRAEL, STATE OF: 
RELIGIOUS LIFE AND COMMUNITIES; 
KAHANEMAN, JOSEPH; KARELITZ, 
AVRAHAM YESHAYAHU; KASOVSKY, 
CHAYIM YEHOSHUA; KLUGER, SOLOMON 
BEN JUDAH AARON; KOTLER, AARON; 
LEIBOWITZ, BARUCH BER; MAISEL, ELIJAH 
HAYYIM; MEIR SIMHAH HA-KOHEN OF 
DVINSK; MELTZER, ISSER ZALMAN; RATH, 
MESHULLAM; SHAPIRA, MEIR; SHKOP, 
SIMEON JUDAH; SHVADRON, SHALOM 
MORDECAI BEN MOSES; SOLOVEICHIK; 
SOLOVEICHIK, HAYYIM; SOLOVEICHIK, 
JOSEPH BAER, OF VOLOZHIN; TIKTINSKI; 
WASSERMAN, ELHANAN BUNIM; 
WEINBERG, JEHIEL JACOB 

Shmuel Avidor Hacohen, 

Rabbi; Writer, Lecturer, Tel Aviv: 

SCHNEERSOHN, MENAHEM MENDEL 

Jesaia Hadari, Rabbi; Jerusalem 

Amnon Hadary, Ph.D.; Writer 
and Researcher, Jerusalem: Jewish 

AGENCY; ZIONIST CONGRESSES 

Gershon Hadas, B.A., Rabbi; 
Kansas City, Missouri: federbusch, 

SIMON; KANSAS CITY 

Gideon Hadas*, Ph.D.; 
Archaeologist, Director of Ein 
Gedi Oasis Excavations Delegation, 
Kibbutz Ein Gedi, Israel: en-gedi 

Pepita Haezrahi, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Philosophy, the Hebrew 



University of Jerusalem: bergson, 

HENRI LOUIS; BRUNSCHVICG, LEON 

Barbara Hahn*, Dr.Phil.; Professor, 
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 
Tennessee: salons 

Gerlinde Haid* : mautner, konrad 

Abraham Haim, M.A.; Assistant 
Lecturer, Department of Middle 
Eastern Studies, Tel Aviv University: 

ADJIMAN; AKRA; AMASIYA; ANTIOCH; 
AYDIN; CAPITULATIONS; CARMONA, 
BEKHOR ISAAC DAVID; DEHOK; FONSECA, 
DANIEL DE; HIT; ISTANBUL; IZMIT; JUBAR; 
KHANAQIN; KUFA; KUFA; MANISSA; 
MERSIN; SHAKI, ISAAC; SULEIMAN I; 
TOKAT 

Andre Hajdu, M.A., Lecturer in 
Music, Tel Aviv University and 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

HASIDISM; SZABOLCSI, BENCE 

Amos Hakham, B.A.; Researcher, 
Jerusalem: kittim 

Monika Halbinger*, M.A.; Ph.D. 
student; Chair for Jewish History 
and Culture, Ludwig-Maximilians- 
Universitat, Munich, Germany: 

GROSSMANN, KURT RICHARD; MARX, 
KARL; ROSENBERG, LUDWIG; ROSENTHAL, 
PHILIPP; SPRINGER, AXEL CAESAR; 
WEICHMANN, HERBERT; WEIGEL, 
HELENE 

Elimelech Epstein Halevy, M.A.; 
Visiting Senior Lecturer in Aggadah, 
Tel Aviv University: aaron; adam; 

ALEXANDER THE GREAT; AMALEKITES; 
AMRAM; BEZALEL; CAIN; ELI; HAGAR; 
ISAIAH; JEROBOAM; JOAB; JONAH, BOOK 
OF; JONATHAN; JOSHUA; NOAH 

David Weiss Halivni, D.H.L., 
Rabbi; Professor of Rabbinics, 
the Jewish Theological Seminary 
of America; Adjunct Professor of 
Religion, Columbia University, New 
York: zucker, moshe 

Abraham Solomon Halkin, Ph.D.; 
Emeritus Professor of History, the 
Jewish Theological Seminary of 
America, Jerusalem: aknin, Joseph 

BEN JUDAH BEN JACOB IBN; AMERICAN 
ACADEMY FOR JEWISH RESEARCH; 
AVENDAUTH; FINKEL, JOSHUA; IBN 
BARUN, ABU IBRAHIM ISAAC BEN 
JOSEPH IBN BENVENISTE; JEDAIAH 
BEN ABRAHAM BEDERSI; JUDEO- 
ARABIC LITERATURE; SAADIAH GAON; 



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SPIEGEL, SHALOM; TRANSLATION AND 
TRANSLATORS 

Hillel Halkin, M.A.; Jerusalem: 

AM OLAM; ARVEY, JACOB M.; ATRAN, 
FRANK Z.; BAMBERGER, BERNARD JACOB; 
ELKUS, ABRAM ISAAC; FALK; FISHER, 
MAX M.; FREEHOF, SOLOMON BENNETT; 
GREENBERG, HAYIM; GROSSINGER, 
JENNIE; HOWE, IRVING; HURWITZ, 
HENRY; JEWISH DAILY FORWARD; JEWISH 
DAY; JEWISH MORNING JOURNAL; 
KAHN, BERNARD; KANE, IRVING; 
LEHMAN, HERBERT HENRY; LIEBERMAN, 
ELIAS; MAILER, NORMAN; MENORAH 
ASSOCIATION AND MENORAH JOURNAL; 
NEW YORK CITY; NEWSPAPERS, HEBREW; 
RAYNER, ISIDOR; RICE, JAMES P.; ROSE, 
ERNESTINE POTOVSKY; ROSENBACH, 
ABRAHAM SIMON WOLF; SCHULMAN, 
SAMUEL; SHALOM, ISAAC L; SOCIALISM; 
SONNEBORN, RUDOLF GOLDSCHMIDT; 
STONE, DEWEY D.; SWIG, BENJAMIN 
HARRISON; TSUKUNFT; UNITED STATES 
LITERATURE; WOLF; YIDISHER 
KEMFER 

Moshe Hallamish, M.A.; Instructor 
in Jewish Philosophy, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ram at Gan: hayyim 

HAYKL BEN SAMUEL OF AMDUR; JACOB 
JOSEPH BEN ZEVI HA-KOHEN KATZ 
OF POLONNOYE; JEHIEL MICHAEL OF 
ZLOCZOW; JERUSALEM; JOSEPH BEN 
SHALOM ASHKENAZI; KORETS, PHINEHAS 
BEN ABRAHAM ABBA SHAPIRO OF; 
MOSES HAYYIM EPHRAIM OF SUDYLKOW; 
REUBEN HOESHKE BEN HOESHKE KATZ; 
ZEMAH, JACOB BEN HAYYIM 

Morris Halle, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Modern Languages, Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, Cambridge: 

JAKOBSON, ROMAN 

Eileen Hallet Stone*: utah 

William W. Hallo, Ph.D.; Professor 

of Assyriology and Curator 
of the Babylonian Collection, 
Yale University, New Haven, 
Connecticut: akkad; haran; 

MESOPOTAMIA 

Abraham Halperin, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Physics, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: new 

BRUNSWICK; NEW JERSEY 

Dan Halperin, B.A.; Economist and 
Journalist, Jerusalem 

Liora R. Halperin*, Ph.D.; Student 
Jewish History, University of 



California, Los Angeles, California: 

ROTH, JOEL 

Vladimir Seev Halperin, Ph.D.; 
Director of the World ORT Union, 
Geneva: ort; syngalowski, aron 

Baruch Halpern*, Ph.D.; Chaiken 
Family Chair of Jewish Studies; 
Professor of History; Classics and 
Ancient Mediterranean Studies, 
and Religious Studies, Penn State, 
University Park, Pennsylvania: david 

Israel Halpern, M.A.; Professor 
of Jewish History, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: Abraham 

BEN HAYYIM; ABRAHAM BEN JOSEPH OF 
LISSA; CZACKI, TADEUSZ; DEMBITZER, 
HAYYIM NATHAN; FORTIS, ABRAHAM 
ISAAC; FRENK, EZRIEL NATHAN; 
HANNOVER, NATHAN NATA; JAROSLAW; 
LEWIN, LOUIS; MEIR BEN SAMUEL OF 
SHCHERBRESHIN; SCHIPER, IGNACY 

Janice Halpern*, M.D.; Psychiatrist, 
University of Toronto, Toronto, 
Canada: freud, sigmund 

Joseph Halpern, M.A., Reverend; 
Educator and Writer, Ramat Gan, 
Israel: children's literature 

Lipman Halpern, M.D.; Professor 
of Neurology, the Hebrew 
University-Hadassah Medical 
School, Jerusalem: Goldstein, kurt 

Nikki Halpern*, Institut Charles V, 

Paris: steinbarg, eliezer 

Stanley Halpern*: GARY; san diego 

Ernest Hamburger, Ph.D.; Political 

Scientist, New York: arons, leo; 

BAERWALD, MORITZ; BARTHOLDY, JACOB; 
ROZIN, JOSEPH 

Reuven Hammer, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Department of Rabbinics, Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America; 
Dean of Jerusalem School and 
Director of Seminary of Judaic 
Studies, JTS, Jerusalem 

Liz Hamui (Halabe)*, Ph.D.; 
Professor in Social Science, 
Universidad Iberoamericana, 
Mexico City: Mexico 

Samuel (B.) Hand*, Ph.D.; 
Professor Emeritus, University of 
Vermont: rosenman, samuel 

IRVING 



Michael Handelsaltz, B.A.; Theater 
Critic, Book Review Editor, Haaretz, 
Tel Aviv: Israel, state of: cultural 
life 

Amy Handelsman*, B.A.; Producer, 
Writer, Los Angeles and New York: 

RUDNER, RITA; SABAN, HAIM; SANDLER, 
ADAM RICHARD; SINGER, BRYAN; STAR, 
DARREN; STILLER, BEN; TOBACK, JAMES; 
WANAMAKER, SAM 

Joelle Hansel*, Ph.D.; Lecturer, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

LUZZATTO, MOSES HAYYIM 

Nelly Hansson*, Ph.D.; Executive 
Director, Fondation du judaisme 
fran^ais, Paris, France: klein, 

THEODORE; LEVY, BERNARD-HENRI; 
MUSEE DART ET D'HISTOIRE DU 
JUDAISME; VEIL, SIMONE 

Menahem Haran, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of Bible, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

AMOS; HOLINESS CODE; MENORAH; 
NEHUSHTAN; POOR, PROVISION FOR 
THE; PRIESTLY VESTMENTS; PRIESTS AND 
PRIESTHOOD; PROVERB; SHEWBREAD; 
VATKE, WILHELM; WETTE, DE, WILHELM 
MARTIN LEBERECHT; WINCKLER, 
HUGO 

Yuval Harari*, Ph.D.; Lecturer, 
Hebrew Literature - Program of 
Folklore Studies, Ben-Gurion 
University of the Negev, Beersheba: 

MAGIC 

Israel Harburg, B.A., Rabbi; Lynn, 
Massachusetts 

Shoshana Hareli, M.A.; Haifa: 

MO'EZET HA-POALOT; PIONEER WOMEN 

Shulamith Hareven, Writer, 

Jerusalem: potok, chaim 

Yehoshafat Harkabi, Ph.D.; 
Major General (Res.), Israel 
Defense Forces; Senior Lecturer 
in International Relations and 
Middle Eastern Studies, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem 

Angela Kim Harkins*, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor of Theology, 
Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, 
Pennsylvania: bible, ancient 

TRANSLATIONS, LATIN 

Franklin T. Harkins*, Ph.D.; Lilly 
Fellow and Lecturer in Theology, 



94 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume i 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Valparaiso University, Indiana: bible, 

ANCIENT TRANSLATIONS, LATIN 

Jules Harlow, Rabbi; Director of 
Publications, Rabbinical Assembly 
of America 

Isaac Harpaz, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Agricultural 
Entomology, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: avidov, zvl, hannover, 

NATHAN NATA 

Nisan Harpaz, Chairman, Brit Ivrit 
Olamit 

Jay Harris'*': band, Arnold; berger, 

DAVID; BIALE, DAVID; BOYARIN, DANIEL; 
CARLEBACH, ELISHEVA; CHAZAN, 
ROBERT; COHEN, SHAYE J. D. 

Lucien Harris, M.A.; Hadassah 
Medical Organization, Jerusalem: 

FEIGENBAUM, ARYEH; MICHAELSON, 
ISAAC CHESAR 

Monford Harris, D.H.L.; Professor 

of Religious Studies, the University 
of Toronto: herberg, will 

Laszlo Harsanyi, D.L.; Historian, 

Budapest: baja; balassagyarmat-, 

BODROGKERESZTUR; KOSZEG; LIPSHITZ, 
ISRAEL; MISKOLC; NYIREGYHAZA; 
PAPA 

Michael Harsgor, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Aranne School of History, Tel Aviv 
University: Portugal 

Judah Harstein*, B.Sc; Head of 
Jewish Education, World ORT, 
London, England: ort 

Alexander Hart*, Ph.D.; Lecturer, 
University of British Columbia, 
Vancouver, Canada: Michaels, anne; 

STEINFELD, J.J. 

David Hartman, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Director, Shalom Hartman Institute, 
Jerusalem 

Geoffrey H. Hartman, Ph.D.; 
Professor of English and 
Comparative Literature, Yale 
University, New Haven, Connecticut 

Harriet Hartman*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Sociology, Rowan University, 
Glassboro, New Jersey: sociology; 

STEINEM, GLORIA 

Heinz Hartman, M.D.; Physician, 



Syracuse, New York: sandmel, 

SAMUEL 

Louis F. Hartman, L.S.S., L.O.L.; 
Professor of Semitic and Egyptian 
Languages and Literatures, the 
Catholic University of America, 
Washington, D.C.: eschatology; 

GOD, NAMES OF 

Steven Harvey*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Philosophy, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: averroes 

Warren Zev Harvey*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Jewish Thought, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

CRESCAS, HASDAI BEN JUDAH; IBN 
SHEM TOV, ISAAC BEN SHEM TOV; IBN 
SHEM TOV, SHEM TOV; IBN SHEM TOV, 
SHEM TOV BEN JOSEPH BEN SHEM TOV; 
PHILOSOPHY, JEWISH 

Galit Hasan-Rockem, B.A.; 
Assistant in Hebrew Literature, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

FABLE 

Wendy Haslem*, Ph.D.; Lecturer, 
Cinema Studies, University of 
Melbourne: deren, maya 

Isaac Hasson*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: Jerusalem; jihad; 

UMAYYADS 

Shlomo Hasson, B.A.; Jerusalem: 

AKABA; HADERAH; HAZOR; HOLON; 
KIRYAT ONO; LYDDA; MIZPEH RAMON; 
NETANYAH; OR AKIVA; PETAH TIKVAH; 
RAMLEH; ROSH HA-AYIN; SHARM EL- 
SHEIKH, TIRAN ISLAND, and TIRAN 
STRAITS; SHEFARAM; SODOM AND 
GOMORRAH; 'USIFIYYA; YEHUD; 
YEROHAM 

■ 

Theodore Hatalgui, M.A.; the 
Jewish National Fund, Jerusalem: 

GRANOTT, ABRAHAM; GRANOTT, 
ABRAHAM 

Susan Hattis Rolef*, Ph.D.; 
Senior Researcher in the Knesset 
Information Division, The Knesset, 
Jerusalem: ahdut ha-avodah-poalei 

ZION; ALLON, YIGAL; ALMOGI, YOSEF 
AHARON; ALONI, SHULAMIT; AMIT, MEIR; 
ARID OR, YORAM; AVNERY URI; BARAK, 
EHUD; BARAM, MOSHE; BARAM, UZI; 
BARKAT, REUVEN; BAR-LEV, HAIM; BEGIN, 
MENAHEM; BEGIN, ZE'EV BINYAMIN; 
BEILIN, YOSSI; BEN-AHARON, YITZHAK; 
BEN-ELIEZER, BINYAMIN; BEN-GURION, 



DAVID; BEN-PORAT, MORDEKHAI; 
BENTOV, MORDEKHAI; BERIT SHALOM; 
BI-NATIONALISM; BURG, AVRAHAM; 
BURG, JOSEPH; COHEN, GEULAH; DAYAN, 
MOSHE; DAYAN, YAEL; DEMOCRATIC 
MOVEMENT FOR CHANGE; DERI, ARYEH; 
EHRLICH, SIMHA; EITAN, RAPHAEL; 
ELDAD, ISRAEL; ELIAV, ARIE LOVA; 
ESHKOL, LEVI; GAHAL; GALILI, ISRAEL; 
GENERAL ZIONISTS; GRUENBAUM, 
YIZHAK; GUR, MORDECAI; HACOHEN, 
DAVID; HAMMER, ZEVULUN; HAZAN, 
YAAKOV; HERUT MOVEMENT; HERZOG, 
CHAIM; HILLEL, SHLOMO; HURWITZ, 
YIGAEL; IDELSON, BEBA; INDEPENDENT 
LIBERAL PARTY; ISRAEL LABOR PARTY; 
ISRAEL, STATE OF: POLITICAL LIFE AND 
PARTIES; ITZIK, DALIA; JOSEPH, DOV; 
KACH; KAPLAN, ELIEZER; KATZAV, 
MOSHE; KESSAR, ISRAEL; KHOUSHI, 
ABBA; KNESSET; KOL, MOSHE; KOLLEK, 
TEDDY; LAHAT, SHLOMO; LAPID, JOSEPH; 
LAVON AFFAIR, THE; LAVON, PINHAS; 
LEVY, DAVID; LIBAI, DAVID; LIKUD; 
LIVNAT, LIMOR; LOPOLIANSKY, URI; LUZ, 
KADISH; MAIMON, ADA; MAPAI; MAPAM; 
MEIR, GOLDA; MERETZ; MERIDOR, DAN; 
MESHEL, YERUHAM; MILO, RONI; NAMIR, 
MORDECHAI; NAMIR, ORA; NATIONAL 
RELIGIOUS PARTY; NAVON, ITZHAK; 
NE'EMAN, YUVAL; NIR-RAFALKES, 
NAHUM; NUROCK, MORDECHAI; PATL, 
MEIR; PATT, GIDEON; PERES, SHIMON; 
PERETZ, AMIR; POALEI AGUDAT YISRAEL; 
POALEI AGUDAT YISRAEL; PORUSH, 
MENACHEM; RABIN, YITZHAK; RAMON, 
HAIM; RAPHAEL, YITZHAK; REMEZ, 
MOSHE DAVID; RUBINSTEIN, AMNON; 
SAPIR, PINHAS; SHAHAL, MOSHE; 
SHALOM, SILVAN; SHAMIR, YITZHAK; 
SHARANSKY, NATAN; SHARETT, MOSHE; 
SHARON, ARIEL; SHAS; SHAZAR, SHNEUR 
ZALMAN; SHEETRIT, MEIR; SHEM-TOV, 
VICTOR; SHERF, ZE'EV; SHINUI; SHOHAT, 
AVRAHAM BEIGA; SNEH, MOSHE; 
SPRINZAK, JOSEPH; TABENKIN, YIZHAK; 
TAMIR, SHMUEL; TSABAN, YATR; TSOMET; 
WEIZMAN, EZER; YAACOBI, GAD; YAARI, 
MEIR; YAARI, MEIR; YADIN, YIGAEL; 
YELLIN-MOR, NATHAN; YESHAYAHU- 
SHARABI, ISRAEL; ZADOK, HAIM JOSEPH; 
ZE'EVI, REHAVAM 

G. Eric Hauck, B.A.; Journalist, 

New York: lerner, alan jay; 

THALBERG, IRVING GRANT; WYLER, 
WILLIAM 

Yehuda Martin Hausman*, B.A., 
M.A.; Rabbinic Student, Yeshiva 
Chovevei Torah, Rabbinic Seminary, 
Los Angeles: abrams, elliott; 

ABRAMS, ROBERT; ARONSON, ARNOLD; 
BOOKBINDER, HYMAN H. 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Meir Havazelet, Ph.D., D.H.L., 
Rabbi; Professor of Rabbinic 
Literature and of Bible, Yeshiva 
University, New York: abba; hanina 

KAHANA BEN HUNA; JACOB HA-KOHEN 
BAR MORDECAI; JOSEPH BAR ABBA; 
JOSEPH BAR HIYYA; KOHEN-ZEDEK BAR 
IVOMAI; MEIR BAAL HA-NES, TOMB 
OF; NAHSHON BAR ZADOK; NATRONAI 
BAR HILAI; NATRONAI BAR NEHEMIAH; 
PALTOI BAR ABBAYE; RABBAH; SAR 
SHALOM BEN BOAZ; SHERIRA BEN 
HANINA GAON; ZADOK BAR MAR YISHI; 
ZEMAH BEN HAYYIM; ZEMAH BEN PALTOI 

• • • • • 

Shlomoh Zalman Havlin, Rabbi; 
Research Assistant, the Institute for 
Research in Jewish Law, the Hebrew 

University of Jerusalem: aaron 

BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN OF LUNEL; ANAV, 
JEHIEL BEN JEKUTHIEL BEN BENJAMIN 
HA-ROFE; ANAV, JUDAH BEN BENJAMIN 
HA-ROFE; ELISHA BEN ABRAHAM; 
GERSHOM BEN SOLOMON; HADRAN; 
HAGGAHOT; HAGGAHOT MAIMUNIYYOT; 
HA-HINNUKH; HANANEL BEN SAMUEL; 
HEZEKIAH BEN JACOB; ISAAC BEN 
ABRAHAM; ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM OF 
NARBONNE; ISAAC BEN ASHER HA- 
LEVI; ISAAC BEN JACOB HA-LAVAN OF 
PRAGUE; ISAAC BEN JUDAH OF MAINZ; 
ISAAC BEN MEIR; ISAAC BEN MERWAN 
HA-LEVI; ISAAC BEN MORDECAI; ISAAC 
BEN MOSES OF VIENNA; ISAAC BEN 
TODROS OF BARCELONA; ISAAC FROM 
OURVILLE; JACOB BEN NISSIM IBN 
SHAHIN; JUDAH BEN ISAAC; KOKHAVI, 
DAVID BEN SAMUEL; KOL BO; LUBETZKY, 
JUDAH; MANOAH OF NARBONNE; MEIR 
BEN SIMEON HA-METLI; MESHULLAM BEN 
JACOB OF LUNEL; PARDO, DAVID SAMUEL 
BEN JACOB; PERAHYAH BEN NISSIM; 
SAMSON BEN ABRAHAM OF SENS; SARDI, 
SAMUEL BEN ISAAC; SCHLETTSTADT, 
SAMUEL BEN AARON; SIMHAH BEN 
SAMUEL OF SPEYER 

Christine (Elizabeth) Hayes*, 

Ph.D.; Professor of Religious Studies 
in Classical Judaica, Yale University, 
New Haven, Connecticut: purity 

AND IMPURITY, RITUAL 

Saul Hayes, M.A., Q.C.; Executive 
Vice President of the Canadian 
Jewish Congress; Lecturer in Social 
Work, McGill University, Montreal 

Yaakov Arie Hazan, Member of 
the Knesset; Kibbutz Mishmar ha- 
Emek: kibbutz movement 

Aviva Hazaz, M.A.; Jerusalem: 

HAZAZ, HAYYIM 



David Hazony*, M.A.; Editor 
in Chief of the Journal Azure, 
The Shalem Center, Jerusalem: 

BERKOVITS, ELIEZER 

Barth Healey, B.A.; Journalist, 

New York: friendly, fred w.; jessel, 

GEORGE ALBERT 

Lee Healey, New York: nichols, 

MIKE; ROSE, BILLY; SELLERS, PETER; 
STREISAND, BARBRA; TUCKER, SOPHIE; 
ZIEGFELD, FLORENZ 

Ernest Hearst, Editor, Wiener 
Library, London: neo-fascism; neo- 
nazism; NEW LEFT 

Jacob Heilbrunn*, M.A.; Editorial 

Writer, Los Angeles Times \ 
Washington, D.C.: bell, daniel; 

KRISTOL, IRVING; KRISTOL, WILLIAM 

Samuel C. Heilman, Ph.D.; 
Professor, holder of the Harold 
Proshansky Chair in Jewish Studies 
Graduate Center of the City 
University of New York: feuerstein; 

HAREDIM 

Joseph Heinemann, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Hebrew Literature, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

AMIDAH; ANTISEMITISM; LEVITICUS 
RABBAH; NAHSHON; PREACHING; RED 
SEA; ZECHARIAH; ZENTRALE STELLE DER 
LANDESJUSTIZVERWALTUNGEN 

Dirk Heisserer*, Dr. Phil.; Scientist 
of Literature, LMU, Munich: mann, 

THOMAS 

Petra Heldt*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History of the Church in the 
East and the Early Writings of the 
Church, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: origen 

Leonardo Hellemberg, Managua, 

Nicaragua: Nicaragua 

Bernard Heller, Ph.D., Rabbi; New 

York: adam 

Joseph Elijah Heller, Dr.Phil.; 
Encyclopaedia Judaica (Germany); 
Lecturer in Hebrew, University 
College, London: andrade, velosino 

JACOB DE; BALMES, ABRAHAM BEN 
MEIR DE; BERLIN, DAVID BEN LOEB; 
CAMPEN, JOHANNES VAN; CARDOZO, 
ISAAC; CARVALHO, MORDECAI BARUCH; 
COHN, LEOPOLD; CUENQUE, ABRAHAM 
BEN LEVI; DAVID BEN SAUL; DENIS, 



ALBERTUS; FRANCK, ADOLPHE; FRANKEL, 
ZACHARIAS; FREUDENTHAL, JACOB; 
GAFFAREL, JACQUES; GERONDI, MOSES 
BEN SOLOMON D'ESCOLA; GERONDI, 
ZERAHIAH BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI; HAAS, 
SOLOMON BEN JEKUTHIEL KAUFMANN; 
HESS, MENDEL; HOECHHEIMER, MOSES 
BEN HAYYIM COHEN; ISRAEL BEN 
BENJAMIN OF BELZEC; ISRAEL BEN 
JONATHAN FROM LECZYCA; JACOB BEN 
MORDECAI OF SCHWERIN; KAHANA, 
ABRAHAM ARYEH LEIB BEN SHALOM 
SHAKHNA; KARAITES; KARGAU, 
MENAHEM MENDEL BEN NAPHTALI 
HIRSCH; KOENIGSBERGER, BERNHARD; 
LANDAUER, MEYER HEINRICH HIRSCH; 
LEUSDEN, JOHANN; LUTHER, MARTIN; 
MOSES BEN MENAHEM GRAF 

Kathryn Hellerstein*, Ph.D.; 
Ruth Meltzer Senior Lecturer 
in Yiddish and Jewish Studies, 
Department of Germanic Languages 
and Literatures, University of 
Pennsylvania: dropkin, celia; 

MARGOLIN, ANNA; MOLODOWSKY, KADIA 

Sara O. Heller- Wilensky, Ph.D.; 

Associate Professor of Jewish 
Philosophy, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan, Tel Aviv University, and 
Haifa University: arama, isaac ben 

MOSES 

Yehuda Heilman, Executive 
Director of the Conference of 
Presidents of Major American 
Jewish Organizations; Secretary 
General of the World Conference 
of Jewish Organizations, New 
York: world conference of Jewish 

ORGANIZATIONS 

Melila Hellner-Eshed*, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer, Jewish Studies, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: zohar 

Marilyn Henry*, M.P.A., M.A.; 
Journalist, Teaneck, New Jersey: 

CONFERENCE ON JEWISH MATERIAL 
CLAIMS AGAINST GERMANY 

Dana Herman*, B.A., M.A.; 
Doctoral Candidate, McGill 
University, Montreal, Canada: 

JEWISH CULTURAL RECONSTRUCTION 
INC. 

Jan Herman, Ph.D.; State Jewish 

Museum, Prague: benesov Bohemia; 

GOLCUV JENIKOV; HERMANUV MESTEC; 
HROZNETIN; JOSEPH II; KADAN; 
KASEJOVICE; KLATOVY; KOSOVA HORA; 
LIBEREC; LITOMERICE; LOUNY; MLADA 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



BOLESLAV; MOST; NOVY BYDZOV; PILSEN; 
POLNA; PRAGUE; ROUDNICE NAD LABEM; 
SOBEDRUHY; TABOR; TEPLICE; TURNOV; 
UDLICE; USTEK; VOTICE; ZATEC 

Zvi Herman, Rabbi; Former 
Member of the Jewish Agency 
Executive; Former Managing 
Director of the Zim Israel 
Navigation Company, Haifa: zim 

Zvi Hermon, Dr.Phil., Rabbi; 
Adjunct Professor of Criminology 
and Corrections, Center for the 
Study of Crime, Delinquency, 
and Corrections, Southern 
Illinois University, Carbondale: 

ABRAHAMSEN, DAVID; ALEXANDER, 
FRANZ; CRIME; CRIMINOLOGY; 
DRAPKIN, ISRAEL; EATON, JOSEPH W.; 
FRIEDLANDER, KATE; GLUECK, SHELDON; 
GRUENHUT, MAX; GUNZBURG, NIKO; 
GUTTMACHER, MANFRED; HENRIQUES; 
HURWITZ, STEPHAN; KROSS, ANNA; 
LOMBROSO, CESARE; MANNHEIM, 
HERMANN; SCHAFER, STEPHEN 

Moshe David Herr, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Jewish History, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: age and 

THE AGED; AGGADAT BERESHIT; 
ALBECK; ANTIGONUS OF SOKHO; 
APTOWITZER, VICTOR; AVODAH ZARAH; 
BANETH; BAVA MEZIA; BRUELL; BRUELL, 
JACOB; CHURCH FATHERS; DAY OF 
ATONEMENT; DEUTERONOMY RABBAH; 
ECCLESIASTES RABBAH; EDOM; ESAU; 
ESTHER RABBAH; EXODUS RABBAH; 
FASTING AND FAST DAYS; FESTIVALS; 
GENESIS RABBAH; GUTMANN, JOSHUA; 
GUTTMANN, MICHAEL; HANANIAH BEN 
TERADYON; HANUKKAH; HOFFMANN, 
DAVID ZEVI; HOROVITZ, SAUL; JABNEH; 
JACOB OF KEFAR SAKHNAYYA; JOSHUA 
BEN KORHA; JOSHUA BEN PERAHYAH; 
JUDAH BEN BAVA; JUDAH BEN TABBAI; 
JUDAH BEN TEMA; LAMENTATIONS 
RABBAH; MIDRASHIM, SMALLER; 
MIDRESHEI AGGADAH; MINHAG; 
MONOGAMY; NUMBERS RABBAH; PIRKEI 
DE-RABBI ELIEZER; PROSTITUTION; 
ROME; SHAMMAI; TEN MARTYRS, THE; 
THEODOR, JULIUS; TRAJAN, MARCUS 
ULPIUS; URBACH, EPHRAIM ELIMELECH; 
WEISS, ISAAC HIRSCH; YOSE BEN JOEZER 
OF ZEREDAH; YOSE BEN JOHANAN HA- 
TANNA OF JERUSALEM; YOSE BEN 
KISMA; YOSE BEN ZIMRA; ZIEGLER, 
IGNAZ; ZUCKERMANDEL, MOSES 
SAMUEL 

Eli Herscher*, M.A.H.L., Rabbi; 
Stephen S. Wise Temple, Los 
Angeles: zeldin, isaiah 



Lucian-Zeev Herscovici*, M.A.; 
Historian; Librarian, Jewish 
National and University Library, 
Jerusalem: adam ; aderca, felix; 

ARTZI, YITZHAK; AXELRAD, AVRAM; 
BACAU; BALLY, DAVICION; BALLY, 
ISAAC DAVID; BALTAZAR, CAMIL; 
BANUS, MARIA; BARANGA, AUREL; 
BARASCH, JULIUS; BARLAD; BERLIAND, 
SHLOMO MEIR; BLANK, MAURICE; 
BOTOSANI; BRAILA; BRESLASU, MARCEL; 
BUCHAREST; BUHUSI; BURDUJENI; 
BUZAU; C.D.E.; CAJAL, NICOALE; CALIN, 
VERA; CAMPULUNG MOLDOVENESC; 
CARP, HORIA; CONSTANTA; CRAIOVA; 
DARABANI; DOMINIC, ALEXANDRU; 
DORIAN, DOREL; DOROHOI; EGALITATEA; 
FALTICENI; FERARU, LEON; FOCSANI; 
GALATI; GASTON-MARIN, GHEORGHE; 
GERTSA; GHELERTER, LUDWIG 
LITMAN; GRAUR, CONSTANTIN; GURA- 
HUMORULUI; HAIMOVICI, MENDEL; 
HARLAU; HASEFER; HEFTER, ALFRED; 
HUSI; LAVI, THEODOR; LUCA, B.; 
ROMANIA 

Leo Hershkowitz, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of History, Queens 
College of the City University of 
New York: Abrahams, Abraham 

ISAAC; ABRAHAMS, ISAAC; BARSIMSON, 
JACOB; BROWN, SAUL PARDO; BUSH, 
SOLOMON; DE LUCENA; FRANKS, DAVID; 
FRANKS, DAVID SALISBURY; FRANKS, 
JACOB; GOMEZ; GRATZ; ISAACS, JOSEPH; 
JOSEPHSON, MANUEL; KURSHEEDT, 
ISRAEL BAER; LEVY, AARON; LEVY, ASSER; 
LEVY, HAYMAN; LEVY, MOSES; MYERS, 
MORDECAI; NATHAN; NATHAN; NEW 
YORK CITY; NOAH, MORDECAI MANUEL; 
PACHECO, RODRIGO BENJAMIN MENDES; 
PINTO, ISAAC; SALOMON, HAYM; SEIXAS; 
WAGG, ABRAHAM 

Zvi Yehuda Hershlag, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Economic History 
and the Economics of Developing 
Countries, Tel Aviv University: 

BONNE, ALFRED ABRAHAM 

Eli Herstein*, Publisher, Yanshuf 
Publishing, Zur Moshe, Israel: 

SCIENCE FICTION AND FANTASY, JEWISH 

Deborah Hertz*, Ph.D.; Wouk 
Chair in Modern Jewish Studies, 
University of California at San 
Diego: mendelssohn-veit-schlegel, 

DOROTHEA; VARNHAGEN, RAHEL LEVIN 

Arthur Hertzberg, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Associate Adjunct Professor of 
History, Columbia University, New 

York: ANTISEMITISM; ASSIMILATION; 



BARON, SALO WITTMAYER; DEISTS; 
FRENCH REVOLUTION; JEWISH IDENTITY; 
MONTESQUIEU, CHARLES LOUIS DE 
SECONDAT, BARON DE LA BREDE ET DE; 
NUMERUS CLAUSUS; ZIONISM 

Abel Jacob Her zb erg, Dr.Jur.; 

Attorney, Amsterdam: vughT; 

WESTERBORK 

Avigdor (Yitshaq) Herzog*, M.A.; 
Lecturer in Jewish Traditional 
Music, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat 
Gan: adon olam; ahot ketannah; 

INDIA; PSALMS, BOOK OF; SCROLLS, THE 
FIVE 

Chaim Herzog, LL.B.; Major 
General (Res.), Israel Defense 
Forces; Military Commentator and 
Business Executive, Tel Aviv: Israel, 

STATE OF: DEFENSE FORCES; SIX-DAY 
WAR; YOM KIPPUR WAR 

Abraham Joshua Heschel, 

Ph.D., Rabbi; Professor of Jewish 
Ethics and Mysticism, the Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America, 
New York 

Susannah Heschel*, Ph.D.; 
Professor Dartmouth College, 
Hanover, New Hampshire: feminism; 

GEIGER, ABRAHAM; LILITH 

Irene Heskes, Musicologist, New 
York: records, phonograph 

Moshe Hesky, Dr.Jur.; Former 
Adviser, Philatelic Services, Israel 
Ministry of Posts; England: stamps 

Carolyn Hessel* : Jewish book 

COUNCIL, THE 

R. (Renate) Heuer*, Dr.Phil.; 
Director, Archiv Bibliographia 
Judaica, Johann Wolfgang Goethe- 
Universitat, Frankfurt, Germany: 

REICHER, EMANUEL 

Andreas Heusler*, Dr.Phil., 
M.A.; Senior Scholar, Munich 
City Archives, Munich, Germany: 

MERZBACHER, GOTTFRIED; NEUMEYER, 
ALFRED; NEUMEYER, KARL 

Viveka Heyman, M.A.; Teacher 
in Swedish, Tel Aviv University: 

JOSEPHSON; SCANDINAVIAN 
LITERATURE 

Michael Heymann, Ph.D.; Director 
of the Central Zionist Archives, 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Jerusalem: hantke, Arthur; herlitz, 

GEORG 

Zalman Heyn, Ministry of Labor, 

Jerusalem: Israel, state of: labor 

Eugene B. Hibshman, B.A., B.H., 
Rabbi; Sioux Falls, South Dakota 

Alter Hilewitz, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Principal, Hebrew Teachers Training 
College and Hebrew Training 
College for Ministers and Rabbis, 
Johannesburg, South Africa: ahai; 

ELIEZER BEN YOSE HA-GELILI; HOSHAIAH, 
RAV 

Joe Hillaby*, President Elect, Jewish 
Historical Society of England, 
Honorary Research Fellow, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

AARON OF YORK; ARCHA; BRISTOL; 
BURY ST. EDMUNDS; CANTERBURY; 
COLCHESTER; ROBERT OF READING; 
WINCHESTER; WORCESTER 

Delbert Roy Hillers, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Semitic Languages, 
Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore: burial; demons, 

DEMONOLOGY 

Shmuel Himelstein*, Rabbi, Dr.; 
Writer, Translator, Editor, Jerusalem: 

LICHTENSTEIN, AHARON 

Maurice Gerschon Hindus, MS.; 

Writer, New York: fischer, louis 

Milton Henry Hindus, M.S.; 
Professor of English, Brandeis 
University, Waltham, Massachusetts: 

DAHLBERG, EDWARD; DAVENPORT, 
MARCIA; FIEDLER, LESLIE AARON; 
FREEMAN, JOSEPH; GOLDEN, HARRY 
LEWIS; GOODMAN, PAUL; KAZIN, ALFRED; 
KRONENBERGER, LOUIS; KUNITZ, 
STANLEY JASSPON; MALTZ, ALBERT; 
ORNITZ, SAMUEL BADISCH; ROTH, PHILIP 
MILTON; SALINGER, JEROME DAVID; 
UNITED STATES LITERATURE 

Edith Hirsch, M.A.; Economist and 

Teacher, New York: feiler, Arthur; 

TIETZ; WERTHEIM 

Frederik Jacob Hirsch, B.A.; 
Librarian, Haifa: cohen, benjamin; 

HARTOG, LEVIE DE; HILLESUM, JEREMIAS; 
HOND, MEIJER DE; NEUBAUER, JACOB; 
ROEST, MEIJER MARCUS; TUNIS, TUNISIA; 
WAGENAAR, LION 

Joseph Hirsch, Ph.D., Chaplain, 



U.S. Armed Forces, Okinawa: 

WIERNIK, PETER 

Mark D. Hirsch, Ph.D.; Professor of 
History, Bronx Community College, 
New York: duberman, martin b. 

Richard Hirsch, Rabbi; Hebrew 
Union College-Jewish Institute of 

Religion, Jerusalem: eisenstein, ira; 

ISRAEL, STATE OF: RELIGIOUS LIFE AND 
COMMUNITIES; RECONSTRUCTIONISM; 
ROSENSTOCK-HUESSY, EUGEN 

Alfred Hirschberg, Dr.Jur.; Director 
of the Confederacy Israelita de 
Brasil, National Director of B'nai 
B rith of Brazil, Sao Paulo: klabin; 

LAFER, HORACIO 

Eliyahu Hirschberg, M.Jur., M.Ph.; 

Jerusalem: nawi; nehar pekod; niego, 

JOSEPH 

Haim Z'ew Hirschberg, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Professor of Jewish History, 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

AGGADAH; AHL AL-KITAB; ALAWIDS; 
ARABIA; ASHURA; AYYUBIDS; BALAAM; 
BENJAMIN; BIBLE; CANAAN; COMMUNITY; 
DANIEL; DAVID; ELIJAH; ELISHA; ENOCH; 
ESCHATOLOGY; EVE; EZEKIEL; EZRA; 
FRANCOS; GOLIATH; GORNI; HABIL; 
HADITH; HAKHAM BASHI; HAMAN; 
HANIF; HIMYAR; HUD; HUESCA; ISAAC; 
ISAIAH; ISHMAEL; ISLAM; ISRAEL, 
LAND OF: HISTORY; ISRAELITE; JACOB; 
JEREMIAH; JERUSALEM; JETHRO; JIHAD; 
JOB, THE BOOK OF; JONAH, BOOK OF; 
JOSEPH; JOSHUA; KAKHYA; KAMNIEL, ABU 
AL-HASAN MEIR IBN; KORAH; LEBANON; 
LEVI DELLA VIDA, GIORGIO; LIBYA; LOT; 
MADRID; MAGHREBI-MAARAVI; MILLET; 
MIRIAM; MOCHA; MOSES; MUSTA'RAB, 
MUSTA'RABS; NEBUCHADNEZZAR; 
NIMROD; NOAH; OTTOMAN EMPIRE; 
PALACHE; PHARAOH; POTIPHAR; 
SALADIN; SAMARITANS; SAMUEL; 
SARRAF; SETH; SOLOMON; TARAGAN, 
BEN-ZION; TEHERAN; TERAH; TRIPOLI; 
TURKEY; UMAYYA IBN ABl AL-SALT 

Richard S. Hirschhaut*, B.A.; 
International Relations and Judaic 
Studies, Project and Executive 
Director, Illinois Holocaust Museum 
and Education Center; Former 
Midwest Director, Anti-Defamation 
League: foxman, Abraham 

Gertrude Hirschler, B.S.; Editor, 

New York: pioneer women 

Jehoash Hirshberg*, Ph.D.; 



Professor of Musicology, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ALEXANDER, HAIM; AVNI, TZEVI; BEN- 
HAIM, PAUL; BUKOFZER, MANFRED; 
GELBRUN, ARTUR; GRADENWITZ, PETER 
EMANUEL; HARRAN, DON; HAUSER, EMIL; 
HOLDHEIM, THEODORE; LOWINSKY, 
EDWARD ELIAS; MAAYANI, AMI; MUSIC; 
OLIVERO, BETTY; ORGAD, BEN ZION; 
SCHIDLOWSKY, LEON; TAL, JOSEF; 
TISCHLER, HANS; YELLIN-BENTWICH, 
THELMA 

Yair Hirshfeld, Ph.D.; Shiloah 
Center, University of Tel Aviv 

Aron Hirt-Manheimer*, M.A.; 
Doctor of Jewish Religious 
Education; Editor Reform Judaism 
Magazine, Union for Reform 
Judaism, New York: wiesel, elie; 

YOFFIE, ERIC H. 

Philip D. Hobsbaum, L.R.A.M., 
L.G.S.M., Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
English Literature, the University of 
Glasgow: meyerstein, edward harry 

WILLIAM; PINTER, HAROLD; SHAFFER, 
SIR PETER; SILKIN, JON; WALEY, ARTHUR; 
WESKER, ARNOLD; WOLFE, HUMBERT 

Jerome (Jerry) Hochbaum*, Ph.D.; 
Executive Vice President, Memorial 
Foundation for Jewish Culture, New 
York: memorial foundation for 

JEWISH CULTURE 

Nathan Hochberg, M.Sc; 
Agronomist, Tel Aviv: wine and 

LIQUOR TRADE 

Joseph Hodara, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Latin American History, the 
National Autonomous University of 

Mexico, Mexico City: cordoba 

Sidney B. Hoenig, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Jewish History, Yeshiva 
University, New York: belkin, 

SAMUEL; REVEL, BERNARD; ZEITLIN, 
SOLOMON 

Miriam Hoexter*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor (retired), the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: ibAdis 

Harold von Hofe, Ph.D.; Professor 
of German Literature, the University 
of Southern California, Los Angeles: 

MARCUSE, LUDWIG 

Frederick J. Hoffman, The 

University of California, Riverside: 

STEIN, GERTRUDE 



98 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Shlomo Hofman, D.Litt.; Lecturer 
in the History of Music, Tel Aviv 
University - Rubin Academy of 

Music: KARAITES; SAMARITANS 

Menachem Hofnung*, Ph.D.; 
Senior Lecturer, Department of 
Political Science, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: barak, 

AHARON 

S.H. Holland: welsh, Arthur l. 

Svend Holm-Nielsen, Dr.Theol.; 
Professor of Old Testament, 
Copenhagen University: 

THANKSGIVING PSALMS 

J. Edwin Holmstrom, Ph.D., 
C.Eng.; Folkestone, England: 

AYRTON, HERTHA; FRANCK, JAMES; 
FRENKEL, JACOB ILICH; GABOR, DENNIS; 
GOLDSTEIN, EUGEN; HECHT, SELIG; 
HERTZ, GUSTAV; INFELD, LEOPOLD; 
OPPENHEIMER, J. ROBERT; SEGRE, 
EMILIO GINO; SIMON, SIR FRANCIS 
EUGENE 

Avraham Holtz, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Associate Professor of Modern 
Hebrew Literature, the Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America, 
New York: Patterson, david 

Barry W. Holtz*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Jewish Education, Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America, 
New York: dorph, sheldon; 

ETTENBERG, SYLVIA CUTLER; MELTON, 
FLORENCE; RAUCH, EDUARDO 

Avner Holtzman, Ph.D.; Lecturer, 
Department of Hebrew Literature, 
Tel Aviv University: Hebrew 

LITERATURE, MODERN 

Livnat Holtzman*, Ph.D.; 
Instructor and Researcher in the 
Department of Arabic, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: kalAm 

Ari Hoogenboom, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History, Brooklyn College of the 
City University of New York: unger, 

IRWIN 

EJ. Hoogewoud*, M.A.; Former 
Deputy Curator Bibliotheca 
Rosenthaliana, Amsterdam 
University Library, The Netherlands: 

BEEK, MARTINUS ADRIANUS; BOAS, 
HENRIETTE; PRAAG, SIEGFRIED 
EMANUEL VAN; PRINS, LIEPMAN PHILIP; 
SEELIGMANN, ISAC LEO 



Bernard Hooker, B.A., Rabbi; 
Kingston, Jamaica: hart, daniel; 

STERN, PHILIP COHEN 

Doreet Hopp*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer, State Teachers College- 
Seminar Hakibbutzim; Tel Aviv 
University: yehoshua, avraham b. 

Jens Hoppe*, Ph.D.; Historian, 
Conference of Jewish Material 
Claims against Germany, Office 
for Germany, Frankfurt, Germany: 

FORCED LABOR; FRANKFURT ON THE 
MAIN 

Deborah (C.S.) Hopper*, M. A., 

B.Sc; Graduate Student, University 
of Victoria, Victoria, Canada: glick, 

IRVING SRUL 

David Horn, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Physics, Tel Aviv University 

Samuel Abba Horodezky, Ph.D.; 
Historian, Tel Aviv: alashkar, 

MOSES BEN ISAAC; ALPHABET, HEBREW, 
IN MIDRASH, TALMUD, AND KABBALAH; 
ANGELS AND ANGELOLOGY; BARUCH 
OF KOSOV; BERECHIAH BERAKH BEN 
ELIAKIM GETZEL; BLOCH, ISSACHAR 
BAER BEN SAMSON; CALAHORA, JOSEPH 
BEN SOLOMON; DAVID BEN AARON 
IBN HASSIN; DELACRUT, MATTATHIAS 
BEN SOLOMON; ELIJAH; ELIJAH BEN 
RAPHAEL SOLOMON HA-LEVI; EPSTEIN, 
ABRAHAM MEIR BEN ARYEH LEIB; 
EPSTEIN, ARYEH LEIB BEN MORDECAI; 
EPSTEIN, ISAAC BEN MORDECAI; FORTI 
RAPHAEL HEZEKIAH BEN ABRAHAM 
ISRAEL; GENTILI; HAZKUNI, ABRAHAM; 
HEILBUT, ELEAZAR LAZI BEN JOSEPH 
BEN LAZI; HEILPERN, YOM TOV LIPMAN 
BEN ISRAEL; HOESCHEL BEN SAUL; 
HOROWITZ, SHABBETAI SHEFTEL BEN 
AKIVA; ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM OF POSEN; 
ISAAC BEN BEZALEL OF VLADIMIR; ISAAC 
BEN SAMSON HA-KOHEN; ISSACHAR 
BAER BEN SOLOMON ZALMAN; JACOB 
BEN BENJAMIN ZE'EV; JACOB DAVID 
BEN ISRAEL ISSAR; JAFFE, ISRAEL BEN 
AARON; JEHIEL MICHAEL BEN ELIEZER; 
JOSEPH BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI; JOSEPH 
BEN MORDECAI HA-KOHEN; JOSEPH 
BEN MOSES OF KREMENETS; JOSHUA 
HOESCHEL BEN JOSEPH OF CRACOW; 
JUDAH BEN ELIEZER; JUDAH LEIB BEN 
BARUCH; KLATZKO, MORDECAI BEN 
ASHER; KOHEN, ELEAZAR BEN ZE'EV 
WOLF; KREMNITZER, JOHANAN BEN 
MEIR; LEVY, JUDAH BEN MENAHEM; 
LEWIN, JOSHUA HESHEL BEN ELIJAH 
ZE'EV HA-LEVI; LEWINSTEIN, JOSEPH 
BEN ABRAHAM ABUSH; LIPSCHUETZ; 



LIPSCHUETZ, BARUCH ISAAC BEN ISRAEL; 
LIPSCHUTZ, SHABBETAI BEN JACOB 
ISAAC; LONDON, JACOB BEN MOSES 
JUDAH; NAHUM, ELIEZER BEN JACOB; 
OBERNIK, JUDAH; PARNAS, HAYYIM 
NAHMAN; PERELMANN, JEROHMAN 
JUDAH LEIB BEN SOLOMON ZALMAN; 
PESANTE, MOSES BEN HAYYIM BEN SHEM 
TOV; PINTO, JOSIAH BEN JOSEPH; SAMUEL 
BEN ALI; SHAPIRA, JOSHUA ISAAC BEN 
JEHIEL 

Josef Horovitz, Dr.Phil.; 
Encyclopaedia Judaica (Germany); 
Professor of Semitic Languages, the 
University of Frankfurt; Director of 
the School of Oriental Studies, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ABDALLAH IBN SABA'; ABDALLAH IBN 
SALAM; BABAD; BARUCH BEN SAMUEL 
OF ALEPPO; BRODA; COHN, MESHULLAM 
ZALMAN BEN SOLOMON; FRAENKEL- 
TEOMIM, BARUCH BEN JOSHUA EZEKIEL 
FEIWEL; HELLER, YOM TOV LIPMANN 
BEN NATHAN HA-LEVI; ISSAR JUDAH BEN 
NEHEMIAH OF BRISK; JACOB KOPPEL 
BEN AARON SASSLOWER; KALISCHER, 
JUDAH LEIB BEN MOSES; MODAI, 
HAYYIM; MORDECAI BEN NAPHTALI 
HIRSCH OF KREMSIER; ORNSTEIN, JACOB 
MESHULLAM BEN MORDECAI ZE'EV; 
PIRKOI BEN BABOI 

David Horowitz, Former Governor 
of the Bank of Israel, Jerusalem: 

KAPLAN, ELIEZER 

Rivka Horowitz, Ph.D.; Lecturer, 
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 
Beersheba 

Sara Horowitz* : hillesum, etty; 

KARMEL, ILONA; KLEIN, GERDA 
WEISSMAN; OSTRIKER, ALICIA 

Yehoshua Horowitz, Dr. Phil.; 
Educator, Lecturer in Talmud and 
Rabbinic Literature, Ben-Gurion 
University of the Negev, Beersheba: 

AARON BEN MESHULLAM OF LUNEL; 
AARON SAMUEL BEN NAPHTALI HERZ 
HA-KOHEN; ABOAB, JACOB BEN SAMUEL; 
ABRAHAM ABELE BEN ABRAHAM 
SOLOMON; ABRAHAM BEN AVIGDOR; 
ABRAHAM BEN BENJAMIN ZE'EV BRISKER; 
ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC HA-KOHEN OF 
ZAMOSC; ABRAHAM BEN MORDECAI 
HA-LEVI; ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON; 
ABTERODE, DAVID BEN MOSES ELIAKIM; 
AHA OF SHABHA; ALTARAS; ALTSCHUL; 
ANATOLI BEN JOSEPH; ANSHEL OF 
CRACOW; ARCHIVOLTI, SAMUEL; ARDIT; 
ARDIT, EPHRAIM BEN ABRAHAM; ARHA, 
ELIEZER BEN ISAAC; ARYEH JUDAH 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



LEIB BEN EPHRAIM HA-KOHEN; ARYEH 
LEIB BEN SAMUEL ZEVI HIRSCH; ASH; 
ASHER BEN MESHULLAM HA-KOHEN 
OF LUNEL; ASHKENAZI, ZEVI HIRSCH 
BEN JACOB; AUERBACH; AUERBACH, 
ISAAC EISIG BEN ISAIAH; BABAD, JOSEPH 
BEN MOSES; BACHRACH, JUDAH BEN 
JOSHUA EZEKIEL; BALBO, MICHAEL BEN 
SHABBETAI COHEN; BASSAN, ABRAHAM 
HEZEKIAH BEN JACOB; BENJAMIN ZE'EV 
BEN MATTATHIAS OF ARTA; BERLIN, 
NOAH HAYYIM ZEVI HIRSCH; BERNAYS; 
BEZALEL BEN SOLOMON OF KOBRYN; 
BIALEH, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN NAPHTALI 
HERZ; BIALOBLOCKI, SAMUEL SHERAGA; 
BLOCH, HERMANN; BONAFED, DAVID 
BEN REUBEN; BOZECCO, BENJAMIN 
BEN JUDAH; BRESLAU, ARYEH LOEB BEN 
HAYYIM; BRESLAU, JOSEPH MOSES BEN 
DAVID; BRIEL, JUDAH BEN ELIEZER; 
BRODA, ABRAHAM BEN SAUL; CASE, 
JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM; DAINOW, 
ZEVI HIRSCH BEN ZE'EV WOLF; DAVID 
BEN BOAZ; DAVID BEN NATHAN OF 
LISSA; DAVIDS, AARON ISSACHAR BEN 
NAHMAN; DEMBITZER, HAYYIM NATHAN; 
DEUTSCH, DAVID BEN MENAHEM 
MENDEL; DISKIN, MOSES JOSHUA JUDAH 
LEIB; DUSCHAK, MORDECAI; ELIEZER 
BEN JOEL HA-LEVI OF BONN; ELIEZER 
BEN SAMUEL OF VERONA; EPSTEIN, 
JEHIEL MICHAL BEN AARON ISAAC 
HALEVI; EPSTEIN, JEHIEL MICHAL BEN 
ABRAHAM HALEV; FALK, JACOB JOSHUA 
BEN ZEVI HIRSCH; FISCHELS, MEIR 
BEN EPHRAIM; FLECKELES, ELEAZAR 
BEN DAVID; FRAENKEL, DAVID BEN 
NAPHTALI HIRSCH; FRIEDMANN, DAVID 
BEN SAMUEL; FULD, AARON BEN MOSES; 
GATIGNO; GENIZAH, CAIRO; GEONIC 
LITERATURE; GLOGAU, JEHIEL MICHAEL 
BEN ASHER LEMMEL HA-LEVI; GRACIAN, 
SHEALTIEL BEN SOLOMON; HABERMANN, 
ABRAHAM MEIR; HABIBA, JOSEPH; 
HALAKHOT GEDOLOT; HALBERSTADT, 
ABRAHAM BEN MENAHEM MENKE; 
HALBERSTADT, MORDECAI; HALEVI, 
JOSEPH ZEVI BEN ABRAHAM; HALEVY, 
ISAAC; HANOKH ZUNDEL BEN JOSEPH; 
HARIF; HARIF HA-LEVI; HAYYIM BEN 
ISAAC "OR ZARUA"; HAYYIM BEN JEHIEL 
HEFEZ ZAHAV; HEILPRIN, SAMUEL 
HELMANN BEN ISRAEL; HEILPRUN, 
ELIEZER LEIZER BEN MORDECAI; HILLEL; 
HILLEL (3rd cen.); HILLEL BEN NAPHTALI 
ZEVI; HOLLANDER, ISAIAH BEN AARON; 
HOROWITZ; HOROWITZ, ABRAHAM BEN 
ISAIAH; HOROWITZ, ARYEH LEIB BEN 
ELEAZAR HA-LEVI; HOROWITZ, ARYEH 
LEIB BEN ISAAC; HOROWITZ, DAVID 
JOSHUA HOESCHEL BEN ZEVI HIRSCH 
HA-LEVI; HOROWITZ, ISAAC HA-LEVI 
BEN JACOB JOKEL; HOROWITZ, ISAIAH 
BEN JACOB HA-LEVI; HOROWITZ, ISAIAH 



BEN SHABBETAI SHEFTEL; HOROWITZ, 
JACOB BEN ABRAHAM; HOROWITZ, JACOB 
JOKEL BEN MEIR HA-LEVI; HOROWITZ, 
LAZAR BEN DAVID JOSHUA HOESCHEL; 
HOROWITZ, MESHULLAM ISSACHAR 
BEN ARYEH LEIB HA-LEVI; HOROWITZ, 
PHINEHAS BEN ZEVI HIRSCH HA-LEVI; 
HOROWITZ, PHINEHAS BEN ISRAEL 
HA-LEVI; HOROWITZ, SAMUEL BEN 
ISAIAH ARYEH LEIB HA-LEVI; HOROWITZ, 
SAUL HAYYIM BEN ABRAHAM HA-LEVI; 
HOROWITZ, SHRAGA FEIVEL HA-LEVI; 
HOROWITZ, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN HAYYIM 
ARYEH LEIBUSH HA-LEVI; HOROWITZ, 
ZEVI HIRSCH BEN JOSHUA MOSES AARON 
HA-LEVI; HOROWITZ, ZEVI HIRSCH 
BEN PHINEHAS HALEVI; HOROWITZ, 
ZEVI JOSHUA BEN SAMUEL SHMELKE; 
HUSHI'EL BEN ELHANAN; IBN SHOSHAN, 
DAVID; ISAAC BENJAMIN WOLF BEN 
ELIEZER LIPMAN; JACOB OF MARVEGE; 
JAFFE, SAMUEL BEN ISAAC ASHKENAZI; 
JEHIEL MICHAEL BEN ABRAHAM MEIR 
OF CIFER; JEHIEL MICHAEL BEN JUDAH 
LEIB HE-HASID; JESHUA BEN JOSEPH 
HA-LEVI; JONATHAN BEN JACOB; JOSEPH 
BEN ISSACHAR BAER OF PRAGUE; JOSEPH 
BEN JOSHUA MOSES OF FRANKFURT; 
JOSEPH BEN MORDECAI GERSHON 
HA-KOHEN OF CRACOW; JOSEPH JOSKE 
BEN JUDAH JUDEL OF LUBLIN; JOSEPH 
SAMUEL BEN ZEVI OF CRACOW; JOSHUA 
BEN MORDECAI FALK HA-KOHEN; 
JOSHUA BOAZ BEN SIMON BARUCH; 
JOSHUA HOESCHEL BEN JACOB; JOSHUA 
HOESCHEL BEN JOSEPH OF CRACOW; 
JUDAH ARYEH LEIB BEN DAVID; JUDAH 
BEN ASHER; JUDAH BEN KALONYMUS 
BEN MOSES OF MAINZ; JUDAH LEIB BEN 
ENOCH ZUNDEL; JUDAH LEIB BEN HILLEL 
OF SCHWERSENZ; KAHANA, JEHIEL ZEVI 
BEN JOSEPH MORDECAI; KAMELHAR, 
JEKUTHIEL ARYEH BEN GERSHON; 
KAPLAN, ALEXANDER SENDER BEN 
ZERAH HA-KOHEN; KARA, MENAHEM 
BEN JACOB; KARMI; KATZ, NAPHTALI 
BEN ISAAC; KIMHI, JACOB BEN SAMUEL; 
KIMHI, RAPHAEL ISRAEL BEN JOSEPH; 
KIMHI, SOLOMON BEN NISSIM JOSEPH 
DAVID; KOHEN, RAPHAEL BEN JEKUTHIEL 
SUESSKIND; LANDAU, ISAAC ELIJAH BEN 
SAMUEL; LARA, DAVID BEN ISAAC COHEN 
DE; LARA, HIYYA KOHEN DE; LEON, 
MESSER DAVID BEN JUDAH; LEV, JOSEPH 
BEN DAVID IBN; LICHTSTEIN, ABRAHAM 
JEKUTHIEL ZALMAN BEN MOSES JOSEPH; 
LURIA, DAVID BEN JUDAH; MALBIM, MEIR 
LOEB BEN JEHIEL MICHAEL WEISSER; 
MASKILEISON, ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH 
LEIB; MORDECAI BEN HILLEL HA-KOHEN; 
ONDERWIJZER, ABRAHAM BEN SAMSON 
HA-KOHEN; PERLES, MOSES MEIR BEN 
ELEAZAR; PINELES, HIRSCH MENDEL BEN 
SOLOMON; PROVENCAL, ABRAHAM BEN 



DAVID; PROVENCAL, JACOB BEN DAVID; 
RAGOLER, ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON; 
RAPAPORT, DAVID HA-KOHEN; SAMUEL 
BEN AVIGDOR; SAMUEL BEN JACOB OF 
KELMY; SCHICK, MOSES BEN JOSEPH; 
SHALOM BEN YIZHAK OF NEUSTADT; 
SINZHEIM, JOSEPH DAVID BEN ISAAC; 
STEINHARDT, JOSEPH BEN MENAHEM; 
TANHUM BEN ELIEZER; TEDESCHI, 
MOSES ISAAC BEN SAMUEL; TREVES; 
TREVES, JOHANAN BEN JOSEPH; TREVES, 
JOHANAN BEN MATTATHIAS; VIDAL 
YOM TOV OF TOLOSA; VITAL, DAVID BEN 
SOLOMON; WEIL, JACOB BEN JUDAH; 
WORMS, AARON; WORMS, ASHER ANSHEL; 
YEHUDAI BEN NAHMAN; ZAHALON 

Rivka G. Horwitz*, Ph.D.; Professor 
Emeritus Jewish Philosophy, Ben- 
Gurion University of the Negev, 
Beersheba: rosenzweig, franZ; ruah 

HA-KODESH; SHEKHINAH; THRONE OF 
GOD 

Elaine Hoter, M.A.; Materials 
developer for the Open University, 
Tel Aviv: avineri, shlomo; beinart, 

HAIM; BIRAN, AVRAHAM; DAN, JOSEPH; 
DOTHAN, MOSHE; GREENBERG, MOSHE; 
GREENFIELD, JONAS CARL; HARAN 
MENAHEM; MALAMAT, ABRAHAM; 
NOY, DOV; TADMOR, HAYIM; TALMON, 
SHEMARYAHU 

Louis Hotz, B.A.; Historian, 

Johannesburg: Alexander, Bernard; 

BERGTHEIL, JONAS; BRYER, MONTE; CAPE 
TOWN; COHEN, SIMON; DURBAN; FRAM, 
DAVID; GITLIN, JACOB; GLUCKMAN, 
HENRY; HANSON, NORMAN LEONARD; 
HARRIS, SIR DAVID; JOHANNESBURG; 
KANTOROWICH, ROY; KIBEL, WOLF; 
LANGERMANN, MAX; LE ROITH, 
HAROLD HIRSCH; MAISELS, ISRAEL 
AARON; MICHAELIS, SIR MAX; NATHAN, 
MANFRED; NORDEN; OCHBERG, ISAAC; 
ORENSTEIN, ALEXANDER JEREMIAH; 
OUDTSHOORN; SCHLESINGER, ISIDORE 
WILLIAM; SMUTS, JAN CHRISTIAAN; 
SOLOMON, BERTHA; SOUTH AFRICAN 
LITERATURE 

Susannah Howland*, B.A.; Law 
student, Southwestern University 
School of Law, Los Angeles: kasdan, 

LAWRENCE EDWARD; MEYERS, NANCY 
JANE; MORRIS, ERROL M.; PAKULA, ALAN 
JAY; PENN, ARTHUR; PERRY, FRANK; 
RAFELSON, ROBERT; RAPHAELSON, 
SAMSON; RITT, MARTIN; SHAPIRO, 
ESTHER JUNE; SHAWN, DICK 

Benjamin Hrushovski, Associate 
Professor of Poetics and 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Comparative Literature, Tel Aviv 
University: prosody, Hebrew 

John Huehnergard*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Semitic Philology, 
Harvard University: bible, ancient 

TRANSLATIONS, ETHIOPIC 

Alana Hughes*, Director of 
Administration, Charles and Lynn 
Schusterman Family Foundation, 
Tulsa, Oklahoma: schusterman, 

CHARLES AND LYNN 

Horace D. Hummel, Ph.D.; 
Professor, Department of Exegetical 
Theology, Concordia Seminary, St. 
Louis, Missouri: bible 

Avi Hurvitz, Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
Bible and in Hebrew Language, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

PSALMS, APOCRYPHAL 

Elazar Hurvitz, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Associate Professor of Bible and 
Midrash, Yeshiva University, New 
York: chavel, charles ber 

Samuel B. Hurwich, M.D., F.A.A.P; 
Jerusalem: Zionism 

Ariel Hurwitz*: moreshet 

Marshall S. Hurwitz, M.A., Rabbi; 
Lecturer in Greek and Latin, City 
College of the City University 
of New York: ezekiel the poet; 

HELLENISTIC JEWISH LITERATURE; 
PSEUDO-PHOCYLIDES 

Samuel J. Hurwitz, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History, Brooklyn College of 
the City University of New York: 

RISCHIN, MOSES 

Shmuel Hurwitz, Dr. Ag.; Emeritus 
Professor of Agronomy, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem 

Abraham Huss, Ph.D., D.I.C.; 
Associate Professor of Meteorology, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

CARMI, T. 

Boaz Huss*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer, Ben-Gurion University 
of the Negev, Beersheba: ashlag, 

YEHUDAH 

Jehoshua Hutner, Rabbi; Director 
of the Encyclopaedia Talmudica and 
of Yad Harav Herzog, Jerusalem: 

ZEVIN, SOLOMON JOSEPH 



Arthur Hyman*, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Distinguished Service Professor 
of Philosophy and Dean, Bernard 
Revel Graduate School of Jewish 
Studies, Yeshiva University, New 
York: maimonides; philosophy, 

JEWISH; WOLFSON, HARRY AUSTRYN 

Avi Hyman*, Dr. Education; 
Director, Research, Academic 
Technologies, O I SE/ University of 

Toronto, Canada: luftspring, sammy; 

RUBENSTEIN, LOUIS; UNGERMAN, IRVING; 
WEIDER, BEN 

Louis Hyman, M.A.; Historian, 
Haifa 

Semah Cecil Hyman, Former 
Minister Plenipotentiary, Ministry 
for Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: 

AGRON, GERSHON; JERUSALEM; KISCH, 
FREDERICK HERMANN; PILGRIMAGE 

Moshe Idel*, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Jewish Thought and Kabbalah, 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem; 
Shalom Hartman Institute, 
Jerusalem: Abraham ben Alexander 

OF COLOGNE; ABRAHAM BEN ELIEZER 
HA-LEVI; ABULAFIA, TODROS BEN JOSEPH 
HA-LEVI; ALEMANNO, JOHANAN BEN 
ISAAC; ANTINOMIANISM; CARO, JOSEPH 
BEN EPHRAIM; DEVEKUT; EIN-SOF; 
EMANATION; GABBAI, MEIR BEN EZEKIEL 
IBN; GIKATILLA, JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM; 
GOD, NAMES OF; HAYYAT, JUDAH BEN 
JACOB; KABBALAH; KANAH AND PELIYAH, 
BOOKS OF; LURIA, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON; 
SCHOLEM, GERSHOM GERHARD 

David Ignatow, Adjunct Professor 
of Writing, Columbia University; 
Poet-in-Residence, York College of 
the City University of New York: 

FEARING, KENNETH; GINSBERG, 
ALLEN 

Shahar Ilan*, Journalist, Haaretz 
Newspaper, Jerusalem: Israel, state 

OF: RELIGIOUS LIFE AND COMMUNITIES 

Tal Ilan*, Ph.D.; Professor, Institute 
for Jewish Studies, Free University, 
Berlin, Germany: woman: post- 
biblical PERIOD 

Shulamit Imber*, M.A.; 
Pedagogical Director in the 
International School for Holocaust 
Studies, Yad Vashem, Jerusalem: 

HOLOCAUST 

Efraim Inbar, Ph.D.; Senior 



Lecturer, Department of Political 
Science, Bar-Ilan University 

Judith Brin Ingber*, B.A.; 
Independent Scholar, Dance 
Historian, University of Minnesota: 

DANCE; LANG, PEARL 

Nahman Ingber, M.A.; Instructor in 
Poetics and Comparative Literature, 
Tel Aviv University: motion 

PICTURES 

Institute of Jewish Affairs, London 

Radu Ioanid* : arad 

Miriam Isaacs*, Ph.D.; Long-Term 
Visiting Associate Professor, Yiddish 
Language and Culture, University 
of Maryland, College Park: Yiddish 

LITERATURE 

Benny Isaacson, Tel Aviv 

Shirley Berry Isenberg, 

Anthropologist and Author: bene 

ISRAEL 

Moshe Ishai, Dr.Juris; Former 
Ambassador, Tel Aviv: musolino, 

BENEDETTO 

Benjamin Ish-Shalom*, Ph.D.; 
Rector, Beit Morasha of Jerusalem: 

KOOK, ABRAHAM ISAAC 

Benjamin J. Israel, Former 
Secretary of the Bombay Public 
Service Commission: bene Israel 

Salvator Marco Israel, M.D.; 
Maitre de Recherches Hebra'iques, 
the Bulgarian Academy of 
Sciences, Sofia: Bulgarian 

LITERATURE 

Joseph Israeli, Kibbutz Afikim: ha- 

SHOMER HA-ZA'IR 

• 

Raphael (Ran) Israeli*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Islamic, Chinese, and 
Middle Eastern History, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: Israel, 

STATE OF: ARAB POPULATION; SADAT, 
MUHAMMAD ANWAR 

Stanley Isser, M.A.; Lecturer in 
History, Queens College of the 
City University of New York: 

CHRONOLOGY 

Israel (Ignacy) Isserles, M.A., 
Advocate; Tel Aviv: lachs, manfred; 



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MUSZKAT, MARION; SAWICKI, JERZY; 
SZER, SEWERYN 

Nissim Itzhak, B.A.; Ministry for 
Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: Uruguay 

Norman Itzkowitz, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Near Eastern Studies, 
Princeton University, New Jersey: 

AYALON, DAVID; HEYD, URIEL; LEWIS, 
BERNARD 

Ruth Ivor, Ph.D.; Former Lecturer 
in the History of Comparative 
Civilization, the University of 
Colorado; Siena, Italy: italiener, 

BRUNO 

Alfred L. (Lyon) Ivry*, Ph.D.; 
Dr.Phil; Professor Emeritus, 
New York University, New York: 

ALEXANDER OF APHRODISIAS; 
ALTMANN, ALEXANDER; BODY AND 
SOUL; EMOTIONS; FORM AND MATTER; 
IMAGINATION; INTELLECT; MOSES BEN 
JOSHUA OF NARBONNE; NATURE; SOUL; 
THEMISTIUS 

Dafna Izraeli, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Sociology, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ram at Gan 

Edward Jacobs*, Conceptual 
Designer, Mishkenot Ltd, Jerusalem: 

RISKIN, SHLOMO 

Louis Jacobs, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Scholar, London: akedah; 

HALAKHAH; HALAKHAH LE-MOSHE 
MI-SINAI; HASIDISM; HERMENEUTICS; 
JUDAISM; MONTEFIORE, CLAUDE 
JOSEPH GOLDSMID; MOSES; PASSOVER; 
PEACE; PRAYER; PREACHING; PURIM; 
RIGHTEOUSNESS; ROSH HA-SHANAH; 
SABBATH; SHAVUOT; SHEMA, READING 
OF; SIN; STUDY; SUKKOT; THEOLOGY; 
TORAH, READING OF 

Thorkild Jacobsen, Dr. Phil.; 
Professor of Assyriology, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts 

Howard Jacobson, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of Classics, the University 
of Illinois, Urbana: heracles; 

ITINERARIUM HIEROSOLYMITANUM or 
ITINERARIUM BURDIGALENSE; TITANS 

Joshua Jacobson*, D.M.A.; 
Professor of Music, Northeastern 
University, Boston: choirs 

David Jacoby, Ph.D.; Associate 



Professor of History, the Hebrew 

University of Jerusalem: starr, 

JOSHUA 

Jonathan Jacoby*: Israel policy 

FORUM 

Benjamin Jaffe, M.A., M.Jur.; 
Writer and official, Jewish 
Agency, Jerusalem: almog, 

YEHUDA; ARIEL, DOV; ARLOSOROFF, 
CHAIM; AVRIEL, EHUD; BARTH, JACOB; 
BARZILAI,YEHOSHUA; BEN-AMI, OVED; 
BENTOV, MORDEKHAI; BENTWICH; 
BERLIGNE, ELIYAHU MEIR; CHELOUCHE; 
COHN, HAIM; COMAY, MICHAEL SAUL; 
DANIN, YEHEZKEL; DOBKIN, ELIYAHU; 
DULZIN, ARYE LEIB; ELATH, ELIAHU; 
ELDAD, ISRAEL; FRIENDSHIP LEAGUES 
WITH ISRAEL; GLUSKA, ZEKHARYAH; 
GRAJEWSKY, PINCHAS; HACOHEN, DAVID; 
HARARI, HAYYIM; HESHIN, SHNEUR 
ZALMAN; KHOUSHI, ABBA; LOURIE, 
ARTHUR; LURIE, ZVI; MAISEL-SHOHAT, 
HANNAH; PERSITZ, SHOSHANAH; PINCUS, 
LOUIS ARIEH; RECANATI; ROKACH, 
SHIMON; SASSON, ELIYAHU; SCOTT, 
CHARLES PRESTWICH; SMOIRA, MOSHE; 
STERN, JOSEPH ZECHARIAH; TOLKOWSKY, 
SHEMUEL; TSUR, JACOB; VALERO; VILNAY, 
ZEV 

Lee (David) Jaffe*, M.S.; Librarian, 
University of California, Santa Cruz, 
California: santa cruz 

Immanuel Jakobovits, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Chief Rabbi of the British 
Commonwealth, London: artificial 

INSEMINATION; BIRTH CONTROL; 
CASTRATION; CELIBACY; EUTHANASIA; 
HOMOSEXUALITY 

Oscar Isaiah Janowsky, Ph.D.; 
Emeritus Professor of History, City 
College of the City University of 
New York: gilbert, felix; goldman, 

ERIC FREDERICK; KOEBNER, RICHARD; 
KUBLIN, HYMAN; LANDES, DAVID SAUL; 
PINSON, KOPPEL S.; SCHAPIRO, JACOB 
SALWYN 

Taeke Jansma, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Hebrew and Aramaic, the 
State University of Leiden, the 
Netherlands 

Sara Japhet, M.A.; Instructor in 
Bible, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: chronicles, book of 

Jack Jedwab*, Ph.D.; Executive 
Director, Association for Canadian 
Studies, Montreal, Quebec: Quebec 



Yeshayahu (A.) Jelinek*, Associate 
Professor Retired, Beersheba: 

BANSKA BYSTRICA; BARDEJOV; 
BRATISLAVA; CESKE BUDEJOVICE; CHEB; 
CZECH REPUBLIC AND SLOVAKIA; 
CZECHOSLOVAKIA; DOLNI KUBIN; 
DUNAJSKA STREDA; GALANTA; 
HLOHOVEC; HOLESOV; HRANICE; 
HUMENNE; HUNCOVCE; KOMARNO; 
KOSICE; KUGEL, HAYYIM; LIBEREC; 
LIPTOVSKY MIKULAS; LITOMERICE; 
LOEBL, EUGEN; LOSTICE; LUCENEC; 
MASARYK, JAN GARRIGUE; MICHALOVCE; 
MIKULOV; MORAVIA; NITRA; NOVE 
MESTO NAD VAHOM; NOVE ZAMKY; 
OSTRAVA; PEZINOK; PIESTANY; 
POHORELICE; PRAGUE; PRESOV; 
PROSTEJOV; ROUDNICE NAD LABEM; 
SLOVAKIA; TABOR; TOPOLCANY; TREBIC; 
TRENCIN; TRNAVA; TURNOV; UHERSKE 
HRADISTE; UHERSKY BROD; USOV; USTI 
NAD LABEM; VOTICE; ZIDOVSKA STRANA; 
ZILINA; ZNOJMO 

Uffa Jensen*: stahl, friedrich 

JULIUS; STOECKER, ADOLF; TREITSCHKE, 
HEINRICH VON 

Jewish Museum Staff*: Jewish 

MUSEUM 

Leon A. Jick: Jewish studies 

Akira Jindo, Ph.D.; Assistant Editor 
of "The Weekly Original Gospel" 
and "The Light of My Life"; Staff 
Member of Makuya Tokyo Bible 
Seminary: makuya 

Franklin Jonas, Ph.D.; Instructor 
in History, Long Island University, 

New York: vladeck, baruch 

CHARNEY 

Faith Jones*, B.A., M.L.I.S.; Head, 
Literature and Languages, Mid- 
Manhattan Library, New York: 

ELBERG, YEHUDA; KACZERGINSKY, 
SZMERKE; MAZE, IDA; SEGAL, ESTHER; 
SHUMIATCHER-HIRSCHBEIN, ESTHER; 
YUDIKA; ZYLBERCWEIG, ZALMAN 

Louis de Jong, Litt.D.; Historian 
and Extraordinary Professor 
of Contemporary History, the 
University of Rotterdam; Director 
of the Netherlands State Institute for 
War Documentation, Amsterdam 

Alfred Joseph, San Salvador: el 

SALVADOR 

Max Joseph*, B.A.; Screenwriter/ 
Filmmaker, Los Angeles: archerd, 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



ARMY; BENSON, ROBBY; GUBER, PETER; 
HALL, MONTY; HALMI, ROBERT; HOWARD, 
MOE, SHEMP, and CURLY; INSDORF, 
ANNETTE; IRVING, AMY 

Norma Baumel Joseph*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor, Concordia 
University, Montreal, Canada: bar 

MITZVAH, BAT MITZVAH; GOLDSTEIN, 
ELYSE; ROBACK, LEA 

Alfred Jospe, B nai B rith Hillel 
Foundations, Washington, D.C.: 

MENDELSSOHN, MOSES; STUDENTS' 
MOVEMENTS, JEWISH; UNIVERSITIES 

Raphael Jospe*, Ph.D.; Professor; 
Researcher; Jewish Philosophy 
Lecturer, Bar-Ilan University: 

BIBAGO, ABRAHAM BEN SHEM TOV; 
FALAQUERA, SHEM TOV BEN JOSEPH IBN; 
IBN EZRA, ABRAHAM BEN MEIR; JOSPE, 
ALFRED; KAPLAN, MORDECAI MENAHEM; 
LOVE; MAIMONIDEAN CONTROVERSY; 
PEKARSKY, MAURICE BERNARD; 
PHILOSOPHY, JEWISH; RAVITZKY, 
AVIEZER; WAGNER, STANLEY M. 

Martha Sharp Joukowsky*, 

Professor Emerita, Brown 
University, Director, Brown 
University Petra Great Temple 
Excavations, Providence, Rhode 
Island: nabateans 

Anthony Julius*, M.A., Ph.D.; 
Solicitor, London: irving v. lipstadt 

Leo Jung, Ph.D., Rabbi; Emeritus 
Professor of Ethics, Yeshiva 
University, New York: rabbiner- 

SEMINAR FUER DAS ORTHODOXE 
JUDENTUM 

Hans Jungmann, M.D.; London, 
England 

David Jutan, Histadrut Ha-Ovedim 
Ha-Le'ummit, Tel Aviv: histadrut 

HA-OVEDIM HA-LE'UMMIT 

Jacob Kabakoff, B.A., D.H.L., 
Rabbi; Associate Professor of 
Hebrew, the Herbert H. Lehman 
College of the City University of 
New York: matz, Israel 

Menahem Zevi Kaddari, Ph.D.; 
Rector and Professor of Hebrew 
Language, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: ben ze'ev, judah leib ; 

ELIJAH BEN SOLOMON ZALMAN; KOHUT; 
LOEW, IMMANUEL; NATONEK, JOSEPH; 
RASHI; WIZEN, MOSHE AHARON 



David Kadosh, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Assistant Professor of Jewish 
Philosophy, Yeshiva University, New 

York: ADAM; CATEGORIES; DECALOGUE; 
MOSES 

Sara Kadosh*, Ph.D.; Director of 
JDC Archives, American Jewish 
Joint Distribution Committee, 
Jerusalem: American Jewish joint 

DISTRIBUTION COMMITTEE 

Elieser Kagan, Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
Hebrew Language and Literature, 
Haifa University: lebensohn, 

MICAH JOSEPH; LUZZATTO, EPHRAIM; 
PAPPENHEIM, SOLOMON; SALKINSON, 
ISAAC EDWARD 

Saul Kagan, New York: council of 

JEWS FROM GERMANY 

Joseph Kage, Canada 

Arcadius Kahan, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Economics, the University 
of Chicago: economic history; 

LIBERMAN, YEVSEY GRIGORYEVICH 

Menahem I. Kahana*, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: mekhilta Deuteronomy; 

MEKHILTA OF R. ISHMAEL; MEKHILTA 
OF R. SIMEON BEN YOHAI; MIDRESHEI 
HALAKHAH; SIFRA; SIFRE ZUTA 
DEUTERONOMY; SIFRE ZUTA NUMBERS; 
SIFREI; SIFREI NUMBERS 

Isaac Ze'ev Kahane, Rabbi; 
Professor of Talmud and of Jewish 
History, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat 

Gan: ASHKENAZI, GERSHON; BOSKOVICE; 
BRNO; BRUNA, ISRAEL BEN HAYYIM; 
CHEB; EYLENBURG, ISSACHAR BAER 
BEN ISRAEL LEISER PARNAS; HLADIK, 
ABRAHAM; IVANCICE; UHERSKY 
BROD 

Penuel P. Kahane, Ph.D.; 
Former Chief Curator of the 
Samuel Bronfman Biblical and 
Archaeological Museum, the 
Israel Museum, Jerusalem: 

ARCHAEOLOGISTS; BARNETT, LIONEL 
DAVID; BAUMGARTEL, ELISE J.; 
BIEBER, MARGARETE; BORCHARDT, 
LUDWIG; DELOUGAZ, PIERRE PINCHAS; 
FRANKFURT, HENRI; GHIRSHMAN, 
ROMAN; GOLDMAN, HETTY; HANFMANN, 
GEORGE MAXIM ANOSSOV; HIRSCHFELD, 
GUSTAV; KLEIN, WILHELM; LEHMANN, 
KARL; LEVI, DORO; LOEWY, EMANUEL; 
WALSTON, SIR CHARLES; WEINBERG, 
SAUL S. 



Jacqueline Kahanoff, M.A.; Writer, 

Tel Aviv: memmi, albert; peguy, 

CHARLES-PIERRE 

Ezer Kahanov, M.A.; Teacher, 
Researcher in Jewish History: 

SEPHARDIM 

Mo she Kahanovich, Journalist, Tel 
Aviv 

Ava F. Kahn*, Ph.D.; Historian, 
California Studies Center, Berkeley, 
California: California; feinstein, 

DIANNE GOLDMAN; KAHN, FLORENCE 
PRAG; MAGNIN, MARY ANN COHEN 

Benjamin Kahn, M.H.L., Rabbi; 
International Director of the 
B nai B rith Hillel Foundations, 
Washington, D.C.: monsky, henry 

Catherine (C.) Kahn*, Archivist, 
Touro Infirmary Archives, New 
Orleans: Louisiana; new Orleans 

Gilbert N. Kahn*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Kean University, Union, New Jersey: 

HOENLEIN, MALCOLM; LOOKSTEIN, 
HASKEL; LOOKSTEIN, JOSEPH HYMAN 

Leybl Kahn, M.A.; Bibliographer, 

New York: fishman, joshua aaron; 

SCHAECHTER, MORDKHE 

Lily O. (Okalani) Kahn*, M.A., 
Ph.D.; Lecturer in Hebrew and 
Yiddish, University College, 
London, England: epstein, melech; 

TENENBAUM, JOSHUA; WARSHAVSKY, 
YAKIR; YUD, NAHUM 

Ludwig W. Kahn, Ph.D.; Professor 
of German, Columbia University, 
New York: fraenkel, jonas; strich, 

FRITZ 

Sholom Jacob Kahn, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in English and American 
Literature, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: angoff, charles; 

MALAMUD, BERNARD 

Kathleen Kahrl*: Sacramento 
Aryeh-Leib Kalish, Jerusalem: 

CHELM; JOLLES, JACOB ZEVI BEN 
NAPHTALI; ZEMBA, MENAHEM; ZHOLKVA 

Frances R. Kallison, B.A.; San 

Antonio, Texas: san antonio 

Menachem Kallus*, Ph.D.; 
Independent Researcher, Writer and 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Translator, Alumnus of the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: shabbetai 

BEN TZVI HIRSCH OF RASZKOW 

Emil Kalo*, Ph.D.; Philosopher, 
President of the Organization of 
the Jews in Bulgaria "Shalom", 
Bulgaria: Bulgaria; Bulgarian 

LITERATURE; KOLAROVGRAD; 
KYUSTENDIL; NIKOPOL; PETROV, VALERI; 
PLEVEN; PLOVDIV; RUSE; STARA ZAGORA; 
VARNA; VIDIN; WAGENSTEIN, ANGEL 
RAYMOND 

Isaac Kalugai, M.Sc; Emeritus 
Professor of Chemistry, the 
Technion, Haifa: joffe, Abraham 

FEODOROVICH 

Roger Kamien, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of Music, Queens College 
of the City University of New York: 

SCHENKER, HEINRICH 

Stewart Kampel*, B.B.A., M.S.; 
Freelance Writer, Editor, East 
Northport, New York; Wellington, 
Florida: abrams, floyd m.; ace, 

GOODMAN; ADLER, HARRY CLAY; 
ADLER, RENATA; ADLER, RICHARD; 
ADLER, STELLA; ALEXANDER, JASON; 
ALLEN, PAUL G.; ALTER, ELEANOR B.; 
ARBUS, DIANE; ARNOLD, EVE; AVEDON, 
RICHARD; AZENBERG, EMANUEL; BAKSHI, 
RALPH; BALLMER, STEVE; BANKERS AND 
BANKING; BEN-AMI, JACOB; BENNETT, 
MICHAEL; BEN-VENISTE, RICHARD; 
BERGER, SAMUEL R.; BERNAYS, EDWARD 
L.; BERNSTEIN, CARL; BERNSTEIN, 
ELMER; BIALKIN, KENNETH J.; BING, 
ILSE; BLANK, ARTHUR M.; BLITZER, 
WOLF; BLOCK, H. & R.; BLOCK, HERBERT 
LAWRENCE; BLOOMBERG, MICHAEL R.; 
BLOOMGARDEN, KERMIT; BLUHDORN, 
CHARLES G.; BOCK, JERRY; BOESKY, 
IVAN FREDERICK; BOURKE-WHITE, 
MARGARET; BREITEL, CHARLES; BRIN, 
SERGEY; BROAD, ELI; BRODER, DAVID 
SALZER; BRODY, JANE E.; BRUCE, LENNY; 
BUSCH, CHARLES; CAHN, SAMMY; CAPA, 
CORNELL; CAPA, ROBERT; CAPP, AL; 
CARTOONISTS; CHAST, ROZ; CHERTOFF, 
MICHAEL; CHOPER, JESSE H.; COHEN, H. 
RODGIN; COLEMAN, CY; COPPERFIELD, 
DAVID; CRUMB, ROBERT; CULLMAN; 
CUTLER, BRUCE; DAVID, LARRY; 
DAVIDSON, WILLIAM; DAVIS, MARVIN 
H.; DELL, MICHAEL S.; DEPARTMENT 
STORES; DILLER, BARRY; DOUGLAS, KIRK; 
DYLAN, BOB; EISENSTAEDT, ALFRED; 
EISNER, WILL; ELDER, WILL; ELISOFON, 
ELIOT; ETTLINGER, MARION; FAIN, 
SAMMY; FAIRSTEIN, LINDA A.; FRANK, 
ROBERT; FRANKEL, MAX; FREED, ALAN; 



FRIEDLANDER, LEE; FRIEDMAN, THOMAS 
L.; FUNT, ALLEN; GABLER, MILTON; 
GAINES, WILLIAM A.; GELB, ARTHUR; 
GOLDBERG, RUBE; GOLDIN, DANIEL 
SAUL; GOLDIN, NAN; GOLDWATER, 
JOHN L.; GRAHAM, KATHARINE; GRANZ, 
NORMAN; GREENBERG, MAURICE R.; 
GROSSFELD, ABRAHAM ISRAEL; GROVE, 
ANDREW STEPHEN; GURALNIK, DAVID 
B.; HALSMAN, PHILIPPE; HARNICK, 
SHELDON; HART, KITTY CARLISLE; 
HART, LORENZ; HELMSLEY, LEONA; 
HERMAN, JERRY; HERSH, SEYMOUR; 
HEWITT, DON; HIRSCHFELD, AL; ICAHN, 
CARL C; ISAACS, SUSAN; JACOBI, 
LOTTE; JACOBS, BERNARD B.; JACOBS, 
IRWIN M.; JACOBSON, SYDNEY, BARON; 
JOURNALISM; KAEL, PAULINE; KALB, 
BERNARD; KALB, MARVIN; KALMAN, 
MAIRA; KALMAN, TIBOR; KANE, BOB; 
KANE, GIL; KANN, PETER R.; KARMAZIN, 
MEL; KAUFMAN, ANDY; KELLERMAN, 
FAYE; KELLERMAN, JONATHAN; KERTESZ, 
ANDRE; KING, ALAN; KIRBY, JACK; 
KISSINGER, HENRY ALFRED; KOPPEL, 
TED; KOSNER, EDWARD A.; KRANTZ, 
JUDITH; KURTZMAN, HARVEY; KUSHNER, 
TONY; LAEMMLE, CARL; LANDESMAN, 
ROCCO; LASKY, JESSE L.; LAVIN, LINDA; 
LAWYERS; LAZARUS, MEL; LEE, STAN; 
LEFRAK, SAMUEL J.; LEIBOVITZ, ANNIE; 
LELYVELD, JOSEPH; LEVIN, IRA; LEVITT, 
HELEN; LIMAN, ARTHUR L.; LORTEL, 
LUCILLE; LOUIS-DREYFUS, JULIA; 
LUBITSCH, ERNST; MACKLOWE, HARRY; 
MARCUS, BERNARD; MARCUS, STANLEY; 
MARKEL, LESTER; MARX BROTHERS; 
MASON, JACKIE; MENDES, SAM; MERRICK, 
DAVID; MEYEROWITZ, JOEL; MILKEN, 
MICHAEL R.; MILSTEIN; NEUWIRTH, BEBE; 
NEVINS, SHEILA; NEWTON, HELMUT; 
NOVAK, ROBERT; PALTROW, GWYNETH; 
PARKER, SARAH JESSICA; PATRICOF, 
ALAN; PEARLSTINE, NORMAN; PENN, 
IRVING; PLACHY, SYLVIA; PLAIN, BELVA; 
POLLACK, MILTON; PRITZKER; PUBLIC 
RELATIONS; RAGEN, NAOMI; RAND, AYN; 
RANDALL, TONY; RATNER, BRUCE C; 
REINHARDT, MAX; REMNICK, DAVID; 
RICH, MARC; RICHARDS, MARTIN; RINGL 
+ PIT; ROBBINS, HAROLD; ROBERTS, TONY; 
ROBINSON, EDWARD G.; RODGERS, MARY; 
ROSENTHAL, A.M.; ROSS, LILLIAN; ROSS, 
STEPHEN; RUBIN, GAIL; RUDIN; SAKS, 
GENE; SAND, LEONARD B.; SCHANBERG, 
SYDNEY H.; SCHARY, DORE; SCHECK, 
BARRY; SCHENKER, JOEL W; SCHNEIDER, 
IRVING; SCHORR, DANIEL; SCHULTZ, 
HOWARD; SCHWARTZ, STEPHEN; 
SCHWIMMER, DAVID; SHAPIRO, IRVING 
SAUL; SHAPIRO, ROBERT; SHEINDLIN, 
JUDITH; SHELDON, SIDNEY; SHEVELOVE, 
BURT; SHUSTER, JOE; SIEBERT, MURIEL; 
SIEGEL, JERRY; SILVERSTEIN, LARRY; 



SIMON; SIMONS, JAMES H.; SOKOLOF, 
PHIL; SPIEGELMAN, ART; SPIELVOGEL, 
CARL; STEEL, DANIELLE; STEIG, WILLIAM; 
STEIN, JOSEPH; STEINBERG, SAUL; 
STEINHARDT, MICHAEL H.; STERN, 
LEONARD; STERNBERG, JOSEF VON; 
STIEGLILTZ, ALFRED; STINE, R.L.; STONE, 
PETER; STRAND, PAUL; STRAUS, ROGER, 
JR.; STYNE, JULE; SUSANN, JACQUELINE; 
TAUBMAN, A. ALFRED; TAYMOR, JULIE; 
THEATER; TISCH; TISHMAN; TRIBE, 
LAURENCE H.; TRILLIN, CALVIN; 
TRILLING, DIANA; TUROW, SCOTT; 
ULLSTEIN; VESZI, JOZSEF; VOLCKER, 
PAUL A.; VORENBERG, JAMES; WALLACE, 
IRVING; WARNER; WASSER, DENNIS M.; 
WASSERSTEIN, BRUCE; WEEGEE; WEISS, 
MELVYN I.; WEISSLER, BARRY and FRAN; 
WILDER, BILLY; WILPON, FRED; WINKLER, 
IRWIN; WINOGRAND, GARRY; WYNN, 
STEVE; ZUCKER, JEFF; ZUCKERMAN, 
MORTIMER 

Mordechai Kamrat, Ph.D.; 
Educator, Jerusalem: ulpanim 

Yuval Kamrat, Jerusalem: 

ADRAMMELECH; AHIMELECH; ESAU; 
GAD; GESHEM, GASHMU; NINEVEH; 
SHAPHAN; ZADOK 

Yosef Kanefsky*, M.S., Rabbi, B'nai 
David-Judea Congregation, Los 
Angeles: weiss, avi 

Izhak Kanev, M.A.; Director of 
the Social and Economic Research 
Institute, Tel Aviv: Israel, state 

OF: HEALTH, WELFARE, AND SOCIAL 
SECURITY 

Joshua Kaniel (Mershine), M.A.; 
Instructor in Jewish History, 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

JERUSALEM; MENAHEM MENDEL OF 
SHKLOV 

Abram Kanof, M.D.; Physician and 
Art Historian; Professor of Pediatrics, 
the State University of New York - 
Downstate Medical Center at 
Brooklyn; Former President of the 
American Jewish Historical Society, 
New York: hays, daniel peixotto; 

HORWITZ, PHINEAS JONATHAN; LEVY, 
JONAS PHILLIPS; LEVY, URIAH PHILLIPS; 
PASSOVER; SABBATH; SUKKOT 

Arvid S. Kapelrud, Theol.D.; 
Professor of Biblical Language and 
Literature, the University of Oslo: 

MOWINCKEL, SIGMUND OLAF PLYTT 

E. Kapitaikin: kalik, mikhail 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Dana Evan Kaplan*, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Temple Bnai Israel, Albany: reform 

JUDAISM 

Jacob Kaplan, Ph.D.; Director of 
the Museum of Antiquities of Tel 
Aviv-Yaffo: chemical crafts and 

INDUSTRIES; METALS AND MINING; SALT 
TRADE AND INDUSTRY 

Joseph Kaplan, M.A., Assistant 
in Jewish History, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: aragao, 

FERNAO XIMENES DE; ARBUES, PEDRO 
DE; ARRABY MOOR; CONTRACTORS; 
FALAQUERA; HIRSCHHORN, SAMUEL; 
KOLISCHER, HEINRICH; MORTEIRA, SAUL 
LEVI; NAHMANIDES; PABLO DE SANTA 
MARIA; SENEOR, ABRAHAM 

Marion Kaplan*, Ph.D.; Skirball 
Professor of Modern Jewish History, 
New York University 

Mordechai Kaplan, M.Eng.; 
Lieutenant Colonel (Res.), Israel 
Defense Forces, Tel Aviv: ascoli, 

ETTORE; BLOCH, CLAUDE; DASSAULT, 
DARIUS PAUL; KLEIN, JULIUS; KREISER, 
JACOB GRIGORYEVICH; LAMBERT, 
AIME; MEKHLIS, LEV ZAKHAROVICH; 
SCHWEITZER, EDUARD VON; SEE, 
LEOPOLD; SELIGMAN, HERBERT SPENCER; 
SHMUSHKEVICH, YAACOV; SINGER, 
JOSEPH; SOMMER, EMIL; VALABREGUE, 
MARDOCHEE GEORGES 

Steve Kaplan, Ph.D.; Harry S. 
Truman Research Center, The 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

BETA ISRAEL; BOGALE, YONA 

Yehiel Kaplan*, Dr.Jur.; Senior 
Lecturer in Law, University of Haifa: 

PARENT AND CHILD; TAKKANOT; 
TORTS 

Zvi Kaplan, Encyclopaedia 
Hebraica, Jerusalem: abba bar aha; 

ABBA BEN ABBA HA-KOHEN; ABBA 
YOSE BEN HANIN; AHA BAR HANINA; 
AHA BEN JACOB; AHERIM; AIBU; AMMI 
BAR NATHAN; AMRAM HASIDA; ANAN; 
ANIMALS, CRUELTY TO; ARONSON, 
SOLOMON; AVDAN; AVDIMI BAR HAMA; 
AVIA; AVIMI; AVIMI BEN ABBAHU; AVIRA; 
AZARIAH; BAITOS BEN ZONIN; BAR 
MITZVAH, BAT MITZVAH; BAR-ILAN, 
MEIR; BATHYRA, SONS OF; BATLANIM; 
BAVA BEN BUTA; BEBAI; BEN AZZAI, 
SIMEON; BEN BAG BAG; BEN HE HE; BEN 
KALBA SAVUA; BEN PETURA; BEN ZIZIT 
HA-KASAT; BEN ZOMA, SIMEON; BENAAH; 
BERECHIAH; BERLIN, NAPHTALI ZEVI 



JUDAH; BEZAH; BLAU, MOSHE; DESSLER, 
ELIJAH ELIEZER; ERUV; GORDON, 
ELIEZER; GRAJEWSKI, ARYEH LEIB; 
HALAFTA; HALAFTA BEN SAUL; HAMA; 
HAMA BAR BISA; HAMNUNA; HANA BAR 
HANILAI; HANA BEN BIZNA; HANAN THE 
EGYPTIAN; HANANIAH; HANANIAH BEN 
HAKHINAI; HANANIAH OF SEPPHORIS; 
HANINA BAR HAMA; HANINA BAR 
PAPA; HANINA BEN ABBAHU; HANINA 
BEN ANTIGONUS; HANINA BEN DOSA; 
HANINA BEN GAMALIEL; HANINA SEGAN 
HA-KOHANIM; HARLAP, JACOB MOSES 
BEN ZEBULUN; HELBO; HEZEKIAH; 
HIDKA; HIRSCHENSOHN; HIYYA; HIYYA 
BAR ABBA; HIYYA BAR AVIN; HUNA BEN 
JOSHUA; HUNA OF SEPPHORIS; ILAI; 
ISAAC; ISAAC BAR JOSEPH; ISAAC BAR 
RAV JUDAH; JOHANAN BEN BEROKA; 
JOHANAN BEN GUDGADA; JOSHUA BEN 
GAMLA; JOSHUA BEN LEVI; JUDAH BAR 
EZEKIEL; JUDAH BAR ILAI; JUDAH BAR 
SHALOM; JUDAH BAR SIMEON; JUDAH 
BEN HIYYA; JUDAH BEN NAHAMANI; 
MEIR BEN SAMUEL OF RAMERUPT; 
SONNENFELD, JOSEPH HAYYIM BEN 
ABRAHAM SOLOMON; TARFON; TEMPLE 
MOUNT; WERTHEIMER, SOLOMON 
AARON; ZECHARIAH BEN AVKILUS; 
ZEEIRA 

Charles I. Kapralik, Dr. iur.; 

London: central British fund; 

JEWISH SUCCESSOR ORGANIZATIONS 

Israel J. Kapstein, Ph.D.; Emeritus 
Professor of English Literature, 
Brown University, Providence, 
Rhode Island: perelman, Sidney 

JOSEPH 

Samuel E. KarfF, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Lecturer in Jewish Thought and 
American Culture, Divinity School, 
the University of Chicago: hirsch, 

EMIL GUSTAVE 

Abraham J. Karp, M.H.L., Rabbi; 
Historian, and Visiting Associate 
Professor of Jewish History, the 
Jewish Theological Seminary of 
America, New York: burstein, 

ABRAHAM 

Alan Karpas, Jerusalem: stamps 

Heinrich Karplus, M.D.; Associate 
Professor of Forensic Medicine, 
the Hebrew University - Hadassah 
Medical School, Jerusalem; 
Director of the Institute of Forensic 
Medicine, Tel Aviv: embalming 

Reuben Kashani, Journalist, 



Jerusalem: burial; death; maimuna; 

MARRIAGE 

Asa Kasher, Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
Mathematics and Philosophy, 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

LEIBOWITZ, YESHAYAHU 

Hannah Kasher*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: Abraham; fear of god; 

INCLINATION, GOOD AND EVIL; KASPI, 
JOSEPH BEN ABBA MARI IBN; LOVE 

Aharon Kashtan, Ing., M.A.; 
Associate Professor of Architecture 
and Town Planning, the Technion, 
Haifa: synagogue 

Alvin Kass, M.A., M.H.L. Rabbi; 
John Jay College of Criminal Justice 
of the City University of New York: 

ADLER, MORRIS; ARZT, MAX; ASHER, 
JOSEPH MICHAEL; COMMUNITY TOKENS; 
UNITED SYNAGOGUE OF CONSERVATIVE 
JUDAISM 

Abraham I. Katsh, Ph.D.; President 
Emeritus of Dropsie University, 
Philadelphia: kaplan, chaim aron 

E. (Ethan) Katsh*, J.D.; Professor 
of Legal Studies, University 
of Massachusetts at Amherst, 
Massachusetts: katsh, Abraham isaac 

Jacob Katsnelson, Lecturer in 
Climatology, Tel Aviv University; 
Director of the Climatology 
Division, Israel Meteorological 
Service, Bet Dagan, Israel: dew ; 

RAIN 

Bernard (M.L.) Katz*, M.A., B.L.S.; 
Librarian, University of Guelph, 
Toronto, Canada: safdie, sylvia 

Chava Alkon Katz, Writer, 

Jerusalem: Zionism 

Dovid Katz*, B.A., Ph.D.; Professor 
of Yiddish Language, Literature 
and Culture; Director of Research, 
Vilnius University, Lithuania: katz, 

MENKE; KERLER, DOV-BER 

Elena (M.) Katz*, Ph.D., Dr.; 
University College, London, 
England: shraybman, yekhiel 

Elias Katz, Rabbi; Former Rabbi 
of Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, 
Beersheba: brody, solomon zalman 

BEN ISRAEL; ISRAEL MOSES BEN ARYEH 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



LOEB; JACOB BEN ABRAHAM SOLOMON; 
JACOB ISAAC BEN SHALOM; JOSEPH BEN 
MOSES PHINEHAS; JOSEPH BEN ZE'EV 
WOLF HA-LEVI; JUDAH BEN JACOB HA- 
KOHEN 

Emily Alice Katz* , M. Phil.; The 
Jewish Theological Seminary of 
America, Princeton, New Jersey: 

ABARBANELL, LINA 

Harold E. Katz, M.A., A.C.S.W.; 
Executive Director of the Jewish 
Community Council, Birmingham, 

Alabama 

Irving I. Katz, B.A., B.B.A., F.T.A.; 
Detroit, Michigan: butzel; Detroit; 

FRANKLIN, LEO MORRIS; FRANKS, JACOB; 
HERSHMAN, ABRAHAM M.; SOLOMON, 
EZEKIEL 

Israel J. Katz*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor, University of California 
at Davis: American society for 

JEWISH MUSIC; GREECE; HEMSI, ALBERTO; 
IDELSOHN, ABRAHAM ZVI; LADINO; LIST, 
GEORGE HAROLD; SCHINDLER, KURT; 
SOLA, ABRAHAM DE; WEISSER, ALBERT; 
WERNER, ERIC; WINTERNITZ, EMANUEL; 
YASSER, JOSEPH 

Jacob Katz, Dr. Phil.; Rector and 
Professor of Social Jewish History, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ZIONISM 

Katriel Katz, Ambassador, Ministry 
for Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: 

SHILOAH, REUBEN 

Meir Katz, Ph.D.; Musicologist, 

Jerusalem: wieniawski, henri 

Nathan Katz*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Dept. of Religious Studies, Florida 
International University: india; 

KOCHI; MOTA, NEHEMIA 

Simha Katz, M.A.; Associate 
Editor, Encyclopaedia Judaica, and 
former General Associate Editor, 
Encyclopaedia Hebraica, Jerusalem: 

AXELROD, PAVEL BORISOVICH; BAAL- 
MAKHSHOVES; BAKU; BAUSKA; BOGROV, 
DMITRI; BORISOV; BUSEL, JOSEPH; 
BYKHOV; ELIJAH BEN ABRAHAM; ENGEL, 
JOEL; GALICIA; GRUSENBERG, OSCAR 
OSIPOVICH; GUENZBURG; GUENZBURG; 
HALICZ; HIRSCH, SAMSON RAPHAEL; 
ISSERLEIN, ISRAEL BEN PETHAHIAH; 
OCTOBRISTS; ORSHANSKI, ILYA 
GRIGORYEVICH; STEINBERG, ISAAC 
NAHMAN 



Steven T. Katz*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Religion, Director, Elie Wiesel 
Center for Judaic Studies, Boston 
University: agus, jacob b.; holocaust 

Nathaniel Katzburg, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of Jewish 
History, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat 

Gan: halukkah; Hungary; jeremiah 

BEN ISAAC; KITTSEE, HAYYIM BEN ISAAC; 
KITTSEE, JEHIEL MICHAEL BEN SAMUEL; 
KUNSTADT, ISAAC BEN ELIEZER LIPMAN; 
ONODY, GEZA; ORTHODOXY; RIVLIN, 
YOSEF YIZHAK 

Joy Katzen-Guthrie*, B.F.A., B.A.; 
Professional Writer and Recording 
Artist/Composer/Lyricist/Vocalist/ 
Pianist/Speaker/Historian/Heritage 
Tour Operator: Alaska 

H. Jacob Katzenstein, Ph.D.; 
Director of the Schocken Library, 
Jerusalem: hiram; jezebel; Phoenicia, 

PHOENICIANS; SCHOCKEN INSTITUTE 

Gideon Katznelson, M.A.; Lecturer 
in Modern Hebrew Literature, Tel 
Aviv University: lamdan, yizhak; 

SHALOM, SHIN; SHOFMAN, GERSHON 

Asher Kaufman*, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor, University of Notre 
Dame, Indiana: arab league 

Edy Kaufman, Ph.D.; Jerusalem: 

STUDENTS' MOVEMENTS, JEWISH 

Uri (Robert) Kaufmann*, Ph.D.; 
Historian, Wissenschaftliche 
Arbeitsgemeinschaft Leo Baeck 
Institut, Heidelberg, Germany: 

AARGAU; BASLE; BERNE; BIEL; BLOCH, 
ROLF; COHN; DREIFUSS, RUTH; DREYFUS; 
FARBSTEIN, DAVID; FEIGEL, SIGI; 
FRIBOURG; GENEVA; GOETSCHEL, JULES; 
GUGGENHEIM, CAMILLE; GUGGENHEIM, 
PAUL; GUGGENHEIM-GRUENBERG, 
FLORENCE; HERSCH, JEANNE; LA CHAUX- 
DE-FONDS; LAUSANNE; LUCERNE; 
SCHACHNOWITZ, SELIG; SCHAFFHAUSEN; 
STRECKFUSS, ADOLF FRIEDRICH KARL; 
SWITZERLAND; TEITLER, SAMUEL; 
ZURICH 

Ben G. Kayfetz, B.A.; Executive 
Director of National Joint 
Community Relations Committee, 
Canadian Jewish Congress and B nai 
B rith, Toronto: bennett, archie; 

CROLL, DAVID ARNOLD; DAVID; DE SOLA; 
FEUER, LEWIS SAMUEL; FRANKLIN, SELIM; 
FREIMAN; GELBER; GRAUBART, JUDAH 
LEIB; HART, AARON; HART, BENJAMIN; 



HART, EZEKIEL; HART, SAMUEL; LEWIS, 
DAVID; RHINEWINE, ABRAHAM; 
SALSBERG, JOSEPH B.; SASKATCHEWAN 

Gad Kaynar*, Dr.; Senior Lecturer, 
Department of Theater Studies, Tel 

Aviv University: Hebrew literature, 

MODERN; ISRAEL, STATE OF: CULTURAL 
LIFE 

Rudolf Kayser, Dr.Phil.; Assistant 
Professor of Germanic Language 
and Literature, Brandeis University, 
Waltham, Massachusetts: adler, 

PAUL; BAB, JULIUS; BIEBER, HUGO; 
BRUCKNER, FERDINAND; FRANK, 
BRUNO; GEIGER, LUDWIG; GERMAN 
LITERATURE; GUMPERT, MARTIN; HAAS, 
WILLY; HEILBORN, ERNST; HERMANN, 
GEORG; HOLITSCHER, ARTHUR; KAHANE, 
ARTHUR; KASTEIN, JOSEF; KERR, ALFRED; 
KISCH, EGON ERWIN; KORNFELD, PAUL; 
LANDSBERGER, ARTHUR; LEONHARD, 
RUDOLF; MEHRING, WALTER; MEYER, 
RICHARD MORITZ; NEUMANN, ALFRED; 
PUBLISHING; REHFISCH, HANS JOSE; 
ROTH, JOSEPH; RUBINER, LUDWIG; 
SEGHERS, ANNA; WOLFENSTEIN, ALFRED 

Stephen Kayser, Ph.D.; Former 
Curator of the Jewish Museum, New 
York; Los Angeles, California 

Chaim S. Kazdan, the Jewish 
Teachers' Seminary, New York: 

EDUCATION, JEWISH 

Hillel Kazovsky*: aberdam, Alfred; 

ADLER, JANKEL; ADLIVANKIN, SAMUIL; 
AIZENBERG, NINA; ALTMAN, NATHAN; 
ANISFELD, BORIS; APPELBAUM, MOSHE; 
ART: EASTERN EUROPE; AXELROD, 
MEYER; BARCINSKY, HENRYK; BENN; 
BERLEWI, HENRYK; BRAUNER, ISAAC; 
BRAZ, OSIP; BRAZER, ABRAM; BRODSKII, 
ISAAK; CENTERSZWER, STANISLAWA 

Nissim Kazzaz*, Ph.D.; Retired 
Academic, Omer, Israel: Baghdad ; 

IRAQ; MOSUL; ZAKHO 

Batya Kedar, Jerusalem: 

NETHERWORLD 

Benjamin Kedar, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Biblical Studies, Haifa University: 

BIBLE 

Zvi Kedar, M.A.; Ministry for 
Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem 

Martha Keil*, Dr.; Institut fur 
Geschichte der Juden in Osterreich, 
St. Polten, Austria: bankers and 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



BANKING; ISSERLEIN, ISRAEL BEN 
PETHAHIAH 

Jacob Kelemer, Jerusalem: parah; 

PEAH 

Hermann Kellenbenz, Dr. Phil.; 
Professor of Economic and Social 
History, the University of Cologne: 

BANKERS AND BANKING; COURT JEWS; 
SPICE TRADE; TRADE AND COMMERCE 

Mark Keller, Rutgers University, 

New Brunswick, New Jersey: 

DRUNKENNESS 

Sharon (Ruth) Keller*, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor, Bible and 
Ancient Semitic Languages, The 
Jewish Theological Seminary, New 
York: egypt 

Menachem Kellner*, Ph.D.; 
Professor, University of Haifa: 

SCHWARZSCHILD, STEVEN SAMUEL 

Wolfe Kelman, M.H.L., Rabbi; 
Executive Vice President, Rabbinical 
Assembly, New York: levy, felix 

ALEXANDER; MORGENSTERN, SOMA; 
RABBI, RABBINATE 

Aaron Kempinski, M.A., Lecturer 
in Ancient Near Eastern History and 
Archaeology; Tel Aviv University: 

LYDIA, LYDIANS 

Robert M.W. Kempner, LL.D.; 
Jurist and Chief Prosecutor, 
Nuremberg War Crimes Trials; 
Lansdowne, Pennsylvania: lawyers 

Isaiah L. Kenen, LL.B.; Executive 
Director of the American-Israel 
Public Affairs Committee, 
Washington, D.C.: united states of 

AMERICA 

Sharon Kenigsberg* : long beach 

Andreas Kennecke*, Dr. Phil.; 
Research Assistant, University 
of Potsdam, Germany: 

SCHLEIERMACHER, FRIEDRICH 

Moshe Kerem, M.A.; Lecturer 
in Education, Haifa University; 
Kibbutz Gesher ha-Ziv: kibbutz 

MOVEMENT 

Yitzchak Kerem* , Professor, 
Aristotle University, Thessalonika, 
Greece; Lecturer and Researcher, 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 



ALHANATI, DAVID; ANGEL, MARC 
D.; ARDITI, ALBERT JUDAH; ARTA; 
ATHENS; BELLELI, LAZARUS MENAHEM; 
BENSANCHI, MENTESH; CAIMIS, JULIUS; 
CANEA; CHIOS; COHEN, JOSEPH ISAAC; 
CORCOS, DAVID; CORCOS, STELLA; 
CORFU; CUOMOTINI; DALVEN, RACHEL; 
DIDYMOTEIKHON; DRAMA; ELAZAR, 
DANIEL J.; ELAZAR, YAAKOV; ELIYIA, 
JOSEPH; FRANCO, AVRAHAM; FRANCO, 
MOSES; GREECE; GREEK LITERATURE, 
MODERN; IOANNINA; KASTORIA; 
KAVALLA; KORETZ, ZVI; KOS; LARISSA; 
MAESTRO, YAAKOV; MATSAS, JOSEPH; 
MATSAS, NESTORAS; MOLHO, ISAAC 
RAPHAEL; NAUPAKTOS; NEHAMA, JOSEPH; 
NOVITCH, MIRIAM; PATRAS; PHLORINA; 
RAZON, JACKO; RECANATI, ABRAHAM 
SAMUEL; RHODES; SALEM, EMMANUEL 
RAPHAEL; SALONIKA; SCHIBY, BARUCH; 
SCIAKI, JOSEPH; SEPHARDIM; SERRAI; 
TRIKKALA; UZIEL, BARUCH; VEROIA; 
VOLOS; WORLD SEPHARDI FEDERATION; 
ZANTE 

Dov-Ber Kerler*, B.A., Dr.PhiL; 
Dr. Alice Field Cohn Chair in 
Yiddish Studies, Borns Jewish 
Studies Program and Department 
of Germanic Studies, Indiana 
University, Bloomington; Director 
of Indiana University Yiddish 
Ethnographic Project, Bloomington: 

KATZ, DOVID; KERLER, YOYSEF 

Elton J. Kerness, M.S.W.; Executive 
Director of the Jewish Community 
Council of Eastern Union County, 
New Jersey 

Anne J. Kershen, M.Phil.; Barnet 
Shine Senior Research Fellow and 
Director, Centre for the Study 
of Migration, Queen Mary and 
Westfield College, University of 
London: London 

Solomon Kerstein, Vice President, 
Bloch Publishing Company, New 
York: publishing 

Margery (Helen) Kerstine*, M.A.; 
Archivist, Temple Israel, Memphis: 

SAMFIELD, MAX 

J. Yeshurun Kesheth, Writer and 
Critic, Jerusalem: cahan, yaakov 

Carole S. Kessner*, Ph.D.; 
Professor, State University of New 
York at Stony Brook: eisenstein, 

JUDITH KAPLAN; LAZARUS, EMMA; 
SYRKIN, MARIE; WEISS-ROSMARIN, 
TRUDE 



Ruth Kestenberg-Gladstein, Ph.D.; 
External Teacher in the History of 
the Jewish People, Haifa University: 

BASSEVI OF TREUENBERG, JACOB; 
FAMILIANTS LAWS; HUSSITES 

Geoffrey Khan, Ph.D.; Research 
Assistant, Genizah Unit, Cambridge 
University Library: genizah, cairo 

Dan Kharuv, Ph.D.; Editor, The 
Shorter Jewish Encyclopaedia in 
Russian, Jerusalem: krimchaks 

Herman Kieval, M.H.L., Rabbi; 
Visiting Associate Professor 
of Practical Theology; Visiting 
Assistant Professor of Liturgy, 
the Jewish Theological Seminary 
of America, New York: barekhu; 

BARUKH; KOL NIDREI; NE'ILAH; PESUKEI 
DE-ZIMRA 

Andreas Kilcher*, Professor, 
Universitat Tubingen, Deutsches 
Seminar, Tubingen, Germany: ben- 

CHORIN, SCHALOM; BENJAMIN, WALTER; 
CANETTI, ELIAS; DOEBLIN, ALFRED; 
EHRENSTEIN, ALBERT; GOLDSTEIN, 
MORITZ; GUNDOLF, FRIEDRICH; HAAS, 
WILLY; HESSEL, FRANZ; HILSENRATH, 
EDGAR; HONIGMANN, BARBARA; KOLMAR, 
GERTRUD; KORNFELD, PAUL; KROJANKER, 
GUSTAV; LASKER-SCHUELER, ELSE; 
LESSING, THEODOR; MARGUL-SPERBER, 
ALFRED; MAUTHNER, FRITZ; MEHRING, 
WALTER; MORGENSTERN, SOMA; 
MYNONA; REICH-RANICKI, MARCEL 

Andreas Kilian*, M.A.; Frankfurt, 

Germany: sonderkommando, Jewish 

Joseph Kilinghofer 

Israel Kimhi*, M.A.; Geographer 
and Town Planner, Head of the 
Research Division on Jerusalem, The 
Jerusalem Institute for Israel Studies, 
and the Hebrew University School 
for Urban and Regional Studies, 
Jerusalem: Jerusalem 

Arie Kindler, Director of the 
Kadman Numismatic Museum, 
Tel Aviv: coins and currency; 

JUDENPFENNIGE; MERZBACHER; SHEKEL 

Stephen D. Kinsey*, M.A.; Middle 
School Teacher, J.W. Fair Middle 
School, San Jose, California: san jose 

Mark Kipnis, M.A.; Scientific 
Editor, Jewish Personalities 
Division of The Shorter Jewish 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Encyclopaedia in Russian, Jerusalem: 

CRIMEAN AFFAIR; GEKHT, SEMEN 
GRIGOREVICH; GOTS; GRULEV, MIKHAIL 
VLADIMIROVICH; GUKOVSKY, GRIGORY 
ALEKSANDROVICH; KIPEN, ALEKSANDR 
ABRAMOVICH; KNUT, DOVID; KOL'TSOV, 
MIKHAIL; KOMZET; LOTMAN, YURI 
MIKHAILOVICH; LOYTER, EFRAIM 
BARUKHOVICH; ZEMLYACHKA, ROZALIYA 
SAMOYLOVNA 

Aaron Kirschenbaum, Ph.D., 

Rabbi; Associate Professor of Jewish 
Law, Tel Aviv University: domicile; 

LEGAL MAXIMS; LEGAL PERSON; 
MEHILAH; ORPHAN, ORPHANAGE; 
SHI'BUDA DE-RABBI NATHAN 

Robert Kirschner*, Ph.D.; Los 
Angeles, California: herscher, 

URI DAVID; HOLOCAUST: SPIRITUAL 
RESISTANCE IN THE GHETTOS AND 
CONCENTRATION CAMPS; SKIRBALL 
CULTURAL CENTER 

Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett*, 

Ph.D.; Professor of Performance 
Studies, and Affiliated Professor 
of Hebrew and Judaic Studies, 
New York University, New York: 

COOKBOOKS, JEWISH 

Shimshon Leib Kirshenboim, 

Ph.D.; Educator, Jerusalem: 

DZIALOSZYCE; KALUSZYN; KATOWICE; 
KOLO; KOLOMYYA; KONSKIE; KOVEL; 
KREMENETS; KROSNO; KROTOSZYN; 
KUTNO; LESKOW; LESSER POLAND; 
LIPNO; LODZ; LUBLIN; LUTSK; MINSK 
MAZOWIECKI; NAROL; NASIELSK; 
OZORKOW; PABIANICE; PEREMYSHLYANY; 
PIASECZNO; PLONSK; PODGAITSY; 
PODKAMEN; PODVOLOCHISK; PRUZHANY; 
PRZEDBORZ; PRZEMYSL; PRZEWORSK; 
PRZYSUCHA; RADYMNO; RADZYMIN; 
RADZYN; ROGATIN; ROPCZYCE; 
RYMANOW; RYPIN; SASOV; SATANOV; 
SHARGOROD; SOKOLOW PODLASKI; 
STASZOW; STOPNICA; STRYKOW; 
SZCZEBRZESZYN; TYKOCIN; WLODAWA; 
WOLOMIN; WRONKI; WYSZOGROD; 
ZAWIERCIE; ZMIGROD NOWY; ZWOLEN; 
ZYCHLIN 

Meir Jacob Kister, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Arabic Language and Literature, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

HADITH 

Menahem Kister*: avot de-rabbi 

NATHAN 

Melissa (R.) Klapper*, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor of History, 



Rowan University, Glassboro, New 
Jersey: hassenfeld, sylvia kay 

Manfred Klarberg, M.A.; 
Department of Humanities, 
Footscray College of Technology, 
Footscray, Victoria, Australia: aaron 

BEN SAMUEL 

Traci M. Klass*, Ph.D.; Visiting 
Faculty, English, University of 
Florida, Wellington, Florida: moss, 

CELIA and MARION 

Jacob Klatzkin, Dr.Phil.; 
Philosopher and Editor in Chief 
of the Encyclopaedia Judaica 
(Germany); Berlin: armilus; 

AUGUSTINE; INFORMERS 

Israel Klausner, Ph.D.; Historian 
and former Deputy Director of 
the Central Zionist Archives, 
Jerusalem: ben-ammi, mordecai; 

CAZALET, EDWARD; DEMOCRATIC 
FRACTION; ELIJAH BEN SOLOMON 
ZALMAN; FRIEDLAND, NATAN; GLIKIN, 
MOSHE; GROSSMAN, MEIR; JAFFE, 
MORDECAI-GIMPEL; KATTOWITZ 
CONFERENCE; KRAUSE, ELIYAHU; LIPPE, 
KARPEL; MINSK CONFERENCE; MUYAL, 
AVRAHAM; NES ZIYYONAH; NETTER, 
CHARLES; NEWLINSKI, PHILIPP MICHAEL; 
ODESSA COMMITTEE; PINELES, SAMUEL; 
SNEERSOHN, HAYYIM ZEVI; VILNA; 
WEITZ, NAPHTALI 

Joseph Gedaliah Klausner, 

Dr. Phil. Emeritus Professor of 
Hebrew Literature and of the 
Second Temple Period, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: Alexander 

SUSSKIND BEN MOSES OF GRODNO; 
BEN-YEHUDA, ELIEZER; BERNFELD, 
SIMON; ESCHATOLOGY; MASIE, AARON 
MEIR; USSISHKIN, ABRAHAM MENAHEM 
MENDEL 

Yehuda Arye Klausner, Ph.D.; 
Writer and Scholar, Jerusalem: 

ACROSTICS; JUNOSZA, KLEMENS; MEZAH, 
JOSHUA HA-LEVI; MICKIEWlCZ, ADAM; 
MULDER, SAMUEL ISRAEL; ORZESZKOWA, 
ELIZA; PERETZ, ISAAC LEIB 

Benjamin J. Klebaner, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Economics, City 
College of the City University of 
New York: lipson, ephraim 

Claude Klein, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Law, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: 

LAWYERS 



Hilel Klein, M.D.; Jerusalem: 

FENICHEL, OTTO 

Isaac Klein, Ph.D., Rabbi; Lecturer 
in Philosophy, the State University 
of New York at Buffalo: hoschander, 

JACOB; HYAMSON, MOSES; MINHAGIM 
BOOKS; RECANATI; ZAHALON 

Jacqueline Klein* : passaicclifton 

Joseph Klein, M.H.L., Rabbi; 
Lecturer in Biblical Literature, 
Clark University, Worcester, 
Massachusetts: Worcester 

Nancy (H.) Klein*, M.A.; Retired, 

Cincinnati: Cincinnati; feinberg, 

LOUIS; SCHMIDT, SAMUEL MYER 

Robert B. Klein*, M.Ed.; English 
Teacher; Freelance Journalist, 
Yeshiva High School of Mitzpeh 
Ramon, Israel: roth, mark; rudolph, 

MARVIN; SAMPRAS, PETE; SCHAYES, 
ADOLPH; SCHECKTER, JODY; SCHNEIDER, 
MATHIEU; SELIG, ALLAN H.; SHERMAN, 
ALEXANDER; SLUTSKAYA, IRINA; 
SOLOMON, HAROLD; SPELLMAN, 
FRANK; STERN, BILL; STILLMAN, 
LOUIS; STRUG, KERRI; SZEKELY, EVA; 
TANENBAUM, SIDNEY HAROLD; 
ZASLOVSKY, MAX 

Rudolf Klein*, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Architecture, Tel Aviv University, 
The David Azrieli School of 
Architecture; Saint Steven 
University, Ybl Miklos Faculty of 
Architecture, Budapest: baumhorn, 

LIPOT; SYNAGOGUE 

MaxM. Kleinbaum, M.A.; 

American Jewish Congress, 
Philadelphia: bergen county 

Michael L. Klein-Katz, Rabbi; 
Spiritual Leader, Teacher, and 
Storyteller, Jerusalem 

Heszel Klepfisz, Ph.D., Litt. D., 
Rabbi; Rector of the Instituto 
Alberto Einstein; Professor of Judaic 
Culture, the University of Panama 

Jean (C.) Klerman*, B.A., M.L.S.; 
Principal Librarian, Monmouth 
County (retired), Co-President, 
Jewish Heritage Museum of 
Monmouth County, New Jersey: 

MONMOUTH COUNTY 

Bronia Klibanski, B.A.; Archivist, 
Jerusalem: bialystok 



108 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Ignacio Klich, Ph.D.; School 
of Languages, Faculty of Law, 
Languages and Communication, 
University of Westminster, London: 

ARGENTINA 

Barnet David Klien, M.A., Rabbi; 
Jerusalem: baraita of 32 rules 

Sam Kliger*, Ph.D.; Director 
of Russian Jewish Affairs, The 
American Jewish Committee, New 
York: new york city 

Jerome Klinkowitz*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of English, University of 
Northern Iowa: apple, max 

Alan Klugman*: palm springs and 

DESERT AREA 

Brian Knei-Paz (Knapheis), M.A.; 
Instructor in Political Science, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

BELOFF, MAX; BERLIN, SIR ISAIAH 

Andrea Knight*, M.A.; Editor, 

Toronto, Canada: frum ; grafstein, 

JERAHMIEL S.; MORGENTALER, HENRY; 
SHARP, ISADOR NATANIEL 

Hugo Knoepfmacher, D.Jur.; 
Government Official, Washington, 

D.C.: NATIONALRAT; NEUZEIT, DIE; 
PARLAMENTSKLUB, JUEDISCHER; 
PICK, ALOIS; SEIPEL, IGNAZ; STEUSS, 
DAVID; SZANTO, SIMON; UNION, 
OESTERREICHISCH-ISRAELITISCHE; 
VOLKSPARTEI, JUEDISCHE; 
ZENTRALSTELLE DER FUERSORGE FUER 
KRIEGSFLUECHTLINGE 

Harry Knopf, D.iur.Utr.; Advocate, 
Tel Aviv: restitution and 

INDEMNIFICATION 

Ann-Kristin Koch*, M.A.; Ph.D.; 
Student, University of Tubingen, 
Tubingen, Germany: aichinger, 

ILSE; AMERY, JEAN; BROCH, HERMANN; 
ELOESSER, ARTHUR; FRIED, ERICH; GOLL, 
CLAIRE; GOLL, YVAN; JELINEK, ELFRIEDE; 
KLEMPERER, VICTOR; LEWALD, FANNY; 
TABORI, GEORG 

Lionel Kochan, Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
Jewish History, the University of 
Warwick, Coventry: kristallnacht 

Moshe Kochavi, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Archaeology, Tel Aviv 
University: egypt, brook of ; ephrath 

David Koenigstein*, M.A.T., 



M.L.S.; Assistant Professor, 
Librarian, Bronx Community 
College of the City University of 
New York: levertov, denise 

Barry (Sherman) Kogan*, 

M.A.H.L., Ph.D.; Efroymson 
Professor of Philosophy and Jewish 
Religious Thought, Hebrew Union 
College- Jewish Institute of Religion, 
Cincinnati: cause and effect 

Mendel Kohansky, Theater critic, 

Tel Aviv: bernstein-cohen, miriam; 

HAIFA MUNICIPAL THEATER; HALEVY, 
MOSHE; MERON, HANNA; MESKIN, 
AHARON; OHEL; ROVINA, HANNA 

Sami Kohen, M.A.; Journalist, 
Istanbul 

Shira Kohn*, Ph.D.; New York 
University: hillman, bessie "bas 

SHEVA" ABRAMOWITZ; NATHAN, MAUD 

S. Joshua Kohn, D.H.L., Rabbi; 

Trenton, New Jersey: naar, david-, 

TRENTON 

Yehudah Pinhas Leo Kohn, LL.D.; 
Jurist and Diplomat, Jerusalem: 

BRODETSKY, SELIG; HYDE, THOMAS 

Moshe Kol, Minister of Tourism, 
Jerusalem: ha-oved ha-ziyyoni 

Israel Kolatt, Ph.D.; Senior Lecturer 
in Contemporary Jewry, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: Israel, state 

OF: LABOR 

Yehuda Komlosh, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Senior Lecturer in Bible, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: sellin, ernsT; 

TARGUM SHENI; WIENER, HAROLD 
MARCUS; ZERAH BEN NATHAN OF TROKI 

Eva Kondor, Jerusalem: 

BAUMGARTEN, SANDOR; BOHM, 
HENRIK; FREUND, VILMOS; HAJOS, 
ALFRED; HEGEDUS, ARMIN; SEBESTYEN, 
ARTUR; STERK, IZIDOR; HUNGARIAN 
LITERATURE; JAKAB, DEZSO and KOMOR, 
MARCELL; KARINTHY, FERENC; KERTESZ 
IMRE; KONRAD, GYORGY; LAJTA, BELA; 
MALNAI, BELA; QITTNER, ZSIGMOND; 
SPIRO, GYORGY; SZENDE, STEFAN; VAGO, 
JOZSEF; VAGO, LASZLO; VANDOR, LAJOS; 
VAS, ISTVAN 

Milton Ridvas Konvitz, Ph.D.; 
Professor Emeritus of Industrial 
and Labor Relations and of Law, 
Cornell University, New York: 



AUERBACH, CARL A.; BICKEL, ALEXANDER 
M.; BOTEIN, BERNARD; DERSHOWITZ, 
ALAN M.; DWORKIN, RONALD; FEINBERG, 
ROBERT; FRIENDLY, HENRY JACOB; 
GOLDMAN, PAUL L.; GOLDMAN, SIDNEY; 
GOULD, MILTON S.; HELLER, BERNARD; 
KAMPELMAN, MAX M.; LEVIN, A. LEO; 
PILCH, JUDAH; SHEINKMAN, JACOB; 
SILVER, EDWARD S.; WACHTLER, SOL; 
WILENTZ, ROBERT N.; YANKOWICH, LEON 
RENE; ZUKERMAN, JACOB T. 

Lothar Kopf, Ph.D.; the Jewish 
National and University Library, 
Jerusalem: gershon ben solomon of 

ARLES; WEIL, GOTTHOLD 

Lionel Koppman, M.A.; 
Director, Public Information and 
Publications, National Jewish 
Welfare Board, New York 

Nathan Koren, M.D.; Historian, 

Jerusalem: albu, isidor; ballin, 

SAMUEL JACOB; MAGNUS, RUDOLPH 

Sharon Faye Koren*, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor of Medieval 
Jewish Culture, Hebrew Union 
College -Jewish Institute of Religion, 
New York: shekhinah 

Yedidah Koren*: arakhin; 

BEKHOROT 

William Korey, Ph.D.; Director 
of the B'nai B 'rith United Nations 
Office, New York: babi yar ; 

DISCRIMINATION; EISENMANN, LOUIS; 
MITIN, MARK BORISOVICH; PIPES, 
RICHARD EDGAR; YAROSLAVSKY, 
YEMELYAN; ZINOVIEV, GRIGORI 
YEVSEYEVICH 

Bertram Wallace Korn, D.H.L., 
Rabbi; Historian, Elkins Park, 
Pennsylvania: Alabama ; benjamin, 

JUDAH PHILIP; BONDI, AUGUST; BONDI, 
JONAS; BUSH, ISIDOR; CRESSON, WARDER; 
DAROFF, SAMUEL H.; DROPSIE, MOSES 
AARON; FLEISHER; GOTTHEIL, GUSTAV; 
GRANT, ULYSSES SIMPSON; GREENFIELD, 
ALBERT MONROE; GUTHEIM, JAMES 
KOPPEL; HART, ABRAHAM; HART, 
BERNARD; HART, EMANUEL BERNARD; 
LEVY, MOSES ELIAS; LINCOLN, ABRAHAM; 
LIT; LOUISIANA; MORWITZ, EDWARD; 
MOSS, JOHN; PHILADELPHIA; PINNER, 
MORITZ; SLAVE TRADE; TOURO, JUDAH; 
UNION OF REFORM JUDAISM 

Eli Kornreich*, B.A., M.S., M.A.; 
President, JCC of Eastern Fairfield 
County, Bridgeport, CT: Bridgeport 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Pawel Korzec, Ph.D.; Research 
Associate of the Centre National 
de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris: 

BOYCOTT, ANTI-JEWISH 

David Kotlar, C.E.; Lecturer in 
Jewish History, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: mikveh 

Gideon Kouts, Israeli 
Correspondent and Journalist, 
Paris: attali, jacques; badinter, 

ROBERT; BENN; BLEUSTEIN-BLANCHET, 
MARCEL; DANIEL, JEAN; ELKABBACH, 
JEAN-PIERRE; ELKANN, JEAN-PAUL; 
FABIUS, LAURENT; FINKIELKRAUT, 
ALAIN; FITERMAN, CHARLES; KAHN, 
JEAN; KLEIN, THEODORE; KOUCHNER, 
BERNARD; KRASUCKI, HENRI; KRIEGEL, 
ANNIE; LANG, JACK; LANZMANN, 
CLAUDE; MNOUCHKINE, ALEXANDRE; 
MOATI, SERGE; MODIANO, PATRICK; 
OURY, GERARD; ROULEAU, ERIC; 
SCHWARTZENBERG, ROGER-GERARD; 
STRAUSS-KAHN, DOMINIQUE; TIM; 
ZAFRANI, HAIM; ZIONISM 

Santiago Ezequiel Kovadloff, 

Licenciado en Filosofia; Writer, 
Translator, Professor of Classical 
Philosophy, Buenos Aires: Spanish 

AND PORTUGUESE LITERATURE 

Joel Kraemer, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Assistant Professor of Arabic and 
Islamic Studies, Yale University, 
New Haven, Connecticut: atomism; 

CAIN; EMANATION; FARABl, ABU NASR 
MUHAMMAD, AL-; HALLO, RUDOLF; 
MICROCOSM; NEOPLATONISM 

Helen Kragness-Romanishan, 

M.A.; Educator, Wichita, Kansas: 

KANSAS 

Stefan Krakowski, M.A.; Yad 
Vashem, Jerusalem: augustow; 

BEDZIN; BELZYCE; BIALA PODLASKA; 
BIELSKO; BILGORAJ; BOCHNIA; CHECINY; 
CHELM; CHMIELNIK; CHORZOW; 
CHRYZANOW; CRACOW; CZESTOCHOWA; 
DABROWA GORNICZA; DZIALOSZYCE; 
GLIWICE; GORA KALWARIA; GROJEC; 
HRUBIESZOW; IZBICA LUBELSKA; 
JANOW LUBELSKI; JASLO; JEDRZEJOW; 
KALUSZYN; KATOWICE; KIELCE; KONSKIE; 
KONSKOWOLA; KRASNIK; KROSNO; 
LODZ; LOWICZ; LUBLIN; MAKOW 
MAZOWIECKI; MIEDZYRZEC PODLASK; 
MINSK MAZOWIECKI; NOWY SACZ; 
OPOCZNO; OPOLE LUBELSKIE; OSTROW 
MAZOWIECKA; OTWOCK; PARCZEW; 
POLAND; PRZYTYK; PULAWY; PULTUSK; 
RADOM; RADOMSKO; RADZYN; RZESZOW; 



SANDOMIERZ; SANOK; SIEDLCE; 
SKARZYSKO-KAMIENNA;SKIERNIEWICE; 
SOKOLOW PODLASKI; SOSNOWIEC; 
STUTTHOF; SZCZEBRZESZYN; TARNOW; 
TOMASZOW LUBELSKI; TOMASZOW 
MAZOWIECKI; WARSAW; WEGROW; 
WLODAWA; WYSZKOW; ZAMOSC; 
ZAWIERCIE; ZELECHOW; ZYRARDOW 

Shmuel Krakowsky* 

Robin Kramer*: wolf, Alfred 

Samuel Noah Kramer, Ph.D.; 
Emeritus Research Professor of 
Assyriology, the University of 
Pennsylvania, Philadelphia: sumer, 

SUMERIANS 

William M. Kramer, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Emeritus Professor, California State 
University at Northridge 

Rachel Kranson*, Ph.D.; History, 
Hebrew and Judaic Studies, New 
York University: international 

LADIES GARMENT WORKERS UNION; 
SHAVELSON, CLARA LEMLICH 

Jonathan Krasner*, Ph.D.; 
Professor, Hebrew Union College- 
Jewish Institute of Religion, 
Cincinnati, Ohio: gamoran, mamie 

GOLDSMITH 

Elisabeth Kraus*: mosse 

Naftali Kraus, Journalist, Tel Aviv: 

HUNGARY; ROMANIA 

Adonijahu Krauss, M.A., Rabbi; 
Jerusalem: krauss, judah ha-kohen; 

KROCH, JACOB LEIB BEN SHEMAIAH 

Ernest Krausz, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Sociology, the City University, 
London: England; London 

Leonard S. Kravitz, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Professor of Midrash and 
Homiletics, the Hebrew Union 
College- Jewish Institute of Religion, 
New York 

Yulia Kreinin*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer, Department of 
Musicology, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: arom, simha; babbitt, 

MILTON; BOTSTEIN, LEON; DORFMAN, 
JOSEPH; FELDMAN, MORTON; FOSS, 
LUKAS; GLASS, PHILIP; HAUBENSTOCK- 
RAMATI, ROMAN; HIRSHBERG, 
JEHOASH; JAFFE, ELI; KOPYTMAN, MARK 
RUVIMOVICH; LEIBOWITZ, RENE; LIGETI, 



GYORGY; REICH, STEVE; ROCHBERG, 
GEORGE; ROSEN, CHARLES; SCHNITTKE, 
ALFRED; SCHOENBERG, ARNOLD; 
TANSMAN, ALEXANDER; THOMAS, 
MICHAEL TILSON; VOGEL, WLADIMIR; 
WEILL, KURT 

Howard (Haim) Kreisel*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Medieval Jewish 
Philosophy, Ben-Gurion University 

of the Negev, Beersheba: nissim ben 

MOSES OF MARSEILLES; PROPHETS AND 
PROPHECY; RU'AH HA-KODESH 

Benjamin Z. Kreitman: epstein, 

LOUIS M. 

Getzel Kressel, Writer and 
Bibliographer, Holon, Israel: abeles, 

OTTO; AGMON, NATHAN; AHDUT HA- 
AVODAH; AKAVYA, AVRAHAM ARYEH 
LEIB; ALBALA, DAVID; ALKALAI, DAVID; 
ASHMAN, AHARON; ATLAS, ELEAZAR; 
AUERBACH, ISRAEL; AVI-SHAUL, 
MORDEKHAI; BADER, GERSHOM; BAK; 
BARBASH, SAMUEL; BARNETT, ZERAH; 
BARUCH, JOSEPH MARCOU; BATO, 
LUDWIG YOMTOV; BEHAK, JUDAH; 
BEILIN, ASHER; BEILINSON, MOSHE; 
BEN ELIEZER, MOSHE; BEN-AMITAI, 
LEVI; BENEI MOSHE; BEN-YEHEZKI'EL, 
MORDEKHAI; BEN-YEHUDA, HEMDAH; 
BEN-ZVI, RAHEL YANAIT; BEREGI, ARMIN 
BENJAMIN; BERGSTEIN, FANIA; BERTINI, 
K. AHARON; BIBAS; BIERER, RUBIN; 
BIKKUREI HA-ITTIM; BILU; BODEK, JACOB; 
BOSAK, MEIR; BRAUDE, MARKUS; BRILL, 
JEHIEL; BROIDES, ABRAHAM; BUSTENAI; 
BUXBAUM, NATHAN; CARMOLY, ELIAKIM; 
CASTIGLIONI, HAYYIM; CHOMSKY, DOV; 
CHURGIN, YAAKOV YEHOSHUA; COEN, 
GRAZIADIO VITA ANANIA; COHEN, 
ISRAEL; COHN, EMIL MOSES; COWEN, 
JOSEPH; CREIZENACH, MICHAEL; DAGON, 
BARUKH; DAVAR; DEEDES, SIR WYNDHAM; 
DEINARD, EPHRAIM; DELLA TORRE, 
LELIO; DOAR HA-YOM; DON-YAHIA, 
YEHUDAH LEIB; DUNANT, JEAN HENRI; 
DYKMAN, SHLOMO; EDER, MONTAGUE 
DAVID; EICHENBAUM, JACOB; EISLER, 
EDMUND MENAHEM; ELAZARI-VOLCANI, 
YIZHAK; ELIASBERG, MORDECAI; ESRA; 
EVEN-SHOSHAN, AVRAHAM; EVER 
HADANI; FADENHECHT, YEHOSHUA; 
FAHN, REUBEN; FARBSTEIN, DAVID 
ZEVI; FARBSTEIN, JOSHUA HESCHEL; 
FEDER, TOBIAS; FEITELSON, MENAHEM 
MENDEL; FELD, ISAAC; FERNHOF, ISAAC; 
FISCHER, JEAN; FISCHMANN, NAHMAN 
ISAAC; FLEISCHER, JUDAH LOEB; 
FRAENKEL, ISAAC SECKEL; FRANKEL, 
NAOMI; FREDERICK I; FRIEDEMANN, 
ADOLF; FRIEDMANN, DAVID ARYEH; 
GALAI, BINYAMIN; GAMZU, HAYYIM; 



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GAON, MOSES DAVID; GAWLER, GEORGE; 
GESANG, NATHAN-NACHMAN; GILEAD, 
ZERUBAVEL; GILYONOT; GLASNER, 
MOSES SAMUEL; GOLDBERG, ABRAHAM; 
GOLDENBERG, BAERISH; GOLDENBERG, 
SAMUEL LEIB; GOLDHAMMER-SAHAWI, 
LEO; GOLDIN, EZRA; GOLDMAN, YA'AKOV 
BEN ASHER; GOLDSTEIN, ALEXANDER; 
GORDON, DAVID; GORDON, SAMUEL 
LEIB; GOREN, NATAN; GOSLAR, HANS; 
GOTTLIEB, HIRSCH LEIB; GOTTLIEB, 
YEHOSHUA; GRAEBER, SCHEALTIEL 
EISIK; GREENBERG, LEOPOLD JACOB; 
GROSS, NATHAN; GUEDALLA, HAIM; 
GUEDEMANN, MORITZ; GUENZIG, 
EZRIEL; GUTTMACHER, ELIJAH; HA- 
ASIF; HABAS, BRACHA; HA-BOKER; 
HAEZRAHI, YEHUDA; HA-LEVANON; 
HALPERN, GEORG GAD; HA-MAGGID; 
HA-MELIZ; HAMENAHEM, EZRA; HA- 
ME'ORER; HA-MIZPEH; HANNOVER, 
RAPHAEL LEVI; HAOLAM; HA-PO'EL 
HA-ZATR; HA-SHILO'AH; HA-TEKUFAH; 
HAUSNER, BERNARD; HAVAZZELET; 
HA-YOM; HA-ZEFIRAH; HA-ZOFEH; 
HECHLER, WILLIAM HENRY; HEFER, 
HAYIM; HE-HALUTZ; HELLER, JOSEPH 
ELIJAH; HELLMAN, JACOB; HELSINGFORS 
PROGRAM; HERBST, KARL; HERRMANN, 
HUGO; HESS, MOSES; HICKL, MAX; 
HODESS, JACOB; HOFFMANN, JACOB; 
HOGA, STANISLAV; HORODISCHTSCH, 
LEON; HOROWITZ, YA'AKOV; HURWITZ, 
SAUL ISRAEL; ISH-KISHOR, EPHRAIM; 
ISRAEL, STATE OF: CULTURAL LIFE; JAFFE, 
ABRAHAM B.; JANNER, BARNETT, LORD; 
JARBLUM, MARC; JUEDISCHER VERLAG; 
K. ZETNIK; KADARI, SHRAGA; KADIMAH; 
KALEF, YEHOSHUA; KALISCHER, ZEVI 
HIRSCH; KAMSON, YA'AKOV DAVID; 
KANN, JACOBUS HENRICUS; KAPLAN, 
PESAH; KARIV, AVRAHAM YIZHAK; KARU, 
BARUCH; KASHER, MENAHEM; KATZ, 
BENZION; KATZENELSON, BARUCH; 
KATZNELSON, RAHEL; KAZNELSON, 
SIEGMUND; KELLNER, LEON; KENAANI, 
DAVID; KEREM HEMED; KESHET, 
YESHURUN; KESSLER, LEOPOLD; KIMHI, 
DOV; KINDERFREUND, ARYEH LEIB; 
KIPNIS, LEVIN; KISHON, EPHRAIM; 
KLAUSNER, ISRAEL; KLEE, ALFRED; 
KLEINMANN, MOSHE; KLUMEL, MEIR; 
KOHELETH MUSSAR; KOHEN-ZEDEK, 
JOSEPH; KOKESCH, OZER; KORKIS, 
ABRAHAM ADOLF; KOVNER, ABBA; 
KROCHMAL, ABRAHAM; KROJANKER, 
GUSTAV; LANDAU, LEIBUSH MENDEL; 
LANDAU, MOSES; LANDAU, SAUL 
RAPHAEL; LAUTERBACH, ASHER 
ZELIG; LEVI-BIANCHINI, ANGELO; 
LEVIN, ALTER ISAAC; LEVNER, ISRAEL 
BENJAMIN; LEWINSKY, YOM-TOV; 
LEWYSOHN, YEHUDI LEIB LUDWIG; 
LICHTENBAUM, JOSEPH; LICHTHEIM, 



RICHARD; LIPSON, MORDEKHAI; 
LORJE, CHAIM; LUBOSHITZKI, AARON; 
LUDVIPOL, ABRAHAM; LUIDOR, JOSEPH; 
MACCOBY, HAYYIM ZUNDEL; MAHLER, 
ARTHUR; MAIMON, ADA; MARGOLIN, 
ELIEZER; MEHLSACK, ELIAKIM BEN 
JUDAH HA-MILZAHGI; MEISL, JOSEPH; 
MEITUS, ELIAHU; MELTZER, SHIMSHON; 
MENDELSOHN, FRANKFURT MOSES; 
MICHALI, BINYAMIN YIZHAK; MIESES, 
FABIUS; MIESIS, JUDAH LEIB; MIRSKY, 
AARON; MOHR, ABRAHAM MENAHEM 
MENDEL; MOHR, MEIR; MORDELL, 
PHINEHAS; MORDOVTSEV, DANIIL 
LUKICH; MOSER, JACOB; NEWSPAPERS 
AND PERIODICALS, HEBREW; 
NEWSPAPERS, HEBREW; NISSENBAUM, 
ISAAC; NOBEL, NEHEMIAH ANTON; 
NOSSIG, ALFRED; NUSSENBLATH, 
TULO; OFEK, URIEL; OLSCHWANGER, 
ISAAC WOLF; OLSVANGER, IMMANUEL; 
OMER, HILLEL; OPPENHEIM, DAVID; 
OPPENHEIM, HAYYIM; ORLAND, YAAKOV; 
OTTENSOSSER, DAVID; OTTOLENGHI, 
MOSES JACOB; OVSAY, JOSHUA; OVSAY, 
JOSHUA; PAPERNA, ABRAHAM BARUCH; 
PENN, ALEXANDER; PENUELI, SHEMUEL 
YESHAYAHU; PERI EZ-HAYYIM; PERLMAN, 
SAMUEL; PINES, NOAH; POZNANSKY, 
MENAHEM; PROBST, MENAHEM MENDEL; 
PROTESTRABBINER; RABBI BINYAMIN; 
RABINOVITZ, ALEXANDER SISKIND; 
RABINOWITZ, YA'AKOV; RABINOWITZ, 
ZEVI HA-COHEN; RABINOWITZ, ZINA; 
RAWNITZKI, YEHOSHUA HANA; REINES, 
ISAAC JACOB; REUVENI, AHARON; 
RIMON, JACOB; RINGEL, MICHAEL; 
RIVLIN, ELIEZER; ROKACH, ELEAZAR; 
ROKEAH, DAVID; ROMANO, MARCO; 
ROSEN, ABRAHAM; ROSENFELD, 
AHARON; ROTENSTREICH, FISCHEL; 
ROTHSCHILD, BARON EDMOND JAMES 
DE; RUBIN, SOLOMON; RUBINSTEIN, 
ISAAC; RUEBNER, TUVIA; RUELF, 
ISAAC; SACERDOTI, ANGELO-RAPHAEL 
CHAIM; SACHER, HARRY; SACHS, 
SENIOR; SALVENDI, ADOLF; SAN REMO 
CONFERENCE; SATANOW, ISAAC; 
SCHACH, FABIUS; SCHACHTEL, HUGO- 
HILLEL; SCHAECHTER, JOSEPH; SCHALIT, 
ISIDOR; SCHAPIRA, NOAH; SCHATZ, ZEVI; 
SCHERLAG, MARK; SCHILLER, SOLOMON; 
SCHNEIDER, MORDECAI BEZALEL; 
SCHNIRER, MORITZ TOBIAS; SCHORR, 
NAPHTALI MENDEL; SCHRENZEL, MOSES; 
SCHWARZBART, ISAAC IGNACY; SCHWEID, 
ELIEZER; SELBSTEMANZIPATION; SENED, 
ALEXANDER; SHAANAN, AVRAHAM; 
SHALEV, YITZHAK; SHAMI, YITZHAK; 
SHAPIRA, HAYYIM NACHMAN; SHAPIRO, 
ABBA CONSTANTIN; SHOHETMAN, 
BARUCH; SHREIER, FEIWEL; SHURER, 
HAIM; SILMAN, KADISH YEHUDA LEIB; 
SIMON, JULIUS; SIMON, SIR LEON; 



SLUTZKI, DAVID; SMILANSKY, MEIR; 
SMOLI, ELIEZER; SOKOLOW, NAHUM; 
STAVI, MOSES; STEIN, LEONARD; 
STEINMAN, ELIEZER; STERN, MAX 
EMANUEL; STRAUSS, ARYEH LUDWIG; 
STREIT, SHALOM; STRELISKER, MARCUS; 
SUSSMAN, EZRA; TABlB, MORDEKHAI; 
TALPIR, GABRIEL JOSEPH; TAUBES, 
LOEBEL; TCHERNOWITZ, SAMUEL; 
TCHERNOWITZ-AVIDAR, YEMIMAH; 
TELLER, ZEVI LAZAR; TEMKIN; TENE, 
BENJAMIN; TEVET, SHABBETAI; 
TOCHNER, MESHULLAM; TRIWOSCH, 
JOSEPH ELIJAH; TRUNK, ISRAEL JOSHUA; 
UKHMANI, AZRIEL; UNGERFELD, 
MOSHE; VAN PAASSEN, PIERRE; VITKIN, 
JOSEPH; WALLACH, MOSHE; WERNER, 
SIEGMUND; WISSOTZKY, KALONYMUS 
ZE'EV; WOLFFSOHN, DAVID; WOLFOWSKI, 
MENAHEM ZALMAN; WOLFSOHN-HALLE, 
AARON; WORTSMAN, YECHESKIEL 
CHARLES; YAARI, YEHUDAH; YALAN- 
STEKELIS, MIRIAM; YEIVIN, YEHOSHUA 
HESCHEL; ZAMOSC, DAVID; ZAMOSC, 
ISRAEL BEN MOSES HALEVI; ZARCHI, 
ISRAEL; ZEITLIN, WILLIAM; ZERUBAVEL, 
JACOB; ZIONISM; ZIONIST CONGRESSES; 
ZIPPER, GERSHON; ZLOCISTI, 
THEODOR 

Marie Luise Kreuter*, Dr., Phil.; 
Freelancer Researcher, Addisabeba, 
Ethiopia: Ecuador 

Samson Jacob Kreutner, Former 
Director General, Keren Hayesod - 
U.I.A., Jerusalem 

Max Kreutzberger, Ph.D.; Former 
Director of the Leo Baeck Institute, 
New York; Ascona, Switzerland: leo 

BAECK INSTITUTE 

Conny Kristel*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Research Fellow, Netherlands 
Institute for War Documentation, 
Amsterdam, The Netherlands: jong, 

LOUIS DE; PRESSER, JACOB 

Jelka (J.) Kroger(-Verhorst)*, M.A.; 
Art Editor and Researcher, Jewish 
Historical Museum, Amsterdam, 
The Netherlands: haan, meijer DE; 

HAGUE, THE 

Frederic Krome*, Ph.D.; Managing 
Editor, The American Jewish 
Archives Journal and Adjunct 
Professor of Judaic Studies and 
History, American Jewish Archives, 
Cincinnati, Ohio: aaronsohn, 

MICHAEL 

Simcha Kruger, B.S.; Librarian, 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



ill 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



New York: freidus, Abraham 

SOLOMON 

Mikhail Krutikov*, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of Jewish -Slavic Cultural 
Relations, University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor: estraikh, gennady; 

SANDLER, BORIS; WIENER, MEIR 

Andreas Kubinyi, Dr. Phil.; 
Lecturer in History, Eotvos Lorand 
University, Budapest: mendel; 

PRAEFECTUS JUDAEORUM; SZERENCSES, 
IMRE 

Hyman Kublin, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History, Brooklyn College of 
the City University of New York: 

HAZZAN; JAPAN; KOBAYASHI, MASAYUKI; 
KOTSUJI, SETSUZO; RIESS, LUDWIG; 
TOKYO 

Erich Kulka, Historian, Jerusalem: 

BRATISLAVA; CZECHOSLOVAKIA; KOSICE; 
LOEBL, EUGEN; LONDON, ARTUR; 
PRAGUE; SICHER, GUSTAV; UHERSKY 
BROD 

Otto Dov Kulka, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Modern Jewish History, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

AUSTRIA; ETTINGER, SHMUEL; 
THERESIENSTADT 

Yuri Kulker, Jerusalem: kushner, 

ALEKSANDER SEMENOVICH 

Linda S. Kulp*: Atlantic city 

M. (Muhammed) Mustafa Kulu*, 

M.A.; Research Assistant, Middle 
East Technical University, Ankara, 
Turkey: bayramic; canakkale; ezine; 

KOILA; LAPSEKI; PARIUM 

S. (Shirley) Kumove*, Writer 
and Yiddish Translator, American 
Literary Translators Association, 
Texas: perle, joshua 

Shifra Kuperman*, Lie. Phil., M.A.; 
University of Basel, Switzerland: 

BAAL-MAKHSHOVES; EINHORN, DAVID; 
NOMBERG, HERSH DAVID; OPATOSHU, 
JOSEPH 

Ephraim Kupfer, Research Fellow 
in Jewish Studies, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: comtino, 

MORDECAI BEN ELIEZER; HAMIZ, JOSEPH 
BEN JUDAH; IBN YAHYA, DAVID BEN 
SOLOMON; ISSACHAR BERMAN BEN 
NAPHTALI HA-KOHEN; JACOB BEN ASHER; 
JAFFE, MORDECAI BEN ABRAHAM; JONAH 



BEN ABRAHAM GERONDI; JOSEPH HA- 
KOHEN; JOSEPH HAZZAN BEN JUDAH 
OF TROYES; KASPI, JOSEPH BEN ABBA 
MARI IBN; LORBEERBAUM, JACOB BEN 
JACOB MOSES OF LISSA; MANUSCRIPTS, 
HEBREW; MOELLIN, JACOB BEN MOSES; 
REISCHER, JACOB BEN JOSEPH; SIKILI, 
JACOB BEN HANANEL; TAM IBN YAHYA, 
JACOB BEN DAVID; TANHUM BEN JOSEPH 
YERUSHALMI; TRANI, JOSEPH BEN 
MOSES; YOM TOV BEN ABRAHAM 
ISHBILI 

Uri K. Kupferschmidt, Ph.D.; 
Senior Lecturer, Department of 
Middle Eastern History, University 
of Haifa 

David Kushner*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Middle East History, University of 

Haifa: ANTIOCH; AYDIN; ISKENDERUN; 
MERSIN 

Gilbert Kushner, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Anthropology, the 
College at Brockport of the State 
University of New York 

Ernst Kutsch, Dr. Theol.; Professor 
of Old Testament Theology, 
Friedrich-Alexander Universitat 
zu Erlangen-Nurnberg, Germany: 

PASSOVER; SUKKOT 

Eduard Yecheskel Kutscher, M.A.; 

Professor of Hebrew Philology, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem; 
Professor of Hebrew Language, 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

ARAMAIC; HEBREW LANGUAGE; 
POLOTSKY, HANS JACOB 

Raphael Kutscher, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Mesopotamian Languages and 
Civilization, Tel Aviv University: 

EUPHRATES; MARDUK; TAMMUZ 

Cecile Esther Kuznitz*, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor of Jewish 
History, Bard College, Annandale- 
on-Hudson, New York: Yiddish 

LITERATURE; YIVO INSTITUTE FOR 
JEWISH RESEARCH 

Mindaugas Kvietkauskas*, Ph.D.; 
Research Fellow, Lithuanian 
Literature, Vilnius University, 
Lithuania: katzenelenbogen, uriah; 

NAIDUS, LEIB 

Gail (S.) Labovitz*, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of Rabbinics, University 
of Judaism, Los Angeles, California: 

STUDY 



Frederick R. Lachman, Ph.D.; 
Formerly Executive Editor of the 
Encyclopaedia Judaica and former 
American Correspondent of 
Encyclopaedia Judaica Year Books, 
New York: bisgyer, maurice; george, 

MANFRED; GROSSMANN, KURT RICHARD; 
LEVIN, THEODORE; SAXON, DAVID 
STEPHEN; STERN-TAEUBLER, SELMA; 
THEATER; WALINSKY; ZUCKERMAN, PAUL 

Irwin (Jay) Lachoff*, M.A.; 
Archivist, Xavier University of 
Louisiana, New Orleans, Louisiana: 

LOUISIANA; NEW ORLEANS 

Josef J. Lador-Lederer, Dr.Jur.; 
Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 
Jerusalem: bienenfeld, franz 

RUDOLF; ELLENBOGEN, WILHELM; 
FRIED, ALFRED HERMANN; KELSEN, 
HANS; KLANG, HEINRICH; KUNZ, JOSEF 
LAURENZ; LAWYERS; LEMKIN, RAPHAEL; 
OFNER, JULIUS; POPPER, JOSEF; REDLICH, 
JOSEPH; RODE, WALTHER; STEINBACH, 
EMIL; STRISOWER, LEO; VADASZ, LIPOT; 
VAZSONYI, VILMOS; WORLD JEWISH 
ASSOCIATIONS 

Gideon Lahav, B.A.; Ministry of 
Commerce and Industry, Jerusalem: 

DIAMOND TRADE AND INDUSTRY 

Sanford A. LakofF, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Political Science, the University of 
Toronto: ribicoff, Abraham a. 

Anne Marie Lambert, Ministry for 
Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: united 

NATIONS 

Lars Lambrecht*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Philosophy and Sociology, 
University of Hamburg, Germany: 

MARX, KARL HEINRICH 

Ruth Lamdan*, Ph.D.; Lecturer of 
Jewish History, Tel Aviv University: 

HANDALI, ESTHER; MALCHI, ESPERANZA 

Meir Lamed, Kibbutz Nebt 
Mordekhai: aguilar, diego d'; 

ALTSCHUL, EMIL; ARNSTEIN; AUSPITZ; 
AUSTRIA; BLOCH, JOSEPH SAMUEL; 
BOHEMIA; BONDI; CECHU-ZIDU, SVAZ; 
CHOMUTOV; CHRISTIAN SOCIAL PARTY; 
COUDENHOVE-KALERGI, HEINRICH 
VON; CZECH, LUDWIG; DOLNI KOUNICE; 
ESKELES; FISCHER; FISCHHOFF, ADOLF; 
GESELLSCHAFT DER JUNGEN HEBRAEER; 
GRAZ; GUTMANN, WILHELM, RITTER 
VON; HAINDORF, ALEXANDER; 
HALFANUS; HAPSBURG MONARCHY; 
HARDENBERG, KARL AUGUST VON; 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



HEIMWEHR; HENRY IV; HERMANUS 
QUONDAM JUDAEUS; HILSNER CASE; 
HIRSHEL, MEYER; HODONIN; HOFER, 
ANDREAS; HOHENAU; HOLESOV; 
HRANICE; HUNCOVCE; JABLONEC 
NAD NISOU; JAKOBOVITS, TOBIAS; 
JEITELES; JELLINEK, ADOLF; 
JEMNICE; JEVICKO; JINDRICHUV 
HRADEC; JUDENBURG; KHUST; 
KISCH; KLAGENFURT; KLEMPERER, 
GUTMANN; KOHN, THEODOR; 
KOJETIN; KOLLONITSCH, LEOPOLD; 
KOLODEJE NAD LUZICI; KOMARNO; 
KORNFELD, AARON BEN MORDECAI 
BAER; KROCHMAL, MENAHEM MENDEL 
BEN ABRAHAM; KROMERIZ; KUGEL, 
HAYYIM; KULTUSVEREIN; KURANDA, 
IGNAZ; KYJOV; LAEMEL, SIMON 
VON; LANDAU, EZEKIEL BEN JUDAH; 
LANDESJUDENSCHAFT, BOEHMISCHE; 
LAZNE KYNZVART; LEATHER INDUSTRY 
AND TRADE; LEOPOLD I; LICHTENSTADT, 
ABRAHAM AARON; LIEBEN, SALOMON; 
LIEBEN, SALOMON HUGO; LITOMERICE; 
LOEW-BEER; LOSTICE; LUCENEC; 
MAGNUS, MARCUS; MA'OR KATAN; 
MARIA THERESA; MARIENBAD; 
MAXIMILIAN I; MEISEL, MORDECAI 
BEN SAMUEL; MEYER, PAULUS; 
MICHALOVCE; MIKULOV; MIROSLAV; 
MORAVIA; MORAVSKE BUDEJOVICE; 
MORAVSKY KRUMLOV; NACHOD; 
NEUDA, ABRAHAM; NITRA; OLOMOUC; 
OPAVA; OSOBLAHA; OSTRAVA; 
PERNERSTORFER, ENGELBERT; PETSCHEK; 
PLACZEK, ABRAHAM; POBEZOVICE NA 
SUMAVE; POLNA; PREMYSL OTTOKAR 
II; PROSTEJOV; PULKAU; QUETSCH, 
SOLOMON; RANSCHBURG, BEZALEL 
BEN JOEL; RUDOLF II; SCHUTZBUND, 
REPUBLIKANISCHER; SELF-DEFENSE; 
SHLOM THE MINTMASTER; SONNENFELS, 
ALOYS VON; SPITZER, KARL HEINRICH; 
STEINHERZ, SAMUEL; STYRIA; TACHOV; 
TEKA; TESCHEN; TEWELES, JUDAH; 
THIEBERGER, FRIEDRICH; TREBIC; 
TREBITSCH, ABRAHAM; TREST; VEITH, 
JOHANN EMANUEL; WINKLER, LEO; 
WOLFSBERG; ZNOJMO 

Norman Lamm*, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Chancellor, Yeshiva University; 
Rosh Hayeshiva, Rabbi Isaac 
Elchanan Theological Seminary, 
New York: blaser, isaac ; kiddush 

HA-SHEM AND HILLUL HA-SHEM; 
VOLOZHINER, HAYYIM BEN ISAAC 

Zvi Lamm, Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
Education, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: Frankenstein, carl 

Jacob M. Landau*, Ph.D.; Professor 
Emeritus of Political Science, 



Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 
Jerusalem: baer, gabriel; carasso, 

EMMANUEL; EGYPT; GALANTE, 
ABRAHAM; HEYD, URIEL; IBRAHIM PASHA; 
KEMAL MUSTAFA; LEWIS, BERNARD; 
MANSURA; MOSSERI; MUBARAK, 
MUHAMMAD HUSNI SAID; MUHAMMAD 
AL1; SANU', YA'QUB or JAMES; TEKINALP, 
MUNIS 

Julian J. Landau, M.I.A.; Journalist, 

Jerusalem: hoffman, philip e.; Israel, 

STATE OF: ARAB POPULATION 

Moshe Landau, M.A.; Educator, 
Tel Aviv: aguddat ahim; beobachter 

AN DER WEICHSEL; BERNSTEIN, ARYEH 
LEIB; BLUMENFELD, EMANUEL; BUCHNER, 
ABRAHAM; CALMANSON, JACOB; 
CENTOS; CHWILA; DMOWSKI, 
ROMAN; ENDECJA; FINKELSTEIN, 
NOAH; FOLKSPARTEI; GOLDMAN, 
BERNARD; GRABSKI, STANISLAW; 
GROSS, ADOLF; HALLER'S ARMY; 
IZRAELITA; JABLONNA; JELENSKI, JAN; 
KIRSCHBAUM, ELIEZER SINAI; KOHN, 
ABRAHAM; KRONENBERG; LOEWENSTEIN, 
BERNHARD; LOEWENSTEIN, NATHAN; 
MAYZEL, MAURYCY; MINORITY BLOC; 
MORGENTHAU COMMISSION; NASZ 
PRZEGLAD; NEUFELD, DANIEL; NOWY 
DZIENNIK; P.P.S.; PRZYTYK; ROSMARYN, 
HENRYK; ROZWOJ; SAMUEL COMMISSION; 
SEJM; SHABAD, ZEMAH; SHOMER ISRAEL; 
STEIGER TRIAL; STERN, ABRAHAM 
JACOB; THON, ALBERT; TOZ; UGODA; 
WALDMANN, ISRAEL; WOLKOWISKI, 
JEHIEL BER; ZBITKOWER, SAMUEL 

Yehuda Landau, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Philosophy, Tel Aviv 

University 

Leo Landman, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Assistant Professor of Rabbinical 
Literature, Dropsie University, 
Philadelphia: gambling 

Hermann Langbein, Vienna: 

AUSCHWITZ TRIALS 

Lucille Lang Day*, A.B., M.A., 
M.F.A., Ph.D.; Poet and Museum 
Director, Hall of Health, Hands- 
on Health Museum, Berkeley, 
California: falk, marcia 

Nicholas de Lange, D.Phil.; 
Lecturer in Rabbinics, the 
University of Cambridge: lateran 

COUNCILS III, IV; MARTIN; NICHOLAS; 
ODO OF CHATEAUROUX; SIXTUS IV 

Lawrence L. Langer*, Ph.D.; 



Professor of English, Emeritus, 
Simmons College, Boston: bak, 

SAMUEL 

Ruth Langer*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Jewish Studies, Boston 
College: liturgy 

Tzvi Y. Langermann*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Arabic, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ram at Gan 

Shaoul Langnas, Ph.D.; Jewish 
Agency, Tel Aviv: numerus clausus 

Doris Lankin, M.Jur.; Legal 
Journalist, Jerusalem 

Ruth Lapidoth*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of International Law, the Hebrew 
University, Jerusalem Institute of 
Israel Studies: Jerusalem, legal 
aspects 

Steven Lapidus*, M.A.; Concordia 
University, Montreal, Canada: 

GOLDBLOOM 

Dvora Lapson, B.A.; Instructor in 
Dance, the Hebrew Union College 
School of Education, New York: 

DANCE 

Guiseppe Laras, Dr.Jur., Rabbi; 
Leghorn, Italy: del vecchio; 

MORPURGO, SAMSON BEN JOSHUA 
MOSES; PAPO, SAMUEL SHEMAIAH; 
SARAVAL; VITAL 

Scott (B.) Lasensky*, Ph.D.; 

Washington, D.C.: ross, dennis 

Daniel J. Lasker*, Ph.D.; Norbert 
Blechner Professor of Jewish Values, 
Ben-Gurion University of the 
Negev, Beersheba: Israeli, isaac ben 

SOLOMON; JUDAH, HALEVI ; KARAITES; 
PHILOSOPHY, JEWISH 

Michael M. Laskier*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Middle Eastern and 
North African History, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: agadir; 

AGHLABIDS; ALMORAVIDS; ARAB WORLD; 
BONE; DEBDOU; DEMNAT; HAFSIDS; 
MARRAKESH; MEKNES; MERINIDS; 
MOGADOR; MOROCCO; M'ZAB; ORAN; 
RYVEL; SA'DIS; SAFI; SALE-RABAT; 
TANGIER; TETUAN; WATTASIDS; ZIRIDS; 
ZIYANIDS 

Egon H.E. Lass* : dothan 
Jacob Lassner*, Ph.D., D.H.L.; 



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Professor of Jewish Civilization, 
Northwestern University, Evanston, 
Illinois: abbasids; halkin, Abraham 

SOLOMON 

Ted (Theodore) Lauer*, M.A.; 
Chairman History Department, 
Touro College, New York: touro 

COLLEGE 

Theodor Lavi, Dr. Phil.; Historian, 
Yad Vashem, Jerusalem: antonescu, 

ION; ANTONESCU, MIHAI; BACAU; 
BARLAD; BESSARABIA; BOTOSANI; 
BRAILA; BUHUSI; BURDUJENI; BUZAU; 
CHERNOVTSY; CONSTANTA; CRAIOVA; 
DARABANI; DOROHOI; FALTICENI; 
FILDERMAN, WILHELM; FOCSANI; 
GERTSA; HARLAU; HUSI; JASSY; 
KISHINEV; LECCA, RADU; MIHAILENI; 
MOINESTI; NUMERUS CLAUSUS; PASCANI; 
PIATRA-NEAMT; PLOESTI; REVISTA 
CULTULUI MOZAIC; ROMAN; ROMANIA; 
SCHWARZFELD; SETANESTI; STERN, 
ADOLPHE; SULITA; TIRGU NEAMT; TIRGU- 
FRUMOS; TRANSNISTRIA; VASLUI 

Anthony Lincoln Lavine, M.A.; 

Jerusalem: homa; margolies, isaac 

BEN ELIJAH; MOSES ZE'EV BEN ELIEZER 
OF GRODNO; PERLA, JEROHAM FISCHEL 
BEN ARYEH ZEVI; SANDZER, HAYYIM BEN 
MENAHEM; SHAPIRO, SAUL BEN DOV 

Eric (Jay) Lawee*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor, Humanities, York 
University, Toronto, Canada: 

ABRABANEL, ISAAC BEN JUDAH; 
ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH LEON; ABULRABI, 
AARON 

Mary Lazar*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor, English, Kent State 
University, Ohio: kosinski, jerzy 

Moshe Lazar, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Romance Philology, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

LADINO 

Gilbert Lazard, D.es L.; Professor of 
Iranian Language and Civilization, 
Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris: aix-en- 

PROVENCE; JUDEO-PERSIAN 

Lucien Lazare, Ph.D.; Educator, 

Jerusalem: gamzon, Robert; kaplan, 

JACOB; LAVAL, PIERRE; LEVI, SYLVAIN; 
MANDEL, GEORGES; STRASBOURG; 
STUDENTS' MOVEMENTS, JEWISH; 
ZIONISM 

Arlene Lazarowitz*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of History, 



Director, Jewish Studies Program, 
California State University, Long 
Beach: boxer, Barbara 

Paul Lazarus, Dr.Phil., Rabbi; 
Historian, Haifa: oppenheim 

Hava Lazarus -Yafeh: judeo-arabic 

LITERATURE 

Hayim Leaf, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Hebrew Language and Literature, 
Yeshiva University, New York: 

CHURGIN, PINKHOS 

Abraham Lebanon, M.A.; Teacher 
in the Hebrew Teachers' College, 
Jerusalem: Damascus; eleazar ben 

JAIR; JEBUS, JEBUSITE; MARIAMNE 

Arieh Lebowitz*, B.A.; 
Communications Director, Jewish 
Labor Committee, New York: Jewish 

LABOR COMMITTEE; JEWISH SOCIALIST 
VERB AND; MORNING FREIHEIT; 
WORKMEN'S CIRCLE; YIDISHER KEMFER; 
YIDISHES TAGEBLAT 

Michael Lecker*, Ph.D. Professor, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

KA'B AL-AH BAR; MUHAMMAD; NADIR, 
BANU 1-; QAYNUQA', BANU; QURAYZA, 
BANU; WAHB IBN MUNABBIH 

Barton G. Lee, M.A., Rabbi; 
Chicago: fortas, abe ; goldman, 

MAYER CLARENCE; GREENBAUM, 
EDWARD SAMUEL 

Elaine Leeder*, M.S.W., M.P.H., 
Ph.D.; Professor of Sociology, 
Sonoma State University, Rohnert 
Park, California: pesotta, rose 

Carolyn Leeds*, B.A.; Special 
Projects Director, Jewish Federation 
of Greater Indianapolis, Indiana: 

INDIANAPOLIS 

Sidney M. Lefkowitz, Th.D.; 
Lecturer in Religion, Jacksonville 
University, Florida 

Joseph Leftwich, Editor and 
Journalist, London: Herman, 

DAVID; KAMINSKI or KAMINSKA; 
KESSLER, DAVID; MIKHOELS, SOLOMON; 
MYER, MORRIS; SCHILDKRAUT, 
RUDOLPH; VILNA TROUPE; WEICHERT, 
MICHAEL 

Israel O. Lehman, D.Phil.; Curator 
of Manuscripts and Special 
Collections, the Hebrew Union 



College - Jewish Institute of 
Religion, Cincinnati: vilna 

Ruth P. Lehmann, Dipl.O.A.S., 

EL. A.; Librarian of Jews' College, 
London: abbreviations; levertoff, 

PAUL PHILIP; SIMON, SIR LEON 

Grete Leibowitz, Dr.Phil.; Former 
editorial staff, Encyclopaedia 
Hebraica, Jerusalem: Berliner, emile; 

JACOBI, KARL GUSTAV JACOB; JACOBI, 
MORITZ HERMANN 

Joshua O. Leibowitz, M.D.; 
Associate Clinical Professor of 
the History of Medicine, the 
Hebrew University- Hadassah 
Medical School, Jerusalem: amatus 

LUSITANUS; ANATOMY; AUERBACH, 
LEOPOLD; BARUK, HENRI; BERNHEIM, 
HIPPOLYTE; BLOODLETTING; BUERGER, 
LEO; HEIDENHAIN, RUDOLF; HENLE, 
JACOB; JACOBI, ABRAHAM; ORTA, GARCIA 
DE; TELLER, ISSACHAR BAER; WEIGERT, 
CARL; WIDAL, FERNAND; WUNDERBAR, 
REUBEN JOSEPH; ZACUTUS LUSITANUS 

Shnayer Z. Leiman, B.A.; Lecturer 
in Jewish History and Literature, 
Yale University, New Haven, 
Connecticut: bernfeld, Siegfried; 

COHN, JONAS; KARMAN, MOR; LEVI, 
EDWARD H.; MORGENSTERN, LINA; VAN 
PRAAGH, WILLIAM 

Samuel Leiter, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Professor of Modern Hebrew 
Literature, the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America, New York: 

BIALIK, HAYYIM NAHMAN 

Andre Lemaire*, Ph.D.; Professor 
in Oriental Studies, Ecole 
Pratique des Hautes Etudes, 
Section des sciences historiques 
et philologiques, Sorbonne, Paris: 

CAQUOT, ANDRE 

Carolyn G. (Gray) LeMaster*, B.A., 
M.A.; Butler Center Fellow for the 
Arkansas Jewish History Collection, 
Butler Center for Arkansas Studies, 
Central Arkansas Library System, 
Little Rock, Arkansas: Arkansas 

Howard M. Lenhoff, Associate 
Professor of Biochemistry, 
University of California, Irvine 

Aron (di Leone) Leoni*, M.S., 
Ph.D., M.A.; Former Representative 
of the Italian paper industries at the 

European Commission in Brussels. 



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Consulting Economist (retired). 
Historian, State University of Padua, 
Milan: pesaro ; pisa, da 

Haim Leor, M.Jur.; Secretary of the 
Knesset, Jerusalem 

Antony Lerman, Researcher, 
Institute of Jewish Affairs, London 

Anne Lapidus Lerner*, Ph.D., 
M.A., M.H.L., A.B., B.J. Ed.; 
Director, Program in Jewish 
Women's Studies; Assistant 
Professor, Department of Jewish 
Literature, Jewish Theological 
Seminary, New York: knopf, 

BLANCHE WOLF 

Bialik Myron Lerner, Ph.D.; 
Instructor in Talmud, Tel Aviv 
University: abba guryon of sidon; 

ABBA SAUL; AKAVYAH BEN MAHALALEL; 
ALTAR; ANDROGYNOS; AVTALYON; 
SHEMAIAH 

Harold Lerner, Ph.D.; Political 
Scientist, New York 

Loren Lerner*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Concordia University, Montreal, 
Canada: borenstein, sam 

Natan Lerner, LL.D.; Executive 
Director, World Jewish Congress, 
Tel Aviv: perlzweig, maurice l.; 

TARTAKOWER, ARIEH; WORLD JEWISH 
CONGRESS 

Ralph Lerner, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Social Sciences, the 
University of Chicago: prophets and 

PROPHECY; STRAUSS, LEO 

Benny Leshem*: Israel, state 

OF: HEALTH, WELFARE, AND SOCIAL 
SECURITY 

Donald Daniel Leslie, D.del'U; 
Fellow in Far Eastern History, 
Australian National University, 
Canberra: chao; redemption 

Yaacov Lev*, Ph.D.; Professor, Bar- 
Ilan University, Ramat Gan 

Chaim Levanon, Eng. Agr.; 
Agricultural Engineer and former 
Mayor of Tel Aviv: general Zionists 

Yehuda Levanon, B.A.; Ministry of 
Absorption, Jerusalem 

Arye Levavi, M.A.; Ambassador, 



Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 
Jerusalem 

Schneier Zalman Levenberg, Ph.D.; 
Jewish Agency Representative and 
Writer, Jerusalem: adler, victor; 

MARX, KARL HEINRICH; NATANSON, 
MARK; SOCIALISM; ZUNDELEVITCH, 
AARON 

Joseph Levenson, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Instructor in Religion, Oklahoma 
City University, Oklahoma: 

OKLAHOMA 

Marcia (Irene) Leveson*, Ph.D., 
B.Ed.; Assistant Professor (retired), 
Honorary Research Fellow, 
University of the Witwatersrand 
Johannesburg, South Africa: 

GORDIMER, NADINE; SOUTH AFRICAN 
LITERATURE 

Martin Levey, Ph.D.; Professor 
of the History of Science, the 
State University of New York, 
Albany: ibn biklArish, junas ben 

ISAAC 

Josef Levi*: Florence 

L. Levi*: Greece 

Leo Levi, D.Sc; Research Fellow 
in Jewish Musicology, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: italy 

Shlomit Levi, Research Associate, 
Israel Institute of Applied Research, 
Jerusalem 

Yitzhak Levi, Former Managing 
Director of the Israel Program for 
Scientific Translations, Jerusalem: 

INDEPENDENCE DAY, ISRAEL 

Curt Leviant, Ph.D.; Associate 

Professor of Hebraic Studies, 
Rutgers University, New Brunswick, 
New Jersey: Arthurian legends; 

BURLA, YEHUDA 

Dov Levin, Ph.D.; Researcher in the 
Institute of Contemporary Jewry, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

KALVARIJA; KEDAINIAI; KRETINGA; 
KUPISKIS; MARIJAMPOLE; PLUNGE; 
PONARY; SIAULIAI; VIRBALIS 

Norman Levin, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of Biology, Brooklyn 
College of the City University of 
New York: gasser, Herbert spencer; 

GURWITSCH, ALEXANDER GAVRILOVICH; 



SANDGROUND, JACK HENRY; WAKSMAN, 
SELMAN ABRAHAM 

Samuel Levin, Writer, Translator, 
Givat Savyon 

Shalom Levin, M.A.; Member of 
the Knesset, Tel Aviv: teachers' 

ASSOCIATION IN ISRAEL 

Ze'ev Levin, Former Ambassador, 
Tel Aviv: kenya 

Baruch A. Levine*, Ph.D.; Skirball 
Professor Emeritus, New York 
University: Balaam ; cult; cult 

PLACES, ISRAELITE; FIRST FRUITS; 
FIRSTBORN; GIBEONITES AND NETHINIM; 
KEDUSHAH; SOLOMON, SERVANTS OF 

Emily Levine*: warburg, aby 

MORITZ 

Jonathan D. Levine*: greenberg, 

SIDNEY 

Joyce Levine*, M.A.; Director, 
Educational Technology, U.J.A. 
Federation Board of Jewish 
Education, Toronto, Canada: 

EDUCATION, JEWISH 

Michael Levine, Ph.D.; Lecturer, 
Dept. of History of Art, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: Israel, state 

OF: CULTURAL LIFE 

Paul (A.) Levine*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Holocaust History, The 
Uppsala Programme for Holocaust 
and Genocide Studies, Uppsala 
University, Sweden: holocaust 

Stephen Levine*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Victoria University of Wellington, 
New Zealand: new Zealand 

Yael Levine*, Ph.D.; Talmud, Bar- 
Ilan University, Ramat Gan: eshet 

HAYIL 

• 

Renee Levine Melammed*, 

Ph.D.; Professor of Jewish History, 
Schechter Institute of Jewish Studies, 
Jerusalem: anusim; barazani, 

ASENATH; BOTON, ABRAHAM BEN MOSES 
DE; WOMAN: MUSLIM WORLD AND SPAIN; 
WUHSHA AL-DALLALA 

Jacob S. Levinger, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Jewish Philosophy, Tel 
Aviv University: ascher, saul; david 

BEN ARYEH LEIB OF LIDA; DELMEDIGO, 
ELIJAH BEN MOSES ABBA; DINAH; DUBNO, 



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SOLOMON BEN JOEL; DUENNER, JOSEPH 
ZEVI HIRSCH; DUKES, LEOPOLD; DURAN, 
PROFIAT; GAL1PAPA, HAYYIM BEN 
ABRAHAM; GANZFRIED, SOLOMON BEN 
JOSEPH; GEIGER, SOLOMON ZALMAN; 
GERMANY; GORDON, SAMUEL LEIB; 
GUTTMANN, JULIUS; HAI BEN SHERIRA; 
HOLDHEIM, SAMUEL 

Boris M. Levinson, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Psychology, Yeshiva University, 
New York: wechsler, david 

Robert E. Levinson, Ph.D.; San 

Francisco: Alexander, moses-, 

CALIFORNIA; GERSTLE, LEWIS; HIRSCH, 
SOLOMON; KAHN, JULIUS; MEARS, OTTO; 
MEIER, JULIUS; SACRAMENTO; SUTRO, 
ADOLPH HEINRICH JOSEPH 

Seymour Levitan*, B.A., M.A.; 
Translator of Yiddish Poetry and 
Fiction, Vancouver, Canada: korn, 

RACHEL-HARING; SEGAL, JACOB ISAAC 

Isaac Levitats, Ph.D.; the Herzliah 
Hebrew Teachers' Seminary, 
New York: autonomy; autonomy, 

JUDICIAL; BET DIN AND JUDGES; BITTUL 
HA-TAMID; CHARITY; CHIEF RABBI, 
CHIEF RABBINATE; COMMUNITY; 
CONFERENCES; CONSISTORY; DAYYAN; 
EDUCATION, JEWISH; EPISCOPUS 
JUDAEORUM; FEDERATIONS OF 
COMMUNITIES, TERRITORIAL; FINANCES, 
AUTONOMOUS JEWISH; FINES; 
FRATERNAL SOCIETIES; GABBAI; GEMILUT 
HASADIM; HAZAKAH; HEKDESH; HEREM 
BET DIN; HEREM HA-IKKUL; HEREM HA- 
YISHUV; HEVRAH, HAVURAH; MINORITY 
RIGHTS; NASI; OATH MORE JUDAICO or 
JURAMENTUM JUDAEORUM; PINKAS; 
PRESBYTER JUDAEORUM; PUNISHMENT; 
RABBINICAL CONFERENCES; SEMIKHAH; 
SHAMMASH; SHEHITAH; SICK CARE, 
COMMUNAL; SUMPTUARY LAWS; SYNODS; 
TAKKANOT HA-KAHAL; TITLES 

Lev Levite, Kibbutz En-Harod 
(Me'uhad): borochov, ber 

Georges Levitte, Writer, Paris: 

AVIGNON; BAYONNE; BESANCON; 
BORDEAUX; CAEN; COLMAR; DIJON; 
GRENOBLE; LYONS; MULHOUSE; NANCY; 
NICE; ROUEN; TOULOUSE 

Avital Levy, B.A.; Jerusalem: pica 
Richard N. Levy* : central 

CONFERENCE OF AMERICAN RABBIS 

Richard S. Levy*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History, University of Illinois at 



Chicago: lagarde, paul de ; marr, 

WILHELM 

Louis Lewin, Dr.Phil., Rabbi; 
Encyclopaedia Judaica (Germany); 
Historian, Breslau: magdeburg; 

MANNHEIM 

Martin Lewin*, M.S.L.S.; Librarian 
(retired) Buffalo and Eric County 
Public Library, Buffalo: buffalo 

Nathan Lewin*, J.D.; Attorney, 
Columbia Law School Adjunct 
Faculty, Lewin and Lewin L.L.P, 
Washington, D.C.: breyer, Stephen 

GERALD; POSNER, RICHARD ALLEN 

Yom-Tov Lewinski, Dr.Phil.; 
Ethnographer, Tel Aviv: food; games 

Tamar Lewinsky*, M.A.; Lecturer, 
University of Munich, Germany: 

DEMBLIN, BENJAMIN; FOX, CHAIM-LEIB; 
FUCHS, ABRAHAM MOSHE; GRYNBERG, 
BERL; HEILPERIN, FALK; OLITZKY; PERLOV, 
YITSKHOK; WARSHAWSKI, MARK 

Albert L. Lewis, M.H.L., Rabbi; 
Haddonfield, New Jersey: shofar 

Bernard Lewis, Instructor in Films 
and Filming, New York University 
School of Continuing Education: 

WINCHELL, WALTER 

Mervyn M. Lewis, M.A.; Jerusalem: 

DAVIDSON, SAMUEL 

Guenter Lewy, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Government, the University of 
Massachusetts, Amherst: holocaust: 

THE WORLD 

Hildegard Lewy, Ph.D.; Visiting 
Professor, Hebrew Union College, 
Cincinnati, Ohio 

Yohanan (Hans) Lewy, Dr.Phil.; 
Senior Lecturer in Latin, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

JOHN CHRYSOSTOM 

Bent Lexner*, Rabbinical Diploma, 
Chief Rabbi, Denmark: besekow, 

SAMUEL; FEIGENBERG, MEIR; FOIGHEL, ISI 

Gideon Libson*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Law, Head of the Institute for 
Research in Jewish Law, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: fiqh; herem 

SETAM; LAW, JEWISH AND ISLAMIC LAW 

Jacob Licht, Ph.D.; Associate 



Professor of Biblical Studies, 
Tel Aviv University: Abraham, 

APOCALYPSE OF; ADAM AND EVE, BOOK 
OF THE LIFE OF; CALENDAR; DAY OF 
THE LORD; DEAD SEA SCROLLS; ETHICS; 
MENAHEM; SOLOMON, ODES OF 

Jonathan Licht, B.A., M.F.A.; 
Writer, Jerusalem: aimee, anouk; 

ALLEN, WOODY; ALPERT, HERB; ARKIN, 
ALAN W; BACALL, LAUREN; BALIN, 
MARTY; BLOOM, CLAIRE; BOONE, 
RICHARD; BROOKS, MEL; COBB, LEE J.; 
CUKOR, GEORGE; DA SILVA, HOWARD; 
DIAMOND, I. A. L.; DIAMOND, NEIL; 
DOUGLAS, MELVYN; DOUGLAS, MICHAEL; 
DREYFUSS, RICHARD; EPSTEIN, JULIUS J. 
and PHILIP G.; FALK, PETER; FOGELBERG, 
DAN; FORD, HARRISON; FORMAN, MILOS; 
FRANKENHEIMER, JOHN MICHAEL; 
FRIEDKIN, WILLIAM; GARFUNKEL, 
ART; GEFFEN, DAVID; GOLDBLUM, 
JEFF; GORDON, MICHAEL; GRANT, LEE; 
HAMLISCH, MARVIN; HARRIS, BARBARA; 
HAWN, GOLDIE; HENRY, BUCK; HERSHEY, 
BARBARA; HIRSCH, JUDD; HOFFMAN, 
DUSTIN; HOUSEMAN, JOHN; IAN, JANIS; 
KNOPFLER, MARK; LASSER, LOUISE; 
LEAR, NORMAN; LEHMAN, ERNEST; 
LELOUCH, CLAUDE; LESTER, RICHARD; 
LEVINE, JOSEPH E.; LEVINSON, BARRY; 
LEWIS, JERRY; LOM, HERBERT; LUMET, 
SIDNEY; MAMET, DAVID; MANILOW, 
BARRY; MANKIEWICZ, JOSEPH LEO; 
MATTHAU, WALTER; MAZURSKY, PAUL; 
MIDLER, BETTE; MILLER, ARTHUR; 
MIRISCH BROTHERS; MOSTEL, ZERO; 
NEWMAN, PAUL; NICHOLS, MIKE; PAPP, 
JOSEPH; PATINKIN, MANDY; POLANSKI, 
ROMAN; POLLACK, SYDNEY; PRINCE, 
HAROLD; REINER, CARL; REINER, ROB; 
RYDER, WINONA; SCHISGAL, MURRAY; 
SCHLESINGER, JOHN; SEGAL, GEORGE; 
SELLERS, PETER; SIDNEY, SYLVIA; SIMON, 
PAUL; SONDHEIM, STEPHEN; SPIEGEL, 
SAMUEL P.; SPIELBERG, STEVEN; STONE, 
OLIVER; STREISAND, BARBRA; WALLACH, 
ELI; WELLER, MICHAEL; WILDER, GENE; 
WINGER, DEBRA; WINTERS, SHELLEY; 
WOLPER, DAVID LLOYD 

Albert Lichtblau*, Ph.D.; Historian, 
University Professor, Vice Chair 
of the Centre for Jewish Cultural 
History, University Salzburg, 
Austria: sommer, emil; spitzer, 

KARL HEINRICH; TODESCO, HERMANN; 
VOGELSANG, KARL VON; WOLF, FRUMET 

Aaron Lichtenstein, Ph.D.; 
Researcher, Baltimore: ashinsky, 

AARON MORDECAI HALEV1; HELLER, 
THEODOR; HENKIN, JOSEPH ELIJAH; 
JEFFERSON, THOMAS; JESURUN; LAGOS; 



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LEAO, GASPAR DE; NUNEZ; OPORTO; 
PAM, HUGO; PORTUGAL; SCHUR, ISSAI; 
SCHWARZ, SAMUEL; TOMAR; WERNER, 
HEINZ 

Murray (H.) Lichtenstein*, 

Ph.D., M. Phil., B.A.; Dr. Professor 
Emeritus, Hunter College, City 
University of New York: lots; 

PROVERBS, BOOK OF; SHINAR; TERAH 

David L. Lieber*, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Former President, the University of 
Judaism; Los Angeles: banishment; 

CENSUS; DIVORCE; DORFF, ELLIOT N.; 
JEALOUSY; PILLAR OF CLOUD AND PILLAR 
OF FIRE; POVERTY; RANSOM; SABBATICAL 
YEAR AND JUBILEE; STRANGERS AND 
GENTILES; VORSPAN, MAX 

Esther (Zweig) Liebes, B.A.; 

Jerusalem: bunin, hayyim isaac; 

DAVID OF MAKOW; DOV BAER OF 
MEZHIRECH; ELIMELECH OF LYZHANSK; 
HANOKH OF ALEKSANDROW; ISAAC 
THE BLIND; LOEBEL, ISRAEL; NAHMAN 
OF HORODENKA; NAHMAN OF KOSOV; 
PRZEDBORZ; RADOSHITSER, ISSACHAR 
BAER; RAZA RABBA, SEFER; ROPSHITSER, 
NAPHTALI ZEVI; RYMANOWER, 
MENAHEM MENDEL; RYMANOWER, ZEVI 
HIRSH; SPINKA, JOSEPH MEIR WEISS OF; 
WARKA; ZEVI HIRSCH FRIEDMAN OF 
LESKO 

Hans Liebeschutz, Dr. Phil., 
ER.Hist.Soc; Professor Extraord. 
of Medieval Latin Literature, the 
University of Hamburg; Emeritus 
Reader in Medieval History, the 
University of Liverpool: abelard, 

PETER; ALBERTUS MAGNUS; ALEXANDER 
OF HALES; AQUINAS, THOMAS; CUSA, 
NICHOLAS OF; ECKHART, MEISTER; 
WILLIAM OF AUVERGNE 

Charles S. Liebman, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of Political 
Science, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat 
Gan: yeshiva university 

Seymour B. Liebman, M.A., 
Lecturer in Latin American History, 
Florida Atlantic University, Boca 
Raton 

Pearl J. Lieff, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of Sociology, Borough of 
Manhattan Community College of 
the City University of New York: 

COSER, LEWIS A.; EISENSTADT, SAMUEL 
NOAH 

Chaim Lifschitz, Former Inspector, 



Department of Religious Education, 
Ministry of Education and Culture, 
Jerusalem: cohen, david 

Ezekiel Lifschutz, Archivist of the 
YIVO Institute for Jewish Research, 
New York: alter, victor 

B. (Berachyahu) Lifshitz*, Ph.D.; 
Faculty of Law, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: asmakhta 

David S. Lifson, Ph.D.; Professor 
of English and of Humanities, 
Monmouth College, Long Branch, 
New Jersey: kalich, bertha; 

THOMASHEFSKY, BORIS 

Jacob Jay Lindenthal, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of History, 
Rutgers University, Newark, New 
Jersey: blau, peter michael; etzioni, 

AMITAI WERNER 

Edward T. Linenthal*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of History and Editor, 
Journal of American History, Indiana 
University, Bloomington, Indiana: 

BERENBAUM, MICHAEL 

Paul Link, M.Sc; Emeritus 
Professor of Textiles, Instituto 
Superior Tecnologico, Buenos 
Aires; Havazzelet Ha-Sharon, Israel: 

LAWYERS; LIACHO, LAZARO; POLITICS; 
SCHAULSON NUMHAUSER, JACOBO; 
SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE LITERATURE; 
STEINBRUCH, AARAO 

Elias Lipiner, B.A.; Journalist, Tel 
Aviv 

Edward Lipinski, D.D., D.Bibl. 
St.; Professor of Ancient History, 
of the History of Semitic Religions, 
and of Comparative Grammar of 
Semitic Languages, the Catholic 
University of Louvain, Belgium: 

ALLEGORY; JEREMIAH; LOVE; MALACHI, 
BOOK OF; NAHUM; OBADIAH, BOOK OF; 
REVELATION; SIGNS AND SYMBOLS; SIN 

Sonia L. Lipman, B.A.; Writer, 

London: GERTNER, LEVI and MEIR; 
MONTEFIORE, JUDITH 

Steven (Steve) Lipman*, B.A., 
M.A.; Staff Writer, The Jewish Week, 
New York: zlotowitz, Bernard m. 

Vivian David Lipman, C.V.O., 
Ph.D.; Former Director of Ancient 
Monuments and Historic Buildings, 
London: ames; basevi ; bearsted, 



MARCUS SAMUEL, FIRST VISCOUNT; 
BOARD OF DEPUTIES OF BRITISH JEWS; 
BRODIE, SIR ISRAEL; COHEN; COHEN, 
ABRAHAM; COHEN, SIR ROBERT WALEY; 
DAVIGDOR; DIAMOND, JOHN, BARON; 
ENGLAND; EXCHEQUER OF THE JEWS; 
EZRA, DEREK, BARON; FINNISTON, SIR 
HAROLD MONTAGUE; FRANKLIN; HORE- 
BELISHA, LESLIE, LORD; JENKINSON, SIR 
HILARY; JEWS' TEMPORARY SHELTER; 
JEWS' COLLEGE; JOSCE OF YORK; JOSEPH; 
KAYE, SIR EMMANUEL; LASKI; LEVER, 
HAROLD, BARON LEVER OF MANCHESTER; 
MAGNUS; MANCHESTER; MANCROFT; 
MEDINA, SIR SOLOMON DE; MELDOLA, 
RAPHAEL; MENDES; MILITARY SERVICE; 
MOCATTA; MONTAGU; MONTEFIORE, 
SIR MOSES; MONTEFIORE, SEBAG- 
MONTEFIORE; NATHAN; NEWCASTLE- 
UPON-TYNE; NICHOLAS, EDWARD; 
NORWICH; NOTTINGHAM; NUNEZ, 
HECTOR; PLYMOUTH; POLITICS; PORTER, 
SIR LESLIE; PORTSMOUTH; RAYNE, SIR 
MAX, BARON; ROTH, CECIL; ROTHSCHILD; 
SALOMONS, SIR DAVID; SAMUEL, EDWIN; 
SAMUEL, HAROLD; SAMUEL, HERBERT 
LOUIS; SCHIFF, DAVID TEVELE; SCHON, 
FRANK, BARON; SEGAL, SAMUEL, 
BARON; SHEFFIELD; SILKIN, LEWIS, FIRST 
BARON; SILVERMAN, SYDNEY; SINGER, 
SIMEON; SOUTHAMPTON; STRAUSS, 
GEORGE RUSSELL, BARON; SUNDERLAND; 
SWANSEA; TAILORING; TOVEY, 
D'BLOISSIERS; VEIL, LEWIS COMPIEGNE 
DE; WORCESTER; YOUNG, STUART 

Walter Lippmann, Demographer, 
Melbourne: Australia 

Oded Lipschits*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Archaeology and 
Biblical History, Tel Aviv University: 

RAMAT RAHEL 

Ora Lipschitz, M.A.; Jerusalem: 

SINAI, MOUNT 

Arye Lipshitz, Writer, Jerusalem: 

BEYTH, HANS; FREIER, RECHA 

Deborah E. Lipstadt, Ph.D.; 
Professor, Modern Jewish History, 
University of California at Los 
Angeles: holocaust 

Sol Liptzin, Ph.D.; Emeritus 
Professor of Comparative Literature, 
City College of the City University 
of New York, Jerusalem: adler, 

JACOB; ALTSCHUL, MOSES BEN HANOKH; 
AVE-LALLEMANT, FRIEDRICH CHRISTIAN 
BENEDICT; BASS, HYMAN B.; BECK, KARL 
ISIDOR; BEER, MICHAEL; BEER-HOFMANN, 
RICHARD; BEHR, ISSACHAR FALKENSOHN; 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



BERG, LEO; BERGNER, HERZ; BERMANN, 
RICHARD ARNOLD; BERNSTEIN, 
HERMAN; BERNSTEIN, IGNATZ; BICKEL, 
SOLOMON; BILETZKI, ISRAEL HAYYIM; 
BIMKO, FISHEL; BLUMENTHAL, OSKAR; 
BOBE-MAYSE; BODENHEIM, MAXWELL; 
BOERNE, LUDWIG; BOVE-BUKH; BRAUN, 
FELIX; BROCH, HERMANN; BRODER, 
BERL; BRYKS, RACHMIL; CALE, WALTER; 
CORALNIK, ABRAHAM; CZERNOWITZ 
YIDDISH LANGUAGE CONFERENCE; 
DEUTSCH, BABETTE; DLUZHNOWSKY, 
MOSHE; DONATH, ADOLPH; EDELSTADT, 
DAVID; ESSELIN, ALTER; FINEMAN, 
IRVING; FISHMAN, JACOB; GERMAN 
LITERATURE; GLANTZ, JACOB; GLANZ- 
LEYELES, AARON; GODINER, SAMUEL 
NISSAN; GOETHE, JOHANN WOLFGANG 
VON; GOLDBERG, BEN ZION; GOLDBERG, 
ISAAC; GOLDENE KEYT, DI; GOLDFADEN, 
ABRAHAM; GOLOMB, ABRAHAM; 
GORDON, MIKHL; GREENBERG, 
ELIEZER; GROPER, JACOB; GURSHTEIN, 
AARON; HALKIN, SHMUEL; HALPER, 
ALBERT; HALPERN, MOYSHE-LEYB; 
HEILPERIN, FALK; HEIMANN, MORITZ; 
HEYSE, PAUL; HIRSCHBEIN, PERETZ; 
HIRSCHFELD, GEORG; HITZIG, JULIUS 
EDUARD; HOFMANNSTHAL, HUGO VON; 
HOFSTEIN, DAVID; HURST, FANNIE; 
ICELAND, REUBEN; IMBER, SAMUEL 
JACOB; IN-ZIKH; IZBAN, SHMUEL; JUDAH, 
SAMUEL BENJAMIN HELBERT; KAHAN, 
SALOMON; KAHLER, ERICH; KALISCH, 
DAVID; KARPELES, GUSTAV; KATZ, 
ALEPH; KAUFMANN, FRITZ MORDECAI; 
KAYSER, RUDOLF; KESTEN, HERMANN; 
KHALYASTRE; KIPNIS, ITZIK; KLEIN, 
JULIUS LEOPOLD; KOENIGSBERG, DAVID; 
KOL MEVASSER; KOMPERT, LEOPOLD; 
KOREFF, DAVID FERDINAND; KUH, 
EPHRAIM MOSES; KULBAK, MOYSHE; 
KURTZ, AARON; LATTEINER, JOSEPH; 
LEE, MALKE; LESSING, THEODOR; LEVIN, 
MEYER; LEWISOHN, LUDWIG; LIPINER, 
SIEGFRIED; LISSAUER, ERNST; LITVAKOV, 
MOSES; LITVIN, A.; LOCKER, MALKE; 
LORM, HIERONYMUS; LUBLINSKI, 
SAMUEL; LUDWIG, EMIL; LUDWIG, 
REUBEN; LUKACS, GEORG; MANGER, 
ITZIK; MANI LEIB; MANN, THOMAS; 
MARGOSHES, SAMUEL; MARINOFF, JACOB; 
MASLIANSKY, ZVI HIRSCH; MAUTHNER, 
FRITZ; MAYZEL, NACHMAN; MESTEL, 
JACOB; MIESES, MATTHIAS; MILLER, 
SHAYE; MOLODOWSKY, KADIA; MOMBERT, 
ALFRED; MUEHSAM, ERICH; NADEL, 
ARNO; NADIR, MOYSHE; NEUMANN, 
ROBERT; NIGER, SHMUEL; NISSENSON, 
AARON; OLITZKY; OPATOSHU, JOSEPH; 
OSTROPOLER, HERSHELE; PARKER, 
DOROTHY; PERSOV, SHMUEL; RABOY, 
ISAAC; RAVITCH, MELECH; RIVKIN, 
BORUCH; ROBERT, LUDWIG; ROCHMAN, 



LEIB; RODENBERG, JULIUS; ROLNICK, 
JOSEPH; ROSENBLATT, H; ROSSIN, 
SAMUEL; RUBINSTEIN, JOSEPH; 
SALTEN, FELIX; SAMUEL, MAURICE; 
SAPHIR, MORITZ GOTTLIEB; SAPHIRE, 
SAUL; SARASOHN, KASRIEL HERSCH; 
SCHNITZLER, ARTHUR; SCHWARTZ, 
ISRAEL JACOB; SCHWARZ, LEO WALDER; 
SCHWARZMAN, ASHER; SEGALOWITCH, 
ZUSMAN; SFARD, DAVID; SHAMRI, ARIE; 
SIMON, SHLOME; STERNBERG, JACOB; 
SUSMAN, MARGARETE; TABACHNIK, 
ABRAHAM BER; TEIF, MOSHE; TEITSH, 
MOYSHE; TKATCH, MEIR ZIML; 
TOLLER, ERNST; TORBERG, FRIEDRICH; 
ULIANOVER, MIRIAM; UNTERMEYER, 
LOUIS; VARNHAGEN, RAHEL LEVIN; 
WALDEN, HERWARTH; WALDINGER, 
ERNST; WEIDMAN, JEROME; WEINPER, 
ZISHE; WEINREICH, MAX; WEISS, ERNST; 
WEISSENBERG, ISAAC MEIR; WERFEL, 
FRANZ; WIENER, LEO; WIHL, LUDWIG; 
WOLFSKEHL, KARL; YAKNEHAZ; 
YARMOLINSKY, AVRAHM; YEZIERSKA, 
ANZIA; YIDDISH LITERATURE; YIVO 
INSTITUTE FOR JEWISH RESEARCH; 
YUNGE, DI; YUNG-VILNE; ZUNSER, 
ELIAKUM; ZWEIG, ARNOLD 

Joanna Lisek*, Ph.D.; Lecturer, 
Wroclaw University Polish 
Philological Institute, Department 
of Jewish Study; Study for the 
Animators of Culture and 
Librarians, Wroclaw, Poland: grade, 

CHAIM 

Dora Litani-Littman, M.A.; 
Researcher, Jerusalem: aderca, 

FELIX; BALTAZAR, CAMIL; BANUS, 
MARIA; BARANGA, AUREL; BLECHER, 
MARCEL; CHILDREN'S LITERATURE; 
DOBROGEANU- GHEREA, CONSTANTIN; 
GALACTION, GALA; GURIAN, SORANA; 
ODESSA; PANA, SAS, A; PORUMBACU, 
VERONICA; RELGIS, EUGEN; ROMANIAN 
LITERATURE; ROMAN-RONETTI, MOISE; 
RUDICH, MAYER; SANIELEVICI, HENRIC; 
SEBASTIAN, MIHAIL; TZARA, TRISTAN; 
VORONCA, ILARIE; WALD, HENRI 

Stefan Litt*, Ph.D.; Fellow, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

BOAS 

Robert Littman*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Classics, University of Hawaii, 
Honolulu, Hawaii: Hawaii 

Meir Litvak, Ph.D.; Department of 
Middle Eastern History and African 
Studies, Tel Aviv University 

Yosef Litvak, M.A.; Researcher, 



Ministry of Absorption, Jerusalem: 

HOLOCAUST, RESCUE FROM; ISRAEL, 
STATE OF: ALIYAH 

Emanuel Litvinoff, Writer and 
Editor, London: Russia 

Jacob Liver, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Bible, Tel Aviv University: david, 

DYNASTY OF; DEBORAH; GEDALIAH 
GENEALOGY; HOSHEA; JEHOIACHIN 
JEHOIAKIM; JERUSALEM; JONATHAN 
KING, KINGSHIP; KORAH; MANASSEH; 
MISHMAROT AND MAAMADOT; 
SHESHBAZZAR 

Linda Livna, Ben-Gurion 
University, Beersheba: ben-gurion 

UNIVERSITY OF THE NEGEV 

Eliezer Livneh: van vriesland, 

SIEGFRIED ADOLF 

Amira Liwer*, B.A., M.A.; Research 
student, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: zadok ha-kohen 

RABINOWITZ OF LUBLIN 

Darrell B. Lockhart*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of Spanish, 
University of Nevada, Reno: 

GOLOBOFF, GERARDO MARIO; 
GRUNBERG, CARLOS MOISES; KOVADLOFF, 
SANTIAGO; MUNIZ-HUBERMAN, 
ANGELINA; RAWET, SAMUEL; ROSENCOF, 
MAURICIO; ROZENMACHER, GERMAN; 
SATZ, MARIO; SCLIAR, MOACYR; SHUA, 
ANA MARIA; SNEH, SIMJA; STEIMBERG, 
ALICIA; TIEMPO, CESAR; VERBITSKY, 
BERNARDO; WECHSLER, ELINA 

Amanda Lockitch*, B.A., M.A.; 
Theatre, University of Toronto, 
Canada: sherman, jason 

Raphael Loewe, M.A.; Lecturer 
in Hebrew, University College, 
London: ainsworth, henry; Andrew 

OF SAINT- VICTOR; BACON, ROGER; BECK, 
MATTHIAS FRIEDRICH; BECK, MICHAEL; 
BERNARD, EDWARD; BIBLE; BIBLIANDER, 
THEODOR; BODLEY, SIR THOMAS; 
BOSHAM, HERBERT DE; BROUGHTON, 
HUGH; CALLENBERG, JOHANN HEINRICH; 
CAPITO, WOLFGANG FABRICIUS; CASTELL, 
EDMUND; COCCEIUS, JOHANNES; 
COWLEY, SIR ARTHUR ERNEST; 
CUDWORTH, RALPH; DANBY, HERBERT; 
EGIDIO DA VITERBO; ERPENIUS, THOMAS; 
ETHERIDGE, JOHN WESLEY; FOREIRO, 
FRANCISCO; HEBRAISTS, CHRISTIAN; 
IMBONATI, CARLO GUISEPPE; NICHOLAS 
DE LYRE; SCHILLER-SZINESSY, SOLOMON 
MAYER 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Ayala Loewenstamm, M.A.; the 
Academy of the Hebrew Language, 
Jerusalem: abu al-faT; abu al-hasan 

OF TYRE; AL-ASATlR; AMRAM DARAH; 
BABA RABBAH; DUSTAN; MARKAH; 
PENTATEUCH, SAMARITAN; SAMARITANS 

Samuel Ephraim Loewenstamm, 

Ph.D.; Professor of Bible, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ELKANAH; EWALD, HEINRICH GEORG 
AUGUST; JEDAIAH; JEDUTHUN; JESSE 

Kurt Loewenstein, Tel Aviv: 

FOERDER, YESHAYAHU; LANDAUER, 
GEORG; MOSES, SIEGFRIED; SENATOR, 
DAVID WERNER 

Rudolf Loewenthal, Ph.D.; 
Historian, Bethesda, Maryland: ai 

TTEN; CANTON; CHINA; HANGCHOW; 
HARBIN; HONG KONG; KADOORIE; 
KAIFENG; MONGOLIA; NINGSIA; PEKING; 
SCHERESCHEWSKY, SAMUEL ISAAC 
JOSEPH; YANG-CHOU 

David Samuel Loewinger, Dr. Phil., 
Rabbi; Scholar, Former Professor 
at the Jewish Theological Seminary 
of Hungary; the Jewish National 
and University Library, Jerusalem: 

HELLER, BERNAT; IBN GAON, SHEM TOV 
BEN ABRAHAM; LANDAUER, SAMUEL; 
LONZANO, MENAHEM BEN JUDAH DE; 
MAGYAR ZSIDO SZEMLE; MANUSCRIPTS, 
HEBREW 

Julie Simon Loftsgaarden*, 

B.A. Print Journalism; Reporter/ 
Journalist; CBS News Corp.; Austin, 
Texas: klein, gerda weissmann and 

KURT 

Zvi Loker*, M.A.; Ambassador 
(retired); Director, Even Tov 
Archives, Jerusalem: albahari, 

DAVID; DOHANJ, JULIJE; DUBROVNIK; 
ELDAR, REUVEN; EVENTOV, YAKIR; 
FREIBERGER, MIROSLAV/SALOM; HAJIM, 
JISRAEL; KADELBURG, LAVOSLAV; KAMHI, 
LEON; KIS, DANILO; LEVI, MORITZ; LIVNI, 
HILLEL; LJUBLJANA; MADAGASCAR; 
MANDL, SAADIA; MARIBOR; MAURITIUS; 
MONASTIR; NIS; NOVI SAD; OFNER, 
FRANCIS-AMIR; OSIJEK; PAVELIC, ANTE; 
PIJADE, MOSA; RIJEKA; ROTEM, CVI; 
SARAJEVO; SENTA; SKOPLJE; SOMBOR; 
SPLIT; SUBOTICA; TISMA, ALEKSANDAR; 
TRAVNIK; VARAZDIN; YUGOSLAVIA; 
ZAGREB; ZEMUN; ZENICA; ZRENJANIN 

Massimo Longo Adorno*, Ph.D.; 
Historical Researcher, University 
of Messina, Italy: azeglio, massimo 



TAPARELLI, MARCHESSE D'; BACHI, 
ARMANDO; CARPI, LEONE; DELLA 
SETA ALESSANDRO; FLORENCE; 
GUASTALLA, ENRICO; MODENA, ANGELO; 
OTTOLENGHI, GIUSEPPE; PUGLIESE, 
EMANUELE; RASSEGNA MENSILE DI 
ISRAEL, LA; ROMANIN JACUR, LEONE; 
ROMANIN, SAMUELE; SCHANZER, CARLO; 
SEGRE, ROBERTO; VESSILLO ISRAELITICO; 
VOLTERRA, VITO; WOLLENBORG, LEONE 

Peter Longreich* : himmler, 

HEINRICH 

Haskel Lookstein*, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Congregation Jeshurun, Principal, 

Ramaz School, New York: 

HOLOCAUST: THE WORLD; MARGOLIES, 
MOSES ZEVULUN 

Max Loppert, B.A.; Music Critic, 
Financial Times, London: abravanel, 

MAURICE; ANCONA, MARIO; BABIN, 
VICTOR; BERGER, ARTHUR VICTOR; 
BROWNING, JOHN; CHAGRIN, FRANCIS; 
CHERKASSKY, SHURA; COSTA, SIR 
MICHAEL; DICHTER, MISHA; DOBROVEN, 
ISSAY ALEXANDROVICH; DORATI, ANTAL; 
DU PRE, JACQUELINE; DUSHKIN, SAMUEL; 
FELDMAN, MORTON; FLEISHER, LEON; 
FRANKEL, BENJAMIN; GOLSCHMANN, 
VLADIMIR; GRAF, HERBERT; GRAF, 
HERBERT; GRAFFMAN, GARY; HERRMANN, 
BERNARD; HORENSTEIN, JASCHA; 
JACOBS, ARTHUR; KENTNER, LOUIS; 
KERTESZ, ISTVAN; KIRCHNER, LEON; 
KOSHETZ, NINA; KURZ, SELMA; LEAR, 
EVELYN; LEVINE, JAMES; LEWENTHAL, 
RAYMOND; LONDON, GEORGE; 
MATZENAUER, MARGARETE; MERRILL, 
ROBERT; PASTA, GUIDITTA; PAULY, ROSA; 
PERAHIA, MURRAY; PREVIN, ANDRE; 
QUELER, EVE; REIZENSTEIN, FRANZ; 
RESNIK, REGINA; RETI, RUDOLF; ROLL, 
MICHAEL; ROSE, LEONARD; ROSEN, 
CHARLES; ROSENSTOCK, JOSEPH; 
ROSENTHAL, HAROLD; ROSENTHAL, 
MORIZ; RUBINSTEIN, ARTUR; RUDEL, 
JULIUS; RUDOLF, MAX; SADIE, STANLEY; 
SANDERLING, KURT; SCHOENE, LOTTE; 
SILLS, BEVERLY; SOLOMON; SOLTI, SIR 
GEORG; SPIVAKOVSKY, TOSSY; STEIN, 
ERWIN; THOMAS, MICHAEL TILSON; 
WEINSTOCK, HERBERT; WEISSENBERG, 
ALEXIS; ZUKOFSKY, PAUL 

Netanel Lorch, M.A.; Lieutenant 
Colonel (Res.), Israel Defense 
Forces; Former Ambassador, 
Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 
Jerusalem: Bolivia; cuba; eytan, 

WALTER; FISCHER, JEAN; HOCHSCHILD, 
MAURICIO; SHALTIEL, DAVID; WAR OF 
INDEPENDENCE 



Giora Lotan, Dr.Jur.; Former 
Director General of the National 
Insurance Institute, of the Ministry 
of Social Welfare, and of the 
Ministry of Labor, Jerusalem: 

KARMINSKI, HANNAH; OLLENDORFF, 
FRIEDRICH 

Arthur Lourie, LL.B., M.A.; Deputy 
Director General of the Ministry for 
Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: England 

Misha Louvish, M.A.; Writer 
and Journalist, Jerusalem: aliyah; 

CAPITO, WOLFGANG FABRICIUS; GUR, 
MORDECAI; ISRAEL, STATE OF: ALIYAH; 
ISRAEL, STATE OF: HISTORICAL SURVEY; 
ISRAEL, STATE OF: POLITICAL LIFE AND 
PARTIES; KOLLEK, THEODORE; MA'BARAH; 
MALBEN; MAPAI; RAFI; STOCKADE AND 
WATCHTOWER; ZIONIST CONGRESSES 

William (Ze'ev) Low, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Physics, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem; former 
Director of Jerusalem College of 
Technology: technology and 

HALAKHAH 

Malcolm F. Lowe*, Ecumenical 
Theological Research Fraternity in 
Israel: new testament 

Steven (Mark) Lowenstein*, Ph.D.; 
Levine Professor of Jewish History, 
University of Judaism, Los Angeles: 

BREUER, JOSEPH; NEW YORK CITY; 
SCHWAB, SHIMON 

Ernst Gottfried Lowenthal, Dr.rer. 
Pol.; Berlin and London: philo 

VERLAG; PRESS 

Zdenko Lowenthal, M.D.; Professor 
of the History of Medicine, the 
University of Belgrade, Yugoslavia: 

BIHALJI MERIN, OTO; DAVICO, OSCAR; 
DEBRECENJI, JOZEF; ERLICH, VERA STEIN; 
GLID, NANDOR; GOTTLIEB, HINKO; JUN- 
BRODA, INA; KONFINO, ZAK; LEBOVIC, 
DJORDJE 

Heinz Lubacz, Waltham, 

Massachusetts: marcuse, Herbert 

Benjamin Lubelski: kallir, meier 

Lisa (Jane) Lubick-Daniel*, 

Masters in Public Policy; McLean, 
Virginia: eizenstat, stuart 

Roy Lubove, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Social Welfare and History, the 
University of Pittsburgh: bernstein, 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



LUDWIG BEHR; BILLIKOPF, JACOB; BOGEN, 
BORIS DAVID; EPSTEIN, ABRAHAM; 
FRANKEL, LEE KAUFER 

Steven Luckert*, Ph.D.; Curator 
of the Permanent Exhibition, 
United States Holocaust Memorial 
Museum, Washington, D.C.: voyage 

OF THE ST. LOUIS 

Stefan Lutkiewicz, B.A.; Jerusalem: 

HIRSZFELD, LUDWIK 

Edythe Lutzker, M.A.; Writer, New 

York: haffkine, waldemar mordecai 

Jacob Lvavi (Babitzky), 

Agricultural Engineer, Tel Aviv: 

BIROBIDZHAN 

Klara Maayan, M.A.; Tel Aviv: 

RZESZOW 

Hyam Maccoby, M.A.; Librarian 
and Lecturer, Leo Baeck College, 
London 

John Macdonald, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Hebrew and Semitic Languages, 
the University of Glasgow, Scotland: 

PENTATEUCH, SAMARITAN; 
SAMARITANS 

Peter Machinist, B.A.; New Haven, 
Connecticut: leviathan 

Robert B. MacLeod, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Psychology, Cornell 
University, Ithaca, New York: katz, 

DAVID 

David M. Maeir, M.D.; Director, 
Shaare Zedek Hospital, Jerusalem 

Z. (Ze'ev) A. Maghen*, Ph.D.; 
Senior Lecturer in Middle East 
History and Persian Language, Bar- 
Ilan University, Ramat Gan: hadith; 

MEDINA; YAHUD; YAHUD 

Shaul Magid* , Ph.D.; Jay and Jeanie 
Schottenstein Professor of Modern 
Judaism, Indiana University, 
Bloomington, Indiana: schachter- 

SHALOMI, ZALMAN 

Shulamit S. Magnus*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor in Jewish 
Studies and History, Chair, Program 
in Jewish Studies, Oberlin College, 

Ohio: WENGEROFF, PAULINE EPSTEIN 

Raphael Mahler, Dr. Phil.; Emeritus 
Professor of Jewish History, Tel Aviv 



University: balaban, meir ; janow 

LUBELSKI; LECZNA; LUBACZOW 

Joseph Maier, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Sociology, Rutgers University, 
Newark, New Jersey: durkheim, 

EMILE; JOSEPH ISSACHAR BAER BEN 
ELHANAN 

J.F. Maillard, Agrege de l'Universite, 
Chercheur, Centre National de 
la Recherche Scientifique, Paris: 

RAPHAEL, MARK 

Jacob Maimon, Jerusalem: 

ALPHABET, HEBREW 

Emmanuelle Main*: pesher; stern, 

MENACHEM; YANNAI, ALEXANDER 

Yitzchak Mais*, Historian, Museum 
Consultant, Jerusalem and New 
York: arad, yitzhak-, museum of 

JEWISH HERITAGE: A LIVING MEMORIAL 
TO THE HOLOCAUST; STERN, DAVID 

David Maisel, M.A.; Jerusalem: 

COHEN; FEKETE, MICHAEL; SHENHAR, 
YITZHAK 

Jacob J. Maitlis, Dr. Phil.; Scholar, 
London: mayse-bukh 

Donald J. Makovsky, M.A.; 
Assistant Professor of History, 
Forest Park Community College, St. 
Louis, Missouri: Missouri 

Yona Malachy, D.en D.; 
Research Fellow, the Institute for 
Contemporary Jewry, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: blackstone, 

WILLIAM E.; ECKARDT, ROY A.; 
PROTESTANTS; ZIONISM 

Abraham Malamat, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Ancient Jewish and 
Biblical History, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: aram, 

ARAMEANS; ARAM-DAMASCUS; 
DAMASCUS; EXILE, ASSYRIAN; MARI 

Irving Malin, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of English, City College 
of the City University of New York: 

SVETLOV, MIKHAIL; TRILLING, LIONEL 

Michael Malina*, A.B., L.L.B.; 
Harvard Law School, Scarsdale, 
New York: berman, julius 

Frances Malino*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Jewish Studies and History, 
Wellesley College, Maryland: 



ALLIANCE ISRAELITE UNIVERSELLE; 
HOURWITZ, ZALKIND 

Myriam M. Malinovich, Ph.D.; 

Acting Assistant Professor of 
Philosophy, San Diego State College, 
California: kojeve, Alexandre; 

PERELMAN, BARON CHAIM 

Nadia Malinovich*, Ph.D., 
Adjunct Professor, Institut d'Etudes 
Politiques de Paris, France: herstein, 

LILLIAN; STEIMER, MOLLY 

Risa Mallin*, B.A.; Retired 
Executive Director, Arizona 
Jewish Historical Society, Phoenix, 
Arizona: Arizona; phoenix 

Aharon Maman*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Hebrew, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: abbreviations; bar-asher, 

MOSHE; BLAU JOSHUA; HAYYUJ, JUDAH 
BEN DAVID; KADDARI, MENACHEM ZEVI; 
LINGUISTIC LITERATURE, HEBREW; 
SARFATTI, GAD B. 

Peter (M.) Manasse*, Editor, 20th 
Century Biographical Encyclopedia 
of Jews in the Netherlands, Menasseh 
ben Israel Institute /University of 
Amsterdam, the Netherlands: van 

RAALTE, EDUARD ELLIS 

Arnold Mandel, L.es L.; Writer and 

Critic, Paris: arega, leon; bloch- 

MICHEL, JEAN; CREMIEUX, BENJAMIN; 
IKOR, ROGER; SARRAUTE, NATHALIE; 
SPERBER, MANES 

Meir Mandel, Ing.Agr., I.A.N.; 
Kibbutz Kiryat Anavim: gordonia 

Bernard Mandelbaum, D.H.L., 
Rabbi; Chancellor, Professor of 
Homiletics, and Associate Professor 
of Midrash, the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America, New York 

Jane Mandelbaum*: passaic-clifton 

Charles (H.) Manekin*, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor of Philosophy, 
University of Maryland: belief; 

CATEGORIES 

Daniel Mann*, B.A., M.A.; Retired 
Jewish Communal Worker and 
Educator: farband; labor Zionist 

ALLIANCE 

Jacob Mann, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Jewish History and 
Talmud, the Hebrew Union 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



College-Jewish Institute of Religion, 
Cincinnati, Ohio: aaron ben Joseph 

HA-KOHEN SARGADO; ABRAHAM BEN 
ISAAC HA-KOHEN BEN AL-FURAT 

Giora Manor*, Dance Reviewer and 
Writer; Founder and first editor of 
the Israel Dance Review: agadati, 

BARUCH; MARKOVA, ALICIA; ZEMACH, 
BENJAMIN 

Yohanan Manor, Ph.D.; Head, 
Information Department, World 
Zionist Organization, Jerusalem: 

ANTI-ZIONISM, CONTEMPORARY 

Menahem Mansoor, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Hebrew and Semitic 
Studies, the University of Wisconsin, 
Madison: essenes; hassideans 

Hugo Mantel, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Associate Professor of Jewish 
History, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat 
Gan: odenathus and zenobia; 
sanhedrin 

Daniela Mantovan*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of Yiddish 
Language and Literature, 
Hochschule fur Judische Studien, 
Heidelberg, Germany: der nister 

Haim Maor*, Professor, Artist, 
Curator and Art Lecturer, Ben- 
Gurion University of the Negev, 
Beersheva: art: modern erez Israel; 

ISRAEL, STATE OF: CULTURAL LIFE 

Yitzhak Maor, Ph.D.; Historian, 
Kibbutz Ashdot Ya'akov (Ihud): 

AN-SKI, S.; KHARKOV CONFERENCE; 
KIRSHON, VLADIMIR MIKHAILOVICH; 
LATVIA; LUNTS, LEV NATANOVICH; 
MINSKI, NIKOLAI MAXIMOVICH; 
SOBOL, ANDREY MIKHAILOVICH; 
VOLYNSKI, AKIM LEVOVICH; ZASLAVSKY, 
DAVID 

Moshe Ma'oz*, Professor Emeritus 
of Islamic and Middle Eastern 
Studies, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: asad, hafez al-; syria 

Evasio de Marcellis, M.A.; Teacher 
in the Department of Ancient Near 
Eastern Studies, Tel Aviv University: 

EGYPT; GELB, IGNACE JAY 

Frederick J. Marchant*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of English and Director 
of Creative Writing and the Poetry 
Center, Suffolk University, Boston: 

PINSKY, ROBERT 



Julius J. Marcke, J.D.; Professor 
of Law and Law Librarian, New 
York University School of Law: 

CAHN, EDMOND NATHANIEL; CARDOZO, 
BENJAMIN NATHAN; COHEN, BENJAMIN 
VICTOR; FRANK, JEROME NEW; FREUND, 
ERNST; FREUND, PAUL ABRAHAM; 
FUCHSBERG, JACOB D.; GARMENT, 
LEONARD; LAWYERS; LEVY, MOSES; 
PFEFFER, LEO; REDLICH, NORMAN; 
RODELL, FRED M.; SHULMAN, HARRY; 
WECHSLER, HERBERT; WYZANSKI, 
CHARLES EDWARD, JR. 

David Marcus*, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Bible, Jewish Theological Seminary, 
New York: ezra and nehemiah, 

BOOKS OF 

Jacob Rader Marcus, Ph.D., 

Rabbi; Professor of American 
Jewish History, the Hebrew Union 
College- Jewish Institute of Religion, 
Cincinnati, Ohio: American Jewish 

ARCHIVES; UNITED STATES OF 
AMERICA 

Joseph Marcus, M.D.; Jerusalem: 

KANNER, LEO; SPITZ, RENE A. 

Marcel Marcus, M.A., Rabbi; 
Communal Rabbi of Berne, Lecturer 
at the University of Berne 

Simon Marcus, Dr.rer.Pol; 
Historian, Jerusalem: Albania; 

ALTARAS, JOSEPH; ARTA; ASAEL, HAYYIM 
BEN BENJAMIN; ATHENS; BEIRUT; 
BULGARIA; CANEA; CAREGAL, HAYYIM 
MOSES BEN ABRAHAM; CHALCIS; CHIOS; 
CORFU; CORINTH; CRETE; CYPRUS; 
DANON, ABRAHAM; DIDYMOTEIKHON; 
DRAMA; DURAZZO; EDIRNE; FAITUSI, 
JACOB BEN ABRAHAM; GAGIN, SHALOM 
MOSES BEN HAYYIM ABRAHAM; 
GAL1PAPA, ELIJAH MEVORAKH; 
GARMISON, SAMUEL; GHERON, YAKKIR 
MORDECAI BEN ELIAKIM; GHIRON; 
GOTA, MOSES ZERAHIAH BEN SHNEUR; 
GRAZIANO, ABRAHAM JOSEPH SOLOMON 
BEN MORDECAI; GREECE; HABIB, HAYYIM 
BEN MOSES BEN SHEM TOV; HABIB, 
MOSES BEN SOLOMON IBN; HABILLO, 
ELISHA; HAMON; HANDALI, JOSHUA BEN 
JOSEPH; HAYYIM ABRAHAM RAPHAEL 
BEN ASHER; HAYYIM JUDAH BEN HAYYIM; 
HAZZAN; HAZZAN, ISRAEL MOSES BEN 
ELIEZER; IBN EZRA, SOLOMON BEN 
MOSES; IBN JAMIL, ISAAC NISSIM; IBN 
VERGA, JOSEPH; IOANNINA; ISTRUMSA, 
HAYYIM ABRAHAM; JAVETZ, BARZILLAI 
BEN BARUCH; KALAI, MORDECAI BEN 
SOLOMON; KALAI, SAMUEL BEN MOSES; 
KAPUZATO, MOSES HA-YEVANI; KASABI, 



JOSEPH BEN NISSIM; KASTORIA; KAVALLA; 
KOLAROVGRAD; KORONE; KOS; KRISPIN, 
JOSHUA ABRAHAM; KYUSTENDIL; 
LARISSA; LEVI BEN HABIB; MODON; 
MUSSAFIA, HAYYIM ISAAC; NAUPAKTOS; 
NIKOPOL; NIS; OCHRIDA; PACIFICO, 
DAVID; PATRAS; PHLORINA; PLEVEN; 
PLOVDIV; RETHYMNON; ROMANIOTS; 
RUSE; SAMOKOV; SERRAI; SOFIA; SPARTA; 
STARA ZAGORA; THEBES; TRIKKALA; 
VARNA; VEROIA; VIDIN; VOLOS; 
YUGOSLAVIA; ZANTE 

Eliezer Margaliot, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Scholar and Teacher, Jerusalem: 

AHAI BEN JOSIAH; OSTROGORSKI, MOSES 

Mordecai Margaliot, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Geonic and Midrashic 
Literature, the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America, New York: 

AHA; DOSA BEN SAADIAH; HAI BAR 
RAV DAVID GAON; HAI BEN NAHSHON; 
HALAKHOT KEZUVOT; HALAKHOT 
PESUKOT 

David Margalith, M.D.; Former 
Lecturer in the History of Medicine, 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

COHN, TOBIAS BEN MOSES; FALAQUERA, 
NATHAN BEN JOEL 

Judith Margies*, Executive 
Director, Oregon Jewish Museum, 
Portland, Oregon: Oregon; 

PORTLAND 

Jill Margo* : wolfensohn, james 

DAVID 

Julius Margolinsky, Journalist, 

Copenhagen: adler, david baruch; 

BALLIN, JOEL; BRANDES, LUDWIG ISRAEL; 
COPENHAGEN; DENMARK; GLUECKSTADT, 
ISAAC HARTVIG; HAMBRO, JOSEPH; 
HANNOVER, ADOLPH; JACOBSEN, 
ARNE EMIL; JACOBSON, LUDVIG 
LEVIN; NATHANSON, MENDEL LEVIN; 
SALOMONSEN, CARL JULIUS; SIMONSEN, 
DAVID JACOB 

Peter (S.) Margolis*, M.A.; the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem; 
Gratz College, Philadelphia: 

STRASSFELD, MICHAEL; STRASSFELD, 
SHARON 

Rebecca E. Margolis*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of History, Humanities 
and Religious Studies, Vanier 
College, Montreal, Canada: 

MIRANSKY, PERETZ; RAVITCH, MELECH; 
WASSERMAN, DORA AND BRYNA; WILDER, 
HERTZ EMANUEL; WOLOFSKY, HIRSCH 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Yitzhak Margowsky, B.A.; 

Jerusalem: war and warfare 

Marin Marian (-Balasa)*, Dr.Phil; 
Principal Senior Researcher, 
Musicologist, Writer, Romania 
Academy of Sciences, Romania: 

BRAUNER, HARRY; CARP, PAULA; 
SULITEANU, GHISELA; VICOL, ADRIAN 

Jonathan Mark*, B.A.; Associate 
Editor, The Jewish Week, New York: 

SCHNEERSOHN, MENACHEM MENDEL 

Zvi Mark*, Ph.D.; Lecturer, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: nahman of 

BRATSLAV 

Shimon Markish, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer, Geneva University, 
Geneva, Switzerland: Erasmus of 

ROTTERDAM 

Eugene Markovitz, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Adjunct Professor of American 
History, Seton Hall University, 
South Orange, New Jersey: mendes 

Arthur Marmorstein, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Bible and Talmud, 
Jews' College, London: angels and 

ANGELOLOGY 

Jose Martinez (Delgado)*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor, Granada 
University, Spain: gikatilla, moses 

BEN SAMUEL HA-KOHEN 

Yehuda Marton, Dr. rer Pol.; 
Journalist, Jerusalem: alba iulia; 

AMIGO; ARAD; BAIA-MARE; BEZIDUL 
NOU; BISTRITA; BORSA; BRASOV; 
CAMPULUNG MOLDOVENESC; CAREI; 
CHERNOVTSY; CLUJ; DARABANI; 
DEJ; DEUTSCHKREUTZ; DOROHOI; 
ENDRE, LASZLO; FAGARAS; FRANKEL, 
LEO; FRIEDMANN, ABRAHAM; GURA- 
HUMORULUI; JAMBOR, FERENC-IOSEF; 
KASZTNER, REZSO RUDOLF; KISTARCSA; 
KOMOLY, OTTO; LEVAI, JENO; LUGOJ; 
MARGHITA; MARTON, ERNO JECHEZKEL; 
MATTERSDORF, JEREMIAH BEN ISAAC; 
MUENZ, MOSES BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI; 
MUKACHEVO; NASAUD; NASNA; ORADEA; 
ORSOVA; PANET, EZEKIEL BEN JOSEPH; 
RADAUTI; RAPOPORT, BENJAMIN ZE'EV 
WOLF HA-KOHEN BEN ISAAC; REBREANU; 
REGHIN; SADGORA; SALAMON, ERNO; 
SALONTA; SATU-MARE; SCHUECK, JENO; 
SCHWERIN-GOETZ, ELIAKIM HA-KOHEN; 
SEINI; SIBIU; SIGHET; SIMLEUL-SILVANIEI; 
SIRET; SOMREI SABAT; SUCEAVA; SZTOJAY, 
DOME; TALMACIU; TAM, JACOB BEN 
MEIR; TARGU-MURES; TIMISOARA; 



TISZAESZLAR; TRANSYLVANIA; TURDA; UJ 
KELET; VATRA-DORNEI; VISEUL-DE-SUS; 
WERFEL, FRANZ; WOLF, FRUMET 

Martin E. Marty, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Modern Church History, the 
University of Chicago: niebuhr, 

REINHOLD; TILLICH, PAUL JOHANNES 

Will Maslow, A.B., J.D.; General 
Counsel, American Jewish 
Congress, New York: pekelis, 

ALEXANDER HAIM 

Daniel M. Master*: dothan 

J. Rolando (Roly) Matalon*, 

M.H.L., Rabbi; Congregation 
B'nai Jeshurun, New York: meyer, 

MARSHALL T. 

Lidia Domenica Matassa* , B.A.; 
School of Religions, Trinity College, 
Dublin, Ireland: delos; elephantine; 

MAGDALA; SAMARITANS 

Maritha Mathijsen*, Ph.D.; 
Professor Dutch Literature, 
University of Amsterdam, The 
Netherlands: bruggen, carry van; 

MULISCH, HARRY; VROMAN, LEO 

Jurgen Matthaus*, Ph.D.; Historian, 
United States Holocaust Memorial 
Museums Center for Advanced 
Holocaust Studies, Washington, 

D.C.: FINAL SOLUTION 

Amihai Mazar*, Ph.D.; 
Professor, Eleazar Sukenik Chair 
in Archaeology, The Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: Jerusalem-, 

REHOV, TEL 

Benjamin Mazar, Dr. Phil.; Pro- 
Rector, former President and 
Professor of Archaeology and 
of Jewish History, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: en-gedi; 

LEBO-HAMATH 

Michel Mazor, Dr.Jur.; Author, 

Paris: centre de documentation 

JUIVE CONTEMPORAINE 

Y. (Yaakov) Mazor*, M.A.; 
Associated Researcher, Jewish 
Music Research Centre, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: feidman, 

GIORA; HASIDISM 

David P. McCarthy, Ph.D.; 
Professor, Hebrew and Semitic 
Studies, University of Wisconsin 



Keren R. McGinity*, Ph.D.; 
Historian, Brown University, 
Newton, Massachusetts: antin, 

MARY; CHESLER, PHYLLIS 

Blake McKelvey, Ph.D.; City 
Historian of Rochester, New York: 

ROCHESTER 

Michael Meckler*, Ph.D.; 
Permanent Fellow, Center for 
Epigraphical and Palaeographical 
Studies, the Ohio State University: 

COLUMBUS 

Meir Medan, M.A.; Chief Scientific 
Secretary of the Academy of the 
Hebrew Language, Jerusalem: 

ABRAHAM HA-BAVLI; ACADEMY OF THE 
HEBREW LANGUAGE; KLAUSNER, JOSEPH 
GEDALIAH; LAWAT, ABRAHAM DAVID BEN 
JUDAH LEIB; LEVITA, ELIJAH 

Sheva Medjuck*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Sociology, Mount Saint Vincent 
University, Halifax, Canada: 

ATLANTIC CANADA 

Elliott Hillel Medlov, B.A., Rabbi; 
Highland Park, New Jersey: samuel 

HA-KATAN; SIMEON BEN PAZZI 

Rafael Medoff*, Ph.D., Director, 
The David S. Wyman Institute for 
Holocaust Studies, Gratz College, 
Melrose Park, Pennsylvania: 

GOLINKIN, NOAH; KOOK, HILLEL; WAR 
REFUGEE BOARD 

Meron Medzini, Ph.D.; Author, 
Journalist, Senior Lecturer, School 
for Overseas Students, The Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: histadrut-, 

ISRAEL, STATE OF: ALIYAH; ISRAEL, STATE 
OF: DEFENSE FORCES; ISRAEL, STATE OF: 
HISTORICAL SURVEY; KEREN HAYESOD; 
POLLARD AFFAIR 

Moshe Medzini, Journalist and 
Writer, Jerusalem: novomeysky, 

MOSHE; RUTENBERG, PINHAS; ZIONISM 

Matti Megged, M.A.; Critic and 
Lecturer in Modern Hebrew 
Literature, Haifa University and 
the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: aloni, nissim; 

ALTERMAN, NATHAN; GOURI, HAIM; 
YIZHAR, S. 

Michal Meidan*, Ph.D.; Candidate, 
Research Fellow and Lecturer, Asia 
Centre France, Paris, University of 
Haifa: china 



122 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Levi Meier*, Ph.D., Rabbi; Jewish 
Chaplain/Clinical Psychologist, 
Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los 
Angeles: hospitals 

Richard Meier, Bach.Arch.; 
Professor of Architecture, the 
Cooper Union for the Advancement 
of Science and Art, New York: 

SYNAGOGUE 

Alexander Meijer, M.D.; Lecturer 
in Child Psychiatry, the Hebrew 
University- Hadassah Medical 
School, Jerusalem: tramer, moritz 

Daphne Meijer(-Sangary)*, M.A.; 
Journalist, Nieuw Israelietisch 
Weekblad, Amsterdam, The 
Netherlands: dutch literature 

Edmund Meir, Dr. Phil.; Historian, 

Jerusalem: darmstadt; hymans, paul 

Ephraim Meir*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Philosophy, Bar-Ilan University, 

Ramat Gan: buber, martin; derrida, 

JACQUES; EXISTENTIALISM; HESCHEL, 
ABRAHAM JOSHUA; LEIBOWITZ, 
YESHAYAHU; LEVINAS, EMMANUEL; 
LYOTARD, JEAN-FRANCOIS; ROSENSTOCK- 
HUESSY, EUGEN; ROSENZWEIG, FRANZ; 
WITTGENSTEIN, LUDWIG 

Isaac Meiseles, Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
Talmud, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat 
Gan 

Joseph Meisl, Dr.Phil.; 

Encyclopaedia Judaica (Germany); 
Historian and former Director of 
the Central Archives for the History 
of the Jewish People, Jerusalem: 

BERLIN; DUBNOW, SIMON 

Pnina Meislish, B.A.; Ramat Gan: 

HALBERSTAM; MEISELS, UZZIEL BEN ZEVI 
HIRSCH 

Abraham Melamed*, Ph.D.; 
Professor, University of Haifa: 

ABRABANEL, JUDAH; ASHKENAZI, SAUL 
BEN MOSES HA-KOHEN; KING, KINGSHIP 

Uri Melammed*, Ph.D.; Researcher, 
The Historical Dictionary Project 
of the Academy of the Hebrew 
Language, The Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem and the Hebrew Language 
Academy, Jerusalem: tibbon, ibn 

Bent Melchior, Chief Rabbi of 
Denmark, Copenhagen: Denmark; 

FISCHER, JOSEF 



Julian Louis Meltzer, Executive 
Vice Chairman, Yad Chaim 
Weizmann, Rehovot, Israel: 

MARKS, SIMON, BARON; OPPENHEIMER, 
HILLEL REINHARD; REICHERT, ISRAEL; 
ROSENHEIM, MAX, BARON; SELA, 
MICHAEL; THORN, SIR JULES; WOLFSON, 
SIR ISAAC 

Adam (David) Mendelsohn*, 

B.A., M.A.; Brandeis University, 
Boston: aaron, Israel; abramowitz, 

DOV BAER; ADLER, JOSEPH; ADLER, 
LIEBMAN; ALBUM, SIMON HIRSCH; ALPER, 
MICHAEL; AMATEAU, ALBERT JEAN; 
BLACK, ALGERNON DAVID; BRUCKMAN, 
HENRIETTA; COHEN, MARY MATILDA 

Ezra Mendelsohn, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Contemporary Jewry and in 
Russian Studies, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: laserson, 

MAX; POLAND; SOCIALISM, JEWISH; 
WOLFE, BERTRAM DAVID 

Oskar Mendelsohn, M.A.; 
Historian, Retired Teacher, Oslo: 

BENKOW, JO; NORWAY; SCANDINAVIAN 
LITERATURE; TAU, MAX; WERGELAND, 
HENRIK ARNOLD 

Paul Mendes-Flohr*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Modern Jewish 
Thought, the Franz Rosenzweig 
Minerva Research Center for 
German- Jewish Literature and 
Cultural History, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: cohen, 

ARTHUR A.; ROTENSTREICH, NATHAN 

Richard Menkis*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor, University of British 
Columbia, Canada: abramowitz, 

HERMAN; BECKER, LAVY M.; BELZBERG, 
SAMUEL; CASS, SAMUEL; DIAMOND, 
JACK; FEINBERG, ABRAHAM L.; FELDER, 
GEDALIA; FINESTONE, SHEILA; GORDON, 
NATHAN; GRAUBART, Y.L.; HOROWITZ; 
JACOBS, SOLOMON; JOURNALISM; 
KAHANOVITCH, ISRAEL ISAAC; LAWYERS; 
ONTARIO; POLITICS; PRESS; PRICE, 
ABRAHAM A.; RHINEWINE, ABRAHAM; 
SASKATCHEWAN; SLONIM, REUBEN; 
STERN, HARRY JOSHUA; TREPMAN, 
PAUL 

Itshak Meraz, M.A.; Jerusalem 

Chen Merchavya, Ph.D.; Historian, 

Jerusalem: razim, sefer ha 

Peretz Merhav, Historian of the 
Labor Movement, Kibbutz Bet Zera: 

HA-SHOMER HA-ZATR 



Irwin L. Merker, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of History, Rutgers 
University, Newark, New Jersey: 

COHEN, ROBERT; EHRENBERG, VICTOR 
LEOPOLD; FUKS, ALEXANDER; GLOTZ, 
GUSTAVE; HIRSCHFELD, HEINRICH OTTO; 
KATZ, SOLOMON; LEVY, PAUL; POSENER, 
GEORGES HENRI; SAMTER, ERNST; STEIN, 
ARTHUR; STEIN, HENRI 

Yohanan Meroz, Ministry for 
Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: 

AUSTRIA; BELGIUM; DENMARK; ITALY; 
NETHERLANDS, THE 

Joseph Mersand, Ph.D.; New 

York: chayefsky, paddy-, hecht, ben; 

KAUFMAN, GEORGE SIMON; MILLER, 
ARTHUR; ODETS, CLIFFORD; RICE, ELMER 
LEOPOLD; SHAW, IRWIN; WOUK, HERMAN 

Daniel M. Metz* : sarphati, samuel-, 

WERTHEIM, ABRAHAM CAREL 

Bruce M. Metzger, Ph.D.; Professor 
of New Testament Language and 
Literature, Princeton Theological 
Seminary, New Jersey: Esther, 

ADDITIONS TO THE BOOK OF; 
MANASSEH, PRAYER OF; SONG OF THE 
THREE CHILDREN AND THE PRAYER 
OF AZARIAH; SUSANNA AND 
THE ELDERS 

Baruch Mevorah, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Jewish History, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ASSEMBLY OF JEWISH NOTABLES; 
BAIL, CHARLES-JOSEPH; CLOOTS, JEAN 
BAPTISTE DU VAL-DE-GRACE, BARON DE; 
GREGOIRE, HENRI BAPTISTE; HOLBACH, 
PAUL HENRI DIETRICH, BARON D'; 
NAPOLEON BONAPARTE; SACY, ANTOINE 
ISAAC SILVESTRE DE 

Herrmann M. Z. Meyer, M.A.; 
Scholar and Advocate, Berlin; 
Jerusalem: incunabula; Jerusalem-, 

MAP MAKERS; SONCINO GESELLSCHAFT 
DER FREUNDE DES JUEDISCHEN BUCHES 

Ilya Meyer*, B.Ed.; Translator, 
Transtext Ab, Gothenburg, 
Sweden: brick, daniel; gondor, 

FERENC; JAKUBOWSKI, JACKIE; MALMO; 
NARROWE, MORTON; SCANDINAVIAN 
LITERATURE; STOCKHOLM; SWEDEN 

Isidore S. Meyer, M.A., Rabbi; 

Historian, New York: adams, 

JOHN; AMERICAN JEWISH HISTORICAL 
SOCIETY; FRIEDENBERG, ALBERT MARX; 
FRIEDMAN, LEE MAX; KOHLER, MAX 
JAMES; LYONS, JACQUES JUDAH; MONIS, 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



JUDAH; MONTEFIORE, JOSHUA; SIMSON; 
WATTERS, LEON LAIZER 

Michael A. Meyer*, Ph.D.; Adolph 
S. Ochs Professor of Jewish 
History, Hebrew Union College- 
Jewish Institute of Religion, 
Cincinnati, Ohio: adler, lazarus 

LEVI; BEER, BERNHARD; BRILLING, 
BERNHARD; GELBER, NATHAN 
MICHAEL; HEBREW UNION COLLEGE- 
JEWISH INSTITUTE OF RELIGION; 
HOCHSCHULE FUER DIE WISSENSCHAFT 
DES JUDENTUMS; INSTITUTUM 
JUDAICUM DELITZSCHIANUM; 
JUEDISCH-LITERARISCHE 
GESELLSCHAFT; LEBRECHT, 
FUERCHTEGOTT; LOEWENSTEIN, 
LEOPOLD; OESTERREICHISCHE 
NATIONALBIBLIOTHEK; SILBERNER, 
EDMUND 

Thomas Meyer*, Ph.D.; Writer, 
Rosenzweig Minerva Research 
Center for German-Jewish 
Literature and Cultural History, 
Jerusalem: cassirer, ernst 

Torben Meyer, Editor, Copenhagen: 

BORCHSENIUS, POUL; NATHANSEN, 
HENRI; WELNER, PINCHES 

Carol Meyers*, Ph.D., Mary Grace 
Wilson Professor, Duke University, 
Durham, North Carolina: 

MANDRAKE; WOMAN: BIBLE PERIOD 

Eric M. Meyers*, A.B., M.A., 
Ph.D.; Bernice and Morton Lerner 
Professor of Judaic Studies; Director 
for Jewish Studies, President, The 
American Schools of Oriental 
Research, Duke University, Durham, 
North Carolina: meron; sepphoris 

Reuven Michael, M.A.; Kibbutz 

Afikim: bauer, bruno-, cassel, paulus 

STEPHANUS;DEUTSCH-ISRAELITISCHER 
GEMEINDEBUND; FREDERICK II; 
FREDERICK II OF HOHENSTAUFEN; 
JACOBY, JOHANN; JUDE, DER; JUEDISCHE 
FREISCHULE; KATZENELLENBOGEN; 
KOENIGSBERG; RINDFLEISCH; SAXONY; 
SCHUDT, JOHANN JAKOB; SIMON, JAMES 

Werner Michaelis, Ph.D.; Professor 
of New Testament History, the 
University of Berne: moses, 

ASSUMPTION OF 

Henry (D.) Michelman*, B.A., 
M.H.L., Rabbi; New York: goldfarb, 

ISRAEL; SYNAGOGUE COUNCIL OF 
AMERICA, THE 



Dan Michman*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Modern Jewish History and 
Chair, Finkler Institute of Holocaust 
Research, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan; Chief Historian, Yad 
Vashem, Jerusalem: Amsterdam; 

ASSCHER, ABRAHAM; COHEN, DAVID; 
NETHERLANDS, THE 

Jozeph Michman (Melkman)*, 

Ph.D.; Formerly Director-General 
of Yad Vashem; head of the 
Department of Culture, Ministry 
of Education and Culture; Founder 
and Chairperson of the Institute 
for Research on Dutch Jewry, Beth 
Julian, Herzliya, Israel: Amsterdam; 

ASSCHER, ABRAHAM; BERGEN- 
BELSEN; BERNSTEIN, PEREZ; BOAS; 
DENAZIFICATION; FELIX LIBERTATE; 
JUDENRAT; KAPO; LEHREN; LEMANS, 
MOSES; LEPROSY; MUSSERT, ANTON 
ADRIAAN; NATIONAL SOCIALISM; 
NETHERLANDS, THE; SEYSS-INQUART, 
ARTHUR; SZALASI, FERENC; ZACUTO, 
MOSES BEN MORDECAI 

Ed Mickelson*: Edmonton 

Dushan Mihalek*, M.A., Ph.D.; 
Director of Israeli Music Center, 
Tel Aviv: bardanashvili, josef; ben- 

SHABETAI, ARI; MUSIC; YUGOSLAVIA 

Eugene Mihaly, Ph.D.; Rabbi; 
Professor of Midrash and of 
Homiletics, the Hebrew Union 
College- Jewish Institute of Religion, 
Cincinnati: guttmann, Alexander 

Jacques K. Mikliszanski, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Professor of Halakhic 
Literature, the Hebrew College, 
Boston: elisha ba'al kenafayim; issur 

GIYYORA; LEVI, ISRAEL; MASSEKHET; 
SIMCHONI, JACOB NAFTALI HERTZ; 
TCHERNOWITZ, CHAIM 

Attilio Milano, Ph.D.; Historian, 
Hod Ha-Sharon, Israel: abenafia, 

JOSEPH; ABRABANEL; ACQUI; ALGHERO; 
AMBRON, SHABBETAI ISAAC; ANAU; 
ANCONA; AQUILA; AQUILEIA; ASCOLI 
PICENO; ASTI; BARI; BASILEA, SOLOMON 
AVIAD SAR-SHALOM; BASSANO; 
BENEVENTO; BERNARDINO DA SIENA; 
BOLOGNA; BONAVOGLIA, MOSES 
DE' MEDICI; BONDAVIN, BONJUDAS; 
BRINDISI; CANTARINI; CAPUA; CASES; 
CATANIA; CATECHUMENS, HOUSE OF; 
CESENA; CIVIDALE; COLOGNA, ABRAHAM 
VITA; CONEGLIANO; CORCOS, HEZEKIAH 
MANOAH HAYYIM THE YOUNGER; 
COSENZA; CREMONA; DIENCHELELE; 



FAENZA; FANO; FARAJ BEN SOLOMON 
DA AGRIGENTO; FERRARA; FINALE 
EMILIA; FINZI; FORLI; GALLICO; GENOA; 
GORIZIA; ILFA; IMOLA; ITALY; LEGHORN; 
LOMBARDY; LUCCA; LUGO; MAGINO, 
MEIR; MANTINO, JACOB BEN SAMUEL; 
MILAN; PAUL IV; PAVIA; PIACENZA; 
PIERLEONI; PISA; SAN DANIELE DEL 
FRIULI; VENOSA; VITERBO 

Jonathan Milgram*, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor of Talmud 
and Rabbinics, Jewish Theological 
Seminary; New York 

Jacob Milgrom, D.H.L., 
Rabbi; Associate Professor of 
Near Eastern Languages, the 
University of California, Berkeley: 

ABOMINATION; ALTAR; ANOINTING; 
BLOOD; BLOODGUILT; DESECRATION; 
'EGLAH ARUFAH; FASTING AND FAST 
DAYS; FORGIVENESS; HALLAH; KIPPER; 
LEVITICUS, BOOK OF; NAZIRITE 

Jose Maria Millas-Vallicrosa, 

Ph.D.; Professor of Hebrew Studies, 
the University of Barcelona: ramon 

LULL 

Rochelle L. Millen*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Religion, Wittenberg 
University, Springfield, Ohio: 

KADDISH 

Irwin (J.) Miller*, Author; 
Historian and Founding President, 
The Jewish Historical Society 
of Lower Fairfield County, 
Connecticut: Stamford 

Louis Miller, M.B.; Chief 
National Psychiatrist, Ministry of 
Health, Jerusalem: erikson, erik 

HOMBERGER; FEDERN, PAUL; FERENCZI, 
SANDOR; FREUD, ANNA; GREENACRE, 
PHYLLIS; GRINKER, ROY RICHARD Sr.; 
HITSCHMANN, EDWARD; HOFF, HANS; 
HOFFER, WILLI; KARDINER, ABRAM; 
KLEIN, MELANIE REIZES; KOMAROVSKY, 
MIRRA; KRIS, ERNST; KUBIE, LAWRENCE; 
LEWIS, SIR AUBREY JULIAN; MALZBERG, 
BENJAMIN; MASSERMAN, JULES HYMEN; 
MENTAL ILLNESS; MINKOWSI, EUGENE; 
NUNBERG, HERMAN; RADO, SANDOR; 
RANK, OTTO; REDL, FRITZ; REDLICH, 
FREDERICK C; REIK, THEODOR; 
ROTHSCHILD, FRIEDRICH SALOMON; 
SACHS, HANNS; SCHILDER, PAUL 
FERDINAND; STEKEL, WILHELM; STENGEL, 
ERWIN; TAUSK, VIKTOR; WINNIK, HENRY 
ZVI; ZILBOORG, GREGORY 

Marc Miller*, Ph.D.; Associate 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Professor of Jewish Studies, Emory 
University, Atlanta, Georgia: 

EDELSTADT, DAVID; ENTIN, JOEL; 
FALKOWITSCH, JOEL BAERISCH; 
FEIGENBAUM, BENJAMIN; GINZBURG, 
ISER; GISER, MOSES DAVID; GLASMAN, 
BARUCH; GLICK, HIRSH; GODINER, 
SAMUEL NISSAN; GORIN, BERNARD; 
GOTTLIEB, JACOB; GROSS, NAPHTALI; 
GURSHTEIN, AARON; HELLER, BUNIM; 
HIRSCHKAHN, ZVI; HORONTCHIK, SIMON; 
HOROWITZ, BER; ICELAND, REUBEN; 
JANOVSKY, SAUL JOSEPH; LATTEINER, 
JOSEPH; LERER, YEHIEL; LIBIN, Z.; LICHT, 
MICHAEL; LITVINE, M.; LUDWIG, REUBEN; 
LUTZKY, A.; RABON, ISRAEL; ROSENFELD, 
MORRIS; SWEATSHOP POETRY; TEPPER, 
KOLYA; VINCHEVSKY, MORRIS; WEINPER, 
ZISHE;YUNGE, DI 

Samuel Aaron Miller, Ph.D., 
F.R.I.C.; Chemical Consultant; 
President of the British Zionist 
Federation, London: abel, emil; abir, 

DAVID; ABRAHAM, MAX; AERONAUTICS, 
AVIATION, AND ASTRONAUTICS; 
ANDRADE, EDWARD NEVILLE DA 
COSTA; ASKENASY, PAUL; BACHARACH, 
ALFRED LOUIS; BAEYER, ADOLF VON; 
BAMBERGER, EUGEN; BARD, BASIL 
JOSEPH ASHER; BERGMANN, ERNST 
DAVID; BERGMANN, MAX; BERLINER, 
EMILE; BIKERMAN, JACOB JOSEPH; 
BLAU, FRITZ; BLOCH, KONRAD; BOHR, 
NIELS HENRIK DAVID; BORSOOK, 
HENRY; BRAUDE, ERNEST ALEXANDER; 
CALVIN, MELVIN; CARO, HEINRICH; 
CARO, NIKODEM; CHAIN, SIR ERNEST 
BORIS; COHEN, ERNST JULIUS; COHN, 
EDWIN JOSEPH; COPISAROW, MAURICE; 
DEUEL, HANS ERWIN; DONATH, EDUARD; 
DROSDOFF, MATTHEW; DUSHMAN, 
SAUL; ESTERMANN, IMMANUEL; FAJANS, 
KASIMIR; FARKAS, LADISLAUS; FEIGL, 
FRITZ; FLEISCHER, MICHAEL; FODOR, 
ANDOR; FOX, SIR JOHN JACOB; FRANK, 
ALBERT RUDOLPH; FREIDLINA, RAKHIL 
KHATSKELEVNA; FRUMKIN, ALEKSANDR 
NAUMOVICH; FUNK, CASIMIR; 
GERHARDT, CHARLES FREDERIC; 
GOLDBERG, ALEXANDER; GOLDSCHMIDT, 
GUIDO; GOLDSCHMIDT, HANS; 
GOLDSTEIN, SIDNEY; GOMBERG, MOSES; 
GREENBERG, DAVID MORRIS; HABER, 
FRITZ; HANDLER, PHILIP; HAVURAH; 
HEIDELBERGER, MICHAEL; HEILBRON, 
SIR IAN MORRIS; HERZOG, REGINALD 
OLIVER; HEVESY, GEORGE CHARLES DE; 
HIRSHBERG, YEHUDAH; ISAACS, JACOB; 
JACOBSON, PAUL HENRICH; JOLLES, 
ZVI ENRICO; KAZARNOVSKI, ISAAC 
ABRAMOVICH; KREBS, SIR HANS ADOLF; 
LADENBURG, ALBERT; LANDSTEINER, 
KARL; LEVENE, PHOEBUS AARON 



THEODOR; LEVI, GIORGIO RENATO; LEVI, 
MARIO GIACOMO; LIEBEN, ADOLPH; 
LIEBERMANN, CARL THEODOR; LIPMAN, 
JACOB GOODALE; LIPMANN, FRITZ 
ALBERT; LIPPMANN, EDMUND OSKAR 
VON; LIPPMANN, EDUARD; LOEB, 
JACQUES; LOEB, MORRIS; LOEWE, LUDWIG 
and ISIDOR; LONDON, FRITZ; MAGNUS, 
HEINRICH GUSTAV; MARCKWALD, 
WILLY; MARCUS, SIEGFRIED; MEYER, 
VICTOR; MEYERHOF, OTTO; MICHAELIS, 
LEONOR; MOISSAN, HENRI; NAQUET, 
ALFRED JOSEPH; NEUBERG, GUSTAV 
EMBDEN CARL; NEUBERGER, ALBERT; 
OPPENHEIMER, CARL; PANETH, 
FRIEDRICH ADOLF; PERUTZ, MAX 
FERDINAND; PICK, ERNST PETER; 
RABINOWITCH, EUGENE; ROGINSKI, 
SIMON ZALMANOVICH; RONA, PETER; 
ROSENHEIM, OTTO; RUMPLER, EDUARD; 
SCHOENHEIMER, RUDOLF; SCHWARZ, 
DAVID; SERBIN, HYMAN; SHAPIRO, 
ASCHER HERMAN; SILVERSTEIN, ABE; 
SINGER, JOSEF; STEINMETZ, CHARLES 
PROTEUS; STERN, KURT GUNTER; 
SZWARC, MICHAEL; TRAUBE, ISIDOR; 
WALLACH, OTTO; WARBURG, OTTO 
HEINRICH; WEIGERT, FRITZ; WEIZMANN, 
CHAIM; WILLSTAETTER, RICHARD; 
ZUCROW, MAURICE JOSEPH 

Matityahu Mine: marshak, samuel 

YAKOVLEVICH 

Sergio Itzhak Minerbi*, Ph.D.; 
Former Ambassador to Belgium, 
Luxembourg and the E.E.C.; 
Visiting Professor at the University 
of Haifa: don ati, angelo; European 

COMMUNITY, THE; HOLOCAUST: THE 
WORLD; ITALY; ROME; VATICAN 

Charles B. Mintzer, Writer, New 

York: raisa, rosa 

Victor A. Mirelman*, Ph.D.; Rabbi; 
Professor of Jewish History, River 
Forest, Illinois: benardete, mair jose; 

BRIE, LUIS HARTWIG; BUENOS AIRES; 
DIEZ MACHO, ALEJANDRO; JOSEPH, 
HENRY; KAPLAN, ISAAC; LATIN AMERICA; 
LEVY, ISIDORE; MIRELMAN; RAPOPORT, 
SOLOMON JUDAH LEIB; ROMAN, JACOB 
BEN ISAAC 

Irwin Mirkin, B.A.; Communal 
Worker and Writer, Los Angeles: 

GOLDIN, HYMAN ELIAS 

Dan Miron, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Modern Hebrew 
Literature, Tel Aviv University: 

FEIERBERG, MORDECAI ZE'EV; SADAN, 
DOV 



Aharon Mirsky, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Hebrew Literature, 
the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: al-harizi, judah ben 

SOLOMON 

David Mirsky, M.A., Rabbi; 
Dean and Professor of English 
and Hebrew Literature, Yeshiva 
University, New York: histadrut 

IVRIT OF AMERICA 

Samuel Kalman Mirsky, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Professor of Rabbinics, 
Yeshiva University, New York: Elijah 

BEN SOLOMON ZALMAN 

Moshe Mishkinsky, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in the History of Jewish 
Labor Movements, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem; Senior 
Lecturer in Jewish History, Tel 
Aviv University: abramowitz, emil; 

ABRAMOWITZ, GRIGORI; AGUDAT HA- 
SOZYALISTIM HA-IVRIM; AMSTERDAM, 
ABRAHAM MEIR; ARONSON, GRIGORI; 
BROSS, JACOB; BUND; COMMUNISM; 
DASHEWSKI, PINHAS; DOBIN, SHIMON; 
EINAEUGLER, KAROL; EISENSTADT, 
ISAIAH; ESTHER; FRUMKIN, BORIS 
MARKOVICH; GHELERTER, LUDWIG 
LITMAN; GORDON, ABRAHAM; 
GOZHANSKY, SAMUEL; GROSSER, 
BRONISLAW; GUREVICH, MOSHE; HA- 
EMET; HERSCH, PESACH LIEBMAN; 
INDEPENDENT JEWISH WORKERS 
PARTY; JEWISH SOCIAL DEMOCRATIC 
PARTY; JEWISH SOCIALIST WORKERS' 
PARTY; KAHAN, BARUCH MORDECAI; 
KOPELSON, ZEMAH; KREMER, ARKADI; 
KURSKY, FRANZ; LEKERT, HIRSCH; 
LESTSCHINSKY, JOSEPH; LIBER, MARC; 
LIEBERMANN, AARON SAMUEL; LITWAK, 
A.; LUMINA; LVOVICH, DAVID; MEDEM, 
VLADIMIR; MIKHALEVICH, BEINISH; 
MILL, JOSEPH SOLOMON; MUTNIK, 
ABRAHAM; PAT, JACOB; PESAHSON, ISAAC 
MORDECAI; PORTNOY, JEKUTHIEL; RAFES, 
MOSES; RATNER, MARC BORISOVICH; 
ROSENTHAL, PAVEL; SHULMAN, VICTOR; 
TSHEMERISKI, ALEXANDER; UNITED 
JEWISH SOCIALIST WORKERS' PARTY; 
VOZROZHDENIYE; WECHSLER, MAX; 
WEINSTEIN, AARON; ZIONIST SOCIALIST 
WORKERS' PARTY; ZYGELBOJM, SAMUEL 
MORDECAI 

Richard Mitten, Ph.D.; Historian, 
Freelance Writer, Vienna: waldheim 

AFFAIR 

Beverly Mizrachi, M.A.; 
Sociologist, Jerusalem: ben-david, 

JOSEPH; BROOKNER, ANITA 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



m 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Rachel Mizrahi*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Universidade de Sao Paulo, Brazil: 

SAFRA 

Zalmen Mlotek*, M.F.A.; Artistic 
Director, National Yiddish Theater- 
Folksbiene, New York: Yiddish 

THEATER FOLKSBIENE 

Baruch Modan, M.D.; Tel Ha- 
Shomer, Israel: sickness 

H.D. Modlinger: schmelkes, isaac 
judah 

Arnaldo Dante Momigliano, 

D.Litt., F.B.A.; Professor of History, 
University College, London: 

CLASSICAL SCHOLARSHIP, JEWS IN; 
HELLENISM 

Sidney Monas, Ph.D.; Professor of 
History and of Slavic Languages, the 
University of Texas, Austin: shestov, 

LEV 

Shelomo Morag, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Hebrew Linguistics, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

PRONUNCIATIONS OF HEBREW 

William L. Moran, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Assyriology, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts: el- 

AMARNA; PHOENICIA, PHOENICIANS 

Shmuel Moreh, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Modern Arabic Language and 
Literature, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: alceh, matilde; 

BASRI, MEER; DARWlSH, SHALOM; 
IBRAHIM IBN SAHL AL-ANDALUSl 
AL-ISRATLI; ISRAEL, STATE OF: ARAB 
POPULATION; MARHAB AL-YAHUDl IBN 
AL-HARITH; MlKHATL, MURAD; NOM, 
IBRAHIM; OBADYA, ABRAHAM; ORIENTAL 
LITERATURE; PRESS; SAMUEL IBN 
ADIYA; SHAMOSH, YIZHAK; SHASHU, 
SALIM 

Simha Moretzky, Journalist, Bat 
Yam, Israel: bat yam 

Michael L. Morgan*, Ph.D.; 
Chancellor s Professor Philosophy 
and Jewish Studies, Indiana 
University, Bloomington, Indiana: 

FACKENHEIM, EMIL 

Susan (Weissglass) Morgan*, 

B.A.; Public Relations Consultant, 
Jewish Community Federation of 
Richmond, Richmond, Virginia: 

RICHMOND; VIRGINIA 



Aryeh Morgenstern, B.A.; Teacher, 

Netanyah 

Goldie Morgentaler*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of English, 
University of Lethbridge, Alberta, 
Canada: rosenfarb, chava; 

SHAYEVITSH, SIMKHA-BUNIM 

Yehuda Moriel, Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
Talmud, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat 
Gan: education, Jewish 

Bonnie J. Morris*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Women's Studies, George 
Washington University, Washington, 

D.C.: HASIDISM 

* 

Richard B. Morris, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History, Columbia University, 
New York: levy, Leonard williams 

Larry Moses* , B.A., M.A.; M.S.W.; 
The Wexner Foundation, Ohio: 

WEXNER, LESLIE H. 

Rafael Moses, M.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Social Work, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: hartmann, 

HEINZ; LOEWENSTEIN, RUDOLPH 
MAURICE 

Wolf Moskovitz: krimchak 

LANGUAGE 

Robert Moskowitz* : passaic- 

CLIFTON 

Andrea Most*, M.A., Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor of American 
Literature, University of Toronto, 
Canada: spewack, bella 

Gloria Mound, Researcher, Ibiza: 

IBIZA and FORMENTERA 

Andrew Muchin*, B.A; 
Freelance Writer and Director 
of the Wisconsin Small Jewish 
Communities History Project, 
Wisconsin Society for Jewish 
Learning, Milwaukee, Wisconsin: 

WISCONSIN 

Arno Muenster*, Dr. Phil.; Professor 
of Modern and Contemporary 
Philosophy, Universite de Picardie- 
Jules Verne, Amiens, France: bloch, 

ERNST 

James Muilenburg, Ph.D.; Emeritus 
Professor of Old Testament, San 
Francisco Theological Seminary, San 
Anselmo, California: budde, karl 



FERDINAND REINHARD; BUHL, FRANZ 
PEDER WILLIAM MEYER 

Stefan Muller-Doohm*, Dr.Phil.; 
Professor, University of Oldenburg, 
Germany: adorno, theodor w. 

Aviva Muller-Lancet, L.es L.; 
Curator of Jewish Ethnography, the 
Israel Museum, Jerusalem: 

BUKHARA 

Robert A. Mullins*, Ph.D.; 

Assistant Professor of Hebrew Bible 
and Ancient Near Eastern History, 
Azusa Pacific University, Azusa, 
California: beth-shan 

Lewis Mumford, Professor of 
Humanities, Stanford University, 
California; Professor of City and 
Regional Planning, the University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia: 

ROSENFELD, PAUL 

Suessmann Muntner, M.D., 
Visiting Professor of the History of 
Medicine, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: abt, isaac Arthur-, 

ASAPH HA-ROFE; AVERROES; BAGINSKY, 
ADOLF ARON; BAMBERGER, HEINRICH 
VON; BLOCH, IWAN; BUCKY, GUSTAV; 
COHNHEIM, JULIUS; CYON, ELIE 
DE; DAMESHEK, WILLIAM; DE LEE, 
JOSEPH B.; DONNOLO, SHABBETAI; 
EDINGER, LUDWIG; ERLANGER, 
JOSEPH; FINKELSTEIN, HEINRICH; 
FRIEDEMANN, ULRICH; FRIGEIS, 
LAZARO DE; FROEHLICH, ALFRED; 
GOLDBERGER, JOSEPH; HAJEK, MARKUS; 
HERZ, MARCUS; HIRSCH, AUGUST; 
HIRSCH, RACHEL; JACOB HA-KATAN; 
JADASSOHN, JOSEF; KAPOSI, MORITZ; 
KATZENELSON, JUDAH LEIB BENJAMIN; 
KISCH, BRUNO ZECHARIAS; ROLLER, 
CARL; KOPLIK, HENRY; KRISTELLER, 
SAMUEL; KRONECKER, HUGO; LASSAR, 
OSCAR; LEVINSON, ABRAHAM; LOEB, 
LEO; MACHT, DAVID I.; MAIMONIDES; 
MEDICINE; MEYERHOF, MAX; MUNK, 
HERMANN; PAGEL, JULIUS LEOPOLD; 
PLAUT, HUGO CARL; POLITZER, ADAM; 
PREUSS, JULIUS; REMAK; ROMBERG, 
MORITZ HEINRICH; RUFUS OF SAMARIA; 
SACHS, BERNARD; SCHICK, BELA; 
SENATOR, HERMANN; STARKENSTEIN, 
EMIL; STEINACH, EUGEN; STERN, LINA 
SOLOMONOVNA; STILLING, BENEDICT; 
TRAUBE, LUDWIG; UNNA, PAUL GERSON; 
VALENTIN, GABRIEL GUSTAV; WECHSLER, 
ISRAEL; ZONDEK 

Museum of San Juan Staff* , San 

Juan, Puerto Rico: Puerto rico 



126 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Alan E. Musgrave, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Philosophy, the University of 
Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand: 

POPPER, SIR KARL 

David N. Myers*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
University of California, Los 
Angeles: ellenson, david harry 

Jacob M. Myers, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Old Testament, the Lutheran 
Theological Seminary, Gettysburg, 
Pennsylvania: nehemiah 

Jody Myers*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Religious Studies, California State 

University, Northridge: berg, philip; 

HAGGADAH, PASSOVER; NEW MOON 

Shlomo Na'aman, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Social History, Tel Aviv 
University: lassalle, Ferdinand 

Israel T. Naamani, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Political Science, the University of 
Louisville, Kentucky 

Jose Luis Nachenson, Ph.D.; 
Director of Research and 
Publications, Institute for Cultural 
Relations Israel-Latin America, 
Spain, and Portugal, Jerusalem: 

GRINSPUN, BERNARDO; ISAACSON, JOSE; 
PORTUGAL 

Ada Nachmani: ihud habonim 

• 

Amikam Nachmani*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of International Relations, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

TURKEY 

Jacob Nacht, Dr. Phil.; Scholar, Tel 

Aviv: isru hag 

• 

Amos Nadan*, Ph.D., Senior 
Researcher, The Moshe Dayan 
Center for Middle Eastern and 
African Studies, Tel Aviv University: 

GAZA STRIP 

Mordekhai Nadav, Ph.D.; Head 
of the Department of Manuscripts 
and Archives, the Jewish National 
and University Library; Lecturer 
in Jewish History, the University 
of the Negev, Beersheba: pinsk; 

PUKHOVITSER, JUDAH LEIB; TROKI 

Pamela S. Nadell*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History and Jewish Studies, 
American University, Washington, 

D.C.: ASKOWITH, DORA; JONAS, REGINA; 
NATIONAL FEDERATION OF TEMPLE 



SISTERHOODS; SCHECHTER, MATHILDE 
ROTH; SEMIKHAH; WOMAN; WOMEN'S 
LEAGUE FOR CONSERVATIVE JUDAISM 

Ludwig Nadelmann, M.A., Rabbi; 
Lecturer in the Reconstructionist 
Rabbinical College, Philadelphia 

Judah Nadich, D.H.L., Rabbi; New 

York: Eisenhower, dwight david 

Micah H. Naftalin*, B.A., J.D.; 
National Director (CEO), Union 
of Councils for Jews in the Former 
Soviet Union, Washington, D.C.: 

UCSJ 

Gerard Nahon, Ph.D.; Charge de 
Recherches au Centre National de 
la Recherche Scientifique, Paris: 

REINACH 

Iehiel Nahshon, B.A.; Ministry of 
Education, Hod ha-Sharon, Israel: 

SAPHIR, JACOB 

Noemi Hervits de Najenson, Ph.D.; 

Pedagogical Center, No'ar Vehalutz, 
Jerusalem: grinspun, Bernardo; 

ISAACSON, JOSE; PORTUGAL 

Reuven Nail, LL.B.; Ministry 
for Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: 

PORTUGAL 

Uri Naor, Dr.Phil.; Ministry 
for Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: 

SELBSTWEHR 

Yaakov Naparstek*, M.D.; Professor 
and Chairman of Medicine, 
Hadassah-Hebrew University 
Medical Center, Jerusalem: medicine 

Daniel C. Napolitano*, M.A.; 
Director, Division of Education, 
United States Holocaust Memorial 
Museum, Washington, D.C.: 

HOLOCAUST 

Albert Nar: greek literature, 

MODERN 

Shulamit Nardi, M.A.; Assistant to 
the President of Israel, Jerusalem: 

ENGLISH LITERATURE; KOPS, BERNARD; 
PRESIDENT OF ISRAEL; RAPHAEL, 
FREDERIC 

Bezalel Narkiss, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in the History of Art, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ARK; BIBLE; DAVID; GOLDSMITHS AND 
SILVERSMITHS; HAGGADAH, PASSOVER; 



ILLUMINATED MANUSCRIPTS, HEBREW; 
ITALIA, SHALOM; JOEL BEN SIMEON; 
JOSEPH HA-ZAREFATI; SHIVVITI; TEMPLE 

Morton Narrowe, M.H.L., Rabbi; 
Chief Rabbi of Sweden, Stockholm 

Abraham Nasatir, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History, San Diego State College, 
California 

Yaacov Nash, B.A.; Ministry of 
Police, Tel Aviv: crime 

Susan Nashman Fraiman*, M.A.; 

Lecturer in Art History, Emunah 
Teacher s College, Jerusalem: 

SABBATH 

Ellis Nassour, M.A.; New York: 

SELZNICK 

John Alfred Nathan, B.A., LL.B.; Tel 

Aviv: BENSAUDE 

Pnina Nave, Ph.D.; Visiting 
Professor of Jewish Studies, 
Heidelberg University: bendemann, 

EDUARD JULIUS FRIEDRICH; BERGNER, 
ELISABETH 

Joseph Naveh, Ph.D.; Research 
Fellow in West-Semitic Epigraphy, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; 
Jerusalem District Archaeologist, 
Department of Antiquities, 
Jerusalem: alef; alphabet, Hebrew; 

AYIN; BET; DALET; GIMMEL; HE; HET; 
KAF; KOF; LACHISH OSTRACA; LAMED; 
MEM; NUN; PE; RESH; SADE; SAMEKH; 
SHIN; TAV; TET; VAV; YAVNEH-YAM, LEGAL 
DOCUMENT FROM; YOD; ZAYIN 

Yitzhak Navon, Ministry for 
Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: ceylon 

Shmoyl Naydorf*: boraisha, 

MENAHEM 

Joseph Nedava, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Political Science, 
University of Haifa: ben-horin, 

ELIAHU; BERIT HA-BIRYONIM; TEHOMI, 
AVRAHAM; VON WEISL, ZE'EV 

Joshua Leib Ne'eman, Lecturer 
in Bible Cantillation, the Rubin 
Academy of Music, Jerusalem: beer, 

AARON; BIRNBAUM, ABRAHAM BAER; 
BLINDMAN, YERUHAM; BLUMENTHAL, 
NISSAN; DEUTSCH, MORITZ; FRIEDMANN, 
MORITZ; GEROVICH, ELIEZER MORDECAI 
BEN ISAAC; GLANZ, LEIB; GOLDSTEIN, 
JOSEF; HENLE, MORITZ; HERSCHMAN, 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



MORDECHAI; JAPHET, ISRAEL MEYER; 
JASSINOWSKY, PINCHAS; KARNIOL, 
ALTER YEHIEL; KIRSCHNER, EMANUEL; 
KOHN, MAIER; KOUSSEVITZKY, MOSHE; 
KWARTIN, ZAVEL; MINKOWSKI, PINCHAS; 
MOROGOWSKI, JACOB SAMUEL; 
NOWAKOWSKI, DAVID; SPIVAK, NISSAN 

Yuval Ne'eman*, Ph.D.; Founder 
and Director of the School of 
Physics and Astronomy at Tel Aviv 
University; President of Tel Aviv 
University and director of its Sackler 
Institute of Advanced Studies; 
Director of the Center for Particle 
Theory at the University of Texas, 
Austin; Founder and Chairman of 
the Israeli Space Agency; Scientific 
Director of the Soreq facility, Israel: 

PHYSICS 

Sharon Ne'emani, Magen David 
Adorn, Tel Aviv 

Avraham Negev, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Classical Archaeology, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

AVEDAT 

Joseph Nehama, Historian, 

Salonika: Athens; carasso, 

EMMANUEL; SALEM, EMMANUEL 
RAPHAEL 

Andre Neher, Dr. Phil., M.D., 
Rabbi; Professor of Jewish History 
and Philosophy, the University of 
Strasbourg and Tel Aviv University: 

AMADO LEVY-VALENSI, ELIANE; ETHICS 

Renee Neher-Bernheim, Ph.D.; 

Research Fellow in Jewish History, 
University of Strasbourg and Tel 
Aviv University: gordin, jacob; louis 

David Neiman, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Associate Professor of Theology, 
Dean of the Academy for Higher 
Jewish Learning, Boston: c ana an, 

CURSE OF 

Joseph Neipris, D.S.W.; Senior 
Teacher in Social Work, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: adler- 

RUDEL, SALOMON; CASPARY, EUGEN; 
COHEN, WILBUR JOSEPH; FRIEDLANDER, 
WALTER; FUERTH, HENRIETTE; 
GINSBERG, MITCHELL L; INTERNATIONAL 
CONFERENCE OF JEWISH COMMUNAL 
SERVICE; LEVY, SAM SAADI; PERLMAN, 
HELEN HARRIS; SCHOTTLAND, CHARLES 
IRWIN; STEIN, HERMAN D. 

Mordkhai Neishtat, Journalist, 



Tel Aviv: baazov, herzl; 

BABALIKASHVILLI, NISSAN; GEORGIA; 
MAMISTABOLOB, ABRAHAM; MOUNTAIN 
JEWS; QUNAYTIRA, AL- 

Leon Nemoy, Ph.D.; Scholar in 
Residence, Dropsie University, 
Philadelphia: aaron ben Elijah; 

AARON BEN JUDAH KUSDINI; ANAN 
BEN DAVID; ASZOD; BASlR, JOSEPH 
BEN ABRAHAM HA-KOHEN HARO'EH 
AL-; CHWOLSON, DANIEL; DAVID BEN 
HUSSEIN, ABU SULEIMAN; DAVID BEN 
SOLOMON; HASAN BEN MASHIAH; IBN 
AL-HITI, DAVID BEN SEADEL; ISAIAH BEN 
UZZIAH HA-KOHEN; ISRAEL HA-DAYYAN 
HA-MAARAVI; JACOB BEN SIMEON; 
JAPHETH AL-BARQAMANI; JESHUA BEN 
JUDAH; KARAITES; KIRKISANl, JACOB 
AL-; MALIK AL-RAMLl; MALINOWSKI, 
JOSEPH BEN MORDECAI; MENAHEM 
BEN MICHAEL BEN JOSEPH; MORDECAI 
BEN NISAN; MOSES BEN SAMUEL OF 
DAMASCUS; NAHAWENDl, BENJAMIN 
BEN MOSES AL-; PINSKER, SIMHAH; 
POSNANSKI; SAHL BEN MAZLIAH 

* * ■ 

HA-KOHEN ABU AL-SURRl; SAHL IBN 
FADL; SALMON BEN JEROHAM; SAMUEL 
BEN DAVID; SAMUEL BEN MOSES AL- 
MAGHRIBI; SAUL BEN ANAN; TAWRIZI, 
JUDAH MEIR BEN ABRAHAM 

Moshe Nes El*, Ph.D.; Researcher, 
Freelancer, Amilat, Jerusalem: 

BERDICHEVSKY SCHER, JOSE; BERMAN 
BERMAN, NATALIO; CHAMUDES REITICH, 
MARCOS; CHILE; COHEN GELLERSTEIN, 
BENJAMIN; COLOMBIA; COSTA RICA; 
FAIVOVICH HITZCOVICH, ANGEL; 
HONDURAS; LIBEDINSKY TSCHORNE, 
MARCOS; SCHAULSON BRODSKY, JORGE; 
SCHAULSON NUMHAUSER, JACOBO; 
TEITELBOIM VOLOSKY, VOLODIA 

Sara Neshamith, M.A.; Kibbutz 
Lohamei ha-Gettabt: brzeziny; 

POLAND 

Amnon Netzer*, Ph.D.; Professor 
Emeritus of Iranian Studies, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ABADAN; ABBAS I; ABBAS II; AHWAZ; 
AMINA; BABAI BEN FARHAD; BABAI 
BEN LUTF; BUSHIRE; EMRANI; GILAN; 
HAMADAN; IRAN; ISFAHAN; JUDAH BEN 
ELEAZAR; KASHAN; KAZVIN; KERMAN; 
KHOMEINI; KHURASAN; KURDISTAN; 
LAR; MAZANDARAN; MESHED; MIZRAHI, 
HANINAH; NADER SHAH; NAHAVAND; 
PAHLAVI, MOHAMMAD REZA SHAH; 
PAHLAVI, REZA SHAH; RASHID AL- 
DIN; RIZAIEH; SA'D AL-DAWLA AL-SAFl 
IBN HIBBATALLAH; SHAHIN; SHIRAZ; 
SHUSHTAR; TABRIZ; TEHERAN; YEZD 



Gideon Netzer*, Ph.D.; 
International Expert in Counter 
Terrorism and Conflict Crisis 
Management, National Defense 
of the I.D.S. College, Israel: Israel, 

STATE OF: DEFENSE FORCES 

Nissan Netzer, M.A.; Former 
Scientific Secretary, the Academy of 
the Hebrew Language, Jerusalem: 

GIKATILLA, ISAAC IBN; MOSES BEN HA- 
NESIAH 

Shlomo Netzer*, Ph.D.; Modern 
East European Jewish History, 
Tel Aviv University: bedzin; 

BIELSK PODLASKI; BRZESC KUJAWSKI; 
BRZEZINY; HARTGLAS, MAXIMILIAN 
MEIR APOLINARY; JEWISH HISTORICAL 
INSTITUTE, WARSAW; LESKOW 

Michael J. (John) Neufeld*, 

B.A., M.A., Ph.D.; Museum 
Curator, National Air and Space 
Museum, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, D.C.: Auschwitz, 

BOMBING CONTROVERSY 

Siegbert Neufeld, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Ramat Hen, Israel: lewin, adolf; 

TYKOCINSKI, HAYYIM 

Jacob Neusner*, Ph.D.; Research 
Professor of Theology, Bard College, 
Annandale-on-Hudson, New 

York: babylonia; bokser, baruch 

M.; COHEN, NATHAN EDWARD; KLEIN, 
PHILIP; LOTAN, GIORA; SELF-HATRED, 
JEWISH; ZAMARIS; ZURI, JACOB SAMUEL 

Gidi (Gideon) Nevo*, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor, The Ben-Gurion 
Research Institute, Ben-Gurion 
University of the Negev, Beersheba: 

MIRON, DAN 

Joseph Nevo*, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Middle East History, University 
of Haifa: abdullah ibn hussein; 

AKABA; HUSSEIN; HUSSEINI, HAjJ AMIN 
AL-; JORDAN, HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF; 
TRANSJORDAN 

Dika Newlin, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Music, North Texas State University, 
Denton: bloch, ernest; mahler, 

GUSTAV; MENDELSSOHN, FELIX; 
MEYERBEER, GIACOMO 

Aryeh Newman, M.A.; Lecturer 
in English, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: desecration; 

INDEPENDENCE DAY, ISRAEL; SACRILEGE; 
YOM HA-ZIKKARON 



128 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



David Newman, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer, Department of Geography 
and Environmental Development, 
Chairman, Urban Studies Program, 
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 
Beersheba: gush emunim; Israel, 

STATE OF: ALIYAH; PEACE MOVEMENTS, 
RELIGIOUS. 

Isaac Newman, B.A., Rabbi; 

London: Esther, fast of 

Sara (Joanne) Newman*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of English, 
Kent State University, Ohio: broner, 

ESTHER M. 

Hugh Nibley, Ph.D.; Professor of 

History and Religion, Brigham 
Young University, Provo, Utah: 

JERUSALEM 

Eliezer Niborski*, M.A.; Editing 
Collaborator of the Index to Yiddish 
Periodicals, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: dluzhnowsky, moshe; 

ESSELIN, ALTER; SIEMIATYCKI, CHAIM 

Miriam Nick, B.A.; Curator of 
the Museum of Ethnography and 
Folklore, Haaretz Museum, Tel Aviv: 

DRESS 

Maren (Ruth) Niehoff*, Dr.; Senior 
Lecturer, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: philo judaeus 

Eduard Nielson, Dr.Theol.; 
Professor of Theology, Copenhagen 
University, Denmark: pedersen, 

JOHANNES 

Shemuel Niger (Charney), Writer 
and Critic, New York: asch, sholem ; 

BORAISHA, MENAHEM 

Annegret Nippa*, Dr., PD; 
University Lecturer; Institut fur 
Ethnologie, Universitat Leipzig; 
Leipzig, Germany: Dresden 

Yeshayahu Nir, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Institute of Communications, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

BAR-AM, MICHA; GIDAL, TIM; 
PHOTOGRAPHY 

Nurit Nirel, M.A.; Ministry of 
Labor, Jerusalem: Israel, state of: 

LABOR 

Mordechai Nisan, Ph.D.; Academic 
Director, Preparatory Program, 
Rothberg School for Overseas 



Students, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: gulf war 

David Niv, M.A.; Editor and 
Historian, Jerusalem: ausubel, 

NATHAN; BEN-YOSEF, SHELOMO; BETAR; 
FRIZZI, BENEDETTO; HELPERN, MICHAEL; 
IRGUN ZEVAT LE'UMMI; KATZENELSON, 
YOSEF; LOHAMEI HERUT ISRAEL; RAZIEL, 
DAVID; STERN, AVRAHAM 

Izhak Noam, Eilat, Israel: elath 

Mona Nobil, B.A.; Netanyah 

Eric Nooter, Ph.D.; AJDC 
Historian, New York 

Anita Norich*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor, University of Michigan: 

GLANZ-LEYELES, AARON; GREENBERG, 
ELIEZER; IN-ZIKH; MUKDONI, A.; SINGER, 
ISRAEL JOSHUA 

Abraham Novershtern: Yiddish 

LITERATURE 

Anita Novinsky, Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
History, Sao Paulo University, Brazil 

Dov Noy, Ph.D.; Senior Lecturer in 
Folklore and in Hebrew and Yiddish 
Literature, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: abbreviations; 

ABRACADABRA; ABSALOM; ADALBERG, 
SAMUEL; ADEN; AFGHANISTAN; 
AFIKOMAN; ALEF; ANGEL OF DEATH; 
ANIMAL TALES; APOSTASY; ASS; ELIJAH; 
EVIL EYE; FOLKLORE 

Mendel Nun, Kibbutz Ein Gev 

Perry E. Nussbaum, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Jackson, Mississippi: Mississippi 

David Obadia, Rabbi; Member of 
the Rabbinical Council of Jerusalem: 

ABENDANAN; ABI-HASIRA; ATTAR, JUDAH 
BEN JACOB IBN; BEN ZAQEN; BENAIM; 
BERDUGO; ELBAZ 

John M. O'Brien, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Medieval History, Queens College 
of the City University of New York: 

MAXIMUS, MAGNUS CLEMENS 

Aryeh Oded, Ph.D.; Department of 
Middle East and African Studies, Tel 
Aviv University 

Bustanay Oded, Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
Jewish History, Haifa University: 

AHAB; AMMON, AMMONITES; 
ARPAD; BAALIS; BENJAMIN; CANAAN, 



LAND OF; CAPHTOR; CARCHEMISH; 
CHEDORLAOMER; CHEMOSH; CUSHAN- 
RISHATHAIM; CYPRUS; EGLON; EVIL- 
MERODACH; GEZER CALENDAR; 
GOLIATH; HEZEKIAH; ISH-BOSHETH; 
JEHU; JEROBOAM; JOAB; LABAN; 
MACHIR; MENAHEM; MERODACH- 
BALADAN; MESHA; MESHA STELE; MOAB; 
NEBUCHADNEZZAR; OMRI; PEKAH; 
PEKAHIAH; REHOBOAM; REUBEN; SAUL; 
SILOAM INSCRIPTION; SIMEON; TOB; 
TRIBES, THE TWELVE; UZZIAH; ZEDEKIAH 

Toni Oelsner, M.A., M.Soc.Sc; 
Historian, New York: chemnitz; 

CONSTANCE; DEPPING, GEORGES- 
BERNARD; FREIBURG IM BREISGAU; 
FRIEDBERG; FULDA; KARLSRUHE; KASSEL; 
KOBLENZ; MEININGEN; MERSEBURG; 
RAVENSBURG; SLAVE TRADE; STENDAL; 
STOBBE, OTTO; STOECKER, ADOLF; 
STRAUBING; STUTTGART; WAGNER, 
RICHARD 

Uriel Ofek, M.A.; Writer and Editor, 
Tel Aviv 

Zvi Ofer, Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs, Kibbutz Yifat 

A. (Adriaan) K. Offenberg*, Ph.D.; 
Retired Curator of the Bibliotheca 
Rosenthaliana, University of 
Amsterdam, The Netherlands: 

ATHIAS, JOSEPH and IMMANUEL; 
BENVENISTE, IMMANUEL; CASTRO 
TARTAS, DAVID DE; MANASSEH BEN 
ISRAEL; TEMPLO, JACOB JUDAH LEON 

Yitzhak Ogen, Writer, Tel Aviv: 

KARNI, YEHUDA 

Ronald E. Ohl, M.A.; Dean of 
Student Affairs, the Colorado 
College, Colorado Springs: abelson, 

HAROLD HERBERT; AUSUBEL, DAVID 
PAUL; GRUENBERG, SIDONIE MATSNER; 
JUSTMAN, JOSEPH; LIEBERMAN, MYRON 

Levi A. Olan, B.A., Rabbi; Dallas, 
Texas: Dallas 

Evelyne Oliel-Grausz*, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor in Early Modern 
and Jewish History, Universite Paris 
I Pantheon Sorbonne, Paris, France: 

NAHON, GERARD 

Aryeh Leo Olitzki, Dr. Phil.; 
Emeritus Professor of Bacteriology, 
the Hebrew University- Hadassah 
Medical School, Jerusalem: 

BESREDKA, ALEXANDER; EHRLICH, PAUL; 
WASSERMANN, AUGUST VON 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



129 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Colette Olive* : levy, benny 

David M. L. Olivestone, B.A.; 

Jerusalem: kornitzer, leon ; 

PUTTERMAN, DAVID; RAVITZ, SHELOMO; 
RAZUMNI, EPHRAIM ZALMAN; RIVLIN, 
SHELOMO ZALMAN; ROSENBLATT, 
JOSEF; SCHORR, BARUCH; SHULSINGER, 
BEZALEL; SIROTA, GERSHON; WASSERZUG, 
HAYYIM; ZILBERTS, ZAVEL 

A'hron Oppenheimer, M.A.; 
Lecturer in Jewish History and 
Talmud, Tel Aviv University: 

ELYASHAR, JACOB BEN HAYYIM JOSEPH; 
HOLY CONGREGATION IN JERUSALEM; 
KAMZA and BAR KAMZA; MEIR; 
SIKARIKON; TERUMOT AND MA'ASEROT 

Deborah Oppenheimer*, D.F.A.; 
Writer and Producer of Stories of the 
Kindertransport: kindertransport 

Vila Orbach, Yad Vashem, 
Jerusalem: Russia 

Nissan Oren, Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
International Relations, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: Bulgaria 

Shimon Oren, M.A.; Teacher in 
Education, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: kressel, getzel; 

LILIENBLUM, MOSES LEIB 

Eugene V. Orenstein*, B.A., M.A., 
Ph.D.; Associate Professor, McGill 
University, Montreal, Canada: 

CANADIAN LITERATURE; KIPNIS, ITZIK; 
RIVKIN, BORUCH; ROLNICK, JOSEPH 

Gustav Yaacob Ormann, Ph.D.; 
Editor, Kirjath Sepher, Jerusalem: 

ABNER 

Haim Ormian, Ph.D.; Editor of 
the Encyclopaedia of Education 
(Hebrew), Jerusalem: lipmann, otto 

Uzzi Oman, Ph.D.; Senior Lecturer 
in Hebrew Language, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: Hebrew 

GRAMMAR; HEBREW LANGUAGE 

Efraim Orni, M.A.; Geographer, 

Jerusalem: abu aweigila; acre; 

ADAMIT; ADORAIM; ADULLAM REGION; 
AFIKIM; AFULAH; ALLONEI ABBA; 
ALLONEI YIZHAK; ALLONIM; ALMAGOR; 
ALMAH; ALUMMOT; AMAZYAH; AMIR; 
AMIRIM; AMMIAD; AMMINADAV; APHEK; 
ARA; ARABA; ARARA; ARRABA; ARTAS; 
ASHDOD; ASHDOT YAAKOV; ASHKELON; 
ATAROT; ATHLIT; AVIGDOR; AVIHAYIL; 



AYANOT; AYYELET HA-SHAHAR; AZOR; 
BALFOURIYYAH; BAQA AL-GHARBIYYA; 
BAQA AL SHARQIYYA; BARKAI; BAT 
SHELOMO; BE'ER ORAH; BE'ER TOVIYYAH; 
BE'ER YAAKOV; BE'ERI; BE'EROT YIZHAK; 
BEERSHEBA; BEIT JANN; BEIT JIMAL; 
BEN SHEMEN; BENEI DAROM; BENEI 
DEROR; BENEI ZION; BEROR HAYIL; BET 
ALFA; BET-ARABAH; BET-DAGON; BET 
ESHEL; BET GUVRIN; BET HA-EMEK; 
BET HA-LEVI; BET HERUT; BET HILLEL; 
BETHLEHEM; BET IKSA; BET LEHEM; BET 
MEIR; BET NEHEMYAH; BET OREN; BET 
OVED; BET-SHEAN; BET-SHEMESH; BET- 
SHITTAH; BET YANNAI; BET YEHOSHUA; 
BET YERAH; BET YIZHAK; BET YOSEF; 
BET ZAYIT; BET ZERA; BINYAMINAH; 
BIRANIT; BIRIYYAH; BITAN AHARON; 
BIZZARON; BOZRAH; CAESAREA; 
CARMEL, MOUNT; DABBURIYYA; DAFNAH; 
DALIYAT AL-KARMIL; DALIYYAH; 
DALTON; DAN; DEAD SEA; DEGANYAH; 
DEIR AL-BALAH; DIMONAH; DOBRATH; 
DOR; DOROT; EILON; EILOT; EIN GEV; 
EIN HA-EMEK; EIN HA-HORESH; EIN 
HA-MIFRAZ; EIN HA-NAZIV; EIN HA- 
SHELOSHAH; EIN HA-SHOFET; EIN HOD; 
EIN IRON; EIN SHEMER; EIN VERED; 
EIN YAHAV; EIN ZEITIM; EIN ZURIM; 
EL-ARISH; ELYASHIV; EN-DOR; EN-GEDI; 
EN-HAROD; ESHTAOL; EVEN YIZHAK; 
EVRON; EYAL; FASSUTA; FURAYDIS, 
AL-; GAATON; GALILEE; GALON; GAN 
HAYYIM; GAN SHELOMO; GAN SHEMU'EL; 
GAN SHOMRON; GAN YAVNEH; GANNEI 
YEHUDAH; GAT; GAZIT; GEDERAH; GELIL 
YAM; GESHER; GESHER HA-ZIV; GE'ULEI 
TEIMAN; GE'ULIM; GEVA; GEVARAM; 
GEVAT; GEVIM; GEVULOT; GIBBETHON; 
GINNEGAR; GINNOSAR; GIVAT ADA; 
GIVAT BRENNER; GIVAT HA-SHELOSHAH; 
GIVAT HAYYIM; GIVAT HEN; GIVATAYIM; 
GOFNAH; HA-BONIM; HAFEZ HAYYIM; 
HA-GOSHERIM; HAMADYAH; HA-MA'PIL; 
HAMMAT GADER; HANITAH; HA-OGEN; 
HA-ON; HAREL; HA-SOLELIM; HAZER, 
HAZERIM; HAZEVAH; HAZOR ASHDOD; 
HA-ZOREA; HA-ZORETM; HEBRON; 
HEFER PLAIN; HEFZI BAH; HELEZ; HEREV 
LE-ET; HERUT; HERZLIYYAH; HIBBAT 
ZION; HOD HA-SHARON; HOGLAH; 
HULATAH; HULDAH; HULEH VALLEY; 
HURFAYSH; ILANIYYAH; ISRAEL, STATE 
OF: ALIYAH; ISRAEL, STATE OF: HUMAN 
GEOGRAPHY; JABNEEL; JENIN; JERICHO; 
JERUSALEM; JOKNEAM; JOTAPATA; KABRI; 
KADOORIE; KAFR KAMA; KAFR QASIM; 
KARMI'EL; KARMIYYAH; KEFAR AZAR; 
KEFAR BARUKH; KEFAR BIALIK; KEFAR 
BILU; KEFAR BLUM; KEFAR EZYON; KEFAR 
GIDEON; KEFAR GLICKSON; KEFAR HA- 
HORESH; KEFAR HA-MACCABI; KEFAR 
HA-NASI; KEFAR HA-RO'EH; KEFAR 
HASIDIM; KEFAR HAYYIM; KEFAR HESS; 



KEFAR HITTIM; KEFAR JAWITZ; KEFAR 
KISCH; KEFAR MALAL; KEFAR MASARYK; 
KEFAR MENAHEM; KEFAR MORDEKHAI; 
KEFAR NETTER; KEFAR PINES; KEFAR 
ROSH HA-NIKRAH; KEFAR RUPPIN; KEFAR 
SAVA; KEFAR SHEMARYAHU; KEFAR 
SYRKIN; KEFAR SZOLD; KEFAR TAVOR; 
KEFAR TRUMAN; KEFAR URIYYAH; KEFAR 
VITKIN; KEFAR WARBURG; KEFAR YASIF; 
KEFAR YEHEZKEL; KEFAR YEHOSHUA; 
KEFAR YONAH; KINNERET (kib.); 
KINNERET (mosh.); KINNERET, LAKE; 
KIRYAT ANAVIM; KIRYAT ATA; KIRYAT 
BIALIK; KIRYAT EKRON; KIRYAT GAT; 
KIRYAT HAROSHET; KIRYAT MALAKHI; 
KIRYAT MOTZKIN; KIRYAT SHEMONAH; 
KIRYAT TIVON; KIRYAT YAM; KISSUFIM; 
LAHAVOT HA-BASHAN; LOHAMEI HA- 
GETTA'OT; MAAGAN MIKHA'EL; MAALEH 
HA-HAMISHAH; MAALOT-TARSHIHA; 
MAANIT; MAAS; MA'BAROT; MAGHAR, 
AL-; MAHANAYIM; MAJD AL-KURUM; 
MANARAH; MA'OZ HAYYIM; MASSADAH; 
MASSU'OT YIZHAK; MAYAN BARUKH; 
MAYAN ZEVI; MAZKERET BATYAH; 
MAZLIAH; MAZZUVAH; MEI AMMI; 
ME'IR SHEFEYAH; MENAHEMIYYAH; 
MERHAVYAH; MERON; MESILLAT ZION; 
MESILLOT; METULLAH; MEVASSERET 
ZION; MIGDAL; MIGDAL HA-EMEK; 
MITLYA; MIKHMORET; MIKVEH ISRAEL; 
MISGAV AM; MISHMAR HA-EMEK; 
MISHMAR HA-NEGEV; MISHMAR 
HA-SHARON; MISHMAR HA-YARDEN; 
MISHMAROT; MIZPAH; MIZRA; MODITN; 
MOLEDET; MOZA; NAAN; NABLUS; NAHAL 
OZ; NAHALAL or NAHALOL; NAHALAT 
YEHUDAH; NAHARIYYAH; NEGBAH; 
NEGEV; NEHALIM; NE'OT MORDEKHAI; 
NES ZIYYONAH; NESHER; NETA'IM; NETIV 
HA-LAMED-HE; NETIVOT; NEVATIM; 
NEVEH EITAN; NEVEH YAM; NEZER 
SERENI; NIR AM; NIRIM; NIZZANIM; 
OFAKIM; OR HA-NER; OR YEHUDAH; 
OROT; PARDES HANNAH-KARKUR; 
PARDESIYYAH; PORIYYAH; RAANANNAH; 
RAFA; RAMA, AL-; RAMALLAH; RAMAT 
DAVID; RAMAT GAN; RAMAT HA- 
GOLAN; RAMAT HA-KOVESH; RAMAT 
HA-SHARON; RAMAT HA-SHOFET; 
RAMAT RAHEL; RAMAT RAZIEL; RAMAT 
YISHAI; RAMAT YOHANAN; RAMAT 
ZEVI; RAMOT HA-SHAVIM; RAMOT 
MENASHEH; RAMOT NAFTALI; REGAVIM; 
REGBAH; REHOVOT; REKHASIM; 
REVADIM; REVIVIM; RIHANIYYA, AL-; 
RISHPON; ROSH PINNAH; RUHAMAH; 
SAAD; SAFED; SARID; SASA; SAVYON; 
SEDEH BOKER; SEDEH ELIYAHU; SEDEH 
NAHUM; SEDEH NEHEMYAH; SEDEH 
WARBURG; SEDEH YAAKOV; SEDEROT; 
SHAALBIM; SHAAR HA-AMAKIM; SHAAR 
HA-GOLAN; SHAAR HEFER-BEIT YIZHAK; 
SHADMOT DEVORAH; SHAMIR; SHARM 



130 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



EL-SHEIKH, TIRAN ISLAND, and TIRAN 
STRAITS; SHARONAH; SHAVEI ZION; 
SHEAR YASHUV; SHEFAYIM; SHELUHOT; 
SHIFTAN, ZE'EV; SHOMRAT; SHOVAL; 
TAANACH; TAL SHAHAR; TAYYIBA, AL-; 
TEKOA; TEKUMAH; TEL HAI; TEL KAZIR; 
TEL MOND; TEL YIZHAK; TEL YOSEF; 
THEBEZ; TIBERIAS; TIMNA; TlRA, AL-; 
TIRAT ZEVI; TUL KARM; UDIM; URIM; 
USHA; YAARI, MENAHEM; YAD HANNAH; 
YAGUR; YAKUM; YAMMIT REGION; 
YARDENAH; YARKONAH; YAVNEH; 
YAVNEH; YEDIDYAH; YESODOT; YESUD 
HA-MAALAH; YIZRE'EL; ZOFIT; 
ZORAH 

■ 

Michal Oron*, Ph.D.; Deputy Head, 
Department of Literature, Tel Aviv 
University: abulafia, Abraham ben 

SAMUEL 

Asher Oser*, M.A., Rabbi; 
Congregation Brothers of Joseph, 
Norwich, Connecticut: rabbinical 

ALLIANCE OF AMERICA; RABBINICAL 
COUNCIL OF AMERICA; TORAH 
UMESORAH; UNION OF ORTHODOX 
JEWISH CONGREGATIONS OF AMERICA; 
UNION OF ORTHODOX RABBIS OF THE 
UNITED STATES AND CANADA 

Robin Ostow, Ph.D.; Resident 
Fellow, Centre for Russian and East 
European Studies, University of 
Toronto 

Jean Ouellette, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of Semitic Languages, 
Sir George Williams University, 
Montreal: incense and perfumes; 

VAUX, ROLAND DE 

Neil Ovadia, M.A.; Lecturer in 
History, City College of the City 
University of New York: hart, isaac-, 

HART, JOEL; HART, MYER; HAYS; HAYS, 
ISAAC; LEVY, AARON; LEVY, CHAPMAN; 
LEVY, NATHAN; MOSES, MYER; SIMON, 
JOSEPH; ZUNTZ, ALEXANDER 

Willard Gurdon Oxtoby, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of Religious 
Studies, Yale University, New Haven, 
Connecticut: babylonia 

Avraham Oz* 

Hilde Pach*, M.A., Ph.D.; 
Researcher, University of 
Amsterdam, Department of Hebrew, 
Aramaic and Jewish Studies, 
Amsterdam, The Netherlands: 

LOGGEM, MANUEL VAN; MINCO, MARGA; 
PRESS 



Mordechai Pachter*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Jewish Thought, 
University of Haifa: azikri, eleazar 

BEN MOSES 

Mark Padnos*, M.L.S., M.A.; 
Assistant Professor, Librarian, Bronx 
Community College and the City 
University, New York: brody, alter; 

ROSEN, NORMA; ROTH, HENRY 

William Pages, Journalist, Newark, 

New Jersey 

Dan Pagis, Ph.D.; Senior Lecturer 
in Hebrew Literature, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: poetry; 

SCHIRMANN, JEFIM; VOGEL, DAVID 

Naomi Paiss*: new Israel fund, the 

Mordecai Paldiel*, Ph.D.; Director 
for Righteous Among the Nations, 
Yad Vashem, Jerusalem: beccari, 

ARRIGO; BENOIT, PIERRE-MARIE; 
CALMEYER, HANS-GEORG; DOUWES, 
ARNOLD; FOLEY, FRANCIS; FRY, VARIAN; 
HAUTVAL, ADELAIDE; HO FENG-SHAN; 
KARSKI, JAN; MENDES, ARISTIDES DE 
SOUSA; NEVEJEAN, YVONNE; RIGHTEOUS 
AMONG THE NATIONS; SANDBERG, 
WILLEM JACOB; SENDLER, IRENA; STEFAN, 
METROPOLITAN; SUGIHARA CHIUNE- 
SEMPO; WESTERWEEL, JOHAN 

Joanne Palmer* : hertzberg, 

ARTHUR; UNITED SYNAGOGUE OF 
CONSERVATIVE JUDAISM 

Lisa Palmieri-Billig, M.A.; Writer 
and Journalist, ADL Representative 
in Italy, Rome: italy; milan 

Eliezer Palmor, M.A.; Ministry for 
Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: Bulgaria; 

HUNGARY; ROMANIA; ROSEN, MOSES; 
RUSSIA; YUGOSLAVIA 

Channah Palti, Jerusalem 

David H. Panitz, M.A., Rabbi; Dean 
of the Academy for Jewish Religion, 
New York: barnert, nathan 

Esther Panitz, M.A.; Writer, 

Paterson, New Jersey: wolf, simon 

Michael Panitz*, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Furman Professor of Judaic 
Studies, Virginia Wesleyan College, 
Norfolk, Virginia: cohen, gerson 

D.; CONSERVATIVE JUDAISM; JEWISH 
THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY; NORFOLK; 
SCHORSCH, ISMAR 



Ruth Panofsky*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Director, Joint Graduate 
Programme in Communication 
and Culture, Ryerson University, 
Toronto, Canada: bennett, avie j.; 

WADDINGTON, MIRIAM; WEINZWEIG, 
HELEN; WISEMAN, ADELE 

Sebastian Panwitz*, Dr.Phil.; 
Historian, Moses Mendelssohn 
Zentrum, Potsdam, Germany: 

GEIGER, LUDWIG 

Herbert H. Paper, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Linguistics, Hebrew Union 
College- Jewish Institute of Religion, 
Cincinnati, Ohio: bloch, jules; 

JUDEO-PERSIAN 

Tudor Parfitt*, M.A., Dr.Phil.; 
School of Oriental and African 
Studies, University of London, 
England: bayudaya-, bene ephraim; 

BENE MENASHE; BENJAMIN, YEHOSHUA; 
BURMA; EZEKIEL, NISSIM; HOUSE OF 
ISRAEL COMMUNITY; IBO; JAPAN; 
KASHMIR; KODER, SHABDAI SAMUEL; 
MAKUYA; SINGAPORE; TUTSI; 
ZAKHOR 

James W. Parkes, D.Phil; Historian, 
Blandford, Dorset, England: alaric 

II; HOLY PLACES; PROTESTANTS 

Herbert Parzen, M.A., M.H.L., 
Rabbi; Historian, New York: de 

HAAS, JACOB; ZIONIST ORGANIZATION 
OF AMERICA 

Rachel Pasternak*, Ph.D., Senior 
Lecturer of Behavioral Studies, The 
College of Management Academic 
Studies, Tel Aviv: Israel, state of: 

EDUCATION 

Melissa Patack*, J.D.,B.S.; Vice 
President, State Government Affairs, 
Motion Picture Association of 
America, Inc., Encino, California: 

GLICKMAN, DANIEL ROBERT 

David Patterson, Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
Post-Biblical Hebrew, the University 
of Oxford; Visiting Professor of 
Hebrew Studies, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, New York: braudes, reuben 

ASHER; GOTTLOBER, ABRAHAM BAER; 
MAPU, ABRAHAM; SMOLENSKIN, PEREZ 

Arnold Paucker, M.A.; Director of 
the Leo Baeck Institute, London: 

BISCHOFF, ERICH 

Benjamin Paul*: Houston; Illinois; 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



JEWISH WAR VETERANS OF THE U.S.A.; 
KANSAS; KANSAS CITY; LANCASTER 

Shalom M. Paul, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Senior Lecturer in Bible, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem and Tel Aviv 
University: book of life; book of 

THE COVENANT; BOOK OF THE WARS OF 
THE LORD; CHEBAR; CHERUB; CREATION 
AND COSMOGONY; ECSTASY; EUPHEMISM 
AND DYSPHEMISM; PROPHETS AND 
PROPHECY; SERVANT OF THE LORD; 
VIRGIN, VIRGINITY 

Wolfgang Paulsen, Ph.D.; Professor 
of German, the University of 
Massachusetts, Amherst: sternheim, 

CARL 

Moshe Pearlman, B.Sc; Writer, 

Jerusalem: war of independence 

Peggy K. Pearlstein*, Ph.D.; Area 
Specialist, Hebraic Section, Library 
of Congress, Washington, D.C.: 

FELDMAN, SANDRA; HARMAN, JANE 

Birger A. Pearson, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Religious Studies, 
Universities of California, Santa 
Barbara: nag hammadi codices 

Abraham J. Peck*, Ph.D., Director, 
Academic Council for Post 
Holocaust, Christian, Jewish, and 
Islamic Studies, University 
of Southern Maine: archives; 

MAINE 

Haviva Pedaya* : nahmanides 

Mark (J.) Pelavin*, J.D.; Associate 
Director, Religious Action Center of 
Reform Judaism, Washington, D.C.: 

SAPERSTEIN, DAVID N.; SAPERSTEIN, 
HAROLD I. 

Moshe Peled, B.A.; Colonel (Res.), 
Israel Defense Forces; Ministry of 
Transport, Jerusalem 

Natan Peled, Minister of 
Absorption, Kibbutz Sarid 

Kristine Peleg*, Ph.D.; English 
Lecturer, Century College, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota: calof, 

RACHEL BELLA KAHN 

Gregor Pelger* , Ph.D.; Historian, 
Salomon Ludwig Steinheim-Institut 
fur deutsch-jiidische Geschichte, 
Duisburg, Germany: goldenthal, 

JACOB; OPPERT, GUSTAV SALOMON; 



STEINSCHNEIDER, MORITZ; ZEDNER, 
JOSEPH; ZUNZ, LEOPOLD 

Penina Peli, Journalist, Writer, 
Lecturer; Jerusalem: adlerblum, 

NIMA 

Pinchas Hacohen Peli, Ph.D.; 
Senior Lecturer in Jewish 
Philosophy, the University of the 
Negev, Beersheba; External Teacher 
in Jewish Studies, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: asceticism 

Frank Pelleg, Pianist and 
Musicologist, Haifa: offenbach, 

JACQUES 

Rakhmiel Peltz*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Sociolinguistics and Director of 
Judaic Studies, Drexel University, 
Philadelphia: spivak, elye; veinger, 

MORDECAI 

Shimon (H.) Pepper*, M.S.W., M.A.; 
Executive Director, Jewish Federation 
of Rockland County, Monsey, New 

York: rockland county 

Josh Perelman*, Ph.D.; Historian, 
National Museum of American 
Jewish History; Post Doctoral 
Fellow, National Museum of 
American Jewish History/University 
of Pennsylvania: national museum 

OF AMERICAN JEWISH HISTORY 

Leon Perez, M.D.; Professor 
of Social Psychiatry, National 
University of the Litoral, Santa FM; 
Professor of Clinical Psychiatry, the 
University of Buenos Aires: daia 

Hiram Peri, Dr. Phil.; Professor of 
Romance Languages, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: abrabanel, 

JUDAH; ARIAS MONTANO, BENITO; 
BENDA, JULIEN 

Mark Perlgut, M.S.; Journalist, New 

York: aronson, boris; korda, sir 

ALEXANDER; THEATER 

Isa Perlis-Kressel, M.A.; Holon, 

Israel: hertzka, theodor 

Mark Perlman, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Economics, the University of 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania: ginzberg, 

ELI; IDELSON, ABRAHAM; LEVANDA, 
LEV OSIPOVICH; PERLMAN, SELIG; 
RABINOVICH, OSIP ARONOVICH; 
SELEKMAN, BENJAMIN MORRIS; 
TSCHLENOW, JEHIEL 



Shalom Perlman, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Greek History, Tel Aviv 

University: schwabe, moshe 

Moshe Perlmann, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Arabic, the University of 
California, Los Angeles: apostasy; 

IBN KAMMUNA, SAD IBN MANSUR; 
ISLAM; ISRAELSOHN, JACOB IZRAILEVICH; 
KOKOVTSOV, PAUL KONSTANTINOVICH; 
SCHREINER, MARTIN; WEIL, GUSTAV 

Maurice L. Perlzweig, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Head of the International 
Affairs Department, World Jewish 
Congress, New York: robinson, 

JACOB; ROBINSON, NEHEMIAH 

Jean Perrot, Directeur de Recherche 
au Centre National de la Recherche 
Scientifique, Paris; Director of the 
Centre de Recherche Prehistorique 
Francois, Jerusalem: azor 

Jacob Petroff, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Senior Lecturer in Classics, Bar- 
Ilan University, Ram at Gan: 

ACRO, PSEUDO-; APULEIUS, LUCIUS; 
ASINIUS POLLIO, GAIUS; CELSUS, AULUS 
CORNELIUS; CLAUDIAN; CLEMENT OF 
ALEXANDRIA; EUTROPIUS; EXCERPTA 
VALESIANA; EZRA, GREEK BOOK OF; 
FRONTO, MARCUS CORNELIUS; HISTORIA 
AUGUSTA; HOLOFERNES; JUDAS; 
JULIUS FLORUS; JUSTIN; LIVY; LUCAN; 
MACROBIUS, AMBROSIUS; OVID; PERSIUS; 
PETRONIUS ARBITER, GAIUS; POMPONIUS 
MELA; QUINTILIAN; ROMAN LITERATURE; 
RUTILIUS NAMATIANUS; SENECA THE 
ELDER; SENECA THE YOUNGER; SILIUS 
ITALICUS, TIBERIUS CATIUS ASCONIUS; 
SOLINUS, CAIUS JULIUS; SOLOMON, 
TESTAMENT OF; STATIUS, PUBLIUS 
PAPINIUS; SULPICIUS SEVERUS; TACITUS; 
TIBULLUS, ALBIUS; VALERIUS MAXIMUS; 
VARRO, MARCUS TERENTIUS 

Jakob J. Petuchowski, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Professor of Rabbinics and 
of Jewish Theology, the Hebrew 
Union College-Jewish Institute of 
Religion, Cincinnati, Ohio: nieto, 

DAVID; ORGAN; STEINTHAL, HERMANN 
HEYMANN; WIENER, MAX 

Claire (Ruth) Pfann*, M.A.; 
Academic Dean; Lecturer in New 

Testament, University of the Holy 
Land, Jerusalem: popes; 

PROTESTANTS 

Stephen (J.) Pfann*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Second Temple Period 
History and Literature, University 



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of the Holy Land, Jerusalem: lots; 

NAZARETH; QUMRAN; SUNDIAL 

Anshel Pfeffer*, Journalist, 
Columnist, Editor and Author, 
Jerusalem Post, Jerusalem: baruch, 

ADAM; BEN-ZVI, SHLOMO 

Israel Philipp, M.A.; Central 
Zionist Archives, Jerusalem: 

MACCABEANS, ORDER OF ANCIENT; 
ROTHSCHILD, JAMES ARMAND DE 

Marc Philonenko, Th.D.; Professor 
of the History of Religions, the 
University of Strasbourg: Joseph and 

ASENATH 

Leo Picard, Dr. Phil., D.I.C., D.Sc; 
Emeritus Professor of Geology, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ISRAEL, LAND OF: GEOGRAPHICAL 
SURVEY; LOEWINSON-LESSING, FRANZ 
YULYEVICH; ROSENBUSCH, KARL HARRY 
FERDINAND; SALOMON-CALVI, WILHELM; 
SUESS, EDUARD 

Michele Piccirillo*, Father, Studium 
Biblicum Franciscanum, Jerusalem: 

FRANCISCANS 

Walter Pinhas Pick, Editor, the 

Encyclopaedia Hebraica, Jerusalem: 

JERUSALEM; LATRUN 

Jacob Picker, Dr.Jur.; Ministry of 
Finance, Jerusalem 

Judah Pilch, Ph.D.; Jewish Teachers' 
Seminary and Peoples University, 
New York; Lecturer in Education, 
Dropsie University, Philadelphia: 

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR JEWISH 
EDUCATION; BETH JACOB SCHOOLS; 
BLAUSTEIN, DAVID; CHARNA, SHALOM 
YONAH; CHIPKIN, ISRAEL; CHOMSKY, 
WILLIAM; EDUCATION, JEWISH; 
KAHNSHTAM, AHARON; KAZDAN, 
HAYYIM SOLOMON; MORRIS, 
NATHAN 

Arieh Pilowsky, B.A.; External 
Teacher in Foreign Languages, Haifa 
University: rubin, hadassah 

Shlomo Pines, Dr.Phil.; Professor 
of General and Jewish Philosophy, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

AL-MUKAMMIS, IBN MARWAN AL-RAQI 
AL-SHIRAZI; AVERROES; AVICENNA; 
ENOCH, SLAVONIC BOOK OF; FREE 
WILL; GUTTMANN, JACOB; IBN 
GABIROL, SOLOMON BEN JUDAH; SOUL, 
IMMORTALITY OF; SPACE AND PLACE 



Benjamin Pinkus, M.A.; Jerusalem: 

"COSMOPOLITANS"; LOZOVSKI, SOLOMON 
ABRAMOVICH 

Ludwig Pinner, Dr.Phil., Kefar 
Shemaryahu, Israel: haavara 

Judith S. (Shira) Pinnolis*, 

M.M., M.S.; Reference Librarian, 
Information Desk Supervisor and 
Training Coordinator, Brandeis 
University Libraries, Waltham, 
Massachusetts: Friedman, deborah 

LYNN; FUCHS, LILLIAN; GIDEON, MIRIAM; 
KREMER, ISA; LIEBLING, ESTELLE; 
MENDELSOHN HENSEL, FANNY 
CAECILIE; MLOTEK, CHANA; OSTFELD, 
BARBARA JEAN; RASKIN, JUDITH; 
REISENBERG, NADIA; ROSSI, MADAMA 
EUROPA De'; SCHAECHTER-GOTTESMAN, 
BELLA; SCHLAMME, MARTHA 
HAFTEL 

Kurt Pinthus, Ph.D.; Writer, New 
York: heymann, walther 

Mordechai Piron, M.A., Rabbi; 
Brigadier General, Israel Defense 
Forces; Chief Rabbi of the Israel 
Defense Forces, Bat Yam: goren, 

SHLOMO 

Michael M. Pitkowsky*, M.A., 
Rabbi; Jewish Theological Seminary, 
New York 

Maurice S. Pitt, M.A.; Educator 
and Journalist, Wellington, New 

Zealand: Auckland-, barnett, sir 

LOUIS EDWARD; CHRISTCHURCH; 
DUNEDIN; HORT, ABRAHAM; LEVIN, 
NATHANIEL WILLIAM; MYERS, SIR 
MICHAEL; NATHAN, DAVID; NATHAN, 
JOSEPH EDWARD; POLACK, JOEL SAMUEL; 
SELIG, PHINEAS 

W. Gunther Plaut, Dr.Jur. Rabbi; 
Historian, Toronto: frankel, 

HIRAM D. 

Martin Meir Plessner, Ph.D.; 
Emeritus Professor of Semitics 
and Islamic Studies, J.W. Goethe- 
Universitat, Frankfurt on the Main; 
Emeritus Professor of Islamic 
Civilization, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: bergstraesser, 

GOTTHELF; GALANTE, ABRAHAM; 
GOLDZIHER, IGNAZ; GRUENBAUM, MAX; 
ORIENTALISTS; ROSENTHAL, FRANZ; 
YAHUDA, ABRAHAM SHALOM 

Milton Plesur, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of History, the State 



University of New York, Buffalo: 

BUFFALO; JACOBSON, EDWARD 

Hans Pohl, Dr. Phil.; Professor of 
Constitutional, Social and Economic 
History, the University of Bonn: 

SUGAR INDUSTRY AND TRADE 

Shmuel Pohoryles, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Director General, Rural Planning 
and Development Authority, Israel 
Ministry of Agriculture, Tel Aviv 

Milos Pojar*, Ph.D.; Director, 
Education and Culture Centre of 
the Jewish Museum in Prague: gal, 

FEDOR; BONDY, RUTH; BONN, HANUS; 
BOR, JOSEF; CZECHOSLOVAK LITERATURE; 
DAGAN, AVIGDOR; DEMETZ, PETER; 
DOSTAL, ZENO; FIRT, JULIUS; FISCHER, 
OTOKAR; FRYD, NORBERT; FUCHS, 
ALFRED; GALSKY, DESIDER; GELLNER, 
FRANTISEK; GOLDFLAM, ARNOST; 
GOLDSTUECKER, EDUARD; GOTTLIEB, 
FRANTISEK; GROSMAN, LADISLAV; 
HILSNER CASE; HOSTOVSKY, EGON; 
KLIMA, IVAN; KNIEZA, EMIL; KRAUS, 
FRANTISEK R.; KRAUS, IVAN; KRAUS, OTA 
B.; KULKA, ERICH; LANGER, FRANTISEK; 
LANGER, JIRI MORDECHAI; LAUB, 
GABRIEL; LEDA, EDUARD; LISTOPAD, 
FRANTISEK; LUSTIG, ARNOST; ORTEN, JIRI; 
PAVEL, OTA; PICK, JIRI ROBERT; POLACEK, 
KAREL; RAKOUS, VOJTECH; ROTTOVA, 
INNA; SIDON, KAROL EFRAIM; SINGER, 
LUDVIK; SPITZER, JURAJ; TIGRID, PAVEL; 
UHDE, MILAN; VOHRYZEK, JOSEF; WEIL, 
JIRI; ZEYER, JULIUS 

Arthur Polak, M.D.; Amsterdam: 

MEDALS 

Abraham N. Poliak, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Islamic History and 
Research Professor of Khazar 
Studies, Tel Aviv University: alroy, 

DAVID; ARMENIA; CRIMEA; HARKAVY, 
ALBERT; HESSEN, JULIUS ISIDOROVICH; 
IGNATYEV, COUNT NIKOLAI PAVLOVICH; 
UZBEKISTAN; VINAWER, MAXIM; 
VOZNITSYN, ALEXANDER ARTEMYEVICH; 
WIELICZKA; WISCHNITZER, MARK 

Leon Poliakov, D.es L.; Maitre de 
Recherches au Centre National de 
la Recherche Scientifique, Paris: 

ANTISEMITISM; ARGENS, JEAN BAPTISTE 
DE BOYER; ELDERS OF ZION, PROTOCOLS 
OF THE LEARNED; FRIES, JAKOB 
FRIEDRICH; GOBINEAU, JOSEPH ARTHUR, 
COMTE DE; GORDIN, JACOB; RACE, 
THEORY OF; ROUSSEAU, JEAN JACQUES; 
TREITSCHKE, HEINRICH VON; 
VOLTAIRE 



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Jean Poliatchek, M.A., Rabbi; 
Lecturer in French Literature, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem and 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

FLEG, EDMOND 

David Polish, Rabbi; Emeritus 
Rabbi of the Free Synagogue, 
Evanston, Illinois 

Jonathan (Z.S.) Pollack*, Ph.D.; 
Instructor, History, Madison 
Area Technical College, Madison, 
Wisconsin: madison 

Peter Pollack, Lecturer and Writer 
on photography, New York: iziS; 

LAND, EDWIN H.; NEWMAN, ARNOLD; 
PHOTOGRAPHY; RAY, MAN; SEYMOUR, 
DAVID 

Hans Jacob Polotsky, Dr.Phil.; 
Professor of Egyptian and Semitic 
Linguistics, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: bauer, hans; benfey, 

THEODOR; HALEVY, JOSEPH 

Sidney I. Pomerantz, Ph.D.; 
Professor of History, City College 
of the City University of New York: 

MORRIS, RICHARD BRANDON 

Sarah (Elizabeth) Ponichtera*, 

M.A.; University of S. Texas- Austin: 

CORALNIK, ABRAHAM; LEE, MALKE; 
ULIANOVER, MIRIAM 

Marvin H. Pope, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Northwest Semitic Languages, 
Yale University, New Haven, 
Connecticut: adam; anath; baal 

WORSHIP; EVE 

Richard H. Popkin, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Philosophy, the 
University of California, San 
Diego; Distinguished Professor of 
Philosophy, the Herbert H. Lehman 
College of the City University of 
New York: adler, felix; adler, 

MORTIMER JEROME; AIKEN, HENRY 
DAVID; ARENDT, HANNAH; BOAS, 
GEORGE; BRUNSWIG, ALFRED; CHERNISS, 
HAROLD FREDRIK; COHEN, CHAPMAN; 
COHEN, MORRIS RAPHAEL; COSTA, URIEL 
DA; DESSAUER, FRIEDRICH; DUBISLAV, 
WALTER ERNST OTTO; EDMAN, IRWIN; 
EDWARDS, PAUL; FARBER, MARVIN; 
FRANK, SEMYON LYUDVIGOVICH; 
FRAUENSTAEDT, JULIUS; FRIEDLAENDER, 
OSKAR EWALD; GOLDSTEIN, JULIUS; 
HALEVY, ELIE; JANKELEVITCH, VLADIMIR; 
JERUSALEM, KARL WILHELM; JERUSALEM, 
WILHELM; JONAS, HANS; KAUFMANN, 



FRITZ; KAUFMANN, WALTER; KOIGEN, 
DAVID; KOYRE, ALEXANDRE; KRISTELLER, 
PAUL OSKAR; LA BOETIE, ETIENNE DE; 
LA PEYRERE, ISAAC; LASSON, ADOLF; 
LEON, XAVIER; LIEBMANN, OTTO; 
MARCK, SIEGFRIED; MARCUS, ERNST; 
MONDOLFO, RODOLFO; OROBIO DE 
CASTRO, ISAAC; PALAGYI, MENYHERT; 
PHILOSOPHY; RAUH, FREDERIC; REINACH, 
ADOLF; RICHTER, RAOUL; SANCHES, 
FRANCISCO; SCHRECKER, PAUL; SCHUHL, 
PIERRE-MAXIME; SHEFFER, HENRY 
M.; SPIEGELBERG, HERBERT; SPITZER, 
HUGO; STEIN, EDITH; STEIN, LUDWIG; 
STERNBERG, KURT; WAHLE, RICHARD; 
WALZER, RICHARD RUDOLF; WEININGER, 
OTTO; WEISS, PAUL; WIENER, PHILIP PAUL 

Dina Porat*, Ph.D.; Professor, Head 
of Stephen Roth Institute for the 
Study of Contemporary Racism and 
Anti-Semitism, Chaim Rosenberg 
School of Jewish Studies, Tel Aviv 
University: antisemitism; blood 

LIBEL 

Jonathan D. Porath*, B.A., M.A., 
M.H.L., Rabbi; Rabbi and Jewish 
Educator, American Jewish Joint 
Distribution Committee, Jerusalem: 

PORATH, ISRAEL 

Yehoshua Porath, Ph.D.; Instructor 
in the History of the Muslim 
Peoples, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: Israel, state of: 

HISTORICAL SURVEY 

Bezalel Porten, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Teaching Fellow in Jewish 
History, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem; Senior Lecturer in 
Biblical Studies, Haifa University: 

BELTESHAZZAR; BIZTHA; ELIASHIB; EXILE, 
BABYLONIAN; HAMAN; HISTORY: FROM 
THE DESTRUCTION TO ALEXANDER; 
MITHREDATH; MORDECAI; REGEM- 
MELECH; REHUM; SATRAP; SHADRACH, 
MESHACH, ABED-NEGO; SHAREZER; 
SHEALTIEL; TATTENAI; TEMPLE; 
ZERUBBABEL 

Jack Nusan Porter*, Ph.D.; Director, 
The Spencer Institute for Social 
Research, Newton, Massachusetts; 
Newtonville, Mass.: hirschfeld, 

MAGNUS; NEO-NAZISM; SCHAPPES, 
MORRIS U.; SONNENSCHEIN, ROSA 

Edward Portnoy*, Ph.D.; Adjunct 
Instructor of History, Jewish 
Theological Seminary, New York: 

GILBERT, SHLOMO; MARINOFF, JACOB; 
NADIR, MOYSHE 



Israel Porush, O.B.E., Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Emeritus Rabbi of the Great 
Synagogue of Sydney: Adelaide; 

AUSTRALIA; BOAS, ABRAHAM TOBIAS; 
BRISBANE; D ANGLO W, JACOB; DAVIS, 
ALEXANDER BARNARD; MELBOURNE; 
MONTEFIORE, JOSEPH BARROW; PERTH; 
SAMUEL, SIR SAUL; SYDNEY 

Akiva Posner, Dr. Phil., Rabbi; 
Scholar and Librarian, Jerusalem: 

ALTONA; DRESDEN; EGER, AKIVA BEN 
MOSES GUENS; EGER, SOLOMON BEN 
AKIVA; EPPENSTEIN, SIMON; GIESSEN 

Marcia Posner, PH.D.; Library 
Consultant, Children's Literature, 
New York: children's literature 

Raphael Posner, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Assistant Professor of Rabbinics, 
the Jewish Theological Seminary 
of America, Jerusalem: ablution; 

AHAVAH RABBAH, AHAVAT OLAM; 
AMULET; ANAV, ZEDEKIAH BEN 
ABRAHAM; ASHREI; CHARITY; HOLY 
PLACES; JEW; MARRIAGE; SYNAGOGUE 

Bernard Postal, Author and 
Journalist, New York: iowa; 

LICHT, FRANK; MANDEL, MARVIN; 
MASSACHUSETTS; MILITARY SERVICE; 
MONTANA; NEVADA; PHOENIX; PUBLIC 
RELATIONS; SHAPIRO, SAMUEL HARVEY 

Edward I. J. Poznanski, M.Phil.; 
Visiting Senior Lecturer in 
Philosophy, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: kotarbinska, janina 

Michael Pragai, B.A.; Ministry for 
Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: burma 

Joseph Prager, M.D.; Neurologist 
and Psychiatrist, Haifa: oppenheim, 

HERMANN 

Leonard Prager*, Ph.D.; Emeritus 
Professor of English and Yiddish, 
University of Haifa: abtshuk, 

AVRAHAM; ALFES, BENZION; BOVSHOVER, 
JOSEPH; BRODER SINGERS; DANIEL, M.; 
DER NISTER; FEYGENBERG, RAKHEL; FOX, 
CHAIM-LEIB; FRAM, DAVID; FURMAN, 
YISROEL; GEBIRTIG, MORDECHAI; 
GLATSTEIN, JACOB; GOLDENE KEYT, 
DI; GORDIN, ABBA; GORDIN, JACOB; 
KOENIG, LEO; KOTIK, YEKHESKL; LURIA, 
NOAH; MYER, MORRIS; OSHEROWITCH, 
MENDL; OYVED, MOYSHE; PINES, MEYER 
ISSER; PREGER, JACOB; RABON, ISRAEL; 
RASHKIN, LEYB; REZNIK, LIPE; SALKIND, 
JACOB MEIR; SELIKOVITCH, GEORGE; 
SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM; SHATZKY, 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



JACOB; SHPIGLBLAT, ALEKSANDER; 
SIEMIATYCKI, CHAIM; SINGER, ISAAC 
BASHEVIS; SPIEGEL, ISAIAH; STENCL, 
ABRAHAM NAHUM; TENENBAUM, 
JOSHUA; TOLUSH; TOPLPUNKT: 
FERTLYOR-SHRIFT FAR LITERATUR, 
KUNST UN GEZELSCHAFTLEKHE 
FRAGES; WEINSTEIN, BERISH; YIDDISH 
LITERATURE; YUNGMAN, MOSHE; 
ZYCHLINSKA, RAJZEL 

Naftali Prat*, Editor, Shorter Jewish 
Encyclopedia in Russian , Society of 
Research on Jewish Communities, 
Jerusalem: abramovich, roman 

ARKADYEVICH; AMUSIN, JOSEPH; BELOV, 
A.; BERDYANSK; BEREZOVSKY, BORIS 
ABRAMOVICH; GOMELSKY, ALEXANDER 
YAKOVLEVICH; GUSINSKY, VLADIMIR 
ALEXANDROVICH; LIBERALISM AND THE 
JEWS; NEVZLIN, LEONID BORISOVICH 

Jeonathan Prato, Dr.Jur.; Ministry 
for Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: 

RIBEIRO DOS SANTOS, ANTONIO; SPAIN 

Leonid Preisman, Ph.D.; Scientific 
Editor of The Shorter Jewish 
Encyclopaedia in Russian, Jerusalem 

MOSCOW 

Riv-Ellen Prell*, Ph.D., Professor, 
University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minnesota: myerhoff, 

BARBARA GAY SIEGEL 

Tovia Preschel, Rabbi; Professor 
of Talmud, the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America, New York: 

ALSHEKH, MOSES; ALTSCHULER, DAVID; 
AMRAM BEN SHESHNA; DANIEL BEN 
AZARIAH; DANIEL BEN ELEAZAR BEN 
NETHANEL HIBBAT ALLAH; DANIEL BEN 
HASDAI; DAVID BEN DANIEL; DAVID 
BEN ZAKKAI; HYMAN, AARON; KAHANE, 
ISAAK; LIEBERMAN, SAUL; MARGALIOT, 
MORDECAI; MAT, MOSES; MEKLENBURG, 
JACOB ZEVI; NAHMANIDES; PATAI, 
RAPHAEL; PORTO, ABRAHAM MENAHEM 
BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN; RABBINOVICZ, 
RAPHAEL NATHAN NATA; RATNER, 
DOV BAER; RIVISTA ISRAELITICA; 
RIVKIND, ISAAC; ROSANES, SOLOMON 
ABRAHAM; ROSENTHAL, JUDAH; 
SLATKINE, MENAHEM MENDEL; 
SUPERCOMMENTARIES ON THE 
PENTATEUCH; TEMERLS, JACOB BEN 
ELIEZER; TRAVELERS AND EXPLORERS; 
ZOMBER, DOV BAER 

Walter Preuss, Dr.Phil., D.Econ.; 
Economist, Tel Aviv: naftali, perez 

Jonathan (J.) Price*, Ph.D.; 



Professor of Classics and Ancient 
History, Tel Aviv University: zealots 

AND SICARII 

Ronald (David) Price*, M.A., 
Rabbi; Dean of Traditional Judaism; 
Executive Vice President, Union for 
Traditional Judaism, Teaneck, New 
Jersey: institute of traditional 

JUDAISM, THE 

Richard (A.) Primus*, Dr.Phil.; 
Professor of Law, the University of 
Michigan: strochlitz, sigmund 

Kevin Proffitt*, M.A., M.S.L.S.; 
Senior Archivist for Research 
and Collections, The Jacob Rader 
Marcus Center of the American 
Jewish Archives, Cincinnati, Ohio: 

SCHANFARBER, TOBIAS 

Moshe Prywes, M.D.; Associate 
Professor of Medical Education, 
the Hebrew University - Hadassah 
Medical School, Jerusalem; Vice 
President of the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem; President, University 
of the Negev 

Sharon Pucker Rivo*, M.A.; 
Executive Director of the 
National Center for Jewish Film, 
Brandeis Univerisity, Waltham, 
Massachusetts: kanin, fay Mitchell; 
levien, sonya 

Lotte Pulvermacher-Egers, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer in the History of Art, the 
Mannes College of Music, New 
York: art collectors and art 

DEALERS 

Herbert Pundik, Journalist, Tel 
Aviv: MAHAL 

* 

Marcus Pyka*, Ph.D., Dr.; Abt. Fur 
Jlidische Geschichte und Kultur 
Historisches Seminar, Universitat 
Munchen: agrarian league; 

ALLGEMEINE ZEITUNG DES JUDENTUMS; 
ALTENBERG, PETER; ANDREW OF 
RINN; ARNDT, ADOLF; ARNDT, 
ERNST MORITZ; ARNHEIM, FISCHEL; 
ARNHEIM, HEYMANN; ARONIUS, JULIUS; 
ASCHAFFENBURG, GUSTAV; AUERBACH, 
BERTHOLD; AUERNHEIMER, RAOUL; 
AUSPITZ; BADT, HERMANN; BAMBERGER, 
LUDWIG; BAMBUS, WILLY; BARNAY, 
LUDWIG; BECHER, SIEGFRIED; BEER, 
MICHAEL; BEN-GAVRIEL, MOSHE YA'AKOV; 
BERGNER, ELISABETH; BERNSTEIN, ARON 
DAVID; BERNSTEIN, EDUARD; BISMARCK, 
OTTO VON; BLEICHROEDER; BOERNE, 



LUDWIG; BRANDT, WILLY; BRESSLAU, 
HARRY; BURCHARDUS DE MONTE SION; 
BURG, MENO; CARO, GEORG MARTIN; 
COHN, EMIL MOSES; DALMAN, GUSTAF 
HERMANN; FRANKL, VIKTOR EMIL; 
GRAETZ, HEINRICH; HEGEL, GEORG 
WILHELM FRIEDRICH; HERDER, JOHANN 
GOTTFRIED; HIRSCH, BARON MAURICE 
DE; JOST, ISAAC MARCUS; MASSARY, 
FRITZI; NIETZSCHE, FRIEDRICH WILHELM 

Aldina Quintana (Rodriguez)*, 

Ph.D.; Post-Doctoral Fellow, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

LADINO 

Uri Ra'anan, M.A.; Professor of 
International Politics, the Fletcher 
School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts 
University, Medford, Massachusetts: 

ISRAEL, STATE OF: HISTORICAL SURVEY 

Theodore K. Rabb, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of History, Princeton 
University, New Jersey: elton, sir 

GEOFFREY RUDOLPH; HEXTER, JACK H.; 
MOSSE, GEORGE L. 

Alfredo Mordechai Rabello*, Dott. 
giurisp., Professor Emeritus of Law, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.: 

ARTOM, ELIA SAMUELE; BERNHEIMER, 
CARLO; CAMMEO, FEDERICO; CASTELLI, 
DAVID; CATACOMBS; COLLATIO LEGUM 
MOSAICARUM ET ROMANARUM; 
COLLEGIO RABBINICO ITALIANO; 
COLOMBO, SAMUEL; COLOMBO, 
YOSEPH; COLORNI, VITTORE; DISEGNI, 
DARIO; DOMENICO GEROSOLIMITANO; 
DOMITIAN; HONORIUS FLAVIUS; 
LAWYERS; MILANO, ATTILIO; MOSCATI, 
SABATINO; NERVA; NORZI; OSTIA; 
PACIFICI, ALFONSO; PACIFICI, RICCARDO; 
PADUA; PARMA; PERREAU, PIETRO; 
PIEDMONT; POMI, DE'; POMPEII; 
REGGIO, ISACCO SAMUEL; RIETI; ROMAN 
EMPERORS; ROVIGO; SALUZZO; SEGRE, 
GINO; SERENI, ANGELO PIERO; SEVERUS, 
SEPTIMIUS; SIERRA, SERGIO JOSEPH; 
SOAVE, MOISE; TEDESCHI; THEODOSIUS 
I; THEODOSIUS II; TURIN; ULPIAN; 
VERCELLI; VICENZA; VITERBO, CARLO 
ALBERTO; VITTA, CINO; VITTORIO 
VENETO; VIVANTE, CESARE; VIVANTI, 
DAVID ABRAHAM; VOLLI, GEMMA; 
VOLTERRA, EDOARDO 

Wladimir Rabi, M.A.; Judge and 
Writer, Brian^on, France: fondane, 

BENJAMIN; TZARA, TRISTAN 

Chaim M. Rabin, D.Phil., Dipl.O.S.; 
Professor of Hebrew Language, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 



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135 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



BEN-NAPHTALI, MOSES BEN DAVID; 
BOESCHENSTEIN, JOHANN; BUXTORF, 
JOHANNES; DUNASH BEN LABRAT; 
HANAU, SOLOMON ZALMAN BEN JUDAH 
LOEB HA-KOHEN 

Dov Rabin, Researcher, Jerusalem: 

GRODNO; NESVIZH; OSTRYNA; OZON; 
RADOSHKOVICHI; RADUN; RUZHANY; 
SIEMIATYCZE; SLONIM; SOKOLKA; 
SUWALKI 

Abraham Rabinovich, B.A.; 
Journalist, Jerusalem: Jerusalem 

Aviva Rabinovich, M.Sc; 

Jerusalem: tristram, henry baker 

Nachum L. Rabinovitch, B.Sc, 
Ph.D.; Principal, Jews' College, 
London 

Aron Moshe K. Rabinowicz, Ph.D., 
M.C.J.; Secretary of the Faculty 
of Law, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: politische gemeinde 

Harry Rabinowicz, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Historian, London: bedikat hamez-, 

CREMATION; DEATH; DIETARY LAWS; 
HAKKAFOT; HAMEZ, SALE OF; MELAVVEH 
MALKAH; SHEHITAH 

Oskar K. Rabinowicz, Dr.Phil.; 

Historian, New York: amery, 

LEOPOLD CHARLES MAURICE STENNETT; 
BAMBUS, WILLY; BAR KOCHBA 
ASSOCIATION; BEREGOVO; BONDY, 
BOHUMIL; BRANDYS NAD LABEM; 
BRECLAV; BREZNICE; BUCOVICE; 
BUDYNE NAD OHRI; CESKE BUDEJOVICE; 
CHURCHILL, SIR WINSTON LEONARD 
SPENCER; EL-ARISH; FRIEDMANN, 
PAUL; HERMANN, LEO; JACOBSON, 
VICTOR; JIHLAVA; KARTELL JUEDISCHER 
VERBINDUNGEN; KISCH, ALEXANDER; 
KREMENETZKY, JOHANN; MARGULIES, 
EMIL; MARMOREK, ALEXANDER; 
TERRITORIALISM; TREBITSCH, 
NEHEMIAH; TRIETSCH, DAVIS; USOV; 
WEINMANN, JACOB; YORK-STEINER, 
HEINRICH ELCHANAN 

Wolf Zeev Rabinowitsch, M.D.; 

Historian, Haifa: david-gorodok; 

ISRAEL BEN PEREZ OF POLOTSK; KARLIN; 
KOBRIN, MOSES BEN ISRAEL POLIER OF; 
KOIDANOV; LACHOWICZE, MORDECAI 
BEN NOAH OF; LYUBESHOV; SLONIM 

Abraham Hirsch Rabinowitz, 

M.A., Rabbi; Senior Chaplain to 
the Israel Air Force, Jerusalem: 

ADARBI, ISAAC BEN SAMUEL; ALEGRE, 



ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON; AL-MADARI, 
JUDAH HA-KOHEN BEN ELEAZAR 
HE-HASID; ALMOSNINO, MOSES BEN 
BARUCH; COLON, JOSEPH BEN SOLOMON; 
COMMANDMENTS, THE 613; KEZAZAH 

Chayim Reuven Rabinowitz, B.A., 
Rabbi; Writer, Jerusalem: figo, 

AZARIAH; LIBOWITZ, SAMUEL NEHEMIAH 

Dorothy Rabinowitz, Author, New 
York: jhabvala, ruth prawer 

Louis Isaac Rabinowitz, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Deputy Editor in Chief 
of the Encyclopaedia Judaica (1st 
ed.); Editor of Encyclopaedia 
Judaica Year Books; Former Chief 
Rabbi of the Transvaal and former 
Professor of Hebrew, the University 
of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg; 
Former Deputy Mayor of Jerusalem: 

ABSALOM; AGRICULTURE; AMMON, 
AMMONITES; ANOINTING; APIKOROS; 
AUTOPSIES AND DISSECTION; 
BANISHMENT; BEGGING AND BEGGARS; 
BIBLE; BLEMISH; BLINDNESS; BLOOD; 
BOOK OF LIFE; CAPITAL PUNISHMENT; 
CARO, JOSEPH BEN EPHRAIM; CARTER, 
JAMES EARL; CHEESE; CHERUB; 
CONCUBINE; COSMOLOGY; CREATION 
AND COSMOGONY; CROWNS, 
DECORATIVE HEADDRESSES, AND 
WREATHS; DAVID; DAYYAN; DEAF- 
MUTE; DEMONS, DEMONOLOGY; 
DERASH; DIVINATION; DRUNKENNESS; 
EGGS; EGLAH ARUFAH; ENTEBBE RAID; 
EUPHEMISM AND DYSPHEMISM; FAMILY; 
FAMINE AND DROUGHT; FEAR OF GOD; 
FEIGENBAUM, ISAAC HA-KOHEN; FERBER, 
ZEVI HIRSCH; FIRE; FLESH; FLOOD, THE; 
FOUR SPECIES; FREEDOM; GEMILUT 
HASADIM; GERI, JACOB; GOD, NAMES OF; 
HADRIAN, PUBLIUS AELIUS; HAFTARAH; 
HAKHEL; HAMEZ; HEART; HEDER; HEVRA 
KADDISHA; HONEY; HONOR; HUNTING; 
IDOLATRY; INGATHERING OF THE EXILES; 
IR HA-NIDDAHAT; ISRAEL; KIMBERLEY; 
KING, KINGSHIP; KUNTERES; LABOR; 
LEPROSY; LEVITES IN THE HALAKHAH; 
LION; LOEWENSTAMM; LOTS; LUZ OF THE 
SPINE; MAIMONIDES; MEAT; MEZUZAH; 
MNEMONICS or MEMORA TECHNICA; 
MOSES ISAAC; NAMES; OILS; ONKELOS 
AND AQUILA; PARABLE; PEACE; PEACE 
NOW; PENTATEUCH; PERLHEFTER, 
ISSACHAR BEHR BEN JUDAH MOSES; 
PESHAT; POVERTY; PROPHETS AND 
PROPHECY; PROSELYTES; PSALMS, BOOK 
OF; RABBI, RABBINATE; RABBINICAL 
SEMINARIES; RIGHT AND LEFT; SALT; 
SATAN; SCHACH, LEONARD LAZARUS; 
SEA, SONG OF THE; SEFER HA-MAASIM 
LI-VENEI EREZ YISRAEL; SEFER TORAH; 



SELIHOT; SHULHAN ARUKH; SON OF 
MAN; SUICIDE; SYNAGOGUE; TAITAZAK, 
JOSEPH; TALMID HAKHAM; TALMUD, 
JERUSALEM; TEN LOST TRIBES; TEXTILES; 
VIRGIN, VIRGINITY; VOWS AND VOWING; 
WRITING; YAD; YAHRZEIT; YOKE 

Zvi Meir Rabinowitz, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Associate Professor of Talmud, 
Tel Aviv University: aaron of 

ZHITOMIR; ALEKSANDROW; HAYYIM 
BEN HANANEL HA-KOHEN; HEILPRIN, 
JEHIEL BEN SOLOMON; HILLEL BEN 
ELIAKIM; ISSACHAR DOV BAER BEN 
ARYEH LEIB OF ZLOCZOW; JEHIEL MEIR 
OF GOSTYNIN; RADOMSKO, SOLOMON 
HA-KOHEN RABINOWICH OF; STRELISK, 
URI BEN PHINEHAS OF; STRELISK, URI 
BEN PHINEHAS OF; TWERSKY; WEIL, 
NETHANEL BEN NAPHTALI ZEVI; 
WILDMANN, ISAAC EISIK; ZECHARIAH 
BEN BARACHEL; ZE'EV WOLF OF 
ZHITOMIR 

Mordechai Rabinson, Dr.Phil., 
Writer, Jerusalem: brandstaedter, 

MORDECAI DAVID 

Arnold Rachlis*: orange county 

Sarlota Rachmuth-Gerstl, Ing.; 

Jerusalem: galanta; humenne 

Emanuel Rackman, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Chancellor, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: domestic peace 

Howard B. Radest, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Philosophy, Ramapo 
College, Mahwah, New Jersey: 

NEUMANN, HENRY 

Jihan (Jennifer) Radjai- 
Ordoubadi*, M.A.; Trainee 
in Jewish Studies, Heidelberg, 
Germany: koller-pinell, broncia; 

KRESTIN, LAZAR; LEVY, RUDOLF; LILIEN, 
EPHRAIM MOSES; OPPENHEIMER, JOSEPH; 
ORLIK. EMIL; OSBORN, MAX; RICHTER, 
HANS; SALOMON, CHARLOTTE; SEGAL, 
ARTHUR; WOLF, GUSTAV; WOLLHEIM, 
GERT H. 

Amichai Radzyner*, Ph.D., 
Lecturer in Jewish Law, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: appeal 

Arie Rafaeli-Zenziper, Director of 
the Russian Zionist Archives, Tel 

Aviv: PETROGRAD CONFERENCE 

Bracha Rager*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Microbiology and Immunology, 
Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben- 



136 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Gurion University of the Negev, 
Beersheba; Ministry of Health, 
Beersheba: abir, david; adler, 

CHARLES; ALTMAN, SIDNEY; ANGRIST, 
ALFRED ALVIN; ARNON, RUTH; ATLAS, 
DAVID; BALTIMORE, DAVID; BAUER, 
SIMON HARVEY; BEN-ABRAHAM, 
ZVI; BIRK, YEHUDITH; CHET, ILAN; 
CIECHANOVER, AARON J.; COHEN, PAUL 
JOSEPH; COHEN-TANNOUDJI CLAUDE; 
DORFMAN, RALPH ISADORE; DORON, 
HAIM; DVORETZKY, ARYEH; ELIEL, 
ERNEST LUDWIG; FAHN, ABRAHAM; 
FLEISCHER, MICHAEL; FRIEND, 
CHARLOTTE; GLICK, DAVID; GREENBERG, 
DAVID MORRIS; GROSSMAN, MORTON 
IRVIN; GRUNBAUM, ADOLF; HALPERN, 
JACK; HARARI, HAYYIM; HARRIS, MILTON; 
HEIDELBERGER, MICHAEL; HELPERN, 
MILTON; ISRAEL, STATE OF: HEALTH, 
WELFARE, AND SOCIAL SECURITY; JAFFE, 
LEONARD; JORTNER, JOSHUA; KARPLUS, 
HEINRICH; KATZIR, AHARON; KATZIR, 
EPHRAIM; KEDEM, ORA; LEVITZKI, 
ALEXANDER; MENDELSSOHN, KURT 
ALFRED GEORG; NEUFELD, HENRY; 
PADEH, BARUCH; PENZIAS, ARNO ALLAN; 
PRYWES, MOSHE; RAGER, ITZHACK; 
RAM, MOSHE; RAMOT, BRACHA; REVEL, 
MICHEL; RICHTER, BURTON; SACHS, LEO; 
SEGRE, EMILIO GINO; SHECHTMAN, DAN; 
SZWARC, MICHAEL; TOBIAS, PHILLIP 
VALLENTINE; WHITE, ROBERT MAYER; 
WILLNER, ITAMAR; YONATH, ADA 

Sanford Ragins, M.A., Rabbi; 

Hartsdale, New York: Nebraska 

Jay (Douglas, Philip) Rahn*, Ph.D., 
Professor of Music, York University, 
Toronto, Canada: adaskin, Murray; 

ANHALT, ISTVAN; CHERNEY, BRIAN; 
FREEDMAN, HARRY; MORAWETZ, OSKAR; 
WEINZWEIG, JOHN 

Rosa Perla Raicher, M.A.; Tel Aviv: 

URUGUAY; ZIONISM 

Mark A. Raider*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Jewish History, incumbent of the 
Jewish Foundation of Cincinnati 
Endowed Chair in Judaic Studies, 
and Head of the Department of 
Judaic Studies at the University of 
Cincinnati, Ohio: united states of 

AMERICA 

Miriam B. Raider-Roth*, Ed. D.; 

Assistant Professor of Educational 
Theory and Practice, University at 
Albany, State University of New 

York: gilligan, carol Friedman 

Anson Rainey, Ph.D.; Associate 



Professor of Ancient Middle Eastern 
Civilization, Tel Aviv University: 

AHARONI, YOHANAN; CHALDEA, 
CHALDEANS; CONCUBINE; FAMILY; 
SACRIFICE; UGARIT; UGARITIC 

Aaron Rakeffet-Rothkoff*, See 

Aaron Rothkoff 

Nahum Rakover, Dr. Jur.; Advisor 
on Jewish Law, Ministry of Justice, 
Jerusalem: agency; ecology; lease 

AND HIRE; SHALISH; SHOMERIM 

Hanna Ram, M.A.; History 
Museum of Tel Aviv: tel aviv-jaffa 

Shaul Ramati, M.A.; Lieutenant 
Colonel (Res.), Israel Defense 
Forces; Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 
Jerusalem: Thailand 

Naama Ramot*, M.A.; 
Musicologist, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: adler, larry ; ancerl, 

KAREL; AX, EMANUEL; BACHAUER, GINA; 
BARENBOIM, DANIEL; BELL, JOSHUA; 
BENDIX, OTTO; BERGER, ARTHUR 
VICTOR; BERTINI, GARY; BRAILOWSKY, 
ALEXANDER; BRANT, HENRY DREYFUS; 
BROD, MAX; BRONFMAN, YEFIM; 
BROWNING, JOHN; COMISSIONA, SERGIU; 
DICHTER, MISHA; EDEN-TAMIR; FISCHER, 
ANNIE; FLEISHER, LEON; FRIED, MIRIAM; 
GOLDBERG, SZYMON; GOTTSCHALK, 
LOUIS MOREAU; HAENDEL, IDA; HASKIL, 
CLARA; HINRICHSEN; ISSERLIS, STEVEN; 
ISTOMIN, EUGENE; KALICHSTEIN, 
JOSEPH; KATCHEN, JULIUS; KATZ, 
MINDRU; KENTNER, LOUIS; KLEMPERER, 
OTTO; KRAUS, LILI; KREISLER, FRITZ; 
LANDOWSKA, WANDA; LEIGH, ADELE; 
LEVI, YOEL; LOEWE, FREDERICK; MAAZEL, 
LORIN; MEHTA, ZUBIN; MENUHIN, 
HEPHZIBAH; MILLER, MITCH; MINTZ, 
SHLOMO; PERAHIA, MURRAY; PERLMAN, 
ITZHAK; PISK, PAUL AMADEUS; PRESSLER, 
MENAHEM; SALZMAN, PNINA; SCHIFF, 
ANDRAS; SCHIFRIN, LALO; SERKIN, 
PETER ADOLF; SHAHAM, GIL; SHMUELI, 
HERZL; SILBERMANN, ALPHONS; SINGER, 
GEORGE; SLATKIN, LEONARD; SMOIRA- 
COHN, MICHAL; SOLTI, SIR GEORG; 
SONDHEIM, STEPHEN; SPIVAKOVSKY, 
TOSSY; STERN, ISAAC; STRANSKY, JOSEF; 
STRAUSS II, JOHANN; SUSSKIND, WALTER; 
SZELL, GEORGE; SZERYNG, HENRYK; 
TUGAL, PIERRE; WEISSENBERG, ALEXIS; 
ZUKERMAN, PINCHAS; ZUKOFSKY, PAUL 

Gila Ramras-Rauch*, Ph.D.; 
Weinstein Professor of Jewish 
Literature, Hebrew College, Boston: 

APPELFELD, AHARON 



Jo Ranson, Theater Critic, New 
York: cohn, harry-, corwin, norman 

LEWIS; FROHMAN; GLASS, MONTAGUE 
MARSDEN; GOLDWYN, SAMUEL; GREEN, 
ABEL; GREEN, ABEL; HARBURG, E.Y; 
JOLSON, AL 

Amia Raphael, London: goldsmiths 

AND SILVERSMITHS; OFIR, ARIE 

Chaim Raphael, Writer, London 

Yitzchak Raphael, Ph.D.; Member 
of the Knesset, Jerusalem: kowalsky, 

JUDAH LEIB; MOSES LEIB OF SASOV; 
ROZOVSKI, PINHAS 

Nimrod Raphaeli, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Political Science, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: simon, 

HERBERT ALEXANDER 

Nessa Rapoport*, Writer, New 
York: rotenberg, mattie levi 

Solomon Rappaport, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Hebrew, the University 
of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, 
South Africa: dio cassius; hermetic 

WRITINGS; HOMER; MARTIAL; PSEUDO- 
SCYLAX 

Uriel Rappaport, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Jewish History, Haifa 
University: ananias and helkias; 

ARCHISYNAGOGOS; BAR GIORA, SIMEON; 
BOSPHORUS, KINGDOM OF; CARTHAGE; 
CHALCIS; CICERO, MARCUS TULLIUS; 
CYRUS; ELEAZAR BEN MATTATHIAS; 
FLAVIUS, CLEMENS; HADRIAN, PUBLIUS 
AELIUS; HERODIANS; HEVER HA- 
YEHUDIM; HYRCANUS II; JADDUA; 
JASON; JASON OF CYRENE; JOHANAN BEN 
JEHOIADA; JOHANAN THE HASMONEAN; 
KEFAR SHIHLAYIM; KOS; LAODICEA; 
LEONTOPOLIS; LYSIAS; MARCUS AURELIUS 
ANTONINUS; MENELAUS; MONOBAZ 
I AND II; NICANOR; NICANOR'S GATE; 
PHAROS; QUIETUS, LUSIUS; SIMEON SON 
OF ONIAS I; SIMEON THE HASMONEAN; 
SIMEON THE JUST; SOLOMON, PSALMS OF; 
SPARTA; THEOPHILUS; TITUS, ARCH OF; 
ZENODORUS 

Dennis Rapps*, M.A., J.D.; 
Attorney, General Council, National 
Jewish Commission on Law and 
Public Affairs, New York: lewin, 

NATHAN 

Ariel Rathaus*, Ph.D.; Translator 
and Researcher, Jerusalem: 

FRANCES, JACOB BEN DAVID; SVEVO, 
ITALO 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Annette Levy-Ratkin*, B.A., M.L.S.; 
Archivist, Jewish Federation of 
Nashville and Middle Tennessee, 
Nashville: nashville 

Sidney Ratner, Ph.D.; Professor of 
History, Rutgers University, New 
Brunswick, New Jersey: kallen, 

HORACE MEYER 

Yohanan Ratner, M.Sc; Major 
General (Res.), Israel Defense 
Forces; Emeritus Professor of 
Architecture, the Technion, Haifa 

Yehuda Ratzaby, M.A.; Senior 
Lecturer in Medieval Hebrew 
Literature and in Jewish- Arabic 
Literature, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: Abraham ben halfon; 

ABYAD, YIHYA BEN SHALOM; ADANI, 
DAVID BEN AMRAM; ADANI, DAVID 
BEN YESHA HA-LEVI; ADANI, MIZRAHI 
SHALOM; ADANI, SAADIAH BEN DAVID; 
ALSHEIKH, RAPHAEL BEN SHALOM; 
BADIHI, YAHYA BEN JUDAH; BALIDEH, 
MOSES; BARUCH BEN SAMUEL; BASHIRI, 
YAHYA; DHAMARl, MANSUR SULEIMAN; 
DHAMARI, SAID BEN DAVID; HABSHUSH, 
SHALOM BEN YAHYA; HAMDl, LEVI BEN 
YESHUAH; IBN ZABARA, JOSEPH BEN 
MEIR; IRAQI, ELEAZAR BEN AARON 
HA-KOHEN; IRAQI, SHALOM HA-KOHEN; 
IRAQI, SHALOM JOSEPH; JIZFAN, JUDAH 
BEN JOSEPH; JOSEPH BEN ISRAEL; JOSEPH, 
SAUL ABDALLAH; KAFAH, YIHYE BEN 
SOLOMON; KAREH, SOLOMON; KORAH, 
HAYYIM BEN JOSEPH; KORAH, YAHYA 
BEN SHALOM; LAWANI, DA'UD; LEVI, SAID 
BEN SHALOM; MANSURAH, SAADIAH 
BEN JUDAH; MANSURAH, SHALOM BEN 
JUDAH; MAWZA; MIZRAHI, DAVID BEN 
SHALOM; NAJRAN; SAADl, JUDAH BEN 
SOLOMON; SAADIAH; SALIH IBN YAHYA 
IBN JOSEPH; SALIH, ABRAHAM; SALIH, 
YAHYA BEN JOSEPH; SARUM, ABRAHAM; 
SEFIRAH, SAADIAH BEN JOSEPH; SHABAZI, 
SHALEM; SHARABI, SHALOM; WANNEH, 
ISAAC BEN ABRAHAM; YIHYE, ISAAC 
HA-LEVI; ZECHARIAH AL-DAHIRI; 
ZECHARIAH BEN SOLOMON-ROFE; ZULAY, 
MENAHEM 

Benjamin (C.I.) Ravid*, Ph.D., 
Professor, Brandeis University: 

BRIT IVRIT OLAMIT; BONFIL, ROBERT; 
RAWIDOWICZ, SIMON; VENICE 

Melech Ravitch, Writer, Montreal: 

BERLINER, ISAAC; BIALOSTOTZKY, 
BENJAMIN JACOB; BICKELS-SPITZER, ZVI; 
BLUM, ELIEZER; BRODERZON, MOYSHE; 
BURSZTYN, MICHAL; CHMELNITZKI, 
MELECH; DILLON, ABRAHAM MOSES; 



FEFER, ITZIK; FRUG, SHIMON SHMUEL; 
GEBIRTIG, MORDECHAI; GILBERT, 
SHLOMO; GISER, MOSES DAVID; 
GLASMAN, BARUCH; GORDIN, ABBA; 
GOTTESFELD, CHONE; GOTTLIEB, JACOB; 
GRYNBERG, BERL; GUTMAN, CHAIM; 
HOROWITZ, BER; JAFFE, LEIB; KACYZNE, 
ALTER; KAGANOWSKI, EFRAIM; LANDAU, 
ZISHE; LAPIN, BERL; LERER, YEHIEL; 
MALACH, LEIB; MASTBAUM, JOEL; 
NAIDUS, LEIB; NEUGROESCHEL, MENDEL; 
NOMBERG, HERSH DAVID; PRYLUCKI, 
NOAH; SCHNAPPER, BER; TEPPER, KOLYA; 
WARSHAVSKY, YAKIR; WARSZAWSKI, OSER; 
YEHOASH; YOFFE, MORDECAI; ZIVION 

Aviezer Ravitzky*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Jewish Philosophy, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: zerahiah 

BEN ISAAC BEN SHEALTIEL 

Norman Ravvin*, Ph.D.; Chair, 
Canadian Jewish Studies, Concordia 
University, Montreal, Canada: 

COHEN, LEONARD; COHEN, MATT; KLEIN, 
A.M.; KREISEL, HENRY; MANDEL, ELI; 
RICHLER, MORDECAI 

Shoey Raz* , M.A.; Ph.D. Doctoral 
Student, Department of Philosophy, 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

LATIF, ISAAC B. ABRAHAM IBN 

Simha Raz, General Secretary, Brit 
Ivrit Olamit, Jerusalem: levin, aryeh 

Roberta Rebold, B.A.; Writer and 
Researcher, Jerusalem: coalition 

FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF JEWISH 
EDUCATION 

Shimon Redlich, Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
History, the University of the Negev, 
Beersheba: Birobidzhan; stalin, 

JOSEPH VISSARIONOVICH 

David (Allen) Rees*, B.A.; 
Graduate Student (History), 
Ludwig- Maximilians- Universitat, 
Munich, Germany: marle, Arnold 

Uri Regev, L.L.B., Rabbi; Director, 
The Israel Religious Action Center, 
Jerusalem 

Sidney L. Regner, B.A., Rabbi; 
Executive Vice President, Central 
Conference of American Rabbis, 
New York: synagogue council of 

AMERICA, THE 

Ronny Reich, Ph.D.; Director of 
Documentation, Israel Antiquities 
Authority, Jerusalem 



Harry Reicher* , B.Econ., L.L.B., 
L.L.M.; Adjunct Professor of Law, 
University of Pennsylvania Law 
School; Member, United States 
Holocaust Memorial Council, 
Pennsylvania: war crimes trials 

Stefan C. Reif, Ph.D.; Director of 
Genizah Unit and Head of Oriental 
Department, Cambridge University 
Library: genizah, cairo 

Manfred Reifer, Dr.Phil.; 

Encyclopaedia Judaica (Germany); 
Tel Aviv: bukovina 

Elena Reikher (Temin)*, Ph.D., 
Musicology, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: Bukhara 

Jack Reimer, M.H.L., Rabbi; 
Lecturer, Dept. of Judaic Studies, 
University of Dayton, Ohio: 

BETTELHEIM, ALBERT SIEGFRIED; 
BLUMENTHAL, JOSEPH; BOKSER, BEN 
ZION; BRAUDE, WILLIAM GORDON; 
COHEN, MORTIMER JOSEPH; DAYTON; 
DEMBITZ, LEWIS NAPHTALI; EISENDRATH, 
MAURICE NATHAN; EISENSTEIN, IRA; 
FRIEDMAN, THEODORE; GOLDIN, JUDAH; 
GOLDMAN, SOLOMON; GORDIS, ROBERT; 
GORDON, ALBERT I.; GORDON, HAROLD; 
GREENBERG, SIMON; HOFFMAN, 
CHARLES ISAIAH; JASTROW; KARP, 
ABRAHAM J.; KOHN, EUGENE; KOHUT; 
LEESER, ISAAC; LEVITSKY, LOUIS MOSES; 
MORAIS, SABATO; RAPHALL, MORRIS 
JACOB 

Bob Reinalda*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in International Relations, 
Radboud University Nijmegen, The 
Netherlands: miranda, Salomon 

RODRIGUES DE 

Alvin J. Reines, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Philosophy, the Hebrew 
Union College-Jewish Institute of 
Religion, New York: abrabanel, 

ISAAC BEN JUDAH; DIESENDRUCK, 
ZEVI; METAPHYSICS; NEUMARK, 
DAVID; REDEMPTION; SKEPTICS AND 
SKEPTICISM; TIME AND ETERNITY 

Jehuda Reinharz, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of History, the University 
of Michigan, Ann Arbor: farband; 

ZIONISM 

Shulamit Reinharz*: szold, 

HENRIETTA 

Joel (Ira) Reisman*, B.A.; 
Healthcare Analyst, Edith Nourse 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Rogers Memorial Hospital, Bedford, 
Massachusetts: Alaska 

Hanns G. Reissner, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History, New York Institute of 
Technology, Old Westbury, New 

York: ABRAHAM; ALTMAN, BENJAMIN; 
CARO, GEORG MARTIN; DREYFUS; 
GIMBEL; GOLDMAN; HIRSCH, BARON 
MAURICE DE; KUHN-LOEB; LAZARD; 
LAZARUS; LEHMAN; MENDELSSOHN; 
OPPENHE1M; SAINT-SIMONISM; SERING, 
MAX; SPEYER; STRAUS; STRAUSS, LEVI; 
VEIT 

Alan Reitman, B.A.; Associate 
Director of the American Civil 
Liberties Union, New York: hays, 

ARTHUR GARFIELD 

Elie Rekhess*, Ph.D., Senior 
Research Fellow, Tel Aviv 
University: Israel, state of: arab 

POPULATION 

Joel (E.) Rembaum*, B.A., M.A., 
Ph.D., Rabbi; Senior Rabbi, Temple 
Beth Am, Los Angeles: pressman, 

JACOB 

Gary A. Rendsburg*, Ph.D., 
Blanche and Irving Laurie Chair in 
Jewish History, Rutgers University, 
New Brunswick, New Jersey: ebla 

Yehuda Reshef, LL.B.; Ministry of 

Justice, Haifa: bormann, martin; 

BUCHENWALD; DARQUIER DE PELLEPOIX, 
LOUIS; EPPSTEIN, PAUL; FRANK, HANS 
MICHAEL; FRANK, KARL HERMANN; 
FRANKFURTER, DAVID; GERSTEIN, KURT; 
GLOBOCNIK, ODILO; GLUECKS, RICHARD; 
GOEBBELS, PAUL JOSEF; GOERING, 
HERMANN WILHELM; HEYDRICH, 
REINHARD TRISTAN; HIMMLER, 
HEINRICH; HIRSCH, OTTO; JACOB, 
BERTHOLD; KALTENBRUNNER, ERNST; 
KATZMANN, FRIEDRICH; LAMBERT, 
RAYMOND RAOUL; LUX, STEFAN; 
MAUTHAUSEN; MUELLER, HEINRICH; 
MUSELMANN; NATZWEILER-STRUTHOF; 
POHL, OSWALD; RADEMACHER, FRANZ; 
RAUTER, HANNS ALBIN; RAVENSBRUECK; 
REICHSVEREINIGUNG;REICHSZENTRALE 
FUER JUEDISCHE AUSWANDERUNG; 
RIBBENTROP, JOACHIM VON; ROSENBERG, 
ALFRED; RSHA; SACHSENHAUSEN- 
ORANIENBURG; SAUCKEL, FRITZ; 
SCHACHT PLAN; SCHELLENBERG, 
WALTER; STROOP, JUERGEN; VALLAT, 
XAVIER; WIENER LIBRARY; WIENER, 
ALFRED; WISLICENY, DIETER 

Rosa Perla Resnick*, Ph.D.; 



University Professor, CUNY, Yeshiva 
University, Columbia University, 
New York: resnick, Salomon 

Gideon Reuveni*, Ph.D.; Lecturer, 
University of Melbourne, Australia 

Shmuel Dov Revital, Dr.Jur.; State 
Comptroller s Office, Jerusalem: 

PARTNERSHIP 

Hanoch Reviv, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Jewish History, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: abimelech; 

ALALAKH; ARCHIVES; ATHALIAH; 
BAASHA; CITY; CORVEE; ELAH; HISTORY: 
BEGINNING UNTIL THE MONARCHY; 
HISTORY: KINGDOMS OF JUDAH 
AND ISRAEL; NABOTH; TRADE AND 
COMMERCE; ZEDEKIAH 

Charles Reznikoff, LL.B.; Author, 

New York: konvitz, milton ridvas; 

PANKEN, JACOB 

Harold U. Ribalow, B.S.; Writer, 

New York: fast, Howard melvin; 

FERBER, EDNA; URIS, LEON 

Arnold (David) Richards*, 

M.D.; Psychiatrist, Psychoanalyst, 
New York University School of 
Medicine Department of Psychiatry, 
Psychoanalytic Institute, New York: 

FREUD, SIGMUND 

Elisheva Rigbi*, Ph.D.; Lecturer of 
Musicology, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: katz, ruth 

Bryan Mark Rigg*> Ph.D.; Private 
Wealth Manager at Credit Suisse, 
Dallas: Nuremberg laws 

Elimelech Rimalt, Ph.D.; Member 
of the Knesset, Former Minister of 
Posts, Ramat Gan: innsbruck 

Allie Rimer* : new Brunswick 

Chanoch Rinott, Ph.D.; Senior 
Teacher and Director of the 
Center for Jewish Education in the 
Diaspora, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: youth aliyah 

Moshe Rinott, Ph.D.; Senior 
Teacher in Education, Haifa 
University: cohn-reiss, 

EPHRAIM 

Moses Rischin, Ph.D.; Professor of 
History, San Francisco State College; 
Director of the Western Jewish 



History Center, Berkeley, California: 

CAHAN, ABRAHAM 

Yitzhak Rischin, B.A. (Hons.); 
Managing Director of Keter 
Publishing House Ltd., Jerusalem: 

AUSTRALIA; MELBOURNE 

Israel Ritov, Journalist, Tel Aviv: he- 

HALUTZ; Z.S.; ZETREI ZION 

Paul Ritterband, M.H.L., Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor, Departments of 
Sociology and Jewish Studies, City 
University of New York 

Marina Ritzarev*, Ph.D., Professor, 
Musicologist, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: abeliovich, lev 

MOYSSEYEVICH; ALSHVANG, ARNOLD 
ALEKSANDROVICH; ALTSCHULER, 
MODEST; ARONOVICH, YURI 
MIKHAYLOVICH; ASHKENAZY, VLADIMIR 
DAVIDOVICH; AVSHALOMOV, AARON; 
BABIN, VICTOR; BARMAS, ISSAY; BELY, 
VICTOR ARKADYEVICH; BLUMENFELD, 
FELIX MIKHAYLOVICH; BRUSSILOVSKY, 
YEVGENI GRIGORYEVICH; FEINBERG, 
SAMUEL YEVGENYEVICH; KROSHNER, 
MIKHAIL YEFIMOVICH; LEVITSKY, 
MISCHA; LITINSKI, GENRIKH ILYICH; 
MAYKAPAR, SAMUIL MOYSEYEVICH; 
SLONIMSKY, NICOLAS; SLONIMSKY, 
SERGEI MIKHAILOVICH; STEINBERG, 
MAXIMILIAN OSSEJEVICH; TARUSKIN, 
RICHARD; VEINBERG, MOISSEY 
SAMUILOVICH; WEISSBERG, JULIA 
LAZAREVNA; ZHITOMIRSKI, ALEXANDER 
MATVEYEVICH 

Benjamin Rivlin, Writer, Jerusalem: 

DVORZETSKY, MARK MEIR; RIVLIN; 
RIVLIN, JOSEPH JOEL 

Ronald Robboy*, Former Senior 
Researcher, The Thomashefsky 
Project; Senior Researcher 

Encyclopedia of Yiddish 
Theater; Cellist, San Diego 
Symphony Orchestra, San Diego: 

THOMASHEFSKY, BESSIE 

Marthe Robert, Researcher and 
Writer, Paris: nemirovsky, irene 

B.J. Roberts, D.D.; Professor 
of Hebrew and Biblical Studies, 
University College of North Wales, 
Bangor: kahle, paul ernst 

George Robinson*, B.A., M.F.A.; 
Film Critic, Music Critic, Author, 
Jewish Week, New York; Inside 
Magazine, Philadelphia: amram, 



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139 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



DAVID; BRECKER BROTHERS; ELMAN, 
ZIGGY; FEATHER, LEONARD; FLECK, BELA; 
GETZ, STAN; GIBBS, TERRY; HENTOFF, 
NAT; KESSEL, BARNEY; KLEIN, MANNIE; 
KONITZ, LEE; LACY, STEVE; MANN, 
HERBIE; MANNE, SHELLY; RICH, BUDDY; 
RODNEY, RED; TORME, MEL 

Ira Robinson*, Ph.D., Professor, 
Concordia University, Montreal, 
Quebec: cohen, hirsh; denburg, 

CHAIM; HERSCHORN, JOSHUA HALEVY; 
HIRSCHPRUNG, PINHAS; KAGE, JOSEPH; 
ROSENBERG, YEHUDA YUDEL 

Jacob Robinson, Dr.Jur.; 
Coordinator of Research Activities 
and Publications on the Holocaust 
for Yad Vashem and YIVO, New 
York: holocaust: behavior of the 

VICTIMS; NAZI-DEUTSCH 

James T. Robinson*, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor of the History of 
Judaism, The University of Chicago, 
The Divinity School, Chicago: 

TIBBON, IBN 

Leye Robinson*: boraisha, 

MENAHEM 

Nehemiah Robinson, Dr. Phil.; 
Director of the Institute of Jewish 
Affairs, New York: genocide 

CONVENTION 

Samuele Rocca*, Ph.D., Lecturer in 
Art History, Wizo College, Haifa: 

ANCONA; ANCONA; AQUILEIA; ASCOLI, 
ETTORE; BASSANO; FRIULI-VENEZIA 
GIULIA; GORIZIA; ISTRIA; LEGIO; LEVI, 
DORO; LOLLI, EUDE; LOMBROSO, CESARE; 
LUZZATTO, EPHRAIM; MARGULIES, 
SAMUEL HIRSCH; MILAN; MOSCATI, 
SABATINO; NAPLES; OSTIA; POMPEII; 
RAVENNA; ROME; ROVIGO; SAN DANIELE 
DEL FRIULI; SERMONETA, JOSEPH 
BARUCH; TREVISO; TRIESTE; TURIN 

Robert Rockaway, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of American Urban 
History, the University of Texas, 
El Paso: brown, david Abraham; 

DETROIT 

Stuart Rockoff*, Ph.D.; Director, 
History Department, Goldring/ 
Woldenberg Institute of Southern 
Jewish Life, Jackson, Mississippi: 

GEORGIA; INSTITUTE OF SOUTHERN 
JEWISH LIFE, GOLDRING / WOLDENBERG; 
MISSISSIPPI; NUSSBAUM, PERRY 

Edouard Roditi, B.A.; Art 



Critic, Paris: adler, jules; bihari, 

ALEXANDER; PARIS SCHOOL OF ART 

Peretz (A.) Rodman*, M.A., Rabbi; 
Jewish Educator, Independent 
Scholar, Jerusalem: hammer, 

REUVEN 

Ilia (M.) Rodov*, Ph.D.; Lecturer, 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

JERUSALEM 

Linda Rodriguez*, M.A.; Former 
Director, Women's Center, 
University of Missouri- Kansas City: 

GLUCK, LOUISE 

Nils Roemer*, Ph.D., Senior 
Lecturer, University of 
Southampton, England: verein 

FUER KULTUR UND WISSENSCHAFT DES 
JUDENTUMS 

Leonard (William) RogofF*, Ph.D., 
Research Historian, Jewish Heritage 
Foundation of North Carolina, 
Chapel Hill, North Carolina: 

CHARLOTTE; DURHAM; NORTH 
CAROLINA 

Stefan Rohrbacher*, Dr.Phil.; 
Professor, Heinrich-Heine 
Universitat, Diisseldorf, Germany: 

AACHEN; AHLEM; ALTENSTADT; 
ASCHAFFENBURG; AUGSBURG; BADEN; 
BERLIN; DARMSTADT; DEGGENDORF; 
DEUTZ; DUESSELDORF; DUISBURG; 
ERFURT; GERMANY; HAMBURG; 
JEBENHAUSEN 

Emilie Roi*, Writer, Jerusalem: 

COHN,GEORG 

Yaacov Ro'i, M.A.; Visiting 
Researcher in Middle Eastern 
Studies, Tel Aviv University: Russia 

Betty Roitman, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of French and 
Comparative Literature, The Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem 

Avshalom Rokach, M.Sc; 
Agronomist, Jerusalem: lachish 

REGION 

Isaac Rokach, Managing Director of 
the Pardess Syndicate, Herzliyyah: 

CITRUS 

David Rokeah, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Jewish History, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: julian the 

APOSTATE 



Giorgio Romano, LL.D.; Journalist, 
Tel Aviv: ascarelli, tullio; 

BEDARIDA, GUIDO; BEMPORAD, ENRICO; 
BOLAFFIO, LEONE; CAMERINI, EUGENIO 
SALOMONE; CAMMEO, FEDERICO; 
CANTONI, ALBERTO; CANTONI, LELIO; 
CARNIVAL; CASTELNUOVO, ENRICO; 
CATTANEO, CARLO; DA VERONA, 
GUIDO; DE BENEDETTI, ALDO; DEL 
BANCO, ANSELMO; FALCO, MARIO; 
FOA; GINZBURG, NATALIA; ITALIAN 
LITERATURE; LEVI, CARLO; LEVI, 
EUGENIO; LOPEZ, SABATINO; LUZZATTI, 
LUIGI; LUZZATTO, GINO; MALVANO, 
GIACOMO; MANIN, DANIELE; MASSARANI, 
TULLO; MAYER, SALLY; MICHELSTAEDTER, 
CARLO; MODIGLIANI, VITTORIO 
EMANUELE; MORAVIA, ALBERTO; 
MORPURGO, SALOMONE; MORTARA 
CASE; MORTARA, LODOVICO; ORVIETO, 
ANGIOLO; OTTOLENGHI, JOSEPH 
BEN NATHAN; POLACCO, VITTORIO; 
PRATO, DAVID; REVERE, GIUSEPPE 
PROSPERO; ROSSELLI; SABA, UMBERTO; 
SAN NICANDRO; SONNINO, SIDNEY; 
TERRACINI, UMBERTO ELIA; TREVES, 
EMILIO; VITTA, CINO; VIVANTE, CESARE; 
VIVANTI CHARTRES, ANNIE; VOLTERRA, 
EDOARDO 

Daniel Romanowski, Ph.D.; the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

AZERBAIJAN; BELARUS; KYRGYZSTAN; 
LATVIA; LITHUANIA; MOLDOVA; PRESS; 
RUSSIA; UKRAINE 

David Rome, M.A.; Librarian, 
Lecturer in Jewish Studies, Loyola 
College, Montreal: shtern; zipper, 

YAAKOV 

Joachim O. Ronall, LL.D.; Professor 
of Economics, Fordham University, 

New York: abramovitz, moses; 

ADLER, GEORG; AFTALION, ALBERT; 
ALTARAS, JACQUES ISAAC; ALTMAN, 
OSCAR LOUIS; ANGEL, SHEMAYAHU; 
BACHE; BACRI; BALLIN, ALBERT; BALOGH, 
THOMAS, BARON; BAMBERGER, LUDWIG; 
BECHER, SIEGFRIED; BELMONT, AUGUST; 
BERGSON, ABRAM; BISCHOFFSHEIM; 
BLANK, MAURICE; BLEICHROEDER; 
BLUM, JULIUS; BONN, MORITZ JULIUS; 
BORCHARDT, LUCY; BRONFENBRENNER, 
MARTIN; BRUTZKUS, BORIS DOV; BUNZL; 
BURNS, ARTHUR FRANK; CASSEL, SIR 
ERNEST JOSEPH; CASTIGLIONI, CAMILLO; 
CITROEN, ANDRE GUSTAVE; COHEN, 
ARTHUR; COHEN, RUTH LOUISA; 
COHN, GUSTAV; COLM, GERHARD; 
DERNBURG; DEVONS, ELY; DORFMAN, 
JOSEPH; EICHTHAL-SELIGMANN; EINZIG, 
PAUL; ERLANGER; EZEKIEL, MORDECAI 
JOSEPH BRILL; FABRICANT, SOLOMON; 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



FEIS, HERBERT; FELLNER, WILLIAM 
JOHN; FERKAUF, EUGENE; FRIEDMAN, 
MILTON; FUERSTENBERG, CARL; GILBERT, 
MILTON; GOLDENWEISER, EMANUEL 
ALEXANDROVICH; GOLDSCHMIDT, 
JAKOB; GOLDSMITH, RAYMOND 
WILLIAM; GRANT, BARON ALBERT; 
GREENSPAN, ALAN; GREGORY, SIR 
THEODORE; GRUENBAUM, HENRY; 
GUTMANN, EUGEN; HABER; HAHN, 
ALBERT L.; HALLGARTEN; HEILPERIN, 
MICHAEL ANGELO; HEINE, SOLOMON; 
HIMMELSTEIN, LENA; HIRSCHMAN, 
ALBERT OTTO; HIRSHHORN, JOSEPH 
HERMAN; HOSELITZ, BERTHOLD FRANK; 
JASNY, NAUM; JOEL, OTTO J.; KAHN, 
OTTO HERMANN; KALDOR, NICHOLAS, 
BARON; KALECKI, MICHAL; KASKEL; 
KAULLA; KISCH; KOENIGSWARTER; 
LADEJINSKY, WOLF ISAAC; LANCZY, LEO; 
LERNER, ABBA PETACHJA; LINOWITZ, 
SOL MYRON; LORIA, ACHILLE; LOWE, 
ADOLPH; LUBIN, ISADOR; MACHLUP, 
FRITZ; MARGET, ARTHUR W; MARSCHAK, 
JACOB; MELCHIOR, CARL; MICHAEL, 
JAKOB; MIRES, JULES ISAAC; MISES, 
LUDWIG EDLER VON; MORAWITZ, KARL 
RITTER VON; MORGENSTERN, OSKAR; 
NADLER, MARCUS; NATHAN, ROBERT 
ROY; NEISSER, HANS PHILIPP; OHRBACH; 
OPPENHEIMER, FRANZ; OSTROLENK, 
BERNHARD; PEREIRE, EMILE and ISAAC; 
PERLMAN, ALFRED EDWARD; PERLMAN, 
JACOB; PINNER, FELIX; POLANYI, 
KARL; POSTAN, MICHAEL MOISSEY; 
PRIBRAM, KARL; RAFFALOVICH, ARTHUR 
GERMANOVICH; RAISMAN, SIR JEREMY; 
RICARDO, DAVID; RICH; RIESSER, JACOB; 
RIKLIS, MESHULAM; ROSTOW, WALT 
WHITMAN; RUEFF, JACQUES; SAMUEL, 
RALPH E.; SAMUELSON, PAUL ANTHONY; 
SCHAEFFER, HANS; SCHLESINGER, 
KARL; SELIGMAN; SELIGMAN, EDWIN 
ROBERT ANDERSON; SHARFMAN, ISAIAH 
LEO; SIMON, NORTON; SOMARY, FELIX; 
STEIN, HERBERT; STERN, SIR FREDERICK 
CLAUDE; STIEGLITZ; STROUSBERG, 
BETHEL HENRY; SUAREZ; SWOPE, 
GERARD; TAUSSIG, FRANK WILLIAM; 
URI, PIERRE EMMANUEL; VARGA, 
YEVGENI SAMOILOVICH; VINER, JACOB; 
WERTHEIM, MAURICE; WORMSER, 
OLIVIER BORIS; ZILKHA 

Avraham Ronen, Dott. in lett.; 
Senior Lecturer in the History of 
Art, Tel Aviv University: wadi al- 

NATTUF 

• • 

Dan Ronen*, Ph.D.; Director, 
Division of Culture and Arts 
Ministry of Education and Culture, 
Jerusalem: Israel, state of: cultural 

LIFE, MUSIC, FOLK DANCE 



Omri Ronen, Ph.D., Senior 
Lecturer, Russian and Comparative 
Literature, Hebrew University, 
Jerusalem: aliger, Margarita 

YOSIFOVNA; BRIK, OSIP MAKSIMOVICH; 
EICHENBAUM, BORIS MIKHAILOVICH; 
LIVSHITS, BENEDIKT KONSTANTINOVICH; 
MANDELSHTAM, OSIP EMILYEVICH; 
PARNAKH, VALENTIN YAKOVLEVICH; 
ZHIRMUNSKY, VIKTOR MAKSIMOVICH 

Meir Ronnen, B.F.A.; Journalist, 
Jerusalem 

Michael N. Rony*, M.A.; Ph.D. 
Student, Ben-Gurion University of 
the Negev, Beersheva: arama, isaac 

BEN MOSES 

Emanuel Rose, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Portland, Oregon 

Or N. Rose*, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Associate Dean, The Rabbinical 
School of Hebrew College, Hebrew 
College, Boston: green, Arthur 

Kenneth D. Roseman, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Assistant Professor of American 
Jewish History, the Hebrew 
Union College-Jewish Institute of 
Religion, Cincinnati, Ohio: freiberg; 

GOLDSMITH, SAMUEL ABRAHAM; GREEN- 
STEIN, HARRY; SHRODER, WILLIAM J. 

Mark Roseman*, Ph.D.; Pat M. 
Glazer Chair in Jewish Studies, 
Indiana University: wannsee 

CONFERENCE 

Gladys Rosen, Ph.D.; Historical 

Researcher, New York: davis, moshe; 

EPSTEIN, JUDITH; FREUND-ROSENTHAL, 
MIRIAM KOTTLER; FRIEDENWALD; 
HALPRIN, ROSE LURIA; LINDHEIM, 
IRMA LEVY; MEYER, BARON DE HIRSCH; 
NAROT, JOSEPH; ROSENSOHN, ETTA 
LASKER; SATINSKY, SOL; SCHENK, FAYE L.; 
SELIGSBERG, ALICE LILLIE; STEINBACH, 
ALEXANDER ALAN; SZOLD, BENJAMIN; 
TUSKA, SIMON 

Janice Rosen*, M.A.; Archives 
Director, Canadian Jewish Congress, 
Montreal, Quebec: rome, david 

Moshe Rosen, Jerusalem: ali ibn 

SAHL IBN RABBAN AL-TABARl 

■ 

Pinchas Rosen, Former Minister 
of Justice, Jerusalem: independent 

LIBERAL PARTY 

Michael Rosenak, Ph.D.; Former 



Director, Melton Center for Jewish 
Education in the Diaspora, Mandel 
Associate Professor for Jewish 
Education, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem 

Helen Rosenau, Dr. Phil.; Art 

Historian, London: Abraham; adam; 

ECCLESIA ET SYNAGOGA; JONAH, BOOK 
OF 

Miriam Rosen-Ayalon, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor in Islamic Art 
and Archaeology; Head of the 
Department of Islamic Civilization, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ETTINGHAUSEN, RICHARD 

Fred S. Rosenbaum*, M.A.; History, 
Founding Director, Lehrhaus 
Judaica, Berkeley, California: asher, 

JOSEPH; COHN, ELKAN; ECKMAN, 
JULIUS; MAGNES MUSEUM, JUDAH 
L.; ROSENMANN-TAUB, DAVID; SAN 
FRANCISCO BAY AREA 

Irving J. Rosenbaum, Rabbi; former 
President, Hebrew Theological 
College, Chicago; Davka Corp. 

Jonathan Rosenbaum*, Ph.D.; 
President and Professor of Religion, 
Gratz College, Melrose Park, 
Pennsylvania: gratz college; 

GRODZINSKY, ZVI HIRSCH 

Dan (Daniel) S. Rosenberg*, B.A., 
M.A., Ph.D.; Rabbi; New York 
University: foundations 

Jennifer Rosenberg*, M.A., 
M.S.W.; Director of Research, UJA- 
Federation of New York: new york 
city 

Louis Rosenberg, B.A., B.S.; 
Research Director, the Canadian 
Jewish Congress, Montreal, Canada 

Pnina Rosenberg*, Ph.D.; Art 
Curator, Lecturer, Art Historian, 
specializing in the art of the 
Holocaust, Ghetto Fighters' 
House Museum, Tivon, Israel: 

ART: IN CONCENTRATION CAMPS AND 
GHETTOES 

Shalom Rosenberg, M.A.; 
Jerusalem 

Stephen G. (Gabriel) Rosenberg*, 

Ph.D., FRIBA; Fellow of Albright 
Institute of Archaeological Research, 
Jerusalem, and Honorary Secretary 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



of Anglo-Israel Archaeological 
Society, London: onias, temple of; 

TOBIADS 

Stuart E. Rosenberg, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Writer, Toronto: genizah, cairo, 

LAWYERS; POLITICS 

Samuel Rosenblatt, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Associate Professor of Oriental 
Languages, Johns Hopkins 
University, Baltimore: fano, 

MENAHEM AZARIAH DA; FREUDEMANN, 
SIMHAH; FREUND, SAMUEL BEN 
ISSACHAR BAER; GALANTE; HAKDAMAH; 
INCLINATION, GOOD AND EVIL; OLAM 
HA-BA; PLUTARCH 

Alvin H. Rosenfeld*, Ph.D.; 

Professor of English and Jewish 
Studies, Director of Institute for 
Jewish Culture and the Arts, Indiana 
University: frank, anne 

Gavriel (D.) Rosenfeld*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor, Fairfield, 
University, Connecticut: 

FRIEDLAENDER, SAUL 

Harry L. Rosenfeld, M.A., Rabbi; 
rabbi of Congregation Beth Sholom, 
Anchorage, Alaska 

Geraldine Rosenfield, M.A.; the 

American Jewish Committee, New 
York: slawsonjohn 

Ariella M. Rosengard*, M.D.: 

MIROWSKI, MICHEL 

Dale Rosengarten*, Ph.D.; 
Curator and Historian, College of 
Charleston, South Carolina: south 

CAROLINA 

Anny Dayan Rosenman*, 

Ph.D.; Maitre de conference; 
Universite Paris7 - Denis Diderot. 
Departement de Lettres; Paris, 
France: jabes, edmond; modiano, 

PATRICK 

Shabtai Rosenne, Ph.D.; 
Ambassador, Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs, Jerusalem: armistice 

AGREEMENTS, ISRAEL-ARAB; GROTIUS, 
HUGO 

Menachem (Z.) Rosensaft*, B.A. 
M.A., J.D.; Attorney, New York: 

BERGEN-BELSEN 

Joseph G. Rosenstein*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Mathematics, Rutgers 



University, Highland Park, 
New Jersey: national havurah 

COMMITTEE 

Morton Rosenstock, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Social Studies and 
Librarian, Bronx Community 
College of the City University of 
New York: backer, george; bijur, 

NATHAN; BLAUSTEIN; BLOOMINGDALE; 
BUTTENWIESER; COWEN, PHILIP; 
CUTLER, HARRY; DEUTSCH, BERNARD 
SEYMOUR; DITTENHOEFER, ABRAM JESSE; 
EISNER, MARK; FLEXNER; GUGGENHEIM; 
HAY, JOHN MILTON; JONAS, NATHAN 
S.; KRAUS, ADOLF; LEWISOHN; MACK, 
JULIAN WILLIAM; MARSHALL, LOUIS; 
MORGENTHAU; ROSENWALD; SAPIRO, 
AARON; SCHIFF, JACOB HENRY; 
UNTERMYER, SAMUEL; WARBURG 

Erich Rosenthal, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Sociology, Queens College 
of the City University of New 
York: Chicago; mixed marriage, 

INTERMARRIAGE 

Esther Rosenthal (Schneiderman), 

Cand. Pedag. Sci.; Jerusalem: 

CHATZKELS, HELENE 

Irving Rosenthal, M.A.; Associate 
Professor of Journalism, City 
College of the City University 
of New York: adler, julius ochs; 

ANNENBERG, WALTER H.; CARTOONISTS; 
FORMIGGINI, ANGELO FORTUNATO; 
KROCK, ARTHUR; LANDAU, JACOB; 
LAWRENCE, DAVID; LICHTHEIM, 
RICHARD; LIPPMANN, WALTER; MEYER, 
EUGENE; NEWHOUSE, SAMUEL IRVING; 
OCHS; PULITZER, JOSEPH; REUTER, PAUL 
JULIUS, FREIHERR VON; RICHARDS, 
BERNARD GERSON; SOUTHWOOD, 
JULIUS SALTER ELIAS, FIRST VISCOUNT; 
SULZBERGER, ARTHUR HAYS; SWOPE, 
HERBERT BAYARD 

Judah M. Rosenthal, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Former Professor of Biblical 
Exegesis, the College of Jewish 
Studies, Chicago; Jerusalem: 

ABULRABI, AARON; DONIN, NICHOLAS; 
HIWI AL-BALKHI; MESHWI AL-'UKBARI; 
NUSSBAUM, HILARY; OFFICIAL, NATHAN 
BEN JOSEPH and JOSEPH; PORCHETUS 
SALVAGUS; PRISCUS; WAGENSEIL, JOHANN 
CHRISTOPH; YUDGHAN 

Moshe Rosetti, Former Clerk 
of the Knesset, Tel Aviv: bassin, 

MOSES; BEVIN, ERNEST; BLUM, LEON; 
CLORE, SIR CHARLES; COHEN, ARTHUR; 
DEUTSCHER, ISAAC; LASKI, HAROLD 



JOSEPH; MARSHALL, DAVID SAUL; 
MEINERTZHAGEN, RICHARD HENRY; 
MENDES-FRANCE, PIERRE; MOCH, JULES 
SALVADOR; MOND; WORLD LABOR 
ZIONIST MOVEMENT; ZEIT, DIE 

Gerald Rosin, Central African 
Jewish Board of Deputies, Harare, 
Zimbabwe: slawson, john 

Fred Rosner, M.D.; Instructor 
in Medicine, Downstate Medical 
Center, Brooklyn, New York: 

ANGRIST, ALFRED ALVIN; BENDER, 
MORRIS BORIS; DAVIDOFF, LEO MAX; 
DRESSLER, WILLIAM; FISHBEIN, MORRIS; 
GARLOCK, JOHN HENRY; GROSSMAN, 
MORTON IRVIN; GUTMAN, ALEXANDER 
B.; GUTTMACHER, ALAN E; HELPERN, 
MILTON; KAGAN, SOLOMON ROBERT; 
KLEMPERER, PAUL; LEDERBERG, JOSHUA; 
LEVINE, PHILIP; TRANSPLANTS 

Menahem Rosner, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Department of Sociology and 
Anthropology, Haifa University: 

KIBBUTZ MOVEMENT 

Jacob Joshua Ross, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Senior Lecturer in Philosophy, Tel 
Aviv University: freimann, jacob; 

REVELATION 

Daniel Rossing, M.T.S.; Director, 
Melitz Center for Christian 
Encounter with Israel, Jerusalem: 

ISRAEL, STATE OF: RELIGIOUS LIFE AND 
COMMUNITIES 

Ruth Rossing*, B.A.; Secretary, 
Translator, Center for the Study 
of Emerging Diseases, Jerusalem: 

AHARONOV, YAKIR; BERG, PAUL; 
BERNSTEIN, HAROLD JOSEPH; BERNSTEIN, 
JOSEPH; BLOCH, HERMAN SAMUEL; 
BLOCH, KONRAD; BLUMBERG, BARUCH 
SAMUEL; BODIAN, DAVID; BOGORAD, 
LAWRENCE; BOROWITZ, SIDNEY; BROWN, 
HAROLD; BROWN, HERBERT C; CALVIN, 
MELVIN; CHARPAK, GEORGES; DISCHE, 
ZACHARIAS; DROSDOFF, MATTHEW; 
EDINGER, LUDWIG; ERLIK, DAVID; 
FREUDENTHAL, ALFRED MARTIN; 
FROHLICH, HERBERT; HALEVY, ABRAHAM 
H.; RAZIN, AHARON; WAHL, ISAAK 

Murray Roston, Ph.D.; Professor of 
English, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat 
Gan: daiches, david-, lowth, Robert 

Cvi Rotem, Ph.D.; Journalist, Tel 

Aviv: GOTTLIEB, HINKO; ROMANO, 
SAMUEL; YUGOSLAV LITERATURE; 
YUGOSLAVIA; ZIONISM 



142 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Nathan Rotenstreich, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Philosophy and Former 
Rector, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: bergman, samuel hugo; 

POZNANSKI, EDWARD 

Alvin S. Roth, Ph.D., Rabbi; Albany, 
New York 

Cecil Roth, D.Phil., F.R.Hist. Soc; 
Reader Emeritus in Jewish Studies, 
the University of Oxford; Editor 
in Chief of the Encyclopaedia 
Judaica (1st ed.), Jerusalem: aaron 

OF LINCOLN; AARON OF YORK; ABBA; 
ABENAES, SOLOMON; ABENATAR 
MELO, DAVID; ABENDANA; ABENDANA, 
ISAAC; ABERDEEN; ABOAB; ABOAB DA 
FONSECA, ISAAC; ABOAB, IMMANUEL; 
ABOAB, ISAAC DE MATTATHIAS; 
ABRABANEL, ABRAVANEL; ABRAHAM BEN 
SHABBETAI HA-KOHEN; ABRAHAM OF 
BEJA; ABRAHAMS; ABRAHAMS, ISRAEL; 
ABRAHAMS, SIR LIONEL; ABSALOM; 
ABULAFIA; ABULAFIA, EZEKIEL DAVID 
BEN MORDECAI; ACOSTA, ISAAC; 
ADLER; ADLER, ELKAN NATHAN; ADLER, 
HERMANN; ADLER, MICHAEL; ADLER, 
NATHAN MARCUS; ADOLPHUS; AFFONSO; 
AFRICA; AGRIGENTO; AGUILAR, 
GRACE; AGUILAR, MOSES RAPHAEL 
D'; ALATINO; ALATRINI; ALATRINI, 
ANGELO; ALESSANDRIA; ALEXANDER; 
ALEXANDER, MICHAEL SOLOMON; 
ALFONSO OF ZAMORA; ALMANSI; 
ALMOSNINO; ALVARES; ANGLO-JEWISH 
ASSOCIATION; ANTHROPOMORPHISM; 
ANTONIO; ANTUNES; ARBIB; ARCHA; 
ARCHPRESBYTER; AREZZO; ART; 
ASSUMPCAO, DIOGO DA; ATIAS; AUTO 
DA FE; AZEVEDO, MOSES COHEN D'; 
BAPTISM, FORCED; BARGAS, ABRAHAM 
DE; BAROU, NOAH; BARRASSA, JACOB; 
BARROS BASTO, ARTURO CARLOS DE; 
BARTOLOCCI, GIULIO; BASOLA, MOSES 
BEN MORDECAI; BASSANI, MORDECAI; 
BASSANO; BATH; BEDARRIDES; 
BEDFORD; BEJA; BELFAST; BELMONTE; 
BENJAMIN NEHEMIAH BEN ELNATHAN; 
BENJAMIN OF CAMBRIDGE; BENJAMIN 
OF TUDELA; BENTWICH; BENVENISTE, 
ISAAC BEN JOSEPH; BENVENISTE, 
MOSES; BERNARDINO DA FELTRE; 
BODLEIAN LIBRARY; BODO; BONJORN, 
BONET DAVI; BOOK TRADE; BOOKS; 
BRADFORD; BRAGANZA; BRAHAM, 
JOHN; BRAMPTON, SIR EDWARD; 
BRIGHTON; BRISTOL; BROTHERS, 
RICHARD; BROWNING, ROBERT; BRUDO, 
MANUEL; BURY ST. EDMUNDS; BUZAGLO; 
CACERES, SIMON DE; CALLIGRAPHY 
AND WRITING MASTERS; CAMBRIDGE; 
CANTERBURY; CAPSALI, ELIJAH; 
CARDIFF; CARDOZO, AARON NUNEZ; 



CARICATURES; CARRASCON, JUAN; 
CARVAJAL, ABRAHAM ISRAEL; CASSUTO, 
UMBERTO; CASTRO, DE; CASTRO, JACOB 
DE; CASTRO, PEDRO DE; CASTRO; CASTRO 
SARMENTO, JACOB DE; CASTRO TARTAS, 
DAVID DE; CASTRO TARTAS, ISAAC 
DE; CEREMONIAL OBJECTS; CHANNEL 
ISLANDS; CHAPBOOKS; CHATHAM; 
COLCHESTER; COLUMBUS, CHRISTOPHER; 
CORDOBA, ALONSO FERNANDEZ DE; 
CORONEL CHACON, SIR AUGUSTIN; 
CORSICA; COSTA; COSTA, EMANUEL 
MENDES DA; COSTA ATHIAS, SOLOMON 
DA; CROMWELL, OLIVER; CROOL, 
JOSEPH; DAVIN DE CADEROUSSE; DOMUS 
CONVERSORUM; DORMIDO, DAVID 
ABRABANEL; DUBLIN; DUSCHINSKY, 
CHARLES; EDINBURGH; ELIANO, 
GIOVANNI BATTISTA; ELIAS LE EVESKE; 
ELIJAH MENAHEM BEN MOSES; EMERY, 
RICHARD WILDER; ENGLAND; EPITAPHS; 
ESCUDERO, LORENZO; ESTEVENS, DAVID; 
EUROPE; EXETER; EZEKIEL, ABRAHAM 
EZEKIEL; FALK, SAMUEL JACOB HAYYIM; 
FARIA, FRANCISCO DE; FERDINAND, 
PHILIP; FINCH, SIR HENRY; FORGERIES; 
FRANCIA, FRANCIS; FRANCO; FRANKS; 
FRIEDENBERG, SAMUEL; GABBAI IZIDRO, 
BRAHAM; GAMALIEL BEN PEDAHZUR; 
GASTER, MOSES; GAUNSE, JOACHIM; 
GEWITSCH, AARON WOLF; GHIRONDI, 
MORDECAI SAMUEL BEN BENZION 
ARYEH; GIBRALTAR; GIDEON, SAMSON; 
GIOVANNI MARIA; GLOUCESTER; 
GOLDSMID; GOLDSMID, ALBERT EDWARD 
WILLIAMSON; GOLDSMITH, LEWIS; 
GOLLANCZ, SIR HERMANN; GOMPERTZ; 
GOODMAN, TOBIAS; GORDON, GEORGE, 
LORD; GREGORY; GUGLIELMO DA 
PESARO; HAGGADAH, PASSOVER; HART; 
HART, JACOB; HEREFORD; HERTZ, 
JOSEPH HERMAN; HIRSCHEL, SOLOMON; 
HISTORIOGRAPHY; HISTORY: DIASPORA 
- SECOND TEMPLE PERIOD; HOMEM, 
ANTONIO; HOST, DESECRATION OF; 
HUGH OF LINCOLN; HULL; HYAMSON, 
ALBERT MONTEFIORE; IBN HAYYIM, 
ABRAHAM BEN JUDAH; IBN HAYYIM, 
JOSEPH; IBN YAHYA, GEDALIAH 
BEN TAM; INQUISITION; IPSWICH; 
ITINERARIES OF EREZ ISRAEL; JACOB BEN 
JUDAH OF LONDON; JACOBS, JOSEPH; 
JACOBS, LAZARUS; JESSEY, HENRY; 
JESUITS; JEWISH CHRONICLE; JEWISH 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF ENGLAND; 
JOHN THE ESSENE; JUDAIZERS; JURNET OF 
NORWICH; KAYSERLING, MEYER; KIERA; 
KING'S LYNN; LAGUNA, DANIEL ISRAEL 
LOPEZ; LAMEGO; LEE, SIR SIDNEY; LEEDS; 
LEICESTER; LEIRIA; LEONI, MYER; LEVY, 
BENJAMIN; LIMERICK; LINCOLN; LINDO; 
LISBON; LOEWE, HERBERT MARTIN JAMES; 
LONDON; LOPES; LOPEZ ROSA; LOPEZ, 
RODERIGO; LUZZATTO, SIMONE BEN 



ISAAC SIMHAH; LYONS, ISRAEL; MALTA; 
MANASSEH BEN ISRAEL; MELDOLA; 
MENDES, DIOGO; MINHAGIM BOOKS; 
MODENA, AVTALYON; NASI, GRACIA; NASI, 
JOSEPH; NATHAN, ABRAHAM; NIETO, 
ISAAC; NIGER OF PEREA; NORTHAMPTON; 
NUNES VAIS; ORIA; OXFORD; PACIFICI, 
ALFONSO; PARKES, JAMES WILLIAM; 
PASSI, DAVID; PENZANCE; PEREZ BAYER, 
FRANCISCO; POPES; PORTRAITS OF 
JEWS; PRINTERS' MARKS; RABINOWICZ, 
OSKAR K.; RAPHAEL, ALEXANDER; 
RIBEIRO SANCHEZ, ANTONIO; RIEGER, 
PAUL; ROBLES, ANTONIO RODRIGUES; 
ROCHESTER; RODRIGUES, DIONISIUS; 
ROME; ROSSENA, DANIEL BEN SAMUEL 
OF; RUBENS, ALFRED; SAMUEL, WILFRED 
SAMPSON; SCHOMBERG; SCULPTURE; 
SEPHARDIM; SERMONS TO JEWS; SERVI 
CAMERAE REGIS; SILVA, JOSHUA DA; 
SINKO, ERVIN; SIPRUTINI, EMANUEL; 
STAMFORD; SUMBAL, SAMUEL; 
TAXATION; TEMPLO, JACOB JUDAH 
LEON; TOLAND, JOHN; TRASKE, JOHN; 
TREBITSCH, MOSES LOEB BEN WOLF; 
URBINO; VAEZ, ABRAHAM; VAN OVEN; 
WARWICK; WINCHESTER; WOLF, LUCIEN; 
XIMENES, SIR MORRIS; YOM TOV OF 
JOIGNY; YORK 

Ernst Roth, Ph.D., Rabbi; Chief 
Rabbi of the State of Hesse, 
Frankfurt on the Main: aachen 

Lea Roth, M.A.; Jerusalem: abba 

SIKRA; ALBINUS, LUCCEIUS; ANAN BEN 
SETH; ANAN, SON OF ANAN; AVTINAS; 
AZIZ; CAESAREA IN CAPPADOCIA; 
CAIAPHAS, JOSEPH; CAPPADOCIA; 
CESTIUS GALLUS; CHAEREMON; 
CLAUDIUS; CLEOPATRA; COPONIUS; 
CORINTH; CUMANUS VENTIDIUS; 
CYPROS; CYPRUS; ELEAZAR BEN ANANIAS; 
ELEAZAR BEN DINAI; EMESA; FADUS, 
CUSPIUS; FELIX, ANTONIUS; FESTUS, 
PORCIUS; FLACCUS, AVILLIUS AULUS; 
GALATIA; GESSIUS FLORUS; HEZIR; 
HIERAPOLIS; ISHMAEL BEN PHIABI II; 
JOEZER, SON OF BOETHUS; JOHN OF 
GISCALA; JONATHAN THE HASMONEAN; 
JOSEPH; JULIUS SEVERUS; LYDIA, LYDIANS; 
MENAHEM SON OF JUDAH; PAPPUS 
AND JULIANUS; PETRONIUS, PUBLIUS; 
PONTIUS PILATE; POPPAEA, SABINA; 
PTOLEMY; SABINUS; SILVA, FLAVIUS; 
SIMEON BEN BOETHUS; TINNEIUS RUFUS; 
TITUS, FLAVIUS VESPASIANUS 

Leon Roth, D.Phil, F.B.A.; Former 
Rector and Professor of Philosophy, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ALEXANDER, SAMUEL 

Sol Roth, Ph.D., Rabbi; Lecturer in 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



H3 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Philosophy, Yeshiva University, New 
York: slander 

Sylvia Rothchild, Writer, Brookline, 

Massachusetts: gold, Herbert 

Beno Rothenberg, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Archaeology, Tel Aviv 
University: ezion-geber; timna 

Livia Rothkirchen, Ph.D.; 
Historian, Jerusalem: 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA; FLEISCHMANN, 
GISI; FRIEDER, ARMIN; REIK, HAVIVAH; 
SLOVAKIA; SZENES, HANNAH; TISO, 
JOSEF; TUKA, VOJTECH; VASEK, ANTON; 
WALLENBERG, RAOUL; WEISSMANDEL, 
MICHAEL DOV 

Aaron Rothkoff*, B.A., M.A., 
M.H.C., D.H.L., Rabbi; Professor 
of Responsa Literature, Yeshiva 
University - Gruss Kollel, 
Jerusalem: alphabet, Hebrew, in 

MIDRASH, TALMUD, AND KABBALAH; 
BAT KOL; BERLIN, HAYYIM; BET- 
MIDRASH; DECALOGUE; FINZI-NORSA 
CONTROVERSY; GOLDEN CALF; 
GRAJEWSKI, ELIEZER ZALMAN; HAM; 
HULDAH; ISAAC; JEREMIAH; JETHRO; 
JUDAH; KALMANOWITZ, ABRAHAM; 
KEFAR HABAD; KIDDUSH; KORAH; 
KOZIENICE, ISRAEL BEN SHABBETAI 
HAPSTEIN; MICHAEL AND GABRIEL; 
MINHAH; MINOR TRACTATES; MIRIAM; 
MITZVAH; MOSES; MOURNING; MUSAF; 
NADAB; NAZIRITE; NEHEMIAH; 
NEW MOON; PARENTS, HONOR OF; 
POLACHEK, SOLOMON; PROFANITY; 
PROSBUL; PUBERTY; RABBAH TOSFAAH; 
RACHEL; RACKMAN, EMANUEL; RASHI; 
RUDERMAN, JACOB ISAAC; RUTH, BOOK 
OF; SABBATICAL YEAR AND JUBILEE; 
SACRIFICE; SAMBATYON; SAMSON; 
SAMUEL; SARAH; SEFER TORAH; 
SEMIKHAH; SHAATNEZ; SHATZKES, 
MOSES; SHIR HA-YIHUD; SICK, VISITING 
THE; SILVER, ELIEZER; SIMHAT TORAH; 
SLOBODKA YESHIVAH; SODOM AND 
GOMORRAH; SOLOMON; SOLOVEICHIK, 
AARON; SOLOVEITCHIK, JOSEPH BAER; 
TABERNACLE; TERAH; TITUS, FLAVIUS 
VESPASIANUS; TOHOROT; TOKHEHAH; 
WALKIN, AARON; WIEDENFELD, 
DOV; WILLOWSKI, JACOB DAVID BEN 
ZE'EV; YIGDAL; ZADDIK; ZEDEKIAH; 
ZERUBBABEL; ZUR MI-SHELLO 

Fritz A. Rothschild, D.H.L., 
Rabbi; Associate Professor of the 
Philosophy of Religion, the Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America, 
New York: heschel, Abraham 

JOSHUA 



Jacob Rothschild, Dr.Phil.; Director 
of the Graduate Library School, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

JACOB, BENNO; JACOBSON, ISRAEL; 
JASTROW; JELLINEK, HERMANN; JOSEPH 
BEN GERSHON OF ROSHEIM; LEHMANN, 
MARCUS; LEIPZIG; LESZNO; LEVI, DAVID; 
LEWY, ISRAEL; LOEWE, HEINRICH; 
LUEBECK; LURIA; POPPERS, JACOB 
BEN BENJAMIN HAKOHEN; SALFELD, 
SIEGMUND; SELIGMANN, CAESAR 

Janice Rothschild Blumberg*, 

B.F.A.; Author, Historian, 
Independent Scholar, Washington, 

D.C.: BROWNE, EDWARD B. M. 

Jean-Pierre Rothschild*, H.D.R.; 
Directeur de recherches au 
C.N.R.S./ Directeur de etudes a 
l'Ecole pratique des hautes etudes, 
Paris, France: revue des etudes 

JUIVES; SEMINAIRE ISRAELITE DE 
FRANCE; SOCIETE DES ETUDES JUIVES; 
TOUATI, CHARLES; VAJDA, GEORGES 

Raphael Rothstein, B.A.; Journalist, 

New York: brustein, Robert 

SANFORD; CANTOR, EDDIE; CLURMAN, 
HAROLD; MOSTEL, ZERO; SHUBERT; 
STRASBERG, LEE 

Gali Rotstein*: axelrod, julius; 

COHEN, MORRIS; HARARI, OVADIAH; 
HEEGER, ALAN; JUDA, WALTER; 
MANDELBROT, BENOIT; TOBIAS, PHILLIP 
VALLENTINE 

Yechezkel Rottenberg, M.Jur.; 
Assistant in Jewish Law, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: unjust 

ENRICHMENT 

Max Jonah Routtenberg, D.H.L., 
Rabbi; Visiting Professor of 
Homiletics, the Jewish Theological 

Seminary of America, New York: 

SIRKES, JOEL 

Robert Rovinsky, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of Germanic Languages, 
University of Texas, Austin: cohn, 

CILLA CYPORA 

Marc Rozelaar, Dr.Phil.; Associate 
Professor of Classical Studies, Tel 
Aviv University: goldmark, karl 

Marsha L. Rozenblit*, B.A., M.A., 
Ph.D.; Harvey M. MeyerhorT 
Professor Jewish History, University 
of Maryland: himmelfarb, Gertrude; 

HISTORIANS; HYMAN, PAULA E.; LEVIN, 
NORA 



Robert Rozette, Researcher 
and Writer, Jerusalem: barbie, 

NIKOLAUS, TRIAL OF; GRAEBE, HERMANN 
FRIEDRICH; HIRSCHMANN, IRA ARTHUR; 
KORCZAK-MARLA, ROZKA; LUTZ, CARL; 
PLOTNICKA, FRUMKA; WDOWINSKI, 
DAVID 

Alfred Rubens, F.S.A., RR.Hist. 
Soc; Historian of Jewish Art and 
Costume, London: dress; heraldry 

Betty R. (Rogers) Rubenstein*, 

Ph.D.; Research Fellow, University 
of Bridgeport, Connecticut: 

AGREST, DIANA; ALSCHULER, ALFRED S.; 
BREUER, MARCEL; BUNSHAFT, GORDON; 
EIZENBERG, JULIE; FREED, JAMES INGO; 
GANDELSONAS. MARIO; GEHRY, FRANK 
OWEN; GORLIN, ALEXANDER; LAPIDUS, 
MORRIS; LERNER, RALPH; LIBESKIND, 
DANIEL; SAITOWITZ, STANLEY; 
SCHWARTZ, FREDERIC; SORKIN, MICHAEL 

Harry Rubenstein*: reed, lou; 

YARROW, PETER 

Joshua Rubenstein*, Northeast 
Regional Director of Amnesty 
International and Associate 
Professor of the Davis Center for 
Russian and Eurasian Studies, 
Harvard University: bonner, elena 

GEORGIEVNA 

Richard L. Rubenstein, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Professor of Religion, Florida 
State University, Tallahassee 

Adam Rubin*, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor, Hebrew Union College, 
Los Angeles 

Jay L. Rubin*, B.A., M.A.; Executive 
Vice President, Hillel International, 
Washington, D.C.: hillel; joel, 

RICHARD M. 

Lawrence Rubin*, Executive Vice 
Chairman (retired), Jewish Council 
for Public Affairs, New York: 

AMERICAN ISRAEL PUBLIC AFFAIRS 
COMMITTEE 

Uri Rubin*, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Arabic and Islamic Studies, Tel Aviv 
University: koran 

Daniel Benito Rubinstein Novick, 

National University of Buenos Aires: 

MENDOZA; SANTA FE 

Avraham Rubinstein, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Jewish History, Bar-Ilan 



144 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



University, Ramat Gan: Abraham 

JOSHUA HESCHEL OF APTA; ARYEH LEIB 
SARAHS; CHABAD; DAVID OF TALNA; 
HASIDISM; HAYYIM BEN SOLOMON TYRER 
OF CZERNOWITZ; HOROWITZ, SAMUEL 
SHMELKE OF NIKOLSBURG; ISRAEL BEN 
ELIEZER BAAL SHEM TOV; JACOB ISAAC 
HA-HOZEH MI-LUBLIN; JACOB JOSEPH OF 
OSTROG; KAZIMIERZ; LEVI ISAAC BEN 
MEIR OF BERDICHEV; LEVIN, MENAHEM 
MENDEL; LVOV; MAHZIKE HADAS; 
MENAHEM MENDEL OF PEREMYSHLANY; 
MODZHITZ; RADZYMIN; TEITELBAUM; 
TWERSKY; WARSAW 

Daniel Rubinstein, B.A.; Journalist, 

Jerusalem: Israel, state of: arab 

POPULATION 

Judah Rubinstein, M.A.; Research 
Associate, Jewish Community 
Federation of Cleveland: baker, 

EDWARD MAX; BENESCH, ALFRED 
ABRAHAM; SHAPIRO, EZRA Z. 

William D. (David) Rubinstein*, 

B.A., Ph.D., Professor of History, 
University of Wales- Aberystwyth, 
England: Abrahams, gerald; 

ABRAHAMS, SIR LIONEL; ABSE, 
DANNIE; ADELAIDE; ALDERMAN, 
GEOFFREY; ALIENS ACT; ALVAREZ, 
ALFRED; AMERY, LEOPOLD CHARLES 
MAURICE STENNETT; APPLE, RAYMOND; 
ASHKANASY, MAURICE; ASSIMILATION; 
AUSTRALIA; BALOGH, THOMAS, BARON; 
BARNETT, JOEL, BARON; BARON, JOSEPH 
ALEXANDER; BART, LIONEL; BATTLE 
OF CABLE STREET; BBAUME, PETER; 
BELL, SIR FRANCIS HENRY DILLON; 
BELOFF, MAX; BERMANT, CHAIM ICYK; 
BLAUBAUM, ELIAS; BLOOM, CLAIRE; BOAS, 
ABRAHAM TOBIAS; BOAS, FREDERICK 
SAMUEL; BOGDANOR, VERNON; 
BOTEACH, SHMUEL; BREVAL, LUCIENNE; 
BRIGHTON; BRITTAN, LEON BARON; 
BRODIE, SIR ISRAEL; BROOK, PETER 
STEPHEN PAUL; CARO, SIR ANTHONY; 
CASS, MOSES HENRY; CASSAB, JUDY; 
CENTRAL BRITISH FUND; CESERANI, 
DAVID; COHEN, BARRY; COHEN, HAROLD; 
COHN, NORMAN; COHN-SHERBOK, 
DAN; COTTON, JACK; COWEN, ZELMAN; 
CURRIE, EDWINA; DANBY, MICHAEL; 
DANGLOW, JACOB; DAVIS, HENRY 
DAVID; DAVIS, SIR ERNEST HYAM; DELL, 
EDMUND; DEUTSCH, ANDRE; DISRAELI, 
BENJAMIN, EARL OF BEACONSFIELD; 
DTSRAELI, ISAAC; DUVEEN; EDELMAN, 
MAURICE; EDEN, SIR ANTHONY, EARL 
OF AVON; EINFELD, SYDNEY; ELIAS, 
NORBERT; ELKAN, BENNO; ELKIN, 
ADOLPHUS PETER; ELLMANN, RICHARD; 
ELTON, SIR GEOFFREY RUDOLPH; 



EPSTEIN, BRIAN; FELDMAN, MARTIN; 
FINESTEIN, ISRAEL; FINK, THEODORE; 
FINLEY, SIR MOSES; FISHMAN, WILLIAM; 
FOX, EMANUEL PHILIPS; FRANKAU; 
GARTNER, LLOYD P.; GAUNSE, JOACHIM; 
GERSHON, KAREN; GIDEON, SAMSON; 
GINGOLD, HERMIONE; GOLDHAR, 
PINCHAS;GOLDSMID-STERN-SALOMONS, 
SIR DAVID LIONEL; GOLOMBEK, HARRY; 
GOMBRICH, SIR ERNST HANS; GOODMAN, 
ARNOLD ABRAHAM, LORD; GOODMAN, 
MARTIN DAVID; GRADE, LEW, BARON; 
GRANT, BARON ALBERT; GREEN, PHILIP; 
GRONER, DOVID YITZCHOK; GROSS, 
JOHN JACOB; GUNSBERG, ISIDOR; 
GUTNICK; HAHN, KURT; HAMBURGER, 
MICHAEL; HAMBURGER, SIR SIDNEY; 
HAMLYN, PAUL, BARON; HARRIS, 
SIR PERCY ALFRED; HART, HERBERT 
LIONEL ADOLPHUS; HATRY, CLARENCE 
CHARLES; HIMMELWEIT, HILDEGARD; 
HOBSBAWM, ERIC JOHN; HOWARD, 
MICHAEL; INSTITUTE OF JEWISH 
AFFAIRS; ISRAEL, JONATHAN; JACKSON, 
BERNARD S.; JACOB, NAOMI ELLINGTON; 
JACOBSON, NATHAN; JAMES, SIDNEY; 
JANNER, BARNETT, LORD; "JEW BILL" 
CONTROVERSY, ENGLAND; JEWISH 
HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF ENGLAND; 
JOEL, SIR ASHER; JOLOWICZ, HERBERT 
FELIX; JOURNALISM; KAGAN, JOSEPH, 
BARON; KALMS, SIR STANLEY, BARON; 
KATZ, DAVID S.; KATZ, DOVID; KAUFMAN, 
SIR GERALD; KAYE, SIR EMMANUEL; 
KISSIN, HARRY, BARON; KOCHAN, LIONEL; 
KOPELOWITZ, LIONEL; KOSMIN, BARRY; 
KOSSOFF, DAVID; KUSHNER, TONY; 
LAKATOS, IMRE; LANDA, ABRAM; LASKI; 
LAWYERS; LEAVIS, QUEENIE DOROTHY; 
LEIBLER, ISI JOSEPH; LEITNER, GOTTLIEB 
WILHEM; LEVENE, SIR PETER, BARON 
LEVENE OF PORTSOKEN; LEVER, HAROLD, 
BARON LEVER OF MANCHESTER; LEVI, 
JOHN SIMON; LEVI, LEONE; LEVIN SMITH, 
SIR ARCHIBALD; LEVIN, BERNARD; LEVY, 
AMY; LEVY, BENN WOLFE; LEVY, MICHAEL 
ABRAHAM, BARON LEVY OF MILL HILL; 
LEWIS, SAMUEL; LIBERMAN, SERGE; 
LINCOLN, TREBITSCH; LIPSON, EPHRAIM; 
LITTMAN, JOSEPH AARON; LOCKSPEISER, 
SIR BEN; LOWY, FRANK; MACCOBY, 
HYAM; MAGNUS; MANCHESTER; 
MANDELSON, PETER; MARRE, SIR ALAN; 
MAXWELL, ROBERT; MAYER, SIR ROBERT; 
MELBOURNE; MICHAELIS, SIR ARCHIE; 
MIESES, JACQUES; MIKARDO, IAN; 
MILIBAND, RALPH; MILLETT, SIR PETER, 
BARON; MISHCON, VICTOR, BARON; 
MOCATTA; MONTAGU; MOONMAN, 
ERIC; MOSER, SIR CLAUDE, BARON; 
MOSHINSKY, ELIJAH; NASSAUER, RUDOLF; 
NEMON, OSCAR; NEWMAN, AUBREY; 
NICHOLAS, EDWARD; NOVE, ALEC; 
OPPE, ADOLPH PAUL; OPPENHEIM, 



SALLY, BARONESS OPPENHEIM-BARNES; 
"SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM; OXFORD; 
PACIFICO, DAVID; PARKER, JOHN; PERTH; 
PHILLIPS, MARION; POLLARD, SIDNEY; 
PORTER, SIR LESLIE; PRATT, RICHARD; 
PRAWER, SIEGBERT; PRINGLE, MIA; 
PROOPS, MARJORIE; PULVERMACHER, 
OSCAR; PULZER, PETER G.J.; PYE, JAEL 
HENRIETTA; RABIN, SAM; RACHMAN, 
PETER; RAJAK, TESSA; RATHBONE, 
ELEANOR; READING, FANNY; REISZ, 
KAREL; REITLINGER, GERALD; RENE, 
ROY; RICARDO, DAVID; RIE, DAME LUCIE; 
RIFKIND, SIR MALCOLM; RODKER, JOHN; 
ROMAIN, JONATHAN A.; RUTLAND, 
SUZANNE; SAATCHI, CHARLES; SACHS, 
ANDREW; SALOMONS, SIR JULIAN 
EMANUEL; SAMUDA, JOSEPH DAGUILAR; 
SAMUEL, HOWARD; SAMUEL, RAPHAEL; 
SAMUEL, SIR SAUL; SAMUEL, WILFRED 
SAMPSON; SAMUELSON, SIR BERNHARD; 
SASSOON, VIDAL; SAVILLE, VICTOR; 
SCHAMA, SIMON; SCHAPIRO, LEONARD; 
SHONFIELD, SIR ANDREW; SHORT, 
RENEE; SHULMAN, MILTON; SIEFF, 
ISRAEL MOSES, BARON; SILKIN, LEWIS, 
FIRST BARON; SINGER, PETER; SLATER, 
OSCAR; SMORGON; SONNTAG, JACOB; 
SOSKICE, SIR FRANK, BARON STOW HILL; 
SOUTHAMPTON; SPEYER, SIR EDGAR; 
SPIELMAN; SRAFFA, PIERO; STERLING, 
SIR JEFFREY; STERN; STERNBERG, SIR 
SIGMUND; STRAUSS, GEORGE RUSSELL, 
BARON; STUDENTS' MOVEMENTS, 
JEWISH; SUGAR, SIR ALAN; SUGERMAN, 
SIR BERNARD; SYDNEY; SYMONDS, SAUL; 
SYMONS, JULIAN; TASMANIA; TAYLOR, SIR 
PETER MURRAY; THATCHER, MARGARET, 
BARONESS; TONNA, CHARLOTTE 
ELIZABETH; TUCK, RAPHAEL; WAGG; 
WALSTON, SIR CHARLES; WARBURG, 
FREDERICK; WARBURG, SIR SIEGMUND; 
WATEN, JUDAH; WERTHEIMER, ASHER; 
WILLIAMS, CHARLES; WILSON, HAROLD,; 
WINSTON, ROBERT, BARON; WISTRICH, 
ROBERT S.; WOLFENSOHN, JAMES D.; 
WOLFF, GUSTAV; WOOLF, LEONARD; 
WOOLF, SIR HARRY, BARON; WYNN, 
SAMUEL; XIMENES, SIR MORRIS; 
YARROW, SIR ALFRED, FIRST BARONET; 
YOUNG, DAVID IVOR, BARON YOUNG 
OF GRAFFHAM; YUDKIN, JOHN; ZEC, 
PHILIP; ZELLICK, GRAHAM; ZUKERTORT, 
JOHANNES 

Walter Ruby*, M.A.; Journalist, 

New York Jewish Week, New York 
Daily News: new york city 

David Rudavsky, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Hebrew Culture and Education, 
Director of the Institute of Hebrew 
Studies, New York University: 

SACHAR, ABRAM LEON 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Marcia R. Rudin, M.A.; Author, 
Lecturer, Expert on religious cults, 
New York 

Arik Rudnitzky*, B.A., M.B.A.; 
Research Assistant, The Moshe 
Dayan Center for Middle Eastern 
and African Studies, Tel Aviv 

University: Israel, state of: arab 

POPULATION 

Bernard G. Rudolph, Historian, 
Syracuse, New York 

Miriam Ruerup (Rurup)*, 

M.A.; Historian, Zentrum fur 
Antisemitismusforschung, 
Technische Universtat Berlin/Simon 
Dubnow Institut, Leipzig, Germany: 

KARTELL JUEDISCHER VERBINDUNGEN; 
KARTELL-CONVENT DER VERBINDUNGEN 
DEUTSCHER STUDENTEN JUEDISCHEN 
GLAUBENS 

Abraham Rutenberg, Engineer; 
Former Director of the Israel 
Electric Company, Haifa 

Danya Ruttenberg *, B.A., M.A.; 
Writer, Rabbinical Student at the 
University of Judaism, Los Angeles: 

BUTLER, JUDITH 

S.J.E.R., see Shorter Jewish 
Encyclopaedia in Russian, Jerusalem 

Haim Saadoun*, Ph.D.; The Dean, 
The Open University of Israel, Tel 

Aviv: ALAWIDS; ALGERIA; BERBERS; FEZ; 
GABES; TUNIS, TUNISIA 

Shalom Sabar*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor, Professor of Jewish Art 
and Folklore, Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: amulet; art 

HISTORIANS AND ART CRITICS; ART: NEW 
DEVELOPMENTS; HERLINGEN, AARON 
WOLFF OF GEWITSCH; ICONOGRAPHY; 
NEW YEAR'S CARDS; SCROLL OF ESTHER; 
SIMHAT TORAH 

• 

Rachel Sabath-Beit Halachmi*, 

M.A.; Rabbi; Faculty Member of the 
Shalom Hartman Institute, Director 
of Lay Leadership Education, 
Hebrew Union College-Jewish 
Institute of Religion, Jerusalem: 

BOROWITZ, EUGENE B. 

Lawrence Sabbath, Art Critic, 
Montreal 

Brad Sabin Hill*, Center for Jewish 
History 



Abram Leon Sachar, Ph.D.; 

Chancellor, Brandeis University, 
Waltham, Massachusetts: glatzer, 

NAHUM NORBERT 

Harry Sacher, M.A.; Attorney, 
writer, and editor, London: sieff, 

ISRAEL MOSES, BARON 

Dov Sadan, Emeritus Professor of 
Yiddish Literature and of Hebrew 
Literature, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: schwadron, Abraham 

Benjamin (Wells) Sadock*, M.A.; 
Graduate Student, Columbia 
University, New York: bernstein, 

IGNATZ; TASHRAK 

Monika Saelemaekers*, M.A.; 
Assistant- Curator, Bibliotheca 
Rosenthaliana, University of 
Amsterdam, The Netherlands: 

BELINFANTE; HERTZVELD-HIJMANS, 
ESTHELLA; JACOBS, ALETTA HENRIETTE; 
NETHERLANDS, THE; SPATH, JOHANN 
PETER 

Angel Saenz-Badillos*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Hebrew Language 
and Literature, Universidad 
Complutense, Madrid, Spain: 

ABRAHAM BEN SOLOMON OF TORRUTIEL; 
ABULAFIA, TODROS BEN JUDAH HA- 
LEVI; AgAN, MOSES DE TARREGA; 
ALEXANDER THE GREAT; ALHADIB, 
ISAAC BEN SOLOMON BEN ZADDIK; 
AL-HARIZI, JUDAH BEN SOLOMON; 
AVIGDOR, ABRAHAM; BONAFED, 
SOLOMON BEN REUBEN; DE PIERA, 
MESHULLAM BEN SOLOMON; DUNASH 
BEN LABRAT; ELEAZAR BEN JACOB HA- 
BAVLI; ELIJAH BEN SHEMAIAH; EZOBI, 
JEHOSEPH BEN HANAN BEN NATHAN; 
HISDAI IBN HISDAI, ABU AL-FADL; IBN 
ALTABBAN, LEVI BEN JACOB; IBN BARZEL, 
JOSEPH; IBN EZRA, ISAAC; IBN GABIROL, 
SOLOMON BEN JUDAH; IBN GHAYYAT; 
IBN KAPRON, ISAAC; IBN MAR SAUL, 
ISAAC BEN LEVI; IBN PAQUDA, DAVID 
BEN ELEAZAR; IBN SAHL, JOSEPH BEN 
JACOB; IBN SASSON, SAMUEL BEN JOSEPH; 
IBN SHUWAYK, ISAAC BEN ISRAEL; IBN 
ZABARA, JOSEPH BEN MEIR; IBN ZAKBEL, 
SOLOMON; IBN ZAKBEL, SOLOMON; 
IMMANUEL OF ROME; INCUNABULA; 
INSTITUTE FOR THE RESEARCH OF 
MEDIEVAL HEBREW POETRY; ISAAC 
BEN ABRAHAM HA-GORNI; ISAAC BEN 
JUDAH HA-SENIRI; JACOB BEN JUDAH; 
JOSEPH BEN TANHUM YERUSHALMI; 
JOSHUA BEN ELIJAH HA-LEVI; JUDAH BEN 
ISAAC IBN SHABBETAI; JUDAH HA-LEVI; 
KALONYMUS BEN KALONYMUS; LETTERS 



AND LETTER WRITERS; MAGIC; MAQAMA; 
MATTATHIAS; PARABLE; PHINEHAS BEN 
JACOB HA-KOHEN; PIYYUT; POETRY; 
SAHULA, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON; SANTOB 
DE CARRION; TRANSLATION AND 
TRANSLATORS; YEHUD1 BEN SHESHET; 
YOM TOV OF JOIGNY; YOSE BEN YOSE 

Shmuel Safrai, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Associate Professor of Jewish 
History, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: allon, gedalya; 

AMORA; AMORAIM; BET HILLEL AND 
BET SHAMMAI; DOSA BEN HARKINAS; 
ELEAZAR BEN ARAKH; ELEAZAR BEN 
AZARIAH; ELEAZAR BEN PEDAT; ELEAZAR 
BEN SHAMMUA; ELEAZAR BEN SIMEON; 
ELEAZAR HA-KAPPAR; ELEAZAR OF 
MODITN; HUNA; HUNA BEN AVIN HA- 
KOHEN; ISAAC; ISAAC BEN AVDIMI; ISAAC 
BEN ELEAZAR; ISHMAEL BEN ELISHA; 
ISHMAEL BEN YOSE BEN HALAFTA; 
ISRAEL, LAND OF: HISTORY; JACOB 
BEN AHA; JACOB BEN IDI; JACOB BEN 
KORSHAI; JEREMIAH BEN ABBA; JOHANAN 
BEN NURI; JOHANAN BEN TORTA; 
JOHANAN HA-SANDELAR; 
JONAH; PILGRIMAGE; SABBATICAL 
YEAR AND JUBILEE; TEMPLE; YOSE BEN 
HALAFTA 

Benjamin Sagalowitz, Dr. Jur.; 
Journalist, Zurich: Switzerland 

Avi Sagi*, Professor, Head Program 
for Hermeneutics; Professor of 
Philosophy, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: akedah; goldman, 

ELIEZER; HARTMAN, DAVID 

David M. Sagiv*, Ph.D.; Researcher, 
Lexicographer (Hebrew- Arabic/ 
Arabic Hebrew), the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: basra 

Rochelle G. Saidel, Ph.D.; Political 
Scientist, Scientific Researcher, 
Center for the Study of Women and 
Gender, University of Sao Paulo, 
Brazil 

David (Yoram) Saks*, M.A.; 
Acting National Director South 
African Jewish Board of Deputies, 
Johannesburg: African Jewish 

CONGRESS.; BULAWAYO; CAPE TOWN; 
CHASKALSON, ARTHUR; EAST LONDON; 
EDUCATION, JEWISH; GOLDSTONE, 
RICHARD JOSEPH; HARRIS, CYRIL 
KITCHENER; JOHANNESBURG; 
JOURNALISM; KASRILS, RONNIE; 
KENTRIDGE, SIR SYDNEY; KIMBERLEY; 
LEON, ANTHONY JAMES; MAURITIUS; 
PRESS; SCHWARZ, HARRY HEINZ; SHILL, 



146 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



LOUIS; SLOVO, JOE; SOUTH AFRICA; 
SUZMAN, HELEN; ZAMBIA; ZIMBABWE 

Ida Kay Saks, M.A.; Gary, Indiana: 

GARY 

Zvi Saliternik, Ph.D.; Ministry of 
Health, Jerusalem: kligler, Israel 

JACOB 

I.M. Salkind, Ph.D.; Scholar, 

London: avigdor, Abraham 

Herman Prins Salomon, Ph.D.; 
Professor of French Literature, 
the State University of New York, 
Albany: racine, jean 

Avrom Saltman, Ph.D., RR.Hist. 
Soc; Professor of History, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: bloch, marc 

Moshe Shraga Samet, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer in Jewish History and in 
Sociology, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: azulai, hayyim Joseph 

DAVID; EMDEN, JACOB; ISHMAEL BEN 
ABRAHAM ISAAC HA-KOHEN; LANDAU, 
EZEKIEL BEN JUDAH; NEO-ORTHODOXY; 
SOFER; SOFER, MOSES 

Meyer Samra, B.A., LL.B., Ph.D.; 
Lawyer, Dept. of Family and 
Community Services (NSW State 
Government), Sydney, Australia: 

AUSTRALIA 

Edwin Samuel, Second Viscount 
Samuel, C.M.G., B.A.; Emeritus 
Senior Lecturer in British 
Institutions, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem; Principal of the Israel 
Institute of Public Administration, 
Jerusalem: agranat, shimon-, 

ALLENBY, EDMUND HENRY HYNMAN, 
VISCOUNT; EBAN, ABBA SOLOMON; 
STORRS, SIR RONALD 

Rinna Samuel, B.A.; Journalist, 

Rehovot, Israel: weisgal, meyer wolf 

Myron Samuelson, Ph.B., LL.B.; 
Burlington, Vermont 

Sheryl Sandberg*, A.B., M.B.A.; 
Vice President, Global Online Sales 
and Operation, Google, Mountain 
View, California: summers, Lawrence 

H. 

Ira E. Sanders, M.A., Rabbi; Little 
Rock, Arkansas 

Samuel Sandmel, Ph.D., D.H.L., 



Rabbi; Professor of Bible and 
Hellenistic Literature, the Hebrew 
Union College-Jewish Institute of 
Religion, Cincinnati: apostle; feigin, 

SAMUEL ISAAC 

Silviu Sanie*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Researcher, Head of the Ancient 
History, Archaeology Institute, Iasi, 
Romania: siret; tirgu-frumos 

David Saperstein*, MHL, JD, 
Rabbi; Director and Counsel, 
Religious Action Center for Reform 
Judaism; Union for Reform Judaism, 
Georgetown University Law Center, 
Washington, DC: vorspan, al 

Susan Sapiro*, M.A.; Research 
Associate, DRG, New York: prayer: 

WOMEN AND PRAYER 

David Saraph, Tel Aviv: ratosh, 

YONATHAN 

Jonathan D. Sarna*, Ph.D.; Joseph 
H. and Belle R. Braun Professor of 
American Jewish History, Brandeis 
University: boston; historiography; 

MARCUS, JACOB RADER 

Nahum M. Sarna, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Biblical Studies, Brandeis 
University, Waltham, Massachusetts: 

AARON; AARONIDES; ABIHU; ABIMELECH; 
ABRAHAM; ACROSTICS; AKEDAH; 
AMRAPHEL; ASENATH; BIBLE; BOAZ; 
CAIN; DATHAN AND ABIRAM; DELILAH; 
ENOCH; GENESIS, BOOK OF; GERSHOM; 
GIDEON; HALLELUJAH; HUR; ICHABOD; 
ISAAC; ITHAMAR; JACOB; JAEL; JAPHETH; 
JEPHTHAH; JETHRO; JOCHEBED; JOSEPH; 
JOTHAM; NADAB; NIMROD; ORPAH; 
OTHNIEL; PATRIARCHS, THE; PSALMS, 
BOOK OF; RACHEL; REBEKAH; SHAMGAR; 
SHEM;ZIPPORAH 

Gustav Saron, LL.B.; General 
Secretary of the South African 
Board of Deputies, Johannesburg: 

BENDER, ALFRED PHILIP; DURBAN; FRAM, 
DAVID; JOHANNESBURG; SOUTH AFRICA 

Jennifer Sartori*, Ph.D.; Academic 
Specialist, Northeastern University, 
Boston: cohen, naomi wiener; davis, 

NATALIE ZEMON 

Louis F. Sas, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Romance Languages, City College 
of the City University of New York: 

GOTTSCHALL, MORTON 

liana Sasson*, M.Sc, Ph.D.; Jewish 



Theological Seminary, New York: 

BIBLE 

Menahem Savidor, Lieutenant 
Colonel (Ret), Israel Defense 
Forces; Former General Manager, 
Israel Railways; Director of the 
Citrus Products Export Board; 
National Chairman, Maccabi Sports 
Organization, Tel Aviv: maccabi 

WORLD UNION; MACCABIAH 

Rohan Saxena, Writer, Researcher; 

Jerusalem: annenberg, Walter h.; 

ASHKENAZY, VLADIMIR DAVIDOVICH; 
ASIMOV, ISAAC; BARR, ROSEANNE; 
BROTHERS, JOYCE; CHAGALL, MARC; 
CHOMSKY, NOAM AVRAM; DERSHOWITZ, 
ALAN M.; DOUGLAS, KIRK; DOUGLAS, 
MICHAEL; DREYFUSS, RICHARD; 
EITAN, RAPHAEL; FAST, HOWARD 
MELVIN; FRIEDMAN, MILTON; GEFFEN, 
DAVID; GINSBERG, ALLEN; GOODMAN, 
PERCIVAL; GREENSPAN, ALAN; GROSS, 
CHAIM; GUR, MORDECAI; HABER, 
WILLIAM; HOFSTADTER, ROBERT; 
IONESCO, EUGENE; JAKOBOVITS, LORD 
IMMANUEL; JHABVALA, RUTH PRAWER; 
JONG, ERICA; KATZENBERG, JEFFREY; 
KING, LARRY; KOCH, EDWARD IRVING; 
KOLLEK, THEODORE; KRAMER, SAMUEL 
NOAH; LEIBOWITZ, YESHAYAHU; LURIA, 
SALVADOR EDWARD; MANDELBROT, 
BENOIT; PATAI, RAPHAEL; PATTERSON, 
DAVID; PICON, MOLLY; PINTER, HAROLD; 
PIPES, RICHARD EDGAR; PREMINGER, 
OTTO LUDWIG; RABB, MAXWELL 
MILTON; RAPHAEL, FREDERIC; SEINFELD, 
JERRY; SONTAG, SUSAN; STERN, ISAAC; 
STREISAND, BARBRA; SZASZ, THOMAS 
STEPHEN; WALTERS, BARBARA; 
WESTHEIMER, RUTH 

John H. Scammon, Th.D.; Emeritus 
Professor of Hebrew and Old 
Testament, Andover Newton 
Theological School, Newton Centre, 
Massachusetts: samuel 

Ann Schwartz Schaechner*, B.A.; 

Retired Nonprofit Executive, El 
Paso, Texas: el paso 

Mordkhe Schaechter, Ph.D.; Jewish 
Teachers' Seminary, New York: 

HARKAVY, ALEXANDER; JOFFE, JUDAH 
ACHILLES; LANDAU, ALFRED; LEIBL, 
DANIEL; LIFSHITS, SHIYE-MORDKHE; 
MARK, YUDEL; SHTIF, NOKHEM; 
WEINREICH, MAX; WEINREICH, URIEL; 
ZARETZKI, ISAAC 

Sara Schafler, M.A.; Educator, 
Lecturer, and Researcher in 



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147 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Genealogy and Jewish Family 
History, Chicago: genealogy 

Abraham Schalit, Dr. Phil.; 
Emeritus Professor History, the 

Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ABSALOM; AGRIPPA II; ALABARCH; 
ALCIMUS; ALEXANDER; ALEXANDER 
BALAS; ALEXANDER LYSIMACHUS; 
ALEXANDER SON OF ARISTOBULUS II; 
ALEXANDER THE GREAT; ALEXANDRA; 
ALEXANDRA; ANDRONICUS SON OF 
MESHULLAM; ANTIGONUS; ANTIGONUS 
II; ANTIPAS, HEROD; ANTIPATER; 
ANTIPATER II or ANTIPAS; APION; 
APOLLONIUS MOLON; ARCHELAUS; 
ARCHON; ARETAS; ARISTOBULUS I; 
ARISTOBULUS II; ARISTOBULUS III; 
ARNONA; ARTAPANUS; ASIA MINOR; 
BAGOHI; BERENICE; BITHYNIA; BOULE; 
CTESIPHON; DELOS; DEMETRIUS I SOTER; 
DEMETRIUS II; DEMETRIUS III EUKARIOS 
THEOS PHILOPATER SOTER; DIODOTUS- 
TRYPHON; DIONYSUS, CULT OF; ELEAZAR 
BEN SIMEON; ELEPHANTINE; EPHESUS; 
HANAMEL; HELENA; HELIODORUS; 
HERODIAS; HEZEKIAH; IZATES II; 
JEREMIAH, EPISTLE OF; JONATHAN BEN 
ANAN; JOSEPHUS FLAVIUS; JOSHUA BEN 
DAMNAI; JUDAH MACCABEE; JUDAH 
THE GALILEAN; JULIAN THE APOSTATE; 
JUSTUS OF TIBERIAS; SATRAP; VESPASIAN, 
TITUS FLAVIUS 

Lazaro Schallman, Director of the 
Library of the Jewish Community 
of Buenos Aires: rosario; sajaroff, 

MIGUEL; YARCHO, NOE 

Isaac Schattner, Dr.Phil.; Emeritus 
Associate Professor of Geography, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ISRAEL, LAND OF: GEOGRAPHICAL 
SURVEY; MAPS OF EREZ ISRAEL 

Josef Schawin ski, Author, Tel Aviv: 

HELLER, BUNIM; MANN, MENDEL 

Cathy Schechter*, B.S.; 
Writer, Consultant, Orchard 
Communication, Inc., Austin Texas: 

AUSTIN 

Joseph B. Schechtman, Dr. Phil.; 
Historian and Former Member 
of the Jewish Agency Executive, 
New York: jabotinsky, vladimir; 

PASMANIK, DANIEL; RAZSVET; 
REVISIONISTS, ZIONIST 

Jeff Scheckner* , Director of Jewish 
Community Relations Council, 
Jewish Federation of Greater 
Middlesex County, South River, 



New Jersey: league for Israel, the 

AMERICAN JEWISH; MIDDLESEX COUNTY, 
NEW JERSEY 

Wolfgang Scheffler, Dr.Phil.; 
Senior Research Fellow in Political 
Science, the University of Sussex 
Centre for Research in Collective 
Psychopathology, London: 

JUDENREIN 

Alexander Scheiber, Dr. Phil., 
Rabbi; Director and Professor of 
the Jewish Theological Seminary 
of Hungary, Budapest: abony; 

ACSADY, IGNAC; AKIVA BEN MENAHEM 
HA-KOHEN OF OFEN; ALBERTI-IRSA; 
BALLAGI, MOR; BANOCZI; BERNSTEIN, 
BELA; BLAU, LUDWIG LAJOS; BRILL, 
AZRIEL; BUECHLER, ALEXANDER; 
DEBRECEN; EISLER, MATYAS; GRUNVALD, 
PHILIP; GYOR; HEVESI, SIMON; 
HIRSCHLER, PAL; HODMEZOVASARHELY; 
HUNGARIAN LITERATURE; IZRAELITA 
MAGYAR IRODALMI TARSULAT; 
KECSKEMET; KECSKEMETI, ARMIN; 
KECSKEMETI, LIPOT; KOHN, SAMUEL; 
LANDESRABBINERSCHULE; LOEW, 
IMMANUEL; LOEW, LEOPOLD; MAKO; 
MARCZALI, HENRIK; OBADIAH, 
THE NORMAN PROSELYTE; POLLAK, 
MIKSA; RICHTMANN, MOZES; SPITZER, 
SOLOMON; SZOLNOK; SZOMBATHELY; 
VENETIANER, LAJOS 

Raymond P. Scheindlin, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Assistant Professor of 
Jewish Studies, McGill University, 
Montreal: marcus, Joseph; 

OBERMANN, JULIAN JOEL 

Samuel Scheps, Ph.D.; Economist, 
Geneva: klatzkin, jacob 

Ben-Zion (Benno) Schereschewsky, 

Dr.Jur.; Judge of the District Court, 
Jerusalem: agunah; apotropos; 

BETROTHAL; BIGAMY AND POLYGAMY; 
CHILD MARRIAGE; CIVIL MARRIAGE; 
CONCUBINE; DIVORCE; DOWRY; EMBRYO; 
FIRSTBORN; HUSBAND AND WIFE; 
KETUBBAH; MAINTENANCE; MAMZER; 
MARRIAGE; MARRIAGE, PROHIBITED; 
MIXED MARRIAGE, INTERMARRIAGE; 
PARENT AND CHILD; RAPE; WIDOW; 
YUHASIN 

Edward W. Schey*: passaic-clifton 

Laura Burd Schiavo*, Ph.D.; 
Director, Museum Programs, 
Jewish Historical Society of Greater 
Washington, D.C.: Washington, 

D.C 



Marvin Schick*: bernstein, zalman 
chaim 

Alvin Irwin Schiff, Ph.D.; Executive 
Vice President, New York Board of 
Jewish Education 

Ellen Schiff*, Ph.D.; Professor 
Emeritus, Massachusetts College 
of Liberal Arts, Massachusetts: 

FRANKEN, ROSE DOROTHY LEWIN 

Fritz Schiff, Dr. Phil.; Curator of 
the Museum of Modern Art, Haifa: 

BEN-ZVI, ZEEV 

Mayer Schiller*, Rabbi; Maggid 
Shiur, Mashgiach Ruhani, Yeshiva 
University High School, New York: 

LAKEWOOD 

Henri Schilli, Chief Rabbi; Lecturer 
in Midrash and Director of the 
Seminaire Israelite de France, Paris: 

SEMINAIRE ISRAELITE DE FRANCE 

Ignacy Yizhak Schiper, Dr. Phil.; 
Lecturer in Jewish Economic 
History, the Institute of Jewish 
Studies, Warsaw: amelander, 

MENAHEM MANN BEN SOLOMON HA- 
LEVI; BRESCH, JUDAH LOEB BEN MOSES 
NAPHTALI; HEDEGARD, OSKAR DAVID 
LEONARD 

Jefim (Hayyim) Schirmann, 

Dr.Phil.; Emeritus Professor of 
Hebrew Literature, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: Abraham 

BEN HILLEL OF FOSTAT; ABRAHAM 
BEN ISAAC; ABRAHAM OF SARTEANO; 
ABULAFIA, TODROS BEN JUDAH HA-LEVI; 
AHIMAAZ BEN PALTIEL; ALBARADANI, 
JOSEPH; BEDERSI, ABRAHAM BEN 
ISAAC; CARMI, ISAIAH HAI BEN 
JOSEPH; CASPI, SAUL; DAR'I, MOSES BEN 
ABRAHAM; DAVID BEN MESHULLAM 
OF SPEYER; DE PIERA, MESHULLAM 
BEN SOLOMON; ELIJAH BEN ELIEZER 
PHILOSOPH HA-YERUSHALMI; ELIJAH 
BEN SHEMAIAH; ELIJAH CHELEBI 
HA-KOHEN OF ANATOLIA; ENSHEIM, 
MOSES; FALKOWITSCH, JOEL BAERISCH; 
FARISSOL, JACOB BEN HAYYIM; FIOGHI, 
FABIANO; GALIPAPA, MAIMON; GALLEGO, 
JOSEPH SHALOM; GAVISON; GERONDI, 
ISAAC BEN JUDAH; HAMON, AARON BEN 
ISAAC; HARIZI, ABU ISAAC ABRAHAM; 
IBN ABITUR, JOSEPH BEN ISAAC; IBN 
AL-TAQANA, MOSES; IBN EZRA, ISAAC; 
IBN HASAN, JEKUTHIEL BEN ISAAC; 
IBN KAPRON, ISAAC; IBN MAR SAUL, 
ISAAC BEN LEVI; IBN PAQUDA, DAVID 
BEN ELEAZAR; IBN SAHL, JOSEPH BEN 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



JACOB; IBN SHUWAYK, ISAAC BEN ISRAEL; 
IBN ZAKBEL, SOLOMON; IBN ZAKBEL, 
SOLOMON; IBN ZUR, JACOB BEN REUBEN; 
INSTITUTE FOR THE RESEARCH OF 
MEDIEVAL HEBREW POETRY; ISAAC BEN 
ABRAHAM HA-GORNI; ISAAC BEN HAYYIM 
BEN ABRAHAM; ISAAC BEN JUDAH; 
ISRAEL BEN JOEL; JACOB BEN JUDAH; 
JACOB BEN NAPHTALI; JOAB THE GREEK; 
JOHANAN BEN JOSHUA HA-KOHEN; 
JOSEPH BAR NISSAN; JOSEPH BEN JACOB; 
JOSEPH BEN SHESHET IBN LATIMI; JOSEPH 
BEN SOLOMON OF CARCASSONNE; 
JOSEPH BEN TANHUM YERUSHALMI; 
JOSHUA; JOSHUA BEN ELIJAH HA-LEVI; 
JOSIPHIAH THE PROSELYTE; JUDAH 
BEN ISAAC IBN SHABBETAI; JUDAH BEN 
MENAHEM OF ROME; KALAI, JOSEPH B. 
JACOB; LEVI, JOSHUA JOSEPH BEN DAVID; 
LUNEL, JACOB DE; MARINI, SHABBETHAI 
HAYYIM; YANNAI; YOSE BEN YOSE 

Abraham Schischa, Letchworth, 

England: bonyhAD; duschinsky, 

JOSEPH ZEVI BEN ISRAEL; EHRENFELD, 
SAMUEL BEN DAVID ZEVI; FRIED, AARON; 
FRIEDLAENDER, SOLOMON JUDAH; 
KAUDER, SAMUEL JUDAH BEN DAVID 

Benjamin Schlesinger, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Social Work, the 
University of Toronto: virgin 

ISLANDS 

Simon S. Schlesinger, Dr.Phil.; 
Rabbi; Scholar and Educator, 
Jerusalem: danzig, Abraham ben 

JEHIEL MICHAL; DEREKH EREZ 

Linda M. Schloff*, Ph.D.; Director 
Jewish Historical Society of the 
Upper Midwest, Minneapolis: 

MINNEAPOLIS-ST. PAUL; MINNESOTA; 
NORTH DAKOTA; SOUTH DAKOTA 

Joachim Senior*, Dr.Phil.Habil.; 
Professor of History, University of 
Southampton, England: gronemann, 

SAMUEL 

Imre Schmelczer, M.A., Rabbi; St. 
Gallen, Switzerland: wellesz, julius 

Usiel Oscar Schmelz, Ph.D.; 
Research Fellow in Contemporary 
Jewry, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: demography; migrations; 

STATISTICS; VITAL STATISTICS 

Menahem Schmelzer, D.H.L.; 
Librarian and Assistant Professor 
of Medieval Hebrew Literature, the 
Jewish Theological Seminary of 
America, New York: amzalak, moses 



BENSABAT; BIBLIOPHILES; EDELMANN, 
RAPHAEL; FREIMANN, ARON; NEMOY, 
LEON; STEINSCHNEIDER, MORITZ; 
TRAVELERS AND EXPLORERS; VEINGER, 
MORDECAI 

Ephraim Schmidt, Antwerp: 

ANTWERP 

Morris M. Schnitzer, B.S., LL.B.; 
Lecturer in Law, Rutgers University, 
New Jersey: forman, phillip; nadab 

Randal F. Schnoor*, Ph.D.; Adjunct 
Professor, York University, Toronto, 
Canada: Joseph, norma baumel; 

LANDSBERG, MICHELE; MIRVISH 

Barbara Schober*, M.A.; Ph.D.; 
University of British Columbia: 

BRITISH COLUMBIA; FRANKLIN, SELIM; 
NATHAN, HENRY; NEMETZ, NATHAN 
THEODORE; RANKIN, HARRY; SHULTZ, 
SAMUEL; VANCOUVER; WOSK 

Christian Schoelzel*, Dr.Phil.; 
Managing Director of Culture and 
More, an Agency for Services in 
Historical Sciences, Munich and 
Berlin, Germany: ballin, albert; 

BONN, MORITZ JULIUS; FUERSTENBERG, 
CARL; MELCHIOR, CARL; RATHENAU, 
EMIL MORITZ; RATHENAU, WALTHER; 
RATHENAU, WALTHER; WARBURG, MAX 
M. 

Myron E. Schoen, Union of 
American Hebrew Congregations, 
New York: klein, edward e. 

Stuart Schoenfeld*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Sociology, Glendon 
College, York University, Canada: 

TORONTO 

William N. Schoenfeld, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Psychology, Queens 
College of the City University of 
New York and Cornell University 
Medical School, New York: kantor, 

JACOB ROBERT; WEISS, ALBERT PAUL 

Kenneth R. Scholberg, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Romance Languages, 
Michigan State University, East 
Lansing: aqan, moses de tarrega; 

ALBORAYCOS; ALEMAN, MATEO; ALVAREZ 
GATO, JUAN; AMADOR DE LOS RIOS, 
JOSE; ARIAS, JOSEPH SEMAH; AUB, MAX; 
BAENA, JUAN ALFONSO DE; BARRIOS, 
DANIEL LEVI DE; BELMONTE; BERNAL; 
BRUSSELS; BUENO; CACERES, FRANCISCO 
DE; CASTRO QUESADA, AMERICO; 
CERVANTES SAAVEDRA, MIGUEL DE; 



CHIRINO; CORREA, ISABEL DE; COTA 
DE MAGUAQUE, RODRIGO DE; CUR1EL; 
DUJOVNE, LEON; ENRIQUEZ BASURTO, 
DIEGO; ENRIQUEZ GOMEZ, ANTONIO; 
ENRIQUEZ, ISABEL; FERNANDES 
VILLAREAL, MANOEL; GODINEZ, FELIPE; 
GOMEZ DE SOSSA, ISAAC; HUARTE DE SAN 
JUAN, JUAN; ISAACS, JORGE; JEWESS OF 
TOLEDO; LARA, ISAAC COHEN DE; LEON, 
LUIS DE; MONTORO, ANTON DE; OLIVER 
Y FULLANA, NICOLAS DE; PENSO DE LA 
VEGA, JOSEPH; PETRUS ALFONSI; PINTO 
DELGADO, JOAO; RIBEIRO, BERNADIM; 
ROJAS, FERNANDO DE; SANTOB DE 
CARRION; SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE 
LITERATURE 

Gershom Scholem, Dr. Phil.; 
Emeritus Professor of Jewish 
Mysticism, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: Abraham ben 

ALEXANDER OF COLOGNE; ABRAHAM 
BEN ELIEZER HA-LEVI; ABRAHAM BEN 
ISAAC OF GRANADA; ABRAHAM BEN 
SIMEON OF WORMS; ACADEMY ON HIGH; 
ADAM BAAL SHEM; ADAM KADMON; 
ANTHROPOMORPHISM; ANTINOMIANISM; 
AYLLON, SOLOMON BEN JACOB; AZILUT; 
AZRIEL OF GERONA; BACHARACH, 
NAPHTALI BEN JACOB ELHANAN; 
BARUCH; BENJAMIN BEN ELIEZER HA- 
KOHEN VITALE OF REGGIO; BENJAMIN, 
WALTER; BLOCH, MATTATHIAS BEN 
BENJAMIN ZE'EV ASHKENAZI; BONAFOUX, 
DANIEL BEN ISRAEL; BOTAREL, MOSES 
BEN ISAAC; BUZAGLO, SHALOM BEN 
MOSES; CARDOZO, ABRAHAM MIGUEL; 
CHIROMANCY; CHOTSH, ZEVI HIRSH 
BEN JERAHMEEL; COMMANDMENTS, 
REASONS FOR; DAVID; DAVID BEN 
ABRAHAM HA-LAVAN; DAVID BEN JUDAH 
HE-HASID; DEMONS, DEMONOLOGY; 
DIBBUK; DOENMEH; EIN-SOF; ELIASHOV, 
SOLOMON BEN HAYYIM; ELIEZER 
FISCHEL BEN ISAAC OF STRZYZOW; 
ESCHATOLOGY; EYBESCHUETZ, 
JONATHAN; FRANK, JACOB, AND THE 
FRANKISTS; GABBAI, MEIR BEN EZEKIEL 
IBN; GEMATRIA; GIKATILLA, JOSEPH BEN 
ABRAHAM; GILGUL; GOD; GOLDBERG, 
OSCAR; GOLEM; GOTTLIEB, EPHRAIM; 
HAYON, NEHEMIAH HIYYA BEN MOSES; 
HAYYAT, JUDAH BEN JACOB; HAYYIM 
BEN ABRAHAM HA-KOHEN; HIRSCHFELD, 
EPHRAIM JOSEPH; ISAAC BEN JACOB 
HA-KOHEN; JACOB BEN JACOB HA- 
KOHEN; JELLINEK, ADOLF; JOEL, DAVID 
HEYMANN; JONAH, MOSES; JOSEPH IBN 
SHRAGA; JOSEPH IBN TABUL; JUDAH 
HASID, HA-LEVI; KABBALAH; KNORR VON 
ROSENROTH, CHRISTIAN; LABI, SIMEON; 
LILITH; LURIA, ISAAC BEN SOLOMON; 
MAGEN DAVID; MALAKH, HAYYIM BEN 
SOLOMON; MEDITATION; METATRON; 



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149 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



MOLITOR, FRANZ JOSEPH; MOSES BEN 
SOLOMON BEN SIMEON OF BURGOS; 
OSTROPOLER, SAMSON BEN PESAH; 
PINHEIRO, MOSES; POPPERS, MEIR BEN 
JUDAH LOEB HA-KOHEN; PRIMO, SAMUEL; 
PROSSNITZ, JUDAH LEIB BEN JACOB 
HOLLESCHAU; PROVIDENCE; QUERIDO, 
JACOB; RAPHAEL; RAZIEL; REDEMPTION; 
REUCHLIN, JOHANNES; ROVIGO, 
ABRAHAM BEN MICHAEL; SAHULA, 
MEIR BEN SOLOMON ABI; SAMAEL; 
SANDALFON; SARUG, ISRAEL; SEFIROT; 
SHABBETAI ZEVI; SHI'UR KOMAH; SOUL, 
IMMORTALITY OF; SPIRA, NATHAN NATA 
BEN SOLOMON; VALLE, MOSES DAVID 
BEN SAMUEL; VIDAS, ELIJAH BEN MOSES 
DE; VITAL, HAYYIM BEN JOSEPH; VITAL, 
SAMUEL BEN HAYYIM; WORLDS, THE 
FOUR; WORMSER, SECKEL; YAKHINI, 
ABRAHAM BEN ELIJAH; YEZIRAH, SEFER; 
YOM KIPPUR KATAN; ZACUTO, MOSES 
BEN MORDECAI; ZOHAR; ZOREF, JOSHUA 
HESHEL BEN JOSEPH 

Julie Schonfeld*, B.A., Rabbi; 
Director of Rabbinic Development, 
The Rabbinical Assembly, New York: 

EILBERG, AMY 

Jeffrey Alan Schooley* , M.A.; 
Research Fellow, Kent State 
University, Ohio 

Julia Schopflin, Researcher, 
Institute of Jewish Affairs, London 

Ismar Schorsch, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Assistant in Jewish History, the 
Jewish Theological Seminary of 
America, New York: guedemann, 
moritz 

Janos A. Schossberger, M.D.; 
Psychiatric Director of Kfar Shaul 
Work Village, Jerusalem: fromm- 

REICHMANN, FRIEDA 

Keith N. Schoville, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of Hebrew and Semitic 
Studies, the University of Wisconsin, 

Madison: shulammite, the ; song of 

SONGS 

Heinz Schreckenberg, Dr. Phil.; 
Department of Classical Antiquity, 
University of Muenster, Westfalen: 

SCHURER, EMIL 

Lynne (Meredith) Schreiber*, 

M.F.A., B.A.; Writer, Author, 
Freelance, Southfield, Michigan: 

SEIGEL, JOSHUA; SILBER, SAUL; 
TELUSHKIN, NISSAN; WINE, SHERWIN; 
ZARCHI, ASHER 



Theodore Schrire, M.A., M.B., 
F.R.C.S., F.R.S.S.Af; Senior Lecturer 
in Surgery, the University of Cape 
Town: amulets, Samaritan 

Michael J. Schudrich*, M.A., Rabbi; 
Chief Rabbi, Jewish Community 
of Poland, Warsaw, Poland: 

ANTISEMITISM; BESSER, CHASKEL O. 

Alan Richard Schulman, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of Ancient 
History, Queens College of the City 
University of New York: akhenaton-, 

AMENOPHIS III; ANTONINUS PIUS; CUSH; 
EGYPT; HELIOPOLIS; HOPHRA; HYKSOS; 
MEMPHIS; MERNEPTAH; MIZRAYIM; 
NECO; NILE; PATHROS; PHARAOH; 
PITHOM; POTIPHAR; POTI-PHERA; 
RAMSES; SETI I; THEBES; ZOAN 

Elias Schulman, Ph.D.; the 
Jewish Teachers' Seminary, New 
York: axelrod, selik; axenfeld, 

ISRAEL; BOVSHOVER, JOSEPH; DIK, 
ISAAC MEIR; ENTIN, JOEL; ERIK, MAX; 
ETTINGER, SOLOMON; FININBERG, 
EZRA; GINZBURG, ISER; GLICK, HIRSH; 
GORIN, BERNARD; HAIMOWITZ, MORRIS 
JONAH; HORONTCHIK, SIMON; HURWITZ, 
CHAIM; IGNATOFF, DAVID; JANOVSKY, 
SAUL JOSEPH; KACZERGINSKY, SZMERKE; 
KALMANOVITCH, ZELIG; KATZENELSON, 
ITZHAK; KHARIK, IZI; KOBRIN, LEON; 
KUSHNIROV, AARON; KVITKO, LEIB; LIBIN, 
Z.; LIESSIN, ABRAHAM; LINETZKY, ISAAC 
JOEL; MARMOR, KALMAN; NUSINOV, 
ISAAC; OLGIN, MOSHE J.; SELIKOVITCH, 
GEORGE; SHUB, DAVID; WARSHAWSKI, 
MARK; WEITER, A.; ZINBERG, ISRAEL 

Iehuda Schuster, Kibbutz Mefalsim: 

NAHAL 

• 

Nachum Schutz-Adler*, M.A.; 
Jewish History, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: Montevideo-, Uruguay 

Paul Schveiger*, Ph.D.; Linguist, 
Retired, Raanana, Israel: alba iulia; 

ARAD; BAIA-MARE; BANAT; BEZIDUL 
NOU; BISTRITA; BRAHAM, RANDOLPH 
LOUIS; BRAS.OV; BUKOVINA; CARMILLY- 
WEINBERGER, MOSHE; CILIBI MOISE; 
CLUJ; DEJ; FAGARAS; GRAUR, ALEXANDRU; 
LUGOJ; MARGHITA; NASAUD; ORADEA; 
PAUKER, ANA; REGHIN; SALONTA; 
SATU-MARE; SEINI; SIBIU; SIGHET; 
TARGU-MURES; TRANSYLVANIA; WALD, 
HENRI 

George Schwab, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of Modern History, City 
College of the City University of 



New York: beersheba; bernays; 

HAUSER, HENRI; MARKUS, LUDWIG; 
PERLBACH, MAX; PRAWER, JOSHUA 

Abraham Schwadron (Sharon), 

Dr. Phil.; Writer and Collector, 
Jerusalem: autographs 

Ernest Schwarcz, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Philosophy, Queens College of 
the City University of New York: 

BERKSON, ISAAC BAER; BONDY, CURT; 
BORGHI, LAMBERTO; BROUDY, HARRY 
SAMUEL; HARTOG, SIR PHILIP JOSEPH; 
KLAPPER, PAUL; NAUMBURG, MARGARET; 
RIVLIN, HARRY N.; RUBINSTEIN, SERGEY 
LEONIDOVICH; SCHEFFLER, ISRAEL 

Moshe Schwarcz, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Philosophy, Bar- 
Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

FORMSTECHER, SOLOMON; KROCHMAL, 
NACHMAN; LAZARUS, MORITZ 

Barry Dov Schwartz, M.H.L., 
Rabbi; Perth Amboy, New Jersey: 

MIDDLESEX COUNTY, NEW JERSEY 

Carmi Schwartz, M.A., M.S.W.; 
Associated Jewish Charities and 
Welfare Fund, Baltimore, Maryland 

Casey (Katherine) Schwartz*, B.A.; 
Student, University of California, 
Los Angeles: chopra, joyce; 

DEMILLE, CECIL B.; EPHRON, NORA; 
FRELENG, ISADOR "FRIZ"; HECKERLING, 
AMY; KATZ, MICKEY; LAMARR, HEDY; 
LANDAU, MARTIN; LANDON, MICHAEL; 
LEACHMAN, CLORIS; LEWIS, SHARI; 
MENKEN, ALAN 

Dov Schwartz*, Professor, Dean, 
Faculty of Humanities, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: abba mari 

BEN MOSES BEN JOSEPH ASTRUC OF 
LUNEL; ABBAS, JUDAH BEN SAMUEL IBN; 
ANTINOMIANISM; ASCETICISM; LEVI BEN 
ABRAHAM BEN HAYYIM; MAIMONIDEAN 
CONTROVERSY; SOLOVEITCHIK, JOSEPH 
BAER; ZARZA, SAMUEL IBN SENEH 

Guri Schwartz*: fossoli 

Laurel Schwartz*, B.A.; Archives 
Curator, Jewish Historical Society 
of San Diego, Archives at San 
Diego State University, San Diego, 
California: san diego 

Marcus Mordecai Schwartz*, M.A., 
Ph.D., Rabbi; Adjunct Instructor 
of Talmud, Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America, New York 



150 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Matthew (B.) Schwartz*, Ph.D.; 
Historian, Wayne State University, 
Southneld, Michigan: david w. 

PETEGORSKY; MOSES, ADOLPH 

Stan (Stanley) Schwartz*, B.B.A.; 
President, Jewish Historical Society 
of San Diego, Archives at San Diego 
State University, California: san 

DIEGO 

Yigal Schwartz*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Head of Hebrew Literature 
Department and Head of 
Heksherim Research Center, Ben- 
Gurion University of the Negev: 

SHAKED, GERSHON 

Jan Schwarz*, Ph.D.; Lecturer, 
University of Chicago: biographies 

AND AUTOBIOGRAPHIES; GLATSTEIN, 
JACOB; ROSENFELD, JONAH 

Johannes Valentin Schwarz*, 

Ph.D., M.A.; Historian, Potsdam 
University, Germany: allgemeine 

ZEITUNG DES JUDENTUMS; BACHER, 
EDUARD; BAUMGARTEN, EMANUEL 
MENDEL; BECKER, JULIUS; BEER, MAX; 
BENEDIKT, MORITZ; BERNHARD, GEORG; 
FEDER, ERNST; MENORAH; NEUZEIT, 
DIE; PHILIPPSON; PHILO VERLAG; 
REUTER, PAUL JULIUS, FREIHERR VON; 
SIMON, HEINRICH; SIMONE, ANDRE; 
SONNEMANN, LEOPOLD; WELT, DIE; 
WOLFF, BERNHARD; WOLFF, THEODOR; 
ZUKUNFT, DIE 

Karl Schwarz, Dr.Phil.; Art 
Historian and Curator of the Tel 
Aviv Museum: antokolski, 

MARK 

Leo W. Schwarz, B.A., Rabbi; 

Author, New York: lowenthal, 

MARVIN 

Simon R. Schwarzfuchs, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Associate Professor of 
Jewish History, Bar-Ilan University, 

Ramat Gan: alliance Israelite 

UNIVERSELLE; ANTWERP; BELGIUM; 
CREMIEUX, ISAAC ADOLPHE; CRUSADES; 
FRANCE; LAUSANNE; LAZARE, BERNARD; 
LUCERNE; LUXEMBOURG; MALESHERBES, 
CHRETIEN GUILLAUME DE LAMOIGNON 
DE; ROTHSCHILD; SPAIN; SWITZERLAND; 
ZURICH 

Steven S. Schwarzschild, D.H.L., 
Rabbi; Professor of Jewish 
Philosophy, Washington University, 
St. Louis, Missouri: atlas, samuel; 

COVETOUSNESS; JUSTICE; NOACHIDE 



LAWS; SLONIMSKY, HENRY; SUFFERING; 
TRUTH 

Eliezer Schweid, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Jewish Philosophy and 
Mysticism, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: ahad ha-am; avinoam, 

REUVEN,; BAVLI, HILLEL; HEINEMANN, 

YIZHAK; TCHERNICHOWSKY, 

SAUL 

Joseph Schweitzer, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Chief Rabbi of Pecs; Professor 
of Jewish History, the Jewish 
Theological Seminary of Hungary, 
Budapest: pecs 

Hanna Scolnicov*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Tel Aviv University: bergmann, felix 

ELIEZER 

Robert B.Y. Scott, Ph.D.; Emeritus 
Professor of Religion, Princeton 

University, New Jersey: balance; 

PARABLE; PROVERBS, BOOK OF; WISDOM; 
WISDOM LITERATURE 

Mel Scult*, Ph.D.; Professor 
Emeritus Brooklyn College, 

C.U.N. Y, New York: kaplan, 

MORDECAI MENAHEM 

Fern Lee Seckbach, M.A., 
C.Phil.; Deputy Editor in Chief, 
Encyclopaedia Judaica, CD-ROM 
Edition: aharonov, yakir; ehrlich, 

SIMHA; EITAN, RAPHAEL; FEINBRUN- 
DOTHAN, NAOMI; FROMAN, IAN; 
GOLDBLUM, NATAN; GVATI, CHAIM; 
KATZ, ELIHU; LEVI, MOSHE; LEVITZKI, 
ALEXANDER; POLLACK, ISRAEL; SPIEGEL, 
NATHAN; TARIF, AMIN; WEISS, MEIR; 
WERSES, SAMUEL; YAVETS, ZVI; YEIVIN, 
ISRAEL 

Francois Secret, Directeur d'Etudes 
a TEcole Pratique des Hautes Etudes 
(Sciences Religieuses), Sorbonne, 
Paris: bonfrere, jaques; giorgio, 

FRANCESCO 

Israel Sedaka, Holon, Israel: medals 

Ariel Segal*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Writer, Historian, International 
Analyst, University of Miami: 

IQUITOS 

Arthur Segal*, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Classical Archaeology, University of 
Haifa: susita or hippos 

Bernard Segal, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Executive Vice President, the United 



Synagogue of America, New York: 

ABBELL, MAXWELL 

Eliezer L. (Lome) Segal*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Religious Studies, 
University of Calgary, Canada: 

BERAKHOT; BIKKURIM; DEMAI 

Jack Segal, D.H.L., Rabbi; Houston, 
Texas: Houston 

Josef Segal, M.A.; Haifa: amasa; 

DOEG; GAD; ISHMAEL; OG; PASHHUR; 
SHALLUM 

Moshe Zevi (Moses Hirsch) Segal, 

M.A.; Emeritus Professor of Bible, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ASTRUC, JEAN; BEN SIRA, SIMEON BEN 
JESUS; BEN SIRA, WISDOM OF; EICHHORN, 
JOHANN GOTTFRIED; GRESSMANN, HUGO 

Ralph Segalman, Ph.D., A.C.S.W.; 
Associate Professor of Sociology, 
San Fernando Valley State College, 
Northridge, California: el paso 

Jonathan (Lee) Seidel*, M.A., 

Ph.D., Rabbi; Adjunct Professor, 
University of Oregon, Eugene, 
Oregon: circumcision 

Oskar Seidlin, Ph.D.; Professor 
of German Literature, Ohio State 
University, Columbus: brahm, otto 

Hillel Seidman, Ph.D.; President 
of the Beth Jacob Teachers* College, 
New York: stein, edmund menahem 

Kalman Seigel, B.So.Sci.; Journalist, 

New York: journalism 

Robert A. Seigel, M.A., Rabbi; 

Chicago: cronbach, Abraham 

Avraham Sela*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in International Relations, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ARAFAT, YASSER; PALESTINE LIBERATION 
ORGANIZATION; PALESTINIAN 
AUTHORITY 

Michoel A. Seligson*, Rabbi; 
Lecturer, Otzer Hachasidim 
Publication House of Lubavitach, 
Yeshiva Oholei Toraah, Seminary 
Bais Rivka, New York: dworkin, 

ZALMAN SHIMON 

Bernard Semmel, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History, the State University 
of New York, Stony Brook: 

MOMIGLIANO, ARNALDO DANTE 



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Nora Seni*, Ph.D.; Maitre de 
Conferences, French Institute on 
Urbanism, University of Paris, 
France: camondo 

Leonardo Senkman*, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer, Latin American Studies 
and Researcher at International 
Center for University Teaching of 
the Jewish Civilization, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: aguinis, 

MARCOS; PECAR, SAMUEL; TIMERMAN, 
JACOBO 

Gertrude C. Serata, M.L.S.; 
Librarian, Honolulu: Hawaii 

Joseph Baruch Sermoneta, Ph.D., 
Dott.in Fil.; Associate Professor of 
Jewish Philosophy and Mysticism; 
Senior Lecturer in Italian Language 
and Literature and in Philosophy, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ANCONA; BACHI, RICCARDO; BACHI, 
ROBERTO; DANTE ALIGHIERI; 
DEBENEDETTI, GIACOMO; DEL MONTE, 
CRESCENZO; HALPHEN, LOUIS; HILLEL 
BEN SAMUEL; ITALIAN LITERATURE; JOHN 
OF CAPUA; JUDEO-ITALIAN; LEVI, DAVID; 
LEVI-PEROTTI, GIUSTINA; MOSES OF 
PALERMO; SULLAM, SARA COPPIO; SVEVO, 
ITALO 

Ronit Seter*, Ph.D.; Adjunct 
Assistant Professor, George 
Washington University, 
Washington, D.C.: Fleischer, 

TSIPPI; SETER, MORDECAI; SHILOAH, 
AMNON 

David Sfard, Ph.D.; Jerusalem: 

COOPERATIVES; POLAND; PRESS; 
SMOLAR, HERSH 

Bezalel Shachar, M.A.; Lecturer 
in Adult Education, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: education, 

JEWISH 

Eliyahu Shadmi, Kibbutz Ma'anit 

Yosef Shadur, Midreshet Sedeh 

Boker: sedeh boker 

Aaron Shaffer, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Assyriology, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

AKKADIAN LANGUAGE; ESARHADDON; 
FINKELSTEIN, JACOB JOEL; HAMMURAPI; 
KRAMER, SAMUEL NOAH 

William Shaffir*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Sociology, McMaster University, 
Hamilton, Canada: Hamilton 



John M. Shaftesley, O.B.E., B.A., 
F.R.S.A.; Editor, London: alkan, 

ALPHONSE; BERNSTEIN, SIDNEY LEWIS, 
BARON; GESTETNER, DAVID; KAHN, 
RICHARD FERDINAND, LORD; LEVY; LEVY, 
SIR ALBERT; SIMON; SPIELMAN; STERN; 
TYPOGRAPHERS 

Natan Shahar*, Ph.D.; Music 
Department, Beit Berl College, 
Israel: alberstein, hava; 

HAZA, OFRA; HIRSH, NURIT; ISRAEL, 
STATE OF: CULTURAL LIFE; MEDINA, 
AVIHU; WILENSKY, MOSHE; ZEHAVI, 
DAVID 

Milton Shain, Ph.D., Associate 
Professor, Department of Hebrew 
and Jewish Studies; Director of 
the Isaac and Jessie Kaplan Centre 
for Jewish Studies and Research, 
University of Cape Town: cape 

TOWN; SOUTH AFRICA 

Gershon Shaked*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Hebrew Literature, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: berkowitz, 

YITZHAK DOV; BRENNER, JOSEPH 
HAYYIM; GROSSMAN, DAVID; HEBREW 
LITERATURE, MODERN; SHAMIR, 
MOSHE; SHOHAM, MATTITYAHU 

MOSHE 

Shaul Shaked*, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Iranian Studies and Comparative 
Religion, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: judeo-persian; zand, 

MICHAEL 

Yuval Shaked*, Director Jewish 
Music Center, Composer, Beth 
Hatefutsoth, Haifa University, 
Kibbutzim College, Tel Aviv: 

LEEF, YINAM; RADZYNSKI, JAN; RAN, 
SHULAMIT; SHERIFF, NOAM; STARER, 
ROBERT 

Aryeh Shalev, Former IDF 
and Israel Ministry of Defense 
Spokesman, Former Governor of 
Judea and Samaria 

Mordechai Shalev, M.A.; Ministry 
for Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: 

MARZOUK, MOSHE; TIDHAR, DAVID 

Levi Shalit, Editor, Johannesburg 

Meir de Shalit, Former Director 
General Ministry of Tourism, Tel 
Aviv 

Abraham Shaliv, M.A.; Director of 
the Center for Industrial Planning, 



Ministry of Commerce and 
Industry, Jerusalem 

Yehudith Shaltiel, Ph.D.; 
Psychologist, Jerusalem: wolberg, 

LEWIS ROBERT 

Alice Shalvi, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Department of English, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem 

Avraham Shapira, Former Editor of 
Shedemot, published by the Kibbutz 
Movement 

Dan (D.Y.) Shapira*, Ph.D.; 
Professor, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: judeo-tat 

liana Shapira, M.A.; Jerusalem: 

MELCHIZEDEK 

Moshe Shapira, B.A.; Research 
Assistant in the Institute for 
Research in the History and 
Culture of Oriental Jewry, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: hebron; 

RUBIO, MORDECAI 

Alexander Shapiro, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Lecturer in Jewish History, the 
University of the Negev, Beersheba: 

MEISSEN; MERGENTHEIM; MOSBACH; 
NIEDERSTETTEN; NORDHAUSEN; 
PADERBORN; ROUSSILLON; SALZBURG; 
SHUM; SPANDAU; TALHEIM; TRIER; 
UEBERLINGEN; WETZLAR; ZUELZ 

Haim Shapiro, Writer and 
Journalist, Jerusalem: Israel, 

STATE OF: RELIGIOUS LIFE AND 
COMMUNITIES 

Harry L. Shapiro, Ph.D.; Emeritus 
Chairman of the Department 
of Anthropology, the American 
Museum of Natural History; 
Professor of Anthropology, 
Columbia University, New York 

Judah J. Shapiro, D.Ed.; Lecturer 
in Jewish History and Sociology, 
School of Jewish Communal 
Service, the Hebrew Union 
College - Jewish Institute of 
Religion, New York 

Leon Shapiro, Lecturer in Russian- 
Jewish History, Rutgers University, 
New Brunswick, New Jersey: 

ABRAMOWITZ, RAPHAEL 

Marc B. Shapiro*, Ph.D.; Weinberg 
Chair in Judaic Studies, University 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



of Scranton, Pennsylvania: ani 

MAAMIN; ATLAS, SAMUEL 

Yosef Shapiro, Writer, Givatayim, 

Israel: joffe, eliezer lipa; shohat, 

ELIEZER 

Andrew Sharf, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of History, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: basil i; 

BYZANTINE EMPIRE; CIRCUS PARTIES; 
CONSTANTINE VII PORPHYROGENITUS; 
CONSTANTINOPLE; DANIEL, VISION 
OF; EPIRUS; HERACLIUS; JUSTINIAN 
I; LEO III; LEO VI; MANUEL I 
COMNENUS; MICHAEL II; MICHAEL VIII 
PALAEOLOGUS; ROMANUS I LECAPENUS; 
SEVERUS 

I. Harold Sharfman, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Los Angeles: illowy, Bernard 

Baila Round Shargel*, D.H.L.; 
Adjunct Assistant Professor, 
Manhattanville College, Purchase, 
New York; The Ratner Center, 
Jewish Theological Seminary, 
Harrison, New York: friedlaender, 

ISRAEL; WESTCHESTER COUNTY 

Rivka Shatz-Uffenheimer, 

Ph.D.; Senior Lecturer in Jewish 
Philosophy and Mysticism, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

HASIDISM 

Ya'akov Shavit, Ph.D.; Historian, 
Author, Senior Lecturer, 
Department of History of the 
Jewish People, Tel Aviv University: 

REVISIONISTS, ZIONIST 

Zohar Shavit*, Ph.D.; Professor 
for Culture Research, Tel Aviv 
University: children's literature 

Rachel (Katznelson) Shazar, B.A.; 
Wife of the President of Israel, 
Writer and Editor, Jerusalem: baron, 

DEVORAH 

Shneur Zalman Shazar, President 
of the State of Israel, Jerusalem: ben- 

ZVI, IZHAK; KATZNELSON, BERL 

Mark Shechner*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of English, University at Buffalo, 
Amherst, New York: rosenfeld, 

ISAAC 

Alan Shefman*, B.A., M.A.; 
Associate, York University, Centre 
for Practical Ethics; Consultant, 
The Edge Quality/Communications 



Consults; City Councillor, Vaughan, 
Canada: b'nai b'rith 

Mort Sheinman*, B.A.; 
Journalism Teacher and Retired 
Newspaperman, New York: 

AUERBACH, BEATRICE FOX; CHAIKIN, 
SOL C; COLE, KENNETH; DREXLER, 
MILLARD S.; ELIAS, ELI; FISHER, 
DONALD; GOODMAN, ANDREW; 
KARAN, DONNA; KIMMEL, SIDNEY; 
KLEIN, ANNE; KLEIN, CALVIN RICHARD; 
KOPELMAN, ARIE LEONARD; LAUREN, 
RALPH; MARCUS, STANLEY; MAZUR, 
JAY; NORELL, NORMAN; ORTENBERG, 
ARTHUR; PERELMAN, RONALD OWEN; 
POMERANTZ, FRED P.; RAYNOR, BRUCE; 
ROSEN, CARL; SAKOWITZ, BERNARD; 
SALTZMAN, MAURICE; SCAASI, ARNOLD; 
SCHRADER, ABE; SCHWARTZ, DAVID; 
SHAW, BENJAMIN; SPANEL, ABRAM 
NATHANIEL; STULBERG, LOUIS; TRAUB, 
MARVIN S.; TRIGERE, PAULINE; VON 
FURSTENBERG, DIANE; WACHNER, LINDA 
JOY; ZUCKERMAN, BEN 

Ben-Zion Shek*, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. 
(University of Toronto); Professor 
Emeritus, Department of French, 
University of Toronto: kattan, naim; 

ROBIN, REGINE 

Matityahu Shelem, Composer, 
Kibbutz Ramat Yohanan: kibbutz 

FESTIVALS 

Richard R Shepard, Journalist, New 

York: buchwald, Nathaniel; buloff, 

JOSEPH; SCHWARTZ, MAURICE 

Rona Sheramy* , Ph.D. Executive 
Director Association for Jewish 
Studies, New York: tec, nechama 

Arnold Sherman, M.A.; Public 
Relations Officer, El Al, Lydda 
Airport: el al 

Charles Bezalel Sherman, Professor 
of Sociology, Yeshiva University and 
the Jewish Teachers' Seminary, New 
York: congress for Jewish culture; 

JEWISH LABOR COMMITTEE; JEWISH 
SOCIALIST VERB AND; WORKMEN'S 
CIRCLE 

Joseph Sherman*, B.A., M.A., 
Ph.D., Dr. Oxford University, 
England: bergelson, david; 

DIK, ISAAC MEIR; SOUTH AFRICAN 
LITERATURE; WOLPE, DAVID E. 

Moshe (D.) Sherman*, Ph.D.; 

Associate Professor, Touro Graduate 



School of Jewish Studies, New 
York: alperstein, avraham eliezer 

BEN YESHAYA; ASH, ABRAHAM JOSEPH; 
BIRNBAUM, PHILIP 

Nancy Sherman*, MFA (Masters in 
Fine Arts); Executive Vice President; 
National Yiddish Book Center; 
Amherst, Massachusetts: national 

YIDDISH BOOK CENTER 

Jerome J. Shestack*, L.L.B.; 
Lawyer; Past President American 
Bar Association, Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania: becker, edward roy 

Murray Shiff, M.S.W.; Executive 
Director (retired), Jewish Federation 
of Greater Seattle 

Margalit Shilo*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: halukkah 

• 

Shmuel Shilo, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Instructor in Jewish Law, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

DINA DE-MALKHUTA DINA; LOAN; 
MAJORITY RULE; ONAAH; ONES; 
SUCCESSION; WILLS 

Amnon Shiloah*, Ph.D.; Professor 
Emeritus of Musicology, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: abu al-fadl 

HASDAY; AFRICA, NORTH: MUSICAL 
TRADITIONS.; AHARON, EZRA; ALEPPO; 
AL-GHARID AL-YAHUDl; AL-MANSUR 
AL-YAHUDI; ARGOV, ZOHAR; ARLEN, 
HAROLD; AVSHALOMOV, JACOB; BABILEE, 
JEAN; BAKKASHAH; BAR, SHLOMO; BAYER, 
BATHYA; BEN, ZEHAVA; BLOCH, ANDRE; 
BORIS, RUTHANNA; BOUZAGLO, DAVID; 
CANTILLATION; CHUJOY, ANATOLE; 
COHEN, SELMA JEAN; COLONNE, 
JULES EDOUARD; DANCE; DAVICO, 
LUJO; DAVID; DAVID, ERNEST; DUQUE, 
SIMON DAVID; EMSHEIMER, ERNST; 
ESPINOSA, EDOUARD; FARABl, ABU 
NASR MUHAMMAD, AL-; FARBER, VIOLA; 
GASKELL, SONJA; GOLDSTEIN, RAYMOND; 
HALPRIN, ANN; HAYDEN, MELISSA; 
IBN ABI AL-SALT; IRAN, MUSICAL 
TRADITION; JACOBSTHAL, GUSTAV; 
JONAS, EMILE; KABBALAH; KATZ, ISRAEL 
J.; KIDD, MICHAEL; KIRSTEIN, LINCOLN; 
KUWEITI, SALAH; LEVY; LEVY, LAZARE; 
LOWINSKY, EDWARD ELIAS; MAQAM; 
MARCEAU, MARCEL; MASLOW, SOPHIE; 
MIZRAHI, ASHER; MURRAY, ARTHUR; 
MUSIC; ORENSTEIN, ARBIE; PANOV, 
VALERY; PLAMENAC, DRAGAN; RINGER, 
ALEXANDER L.; ROBBINS, JEROME; ROSS, 
HERBERT; SILLS, BEVERLY; SIMON, PAUL; 
SPECTOR, JOHANNA; SPIVACKE, HAROLD; 



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STENN, REBECCA; TEMIANKA, HENRI; 
VALABREGA, CESARE; WEINSTOCK, 
HERBERT; WIENER, JEAN 

Bina Shiloah*, B.Ed.; Dance 
Coordinator- Rubin Conservatory of 
Music and Dance, Jerusalem: kraus, 

GERTRUD; LEVI-AGRON, HASSIA; LEVI- 
TANNAI, SARA; SOKOLOW, ANNA 

Zvi Shiloah, B.A.; Journalist, 
Chairman of the Executive of the 
Land of Israel Movement, Tel Aviv: 

GUSH EMUNIM 

Gideon Shimoni, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer, Institute for Contemporary 
Jewry, Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: gandhi, Mohandas 

KARAMCHAND; KALLENBACH, HERMANN 

Yaacov Shimoni, Deputy Director 
General, Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs, Jerusalem: husseini, hAjj 

AMIN AL-; ISRAEL, STATE OF: ARAB 
POPULATION 

Felix Eliezer Shinnar, Dr.Jur.; 
Economist and former Ambassador, 
Tel Aviv: Germany; reparations, 

GERMAN. 

Chone Shmeruk, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Yiddish Literature, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: der 

NISTER; DINESON, JACOB; PURIM-SHPIL; 
SOVETISH HEYMLAND; WIENER, MEIR; 
YIDDISH LITERATURE 

Joshua H. Shmidman, B.A., 
Rabbi; Instructor in Philosophy, 
Yeshiva University; New York: 

HATRED; INSULT; REBUKE AND REPROOF; 
VENGEANCE; ZEKHUT AVOT 

Aryeh Shmuelevitz*, Ph.D.; 
Professor Emeritus, Moshe Dayan 
Center for Middle Eastern and 
African Studies, Tel Aviv University: 

BAYAZID II; BURSA; EMESA; FARHI; KIERA 

Efraim Shmueli, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Philosophy; Adjunct Professor 
of Jewish History and Literature, 
Cleveland State University: 

WOYSLAWSKI, ZEVI 

Herzl Shmueli, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Musicology, Tel Aviv 
University: admon, yedidyah; 

AVIDOM, MENAHEM; BOSCOVITCH, 
ALEXANDER URIYAH 

David Shneer*, Ph.D.; Director 



Center for Judaic Studies, Associate 
Professor of History, University of 
Denver: kharik, izi; markish, peretz 

J. Lee Shneidman, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of History, Adelphi 
University, Garden City, New York: 

ABENVIVES 

Azriel Shochat, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of the History of the 
Jewish People, Haifa University: 

ALAMI, SOLOMON; ELDAD HA-DANI; 
ERGAS, JOSEPH BEN EMANUEL; ESSEN; 
HASKALAH; IBN VERGA, SOLOMON; 
OSNABRUECK; OSTROG 

Joseph Shochetman, B.A.; 
Jerusalem: molcho, solomon 

Debby (Deborah Anne Glaser) 
Shoctor*, B.A., B.J., M.L.I.S.; 
Archivist, The Jewish Archives and 
Historical Society of Edmonton 
and Northern Alberta, Canada: 

EDMONTON 

Baruch Shohetman, M.A.; 

Bibliographer, Jerusalem: eismann, 

MOSES; GLUECKSOHN, MOSHE; SOCIETY 
FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF FULL CIVIL 
RIGHTS FOR THE JEWISH PEOPLE IN 
RUSSIA; UVAROV, SERGEY SEMYONOVICH 

Ana Shomlo-Ninic, M.A.; Writer 
and Critic, Belgrade: samokovlija, 

ISAK; YUGOSLAV LITERATURE 

Shorter Jewish Encyclopaedia 
in Russian, Jerusalem: Crimean 

AFFAIR; DOMALSKY, I.; DONSKOY, 
MARK SEMENOVICH; GEKHT, SEMEN 
GRIGOREVICH; GEORGIA; GERY; GOTS; 
GRULEV, MIKHAIL VLADIMIROVICH; 
GUKOVSKY, GRIGORY ALEKSANDROVICH; 
GUREVICH, MIKHAIL IOSIFOVICH; 
GUSEV, SERGEI IVANOVICH; KALIK, 
MIKHAIL; KANNEGISER, LEONID 
AKIMOVICH; KANOVICH, GRIGORY; 
KAUFMAN, AVRAHAM YOSIFOVICH; 
KIPEN, ALEKSANDR ABRAMOVICH; KNUT, 
DOVID; KOL'TSOV, MIKHAIL; KOMZET; 
KOPYTMAN, MARK RUVIMOVICH; 
KRIMCHAK LANGUAGE; KRIMCHAKS; 
LEONIDOV, LEONID MIRONOVICH; 
LOTMAN, YURI MIKHAILOVICH; LOYTER, 
EFRAIM BARUKHOVICH; MANEVICH, 
LEV YEFIMOVICH; MOUNTAIN JEWS; 
YEVREYSKI KOMISSARIAT; ZELDOVICH, 
YAKOV BORISOVICH; ZEMLYACHKA, 
ROZALIYA SAMOYLOVNA 

Robert Shosteck, M.A.; Curator 
of the B nai B nth Museum, 



Washington, D. C: cohen, Alfred 

MORTON; ELLINGER, MORITZ; SEQUEYRA, 
JOHN DE 

Yehuda Shrenzel, Chess Columnist, 
Tel Aviv: Kasparov, gary 

Yisrael Shrenzel, Chess Columnist, 
Tel Aviv 

Shimon Shtober*, Dr.Phil.; Senior 
Lecturer, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: sambari, Joseph ben 

ISAAC 

Aaron Shub*, M.A.; Rabbinical 
Student, University of Judaism, Los 
Angeles: kogen, david 

Justin (Benjamin) Shubow*, B.A., 
M.A.; J.D. Candidate Yale Law 
School, New Haven, Connecticut: 

SHUBOW, JOSEPH SHALOM 

Malka Hillel Shulewitz, Journalist, 

Jerusalem: Israel, state of: health, 

WELFARE, AND SOCIAL SECURITY 

Joseph I. Shulim, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History, Brooklyn College of the 
City University of New York: gay, 

PETER JACK 

David Shulman*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of India Studies, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: akb ar the 

GREAT 

Nisson E. Shulman, D.H.L., Rabbi; 

Yonkers, New York: slonik, benjamin 

AARON BEN ABRAHAM 

William (L.) Shulman*, Ed.D.; 
President, Association of 
Holocaust Organizations, New 
York: association of holocaust 

ORGANIZATIONS; HOLOCAUST 

Shlomo Shunami, Dip.Lib.; 
Bibliographer and Librarian, the 
Jewish National and University 
Library, Jerusalem: library, Jewish 

NATIONAL AND UNIVERSITY; WORMANN, 
CURT 

Jonathan Shunary, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of Hebrew and Biblical 
Studies, the University of Wisconsin, 
Madison: alphabet, Hebrew 

Nili Shupak, B.A.; Jerusalem: jachin 

AND BOAZ; KOHATH AND KOHATHITES; 
LEAH; OREB AND ZEEB; SHEBNAH; 
SHEMAIAH 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Shifra Shvarts*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor, Chairwoman, Center of 
Health Policy in the Negev, Ben- 
Gurion University of the Negev, 
Beersheva: Israel, state of: health, 

WELFARE, AND SOCIAL SECURITY 

Rafi Siano*: sagalowitz, benjamin 

Albert A. Sicroff, D.dei'U; Professor 
of Romance Languages, Queens 
College of the City University of 
New York: limpieza de sangre 

Moshe Sicron, Ph.D.; Government 
Statistician in the Central Bureau 
of Statistics; Professor, The Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem 

Bjoern (Bjorn) Sieger, M.A., Ph.D. 
Student, Chair of Jewish History 
and Culture, Ludwig- Maximilians - 
Universitat, Munich. Germany: bab, 

JULIUS; BONDY, CURT; BRAHM, OTTO; 
CASTIGLIONI, CAMILLO; CHRISTIAN 
SOCIAL PARTY, GERMAN; CONSERVATIVE 
PARTY, GERMAN; EPPSTEIN, PAUL; ESRA; 
FRANKENBURGER, WOLF; FREDERICK 
I; FRIEDMANN, DESIDER; GELBER, 
NATHAN MICHAEL; GIEHSE, THERESE; 
GRANACH, ALEXANDER; GRUEBER, 
HEINRICH; HEIMWEHR; HERMANN, 
GEORG; HOROVITZ, JOSEF; JOSEPH II; 
KAHLE, PAUL ERNST; KAUFMANN, OSKAR; 
LABAND, PAUL; LADENBURG; LANDAU, 
EUGEN; LANDSBERG, OTTO; LANDSHUT, 
SIEGFRIED; LASKER, EDUARD; LASZLO, 
PHILIP ALEXIUS DE LOMBOS; LAZARUS, 
MORITZ; LEBRECHT, FUERCHTEGOTT; 
LEVI, PAUL; LEVISON, WILHELM; LOEWE, 
LUDWIG and ISIDOR; MARIA THERESA; 
MARKUS, LUDWIG; MAYER, GUSTAV; 
MITTWOCH, EUGEN; PAPPENHEIM, 
BERTHA 

Marcia B. Siegel, B.A.; Dance Critic, 

New York: gaskell, sonja; hayden, 

MELISSA; KAYE, NORA; KIRSTEIN, 
LINCOLN; LEVINSON, ANDRE; LICHINE, 
DAVID; ROBBINS, JEROME; RUBINSTEIN, 
IDA; SAINT-LEON, ARTHUR MICHEL; 
SOKOLOW, ANNA; TAMIRIS, HELEN 

Mark (A.) Sieger, M.A., Ph.D.; Vice 
President, Government Affairs, New 
Century Financial Corporation; 
former Deputy Assistant to the 
President and Liaison to the Jewish 
Community in the Carter White 
House; Adjunct Professor of 
Political Science, Graduate School of 
Political Management, The George 
Washington University: strauss, 

ROBERT SCHWARZ 



Richard (A.) Siegel*, M.A.; 

Executive Director Emeritus, 
National Foundation for Jewish 
Culture, Los Angeles: national 

FOUNDATION FOR JEWISH CULTURE 

Seymour Siegel, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Professor of Theology and of Ethics 
and Rabbinic Thought, the Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America, 
New York: higger, michael; 

IMITATION OF GOD; RESURRECTION; 
WAXMAN, MEYER; WINTER, PAUL 

Sergio Joseph Sierra, M.A., Rabbi; 
Lecturer in Hebrew Language and 
Literature, the University of Turin: 

MARSALA; MESSINA; PALERMO; SICILY; 
SYRACUSE; TRAPANI 

Myra J. Siff, M.A.; Instructor 
in Religion and Bible, Wellesley 
College, Massachusetts: babel, 

TOWER OF; SAMSON; SARAH 

Menahem Binyamin Andrew 

Silberfeld, Ph.D., Rabbi; Librarian, 
Jerusalem 

David Silberklang*, Ph.D.; 
Historian; Editor, Yad Vashem 
Studies; Adjunct Lecturer, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

BAUER, YEHUDA; GUTMAN, ISRAEL 

Lou H. Silberman, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Professor of Jewish Literature and 
Thought, Vanderbilt University, 
Nashville, Tennessee: chosen people; 

COMPASSION; GOD; JOY; SCHOEPS, HANS 
JOACHIM 

Eisig Silberschlag, Ph.D.; President 
and Professor of Hebrew Literature, 
the Hebrew College, Brookline, 
Massachusetts: bernstein, zvi 

HIRSCH; BLANK, SAMUEL LEIB; BRAININ, 
REUBEN; EINHORN, MOSES; EPSTEIN, 
ABRAHAM; EPSTEIN, ABRAHAM; 
FEINSTEIN, MOSES; FRIEDLAND, 
ABRAHAM HYMAN; GERSONI, HENRY; 
GINSBURG, JEKUTHIEL; GINZBURG, 
SIMON; GOLDMAN, MOSES HA-KOHEN; 
GREENWALD, JEKUTHIEL JUDAH; HALKIN, 
SIMON; HEBREW LITERATURE, MODERN; 
IMBER, NAPHTALI HERZ; KABAKOFF, 
JACOB; LEAF, HAYIM; LISITZKY, EPHRAIM 
E.; LOEWISOHN, SOLOMON; MAISELS, 
MOSES HAYYIM; MALACHI, ELIEZER 
RAPHAEL; MARKSON, AARON DAVID; 
MAXIMON, SHALOM DOV BER; MIRSKY, 
SAMUEL KALMAN; PERSKY, DANIEL; 
PREIL, GABRIEL JOSHUA; RAISIN, JACOB 
ZALMAN; RAISIN, MAX; REGELSON, 



ABRAHAM; RESSLER, BENJAMIN; 
RIBALOW, MENACHEM; ROSENBERG, 
ABRAHAM HAYYIM; ROSENFELD, SAMUEL; 
ROSENZWEIG, GERSON; SACKLER, 
HARRY; SCHARFSTEIN, ZEVI; SCHUR, ZEV 
WOLF; SCHUR, ZEV WOLF; SCHWARTZ, 
ABRAHAM SAMUEL; SCHWARZBERG, 
SAMUEL BENJAMIN; SHMUELI, EPHRAIM; 
SHULVASS, MOSES AVIGDOR; SILKINER, 
BENJAMIN NAHUM; SOBEL, JACOB ZEVI; 
SOLODAR, ABRAHAM; TOUROFF, NISSAN; 
TOUROFF, NISSAN; TWERSKY, YOHANAN; 
YINNON, MOSHE 

Jon Silkin, B.A; Poet, Newcastle- 
upon-Tyne, England: abse, dannie; 

FUCHS, ABRAHAM MOSHE; LITVINOFF, 
EMANUEL; ROSENBERG, ISAAC; SASSOON, 
SIEGFRIED LORRAINE 

Daniel Jeremy Silver, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Adjunct Professor of Religion, 
Case Western Reserve University, 
Cleveland: heresy 

David L. Silver, B.A., Rabbi; 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 

Drew Silver*, Freelance Editor, 

New York: beit-hallahmi, benjamin; 

BERCOVITCH, SACVAN; BRUNER, 
JEROME SEYMOUR; DONIGER, WENDY; 
FEYNMAN, RICHARD PHILLIPS; GELL- 
MANN, MURRAY; GOFFMAN, ERVING 
MANUAL; GOULD, STEPHEN JAY; HARRIS, 
MARVIN; HIRSCH, ERIC DONALD, 
JR.; LEWIS, ANTHONY; LOWENSTEIN, 
ALLARD KENNETH; MEYER, MICHAEL 
A.; MILGROM, JACOB; PERLE, RICHARD 
NORMAN; REICH, ROBERT BERNARD; 
REINHARZ, JEHUDA; RENDELL, EDWARD 
GENE; RIVLIN, ALICE M.; SCHEINDLIN, 
RAYMOND P.; SCHIFFMAN, LAWRENCE 
H.; STILLMAN, NORMAN ARTHUR; TIGAY, 
JEFFREY H; WELLSTONE, PAUL; YOUNG, 
JAMES E. 

Jesse Harold Silver, Sports Writer, 
Surfside, Florida: hart, cecil 

M.; HENSHEL, HARRY D.; MENDOZA, 
DANIEL; MOSBACHER, EMIL JR.; MYERS, 
LAWRENCE E.; OLYMPIC GAMES; SEDRAN, 
BARNEY; SOLOMONS, JACK; SPORTS 

Catherine Silverman, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer in History, City College 
of the City University of New York: 

TUCHMAN, BARBARA WERTHEIM 

Godfrey Edmond Silverman, 

M.A.; Jerusalem: British Israelites; 

CHILDREN'S LITERATURE; DU BARTAS, 
GUILLAUME DE SALLUSTE; GALATINUS, 
PIETRO COLUMNA; GENEBRARD, GILBERT; 



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GIUSTINIANI, AGOSTINO; GOLLER, 
IZAK; GUEDALLA, PHILIP; GUIDACERIO, 
AGACIO; HEINE, HEINRICH; HOCHHUTH, 
ROLF; LE BE, GUILLAUME; LE FEVRE DE LA 
BODERIE, GUY; LIGHTFOOT, JOHN; MAES, 
ANDREAS; MERCIER, JEAN; MUENSTER, 
SEBASTIAN; NOLA, ELIJAH BEN MENAHEM 
DA; NOSTRADAMUS; PAGNINI, SANTES; 
PARAF, PIERRE; PAULI, JOHANNES; 
PELLICANUS, CONRAD; PISTORIUS, 
JOHANNES; PLANTAVIT DE LA PAUSE, 
JEAN; PLANTIN, CHRISTOPHE; POCOCKE, 
EDWARD; POSTEL, GUILLAUME; PSALMS, 
BOOK OF; PUBLISHING; RABINOWITZ, 
SAMUEL JACOB; RAFFALOVICH, ISAIAH; 
REUCHLIN, JOHANNES; RICIUS, PAULUS; 
SCALIGER, JOSEPH JUSTUS; SCHICKARD, 
WILHELM; SLOTKI, ISRAEL WOLF; 
SOLA, DE; STUDENTS' MOVEMENTS, 
JEWISH; TREMELLIUS, JOHN IMMANUEL; 
TRITHEMIUS, JOHANNES; TRITHEMIUS, 
JOHANNES; TYNDALE, WILLIAM; 
VELTWYCK, GERARD; VIGENERE, 
BLAISE DE; WAKEFIELD, ROBERT; 
WIDMANSTETTER, JOHANN ALBRECHT; 
WOLF, FRIEDRICH; ZUCKMAYER, CARL 

Lisa Silverman*, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of History, University of 
Wisconsin, Milwaukee: bauer, otto; 

BEDA; BERMANN, RICHARD ARNOLD; 
BRAUNTHAL, JULIUS; DONATH, ADOLPH; 
KRAUS, KARL 

Morris Silverman, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Hartford, Connecticut: hartford; 

KOPPLEMANN, HERMAN PAUL 

Meir Silverstone, LL.B.; Attorney 
and former Director General, 
Ministry of the Interior, Jerusalem 

Jakob Naphtali Hertz Simchoni, 

Dr.Phil.; Encyclopaedia Judaica 
(Germany); Historian, Berlin: 

AARON SAMUEL BEN MOSES SHALOM OF 
KREMENETS; ABBA MARI BEN ELIGDOR; 
ABRAHAM BEN JOSIAH TROKI; ABRAHAM 
BEN JOSIAH YERUSHALMI; ABRAHAM 
BEN JUDAH BEN ABRAHAM; ELIJAH BEN 
AARON BEN MOSES; LUZKI, ABRAHAM 
BEN JOSEPH SOLOMON 

Ernest E. Simke, Honorary 
Consul-General of Israel, Manila, 
Philippines: Philippines 

Erica (B.) Simmons*, Ph.D.; 
Historian, Toronto, Canada: 

HADASSAH, THE WOMEN'S ZIONIST 
ORGANIZATION OF AMERICA; JACOBS, 
ROSE GELL 

Akiba Ernst Simon, Dr. Phil.; 



Emeritus Professor of Education, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

BAECK, LEO 

Aryeh Simon, B.A.; Educator, 
Youth Village, Ben Shemen, Israel: 

LEHMANN, SIEGFRIED 

Isidore Simon, M.D.; Professor of 
the History of Hebrew Medicine, 
Centre Universitaire d'Etudes Juives, 
Paris: Abraham ben solomon of 

SAINT MAXIMIN; ACOSTA, CHRISTOBAL; 
ISAAC BEN TODROS; JOSEPH BEN AHMAD 
IBN HASDAI; NATHAN, MORDECAI 

Michael Simon, Dr.Phil.; Former 
Ambassador, Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs, Jerusalem: flag 

Rachel Simon*, Ph.D.; Princeton 
University, New Jersey: Benghazi-, 

DJERBA; LIBYA; TRIPOLI; WOMAN: 
MODERN PERIOD IN MUSLIM WORLD 

Uriel Simon*, Ph.D.; Professor 
Emeritus of Bible, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: ibn ezra, 

ABRAHAM BEN MEIR; RUDIN, JACOB 
PHILIP 

Perrine Simon-Nahum*: les 

COLLOQUES DES INTELLECTUELS JUIFS 
DE LANGUE FRANCAISE; SIMON, PIERRE; 
TRIGANO, SHMUEL 

David Jacob Simonsen, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Chief Rabbi of Denmark, 
Copenhagen: bible 

Shlomo Simonsohn, Ph.D.; 

Professor of Jewish History, Tel Aviv 
University: mantua; neppi, hananel; 

TRENT; TREVISO; TRIESTE; VERONA 

Uriel Simri, Ed.D.; Former 
Scientific Director of the Wingate 
Institute for Physical Education and 
Sport, Netanyah: sports 

Yuval Sinai*, Ph.D.; Lecturer, 
Netanya Academic College, Israel: 

PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE; WITNESS 

Mendel Singer, Writer, Haifa: 

SCHUSSHEIM, AARON LEIB 

Mo she Singer, Moshav Beit 

Yehoshua: ha-noar ha-ivri-akiba 

Sikander Singh*, Dr.Phil.; Lecturer, 
Heinrich-Heine-Universitat, 
Duesseldorf, Germany: heine, 

HEINRICH 



Nancy Sinkoff*, Associate Professor 
of Jewish Studies and History, 
Rutgers, The State University of New 
Jersey: socialism 

Colette Sirat*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Hebrew Medieval Paleography 
and Philosophy, Ecole Pratique des 
Hautes Etudes, Sorbonne University, 
Paris, France: al-constantini, 

ENOCH BEN SOLOMON; BLUMENKRANZ, 
BERNHARD; JACOB BEN MOSES OF 
BAGNOLS; LEVI BEN ABRAHAM BEN 
HAYYIM; SCHWAB, MOISE; SOCIETE DES 
ETUDES JUIVES; WOGUE, 
LAZARE ELIEZER 

Rene Samuel Sirat*, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Chief Rabbi of the Central 
Consistory and Vice Chairperson of 
the Conference of European Rabbis, 
Paris, France: del medico, henri e.; 

KRASUCKI, HENRI 

Magdalena Sitarz*, German and 
Yiddish Philologist, Institute of 
German Philology, Jagiellonian 
University: asch, sholem 

Harvard Sitkoff, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of American History, 
Washington University, Saint Louis, 

Missouri: javits, jacob koppel 

David Sitton, Chairman of the 
Executive of the Jerusalem Council 
of the Sephardi Community, 
Jerusalem 

Gabriel Sivan, Ph.D.; Author, 
Educator, Former Director, 
Information and Education 
Department, South African Zionist 
Federation, Jerusalem: schonfield, 

HUGH JOSEPH 

Tracy (Ellen) Sivitz*, M.A., M. 
Phil., A.B.; Attorney, New York: 

AMIT; RAKOVSKY, PUAH 

Aaron Skaist, Ph.D., Rabbi; Senior 
Lecturer in Bible and in Semitic 
Languages, Bar-Ilan University, 

Ramat Gan: Mesopotamia 

Gretchen Skidmore*, M.A.; 
Director, Civic and Defense 
Initiatives Education Division, 
United States Holocaust Memorial 
Museum, Washington, D.C.: 

KINDERTRANSPORT 

Deborah Skolnick Einhorn*, 

M.A.; Student, Brandeis University, 



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Waltham, Massachusetts: 

PHILANTHROPY 

Larry Skolnick* : dayton 

Nathan Skolnick, M.A.; Bridgeport, 
Connecticut 

Fred Skolnik*, Editor in Chief, 
Encyclopaedia Judaica Second 
Edition: assimilation; education, 

JEWISH; HAREDIM; HISTORY: MODERN 
TIMES - FROM THE 1880S TO THE EARLY 
21ST CENTURY; ISRAEL, STATE OF: LABOR; 
JEWISH IDENTITY; PEMBER, PHOEBE 
YATES; VILNA; YOSEF, OVADIAH; ZIONIST 
CONGRESSES 

Richard Skolnik, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of History, City College 
of the City University of New 
York: cantor, jacob aaron; 

DICKSTEIN, SAMUEL; FRIEDSAM, 
MICHAEL; GOLDSTEIN, JUDAH JAMISON; 
GOLDWATER, SIGMUND SCHULZ; MOSES, 
ROBERT 

Karl Skorecki*, M.D.; Professor 
of Medicine (Nephrology) and 
Director of Research, Rappaport 
Research Institute, Technion 
- Israel Institute of Technology and 
Rambam Medical Center, Haifa: 

GENETIC ANCESTRY, JEWISH 

Solomon Leon Skoss, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Arabic, Dropsie College 
for Hebrew and Cognate Learning, 
Philadelphia: alfasi, david ben 

ABRAHAM 

Menahem Slae, M.A., Rabbi; 
The Responsa Project, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: halakhic 

PERIODICALS; INSURANCE; RESPONSA 

Martin (E.) Sleeper*, Ed.D.; 
Associate Director, Facing 
History and Ourselves, Brookline, 
Massachusetts: facing history and 

OURSELVES 

Nicolas Slonimsky, Musicologist, 
Los Angeles: Berlin, irving; 

BERNSTEIN, LEONARD; BLITZSTEIN, 
MARC; COPLAND, AARON; DIAMOND, 
DAVID; FOSS, LUKAS; SAMINSKY, LAZARE; 
WEILL, KURT 

Yehuda Slutsky, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in the History of the 
Israel Labor Movement, Tel 
Aviv University: aaronsohn; 

ABKHAZ AUTONOMOUS SOVIET 



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D'; AGURSKY, SAMUEL; AMZALAK, 
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ADOLFOVICH; LEBENSOHN, ABRAHAM 
DOV; LEKHNO, DAVID; LEONTOVICH, 
FEDOR; LEPEL; LERNER, HAYYIM 
ZEVI BEN TODROS; LERNER, JOSEPH 
JUDAH; LETICHEV; LEVIN, EMANUEL; 
LEVIN, JUDAH LEIB; LEVIN, SHMARYA; 
LEVINSOHN, ISAAC BAER; LEVONTIN, 
JEHIEL JOSEPH; LEVONTIN, ZALMAN 
DAVID; LEWIN-EPSTEIN, ELIAHU ZE'EV; 
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LEVI; LISHANSKY, YOSEF; LITHUANIA; 
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ZEVI; MAREK, PESACH; MARGOLIN, 
MOSES; MARGOLIOTH, JUDAH LOEB; 
MARGOLIS-KALVARYSKI, HAIM; MAY 
LAWS,; MAZEH, JACOB; MEDZIBEZH; 
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NILI; NISSELOVICH, LEOPOLD; 
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ORDZHONIKIDZE; OREL; ORSHA; 
OSSOWETZKY, O. YEHOSHUA; OVRUCH; 
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ABRAHAM JACOB; PATTERSON, JOHN 
HENRY; PAVLOGRAD; PAVOLOCH; 
PEREFERKOVICH, NEHEMIAH; PERETZ, 
ABRAHAM; PETLYURA, SIMON; PEVZNER, 
SAMUEL JOSEPH; PIRYATIN; PLEHVE, 
VYACHESLAV KONSTANTINOVICH VON; 
PLUNGIAN, MORDECAI; POBEDONOSTSEV, 
KONSTANTIN PETROVICH; POCHEP; 
PODOLIA; POGREBISHCHENSKI; 
POGROMS; POLONNOYE; POLOTSK; 
POLTAVA; POLYAKOV; POSENER, 
SOLOMON; PRILUKI; PROSKUROV; 
PRYLUCKI, ZEVI HIRSCH; PUBLISHING; 
PUKHACHEWSKY, MICHAEL ZALMAN; 
RAAB, JUDAH; RABBINOWITZ, 
SAUL PHINEHAS; RABINOVICH, 
JOSEPH; RABINOVICH, YEHUDAH 
LEIB; RABINOWITZ, ELIAHU WOLF; 
RADOMYSHL; RALL, YISRAEL; RALL, 
YISRAEL; RAPOPORT; RATNER, YOHANAN; 
RAZSVET; RECHITSA; REICHERSON, 
MOSES; RODKINSON, MICHAEL LEVI; 
ROGACHEV; ROKACH, SHIMON; ROKISKIS; 
ROMM; ROMNY; ROSENBAUM, SEMYON; 
ROSENTHAL, HERMAN; ROSENTHAL, 
LEON; ROSTOV; RUSSIA; SAINT 
PETERSBURG; SAKIAI; SALOMON, JOEL 
MOSES; SAMARKAND; SAPIR, JOSEPH; 
SARATOV; SCHAPIRA, HERMANN; 
SCHEID, ELIE; SCHLESINGER, AKIVA 
JOSEPH; SCHOENHACK, JOSEPH; SCHUB, 
MOSHE DAVID; SCHULMAN, KALMAN; 
SCHULMANN, ELIEZER; SCHWABACHER, 
SIMEON ARYEH; SEDUVA; SEVASTOPOL; 
SHAPIRA, ABRAHAM; SHATZKES, MOSES 
AARON; SHCHEDRIN; SHEFTEL, MIKHAIL; 
SHEINKIN, MENAHEM; SHEPETOVKA; 
SHITRIT, BEHOR SHALOM; SHKLOV; 
SHOCHAT, ISRAEL; SHOCHAT, MANIA 
WILBUSHEWITCH; SHPOLA; SIBERIA; 
SIMFEROPOL; SIMHONI, ASSAF; SIMHONI, 
ASSAF; SKUODAS; SLIOZBERG, HENRY; 
SLONIMSKI, HAYYIM SELIG; SLUCKI, 
ABRAHAM JACOB; SMILANSKY, MOSHE; 
SOCIETY FOR THE PROMOTION OF 
CULTURE AMONG THE JEWS OF 
RUSSIA; SOLIELI, MORDECAI; SOSIS, 
ISRAEL; SPEYER, BENJAMIN; STAMPFER, 
JEHOSHUA; STANISLAVSKY, SIMON JUDAH; 
STEINBERG, JOSHUA; STEINBERG, JUDAH; 
STERN, BEZALEL; STRASHUN, MATHIAS; 
STYBEL, ABRAHAM JOSEPH; SUSSMAN, 
ABRAHAM; SUWALSKI, ISAAK; SUWALSKI, 
ISAAK; SYRKIN, JOSHUA; SYRKIN, MOSES 
NAHUM SOLOMONOVICH; TAMARES, 
AARON SAMUEL; TARNOPOL, JOACHIM 
HAYYIM; TASHKENT; TAURAGE; 
TEITEL, JACOB; TELLER, ISRAEL; 
TELSIAI; TIOMKIN, VLADIMIR; TOMSK; 
TRUMPELDOR, JOSEPH; TUGENDHOLD, 
JACOB; UFA; UKMERGE; UTENA; 
VERKHNEUDINSK; VINNIKOV, ISAAC N.; 
VLADIVOSTOK; VOLOZHINER, ISAAC 
BEN HAYYIM; VOSKHOD; WAY, LEWIS; 



WENGEROFF, PAULINE; WILBUSCHEWITZ; 
WILENSKY, YEHUDAH LEIB NISAN; 
WITTE, SERGEY YULYEVICH, COUNT; 
WLOCLAWEK; YEKOPO; YELLIN; 
YEVSEKTSIYA; ZABLUDOW; Z AG ARE; 
ZAMOSC; ZEDERBAUM, ALEXANDER; 
ZEITLIN, JOSHUA; ZELECHOW; ZITRON, 
SAMUEL LEIB; ZLATOPOLSKY, HILLEL; 
ZUCKERMANN, ELIEZER 

Rudolf Smend, Dr. Hied.; Professor 
of Old Testament, Georg-August- 
Universitat zu Gottingen, Germany: 

DUHM, BERNHARD; EISSFELDT, OTTO; 
GEDDES, ALEXANDER; HOELSCHER, 
GUSTAV; ILGEN, KARL DAVID; JIRKU, 
ANTON; MICHAELIS, JOHANN DAVID; 
RAD, GERHARD VON; REUSS, EDUARD; 
SPINOZA, BARUCH DE; VOLZ, PAUL; 
WELLHAUSEN, JULIUS; ZIMMERLI, 
WALTHER 

Herbert Allen Smith, M.A.; 
Director of the Manpower Planning 
Authority, Jerusalem: Israel, state 

OF: LABOR 

Louanna Smith, Concord, New 
Hampshire 

Mark L. Smith*, M.A.; Graduate 
Student at University of California: 

FISCHEL, ARNOLD; HOROWITZ, PINCHAS 
DAVID HA-LEVI; MARTIN, BERNARD; 
TRUNK, ISAIAH 

Morton Smith, Ph.D., Th.D.; 
Professor of History, Columbia 
University, New York: bickerman, 

ELIAS JOSEPH; GOODENOUGH, ERWIN 
RAMSDELL; MOORE, GEORGE FOOT 

Michal Smoira-Cohn, Ph.Lic; 
Director of Music, the Israel 
Broadcasting Authority, Jerusalem 

Israel Smotricz, Ph.D.; Tel Aviv: 

ENDLICH,QUIRIN 

Norman Henry Snaith, D.D.; 
Former Principal, Wesley College, 
Leeds; Former Lecturer in Hebrew 
and Old Testament, the University 
of Leeds: bible 

Daniel C. Snell*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History, University of Oklahoma: 

BABYLON; ELAM; NUZI 

John M. Snoek, Reverend; Secretary 
of the World Council of Churches' 
Committee on the Church and the 
Jewish People, Geneva: holocaust: 

THE WORLD 



Leonard V. Snowman, M.A., 
M.R.C.P; London: circumcision 

Bernard Zvi Sobel, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Sociology, Haifa 
University 

Israel Soifer, B.A.; Jerusalem: adler, 

ELMER; BLUMENTHAL, JOSEPH; DVIR; 
KNOPF, ALFRED A.; LESLIE, ROBERT L.; 
PUBLISHING; SCHUSTER, MAX LINCOLN 

Alan (M.) Sokobin*, Ph.D., 
J.D., Rabbi; Lecturer in Law and 
Associate Professor of History, 
University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio: 

TOLEDO 

Moshe Zeev Sole, Dr.Phil., Rabbi; 
Chief Secretary of the Rabbinical 
Court, Jerusalem: klatzkin, jacob 

Shmuel Soler, General Federation 
of Labor, Tel Aviv: becker, aharon 

David Solomon, M.A.; Researcher 
in Jewish history, Jerusalem: caesar, 

SEXTUS JULIUS; PHASAEL; POMPEY; 
PROCURATOR; PTOLEMY; PTOLEMY 
MACRON 

Isidor Solomon, Toorak, Victoria, 

Australia: ashkanasy, maurice; 

COWEN, ZELMAN; ISAACS, SIR ISAAC 
ALFRED; LANDA, ABRAM; LAWYERS; 
POLITICS; SALOMONS, SIR JULIAN 
EMANUEL; SOLOMON; STONE, JULIUS 

Jeffrey R. Solomon*, Ph.D.; 
President, The Andrea and Charles 
Bronfman Philanthropies, New 
York: foundations 

Normon Solomon, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Founder-Director of the Centre for 
the Study of Judaism and Jewish/ 
Christian Relations, Birmingham, 
England: conservation; jewish- 

CHRISTIAN RELATIONS 

Avraham Soltes, D.H.L., Rabbi; 

Musicologist, New York: sandler, 

JACOB KOPPEL 

Isaiah Sonne: libraries 

Walter Sorell, M.A.; Associate 
in Dance and Theater History, 
Columbia University, New York: 

GUGLIELMO DA PESARO 

Yaakov Soroker, Jerusalem 
Symphony Orchestra: kopytman, 

MARK RUVIMOVICH 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Arnold Sorsby, M.D., C.B.E., 
F.R.C.S.; Emeritus Research 
Professor of Ophthalmology, 
the Royal College of Surgeons of 
England, London: blindness 

Henry Sosland, M.H.L., Rabbi; New 
City, New York: gruening, ernest 

HENRY 

Edwin N. Soslow, M.A., Rabbi; 
Lecturer in History and Literature, 
the Hebrew Union College School 
of Education, New York: passaic- 

CLIFTON 

Claire Sotnick, B.A.; New York: 

WOLF 

Henry (C.) Soussan*, Ph.D., Rabbi; 

United States: gesellschaft zur 

FOERDERUNG DER WISSENSCHAFT DES 
JUDENTUMS 

Dora Leah Sowden, M.A.; Critic 
and Journalist, Jerusalem: arbatova, 

MIA; BEIT, SIR ALFRED; BENATZKY, 
RALPH; BENEDICT, SIR JULIUS; BERGSON, 
MICHAEL; BERLIJN, ANTON; BRODSKY, 
ADOLF; BRUELL, IGNAZ; BURSTEIN; 
COHEN, FRANCIS LYON; CRANKO, JOHN; 
DAMROSCH; DE PHILIPPE, EDIS; EISLER, 
HANNS; ELMAN, MISCHA; MOISEIWITSCH, 
BENNO; ORDMAN, JEANNETTE; SOUTH 
AFRICAN LITERATURE; TOPOL, 
CHAIM 

Lewis Sowden, M.A.; Writer 
and Journalist, Jerusalem: 

ABRAHAMS, ISRAEL; BARNATO, BARNEY; 
BLOEMFONTEIN; FELDBERG, LEON; 
GREENBERG, LEOPOLD; HENOCHSBERG, 
EDGAR SAMUEL; HERBSTEIN, JOSEPH; 
JOEL, SOLOMON BARNATO; KENTRIDGE, 
MORRIS; KOTTLER, MOSES; LIPSHITZ, 
ISRAEL; LOVELL, LEOPOLD; MERRICK, 
LEONARD; MILLIN, PHILIP; MILLIN, 
SARAH GERTRUDE; MORRIS, HENRY 
HARRIS; MOSENTHAL; OPPENHEIMER, 
SIR ERNEST; ORNSTEIN, ABRAHAM 
FREDERICK; PORT ELIZABETH; PRESS; 
RABINOWITZ, JOEL; RABINOWITZ, 
LOUIS ISAAC; RAMBERT, DAME MARIE; 
SOLOMON; SOUTH WEST AFRICA; STERN, 
IRMA; THEATER; ULLMANN, ERNEST; 
WELENSKY, SIR ROY 

Francesco Spagnolo*, Laurea (in 
Philosophy); Executive Director, 
American Sephardi Federation, New 
York: rivista israelitica 

Barry Spain, Ph.D.; Head of the 
Department of Mathematics, City 



of London Polytechnic: besicovitch, 

ABRAM SAMOILOVITCH; BONDI, SIR 
HERMANN; CANTOR, MORITZ BENEDICT; 
FEJER, LEOPOLD; FUBINI, GUIDO; 
HADAMARD, JACQUES SALOMON; 
HAUSDORFF, FELIX; HURWITZ, ADOLF; 
KARMAN, THEODORE VON; KRONECKER, 
LEOPOLD; LANDAU, EDMUND; LEVI- 
CIVITA, TULLIO; MINKOWSKI, HERMANN; 
MORDELL, LOUIS JOEL; NEUMANN, 
JOHANN LUDWIG VON; NOETHER; 
SCHWARZ, KARL HERMANN AMANDUS; 
SEGRE, CORRADO; SYLVESTER, JAMES 
JOSEPH 

Otto Immanuel Spear, Writer on 
Philosophy, Ramat Gan: asher, 

DAVID; BRUNNER, CONSTANTIN; 
GOLDSCHMIDT, HENRIETTE; GOMPERZ, 
THEODOR; LOEWITH, KARL 

Heike Specht*, Ph.D.; Editor, 
Publishing House Munich, 
Germany: feuchtwanger, lion 

Johanna L. Spector, D.H.S.; 
Professor of Musicology, the Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America, 

New York: yemen 

Shmuel Spector*, M.A.; Historian, 

Jerusalem: abkhaz autonomous 

SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLIC; 
AGURSKY, MIKHAIL; ALEKSANDRIYA; 
ALEKSANDRIYA; ANANYEV; ANTI-FASCIST 
COMMITTEE, JEWISH; ARTEMOVSK; 
ATARI; AXELROD, LUBOV; BAKHCHISARAI; 
BALTA; BAUSKA; BELAYA TSERKOV; BELZ; 
BENDERY; BERDICHEV; BEREGOVO; 
BERESTECHKO; BEREZA; BEREZINO; 
BEREZOVKA; BERSHAD; BIRZAI; BIRZULA; 
BOBROVY KUT; BOBRUISK; BOGUSLAV; 
BORISOV; BOROVOY, SAUL; BOTVINNIK, 
MIKHAIL; BRAILOV; BRASLAV; BRATSLAV; 
BRONSTEIN, DAVID; BYKHOV; 
CHERKASSY; CHERNOBYL; CHUDNOV; 
DAUGAVPILS; DEPUTIES OF THE JEWISH 
PEOPLE; DERAZHNYA; DIMANSTEIN, 
SIMON; DISKIN, CHAIM; DISNA; DIVIN; 
DNEPROPETROVSK; DOKSHITSY; 
DOLGINOVO; DOLINA; DONETSK; 
DRAGUNSKI, DAVID ABRAMOVICH; 
DRUYA; DUBNO; DUBOSSARY; 
DUBROVNO; DYATLOVO; DYMSHYTS, 
VENIAMIN E.; EFRON, ILYA; EHRENBURG, 
ILYA GRIGORYEVICH; ESTHER; ESTONIA; 
EYNIKEYT; FEODOSIYA; FRIEDMAN, 
NAPHTALI; GADYACH; GAISIN; GALICH, 
ALEXANDER ARKADYEVICH; GELFOND, 
ALEXANDER LAZAREVICH; GERSHENZON, 
MIKHAIL OSIPOVICH; GLUSSK; 
GOLOVANEVSK; GOMEL; GORODENKA; 
GORODOK; GORODOK; GRANDE, 
BENZION MOISEEVICH; GROSSMAN, 



LEONID PETROVICH; GROSSMAN, VASILI 
SEMYONOVICH; GUZIK, HANNA; ILYA; 
ISBAKH, ALEXANDER ABRAMOVICH; 
IVANOVO; IVYE; IZMAIL; IZYASLAV; 
JAUNIJELGAVA; JEKABPILS; JELGAVA; 
JOCHELSON, VLADIMIR; JOFFE, 
ADOLPH ABRAMOVICH; KAGANOVICH, 
LAZAR MOISEYEVICH; KALININDORF; 
KALINKOVICHI; KAMENETS-PODOLSKI; 
KAMENEV; KANEV; KARASUBAZAR; 
KAZAN; KAZATIN; KERCH; KHARKOV; 
KHERSON; KHMELNIK; KHOROL; 
KIEV; KIROVOGRAD; KLETS; 
KLINTSY; KOIDANOVO; KOLOMYYA; 
KONOTOP; KORETS; KOROSTEN; 
KORSUN-SHEVCHENKOVSKI; KOVEL; 
KRASLAVA; KRASNODAR; KRASNOYE; 
KREISER, JACOB GRIGORYEVICH; 
KREMENCHUG; KREMENETS; KRICHEV; 
KRIMCHAKS; KRIVOI ROG; KRIVOYE 
OZERO; KRUSTPILS; KURSK; KUTY; 
LACHVA; LETICHEV; LIEPAJA; LIOZNO; 
LIPOVETS; LITIN; LUBNY; LUDZA; LUTSK; 
MAKAROV; MEDZIBEZH; MEKHLIS, 
LEV ZAKHAROVICH; MELITOPOL; 
MEZHIRECH; MOGILEV-PODOLSKI; 
MOLODECHNO; MOSTISKA; MOZYR; 
MSTISLAVL; NOVOZYBKOV; ODESSA; 
OLGOPOL; OLYKA; OREL; ORSHA; 
OVRUCH; PALANGA; PAVLOGRAD; 
PAVOLOCH;PEREYASLAV-KHMELNITSKI; 
POCHEP; RADOMYSHL; RADUN; 
RECHITSA; REZEKNE; ROGACHEV; 
ROMNY; ROSTOV; ROVNO; SARNY; 
SATANOV; SHARGOROD; SHCHEDRIN; 
SHEPETOVKA; SIMFEROPOL 

Charles Samuel Spencer, Art Critic, 

London: Abrahams, ivor; black, sir 

MISHA; BOMBERG, DAVID; CARO, SIR 
ANTHONY; COHEN, BERNARD; COHEN, 
HAROLD; DANIELS, ALFRED; EHRLICH, 
GEORG; FREEDMAN, BARNETT; GERTLER, 
MARK; GLUCK, HANNAH; GORDON, 
WILLY; HALTER, MAREK; HAYDEN, HENRI; 
HERMAN, JOSEF; HILLMAN, DAVID; 
INLANDER, HENRY; KANOVITZ, HOWARD; 
KAY, BARRY; KESTLEMAN, MORRIS; 
KLEIN, YVES; KLINE, FRANZ; KOPPEL, 
HEINZ; KORMIS, FRED; KRAMER, JACOB; 
KREMEGNE, PINCHAS; LE WITT, JAN; 
LEVY-DHURMER, LUCIEN; MINTCHINE, 
ABRAHAM; NEIZVESTNY, ERNST; 
NEWMAN, BARNETT; OYVED, MOYSHE; 
RABIN, OSCAR; RABIN, SAM; ROGERS, 
CLAUDE MAURICE; ROSENBERG, EUGENE; 
ROSENBERG, LAZAR; ROTHENSTEIN, 
MICHAEL; ROTHENSTEIN, SIR WILLIAM; 
SCHOEFFER, NICOLAS; SCHOTTLANDER, 
BERNARD; SCHOTZ, BENNO; SEROV, 
VALENTIN; SONNABEND, YOLANDA; 
STERN, ERNEST; SUTTON, PHILIP; 
TOPOLSKI, FELIKS; WERNER, MICHAEL; 
WILSON, "SCOTTIE; ZVIA 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Daniel Sperber*, Ph.D., F.R.N.S.; 
Senior Lecturer in Talmud, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: angaria; 

APOSTOMOS; ARNONA; BARAITA 
DE-NIDDAH; COINS AND CURRENCY; 
CONFLICT OF OPINION; COSMETICS; 
DEREKH EREZ; GENTILE; HUNYA OF 
BETH-HORON; KOI; MIN; MISHMAROT 
AND MAAMADOT; MONEY CHANGERS; 
NATIONS, THE SEVENTY; OENOMAUS 
OF GADARA; PESIKTA RABBATI; 
SAVORA, SAVORAIM; SIFREI HA-MINIM; 
SYNAGOGUE, THE GREAT; TABI; TANNA, 
TANNAIM; TAX GATHERERS; THEODOSIUS 
OF ROME; TITLES; WEIGHTS AND 
MEASURES 

S. (Shalom) David Sperling*, 

Ph.D.; Rabbi; Professor of Bible, 
Hebrew Union College, New 

York: ABRAHAM; ADRAMMELECH; 
AKHENATON; AMALEKITES; ARARAT; 
ASHIMA; BET-REHOB; BIBLE; BOOK 
OF THE COVENANT; CANAAN, CURSE 
OF; CHRONICLES, BOOK OF; CROWNS, 
DECORATIVE HEADDRESSES, AND 
WREATHS; DAY OF ATONEMENT; 
DEUTERONOMY; DINAH; ECSTASY; 
EHRLICH, ARNOLD BOGUMIL; ELIJAH; 
ELISHA; ENOCH; EPHOD; ETHBAAL; 
EUNUCH; EVE; EWALD, HEINRICH 
GEORG AUGUST; EXODUS, BOOK OF; 
FIRE; FLESH; FLOOD, THE; FRANKFORT, 
HENRI; GAD; GARDEN OF EDEN; GENESIS, 
BOOK OF; GERSHON, GERSHONITES; 
GESHEM, GASHMU; GEVIRTZ, STANLEY; 
GINSBERG, HAROLD LOUIS; GOD, 
NAMES OF; GOLIATH; GORDIS, ROBERT; 
GREENBERG, MOSHE; GRESSMANN, 
HUGO; HABAKKUK; HADAD; HAGAR; 
HAGGAI; HALLO, WILLIAM; HAM; 
HAMAN; HARAN, MENAHEM; HAZAEL; 
HELD, MOSHE; HENGSTENBERG, ERNST 
WILHELM; HEZEKIAH; HISTORIOGRAPHY; 
HISTORY: BEGINNING UNTIL THE 
MONARCHY; HISTORY: KINGDOMS 
OF JUDAH AND ISRAEL; HITTITES; 
HOELSCHER, GUSTAV; HOLINESS CODE; 
HORSE; HOSHEA; HULDAH; HUNTING; 
HUPFELD, HERMANN CHRISTIAN KARL; 
HUR; HYKSOS; IDOLATRY; ILGEN, KARL 
DAVID; ISAAC; JABIN; JACOB BEN HAYYIM 
BEN ISAAC IBN ADONIJAH; JAEL; JAIR; 
JAVAN; JEALOUSY; JEBUS, JEBUSITE; 
JEHOAHAZ; JEHOIADA; JEHOIAKIM; 
JEHOIARIB; JEREMIAH; JEROBOAM; 
JEROBOAM II; JESSE; JETHRO; JEZEBEL; 
JIRKU, ANTON; JOAB; JOASH; JOCHEBED; 
JOEL; JONAH, BOOK OF; JONATHAN; 
JONATHAN BEN UZZIEL; JOSHUA; JOSHUA, 
BOOK OF; JOSIAH; JUDGES, THE BOOK 
OF; KAUFMANN, YEHEZKEL; KENITE; 
KETURAH; KING, KINGSHIP; KINGS, BOOK 
OF; KITTEL, RUDOLF; KORAH; LEPROSY; 



LEVINE, BARUCH; LEVITICUS, BOOK OF; 
LEWY, JULIUS; LION; MALACHI, BOOK 
OF; MALAMAT, ABRAHAM; MANASSEH; 
MARTI, KARL; MAZAR, BENJAMIN; MEDES 
AND MEDIA; MICAH; MIRIAM; MOLOCH, 
CULT OF; MOSES; MOWINCKEL, SIGMUND 
OLAF PLYTT; NAHUM; NEHUSHTAN; 
OBADIAH, BOOK OF; PATRIARCHS, THE; 
PHILISTINES; PHOENICIA, PHOENICIANS; 
PROPHETS AND PROPHECY; RAB- 
SARIS AND RAB-MAG; RAB-SHAKEH; 
RED HEIFER; REPHAIM; REZIN; RUTH, 
BOOK OF; SAMUEL; SARAH; SARNA, 
NAHUM M.; SINAI, MOUNT; SOLOMON; 
SONG OF SONGS; UGARITIC; WORSHIP; 
ZECHARIAH; ZEPHANIAH 

Ezra Spicehandler, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Hebrew Literature 
and Director of Jewish Studies, 
the Hebrew Union College- Jewish 
Institute of Religion, Jerusalem: 

BIALIK, HAYYIM NAHMAN; BROIDO, 
EPHRAIM; GOLDBERG, LEA; GREENBERG, 
URI ZEVI; HEBREW LITERATURE, 
MODERN; RAHEL; SCHORR, JOSHUA 
HESCHEL 

Renato Spiegel, B.A.; Jerusalem: 

SARFATI 

Howard Spier, Ph.D.; Researcher, 
Institute of Jewish Affairs, London: 

ANTISEMITISM 

Samuel (J.) Spinner*, M.A., 

Columbia University, New York: 

DINESON, JACOB; TSUKUNFT 

Judith Spitzer, B.A.; Jerusalem: 

BEERI, TUVIA; BERNSTEIN, MOSHE; 
BROWN, AIKA; FRENKEL, ITZHAK; 
HALEVY, YOSEF; LIFSCHITZ, URI; MOREH, 
MORDECA; NEIMAN, YEHUDAH; WEILL, 
SHRAGA 

Leo Spitzer*, Ph.D.; Kather Tappe 
Vernon Professor of History, 
Dartmouth College, Columbia 
University, New York: Bolivia 

Maurice Moshe Spitzer, Dr.Phil.; 
Publisher, Jerusalem 

Irving T. Spivack, M.A., M.S.; 
Margate, New Jersey 

Leon H. Spotts, Ph.D.; Executive 
Director, Atlanta Bureau of Jewish 
Education, Atlanta, Georgia: ben- 

HORIN, MEIR; BLUMENFIELD, SAMUEL; 
DININ, SAMUEL; DUSHKIN, ALEXANDER 
MORDECHAI; GAMORAN, EMANUEL; 
HONOR, LEO L.; HURWICH, LOUIS; 



KAPLAN, LOUIS LIONEL; SCHOOLMAN, 
BERTHA S. 

Simon Spungin*, Journalist, 
Haaretz, Tel Aviv: simmons, gene 

Leo Srole, Ph.D.; Professor of Social 
Sciences, Columbia College of 
Physicians and Surgeons, New York: 

SICKNESS 

David G. Stahl*, A.B., D.M.D.; Past 
President, N.H. Historical Society, 
Retired, New Hampshire Jewish 
Federation: new Hampshire 

Samuel (M.) Stahl*, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Rabbi Emeritus, Temple Beth-El, 
San Antonio, Texas: san antonio 

Johann Jakob Stamm, Dr.Phil., 
Dr.Theol.; Professor of Old 
Testament Studies and Ancient Near 
Eastern Languages, the University of 
Berne: names 

Shaul Stampfer, Jerusalem: 

RABINOVICH, ISAAC JACOB 

Lena Stanley-Clamp, B.A.; 
Assistant Director, Institute of 
Jewish Affairs, London: Poland 

Astrid Starck (-Adler)*, Dr.Phil.; 
Professor for German and Yiddish, 
Universite de Haute Alsace, France: 

BASMAN BEN-HAYIM, RIVKE; BERINSKI, 
LEV; FELZENBAUM, MICHAEL; MAYSE- 
BUKH; WOOG, MAYER 

Moshe Starkman, Writer, New 

York: demblin, benjamin; kassel, 

DAVID; PINSKI, DAVID; REJZEN, ZALMAN; 
ROSENFELD, JONAH; ROSENFELD, MORRIS; 
SHOMER; SPECTOR, MORDECAI 

Arthur F. Starr*, B.A., G,H. 
L., M.A.H.L.; Rabbi, Hebrew 
Congregation of St. Thomas, Virgin 
Islands: virgin islands 

David Benjamin Starr*, Ph.D.; 
Dean, Hebrew College, Boston: 

HEBREW COLLEGE 

Harry Starr, B.A., LL.B.; 
President of the Lucius N. Littauer 
Foundation, New York: littauer, 

LUCIUS NATHAN 

Barbara Staudinger*, Ph.D.; 
Historian, Institute for the History 
of Jews in Austria, St. Poelter, 
Austria: burgenland; carinthia 



160 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Martina Steer*, Ph.D.; Historian, 

University of Vienna, Austria: badt- 

STRAUSS, BERTHA 

Sidney Steiman, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Affiliate Professor of Religion, the 
Christian Theological Seminary; 
Lecturer in Sociology, Marian 
College, Indianapolis, Indiana: 

INDIANA; INDIANAPOLIS 

Hannah Stein, Executive Director 
of the National Council of Jewish 
Women, New York: national 

COUNCIL OF JEWISH WOMEN 

Israela Stein*, B.A,; Student, 
Assistant Librarian, Hebrew 
University, Jewish National and 
University Library, Department 
of Jewish Music, Jerusalem: aber, 

ADOLF; ABRAHAM, OTTO; ALPERT, 
HERB; APEL, WILLI; APPLEBAUM, LOUIS; 
ATZMON, MOSHE; AVENARY, HANOCH; 
BACHARACH, BURT; BENDIX, VICTOR 
EMANUEL; BERLINSKI, HERMAN; 
BERNSTEIN, LEONARD; BIE, OSCAR; 
BOSCOVITCH, ALEXANDER URIYAH; 
BRAUN, YEHEZKIEL; BROOK, BARRY 
SHELLEY; BUCHWALD, THEO; BURLE 
MARX, WALTER; CASTELNUOVO- 
TEDESCO, MARIO; CHASINS, ABRAHAM; 
CHURGIN, BATHIA; DA-OZ, RAM; DESSAU, 
PAUL; DIAMOND, DAVID; DUSHKIN, 
SAMUEL; EHRLICH, ABEL; ERLANGER, 
CAMILLE; FANO, GUIDO ALBERTO; 
FIEDLER, ARTHUR; FOGELBERG, DAN; 
GEDALGE, ANDRE; GEIRINGER, KARL; 
GILBOA, JACOB; GOULD, MORTON; 
GRAZIANI, YITZHAK; HENDEL, NEHAMA; 
HERRMANN, BERNARD; HERZOG, 
GEORGE; INBAL, ELIAHU; JACOBI, ERWIN 
REUBEN; JACOBI, HANOCH; JACOBS, 
ARTHUR; KIRCHNER, LEON; KRIPS, JOSEF; 
LAKNER, YEHOSHUA; LEAR, EVELYN; 
LEFKOWITZ, DAVID; LERT, ERNST; 
LEVINE, JAMES; LEVY, MARVIN DAVID; 
LIEBERMANN, ROLF; LIST, EMANUEL; 
LONDON, GEORGE; MACHABEY, 
ARMAND; MAJOR, ERVIN; MENDEL, 
ARTHUR; MENDELSSOHN, ARNOLD; 
MEZZROW, MILTON; MIRON, ISSACHAR; 
NATRA, SERGIU; PAULY, ROSA; 
PERGAMENT, MOSES; POPPER, DAVID; 
PORGES, HEINRICH; PREVIN, ANDRE; 
QUELER, EVE; REINER, FRITZ; RESNIK, 
REGINA; RICARDO, DAVID; RIETI, 
VITTORIO; RODAN, MENDI; ROLL, 
MICHAEL; RONLY-RIKLIS, SHALOM; 
ROSENSTOCK, JOSEPH; ROSENTHAL, 
HAROLD; ROSENTHAL, MANUEL; RUDEL, 
JULIUS; RUDOLF, MAX; SADAI, YIZHAK; 
SADIE, STANLEY; SAMUEL, HAROLD; 
SCHULLER, GUNTHER; SCHWARZ, 



RUDOLF; SEGAL, URI; SHALLON, DAVID; 
SHAW, ARTIE 

Judith S. Stein, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of History, City College 
of the City University of New York: 

SCHWIMMER, ROSIKA; STEINGUT 

Leonard J. Stein, M.A.; Barrister 
and Historian, London 

Siegfried Stein, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Hebrew, University College, 
London: moneylending 

Stanley J. Stein, Ph.D.; Professor of 
History, Princeton University, New 
Jersey: nasatir, Abraham phineas 

Jonah C. (Chanan) Steinberg*, 

Ph.D.; Director of Talmudic Studies, 
Rabbinical School of Hebrew 
College, Boston: halivni, david 

WEISS 

Lucien Steinberg, M.A.; Research 
Worker, Centre de Documentation 
Juive Contemporaine, Paris: baum, 

HERBERT; FRANCE; PARIS 

Ronit Steinberg*, Lecturer, 

Jerusalem: agam, yaacov; ardon, 

MORDECAI; ARIKHA, AVIGDOR; AROCH, 
ARIE; BEZALEL; BEZEM, NAFTALI; CASTEL, 
MOSHE; DANZIGER, ITZHAK; FIMA, 
EFRAIM; GERSHUNI, MOSHE; GROSS, 
MICHAEL; GUTMAN, NAHUM; JANCO, 
MARCEL; KADISHMAN, MENASHE; 
KAHANA, AHARON; KARAVAN, DANI; 
KUPFERMAN, MOSHE; LAVIE, RAFFI; 
LITVINOVSKY, PINCHAS; OFEK, 
AVRAHAM; PANN, ABEL; RUBIN, REUVEN; 
SCHATZ, BORIS; SHEMI, YEHIEL; SIMA, 
MIRON; STREICHMAN, YEHEZKEL; 
TAGGER, SIONAH; TEVET, NAHUM; TICHO, 
ANNA; TUMARKIN, IGAEL; ULLMAN, 
MICHA 

Naomi (M.) Steinberger*, M.A., 
M.S.; Director of Library Services, 
Library of the Jewish Theological 
Seminary, New York: libraries 

Meyer R Steinglass, B.A.; New York 

Chanan Steinitz, Dr. Phil.; 
Musicologist, Ramot Hashavim, 
Israel: dukas, paul 

Adin Steinsaltz, Rabbi; Scholar, 

Jerusalem: aaron ben moses ha- 

LEVI OF STAROSIELCE; ABRAHAM DOV 
BAER OF OVRUCH; ABRAHAM GERSHON 
OF KUTOW; APTA, MEIR; ELIEZER BEN 



JACOB HA-LEVI+B261 OF TARNOGROD; 
JACOB SAMSON OF SHEPETOVKA; KALLO, 
YIZHAK ISAAC; KAMENKA, ZEVI HIRSCH 
OF; LAWAT, ABRAHAM DAVID BEN JUDAH 
LEIB; LELOV; MARGOLIOUTH, MEIR OF 
OSTRAHA; MEIR JEHIEL HA-LEVI OF 
OSTROWIEC; ROTH, AARON; YESHIVOT; 
ZHIDACHOV; ZUSYA OF HANIPOLI 

Eleanor Sterling-Oppenheimer, 

Ph.D.; Associate Professor of 
Political Science, J.W. Goethe- 
Universitat, Frankfurt on the Main: 

FRANKFURT ON THE MAIN 

David Stern*, B.A., Ph.D.; Ruth 
Meltzer Professor of Classical 
Hebrew Literature, University of 
Pennsylvania: cohen, Arthur a. 

Ephraim Stern, Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
Archaeology, Tel Aviv University: 

HAMOR; MIRIAM; PHINEHAS; WEIGHTS 
AND MEASURES 

Kenneth (S.) Stern*, A.B., J.D.; 
Specialist on Antisemitism and 
Extremism; Attorney; Author; 
American Jewish Committee, New 
York: holocaust denial 

Malcolm H. Stern, D.H.L., Rabbi; 

New York: bernstein, philip Sidney; 

COHEN, JACOB RAPHAEL; HARBY, ISAAC; 
MINIS; NASSY, DAVID DE ISAAC COHEN; 
SAVANNAH; SHEFTALL; WASHINGTON, 
GEORGE 

Menahem Stern, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Jewish History, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

AGORANOMOS; ALEXANDER 
POLYHISTOR; AMMIANUS MARCELLINUS; 
ANANIAS BEN NEDEBEUS; ANTONIUS 
JULIANUS; ATHENS; CAECILIUS OF 
CALACTE; CALIGULA, CAIUS CAESAR 
AUGUSTUS; CAPITO, MARCUS 
HERENNIUS; CARACALLA, MARCUS 
AURELIUS ANTONINUS; CELSUS; 
CRASSUS, MARCUS LICINIUS; DIASPORA; 
EPICTETUS; FISCUS JUDAICUS; FLACCUS, 
VALERIUS; GREEK LITERATURE, ANCIENT; 
HASMONEANS; HISTORY: EREZ ISRAEL 
- SECOND TEMPLE; HYRCANUS, JOHN; 
JANNES and JAMBRES; JERUSALEM; 
JESHUA; JULIUS CAESAR; MANETHO; 
MATTHIAS BEN THEOPHILUS; NERO; 
NICHOLAS OF DAMASCUS; PLINY THE 
ELDER; POMPEIUS TROGUS; PORPHYRY; 
PRIESTS AND PRIESTHOOD; QUIRINIUS, 
P. SULPICIUS; STRABO; SUETONIUS; 
ZEALOTS AND SICARII; ZENO, PAPYRI OF 

Moshe Stern, Jerusalem: hiddushim 



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Norton B. Stern, O.D.; Editor, 
Venice, California: zellerbach 

Samuel Miklos Stern, D.Phil.; 
Fellow of All Souls College and 
Lecturer in the History of Islamic 
Civilization, the University of 
Oxford: abu al-faraj harun ibn 

AL-FARAJ; BANETH; BORISOV, ANDREY 
YAKOVLEVICH; GERMANY; GOLDENTHAL, 
JACOB 

Walter Stern *: Silverman, morris 

Manny Sternlicht, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Psychology, Yeshiva 
University, New York: ma slow, 

ABRAHAM H. 

Bernard Sternsher, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History, Bowling Green State 
University, Ohio: lilienthal, david 

ELI; NILES, DAVID K. 

Marie Joseph Stiassny, Lic.Th.; 
Ratisbonne Monastery, Jerusalem: 

RATISBONNE BROTHERS 

Guy D. Stiebel*, Archaeologist, 
Institute of Archaeology, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

MASADA 

Ernest Stock, Ph.D.; Lecturer 
in Politics and Director of the 
Jacob Hiatt Institute of Brandeis 
University, Jerusalem: Jewish 
agency 

Silvio Shalom Stoessl, M.D.; Tel 

Aviv: CARINTHIA 

Jeremy Stolow*, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor, McMaster University, 
Hamilton, Canada: artscroll 

Bryan Edward Stone*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of History, Del 
Mar College, Corpus Christi, Texas: 

TEXAS 

Gerald Stone*, M.L.S.; Library and 

Archives, Ottawa, Canada: Ottawa 

Kurt (Franklin) Stone*, B.A., 
M.A.H.L., D.D.; Professor, Florida 
Atlantic University, Boca Raton, 
Florida: ackerman, gary; ansorge, 

MARTIN CHARLES; BACHARACH, ISAAC; 
BEILENSON, ANTHONY CHARLES; 
BERKLEY, ROCHELLE; BERMAN, HOWARD 
LAWRENCE; BOSCHWITZ, RUDOLPH 
ELI; CANTOR, ERIC; CARDIN, BENJAMIN 
LOUIS; CHUDOFF, EARL; COHEN, JOHN 



SANFORD; COHEN, WILLIAM S.; COHEN, 
WILLIAM WOLFE; COPPERSMITH, SAM 

Michael E. Stone, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Jewish Hellenism and 
in Iranian and Armenian Studies, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ABEL-MAUL; ABRAHAM, OTHER BOOKS 
OF; ADAM, OTHER BOOKS OF; AHIKAR, 
BOOK OF; ANTICHRIST; BARUCH, BOOK 
OF; BARUCH, REST OF THE WORDS OF; 
BIBLE; DAMASCUS, BOOK OF COVENANT 
OF; DANIEL, BOOKS OF; ELIJAH, 
APOCALYPSE OF; EZEKIEL, APOCRYPHAL 
BOOKS OF; EZRA, APOCALYPSE OF; 
HABAKKUK, PROPHECY OF; ISAAC, 
TESTAMENT OF; ISAIAH, MARTYRDOM 
OF; JACOB, TESTAMENT OF; LAMECH; 
LAMECH, BOOK OF; NOAH, BOOKS OF; 
OIL OF LIFE; PROPHETS, LIVES OF THE; 
SHADRACH, MESHACH, ABED-NEGO 

Heinrich Strauss, Dr. Phil.; Art 
Historian, Jerusalem: menorah 

Herbert A. Strauss, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of History, City 
College of the City University of 
New York: begin, emile-auguste; 

BLOCH, CAMILLE; BUEDINGER, MAX; 
FRIEDJUNG, HEINRICH; PHILIPPSON; 
PHILIPPSON; PRIBRAM, ALFRED FRANCIS; 
SALOMON, JULIUS 

Lauren B. Strauss*, Ph.D.; 
Independent Scholar and Professor, 
Washington, D.C.: Jewish woman, 

THE; GIKOW, RUTH; HARKAVY, 
MINNA B. 

Arie Strikovsky, Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
Talmud, the Technion, Haifa: red 

HEIFER; SIMONA 

Avrum Stroll, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Philosophy, the University of 
California, San Diego: al-harizi, 

JUDAH BEN SOLOMON; BAR-HILLEL, 
YEHOSHUA; BLACK, MAX; FEIGL, 
HERBERT; GOODMAN, NELSON; 
HART, HERBERT LIONEL ADOLPHUS; 
HOOK, SIDNEY; KAUFMANN, FELIX; 
LAZEROWITZ, MORRIS; NAGEL, ERNEST; 
WAISMANN, FRIEDRICH; WHITE, MORTON 
GABRIEL 

John Strugnell, M.A.; Professor 
of Christian Origins, Harvard 
University: philo or liber 

ANTIQUITATUM BIBLICARUM 

Dirk Jan Struik, Ph.D.; Emeritus 
Professor of Mathematics, 
Massachusetts Institute of 



Technology, Cambridge: kolman, 

ARNOST 

Susan Strul, Writer, Jerusalem: 

ALTER, ROBERT B.; DAWIDOWICZ, LUCY; 
DOCTOROW, EDGAR LAWRENCE; ELKIN, 
STANLEY; FEIFFER, JULES; FRIEDAN, 
BETTY; JONG, ERICA; KAPLAN, JOHANNA; 
OLSEN, TILLIE; SINCLAIR. CLIVE 

Harvey (Joel) Strum*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of History and Political 
Science, Sage College of Albany, 
New York: albany; Schenectady 

Bernard Suler, Dr. Phil.; 
Encyclopaedia Judaica (Germany); 
Berlin: alchemy; averroes; 

BONAFED, SOLOMON BEN REUBEN; 
KASPI, NETHANEL BEN NEHEMIAH; 
KELLERMANN, BENZION; LABI, SOLOMON; 
LEVY, JACOB; MARGARITA, ANTON; 
MARTINI, RAYMOND 

Dror Franck Sullaper*, B.A.; 
Journalist, Kol Israel, French 
Language News Department, 

Jerusalem: abecassis, eliette-, adler, 

ALEXANDRE; AMADO LEVY-VALENSI, 
ELIANE; ARON, RAYMOND; ASHKENAZI, 
LEON; ATLAN, HENRI; ATTALI, BERNARD; 
ATTALI, JACQUES; BACRI, JEAN-PIERRE; 
BADINTER, ELIZABETH; BADINTER, 
ROBERT; BARBARA; BARUK, HENRI; 
BENICHOU, PAUL; BENSOUSSAN, 
GEORGES; BENVENISTE, EMILE; BERL, 
EMMANUEL; BERNHEIM, GILLES; 
BLANCHOT, MAURICE; BOBER, ROBERT; 
BRENNER,FREDERIC; CALLE, SOPHIE; 
CHOURAQUI, ANDRE; CIXOUS, HELENE; 
COPE, JEAN-FRANCOIS; DIDI-HUBERMAN, 
GEORGES; DRAI, RAPHAEL; DRAY, JULIEN; 
ELKABBACH, JEAN-PIERRE; ELKANN, 
JEAN-PAUL; FABIUS, LAURENT; FARHI, 
DANIEL; FARHI, GABRIEL; FINKIELKRAUT, 
ALAIN; GIROUD, FRANCOISE; GRAY, 
MARTIN; GRESH, ALAIN; GRUMBACH, 
ANTOINE; GRUMBERG, JEAN-CLAUDE; 
HALTER, MAREK; IONESCO, EUGENE 

Esther Sulman, New London, 
Connecticut 

Samuel L. Sumberg, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Germanic and Slavic 
Languages, City College of the 
City University of New York: baum, 

VICKI; FULDA, LUDWIG; HOLLAENDER; 
KINGSLEY, SIDNEY; LOTHAR, ERNST; 
LOTHAR, RUDOLF; MOSENTHAL, 
SALOMON HERMANN; ROESSLER, CARL; 
WARFIELD, DAVID 

Frank N. Sundheim, M.A., Rabbi; 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Lecturer in Religion, the University 
of Tampa, Florida: American 

COUNCIL FOR JUDAISM 

Monique Susskind Goldberg*, 

MA., Rabbi; Schechter Institute for 
Jewish Studies, Jerusalem: golinkin, 

DAVID 

Joanna Sussman*, B.A.; University 
of Minnesota, Director of Kar-Ben 
Publishing, Minneapolis: kar-ben/ 

LERNER 

Sara Sviri*, Ph.D.; Distinguished 
Visiting Professor, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: sufism 

Craig Svonkin*, M.A.; Lecturer, 
University of California, Riverside: 

BELLOW, SAUL; BLOOM, HAROLD; 
CHABON, MICHAEL; GINSBERG, ALLEN; 
OZICK, CYNTHIA; STEIN, GERTRUDE; 
TRILLING, LIONEL 

Deborah K. Swanson*: city of hope 

NATIONAL MEDICAL CENTER 

Manfred Eric Swarsensky, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Madison, Wisconsin: 

TWERSKI, JACOB ISRAEL 

Louis J. Swichkow, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Historian, Milwaukee, Wisconsin: 

LEVITAN, SOLOMON; PADWAY, JOSEPH 
ARTHUR; SCHEINFELD, SOLOMON 
ISAAC 

Donald Sylvan*: Jewish education 

SERVICE OF NORTH AMERICA 

Marie Syrkin, M.A.; Emeritus 
Professor of English Literature, 
Brandeis University, Waltham, 
Massachusetts: zuckerman, baruch 

Judith E. Szapor*, Ph.D.; Instructor, 
York University, Toronto, Canada: 

GRAY, HERBERT ESER; JACOBS, SAMUEL 
WILLIAM; KANEE, SOL; STEIN, JANICE 
GROSS 

Yechiel (Sheintukh) Szeintuch*, 

Ph.D.; Professor of Yiddish 
Literature and Language; the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

PERLOV, YITSKHOK; STEIMAN, BEYNUSH; 
STRIGLER, MORDECAI 

Leon Aryeh Szeskin, Ph.D.; 
Director, Department of Economic 
Survey and Advice, Rural Planning 
and Development Authority, Israel 
Ministry of Agriculture, Tel Aviv: 



COOPERATIVES; EGGED; HAMASHBIR 
HAMERKAZI; TNUVA 

David Szonyi, Program Associate, 
Department of Community 
Education, Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America 

Zvi H. Szubin, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of Classical Languages 
and Hebrew, City College of the City 
University of New York: humility; 

MERCY; RIGHTEOUSNESS 

Robert P. Tabak*, Ph.D.; Rabbi.; 
Chaplain, Hospital of the University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia: 

HOSPITALS; LEVINTHAL; PENNSYLVANIA; 
PHILADELPHIA; RECONSTRUCTIONIST 
RABBINICAL COLLEGE; TEUTSCH, DAVID 

Joseph Tabory*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Dean of Libraries, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: afikoman 

Gad Tadmor, M.D.; Savyon, Israel: 

WOOLF, MOSHE 

Hayim Tadmor, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Assyriology, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: cambyses; elaM; 

JEHOAHAZ; JEHOASH; JEHORAM; JOASH; 
LANDSBERGER, BENNO; LEWY, JULIUS 

Emily Taitz*, Ph.D.; Author, 
Historian, Great Neck, New York: 

BACHARACH, EVA; CONAT, ABRAHAM 
BEN SOLOMON; DREYZL, LEAH; ESTERKE; 
FIRZOGERIN; FISHELS, ROIZL OF CRACOW; 
GOLDSCHMIDT, JOHANNA SCHWABE; 
MIRIAM BAT BENAYAH; SARAH OF 
TURNOVO; STERNBERG, SARAH FRANKEL 

Josef Tal, Composer and Senior 
Lecturer in Musicology, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: david, 

FERDINAND; GERSHWIN, GEORGE; 
HALEVY, JACQUES FROMENTAL ELIE; 
HILLER, FERDINAND 

Shlomo Tal, M.A., M.Jur., Rabbi; 
Director of the Ze'ev Gold Institute, 
Jerusalem: cleves get; isserles, moses 

BEN ISRAEL; KATZENELLENBOGEN, MEIR 
BEN ISAAC; LEVIN, ZEVI HIRSCH BEN 
ARYEH LOEB; MINTZ, MOSES BEN ISAAC; 
POLLACK, JACOB BEN JOSEPH; RESPONSA; 
SAMUEL BEN DAVID MOSES HA-LEVI 

Michael Adin Talbar, B.A.; 
Ministry of Commerce and 
Industry, Jerusalem 

Cheryl Tallan*, M.A.; Independent 



Scholar, Toronto, Canada: brandeau, 

ESTHER; HAVA OF MANOSQUE; KANDLEIN 
OF REGENSBURG; LAZA OF FRANKFURT; 
LICORICIA OF WINCHESTER; MERECINA 
OF GERONA; NATHAN, VENGUESSONE 

Frank Talmage, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of Medieval and Modern 
Hebrew, the University of Toronto: 

KIMHI, DAVID; KIMHI, JOSEPH; KIMHI, 
MOSES; NETHANEL BEN AL-FAYYUMI 

Jacob L. Talmon, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Modern History, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: namier, sir 

LEWIS 

David Tamar, Ph.D.; Lecturer in 
Jewish History, Haifa University: 

CARO, JOSEPH BEN EPHRAIM; EPSTEIN, 
MOSES MORDECAI; GALANTE, ABRAHAM 
BEN MORDECAI; GALANTE, MOSES 
BEN JONATHAN; GALANTE, MOSES 
BEN MORDECAI; GALLICO, ELISHA BEN 
GABRIEL; GEDALIAH HA-LEVI; GERSHON, 
ISAAC; GRUENHUT, DAVID BEN NATHAN; 
HAGIZ, JACOB; HAGIZ, MOSES; ISAIAH 
HASID FROM ZBARAZH; JOSHUA IBN NUN; 
KLAUSNER, ABRAHAM; KOIDONOVER, 
AARON SAMUEL BEN ISRAEL; 
PROVENCAL, DAVID BEN ABRAHAM 

Ittai Joseph Tamari*, Ph.D.; 
Lecturer, Ludwig-Maximilians- 
Universitat, Munich: auerbach, 

ERICH 

Meir Tamari, Ph.D.; Chief 
Economist, Office of the Governor 
of the Bank of Israel, Jerusalem: 

BUSINESS ETHICS 

David Tanne, Chairman of the 
Board of Directors, Tefahot- 
Mortgage Bank; Former Director 
General of the Ministry of Housing: 

AMIDAR; ISRAEL, STATE OF: ALIYAH 

Abraham J. Tannenbaum, Ph.D.; 
Professor of Education, Columbia 

University, New York: bettelheim, 

BRUNO; BLOOM, BENJAMIN SAMUEL; 
CREMIN, LAWRENCE ARTHUR; LORGE, 
IRVING; PASSOW, AARON HARRY; 
SCHWAB, JOSEPH J. 

Carlos A. Tapiero*, M.A.; Rabbi, 
Director of Education, Maccabi 
World Union, Ramat Gan: 

GUATEMALA 

Shimshon Tapuach, Ph.D.; 
Ministry of Agriculture, Tel Aviv: 

AGRICULTURE 



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Judit Targarona (Borras)*, Ph.D.; 
Profesora Titular, Universidad 

Complutense, Madrid, Spain: de 

PIERA, SOLOMON BEN MESHULLAM 

Noga Tarnopolsky*, A.B.; 
Journalist, Freelancer, Jerusalem: 

TARNOPOLSKY, SAMUEL 

Esther Tarsi-Gay, Dr.Phil.; the 
Graduate Library School of the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

CHILDREN'S LITERATURE 

Aryeh Tartakower, Ph.D., S.P.D.; 
Former Lecturer in the Sociology of 
the Jews, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem; Former Chairman of the 
Israel Executive of the World Jewish 
Congress, Jerusalem: bienenstock, 

MAX; HITAHADUT; LEWITE, LEON; 
REFUGEES; REICH, LEON; STAND, ADOLF; 
THON, OSIAS 

Israel Moses Ta-Shma, M.A., 
Rabbi; Editorial staff, Encyclopaedia 
Hebraica, Jerusalem: Abraham; 

ABRAHAM BEN ISAAC OF MONTPELLIER; 
ABULAFIA, MEIR; AGHMATI, ZECHARIAH 
BEN JUDAH; AGRAT BAT MAHALATH; 
ALFASI, ISAAC BEN JACOB; ASHER BEN 
SAUL; ASHKENAZI, DAN; BABEL, TOWER 
OF; BARUCH BEN ISAAC OF ALEPPO; 
BARUCH BEN ISAAC OF WORMS; BARUCH 
BEN SAMUEL OF MAINZ; BONFILS, JOSEPH 
BEN SAMUEL; DAVID; DAVID BEN LEVI OF 
NARBONNE; DAVID BEN SAADIAH; DAY 
AND NIGHT; DUEREN, ISAAC BEN MEIR; 
ELHANAN BEN ISAAC OF DAMPIERRE; 
ELIEZER BEN NATHAN OF MAINZ; 
ELIEZER BEN SAMUEL OF METZ; ELIEZER 
OF TOUL; ELIEZER OF TOUQUES; EZRA 
OF MONTCONTOUR; GABBAI, MOSES 
BEN SHEM-TOV; GENEALOGY; GERONDI, 
SAMUEL BEN MESHULLAM; HAGOZER, 
JACOB AND GERSHOM; HAKDAMAH; 
HANANEL BEN HUSHI'EL; HA-PARNAS, 
SEFER; HASSAGOT; HAVDALAH; HAYYIM 
BEN SAMUEL BEN DAVID OF TUDELA; 
HAYYIM PALTIEL BEN JACOB; HEFEZ BEN 
YAZLIAH; HUZPIT HA-METURGEMAN; 
IBN MIGASH, JOSEPH BEN MEIR HA-LEVI; 
IBN PLAT, JOSEPH; IBN SHUAIB, JOSHUA; 
ISAAC BAR DORBELO; ISAAC BEN ELIEZER; 
ISAAC BEN JOSEPH OF CORBEIL; ISAAC 
BEN MENAHEM THE GREAT; ISAAC 
BEN SAMUEL OF DAMPIERRE; ISAAC OF 
EVREUX; ISAIAH BEN ELIJAH DI TRANI; 
ISAIAH BEN MALI DI TRANI; ISRAELI, 
ISRAEL; ISSUR VE-HETTER; JACOB BEN 
SAMSON; JACOB BEN YAKAR; JACOB OF 
CORBEIL; JACOB OF ORLEANS; JAMA, 
SAMUEL IBN; JEHIEL BEN JOSEPH OF 
PARIS; JEROHAM BEN MESHULLAM; JOB, 



THE BOOK OF; JOEL BEN ISAAC HA-LEVI; 
JONATHAN BEN AMRAM; JONATHAN BEN 
DAVID HA-KOHEN OF LUNEL; JONATHAN 
BEN ELEAZAR; JOSEPH BEN BARUCH OF 
CLISSON; JOSEPH BEN HIYYA; JOSEPH 
BEN JUSTU OF JAEN; JOSEPH BEN MOSES 
OF TROYES; JOSEPH ROSH HA-SEDER; 
JOSHUA HA-GARSI; JUDAH; JUDAH BEN 
BARZILLAI, AL-BARGELONI; JUDAH 
BEN KALONYMUS BEN MEIR; JUDAH 
BEN MOSES HA-DARSHAN; JUDAH BEN 
NATHAN; JUDAH BEN YAKAR; JUDAH 
III; KARET; KASHER, MENAHEM; KIMHI, 
MORDECAI; LANDAU, JACOB; LATTES, 
JUDAH; LIMA, MOSES BEN ISAAC JUDAH; 
LURIA, SOLOMON BEN JEHIEL; MACHIR 
BEN JUDAH; MAIMON BEN JOSEPH; 
MASNUT, SAMUEL BEN NISSIM; MEIR 
BEN BARUCH HA-LEVI; MEIR BEN ISAAC 
OF TRINQUETAILLE; MEIRI, MENAHEM 
BEN SOLOMON; MEKIZE NIRDAMIM; 
MENAHEM BEN SOLOMON; MENAHEM 
OF MERSEBURG; MESHULLAM BEN 
MOSES; MESHULLAM BEN NATHAN OF 
MELUN; MINHAGIM BOOKS; MORDECAI 
BEN HILLEL HA-KOHEN; MOSES BEN 
ABRAHAM OF PONTOISE; MOSES BEN 
JACOB OF COUCY; MOSES HA-DARSHAN; 
MOSES OF EVREUX; MUELHAUSEN, YOM 
TOV LIPMANN; NAHMANIDES; NAHMIAS, 
JOSEPH BEN JOSEPH; NETHANEL BEN 
ISAIAH; NETHANEL OF CHINON; NIDDAH; 
NISSIM BEN JACOB BEN NISSIM IBN 
SHAHIN; PEREZ BEN ELIJAH OF CORBEIL; 
PETTER BEN JOSEPH; RAGOLER, ELIJAH 
BEN JACOB; RASHI; RESPONSA; REUBEN 
BEN HAYYIM; RISHONIM; SAADIAH GAON; 
SAMSON BEN ELIEZER; SAMSON BEN 
ISAAC OF CHINON; SAMSON BEN JOSEPH 
OF FALAISE; SAMSON BEN SAMSON OF 
COUCY; SAMUEL BEN NATRONAI; SAMUEL 
BEN SOLOMON OF FALAISE; SAMUEL OF 
EVREUX; SEFER HA-NEYAR; SHEMAIAH OF 
TROYES; SIMEON BEN MENASYA; SIMEON 
BEN SAMUEL OF JOINVILLE; SOLOMON 
BEN JUDAH "OF DREUX"; SOLOMON BEN 
MEIR; SOLOMON BEN SAMSON; TOSAFOT; 
VIDAL, CRESCAS; YOSE BEN JUDAH; YOSE 
BEN KIPPAR; YOSE BEN MESHULLAM; 
YOSE HA-GELILI 

Yitzhak Julius Taub, B.A., M.Jur.; 
Journalist; Former Secretary 
General of the Bank of Israel; 
Director of "The Bialik Institute," 
Jerusalem: bar-yosef, yehoshua; 

COINS AND CURRENCY; HOROWITZ, 
DAVID 

Gerald E. Tauber, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Mathematical Physics, Tel Aviv 
University: ehrenfest, paul ; einstein, 

ALBERT; MANDELSHTAM, LEONID 
ISAAKOVICH 



Oded Tavor, B.A.; the Shiloah 
Center for Middle Eastern and 
African Studies, Tel Aviv University: 

SYRIA 

Yossi Tavor*, B.Mus.; Journalist, 
Culture Observer, Voice of Israel, 
Israeli Broadcasting Authority, 
Jerusalem: dance; eifman, boris; 

PLISETSKAYA, MAYA 

Joan E. Taylor*, B.A., B.D., Ph.D.; 
Adjunct Senior Lecturer, Religious 
Studies, University of Waikato, 
Hamilton, New Zealand: ein 

FASHKHAH; THERAPEUTAE 

Avigdor (Victor) Tcherikover, 

Ph.D.; Professor of Ancient History, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ALEXANDRIA; ARISTEAS, LETTER OF 

Guido (Gad) Tedeschi, D.Jur.; 
Professor of Civil Law, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: ehrlich, 

EUGEN; GLASER, JULIUS ANTON; 
OPPENHEIM, LASSA FRANCIS LAWRENCE 

Tom Teicholz*, J.D., M.S.J.; Film 
Producer/Journalist, Santa Monica, 
California: demjanjuk, john; motion 

PICTURES 

Sheldon Teitelbaum*, B.A.; Writer, 
The Jerusalem Report, Agoura Hills, 
California: kantor, michael-, kripke, 

SAUL AARON; LAS VEGAS; LOS ANGELES; 
NEVADA; SCIENCE FICTION AND 
FANTASY, JEWISH 

Sefton D. Temkin, Ph.D.; Rabbi; 
Professor of Judaic Studies, State 
University of New York at Albany: 

COHEN; ADLER, CYRUS; ADLER, SAMUEL; 
ALTHEIMER, BENJAMIN; AMERICAN 
HEBREW, THE; AMERICAN ISRAELITE; 
BENAS, BARON LOUIS; BERKOWITZ, 
HENRY; BERNHEIM, ISAAC WOLFE; 
BIRMINGHAM; BOSTON; BRICKNER, 
BARNETT ROBERT; CEMETERY; COHON, 
SAMUEL SOLOMON; COURANT, 
RICHARD; DUKER, ABRAHAM GORDON; 
ECKMAN, JULIUS; EINHORN, DAVID; 
FELSENTHAL, BERNHARD; FOUNDATIONS; 
FRANZBLAU, ABRAHAM NORMAN; 
FRIEND, HUGO MORRIS; GOLD, HENRY 
RAPHAEL; HACKENBURG, WILLIAM 
BOWER; HEIDENHEIM, WOLF; HELLER; 
HERTZ, EMANUEL; HOCHEIMER, HENRY; 
JEWISH QUARTERLY REVIEW; KIRSTEIN, 
LOUIS EDWARD; KOHLER, KAUFMANN; 
KRAUSKOPF, JOSEPH; LAZARON, MORRIS 
SAMUEL; LEIPZIGER, EMIL WILLIAM; 
LEVINTHAL; LIEBMAN, JOSHUA LOTH; 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



MACAULAY, THOMAS BABINGTON; 
MENDES; MERZBACHER, LEO; MESSEL; 
MEYER, MARTIN ABRAHAM; MOSES, 
ISAAC S.; PHILIPSON, DAVID; ROSENDALE, 
SIMON WOLFE; SARACHEK, JOSEPH; 
SCHINDLER, SOLOMON; SCHLOESSINGER, 
MAX; SHANKMAN, JACOB K.; SHULMAN, 
CHARLES E.; SINGER, ISIDORE; 
TRACHTENBERG, JOSHUA; UNITED 
STATES OF AMERICA; VOORSANGER, 
JACOB; WALEY; WISE, JONAH 
BONDI 

David Tene, D.del'U; Senior 
Lecturer in Hebrew Language, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem.: ibn 

JANAH, JONAH; LINGUISTIC LITERATURE, 
HEBREW; YEHUD1 BEN SHESHET 

Shelly Tenenbaum*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of Sociology, 
Clark University, Worcester, 
Massachusetts: low, minnie 

Philipp Theisohn*, Ph.D.; 
Research Associate, Eberhard Karls 
University, Tubingen, Germany: 

ANDERS, GUENTHER; AUSLAENDER, 
ROSE; BEER-HOFMANN, RICHARD; 
EINSTEIN, CARL; FRANZOS, KARL 
EMIL; HEYM, STEFAN; HILDESHEIMER, 
WOLFGANG; HOFMANNSTHAL, HUGO 
VON; HOLITSCHER, ARTHUR; MOMBERT, 
ALFRED; MOSENTHAL, SALOMON 
HERMANN; MUEHSAM, ERICH; VAN 
HODDIS, JAKOB; WINDER, LUDWIG 

Pascal Themanlys, Writer, 

Jerusalem: milbauer, Joseph 

Jeffrey Howard Tigay, M.H.L., 
Rabbi; Hamden, Connecticut: 

ABRECH; ADOPTION; ADULTERY; 
ASENAPPER; BLINDNESS; DRUNKENNESS; 
EBER; ETHAN; ETHBAAL; LAMENTATIONS, 
BOOK OF; PARADISE 

Jef Tingley* , B.A.; Marketing 
Director, Jewish Federation of 
Greater Dallas: Dallas 

Ofra Tiro sh- Becker*, Ph.D.; 

Lecturer, The Center for the Study 
of Jewish Languages and Literatures, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

CONSTANTINE 

Hava Tirosh-Samuelson*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of History, Arizona 
State University, Tucson, Arizona: 

BEATITUDE; PHILOSOPHY, JEWISH 

Ariel Toaff, Ph.D., Rabbi; the 
Rabbinical College of Italy, Rome: 



CALABRIA; CATANZARO; DE' ROSSI, 
GIOVANNI BERNARDO; ELIJAH BEN 
SHABBETAI BE'ER; ELIJAH OF PESARO; 
JARE; LECCE; MODENA; NAPLES; ORVIETO; 
OTRANTO; PERUGIA; PESARO; RAVENNA; 
RECANATI; REGGIO DI CALABRIA; REGGIO 
EMILIA; RIMINI; SALERNO; SAN MARINO; 
SENIGALLIA; SFORNO, OBADIAH BEN 
JACOB; SIENA; SINIGAGLIA; SIPONTO; 
SPOLETO; TARANTO 

Yosef Tobi*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
University of Haifa: abdallah, yusef; 

ADANI, MAHALAL; ADANI, SAMUEL BEN 
JOSEPH; ADEN; AMRAN; ARUSI, ABRAHAM 
BEN MOSES HA-LEVI; BAYHAN; BENAYAH; 
DHAMAR; GLASER, EDUARD; HABBAN; 
HADRAMAWT; HAYDAN; HIBSHUSH, 
HAYYIM; HIjAZ; JAMAL SULAYMAN; 
KAWKABAN; KORAH, AMRAM BEN YIHYE; 
KORAH, SHALOM BEN YIHYE; KUHAYL, 
SHUKR BEN SALIM; MANAKHAH; MAWZA; 
MOCHA; NADDAF, ABRAHAM HAYYIM; 
NIEBUHR, CARSTEN; QUEEN OF SHEBA; 
RABI' IBN ABI AL-HUQAYQ; SA'DAH; SA'Dl, 
SAID BEN SOHELOMO; SANA; SHAR'AB; 
SHEIKH, ABRAHAM BEN SHALOM HA-LEVI 
AL-; SHIBAM; TAYMA; YEMEN; YUSUF 
ASAR YATHAR DHU NUWAS 

Alexander Tobias, Ph.D.; 
Librarian, the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America, New York: 

ABRAHAM ABUSCH BEN ZEVI HIRSCH; 
BUECHLER, ADOLF; CALENDAR 
REFORM; HAHN, JOSEPH YUSPA BEN 
PHINEHAS SELIGMANN; HAYYIM BEN 
BEZALEL; KALMAN OF WORMS; KISCH, 
BRUNO ZECHARIAS; KUBOVY, ARYEH 
LEON; LUZZATTO, SAMUEL DAVID; 
MARGOLIOUTH, MOSES; MARMORSTEIN, 
ARTHUR; MILLER, LOUIS E.; PINNER, 
EPHRAIM MOSES BEN ALEXANDER 
SUSSKIND; ROSENBAUM, MORRIS; 
ZEDNER, JOSEPH; ZIMMELS, HIRSCH 
JACOB; ZUCKERMAN, BENEDICT 

Henry J. Tobias*, Ph.D.; Professor 
Emeritus of History, University of 
Oklahoma: albuquerque; katz, 

MOSES; KRANTZ, PHILIP; MAGIDOV, 
JACOB; NEW MEXICO; VINCHEVSKY, 
MORRIS 

Thomas J. Tobias, B.S.; Charleston, 

South Carolina: azuby, Abraham; 

COHEN, PHILIP MELVIN; DA COSTA, 
ISAAC; DE LA MOTTA, JACOB; DE LEON; 
ELZAS, BARNETT ABRAHAM; MOISE, 
ABRAHAM; MOISE, PENINA; MOSES, 
RAPHAEL J.; SALVADOR; TOBIAS, 
ABRAHAM; TOBIAS, JOSEPH 

Theo Toebosch*, M.A.; Journalist/ 



Writer, Amsterdam, The 
Netherlands: jitta, daniel josephus 

Uri (Erich) Toeplitz, Musician 
and Teacher, Tel Aviv University - 
Rubin Academy of Music: 

ZUKERMAN, PINCHAS; AVNI, TZEVI; 
BRAUN, YEHEZKIEL; DA-OZ, RAM; 
DAUS, AVRAHAM; EDEN-TAMIR; FRIED, 
MIRIAM; GILBOA, JACOB; GRAZIANI, 
YITZHAK; HEIFETZ, JASCHA; HOROVITZ, 
VLADIMIR; HUBERMAN, BRONISLAW; 
INBAL, ELIAHU; JACOBI, HANOCH; JAFFE, 
ELI; KALICHSTEIN, JOSEPH; KLEMPERER, 
OTTO; KOUSSEVITZKY, SERGE; LAKNER, 
YEHOSHUA; MAAYANI, AMI; MENUHIN, 
SIR YEHUDI; MILSTEIN, NATHAN; NATRA, 
SERGIU; ORGAD, BEN ZION; PIATIGORSKY, 
GREGOR; PRESSLER, MENAHEM; RONLY- 
RIKLIS, SHALOM; RUBINSTEIN, ARTUR; 
SADAI, YIZHAK; SCHIDLOWSKY, LEON; 
SETER, MORDECHAI; SHMUELI, HERZL; 
SMOIRA-COHN, MICHAL; STERN, ISAAC 

Marvin Tokayer, M.A., Rabbi; 
Former rabbi of Tokyo community; 
Writer, Jerusalem: hahn, Joseph ben 

MOSES; HEILBRONN, JOSEPH BEN DAVID 
OF ESCHWEGE; JAPAN 

Samuel Tolansky, Ph.D., D.Sc, 
D.I.C., F.R.A.S., F.R.S.; Professor of 
Physics, Royal Holloway College, 
the University of London 

Bina Toledo Freiwald*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor, Concordia 
University, Montreal, Canada: 

MAYNARD, FREDELLE BRUSER 

Jerucham Tolkes, Writer, Tel Aviv: 

CHORIN, AARON; SALKIND, JACOB MEIR; 
SILBERSCHLAG, EISIG; SONNE, ISAIAH; 
WALLENROD, REUBEN; WEINBERG, 
ZEVI ZEBULUN; WENDROFF, ZALMAN; 
WUENSCHE, AUGUST KARL; ZHITLOWSKY, 
CHAIM 

William Toll*, Ph.D.; Adjunct 
Professor, University of Oregon: 

PISCO, SERAPHINE EPPSTEIN 

Haim Toren, M.A.; Writer, 
Jerusalem: aricha, yosef 

Samuel Totten*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Genocide Studies, University of 
Arkansas, Fayetteville; Member of 
the Institute on the Holocaust and 
Genocide, Jerusalem: holocaust 

Charles Touati, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Assistant Professor of Jewish 
Philosophy, Ecole Pratique des 



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Hautes Etudes, Sorbonne, Paris: levi 

BEN GERSHOM; VAJDA, GEORGES 

E.L. Touriel, M.D., Los Angeles: 

PUGLIESE, UMBERTO 

Jacob Toury, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Jewish History, Tel Aviv 
University: antisemitism 

Barry (C.) Trachtenberg*, Ph.D.; 
Professor, University at Albany, New 
York: erik, max; niger, shmuel 

Henry Trachtenberg*, B.A., M.A., 
Ph.D.; Analyst Historian, Historic 

Resources Branch of Culture, 
Heritage and Tourism, Manitoba, 
Canada: heaps, Abraham albert ; 

WEIDMAN, HIRAM AND MORDECAI S. 

Leon Trahtemberg*, M.A.; 
Principal, Leon Pinelo Jewish 
School, National Council of 
Education, Lima, Peru: lima; peru 

Barbara Trainin Blank*, Writer, 
President of Blank Page Writing 
and Editorial Services, Harrisburg, 
Pennsylvania: harrisburg 

Hans L. Trefousse, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History, Brooklyn College 
of the City University of New 
York: handlin, oscar; josephson, 

MATTHEW; MYERS, GUSTAVUS 

Esther Trepanier*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Art History, University of 
Quebec, Montreal: caiserman-roth, 

GHITTA; MUHLSTOCK, LOUIS 

Emanuela Trevisan Semi*, 

Professor in Modern Hebrew 
and Jewish Studies, Ca' Foscari 
University, Venice, Italy: beta Israel; 

FAITLOVITCH, JACQUES 

Mirjam Triendl (-Zadoff)*, M.A.; 
Junior Staff Member, Doctoral 
Student, for Jewish History of 
Culture, University of Munich, 
Germany: bettauer, hugo; 

BILLROTH, THEODOR; BROD, MAX; 
BUNZL; FREUD, ANNA; FRIEDELL, EGON; 
HEIMANN, MORITZ; KADIMAH; KALEKO, 
MASCHA; KERR, ALFRED; LUXEMBURG, 
ROSA; SCHOLEM, WERNER; TORBERG, 
FRIEDRICH; VEREIN ZUR ABWEHR DES 
ANTISEMITISMUS; WOLF, GERSON 

Harold Troper*, Ph.D.; Professor of 
History and Education, University 
of Toronto, Canada: Arnold, abe; 



ASPER, ISRAEL H.; AZRIELI, DAVID; 
BARRETT, DAVID; BLANKSTEIN, CECIL; 
BRONFMAN; CAPLAN, ELINOR; CARR, 
JUDY FELD; CASS, FRANK; COHEN, 
NATHAN; COTLER, IRWIN; DIAMOND, 
JACK; GOTLIEB, ALLAN; HERZOG, SHIRA; 
JOURNALISM; KOFFLER, MURRAY; 
LAMBERT, PHYLLIS; LAWYERS; LEWIS, 
STEPHEN; LITTMAN, SOL; ONTARIO; 
POLITICS; PRESS; REICHMANN; SEGAL, 
HUGH; SIEGEL, IDA LEWIS; TANENBAUM; 
TORONTO 

Amram Tropper* : avot 

Daniel Tropper, Ph.D.; Director, 
Gesher Foundation, Jerusalem 

Isaiah Trunk, Historian, YIVO 
Institute for Jewish Research, New 
York: Poland 

Hiller Tryster, Film Critic and 
Journalist, Jerusalem 

Dan Tsalka, Writer and Critic, Tel 

Aviv: AMICHAI, YEHUDA; GILBOA, AMIR 

Tsemah Tsamriyon, Ph.D.; 
Educator, Haifa: hameassef 

Benyamim Tsedaka, Writer, 
Editor Aleph-Bet, Holon, Israel: 

SAMARITANS 

Jacob Tsur, Former Ambassador 
and former Chairman of the Board 
of Directors, the Jewish National 
Fund, Jerusalem: ariel, Joseph; 

BLUMEL, ANDRE; JEWISH NATIONAL 
FUND 

Tom Tugend*, M.A., Contributing 
Editor, Jewish Journal of Greater Los 
Angeles, Sherman Oaks, California: 

HIER, MARVIN; SIMON WIESENTHAL 
CENTER 

Gerald (J.J.) Tulchinsky*, Ph.D.; 
Emeritus Professor of History, 
Queens University, Kingston, 
Canada: ansell, david Abraham; 

BERCOVICH, PETER; CAISERMAN, HANAE 
MEIER; CANADA; COHEN, LYON; CROLL, 
DAVID ARNOLD; DAVIS, MORTIMER B.; 
DUNKELMAN, BENJAMIN; DUNKELMAN, 
ROSE; PHILLIPS, LAZARUS; ROSE, FRED; 
ROTHSCHILD, ROBERT PHINEAS 

Joseph Turner*: schweid, eliezer 

Michael Turner*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
UNESCO Chair for Urban Design 
and Conservation Studies, Bezalel 



Academy of Arts and Design, 
Jerusalem: environmental 

SCIENCES 

Chava Turniansky, M.A.; Instructor 
in Yiddish Language and Literature, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

TASHRAK; ZE'ENAH U-RE'ENAH 

Naphtali Herz Tur- Sinai 
(Torczyner), Dr. Phil.; Emeritus 
Professor of Hebrew Language, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem; 
President of the Academy of the 
Hebrew Language, Jerusalem: 

MUELLER, DAVID HEINRICH 

Chasia Turtel, M.A.; Researcher 
in Jewish History, Jerusalem: beilis, 

MENAHEM MENDEL; BLONDES, DAVID; 
BOPPARD; CLEVES; COTTBUS; DEUTZ; 
FRANKFURT ON THE ODER; HANAU; 
JUELICH; KIEL; KREFELD; KREUZNACH; 
LANDAU 

Shaul Tuval, M.A.; Ministry for 
Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: japan; 

PHILIPPINES 

David Twersky*, B.A.; Contributing 

Editor, NY Sun; Director 
International Relations, American 
Jewish Congress, West Orange, New 
Jersey: new jersey 

Isadore Twersky, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Hebrew Literature and 
Philosophy, Harvard University, 

Cambridge, Massachusetts: 

ABRAHAM BEN DAVID OF POSQUIERES 

Yohanan Twersky, Writer and 
Editor, Tel Aviv: amir, anda 

Gail Twersky Reimer*, Ph.D.; 

Founding Director, Jewish Women's 
Archive, Brookline, Massachusetts: 

SCHWARTZ, FELICE NIERENBERG 

Ida Libert Uchill, B.A.; Denver, 
Colorado 

Jacob B. Ukeles*, Ph.D.; President, 

Ukeles Associates, New York: new 

YORK CITY 

Ellen M. Umansky*, Ph.D.; Carl 
and Dorothy Professor of Judaic 
Studies, Fairfield University, 
Fairfield, Connecticut: ackerman, 

PAULA HERSKOVITZ; FRANK, RAY; 
LICHTENSTEIN, TEHILLA; MONTAGU, 
LILY; STERN, ELIZABETH GERTRUDE 
LEVIN; THEOLOGY 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Rhoda K. Unger*, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Resident Scholar, Women's 
Studies Research Center, Brandeis 
University, Waltham, Massachusetts: 

JAHODA, MARIE; MEDNICK, MARTHA 
TAMARA SCHUCH; PSYCHOLOGY; 
TOBACH, ETHEL 

Moshe Unna, Dipl. Agr.; Former 
Member of the Knesset, Kibbutz 
Sedeh Eliyahu: ha-po'el ha-mizrachi; 

KIBBUTZ MOVEMENT 

Alan Unterman, Ph.D.; Jerusalem: 

FORGIVENESS; LOPIAN, ELIJAH; RUAH HA- 
KODESH; SHEKHINAH 

Morris Unterman, Rabbi; London: 

SHERMAN, ARCHIE 

Ephraim Elimelech Urbach, Dott. 
in.lett., Rabbi; Professor of Talmud, 
the Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ABBAYE 

Symcha Bunim Urbach, Rabbi; 
Associate Professor of Jewish 
Philosophy, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: zeitlin, hillel 

Ludmilla Uritskaya: an -ski 

COLLECTIONS 

Ann Ussishkin, M.A.; Jerusalem: 

JEWISH COLONIZATION ASSOCIATION; 

TEMPLERS 

David Ussishkin 5 *", Professor of 

Archaeology, Tel Aviv University, 
Tel Aviv: megiddo 

Baruch Uziel, Former Member of 
the Knesset; Tel Aviv: arditi, albert 

JUDAH; BEN-AROYA, AVRAHAM 

Bela Adalbert Vago, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in History, Haifa University 
and the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: arrow cross party; baky, 

LASZLO; CODREANU, CORNELIU ZELEA; 
HUNGARY; IRON GUARD; SIMA, HORIA 

Samuel Vaisrub, M.D. M.R.C.P; 
Associate Professor, Chicago 
Medical School; Senior Editor, 
Journal of the American Medical 
Association: medicine 

Georges Vajda, D.es L.; Professor of 
Medieval Jewish Thought, Directeur 
d'Etudes a TEcole Pratique des 
Hautes Etudes, Sorbonne, Paris: 

ALBALAG, ISAAC; BAHYA BEN JOSEPH IBN 
PAQUDA; BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALE; 



DUNASH IBN TAMIM; IBN MOTOT, 
SAMUEL BEN SAADIAH; IBN WAQAR, 
JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM; MALKAH, JUDAH 
BEN NISSIM IBN 

Heather Valencia*, Ph.D.; 
Honorary Research Fellow, 
University of Stirling, Scotland: 

HALPERN, MOYSHE-LEYB; KARPINOVITSH, 
AVROM 

Hugo Mauritz Valentin, Dr. Phil.; 
Professor of History, the University 
of Uppsala, Sweden: brick, daniel; 

EHRENPREIS, MARCUS; ELKAN, SOPHIE; 
FRAENKEL, LOUIS; HECKSCHER, ELI 
FILIP; ISAAC, AARON; JOSEPHSON; KLEIN, 
GOTTLIEB; LAMM, MARTIN; LEVERTIN, 
OSCAR IVAR; MANNHEIMER, THEODOR; 
SWEDEN; WARBURG, KARL JOHAN; 
WILHELM, KURT 

W.J. (Willem Jan) van Asselt*, 

Ph.D.; Associate Professor, Church 
History, Theological Faculty Utrecht 
University, The Netherlands: 

COCCEIUS, JOHANNES 

Wout (Wouter Jacques) van 
Bekkum*, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Semitic Languages and Cultures, 
Rijksuniversiteit Groningen, 
Germany: Amsterdam; Netherlands, 
the 

Adam Simon Van Der Woude, 

M.A.; Professor of Old Testament, 
the State University of Groningen, 
the Netherlands: vriezen, 

THEODORUS CHRISTIAAN 

Joris van Eijnatten*, Ph.D.; 
Senior Lecturer, Early Modern 
History, VU University 
Amsterdam, The Netherlands: 

COSTA, ISAAC DA 

H.RK. (Hendrik Frans Karel) 
van Nierop*, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Early Modern History, University 
of Amsterdam, The Netherlands: 

NIEROP, VAN 

Robert Jan van Pelt*, Ph.D.; 
Professor, University of Waterloo, 
Waterloo, Canada: Auschwitz 

Peter van Rooden*, Ph.D.; Chair, 
Department of Sociology and 
Anthropology, University of 
Amsterdam, The Netherlands: 

EMPEREUR, CONSTANTIJN L' 

Edward van Voolen, Ph.D., Rabbi; 



Curator, Joods Historisch Museum, 
Amsterdam 

Elaine Varady, Israel Museum, 

Jerusalem: Israel, state of: cultural 

LIFE 

Benjamin (Benno) Varon (Weiser), 
Abs. Med.; Ambassador, Ministry 
for Foreign Affairs, Jerusalem: 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; PARAGUAY 

Simon Vega, Ben Shemen, Israel: 

BLANES, JACOB; DARMSTADT, JOSEPH; 
MYERS, MOSES 

Mervin F. Verbit, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Sociology, Brooklyn College: 

MIXED MARRIAGE, INTERMARRIAGE 

Geza Vermes*, F.B.A.; Professor 
of Jewish Studies, University of 
Oxford, Oriental Institute, England: 

SCHURER, EMIL 

Saul Viener, M.A.; Richmond, 

Virginia: calisch, edward nathan; 

ELCAN, MARCUS; ISAACS, ISAIAH; JACOBS, 
SOLOMON; MYERS, SAMUEL 

Claude (Andre) Vigee, Ph.D.; 
Professor of French Literature, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

CLAUDEL, PAUL; GOLL, YVAN; SCHWARZ- 
BART, ANDRE 

David Vinitzky, Givatayim, Israel: 

BERLIAND, SHLOMO MEIR 

Manfred H. Vogel, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of the History 
and Literature of Religions, 
Northwestern University, 
Evanston, Illinois: kant, immanuel; 

MONOTHEISM 

Samuel Volkman, Rabbi; 

Charleston, W. Virginia: west 

VIRGINIA 

Leon Volovici*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Researcher, The Vidal Sassoon 
International Center for the Study of 
Anti-Semitism, Jerusalem, Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: benador, 

URY; CORNEA, PAUL; COSAS.U, RADU; 
CROHMALNICEANU, OVID S.; DUDA, 
VIRGIL; ROMANIA 

Eva M. von Dassow* , Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor, University of 
Minnesota: hurrian 

Frauke von Rohden*, Ph.D.; Senior 



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Lecturer, Freie Universitaet Berlin, 

Germany: rebecca bat meir tiktiner 

Albert Vorspan* : schindler, 

ALEXANDER M. 

Max Vorspan, D.H.L., Rabbi; Vice 
President, University of Judaism, 
Los Angeles: boyar, louis h. ; 

HELLMAN, ISAIAS WOLF; HOLLZER, 
HARRY AARON; KOHN, JACOB; LOS 
ANGELES; MAGNIN, EDGAR FOGEL; 
NEWMARK; PACHT, ISAAC; SILBERBERG, 
MENDEL; STROUSE, MYER; WEINSTOCK, 
HARRIS 

Carl Hermann Voss, Ph.D., 
Reverend; Author and Lecturer, 
Jacksonville, Florida: wise, Stephen 

SAMUEL 

Simon J. De Vries, Th.D.; Professor 
of Old Testament, the Methodist 
Theological School in Ohio, 
Delaware: kuenen, Abraham 

Ben Zion Wacholder, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Talmud and Rabbinics, 
the Hebrew Union College-Jewish 
Institute of Religion, Cincinnati, 

Ohio: ARISTEAS; BIBLE; CLEODEMUS 
MALCHUS; DEMETRIUS; EUPOLEMUS; 
HECATAEUS OF ABDERA; JOB, TESTAMENT 
OF; PHILO; THALLUS; THEODOTUS 

Miriam Dworkin Waddington, 

M.A., M.S.W.; Associate Professor of 
English Literature, York University, 
Toronto 

Michael Wade, B.A. (Hons.), Dipl. 
Ed.; Instructor in English and in 
African Literature, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: jacobson, 

DAN 

Maurice Wagner, M.A.; General 
Secretary of the Central African 
Jewish Board of Deputies, Bulawayo, 
Rhodesia: bulawayo; Salisbury; 

ZAMBIA; ZIMBABWE 

Stanley M. Wagner*, Ph.D.; 
D.H.L., Professor Emeritus; Rabbi 
Emeritus, University of Denver; 
BHM-BJ Congregation, Denver, 
Colorado: Denver; kauvar, charles 

ELIEZER HILLEL; KIRSHBLUM, MORDECAI; 
MANDELBAUM, BERNARD; RACKMAN, 
EMANUEL; WURZBURGER, WALTER S. 

Felix Bernard Wahle, Tel Aviv 
Shalom Salomon Wald*, Ph.D.; 



The Jewish People Policy Planning 
Institute, Jerusalem: china 

Stephen G. Wald*, Ph.D.; Talmud 
and Rabbinics, Jerusalem: abba 

HILKIAH; AGGADAH; AGRAT BAT 
MAHALATH; AKIVA; AM HA-AREZ; 
ANDROGYNOS; AVOT; BAR KAPPARA; 
BARAITA DE-MELEKHET HA-MISHKAN; 
BARAITA, BERAITOT; BAVA MEZIA; BEN 
STADA; BERURYAH; DAMA, SON OF 
NETINA; DRUNKENNESS; EDUYYOT; 
ELEAZAR BEN ARAKH; ELEAZAR BEN 
HANANIAH BEN HEZEKIAH; ELEAZAR 
BEN HARSOM; ELIEZER BEN HYRCANUS; 
ELISHA BEN AVUYAH; EZEKIEL; 
GENESIS RABBAH; HAGIGAH; HALLAH; 
HILLEL; IMMA SHALOM; JOHANAN BEN 
GUDGADA; JOHANAN BEN NAPPAHA; 
JOHANAN BEN ZAKKAI; JOHANAN HA- 
SANDELAR; JOSHUA BEN HANANIAH; 
JOSHUA BEN KORHA; JOSHUA BEN 
PERAHYAH; JOSHUA HA-GARSI; JUDAH 
BAR ILAI; JUDAH BEN BATHYRA; JUDAH 
BEN BAVA; JUDAH BEN DOSOTHEOS; 
JUDAH BEN GERIM; JUDAH BEN 
SHAMMUA; JUDAH BEN TABBAI; JUDAH 
BEN TEMA; JUDAH HA-NASI; KAHANA; 
KILAYIM; MARTHA; MATTIAH BEN 
HERESH; MEIR; MISHNAH; NAHUM OF 
GiMZO; NATHAN HA-BAVLI; NEHEMIAH; 
NEHORAI; NEHUNYA BEN HA-KANAH; 
NEZIKIN; OSHAIAH RABBAH; PAPA; 
RIGHT AND LEFT; SHEMAIAH; SIMEON 
BAR YOHAI; SIMEON BEN NETHANEL; 
SIMEON BEN SHETAH; TALMUD; TALMUD, 
BABYLONIAN; TALMUD, JERUSALEM; 
TOSEFTA 

Solomon H. Waldenberg, M.A, 
Rabbi; Santurce, Puerto Rico 

Miriam Waldman*, Ph.D.; Head 
of Department, Environmental 
and Agricultural Research 
Programs; Israel Ministry of 
Science and Development; Tel Aviv: 

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES 

James Walker*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of History; University of Waterloo, 
Waterloo, Canada: abella, rosalie 

SILBERMAN; BOROVOY, A. ALAN; COHEN, 
MAXWELL; LASKIN, BORA; MATAS, DAVID 

Jehuda Wallach, Ph.D.; Colonel 
(Res.) Israel Defense Forces; Senior 
Lecturer in Military History, Tel 
Aviv University: beer, Israel; laskov, 

HAYYIM; MARCUS, DAVID DANIEL; SINAI 
CAMPAIGN; ZUR, ZEVI 

Michael Wallach, B.Sc; Assistant 
Editor, Jewish Chronicle, London: 



FISHER, SAMUEL, BARON FISHER 
OF CAMDEN; GOODMAN, ARNOLD 
ABRAHAM, LORD; GROSS, JOHN JACOB; 
GUTTMANN, SIR LUDWIG; KISSIN, HARRY, 
BARON; TOLANSKY, SAMUEL 

Harold M. Waller*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Political Science, McGill 
University, Montreal, Canada: ezrin, 

HERSHELL; MONTREAL; STEINBERG 

Bart (Barend Theodoor) Wallet*, 

M.A.; Junior Researcher, Hebrew, 
Aramaic and Jewish Studies, 
University of Amsterdam, The 
Netherlands: amelander, menahem 

MANN BEN SOLOMON HA-LEVI; 
AMSTERDAM; ASSER; BERGH, VAN DEN; 
BREGSTEIN, MARCEL HENRI; COHEN, 
BENJAMIN; FELIX LIBERTATE; GODEFROI, 
MICHAEL HENRI; GOUDSMIT, JOEL 
EMANUEL; MEIJERS, EDUARD MAURITS; 
MEYER, JONAS DANIEL; NETHERLANDS, 
THE; OPPENHEIM, JACQUES; POLITICS; 
VISSER, LODEWIJK ERNST 

Kenneth Waltzer, Ph.D.; Teaching 
Fellow in American History, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, 

Massachusetts: lovestone, jay; 

PRESSMAN, LEE; ROSE, ALEX; ZARITSKY, 
MAX 

Chaim Wardi, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Christianity in the 
Middle East and Africa, Tel 
Aviv University: Israel, state of: 

RELIGIOUS LIFE AND COMMUNITIES 

Itamar Warhaftig*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer, Bar-Ilan University, 
Ramat Gan: consumer protection; 

OBLIGATIONS, LAW OF; UNJUST 
ENRICHMENT; WEIGHTS AND MEASURES 

Shillem Warhaftig, Dr.Jur.; 
Ministry of Justice, Jerusalem: 

LABOR LAW; NATHANSON, JOSEPH 
SAUL; STRASHUN, MATHIAS; STRASHUN, 
SAMUEL BEN JOSEPH 

Iris Waskow*, B.A.; Senior Director 
of Communications, University of 
Judaism, Los Angeles: university of 

JUDAISM, THE; WEXLER, ROBERT D. 

Henry Wasserman, M.A.; 
Everyman's University, Tel Aviv: 

BADEN BEI WIEN; BISMARCK, OTTO VON; 
BROKERS; CONSTRUCTION; DEPARTMENT 
STORES; DIAMOND TRADE AND 
INDUSTRY; DOBRUSCHKA-SCHOENFELD; 
EPHRAIM; FERDINAND; GOLDSMITHS 
AND SILVERSMITHS; GOMPERZ; GOSLAR; 



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ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



HEP! HEP!; HOENIGSBERG; JEITELES; 
KLOSTERNEUBURG; LEIDESDORFER; 
LINZ; LIVESTOCK, TRADE IN; MARKET 
DAYS AND FAIRS; MECKLENBURG; 
MEYER, SELIGMANN; MILITARY SERVICE; 
MINTMASTERS AND MONEYERS; MUHR, 
ABRAHAM; NIETZSCHE, FRIEDRICH 
WILHELM; OETTINGEN; OPPENHEIMER, 
SAMUEL; OSTRAVA; PALATINATE; 
PEDDLING; POMERANIA; PRUSSIA; 
REGENSBURG; ROTHENBURG OB 
DER TAUBER; ROTHSCHILD; SCHMID, 
ANTON VON; SCHOENERER, GEORG 
VON; SCHOTTLAENDER, BENDET; 
SECONDHAND GOODS AND OLD 
CLOTHES, TRADE IN; SHIPS AND SAILING; 
SLAVE TRADE; STOCK EXCHANGES; 
SUGAR INDUSTRY AND TRADE; 
TAILORING; TEXTILES; THURINGIA; 
TOBACCO TRADE AND INDUSTRIES; 
ULM; VERBAND NATIONALDEUTSCHER 
JUDEN; VEREIN ZUR ABWEHR DES 
ANTISEMITISMUS; VORARLBERG; WEBER, 
KOLOMAN 

David J. Wasserstein*, Professor of 
History and Jewish Studies, Director 
of the Program in Jewish Studies, 
Vanderbilt University, Nashville: Abd 

AL-HAQQ AL-ISLAMI; CALIPH; MULUK 
AL-TAWATF; SAMAUAL BEN JUDAH IBN 
ABBAS AL-MAGHRIBI; STERN, SAMUEL 
MIKLOS 

James F. Watts, Jr., Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of History, City College 
of the City University of New York: 

EINSTEIN, LEWIS 

Bernard Wax, M.A.; Director of the 
American Jewish Historical Society, 
Waltham, Massachusetts: fall river 

James A. Wax, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Memphis, Tennessee: Memphis; 

TENNESSEE 

Meyer Waxman, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Jewish Philosophy and 
Literature, the Hebrew Theological 
College of Chicago: literature, 

JEWISH 

Mordecai Waxman, M.H.L., Rabbi; 

Great Neck, New York: literature, 

JEWISH 

George Julius Webber, LL.D.; 
Barrister at Law, Former Reader 
in English Law, the University of 
London: lawyers 

Annette Weber*, Ph.D.; Chair for 
Jewish Art, Hochschule fur Jlidische 



Studien, Heidelberg, Germany: art: 

WESTERN EUROPE; DICKER-BRANDEIS, 
FRIEDL; HIRSCHFELD-MACK, LUDWIG 

Brom Weber, Ph.D.; Professor of 
English, the University of California, 
Davis: frank, waldo david; 

GREENBERG, SAMUEL BERNARD; WEST, 
NATHANAEL 

Harold S. Wechsler, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor of Education, 
University of Chicago 

Fred (Frederick W.) Weidmann*, 

M.Div., Ph.D.; Director of the 
Center for Church Life and 
Professor of Biblical Studies, 
Auburn Theological Seminary, New 
York; Adjunct, Union Theological 
Seminary; Pastoral Associate, 
Advent Lutheran Church; Society 
of Biblical Literature; American 
Academy of Religion; New York: 

BIBLE 

Irwin Weil, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Russian and Russian Literature, 
Northwestern University, Evanston, 
Illinois: gorki, maxim 

Shalva Weil, D.Phil.; Senior 
Researcher, NCJW Research 
Institute for Innovation in 
Education, the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem 

Asher Weill*, Editor and Publisher, 
Editor, ARIEL -the Israel Review 
of Arts and Letters, Jerusalem: 

PUBLISHING; WEIDENFELD, GEORGE, 
BARON 

Georges Weill, M.A., Archiviste- 
Paleographe; Directeur des Services 
d'Archives des Hauts-de-Seine, 
France: anchel, Robert; armleder; 

BAR-LE-DUC; GROSS, HEINRICH; KAHN, 
LEON; LEVY, ALFRED; LIBER, MAURICE; 
LOEB, ISIDORE; REVUE DES ETUDES 
JUIVES 

Abraham Wein, M.A.; Historian, 

Jerusalem: arenda; berman, adolf 

ABRAHAM; BERMAN, JAKUB; DIAMAND, 
HERMAN; DICKSTEIN, SZYMON; 
DROBNER, BOLESLAW; JOGICHES, LEON; 
KATZ-SUCHY, JULIUSZ; LIEBERMAN, 
HERMAN; MINC, HILARY; SZYR, 
EUGENIUSZ; WARSKI-WARSZAWSKI, 
ADOLF; WOHL, HENRYK; ZAMBROWSKI, 
ROMAN 

David Weinberg*, Ph.D.; Professor 



of History and Director, Cohn- 
Haddow Center for Judaic Studies, 
Wayne State University, Detroit: 

CENTRE DE DOCUMENTATION JUIVE 
CONTEMPORAINE; COLMAR; FRANCE; 
GRENOBLE; GURS; LANZMANN, CLAUDE; 
LILLE; LYONS; MANS, LE; MARSEILLES; 
METZ; MONTPELLIER; NANTES; 
NATZWEILER-STRUTHOF; NICE; ROUEN; 
TOULOUSE; TOURS; VERDUN-SUR- 
GARONNE 

David M. Weinberg, Spokesman, 
Bar-Ilan University, Ramat Gan: bar- 

ILAN UNIVERSITY 

Gerhard (L.) Weinberg*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of History Emeritus, 
University of North Carolina: 

HITLER, ADOLF 

Jill Weinberg*, M.S.W.; Midwest 
Director, United States Holocaust 
Memorial Museum, Highland Park, 
Illinois: schakowsky, janice d. 

Werner Weinberg, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Hebrew Language and Literature, 
the Hebrew Union College -Jewish 
Institute of Religion, Cincinnati, 

Ohio: KABAK, AARON ABRAHAM; 
LETTERIS, MEIR 

Deborah (R.) Weiner*, Ph.D.; 
Research Historian, Jewish Museum 
of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland: 

BALTIMORE 

Hanna Weiner, B.A.; Kibbutz Nebt 
Mordekhai: abiezer; adoniram; 

AGAG; AHIMAN, SHESHAI, TALMAI 

Hollace Ava Weiner*, M.A.; Writer, 
Historian, Archivist, Fort Worth, 
Texas: frisch, ephraim; Goldberg, 

JEANNETTE MIRIAM 

Miriam Weiner*, B.A.; Genealogist, 
Author and Historian, President, 
Routes to Roots Foundation, 
Inc, Secaucus, New Jersey: 

INTERNATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF 
JEWISH GENEALOGICAL SOCIETIES 

Morton Weinfeld*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Sociology, McGill University, 
Montreal, Canada: Canada; 

ROSENBERG, LOUIS; SPECTOR, 

NORMAN 

Moshe Weinfeld, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer in Bible, the Hebrew 
University of Jerusalem: 

CONGREGATION; COVENANT; 



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DEUTERONOMY; ELDER; JOSIAH; 
MOLOCH, CULT OF; ORDEAL OF 
JEALOUSY; PRESENCE, DIVINE; RUTH, 
BOOK OF; TITHE 

Samuel Weingarten-Hakohen, 

Jerusalem: bettelheim, samuel; 

BRATISLAVA; GRISHABER, ISAAC; HELLER, 
ZEVI HIRSCH; JAFFE-MARGOLIOT, ISRAEL 
DAVID; JOAB BEN JEREMIAH; PLAUT, 
HEZEKIAH FEIVEL; PROSSTITZ, DANIEL; 
SIDON, SIMEON; SINGER, PESAH; STEIN, 
ELIEZER LIPMAN; UNGAR, JOEL OF 
RECHNITZ; WEISS, JOSEPH MEIR; WEISZ, 
MAX 

Jacob Weingreen, Ph.D.; Former 
Professor of Hebrew, University 
of Dublin: Hebrew grammar, an 

INTRODUCTION TO 

Uriel Weinreich, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Linguistics and of Yiddish Studies, 
Columbia University, New York: 

YIDDISH LANGUAGE 

Bernard Dov Sucher Weinryb, 

Emeritus Professor of History and 
of Economics, Dropsie University, 
Philadelphia: mainz 

Donald Weinstein, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of History, Rutgers 
University, New Brunswick, New 

Jersey: segre, arturo 

Menachem Weinstein, M.A.; 
Instructor in the Institute for 
Research in the History and 
Culture of Oriental Jewry, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ram at Gan 

Roni Weinstein*, Ph.D.; Research 
Fellow, Modern and Contemporary 
Department, Pisa University, Italy: 

COLUMBUS, CHRISTOPHER 

David Weinstock*, M.M., 

Ph.D.; Assistant Professor, 
Communication/Journalism, Grand 

Valley State University, Allendale, 
Michigan: savannah; trenton; wolf, 

ERIC ROBERT 

Phyllis Holman Weisbard*, M.A., 
M.Ed.; Women's Studies Librarian, 
University of Wisconsin: neugarten, 

BERNICE 

David B. Weisberg, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor of Bible and 
Semitic Languages, Hebrew Union 
College-Jewish Institute of Religion, 
Cincinnati, Ohio: murashu's sons 



Dvora E. Weisberg*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor of Rabbinics, 
Hebrew Union College, Los Angeles: 

AGGADAH 

Meyer Wolf Weisgal, Chancellor of 
the Weizmann Institute of Science, 
Rehovot, Israel: weizmann institute 

OF SCIENCE 

Aharon Weiss, Ph.D.; Researcher, 
Jerusalem: Baranovichi; 

BERESTECHKO; BIELSK PODLASKI; 
BORISLAV; BRASLAV; BUCHACH; BUSK; 
CHORTKOV; DAVID -GORODOK; DISNA; 
DOLGINOVO; DROGOBYCH; DRUYA; 
GLINYANY; GLUBOKOYE; GORODENKA; 
GORODOK; HOLOCAUST; ILYA; IVYE; 
JAROSLAW; JUDENRAT; KALUSH; 
KAMENKA-BUGSKAYA; KLETS; KOBRIN; 
KOLOMYYA; KOMARNO; KORETS; 
KOSOV; KOVEL; KREMENETS; KRYNKI; 
KRZEPICE; KUTY; LACHVA; LANCUT; 
LESHNEV; LEZAJSK; LIDA; LUBLIN; LUTSK; 
LYAKHOVICHI; MIR; MONASTYRISKA; 
NADVORNAYA; NESVIZH; NOVOGRUDOK; 
OSHMYANY; OSTROG; OSTROLEKA; 
PEREMYSHLYANY; PINSK; PODGAITSY; 
PODVOLOCHISK; PRUZHANY; PRZEMYSL; 
RADZIWILLOW; ROGATIN; ROPCZYCE; 
ROVNO; ROZWADOW; RUZHANY; 
RYMANOW; SAMBOR; SANOK; SARNY; 
SIEMIATYCZE; SLONIM; SOKOLKA; 
TARTAKOVER, SAVIELLY GRIGORYEVICH; 
TYKOCIN; ZAMBROW; ZHOLKVA; 
ZMIGROD NOWY; ZWOLEN 

Andrea L. Weiss*, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of Bible, Hebrew Union 
College- Jewish Institute of Religion, 
New York: poetry 

Avi Weiss*, M.A., M.H.L.; Senior 
Rabbi of the Hebrew Institute of 
Riverdale,; National President of the 
AMCHA, Yeshivat Chovevei Tor ah 
Rabbinical School, Riverdale, New 
York: student struggle for soviet 

JEWRY 

Avraham A. Weiss, Dr. Phil.; 
Senior Clinical Lecturer in Clinical 
Psychology, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: rapaport, david 

Benjamin Weiss, New York: 

MISHNAT HA-MIDDOT 

Joseph G. Weiss, Ph.D.; Professor of 
Jewish Studies, London University 

Julius Weiss, B.A., LL.B.; New 
York: Palestine economic 

CORPORATION 



Raphael Weiss, M.A.; Instructor in 
Bible, Tel Aviv University: ehrlich, 

ARNOLD BOGUMIL 

Lee Shai Weissbach*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of History, University of 
Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky: 

KENTUCKY; LOUISVILLE 

Rivka Weiss-Blok*, M.A.; General 
Director (retired), Jewish Historical 
Museum, Amsterdam, The 
Netherlands: rembrandt van rijn 

Chava Weissler*, Ph.D.; Philip and 
Muriel Berman Professor of Jewish 
Civilization, Lehigh University, 
Bethlehem, Pennsylvania: bas tovim, 

SARAH; HOROWITZ, SARAH REBECCA 
RACHEL LEAH; SERL BAS JACOB BEN WOLF 
KRANZ; SHIFRAH OF BRODY; TEHINNAH; 
TKHINES 

Deborah R. Weissman, M.A.; 
Lecturer, School for Overseas 
Students and the Melton Center for 
Jewish Education in the Diaspora, 
the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem 

Paul Weissman, Jerusalem: 

ANTISEMITISM 

Joseph Weitz, Writer and Former 
Head of the Development Authority 
of the Jewish National Fund, 
Jerusalem: Israel, state of: 

A LI YAH 

Raanan Weitz, Ph.D.; Member 
of the World Zionist Executive; 
Director of the Settlement Study 
Center, Rehovot, Israel 

Felix Weltsch, Writer and 
Philosopher, the Jewish National 
and University Library, Jerusalem: 

BROD, MAX; KAFKA, FRANZ 

Robert Weltsch, Dr.Jur.; Writer 
and Director of the Leo Baeck 
Institute, London: adler, friedrich; 

ALLGEMEINE ZEITUNG DES JUDENTUMS; 
BAUER, OTTO; BERNSTEIN, ARON DAVID; 
BERNSTEIN, EDUARD; BRAUNTHAL, 
JULIUS; GERMANY; HAGGADAH, 
PASSOVER 

Beth S. Wenger*, Ph.D.; Katz 
Family Term Chair in American 
Jewish History; Associate 
Professor of History, University of 
Pennsylvania: solomon, hannah 

GREENEBAUM 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Charles Wengrov, Rabbi; Jerusalem 

HALICZ; KOHEN; SHAHOR 

Eugen Werber, Writer, Scholar, 
Lecturer on Judaica, Belgrade: 

ALBAHARI, DAVID; KIS, DANILO; PAPO, 
IZIDOR JOSEF 

R.J. Zwi Werblowsky, D.es- 
L.; Professor of Comparative 
Religion, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem; Former Dean, 
Faculty of the Humanities: aaron; 

ANTHROPOMORPHISM; CAIN; CARO, 
JOSEPH BEN EPHRAIM; CHRISTIANITY; 
DUALISM; MANICHAEISM; OTTO, 
RUDOLPH 

Preben Wernb erg -M oiler, D.Phil; 
Professorial Fellow of St. Peter s 
College and Reader in Semitic 
Philology, the University of Oxford: 

DISCIPLINE, MANUAL OF 

Alfred Werner, J.D.; Art Critic and 

Writer, New York: aronson, naum 

LVOVICH; BAKST, LEON; BERENSON, 
BERNARD; CHAGALL, MARC; EPSTEIN, 
SIR JACOB; FREUNDLICH, OTTO; 
GLICENSTEIN, ENRICO; GOTTLIEB, 
MAURYCY; GROSS, CHAIM; HART, 
SOLOMON ALEXANDER; HOROVITZ, 
LEOPOLD; JOSEPHSON; KAUFMANN, 
ISIDOR; KISLING, MOISE; KOGAN, MOYSE; 
KOLNIK, ARTHUR; KRAYN, HUGO; 
LASANSKY, MAURICIO; LEVY, RUDOLF; 
LIEBERMANN, MAX; LILIEN, EPHRAIM 
MOSES; LIPCHITZ, JACQUES; LISMANN, 
HERMANN; LISSITZKY, EL; MANE-KATZ; 
MARCOUSSIS, LOUIS; MODIGLIANI, 
AMEDEO; MUTER, MELA; MYERS, 
MYER; NADELMAN, ELIE; OPPENHEIM, 
MORITZ DANIEL; ORLIK. EMIL; ORLOFF, 
CHANA; PASCIN, JULES; PASTERNAK, 
LEONID OSIPOVICH; PEVSNER, 
ANTON and NAUM NEHEMIA; PICART, 
BERNARD; PILICHOWSKI, LEOPOLD; 
PISSARRO, CAMILLE; REMBRANDT VAN 
RIJN; RYBACK, ISSACHAR; SALOMON, 
CHARLOTTE; SCULPTURE; SHAHN, 
BEN; SOLOMON, SIMEON; SOUTINE, 
CHAIM; SZYK, ARTHUR; URY, LESSER; 
WALKOWITZ, ABRAHAM; WEBER, MAX; 
ZADKINE, OSSIP 

Samuel Werses, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Hebrew Literature, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

ERTER, ISAAC; HEBREW LITERATURE, 
MODERN; KLAUSNER, JOSEPH GEDALIAH; 
LACHOWER, YERUHAM FISHEL; PERL, 
JOSEPH 

Paul G. Werskey, M.A.; Lecturer 



in Science Policy, the University of 
Edinburgh: bernays 

Benjamin West, Writer, Tel Aviv: 

KIEV 

Robert (David) Wexler*, Ph.D.; 
President and Colen Distinguished 
Lecturer, University of Judaism, Los 
Angeles: wolpe, david j. 

D.H. White, Publisher, Houston: 

HOUSTON 

Libby (K.) White*, M.L.S., 
M.A.L.S.; Director, Joseph 
Meyerhoff Library, Hebrew 
University, Baltimore: Amsterdam, 

BIRDIE; BALABANOFF, ANGELICA; 
BERNARD, JESSIE; KUNIN, MADELEINE 
MAY 

Stephen J. Whitfield*, Ph.D.; 
Professor of American Studies, 
Brandeis University, Watham, 
Massachusetts: brandeis university 

Sally Whyte, Member, International 
Association of Art Critics, 
Conseil International de la Danse 
(UNESCO), London: berkoff, 

STEVEN; ISAACS, SIR JEREMY; MOSHINSKY, 
ELIJAH; SHER, SIR ANTHONY; SUZMAN, 
JANET 

Aaron Wiener, M.A.; Engineer, 
Director General of Tahal, Water 
Planning for Israel, Tel Aviv: 

MEKOROT WATER COMPANY; TAHAL 

Theodore Wiener, M.H.L., Rabbi; 
Washington, D.C.: biographies and 

AUTOBIOGRAPHIES; ENCYCLOPEDIAS; 
FESTSCHRIFTEN 

Helene Wieruszowski, Ph.D.; New 

York: kantorowicz, ernst hartwig; 

LEVISON, WILHELM; LIEBERMANN, FELIX 

Christian Wiese*, Dr. Habil.; 
Associate Professor for Modern 
Jewish History and Thought, 
University of Erfurt, Erfurt, 
Germany: delitzsch, franz; jonas, 

HANS 

Ephraim Jehudah Wiesenberg, 

Ph.D., Rabbi; Reader in Hebrew, 
the University of London: adar-, 

AV; CALENDAR; ELUL; IYYAR; KISLEV; 
MARHESHVAN; NISAN; SHEVAT; SIVAN; 
TAMMUZ; TEVET; TISHRI 

Geoffrey Wigoder, D. Phil., Editor 



in Chief of the Encyclopaedia 
Judaica (1st ed.) print and CD- 
Rom Edition; Director, Oral 
History Division and Jewish Film 
Archives, The Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem; History Consultant, Beth 
Hatefutsoth, Tel Aviv; Jerusalem: 

ABRAHAM BAR HIYYA; AUSCHWITZ 
CONVENT; BETH HATEFUTSOTH; 
CHRISTIANITY; ISRAEL, STATE OF: 
CULTURAL LIFE; MOTION PICTURES; 
TERKEL, STUDS 

Carsten (L.) Wilke*, Ph.D.; 
Research Fellow, Salomon Ludwig 
Steinheim Institute for German 
Jewish History, University of 
Duisburg and Essen, Germany: 

REVAH, ISRAEL SALVATOR; SEPHIHA, 
HAIM VIDAL 

Jacqueline (B.) Williams*, 
Researcher, Writer, Seattle, 
Washington: Seattle; Washington 

H.G.M. Williamson*, B.A., 
M.A., Ph.D., D.D.; Regius 
Professor of Hebrew and Student 
of Christ Church, University of 
Oxford, England: angloisrael 

ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

Adam Wills*, Associate Editor, 
The Jewish Journal of Greater Los 
Angeles, Los Angeles: benjamin, 

RICHARD; BOGDANOVICH, PETER; 
BROOKS, ALBERT; BROOKS, JAMES L.; 
BRUCKHEIMER, JERRY; BURSTYN, MIKE; 
CAAN, JAMES; CHETWYND, LIONEL; 
CLAYBURGH, JILL; COEN, JOEL and 
ETHAN; COOPER, JACKIE; CSUPO, GABOR; 
CURTIS, JAMIE LEE; CURTIZ, MICHAEL; 
DANGERFIELD, RODNEY; DAVIS, SAMMY 
JR.; EISNER, MICHAEL DAMMANN; 
ELFMAN, DANNY; EVANS, ROBERT; 
FELDSHUH, TOVAH; FISHER, CARRIE 
FRANCES; FULLER, SAMUEL MICHAEL; 
FURIE, SIDNEY J.; GABOR, JOLIE, MAGDA, 
ZSA ZSA, and EVA; GILBERT, MELISSA 
ELLEN; GOLAN, MENAHEM; GOLDMAN, 
WILLIAM; GOODRICH, FRANCES and 
HACKETT, ALBERT; GORCEY, LEO; GOULD, 
ELLIOTT; GRAZER BRIAN; GREENE, 
SHECKY; GUGGENHEIM, CHARLES; 
HEAD, EDITH; HERSKOVITZ, MARSHALL 
and ZWICK, EDWARD; HILLER, ARTHUR; 
JAGLOM, HENRY; KAUFMAN, PHILIP; 
KEMPNER, AVIVA; KOPPLE, BARBARA; 
LANSING, SHERRY LEE; LAWRENCE, STEVE 
and GORME, EDYIE; LEVANT, OSCAR; 
MALTIN, LEONARD; MANKIEWICZ, 
HERMAN JACOB; MAY, ELAINE; MAYSLES, 
ALBERT and DAVID PAUL; MEDVED, 
MICHAEL; MICHAELS, LORNE; MONROE, 



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MARILY; MOONVES, LES; MYERSON, 
BESS; NEWMAN, ALFRED; NEWMAN, 
RANDY; NIMOY, LEONARD; OVITZ, 
MICHAEL; PALMER, LILLI; PENN, SEAN; 
RADNER, GILDA; REDSTONE, SUMNER 
MURRAY; REISER, PAUL; RICKLES, DON; 
RIVERS, JOAN; RUDIN, SCOTT; SELDES, 
MARIAN; SHANDLING, GARRY; SHATNER, 
WILLIAM; SHEARER, NORMA; SHERMAN, 
ALLAN; SHILS, EDWARD ALBERT; SIEGEL, 
BENJAMIN "BUGSY"; SILVER, JOAN 
MICKLIN; SILVER, RON; SODERBERGH, 
STEVEN; SONNENFELD, BARRY; SORKIN, 
AARON; SPELLING, AARON; STEIN, JULES 
CEASAR; TAYLOR, ELIZABETH; WALETZKY, 
JOSH; WASSERMAN, LEW; WEBB, JACK; 
WEINSTEIN, HARVEY and BOB; WEST, 
MAE; WINKLER, HENRY; WINSTON, STAN; 
WISEMAN, FREDERICK; YOUNGMAN, 
HENNY 

Renee Winegarten, Ph.D.; Literary 
Critic, London: golding, louis; 

GOLLANCZ, SIR ISRAEL; LEVERSON, ADA; 
WOOLF, LEONARD 

Gershon Winer, New York: 

HERZLIAH HEBREW TEACHERS' 
INSTITUTE; JEWISH TEACHERS' SEMINARY 
AND PEOPLE'S UNIVERSITY; MOTKE 
HABAD 

■ 

Heinrich Zwi Winnik, M.D.; 
Associate Professor of Psychiatry, 
the Hebrew University- Talbieh 
Psychiatric Hospital, Jerusalem: 

DEUTSCH, FELIX; DEUTSCH, HELENE; 
EITINGON, MAX; SAKEL, MANFRED 
JOSHUA 

David Winston, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Hellenistic and Judaic 
Studies, the Graduate Theological 
Union, Berkeley, California: 

LYSIMACHUS OF ALEXANDRIA; MOSES 

Nathan H. Winter, Ph.D., J.D.; 
Associate Professor of Hebrew 
Culture and Education, New York 
University: ascoli; benderly, samson 

Chaim Wirszubski, Ph.D.; 

Professor of Classical Studies, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

PICO DELLA MIRANDOLA, GIOVANNI 

Mark Wischnitzer, Dr.Phil.; 
Professor of Jewish History, Yeshiva 
University, New York: chieftain; 

GUILDS; LABANO; OLYKA; OSWIECIM; 
SANDOMIERZ 

Rachel Wischnitzer, M.A., Dipl. 
Arch.; Emeritus Professor of Fine 



Arts, Yeshiva University, New York: 

ARK 

Kirk Wisemayer*: vineland 

Ruth Wisse, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of Yiddish Literature, 
McGill University, Montreal: 

BERGELSON, DAVID; EINHORN, DAVID; 
ROGOFF, HARRY; SHAPIRO, LAMED 

Alfred Witkon, Dr. Jur.; Justice of 
the Supreme Court, Jerusalem 

Rebecca Wittmann*, Ph.D.; 
Assistant Professor; University of 
Toronto; Toronto, Canada: war 

CRIMES TRIALS 

Aharon Arnold Wiznitzer, Ph.D., 
D.H.L.; Historian, Los Angeles 

Elli Wohlgelernter*, B.A.; 
Journalist, Jerusalem: Abrahams; 

ABRAMS, "CAL"; ABRAMSON, JESSE; 
ADELSTEIN-ROZEANU, ANGELICA; 
ALBERT, MARV; ALCOTT, AMY; ALLEN, 
MEL; ARAD, YAEL; ARATON, HARVEY; 
ARCEL, RAY; ARUM, ROBERT; ATTELL, 
ABRAHAM WASHINGTON; AUERBACH, 
"RED"; AXELROD, ALBERT; BAER, MAX; 
BARNA, VICTOR; BERENSON, SENDA; 
BERG, JACKIE "KID"; BERG, MORRIS; 
BERGER, ISAAC; BERGMANN, RICHARD; 
BERKOW, IRA; BERKOWITZ, MICKEY; 
BERNSTEIN, SID; BETTMAN, GARY; 
BIMSTEIN, "WHITEY"; BLUM, WALTER; 
BOUDREAU, LOU; BRENNER, TEDDY; 
BUXTON, ANGELA; CHESS, LEONARD; 
COHEN, SASHA; COHN, LINDA; 
COPELAND, LILLIAN; COSELL, HOWARD; 
CUBAN, MARK; DANIEL, DAN; DARMON, 
PIERRE; DAVIS, AL; DAVIS, AL "BUMMY"; 
DREYFUSS, BARNEY; ELLIOT, "MAMA" 
CASS; EPSTEIN, BRIAN SAMUEL; FIELDS, 
JACKIE; FISCHLER, STAN; FLAM, HERB; 
FLEISCHER, NATHANIEL STANLEY; 
FLEISHER, LARRY; FRANKLIN, SIDNEY; 
FRIDMAN, GAL; FRIEDMAN, BENJAMIN; 
FRIEDMAN, KINKY; GAYLORD, MITCHELL; 
GOLDBERG, MARSHALL; GOLDENBERG, 
CHARLES ROBERT; GOLDSTEIN, RUBY; 
GOROKHOVSKAYA, MARIA; GOTTLIEB, 
EDWARD; GRAHAM, BILL; GREEN, SHAWN 
DAVID; GREENBERG, HENRY BENJAMIN; 
GREENSPAN, BUD; GRUNFELD, ERNIE; 
GUZIK, JACOB; HALBERSTAM, DAVID; 
HARMATZ, WILLIAM; HARRISON, 
LESTER; HERSHKOWITZ, VICTOR; 
HOLLANDERSKY, ABRAHAM; HOLMAN, 
NATHAN; HOLTZMAN, KENNETH DALE; 
HOLZMAN, WILLIAM; HUGHES, SARAH 
ELIZABETH; IZENBERG, JERRY; JACOBS, 
HIRSCH; JACOBS, JAMES LESLIE; JACOBS, 



JOE; JAFFEE, IRVING W; JAY, ALLAN LOUIS 
NEVILLE; KAHN, ROGER; KELETI, AGNES; 
KOPPETT, LEONARD; KOUFAX, SANDY; 
KRAFT, ROBERT K.; KRAYZELBURG, 
LENNY; KRISS, GRIGORI; LANSKY, MEYER; 
LEBOW, FRED; LEIBER & STOLLER; 
LEONARD, BENNY; LEVINSKY, BATTLING; 
LEVY, MARV; LEWIS, TED; LIEBERMAN, 
NANCY ELIZABETH; LIEBLING, A.J.; 
LIPSYTE, ROBERT MICHAEL; LITWACK, 
HARRY; LUCKMAN, SIDNEY; MATZAH; 
MESSING, SHEP; MILLER, MARVIN JULIAN; 
MIX, RONALD JACK; MODELL, ARTHUR 
B.; OCHS, PHILIP DAVID; PATKIN, MAX; 
PAUL, GABRIEL HOWARD; PIKE, LIPMAN 
EMANUEL; PODOLOFF, MAURICE; POLLIN, 
ABE; POMUS, DOC; POVICH, SHIRLEY 
LEWIS; REESE, JIMMIE; REINSDORF, JERRY; 
ROSEN, ALBERT LEONARD; ROSENBLOOM, 
MAX EVERITT; ROSS, BARNEY; SALITA, 
DMITRIY; SAPERSTEIN, ABRAHAM M.; 
SAVITT, RICHARD; SCHAAP, RICHARD 
J.; SCHACHT, ALEXANDER; SCHULTZ, 
DUTCH; SHAMSKY, ARTHUR LOUIS; 
SHERRY, LAWRENCE and NORMAN 
BURT; SPITZ, MARK ANDREW; SPORTS; 
STARK, ALBERT; STONE, STEVEN 
MICHAEL 

Salomon Wolf, Ph.D.; Jerusalem: 

KORNIK, MEIR BEN MOSES 

Adela Wolfe, M.A.; Jerusalem: adam 
Ronald Wolfson* : hoffman, 

LAWRENCE A. 

Penny Diane Wolin*, B.F.A.; 
Photographer, Crazy Woman 
Creek Press, Sebastopol, California: 

WYOMING 

William Wollheim, Writer, New 
York 

Jeffrey R. Woolf*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat 
Gan: colon, Joseph ben solomon 

Leon Wulman, M.D.; New York: 

OZE or OSE 

Max Wurmbrand, Ramat Gan: 

FAITLOVITCH, JACQUES; HAM; 
PROSTITUTION; SAALSCHUETZ, JOSEPH 
LEWIN; SALZ, ABRAHAM ADOLPH; 
SILBERFARB, MOSES; ZAMENHOF, LUDWIK 
LAZAR 

Uri Shraga Wurzburger, M.Sc; 
Managing Director of the Timna 
Copper Mines, Israel: metals 

AND MINING; PRECIOUS STONES AND 
JEWELRY 



172 



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CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Walter S. Wurzburger, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Visiting Associate Professor 
of Philosophy, Yeshiva University, 
New York: orthodoxy; piety and 

THE PIOUS; PROPHETS AND PROPHECY; 
REVELATION 

Michael Wygoda*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Director of Jewish Law, Ministry of 
Justice, Jerusalem: agency; lease and 

HIRE; LOST PROPERTY 

Stanislaw Wygodzki, Writer, 
Givatayim, Israel: brandys, 

KAZIMIERZ; HEMAR, MARIAN; JASIENSKI, 
BRUNO; JASTRUN, MIECZYSLAW; LEC, 
STANISLAW JERZY; LESMIAN, BOLESLAW; 
PEIPER, TADEUSZ; RUDNICKI, ADOLF; 
SCHULZ, BRUNO; SLONIMSKI, ANTONI; 
STERN, ANATOL; STRYJKOWSKI, JULJAN; 
WAT, ALEXANDER; WITTLIN, JOZEF 

Veit Wyler, Dr.Jur.; Attorney and 
Editor, Zurich: Guggenheim, paul-, 

PRESS 

Edith Wyschogrod, Ph.D.; Assistant 
Professor of Philosophy, Queens 
College of the City University of 
New York 

Xun Zhou*, Ph.D.; ESRC Research 
Fellow, SOAS, University of London, 
England: china 

Avraham Yaari, Writer and 
bibliographer, Jerusalem: Abraham 

HA-LEVI; ALEXANDRIA; ALSHEIKH, 
SHALOM BEN JOSEPH; ASHKENAZI, JONAH 
BEN JACOB; BAGHDAD; BENJAMIN BEN 
ELIJAH; BERDICHEV; BERMAN, SIMEON; 
BING, ISAAC BEN SAMUEL; BULA, 
RAPHAEL MOSES; CAIRO; CALCUTTA; 
DAVID BEN JOSHUA; DAYYAN; DISKIN, 
MORDEKHAI; DIWAN, JUDAH BEN 
AMRAM; ELIJAH OF LA MASSA; ELISHA 
HAYYIM BEN JACOB ASHKENAZI; 
FELMAN, AHARON LEIB; GALANTE, 
JEDIDIAH BEN MOSES; GEDALIAH OF 
SIEMIATYCZE; GEDILIAH, ABRAHAM 
BEN SAMUEL; HABILLO, DAVID; ISRAEL; 
ISRAEL BEN SAMUEL OF SHKLOV; LURIA, 
JEHIEL BEN ISRAEL ASHKENAZI; MALKHI, 
EZRA BEN RAPHAEL MORDECAI; MALKHI, 
MOSES; MALKHI, MOSES BEN RAPHAEL 
MORDECAI; MEIR BEN HIYYA ROFE; 
NAZIR, MOSES HA-LEVI; PETHAHIAH 
OF REGENSBURG; PORGES, MOSES BEN 
ISRAEL NAPHTALI; RAPPAPORT, ISAAC 
BEN JUDAH HA-KOHEN; SAFED; SAMUEL 
BEN SAMSON; SHALEM, SAMUEL; SIMHAH 
BEN JOSHUA OF ZALOZHTSY; TOLEDO, 
MOSES DE; URI BEN SIMEON OF BIALA; 
VOLTERRA, MESHULLAM BEN MENAHEM, 



DA; YIZHAKI, ABRAHAM BEN DAVID; 
ZOREF, ABRAHAM SOLOMON ZALMAN 

Nurith Yaari*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer, Tel Aviv University: 

LEVIN, HANOCH; SOBOL, YEHOSHUA; 
YERUSHALMI, RINA; YIZRAELY, YOSSI 

Hanna (N.) Yablonka*, Ph.D.; 
Associate Professor, Ben-Gurion 
University of the Negev, Beersheva: 

EICHMANN, ADOLF OTTO 

Yigael Yadin, Ph.D.; Lieutenant 
General (Res.), Israel Defense 
Forces; Professor of Archaeology, 
the Hebrew University of 
Jerusalem: hazor; temple; temple 

SCROLL 

Aharon Yadlin, B.A.; Member of 
the Knesset; Deputy Minister of 
Education and Culture, Kibbutz 
Hazerim: hevrat ha-ovedim 

• ♦ 

Leon J. Yagod, D.H.L., Rabbi; 

Irvington, New Jersey: tradition 

Chaim Yahil, Ph.D.; Director 
General of the Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs; Chairman of the Israel 
Broadcasting Authority, Jerusalem: 

BERLIN; CZECHOSLOVAKIA; EDELSTEIN, 
JACOB; FINALY CASE; GENEVA; GERMANY; 
GOLDMANN, NAHUM; ISRAEL, STATE 
OF: HISTORICAL SURVEY; KAHN, 
FRANZ; MASARYK, JAN GARRIGUE; 
MASARYK, THOMAS GARRIGUE; NORWAY; 
POHORELICE; PRAGUE; RUFEISEN, 
JOSEPH; SALONIKA; SCHMOLKA, MARIE; 
SPIEGEL, LUDWIG; STEIN, AUGUST; 
STEINER, HANNAH; SWEDEN; UHERSKE 
HRADISTE; UNRRA; VALENTIN, HUGO 
MAURICE; VAN DAM, HENDRIK GEORGE; 
WINTER, GUSTAV; ZDOVSKA STRANA; 
ZIDOVSKA STRANA; ZIONISM 

Leni Yahil, Ph.D.; Historian, 

Jerusalem: bernadotte, folke, 

EARL OF WISBORG; BRANDES, GEORG; 
DENMARK; GASSING; MADAGASCAR 
PLAN; MENDELSSOHN, MOSES; NORWAY; 
QUISLING, VIDKUN ABRAHAM 
LAURITZ JONSS0N; RIESSER, GABRIEL; 
STOCKHOLM; WOLFF, ABRAHAM 
ALEXANDER 

Bracha Yaniv*, Ph.D.; Senior 
Lecturer, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat 

Gan: PAROKHET and KAPPORET; torah 
ORNAMENTS 

Yaacov Yannai, Commissioner 
General of the National Parks 



Authority, Tel Aviv: national parks 

IN ISRAEL 

Itamar Yaos-Kest, B.A.; Writer and 
Poet, Tel Aviv: benjamin, laszlO; 

DERY, TIBOR; RADNOTI, MIKLOS 

Edith Yapou-Hoffmann, Ph.D.; 
Instructor in Art History, Tel Aviv 
University: Israels, jozef 

Jacob Yardeni, D.D.S.; Former 
Senior Lecturer, the School of 
Dentistry, the Hebrew University - 
Hadassah Medical School, 
Jerusalem: Gottlieb, bernhard 

Galia Yardeni -Agmon, Ph.D.; 

Writer, Jerusalem: gutmann, david 

MEIR; PINES, YEHIEL MICHAEL 

Baruch Yaron, Dr. Phil.; Former 
Librarian, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: baracs, kAroly; biro, 

LAJOS; BRODY, ZSIGMOND; CHILDREN'S 
LITERATURE; DENES, BELA; DOCZY, 
LAJOS; EGYENLOSEG; EMOD, TAMAS; 
EOTVOS, BARON JOZSEF; EPPLER, 
SANDOR; FALK, MIKSA; FALUDY, GYORGY; 
FEJTO, FRANCOIS; FENYES, ADOLF; 
FENYO, MIKSA; FISCHER, GYULA; FRANKL, 
ADOLF; FRIEDMAN, DENES; GABOR, 
IGNAC; GELLERI, ANDOR ENDRE; GERO, 
ERNO; GISZKALAY, jANOS; GYONGYOS; 
HAJDU, MIKLOS; HAJNAL, ANNA; 
HATVANY-DEUTSCH; HELTAI, JENO; 
HEVESI, SANDOR; HODMEZOVASARHELY; 
HUNGARIAN LITERATURE; IGNOTUS, 
HUGO; JASZI, OSZKAR; KACZER, ILLES; 
KAPOSVAR; KARDOS, LASZLO; KATZ, 
MENAHEM; KIRJATH SEPHER; KISS, 
JOZSEF; KISVARDA; KOBOR, TAMAS; 
KOHLBACH, BERTALAN; KOMLOS, 
ALADAR; KORMENDI, FERENC; KRAUSZ, 
ZSIGMOND; KUNFI, ZSIGMOND; LAKATOS, 
LASZLO; LENGYEL, JOZSEF; LENGYEL, 
MENYHERT; MEZOFI, VILMOS; MOHACSI, 
JENO; MOLNAR, FERENC; MULT ES JOVO; 
MUNKACSI, ERNO; NAGYBACZONI- 
NAGY, VILMOS; NAMENYI, ERNEST; 
NEOLOGY; NUMERUS CLAUSUS; PAKS; 
PALAGYI, LAJOS; PAP, KAROLY; PATAI, 
JOZSEF; PESTSZENTERZSEBET; PRESS; 
PUBLISHING; RAKOSI, MATYAS; REVESZ, 
BELA; REVICZKY, IMRE; RICHTMANN, 
MOZES; SANDOR, PAL; SATORALJAUJHELY; 
SCHULHOF, ISAAC; SOMOGYI, BELA; 
SOPRON; SPITZER, SAMUEL; STATUS 
QUO ANTE; SZABO, IMRE; SZABOLCSI, 
LAJOS; SZABOLCSI, MIKSA; SZEGED; 
SZEKESFEHERVAR; SZENDE, PAL; 
SZENES, BELA; SZENES, ERZSI; SZEP, 
ERNO; SZERB, ANTAL; SZILAGYI, GEZA; 
SZOLNOK; SZOMBATHELY; SZOMORY, 



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173 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



DEZSO; TARBIZ; THEBEN, JACOB KOPPEL; 
TUROCZI-TROSTLER, JOZSEF; UJVARI, 
PETER; VAGO, JOZSEF; VESZI, JOZSEF; 
VESZPREM; VIHAR, BELA; WERTHEIMER, 
EDUARD VON; ZIPSER, MAJER; ZSOLDOS, 
JENO; ZSOLT, BELA 

Emuna Yaron*, Literary Executor, 
Shmuel Yosef Agnon Papers and 
Unpublished Works: agnon, shmuel 

YOSEF 

Reuven Yaron, D.Phil.; Professor 
of Roman Law and Ancient Near 
Eastern Law, the Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem: taubenschlag, 

RAPHAEL 

Hanri Yasova, Writer, Istanbul 

Meir Ydit, Ph.D.; Dr.rer.Pol., 
Rabbi; Perth, Australia: ahot 

KETANNAH; ASSI; AV, THE NINTH 
OF; AVODAH; BADHAN; BE-MOZA'EI 
MENUHAH; CANDLES; CEMETERY; 
CHILDREN'S SERVICES; DIRINGER, DAVID; 
DISINTERMENT; EIN KE-ELOHENU; EL 
NORA ALILAH; HAZKARAT NESHAMOT; 
HEAD, COVERING OF THE; HESPED; 
HUKKAT HA-GOI; KABBALAT SHABBAT; 
LAG BA-OMER; LEKHAH DODI; MEHIZAH; 
MOON, BLESSING OF THE; SE'UDAH; 
TAHANUN; TU BI-SHEVAT 

Jacob Yehoshua, M.A.; Former 
Director of the Moslem 
Department, Ministry of Religious 
Affairs, Jerusalem: Israel, state of: 

RELIGIOUS LIFE AND COMMUNITIES 

Ze'ev Yeivin, M.A.; Department of 
Antiquities, Ministry of Education 
and Culture, Jerusalem: banner; 

BEARD AND SHAVING; BITUMEN; 
CART AND CHARIOT; COOKING AND 
BAKING; COSMETICS; CRAFTS; CROWNS, 
DECORATIVE HEADDRESSES, AND 
WREATHS; DOOR AND DOORPOST; 
DRESS; FIRE; FOOD; IVORY; MILLSTONE; 
PILLAR; SHIPS AND SAILING; THRONE; 
THUNDER AND LIGHTNING; TOMBS AND 
TOMBSTONES; WOOD; YOKE 

Irwin Yellowitz, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of History, City 
College of the City University of 
New York: abelson, paul; 

BRESSLER, DAVID MAURICE; DE LEON, 
DANIEL; DYCHE, JOHN ALEXANDER; 
GOLDMAN, EMMA; GOMPERS, SAMUEL; 
HILLQUIT, MORRIS; LONDON, MEYER; 
POTOFSKY, JACOB SAMUEL; RUBINOW, 
ISAAC MAX; TAILORING; WALD, 
LILLIAN 



Meir Yoeli, M.Sc, M.D.; Professor 
of Preventative Medicine, New York 
University School of Medicine: 

ADLER, SAUL AARON 

Abraham Yoffe, Major General 
(Res.), Israel Defense Forces; 
Director of the Israel Nature 
Reserves Authority, Tel Aviv: 

LIPSCHUETZ, GEDALIAH BEN SOLOMON 
ZALMAN; NATURE RESERVES IN ISRAEL 

Abraham B. Yoffe, Critic and 
Editor, Tel Aviv: shlonsky, Abraham ; 

ZEMACH, SHLOMO 

Gedalia Yogev, Ph.D.; Editor, 
The Weizmann Letters, Jerusalem: 

DIAMOND TRADE AND INDUSTRY 

Mel and Cindy Yoken*, Ph.D.; 
Chancellor Professor of French, 
Officer dans l'Ordre des Palmes 
Academiques, University of 
Massachusetts, Dartmouth: new 

BEDFORD 

Nissim Yosha, M.A.; Center for 
the Integration of the Heritage 
of Oriental Jewry, Ministry of 
Education, Jerusalem 

Lillian Youman, Director, Jewish 
Information and Referral Service, 
Jewish Federation of Greater 
Philadelphia, Philadelphia: 

PHILADELPHIA 

David A. Young, Jewish Federation 
of St. Louis 

D wight Young, Ph.D.; Associate 
Professor of Ancient Near Eastern 
Civilization, Brandeis University, 
Waltham, Massachusetts: flood, 

THE; NOAH 

Toni Young*, B.A., M.A.; Historian, 
Author, Jewish Historical Society of 

Delaware, Wilmington, Delaware: 

DELAWARE; WILMINGTON 

William (A.) Younglove*, Ed.D.; 
Teacher Supervisor, California State 
University Long Beach, California: 

CHILDREN'S LITERATURE 

Leon I. (Israel) Yudkin*, Ph.D.; 
Lit. Author and Visiting Professor, 
Honorary Fellow, University 
College, London, England: shabtai, 

YAAKOV 

Natan Zach, B.A.; Lecturer in 



Hebrew and Comparative Literature, 
Tel Aviv University: fichman, jacob; 

LENSKI, HAYYIM; POMERANTZ, BERL; 
POMERANTZ, BERL; STEINBERG, JACOB; 
STERN, NOAH 

Efraim Zadoff*, Ph.D.; Historian, 
Editor, Research on Latin American 
Jews, Jerusalem: alpersohn, 

MARCOS; AMIA; ANGEL, AARON; 
ARGENTINA; BARYLKO, JAIME; BEHAR, 
LEON; BEIDERMAN, BERNARDO; 
BENZAQUEN SAADIA; BERAJA, RUBEN 
EZRA; BERGER, MEIR; BLEJER, DAVID; 
BLEJER, MARIO ISRAEL; CHEHEBAR, 
ISAAC; CONSTANTINER, JAIME; 
CZENSTOCHOWSKI, WALTER; DAIA; 
EDUCATION, JEWISH; ELNECAVE, 
DAVID; FASTLICHT, ADOLFO; FELDMAN, 
SHIMSHON SIMON; FINKELSTEIN, 
CHAIM; GENEALOGY; GESANG, NATHAN- 
NACHMAN; GOLDMAN, AHARON 
HALEVI; GOLDMAN, MOISES; HARF, 
HANNS; JOURNALISM; KAMENSZAIN, 
TOBIAS; KITRON, MOSHE; LATIN 
AMERICA; LERNER, JAIME; LEVY, ROBERT; 
MILEVSKY, AHARON; NAJDORF, MIGUEL; 
NICARAGUA; PARAGUAY; POLITICS; 
RAFALIN, DAVID SHLOMO; ROSENBERG, 
MOISHE; SCHLESINGER, GUILLERMO; 
SEGALL, LASAR; SEROUSSI, ELIAS; 
SINGERMAN, BERTA; SOURASKY; TURKOW, 
MARC; YAGUPSKY, MAXIMO 

Noam Zadoff*, M.A.; Doctoral 
Student, Richard Koebuer Minerva 
Center for German History, the 
University of Jerusalem: arakhin; 

BEKHOROT; BLUMENFELD, KURT 
YEHUDAH; BLUMENTHAL, OSKAR; 
BRUCKNER, FERDINAND; CHRONEGK, 
LUDWIG; DAWISON, BOGUMIL; DOMIN, 
HILDE; HEIMANN, MORITZ; KALISCH, 
DAVID; KASTEIN, JOSEF; KOEBNER, 
RICHARD; LANDAUER, GUSTAV; 
OPHUELS, MAX; OPPENHEIMER, FRANZ; 
POLGAR, ALFRED; ROSENBERG, ARTHUR; 
SALOMON, ALICE; SATANOW, ISAAC; 
SCHILDKRAUT, RUDOLPH; SCHMID, 
ANTON VON; SCHOTTLAENDER, BENDET; 
VIERTEL, BERTHOLD; WEININGER, OTTO; 
WEISS, JOSEPH G. 

Haim Zafrani, Ph.D., D.es- 
L.; Charge de Recherche au 
Centre National de la Recherche 
Scientifique; Director of the Hebrew 
Department of the University of 
Paris- Vincennnes: abitbol; ankawa, 

RAPHAEL BEN MORDECAI; HAGIZ; JUDEO- 
ARABIC; SERERO, SAUL 

David Zakay, Editor and Journalist, 

Tel Aviv: anokhi, zalman yizhak 



174 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



Michael Zand, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Persian and Tajik Language and 
Literature, The Hebrew University 
of Jerusalem; Chief Scientific 
Consultant to The Shorter Jewish 
Encyclopaedia in Russian, Jerusalem: 

BUKHARA; GAPONOV, BORIS; GEORGIA; 
KRIMCHAKS; MOUNTAIN JEWS; 
WEISSMAN, BARUCH MORDECAI 

Walter Zanger, M.A., Rabbi; 
Jerusalem: ein kerem; Philippines 

Melvin S. Zaret*, M.S.W.; 
Consultant for Jewish Communities, 
National Agencies and Executives 
Milwaukee Jewish Federation 
Executive Vice President, Emeritus 
and Consultant, Milwaukee: 

MILWAUKEE 

Shaul Zarhi, M.Sc; Economist, Tel 

Aviv: COOPERATIVES 

Leah Zazulyer*, M.S.; Writer, 
Translator, School Psychologist 
Teacher (retired), New York: emiot, 

ISRAEL 

Mark Zborowski, Ph.D.; Research 
Associate in Medicine, Mount Zion 
Hospital and Medical Center, San 
Francisco, California: shtetl 

Jekutiel-Zwi Zehawi, Ph.D.; 
Educator, Tel Aviv: ronai, jAnos; 

SCHOENFELD, JOSEPH 

Moshe Zeidner, B.A.; Tel Aviv: 

MENE, MENE, TEKEL, U-FARSIN 

Nadia Zeldes*, Ph.D.; Researcher, 
Institute of Judaic Studies, the 
Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 

AGRIGENTO; ALGHERO; AMALFI; 
APULIA; BARI; BENEVENTO; BRINDISI; 
CAGLIARI; CALABRIA; CAPUA; CATANIA; 
CATANZARO; COSENZA; DIENCHELELE; 
FREDERICK II OF HOHENSTAUFEN; 
GAETA; LECCE; MARSALA; MESSINA; 
MITHRIDATES, FLAVIUS; MOSES OF 
PALERMO; PALERMO; SALERNO; SAN 
NICANDRO; TARANTO; TRAPANI; 
VENOSA 

Joyce Zemans*, M.A.; University 
Professor, York University, Toronto, 
Canada: etrog, sorel; frenkel, 

VERA; ISKOWITZ, GERSHON; PACHTER, 
CHARLES 

Carol Zemel*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Art History, York, University, 
Toronto, Canada: singer, yvonne 



Hanna Zemer, B.A.; Editor of 
Davar, Tel Aviv 

Marcia Jo Zerivitz*, Founding 
Executive Director and Chief 
Curator, Jewish Museum of 
Florida: broward county; Florida; 

JACKSONVILLE; LEE AND CHARLOTTE 
COUNTIES; MIAMI-DADE COUNTY; 
NAPLES AND COLLIER COUNTY; 
ORLANDO; PALM BEACH COUNTY; SAINT 
PETERSBURG; SARASOTA; TALLAHASSEE; 
TAMPA 

Mordechay Zerkawod, Dr. Phil.; 
Emeritus Professor of Bible, Bar-Ilan 
University, Ramat Gan: ehrenkranz, 

BENJAMIN ZEEB 

Charles Zibbell, M.S.; Associate 
Executive Director, Council of 
Jewish Federations, New York: 

PHILANTHROPY 

David L. Zielonka, M.A.H.L., 
Rabbi; Professor of Religion, the 
University of Tampa, Florida 

Wendy (Ilene) Zierler*, B.A., M.A., 
Ph.D.; Assistant Professor, Modern 
Jewish Literature and Feminist 
Studies, Hebrew Union College- 
Jewish Institute of Religion, New 
York: pogrebin, letty cottin ; seid, 

RUTH 

Gershon Zilberberg, Editor of 
Olam ha-Defuss, Tel Aviv: printing, 

HEBREW 

Abraham Zimels, M.A., Rabbi; 
Senior Lecturer in Bible, the 
University of the Negev, Beersheba: 

BIBLE 

Hirsch Jacob Zimmels, Ph.D., 
Rabbi; Former Principal and 
Lecturer in Jewish History and 
Rabbinics, Jews' College, London: 

DAVID BEN SOLOMON IBN ABI ZIMRA; 
DURAN, PROFIAT; DURAN, SIMEON 
BEN ZEMAH; DURAN, SOLOMON BEN 
SIMEON; DURAN, ZEMAH BEN SOLOMON; 
EPSTEIN, ISIDORE; FREIMANN, JACOB; 
IBN YAHYA, DAVID BEN JOSEPH; IBN 
YAHYA, GEDALIAH BEN DAVID; IBN 
YAHYA, JOSEPH BEN DAVID; ISAAC BEN 
MELCHIZEDEK OF SIPONTO; ISAAC BEN 
SHESHET PERFET; NORZI, JEDIDIAH 
SOLOMON RAPHAEL BEN ABRAHAM; 
TRANI, MOSES BEN JOSEPH; YATSH, 
BARUCH BEN ISAAC IBN 

Akiva Zimmerman, Lecturer 



and Journalist on Hazzanut, Tel 

Aviv: BACON, YIDEL; ACKERMAN, 
SHABTAI; ALTER, ISRAEL; ARONI, TSVI; 
BACON, HIRSCH LEIB; BACON, ISRAEL; 
BACON, SHLOMO REUVEN; BAGLEY, 
DAVID; BELGRADO, DAVID FERNANDO; 
BEN-HAIM, YIGAL; BLOCH, CHARLES; 
BRAUN, ARIE; DANTO, LOUIS; DI-ZAHAV, 
EPHRAIM; EPHROS, GERSHON; ESHEL, 
YITZHAK; GANCHOFF, MOSES; GANTMAN, 
JUDAH LEIB; GERBER, MAYNARD; 
GREENBLATT, ELIYAHU; HAINOVITZ, 
ASHER; HAZZAN; HEILMANN, YITZHAK; 
HERSTIK, NAFTALI; KALIB, SHOLOM; 
KARMON, ISRAEL; KRAUS, MOSHE; 
LEFKOWITZ, DAVID; LERER, JOSHUA; 
LERER, SHMUEL; LUBIN, ABRAHAM; 
MALOVANY, JOSEPH; MANDEL, 
SHELOMOH; MEISELS, SAUL; MELAMED, 
NISSAN COHEN; MENDELSON, JACOB 
BEN-ZION; MENDELSON, SOLOMON; 
MILLER, BEN-ZION; MULLER, BENJAMIN; 
POLLAK, ZALMAN; PUTTERMAN, 
DAVID; RABINOVICZ, HAIM BEN ZION; 
RABINOVICZ, PINCHAS; RICARDO, DAVID; 
ROSENFELD, ABRAHAM ISAAC JACOB; 
SCHULHOF, MOSHE; SOBOL, MORDECHAI; 
STERN, MOSHE; TALMON, ZVI; TAUBE, 
MOSHE; TAUBE, SAMUEL BARUCH; 
UNGAR, BENJAMIN; VIGODA, SAMUEL; 
WEISGAL, ABBA JOSEPH; WOHLBERG, 
MOSHE 

Oren Zinder, Ph.D.; Jerusalem: 

LANDAU, LEOPOLD 

Zvi Harry Zinder, B.A.; Jerusalem: 

PUBLIC RELATIONS 

Zvi Zinger (Yaron), B.A., Rabbi; the 
Jewish Agency, Jerusalem: 

Avner Ziv, Ph.D.; Professor, 
Department of Educational 
Sciences, Tel Aviv University: humor 

Ari Z. Zivotofsky*, Rabbinic 
Ordination, Ph.D.; Lecturer, 
Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan: 

MATZAH 

Dov Zlotnick, D.H.L., Rabbi; 
Associate Professor of Rabbinic 
Literature, the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America, New York 

Moshe Nahum Zobel, Dr.Phil.; 

Encyclopaedia Judaica (Germany); 
Jerusalem: Abraham ben nathan; 

AFENDOPOLO, CALEB BEN ELIJAH; 
ALI BEN AMRAM; AL-NAKAWA, ISRAEL 
BEN JOSEPH; AL-TARAS, SlDl IBN; 
APTOWITZER, VICTOR; ASHI; ASSAF, 
SIMHA; BACHER, WILHELM; BANET, 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



175 



CONTRIBUTORS TO THE ENCYCLOPAEDIA 



MORDECAI BEN ABRAHAM; BANET, 
NAPHTALI BEN MORDECAI; BARUCH 
BEN ISAAC OF REGENSBURG; BEN 
ALAN, JOSHUA; BENVENISTE, HAYYIM 
BEN ISRAEL; BLOCH, MOSES; BLOGG, 
SOLOMON BEN EPHRAIM; BOSKOWITZ, 
BENJAMIN ZE'EV HA-LEVI; BREUER, 
SOLOMON; CONFORTE, DAVID; CRESCAS, 
ASHER BEN ABRAHAM; GALEN, 
CLAUDIUS; GOSLAR, NAPHTALI HIRSCH 
BEN JACOB; GUNZBERG, ARYEH LEIB 
BEN ASHER; IBN SHEM TOV, JOSEPH 
BEN SHEM TOV; JONATHAN BEN JOSEPH 
OF RUZHANY; JOSEPH BEN DAVID 
HA-YEVANI; KAUFMANN, DAVID; NEW 
CHRISTIANS 

Danah Zohar, M.A.; Jerusalem: 

BRILL, ABRAHAM ARDEN 

Harry Zohn, Ph.D.; Professor 
of German, Brandeis University, 
Waltham, Massachusetts: altenberg, 

PETER; AUERNHEIMER, RAOUL; 
FEUCHTWANGER, LION; FRIEDELL, EGON; 
FRISCH, EFRAIM; HOFFMANN, CAMILL; 
KAUFMANN, FRITZ MORDECAI; KOLMAR, 
GERTRUD; KRAMER, THEODOR; KRAUS, 
KARL; PERUTZ, LEO; POLGAR, ALFRED; 
SACHS, NELLY; SAMPTER, JESSIE ETHEL; 
TREBITSCH, SIEGFRIED; TUCHOLSKY, 
KURT; VIERTEL, BERTHOLD; ZWEIG, 
STEFAN 

Gary P. (Phillip) Zola*, Ph.D.; 

Associate Professor of the American 
Jewish Experience, Hebrew Union 
College-Jewish Institute of Religion, 
Cincinnati, Ohio: American Jewish 

ARCHIVES; SARNA, JONATHAN DANIEL 

Maurice Zolotow, B.A.; Los 

Angeles: Schwartz, delmore 

Sharon Zrachya*, Administrative 
Assistant, Hod Hasharon, Israel: 

ARNON, DANIEL ISRAEL; AVIDOV, ZVI; 



COHEN, SEYMOUR STANLEY; FEUER, 
HENRY; WEIL, JOSEPH 

Philipp Zschommler*, M.A.; 
Jewish Studies, Trainee at the Dai 
Damascus, Hochschule fur Judische 
Studien, Heidelberg, Germany: 

ADLER, FRIEDRICH; BLAU, TINA; 
FLECHTHEIM, ALFRED; FREUND, GISELE; 
GRUNDIG, LEA and HANS; HEARTFIELD, 
JOHN; KAHNWEILER, DANIEL-HENRY; 
KATZ, HANNS LUDWIG; NUSSBAUM, 
FELIX; NUSSBAUM, JAKOB; WOLPERT, 
LUDWIG YEHUDA 

Jeno Zsoldos, Ph.D.; Educator, 

Budapest: Agai, adolf; balAzs, 

BELA; BANETH, EZEKIEL BEN JACOB; BEN 
CHANANJA; BERENY, ROBERT; BETTELHEIM; 
BOKROS-BIRMAN, DEZSO; BRODY, SANDOR; 
BUDAPEST; GOLDBERGER, IZIDOR; HIRSCH, 
MARKUS; HIRSCHLER, IGNAC; HUNGARIAN 
LITERATURE; ISTOCZY, GYOZO; KORNFELD, 
ZSIGMOND; LANCZY, GYULA; LEDERER, 
ABRAHAM; LOEWY, ISAAC; MEZEI, 
MOR; MEZEY, FERENC; NAGYKANIZSA; 
ROSENTHAL, NAPHTALI; SCHEIBER, 
ALEXANDER; SCHWAB, LOW; SIMON, 
JOSEPH; ULLMANN, ADOLPH; WAHRMANN, 
ISRAEL; WAHRMANN, MORITZ; WEISS, 
MANFRED 

Susan Zuccotti*, Ph.D.; 
Independent Historian (retired), 
New York: bolzano 

Louis Zucker, Ph.D.; Emeritus 
Professor of English, the University 
of Utah, Salt Lake City: idaho 

Moshe Zucker, Ph.D., Rabbi; 
Professor of Biblical Exegesis, the 
Jewish Theological Seminary of 
America, New York 

Menahem Zulay, Dr. Phil.; Scholar 
of Medieval Hebrew poetry, 



Jerusalem: haduta ben Abraham; 

INSTITUTE FOR THE RESEARCH OF 
MEDIEVAL HEBREW POETRY; JUDAH HA- 
LEVI BEI-RABBI HILLEL; ZEBIDAH 

Efraim Zuroff*, Ph.D.; Coordinator, 
Nazi War Crimes Research Institute, 
Director Israel Office, Simon 
Wiesenthal Center, Jerusalem: 

HOLOCAUST, RESCUE FROM; SAR, SAMUEL 
L.; SARACHEK, BERNARD; VAAD HA- 
HATZALAH; WIESENTHAL, SIMON 

Itay (B.) Zutra*, Ph.D.; Student, 
The Jewish Theological Seminary 
of America, New York: Friedman, 

JACOB; KULBAK, MOYSHE; SHTERN, 
ISRAEL; WEINSTEIN, BERISH 

Benjamin Zvieli, M.A., Rabbi; 
Director of Religious Broadcasting, 
Jerusalem: Israel, state of: religious 

LIFE AND COMMUNITIES; SYNAGOGUE 

Alexander Zvielli, Director, 
Jerusalem Post Archives, Jerusalem: 

HUMPHREY, HUBERT H.; LANDAU, MOSHE; 
SHAMGAR, MEIR; SUSSMAN, YOEL; 
WITKON, ALFRED 

Aharon Zwergbaum, LL.D.; 
Legal Adviser, World Zionist 
Organization, Jerusalem: basle 

PROGRAM; MAURITIUS; PALESTINE 
OFFICE; PATRIA; SHEKEL; ZIONISM 

Irene E. Zwiep*, Ph.D.; Professor 
of Hebrew and Jewish Studies, 
Universiteit van Amsterdam, The 
Netherlands: alting, jacobus; 

BELINFANTE, ISAAC BEN ELIAH COHEN; 
CAMPEN, MICHEL HERMAN VAN; 
CUNAEUS, PETRUS; DOZY, REINHART 
PIETER ANNE; MULDER, SAMUEL ISRAEL; 
ROEST, MEIJER MARCUS; SCHULTENS, 
ALBERT; SEELIGMANN, SIGMUND; 
SURENHUIS, WILHELM 



i 7 6 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume i 



ABBREVIATIONS 



GENERAL ABBREVIATIONS 



This list contains abbreviations used in the Encyclopaedia (apart from the standard ones, such as geographical abbreviations, 
points of compass, etc.). For names of organizations, institutions, etc., in abbreviation, see Index. For bibliographical abbrevia- 
tions of books and authors in Rabbinical literature, see following lists. 



o 

t 
> 

< 



Cross reference; i.e., an article is to be found under the word(s) immediately 

following the asterisk (*). 

Before the title of an entry, indicates a non-Jew (post-biblical times). 

Indicates reconstructed forms. 

The word following this sign is derived from the preceding one. 

The word preceding this sign is derived from the following one. 



ad loc. 



A.H. 



D 

d. 

Dan. 

diss., dissert, 

Du. 

E. 



ed. 
eds. 
e.g. 
Eng. 
et al. 



ad locum, "at the place"; used in quotations of 

commentaries. 

Anno Hegirae, "in the year of Hegira," i.e., 

according to the Muslim calendar. 



Akk. 


Addadian. 


A.M. 


anno mundi, "in the yea 




the world." 


anon. 


anonymous. 


Ar. 


Arabic. 


Aram. 


Aramaic. 


Ass. 


Assyrian. 


b. 


born; ben, bar. 


Bab. 


Babylonian. 


B.C.E. 


Before Common Era ( = 


bibl. 


bibliography. 


Bui. 


Bulgarian. 


c> Cii. 


Circa. 


C.E. 


Common Era ( = A.D.). 


cf. 


confer, "compare." 


ch., chs. 


chapter, chapters. 


comp. 


compiler, compiled by. 


Cz. 


Czech. 



= B.C.) 



f.,ff. 



according to the documentary theory, the 

Deuteronomy document. 

died. 

Danish. 

dissertation, thesis. 

Dutch. 

according to the documentary theory, the Elohist 

document (i.e., using Elohim as the name of God) 

of the first five (or six) books of the Bible. 

editor, edited, edition. 

editors. 

exempli gratia, "for example." 

English. 

et alibi, "and elsewhere"; or et alii, "and others"; 

"others." 

and following page(s). 
figure. 



fl. 


flourished. 


fol., fols 


folio(s). 


Fr. 


French. 


Ger. 


German. 


Gr. 


Greek. 


Heb. 


Hebrew. 


Hg., Hung 


Hungarian. 


ibid 


Ibidem, "in the same place. 3 


incl. bibl. 


includes bibliography. 


introd. 


introduction. 


It. 


Italian. 



J 



R. 

r. 

Resp. 



» 



according to the documentary theory, the Jahwist 
document (i.e., using YHWH as the name of God) 
of the first five (or six) books of the Bible. 



Lat. 


Latin. 


lit. 


literally. 


Lith. 


Lithuanian. 


loc. cit. 


loco citato, "in the [already] cited place." 


Ms., Mss. 


Manuscript(s). 


n. 


note. 


n.d. 


no date (of publication). 


no., nos 


number(s). 


Nov. 


Novellae (Heb. Hiddushim). 


n.p. 


place of publication unknown. 


op. cit. 


opere citato, "in the previously mentioned work." 


P. 


according to the documentary theory, the Priestly 




document of the first five (or six) books of the 




Bible. 


p., pp. 


page(s). 


Pers. 


Persian. 


pi., pis. 


plate(s). 


Pol. 


Polish. 


Port. 


Potuguese. 


pt., pts. 


part(s). 


publ. 


published. 



rev. 



Rabbi or Rav (before names); in Midrash (after an 

abbreviation) - Rabbah. 

recto, the first side of a manuscript page. 

Responsa (Latin "answers," Hebrew Sheelot u- 

Teshuvot or Teshuvot), collections of rabbinic 

decisions. 

revised. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



177 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Rom. 
Rus(s) 

Slov. 

Sp. 

s.v. 

Sum 

summ 

suppl. 



Romanian. 
Russian. 

Slovak. 

Spanish. 

sub verbo, sub voce, "under the (key) word. 

Sumerian. 

Summary. 

supplement. 



Swed. 

tr., trans (1). 
Turk. 

Ukr. 

v., vv. 

Yid. 



Swedish. 

translator, translated, translation. 
Turkish. 

Ukrainian. 

verso. The second side of a manuscript page; also 
verse(s). 

Yiddish. 



ABBREVIATIONS USED IN RABBINICAL LITERATURE 



Adderet Eliyahu, Karaite treatise by Elijah b. Moses *Bashyazi. 

Admat Kodesh, Resp. by Nissim Hayyim Moses b. Joseph Mizrahi. 

Aguddah, Sefer ha-, Nov. by * Alexander Suslin ha-Kohen. 

Ahavat Hesed, compilation by "Israel Meir ha-Kohen. 

Aliyyot de-Rabbenu Yonah, Nov. by * Jonah b. Avraham Gerondi. 

Arukh ha-Shulhan, codification by Jehiel Michel * Epstein. 

Asayin ( = positive precepts), subdivision of: (1) *Maimonides, Sefer 
ha-Mitzvot; (2) *Moses b. Jacob of Coucy, Semag. 

Asefat Dinim, subdivision of Sedei Hemed by Hayyim Hezekiah 

*Medini, an encyclopaedia of precepts and responsa. 

Asheri = *Asher b. Jehiel. 

Aeret Hakhamim, by Baruch *Frankel-Teomim; pt, 1: Resp. to Sh. 
Ar.; pt2: Nov. to Talmud. 

Ateret Zahav, subdivision of the Levush, a codification by 
Mordecai b. Abraham (Levush) *Jaffe; Ateret Zahav parallels 
Tur. YD. 

Ateret Zevi, Comm. To Sh. Ar. by Zevi Hirsch b. Azriel. 

Avir Yaakov, Resp. by Jacob Avigdor. 

Avkat Rokhel, Resp. by Joseph b. Ephraim *Caro. 

Avnei Millu'im, Comm. to Sh. Ar., EH, by *Aryeh Loeb b. Joseph 
ha-Kohen. 

Avnei Nezer, Resp. on Sh. Ar. by Abraham b. Zeev Nahum Born- 
stein of *Sochaczew. 

Avodat Massa, Compilation of Tax Law by Yoasha Abraham Judah. 

Azei ha-Levanon, Resp. by Judah Leib *Zirelson. 

Ba'al ha-Tanya - *Shneur Zalman of Lyady. 

Baei Hayyei, Resp. by Hayyim b. Israel *Benveniste. 

Baer Heitev, Comm. To Sh. Ar. The parts on OH and EH are by 

Judah b. Simeon *Ashkenazi, the parts on YD AND HM by 

*Zechariah Mendel b. Aryeh Leib. Printed in most editions of 

Sh. Ar. 
Bah = Joel *Sirkes. 
Bah, usual abbreviation for Bay it Hadash, a commentary on Tur by 

Joel *Sirkes; printed in most editions of Tur. 
Bayit Hadash, see Bah. 
Berab = Jacob Berab, also called Ri Berav. 
Bedek ha-Bayit, by Joseph b. Ephraim *Caro, additions to his Beit 

Yosef (& comm. to Tur). Printed sometimes inside Beit Yosef, in 

smaller type. Appears in most editions of Tur. 
Beer ha-Golah, Commentary to Sh. Ar. By Moses b. Naphtali Hirsch 

*Rivkes; printed in most editions of Sh. Ar. 



Beer Mayim, Resp. by Raphael b. Abraham Manasseh Jacob. 

Beer Mayim Hayyim, Resp. by Samuel b. Hayyim * Vital. 

Beer Yizhak, Resp. by Isaac Elhanan *Spector. 

Beit ha-Behirah, Comm. to Talmud by Menahem b. Solomon 

*Meiri. 
Beit Me'ir, Nov. on Sh. Ar. by Meir b. Judah Leib Posner. 
Beit Shelomo, Resp. by Solomon b. Aaron Hason (the younger). 
Beit Shemuel, Comm. to Sh. Ar., EH, by ^Samuel b. Uri Shraga 

Phoebus. 
Beit Yaakov, by Jacob b. Jacob Moses *Lorberbaum; pt.i: Nov. to 

Ket.; pt.2: Comm. to EH. 
Beit Yisrael, collective name for the commentaries Derishah, Per- 

ishah, and Be'urim by Joshua b. Alexander ha-Kohen *Talk. See 

under the names of the commentaries. 
Beit Yizhak, Resp. by Isaac *Schmelkes. 
Beit Yosef: (1) Comm. on Tur by Joseph b. Ephraim *Caro; printed 

in most editions of Tur; (2) Resp. by the same. 
Ben Yehudah, Resp. by Abraham b. Judah Litsch (t^U' 1 ?) Rosen- 

baum. 
Bertinoro, Standard commentary to Mishnah by Obadiah *Berti- 

noro. Printed in most editions of the Mishnah. 
[Beurei] Ha-Gra, Comm. to Bible, Talmud, and Sh. Ar. By ^Elijah 

b. Solomon Zalmon (Gaon of Vilna); printed in major editions 

of the mentioned works. 
Be'urim, Glosses to Isserles Darkhei Moshe ( a comm. on Tur) by 

Joshua b. Alexander ha-Kohen *Falk; printed in many editions 

of Tur. 
Binyamin Zeev, Resp. by ^Benjamin Zeev b. Mattathias of Arta. 
Birkei Yosef, Nov. by Hayyim Joseph David *Azulai. 
Ha-Buz ve-ha-Argaman, subdivision of the Levush (a codification 

by Mordecai b. Abraham (Levush) *Jaffe); Ha-Buz ve-ha-Ar- 
gaman parallels Tur, EH. 

Comm. = Commentary 

Daat Kohen, Resp. by Abraham Isaac ha-Kohen. *Kook. 

Darkhei Moshe, Comm. on Tur Moses b. Israel ^Isserles; printed in 
most editions of Tur. 

Darkhei Noam, Resp. by ^Mordecai b. Judah ha-Levi. 

Darkhei Teshuvah, Nov. by Zevi ^Shapiro; printed in the major edi- 
tions of Sh. Ar. 

Deah ve-Haskel, Resp. by Obadiah Hadaya (see Yaskil Avdi). 



178 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Derashot Ran, Sermons by *Nissim b. Reuben Gerondi. 

Derekh Hayyim, Comm. to Avot by *Judah Loew (Lob., Liwa) b. 

Bezalel (Maharal) of Prague. 
Derishah, by Joshua b. Alexander ha-Kohen *Falk; additions 

to his Perishah (comm. on Tur); printed in many editions of 

Tur. 
Derushei ha-Zelah, Sermons, by Ezekiel b. Judah Halevi *Landau. 
Devar Avraham, Resp. by Abraham *Shapira. 
Devar Shemuel, Resp. by Samuel *Aboab. 
Devar Yehosh.ua, Resp. by Joshua Menahem b. Isaac Aryeh Eh- 

renberg. 
Dikdukei Soferim, variae lections of the talmudic text by Raphael 

Nathan*Rabbinowicz. 
Divrei Emet, Resp. by Isaac Bekhor David. 
Divrei Gebnim, Digest of responsa by Hayyim Aryeh b. Jehiel Zevi 

*Kahana. 
Divrei Hamudot, Comm. on Piskei ha-Rosh by Yom Tov Lipmann 

b. Nathan ha-Levi ^Heller; printed in major editions of the Tal- 
mud. 
Divrei Hayyim several works by Hayyim *Halberstamm; if quoted 

alone refers to his Responsa. 
Divrei Malkhi'el, Resp. by Malchiel Tenebaum. 
Divrei Rivot, Resp. by Isaac b. Samuel *Adarbi. 
Divrei Shemuel, Resp. by Samuel Raphael Arditi. 

Edut be-Ya'akov, Resp. by Jacob b. Abraham *Boton. 

Edut bi-Yhosef, Resp. by Joseph b. Isaac "Almosnino. 

Ein Ya'akov, Digest of talmudic aggadot by Jacob (Ibn) *Habib. 

Ein Yizhak, Resp. by Isaac Elhanan *Spector. 

Ephraim of Lentshitz = Solomon *Luntschitz. 

Erekh Lehem, Nov. and glosses to Sh. Ar. by Jacob b. Abraham 
^Castro. 

Eshkol, Sefer ha-, Digest of halakhot by "Abraham b. Isaac of Nar- 
bonne. 

Et Sofer, Treatise on Law Court documents by Abraham b. Mordecai 
*Ankawa, in the 2nd vol. of his Resp. Kerem Hamar. 

Etan ha-Ezrahi, Resp. by Abraham b. Israel Jehiel (Shrenzl) *Ra- 
paport. 

Even ha-Ezel, Nov. to Maimonides' Yad Hazakah by Isser Zalman 
*Meltzer. 

Even ha-Ezer, also called Raban of Zafenat Pa'ne'ah, rabbinical work 
with varied contents by *Eliezer b. Nathan of Mainz; not identi- 
cal with the subdivision of Tur, Shulhan Arukh, etc. 

Ezrat Yehudah, Resp. by *Isaar Judah b. Nechemiah of Brisk. 

Gan Eden, Karaite treatise by * Aaron b. Elijah of Nicomedia. 
Gersonides = *Levi b. Gershom, also called Leo Hebraecus, or 

Ralbag. 
Ginnat Veradim, Resp. by "Abraham b. Mordecai ha-Levi. 

Haggahot, another name for Rema. 

Haggahot Asheri, glosses to Piskei ha-Rosh by ^Israel of Krems; 

printed in most Talmud editions. 
Haggahot Maimuniyyot, Comm,. to Maimonides' Yad Hazakah by 

*Meir ha-Kohen; printed in most eds. of Yad. 
Haggahot Mordekhai, glosses to Mordekhai by Samuel *Schlettstadt; 

printed in most editions of the Talmud after Mordekhai. 
Haggahot ha-Rashash on Tosafot, annotations of Samuel *Strashun 

on the Tosafot (printed in major editions of the Talmud). 
Ha-Gra = * Elijah b. Solomon Zalman (Gaon of Vilna). 



Ha-Gra, Commentaries on Bible, Talmud, and Sh. Ar. respectively, 

by ^Elijah b. Solomon Zalman (Gaon of Vilna); printed in major 

editions of the mentioned works. 
Hai Gaon, Comm. = his comm. on Mishnah. 
Hakham Zevi, Resp. by Zevi Hirsch b. Jacob "Ashkenazi. 
Halakhot = Rif, Halakhot. Compilation and abstract of the Talmud 

by Isaac b. Jacob ha-Kohen *Alfasi; printed in most editions of 

the Talmud. 
Halakhot Gedolot, compilation of halakhot from the Geonic period, 

arranged ace. to the Talmud. Here cited ace. to ed. Warsaw (1874). 

Author probably ^Simeon Kayyara of Basra. 
Halakhot Pesukot le-Rav Yehudai Gaon compilation of halakhot. 
Halakhot Pesukot min ha-Geonim, compilation of halakhot from 

the geonic period by different authors. 
Hananel, Comm. to Talmud by *Hananel b. Hushi'el; printed in 

some editions of the Talmud. 
Harei Besamim, Resp. by Aryeh Leib b. Isaac ^Horowitz. 
Hassidim, Sefer, Ethical maxims by "Judah b. Samuel he-Hasid. 
Hassagot Rabad on Rif, Glosses on Rif, Halakhot, by "Abraham b. 

David of Posquieres. 
Hassagot Rabad [on Yad], Glosses on Maimonides, Yad Hazakah, 

by "Abraham b. David of Posquieres. 
Hassagot Ramban, Glosses by Nahmanides on Maimonides' Sefer 

ha-Mitzvot; usually printed together with Sefer ha-Mitzvot. 
Hatam Sofer = Moses *Sofer. 

• 

Havvot Ydir, Resp. and varia by Jair Hayyim *Bacharach 

Hayyim Or Zaru'a = ^Hayyim (Eliezer) b. Isaac. 

Hazon Ish = Abraham Isaiah *Karelitz. 

Hazon Ish, Nov. by Abraham Isaiah *Karelitz 

Hedvat Ya'akov, Resp. by Aryeh Judah Jacob b. David Dov Meisels 
(article under his father's name). 

Heikhal Yizhak, Resp. by Isaac ha-Levi *Herzog. 

Helkat Mehokek, Comm. to Sh. Ar., by Moses b. Isaac Judah 
"Xima. 

Helkat Ya'akov, Resp. by Mordecai Jacob Breisch. 

Hemdah Genuzah, , Resp. from the geonic period by different au- 
thors. 

Hemdat Shelomo, Resp. by Solomon Zalman "Xipschitz. 

Hida = Hayyim Joseph David *Azulai. 

Hiddushei Halakhot ve-Aggadot, Nov. by Samuel Eliezer b. Judah 
ha-Levi *Edels. 

Hikekei Lev, Resp. by Hayyim "Talaggi. 

Hikrei Lev, Nov. to Sh. Ar. by Joseph Raphael b. Hayyim Joseph 
Hazzan (see article *Hazzan Family). 

Hil. = Hilkhot ... (e.g. Hilkhot Shabbat). 

Hinnukh, Sefer ha-, List and explanation of precepts attributed 
(probably erroneously) to Aaron ha-Levi of Barcelona (see ar- 
ticle *Ha-Hinnukh). 

Hok Ya'akov, Comm. to Hil. Pesah in Sh. Ar., OH, by Jacob b. Jo- 
seph *Reicher. 

Hokhmat Sehlomo (1), Glosses to Talmud, Rashi and Tosafot by 
Solomon b. Jehiel "Maharshal") *Luria; printed in many edi- 
tions of the Talmud. 

Hokhmat Sehlomo (2), Glosses and Nov. to Sh. Ar. by Solomon b. 
Judah Aaron *Kluger printed in many editions of Sh. Ar. 

Hur, subdivision of the Levush, a codification by Mordecai b. Abra- 
ham (Levush) *Jaffe; Hur (or Levush ha-Hur) parallels Tur, OH, 
242-697. 

Hut ha-Meshullash, fourth part of the Tashbez (Resp.), by Simeon 
b. Zemah *Duran. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



179 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Ibn Ezra, Comm. to the Bible by Abraham *Ibn Ezra; printed in the 
major editions of the Bible ("Mikrabt Gedolot"). 

Imrei Yosher, Resp. by Meir b. Aaron Judah *Arik. 

Ir Shushan, Subdivision of the Levush, a codification by Mordecai b. 
Abraham (Levush) *Jaffe; Ir Shushan parallels Tur, HM. 

Israel of Bruna = Israel b. Hayyim *Bruna. 

Ittur. Treatise on precepts by *Isaac b. Abba Mari of Marseilles. 

Jacob Be Rab = *Be Rab. 

Jacob b. Jacob Moses of Lissa = Jacob b. Jacob Moses *Xorberbaum. 

Judah B. Simeon = Judah b. Simeon *Ashkenazi. 

Judah Minz = Judah b. Eliezer ha-Levi *Minz. 

Kappei Aharon, Resp. by Aaron Azriel. 

Kehillat Yaakov, Talmudic methodology, definitions etc. by Israel 
Jacob b. Yom Tov *Algazi. 

Kelei Hemdah, Nov. and pilpulim by Meir Dan *Tlotzki of Ostrova, 
arranged ace. to the Torah. 

Keli Yakar, Annotations to the Torah by Solomon *Xuntschitz. 

Keneh Hokhmah, Sermons by Judah Loeb *Pochwitzer. 

Keneset ha-Gedolah, Digest of halakhot by Hayyim b. Israel *Ben- 
veniste; subdivided into annotations to Beit Yosef and annota- 
tions to Tur. 

Keneset Yisrael, Resp. by Ezekiel b. Abraham Katzenellenbogen (see 
article ^Katzenellenbogen Family). 

Kerem Hamar, Resp. and varia by Abraham b. Mordecai *Ankawa. 

Kerem Shelmo. Resp. by Solomon b. Joseph *Amarillo. 

Keritut, [Sefer], Methodology of the Talmud by ^Samson b. Isaac 
of Chinon. 

Kesef ha-Kedoshim, Comm. to Sh. Ar., HM, by Abraham *Wahr- 
mann; printed in major editions of Sh. Ar. 

Kesef Mishneh, Comm. to Maimonides, Yad Hazakah, by Joseph b. 
Ephraim *Caro; printed in most editions of Yad Hazakah. 

Kezot ha-Hoshen, Comm. to Sh. Ar., HM, by *Aryeh Loeb b. Joseph 
ha-Kohen; printed in major editions of Sh. Ar. 

Kol Bo [Sefer], Anonymous collection of ritual rules; also called 
Sefer ha-Likkutim. 

Kol Mevasser, Resp. by Meshullam *Rath. 

Korban Aharon, Comm. to Sifra by Aaron b. Abraham *Ibn Hayyim; 
pt. 1 is called: Middot Aharon. 

Korban Edah, Comm. to Jer. Talmud by David Traenkel; with ad- 
ditions: Shiyyurei Korban; printed in most editions of Jer. Tal- 
mud. 

Kunteres ha-Kelalim, subdivision of Sedei Hemed, an encyclopaedia 
of precepts and responsa by Hayyim Hezekiah *Medini. 

Kunteres ha-Semikhah, a treatise by *Levi b. Habib; printed at the 
end of his responsa. 

Kunteres Tikkun Olam, part of Mispat Shalom (Nov. by Shalom 
Mordecai b. Moses *Schwadron). 

Lavin (negative precepts), subdivision of: (1) ^Maimonides, Sefer 
ha-Mitzvot; (2) *Moses b. Jacob of Coucy, Semag. 

Lehem Mishneh, Comm. to Maimonides, Yad Hazakah, by Abra- 
ham [Hiyya] b. Moses *Boton; printed in most editions of Yad 
Hazakah. 

* 

Lehem Rav, Resp. by Abraham [Hiyya] b. Moses *Boton. 

Leket Yosher, Resp and varia by Israel b. Pethahiah *Isserlein, col- 
lected by ^Joseph (Joselein) b. Moses. 

Leo Hebraeus = *Xevi b. Gershom, also called Ralbag or Ger- 
sonides. 



Levush = Mordecai b. Abraham *Jaffe. 

Levush [Malkhut], Codification by Mordecai b. Abraham (Levush) 
*7arTe, with subdivisions: [Levush ha-] Tekhelet (parallels Tur OH 
1-241); [Levush ha-] Hur (parallels Tur OH 242-697); [Levush] 
Ateret Zahav (parallels Tur YD); [Levush ha-Buz ve-ha-Argaman 
(parallels Tur EH ); [Levush] Ir Shushan (parallels Tur HM); un- 
der the name Levush the author wrote also other works. 

Li-Leshonot ha-Rambam, fifth part (nos. 1374-1700) of Resp. by 
*David b. Solomon ibn Abi Zimra (Radbaz). 

Likkutim, Sefer ha-, another name for [Sefer] Kol Bo. 

Maadanei Yom Tov, Comm. on Piskei ha-Rosh by Yom Tov Lip- 

mann b. Nathan ha-Levi ^Heller; printed in many editions of 

the Talmud. 
Mabit = Moses b. Joseph Trani. 

Magen Avot, Comm. to Avot by Simeon b. Zemah *Duran. 
Magen Avraham, Comm. to Sh. Ar., OH, by Abraham Abele b. 

Hayyim ha-Levi *Gombiner; printed in many editions of Sh. 

Ar., OH. 
Maggid Mishneh, Comm. to Maimonides, Yad Hazakah, by *Vi- 

dal Yom Tov of Tolosa; printed in most editions of the Yad 

Hazakah. 
Mahaneh Efrayim, Resp. and Nov., arranged ace. to Maimonides' 

Yad Hazakah , by Ephraim b. Aaron *Navon. 
Maharai = Israel b. Pethahiah Tsserlein. 
Maharal of Prague = *Judah Loew (Lob, Liwa), b. Bezalel. 
Maharalbah = *Xevi b. Habib. 
Maharam Alashkar = Moses b. Isaac *Alashkar. 
Maharam Alshekh = Moses b. Hayyim *Alashekh. 
Maharam Mintz = Moses *Mintz. 
Maharam of Lublin = *Meir b. Gedaliah of Lublin. 
Maharam of Padua = Meir ^Katzenellenbogen. 
Maharam of Rothenburg = *Meir b. Baruch of Rothenburg. 
Maharam Shik = Moses b. Joseph Schick. 
Maharash Engel = Samuel b. Ze'ev Wolf Engel. 
Maharashdam = Samuel b. Moses ^Medina. 
Maharhash = Hayyim (ben) Shabbetai. 
Mahari Basan = Jehiel b. Hayyim Basan. 
Mahari b. Lev = Joseph ibn Lev. 
Mahari'az = Jekuthiel Asher Zalman Ensil Zusmir. 
Maharibal = ^Joseph ibn Lev. 
Maharih = Jacob (Israel) *Hagiz. 
Maharik = Joseph b. Solomon *Colon. 
Maharikash = Jacob b. Abraham * Castro. 
Maharil = Jacob b. Moses *Moellin. 
Maharimat = Joseph b. Moses di Trani (not identical with the Ma- 

harit). 
Maharit = Joseph b. Moses *Trani. 
Maharitaz = Yom Tov b. Akiva Zahalon. (See article *Zahalon 

Family). 
Maharsha = Samuel Eliezer b. Judah ha-Levi *Edels. 
Maharshag = Simeon b. Judah Gruenfeld. 
Maharshak = Samson b. Isaac of Chinon. 
Maharshakh = ^Solomon b. Abraham. 
Maharshal = Solomon b. Jehiel *Luria. 
Mahasham = Shalom Mordecai b. Moses *Sschwadron. 
Maharyu = Jacob b. Judah *Weil. 
Mahazeh Avraham, Resp. by Abraham Nebagen v. Meir ha-Levi 

Steinberg. 
Mahazik Berakhah, Nov. by Hayyim Joseph David *Azulai. 



180 



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ABBREVIATIONS 



^Maimonides = Moses b. Maimon, or Rambam. 
*Malbim = Meir Loeb b. Jehiel Michael. 

Malbim = Malbim's comm. to the Bible; printed in the major edi- 
tions. 
Malbushei Yom Tov, Nov. on Levush, OH, by Yom Tov Lipmann b. 

Nathan ha-Levi ^Heller. 
Mappah, another name for Rema. 
Mareh ha-Panim, Comm. to Jer. Talmud by Moses b. Simeon *Mar- 

golies; printed in most editions of Jer. Talmud. 
Margaliyyot ha-Yam, Nov. by Reuben *Margoliot. 
Masat Binyamin, Resp. by Benjamin Aaron b. Abraham *Slonik 

Mashbir, Ha- = ^Joseph Samuel b. Isaac Rodi. 
Massa Hayyim, Tax halakhot by Hayyim *Palaggi, with the subdivi- 
sions Missim ve-Arnomiyyot and Torat ha-Minhagot. 
Massa Melekh, Compilation of Tax Law by Joseph b. Isaac *Ibn Ezra 

with concluding part Ne'ilat Shear im. 
Matteh Asher, Resp. by Asher b. Emanuel Shalem. 
Matteh Shimon, Digest of Resp. and Nov. to Tur and Beit Yosef, HM, 

by Mordecai Simeon b. Solomon. 
Matteh Yosef, Resp. by Joseph b. Moses ha-Levi Nazir (see article 

under his father's name). 
Mayim Amukkim, Resp. by Elijah b. Abraham *Mizrahi. 
Mayim Hayyim, Resp. by Hayyim b. Dov Beresh Rapaport. 
Mayim Rabbim, , Resp. by Raphael *Meldola. 
Me-Emek ha-Bakha, , Resp. by Simeon b. Jekuthiel Ephrati. 
Meirat Einayim, usual abbreviation: Sma (from: Sefer Me'irat Ein- 

ayim); comm. to Sh. Ar. By Joshua b. Alexander ha-Kohen *Falk; 

printed in most editions of the Sh. Ar. 
Melammed le-Ho% Resp. by David Zevi ^Hoffmann. 
Meisharim, [Sefer], Rabbinical treatise by *Jeroham b. Meshul- 

lam. 
Meshiv Davar, Resp. by Naphtali Zevi Judah ^Berlin. 
Mi-Gei ha-Haregah, Resp. by Simeon b. Jekuthiel Ephrati. 
Mi-Maamakim, Resp. by Ephraim Oshry. 
Middot Aharon, first part of Korb an Aharon, a comm. to Sifra by 

Aaron b. Abraham *Ibn Hayyim. 
Migdal Oz, Comm. to Maimonides, Yad Hazakah, by *Ibn Gaon 

Shem Tov b. Abraham; printed in most editions of the Yad 

Hazakah. 

■ 

Mikhtam le-David, Resp. by David Samuel b. Jacob *Pardo. 
Mikkah ve-ha-Mimkar, Sefer ha-, Rabbinical treatise by *Hai 

Gaon. 
Milhamot ha-Shem, Glosses to Rif, Halakhot, by *Nahmanides. 
Minhat Hinnukh, Comm. to Sefer ha-Hinnukh, by Joseph b. Moses 

*Babad. 
Minhat Yizhak, Resp. by Isaac Jacob b. Joseph Judah Weiss. 
Misgeret ha-Shulhan, Comm. to Sh. Ar., HM, by Benjamin Ze'ev 

Wolf b. Shabbetai; printed in most editions of Sh. Ar. 
Mishkenot ha-Ro'im, Halakhot in alphabetical order by Uzziel 

Alshekh. 
Mishnah Berurah, Comm. to Sh. Ar., OH, by ^Israel Meir ha- 
Kohen. 
Mishneh le-Melekh, Comm. to Maimonides, Yad Hazakah, by Judah 

*Rosanes; printed in most editions of Yad Hazakah. 
Mishpat ha-Kohanim, Nov. to Sh. Ar., HM, by Jacob Moses *Lorber- 

baum, part of his Netivot ha-Mishpat; printed in major editions 

of Sh. Ar. 
Mishpat Kohen, Resp. by Abraham Isaac ha-Kohen *Kook. 
Mishpat Shalom, Nov. by Shalom Mordecai b. Moses *Schwadron; 

contains: Kunteres Tikkun Olam. 



Mishpat u-Zedakah be-Yaakov, Resp. by Jacob b. Reuben *Ibn 
Zur. 

Mishpat ha-Urim, Comm. to Sh. Ar., HM by Jacob b. Jacob Moses 
*Lorberbaum, part of his Netivot ha-Mishpat; printed in major 
editons of Sh. Ar. 

Mishpat Zedek, Resp. by ^Melammed Meir b. Shem Tov. 

Mishpatim Yesharim, Resp. by Raphael b. Mordecai *Berdugo. 

Mishpetei Shemuel, Resp. by Samuel b. Moses *Kalai (Kal'i). 

Mishpetei ha-Tanna'im, Kunteres, Nov on Levush, OH by Yom Tov 
Lipmann b. Nathan ha-Levi * Heller. 

Mishpetei Uzziel (Uziel), Resp. by Ben-Zion Meir Hai *Ouziel. 

Missim ve-Arnoniyyot, Tax halakhotby Hayyim *Palaggi, a subdivi- 
sion of his work Massa Hayyim on the same subject. 

Mitzvot, Sefer ha-, Elucidation of precepts by ^Maimonides; sub- 
divided into Lavin (negative precepts) and Asayin (positive pre- 
cepts). 

Mitzvot Gadol, Sefer, Elucidation of precepts by *Moses b. Jacob 
of Coucy, subdivided into Lavin (negative precepts) and Asayin 
(positive precepts); the usual abbreviation is Semag. 

Mitzvot Katan, Sefer, Elucidation of precepts by "Isaac b. Joseph of 
Corbeil; the usual, abbreviation is Semak. 

Moadim u-Zemannim, Rabbinical treatises by Moses Sternbuch. 

Modigliano, Joseph Samuel = ^Joseph Samuel b. Isaac, Rodi (Ha- 
Mashbir). 

Mordekhai (Mordecai), halakhic compilation by ^Mordecai b. Hillel; 
printed in most editions of the Talmud after the texts. 

Moses b. Maimon = ^Maimonides, also called Rambam. 

Moses b. Nahman = Nahmanides, also called Ramban. 

Muram = Isaiah Menahem b. Isaac (from: Morenu R. Mendel). 

Nahal Yizhak, Comm. on Sh. Ar., HM, by Isaac Elhanan *Spec- 
tor. 

Nahalah li-Yhoshua, Resp. by Joshua Zunzin. 

Nahalat Shivah, collection of legal forms by ^Samuel b. David 
Moses ha-Levi. 

^Nahmanides = Moses b. Nahman, also called Ramban. 

Naziv = Naphtali Zevi Judah ^Berlin. 

Ne'eman Shemuel, Resp. by Samuel Isaac *Modigilano. 

Ne'ilat Shearim, concluding part of Massa Melekh (a work on Tax 
Law) by Joseph b. Isaac *Ibn Ezra, containing an exposition of 
customary law and subdivided into Minhagei Issur and Min- 
hagei Mamon. 

Ner Maaravi, Resp. by Jacob b. Malka. 

Netivot ha-Mishpat, by Jacob b. Jacob Moses Torberbaum; sub- 
divided into Mishpat ha-Kohanim, Nov. to Sh. Ar., HM, and 
Mishpat ha-Urim, a comm. on the same; printed in major edi- 
tions of Sh. Ar. 

Netivot Olam, Saying of the Sages by *Judah Loew (Lob, Liwa) b. 
Bezalel. 

Nimmukei Menahem of Merseburg, Tax halakhot by the same, 
printed at the end of Resp. Maharyu. 

Nimmukei Yosef, Comm. to Rif. Halakhot, by Joseph *Habib 
(Habiba); printed in many editions of the Talmud. 

Noda bi-Yhudah, Resp. by Ezekiel b. Judah ha-Levi *Landau; there 
is a first collection (Mahadura Kamma) and a second collection 
(Mahadura Tinyana). 

Nov. = Novellae, Hiddushim. 

Ohel Moshe (1), Notes to Talmud, Midrash Rabbah, Yad, Sifrei and 
to several Resp., by Eleazar ^Horowitz. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



181 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Ohel Moshe (2), Resp. by Moses Jonah Zweig. 

Oholei Tarn. Resp. by *Tam ibn Yahya Jacob b. David; printed in 

the rabbinical collection Tummat Yesharim. 
Oholei Ya'akov, Resp. by Jacob de ^Castro. 
Or ha-Meir Resp by Judah Meir b. Jacob Samson Shapiro. 
Or Sameah, Comm. to Maimonides, Yad Hazakah, by *Meir 

Simhah ha-Kohen of Dvinsk; printed in many editions of the 

Yad Hazakah. 

* 

Or Zaru'a [the father] = *lsaac b. Moses of Vienna. 

Or Zaru'a [the son] = *Hayyim (Eliezer) b. Isaac. 

Or Zaru'a, Nov. by *Isaac b. Moses of Vienna. 

Orah, Sefer ha-, Compilation of ritual precepts by *Rashi. 

Orah la-Zaddik, Resp. by Abraham Hayyim Rodrigues. 

Ozar ha-Posekim, Digest of Responsa. 

Pahad Yizhak, Rabbinical encyclopaedia by Isaac *Lampronti. 

Panim Me'irot, Resp. by Meir b. Isaac *Eisenstadt. 

Parashat Mordekhai, Resp. by Mordecai b. Abraham Naphtali 
*Banet. 

Peat ha-Sadeh la-Dinim and Peat ha-Sadeh la-Kelalim, subdivisions 
of the Sedei Hemed, an encyclopaedia of precepts and responsa, 
by Hayyim Hezekaih *Medini. 

Penei Moshe (1), Resp. by Moses *Benveniste. 

Penei Moshe (2), Comm. to Jer. Talmud by Moses b. Simeon *Mar- 
golies; printed in most editions of the Jer. Talmud. 

Penei Moshe (3), Comm. on the aggadic passages of 18 treatises of 
the Bab. and Jer. Talmud, by Moses b. Isaiah Katz. 

Penei Yehoshua, Nov. by Jacob Joshua b. Zevi Hirsch Talk. 

Peri Hadash, Comm. on Sh. Ar. By Hezekiah da *Silva. 

Perishah, Comm. on Tur by Joshua b. Alexander ha-Kohen Talk; 
printed in major edition of Tur; forms together with Derishah 
and Be'urim (by the same author) the Beit Yisrael. 

Pesakim u-Khetavim, 2nd part of the Terumat ha-Deshen by Israel 
b. Pethahiah *Isserlein' also called Piskei Maharai. 

Pilpula Harifta, Comm. to Piskei ha-Rosh, Seder Nezikin, by Yom 
Tov Lipmann b. Nathan ha-Levi ^Heller; printed in major edi- 
tions of the Talmud. 

Piskei Maharai, see Terumat ha-Deshen, 2nd part; also called Pe- 
sakim u-Khetavim. 

Piskei ha-Rosh, a compilation of halakhot, arranged on the Talmud, 
by *Asher b. Jehiel (Rosh); printed in major Talmud editions. 

Pithei Teshuvah, Comm. to Sh. Ar. by Abraham Hirsch b. Jacob 
*Eisenstadt; printed in major editions of the Sh. Ar. 

Rabad = * Abraham b. David of Posquieres (Rabad III.). 

Raban = * Eliezer b. Nathan of Mainz. 

Raban, also called Zafenat Pa'neah or Even ha-Ezer, see under the 
last name. 

Rabi Abad = * Abraham b. Isaac of Narbonne. 

Radad = David Dov. b. Aryeh Judah Jacob *Meisels. 

Radam = Dov Berush b. Isaac Meisels. 

Radbaz = *David b Solomon ibn Abi Ziumra. 

Radbaz, Comm. to Maimonides, Yad Hazakah, by *David b. Solo- 
mon ibn Abi Zimra. 

Ralbag = *Levi b. Gershom, also called Gersonides, or Leo He- 
braeus. 

Ralbag, Bible comm. by *Xevi b. Gershon. 

Rama [da Fano] = Menahem Azariah *Fano. 

Ramah = Meir b. Todros [ha-Levi] *Abulafia. 

Ramam = *Menaham of Merseburg. 



Rambam = ^Maimonides; real name: Moses b. Maimon. 

Ramban = *Nahmanides; real name Moses b. Nahman. 

Ramban, Comm. to Torah by *Nahmanides; printed in major edi- 
tions. ("Mikrabt Gedolot"). 

Ran = *Nissim b. Reuben Gerondi. 

Ran ofRif, Comm. on Rif, Halakhot, by Nissim b. Reuben Gerondi. 

Ranah = ^Elijah b. Hayyim. 

Rash = *Samson b. Abraham of Sens. 

Rash, Comm. to Mishnah, by *Samson b. Abraham of Sens; printed 
in major Talmud editions. 

Rashash = Samuel *Strashun. 

Rashba = Solomon b. Abraham *Adret. 

Rashba, Resp., see also; Sefer Teshuvot ha-Rashba ha-Meyuhasot le- 
ha-Ramban, by Solomon b. Abraham *Adret. 

Rashbad = Samuel b. David. 

Rashbam = ^Samuel b. Meir. 

Rashbam = Comm. on Bible and Talmud by ^Samuel b. Meir; printed 
in major editions of Bible and most editions of Talmud. 

Rashbash = Solomon b. Simeon *Duran. 

*Rashi = Solomon b. Isaac of Troyes. 

Rashi, Comm. on Bible and Talmud by *Rashi; printed in almost 
all Bible and Talmud editions. 

Raviah = Eliezer b. Joel ha-Levi. 

Redak = David *Kimhi. 

Redak, Comm. to Bible by David *Kimhi. 

Redakh = *David b. Hayyim ha-Kohen of Corfu. 

Re'em = Elijah b. Abraham *Mizrahi. 

Rema = Moses b. Israel Tsserles. 

Rema, Glosses to Sh. Ar. by Moses b. Israel "Isserles; printed in al- 
most all editions of the Sh. Ar. inside the text in Rashi type; also 
called Mappah or Haggahot. 

Remek = Moses Kimhi. 

Remakh = Moses ha-Kohen mi-Lunel. 

Reshakh = ^Solomon b. Abraham; also called Maharshakh. 

Resp. = Responsa, Sheelot u-Teshuvot. 

Ri Berav = *Berab. 

Ri Escapa = Joseph b. Saul *Escapa. 

Ri Migash = Joseph b. Meir ha-Levi *Ibn Migash. 

Riba = Isaac b. Asher ha-Levi; Riba II (Riba ha-Bahur) = his grand- 
son with the same name. 

Ribam = Isaac b. Mordecai (or: Isaac b. Meir). 

Ribash = *Isaac b. Sheshet Perfet (or: Barfat). 

Rid= Tsaiah b. Mali di Trani the Elder. 

Ridbaz = Jacob David b. Ze'ev *Willowski. 

Rif = Isaac b. Jacob ha-Kohen *Alfasi. 

Rif, Halakhot, Compilation and abstract of the Talmud by Isaac b. 
Jacob ha-Kohen *Alfasi. 

Ritba = Yom Tov b. Abraham *Ishbili. 

Rizbam = Isaac b. Mordecai. 

Rosh = *Asher b. Jehiel, also called Asheri. 

Rosh Mashbir, Resp. by ^Joseph Samuel b. Isaac, Rodi. 

Sedei Hemed, Encyclopaedia of precepts and responsa by Hayyim 
Hezekiah *Medini; subdivisions: Asefat Dinim, Kunteres ha-Ke- 
lalim, Peat ha-Sadeh la-Dinim, Peat ha-Sadeh la-Kelalim. 

Semag, Usual abbreviation of Sefer Mitzvot Gadol, elucidation of 
precepts by *Moses b. Jacob of Coucy; subdivided into Lavin 
(negative precepts) Asayin (positive precepts). 

Semak, Usual abbreviation of Sefer Mitzvot Katan, elucidation of 
precepts by *lsaac b. Joseph of Corbeil. 



182 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Sh. Ar. = Shulhan Arukh, code by Joseph b. Ephraim *Caro. 

Sha'ar Mishpat, Comm. to Sh. Ar., HM. By Israel Isser b. Ze'ev 
Wolf. 

Shaarei Shevubt, Treatise on the law of oaths by *David b. Saa- 
diah; usually printed together with Rif, Halakhot; also called: 
Shearim ofR. Alfasi. 

Shaarei Teshuvah, Collection of resp. from Geonic period, by dif- 
ferent authors. 

Shaarei Uzzi'el, Rabbinical treatise by Ben-Zion Meir Ha *Ouziel. 

Shaarei Zedek, Collection of resp. from Geonic period, by differ- 
ent authors. 

Shadal [or Shedal] = Samuel David "Xuzzatto. 

Shai la-Moreh, Resp. by Shabbetai Jonah. 

Shakh, Usual abbreviation of Siftei Kohen, a comm. to Sh. Ar., YD 
and HM by ^Shabbetai b. Meir ha-Kohen; printed in most edi- 
tions of Sh. Ar. 

Shabt-de-Rabbanan, Resp. by ^Solomon b. Judah ha-Kohen. 

Shearim ofR. Alfasi see Shaarei Shevubt. 

Shedal, see Shadal. 

Sheelot u-Teshuvot ha-Gebnim, Collection of resp. by different au- 
thors. 

Sheerit Yisrael, Resp. by Israel Ze'ev Mintzberg. 

Sheerit Yosef, Resp. by ^Joseph b. Mordecai Gershon ha-Kohen. 

She Hat Yavez, Resp. by Jacob *Emden (Yavez). 

She'iltot, Compilation arranged ace. to the Torah by *Aha (Ahai) 
of Shabha. 

Shem Aryeh, Resp. by Aryeh Leib *Lipschutz. 

Shemesh Zedakah, Resp. by Samson *Morpurgo. 

Shenei ha-Mebrot ha-Gedolim, Resp. by Elijah *Covo. 

Shetarot, Sefer ha-, Collection of legal forms by *Judah b. Barzil- 
lai al-Bargeloni. 

Shevut Yaakov, Resp. by Jacob b. Joseph Reicher. 

Shibbolei ha-Leket Compilation on ritual by Zedekiah b. Avra- 
ham *Anav. 

Shiltei Gibborim, Comm. to Rif, Halakhot, by ^Joshua Boaz b. 
Simeon; printed in major editions of the Talmud. 

Shittah Mekubbezet, Compilation of talmudical commentaries by 
Bezalel *Ashkenazi. 

Shivat Ziyyon, Resp. by Samuel b. Ezekiel ""Landau. 

Shiyyurei Korban, by David *Fraenkel; additions to his comm. to 
Jer. Talmud Korban Edah; both printed in most editions of Jer. 
Talmud. 

Sho'el u-Meshiv, Resp. by Joseph Saul ha-Levi *Nathanson. 

Sh[ulhan] Ar[ukh] [of Ba'al ha-Tanyal], Code by *Shneur Zalman 
of Lyady; not identical with the code by Joseph Caro. 

Siftei Kohen, Comm. to Sh. Ar., YD and HM by ^Shabbetai b. Meir 
ha-Kohen; printed in most editions of Sh. Ar.; usual abbrevia- 
tion: Shakh. 

Simhat Yom Tov, Resp. by Tom Tov b. Jacob *Algazi. 

Simlah Hadashah, Treatise on Shehitah by Alexander Sender b. 
Ephraim Zalman *Schor; see also Tevubt Shor. 

Simeon b. Zemah = Simeon b. Zemah *Duran. 

* * * * 

Sma, Comm. to Sh. Ar. by Joshua b. Alexander ha-Kohen *Falk; 

the full title is: Sefer Me'irat Einayim; printed in most editions 

of Sh. Ar. 
Solomon b. Isaac ha-Levi = Solomon b. Isaac *Levy. 
Solomon b. Isaac of Troyes = *Rashi. 



Tarn, Rabbenu = Tam Jacob b. Meir. 

Tashbaz = Samson b. Zadok. 

Tashbez = Simeon b. Zemah *Duran, sometimes also abbreviation 
for Samson b. Zadok, usually known as Tashbaz. 

Tashbez [Sefer ha-], Resp. by Simeon b. Zemah *Duran; the fourth 
part of this work is called: Hut ha-Meshullash. 

Taz, Usual abbreviation of Turei Zahav, comm., to Sh. Ar. by *David 
b. Samnuel ha-Levi; printed in most editions of Sh. Ar. 

(Ha)-Tekhelet, subdivision of the Levush (a codification by Mor- 
decai b. Abraham (Levush) *Jaffe); Ha-Tekhelet parallels Tur, 
OH 1-241. 

Terumat ha-Deshen, by Israel b. Pethahiah *Isserlein; subdivided 
into a part containing responsa, and a second part called Pesa- 
kim u-Khetavim or Piskei Maharai. 

Terumot, Sefer ha-, Compilation of halakhot by Samuel b. Isaac 
*Sardi. 

Teshuvot Baalei ha-Tosafot, Collection of responsa by the Tosaf- 
ists. 

Teshjvot Gebnei Mizrah u-Maaav, Collection of responsa. 

Teshuvot ha-Geonim, Collection of responsa from Geonic period. 

Teshuvot Hakhmei Provinzyah, Collection of responsa by different 
Provencal authors. 

Teshuvot Hakhmei Zarefat ve-Loter, Collection of responsa by dif- 
ferent French authors. 

Teshuvot Maimuniyyot, Resp. pertaining to Maimonides' Yad 
Hazakah; printed in major editions of this work after the text; 
authorship uncertain. 

Tevubt Shor, by Alexander Sender b. Ephraim Zalman *Schor, a 
comm. to his Simlah Hadashah, a work on Shehitah. 

Tiferet Zevi, Resp. by Zevi Hirsch of the "AHW" Communities (Al- 
tona, Hamburg, Wandsbeck). 

Tiktin, Judah b. Simeon = Judah b. Simeon *Ashkenazi. 

Toledot Adam ve-Havvah, Codification by *Jeroham b. Meshul- 
lam. 

Torat Emet, Resp. by Aaron b. Joseph *Sasson. 

Torat Hayyim, , Resp. by Hayyim (ben) Shabbetai. 

Torat ha-Minhagot, subdivision of the Massa Hayyim (a work on 
tax law) by Hayyim *Palaggi, containing an exposition of cus- 
tomary law. 

Tosafot Rid, Explanations to the Talmud and decisions by "Isaiah 
b. Mali di Trani the Elder. 

Tosefot Yom Tov, comm. to Mishnah by Yom Tov Lipmann b. Na- 
than ha-Levi ^Heller; printed in most editions of the Mishnah. 

Tummim, subdivision of the comm. to Sh. Ar., HM, Urim ve-Tum- 
mim by Jonathan *Eybeschuetz; printed in the major editions 
ofSh. Ar. 

Tur, usual abbreviation for the Arbaah Turim of * Jacob b. Asher. 

Turei Zahav, Comm. to Sh. Ar. by *David b. Samuel ha-Levi; printed 
in most editions of Sh. Ar.; usual abbreviation: Taz. 

Urim, subdivision of the following. 

Urim ve-Tummim, Comm. to Sh. Ar., HM, by Jonathan *Eybe- 

schuetz; printed in the major editions of Sh. Ar.; subdivided in 

places into Urim and Tummim. 

Vikkuah Mayim Hayyim, Polemics against Isserles and Caro by 
Hayyim b. Bezalel. 



Tal Orot, Rabbinical work with various contents, by Joseph ibn 
Gioia. 



Yad Malakhi, Methodological treatise by *Malachi b. Jacob ha- 
Kohen. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



1S3 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Yad Ramah, Nov. by Meir b. Todros [ha-Levi] *Abulafia. 
Yakhin u-Voaz, Resp. by Zemah b. Solomon *Duran. 
Yam ha-Gadol, Resp. by Jacob Moses Toledano. 
Yam shel Shelomo, Compilation arranged ace. to Talmud by Solo- 
mon b. Jehiel (Maharshal) *Xuria. 
Yashar, Sefer ha-, by *Tam, Jacob b. Meir (Rabbenu Tarn); ist pt.: 

Resp.; 2nd pt.: Nov. 
Yaskil Avdi, Resp. by Obadiah Hadaya (printed together with his 

Resp. Deah ve-Haskel). 
Yavez = Jacob *Emden. 

Yehudah Ya'aleh, Resp. by Judah b. Israel *Aszod. 
Yekar Tiferet, Comm. to Maimonides' Yad Hazakah,by David b. 

Solomon ibn Zimra, printed in most editions of Yad Haza- 

kah. 
Yereim [ha-Shalem], [Sefer] , Treatise on precepts by ^Eliezer b. 

Samuel of Metz. 
Yeshubt Yaakov, Resp. by Jacob Meshullam b. Mordecai Ze'ev *Or- 

nstein. 
Yizhak Reiah, Resp. by Isaac b. Samuel Abendanan (see article 

*Abendanam Family). 



Zafenat Paheah (1), also called Raban or Even ha-Ezer, see under 
the last name. 

Zafenat Paheah (2), Resp. by Joseph *Rozin. 

Zayit Raanan, Resp. by Moses Judah Leib b. Benjamin Auerbach. 

Zeidah la-Derekh, Codification by *Menahem b. Aaron ibn Zerah. 

Zedakah u-Mishpat, Resp. by Zedakah b. Saadiah Huzin. 

Zekan Aharon, Resp. by Elijah b. Benjamin ha-Levi. 

Zekher Zaddik, Sermons by Eliezer *Katzenellenbogen. 

Zemah Zedek (1) Resp. by Menaham Mendel Shneersohn (see un- 
der *Shneersohn Family). 

Zera Avraham, Resp. by Abraham b. David Tizhaki. 

Zera Emet Resp. by *Tshmael b. Abaham Isaac ha-Kohen. 

Zevi la-Zaddik, Resp. by Zevi Elimelech b. David Shapira. 

Zikhron Yehudah, Resp. by * Judah b. Asher 

Zikhron Yosef, Resp. by Joseph b. Menahem *Steinhardt. 

Zikhronot, Sefer ha-, Sermons on several precepts by Samuel 
*Aboab. 

Zikkaron la-Rishonim . . ., by Albert (Abraham Elijah) *Harkavy; 
contains in vol. 1 pt. 4 (1887) a collection of Geonic responsa. 

Ziz Eliezer, Resp. by Eliezer Judah b. Jacob Gedaliah Waldenberg. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL ABBREVIATIONS 



Bibliographies in English and other languages have been extensively updated, with English translations cited where available. 
In order to help the reader, the language of books or articles is given where not obvious from titles of books or names of peri- 
odicals. Titles of books and periodicals in languages with alphabets other than Latin, are given in transliteration, even where 
there is a title page in English. Titles of articles in periodicals are not given. Names of Hebrew and Yiddish periodicals well 
known in English-speaking countries or in Israel under their masthead in Latin characters are given in this form, even when 
contrary to transliteration rules. Names of authors writing in languages with non-Latin alphabets are given in their Latin al- 
phabet form wherever known; otherwise the names are transliterated. Initials are generally not given for authors of articles in 
periodicals, except to avoid confusion. Non-abbreviated book titles and names of periodicals are printed in italics. Abbrevia- 
tions are given in the list below. 



AASOR 

AB 

Abel, Geog 

ABR 

Abr. 

Abrahams, 

Companion 
Abramson, Merkazim 

Acts 
ACUM 

ADAJ 

Adam 
ADB 

Add. Esth. 



Annual of the American School of Oriental 

Research (19196°.). 

Analecta Biblica (1952!?.). 

F.-M. Abel, Geographic de la Palestine, 2 

vols. (1933-38). 

Australian Biblical Review (1951!?.). 

Philo, De Abrahamo. 

I. Abrahams, Companion to the Authorised 

Daily Prayer Book (rev. ed. 1922). 

S. Abramson, Ba-Merkazim u-va-Tefuzot 

bi-Tekufat ha-Gebnim (1965). 

Acts of the Apostles (New Testament). 

Who is who in ACUM [Aguddat 

Kompozitorim u-Mehabbrim]. 

Annual of the Department of Antiquities, 

Jordan (19516°.). 

Adam and Eve (Pseudepigrapha). 

Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 56 vols. 

(1875-1912). 

The Addition to Esther (Apocrypha). 



Adler, Prat Mus 



Adler- Davis 



Aet. 
AFO 



Ag. Ber 
Agr. 

Ag. Sam. 
Ag. Song 

Aharoni, Erez 

Aharoni, Land 



1. Adler, La pratique musicale savante dans 

quelques communautes juives en Europe au 

XVIIe et XVIIIe siecles, 2 vols. (1966). 

H.M. Adler and A. Davis (ed. and tr.), 

Service of the Synagogue, a New Edition 

of the Festival Prayers with an English 

Translation in Prose and Verse, 6 vols. 

(1905-06). 

Philo, De Aeternitate Mundi. 

Archivfuer Orientforschung (first two 

volumes under the name Archivfuer 

Keilschriftforschung) (19236°.). 

Aggadat Bereshit (ed. Buber, 1902 J. 

Philo, De Agricultura. 

Aggadat Samuel. 

Aggadat Shir ha-Shirim (Schechter ed., 

1896). 

Y. Aharoni, Erez Yisrael bi-Tekufat ha- 

Mikra: Geografyah Historit (1962). 

Y. Aharoni, Land of the Bible (1966). 



184 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Ahikar 
AI 
AJA 
AJHSP 

AJHSQ 

AJSLL 



AJYB 
AKM 

Albright, Arch 

Albright, Arch Bib 

Albright, Arch Rel 

Albright, Stone 

Alon, Mehkarim 



Alon, Toledot 



ALOR 
Alt, Kl Schr 

Alt, Landnahme 



Ant. 

AO 

AOR 
AOS 

Apion 

Aq. 
Ar. 

Artist. 
ARN 1 

ARN 2 

Aronius, Regesten 



ARW 

AS 

Ashtor, Korot 

Ashtor, Toledot 



Assaf, Gebnim 



Ahikar (Pseudepigrapha). 

Archives Israelites de France (1840-1936). 

American Jewish Archives (i948ff.). 

American Jewish Historical Society - 

Publications (after vol. 50 = AJHSQ). 

American Jewish Historical (Society) 

Quarterly (before vol. 50 =AJHSP). 

American Journal of Semitic Languages 

and Literature (1884-95 under the title 

Hebraica, since 1942 JNES). 

American Jewish Year Book (i899ff.). 

Abhandlungen fuer die Kunde des 

Morgenlandes (series). 

W.F. Albright, Archaeology of Palestine 

(rev. ed. i960). 

W.F. Albright, Archaeology of Palestine and 

the Bible (1935 3 ). 

W.F. Albright, Archaeology and the Religion 

of Israel (1953 s ,). 

W.F. Albright, From the Stone Age to 

Christianity (1957 2 ). 

G. Alon, Mehkarim be-Toledot Yisrael bi- 

Ymei Bay it Sheni u-vi-Tekufat ha-Mishnah 

ve-ha Talmud, 2 vols. (1957-58). 

G. Alon, Toledot ha-Yehudim be-Erez 

Yisrael bi-Tekufat ha-Mishnah ve-ha- 

Talmud, I (1958 3 ), (1961 2 ). 

Alter Orient (series). 

A. Alt, Kleine Schriften zur Geschichte des 

Volkes Israel, 3 vols. (1953-59). 

A. Alt, Landnahme der Israeliten in 

Palaestina (1925); also in Alt, Kl Schr, 1 

(i953)> 89-125. 

Josephus, Jewish Antiquities (Loeb Classics 

ed.). 

Acta Orientalia (i922ff.). 

Analecta Orientalia (i93iff.). 

American Oriental Series. 

Josephus, Against Apion (Loeb Classics 

ed.). 

Aquilas Greek translation of the Bible. 

Arakhin (talmudic tractate). 

Letter of Aristeas (Pseudepigrapha). 

Avot de-Rabbi Nathan, version (1) ed. 

Schechter, 1887. 

Avot de-Rabbi Nathan, version (2) ed. 

Schechter, 1945 2 . 

I. Aronius, Regesten zur Geschichte der 

Juden im fraenkischen und deutschen 

Reiche bis zum Jahre 12/3 (1902). 

Archiv fuer Religionswissenschaft (1898- 

1941/42). 

Assyrological Studies (193 iff.). 

E. Ashtor (Strauss), Korot ha-Yehudim bi- 

Sefarad ha-Muslemit, i(i966 2 ), 2(1966). 

E. Ashtor (Strauss), Toledot ha-Yehudim 

be-Mizrayim ve-Suryah Tahat Shilton ha- 

Mamlukim, 3 vols. (1944-70). 

S. Assaf, Tekufat ha-Geonim ve-Sifrutah 

(i955)- 



Assaf, Mekorot 

Ass. Mos. 

ATA 

ATANT 

AUJW 

AV 

Avad. 

Avi-Yonah, Geog 

Avi-Yonah, Land 



Avot 
Av. Zar. 
AWJD 

AZDJ 
Azulai 



BA 

Bacher, Bab Amor 

Bacher, Pal Amor 



Bacher, Tann 



Bacher, Trad 



Baer, Spain 



Baer, Studien 



Baer, Toledot 



Baer, Urkunden 



Baer S., Seder 



BAIU 



Baker, Biog Diet 



I Bar. 

II Bar. 

III Bar. 
BAR 

Baron, Community 



S. Assaf, Mekorot le-Toledot ha-Hinnukh 
be-Yisrael, 4 vols. (1925-43). 
Assumption of Moses (Pseudepigrapha). 
Alttestamentliche Abhandlungen (series). 
Abhandlungen zur Theologie des Alten 
und Neuen Testaments (series). 
Allgemeine unabhaengige juedische 
Wochenzeitung (till 1966 = AWJD). 
Authorized Version of the Bible. 
Avadim (post-talmudic tractate). 
M. Avi-Yonah, Geografyah Historit shel 
Erez Yisrael (1962 3 ). 
M. Avi-Yonah, The Holy Land from the 
Persian to the Arab conquest (536 B.C. to 
A.D. 640) (i960). 
Avot (talmudic tractate). 
Avodah Zarah (talmudic tractate). 
Allgemeine Wochenzeitung der Juden in 
Deutschland (since 1967 = AUJW). 
Allgemeine Zeitung des Judentums. 
H.Y.D. Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim, ed. by 
I.E. Benjacob, 2 pts. (1852) (and other 
editions). 

Biblical Archaeologist (193 8ff.). 

W. Bacher, Agada der babylonischen 

Amoraeer (1913 2 ). 

W Bacher, Agada der palaestinensischen 

Amoraeer (Heb. ed. Aggadat Amoraei Erez 

Yisrael), 2 vols. (1892-99). 

W Bacher, Agada der Tannaiten (Heb. ed. 

Aggadot ha-Tannaim, vol. 1, pt. 1 and 2 

(1903); vol. 2 (1890). 

W Bacher, Tradition und Tradenten in den 

Schulen Palaestinas und Babyloniens (1914). 

Yitzhak (Fritz) Baer, History of the Jews in 

Christian Spain, 2 vols. (1961-66). 

Yitzhak (Fritz) Baer, Studien zur Geschichte 

der Juden im Koenigreich Aragonien 

waehrend des 13. und 14. Jahrhunderts 

(1913)- 

Yitzhak (Fritz) Baer, Toledot ha-Yehudim 

bi-Sefarad ha-Nozerit mi-Tehillatan shel 

ha-Kehillot ad ha-Gerush, 2 vols. (1959 2 ). 

Yitzhak (Fritz) Baer, Die Juden im 

christlichen Spanien, 2 vols. (1929-36). 

S.I. Baer, Seder Avodat Yisrael (1868 and 

reprints). 

Bulletin de I'Alliance Israelite Universelle 

(1861-1913). 

Bakers Biographical Dictionary of 

Musicians, revised by N. Slonimsky (1958 5 ; 

with Supplement 1965). 

I Baruch (Apocrypha). 

II Baruch (Pseudepigrapha). 

III Baruch (Pseudepigrapha). 
Biblical Archaeology Review. 

S.W. Baron, The Jewish Community, its 
History and Structure to the American 
Revolution, 3 vols. (1942). 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



185 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Baron, Social 



Barthelemy-Milik 



BASOR 

Bauer-Leander 

BB 

BBB 
BBLA 

BBSAJ 



BDASI 



Begrich, Chronologie 

Bek. 

Bel 

Benjacob, Ozar 

Ben Sira 

Ben- Yehuda, Millon 



Benzinger, 

Archaeologie 
Ben Zvi, Eretz Israel 



Ben Zvi, Erez Israel 

Ber. 
Bezah 

* 

BIES 

Bik. 
BJCE 



BJPES 



BJRL 



BK 



S.W. Baron, Social and Religious History of 
the Jews, 3 vols. (1937); enlarged, i-2(i952 2 ), 
3-14 (1957-69). 

D. Barthelemy and J.T. Milik, Dead Sea 
Scrolls: Discoveries in the Judean Desert, 
vol. 1 Qumram Cave I (1955). 

Bulletin of the American School of Oriental 

Research. 

H. Bauer and P. Leander, Grammatik des 

Biblisch-Aramaeischen (1927; repr. 1962). 

(1) Bava Batra (talmudic tractate). 

(2) Biblische Beitraege (i943ff.). 
Bonner biblische Beitraege (series). 
Beitraege zur biblischen Landes- und 
Altertumskunde (until 1949-ZDPV). 
Bulletin, British School of Archaeology, 
Jerusalem (1922-25; after 1927 included in 
PEFQS). 

Alon (since 1948) or Hadashot 

Arkheblogiyyot (since 1961), bulletin of the 

Department of Antiquities of the State of 

Israel. 

J. Begrich, Chronologie der Koenige von 

Israel und Juda (1929). 

Bekhorot (talmudic tractate). 

Bel and the Dragon (Apocrypha). 

I.E. Benjacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim (1880; repr. 

1956). 

see Ecclus. 

E. Ben-Yedhuda, Millon ha-Lashon ha- 
Ivrit, 16 vols (1908-59; repr. in 8 vols., 

1959). 

I. Benzinger, Hebraeische Archaeologie 

(1927 3 ). 

I. Ben-Zvi, Eretz Israel under Ottoman 

Rule (i960; offprint from L. Finkelstein 

(ed.), The Jews, their History, Culture and 

Religion (vol. 1). 

I. Ben-Zvi, Erez Israel bi-Ymei ha-Shilton 

ha-Ottomani (1955). 

Berakhot (talmudic tractate). 

Bezah (talmudic tractate). 

Bulletin of the Israel Exploration Society, 

see below BJPES. 

Bikkurim (talmudic tractate). 

Bibliography of Jewish Communities in 

Europe, catalog at General Archives for the 

History of the Jewish People, Jerusalem. 

Bulletin of the Jewish Palestine 

Exploration Society - English name of the 

Hebrew periodical known as: 

1. Yedibt ha-Hevrah ha-Ivrit la-Hakirat 
Erez Yisrael va-Attikoteha (1933-1954); 

2. Yedibt ha-Hevrah la-Hakirat Erez 

* * * 

Yisrael va-Attikoteha (1954-1962); 

3. Yedibt ba-Hakirat Erez Yisrael va- 
Attikoteha (i962ff.). 

Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 

(I9i4ff.)- 

Bava Kamma (talmudic tractate). 



BLBI 
BM 



BO 
Bondy-Dworsky 



BOR 

Boree, Ortsnamen 

Bousset, Religion 

B ousset- Gressmann 

BR 
BRCI 

BRE 
BRF 



Briggs, Psalms 



Bright, Hist 
Brockelmann, Arab Lit 



Bruell, Jahrbuecher 



Brugmans-Frank 



BTS 

Bull, Index 

BW 
BWANT 

BZ 

BZAW 



BZIH 



CAB 
CAD 

CAH 

CAH 2 

Calwer, Lexikon 
Cant. 



Bulletin of the Leo Baeck Institute (i957ff.). 

(1) Bava Mezia (talmudic tractate). 

(2) BeitMikra (1955/56!^). 

(3) British Museum. 
Bibbia e Oriente (1959!?.). 

G. Bondy and F. Dworsky, Regesten zur 

Geschichte derjuden in Boehmen, Maehren 

und Schlesien von 906 bis 1620, 2 vols. 

(1906). 

Bibliotheca Orientalis (1943]^.). 

W. Boree Die alten Ortsnamen Palaestinas 

(1930). 

W. Bousset, Die Religion des Judentums im 

neutestamentlichen Zeitalter (1906 2 ). 
W. Bousset, Die Religion des Judentums im 
spaethellenistischen Zeitalter (1966 3 ). 
Biblical Review (1916-25). 
Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel 
(1951/52-1954/55; then divided). 
Biblical Research (1956!?.). 
Bulletin of the Rabinowitz Fund for 
the Exploration of Ancient Synagogues 
(i949ff). 

Ch. A. and E.G. Briggs, Critical and 
Exegetical Commentary on the Book of 
Psalms, 2 vols. (ICC, 1906-07). 
J. Bright, A History of Israel (1959). 
K. Brockelmann, Geschichte der arabischen 
Literatur, 2 vols. 1898-1902 ), supplement, 
3 vols. (1937-42). 

Jahrbuecher fuer juedische Geschichte und 
Litteratur, ed. by N. Bruell, Frankfurt 
(1874-90). 

H. Brugmans and A. Frank (eds.), 
Geschiedenis der Joden in Nederland 
(1940). 

Bible et Terre Sainte (i958ff.). 
S. Bull, Index to Biographies of 
Contemporary Composers (1964). 
Biblical World (1882-1920). 
Beitraege zur Wissenschaft vom Alten und 
Neuen Testament (i926ff.). 
Biblische Zeitschrift (1903IT.). 
Beihefte zur Zeitschrift fuer die 
alttestamentliche Wissenschaft, supplement 
to ZAW (i896ff). 
Biuletyn Zydowskiego Instytutu 
Historycznego 
(i95off). 

Cahiers darcheologie biblique (1953IT.). 
The [Chicago] Assyrian Dictionary 

(i 95 6ff). 

Cambridge Ancient History, 12 vols. 

(1923-39) 

Cambridge Ancient History, second edition, 

14 vols. (1962-2005). 

Calwer, Bibellexikon. 

Canticles, usually given as Song ( = Song 

of Songs). 



186 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Cantera-Millas, 
Inscripciones 
CBQ 
CCARY 

CD 



Charles, Apocrypha 



Cher. 

I (or II) Chron. 

CIG 

CIJ 

CIL 
CIS 

C.J. 

Clermont- Ganneau, 

Arch 

CNFI 

Cod. Just. 

Cod. Theod. 

Col. 

Conder, Survey 



Conder- Kitchener 



Conf. 

Conforte, Kore 
Cong. 

Cont. 

I (or II) Cor. 

Cowley, Aramic 

Colwey, Cat 



CRB 
Crowfoot-Kenyon 

C.T. 
DAB 

Daiches, Jews 
Dalman, Arbeit 

Dan 
Davidson, Ozar 



F. Cantera and J.M. Millas, Las 
Inscripciones Hebraicas de Espaha (1956). 
Catholic Biblical Quarterly (19391!.). 
Central Conference of American Rabbis, 
Yearbook (1890/91!!.). 

Damascus Document from the Cairo 

Genizah (published by S. Schechter, 

Fragments of a Zadokite Work, 1910). 

R.H. Charles, Apocrypha and 

Pseudepigrapha . . ., 2 vols. (1913; repr. 

1963-66). 

Philo, De Cherubim. 

Chronicles, book I and II (Bible). 

Corpus Inscriptionum Graecarum. 

Corpus Inscriptionum Judaicarum, 2 vols. 

(1936-52). 

Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. 

Corpus Inscriptionum Semiticarum 

(i88iff.). 

Codex Justinianus. 

Ch. Clermont- Ganneau, Archaeological 

Researches in Palestine, 2 vols. (1896-99). 

Christian News from Israel (1949!?.). 

Codex Justinianus. 

Codex Theodosinanus. 

Epistle to the Colosssians (New 

Testament). 

Palestine Exploration Fund, Survey of 

Eastern Palestine, vol. 1, pt. I (1889) = C.R. 

Conder, Memoirs of the . . . Survey. 

Palestine Exploration Fund, Survey of 

Western Palestine, vol. 1, pts. 1-3 (1881- 

83) = C.R. Conder and H.H. Kitchener, 

Memoirs. 

Philo, De Confusione Linguarum. 

D. Conforte, Kore ha-Dorot (1842 2 ). 

Philo, De Congressu Quaerendae 

Eruditionis Gratia. 

Philo, De Vita Contemplativa. 

Epistles to the Corinthians (New 

Testament). 

A. Cowley, Aramaic Papyri of the Fifth 

Century B.C. (1923). 

A.E. Cowley, A Concise Catalogue of the 

Hebrew Printed Books in the Bodleian 

Library (1929). 

Cahiers de la Revue Biblique (1964!!.). 

J.W. Crowfoot, K.M. Kenyon and E.L. 

Sukenik, Buildings of Samaria (1942). 

Codex Theodosianus. 

Dictionary of American Biography (1928- 

58). 

S. Daiches, Jews in Babylonia (1910). 

G. Dalman, Arbeit und Sitte in Palaestina, 
7 vols. in 8 (1928-42 repr. 1964). 

Daniel (Bible). 

I. Davidson, Ozar ha-Shirah ve-ha-Piyyut, 
4 vols. (1924-33); Supplement in: HUCA, 
12-13 (1937/38), 715-823. 



DB 



DBI 



Decal. 

Dem. 

DER 

Derenbourg, Hist 

Det. 

Deus 

Deut. 

Deut. R. 

DEZ 

DHGE 



Dik. Sof 



Dinur, Golah 



Dinur, Haganah 

Diringer, Iscr 

Discoveries 
DNB 

Dubnow, Divrei 

Dubnow, Hasidut 
Dubnow, Hist 
Dubnow, Hist Russ 

Dubnow, Outline 

Dubnow, Weltgesch 

Dukes, Poesie 

Dunlop, Khazars 



EA 



EB 

EBI 

EBIB 

Ebr. 
Eccles. 
Eccles. R 
Ecclus. 

Eduy. 



J. Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible, 4 vols. 

(1963 2 ). 

EG. Vigoureaux et al. (eds.), Dictionnaire 

de la Bible, 5 vols, in 10 (1912); Supplement, 

8 vols. (1928-66) 

Philo, De Decalogo. 

Demai (talmudic tractate). 

Derekh Erez Rabbah (post-talmudic 

tractate). 

J. Derenbourg Essai sur Vhistoire et la 

geographie de la Palestine (1867). 

Philo, Quod deter ius potiori insidiari solet. 

Philo, Quod Deus immutabilis sit. 

Deuteronomy (Bible). 

Deuteronomy Rabbah. 

Derekh ErezZuta (post-talmudic tractate). 

Dictionnaire d'histoire et de geographie 

ecclesiastiques, ed. by A. Baudrillart et al., 

17 vols (1912-68). 

Dikdukei Soferim, variae lections of 

the talmudic text by Raphael Nathan 

Rabbinovitz (16 vols., 1867-97). 

B. Dinur (Dinaburg), Yisrael ba-Golah, 2 

vols, in 7 (1959-68) = vols. 5 and 6 of his 

Toledo t Yisrael, second series. 

B. Dinur (ed.), Sefer Toledot ha-Haganah 

(i954ff.). 

D. Diringer, Iscrizioni antico-ebraiche 

palestinesi (1934). 

Discoveries in the Judean Desert (1955!!). 

Dictionary of National Biography, 66 vols. 

(1921-222) with Supplements. 

S. Dubnow, Divrei Yemei Am Olam, 11 vols 

(1923-38 and further editions). 

S. Dubnow, Toledot ha-Hasidut (i960 2 ). 

S. Dubnow, History of the Jews (1967). 

S. Dubnow, History of the Jews in Russia 

and Poland, 3 vols. (1916 20). 

S. Dubnow, An Outline of Jewish History, 3 

vols. (1925-29). 

S. Dubnow, Weltgeschichte des juedischen 

Volkes 10 vols. (1925-29). 

L. Dukes, Zur Kenntnis der 

neuhebraeischen religioesen Poesie (1842). 

D. H. Dunlop, History of the Jewish 

Khazars (1954). 

El Amarna Letters (edited by J.A. 

Knudtzon), Die El-Amarna Tafel, 2 vols. 

(1907 14). 

Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

Estudios biblicos (i94iff.). 

T.K. Cheyne and J.S. Black, Encyclopaedi 

Biblica, 4 vols. (1899-1903). 

Philo, De Ebrietate. 

Ecclesiastes (Bible). 

Ecclesiastes Rabbah. 

Ecclesiasticus or Wisdom of Ben Sira (or 

Sirach; Apocrypha). 

Eduyyot (mishanic tractate). 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



187 



ABBREVIATIONS 



EG 
EH 
EHA 

EI 

EIS 

EIS 2 

Eisenstein, Dinim 

Eisenstein, Yisrael 

EIV 
EJ 

EJC 

Elbogen, Century 
Elbogen, Gottesdienst 

Elon, Mafteah 

EM 

I (or II) En. 
EncRel 

Eph. 
Ephros, Cant 

Ep. Jer. 

Epstein, Amora'im 

Epstein, Marriage 

Epstein, Mishnah 

Epstein, Tanna'im 

ER 
Er. 
ERE 

Erlsr 
IEsd. 

II Esd. 
ESE 

ESN 

ESS 

Esth. 

Est. R. 

ET 

Eusebius, Onom. 



Ex. 



Enziklopedyah shel Galuyyot (i953fi\). 

Even ha-Ezer. 

Enziklopedyah la-Hafirot Arkheologiyyot 

be-Erez Yisrael, 2 vols. (1970). 

Enzyklopaedie des Islams, 4 vols. (1905-14). 

Supplement vol. (1938). 

Encyclopaedia of Islam, 4 vols. (1913-36; 

repr. 1954-68). 

Encyclopaedia of Islam, second edition 

(1960-2000). 

J.D. Eisenstein, Ozar Dinim u-Minhagim 

(1917; several reprints). 

J.D. Eisenstein, Ozar Yisrael (10 vols, 1907- 

13; repr. with several additions 1951). 

Enziklopedyah Ivrit (1949!?.). 

Encyclopaedia Judaica (German, A-L only), 

10 vols. (1928-34). 

Enciclopedia Judaica Castellana, 10 vols. 

(1948-51). 

I Elbogen, A Century of Jewish Life (i960 2 ). 

I Elbogen, Der juedische Gottesdienst ... 

(1931 3 , repr. 1962). 

M. Elon (ed.), Mafteah ha-Sheelot ve-ha- 

Teshuvot ha-Rosh (1965). 

Enziklopedyah Mikra'it (i95off.). 

1 and II Enoch (Pseudepigrapha). 
Encyclopedia of Religion, 15 vols. (1987, 
2005 2 ). 

Epistle to the Ephesians (New Testament). 

G. Ephros, Cantorial Anthology, 5 vols. 

(1929-57). 

Epistle of Jeremy (Apocrypha). 

J N. Epstein, Mevobt le-Sifrut ha-Amoraim 

(1962). 

L M. Epstein, Marriage Laws in the Bible 

and the Talmud (1942). 

J. N. Epstein, Mavo le-Nusah ha-Mishnah, 

2 vols. (1964 2 ). 

J. N. Epstein, Mavo le-Sifruth ha-Tanna'im. 

(i947)- 
Ecumenical Review. 

Eruvin (talmudic tractate). 

Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 13 

vols. (1908-26); reprinted. 

Eretz-Israel, Israel Exploration Society. 

I Esdras (Apocrypha) ( = III Ezra). 

11 Esdras (Apocrypha) ( = IV Ezra). 
Ephemeris fuer semitische Epigraphik, ed. 
by M. Lidzbarski. 

Encyclopaedia Sefaradica Neerlandica, 2 

pts. (1949)- 

Encyclopaedia of the Social Sciences, 15 vols. 

(1930-35); reprinted in 8 vols. (1948-49). 

Esther (Bible). 

Esther Rabbah. 

Enziklopedyah Talmudit (i947ff.). 

E. Klostermann (ed.), Das Onomastikon 

(1904), Greek with Hieronymus' Latin 

translation. 

Exodus (Bible). 



Ex. R. 


Exodus Rabbah. 


Exs 


Philo, De Exsecrationibus. 


EZD 

* 


Enziklopeday shel ha-Ziyyonut ha-Datit 




(i95iff-). 


Ezek. 


Ezekiel (Bible). 


Ezra 


Ezra (Bible). 


III Ezra 


Ill Ezra (Pseudepigrapha). 


IV Ezra 


IV Ezra (Pseudepigrapha). 



Feliks, Ha-Zomeah 

Finkelstein, Middle 
Ages 

Fischel, Islam 



FJW 



Frankel, Mevo 

Frankel, Mishnah 

Frazer, Folk- Lore 

Frey, Corpus 

Friedmann, 

Lebensbilder 
FRLT 



Fr umkin - Rivlin 



Fuenn, Keneset 

Fuerst, Bibliotheca 

Fuerst, Karaeertum 

Fug. 

Gal. 

Galling, Reallexikon 

Gardiner, Onomastica 

Geiger, Mikra 

Geiger, Urschrift 

Gen. 
Gen. R. 
Ger. 
Germ Jud 



/. Feliks, Ha-Zome'ah ve-ha-Hai ba- 
Mishnah (1983). 

L. Finkelstein, Jewish Self -Government in 
the Middle Ages (1924). 

W.J. Fischel, Jews in the Economic and 

Political Life of Mediaeval Islam (1937; 

reprint with introduction "The Court Jew 

in the Islamic World," 1969). 

Fuehrer durch die juedische 

Gemeindeverwaltung und Wohlfahrtspflege 

in Deutschland (1927/28). 

Z. Frankel, Mevo ha-Yerushalmi (1870; 

reprint 1967). 

Z. Frankel, Darkhei ha-Mishnah (1959 2 ; 

reprint 1959 2 ). 

J.G. Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament, 

3 vols. (1918-19). 

J.-B. Frey, Corpus Inscriptionum 

Iudaicarum, 2 vols. (1936-52). 

A. Friedmann, Lebensbilder beruehmter 

Kantoren, 3 vols. (1918-27). 

Forschungen zur Religion und Literatur 

desAlten und Neuen Testaments (series) 

(i95off.). 

A.L. Frumkin and E. Rivlin, Toledot 

Hakhmei Yerushalayim, 3 vols. (1928-30), 

Supplement vol. (1930). 

S.J. Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, 4 vols. (1887- 

90). 

J. Fuerst, Bibliotheca Judaica, 2 vols. (1863; 

repr. i960). 

J. Fuerst, Geschichte des Karaeertums, 3 

vols. (1862-69). 

Philo, De Fuga et Inventione. 

Epistle to the Galatians (New Testament). 

K. Galling, Biblisches Reallexikon (1937). 

A.H. Gardiner, Ancient Egyptian 

Onomastica, 3 vols. (1947). 

A. Geiger, Ha-Mikra ve-Targumav, tr. by 

J.L. Baruch (1949). 

A. Geiger, Urschrift und Uebersetzungen 

derBibel 1928 2 ). 

Genesis (Bible). 

Genesis Rabbah. 

Gerim (post-talmudic tractate). 

M. Brann, I. Elbogen, A. Freimann, and H. 

Tykocinski (eds.), Germania Judaica, vol. 

1 (1917; repr. 1934 and 1963); vol. 2, in 2 pts. 

(1917-68), ed. by Z. Avneri. 



188 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



ABBREVIATIONS 



GHAT 



Ghirondi-Neppi 



Gig. 

Ginzberg, Legends 

Git. 

Glueck, Explorations 

Go ell, Bibliography 

Goodenough, Symbols 

Gordon, Textbook 

Graetz, Gesch 

Graetz, Hist 

Graetz, Psalmen 

Graetz, Rabbinowitz 

Gray, Names 

Gressmann, Bilder 

Gressmann, Texte 

Gross, Gal Jud 

Grove, Diet 



Guedemann, Gesch 
Erz 

Guedemann, 
Quellenschr 



Guide 
Gulak, Ozar 

Gulak, Yesodei 



Guttmann, Mafteah 



Goettinger Handkommentar zum Alten 
Testament (1917-22). 
M.S. Ghirondi and G.H. Neppi, Toledot 
Gedolei Yisrael u-Gebnei Italyah ... u- 
Veurim al Sefer Zekher Zaddikim li- 
Verakhah . . .(1853), index in ZHB, 17 

(1914), 171-83. 

Philo, De Gigantibus. 

L. Ginzberg, Legends of the Jews, 7 vols. 

(1909-38; and many reprints). 

Gittin (talmudic tractate). 

N. Gleuck, Explorations in Eastern 

Palestine, 2 vols. (1951). 

Y. Goell, Bibliography of Modern Hebrew 

Literature in English Translation (1968). 

E.R. Goodenough, Jewish Symbols in the 

Greco-Roman Period, 13 vols. (1953-68). 

C.H. Gordon, Ugaritic Textbook (1965; 

repr. 1967). 

H. Graetz, Geschichte derjuden (last 

edition 1874-1908). 

H. Graetz, History of the Jews, 6 vols. 

(1891-1902). 

H. Graetz, Kritischer Commentar zu den 

Psalmen, 2 vols, in 1 (1882-83). 

H. Graetz, Divrei Yemei Yisrael, tr. by S.P. 

Rabbinowitz. (1928 1929 2 ). 

G.B. Gray, Studies in Hebrew Proper Names 

(1896). 

H. Gressmann, Altorientalische Bilder zum 

Alten Testament (1927 2 ). 

H. Gressmann, Altorientalische Texte zum 

Alten Testament (1926 2 ). 

H. Gross, Gallia Judaica (1897; repr. with 

add. 1969). 

Groves Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 

ed. by E. Blum 9 vols. (1954 5 ) and suppl. 

(1961 5 ). 

M. Guedemann, Geschichte des 
Erziehungswesens und der Cultur der 
abendlaendischen Juden, 3 vols. (1880-88). 
M. Guedemann, Quellenschriften zur 
Geschichte des Unterrichts und der 
Erziehung bei den deutschen Juden (1873, 

1891). 

Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed. 

A. Gulak, Ozar ha-Shetarot ha-Nehugim 

be-Yisrael (1926). 

A. Gulak, Yesodei ha-Mishpat ha-Ivri, 

Seder Dinei Mamonot be-Yisrael, alpi 

Mekorot ha-Talmud ve-ha-Posekim, 4 vols. 

(1922; repr. 1967). 

M. Guttmann, Mafteah ha-Talmud, 3 vols. 

(1906-30). 



Guttmann, 


J. Guttmann, Philosophies oj 


Philosophies 


(1964). 


Hab. 


Habakkuk (Bible). 


Hag. 


Hagigah (talmudic tractate) 


Haggai 


Haggai (Bible). 


Hal. 

* 


Hallah (talmudic tractate). 



Halevy, Dorot 
Halpern, Pinkas 



Hananel-ESkenazi 



HB 

Heb. 

Heilprin, Dorot 

Her. 

Hertz, Prayer 

Herzog, Instit 

Herzog-Hauck 



HHY 



Hirschberg, Afrikah 

HJ 

HL 

HM 

* 

Hommel, Ueberliefer. 



Hor. 

Horodezky, Hasidut 

Horowitz, Erez Yis 

Hos. 

HTR 

HUCA 

Hul. 

* 

Husik, Philosophy 
Hyman, Toledot 



Ibn Daud, Tradition 



ICC 



IDB 



Idelsohn, Litugy 



Idelsohn, Melodien 



Idelsohn, Music 



I. Halevy, Dorot ha-Rishonim, 6 vols. 

(1897-1939). 

I. Halpern (Halperin), Pinkas Vaad Arba 

Arazot (1945). 

A. Hananel and ESkenazi (eds.), Pontes 

Hebraici ad res oeconomicas socialesque 

terrarum balcanicarum saeculo XVI 

pertinentes, 2 vols, (1958-60; in Bulgarian). 

Hebraeische Bibliographie (1858-82). 

Epistle to the Hebrews (New Testament). 

J. Heilprin (Heilperin), Seder ha-Dorot, 3 

vols. (1882; repr. 1956). 

Philo, Quis Rerum Divinarum Heres. 

J.H. Hertz (ed.), Authorised Daily Prayer 

Book (rev. ed. 1948; repr. 1963). 

I. Herzog, The Main Institutions of Jewish 

Law, 2 vols. (1936-39; repr. 1967). 

J.J. Herzog and A. Hauch (eds.), Real 

encycklopaedie fuer protestantische 

Theologie (1896-1913 3 ). 

Ha-Zofeh le-Hokhmat Yisrael (first four 

volumes under the title Ha-Zofeh me-Erez 

Hagar) (1910/11-13). 

H.Z. Hirschberg, Toledot ha-Yehudim be- 

Afrikah ha-Zofonit, 2 vols. (1965). 

Historia Judaica (1938-61). 

Das Heilige Land (i857ff.) 

Hoshen Mishpat. 

F. Hommel, Die altisraelitische 

Ueberlieferung in inschriftlicher 

Beleuchtung (1897). 

Horayot (talmudic tractate). 

S.A. Horodezky, Ha-Hasidut ve-ha- 

Hasidim, 4 vols. (1923). 

I.W. Horowitz, Erez Yisrael u-Shekhenoteha 

(1923)- 
Hosea (Bible). 

Harvard Theological Review (i9o8ff.). 

Hebrew Union College Annual (1904; 

i924ff.) 

Hullin (talmudic tractate). 

I. Husik, History of Medieval Jewish 

Philosophy (1932 2 ). 

A. Hyman, Toledot Tanna'im ve-Amora'im 

(1910; repr. 1964). 

Abraham Ibn Daud, Sefer ha-Qabbalah 

- The Book of Tradition, ed. and tr. By G.D. 

Cohen (1967). 

International Critical Commentary on 

the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New 

Testaments (series, i9o8ff.). 

Interpreters Dictionary of the Bible, 4 vols. 

(1962). 

A. Z. Idelsohn, Jewish Liturgy and its 

Development (1932; paperback repr. 1967) 

A. Z. Idelsohn, Hebraeisch-orientalischer 

Melodienschatz, 10 vols. (1914 32). 
A. Z. Idelsohn, Jewish Music in its 
Historical Development (1929; paperback 
repr. 1967). 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



189 



ABBREVIATIONS 



IEJ 
IESS 

IG 

IGYB 

ILR 
IMIT 

IMT 
INB 

INJ 
Ios 
Isa. 
ITHL 

IZBG 



JA 
James 

JAOS 

Jastrow, Diet 



JBA 
JBL 
JBR 

JC 
JCS 

JE 

Jer. 

Jeremias, Alte Test 

JGGJC 



JHSEM 
JHSET 
JJGL 
JJLG 

JJS 
JJSO 

JJV 

JL 
JMES 

JNES 

J.N.U.L. 

Job 

Joel 



Israel Exploration Journal (i95off.). 


John 


International Encyclopedia of the Social 




Sciences (various eds.). 


I, II and III John 


Inscriptiones Graecae, ed. by the Prussian 


Jos., Ant 


Academy. 




Israel Government Year Book (1949/ 


Jos. Apion 


5 off.). 




Israel Law Review (i966ff.). 


Jos., index 


Izraelita Magyar Irodalmi Tdrsulat Evkonyv 




(1895 1948). 


Jos., Life 


International Military Tribunal. 


Jos, Wars 


Israel Numismatic Bulletin (1962-63). 




Israel Numismatic Journal (1963!?.). 


Josh. 


Philo, De Iosepho. 


JPESB 


Isaiah (Bible). 




Institute for the Translation of Hebrew 


JPESJ 


Literature. 




Internationale Zeitschriftenschau fuer 




Bibelwissenschaft und Grenzgebiete 




(i95iff-). 


JPOS 



Journal asiatique (1822IT.). 

Epistle of James (New Testament). 

Journal of the American Oriental Society 

(c. 18506°.) 

M. Jastrow, Dictionary of the Targumim, 

the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the 

Midrashic literature, 2 vols. (1886 1902 and 

reprints). 

Jewish Book Annual (192426°.). 

Journal of Biblical Literature (i88iff.). 

Journal of Bible and Religion (1933!?.). 

Jewish Chronicle (1841!°.). 

Journal of Cuneiform Studies (i947ff.). 

Jewish Encyclopedia, 12 vols. (1901-05 

several reprints). 

Jeremiah (Bible). 

A. Jeremias, Das Alte Testament im Lichte 

des alten Orients 1930 4 ). 

Jahrbuch der Gesellschaft fuer Geschichte 

der Juden in der Cechoslovakischen 

Republik (1929-38). 

Jewish Historical Society of England, 

Miscellanies (1925!?.). 

Jewish Historical Society of England, 

Transactions (1893!?.). 

Jahrbuch fuer juedische Geschichte und 

Literatur (Berlin) (1898-1938). 

Jahrbuch derr juedische-literarischen 

Gesellschaft (Frankfurt) (1903-32). 

Journal of Jewish Studies (1948IT.). 

Jewish Journal of Sociology (1959IT.). 

Jahrbuch fuer juedische Volkskunde (1898- 

1924). 

Juedisches Lexikon, 5 vols. (1927-30). 

Journal of the Middle East Society (i947ff.). 

Journal of Near Eastern Studies 

(continuation of AJSLL) (i942ff.). 

Jewish National and University Library. 

Job (Bible). 

Joel (Bible). 



JPS 



JQR 

JR 

JRAS 

JHR 

JSOS 

JSS 

JTS 

JTSA 

Jub. 
Judg. 
Judith 
Juster, Juifs 

JYB 
JZWL 



Kal. 

Kal. R. 

Katz, England 

Kaufmann, Schriften 

Kaufmann Y., 
Religion 
Kaufmann Y., Toledot 

KAWJ 



Kayserling, Bibl 

Kelim 

Ker. 

Ket. 



Gospel according to John (New 

Testament). 

Epistles of John (New Testament). 

Josephus, Jewish Antiquities (Loeb Classics 

ed.). 

Josephus, Against Apion (Loeb Classics 

ed.). 

Josephus Works, Loeb Classics ed., index 

of names. 

Josephus, Life (ed. Loeb Classics). 

Josephus, The Jewish Wars (Loeb Classics 

ed.). 

Joshua (Bible). 

Jewish Palestine Exploration Society 

Bulletin, see BJPES. 

Jewish Palestine Exploration Society 

Journal - Eng. Title of the Hebrew 

periodical Kovez ha-Hevrah ha-Ivrit la- 

Hakirat Erez Yisrael va-Attikoteha. 

Journal of the Palestine Oriental Society 

(1920-48). 

Jewish Publication Society of America, The 

Torah (1962, 1967 2 ); The Holy Scriptures 

(1917)- 

Jewish Quarterly Review (i889ff.). 

Journal of Religion (i92iff.). 

Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society (1838!?.). 

Journal of Religious History (1960/616°.). 

Jewish Social Studies (1939!?.). 

Jouranl of Semitic Studies (i956ff.). 

Journal of Theological Studies (1900IT.). 

Jewish Theological Seminary of America 

(also abbreviated as JTS). 

Jubilees (Pseudepigrapha). 

Judges (Bible). 

Book of Judith (Apocrypha). 

J. Juster, Les Juifs dans VEmpire Romain, 2 

vols. (1914). 

Jewish Year Book (1896IT.). 

Juedische Zeitschift fuer Wissenschaft und 

Leben (1862-75). 

Kallah (post-talmudic tractate). 
Kallah Rabbati (post-talmudic tractate). 
The Jews in the History of England, 1485- 

1850 (1994)' 

D. Kaufmann, Gesammelte Schriften, 3 

vols. (1908 15). 

Y. Kaufmann, The Religion of Israel (i960), 

abridged tr. of his Toledot. 

Y. Kaufmann, Toledot ha-Emunah ha- 

Yisreelit, 4 vols. (1937 57). 

Korrespondenzblatt des Vereins zur 

Gruendung und Erhaltung der Akademie 

fuer die Wissenschaft des Judentums (1920 

30). 

M. Kayserling, Biblioteca Espanola- 

Portugueza-Judaica (1880; repr. 1961). 

Kelim (mishnaic tractate). 

Keritot (talmudic tractate). 

Ketubbot (talmudic tractate). 



190 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Kid. 
Kil. 

Kin. 

Kisch, Germany 

Kittel, Gesch 

Klausner, Bayit Sheni 

Klausner, Sifrut 

Klein, corpus 

Koehler-Baumgartner 

Kohut, Arukh 



Krauss, Tal Arch 

Kressel, Leksikon 

KS 
Kut. 

LA 

L.A. 

Lachower, Sifrut 



Lam. 

Lam. R. 

Landshuth, Ammudei 

Legat. 

Lehmann, Nova Bibl 

Lev. 

Lev. R. 

Levy, Antologia 

Levy J., Chald Targ 

Levy J., Nuehebr Tal 



Lewin, Ozar 
Lewysohn, Zool 

Lidzbarski, Handbuch 

Life 
LNYL 

Loew, Flora 

LSI 

Luckenbill, Records 



Kiddushim (talmudic tractate). 
Kilayim (talmudic tractate). 
Kinnim (mishnaic tractate). 
G. Kisch, Jews in Medieval Germany 

(i949). 

R. Kittel, Geschichte des Volkes Israel, 3 

vols. (1922-28). 

J. Klausner, Historyah shel ha-Bayit ha- 

Sheni, 5 vols. (1950/512). 

J. Klausner, Historyah shel haSifrut ha-Ivrit 

ha-Hadashah, 6 vols. (1952-582). 

S. Klein (ed.), Juedisch-palaestinisches 

Corpus Inscriptionum (1920). 

L. Koehler and W. Baumgartner, Lexicon in 

Veteris Testamenti lihros (1953). 

H.J.A. Kohut (ed.), Sefer he-Arukh ha- 

Shalem, by Nathan b. Jehiel of Rome, 8 

vols. (1876-92; Supplement by S. Krauss et 

al, 1936; repr. 1955). 

S. Krauss, Talmudische Archaeologie, 3 vols. 

(1910-12; repr. 1966). 

G. Kressel, Leksikon ha-Sifrut ha-Ivrit ba- 

Dorot ha-Aharonim, 2 vols. (1965-67). 

Kirjath Sepher (1923/4!?.). 

Kuttim (post-talmudic tractate). 

Studium Biblicum Franciscanum, Liber 

Annuus (i95iff.). 

Philo, Legum allegoriae. 

F. Lachower, Toledot ha-Sifrut ha-Ivrit 

ha-Hadashah, 4 vols. (1947-48; several 

reprints). 

Lamentations (Bible). 

Lamentations Rabbah. 

L. Landshuth, Ammudei ha-Avodah (1857- 

62; repr. with index, 1965). 

Philo, De Legatione ad Caium. 

R.R Lehmann, Nova Bibliotheca Anglo- 

Judaica (1961). 

Leviticus (Bible). 

Leviticus Rabbah. 

I. Levy, Antologia de liturgia judeo- 

espahola (1965!?.). 

J. Levy, Chaldaeisches Woerterbuch ueber 

die Targumim, 2 vols. (1967-68; repr. 1959). 

}. Levy, Neuhebraeisches und chaldaeisches 

Woerterbuch ueber die Talmudim . . ., 4 

vols. (1875-89; repr. 1963). 

Lewin, Ozar ha-Gebnim, 12 vols. (1928-43). 

L. Lewysohn, Zoologie des Talmuds 

(1858). 

M. Lidzbarski, Handbuch der 

nordsemitischen Epigraphik, 2 vols (1898). 

Josephus, Life (Loeb Classis ed.). 

Leksikon fun derNayer Yidisher Liter atur 

(i956ff-). 

I. Loew, Die Flora der Juden, 4 vols. (1924 

34; repr. 1967). 

Laws of the State of Israel (1948IT.). 

D.D. Luckenbill, Ancient Records of Assyria 

and Babylonia, 2 vols. (1926). 



Luke 

LXX 

Maas. 

Maas. Sh. 

I, II, III, and IVMacc 

Maimonides, Guide 
Maim., Yad 

Maisler, 
Untersuchungen 

Mak. 

Makhsh. 

Mai. 

Mann, Egypt 

Mann, Texts 

Mansi 



Margalioth, Gedolei 
Margalioth, Hakhmei 



Margalioth, Cat 



Mark 

Mart. Isa. 

Mas. 

Matt. 

Mayer, Art 

MB 

MEAH 

Meg. 
Meg. Taan. 

Meil 

MEJ 
Mehk. 
Mekh. SbY 
Men. 
MER 
Meyer, Gesch 

Meyer, Ursp 

Mez. 
MGADJ 

MGG 



Gospel according to Luke (New 

Testament) 

Septuagint (Greek translation of the Bible). 

Maaserot (talmudic tractate). 

Maase Sheni (talmudic tractate). 

Maccabees, I, II, III (Apocrypha), IV 

(Pseudepigrapha). 

Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed. 

Maimonides, Mishneh Torah (Yad 

Hazakah). 

B. Maisler (Mazar), Untersuchungen zur 

alten Geschichte und Ethnographie Syriens 

und Palaestinas, 1 (1930). 

Makkot (talmudic tractate). 

Makhshrin (mishnaic tractate). 

Malachi (Bible). 

}. Mann, Jews in Egypt in Palestine under 

the Fatimid Caliphs, 2 vols. (1920-22). 

J. Mann, Texts and Studies, 2 vols 

(i93i-35)- 

G.D. Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum nova 

et amplissima collectio, 53 vols, in 60 (1901- 

27; repr. i960). 

M. Margalioth, Enziklopedyah le-Toledot 

Gedolei Yisrael, 4 vols. (1946-50). 

M. Margalioth, Enziklopedyah le-Hakhmei 

ha-Talmud ve-ha-Gebnim, 2 vols. (1945). 

G. Margalioth, Catalogue of the Hebrew 

and Samaritan Manuscripts in the British 

Museum, 4 vols. (1899-1935). 

Gospel according to Mark (New 

Testament). 

Martyrdom of Isaiah (Pseudepigrapha). 

Masorah. 

Gospel according to Matthew (New 

Testameant). 

L.A. Mayer, Bibliography of Jewish Art 

(1967). 

Wochenzeitung (formerly Mitteilungsblatt) 

des Irgun Olej Merkas Europa (1933IT.). 

Misceldnea de estudios drabes y hebraicos 

(i952ff.). 

Megillah (talmudic tractate). 

Megillat Taanit (in HUCA, 8 9 (1931-32), 

318-51). 

Me'ilah (mishnaic tractate). 

Middle East Journal (1947IT.). 

Mekhilta de-R. Ishmael. 

Mekhilta de-R. Simeon bar Yohai. 

Menahot (talmudic tractate). 

Middle East Record (19 6 off.). 

E. Meyer, Geschichte des Alterums, 5 vols. 

in 9 (1925-58). 

E. Meyer, Urspring und Anfaenge des 

Christentums (1921). 

Mezuzah (post-talmudic tractate). 

Mitteilungen des Gesamtarchivs der 

deutschen Juden (1909-12). 

Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 14 

vols. (1949-68). 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



191 



ABBREVIATIONS 



MGG 2 

MGH 
MGJV 



MGWJ 



MHJ 



Michael, Or 



Mid. 
Mid. Ag. 
Mid. Hag. 
Mid. Job. 
Mid. Jonah 
Mid. Lek. Tov 
Mid. Prov. 
Mid. Ps. 

Mid. Sam. 
Mid. Song 
Mid. Tan. 
Miege, Maroc 

Mig. 
Mik. 
Milano, Bibliotheca 



Milano, Italia 

MIO 

Mish. 

MJ 

MJC 

MK 

MNDPV 

Mortara, Indice 

Mos 
Moscati, Epig 

MT 

Mueller, Musiker 

Munk, Melanges 

Mut. 
MWJ 



Nah. 
Naz. 
NDB 



Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 

2nd edition (1994) 

Monumenta Germaniae Historica (i826ff.). 

Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft fuer juedische 

Volkskunde (1898-1929); title varies, see 

also JJV. 

Monatsschrift fuer Geschichte und 

Wissenschaft des Judentums (1851-1939). 

Momumenta Hungariae Judaica, 11 vols. 

(1903-67). 

H.H. Michael, Or ha-Hayyim: Hakhmei 

Yisrael ve-Sifreihem, ed. by S.Z. H. 

Halberstam and N. Ben-Menahem (1965 2 ). 

Middot (mishnaic tractate). 

Midrash Aggadah. 

Midrash ha-Gadol. 

Midrash Job. 

Midrash Jonah. 

Midrash Lekah Tov. 

* 

Midrash Proverbs. 

Midrash Tehillim (Eng tr. The Midrash on 

Psalms (JPS, 1959). 

Midrash Samuel. 

Midrash Shir ha-Shirim. 

Midrash Tannaim on Deuteronomy. 

J.L. Miege, Le Maroc et VEurope, 3 vols. 

(1961 62). 

Philo, De Migratione Abrahami. 

Mikvabt (mishnaic tractate). 

A. Milano, Bibliotheca Historica Italo- 

Judaica (1954); supplement for 1954-63 

(1964); supplement for 1964-66 in RMI, 

32 (1966). 

A. Milano, Storia degli Ebrei in Italia 

(1963). 

Mitteilungen des Instituts fuer 

Orientforschung i953ff.). 

Mishnah. 

Le Monde Juif (19466°.). 

see Neubauer, Chronicles. 

Moed Katan (talmudic tractate). 

Mitteilungen und Nachrichten des 

deutschen Palaestinavereins (1895-1912). 

M. Mortara, Indice Alfabetico dei Rabbini e 

Scrittori Israeliti ... in Italia ... (1886). 

Philo, De Vita Mosis. 

S, Moscati, Epigrafia ebaica antica 1935- 

1950 (1951). 

Masoretic Text of the Bible. 

[E.H. Mueller], Deutisches Musiker- 

Lexikon (1929) 

S. Munk, Melanges de philo sophie juive et 

arabe (1859; repr. 1955). 

Philo, De Mutatione Nominum. 

Magazin fuer die Wissenshaft des 

Judentums (18745 93). 

Nahum (Bible). 

Nazir (talmudic tractate). 

Neue Deutsche Biographie (i953ff.). 



Ned. 
Neg. 
Neh. 
NG 2 

Nuebauer, Cat 



Neubauer, Chronicles 



Neubauer, Geogr 



Neuman, Spain 



Neusner, Babylonia 



Nid. 
Noah 

Noth, Hist Isr 

Noth, Personennamen 

Noth, Ueberlief 

Noth, Welt 

Nowack, Lehrbuch 

NT 

Num. 

NumR. 

Obad. 

ODNB online 
OH 

* 

Oho. 
Olmstead 

OLZ 
Onom. 
Op. 
OPD 



Or. 

Or. Sibyll. 

OS 

OTS 

PAAJR 

Pap 4QS e 

Par. 

Pauly-Wissowa 



Nedarim (talmudic tractate). 

Nega'im (mishnaic tractate). 

Nehemiah (Bible). 

New Grove Dictionary of Music and 

Musicians (2001). 

A. Neubauer, Catalogue of the Hebrew 

Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library ..., 2 

vols. (1886-1906). 

A. Neubauer, Mediaeval Jewish Chronicles, 

2 vols. (Heb., 1887-95; repr. 1965), Eng. 

title of Seder ha-Hakhamim ve-Korot ha- 

Yamim. 

A. Neubauer, La geographie du Talmud 

(1868). 

A. A. Neuman, The Jews in Spain, their 

Social, Political, and Cultural Life 

During the Middle Ages, 2 vols. 

(1942). 

J. Neusner, History of the Jews in Babylonia, 

5 vols. 1965-70), 2nd revised printing 

i969ff.). 

Niddah (talmudic tractate). 

Fragment of Book of Noah 

(Pseudepigrapha) . 

M. Noth, History of Israel (1958). 

M. Noth, Die israelitischen Personennamen. 

... (1928). 

M. Noth, Ueberlieferungsgeschichte des 

Pentateuchs (1949). 

M. Noth, Die Welt desAlten Testaments 

(1957 3 ). 

W. Nowack, Lehrbuch der hebraeischen 
Archaeologie, 2 vols (1894). 
New Testament. 
Numbers (Bible). 
Numbers Kabbah. 

Obadiah (Bible). 

Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. 

Orah Hayyim. 

Oholot (mishnaic tractate). 

H.T. Olmstead, History of Palestine and 

Syria (1931; repr. 1965). 

Orientalistische Literaturzeitung (189 8ff.) 

Eusebius, Onomasticon. 

Philo, De Opificio Mundi. 

OsefPiskei Din shel ha-Rabbanut ha-Rashit 

le-Erez Yisrael, Bet ha-Din ha-Gadol le- 

Irurim (1950). 

Orlah (talmudic tractate). 

Sibylline Oracles (Pseudepigrapha). 

L'Orient Syrien (1956!?.) 

Oudtestamentische Studien (i942ff.). 

Proceedings of the American Academy for 

Jewish Research (193 off.) 

A papyrus exemplar of IQS. 

Parah (mishnaic tractate). 

A.F. Pauly, Realencyklopaedie der klassichen 

Alertumswissenschaft, ed. by G. Wissowa et 

al. (1864IT.) 



192 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



ABBREVIATIONS 



PD 

PDR 

PdRE 

PdRK 

Peah 

Peake, Commentary 

Pedersen, Israel 

PEFQS 

PEQ 



Perles, Beitaege 

Pes. 
Pesh. 
Pesher Hab. 

I and II Pet. 
Pfeiffer, Intro d 

PG 

Phil. 

Philem. 
PIASH 

PJB 



PK 



PL 

Plant 
PO 

Pool, Prayer 

Post 

PR 

Praem. 

Prawer, Zalbanim 

Press, Erez 

Pritchard, Pictures 

Pritchard, Texts 



Piskei Din shel Bet ha-Mishpat ha-Elyon le- 

Yisrael (i948ff.) 

Piskei Din shel Battei ha-Din ha- 

Rabbaniyyim be-Yisrael. 

Pirkei de-R. Eliezer (Eng. tr. 1916. (1965 2 ). 

Pesikta de-Rav Kahana. 

Peah (talmudic tractate). 

A.J. Peake (ed.), Commentary on the Bible 

(1919; rev. 1962). 

J. Pedersen, Israel, Its Life and Culture, 4 

vols, in 2 (1926-40). 

Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly 

Statement (1869-1937; since 1938-PEQ). 

Palestine Exploration Quarterly (until 

1937 PEFQS; after 1927 includes 

BBSAJ). 

J. Perles, Beitraege zur rabbinischen 

Sprachund Alterthumskunde (1893). 

Pesahim (talmudic tractate). 

Peshitta (Syriac translation of the Bible). 

Commentary to Habakkuk from Qumran; 

see lQp Hab. 

Epistles of Peter (New Testament). 

R.H. Pfeiffer, Introduction to the Old 

Testament (1948). 

J.P. Migne (ed.), Patrologia Graeca, 161 

vols. (1866-86). 

Epistle to the Philippians (New 

Testament). 

Epistle to the Philemon (New Testament). 

Proceedings of the Israel Academy of 

Sciences and Humanities (1963/7II.). 

Palaestinajahrbuch des deutschen 

evangelischen Institutes fuer 

Altertumswissenschaft, Jerusalem (1905- 

1933)- 

Pinkas ha-Kehillot, encyclopedia of 

Jewish communities, published in over 

30 volumes by Yad Vashem from 1970 

and arranged by countries, regions and 

localities. For 3 -vol. English edition see 

Spector, Jewish Life. 

J.P. Migne (ed.), Patrologia Latina 221 vols. 

(1844-64). 

Philo, De Plantatione. 

R. Graffin and F. Nau (eds.), Patrologia 

Orientalis (19030°.) 

D. de Sola Pool, Traditional Prayer Book 

for Sabbath and Festivals (i960). 

Philo, De Posteritate Caini. 

Pesikta Rabbati. 

Philo, De Praemiis et Poenis. 

J. Prawer, Toledot Mamlekhet ha-Zalbanim 

be-Erez Yisrael, 2 vols. (1963). 

I. Press, Erez-Yisrael, Enziklopedyah 

Topografit-Historit, 4 vols. (1951-55). 

J.B. Pritchard (ed.), Ancient Near East in 

Pictures (1954, 1970). 

J.B. Pritchard (ed.), Ancient Near East Texts 

... (1970 3 ). 



Pr. Man. 
Prob. 
Prov. 
PS 

Ps. 
PSBA 

Ps. of Sol 
IQ Apoc 



6QD 



QDAP 



4QDeut. 32 



4QEx a 



4QEx a 



4QFlor 



QGJD 



IQH 



IQIs 



IQIs 1 



IQM 



4QpNah 



IQphyl 



4Q Prayer of 
Nabonidus 



IQS 



Prayer of Manasses (Apocrypha). 

Philo, Quod Omnis Probus Liber Sit. 

Proverbs (Bible). 

Palestinsky Sbornik (Russ. (1881 1916, 

i954ff). 

Psalms (Bible). 

Proceedings of the Society of Biblical 

Archaeology (1878-1918). 

Psalms of Solomon (Pseudepigrapha). 

The Genesis Apocryphon from Qumran, 
cave one, ed. by N. Avigad and Y. Yadin 

(1956). 

Damascus Document or Sefer Berit 

Dammesk from Qumran, cave six, ed. by 

M. Baillet, in RB, 63 (1956), 513-23 (see 

also CD). 

Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities 

in Palestine (i932ff.). 

Manuscript of Deuteronomy 32 from 

Qumran, cave four (ed. by P.W. Skehan, in 

BASOR, 136 (1954), 12-15). 

Exodus manuscript in Jewish script from 

Qumran, cave four. 

Exodus manuscript in Paleo-Hebrew 

script from Qumran, cave four (partially 

ed. by P.W. Skehan, in JBL, 74 (1955), 

182-7). 

Florilegium, a miscellany from Qumran, 

cave four (ed. by J.M. Allegro, in JBL, 75 

(1956), 176-77 and 77 (1958), 350-54)-). 
Quellen zur Geschichte der Juden in 
Deutschland 1888-98). 
Thanksgiving Psalms of Hodayot from 
Qumran, cave one (ed. by E.L. Sukenik 
and N. Avigad, Ozar ha-Megillot ha- 
Genuzot (1954). 

Scroll of Isaiah from Qumran, cave one 
(ed. by N. Burrows et al., Dead Sea 
Scrolls ..., 1 (1950). 

Scroll of Isaiah from Qumran, cave one 
(ed. E.L. Sukenik and N. Avigad, Ozar ha- 
Megillot ha-Genuzot (1954). 
The War Scroll or Serekh ha-Milhamah (ed. 
by E.L. Sukenik and N. Avigad, Ozar ha- 
Megillot ha-Genuzot (1954). 
Commentary on Nahum from Qumran, 
cave four (partially ed. by J.M. Allegro, in 
JBL, 75 (1956), 89-95). 
Phylacteries (tefillin) from Qumran, cave 
one (ed. by Y. Yadin, in Eretz Israel, 9 

(1969), 60-85). 

A document from Qumran, cave 
four, belonging to a lost Daniel 
literature (ed. by J.T. Milik, in RB, 63 

(1956), 407-15)- 

Manual of Discipline or Serekh ha-Yahad 
from Qumran, cave one (ed. by M. 
Burrows et al., Dead Sea Scrolls ..., 2, pt. 2 

(i95i)- 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



193 



ABBREVIATIONS 



IQS 



IQS 



4QSam a 



4QSam b 



4QTestimonia 



4QT.Levi 



Rabinovitz, Dik Sof 

RB 

RBI 

RCB 

Regne, Cat 



Reinach, Textes 



REJ 

Rejzen, Leksikon 

Renan, Ecrivains 

Renan, Rabbins 

RES 

Rev. 
RGG 3 

RH 

RHJE 

RHMH 

RHPR 

RHR 

RI 

Riemann-Einstein 

Riemann- Gurlitt 

Rigg-Jenkinson, 
Exchequer 



The Rule of the Congregation or Serekh 
ha-Edah from Qumran, cave one (ed. by 
Burrows et al., Dead Sea Scrolls ..., 1 (1950), 
under the abbreviation IQ28a). 
Blessings or Divrei Berakhot from Qumran, 
cave one (ed. by Burrows et al., Dead Sea 
Scrolls ..., 1 (1950), under the abbreviation 
IQ28b). 

Manuscript of I and II Samuel from 
Qumran, cave four (partially ed. by F.M. 
Cross, in BASOR, 132 (1953), 15-26). 
Manuscript of I and II Samuel from 
Qumran, cave four (partially ed. by F.M. 

Cross, in JBL, 74 (1955), 147-72). 
Sheet of Testimony from Qumran, cave 
four (ed. by J.M. Allegro, in JBL, 75 (1956), 

174-87).). 

Testament of Levi from Qumran, cave four 

(partially ed. by J.T. Milik, in RB, 62 (1955), 

398-406). 

See Dik Sof. 
Revue biblique (i892ff.) 
Recherches bibliques (1954!?.) 
Revista de cultura biblica (Sao Paulo ) 

(i957ff.) 

J. Regne, Catalogue des actes . . . des rois 

d'Aragon, concernant les Juifs (1213-1327), 

in: REJ, vols. 60 70, 73, 75-78 (1910-24). 

T. Reinach, Textes dauteurs Grecs et 

Romains relatifs au Judai'sme (1895; repr. 

1963)- 

Revue des etudes juives (i88off.). 

Z. Rejzen, Leksikon fun der Yidisher 

Literature, 4 vols. (1927-29). 

A. Neubauer and E. Renan, Les ecrivains 

juifs francais ... (1893). 

A. Neubauer and E. Renan, Les rabbins 

francais (1877). 

Revue des etude semitiques et Babyloniaca 

(1934-45). 

Revelation (New Testament). 

Die Religion in Geschichte und Gegenwart, 

7 vols. (1957-65 3 ). 

Rosh Ha-Shanah (talmudic tractate). 

Revue de Vhistoire juive en Egypte (i947ff.). 

Revue d'histoire de la medecine hebraique 

(i948ff-). 

Revue d'histoire et de philosophie religieuses 

(l92lff.). 

Revue d'histoire des religions (i88off.). 

Rivista Israelitica (1904-12). 

Hugo Riemanns Musiklexikon, ed. by A. 

Einstein (1929 11 ). 

Hugo Riemanns Musiklexikon, ed. by W. 

Gurlitt (1959-67 12 ), Personenteil. 

J.M. Rigg, H. Jenkinson and H.G. 

Richardson (eds.), Calendar of the Pleas 

Rolls of the Exchequer of the Jews, 4 vols. 

(1905-1970); cf. in each instance also J.M. 

Rigg (ed.), Select Pleas ... (1902). 



RMI 

Rom. 

Rosanes, Togarmah 



Rosenbloom, Biogr 

Diet 
Roth, Art 
Roth, Dark Ages 



Roth, England 

Roth, Italy 
Roth, Mag Bibl 

Roth, Marranos 

Rowley, Old Test 

RS 

RSO 

RSV 

Rubinstein, Australia I 

Rubinstein, Australia II 

Ruth 
Ruth R. 
RV 

Sac. 

Salfeld, Martyrol 

I and II Sam. 

Sanh. 

SBA 

SBB 

SBE 
SBT 
SBU 

Schirmann, Italyah 

Schirmann, Sefarad 

Scholem, Mysticism 



Scholem, Shabbetai 
Zevi 

Schrader, Keilinschr 
Schuerer, Gesch 



Rassegna Mensile di Israel (1925^). 

Epistle to the Romans (New Testament). 

S.A. Rosanes, Divrei Yemei Yisrael be- 

Togarmah, 6 vols. (1907-45), and in 3 vols. 

(1930-38 2 ). 

J.R. Rosenbloom, Biographical Dictionary 

of Early American Jews (i960). 

C. Roth, Jewish Art (1961). 

C. Roth (ed.), World History of the Jewish 

People, second series, vol. 2, Dark Ages 

(1966). 

C. Roth, History of the Jews in England 

(1964 3 ). 

C. Roth, History of the Jews in Italy (1946). 

C. Roth, Magna Bibliotheca Anglo-Judaica 

(i937). 

C. Roth, History of the Marranos (2nd rev. 

ed 1959; reprint 1966). 

H.H. Rowley, Old Testament and Modern 

Study (1951; repr. 1961). 

Revue semitiques depigraphie et d'histoire 

ancienne (1893/94!?.). 

Rivista degli studi orientali (1907IT.). 

Revised Standard Version of the Bible. 

H.L. Rubinstein, The Jews in Australia, A 

Thematic History, Vol. I (1991). 

W.D. Rubinstein, The Jews in Australia, A 

Thematic History, Vol. II (1991). 

Ruth (Bible). 

Ruth Rabbah. 

Revised Version of the Bible. 

Philo, De Sacrificiis Abelis et Caini. 

S. Salfeld, Martyrologium des Nuernberger 

Memorbuches (1898). 

Samuel, book I and II (Bible). 

Sanhedrin (talmudic tractate). 

Society of Biblical Archaeology. 

Studies in Bibliography and Booklore 

(i953ff-). 

Semana Biblica Espanola. 

Studies in Biblical Theology (i95iff.). 

Svenkst Bibliskt Uppslogsvesk, 2 vols. (1962- 

6 3 2 ). 

J.H. Schirmann, Ha-Shirah ha-Ivrit be- 

Italyah (1934). 

J.H. Schirmann, Ha-Shirah ha-Ivrit bi- 

Sefarad u-vi-Provence, 2 vols. (1954-56). 

G. Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish 

Mysticism (rev. ed. 1946; paperback 

ed. with additional bibliography 

1961). 

G. Scholem, Shabbetai Zevi ve-ha-Tenu'ah 

ha-Shabbeta'it bi-Ymei Hayyav, 2 vols. 

(1967). 

E. Schrader, Keilinschriften und dasAlte 

Testament (1903 3 ). 

E. Schuerer, Geschichte des juedischen 

Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi, 3 vols, and 

index-vol. (1901-11 4 ). 



194 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



ABBREVIATIONS 



Schuerer, Hist 



Set. T. 

Sem. 

Sendrey, Music 

SER 
SEZ 
Shab 
Sh. Ar. 



Shek. 
Shev. 
Shevu. 
Shunami, Bibl 

Sif. 

Sif. Num. 

Sifra 

Sif. Zut. 

SIHM 

Silverman, Prayer 

Singer, Prayer 

Sob. 

Sof. 

Som. 

Song 

Song. Ch. 

Song R. 

SOR 

Sot. 

SOZ 

Spec. 

Spector, Jewish Life 

Steinschneider, Arab 

lit 
Steinschneider, Cat 

Bod 

Steinschneider, 
Hanbuch 



Steinschneider, 
Uebersetzungen 
Stern, Americans 

van Straalen, Cat 



Suarez Fernandez, 
Docmentos 



E. Schuerer, History of the Jewish People 
in the Time of Jesus, ed. by N.N. Glatzer, 
abridged paperback edition (1961). 
Sefer Torah (post-talmudic tractate). 
Semahot (post-talmudic tractate). 
A. Sendrey, Bibliography of Jewish Music 

(i95i)- 

Seder Eliyahu Kabbah. 

Seder Eliyahu Zuta. 

Shabbat (talmudic tractate). 

J. Caro Shulhan Arukh. 

OH - Orah Hayyim 

YD - Yoreh Deah 

EH - Even ha-Ezer 

HM - Hoshen Mishpat. 

Shekalim (talmudic tractate). 

Shevi'it (talmudic tractate). 

Shevu bt (talmudic tractate). 

S. Shunami, Bibliography of Jewish 

Bibliographies (19 6^ 2 ). 

Sifrei Deuteronomy. 

Sifrei Numbers. 

Sifra on Leviticus. 

Sifrei Zuta. 

Sources inedites de l'histoire du Maroc 

(series). 

M. Silverman (ed.), Sabbath and Festival 

Prayer Book (1946). 

S. Singer Authorised Daily Prayer Book 

(1943 17 ). 

Philo, De Sobrietate. 

Soferim (post-talmudic tractate). 

Philo, De Somniis. 

Song of Songs (Bible). 

Song of the Three Children (Apocrypha). 

Song of Songs Kabbah. 

Seder Olam Kabbah. 

Sotah (talmudic tractate). 

Seder Olam Zuta. 

Philo, De Specialibus Legibus. 

S. Spector (ed.), Encyclopedia of Jewish Life 

Before and After the Holocaust (2001). 

M. Steinschneider, Die arabische Literatur 

derjuden (1902). 

M. Steinschneider, Catalogus Librorum 

Hebraeorum in Bibliotheca Bodleiana, 3 

vols. (1852-60; reprints 1931 and 1964). 

M. Steinschneider, Bibliographisches 

Handbuch ueber die . . . Literatur fuer 

hebraeische Sprachkunde (1859; repr. with 

additions 1937). 

M. Steinschneider, Die hebraeischen 

Uebersetzungen des Mittelalters (1893). 

M.H. Stern, Americans of Jewish Descent 

(i960). 

S. van Straalen, Catalogue of Hebrew Books 

in the British Museum Acquired During the 

Years 1868-1892 (1894). 

L. Suarez Fernandez, Documentos acerca de 

la expulsion de losjudios de Espana (1964). 



Suk. 
Sus. 
SY 
Sym. 

SZNG 



Sukkah (talmudic tractate). 

Susanna (Apocrypha). 

Sefer Yezirah. 

Symmachus' Greek translation of the 

Bible. 

Studien zur neueren Geschichte. 



Taan. 


Taanit (talmudic tractate). 


Tarn. 


Tamid (mishnaic tractate). 


Tanh. 

* 


Tanhuma. 

* 


Tanh. B. 

* 


Tanhuma. Buber ed (1885). 


Targ. Jon 


Targum Jonathan (Aramaic version of the 




Prophets). 


Targ. Onk. 


Targum Onkelos (Aramaic version of the 




Pentateuch). 


Targ. Yer. 


Targum Yerushalmi. 


TB 


Babylonian Talmud or Talmud Bavli. 


Tcherikover, Corpus 


V. Tcherikover, A. Fuks, and M. Stern, 




Corpus Papyrorum Judaicorum, 3 vols. 




(1957-60). 


Tef. 


Tefillin (post-talmudic tractate). 


Tern. 


Temurah (mishnaic tractate). 


Ter. 


Terumah (talmudic tractate). 


Test. Patr. 


Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs 




(Pseudepigrapha). 




Ash. - Asher 




Ben. - Benjamin 




Dan - Dan 




Gad - Gad 




Iss. - Issachar 




Joseph - Joseph 




Judah - Judah 




Levi - Levi 




Naph. - Naphtali 



I and II 



Thieme-Becker 



Tidhar 

I and II Timothy 

Tit. 

TJ 

Tob. 

Toh. 

Torczyner, Bundeslade 

Tos. 

Tosef. 

Tristram, Nat Hist 

Tristram, Survey 



TS 



Reu. - Reuben 

Sim. - Simeon 

Zeb. - Zebulun. 

Epistle to the Thessalonians (New 

Testament). 

U. Thieme and F. Becker (eds.), 

Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden 

Kuenstler von der Antike bis zur 

Gegenwart, 37 vols. (1907-50). 

D. Tidhar (ed.), Enziklopedyah la-Halutzei 

ha-Yishuv u-Vonav (i947ff.). 

Epistles to Timothy (New Testament). 

Epistle to Titus (New Testament). 

Jerusalem Talmud or Talmud Yerushalmi. 

Tob it (Apocrypha). 

Tohorot (mishnaic tractate). 

H. Torczyner, Die Bundeslade und die 

Anfaenge der Religion Israels (1930 3 ). 

Tosafot. 

Tosefta. 

H.B. Tristram, Natural History of the Bible 

(1877 5 ). 

Palestine Exploration Fund, Survey of 
Western Palestine, vol. 4 (1884) = Fauna 
and Flora by H.B. Tristram. 
Terra Santa (i943ff.). 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



195 



ABBREVIATIONS 



TSBA 

TY 

UBSB 
UJE 

Uk. 

Urbach, Tosafot 
de Vaux, Anc Isr 

de Vaux, Instit 



Virt. 
Vogelstein, 

Chronology 
Vogelstein-Rieger 

VT 

VTS 

Vulg. 

Wars 
Watzinger, 

Denkmaeler 
Waxman, Literature 

Weiss, Dor 

Wellhausen, Proleg 

WI 
Winniger, Biog 

Wisd. 

WLB 

Wolf, Bibliotheca 

Wright, Bible 

Wright, Atlas 

WWWJ 

WZJT 

WZKM 



Transactions of the Society of Biblical 

Archaeology (1872-93). 

Tevul Yom (mishnaic tractate). 

United Bible Society, Bulletin. 
Universal Jewish Encyclopedia, 10 vols. 

(1939-43)- 

Ukzin (mishnaic tractate). 

E.E. Urbach, Baalei ha-Tosafot (1957 2 ). 

R. de Vaux, Ancient Israel: its Life and 

Institutions (1961; paperback 1965). 

R. de Vaux, Institutions de VAncien 

Testament, 2 vols. (1958 60). 

Philo, De Virtutibus. 

M. Volgelstein, Biblical Chronology (1944). 

H. Vogelstein and P. Rieger, Geschichte der 

Juden in Rom, 2 vols. (1895-96). 

Vetus Testamentum (i95ifF.). 

Vetus Testamentum Supplements (1953!?.). 

Vulgate (Latin translation of the Bible). 

Josephus, The Jewish Wars. 

K. Watzinger, Denkmaeler Palaestinas, 2 

vols. (1933-35)- 

M. Waxman, History of Jewish Literature, 5 

vols. (i960 2 ). 

I.H. Weiss, Dor, Dor ve-Doreshav, 5 vols. 

(1904 4 ). 

J. Wellhausen, Prolegomena zur Geschichte 

Israels (1927 6 ). 

Die Welt des Islams (i9i3ff.). 

S. Wininger, Grosse juedische National- 

Biographie ..., 7 vols. (1925-36). 

Wisdom of Solomon (Apocrypha) 

Wiener Library Bulletin (i958ff.). 

J.C. Wolf, Bibliotheca Hebraea, 4 vols. 

(1715-33). 

G.E. Wright, Westminster Historical Atlas 

to the Bible (1945). 

G.E. Wright, The Bible and the Ancient 

Near East (1961). 

Who's Who in the World Jewry (New York, 

i955> 1965 2 )- 

Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift fuer juedische 

Theologie (1835-37). 

Wiener Zeitschrift fuer die Kunde des 

Morgenlandes (i887ff.). 



YIVOA 

YLBI 

YMHEY 

* 

YMHSI 

* 

YMMY 
Yoma 

ZA 

Zav. 
ZAW 



ZAWB 
ZDMG 

ZDPV 



Zech. 
Zedner, Cat 



Zeitlin, Bibliotheca 

Zeph. 

Zev. 

ZGGJT 



ZGJD 



ZHB 



Zinberg, Sifrut 
Ziz. 

* * 

ZNW 

zs 

Zunz, Gesch 
Zunz, Gesch 



Yaari, Sheluhei 


A. Yaari, Sheluhei Erez Yisrael (1951). 


Zunz, Poesie 


Yad 


Maimonides, Mishneh Torah (Yad 






Hazakah). 


Zunz, Ritus 


Yad 


Yadayim (mishnaic tractate). 




Yal. 


Yalkut Shimoni. 


Zunz, Schr 


Yal. Mak. 


Yalkut Makhiri. 




Yal. Reub. 


Yalkut Reub eni. 


Zunz, Vortrae 


YD 


Yoreh Deah. 




YE 


Yevreyskaya Entsiklopediya, 14 vols. (c. 


Zunz-Albeck, 




1910). 


Derashot 


Yev. 


Yevamot (talmudic tractate). 





YIVO Annual of Jewish Social Studies 

(i 94 6ff.). 

Year Book of the Leo Baeck Institute 

(i 95 6ff.). 

See BJPES. 

Yediot ha-Makhon le-Heker ha-Shirah ha- 

* 

Ivrit (1935/3 6rf.). 

Yediot ha-Makhon le-Maddaei ha-Yahadut 

(1924/25!?.). 

Yoma (talmudic tractate). 

Zeitschrift fuer Assyriologie (1886/876°.). 

Zavim (mishnaic tractate). 

Zeitschrift fuer die alttestamentliche 

Wissenschaft und die Kunde des 

nachbiblishchen Judentums (i88iff.). 

Beihefte (supplements) to ZAW. 

Zeitschrift der Deutschen 

Morgenlaendischen Gesellschaft (1846!?.). 

Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palaestina- 

Vereins (1878-1949; from 1949 = 

BBLA). 

Zechariah (Bible). 

J. Zedner, Catalogue of Hebrew Books in 

the Library of the British Museum (1867; 

repr. 1964). 

W Zeitlin, Bibliotheca Hebraica Post- 

Mendelssohniana (1891-95). 

Zephaniah (Bible). 

Zevahim (talmudic tractate). 

Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fuer 

die Geschichte der Juden in der 

Tschechoslowakei (1930-38). 

Zeitschrift fuer die Geschichte der Juden in 

Deutschland (1887-92). 

Zeitschrift fuer hebraeische Bibliographic 

(1896-1920). 

I. Zinberg, Toledot Sifrut Yisrael, 6 vols. 

(1955-60). 

Zizit (post-talmudic tractate). 

Zeitschrift fuer die neutestamentliche 

Wissenschaft (i90iff.). 

Zeitschrift fuer Semitistik und verwandte 

Gebiete (1922!?.). 

L. Zunz, Zur Geschichte und Literatur 

(1845)- 

L. Zunz, Literaturgeschichte der 

synagogalen Poesie (1865; Supplement, 

1867; repr. 1966). 

L. Zunz, Synogogale Posie des Mittelalters, 

ed. by Freimann (1920 2 ; repr. 1967). 

L. Zunz, Ritus des synagogalen 

Gottesdienstes (1859; repr. 1967). 

L. Zunz, Gesammelte Schriften, 3 vols. 

(1875-76). 

L. Zunz, Gottesdienstliche vortraege der 

Juden ... 1892 2 ; repr. 1966). 

L. Zunz, Ha-Derashot be-Yisrael, Heb. 

Tr. of Zunz Vortraege by H. Albeck 

(i954 2 ). 



196 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



TRANSLITERATION RULES 



1. 



2. 



3- 



The letters K and V are not transliterated. 

An apostrophe (') between vowels indicates that they do not form a 

diphthong and are to be pronounced separately. 

Dagesh hazak (forte) is indicated by doubling of the letter, except for the 

letter tf . 

Names. Biblical names and biblical place names are rendered according 

to the Bible translation of the Jewish Publication Society of America. 

Post-biblical Hebrew names are transliterated; contemporary names 

are transliterated or rendered as used by the person. Place names are 

transliterated or rendered by the accepted spelling. Names and some words 

with an accepted English form are usually not transliterated. 





HEBREW AND SEMITIC 


languages: 




General 


Scientific 


N 


not transliterated 1 


D 


2 


b 


b 


2 


V 


v,b 


a 


g 


g 


31 




g 


1 


d 


d 


1 




d 


n 


h 


h 


i 


v - when not a vowel 


w 


T 


z 


z 


n 


h 


h 

* 


& 


t 


t,t 


•> 


y - when vowel and at 
end of words - i 


y 


3 


k 


k 


1 P 


kh 


kh,k 


b 


1 


1 


a,o 


m 


m 


U 


n 


n 


D 


s 


s 


V 


not transliterated 1 


c 


D 


P 


P 


n>s 


f 


p, f, ph 


r>* 


z 


s, z 


p 


k 


q> k 


i 


r 


r 


tf 


sh 2 


§ 


(» 


s 


s, s 


n 


t 


t 


n 




t 


'a 


dzh,J 


s 


't 


zh,J 


z 


s 


ch 


I 


T 




a, 0, 6 (short) 
a, a (long) 


— 


a 


a 


— 




a, a 


— 




e, e, e 


— 


e 


£e, a, e 


— 




oe, ^, e 


— 


only sheva na is 


9, ^, e; only sheva na 




transliterated 


transliterated 


*5_ 


• 

1 


i 


i 





0, 0, 


— 




u, u 


T 


u 


u, u 


•>_ 


ei; biblical e 




* 




reconstructed forms of 
words 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



197 



TRANSLITERATION RULES 



YIDDISH 








X 


not transliterated 




X 


a 




T 







3 


b 




a 


V 




y 


g 




i 


d 




n 


h 




M 


u 




it 


V 




•n 


oy 




T 


z 




Eft 


zh 




n 


kh 




D 


t 




tftt 


tsh, ch 




i 


(consonant) y 
(vowel) i 




i 


i 




•)•) 


ey 




•>•) 


ay 




3 


k 




IP 


kh 




b 


1 




&,o 


m 




l^ 


n 




D 


s 




3? 


e 




D 


P 




n>s 


f 




r>* 


ts 




p 


k 




i 


r 




2? 


sh 




ft? 


s 




n 


t 




n 


s 



1. 



2. 



Yiddish transliteration rendered according to U. Weinreichs Modern 
English-Yiddish Yiddish-English Dictionary. 

Hebrew words in Yiddish are usually transliterated according to standard 
Yiddish pronunciation, e.g., JYttTn = khazones. 



LADINO 



Ladino and Judeo-Spanish words written in Hebrew char- 
acters are transliterated phonetically, following the General 
Rules of Hebrew transliteration (see above) whenever the ac- 
cepted spelling in Latin characters could not be ascertained. 



ARABIC 








*\ 


a 1 


O^ 


d 

* 


• 


b 


J. 


t 

* 


CJ 


t 


£ 


Z 

* 


dj 


th 


t 


c 


E 


• 

J 


* 

t 


gh 


C 


h 

• 


• 


f 


• 

c 


kh 


l3 


q 


J 


d 


*4 


k 


• 


dh 


J 


l 


J 


r 


r 


m 


• 

J 


z 


* 


n 


L>* 


s 


a 


h 




sh 


J 


w 


O 3 


s 


^ 


y 


•* 


a 


*\- 


a 


•* 


• 

i 


ifi - 


I 


% 


u 




u 


J" 


aw 


£ 

-* 


iyy 2 




ay 




uww 2 



i. not indicated when initial 

2. see note (f) 



a) The EJ follows the Columbia Lippincott Gazetteer and the Times Atlas 
in transliteration of Arabic place names. Sites that appear in neither are 
transliterated according to the table above, and subject to the following 
notes. 

b) The EJ follows the Columbia Encyclopedia in transliteration of Arabic 
names. Personal names that do not therein appear are transliterated 
according to the table above and subject to the following notes (e.g., Ali 
rather than c Ali, Suleiman rather than Sulayman). 

c) The EJ follows the Webster's Third International Dictionary, Unabridged in 
transliteration of Arabic terms that have been integrated into the English 
language. 

d) The term "Abu" will thus appear, usually in disregard of inflection. 

e) Nunnation (end vowels, tanwin) are dropped in transliteration. 

f ) Gemination (tashdid) is indicated by the doubling of the geminated letter, 
unless an end letter, in which case the gemination is dropped. 

g) The definitive article al- will always be thus transliterated, unless subject 
to one of the modifying notes (e.g., El-Arish rather than al- c Arish; 
modification according to note (a)). 

h) The Arabic transliteration disregards the Sun Letters (the antero -palatals 

(al-Huruf al-Shamsiyya). 

i) The ta-marbuta (o) is omitted in transliteration, unless in construct-stage 

(e.g., Khirba but Khirbat Mishmish). 

These modifying notes may lead to various inconsistencies in the Arabic 
transliteration, but this policy has deliberately been adopted to gain smoother 
reading of Arabic terms and names. 



198 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



TRANSLITERATION RULES 



GREEK 






Ancient Greek 


Modern Greek 


Greek Letters 


a 


a 


A; a; a 


b 


V 


B;/3 


g 


gh;g 


F; y 


d 


dh 


A; 8 


e 


e 


E; e 


z 


z 


Z;( 


e; e 


• 

l 


H; n; n 


th 


th 


0;O 


• 

1 


• 

i 


I; i 


k 


k;ky 


K;k 


1 


1 


A;X 


m 


m 


M;fi 


n 


n 


N; v 


X 


X 


s;£ 


o 


o 


0;o 


p 


P 


FI;n 


r; rh 


r 


P; p; p 


s 


s 


E; a; c; 


t 


t 


T;t 


u;y 


• 

l 


Y;v 


ph 


f 


;( p 


ch 


kh 


X;x 


ps 


ps 


Y;f 


o; 6 


o 


Q; co; co 


ai 


e 


ai 


ei 


• 

l 


ei 


oi 


• 

l 


01 


ui 


• 

l 


VI 


ou 


ou 


ov 


eu 


ev 


ev 


eu; eu 


iv 


nv 


— 


• 


r( 


nt 


d; nd 


vr 


mp 


b; mb 


fin 


ngk 


g 


yK 


n g 


n g 


vy 


h 


— 


t 
> 


w 




F 



RUSSIAN 




A 


A 


E 


B 


B 


V 


r 


G 


a 


D 


E 


^Ye 1 


• • 

E 


Yo,0 2 


)K 


Zh 


3 


Z 


M 


I 


M 


Y 3 


K 


K 


Jl 


L 


M 


M 


H 


N 


O 


O 


FI 


P 


P 


R 


C 


S 


T 


T 


y 


U 





F 


X 


Kh 


U 


Ts 


H 


Ch 


in 


Sh 


W 


Shch 


E 


omitted; see note 1 


EI 


Y 


E 


omitted; see note 1 


3 


E 


K) 


Yu 


% 


Ya 



i. Ye at the beginning of a word; after all vowels except bl\ and after 7> and 

b. 

2. O after % UI and UJ,. 

3. Omitted after bl> and in names of people after M. 



A. Many first names have an accepted English or quasi-English form which 
has been preferred to transliteration. 

B. Place names have been given according to the Columbia Lippincott 
Gazeteer. 

C. Pre-revolutionary spelling has been ignored. 

D. Other languages using the Cyrillic alphabet (e.g., Bulgarian, Ukrainian), 
inasmuch as they appear, have been phonetically transliterated in 
conformity with the principles of this table. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



199 



GLOSSARY 



Asterisked terms have separate entries in the Encyclopaedia. 

Actions Committee, early name of the Zionist General Council, 
the supreme institution of the World Zionist Organization in the 
interim between Congresses. The Zionist Executive's name was 
then the "Small Actions Committee." 

*Adar, twelfth month of the Jewish religious year, sixth of the civil, 
approximating to February-March. 

*Aggadah, name given to those sections of Talmud and Midrash con- 
taining homiletic expositions of the Bible, stories, legends, folklore, 
anecdotes, or maxims. In contradistinction to *halakhah. 

*Agunah, woman unable to remarry according to Jewish law, be- 
cause of desertion by her husband or inability to accept pre- 
sumption of death. 

*Aharonim, later rabbinic authorities. In contradistinction to *ris- 
honim ("early ones"). 

Ahavah, liturgical poem inserted in the second benediction of the 
morning prayer (*Ahavah Rabbah) of the festivals and/or spe- 
cial Sabbaths. 

Aktion (Ger.), operation involving the mass assembly, deportation, 
and murder of Jews by the Nazis during the ^Holocaust. 

*Aliyah, (1) being called to Reading of the Law in synagogue; (2) 
immigration to Erez Israel; (3) one of the waves of immigration 
to Erez Israel from the early 1880s. 

*Amidah, main prayer recited at all services; also known as She- 
moneh Esreh and Tefillah. 

*Amora (pi. amoraim), title given to the Jewish scholars in Erez 
Israel and Babylonia in the third to sixth centuries who were re- 
sponsible for the *Gemara. 

Aravah, the ^willow; one of the *Four Species used on *Sukkot ("fes- 
tival of Tabernacles") together with the *etrog, hadas, and *lulav. 

*Arvit, evening prayer. 

Asarah be-Tevet, fast on the 10th of Tevet commemorating the 
commencement of the siege of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar. 

Asefat ha-Nivharim, representative assembly elected by Jews in 
Palestine during the period of the British Mandate (1920-48). 

*Ashkenaz, name applied generally in medieval rabbinical litera- 
ture to Germany. 

*Ashkenazi (pi. Ashkenazim), German or West-, Central-, or East- 
European Jew(s), as contrasted with *Sephardi(m). 

* Av, fifth month of the Jewish religious year, eleventh of the civil, 
approximating to July- August. 

*Avbet din, vice president of the supreme court (bet din ha-gadol) 
in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period; later, title given to 
communal rabbis as heads of the religious courts (see *betdin). 

*Badhan, jester, particularly at traditional Jewish weddings in 
Eastern Europe. 

*Bakkashah (Heb. "supplication"), type of petitionary prayer, 
mainly recited in the Sephardi rite on Rosh Ha-Shanah and the 
Day of Atonement. 

Bar, "son of . . . "; frequently appearing in personal names. 

*Baraita (pi. beraitot), statement of *tanna not found in 
*Mishnah. 

*Bar mitzvah, ceremony marking the initiation of a boy at the age 
of 13 into the Jewish religious community. 



Ben, "son of . . . ", frequently appearing in personal names. 

Berakhah (pi. berakhot), ^benediction, blessing; formula of praise 
and thanksgiving. 

*Bet din (pi. battei din), rabbinic court of law. 

*Bet ha-midrash, school for higher rabbinic learning; often at- 
tached to or serving as a synagogue. 

*Bilu, first modern movement for pioneering and agricultural set- 
tlement in Erez Israel, founded in 1882 at Kharkov, Russia. 

*Bund, Jewish socialist party founded in Vilna in 1897, supporting 
Jewish national rights; Yiddishist, and anti-Zionist. 

Cohen (pi. Cohanim), see Kohen. 

* Conservative Judaism, trend in Judaism developed in the United 
States in the 20 th century which, while opposing extreme changes 
in traditional observances, permits certain modifications of hala- 
khah in response to the changing needs of the Jewish people. 

^Consistory (Fr. consistoire), governing body of a Jewish commu- 
nal district in France and certain other countries. 

*Converso(s), term applied in Spain and Portugal to converted 
Jew(s), and sometimes more loosely to their descendants. 

*Crypto-Jew, term applied to a person who although observing 
outwardly Christianity (or some other religion) was at heart a Jew 
and maintained Jewish observances as far as possible (see Con- 
verso; Marrano; Neofiti; New Christian; Jadld al-Islam). 

*Dayyan, member of rabbinic court. 

Decisor, equivalent to the Hebrew posek (pi. *posekim), the rabbi 
who gives the decision (halakhah) in Jewish law or practice. 

*Devekut, "devotion"; attachment or adhesion to God; commu- 
nion with God. 

^Diaspora, Jews living in the "dispersion" outside Erez Israel; area 
of Jewish settlement outside Erez Israel. 

Din, a law (both secular and religious), legal decision, or lawsuit. 

Divan, diwan, collection of poems, especially in Hebrew, Arabic, 
or Persian. 

Dunam, unit of land area (1,000 sq. m., c. l A acre), used in Israel. 

Einsatzgruppen, mobile units of Nazi S.S. and S.D.; in U.S.S.R. and 
Serbia, mobile killing units. 

*Ein-Sof, "without end"; "the infinite"; hidden, impersonal aspect 
of God; also used as a Divine Name. 

*Elul, sixth month of the Jewish religious calendar, 12 th of the civil, 
precedes the High Holiday season in the fall. 

Endloesung, see *Final Solution. 

*Erez Israel, Land of Israel; Palestine. 

*Eruv, technical term for rabbinical provision permitting the alle- 
viation of certain restrictions. 

*Etrog, citron; one of the Tour Species used on *Sukkot together 
with the *lulav, hadas, and aravah. 

Even ha-Ezer, see Shulhan Arukh. 

*Exilarch, lay head of Jewish community in Babylonia (see also 
resh galuta), and elsewhere. 

*Final Solution (Ger. Endloesung), in Nazi terminology, the Nazi- 
planned mass murder and total annihilation of the Jews. 

*Gabbai, official of a Jewish congregation; originally a charity col- 
lector. 

*Galut, "exile"; the condition of the Jewish people in dispersion. 



200 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



GLOSSARY 



*Gaon (pi. geonim), head of academy in post-talmudic period, es- 
pecially in Babylonia. 

Gaonate, office of *gaon. 

*Gemara, traditions, discussions, and rulings of the *amoraim, 
commenting on and supplementing the *Mishnah, and forming 
part of the Babylonian and Palestinian Talmuds (see Talmud). 

*Gematria, interpretation of Hebrew word according to the nu- 
merical value of its letters. 

General Government, territory in Poland administered by a Ger- 
man civilian governor-general with headquarters in Cracow af- 
ter the German occupation in World War II. 

*Genizah, depository for sacred books. The best known was dis- 
covered in the synagogue of Fostat (old Cairo). 

Get, bill of ^divorce. 

*Ge'ullah, hymn inserted after the *Shema into the benediction of 
the morning prayer of the festivals and special Sabbaths. 

*Gilgul, metempsychosis; transmigration of souls. 

*Golem, automaton, especially in human form, created by magical 
means and endowed with life. 

*Habad, initials of hokhmah, binah, daat: "wisdom, understand- 
ing, knowledge"; hasidic movement founded in Belorussia by 
*Shneur Zalman of Lyady. 

Hadas, ^myrtle; one of the Tour Species used on Sukkot together 
with the *etrog, *lulav y and aravah. 

*Haftarah (pi. haftarot), designation of the portion from the pro- 
phetical books of the Bible recited after the synagogue reading 
from the Pentateuch on Sabbaths and holidays. 

*Haganah, clandestine Jewish organization for armed self-de- 
fense in Erez Israel under the British Mandate, which eventu- 
ally evolved into a people's militia and became the basis for the 
Israel army. 

*Haggadah, ritual recited in the home on ^Passover eve at seder 
table. 

Haham, title of chief rabbi of the Spanish and Portuguese congre- 
gations in London, England. 

*Hakham, title of rabbi of *Sephardi congregation. 

*Hakham bashi, title in the 15 th century and modern times of the 
chief rabbi in the Ottoman Empire, residing in Constantinople 
(Istanbul), also applied to principal rabbis in provincial towns. 

Hakhsharah ("preparation"), organized training in the Diaspora of 
pioneers for agricultural settlement in Erez Israel. 

*Halakhah (pi. halakhot), an accepted decision in rabbinic law. 
Also refers to those parts of the ^Talmud concerned with legal 
matters. In contradistinction to *aggadah. 

Halizah, biblically prescribed ceremony (Deut. 25:9-10) performed 
when a man refuses to marry his brothers childless widow, en- 
abling her to remarry. 

*Hallel, term referring to Psalms 113-18 in liturgical use. 

*Halukkah, system of financing the maintenance of Jewish commu- 
nities in the holy cities of Erez Israel by collections made abroad, 
mainly in the pre-Zionist era (see kolel). 

Halutz (pi. halutzim), pioneer, especially in agriculture, in Erez 
Israel. 

Halutziyyut, pioneering. 

*Hanukkah, eight-day celebration commemorating the victory of 
*Judah Maccabee over the Syrian king *Antiochus Epiphanes 
and the subsequent rededication of the Temple. 

Hasid, adherent of *Hasidism. 

*Hasidei Ashkenaz, medieval pietist movement among the Jews 
of Germany. 



*Hasidism, (1) religious revivalist movement of popular mysticism 
among Jews of Germany in the Middle Ages; (2) religious move- 
ment founded by ^Israel ben Eliezer Baal Shem Tov in the first 
half of the 18 th century. 

*Haskalah, "enlightenment"; movement for spreading modern 
European culture among Jews c. 1750-1880. See maskil. 

*Havdalah, ceremony marking the end of Sabbath or festival. 

*Hazzan, precentor who intones the liturgy and leads the prayers 
in synagogue; in earlier times a synagogue official. 

*Heder (lit. "room"), school for teaching children Jewish religious 
observance. 

Heikhalot, "palaces"; tradition in Jewish mysticism centering on 
mystical journeys through the heavenly spheres and palaces to 
the Divine Chariot (see Merkabah). 

*Herem, excommunication, imposed by rabbinical authorities for 
purposes of religious and/or communal discipline; originally, 
in biblical times, that which is separated from common use ei- 
ther because it was an abomination or because it was conse- 
crated to God. 

Heshvan, see Marheshvan. 

*Hevra kaddisha, title applied to charitable confraternity (*hevrah), 
now generally limited to associations for burial of the dead. 

*Hibbat Zion, see Hovevei Zion. 

*Histadrut (abbr. For Heb. Ha-Histadrut ha-Kelalit shel ha- 
Ovedim ha-Ivriyyim be- Erez Israel). Erez Israel Jewish Labor 
Federation, founded in 1920; subsequently renamed Histadrut 
ha-Ovedim be-Erez Israel. 

^Holocaust, the organized mass persecution and annihilation of 
European Jewry by the Nazis (1933-1945). 

*Hoshana Rabba, the seventh day of *Sukkot on which special ob- 
servances are held. 

Hoshen Mishpat, see Shulhan Arukh. 

Hovevei Zion, federation of *Hibbat Zion, early (pre-*Herzl) 
Zionist movement in Russia. 

Illui, outstanding scholar or genius, especially a young prodigy in 
talmudic learning. 

*Iyyar, second month of the Jewish religious year, eighth of the 
civil, approximating to April-May. 

I.Z.L. (initials of Heb. *Irgun Zeva'i Le'ummi; "National Mili- 
tary Organization"), underground Jewish organization in Erez 
Israel founded in 1931, which engaged from 1937 in retaliatory 
acts against Arab attacks and later against the British manda- 
tory authorities. 

*JadId al-Islam (Ar.), a person practicing the Jewish religion in se- 
cret although outwardly observing Islam. 

"Jewish Legion, Jewish units in British army during World War 
I. 

* Jihad (Ar.), in Muslim religious law, holy war waged against in- 
fidels. 

*Judenrat (Ger. "Jewish council"), council set up in Jewish commu- 
nities and ghettos under the Nazis to execute their instructions. 

*Judenrein (Ger. "clean of Jews"), in Nazi terminology the condi- 
tion of a locality from which all Jews had been eliminated. 

*Kabbalah, the Jewish mystical tradition: 
Kabbala iyyunit, speculative Kabbalah; 
Kabbala ma'asit, practical Kabbalah; 
Kabbala nevu'it, prophetic Kabbalah. 

Kabbalist, student of Kabbalah. 

*Kaddish, liturgical doxology. 

Kahal, Jewish congregation; among Ashkenazim, kehillah. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



201 



GLOSSARY 



*Kalam (Ar.), science of Muslim theology; adherents of the Kalam 
are called mutakallimun. 

^Karaite, member of a Jewish sect originating in the eighth cen- 
tury which rejected rabbinic (*Rabbanite) Judaism and claimed 
to accept only Scripture as authoritative. 

*Kasher, ritually permissible food. 

Kashrut, Jewish ^dietary laws. 

*Kawanah, "intention"; term denoting the spiritual concentra- 
tion accompanying prayer and the performance of ritual or of 
a commandment. 

*Kedushah, main addition to the third blessing in the reader's rep- 
etition of the Amidah in which the public responds to the pre- 
centor's introduction. 

Kefar, village; first part of name of many settlements in Israel. 

Kehillah, congregation; see kahal. 

Kelippah (pi. kelippot), "husk(s)"; mystical term denoting force(s) 
of evil. 

*Keneset Yisrael, comprehensive communal organization of the 
Jews in Palestine during the British Mandate. 

Keri, variants in the masoretic (*masorah) text of the Bible between 
the spelling (ketiv) and its pronunciation (keri). 

*Kerovah (collective plural (corrupted) from kerovez), poem(s) 
incorporated into the * Amidah. 

Ketiv, see keri. 

*Ketubbah, marriage contract, stipulating husband's obligations 
to wife. 

Kevuzah, small commune of pioneers constituting an agricultural 
settlement in Erez Israel (evolved later into *kibbutz). 

*Kibbutz (pi. kibbutzim), larger-size commune constituting a set- 
tlement in Erez Israel based mainly on agriculture but engaging 
also in industry. 

*Kiddush, prayer of sanctification, recited over wine or bread on 
eve of Sabbaths and festivals. 

*Kiddush ha-Shem, term connoting martyrdom or act of strict in- 
tegrity in support of Judaic principles. 

*Kinah (pi. kinot), lamentation dirge(s) for the Ninth of Av and 
other fast days. 

*Kislev, ninth month of the Jewish religious year, third of the civil, 
approximating to November-December. 

Klaus, name given in Central and Eastern Europe to an institution, 
usually with synagogue attached, where Talmud was studied 
perpetually by adults; applied by Hasidim to their synagogue 
("/c/ovz"). 

^Knesset, parliament of the State of Israel. 

K(c)ohen (pi. K(c)ohanim), Jew(s) of priestly (Aaronide) de- 
scent. 

*Kolel, (1) community in Erez Israel of persons from a particular 
country or locality, often supported by their fellow countrymen 
in the Diaspora; (2) institution for higher To rah study. 

Kosher, see kasher. 

*Kristallnacht (Ger. "crystal night," meaning "night of broken 
glass"), organized destruction of synagogues, Jewish houses, 
and shops, accompanied by mass arrests of Jews, which took 
place in Germany and Austria under the Nazis on the night of 
Nov. 9-10, 1938. 

*Lag ba-Omer, 33rd (Heb. lag) day of the *Omer period falling on 
the 18th of Tyyar; a semi-holiday. 

Lehi (abbr. For Heb. *Lohamei Herat Israel, "Fighters for the Free- 
dom of Israel"), radically anti-British armed underground organi- 
zation in Palestine, founded in 1940 by dissidents from *I.Z.L. 



Levir, husband's brother. 

*Levirate marriage (Heb. yibbum), marriage of childless widow 
(yevamah) by brother (yavam) of the deceased husband (in ac- 
cordance with Deut. 25:5); release from such an obligation is ef- 
fected through halizah. 

LHY, see Lehi. 

*Lulav, palm branch; one of the *Four Species used on *Sukkot to- 
gether with the *etrog, hadas, and aravah. 

*Ma'aravot, hymns inserted into the evening prayer of the three 
festivals, Passover, Shavuot, and Sukkot. 

Ma'ariv, evening prayer; also called *arvit. 

*Ma'barah, transition camp; temporary settlement for newcomers 
in Israel during the period of mass immigration following 1948. 

*Maftir, reader of the concluding portion of the Pentateuchal sec- 
tion on Sabbaths and holidays in synagogue; reader of the por- 
tion of the prophetical books of the Bible (*haftarah). 

*Maggid, popular preacher. 

*Mahzor (pi. mahzorim), festival prayer book. 

*Mamzer, bastard; according to Jewish law, the offspring of an in- 
cestuous relationship. 

^Mandate, Palestine, responsibility for the administration of Pales- 
tine conferred on Britain by the League of Nations in 1922; man- 
datory government: the British administration of Palestine. 

*Maqama (Ar. pi. maqamat), poetic form (rhymed prose) which, in 
its classical arrangement, has rigid rules of form and content. 

*Marheshvan, popularly called Heshvan; eighth month of the Jew- 
ish religious year, second of the civil, approximating to Octo- 
ber-November. 

*Marrano(s), descendant(s) of Jew(s) in Spain and Portugal whose 
ancestors had been converted to Christianity under pressure but 
who secretly observed Jewish rituals. 

Maskil (pi. maskilim), adherent of *Haskalah ("Enlightenment") 
movement. 

*Masorah, body of traditions regarding the correct spelling, writ- 
ing, and reading of the Hebrew Bible. 

Masorete, scholar of the masoretic tradition. 

Masoretic, in accordance with the masorah. 

Melizah, in Middle Ages, elegant style; modern usage, florid style 
using biblical or talmudic phraseology. 

Mellah, * Jewish quarter in North African towns. 

*Menorah, candelabrum; seven-branched oil lamp used in the 
Tabernacle and Temple; also eight-branched candelabrum used 
on *Hanukkah. 

Me'orah, hymn inserted into the first benediction of the morning 
prayer (Yozer ha-Mebrot). 

*Merkabah, merkavah, "chariot"; mystical discipline associated 
with Ezekiel's vision of the Divine Throne -Chariot (Ezek. 1). 

Meshullah, emissary sent to conduct propaganda or raise funds for 
rabbinical academies or charitable institutions. 

*Mezuzah (pi. mezuzot), parchment scroll with selected Torah 
verses placed in container and affixed to gates and doorposts of 
houses occupied by Jews. 

*Midrash, method of interpreting Scripture to elucidate legal points 
(Midrash Halakhah) or to bring out lessons by stories or homi- 
letics (Midrash Aggadah). Also the name for a collection of such 
rabbinic interpretations. 

*Mikveh, ritual bath. 

*Minhag (pi. minhagim), ritual custom(s); synagogal rite(s); es- 
pecially of a specific sector of Jewry. 

*Minhah, afternoon prayer; originally meal offering in Temple. 



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GLOSSARY 



*Minyan, group often male adult Jews, the minimum required for 
communal prayer. 

*Mishnah, earliest codification of Jewish Oral Law. 

Mishnah (pi. mishnayot), subdivision of tractates of the Mishnah. 

Mitnagged (pi. *Mitnaggedim), originally, opponents of *Hasidism 
in Eastern Europe. 

*Mitzvah, biblical or rabbinic injunction; applied also to good or 
charitable deeds. 

Mohel, official performing circumcisions. 

*Moshav, smallholders' cooperative agricultural settlement in 
Israel, see moshav ovedim. 

Moshavah, earliest type of Jewish village in modern Erez Israel in 
which farming is conducted on individual farms mostly on pri- 
vately owned land. 

Moshav ovedim ("workers' moshav"), agricultural village in Israel 
whose inhabitants possess individual homes and holdings but 
cooperate in the purchase of equipment, sale of produce, mu- 
tual aid, etc. 

* Moshav shittufi ("collective moshav"), agricultural village in Israel 

whose members possess individual homesteads but where the ag- 
riculture and economy are conducted as a collective unit. 

Mostegab (Ar.), poem with biblical verse at beginning of each 
stanza. 

*Muqaddam (Ar., pi. muqaddamun), "leader," "head of the com- 
munity." 

*Musaf, additional service on Sabbath and festivals; originally the 
additional sacrifice offered in the Temple. 

Musar, traditional ethical literature. 

*Musar movement, ethical movement developing in the latter part 
of the 19th century among Orthodox Jewish groups in Lithuania; 
founded by R. Israel Tip kin (Salanter). 

*Nagid (pi. negidim), title applied in Muslim (and some Christian) 
countries in the Middle Ages to a leader recognized by the state 
as head of the Jewish community. 

Nakdan (pi. nakdanim), "punctuator"; scholar of the 9th to 14th 
centuries who provided biblical manuscripts with masoretic ap- 
paratus, vowels, and accents. 

*Nasi (pi. nesfim), talmudic term for president of the Sanhedrin, 
who was also the spiritual head and later, political representative 
of the Jewish people; from second century a descendant of Hil- 
lel recognized by the Roman authorities as patriarch of the Jews. 
Now applied to the president of the State of Israel. 

*Negev, the southern, mostly arid, area of Israel. 

*Ne , ilah, concluding service on the *Day of Atonement. 

Neofiti, term applied in southern Italy to converts to Christian- 
ity from Judaism and their descendants who were suspected of 
maintaining secret allegiance to Judaism. 

* Neology; Neolog; Neologism, trend of ^Reform Judaism in Hun- 

gary forming separate congregations after 1868. 
*Nevelah (lit. "carcass"), meat forbidden by the ^dietary laws on 

account of the absence of, or defect in, the act of *shehitah (rit- 
ual slaughter). 
*New Christians, term applied especially in Spain and Portugal to 

converts from Judaism (and from Islam) and their descendants; 

"Half New Christian" designated a person one of whose parents 

was of full Jewish blood. 
*Niddah ("menstruous woman"), woman during the period of 

menstruation. 
*Nisan, first month of the Jewish religious year, seventh of the civil, 

approximating to March-April. 



Nizozot, "sparks"; mystical term for sparks of the holy light im- 
prisoned in all matter. 

Nosah (nusah) "version"; (1) textual variant; (2) term applied to 
distinguish the various prayer rites, e.g., nosah Ashkenaz; (3) the 
accepted tradition of synagogue melody. 

*Notarikon, method of abbreviating Hebrew works or phrases by 
acronym. 

Novella(e) (Heb. *hiddush (im)), commentary on talmudic and 
later rabbinic subjects that derives new facts or principles from 
the implications of the text. 

^Nuremberg Laws, Nazi laws excluding Jews from German citi- 
zenship, and imposing other restrictions. 

Ofan, hymns inserted into a passage of the morning prayer. 

*Omer, first sheaf cut during the barley harvest, offered in the Tem- 
ple on the second day of Passover. 

Omer, Counting of (Heb. Sefirat ha-Omer), 49 days counted from 
the day on which the omer was first offered in the Temple (accord- 
ing to the rabbis the 16th of Nisan, i.e., the second day of Passover) 
until the festival of Shavuot; now a period of semi-mourning. 

Orah Hayyim, see Shulhan Arukh. 

^Orthodoxy (Orthodox Judaism), modern term for the strictly tra- 
ditional sector of Jewry. 

Tale of Settlement, 25 provinces of czarist Russia where Jews were 
permitted permanent residence. 

*Palmah (abbr. for Heb. peluggot mahaz; "shock companies"), strik- 
ing arm of the *Haganah. 

*Pardes, medieval biblical exegesis giving the literal, allegorical, 
homiletical, and esoteric interpretations. 

*Parnas, chief synagogue functionary, originally vested with both 
religious and administrative functions; subsequently an elected 
lay leader. 

Partition plan(s), proposals for dividing Erez Israel into autono- 
mous areas. 

Paytan, composer of *piyyut (liturgical poetry). 

*Peel Commission, British Royal Commission appointed by the 
British government in 1936 to inquire into the Palestine problem 
and make recommendations for its solution. 

Pesah, * Passover. 

*Pilpul, in talmudic and rabbinic literature, a sharp dialectic used 
particularly by talmudists in Poland from the 16th century. 

*Pinkas, community register or minute-book. 

*Piyyut, (pi. piyyutim), Hebrew liturgical poetry. 

*Pizmon, poem with refrain. 

Posek (pi. *posekim), decisor; codifier or rabbinic scholar who pro- 
nounces decisions in disputes and on questions of Jewish law. 

*Prosbul, legal method of overcoming the cancelation of debts with 
the advent of the ^sabbatical year. 

*Purim, festival held on Adar 14 or 15 in commemoration of the 
delivery of the Jews of Persia in the time of ^Esther. 

Rabban, honorific title higher than that of rabbi, applied to heads 
of the ^Sanhedrin in mishnaic times. 

*Rabbanite, adherent of rabbinic Judaism. In contradistinction 
to * Karaite. 

Reb, rebbe, Yiddish form for rabbi, applied generally to a teacher 
or hasidic rabbi. 

*Reconstructionism, trend in Jewish thought originating in the 
United States. 

^Reform Judaism, trend in Judaism advocating modification of 
^Orthodoxy in conformity with the exigencies of contemporary 
life and thought. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



203 



GLOSSARY 



Resh galuta, lay head of Babylonian Jewry (see exilarch). 

Responsum (pi. *responsa), written opinion (teshuvah) given to 
question (sheelah) on aspects of Jewish law by qualified author- 
ities; pi. collection of such queries and opinions in book form 
(sheelot u-teshuvot). 

*Rishonim, older rabbinical authorities. Distinguished from later 
authorities (* aharonim) . 

*Rishon le-Zion, title given to Sephardi chief rabbi of Erez 
Israel. 

*Rosh Ha-Shanah, two-day holiday (one day in biblical and early 
mishnaic times) at the beginning of the month of Tishri (Sep- 
tember-October), traditionally the New Year. 

Rosh Hodesh, *"New Moon, marking the beginning of the He- 
brew month. 

Rosh Yeshivah, see *Teshivah. 

*R.S.H.A. (initials of Ger. Reichssicherheitshauptamt: "Reich Secu- 
rity Main Office"), the central security department of the Ger- 
man Reich, formed in 1939, and combining the security police 
(Gestapo and Kripo) and the S.D. 

*Sanhedrin, the assembly of ordained scholars which functioned 
both as a supreme court and as a legislature before 70 C.E. In 
modern times the name was given to the body of representative 
Jews convoked by Napoleon in 1807. 

*Savora (pi. savoraim), name given to the Babylonian scholars 
of the period between the *amoraim and the *geonim, approxi- 
mately 500-700 C.E. 

S.D. (initials of Ger. Sicherheitsdienst: "security service"), security 
service of the *S.S. formed in 1932 as the sole intelligence orga- 
nization of the Nazi party. 

Seder, ceremony observed in the Jewish home on the first night of 
Passover (outside Erez Israel first two nights), when the *Hag- 
gadah is recited. 

*Sefer Torah, manuscript scroll of the Pentateuch for public read- 
ing in synagogue. 

*Sefirot, the ten, the ten "Numbers"; mystical term denoting the ten 
spheres or emanations through which the Divine manifests itself; 
elements of the world; dimensions, primordial numbers. 

Selektion (Ger.), (1) in ghettos and other Jewish settlements, the 
drawing up by Nazis of lists of deportees; (2) separation of in- 
coming victims to concentration camps into two categories 
- those destined for immediate killing and those to be sent for 
forced labor. 

Selihah (pi. *selihot), penitential prayer. 

*Semikhah, ordination conferring the title "rabbi" and permission 
to give decisions in matters of ritual and law. 

Sephardi (pi. *Sephardim), Jew(s) of Spain and Portugal and 
their descendants, wherever resident, as contrasted with 
*Ashkenazi(m). 

Shabbatean, adherent of the pseudo-messiah *Shabbetai Zevi 
(17th century). 

Shaddai, name of God found frequently in the Bible and commonly 
translated "Almighty." 

*Shaharit, morning service. 

Shali'ah (pi. shelihim), in Jewish law, messenger, agent; in modern 
times, an emissary from Erez Israel to Jewish communities or or- 
ganizations abroad for the purpose of fund-raising, organizing 
pioneer immigrants, education, etc. 

Shalmonit, poetic meter introduced by the liturgical poet ^Solo- 
mon ha-Bavli. 

*Shammash, synagogue beadle. 



*Shavuot, Pentecost; Festival of Weeks; second of the three annual 
pilgrim festivals, commemorating the receiving of the Torah at 
Mt. Sinai. 

*Shehitah, ritual slaughtering of animals. 

*Shekhinah, Divine Presence. 

Shelishit, poem with three-line stanzas. 

*Sheluhei Erez Israel (or shadarim), emissaries from Erez Israel. 

*Shema ( [Yisrael] ; "hear. . . [O Israel]," Deut. 6:4), Judaism's confes- 
sion of faith, proclaiming the absolute unity of God. 

Shemini Azeret, final festal day (in the Diaspora, final two days) 
at the conclusion of *Sukkot. 

Shemittah, ^Sabbatical year. 

Sheniyyah, poem with two-line stanzas. 

*Shephelah, southern part of the coastal plain of Erez Israel. 

*Shevat, eleventh month of the Jewish religious year, fifth of the 
civil, approximating to January- February. 

*Shi'ur Komah, Hebrew mystical work (c. eighth century) contain- 
ing a physical description of God's dimensions; term denoting 
enormous spacial measurement used in speculations concern- 
ing the body of the *Shekhinah. 

Shivah, the "seven days" of ^mourning following burial of a rela- 
tive. 

*Shofar, horn of the ram (or any other ritually clean animal ex- 
cepting the cow) sounded for the memorial blowing on *Rosh 
Ha-Shanah, and other occasions. 

Shohet, person qualified to perform *shehitah. 

Shomer, *Ha-Shomer, organization of Jewish workers in Erez Israel 
founded in 1909 to defend Jewish settlements. 

*Shtadlan, Jewish representative or negotiator with access to dig- 
nitaries of state, active at royal courts, etc. 

*Shtetl, Jewish small-town community in Eastern Europe. 

*Shulhan Arukh, Joseph *Caro's code of Jewish law in four parts: 
Orah Hayyim, laws relating to prayers, Sabbath, festivals, and 
fasts; 

Yoreh Deah, dietary laws, etc; 

Even ha-Ezer, laws dealing with women, marriage, etc; 
Hoshen Mishpat, civil, criminal law, court procedure, etc. 

Siddur, among Ashkenazim, the volume containing the daily 
prayers (in distinction to the *mahzor containing those for the 
festivals). 

*Simhat Torah, holiday marking the completion in the synagogue 
of the annual cycle of reading the Pentateuch; in Erez Israel ob- 
served on Shemini Azeret (outside Erez Israel on the follow- 
ing day). 

*Sinai Campaign, brief campaign in October-November 1956 
when Israel army reacted to Egyptian terrorist attacks and block- 
ade by occupying the Sinai peninsula. 

Sitra ahra, "the other side" (of God); left side; the demoniac and 
satanic powers. 

*Sivan, third month of the Jewish religious year, ninth of the civil, 
approximating to May- June. 

^Six-Day War, rapid war in June 1967 when Israel reacted to Arab 
threats and blockade by defeating the Egyptian, Jordanian, and 
Syrian armies. 

*S.S. (initials of Ger. Schutzstaffel: "protection detachment"), Nazi 
formation established in 1925 which later became the "elite" or- 
ganization of the Nazi Party and carried out central tasks in the 
"Final Solution." 

^Status quo ante community, community in Hungary retaining 
the status it had held before the convention of the General Jew- 



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ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



GLOSSARY 



ish Congress there in 1868 and the resultant split in Hungar- 
ian Jewry. 
*Sukkah, booth or tabernacle erected for *Sukkot when, for seven 
days, religious Jews "dwell" or at least eat in the sukkah (Lev. 

23:42). 

*Sukkot, festival of Tabernacles; last of the three pilgrim festivals, 
beginning on the 15 th of Tishri. 

Sura (Ar.), chapter of the Koran. 

Ta'anit Esther (Fast of ^Esther), fast on the 13 th of Adar, the day 
preceding Purim. 

Takkanah (pi. *takkanot), regulation supplementing the law of 
the To rah; regulations governing the internal life of communi- 
ties and congregations. 

Tallit (gadol), four-cornered prayer shawl with fringes (zizif) at 
each corner. 

Tallit katan, garment with fringes {zizif) appended, worn by ob- 
servant male Jews under their outer garments. 

*Talmud, "teaching"; compendium of discussion on the Mishnah 
by generations of scholars and jurists in many academies over a 
period of several centuries. The Jerusalem (or Palestinian) Tal- 
mud mainly contains the discussions of the Palestinian sages. 
The Babylonian Talmud incorporates the parallel discussion in 
the Babylonian academies. 

Talmud torah, term generally applied to Jewish religious (and ul- 
timately to talmudic) study; also to traditional Jewish religious 
public schools. 

*Tammuz, fourth month of the Jewish religious year, tenth of the 
civil, approximating to June-July. 

Tanna (pi. *tannaim), rabbinic teacher of mishnaic period. 

Targum, Aramaic translation of the Bible. 

*Tefillin, phylacteries, small leather cases containing passages from 
Scripture and affixed on the forehead and arm by male Jews dur- 
ing the recital of morning prayers. 

Tell (Ar. "mound," "hillock"), ancient mound in the Middle East 
composed of remains of successive settlements. 

Terefah, food that is not *kasher, owing to a defect on the ani- 
mal. 

*Territorialism, 20th century movement supporting the creation 
of an autonomous territory for Jewish mass-settlement outside 
Erez Israel. 

*Tevet, tenth month of the Jewish religious year, fourth of the civil, 
approximating to December- January. 

Tikkun ("restitution," "reintegration"), (1) order of service for cer- 
tain occasions, mostly recited at night; (2) mystical term denot- 
ing restoration of the right order and true unity after the spiritual 
"catastrophe" which occurred in the cosmos. 

Tishah be-Av, Ninth of *Av, fast day commemorating the destruc- 
tion of the First and Second Temples. 

Tishri, seventh month of the Jewish religious year, first of the civil, 
approximating to September- October. 

Tokhehah, reproof sections of the Pentateuch (Lev. 26 and Deut. 
28); poem of reproof. 

*Torah, Pentateuch or the Pentateuchal scroll for reading in syn- 
agogue; entire body of traditional Jewish teaching and litera- 
ture. 

Tosafist, talmudic glossator, mainly French (i2-i4 th centuries), 
bringing additions to the commentary by *Rashi. 

Tosafot, glosses supplied by tosafist. 

* Tosefta, a collection of teachings and traditions of the tannaim, 
closely related to the Mishnah. 



Tradent, person who hands down a talmudic statement on the 
name of his teacher or other earlier authority. 

*Tu bi-Shevat, the 15th day of Shevat, the New Year for Trees; date 
marking a dividing line for fruit tithing; in modern Israel cel- 
ebrated as arbor day. 

^Uganda Scheme, plan suggested by the British government in 
1903 to establish an autonomous Jewish settlement area in East 
Africa. 

*Va'ad Le'ummi, national council of the Jewish community in Erez 
Israel during the period of the British ^Mandate. 

*Wannsee Conference, Nazi conference held on Jan. 20, 1942, 
at which the planned annihilation of European Jewry was en- 
dorsed. 

Waqf (Ar.), (1) a Muslim charitable pious foundation; (2) state 
lands and other property passed to the Muslim community for 
public welfare. 

*War of Independence, war of 1947-49 when the Jews of Israel 
fought off Arab invading armies and ensured the establishment 
of the new State. 

* White Paper(s), report(s) issued by British government, frequently 
statements of policy, as issued in connection with Palestine dur- 
ing the ^Mandate period. 

*Wissenschaft des Judentums (Ger. "Science of Judaism"), move- 
ment in Europe beginning in the 19th century for scientific study 
of Jewish history, religion, and literature. 

Tad Vashem, Israel official authority for commemorating the 
^Holocaust in the Nazi era and Jewish resistance and heroism 
at that time. 

Yeshivah (pi. *yeshivot), Jewish traditional academy devoted pri- 
marily to study of rabbinic literature; rosh yeshivah, head of the 
yeshivah. 

YHWH, the letters of the holy name of God, the Tetragramma- 
ton. 

Yibbum, see levirate marriage. 

Yihud, "union"; mystical term for intention which causes the union 
of God with the *Shekhinah. 

Yishuv, settlement; more specifically, the Jewish community of Erez 
Israel in the pre-State period. The pre-Zionist community is gen- 
erally designated the "old yishuv" and the community evolving 
from 1880, the "new yishuv." 

Yom Kippur, Yom ha-Kippurim, *Day of Atonement, solemn fast 
day observed on the 10th of Tishri. 

Yoreh De'ah, see Shulhan Arukh. 

Yozer, hymns inserted in the first benediction (Yozer Or) of the 
morning *Shema. 

*Zaddik, person outstanding for his faith and piety; especially a 
hasidic rabbi or leader. 

Zimzum, "contraction"; mystical term denoting the process 
whereby God withdraws or contracts within Himself so leaving 
a primordial vacuum in which creation can take place; primor- 
dial exile or self-limitation of God. 

^Zionist Commission (1918), commission appointed in 1918 by the 
British government to advise the British military authorities in 
Palestine on the implementation of the ^Balfour Declaration. 

Zyyonei Zion, the organized opposition to Herzl in connection 
with the ^Uganda Scheme. 

*Zizit, fringes attached to the *tallit and *tallit katan. 

*Zohar, mystical commentary on the Pentateuch; main textbook 
of ^Kabbalah. 

Zulat, hymn inserted after the *Shema in the morning service. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



205 



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Initial "A? at the opening of the Book of 
Judith in a bible from Citeau, Eastern 
France, nog, showing Judith decapitating 
Holofernes. Dijon, Bibliotheque Munici- 
pal, Ms. i4,fol. 158. 



Aa-Alp 



AACHEN (Aix-la-Chapelle; in Jewish sources: ttf"X ,XDX ,tPK), 
city on the German- Belgian border; former capital of the Car- 
olingian Empire. The delegation sent by * Charlemagne to the 
caliph Harun al-Rashid in 797 included a Jew, Isaac, who prob- 
ably acted as interpreter or guide, and subsequently reported 
back to Aachen. Jewish merchants were active in Aachen by 
about 820. A "Jews' street" is known to have existed from 
the 11 th century. The Aachen community, which paid only 15 
marks in tax to the emperor in 1241, cannot have been large. 
In 1349 the Jews were "given" to the count of Juelich, who re- 
ceived their taxes and authorized Jewish residence in Aachen. 
The Jews were expelled from Aachen in 1629, most settling 
in neighboring Burtscheid. However, Jewish moneylenders 
were again active in Aachen about ten years later. They were 
included in the municipal jurisdiction in 1777. Prior to the in- 
auguration of a Jewish cemetery in 1823, the Jews of Aachen 
buried their dead in Vaals across the border in the Nether- 
lands. In 1847 the community was organized under the Prus- 
sian Jewish Community Statute. A Jewish elementary school 
was founded in 1845. The synagogue, built in 1862, was de- 
stroyed in the 1938 *Kristallnacht. 

The Jewish population had increased from 114 in 1816 to 
!>345 by 1933. In 1939, after emigration and arrests, there were 
782 Jews living in the city. Others subsequently managed to 



flee and the rest were deported between March 1942 and Sep- 
tember 1944. After the war, there were 62 Jews in Aachen. A 
new synagogue and communal center were built at the ex- 
pense of the German government in 1957. In 1966 the Jewish 
community of Aachen and environs numbered 163. As a result 
of the immigration of Jews from the former Soviet Union, the 
number of community members increased from 326 in 1989 to 
1,434 in 2003. Another new synagogue and community center 
were inaugurated in 1995. 

bibliography: H. Jaulus, Geschichte der Aachener Juden 
(1924). add. bibliography: M. Bierganz, A. Kreutz, Juden in 
Aachen (1988); H. Lepper, Von der Emanzipation zum Holocaust. Die 
Israelitische Synagogengemeinde Aachen 1801-1942, 2 vols. (1994). 

[Ernst Roth / Stefan Rohrbacher (2 nd ed.)] 

AARGAU, canton of northern Switzerland. A few Jewish fam- 
ilies are known to have lived there during the Middle Ages. 
From the 17 th to the mid-i9 th centuries Aargau remained the 
sole area of permanent Jewish settlement in Switzerland; Jews 
lived in the two communities of *Endingen and Lengnau, and 
it was they who waged the struggle for Jewish ^emancipation 
in Switzerland. In the 18 th century Aargau Jews obtained rights 
of residence and movement; these were conferred by special 
safe conducts and letters of protection against the payment 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



20 y 



AARON 



of high imposts, usually granted for a 16 -year period. Jewish 
occupations were restricted to participation in the markets, 
the cattle and horse trade, peddling, and estate brokerage. 
Both communities possessed their own synagogues, sharing 
a cemetery and rabbi. The Jews in Aargau continued to pay 
the special taxes until their abolition by the Helvetic Repub- 
lic in 1798. Rights of residence, trade, and ownership of real 
estate were granted to the Jews by the Helvetic government 
but were later revoked by the Judengesetz (Jews' Law) in 1809. 
The independent canton of Aargau was founded in 1798/1803. 
A law regularizing the status of the Jewish communities was 
passed in 1824 and, in conjunction with the General Educa- 
tion Act of 1835, regulated Jewish life and communal orga- 
nization on the same principles as those governing similar 
non-Jewish institutions in the canton. In the 1850s two new 
synagogues were built, one in Endingen and one in Lengnau, 
and were later declared cantonal monuments. However, since 
the Jewish communities were not recognized as communi- 
ties of local citizens, their members were debarred from can- 
ton citizenship. The Great Council of Canton Aargau autho- 
rized Jewish emancipation in 1862, but was bitterly opposed 
by the popular anti- Jewish movement and was subsequently 
repealed. The Jews of Aargau only obtained full rights of citi- 
zenship in 1878 after the Swiss federal parliament had inter- 
vened in their favor. Jews began to leave the region for other 
parts of Switzerland in the middle of the 19 th century, their 
numbers dwindling from 1,562 in 1850 to 990 in 1900 and to 
496 in 1950. In 1859 in the town of Baden a Jewish community 
was founded which built its synagogue in 1913 and erected a 
cemetery (1879). Between 1900 and the 1940s a small yeshivah 
was active under Rabbi Akiba Krausz. A Jewish Swiss Home 
for the Aged was established in Lengnau in 1903. At the turn 
of the 20 th century services were sometimes held in the syn- 
agogues on Rosh Hodesh and for marriages. Aargau Jewish 
history came to public attention with the appointment of the 
first Jewish member of the Swiss governement, Ruth *Drei- 
fuss. In 2000, 342 Jews lived in Aargau. 

bibliography: E. Haller, Die rechtliche Stellung der Juden 
im Kanton Aargau (1900); A. Steinberg, Studien zur Geschichte der 
Juden in der Schweiz waehrend des Mittelalters (1902); E Wyler, Die 
staatsrechtliche Stellung der israelitischen Religionsgenossenschaften in 
der Schweiz (1929); F. Guggenheim- Gruenberg, in: 150 Jahre Kanton 
Aargau... (1954); idem, Die Juden in der Schweiz (1961); A. Weldler- 
Steinberg and F. Guggenheim -Gruenberg, Geschichte der Juden in der 
Schweiz vom 16. Jahrhundert bis nach der Emanzipation (1966 and 
1970). add. bibliography: W. Frenkel, Ba den, eine jiidische Klein- 
gemeinde. Fragmente aus der Geschichte 1859-1947 (2003). 

[Florence Guggenheim- Gruenberg / Uri Kaufmann (2 nd ed.)] 

AARON (Heb. pHX), brother of *Moses and *Miriam; founder 
of the priesthood in Israel. 

Biblical Information 

Aaron belonged to the tribe of *Levi (Ex. 4:14) and was the 
elder son of *Amram and *Jochebed (ibid. 6:20; Num. 26:59; 
1 Chron. 5:29; 23:13). He was senior to Moses by three years 



(Ex. 7:7) y but younger than his sister (as may be inferred from 
Ex. 2:4). There is no narrative recounting Aaron's birth and 
nothing is known of his early life and upbringing. He appar- 
ently stayed in Egypt all the time Moses was in Midian and 
became known as an eloquent speaker (4:14). Aaron's mar- 
riage to Elisheba, daughter of Amminadab (6:23), allied him 
with one of the most distinguished families of the important 
tribe of Judah. His brother-in-law, Nahshon, was a chieftain 
of that tribe (Num. 1:7; 2:3; 7:12,17; 10:14) and a lineal ancestor 
of David (Ruth 4:19; 1 Chron. 2:10). The marital union thus 
symbolized the religio-political union of the two main heredi- 
tary institutions of ancient Israel, the house of David and the 
house of Aaron. Four sons were born of the marriage, Nadab, 
Abihu, Eleazar, and Ithamar (Ex. 6:23; 28:1; Num. 3:2; 26:60; 
1 Chron. 5:29; 24:1). 

The biblical narrative assigns Aaron a role subordinate 
to that of Moses. No mention is made of him in the initial 
theophany (Ex. 3:18; 4:12), and he is introduced into the events 
of the Exodus only because Moses resists the divine commis- 
sion (4:14-16). He is to be Moses' spokesman ("prophet") to 
Israel (4:15-16) and to Pharaoh (7:1-2). He receives a revela- 
tion from God to go to meet Moses returning from Midian 
(4:27), and together the two brothers appear before the people, 
with Aaron performing his signs in their presence (4:28-30). 
Later, he performs wonders before Pharaoh. His rod turns 
into a serpent that swallows the serpent rods of the Egyptian 
magicians (7:9-12). In the ten plagues that befall the Egyp- 
tians, Aaron acts jointly with Moses in the first plague (7:19 ff.), 
operates alone only in the next two (8:iff., 12 ff.), is involved 
with Moses in the sixth and eighth (9:8ff.; 10:3 ff.), and does 
not appear at all in the fifth and ninth (9:1-7; 10:21 ff.). For the 
rest, he is merely a passive associate of his brother. Although 
Aaron functions whenever the Egyptian magicians are pres- 
ent, it is significant that even where he plays an active role in 
performing the marvels, it is not by virtue of any innate abil- 
ity or individual initiative, but solely by divine command me- 
diated through Moses. Aaron's sons do not inherit either his 
wondrous powers or his potent rod. The secondary nature 
of Aaron's activities in the cycle of plagues is further demon- 
strated by the circumstance that he never speaks to Pharaoh 
alone and that only Moses actually entreats God to remove the 
plagues, although Pharaoh frequently addresses his request to 
both brothers (8:4, 8, 21, 25-26; 9:27ft., 33; 10:16 ft.). 

Strangely, Aaron plays no part at all in the events immedi- 
ately attending the escape from Egypt, the crossing of the Red 
Sea, the victory hymns, and the water crisis at Marah (13:17; 
16:1). He reappears again in connection with the incident of 
the manna (16:2-36), and at the battle with the Amalekites 
when, jointly with Hur, he supports Moses' hands stretched 
heavenward to ensure victory (17:10-13). Together with the el- 
ders of Israel, he participates in Jethro's sacrificial meal (18:12), 
but plays no role in the subsequent organization of the judi- 
cial administration. He does, however, again jointly with Hur, 
deputize for Moses in his judicial capacity while the latter goes 
up to the Mount of God to receive the Tablets (24:14). At the 



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AARON 



revelation at Sinai, Aaron again is a minor participant. He is 
distinguished from the "priests" and the people in being al- 
lowed to ascend the mount (19:24), but has the same status as 
his two sons, Nadab and Abihu, and the seventy elders of Israel 
in having to maintain a distance from Moses, although they 
all "see the God of Israel" and survive (24:1, 9 ff.). 

It was during his brothers prolonged absence on the 
mount that, yielding to popular insistence, he fashioned a 
golden calf that became a cause of apostasy (ch. 32). On the 
one hand, the text stresses the grave responsibility of Aaron 
in this incident. He makes no attempt to dissuade the would- 
be idolaters, but himself issues instructions, produces the 
molten image, builds an altar, and proclaims a religious fes- 
tival (32:2-5). His culpability is thrice emphasized (32:2, 25, 
35), and the contrast between his actions and the zealous fi- 
delity of the tribe of Levi is apparent (32:26-29). On the one 
hand, God wanted to destroy Aaron, but he was saved by vir- 
tue of Moses' intercession on his behalf (Deut. 9:20). On the 
other hand, there is a perceptible tendency to de-emphasize 
Aaron's share in the episode. The initiative for the idol comes 
from the people who approach Aaron menacingly (Ex. 32:1). 
They, not he, identify the calf with a divinity (32:4). He does 
not participate in the worship and is not mentioned in God's 
indictment of the people (32:7 ff.); nor is his name mentioned 
in Moses' intercession (32:11-14, 31-32). The making of the calf 
is attributed to the people (32:20; cf. Deut. 9:21) and is also de- 
scribed as though the particular bovine form emerged almost 
accidentally (Ex. 32:24). Despite Aaron's involvement, he was 
neither punished nor disqualified from the priesthood. The 
same inclination to play down Aaron's participation in the calf 
cult is present in the poetic version of the story (Ps. 106:19-22; 
cf. 106:16; Neh. 9:18). 

When it comes to constructing the portable sanctuary, 
Aaron is conspicuously absent, but he and his sons are ap- 
pointed priests and are consecrated into that office by Moses 
(Ex. 28-29; L ev - 8-9). During the ceremonies marking the in- 
vestiture, his two sons, Nadab and Abihu, died mysteriously, a 
calamity that he bore in silent resignation (Lev. 10:1-3; Num. 
3:4; 26:61; cf. 1 Chron. 24:2). Aaron's other two sons continued 
to serve in the priestly office (Num. 3:4; 1 Chron. 24:2) and 
Eleazar succeeded his father as high priest (Num. 20:25-28; 
Deut. 10:6; cf. Josh. 24:33). No reason is given for the selec- 
tion of Aaron as the archetypal high priest and founder of a 
hereditary priesthood to the extent that "the house of Aaron" 
became synonymous with the only legitimate priestly line (see 
*Aaronides). After his induction as high priest, Aaron is no 
longer the attendant of Moses, nor does he occupy a position 
of secular authority, his activities being restricted to the area 
of the cult. Yet even here, it is Moses, not Aaron, who is the 
real founder of the cult and who generally receives the divine 
instructions relative to the priestly duties (cf. Lev. 6:1, 12, 17; 
et al.). It is to him, too, that the priests are answerable (cf. Lev. 
10:16-20). But on one occasion Aaron corrected Moses' un- 
derstanding of a sacrificial law (ibid.). 

Nevertheless, Aaron undoubtedly held an outstanding 



position of leadership, as may be determined by the fact that 
God often addresses Moses and Aaron jointly (Ex. 9:8-10; 
12:1, 43; Lev. 11:1; 13:1; 14:33; 15:1; et al.) and, sometimes, even 
Aaron alone (Lev. 10:8; Num. 18:1, 8). With Moses, Aaron 
shares the popular hostility to authority (Ex. 16:2-36; Num. 
14:1-45; 16:3; 20:1-13). I n the extra-pentateuchal literature his 
name is coupled with that of his brother as bearers of the di- 
vine mission (Josh. 24:5; 1 Sam. 12:6, 8; Micah 6:4; Ps. 77:21; 
105:26; 106:16; cf. 99:6). Significantly, the period of national 
mourning at his death is the same as that for Moses (Num. 
20:29; cf- Deut. 34:8) and throughout biblical literature the 
name Aaron remains unique to this one personality. A hint of 
friction between Moses and his brother is apparent from one 
narrative in which Aaron and his sister were involved in some 
act of opposition to Moses' prophetic preeminence. Probably 
because of priestly immunity he escaped divine punishment, 
but Miriam was stricken. At Aaron's behest, Moses success- 
fully interceded with God on her behalf (Num. 12). 

On another occasion, Aaron, together with Moses, was 
the target of a widespread insurrection against the monopoly 
of leadership. The exclusive priestly privileges of Aaron and 
his family against the challenge of Korah and his associates 
were upheld in a trial by ordeal, which led to the destruction 
of the rebels (Num. 16). This aroused the indignation of the 
people which, in turn, brought down upon them divine anger 
in the form of a plague. Through an incense offering, brought 
at Moses' directive, Aaron was able to make expiation for the 
people and to check the outbreak (Num. 17:1-15). This event 
necessitated a further vindication of Aaron's priestly preemi- 
nence. Twelve staffs, one from each tribe and each inscribed 
with the name of the tribal chieftain, were deposited in the 
Tent of Meeting. The following day, that of Levi, on which 
Aaron's name was written, sprouted blossoms and almonds. 
Henceforth, Aaron's staff lay in the Tent of Meeting as a wit- 
ness to his unchallengeable priestly supremacy (17:16-26; cf. 
20:8 ff.). Further, the subordination of the Levites to Aaron and 
his sons and their respective duties and privileges in the ser- 
vice of the sanctuary were unequivocally defined (17:18). 

Aaron died on the first day of the fifth month at the age 
of 123 years (33:38-39). The account of his passing is unusu- 
ally detailed, doubtlessly due to the fact that it involved the 
all-important matter of priestly succession. The Israelites ar- 
rived at Mount Hor from Kadesh and, by divine decree, Aaron 
ascended the mount accompanied by Moses and Eleazar. The 
high priest was stripped of the garments of his office and his 
son was invested in his stead. Aaron then died on the sum- 
mit of the mount and a 30 -day mourning period was held by 
the entire community (20:22-29; cf. 33 : 37 - 38; Deut. 32:50). It 
should be noted that another tradition has the place of Aaron's 
death as Moserah (Deut. 10:6), which was seven stages behind 
Mount Hor in the wilderness wanderings (Num. 33:31-37). 
Like Moses, Aaron was not permitted to enter the promised 
land in punishment for disobeying the divine command in 
connection with the waters of Meribah (20:12, 24; 27:13-14; 
cf. Deut. 32:50-51), although no clear account of Aaron's role 



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AARON 



in that incident has been preserved (Num. 20:10). A poetic 
digest of the narrative mentions only Moses as suffering the 
consequences of the peoples provocation (Ps. 106:32). No ex- 
planation for Aaron's death in the wilderness is given in either 
Numbers 33:37-38 or Deuteronomy 10:6, except that the latter 
passage follows the story of the golden calf and the sequence 
may possibly imply a connection between the two events. 

Critical View 

The difficulty of reconstructing a comprehensive biography 
and evaluation of Aaron is due to the meager and fragmen- 
tary nature of the data available. It is aggravated by the fact 
that the details are scattered over several originally indepen- 
dent sources which, in the form they have come down to us, 
represent an interweaving of various traditions. This explains 
the differences in approach, emphasis, and detail, outlined 
above. Moreover, consideration has to be given to the pos- 
sibility that the picture of Aaron, the archetypal high priest, 
may well be the idealized retrojection of a later period, and 
that subsequent developments have influenced the narratives 
in the Pentateuch. While there is no unanimity among schol- 
ars of the source critical school as to the proper distribution 
of many passages among the different pentateuchal sources, 
especially in regard to those relating to j and e, there is a wide 
measure of agreement that in the original j and e documents 
Aaron was neither a priest nor a levite, and that he had no 
part in the narrative of the ten plagues. In fact, it is regarded 
as likely that j did not originally mention Aaron. To e is at- 
tributed the picture of Aaron as Miriams brother, as Moses' 
attendant, as participating in the war with Amalek, Jethro's 
sacrifice, and the golden calf, as well as acting together with 
Miriam in opposition to Moses. The redactor who combined 
je introduced the story of Aaron as a levite and as Moses' 
brother and spokesman and, possibly, portrayed him as as- 
sisting in the plagues. There is no agreement as to whether d 
originally mentioned Aaron, or as to the source of the few ref- 
erences to him in that document. To the p source is assigned 
the exalted image of Aaron as the archetypal and only legiti- 
mate levitical high priest, and a leader of the people. Here, 
too, is the source of the Aaronite genealogies and the notices 

of his age and his death. 

[Nahum M. Sarna] 

In the Aggadah 

The many praises heaped on Aaron in the aggadah are due to 
the desire to minimize his guilt with regard to the sin of the 
golden calf and to explain why, despite it, he was worthy to 
be appointed high priest (see: Sif. Deut. 307). 

Aaron had great love for Moses. He was completely free 
of envy and rejoiced in his success. Moses was reluctant to as- 
sume his call (Ex. 4:14), because Aaron had for long been the 
prophet and spokesman of the Jews in Egypt, and Moses was 
unwilling to supplant him, until God told him to assume the 
leadership. Far from resenting it, Aaron was glad. For this he 
was given the reward of wearing the holy breastplate ( Urim 
and Thummim) upon his heart (Tanh. Ex. 27). Aaron is espe- 



cially praised for his love of peace. Unlike Moses, whose at- 
titude was "let the law bend the mountain" (i.e., the law must 
be applied), Aaron loved peace and pursued peace. 

Aaron never reproached a person by telling him that he 
had sinned, but employed every stratagem in order to recon- 
cile disputes (arn 2 48) especially between man and wife (ibid., 
emended text p. 50). According to one account this love for 
peace determined Aaron's attitude toward the golden calf. He 
could have put to death all those who worshiped it, as Moses 
did, but his love and compassion for the people prevented 
him. He regarded peaceful persuasion as the best way of in- 
culcating love of the Torah, and thus Hillel declared: "Be of the 
disciples of Aaron, loving peace and pursuing peace, loving 
one's fellow men and bringing them nigh to the Torah" (Avot 
1:12). For this behavior Aaron was chosen to be the high priest; 
God knew that his intentions were honorable (Ex. R. 37:2). Ac- 
cording to other accounts Aaron agreed to make the golden 
calf after procrastinating as much as possible, because his life 
was threatened, and he feared the same fate as overtook Hur, 
who according to the Midrash, was assassinated by the peo- 
ple when he opposed them (Ex. R. 41:9; Sanh. 7a). Aaron's rod 
possessed the same miraculous powers as the staff of Moses 
and some aggadic sayings make them identical (Yal. Ps. 869). 
With it, Aaron brought about the first three of the Ten Plagues 
because the water of the Nile, that shielded Moses as an infant, 
should not suffer through Moses, by being turned into blood 
or bringing forth frogs, and the earth that afforded Moses pro- 
tection when it concealed the slain Egyptian overseer (Ex. 2:12) 
should not bring forth lice by his action. Both the aggadah 
and Josephus emphasize the great spiritual strength of Aaron 
at the death of his two sons Nadab and Abihu; he saw his two 
"chickens" bathed in blood and kept silent (Lev. R. 20:4). "He 
withstood his ordeal with great courage because his soul was 
inured to every calamity" (Jos., Ant., 3:208). He did not ques- 
tion God's dealing with him, as Abraham did not when or- 
dered to sacrifice his only son Isaac (Sifra 46a). 

Aaron was one of those who died not on account of sin 
"but through the machinations of the serpent" (Sif. Deut. 
338-9). When Aaron died "all the house of Israel" wept for 
him (Num. 20:29), while after the death of Moses, the stern 
leader who reprimanded them by harsh words, only part of 
the people, "the men," bewailed him (Sifra 45d). 

[Elimelech Epstein Halevy] 

In Christian Tradition 

As the ancestor and founder of the one priesthood entitled to 
offer acceptable sacrifice to God, Aaron was taken as the type 
of Christ in the New Testament and later Christian tradition: 
he offers sacrifice, mediates between the people and God, and 
ministers in the Holy of Holies. The typology is developed es- 
pecially in the Epistle to the Hebrews which stresses the supe- 
riority of Jesus' perfect sacrifice to the animal sacrifices of the 
Aaronic priesthood. Jesus, the high priest of the New Cov- 
enant, is foreshadowed by Aaron, the high priest of the Old 
Covenant, but Christ's priesthood, which is "after the order of 



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AARON BEN AMRAM 



Melchizedek," supersedes and replaces the inferior priesthood 
of Aaron (see Heb. 5:2-5; 7:11-12; 8:23-27). Influenced by this 
distinction, the Mormons distinguished in their hierarchy be- 
tween a lesser, Aaronic priesthood, and the office of high priest 
which is according to the order of Melchizedek. 

[R.J. Zwi Werblowsky] 

In the Koran and in Islamic Literature 

Like some other biblical figures, Aaron (Arabic: Harun) 
only became known to Muhammad gradually. In the Koran 
(37:114-20), Moses and Aaron appear together as those who 
were redeemed (from Egyptian slavery) at the head of their 
people and to whom the Book was given. In 20:29-30, Moses 
requests, in a general way, that his brother Aaron be his helper 
(wazir; cf. also 25:37; see below). In 26:12, he voices his fear that 
he might be inhibited and unable to speak. Finally, in 28:35 
Moses prays to God: "Aaron is more eloquent than I am; send 
him to strengthen me." Just as the Midrash tries in various ways 
to exonerate Aaron from all blame in the incident of the golden 
calf, so the Koran account of that incident assigns him the role 
of an onlooker and administrator rather than that of chief par- 
ticipant, and attributes the actual making of the golden calf to 
one Samiri (20:96-7; perhaps meaning "a Samaritan"; see the 
detailed discussion by H. Speyer, pp. 329-32). The post-koranic 
Islamic legend describes, in a number of fanciful variations, 
how Moses demonstrated to the children of Israel that he had 
not killed his brother, as they suspected, but that he had died 
a natural death. The relationship of these legends to similar 
stories in the late Midrash still needs elucidation. An attempt 
to explain why Mary, the mother of Jesus, is addressed dur- 
ing her pregnancy as "sister of Aaron" (Koran 19:27-29, cf. Ex. 
15:20) is made by H. Speyer (p. 243, where further literature 
is available). The Koran never mentions the fact that Aaron 
was the father of the priestly tribe of the Kohanim; the an- 
cient biographer of Muhammad, however, was aware of this 
fact. The two main Jewish tribes in Medina, the Quraiza and 
*NadIr, were called al-Kahinan, "the two priestly tribes." When 
Muhammad's Jewish spouse, Safiyya, was insulted by one of 
the Prophet s other wives, he allegedly advised her to retort: 
"My father was Aaron and my uncle Moses." The word wazir, 
by which Aaron's subordination to Moses is designated in the 
Koran, became the title "vizier," a kind of prime minister with 

wide or full powers in Islamic states. 

[Shelomo Dov Goitein] 

For Aaron in Art, see *Moses. 

bibliography: Aberbach and Smolar, in: jbl, 86 (1967), 
129-40; Albright, Arch Rel, 109-10, 119; Kennett, in: jts, 6 (1904-05), 
161-8; S.E. Loewenstamm, Masoret Yeziat Mizrayim be-Hishtalshelu- 
tah (1965), 60-64; Meek, in: ajsl, 45 (1928-29), 144-66; idem,Hebrew 
Origins (i960), 119-47; North, in: zaw, 66 (1954), i9i-9;H. Oort, 
in: Theologisch Tijdschrift, 18 (1884), 235-89; Westphal, in: zaw, 
26 (1906), 201-30. add. bibliography: S. Gevirtz, in: Biblica, 
65 (1984), 377-81; S.D. Sperling, The Original Torah (1998), 103-21. 
aggadah: Ginzberg, Legends, index; Guttmann, Mafteah, 2 (1917), 
37-55. islamic literature: J.W. Hirschberg, Juedische und christli- 
cheLehren im vor- und fruehislamischen Arabien (1939), 6iff., 129-30; 



S.D. Goitein, Studies in Islamic History and Institutions (1966), 168-96; 
H. Speyer, Die biblischen Erzaehlungen im Qoran (1961), 260 ff., 323-6; 
Schwarzbaum, in: Fabula, 5 (1962-63), 185-227.ADD. bibliogra- 
phy: eis 2 hi (1971), 231-32, s.v. Harun (incl. bibl.). 

AARON, ISRAEL (1859-1912), U.S. rabbi. Aaron was born 
in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, but at the age of 16 moved to Cin- 
cinnati to join the first class of students entering the Hebrew 
Union College. There was little in his background to sug- 
gest a rabbinical career. He attended public schools and his 
parents were immigrants from Hesse-Darmstadt, where his 
father had served as a junior officer in the military. In 1883, 
Aaron, together with Henry *Berkowitz, Joseph *Krauskopf, 
and David *Philipson, formed the first cohort of students to 
graduate from the new seminary. He later received a doctor- 
ate in divinity from the same institution. After graduating, 
Aaron served the synagogue in Fort Wayne, Indiana, for four 
years before assuming the pulpit of Temple Beth Zion in Buf- 
falo, New York. Aaron thrived in this latter setting. He was a 
keen advocate of the reintroduction of congregational singing, 
seeking to extend the success of his own endeavors in Buffalo 
to the wider Reform movement. Aaron was also a scholar of 
medieval Jewry, writing about Muslim -Jewish relations dur- 
ing the Renaissance, and the Iberian Jewish community. As 
with many of his contemporaries in the Reform rabbinate, he 
was also active in the civic and cultural life of his city. Aaron 
was an immensely successful pulpit rabbi, overseeing both the 
building of a new temple and the enlargement of its member- 
ship. This new temple, designed by Edward Kent, an architect 
who later perished in the Titanic disaster, was also ill-omened 
for Aaron. Barely four days after a celebration organized by his 
congregation to honor his 25 th year of service to Temple Beth 
Zion, Aaron died at age 52 of an ear infection. David Philip - 
son, a lifelong friend, officiated at both services. 

bibliography: American Israelite (May 16, 1912); American 
Jewish Year Book, 5 (1903-4); ccar Yearbook, 23 (1913); New York 
Times (May 16, 1912); Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (1948). 

[Adam Mendelsohn (2 nd ed.)] 

AARON BEN AMRAM (ninth-tenth centuries), court 
banker in Baghdad. Having built up a position of wealth and 
influence as private bankers, Aaron and his partner Joseph 
b. Phinehas were eventually accorded the official position of 
jahbadh, whose functions involved the collecting of state rev- 
enues, the issue of bills of exchange on behalf of the govern- 
ment, and long-term loans to the caliphs administration. At 
the same time, Aaron and his firm acted as private bankers 
for the vizier and other high officials, who transacted through 
them their sometimes shady business. The firm attracted the 
patronage of Jewish merchants, both in Baghdad, where there 
was a special banking quarter, and from the provinces of the 
Islamic empire, and beyond. Their banking transactions in- 
volved them deeply in international trade. The contributions 
of Diaspora communities to the upkeep of the talmudical 
academies in Babylonia were conveyed by letters of credit 



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AARON BEN BATASH 



drawn on such banking houses as that of Aaron b. Amram and 
his partner. The influence which Aaron and his friends com- 
manded in the Jewish community was commensurate with 
his position at court and in the economic life of the caliphate. 
Aaron sided with *Aaron b. Meir, the gaon in Erez Israel, in his 
controversy with *Saadiah b. Joseph, over the supremacy of 
the Palestinian authorities in proclaiming the religious feasts. 
His sons and heirs, who inherited his official position and in- 
fluence, enjoyed the confidence of Saadiah, who made use of 
their services in dealing with the government. 

bibliography: A. Harkavy, Teshuvot ha-Gebnim, 4 (1887), 
nos. 423, 548, 552; L. Ginzberg, Geonica, 2 (1909), 87-88; Fischel, Is- 
lam, 6-44. 

[Walter Joseph Fischel] 

AARON BEN BATASH (Ben Senton-Ben Shem Tov; Harun 
al-Yahudi; d. 1465), vizier in Morocco. Aaron was a member 
of a family of Spanish origin who settled in *Fez. He served as 
banker and adviser to c Abd al-Haqq, sultan of Morocco, later 
becoming his vizier. He appointed a relative, Saul b. Batash, in- 
tendant of the palace and chief of police. Aaron is mentioned as 
a scholar and writer. He imposed heavy taxes and was accused 
of distributing the revenue among his impoverished coreli- 
gionists. Anti-Jewish agitation by Muslim divines induced a 
mob attack on the Jewish quarter in Fez. The sultan and his 
vizier were assassinated in May 1465. (See ^Morocco.) 

bibliography: R. Brunschvig, Deux recits de voyage in- 
edits ... (1936), 113-21; A. Cour, Etablissement des dynasties des Cherifs 
au Maroc (1904), 36-38; Hirschberg, Afrikah, 1 (1965), 290-6. 

[David Corcos] 

AARON BEN DAVID COHEN OF RAGUSA (d. 1656), 
rabbi and merchant in Ragusa (Dubrovnik). After studying in 
Venice, Aaron returned to his native city. There he engaged in 
commerce, his import and export business becoming the most 
important Jewish commercial house in the city. At the time of 
the blood accusation against Isaac Jesurun in 1622, Aaron and 
his father were arrested. In his will, Aaron gave his children 
guidance for moral behavior and regular study. He also pro- 
vided for the publication of the Zekan Aharon (Venice, 1657), 
which included his own discourses on the Bible and those of 
his grandfather (and predecessor in the Ragusa rabbinate), 
Solomon Ohev (Oef), which were entitled Shemen ha-Tov. He 
appended an account of the blood accusation and a poem of 
thanksgiving for recital on the annual commemoration of the 
occurrence. This appendix was reprinted separately under the 
title Maaseh Nissim (Venice, 1798). The will, of unique interest 
for the history of Hebrew publishing, provided for the printing 
of 800 copies of the work of which 600 were to be exported. 

bibliography: J. Tadic, Jevreji u Dubrovniku (1937), 329-45; 
453-4 (French abstract); 431-4 (text of will). 

AARON BEN ELIJAH (i328?-i369), Karaite scholar, philos- 
opher, and jurist. Aaron, who lived in Nicomedia (near pres- 
ent-day Izmir, in Turkish Asia Minor), was called Aaron the 



Younger to distinguish him from Aaron ben Joseph, or Aaron 
the Elder, who lived a century earlier. Aaron died in an epi- 
demic, apparently in Constantinople. 

Aaron's greatest work is a massive Hebrew trilogy of 
Karaite learning. The trilogy consists of Ez Hayyim ("Tree 
of Life"), dealing with philosophy of religion, composed in 
1346; Gan Eden ("Garden of Eden"), dealing with Karaite law, 
composed in 1354; and Keter Torah ("Crown of the Law"), a 
commentary on the Pentateuch, written in 1362. According 
to Karaite tradition, Aaron wrote Ez Hayyim when he was 18 
years old. This would place his birth in 1328, but it was prob- 
ably earlier. The trilogy displays fully his great learning in both 
Karaite and Rabbanite literature. Aaron quotes of course the 
Karaite authorities, notably the 10 th and 11 th centuries Jeru- 
salem scholars (his access to their Arabic writings was prob- 
ably through Hebrew translations and abridgements). But he 
frequently quotes also the Talmud, Saadia, Rashi, Abraham 
Ibn Ezra, David Kimhi, Maimonides, Nahmanides, the ear- 
lier grammarians Judah ibn *Quraysh, Judah Hayyuj, Jonah 
ibn Janah, and others. His Hebrew style, though tinted with 
arabisms, is clear and fluent. 

Legal Teachings 

As a jurist, Aaron followed mainly in the footsteps of his Kara- 
ite predecessors. He generally opposed any relaxation of the 
letter of scriptural law, even when it involved great exertion 
and hardship, except in cases of clear and evident danger to 
life. Yet on the other hand he accepted Jeshuah ben * Judah's 
reform of the Karaite law of incest, and rejected the excessive 
restrictions advocated by Karaite ascetics, such as the prohi- 
bition of eating meat in the Diaspora. 

Biblical Exegesis 

As a biblical commentator, Aaron followed the general Kara- 
ite policy of preferring the literal meaning of the biblical text, 
except where this meaning seemed to lead to conclusions that 
were blasphemous or illogical. However, this did not prevent 
him from indulging his philosophical bent by introducing al- 
legorical and metaphorical interpretations where they seemed 
to him to be more suitable or advisable. His commentary on 
the Pentateuch has become the standard reference in all Kara- 
ite communities. 

Philosophy 

Aaron's Ez Hayyim was undoubtedly undertaken by him with 
the aim of creating a Karaite counterpart to ^Maimonides' 
Guide of the Perplexed. Unlike Maimonides, Aaron did not 
venture to cut a new Aristotelian path for Karaite theologi- 
cal-philosophical thought. Instead, he remained attached to 
the Mutazilite philosophy (see * Kalam) which dominated his 
Karaite predecessors, as well as a number of pre-Maimoni- 
dean Rabbanite philosophers. Aaron is more orderly, clear, 
and logical than his Karaite forerunners, but he to a large ex- 
tent rephrases what the latter had already said. Occasionally 
he avoids taking a definite stand on some points, and does not 
refrain from adopting some Aristotelian terminology and ar- 



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AARON BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN OF LUNEL 



gumentation. Accordingly, and under the influence of Aaron 
b. Joseph, he attempted to forge some sort of reconciliation 
between traditional Karaite Kalamic positions, regarding it 
as his duty to stand by the tradition of his predecessors, and 
more Modern positions. 

Although Aaron had to deal with religion in a rational 
fashion, he begins his philosophical work with a wholesale 
condemnation of the Greek philosophers and of their brain- 
child, philosophy, in general. The teachings of the Mutazilite 
"investigators" (the term "philosopher" is objectionable to 
Aaron), on the other hand, are in accord with Scripture (as 
interpreted by the Karaites), while most Rabbanite thinkers, 
particularly Maimonides, follow the philosophers and thus of- 
ten run counter to the true principles of the To rah. Reason is 
the chief instrument of true knowledge, hence God exists, for 
His existence was deduced rationally already by the patriarch 
Abraham. God is one, and is neither corporeal nor character- 
ized by any corporeal qualities. His attributes are both nega- 
tive and positive - indeed every negation implies a positive 
assertion - and not exclusively negative, as asserted by Mai- 
monides. His providence and justice extend to all creatures, 
both human and subhuman. His revelations were given to His 
prophets for transmission to mankind as a guide to righteous 
life. The world (i.e., matter) is not eternal (as the Aristotelians 
taught) but created - this is the chief proof of God's existence - 
and consequently natural law is not immutable. The universe 
is made up of indivisible atoms having no magnitude and not 
eternal, and creation signifies combination of atoms, while dis- 
solution signifies their separation. The atomic theory of mat- 
ter, rejected by the Aristotelians, is thus reasserted by Aaron. 
Anthropomorphic descriptions of God in the Bible must be 
interpreted allegorically God is all-knowing, but man's will is 
free, hence no evil can be charged to God; though God fore- 
knows that the wicked will choose evil, the blame is theirs, 
not God's. Free will necessarily involves retribution according 
to each man's deserts. Scriptural ordinances are divided into 
revelational, whose necessity is so sublime that it is beyond 
rational explanation; and rational, whose necessity is deduc- 
ible by reason. Good and evil are inherently so, and are not 
so merely because God approves of the former and condemns 
the latter. His approval or condemnation simply assists man 
in recognizing what is good and what is evil. Divine chastise- 
ment is not always punishment for antecedent sin: in the case 
of a righteous person like Job it is a Divine favor intended to 
increase the sufferer's reward in the world to come. This ex- 
plains the prosperity of the wicked and the misery of the righ- 
teous on earth. Besides, physical bliss is, at best, a base and 
fleeting enjoyment, hence a more sublime spiritual reward 
must be postulated in the hereafter. This serves as one of the 
evidences of the immortality of the soul and the resurrection 
of the dead. All these philosophical problems are treated with 
constant reference to, and mostly refutation of, the teachings 
of the Aristotelians, as set forth by Maimonides. 

Aaron also composed a number of poems and hymns, 
some of which were included in the official Karaite liturgy. 



Gan Eden was published in Eupatoria, 1864 and 1866; Ramie 
1972. Ez Hayyim was edited by Franz Delitzsch (Leipzig, 1841), 
and was re-edited, with an extensive commentary, by the Kara- 
ite scholar Simhah Isaac Lutzky (Eupatoria, 1847). Extracts 
from these two works, in English translation, are found in L. 
Nemoy (ed.), Karaite Anthology (New Haven, 1952), 172-95, 
and most chapters of the latter in two Ph.D. dissertations 
mentioned below; Keter Torah was published in 1867 in Eu- 
patoria; Ramie 1972. 

bibliography: Husik, Philosophy, 362-87; Guttmann, Phi- 
losophies, 81-83; add. bibliography: M. Charner, "Aaron ben 
Elijah, The tree of life: First half (chapter 1-78) / Translated from the 
Hebrew with introd. and notes" 1949, Ph.D. Thesis, Columbia Uni- 
versity; S.B. Bowman, The Jews of Byzantium (1204-1453), 1985, index; 
H. Ben-Shammai, "Studies in Karaite Atomism" Jerusalem Studies in 
Arabic and Islam, 6 (1985), pp. 280-285; D. Lasker, in Da'at, 17 (1986) 
33-42 (Heb.); D. Frank, "The religious philosophy of the Karaite 
Aaron ben Elijah: the problem of divine justice", 1991 (Includes Eng- 
lish translation of: Sefer Ets Hayyim: chapters seventy-nine through 
ninety), Ph.D. Thesis, Harvard University; M. Polliack (ed.), Karaite 
Judaism: A Guide to Its History and Literary Sources, (2003), index. 

[Leon Nemoy] 

AARON (Arnd) BEN ISAAC BENJAMIN WOLF (c. 1670- 
1721), rabbi in Germany; nephew and son-in-law of the court 
Jew Jost *Liebmann, who appointed him head of the yeshivah 
he founded in Berlin. In 1697 Aaron became deputy rabbi and 
in 1709 rabbi of Berlin. Berlin Jewry was then rent by inter- 
nal strife in which Aaron supported Liebman's widow in her 
struggle for leadership of the community against the court 
Jew Markus Magnus. When in 1713 the Magnus faction pre- 
vailed, Aaron left Berlin to become rabbi of Frankfurt on the 
Oder, which had been detached from the Berlin rabbinate to 
enable him to officiate there. Aaron was suspected of Shab- 
batean sympathies. In 1713 he approbated two works by Ne- 
hemiah *Hayon. 

bibliography: Graetz, Gesch, 10 (1896), 322-3, n. 6, 481-510; 
Graetz, Hist, 5 (1949), 219, 220; Sachs, in: Juedische Familien-For- 
schung, 2 (1928-30), 15-16, 40-41. 

AARON BEN JACOB HA-KOHEN OF LUNEL (end of 
13 th and first half of 14 th century), Provencal scholar. Despite 
his name, he was probably not from Lunel but from Nar- 
bonne, where his forefathers lived. In his well-known work 
Orhot Hayyim he makes frequent mention of the customs of 
Narbonne and often cites the opinions of its scholars. Aaron's 
grandfather, David, wrote a work on the laws of terefot (Orhot 
Hayyim, 2:420), and his great-grandfather, Isaac, was a pupil 
of 'Abraham b. David of Posquieres and wrote a commentary 
on the Jerusalem Talmud (Meiri, Beit ha-Behirah on Avot, ed. 
by B.Z. Prag (1964), 56). Aaron was among those exiled from 
France by Philip iv in 1306 and apparently reached Spain, 
subsequently proceeding to Majorca. Orhot Hayyim is for the 
most part a compilation of halakhot taken verbatim from ear- 
lier halakhic works sometimes without indicating the source 
(e.g., extracts from Nathan b. Judah's Ha-Mahkim and David 



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AARON BEN JOSEPH HA-KOHEN SARGADO 



b. Levi's Mikhtam). It is a work of great importance and cites 
halakhot not found in any other source. Halakhic authorities 
esteemed it greatly, and it was cited by Jeroham b. Meshullam, 
Isaac b. Sheshet, Simeon Duran, Levi ibn Habib, Joseph Caro, 
and others. Its sources are extremely varied. Though based on 
Maimonides, it contains statements of German, French, Pro- 
vencal, and Spanish scholars. Some (Joseph Caro, Azulai, and 
others) consider the anonymous work Kol Bo (1490) to be an 
abbreviated version of Orhot Hayyim. This view, however, is 
controverted by a comparison of the two works. Benjacob and 
S.D. Luzzatto are more correct in maintaining that Kol Bo is 
the editio princeps of Orhot Hayyim, probably representing an 
early stage of that book, and antedating the three manuscripts 
mentioned below. 

Part 1 of Orhot Hayyim was first published in Spain be- 
fore 1492, but no complete copy of it is extant (for part of 
the missing introduction see A. Freimann, Thesaurus Typo- 
graphiae Hebraicae (1931) B37, 1-2). The existing edition first 
appeared in Florence in 1750, although the manuscript had 
already been sent for publication by Elijah Capsali of Candia 
to Meir of Padua in Venice in the middle of the 16 th century 
(Responsa Maharam Padua, no. 77). The order of the halakhot 
is very similar to that of the Tur, Orah Hayyim of * Jacob b. 
Asher, Aaron's younger contemporary. The Tur quickly gained 
wide acceptance at the expense of Orhot Hayyim. Its second 
part, dealing with laws of marriage, damages, things ritually 
prescribed or permitted, and the like was published by M. 
Schlesinger in Berlin in 1902 from the Warsaw Communal Li- 
brary Ms. (a copy of the Jerusalem Ms. of 1455) after a rather 
inadequate comparison with another earlier manuscript, now 
in the Montefiore Library, London. There are significant dif- 
ferences between these two manuscripts, and between a third 
(in the Guenzburg Collection, Moscow, copied in 1329) which 
was not used by Schlesinger and which represents the earli- 
est version of the work, having been written apparently before 
Aaron went to Majorca, since it omits all the passages (at least 
15) referring to that island and to Shem Tov Falkon, the local 
rabbi. It contains however 12 more chapters than the 73 in the 
printed version. These deal with faith, philosophy, messianic 
legends, paradise, hell, the natural sciences, the formulae for 
documents, and (in a lengthy chapter) the principle of inter- 
calation. The date 1313, given in this chapter, shows that the 
manuscript was not composed before this date. 

bibliography: Benjacob, in: Kerem Hemed, 8 (1854), 1671!.; 
Benjacob, Ozar, 51, no. 984, 239, no. 118; S.D. Luzzatto, Meged Yerahim, 
1 (1855), 5-10; idem, Iggerot Shadal, 8 (1892), 1232-40, no. 562; Gross, 
in: mgwj, 18 (1869), 433-50, 531-41; Gross, Gal Jud, 290, 420; Zunz, 
Ritus, 31-32, 179-80; M. Schlesinger (ed.), Sefer Orhot Hayyim, pt. 2 
(1902), introd.; J. Freimann, in: Ha-Eshkol, 6 (1919), 107-9. 

[Shlomoh Zalman Havlin] 



and it appears in this erroneous form in the Hebrew transla- 
tion of Nathan ha-Bavli's chronicle. No satisfactory explana- 
tion has yet been found for the surname Sargado. 

The gaon Mevasser (916/7-925/6) appointed Aaron resh 
kallah ("head of the kallaW) although he did not come from 
a family of scholars. He was the son-in-law of Bishr b. Aaron, 
one of Baghdad's wealthiest and most respected citizens. Ac- 
cording to the tenth-century chronicler Nathan ha-Bavli, who 
does not seem to have admired Aaron, Aaron was very elo- 
quent and erudite, but Saadiah was a much greater scholar 
and Aaron envied him for his superior learning. In the cam- 
paign against Saadiah, led by the exilarch David b. Zakkai, 
Aaron took the exilarch's side and attacked Saadiah in a ma- 
licious epistle. Upon the death of Gaon Hananiah (Hanina), 
the father of * Sherira Gaon, Aaron assumed the direction of 
the academy, although Amram b. Meswi, Sherira's uncle, who 
was the av bet din, was more deserving of the gaonate. Aaron 
was a self-righteous and willful person, and his term of office 
was marked by endless quarrels. Many years later a rival gaon, 
Nehemiah b. Kohen Zedek, was nominated, but he was unable 
to assert himself against Aaron who, according to Sherira, ex- 
celled him in scholarship. Sherira's son Hai, who later became 
gaon, was Aaron's pupil in his youth. 

Only fragments of Aaron's literary work have been pre- 
served; the Teshuvot ha-Gebnim contain four responsa as- 
cribed to him (Hemdah Genuzah (1863), no. 37-40, and Rashi 
Pardes, ed. by H.Y. Ehrenreich (1924), 118-22), but only one 
of these is definitely by Aaron. Another responsum by Aaron 
was published in Jeschurun, 12 (1925), 50-51. Sherira and 
Hai Gaon mention Aaron's interpretation of a passage in the 
tractate Yevamot in one of their legal opinions (L. Ginzberg, 
Geonica, 2 (1909), 6j). Aaron also wrote an Arabic commen- 
tary on the Pentateuch, in the same style as that of his rival 
Saadiah. The few existing fragments are inadequate to judge 
the character of this work, or its relationship to Saadiah's ex- 
egesis. Aaron's commentary on Deuteronomy (beginning 
with the weekly portion Shofetim) is also mentioned. Frag- 
ments of his commentary on other parts of the Pentateuch are 
cited in Abraham Ibn Ezra's commentary on the Pentateuch. 
Maimonides mentions Aaron among the older Jewish schol- 
ars who opposed the view of the Greek philosophers that the 
universe is eternal. 

bibliography: H. Malter, Saadia Gaon (Eng., 1921), 113-7, 
126-82, 428; Neubauer, Chronicles, 1 (1965), 66; (1965), 8off.; Stein- 
schneider, Arab Lit, 71; B. Lewin (ed.), Iggeret Sherira Gaon (1921), 
130-4; Mann, Texts, 1 (1931), index; idem, in: Tarbiz, 5 (1933/34), 174-5; 
idem, in: jqr, 11 (1920/21), 426; A. Harkavy, Zikhron la-Rishonim, 1, 
pt. 5 (1892), 222; S. Poznaiiski, in: jqr, 13 (1922/23), 377-8; idem, in: 
Ha-Goren, 6 (1906), 63. 

[Jacob Mann] 



AARON BEN JOSEPH HA-KOHEN SARGADO (also 
known as Halaf ibn Sargado), gaon and head of the academy 
at Pumbedita, 942-60. His antagonist *Saadiah Gaon slander- 
ously altered his Arabic first name, Halaf, to read Kelev ("dog") 



AARON BEN JOSEPH HA- LEVI (HaRAH, initials of his 
name Ha-Rav Aharon ha-Levi; c. 1235-1300), Spanish rabbi 
and halakhist. Aaron was a descendant of * Zerahiah b. Isaac 
ha-Levi. His principal teachers were his brother Phinehas 



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AARON BEN JOSEPH HA-ROFE 



and Moses b. Nahman (*Nahmanides). He had many disci- 
ples in his native Barcelona; the most famous was Yom Tov b. 
Abraham of Seville. In 1278 Aaron and Solomon b. Abraham 
*Adret were designated by Pedro 111 to settle a dispute in the 
community of Saragossa. In 1284, on the instructions of the 
king, he was appointed rabbi of that town for the purpose of 
ending the continuous dissensions in Saragossa. On Aaron's 
advice, the community enacted several important ordinances; 
some were vigorously contested both during his lifetime and 
in subsequent generations (Isaac b. Sheshet, Responsa, 388). 
After some time he returned to Barcelona where he apparently 
engaged in business. In 1286 he went to Toledo and remained 
there briefly. He returned to Barcelona. 

Noted for his originality, Aaron would defer neither to 
the majority nor to the traditional authorities. At times, both 
he and Solomon b. Abraham Adret, who had many mutual 
disciples, were consulted on the same legal question, and an- 
swered jointly. Their personalities clashed and they often dis- 
agreed. On one occasion they requested French scholars to 
pronounce a final decision (Yom Tov b. Abraham of Seville, re- 
sponsa, ed. by Y. Kafah (1959), 79). When Adret published his 
Toratha-Bayit ("Law of the House") Aaron wrote critical com- 
ments called Bedek ha-Bayit ("Repair of the House") which 
were printed together with the former work (Venice, 1608 and 
in all subsequent editions). His introduction and notes were 
written in an inoffensive and respectful tone. Adret hastily 
wrote a sharp rejoinder called Mishmeret ha-Bayit ("Guard of 
the House"), which was issued anonymously. However, Adret 
admits his authorship in one of his responsa. Most of his at- 
tacks were based on statements of the early legal authorities 
whom Aaron had ignored. 

Aaron wrote several independent books. Of his novellae 
to the Talmud, only those to three tractates have survived - 
Ketubbot (Prague, 1734), Bezah (published in the Mareh ha- 
Ofannim of Jacob Faitusi, Leghorn, 1810), and Sukkah (1962); 
the novellae on Kiddushin (1904) are erroneously ascribed to 
him. A large part of his novellae to Shabbat is preserved in the 
pseudo-R. Nissim commentary to this tractate. Of his com- 
mentaries on the halakhot of Alfasi, only those on tractates 
Berakhot and Taanit have survived (Pekuddat ha-Leviyyim, 
1874; new edition M. Blau, 1957). In his preface Aaron men- 
tioned that he wrote a short commentary on the Talmud called 
Nezer ha-Kodesh in which he gives the halakhah without the 
accompanying discussion. The work is no longer extant. Of 
his legal decisions, only his Kelalei Yein Nesekh on the prohibi- 
tion of wine prepared by Gentiles (published as an appendix to 
Adret s Avodat ha-Kodesh, (Venice, 1602)), and Hilkhot Niddah 
(1967), have survived. The Sefer ha-Hinnukh of Aaron ha- Levi 
of Barcelona has been wrongly ascribed to him. 

bibliography: J. Perles, jR. Salomo b. Abraham b. Adereth 
(Ger., 1863), 62-63, n. !7; S. and N. Bamberger (eds.), Pekuddat ha- 
Leviyyim (1874), 5-10 (introd.); Michael, Or, no. 293; Graetz, Gesch, 
8, pt. 2, 148-9; Gross, Gal Jud, 329-31, no. 20; Baer, Spain, 1 (1961), 
224-5, 2 4°> 4*8 n. 81; Shiloh, in: Sinai, 61 (1966/67), 291-7. 

[Simha Assaf ] 



AARON BEN JOSEPH HA-ROFE ("the physician") "the El- 
der" (c. 1250-1320), ^Karaite scholar and writer. Born appar- 
ently in Solkhat, Crimea. In 1279 he disputed there with the 
Rabbanites concerning the method of determining the New 
Moon of Tishri (see ^Calendar). Apparently he also lived in 
Constantinople. The influence of the Talmud and Rabbanite 
scholars and philosophers is seen in his writings. His views 
were based on the Muslim *Kalam philosophical system, but 
he inclined toward Aristotelianism. In 1293 he completed his 
commentary on the Pentateuch, Sefer ha-Mivhar (1835), widely 
used by the Karaites in the 14 th and 15 th centuries; several su- 
percommentaries were written on it, the last, Tirat Kesef, by 
Joseph Solomon *Luzki. Usually preferring the plain meaning 
of the Bible, Aaron occasionally also uses aggadic interpreta- 
tions, taken as a rule from * Rashi. He frequently quotes his 
Karaite and Rabbanite predecessors, notably ^Abraham ibn 
Ezra. Aaron sometimes interpreted the halakhah of his sect le- 
niently, for instance permitting Karaite residents of Jerusalem 
to eat meat; however this ruling was not accepted. He also 
disagreed with the "catenary" theory of forbidden marriage 
(rikkuv) which extended the laws against incest to extremely 
remote relationships, on the ground that it ran counter to the 
Karaite principle that no addition should be made to bibli- 
cal injunctions. In these laws, he differed from the Rabban- 
ites only in upholding the Karaite interdict of marrying one's 
niece. He may have preferred a permanent system of calenda- 
tion instead the one based on lunar observation. Aaron also 
wrote commentaries on the Former Prophets and Isaiah 1-59 
(Mivhar Yesharim, 1836), and on Psalms 1-71 (several Mss. In 
Leyden and jts, New York). He refers to an apparently lost 
commentary he wrote on Job. An unfinished Hebrew gram- 
mar (Kelil Yofi, printed Gozlow 1847), recognizably influenced 
by Jonah ibn *Janah, was completed by Isaac b. Judah Tishbi. 
His polemics against Rabbanite practices and the *Kabbalah 
(entitled Moreh Aharon and Sefer Mitzvot) have not been pre- 
served. Aaron's redaction of the Karaite liturgy remains the of- 
ficial order of Karaite service. He introduced into it piyyutim 
by Solomon ibn *Gabirol, Judah *Halevi, and ^Abraham and 
Moses ibn *Ezra. Aaron himself wrote liturgical poems for 
Sabbaths and holy days, many of which have been included 
in the Karaite prayer book, notably those written according 
to the weekly reading of the Torah. A late commentary on 
these poems entitled Tuv Tadm, has appeared in a non-criti- 
cal edition (Ramie 2000). He had a marked influence upon 
later Karaite writers. 

bibliography: Fuerst, Karaeertum, 2 (1865), 238-9; Danon, 
in: jqr (1926/27), 165-6, 265-6; Davidson, Ozar, 4 (1933), 359; Mann, 
Texts, 2 (1935), index; Z. Ankori, Karaites in Byzantium (1959), in- 
dex; add. bibliography: S.B. Bowman, The Jews of Byzan- 
tium (1204-1453), 1985, index; J-C. Attias, Le commentaire biblique: 
Mordekhai Komtino ou Vhermeneutique du dialogue, Paris, 1991, in- 
dex; D.J. Lasker, "Aaron ben Joseph and the transformation of Karaite 
thought", in: Torah and Wisdom (1992) 121-128; G. Brinn, Beit Mikra, 
47,4 (2002), 305-321 (Heb.); L. Charlap, Journal of Jewish Studies, 56,1 
(2005) 80-100; idem, Peamim, 101-102 (2005), 199-220 (Heb.); M. 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



215 



AARON BEN JUDAH KUSDINI 



Polliack (ed.)> Karaite Judaism: A Guide to Its History and Literary 
Sources, (2003), index. 

[Zvi Avneri] 

AARON BEN JUDAH KUSDINI (or Kosdani, i.e., "of Con- 
stantinopole"; end of 12 th century), Karaite scholar. Of his 
works only a responsum addressed to Solomon b. David, the 
Karaite nasi in Cairo, concerning the law of incest is known. 
In it Aaron reveals himself a zealous partisan of the highly 
restrictive catenary (rikkuv) theory of forbidden marriages 
favored by the early Karaite authorities. Solomon rejected 
his views. The responsum is quoted by Karaite writers, who 
call Aaron baal ha-derashot ("the author of homilies") but no 
homilies from his pen have as yet been found. 

bibliography: A. Neubauer, Aus der Petersburger Bibliothek 
(1866), 55, 117; Mann, Texts, 2 (1935), 140-1, 291. 

[Leon Nemoy] 

AARON BEN MEIR BRISKER (d. 1807), Polish rabbini- 
cal scholar and author. Aaron's father was one of the leaders 
(allufim) of the Brest- Litovsk (Brisk) community and one of 
the signatories to a letter sent in 1752 to Jonathan Eybeschuetz, 
whom he supported in the dispute with Jacob *Emden. Aaron 
studied under Eleazar b. Eleazar Kallir, author of Or Hadash. 
He refused to accept a rabbinical position and devoted himself 
exclusively to his studies. Aaron was delegate to the conference 
of Jewish notables of Poland which assembled in Warsaw in 
1791 to deliberate on the problems of Polish Jewry. He wrote 
Minhat Aharon , novellae on tractate Sanhedrin (Novydvor, 
1792) with an appendix entitled Minhah Belulah containing 
responsa and talmudical treatises. Other responsa (Anaf Ez 
Avot) were included in Mekor Mayim Hayyim (1839) by his 
grandson Jacob Meir, whose father Hayyim had adopted the 
surname Padua. In his work Aaron shows himself a master of 
the casuistic method of Talmud study known aspilpul. 

bibliography: D.T. Efrussi, Toledot Anshei Shem (1875), 50; 
A.L. Feinstein, Ir Tehillah (1886), 33, 37, 224; M. Wischnitzer, Istoriya 
Yevreyskogo Naroda, 11 (1914), 101; I.T. Eisenstadt and S. Wiener, Da'at 
Kedoshim (1898), i24f.; eg, 2 (1954), 153. 

AARON BEN MESHULLAM OF LUNEL (d. c. 1210), one 
of the leading scholars of Lunel. He was the son of *Meshul- 
lam b. Jacob of Lunel. Aaron studied under ^Abraham b. David 
of Posquieres, with whom he subsequently corresponded. A 
book on the laws of terefot is attributed to him, but it is likely 
that this treatise is an extract from his work on the Talmud 
or on the halakhot of Alfasi on tractate Hullin. *Meshullam 
b. Moses, son of Aaron's sister, mentions these novellae of his 
uncle in his Sefer ha-Hashlamah. Aaron was expert in astron- 
omy and the computation of the calendar and wrote a book- 
let comparing the Hebrew and Christian calendars. Judah b. 
Saul ibn *Tibbon, in his will, urges his son Samuel to study 
this subject with Aaron and to rely upon him and upon his 
brother Asher. Aaron was an admirer of Maimonides. In the 
controversy which arose following the criticism by Meir ha- 



Levi *Abulafia of Maimonides' views on resurrection, Aaron 
vigorously defended Maimonides in the name of the "sages 
of Lunel," lauding him as "Prince (nasi) and rabbi, unequaled 
in East or in West." 

bibliography: Sefer ha-Hashlamah le-Seder Nezikin, ed. by 
J. Lubetzky, 1 (1885), viii-x; Meir ha-Levi Abulafia, Kitab al-Rasail, ed. 
by J. Brill (1871), 25-40; Benedikt, in: Sinai, 33 (1953), 62-74; I. Twer- 
sky, Rabad of Posquieres (1962), 251-3. 

[Yehoshua Horowitz] 

AARON BEN MOSES HA-LEVI (Horwitz) OF STA- 
ROSIELCE (1766-1828), leader of a dissenting group in the 
* Chabad branch of Lithuanian Hasidism. Born in Orshva 
Aaron was a descendant of the family of Isaiah Leib *Horwitz 
(Shelah; 1555-1630) and was considered both a brilliant inter- 
preter of hasidic teachings and a prominent mystical innova- 
tor. He was the most prominent disciple of *Shneur Zalman of 
Lyady, founder of Chabad Hasidism (1745-1813), with whom 
he remained close friends for 30 years between 1783 and 1813. 
Personal and subsequently ideological disputes estranged him 
from Shneur Zalman's elder son and successor Dov Ber (see 
*Schneersohn, 1773-1827), who assumed Chabad leadership 
in a period of ensuing conflict. After Shneur Zalman's death 
in 1813, Aaron headed a major trend of Chabad which was 
marked and differentiated from the mainstream movement 
in questions concerning spiritual authority and ecstatic reli- 
gious expression in prayer. While the importance of the intel- 
lectual approach to religious worship (hitbonenut in Chabad 
vocabulary) was accepted by all the followers of Shneur Zal- 
man, the role of mystical rapture and the ecstatic-emotional 
approach, referring to communion with God known and as 
devekut or hitpaalut, was intensely disputed. Dov Ber main- 
tained a distinction between proper and improper states of 
ecstasy and stages of mystical rapture, claiming that his per- 
ception expressed his father's position. R. Aaron maintained, 
on the contrary, that he was the true follower of R. Shneur Zal- 
man, who favored unrestricted exaltation in meditation and 
emotional prayer, which he considered conducive to love and 
reverence of God, a position which Dov Ber refused to accept. 
The debate is argued forcefully in the books of R. Aaron de- 
tailed below and the two tracts by R. Dov Ber - Kuntres ha- 
Hitpaalut ("Tract on Ecstasy") and Kuntres ha-Hitbonenut 
("Tract on Contemplation"). Aaron's most important works 
are (1) Shaarei ha-Yihud ve-ha-Emunah (Shklov, 1820), a 
commentary completing the second (unfinished) part of the 
Tanya, the main work of Shneur Zalman; (2) Shaarei ha-Avo- 
dah (Shklov, 1821) with a forward known zspetah hateshuvah, 
explaining and defending his approach, considered the true 
path set by Shneur Zalman; (3) Avodat ha-Levi, a compendium 
of sermons, letters, and miscellaneous works, published post- 
humously in 1842 in three volumes (Lemberg ed. and in 1866, 
Warsaw ed.). The composition of some of the most beautiful 
Habad melodies is attributed to him. Although one of Aar- 
on's sons attempted to continue his spiritual leadership in his 
court after his father death, most of his disciples left him to 



216 



ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 1 



AARONIDES 



join the main Chabad movement led by Menahem Mendel of 
Lubavitch or other hasidic groups. 

bibliography: L. Jacobs, Seeker of Unity (1966 A. Horodezky, 
Hasidut, 3 (1953), 115-25; H.M. Heilman, Beit Rabbi (1902), 134-5, 
187-190. add. bibliography: R. Elior, Torat ha-Elohut ba-Dor 
ha-Sheni shel Hasidut Habad (1982); idem, The Paradoxical Ascent to 
God (1992); R. Elior, "Ha-Maheloket al Moreshet Habad" in Tarbtz, 
49 (1980), 166-86; N. Loewenthal, Communicating the Infinite (1990); 
L. Jacobs, Tract on Ecstasy (1963), 9-12. 

[Adin Steinsaltz / Rachel Elior (2nd ed.)] 

AARON BEN SAMUEL (c. 1620-1701), German rabbini- 
cal author. He is best known for his concordance Beit Aharon 
(Frankfurt on the Oder, 1690-91) in which he assembled all 
biblical passages cited or explained in the Talmud, the mi- 
drashim, and the many religious-philosophical, homiletic, 
and kabbalistic writings, with exact references for each quo- 
tation. The Beit Aharon is based on such works as *Aaron of 
Pesaro's Tole dot Aharon (1581), Simeon b. Isaac ha-Levi's Mas- 
oret ha-Mikra (1572), and Jacob *Sasportas' Toledot Yaakov 
(1652). It was published in the Vilna and Grodno edition of 
the Prophets and Hagiographa in 1780. An enlarged edition 
by Abraham David Lavat appeared under the title Beit Aha- 
ron ve-Hosafot (1880). Aaron's other works include Sisra Torah 
(a pun on the Ashkenazi pronunciation of "Sitrei Torah"), a 
homiletic commentary on Judges 4 and 5 (on Sisera and Jael); 
Shaloah Manot, a short commentary on the Babylonian Tal- 
mud; Megillah (both lost); and Hibbur Masorah, a midrashic 
commentary on the masorah. Some excerpts of the latter ap- 
peared as an appendix to the Beit Aharon. At the request of his 
wife Aaron translated into Yiddish the Midrash Petirat Moshe 
(Frankfurt on the Oder, 1693), which was popular among 
women in Poland and Russia. Aaron also wrote a commen- 
tary on *Perek Shir ah which appeared as an appendix to the 
Berlin prayer book (1701). 

bibliography: Michael, Or, no. 320. 

[Jehuda Feliks] 

AARON BEN SAMUEL (of Hergerhausen; 1665-c. 1732), 
author of Li ebliche Tefillah, a volume of prayers and suppli- 
cations in Yiddish. Aaron was an orphan supported by char- 
ity. Later he was a distiller of brandy for sale in his tavern. He 
had little schooling, but in 1709 he came to the conclusion 
that prayers should be recited in the current Jewish vernacu- 
lar ( Yiddish -Taitch) since the public was ignorant of Hebrew, 
and in pursuit of this aim published (Frankfurt a-M., 1709) 
his Liebliche Tefillah in that language and in his introduction 
urges that children be taught to pray in that language. It con- 
sists of selections from the Prayer Book, Psalms, and a num- 
ber of personal supplications which include "a beautiful prayer 
for a servant or maid" and one ". . . for husband and wife that 
they live in harmony." 

The book was completely forgotten but in 1846 Leopold 
Stein published an article in which he stated that some 20 years 
previously thousands of copies had been found in the attics 



of synagogues and buried. This gave rise to the statement that 
the book was placed under a ban of the rabbis because it ad- 
vocated Reform, but despite intensive research no evidence of 
any such ban has been found and it is probable that the book 
simply did not take on. 

bibliography: A. Shohat, Im Hilufei Tekufot (i960); M. 
Piekarz, in: Die Goldene Keyt, 49 (1964), 168; M. Weinreich, His- 
tory of Yiddish (1973); M. Klarberg, in: Working Papers, yivo (1980) 
with bibliography, add. bibliography: M. Erik, Di Geshikhte 
fun der Yiddisher Liter atur fun di Eltste Tsaytn biz der Haskole-Tkufe 
(1929), 212-14. 

[Manfred Klarberg] 

AARON BERECHIAH BEN MOSES OF MODENA 

(d. 1639), Italian kabbalistic writer and compiler. Aaron was 
a cousin on his mothers side of Leone *Modena. For the ben- 
efit of the pious members of his native Modena, Aaron com- 
piled his Maavar Yabbok ("The Crossing of the Jabbok" (cf. 
Gen. 32:22), Venice, 1626, and often reprinted) comprising 
the readings, laws, and customs relating to the sick, death- 
bed, burial, and mourning rites. David Savivi of Siena pub- 
lished an abridged version under the title Magen David (Ven- 
ice, 1676), and Samuel David b. Jehiel *Ottolengo, another 
entitled Keriah Neemanah (ibid., 1715). Aaron also compiled 
Ashmoret ha-Boker ("The Morning Watch," Mantua, 1624; 
Venice, 1720), containing prayers and supplications for the use 
of the pious confraternity Me'irei Shahar in Modena, as well as 
Me'il Zedakah and Bigdei Kodesh (both Pisa, 1785), containing 
prayers and passages for study. 

[Shmuel Ashkenazi] 

AARON HAKIMAN (14 th century), poet; lived in Baghdad. 
His prolific works include the incomplete divan presently 
in the Firkovich collection (Catalog der hebraeischen und 
samaritanischen Handschriften, 2 (1875), no. 72) in St. Peters- 
burg; th