Skip to main content

Full text of "Khaos Odensland Archive DOCS (The Misanthropic Misogynist)"

See other formats










Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief 
Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor 


An imprint of Thomson Gale, a part of The Thomson Corporation 




Detroit • New York • San Francisco « New Haven, Conn. » Waterville, Maine • London 




Fred Skolnik, Editor in Chief 

Michael Berenbaum, Executive Editor 

Shlomo S. (Yosh) Gafni, Editorial Project Manager 

Rachel Gilon, Editorial Project Planning and Control 

Thomson Gale 

Gordon Macomber, President 
Frank Menchaca, Senior Vice President and Publisher 

Jay Flynn, Publisher 
Helene Potter, Publishing Director 

Keter Publishing House 

Yiphtach Dekel, Chief Executive Officer 
Peter Tomkins, Executive Project Director 

Complete staff listings appear in Volume 1 

©2007 Keter Publishing House Ltd. 
Thomson Gale is a part of The Thomson 
Corporation. Thomson, Star Logo and Macmillan 
Reference USA are trademarks and Gale is a 
registered trademark used herein under license. 

For more information, contact 

Macmillan Reference USA 

An imprint of Thomson Gale 

27500 Drake Rd. 

Farmington Hills, Ml 48331-3535 

Or you can visit our internet site at 


No part of this work covered by the copyright 
hereon may be reproduced or used in any form 
or by any means - graphic, electronic, or 

mechanical, including photocopying, recording, 
taping, web distribution, or information storage 
retrieval systems - without the written 
permission of the publisher. 
For permission to use material from this 
product, submit your request via Web at, or you 
may download our Permissions Request form 
and submit your request by fax or mail to: 

Permissions Department 
Thomson Gale 
27500 Drake Road 
Farmington Hills, Ml 48331-3535 
Permissions Hotline: 

(+1)248-699-8006 or 

800-877-4253 ext. 8006 

(+1) 248-699-8074 or 800-762-4058 

Since this page cannot legibly accommodate all 
copyright notices, the acknowledgments consti- 
tute an extension of the copyright notice. 

While every effort has been made to ensure the 
reliability of the information presented in this 
publication, Thomson Gale does not guarantee 
the accuracy of the data contained herein. 
Thomson Gale accepts no payment for listing; 
and inclusion in the publication of any organi- 
zation, agency, institution, publication, service, 
or individual does not imply endorsement of the 
editors or publisher. Errors brought to the 
attention of the publisher and verified to the 
satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in 
future editions. 


Encyclopaedia Judaica / Fred Skolnik, editor-in-chief ; Michael Berenbaum, executive editor. -- 2nd ed. 
v. cm. 
Includes bibliographical references and index. 
Contents: v.1. Aa-Alp. 

ISBN 0-02-865928-7 (set hardcover : alk. paper) - ISBN 0-02-865929-5 (vol. 1 hardcover : alk. paper) - ISBN 0-02- 
865930-9 (vol. 2 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865931-7 (vol. 3 hardcover : alk. paper) - ISBN 0-02-865932-5 (vol. 
4 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865933-3 (vol. 5 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865934-1 (vol. 6 hardcover : 
alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865935-X (vol. 7 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865936-8 (vol. 8 hardcover : alk. paper) - 
ISBN 0-02-865937-6 (vol. 9 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865938-4 (vol. 10 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02- 
865939-2 (vol. 11 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865940-6 (vol. 12 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865941-4 
(vol. 13 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865942-2 (vol. 14 hardcover : alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865943-0 (vol. 15: alk. 
paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865944-9 (vol. 16: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865945-7 (vol. 17: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865946-5 (vol. 
18: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865948-1 (vol. 20: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865949- 
X (vol. 21: alk. paper) -- ISBN 0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22: alk. paper) 
1. Jews -- Encyclopedias. I. Skolnik, Fred. II. Berenbaum, Michael, 1945- 
DS102.8.E496 2007 
909'.04924 -- dc22 


978-0-02-865928-2 (set) 
978-0-02-865929-9 (vol. 1) 
978-0-02-865930-5 (vol. 2) 
978-0-02-865931-2 (vol. 3) 
978-0-02-865932-9 (vol. 4) 

978-0-02-865933-6 (vol. 5) 
978-0-02-865934-3 (vol. 6) 
978-0-02-865935-0 (vol. 7) 
978-0-02-865936-7 (vol. 8) 
978-0-02-865937-4 (vol. 9) 


978-0-02-865938-1 (vol. 10) 
978-0-02-865939-8 (vol. 11) 
978-0-02-865940-4 (vol. 12) 
978-0-02-865941-1 (vol. 13) 
978-0-02-865942-8 (vol. 14) 

978-0-02-865943-5 (vol. 15) 
978-0-02-865944-2 (vol. 16) 
978-0-02-865945-9 (vol. 17) 
978-0-02-865946-6 (vol. 18) 
978-0-02-865947-3 (vol. 19) 

978-0-02-865948-0 (vol. 20) 
978-0-02-865949-7 (vol. 21) 
978-0-02-865950-3 (vol. 22) 

This title is also available as an e-book 

ISBN-10: 0-02-866097-8 

ISBN-13: 978-0-02-866097-4 

Contact your Thomson Gale representative for ordering information. 

Printed in the United States of America 

10 987654321 


Entries San-Sol 


General Abbreviations 


Abbreviations used in Rabbinical Literature 


Bibliographical Abbreviations 


Transliteration Rules 




* •> 














! ;*f 

• ■ 


-. * -- 


t. :.-* 

tf i ? 


i mhhijwi iiTTT"^ 









! mmnom mmnif 9E nftm§fip»ilmuui 
ftmtu:rrt«>nmflH)rawM-®laii mam 

nan mmwaimipnaftftmntonu^ 


mmin«^[unraHrimfunTfinrrmmii08 ' 
f nram$]mf:numramnmfmnn8«;®mfi8 

tanfmirnmmrairannn wnmmra mo m 

fuflrtpir mm wwunmr otoimtnmw? 

f n««im*iijnpinmaminmmrnMutanu 

ajmonmnrawmnliina^Pfln miirttm 

mx mu nutfrtanttrfimmtf rcoimwuir 










A — 





Illuminated initial letter "5" q/* 
t/?e word Salvus af f/ie opening of 
Psalm 68 (Vulgate; 69 according 
to the Masoretic text) in the Bo- 
hun Psalter, 14 th century. The four 
scenes from the story of David 
are, top left, the Ark being car- 
ried up to Jerusalem (11 Sam. 6:1- 
15); right, Michal watches David 
dancing before the Ark (ibid., 
16); bottom left, David reproves 
Michal for her criticism of him 
(Ibid., 20-23); right, the prophet 
Nathan assures David of the en- 
durance of his kingdom (11 Sam. 
16). London, British Museum, EG 
3277, fol 46V. 


SAN C A (Ar. Sana), capital of * Yemen with 1.85 million inhab- 
itants (2005 estimate), 100 km from the coast of the Red Sea, 
on a plateau on the western slope of Jabal (Mount) Nuqum, 
at an elevation of 2,200 meters above sea level. Once a small 
town of not more than 50,000 souls, its speedy development 
took place after the republican revolution of 1962. For many 
centuries it has been the chief economic, political, and reli- 
gious center of the Yemen Highlands. It is one of the oldest 
continuously inhabited cities, known since the pre -Islamic Sa- 
baean Kingdom. Most of the remains of that period have been 
destroyed through reuse of building material. The principal 
Sabaean monument in Sana was the Ghumdn Palace, prob- 
ably situated north of al-Jami al-Kabir (the Grand Mosque), 
the earliest reference to which is at the beginning of the third 
century c.e. This palace, according to al-Hamdani 20 stories 
high, was destroyed under the caliph 'Uthman (644-56 c.e.). 
Sana has a very distinct architecture and is considered one 
of the worlds most beautiful cities. Hence, it is high on inter- 
national organizations preservation list. 

The tradition of the Jews of Yemen refers to Sana as Resh 
Galiity namely one of the first places in Yemen in which they 
settled when they left Jerusalem 40 years before the destruc- 
tion of the First Temple (586 b.c.e.), responding to ^Jeremiah's 
prophecies about destruction. According to that tradition, the 
Jews first settled in Barash, at that time a fortified town at the 
top of Jabal Nuqum, about another 550 meters above the city. 
Eduard *Glaser, who visited the place in 1882, found there Jew- 
ish inscriptions dated to 589 c.e. Rabbi Joseph Qafih visited 
the place in 1937 and found a few vestiges of a synagogue and 
two ritual baths. Later on the Jews went down the mount to 
Qasr (the Citadel of) San a, the most ancient and the higher 
part of the city, adjacent to the quarter of al-qaf, after which 
many Jewish families are called al-qdii, to give evidence that 
indeed Jews lived for some time in the Qasr, which was known 
as Qasr Sam ibn Nuh, according to a Jewish-Muslim tradition 
that it was built by that biblical figure (i.e., Shem). Al-Raz, a 
Yemenite Muslim chronographer, writes that in 991 there were 
1040 houses in San c a, 35 of them occupied by Jews. 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


We have some more solid information regarding the next 
move of the Sanani Jews from Barash and the Qasr to their first 
neighborhood in the city between the walls, in the eastern quar- 
ter today known as al-Fulayi. All sources attest that Jews were 
forcefully expelled from the heights of Jabal Nuqum as part of 
anti- Jewish discriminatory and humiliating regulations. This 
did not take place immediately after the Muslim occupation of 
Yemen in 629, but many years later, probably under the rule of 
the Egyptian *Ayyubids (1173-1254). Al-Fulayi was located at the 
eastern end of the city, not far from the Sailah, the wadi divid- 
ing the city from north to south. The Jews first built their new 
houses south of the gate leading to the close town of Shu ub, 
near the Wadi al-Marbaki. Rabbi Joseph Qafih informs us that, 
while he was visiting a Muslim scholar in al-Fulayi in the early 
1940s, the latter showed him that his house was originally a Jew- 
ish one, as attested by the roof of the living room built to be re- 
moved for the Feast of Tabernacles. The Jewish origin of many 
houses in the city and their typical structure was determined as 
well by the German anthropologist Carl Rathjens, who visited 
Yemen in the 1920s and the 1930s. It is not known how long 
the Jews lived in this place, but it seems that for a certain pe- 
riod they still kept their synagogue in the Qasr, as attested by 
remains of a Bible on which it was noted that it belonged to the 
Hanisat al-yahudfi Harat al- Qasr (the synagogue of the Jews 
in the neighborhood of al-Qasr) and dated to some years after 
the Jews were expelled from there by the Ayyubids. 

For unknown reasons, and in an unknown year, the Jews 
had again to abandon their houses in the quarter of al-Fulayi 
and to move westward and build new houses on both sides 
of the Sailah. There they suffered from the occasionally dras- 
tic floods of the Sailah. From different documents one may 
deduce that this happened between 1615 and 1662, but from 
a note in a manuscript (see below) we can determine that it 
happened already in 1457. 

The spiritual center of the Jewish Sanani community 
was the central synagogue, kanisat al-ulama or Midrash ha- 
Hakhamim (the Academy of the Scholars), which moved with 
the Jews from one place to another. It functioned as a Supreme 
Court of Appeal not only in regard to Jewish courts through- 
out Yemen, but in regard to the central Jewish court in San c a 
itself. From a note in a manuscript in the library of Leiden we 
learn that the old synagogue of San c a was destroyed in 1457 
under the rule of Ahmad 'Amir, the founder of the Dahiri dy- 
nasty, and that the one located in the Sailah was destroyed in 
1679. This synagogue was later restored as a mosque - Masjid 
al-Jala (the Mosque of the Expulsion). 

The destruction of the latter synagogue was part of the 
big tragic event of Galut *Mawza y in which almost all the Jews 
of Yemen were expelled from their neighborhoods in cities, 
towns, and villages to the ancient small town in the west of 
Yemen, not far from the port town of *Mokha. That was a result 
of the Jewish messianic movement in 1667, when some Jews in 
Yemen, headed by a Slayman Jamal, a Jewish Sanani scholar, 
followed the messianic Shabbatean movement and tried to 
seize control of San c a from the Muslim governor in the Qasr. 

The Jews were aggressively punished and, after a legal-religious 
debate between Muslim scholars of Yemen, Imam al-Mutawak- 
kil Ismail (1644-1676) accepted the conclusion that the Jews 
had lost their right to live as *dhimmis (a protected commu- 
nity) under the Zaydi imamate and ordered his heir al-Mahdi 
Ahmad ibn al-Hasan (1676-1681) to expel all the Jews. When 
the expulsion edict was canceled in 1681, the Jews of San c a, like 
Jews in other localities throughout Yemen, were not allowed 
to return to their neighborhoods and houses within the walls 
and had to build for themselves meager new houses outside the 
city, close to the Muslim garden neighborhood of Bir al-Azab. 
This new Jewish neighborhood was called Qa al-Yahud (the 
valley of the Jews), which for almost 140 years was completely 
exposed to assaults of the tribal warriors. Only in 1818 was Qa 
al-Yahud annexed to the city by a protecting wall. 

The houses in Qa al-Yahud were small and poor, not 
more than two stories high in accordance with the humiliat- 
ing anti- Jewish regulations, and the streets very narrow and 
unpleasant. During the years of chaos in the 19 th century, 
most of the houses were abandoned by the Jews, who moved 
to the periphery. But following the Turkish occupation in 1872 
the Jewish neighborhood was populated and, in 1876, a new 
neighborhood, al-Qaryah al-Jadida y was built south of the old 
one. During the 1930s and the 1940s, under the rule of Imam 
Yahya (1904-1948), Qa 'al-Yahud became very crowded, with 
at least 10,000 people, by the influx of Jews who left their 
places in towns and villages on their way to the Land of Israel 
or to make a better living. But the aliyah in the years 1949-1951 
completely emptied the city of its Jews. Today nothing is left 
in San c a to recall its Jewish history. 

bibliography: Y. Qafih in: Mahnayim, 119 (1958), 36-45; C. 
Rathjens, Jewish Domestic Architecture in Sana (1957); R.B Sergeant 
and R. Lewcock, Sana - An Arabian Islamic City (1983); Y. Tobi, 
fyyunim bi-Megillat Teman (1986), 56-78. 

[Yosef Tobi (2 nd ed.)] 

SANANDAJ (Sinneh), until 1935 main town in Iranian Kurd- 
istan, N.W. of Hamadan. It was the center of Aramaic-speak- 
ing Jewry in Persia, but little is known about it before the 17 th 
century. It is listed as a Jewish community in the Judeo- Persian 
chronicles of *Babai ibn Lutf and Babai ibn Farhad. The com- 
munity was visited by disciples of the Shabbatean movement. 
The i9 th -century traveler *David d'Beth Hillel found there two 
small synagogues and 100 Jewish families, some of them rich 
merchants (engaged in commerce with Georgia) and artisans. 
At that time the nasi of the Jewish community was also trea- 
surer of the governor of Sinneh. In 1903 the Alliance Israelite 
Universelle established a school there. At the time about 2,000 
Jews lived in the town. The community dwindled considerably 
as a result of immigration to Israel after the 1979 revolution, 
and no Jews lived there in 2000. 

bibliography: A.J. Brawer, Avak Derakhim, 2 (1946), 110-27. 
add bibliography: A. Netzer "J ews of Sanandaj," in: Shofar 
(March 2001), 22ff. (in Persian). 

[Walter Joseph Fischel / Amnon Netzer (2 nd ed.)] 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


SAN ANTONIO, city in S. central Texas; 2005 population, 
1,144,646; Jewish population, 12,000. As early as 1715, three 
years before the founding of the city, several courageous fami- 
lies from northern Mexico had settled on the banks of the San 
Antonio River. Among them were members of the Carvajal 
family, of Jewish descent. Two Jewish patriots of the Texan 
Army fought the Mexican troops in San Antonio in 1835 - Sur- 
geon Moses Albert Levy, and Edward Israel Johnson. With the 
advent of Texas statehood and the simultaneous immigration 
to Texas of Jews from Germany and Alsace-Lorraine, a per- 
manent Jewish community in San Antonio was established 
around 1850. By 1855 Jews established their own cemetery. In 
1856 they had organized the Hebrew Benevolent Society, re- 
organized in 1885 as the Montefiore Benevolent Society; and 
in 1870 the Ladies Hebrew Benevolent Society was formed. By 
1874 there were enough Jews to found a formal congregation, 
Temple Beth-El (Reform), although Jews had been gathering 
for worship in private homes for years. 

With the mass immigration of Central and East Euro- 
pean Jews from the early 1880s into the 20 th century, more 
Orthodox Jews reached San Antonio. These traditionalists 
founded their own cemetery in 1885, organized their own 
congregation, Agudas Achim, in 1889, and established a tal- 
mud torah in 1909. As Agudas Achim became Conservative, 
a third synagogue - Orthodox- Rodfei Sholom-B'nai Israel, 
was created in 1908. Many organizations proliferated: the 
first B'nai B'rith lodge was chartered in 1874; a chapter of the 
Zionist Organization of America was formed in 1904; a sec- 
tion of the National Council of Jewish Women began in 1907; 
and a chapter of Hadassah was organized in 1918. 

In 1922 the San Antonio Jewish Social Service Federation 
(now the Jewish Federation of San Antonio) was created to 
coordinate the many community groups. During World War 1 
the influx of Jewish military personnel in the South Texas area 
brought the need for extensive hospitality and services in San 
Antonio, a major military post. This tradition, supervised by 
the National Welfare Board, continued throughout the years 
and four wars. 

In the last third of the 20 th century, scores of northern 
Jews moved to the Sun Belt, and the Jewish population of San 
Antonio nearly doubled during this period. In 1985, emissar- 
ies of Chabad Lubavitch established a base in San Antonio. 
In 1989, a Reconstructionist congregation, Beth Am, was es- 
tablished, and in 2005, Temple Chai, a second Reform con- 
gregation was founded. Congregations and rabbis of all wings 
of Judaism have traditionally enjoyed unusually harmonious 
and productive relationships. 

Jews have been cordially accepted in all phases of in- 
dustrial, commercial, and professional life in San Antonio. 
However, social acceptance in its highest ranks was once lim- 
ited, although today there are no barriers to such acceptance. 
None of the three predominately Jewish social clubs orga- 
nized from 1887 onward survived. San Antonio Jews have not 
sought political office, by and large, but the community has 
produced leaders in every other phase of civic life: manufac- 

turing, creation of department stores, agriculture, banking, 
and the professions. 

Jews have distinguished themselves in the city's philan- 
thropic and cultural activities. Rabbi David Jacobson, together 
with the local Roman Catholic archbishop and the Episcopal 
bishop, is credited with the peaceful racial desegregation of 
San Antonio in the 1960s. Other prominent leaders have in- 
cluded: Alexander Joske, pioneer merchant and philanthro- 
pist; Dan and Anton Oppenheim, pioneer bankers, ranchers, 
and Confederate officers; Mayer and Sol Halff, pioneer mer- 
chants and ranchers; Frederick Oppenheimer and his wife, 
pioneer art collectors and museum benefactors; Max Reiter, 
founder of the San Antonio Symphony Orchestra; Rabbi Sam- 
uel Stahl, Helen Jacobson, Jocelyn Straus, Richard Goldsmith, 
Charles Martin Wender, and Michael Beldon, civic workers; 
Joe and Harry Freeman, agriculturalists and philanthropists; 
Sylvan Lang, leader in legal education; and Perry Kallison, 
agriculturalist and local radio personality. 

bibliography: EC. Chabot, With the Makers of San Anto- 
nio (1937); S. Viener, in: ajhsp, 46 (1956/57), 101-13; ajyb, 2 (1900- 
01), 472-3; Temple Beth-El, San- Antonio, Texas, Diamond Jubilee 
1874-1949 (1949). 

[Frances R. Kallison / Samuel Stahl (2 nd ed.)] 

SANBALLAT (Heb. 1^330; Aram. 13^X30 (Cowley, Aramaic, 
30:29); Akk. Sin-uballit, "Sin has given life"), the name of three 
personalities who appear as governors of Samaria during the 
Persian period. 

Sanballat 1 

Designated the Horonite, Sanballat 1 opposed Nehemiah's ef- 
forts to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem (445 b.c.e.). The epithet 
is of uncertain reference, and scholars have related it to Lower 
or Upper Beth-Horon on the Samarian border of Benjamin; 
to the village Huwwara, 1 km. (% mi.) south of Shechem; or 
to the Moabite town of Horonaim. The first location is not 
far from the plain of Ono where Sanballat proposed to meet 
Nehemiah (Neh. 6:2). The second is in the heart of Samarian 
territory. The third would imply a Transjordanian origin for 
Sanballat, parallel to that of Tobiah "the Ammonite servant" 
(Neh. 2:10, 19). Whatever his origin, Sanballat must have 
considered himself a worshiper of the God of Israel, for his 
sons bore the Hebrew theophoric names Delaiah ("The Lord 
has drawn up, delivered") and Shelemiah ("The Lord has re- 
quited"; Cowley, Aramaic, 30:29). 

In the memoirs of Nehemiah, Sanballat appears both as 
"enemy" (Neh. 6:1, 16) and as allied by marriage to the family 
of the high priest (Neh. 13:28). Nehemiah describes his mis- 
sion in rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem as proceeding through 
seven stages, each one punctuated by a futile attempt on the 
part of Sanballat and his allies to thwart the effort. To San- 
ballat and Tobiah, Nehemiah's arrival from Susa (Shushan) 
to seek the welfare of Jerusalem was a bad omen (Neh. 2:10). 
When Sanballat, Tobiah, and Geshem the Arabian heard of 
his intention to rebuild the wall, they mocked and scorned 
and wondered whether Nehemiah was contemplating rebel- 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



lion. From Nehemiah's complete rejection of their remarks it 
may be inferred that they had sought, and perhaps even held, 
some official position in the city (Neh. 2:19-20). As the work 
proceeded, mockery turned to disbelief and anger (Neh. 
3:33-35), to the point where military steps were planned. 
These too were successfully blocked by Nehemiah (Neh. 4). 
When the wall was completed and all but the gateways fully 
repaired, they sought by various means to dispose of Nehe- 
miah personally or to compromise his position within the na- 
tion. These efforts likewise failed, and Nehemiah's "enemies" 
were forced to concede that his task was divinely supported 
(Neh. 6). 

Even though the high priest Eliashib was aligned with 
Nehemiah in rebuilding the wall (Neh. 3:1), his grandson was 
married to Sanballat s daughter during Nehemiah's absence 
from Jerusalem. Upon his return Nehemiah expelled the 
priest from his presence (Neh. 13:28). A subsequent governor 
named Bagohi, however, joined with Sanballat s son Delaiah 
(407 b.c.e.) in supporting the reconstruction of the Elephan- 
tine Jewish Temple, with the proviso that animal sacrifices not 
be offered there (Cowley, Aramaic, 32). 

Sanballat 1 1 

Sanballat 11 is known as governor of Samaria in the early 
fourth century b.c.e. from an Aramaic papyrus and a clay 
sealing in Paleo- Hebrew discovered in Wadi Daliya north of 
Jericho. Both inscriptions are of Sanballat us elder son, whose 
name is to be restored as either [Jeshjua or [Jaddjua. The lat- 
ter, also a governor, was apparently succeeded by his brother 
Hananiah who, in turn, was succeeded by Sanballat in. The 
practice of papponymy (naming a child for its grandfather) 
was common in the Persian and Hellenistic periods. 

Sanballat in 

Appointed "satrap" of Samaria by Darius in, Sanballat 11 1 
married his daughter Nikaso to Manasseh brother of Jaddua, 
high priest in Jerusalem. When Jaddua and the Jerusalem 
elders ordered Manasseh to dissolve the marriage or stay 
away from the altar, Sanballat offered him the high priest- 
hood in a temple he would build on Mt. Gerizim. Meanwhile, 
Alexander the Great advanced into Palestine and Sanballat 
shifted his allegiance. He pressed Alexander for permission 
to build the new temple by arguing that, not only did Manasseh 
have the support of many Jews, but that it was to the conquer- 
or's interest to see the Jews divided. He also offered Alexan- 
der a contingent of 8,000 soldiers. The offer was accepted and 
the soldiers subsequently settled in Egypt. Permission to 
erect the temple was granted and Sanballat died shortly 
thereafter (Jos., Ant., 11:302-25, 340-45). This incident, re- 
corded by Josephus, is absent from the Samaritan chroni- 

bibliography: H.H. Rowley, in: bjrl, 38 (1955/56), 166-98; 

EM. Cross, in: ba, 26 (1963), 116-21; idem, in: htr, 59 (1966), 201-11; 

idem, in: D.N. Freedman and J.C. Greenfield (eds.), New Directions 

in Biblical Archaeology (1969), 53-57. 

[Bezalel Porten] 

SANBAR (Sandberg), MOSHE (1926- ), Israeli economist. 
Sanbar was born in Hungary, and was imprisoned in German 
concentration camps during World War 11. He immigrated 
to Israel in 1948, and after studying economics, statistics, and 
sociology at the Hebrew University, served from 1951 to 1958 
as project director and then deputy director of the Israel In- 
stitute of Applied Social Research. In 1958 he entered the civil 
service, serving in the Treasury successively as director of re- 
search, deputy director of state revenues, director of the bud- 
gets, and economic adviser. In 1968 he was appointed deputy 
chairman and from 1970 to 1971 chairman of the board of the 
Israel Development Bank Ltd. as well as chief economic ad- 
viser to the minister of finance (1969-71) and acting deputy 
minister of commerce and industry (1970-71). 

In 1971 Sanbar succeeded David ^Horowitz as governor 
of the Bank of Israel, holding the office until 1976. He repre- 
sented Israel at the International Bank for Reconstruction and 
Development (ibrd), International Development Association 
(ida), and International Finance Corporation (ifc), and was 
appointed by the government as chairman of the Economic 
Development and Refugee Rehabilitation Trust. In later years 
he served as chairman of the Center of Organizations of Ho- 
locaust Survivors in Israel, an umbrella organization for 29 
groups and 300,000 survivors founded in 1989. 

Sanbar wrote numerous articles and research studies 
dealing with income policy, taxation, budget policy, and cen- 
tral banking. His book My Longest Year (Hebrew and Eng- 
lish, 1966), for which he was awarded the Yad Vashem Prize 
in 1967, describes his experiences during the German occu- 
pation of Hungary. 

[Dov Genachowski] 

SANCHES, FRANCISCO (1550/52-1623), philosopher and 
physician. He was born in either Braga, Portugal, or Tuy, 
Spain, to a Spanish New Christian family. His father, the 
prominent physician, Antonio Sanches, was probably from a 
Castilian Jewish family that included Gabriel * Sanchez, royal 
treasurer under Queen Isabella. Antonio and his family fled 
to Bordeaux around 1564, soon after the Inquisition was es- 
tablished in Galicia. Young Francisco apparently studied at the 
College de Guyenne (Montaigne, his distant cousin, also went 
there), in Rome and finally received his medical degree from 
Montpellier in 1574. He was refused a professorship there and 
moved to Toulouse, where he became professor of philosophy 
in 1585, and professor of medicine in 1612. 

Sanches wrote on philosophical and medical subjects. 
His earliest writing is a letter to the mathematician, Father 
Clavius, in 1574-75, offering a skeptical criticism of the Pla- 
tonic view of mathematics, and the impossibility of gaining 
any genuine knowledge of reality through mathematics. He 
wrote his most famous work, Quod nihil sequitur (published 
in 1581), presenting the best technical exposition of Renais- 
sance philosophical skepticism, and offering the first state- 
ment of a limited empirical scientific method as the only posi- 
tive way of proceeding if genuine knowledge is unattainable. 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


Sanches apparently coined the term "scientific method." He 
also wrote against astrology and other forms of Renaissance 

Sanches has been considered by some the first modern 
philosopher. They have seen him as a precursor of Descartes, 
because of his thoroughgoing skepticism and his method of 
doubt, and as a precursor of Francis Bacon because of his em- 
phasis on empirical study. However, Sanches' skepticism is 
more complete than Descartes'. From an analysis of the human 
epistemological situation, Sanches concluded that nothing 
could be known about the nature or causes of reality. Human 
logic and science were unable to determine the real nature of 
things. Neither the Aristotelian nor the Platonic theories, he 
contended, were able to give us any genuine means of gain- 
ing knowledge. True science would give immediate, intuitive 
comprehension of the real features of an object. But only God 
could possess such knowledge. Our limitations, plus the na- 
ture of objects themselves, forever prevent us from gaining 
genuine knowledge. Since nothing can be known, he con- 
tended that we should instead do what we can, that is, carry 
on patient, careful empirical research, and cautiously judge 
and evaluate the data. This will not lead to knowledge, but to 
the best information available about the world. 

Sanches saw modern science not as a new metaphysical 
approach to reality, but as a limited empirical way of proceed- 
ing when the quest for certainty has been abandoned. Any 
further information about the world can only be gained by 
faith. Sanches influenced the later skeptics, as well as some 
of the major philosophers in the 17 th century. His skepticism 
led to a tradition of mitigated or constructive skepticism that 
flourished in the 17 th century and has been revived in the 
modern positivistic and pragmatic interpretations of scien- 
tific knowledge. 

bibliography: L. Gerkrath, Franz Sanchez (i860); A. Moreira 
de Sa, Francisco Sanches filosofo e matemdtico, 2 vols. (1947), includes 
bibliography; R.H. Popkin, History of Scepticism from Erasmus to Des- 
cartes (1964), 38-43; incl. bibl.; J. de Carvalho, in: F. Sanches, Opera 
Philosophica (1955), vii-liv; M. Menendez y Pelayo, Ensayos de Critica 

Filosofica (1948), 174-201. 

[Richard H. Popkin] 

Marrano physician. Born in Penamacor, Portugal, Sanchez 
fled to Holland to escape persecution and studied medicine 
at the University of Leiden. In 1731, on the recommendation 
of his teacher, the noted Professor Boerhaave, he became phy- 
sician to Empress Anna Ivanovna of Russia and eventually to 
the czar and his family. A gifted physician, and a member of 
the Imperial Academy of Science, Sanchez is recorded in the 
Memoirs of Empress Catherine 11 as having cured her of a se- 
rious illness. However, in 1747, he was forced to leave St. Pe- 
tersburg after Czarina Elizabeth Petrovna, an antisemite, dis- 
covered Sanchez' Jewish origins. He then went to Paris and 
resumed his medical practice in the poorer sections of the city. 
In 1762, when Catherine 11 came to power, she granted him 

a life pension of 1,000 rubles annually in belated recognition 
of his faithful service to the royal court. Sanchez published 
Dissertation sur lorigine de la maladie venerienne (Paris, 1750) 
and De Cura Variolarum Vaporarii Ope apud Russos (1768), 
which first informed European physicians of the medical value 
of Russian vapor baths. 

bibliography: Biographisches Lexikon der hervorragenden 
Aerzte, 5 (1932 4 ), 4-5, incl. bibl. 

SANCHEZ, GABRIEL (d. 1505), treasurer of the kingdom 
of Aragon under Ferdinand and Isabella. He was a member 
of a distinguished family of *Conversos, which traced its ori- 
gin to the Alazar (see *Eleazar) family of Sar ago ssa; his father, 
Pedro Sanchez, became converted to Christianity with the rest 
of his family at the beginning of the 15 th century. In 1475 Ga- 
briel Sanchez was appointed assistant to his brother Luis, who 
served as treasurer of Aragon, and whom he later succeeded. 
After the murder of the inquisitor Pedro de *Arbues in 1485, 
Gabriel's brothers Juan de Pedro, Alonso, and Guillen were ac- 
cused of complicity, and grave charges were brought against 
Gabriel as well. The Inquisition, however, disregarded these 
accusations and his position was not affected. His brothers 
succeeded in fleeing from Aragon. With Luis de *Santangel, 
Sanchez assisted Christopher *Columbus in collecting funds 
for his voyages, and Columbus sent him a letter in May 1493 
from Portugal similar to that which he sent to Santangel, de- 
scribing his first voyage. 

After Gabriel's death, his son luis succeeded to his po- 
sition, in which he served until his death in 1530, when it was 
transferred to his other son, gabriel. During the 16 th cen- 
tury members of the Sanchez family married into several of 
the prominent families of Spanish aristocracy, such as the 
Gurrea and Mendoza families. 

bibliography: Baer, Spain, 2 (1966), 37of., 375^, 498; Ser- 
rano y Sanz, Origenes de la dominacion espanola en America (1918), 
152 ff.; Zaforteza y Musoles, in: Archivos de genealogia y herdldica, 2 
(!953)> 156-76; Cabezudo Astrain, in: Revista de Archivos, Bibliotecas 
y Museos, 58 (i960), 81-103. 

SAND, LEONARD B. (1928- ), U.S. judge. Sand, a native 
of the Bronx, ny, who graduated from New York University 
and Harvard Law School, was admitted to the bar in 1953 and 
soon became a partner in the law firm of Robinson, Silver- 
man, Pearce, Aronsohn, Sand and Berman. An expert on tax 
law, he was appointed to be a judge in Federal District Court 
in Manhattan in 1978. Sand presided over several important 
cases but two stand out: a two -decade-long case involving a 
desegregation lawsuit against the public schools of Yonkers, a 
New York City suburb, and the conviction and imprisonment 
of four terrorists for conspiring with Osama bin Laden in the 
1998 bombings of two American embassies in East Africa. 
The Yonkers case, over time, stood for several things: race, 
class, neighborhood, the American dream. The case, brought 
by the United States Justice Department in 1980, then joined 
by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


People, charged that race determined location and quality of 
education in Yonkers. The plaintiffs stated that the reason the 
schools were segregated was because the housing of Yonkers 
was segregated. Sand heard the case himself, without a jury, 
at the request of both sides. The trial took up most of 1983 and 
1984. There were 93 days of testimony from 84 witnesses, 140 
depositions, and thousands of exhibits. By the end of the trial, 
it was clear that Yonkers was segregated. Sand had to decide 
why. He saw a 40 -year pattern, fueled by Yonkers city officials 
who approved sites for housing. Sand ordered Yonkers to re- 
draw its districts and to move some of its poor minority resi- 
dents from the poor minority side of town into public hous- 
ing, to be built just for them, in the white, middle-class side 
of town. His ruling was appealed but subsequently upheld. In 
1986 Sand ordered a federal monitor to oversee the integra- 
tion of the schools through a host of court-ordered measures 
still in effect 20 years later, including magnet programs and 
busing. In the terrorism case, a jury trial, prosecutors called 
92 government witnesses and introduced more than 1,300 ex- 
hibits in a four- month process. The prosecutors said the con- 
spiracy grew out of a Muslim organization that had centers 
in Afghanistan and other places, including Brooklyn. Some 
of the members of the Brooklyn circles were convicted in the 
bombing of the World Trade Center in 1993 and in a plot to 
blow up other New York City landmarks. Sand sentenced the 
four men to life in prison without any chance of parole. 

[Stewart Kampel (2 nd ed.)] 

SANDAK (Heb. pHlp; in common parlance also sandek), des- 
ignation of the godfather who holds the male child upon his 
knees during the ^circumcision ceremony. The name is de- 
rived either from the Greek auvSiKoc, (cf. Lat. syndicus y "pa- 
tron"), or, more probably, from ouvtskvoc, ("companion of the 
father," cf. Fr. compere; Ger. Gevatter); the form syndikos ap- 
pears in post-mishnaic Midrash literature (Yal., Ps. 723). 

The function of the sandak probably arose from the ne- 
cessity of having someone assist the mohel by holding the 
child firmly during the circumcision operation. To act as san- 
dak is considered a great honor and as a meritorious religious 
act which, according to the kabbalists, has atoning qualities. 
Where a grandfather of the child is still alive, it is customary to 
bestow the honor of sandak upon him. The woman who brings 
the child to the circumcision and hands it over to the sandak 
is called sandakit. The sandak is also known by various other 
names: baal berit or ba'al berit milah; tofes ha-yeled ("holder 
of the child"); av sheni ("second father"); or shaliah ("messen- 
ger"). Jews of European origin also use the term kvater (the 
woman, kvater iri)> which is the corrupted form of the German 
Gevatter ("godfather"). The question is raised whether a person 
may be sandak more than once in the same family. R. * Elijah b. 
Solomon Zalman, the Gaon of Vilna, decided in the affirmative 
(Be'ur ha-Gra to yd 265), notwithstanding reservations against 
this practice based upon fear of the "evil eye." 

bibliography: Kohut, Arukh, 6 (i922 6 ), 83-84; Eisenstein, 
Dinim, 222. 

SANDALFON, name of one of the most exalted angels. 
Ezekiel 1:15 was interpreted in the Babylonian Talmud (Hag. 
13b) as referring to an angel who stood on the earth with his 
head reaching up to the living creatures (the hayyot). This 
"wheel" is called Sandalfon, who is said to stand so far above 
his colleague, apparently *Metatron, that a journey between 
them would take 500 years. His place is behind the *Merkabah, 
the heavenly chariot, and he fashions crowns for his creator. 
According to the sources of the Merkabah literature, these 
crowns are made from Israel's prayers, an idea widely repeated 
in Jewish literature. Sandalfon is also mentioned as one of the 
highest angels in the story of Moses' ascension to heaven, and 
in the Midrash Konen he is called a mediator or "translator" 
between Israel and God, obviously because he transforms the 
words of prayer into mystical crowns on God's head. The ety- 
mology of the name is explained, probably correctly, as syn- 
adelphos ("confrere" or "colleague"), namely of Metatron. He 
is mentioned in many hymns, and conjurations regarding him 
and his mystery are found in Merkabah literature; one such is 
"The Mystery of Sandalfon" (Merkavah Shelemah, 1922, fol. la). 
Here he has the power to nullify hostile decrees against Israel. 
In later sources he is frequently defined as the angel set over 
birds, sar ha-ofot, particularly in the writings of the *Hasidei 
Ashkenaz and in the Zohar. Spanish kabbalists of the 13 th cen- 
tury interpreted the name as a composition of two elements: 
sandaly meaning in the Talmud a still unformed embryo, and 
fon, understood as a formation of a face panim; these two ele- 
ments therefore represent matter and form, brought together 
in Sandalfon. Many kabbalists declared that Sandalfon was 
an angelic transfiguration of the prophet Elijah, just as Meta- 
tron was described in earlier sources as the transfiguration of 
Enoch. Since the word sandal has the meaning "shoe," San- 
dalfon was also thought of as the "shoe" of the Shekhinah y that 
is to say the angel on which the feet of the Shekhinah rested. 
Some kabbalists considered him the teacher of Moses. Later 
Kabbalah ascribed to him a special sphere of mystical being 
which was essentially more than a pure angelic host. 

bibliography: R. Margaiioth, Malakhei Elyon (1945), 148-54; 
M. Schwab, Vocabulaire de langelologie (1897), 201; G. Davidson, A 
Dictionary of Angels (1967), 267. 

[Gershom Scholem] 

SAN DANIELE DEL FRIULI, small town in Udine prov- 
ince, Friuli, N.E. Italy. The presence of Jews is first confirmed 
in a document dating from 1523 which refers to the manage- 
ment of a bank entrusted to one Simon Nantua and, later, to 
his sons. There were also Jewish physicians living in San Dan- 
iele at least from 1549. 

In 1600, two Luzzatto brothers, who had come from Ven- 
ice, joined the bank; in 1623-1624 the bank passed to the Luz- 
zatto family's control alone. The Luzzattos managed the bank 
until 1714, when it was suppressed following the opening of a 
* Monte di Pieta. Meanwhile the community had grown. The 
Catholic reaction reached San Daniele in the early 17 th century, 
the Jews being compelled to wear the *badge in 1626. 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


The 18 th century was a period of expansion for the Jew- 
ish community, although the Venetian government closed the 
bank. Aside from the bank, the Jews were engaged in other 
professions, such as raising silkworms; agriculture (mainly 
beekeeping); handicrafts, such as goldsmiths; industry, such as 
the production of bricks; and trade in tobacco. The synagogue 
was erected between the years 1729 and 1731. In the same pe- 
riod, in 1735, the community purchased an area for the cem- 
etery. The Luzzatto family dominated the life of San Daniele. 
An important figure was Letizia Luzzatto. San Daniele was 
the birthplace of the brothers Ephraim and Isaac * Luzzatto, 
both poets; the latter, who studied medicine at the University 
of Padua, was a successful physician. He wrote a book of po- 
etry, Toledot Yizhak. He also satirized the local life in his par- 
ody, Mishnayot Sandaniel. In 1777 the Republic of Venice, on 
whom San Daniele was dependent, decreed the expulsion of 
the Jews from all places without a ghetto; San Daniele there- 
fore had to be abandoned. It seems that the services of Isaac 
Luzzatto were so valued by the local population that the lo- 
cal authorities requested the Serenissima to exclude the latter 
from the decree of expulsion. Some of those expelled sought 
refuge in Gorizia, but the majority went to Trieste. Among 
the latter was Ezechia Luzzatto, father of Samuel David ^Luz- 
zatto. In the first decades of the 20 th century a small com- 
munity was reestablished in San Daniele, but it was short- 

bibliography: Milano, Bibliotheca, index; F. Luzzatto, 
Chroniche storiche della Universitd degli ebrei di San Daniele del 
Friuli (1964); Y. Luzzatto, Toledot Yizhak (1944), 133-7; Zoller, in: 
RE J> 94 (!933)> 5 0_ 56; E. Patriarca, in: Atti del Congresso... Storia Pa- 
tria (1958), 33-63. add. bibliography: S.G. Cusin and P.C. Ioly 
Zorattini, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Itinerari ebraici, I luoghi, la storia, 
larte (1998), 92-100. 

[Attilio Milano / Samuele Rocca (2 nd ed.)] 

°SANDBERG, WILLEM JACOB (1897-1984), Dutch mu- 
seum curator and Righteous Among the Nations. Sandberg 
served as the curator of the Stedelijk (Municipal) Museum in 
Amsterdam, a position he held from 1938. During the occu- 
pation of the Netherlands by the Germans in World War 11, 
Sandberg helped organize an artists' resistance movement. 
Shocked by the persecution of the Jews, together with several 
friends he began forging identity cards. His training and ex- 
pertise as a graphic designer was of help to him in this clandes- 
tine endeavor, as well as his contacts in the publishing world. 
When young Dutch men were called up for forced labor, 
Sandberg's group produced numerous forged documents for 
people electing not to report for work in Germany. The Jewish 
Dorothea Hertz-Loeb was one of those who benefited from 
Sandberg's aid, to whom, along with three members of her 
family, he supplied forged identity papers, which were pro- 
duced in the basement of the museum. When the deportation 
of Jews began on a massive scale in the summer of 1942, the 
artists' resistance group decided to blow up the Population 
Registration Office in Amsterdam. Sandberg participated in 

the planning of this operation, including the capture of the 
heavily guarded building and setting fire to the archives. The 
explosives to be used in this attack were temporarily stored in 
his home. After much preparation, the attack was carried out 
on March 27, 1943. Unfortunately, the Germans eventually got 
wind of the identity of the perpetrators of this attack and most 
were arrested, with 13 men condemned to death and executed 
in July 1943. Sandberg luckily escaped arrest. The night when 
his home was searched, he happened to be in the dunes near 
the North Sea, where the art treasures of Amsterdam had been 
hidden. His wife and son, however, were arrested and incarcer- 
ated for several months. Sandberg hid in the countryside for 
the remainder of the occupation, circulating letters to make 
people believe he had escaped to Switzerland. From his hide- 
out, he sent reports on German troop movements. After the 
war, Sandberg served until 1963 as director of the Stedelijk Mu- 
seum, which he turned into an internationally acclaimed mu- 
seum of contemporary art. In 1964, he accepted the invitation 
to head the newly established Israel Museum in Jerusalem, a 
position he held until 1968. That year, Yad Vashem awarded 
him the title of Righteous Among the Nations. 

bibliography: Yad Vashem Archives M31-504; I. Gutman 

(ed.), Encyclopedia of the Righteous Among the Nations: Netherlands, 

Vol. 2 (2004), 659-60. 

[Mordecai Paldiel (2 nd ed.)] 

SANDERLING, KURT (1912- ), conductor. Sanderling 
was born in East Prussia and began his conducting career at 
the age of 18, as assistant conductor at the Berlin Staatsoper. 
Forced to leave Nazi Germany, he was subsequently engaged 
to conduct the Moscow Radio Orchestra. A guest performance 
with the Leningrad Philharmonic Orchestra led to his becom- 
ing, with Mravinsky, its director (1941-60). In i960, he moved 
to East Berlin, where he became chief conductor of the Berlin 
Symphony Orchestra. Sanderling also directed the Dresden 
Staatskapelle Orchestra between 1964 and 1967, taking it on 

European tours. 

[Max Loppert (2 nd ed.)] 

SANDERS, BERNARD (1941- ), independent member of 
Congress (1991- ). Sanders was born in Brooklyn, New York, 
the son of a paint salesman who immigrated to the U.S. as a 
young man. His mother raised her two sons in a small apart- 
ment, while his father earned a steady but limited income. 
Sanders' family circumstances, in which money was often 
tight, strongly influenced his understanding of the finan- 
cial difficulties that face many working class families. Sand- 
ers graduated from James Madison High School in Brooklyn 
and spent one year at Brooklyn College. He then transferred 
to the University of Chicago, where he graduated in 1964 and 
then bought land in Middlesex, Vermont. 

In 1971 his interest in progressive politics took him to a 
meeting of the newly formed Liberty Union Party, a third- 
party alternative to the Democrats and the Republicans. He 
left that meeting as the party's candidate for the U.S. Senate, 
and ended up with two percent of the vote. He ran three more 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



races as a Liberty Union candidate - once more for the U.S. 
Senate, and twice for governor. His highest statewide vote as 
a Liberty Union candidate was six percent. 

In 1981, he ran for mayor of Burlington, the largest city in 
the state and a university town. His victory was far from over- 
whelming. He beat the six-term Democratic incumbent by 12 
votes. He won reelection three more times. In 1987, he defeated 
the mayoral candidate that both parties supported. During his 
tenure, the Progressives won several seats on the City Council. 
He worked on a people-friendly waterfront and on creating a 
tax base beyond the property tax. His support came from the 
working class instead of the business establishment. 

Sanders stepped down as mayor of Burlington after four 
terms, and eight years. He was followed in office by a fellow 
Progressive. In 1986, he ran for governor of Vermont and 
came in third with 14 percent of the vote. In 1988, he ran for 
Vermont's lone seat in the U.S. House of Representatives and 
lost by only three percentage points. A rematch in 1990 had 
Sanders a 16 -point victor. He served in Congress as an inde- 
pendent, though he caucused with the Democrats and was 
given seniority by them. He was the first independent to serve 
in Congress since the 1940s and only the third avowed social- 
ist to be elected to that body. 

In Congress he pursued a progressive political agenda 
and founded the Progressive Coalition, which sought tax 
reform and single payer health insurance and reduced de- 
fense spending. He took on the Administration - Democratic 
and Republican alike - for a progressive agenda. Through 
2005 he had been re-elected seven times. He was the longest- 
serving independent in the history of the House of Repre- 

Sanders received national recognition by helping to 
lead the fight to keep lower- income Vermonters and Ameri- 
cans warm in the wintertime, through successful efforts to 
increase funding for the Low-Income Home Energy Assis- 
tance (liheap). He also brought funding into the state for 
the student-based development of a curriculum on child- 

He followed the politically interesting principle "act lo- 
cally, think globally" and thus led a well-publicized bus trip 
across the Canadian border with Vermonters to buy prescrip- 
tion drugs. As a result, the nation learned that the pharma- 
ceutical industry sells exactly the same medicine in Canada, 
and every other country, at far lower prices than they are sold 
in the United States. Sanders played an active role in work- 
ing with Vermont ibm employees who experienced a mas- 
sive cut-back in the pensions they had been promised by that 
company. In Congress he established the House Progressive 
Caucus that had grown to 56 members as of 2005. Sanders 
chaired the caucus for its first eight years. Unlike most of his 
colleagues, he refused to take pac money and thus protected 
his independence. With the retirement of former Republi- 
can, and now independent, Senator Jeffords, Sanders was set 
to become an independent candidate for the Senate in 2006. 
Representing Vermont on a statewide basis, he begins the race 

with significant name recognition, and having run in state- 
wide races time and again, since his seat is the only House seat 

Vermont has in Congress. 

[Michael Berenbaum (2 nd ed.)] 

SANDGROUND, JACK HENRY (1899-1976), U.S. parasi- 
tologist. Born in Johannesburg, South Africa, he went to the 
U.S. in the early 1920s. Sandground's research dealt with a 
wide variety of parasitic problems, especially those involved 
with the helminths. 

His investigations of the worms included their biology 
and taxonomy, as well as problems concerned with immunity 
and chemotherapy. He served as a member of many scientific 
expeditions. Sandground carried out research on the nutri- 
tion of protozoa, immunology against poliomyelitis, and the 
detoxication of arsenicals and other drugs utilized in treating 
neurosyphilis and various tropical diseases. 

[Norman Levin] 

SAN DIEGO, combined city-county in S. California; county 
population 3 million (2005), Jewish population 89,000. 

Jewish life in San Diego started in what is called Old 
Town, near the San Diego River and just below the hill on 
which the Spanish built the first California mission in 1769. 
The first Jew arrived at this remote frontier site in 1850, the 
same year the city received its charter. In this town of 800, 
there were, perhaps, 25 Jews until the 1860s. Most were very 
visible for their number, both as businessmen and civic lead- 
ers. When, in the 1870s, the center of town moved south- 
east, to its permanent location, on San Diego Bay, the Jewish 
population moved also. They set up stores and lived nearby; 
the first synagogues were in this downtown area. In the 1920s 
the reform congregation, Beth Israel, moved uptown to the 
west side of Balboa Park, and by the mid-20 th century the 
Conservative and Orthodox congregations had moved up- 
town to the north and east sides of the park. The neighbor- 
hood of North Park became the center of Jewish life with a 
kosher butcher, bakery, a Jewish Community Center and the 
homes and businesses of many of the patrons. By the late 1970s 
the community had migrated primarily to the east, near San 
Diego State University, to the South in Chula Vista, and a little 
to the north. With the coming of the University of California 
San Diego to La Jolla in the late 1960s, the Jewish commu- 
nity began to move there as well. Prior to that, beginning in 
the 1940s, the residents of La Jolla had a restrictive covenant 
against Jews and other minorities in their property deeds, 
which was enforced by the real estate agents. At the begin- 
ning of the 21 st century there was no Jewish area, and the 
population was very spread out. Jews congregate throughout 
San Diego County, from the Mexican border to the northern 
boundary, the Marine Base at Camp Pendleton. As a matter 
of fact, Jews even congregate at Camp Pendleton and south 
of the border in Tijuana. 

Religious Life 

Louis Rose, the first Jewish settler, arrived in 1850. A multi- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


talented entrepreneur, he also held various prominent gov- 
ernment positions. He was an early benefactor to the Jewish 
community, and two locations, Rose Canyon and Roseville 
are named for him. Rose was joined by Lewis Franklin who 
held the first recorded Jewish religious observance (Day of 
Atonement) in Southern California in his home soon after 
he arrived in 1851. Perhaps this was Franklins hobby, as he 
had held the first Jewish service in San Francisco in 1849. The 
Jewish population increased dramatically with the arrival of 
Mark Jacobs (aka Jacob Marks), his wife, Hannah, and their 
12 children. One daughter, Leah, married Marcus Katz in the 
first Jewish marriage ceremony in Southern California in 1853; 
another daughter, Victoria, who married Franklins brother, 
Maurice, kept a diary (1856-57), which is an important record 
of Jewish life at that time. 

Marcus Schiller was a businessman, public official, and 
Jewish community leader for 40 years. During his tenure 
on the City Board of Trustees, along with his business part- 
ner, Joseph Mannasse, 1,400 acres were set aside for Balboa 
Park, the main park in the city center. In 1861, Schiller orga- 
nized the first congregation, Adath Jeshurun (Orthodox), 
the oldest congregation in Southern California, which in 
1887 incorporated as Congregation Beth Israel (Reform). 
The Jewish population at this time was approximately 300. In 
the midst of planning its synagogue, the congregation hired 
its first rabbi, Samuel Freuder, in 1888. Within a year he left 
and became a Christian missionary. Twenty years later, he 
realized his mistake and wrote a book called A Missionary's 
Return in Judaism (1915). Built of wood in the gothic style, 
Temple Beth Israel was completed in 1889 and used for 37 
years. Moved to a county park in 1978, it is one of the two 
oldest synagogue structures extant in California. With the 
Jewish population of San Diego increasing to 2,000, Congre- 
gation Beth Israel built its second home, a Byzantine -style 
synagogue, in 1926, near Balboa Park. Its "Temple Center" 
became the focal point of Jewish communal life for over 25 
years. When the congregation moved to its third home in 
2001, its previous building was saved from demolition, be- 
cause of its eligibility for the National Register of Historic 
Places. At the beginning of the 21 st century, Beth Israel was 
the only congregation in the American West to have its three 
synagogues still in use. 

In 1905, East European immigrants formed an ortho- 
dox congregation, Tifereth Israel Synagogue. When, in 1939, 
this congregation became Conservative, another Orthodox 
congregation was formed, Beth Jacob. These three congre- 
gations, which were led out of the war years by three influ- 
ential rabbis - Reform, Morton J. Cohn (1946-61); Conser- 
vative, Monroe Levens (1948-74), and Orthodox, Baruch 
Stern (1947-77) - were the only ones until the 1950s, when 
the Jewish population increased to 6,000 and new congre- 
gations formed. By the beginning of the 21 st century, there 
were over 30 congregations, including the three original 
ones, covering all the trends in Judaism, from Humanistic to 

Communal Life 

As the Jewish community grew, so did the need for social and 
communal service. At the beginning, men and women took 
separate paths to this end. 

Forty men, led by Marcus Schiller, formed the first He- 
brew Benevolent Society of San Diego in 1871. Twenty-six 
signatories received the charter for the B'nai B nth Eduard 
Lasker Lodge #370 in 1887, with Simon Levi as president. By 
mid-20 th century there were seven men's lodges, some named 
for prominent citizens such as Samuel I. Fox, Edward Breit- 
bard, and Henry Weinberger. In 1929 Anna Shelley organized 
the Birdie Stodel B'nai B'rith Women's Chapter which grew by 
mid-century into five chapters in the county, aza Fraternity 
and B'nai B'rith Girls followed in 1930, and Hillel in 1947. In 
mid-century Zionist groups were also strong, but by the end 
of the century, most of the organizations, except for Hillel, 
were in decline. 

In 1890, Mrs. Simon Levi organized the Ladies Hebrew 
Aid Society, with 20 members "to render relief to the sick and 
needy, to rehabilitate families and to aid the orphan and half- 
orphan." This group joined with the Jolly Sewing Circle, He- 
brew Sisterhood and Junior Charity League in 1918 to form 
the Federated Jewish Charities. In 1936, the Charities split into 
two: the Jewish Welfare Society, later to become Jewish Fam- 
ily Service, incorporated, and the United Jewish Fund, pre- 
decessor of the United Jewish Federation of San Diego, was 
formed. The Jolly 16, a women's social and benevolent group, 
started a ten-bed San Diego Hebrew Home for the Aged which 
opened in 1944. A much larger facility opened in 1950, in part- 
nership with the Jewish Community Center, and in 1989 the 
Hebrew Home expanded and moved to northern San Diego 
County. The first Jewish Community Center opened in 1946 
in a storefront in North Park. Within six years a new building 
with a pool, gymnasium, classrooms and a library opened in 
the eastern part of the city, which served the community for 
almost 50 years. A larger facility opened in the La Jolla area 
in 1985 and was expanded in the late 1990s. 

Mrs. Abraham Blochman started formal Jewish educa- 
tion for Beth Israel's children in 1887. Education remained the 
purview of individual congregations until the 1960s, when 
the San Diego Hebrew Day School and the Bureau of Jewish 
Education were created. The Bureau became the independent 
Agency for Jewish Education in 1986. In 1979 the San Diego 
Jewish Academy began, and 20 years later it opened as a full- 
time school at a large campus in northern San Diego. 

In 1970, with the Jewish population at 12,000, a Judaic 
studies program began at San Diego State University. Fifteen 
years later this program grew into the Lipinsky Institute for 
Judaic Studies, sponsored by arts patrons Bernard and Dorris 
Lipinsky. Lawrence Baron, the director of the Institute since 
1988, holds the Nasatir Professorship in Modern Jewish His- 
tory, named for Abraham P. Nasatir, an Orthodox Jew who 
was the first Jewish professor at the university (1928-1974). 
When he arrived, most of the students and faculty had never 
met a Jew before, but by the end of his tenure, Nasatir Hall 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



had been named for him. University of California, San Diego, 
started its Judaic Studies program in 1977, with an emphasis 
on biblical scholarship, attracting some of the nations fore- 
most scholars, such as David Noel Freedman, Richard Elliott 
Friedman, David Goodblatt, and Thomas Levy. 

A group of women, under the direction of Irene Fine, be- 
gan the Women's Institute for Continuing Jewish Education in 
1977. It pioneered the teaching of Torah, Talmud and Midrash 
by women. The San Diego Women's Haggadah (1980), the first 
women's text for a feminist seder y was followed by other pub- 
lications which led the way for Jewish feminists. 

With the Jewish population at 30,000 in 1980, a small 
group led by historian Henry Schwartz founded the Jewish 
Historical Society of San Diego. Its archive for local Jewish his- 
tory was established in 1999 by Stanley and Laurel Schwartz in 
cooperation with the Lipinsky Institute. The archive's opening 
in 2000 celebrated 150 years of San Diego Jewry. 

The year 1914 saw the first weekly Jewish newspaper, The 
Southwest Jewish Press, which later became the San Diego Jew- 
ish Press Heritage, concluding its run in 2003. In 2005, there 
were two Jewish newspapers: the bi-weekly San Diego Jew- 
ish TimeSy formerly Israel Today, and the monthly San Diego 
Jewish Journal. Rabbi Aaron Gottesman brought the commu- 
nity a Jewish radio program called "Milk and Honey" during 
the 1980s. 


The following people are some of those who have made con- 
tributions which have had a lasting effect on the community 
and beyond. 

French immigrant Abraham Blochman and his son Lu- 
cien started the Blochman Banking Company in 1893. By 
the late 20 th century, it had become Security Pacific National 
Bank, one of the largest banks in California. The Blochman 
family took various leadership roles in the Jewish community 
and in civic and communal affairs. Lucien was a director of 
the Panama- California Exposition of 1915 which gave Balboa 
Park its Spanish architecture. He and his sister Mina Bloch- 
man Brust helped found the San Diego Chapter of the Ameri- 
can Red Cross at the turn of the century, and Mina started the 
First Aid Program in 1919. 

Abraham Klauber, who arrived in 1869, was an early 
merchant and San Diego booster whose descendants were 
prominent into the 21 st century. Daughter Alice Klauber, an 
artist, directed the arts pavilion at the 1915 Exposition. A busi- 
ness partner of Abraham Klauber, Sigmund Steiner moved 
to Escondido in north San Diego County to open a store and 
became mayor (1894-1906). Under his leadership, the grape 
growing industry flourished with an annual Grape Day Festi- 
val and parade, one of the largest in Southern California. The 
festival at Grape Day Park was still celebrated at the begin- 
ning of the 21 st century. 

The five Levi brothers, two of whom had long lasting ef- 
fects in San Diego county and were also business partners of 
Klauber, came to San Diego in the 1870s. Simon was a civic and 

religious leader who started the Simon Levi Company, whole- 
sale grocery and liquor. Adolph, whose interests spread from 
the Pacific Ocean to the easternmost reaches of the county, 
was in the livery and ranching business. Also a civic and reli- 
gious leader, his descendants carried on the family's commu- 
nal spirit into the 21 st century. 

Samuel I. Fox owned the Lion Clothing Store, which was 
located next to the Hog and Hominy Store operated by a Mr. 
Baer on what was known as the "Zoo Block." From 1886 to his 
death in 1939, he was a civic, communal and religious leader 
who promoted the business community by helping to secure 
local control of the port and the water supply. In 1930 he was 
the first president of the San Diego Community Chest and was 
one of the organizers of the 1935 Exposition in Balboa Park 
which helped pull the city out of the depression. 

Brothers Henry and Jacob Weinberger were commu- 
nal and religious leaders. Jacob became the first federal judge 
in San Diego in 1946 and was the founding president of the 
United Jewish Fund (1936-45). The restored 1917 federal bank- 
ruptcy courthouse is named for him. Judge Edward Schwartz 
was appointed to the U.S. District Court by President Johnson 
in 1968, where he remained until his death in 2000. During 
his term he became chief justice, and in 1995 the U.S. Court- 
house was named the Edward J. Schwartz Courthouse and 
Federal Building. 

In the later part of the 20 th century, several business peo- 
ple made their mark on the national scene and became local 
philanthropists. Sol Price, 1976 founder of the first national 
retail membership warehouse, The Price Club, along with his 
family, has funded much neighborhood redevelopment and 
university growth. Pioneering scientists, Irwin Jacobs and 
Andrew Viterbi, founded link a bit, in 1968, a breakthrough 
company in the development of digital technology. In 1985 
they went on to start Qualcomm, the cell phone industry gi- 
ant. Both men, their families and their companies became 
major philanthropists, with the Jewish Community Center, 
synagogues, the San Diego Symphony, Qualcomm Stadium, 
theaters, public broadcasting and universities as some of the 
beneficiaries of their gifts. 

Jews have participated in the arts with internationally re- 
nowned conductor, David Amos, who directs the Jewish Com- 
munity Orchestra, and Ian Campbell, the San Diego Opera 
director since 1983. Under his direction the opera commis- 
sioned local composer Myron Fink to write the music for The 
Conquistador, the story of a family of secret Jews during the 
Inquisition in Mexico, which premiered in San Diego in 

Robert Breitbard founded the San Diego Hall of Cham- 
pions Sports Museum, in 1961. Located in Balboa Park and 
with Breitbard still its driving force at the beginning of the 
21 st century, it was the nation's largest multi- sport museum. 
The Park is also host to the Museum of Photographic Arts, 
whose founding director, Arthur Oilman, has brought world 
class exhibitions to the museum since 1983 and into the 21 st 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


Jack Gross started the first tv station in San Diego, 
kfmb, in 1949, and along with his son radio talk-show host 
and critic, Laurence Gross, Jews have maintained a long and 
steady presence on local tv news into the 21 st century, with 
newscasters Marty Levine, Susan Taylor, and Gloria Penner. 

In the national public sphere, former industrialist, Colonel 
Irving Salomon came to San Diego County after World War 11. 
In 1953 President Eisenhower appointed him as a delegate to the 
United Nations General Assembly, for which he worked until 
his death in 1979. He and his wife Cecile, a classical pianist and 
composer of Jewish music, entertained notables at their ranch 
in Valley Center and were benefactors for cultural programs. 

Real estate developer M. Larry Lawrence bought and re- 
stored the famous 1888 Hotel Del Coronado in 1963. His phi- 
lanthropy helped create the new Jewish Community Center 
in 1985 which bears his family name. President Clinton made 
him ambassador to Switzerland (1994-96). 

Jonas Salk, originator of the poliomyelitis vaccine, started 
the Salk Institute in La Jolla in 1963 and created a haven for 
world renowned research, while enabling architect Louis Kahn 
to design one of the world's great buildings. 

Though many Jews had served the city government as 
elected officials, the first Jewish mayor, Susan Golding, was 
elected in 1992, serving for two terms. Her father, Brage Gold- 
ing, was president of San Diego State University from 1972 
to 1977. 

In 1993 two Jews were elected to congress, Robert Filner 
and Lynn Schenk. Schenk later became chief of staff for Gov- 
ernor Gray Davis, and Filner continued his tenure in congress 
into the 21 st century. In 2000 Susan Davis was elected to con- 
gress. In 2005, two out of the five-person county congressional 
delegation were Jewish. 

William Kolender, a career law enforcement professional, 
served as the chief of the San Diego Police Department for 13 
years, beginning in 1975. After a short retirement, in 1995 he 
was elected sheriff of San Diego County, and he held the post 
into the 21 st century. Together with Rabbi Aaron Gottesman, 
he started the San Diego Police Department Chaplaincy Pro- 
gram in 1968. 

Former U.S. attorney, Alan Bersin, completed a tenure 
as superintendent of San Diego City Schools in 2005 and was 
appointed by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger as secretary 
of education for California. 

At the beginning of the 21 st century, as California's popu- 
lation swelled, so did the Jewish population, with newcomers 
from all parts of the U.S. and other countries such as South 
Africa, Iran, and especially from Latin and South America. 
Cousins of first generation eastern European Jewish immi- 
grants, who came to the U.S. at the beginning of the 20 th cen- 
tury, found themselves welcomed in Mexico and other Latin 
countries, and eventually, in San Diego. Proximity to Mexico 
provided a distinct flavor, as Jewish residents moved back 
and forth across the border for business, social activities and 
worship. The migratory inclination of the community was 
broadened by snowbirds in the winter, "zonies" (Arizonans), 

refugees from the desert heat, in the summer, a growing re- 
tirement community, and a large military presence. Many had 
strong ties to other places, which sometimes restrained their 
participation in local community life. Close-knit alliances 
formed, based on origins, either native or immigrant, as ex- 
tended families were far away. 

bibliography: N.B. Stern, "The Franklin Brothers of San 
Diego," in: Journal of San Diego History (1975); T. Casper, "The Bloch- 
man Saga in San Diego," in: Journal of San Diego History (1977); R.A. 
Burlinson, "Samuel Fox, Merchant and Civil Leader in San Diego, 
1886-1939," in: Journal of San Diego History (1980); L.M. Klauber, 
"Abraham Klauber - a Pioneer Merchant (1831-1911)," in: Western 
States Jewish History (1970); H. Schwartz. "The Levi Saga: Temecula, 
Julian, San Diego," in: Western States Jewish History (1974); R.D. Ger- 
son, "San Diego's Unusual Rabbi, Samuel Freuder," in: Western States 
Jewish History (1993); idem, "Jewish Religious Life in San Diego, Cal- 
ifornia, 1851-1918" (unpublished thesis, 1974); L. Baron, "The Jews 
of San Diego State University, California," in: Western States Jewish 
History (1998); V. Jacobs and S. Arden (eds.), Diary of a San Diego 
Girl - 1856 (1974); L.G. Stanford, Ninety Weinberger Years: The Jacob 
Weinberger Story (1971); B'nai Brith Centennial i88y - 198/ Com- 
memorative Booklet; W.M. Kramer, L.Schwartz, S. Schwartz, Old 
Town, New Town an Enjoyment of San Diego Jewish History (1994); 
S. Schwartz, A Brief History of Congregation Beth Israel. 135 th Birth- 
day 1861-1996, booklet; M.E. Stratthaus, "Flaw in the Jewel: Housing 
Discrimination Against Jews in La Jolla, California," in: American 
Jewish History (1996). 

[Stan Schwartz and Laurel Schwartz (2 nd ed.)] 

SANDLER, ADAM RICHARD (1966- ), U.S. actor, screen- 
writer, musician. Sandler was born in Brooklyn, New York, 
but spent his childhood and teenage years in Manchester, 
n.h., where most of his family continued to reside. Sandler 
was discovered in a New York comedy club by Saturday Night 
Live (snl) member Dennis Miller. He was a snl cast member 
for five years, creating such notable characters as Opera Man, 
Canteen Boy, and Cajun Man. In 1996, his "Chanukah Song" 
became one of the most requested holiday songs on radio. 
Sandler appeared in over a dozen feature films, specializing in 
broad, physical comedy, from the early Coneheads (1993), to 
Billy Madison (1995) and Happy Gilmore (1996), on which he 
shared screenwriting credit, to the title roles in The Wedding 
Singer (1998), The Waterboy (1998), and Big Daddy (1999). He 
turned to dramatic roles with Punch-Drunk Love (2002) and 
in 2005 reprised the role of prison inmate/former pro quar- 
terback Paul Crewe, originally played in 1974 by Burt Reyn- 
olds, in The Longest Yard. With Adam Sandler's 8 Crazy Nights, 
Sandler created the first feature length animated Chanukah 
musical (2002). He also appeared in Anger Management with 
Jack Nicholson (2003), James Brooks' Spanglish (2004), and 
so First Dates with Drew Barrymore (2004). 

[Amy Handelsman (2 nd ed.)] 

SANDLER, BORIS (1950- ), Yiddish writer, journalist, 
broadcaster. Born in Beltsy (Moldova), Sandler graduated 
from the Kishinev Conservatory (1975) and was violinist in 
the Moldovian Symphony Orchestra. In 1983 he received an 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



advanced degree in creative writing from the Gorky Literary 
Institute (Moscow). Having first attempted writing in Rus- 
sian, Sandler soon realized that his native Yiddish was more 
suitable for his themes and style. Although no formal educa- 
tion in Yiddish existed in the Soviet Union after 1948, he was 
fortunate to find as a mentor the prominent Bessarabian Yid- 
dish author Yekhiel *Shraybman. He debuted in the Moscow 
Yiddish monthly Sovetish Heymland (1981), whose editorial 
board he later joined (1986). He was president of the Yiddish 
Cultural Organization of Moldova, had a Yiddish program on 
Moldovan State Television, edited Undzer Kol y and wrote two 
film scripts about the fate of Bessarabian Jewry (1989-92). Im- 
migrating to Israel (1992), he worked at The Hebrew University 
and edited the children's magazine Kind un Keyt. From 1998 
he was editor-in-chief of the New York weekly Forverts. In ad- 
dition to numerous stories, essays, and articles in periodicals, 
Sandler published several volumes of fiction: Treplekh aroyf 
tsu a Nes: Dertseylungen un Noveln ("Stairs up to a Miracle: 
Tales and Short Stories," 1986), Der Inyen Numer 5390 (fun di 
kgb Arkhivn) ("Case No. 5390, from the kgb Archives," 1992), 
Der Alter Brunem: Dertseylungen, Miniatyurn, Roman ("The 
Old Well: Tales, Miniatures, Novel," 1994), Toyern ("Gates," 
1997), and Ven der Goylem hot Farmakht di Oygn ("When the 
Golem Closed his Eyes," 2004). The major theme of Sandler s 
fiction is the past and present of Bessarabian Jews. His style 
remains close to the spoken idiom, but is also influenced by 
recent modes, such as magical realism. 

[Mikhail Krutikov (2 nd ed.)] 

SANDLER, JACOB KOPPEL (d. 1931), composer and mu- 
sic director. Sandler was born in Bielozwekvo and as a child 
sang in the choir of Cantor Mordecai Minkowsky (the father of 
Pinhas ^Minkowsky). He later became choral director for Can- 
tor Samuel Polishuk. He married and went into business, but 
subsequently lost his money and in 1888 went to the United 
States. There he became choral director for several well-known 
cantors and, at the same time, directed Yiddish theater cho- 
ruses, first as an assistant to Zelig Mogulescu and then as an 
independent composer and director. In 1889 Sandler pro- 
duced Goldfaden's Dr. Almasad and in 1896 composed the 
music for Joseph Lattiner s operetta Kiddush ha-Shem or the 
Jewish Minieer. He also composed for M. Horowitz' operettas 
The Hero and Bracha or the Jewish King of Poland for a Night 
(1896). In the latter work the song "Eli, Eli" (generally spelled 
Eili, Eili) with text by Boris Tomashefsky, was featured, and, 
because of its tremendous effect, the operetta played for many 
weeks. It became one of the most popular Jewish compositions 
in the Western world and was performed and recorded by folk 
and opera singers, as well as cantors. Jossele ^Rosenblatt main- 
tained that before "Eili, Eili" appeared in this American oper- 
etta, it was heard in Europe as a folksong. He further alleged 
that the melody was also found among the compositions for 
selihot by a cantor of an earlier generation. The controversy has 
not been resolved. In any case, the appearance of "Eili, Eili" 
as an anonymous "folk song" in most of the recordings and 

printed versions (including the publications of the ^Society 
for Jewish Folk Music) cannot be adduced as proof of a folk 
origin, since all of them postdate the operetta. Sandler served 
for a time as composer-director of the Arch Street Theatre in 
Philadelphia and then withdrew from the theater to appear as 
a synagogue choral director for the High Holy Days. 

bibliography: Z. Zylbercweig, in: Leksikon fun Yidishn 

Teater, 4 (1934), 1514-15- 

[Avraham Sokes] 

SANDMEL, SAMUEL (1911-1979), biblical scholar. Sandmel 
was born in Dayton, Ohio, and graduated from the Univer- 
sity of Missouri in 1932 and from the Hebrew Union College 
in 1937, receiving his doctorate from Yale University in 1949. 
He served as Hillel Foundation rabbi in North Carolina from 
1939 to 1942, and at Yale from 1946 to 1949. He was profes- 
sor of Jewish Literature and Thought at Vanderbilt Univer- 
sity from 1949 to 1952. In 1952 he was appointed professor of 
Bible and Hellenistic literature at the Hebrew Union College. 
Among the many honorary degrees bestowed upon him was 
the Presidents Fellowship, by Brown University. At the time 
of his death he was Helen A. Regenstein Professor of Religion 
of the Chicago Divinity School. He was also an editor of the 
Oxford Study Edition of the New English Bible. Sandmel was 
an internationally recognized authority on the relationship 
between Judaism and the New Testament. 

Among his works are A Jewish Understanding of the 
New Testament (1957), The Genius of Paul (1958), The Hebrew 
Scriptures (1963), We Jews and Jesus (1965), We Jews and You 
Christians (1967), Herod: Profile of a Tyrant (1967), The First 
Christian Century in Judaism and Christianity (1969), The 
Enjoyment of Scripture (1972), Two Living Traditions (1972), 
Judaism and Christian Beginnings (1978), and Anti-Semitism 
in the New Testament (1978). He also published a novel about 
Moses, Atop the Mountain (1973) 

[Heinz Hartman (2 nd ed.)] 

SANDOMIERZ (Rus. Sandomir; in Latin documents of the 
12 th century Sudomir; in early and Jewish sources Tsoyzmir or 
Tsuzmir), town in Kielce province, central Poland. Jews settled 
there at the beginning of the 13 th century, making that com- 
munity one of the oldest in Poland. In 1367 representatives of 
the Jewish communities of Sandomierz, *Cracow, and *Lvov 
requested King *Casimir in (the Great) to confirm the privi- 
leges of Polish Jewry. Toward the end of the 15 th century the 
townsmen of Sandomierz waged a stubborn struggle against 
the local Jewish merchants, who were sometimes compelled 
to move to other towns. In 1550 there were 40 Jews living in 
Sandomierz and paying state taxes. At the beginning of the 17 th 
century there existed a street with 16 houses owned by Jews, 
and the old synagogue was built. During the war with Sweden 
(1655/56) most of the Jews of the town were slaughtered and 
the rest expelled. In 1658 (see * Poland -Lithuania) King John 11 
Casimir permitted the Jews to return to Sandomierz and 
granted them the right to engage in commerce. This privilege 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


was later confirmed by King John in Sobieski (1674) and King 
Augustus in (1745). The struggle of the townsmen, supported 
by the local Catholic priests, against the Jews of Sandomierz 
led to a series of *blood libels at the end of the 17 th century 
and the first half of the 18 th . In the first case, which occurred 
in 1698, the *parnas of the community, Aaron Berek, was ac- 
cused of murdering a Christian child (see the pamphlet of the 
Jew-baiting priest Stefan Zuchowski, Odglas processow krymi- 
nalnych na Zydow..., 1700). Considerable harm was done to 
the Jewish community of Sandomierz as a result of other blood 
libels in 1710 and 1748. In 1765, 430 Jews paying the poll tax re- 
sided in the town; they comprised 90 families (with 14 tailors, 
8 hatmakers, 2 goldsmiths, and 5 butchers) owning 30 houses. 
Another 366 Jews who lived in the surrounding villages also 
paid the poll tax. During the period of Austrian rule in San- 
domierz (1795-1809) the restrictions on Jewish craftsmen were 
abolished, and a Jewish school with German as the language 
of instruction was opened. In 1815 Sandomierz was included 
in Congress Poland. Restrictions on Jewish settlement in the 
town remained until 1862. In 1827, 799 Jews lived there (23% 
of the total population), and in 1857, 924 (29%). In the second 
half of the 19 th century the Jewish population of the town in- 
creased considerably, reaching 2,164 (34%) in 1897. Their main 
livelihood was from trading in agricultural produce, leather, 
timber, tailoring, shoemaking, and transportation. In 1921 
there were 2,641 Jews (39%) living in the town. 

[Mark Wischnitzer and Arthur Cygielman] 

Holocaust Period 

At the outbreak of World War 11 there were about 2,500 Jews 
living in Sandomierz. The German army entered on Sept. 
!5> !939 an d immediately organized pogroms, during which 
Jews were killed. In the first half of 1942 nearly two thousand 
Jews from the vicinity were expelled to Sandomierz, and the 
town's Jewish population grew to about 5,200. On Oct. 29, 
1942, about 3,200 Jews were deported from Sandomierz to the 
*Belzec death camp. During deportations which took place 
in the summer and fall of 1942, thousands of Jews from the 
whole * Radom district fled into the forest, where they tried to 
survive in hiding and to organize guerilla units. On Nov. 10, 
1942, the Germans published a decree on the establishment 
of four new ghettos in the region (Sandomierz, *Szydlowiec, 
*Radomsko, and Ujazd), where Jews were promised security if 
they left the forests. Thousands of Jews, unable to see the pos- 
sibility of surviving in the forests during the winter, responded 
to the German appeal. About 6,000 Jews were concentrated 
in the ghetto of Sandomierz, which was liquidated on Jan. 10, 
1943 > when almost all its inmates were deported to the *Tre- 
blinka death camp. Only 700 Jews were left; of them 300 were 
deported to the forced-labor camp in *Skarzysko-Kamienna, 
and 400 were transferred to the forced-labor camp established 
in Sandomierz. This camp was liquidated in January 1944 and 
almost all the inmates were murdered. After the war the Jewish 
community of Sandomierz was not reconstituted. 

[Stefan Krakowski] 

bibliography: Warsaw, Archiwum Glowne Akt Dawnych, 
Komisja rzqdowa spraw wewnetrznych ipolicji, 2963; Wladze centralne 
powstania listopadowego, 362; Archiwum skarbu koronnego, 35 no. 
316 (= cahjp, 2174, 3696, and 7827, respectively); Zaklad Narodowy 
imienia Ossoliriskich, 1640/11 (= cahjp, hm 6650); Halpern, Pinkas, 
index; R. Mahler, Yidn in Amolikn Poyln in Likhtfun Tsifern (1958), 
index; B. Wasiutyiiski, Ludnosc zydowska w Polsce w wiekach xix i 
xx (1930), 31, 54, 71; L. Rotoczny, Przewodnik po Sandomierzu (1910); 
D. Kandel, in: Kwartalnik poswiecony badaniu przeszlosci Zydow w 
Polsce, 1 (1912); I. Schiper, Dzieje handlu zydowskiego na ziemiach 
polskich (1937), index; M. Balaban, Historja Zydow w Krakowie i na 
Kazimierzu, 2 vols. (1931-36), index. 

SANDOR, PAL (1860-1936), Hungarian statesman and econ- 
omist. Born in Hodmezovasarhely, Sandor entered his father's 
grain business. An active member of the Budapest exchange, 
he also founded and chaired the Hungarian trade union. 
In 1912 he was appointed director of the Budapest munici- 
pal tramway company. Sandor began his political career as a 
member of the Budapest municipal council, delegated by the 
governing Liberal Party. He sat in parliament as a delegate 
of the same party from 1901 and was a member of the Lib- 
eral Party opposition under Horthy s regime. Somewhat de- 
fensively and apologetically, Sandor attacked the antisemitic 
policies of the government and its first discriminatory laws, 
the *numerus clausus, restricting higher education for Jew- 
ish youth. He was an extreme assimilationist and outspoken 
opponent of Zionism. 

bibliography: D. Polonyi, in: Zsido Evkonyv (1928/29), 
116-7; P- Sandor, in: Egyenloseg, no. 7 (1936), 7-8. 

[Baruch Yaron] 

SANDROW, EDWARD T. (1906-1975), U.S. Conservative 
rabbi and communal leader. Sandrow was born in Philadel- 
phia and was ordained at the Jewish Theological Seminary 
of America (1933). His first rabbinical position was at the 
Ohavai Shalom synagogue in Portland, Oregon (1933-37). 
Sandrow then became rabbi at Temple Beth El in Cedarhurst, 
Long Island. He was a teaching fellow at New York University 
(1948-52). At the Jewish Theological Seminary he was visit- 
ing professor in homiletics (1954-56, 1962-63) and of pasto- 
ral psychiatry (1963 onwards). Sandrow s interest in pastoral 
psychiatry is expressed in some of his articles. He contributed 
a chapter called "Conscience and Guilt: A Jewish View" to Si- 
mon Novecks (ed.), Judaism and Psychiatry (1956). 

Sandrow was president of the Rabbinical Assembly of 
America (1960-62) and of the New York Board of Rabbis 
(1966-67). In the latter organization he served as chairman 
of the board of governors (1968-70). He was a member of the 
board of directors of the American Friends of the Hebrew Uni- 
versity (1968-1975), an alternate member of the board of gov- 
ernors of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, and a member 
of the boards of directors of the Joint Distribution Committee, 
the Zionist Organization of America, and the National Jew- 
ish Welfare Board. He was also chairman of the commission 
on Jewish chaplaincy of the latter organization. From i960 he 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



served as chairman of the board of Hadoar. He was coauthor 
of Young Faith, a prayer book with music for children. 

mudist and kabbalist. Hayyim, who was born in Sandz but 
should not be confused with Hayyim *Halberstamm of Sandz, 
became one of the great scholars of Brody. Aside from his 
great talmudic scholarship, he was considered one of the out- 
standing kabbalists of his time. In 1744 he was counted with 
Ezekiel *Landau and Moses Ostrer among the kabbalists 
of the Klaus in Brody, the famous Galician kabbalistic center. 
It is related that Israel Baal Shem Tov said that Hayyim's soul 
was a spark of the soul of * Johanan b. Zakkai, while Jacob, 
son of Ezekiel Landau, remarked in the preface to his fa- 
ther's Noda bi- Yhudah that Hayyim was his father's teacher 
in Kabbalah. In 1752 he condemned Jonathan *Eybeschuetz's 
amulets as Shabbatean. Although an outspoken adversary 
of the hasidic movement, he was highly respected in hasidic 

One of his responsa appears in Noda bi-Yhudah and oth- 
ers in Israel *Lipschutz's Or Yisrael. Most of his novellae and 
responsa on the Arba'ah Turim, however, remained unpub- 
lished. Many years after his death Hayyim's commentary on 
AvoU Ne'dar ba-Kodesh, was published (1862). 

bibliography: N.M. Gelber, Toledot Yehudei Brody (1955), 


[Anthony Lincoln Lavine] 

SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA, including San Francisco, a 
combined city-county in N. California, and surrounding area. 
In 2001 the San Francisco city population was 776,733, with 
the Jewish population 49,500; an additional 160,000 Jews lived 
in the surrounding area. 

Following the discovery of gold in Northern California 
in 1848, thousands of Jews were among the quarter of a mil- 
lion people making the long and arduous trip to one of the 
most remote regions on the continent. Although a few came 
overland, most of the Jewish pioneers chose the sea route: The 
four- or five-month long, 16,000-mile journey "around the 
Horn" often shortened by a land crossing of malarial swamps 
at Panama or Nicaragua. 

Gold Rush San Francisco was engulfed by peoples from 
all over the world, and the town's Jewish community was it- 
self highly diverse. The majority was from the German-speak- 
ing lands of Central Europe, especially Bavaria and the Prus- 
sian province of Posen (seized from Poland in 1793). Others 
hailed from England or the French provinces of Alsace and 
Lorraine, and a few were Sephardim from the West Indies or 
the American South. 

In the coarse mining towns of the Mother Lode, along the 
western foothills of the Sierras, Jews established businesses, 
burial societies, and synagogues. In the gateway boomtown 
that was San Francisco, rife with prostitution, gambling, and 
gunfights, about 30 Jews held High Holiday services in a 
wood-framed tent as early as 1849. 

Despite the frequent fires, sandstorms, and epidemics 
that ravaged the fledgling city, a number of the pioneer Jews 
became immensely successful. Antisemitism was less salient 
than in many other parts of America, and Jews, rarely per- 
ceived as interlopers, were well represented among the early 
political leaders, judges, and sheriffs. Others distinguished 
themselves in business, amassing fortunes in dry goods, bank- 
ing and utilities, real estate and insurance, mining and over- 
seas commerce, tobacco and produce. In later generations the 
extensive philanthropy of these first families - Fleishhacker, 
Haas, Koshland, Stern, Steinhardt, Dinkelspiel, Zellerbach and 
others - made their names well-known in Northern Califor- 
nia to Jew and non-Jew alike. 

The most famous pioneer Jew is the Bavarian Levi Strauss, 
whose jeans have become one of the most recognizable sym- 
bols of America around the world. The brothers-in law Louis 
Sloss and Lewis Gerstle headed the enormous Alaska Com- 
mercial Company, which for decades held a highly lucrative, 
federally granted concession for the territory's sealskins. An- 
other early arrival, the Westphalian engineer Adolph Sutro, 
designed and built a four- mile mining tunnel through the 
Comstock silver lode in Nevada. He invested the profits in San 
Francisco real estate, became one of the wealthiest men in the 
state, and was elected mayor in 1892, the first Jewish mayor of 
a major American city. At the end of the 19 th century, Julius 
Kahn was elected to the House of Representatives from San 
Francisco and served 12 terms. Following his death in 1924, 
his wife, Florence Prag * Kahn, was elected to his seat, the first 
Jewish woman in the U.S. Congress. 

Many of the children of the pioneers, Bay Area Jewry's 
second generation, distinguished themselves in the arts. David 
Belasco, an innovative playwright and producer, set designer 
and director, became one of the leading theatrical personali- 
ties in the country. Toby Rosenthal, a consummate portraitist 
and genre painter, was one of a half dozen gifted San Fran- 
cisco Jewish painters who came of age in the late 19 th century. 
A.L. Gump, as a purveyor and connoisseur of Far Eastern 
art, jewelry and furnishings, literally changed the taste of San 
Franciscans, even while an impenetrable social barrier existed 
between whites and Asians. 

The religious expression of this frontier community was 
decidedly liberal, and the two earliest synagogues, Emanu-El 
and Sherith Israel, both formed in the first week of April 1851, 
came to embrace Reform Judaism, the former within a decade 
of its founding, the latter by the turn of the century. Soon af- 
ter the Civil War, Emanu-El erected the magnificent Sutter 
Street Temple, its twin gothic towers a prominent feature of 
the young city's skyline. In 1925, the congregation moved to 
the Lake Street location it currently occupies and built another 
architectural masterpiece, harmoniously blending Byzantine, 
Moorish, and Spanish mission styles. The domed sanctuary, 
influenced by the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, is one of the most 
noted houses of worship on the West Coast. Sherith Israel con- 
structed its grand synagogue, even more eclectic in style and 
filled with vivid stained -glass windows, in 1905. It withstood 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


the devastating earthquake and fire of the following year, un- 
like Emanu-EFs temple and most other buildings housing San 
Francisco's Jewish institutions. 

While San Francisco, with a Jewish population of al- 
most 20,000, was the second largest Jewish community in 
the United States by 1880, Oakland, across the Bay, grew more 
slowly But the city of fewer than a thousand Jews produced 
two extraordinary personalities: the maverick Reform rabbi 
Judah L. *Magnes, a passionate advocate for social justice in 
New York and founder and first president of The Hebrew Uni- 
versity of Jerusalem, and the irreverent author and avant-garde 
art critic, Gertrude *Stein. Both attended the Sunday school of 
the First Hebrew Congregation, today's Temple Sinai. Magnes 
and Stein lived most of their adult lives abroad, but, by their 
own admission, their path-breaking careers owed much to 
their exuberant formative years in the East Bay. 

Jews could be found on both sides of the violent class 
conflict that gripped the Bay Area during the Progressive era 
and later in the Depression. They included the agrarian re- 
formers David Lubin, his son Simon Lubin, and half-brother 
Harris Weinstock; the socialist Anna Strunsky; the suffragette 
Selina Solomons; and labor organizers such as Lou Goldblatt 
and Rose *Pesotta. At Sherith Israel, Rabbi Jacob Nieto and 
his successor, the young Jacob *Weinstein, spoke out force- 
fully on behalf of the disadvantaged. But corporate titans such 
as I.W. *Hellman, Jr., and the brothers Herbert and Mortimer 
Fleishhacker were mainstays of the conservative, anti-union 
forces in the Bay Area. 

The turn of the century saw an influx of thousands of 
Yiddish-speaking immigrants, although for many decades 
they accounted for a relatively low proportion of the total Jew- 
ish population compared with other major American cities. In 
San Francisco, shanties of East European Jews sprang up in the 
South of Market area before it was destroyed in the 1906 earth- 
quake and fire. Two newer neighborhoods took its place after 
the disaster: the outlying San Bruno Avenue quarter, and the 
more populous Fillmore- Mac Allister district, a vibrant Jewish 
neighborhood in the heart of the city until well after World 
War 11. The Fillmore produced one of the century's greatest 
child prodigies, the violinist Yehudi *Menuhin, while another 
violinist destined for worldwide fame, Isaac *Stern, grew up 
in the nearby Richmond District. In Oakland, a colorful East 
European Jewish neighborhood arose in the aging Victorian 
houses west of Broadway, centered on the Orthodox Congre- 
gation Beth Jacob on Ninth and Castro Streets. 

Most of the city's Jewish immigrants left the ethnic en- 
claves by the 1940s for more mixed, middle class neighbor- 
hoods, such as the Richmond and Sunset Districts in San 
Francisco and the Grand Lake District in Oakland. Still, a 
thick social barrier remained between them and the German- 
Jewish elite, many of whom lived in exclusive Pacific Heights 
with commanding views of the Bay. The two groups differed 
on the proper response to the Holocaust and fought bitterly 
over the merits of Zionism. During World War 11, Rabbi Ir- 
ving Reichert of Emanu-El, along with key lay leaders of his 

congregation, founded the local chapter of the American 
Council for Judaism, dedicated to preventing the creation of 
a Jewish state; it soon became the strongest branch of the acj 
in the country. The forceful young Rabbi, Saul White, a Pol- 
ish immigrant who served the Conservative synagogue Beth 
Sholom, which was comprised largely of East Europeans, 
countered Reichert. 

After the birth of Israel in 1948, and American recogni- 
tion, a community consensus was reached, and nearly all the 
pioneer families transferred their full support to the Jewish 
state. The eloquent, new rabbi at Emanu-El, Alvin Fine, ad- 
vocated Zionism from the pulpit. 

Fine and his close friend Benjamin Swig, owner of the 
historic Fairmont Hotel, helped shift the leadership of Bay 
Area Jewry into the mainstream of American Judaism. Swig 
was the son of a Lithuanian immigrant, but two descendants of 
pioneers were no less active in invigorating Jewish life: Walter 
Haas and Daniel Koshland, cousins, brothers-in-law and co- 
owners of Levi Strauss and Company. Meanwhile, thousands 
of young Jewish newcomers from the East and Midwest, and 
refugees from the Nazi terror, also infused the community 
with a new sense of pride and unity with world Jewry. In the 
1970s and 1980s, the Bay Area Jewry was especially assertive 
in the rescue of Jews from Ethiopia and the Soviet Union. To- 
day, many tens of thousands of Jews from the former Soviet 
Union live in the region, in San Francisco and on the Penin- 
sula in particular, having been aided by the Jewish Commu- 
nity Federation and its agencies. 

In the post- Wo rid War 11 period, the Bay Area contin- 
ued to be a fertile field for audacious Jewish artists such as the 
"beat" poet Allen * Ginsberg, the comedian Lenny *Bruce, the 
sculptor Jacques Schnier, and the rock impressario (and Ho- 
locaust survivor) Bill *Graham. 

The Jewish community became intertwined with both 
the counter-culture and gay rights movement, which took 
hold in the Bay Area beginning in the late 1960s. The House 
of Love and Prayer founded by Rabbi Shlomo *Carlebach, and 
later the Jewish Renewal Movement of New Age rabbi Zalman 
*Schachter-Shalomi, drew many spiritually minded young 
Jews disaffected with traditional synagogue services. Jewish 
mysticism and mediation have remained common features of 
Bay Area Jewish life, both within and outside synagogues. 

In 1977, one of the first synagogues in the country formed 
expressly for homosexuals was founded in San Francisco, 
Congregation Sha'ar Zahav. The following year, a member of 
the Board of Supervisors, Harvey Milk, a New York-born Jew 
and the only openly gay officeholder in the country, was as- 
sassinated in City Hall (along with Mayor George Moscone) 
by former supervisor Dan White. The shocking tragedy en- 
ergized many homosexuals, and since then there has been 
an increasing number of openly gay rabbis and lay leaders in 
the Bay Area. The general Jewish community has shown great 
sensitivity to the aids crisis since a pivotal, widely circulated 
Yom Kippur sermon on the issue was delivered at Emanu-El 
in 1985 by its senior rabbi, Robert Kirschner. 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



San Francisco's and the East Bay's Jewish Community 
Federations and their fast-growing endowment funds, as 
well as family foundations such as Koret, have tried to meet 
the rapidly increasing and changing needs of the diverse Bay 
Area Jewish community By the mid-1980s the Jewish popu- 
lation numbered around 223,000, 4% of the entire Bay Area. 
In 2004, it was estimated to have doubled (as had the gen- 
eral population in the past two decades) as a result of huge 
suburban gains: Contra Costa County, Marin and Sonoma 
Counties, and the Peninsula. A particularly large and vibrant 
Jewish community, including many immigrants from the 
Former Soviet Union as well as Israelis, has emerged on the 
Sourthern end of the Peninsula, with the city of Palo Alto as 
its hub. With about 72,000 Jews, the South Peninsula (essen- 
tially Santa Clara County) has passed San Francisco and con- 
tains the largest Jewish population of any region in the Bay 
Area. A large percentage of the Bay Area Jewish community 
is intermarried; a recent demographic study revealed that 
about a quarter of those living in Jewish households is non- 

Jews are prominent in almost every phase of the region's 
robust economic, cultural, and professional life. They are 
highly represented among the Nobel laureates of uc Berke- 
ley and Stanford; they are leading corporate executives; they 
are on the cutting edge of bio-medical research and techno- 
logical innovation in Silicon Valley. In 1992, two Bay Area 
Jewish women, Dianne *Feinstein and Barbara *Boxer were 
elected to the United States Senate, and they have both been 
twice reelected. Since 1995, Michael Tilson *Thomas (grand- 
son of the great Yiddish actor Boris Thomashefsky) has been 
the music director of the San Francisco Symphony, the third 
Jew to serve in that capacity. 

Recent decades have witnessed a virtual renaissance in 
Jewish education. Illustrious scholars teach in Jewish studies 
programs at the Bay Area's many institutions of higher learn- 
ing - particularly Stanford (Steven Zipperstein and Arnold 
*Eisen), uc Berkeley (Robert *Alter and Daniel *Boyarin), and 
nearby uc Davis (David *Biale). The day school movement, 
moribund until the 1960s, has burgeoned in recent decades 
and in the early 2000s counts 13 schools in the area. Lehrhaus 
Judaica, a school for adult Jewish education, spans the entire 
Bay Area with its offerings. Public intellectuals such as Michael 
Lerner, founder and editor of the leftwing Tikkun magazine, 
have enlivened the debate in the Jewish community on Israel 
and other Jewish issues. 

The recent growth of cultural and recreational centers 
has also been impressive. With the Judah L. Magnes Museum 
and the Contemporary Jewish Museum, A Traveling Jewish 
Theater, the Jewish Film Festival, and its myriad of new, well- 
equipped jccs and residences for seniors, the Bay Area has 
emerged as one of the most dynamic Jewish communities in 
North America. 

bibliography: F. Rosenbaum, Visions of Reform: Congre- 
gation Emanu-El and the Jews of San Francisco, 1849-2000 (2000); I. 
Narell, Our City: The Jews of San Francisco (1981); A.F. Kahn, Jewish 

Voices of the California Gold Rush, 1849-1880 (2002); A.F. Kahn and 
M. Dollinger, California Jews (2003); F. Rosenbaum, Free to Choose: 
The Making of a Jewish Community in the American West, Oakland, 
California (1976). 

[Fred S. Rosenbaum (2 nd ed.)] 

timated 30,000-40,000 Jews of San Gabriel- Pomona Valley 
in the early 21 st century are spread over a significant distance 
with a low density of Jews in any given community. Beginning 
in East Los Angeles, the area covers East Los Angeles south to 
Whittier, east through the Pomona Valley, west of the borders 
of Fontanta, and includes Ontario, Alta Loma, and Pasadena. 
The area spans three counties: Los Angeles County, Western 
San Bernardino County, and a small slice of northern Orange 
County (including La Habra and La Puente). 

Some older parts of the Los Angeles Jewish community 
are found within the San Gabriel Valley though the much 
more numerous Jewish migration from East Los Angeles was 
to the San Fernando Valley. The most visible Jewish institu- 
tion in the community is the synagogue, primarily Conser- 
vative and Reform. There is no mainstream Orthodox pres- 
ence, though Chabad is found in Pasadena and in the Inland 

Pasadena is the home of one of the communities' day 
schools, the Weizmann Day School, which is housed at the 
Pasadena Jewish Temple and Center, a Conservative Syna- 
gogue. The Atid Hebrew Academy is in West Covina and is 
housed on the grounds of Temple Ami Shalom. 

The Pasadena community has a large number of scien- 
tists employed by Cal Tech and jpl, which led the space probe 
to Mars. The Pomona Valley Jewish community has a large 
number of academics employed at the Claremont Colleges 
and the universities that ring the valleys. There is no Jewish 
Community Center, perhaps because of the distances involved 
and the traffic patterns of Los Angeles, so that the Federation 
offers programs and services somewhat like a Jewish Com- 
munity Center without a major community building. Among 
its activities are the Festival in the Park, a Jewish Counseling 
Referral Network, two day camps at two locations, and a suc- 
cessful annual Jewish book festival. 

Federation activities include the Senior Van program 
that brings together isolated seniors and senior groups, the 
Camp Gan Shalom (summer day camp) for area children, 
community- building programs such as the Jewish Festival, 
Women's Forum, Women's Business and Professionals' As- 
sociation, Lunchtime Jewish Learning, and the Jewish Book 

The community offers direct support to Jewish schools 
through its Jewish Education Consultant, Principal's Council, 
Special Education Consultant, Teacher In-Service programs, 
and direct cash grants to area schools. There are a Jewish Fam- 
ily Resource Service, a local counseling referral program, and 
scholarships for participants in organizational Israel experi- 
ences, as well as a Shabbaton program for area children. The 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


Jewish Community News is a monthly newspaper devoted to 
local Jewish activity and national and international news of 
Jewish interest. 

There is a Conservative synagogue in Montebello, Tem- 
ple B'nai Emet, and in Pasadena, Congregation B'nai Torah. 
Pomona has a Reform synagogue, Temple Beth Israel, that 
houses a pre-school. Ontario features a Conservative syna- 
gogue, Temple Sholom. The Chabad of the Inland is located 
in Rancho Cucamonga. West Covina also has a Conservative 
congregation, Temple Ami Shalom, and Whittier has a Con- 
servative synagogue, Temple Beth Shalom. The Reconstruc- 
tionist Havurah in Whittier pioneered the use of Havurot 
within the congregation long before they became fashionable 
in other sections of the country, and they have now sustained 
themselves and continued for a generation. Congregation 
Shaarei Torah in Arcadia, a Conservative congregation, also 
houses a Jewish pre-school called B'nai Simcha. There is also 
a Reform temple, B'nai David, in Temple City. Temple Beth 
Israel of Highland Park and Eagle Rock is a Conservative 
congregation. Sinai Temple of Glendale, a Reform congrega- 
tion, became affiliated with the San Gabriel- Pomona Valleys 
Federation. Adat Re'im in the Pomona Valley has just been 

There are a string of hospitals along the foothills of the 
Valley including *City of Hope, which is now a non- sectar- 
ian hospital but well aware of its Jewish roots, and thus the 
area has attracted Jewish physicians and Jews in allied medical 
professions. Some parts of the Jewish community are old - at 
least by California standards - once rooted in the Jewish com- 
munity of Los Angeles areas such as Monterey Park and Mon- 
tebello. Others have developed in the post-war migration to 
California and in the string of Jewish communities through- 
out Southern California. 

Some areas were settled by Jewish chicken farmers; there 
was an area of egg farming and chicken farming in the val- 
ley. Over time the land became more valuable than the farms, 
and several would-be farmers found themselves prosperous 
real estate developers. 

Because of the vastly increasing cost of housing and the 
shortage of housing in the Los Angeles area, the Jewish com- 
munity of Los Angeles is moving westward into the western 
outreaches of the San Fernando Valley and eastward into the 
Pomona Valley- San Bernardino area. As young families ma- 
ture, one suspects that there will be a growing need for Jew- 
ish institutions, Jewish education, and synagogues to meet an 
expanding population. 

[Michael Berenbaum (2 nd ed.)] 

tury), Italian preacher. A pupil of *Ishmael b. Abraham ha- 
Kohen, rabbi of Modena, Sanguine tti was the author of a book 
of homilies, Olah Hadashah (Leghorn, 1838). The sermons, 
which make use of talmudic and midrashic sources, rely es- 
pecially on the Commentaries of Nahmanides. Influenced by 
kabbalistic literature, Sanguinetti frequently quoted from the 

Zohar and used kabbalistic terms and symbols. Additional 
material was appended to the work in the supplement, "Evrei 
Olah? which deals mainly with halakhah. The introduction 
to the book indicates that Sanguinetti succeeded his teacher 
as rabbi of Modena. 

SANHEDRIN. Great Sanhedrin usually means the supreme 
political, religious, and judicial body in Palestine during the 
Roman period, both before and after the destruction of the 
Temple, until the abolishment of the patriarchate (c. 425 c.e.). 
The precise definition of the term Sanhedrin has engaged the 
attention of historians in the past century, owing to the appar- 
ent conflict between the Hellenistic and rabbinic sources as to 
its nature and functions. While in the Hellenistic sources, in 
Josephus and the Gospels, it appears as a political and judi- 
cial council headed by the ruler, the tannaitic sources depict 
it chiefly as a legislative body dealing with religious matters, 
and in rare cases acting as a court - for instance, to try a false 
prophet or high priest. 

The first historical mention of the Sanhedrin is in the 
statement of Josephus that in 57 B.C. e. *Gabinius divided the 
country into five synedria (Ant., 14:91) or synodoi (Wars, 1:170). 
Most scholars agree that the reference is to a purely political 
body, as the Romans did not interfere with the religious life 
of conquered people. Their objective was, as Schalit points 
out, the prevention of uprisings. The next report describes 
*Hyrcanus, as ethnarch of Judea, presiding over the Sanhe- 
drin trying Herod, the strategus of the Galilee, for political 
murder (Ant., 14:168-70). Subsequently, when Herod became 
king, he had the Sanhedrin condemn Hyrcanus for plotting 
against him (Ant., 15:173), though according to another ac- 
count, he did so himself without the Sanhedrin (15:176). Jo- 
sephus' next reference to a Sanhedrin is to one that consisted 
of Roman high officials, convened at the suggestion of Au- 
gustus in Syria, to try the sons of Herod for rebellion against 
their father (16:356 ff.); according to Josephus (Wars, 1:537), this 
Sanhedrin consisted of Herod's "own relatives and the provin- 
cial governors." When the Sadducean high priest, Ananus, 
"convened the judges of the Sanhedrin" (Jos., Ant., 20:200) 
to condemn James, the brother of Jesus, his opponents, the 
Pharisees, took great pains to have him removed. Their plea 
before the Roman governor that Ananus "had no authority 
to convene the Sanhedrin without his consent" (20:202) was 
obviously a pretext. Ananus' Sanhedrin was no doubt a Sad- 
ducean one, so that in removing Ananus shortly after this, 
Agrippa 11 pleased the Pharisees. On the other hand, the San- 
hedrin convened by Agrippa 11 to permit the levitical singers 
to wear the priestly linen garments - apparently in accord 
with 11 Chronicles 5:12 - was a Pharisaic one (Arakh. na-b). 
Josephus' objection to this ruling (Ant., 20:216-18) represents 
the priestly- Sadducean view. Josephus received his commis- 
sion as a supreme commander from the Sanhedrin (Life, 62), 
though he usually refers to it as the koinon (ibid., 190, 309) and 
describes it as the assembly of the leading people of Jerusalem 
(ibid., 28, see also Wars, 2:562). 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



The Gospels describe three trials before the Sanhedrin, 
all of them presided over by the high priest, but apparently in 
different locations. Jesus was tried on Passover night, or on the 
preceding night, in the palace of the high priest (Mark 14:53 ff.; 
John 18:13). His disciples, Peter and John Zebedee, were ques- 
tioned at "eventide," "in Jerusalem" (Acts, 4:3-6). In the case of 
Paul, the chief priest "and all their Sanhedrin" were ordered to 
meet in the chief captains quarters (Acts, 22:25-30). The tan- 
naitic sources, however, depict the Great Sanhedrin as an as- 
sembly of sages permanently situated in the Chamber of Hewn 
Stone in the Temple, meeting daily, only during the daytime 
between the hours of the two daily sacrifices (approximately 
7:30 a.m. -3:30 p.m.), and never at night, on the Sabbaths or 
festivals, or on their eves. It was the place "where the Law went 
forth to all Israel" (Sanh. 11:2; Tosef, Sanh. 7:1) and was the fi- 
nal authority on halakhah; the penalty of contravening its de- 
cisions on the part of a scholar - * zaken mamre - was death 
(Sanh. ibid.). Settling questions of priestly genealogy was also 
within the province of the Great Sanhedrin (Mid. 5:4; Tosef, 
Sanh. loc. cit.). Actual cases are recorded of questions being 
sent to "the sages in the Chamber of Hewn Stone" (Eduy. 7:4) 
and of Rabban Gamaliel going to the Chamber and receiving 
a reply to a question which he put (Pe'ah 2:6). 

The competence of the Sanhedrin is listed in tannaitic 
literature. "A tribe, a false prophet, or the high priest may not 
be tried save by the court of seventy-one; they may not send 
forth the people to wage a battle of free choice save by the de- 
cision of the court of one and seventy; they may not add to 
the City [of Jerusalem] , or the Courts of the Temple save by 
the decision of the court of seventy-one; they may not set up 
sanhedrins for the several tribes save by the decision of the 
court of one and seventy; and they may not proclaim [any city 
to be] an *Ir ha-Niddahat [cf. Deut. 13:13-19] save by the deci- 
sion of one and seventy" (Sanh. 1:5). The Tosefta enumerates 
still other functions: "They may not burn the red heifer save 
according to the instructions of the court of 71; they may not 
declare one a zaken mamre save the court of 71; they may not 
set up a king or a high priest save by the decision of the court 
of 71" (Tos., Sanh. 3:4). Elsewhere the Mishnah rules that the 
rites of the water of ordeals (see *Sotah; Sot. 1:4) and the *eglah 
arufah - i.e., the breaking of the heifer's neck in order to atone 
for the sin of an anonymous murder (cf. Deut. 21: 1-9) - may 
be performed only under the supervision of the Great Bet Din 
in Jerusalem (Sot. 9:1). 

Unlike Buechler (see bibl., pp. 56ff.) and Zeitlin (see 
bibl., pp. 70-71) who regard the tannaitic list of the functions 
of the Great Bet Din as merely ideal, Tchernowitz (see bibl., 
242 ff.) insists upon its practical reality. Thus, Simeon the Has- 
monean was appointed high priest and "Prince of the people 
of God" (see *Asaramel) by the Great Assembly of priests and 
heads of the nation (1 Mace, i4:27ff.; cf. Tosef, Sanh. 3:4). 
Again, "Jonathan, after the war with Demetrius, returned 
and called the elders of the people together; and took coun- 
sel with them to raise the height of the walls of Jerusalem, 
and to raise a great mound between the citadel and the city" 

(ibid. 12:35-36), things which could only be done, according 
to the Mishnah, with the consent of the Great Court (Sanh. 
1:5; Shevu. 2:2). Yet, in rebuilding the ruins of the city and its 
walls and carrying on defensive wars, Jonathan did not con- 
sult with the Assembly; neither did Simeon take counsel with 
regard to the fortifying of Judea (1 Mace, 13:33). These things 
did not require the consent of the Sanhedrin (Tchernowitz, 
op. cit., 243-7). Furthermore, the reference to "tribes," as Alon 
says, is to sections of the country; or else, the term "tribes," 
like "false prophet" may put into legal formulation practices 
current in the biblical period, as Z. Karl suggests. 

Another aspect of the conflict between the sources is 
that, whereas the tannaitic documents represent the Sanhe- 
drin as being composed of Pharisaic scholars, headed by the 
foremost men of the sect - the nasi and av bet din - the Hel- 
lenistic accounts usually make the high priest, or the king, 
the president of the body. Thus Samaias and Pollion (that is, 
probably, Shemaiah and Avtalyon, or Shammai and Hillel) 
and Simeon b. Gamaliel, who are mentioned in Josephus, and 
Gamaliel 1, who is cited in the Book of Acts, are referred to 
in these books merely as prominent members of the Sanhe- 
drin, though in the tannaitic documents they are represented 
as the presidents of that body. In the Book of Acts, moreover, 
the Sanhedrin is depicted as being "one part Sadducees and 
the other Pharisees" (Acts, 23:6). 

The historians' answers may be classified into three 
groups. Some scholars maintain that there was a single San- 
hedrin, the supreme political, religious and judicial body, but 
they differ among themselves as to the other aspects of the re- 
construction. Schuerer, who dismisses the rabbinic sources, 
regards the high priest as the presiding officer. Hoffmann held 
the highest office to belong to the Pharisaic nasi, though the 
secular rulers often usurped the role. Jelski, following a mid- 
dle course, divides the functions of the presidency between 
the high priest, upon whom he bestows the title nasi, and the 
Pharisaic av bet din. Similarly, G. Alon believes that the San- 
hedrin was composed of Pharisees and Sadducees, each domi- 
nating it by turns. Chwolson thinks that the Great Sanhedrin 
of the rabbinic documents was nothing but a committee on 
religious law appointed by the Sanhedrin (so, too, Dubnow 
and Klausner). Common to all these theories is the erroneous 
assumption that there can be only one Sanhedrin in a city. In 
reality, a Sanhedrin can be the king's or ruler's council, a body 
of high officials; a congress of allies or confederates, a mili- 
tary war council, etc. (see Liddell-Scott, Greek-English Lexi- 
con, s.v. auveBptov). 

Another group of scholars believes that there were in 
Jerusalem three small Sanhedrins, each of a different com- 
position and task - priestly, Pharisaic, and aristocratic - each 
consisting of 23 members. A joint meeting of the three Sanhe- 
drins, headed by a nasi and av bet din, constituted the Great 
Sanhedrin of 71 (Geiger, Derenbourg, etc.). This imaginary 
reconstruction flounders on the Tosefta (Hag. 2:9 and Sanh. 
7:1) and the Jerusalem Talmud (Sanh. 1:7, 19c), according to 
which, contrary to the Babylonian Talmud (Sanh. 88b), the 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


small Sanhedrin consisted only of three. The third group of 
scholars is agreed that there were two supreme bodies in Jeru- 
salem, a political and a religious, but disagree on almost every- 
thing else. Buechler thinks that the religious body was prop- 
erly called Bet Din ha-Gadol she-be-Lishkat ha-Gazit ("Great 
Bet Din in the Chamber of Hewn Stone"), and the application 
to it of the term Sanhedrin was a misnomer. Zeitlin points 
out that there is no evidence that the political Sanhedrin was 
called "Great," but his view that the division between the po- 
litical and the religious authorities dates back to Simeon the 
Hasmonean is questionable. More likely the separation was 
the result of the fact that the political views of the religious 
Sanhedrin were not sought by Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, the 
sons of Salome, nor by Herod, nor by the high priests who 
were appointed by Romans. 

The opponents of the theory of the double Sanhedrin 
base themselves mainly on three arguments: no proof exists 
that the nasi headed the Sanhedrin in the days of the Temple; 
the priests' authority to "declare" the law is scripturally pre- 
scribed (Deut. 17:9), so that the high priest must have at least 
formally headed the religious Sanhedrin, as he did among the 
Qumran sect; and in Judaism there is no division between 
the religious and the secular. As against these arguments, it 
has been pointed out: the law concerning the assignment of 
one's property to the nasi (Ned. 5:5), which dates from Tem- 
ple days, assumes that the nasi headed the Sanhedrin, just as 
he did in the post-destruction era; the Pharisaic exegesis dis- 
pensed with the need of priests in issuing legal decisions, the 
Pharisees basing their ruling on the superfluous words "and 
to judge" (Deut. 17:9; see Sif, Deut. 153); and the Pharisees 
did not voluntarily relinquish their right to judge on politi- 
cal matters. The political rulers simply did not consult them. 
After the destruction of the Temple the religious Sanhedrin 
was reconvened in * Jabneh, and, under the presidency of the 
nasi, it now became also the supreme political instrument for 
all the Jews of the Roman Empire. When Judea was destroyed 
as a result of the failure of Bar Kokhba, the Sanhedrin moved 
to Galilee. At first it met in Usha, then in nearby Shefaram, 
subsequently, in Judah ha-Nasi's time, in Bet She'arim and 
Sepphoris, and in the end in Tiberias. The Romans appar- 
ently withdrew their recognition of the Sanhedrin when they 
dissolved the patriarchate. 

bibliography: Geiger, Urschrift; Derenbourg, Hist; D. Hoff- 
mann, in: Jahres-Bericht des Rabbiner-Seminars fuer das Orthodoxe 
Judenthum pro 5638 (1878); Schuerer, Gesch, 2 (1907 4 ); I. Jelski, Die 
innere Einrichtung des grossen Synedrions zu Jerusalem (1894); A. 
Buechler, Das Synedrion in Jerusalem (1902); A. Schalit, Ha-Mishtar 
ha-Roma'i be-Erez Yisrael (1937); S. Zeitlin, Who Crucified Jesus? 
(1942); Ch. Tchernowitz, Toledot ha-Halakhah (1935-50), especially 
4 (1950), 215-61; Alon, Toledot, 2 (1961 2 ), 38f. and passim; S. Hoenig, 
The Great Sanhedrin (1953); H. Mantel, Studies in the History of the 

Sanhedrin (1961). 

[Hugo Mantel] 

SANHEDRIN (Heb. pirno), fourth tractate in the Mishnah 
order of Nezikin. The sequence of the tractates within an or- 

der being as a rule determined by the size of the tractates, it 
should be remembered that the three Bavot originally consti- 
tuted one large tractate of 30 chapters, to which Sanhedrin, 
together with *Makkot which was originally united with it, 
is second in size. *Sanhedrin, in the context of this tractate, 
means "court of justice," referring to the great bet din, which 
comprised 71 ordained scholars, and the subordinate courts, 
composed of 23 judges, functioning in various towns. The 
general term bet din usually referred to minor courts of three 
members. In general, the tractate deals with the composition 
and power of the courts of different kinds and degrees, with 
legal procedure and criminal law. 

Chapter 1 defines the various courts and their compe- 
tence: i.e., the "courts of three" with monetary matters; that of 
23 with criminal cases which may involve the death penalty; 
and that of 71 with exceptional cases, like trying a high priest 
or a whole city accused of idolatry. Chapter 2 deals with the 
privileges of the high priest and the king in general. Chapter 3 
describes the setting up of ad hoc "courts of three," rules con- 
cerning the qualification of judges and witnesses, and ques- 
tions of judicial procedure. Chapter 4 discusses the differences 
between criminal and civil procedure, and Chapter 5 gives de- 
tails on the way witnesses were examined. Chapter 6 gives in- 
formation as to how the death penalty by stoning was carried 
out, and Chapter 7 enumerates the four modes of execution: 
stoning, burning, decapitation, and strangulation, but ston- 
ing having been discussed in the previous chapter, it proceeds 
with the details of the three other modes of execution. The 
subject of stoning is then taken up again, giving the crimes to 
which this mode of execution applies. Chapter 8 deals with 
the "stubborn and rebellious son" (Deut. 21:18-21). Chapter 
9 discusses the crimes to which the penalties of burning and 
decapitation are applicable, and goes in detail into the vari- 
ous aspects of the crime of murder, especially the question of 
intent (premeditation). Some extraordinary modes of punish- 
ment are also discussed here. Chapter 10 opens with the well- 
known statement that "all Israel have a portion in the world 
to come," implying that even criminals put to death by order 
of the court will be resurrected at the end of days, but then it 
goes on to list certain categories of sinners (specific kinds of 
heretics and idolaters) to whom the comfort of resurrection 
is denied. Chapter 11 deals with the crimes to which the pen- 
alty of strangulation applies, discussing the case of the *zaken 
mamre ("rebellious teacher") and the false prophet, in particu- 
lar. In the Babylonian Talmud this last chapter is placed tenth, 
while the mishnaic tenth becomes the concluding chapter. The 
rabbis go to great lengths (9ob-92a) to prove that the belief in 
the resurrection of the dead was rooted in the Torah. There 
is Gemara to both Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds. In the 
Tosefta, this tractate is divided into 14 chapters. 

Incorporated in the Mishnah Sanhedrin are ancient hala- 
khot and even mishnayot from the time of the Second Temple. 
"The king can neither judge nor be judged" (2:4) is an early 
enactment dating from the time of Alexander * Yannai, and 
earlier still is the statement, "when [the king] sits in judg- 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



ment [the Torah scroll] shall be with him" (ibid). Mishnah 4:2, 
which deals with those who married into the priesthood, also 
belongs to the time when Jerusalem was at the height of its 
glory, and the whole order of the four capital cases certainly - 
by its very nature - dates from Temple times. Chapter 9:6 is 
connected apparently with the *Hasmonean era, and this is 
most certainly the case with regard to the Mishnah "Kanna'im 
[zealots] fall upon one who has intercourse with an Aramean 
woman" (9:6). The well-known Mishnah at the beginning of 
chapter 10 is anti-Sadducean, and this testifies to its early ori- 
gin. Naturally the views of tannaim of a very much later period 
were incorporated in the final arrangement of the Mishnah. 
Recognizable and particularly conspicuous in Sanhedrin are 
additions from the halakhic Midrashim, most of which are 
from the school of Akiva. Some of them belong to the school 
of R. Ishmael and were apparently added by R. Simeon b. 
Yohai, since many anonymous mishnayot are in accordance 
with their view. The English translation of the tractate in the 
Soncino Talmud (1935) is by J. Shachter and H. Freedman. 

bibliography: Epstein, Tanna'im, 417-21; H. Albeck, Shi- 
shah Sidrei Mishnah, 4 (1959), 163-8. 

[Arnost Zvi Ehrman] 

SANHEDRIN, FRENCH, Jewish assembly of 71 members 
convened in Paris during February-March 1807, at the request 
of Napoleon *Bonaparte. The object of this assembly was to 
convert the "secular" answers given by the Assembly of Jew- 
ish * Notables to the questions put to them by the government 
into doctrinal decisions, which would be binding on the Jews 
religiously, by drafting them as precepts based on the Bible 
and halakhah. Previously, on Oct. 6, 1806, the Assembly of 
Jewish Notables sent a manifesto to the Jewish communities 
in Europe, inviting them - in vague terms - to participate in 
the activities for "revival" and "freedom" which Napoleon was 
preparing through the Sanhedrin for the benefit of the Jewish 
people. The response of European Jewry to this manifesto was 
exceedingly poor. The Sanhedrin was constituted of two-thirds 
rabbis and one- third laymen (some of the rabbis and all the lay- 
men had been members of the Assembly of Jewish Notables), 
all from the French Empire and the "Kingdom of Italy." David 
*Sinzheim of Strasbourg, one of the eminent halakhic authori- 
ties of the day, was appointed president. The nine regulations 
issued by the Sanhedrin were confirmed in eight solemn and 
magnificent sessions. The doctrinal preamble to the regulations 
states that the Jewish religion comprises both religious precepts 
which are eternal, and political precepts which had no further 
validity from the time Jewry ceased to be a nation. 

The regulations stated that: 

(1) polygamy is prohibited among Jews; (2-3) the Jew- 
ish bill of divorce or religious marriage has no validity un- 
less it has been preceded by a civil act, and mixed marriages 
are binding upon Jews civilly (but not religiously); (4-5-6) 
the Jews of every country must treat its citizens as their own 
brothers according to the universalist rules of moral conduct, 
and Jews who have become citizens of a state must regard 

that country as their fatherland; (7-8-9) Jews must engage 
in useful professions, and the taking of interest from both 
Jews and gentiles shall be subject to the laws of the country. 
At first sight, it would appear that the drafters of the regula- 
tions subordinated Jewish law to that of the state, but in real- 
ity they did not undermine halakhic principles. It was only in 
subsequent generations that the declaration of the "separation 
of the political from the religious in Judaism" became a mat- 
ter of principle among certain Jewish circles who became as- 
similated in the modern state. 

bibliography: D. Tama, Collection des proces-verbaux et 
decisions du Grand-Sanhedrin (Paris, 1807); idem, Transactions of 
the Parisian Sanhedrim (London, 1807); A.-E. Halphen (ed.), Re- 
cueil des lois, decrets et ordonnances concernant les Israelites (1851), 
20-34; R- Anchel, Napoleon et les Juifs (1928); F. Pietri, Napoleon et 
les Israelites (1965), 84-115; B. Mevorah (ed.), Napoleon u-Tekufato 

(1968), 77-132. 

[Baruch Mevorah] 

SANIELEVICI, HENRIC (1875-1951), Romanian literary 
critic and biologist. Born in Boto§ani, Moldavia, Sanielevici 
pursued two entirely separate careers, one scientific and the 
other literary. His polemical gifts revealed themselves in the 
articles which he contributed - some under the pseudonym 
Hassan - to leading Romanian periodicals and newspapers. 
He held that literary works contained two types of phenom- 
ena: the sociological and the psychological. The former was to 
be clarified and coordinated on the basis of materialistic prin- 
ciples of history, the latter on what Sanielevici himself termed 
"differential psychology" and "the psycho-physiology of race." 
Sanielevici particularly opposed ultra- nationalistic tendencies 
in Romanian literary circles and from 1903 published critical 
essays and studies written in a vigorous and uncompromising 
spirit. The most important were collected in Incercdri critice 
(1903), Cercetdri critice sifilosofice (1916), Studii critice (1920), 
and Alte cercetdri critice sifilosofice (1925). 

Sanielevici s work as a biologist eventually led him to the 
issue of race. In La vie des mammiferes et des hommes fossiles 
dechiffree a Vaide de Vanatomie (1926), he examined and com- 
pared the organs of mastication and digestion in man and 
other mammals in order to explain the development of man 
and the ethnic diversity of mankind. Within a decade he had 
entered the fight against Nazi racial theories with his two- 
volume work In slujba Satanei ("In the Service of the Devil", 
1930-35). Here he rejected the usual criteria of language and 
nation, and determined race solely according to anthropologi- 
cal type. He also endeavored to establish psychological con- 
stants that would explain national characteristics, thus setting 
forth a new theory of race and racial psychology. Though orig- 
inally an advocate of Jewish assimilation, Sanielevici greatly 
modified his views after World War 1. 

bibliography: P.P. Negulescu, in: Analele Academiei Ro- 

mdne, 2 nd . ser., 38 (1915-16); E. Lovinescu, Critice, 8 (1923), 117; G. 

Calinescu, Istoria literaturii Romdne . . . (c. 1941), 569-70; idem, Ulysse 

(1967), 261-5. 

[Dora Litani-Littman] 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


SAN JOSE, city in California, 40 miles S. of San Francisco, 
with a Jewish population of 40,000 in 2005. San Jose was the 
first capital of California (1849-51). Ten men organized the 
Jewish community of San Jose in 1861 as the Bickur Cho- 
lim Society By 1869 the membership, made up primarily of 
merchants, was 35 from San Jose and the vicinity The Jewish 
population in 1880 was 265. Until 1953 Congregation Bickur 
Cholim, now Temple Emanu-El (after a fire in 1848), was the 
only synagogue. Although its ritual was Reform, separate ser- 
vices were conducted on the High Holidays to accommodate 
the Orthodox members. 

Congregation Sinai, today conservative, was organized 
in 1953, while Conservative Congregation Beth David, Sara- 
toga, began in 1962. 

In the early 21 st century there were over two dozen 
Jewish organizations in Santa Clara Valley, 16 being syna- 
gogues with their own religious schools. There were an ad- 
ditional four synagogues in Monterey County. Nearby there 
is also Beth Torah in Fremont (Alameda County) and vari- 
ous synagogues along the Peninsula, from Palo Alto to Bur- 
lingame, which have a working relationship with the San 
Francisco Jewish Federation, as does the Hillel at Stanford 
University. Hillel of Silicon Valley serves San Jose State and 
Santa Clara Universities plus Evergreen, Mission, San Jose 
City, De Anza, Foothill, and West Valley Community Col- 

In 2005 the Jewish Federation of Silicon Valley (the name 
changed from Jewish Federation of Greater San Jose in Sep- 
tember, 2004) celebrated its 75 th anniversary and later moved 
into the new Gloria and Ken Levy Family Campus on Au- 
gust 1, 2005. This facility houses the Yavneh Day School, Jew- 
ish Family Service, the Addison Penzak jcc and the San Jose 
Federation. Some additional key autonomous organizations 
include the jcrc, Jewish Education Council, Jew ish Commu- 
nity News, Jewish Community Preschool, the Jewish Commu- 
nity Chaplain Program, and three cemeteries. Also within the 
immediate vicinity are Jewish educational institutions from 
preschool through high school. 

The presence of national defense contractors and sci- 
entific and engineering firms brought many highly educated 
Jews to the area beginning in 1950. This process has intensi- 
fied during the high tech boom, which has influenced Jewish 
existence in Santa Clara Valley in all aspects of life, and many 
individuals established their own prosperous firms. 

bibliography: Temple Emanu-El Centennial Anniversary 
1861-1961 (1961); Statistics of the Jews of the United States (1880); Jew- 
ish Federation of Silicon Valley: A Community Celebration of the Fed- 
eration's /5 th Anniversary (2005) 

[Robert E. Levinson / Stephen D. Kinsey (2 nd ed.)] 

SAN MARINO, tiny independent republic near * Rimini sur- 
rounded by Italian territory. Jewish loan-banks appeared there 
as early as 1369, one of them being managed by a woman. In 
1442 some of the bankers were accused of conspiracy against 
the state, and the duke of Urbino intervened with the "regents" 

of the republic to prevent the Jews being further molested. The 
activities of Jewish moneylenders continued until the 17 th cen- 
tury. Although in modern times any Jewish connection with 
San Marino was sporadic, the tiny republic obediently enacted 
racial laws in 1938, in imitation of Italy, against the dozen Jew- 
ish families who had drifted there in recent years; they were 
repealed on the fall of Mussolini in the summer of 1943. The 
consul general of Israel in Rome serves in the same capacity 
also in San Marino. 

bibliography: Milano, Bibliotheca, index; Bernardi, in: rej, 
48 (1904), 241-64; 49 (1904), 80-97; 50 (1905)* 129-35; Lonardo, in: 
Atti e memorie della Regia deputazione di storia patria per le Marche, 

2 (1905X 93-H5- 

[Ariel Toaff ] 

SAN NICANDRO, small town near Ban, S. Italy. San Nican- 
dro became noteworthy when 23 peasant families there ad- 
opted Judaism. About 1930 a winegrower, Danato Manduzio, 
inspired by a dream, began to preach the truth of the Mosaic 
law and the necessity of conversion to it. A self-educated man 
and a tenacious apostle of his new mystical beliefs, he and 
his followers finally adopted Judaism, despite the threats of 
the local clergy, the hostility of the Fascist authorities, and 
the dissuasion of the rabbinate in Rome, which feared that 
they, too, might suffer from the new anti- Jewish policy of the 
government. It is probable, however, that contact with mem- 
bers of the Jewish Brigade in the region (in Garagano and Fog- 
gia) in the 1940s and Zionist ideas reinforced the movement. 
The conversion of Manduzio and his followers was formally 
recognized in 1944. In 1948 Manduzio died. The following 
year the group moved to Israel where they joined the moshav 
*Almah in Upper Galilee. Not all of them, however, remained 
there and the group split up. In 1992 few of the remaining 
inhabitants were still adhering to Judaism and, according 
to a visitor to the area, it was mainly the women who con- 
tinued to celebrate certain Jewish holidays in a private house 
that served as a synagogue (tempio). They tended to interpret 
biblical commandments rather literally, in a way that may be 
termed as "karaitization." But although they still observed 
some kashrut laws, they had little contact with rabbinical au- 
thorities, did not circumcise their sons, and the men declared 
they could not refrain from working on the Sabbath. In the 
early 2000s the group was not recognized as Jewish by rab- 
binical authorities. 

bibliography: E. Cassin, History of a Religious Phenom- 
enon (1959); RE. Lapide, The Prophet of San Nicandro (1953); J. Ben- 
David, in: jjso, 2 (i960), 244-58. add. bibliography: C. Civi- 
dalli, "Ritorno a San Nicandro," in: rmi, 39 (1973), 226-36; E. Trevisan 
Semi, "A Conversion Movement in Italy: Jewish Universalism and 
Gender in San Nicandro," in: T. Parfitt (ed.), Judaising Movements. 
Studies in the Margins of Judaism (2002), 65-85. 

[Giorgio Romano / Nadia Zeldes (2 nd ed.)] 

SANOK (called Sonik by the Jews), town in Rzeszow prov- 
ince, S.E. Poland. From 1772 to 1918 the town was under Aus- 
trian rule (central * Galicia). The remains of an ancient Jew- 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



ish cemetery in the vicinity testify to the existence of a Jewish 
settlement in the town in the second half of the 14 th century, 
after Sanok had been annexed to Poland by King *Casimir 
in. The names of some Jewish members appear in a list of the 
craftsmen's guild of the town in 1514. However, a Jewish com- 
munity was organized only at the end of the 16 th century and 
was subordinate to that of Lesko. In 1570, 17 of the 200 fami- 
lies residing in the town were Jewish. They earned their living 
as traders in wine and grain, and as furriers, tailors, and tan- 
ners. At the beginning of the 18 th century, the Jewish settle- 
ment at Sanok grew, receiving privileges from King Augustus 
11 (1720) and King Augustus in (1754). A synagogue was built 
in the 1720s. There were 467 poll-tax paying Jews in Sanok 
and its environs in 1765. During the 19 th century local trade 
in lumber, timber, and cloth manufacture was concentrated 
in Jewish hands. At the end of the 19 th century, the Jews of Sa- 
nok initiated the development of oil production in the area. 
From 1868 the representatives of the local Jewish community 
played an important part in municipal institutions. Under 
Austrian rule the Jewish population grew quickly: in 1800 it 
numbered about 1,850 (40% of the total population); in 1880, 
it numbered 2,129 (42%); and in 1910, 4,073 (38%). Hasidism 
became strong in the community toward the end of the 18 th 
century and, up to the end of the 19 th , concentrated around 
the kloyzn of the Hasidim of *Belz, Bobob, Nowy Sacz, and 
*Sadgora. At the beginning of the 20 th century, Zionist orga- 
nizations sprang up. The teacher Zevi Abt founded in 1909 a 
Hebrew school called Safah Berurah which had 77 pupils in 
1911. From 1910 to 1914, the weekly Folksfraynd was published. 
In 1921, 4,067 Jews formed 42% of the total population of the 
town. Between the two world wars the Jews of Sanok occupied 
key positions in the town economy. From 1919 to 1921, Meir 
*Shapira served as rabbi of Sanok. Among those born in the 

town was Benzion * Katz. 

[Arthur Cygielman] 

Holocaust Period 

The number of Jews in Sanok in 1939 was over 5,000. The Ger- 
mans entered the city on Sept. 8, 1939, and in the first days of 
the occupation the synagogues were burned. A few hundred 
Jews were deported to the other side of the San River, which 
was under Soviet rule. In 1941 the Jews were concentrated in a 
ghetto, which contained about 8,000 people - including Jews 
from nearby townlets. There they were subjected to forced 
labor, including work in the stone quarries of Trepcza. On 
Sept. 10, 1942, most of the Jews of Sanok were deported to a 
concentration camp at Zaslaw. Only a few succeeded in es- 
caping. After the Germans concentrated Jews from the entire 
Sanok area in the Zaslaw camp, 4,000 people were sent to the 
* Belzec death camp. The sick and aged were shot in the nearby 
forests. In October 1942 two more transports were sent to Bel- 
zee. On Sept. 14, 1942, the Germans announced that those who 
had escaped would be allowed to return to the ghetto and live 
there. About 300 Jews returned to the ghetto; they were later 
executed or transported to concentration camps. A few hun- 
dred Sanok Jews survived the Holocaust, most of them having 

been in the Soviet Union during the war. Some Jews rescued 
from the Nazis were killed by antisemitic Polish bands. 

[Aharon Weiss] 

bibliography: A. Shravit (ed.), Sanok, Sefer Zikkaron 
(1969); Wroclaw, Zaklad Narodowy imienia Ossolinskich, 2501/11 
9730/11 (= cahjp, hm 6664, hm 71059); Halpern, Pinkas, index; 
R. Mahler, Yidn in Amolikn Poyln in Likhtfun Tsifern (1958), index; 
idem, Ha-Haskalah ve-ha-Hasidut (1961), 433-5; B. Wasiutyriski, 
Ludnosc zydowska w Polsce w wiekach xix i xx (1930), 96, 107, 118, 
147; I. Schiper, Dzieje handlu zydowskiego na ziemiach polskich (1937), 
index; N.M. Gelber, Ha-Tenuah ha-Ziyyonit be-Galizyah 18/5-1918 
(1958), 201; S. Nobel, in: yivo Bleter, 45 (1965/66); A. Fastnacht, Zarys 
dziejow Sanoka (1958). 

SAN REMO CONFERENCE, a conference of the Allies in 
World War 1 (Great Britain, France, and Italy), held in San 
Remo, Italy, in April 1920, which confirmed the pledge con- 
tained in the *Balfour Declaration concerning the establish- 
ment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. The conference 
was a continuation of a previous meeting between the Allies 
held in London in February 1920, where it was decided, among 
other things, to put Palestine under British Mandatory rule. 
The British delegation to San Remo was headed by Prime Min- 
ister David Lloyd George and Lord Curzon, who had replaced 
Lord *Balfour as foreign minister in 1919. At both meetings 
the French expressed many reservations about the inclusion 
of the Balfour Declaration in the peace treaty, and it was only 
after the exertion of British pressure that they were gradually 
persuaded to agree to it. The San Remo Conference was at- 
tended by Chaim *Weizmann, Nahum *Sokolow, and Herbert 
*Samuel, who presented a memorandum to the British delega- 
tion on the final settlement in the Eastern Mediterranean re- 
gion. Lord Balfour was called in for consultations. The article 
concerning Palestine was debated on April 24, and the next 
day it was finally resolved to incorporate the Balfour Declara- 
tion in Britain's mandate in Palestine. Thus Britain was made 
responsible "for putting into effect the declaration made on 
the 8 th [sic] November 1917 by the British Government and 
adopted by the other Allied Powers, in favor of the establish- 
ment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people; it 
being clearly understood that nothing should be done which 
may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non- 
Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political 
status enjoyed by Jews in any other country." The resolution 
was celebrated by mass demonstrations throughout the Jew- 
ish world. 

bibliography: L. Stein, The Balfour Declaration (1961), 

652-63; C. Weizmann, Trial and Error (1949), 321-5; D. Lloyd George, 

The Truth About the Peace Conference, 2 (1938), 1167-75, 1182-90; J. 

Nevakivi, Britain, France and the Arab Middle East (1969), 240-54 

and index. 

[Getzel Kressel] 

SANTA COLOMA DE QUERALT, town in Tarragona prov- 
ince, N.E. Spain. Santa Coloma de Queralt s Jewish commu- 
nity was a typical small community in Catalonia. There were 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


many such small communities which were hardly mentioned 
in the central archive of the Kingdom of Aragon, the Arxiu 
de la Corona d'Arago. The information we have on the Jews 
of Santa Coloma comes from the most extensive notarial pro- 
tocols kept today in the Archivi Historico Provincial de Tar- 
ragona. In the 13 th century 30 Jewish families were allowed to 
dwell in Santa Coloma, which was under the jurisdiction of 
the House of Queralt. Santa Coloma de Queralt was a village of 
150 houses in the 14 th century. The Jews engaged in agriculture, 
commerce, and crafts, and at the beginning of their settlement 
they already owned slaves. The richest Jews, constituting less 
than 10% of the local Jews, were moneylenders whose activi- 
ties and transactions are fully recorded. The sources offer in- 
teresting details about Jewish life and important information 
about some of the leading members of the community. The 
notarial acts contain valuable information on the internal life 
of the Jews, on marriage contracts, education, social welfare, 
and communal organization. There were two synagogues, one 
in Carrer Major, called Scola de Judeus, and the other was the 
Beth Midrash in Carrer dels Jueus. The Jewish quarter was 
situated in the area today known as Carrer de los Quarteres. 
In the Baixada de la Preso, the Jews had their espital, which 
served visitors and poor Jews. In 1328 the Jewish population 
numbered seven families, while by 1347 there were already 30 
Jewish families. At some point in the 14 th century the Jewish 
population reached a maximum of 100 families. 

In the 1370s and 1380s a Jewish female physician, *Floreta 
Ca Noga, was known among the inhabitants of the town. She 
treated the queen in 1381 and was greatly esteemed by the royal 
court. In Santa Coloma lived the Jewish poet Astruc Bonafeu. 
Culturally, the community must have been quite developed. 
Contracts with private teachers and the impressive library of 
Solomon Samuel Azcarell are good illustrations. The perse- 
cutions of 1391 affected the town, and there were subsequent 
problems connected with conversions, such as the case of an 
apostate who appeared before a government official in 1391 
and accused his wife of refusing to convert and live with him 
as a Christian. In the records of the local notary additional 
cases are noted where Jewish women demanded conversion 
while the husbands remained faithful to Judaism. Accord- 
ing to the records of the notary, the couples were separated 
by agreement. In spite of all this, the community continued 
to exist until after the *Tortosa Disputation, and it may have 
continued until the days of the expulsion. 

bibliography: J. Segura y Vails, Historia de la villa de Santa 
Coloma de Queralt (1879), 59 ff., 82f.; Baer, Urkunden, 1 (1929), index; 
A. Cardoner Planas, in: Sefarad, 9 (1949), 443; F. Cantera, Sinagogas 
espanolas (1955), 282 fF.; A. J. Soberanas i Lleo, in: Boletin Arqueologico 
de Tarragona, 67-68 (1967-68), 191-204. add. bibliography: Y. 
Assis, in: Proceedings of the 8 th World Congress of Jewish Studies (1982), 
2:33-38 (Hebrew section); idem, in: Y. Kaplan (ed.), Jews and Conver- 
sos; Studies in Society and the Inquisitiion, (1985), 21-38; idem, The Jews 
of Santa Coloma de Queralt: An Economic and Demographic Study of 
a community at the End of the Thirteenth Century, (1988); G. Secall i 
Guell, La comunitat hebrea de Santa Coloma de Queralt (1986). 

[Haim Beinart /Yom Tov Assis (2 nd ed.)] 

SANTA CRUZ, coastal city in Northern California. The 
county had a population of 240,880 in 2001, including an es- 
timated 6,000 Jews. Louis Schwartz, believed to be the first 
Jewish settler in Santa Cruz, in 1855 opened a general store 
with the Brownstone brothers. The Jewish community grew 
slowly; it initially was comprised of single men, but eventu- 
ally women came and then families. The first observance of 
the Jewish New Year, under lay leadership, was in 1869, with 
meetings in community halls or in churches. 

In 1877 Home of Peace Cemetery was consecrated on land 
that was donated to the Jewish community. Like many Jewish 
communities, Santa Cruz' Jewish community's first piece of 
property was a cemetery. A mutual aid society followed, when 
in 1887 a small group of Jewish families founded a Hebrew 
Benevolent Society in Santa Cruz. The first known synagogue 
building was acquired in the early 1930s. In 1954, the still small 
Jewish community built a modest synagogue on Bay Street, 
which was named Temple Beth El, incorporated as the Jewish 
Community Center of Santa Cruz, California, Inc. Rabbi Rich- 
ard Litvak became the first full-time rabbi of Temple Beth El in 
1977. The Temple moved to new facilities in Aptos in 1990. 

In the last third of the 20 th century and beyond, the Jew- 
ish community of Santa Cruz was directly linked to the Uni- 
versity of California Santa Cruz with its many Jewish students 
and faculty, uc Santa Cruz boasts the largest percentage of 
Jewish students at any Northern California campus (approxi- 
mately 20% of 15,000 students are Jews: 2,600 undergrads and 
250 graduate students), uc Santa Cruz has a Jewish Studies 
program and a Jewish Studies Research Unit. Among its fac- 
ulty is Murray Baumgarten, the editor of Judaism. 

Active in Santa Cruz are three Jewish congregations and 
a Havurah. Temple Beth El is the oldest and remains a Reform 
Congregation. Chabad by the Sea is the Orthodox congrega- 
tion. Congregation Kol Tefilah is Conservative and Hadesh 
Yamenu is the Havurah grouping. 

The Hillel serves some 4,000 Jewish college students in 
the region, including uc Santa Cruz, Cabrillo College, and 
csu Monterey Bay. 

Social Justice is a local Jewish focus, much in keeping 
with the ethos of the university and the community. "Out in 
Our Faith" is a gay and lesbian, bi-sexual, and transvestite 
group. There is a local chapter of the Tikkun Community, 
coejl: Coalition on the Environment and Jewish Life, Eco- 
Jew, and Mazon chapter. 

The Jewish community of Santa Cruz sponsors an an- 
nual Jewish film festival and has published The Santa Cruz 


[Michael Bernbaum (2 nd ed.)] 

SANTA FE, the first and one of the most important provinces 
in ^Argentina, opened for the agricultural settlement of im- 
migrants; capital city of the province. 

The Province 

Jewish population above five years of age, according to the 
i960 census, was 14,152 out of a total of 1,865,537. I n 2005 it was 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



estimated by the Va'ad ha-Kehilot (see ^Argentina) at 2,400 
families. Jewish agricultural settlement started in Santa Fe 
province around the towns of Vieja Monigotes and Moises- 
ville in 1888 and 1889, respectively. Land owned in Santa Fe 
by the Jewish Colonization Association (ica) included more 
than 147,000 hectares, mainly concentrated in Moisesville and 
the Montefiore colony near Ceres. Today the remaining Jewish 
settlers in Santa Fe deal more in cattle than in agriculture. 

The disintegration of agricultural settlements brought 
about the creation of Jewish communities in many towns and 
villages in the province. A survey conducted in 1943 by ica 
found 21,833 Jews in the province, of whom only 2,956 lived 
on the agricultural settlements; 17,422 lived in 11 cities and 
towns; and another 1,455 lived in 112 villages and hamlets. In 
the following years, because of increased migration from ru- 
ral to urban areas, there was a sharp decline in the number 
of areas with Jewish population, as well as in the number of 
Jews in the rural areas generally. In 1964, 12 cities and towns 
had organized Jewish communities affiliated with the Va'ad 
ha-Kehillot, the principal ones being *Rosario (in 2005 with 
some 1,600 families), Rafaela, Moisesville, Ceres, Palacios, San 
Cristobal, and the capital city, Santa Fe. 

The City 

The first Jews to reach the city of Santa Fe were immigrants 
who arrived from Eastern Europe and Morocco in 1888-89. 
The first communal organization was the Sociedad Israelita 
Latina del Cementerio, established by Moroccan Jews in 1895. 
The Ashkenazi Sociedad Union Israelita de Socorros was 
founded in 1906. In 1909 there were 547 Jews in the city, most 
of whom were small businessmen and laborers. By 1943 the 
Jewish community had increased to an estimated 4,000, of 
whom 3,600 were Ashkenazim and the rest Sephardim from 
Morocco, Turkey, and Syria. At that time the Ashkenazim 
maintained their own hevra kaddisha which constituted the 
central communal institution, and over whose control a con- 
flict ensued between the Zionist Sociedad Union Israelita 
Sionista and the "progressive" (pro- Communist) Sociedad 
Cultural I.L. Peretz. Both groups, however, were subsidized 
by the hevra kaddisha, conducted separate cultural activities, 
and maintained their own schools. In later years, the hevra 
kaddisha became the Comunidad Israelita, with a member- 
ship of 742 families in 1969 that declined to 600 in 2005. In 
June 2005 the Comunidad Israelita, within the framework of 
the commemoration of its centenary, inaugurated a Jewish 
museum - Museo Judio de Santa Fe "Hinenu? The commu- 
nity life of the Sephardim continued to center on the common 
cemetery. Despite the fact that the Sephardim had formed 
separate synagogues according to countries of origin, in the 
1950s, they established a common congregation, Sociedad He- 
brea Sefaradi de Socorros Mutuos. 

In addition to several welfare and women's organiza- 
tions, three important financial bodies were established in 
Santa Fe: two credit cooperatives and a commercial coopera- 
tive founded by peddlers. In 1970 the Jewish institutions in 

Santa Fe comprised two Ashkenazi synagogues - one of them 
Conservative, one Sephardi synagogue, a shohet y a mikveh, the 
Club Israelita Macabi, and three Jewish credit institutions. 
The H.N. Bialik Jewish kindergarten and day school had in 
the 1970s an enrollment of 144 pupils. In the early 21 st cen- 
tury there was also a Zionist youth movement, Macabi Za'ir, 
connected with He-Halutz la-Merhav. The city's branch of 
*daia is the umbrella organization for all groups except the 

[Daniel Benito Rubinstein Novick] 

SANTANGEL, LUIS DE (d. 1498), comptroller-general (Es- 
cribano de Ration) to Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain. Born in 
Valencia, he was a descendant of a noble Converso family, the 
Chinillos of Calatayud. One of its members, Azarias Chinillo, 
became converted to Christianity at the time of the disputation 
of *Tortosa and adopted the name Luis de Santangel. This San- 
tangel, the protege of the Catholic monarchs, was the grandson 
of the first Luis de Santangel, after whom he was named. He 
began his career as a courtier, and served as a tax collector of 
the Royal Treasury, until in 1481 he was appointed comptrol- 
ler-general, a position which he held until his death. He was 
succeeded by his brother jaime and his son Fernando. In 
i486 he became acquainted with Christopher * Columbus and 
was greatly impressed by his projects. Santangel's influence 
with the Catholic monarchs was decisive in gaining their ac- 
ceptance of Columbus' proposals. He lent 1,140,000 maravedis 
to finance the historic voyage which resulted in the discovery 
of the American continent. In recognition of this assistance, 
Columbus wrote his first letter on his impressions of the voy- 
age to Santangel. Written on Feb. 18, 1493, it contains interest- 
ing descriptions of his findings. Santangel also used his influ- 
ence at court to help Conversos caught in the meshes of the 
Inquisition. He assisted the Jews expelled from Spain in 1492 
by contributing toward the hire of vessels to enable them to 
leave the country. He should not be confused with another 
Luis de Santangel, a member of the same family, who was ac- 
cused of complicity in the assassination of the inquisitor Pedro 
de Arbues, and was burned at the stake. 

bibliography: Baer, Spain, 2 (1966), index; M. Serrano y 
Sanz, Origenes de la domination espahola en America (1918), 97ff.; 
M. Ballesteros-Gaibrois, Valencia y los reyes catolicos (1943), index; 
F. Cabezudo Astrain, in: Sefarad, 23 (1963), 2651!.; Suarez Fernandez, 
Documentos, 434-5. add. bibliography: J. Manzano Manzano, 
Cristobal colon: siete ahos decisivos de su vida, 1485-1492 (1989 2 ), 
363-81; 443-52; J. Ventura Subirats, in: xin Congres d'histo'ria de la 
Corona d'Arago, vol. 4 (1990), 47-58. 

SANTAREM, city in central Portugal. An important Jewish 
community in the Middle Ages, Santarem was the rabbinical 
seat for the district of Estremadura. On his capture of the city 
in 1140, Alfonso Henriques, the first king of Portugal, is said 
to have found a Jewish community and a synagogue there. 
The charter of Santarem and *Beja conferred by Affonso 
Henriques contained legislation against the Jews, stipulat- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


ing among other things that, in litigation between Jews and 
Christians, only Christian witnesses would be accepted, and 
that Christians would not be accountable for offenses against 
Jews. Various Cortes held in Santarem issued discrimina- 
tory decrees against the Jews, that of 1461 decreeing that Jews 
should not wear silk, and of 1468 ordering all Jews to wear an 
identifying badge and to live within the Jewish quarter. Late in 
1490, or early in 1491, the Jews of Santarem fulsomely greeted 
the Spanish princess, eldest daughter of Queen Isabella, who 
had been betrothed to the Portuguese prince Affonso, and 
regaled her with gifts as she stopped in Santarem on the way 
from Evora. After the forced conversion of 1497, a substantial 
community of New * Christians lived in Santarem, suffering 
grievously from the devastating earthquake of Jan. 26, 1531, 
and its aftermath. Fanatical monks seized on the disaster to 
denounce the New Christians and their friends, calling the 
earthquake a divine punishment for the toleration of the New 
Christians. New Christians were attacked and expelled from 
their homes, and many were compelled to seek refuge in the 
mountains. The distinguished dramatist Gil Vicente took up 
the cudgels on their behalf, and his passionate pleas for sanity 
and moderation restored calm. There were further disorders 
against the New Christians of Santarem in 1630. 

bibliography: M. Kayserling, Geschichte derjuden in Por- 
tugal (1867), 2, 13, 52, 64, 98, 180; J Mendes dos Remedios, Osjudeus 

em Portugal (1895), passim. 

[Martin A. Cohen] 

SANTOB DE CARRION (Shem Tov ben Isaac Ardu- 
tiel; i3 th -i4 th century), Hebrew and Spanish poet. Nothing 
is known of his life, except that he lived in Carrion de los 
Condes. Samuel *Ibn Sasson, who lived in the same town, 
exchanged some poems with him between 1330 and 1340, al- 
though only those sent by Ibn Sasson are preserved. By that 
time, Santob was already "famous in the kingdom of Spain." 
Santob was no longer young when he dedicated to Pedro 1 of 
Castile his Proverbios morales (known also as the Consejos y 
documentos al rey don Pedro) y a series of poems on ethical and 
intellectual virtues and defects. The work itself was probably 
written between 1355 and 1360. This exists in five i5 th -century 
manuscripts, one an aljamiado text (i.e., Spanish written in 
Hebrew characters), and another copy of one of them. Modern 
editions include 725 stanzas. The philosophical ideas in this 
first example of gnomic literature in Castilian are not highly 
original - the sources were probably Hebrew and Arabic 
ethical poetry - but the expression is concise and poetic. Its 
main themes are the golden mean in human conduct and the 
relativity of existence in this world. A thread of melancholic 
pessimism runs through the work, but it does not negate the 
didactic and moral elevation of the verses. Americo Castro 
described him as the first one who expressed in the Spanish 
language the bitterness of someone who considers himself 
worthy, even if society does not recognize him as such. He 
presented him as a "refined rationalist," a "good islamicized 
Hispano-Hebrew." With a completely different perspective, 

C. Sanchez Albornoz saw in Santob a model of a perfectly 
Castilianized Jew. 

Some of the passages of the book are among the most 
quoted ones in Spanish literature, such as the comparison of 
the proverbs written by a Jewish author with the rose born 
on the thornbush. Taking as a literary model the wisdom say- 
ings of the Book of Proverbs, he addresses a moral message to 
his contemporaries, including traditional ideas and his own 
perspective. Santob gives a picture of the Jews of the epoch 
as "loyal to the law of the land, supportive of universalistic 
ethical and religious codes, actively engaged in commerce, 
skeptical of the world and perhaps increasingly of their own 
social ambience, and, in coded messages, longing for final de- 
liverance" (Perry). 

The Proverbios enjoyed considerable popularity, both in 
Jewish and Christian circles. Its maxims were quoted by the 
kabbalist Abraham ibn Saba and by the Marquis of Santillana, 
who numbered Santob among the great "trovadores" of his 
country. Proverbios Morales was published several times, and 
a critical edition from a manuscript in the Hebrew charac- 
ters of the 15 th century was published by Ig. Gonzalez Llubera 
(1947); other, more recent editions are that of A. Garcia Calvo 
(1974), S. Shepard (1986) T.A. Perry (1986) and P. Diaz-Mas 
and C. Mota (1998). The work has been the object of many 
commentaries and very different interpretations (Zemke, 1997, 
mentions more than 160 studies). Though other Jewish poets 
in Spain wrote poetry in Spanish, Santob de Carrion is the 
only one whose Spanish verses have survived. Although other 
Spanish works, such as the Danza de la Muerte, have been at- 
tributed to Santob, there is no basis for such attribution. The 
fact that a Jew wrote in Spanish was not seen with sympathy 
in the Jewish communities; Ibn Sasson recommended to San- 
tob to abandon "their language" and to write in Hebrew, "the 
pure language, close to you." 

Santob's Hebrew writings include a liturgical poem (the 
viddui gadol "Ribbono shel olam, bi-rebti behurotai") which 
has been incorporated into the Sephardi ritual for the Day 
of Atonement. His bakkashah, "Yam Kohelet," consists of 
2,000 words, each beginning with the letter mem; it has not 
yet been conveniently published. Four pizmonim have also 
been attributed to him. His rhymed narrative (maqdma-Wke) 
called Milhemet ha-Et ve-ha-Misparayim ("The Struggle be- 
tween the Pen and the Scissors," 1345), contains a debate on 
the importance of pen and scissors as instruments of writing 
(Divrei Hakhamim (Metz, 1649), 47a). A critical edition of 
this rhymed prose was published by Y. Nini and M. Frucht- 
man (1980). Santob also translated the poetic composition of 
Israel ha-Israeli, a disciple of Asher b. Jehiel, from Arabic into 
Hebrew, under the title Mitzvot Zemanniyyot, and wrote an 
extensive introduction. This work, probably written in Soria, 
is still in manuscript. 

bibliography: Y. Baer, MinHah le-David (1935), 200; Baer, 
Spain, 1 (1966), 358, 447; A. Castro, Espaha en su historia (1948), 
561-81; Davidson, Ozar, 4 (1933), 476; Gonzalez Llubera, in: His- 
panic Review, 8 (1940), 113-24; Schirmann, Sefarad, 2 (1956), 529-40; 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


- c 


L. Stein, Untersuchung ueber die Proverbios morales von Santob de 
Carrion (1900). add. bibliography: A. Garcia Calvo, Glosas de 
sabiduria Proverbios morales y otras rimas (1974); idem, in: Raices 
hebreas en Extremadura (1996), 419-34; S. Shepard, Shem Tov, His 
World and His Words (1978); idem, Proverbios morales (1986); C. 
Colahan, in: Sefarad, 39:1 (1979), 87-107; 39:2, 265-308; Y. Nini and 
M. Fruchtman, Maaseh ha-Rav (Milhemet ha-Et ve-ha-Misparayim) 
(1980); T.A. Perry, Santob de Carrion, Proverbios morales (1986); 
idem, The Moral Proverbs of Santob de Carrion: Jewish Wisdom in 
Christian Spain (1987); J. Zemke, in: La Coronica, 17:1 (1988), 76-89; 
idem, Critical Approaches to the "Proverbios morales" of Shem Tov de 
Carrion: An Annotated Bibliography (1997); S. Einbinder, in: huca, 
65 (1994), 261-76; Schirmann-Fleischer, The History of Hebrew Poetry 
in Christian Spain and Southern France (Hebrew; 1997), 562-69; Sem 
Tob de Carrion, Proverbios morales, P. Diaz-Mas and C. Mota (eds.) 
(1998); M. Raden, in: Hispanofila, 135 (2002), 1-17. 

[Kenneth R. Scholberg and Abraham Meir Habermann / 

Angel Saenz-Badillos (2 nd ed.)] 

SANLT, YAQUB OR JAMES (known as Abu Nazzara; 

1839-1912), Egyptian playwright; one of the first authors of 
plays in spoken Arabic, and one of the creators of satiric jour- 
nalism in modern *Egypt. He was born in Egypt and studied 
in Leghorn. He then returned to Egypt and earned his liveli- 
hood by giving private lessons. He began to write as a result 
of his interest in politics, a rare phenomenon among Egyp- 
tian Jews of that time. Sanu c joined the ranks of a small group 
which was to be the nucleus of the Egyptian nationalist move- 
ment, and from 1858 began to write articles and, later, mordant 
plays against the government. For several years he presented 
plays in spoken Arabic, until this was prohibited in 1872. 
Thereafter he concentrated his literary and political efforts on 
publishing newspapers, of which he was printing editor and 
(from 1876) owner. In these, he mocked the khedive Ismail 
and incited his readers against his rule. In 1878 he was com- 
pelled to leave Egypt. He continued his journalistic activities 
in Paris and his periodicals were smuggled into Egypt, each 
time under a different title. After 1882 he directed his attacks 
against the British, who had occupied Egypt, and tried to en- 
list support against them in Trance and ^Turkey. His failure 
in this project was the cause of his retirement from political 
activity a few years before his death. 

bibliography: Landau, in: jjs, 3 (1952), 30-44; 5 (1954), 
179-80; I.L. Gendzier, in: mej, 15 (1961), 16-28; idem, Practical Vi- 
sions ofYdqub Sanu (1966); J.M. Landau, Jews in Nineteenth-Cen- 
tury Egypt (1969). add bibliography: J.M. Landau, Studies in 
the Arab Theater and Cinema (1958), 65-67; Sh. Moreh, "Ya c qub 
Sanu..." in: Sh. Shamir (ed.), The Jews of Egypt: A Mediterranean So- 
ciety... (1987), m-29. 

[Jacob M. Landau J 

SAO PAULO, the richest and most populated state in the 
United States of Brazil. Area: 248,209.426 km 2 ; population 
(2000): 37,032,403; state capital: Sao Paulo, the largest and 
most important city in Brazil, population (2000): 10,434,252. 
The Jewish population in the state in 2005 was estimated at 
45,000, out of which 42,000 lived in the city of Sao Paulo 
and 3,000 in various towns in the hinterland of the state. Be- 

sides the capital, small Jewish communities are to be found 
in the following towns: Santos, Campinas, Santo Andre, Sao 
Caetano, and very small communities in Ribeirao Preto, Pi- 
racicaba, Taubate, Sao Carlos, Sorocaba, and Sao Jose dos 

The presence of Portuguese New Christians began with 
the colonization of Brazil, then inhabited by many groups of 
indigenous peoples. The city of Sao Paulo was founded in 1554 
by Jesuit Catholic colonists. In the colonial period (1500-1822), 
thousands of New Christian Portuguese came to Brazil. Dur- 
ing this period, there was a percentage of New Christians 
among the inhabitants of the southern "capitanias" (regions 
under Portuguese governors) and some rose to positions of lo- 
cal influence. Until the proclamation of independence in Bra- 
zil, in 1822, Catholicism was the official religion and there was 
no freedom regarding the practice of other religions. 

Two years after Brazil declared its independence from 
Portugal (1822) it adopted its first constitution. Roman Ca- 
tholicism remained the state religion, but the constitution 
proclaimed some tolerance of other religions. When Brazil 
became a republic (1889), the new constitution (1891) abol- 
ished all remnants of religious discrimination and ensured the 
civil rights of all citizens. 

The city of Sao Paulo began its urban development in the 
1860s due to the expansion of coffee plantations and immi- 
gration from Europe. Especially after the abolition of slavery 
(1888), until the 1940s, Sao Paulo City and the State welcomed 
a large influx of immigrants from several countries, a total 
of over 3,000,000 mainly from Italy, Japan, Spain, Portugal, 
Lebanon, and Syria, who came to work in coffee plantations. 
Sao Paulo has since then been an open city that has welcomed 
immigrants and foreigners, integrating them and assuming 
traits of each new culture. Sao Paulo also received Brazilian 
migrants from all over the country. The cultural and ethnic 
diversity is present in the history and identity of the city. 

Contemporary Jewish presence in Sao Paulo started in 
the last quarter of the 19 th century, when Jewish immigrants 
arrived from both Eastern and Central Europe, mainly from 
the Alsace-Lorraine region. It was not an organized and sys- 
tematic immigration flow, but one which occurred rather on 
an individual basis. These first immigrants did not create a 
Jewish community. 

It was only during World War 1 that a Jewish commu- 
nity began to be organized in the city of Sao Paulo, initially 
consisting of immigrants from Eastern Europe (most of them 
from Russia, Poland, Lithuania, Romania/Bessarabia, and 
Hungary). Restrictions on immigration to the U.S. and Can- 
ada in the 1920s made Brazil a feasible and interesting desti- 
nation for East European Jewish immigrants. As a new me- 
tropolis, in the 1920s Sao Paulo attracted immigrants, offering 
freedom of religion and community association, economic, 
industrial, and commercial opportunities, as well as proper 
conditions for settlement and social betterment. Sao Paulo's 
urbanization and economic expansion rates had a decisive 
impact on the integration and upward social mobility of sig- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


nificant numbers of immigrants. The city's population grew 
from 240,000 in 1890 to 580,000 in 1920, reaching approxi- 
mately 2,000,000 in 1954. 

By the 1920s, the Jews in Sao Paulo had already organized 
a complete network of institutions, such as schools, welfare 
entities, synagogues, a cemetery, a burial society, credit co- 
operatives, political movements, press, and social and sports 
clubs, which molded a dynamic and well -integrated Jewish - 
Brazilian community supported by organizations such as jca, 
HiAS,and hicem. 

The first organizations to be founded were the Kahal 
Israel Synagogue (1912); Sociedade Beneficente das Damas 
Israelitas (Froien Farein, 1915); Sociedade Beneficente Ami- 
gos dos Pobres Ezra (1916); the Zionist movement Ahavat 
Zion (1916); the Knesset Israel Synagogue (1916); Gymna- 
sio Hebraico-Brasileiro Renascenca - the first Jewish- Bra- 
zilian school to teach the official curricula in Sao Paulo 
(1922); the Sociedade Cemiterio (1923); the burial association 
Chevra Kadisha (1924); Macabi (1927); Sociedade Cooperativa 
de Credito Popular do Bom Retiro (1928); Policlinica Lin- 
ath Hatzedek (1929); B'nai Brith (1931); and Ginasio Talmud 
Tora (1932). A small talmud torah y inaugurated in 1916, func- 
tioned as a heder, but was only open for a short period of 

Sephardi immigration from Lebanon, Syria, and cities in 
Erez Israel took place in the 1920s. The Sephardim organized 
the Comunidade Israelita Sefaradi (1924) and founded three 
synagogues, Comunidade Sefardim de Sao Paulo (1929, later 
known as Sinagoga Israelita Brasileira do Rito Portugues and 
Sinagoga da Rua da Abolicao) and two in the working class 
neighborhood of Mooca, in Sao Paulo - Sinagoga Israelita 
Brasileira (1930), linked to Jews originating from Sidon, and 
Sinagoga da Uniao Israelita Paulista (1935). 

After 1933, a growing number of immigrants arrived in 
Sao Paulo from Germany (and later on from Italy). In 1936 
they founded the Congregacao Israelita Paulista (cip), Lar 
das Criancas (Children's Home), and the scouting movement 
Avanhandava. cip consisted of 2,000 member families, and 
became the largest Jewish center in town. 

In the hinterland of the State of Sao Paulo, small commu- 
nities were formed in several townships, such as Sao Caetano, 
Santo Andre, Sao Jose dos Campos, Mogi das Cruzes, Soro- 
caba, Jundiai, Campinas, Ribeirao Preto, and Franca, particu- 
larly following the railroad trade routes that served the export 
of coffee, the main State and Brazilian export product up to the 
1920s. In Santos, the harbor where immigrants disembarked, 
an important Jewish community also flourished. 

The main neighborhood of the Jewish minority in Sao 
Paulo was the district of Bom Retiro, next to the "Luz" Rail- 
road Station, terminal of the trains coming from Santos, and 
main route of the export coffee cargoes going to the Santos 
port. Jewish immigrants used to call Bom Retiro a "little shtetl" 
and economic activities were basically trade and clothing man- 
ufacturing, initially as clientelchik (peddlers), and later on as 
merchants, small manufacturers, and industrialists. 

In the 1940s there were Jewish nuclei in several neighbor- 
hoods besides Bom Retiro, such as Bras, Cambuci, Lapa, Mo- 
oca, and Pinheiros, and each one of them supported a school, 
a synagogue, and a community center. 

In 1915 the Sociedade Beneficente das Damas Israelitas 
was founded in Sao Paulo. From then on, women have orga- 
nized and directed diverse organizations, thus creating a tra- 
dition of engagement in Jewish public life. Women were very 
active in social institutions and also created Lar das Criancas 
das Damas Israelitas (1939) and Organizacao Feminina de 
Assistencia Social (Ofidas, 1940). Zionist women's organiza- 
tions were founded, such as wizo (1926) and Naamat Pio- 
neiras (1948). As a matter of fact, many women assumed the 
direction of community organizations, including Federacao 
Israelita do Estado de Sao Paulo in the 1990s. 

In 1940, according to official numbers, the number of 
Jews in the State of Sao Paulo reached 20,379 an d in 1950 the 
number was 26,443. I n 1 94 1 the Asylo dos Velhos (Old Age 
Home) was founded, later on called Lar Golda Meir, which 
currently bears the name Residencial Israelita Albert Ein- 
stein - Lar Golda Meir. Between 1936 and 1966, the San- 
atorio Ezra - Ezra Hospital for Tuberculosis operated in Sao 
Jose dos Campos with 120 beds, also assisting non-Jews. In 
1959 the Centro Israelita de Assistencia ao Menor (Ciam) for 
handicapped children was established. In Sao Paulo, Jewish 
female prostitutes (exploited from the late 19 th century by the 
Tzvi Migdal women trafficking network, centered in Bue- 
nos Aires), founded the Sociedade Feminina Religiosa e Be- 
neficente Israelita (1924-1968, in Sao Paulo). There were two 
specific cemeteries where the prostitutes were buried, in Sao 
Paulo and in the town of Cubatao, near Santos. The graves 
of the Sao Paulo cemetery, which was located in the Santana 
neighborhood, are now at the Butanta cemetery, one of the 
three Jewish cemeteries run by Chevra Kadisha. The Cubatao 
cemetery is preserved next to the city's municipal cemetery. 
This chapter in its history carries a strong taboo among the 
members of the community, although it has been the subject 
of some literary and history works. 

In the 1930s, having settled in a few cities and owing to 
their economic, social, and cultural public activities, the Jews 
became one of the "most visible" groups of immigrants, in 
the words of the historian Jeffrey H. Lesser. Thus, they came 
to be the object of local, national, and international gam- 
bling, "pawns of the powerful," especially during the Vargas 
regime in Brazil, when a "Jewish question" was raised in the 

Under the Getulio Vargas regime (1930-1945), the semi- 
fascist Estado-Novo (1937-1945), and during World War 11, 
immigration restrictions (after 1937) and the activities of 
Acao Integralista Brasileira (a fascist party that existed from 
1933 to 1938) generated an environment of nationalism and 

Thousands of immigrants from Nazi- dominated Europe 
were barred, but, nevertheless, Jewish immigration continued 
individually by a variety of means, mainly through case by case 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



negotiations, but never organized through charitable national 
or international organizations. 

Despite the dictatorship and the climate of nationalistic 
xenophobia, the Jewish organizations adjusted to the nation- 
alist legislation and learned how to confront the restrictions 
(against all immigrants, not specifically antisemitic), thus al- 
lowing them to continue operating. The schools continued to 
teach Hebrew and Jewish culture, the synagogues maintained 
their religious services, radio programs played Jewish music, 
and innumerable organizations were established during this 
period, resulting in a very fertile period for the organizations 
and the unity of the Jewish community. The German Jews 
became most alarmed, especially after Brazil broke relations 
with Germany and Italy in August 1942, but their organiza- 
tions went on as usual during the war years. 

There are no records of any coercive closure of Jewish 
organizations in Sao Paulo, then the biggest Jewish commu- 
nity in the country, during the Estado-Novo regime and es- 
pecially in the war years. The antisemitism present in govern- 
mental and intellectual circles, among diplomats and the elite, 
did not result in violent actions against the Jews living in Sao 
Paulo in particular or Brazil in general, or against those who 
managed to breach the immigration barriers. In Sao Paulo the 
community took part in campaigns in support of the war ef- 
fort by Brazil, which followed a policy of alignment with the 
United States and the Allies. This included the sending of the 
For^a Expedicionaria Brasileira (feb), with 30,000 soldiers, 
who fought in Italy in 1944 and 1945. With the restriction on 
imports and the naval blockade, there was important indus- 
trial and technical development in the great urban centers to 
supply goods which had previously been imported. This cre- 
ated new work opportunities for the inhabitants of the cities, 
among them the Jewish immigrants who had technical, com- 
mercial, and industrial abilities. 

In the 1940s, intense debates about Zionism took place in 
Sao Paulo, particularly about the unified campaigns that led 
to the foundation of the Zionist-oriented Federa^ao Israelita 
do Estado de Sao Paulo. Sectors of German Jews, organized 
within the cip, did not initially join the Federation. Some very 
active Zionist youth movements were founded, such as Ha- 
Shomer ha-Za'ir, Gordonia, Ihud, Dror, Bnei Akiva, Netzach, 
Betar, scouting Avanhandava and, in the 1960s, Chazit Hanoar. 
Although with fewer members and a somewhat weaker ideo- 
logical stand and Zionist pioneer goal, some of these organi- 
zations are still active in the early 21 st century. 

Leftist Jews were organized from the 1920s, when they 
ran a small school linked to the Bund. In 1954 the Instituto 
Cultural Israelita Brasileiro (known as "Casa do Povo") was 
founded. Together with the Teatro de Arte Israelita Brasileiro 
(Taib) and Scholem Aleichem school, these organizations 
represented the left-wing Jews, many of them involved in the 
Communist Party. They gave public voice to Yiddish culture 
and language and managed an active press. 

Until the 1950s, more than 13 synagogues and six schools 
were founded. The schools reflected the Jewish diversity in Sao 

Paulo, both regarding religion and politics. Renascence, H.N. 
Bialik, and I.L. Peretz were Hebraist and Zionists; Scholem 
Aleichem was Yiddishist and leftist, and Talmud Tora and Beit 
Chinuch were orthodox. As of the 1950s and 1960s, Yiddish, 
which had so far been the language of the Jewish minority, was 
replaced by Hebrew as the main language taught in schools. 

In the early 21 st century the Jews of Sao Paulo were po- 
litically represented by the Federacjio Israelita do Estado de 
Sao Paulo, founded in 1946 to coordinate efforts to assist post- 
war Jewish immigration. After World War 11, a few thousand 
families from the Displaced Persons' camps in Germany, and, 
in the 1950s, Jews from Egypt, Hungary, and Israel, settled in 
Sao Paulo, the last significant Jewish immigration to it. 

In 1954, the Associacao Brasileira A Hebraica was 
founded. With some 25,000 members, it became one of the 
most important sports and recreational clubs in Sao Paulo, 
and is the largest Jewish organization in Brazil. As of 1964 
Sao Paulo was the seat of the Confederacao Israelita do Brasil 
(Conib), founded in 1948 in Rio de Janeiro as the represen- 
tative umbrella organization of the Jewish communities. The 
most accurate demographic and sociological survey of the 
Jews in Sao Paulo was carried out by the Federacao Israelita 
de Sao Paulo in 1970 and published by the sociologist Hen- 
rique Rattner. In 1971, the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein 
opened; it is regarded as one of the best private hospitals in 
Latin America. 

In the 1969 census of the Jewish community, 28,498 peo- 
ple were counted in 9,086 families, with an average of 3.2 per- 
sons per family. Since the number of Jewish families is larger 
than that covered in the census and is about 14,000 families, 
the number of Jews in the capital, Sao Paulo, was approxi- 
mately 45,000 in 1969. 

In 1976, the Uniao Brasileiro -Israelita do Bem-Estar So- 
cial - Unibes was founded, becoming the largest and most 
important Jewish welfare organization in Sao Paulo. Through 
several health insurance and other programs, it serves hun- 
dreds of persons within the Jewish community and the pop- 
ulation in general. 

In the Early 21 st Century 

Although it makes up less than 0.01 percent of the total pop- 
ulation of the city, the Jewish community has a solid institu- 
tional network, a diverse and dynamic Jewish life, and the 
Jews play an important role in many different fields and ac- 
tivities, including the economy, the culture, the professions, 
the arts, and intellectual and cultural life, thus forming a mi- 
nority whose participation and visibility in the city's daily life 
very much surpasses its minuscule percentage of population. 
Their integration in public life is demonstrated by the presence 
of Jews in the city and state governments as well as in ngo's, 
universities and cultural and educational institutions, public 
services, courts of law, etc. In the 2003 municipal elections, 
the Jewish community did not vote together to elect a single 
Jewish city counselor, despite the various Jewish candidates 
belonging to several political parties. 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


In a number of cities of the State of Sao Paulo - Santos, 
Santo Andre, Sao Caetano and Campinas - there are syna- 
gogues and Jewish activities. But the Jewish life in the small 
towns of Sao Paulo State is declining, without any regular 
Jewish school. 

All in all, there are approximately 100 organizations; 68 
of them affiliated with the Federacao Israelita do Estado de 
Sao Paulo. The Jewish community in Sao Paulo is organized 
around a well -structured institutional and community life, 
with the A Hebraica club, synagogues, and schools as social 
nuclei. Some events, such as the Festival de Cinema Judaico 
and the Festival Carmel of Jewish Folkloric Dance, are impor- 
tant cultural activities taking place in the city. 

In the city there are four Jewish restaurants and many 
shops carrying food and religious products in the neighbor- 
hoods of Higienopolis and Bom Retiro, the nucleus of the 
community, although the Jewish population lives in many 
parts of the city. Since the 1960s, Sephardi Jews have also come 
to live in the neighborhood of Higienopolis and founded three 
new Sephardi synagogues. Currently, the Bom Retiro district 
has become a Korean immigrant commercial center that in 
many cases replaced Jewish businesses. 

In spite of sporadic slogans painted on walls, occasional 
declarations or articles in small publications, and antisemitic 
and Nazi sites and some rare anti-Jewish publications, gener- 
ally linked to anti-Israeli political campaigns, there are no an- 
tisemitic activities that distress or alter the routine of the Jew- 
ish community in Sao Paulo. Although there is strong concern 
regarding the security of the institutions of the community, 
especially following the terrorist attacks in Argentina against 
the Israeli Embassy (1992) and amia (1994), Jewish life in Sao 
Paulo is entirely free and public. Governmental authorities as 
well as the Federacao Israelita, and organizations such as the 
B'nai B nth, have always kept a vigilant attitude. 

In Sao Paulo there is an active Christian-Jewish dialog 
involving important authorities of both the Catholic and Prot- 
estant churches, cip s Rabbi Henry I. Sobel was an active par- 
ticipant in this dialogue as well as in ecumenical religious and 
political events, where various religious groups also partici- 
pate and which have domestic and international resonance. 
He was also very active in the defense of human rights (even 
under the Brazilian military dictatorship that ruled the coun- 
try from 1964 to 1979), thus becoming the most active and 
renowned Jewish representative both in the city and the na- 
tion as a whole. 

During the 1990s, due to the sluggish economy, some 
strata of the Jewish middle class suffered partial impoverish- 
ment, which made it necessary to enhance the social assistance 
services. Unibes, Lar das Criancas ad cip, Ciam, Ten Yard, De- 
partment de Voluntaries do Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, 
Oficina Abrigada de Trabalho (oat), Federacao Israelita, plus 
a series of small initiatives, have assisted the Jewish commu- 
nity and concluded a series of agreements with the Sao Paulo 
city and state governments to assist the poor population of the 
city. The Jewish organizations are regarded as a paradigm of 

management and assistance, and have been awarded several 
renowned prizes in Brazil. 

In 2004, there were in Sao Paulo 20 regular Jewish 
schools, including kindergartens, with approximately 4,000 
students. However, the number of students in the Jewish 
schools has been declining. 

There are 30 synagogues in the city, including liberal cip 
and Comunidade Shalom, which had the first female Brazil- 
ian rabbi. The Beit Chabad movement has grown considerably 
and Bnei Akiva runs a synagogue. 

Sao Paulo is home to significant publishing activity, the 
largest publisher being Editora Perspectiva, founded by Jaco 
Guinsburg, the most important Brazilian translator and pub- 
lisher of Jewish classic texts and Yiddish and Hebrew litera- 
ture. Also of note are the publishers Sefer and Mayanot. More- 
over, there is in the city a Jewish bookstore, Sefer. 

The experience of Jewish immigration to Sao Paulo has 
been described in the pages of authors such as Samuel Rawet, 
J. Guinsburg, Eliezer Levin, Alberto Mograbi, and Meir Ku- 
cinsky (who wrote in Yiddish, and was published in Israel and 
translated into Portuguese). 

Within the University of Sao Paulo there is a graduate 
course on Hebrew Language and Culture as well as a Jew- 
ish Study Center, which offers masters degree and doctoral 
programs, plus free courses on Jewish and Yiddish cultures. 
Other universities in the city and the state, such as Universi- 
dade Estadual de Campinas, Pontificia Universidade Catolica, 
and Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, also offer courses 
on Hebrew and Jewish culture. 

The Arquivo Historico Judaico Brasileiro, founded in 
1976, gathers and centralizes documents on Jewish immigra- 
tion to the city and the nation and functions as an important 
center for the preservation and dissemination of Jewish mem- 
ories and history, maintaining the most significant Jewish li- 
brary in the country, including a Yiddish section. 

With no direct link to the Jewish community, the Lasar 
Segall Museum, sponsored by the Instituto do Patrimonio 
Historico e Artistico Nacional (Iphan), hosts the collection 
of the artist Lasar *Segall, an exponent of Modernism in the 

The Jewish communications media include a series of 
magazines, journals, and bulletins, geared internally to the 
Jewish community. There are also three t v programs, the old- 
est and most important being Mosaico, considered the oldest 
Brazilian tv program in general (not specifically Jewish). For- 
merly, the Jewish community published a significant number 
of publications, such as Cronica Israelite Revista Brasil-Israel, 
Resenha Judaica> Encontro, the Shalom magazine plus Yiddish 
publications. The Jewish press is declining and covers at most 
social activities. 

Local organizations include the Organizacjio Sionista 
Unificada, the Casa de Cultura de Israel, Centro de Cultura 
Judaica, Associacjio Janusz Korczak do Brasil, three different 
Yiddish language clubs, Fundo Comunitario, Keren Kayemet 
Leisrael, Sherith Hapleita (Holocaust survivors Association), 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



and Camara Brasil-Israel de Comercio e Indiistria. In 2004 
the Consulate General of Israel was closed in Sao Paulo, al- 
though Israel is a central reference point for the self-identity 
of Jews in Sao Paulo. 

bibliography: Documents and publications of Arquivo 
Historico Judaico Brasileiro; A.I. Hirschberg. Desafio e Reposta. A 
Historia da Congregacao Israelita Paulista (1976); E. & F. Wolf. Guia 
Historico da Comunidade Judaica de Sao Paulo (1988); J.H. Lesser, 
Welcoming the Undesirables: Brazil and the Jewish Question (1995); 
idem, Pawns of the Powerful: Jewish Immigration to Brazil 1904-1945 
(1989); H. Rattner, Tradicao eRuptura (A comunidade judaica em Sao 
Paulo) (1977); N. Falbel, Estudos sobre a comunidade judaica no Brasil 
(1984); R. Cytrynowicz, Unibes 85 anos. Uma historia do trabalho as- 
sistencial na comunidade judaica em Sao Paulo (2000); R. Cytryno- 
wicz, Alem do Estado e da ideologia: imigracao judaica, Estado-Novo 
e Segunda Guerra Mundial (2002). 

[Roney Cytrynowicz (2 nd ed.)] 

SAPERSTEIN, ABRAHAM M. (Abe; 1902-1966), U.S. bas- 
ketball entrepreneur; creator, promoter, and coach of the Har- 
lem Globetrotters Basketball Team for 39 years; member of the 
Basketball Hall of Fame. Born in London, Saperstein came to 
Chicago at six with his nine brothers and sisters. He was ac- 
tive in basketball, baseball, track, and wrestling at Lake View 
High School, winning 15 letters. He then played semiprofes- 
sional baseball and basketball, earning $5 a night, and at age 
24 took over the running of an all-black basketball team, the 
Savoy Big Five, named for Chicago's Savoy Ballroom. Saper- 
stein changed the team's name to the Harlem Globetrotters, to 
indicate both a black team (Harlem), and a traveling or barn- 
storming team (Globetrotters). He placed his five players in 
a battered Model T Ford and took to the road. They played 
their first game on January 7, 1927, in Hinckley, 111., before a 
crowd of 300 with a paycheck of $75. Saperstein, who stood 
five -foot -three, was the manager, coach, trainer, chauffeur, ball 
boy - and the team's only substitute. The Globetrotters won 
397 games and lost 32 in their first three seasons, but found it 
difficult locating opponents willing bow to their dominating 
play. Saperstein then conceived the idea of a comic, razzle-daz- 
zle style, and the team soon became a sought-after attraction 
on the basketball barnstorming circuit, showing off a superb 
blend of clowning and basketball wizardry, of vaudeville and 
solid basketball skill. In 1940 the team won the World Bas- 
ketball Championship against the Chicago Bruins, and won 
the International Cup in 1943 and 1944. Over the years, the 
Globetrotters developed into an international entertainment 
attraction, meeting popes and kings and playing in bullrings, 
on stages, and aboard aircraft carriers and in more than 100 
countries on five continents, including drawing 75,000 for a 
game at the Olympic Stadium in Berlin in 1951. The Globe- 
trotters are one of the most famous sports organizations in the 
world, with Saperstein being called the "Barnum of Basketball" 
and his team known as "America's No. 1 Goodwill Ambassa- 
dors." Indeed, their flashy brand of play and the patriotic red, 
white, and blue uniforms became the first basketball experi- 
ence for many spectators in Mexico, Belgium, Portugal, Mo- 

rocco, Singapore, and Colombia. In March 1961, Saperstein 

announced the formation of the American Basketball League. 

Saperstein served as commissioner, though the league only 

lasted a season and a half. He was elected to the Basketball 

Hall of Fame in 1970. 

[Elli Wohlgelernter (2 nd ed.)] 

SAPERSTEIN, DAVID N. (1947- ), U.S. rabbi. Trie long- 
time director of the Reform Jewish Movement's Religious 
Action Center (rac) in Washington, d.c, Saperstein was an 
influential leader in the so-called "Jewish lobby" in Washing- 
ton for more than three decades. As J.J. Goldberg in his book 
Jewish Power observed: "[led] since 1974 by the savvy, char- 
ismatic Rabbi David Saperstein, the rac has become one of 
the most powerful Jewish bodies in Washington [second only 
to aipac]." The son of Long Island Reform Rabbi Harold I. 
Saperstein, Saperstein was ordained in 1973 by the Hebrew 
Union College -Jewish Institute of Religion in New York. He 
then served as assistant rabbi at New York City's Temple Ro- 
deph Sholom until Rabbi Maurice Eisendrath, the president 
of the Union of American Hebrew Congregations (now the 
Union for Reform Judaism), and Albert Vorspan, the direc- 
tor of the Commission on Social Action of Reform Judaism, 
invited him to Washington, d.c, to direct the center. 

As coordinator of the Reform Movement's social action 
advocacy to Congress and the Executive branch, Saperstein 
became a leading spokesperson in Congressional hearings, the 
media, and Jewish community organizations, for the mostly 
liberal views of Reform Jewry. Under Saperstein's tutelage, the 
center built a wide-reaching social action education program 
that trains nearly 3,000 Jewish adults, youth, rabbinic and lay 
leaders each year and which provides extensive legislative 
and programmatic materials used by Reform synagogues and 
other Jewish organizations. 

Well-known as a skilled coalition builder, he headed 
several national religious coalitions, including Interfaith Im- 
pact, the Interfaith Coalition on Energy, and the Coalition to 
Preserve Religious Liberty. He served on the boards and ex- 
ecutive committees of numerous national public interest or- 
ganizations, including the naacp, Common Cause, People 
for the American Way, the Leadership Conference on Civil 
Rights, and the National Religious Partnership for the Envi- 
ronment. Saperstein was also credited with helping to forge 
groundbreaking coalitions with religious right groups, lead- 
ing to successful passage of legislation on issues including re- 
ligious freedom, prison rape, human trafficking, and genocide 
in Sudan. Among the legislation passed through this coalition's 
efforts was the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998, 
passed unanimously by Congress. This led, in 1999, to Saper- 
stein being elected as the first chair of the U.S. Commission 
on International Religious Freedom. 

For many years, Saperstein traveled widely, speaking in 
synagogues, federations, and universities, appearing on tele- 
vision news and talk shows as one of the leading exponents 
of Reform Judaism's strong views on social justice issues. His 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


books, which have been used widely as sources for Jewish so- 
cial action studies and activities, include Jewish Dimensions 
of Social Justice: Tough Moral Choices of Our Time; Tough 
Choices: Jewish Perspectives on Social Justice; Preventing the 
Nuclear Holocaust: A Jewish Response; and Critical Issues Fac- 
ing Reform Judaism 1972. 

An attorney with a specialty in church- state relations, 
Saperstein has taught seminars on both First Amendment 
Church-State Law and Jewish Law at Georgetown University 
Law School for more than 25 years, with articles published in 
legal periodicals, including the Harvard Law Review. 

[Mark Pelavin (2 nd ed.)] 

SAPERSTEIN, HAROLD I. (1910-2001), a leading congre- 
gational rabbi of mid-20 th century American Reform Judaism. 
As an undergraduate at Cornell, Saperstein was influenced by 
Rabbi Stephen S. * Wise to enter the Jewish Institute of Reli- 
gion, from which he graduated in 1935. From 1933 (while still a 
student, replacing his ailing uncle Rabbi Adolph Lasker) until 
1980, he served as the Rabbi of Temple Emanu-El of Lynbrook, 
Long Island. During his tenure, the Lynbrook synagogue grew 
from some seventy families to nearly one thousand. 

As chaplain for the American Army from 1943 to 1946, he 
served in North Africa, Italy, France, Germany, and Belgium, 
reaching the rank of major. His report on the young Jews hid- 
den by Father Joseph Andre of Namur, which appeared in The 
New York Times, was one of the first public reports of Gentiles 
saving Jews. In Worms, Germany, soon after the American 
forces entered, he recovered the priceless 13 th -century illumi- 
nated Worms Mahzor from Dr. Friedrich M. Illert, a German 
archivist who had hidden it during the war, and facilitated its 
eventual transfer to the National Library in Jerusalem. (These 
endeavors were later described in Rabbis in Uniform by Louis 
Barish and g.i. Jews by Deborah Dash Moore.) 

An inveterate traveler to far-flung Jewish communities, 
Saperstein attended the World Zionist Congress of 1939, vis- 
iting Jews in northern Poland and Palestine in the summer of 
1939 (where he was injured by an Arab sniper), Russia, Poland, 
and Hungary in 1959, India, Ethiopia, and South Africa in 1967, 
and some 80 other countries on six continents. He served as 
the North American chair of the World Union for Progressive 
Judaism. A lifelong Zionist (as was his grandfather, Rabbi Hy- 
man M. Lasker of Troy, New York), who served as chair of the 
Israel Committee of the Central Conference of American Rab- 
bis, he and his wife Marcia helped pioneer youth and congrega- 
tional trips to Israel, leading with the first Israel tour sponsored 
by the National Federation of Temple Youth in 1955. 

Outspoken civil rights activists, during the summer of 
1965 he and his wife did voter- registration work in Lowndes 
County, Alabama, with the Student Non- Violent Coordinat- 
ing Committee. 

During his term as president of the New York Board of 
Rabbis (1970-1972), he was a frequent public spokesman on 
behalf of Soviet Jewry, and he was on the cutting edge of the 
confrontation with the Jewish Defense League. 

Despite these public roles, Saperstein thought of himself 
primarily as a congregational rabbi: as teacher, preacher, and 
counselor to three generations of Jews. After his formal retire- 
ment from Lynbrook he returned to full-time rabbinic service 
in New York City's Central Synagogue and Rodeph Sholom 
Congregation, and in the West London Synagogue of British 
Jews. He and his wife Marcia also traveled on behalf of the 
Union of American Hebrew Congregations through various 
regions of the United States, visiting small synagogues to pro- 
vide rabbinic services and training for their lay leaders. 

A selection of his sermons responding to historical 
events, Witness from the Pulpit: Topical Sermons 1933-1980, 
was edited by his son Marc, a professor of Jewish Studies at 
Harvard, Washington University in St. Louis, and The George 
Washington University. His younger son, Rabbi David *Saper- 
stein, has headed the Religious Action Center of Reform Ju- 
daism since 1974. 

[Mark Pelavin (2 nd ed.)] 

SAPHIR, JACOB (1822-1885), writer and traveler; born in 
Oshmiany in the province of * Vilna. Saphir s father, who was 
the shohet of the townlet, belonged to the Perushim - the dis- 
ciples of Elijah b. Solomon Zalman, the Gaon of Vilna. In 1832 
his parents immigrated to Erez Israel, settling at first in Safed. 
A year after their arrival his father died, and when the year of 
mourning was just ending, he lost his mother, too. In 1836 he 
fled to Jerusalem with many members of the Perushim com- 
munity because of the pogroms which the Jewish population 
of Safed suffered at the time. Saphir was educated under the 
system of the disciples of the Gaon of Vilna, which prevailed 
in Jerusalem at the beginning of the Ashkenazi settlement 
there. In addition to his religious knowledge and a rhetori- 
cal mastery of the Hebrew language, Saphir also acquired a 
fundamental knowledge of spoken and literary Arabic, read 
the * Koran, and was familiar with Latin script. He became a 
teacher at the ^Jerusalem talmud tor ah Ez Hayyim. He later 
became the scribe of the hevra kaddisha of the Ashkenazim 
and of the Perushim community. As scribe of the community, 
it was his task to write poems in honor of important visitors, 
such as Moses *Montefiore when he visited Jerusalem in 1839. 
Saphir also wrote pamphlets and many articles, most of which 
were published in *Ha-Levanon, edited by his son-in-law, R. 
Jehiel *Brill. Saphir was the son-in-law of R. Solomon Zalman 
Hacohen, one of the Perushim leaders in Jerusalem. In 1853 
he wrote a promotional letter for Erez Israel lemons, and an- 
other to R. Saul Zelig Hacohen dealing with the problem of 
Jerusalem's Yishuv Yashan. 

In 1857 he traveled to the Oriental countries as the em- 
issary of the Perushim community, to raise funds for the 
construction of the great synagogue in the courtyard of the 
Hurvah of R. Judah Hasid and for the talmud torah. He at first 
intended to go to *Egypt and *Aden, and from there by sea 
to * India, and was among the first to see the treasures of the 
Fostat *Genizah y an account of which is found in his works. 
In Egypt he was defrauded of most of the money which was 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



intended for his journey to India, and his financial plight 
brought him to * Yemen. Endangering his life, he embarked 
on a small sailing craft for Jedda, the port of Mecca, and from 
there continued to Hodeyda, the port of * San a, the capital of 
Yemen (beginning of 1858). He first thought of proceeding to 
Aden in order to enter the interior of Yemen by the Tariq al- 
Yaman ("Road of the South"), but lacking transport, he en- 
tered the interior by the road known as Tariq al-Shdm ("Road 
of the North"). 

After walking for three days along the desolate coastal 
plain (Tihama) to the Haraz mountains, Saphir met the first 
Yemenite Jews, and when he reached the nearby town of 
Jirwah, he was deeply impressed by them and their way of 
life, which he mentioned in a letter to Jerusalem. From there 
he went on to Hajara, Mudmar, Manakha, and Yafid in the 
Hayma mountains. Near Yafid all his possessions, including 
his credentials as an emissary, were stolen from him. From 
Yafid he went to Qaryat al-Qabil in the vicinity of San a, where 
the Jews advised him not to visit San a because of the severe 
living conditions for the Jews which prevailed there during 
that period. In the meantime Saphir visited Shibam, where 
he celebrated Purim, and from there, by way of Kawkaban, 
he reached Sana, staying there during the whole of Passover. 
With Sana as his base, he visited c Amran - spending Shavuot 
there - Hajjah, and Kuhlan, which was the northernmost 
place that he reached. To the east of San a, he visited Sa c wan 
and Tanim. He returned by the road upon which he had 
come - the eastern road to Hodeyda - which he reached after 
a journey of eight months through the interior of Yemen. He 
stayed in Aden for more than a month and celebrated the Day 
of Atonement and Sukkot, sailing from there to India on Nov. 
5, 1859. After traveling to India, Java, Australia, New Zealand, 
and Ceylon, Saphir once more returned to Aden, three years 
and four months later. On this occasion Saphir again thought 
of visiting the interior of Yemen, having become deeply at- 
tached to its Jews since his first visit; nonetheless, he refrained 
from doing this after hearing of the persecution of the Jews 
by the imam al-Mutawakkil. Saphir returned from Aden to 
Jerusalem by way of Jedda and Egypt (May 1863), after an ab- 
sence of four years and ten months. 

Upon his return to Jerusalem he recorded his travels in 
Even Sappir (2 vols., 1866, 1874, repr. 1969; condensed by A. 
Yaari and published as Sefer Massd Teiman (1944, 1951 2 ). This 
work is outstanding for its penetrating observations and lively 
and fluent style. It contains valuable information on the lives 
of the Jews and their customs during the 19 th century in the 
Oriental countries, particularly in Yemen. Saphir was the first 
to discover Yemenite Jewry in its greatness. Saphir s lifelike de- 
scriptions depict the innermost parts of the home, the village, 
the merchant on his business premises, the craftsman in his 
workshop, the elementary school teacher and his education, 
the synagogue and the hakham mori. He also notes important 
details on their customs at circumcisions and marriages, and 
the version of the prayers for weekdays and festivals. He was 
the first to publish various Yemenite poems, and his details on 

the Hebrew pronunciation and syntax employed by Yemenite 
Jews are also of importance. 

In 1869 Saphir was again sent to Egypt and the European 
countries, as emissary of the Bikkur Holim hospital of Jeru- 
salem, and he was once more the emissary of the above institu- 
tion in 1873 when he went to * Russia. Upon his return to Jeru- 
salem he continued to take an interest in Yemenite Jewry, and 
when he learned of the impostor who appeared as the pseudo- 
messiah Shukr * Kuhayl, he wrote an Iggeret Teiman ha-Shenit 
("Second Epistle to Yemen") in which he warned the Jews of 
Yemen to beware of him (published Vilna 1873). In 1883-85 
he lent his assistance to the publication of Hemdat ha-Yamim 
("The Most Delightful of Days") of R. Shalom *Shabazi, the 
most prominent of the Yemenite poets, and wrote a foreword 
to it. Saphir also lived to witness the emigration from Yemen in 
1882. In his last years Saphir devoted himself to the settlement 
of Petah Tikvah. In his letter to R. Judah *Alkalai, Saphir deals 
with the idea of natural geulah (redemption). He also wrote 
a few poems in honor of Moses *Montefiore. A village in the 
Judean Hills was named Even Sappir in his honor. 

bibliography: J.J. Rivlin, in: Moznayim, 11 (1940), 74-81, 
385-99. add. bibliography: A. Yaari, Sheluhei Erez Yisrael (1951), 
820-22; idem, Iggerot Erez Yisrael, 422-23; Em ha-Moshavot Petah 
Tikvah (1953), 141-45; A.R. Malachi, in: Areshet, 5 (1972), 369-86; A. 
Morgenstern, in: Cathedra 24 (1982), 68; idem, Geulah be-Derekh ha- 
Teva (1997), 17, 126, 128-30. 

[Yehiel Nahshon / Leah Bornstein-Makovetsky (2 nd ed.)] 

SAPHIR, MORITZ (Moses) GOTTLIEB (1795-1858), Aus- 
trian satirist and critic. Born into a Yiddish -speaking, Ortho- 
dox family in Lovasbereny, near Budapest, Saphir, the son of a 
merchant, attended the Pressburg (Bratislava) yeshivah, and 
later the more advanced yeshivah of Rabbi Samuel *Landau in 
Prague. He then studied literature at Pest, and his subsequent 
contact with the German language, literature and culture 
led him to abandon traditional Judaism. Saphir then began 
to write German verse and Yiddish comedies. In 1823 Adolf 
Baeuerle, the founder-editor of the Wiener Theater-Zeitung y 
sought his collaboration, but Saphir s satirical and sensational 
articles were a source of scandal, and in 1825 he left Vienna for 
Berlin. There, too, he engaged in polemics with the literary 
elite and found it advisable to take refuge in Munich. From 
there Saphir was eventually expelled because of a satire on 
the Bavarian king and, for a brief time, he joined *Heine and 
*Boerne in Paris. In 1832 Saphir turned his back on liberalism 
and was baptized as a Lutheran. Five years later he founded 
his own periodical, Der Humori$t y in Vienna. Saphir s biting 
wit, much feared in his time, was no longer directed against 
Metternich's reactionary policies, but rather against general 
human foibles and follies. His popularity and influence did 
not wane until after the Revolution of 1848. Saphir's works 
include humorous and satirical poems, essays, feuilletons, 
literary criticism, theater reviews, comedies, short stories, 
sketches, and short novels. His Humor istischer-Volkskalender 
(1850-66) had an unusually wide vogue and his Pariser Brief e 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 




ueber Leben, Kunst, Gesellschaft und Industrie (1855) was fre- 
quently reprinted. Saphir s witticisms circulated throughout 
the German-speaking world, and his satirical sketches were 
recited by actors for several decades. In later years he referred 
to his Jewish origin as a birth deformity, corrected by a baptis- 
mal operation. Saphir s collected works appeared from 1887 in 
26 volumes. A collection of proverbs and sayings by Saphir - 
(Sprichwoerter und Redensarten im Biedermeier. Prosatexte, 
ed. W. Mieder) appeared in 1998. 

bibliography: A. Saver, Probleme und Gestalten (1933), 

141-94; S. Koesterich, Saphirs Prosastil (thesis, Frankfurt, 1934); M. 

Robitsek, Saphir Gottlieb Moric (Hung., 1938), incl. bibl.; S. Kaznel- 

son (ed.),Juden im deutschen Kulturbereich (19623), 895-7, an d index. 

add. bibliography: J. Sonnleitner, "Bauernfeld - Saphir - Ne- 

stroy: literarische Streitfaelle im oesterreichischen Vormaerz," in: W. 

Schmidt- Dengler et al. (eds.), Konflikte - Skandale - Dichterfehden in 

der oesterreichischen Literatur (1995), 92-117; S.P. Scheichl, "Saphir - 

kein Wiener Heine," in: Les ecrivains juifs autrichiens (du "Vormarz 

a nos jours), texts collected and ed. by J. Doll (2000), 27-41; P. Wruck, 

"Gelegenheitsdichtung und literarische Geselligkeit. Das Beispiel der 

Berliner 'Mittwochsgesellschaft' und des 'Tunnel iiber der Spree' und 

ihrer Liederbuecher; im Anhang Moritz Gottlieb Saphir: 'Der Gelege- 

nheitsdichter'" in: Berliner Hefte zur Geschichte des literarischen Leb- 

ens, no. 4 (2001), 36-59; P. Varga, "'Magyar vagyok!' Identitat und 

Ungarnbild von Moritz Gottlieb Saphir," in: E. Kulcsar-Szabo (ed.), 

'Das rechte Mafi getroffen" (2004), 98-107. 

[Sol Liptzin] 

SAPHIRE, SAUL (1895-1974), Yiddish novelist. Born in Vilna 
and educated at the Lida yeshivah, he immigrated to the U.S. 
via Japan in 1916, settling in New York, where he devoted him- 
self to teaching and journalism. For more than half a century, 
he enjoyed great popularity among Yiddish readers through 
his novels, serialized in the New York dailies Tageblat, Morgen- 
Zhurnal, and Forverts, and reprinted in other Yiddish organs. 
He is reputed to have written some 100 novels, of which more 
than 20 were published. His favored genre was the historical 
romance based on biblical and post-biblical figures, ranging 
from the Patriarchs, Joseph, Joshua, Deborah, Samson, Je- 
phthah, Ruth, Saul, David, Solomon, and Esther, to the po- 
ets of Spain: Maimonides, Elijah the Gaon of Vilna, the Baal 
Shem Tov, and Solomon Maimon. Several of his novels were 
translated into English, such as Der Kaliffun Kordova (1927; 
The Caliph of Cordova, 1929), a romance of Moorish Spain 
during the Golden Age of Abd al-Rahman 11; Tsivhn Roym un 
Yerusholayim (1929; A Challenge to Caesar, 1938), dealing with 
the Jewish revolt against Rome which ended in the destruc- 
tion of the Second Temple. His novel on Columbus, Kolom- 
bus der Yid (1934), dealing with the expulsion of the Jews from 
Spain and the discovery of America, was translated into He- 
brew, Kolumbus ha-Yehudi (1948). Saphire also co-authored 
with Donovan Fitzpatrick Navy Maverick (1963), a biography 
in English of the controversial American- Jewish naval officer 
Uriah Phillips Levy. 

bibliography: lnyl, 6 (1965), 310-11. 

[Sol Liptzin / Jerold C. Frakes (2 nd ed.)] 

SAPIR, EDWARD (1884-1939), U.S. ethnographer, anthro- 
pologist, and linguist. Born in Lauenburg, Germany, Sapir, the 
son of an Orthodox rabbi, was taken to the U.S. in 1889. He 
was educated in New York and in Germany. He studied with 
Franz *Boas, and it was Boas' work in anthropological linguis- 
tics that stimulated Sapir to adopt this branch of anthropol- 
ogy as his major professional interest. For 15 years Sapir was 
chief of the Geological Survey of Canada, engaging in field 
research, and he became an expert in American-Indian lan- 
guages. He taught at the universities of Toronto and Chicago, 
and in 1931 he was appointed professor of anthropology and 
linguistics at Yale University. He was fascinated by problems 
of language and its connections with logic, thought, and the 
total culture of which it was a part. He applied his early train- 
ing in Indo-European comparative linguistics to the gram- 
mars of unwritten languages and their relationships. He con- 
centrated increasingly on linguistics and its establishment as 
an academic discipline. It was his deep conviction that culture 
did not completely pattern its communicants, that diverse life 
experience produced different individuals within the same 
culture, and that therefore there are as many cultures. He 
produced some valuable ethnographic studies, among oth- 
ers on the Takelma and Nootka, and published such impor- 
tant essays in anthropological theory as Time Perspective in 
Aboriginal American Culture: A Study in Method (1916) and 
"Anthropology and Sociology" in: W.F. Ogburn and A. Gold- 
enweiser (eds.), The Social Sciences and their Interrelations 
(1927), 97-113. The shadow of Nazism concerned him deeply, 
and he lent the weight of his academic prestige and personal 
involvement to various Jewish defensive efforts. But his pri- 
mary scholarly achievement was in linguistics where, together 
with Leonard *Bloomfield, he is to be regarded as a founder of 
formal descriptive linguistics based on a phonemic theory and 
distributional method that analyzes the sound and utterance, 
the morphemes of a language, following a pattern of their en- 
vironmental distribution. Sapir established in his "Sound Pat- 
terns in Language" (Language, 1 (1925), 37-51) the principle of 
structural analysis as fundamental for both anthropology and 
linguistics. Sapir s work as a researcher, teacher, and theorist 
has exerted a permanent influence on the study of language 
and has stimulated new work in sociolinguistics, ethnolinguis- 
tics, psycholinguistics, semantics, and semiotics. Sapir did not 
hesitate to evaluate his own culture. In 1924 in his essay "Cul- 
ture, Genuine and Spurious" (in: American Journal of Sociol- 
ogy, 29 (1924), 401-29) he expressed his profound discontent 
with contemporary culture. 

bibliography: R. Benedict, in: American Anthropologist, 41 
(i939)> 465~77> incl. bibl. of his writings; International Encyclopedia 
of the Social Sciences (1968) s.v., incl. bibl. 

[Ephraim Fischoff] 

SAPIR, ELIYAHU (1869-1911), Erez Israel pioneer and ped- 
agogue; grandson of Jacob *Saphir. He was born in Jeru- 
salem and from 1889 taught Arabic and, later, Hebrew in the 
Petah Tikvah school. He was one of the first to teach Hebrew 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



through the medium of Hebrew and to take the students into 
the fields, in order to foster love for the Erez Israel landscape. 
Being the only one in the vicinity to know both Arabic and the 
legal rules concerning taxes, lands, and inheritance, he gave 
free assistance not only to Petah Tikvahs settlement commit- 
tee, but also to Arab neighbors, whose ignorance was exploited 
by the effendis. In addition, he started evening courses in He- 
brew and Arabic in Petah Tikvah. After 11 years he became a 
clerk in the * Jewish Colonization Association (ic a), where he 
dealt with registration of land transactions, which was a very 
complicated task at the time. His greatest success was in set- 
ting the borders of and obtaining purchase certificates for the 
lands of *Sejera. In 1904 he began to work in the Anglo-Pales- 
tine Bank in Jaffa, and he was its vice director. He tried to teach 
people to make use of commercial credit rather than to rely on 
charity. He was one of the three Jews of Ottoman citizenship 
in whose name the lands of Tel Aviv were purchased. 

He devoted much time to the study of geography. Kip- 
pert s German wall map of Palestine, re-edited in Hebrew by 
Sapir, was the only one used in schools and offices until 1930. 
His book, Ha-Arez. published in 1911, was for many years the 
only comprehensive historical and geographical lexicon of 


[Abraham J. Brawer] 

His son, Joseph sapir (1902-1972), public worker in 
Israel, was born in *Jaffa. In 1921 he participated in the defense 
of Petah Tikvah (to which his family had moved previously). 
He was a member of the agricultural committee there and 
founded the cooperative union Ha-Haklai. From 1928 he was 
active in the Farmers' ^Federation of Israel, later becoming a 
member of its executive, as well as in the Pardes company (the 
largest cooperative company in Israel marketing citrus fruits), 
serving as its director in 1921-39. In 1940 he was elected on 
behalf of the General Zionists as mayor of Petah Tikvah, and 
he held this post until 1951. He was elected to the first and sub- 
sequent Knessets on behalf of the General Zionists and later 
on behalf of the Liberal Party. In 1952-55 (Second Knesset) he 
served as minister of transportation. With the establishment 
of the national coalition government on the eve of the Six- 
Day War he served as a minister without portfolio (1967-69), 
and from 1969 to 1970 as minister of commerce and industry. 
In 1968 he was elected chairman of the Liberal Party and was 
rotating chairman of the Gahal Party. 

bibliography: Y. Hurgin (ed.), in: Mi-Yamim Rishonim, 2, 
no. 2 (1944); M. Ben Hillel Ha-Cohen, in: Kovez Mikhtevei Eliyahu 
Sapir (1913), introd. 

SAPIR, JOSEPH (1869-1935), Zionist leader. Born in Kishi- 
nev, Sapir qualified as a doctor. A member of Hovevei Zion 
from his youth, he was one of the most prominent Zionists 
in Odessa, and he established a publishing house, Di Kopeke 
Bibliotek, which published Zionist literature in Yiddish and 
Russian. In 1903 he wrote a book for the general reader on the 
essence and history of Zionism, which was published in Rus- 
sian and Hebrew and was an authoritative source for Zionist 

education. He edited a Russian-language Zionist weekly called 
Kadimah ("Forward," later Yevreyskai Mysl\ 1907). After the 
1917 Bolshevik revolution, Sapir was elected chairman of the 
South Russia Zionist Organization and was one of the leaders 
of the committee that aided victims of pogroms. He left Rus- 
sia soon thereafter, spending several years in Bessarabia, and 
reached Palestine in 1925. Sapir was director of a department 
of the Bikkur Holim hospital in Jerusalem. He also engaged 
in painting and sculpture and published a book of articles and 
memoirs, Halutzei ha-Tehiyyah (1930). 

bibliography: Tidhar, 3 (1958 2 ), 1239-40; A. Raphaeli, Paa- 

mei Ge'ullah (1952), index. 

[Yehuda Slutsky] 

SAPIR (Koslowsky), PINHAS (1907-1975), Israeli labor 
leader, member of the Fourth to Eighth Knessets. Born in Su- 
walki, Poland, Sapir went to the Tahkemoni religious school 
and later attended a teachers' seminary in Warsaw. Early in 
his youth he joined the *He-Halutz movement and served as 
its treasurer. He emigrated to Palestine in 1929 and settled 
in Kefar Saba, where he worked at first in citrus groves. At 
that time he organized several strikes over the issue of Jew- 
ish labor and was consequently arrested in 1932. Later on he 
started working as an accountant and was also instrumen- 
tal in the founding of the water supply service and a popular 
credit bank in Kefar Saba. In the years 1937-47 ne served as 
the deputy of Levi *Eshkol in Hevrat ha-Mayim, which turned 
into the *Mekorot Water Company and later became the na- 
tional water company of the state of Israel. In 1947 he was ap- 
pointed to the committee in charge of preparing the Negev 
settlements for the approaching *War of Independence. In 
February 1948 Sapir was appointed deputy head of the Civil 
Defense of the Yishuv, and was eventually granted the rank 
of lieutenant colonel. In August 1948 he was sent to Europe 
to coordinate purchases of military equipment. In 1948-53 he 
served as director general of the Ministry of Defense, under 
David *Ben-Gurion. In 1953-55 ne served as director general 
of the Ministry of Finance under Eshkol. Sapir was appointed 
minister of commerce and industry in 1955 and served in 
this ministry until 1964. One of his main tasks in this posi- 
tion was to encourage domestic and foreign investment in 
industries - both private and public - in the new develop- 
ment towns. He was first elected to the Fourth Knesset on the 
Mapai list in 1959. Sapir was instrumental in revealing many 
of the facts connected with the * Lavon Affair that finally led 
to the resignation of Ben-Gurion from the premiership. When 
Eshkol replaced Ben-Gurion as prime minister in 1963, Sapir 
succeeded him as minister of finance, serving in this posi- 
tion until 1968. As minister of finance he was responsible for 
the controversial policy of economic slowdown in the years 
1966-67, which was designed to decrease the deficit in the bal- 
ance of payments, improve the structure of investments and 
employment, and foster productivity for export. In August 
1968, Sapir succeeded Golda *Meir as secretary general of the 
newly founded ^Israel Labor Party, serving in this position 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


until 1970. In 1968-69 he served in the government as minis- 
ter without portfolio. Following Eshkol's sudden death in Feb- 
ruary 1969, Sapir was considered as a possible heir, but Meir 
was chosen by the Labor Party for the post. After the elections 
to the Seventh Knesset in 1969, he was once again appointed 
by Meir as minister of finance, and served again as minister 
of commerce and industry in 1970-72, after Gahal left the 

Sapir was reappointed minister of finance in the short- 
lived government formed by Meir after the elections to the 
Eighth Knesset. Following her resignation in April, he de- 
clined to stand as a candidate for the premiership or to serve in 
the government formed by Yitzhak * Rabin, whom he himself 
had nominated. In June 1974 Sapir was unanimously elected 
as chairman of the World Zionist Organization and the Jew- 
ish Agency, following the death of Louis * Pincus. 

Sapir was one of the few Labor leaders who was disturbed 
by Israel's territorial expansion resulting from the Six-Day 
War, especially for economic reasons, and the social and de- 
mographic ramifications. He had reservations about Jewish 
settlement beyond the Green Line. He also acted to prevent 
the appointment of Ariel *Sharon as chief of staff. 

Sapir s ideological rivals accused him of excessive prag- 
matism, and betrayal of the socialist ideals of his party. He had 
the image of a strong man, and the black notebook, in which 
he was accustomed to jot down notes, turned into a symbol. 
Nevertheless, there is no doubt that Sapir helped navigate the 
Israeli economy through stormy seas, and he was personally 
responsible for many of Israel's economic achievements un- 
der Labor rule. 

After his death in 1975 the development center named 
for Pinhas Sapir was opened at Tel Aviv University, to engage 
in research in economic, industrial, social, political, cultural 
and educational development. 

bibliography: A. Avneri, Sapir (1970); wzo, Pinhas Sa- 
pir 5667-5735, 1907-1975: Hazon ve-Hagshamah (1975); M. Nabr, 
Zemihato shel Manhig: Pinhas Sapir 1930-1949 (1987); M. Nabr, 
Pinhas Sapir Ish KefarSaba (1987); D. Levy, Pinhas Sapir ve-ha-Pituah 
ha-Taasiyyati shel Yisrael (1993); B. Kami, Pinhas Sapir: Shalit Be'al 

Korho (1996). 

[Susan Hattis Rolef (2 nd ed.)] 

SAPIRO, AARON (1884-1959), U.S. lawyer. Sapiro, born in 
San Francisco, California, spent most of his poverty-stricken 
childhood in an orphan asylum. He went on, however, to 
graduate from the University of Cincinnati, studied briefly 
for the rabbinate, and then received his law degree from the 
University of California. Sapiro's legal practice emphasized 
labor law, men's compensation, and, especially, farm coopera- 
tives. He was the author of the California Industrial Accident 
laws and was chiefly responsible for the standard Cooperative 
Marketing Act in effect in over 40 states. In 1924 Sapiro was 
attacked by Henry Ford's Dearborn Independent in a series of 
articles alleging a Jewish conspiracy to control U.S. agriculture. 
He brought a $1,000,000 damage suit against Ford, and when 
the case came to trial in 1927, Ford denied antisemitic intent, 

but settled out of court with Sapiro. The Ford-Sapiro case set 
the stage for the conclusion of the Dearborn Independent's 
anti- Jewish campaign and for Ford's public apology to the 

bibliography: New York Times (Nov. 25, 1959); G.H. Larsen 

and H.E. Erdman, in: Missisippi Valley Historical Review, 49 (1962/63), 

242-68; M. Rosenstock, Louis Marshall, Defender of Jewish Rights 

(1965), 182-97. 

[Morton Rosenstock] 

business and philanthropic family, jacob j. sapirstein 
(1884-1987) emigrated from Poland to Cleveland, Ohio, in 
1906 and began what would become the second largest greet- 
ing card company in the world, American Greetings Corpora- 
tion, by selling postcards imported from Germany. Sons Irving 
and Morris worked with their father from a very young age. 
The company pioneered display stands for greeting cards and 
began designing and printing its own cards in 1936. In 1940 
the sons changed their name to Stone, and in i960 irving i. 
stone (1909-2000) succeeded his father as president of the 
company, morry weiss, married to a granddaughter of the 
family, joined the company in 1961 and became president in 
1978. In 2003 great-grandson zev weiss became chief execu- 
tive officer of American Greetings. 

The family has been a consistent supporter of Ortho- 
dox Jewish causes in Cleveland, the United States, and Israel, 
most notably the Hebrew Academy of Cleveland, the Telshe 
Yeshiva (Wickliffe, Ohio), Yeshiva University, and Telshe Stone 
in Israel. Several widely used ArtScroll publications bear the 
family names, including the Stone Chumash and Tanach and 
the Sapirstein Rashi. Morry Weiss is on the board of Yeshiva 
University and is a prime supporter of Edah. The family mem- 
bers' philanthropic efforts have been associated with Ortho- 
dox Zionist and modern Orthodox causes, and they have been 
active participants in the larger Cleveland community, both 
Jewish and secular. 

bibliography: D. Van Tassel and J. Grabowski (eds.), "Amer- 
ican Greetings," "Sapirstein, Jacob J.," "Stone, Irving, I.," in: Encyclo- 
pedia of Cleveland History, online edition, 
(1998, 1997, and 2001); ms. 4581 Jacob J. Sapirstein Papers, Western 
Reserve Historical Society, Cleveland, Ohio; "Irving Stone: Pioneer 
of Jewish Education Passes Away at 90," in: Booknewsfrom ArtScroll 

SAPORTA (or Sasporta), HANOKH (15 th century), scholar. 
Originally from a noble family in Catalonia, Saporta was rabbi 
in Adrianople after R. Isaac Zarefati. In addition to his Torah 
learning, he was also versed in the sciences. He apparently 
participated in an effort at that time made by the Rabbanites 
to reconcile the Karaites. Because of the Karaites' theologi- 
cal weakness, the Rabbanites sought to introduce talmudic 
learning among them. This explains the presence of Karaites 
among his pupils. His principal pupil was Mordecai * Comtino, 
and Saporta's system of thought and learning can be traced 
in Comtino's works. 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



bibliography: Gurland, in: Talpioth (1895), 8; Danon, in: 
jqr, 15 (1924/25), 309-10; Rosanes, Togarmah, 1 (1930 2 ), 26, 47; Oba- 
dia, in: Sinai, 6 (1940), 76. 

SAR, SAMUEL L. (Shmuel Leib; 1893-1962), educator. Sar 
was born on Shushan Purim in Ligmiany, in what is now Link- 
menys, Lithuania. The eldest of six boys, he began his educa- 
tion at the nearby yeshivah of Vidz, later moving on to Pon- 
evich (*Panevezys) yeshivah and a branch of Telz at Shaduva, 
where he studied for several years with Rabbi Joseph Bloch. 
After receiving semikhah, Sar was chosen by Rabbi Mayer Tzvi 
Jung to be trained as a rabbi for communities in the Austro- 
Hungarian empire and was sent to Vienna to pursue a rig- 
orous program. He later followed Jung to London but ulti- 
mately chose to immigrate to the United States, arriving in 
Baltimore, Maryland, in 1914. His first job was as superinten- 
dent of a network of talmud torahs. Simultaneously, he began 
undergraduate studies at Johns Hopkins and Mount Vernon 
Collegiate Institute and entered law school at the University 
of Maryland. 

In 1919 he was invited by Bernard *Revel to join the staff 
of the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary (the fore- 
runner of Yeshiva University) as a lecturer in Talmud and 
secretary of the administration. Following Revel's death in 
1940 and the accession of Dr. *Belkin to the presidency, Sar 
was appointed dean of men, a position that reflected his mul- 
tiple tasks on behalf of the student body. In practice, he was 
the main address for the students and was considered the in- 
stitution's ultimate problem -solver, earning him the appella- 
tion "Mr. Yeshiva." 

Besides his devotion to Torah learning and Jewish educa- 
tion, Sar played a prominent role in Jewish communal affairs 
in the United States, especially in the post- Holocaust relief 
and rehabilitation efforts sponsored by American Jewry. In fall 
1945, he was sent on behalf of the American Jewish Conference 
to Europe to visit the displaced persons camps in Germany 
and present a survey of the Jewish Holocaust survivors and 
recommendations on how best to provide for their immediate 
needs. Along with Major Alfred Fleischman and Hans Lamm, 
Sar served as liaison between the survivors and unrr a as part 
of the efforts of American Jewry to assist the survivors. 

In 1948, Sar returned to Europe, this time as director of 
the Central Orthodox Committee of the Joint Distribution 
Committee, which was established in 1947 to unify American 
Jewry's efforts to care for the religious needs of the Orthodox 
survivors in Europe. A lifelong Religious Zionist, Sar was one 
of the leaders of the Mizrachi both in the United States and 
in world Jewish bodies. He served as acting president and 
chairman of the Vaad Hapoel of American Mizrachi and rep- 
resented the movement in the Merkaz Olami (world center). 
He also played an important role in the creation of Bar-Ilan 
University in Israel with his good friend Pinchas Churgin. 
Sar's son, Eli Sar, was director of medical services at Yeshiva 
College and Stern College for close to 50 years; his daughter, 
Esther Zuroff, was director of student services at Stern Col- 

lege for three decades; and his son-in-law, Rabbi Abraham 
Zuroff, was the supervisor of all four yu high schools and the 
principal of yuhsb for 30 years. 

[Efraim Zuroff 2 nd ed.)] 

SARACHEK, BERNARD ("Red"; 1912-2005), innovative 
U.S. basketball strategist, mentor to basketball greats, long- 
time Yeshiva College coach. Born in the Bronx, New York, 
Sarachek began his basketball career as a player at Stuyvesant 
High School. After playing for New York University, his first 
coaching job was as an assistant coach at his high school alma 
mater. He later moved on to a Workman's Circle team which 
included legendary New York Knicks coach Red *Holzman 
and prominent nba referee Norm Drucker. During World 
War 11, he coached in the military at Pearl Harbor, where his 
Schofield Barracks team won an armed forces title. After the 
war, he began coaching professionally, initially with the Scran- 
ton Miners of the American Basketball League (one of the pre- 
decessors of the National Basketball Association), where he 
made history by breaking the league's discriminatory practices 
by starting three Afro-Americans at the same time. 

Sarachek achieved fame during his longtime tenure as 
basketball coach and athletic director at Yeshiva University. 
He began his career there in 1938 after he was approached by 
several students who sought to hire him privately to coach 
their team. Although plagued by the lack of a home court, no 
athletic scholarships, and the students' extremely demand- 
ing double schedule of Jewish and secular studies which often 
ended late at night, he invariably managed to field respectable, 
well-coached teams (nicknamed the "Mighty Mites") which 
enjoyed several winning seasons (the 1954-55 team went 16-2). 
In 39 seasons as coach at yu, his overall record was 202-263, 
which, given the limited talent available and the enormous 
problems facing the basketball program, was, to a large ex- 
tent, a credit to Sarachek's coaching skills. 

Despite the fact that Sarachek coached in ncaa Divi- 
sion in (or its equivalent) for most of his career, and his teams 
did not achieve outstanding success on the court, his knowl- 
edge of the game and his innovative offensive and defensive 
strategies were legendary, and he mentored such outstand- 
ing coaches as Lou Carnesecca (St. John's); Red Holzman 
(New York Knicks); and Jack Donohue (Power Memorial). 
He is credited with being among the first to emphasize the 
importance of movement on offense without the ball (going 
backdoor, "change of direction") and he created new align- 
ments of the zone defense as well as innovative in-bounds 
plays. After coaching at Yeshiva, he worked as a scout for the 
Nets (aba). 

While not religiously observant, Sarachek was known 
for his strong sense of Jewish identity and his profound rec- 
ognition of the important role sports could play in fostering 
Jewish pride and combating assimilation. This also explains 
his deep loyalty to Yeshiva or, in his words, "Yeshiva is spe- 
cial. It's a team for the Jewish people to be able to watch them 
play and be honored by them, to have pride. When you find 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


a Jewish athlete doing something, you feel proud. That's more 
important to me than anything else." 

Sarachek is a member of the Jewish Sports Hall of Fame 
in Commack, New York; the New York City Hall of Fame; and 
the New York City Basketball Hall of Fame. In 1992, Yeshiva 
University named its annual high school invitational tourna- 
ment the Red Sarachek Basketball Tournament. 

[EfraimZuroff(2 nd ed.)] 

SARACHEK, JOSEPH (1892-1953), U.S. Conservative rabbi 
and scholar. Sarachek, born in New York City, was ordained by 
the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in 1916. He occu- 
pied various pulpits in the New York area, served as chaplain 
for the New York City Department of Correction, and taught 
at Yeshiva University. He was president of the New York Board 
of Rabbis in 1941-42. Sarachek devoted himself principally 
to research in medieval Jewish literature. He wrote The Doc- 
trine of the Messiah in Medieval Jewish Literature (1923), Faith 
and Reason: The Conflict Over the Rationalism of Maimonides 
(1935; 1970 2 ); and Don Isaac Abravanel (1938). These works are 
especially useful to students of the intellectual and religious 

history of medieval Jewry. 

[Sefton D. Temkin] 

SARAGOSSA (Sp. Zaragoza; Heb. HUDpID, HttOipiO), city 
in Aragon, N.E. Spain; capital of the former kingdom of Ara- 
gon. Jews were already living in Saragossa during the late 
Roman and Visigothic periods, for which, however, details 
are not available. 

Muslim Period 

There was an important Jewish community in Saragossa during 
the period of Muslim rule. In addition to commerce, Jews were 
well represented in various industries, particularly cloth and 
leather, tanning, and shoe making. The community was appar- 
ently influential, as the acceptance of certain Jewish practices by 
Saragossa Christians elicited a reaction on the part of the Mo- 
zarabic priest Evantius in the eighth century (Migne, Patrologia 
Latina, vol. 88, 719-22). It is also believed that *Bodo, the Frank- 
ish priest, converted to Judaism in 838 in Saragossa. Jews served 
as advisers in the court of the tolerant Tajib dynasty during the 
11 th century, among them, Abu Ishaq Jekuthiel b. Isaac of the 
wealthy *Ibn Hasan family, killed in 1039. A cultural and intel- 
lectual center in the 11 th century, Saragossa was the residence of 
the philologist Jonah *Ibn Janah, the physician and philosopher 
Menahem ibn al-Fawal, the poets Levi b. Jacob *Ibn Altabban 
and Moses *Ibn Al-Takkana, the poet and linguist Joseph ibn 
Hisdai, the talmudist and day y an * David b. Saadiah, and the 
philosopher *Bahya b. Joseph ibn Paquda. E. Ashtor (see bib- 
liography) estimates that the Jews constituted 6.3% of the total 
population of Saragossa (which was under 20,000) during the 
11 th century. Saragossa also had a Karaite community. 

The Jewish Quarter 

From the time of Muslim rule until the eve of the expulsion of 
the Jews from Spain in 1492, the Jewish quarter in Saragossa 

continued to be situated within the city walls of the Roman 
period, in the southeastern section. It was formerly larger 
than during the final years of the Jewish settlement in Sara- 
gossa. The juderia no longer exists. Its location was at the back 
of todays Ramiro 1 hotel, between the Seminar of San Car- 
los and Magdalena Place. There was "the enclosed" juderia, 
and there was a second one, the new one, outside the Roman 
walls. The old Jewish quarter was surrounded by the Roman 
walls and an inner wall that separated it from the Christian 
districts. This quarter had six gates. It center was in today's 
Santo Dominguito street, which led to the Gate of the Jud- 
eria. The fortress of the Jews, the slaughter-house, the Great 
Synagogue and the hospital were located there. In the fortress 
there was a prison for Jews and Muslims. As a result of the 
growth of the community, by the end of the 13 th century a new 
Jewish quarter was established. This new quarter, situated to 
the south of the old one, between the Coso and San Miguel 
streets, has preserved its medieval features more or less. This 
quarter is known as Barrio Nuevo. The buildings of the com- 
munity included a series of synagogues: the Great Synagogue 
(Mayor) in San Carlos place, the Small Synagogue (Menor), 
the Engravers' Synagogue (which appears to have been known 
as the Bikkur Holim synagogue), the Synagogue of Cehan, the 
Synagogue of Bienvenist, and the Synagogue of Hevrat Talmud 
To rah. The only Jewish building that has remained is that of 
the Jewish Baths, found in Coso, nos 132-136. The community 
representatives were accustomed to meet in the Aljaferia for- 
tress situated outside the city when they elected their leaders 
and officials. During the 14 th century the king maintained a 
zoological garden in one of its wings, and the community was 
responsible for the feeding of the animals. 

After the Christian Reconquest 

When Saragossa was conquered by Alfonso 1 el Batallador in 
1118, the Jews were granted various privileges. Alfonso had 
close relations with a Jew named Eleazar who lived in Sara- 
gossa and was employed in the service of the king. In the dis- 
tribution of properties which followed the conquest, there 
is also mention of the alfaquim Benveniste and his family 
who received a vineyard in the outskirts of the city. When 
Alfonso vii of Castile occupied Saragossa for a short while 
(1134), he ratified the grants to the San Salvador Church in 
Saragossa previously made by Alfonso 1 of Aragon from the 
tithe and customs duties which were paid by the Moors and 
the Jews. In 1195 Alfonso 11 granted Maestre Jossep Aben Filca, 
his brother Rabi Asser, and their heirs after them, an annual 
income of 300 solidos which was to be paid to them from the 
customs duties received from the Jews of Saragossa. 

Pedro 11 continued to grant further personal privileges: 
in 1212, he granted to the Jew Alazrach, son of Abulfath Abe- 
nalazar, the members of his household and his heirs, a se- 
ries of rights on their property; he exempted them from the 
reproof section which formed part of the text of the Jewish 
*oath, from the Jewish ban (her em) , and from the communi- 
ty's regulations. James 1 also adopted this policy of granting 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



privileges to the distinguished Jewish families of Saragossa 
and thus favored the members of the *Alconstantini and de 
la *Cavalleria families. Members of the Alconstantini family 
(Bahya and Solomon) accompanied him as interpreters when 
he set out on his campaign to conquer the Balearic Isles and 
Valencia. Members of these families, as well as of the Ben- 
veniste family, gave their support to the counter-ban issued 
in 1232 by the communities of Huesca, Monzon, Calatayud, 
and Lerida against *Solomon b. Abraham of Montpellier and 
his colleagues because of their ban against those who studied 
the works of Maimonides and philosophy (see *Maimoni- 
dean Controversy). 

One of the principal occupations of the Jews of Saragossa 
was garment making. The draperosheld an important place in 
the community, coming directly after the personalities who 
had influence at court. Their shops were situated in the Jew- 
ish quarter and beyond, and they also employed Christians in 
spinning and weaving. They were followed in rank by crafts- 
men of every category: tailors, engravers, mantle -makers, fur- 
riers, goldsmiths, wool-cleaners, metal workers, blacksmiths, 
shoemakers, embroiderers, and cobblers, several of whom 
received special privileges in appreciation of their services to 
the crown. These craftsmen later organized their own benevo- 
lent societies. There were also landowners in the community 
who owned fields and vineyards outside the city, cultivated 
by daily workers and slaves. This occupational structure per- 
sisted until the expulsion. 

The gap between the rich and the poor was very wide. 
The rich, including the francos who were exempt from con- 
tributing to the taxes paid by the community and were out- 
side its jurisdiction, had full control of all communal affairs. 
The lower classes, composed of craftsmen, felt very oppressed. 
In 1263 they organized an opposition group called Kat ha- 
Havurah (The Peoples Faction) and tried to obtain certain 
rights with the help of the king. This courageous act was the 
beginning of a social struggle that spread in the Kingdom of 
Aragon and caused constitutional reform in many commu- 
nities. This did not always produce satisfactory results, and 
the members of the lower classes adopted a new method for 
ameliorating their position. They established many confrater- 
nities, havurot in Hebrew, which tried to resolve their social, 
economic, educational, and medical problems that the estab- 
lishment failed to solve. The leading confraternities were the 
Rodfei Zedek, Osei Hesed, Malbishe Arumim, Bikur Holim, 
Shomrei Holim, the confraternities of the craftsmen which 
included the shoemakers and the tanners, as well as religious 
groups that included Ashmoret ha-Boker, confraria fr Ce- 
farim, and Talmud To rah. 

James 1 granted additional privileges to the community, 
including rights of judicial autonomy; the *oath could be taken 
according to Jewish law; lawsuits between Jews and Christians 
could take place before a judge of the same religion as the de- 
fendant; Jewish prisoners were set free for the Sabbath. The 
history of the community during his reign was marked by 
the internal struggle for power between the de la Cavalleria 

and Alconstantini families. Don Judah de la Cavalleria, the 
bailiff of the city, became involved in a dispute with Solomon 
^Alconstantini. Don Judah remained in office until 1276 and 
died a short while later. Moses Alconstantini, the alfaquim of 
Pedro in, was appointed in his place. Don Moses was, how- 
ever, unable to hold his position in Saragossa, and in 1277 be- 
came bailiff of Valencia. During the time of Don Judah the first 
*blood libel on Spanish soil was circulated in Saragossa (1250); 
the Jews were accused of the murder of a Christian child and 
the subsequent agitation reached a dangerous pitch. The com- 
munity of Saragossa was among the largest in the kingdom, 
not of lesser size than those of Barcelona in Catalonia or To- 
ledo in Castile, at times even surpassing them. The commu- 
nity administration, which was responsible to the crown for 
the payment of taxes, introduced internal systems of taxation. 
In addition to the direct tax, it levied an indirect tax on meat, 
wine, commercial transactions, loans, and real estate, a profit 
tax, a tax on dowries, and a tax on the daily wage of craftsmen 
(cf. Solomon b. Abraham Adret, Resp., pt. 5, nos. 279, 281). 

In 1294 a rumor spread in Saragossa that some Jews had 
murdered a Christian child and extracted his heart and liver 
for magical purposes. The municipal authorities appointed an 
expert on magic to investigate the matter, while in the mean- 
time the Jews succeeded in finding the "murdered" child in a 
neighboring city. King James 11 severely condemned the mu- 
nicipal authorities for the disaster which they had been about 
to bring upon the community. 

In the tax regulations of 1331, the community sought to 
reorganize both the internal taxation system and the methods 
of collecting the tax for which it was responsible to the king. 
Particularly important were the taxes levied on commercial 
transactions, real estate, and movable property, the sisa tax on 
meat and wine, and the methods of measuring and assessing 
which were introduced to prevent evasion. In 1333 Alfonso 1 v 
issued several edicts in favor of the community connected 
with the registration procedure for debts and pledges. Pedro iv 
also issued similar laws, but apparently the community admin- 
istration, which also had the support of the government, did 
not succeed in overcoming the irregularities persisting in taxa- 
tion, its assessment and collection. In 1335 the infante Pedro 
informed his father Alfonso 1 v of the degenerate condition of 
the community and the irregularities found in it. By then the 
community was almost ruined through the accumulation of 
debts and the loans which it was compelled to seek in order 
to pay the levies and fines which the state itself imposed with 
such frequency. In 1342, on the basis of a privilege granted by 
Pedro iv, the community of Saragossa proclaimed a herem 
upon anyone who obtained a tax exemption or accepted a 
position in the community as rabbi, shohet, scribe, albedin y or 
emissary with the assistance of a royal privilege. 

The *Black Death struck a severe blow at the community 
of Saragossa. Hardly one -fifth of its members survived. On 
Oct. 27, 1348, King Pedro instructed the procurador-general of 
Aragon and the other royal officials in Saragossa not to compel 
the community to pay taxes until the plague ceased and new 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


arrangements for tax payment were agreed upon. Members 
of the de la Cavalleria family, whose position had diminished 
after the death of Don Judah, once more gained the leadership 
in the community administration; subsequently they main- 
tained their position until most of them converted to Chris- 
tianity after the disputation of *Tortosa (see below). 

The cultural and general progress of the community in 
the early 1360s was largely due to the de la Cavalleria family. 
Don Vidal de la Cavalleria, one of the kingdoms notables, 
leased the minting of gold coins in the kingdom in conjunc- 
tion with a Christian of Saragossa, an agent of the king, and 
leased the taxes in collaboration with another Christian. He 
was versed in Jewish learning, and after his death in 1373 his 
wife Orovida continued to manage her husband's affairs. His 
brother, Solomon, was also active in his town and commu- 
nity. The most outstanding member of the family, however, 
was his son and the son-in-law of Vidal: Judah Benveniste de 
la Cavalleria, who, from the late 1370s, was involved in many 
of the kingdoms affairs and carried on important commerce 
in Barcelona and other places. His house in Saragossa was a 
center of Hebrew culture and he signed state documents in 
Hebrew. Solomon and Benveniste maintained friendly rela- 
tions with *Nissim b. Reuben Gerondi and apparently sup- 
ported *Isaac b. Sheshet Perfet, who arrived in Saragossa in 
about 1372-73 and was active there for 13 years. The responsa 
left by Isaac b. Sheshet yield much information on the way of 
life of the Jews of Saragossa. 

In the relations between the king and the community of 
Saragossa there was no change in the attitude of the crown. In 
1363 Pedro iv imposed a levy of 5,000 livres in Jaca currency 
toward the expenses of the war against Castile. From the 1370s 
the administration of the community was dominated by Solo- 
mon Abnarrabi, one of the leading muqaddimun. Apparently, 
the members of the de la Cavalleria family had ceased to take 
an interest in communal affairs. In the early 1380s, complaints 
concerning the inefficient administration of the community 
were submitted to the king's treasurer. It was revealed that the 
debts of the community amounted to 200,000 solidos, and the 
muqaddimun were accused of having exempted their relatives 
from taxes and granting them benefits. 

It was only from 1386 that the community began to re- 
pay its debts, and R. Hasdai *Crescas, who settled in Saragossa 
about that time, did much to liquidate the debts and improve 
the community's condition. In 1387 he was appointed supreme 
justice in the prosecution of informers throughout the king- 
dom. He became the leader of the Jews in the kingdom after 
the anti- Jewish persecutions of 1391. 

Saragossa was spared from the persecutions of 1391 be- 
cause of the presence of the king in the city, which he used as 
a summer residence. The king and queen did not leave the city 
until the end of October to punish the rioters. In April 1392, 
John 1 thanked the city leaders for protecting the community 
and encouraged them to maintain this policy. 

Activities for the rehabilitation of the communities of 
the kingdom after the persecutions subsequently centered in 

Saragossa. Hasdai Crescas and Moses b. Samuel Abbas, who 
had moved from Tudela to Saragossa during the 1370s, devoted 
themselves to the welfare of their coreligionists. Following the 
massacres in the peninsula, Hasdai Crescas assumed the lead- 
ership of the communities and offered financial assistance to 
those who suffered in the massacres. Crescas made several 
journeys to Navarre, probably to suggest a haven to the Jews 
who had suffered from the persecutions. It may be that in this 
context we have to understand Crescas' famous letter to the 
community of Avignon. 

In 1396, with the consent of the government, Hasdai 
Crescas instituted regulations for the community of Saragossa. 
They show a pronounced tendency to strengthen the authority 
of the muqaddimun and enable them to impose their decisions 
without undue delays. As early as 1399 the queen, however, 
found it necessary to accept the complaints of the community 
and change these regulations. According to the decisions of 
Hasdai Crescas, the treasurer was appointed from among the 
four muqaddimun, while the funds of the community were su- 
pervised by one of them, and could not pass from his keeping. 
The queen allocated an annual sum of 8,000 solidos to defray 
outstanding debts, while Hasdai Crescas had set no limits to 
the amounts which could be collected. The queen clearly in- 
tended to minimize the authoritative tendencies of his regu- 
lations, while maintaining the community in an orderly state. 
Hasdai Crescas died in 1410, Benveniste de la Cavalleria in 
1411, but worthy successors of these two personalities were 
still available. The rabbinical position of Hasdai Crescas was 
taken over by *Merahiah b. Isaac ha-Levi (en Ferrer Saladin), 
who was assisted by *Mattathias ha- Yizhari and Moses Abbas, 
leaders of former days. 

[Haim Beinart / Yom Tov Assis (2 nd ed.)] 

Results of the Disputation of Tortosa 

The community of Saragossa, like the other communities of 
the kingdom, underwent a difficult period at the time of the 
Disputation of *Tortosa in 1413-14. Its emissaries to the dis- 
putation were Zerahiah ha-Levi and Mattathias ha- Yizhari; 
they were accompanied by the interceder Don Vidal, the son 
of Don Benveniste de la Cavalleria. 

The consequences of the disputation of Tortosa affected 
the Saragossa community in the same way as it had the other 
communities in Spain. Some of its prominent members, in- 
cluding members of the de la Cavalleria family, converted to 
Christianity, among them Benafos, who assumed the name 
of Fernando, and Vidal, who took the name of Gonzalo and 
received a position in the kingdom's administration. The con- 
version of Vidal had wide repercussions. His teacher, R. Sol- 
omon da Piera, also converted with him. Two poets of that 
generation, Solomon *Bonafed and Bonastruc Desmaestre, 
regarded his renunciation as marking the nation's decline. 
The government had already realized the undesirability of 
the Conversos, whose numbers were increasing, continu- 
ing to reside in the same quarter as the Jews. The Conversos, 
at first only a few in number, were requested to leave but re- 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



fused; a commission was finally set up to assess the value of 
their houses which the Jews of the quarter were ordered to 
pay to them. Many families were broken up. In 1415 the Jews 
of Saragossa faced a threat of further disorders; many attacks 
were made on them after Vicente *Ferrer had been preach- 
ing. Ferdinand ordered that measures be taken to assure their 
protection. During this period, the community of Saragossa 
numbered about 200 families. This was also its size at the time 
of the expulsion in 1492, although it received Jewish refugees 
throughout this century. 

The community nevertheless underwent a lengthy period 
of decline because there were no notable leaders after the Tor- 
tosa disputation; its administration was concentrated in the 
hands of the craftsmen and simple folk who were incompetent 
to manage its affairs. Alfonso v was aware of the communi- 
ty's situation and in 1417 ordered the merino of Saragossa and 
Vidal de la Cavalleria to take over the accounts from the ap- 
pointees, to introduce order into the administrations affairs, 
and to appoint community leaders, muqaddimun, members 
of the council, treasurers, and a notary. Alfonso even autho- 
rized them to defend the community against the missionary 
sermons of apostates. He also ordered that the books of the 
Talmud which had been confiscated were to be returned to 
the Jews of Saragossa, as they had been returned to the other 
Jews of the kingdom (1419). Synagogues which had been con- 
fiscated were also to be restored. He authorized Jews to take 
leases from Christians. However, several monks, a Christian 
jurist, and several apostates were delegated to make a general 
examination of the books of the Jews. An event that occurred 
on the 17 th of Shevat, 5420 (1420), was subsequently celebrated 
by the community as the "Purim of Saragossa." The Jews of 
the city were accused by an informer of carrying empty Torah 
cases at the reception being held in honor of the king; how- 
ever, they were found to contain Torah scrolls and the Jews 
were thus spared punishment. A special scroll describing this 
miracle was also written. 

Despite the efforts at rehabilitation and the support of 
the crown, the despair which had set in among the Jews con- 
tinued and there were additional conversions. According to a 
cautious estimate, about 200 Jews yearly converted to Chris- 
tianity between 1420 and 1430. To assist the community's re- 
covery, associations were established for the support of the 
poor, for Torah study, etc. Endeavors to organize relief for 
the poor and the persecuted brought a certain revival in com- 
munity life. Saragossa was outstanding for this activity until 
the expulsion. 

In 1438 Alfonso ordered that the community was to be 
administered by three muqaddimun y a council of nine mem- 
bers, and a treasurer. Throughout this period the community 
existed side by side with an active group of Conversos, some 
of whom had abandoned the Jewish faith of their own free 
will (see below). 

In 1457 Alfonso granted the community of Saragossa a 
series of alleviations: he exempted it from payment of special 
taxes for ten years, granted a general amnesty, and guaran- 

teed his protection against seizures by Church tribunals and 
against imprisonment or seizure by officers of the kingdom. 
The annual tax then amounted to 12,000 solidos in Jaca cur- 
rency, as it was in 1460 and in 1482. 

When Ferdinand inherited the crown of Aragon in 1479, 
his policy toward the Jews of Castile was also applied in Ara- 
gon. In 1481 he wrote to the prior of the Cathedral of Saragossa 
and reproached him for having ordered the Jews to return to 
their quarter and authorizing them to close off the passages to 
the Christian streets. He also complained that even the prior 
had issued orders concerning the garb of the Jews and had 
forbidden several crafts upon the basis of a papal bull. Ferdi- 
nand explained that even a papal bull required the consent of 
the crown if it was to be applied. He ordered the Jews to wear 
a distinctive *badge and instructed the municipal officials to 
see that the crown's instructions concerning the Jews were car- 
ried out, and to assure their protection, which implied that the 
city was not to adopt an independent policy in the treatment 
of the Jews living there. 

In i486 the king granted the request of Torquemada and 
ordered the expulsion of the Jews from Saragossa and *A1- 
barracin (see also below). After the issue of the edict, Ferdi- 
nand, however, wrote to Torquemada and suggested that an 
extension of six months be given. The edict was presumably 
not applied because notarial documents (such as testaments 
and the like) are extant from the year 1491, indicating that 
there was still a Jewish population in Saragossa, while the 
general decree of expulsion of the Jews was published there 
on April 29, 1492. 

The Inquisition officials took upon themselves to super- 
vise the preparations for the expulsion. They issued an order 
prohibiting the purchase of properties from Jews, but the Jews 
of Saragossa apparently did not heed this prohibition and pro- 
ceeded with the transfer or sale of their properties. On June 28, 
the bailiff general convened the municipal leaders for an ur- 
gent discussion on the problem of the property of the Jews. 
It was agreed that a part of the community's debts would be 
covered by its property, but another part of the properties, 
especially those in personal possession, would finance the 
departure of the exiles. The Jewish quarter was transferred to 
the municipal council. A short while before the expulsion, the 
Abnarrabi family, whose ancestors had held important func- 
tions in the past administration of the community, converted 
to Christianity. Several members of the family assumed the 
name of Santa Fe (Joshua Abnarrabi became Juan de Santa 
Fe); Ishmael Abnarrabi, known as a merchant and banker ac- 
tive during the 1470s, also chose this alternative; so did Vidal 
Abnarrabi, a renowned physician in the town (as a Christian, 
he took the name of Alfonso de Eimeric). None of the mem- 
bers of this family was tried by the Inquisition, and they ap- 
parently became integrated within Christian society. During 
the whole of this period, Christian notaries were fully occu- 
pied with drawing up inventories of the properties of those 
who were about to leave; these lists give much information 
on the situation of the Jews of Saragossa during the last stage 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


of the community's existence. It is assumed that the Jews of 
Saragossa departed in the direction of the ports of the king- 
dom, but some of them presumably went to the kingdom of 

The Conversos in Saragossa 

Although there were Jews in Saragossa who deliberately or 
willingly abandoned Judaism, many after their conversion 
continued to observe the Jewish precepts and were Jews in 
every respect. Several of the Conversos in Saragossa became 
renowned. In 1450 Pedro de la Cavalleria completed his apo- 
logia for Christianity, Zelus christi contra Judaeos, Sarracenos 
et infideleSy in Saragossa, in which he revealed a wide knowl- 
edge of Jewish affairs, while his familiarity with the Jewish 
community is striking. Even so, at trials held by the Inquisition 
during the 1480s, testimony was brought against him that he 
was accustomed to eat in Jewish houses, that he participated 
in the Grace after Meals, and that he had spoken scornfully of 
Christianity. It was he who brought to Castile the pearl neck- 
lace which Ferdinand had sent to his betrothed, Isabella. 

At the beginning of May 1484, Torquemada appointed 
two inquisitors to the tribunal of Saragossa. The tribunal es- 
tablished its seat outside the city in the Aljaferia fortress and, 
on May 10, the first *auto-da-fe took place and four Conversos 
were burned at the stake. It nevertheless appears that the tri- 
bunal proceeded rather slowly in its task. Leading Conversos 
of Saragossa were related to the local nobility (including the 
royal family) by marriage, and in general the Conversos in the 
city had close social and commercial relations with the Chris- 
tian population. On Nov. 29, 1484, the Council of the Estates 
of Aragon, influenced by the Conversos who took part in the 
local and national administration, sent a delegation to the king 
and demanded that the new inquisition be abolished because 
it contradicted the laws of the country, and the appointment 
of inquisitors by Torquemada was in direct contradiction to 
the charters issued in the kingdom. The king declared to the 
emissaries of Aragon that the former inquisitors had neglected 
their duties and accepted bribery, but loyal Christians had no 
need to fear the Inquisition because it would not molest them. 
In practice, the government realized that in Saragossa a cau- 
tious policy should be adopted over the Converso problem. 

On Sept. 14, 1485, an incident took place in Saragossa 
which had repercussions throughout Spain. On that day, the 
inquisitor Pedro de *Arbues was assassinated in the Cathe- 
dral of Saragossa while engrossed in his prayers. The Con- 
verso community, as well as the Jews, were threatened with 
total annihilation, but the municipal and royal officials sup- 
pressed the riots and began an energetic search for the cul- 
prits. In December 1485 the Inquisition tribunal resumed its 
activities and applied justice according to the strict letter of 
the law. From then onward, monthly autos-da-fe were held, 
and many Conversos were burned at the stake. Among those 
sentenced was Jaime de Montesa, a respected jurist who was 
the leading conspirator against Pedro de Arbues. With him 
was sentenced Juan de Pedro Sanchez, the brother of the royal 

treasurer Gabriel *Sanchez, who fled and was burned in effigy. 
Luis de *Santangel, the father-in-law of Gabriel Sanchez, who 
had been raised to knighthood in appreciation of his service, 
was also accused of complicity in the murder and of adherence 
to Judaism and burned at the stake. Francisco de Santa Fe, who 
acted as assessor to the governor of Aragon, the grandson of 
the well-known apostate Jeronimo de Santa Fe, committed sui- 
cide in the Inquisition jail; his body was burned and his ashes 
were thrown into the R. Ebro. Even Gabriel Sanchez and Al- 
fonso de la Cavalleria did not escape suspicion. On April 30, 
1492, one day after the publication of the decree of expulsion 
in Saragossa, R. Levi b. Shem Tov, one of the community's 
scholars, appeared before the investigators of heresy and tes- 
tified that in 1490, upon the orders of the Inquisitor, he had 
called upon the members of the community, and cautioned 
them under the threat of the herem to testify before the In- 
quisition all that was known to them on the Conversos who 
observed the Jewish precepts. 

Just as the Inquisition sought to extirpate these impor- 
tant personalities, it did not spare the ordinary Conversos 
who adhered to their former faith and Jewish way of life. The 
trials of Maria Lopez, the wife of Pedro de Santa Cruz, and 
of Francisco de Tarazona, which were held before the expul- 
sion, provide a remarkable example of the lives led by Jews 
and Conversos. According to a list apparently drawn up dur- 
ing the 17 th century, over 600 people were tried up to the 
beginning of the 16 th century. Only a few of the dossiers of 
those who were sentenced, however, are extant. Most were 
lost when the last secretary of the Inquisition, Juan Antonio 
Llorente, transferred them to France at the time of the Pen- 
insular War in the early 19 th century; only a few of them have 

been preserved there. 

[Haim Beinart] 

bibliography: Muslim period: Ashtor, Korot, 1 (1966), 
51, 218-22; 2 (1966), i53f., 160-5; idem, in: Zion, 28 (1963), 42; Tor- 
res-Balbas, in: Al-Andalus, 19 (1954), 191-2; 21 (1956), 172-90; J. Bosch 
Vila, in: Cuadernos de historia, 10-11 (i960), 7-67. christian pe- 
riod: Baer, Spain; Baer, Urkunden; Baer, Studien; idem, in: Devir, 2 
(1924), 310 ff.; Beinart, in: Sefunot, 5 (1961), 77-134; B. Dinur, ibid., 32 
(1967), 161-74; M. Serrano y Sanz, Origenes de la dominacion espa- 
hola en America, 1 (1918); F. Vendrell Gallostra, in: Sefarad, 3 (1943), 
115-54; F. Cantera, ibid., 7 (1947), 147-51; L. Piles Ros, ibid., 10 (1950), 
75 ff.; R. del Arco, ibid., 14 (1954), 79-98; J. Cabezudo Astrain, ibid., 
372-84; 15 (1955), 103-36; 16 (1956), 136-47; 20 (i960), 407-17; F. Ven- 
drell de Millas, ibid., 326-51; 24 (1964), 81-106; F. Cantera, Sinagogas 
espaholas (1955), 353-66; A. Lopez de Meneses in: Estudios de Edad 
Media de la Corona de Aragon, 6 (1956), 48, 49, 102, 103, 141; A. Huici 
Miranda, ibid., 7 (1962), 7-32; G. Tilander, Documento desconocido 
de la aljama de Zaragoza del aho 1331 (1958); M. Gual Camarena, in: 
Hispania, 82 (1961), 189-231; J. Madurell-Marimon, ibid., 84 (1961), 
495-548; H.C. Lea, A History of the Inquisition of Spain (1904), index. 
add. bibliography: A. Canellas, in: Boletin municipal de Zara- 
goza, 37 (1974), 85-97; J-L. Lacave, in: Sefarad, 35 (1975), 3-35; M.P. 
Gay Molins, in: Cuadernos de historia, 31-32 (1978), 141-81; idem, 
in: La ciudad de Zaragoza en la Corona de Aragon (1984), 335-42; 
Y. Assis, in: Proceedings of the y th World Congress of Jewish Studies, 
(1981), vol. 4, 37-7 (Hebrew section); idem, in: H. Beinart (ed.), The 
Sephardi Legacy (1992), 318-45; D. Romano, in: La ciudad de Zara- 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



goza en la Corona de Aragon (1984), 507-19; E. Gutwirth, in: Sefarad, 
45 (1985), 23-53; A. Blasco Martinez, in: Minorites et marginaux en 
France meridionale et dans la peninsule iberique (viii e -xvin e siecles) 
(1986), 177-202; idem, in: Aragon en la edad media, 7 (1988), 81-96; 
idem, in: Michael, 11 (1989), 99-120; idem, in: Sefarad, 49 (1989), 
227-36; 50 (1990), 3-46; 265-88; idem, La juderia de Zaragoza en 
el siglo xiv (1988); idem, Aragon en la edad media, 8 (1989), 113-31; 
idem, in: Anuario de estudios medievales 19 (1989), 113-31; M.A. Mo- 
tis Dolader, La expulsion de losjudios de Zaragoza, (1985); idem, in: 
Minorites et marginaux en France meridionale et dans la peninsule 
iberique (vn e -xvni e siecles), (1986), 385-412; idem, in: Proceedings 
of the 9 th World Congress of Jewish Studies, (1986), Division B, vol. 1, 
121-28; idem, in: Aragon en la edad media, 6 (1987), 247-62; idem, 
in: Aragon en la edad media, 7 (1988), 97-155; J. Lomba Fuentes, La 
filo sofia judia en Zaragoza, (1988). 

SARAH (Sarai; Heb. mfr, nttf), the first of the four matri- 
archs; wife of ^Abraham. Sarah is first mentioned in Genesis 
11:29. Exceptionally, her genealogy is not given. According to 
Genesis 20:12, Sarah was Abrahams half-sister, the daughter 
of his father, but not of his mother. It is difficult, however, to 
reconcile this information with Genesis 11:31, from a differ- 
ent documentary source, where Sarah is identified as Terah's 
daughter-in-law. Immediately after Sarah's introduction, men- 
tion is made of her infertility (Gen. 11:30). This fact serves to 
emphasize Abrahams unquestioning faith and obedience to 
the Lord's command that he leave his native land, predicated 
as it was on a promise of great progeny (12:1-4). 

The first incident in which Sarah figures prominently is 
the account of her descent to Egypt along with Abraham dur- 
ing a famine in Canaan (12:10-20). Immediately before enter- 
ing Egypt, Abraham becomes apprehensive lest Sarah's strik- 
ing beauty, which is especially noteworthy since she was 65 
years old at the time (cf. 12:4; 17:17; Genesis Apocryphon, 20), 
inspire the Egyptians to kill him for the sake of acquiring her 
(Gen. 12:12). Thus, Abraham instructs his wife to claim that 
she is his sister in order to protect him. Sarah obeys Abraham's 
wishes, and when her beauty is reported to the pharaoh by his 
courtiers, she is taken into the royal palace. Abraham is appar- 
ently generously rewarded for the hand of his "sister" (12:16). 
When, however, the royal household is afflicted with plagues, 
the pharaoh apparently realizes that Sarah is Abraham's wife 
and that he is being punished for having intercourse with her. 
He forthwith returns her to Abraham, at the same time or- 
dering them to leave his domain (12:17-20). The entire story 
foreshadows the plagues of Egypt and Israel's successful de- 
parture from there as already seen in the Midrash (Gen. R. 
(ed. Theodor and Albeck), 385). 

It was once thought that this unusual account and its par- 
allel in Genesis 20:1-18 involving the same couple but another 
monarch, Abimelech of Gerar (cf. also 26:6-11), were illumi- 
nated by the *Nuzi documents, which, according to *Speiser, 
attest to the existence in Hurrian society of a judicial status 
of wife-sistership, whereby a woman, in addition to becom- 
ing a man's wife, was adopted by him as his sister and thereby 
merited higher social status and greater privileges than an or- 

dinary wife. Speiser's reading though was shown to be wrong 
(see ^Genesis). Sarah's prolonged barrenness prompted her to 
give her handmaid Hagar to Abraham in order that she might 
bear him a child in her mistress' place (16:12). This unusual 
device, found only once again in the Bible (cf. Gen. 30:1-8), is 
also attested to in the Nuzi documents and elsewhere, where 
it is stipulated that if a wife is childless, she must provide her 
husband with a female slave as a concubine. Once Hagar had 
conceived, her arrogant attitude toward her mistress prompted 
Sarah to treat her so harshly that she finally fled, only to re- 
turn in accordance with a divine order (16:4-9). Ultimately, 
however, after Sarah had given birth to Isaac, she saw to it that 
Hagar and her son were permanently expelled from Abraham's 
household (Gen. 21; in Galatians ch. 4 Paul allegorizes this 
story so that it predicts the displacement of Judaism by Chris- 
tianity). The extraordinary fact that Sarah would bear a child 
at 90 years of age was first announced by God to Abraham at 
the same time that both his and Sarah's names were changed, 
the latter from Sarai (17:15-17). The promise of offspring was 
repeated when the angels visited their tent before the destruc- 
tion of Sodom and Gomorrah (18:10). These promises were 
received with incredulity by the Patriarch and his wife (17:17; 
18:12), who "laughed" when they heard the news, thus provid- 
ing the basis for the name of the son, *Isaac. 

Sarah died at the age of 127 in Kiriath- Arba, which, the 
text explains, is "now Hebron" (23:1-2). She was buried in 
the cave of *Machpelah, which was purchased by Abraham 
as a family grave from one of the local citizens, Ephron son 
of Zofar, in strict accordance with legal regulations for land 
purchase (23:3-20). Outside Genesis, Sarah is mentioned in 
the Bible only in Isaiah 51:2 as the progenitrix of the people 
of Israel. 

The usual interpretation of the name Sarah is "princess" 
or "chieftainness," although it may also be connected with the 
Akkadian Sdrrat, one of the designations of the moon-god- 
dess Ishtar. Some scholars have explained that Sarah's original 
name, "Httf , represents an early specialized feminine form, as 
is now known from Ugaritic, where the termination of femi- 
nine personal names is quite common. Others have pointed 
out that the name Sari may not be a doublet of Sarah, since 
the Greek translation has the expected doubling of the r in 
the case of Sarah (Sarra), Zappa, but not in the case of Sarai. 
The latter has been connected with the Arabic word shard, 
"repeated flashing." 

[Myra J. Siff / S. David Sperling (2 nd ed.)] 

In the Aggadah 

Sarah is identified with Iscah, the daughter of Abraham's 
brother, Haran (Gen. 11:29), an d thus Abraham's niece. She 
was called Iscah because all gazed (sakkah, "to look") at her 
beauty (Meg. 14a) which she retained throughout her jour- 
neys and even in her old age (Gen. R. 40:4). She was so beau- 
tiful that all other people were like monkeys by comparison 
(bb 58a). Even Abishag the Shunammite, whose beauty is 
extolled, never achieved half of Sarah's attractiveness (Sanh. 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


39b). Another interpretation for the name Iscah was that she 
possessed the gift of prophecy, which enabled her to discern 
(i.e., to look with the eyes of vision) by means of the Holy 
Spirit (Meg. 14a). She was one of the seven prophetesses and 
her prophetic gifts were superior even to those of Abraham 
(Ex. R. 1:1). While in Haran, Abraham converted the men and 
Sarah the women. The change of her name from the original 
Sarai ("a princess to her own people") to Sarah denoted that 
henceforth she would be "a princess for all mankind" (Gen. R. 
47:1). When Abraham journeyed to Egypt, he concealed her 
in a chest lest she be ravished by the Egyptians. Nonetheless, 
she was discovered by customs' officials (Gen. R. 40:5). As a 
token of his love, Pharaoh gave the land of Goshen to her as 
a hereditary possession. For this reason the Israelites subse- 
quently lived there (pdRE, 36). Sarah prayed to God to deliver 
her from Pharaoh and an angel was sent to whip the king at 
her command (Gen. R. 41:2; cf. Genesis Apocryphon, ed. by N. 
Avigad and Y. Yadin (1956) p. 43 f). It was a result of this sign 
of divine favor that Pharaoh gave her his daughter Hagar as 
a handmaid (Gen. R. 45:1). For details of the relationship be- 
tween Sarah and Hagar, see *Hagar, in the Aggadah. 

Sarah should have reached Abrahams lifespan of 175, 
but 48 years were taken away because of her readiness to 
dispute with Abraham over Hagar s misdeeds (rh 16b; Gen. 
R. 45:5). Sarah was originally barren, but a miracle was per- 
formed for her after her name was changed from Sarai and 
her youth was restored (Gen. R. 47:2). After she had given 
birth to Isaac, many people claimed that the Patriarch and 
his wife had adopted a foundling and were pretending that it 
was their own son. Abraham made a banquet on the day that 
Isaac was weaned, and Sarah invited many women. They all 
brought their infants with them, and Sarah suckled them all, 
thus convincing the guests that she was indeed the mother 
(bm 87a; Gen. R. 53:9). Others stated that Abimelech was the 
father, but it was disproved by Isaac s striking resemblance to 
his father (Gen. R. 53:6; bm 87a). Sarahs behavior toward Ish- 
mael, whom she drove away from Abrahams roof, is justified 
on the grounds that she saw him commit idolatry, rape, and 
murder (Tosef., Sot. 6:6; Gen. R. 53:11). During her lifetime, 
the doors to her house were always hospitably open; her dough 
miraculously increased; a light burned from Friday evening to 
Friday evening; and a pillar of the divine cloud rested above 
her tent (Gen. R. 60:16). Her death was caused by the shock 
of learning about the *Akedah. According to one version, Sa- 
tan appeared to her and told her that Abraham had actually 
slaughtered, or was about to slaughter, Isaac (Sefer ha-Yashar, 
Va-Yera; PdRE 32). According to another text it was Isaac him- 
self who returned and told her of the event (Lev. R. 20:2). The 
inhabitants of Hebron closed their places of business out of 
respect for her memory and as a reward did not die before 
they participated 38 years later in the obsequies of Abraham 

(Gen. R. 58:7; 62:3). 

[Aaron Rothkoff ] 

bibliography: Skinner, Genesis (ice, 1912), 237-335; K.L. 
Tallqvist, Assyrian Personal Names (1914), 193; E.A. Speiser, in: A. 

Altmann (ed.), Biblical and Other Studies (1963), 15-28; idem, Gene- 
sis (1964), 78ff.; L. Rost, Gottes Wort und Gottes Land (1965), 186-93; 
N.M. Sarna, Understanding Genesis (1966), index, in the aggadah: 
Ginzberg, Legends, index; G. Vermes, Scripture and Tradition in Juda- 
ism (1961), 96ff. add. bibliography: N. Sarna, /ps Torah Com- 
mentary Genesis (1989); S.D. Sperling, The Original Torah (1998), 

SARAH OF TURNOVO, also known as Queen Theodora 

of Bulgaria, was a i4 th -century Jewish woman who lived in 
the city of Turnovo, then the capital of Bulgaria. Nothing is 
known about her life until 1346, when, according to a Greek 
document, Czar Ivan Alexander of Bulgaria "thrust out his 
former wife who was still living and substituted a Jewess 
The Jewess in question was Sarah, known for her beauty and 
intelligence. The Greek document makes it clear that the Czar 
"loved her for her beauty." He arranged for her baptism and 
she was renamed Theodora. 

No document indicates whether Sarah objected to be- 
ing converted, but there is some evidence that she did not 
turn her back on the Jewish people. While she was queen, she 
was believed to have influenced Ivan Alexander to exercise a 
more liberal policy toward the Jews of their land. As a result, 
the anti- Jewish legislation that was adopted by the Christian 
Church in 1352 was never fully implemented in Bulgaria. This 
fact has led a few historians to conclude that Queen Theodora 
may have had considerable impact on state affairs. Her influ- 
ence, if indeed it existed, had no long-lasting effect, however, 
and ultimately caused a backlash. Several Jews were accused 
of fostering heresy, and when the czar repealed their death 
sentence, riots broke out and the accused were subsequently 
killed by a mob. 

Sarah/Theodora and Ivan Alexander had a daughter 
named Tamar, who was married to Emperor Murad 1 (1360- 
89), ruler of the Ottoman Empire. A few generations later, 
knowledge of Tamar s origins gave rise to rumors of a Jew- 
ish woman in the sultans harem and it was suggested that 
Mehmed 11, son of Murad 11, was born of a Jewish mother. 

bibliography: S. Bowman, The Jews of Byzantium: 1204-1453 

(1985), 277; S. Rosanes, Divrei Yemei Yisrael he-Togarmah (1907), 6; 

E. Taitz, S. Henry, and C.Tallan, The jps Guide to Jewish Women: 

600 b.c.e. -1900 c.e. (2003), 86. 

[Emily Taitz (2 nd ed.)] 

SARAJEVO (Serajevo; Turk. Bosna-Serai; Heb. ruOn-'XIttf), 
city and capital of Bosnia- Herzegovina. The first Jews came 
to Sarajevo in the middle of the 16 th century, spreading from 
there to smaller towns of Bosnia, e.g., *Travnik, Bugojno, Ze- 
nica, Tuzla, *Banja-Luka, and Mostar, capital of the twin prov- 
ince of Herzegovina. Although some earlier tombstones (in 
horizontal trunk form) were discovered in the Old Sephardi 
cemetery at Borak (western periphery of Sarajevo), the first 
documents attesting Jewish presence date from 1565. 

Spanish refugees came from Salonika, but some of them 
may also have come directly by sea. Despite a different lan- 
guage (Ladino) and divergent customs, the newcomers were 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



quickly accepted as useful city dwellers; they were mostly 
artisans and some were merchants. Jews were known as the 
early pharmacists of the region, as well as hatchims (from 
the Arabic-Turkish Hakim y "doctor"). Muslim fanatics tried 
at first to prevent the settlement of Jews, forcing a few fami- 
lies to flee to Dubrovnik and Hungary. However, these were 
isolated cases which did not interfere with the good relations 
that developed between Muslims and Jews. There is evidence 
from the end of the 16 th century in the so-called sijille (court 
records) that Jews appeared before the sharia (Muslim reli- 
gious tribunals) in civil cases. 

A special Jewish quarter with a synagogue, near the main 
market of Sarajevo, was erected in 1577, authorization having 
been obtained from the pasha Siavush. Known to the popula- 
tion as tchifut-khany the Jews themselves called it either ma- 
hallajudia (Jewish quarters) or cortijo (the communal yard). 
Later, as the community grew, Jews resided elsewhere as there 
were no legal restrictions. The first synagogue (constructed in 
1581) was named, in the Spanish tradition, II Cal grande, but it 
was destroyed by fire and restored or rebuilt several times. 

Trade Activities 

Jewish merchants used both main trade routes: from east to 
west (Sofia, Serbia, and Sarajevo to Dubrovnik, *Split, Zadar, 
and/or Venice and Trieste) and from south to north (i.e., Con- 
stantinople, Salonika via *Skoplje, Sjenica to Sarajevo, from 
where a lateral route went to Travnik, Kostajnica, Dalmatia, 
and Italy). Many Jews worked as blacksmiths, tailors, shoe- 
makers, butchers, and joiners, and later as metal workers; they 
also operated the first sawmill and traded in iron, wood, and 
chemicals, in addition to articles such as textiles, furs, glass, 
and dyes. In Sarajevo, and in Bosnia as a whole, there were 
many indigent families and a Jewish proletariat. 

The general situation of the Jews during the Ottoman era 
was good. They had their religious and juridical independence 
in all personal matters and civil cases, and broad autonomy 
in community affairs. The Ottoman authorities enforced rab- 
binical court sentences when they were requested to do so. 
However, the Jews had to pay the poll tax (kharaj) and were 
subject to various extortions and briberies. In the 17 th century 
Ashkenazi families came to Sarajevo, fleeing European per- 
secutions. They founded their own community, which had a 
separate existence until the Holocaust. 

Historical Developments 

During the siege and the Austrian conquest of Sarajevo by 
Prince Eugene of Savoy in 1679, Jews suffered along with the 
general population, the Jewish quarter, with its synagogue, 
being destroyed. About that time new settlers came from Ru- 
melia, Bulgaria, and Serbia, as well as from Padua and Ven- 
ice. The evolution of the community during the 18 th century 
was generally undisturbed and was led by rabbis who orga- 
nized a talmud torah and cared for the spiritual needs of the 
Jews, whose numbers reached 1,000 by 1800. During the first 
half of the 19 th century further growth occurred, and official 

recognition of the community was granted by the Ottoman 
sultan. The rabbi of Sarajevo, Moses Pereira, was named by 
imperial firman Hakham bashi for Bosnia and Herzegovina 
in 1840. Some acts of ransom and discriminatory orders were 
decreed, but the various revolts against Ottoman rule and the 
influence of the European powers in Constantinople helped 
cause the Tanzimdt (reforms) program of 1840 and 1856, as- 
suring equality for non-Turks before the law. In the face of oc- 
casional defamation, Sarajevo Jewry had to make donations 
in kind or money. Nevertheless, they largely maintained their 
cultural and religious life without outside interference, taking 
on new crafts and professions, as well as adding copper, zinc, 
glass, and dyes to their exports. By the middle of the 19 th cen- 
tury all doctors in Sarajevo and Bosnia were Jews. 

The Austrian annexation of the city in 1878 brought a new 
wave of Ashkenazim, who were officials, experts, and entre- 
preneurs. The new masters immediately demanded 100,000 
ducats from the Jewish community, which was paid in several 
installments. On the other hand, the Austrians introduced 
new industries and made capital investments which created 
new employment and trade opportunities, largely directed to- 
ward Vienna, Prague, and Budapest. The earlier rivals - Ra- 
gusans and Venetians - were replaced by local and foreign 
Serbs who gradually became dominant in foreign trade, thus 
limiting the field of Jewish traders or pushing them out. Some 
Jews consequently changed their vocation, thereby contrib- 
uting to the developments and modernization of the country 
as pioneers in optics, watchmaking, fine mechanics, printing 
(the first printing press belonged to Daniel Kajon), etc. The 
Jewish community numbered about 10,000 persons by the 
end of the 19 th century. 

After World War 1 the Yugoslav era began, the Jews en- 
joying freedom and equal treatment; their diverse economic, 
religious, cultural, and artistic activities continued unhin- 
dered, even though the Jewish population of 14,000 repre- 
sented less than 1% of the general population of Bosnia. In 
1927-31 the Sephardi synagogue, the largest in the Balkans, 
was constructed, only to be desecrated and plundered by the 
Croatian Fascists and the Germans not more than ten years 
later, and after the war it became a theater hall. The old Se- 
phardi synagogue became a Jewish museum. 

Rabbis and Jewish Learning 

The first rabbis known to have led their community in the 17 th 
century were Zebulun, Mazli ah Muchacho (earlier of Salon- 
ika), Samuel Baruch, Hayyim Shabbetai, Judah Lerma, and 
the famous R. Zevi *Ashkenazi, who was from Ofen (Buda) 
and known as "Hakham Zevi." The latter lived in Sarajevo 
from 1686 to 1697 and combated Nehemiah Hayon's Shab- 
batean views. The protocols (pinkasim) were kept in Hebrew 
and a bet din was set up. Very few of the documents are ex- 
tant. Among later rabbis the most prominent was R. David 
Pardo "Morenu," author of the rabbinical commentaries: La- 
Menazzeah le-David, Hasdei David, and Mizmor le-David. and 

• • • a 

responsa. He founded a rabbinical dynasty (an exceptional 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


phenomenon among Yugoslav Jewry), and his son Isaac and 
grandson Jacob succeeded him in office. Nineteenth century 
rabbis of note included Moses Danon; Moses Pereira, also 
known as Musa effendi; Meir Danon; Eliezer Shem Tov Papo; 
and Isaac Papo, a prolific author who wrote not only in He- 
brew but also in Ladino (Bet Tefillah, Tikkun Modaah). The 
last rabbi under the Ottomans was Joseph Finzi, whose work 
Va-Yelakket Yosef was printed in Belgrade. 

In 1928 a theological seminary was opened in Sarajevo by 
the federation of the Jewish communities, offering a second- 
ary school education. The seminary's first rector, Rabbi Moritz 
Levi, author of the first historical study on the Sephardim in 
Bosnia, died in the Holocaust. Another prominent teacher 
and translator from Hebrew to Serbo-Croat was Jacob Mae- 
stro, who was known as "Morenu." 

Jewish Life before the Holocaust 

Apart from the religious field, Sarajevo Jewry had a wide range 
of social and cultural organizations and a thriving Jewish 
press. Among the institutions the senior was La Benevolen- 
cia, a mutual aid society founded in 1894; two bodies, Mela- 
cha and Geula, helped artisans and economic activities, and 
in 1901 a choir, Lyra-sociedad de cantar do los judios-espa- 
noles, was established. There was a Jewish worker's union, La 
Matatja. The first newspaper published in Sarajevo was La Al- 
borada (Aurora), a literary weekly which appeared from 1898 
to 1902. The weeklies Zidovska Svijest, Jevrejska Tribuna, Nar- 
odna zidovska svijest, and Jevrejski Glas, with a section printed 
in Ladino, were published during 1928-41. Several memorial 
volumes were also published. 

Zionist organizations were active between the two world 
wars. The youth movement, Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir, was well es- 
tablished and during the Holocaust provided, together with 
Matatja, a considerable number of partisans, fighters, and 
leaders of the resistance movement. An organization with Se- 
phardi separatist tendencies was linked to de Picciotto's World 
Sephardi Union. 

Jews in Literature and Arts 

Isak (Isaac) Samokovlija (d. 1955), a forceful writer, lived in 
Sarajevo until his death. He vividly described Bosnian Jewish 
life, especially the problems of the porters, peddlers, beggars, 
and artisans. Daniel Ozmo, who did mostly woodcuts, Dan- 
iel Kabiljo-Danilus, and Yosif (Joseph) Levi-Monsino, all of 
whom perished during the Ustashi- Artukovic era, were well- 
known painters. The illuminated Sarajevo Haggadah is kept 
in the National Museum of Sarajevo; it was acquired by the 
Museum (then, the Landesmuseum) in 1895 for 100 florins. 
Its origin, however, was in Spain and has nothing to do with 
Sarajevo (see *Haggadah). 

Jews in Politics 

The first European -educated physician in Bosnia, Isaac Sha- 
lom, better known as Isaac effendi, was the first (appointed) 
Jewish member of the provincial Majlis Idaret (assembly). His 
son Salomon "effendi" Shalom succeeded him. Javer (Xaver) 

"effendi" Baruch was elected as a deputy to the Ottoman parlia- 
ment in 1876. During the Austrian and Yugoslav periods Jews 
generally abstained from active participation in politics. In the 
1930s - when the economic situation deteriorated - a number 
of younger Jews turned to the illegal Communist Party, some 
of them gaining prominence in the party's ranks during the 
subsequent struggle against the occupiers and quislings. 

Holocaust and After 

Between the two world wars Sarajevo was the third-largest 
Jewish center of Yugoslavia (after Zagreb and Belgrade). In 
1935 there were 8,318 Jews; in 1941, 10,500. 

The Germans arrived on April 15, 1941, and the following 
day wrecked the Sephardi synagogue, which was the largest 
in the Balkans. This was followed by requisitions, expropria- 
tions, execution of hostages for acts of sabotage, individual 
arrests, and mass deportations of Jews. Members of the Jew- 
ish community were deported between September and No- 
vember 1941, mostly to Jasenovac, Loborgrad (women), and 
Djakovo. Extermination took place in these Ustashi (Croatian) 
concentration camps. Only a small number of Jews survived 
the first wave of killings and they were later dispatched to the 
Auschwitz gas chambers. A limited number of Jews survived 
either by joining partisan units or by reaching Italy. Several 
scores of army officers and soldiers mobilized by the Yugo- 
slav army upon the German invasion spent the war years in 
German pow camps, protected by the Geneva Convention, 
and thus returned to Sarajevo after the Holocaust. In all, over 
9,000 Jews were murdered by the Nazis. 

After the Holocaust, the community was reconstituted, 
but most of the survivors chose to immigrate to Israel in the 
years 1948-49. Religious services were organized in the Ash- 
kenazi synagogue (which had remained more or less intact) 
by R. Menahem Romano, and some social and cultural ac- 
tivities were renewed. A monument to "the fighters and mar- 
tyrs" was erected in the Jewish cemetery at Kovacica, and a 
celebration of the 400 th anniversary of the arrival of the Jews 
in Bosnia and Herzegovina was held in 1970, with participa- 
tion of delegates from abroad, including the U.S. and Israel. 
On this occasion a memorial volume was published. In 1971 
the community numbered 1,000. 

During the Bosnian War (1992-1994) the old Jewish cem- 
etery was badly damaged. Nine hundred Jews were evacuated 
in buses to Pirovac, to the former Yugoslav summer camp near 
*Split, and 150 by air to ^Belgrade. In 2002 the centennial of 
the Ashkenazi synagogue was commemorated with a stamp 
issued by the government of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 2004 
there were 700 Jews living in Sarajevo, including some refu- 
gees who returned home. 

bibliography: M. Levy, Die Sephardim in Bosnien (1911); A. 

Hananel and E. ESkenazi, Fontes hebraici..., 2 (i960), 87-88, 234-5, 

258-66, 334-5, 391-3; Jevrejski Almanah (1954-67), passim; Omanut 

(Zagreb, 1935-41), passim; Spomenica povodom 400 godina od dol- 

aska Jevreja u Bosnu i Hercegovinu (1970); Savez Jevrejskih Opstina 

Jugoslavij e, Spomenica "50," 1919-1959 (1969). 

[Zvi Loker] 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



SARASOHN, KASRIEL HERSCH (1835-1905), Yiddish 
and Hebrew newspaper publisher. Born in Suwalki province, 
Russia, he settled in New York in 1871, and in the following 
year founded a weekly paper, Di New Yorker Yidishe Tsaytung, 
which was unsuccessful. Two years later he founded the first 
American Yiddish weekly Di Yidishe Gazeten, which survived 
for more than half a century and paved the way for the first 
Yiddish daily in America, Tageblat. This traditionally- 
oriented daily exerted a great influence upon the immigrant 
generation at the turn of the century and attained a circula- 
tion of 70,000 copies. Its editors included the journalist John 
Paley, *Tashrak and G. *Bublick. Its influence declined after 
World War 1, and in 1928 it merged with the Morning-Jour- 
nal Sarasohn also founded a Hebrew weekly, Haivri y which 
he maintained from 1891 to 1898, despite annual deficits. In 
1882 he organized a society for aiding Jewish immigrants, 
which in 1890 merged with the ^Hebrew Immigrant Aid So- 
ciety (hias). 

bibliography: Rejzen, Leksikon, 4 (1929), 883-6; Starkman, 
in: yivo, Yorbukh Amopteyl (1931), 273-95. 

[Sol Liptzin] 

SARASOTA, city on Florida's west coast. It is a sophisticated 
arts community and beach resort, ringing Sarasota Bay and 
the Gulf of Mexico, and offering 35 miles of beaches. During 
the Civil War, Judah P. Benjamin served as Attorney General, 
Secretary of War and Secretary of State of the Confederacy 
and was known as the most prominent 19 th century American 
Jew. Benjamin was President Jefferson Davis' closest confidant 
and David Levy Yulee's cousin. When General Robert E. Lee 
surrendered in 1865, Benjamin headed south to Ellenton, fl, 
and sheltered at the Gamble Mansion, near Sarasota. With this 
exception, there is no record of Jews in this area until the 20 th 
century. With changes in transportation and the lure of cheap 
land for sale, a trickle of Jews began migrating to the Sarasota 
area. Marcus Weinkle left Russia in 1887, was a sheepherder 
in Palestine, then immigrated to the U. S in 1890 to Moffit, 
Florida (east of Sarasota), where he ran a 2,000-acre lumber 
business. He brought a Torah with him and conducted services 
for Jews in the surrounding area. He kept kosher, married and 
had two children there; his daughter Charlotte became a win- 
ter resident of Sarasota decades later. 

Simon Rosin came from Baltimore first to Ocala, fl, then 
settled in Arcadia in 1905, where he opened a store and later 
built an arcade, which housed the U.S. Post Office. He and his 
wife had one son, Aurel, in 1910. Aurel was a lawyer and cattle 
rancher, and he and his wife Elsie raised four sons in Arcadia, 
where they had over 4,000 acres for their cattle ranch. Elsie 
took the boys to Sarasota for religious school and bar mitzvah 
training; three sons remained in Sarasota. 

The first Jew to permanently settle in Sarasota was Philip 
Levy, who fled the pogroms of Lithuania in 1905. Working for 
a pants manufacturing firm, he traveled to St. Petersburg, fl, 
in 1909, where he met and married Cecelia Tarapani. In 1913 
Philip and Cecelia Levy settled in Sarasota and opened a wo- 

menswear store. They were the only Jews there until 1925. As 
others settled, the Levys conducted Sabbath and High Holiday 
services in their home. Joseph Idelson peddled dry goods; he 
and his wife Rose were attracted by the land boom and moved 
to Sarasota with their children in 1925. Idelson opened a gen- 
eral merchandise store, invested in banks and real estate, and 
was one of the founders of the Jewish Community Center 
(today's Temple Beth Sholom) in 1928. The first synagogue in 
Sarasota was built on property donated by the city, and they 
had their first services for Yom Kippur just prior to the hur- 
ricane. The congregation acquired a site from the city in 1932 
for a Jewish burial ground. After World War 11 a number of 
Jewish soldiers who had passed through Sarasota returned to 
settle. Growth was gradual. By 1950, the community had ex- 
panded to 75 families. In 1956 a "break-away" group of mem- 
bers of Temple Beth Sholom established a Reform congrega- 
tion, Temple Emanu-El. The Jewish Community Council, the 
forerunner of the Sarasota- Manatee Federation, was founded 
in 1959; Sidney Adler was the first president. 

Many of these pioneers were lovers of the arts and con- 
tributed to building Sarasota's cultural infrastructure. The Van 
Wezel Performing Arts Hall that opened on Sarasota Bay in 
1967 is named for Jews who left money for this purpose. The 
area began to attract Jewish writers, artists, and musicians. Au- 
thor McKinley Kantor came to Sarasota around 1940; two of 
his books have a Florida setting: The Noises of their Wings (Ev- 
erglades) and Beauty Beast (north Florida). Among other no- 
table talents are Paul Wolfe, musical director and maestro, who 
served the West Coast Symphony for decades; Syd Solomon, 
a nationally acclaimed artist who came in 1946; Leo Rogers, 
a driving force to create the Sarasota Opera Association and 
the Sarasota Ballet of Florida; Hal Davis who was public rela- 
tions manager for Benny Goodman and Columbia Records 
before moving to Sarasota, where, in 1980, he founded the Jazz 
Club of Sarasota; and Frank Eliscu, the designer of the Heis- 
man Trophy (the highest honor in college football) and the 
glass panels above the doors of the Library of Congress, as well 
as works of sculpture for the Van Wezel, Ringling Museum 
of Art, Temple Emanu-El, and Temple Beth Sholom in Sara- 
sota. Paul Rubenfeld, known to millions as Pee Wee Herman, 
came to Sarasota in i960 as a child and graduated from Sara- 
sota High School. Many Jews have contributed largely to the 
community in education and social services. Harry Sudakoff 
dedicated the Sudakoff Center at New College. Alex Schoen- 
baum, former All- American football player, started Shoney's 
Big Boy restaurant chain. In 1974 Betty and Alex Schoenbaum 
began spending part of the year in Sarasota and became major 
supporters of civic and Jewish activities. In 1990 the Schoen- 
baums contributed funds to help open the City of Saraso- 
ta's human services complex, which houses 19 social service 
agencies. Some Jews who have been involved politically are 
David Cohen, who served as mayor 1964-66 and played 
a major role in the establishment of the Florida West 
Coast Symphony and the Van Wezel Performing Arts Hall, 
and Lou Ann Rosengarten Palmer, who came to Sarasota in 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


1948 and was a performer with the Sailor Circus Show. She 
serves on the Sarasota City Commission where she sat as 
mayor in 1984 and 1988. 

Jewish developers planted citrus groves and opened 
new residential districts. Jules and Jack Freeman came to 
Sarasota in 1953 and began planting citrus. From 1968 to 1971 
they planted the "world s largest orange grove," which is three 
times the size of Manhattan, nyc, and has over three million 
citrus trees. National Geographic magazine published an aer- 
ial photo of the 27,000 acres and commented, "The grove was 
one of the distinguishing landmarks in Florida visible from 
space." Charles Lavin, sensing the plight of many elderly on 
fixed incomes, bought the Mira Mar Hotel in Sarasota, the 
Manatee River Hotel in Bradenton, and the MacArthur Beach 
Hotel in Venice and turned them into retirement homes. Mar- 
tin Paver sailed to Sarasota with his family from New York 
in 1949. He and his sons developed housing subdivisions for 
the "snowbirds" (residents 3-7 months of the year) migrat- 
ing south. 

In 1979 a group established Beth Israel, a Reform Con- 
gregation, on Longboat Key. Bradenton Conservative Jewish 
families organized as Temple Beth El in 1975. The Jewish Com- 
munity Center of Venice began in 1983. In 1984 Jewish Family 
Services (jfs) was granted their charter. The jcc opened the 
first summer camp in 1989. 

The Jewish community has matured in the past three de- 
cades and agencies and organizations grew as the sensitivity 
for local and worldwide Jewish needs was expanded. About 
17,500 Jews live in Sarasota- Manatee (2005), consisting pri- 
marily of the cities of Sarasota, Longboat Key, Bradenton, and 
Venice. Most are from the mid- west and the Washington- Bos- 
ton corridor and are closely bonded by the cultural and Jewish 
life of the community. The greatest growth has been in Bra- 
denton, and there is a significant cluster of Jews in high-rise 
condominiums in Longboat Key. The area attracts primarily 
wealthy Jews of retirement age who are in good health. Only 
1% of the adults were born in the area, 32% of households affili- 
ate with a congregation, and 21% are "snowbirds." Eighty-two 
percent of Jewish children (ages 6-12) are currently enrolled 
in formal Jewish education. The Federations agencies include 
a Jewish Retirement Complex (Kobernick House) and Flan- 
zer Jewish Community Center, and they sponsor a monthly 
Jewish newspaper, The Chronicle. There are 10 congregations 
of every stripe, and branches representing almost every na- 
tional and international Jewish organization. 

(Some of the demographic analysis comes from Ira She- 
skin's 2001 Study for the Sarasota-Manatee Jewish Federa- 

[Marcia Jo Zerivitz (2 nd ed.)] 

SARATOV, capital of Saratov district, Russia; before the 1917 
Revolution, capital of Saratov province on the west bank of the 
R. Volga. Until 1917 the province of Saratov was outside the 
bounds of the * Pale of Settlement. Shortly before the middle 
of the 19 th century a small Jewish community was formed by 

Jewish soldiers stationed in Saratov. A few of these had fami- 
lies and even engaged in trade and crafts. By the middle of the 
century, there were 44 such Jewish soldiers stationed in the 
city. Besides these, a few Jews who were not in the army re- 
sided in Saratov, despite the restrictions. In the spring of 1853 
this tiny community was projected into the forefront of Rus- 
sian Jewish affairs when three Jews in Saratov, one of them an 
apostate, were involved in a *blood libel in which it was alleged 
that they had murdered two Christian children. This incident 
brought a renewal of the blood libel throughout Russia. When 
special investigators sent from St. Petersburg failed to prove 
the guilt of the Jews, the government appointed a legal inves- 
tigation commission whose task it was not only to investigate 
the murders, but also to seek information about the "secret 
dogmas of Jewish religious extremism." This commission, too, 
was unable to cast guilt upon the Jews. Though its findings 
were confirmed by the Senate, the State Council, in May i860, 
concluded that guilt had been established, even if no motive 
for the murders could be shown. The three found guilty were 
sentenced to hard labor. During the course of the investigation 
a large number of Jewish books were confiscated. In December 
1858 a commission of experts, including Daniel *Chwolson, 
was appointed to examine these books and indicate whether 
they contained evidence of the ritual use of Christian blood 
by Jews. The commission concluded that the works contained 
nothing to support the libel. 

During the second half of the century Jews were per- 
mitted to live outside the Pale of Settlement in Saratov. By 
1897 there were 1,460 Jews in Saratov (1.1% of the total popu- 
lation). The wave of pogroms of October 1905 reached Sara- 
tov, where a number of Jews were killed. During World War 1 
many refugees from the battle zone found sanctuary in Sara- 
tov. From 1919 to 1921 a group of *He-Halutz members, call- 
ing themselves "Mishmar ha-Volga" ("The Volga Guard"), 
stayed in Saratov while preparing to settle in Erez Israel. In 
1926 Saratov had a Jewish population of 6,717 (3.1%), and in 
1939 there were 6,982 Jews in the district, most of them in the 
city. During wwn Saratov was not occupied by the Germans. 
The baking of mazzot was prohibited in 1959. In the late 1960s 
the Jewish population was estimated at 15,000. There was one 
synagogue. In 2002 around 3,500 Jews remained in the entire 
district. The city of Saratov had a full range of community ser- 
vices and a chief rabbi. 

bibliography: Aharoni, in: He-Avar, 9 (1962), 150-9; 10 
(1963), 188-201; Ha -Meassef (1902), 245-67; Die Judenpogrome in 
Russland, 2 (1910), 520-4; Y.J. Hessen (Gessen), Krovavy navet v Ros- 
sii (1912), 17-23; Perezhitoye, 4 (1913), 2119. 

[Yehuda Slutsky] 

SARAVAL, family of scholars. Abraham ben judah leib, 
the most noted of them, lived in * Venice during the 16 th cen- 
tury and wrote a commentary on Sefer ha-Maamadot. jacob 
ben leib lived in Cologne in the 16 th century. His name is 
mentioned in the responsa Nahalat Yaakov of Jacob b. El- 
hanan Heilbronn. Judah Leib *Saraval (d. 1617) was rabbi in 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



Venice, nehemiah ben judah leib (d. 1649), a rabbinic 
scholar in Venice, wrote a laudatory introduction to Joseph 
Solomon Delmedigo's Elim (Amsterdam, 1629). His name is 
mentioned approvingly in the responsa Mayim Rabbim of Ra- 
phael Meldola (1:11), and Devar Shemuel of Samuel Aboab (no. 
19). solomon hai ben nehemiah was a Venetian scholar 
of the 17 th century, whose name is mentioned approvingly in 
Devar Shemuel of Samuel Aboab (p. 375), and in Piskei Re- 
canati ha-Aharonim (p. 24). Jacob Raphael b. Simhah Judah 
*Saraval was rabbi in Mantua, author and poet, leon hai 
(1771-1851) lived in Trieste. He wrote Discorsi pronunciati all' 
apertura degli studi della comunitd israelitica di Trieste (Tri- 
este, 1811). He possessed a library containing many manu- 
scripts and incunabula. 

bibliography: Steinschneider, Cat Bod, 709, 1371, 2500; 
Benjacob, Ozar, 351; Mortara, index, 59; Ghirondi-Neppi, 218-9, 
272-3; Azulai (1852), 59 n. 11; Roth, Italy, 397, 410, 498; C. Roth, His- 
tory of the Jews in Venice (1930), index; Zunz, Gesch, 243, 568. 

[Guiseppe Laras] 


(i707?-i782), Italian rabbi, man of letters, and musician. Sara- 
val was born in Venice. He was one of the rabbis of Venice who 
supported Jacob *Emden in his dispute with Jonathan *Eybe- 
schutz. He communicated with the English scholar Kennicott 
on subjects of biblical philology. In 1752 he was appointed 
rabbi of Mantua and many of the documents in the commu- 
nal archives bear his signature. During the 1760s and 1770s he 
traveled to Holland and England on behalf of his community. 
When the antisemitic lawyer Giovanni Battista Benedetti of 
Ferrara published his Dissertazione della Religione e del Giu- 
ramento degli Ebrei at the beginning of the 1770s, Saraval re- 
joined with Lettera apologetica (Mantua, 1775). He was also 
known as a preacher, poet, and composer of piyyutim, and en- 
gaged in various branches of secular culture - arts, literature, 
and music - in which fields he wrote many works. In addition 
he translated from various languages. One of his translations, 
the libretto of Handel's oratorio Esther (apparently done at 
the request of the Jews of England and Holland), is one of the 
first free verse translations from English to Hebrew without 
recourse to the traditional meters. 

Among his translations from Hebrew to Italian are: Avot 
(Venice, 1729, with Simeon Calimani); Hovot ha-Levavot of 
*Bahya ibn Paquda (Avvertimenti allanima, Venice, 1806); and 
various piyyutim from the Sephardi liturgy. He wrote the Kinat 
Sofedim (Mantua, 1776) to commemorate the earthquake in 
Mantua which claimed 65 Jewish victims. On returning from 
his travels in Holland and England, he wrote Viaggi in Olanda 
(Venice, 1807) on his Dutch journey. 

bibliography: Steinschneider, in: mgwj, 43 (1899), 569 f.; 
C. Roth, History of the Jews in Venice (1930), 341-3; Schirmann, Ital- 
yah, 401-7; idem, in: Zion, 29 (1964), 78-79; Gorali, in: Tazlil, 2 (1961), 
73-84; S. Simonsohn, Toledot ha-Yehudim be-Dukkasut Mantovah, 2 
vols. (1962-64), index; I. Levi, in: II Vessillo Israelitico, 53 (1905), 58f. 

[Abraham David] 

SARAVAL, JUDAH LEIB (d. 1617), Venetian rabbi. Saraval 
was a pupil of Samuel Judah *Katzenellenbogen and a member 
of the bet din of Ben Zion Sarfati, and after the latter s death 
was appointed chief rabbi of Venice. Taking part in the well- 
known dispute about the Rovigo mikveh (see Moses * Porto - 
Rafa), he was one of those to permit its use. His decision on the 
subject is published in the Mashbit Milhamot (Venice, 1606), 
as well as one prohibiting the playing of tennis on the Sabbath. 
He was in charge of, and the treasurer for, the monies collected 
in Italy for Erez Israel. Some of his responsa were published 
in Nahalat Ya'akov (Padua, 1623), a collection of responsa by 
his pupil, Jacob b. Elhanan Heilperin, and also in the works 
of his contemporaries. He was on friendly terms with Leone 
*Modena. He translated *Saadiah Gaon's commentary to the 
Song of Songs (Nowydwor, 1777) from the original Arabic, 
the thorough knowledge of Arabic necessary for such a task 
being a rare accomplishment for a 17 th century Italian rabbi. 
Saraval died in Padua. 

bibliography: Steinschneider, Arab Lit, 58f.; Judah Aryeh of 

Modena, Ziknei Yehudah, ed. by S. Simonsohn (1956), 5if. (introd.); 

38-39 (second pagination); L. Blau, in: Jahresbericht der Landes-Rab- 

binerschule in Budapest, 28 (1905), 105; 29 (1906), 114-6; Sonne, in: 

Kovez al Yad, 5 (1950), 215-7. 

[Abraham David] 

SARDI, SAMUEL BEN ISAAC (1185/90-1255/56), Spanish 
halakhist. Sardi lived in Barcelona and was well-to-do. Among 
the deeds written in Barcelona during the years 1073-1328 
and published by Millas Vallicrosa are a number dated the 
beginning of the 13 th century which are connected with the 
letting by Sardi of his lands and properties. Sardi was a pu- 
pil and colleague of Nahmanides and sent him many hala- 
khic queries to which he obtained detailed responsa; some 
of them, included in the Sefer Ha-Terumot, also appear in 
the works of the Rishonim (see Asaf in bibl.). Sardi also cor- 
responded with Nathan b. Meir of Trinquetaille (Sefer ha- 
Terumoty gate 52) and began compiling his important work, 
Ha-Terumot y when he was 30 years old, finishing it in about 

This work deals only with civil and commercial law and 
is, in fact, the first comprehensive code in Jewish law devoted 
solely to civil law. It had a considerable influence on Jew- 
ish law, chiefly through the Arbdah Turim of * Jacob b. Asher 
which is often based on it in the section Hoshen Mishpat. In the 
introduction, and in the work itself, Sardi mentions another of 
his works, Sefer Ha-Zikhronot y which is not extant. Its scope 
is unknown, but from his references to it it appears to have 
consisted of talmudic novellae. Ha-Terumot was published in 
Salonika (1596, 1628), Prague (1608) and Venice (1643), the last 
with a valuable commentary by Azariah Figo, entitled Giddu- 
lei Terumah (2 nd ed. Zolkiev 1709). 

bibliography: Azulai, 1 (1852), 177, no. 129; 2 (1852), 160, n. 
98; Gross, Gal Jud, 326; M. Schwab, Rapport sur les Inscriptions He- 
braiques de I'Espagne (1907), i5if. (= Nouvelles Archives des Missions 
ScientifiqueSy 14 (1907), 379 f.); J.M. Millas Vallicrosa, Documents He- 
braics de jueus Catalans (1927), 2iff.; S. Assaf, Sifran shel Rishonim 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


(1935), 53-55; F. Cantera and J.M. Millas Vallicrosa, Las inscripciones 
hebrdicas de Espaha (1956), 346-8. 

[Shlomoh Zalman Havlin] 

SARDINIA, Mediterranean island belonging to Italy. The first 
authentic information regarding Jews in Sardinia is that in 
19 c.e. Emperor Tiberius deported 4,000 Jewish youths to the 
island because a Roman Jew had defrauded a proselyte named 
Fulvia, wife of the senator Saturninus. Jewish inscriptions of 
the classical period have been found in Sardinia, in particu- 
lar at San Antioco. The situation of the Jews was presumably 
similar to that of Jews in the other parts of the Roman Em- 
pire but deteriorated with the triumph of Christianity In 599 
a newly baptized Jew named Peter burst into the synagogue 
at Cagliari on Easter Sunday with a mob at his heels and de- 
posited his baptismal robe, together with a crucifix and an 
image of the Virgin, in front of the Ark. When the Jews ap- 
pealed to Pope Gregory 1, he ordered reparation to be made. 
From the seventh century until 1326, when the island came 
under Aragonese rule, the situation of the Jews was generally 
good, although anti- Jewish riots occurred in Oristano and in 
the district of Arborea, which resulted in their expulsion from 
these localities. The Jewish settlement in Iglesias was prohib- 
ited temporarily after 1327. 

The Jews continued to prosper during the first century of 
Aragonese rule and were even granted additional privileges, 
mainly in *Alghero; Sassari and *Cagliari also had sizable 
communities. Many Jews from Spain settled in Sardinia. Each 
community was headed by elected officers who had author- 
ity to decide in civil cases between Jews, and on minor claims 
between Jews and Christians. From 1430 conditions deterio- 
rated. Except in Alghero, the Jews were obliged to wear a spe- 
cial *badge. They were forbidden to wear jewelry and allowed 
to wear only black shoes. Jews were prohibited from trading 
on Christian holidays and from employing Christians. No ad- 
ditional Jews were allowed to settle on the island. In 1485 the 
Jews were declared the property of the king and placed under 
the jurisdiction of a special royal officer. They were also for- 
bidden to export any property or wares from the island. With 
the expulsion of the Jews from Spain and the Aragonese do- 
minions in July 1492, the Jews were compelled to leave Sar- 
dinia. Many of the Sardinian exiles settled temporarily in the 
kingdom of Naples, others went to North Africa and to Tur- 
key, especially Constantinople, where the surname Sardaigna 
is still common. Some, however, remained in Sardinia as con- 
verts to Christianity - notably the Caracassonna family, which 
for a while played a considerable role in Sardinian public life. 
A tribunal of the Inquisition was established in 1492 and re- 
mained sporadically active for some years. 

From the close of the Middle Ages, no Jewish commu- 
nity of importance has existed in the island, and it was only 
in the 19 th century that a few individual Jews settled here and 
there, generally on a temporary basis. By the Italian law reg- 
ulating Jewish communal organization in 1931, Sardinia was 
included in the jurisdiction of the Rome community. Some 

historians consider that, during the tranquil period in the 
Middle Ages before Aragonese rule, considerable groups of 
Jews merged into the Christian population, instanced by the 
relatively small number of Jews found there in the 15 th cen- 
tury. The absorption of the Jews into the general population 
is said to have left its mark on Sardinian life and institutions. 
Jewish elements may be found, according to some writers, 
in local folk customs, and in names of persons and places. 
However, such elements may be the result of the influence of 
other cultures which had a common source with Judaism or 
of chance resemblances. 

bibliography: L. Falchi, Gli Ebrei nella storia e nella poesia 
popolare dei Sardi (1934); idem, La dominazione ebraica in Sardegna 
(1936); Milano, Bibliotheca, index, s.v. Sardegna; Milano, Italia, index, 
s.v. Sardegune; Roth, Italy, index; Spano, in: Rivista Sarda, 1 (1875), 
23-52; Medina, in: rmi, 10 (1935/36), 145-6; Eliezer ben David (Bedar- 
ida), ibid., 11 (1936/37), 328-58, 424-3; Levi, ibid., 12 (1937/38), 129-62; 
Frey, Corpus, 1 (1936), nos. 656-60; Boscolo, in: Annali della Facoltd 
di lettere efilosofia dell* Universitd di Cagliari, 19 (1952), 162-71. 

[Menachem E. Artom] 

SARDIS, capital of the ancient kingdom of Lydia some 60 
miles (90 km.) from the west coast of Turkey. A world capital 
under the Mermnad dynasty (c. 680-547 b.c.e.) whose riches 
culminated under Croesus, Sardis was a Hellenistic royal capi- 
tal (270?-i33 b.c.e.). Rebuilt after a devastating earthquake 
(17 c.e.), it was a prosperous Roman and Byzantine city until 
destroyed by Khosrau 11 of Persia in 616 c.e. 

Sardis (Sfard in Lydian and Persian) is most probably 
the *Sepharad of Obadiah v. 20. If so, its Jewish community 
goes back to the time of the Persian Empire (547-334 b.c.e.). 
Although Sardis is not specifically mentioned, the historical 
situation makes it highly probably that some Jews were settled 
in the Lydian capital. After Antiochus in first destroyed, then 
re founded, Sardis (215-213 b.c.e.), his viceroy Zeuxis brought 
in Jewish settlers from Mesopotamia. A Roman decree cited by 
Josephus (Ant. 14:259-61) says that the Jewish community at 
Sardis had a place of assembly "from the beginning"; another 
decree makes it certain that there was a synagogue not later 
than the first century b.c.e. The size (probably several thou- 
sand in a city of c. 100,000) and the affluence of the Jewish 
community under the Roman rule have been made evident 
by the huge synagogue (over 130 yd. [120 m.] long and 20 yd. 
[18 m.] wide) discovered in 1962. Located on the main avenue 
of Sardis, behind a row of shops some of which were owned 
by Jews (Jacob, elder of the synagogue, Sabbatios, Samuel, 
Theoktistos), the structure formed part of the Roman gym- 
nasium complex planned after 17 c.e. Perhaps the hall was 
originally intended as a Roman civil basilica but was turned 
over to the Jewish congregation, which changed and decorated 
the structure with elegant mosaics and marble revetments. It 
is conjectured that one of the few Hebrew inscriptions hon- 
ors the emperor Lucius Verus, who visited Sardis in 166 c.e. 
Among the 80 inscriptions of the donors in Greek one ante- 
dates 212, and many with the family name Aurelius are of the 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



1 . Column 

2. Stairs 

3. Entrance 

4. Fountain 

5. Srnail shrine 

6. Marble table with carved eagles 

7. Pair of lions 

Apse with mosaic floor 
9. Benches 
10. Shops 
10a. Shop of Sabbatios 
10b. Shop of Jacob 

4 6 

8 meters 

mosaic floor 

5 10 15 20 25 feet 

Plan of the synagogue at Sardis, late 2 nd -early 3 rd century c.e. Based on D. J. Metten, The Ancient Synagogue at Sardis, New York, 1965. 

third century c.e. The building was renovated around 400 c.e. 
and destroyed in 616. 

This, the largest of early synagogues preserved, consists 
of an entrance colonnade on the east, a peristyle forecourt 
with a fountain in the form of a marble crater, a prayer hall 
of basilican plan with six pairs of strong piers, and an apse at 
the western end with three rows of benches presumably for 
the elders of the community. Fragments of 18 candelabras 
(menorot) of marble and bronze were found. At the eastern 
end of the hall, between three gates, are two small shrines. 
At the western end a mosaic with water of life and two pea- 
cocks adorned the apse; in the bay next to the apse was a large 
marble table flanked by two pairs of lions, perhaps alluding 
to the tribe of Judah. Another donor describes himself as "of 
the tribe of Leontii." Traces of a light structure in the center 
of the hall may come from the *bimah. A donors mosaic in- 
scription nearby (of the renewal period) mentions a "priest 
and teacher of wisdom" (i.e., rabbi?). Behind (west of) the 
apse two rooms belonged at one time to the synagogue; one 
had water installations (for the *mikveh), the other a painted 
inscription: "Blessing unto the People." The prayer hall, splen- 
didly revetted with marble, is estimated to have held up to a 
thousand people. The Jewish community apparently dispersed 
at the fall of the city in 616 c.e. 

bibliography: Jos., Ant., 14:235, 259-61; 16:171; H.C. Butler, 
Sardis, 1 (1922); G.M.A. Hanfmann, Sardis und Lydien (i960); idem, 
in: basor, no. 170 (1963), 1-65; idem, in: Papers of the Fourth World 
Congress of Jewish Studies, 1 (1967), 37-42; L. Robert, Nouvelles in- 
scriptions de Sardis (1964); Shiloh, in: bies, 30 (1966), 245 ff.; Mitten, 
in: ba, 29 (1966), 63tT.; em, 5 (1968), nooff., s.v. Sefarad; Frey, Cor- 
pus, 2 (1952), nos. 750-1. 

SARFATI (Zarefati, Sarfatti), name frequently given to Jews 
originating from ^France, e.g., Abraham sarfati, who emi- 
grated to Catalonia, author of Tamid ha-Shahar; Joseph ben 
moses sarfati, mathematician; and isaac ha-shahar 
who emigrated to the East. The most important family often 
bearing the additional surname of Sarfati was the *Trabot 
or Trabotti family, who probably originated from Trevoux 
(France) and came to Italy in the second half of the 15 th cen- 

tury. A *Sarfaty family were rabbis of Fez (Morocco) for sev- 
eral generations (i6 th -i8 th centuries). 

samuel sarfati, called Gallo (d. c. 1519), a physician 
originating from Provence, settled in Rome in 1498. He rep- 
resented the Jewish community at the coronation of Pope Ju- 
lius 11 (1503) and a year later became the personal physician to 
the pope, who confirmed the privileges granted him by Pope 
Alexander vi, including permission to attend Christian pa- 
tients, exemption from wearing the Jewish *badge, and papal 
protection for him and his family. In 1515 he became physician 
of Giuliano de' Medici. Samuel's son Joseph, called Josiphon, 
Giosifante, or Giuseppe Gallo (d. 1527), was a physician, phi- 
losopher, poet, and mathematician. An accomplished linguist, 
he had a good knowledge of Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, Greek, 
and Latin. The pope extended to him the privileges that had 
been accorded to his father; these were confirmed by Pope 
Leo x and Pope Clement vn in 1524. Joseph translated into 
Hebrew the Spanish comedy Celestina. He survived remark- 
able adventures, assisted David *Reubeni, and died as the re- 
sult of his sufferings during the sack of Rome. ISAAC SARFATI 
was physician to Pope Clement vn (1523-34), who recon- 
firmed his right to the family's privileges, samuel sarfati 
(16 th century) was a printer in Rome. Joseph sarfati (16 th 
century), a rabbi of Fez, converted to Christianity. Adopting 
the name of his godfather Pope Julius 111 (1550-55), Andrea 
del Monte, he became a violent anti-Jewish preacher. One of 
his sermons was heard by Michel de *Montaigne. Sarfati was 
one of the instigators of the condemnation of the Talmud and 
its burning in Rome in 1553. jacob ben solomon sarfati 
(14 th century), a physician, was born in northern France. On 
the expulsion of the Jews, he moved to Avignon in the second 
half of the 14 th century. 

He was the author of Mishkenot Yaakov (extant in Ms.), a 
work divided into three books: Beit Yaakov, allegorical inter- 
pretations of some passages of the Pentateuch; Yeshubt Yaakov, 
a discourse on the plagues of Egypt; and Kehillat Yaakov, sl 
theological exposition of the laws given on Mount Sinai. In 
a supplement, Evel Rabbati, he describes the deaths of his 
three sons who perished in the course of three months dur- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


ing the plague of 1395. He also wrote a medical treatise on 


bibliography: U. Cassuto, Gli Ebrei a Firenze neW Eta del 
Rinascimento (1918); Hirschberg, Afrikah, 2 (1965), 156-8, 246-9. 

[Renato Spiegel] 

SARFATTI, GAD B. (1916- ), Hebrew scholar and linguist. 
Born in Pisa, Italy, he studied at the University of Florence 
(1933-37). He immigrated to Israel in 1939, joined kibbutz Ti- 
rat Zevi (1940-47), and served in the Israeli army (1948-50). 
While Sarfatti received his academic training in mathematics 
in Italy, in Israel he studied Talmud in a yeshivah (1941-43), 
and Hebrew and linguistics at The Hebrew University of Jeru- 
salem (1952-55). He also studied at the Laboratoire danalyse 
lexicographique of the University of Besancon, France (1963). 
Sarfatti s major fields of research are Medieval Hebrew and 
Hebrew semantics. Teaching at Bar-Ilan University from 
1962, he was appointed full professor in 1978, and emeritus 
in 1988. He was elected a member of the Hebrew Academy in 
1970 and was named its vice president (1981-87). He was vis- 
iting professor at various universities in Italy and the U.S. He 
was awarded the Israel Prize for linguistics in 2000. Among 
his major publications are Mathematical Terminology in He- 
brew Scientific Literature of the Middle-Ages (Heb., 1968) and 
Hebrew Semantics (Heb., 1985). A full list of Sarfatti's works 
and scientific publications appear in Balshanut Ivrit ("Hebrew 
Linguistics"), 33-35 (1992), 9"i3- 

[Aharon Maman (2 nd ed.)] 

SARFATY, family of rabbinic scholars in *Fez, * Morocco. 
According to a family tradition, the Sarfatys are descendants 
of Rabbenu Tarn. R. Solomon, rabbi in Majorca, is mentioned 
in the responsa of R. Isaac bar Sheshet. A branch of the fam- 
ily settled in Fez. isaac (d. c. 1600) was dayyan in Fez. Some 
of his commentaries on biblical verses are quoted by his son 
Vidal in his works, vidal ha-sarfaty (c. 1550-1620) was 
referred to as "senior" and described as hasid ("pious"). He 
was a disciple of R. Abraham Uzziel. 

His commentaries are outstanding for their originality; 
he quotes the Zohar and appears to have been a kabbalist. 
Many of the works of Spanish rabbis are cited in his works. 
Sarfatys writings included: Derekh ha-Kodesh y a commen- 
tary to the Sifra (1908); Megillat Sefarim y on Esther, Ruth, and 
Lamentations; and Ozar Nehmad, on Psalms (both works were 
published in Amsterdam in 1718 under the title Zuf Devash); 
Imrei Yosher (1874), a commentary on Midrash Rabbah; and 
notes on R. Elijah Mizrahi which were included in Samuel 
Sarfatys Nimmukei Shemuel (Amsterdam, 1718). 

isaac (d. c. 1660), Vidals son, was rabbi and nagid in 
Fez. The community backed him as nagid and appealed to the 
king to maintain him in this position. The king, however, ap- 
pointed another in his place in 1650, nevertheless requesting 
that he remain in office. Isaac refused and was thereupon pe- 
nalized by the king. When he secretly fled to Tetuan, he was 
arrested and imprisoned until he paid a fine. He wrote in- 

dexes to the Midreshei Halakhah and Midreshei Aggadah. He 
was his brother Abrahams business partner. His son, vidal 
(1631-1703), was dayyan together with R. Saadiah ibn Danan 
and R. Menahem Serero. He wrote decisions which have been 
lost. R. Jacob b. Zur was his son-in-law by a second marriage. 
His cousin, r. samuel ben Abraham (1660-1713), was 
dayyan in Fez with R. Judah b. Atar. A sharp-witted talmud- 
ist and profound posek, he wrote Divrei Shemuel (Amsterdam, 
1699), novellae to the Talmud; Nimmukei Shemuel (Amster- 
dam, 1718), a supercommentary on Rashi and Nahmanides 
to the Torah; Meulefet Sappirim, which was published with 
Nimmukei Shemuel in 1718; and decisions which are extant in 
manuscript. His brother, r. aaron (1665-c. 1740), was dayyan 
in Sale. He was a disciple of R. Aaron ha-Sab c uni who opposed 
the Shabbateans. He wrote Misgav ha-Immahot y which was 
included in the above-mentioned Zuf Devash. His cousin, r. 
Elijah ben Joseph ben isaac (1715-1805), was a disciple of 
R. Judah b. Atar. From 1770 he was the halakhic authority of 
the Maghreb. R. Jacob b. Zur was among the rabbis whom he 
ordained; he also educated many disciples. Intending to im- 
migrate to Erez Israel during the famine of 1738, he acquired 
letters of recommendation from the rabbis of Tetuan. From 
1790 to 1792 he resided in Sefrou. His son, r. Israel jacob 
(1740-c. 1826), was appointed rabbi and dayyan during his fa- 
ther's lifetime. A leader of the community and a minister of the 
king, he greatly assisted the Jewish communites of Morocco. 
His brother, r. Raphael menahem h a-sarfaty (d. 1843), 
was one of the king's ministers and nagid. 


was a rabbi, dayyan, and profound talmudist. A number of his 
decisions were published in the works of Moroccan Hakhamim. 
His son, r. abner Israel (1827-1884), was rabbi and dayyan 
in Fez. Knowledgeable in philosophy and other sciences, he 
held disputations with Muslim scholars. A pietist and kabbalist, 
he was beloved by the masses, who continued to visit his tomb 
into the 20 th century. He was also a bibliophile and a collector 
of books. He wrote legal decisions and responsa. His most im- 
portant work is Yahas Fez, summaries of which have been pub- 
lished in Hebrew and French. His son, r. vidal (1862-1921), 
was rabbi in Fez from 1892. In 1919 he was appointed av bet 
din by the French Protectorate government. His son, r. abner 
Israel (d. 1933), was appointed dayyan in Safi in 1932. 

r. zemah (1647-1717), of pious character, was one of 
the most prominent i7 th -century Tunisian Hakhamim. After 
living in Damascus for many years, he immigrated to Erez 
Israel in 1656 and settled in Jerusalem. He was well known as 
a talmudist, and Azulai testifies in Shem ha-Gedolim that he 
saw "pages of the Gemara of the holy Midrash [yeshivah] Bet 
Ya'akov illuminated by his novellae." After Sarfatys death his 
disciples held various rabbinic positions in Tunis; they also 
published his novellae in their works. 

bibliography: J.M. Toledano, Ner ha-Maarav (1911), in- 
dex; J. Ben-Nairn, Malkhei Rabbanan (1931), s.v.; G. Vajda, Un Re- 
cueil de Textes Historiques Judeo-Marocains (1951), index, s.v. Vidal 

ha - Sar f ati - [Haim Bentov] 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



SARGON II (Heb. JiSnO), king of Assyria and Babylonia, 
(722-705 b.c.e.), successor of Shalmaneser v, and father of 
^Sennacherib. There are conflicting opinions among scholars 
as to whether or not he was a son of Tiglath-Pileser 111. The 
circumstances which brought Sargon to the throne are ob- 
scure; he may well have been an usurper, or a descendant of 
a secondary line of the royal house. His name, identical with 
that of Sargon of Akkad and Sargon 1 of Assyria, means: "the 
legitimate king" (see Tadmor, in bibl.). The beginning of his 
reign was marked by domestic difficulties, which he solved 
by giving the Assyrians and the settlers of *Haran a charter 
freeing them from taxes and military service. In 720 Sargon 
marched against *Merodach-Baladan, who had ascended 
the Babylonian throne the previous year. Supported by the 
Elamites, who were the chief opponents in the battle, Mero- 
dach-Baladan met Sargon at Der and defeated, or at least 
stopped, him. Engaged on practically all fronts in fighting re- 
bellions - which he was able to suppress - Sargon could not 
take revenge against the Babylonian king until 710. This time 
his victory was complete. He entered Babylon, proclaiming 
himself king. Between 719 and 711 Sargon campaigned against 
the Medes, Mannai, and Ararat. In the "West" he completed 
the subjugation and conquest of Israel and Samaria, and, after 
quelling an Egyptian-sponsored revolt, rebuilt it and made it 
capital of his new province, Samerina. Sargon s overall policy 
was the intermingling of the populations and the resources 
of the Near East under Assyrian leadership. For this purpose 
he went on to open the road to Egypt. In 716 he cleared and 
subjugated the western Sinai area and established an Assyrian 
karum, a trade settlement, the purpose of this expedition being 
the opening up of Egyptian and Arabian trade to Assyria. 

In approximately 713-712 Sargon conquered and orga- 
nized Ashdod (Isa. 20:1 alludes to the first steps of this cam- 
paign). Then, under the commander in chief the tartan, Azuri, 
the plotting king of Ashdod, was deposed. Ashdod was sup- 
ported by Egypt and very likely by * Hezekiah king of Judah; 
but the latter changed his mind after the Assyrian conquest 
of * Azekah. Remains of a stele of Sargon were discovered in 

Near the modern Khorsabad he built a new capital city, 
Dur-Sharrukin ("Sargons fortress"). Sargon was killed in a 
campaign against the Cimmerians - newcomers in Urartu - 
and his encampment was sacked. 

bibliography: H. Tadmor, in: jaos, 12 (1955), 22-40; idem, 
in: Eretz Israel, 5 (1959), 150-62; R Artzi, ibid., 9 (1969) 28 n. 55; W.W. 
Hallo, in: ba, 23 (i960), 51-56. 

SARID (Heb. Tit?;). 

(1) Town on the border of the territory of Zebulun (Josh. 
19:10, 12). The original Hebrew form of the name was evidently 
Sadod; it appears as Sedud in the Septuagint, and scholars have 
accordingly located it at Tell Shadud in the central Jezreel Valley. 
The pottery on the site dates from the Late Bronze to the Arabic 
periods, early Iron Age pottery being especially abundant. 

[Michael Avi-Yonah] 

(2) Kibbutz in northern Israel, in the Jezreel Valley, affili- 
ated with Kibbutz Arzi ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir. Sarid was founded 
in 1926 by pioneers from Czechoslovakia, Germany, and East 
European countries. In 1970 Sarid had 620 inhabitants and 
maintained a regional high school of Ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir. In 
the mid-1990s the population was approximately 715, dropping 
to 611 in 2002. The kibbutz raised field crops and fruits, poul- 
try, and dairy cattle and also had a grindstone factory. 

[Efraim Orni] 

bibliography: Alt, in: pjb, 22 (1926), 59-60; 25 (1929), 38; 
Albright, in: basor, 19 (1925), 9; Abel, Geog, 2 (1938), 449; Press, Erez, 
s.v.; Aharoni, Land, index, website: 

SARID (Schneider), YOSSI (1940- ), Israeli journalist and 
politician, member of the Knesset since the Eighth Knesset in 
1974. Born in Rehovot, he served in the artillery corps and as 
a military reporter. In the course of his studies at the Hebrew 
University in Jerusalem in 1961-64, he worked as a reporter 
and news editor for the Israel Broadcasting Authority. He re- 
ceived a B.A. in philosophy and literature in 1964. Until 1965 
he served as the spokesman of *Mapai, and, after the elections 
to the Sixth Knesset in 1965, served as advisor to Prime Minis- 
ter Levi *Eshkol. He received an M. A. in political science and 
sociology from the New School for Social Research in New 
York in 1969. After his return to Israel, he was close to Minis- 
ter of Finance Pinhas * Sapir. 

In 1970-73 Sarid ran the section for academics in the 
Ministry of Labor. In the elections right after the Yom Kippur 
War at the end of 1973, he was first elected to the Knesset on 
the Alignment list. In the course of 1974, after a deadly terrorist 
attack on Kiryat Shemonah, he moved with his family to the 
northern town for three years, and, in addition to his position 
as a Member of Knesset, worked voluntarily as a teacher in 
one of the local high schools. Sarid was one of the staunch- 
est opponents of Operation Peace for Galilee in 1982, and as a 
result a rift opened between him and the Labor Party. When, 
after the elections to the Eleventh Knesset in 1984, the Labor 
Party decided to join a National Unity Government with the 
*Likud on the basis of rotation in the premiership, and agreed 
to Ariel *Sharon being given a ministerial position in the gov- 
ernment despite the conclusions of the Kahane Commission, 
and approved the continued financial and moral support of 
Jewish settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Sarid 
decided to leave the party, and joined the Civil Rights Move- 
ment, headed by Shulamit *Aloni. Free of the constraints of 
membership in a leading party, Sarid became famous for his 
outspokenness and cynical style, and assumed the role of the 
"hated left-winger" among right-wing circles. In 1985 Sarid 
became editor of Politika, a left-wing political journal, which 
he continued to edit for several years. 

In 1992, as a member of *Meretz, Sarid was appointed 
minister of the environment, and joined Minister for For- 
eign Affairs Shimon * Peres in peace talks after the signing of 
the Declaration of Principles with the Palestinians in 1993. 
When Aloni resigned from active politics prior to the elec- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


tions to the Fourteenth Knesset in 1996, Sarid was elected as 
leader of the crm and of Meretz. In the government formed 
by Ehud *Barak after the elections to the Fifteenth Knesset, 
Sarid was appointed minister of education and culture, a posi- 
tion he held until June 2000, when he decided to take Meretz 
out of the government several months before the outbreak of 
the second Intifada, owing to his dissatisfaction with Barak's 
attempts to pacify *Shas. In March 2000, Sarid was the first 
official Israeli who accepted an invitation by the Armenian 
Church in Jerusalem to participate in a memorial service for 
the genocide of the Armenians at the hands of the Turks in 
1915, even though the official Israeli position was not to anger 
the Turkish government, which has never accepted respon- 
sibility for the event. 

Following the major electoral defeat suffered by Meretz 
in the elections to the Sixteenth Knesset in 2003, when it lost 
four of its 10 seats, Sarid resigned from his position as leader 
of the party, but remained in the Knesset. In July 2004 he un- 
derwent brain surgery to remove a benign tumor. 

In the Knesset, Sarid has served on the Foreign Affairs 
and Defense Committee, the House Committee, and the Edu- 
cation and Culture Committee. 

He wrote books of poetry, Pegishah be-Makom Aher 
(i960) and Shirim 2003-200$) and Ze ha-Nituah Shell (2005), 
a book about his brain- surgery experience. 

bibliography: Y. Ben-Porat, Sihot im Yossi Sarid (1997). 

[Susan Hattis Rolef (2 nd ed.)] 

SARKIL, *Khazar fortress, built on the Don with Byzantine 
help in 833 c.e. Sarkil's purpose appears to have been to de- 
fend Khazaria from enemies approaching from the west - who 
these were is not specifically stated, but the Pechenegs, Mag- 
yars, and Russians have been suggested - and, more particu- 
larly, to control the Don-Volga portage. This was the route by 
which ninth -century Russian merchants (Ibn Khurradadhbih, 
Kitdb al-Masallk wa al-Mamdlik, 154) from the Black Sea 
reached the Volga; in the same century it was called the "Khaz- 
arian way." Sarkil is mentioned in the Long Version of the 
Reply of Joseph king of the *Khazars to *Hasdai ibn Shaprut. 
The name is explained as being from the Turkic (Chuvash) 
for "white house," hence it has been identified with Bela Ve- 
zha in the Russian Chronicle, and somewhat more doubtfully 
with the Arabic al-Bayda, "the white" (usually taken to mean 
*Atil). M.I. Artamonov fixes the site of Sarkil on the left bank 
of the lower Don near the village of Tsimlyanskaya, now cov- 
ered by the waters of a reservoir. The remains on a neighbor- 
ing site on the right bank of the Don are thought to be those 
of a forerunner of Sarkil, the name of which - corresponding 
to the material from which it was built (white limestone) - was 
transferred to the new fortress (the historic Sarkil was built of 
brick). Sarkil (Bela Vezha) is said to have been destroyed in 
the great Russian attack upon Khazaria in 965. 

bibliography: D.M. Dunlop, History of the Jewish Kha- 
zars (1954), index; M.I. Artamonov, Istoriya Khazar (1962), 288-323; 
idem, in: Sovetskaya Arkheologiya, 16 (1952), 42-76; idem, in: Mate- 

rialy i issledovaniya po arkheologii S.S.S.R., 62 (1958); G. Moravcsik, 
Byzantinoturcica, 2 (1958), 268-9; A.N. Poliak, Kazariyah (1951), in- 
dex s.v. Sharkil. 

[Douglas Morton Dunlop] 

SARMAD, MUHAMMAD SAID (d. 1661), Persian poet. 
Born into a rabbinical family in Kashan in the early 17 th cen- 
tury, Sarmad became a convert to *Islam, though he is always 
referred to in Persian and European sources as "Sarmad the 
Jew," "the Hebrew pantheist," or "the Jewish mystic." Migrat- 
ing to *India, he moved from Tatta to Hyderabad and in 1654 
was in Delhi, capital of the Mogul empire, where he led the 
life of a dervish, a "naked fakir walking through the streets." 
A popular composer of Sufic poetry, he collaborated with the 
author of the Dabistdn, a comprehensive work in Persian on 
comparative religion. Material for the chapter on Judaism 
was supplied by Sarmad, who also edited a Persian transla- 
tion of the Pentateuch of which six chapters of Genesis were 
included in the Dabistdn. Sarmad's association with the crown 
prince of the Mogul dynasty led to his downfall, and he was 
executed in Delhi. His Diwdn, containing over 300 poems, 
was printed in 1897. 

bibliography: Fischel, in: paajr, 18 (1949), 137-77; A.V.W. 
Jackson, The Dabistan, or School of Manners (1901). 

[Walter Joseph Fischel] 

°SARMIENTO, PEDRO (c. 1400-1464), commander of the 
fortress (alcaide del alcazar) of Toledo, responsible for riots 
against the *Conversos in the town in 1449. Sarmiento came 
from a family of courtiers and served as chief confectioner (re- 
postero mayor) to John 11 of Castile (1406-54), who appointed 
him commander of the Toledo fortress in 1445. In 1449 he in- 
cited the population of the town to attack the Conversos hold- 
ing public office there. The pretext for the revolt was a heavy 
tax imposed by the courtier Alvaro de Luna in the name of 
the king. As a first step, the rioters set fire to the house of a 
certain Alonso Cota, of Converso origin, one of the princi- 
pal tax farmers. Sarmiento took over the powers of the local 
authorities and arrested all the prominent Conversos. After 
he had carried out a judicial investigation, and they had con- 
fessed their loyalty to Judaism under torture, he condemned 
them to be burned at the stake. 

Sarmiento then published a regulation which laid down, 
on the strength of an imaginary royal privilege allegedly 
granted to Toledo by one of the former kings, that New Chris- 
tians and their issue could not hold public office. It was the first 
instance of racial discrimination practiced in Castile against 
the Conversos. A memorandum by Sarmiento's legal adviser, 
Garcia de Mora, was attached to the regulation. It included 
severe accusations against the New Christians who, he alleged, 
were practicing Judaism and plotting against Christianity and 
the faithful. The disorders in Toledo spread as far as *Ciudad 
Real, where trials of Conversos were also held. Sarmiento's 
actions were condemned by the king, who dismissed him 
from his position. Pope ^Nicholas v issued a bull in which 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



he denounced the regulation. In the same year the bishop of 
Burgos, Alonso de Cartagena (the son of Solomon *ha-Levi 
who had adopted Christianity), wrote his Defensorium Unita- 
tis Christiana^ in which he sharply criticized the segregation 
between Old and New Christians introduced by Sarmiento. 
In 1452 Sarmiento was pardoned by the king and during the 
reign of his successor, Henry iv (1454-74), was reinstated in 
his court functions. 

bibliography: Baer, Spain, 2 (1966), 279-82; E. Benito Ru- 
ano, in: Revista de la Universidad de Madrid, 5 (1956), 345ff.; 6 (1957), 
277ft 7 .; idem, Hidalguia (1957), 4iff., 314ft 7 .; idem, in: Hispania, 17 
(1957), 483ft 7 .; idem, Toledo en el siglo xv (1961), index; H. Beinart, 
Anusim be-Din ha-Inkvizizyah (1965), index. 

[Joseph Kaplan] 

SARNA, EZEKIEL (1889-1969), rosh yeshivah in Israel. Born 
in Gorodok, Lithuania, Sarna was the son of Jacob Hayyim 
Sarna, the Maggid ("preacher") of Slonim and a close associ- 
ate of Hayyim *Soloveitchik. At an early age Ezekiel was ac- 
cepted in the famous yeshivah of Slobodka, Lithuania, where 
he became known as the illui ("child prodigy") of Gorodok. 
He was particularly influenced by the method of study and 
moral inspiration of the heads of the yeshivah - the Sabba of 
Slobodka, Nathan Zevi *Finkel, and Moses Mordecai ^Ep- 
stein. When World War 1 broke out, the Slobodka yeshivah 
was transferred from Kovno to Kremenchug in the Ukraine. 
In this period Sarna studied under ^Israel Meir ha-Kohen 
(Hafez-Hayyim). His marriage to Epstein's daughter accorded 
Sarna, already distinguished by his talent and profound acu- 
men, a special status. After the war the yeshivah returned to 
Slobodka, where Sarna was appointed a lecturer. Following the 
*Balfour Declaration, the third wave of aliyah got under way, 
and Epstein decided (1924) to transfer the Slobodka yeshivah 
to Erez Israel. For this purpose he sent Sarna to choose a site. 
Sarna selected Hebron, where he immediately became one of 
the heads of the yeshivah and was mainly responsible for its 
development. About a year later Finkel and Epstein joined the 
yeshivah. On the death of his father-in-law in 1927, Sarna was 
appointed rosh yeshivah y a position he held until his death. The 
yeshivah attracted students from all parts of the world and, 
at the time of its destruction in the pogrom of 1929, had 265 
students. Sarna reestablished the yeshivah in Jerusalem as the 
Hebron Yeshivah. Under Sarna's guidance it again flourished. 
His talmudic and musar discourses achieved a reputation in 
the yeshivah world, and Hebron Yeshivah developed into one 
of the largest and most important Torah centers in Israel, con- 
tinuing the educational and musar methods of the great Lithu- 
anian yeshivot. As a leader of the Va'ad ha- Yeshivot, Sarna was 
mainly preoccupied by his own and other yeshivot, but was 
also actively interested in national problems. He was a member 
of the Mo'ezet Gedolei ha-Torah, the supreme religious insti- 
tution of *Agudat Israel. He held independent views on politi- 
cal matters, both local and foreign, and on occasion addressed 
his opinions to the prime minister and members of the Israel 
government, attempting by virtue of his personality to influ- 

ence the political, social, and religious life of the state. He was 
instrumental in obtaining exemption from military service for 
yeshivah students. Sarna had a unique style in halakhah and 
musar, and published a number of books, including commen- 
taries on * Judah Halevi's Kuzari (1965), on the Orhot Hayyim 
by *Asher b. Jehiel (1957, 1962), and on Mesillat Yesharim (1957, 
1965) by Moses Hayyim *Luzzatto. He left many manuscripts 
on halakhah and Jewish thought. Despite an illness in his last 
years, he undertook the establishment of the new yeshivah 
center, Kiryat Hevron, in southern Jerusalem. 

[Itzhak Goldshlag] 

SARNA, JONATHAN DANIEL (1955- ), university profes- 
sor, author, and scholar of American Jewish history. Born in 
Philadelphia and raised in New York and Boston, Sarna was 
the son of the renowned Bible scholar Nahum M. *Sarna and 
Helen Horowitz, a librarian. Sarna earned degrees from Bos- 
ton Hebrew College and Brandeis University before matricu- 
lating to Yale University where he pursued graduate studies 
in American history, modern Jewish history, and American 
religious history. Upon receiving his Ph.D. in 1979, Sarna was 
awarded a postgraduate fellowship at Hebrew Union College- 
Jewish Institute of Religion (huc-jir) in Cincinnati, Ohio, by 
the pioneering American Jewish historian Jacob Rader *Mar- 
cus. The following year, he joined huc-jir s faculty, and he 
quickly rose to the rank of professor. In 1990, Sarna became 
the Joseph H. and Belle R. Braun Professor of American Jew- 
ish History at Brandeis University. 

Sarna's keen interest in American Jewish history first 
emerged during his teenage years. He later theorized that 
his strong interest in the field may have come from the fact 
that he was the first member of his family born in the United 
States. He became convinced that by synthesizing American 
and Jewish history, he could gain a deeper understanding of 
his own world. 

At Yale, Sarna's historical philosophy took shape. He was 
influenced by many members of the university's history fac- 
ulty, including Sidney Ahlstrom, the distinguished scholar 
of American religion. Noting that many historians tended to 
categorize Jews in America as an ethnic group with little ref- 
erence to their religious life, Sarna set out to place American 
Judaism within the larger historical context of religious life in 
America. His doctoral dissertation was a biographical study 
of Mordecai Manuel *Noah, one of the first American Jews 
to gain prominence in both the Jewish and the general com- 
munity. Sarna used Noah's life to exemplify a central theme 
in American Jewish history: the ongoing effort to be Ameri- 
can and Jewish at the same time. The nature of this tension is 
summarized in the title of his first book, which grew out of 
his dissertation: Jacksonian Jew: The Two Worlds of Mordecai 
Noah (1981). 

In his second major volume, jps, A Cultural History of 
the Jewish Publication Society (1989), Sarna similarly examined 
the ways in which Jews have interacted with American culture. 
In his magnum opus, American Judaism (2004), a full-scale 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


interpretive history of Jewish religious life in America, Sarna 
broadly demonstrated how evolving trends in American reli- 
gion as a whole have repeatedly influenced the historical de- 
velopment of Jewish religious life in America. 

A prolific author, Sarna wrote, edited, or co -edited doz- 
ens of historical publications that have influenced the field of 
American Jewish history His volume People Walk on Their 
Heads (1982) illuminates the complicated and difficult na- 
ture of Jewish immigrant life in New York. Sarna's interest in 
the history of Jewish communities impelled him to publish 
several articles and books on this subject, including The Jews 
of Cincinnati (1989) and The Jews of Boston (1995). Many of 
Sarna's monographs, such as his essay on the development 
of mixed seating in the American synagogue and his article 
on the role of great awakenings in American Judaism, have 
spurred American Jewish historians to explore new avenues 
of research. 

Many of Sarna's historical readers have become useful 
tools for the teaching of American Jewish history, such as The 
American Jewish Experience (1986, rev. ed. 1997); Religion and 
State in the American Jewish Experience (1997); Women and 
American Judaism: Historical Perspectives (2001); and Jews and 
the American Public Square (2002). 

By the dawn of the 21 st century, Sarna had become a se- 
nior scholar in the field. He served as chair of the Academic 
Advisory and Editorial Board of The Jacob Rader Marcus Cen- 
ter of the American Jewish Archives, where he also served as 
consulting scholar. He also became a consulting historian to 
the National Museum of American Jewish History in Phila- 
delphia. In 2004-2005, Sarna was named chief historian for 
Celebrate 350, the Jewish community's national organizing 
committee for commemorating the 350 th anniversary of Jew- 
ish life in America. He was also a consulting scholar to the 
congressionally recognized Commission for Commemorat- 
ing 350 Years of American Jewish History. 

Sarna's deep knowledge of the field attracted many schol- 
ars and researchers to consult with him and, as a faculty ad- 
visor at both huc-jir and Brandeis University, he influenced 
a significant number of graduate students who went on to fill 
important research and teaching positions in the field. 

Sarna is married to Rabbi Ruth Langer, a professor of 
Jewish Studies at Boston College. 

[Gary P. Zola (2 nd ed.)] 

SARNA, NAHUM M. (1923-2006), biblical scholar. Sarna 
was born in London into a family that was both traditionally 
observant and Zionist. After receiving an intensive elemen- 
tary and secondary Jewish education, he attended Jews' Col- 
lege, then part of the University of London, where he earned 
his B.A. (1944) and M.A. (1946), studying rabbinics, Bible and 
Semitic languages. From Jews' College Sarna also received a 
Minister's Diploma (1949), a degree that certified its holders 
as pulpit ministers rather than legal decisors (posekim). He 
moved briefly to postwar Israel (1949), but because condi- 
tions there were not favorable for serious study, Sarna came 

to Dropsie College in Philadelphia and completed his Ph.D. 
(1955) under Cyrus ^Gordon. While pursuing his studies, and 
shortly thereafter, Sarna taught at Gratz College in Philadel- 
phia (1951-57). Between 1957 and 1965 Sarna served at the 
Jewish Theological Seminary as librarian (1957-63) and as 
associate professor of Bible. Not receiving promotion at jts, 
Sarna moved to Brandeis University as Golding Professor, 
and served in that chair from 1965 to 1985. Between 1966 and 
1981 Sarna was a member of the committee that translated the 
last section of the Jewish Bible (Ketuvim, or Writings) for the 
Tanakh: The Holy Scriptures of the Jewish Publication Society 
(1982). Sarna successfully employed both ancient Near East- 
ern material and the traditional Jewish sources to illuminate 
the Bible. He also pioneered in "inner biblical interpretation," 
showing how biblical writers often interpreted and reinter- 
preted each other. In a very active retirement, Sarna held vis- 
iting professorships and initiated and edited the jps To rah 
Commentary, for which he wrote the volumes Genesis (1989), 
and Exodus (1991). Famed as a pedagogue and lecturer, Sarna 
was highly influential in training many of the current genera- 
tion of Bible scholars. But Sarna wrote for intelligent laics as 
well. As Jeffrey Tigay observed, "No scholar has done as much 
as Sarna to educate English-speaking Jewry about the Bible," 
as exemplified in Exploring Exodus (1986) and in Songs of the 
Heart: An Introduction to the Book of Psalms (1993), and the 
aforementioned jps To rah volumes. 

bibliography: M. Brettler in: dbi, 2:438-39; J. Tigay, in: N. 
Sarna, Studies in Biblical Interpretation (2000), xiii-xxiv; bibliogra- 
phy of Sarna's publications, in: ibid., 431-36. 

[S. David Sperling (2 nd ed.)] 

SARNOFF, DAVID (1891-1971), U.S. electronics pioneer and 
executive. Sarnoff, who was born in Uzlian, Russia, was taken 
to the U.S. in 1900. A self-taught telegrapher who had joined 
the Marconi Telegraph Company of America in 1906 as an of- 
fice boy, Sarnoff was the operator on duty who picked up and 
relayed the Titanics distress signal in 1912. When the Radio 
Corporation of America (rca), formed in 1919, gained control 
of the Marconi Company, Sarnoff became rca's commercial 
manager (1919) and subsequently its president (1930). Fore- 
seeing the enormous growth of the radio medium, and deter- 
mined to prove the practicality of coast-to-coast broadcasting, 
he founded the National Broadcasting Company in 1926 as an 
rca subsidiary. Later, he directed rca's efforts toward making 
television a practical working medium. He developed its po- 
tential as an inexpensive instrument providing entertainment 
and information for a mass audience. His subsequent decision 
to invest huge sums to develop color television was made in the 
face of determined opposition within the company. However, 
the success of color television vindicated his decision. Sarnoff s 
abilities built rca into the world's largest electronic complex, 
doing approximately $2 billion business annually in the late 
1960s, in fields ranging from radio and television to comput- 
ers and earth-orbiting satellites, and employing approximately 
100,000 persons in the U.S. and 43 foreign plants. 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



Active in Jewish affairs, Sarnoff was a member of the 
board of trustees of the Educational Alliance and the first 
honorary fellow of the Weizmann Institute of Science. He was 
associated with the Jewish Theological Seminary for over 25 
years and served as a member of both its board of directors 
and its executive committee. Long active in the U.S. Army 
Reserve, he was appointed to the rank of brigadier general 
in 1944. 

His son, Robert sarnoff (1918-1997), who was born in 
New York City, served in the army during World War n. After 
a period as an executive with Cowles Publications (1945-48), 
he joined the National Broadcasting Company. Sarnoff sub- 
sequently served as that company's president (1955-58) and 
board chairman (1958-66). In 1966 he was appointed presi- 
dent of rca and in 1967, chief executive officer. He resigned in 
1975. He was married to opera singer Anna Moffo. 

bibliography: E. Lyons, David Sarnoff, A Biography (1966). 
add. bibliography: E. Myers, David Sarnoff: Radio and tv Boy 
(1972); C. Dreher, Sarnoff, an American Success (1977); K. Bilby, The 
General (1986); T. Lewis, Empire of the Air (1991); D. Stashower, The 
Boy Genius and the Mogul: The Untold Story of Television (2002). 

SARNY, town in Rovno district, Ukraine. It maybe assumed 
that the first Jews settled in Sarny in 1901, with the opening 
of the railroad station there. As Sarny was then a village, Jews 
had difficulty, under the czarist restrictions on their settle- 
ment in villages, in obtaining permission to live there. After 
Sarny acquired the status of a town in May 1903, its Jewish 
community developed rapidly. During the Civil War after 
the end of World War 1, the Jews of Sarny did not suffer from 
the pogroms in Ukraine, and the community aided refugees 
and orphans from other places. Sarny s economy was largely 
based on the lumber industry. In independent Poland, after 
Sarny was made the district capital in 1921, the city developed 
further. The Jewish population numbered 2,808 in 1921 (47% 
of the total), 3,414 (45%) in 1931, and 4,950 (45%) in 1937. A 
*Tarbut school was founded in 1920-21, and an *ort school in 
1923-24. There were also a talmud torah, and several hadarim. 
At the outbreak of World War 11, preparations were under 
way for opening a Hebrew high school. Until the early 1920s 
zaddikim of the *Karlin-Stolin hasidic dynasty lived in Sarny, 

and later continued to visit it. 

[Shmuel Spector] 

Holocaust Period 

After the outbreak of World War 11 many refugees arrived 
in Sarny, and by 1941 the number of Jews there had risen to 
7,000. During the Soviet occupation (1939-41) the Jewish 
institutions were disbanded. The 2,000 refugees from Ger- 
man-occupied western Poland were transferred to the Soviet 
interior. The Germans occupied Sarny on July 5, 1941, and im- 
mediately the Ukrainians staged a three-day pogrom. There 
began persecution of the Jews, indiscriminate murder, seizure 
of able-bodied people for forced labor, and extortion of large 
sums of money. On the Day of Atonement (Oct. 1, 1941) they 
rounded up the Jews in Sarny for a census and ordered them 

to wear the yellow badge, instead of a white band with a blue 
Star of David. A ghetto was established in April 1942, packed 
with 6,000 persons, 15 per room, and a few weeks later the 
Jewish community was forced to pay a "fine" of 250,000 ru- 
bles ($50,000). In June 1942, when information of mass mur- 
ders reached Sarny, armed groups were organized there. They 
planned to set a fire and escape into the forest. But when the 
Germans came, the secretary of the Judenrat convinced the 
groups not to act. The Germans transferred the ghetto Jews to 
the "Poleska" camp, where about 15,000 Jews and 1,500 gyp- 
sies Jews from near-by settlements were already concentrated. 
On Aug. 27-28, 1942, the Germans began to "liquidate" the 
community. A group headed by two Jews, Tendler and Josef 
Gendelman, cut the wire fence, ordered to set fire to the camp 
barracks, and called for a mass escape. Thousands tried to flee, 
many of them were shot, and only a few hundred reached the 
forests; there some of them joined the Soviet partisan units 
of Satanovski and Kaplan (both Jews). 

Sarny was retaken by the Soviet army on Jan. 11, 1944. A 
handful of survivors returned from the Soviet interior, and 
about 20 Jewish partisans, some of whom had fought against 
the Ukrainian bands led by Stefan Bandera. The remnants of 
the Sarny community fenced in the local cemetery and re- 
stored the tombstones that had been used for pavements. In 
the late 1960s there were about 100 Jews in Sarny. 

[Aharon Weiss / Shmuel Spector (2 nd ed.)] 

bibliography: Sefer Yizkor li-Kehillat Sarny (1961). add. 
bibliography: S. Spector (ed.), pk Poland, vol. 5 - Volhynia and 
Polesie (1990). 

SARPHATI, SAMUEL (1813-1866), Dutch physician and 
social reformer. Sarphati was one of the progressive lead- 
ers of Amsterdam in the mid-i9 th century. At the start of his 
professional career he was employed part time by the Portu- 
guese Jewish community as a physician for the poor. The so- 
cial dismay he experienced made him engage in numerous 
social and economic development projects. He initiated the 
first municipal garbage-collecting service, and was involved in 
the building of an industrial bakery to provide quality bread 
for the masses as well as the establishment of the city's first 
school of trade and commerce. Other endeavors saw public 
toilets situated throughout the city and the filling in of several 
polluted and foul- smelling inner-city canals. Sarphati stimu- 
lated urban expansion outside the ancient city walls. To facili- 
tate financial investors he was instrumental in establishing the 
Netherlands Credit and Deposits Bank, a national mortgage 
bank and building society. Sarphati was also responsible for 
the founding of the "Paleis voor Volksvlijt," a vast glass-and- 
steel industrial exhibition hall, and the grand Amstel Hotel to 
accommodate commercial entrepreneurs. 

Sarphati was a co-founder of the Netherlands Pharma- 
ceutical Society. He was a member of the North Holland Pro- 
vincial Council and was decorated Knight of the Order of the 
Netherlands Lion. A street, a park, and a quay in Amsterdam 
are named after him. 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


bibliography: S. Bottenheim, Dr. Samuel Sarphati .. . (1945); 
H. van der Kooy and J. de Leeuwe, Sarphati, een biografie (2001) 

[Henriette Boas / Daniel M. Metz (2 nd ed.)] 

SARRAF, Arabic moneychanger, intendant, treasurer; sarrdf 
bashi, Arabic -Turkish chief money changer, chief banker. In 
Islamic countries Muslims were all but forbidden to work in 
gold and silver, not only as goldsmiths and silversmiths but 
also as jahdbidha (Persian; sing, jahbddh), i.e., moneychang- 
ers, coin testers, and collectors of taxes and customs dues, 
who had to be capable of calculating the value of different 
kinds of coins in accordance with the percentage of precious 
metal they contained. An order by the caliph al-Muqtadir 
(908-932) restricted the employment of Jews and Christians 
in the government to physicians and jahdbidha. Arab sources 
report the presence of Jewish wholesale merchants, toll farm- 
ers, and bankers at the court of the caliphs in ^Baghdad. A Jew, 
Yaq c ub ibn Yusuf *Ibn Killis, laid the foundation for a public 
tax collection system in *Egypt during the reign of al-Mu c izz 
(969-975), the first *Fatimid ruler of that country. *Hisdai 
ibn Shaprut was the chief customs collector and a physician 
in *Umayyad Spain during the reign of Abd al-Rahman in 
(912-961). These dignitaries indirectly influenced the attitude 
of the governments toward the Jews. The prominent Jacob 
*Ibn Jau, a merchant and the official manufacturer and sup- 
plier of silk, was appointed tax collector and nasi of the Jews 
in Spain during the rule of al-*Mansur (977-991). 

In the Ottoman Empire many Jews, Armenians, and 
Copts served as sarrdf at the courts of the provincial pashas 
and in the capital. Their positions as tax collectors, toll farm- 
ers, cashiers, and bankers, and their influence at court enabled 
them to act as the natural spokesmen for their communities. 
The Jewish representatives had titles such as chelebi (Turkish: 
gentleman), bazirkdn (Persian: bazargar, merchant), muallim 
(Arabic: teacher). These titles were still in use in the early 19 th 
century in * Istanbul. The Armenian equivalent bore the title 
amira. The amira, the banker, and the financial advisers to the 
viziers and various ministers of the Ottoman government were 
the highest secular authorities in the Armenian community 
until regulations for the Armenian *millet were finally drafted 
and approved in 1863. 

A similar development occurred in * Iraq. From the early 
18 th century, the Jewish sarrdf bashi, the chief banker and fi- 
nance minister to the pasha or wall of Baghdad, assumed the 
position and title of * nasi. Until the middle of the 19 th cen- 
tury the sarrdf bashi of Baghdad acted as nasi of the Baghdad 
community. His political importance sometimes was exagger- 
ated and compared with that of the * exilarch under the *Ab- 
basids, e.g., in the report of the Jewish convert to Christianity 
and missionary J. * Wolff (author of Narrative of a Mission to 
Bokhara, 1852), who was introduced to the nasi Saul Laniado 
in 1824. The first nasi in Baghdad was the sarrdf bashi Moses 
b. Mordecai *Shindookh. One of the last to hold the office of 
sarrdf bashi in Baghdad was Ezra b. Joseph Gabbai. His brother 
Ezekiel attained the position of sarrdf bashi to the sultan 

Mahmud 11 (1808-39). Court intrigues and interdenomina- 
tional rivalry between Jews and Armenians sometimes made 
the position of sarrdf bashi a very dangerous one, and the 
tragic deaths of some are described in various sources. 

In Egypt the appointment of Joseph *Cattaui as sarrdf 
bashi by the khedive Sa c id (1854-1863) was not linked with 
any official function in the Jewish community. The develop- 
ment of tourism necessitated enforcing of controls over the 
moneychangers, and this became the main task of the sarrdf 
bashi. E.W. Lane (in The Manners and Customs of the Modern 
Egyptians (1968), 562) wrote: "Many of the Egyptian Jews are 
sarrdf s (or bankers and moneylenders), others are seyrefees 
(dialect: money changers), and are esteemed men of strict 
probity." In 1872 a German traveler also stressed the role of 
the Jews in the banking (sarrdf) business: "They tend to be 
saraffen (money changers) and then rise easily to a kind of 
banker, some indeed becoming great bankers" (M. Luettke, 
Aegyptens neue Zeit, 1 (1873), 98). According to a Christian Ar- 
abic source (Ali Mubarak, Al-Khitat al-Jadida, 12 (1305 a.h.), 
95) in the middle of the 19 th century, 21 out of 49 Jews in Suez 

were money changers. 

[Ha'im Z'ew Hirschberg] 

Jewish Banking (Middle East) 

With the growing involvement of Middle Eastern countries in 
the world economy during the second half of the 19 th century, 
and the expansion of financial operations in these countries, 
Jewish banking families at the major commercial centers of 
the Ottoman Empire and Egypt reached the zenith of their 
economic power. Their influence on financial and economic 
developments was great. Among these families were the 'bas- 
soons (Baghdad-Bombay-London), the *Camondos (Istan- 
bul-Paris), and the Menashes (Alexandria- Vienna). The big 
banking families did not confine their activities to the financial 
sector. They were involved in foreign trade transactions and 
in commercial agriculture, transportation, and urban devel- 
opment projects. These big banker-entrepreneurs also made 
substantial contributions to Jewish community institutions. 
Their support of education was of particular significance. At 
times the Jewish bankers operated in fierce competition and 
at other times in cooperation with European banks and with 
other local big banking families (Greek, Armenian, and also 
Muslim). In the course of their activity during the last decades 
of the century, some of the Jewish banking families transferred 
their business headquarters to European capitals, especially 
London and Paris. The extreme changes in the political and 
economic conditions in the Middle East and Europe during 
the first half of the 20 th century brought about the decline 
of these influential families. In some cases their assets were 
confiscated or nationalized, in others they were acquired by 
or merged with large economic concerns or multinational 


[Gad Gilbar (2 nd ed.)] 

bibliography: Fischel, Islam; Ibn Daud, Tradition, 50-51 
(Hebrew section), 69 (English section); H.Z. Hirschberg, in: A.J. Ar- 
berry (ed.), Religion in the Middle East, 1 (1969), 119-225; D.S. Sassoon, 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



History of the Jews in Baghdad (1949), 122-7; A. Ben-Ya'acov, Yehudei 
Bavel (1965), passim; Rosanes, Togarmah, 6 (1945), 71-76; E.W. Lane, 
Modern Egyptians (1908, repr. 1936), 562; J.M. Landau, Ha-Yehudim 
be-Mizrayim ba-Meah ha-Tesha-Esreh (1967), index s.v. Halfanut. 
add. bibliography: Jewish banking: A. Wright and H.A. 
Cartwright, Twentieth Century Impressions of Egypt (1909); S. Jackson, 
The Sassoons, 1968; G. Kramer, The Jews in Modern Egypt 1914-1952 
(1989); N. §eni, "The Camondos and their Imprint on i9 th -Century 
Istanbul," in: International Journal of Middle East Studies, 26 (1994), 
663-75; N. §eni and S. Le Tarnec, Les Camondos ou leclipse dune for- 
tune (1997); M. Rozen (ed.)> The Last Ottoman Century and Beyond: 
The Jews in Turkey and the Balkans, 1808-1945 (2005). 

SARRAUTE (Cherniak), NATHALIE (1900-1999), French 
novelist. Born in Ivanova- Vosnesensk, Russia, into an assimi- 
lated Jewish family, Nathalie Sarraute was taken to France at 
the age of two. She practiced as a lawyer until the Nazi occu- 
pation in 1940, when she joined the French underground. Her 
literary career began rather late. She had studied philology at 
the universities of Oxford and Berlin, and in 1938 published 
Tropismes (Eng. tr. 1967), a series of cameos which constituted 
a criticism of language and a condemnation of subject mat- 
ter as such in the novel. Her own first novel, however, did not 
appear until 1944. Entitled Portrait dun inconnu, it attracted 
much attention, particularly that of Sartre. Nathalie Sarraute 
is recognized as one of the initiators of the modern school 
known as "le nouveau roman," which counted Alain Robbe- 
Grillet and Michel Butor among its best-known younger 
members. Her novels Martereau (1953; Eng. 1967), Le Plan- 
etarium (1959, 19682), and Les Fruits dor (1963), do not relate 
any story or describe any events, and in fact represent the 
trend of the anti- novel. Their aim is to reveal a reality which 
is both beneath and beyond the everyday, obvious reality of 
the traditional and existentialist novel. The author stated her 
views on the novel in a series of essays, VEre du soupcon (1956; 
The Age of Suspicion, 1967). For a time she abandoned the 
novel and wrote two radio plays, Le Silence and Le Mensonge 
(published in one volume, 1967); but in Entre la vie et la mort 
(1968), using literary circles as a setting, she reverted to her 
basic form. Later novels included L'Usage de la parole (1980) 
and Tu ne taimespas (1989). Her autobiography, Enfa nee, ap- 
peared in 1983. Nathalie Sarraute, a liberal leftist, eventually 
adopted an openly pro-Israel stand and paid a lengthy visit 
to the country in 1969. 

bibliography: M. Kranake, Nathalie Sarraute (Fr., 1965), 
incl. bibl.; J. Jaccard, Nathalie Sarraute (Fr., 1967); R. Micha, Nathalie 
Sarraute {Yv., 1966). add. bibliography: S. Barbour, Nathalie Sar- 
raute and the Feminist Reader (1993); H. Watson -Williams, The Nov- 
els of Nathalie Sarraute (1981); B. Knapp, Nathalie Sarraute (1994); E. 
O'Beirne, Reading Nathalie Sarraute: Dialogue and Distance (1999). 

[Arnold Mandel] 

SARREGUEMINES, town in the Moselle department, north- 
eastern France. Jews have lived in Sarreguemines since the 13 th 
century. Expelled in 1477, they reappeared at the latest in 1690 
under the French occupation. One family was authorized to 

settle in the town in 1721, others in 1753, and still others in 
1787. The synagogue, erected about 1769, was rebuilt in 1862, 
and again in 1959, after having been destroyed in 1940. The 
local rabbinate was established in 1791. Throughout the 19 th 
and early 20 th centuries, the Jewish community slowly grew. 
By 1939, it numbered approximately 395. It is estimated that 
about 89 of Sarreguemines' Jews died during the Holocaust. 
In 1971 the Jewish community numbered 250. In 2005, in an 
act of vandalism, over 60 of the Jewish cemetery's 500 tomb- 
stones were toppled and smashed. 

bibliography: H. Hiegel, Chatellenie... de Sarreguemines 
(1934), 314-5; R. Weil, in: Almanach-Calendrier des communautes Is- 
raelites de la Moselle (1956), 81-83. 

[Gilbert Cahen] 

SAR SHALOM BEN BOAZ (d. c. 859 or 864 c.e.), gaon of 
Sura from 838 to 848. Sar Shalom succeeded *Kohen Zedek 
and was succeeded by *Natronai b. Hilai. His personality re- 
flects a kindly individual, profoundly learned, who exercised 
a benign and understanding authority. His appeal to the Jewry 
of the time and their admiration for him probably account for 
the fact that he was the most prolific writer of responsa of his 
time, and more than 100 of them are extant. A large number 
deal primarily with matters pertaining to prayer, benedictions, 
and the reading of the Torah; excerpts of his erudite opinions 
were later incorporated in the Seder *Amram Gaon. Sar Sha- 
lom's responsa reveal a liberal attitude to non-Jews: he explic- 
itly prohibited taking advantage of, or in any way infringing 
upon, the rights of those who were not coreligionists, even if 
according to the letter of the law it might be considered per- 
missible. He ruled that even if a woman went through the cer- 
emony of ablution for conversion against her will, she was to 
be considered fully Jewish, and food, including wine, served 
by her was permissible for use. 

He never assumed an overbearing manner to his subor- 
dinates. Indeed, a generous, conciliatory tone is manifested 
in his epistles to leaders of Jewish communities even from 
distant countries, who turned to him for religious clarifica- 
tion in different matters. He never adopted a dogmatic view 
in his decisions; he would generally present both sides of a 
disputation, explaining the practices followed, and points of 
view held by the academies of both Sura and Pumbedita, the 
great centers of learning, and allowing the heads of congre- 
gations to make their own choice. Moreover, he admonished 
the people not to bind themselves with regulations to which 
it would be difficult to adhere. If he heard that a community 
had restricted itself by a vow which it later felt unable to com- 
ply with, he would use the authority of his office to rescind 
such an oath. He explains the reasons for his decisions in an 
amiable tone and often writes in his responsa how much he 
would prefer to have his correspondents in his presence for 
thorough elucidation, to make his decision acceptable to the 
inquirer. In his responsa Sar Shalom also deals with some of 
the geonic takkanot. Although of mild disposition, he severely 
punished a person who struck another, a man who maltreated 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


his wife, and a wife who was guilty of recalcitrant behavior to- 
ward her husband. 

bibliography: R.S. Weinberg, in: Sinai, 65 (1969), 69-99; J- 
Mueller, Mafteah li-Teshuvot ha-Gebnim (1891), 92-100; B.M. Lewin, 
Ozar ha-Gebnim, 1-12 (1928-43), index; H. Tykocinski, Takkanot ha- 
Gebnim, tr. by M. Havazelet (1959), 70, 99; S. Abramson, Ba-Merka- 
zim u-va-Tefuzot bi-Tekufat ha-Gebnim (1965), 14; M. Havazelet, Ha- 
Rambam ve-ha-Gebnim (1967), 155; Baron, Social 2 , index. 

[Meir Havazelet] 

SAR SHALOM BEN MOSES HA- LEVI (12 th century), the 
last of the Egyptian geonim. Sar Shalom held office in Fos- 
tat from 1171 until at least 1195. He had followed his brother, 
the Gaon *Nethanel b. Moses ha- Levi, in the position. Before 
then, he had held the post of av bet din in the Yeshivah shel 
Erez Israel of Damascus, which, according to ^Benjamin of 
Tudela, was headed by Sar Shalom's brother Azariah. While 
acting as gaon, Sar Shalom signed himself rosh yeshivat Erez 
ha-Zevi, or rosh yeshivat Gebn Yaakov ("Head of the Yeshivah 
of the Glory of Jacob"). 

bibliography: Mann, Egypt, index; Mann, Texts, 1 (1931), 

257^; idem, in: huca, 3 (1926), 295 f.; Baneth, in: Seferha-Yovel... A. 

Marx (1950), 77; S. Assaf, in: Tarbiz, 1 no. 2 (1930), 80 f.; S.D. Goitein, 

ibid., 31 (1962), 369; 33 (1964), 184. 

[Abraham David] 

SARTABA (Alexandrium), fortress, probably built by Alex- 
ander *Yannai and named after him According to Josephus, 
it was located near Coreae in the Jordan Valley (Ant., 14:49, 
83). Situated on the top of a high mountain, it was exception- 
ally well supplied (Jos., Wars, 1:134). Here *Aristobulus 11 sur- 
rendered to Pompey in 63 b.c.e. It later served as a strong- 
hold of the nationalist opposition to Rome. Gabinus besieged 
'Alexander, the son of Aristobulus there (ibid., i:i6iff.)> after 
which the fortress was demolished. Pheroras, Herod's brother, 
re fortified it (Jos., Ant., 14:419; Wars, 1:308). Under Herod it 
served for the safekeeping of his wife Mariamne, who later 
buried his sons there after they had been executed on Herod's 
orders (Jos., Ant., 16:394; Wars, 1:551). It apparently also served 
for the burial of several other members of the Hasmonean 
dynasty. The place is not mentioned in accounts of the Jew- 
ish War against Rome. According to the Mishnah, it was one 
of the stations for the transmission of signals announcing the 
new moon and holidays from Jerusalem to Babylonia (rh 2:4; 
cf. Tosef, 2:2). Alexandrium is identified with Qarn Sartaba, a 
dominating peak overlooking the Jordan Valley, S.E. of Nab- 
lus (1,244 ft- - c - 379 m - above sea level; 2,388 ft. - c. 728 m. 
above the Jordan Valley). The remains include walls of bossed 
masonry, the style typical of the Hasmonean period, a cistern, 
and traces of an aqueduct. Excavations at the fortress were 
conducted at the site by Y Tsafrir and Y Magen between 1981 
and 1983, with the discovery of the remains of a monumen- 
tal peristyle hall and other remains, including an inscribed 
ostraca mentioning a "Pinchas" and a "Levi." The aqueduct 
leading to the site and other remains in the hinterland of the 
fortress were investigated by D. Amit. 

bibliography: Abel, in: rb, 22 (1913), 228ff.; Schmidt, in: 
jbl, 29 (1910), 77ff.; Moulton, in: basor, 62 (1936), 15!?. add. bib- 
liography: Y. Tsafrir and Y. Magen, "Two Seasons of Excavations 
at the Sartaba/Alexandrium Fortress," in: Qadmoniot, 17 (1984), 26-32; 
D. Amit, "Water Supply to the Alexandrium Fortress (Sartaba)," in: D. 
Amit et al., The Aqueducts of Ancient Palestine (1989), 215-21; Y Tsaf- 
rir, L. Di Segni, and J. Green, Tabula Imperii Romani. Iudaea - Palaes- 
tina: Maps and Gazetteer (1994), 60-61, s.v. "Alexandrion." 

[Michael Avi-Yonah / Shimon Gibson (2 nd ed.)] 

SARUG (Saruk), ISRAEL (fl. 1590-1610), Egyptian kabbal- 
ist. Sarug probably belonged to an Egyptian family of rab- 
binic scholars with kabbalistic leanings. A manuscript written 
in 1565 in *Cairo (British Museum 759) was copied for Isaac 
Sarug; Israel Sarug, whose signature as owner appears on the 
manuscript, was probably his son. Sarug may have known 
Isaac *Luria while the latter was in *Egypt and have become 
acquainted then with some of his early teaching and kabbalis- 
tic behavior. Although he was not one of Luria's pupils in Safed, 
he later claimed to have been one of his main disciples. He 
had access to some of the writings of Luria's disciples (Hayyim 
* Vital, Moses * Jonah, * Joseph ibn Tabul) and from them con- 
structed his own version of Luria's doctrine, adding important 
speculations of his own. His whereabouts between 1570 and 
1593 are unknown, but he must have spent some time during 
the 1580s in Safed. Between 1594 and 1600 he disseminated his 
version of Lurianic Kabbalah in Italy, founding a whole school 
of kabbalists who accepted his teaching as authentic. Among 
them were the most distinguished kabbalists of that time, such 
as Menahem Azariah *Fano, Isaac Fano, and * Aaron Berechiah 
b. Moses of Modena. Several manuscripts written between 1597 
and 1604 contain summaries of his oral teachings and copies 
of writings which he had brought with him. According to Le- 
one *Modena, Sarug's teachings in Venice were strongly tinged 
with philosophic ideas; he also claimed that he could recognize 
the transmigrations of the souls of the people he met. After 
he left Italy, he taught Abraham *Herrera in Ragusa and spent 
some time in Salonika (before 1604). It seems improbable that 
Sarug is identical with the "famous Hasid" Israel Saruk who 
died in Safed in 1602, leaving his manuscripts with his daugh- 
ter, who several years later became the wife of the immigrant 
kabbalist from Moravia, Shlimel (Solomon) Dresnitz. There 
is evidence that Sarug spent some time in Poland after 1600, 
but later legend put his stay earlier and made him the kabbal- 
istic teacher of Solomon *Luria in Cracow. 

Only four of Sarug's works have been printed. The book 
Limmudei Azilut, published erroneously under the name of 
Hayyim Vital (1897), contains two of these: an exposition of his 
version of Luria's teachings on zimzum, which differs widely 
from all other known versions, and his commentary on the 
portion of the *Zohar called Sifra di-Zemuta. The book also 
contains a description of the world of Beri ah, the angelologi- 
cal realm next to the world of divine emanation, Azilut. His 
traditions concerning specific transmigrations of biblical and 
talmudic personalities were published in part under the name 
of Menahem Azariah Fano (Prague, 1688; with a commentary 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



by J.M. Leiner, Lublin, 1907). Sarug's commentary on the three 
hymns for Sabbath composed by Luria was first published in 
Nowy Oleksiniec in 1767. In all his writings Sarug refers to 
Luria as "the master" but never as "my master." Most of the 
first published presentations of Lurianic Kabbalah were ac- 
cording to Sarug's version, which exerted a profound influ- 
ence, although it was attacked as inauthentic by *Hayyim b. 
Abraham ha-Kohen of Aleppo and other kabbalists. 

bibliography: G. Scholem, in: Zion, 5 (1940), 214-43; S.A. 
Horodezky, Torat ha-Kabbalah shel Rabbi Yizhak Ashkenazi-Ari ve- 
Rabbi Hayyim Vital-Rahu (1947), 79-82; G. Scholem, in: rhr, 143 
(i953)» 33; D. Tamar, in: Zion, 19 (i954)> 173- 

[Gershom Scholem] 

SARUJ (Suruc), small town near the southern border of *Tur- 
key Saruj was a thriving town during the rule of the *Abbasid 
caliphs and in the crusader period. For many years a Jewish 
community existed in Saruj, and its name appears among the 
communities of northern ^Babylonia and *Syria to which the 
head of the ^Baghdad academy, *Samuel b. Ali, addressed an 
iggeret ("circular letter") in 1197. A letter from the middle of 
the 12 th century gives the name of a Jewish merchant from 
Saruj who traveled to Sicily on business. Judah Al-Harizi, 
who visited the town at the beginning of the 13 th century, re- 
ported on his meeting with R. Eleazar ha-Bavli (Abu Mansur 
Ibn Abi Yasir), a wealthy and hospitable philanthropist, and 
noted that the Jewish community was small (Tahkemoni y ed. 
by A. Kaminka (1899), 367). 

bibliography: G. Le Strange, Lands of the Eastern Caliph- 
ate (1930), 108, 125; S. Assaf, in: Tarbiz, 1 (1930), no. 1, 124; 1 (1930) 
no. 2, 63. add. bibliography: M. Gil, Be-Malkhut Ishmael, 1 
(1997), 295-96. 

[Eliyahu Ashtor / Leah Bornstein-Makovetsky (2 nd ed.)] 

SARUM, ABRAHAM (1878-1942), communal worker in 
Jerusalem. Born in * Yemen, Sarum emigrated to Palestine in 
1893 and became head of the Yemenite community in Jeru- 
salem. After the Yemenites left the Sephardi community in 
Jerusalem in 1907, he became secretary of the congregations 
committee. From then until his death he devoted himself to 
the members of his community. In 1919 he was elected chair- 
man of the community's committee in Jerusalem. He joined 
the *Mizrachi movement and was elected member of its cen- 
tral committee in 1919. He was a delegate to the first and sec- 
ond Asefat ha-Nivharim and a member of the Va'ad Le'ummi 
for many years. During the riots on Passover 1921, he was an 
active member of the Haganah. He was one of the initiators 
and heads of the Association of Yemenites in Palestine, es- 
tablished in 1924. 

bibliography: Zikkarott le-Avraham Sarum (1945); M.D. 
Gaon, Yehudei ha-Mizrah be-Erez Yirael, 2 (1932), 583. 

[Yehuda Ratzaby] 

SASA (Heb. NONO), kibbutz in Upper Galilee, near the Israel- 
Lebanese border, 2,550 ft. (850 m.) above sea level, affiliated 

with Kibbutz Arzi ha-Shomer ha-Za'ir. A Jewish village existed 
on the site at least from the Roman period, attested to by tomb 
caves typical of the time of the *amoraim and by remnants of 
a synagogue. Ancient Jewish travelers visited the traditional 
tombs of rabbis Sisi, Levi b. Sisi, and Yose b. Sisi at this place. 
A fortress stood on the site at the time of Zahir al-Omar. In the 
*War of Independence, Israeli columns advancing from the 
west and east in Operation Hiram met near the village Sasa', 
which was then abandoned by its Arab inhabitants (Oct. -Nov. 
1948). In 1949 a kibbutz was established there by pioneers from 
North America who were joined by Israeli-born and other 
members. Sasa developed hill farming methods after arduous 
land reclamation. Its deciduous fruit orchards and beef cattle 
were suited to the cool, rainy climate (40 in. annual average). 
In addition, it also had field crops, dairy cattle and poultry, 
and operated factories for plastics and chemicals as well as a 
guest house. In the mid-1990s the population was approxi- 
mately 425, dropping to 371 in 2002. 


[Efraim Orni] 

SASKATCHEWAN, province in W. Canada; part of Cana- 
da's Northwest Territories until incorporated as a province 
in 1905. 

Saskatchewan's first Jewish resident was Max Goldstein, 
a Russian-born tailor who opened a store in Fort Qu'Appelle 
in 1877. During the Second Riel Rebellion in 1885 he served 
as quartermaster. In 1882 a Jewish farm project, called New 
Jerusalem, was started in the Moosomin area, but adverse 
conditions forced the settlers to give up. Numerous Jews were 
among those who laid tracks for the Canadian Pacific Rail- 
road in the early 1880s. 

After 1888 farm colonies were started which survived 
several generations. Jewish farm colonies were sometimes 
Utopian ventures directed from above, and sometimes inde- 
pendent initiatives. The first colony was established in 1888, 
near Wapella. In 1892 the Young Men's Hebrew and Benevo- 
lent Society, on behalf of the Jewish Colonization Association 
(ic a), established the colony of Hirsch (named after Baron De 
Hirsch) in southern Saskatchewan; its initial group consisted 
of 47 Russian Jewish families. The first Jews to settle in the 
Wapella area were John Heppner and Abraham Kleiman. By 
1892 there were 20 Jewish families, and young men interested 
in farming came to Wapella for their training. Hirsch had the 
oldest Jewish cemetery in the province, and was the site of 
the province's first synagogue building. The town had public 
schools, but also a Hebrew school, a shohet, and a Jewish com- 
munity structure. Forty Jewish families (a total of 100 peo- 
ple) founded Lipton in 1901 with the help of ica. They were 
taught by nearby Indians and Metis how to erect log houses 
chinked with clay and roofed with sod. In Lipton, too, Jewish 
teachers were engaged and a cemetery laid out. Edenb ridge, 
also helped in its founding (1906) by ica, was so named by 
its settlers. The name was conceived as "Yidn-Bridge" (Jews' 
Bridge), after a bridge across the Carrot River. The first set- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


tiers were 56 Lithuanian Jews who had lived in South Africa. 
Louis Vickar responded to an advertisement of the Canadian 
government offering 160 acres of virgin land for ten dollars. 
Edenbridge also had an active Jewish community. In the Son- 
nenfeld colony, which was aided in its founding (1906) by ic a, 
the villages of Oungre and Hoffer sprang up, the latter named 
after Moses Hoffer, the father of two brothers who were among 
the founders of the Sonnenfeld colony. 

As was the case with others who settled in the west, many 
Jews did not succeed at farming, and left for the larger Jew- 
ish communities of western Canada. In addition to personal 
hardships, the great drought of the 1930s and the trend to 
mechanization and urbanization hastened the decline of Jew- 
ish farming. Of every 100 gainfully employed Jewish men in 
Saskatchewan in 1936, 11 were farmers and five were farm la- 
borers. While the great majority of Jewish farmers in Canada 
in previous years were in Saskatchewan, since World War 11 
the ica devoted most of its efforts in Canada to Ontario, par- 
ticularly the Niagara peninsula. The Jewish farm colonies are 
now mostly alive in memory alone. The Canadian government 
has placed the beautiful Beth Israel synagogue at Edenbridge 
on its national register of historic sites. 

Regina, the capital of the province, had nine Jews in 1891, 
but the true beginnings of the present community would have 
to wait about 20 years. By the time of the 1911 census there 
were 130 residents. That year a shohet was hired, and services 
were held in his home. Two years later the members of the 
community erected a synagogue, Beth Jacob, with the lieuten- 
ant-governor of the province laying the cornerstone. In 1914 
a building was rented to serve as a talmud torah, and 10 years 
later a building was erected to house it. In 1926 a central bud- 
geting structure was created, and the Regina Federated Com- 
munity was established. In 1951 the Beth Jacob Congregation 
built a new synagogue, with a new annex added four years later 
to house the school and the community center under one roof. 
At its height in 1931 there were just over 1,000 Jews. By 1951 the 
number had fallen to 740 and the 2001 census enumerated 720 
Jews in Regina. In 2006 there were two synagogues in Regina. 
In addition to Beth Jacob, with its Conservative- style service, 
there was the Reform Temple Beth Tikvah, established in 1990. 
Because of the relatively high rate of interfaith marriages, some 
members of the community took the initiative to build a burial 
ground where Jewish and non- Jewish partners could lie next 
to each other, separated by a fence deemed halakhically ac- 
ceptable. It opened in the summer of 2005. 

The first known settlers of Saskatoon were William and 
Fanny Landa, who arrived in 1907 with their two children. The 
first minyan was on Rosh ha-Shanah in 1908. The members 
of the congregation Agudas Israel built a synagogue in 1912 
and a new one was erected in 1919. In 1958 a Jewish commu- 
nity center was built that also served as a house of worship. 
Saskatoon had a Jewish mayor, Sydney Buckwold, for several 
terms. Agudas Israel became a Conservative congregation, and 
in March, 2000 Congregation Shir Chadash, also Conser- 
vative, was established. In 1911 the census counted ~/~/ Jews. 

Since 1931 the number has hovered around 700 Jews, with 
as many as 793 Jews in 1961. The census of 2001 enumerated 
700 Jews exactly, making it roughly the same size as Regina's 

In addition to the settlements in the farm colonies and 
in the large urban centers, Jews settled in many of the small 
towns of rural Saskatchewan in the interwar period. In their 
time, Jewish general stores, like Chinese cafes, were part of 
small-town Saskatchewan. In the 1931 census there was at least 
one Jew in almost 200 cities, towns, villages or hamlets in the 
province. Sometimes Jews constituted a remarkably high per- 
centage of the total population. Thus, for 1931, the demogra- 
pher Louis Rosenberg noted that the "urban centre with the 
largest percentage of Jews in its population is not Montreal, 
Toronto, or some larger Eastern city, but is the little village of 
Lipton in Saskatchewan, where the Jewish population of 53 
formed 15.01 % of its total population." 

In 2002, the Jewish community of Saskatchewan was un- 
expectedly thrust into the national spotlight. In December of 
that year, David Ahenakew, former president of both the Fed- 
eration of Saskatchewan Indian Nations and the Chief of the 
Canada-wide Assembly of First Nations, gave an interview to 
the Saskatoon StarPhoenix where he explained that the Ho- 
locaust was a way of getting over a "disease" and that with- 
out the Holocaust "Jews would have owned the goddamned 
world." Ahenakew was arrested for willfully promoting hatred 
in June 2003, and was convicted in July 2005. Within days of 
the conviction, Ahenakew s membership in the prestigious 
Order of Canada was revoked. As a result of this incident, 
there have been the attempts to create and strengthen rela- 
tions between Jews and First Nations groups. The leaders of 
the organizations that Ahenakew had once dominated were 
quick to denounce his remarks. In 2003 leaders from the Ab- 
original community went to the Yom ha-Shoah ceremonies 
in Saskatoon and attended a Friday night dinner, and mem- 
bers of the Jewish community participated in ceremonies led 
by First Nations groups. Canadian Jewish organizations have 
organized missions to Israel for aboriginal leaders, and have 
been conducting ongoing meetings. 

The Jewish population of Saskatchewan, although quite 
diverse because of the relatively large rural presence of its 
past, has never been very large. In 1911 the census counted 
some 2,060 Jews. At its peak in 1931, there were only 5,047 re- 
corded, and the numbers have been declining ever since. In 
1951 there were 3,017, and over the next 10 years the numbers 
fell to 2,710. The 2001 census enumerated 2,090 Jews in the 
province. Although this downward trend seemed relentless, it 
was hoped that an improving economy in the province would 
attract more Jews in the coming years. 

bibliography: L. Rosenberg, Canada's Jews (1939). add. 
bibliography: G. Tulchinsky, Taking Root (1991); idem, Branch- 
ing Out (1998); F. Curtis, Our Heritage: The History of the Regina and 
Region Jewish Community (1989); C. Golumb (ed.), Heritage & His- 
tory: The Saskatoon Jewish Community (1998/9). 

[Benjamin G. Kayfetz / Richard Menkis (2 nd ed.)] 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



SASLAVSKY, LUIS SIMON (pseudonyms: Simon Fourcade 
and Hugo Espinelli; 1908-1995), Argentinean film director, 
author, and producer. Born in Rosario, Province of Santa Fe, 
Argentina, Saslavsky was drawn into the film world as a re- 
porter for La Nation in Hollywood. He returned to Argen- 
tina and directed Crimen a las tres (1935), La Fuga (1937), and 
Nace un Amor (1938). He later sacrificed some of his intel- 
lectual quality to popular taste but continued to show some 
originality, as in Historia de una Noche (1941). Saslavsky was 
compelled to leave Argentina during the Peron government 
and lived in Europe for 15 years from 1948. He directed Co- 
rona Negra in Spain in 1951 and other films in both Spain and 
France, including Les Louves (1957) and Premiere mai (1958). 
Returning to Argentina, he produced Las Ratas and Placeres 
conyugales (1963), La industria del matrimonio (1964), Vent 
conmigo (1972), and El Fausto criollo (1979). 

SASOV (Pol. Sasow), town in Lvov district, Ukraine; within 
Poland until 1772, under Austrian rule until 1919, reverted 
to Poland until 1945. Founded in 1615, the town was granted 
autonomy by King Sigismund in, who also bestowed many 
privileges on its merchants and instituted market days. In 1726 
the Jews of Sasov were granted a privilege by the owner of the 
town, Jacob Sobieski, son of King John in Sobieski. Accord- 
ingly all Jewish communal institutions were exempted from 
taxes, Jews were permitted to trade without hindrance and to 
deal in alcoholic liquor, and the amount of taxes the Jews had 
to pay was made equal to that paid by the other townsmen. In 
1764 there were 223 Jews living in Sasov. Sasov was celebrated 
among Hasidim as the residence of *Moses Leib of Sasov, also 
called Moses Leib of Brody (d. 1807). The community num- 
bered 1,906 (58% of the total population) in 1880; 1,761 (52.1% 
of the total) in 1912; and 1,096 (35.4%) in 1921. Jews were occu- 
pied mainly with making candles and ornamental strips (ata- 
rot) for prayer- shawls, for the production of which Sasov was 
a world center. After World War 1 the Jews of Sasov suffered 
from unemployment. Their economic position deteriorated 
at the end of the 1920s and the beginning of the 1930s. Many 
starved and had to be helped by Jewish relief societies: Jewish 
communal life also suffered because of the poverty. 

[Shimshon Leib Kirshenboim] 

Holocaust Period 

Before the outbreak of World War n there were about 1,500 
Jews in Sasov. On Sept. 17, 1939, the Red Army entered the city, 
which was administered by Soviet authorities until the Ger- 
man-Soviet war. The Germans occupied the town on July 2, 
1941; during the first two weeks they killed 22 leaders on the 
pretext of their being communists. Three Aktionen took place, 
the largest on July 15, 1942, when the Jews were deported to 
*Belzec death camp. The remaining 400 Jews were deported 
on Nov. 25, 1942, to *Zloczow (Zolochev) and shared the fate 
of that community. A forced-labor camp, established in March 
1942, was liquidated in July 1943, when all its inmates were shot 
in the nearby woods. After the war the Jewish community of 
Sasov was not reconstituted. 

SASPORTAS, JACOB (c. 1610-1698), rabbi, a fierce opponent 
of the Shabbatean movement. He was born and educated in 
Oran (North Africa) and became widely known for his talmu- 
dic erudition. After his appointment as rabbi of the Tlem<;en 
community the neighboring communities also recognized his 
authority. However, when he was 37 years old he was dismissed 
by the government; he then proceeded to wander throughout 
Europe, visiting many communities in Germany, Italy, and 
England (he was offered the position oihaham of the Sephardi 
community in London in 1664 but left the next year because 
of the plague). His main ambition was the rabbinate of Am- 
sterdam, but he did not achieve it until 1693, when he was 83 
years old. Personal bitterness deriving from his lack of a con- 
gregation which could serve as a base for his activities colored 
his attitude in many disputes. He was a staunch defender of 
the rabbinate and the traditional halakhah and throughout his 
life was involved in polemical disputes. Many of his responsa 
were collected in the book Ohel Yaakov (Amsterdam, 1737), 
published by his son, Abraham. 

Sasportas was largely known, however, for his collection 
of letters, Zizat Novel Zevi, comprising his answers to vari- 
ous Shabbatean letters and pamphlets, as well as the original 
pamphlets themselves. The work therefore became one of the 
main sources for the study of the Shabbatean movement dur- 
ing the lifetime of * Shabbetai Zevi. At the time of the dispute 
Sasportas lived in Hamburg, so that most of the material in 
his collection is mainly concerned with Western Europe and 
Italy, but he had some success in his efforts to obtain material 
from the East as well. 

Arranged in chronological order, the work covers the 
years 1666-76. In the main it consists of letters received by Sa- 
sportas, his answers to them, some letters which he wrote on 
his own initiative, and some comments on the development 
of the Shabbatean movement. Nearly half of it concerns the 
year 1666, from the first announcements of the appearance of 
Shabbetai Zevi as Messiah until his conversion to Islam at the 
end of that year. The second part is dedicated to the events fol- 
lowing the conversion, 1667-68, and describes the "failure" of 
the Shabbatean movement. The third part consists of letters 
written in 1668-69, an d is mostly directed against the renewed 
Shabbatean propaganda, which tried to explain the conver- 
sion of the Messiah and to introduce new norms of behavior 
suitable for the period of messianic fulfillment. The last four 
pages deal with the period from 1673 to 1676, sketching some 
of the main events of these years. 

Sasportas' bitter denunciation of the Shabbatean move- 
ment, its prophet *Nathan of Gaza, and its believers (some of 
whom were his former friends), is based upon various ideo- 
logical concepts. First was his adherence to the traditional 
conception of the messianic age; in great detail he pointed out 
the differences between what was happening at that time and 
the traditional ideas concerning the messianic era. He also saw 
the new movement as a revolution against established institu- 
tions and rabbinic norms, fearing that they might be set aside 
through the influence of Nathan of Gaza and other Shabbatean 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


thinkers who laid claim to the faith of the populace without 
any appeal to rabbinic tradition. His hatred was also based 
on his not unfounded suspicion that the new movement con- 
tained antinomian elements, revealed in some utterances of 
Nathan, in the "strange deeds" of Shabbetai Zevi, and in the 
behavior of their followers. He frequently compared the new 
movement with Christianity and feared that the Shabbateans 
would follow the ancient example. 

Sasportas' book is the fiercest attack upon Shabbatean- 
ism written during the early years of the movement. However, 
I. *Tishby and R. Shatz have proved that the published work 
does not reflect his attitude during the period before Shab- 
betai Zevi s apostasy. By comparing Sasportas' original copies 
with the version prepared for publication, they demonstrated 
that in many instances he falsified his own letters, changing 
phrases and adding passages to show that his opposition was 
far more thorough and resolute from the beginning than it re- 
ally was, and he glossed over his own hesitation and half-belief 
in Shabbetai Zevi during the months in which the movement 
reached its peak. The full version of Zizat Novel Zevi was first 
published by I. Tishby from the only complete manuscript 
in 1954. For a long time, however, it was known only in the 
shortened version (Kizzur Zizat Novel Zevi) printed in Am- 
sterdam in 1737, by Jacob Emden in Altona in 1757, and lastly 
in Odessa in 1867. 

bibliography: I. Tishby (ed.), Zizat Novel Zevi (1954); R. 
Shatz, in: Behinot, 10 (1956), 50-66; Scholem, Shabbetai Zevi, pas- 

[Joseph Dan] 

SASSO, SANDY EISENBERG (1947- ), Reconstructionist 
rabbi and author. Sasso was born and raised in Melrose Park, 
Penn., a suburb of Philadelphia. She received bachelors' and 
masters' degrees from Temple University and attended the Re- 
constructionist Rabbinical College (rrc) in that city. In 1974 
Sasso became the first woman to graduate from rrc and the 
second woman rabbi in the United States. She and her fellow 
rabbinical student, Dennis Sasso, married in 1970, becoming 
the first rabbinic couple in history. 

From 1974 to 1977, Sasso served as rabbi of the Manhattan 
Reconstructionist Havurah in New York. In 1977 Sandy and 
Dennis Sasso jointly accepted positions as rabbis of Congre- 
gation Beth-El Zedeck in Indianapolis, a congregation with 
joint Conservative and Reconstructionist affiliation. She con- 
tinued in that post in 2005. In 1996, Sasso received a Doctor of 
Ministry degree from Christian Theological Seminary in In- 
dianapolis. She and her husband were the first rabbinic couple 
to serve a congregation affiliated with the Conservative move- 
ment, and she was the first rabbi to become a mother. 

Sasso undertook local and national leadership of Jewish, 
interfaith, and community organizations. She served as presi- 
dent of the Indianapolis Board of Rabbis, the Reconstruction- 
ist Rabbinical Association (1989-91), and the Gleaners Food 
Bank. She lectured in religion and Judaism at Butler University 
and Christian Theological Seminary in Indianapolis. 

As one of the first female rabbis, she explored the roles 
of women in Judaism and the rabbinate and offered new per- 
spectives on lifecycle events. Her "B'rit B'not Yisrael" (Cov- 
enant for the Daughters of Israel), co-authored with her hus- 
band, Dennis Sasso, was among the first of new ceremonies 
for infant girls paralleling the brit milah (circumcision) cer- 
emony for boys. Sasso wrote liturgical poetry on the life cycle 
and spoke widely on women in the rabbinate and gendered 
language in prayer. 

In writings for both parents and children, Sasso of- 
fered liberal approaches to theology and Judaism, drawing 
on tradition and midrash. She authored a series of award- 
winning children's books on religious and spiritual themes, 
including Gods Paintbrush (1992); In Gods Name (1994); 
But God Remembered: Stories of Women from Creation to 
the Promised Land (1995); and Butterflies under Our Hats 

She received the 2004 Helen Keating Ott Award for Out- 
standing Contribution to Children's Literature and the 2005 
Sugarman Family Award for Jewish Children's Literature. She 
co-authored, with Rabbi Jeffery Schein, Kol Hanoar (Voice of 
the Children; 2005), the Reconstructionist movement's first 
children's prayer book. 

bibliography: P. Nadell, Women Who Would Be Rabbis: A 
History of Women's Ordination, 1889-1985 (1998). 

[Robert P. Tabak (2 nd ed.)] 

SASSON, AARON BEN JOSEPH (1550/5-1626), rabbinic 
scholar in the * Ottoman Empire. Aaron was educated in ^Sa- 
lonika, where he lived until 1600, and died in Constantinople. 
He was a pupil of Mordecai Matalon and a pupil and colleague 
of his father-in-law, Solomon 11 of the *Levi (Bet ha-Levi) dy- 
nasty. Aaron had charge of a yeshivah and disseminated Torah 
in Salonika and then in Constantinople. The circumstances 
under which he left Salonika with all his family are not clear, 
but seem to have been connected with the death of Solomon 11 
and the subsequent struggle that year to succeed him in the 
Evora community and its yeshivah. Aaron was active in teach- 
ing and the giving of halakhic rulings from c. 1585 until his 
death. Queries were addressed to him from many, often dis- 
tant, places. His responsa, which he had already prepared for 
publication, were published in part after his death and show 
his keen mind and dialectical ability. He was a distinguished 
talmudist and halakhic authority. From the very beginning of 
his activity as aposek y the greatest posekim of Salonika turned 
to him for confirmation of their rulings. Aaron bases his rul- 
ings upon contemporary scholars - Joseph ibn *Lev, Samuel de 
^Medina, and Solomon ha-Kohen - and debates sharply with 
early scholars as well as with the great scholars who closely 
preceded him, such as Elijah *Mizrahi, Joseph *Colon, and 
Joseph Caro. He was sometimes attacked for his attitude to- 
ward other scholars. 

Aaron seems to have been even more important as a 
teacher than as a halakhic authority. He educated many stu- 
dents, many of whom were among the greatest scholars of the 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



Ottoman Empire in the first half of the 17 th century, such as 
*Hayyim (b.) Shabbetai, Hayyim *Alfandari, Mordecai Kalai, 
and Shabbetai Jonah. His novellae on the Talmud (on Ketub- 
bot, Yevamot, Bava Kamma, Bava Mezia, and other isolated 
subjects), which remain in manuscript, mirror the learning 
in his yeshivah. He bases himself greatly upon the words of 
Joseph ibn Lev, debating them by use of pilpul and explain- 
ing at length the Tosafot Gornish. In addition he wrote a work 
on Jacob b. Asher s Arbaah Turim and on Maimonides' Mish- 
neh Torah y as well as a short work on the laws of agunah and 
other topics. 

Aaron was connected by marriage with the families of 
the greatest scholars of Salonika. His sister was married to 
David ibn *Nahmias, and his son was the brother-in-law of 
Meir b. Abraham di *Boton. His family was generally on close 
terms with the Levi dynasty, and after his departure from Sa- 
lonika, a correspondence ensued between the two families, 
part of which has been preserved. Aaron's son Joseph saw 
to the publication of his father s responsa Torat Emet (Ven- 
ice, 1626) and served as rabbi in Venice. Joseph and Aaron's 
grandson Aaron b. Isaac (b. 1629) were renowned talmud- 
ists (see, e.g., the responsa of Joseph of Trani, eh no. 22; the 
responsa Penei Moshe, pt. 2, no. 105). A well-known dayyan 
named Joseph b. moses sasson of Salonika, who was ac- 
tive from 1580 to 1600, appears to have been a member of the 
same family (see the responsa of Samuel de Medina, eh no. 
165; Torat Emet no. 2). 

bibliography: A. Sasson, Torat Emet (Venice, 1626), intro- 
ductions; Conforte, Kore, index; Michael, Or, nos. 294, 298, pp. 140-1; 
Steinschneider, Cat Bod, 2958, no. 8621; Ch. Hirschensohn, in: Hamis- 
deronah, 2 (1888), 219-23, 340-3; Rosanes, Togarmah, 3 (1938), 55-56; 
S. Poznanski, in: zhb, 16 (1913), 178-9. 

[Joseph Hacker] 

SASSON, ELIYAHU (1902-1978), Israeli diplomat and ex- 
pert on Arab affairs. Sasson was born in ^Damascus, where, 
at the age of 18, he was the only Jewish member of the Arab 
Syrian National Committee and publicly greeted Feisal, the 
short- tenured king of *Syria, on behalf of the Damascus Jew- 
ish community. On Feisal's personal initiative he edited for 
several months an Arab-language Jewish newspaper to foster 
understanding between the Jewish and the Arab peoples in 
the spirit of the *Weizmann- Feisal agreement. In 1920, after 
Feisal's ousting from Syria by the French, Sasson settled in 
Palestine and soon became a recognized expert on Arab af- 
fairs, at first in various newspapers and later for the Zionist 
Executive, where he served from 1930 as head of its Arab de- 
partment. On the Executive's behalf he maintained for years 
contacts with Arab leaders and traveled widely throughout 
the Middle East. During World War 11 he was instrumental in 
spreading British anti-Nazi propaganda in the Arab countries, 
and in 1948 he directed the Arab broadcasts of the clandestine 
*Haganah radio station. On behalf of the nascent Israeli gov- 
ernment he negotiated with King Abdullah of Transjordan and 
corresponded with the secretary general of the Arab League, 

Azzam Pasha, and other Arab leaders. After World War 11 
he was a member of most Zionist and Israeli delegations which 
negotiated the political future of Palestine or Israel-Arab 
relations: in 1946 in London, in 1947-48 at the United Na- 
tions, in 1949 in the armistice talks with the Arab governments 
in Rhodes and at the abortive peace talks at Lausanne. In 1949 
he headed Israel's office in Paris which maintained unpubli- 
cized contacts with the Arabs. From 1950 to 1952 he was Israeli 
minister to ^Turkey; afterward minister (and from 1957, am- 
bassador) in Rome until i960. While serving in 1961 as am- 
bassador in Berne, Switzerland, he was recalled to become a 
member of the Israeli government as minister of posts, becom- 
ing minister of police in 1966 (until 1969). Sasson published 
many articles and political reminiscences in the Hebrew and 
Arab-language press in Israel, and remained a staunch sup- 
porter of the idea that an Israel- Arab understanding is feasi- 
ble and the enmity between Jews and Arabs a transient phe- 

bibliography: Tidhar, 5 (1952), 2281-82. 

[Benjamin Jaffe] 

SASSOON, family of Jewish merchants, philanthropists, and 
men of letters, originally from ^Baghdad; its members rose to 
great influence and affluence first in India and then in England 
and China. The founder of the family was sheikh sassoon b. 
salah (1750-1830), who was the president (nasi) of the Jewish 
community in Baghdad for almost 40 years and chief treasurer 
of the Ottoman pashas of Baghdad. Through the building of 
textile mills and factories in Bombay on a large scale, the Sas- 
soons exerted tremendous power in the commercial arena, 
and the wide ramifications of their activities earned them the 
reputation of the merchant-princes of the Orient, "the Roth- 
schilds of the East." His son david s. sassoon (1792-1864), 
who had taken on the commercial activities of the family, es- 
caped from the oppression and tyranny of Pasha Daud and 
fled in 1828 to *Bushire on the Persian Gulf, where he was 
joined by his father, who died there. David S. Sassoon moved 
with his large family in 1832 to ^Bombay, where he established 
a business which assumed international scope. The philan- 
thropic activities of David Sassoon and his eight sons greatly 
benefited Bombay as a whole, and the Jewish community in 
particular. In 1861 he built in Byculla, Bombay, the synagogue 
Magen David, and some of the most important cultural and 
civic institutions, including hospitals, orphanages, libraries, 
museums, schools, and charitable communal organizations 
owe their existence to Sassoon's munificence and generosity. 
David Sassoon was instrumental in publishing the Judeo- Ara- 
bic newspaper Doresh Tov le-Ammo (1855-66) and supported 
scholars and scholarly publications. In Poona, where he had 
his summer residence, he built the David S. Sassoon Hospital, 
noteworthy for its nonsectarian character, an infirmary and 
leper asylum, and in 1863 the synagogue Ohel David, whose 
90-foot spire is a Poona landmark. His mausoleum, on which 
there is a long Hebrew inscription in both prose and poetry, 
is situated in the courtyard of the synagogue. His eldest son, 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 








d. 1827 




d. 1826 




4 dtrs. 





d. 1919 



d. 1906 

1 840-1 91 2 


1 854-1 943 


1 855-1 91 8 



1 889-1 977 




1 885-1 922 












2 dtrs. 

1 91 5-1 985 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



sir abdulla (later Albert) sassoon (1818-1896), was simi- 
larly prominent in commerce and philanthropy in Bombay. 
He established one of the first large-scale textile mills in Bom- 
bay, thus extending his father's business to include industry as 
well as trade. In 1872-75 he constructed the first wharf on the 
west coast of India, the Sassoon Docks in Kolaba, which em- 
ployed thousands of local workers and stimulated the Bombay 
government to build the larger Princes Dock. In addition to 
providing the initiative for establishing Bombay as a modern 
port city, he contributed a new building to the Elphinstone 
High School, maintained a Jewish school, the David Sassoon 
Benevolent Institution, and supplied university scholarships. 
In the mid-i870s Albert settled in London, where the family's 
business interests were increasingly centered. In recognition 
of his role in the industrialization of India, he was made a bar- 
onet in 1890 and was on terms of personal friendship with the 
Prince of Wales, later Edward vn. But it was Albert's brothers 
(by David's second wife), reuben d. sassoon (1835-1905) 
and Arthur sassoon (1840-1912), who became particularly 
prominent in the court circle of Edward vn. Reuben, little 
concerned with the family's business, was a favorite traveling 
companion of the Prince of Wales. Arthur, a man of learn- 
ing who spoke Hebrew and knew the Bible well, was a highly 
praised host during the late Victorian and Edwardian age. His 
home in Brighton was the scene of lavish entertainments, at 
which Edward vn was a frequent guest. Participating neither 
in the firm nor in society was aaron sassoon (1841-1907), 
whose life remains obscure. He left most of his fortune to be 
distributed to the poor, wherever David Sassoon and Com- 
pany did business. Aaron's twin brother, solomon sassoon 
(1841-1894), who remained in the Orient, was at an early age 
put in charge of the business interests in Shanghai and Hong 
Kong. The most capable businessman, after Albert, of all the 
brothers in the family enterprise, he controlled the com- 
pany from 1877 to 1894. Solomon was a Hebraist and student 
of the Talmud, but his wife flora sassoon (1859-1936), a 
great-granddaughter of the original David Sassoon, actually 
achieved renown as a Hebrew scholar and was often con- 
sulted on questions of Jewish law. After her husband's death, 
Flora managed the firm in Bombay for some years and in 
1901 settled in England, where she entertained scholars and 
public men in a grand style. Strictly Orthodox in her obser- 
vance of Judaism, she included a shohet and a minyan in her 
entourage when traveling. In 1924, at Jews' College, London, 
she delivered a learned discourse on the Talmud, and in 1930 
she published an essay on Rashi in the Jewish Forum. Solo- 
mon and Flora's son david solomon sassoon (1880-1942), 
who continued their interest in things Jewish, became an out- 
standing Hebraist and bibliophile. His important collection of 
over 1,000 Hebrew and Samaritan manuscripts, including the 
Farhi Bible, written in i4 th -century Provence, was cataloged in 
Ohel Dawid (2 vols., 1932). His independent publications in- 
cluded his pioneer edition of *Samuel ha-Nagid's diwan from 
a manuscript in his own collection (1934) and his History of 
the Jews of Baghdad (1949). 

solomon david sassoon (1915-1985), son of David 
Solomon and Selina Sassoon, was ordained as a rabbi in 1936. 
He lived in Letchworth outside London until 1970, when he 
settled in Jerusalem. He inherited his father's valuable collec- 
tion of Hebrew manuscripts and increased the total collec- 
tion to 1,350 items. He retained his father's scholarly tastes and 
published Moshav Zekenim (1959), a commentary of the to- 
safists on the Pentateuch from a manuscript in his collection; 
^Abraham b. Maimon's commentary on Genesis and Exodus, 
from a Bodleian manuscript (1965); and an elegant facsimile 
edition of the Mishnah commentary of Maimonides (3 vols., 
1956-66), with an introduction, from manuscripts in his col- 
lection and in Oxford, which are claimed to be autographs of 
Maimonides. He wrote a Critical Study of Electrical Stunning 
and the Jewish Method of Slaughter (1955) and The Spiritual 
Heritage of the Sephardim (1957). 

Of the original eight brothers, sassoon david sas- 
soon (1832-1867), the third eldest and the first to settle in 
England, was perhaps most active in Jewish communal life 
in England. In addition to advancing the company's inter- 
ests there, he was warden of his synagogue, member of the 
council of the Jews' College, and examiner in Hebrew at the 
Jews' Free School. His daughter, rachel sassoon *beer 
(1858-1927), was the editor of the Sunday Observer and the 
Sunday Times. On the death of the paterfamilias David Sas- 
soon, Albert assumed the leadership of the company, elias 
david sassoon (1820-1880), disliking his subordinate po- 
sition, left the family business and founded in 1867 a separate 
and rival firm, E.D. Sassoon and Company. With interests in 
the Orient, Africa, Europe, and America, the new company 
prospered even more than the original one. Elias, following the 
policy of his father, provided his numerous Jewish employees 
with schools and synagogues even in the company's remot- 
est outposts. His son, Sir jacob elias sassoon (1844-1916), 
expanded his father's business enterprise in India by building 
a large textile company, which comprised six mills and the 
country's first dye works. The company was instrumental in 
developing the cotton textile industry in western India, and 
in the peak year of 1916 the Jacob Sassoon Mill, India's larg- 
est, employed 15,000 workers. In Bombay his philanthropic 
activities included building the Central College of Science, a 
general hospital, and the Keneseth Eliyahu synagogue, sir Ed- 
ward albert sassoon (1856-1912), the son of Albert Sas- 
soon, married Aline Caroline de Rothschild. Edward Albert 
was the first Sassoon to choose politics as his profession. In 
1899 he was elected to parliament as a member of the Con- 
servative Party, and held this seat until his death. His son, Sir 
Philip sassoon (1888-1939), won a sea t in parliament as a 
Conservative in 1912 and remained a member until his death. 
During World War 1 he served as military secretary to Field 
Marshal Douglas Haig, commander in chief of the British 
armies in France. Although privately horrified by the war, he 
publicly denounced the pacifistic sentiments of his relative, 
the poet Siegfried Lorraine *Sassoon. From 1924 to 1929, and 
from 1931 to 1937, Philip was undersecretary of state for air, in 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


which capacity he expressed his love of aviation and his be- 
lief in the importance of air power. In The Third Route (1929), 
he related the story of his 17,000 -mile flying tour of British 
overseas air stations. Philip was also a connoisseur of art of 
high repute, in recognition of which he was appointed trustee 
of the National Gallery, the Wallace Collection, and the Tate 
Gallery, and he was able to display his taste in his last public 
office as first commissioner (minister) of works, responsible 
for royal palaces, parks, and ancient monuments. His sister, 
sybil (1894-1989), married Lord Rocksavage, later Marquess 
of Cholmondeley, alternate hereditary Lord Great Chamber- 
lain. She was a celebrated hostess and deputy director of the 
Women's Royal Naval Service in World War 11. The last im- 
portant businessman of the dynasty was sir victor (ellice) 
sassoon (1881-1961), the son of Sir Edward Elias and Leon- 
tine Sassoon. Like his forebears, he contributed to the devel- 
opment of industry in India and served as a leader of British 
Indian Jewry. Victor Sassoon was an air enthusiast and served 
during World War 1 in the Royal Naval Air Service, sustaining 
permanent injuries from a flying accident. He was a member 
of the Indian Legislative Assembly in 1922-23 and from 1926 
to 1929, and after 1933 worked strenuously to help refugees 
fleeing from Nazism. In 1931 he transferred the headquarters 
of the E.D. Sassoon Banking Company to Shanghai. After the 
interests of the company were overtaken by successive Japa- 
nese and Chinese Communist occupations, Sir Victor moved 
to the Bahamas in 1948 and built up new mercantile, banking, 
and property interests. A famous racehorse owner, he won the 
Derby four times. Another successful relative of the Sassoons 
was sir sassoon jacob david (1849-1926), cotton merchant 
and chairman of the Bank of India, who was the grandson of 
Elias David Sassoon. Sir Sassoons son, sir percival david 
(1892-1964), was probably the foremost collector of Chinese 
art of his time and the founder of the Percival David Founda- 
tion of Chinese Art, the leading British museum of its kind, 
in Bloomsbury, London. A noted scholar of the subject, he 
did much to popularize Chinese art in the West. The Sassoon 
family was one of the most remarkable examples of upward 
social mobility in British history. Wearing Oriental dress in 
Baghdad until the mid-i9 th century, and not resident in Brit- 
ain until about 1870, by the Edwardian period they had be- 
come baronets, associates of royalty, and Conservative M.P.s 
in Kent. 

bibliography: C. Roth, Sassoon Dynasty (1941); P.H. Em- 
den, Jews of Britain (1943), 324-33; D.S. Sassoon, History of the Jews in 
Baghdad (1949), index; A. Ben-Jacob, in: L. Jung (ed.), Jewish Leaders 
(!953)> 524-31; S. Jackson, The Sassoons (1968). add. bibliogra- 
phy: odnb online for "Sassoon family" and individual members; C. 
Bermant, The Cousinhood (1971), index. 

[Walter Joseph Fischel] 

SASSOON, SIR EZEKIEL (1860-1932), Iraqi Jewish states- 
man; born in Baghdad and died in Paris. Sassoon studied in 
London secondary schools and was a law student in * Vienna. 
He served as a member of the Ottoman House of Represen- 

tatives from 1909 to 1918 and as minister of finance in five 
independent Iraqi governments (1921-25). From 1925 he was 
elected to several terms in the Iraqi House of Representatives 
as a delegate of the Jewish community in Baghdad. 

[Hayyim J. Cohen] 

poet and novelist. The son of Alfred Ezra Sassoon, of the fa- 
mous *Sassoon family, and his wife, the daughter of Thomas 
Thorneycroft, a prominent gentile sculptor, Siegfried Sassoon 
was educated at Marlborough and Cambridge. He published 
some poetry for private circulation in 1906-12. He served as 
an infantry officer throughout World War 1, was awarded the 
Military Cross, and was twice wounded. It was in the hospi- 
tal in 1917 that he first met the poet Wilfred Owen, an aspect 
of whose style he helped to revolutionize in the last phase of 
the younger man's life. After Owen's tragic death at the very 
end of World War 1, Sassoon did much to popularize his work. 
Sassoons own book of antiwar poems, The Old Huntsman^ 
appeared in 1917. Others followed in quick succession: Coun- 
ter-Attack in 1918 and War Poems and Picture Show in 1919. 
His attitude to World War 11 was to be a less pacifist one. Af- 
ter World War 1 he flirted with socialism, becoming literary 
editor of the Labour Daily Herald for a brief period in 1919. 
Sassoons two most important prose works were the semi-au- 
tobiographical novels, Me mo irs of a Fox- Hunting Man (1928) 
and Memoirs of an Infantry Officer (1930). These, which form 
part of the trilogy, The Complete Memoirs of George Sherston 
(1936), are written in a more urbane and reflective vein than 
his poetry. Though it uses approximately traditional forms, 
Sassoons verse is filled with a direct, idiomatic language bru- 
tally descriptive of the horrors of war and the complacency 
of civilians. His other writings include Siegfrieds Journey 
(1916-20) (1945), a biography, Meredith (1948), and Collected 
Poems (1961). 

In The Old Huntsman Sassoon had written: "Religion 
beats me. I'm amazed at folk/Drinking the gospels in and 
never scratching/Their heads for questions...." His ties with 
Judaism were certainly negligible; raised as an Anglican, he 
became a convert to Roman Catholicism in 1957. Sassoons 
Diaries, edited by Rupert Hart-Davis, were published in three 
volumes in 1983-85. 

bibliography: G. Keynes, Bibliography of Siegfried Sassoon 

(1962); M. Thorpe, Siegfried Sassoon, a Critical Study (1966). add. 

bibliography: odnb online. 

[Jon Silkin] 

SASSOON, VIDAL (1928- ), British hairdresser and anti- 
defamation philanthropist. No relation to the famous and 
wealthy British family of the same name, Vidal Sassoon was 
born to poverty in London's East End, where he fought Fas- 
cist thugs in the street and spent much of his childhood in an 
orphanage. At 14 he was apprenticed to a Jewish barber in the 
East End and, after World War 11, became one of the leading 
hairdressers to London's Society ladies in the West End. His 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



innovative hair styling made him famous, and he has been 
called "the father of modern hairdressing." Sassoon founded 
a highly successful international chain of hairdressers and hair 
care products. He fought for Israel in the 1948 War of Indepen- 
dence and, in 1962, founded the Vidal Sassoon International 
Center for the Study of Antisemitism at The Hebrew Univer- 
sity of Jerusalem, which is internationally known for funding 
research about and monitoring antisemitic activities. 

[William D. Rubinstein (2 nd ed.)] 

SATAN (Heb. ]0p). In the Bible, except perhaps for 1 Chron- 
icles 21:1 (see below), Satan is not a proper name referring to 
a particular being and a demoniac one who is the antagonist 
or rival of God. In its original application, in fact, it is a com- 
mon noun meaning an adversary who opposes and obstructs. 
It is applied to human adversaries in 1 Samuel 29:4; 11 Samuel 
19:23; 1 Kings 5:18; 11:14, 23, 25, and its related verb is used of 
prosecution in a law court (Ps. 109:6) and the role of an an- 
tagonist in general (Ps. 38:20(21]; 109:4, 20, 29). The angel 
who was sent to obstruct Balaam (Num. 22:32) was evidently 
chosen ad hoc, as a satan (le-satan), and perhaps the conso- 
nants Istn are rather to be read as the infinitive liston, "to op- 
pose or obstruct." There is nothing here to indicate that nitpttf 
(sitnah) was the permanent function of a particular angel. "The 
Satan" as the standing appellation of a particular angel first 
appears around 520 b.c.e. in Zechariah 3 and then in *Job 
1-2. In 1 Chronicles 21:1, which has already been referred to, 
the article is disposed with, and "Satan" seems to be a real 
proper name. In Zechariah 3, the Satan acts as prosecutor 
in the celestial court; in Job 1-2, he questions Jobs integrity 
in the latter's absence and suggests to the Lord that it be 
tested. He is clearly subordinate to God, a member of His suite 
(Heb. bene ha-elohini), who is unable to act without His per- 
mission. Nowhere is he in any sense a rival of God. In 1 Chron- 
icles 21:1, in which Satan is said to have incited David to take 
a census of Israel which resulted in the death of 70,000 Isra- 
elites (21:14), ne nas obviously been secondarily substituted 
because of doctrinal consideration for "the Lord," who plays 
this part. 


Satan is not prominent in the Apocrypha and Apocalypses, 
and, where mentioned, he is barely personalized but merely 
represents the forces of anti-God and of evil. Thus the Martyr- 
dom of Isaiah (2:2) states that "Manasseh forsook the service 
of the God of his fathers and he served Satan and his angels 
and his powers." In the Testament of Gad (4:7) the warning is 
given that "the spirit of hatred worketh together with Satan 
through hastiness of spirit." Dan is told to "beware of Satan 
and his spirits" (6:1; cf. also 3:6 and 5:6; for other references 
see 1 En. 54:6; Assumption of Moses 10:1). The legend in the 
Talmud and Midrash that it was Satan who challenged God 
to put Abraham to the test of the Akedah (i.e., the sacrifice of 
Isaac; see below) appears in Jubilees (17:16) where, however, 
he is called *Mastema. 

References in the tannaitic literature are even more 
sparse, and, with few exceptions, Satan similarly appears 
merely as the impersonal force of evil. Thus Tosefta Shab- 
bat 17 (i8):3 states: "If you see a wicked man setting out on a 
journey and you wish to go by the same route, anticipate your 
journey by three days or postpone it for three days, because 
Satan accompanies the wicked man." The same trend is seen 
in the injunction "Open not your mouth to Satan" (Ber. 9a; 
see later), which, though given in the name of an amora y is 
stated "also to have been taught in the name of R. Yose." R. 
Johanan's statement of Satan persuading God about the Ake- 
dah is also given in the name of a tanna y Yose b. Zimra. The 
Sifrei (to Deut. 218), making the rebellious son the inevitable 
consequence of the father succumbing to the beauty of a fe- 
male captive mentioned in the previous passage, declares: 
"the father of this one lusted after a beautiful woman (cap- 
tive) and thus brought Satan into his house." R. Joshua states 
that the verse "the earth is given into the hands of the wicked" 
(Job 9:24) refers to Satan (bb 16a). The only personification 
of Satan found in tannaitic literature is the story of R. Meir 
spending three days to bring about a reconciliation between 
two inveterate quarrelers, upon which Satan complained, 
"He has drawn me out of my home" (Git. 52a). Similarly, R. 
Akiva was tempted by Satan in the form of a woman, but Sa- 
tan relented. 

In the New Testament Satan emerges as the very per- 
sonification of the spirit of evil, as an independent person- 
ality, the Antichrist. He is the author of all evil (Luke 10:19). 
In Revelation 12:9 there is the fullest description of him: "that 
old serpent called the devil and Satan which deceived the 
whole world. He was cast into the earth and his angels were 
cast out with him." He is the personal tempter of Jesus (Matt. 
4), and it is this New Testament conception of Satan which 
has entered into popular lore. The Jews who would not ac- 
cept Jesus are referred to as "the synagogue of Satan" (Rev. 

During the amoraic period, however, Satan became much 
more prominent in the Talmud and Midrash. An interesting 
example of the development of the idea of Satan in amoraic 
times can be seen by a comparison between the Sifrei and the 
Midrash. The former, in its comment to Numbers 25:1, says 
"wherever 'dwellings' is mentioned Satan leaps in!" He is fre- 
quently referred to as *Samael, but the references which fol- 
low refer to the actual name Satan. He appears sometimes in 
the same impersonal guise as in the Apocrypha and among 
the tannaim. He is identified with the yezer ha-ra (the evil 
inclination in general) and with the angel of death (bb 16a), 
but in addition he emerges more and more as a distinct iden- 
tity. The Satan of Job who challenges God to put Job to the 
test of suffering is made to play the same role with Abraham. 
He accuses Abraham that despite the boon of being granted 
a son in his old age, Abraham did not "have one turtle-dove 
or pigeon to sacrifice before this," and Abraham is ordered 
to sacrifice Isaac to prove his obedience to God (Sanh. 89b). 
In this connection an almost sympathetic view is taken of 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


Satan. His purpose in challenging Job's piety is for a worthy 
purpose: that God should not forget the greater loyalty of 
Abraham (bb 16a). 

Although he appears as the tempter, he is much more to 
the fore as the accuser, and the phrase Satan mekatreg ("Sa- 
tan the accuser"; Gen. R. 38:7; tj, Ber. 1:1, Shab. 2:6) occurs 
with great frequency. The well-known phrase "open not thy 
mouth to Satan" is significant in this respect in its context. The 
Talmud states that when his dead lies before him a mourner 
should justify the divine judgment by saying: "Sovereign of the 
Universe, I have sinned before Thee and Thou hast not pun- 
ished me a thousandth part." To this the objection was raised 
that he should not say so, since he thereby "gives an opening 
to Satan" (cf. Rema, yd 376:2). 

Satan was responsible for all the sins in the Bible: for the 
fall of man (pdRE 13:1), for the people worshiping the golden 
calf by telling them that Moses would not return from Mount 
Sinai (Shab. 89a), and for Davids sin with Bath-Sheba (Sanh. 
107a). He is associated with the gentile nations in sneering at 
the Hukkim, those laws - such as *shaatnez and the prohibi- 
tion of the pig - for which no rational reason can be given, and 
thus weakening the religious loyalties of the Jews (Yoma 67b; 
for this tempting of the rabbis, see Kid. 8ia-b). The purpose 
of the sounding of the shofar on Rosh Ha-Shanah is "in order 
to confuse Satan" (rh 16b), but on the Day of Atonement he 
is completely powerless. This is hinted at in the fact that the 
numerical equivalent of Satan is 364, i.e., there is one day in 
the year on which he is powerless (Yoma 20a). 

References to Satan in the liturgy are few and impersonal. 
The *Hashkivenu prayer of the evening service includes a plea 
to "remove from us the enemy, pestilence... and Satan" (the 
adversary), while the morning blessings preceding the Pesukei 
de-Zimra conclude with R. Judah ha-Nasis prayer (Ber. 16b) 
to be spared from "the corrupting Satan." The * reshut of the 
hazzan before Musaf on the High Holy Days includes the 
sentence "and rebuke the Satan that he accuse me not," and 
under the influence of the Kabbalah six biblical verses are re- 
cited before the sounding of the shofar, the initial letters of 
which form the acrostic kera Satan ("tear Satan"). During the 
Middle Ages the Church, basing itself on such passages in the 
New Testament as "Ye are of your father and the devil" (John 
8:44), propounded the doctrine that the Jews were the "spawn 
of Satan," with many of his characteristics. As such they were 
less than human beings - sorcerers, magicians, and evildo- 
ers - and this theory was a determining factor in the denial 
of rights to, and persecutions of, the Jews. 

bibliography: N.H. Torczyner (Tur-Sinai), The Book of Job 
(1957), xvi, 38-45; T.H. Gaster, in: idb, 4 (1962), 224-8 (incl. bibl.). 
post-biblical: Theologisches Woerterbuch zum Neuen Testament, 
2 (1935), 71-80; L. Jung, Fallen Angels in Jewish, Christian, and Mu- 
hammedean Literature (1926); Ginzberg, Legends, index s.v.; H.L. 
Strack and R Billerbeck, Kommentar zum Neuen Testament aus Tal- 
mud und Midrash, 1 (1922), 136-49; J. Trachtenberg, The Devil and the 
Jews (1943), 18-22, 59-63, 198-200; G. Scholem, Von der mystischen 

Gestalt der Gottheit (1962), index. 

[Louis Isaac Rabinowitz] 

SATANOV, town in Khmelnitsky district, Ukraine; until 1793 
within Poland. A Jewish community was organized there in 
the second half of the 16 th century, after Podolia was incor- 
porated within the kingdom of Poland. The Jews of Satanov 
engaged in the import of goods from the east, leasing of es- 
tates and customs dues, manufacture of alcoholic beverages 
(see *Wine and Liquor Trade), and goldsmithery. The town 
and its Jewish community suffered periodically from the in- 
cursions of the Tatars and Cossacks, in particular from their 
combined attacks in 1651 and from the Cossacks in 1703. The 
magnificent synagogue in Satanov was built in the form of a 
fortress, so that Jews would be able to defend themselves in 
such attacks. During the 18 th century Satanov was the lead- 
ing community in Podolia. Its dayyanim held a trial of the 
*Frankists there in 1756. In 1765 there were 1,369 Jews paying 
the poll tax in Satanov. Until the incorporation of Satanov 
within Russia in 1793, the Jews there took part in the interna- 
tional commerce, traveling to the fairs of ^Leipzig, *Breslau, 
and *Frankfurt. 

The Hebrew writer and maskil Isaac *Satanow lived in 
the town and was active there in the second half of the 18 th 
century, as was Menahem Mendel (Lefin) *Levin (1749-1826), 
among the pioneers of the *Haskalah in Eastern Europe, and 
Alexander b. Zevi Margaliot (d. 1802), author of Teshuvot ha- 
Reem, who was rabbi of Satanov. From the end of the 18 th cen- 
tury and during the 19 th , Satanov was an important center of 
*Hasidism. Until 1862 Jewish settlement there was restricted 
by the authorities, owing to the proximity of the town to the 
Austrian border. The Jewish population numbered 2,848 (64% 
of the total) in 1897. In 1919 the Jews in Satanov suffered from 
^pogroms at the hands of the Ukrainian nationalists. Satanov 
probably had 2,359 Jews in 1926, then declining to 1,516 (40% 
of the total population). A rural Jewish council existed in 
the Soviet period. The Germans entered Satanov on July 6, 
1941. On May 14, 1942, they locked 240 Jews in a cellar, let- 
ting them choke to death. Through 1942, 210 Jews were shot 
to death. Most of the 800 people officially murdered by the 
Germans were Jews. 

bibliography: Halpern, Pinkas, 75, 94, 416 f.; M. Balaban, 
Zydzi Iwowscy na przelomie xvigo i xvngo wieku (1906), 53 f., 399; 
idem, Le-Toledot ha-Tenuah ha-Frankit, 1 (1934), 118-27; R- Mahler, 
Yidn in Amolikn Poyln in Likht fun Tsifern (1958), index; S. Llastik, 
Z dziejow oswiecenia zydowskiego (1961), 9of.; E. Tcherikower, Di 
Ukrainer Pogromen in Yor 1919 (1965), 145. 

[Shimshon Leib Kirshenboim / Shmuel Spector (2 nd ed.)] 

SATANOW, ISAAC (1732-1804), Hebrew writer, born in Sa- 
tanov, Podolia. Satonow settled in Berlin in 1771 or 1772, where 
he served as the director of the printing press of the Hevrat 
Hinnukh Ne'arim ("Society for the Education of the Youth"). 
Among the most prolific of the early Haskalah writers, he did 
not restrict himself to any particular literary field, but wrote 
in most of those genres used by the later Haskalah writers. 
Although an exponent of the Jewish enlightenment of 18 th - 
century Berlin, he displayed an affinity for Jewish mysticism. 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



Between 1780 and 1784 he traveled several times to Galicia, 
where he was involved in printing the kabbalistic book Ez 
Hayyim (1785), attributed to R. Isaac Luria. Satanow demon- 
strated a wealth of knowledge of the Hebrew language, rank- 
ing as a model stylist throughout the Haskalah period. He as- 
cribed several of his works to earlier writers, and consequently 
used fictitious names for the authors of the recommendations 
for his own books and of their forewords. His books include 
Sefer ha-Shorashim or Lexicon, one of 
his major works, which was a Hebrew- German dictionary and 
thesaurus in two parts; a number of books of liturgy, Tefillah 
mi-Kol ha-Shanah al Pi Kelalei ha-Dikduk (1785), Haggadah 
shel Pesah (1785); and Selihot (1785); as well as Mishlei Asaf 
and Zemirot Asaf (4 vols., 1789-1802), collections of proverbs 
in imitation of the Book of Proverbs. (Satanow adopted the 
pseudonym "Asaf" from the acrostic for "Itzik Satanow.") In 
the last, his best-known work, the peak of his imitative abil- 
ity is displayed, and, at the same time, the finest expression 
of his own sentiments and thoughts. The work, attributed to 
the biblical Asaph son of Berechiah, is written in the style of 
Proverbs and Psalms. In his Zohar Taniana (1783), Nevuat 
Yeled (1793), and Imrei Bina (1784), he tried to build a bridge 
between the mystical world of Kabbalah and the rationalistic 
views of the Haskalah. 

Satanow grappled with the problem of the use of bibli- 
cal and post-biblical Hebrew. In his book Iggeret Beit Tefillah 
(1773), a work on prayers and liturgy, he classified every word 
that he explained as either "Hebrew" or "talmudic," and pro- 
ceeded to clarify this question at other opportunities as well. 
He may have been the first Hebrew writer who sought to break 
out of the strict framework of biblical style, although he him- 
self was very adept in the biblical style called melizah. Hence 
he demanded that new words be coined; in Iggeret Beit Tefil- 
lah he complains that the vocabulary of biblical Hebrew had 
not preserved its great lexical range. 

bibliography: J. Klausner, Sifrut, 1 (1952), 165-77; Zin- 
berg, Sifrut, 5 (1959), 118-22; G. Kressel, Leksikon, 2 (1967), 490-3; 
S. Werses, in: Tarbiz, 32 (1963), 370-92. add. bibliography: M. 
Pelli, Isaac Satanow s "Mishlei Asaf" as Reflecting the Ideology of the 
German Hebrew Haskalah (1972); idem, Kiryat Sefer 54 (1979), 817-24; 
idem, The Age of Haskalah (1979), 151-70; N. Rezler-Bersohn, in: 
yblbi 25 (1980), 81-100; S. Werses, Haskalah ve-Shabtaut (1988), 
33-38; M. Pelli, Be-Maavakei Temurah, 83-139; R. Horwitz, in: ylbi 
45 (2000), 3-24. 

[Getzel Kressel; Noam Zadoff (2 nd ed.)] 

SATANOWSKI, MARCOS (1893-1957), Argentine jurist. 
Born in Bahia Blanca, Satanowski graduated from the Uni- 
versity of Buenos Aires in 1928 and was appointed professor 
of commercial law. In 1946, he was dismissed by the Peron 
regime but was reinstated in 1955 and held the chair until his 
death. He founded and was the first president of the Socie- 
dad Hebraica Argentinea. He published many books on legal 
and other subjects including El actual Regimen Monetario 
Argentino (1933) and El Renovado Pueblo de Israel (1954). In 
1957 he was involved in a trial for the return of the newspaper 

La Razon to its former owner, Ricardo Peralta Ramos, from 
whom it was expropriated by Peron's regime. He was murdered 
by three assailants, probably in a mission of the Secretaria de 
Informaciones del Estado - side (National Intelligence Ser- 
vice), while working in his office. 

SATINSKY, SOL (1900-1966), U.S. manufacturer and com- 
munal leader. Satinsky was born in Philadelphia. Entering the 
family business, Frankford Worsted Mills, in 1920, he became 
its president in 1930, renaming it Frankford Woolen Mills. He 
was also a partner in Satinsky Brothers Realty Co. Satinsky 
early became active in welfare and education projects. 

He was president of the Jewish Family Service and United 
Hebrew Schools and helped to create the Federation of Jewish 
Agencies of Philadelphia, which he served in several capaci- 
ties. He was also president of the Philadelphia Allied Jewish 
Appeal and chairman of the National Council of the Joint 
Distribution Committee. Strongly committed to Jewish schol- 
arship, Satinsky served as chairman of the American Jewish 
History Center of the Jewish Theological Seminary, presi- 
dent of the Jewish Publication Society, and acting president 
of Dropsie College. Satinsky was active in the World Affairs 
Council of Philadelphia; among his other interests was a col- 
lection of Lincoln memorabilia which he donated to Cornell 


[Gladys Rosen] 

SATORALJAUJHELY (in Yiddish popularly abridged to 
Ujhely), city in N.E. Hungary. Before World War 1 it was 
one of the main Jewish settlements in Hungary, excluding 
*Subcarpathian Ruthenia and ^Transylvania. Jews first ar- 
rived there at the beginning of the 18 th century, in connec- 
tion with the nationalist army of F. Rakoczi. An organized 
community was established in 1771. The first Jewish elemen- 
tary school was founded in 1836; M. *Heilprin was among 
its teachers. The first rabbi was S. Weil. He was succeeded by 
Moses *Teitelbaum (1808-40), founder of the celebrated dy- 
nasty of zaddikim. His grandson was compelled to leave the 
town as a result of the opposition to the Hasidim. Rabbinical 
office was then held by Jeremiah Loew (1854-73), who took 
part in the Hungarian General Jewish Congress of 1868-69. 
He endeavored to prevent a split within the community after 
the schism within Hungarian Jewry that followed the congress 
(see ^Hungary), but in 1886 his son Eleazar Loew (1873-86) 
founded a separate Orthodox community. After the separa- 
tion of the Orthodox sector, the majority of the community 
remained ^status quo ante. 

After the term of office of R. Kalman Weiss (1890-1910), a 
rabbi was not appointed until the arrival of S. Roth (1921-44), 
the last rabbi. A large synagogue was erected in 1888. The Or- 
thodox community also built a large synagogue and estab- 
lished a higher yeshivah (1922-44). The Jewish population 
numbered 3,523 in 1869; 5,730 in 1910; 6,445 m 1920; and 4,160 
in 1941. They were mainly occupied in commerce, but a num- 
ber were in professions. 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


Holocaust and Contemporary Periods 

The Jews in the city were affected by the anti- Jewish legisla- 
tion, unemployment, and other difficulties that faced the rest 
of the Jews in Hungary in the interwar period. After the Ger- 
man invasion (March 19, 1944), about 4,000 Jews from Sato- 
raljaujhely were confined in a ghetto, joined by another 11,000 
from nearby villages, all crowded 20-25 to a room. All were 
deported to the death camp at ^Auschwitz between May 16 
and June 3 in four transports. Only 555 survived. There were 
204 Jews living in Satoraljaujhely in 1953. 

bibliography: Fodor, in: Magyar Zsido Almanack (1911), 
268; I. Goldberger, Ha-Zofeh me-Erez Hagar, 1 (1911), 121-35; Magyar 
Zsido Szemle, 14 (1897), 372-3; Magyar Zsido Lexikon (1929), 768-9. 

[Baruch Yaron] 

SATRAP (Heb. pi. D'33'ntf OX; Aram. X^SlTOnK; Old Persian 
xsacapavan, "protector of the province"; Greek aaTpdirnc;), an 
official title during the Persian Empire of varying meaning. 
According to Herodotus (3:89-94) and contemporary inscrip- 
tional material, Darius 1 divided up his empire for adminis- 
trative purposes into some 20 districts called satrapies. In the 
biblical passages where Persian officials are listed in descend- 
ing order of importance, the satrap almost always comes first 
(Esth. 3:12; 8:9; Dan. 3:2-3, 27; Ezra 8:36; Esth. 9:3, a literary 
variation?). The one passage which defines the title, however, 
speaks of Darius the Mede appointing 120 satraps over his 
kingdom (Dan. 6:2). Such a division of the realm is reminis- 
cent of the Esther narrative (Esth. 1:1; 8:9) where Ahasuerus 
(Xerxes, the successor of Darius), is said to have ruled over 
127 provinces (Heb. medinot). 

The flexibility of titles as they are translated from one 
language to another and transferred from official to literary 
sources maybe seen by a comparison of three sources. The Old 
Persian Darius Behistun inscription calls Dadarshi "satrap" of 
Bactria (3:13-14). The fragmentary Aramaic text apparently 
refers to him as "governor" (pehah; Cowley, Aramaic, p. 252, 
line 18). Likewise, Tattenai, head of the Trans -Euphrates, ap- 
parently a satrapy, was called "governor" (Ezra 5:3, 6; 6:6, 13). 
Conversely, Greek historians occasionally used "satrap" to 

designate lower officials. 

[Bezalel Porten] 

The satrap possessed very extensive authority: he super- 
vised the administration of the districts of his province, in- 
cluding the imposition of taxes. He had the right to mint coins 
in his name, except for gold coins, the minting of which was 
the prerogative of the emperor. He was the supreme judge and 
traveled throughout the province dispensing justice. He was 
responsible for security inside his province and supervised the 
highways. He also had an army which he recruited locally, but 
the garrisons in the citadels and the regular army were under 
the direct command of the emperor. The pehah was subordi- 
nate to the satrap, who in turn was subject to the representative 
of the emperor, but satraps frequently conducted their own 
foreign policy. Sometimes more than one province was under 
the rule of one satrap. The office of satrap at times passed by 

inheritance, and there were dynasties of satraps which contin- 
ued for many generations. As a result of the extensive author- 
ity bestowed upon the satrap, the Persian Empire in the course 
of time was a united country only in theory; in practice the 
forces of schism and disintegration prevailed more and more. 
From time to time, the great satraps rebelled, and it was only 
with difficulty that the emperors succeeded in overpowering 
them. Alexander the Great continued with the division of the 
country into satrapies; and it was continued by the Seleucids. 
The satrap of Transjordan held sway also over Samaria and 
Judea, and when there was a governor in Judea, he was sub- 
ject to the authority of this satrap. 

[Abraham Schalit] 

bibliography: Herodotus, 3:89 ff.; P. Julien, Zur Verwaltung 
der Satrapien unter Alexander dem Grossen (1914); Pauly-Wissowa, 
2 nd series, 3 (1921), 82-188; O. Leuze, Die Satrapieneinteilung in Syrien 
und im Zweistromlande von 520-320 (1935); E. Bickermann, Institu- 
tions des Seleucides (1937); J. A. Montgomery, Daniel (ice, 1927), 199; 
B. Porten, Archives from Elephantine (1968), 24, no. 93; A.E Rainey, 
Australian Journal of Biblical Archaeology, 1 (1969), 5iff. 

SATU-MARE (Hung. Szatmarnemeti or Szatmar, also called 
Sakmer), city in Satu-Mare province, N.W. Romania; until 
World War 1 and between 1940 and 1944, part of Hungary. 
There is sporadic mention of the presence of Jews in or pass- 
ing through Satu-Mare in the early 18 th century. Permission 
was granted to the Jews to settle in the city because it was 
hoped by the more powerful local Hungarian landlords that 
they would bring economic prosperity, which they actually 
did for a period of centuries. Jews, too, became landlords 
or lessees. Some became involved in large-scale agriculture; 
many others contributed to the development of trade and in- 
dustry; and still others were employed in Jewish workshops 
at low wages. There were 11 Jews in the town in 1734 and 19 in 
1746. In 1841 several Jews obtained permits to settle in Satu- 
Mare permanently. A community was formally established in 
1849, and a synagogue erected in 1857. Benjamin Ze'ev Mendel- 
baum became the first rabbi in 1849, officiating until his death 
in 1896. Through his influence the community denned itself 
as Orthodox in 1869 (see ^Hungary). In 1898 it split up and a 
* status quo ante community was established. A magnificent 
synagogue was erected in 1904. The Jewish population rose 
from 78 in 1850 to 3,427 (16% of the total population) in 1870, 
7,194 (20% of the total population) in 1910, and 11,533 (21% of 
the total population) in 1930. There were then five large syna- 
gogues and about 20 smaller ones in the city. The first Jewish 
printing press was established in 1903. 

From the end of the 19 th century, there were conflicts 
among the supporters of Hasidism and the Mitnaggedim. 
From 1902 the status quo community was led by a Zionist 
rabbi, Dr. Samuel Sandor Jordan, who established the first He- 
brew kindergarten in Hungary. The first Jewish schools were 
opened in 1866. Between 1940 and 1944 there was also a sec- 
ondary school for boys and girls (four classes). 

Jews took an active part in the development of industry 
and commerce in Satu-Mare, were prominent in the liberal 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



professions, and contributed to the local Hungarian press. Be- 
tween the two world wars, branches of the Zionist movements 
were active in the community; a B'nai B'rith lodge was estab- 
lished, as well as a branch of the Jewish party and other insti- 
tutions. The rabbis of the Orthodox community were Judah 
Gruenwald (until 1920) and Eliezer David Gruenwald. After 
his death in 1928, a bitter conflict followed within the Ortho- 
dox community over the election of a new rabbi. The struggle 
lasted six years and was concluded in 1934 by the victory of 
the supporters of Joel *Teitelbaum, whose domineering per- 
sonality and uncompromising anti- Zionist stand influenced 
Orthodox Jewry in the whole of Transylvania. 

Although the influence of Neologism was extremely 
weak in this region, many Jewish intellectuals were drawn 
to the Hungarian language and culture, becoming important 
figures in Hungarian society. Between the two world wars the 
influence of the fascist Iron Guard was felt. This was the rea- 
son why in 1940 the Jews received the Hungarian Horthiite 
troups with open arms. They were not aware of the changes 
post-World War 1 Hungary had undergone under Admiral 
Horthys rule. The first signs of what was to come manifested 
themselves shortly after the city was occupied by Hungary and 
"foreign" Jews were deported to Kamenets-Podolski, where 
they were murdered by Hungarian and German troops. In 
spring 1944 the rest of the Jews, some 20,000 including refu- 
gees, were first ghettoized and then deported to Auschwitz 
after the majority of men had been sent to forced labor bat- 
talions. Less than 15% survived the Holocaust and were able 
to make their way back to their homes. 

After World War 11 some of the survivors returned from 
the camps, and about 500 Jews resettled there. They were 
joined by former residents and Jews from other localities, and 
by 1947 they numbered approximately 5,000. Subsequently 
many moved away or immigrated to Erez Israel, and by 1970 
there remained some 500 Jews in Satu-Mare, with numbers 
later declining. 

bibliography: mhj, 3 (1937), index s.v.; Szatmdrkeruleti 
zsidok, 5 pt. 1 (1959); 5 pt. 2 (i960); 7 (1963), index locorum s.v. Szat- 
mdr; M. Stern, A szatmdri zsidok utja (1931). 

[Yehouda Marton / Paul Schveiger (2 nd ed.)] 

SATZ, LUDWIG (1891-1944), Yiddish comedian. Born in 
Lvov, Poland, Satz joined a troupe of Yiddish actors in 1910 
and played in Gordin's Got, Mentsh und der Taivl. He appeared 
in Budapest and London and achieved Broadway success as 
Abe Potash in Potash and Perlmutter, 1913. He also acted with 
Jacob Adler and Maurice Schwartz, and in Boris Thomashef- 
sky s Yiddish venture on Broadway (1923-24). Later he toured 
Europe and South America. 

SATZ, MARIO (1944- ), Argentine poet, author, and essay- 
ist. He was born in Coronel Pringles, Argentina. His exten- 
sive travels had significant influence on his writing. He lived 
in Israel for three years and from 1978 he lived in Barcelona, 
Spain. Satz is a prolific author of poetry, and narrative and 

nonfiction works that include books about Kabbalah and 
Jewish history. 

His early poetry is intimately connected to the natural 
world. In volumes such as Los cuatro elementos (1964), Las 
frutas (1970), Canon depolen (1976), Los peces, lospdjaros, las 
flores (1976), and Las redes cristalinas (1985) he examines the 
beauty and power of nature in practically all its earthly man- 
ifestations. He is also the author of a vast novelistic series ti- 
tled Planetarium, which consists of five novels that comprise 
a textual solar system. The novels Sol (1976), Luna (1977), and 
Tierra (1978) form a trilogy in which the author utilizes the cit- 
ies of Jerusalem and Cuzco, Peru, as sites for examining Latin 
American history and culture together with Jewish tradition. 
The subsequent novels, Marte (1980) and Mercurio (1990), do 
not continue the story of the trilogy though they are part of 
the Planetarium project. 

His book Tres cuentos espanoles (1988) takes on a much 
more focused perspective with the portrayal of multicultural 
13 th century Spain in which Christian, Muslim, and Jewish 
cultures existed and thrived side by side. His attention to de- 
tail and historical accuracy is remarkable. The novel Azahar 
(1996) continues with the same focus on Iberia, this time with 
a focus on religious-mystical traditions from Kabbalah to The 
Book of the Dead. The authors nonfiction works reveal his 
interest in Jewish history and mysticism and are evidence of 
his capability for profound theological thinking. Representa- 
tive texts in this vein include Poetica de la Kdbala (1985), Ju- 
daismo: 4,000 anos de cultura (1982), and El dador alegre: en- 
say 'os de Kdbala (1997). 

[Darrell B. Lockhart (2 nd ed.)] 

°SAUCKEL, FRITZ (Ernst Friedrich Christoph; 1894-1946), 
Nazi official. Born in Hassfurt to a family of minor officials, 
Sauckel worked in the merchant marines of Norway and 
Sweden prior to World War 1. During World War 1 he was 
a prisoner of war. He joined the Nazi Party in 1921 and was 
appointed Gauleiter ("district leader") of the Nazi Party in 
Thuringia in 1925 and its governor in 1933. On March 21, 1942, 
he was appointed by *Hitler plenipotentiary (Generalbevoll- 
maechtigter) for labor recruitment, and thus he became the 
most notorious slave driver of Nazi Germany. His self-de- 
scribed task was to make maximum use of the slave labor for 
the "lowest conceivable expenditure." Up to March 1, 1944, 
seven and a half million workers were brought on his orders 
to Germany from all over occupied Europe, of whom only 
200,000 came voluntarily. Their working and living conditions 
were unbearable. Conditions among Jews were the worst. They 
were literally worked to death. In the fall of 1942 Sauckel, with 
the aid of the *rsh a, organized the drafting of Polish workers 
in order to replace Jews working in the armament industry, 
with the aim of deporting those Jews to concentration and 
death camps. He was convicted at the trial of major war crimi- 
nals in Nuremberg and hanged on October 16, 1946. 

bibliography: E. Davidson, Trial of the Germans (1966), in- 
dex; G.M. Gilbert, Nuremberg Diary (1947), index; imt, Trial of the 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


Major War Criminals, 24 (1949), index, add. bibliography: E.L. 
Homze, Foreign Labor in Nazi Germany (1967); B. Ferencz, Less than 
Slaves: Jewish Forced Labor and the Quest for Compensation (1979). 

[Yehuda Reshef / Michael Berenbaum (2 nd ed.)] 

SAUDI ARABIA, an authoritarian monarchy, whose le- 
gal system is based on a strict interpretation of Islamic law, 
known in the West as Wahhabism, after the spiritual leader 
of the original Saudi state, Muhammad ibn c Abdul Wahhab 
(1703-1792). Modern Saudi Arabia was established in 1932 by 
King Abdul Aziz ibn Abdul Rahman Al Saud (1880-1953), who 
waged a three-decade-long campaign to unify the kingdom 
and re-claim the patrimony that was one ruled intermittently 
by his family in the 18 th and 19 th centuries. He was also known 
in the West by the name King Ibn Saud. Like the earlier Saudi 
states, the modern Saudi Kingdom was based on a political 
partnership between the Al-Saud family and the Wahhabi 
clerics, whom the Saudis funded and empowered with con- 
trol over Saudi ministries. Today Saudi Arabia's land area is 
1,960,582 square kilometers. Its longest land boundaries are 
with *Yemen (1,458 km.), *Iraq (814 km.), and ^Jordan (744 
km). But it also shares borders with Oman, the United Arab 
Emirates, Qatar, and Kuwait. The Saudi Kingdom is made up 
of a number of regions including the Najd plateau, the birth- 
place of the Saudi royal family, the Hijaz, where the Muslim 
holy cities of Mecca and ^Medina are located, and the Eastern 
Province, where the Saudi oil fields are situated that contain 25 
per cent of the worlds proven petroleum reserves. Since 1953, 
Saudi Arabia has been ruled by the sons of Ibn Saud who were 
successively: Saud, Faisal, Khaled, and Fahd, and in 2005, King 
Abdullah, who was born in 1923, acceded to the throne. 

To understand Saudi attitudes to the Jewish people and 
the Jewish state, Israel, it is necessary to examine Wahhabi 
doctrines towards the monotheistic faiths outside of *Islam. 
These were far harsher than those adopted under classical Is- 
lam, which defined Jews and Christians as ahl al-kitdb (people 
of the book) who were entitled to live their lives under their 
respective religious codes, albeit as second-class citizens, who 
had to pay special discriminatory taxes for non-Muslims, such 
as *jizya (poll tax) and *khardj (land tax). In his main work, 
the Kitdb al-Tawhid (The Book of Monotheism) Muhammad 
ibn Abdul Wahhab described Jews and Christians as sorcer- 
ers who believed in devil worship. He challenged the asser- 
tion that both groups were truly monotheistic, charging that 
"the ways of the people of the book are condemned as those 
of the polytheists." Given that there was a negligible presence 
of either religious group in Central Arabia in the 18 th century, 
these theoretical distinctions would only become relevant after 
the establishment of the modern Saudi state, when Wahhabi 
doctrines would influence Saudi attitudes to Israel as well as 
provide the ideological underpinnings for jihadi movements, 
like al-Qaeda. 

Saudi Arabia was implacably opposed to the creation of 
the State of Israel. Several years after U.S. oil companies, led 
by Standard Oil of California, secured oil exploration rights 

in Saudi Arabia, King Ibn Saud addressed a series of letters 
to President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, stating his opposi- 
tion to the creation of a Jewish state in British Palestine, and 
raised the subject yet again in his historic summit meeting 
with Roosevelt on the uss Quincy in Egypt's Great Bitter Lake. 
But Ibn Saud's primary concern after Israel's creation came 
from his Arab rivals - the Hashemite Kingdoms of Transjor- 
dan and Iraq - and their British sponsors. Ibn Saud was not 
prepared to sacrifice his relations with the U.S. and give up 
on American security guarantees against his potential rivals, 
despite Washington's backing of the partition of Palestine and 
its early recognition of the State of Israel. His son, King Faisal, 
launched an oil embargo against the U.S. during the 1973 Yom 
Kippur War, but quickly sought to repair his relations with 
Washington, and agreed to a U.S. -sponsored buildup of Saudi 
military capabilities against Soviet-backed Arab rivals, from 
F-15 fighter aircraft to awacs planes. 

Saudi Arabia sent its ambassador in Washington, Prince 
Bandar, to attend the 1991 Madrid peace conference with 
Israel, Syria, ^Lebanon, and a Jordanian- Palestinian delega- 
tion. There was a slight incremental thaw in Israeli- Saudi 
contacts thereafter. Saudi Arabia attended the 1992 Moscow 
multilateral negotiations and the various working-groups that 
it had established. But after the 1993 Oslo Agreements, Saudi 
Arabia did not follow the examples of Qatar and Oman, which 
allowed Israel to open quasi-diplomatic trade offices in their 
capitals. Nor did the Saudis follow the model of Bahrain and 
uae (Dubai) which allowed Israelis to attend multilateral con- 
ferences on their soil. Saudi Foreign Minister Saud Al- Faisal 
attended a 1996 counter- terrorism conference in Sharm al- 
Sheikh, Egypt, with Israeli Prime Minister Shimon *Peres, 
marking the outer reaches of Saudi readiness for open, high- 
level contacts. The Saudi religious establishment, represented 
by the Saudi Grand Mufti, Sheikh Abdul Aziz bin Baz, was not 
willing to condone the idea of permanent peace with Israel, 
but was only willing to concede the idea of a hudna with the 
Jewish state, which, he explained in a formal document, was 
only a temporary truce until the balance of power changes. 
During the 1990s, despite its demand for religious identifi- 
cation in its visa applications, Saudi Arabia hosted several 
American Jewish organizations, including the American Jew- 
ish Congress and the Anti-Defamation League. 

After Yasser 'Arafat's Fatah movement became the dom- 
inant component of the ^Palestine Liberation Organization 
(plo) in the late 1960s, Saudi Arabia became its largest finan- 
cial backer. Yet after the plo allied itself with Saddam Hussein 
in the 1991 Gulf War, Saudi Arabia increasingly began to pro- 
vide financial assistance to Hamas, despite its direct involve- 
ment in suicide bombings against Israeli civilians, through 
large Wahhabi charities, such as al-Haramain, the Muslim 
World League's International Islamic Relief Organization, and 
the World Assembly for Muslim Youth. The 9/11 attacks by al- 
Qaeda on New York and Washington brought into focus the 
Saudi connection to the new escalation of global terrorism, 
since 15 out of the 19 hijackers were Saudi citizens. Moreover, 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



their overall commander, Osama bin Laden, was born and 
educated in Saudi Arabia and had worked with Saudi intelli- 
gence against the Soviet presence in ^Afghanistan. In 1998, he 
set up the "World Islamic Front Against Crusaders and Jews." 
He relied heavily on Wahhabi religious scholars, such as Su- 
leiman al-Ulwan or Hamud bin Uqla al-Shuaibi, who justi- 
fied his use of mass violence against the "infidels," which, from 
their doctrinal standpoint, included Christians and Jews. Both 
scholars justified suicide bombings against Israeli civilians on 
the website of Hamas. Other Saudi scholars, like Nasser bin 
Hamed al-Fahd and Ali al-Khudeir, put out religious opinions 
that dovetailed with al-Qaeda strategy, since they advocated 
the mass murder of infidels by means of weapons of mass de- 
struction. After 2003, Israeli officials, like Defense Minister 
Shaul *Mofaz, became openly concerned with al-Qaeda's pen- 
etration of the Saudi military, including the Saudi Air Force. 
Israel raised the possibility that Saudi F-15 fighter planes, de- 
ployed during the 2003 Iraq War at Tabuk Air Base near Ei- 
lat, might be used by al-Qaeda suicide pilots for operations 
against Israeli buildings in Tel Aviv. 

King Abdullah, in his capacity as crown prince, floated 
a new peace plan between Israel and the Arab world through 
New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman on February 17, 
2002. The core of the plan was the idea of exchanging a "full 
Israeli withdrawal" from the territories Israel captured in the 
Six-Day War for "full normalization" of relations with Israel. 
But Abdullah retreated from this formula with the Arab peace 
initiative that was launched at the Beirut Arab summit on 
March 28, 2002, when he watered down his original proposal 
and suggested instead granting Israel "normal relations" - a 
Syrian diplomatic term that was less than full peace. Given 
Saudi sensitivities to Western penetration, it is unlikely that 
Abdullah was really proposing full normalization with tour- 
ism, business ties, and cultural exchanges. Behind the scenes 
of the Saudi peace plan was Adel al-Jubeir, Abdullah's foreign 
policy advisor, who had been dispatched to Washington to re- 
pair Saudi Arabia's tarnished image in the U.S. after 9/11. It is 
probable that this was the context of the Saudi proposals. 

bibliography: M. Abir, Saudi Arabia: Government, Society 
and the Gulf Crises (1993); M. Fandy, Saudi Arabia and the Politics of 
Dissent (1999); D. Gold, Hatreds Kingdom: How Saudi Arabia Sup- 
ports the New Global Terrorism (2004); M Al-Rasheed, A History of 
Saudi Arabia (2002); A. Vassiliev, The History of Saudi Arabia (2000); 
J.D. Halevi, "Al-Qaedas Intellectual Legacy: New Radical Islamic 
Thinking Justifying the Genocide of Infidels," in: Jerusalem View- 
points (Dec. 1, 2003). 

[Dore Gold (2 nd ed.)] 

SAUL (Heb. ^Xttf; "asked, requested, lent [by the Lord]"), the 
first king of Israel (c. 1029-1005 b.c.e.); son of Kish from the 
tribe of Benjamin (1 Sam. 9:1, 21). Saul's home was in Gibeah 
(ibid. 10:26), i.e., Gibeath-Benjamin, also known as Gibeath- 
Shaul (ibid. 11:4), which he made his capital. After his death, 
his bones were buried in the tomb of his father, Kish, in Zela 
(11 Sam. 21:24; cf- Josh. 18:28). Zela would seem to be the name 
of a place close to Gibeath-Benjamin where the house of Saul 

had its lands. According to 1 Chronicles 8:29-30, Saul's fam- 
ily came from Gibeon. 

In the days of ^Samuel's leadership the Israelites became 
increasingly aware that the time had come to replace the rule 
of the * Judges by a central, permanent authority capable of 
freeing the people from the pressure of the surrounding na- 
tions, and, in particular, from the domination of the Philis- 
tines (1 Sam. 8:20; 9:16). The people therefore demanded of 
Samuel that he set a king over them, "to govern us like all the 
nations" (ibid. 8:5). The cycle of stories about the enthroning 
of Saul is made up of various divergent traditions. Accord- 
ing to 1 Samuel 9:1-10: 16, Saul - "a handsome young man, 
and there was not a man more handsome among the people 
of Israel; from his shoulders and upward he was taller than 
all the people" - went out to look for his father's lost asses. 
Meanwhile the Lord revealed His will to Samuel. "Tomorrow 
about this time I will send to you a man from the land of Ben- 
jamin, and you shall anoint him to be a prince over my people" 
(9:16). Samuel carried out God's command and poured oil on 
Saul's head. Saul modestly expressed his amazement at being 
anointed ruler of Israel. On his way back to his home in Gi- 
beah, he was suddenly seized with the spirit of the Lord and 
joined a group of prophets "and prophesied [i.e., went into 
an ecstatic trance] among them" (10:10). In 1 Samuel 10:17-27, 
in contrast, it is related that Samuel assembled the people at 
Mizpah and cast lots before them. The lot fell on Saul, who 
was acclaimed king, "and all the people shouted 'Long live the 
king!'" (10:24). I n this tradition, too, Saul stands out as a man 
of modest and humble character who "hid himself among the 
baggage" (10:22). In chapter 11, again, it is recounted that Saul 
was proclaimed king in Gilgal after his defeat and rout of the 
^Ammonites, who were attempting to subject the inhabitants 
of Jabesh-Gilead, kinsmen of the tribe of Benjamin. In this 
story Saul appears as a charismatic leader of the same type 
as the Judges who had arisen to save Israel in time of trouble. 
His choice to lead the people was determined by his heroism 
on the battlefield. The interrelation of the above traditions is 
variously conceived by modern commentators. At all events, 
all the stories are agreed that Saul was chosen as king by God, 
and anointed by Samuel with the people's approval. 

Most of Saul's years as king were spent in wars against 
the enemies of Israel: "When Saul had taken the kingship over 
Israel, he fought against all its enemies on every side, against 
*Moab, against the Ammonites, against *Edom, against the 
kings of Zobah, and against the ^Philistines" (14:47). In par- 
ticular, "there was hard fighting against the Philistines all the 
days of Saul" (14:52). The signal for the start of the struggle 
with the Philistines was given when ^Jonathan, Saul's son, 
struck down the Philistine governor in Geba (i.e., Gibeah) in 
Benjamin (13:3). Saul mustered the Israelites at Gilgal, near 
Jericho, while the Philistines encamped at Michmas (13:15-16). 
From there troops of Philistine raiders made punitive attacks 
on Israel (13:17-18). Saul waited at Gilgal for Samuel to come 
and give the signal for the battle to begin. When Samuel failed 
to appear and the people were beginning to disperse, Saul of- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


• Ijon 

Tyre • Abel-Beth-Maacah» ^Dan 








• Hannathon 
•Achshaph Hamath 







Megiddo • Jezreel 



Ibleam • 


Ophrah - 

Beth-El • « 
Gezer* Aijalon Gibeon 

Ashdod Ekron • 

£ Azekah •Socoh 

* Naarah 

Michmas *Gilgal 
• •Raman 

Kiriath-Jearim • Gibeah of Saul 

•jebus ( Jerusalem) 




• •Beth-Lehem 


• Medeba 




• Lachish 


• Gaza 





• Goshen 

• Hebron 

• Eshtemoa 

En-Gedi» $ 




• Dibon 
'Amon R\ 



• Hormah 



Aroer • 


}A * 

\. * 

Limits of Saul's kingdom, end of the 11 th century b.c.e. After Y. Aharoni 
Cartas Atlas of the Bible, Jerusalem, 1964. 

fered up the burnt-offering and moved out to engage the Phi- 
listines, advancing on Gibeath-Benjamin with six thousand 
men. Jonathan took the nearby Philistine garrison by surprise, 
and the panic-stricken Philistines fled westward through the 
valley of Aijalon to Philistia (14:31). In this war the Philistines 
were driven out of the hill country of Ephraim. This was only 
the beginning of a series of wars against the Philistines. One 
of the engagements which is described in detail in the Bible is 
the battle in the Valley of Elah in the territory of Judah (1 Sam. 
17), in which *David killed the Philistine giant *Goliath. When 
the Philistines saw their hero felled in single combat by the 
young David, they fled to their own country. The encounter 
in the Valley of Elah thus liberated the hill country of Judah 
from Philistine rule. For his conduct of the wars against the 
enemies of Israel, Saul did not rely solely on the national lev- 
ies but also established a regular armed force led by trained 

commanders, such as his own son Jonathan and *Abner son of 
Ner (13:2-3; 14:50, 52). Of special historical importance was the 
war against *Amalek, since it was in this war that the breach 
between Samuel and Saul first appeared (1 Sam. 15). Samuel 
ordered Saul to smite the Amalekites and destroy them ut- 
terly, leaving no survivors (cf. Ex. 17:16). Saul mustered the 
people at Telaim, which is apparently identical with Telem in 
the Negev (Josh. 15:24). The war was fought in the southern 
desert regions "from Havilah as far as Shur, which is east of 
Egypt." The defeat of the Amalekites brought much needed 
relief to the people of Judah and Simeon, who had suffered 
greatly from the nomads' incursions. By his wars against the 
raiders from the desert (cf. 1 Chron. 5:10) Saul won the loyal 
support of the Israelites living in the southern border regions 
of Erez Israel and Transjordan, since he was fighting to protect 
the territories on which they were settled. His kingdom then 
comprised the areas of Israelite settlement in Judah, Ephraim, 
Galilee, and also in Transjordan (as maybe deduced from the 
extent of the kingdom of his son, Ish-Bosheth (11 Sam. 2:8-9). 
Saul did not try to extend his rule beyond the area of Israelite 
settlement; nor does he appear to have attacked the non-Isra- 
elite families living within that area - apart from the Gibeon- 
ites, whom he sought to destroy "in his zeal for the people of 
Israel and Judah" (11 Sam. 21:1 ff.), i.e., in order to convert his 
kingdom into a solid ethnic block uninterrupted by non-Isra- 
elite enclaves. Saul does not seem to have made far-reaching 
changes in the tribal organization of the Israelites, or to have 
taken any drastic measures to establish a centralized author- 
ity, with a royal court and an elaborate bureaucratic machin- 
ery. He was thus able to avoid friction with the tribal leaders 
who exercised their power within the framework of the local 
tribal institutions. 

But Saul did not succeed in remaining on good terms 
with Samuel. The tangled relations between the two men re- 
flect the difficulties of the transition from the old regime of the 
Judges to the new monarchal rule. According to one tradition, 
Samuel opposed the people's demand for a king, since in his 
view the Lord was the King of Israel and the people's demand 
was thus tantamount to a rejection of God (see *Gideon). 
When he was commanded by God to grant the people's re- 
quest, he demanded of both the people and the king absolute 
obedience to the Lord and to the prophet that spoke in His 
name (1 Sam. 12:14-15; 15:22), regardless of political, military, 
or human considerations. This demand explains the deterio- 
ration of the relations between Samuel and Saul. The rift be- 
tween them first appeared at the time of the engagement at 
Michmas (1 Sam. 13), when Saul sacrificed the burnt-offer- 
ing, instead of waiting patiently for Samuel to come and give 
the signal for the battle to commence. It may be that Samuel 
regarded Saul's offering of the sacrifice as an encroachment 
upon his own priestly authority and as an attempt by Saul to 
arrogate ritual powers to the king. Samuel declared to Saul 
that his rule would be short-lived: "But now your kingdom 
shall not continue" (13:14). The rift between Samuel and Saul 
became final after Saul's failure to comply with the order 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



given him to exterminate the Amalekites (15:34-35; 28:18). 
The awareness that the Lord had rejected him gradually pen- 
etrated into Saul's mind in the course of his relations with 
David. As soon as David - who was now Saul's son-in-law - 
appeared at the court, Saul realized that he was the people's 
favorite (18:16). David's victories over the Philistines aroused 
Saul's envy (18:5-9, 12-16), and this envy turned into a blind 
hatred which drove Saul to try to kill David (18:20-29; i9 :i > 
4-7, 9-10). The rift between Saul and Samuel, David's growing 
popularity, and the suspicion that even those closest to him 
had traitorously joined David in a plot against him (20:30-31; 
22:8) - R. Kittel suggested that there may have been a plot to 
depose him as mentally incompetent and to make Jonathan 
king in his stead - all undermined Saul's self-confidence and 
darkened his mind (16:14-23). His destiny now began to run 
its tragic course as he became more and more given to alter- 
nating fits of hatred and love, violence and depression, stub- 
bornness and remorse. His morbid suspiciousness, his un- 
controlled outbursts of passion, and his fear of David (18:15) 
frequently disturbed his mental balance, driving him to violent 
acts bordering on madness, such as hurling his spear at his 
son Jonathan (20:33), or killing the priests of Nob for - unless 
R. Kittel is right - unwittingly helping David (21:2 ft.). David 
was compelled to flee from Saul's service into the Judean des- 
ert, where Saul tried to pursue him. 

At the same time, Saul continued to bear the heavy bur- 
den of the prolonged war against the Philistines, who hoped 
to exploit the quarrel between Saul and David to reestablish 
their domination of the Israelites. When the Philistines mus- 
tered their forces in the Valley of Jezreel, Saul marched out 
with his army to meet them and camped near En-Harod at 
the foot of Mount Gilboa (28:4; 29:1). Greatly alarmed by the 
size and power of the Philistine army, he sought a sign from 
the Lord about the outcome of the impending battle, but "the 
Lord did not answer him, either by dreams, or by Urim, or 
by prophets" (28:6). In despair, he appealed to a medium to 
raise the spirit of the dead Samuel for him (she is commonly 
but inaccurately called the "witch" of *En-Dor), but according 
to the biblical account Samuel castigated him as before and 
prophesied a bitter end for him: "And tomorrow you and your 
sons shall be with me; The Lord will give Israel also with you 
into the hand of the Philistines" (28:19). Saul bravely led the 
Israelite host out to meet the Philistines, but in the ensuing 
engagement the Philistines clearly had the upper hand right 
from the start and the Israelites broke into flight, leaving many 
dead behind them on Mount Gilboa. Realizing that there was 
no escape from the archers pressing in around him, Saul chose 
to die by his own hand, "lest these uncircumcised come and 
make sport of me" (31:4; but cf. 11 Sam. 6:1-10). When the Phi- 
listines found his body, "they cut off his head, and stripped 
off his armor, and sent messengers throughout the land of 
the Philistines, to carry the good news to their idols and to 
the people" (31:9). The body itself they nailed to the walls of 
Beth-Shean. The men of Jabesh-Gilead, who still gratefully 
remembered how Saul had fought against Nahash the Am- 

monite when the latter was threatening their city (1 Sam. 11), 
took down his body from the wall and buried his bones in Ja- 
besh-Gilead. The bones were subsequently reinterred in the 
tomb of Saul's father (11 Sam. 21:14). With the Israelite defeat 
on Mount Gilboa the Philistines were once more the domi- 
nant power in Erez Israel and their pressure on the Israelites 
increased. A zealous Yahwist, Saul is credited with building 
the first altar to Yahweh (1 Sam 14: 31-35) and with ridding the 
land of necromancers (1 Sam. 28:3). K. van der Toorn finds 
Saul central to the formation of Yahwism as a state religion. 
Building on Toorn's work, Sperling argues that the historical 
Saul inspired the creation of the figure Moses. 

[Bustanay Oded] 

In the Aggadah 

Saul, the first anointed king (Esth. R., Proem 10) was selected 
for many reasons: 

(1) his military prowess (Mid. Sam. 11:78-79), (2) his un- 
usual handsomeness (Ber. 48b), (3) his modesty (Tosef, Ber. 
4:16; Tanh. B., Lev. 4), (4) his innocence since he was con- 
sidered free from sin like "a one-year-old child" (Yoma 22b), 
and (5) the merits of his ancestors, particularly his grandfa- 
ther Abiel, who was also named Ner ("candle") because he lit 
the streets after dark so that people might go to the houses 
of study (tj, Shev 3:10, 34d). He liberally endowed all poor 
brides (11 Sam. 1:24; Mishnat R. Eliezer y 186); and during his 
initial successful war with Nahash, Saul displayed his zeal 
for the scrupulous observance of the sacrificial ordinances 
by rebuking his warriors for eating the sacrificial meat be- 
fore the blood was sprinkled on the altar (Zev. 120a). There 
is a marked tendency by the rabbis to show the first king of 
Israel in a favorable light even when the Scriptures deprecate 
his actions. Even his sin during the Amalekite conflict is ex- 
plained by Saul's refusal to consider the women, children, and 
cattle as sinners and worthy of death (Yoma 22b). It is Doeg 
who induces Saul to spare the Amalek king, Agag, His argu- 
ment was that the law prohibits the slaying of an animal and 
its young on the same day; how much less permissible is it to 
destroy at one time old and young, men and children (Mid. 
Sam. 18:99-100). Saul had no selfish interest in retaining the 
Amalekite booty since he was so wealthy that he took a mil- 
itary census by giving one of his own sheep to every one of 
his soldiers, distributing not less than two hundred thousand 
sheep (Yoma 22b). His final days were filled with regrets on 
account of his executing the priests at Nob, and his remorse 
secured pardon for him (Ber. 12b; Tanh. B., Lev. 45). 

He was even more worthy than David. David had many 
wives and concubines while Saul had but one wife. David re- 
mained behind, fearing to lose his life in battle with Absalom, 
while Saul led his troops into his final battle. Saul led the life 
of a saint in his own house, observing even the priestly laws 
of purity. God rebuked David for composing a song on the 
downfall of Saul, stating, "Had you been Saul and he David, I 
would have annihilated many a David out of regard for him" 
(mk 16b). David was also punished for having cut off the cor- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


ner of Saul's mantle, for no amount of clothing would keep 
him warm (Ber. 62b). Finally, when a great famine fell upon 
the land during the reign of David, God told him that it had 
been inflicted because Saul's remains had not been buried 
with due honor. At that moment a heavenly voice resounded 
calling Saul "the elect of God" (Ber. 12b). The real reason for 
his loss of the monarchy was his misplaced meekness in not 
avenging himself against the "base fellows" who "despised 
him" (1 Sam. 10:27; Yoma 22b). Moreover, his family was of 
such immaculate nobility that his descendants might have be- 
come too arrogant (Yoma 22b). However, his persecution of 
David was unjustified and it greatly contrasted with the hu- 
mility he previously displayed. In contrast to his hesitancy in 
accepting the monarchy, he now sought to slay David rather 
than surrender his throne (arn 2 , 20, 43). Once, when Saul 
and his men surrounded David, an angel appeared and sum- 
moned him home to repulse the raid of the Philistines upon 
the land. Saul only gave up the pursuit of David after a major- 
ity of his officers had so decided. Some still felt that the seizure 
of David was even more important than defeating the Philis- 
tines (Mid. Ps. to 9:83; 18:138). 

The witch of En-Dor realized that it was Saul who was 
summoning Samuel when he appeared upright before them. 
In necromancy the rule is that a spirit raised from the dead 
appears head downward and feet in the air, unless it is sum- 
moned by a king (Tanh. B., Lev. 82). Samuel told Saul that if 
he fled he would save himself; but if he would accept God's 
judgment and find his death in battle, his sins would be for- 
given and he would join Samuel in afterlife (Lev. R. 26:7). Af- 
ter his death, God told the angels of his admiration for Saul's 
final courageous act in going into war "knowing that he will 
lose his life, yet he took his sons with him, and cheerfully ac- 
cepted the punishment ordained" (Tanh. B., Lev. 82). 

In Islam 

The name Talut, which is given to Saul in the *Koran (2:248), 
is an allusion to his exceptional height (cf. 1 Sam. 9:2; 10:23). 
The form of this name was probably influenced by that of Jalut 
(given to *Goliath) or tdbut (see below). After Musa's (i.e., 
Moses) death, the people of Israel requested of their prophet 
(his name is not mentioned, but see *Samuel) that he appoint 
a king to rule them. However, when Talut was designated as 
king, the people of Israel refused to accept him. The prophet 
then gave them a sign, that the tdbut (Ethiopian tdbot; Aramaic 
tebuta; "the Holy Ark") would come to them and in it would 
be Sakina (Heb. shekhinah, "Divine Presence"). This would 
be the sign for believers (cf. Sot. 13a). When Talut went out 
to battle with his regiments, he passed by a stream, where he 
put his men to a trial. Only those who drew water with their 
hands were found worthy to pursue the campaign against the 
enemy (cf. the tale in Judg. 7:4-6). In that battle *David de- 
feated Goliath (Jalut; Sura 2:247-252). * Muhammad stops his 
narrative at this point. In post- Koranic literature the biblical 
name of Saul b. Kish is known to the commentators, and the 
descriptions from the Bible and the aggadah are added to the 

figure of Talut, in particular those concerning his attitude to- 
ward David and his attempts to kill him, as well as the meet- 
ing at En-Dor. Talut died in a holy war (*jih~dd), after reign- 
ing for 40 years. 

In the Arts 

Unlike many other major figures of the Old Testament, Saul 
was accorded no particular significance in medieval Chris- 
tian typology; and thus his first important appearance in the 
literature, art, and music of the West really dates from the 
Renaissance era. Among the earliest literary treatments of 
the subject were the Spanish dramatist Vasco Diaz Tanco's 
Tragedia de Amon y Saul (1552), which has not survived; La 
Coronazione del Re Saul, one of Giovan Maria Cecchi's re- 
alistic biblical plays of the same period; and an anonymous 
Italian work, La Rapresentatione della distruttione di Saul... 
(Florence, 1559). In Germany, the Meister singer Hans Sachs 
wrote a Tragedia Koenig Sauls (1557). From this time onward 
the complex and tragic character of Saul attracted countless 
writers. Two outstanding i6 th -century dramas on the theme 
were written by the French Protestant Jean de la Taille: Saul le 
Furieux (1572) and La famine ou les Gabeonites (1573). Inter- 
est was maintained in the 17 th century, beginning with Claude 
Billard's Saul (1610). 

The subject lent itself to more varied treatment in the 18 th 
century. In England, Tragedy of King Saul (London, 1703), a 
verse play in five acts rejected by the censor, has been attrib- 
uted to both Joseph Trapp and Roger Boyle. French tragedies 
entitled Saul were written by the abbe Nadal (1705) and *Vol- 
taire (1763), the latter's work bearing a characteristic imprint 
of mockery. An outstanding i8 th -century treatment of the sub- 
ject was the Italian Vittorio Alfieri's tragedy, Saul (1782), which 
was later translated into English (1815) and, as Aharit Shaul, 
into Hebrew (by M.J. Lebensohn, 1870). An original Hebrew 
drama published in 1794 was Melukhat Shaul, ha-Melekh ha- 
Rishon al-Yeshurun (Vienna, 1794; often reprinted) by Joseph 
Troplowitz (= Joseph *Ha-Efrati c. 1770-1804). Saul appears 
as a tragic hero, torn by guilt, fear, and envy. From the era of 
Romanticism through the various movements of the 19 th cen- 
tury, Saul continued to fascinate poets and dramatists. Lord 
*Byron's "Saul" poems (in: Hebrew Melodies, 1815) include the 
scene in which the king meets the witch of En-Dor and an- 
other poem on the theme was written by Robert ^Browning 
(1845). There were two French tragedies - Alphonse de La- 
martine's Saiil (1818) and another of the same title by Alexan- 
dre Soumet (1822). There were also several tragedies in Ger- 
man, notably Karl Ferdinand Gutzkow's Koenig Saul (1839), 
Karl *Beck's Saul (1841), and Friedrich Rueckert's Saul und 
David (1843). The Cuban writer Gertrudis Gomez de Avella- 
neda (Peregrina), who lived mostly in Spain, was the author 
of a powerful drama, Saul (1849), and in Romania Alexan- 
dru Macedonski and Cincinat Pavelescu wrote the tragedy, 
Saul (1893). 

Literary exploitation of the subject has been heightened 
in the 20 th century by the use of psychological motivation. 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



Works written before World War i include two poems by 
Rainer Maria Rilke, "Saul unter den Propheten" and "Samuels 
Erscheinung vor Saul? These were followed by dramas by the 
Japanese Torahiko Khori (1918), the Norwegian Jon Norstog 
(Kong Sauly 1920), and the South African (Afrikaans) writer 
W. Pienaar (1928). Andre Gide's Saul, sl five-act drama writ- 
ten in the 1890s but published nearly 30 years later in 1922, 
portrays Saul as an old man consumed by the gratification of 
his lusts. The ill-fated monarch also plays a central part in the 
English writer D.H. Lawrences play, David (1926), which was 
originally entitled "Saul? 

A large proportion of modern works on the subject have, 
however, been written by Jews, and of these most are dra- 
mas. Plays written before World War 11 include Max Donkh- 
in's Russian Saul (1902), dramas by Lion *Feuchtwanger and 
Karl *Wolfskehl (1905), Israel *Querido's Dutch tragedy, Saul 
en David (1914), and Tsar Saul (1937), a drama in Russian by 
Naum Isaakovich Shimkin. Postwar works include dramas 
by Abel Jacob *Herzberg (Sauls dood, 1959) and Max Zweig 
(1961), and Charles Israel's novel, Rizpah (1961). Some of the 
most interesting dramatic treatments of the Saul theme have 
been written in Hebrew and Yiddish. Among those in Yid- 
dish are Shaul (1922) by Hirsh Brill of Kovno (1891-1925); 
Der Melekh Shaul (1948), published in Poland by Israel Ash- 
endorf; a dramatic sketch (in Lider un Poemen y 1949) by the 
Mexican Yiddish writer Nahum Pozner; and Leizer Treister's 
Der Pastekh-Kenig ("The Shepherd King," 1955). In Hebrew, 
there are poems by Tchernikowsky and dramas by M. Laze- 
bnik (1932) and by Max *Brod and Shin *Shalom (Shaul Me- 
lekh Yisraely 1944), the latter taking the form of a Schicksal- 
stragoedie (tragedy of fate). 

Saul's noble son Jonathan has also inspired writers from 
the 17 th century onward. Two early Italian tragedies, both en- 
titled Gionata y were published by Bartolommeo Tortoletti 
Veronese (1624) and the Jesuit Saverio Bettinelli (1747); and 
a "Tragedy of Jonathan" was one of the plays of the i6 th -cen- 
tury Spanish author Vasco Diaz Tanco which has been lost. In 
the 20 th century, treatments include "Yonatan," a poem based 
on 1 Sam. 14:1-43, by the Hebrew poetess *Rachel; Arthur W 
Spaulding's novel, A Man of Valor (1908); and S.B. Rosner's 
German drama, Jonatan und Tirzah (1912). Saul's daughter 
Michal, who became David's wife, has also figured in literary 
works of the 19 th and 20 th centuries. Hebrew treatments in- 
clude J.L. ^Gordon's epic Ahavat David u-Mikhal (1857) and 
Aharon ^Ashman's three-act drama, Mikhal Bat Shaul (1941; 
Michal the Daughter of Saul ', 1957); and there have also been 
dramas by the Italian Adolfo Isaia (Micol y 1898), the Yiddish 
writer David *Pinski (Mikhol y 1918), and the Dutch author 
J.D. van Calcar (1937). Morris Raphael *Cohen published King 
Sauls Daughter (1952), a biblical dialogue. 

In art, scenes from the life of Saul are found in the third- 
century wall paintings from the synagogue of Dura *Europos, 
on the fourth-century door at St. Ambrogio, Milan, and in 
a variety of Carolingian and medieval manuscript illumina- 
tions. Representation of the subject during the Middle Ages 

was almost entirely confined to illuminated manuscripts. 
The main episodes to have been treated are Saul anointed 
by Samuel (1 Sam. 10:1), David playing the harp before 
Saul (1 Sam. 16:23), Saul casting a spear at David (1 Sam. 19:10), 
David finding Saul in the cave (1 Sam. 24:4, and Saul visiting 
the witch of En-Dor (1 Sam. 28:8). Although David playing 
the harp before Saul was the subject of a copper engraving 
by Lucas Van Leyden (1494-1533), it was mainly * Rembrandt 
who depicted Saul with a degree of pathos and drama. There is 
an early painting by Rembrandt in the Staedel Institute, Frank- 
furt, and a later one in the Hague Museum. In the latter work 
the angry king, moved to tears, hides his face behind a curtain 
while David is absorbed in his music. There is a modern treat- 
ment of the theme by the Dutch artist Jozef ^Israels. In recent 
times, the lives of David and Saul were treated in a series of 41 
lithographs by the Austrian artist Oskar Kokoschka. 

In Music 

Earlier musical compositions on the theme include a choral 
work by Heinrich Schuetz, Saul (for three choirs and instru- 
ments); the second of Kuhnaus "Biblical Sonatas" (1700), Der 
von David mittelst der Musik curierte Saul y for keyboard in- 
strument; and Bononuni's anthem for the funeral of the Duke 
of Marlborough, When Saul was King over Israel (1722). Oc- 
casionally Jonathan is the main figure, as in Caldara's orato- 
rio, Gionata (1728; libretto by Zeno). Handel's oratorio, Saul 
(text by Charles Jennens), was first performed at the King's 
Theater, London, in January 1739 and the "Death March in 
Saul" has entered the repertoire of standard funeral marches. 
Another English work was Samuel Arnold's The Cure of Saul 
(oratorio, 1767). A. Salieri left an unfinished oratorio, Saulle; 
and other works of the period were operas, oratorios, and 
melodramas by Seyfried (1798), Rolle (1776), and a pastiche, 
Saul y for which the music was "mixed" by Kalkbrenner and 
Lachnith from works by Mozart, Haydn, Cimarosa, and Paisi- 
ello (Paris, 1803). At the same time, Gossec also composed an 
oratorio, Saul. The Italian Jewish composer Michele *Bolaffi 
composed an opera, Saul y which was not staged. Byron's three 
poems on Saul (in Hebrew Melodies) were first set to music 
by Isaac *Nathan. There were later settings by many others, 
including Moussorgsky's King Saul (a translation by Kozlov 
of Warriors and Chiefs) , song with piano, later arranged for 
orchestral accompaniment by Glazunov and for tenor or alto, 
mixed choir, piano or orchestra, trumpet, and side drum by 
Lazare *Saminsky (1929). Two other i9 th -century composi- 
tions were Rossini's oratorio, Saul (1834), and a successful 
opera by Antonio Buzzi (1843). Among musical treatments 
of the late 19 th century were Ferdinand Hiller's oratorio, Saul 
(1857); another by Hubert Parry, King Saul (1894); and Georges 
Enesco's cantata, La vision de Saiil (1896). Works of the 20 th 
century include Carl Nielsen's oratorio-like opera, Saul og 
David (1902); Arthur Honegger's incidental music to Andre 
Gide's Saiil (1922); an orchestral work, Saul en David by Jo- 
hann Wagenaar (1862-1941); and the opera Saul by Hermann 
Reutter, with libretto after A. Lernet-Holenia (1928; revised 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


1947). For Max Zweig's drama, Saul, in a Hebrew translation 
by J. Horowitz, performed by Habimah in 1949, the inciden- 
tal music was written by Emanuel *Amiran. Three later com- 
positions are The Lamentation of Saul by Norman dello Joio 
(1954) for baritone and orchestra, based on D.H. Lawrence's 
play, David; Josef *TaTs concert-opera, Saul at Endor (pre- 
miere at Ramat Gan, 1955); and Mario *Castelnuovo-Tedesco's 
opera, Saul (i960). 

See also: *David in the Arts; *Samuel in the Arts. 

[Bathja Bayer] 

bibliography: Bright, Hist. 164-74; Tadmor, in: H.H. Ben- 
Sasson (ed.), Toledot Am Yisrael bi-Ymei Kedem (1969), 93-97; Al- 
bright, in: aasor, 4 (1924), i6off.; Mendelsohn, in: basor, 143 
(1956), 17-22; Bardtke, in: bor, 25 (1968), 289-302 (Ger.); R. Kittel, 
Great Men and Movements in Israel (1929, 1968). in the aggadah: 
Ginzberg, Legends, index, in islam: Tabari, Tafsir, 2 (1323 a.h.), 
377-87; idem, Tdrikh, 1 (1367 a.h.), 330-8; c Umara ibn Wathima, 
Ms. fol. 4or~42v; ThaTabI; Qisas (1356 a.h., 223-31; Kisai, Qisas (1356 
a.h.), 250-8; A. Geiger, Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume 
aufgenommen? (1902), 44, 53-54; M. Gruenbaum, Neue Beitrage zur 
semitischen Sagenkunde (1893), 185-9; J-W. Hirschberg (ed.), DerDi- 
wan des as-Samaual ibn Adija... (1931), 25, 60; H. Speyer, Die bib- 
lischen Erzahlungen im Qoran (1961), 364-71. in the arts: J. Mueller, 
Konig Saul in Sage und Dichtung (1891); M. Roston, Biblical Drama 
in England (1968), index, add. bibliography: D. Edelman, in: 
abd, 5:989-99; idem, King Saul in the Historiography ofjudah (1991); 
K. van der Toorn, in: vt, 43 (1993), 519-42; S.D. Sperling, The Origi- 
nal Torah (1998), 121-34; A. Rainey and R. Notley, The Sacred Bridge 
(2006), 145-47 

SAUL BEN ANAN (c. 800), sectarian leader, son of *Anan b. 
David. He succeeded his father as head of the sect of Anan- 
ites about the end of the eighth century In * Karaite tradition, 
which regards Anan as the titular founder of Karaism, Saul is 
listed second in the hereditary line of Karaite "princes." Noth- 
ing is known of his activity, except for his reported interpreta- 
tion of the Seventh Commandment in the sense that adultery 
covers all illicit intimacy. He was succeeded in his princely of- 
fice by his son * Josiah. 

bibliography: S. Pinsker, Likkutei Kadmoniyyot (i860), 44 
(first pagination), 53, 62, 106, 186 (second pagination); Mann, Texts, 
2 (1935), index; L. Nemoy, Karaite Anthology (1952), 6, 21. 

[Leon Nemoy] 


(1807-1880), French numismatist, Orientalist, and archaeolo- 
gist. Saulcy was born in Lille, France. He traveled in Syria and 
Palestine in 1850-51, 1863, and 1869, discovering the Shihan 
Stele and recognizing that the mound of Jericho was the site 
of an ancient city In 1863 he cleared the Tombs of the Kings 
in Jerusalem, mistaking them for the Tombs of the House of 
David. This was the first archaeological excavation in the Holy 
Land. Although his archaeological work is now considered 
somewhat slipshod and amateurish, Saulcy was of some im- 
portance as a numismatist: he was the first to catalogue the 
coins of Palestine, noting many which have since disappeared, 
and left after him an extensive coin collection. 

His works include Numismatique des Croisades (1847); sur la numismatique judai'que (1854); Numismati- 
que de la Terre Sainte (1874); Voyage autour de la Mer Morte 
(2 vols., 1853); Voyage en Terre Sainte (2 vols., 1865; including 
his account of the excavation of the Tombs of the Kings in vol. 
1,345-410; vol. 2, 188-9, 309-11); and Cornets de voyage en Ori- 
ent, ed. by F. Bassan (1955). 

[Michael Avi-Yonah] 

SAVANNAH, city in Georgia, U.S., third oldest Jewish com- 
munity in North America. A seaport, the city had a total popu- 
lation of 129,808, according to the 2004 U.S. Census estimates, 
of whom 3,500 were Jews in 2005. 

On July 11, 1733, 41 Jews arrived aboard a ship chartered 
by London's Sephardi synagogue. Despite objections from 
London's Georgia trustees, the Jews won the legal right to set- 
tle and own property. Original settlers included Dr. Samuel 
Nunes, who rescued the colonists from an epidemic; his son- 
in-law Abraham de Lyon, who introduced viticulture; Abra- 
ham Minis, who became supplier for the militia of the founder 
of Georgia, James Edward Oglethorpe; and Benjamin Sheftall, 
interpreter for German Salzburger settlers. Sheftall and his son 
Levi kept the community's vital records from 1733 to 1809. In 
1740, the Jewish population reached 100, but economic failure 
in Georgia, coupled with Spanish raids from Florida, gradu- 
ally dispersed the community until only the Minis and Shef- 
tall families remained. 

Although ritual appurtenances had been brought from 
England, it was not until 1735 that Ashkenazim and Sephardim 
could agree to organize the congregation Mickve Israel, which 
conducted worship in a small hut. A ritual bath was opened in 
1738. Oglethorpe granted the original settlers a cemetery, but 
when the town grew around it, Mordecai Sheftall, by deed of 
August 2, 1773, donated to Mickve Israel a portion of his farm 
plot for "the use of a burial ground and for erecting a syna- 
gogue." The cemetery was used until 1850. The remainder of 
the property was sold, and the proceeds were used in 1902 to 
build a school and social center, the Mordecai Sheftall Me- 
morial, which was replaced in 1957. Fluctuation in popula- 
tion occasionally forced the abandonment of public worship. 
In 1790, Mickve Israel obtained a charter from the governor, 
but 30 years elapsed before Jacob de la Motta (1789-1845) pre- 
vailed upon his coreligionists to build a synagogue, which was 
dedicated in 1820 and consecrated the following year. In 1829, 
it burned down (though its Torah - brought to Savannah in 
!733 ~ an d ark were saved) and was replaced with a brick edifice 
that remained in use until 1878, when the present Gothic struc- 
ture was dedicated. Mickve Israel preserved Sephardi traditions 
until 1903, when it joined the Reform movement. It is the oldest 
reform congregation in the United States, using an organ for 
services in 1820, having mixed seating in i860, as well as having 
a mixed choir populated by both sexes and even non- Jews. In 
2005, 300 families were members of the congregation. 

Prussian- Polish immigrants of the 1850 s organized what 
became the Orthodox Congregation B'nai B'rith Jacob. The 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



Eastern European immigration to the United States enlarged 
its membership. Organized under the leadership of Rabbi 
Jacob Rosenfeld after he was dismissed as rabbi at Mickve 
Israel over a dispute dealing with kashrut, the congregation 
built its first synagogue on the northeast corner of State and 
Montgomery Streets in 1866 and held services on Friday eve- 
nings and Saturday mornings. A flourishing membership 
prompted the community to build a new, larger synagogue 
with a Hebrew school on the same site in 1909; at its peak, the 
school boasted an enrollment of 200 students. The congrega- 
tion built a third structure, in 1962, on Abercorn Street and 
held its first services there on Passover. In 2005, 425 families 
belonged to the congregation. 

Congregation Agudath Achim, formed as an Orthodox 
group in 1901, was incorporated in 1903 and became Con- 
servative in 1945 with the dedication of its third synagogue. 
The original congregation numbered 46 families; in 2005, it 
had 270 families. In the early 1980s, it formed a joint school 
with Mickve Israel, which was renamed in 1991 as the Shalom 
School, and in 2005 enrolled 100 students. Shalom School is a 
supplemental religious school that meets two weekday after- 
noons and on Sunday. The congregation celebrated its centen- 
nial year in 2003 and as part of that celebration, rededicated a 
Holocaust Torah from Kamenice, Czechoslovakia. 

Established in 2002, the Hillel chapter at Savannah Col- 
lege of Art and Design had approximately 25 members in 

The Savannah B'nai Brith was chartered in i860. Savan- 
nah Jewry also developed many charitable societies: Hebrew 
Benevolent (1851); Ladies Hebrew Benevolent (1853); Harmo- 
nie Club (1865); Orphan Aid (1880), affiliated with the B'nai 
B'rith Atlanta Orphanage; Hebra Gemiluth Hessed (1888); 
Young Woman's Aid (1906); Women's Circle (1908); Hadas- 
sah (1918). A Young Men's Hebrew Association (1874) lasted 
several generations. These and other agencies came under the 
aegis of the Jewish Education Alliance (chartered 1912). De- 
signed as an Americanizing center, the Alliance developed 
into a center of Jewish activities; it moved to larger premises 
in the 1950s. In 1990, the Alliance founded the Rambam Day 
School for students aged 2 through eighth grade; 2005 enroll- 
ment was 122 students. The Savannah Jewish Council, founded 
in 1943 and now known as the Savannah Jewish Federation, 
conducts the annual United Jewish Appeal campaign as well 
as social and educational programs. 

The Savannah Jewish Archives are housed in the Geor- 
gia Historical Society in Savannah, Georgia. Established in 
1994, they are administered by the Savannah Jewish Federa- 
tion and are one of two Jewish archives in the state. The sec- 
ond is located in Atlanta. 

Jews have always played an active role in all facets of Sa- 
vannah life, with many holding public office. Most notable 
was Herman Myers (1847-1909), who served as mayor from 
1895 to 1897 and from 1899 to 1907, and Kenneth Sadler, city 
council member (2003- ). Other notable community mem- 
bers include Kenneth Rubin, awarded the Distinguished Ser- 

vice Cross in the Vietnam War in 1967, and William Wexler, 
international president of B'nai Brith from 1965 to 1971. 

bibliography: M.H. Stern, in: ajhsp, 53 (1963/64), 169-99; 
54 (1964/65), 243-77; Congregation Mickve Israel, Contact Commem- 
orative Issue (March 1955); B. Postal and L. Koppman, Jewish Tourists 
Guide to the U.S. (1954), 123-7, 131-2. add. bibliography: Savan- 
nah Jewish Archives held at the Georgia Historical Society, Savan- 
nah, Georgia (with acknowledgment to Kaye Kole for her invaluable 
research there). 

[Malcolm H. Stern / David Weinstock (2 nd ed.)] 

SAVERNE (Ger. Zabern), town in the department of Bas- 
Rhin, in eastern France. The presence of Jews in Saverne is 
confirmed from at least 1334. The community suffered during 
the *Armleder persecutions in 1338. At the time of the *Black 
Death in 1349 there was only one Jewish family in Saverne, 
which was compelled to leave the town. By 1622 there were 
a few Jews again living in Saverne; in 1716, there were seven 
families and 21 in 1784. The community numbered over 300 
persons at the close of the 19 th century. It maintained a Jew- 
ish primary school (founded in 1857). A new synagogue was 
opened in 1898. Its population subsequently declined. During 
World War 11,30 Jews of Saverne died during deportation. The 
community numbered about 100 in 1970. 

bibliography: D. Fischer, Etude sur lorganisation munici- 
pal de Saverne (1865), 30 f.; O. Meyer, La regence episcopale de Sa- 
verne (1935), index; L. Bachmeyer, Pages d'histoire de Saverne (1965), 
11, 32, 39; Z. Szajkowski, Analytical Franco-Jewish Gazetteer, 1939-1945 
(1966), 250; Germ Jud, 2.2 (1968), 937f. 

[Bernhard Blumenkranz] 

SAVILLE, VICTOR (1897-1979), British film director and 
producer. Saville was born in Birmingham, the son of an Or- 
thodox fine arts dealer, Gabriel Salberg. He was educated at 
King Edward vi School in Birmingham and was wounded in 
World War 1. From 1919 Saville was a partner with Michael 
*Balcon, another leading film producer, in Victory Motion 
Pictures, and from the late 1920s was one of Britain's lead- 
ing filmmakers, producing or directing such movies as South 
Riding (1937), Goodbye Mr. Chips (1939), Dr. Jekyll and Mr. 
Hyde (1941), and Green Dolphin Street (1947). In the 1950s 
he changed direction, producing several of Mickey Spillane s 
"hard-boiled" thrillers such as 1, The Jury (1953). Saville s wife, 
Phoebe, was the niece of the prominent British film distribu- 
tor and producer Charles M. Woolf (1879-1942). His son, sir 
john woolf (1913-1999), was also a major British film pro- 
ducer, responsible for such works as Lawrence Olivier s Shake- 
spearean epic Henry v (1944) and, after the war, Moulin Rouge 
(1953), Richard in (1955), Room At the Top (1959), and the film 
version of the musical Oliver! (1968), which won six Oscars. 
Woolf was also the cofounder of Anglia Television and was re- 
sponsible for the series Tales of the Unexpected (1979-89) and 
other drama productions. He was knighted in 1975. 

bibliography: odnb online. 

[William D. Rubinstein (2 nd ed.)] 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


SAVITT, RICHARD (Dick; 1927- ), U.S. tennis player, the 
only Jew ever to win Wimbledon, Pete *Sampras excepted; 
member of the International Tennis Hall of Fame. Born in 
Bayonne, New Jersey, Savitt taught himself tennis as a 14-year- 
old, and reached the finals of the New Jersey Boys Champion- 
ship. In 1944, his family moved to El Paso, Texas, where Savitt 
was co-captain of his high school basketball team and became 
an all- Texas player. At the same time, he ranked eighth na- 
tionally among junior tennis players and was the 17 th ranked 
amateur overall. Savitt joined the Navy in 1945 and played on 
its basketball team, completing his tour of duty the following 
year. Cornell University offered him a basketball scholarship, 
but Savitt decided, after injuries cut short his hoop career, to 
concentrate on tennis. In 1947, he was national ranked 26 th , 
and two years later he moved up to 16 th . In 1950, Savitt won the 
Eastern Intercollegiate, East Clay Court, and New York State 
tournaments, and without the benefit of coaching he reached 
the semifinals of the U.S. Championship at Forest Hills. He 
then won the Australian Open, defeating the three top Auss- 
ies - John Bromwich, Frank Sedgman, and Ken McGregor - 
and on July 6, 1951, Savitt won the All-England championship 
at Wimbledon, defeating McGregor 6-4, 6-4, 6-4. After the 
tournament, Savitt and Herb Flam were named to the U.S. 
Davis Cup team, the first time that Jewish players ever made 
the squad. But inexplicably - and despite his being clearly the 
best American player at that time, even making the cover of 
Time magazine on August 27, 1951 - Savitt was passed over 
for the Davis Cup final against the Australian team, a contro- 
versial decision that was discussed by sports writers all over 
the world. The following year, Savitt was so upset at being 
snubbed that he announced he would retire from competi- 
tive tennis following the 1952 U.S. National Indoor Champi- 
onships, which he won. He returned to tennis on a part-time 
basis in 1956, and won the 1958 and 1961 U.S. National Indoor 
Championships, making him the first to win three times. In 
1961, Savitt won the singles and doubles (with Mike Franks) 
gold medals at the Maccabiah Games, which began a lifetime 
commitment to Israeli tennis. In 1981, he and his son, Robert, 
won the U.S. father and son doubles title. Savitt was ranked 
six times in the U.S. Top Ten between 1950 and 1959 (No. 2 in 
1951), and four times in the World Top Ten between 1951 and 
!957 (No. 2 in 1951). He was elected to the International Ten- 
nis Hall of Fame in 1976. 

[Elli Wohlgelernter (2 nd ed.)] 

SAVORA, SAVORAIM (Aram. OnOilD, NlilO), Babylo- 
nian scholars between the *amoraim and the *geonim. Very 
little is known of this period, the principal sources being 
Sherira (Iggeret Sherira Gabn, ed. by B.M. Lewin (1921), 67-71, 
95 - 99)> wno drew upon early geonic archival material; Abra- 
ham ibn Daud (Ibn Daud, Tradition, 43-55); and some addi- 
tional geonic fragments such as Seder Tannaim ve-Amoraim, 
etc. Traditionally, the amoraic phase ends with the death of 
*Ravina (bm 86a) in 499 c.e. According to Seder Tannaim 
ve-Amoraim (ed. by Grossberg, 105-11) and Sherira, the last 

of the savoraim were Gada (Gazai) and Simuna, who died in 
540, while Ibn Daud extends the savoraic period for five gen- 
erations, from Mar Joseph (502) until the death of Sheshna in 
689. It would appear that the transition from one period to an- 
other was so gradual that only in retrospect could the geonim 
somewhat arbitrarily fix terminal dates to the savoraic period, 
and different reckonings were adduced. Sherira, Ibn Daud, and 
Seder Tannaim ve-Amoraim all give lists of savoraim, but the 
textual state of these lists is poor, and only a few major per- 
sonalities can be definitely identified, e.g., Abba (Rava) Joseph 
(Yose), Aha b. Huna, Ahai of Be-Hatim, Geviha of Argiza (Git. 
7a), Mordecai, Pappias, Rabbah of Rov, and Samuel b. Abbahu 
(Rabbah; Hul. 59b). 

The term savoraim, first found in geonic sources, and 
based on savor a in the Jerusalem Talmud, Kiddushin 2, 63d 
(where it means a scholar competent to render decisions) im- 
plies those who give private subjective judgments rather than 
authoritative ones. According to Sherira, after Ravina there 
was no hora'ah (independent decision based on interpreta- 
tion of the Mishnah), but the savoraim "rendered decisions 
similar to hora'ah, and gave explanations of all that had been 
left unsettled." This implies that they added nothing essen- 
tially new to the Talmud, merely adding explanations which 
in some ways were similar to amoraic decisions and coming to 
practical conclusions on undecided issues (hence the savoraic 
terminology of ve-hilkheta ("and the ruling is"), pashit ("he re- 
solved it"), mistabra ("it is reasonable"), etc. Sherira adds that a 
number of savoraic decisions (of Ena and Simuna) and indeed 
complete arguments (e.g., Kid. 2a-3b) have been included in 
the Talmud. Analysis of these additions often demonstrates a 
close similarity in style and argumentation to that of the later 
amor aim, again underscoring the problem of pinpointing the 
moment of transition between the two periods. 

According to (some versions of) Seder Tannaim va- 
Amordim, the savoraim did no more than "merely determine 
the arrangement of the Talmud text in all its chapters." Evi- 
dently, this represents but one (the earliest?) phase of savoraic 
activity, during which the redaction of the Talmud, begun in 
the late amoraic period, was completed. The savoraim com- 
pleted the ordering of the Talmud, clarified certain unsettled 
halakhic decisions, introduced additional discussions and ex- 
planations of existing texts, and inserted brief technical guide 
phrases to facilitate study of the texts. Recent tendencies have 
been to increase the extent of their contribution to the Talmud, 
though this is still a subject of considerable controversy. 

bibliography: Baron, Social 2 , 2 (1952), 426; 6 (1958), lyf., 
328f. (with a critical bibl.); B.M. Lewin, in: Azkarah le-Nishmat... A.I. 
Kooky pt. 4 (1937), 145-208; idem, in: Ha-Tor, 6 (1926), nos. 16, 34; A. 
Weiss, Ha-Yezirah shel ha-Savora'im (1953); Halevy, Dorot, 3 (1923), 
1-63; M.D. Yudelivitz, Yeshivat Pumbedita bi-Ymei ha-Amordim 
(i935)> 5 2_ 54; Z. Jawitz, Toledot Yisrael, (1922), 213-24. 

[Daniel Sperber] 

SAVOY (Fr. Savoie), formerly a county and then a duchy, re- 
united with France in i860, includes the present departments 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



of Savoie and Haute-Savoie in S.E. France. A Jewish inscrip- 
tion of 688 from *Narbonne, mentioning a Jew named Sapau- 
dus, may be the first evidence of the presence of Jews in that 
region. Formal proofs of Jewish settlement in Savoy date only 
from the second half of the 13 th century (the assertion that Jews 
were in Savoy after the expulsion from France in 1182 has no 
documentary basis, not even in Emek ha-Bakha of * Joseph 
ha-Kohen). Jews were to be found not only in Chambery, but 
particularly in the following places (not including those which 
belonged to Savoy only temporarily): Aiguebelle, Montmelian, 
Rumilly, Yenne, Saint- Genix. Noteworthy is the place name 
"Lac des Juifs" near Chambery. In almost all these places the 
Jews suffered bloody persecution in 1348 on the charge of 
spreading the *Black Death; even those who survived were 
robbed of all their goods. 

The expulsion of the Jews from France in 1394 led to their 
emigrating into Savoy again. In 1417 the first investigation of 
Jewish books was entrusted to two converted Jews. Moreover, 
for many years the dukes had favored proselytizing activities, 
guaranteeing comfortable subsidies to new Christians. This 
was probably the persecution that Joseph ha-Kohen noted 
in 1394 and which he attributed to the preaching of Vicente 
*Ferrer; in fact, he notes having seen "a book of tattered ap- 
pearance because it was one of those which the Jews, in those 
unhappy days, kept hidden at the bottom of wells until their 
torment was over." There was a fresh investigation into Jew- 
ish books in 1426 (this time directed by the inquisitor Ponce 
Feugerons), which resulted in the Jews pledging to delete the 
prohibited passages he had listed. The statutes promulgated 
by Duke Amadeus in 1430 reflect this general hostility by forc- 
ing the Jews to reside in a separate quarter ("Judeazimus") and 
wear a distinctive badge, and forbidding them to mingle with 
Christians on Christian festivals. There was another investiga- 
tion of Jewish books in 1466, as well as of a series of other ac- 
cusations - committing murders, practicing abortions, magic, 
and sorcery, and publicly insulting the duke. The investigation 
of books was again entrusted to a converted Jew, the physician 
Louis of Nice, a man whom the duke had favored for more 
than 20 years. Criminal proceedings were abandoned, how- 
ever, despite numerous witnesses for the prosecution, when 
the Jews paid a very heavy fine. 

From then on there is no further evidence of the pres- 
ence of Jews in Savoy, except at Chambery; it is therefore 
probable that their departure - voluntary or forced - resulted 
from these criminal proceedings. Joseph ha-Kohen dates the 
banishment of the Jews from Savoy to 1461. The existence of 
the Jewish community of Chambery up to the beginning of 
the 16 th century was recorded by the Jewish scholar Gershom 
*Soncino, who lived there at the time. There were a number of 
important Jewish doctors, some of them converts. 

bibliography: Gross, Gal Jud, 639 f., 628; G. Sessa, Tracta- 
tus de Judaeis (1717); M.A. Gerson, in: rej, 8 (1884), 235-42; A. Nord- 
mann, ibid., 83 (1927), 63-73; 84 (1927), 81-91; C.A. Costa de Beau- 
regard, in: Memoires de I'Academie des Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts 
de Savoie, series 2, 2 (1854), 81-126; S. Dufour and F. Rabut, in: Me- 

moires et documents publies par la Societe d'histoire et d'archeologie, 15 
(1875), 3-28; M. Esposito, in: Revue d'histoire ecclesiastique, 34 (1938), 
785-801; H. Merhavia, in: ks, 45 (1969/70), 590-606. 

[Bernhard Blumenkranz] 

SAVRAN (Bendery), hasidic dynasty, moses zevi savran 
(d. 1838), son of R. Simeon solomon, held rabbinical posts in 
Berdichev, Savran (in Podolia), and Titshlinik. From boyhood 
he excluded from his life all activities that might distract him 
from his studies. Savran strongly opposed the hasidic followers 
of Nahman of *Bratslav, whom he denounced as "sinners," and 
warned his followers not to intermarry with them. Azriel Dov, 
a disciple of Moses Zevi, collected the discourses of his mas- 
ter, which were published under the title Likkutei Shoshanim 
(1872). His son Simeon solomon (d. 1848) and his grand- 
son david (d. 1913), son-in-law of Nahum of * Chernobyl, 
continued the dynasty. The second son of Simeon Solomon, 
aryeh leib of bendery (d. 1854) founded a dynasty which 
produced four hasidic leaders, simeon solomon (d. 1864), 
isaac (d. 1911), son-in-law of Joseph of Radziwillow, simeon 
solomon (d. 1924), and Joseph (b. 1882). 

bibliography: I. Berger, Eser Atarot (1910), 82-84. 

[Harry Rabinowicz] 

SAVYON (Heb. JVID), urban settlement, with municipal coun- 
cil status, in central Israel, south of Petah Tikvah. Founded 
on the initiative of immigrants from South Africa as a garden 
suburb, it had a population of 1,430 in 1968 and 2,470 in 2002, 
occupying an area of 1.1 sq. mi. (2.9 sq. km.). Savyon is an up- 
per middle-class community, with most residents commuting 
to work in Tel Aviv or elsewhere in the area. The settlement's 
name is that of the senecio plant common in the region. 

[Efraim Orni / Shaked Gilboa (2 nd ed.)] 

SAWICKI (Reisler), JERZY (1908-1967), Polish lawyer who 
was a prosecuting counsel at the Polish War Crimes Tribunal 
and a member of the Polish delegation at the Nuremberg Trials. 
Born in Skole, Galicia, into an Orthodox Jewish family, Sawicki 
graduated and practiced as a lawyer. He went into hiding dur- 
ing the Nazi occupation. After the war he rapidly acquired dis- 
tinction as a prosecutor in war crimes trials and other impor- 
tant cases. Subsequently he became professor of criminal law 
at Warsaw University and a member of several international 
institutions concerned with the reform of criminal law. 

Sawicki was the author of numerous works on criminal 
law, genocide, and the trial of Nazi war criminals, including 
Prawo norymberskie ("The Nuremberg Judgment," 1948), with 
T. Cyprian, and Przed polskim prokuratorem ("Before the Polish 
Prosecutor," 1958). After 1945 he was a founder and an active 
member of the "Polish Friends of the Hebrew University." 

[Israel (Ignacy) Isserles] 

SAXON, DAVID STEPHEN (1920-2005), U.S. educator and 
physicist. Saxon was born in St. Paul, Minnesota. He attended 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and received his 
B.S. in 1941 and his Ph.D. in 1944. In 1946 he became an as- 
sociate physicist with Phillips Laboratories in New York and 
the following year joined the faculty of the University of Cal- 
ifornia at Los Angeles as an assistant professor of physics. At 
ucla he became professor of physics in 1957, served as dean 
of physical sciences (1963-1966), vice chancellor (1968-1972), 
and executive vice chancellor (1974-1975). In 1975 he was 
elected the 14 th president of the University of California and 
served until 1983. 

Saxon's academic fields were theoretical physics, nuclear 
physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. In 
addition to being a renowned scholar, he was an outstand- 
ing academic administrator and a distinguished leader. In 
1967 the ucla Alumni Association presented him with the 
Distinguished Teaching Award. After he retired from teach- 
ing, he became professor emeritus of physics and astronomy 

at UCLA. 

Among his publications are Elementary Quantum Me- 
chanics (1968), The Nuclear Independent Particle Model (with 
A.E.S. Green and T. Sawada, 1968), Discontinuities in Wave 
Guides (with J. Schwinger, 1968), and Physics for the Liberal 
Arts Student (with W.B. Fretter, 1971). 

[Frederick R. Lachman] 

SAXONY (Ger. Sachsen), state in Germany, formerly an elec- 
torate and kingdom. Information about the first Jewish settlers 
in Saxony dates back to the tenth century. During the rule of 
the German emperor Otto 1 (936-973), Jews lived in the towns 
of *Magdeburg, *Halle, *Erfurt, and *Merseburg, among other 
places. Up to the end of the 12 th century they were able to earn 
their living, primarily as merchants, without interference. In 
the 13 th century, following persecutions during the Crusades 
and accusations of ritual murder (see *blood libel), the posi- 
tion of the Jews deteriorated. According to the medieval Ger- 
man law code Sachsenspiegel (1220-1235; see ^Germany), Jews 
were not allowed to carry arms, build new synagogues, or 
keep Christian servants, nor could they hold any public office. 
They were not allowed to appear as witnesses or call Christian 
witnesses, and were thus entirely at the courts mercy. How- 
ever, since the economic activities of the Jews were of inter- 
est to the margraves of Saxony, many of these restrictions 
were abolished as early as the middle of the 13 th century and 
were replaced by more liberal regulations. Jews were allowed 
to have their tribunals and to be landowners. As may be 
gathered from the responsa literature and from the medieval 
chronicles, there was already a busy community life in those 
early days. The communities were collectively responsible to 
the authorities. A meeting at Erfurt in 1391 was attended by 
rabbis and community elders. Among famous talmudic schol- 
ars who resided in the communities of Saxony were *Asher 
b. Jehiel (the "Rosh") and *Isaac b. Moses of Vienna ("Or 
Zarua"). During the *Rindfleisch persecutions (1298), Jews 
in the southern cities of Saxony were affected. The large-scale 
persecutions and expulsions from German cities at the time 

of the *Black Death (1348-50) also affected the communities 
in Saxony. 

Community life in most cities was renewed, but on a di- 
minished scale. Moneylending had become the main occupa- 
tion of the Jews, who were hard hit by the debt cancellations 
of Emperor Wenceslaus (1378-1400). The 15 th century wit- 
nessed the expulsion of Jews from most of the cities - Erfurt 
(1458), Halle (1493), Aschersleben (1494), and Torgau (1432). 
The expulsions of *Meissen (1430), and of the 16 th century 
from Merseburg (1514), * Zwickau, Plauen, and *Muehlhau- 
sen (1541-43) were more strictly enforced, due to the militant 
anti- Jewish spirit of the Protestant Reformation in Saxony. 
However, a few Jews were tolerated - such as Meister Baruch, 
the physician of the rulers Ernst (1464-85) and Albert in 
(1485-1500) - who, together with his two sons, received spe- 
cial permission to engage in moneylending. In the 16 th century 
there were complaints about the economic activity of foreign 
Jews, who were mainly attracted by the Saxon silver mines. 
The government and the municipal authorities took steps to 
ensure that the presence of Jews at the Leipzig fairs should be 
temporary and limited to the duration of the fairs. 

The first Jew to receive a Schutzbrief (see *Schutzjuden) 
in Saxony was Behrend *Lehmann, the *Court Jew of Elec- 
tor Frederick Augustus 1 (the Strong; 1694-1733); in 1710 Leh- 
mann preferred to remain in *Halberstadt, while his cousin, 
Jonas Meyer, and his son settled as his agents in ^Dresden, 
the capital. In 1723 they maintained households, numbering 
30 and 40 respectively, to the annoyance of the burghers. The 
Jewish community of ^Leipzig was founded in 1710 by Gerd 
Levi, court purveyor to the mint. 

Frederick Augustus 11 (1733-63) in the year of his acces- 
sion abolished the *Leibzoll for the Jews passing through Sax- 
ony on business. His prime minister, Heinrich von Bruehl, was 
very partial to court Jews fulfilling various economic functions 
(military contractors, purveyors to the mint, etc.). As Freder- 
ick Augustus was, like his father, king of Poland as well, many 
of the court Jews originated in Poland. The *Kaskel (Kaskele) 
family, court Jews, bankers, and financiers, originally from 
Poland, played a central economic role in Saxony in the late 
18 th and 19 th centuries. 

Frederick Augustus in (1768-1827), elector and first king 
of Saxony, promulgated a restrictive Judenordnung (regula- 
tion concerning Jews) in 1772. Saxon Jewry thus remained 
numerically static throughout the following decades; an in- 
crease during the Napoleonic wars proved to be only tem- 
porary. The number of Jews in Dresden in 1800 (1,031) was 
halved by 1815. In 1832 there were 852 Jews in the kingdom, 
712 in Dresden and 140 in Leipzig. The struggle for emanci- 
pation was led by Bernhard *Beer and W.T. *Krug. In 1834 
Jews were allowed to learn trades and live outside Dresden 
proper, while Jewish affairs were placed under the supervi- 
sion of the ministry of religion and education. Further slight 
improvements were effected in 1837 and 1838. In 1840 the 
Jewish *oath was amended, partially due to the urging of the 
*Landrabbiner Zacharias *Frankel (1836-1854). Full equality 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



was obtained during the 1848 Revolution, only to be repealed 
in 1851. It was not until 1868 and 1869 that Jews attained full 
legal equality. The number of Jews increased slowly from 
1,022 in 1849 (0.05% of the total population) to 1,555 m 1861 
and 3,346 in 1871 (0.13%). After emancipation their number 
leaped to 6,616 in 1880 (0.22%), 12,378 in 1900, and 17,587 in 
1910 (0.53%). This increase, due in large part to immigration 
from Austria (Galicia) and Russia (Poland) and rapid indus- 
trialization in Saxony, had serious repercussions. Antisemites 
raised a cry against inundation by Ostjuden, while there was 
friction within the Jewish communities too. In 1925 there were 
23,200 (0.46%, half the German average), with 5,120 in Leipzig, 
5,120 in Dresden, and 2,796 in Chemnitz (^Karl-Marx-Stadt). 
Rural communities were nonexistent. Anti- Jewish sentiment 
was expressed in anti-*shehitah laws and the exclusion of Jews 
from the civil service. The only Jew elected to the Landtagwas 
Emil *Lehmann, leader of the Dresden community. In Octo- 
ber 1938 thousands of Polish Jews were expelled; on Novem- 
ber 9-10 the synagogues were burned down, and thousands 
more Jews emigrated after pogroms and arrests. The remain- 
der were deported to concentration camps. After the war new 
communities arose in Leipzig, Dresden, and Karl-Marx-Stadt 
(renamed Chemnitz in 1990). In 1945 the three communities 
had 563 members. The membership declined continuously. 
They numbered 214 in 1969; 169 in 1976; and 106 in 1989. Af- 
ter 1990 the membership increased due to the immigration 
of Jews from the former Soviet Union. In 1992 the Associa- 
tion of Jewish Communities in Saxony was founded as an um- 
brella organization of the communities in Dresden, Leipzig, 
and Chemnitz. They numbered 232 in 1994 and 2,314 in 2004. 
The association employs a rabbi who officiates in the three 

bibliography: K. Sidori (pseud, of I. Kaim), Geschichte der 
Juden in Sachsen (1840); A. Levy, Geschichte der Juden in Sachsen 
(1900); S. Neufeld, in: mgwj, 69 (1925), 283-95; idem, in: aujw (Jan. 
21, 1966); idem, Die Juden im thueringisch-saechsichen Gebiet waeh- 
rend des Mittelalters (1917-27); J. Segall, in: Zeitschrift fuer Demogra- 
phic und Statistik der Juden, 10 (1914), 33-46; H. Schnee, Die Hoffinanz 
und der moderne Staat, 2 (1954), 167-292; Kisch, Germany, index; S. 
Stern, The Court Jew (1950), index, add. bibliography: Germania 
Judaica, vol, 3, 1350- 1514 (1987), 2063-73; Juden in Sachsen. IhrLeben 
und Leiden (1994); S. Hoeppner and M. Jahn, Juedische Vereine und 
Organisationen in Chemnitz, Dresden und Leipzig 1918-1933 (1997); U. 
Offenberg, "Seid vorsichtig gegen die Machthaber," in: Die juedischen 
Gemeinden in dersBZ und der ddr 1945- 1990 (1998), 50-56; F. Specht, 
Zwischen Ghetto und Selbstbehauptung. Musikalisches Leben der Juden 
in Sachsen 1933-1941 (2000); C. Wustmann, "Geschichte juedischer 
Sozialarbeit in Sachsen," in: G. Stecklina (ed.), Juedische Sozialarbeit 
in Deutschland (2000), 49-99. 

[Reuven Michael / Larissa Daemmig (2 nd ed.)] 

SCAASI, ARNOLD (1931- ), U.S. fashion designer. Scaasi 
was born Arnold Isaacs in Montreal, Canada, the son of a lo- 
cal furrier. Although he never graduated from high school, he 
became a celebrated designer whose custom-made tailored 
suits and glamorous gowns were worn by movie stars, soci- 

ety matrons, and at least five U.S. first ladies. He changed his 
last name, but he never denied his heritage, often describing 
himself as "a Jewish kid from Montreal." When he was still a 
teenager, the family moved to Melbourne, Australia, where 
Arnold fell under the spell of his aunt Ida Wynn, a prominent 
fundraiser for the Women's International Zionist Organiza- 
tion, who was equally well known for her chic French ward- 
robe. His interest in fashion piqued, he returned to Montreal 
to study design, then moved to Paris and apprenticed to Pa- 
quin, a prestigious couture house. He came to New York City 
in 1953 and began working with Charles James, a brilliant but 
eccentric designer. Around that time, Isaacs was assigned to 
create dresses for a series of automobile ads. Someone sug- 
gested reversing the spelling of his last name for added glam- 
our and Scaasi was born. As his reputation for bold colors 
and sculptural shapes spread, he landed a red evening coat on 
the cover of Vogue magazine in December 1955. The follow- 
ing May, he launched a wholesale collection. He won a Coty 
Fashion Award in 1958 and opened a custom-design business 
in 1962. His dresses turned up at glittering parties from Man- 
hattan to Los Angeles. In 1969, Barbra ^Streisand accepted her 
Oscar for Funny Girl wearing a Scaasi-designed sheer pant- 
suit that created a sensation. Scaasis clients have included 
actresses Elizabeth *Taylor, Lauren *Bacall, and Mary Tyler 
Moore, soprano Joan Sutherland, sculptor Louise *Nevelson, 
and social doyennes such as Brooke Astor. After already de- 
signing clothing for first ladies Mamie Eisenhower, Jacqueline 
Kennedy, and Lady Bird Johnson, he created a royal blue vel- 
vet and satin gown that Barbara Bush wore to her husband s 
Inaugural Ball in 1989. It was later donated to the Smithsonian 
Institution and Mrs. Bush became one of Scaasis best clients. 
He has also designed clothes for her daughter-in-law Laura 
Bush, another first lady. In 1989, Scaasi introduced a women's 
fragrance. Later, to broaden his reach, he stopped doing run- 
way shows and embarked on a series of licensing ventures 
for products ranging from lower-price dresses to sunglasses. 
With writer Bernadine Morris, he produced a book entitled 
A Cut Above in 1996, released to coincide with a retrospec- 
tive of his work at the New- York Historical Society. In 1997, 
a decade after the Council of Fashion Designers of America 
honored him for "creative excellence," he won the group's Life- 
time Achievement Award. It was presented by Barbara Bush. 
In 2001, a major exhibition of Scaasis work was mounted at 
Kent State University in Ohio, and the following year, a simi- 
lar presentation was staged at the Fashion Institute of Tech- 
nology in New York. A memoir, Women I Have Dressed (and 
Undressed), was published in 2004. 

[Mort Sheinman (2 nd ed.)] 

°SCALIGER, JOSEPH JUSTUS (1540-1609), French scholar 
and philologist. Scaliger was the tenth child of Julius Caesar 
Scaliger (Giulio Cesare Delia Scala, 1484-1558), who was an 
outstanding humanist, well known for his controversies with 
Erasmus and Rabelais. He became a Protestant in 1562, and ten 
years later fled the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, but returned 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


to France in 1574. From 1593 until his death he was a profes- 
sor at the University of Leiden, where the prevailing liberal 
Calvinism was in harmony with his own views. Holding an 
unusually tolerant and enlightened attitude toward the Jews, 
he considered them the best teachers of Hebrew, particularly 
for students of rabbinic literature. Basing himself on the find- 
ings of Elijah *Levita, he maintained that the Hebrew vowel 
points were of masoretic origin and that the Zohar was post- 
talmudic, a stand that was later challenged by Johannes * Bux- 
torf (11). Scaliger's library contained a manuscript translation 
of the Zohar by * Egidio da Viterbo. 

bibliography: L. Moreri, Grand Dictionnaire Historique, 9 
(Paris, 1759), 224-5; J- Bernays, Joseph Justus Scaliger (Ger., 1855); L. 
Sainean, La Langue de Rabelais, 2 (1923), 497 ff.; F. Secret, Le Zohar 
chez les kabbalistes chretiens de la Renaissance (1964 2 ), 34 ff., 100; idem, 
Les Kabbalistes chretiens de la Renaissance (1964), 212, 334-5. 

[Godfrey Edmond Silverman] 

SCANDINAVIAN LITERATURE. The literary culture of 
the Scandinavian countries dates back about one millennium, 
the Danish, Faroese, Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish lan- 
guages having developed on separate paths from the original 
Germanic root from about the ninth century. With rare ex- 
ceptions, biblical and other Hebraic influences did not make 
an appearance in works by Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish 
writers until the Renaissance, and the contribution of Jewish 
authors began only very much later, from about the middle 
of the 19 th century. 

Danish Literature 

biblical and Hebraic influences. Probably the ear- 
liest work of biblical inspiration written by a Dane was the 
Hexaemeron, a 12-part, 8,000-line neo-Latin poem on the 
Creation by Anders Suneson (1164-1228), a Danish archbishop 
who studied in Oxford, Bologna, and Paris. It was not until the 
Lutheran Reformation in the early 16 th century, however, that 
the impact of the Bible was felt on Danish language and litera- 
ture. The first complete translation that has survived, the King 
Christian in Bible (1550), a literary monument, was continu- 
ally revised and modernized until 1931 and was long the sole 
cultural source of the ordinary Dane. Since Christianity was, 
until the 19 th century, the decisive cultural factor in Denmark, 
the Danish language and outlook were greatly influenced by 
stories, legends, ideas, and idioms drawn from the Old Tes- 
tament; more than 300 familiar quotations in the everyday 
language, as well as about half of the "Christian" names, are 
of biblical origin. As in several other countries, Latin was the 
main literary language of the 17 th century; several authors dealt 
with biblical themes in accordance with the ethical approach 
of Danish Protestantism, although these works were inacces- 
sible to the unlearned majority of the population. Outstand- 
ing among these books was another Hexaemeron (1661), com- 
posed in Alexandrine verse by Anders Christensen Arrebo, 
known as the "father of Danish poetry." Arrebo s epic, begun 
in 1630 and published only years after his death, was written 
in Danish. It was a free reworking of the French Protestant 

*Du Bartas' Creation epic, La Semaine, muting the more pa- 
gan elements of the original, and is generally regarded as the 
first milestone in the elevation of the Danish language to 
a vehicle of lofty poetic expression. Arrebo is also remem- 
bered as the author of a verse translation of Psalms into Dan- 
ish (1623). 

From the mid- 19 th century, several writers used biblical 
themes in drama and fiction. Frederik Paludan-Muller, an em- 
inent poet and bishop, wrote Abels dod (1844), and his example 
was followed by other Danish authors. Among later works on 
biblical subjects were Sven Lange's drama, Samson ogDalila 
(1909), Jeremias (1916), a play by Knud Gjorup; Kaj *Munks 
drama, En idealist (1928; Herod the King, 1947), Harald Tan- 
drup's novel Profeten Jonas privat (1937; Jonah and the Voice, 
!937)> Poul *Borchsenius' Stjernesonnen (1952; Son of a Star, 
i960), a novel about Bar Kokhba; and a trilogy about Moses 
by Poul Hoffmann (1961-63). 

the image of the jew. Perhaps the first writer in Den- 
mark to introduce contemporary Jewish characters in his 
works was Ludvig Holberg (1684-1754), a pioneer of modern 
Danish literature. Holberg lived at a time when few Jews re- 
sided in Copenhagen, but nevertheless he encountered them 
during his travels in Germany and Holland. The Jewish types 
in his comedies are mainly theatrical figures: moneylenders, 
peddlers, the "Jewish priest" (complete with long beard, caf- 
tan, and fur hat); their "Jewish" language was a conglomera- 
tion of Danish and German. Nevertheless, Holberg showed a 
more scientific interest in the Jews, publishing a sympathetic 
historical study, Den jodiske historie (1742). Holger Paulli (b. 
1644), who was influenced by pietist expectations, believed 
in the Jewish return to the Holy Land as a condition for the 
second coming of Jesus. One of the Christian forerunners of 
Zionism, he published books calling on the European mon- 
archs to conquer Palestine so that the Jews might regain it as 
their state. In his novel, Rigsdaler sedlens Haendelser ("Events 
of a Dollar Note," 1789-93), Peter Andreas Heiberg projects a 
mixed image of the Jew, some being only interested in mak- 
ing money; but in Kina-Farere ("The Chinese Clippers," 1792) 
one Jew is honorable, his virtue promoting the play's denoue- 
ment. The poet Jens Immanuel Baggesen visited the Frankfurt 
ghetto, and in Labyrinthen ("The Labyrinth," 1792 ff.), a book 
of travel, he presents a sympathetic picture of Jewish misery 
in their cramped quarter. Baggesen also wrote a statement 
warmly supporting Christian Wilhelm von *Dohm's book in 
favor of Jewish emancipation. In the early 19 th century, Adam 
Gottlob Oehlenschlager, the "father of modern Danish litera- 
ture," describes in his fairytale play Aladdin (1805) a Jew who 
covets gold and hates Christians; but his Sanct Hans Aftenspil 
("Midsummernight's Play," 1802) contains idyllic pictures of an 
old Jewish juggler and a Jewish boy in a market place. 

The year 1813 was that of a notorious Jewish literary feud 
which began when a hack writer, Thomas Thaarup, translated 
Friedrich Buchholtz' violently antisemitic German book, 
"Moses und Jesus." The preface to this work claimed that "self- 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



ishness, indolence, and ferocity have been distinctive char- 
acteristics of the Jews from their very origin." Its publication 
gave rise to an uproar, and many writers and public figures in 
Denmark took sides in the controversy. Significant pleas in 
favor of the Jews came from poets of note such as Jens Bag- 
gensen and Steen Steensen Blicher, the latter maintaining 
that emancipation might restore dignity to the Jews. Blicher s 
short story "Joderne pa Hold" ("The Jews of the Mason Hald") 
portrays two sympathetic Jewish brothers named Lima and a 
young girl named Sulamith. 

During the first half of the 19 th century, the "Golden 
Age" of Danish literature, Jewish characters frequently ap- 
peared in Danish works. Thomasine Gyllembourgs short 
story Joden ("The Jew," 1836) presents as its hero a "Nathan 
the Wise" similar to *Lessing's nobleminded Jew. Her son, 
Johan Ludvig Heiberg, wrote a successful comedy, Kong Sa- 
lomon ogjorgen Hattemager ("King Solomon and George the 
Hatter," 1825), in which he wittily portrayed Solomon Gold- 
kalb as a goodnatured, amusing character. Heiberg married 
a talented actress, Johanne Luise Patges, whose mother was 
Jewish. Positive Jewish figures also appeared in the works of 
Hans Christian Andersen, the author of world-famous chil- 
dren's stories and fairytales. In his novel Kun en Spillemand 
("Only a Fiddler," 1837), the Jewess Naomi is the fiery, pas- 
sionate heroine, and in Denjodiske Pige ("The Jewish Girl") 
Sarah remains loyal to her Jewish faith for the sake of her 
dead mother. Andersen also wrote a touching poem, "Rabbi 
Meyer." The ^Wandering Jew theme also attracted several 
Danish poets - Bernhard Severin Ingemann, Frederik Palu- 
dan-Miiller (Ahasverus> 1854), and Jens Christian Hostrup. 
The liberal Christian author and scholar Nicolai Frederik Sev- 
erin Grundtvig wrote some 1,500 religious poems and hymns, 
many biblical in tone, in which he stresses the importance to 
world history of "the Hebrew people." 

[Poul Borchsenius] 

By the beginning of the 20 th century, the Danish Jew had 
acquired a large measure of "naturalization" in drama and fic- 
tion. Thus the brothers Carl Edvard and Georg * Brandes ap- 
peared in Sven Lange's novel, Deforste kampe (1925), which 
was mainly concerned with the elder, Georg. A work of greater 
importance was Nobel prizewinner Henrik Pontoppidan's vast 
eight-volume novel Lykke-Per ("Lucky Peter," 1898-1904), 
which, with extraordinary detail and precision, conveyed 
the authors pessimistic view of contemporary Danish soci- 
ety through the Salomons, a middle-class Copenhagen fam- 
ily. This novel contains a moving description of the learned 
Aron Israel, whose "soul was as pure as his coat was dirty," 
and an admiring portrayal of Georg Brandes. Later, Jews also 
figured in works by Kaj Munk, Poul Borchsenius, Aage Ber- 
telsen, and Sivert Gunst, whose Hr. Menachem og Hans Hus 
(1950) describes Jewish life in Copenhagen at the beginning 
of the 19 th century. However, most of the 20 th -century Dan- 
ish literature dealing with Jewish themes was produced by 
Jewish authors. 

the Jewish contribution. From the mid-i9 th century, 
Jews began to play an increasingly important role in Danish 
literary life. Among the pioneers were the converts Nicolai 
Abrahams and Henrik *Hertz; the Brandes brothers; and the 
novelist Me'ir Aron *Goldschmidt, who frequently returned 
to Jewish social themes. These were followed by the play- 
wright and novelist Poul Levin; Henri *Nathansen, who also 
dealt with the problem of Jewish survival in an alien environ- 
ment; and Louis Levy. During the first three decades of the 
20 th century, Simon Koch also gained some distinction as a 
writer of fiction with novels such as Digteren (1907). Writers 
best known for their journalism included Herman Bing and 
Edvard Brandes, two of the three co-founders of the leading 
newspaper Politiken; Gottlieb Siesby; Valdemar Koppel; and 
Peter Nansen, a grandson of Mendel Levin * Nathanson, edi- 
tor of the Berlingske Tidende, all of whose descendants were, 
however, converts to Christianity. 

The Nazi occupation of Denmark, the famous rescue 
operation across the 0resund conducted by the Danish resis- 
tance, and the deportation of most of the Jews who remained 
behind were events that left their mark on postwar Danish 
literature. They inspired a number of books by younger au- 
thors, such as Hanne Kaufmann and Ralph Oppenhejm, and 
works by a Polish immigrant writer, Pinhas *Welner, which 
were translated from Yiddish and enjoyed considerable suc- 
cess in Danish editions. 

Swedish Literature 

biblical and Hebraic influences. In Sweden, as in 
other Christian lands, the Reformation inspired the first 
complete Swedish translation of the Old and New Testa- 
ments, which had previously been undertaken only in part, 
and from the Vulgate. The lead was taken by two Lutheran 
churchmen, Olaus Petri (1493-1552) and Laurentius Andraeae 
(c. 1475-1552) who, having no knowledge of Hebrew, based 
their work on Martin *Luther s German version. With minor 
stylistic changes this Gustavus 1 ("Gustaf Vasa") Bible re- 
mained Sweden's authorized version until 1917, when a new 
translation received royal sanction. Olaus Petri was also the 
reputed author of an early play on an apocryphal theme, To- 
biae Commedia (1550), the earliest known drama in Swedish 
to have survived. Another early i6 th -century Reformation 
drama was the anonymous Holof ernes och Judit. The portion 
of the Old Testament whose influence is most evident in Swed- 
ish culture is the Book of Psalms. Many hymns of the Swed- 
ish church are no more than paraphrases of Psalms, retaining 
much of the Bibles phraseology. The most important poetical 
work of biblical inspiration written in the 17 th century was the 
epic Guds Werck och Hwila ("God's Work and Rest," 1725) by 
Bishop Haquin Spegel, a gigantic composition using the Cre- 
ation story as a basis and inspired by the French epic of Du 
Bartas. Two other biblical epics of the same era were Bibliske 
Werlden ("The Biblical World," ed. by J. Reenstierna, 1687) by 
Samuel Columbus, a series of biblical tales from the Creation 
to the Last Judgment; and Biblisk Quinnospegel ("The Biblical 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


Women's Mirror") by Olaf Kolmodin, a succession of mono- 
logues by famous women of the Bible. A very different use 
of the Bible was made by scholars of the patriotic "Gothic" 
trend, who set out to prove the antiquity and glory of Swed- 
ish history This movement reached its peak in the Atlantica 
of Olaus Rudbeck, who adapted the stories of the Flood and 
the Tower of Babel to fit his assertions. 

The i8 th -century Enlightenment in Sweden brought with 
it skeptical and critical views of the Scriptures. Not daring to 
attack the New Testament, radical authors chose the Old Tes- 
tament as their target. The "singing poet" Carl Mikael Bell- 
man wrote a series of drinking songs on biblical themes, more 
merry than blasphemous, taking care to select the more col- 
orful stories, such as Lot and his daughters, Joseph and Poti- 
phar s wife, Esther and Ahasuerus, and, most famous of all, 
Noah as the inventor of wine. A favorite episode taken from 
the Apocrypha was that of Susanna and the Elders, on which 
Jacob Wallenberg wrote a play (1778). However, the most cel- 
ebrated Swedish authors of the age did not share this attitude 
to the Bible. The mystic and visionary Emanuel Sweden- 
borg used biblical material in his construction of the spiri- 
tual world; one of his works, De cultu et amore Dei (1745), is 
a very subjective paraphrase of the Genesis and Eden story. 
Linnaeus (Carl von Linne), the architect of botanical sys- 
tems and a keen-sighted traveler, was a believer in universal 
Divine retribution. He expounded his creed in Nemesis Div- 
ina, in which he elaborated the biblical doctrine that sons are 
punished for their fathers sins, and even quoted a talmudic 
parable on the theme. Among those who had a sense for the 
sublime in biblical poetry was the Orientalist Johan Adam 
Tingstadius, who, in preparation for a complete new edition 
of the Bible, published translations from the original sources 
of some lyrical portions (Song of Songs, part of Psalms, etc.). 
Although his works did not influence the poetess Hedvig 
Charlotta Nordenflycht's ode based on a passage from Exo- 
dus, he may well have inspired Johan Henric Kellgren's Den 
nya skapselsen eller inbillningens varld ("The New Creation, 
or the World of Imagination," 1789), the first major roman- 
tic poem in Swedish. Of the later romantic poets, two were 
especially inspired by the Bible. Archbishop Johan Olof Wal- 
lin was the principal editor of Svenska psalmboken (1819) and 
its major contributor; his hymns won him the nickname of 
"The Northern Harp of David." Erik Johan Stagnelius created 
a personal religious mythology from biblical, Platonic, gnostic, 
and Manichean elements, and was perhaps also influenced by 
*Milton's Paradise Lost y which by then had appeared in Swed- 
ish translation. He published a volume of lyrics, Liljor i Sawn 
("Lilies of Sharon," 1821). 

Toward the middle of the 19 th century, the liberal author 
Abraham Viktor Rydberg wrote a pamphlet against Lutheran 
orthodoxy, Bibelns Vara om Kristus (1862), which shows knowl- 
edge of the messianic ideas of the Second Temple period and a 
profound respect and love for the Scriptures, although he did 
not accept their sanctity. In his cantata for the Uppsala Uni- 
versity Jubilee, the desert wanderings of the Israelites symbol- 

ize mankinds striving. An amusing product of amateur Bible 
research may later be seen in a story about Moses, Jahves eld 
("Jehovah's Fire," 1918) written by the skeptic Hjalmar Emil 
Fredrik Soderberg. 

The works of the outstanding writer of the naturalist gen- 
eration, August Strindberg, were steeped in the language of 
the Bible. He eagerly exploited the Bible to develop his favorite 
themes: the struggle between the sexes (the Fall, Samson and 
Delilah); Man's struggle with God, (one part of his Legender 
(1898) is titled "Jacob Wrestles"); and the class struggle (his 
autobiographical Tjansteqvinnans son ("The Bondwoman's 
Son," 1886), alludes to the story of Ishmael and Hagar). Toward 
the end of his life, Strindberg studied Hebrew and speculated 
about its origin and relationship to other languages. In the late 
19 th century, the new romantic trend was also attracted to the 
Old Testament. Gustaf Fro ding wrote exquisite poems on bib- 
lical themes; others of a naively rustic type, ranging from the 
humorous to the sublime, were composed by Erik Axel Karl- 
felt and Selma Lagerlof, who undertook a cruise to Egypt and 
Palestine and published Jerusalem (2 vols., 1901-02), a novel 
about a group of Swedish peasants, who, prompted by reli- 
gious yearnings, emigrate to the Holy Land. Selma Lagerlof s 
work had been anticipated by Fredrika Bremer's account of a 
visit to Palestine in about 1861. 

From the early 20 th century, fewer biblical themes ap- 
peared in Swedish literature and, on the whole, New Testament 
subjects were preferred. The works of the Nobel prizewinner 
Par Fabian Lagerkvist exemplify, in various novels loosely con- 
nected with the Christian gospels (Barabbas y 1950; Sibyllan, 
i956 y Mariamne y 1967), the non-believer's conflict with a faith 
he cannot share. However, the Book of Job was the inspira- 
tion for Karin Boye's unfinished cantata, De sju dodssynderna 
("The Seven Deadly Sins," 1941), which deals with the prob- 
lem of theodicy. The figure of Job also attracted the Finno- 
Swedish poet Rabbe Arnfinn Enckell, author of a poetic di- 
alogue between Job and a star. An interesting work dealing 
with the same issues was Kains memoaren (Eng., Testament of 
Cain, 1967) by Lars Johan Wictor Gyllensten, which displays 
a knowledge not only of the Bible, but also of some tales of 
midrashic origin. Another 20 th -century work was Olov Hart- 
mann's modern miracle play, Profet och timmerman ("Prophet 
and Timber- Cutter," 1954). Biblical themes come into strong 
focus in the works of artist Bo Beskow (1906-1989), who in 
his old age turned his attention from the canvas and instead 
clothed various biblical scenes in words rather than color. He 
published Och vattnet stod pa jorden ("And the Waters Cov- 
ered the Earth") in 1978, followed in 1980 by Rosten ar Jakob s 
("The Voice of Jacob") and Isebel in 1982. His last work, pub- 
lished in 1984, was Solmannen ("The Sun Man"), which was 
a story about Samson. 

Marianne Fredriksson (1927- ) wrote several novels 
based on the stories of Genesis: Evas bok ("The Book of Eva") 
in 1980, Kains bok ("The Book of Cain") in 1981, and Noreas 
saga ("Norea's Saga") in 1986, all of them showing a remark- 
able gift for bringing biblical characters to life in contemporary 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



times. Fredriksson also wrote Simon och ekarna ("Simon and 
the Oaks") in 1985, a postwar story set in Goteborg, about an 
adopted Jewish boy who knows nothing about his origins. 

Sven Delblanc (1935-1992) was a highly productive au- 
thor whose 1983 book Jerusalems natt ("A Night in Jerusalem") 
portrays Josephus Flavius and his thoughts on the situation in 
Jerusalem during a highly volatile period of the Roman oc- 
cupation. Torgny Lindgren (1938- ) wrote a highly appreci- 
ated biblical account of King David s marriage to Batsheva in 
a book entitled Bat Seba (1984). 

the image of the jew. In older Swedish literature, the 
figure of the Jew was entirely based on traditional Christian 
cliches, as, for example, in Passionstankar, a poem about the 
Passion by Jacob Frese (1690-1729). The early Jewish settlers 
attracted scant notice in Sweden at the end of the 18 th cen- 
tury, though an eloquent speech in parliament, favoring their 
admission, was made by pastor Anders Chydenius. The first 
important literary portrait of a Jew occurs in Drottningensju- 
velsmycke ("The Queens Diadem," 1834) by Carl Jonas Love 
Almqvist, whose romantic novel includes a Jewish character 
of the traditionally negative type. A very different treatment 
was given to the Jewish family in Viktor Rydberg's Den siste 
atenaren ("The Last Athenian," 1859), a historical novel set in 
the era of Julian the Apostate, which violently criticizes the 
traditional idealization of the early Christians. The charac- 
ters in this work include a young Jewess who is seduced by a 
heathen, and a tolerant young rabbi who, by a curious anach- 
ronism, is said to be an expert in the Kabbalah. Rydberg was 
also continually fascinated by the Wandering Jew, who ap- 
pears in several of his poems (e.g., Prometeus och Ahasverus, 
1877). Other Swedish authors who developed the same motif 
were Strindberg, Gustaf Froding, Oscar Ivar *Levertin, Per 
Hallstrom (Ahasverus y 1908), Bo Hjalmar Bergman, Sigfrid 
Lindstrom, Par Lagerkvist, (Ahasverus dod y i960) and, espe- 
cially, Gosta Oswald, whose Christinalegender ("Legends about 
Christina") also deals with this theme. 

A literary interest in the Jews was reawakened in the 
1880s under the impact of rising antisemitism in Germany and 
of the radical movements of the time. The Jew was seen either 
as the cynical, rootless radical or as the "herald of a new age." 
The eminent Danish critic Georg Brandes became the proto- 
type for both. In his play John Ulfstjerna (1907), Tor Harald 
Hedberg portrayed the revolutionary Jew as an intriguer; yet 
many Jewish intellectuals with more moderate and patriotic 
views scarcely accorded with this image. Strindberg, as always, 
was ambivalent, presenting totally contrasting pictures. In his 
novel Roda rummet ("The Red Room," 1879) and the pamphlet 
Det nya riket ("The New Kingdom," 1882) he wittily carica- 
tured unsympathetic Jews; but elsewhere, as in the chronicle 
play Gustav Vasa (1899), he introduced a venerable Jewish pa- 
triarch from Lubeck, a complete anachronism in i6 th -century 
Sweden. The playwright and novelist Hjalmar Frederik Elgerus 
Bergman displayed a great interest in the Jews, having made 
the acquaintance of Jewish immigrants from eastern Europe 

while in Berlin. In his masterly play Patrasket (1928), the Jew 
is represented as the man of imagination, and the author's use 
of comedy conceals the real tragedy. 

There have been few aggressive antisemites among Swed- 
ish writers of the 20 th century, but two of the most prominent 
were the poet and essayist Vilhelm Ekelung and the novelist 
Agnes von Krusenstjerna, whose cycle Froknarna von Pahlen 
("The Von Pahlen Women," 7 vols., 1930-35), contains some 
viciously anti-Jewish portraits and diatribes. On the other 
hand, two conservative authors, pro-German and even sym- 
pathetic toward the Hitler regime (though not themselves 
antisemitic), were among the first Swedes to discuss Zionist 
pioneering in Erez Israel: the explorer Sven Hedin, author of 
the travel book Jerusalem (1918), and the literary historian 
Fredrik Book (1883-1961), who wrote the remarkable Resa 
till Jerusalem ("Journey to Jerusalem," 1925) and attended the 
opening ceremony of The Hebrew University. 

The Nazi persecution of the Jews is reflected in the works 
of the 1930s and 1940s. Among the poets who expressed anger 
and grief were Be Bergman and Arvid Morne; novelists who 
dealt with the theme included Josef Kjellgren, in Guldkedjan 
("The Golden Chain," 1940), and Eyvind Johnson in his Krilon- 
Trilogie (1941-43). Most deeply incensed was the half-German 
anti-Nazi Arvid Brenner (Fritz Helge Heerberger), who took 
refuge in Sweden. His novel Kompromiss (1934) deals with the 
Nazi rise to power: Ny vardag ("A New Weekday," 1936) and 
En dag som andra ("A Day Like Any Other") are concerned 
with refugee life in Sweden. After World War 11, the surviv- 
ing victims of Hitler's regime became a conventional literary 
type, and symbolic of the neutral, well-meaning Swedes bad 
conscience. Tvdrbalk ("Cross Beam," 1963) by Sivar Arner 
concerns a Swede who exchanges his frigid wife for a Jewess 
whose life was shattered by her treatment in a Nazi concen- 
tration camp. A similar theme is developed in Legiondrerna 
("The Legionaries") by Per-Olov Enquist, which also deals 
with the negative Swedish policies toward Jewish refugees af- 
ter the war. 

Eyvind Johnson (1900-1976) is remarkable for being a 
non- Jewish Swede with deep and accurate insight into the 
tribulations faced by the decimated Jewish survivors of Hit- 
ler's war of annihilation. His Molnen over Metapontion ("The 
Clouds over Metapontion," 1957) and Favel, ensam ("Favel All 
Alone," 1968) reflect acute understanding of the situation faced 
by the remnants of Jewish Europe. 

Artur Lundkvist (1906-1991) wrote two historical novels, 
Tvivla korsfarare ("Think Again, Crusader," 1972) and Slavar 
i Sarkland ("Slaves in Sarkland," 1975), featuring many Jewish 
characters and highlighting the fruitful exchanges between 
cultures over the ages. Kenne Fant (1923- ) wrote R. En do- 
kumentdr roman ("R.: A Documentary Novel," 1988) about 
Raoul * Wallenberg. Olle Hedberg (1899-1974) wrote Ut med 
blondinerna ("Out with the Blondes") in 1939, a stinging satire 
that ridiculed the Nazi race laws of contemporary Germany. 
Bengt Ek (1917-1990) wrote a novel for teenagers, published 
in 1981, titled Hos morfar i Getapulien ("Life with Grandpa in 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


Goat-Land"). It is a warm, humorously related story about two 
Jewish boys from Berlin who are sent by their Swedish mother 
to their grandfather in Sweden to escape the hardships in the 
aftermath of World War i. Jan Gehlin (1922- ) served for 
many years as chair of the Swedish Authors' Association. The 
son of famous artist Esther Henriques, and thus a scion of one 
of the oldest Jewish families in Scandinavia, Gehlin wrote two 
partly autobiographical novels, Enskilt omrdde ("Private Prop- 
erty," 1949) and Granstrakter ("Borderlands," 1953), to counter 
the evils of Nazism and persecution of Jews. Paul Andersson 
(1930-1976) published a collection of poems in 1956 entitled 
Judiska motiv ("Jewish Subjects"), the first Swede after Ragnar 
Josephson to publish verse on a Jewish theme. Per Ahlmark 
(i939 - )> a former member of the Swedish Riksdag or Parlia- 
ment, also led the Swedish Liberal Party for three years and 
served as Sweden's deputy prime minister. Fired by a deep 
interest in Jewish subjects, he published his first collection of 
poems, Flykter ("Escapes") in 1985. In 1991 he worked together 
with Lilian Edstrom on the publication of Yehuda *Amichai's 
Hebrew poems in Swedish, titled Bombens diameter ("The 
Bomb's Diameter"), followed in 1993 by Det eviga hatet: Om 
nynazism, anti-semitism och Radio Islam ("The Eternal Ha- 
tred: On Neo- Nazism, Antisemitism and Radio Islam"). Fol- 
lowing a host of publications during the 1990s, Per Ahlmark 
released Det ar demokratin, dumbom! ("It's Democracy, Stu- 
pid!") in 2004, a scathing criticism of the world's indifference 
to the plight of the Iraqi people under Saddam Hussein and 
the lessons to be learned from not speaking out for democ- 
racy and freedom. 

[Viveka Heyman / Ilya Meyer (2 nd ed.)] 

the Jewish contribution. Jews began to play an impor- 
tant part in Sweden's literary life only from the last decades of 
the 19 th century, although after the 1850s Rosa Warrens was 
active as a poetess and translator. The major creative author 
was Oskar Ivar Levertin, some of whose verse and prose works 
dealt with themes of Jewish interest (KungSalomo och Morolf, 
1905). His contemporary, the popular novelist Sophie Elkan, 
accompanied Selma Lagerlof on her tour of the Near East and 
published an account entitled Drommen om Osterlandet ("The 
Dream of the Eastern Land," 1904). However, the major Jew- 
ish contribution was really in literary history and criticism, a 
field in which Johan Henrik Emil *Schuck, Karl Johan ^War- 
burg, and Martin *Lamm all excelled. An important contri- 
bution was also made by members of the eminent * Josephson 
family, headed by the painter Ernst Abraham * Josephson who 
published some poems and who appears in a novel by Strind- 
berg. The art historian Ragnar Josephson (1891-1966) was a 
successful dramatist and, in his early period, published Jud- 
iska dikter (1916; revised 1943), a collection of poems on Jew- 
ish themes. Together with Sweden's chief rabbi Marcus *Eh- 
renpreis, he also issued translations of modern Hebrew verse. 
His nephew, the actor Erland Josephson (1923- ), starred in 
plays by the refugee dramatist Peter * Weiss, and wrote a vari- 
ety of works, in some of which - notably his novel En Berat- 

telse om herr Silberstein ("The Tale of Mr. Silberstein," 1957) 
and the play Benjamin (1963) - the problem of antisemitism is 
analyzed. His preoccupation with this theme had been antici- 
pated by his uncle, Ragnar Josephson, who, during the 1930s, 
published Den Dubbla Loyalitaeten ("The Dual Loyalty"), a 
booklet describing the predicament of Swedish Jews who were 
eyewitnesses to the heartless policy of driving hapless Jewish 
refugees back to certain death in Nazi Germany. 

A more authentic note was struck by Jewish authors who 
were not entirely Swedish by birth or upbringing. Chief Rabbi 
Ehrenpreis, who had once been prominent in modern Hebrew 
literature, later wrote books in Swedish on the intellectual his- 
tory of the Jews, and also published some interesting autobio- 
graphical works. Zenia Larsson (1922- ), a Polish Jewess who 
survived the Holocaust and later reached Sweden, wrote three 
autobiographical novels, which describe the Lodz ghetto, her 
liberation from a Nazi concentration camp, and her first ex- 
periences in her adopted country. Her most famous works are 
Skuggor vid trdbron ("Shadows by the Wooden Bridge," 1961), 
Lang ar gryningen ("The Long Dawn," 1961), Livet till motes 
("Accepting Life," 1962), Ater till Babel ("A Return to Babel," 
1964), and Vagen hem ("The Return Home," 1975). Other works 
on similar subjects were published by two other refugees who 
nevertheless retained their original links with German cul- 
ture - the playwright Peter Weiss and the Nobel prizewin- 
ning poet Nelly *Sachs. There are contemporary Swedish- 
born authors who also write in a similar vein, such as Susanne 
Gottfarb (1948- ), Kjell Grape (1939- ), and Peter Mosskin 
(1945- ), all of whom turn the spotlight inward and retrace 
their Jewish heritage, in some cases a heritage that was almost 
lost through the events of modern European history. 

Marianne Ahrne (1940- ) went back to her Jewish roots 
in her novels Appelblom och miner ("Apple Blossoms and 
Ruins," 1980) and Katarina Horowitz drommar ("Katarina 
Horowitz's Dreams," 1990). 

A new generation of Jewish writers has emerged in Swe- 
den. Most, but not all, trace their roots in Sweden back three 
or four generations, yet their writings often strongly reflect 
the events of the first half of the last century. Tomas Bohm 
(1945- ) was born in Stockholm to parents who fled there 
from Austria. Among his many books are novels with a Jewish 
motif, such as Fjdllturen ("A Trip in the Swedish Alps," 1980) 
and Adamsdpplen och huvudvark ("Adam's Apples and Head- 
aches," 1993). Jonathan Freud (1943- ) lives in Israel, where he 
works as a guide, journalist, teacher, and lecturer. He writes 
books that link history with current events and is often criti- 
cal of the poor standard of journalism and analysis practiced 
by reporters based in Jerusalem who, he feels, provide media 
coverage simply to justify their presence, remarkably devoid 
of historical reflection or factual basis. His first book, Fran 
Jerusalem ("From Jerusalem"), was published in 1986 and was 
followed a year later by a short novel, Palestinsk oskuld ("Pal- 
estinian Innocence"). Judarnas Konung ("King of the Jews"), 
which dealt with King Herod, appeared in 1988, and in 1991 
he published Enjudisk bosdttare ("A Jewish Settler"). 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



Anita Goldman (1953- ) is a journalist who lived for a 
while in Israel. She started her writing career with Alltgenast 
("Everything Right Now," 1978), followed by a number of nov- 
els with a feminist theme: Vara bibliska modrar ("Our Biblical 
Mothers") and Den sista kvinnanfrdn Ur ("The Last Woman 
of Ur"), both published in 1988. Stenarnas dottrar ("Daugh- 
ters of the Stones") appeared in 1989. In 1994 she published 
Or den som brdndes ("The Burning Words"), a novel about 
*Beruryah, represented in the Talmud as a woman of learning 
and wife of R. *Meir. Marianne Goldman (1951- ) is a drama- 
tist whose works have appeared on stage, tv, and on the big 
screen. Together with Kerstin Klein- Persky, she wrote Kaos 
drgranne med Finkelstein ("Chaos Lives Next Door to Finkel- 
stein," 1990), and she also wrote the film script for Freud flyt- 
tar hemifrdn ("Freud Moves Away from Home"). In her Dansa 
samba med mig ("Come Dance the Samba with Me," 1994) she 
took up several key issues affecting second- generation chil- 
dren - the children of Holocaust survivors. 

Salomon Schulman (1947- ) focuses largely on Yiddish 
literature. He has translated the works of Abraham *Sutz- 
kever, publishing his Gront akvarium ("Green Aquarium," 
1986). Garva med Goldstein ("Laugh with Goldstein," 1988) is 
a compilation of Jewish humor. His Natten laser stjarnor, jid- 
disch-dikter fran ett desperat sekel ("The Night Reads the Stars, 
Yiddish Poems from a Desperate Century," 1991) is a dark ac- 
count of the fate that befell so many of Europe's brilliant Yid- 
dish writers and poets. 

Another writer with an immense impact who also re- 
counts a dark past is Hedi Fried (1924- ). Born in Romania 
and brought to Sweden as a survivor of Hitlers death camps, 
she studied at university and graduated as a psychologist. 
However, it was only later that she finally decided to docu- 
ment her past, with the publication of her English -language 
memoir Fragments of Life (1990), translated later into Swed- 
ish as Skdrvor av ett liv. The sequel, Livet tillbaka ("Back to 
Life," 1995) deals with her personal road back to life in her 
new country, Sweden. 

Nelly *Sachs (1891-1970) was rescued and brought to 
Sweden through the good offices of Nobel Prize-winning 
Swedish authoress Selma Lagerlof. She wrote poetry in Ger- 
man about the terrible fate of her people, and her work was 
translated into Swedish by a number of famous lyricists. In 
1966 she shared the Nobel Prize in literature with Israeli author 
S. Y. *Agnon. Her play Eli. Ett Mysteriespel om Israels lidande 
("Eli: A Mystery Play about Israel's Suffering," 1966) has been 
staged both in German and in Swedish, and she published 
collections of poems until the year she died. 

Leif Silbersky (1938- ) traces his ancestry back to the 
Balkans three generations ago. A renowned defense lawyer 
with many high-profile cases to his credit, he is also a widely 
read author. His writing career began with the factual Por- 
trait av terror ister: inter vjuer med terror ister i israeliska fan- 
gelser ("Portrait of Terrorists: Interviews with Terrorists in 
Israeli Jails," 1977). He has also written a series of detective 
novels together with Swedish author Olov Svedelid. The first 

was Sista vittnet ("The Last Witness," 1977, followed by a new 
book every year until 1985, then a break until 1990 when En 
rostfor doden ("A Voice for Death") was published. The main 
character throughout the series is an old Jewish lawyer named 
Rosenbaum, a survivor of the Holocaust. 

[Ilya Meyer (2 nd ed.)] 

Norwegian Literature 

biblical influences. The first impact of the Bible on Nor- 
wegian culture has been traced to the Stjorn y a medieval Ice- 
landic paraphrase of parts of the Old Testament. However, af- 
ter the Reformation, the Danish translation of the Bible held 
sway well into the 20 th century. As elsewhere, biblical terms 
and phrases enriched the literary Danish (Riksmdl) spoken 
in educated circles and the purer Norwegian (Landsmal) that 
only gained ground much later. Although biblical themes 
have appeared in the works of Norwegian writers, they have 
been rarer than might have been expected, even in compari- 
son with Denmark and Sweden, perhaps as a result of Nor- 
way's greater cultural isolation. In 1881, Karl Herschell, the 
first Jew in Bergen, wrote a book about the Pentateuch; and, 
in the 20 th century, Haakon B. Mahrt published the novel Jo- 
nas (1935) and Halldis Moren Vesaas included a poem about 
Esther in her verse collection Tung tids tale ("Talk of Hard 
Times," 1945). In general, biblical motifs characterize the de- 
scription of contemporary Jewish figures in works by modern 
Norwegian writers. 

the image of the jew. Even before Jews first settled in the 
country, they provided occasional stereotypes for Norwegian 
authors, beginning with Ludwig Holberg, born in Bergen, but 
who made his name in Denmark (see above). A Jewish mon- 
eylender appears in Aktierne eller de Rige (1788), a play by 
Claus Fasting, and in one of the early works of the poet Hen- 
rik Arnold * Wergeland. One of the articles in the Norwegian 
Constitution of 1814 prohibited Jewish settlement, a decree 
which aroused the indignant opposition of several liberal 
writers, headed by Wergeland who, in his pamphlets and in 
verse collections such as the epic Jo den ("The Jew," 1842) and 
Jodinden ("The Jewess," 1844), was a tireless champion of the 
proscribed Jews, demanding that they be granted both per- 
mission to enter Norway and equal rights with the rest of the 
population. In this stand Wergeland had been anticipated by 
Andreas Munch (1811-1884), who wrote the poem Joderne 
("The Jews," 1836), and he was followed by the writers of two 
plays: Adolph Rosenkilde in En Jode iMandal ("A Jew in Man- 
dal," 1849) and Christian Rasmus Hansson in Denforste Jode 
("The First Jew," 1852). 

An amendment to the constitution, favoring Jewish ad- 
mission, was passed in 1852. Later in the 19 th century, the same 
sympathetic approach was displayed by Alexander Lange Ki- 
elland in his Mennesker og dyr ("Men and Animals," 1891), 
which describes the Jews of Salonika, and in John Paulsen's 
Jodinden ("The Jewess," 1892), a novel influenced by Werge- 
land, which deals with the problems of mixed marriage and 
conversion in Denmark, and which includes some characters 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


who display the effects of political antisemitism in contempo- 
rary Germany. In his poem Juleaftenen ("Christmas Eve," 1842) 
Wergeland had portrayed a Jewish peddler in northern Swe- 
den. By the beginning of the 20 th century, some Jewish immi- 
grants endeavored to make a living by peddling their wares at 
railroad and construction sites, at country fairs, and in fishing 
villages. Jews of this type are referred to by several novelists, 
notably Johan Bojer in Den siste viking (1921; "Last of the Vi- 
kings," 1923); Knut Hamsun in Landstrykere ("The Vagabonds," 
1927); and Nils. A. Ytreberg in Svarta Bjorn ("The Black Bear," 
1954). Hamsun had a pathological hatred of the British and 
Americans and, during World War 11, became a prominent 
quisling. The Jewish peddler also appears in Hebraerens son 
("Son of the Hebrew," 1911), a work by Matti Aikio, a writer of 
Norwegian-Lapp origin. In his novel a Jew, abandoned by his 
Polish refugee parents, is raised by Christian foster parents 
in Finmark (northern Norway) and becomes an artist. He is 
an eyewitness to a Polish pogrom, and Aikio shows how he is 
torn between the conflicting Jewish and Christian traditions. 
The same kind of restlessness finally moves a Galician-born 
Danish Jew to emigrate to Erez Israel in "Efraim ben Ruben," 
one of the stories in Sigurd Christiansen's collection Idyllen om 
Sander ("The Idyll of Sander," 1928). During the 1930s, Helge 
Krok showed in her play Underveis ("En Route," 1931) how, 
despite radical views in politics and religion, one of her char- 
acters experiences a revival of ancestral Jewish feeling. 

A number of Norwegian novels have dealt with the Nazi 
persecution of Norwegian Jewry and with the deportation 
of the Jews or their flight to Sweden, and often discuss more 
general aspects of the Jewish fate and of antisemitism. They 
include Axel Kielland's Levfarlig ("Live Dangerously," 1943); 
Aimee Sommerfelt's Ung front ("Young Front," 1945) and Mir- 
iam (1950; Eng. 1963); and Odd Bang- Hansen's Ringer rundt 
bronnen ("Rings around the Well," 1946). The last writer also 
raises the issue of Norwegian- Jewish relations in his J denne 
natt ("On this Night," 1947). The postwar problem of the Jew- 
ish refugee figures in the works of several other writers, includ- 
ing Jens Ingvald Bjoorneboe, who deals with the question in 
Jonas (1955) and who also describes former Wehrmacht sol- 
diers on a holiday tour of Italy in his play Fugleelskerne ("The 
Bird Fanciers," 1966). Among those who dealt with Nazi treat- 
ment of the German Jews was Ronald August Fangen, in his 
En lysets Engel ("An Angel of Light," 1945). A writer who fre- 
quently used Jewish themes was Ragnar Kvam, the author of 
several articles about Israel, including one about the Exodus 
affair of 1947 and the German camp to which the ship's un- 
fortunate passengers were brutally returned. This last subject 
also appears in Kvam's novel, Alle vil hjem ("Everyone Wants 
to Go Home," 1950), which depicts antisemitic agitation dur- 
ing the years of World War 11, the Nazi deportations, and the 
unfriendly reception that awaited a survivor when he reached 
his village, all of which he believed precipitated Jewish immi- 
gration to Israel. The problem of antisemitism recurs in Kvam's 
later novel, Den store stillheten ("The Great Silence," 1964), and 
it also dominates Kj aerlighetsstien ("The Path of Love," 1946), 

by Johan Borgen, who discussed the widespread phenomenon 
of antisemitism in newspaper articles. A Jewish artist, Miriam, 
makes several appearances in a trilogy by Borgen (Lillelord, De 
morke skogene, Vi har ham nu y 1955-57) an d a Jewish concen- 
tration camp survivor figures in another of his novels, Bldtind 
("The Blue Peak," 1964). Finn Alnaes also introduces a Jewish 
war victim in his Koloss (1963). 

Jewish suffering in Norway during the Nazi occupa- 
tion also inspired several poems of the postwar era. Such 
works were written by Inger Hagerup, in Den Syvende natt 
("The Seventh Night," 1947); Halldis Moren Vesaas; Andreas 
Graven (Joden y 1945); and Olav Dalgard, in Gjennom morket 
("Through the Darkness," 1945). Other Norwegian poems 
on themes connected with the Holocaust were Leif S. Rode's 
Barnemordet i Betlehem ("The Massacre of the Infants in 
Bethlehem,"i945); Carl Frederik Prytz's Ghetto (i960), on the 
Warsaw Jewish revolt; and Georg Johannesen's "Jodisk parti- 
sansang ("Jewish Partisan Song") from the collection Nye 
dikt ("New Poems," 1966). From 1945 poems about the Jewish 
plight were published in the Norwegian press, as were others 
on the State of Israel's battle for survival in May 1948. Though 
much discussed in Norway, Israel has mainly attracted more 
popular writers, such as the editor Victor Mogens, author of 
Folket som ikke vil do (1954), and Kare Holt, who wrote a tale 
for juveniles, Romlingen Oskar og Maria fra Hulesjoen ("Oscar 
and Maria the Refugees of Lake Huleh," 1959). In 1982 Sigurd 
Senje published Ekkofra Skriktjenn 1942-47 ("Ecco from the 
Lake of Screams"), a documentary novel based on the "Feld- 
man Case" of 1942-47). The Feldmans were a Jewish couple 
murdered by Norwegian border runners who were supposed 
to help them get to Sweden in 1942. The two border runners 
admitted to the murders in 1947 but were not convicted. This 
tragic episode was also made into a film. Many of the accounts 
about Jews in the Holocaust are documentary. Jahn Otto Jo- 
hansen wrote Det hendte ogsd her ("It Also Happened Here," 
1984), an account of the Norwegian Holocaust. Per Ole Johan- 
sen wrote: Oss selv noermest: Norge ogjodene 1914-1943 ("Clos- 
est to Ourselves: Norway and the Jews 1914-43," 1984), an ac- 
count of antisemitism in the Norwegian police and courts. 
Kristian Ottosen, a Norwegian historian, wrote an account of 
the deportation of Norwegian Jews during World War nilslik 
en natt ("On a Night Such as This," 1994). Karoline Frogner, 
a Norwegian film producer and author, published the book 
and produced the film Morketid: kvinners mote med nazis- 
men ("Time of Darkness: Women's Encounter with Nazism," 
1995). There are interviews with several women who survived 
the Ravensbrueck concentration camp, among them four Jew- 
ish women. Ragnar Ulstein wrote Jodarpaflukt ("Jews on the 
Run," 1995); Vebjorn Selbekk's Jodehatpd. norskifra eidsvolls- 
mennene til Boot boys ("The Norwegian Hatred of Jews: From 
the Men at Eidsvoll to Boot Boys," 2001), was an account of 
Norwegian attitudes to the Jews through the ages. The inter- 
nationally known Norwegian author Lars Saabye Christensen 
briefly describes a Jewish girl and her family as they are ar- 
rested in their home in Oslo in his epic novel Halvbroren ("The 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



Halfbrother," 2001), where he describes life in Oslo during and 
after the war through four generations. 

In 2003 Einhart Lorentz published Veien mot Holocaust 
("The Road to the Holocaust"), a chronological account of 
the stages that led to the mass deportations and murder of 
about six million Jews, and Espen Soby wrote Kathe, alltid 
vcert I Norge ("Kathe Always Stayed in Norway), where he fol- 
lows the fortunes of the 15-year-old Jewish schoolgirl Kathe 
Lasnik and her family, who were deported and murdered in 
Auschwitz in 1942. 

the Jewish contribution. In a country with a Jewish 
community as small as that in Norway, the number of Jew- 
ish writers has naturally been slight. Two authors who wrote 
books after World War 11 were Elsa Dickman, whose novel 
Korsveien ("The Crossroad," 1945) first appeared in Sweden, 
and Eva Scheer, whose Vi bygger i sand ("We Build on Sand," 
1948) traces the history of a Jewish family from its settle- 
ment in Norway until the Nazi deportations. Israel provides 
the theme for two other books by Eva Scheer: Vi mottes i 
Jerusalem ("We Met in Jerusalem," 1951) and Israel, dobbelt 
loftets land ("Israel, Land of the Twofold Covenant," 1967). 
Another novelist, Torborg Nedreaas, the great-granddaugh- 
ter of Karl Herschell, portrays Jewish members of her family 
in Musikkfra en bid bronn ("Music from a Blue Well," i960); 
in the title story of her collection Bak skapet star oksen ("Be- 
hind the Cupboard there is an Ax," 1945) she touched on the 
subject of German antisemitism. An outstanding figure in 
Norway's postwar cultural life, the refugee publisher and au- 
thor Max *Tau promoted the translation and publication of 
works by several Israel writers and displayed his attachment 
to the Jewish heritage in his novels and autobiography. 0ys- 
tein Wingaard Wolf (1958- ) is one of few Norwegian writ- 
ers with a Jewish background to have published books in the 
1980s. He has written several collections of poems and nov- 
els. Ingen kanforklare ordet "fred" ("No One Can Explain the 
Word 'Peace'"), a journey through the East European world 
in words, music and photographs (1987), is a collection of 
poems and short stories from eastern Europe translated into 
Norwegian. The novel Dodi Ashers dod ('The Death of Dodi 
Asher," 1986) won a prize. 

The author Mona Levin wrote the biography of her fa- 
ther, the Norwegian Jewish pianist Robert Levin: Med livet i 
hendene ("With Life in my Hands," 1983). 

Most of the books written by Norwegian Jews are biog- 
raphies of and by concentration camp survivors written in 
the 1980s and 1990s; Herman Sachnowitz, Det angdr ogsd deg 
("This Concerns You," 1976); Ernest Arberle, written by Ar- 
vid Moller, Vi ma ikke glemme ("We Must Not Forget," 1980); 
Robert Savosnik with Hans Melien, J eg ville ikke do ("I Did 
Not Want to Die," 1986); Herman Kahan with Knut M. Hans- 
son, Ilden og lyset ("The Fire and the Light," 1988); Mendel 
Szanjfeld with Simon Szajnfeld; Fortell hva som skjedde med 
oss; erindringer fra Holocaust ("Tell What Happened to Us: 
Recounting the Holocaust," 1993); Kai Feinberg with Arnt 

Stefansen, Fange nr 79108 vender tilbake ("Prisoner No. 79108 
Returns," 1995); Vera Komissar with Sverre M. Nyronning, Pa 
tross av alt: Julius Paltiel - norskjode i Auschwitz ("Despite Ev- 
erything: Julius Paltiel - Norwegian Jew in Auschwitz," 1995). 
Vera Kommisar also wrote a book about Norwegian Jews who 
escaped to Sweden in 1942: Nddetid: norske joder pa flukt 1942 
("Time of Grace: Norwegian Jews on the Run, 1942," 1992) as 
well as Jodiske gleder: en bok om jodedommen, jodiske hellig- 
dager og koscher mat ("Jewish Delights: A Book on Judaism, 
Jewish Holidays and Kosher Food," 1998). Ove Borochstein 
wrote / - historien om kristiansundsjodene ("J - the Story of the 
Jews from Kristiansund," 2001). Abel Abrahamsen, a Norwe- 
gian Jew living in the United States, published Jewish Life and 
Culture in Norway: Wergelands Legacy (2003), an illustrated 
account of Jewish life in Norway before the war. 

[Oskar Mendelsohn / Lynn C. Feinberg (2 nd ed.)] 

bibliography: P. B orchsenius, Hi storien om de danske joder 
(1969); C.S. Petersen and U. Andersen, Dansk Litteratur-historie, 4 
vols. (1925-29); B. Balslev, De danske Joders Historie (1932); H.M. 
Valentin, Judarnas Historia; Sverige (1924); P.M. Granqvist, Det Sven- 
ska Israel (1933); C.V. Jacobowsky, in: jba, 19 (1962), 52-59; idem, 
in: Judisk Tidskrift, 10 (1943); idem, "Nyare svenske-judisk litteratur 
(1946-51)1' in: Judisk Kronika, no. 2 (1952). 

SCEPTER (Heb. mehoqeq, matteh, shevet, sharvit), a staff 
symbolic of royal authority, originally conceived as power to 
strike down enemies (Ezek. 19:14; Ps. 110:2). Thus the Bible 
calls a king "scepter" (Gen. 49:10) or "scepter-bearer" (Amos 
1:5, 8), while God, as king of kings, wields a scepter (Isa. 30:31). 
The Persian Ahasuerus extends a golden scepter to a persona 
grata (Esth. 4:11). Two main types of scepters are pictured in 
Near Eastern sculptures and reliefs: 

(a) a long staff with an ornamental head (mainly in Egypt 
and Iran), and 

(b) a short-handled battle mace (mainly in Assyria). The 
latter symbolizes royal military power (cf. Num. 24:17). 

[Mayer Irwin Gruber] 

SCHAALMAN, HERMAN E. (1916- ), Reform rabbi. 
Schaalman was born in Munich, Germany, where his father - 
a veteran of World War 1, having fought in the Battle of Ver- 
dun - was a professor of mathematics and physics and a can- 
tor at an orphanage. His mother came from a rabbinic family. 
Herman was a graduate of the Maximillian Gymnasium (1935) 
and was but the second boy in the Liberal Gemeinde to read 
the entire sidrah for his bar mitzvah. He was taught Hebrew 
privately and entered the Liehranstalt fuer die Wissenschat des 
Judentums in 1935, when German universities were closed to 
Jewish students. Along with Alfred Wolfe and Guenther *Plaut 
and two other students, he was offered a scholarship to He- 
brew Union College by its visionary president Julian *Morgen- 
stern, who rescued five students and five scholars from Nazi 
Germany by bringing them to h uc . Schaalman was a student 
at Hebrew Union College (1935-41) and was ordained in 1941. 
He studied at the University of Cincinnati, receiving both his 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


B.A. and his M.A. (1937). He was also awarded an honorary 
degree of doctor of divinity from Hebrew Union College-Jew- 
ish Institute of Religion in 1966. 

He served as rabbi of Temple Judah in Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa (1941-49), taught at nearby Coe College and Cornell 
College, and became director of the Chicago Federation of the 
Union of American Hebrew Congregations between 1949 and 
1951. Under his leadership the Olin-Sang Ruby Union Institute 
was established and he was its first director. Olin-Sang- Ruby 
is a camp and retreat center that serves children and adults in 
Oconomowoc, Wisconsin. Despite his desperate need for the 
$15,000 down payment for a $63,000 purchase, Schaalman 
returned a $5,000 check he had received from a Chicago area 
gangster who had been affiliated with Al Capone and who 
ran a string of brothels. He received the funds elsewhere. As 
a regional director, he helped found four congregations in 
the Chicago area in the post-war boom. Schaalman came to 
Emanuel Congregation of Chicago in 1955. In 2006 it had more 
than 900 families as members. 

Schaalman served on the board of directors of the Jewish 
Federation of Metropolitan Chicago. He served as chair of the 
Advisory Committee of the American Jewish Committee and 
was president of the Central Conference of American Rabbis 
(1981-83); he also served as chairman of the Ethics Commit- 
tee, the Committee of Patrilineal Decent, and the Mixed Mar- 
riage Committee of the ccar. 

Schaalman was active in Chicago civic and cultural ac- 
tivities and was an early pioneer in interfaith work. The Chi- 
cago Archdiocese awarded him a Larueante in Ecumenici- 
sim in 1995. 

He published articles primarily in the field of theology 
in various journals and was co- editor of a book, Preaching 
Biblical Texts. He continued to teach throughout his rabbin- 
ate. Schaalman held the Jewish Chautauqua Society resident 
lectureship at the Garrett Evangelical Theological Seminary, 
Evanston, and the Chicago Theological Seminary. 

In recognition of a career devoted to the service of others, 
he was cited as one of the outstanding foreign-born citizens of 
Chicago by the Immigrants' Service League. He was inducted 
into the Hall of Fame of the Jewish Community Centers. 

Schaalman was president of the Chicago Board of Rabbis 
and of the Jewish Council on Urban Affairs. He was a long- 
time member of the Education Committee of National Ho- 
locaust Council. 

As he reached the much honored stage of four score 
years, the honors for the life he led started pouring in. In 
September 1999, the Jewish Federation of Metropolitan Chi- 
cago bestowed on him its award, the Julius Rosenwald Me- 
dallion. In June 2000, the Catholic Theological Union at Chi- 
cago conferred on him an honorary doctorate in ministry. In 
October 2000, the Chicago Theological Seminary selected 
Rabbi Schaalman to receive their prestigious Graham Taylor 
Award and announced the establishment of the Rabbi Her- 
man E. Schaalman Chair in Jewish Studies in recognition of 
his enormous impact on theological students, pastors, rab- 

bis, and academics through over 14 years of teaching in Jew- 
ish-Christian Studies. The Spertus Institute of Judaic Studies 
granted the rabbi an honorary doctorate in October 2001. In 
May 2002, Schaalman was the recipient of the highest award 
given by the state of Illinois, the Lincoln Medal. 

In May 2004 he received an honorary doctorate from 
Garrett - Evangelical Theological Institute at Northwestern 
University in Evanston, Illinois. 

In June 2004 he received the Luminary Senior Award 
from the City of Chicago and he was inducted into the 2004 
Chicago Senior Citizens Hall of Fame. 

In September 2004 the Chicago City Park District dedi- 
cated a park in the rabbi s honor. 

[Michael Berenbaum (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHAAP, RICHARD J. (Dick; 1934-2001), U.S. sportswriter, 
sports broadcaster, and author or co-author of 33 books. 
Schaap was the eldest of three children, born in Flatbush, 
Brooklyn, to Leah and Maury, a salesman. His paternal grand- 
parents were of Dutch descent, and his maternal grandpar- 
ents were from Russia. When asked if he was Jewish, Schaap 
would joke, "Yes, by birth and by appetite." Schaap was raised 
on Long Island in Freeport, New York, where at age 14 he be- 
gan writing a sports column for the weekly Freeport Leader. 
He moved the following year to the Nassau Daily Review-Star 
under 20-year-old sports editor and future Pulitzer Prize-win- 
ner Jimmy B re slin. Schaap attended Cornell University (1955), 
where he was the starting goalie for the university's lacrosse 
team and editor-in-chief of the Cornell Daily Sun. Thereafter 
he attended Columbia University Graduate School of Jour- 
nalism while working at the Long Island Press at night. After 
graduating in 1956, Schaap worked at Newsweek magazine 
(1956-63), and the New York Herald Tribune and the World 
Journal Tribune (1964-66), serving as the paper's city editor 
and also as a columnist. It was Schaap who coined the term 
"Fun City" for New York. Schaap began writing sports books, 
became sports anchor for wnbc-tv in New York City in 1971, 
and was named editor of Sport magazine in 1973. In the 1970s, 
he was a correspondent for nbc Nightly News and the Today 
Show, and then moved to abc's World News Tonight and 20/20 
in the 1980s. Schaap won five Emmy Awards, for his profiles 
of comedian Sid *Caesar (1983) and Olympian Tom Waddell 
(1988); two for sports reporting; and for writing. He was also 
a theater critic, leading him to quip that he was the only per- 
son ever to vote both for the Tony Awards and for the Heis- 
man Trophy. In 1988 he began hosting The Sports Reporters on 
espn, hosted Schaap One on One on espn Classic, and hosted 
a syndicated espn Radio show called The Sporting Life with 
Dick Schaap, in which he discussed the week's developments in 
sports with his son Jeremy, who was also an espn sportswriter. 
Among his 33 books are two autobiographies which made The 
New York Times bestseller list: football star Jerry Kramer's In- 
stant Replay (1968) and two-sport star Bo Jackson's Bo Knows 
Bo, which was the best- selling sports autobiography ever. He 
wrote "as told to" biographies of Joe Namath, Hank Aaron, 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



Joe Montana, Tom Seaver, Billy * Crystal, Dave DeBusschere, 
and others, a biography of Robert F. Kennedy, RFK, and co- 
authored .44 with Breslin, about Son of Sam serial killer David 
Berkowicz. Schaap's final book was the autobiographical Flash- 
ing Before My Eyes, in which he recounts humorous and poign- 
ant memories of a career spanning 50 years. Schaap won the 
Northeastern Award for Excellence in Broadcast Sports Jour- 
nalism in 1986, the Women's Sports Foundation Award for 
Excellence in Covering Women's Sports in 1984, and was the 
2002 winner of the Associated Press Sports Editors Red Smith 
Award. He was the first journalist inducted into the True He- 
roes of Sport Hall of Fame by the Northeastern University 
Center for Sport and Society. 

[Elli Wohlgelernter (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHACH, FABIUS (1868-1930), one of the first members of 
the Zionist movement in Germany. Born in Wexna, Lithuania, 
Schach studied at yeshivot and went to Riga and then Berlin, 
where he studied at the university. There he made the acquain- 
tance of Max *Bodenheimer, who brought him to Cologne as a 
Hebrew teacher (1893). Together with Bodenheimer and David 
Wolffsohn, he founded a Jewish national society that formed 
the nucleus of the German Zionist Federation. Schach partici- 
pated in the First Zionist Congress and helped to draw up the 
*Basle Program. Afterward he fell out with Theodor *Herzl 
and his associates and spent the following years in Karlsruhe 
and Berlin. During World War 1 he worked in Hamburg as 
the editor of newspapers and journals, including those which 
opposed Zionism. During his Zionist period he was one of 
the foremost propagandists of the Zionist cause and a prolific 
writer, especially in German (but also in Hebrew) on Zionism, 
Judaism, and the Hebrew and Yiddish languages. Among his 
works is Volk-oder Salonjudentum (1893). His sister miriam 
(1867-1956) was a pioneer of political Zionism in France. She 
left her home in Lithuania in 1879, completed her studies at the 
Sorbonne in Paris, and taught the liberal arts and languages 
at various high schools in France. She played an important 
role, together with Max *Nordau, Alexander * Marmorek, and 
Bernard * Lazar, in putting Zionist ideas across to the French. 
She also helped to found the French Zionist newspaper, L'Echo 
Sioniste (published from 1900). During the last years of her life, 
she lived in Haifa. A Hebrew version by K. A. Bertini of her 
memoirs of the beginnings of the Zionist movement in France, 
titled Asher Ittam Hithallakhti, was published in 1951. 

bibliography: L. JafFe (ed.), Sefer ha-Congress (195c 2 ), 201, 
391-2; R. Lichtheim, Toledot ha-Ziyyonut be-Germanyah (1951), in- 

[Getzel Kressel] 

SCHACH, LEONARD LAZARUS (1918-1996), theatrical 
director and producer. Schach was born in Cape Town and 
early on showed an interest in the theater by serving as presi- 
dent of the amateur University Dramatic Society in 1939-42. 
In 1947-48 he undertook a world survey of national subsidized 
theater on behalf of the South African Department of Adult 

Education, resulting in the establishment of the National The- 
ater Organization in 1948. 

From 1948 to 1964 he directed over 200 productions in 
South Africa, including those of his own professional theater 
company (the Cockpit Players, later Leonard Schach Produc- 
tions), founded in 1951. 

Schach emigrated in 1965 to Israel, where he was invited 
to join the Cameri Theater as "resident guest director." In ad- 
dition he directed for Habimah, the Haifa Municipal Theater, 
Zavit, Bimot, Giora Godick Productions, the Israel Philhar- 
monic Orchestra and the Israel Chamber Ensemble Orches- 
tra. He also directed plays and operas in England, the United 
States, Italy, and Belgium, and made the film Cry in the Wind 
in Greece. 

Schach was the recipient of many awards, including the 
i960 Cape Tercentenarian Award of Merit (i960), the Queen 
of England's Coronation Medal for services to the English 
theater (1953), the Drama Critics of Brussels award (for After 
the Fall, 1966), Israel's David's Harp award for best director of 
the year (Birthday Party, 1968), and the Breytenbach award of 
South Africa for best director of the year for his production 
of Equus (1976). He has also been granted the Freedom of the 
City of Cape Town for his theatrical activity. 

bibliography: Stage by Stage, a biography by D onald Inskup 
(1977); Yearbook of National Theater and Art Councils. 

[Louis Isaac Rabinowitz] 

SCHACHNOWITZ, SELIG (1874-1952), Orthodox jour- 
nalist and writer. Of Lithuanian origin, Schachnowitz served 
as cantor of the Swiss- Jewish rural community of Endingen 
between 1901 and 1908. In 1908 he began his work as editor 
of the Israelit, Germany's leading modern Orthodox newspa- 
per, which appeared in Frankfurt am Main. He also taught at 
the Breuer yeshivah and was a prolific writer. In the main he 
depicted famous personalities in Jewish history, such as Don 
Abarbanel of Spain (1937), the leading figure at the time of the 
mass exodus (1492), Moses Schreiber of Pressburg (1933), Mai- 
monides (1935), and the mystical rabbi Seckel Loeb Wormser 
of Michelstadt (1912). He also wrote about Jewish folkways of 
Galicia (1910), the Khazars (1920), the Falashas (*Beta Israel) 
(1923), a proselyte to Judaism in Vilna (repr. 1943), retold the 
Bible, and wrote a sympathetic description of Erez Israel in 
1932, thus attenuating the hard-line anti-Zionist approach of 
Agudat Israel. In 1938 he managed to receive an immigrant 
permit for Switzerland, where he visited the many Jewish ref- 
ugees in the camps. He helped give them the steadfastness to 
endure the hardship of their life. In 1952 his death in Zurich 
was widely deplored. Some of his books were translated into 
Yiddish and English. His retelling of the Bible was reprinted 
by the Zentralrat der Juden in Deutschland (1970). 

bibliography: Kaufmann, Bibliographie, No. 1449. 

[Uri Kaufmann (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHACHT, ALEXANDER (Al; "The Clown Prince of Base- 
ball"; 1892-1984), U.S. baseball player and entertainer who 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


performed in a battered top hat and a tattered tuxedo with 
tails, wielding a catcher's mitt that weighed 25 pounds. Schacht 
was born on the Lower East Side to Russian immigrants Ida, 
daughter of a rabbi, and Samuel, son of a prominent farmer 
and a skilled locksmith, who once made a set of iron doors for 
the White House for Teddy Roosevelt. Schacht was a pitcher 
for Commerce High School, but was expelled for accepting $4 
to pitch a semi-pro game. He then started his career in 1910 
playing for Walton in upstate New York. Schacht played for 
Cleveland in the outlawed Federal League, and in the Inter- 
national League for Newark and the Jersey City Giants, for 
whom he pitched 10 shutouts. Schacht was drafted into the 
army in World War 1 before making his Major League debut 
for the Washington Nationals on September 18, 1919, at the age 
of 26. At spring training the following year, he met Nick Al- 
trock, himself a baseball clown, and the two formed a clown- 
ing partnership, though they did not like each other and later 
in their partnership never spoke to each other. A sore arm 
curtailed Schacht s career in less than two years, and he re- 
tired from playing with a record of 14-10 with a 4.48 era in 53 
games. He continued as a coach and clown with Altrock, until 
Schacht left for Boston in 1934, and afterward he performed 
alone in an act that was part pantomime and part anecdotes. 
During rain delays he would plop down in a mud puddle with 
two bats, and pantomime rowing as if he were in a boat. He 
was also known for staging mock boxing and tennis matches 
on the field. Schacht performed at 25 World Series and 18 All- 
Star Games, and by his estimation entertained more than 70 
million fans in his nearly five decades as an entertainer. Dur- 
ing World War 11, Schacht made three trips overseas with 
the uso, entertaining thousands of troops in Europe, Africa, 
and Asia. After the war, Schacht gave up touring and opened 
a restaurant on East 52 nd St. in New York. He was the author 
of Clowning Through Baseball (1941); Al Schacht Dope Book: 
Diamond Facts, Figures And Fun (1944); gi Had Fun (1945); 
and My Own Particular Screwball (1955). 

[Elli Wohlgelernter (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHACHTEL, HUGOHILLEL (1876-1949), early Zionist 
and one of the heads of the * Jewish National Fund (jnf) 
in Germany. Born in Sulnierschuetz (now Sulmierzyce, Po- 
land), Schachtel later settled in Breslau, where he completed 
his studies as a dentist. He began his activities in a Breslau 
Zionist society and offered his services to Theodor *Herzl 
shortly after the appearance of Der Judenstaat. In his reply 
(dated Nov. 19, 1896), Herzl asked him to set up propaganda 
societies in Poland. Schachtel spent the following decades 
active in Zionist affairs, both in the Breslau Zionist society 
and in the jnf. In 1904 he published a manual of informa- 
tion about Erez Israel and the Zionist movement which ran 
through several editions (the fifth edition came out in 1924 
under the title Eretz-Israel Merkbuch). He also compiled an 
index to the proceedings and a collection of the resolutions 
of the first seven Zionist Congresses (1905-06). In 1932 he 
settled in Haifa. 

bibliography: N. Agmon (Bistritski; ed.), Megillat ha-Ad- 
amah, 2 (Demuyot; 1951), 199-200; G. Herlitz, Ishim ba-Ziyyonut 


[Getzel Kressel] 

SCHACHTER, CARL (1932- ), U.S. music theorist; the most 
important practitioner of Schenkerian theory in his genera- 
tion. Born in Chicago, Schachter studied piano and conduct- 
ing in New York and focused on theory following his studies 
with Felix Salzer. Schachter was a professor in the Mannes 
School of Music, Queens College, the cuny Graduate Cen- 
ter, and the Juilliard School of Music, and gave lectures and 
classes all over North America and Europe. Schachter s pro- 
found understanding of theory is best seen in his illuminat- 
ing commentary on Schenker s Free Composition {Journal of 
Music Theory, 1981). He is best known for the textbooks which 
he coauthored: Counterpoint in Composition (with Felix Sal- 
zer, 1969) and Harmony and Voice Leading (with Edward Al- 
dwell, 1978, 1989 2 , 2003 3 ). Schachter developed a complemen- 
tary tool to voice-leading graphs: durational graphs, which 
indicate the normalized time-span of each event (at a given 
level). His essays focus on analysis of 18 th - and i9 th -century 
music. His most important essays were collected in Unfoldings 

bibliography: J.N. Straus, "Introduction: A Dialogue be- 
tween Author and Editor," in: Unfoldings. (1999). 

[Yossi Goldenberg (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHACHTER, HERSCHEL (1917- ), U.S. Orthodox, rabbi. 
Born in Brooklyn, New York, Schachter was ordained by the 
Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary in 1941. He served 
as rabbi of Agudath Shalom, Stamford, Conn., in 1940. Dur- 
ing World War 11, Schachter was a U.S. army chaplain and 
was the first Jewish chaplain to aid the survivors of Buchen- 
wald. He arrived there on April 12, 1945, with General George 
Patton's Third Army. 

Going from one barracks to the next, he declared in Yid- 
dish, "Sholom Alecheim Yidden, ihrzintfrei" (Hello Jews, you 
are free). He officiated at the first Friday night service after 
liberation and conducted a seder for the survivors. He estab- 
lished a hevra kadisha (burial society), and acquired a plot 
of land for a Jewish cemetery, organized a list of Jews in the 
camp and others who came through, set up a mail service and 
a package program. 

After much discussion, he convinced the military to al- 
low young people in Buchenwald to establish a kibbutz to pre- 
pare for life in Palestine. In this he worked with Chaplain Rob- 
ert Marcus, another Orthodox rabbi. Marcus and Schachter 
each accompanied transports of Jewish children from Buch- 
enwald to France. 

He was appointed rabbi of the Mosholu Jewish Center, 
New York, in 1946. The neighborhood was amid a large and 
thriving Jewish community of the Bronx. At its peak more 
than 1,000 people crowded into the synagogue on the high 
holidays. His sermons were the topic of discussion. In 1956-57 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



Schachter was religious adviser to Jews fleeing from Hungary. 
He served as president of the Religious Zionists of Amer- 
ica and chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major 
American Jewish organizations, the first Orthodox rabbi to 
hold that position. He was able to maintain unity despite vast 
differences of ideology and politics. One person who worked 
closely with him, Jerry Goodman of the National Confer- 
ence on Soviet Jewry, said "he was aware of the power that he 
had but it never changed him. He never forgot his roots were 
in the Bronx. And despite his national leadership he stayed 
in the Bronx and served the Jewish people from that perch." 
As the neighborhood changed and Jews moved out, Rabbi 
Schachter stayed. By the mid 1990s the synagogue was almost 
empty even on the High Holidays. The synagogue closed in 
2000, not because it lacked for funds - they could have easily 
be raised - but because there were no Jews. They had left for 
Riverdale, for Westchester, they were elsewhere. 

Rabbi Schachter s son, Jacob J. *Schachter is a promi- 
nent Orthodox rabbi who for many years was the rabbi of 
the Jewish Center in Manhattans West Side, a thriving Jew- 
ish community. 

bibliography: A. Grobman, Battling for Souls (2004). 

[Jeanette Friedman (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHACHTER, JACOB J. (1950- ), U.S. Orthodox rabbi. 
Schachter was born into a prominent rabbinic family; his fa- 
ther was Rabbi Herschel *Schachter who was among the first 
to enter Buchenwald after liberation and who served as rabbi 
of the Moshula Jewish Center and as chairman of the Confer- 
ence of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations. 
Jacob Schachter graduated from Brooklyn College in 1973, 
summa cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa, winning the Abraham 
S. Goodhartz Award for Excellence in Judaic Studies. He was 
ordained at Mesivta Torah Vodaath that same year. He then 
went to Harvard, where he was a teaching fellow from 1978 
to 1980 and from which he received his Ph.D. in Near East- 
ern Languages in 1981. He became rabbi of the Jewish Center 
in Manhattan, one of the most prestigious Orthodox congre- 
gations in the world, where Rabbis Norman * Lamm and Leo 
*Jung had served. Mordecai * Kaplan had also been there in the 
early 20 th century during the waning years of his service as an 
Orthodox rabbi. Under Schachter s leadership, the synagogue 
grew from almost 200 to nearly 600 families - with close to 
1,000 participants in services on Sabbath mornings. Among 
his other activities while at the Jewish Center, he directed Ye- 
shiva University's Torah u-Madda Project from 1986 to 1997, 
and was an adjunct assistant professor at the Stern College for 
Women at Yeshiva University from 1993 to 1999. In 1995, he 
was awarded the prestigious Daniel Jeremy Silver Fellowship 
from the department of Near Eastern languages and civiliza- 
tions, Harvard University. He also served as a member of the 
faculties of The Wexner Heritage Foundation (from 1992) and 
The Wexner Foundation (from 1995). He was a member of the 
editorial boards of the magazines Tradition and Jewish Action, 
served on the board of governors of the Orthodox Union, and 

was the founding president of the Council of Orthodox Jewish 
Organizations of the Upper West Side (1994-2000). 

Perhaps tired of the pulpit and seeking to move closer to 
academic life, he shocked many when he left the Jewish Cen- 
ter to become dean of the newly founded Rabbi Joseph B. So- 
lo veitchik Institute in Boston in 2000. The institute is dedi- 
cated to perpetuating the teachings of Rabbi Soloveitchik as a 
force within the Orthodox community and as a model for all 
Jews. Guided by the integrity of halakhah y Jewish tradition, 
and meaningful engagement with general culture, the insti- 
tute is intended to enhance Jewish study and actively develop 
Jewish leadership for the contemporary world. 

He returned to New York in 2005 to become professor of 
Jewish History and Thought and Senior Scholar at the Center 
for the Jewish Future at Yeshiva University. His appointment 
was seen as a signal by the new president of Yeshiva Univer- 
sity that he wanted to reinvigorate the college, and to stress 
the twin goals of Yeshiva University. As a university professor, 
Schachter was asked to develop multidisciplinary initiatives in 
various academic units of the university. The position of Se- 
nior Scholar enabled Schachter to play a prominent role in the 
new center's development and to shape the Orthodox world 
for contemporary Orthodox Jews who are sophisticated, intel- 
ligent, and rooted professionally and culturally in the secular 
world while living traditional Jewish lives. 

He took up the battle for a different type of synthesis 
within contemporary Orthodoxy. Writing in the student news- 
paper, Schachter said: "By synthesis' we must understand not 
a co-existence of equals but an integrated system of religious 
and secular ideas based on the eternal verities of our religion. 
We begin our career here with the basic postulates of Ortho- 
dox Judaism. Then, as we continue our studies, we fit the sec- 
ular ideas into the religious pattern, thus broadening our un- 
derstanding and enriching our religious life." 

As a scholar, Schachter was the founding editor of The 
Torah u-Madda Journal and editor of Reverence, Righteous- 
ness and Rahamanut: Essays in Memory of Rabbi Dr. Leo Jung 
(1992), Jewish Tradition and the Nontraditional Jew (1992), and 
the award-winning Judaisms Encounter with Other Cultures: 
Rejection or Integration? (1997). He was also the co-editor of 
the Orthodox Union's Siddur Nechamas Yisrael: The Com- 
plete Service for the Period of Bereavement (1995). He was the 
co-author, with fellow yu Professor Jeffrey Gurrock, of the 
award-winning A Modern Heretic and a Traditional Commu- 
nity: Mordecai M. Kaplan, Orthodoxy, and American Judaism, 
which traces Kaplan's disillusionment with Orthodoxy while 
rabbi at the Jewish Center (1996), and author of close to 50 
articles and reviews in Hebrew and English. 

[Michael Berenbaum (2 nd ed.)] 

and leader of the Jewish Renewal. Schachter- Shalomi was born 
in Zholkiew, Poland, and educated in Vienna, Austria, at the 
gymnasium Brit Bilu Agudah and Yeshiva Yesod Ha-Torah. 
In 1938 he and his family fled to Antwerp, Belgium, to avoid 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


Nazi capture, where he had his first contact with Chabad Ha- 
sidim. In April 1940 his family was interned in a labor camp 
in Vichy, France. In September 1940 they were freed, and he 
moved to Marseilles, France. In 1947 he received rabbinical 
ordination from Central Yeshiva Tomchei T'mimim (Chabad) 
in Brooklyn, New York. In 1962 he and counterculture guru 
Timothy Leary experimented with LSD at the Vendanta Cen- 
ter in Massachusetts. In 1968 he earned a DHL from Hebrew 
Union College in Cincinnati, Ohio. Beginning as a Chabad 
emissary in 1969, he founded B'nei Or (later the alliance for 
Jewish Renewal) and was promoted to full professor at the 
University of Manitoba in Saskatchewan, Canada, where he 
taught from 1969 to 1975, serving both as professor and Hil- 
lel director. He taught at Temple University from 1975 to 1987 
and then at the Naropa Institute (later Naropa University) 
from 1995 to 2004. 

Reb Zalman, as he became known, was a disciple of the 
sixth Lubavitcher Rebbe and served as one of the first emis- 
saries of the seventh rebbe (Menachem Mendel *Schneersohn) 
in the late 1940s. Together with his colleague Rabbi Shlomo 
*Carlebach, Schachter-Shalomi revolutionized American 
Jewry by translating hasidic spirituality into a counter-cul- 
tural language. 

Dissatisfied with the insular nature of post-war hasidic 
Judaism yet committed to the hasidic vision he gleaned from 
its texts, he left the formal community of Lubavitch yet trans- 
formed hasidic outreach into a non- Orthodox post-halakhic 
Jewish pietism that was at once universal, highly ritualistic, 
and unabashedly heterodox (some would say heretical). Kab- 
balistic and hasidic Judaism served as the groundwork for his 
new Judaism that advocated absorbing other spiritual disci- 
plines into itself to enhance a contemplative Judaism for a 
"new age." He formulated what he called a paradigm shift, 
drawing from the medieval kabbalistic works of Sefer Temu- 
nah and Sefer Ha-Peliah (and their Shabbatean and hasidic 
interpreters) that presented a model of changing cosmic eons, 
reflected in historical epochs each of which required a "new 

To rah." 

[Shaul Magid (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHACHT PLAN, Nazi plan to finance Jewish emigration 
from Germany, conceived in the wake of the *Kristallnacht 
by Hjalmar Schacht, minister of economics and president of 
the Reichsbank, and Hans Fishboeck, state secretary in the 
Reich Ministry of Finance. The plan was in consonance with 
two major goals of German policy prior to the "Final Solu- 
tion" - the forced emigration of Jews and the expropriation 
of their property. This plan was not the first suggestion of a 
policy of mutual interest, beneficial to both the German state 
and to a significantly lesser extent to the Jews - though the 
possibility of emigration was of inestimable value the longer 
the Nazis were in power. In 1933, the *Haavara agreement was 
struck, enabling Jews to leave Germany and go to Palestine 
with at least some assets. Under the Schacht plan, those Ger- 
man Jews wishing to emigrate could not take their property 

with them, for it had been confiscated by the Reich authori- 
ties, who compensated them with government bonds at the 
lowest interest. The planners tried to capitalize on the concern 
shown by foreign Jewish bodies and international refugee or- 
ganizations and link the facility of transfer of Jewish assets to 
the promotion of German exports. They wanted foreign Jew- 
ish bodies to raise a loan of rm 1,500,000 in foreign currency 
(then equivalent to $600,000) to enable the resettlement of 
emigrants. Other essentials of the plan called for placing 25% 
of the Jewish property in Germany and Austria in a trust fund. 
The assets were to be gradually converted into cash and trans- 
ferred only if Germany's foreign exchange would permit, or 
sooner in the form of "supplementary" exports. The remain- 
ing 75% was to remain at Germany's disposal to be used to 
maintain Jews before their emigration or those unable to 
emigrate. This fund was to finance the emigration of 150,000 
able-bodied Jews and 250,000 dependents in the course of 
three years. Schacht claimed that *Hitler and *Goering had 
assented to his plan. * Ribbentrop opposed it for personal and 
political reasons and did his best to frustrate it. To implement 
it, Schacht negotiated with George Rublee, the director of the 
Intergovernmental Committee of Refugees, who had formerly 
conceived his own plan for linking emigration to German 
exports, with the Reich as the debtor of the foreign loan, but 
agreed to the emigrants being the debtors. Rublee's committee 
planned to proceed through two committees, one on a gov- 
ernmental level and the second of private individuals. Jewish 
leaders approached by Rublee opposed the second commit- 
tee, to give the lie to the Nazi propaganda of a world Jewish 
financial body. They believed that the whole problem should 
he considered by governments exclusively. The experts of the 
governments concerned with Jewish immigration objected to 
making confiscated Jewish property the basis for increasing 
German exports. Rublee ran into further difficulty in finding 
governments that were ready to accept Jewish immigrants in 
great numbers. Schacht was dismissed at the beginning of 
1939, but the Nazis continued the negotiations. Rublee, who 
sincerely believed in the plan as a means to help the Jews, 
resigned because of the difficulties he encountered. The ne- 
gotiations between his successors and the Nazi government 
dragged on until their disruption with the outbreak of World 
War 11, when emigration became impossible. 

bibliography: Documents on German Foreign Policy 
1918-1945, series D, vol. 5 (1953), 900-940; J. Tenenbaum in: Yad 
Vashem Studies (1958), 70-77; A.D. Morse, While 6 Million Died 
(1967), 197-203; L.L. Strauss, Man and Decisions (1963), 103-9; D.A. 
Cheson, Morning and Noon (1965), 126-30. 

[Yehuda Reshef / Michael Berenbaum (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHAECHTER, JOSEPH (1901- ), educator and Hebrew 
writer. Born in Galicia, he was ordained for the rabbinate 
and studied at Vienna University. Schaechter immigrated to 
Erez Israel in 1938, and taught in secondary schools, first in 
Tel Aviv and then in Haifa. From 1951 he was the supervisor 
of secondary schools in Haifa. Disturbed by the gap between 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



Orthodoxy and secularism in Israel society, Schaechter tried 
to turn Israel non-Orthodox youth back to its Jewish heri- 
tage. He sought to achieve this by approaching the Bible and 
Talmud as a philosophy of life. Schaechter felt that modern 
man was uprooted and cynical in the technological world, be- 
cause he had forgotten to invest life with meaning and to look 
within himself. This inner search was the heritage of Israel. In 
his Pirkei Hadrakhah ba-Tanakh (i960) he showed the failings 
of both the Orthodox and non-orthodox education systems, 
the one teaching Bible as a book of mitzvot, the other as an ar- 
chaeological guide book. Besides contributing to various liter- 
ary periodicals, he wrote books on such varied topics as logic, 
science and faith, Talmud, and the prayer book. 

His books include Mavo Kazar le-Logistikah (1937), Sin- 
taksis (1944), Mi-Madda le-Emunah (1953), Mavo la-Talmud 
(!954)> Mishnato shel A.D. Gordon (1957), Mavo la-Siddur 
(1958), Ozar ha-Talmud (1963), Mavo la-Tanakh (1968), and 
several works on education, including Limmudei ha-Yahadut 
ba-Hinnukh ha-Al-Yesodi (1968), a summary of Schaechter s 
teachings by his students. 

bibliography: S. Kremer, Hillufei Mishmarot be-Sifrutenu 
(1959), 348-53; H. Weiner, Wild Goats of Ein Gedi (1961), 262-6; 
J.S. Diamond, in: The Reconstructionist, 30 (Dec. 25, 1964), 17-24. 


[Getzel Kressel] 

SCHAECHTER, MORDKHE (1927- ), Yiddish linguist, au- 
thor, editor, and educator. Born in Cernauti, Romania (now 
Chernivtsy, Ukraine), Schaechter, who went to the U.S. in 1951, 
was a leading Yiddishist, both in promoting the maintenance 
of the language and in adapting it through language planning 
to modern life and technology. Coeditor of the Territorialist 
bimonthly Oyfn Shvel y published by the Freeland League, he 
contributed to various other Yiddish publications, and col- 
laborated with M. *Weinreich in the writing of Yidisher Orto- 
grafisher Vegvayzer (1961). Chief interviewer of The Language 
and Culture Atlas of Ashkenazic Jewry (1992-2000), he also 
wrote books and articles on Yiddish dialectology, toponymy, 
terminology, style, and grammar. His Elyokem Zunzers Verk 
(published by the *yivo Institute in 1964) has been acclaimed 
as the best critical edition of a Yiddish writer and his works. 
Schaechter participated in various institutions and founda- 
tions promoting the Yiddish language, and was instrumental 
in organizing some: he was a prime mover in the creation of 
the youth movement, Yugntruf - Youth for Yiddish (1963). 
From 1962 he taught Yiddish at the Jewish Teachers' Semi- 
nary and, from 1968, at both Yeshiva University and Colum- 
bia University in New York. 

bibliography: lnyl,vo1. 8. 

[Leybl Kahn] 

Yiddish poet, and songwriter. Schaechter- Gottesman was born 
Beyle Schaechter in Vienna, the daughter of Lifshe Gottesman, 
and Benjamin Schaechter. The family moved to Cernauti, Ro- 

mania (Czernowitz, now part of the Ukraine), when Beyle was 
18 months old. She attended school where instruction was in 
Romanian, also learning French and Latin, spoke Yiddish at 
home, and German or Ukrainian around town. Home was 
full of music, as her mother knew a large folk song repertoire 
and had a wonderful voice. Years later, Lifshe Schaechter- Wid- 
man recorded songs in the United States and wrote a memoir, 
Durkhgelebt a Velt: Zikhroynes (1973). 

In 1938, Beyle's two years of study at the Vienna art school 
was cut short when Hitler invaded Austria. Using her Roma- 
nian passport, she returned to her family in Cernauti, only 
to spend the war years in her hometown under dire circum- 
stances. In February 1941, she married Jonas Gottesman, a 
physician, with whom she ultimately had three children. They 
wound up in the Cernauti ghetto with the other Jews, but her 
husband arranged authorization for them to remain in the 
area, and thus they survived the war. After the war, Beyle and 
her family settled briefly in Vienna before coming to New 
York City in 1951. 

Schaechter- Gottesman started her theatrical and liter- 
ary career with works for children, writing musical plays and 
puppet shows for the Scholem Aleichem Yiddish School in 
New York. She edited a children's magazine, Kinder Zhurnal, 
from 1972 to 1982, and founded and edited the magazine by 
children, Enge Benge. Her first book of poetry was Mir Torn in 
1963, followed by Stezhkes Tsvishn Moyern: Lider ("Footpaths 
Amidst Stonewalls: Poems," 1972) and Sharey Lider ("Sun- 
rise Poetry," 1980). Another book of poetry, Lider (1995), was 
published in both English and Yiddish. Perpl Shlengt zikh der 
veg: Lider ("Winding Purple Road," 2002) also featured her 

Her outpouring of musical song started to see publication 
in the 1990s, with Zumerteg: Tsvantsik Zinglider ("Summer 
Days: Twenty Songs," 1990) and Eli mayn flishlang! Kinder- 
lider mitMusik ("Fly My Kite!" 1999); recordings of her songs 
also appeared: Zumerteg New Yiddish Songs (1991) and Afdi 
Gasn Fun Shtot ("On the Streets of the City," 2003). Her bi- 
lingual children's book Mume blume di Makhsheyfe ("Aunt 
Bluma, the Witch," 2000) has been translated into numerous 
languages. She performed Yiddish folk songs on Bay Mayn 
Mames Shtible ("At My Mother's House," 2004). Schaechter- 
Gottesman was awarded the People's Hall of Fame Award 
from the Museum of the City of New York (1998) and the 
Osher Tshushinsky Award from the Congress for Jewish Cul- 
ture (1994). 

With the rekindled interest in Yiddish culture and 
klezmer music during the 1970s and 1980s, Schaechter- Gottes- 
man participated in popular cultural festivals and workshops 
such as the Yiddish Folk Arts Workshop ("Klezkamp"), Buf- 
falo on the Roof, Klezkanada, Ashkenaz Festival, and Weimar 
Klezmerwochen, spreading the knowledge of her music. 

[Judith S. Pinnolis (2 nd ed.)] 

°SCHAEFFER, CLAUDE F.A. (1898-1982), French archae- 
ologist. He was curator of the French National Museums and 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


the Museum of Antiquities (1933); director of research of the 
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (1946); and pro- 
fessor of European prehistory and national archaeology at the 
Ecole du Louvre (1951) and at the College of France (1954). He 
directed a number of French archaeological missions in Italy, 
Turkey, Egypt, and especially at Ras Shamra in Syria and En- 
komia-Alasia in Cyprus. 

Schaeffer is principally remembered as the excavator 
of Ras Shamra (see *Ugarit), one of the most remarkable ar- 
chaeological discoveries of the 20 th century bearing directly 
upon the language and literature of the Hebrew Bible. He ex- 
amined the importance of Ras Shamra for the understanding 
of the literature, archaeology, history, and theology of Israel 
and its surroundings. 

The religion of Ras Shamra and the form and quality 
of Canaanite poetry are compared with the Bible in his 1936 
Schweich Lectures of the British Academy, published in 1939 
as The Cuneiform Texts of Ras Shamra-Ugarit. The authorita- 
tive reports directly covering the expeditions at Ras Shamra 
published under his direction include La... campagne de 
fouilles a Ras Shamra-Ugarit (17 vols. (1929-55); Ugaritica (4 
vols., 1939-62), and Le Palais Royal d'Ugarit, containing the 
texts from the different literary archives of the royal palace at 

Ras Shamra (1955). 

[Zev Garber] 

SCHAEFFER, HANS (1886-1967), German government 
official. Born in Breslau, Schaeffer began to practice law in 
1912. He served with the German armed forces during World 
War 1 and, when demobilized early in 1919, was appointed to 
the German Ministry of Economic Affairs. At first engaged 
in drafting the economic provisions of the Weimar Con- 
stitution, he was promoted in 1923 to undersecretary and 
shifted to international economic affairs. German reparations 
became his principal field. In 1929, during the beginnings 
of the world economic depression, he joined the Ministry 
of Finance, where he became instrumental in overcoming 
the German banking crisis and relieving Germany of its war 
debt. In 1932 he left government service to become president 
of the *Ullstein publishing house, but in 1933 the Nazi govern- 
ment forced his dismissal. Subsequently he worked together 
with Allen Dulles and Jean Monnet on the liquidation of the 
Swedish Kreuger Match Combine, and in 1936 he became the 
Combines adviser and moved to Sweden, where he lived un- 
til his death. Schaeffer took an interest in Jewish affairs, par- 
ticularly after Hitlers rise to power. He participated in the 
formation of the *Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden and 
was in contact with the Jewish representatives at the *Evian 
Conference. Schaeffer kept a diary which represents an im- 
portant source for German economic history from the 1920s 
to the 1960s. 

bibliography: S. Adler-Rudel, in: blbi, 10 (1967), 159-215; 

S. Kaznelson, Juden im deutschen Kulturbereich (1959), 582; New York 

Times (March 25, 1967), 23. add. bibliography: E. Wandel, Hans 

Schaeffer (1974). 

[Joachim O. Ronall] 

SCHAFER, STEPHEN (1911-1976), criminologist and soci- 
ologist. Born in Hungary, Schafer was professor of criminol- 
ogy at Budapest University (1947-51), chairman of the Hun- 
garian prison commission, and president of the supervising 
board of delinquency. He left Hungary in 1956 and became a 
consultant to the British Home Office research unit. In 1961, 
Schafer immigrated to the U.S. and taught successively at the 
Florida State, Ohio, and Northeastern universities, and served 
as a consultant to the President's Commission on Law Enforce- 
ment and Administration of Justice. 

Schafer's principal book in English was Restitution to Vic- 
tims of Crime (i960), a problem on which he became a leading 
expert. Some of his other works, as a preeminent researcher in 
the field of victimology, include The Victim and His Criminal 
(1968), Theories in Criminology (1969), Juvenile Delinquency 
(1970), The Political Criminal: The Problem of Morality and 
Crime (1974), Social Problems in a Changing Society (1975), 
and Introduction to Criminology (1976 2 ). 

[Zvi Hermon / Ruth Beloff (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHAFF, ADAM (1913- ), Polish philosopher of Jewish ori- 
gin; the dominant figure in Marxist philosophy in Poland from 
the assumption of power by the Communist government in 
1945. Born in Lvov, he studied in the Soviet Union. He returned 
to become professor of philosophy at the Warsaw University and 
director of the Institute of Philosophy at the Polish Academy 
of Science. At first of orthodox views, he nevertheless engaged 
in active and mutually respectful debate and development with 
the eminent Polish school of logic and epistemology (Ajdukie- 
wicz, Kotarbinski, Ingarden, among others), and later also with 
Marxists influenced by existentialist and other non-Marxist 
philosophical thought (the most important being Kolakowski). 
Schaff wrote many works, from initial studies in the theory of 
truth to later works on semantics, on the nature of historical 
explanation, on the role of language in cognition, on ethics in 
private and in social life, and on the still uncompleted tasks of 
Marxist philosophy, for which his chief work is Marksyzm ijed- 
nostka ludzka (1965; Marxism and the Human Individual, 1970). 
Other books appearing in English are Alienation as a Social 
Phenomenon, Language and Cognition, and History and Truth. 
Schaff had wide influence within the eastern European coun- 
tries, and also among American and western European think- 
ers on sociological and philosophical matters, perhaps most 
practically through work with unesco. During the period of 
active pressure against Jews in Poland in 1968, Schaff s official 
positions in the Polish university and academy hierarchy were 
greatly reduced in scope and authority, and he ceased to be a 
member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of 
Poland. However, through all the upheavals in Poland he man- 
aged to maintain his status as an influential thinker. 

[Robert S. Cohen] 

SCHAFFHAUSEN, canton and its capital city in N. Switzer- 
land. The earliest record of Jews in the canton is dated 1291. 
The Jews were burned there during the excesses of 1349, and 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



in 1401 all the Jews in the city were condemned to death and 
30 were burned. The Jews were expelled from the canton in 
1475. Individual Jews who visited the canton during the 16 th 
to 18 th centuries were refused the right of residence. Jews of 
nearby southern German rural communitites (Gailingen, Ran- 
degg, Worblingen and Wangen) appeared on weekdays doing 
business as livestock traders and peddlers. In 1865 the laws 
restricting Jewish settlement were repealed, and by 1874 full 
emancipation was granted. However, few Jews settled there. 
A minyan existed in the 1920s. 

bibliography: F. Guggenheim- Gruenberg, Die Juden in 
der Schweiz (1961); A. Weldler- Steinberg, Geschichte der Juden in der 
Schweiz (1966), index; Germ Jud, 2 (1968), 740-2. 

[Uri Kaufmann (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHAKOWSKY, JANICE D. ("Jan"; 1944- )> member of 
the U.S. House of Representatives, serving the 9 th District of 
Illinois from 1999. "We need more Jan Schakowskys," New 
York Magazine declared, noting that the congresswoman 
from Illinois represents the future of Democratic progres- 
sive politics. 

Born in Chicago, Schakowsky, a citizen advocate, grass- 
roots organizer, and elected public official, fought through- 
out her career for economic and social justice and improved 
quality of life for all; for an end to violence against women; 
and for a national investment in healthcare, public education, 
and housing needs. 

She carried on the legacy of her predecessor, Sid Yates, 
representing a district that is incredibly diverse, stretch- 
ing from the liberal lake front through some of Chicago's 
ethnic neighborhoods, encompassing Devon Avenue and 
extending to O'Hare International Airport. She picked up 
his mantle of leadership, especially regarding his support 
for Israel and the United States Holocaust Memorial Mu- 

Schakowsky, who served on the House Democratic Lead- 
ership team as chief deputy whip, was a member of the Energy 
and Commerce Committee, where she was ranking member 
of the Subcommittee on Commerce, Trade, and Consumer 
Protection; she also served on the Subcommittee on Envi- 
ronment and Hazardous Materials and the Subcommittee on 
Oversight and Investigations. 

Schakowsky won major legislative victories to increase 
federal assistance for abused women and children and to 
protect the rights of battered immigrant women, to reform 
election laws guaranteeing that no registered voter is turned 
away at the poll, to expand housing opportunities for low-in- 
come people, and to assist small business owners and farm- 
ers. Schakowsky worked in Congress to safeguard the rights of 
victims of identity theft and to protect consumers from preda- 
tory lenders. A champion for the nation's seniors, Schakowsky 
was actively engaged in the campaign for seniors and persons 
with disabilities to access affordable prescription drugs. Scha- 
kowsky was also working to ensure that seniors receive qual- 
ity home, hospice, and nursing care. 

A graduate of the University of Illinois, Schakowsky was 
a longtime consumer rights advocate. She was responsible for 
a 1969 law requiring the printing of freshness dates on grocer- 
ies. She was program director of Illinois Public Action, Illi- 
nois' largest public interest group, from 1976 to 1985, where she 
fought for energy reform and stronger protection from toxic 
chemicals. She then moved to the Illinois State Council of Se- 
nior Citizens as executive director, where she organized across 
the state for lower cost prescription drugs and tax relief for 
seniors, financial protection for the spouses of nursing home 
residents, and other benefits for the elderly. She held that posi- 
tion from 1985 until 1990, when she was elected to the Illinois 
House of Representatives. She served there for four terms until 
elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1998. 

[Jill Weinberg (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHALIT, ABRAHAM CHAIM (1898-1979), historian. 
Born in Zolochev, Galicia, Schalit studied classics at Vienna 
University. He settled in Erez Israel in 1929 and worked in var- 
ious posts. In 1950 he became a lecturer in Jewish history at 
The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, and professor in 1957. His 
most important work was Hordos ha-Melekh ("King Herod," 
i960) for which he received the Israel Prize for Jewish Stud- 
ies (i960). The book was translated in an enlarged form into 
German, Koenig Herodes (1969). Not only a comprehensive 
study of Herod, it is also a brilliant analysis of the structure 
of Roman rule in Palestine, a subject to which Schalit had 
previously devoted his Ha-Mishtar ha-Romai be-Erez Yisrael 
("Roman Rule in Erez Israel," 1937). Schalit's other important 
field of research was the writings of Josephus. In numerous 
articles he dealt with several aspects of the historian's method 
and sources; he also wrote an introduction to, and translated 
into Hebrew, Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews (Books 1-10, 
1947; 11-20, 1963), as well as a concordance of all names ap- 
pearing in Josephus' works, Namenwoerterbuch zu Flavius Jo- 
sephus (1968). Schalit was divisional editor of the Encyclopae- 
dia Judaica for the Second Temple period. 

[Isaiah Gafni] 

SCHALIT, HEINRICH (1886-1973), composer. Schalit was 
born in Vienna and studied at the musical conservatory there. 
He settled in Munich, where he worked as music teacher and 
as organist at the Great Synagogue. In 1933 he left Germany 
and was appointed organist at the Great Synagogue in Rome. 
He later emigrated to the U.S., where he was organist for con- 
gregations in Providence, Rhode Island, and Denver, Colo- 
rado. Among his sacred compositions are his Friday Night 
Liturgy, his Hebrew Song of Praise > and his setting of Psalm 
98. He also wrote orchestral, chamber, and piano music, as 
well as songs. 

SCHALIT, ISIDOR (1871-1953), first secretary of the Zionist 
Office and one of Herzl's first assistants. Born in Nowosolky, 
Ukraine, Schalit grew up in Vienna, where he qualified as a 
dentist. He was raised in an atmosphere of support for Hibbat 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


Zion, joined the student Zionist society *Kadimah in Vienna 
(1889), and was actively engaged in establishing a network of 
similar organizations in Austria. He was a member of the ac- 
ademic circle in Vienna that offered Herzl assistance on the 
publication of Der Judenstaat. On Whit Sunday 1896 Herzl 
wrote in his diary: 

Two fellows from the Kadimah, Schalit and Neuberger, called 
on me. They told me that a proposal was afoot to recruit a vol- 
unteer battalion of one or two thousand and to attempt a land- 
ing at Jaffa. Even if some might have to give up their lives in the 
attempt, Europe would start paying attention to the aspirations 
of the Jews. I advised them against this fine Garibaldian idea. 

Herzl made Schalit a member of the editorial board of Die 
Welt, but shortly afterward, at the outbreak of the Turko- 
Greek War (1897), Schalit set out at the head of a delegation of 
five medical student volunteers to provide first aid on the 
Turkish front, a venture which was intended to gain Turk- 
ish sympathy for HerzFs proposals. Afterward Schalit was 
the main technical organizer of the First Zionist Congress at 
Basle (1897). He flew the Zionist flag from the Basle Casino 
and did it again at the 1937 Congress, which celebrated in 
Basle the 40 th anniversary of the First Congress. He also sig- 
naled the opening of the First Congress by knocking with 
a hammer on the table of the chairman, an act which he 
performed at all subsequent Congresses - down to the first 
Congress in the State of Israel in 1951. After the First Con- 
gress he was appointed secretary of the Zionist Office, a post 
he filled during Herzl's lifetime. With the transfer of the 
Zionist center to Cologne, after Herzl's death, he was elected 
head of the Zionist Organization in Austria. From then on 
he was active in the Austrian and the World Zionist Orga- 
nizations. In 1938 he settled in Palestine, where he published 
memoirs of the beginnings of political Zionism (in Haolam, 
Davar, etc.). 

bibliography: T. Herzl, Complete Diaries, 5 (i960), index; J. 
Levi, Isidor Schalit (Heb., 1951), Tidhar, 3 (1949), 1443-46. 

[Getzel Kressel] 

SCHALLY, ANDREW VICTOR (1926- ), medical research 
worker and Nobel laureate. Serially was born in Wilno, Po- 
land (now Vilnius, Lithuania), and became a U.S. citizen in 
1962. At the outset of World War 11, his father, a professional 
soldier, left his family to fight with the Allied forces. Serially 
survived the war in Romania and immigrated to the U.K. in 
1945. He was educated at Bridge of Allan School in Scotland 
and received his B.Sc. in chemistry from London University. 
After a period at the Medical Research Council's National In- 
stitute for Medical Research at Mill Hill, London (1950-52), 
he moved to Canada where he gained his Ph.D. in chemistry 
at McGill University under the supervision of Dr. M. Saffran 
(1952-57). He joined the department of physiology at Baylor 
University College of Medicine in Houston, Texas (1957-62). 
In 1962 he moved for the rest of his career to New Orleans as 
chief of the Endocrine and Polypeptide Laboratories at the 

Veterans Administration Hospital, where he became a senior 
medical investigator (1973), and a member of the faculty of 
medicine at Tulane University, where he became professor 
of medicine in 1967. Serially s interest in medical research in 
general began at Mill Hill, and in endocrinology at McGill. 
He was early convinced that the hypothalamus in the brain 
produces hormones which regulate the pituitary gland, and 
hence the production of hormones by the thyroid and adre- 
nal glands, and also the hormones which control growth and 
reproductive capacity. His initially controversial ideas were 
vindicated by a long and laborious series of experiments nec- 
essary to isolate sufficient material with which to character- 
ize hormones produced by the hypothalamus and to demon- 
strate their actions. His research established the central role 
of the brain in controlling the endocrine system through the 
pituitary gland. It has immense implications for devising new 
strategies for birth control and suppressing hormone-depen- 
dent cancers. Indeed he has been consistently motivated to 
find clinical applications for his discoveries. In later work he 
was especially interested in developing novel antitumor pep- 
tides. Serially worked with close colleagues for most of his 
career in New Orleans and collaborated with many scientists 
and clinicians worldwide, and especially with clinical endo- 
crinologists in the U.K. By 2005 he was an author of 2,200 pa- 
pers, and he continued to be scientifically productive. He was 
awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine jointly 
with Roger Guillemin and Rosalyn *Yalow (1977). His many 
other honors include membership of the U.S. National Acad- 
emy of Sciences, the Gairdner Award (1974), and the Lasker 
Award in Basic Medical Science (1975). He married Dr. Ana 
Maria de Medeiros-Comaru (1976), a distinguished Brazilian 
endocrinologist and his collaborator before her death (2004). 
Serially had a lifelong passion for soccer and as a young man 
contemplated a career in this sport. 

[Michael Denman (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHAMA, SIMON (1945- ), British-American historian. 
Schama was educated at Cambridge University, where he 
taught from 1966 to 1976. He subsequently taught at Oxford 
and then in the United States, where he became a professor 
at Harvard and, later, Columbia University. He wrote impor- 
tant works on Dutch history, such as Patriots and Liberators: 
Revolution in the Netherlands, 1/80-1813 (\977) an d An Em- 
barrassment of Riches: An Interpretation of Dutch Culture in 
the Golden Age (1987), as well as a bestselling account of the 
French Revolution, Citizens: A Chronicle of the French Revo- 
lution (1989). Schama also wrote widely on art, in such works 
as Rembrandt's Eyes (1999), and was the art critic of The New 
Yorker magazine in 1995-98. He is probably best-known for 
the 16-part history of Britain he made for the bbc, which 
was watched by millions of viewers and became a bestselling 
three-volume work, A History of Britain (2000-3). Schama 
also wrote on Jewish history, The Rothschilds and the Land 
of Israel (1978). 

[William D. Rubinstein (2 nd ed.)] 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



SCHAMES, SAMSON (1898-1967), U.S. artist. Born in 
Frankfurt, Schames studied at the Staedelschule. He designed 
stage sets for several German theaters, and for the Jewish the- 
ater, which was founded in 1933. Although Schames had settled 
in Britain in 1938 to flee the Nazis, the British government in- 
terned him and other perceived potential German threats to 
national security in 1940 in Huyton Alien Internment Camp, 
near Liverpool. Other residents of the camp included Martin 
*Bloch and John *Heartfield. Here, Schames used debris, of- 
ten grayed from bombardments, to fashion abstract collages 
and mosaics. In 1948 he immigrated to New York. He exhib- 
ited his work in a show in Germany in 1955. In 1989, Schames 
received a large posthumous exhibition at the Jewish Mu- 
seum in Frankfurt. An expressionist, he endowed whatever he 
painted with explosive spontaneity displayed through stark, 
spiky strokes. He was a nephew of the Frankfurt gallery owner 
Ludwig Schames (1852-1922), who exhibited the Expression- 
ists. His work has been exhibited internationally, in such in- 
stitutions as the Bezalel National Museum, Jerusalem; the Leo 
Baeck Institute, New York; and the Walker Art Gallery, Liver- 
pool, among other places. 

bibliography: Bezalel National Museum (Jerusalem), 
Samson Schames: 29.9-22.10, 1959; Watercolours and Mixed Media 
(1959); Juedisches Museum (Frankfurt am Main), Samson Schames 
1898-196/. Bilder und Mosaiken (1989). 

SCHANBERG, SYDNEY H. (1934- ), U.S. journalist. Born 
in Clinton, Massachusetts, Sydney Hillel Schanberg graduated 
from Harvard University. He joined the staff of The New York 
Times in the late 1950s and covered local news before becom- 
ing Albany bureau chief, where he covered the activities of 
Gov. Nelson A. Rockefeller and the New York State legislature. 
His first foreign assignment for the Times took him to India 
and Pakistan during the late 1960s and early 1970s, with side 
trips to cover the Vietnam War. But after the end of the war 
Schanberg heard about the American bombing of Cambo- 
dia, which President Richard M. Nixon and Secretary of State 
Henry A. * Kissinger denied. In Cambodia, Schanberg covered 
the emergence of the Khmer Rouge, a secretive revolutionary 
group that conducted genocide against the Cambodian people, 
particularly the educated. Schanberg chose to stay in Cambo- 
dia in 1975 after the Americans were thrown out of the country, 
partly to report the story and partly to help his assistant, Dith 
Pran, and his family survive. Schanberg failed to save Pran, 
who managed to elude his captors for several years by work- 
ing in rice fields, but Schanberg finally had to flee. His report 
of the mass murders committed by the Khmer Rouge for the 
purpose of cleansing Cambodia provided a chilling story of a 
death machine. Schanberg's reports earned him the Pulitzer 
Prize in 1976. The dramatic story, told in the book The Death 
and Life of Dith Pran, and the reunion of Schanberg and Pran 
were made into a film, The Killing Fields, in 1984, that won 
three Academy Awards. Schanberg returned to the Times a 
year after the Pulitzer and shortly thereafter became metro- 
politan editor. But he was not an effective administrator and 

he was replaced, becoming a columnist. After a while, Schan- 
berg became a columnist for New York Newsday, commenting 
on a wide variety of topics, including events in New York City. 
When that paper folded, Schanberg joined The Village Voice 
in New York, where he wrote the Press Clips column. He was 
a strong opponent of the Bush administration and its war in 
Iraq. He also took to task Senator John Kerry in 1993 for his 
alleged drive to normalize relations with Hanoi. 

[Stewart Kampel (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHANFARBER, TOBIAS (1862-1942), U.S. Reform rabbi. 
Born in Cleveland, the son of Aaron and Sarah (Newman), he 
graduated from the University of Cincinnati (B.A.) in 1885 and 
received rabbinic ordination at the Hebrew Union College in 
1886. Following ordination Schanfarber officiated at Shomer 
Emunim Congregation in Toledo (1886-87), Congregation 
Achduth Vesholom in Ft. Wayne (1887-88), Har Sinai Con- 
gregation in Baltimore (1888-98), and Congregation Sha'arai 
Shomayim in Mobile (1899-1901), before spending the bulk 
of his career (1901-26) at Kehilath Anshe Mayrivin Chicago. 
Upon his retirement he was named rabbi emeritus at kam. 
During his tenure in Baltimore, from 1894 to 1898, he did 
post-graduate study in Semitics at Johns Hopkins University 
under Professor Paul Haupt. Schanfarber edited or co- edited 
numerous Jewish newspapers, including the Mobile Jewish 
Chronicle, Baltimore Jewish Comment, Chicago Israelite, Sen- 
tinel, and Reform Advocate. From 1907 to 1909 he served as 
corresponding secretary of the Central Conference of Amer- 
ican Rabbis. Other organizational posts included being vice 
president of the Vigilance Association; a trustee of the Jewish 
Peoples Institute and the Michael Reese Hospital; and presi- 
dent (and later honorary life president) of the Chicago Rab- 
binical Association. Schanfarber was a member of the first 
generation of American trained rabbis and was a disciple of 
Isaac Mayer *Wise (1819-1900). Early in his career Schanfar- 
ber supported a radical form of Reform Judaism, including 
advocating Sunday instead of Sabbath services. In later years 
he adopted a more moderate approach to observance while 
rejecting what he called "secularism": i.e., removing God and 
Torah from Jewish life. He was called "a cultured gentleman, 
liberal in thought, though of great strength in his convictions, 
and a gifted orator on almost any subject which the public man 
is called upon to deal with." In 1933 he received an honorary 
Doctor of Hebrew Laws from huc. 

bibliography: Who's Who in American Jewry, 1938-1939 
(1938), 930-31; The Advocate, vol. 101, no. 6 (March 13, 1942) 1-4; Cen- 
tral Conference of American Rabbis Yearbook, vol. 52 (1942), 269-75. 

[Kevin Proffitt (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHANKER, LOUIS (1903-1981), U.S. painter, printmaker, 
sculptor, and educator. Schanker s early adulthood experiences 
were varied: as an adolescent he worked in a circus, on farms 
in both the U.S. and Canada, and on the Erie Railroad. Be- 
tween 1919 and 1923, he studied part-time at Cooper Union. 
Until 1927, he attended classes at the Art School of the Edu- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


cational Alliance and the Art Students League. Working in 
the wpa mural division, he created wall panels in 1924 for a 
Long Island hospital, and exhibited murals at the Hall of Medi- 
cine and Public Health at the 1939 Worlds Fair. In 1931-32, he 
traveled to and studied in Paris and Mallorca. Between 1940 
and 1941, he created woodcuts for the wpa Arts Project. He 
founded the group "The Ten" in 1935 with Adolph Gottlieb, 
Ilya Bolotowsky, and Ben-Zion, among others, with which 
he exhibited until 1939; The Ten concerned itself more with 
formal and artistic problems than with political tribulations. 
In 1936, Schanker assisted in the foundation of the American 
Abstract Artists group. The subjects of Schanker s art, includ- 
ing woodblock and linoleum prints and paintings, ranged 
among various subjects, especially sports, carnival, and reli- 
gious subjects, such as St. George and the Dragon. His works 
of the late 1930s and 1940s, such as Aerial Act (1940), often fea- 
tured graceful lines which coalesced into simple but expres- 
sive figures animated with flat, bright, areas of color. While 
the former composition owes much to Matisse and Miro, the 
monochromatic woodcut Forms in Action of the following 
year displays angular shapes, one perhaps dancing while an- 
other plays a keyboard or bass; this suggestion of speed and 
rhythm is indebted to the German and Austrian Expression- 
ists, as well as to Japanese woodblock prints. Schanker s work 
reveals the artists careful study of a variety of his contempo- 
raries working in both the United States and Europe: Wasily 
Kandinsky, Arshile Gorky, Picasso, Max Ernst, Paul Klee, and 
George Rouault, among many others. In the 1960s, Schanker 
introduced the motif of a circle into his compositions, often 
combining it with other simple forms, and animating the 
whole with vibrant color. During this period, he also produced 
many primitivist wood sculptures influenced by Constantin 
Brancusi. Critics note that these sculptures were not a depar- 
ture from his previous printmaking, since Schanker worked 
on his woodblocks with the tools of both sculptor and car- 
penter. Schanker taught at the New School for Social Research 
between 1943 and i960. Between 1949 and 1964, he taught at 
Bard College. He made his home in New York City, Stamford, 
Connecticut, and East Hampton, New York. His art has been 
widely exhibited: at the Buchholz Gallery (1943), the Puma 
Gallery (1943), the Guggenheim Museum (1954), the Victo- 
ria and Albert Museum (1954-55), the Associated American 
Artists (1978), and the New York Public Library (2003). Ex- 
amples of his work are in the collections of the Art Institute of 
Chicago, the Brooklyn Museum, the Metropolitan Museum of 
Art, the National Gallery of Art, the Philadelphia Museum of 
Art, and the Smithsonian American Art Museum. 

bibliography: E. Genauer, "Quiet Pleasures of Serious Art," 
in: New York Herald Tribune (June 3, 1962), sec. 4, 6a; N. Kleeblatt and 
S. Chevlowe, Painting a Place in America (1991); O.Z. Sokes, Fixing the 
World: Jewish American Painters in the Twentieth Century (2003). 

[Nancy Buchwald (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHANZER, CARLO (1865-1953), Italian politician. Born 
in Vienna, Schanzer became professor of constitutional law 

at the University of Rome. From 1912 to 1928 he was division 
chairman of the Consiglio di Stato - in Italy the main legal, 
administrative, and judiciary body. He was a member of Par- 
liament and, from 1919, of the Senate. From 1906 to 1909, un- 
der the ministry of Giovanni Giolitti, Schanzer held the office 
of postmaster general, and he was minister of the treasury 
and finance in 1919 and foreign minister in 1922. From 1920 
to 1924 Schanzer was the Italian representative to the League 
of Nations at Geneva. Between 1921 and 1922 he headed the 
Italian delegation to the Naval Conference in Washington, 
d.c, where Italy achieved naval equality with France. He 
died in Rome. 

bibliography: Enciclopedia Italiana, vol. 31, 48-49. 

[Massimo Longo Adorno (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHAPERA, ISAAC (1905-2003), South African anthropol- 
ogist. Born in South Africa, Schapera taught at the London 
School of Economics as assistant in anthropology (1928-29), 
served as lecturer at the University of Wit waters rand, Johan- 
nesburg (1930), and at the University of Cape Town as senior 
lecturer and professor (1930-50). In 1950 he was appointed 
professor of anthropology at the London School of Economics. 
Schapera conducted several anthropological field expeditions 
to the Bechuanaland Protectorate between 1929 and 1950. He 
contributed to the discipline of applied anthropology by his 
study of labor migration in Bechuanaland - its causes and ef- 
fects both positive and negative - and so served as a guide 
for colonial policy. From 1961 to 1963 he was president of the 
Royal Anthropological Institute. 

He wrote Government and Politics in Tribal Societies 
(1956), Handbook ofTswana Law and Custom (1938, 1955 2 ), Mi- 
grant Labour and Tribal Life (1947), and edited Bantu-Speak- 
ing Tribes of South Africa (1937), and David Livingstones Let- 
ters and Journals. 

add. bibliography: S. Heald, "The Legacy of Isaac Schapira 
(1905-2003)," in: Anthropology Today, (Dec. 19, 2003), 18-19. 

[Ephraim Fischoff] 

SCHAPIRA, DAVID (1907-1977), Argentine politician. He 
was born in Carlos Casares at one of the agricultural settle- 
ments established in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, 
by the Jewish Colonization Association (ica), founded by 
Baron Maurice de *Hirsch. Schapira practiced medicine and 
also was very active in national political life in the Union Civica 
Radical del Pueblo party. In 1958 he was elected senator in the 
province of Buenos Aires, serving until 1962. He was chair- 
man of the Senate Public Health Committee. From 1963 to 1967 
Schapira sat in the National Chamber of Deputies until the mil- 
itary regime of General Ongania closed the parliament. 

SCHAPIRA, HERMANN (Zevi Hirsch; 1840-1898), one of 
the first leaders of * Hibbat Zion and political Zionism, origi- 
nator of the ideas of the * Jewish National Fund and The He- 
brew University. Born in Erswilken, Lithuania, Schapira dis- 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



played outstanding talents from early childhood. He became 
the rabbi and rosh yeshivah in a Lithuanian townlet. In 1866 he 
moved to Kovno, where he began his scientific and linguistic 
studies, and thence to Berlin in 1867 in order to pursue them 
further. After a period of hardship, hunger, and scholarly 
exertions, he was accepted as a student in a crafts' academy 
(Gewerbe Akademie), but was later obliged to return to Russia 
because of lack of means. He worked for a number of years as 
a clerk in commercial enterprises in Odessa and other cities to 
save money in order to return to his studies. The substantial 
sum he earned as a military supplier during the Russo-Turk- 
ish War (1877-78) finally made it possible for him to realize 
his ambition. Schapira went to Heidelberg, where he devoted 
himself to the study of mathematics and attracted academic 
notice by his achievements in this field. Among his publica- 
tions was the mathematical work Mishnat ha-Middot in He- 
brew ("The Study of Measures") and in German translation in 
1880. In 1883 Schapira became university lecturer and in 1887 
was appointed associate professor in higher mathematics. 

After the pogroms in Russia in 1881, he had joined the 
Hibbat Zion movement, and published articles in Ha-Meliz in 
1882 calling for the establishment of agricultural settlements 
in Erez Israel, and the founding of a university with depart- 
ments for training rabbis and secular teachers, as well as teach- 
ing theoretical and practical sciences (mathematics, astron- 
omy, etc., and chemistry, agriculture, and industrial crafts). 
The language of instruction would be German, but Hebrew 
would be taught as much as possible so that "in the course of 
time Hebrew might become a spoken language as well." Scha- 
pira expressed his willingness to teach at this university and 
even contacted other Jewish scholars with this end in view. 
He was one of the founders of Hovevei Zion in Odessa, which 
became the center of all Hovevei Zion societies inside Rus- 
sia and in other countries. In Heidelberg in 1884 he founded 
the Zion society for the settlement of Erez Israel. The failure 
of the Hibbat Zion movement to awaken a widespread Jew- 
ish national movement or to initiate large-scale settlement in 
Erez Israel caused Schapira to despair, and he withdrew from 
public and literary activities. 

His status as a professor at Heidelberg University was 
insecure, and he felt isolated from his non-Jewish and even 
from his Jewish colleagues, the majority of whom were as- 
similated or even converted. His mathematical studies showed 
great talents but were unsystematically written and never fully 
completed. His economic circumstances were poor, and he 
was obliged to take on various other jobs to support himself, 
including watchmaking. After a period of doubt, Schapira 
embraced a religious philosophy and way of life. In Reuben 
Brainin's periodical Mi-Mizrah u-mi-Mdarav ("From East 
and West") he published in 1894 two fragments from a book 
in which he tried to synthesize modern science with tradi- 
tional Judaism. A group of Zionist students in Heidelberg 
roused Schapira to renewed activity. After initial hesitation he 
became an enthusiastic supporter of the new Zionist move- 
ment founded by *Herzl. To the First Zionist Congress (1897) 

he brought two proposals: the first was the creation of a "gen- 
eral Jewish fund," to which the whole of world Jewry, poor 
and rich, would contribute. Two -thirds of the fund would be 
assigned to purchasing land, and the remaining third would 
serve for the maintenance and cultivation of the land acquired. 
The land would not be sold but only leased for a period not 
exceeding 49 years. The second suggestion was the establish- 
ment of a Jewish university in Erez Israel. Schapira's first pro- 
posal was accepted only by the Fifth Congress (1901), at which 
the Jewish National Fund was founded; his second proposal 
had to wait until the 11 th Congress (1913). 

Schapira devoted the last years of his life to the dissemi- 
nation of the Zionist idea among German Jewry. He corre- 
sponded with Herzl and was active in the student group Safah 
Berurah in Heidelberg. In his last article, "Shalom? published 
posthumously, he wished that "God will let him live to teach 
the sons of His people in the school of Torah, wisdom, and 
labor which would be built in the Holy Land." His collected 
writings on Zionism, edited by B. Dinaburg (Dinur), were 
published in 1925. In 1953 his remains were re-interred on 
Mount Herzl in Jerusalem. 

bibliography: L. Jaffe, The Life of Hermann Schapira (1939); 
I. Klausner, Karka va-Ruah - Hayyav u-Foblo shel Hermann Schapira 
(1966); B. Dinaburg, Mefallesei Derekh (1946), 62-69. 

[Yehuda Slutsky] 

SCHAPIRA, NOAH (1866-1931), Hebrew poet and labor 
leader in Erez Israel before the Second Aliyah. Born in Kishi- 
nev, Schapira was an active member of the Hibbat Zion move- 
ment there together with Meir *Dizengoff In 1890 he settled 
in Erez Israel, where he became an agricultural laborer first 
in Rehovot and later in Zikhron Ya'akov. He was the mov- 
ing spirit behind the organization of Jewish workers that was 
founded at the end of the 19 th century and remained in exis- 
tence until the members of the Second Aliyah began to or- 
ganize themselves. On behalf of this federation he negotiated 
both with employers and with Hovevei Zion leaders in Odessa, 
especially *Ahad Ha- Am. He spent his last years in Tel Aviv. 
Schapira published articles on the affairs of the yishuv in the 
Hebrew press and was known especially for his poetry, which 
was, in effect, the first labor poetry to be written in Erez Israel. 
His song "Ya-Hai-Li-Li, Hah Amali" and his Hebrew transla- 
tion of E. *Zunser's song "Ha-Mahareshah" were popular fa- 
vorites for two generations. He signed these songs with the 
pseudonym "Bar-Nash." 

bibliography: M. Ravina, "Ya-Hai-Li-Li, Hah Amali" u- 

Mehahbero (1966). 

[Getzel Kressel] 

SCHAPIRO, ISRAEL (1882-1957), bibliographer, Orientalist, 
and librarian. Schapiro, born in Sejny, ^Poland, was the son of 
R. Toviyyah Pesah Schapiro (1845-1924), a Hebrew and Yid- 
dish writer and educator in ^Russia and the U.S. Israel Scha- 
piro studied at the Telsiai (Telz) Yeshivah, Strasbourg Univer- 
sity, and the Hochschule (Lehranstalt) fuer die Wissenschaft 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


des Judentums, Berlin. From 1907 to 1910 he taught at the 
Jerusalem Teachers' Training College and from 1911 to 1913 
in New York, where he also coedited the Hebrew weekly Ha- 
Deror. From 1913 to 1944 he headed the newly created Semitic 
division of the Library of Congress, Washington, d.c, which 
he built up into a collection of over 40,000 volumes, including 
incunabula and other rare editions, and lectured on Semitics at 
George Washington University (1916-27). In 1950 he settled in 
Israel. Schapiro wrote extensively on subjects of Jewish history 
and bibliography for the Hebrew and Yiddish press. 

His published work includes Die haggadischen Elemente 
im erzaehlenden Teil desKorans (1907); "Bibliography of He- 
brew Translations of English Works" (in: Studies in Jewish 
Bibliography in Memory of A.S. Freidus, 1929); Bibliography 
of Hebrew Translations of German Works (1934); and "Schil- 
ler und Goethe im Hebraeischen" (in: Festschrift fuer A. Frei- 
mann zum 60. Geburtstag (1935)). He also edited his fathers 
Mashal ha-Kadmoni (with biography, 1925) and Pitgamim shel 
Hakhamim (1927). 

SCHAPIRO, JACOB SALWYN (1879-1973), U.S. historian. 
Born in New York State, Schapiro taught history at City Col- 
lege, n.y. from 1909 until his retirement in 1947, and rose to 
the rank of full professor (1922). Schapiro's principal interest 
was i9 th -century European history, with emphasis on intel- 
lectual history. 

His major works are Social Reform and the Reformation 
(1909); Condorcet and the Rise of Liberalism (1934); Liberal- 
ism and the Challenge of Fascism (1949); and World in Crisis 
(1950), an analysis of political and social movements in the 
20 th century. He is also author of Liberalism: Its Meaning and 
History (1958), Movements of Social Dissent in Modern Europe 
(1962), and Anticlericalism (1967). His Modern and Contem- 
porary European History (1918) was one of the first textbooks 
to treat history as the evolution of civilization, embracing so- 
cial, economic, intellectual, and literary developments, and it 
had a marked influence on a generation of college students. 
Many revised editions have appeared. 

[Oscar Isaiah Janowsky] 

SCHAPIRO, LEONARD (1908-1983), British political scien- 
tist. Schapiro was born in Glasgow but lived in Riga and Petro- 
grad from 1915 to 1921. His father's family had been wealthy 
and influential figures in Latvia before the Revolution. In 1921 
the family settled in London; Schapiro was educated at St. 
Paul's School and London University. He practiced as a bar- 
rister from 1932 until 1955. During World War 11 he worked as 
an intelligence monitor and, with his knowledge of many lan- 
guages and his Russian background, was already regarded as 
one of Britain's greatest experts on the Soviet Union. Schapiro 
then taught at the London School of Economics and was pro- 
fessor of political science from 1963 to 1975. His many works 
on the Soviet Union include The Origins of Communist Autoc- 
racy (1955); The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (i960), 
generally regarded as the best Western work on this subject; 

Rationalism and Nationalism in Russian Nineteenth-Century 
Political Thought (1967); and a biography of Turgenev (1978). 
He was also chairman of the editorial board of the journal So- 
viet Jewish Affairs and did much to support Soviet Jewry. 

bibliography: odnb online. 

[William D. Rubinstein (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHAPIRO, MEYER (1904-1996), U.S. historian of art. 
Schapiro was born in Siauliai, Lithuania, but immigrated to 
the United States as a child of three. He was first introduced 
to art history at an evening class at the Hebrew Settlement 
House in Brownsville, taught by John Sloan. He graduated 
from Columbia University in 1924 with honors in art his- 
tory and philosophy, receiving his doctorate in 1929. Schap- 
iro taught in the department of art, history, and archaeology 
at Columbia from 1928 onwards, teaching at that institution 
as a University Professor from 1965 to 1975, when he was ap- 
pointed professor emeritus. He was lecturer of fine arts at 
New York University from 1932 to 1936, the New School for 
Social Research from 1936 to 1952, London University from 
1947 to 1957, the Hebrew University in 1961, Norton Professor 
of Fine Arts at Harvard from 1966 to 1967, Oxford University 
in 1968, and at the College of France in 1974. Schapiro was a 
Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and of 
the American Philosophical Society, and was elected to the 
American Institute of Arts and Letters. Columbia University 
awarded him the Alexander Hamilton Medal for distinguished 
service in 1975. A professorship in Modern Art and Theory 
was created at Columbia in his name. He is acknowledged as 
one of the most distinguished American historians of art. A 
rigorous observer and theorist, he addressed the relationship 
among society, artist, and artwork, arguing that social and 
institutional forces mediated the actions of even the modern 
artist. In this way, his viewpoint differed from that of Clem- 
ent Greenberg and Harold Rosenberg, two other Jewish intel- 
lectuals who contributed to the shape of modern art history 
in New York during this period. Schapiro was a masterful 
and gifted art historian of medieval art, Romanesque sculp- 
ture, and 19 th and 20 th century art, especially that of Cezanne, 
Courbet, Mondrian, and van Gogh. His friends and former 
students included Irving Howe, Willem de Kooning, Jacques 
Lipchitz, Robert Motherwell, and Barnett Newman. He also 
worked with Max Horkheimer and Herbert Marcuse when 
they moved the Frankfurt School from Germany to New York. 
The publisher George Baziller has published four volumes of 
Schapiro's work, beginning in 1977 with Selected Papers. Ro- 
manesque Art; the last volume Theory and Philosophy of Art 
was printed in 1994. He published his celebrated works Van 
Gogh in 1950, Cezanne in 1952, and Words and Pictures in 1973. 
He also contributed articles to The Nation and Partisan Review. 
Schapiro's research and writing continues to be instrumental 
to contemporary art historians, including Norman Bryson, 
T.J. Clark, and Linda Nochlin. 

bibliography: D. Carrier, "Worldview in Painting - Art and 
Society. Book Review," in: Art Bulletin, 82 (June 2000); T. Crow, "Vil- 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



lage Voice," in: Artforum International, 34 (June 1996); M. Schapiro, 

"The Nature of Abstract Art," in: Modern Art: 19 th and 20 th Centuries. 

Selected Papers (1968). 

[Nancy Buchwald (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHAPPES, MORRIS U. (Moise ben Haim Shapshilev- 
ich; 1907-2004), historian and social activist. Born in Ka- 
menets-Podolski, Ukraine, he immigrated to the U.S. with 
his parents in 1914. He received a B.A. from City College and 
an M.A. from Columbia University (1930). He began his ac- 
ademic career at the City University of New York, where he 
taught English from 1928 to 1941, when he lost his position 
in the anti- Communist purges of 1940-41. One of 40 faculty 
members who were dismissed for refusing to cooperate with 
the Rapp-Coudert Committees investigation of alleged sub- 
versive activities at the university, Schappes was incarcerated 
on the charge of perjury, having claimed under oath that he 
could name only three Communists at the school, two of 
whom were dead. When a colleague named some 50 names, 
Schappes was sentenced to 13 months in prison. 

In 1946 he founded Jewish Life (since 1957, Jewish Cur- 
rents), a socialist, pro-Israel but non-Zionist magazine con- 
cerned with literature, political and social commentary, of 
which he was the editor for four decades. The magazine, which 
had become an unofficial organ of the Communist Party, grad- 
ually broke its ties with the Soviet Union and moved more to- 
ward Israel, especially after the Six-Day War of 1967. 

In 1981, the faculty senate of City College apologized for 
firing Schappes and his colleagues. In 1993 he was awarded 
the Torchbearer Award of the American Jewish Historical 

His major publications include The Letters of Emma Laza- 
rus, 1868-1885 0-949) an d two major works on American Jew- 
ish history: A Documentary History of the Jews in the United 
States, 1654-1875 (1950) and The Jews in the United States: A 
Pictorial History, 1654-1954 (1955). He also wrote Resistance Is 
the Lesson: The Meaning of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (1947); 
Anti-Semitism and Reaction, 1795-1800 (1948); and The Politi- 
cal Origins of the United Hebrew Trades, 1888 (1977). 

add. bibliography: R. Boyer, Patriot in Prison: The Story 
of Morris U. Schappes (1944). 

[Jack Nusan Porter / Ruth Beloff (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHARFSTEIN, ZEVI (1884-1972), U.S. Hebrew educator, 
journalist, and publisher. Born in the Ukraine, Scharfstein de- 
voted himself to educational work from 1903. After directing 
a Hebrew school in Tarnow, Galicia (1900-14), he arrived in 
the United States in 1914 and two years later became instructor 
at the Teachers Institute of the Jewish Theological Seminary, 
where he eventually served as professor of Jewish education 
until his retirement in i960. 

A prodigious contributor to the Hebrew press, his col- 
umn in the American Hebrew weekly Hadoar dealt with polit- 
ical and, especially, with literary events. From 1907 Scharfstein 
also published educational texts embracing Hebrew literature, 
Jewish education, Bible, and Hebrew language. 

His historical works as a Jewish educator include Ha- 
Heder be-Hayyei Ammenu (1943) and Toledot ha-Hinnukh 
be-Yisrael ba-Dorot ha-Aharonim (5 vols., 1960-66); and his 
autobiographical works comprise Arbdim Shanah ba-Ameri- 
kah (1955-56). Among his contributions to Hebrew lexicogra- 
phy is Ozar ha-Rdyonot ve-ha-Pitgamim (3 vols., 1966). From 
1940 Scharfstein was editor of the educational periodical She- 
vilei ha-Hinnukh. 


bibliography: Sefer ha-Yovel li-Khevod Zevi Scharfstein 
(1955), 7-28 (incl. bibl.); Sefer Scharfstein (1944), 163-231 (incl. bibl.); 
Sefer Scharfstein (1971); Waxman, Literature, index. 

[Eisig Silberschlag] 

SCHARY, DORE (Isidore; 1905-1980), U.S. film writer and 
producer. Born in Newark, New Jersey, Schary acquired a 
reputation as a screenwriter in Hollywood before he was 30. 
In 1941 he became an executive producer for Metro Goldwyn 
Mayer (mgm), where his policy of producing scripts with a 
social message led to such films as Boys Town (1938); Edi- 
son, the Man (1940); Joe Smith, American (1942); and Bataan 
0943)- He moved to Vanguard in 1943, and to rko in 1947, 
the year in which his Crossfire put the issue of antisemitism 
on the screen for the first time in the United States. In 1947 
Schary returned to mgm, of which he became chief produc- 
tion manager in 1951. Among the more than 300 pictures he 
produced there were such popular successes as Battleground 
0949); The Asphalt Jungle (1950); King Solomons Mines (1950); 
Quo Vadis? (1951); Lili (1953); and Julius Caesar (1953). Schary 
was dismissed from his post in 1956 as part of a sweeping re- 
organization, but remained with mgm as a consultant for the 
next ten years. Turning to the stage, he wrote the Broadway 
hit Sunrise at Campobello (1958), which dealt with the early 
career of Franklin D. Roosevelt, and for which he won a Tony 
Award. He also wrote the successful musical The Unsinkable 
Molly Brown (i960). 

Active politically in the liberal wing of the Democratic 
Party, Schary was also interested in Israel and Jewish affairs 
and served for many years as national chairman of the Anti- 
Defamation League of the B'nai Brith (1963-69). In 1948 he 
was given the Thomas Jefferson Award by the Council Against 
Intolerance in America. In 1970 he was appointed New York 
City's first commissioner of cultural affairs. In 1982 the adl es- 
tablished the annual Dore Schary Award, presented to student 
film and video productions on subjects that combat prejudice 
and promote human rights. 

His autobiography, For Special Occasions, appeared 
in 1962. His final autobiography, Heyday, was published in 

bibliography: J. (Schary) Zimmer, With a Cast of Thou- 
sands: A Hollywood Childhood (1963); Current Biography 1948 


[Stewart Kampel / Ruth Beloff (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHATZ, BORIS (1867-1932), painter and sculptor; founder 
of the *Bezalel School of Art in Jerusalem. Schatz was born in 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


Varna, province of Kovno, Lithuania. The son of a melammed, 
he was sent to the yeshivah in Vilna but broke away from his 
family and religious studies and turned to art. In 1889 he went 
to Paris and worked under the sculptor *Antokolsky, and the 
painter Cormon. He was invited in 1895 to Bulgaria where he 
became court sculptor to Prince Ferdinand and was a founder 
of the Royal Academy of Art in Sofia. In 1900 he received the 
gold medal in the Paris Salon for his Head of Old Woman. Af- 
ter meeting Theodor Herzl in 1903, he became an enthusiastic 
Zionist. Schatz first proposed the idea of an art school at the 
1905 Zionist Congress and when it was accepted went to Pal- 
estine to execute it. Three years later, he settled in Jerusalem, 
where he established the Bezalel School of Art (1906), to which 
he soon added a small museum. Schatz arranged exhibitions 
of the Bezalel crafts in Europe and the U.S. These were the 
first displays of the products of Erez Israel exhibited abroad. 
During World War 1, the school was closed down, and Schatz 
was held prisoner for ten months. He succeeded in obtaining 
funds in the U.S. for the reconstruction of his school and the 
museum. He died in Denver, Colorado, while on a success- 
ful fund-raising mission and was buried on Mount Scopus in 
Jerusalem. The school was closed on his death, but reestab- 
lished the following year with the aid of a government grant. 
Schatz was both a realist and an idealist, a product of the dying 
romanticism and the reawakening of national consciousness 
in Eastern Europe. He took this spirit with him to Palestine, 
and adapted it to the needs of the country. The Bezalel School 
gave a young generation of artists and craftsmen the oppor- 
tunity to study in the country and fostered a national style 
of arts and crafts, based on European techniques and Near- 
Eastern art forms. Schatz was a prolific artist, concentrating 
mainly on sculpture. His work is characterized by a naturalis- 
tic romanticism. From 1903, he worked almost exclusively on 
Jewish themes, representing religious practices, Jewish lead- 
ers, and biblical subject. His main works include: Mattathias, 
Blessing the Candles, Havdalah, The Scribe, Blowing the Shofar, 
Isaiah, At the Wailing Wall, Herzl, Bialik, Ben-Yehudah, and 
Isaac M. Wise. His son bezalel (1912-1978), an expressional 
abstract artist, illustrated Henry Millers silk-screen printed 
Into the Night Life and specialized in ceramic murals and metal 
projects combined with architecture and craft designing (in- 
cluding one of the two gates at the Yad Vashem memorial, 
Jerusalem). Bezalel's wife, louise, was an artist known for 
her delicate abstract water colors. Boris' daughter zahara 
(1916- ) created abstract sculpture in plastics and wire. She 
received the Israel Prize (1954). 

bibliography: B. Schatz,3i Oil paintings (1921); H. Gamzu, 

Painting and Sculpture in Israel (1951), 11-12. add bibliography: 

N. Shilo-Cohen (ed.), Bezalel shel Schatz - 1906-1929, Israel Museum, 

Jerusalem (1983); Y. Zalmona, Boris Schatz, Hakibbutz Hameuhad, 

Jerusalem (1985). 

[Yona Fisher] 

SCHATZ, ZEVI (1890-1921), Hebrew writer. Born in Rus- 
sia, Schatz grew up in non- Jewish surroundings. He corre- 
sponded with *Trumpeldor regarding the establishment of a 

commune in Palestine and later immigrated there. Between 
1918 and 1920, he was a soldier in the Jewish Legion and was 
killed in an Arab riot along with *Brenner. Under the influ- 
ence of Brenner, who was his mentor and editor, he began to 
write in Hebrew during the last years of his life. He wrote two 
novellas, of which Be-Lo Niv (originally entitled Al Gevul ha- 
Demamah) was published during his lifetime, and Batyah, 
along with some poetry, appeared posthumously. Schatz was 
the first to depict the experiences of the individual in the 
kibbutz in fiction as well as in his letters and conversations. 
All these were collected by M. Poznansky in Al Gevul ha-De- 
mamah (1929; 1967; 1990). 

bibliography: Kressel, Leksikon, 2 (1967), 975. add. bib- 
liography: H. Shoham, Ha-Kevuzah be-Teatron Po'alei Erez Yis- 
rael: Ha-Hazagah "Batyah" (1988); S. Keshet, "Omanut ha-Hayyim 
Omanut ha-Bitui: al Z. Schatz" in: Le-Sapper et ha-Kibbuz (1990), 
47-65; idem, "Dov Aher u-Brenner Shemo: Bein Schatz le-Brenner" 

in: Alex Siah, 36 (1995), 119-26. 

[Getzel Kressel] 

SCHATZ-ANIN, MAX (1885-1975), left-wing Socialist ide- 
ologist and author. Born in Friedrichstadt (Jaunjelgava), Lat- 
via, Schatz- Anin studied law at St. Petersburg and joined 
the ^Zionist Socialist Workers' Party (territorialists). He was 
later arrested and deported abroad, where he contributed to 
the party press in Russia and Central Europe. Schatz- Anin 
graduated from Berne university after writing his doctoral 
thesis "Zur Nationalitaetenfrage" (1910). On the eve of the 
congress of the Socialist International in Copenhagen (1910), 
he published an essay on "The Jewish Proletariat in the So- 
cialist International," in which he demanded that nationali- 
ties be represented at the International. Returning to Rus- 
sia in 1912, he settled in Riga as a lawyer. After the February 
Revolution in 1917, Schatz- Anin represented his party in the 
Petrograd Soviet and was a co-founder of the * United Jew- 
ish Socialist Workers' Party, representing it in the execu- 
tive committee of the Ukrainian Rada. Returning to Riga 
in 1919, he joined the illegal Communist party and founded 
the left-wing Yiddishist Kultur-Lige. Although he went blind 
(1928), he continued to deliver lectures and write and was 
appointed university professor when Latvia became a Soviet 

His philosophical essays and historical works in Yiddish 
and Russian include Temporalism (1919), Sotsiale Opozitsye 
in Yidisher Geshikhte ("Social Opposition in Jewish History," 
1927), and Di Gezelshaftlikhe Bavegungen bay Yidn tsvishn der 
Ershter un Tsveyter Velt-Milkhome (1941). 

bibliography: Rejzen, Leksikon, 1 (1926), 117-9; Sovetish 

Heymland (June 1965), 158. 

[Joseph Gar] 

SCHAULSON BRODSKY, JORGE (1954- ), Chilean poli- 
tician. He was the son of Jacobo *Schaulson, politician and 
member of the Chilean Parliament. During the government 
of Pinochet, he studied law in the United States and gradu- 
ated in 1980. Upon his return to Chile he began practicing 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



law, maintaining offices in Santiago and in New York. He was 
one of the founders of the Pro Democracy Party (ppd) and 
in 2005 was its vice president. Schaulson was elected to Par- 
liament in 1989 and reelected in 1993; he was president of the 
lower chamber. In 2004 he lost the election for the post of 

mayor of Santiago. 

[Moshe Nes El (2 nd ed.)] 

ean lawyer and politician. Born in Santiago, he graduated in 
law in 1941 and was president of the Juventud Radical (Youth 
of the Radical Party). He practiced law and became legal ad- 
viser to the governor of Santiago province. Schaulson Num- 
hauser was made professor of civil law at the University of San- 
tiago in 1953. As an active figure in the Chilean Radical Party, 
he sat in the Chamber of Deputies from 1949 to 1965. He was 
secretary and later vice president of his party, president of the 
Chamber of Deputies (1961-62), and a member of the Consti- 
tutional Tribunal. In 1950 he represented Chile at the United 
Nations. After his retirement he worked as a lawyer. 

[Paul Link / Moshe Nes El (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHAWLOW, ARTHUR L. (1921-1999), U.S. physicist and 
Nobel laureate. He was born in Mount Vernon, New York, to 
an immigrant father from Riga and a Canadian mother. When 
he was aged three, the family moved to Toronto, where he 
was educated at Vaughan Road Collegiate Institute. He won 
a scholarship enabling him to graduate in mathematics and 
physics from the University of Toronto (1941). During World 
War 11 he worked in radar development, before returning to 
the university to earn his Ph.D. (1951) in spectroscopy under 
the supervision of Malcolm Crawford. He was a postdoc- 
toral research fellow in the physics department of Colum- 
bia University, New York, where he worked with Charles H. 
Townes, and then a physicist at the Bell Telephone Laborato- 
ries (1951-61), where he continued to collaborate with Townes. 
In 1961 he became professor of physics at Stanford University, 
where he was chairman of the department (1966-70), J.G. 
Jackson and C.J. Wood Professor of Physics from 1978, and 
subsequently emeritus professor. Schawlow's main research 
interest was spectroscopy, and he and Townes conceived the 
idea for, and in 1957 built, the first laser (light amplification by 
stimulated emission of radiation). The practical applications 
of these discoveries are now common knowledge. Schawlow 
applied these theoretical and technical advances to his re- 
search in optics, superconductivity, and fundamental prob- 
lems of atomic structure. He and Townes did not benefit per- 
sonally from the patent won by the Bell Telephone Company. 
Schawlow and Townes won the 1981 Nobel Prize in physics, 
shared with Kai M. Siegbahn. His many honors included 
election to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and 
the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, the Marconi Inter- 
national Fellowship (1977), and the U.S. National Medal of 
Science (1991). He was a distinguished teacher, and his book 
Microwave Spectroscopy (1955), coauthored by Townes, was a 

standard text. Schawlow married Townes' sister Amelia, an 
outstanding musician, in 1951. She died in a road traffic acci- 
dent in 1991. Their son Artie was autistic, and his parents or- 
ganized the nonprofit California Vocations, a group home for 
autistic individuals, renamed the Arthur Schawlow Center in 
1999. They also had two daughters. Schawlow was a clarinet- 
ist and jazz expert, with a legendary sense of humor manifest 
in his social and professional life. 

[Michael Denman (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHAYES, ADOLPH ("Dolph"; 1928- ), U.S. basketball 
player and coach, member of the nba's 25 th and 50 th An- 
niversary teams, and member of Basketball Hall of Fame. 
Schayes, a native New Yorker, was an Ail-American standout 
at New York University, where he won the Haggerty Award 
in his senior year. Initially taken by the New York Knicker- 
bockers in the 1948 draft, Schayes chose to join the recently 
formed Syracuse Nationals of the nbl. The 6' 8" Schayes had 
an immediate impact, leading the Nats in scoring en route to 
a much improved 40-23 finish. The following year Schayes 
proved even more effective, as the Nats, now officially part 
of the nba, finished on top of their conference, going 51-13. 
For the 1950-51 season, the nba instituted All-Star games, 
and Schayes, being a consistent top -ten leader in all offensive 
categories and rebounds, was an nba All-Star in each of his 
remaining 12 seasons as a full-time player for Syracuse; in six 
of those seasons he was First Team A11-nba. Over the course 
of his 15 seasons with the Nats, Schayes led the team to an 
overall .572 winning percentage and the 1955 nba Champion- 
ship. In 1963, the Nats moved to Philadelphia and became the 
76ers, naming Schayes as player-coach. When Schayes ended 
his playing career in 1964, he was the nba's all-time leading 
scorer, with 19,247 points. His career scoring and 18.2 points- 
per-game average remain top-50 all-time records. Schayes is 
also one of the top free-throw shooters in nba history, rank- 
ing 6 th all-time in free throws made (6,979) an d is i n the top- 
50 in lifetime free-throw shooting percentage (84.9%). He is 
also 16 th in rebounds-per-game (12.1) and 23 rd all-time in to- 
tal rebounds (11,256). During his three-year stint as coach of 
the 76ers, Schayes enjoyed great success as well, guiding them 
in his third season to a 55-25 record, while being named nba 
Coach of the Year in 1966. During the early 1970s, Schayes 
was supervisor of nba Officials. In 1977, he coached the U.S. 
team to a gold medal at the Maccabiah Games, with his son, 
danny schayes (1959- ), as the star player. Danny went on 
to play for Syracuse University and from there to a successful 

18 -year nba career. 

[Robert B. Klein (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHECHTER, ABRAHAM ISRAEL (1894-1936), rabbi 
and scholar. Schechter, who was born in Vizhnitsa, Bukovina, 
worked as a librarian in Switzerland, and then emigrated to the 
U.S. in 1922. From 1924 he taught at the Hebrew Theological 
College, Chicago, and later served as rabbi in Houston, Texas, 
and Providence, Rhode Island. 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


Among his published works are Palaestina, seine Ge- 
schichte und Kultur (1905, which had to be withdrawn after a 
court order for plagiarism); Studies in Jewish Liturgy, on the 
Hibbur Berakhot by Menahem b. Solomon (1930) which drew 
criticism from I. Davidson (jqr, 21, 1930-31), 241-79; Schech- 
ter's rejoinder, in: jqr, 22 (1931-32), 147-52); and Lectures on 
Jewish Liturgy (1933). Schechter's collection of Hebraica and 
Judaica was given to Texas University Library. 

His wife eva wrote Symbols and Ceremonies of the Jew- 
ish Home (1930). 

SCHECHTER, MATHILDE ROTH (1857-1924), founding 
president of the National Women's League of the United Syn- 
agogue of America, now known as the ^Women's League for 
Conservative Judaism. Born in Guttentag, Germany, Mathilde 
Roth grew up in the Breslau Jewish orphans home. A gifted 
student, she attended the Breslau Teachers Seminary. In 1885, 
she went to England to study and to be a tutor in the home 
of Michael Friedlaender, principal of Jews College. In the li- 
brary of that college she met the distinguished scholar Solo- 
mon *Schechter. They wed in 1887. 

The Schechter home quickly became a center for Jewish 
intellectual life, largely thanks to Mathilde Schechter's legend- 
ary hospitality. That tradition continued in her subsequent 
homes, in Cambridge, after Solomon Schechter was appointed 
lecturer at the university, and then, after 1902, in New York, 
when he became president of the Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary. In Cambridge, Mathilde Schechter gave birth to their 
three children, a son and two daughters. Even as she raised 
them, she edited the works of local scholars and engaged in 
other literary pursuits, including translating the German poet 
Heinrich * Heine. Furthermore, she edited almost everything 
her famous husband wrote. 

In the United States Mathilde Schechter complemented 
her husband's establishment of Conservative Judaism by lay- 
ing the foundations for its women's organization in 1918. The 
National Women's League of the United Synagogue of Amer- 
ica subsequently grew to become one of the largest Jewish 
women's organizations in the United States. Mathilde Schech- 
ter believed that the Women's League could help women 
deepen religious life in their homes, synagogues, and 
wider communities. She persuaded the Women's League 
to establish a Students' House in New York City in 1918, which 
became a home away from home for Jewish students as well 
as for Jewish servicemen on leave. She also founded and 
taught at a Jewish vocational school for girls on the Lower 
East Side and was national chairwoman of education for Ha- 

Mathilde Roth Schechter extended the domestic ideal of 
women caring for their home and family, which she lived to 
the fullest, to women's caring for their synagogues and wider 
Jewish communities. She thus stands within a coterie of lead- 
ers of American Jewish women, who, in the early decades of 
the 20 th century, laid out new avenues for women's activism 
within Jewish life. 

bibliography: They Dared to Dream: A History of the Na- 
tional Women's League, 1918-1968 (1967); RS. Nadell, Conservative 
Judaism in America (1988), 221-22; M. Scult. "The Baale Boste Re- 
considered: The Life of Mathilde Roth Schechter (M.R.S.)," in: Mod- 
ern Judaism 7, 1 (February 1987), 1-27; idem. "Mathilde Schechter," 
in: RE. Hyman and D. Dash Moore (eds.), Jewish Women in America: 
An Historical Encyclopedia 2 (1997), 1201-3. 

[Pamela S. Nadell (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHECHTER, SOLOMON (Shneur Zalman; 1847-1915), 
rabbinic scholar and president of the *Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America. Schechter was born in Focsani, Roma- 
nia. His father, a Chabad Hasid, was a ritual slaughterer (Ger. 
Schaechter). In his teens he studied with the rabbinic author 
Joseph Saul Nathanson in Lemberg. From about 1875 to 1879 
he attended the Vienna bet ha-midrash. He acquired a lifelong 
devotion to scientific study of the tradition and developed the 
central notion of the community of Israel as decisive for Jewish 
living and thinking. He was to call it "Catholic Israel." From 
1879 he studied at the Berlin Hochschule fuer die Wissen- 
schaft des Judentums and at the University of Berlin. When, 
in 1882, a fellow student at the Hochschule, Claude Goldsmid 
Montefiore, invited him to be his tutor in rabbinics in Lon- 
don, Schechter accepted. In England he rose to prominence as 
a rabbinic scholar and spokesman for Jewish traditionalism. In 
1890 he was appointed lecturer in talmudics and in 1892 reader 
in rabbinics at Cambridge University. In 1899 he also became 
professor of Hebrew at University College, London. 

Schechter's first substantial work was his edition of Avot 
de-Rabbi N athan (1887). His fame rests on the scholarly recov- 
ery of the Cairo *Genizah. It created a sensation in the world 
of scholarship, and in its wake Jewish history and the history 
of Mediterranean society have been rewritten. Over one hun- 
dred thousand manuscripts and manuscript fragments were 
brought to England and presented to Cambridge University by 
Schechter and Charles Taylor, the master of St. John's College 
who had made Schechter's trip possible. Together they pub- 
lished the newly discovered fragments of the Hebrew original 
of Ben *Sira (The Wisdom of Ben Sira, 1899). 

Late in 1901 Schechter accepted an invitation by a num- 
ber of leading American Jews, notably his friend, Judge Mayer 
Sulzberger of Philadelphia, to assume the post of president of 
the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. He served in 
this capacity from 1902 until his death. He was able to attract 
a distinguished faculty, including Louis Ginzberg. Alexander 
Marx, Israel Friedlaender, Israel Davidson, and Mordecai M. 
Kaplan. The Seminary became one of the most important 
centers of Jewish learning and of Jewish intellectual and, in- 
deed, national revival. Schechter's Studies in Judaism (3 vols., 
1896-1924), his Some Aspects of Rabbinic Theology (in book 
form, 1909; based on essays in the Jewish Quarterly Review, 
1894-1896), and Seminary Addresses and Other Papers (1915) 
remain indispensable documents of American Jewish religious 
Conservatism. Steering a course between Orthodoxy and Re- 
form, Schechter combined scholarliness and objectivity with 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



piety, and piety with a measure of flexibility and innovation 
in doctrine and practice. In 1913 Schechter was instrumental 
in founding the * United Synagogue of America (his original 
designation read "Agudath Jeshurun - A Union for Promot- 
ing Traditional Judaism in America"), which became a major 
national institution of Conservative Judaism in the United 
States. In 1905 he acknowledged Zionism as "the great bul- 
wark against assimilation." He felt close to religious and spir- 
itual Zionism and in 1913 attended the 11 th Zionist Congress 
in Vienna. Over the strenuous objections of Seminary board 
members Jacob H. Schiffand Louis Marshall, he opened the 
Seminary to Zionist activity. But he remained, essentially, a 
builder of religious Judaism in the American diaspora. 

Schechter is considered the chief architect of Conserva- 
tive Judaism in the United States. In his view, this version of 
Jewish religious life and thought was organically related to 
the Historical School, founded by Zunz, Frankel, and Graetz. 
Schechter denned the theological position of the school: "It is 
not the mere revealed Bible that is of first importance to the 
Jew but the Bible as it repeats itself in history, in other words, 
as it is interpreted by Tradition... Since then the interpreta- 
tion of Scripture or the Secondary Meaning is mainly a prod- 
uct of changing historical influences, it follows that the center 
of authority is actually removed from the Bible and placed in 
some living body, which, by reason of its being in touch with 
the ideal aspirations and the religious needs of the age, is best 
able to determine the nature of the Secondary Meaning. This 
living body, however, is not represented by any section of the 
nation, or any corporate priesthood, or Rabbihood, but by 
the collective conscience of Catholic Israel, as embodied in 
the Universal Synagogue" (Studies in Judaism, Series One, 
jps, 1896, xvii-xviii). 

Though a staunch traditionalist, Schechter admitted the 
possibility of change. However, he felt that changes should not 
be introduced arbitrarily or deliberately. Rather, "the norm 
as well as the sanction of Judaism is the practice actually in 
vogue. Its consecration is the consecration of general use - 
or, in other words, of Catholic Israel" (ibid., xix). Schechter 
insisted (ibid., 180 ff.) Judaism must be understood as regu- 
lating not only our actions but also our thoughts: "It is true 
that every great religion is a concentration of many ideas and 
ideals' which make this religion able to adapt itself to vari- 
ous modes of thinking and living. But there must always be 
a point round which all these ideas concentrate themselves. 
This center is Dogma." 

bibliography: N. Bentwich, Solomon Schechter: A Biogra- 
phy (1938); A.S. Oko, Solomon Schechter: A Bibliography (1938); M. 
Davis, The Emergence of Conservative Judaism (1963); A. Marx, Essays 
in Jewish Biography (1947), 229-50; B. Mandelbaum, The Wisdom of 
Solomon Schechter (1963); M. Ben-Horin, in: jsos, 25 (1963), 249-86; 
27 (1965), 75-102; 30 (1968), 262-71; idem, in: ajhsq, 56 (1966/67), 
208-31); idem, in: jqr Seventy-fifth Anniversary Volume (1967), 47-59; 
H.H. and M.L. Rubenovitz, The Walking Heart (1967), 14-20; A. Par- 
zen, Architects of Conservative Judaism (1964); A. Karp, in: The Jew- 
ish Experience in America, 5 (1969), 111-29; A. Scheiber, in: huca, 33 
(1962), 255-75. add. bibliography: C. Adler, in: The American 

Jewish Year Book, 18 (1916-1917), 24-67; N. Bentwich, in: Melilah, 2 
(1946), 25-36 (Heb.); G. Cohen, in: Proceedings of the Rabbinical As- 
sembly, 44 (1982), 57-68; R. Fierstien and J. Waxman (eds.), Solomon 
Schechter in America: A Centennial Tribute (2002); D. Fine, in: Juda- 
ism, 46:1 (Winter 1997), 3-24; S. Goldman (ed.), Schechter Memorial: 
jts Students' Annual, 3 (1916); S. Greenberg, in: Conservative Juda- 
ism, 39:4 (Summer 1987), 7-29; Ch.I. Hoffman in: C. Adler (ed.), The 
Jewish Theological Seminary Semi-Centennial Volume (1939), 49-64; 
J. Kabakoff, in: Bitzaron, 9 (Summer- Winter 1987-88), 70-81 (Heb.); 
P. Nadell, Conservative Judaism in America: A Biographical Diction- 
ary and Sourcebook (1988), 222-27 with bibliography; I. Schorsch, 
in: Conservative Judaism, 55:2 (Winter 2003), 3-23; S. Siegel, in: Pro- 
ceedings of the Rabbinical Assembly, 39 (1977), 44-55; J. Wertheimer 
(ed.), Tradition Renewed: A History of the Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary (1997), 1, 43-102, 293-326; 2, 446-449; A. Ya'ari, Iggerot Shneior 
Zalman Schechter el Poznanski (1944); Y. Zussman, in: Madaei ha- 

Yahadut, 38 (1998), 213-30 (Heb.). 

[Meir Ben-Horon] 

(Macho n Schechter L'mada'ey Hayahadut). The institute was 
founded in Jerusalem in 1984 as the Seminary of Judaic Stud- 
ies (Bet Hamidrash L'limudey Hayahadut) to train Conserva- 
tive rabbis for the Masorti Movement in Israel. It was viewed 
as the spiritual heir of the *Breslau Rabbinical Seminary 
(1854-1939) and the * Jewish Theological Seminary of Amer- 
ica (jts; i887ff.). It was founded by jts under the leadership 
of Chancellor Gershon * Cohen and Vice Chancellor Simon 
*Greenberg, and by the Masorti (Conservative) Movement in 
Israel represented by Prof. Reuven *Hammer, who also served 
as its first dean (1984-1987). It met initially at the Schocken In- 
stitute, a jts affiliate in Jerusalem, and the founders dreamed 
that it would eventually have 60 students. 

The Seminary grew rapidly under the leadership of Prof. 
Lee *Levine, who served as dean and later president (1987-94) 
and rector (1994-96), as the Seminary moved first to the 
Maayanot building and then to Neve Schechter (1990), which 
had been a dormitory for jts rabbinical students. The first 
class of four rabbinical students was ordained in July 1988, 
but Levine and his successors felt that it was not enough to 
ordain Israeli Conservative rabbis. They felt that the most ef- 
fective way to bring Jewish education in general and Conser- 
vative Judaism in particular to Israel was by developing large 
educational programs for public school children and teach- 
ers and for new immigrants. Levine therefore founded the 
tali Education Fund (1987) which funds and supervises the 
tali school system in Israel, received permission from Isra- 
el's Council for Higher Education to grant an M.A. degree in 
Jewish Studies as a branch of jts (1989), adopted Midreshet 
Yerushalayim, which became a program for Russian-speaking 
and Hungarian Jews (1990), and adopted the one year rabbini- 
cal programs of jts, the * University of Judaism in Los Angeles, 
and the *Seminario Rabbinico in Buenos Aires (1990). 

During Levine s tenure, the tali Education Fund be- 
gan to turn the tali schools into a real school system: many 
schools were added, a syllabus for grades 1-9 was published, 
curricula were written, in-service training was developed, 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


and agreements were reached with the Ministry of Education. 
The M.A. program in Jewish Studies grew rapidly from five 
students in 1990-91 to over 200 in 1994, and Levine began to 
hire full-time faculty Together with Prof. David *Golinkin, 
the dean, he developed an innovative interdisciplinary M.A. 
program in Jewish studies for Israeli educators, with special- 
izations such as informal education, family and community 
studies, and Jewish Women's Studies as well as a D.H.L. pro- 
gram as a branch of jts. 

Midreshet Yerushalayim had been founded in the 1980s 
as a post-high school yeshivah- style program for Conservative 
Jews from North America. Transformed under the leadership 
of Levine and Shmuel Glick, it founded an outreach program 
for Russian- speaking immigrants in Israel and a tali school 
system and Ramah Camps in the former Soviet Union, and it 
revived the moribund ^Rabbinical Seminary in Budapest by 
adding a Pedagogium for teachers, which eventually became 
the University of Jewish Studies in Budapest. 

During Rabbi Benjamin Segal's tenure as president 
(1994-99), all of the Seminary's programs continued to grow 
at a rapid rate and the institution was renamed the Schechter 
Institute of Jewish Studies in 1998, in honor of Prof. Solomon 
* Schechter, one of the main founders of Conservative Juda- 
ism in North America. Segal more than doubled the budget, 
adopted sound fiscal and administrative policies, began the 
accreditation process to turn Schechter into an Israeli institu- 
tion of higher learning, and endowed the Liebhaber Prize for 
Religious Tolerance. He founded the Institute of Applied Hala- 
khah together with Golinkin; its goal was to publish halakhic 
literature in different languages for the worldwide Conserva- 
tive Movement. He also developed indigenous leadership by 
hiring three young graduates of Schechter - Alexander Even- 
Chen as dean of the Graduate School, Eitan Chikli as direc- 
tor of the tali Education Fund, and Yair Paz as director of 
Midreshet Yerushalayim in Israel. 

Prof. Alice Shalvi, who served as rector (1997-2000) and 
acting president (1999-2000), laid the groundwork for an 
M.A. track in Judaism and the Arts and a Center of Jewish Art 
which developed curricula for the tali schools and websites. 
She founded The Center for Women and Jewish Law (1999) 
together with Golinkin, and helped launch Nashim: A Journal 
of Jewish Women's Studies and Gender Issues (1998), which was 
co-published with Brandeis University and later with Indiana 
University Press. Shalvi also hired Gila Katz, who had founded 
the tali day school in Czernowitz, as director of Midreshet 
Yerushalayim in Ukraine. 

During Golinkin's tenure (2000 rf.), the four major 
Schechter programs became four separate amutot (non-profit 
organizations) as The Schechter Institute achieved accredita- 
tion as an Israeli institution of higher education (2005). An- 
nual fundraising increased dramatically, while endowments 
and endowed chairs were raised for the first time. The Schech- 
ter Institute hired many tenure-track faculty and undertook an 
ambitious program of publishing academic and popular works 
in Hebrew, English, Russian, French, and Spanish. The tali 

school system expanded rapidly after receiving official recog- 
nition from the Ministry of Education in 2003 and began to 
publish at least four new tali textbooks per year. Midreshet 
Yerushalayim expanded to 46 branches in Israel and to 17 
schools and camps in Ukraine. 

By 2006, the Schechter Rabbinical Seminary had 60 stu- 
dents from Israel and abroad; the Schechter Institute of Jew- 
ish Studies graduate school had 450 students and 60 full and 
part-time faculty; the tali Education Fund provided enriched 
Jewish education to 25,000 Israeli children in almost 140 tali 
schools and pre-schools; and Midreshet Yerushalayim taught 
Jewish studies to thousands of Russian immigrants in Israel 
and to Jews in Ukraine and Hungary. Golinkin stated that his 
dream was to provide every Israeli and eastern European Jew 
with a Jewish education. 

bibliography: general: D. Elazar and R.M. Geffen, The 
Conservative Movement in Judaism: Dilemmas and Opportunities 
(2000), 138-40; N. Gillman, Conservative Judaism: The New Century 
(1993), 178-89; D. Golinkin, Proceedings of the Rabbinical Assem- 
bly, 62 (2000), 194-96; idem, Women's League Outlook, 75/3 (Spring 
2005), 22-26; E. Lederhendler, in: J. Wertheimer (ed.), Tradition 
Renewed: A History of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America 
(1997), 2:244-48; L. Levine et al., Et La'asot, 2 (Summer 1989), 13-29 
(Heb.); H. Meirovich, The Shaping of Masorti Judaism in Israel (1999); 
I. Schorsch, Thoughts from 3080 (1987), 17-24; B. Segal, Proceedings 
of the Rabbinical Assembly, 62 (1995), 104-8; E. Tabory in: U. Reb- 
hun and Ch. Waxman (eds.), Jews in Israel (2004), 290-92. tali: 
W. Ackerman and G. Showstack, Conservative Judaism, 40/1 (Fall 
1987), 67-80; E. Chikli, Tali Education: The Development and Real- 
ization of an Educational Idea (Heb., 2005); T. Horovitz, Dor L'dor, 15 
(Heb., 1999); L. Levine, Studies in Jewish Education, 7 (1995), 259-77. 
midreshet yerushalayim: Sh. Glick, Dor L'dor 24 (2004X39-54 
(Heb.); D. Golinkin, Insight Israel: The View from Schechter (2003), 

138-40, 154-56. 

[David Golinkin (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHECHTMAN, JOSEPH B. (1891-1970), Zionist leader, 

authority on population movements, and author. Schecht- 
man, who was born in Odessa, served in the all- Russian Jew- 
ish Congress convened in Petrograd (1917) and the Ukrainian 
National Assembly convened in Kiev (1918). After leaving Rus- 
sia in 1921, he became coeditor and later managing editor of 
Razsvyet (1922-32), the organ of the Federation of Russian- 
Ukrainian Zionists, and subsequently the leading ^Revisionist 
weekly. Schechtman approved * Jabotinsky s resignation from 
the Actions Committee of the World Zionist Organization 
in 1923, but disagreed with his concurrent resignation from 
the Zionist Organization itself. However, this partial support 
later became total when the two men took the lead in found- 
ing the World Union of Zionist Revisionists in Paris in 1925 
which elected Jabotinsky its president. Schechtman, in com- 
mon with Jabotinsky, became steadily disenchanted with the 
subsequent actions of the Zionist leaders. He opposed the 
proposed enlargement of the Jewish Agency (1929) to include 
a 50% proportion of non-Zionists, fearing that such a move 
would contribute to the dilution of, and possibly betray, the 
aims of political Zionism. However, he and the other Revi- 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



sionists were not averse to an Agency that would be elected by 
universal suffrage. In 1929 Schechtman became chief editor of 
Nayer Veg, a Yiddish -language Revisionist organ. 

In 1935, the Revisionists left the Zionist Organization, 
established the New Zionist Organization in Vienna, and 
elected Jabotinsky its president. Schechtman continued his 
work in the Revisionist movement both in Europe and after 
going to the U.S. in 1941. From 1941 to 1943 he was a research 
fellow for the Institute of Jewish Affairs. He directed the Re- 
search Bureau on Population Movements (1943-44), and from 
1944 to 1945 served as a consultant to the Office of Strategic 
Services (oss) on population movements. Schechtman was 
subsequently a member of the World Zionist Organizations 
Actions Committee; a member of the executive of the World 
Jewish Congress; and chairman of the World Party Council. 
At his death, he was president of the United Revisionists of 
America and chairman of the World Council of the Zionist 
Revision Movement. 

Schechtman s books include: a two -volume autobiog- 
raphy of Vladimir Jabotinsky, his best-known work, entitled 
Rebel and Statesman; the Early Years (1956), and Fighter and 
Prophet; the Last Years (1961); On Wings of Eagles (1961); The 
United States and the Jewish State Movement (1966); Star in 
Eclipse; Russian Jewry Revisited (1961); European Population 
Transfers, 1939-1945 (1946); and Postwar Population Transfers 
in Europe, 1945-1955 (1962). 

SCHECK, BARRY (1949- ), U.S. lawyer. Born in Queens, 
ny, and raised in Manhattan, Scheck, the son of a television 
producer and entertainers' representative, graduated from Yale 
University. He was politically active in the "Dump Johnson" 
movement of the late 1960s before going to the University of 
California Boalt Hall School of Law in Berkeley, where he 
worked for the United Farm Workers Union. Scheck became 
a lawyer for the Legal Aid Society, New York City's law firm 
for the poor, in the Bronx. There he met a fellow lawyer, Peter 
Neufeld, who would become his best friend. After three years 
with Legal Aid, Scheck joined the faculty of the Benjamin N. 
Cardozo School of Law, where he and Neufeld in 1992 founded 
the Innocence Project, a nonprofit legal clinic that seeks the 
release of wrongly convicted individuals through dna test- 
ing. The Innocence Project relies on students to handle case 
work under the supervision of a team of lawyers. The lawyers 
screen cases to determine whether postconviction testing of 
dna, the genetic material found in all human cells, can yield 
conclusive proof of innocence. Although dna testing of crime 
scene evidence had been used since the late 1980s, it was not 
until the end of the 20 th century that significant advances in 
the technology made it possible to examine minute specimens. 
The Innocence Project, by the early years of the 21 st century, 
had helped to exonerate more than 80 people and was working 
on hundreds of other cases. Scheck was the dna expert on the 
team of lawyers defending O.J. Simpson, the former football 
star, who was found not guilty of murder in a celebrated trial 
in the 1990s. Scheck and Neufeld were partners with the late 

Johnnie Cochran in a small civil rights law firm in Manhat- 
tan. The firm represented Abner Louima, a Haitian immigrant 
who was allegedly sodomized by New York City police offi- 
cers in 1997. In 2003 the Innocence Project spawned the Life 
After Exoneration Project, to help the wrongly convicted after 
they were out of prison. Scheck and Neufeld, with Jim Dwyer, 
were the authors of Actual Innocence (2000), which recounted 
the stories of some of the people they helped free. Inspired by 
the Innocence Project, about 30 similar organizations formed 
around the country at law schools, journalism schools, under- 
graduate college, and public defenders' offices. 

[Stewart Kampel (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHECKTER, JODY (1950- ), race car driver, winner of the 
1979 Formula One World Drivers Championship. Scheckter 
was born in East London, South Africa, but at the age of 20 
he moved to England, where he developed his racing skills. 
In 1972 Scheckter qualified for his first Formula One race at 
Watkins Glen, finishing in ninth place. The following year 
Scheckter won the Formula 5000 (5 liter max. engine), while 
gaining a reputation for his aggressive style. A major setback 
occurred several months later, when he spun out of control 
at the end of the first lap of the 1973 British Grand Prix, tak- 
ing out seven other cars in the process. However, Scheckter 
got back on track in 1974, finishing in third place in the For- 
mula One standings, a feat he would repeat in 1976, and bet- 
ter in 1977 with a second-place finish. After dropping to sev- 
enth place in 1978, Scheckter decided to switch driving teams 
for the fourth time in his career, this time going with Ferrari. 
The move proved to be decisive, as Scheckter managed three 
first-place finishes (the Belgian, Monegasque, and Italian 
Grand Prix) over the course of the 1979 season, en route to 
amassing 51 points and winning the Formula One Champi- 
onship. The following year, Scheckter could not find his form, 
accumulating only two points, and subsequently decided to 
retire from auto racing. Not resting on his laurels, that same 
year Scheckter moved to America and immediately started 
a business in firearms training simulators, which he sold in 
1996 for approximately $100 million. He then moved back to 
England and began buying up plots of land near Basingstoke, 
and then ran a "biodynamic farming" business on an estate 
of over 2,500 acres. One of Scheckter's sons, Tomas, became 
a successful racing driver in his own right in the Indy Racing 
League, winning the 2005 Bombardier Learjet 500 and finish- 
ing fourth in the 2003 Indianapolis 500. 

[Robert B. Klein (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHEFFLER, ISRAEL (1923- ), U.S. philosopher and edu- 
cator. Scheffler was born in New York City. He received a B. A. 
and an M.A. in psychology from Brooklyn College, and an 
M.H.L. from the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. He 
received his Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Penn- 
sylvania. Scheffler began his professional career at Harvard 
in 1952 and became professor of education and philosophy in 
1964. His The Language of Education (i960) was a pioneering 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


work in the field of linguistic analysis as applied to education. 
In his work, Schefiler attempted to apply philosophical meth- 
ods to educational ideas. He developed the logical evaluation 
of assertion, namely the examination of ideas from the stand- 
point of clarity and the examination of arguments from the 
standpoint of validity. Philosophical analysis, of which Schef- 
fler was a leading spokesman, stressed the clarification of ba- 
sic notions and modes of argument rather than the synthesiz- 
ing of available beliefs into some total outlook. 

After he retired from teaching, he was named Victor S. 
Thomas Professor of Education and Philosophy, Emeritus, at 
Harvard University. In 2003 he became the scholar-in-resi- 
dence at the Mandel Center for Studies in Jewish Education 
at Brandeis University. 

His works include Philosophy and Education (1958, 
1966 2 ), The Anatomy of Inquiry (1963), Conditions of Knowl- 
edge (1965), Science and Subjectivity (1967), Beyond the Let- 
ter (1979), Reason and Teaching (1988), Of Human Potential 
(1990), Teachers of My Youth, an American Jewish Experience 
(1994), Symbolic Worlds (1996), and Gallery of Scholars (2005). 
He co-edited Visions of Jewish Education (2003). 

[Ernest Schwarcz / Ruth Beloff (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHEFTELOWITZ, ISIDOR (1876-1934), Orientalist and 
rabbi. Scheftelowitz was born in Sandersleben, duchy of An- 
halt, Germany. He studied Sanskrit and Iranian philology 
and worked for a time at the British Museum and at the Bodle- 
ian Library in Oxford. During 1908-26 he served as rabbi 
and teacher of religion in Cologne. In 1919 he began teach- 
ing at the newly founded Cologne University, becoming pro- 
fessor in 1923. When the Nazis seized power, he emigrated to 
England and taught at Oxford University. Scheftelowitz made 
a considerable contribution to the study of Sanskrit and Ira- 
nian philology and history, as well as to that of comparative 

Among his published works are Arisches im Alten Tes- 
tament (2 vols., 1901-03), Apocrypha der Rigveda (1906), Zur 
Textkritik und Lautlehre der Rigveda (1907), Das Fisch-Symbol 
im Judentum und Christentum (1911), Die altpersische Religion 
und das Judentum (1920), Die Entstehung der manichaeischen 
Religion... (1922), Die Bewertung der aramaeischen Urkunden 
von Assuan und Elephantine fuer die juedische und iranische 
Geschichte (Ger. and Heb., 1923), Is Manicheism an Iranian 
Religion? (1924), Altp alaestinensischer Bauernglaube (1925), 
and Die Zeit als Schicksalsgottheit in der indischen und irani- 
schen Religion (1929). 

SCHEIBER, ALEXANDER (1913-1985), Hungarian rabbi 
and scholar. Scheiber was ordained at the Landesrabbiner- 
schule in his native Budapest. After serving as rabbi in Du- 
nafoldvar (1940-44), he became a professor at the Landesrab- 
binerschule in 1945 and its director in 1950. He also joined the 
faculty of the University of Szeged (1949), teaching Oriental 
folklore. Scheiber concentrated on the spiritual survival of 
the remnant of Hungarian Jewry during the postwar period. 

Under his leadership the traditions of the rabbinical seminary 
were maintained, and it continued to graduate young rabbis 
who filled rabbinical positions in Hungary and abroad. He 
considered it his mission to explore the Hungarian Jewish past 
and perpetuate its memory, as well as to study and publish the 
contributions of great Hungarian -Jewish scholars, including 
W. Bacher, I. Loew, and B. Heller. 

As a scholar, Scheiber s fields of specialization were Jew- 
ish history - especially the history of Hungarian Jewry - lit- 
erature, Jewish folklore, and art. Studying and evaluating the 
Kaufmann genizah, he discovered the Rabbanite prayer book 
mentioned by Kirkisani (huca, 22 (1949), 307-20), part of the 
chronicle of Obadiah (ks,30 (1954), 93-98), and fragments of 
the Sheelot Attikot (huca, 27 (1956), 291-303, and 36 (1965), 
227-59). Together with D.S. Loewinger, Scheiber published a 
volume of texts (Ginzei Kaufmann, 1, 1949). In 1957 a facsim- 
ile edition of the Kaufman Haggadah was published. During 
several stays in England, mainly at Cambridge, he discovered 
many important genizah fragments. 

His contributions to the history of Hungarian Jewry in- 
clude Corpus Inscriptionum Hungariae Judaicarum (Hung. 
i960, with Ger. summary), on Jewish inscriptions found in 
Hungary, and Hebraeische Kodexueberreste in ungarlaendi- 
schen Einbandstafeln (Hung. 1969, with Ger. summary). To- 
gether with Philipp Gruenvald he edited Monumenta Hun- 
gariae Judaica (vols. 5-7, 1959, and from vol. 8 by Scheiber 
only). He also wrote the history of Sopron's (Oedenburg's) 
synagogue, which dates back to the Middle Ages (rej, 118 
(1959/60), 79-93, and Hungarian (1963)). He also published 
studies in folklore. Scheiber edited the Jubilee Volume in Hon- 
our of Prof. B. Heller (1941) and Semitic Studies in Memory of 
I. Loew (1947). A complete bibliography of all Scheiber s pub- 
lications has been published (Budapest, 1976). He edited the 
Encyclopaedia Judaica's department of the history of the Jews 

in Hungary. 

[Jeno Zsoldos] 

SCHEID, ELIE (1841-1922), Jewish historian and adminis- 
trator. Born in Haguenau, Alsace, he received a traditional 
Jewish education and studied for the rabbinate. Scheid, who 
contributed to the Franco-Jewish press, wrote several histori- 
cal studies which were collected in his book Histoire des Juifs 
dAlsace (1887). In 1883 Baron Edmond de ^Rothschild invited 
him to Paris to organize the city's Hevrat ha-Zedakah ("Chari- 
table Society") and at the end of that year he was appointed 
inspector of the Barons settlement project in Erez Israel, a 
post he held until the end of 1899. He dealt with all settlement 
matters and conducted political negotiations on behalf of the 
Baron with the Turkish authorities in Constantinople. Scheid 
disapproved of Herzl's diplomatic activities, regarding them 
as dangerous to settlement in Erez Israel. On the other hand, 
he did not succeed in finding a common language with the 
settlers. They regarded him as far removed from their aspira- 
tions and identified him, perhaps more than he deserved, with 
the negative aspects of the paternalistic regime introduced by 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



the Baron in the settlements and with the corruption which 
existed among the Barons officials. 

bibliography: je, s.v.; Tidhar, 1 (1947), 206-7; I- Klausner, 

Mi-Kattowitz ad Basel, 2 (1965), index; T. Herzl, Complete Diaries-, ed. 

by R. Patai, 5 (i960), index. 

[Yehuda Slutsky] 

SCHEINDLIN, RAYMOND P. (1940- ), U.S. Judaic literary 
scholar. Born in Philadephia and educated at Gratz College, 
Philadelphia, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania (B.A. 1961), Jewish Theological Semi- 
nary of America (jtsa) (M.H.L. 1963; rabbinical ordination, 
1965), and Columbia University (Ph.D. 1971). Scheindlin taught 
at McGill University, Montreal (1969-72), Cornell University 
(1972-74), and the Jewish Theological Seminary, New York 
(from 1974). He was the director of the Shalom Spiegel Insti- 
tute of Medieval Hebrew Poetry at the jtsa and was a visiting 
professor at New York and Columbia universities and a fellow 
of the University of Pennsylvania Center for Judaic Studies 
(1993), as well as a member of the Columbia Seminar in Islamic 
Studies and a senior fellow of the Oxford University Centre for 
Postgraduate Hebrew Studies. Scheindlin was a part-time rabbi 
of the Kane Street Synagogue, a Conservative congregation in 
Brooklyn (1979-82). He was a Guggenheim Fellow in 1988 and 
was chosen as a Cullman Fellow of the New York Public Li- 
brary for 2005-06 for a work on Judah Halevi. Scheindlin was 
a member of a number of professional and scholarly organi- 
zations, including the Association for Jewish Studies, the Jew- 
ish Publication Society of America, and the Society of Judeo- 
Arabic Studies. In addition he was a member of the editorial 
boards of Jewish Quarterly Review, Arabic and Middle Eastern 
Literatures, Medieval Iberia, Prooftexts, and Edebiyat. 

Scheindlin is recognized as a leading authority on the 
poetry of medieval Spain and the encounter of Hebrew and 
Arabic traditions that produced it. His principal publications 
are Form and Structure in the Poetry of al-Mutamid Ibn Ab- 
bad (1974), Wine, Women, and Death: Medieval Hebrew Po- 
ems on the Good Life (edited and translated, 1986), The Gazelle: 
Medieval Hebrew Poems on God, Israel, and the Soul (edited 
and translated, 1991), The Book of Job (a verse translation with 
notes, 1998), A Short History of the Jewish People: From Leg- 
endary Times to Modern Statehood (1998), and The Cambridge 
History of Arabic Literature: Al-Andalus (U.S. title: The Liter- 
ature of al-Andalus; 2000, edited with Maria Rosa Menocal 
and Michael Sells). He was the translator of Ismar *Elbogeris 
Jewish Liturgy in Its Historical Development (1993) and is also 
the author of a widely used handbook on Arabic grammar, 201 
Arabic Verbs (1978). Scheindlin wrote the libretto for an opera 
by Lee Goldstein, Miriam and the Angel of Death, based on a 
story by I.L. Peretz (1984), and provided translations of He- 
brew texts for songs by Hugo Weisgall (Loves Wounded, 1987; 
Psalm of the Distant Dove, based on poems of Judah Halevi, 
1995). He published numerous scholarly articles, translations 
from Yiddish and medieval Hebrew, and contributions to 

scholarly collections. r _ „., , , . ,, 

7 [Drew Silver (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHEINERT, DAVID (1916-1996), Belgian author. Born 
in Cz^stochowa, Poland, Scheinert was raised in Brussels, 
where he founded the Revue juive de Belgique. An aggressive 
style emphasized his sense of fellowship with the oppressed, 
whether Jews or non-Jews. Scheinert s works include the nov- 
els Lapprentissage inutile (1948), Le coup d'etat (1950), and Un 
silence provisoire (1968); verse collections such as Requiem 
au genievre (1952), Et la lumiere chanta (1954), and Comme 
je respire (i960); and literary essays, notably Ecrivains beiges 
devant la realite (1964). 

thodox rabbi, Hebraist, and author. Scheinfeld was born in 
Scaudvil, Lithuania. He was ordained by Rabbi Isaac Elhanan 
Spektor in 1890, immigrating to the United States the follow- 
ing year. After a year in Milwaukee (1892-93) and almost a 
decade in Louisville, Kentucky, Scheinfeld returned to Mil- 
waukee's Beth Israel congregation in 1902, remaining there 
until his death. Acknowledged rabbinic head of Milwaukee's 
Orthodox community during his tenure, Scheinfeld exerted 
leadership in all areas - religious, educational, war relief, char- 
ity and welfare, and Zionism. His unorthodox views on the 
revision and reconstruction of the prayer book were expressed 
in Ha-Shiloah (1921). 

His literary works include five volumes of moral and ethi- 
cal reflections on Judaism: Ha-Adam ba-Maaleh ("The Supe- 
rior Man," 1931); Olam ha-Sheker (1936); Divrei Hakhamim 
(1941); Ziyyunim be-Derekh ha-Hayyim ("Way- marks in the 
Path of Life," 2 vols., 1922-28). He also wrote articles in the 
Hebrew encyclopedia, Ozar Yisrael. 

bibliography: L.J. Swichkow and L.P. Gartner, History of 

the Jews of Milwaukee (1963), index; Even-Shayish, in: Ha-Shiloah, 

25 (1911), 193-7. 

[Louis J. Swichkow] 

°SCHELER, MAX FERDINAND (1874-1928), German phi- 
losopher and sociologist. Scheler was born in Munich. His fa- 
ther came from an upper middle-class Protestant family and 
his mother from an Orthodox Jewish family that had lived in 
Franconia for centuries. Scheler himself converted to Roman 
Catholicism during World War 1 . 

Scheler studied philosophy at the University of Jena; 
there his most prominent teacher was the idealist philoso- 
pher Rudolf Eucken, whose ideas overshadowed Scheler's early 
work. He also taught at Jena from 1902 to 1907, when he left 
to teach at the University of Munich. After moving to Munich 
Scheler turned to phenomenology, and his subsequent work 
reflected the influence of Edmund *Husserl and Franz Bren- 
tano. In 1910 Scheler went to live in Berlin as an academically 
unattached writer and formed close friendships with Wer- 
ner *Sombart and Walther *Rathenau. During World War 1 
he became a fervent nationalist and defended the "German 
war" with passionate intensity. In 1919 he accepted a chair at 
the University of Cologne, where he developed his views in 
the sociology of knowledge and also reconsidered his reli- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


gious views. As a result of the latter, he left the Roman Cath- 
olic Church and elaborated his own doctrine, which asserted 
a vitalistic pantheism. 

Scheler was an eclectic thinker who wove many disparate 
strands of ideas into the texture of his own work. Moreover, he 
was always open to new ideas and was not afraid to contradict 
his own earlier ones. His major theological work, in which he 
attempted to fuse phenomenological approaches with Catholic 
doctrine is Vom Ewigen im Menschen (1921; On the Eternal in 
Man, i960). His work in social psychology began with Ueber 
Ressentiment und moralisches Werturteil (1912; Ressentiment, 
i960) and was further extended in his Zur Phaenomenologie 
der Sympathiegefuehle (1913; The Nature of Sympathy, 1954). 
In his last work Scheler attempted detailed phenomenologi- 
cal descriptions of different feeling states emulating the Pas- 
calian endeavor to outline a "logic of the heart." He opposed 
his holistic psychology to the scientific and analytic psycho- 
logical approach that prevailed in his day. 

Scheler s major philosophical work, Der Formalismus in 
der Ethik und die materiale Wertethik (2 vols., 1913-16, 1921 2 ), 
represents an attempt to build a new ethic on the basis of phe- 
nomenology in opposition to Kantian ethical formalism. His 
major contribution to the sociology of knowledge, Die Wis- 
sensformen und die Gesellschaft (1926), aims at a reconcilia- 
tion of the Platonic doctrine of the immutability of the world 
of values with the relativist approach to values found in many 
modern doctrines. Scheler argues that, though men in differ- 
ent periods and different social strata elaborate widely differ- 
ent forms and standards of knowledge, this simply means that 
they all strive, each in historically and socially determined 
ways, to grasp particular aspects of the eternal and immutable 
sphere of value essences. 

A restless spirit, Scheler had wide appeal, especially to 
the youth, in the hectic and unsettled days of the Weimar Re- 
public. His work had a major influence on French existential- 
ism and phenomenology after World War 11. Only later did it 
become more widely known in England and America, where 
it attracted the attention not only of philosophers and soci- 
ologists but also of theologians. His writings were collected 
in Gesammelte Werke (10 vols., 1953-60). 

bibliography: M.S. Frings, Max Scheler. A Concise Intro- 
duction into the World of a Great Thinker (1965); Philosophy and Phe- 
nomenological Research (March 1942); M. Dupuy, Philosophie deMax 
Scheler, 2 vols. (1959); J.R. Staude, Max Scheler (Eng., 1967). 

[Lewis A. Coser] 

°SCHELLENBERG, WALTER (1910-1952) Nazi official. 
Born in Saarbruck to minor German officials, Schellenberg 
studied medicine and law and graduated from the University 
of Bonn. He joined the Nazi Party in May 1933 and the home 
office of the sd in 1934. He worked on the consolidation of 
the sd and the security police, and became a trusted adviser 
of *Himmler and *Heydrich as deputy chief of the foreign 
intelligence service of the sd. In May 1941 he concluded an 
agreement with the German Army on the operation of the 

Einsatzgruppen (mobile killing units) in the Soviet Union. 
He was head of the united ss and Wehrmacht intelligence. As 
early as the summer of 1942, he foresaw the impending defeat 
of Germany and tried to persuade Himmler to seek a separate 
peace with the West, which necessitated saving certain Jewish 
lives as leverage for negotiations and even halting the "Final 
Solution" in order to gain some time. When the Abwehr was 
dismantled after the attempt in 1944 on Hitler s life, Schellen- 
berg became the head of the combined intelligence services 
of the ss and the Wehrmacht. His power was only surpassed 
by Himmler s within the ss. He was tried in the American 
Zone trials at Nuremberg. He was acquitted on the crime of 
genocide but found guilty of complicity in the murder of So- 
viet pows. Sentenced to six years, he was released in 1951 and 
moved to Switzerland, where he wrote his memoirs. 

bibliography: G. Reitlinger, ss; A libi of a Nation 1922-1945 
(1956), index; idem, Final Solution (1958 2 ), index; imt, Trial of the 
Major War Criminals, 24 (1949), index. 

[Yehuda Reshef / Michael Berenbaum (2 nd ed.)] 

1854), German philosopher. Constantly moved by new in- 
sights beyond a position before having adequately stated it, 
Schelling is generally remembered only as a link between the 
philosophies of Johann Gottlieb * Fichte and Georg Wilhelm 
Friedrich * Hegel, a view doing justice neither to his profun- 
dity nor to his originality. 

Schelling embraced absolute idealism (see * Philosophy, 
Jewish) before Hegel, and ^existentialism before Soren Ki- 
erkegaard, who attended Schelling's 1841 lectures. His main 
periods of thought were: philosophy of nature (1797-99), 
aesthetic idealism (about 1800), absolute idealism (1801-04), 
philosophy of freedom (about 1809), "positive philosophy of 
revelation" (after 1815; N. Hartmann's periodization). Schelling 
believed that nature is an organism independent of experi- 
ence. No lapse into pre- Kantian realism, this position drives 
Schelling beyond Fichte's ethical into an aesthetic idealism. 
Fichtes nature is non-self for the moral self; Schelling's is pre- 
self prior to and independent of self, an "unconscious artist" 
becoming self-conscious in art and philosophy. 

Schelling believed that realistic philosophy of nature 
and aesthetic idealism are to be viewed as finite standpoints, 
to be united in absolute idealism as an absolute standpoint is 
attained. "The Absolute" becomes problematical, however, as 
freedom and evil, asserting themselves against it, fall outside 
it. Gradually the gulf widens between "essence" and "exis- 
tence," and absolute idealism becomes a mere "negative" phi- 
losophy - an idealized system abstracted from existence - the 
preliminary to a new "positive" philosophy which leaps from 
the absolute to the existential standpoint, confronting exis- 
tence and "narrating" the confrontations. Negative philoso- 
phy constructs the idea of God. Positive philosophy confronts 
God Himself in His historical revelations. 

Although well-versed in Hebraic studies, Schelling had 
no room for or contact with Judaism prior to abandoning 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



absolute idealism. This is partly due to his romanticism and 
pantheism (ways of thought out of sympathy with Judaism), 
largely because his absolute idealism, unlike Hegel's, tends to 
dissipate particularity in the Absolute, thus giving scant re- 
spect to history Moreover, even when he deals with history, 
he divides it into pagan and Christian; Christ is "the peak and 
end of the world of the ancient gods," the Jewish God presum- 
ably included, and, "empiricism" being excluded from specula- 
tive theology, any "seed of Christianity. . . in Judaism" is denied 
(Werke y 1 (1856), 292, 296, 303). In line with his turn toward 
existentialism, however, Schelling's view of Judaism changed. 
Christian "neglect" of the Hebrew Bible is "almost indecent," 
for it is divinely revealed; e.g., the tetragrammaton - a name, 
not a concept - expresses the "divine substance" which is per 
se inexpressible, and as such referred to by Elohim (Werke, 2 
(1856), 271-2). To the end Judaism remains, not "mythology," 
which expresses man's unredeemed condition, but the indis- 
pensable, revealed "ground" of the Christian revelation, Israel 
being its chosen bearer. 

Jewish thinkers indebted to Schelling's earlier thought 
include Solomon *Formstecher who, however, subordinates 
the aesthetic to the ethical and also rejects absolute thought as 
"sublimated... gnosticism" (Guttmann). Franz *Rosenzweig's 
Stern der Erloesung (1921) reflects close affinity with Schelling's 
later thought, especially his Ages of the World. 

bibliography: S. Formstecher, Religion des Geistes (1841); 
J. Guttmann, in: F.W.J. Schelling, Of Human Freedom (1936), introd. 
and notes; Guttmann, Philosophies, index. 

[Emil Ludwig Fackenheim] 

SCHENECTADY, a formerly industrial city situated on the 
Mohawk River in east central New York State. Of its 61,821 
inhabitants (2000) about 5,200 Jews live in the city and sub- 
urbs. Jews first settled in Schenectady in the 1840s when Louis 
Jacobs sold clothing there, and in 1848 Alexander Susholtz 
settled with his family. Jonathan Levi, a peddler, settled next 
and would later become one of the major business leaders in 
the community. Within five years enough Jewish families had 
moved into the city to begin a congregation, which initially 
met in the homes of its members. On October 20, 1856, the 
congregation incorporated as Shaaray Shomayim (later Gates 
of Heaven). At the same time, Mordecai *Myers, a former State 
Assemblyman, relocated from Kinderhook in 1848 and was 
elected mayor in 1851 and 1854. The Jewish community bought 
land for a cemetery and the first burial took place in 1857. The 
first religious school was established in 1863. Between 1892 
and 1907, Gates of Heaven moved from an Orthodox con- 
gregation to Reform. Meanwhile, in the 1870s, Jews from the 
Russian Empire arrived in Schenectady, and Hungarian Jews 
moved into the city after 1890, attracted by work available at 
General Electric. As late as the 1950s at least 30% of employed 
Jews found work at ge. Jonathan Levi played an instrumental 
role in attracting the Edison Co., that became ge, to the city. 
The Jewish community would later become split between per- 
manent residents and professionals who worked at ge before 

being relocated. In the 19 th century Jews worked as peddlers, 
small businessmen, grocers, tailors, laborers, and craftsmen. 

Russian Jews did not want to join the predominantly 
German Gates of Heaven, and organized the Orthodox Con- 
gregation Agudas (later Agudat) Achim in 1890. By the 1920s, 
second-generation Russian Jews decided to modernize the 
synagogue, and it officially became Conservative in 1927. Un- 
til 1927 Agudas Achim emerged as the leading Orthodox con- 
gregation. Ethnic differences led Hungarian Jews to split from 
Agudas Achim and to found the Orthodox, but Hungarian, 
Ohab Zedek in 1893. Another split in Agudas Achim led fol- 
lowers of Rabbi Solomon Hinden to organize Adath Israel in 
1914. New immigrants formed a separate congregation, Ohab 
Sholom in 1894. By 1916 the most Orthodox members of the 
community created a separate congregation, B'nai Abraham. 
Over time all the Orthodox synagogues merged into one con- 
gregation, with the last merger taking place in 1955 when Ohab 
Zedek merged with Ohab Sholom B'nai Abraham to form Beth 
Israel, the current Orthodox congregation in Schenectady. 
The Jewish community numbered 3,000 in 1913 and reached 
5,000 in 1918. Later figures by Jewish organizations listed 3,800 
in 1943, 2,800 in 1950, 4,200 in 1970, 5,700 in 1984 and 5,200 
in the mid-1990s. Prior to 1945, the Jewish community lived 
primarily within the city limits, but the suburbanization of 
Jewish residents and institutions mean that the most recent 
figures suggest that at least half the community lives in sub- 
urban towns like Niskayuna. 

The diversity of Jewish organizations reached its peak 
between 1910 and 1930. The first organization not affiliated 
with a synagogue was the Ladies Benevolent Society formed 
in 1883. Other charitable institutions included the United He- 
brew Charities in 1897, Hebrew Sick and Benevolent Society in 
1909, and the Hebrew Sheltering and Aid Society in 1913. An- 
other philanthropic association, Montefiore Society, appeared 
in the 1880s and reached its peak of effectiveness in the 1890s. 
Women organized a chapter of the National Council of Jewish 
Women in March 1916. Jewish fraternal organizations included 
the Independent Order of Brith Abraham, started in 1900, Free 
Sons of Judah, 1905-16, Free Sons of Israel (around 1900), and 
B'nai B'rith, 1921. The first Zionist group, the Moriah Zionist 
Association began in 1913. By 1917 a chapter of the Socialist 
Labor Party (Po'alei Zion) was started and, by 1919, a chapter 
of the Zionist Organization of America. Hadassah started a 
chapter in 1921. During World War 1, local Jews contributed 
to Jewish war victims in Europe and Palestine and to the Pal- 
estine Restoration Fund after the war. Congressman George 
Lunn of Schenectady, the former Socialist mayor, introduced 
a resolution in Congress in support of a Jewish homeland in 
Palestine. In the 1920s and 1930s support for Zionism waned 
in Schenectady, except for a small dedicated group of men 
and women. Reform Jewish leaders opposed the idea until af- 
ter World War 11. Between 1945 and 1948, some local Jews in 
Schenectady, Albany, and Troy helped smuggle bandages, am- 
munition, and arms to Palestine to defend Jewish settlements, 
and the community held a mass meeting in May 1948 to cel- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


ebrate the independence of Israel. In 1967 and 1973, the local 
community rallied to the embattled Jewish homeland. 

Other major Jewish associations were the Workmen's 
Circle branch, in 1912 and within a year the Jewish Socialist 
branch formed. A community talmud torah was founded in 
1911 and chartered in 1912, which became the United Hebrew 
Community in 1923. Two young peoples groups, the Apollo 
Club and Young Macabees, social and athletic groups, merged 
in 1916 to form the ymh a, followed by the ywha a year later. 
The Ys incorporated in 1921 and merged with the United He- 
brew Community to form the Jewish Community Center 
in 1929. Following the movement of the Jewish population, 
the jcc, the primary non-congregational organization of the 
Jewish community, relocated to Niskayuna. The first Jewish 
self-defense organization was the Jewish Citizens Commit- 
tee, which began as a protest against Polish pogroms and the 
Ukrainian massacres, but, due to criticism from local Polish 
immigrants, the citizens' committee organized in June 1919 to 
represent all of Schenectady's Jews. Despite its intentions the 
committee did not last, and in 1938 local Jews, responding to 
activities of the German- American Bund and antisemitism in 
Germany, created the Jewish Community Council which was 
later incorporated in 1948. Both the Anti- Defamation com- 
mittee of the local B'nai B'rith and the Jewish War Veterans, 
troubled by the rise in antisemitism, pushed for the creation 
of the Council. Before and after the war it helped resettle ref- 
ugees and sent supplies to Jewish survivors in Europe and 
Palestine after World War 11. By 2005, the local representa- 
tional function had returned to the Jewish Community Cen- 
ter, while the Jewish Federation of Northeastern New York 
took over the responsibility for speaking for the Jewish com- 
munities of the Capital District, and pooling resources for 
activities that cut across local communities. As elsewhere in 
the country, synagogues and institutional buildings in down- 
town urban areas were sold as the Jewish residents moved to 
residential areas outside of the downtown area and to the sub- 
urbs. There is a Jewish Studies program at Union College in 
Schenectady that has added to the intellectual quality of the 
Jewish community. 

bibliography: S. Weingarten, "The Biography of an Ameri- 
can Jewish Community; Jewish Community of Schenectady, (Master's 
thesis, Siena College, 1952); P.W. Jacobs, "The Jewish Congregations 
of Schenectady," in: Schenectady Union Star (October 18, 1913); L. 
King and A. Mann, "Schenectady Jewry," in: Tri-City Jewish Chroni- 
cle (Dec. 1917), 17-23; N. Yetwin, "Soldier of Subsequent Fortune," in: 
New York Alive (Jan/Feb, 1989), 17-18. 

[Harvey Strum (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHENIRER, SARAH (1883-1935), educational pioneer, 
founder of the *Beth Jacob school network. In Orthodox writ- 
ings, Schenirer's life and work are described in the mythic, 
legendary terms usually reserved for renowned male rabbinic 
figures. Born to a hasidic family in Cracow, Schenirer received 
a formal education in Polish public schools until the age of 14, 
when she took up work as a seamstress to help support her 

family. In a short autobiographical sketch, she notes that from 
childhood she was drawn to Jewish learning and was of a pi- 
ous temperament. As a young woman, she grew alarmed by 
the situation of her female contemporaries, exposed to the at- 
tractions of secular culture and with little Jewish knowledge to 
help preserve their identity. In Austrian- ruled Galicia, where 
Jews enjoyed equal rights from the late 1860s and compulsory 
public education existed, many rabbis and communal leaders 
had discussed the need for Jewish education for girls, but in the 
end it was the dedicated amateur, Sarah Schenirer, who made 
this a reality. By her own account, the impetus for her initia- 
tive came during her family's stay as refugees in Vienna after 
the outbreak of World War 1. The evening lectures of Rabbi Dr. 
Flesch, a disciple of the Neo-Orthodox approach of Samson 
Raphael *Hirsch, inspired her to return to Poland and trans- 
late her ideas about education for girls into practice. Her first 
school, opened in Cracow in the fall of 1917, gave supplemen- 
tary religion lessons to young girls after their studies in public 
school (this would be the nature of most of the later schools as 
well). By the time of Schenirer's death in 1935, the Beth Jacob 
school network in Poland had grown to 227 schools with over 
27,000 pupils. Schenirer's disciples also would found schools in 
Austria, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Lithuania, Palestine, and 
the United States. Schenirer played a major role in the expan- 
sion of the network, traveling to dozens of towns throughout 
Poland and addressing meetings of parents and young girls, 
convincing them to set up local Beth Jacob schools. Schenirer 
was aided in her quest by the endorsement of leading rabbinic 
figures and by the adoption of Beth Jacob by the Agudat Israel 
movement. Agudah provided Beth Jacob with financial assis- 
tance, logistical guidance, and a literary forum, the Yiddish- 
language Beys-Yankev Zhurnal. Schenirer's personal dedica- 
tion and charisma were supplemented by the organizational 
professionalism of Dr. Leo Deutschlander and by young, edu- 
cated women he recruited from Germany to help staff summer 
training courses and, later on, the central teachers' seminary 
in Cracow founded by Schenirer. Schenirer cooperated with 
Deutschlander in the seminary's administration, and was in- 
strumental in the founding of the Benot Agudat Yisrael youth 
movement for students and graduates of Beth Jacob. She com- 
posed curricular materials and wrote plays and articles on the 
holidays and moralistic themes. Her collected Yiddish writ- 
ings (Gezamelte Shriftn) appeared in 1933 and later in Hebrew 
translation (see bibliography). Little is known about her per- 
sonal life. Schenirer was evidently married for a very short 
time and divorced in her late twenties. Late in her short life 
she married Rabbi Yitzhak Landau, grandson of the Rebbe of 
Radomsk. She had no children of her own, but devoted her life 
to the hundreds of young women she taught and for whom she 
served as a model of feminine personal piety and learning. 

bibliography: A. Atkin, "The Beth Jacob Movement in Po- 
land (1917-1939)" (diss., Yeshiva University, 1959); P.Benisch, Carry 
Me In Your Heart: The Life and Legacy of Sarah Schenirer, Founder 
and Visionary of the Bais Yaakov Movement (2003); R. Manekin, 
"Mashehu Hadash Legamrei: Hitpattehuto shel Raayon ha-Hinukh 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



ha-Dati le-Banot ba-Et ha-Hadashah" in: Masekhet, 2 (2004), 63-85; 
Z. Scharfstein, Gedolei Hinukh be-Ameinu (1964), 226-43; S. Sche- 
nirer, Em be-Yisrael: Kitvei Sarah Schenirer, 3 vols. (1955); D. Weiss- 
man, "Bais Yaakov - A Women's Educational Movement in the Pol- 
ish Jewish Community: A Case Study in Tradition and Modernity" 
(M.A. thesis, New York University, 1977); S. Pantel Zolty, "And All 
Your Children Shall Be Learned": Women and the Study of Torah in 
Jewish Law and History (1993). 

[Gershon Bacon (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHENK, FAYE L. (1909-1981), U.S. Zionist leader. Faye 
Schenk was born in Des Moines, Iowa, daughter of Rabbi 
H.H. Zeichik, a noted talmudic scholar. In 1933 she married 
Rabbi Max Schenk, later spiritual leader of Congregation 
Shaare Zedek in Brooklyn, n.y. From 1939 to 1949 the Schenks 
lived in Sydney, Australia, where Faye Schenk was a leader in 
the Women's International Zionist Organization. Settling in 
New York in 1949, she became active in *Hadassah, and after 
serving in numerous leadership capacities became national 
president in 1968. Mrs. Schenk remained national president 
of Hadassah until 1972 and in 1973 was elected president of 
the American Zionist Federation. She became a member of 
the Executive of the World Zionist Organization in 1977 and 
settled permanently in Israel. After serving for six months as 
chairman of the * Keren Hayesod, after the death of Ezra Sha- 
piro, in 1978 she was appointed head of the organization de- 
partment of the wzo. 

[Gladys Rosen] 

SCHENKER, HEINRICH (1868-1935), music theorist; the 
most important 20 th century theorist of tonal music. Born in 
Wisniowczyki, Galicia. Schenker studied law as well as har- 
mony with Bruckner in Vienna. After an early career as a 
composer, accompanist, editor, and critic (especially for the 
Wiener Wochenblatt), Schenker undertook more serious an- 
alytical and theoretical engagement. He developed new ana- 
lytical procedures for the perception of musical structures. 
His most important achievements came to fruition in his last 
book, Derfreie Satz (1935; Free Composition , 1979), the last 
book in the trilogy Neue musikalische Theorien und Phanta- 
sien. According to his theory, structural harmonies, which are 
ultimately derived from the background structure (Ursatz) of 
an upper descending voice (Urlinie) against bass arpeggiation 
of the tonic, are prolonged or composed out (auskomponiert) 
by techniques based on strict counterpoint, such as linear pro- 
gressions and neighbor motion. Schenker appreciated and an- 
alyzed mainly the works of a few great composers from Bach 
to Brahms. Though originally based only on the works of the 
18 th and 19 th centuries, Schenker s concepts have been applied 
to earlier and later music as well (cf. F. Salzer, Structural Hear- 
ing, 1952). Schenker's writings include the trilogy, the first two 
volumes being Harmonielehre (1906; Harmony, 1954) and Kon- 
trapunkt (2 vols., 1910 and 1922; Counterpoint, 1987), and more 
analytical books, among them Das Meisterwerk in der Musik 
(3 vols., 1925, 1926, 1930; The Masterwork in Music, 1994, 1996, 
1997) and Der Tonwille (1921-24). 

Schenker wrote Hasidic Dances, ultimately published as 
Syrian Dances; his books and diaries include occasional ref- 
erence to Jewish matters. 

bibliography: O. Jonas, Das Wesen des musikalischen Kunst- 
werks (1934; trans, as An Introduction to the Theory ofHeinrich Schen- 
ker, 1982)). add. bibliography: Grove online; H. Federhofer, 
Heinrich Schenker nach Tagebuecher und Briefen (1985); W. Pastille, 
Ursatz: The Philosophical Background of Heinrich Schenker (1986); 
C. Schachter, Unfoldings: Essays in Schenkerian Theory and Analy- 
sis (1999). 

[Roger Kamien / Yossi Goldenberg (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHENKER, JOEL W. (1904-1985), U.S. theatrical producer 
and builder. Born in Manhattan, Schenker attended New York 
University and went into the real-estate business. But he also 
worked as an actor and co-wrote a play, This Our House, which 
folded after two performances on Broadway in 1935. He swore 
off the theater for years. In the construction field, he headed 
the Gregory- Roth-Schenker Construction Corporation and 
the Webb & Knapp Construction Corporation, building hous- 
ing for veterans after World War 11 and then high-rise apart- 
ment houses and office buildings. He became prominent as a 
producer or co-producer of serious theater after he and Cheryl 
Crawford revived Sean O'Casey's Shadow of a Gunman in a 
widely hailed Actors Studio production. His first commercial 
hit on Broadway, A Far Country (1961), was Henry Denker's 
drama about Sigmund Freud. He then produced Seidman and 
Son (1963) with Sam Levene, and, in the same year, A Case of 
Libel, again by Denker and inspired by the book My Life in 
Court by Louis *Nizer. Schenker was a mainstay of the Ameri- 
can Shakespeare Festival, serving as a trustee and executive 
producer. He also raised funds and served as an officer of the 
Jewish Theological Seminary of America and the building di- 
vision of the United Jewish Appeal. 

[Stewart Kampel (2 nd ed.)] 

1906), Episcopalian bishop of China. Born of Jewish parentage 
at Tauroggen (see *Taurage), Lithuania, Schereschewsky went 
to America in 1854, where he became a Christian in 1855. In 
1859 he went to China as a missionary, first in Shanghai and 
then in Beijing (Peking), where he lived for 13 years (1862-75), 
and in 1877 was appointed Episcopalian bishop of China. In- 
spired by a visit of three *Kaifeng Jews to Beijing in March 
1867, the missionaries induced Schereschewsky to visit the Kai- 
feng Jewish community in the middle of that year. He found 
some 200 or 300 Jewish families in Kaifeng, a fair proportion 
of them in good circumstances. They had entirely lost their 
religion, intermarried with the local population, and were 
scarcely distinguishable from them. After a stay of about 25 
days he was driven out of the city by a mob. Schereschewsky 
spoke 13 languages, among them Hebrew and Chinese. While 
in Beijing, he began to translate the Pentateuch from He- 
brew into Mandarin Chinese. In 1881 he had a stroke, which 
semi-paralyzed his hands. Using two fingers, he completed 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


his work. His translation is still outstanding, and because of 
his physical handicap the work is known as the "Two Finger 

bibliography: J.A. Muller, Apostle of China. Samuel Isaac 
Joseph Scher eschew sky, 1831-1906 (1937). 

[Rudolf Loewenthal] 

SCHERLAG, MARK (1878-1962), Austrian Zionist poet. 
Born in Chorostkow, Galicia, Scherlag studied law at the 
University of Vienna and supported himself as a bank clerk 
there. He joined the Zionist movement with the appearance 
of Theodor Herzl and developed personal ties with him. He 
contributed to the Zionist and general press and periodicals in 
German and Polish. Scherlag published lyric poems on Jew- 
ish subjects. He settled in Haifa in 1939, and, in the last years 
of his life, he recorded his memoirs of the early years of the 
Zionist movement. 

His works include the following collections of poetry in 
German: Einsamkeit (1899), Heimaterde. Judenlieder (1922), 
In der Fremde. Neue Judenlieder (1919), and a selection of his 
poetry from 1900 to 1939 Aus dem Leben (n.d.). 

bibliography: Tidhar, 5 (1952), 2245; M. Gelber, Toledotha- 
Tenuah ha-Ziyyonit be-Galizyah (1958), 3-8. 

[Getzel Kressel] 

SCHERMAN, NOSSON (1935- ), U.S. rabbi, publisher of 
*Art Scroll. Scherman was born in Newark, nj, where his 
parents owned a mom-and-pop grocery store, and he was a 
product of its public school system, studying in the afternoon 
at a local talmud torah. At the age of 10 he entered Yeshivah 
Torah Vodaath, where he remained through Beit Midrash. 
In 1953, he was admitted to Beit Medrash Elyon, Torah Vo- 
daath's postgraduate division in Monsey ny, where he stud- 
ied for 11 years and was ordained. His primary teachers and 
influences throughout his adult life were Rabbi Yaakov *Ka- 
minetsky and Rabbi Gedaliah Schorr, the roshei yeshivah of 
Torah Vodaath. 

Scherman was a teacher and assistant Hebrew principal 
and general studies principal at Yeshivah Torah Temimah in 
Brooklyn for eight years, and then principal of Yeshivah Kar- 
lin-Stolin in Brooklyn for six. He was also head counselor of 
Camp Torah Vodaath from 1967 to 1969. From 1969 to 1990 
he was editor of Olomeinu/Our World, the children's maga- 
zine of Torah Umesorah. 

In 1976, Rabbi Meier *Zlotowitz of ArtScroll asked Scher- 
man to edit and contribute an introduction to the Book of Es- 
ther. Like Zlotowitz, Scherman gave up his career to develop 
the ArtScroll Series and its parent company, Mesorah Publi- 
cations, with Zlotowitz and Sheah Brander. 

Early on, Scherman became general editor and was 
best known as the author of the Overviews, the introduc- 
tory essays that present the background and perspective of 
dozens of books of Scripture and liturgy. In 1984, he pub- 
lished his first major work, the translation and commen- 
tary of the siddur, which was followed by the Rosh Hasha- 

nah and Yom Kippur mahzorim. In 1993, he published the 
Stone Edition of the Humash, with translation and com- 

His "translation" of the siddur is not quite a translation - 
for example, the erotic Hebrew of the Song of Songs is not ren- 
dered into English. Instead, the allegory to God and Israel is 
treated as the peshat. The siddur appears in two versions. The 
Rabbinical Council of America, the Centrist Orthodox Rab- 
binical Movement, has its version with the prayer for the State 
of Israel and a slightly different introduction. 

The success of the ArtScroll/Mesorah series is undeni- 
able. ArtScroll is a fascinating combination of fervently Or- 
thodox Judaism and an American aesthetic that wraps tradi- 
tional Judaism in a visual idiom acceptable to the American 
sensibility. Zlotowitz's sense of the visual impact of a book is 
an indispensable ingredient in its success. Despite what out- 
siders may think, even the rejectionist Orthodox community 
that does not embrace modern culture has, perhaps inadver- 
tently, acculturated itself to the offerings and packaging of the 
American marketplace. 

ArtScroll publishes in English and in Hebrew and has 
brought its own unique styling to the Israeli and American 
marketplace. In the United States, it represents an important 
transition between Yiddish and English as the spoken lan- 
guage and the language of Jewish learning for fervently Or- 
thodox Jews in America. 

Modern Orthodox scholars have not been uncritical of 
ArtScroll's success. Its historical studies are wrapped, not in 
Western scholarship, but in hagiography; it seems as if every 
fervently Orthodox leader or rabbi is without blemish. Others 
on the right criticize it for enabling and empowering English 
rather than Yiddish or Hebrew to be the language of contem- 
porary learning. 

The Schottenstein Talmud has allowed many who would 
have otherwise lacked the skill and talmudic virtuosity to par- 
ticipate in daf yomi (studying a page of Talmud a day) pro- 
grams. It has offered those learning in yeshivah the "English" 
experience of the Beit Midrash and has far outpaced the more 
sophisticated and erudite commentary of Adin * Steinsaltz in 
popularity and use. 

Scherman s main project in 2006 was the Rubin edition 
of the Prophets, of which the Books of Joshua, Judges, and 
Samuel have been published and the Book of Kings was due 
to go to press. 

For several years Scherman was a columnist for the For- 
ward and the Jewish Week, and taught Mishnah and the Ho- 
locaust in a telephone lecture series. 

[Michael Berenbaum (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHEUER, EDMUND (1847-1943), Canadian religious re- 
former and activist. Considered by many the "father of Re- 
form Judaism in Canada," Scheuer was born in Bernkastel in 
the Prussian Rhineland and received his education there and 
across the river in Metz, in France. At the age of 17, he moved 
to Paris, attracted, according to some accounts, by the greater 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



freedom accorded to Jews in France. There he entered the jew- 
elry export business, acting as agent for a Hamilton, Ontario, 
firm owned by his brother-in-law, Herman Levy In Paris, 
Scheuer was still a Sabbath observer, although he joined the 
Alliance Israelite Universelle, the organization founded for 
the purpose, inter alia, of spreading French culture among 
Jews outside France. 

When the Franco -Prussian War interrupted his business, 
Scheuer emigrated to Canada and joined his brother-in-law's 
firm. Within months of his arrival in Hamilton in 1871, he 
was named treasurer of Anshe Sholom Synagogue, one of the 
very few synagogues in Canada where Jews of German origin 
predominated, and which was open to the Reform Movement 
which had swept over similar congregations in the United 
States. The next year Scheuer organized a Sabbath school, the 
first in Ontario, which he led until he moved to Toronto in 
1886. From 1876 to 1886, he served as president of the congre- 
gation, which he nudged steadily in the direction of Reform. 
He also organized a chapter of the Alliance Israelite Univer- 
selle, the only one ever established in Canada. His activities 
in Hamilton illustrate two of Scheuer s interrelated passions 
with regard to Jewish life: Jewish education and the accultura- 
tion of immigrants. 

In Toronto, Scheuer joined Holy Blossom, the still tradi- 
tional synagogue of the established, acculturating Jews; there, 
too, he became the most forceful advocate of "American" Re- 
form. And there, too, he organized a Sabbath school, perhaps 
the first "modern" Jewish school in the city. He served the 
synagogue in a variety of offices, including, in 1896, treasurer 
of the building committee for the new temple on Bond Street. 
In 1939, when the move to suburban Forest Hill was made, 
Scheuer, the only surviving member of the earlier campaign, 
was made honorary chair of the building committee. 

But Scheuer s activities in Toronto ranged far beyond the 
temples precincts. He was one of the organizers of the Federa- 
tion of Jewish Philanthropies and served as its first president 
from 1917 to 1921. This, too, was an "Americanizing" move, 
following the lead of communities in the United States which 
were amalgamating and professionalizing their charitable ef- 
forts in these years. Scheuer also led the Zionist Free School 
for Girls, which met at an Orthodox synagogue, and worked 
to counter the influence of missionaries and socialists among 
Jewish young people. 

In Toronto, Scheuer pursued the goal of acculturation 
in several ways. As school principal, he shaped the curricu- 
lum to emphasize ethics rather than Jewish particularity. For 
40 years, he served as president of the Toronto chapter of the 
Anglo-Jewish Association, the British equivalent of the Alli- 
ance Israelite Universelle and a more suitable vehicle for Jew- 
ish acculturation in English Canada. For decades, he served 
as a justice of the peace, and he belonged to the Empire and 
Canadian clubs and the Toronto Board of Trade. In the 1930s, 
as fascist and Nazi sympathizers grew in numbers in Canada, 
Scheuer typically urged fellow Jews "to remain calm." Days 
before a violent riot in Toronto in 1933, he assured them that 

"Canadian laws - thank God - are just, our police excellent 
and well able to protect any class of citizens being molested 
by hoodlums." He was proved wrong, as the police stood by 
and allowed the violence to proceed. 

The rising tide of antisemitism in Canada in the 1930s 
caused Scheuer to alter course somewhat. He became active in 
the Canadian Jewish Congress reorganized in 1933 to fight an- 
tisemitism and served as an honorary vice president from 1934 
to 1939. He ceased writing letters to newspapers in defense of 
Jews and Judaism, once a civic task to which he devoted much 
time and energy. Now he preferred "background" meetings 
with editors and publishers as less likely to inflame. 

Scheuer s life stretched almost a century from the liberal 
revolutions of 1848 through most of World War 11, and it is 
no surprise that he had to adjust some of his early assump- 
tions. But he remained to the end of his life both an advocate 
of modernization and acculturation in Jewish life and a dedi- 
cated and proud Jew. He could at the same time be "the father 
of Reform Judaism in Canada," at a time when Reform was not 
popular among Canadian Jews, and still the "grand old man 
of [all of] Toronto Jewry." 

[Michael Brown (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHEUER, JAMES H. (1920-2005), a 13-term liberal U.S. 
congressman from New York, part of the post- World War 11 
generation of political reformers. The son of a prosperous 
New York investor, he was born in Manhattan and received his 
bachelor's degree from Swarthmore College in 1942, a master's 
degree from Harvard Business School in 1943, and a law de- 
gree from Columbia Law School in 1948. He contracted po- 
lio on his honeymoon and spent a year recuperating in Warm 
Springs, Georgia, where Franklin Delano Roosevelt had also 
undergone rehabilitation from adult polio. For the rest of his 
life, Scheuer walked with a cane. 

A multimillionaire real estate developer and lawyer, 
Scheuer was president of the Renewal and Development Cor- 
poration of New York City before seeking elected office. He 
sponsored urban renewal projects and middle-income hous- 
ing developments in cities including Washington, Cleveland, 
St. Louis, Sacramento, and San Francisco. 

Scheuer made political waves in the 1964 election when 
he and another reform Democrat, Jonathan B. Bingham, 
ousted incumbent congressmen who were part of the Bronx 
political machine, James C. Healey and Charles A. Buckley. 

It seemed as if, with each decade's census and New York's 
diminished population, Scheuer was forced to run in another 
district and to serve another constituency. He lost re-elec- 
tion in 1972 after serving four terms in the 21 st Congressional 
District, in the Bronx, when redistricting forced him to run 
against another incumbent congressman. He moved to the 11 th 
district in Queens, where he won the 1974 election and three 
more, and then, in 1982, finally the redistricted 8 th District, 
which covered part of Queens and Nassau County, where he 
served his final five terms. He announced his retirement after 
the 1990 census forced another redistricting. In each district, 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


his agenda remained the same. He fought for the Environ- 
mental Protection Agency against Reagan administration at- 
tempts to dismantle it, and he fought the auto industry, which 
opposed his efforts to mandate safety belts and air bags. He 
was successful in both. Twice defeated for Congress, he kept 
coming back again and again. An urban and urbane man, he 
served as president of the National Alliance for Safer Cities 
(1972-73) and president of the National Housing Conference 


An unapologetic, some would say an unrepentant, lib- 
eral, Scheuer believed in an activist role for government. His 
legislative agenda included Head Start for early education, en- 
vironmental protection, and automotive safety. 

He believed keenly in the right to privacy, which in 
American terms put him on the side of contraception and 
abortion, issues he believed were and should remain personal. 
In its obituary for Scheuer, the New York Times recalled that 
"He once had a hundred posters printed up that said, 'Some- 
day the decision to have children will be between you, your 
spouse and your congressman.' The photograph showed a 
couple sitting in their bed with Mr. Scheuer, dressed in a suit, 
sandwiched between them." 

After retirement from Congress he was appointed by 
President Clinton as United States director of the European 
Bank for Reconstruction and Development, founded to make 
loans to Eastern European and Asian countries and thus coun- 
ter Communist influence. Together with his siblings and a 
family foundation established by his parents, he was deeply 
involved in support of Jewish philanthropies and develop- 
ment in Israel. 

bibliography: New York Times (August 30, 2005); L.S. 
Maisels and I. Forman (eds.), Tlie Jew in American Politics (2001). 

[Michael Berenbaum (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHIBY, BARUCH (1906-ca. 1976), author and journalist of 
^Salonika. In 1927 Schiby founded the Zionist "Achdut" club 
in Salonika. When the Germans attacked Greece, he managed 
with friends to reach Athens in a small boat. As a student in 
Athens in World War 11, he was involved in eam resistance 
activities. In Athens, he received shelter from the Greek cabi- 
net minister Prof. Niko Louvaris, whose contacts also helped 
him greatly in resistance activities. He was part of a spe- 
cial committee of Jews from this Communist political resis- 
tance movement who persuaded Rabbi Eli Barzilai of Athens 
not to hand over the community lists to the new German 
commander, Jorgen Stroop, and to flee the community for 
the mountains. He also wrote about the pro- German activi- 
ties of Greek intellectuals for the Greek Academy, for which he 
received payment in order to survive during that difficult 
time. In late 1944, at the beginning of the Greek Civil War 
when England controlled the Greek government, he was ar- 
rested by the British and sent to the Al-Daba prison camp 
in *Egypt, and was chosen to represent the prisoners. He re- 
turned to Salonika and became director of the Jewish com- 

Known mainly for his quarterly Dhelfika tetradhia, Schiby 
was a prominent literary figure and a leading Zionist. His I 
fleghomeni vatos ("The Burning Bush," 1968) discussed the 
origins of the Jews and various aspects of Judaism. His book! 
Evrai ("The Jews"), published in 1971, depicted ancient Jewish 
history for his Greek countrymen. He wrote several articles on 
the history of the Jews of Salonika and the Samaritan presence 
in Salonika from late antiquity. In the 1960s, he developed re- 
lations with the Spanish Academy in its renewed contact with 
Sephardi philology, language, history, and culture. He also ed- 
ited a bilingual Greek- Ladino Haggadah for Pessah. 

add. bibliography: Y. Kerem, "Rescue Attempts of Jews in 
Greece in the Second World War" (Heb.), in: Peamim 27 (1986), 77-109; 
B. Rivlin, "Athens," in: Pinkas ha-Kehillot Yavan (1999), 67-86. 

[Rachel Dalven / Yitzchak Kerem (2 nd ed.)] 

Lithuanian rabbi and commentator on the Midrash. Schick 
lived in Slonim during the rabbinate of Isaac Shapira (called 
Eizel Harif) but held no rabbinical post there. He devoted 
himself almost entirely to the study of Midrash and aggadah 
and published a number of commentaries on them. 

These included Zera Avraham (1833), on the Midrash 
Proverbs; Mebrei Esh (1834), with a preface and extensive in- 
troduction, on the Tanna de-Vei Eliyahu; MaHazeh ha-Shir 
(1840), on Song of Songs Rabbah; Eshed ha-NeHalim, in five 
parts (1843-45), on the Midrash Rabbah; Ein Avraham (1848), 
on Ibn Habib's Ein Yaakov, and also dealing with the commen- 
tary to the aggadot of the Talmud by Samuel *Edels. Schick 
edited Ohel Yaakov, the parables to Genesis and Exodus of 
Jacob Krantz (the Dubner Maggid). 

bibliography: Fuenn, Keneset, 67; Pinkas Slonim, 1 (1962), 


[Itzhak Alfassi] 

SCHICK, BARUCH BEN JACOB (also known as Baruch 
Shklover, from the name of his birthplace, Shklov; i74o?-after 
1812), rabbi, physician, and one of the pioneers of *Haskalah 
of Eastern Europe. Schick was ordained as a rabbi in 1764 and 
subsequently served as dayyan in Minsk. In his youth he was 
already attracted to the Haskalah and general knowledge. His 
first scholarly work and his other works were lost in a confla- 
gration. He traveled to London to study medicine and there 
joined the Freemasons. After qualifying as a doctor he moved 
to Berlin, where he became acquainted with the maskilim of 
the town, including Moses ^Mendelssohn and Naphtali Herz 
*Wessely. In 1777 Schick published in Berlin Isaac "Israeli's 
astronomical work Yesod Olam from a defective manuscript 
in the possession of Hirschel b. Aryeh Lob *Levin, and that 
same year published his Ammudei Shamayim, a scientific 
commentary to Maimonides' Hilkhot Kiddush ha-Hodesh, 
adding to it his Tiferet Adam, a popular work on anatomy. 
In 1778, on his way back to Minsk, he visited Vilna and was 
in the group associated with Elijah b. Solomon (the Gaon of 
Vilna), in whose name he published a statement on the need 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



for scientific knowledge for an understanding of the Torah. 
This strengthened Schick's standing in Jewish circles and in- 
fluenced not only his contemporaries but also subsequent 
generations. He stated that the Gaon of Vilna advised him to 
translate scientific works into Hebrew in order to make their 
contents available to Jews. In the Hague in 1779, he published 
his Derekh Yesharah, on medicine and hygiene, and in 1780 
he published from Latin a Hebrew translation of the first part 
of Euclid's geometry. In 1784 he was in Prague, where he pub- 
lished his Keneh ha-Middah, on geometry and trigonometry, 
which he translated from English (republished by him in 
Shklovin 1791, together with additional expositions to Maimo- 
nides' Hilkhot Kiddush ha-Hodesh). From Prague he returned 
to Minsk. After some time he settled in Shklov, and there he 
belonged to the maskilim whose needs were supplied by the 
wealthy Joshua *Zeitlin of Ustye near Shklov. Toward the end 
of his life he lived in Slutzk, where he served as day y an and 
as court physician to Count Radziwill, and where he died. 
Among the manuscripts he left were a book of medical cures 
and the translation of the second part of Euclid. Schick de- 
voted his energies to arousing his fellow Jews to the need for 
studying the arts and sciences. He regarded the neglect of the 
sciences as caused by the exile. He repeated the accusations of 
his predecessor, Israel Moses ha- Levi *Zamoscz, against the 
fanatical rabbis and leaders who persecuted and condemned 
the maskilim. To restore science to its former place of honor, 
he pleaded for a revival of Hebrew, in which scientific works 
intended for his people should be written. 

bibliography: Zeitlin, Bibliotheca; Zinberg, Sifrut, 3 (1958), 

325-8; Twersky, in: He-Avar, 4 (1956), 77-81; R. Mahler, Divrei Yemei 

Yisrael, 4 (1956), 53-56; B. Katz, Rabbanut, Hasidut, Haskalah, 2 (1958), 

1 34 _ 95 N. Schapira, in: Harofe Haivri, 34 (1961), 230-5; J. Katz, Jews 

and Freemasons (1970). 

[Abraham David] 

SCHICK, BELA (1877-1967), pediatrician. Born in Boglar, 
Hungary, Schick became an assistant at the Children's Clinic 
in Vienna and later associate professor of pediatrics at Vienna 
University. He left Austria for the U.S. and, in 1923, became 
pediatrician in chief at Mt. Sinai Hospital in New York, and 
in 1936 clinical professor of pediatrics at Columbia University. 
Schick was famous for his discovery of a skin test for deter- 
mining susceptibility to diphtheria, known as the Schick test. 
This test enabled early diagnosis and treatment and thus made 
it possible to save thousands of lives. He also made important 
studies on scarlet fever, tuberculosis, and the nutrition of in- 
fants. He described a symptom for tuberculosis of the bron- 
chial glands, known as the Schick sign. His publications in- 
clude The Serum Diseases (with C. Pirquet, 1905), Scarlet Fever 
(with Th. Escherich, 1912), and Diphtheria (1931). 

bibliography: S.R. Kagan, Jewish Medicine (1952), 367. 

[Suessmann Muntner] 

°SCHICK, CONRAD (1822-1901), German resident of Jeru- 
salem, missionary, architect, surveyor, archaeologist, and 

model- builder. Born in Bitz (near Abingen, Wurttemberg) 
Schick was educated as a locksmith-apprentice in Kornthal 
(near Stuttgart), where he was exposed to the religious atmo- 
sphere of pietistic Wuerttemberg. In Basel, he joined Chris- 
tian Friedrich Spittler's "Pilgrim's Mission" in St. Chrischona. 
In late summer of 1846 Schick arrived in Jerusalem as one of 
the first two missionaries sent by Spittler and established the 
"Bruederhaus" as their missionary center. He left Spittler in 
1850 and joined the "London Society for Promoting Christi- 
anity among Jews" (London Jews' Society - ljs) as a carpentry 
teacher in the "House of Industry" educational institution in 
Jerusalem. In 1857 he became director of the school, serving 
until 1880. He was also responsible for all ljs assets in Jeru- 
salem and its "house architect and builder." He lived in Jeru- 
salem for 55 years, until his death. 

Schick was undoubtedly the most significant and influ- 
ential scholar among the residents of Jerusalem in the sec- 
ond half of the 19 th century, a devoted lover of the city, gifted 
with a unique "talent for Jerusalem," which derived from his 
deep-rooted loyalty to the city, the Holy Land, and everything 
they represent to the devout Christian. In addition, he left his 
traces on the country's landscape: the monumental buildings 
he planned and constructed in Jerusalem. Schick engaged in 
a variety of topics. He is mentioned in most of the research on 
i9 th -century Jerusalem, European and German colonization 
and settlement in Palestine, the history of Palestine's cartog- 
raphy and archaeology, i9 th -century architecture in Jerusalem, 
and models and relief maps of the city and its monuments. 

He took advantage of his ongoing presence, his familiar- 
ity with the city and the whole country, and his command of 
the local as well as European languages. He was involved in 
almost every study conducted in Jerusalem at the time. His 
importance reached its peak following the beginning of the 
organized study of Palestine, marked by the foundation of the 
pef and, 12 years later, the German dp v. Schick was for both 
organizations the best "man in the field," the ideal "research 
agent." His reports and papers hold an unprecedented treasure 
of information concerning almost all periods in the history of 
Jerusalem as well as the present city. Modern researchers, in 
archaeology as well as history and historical geography, con- 
tinue to make use of the data in Schick's studies. 

He reached his scientific position through diligent work, 
boundless inquisitiveness, a long process of independent 
study, and a deep feeling for the country and the city, their his- 
tory and religious traditions. Schick was an autodidact, com- 
bining the describer and reporter, the surveyor, researcher and 
discoverer. In four decades of scientific work, he published two 
books, a number of guides to various sites in Jerusalem, and 
hundreds of articles, reports, maps, and drawings. He partici- 
pated, in one way or another, in almost all the research con- 
ducted in Jerusalem during the last third of the 19 th century. 

His works concerning the Herodium (Frankenberg), 
Solomon's Pools, the water aqueducts to Jerusalem, the Si- 
loam inscription, and the subterranean cisterns of the Temple 
Mount are only some examples of his archaeological involve- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


ment and achievements. He was involved in the planning, 
and sometimes also in the building, of Talitha Kumi, both 
"Jesus -Hilfe" hospitals for lepers, the ljs sanatorium and the 
Diaconesses' hospital on Prophets Street, his own residence 
("Tabor House") and the "Mahanaim House," the Jewish 
neighborhood Me'ah She'arim, the Ethiopian Church, and 
many other monumental buildings. In many of them, he co- 
operated with Theodor Sandel, an architect who belonged to 
the Temple Society. 

Being one of the heads of the German community in 
Jerusalem, Schick participated in every local committee. He 
was a member of a long list of scientific societies. He was deco- 
rated by the Austrians and the Germans, and received the title 
of "royal building consultant" from the King of Wurttemberg 
and an honorary doctorate from the University of Tubingen. 

bibliography: A. Carmel, "Wie es zu Conrad Schicks Send- 
ung nach Jerusalem kam," in: zdpv, 99 (1983), 204-18; H. Goren, G. 
Barkai, and E. Schiller (eds.), Conrad Schick: For Jerusalem, Jeru- 
salem (Heb., 1998); H. Goren and R. Rubin, "Conrad Schicks Mod- 
els of Jerusalem and its Monuments," in: peq, 128 (1996), 102-24; E. 
Kautzsch, "Zum Gedachtniss des koeniglich wuerttembergischen 
Bauraths Dr. Conrad Schick," in: Mittheilungen und Nachrichten des 
Deutschen Palastina Vereins, 8 (1902), 1-12; T. Sandel, "Der Koenigl. 
Wuerttemb. Baurat Dr. C. Schick," in: Warte, 58 (1902), 117-18; C. 
Schick, Wie aus einem einfachen Mechaniker im Schwabenland ein 
koeniglicher Baurat in Jerusalem geworden ist, ed. H. Grobe-Einsler 
(1966); C Schlicht, "Baurat Dr. Conrad Schick," in: Neueste Nachrich- 
ten aus dem Morgenlande, 46 (1902), 3-8; A. Strobel, Conrad Schick - 
Ein Leben fuer Jerusalem: Zeugnisse ueher einen erkannten Auftrag 
(1988); S. Gibson, "Conrad Schick (1822-1901), The Palestine Explo- 
ration Fund and an 'Archaic Hebrew' Inscription from Jerusalem," 
in: peq, 132 (2000), 113-22; C.W. Wilson, "Obituary of Dr. Conrad 
Schick," in: pefqs, 34 (1902), 139-42. 

[Haim Goren (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHICK, MOSES BEN JOSEPH (1807-1879), Hungarian 
rabbi and posek, also known as "Maharam Schick." Accord- 
ing to one tradition the name was chosen by the family fol- 
lowing the law passed by the Austrian government making it 
obligatory for Jews to adopt surnames, and it was chosen as 
forming the initial letters of Shem Yisrael Kadosh ("the Jewish 
name is sacred"). Schick was born in Brezove in the Neutra 
(Nitra) district of Slovakia. He was orphaned when a child, 
and at the age of 11 went to study at the yeshivah of his un- 
cle Isaac Frankel in Frauenkirchen. After three years he pro- 
ceeded to the yeshivah of Moses *Sofer in Pressburg, where he 
remained for six years. Sofer recommended him as a suitable 
incumbent for the vacant post at Vergin near Pressburg, and 
he served there about 24 years. In 1861 he agreed to accept the 
rabbinate of Khust, where he established a yeshivah and re- 
mained until his death. Among his many pupils special men- 
tion may be made of Zussman Sofer of Paks, Zalman Spitzer 
of Vienna, and Wolf Sofer of Budapest, who are frequently 
mentioned in his responsa. 

Schick fought against the Reform movement. Following 
the Braunschweig conference (1844) and the resolutions ad- 

opted there, he wrote in a responsum (yd 331) that the men 
assembled "are not rabbis but Karaites. They don the cloaks 
of rabbis in order to deceive and to act like the serpent. Some 
are not qualified in halakhah or as rabbis, but have become 
rabbis overnight." He protested especially against the resolu- 
tion permitting mixed marriages. His call for a united front 
of Orthodox Jewry against the Reform movement was not 
accepted at that time. Following the publication in Hungary 
in 1867 of the law granting autonomy to the Jews and the de- 
mand of the Reformers to convene a congress to discuss the 
organization of the communities and education, Schick gave 
his full support to the plan to found an independent commu- 
nal organization. In the Budapest congress of 1869, he fought 
for complete separation from the Reformers. In a lengthy re- 
sponsum (oh 309) he details all the plans and proposals of 
the Reformers in order to justify his decision. Following the 
majority decision of the Austrian parliament in favor of the 
claims of the Orthodox community, the Landes- Organisations 
Statuten were formulated that were later confirmed in 1871. 
Schick, in a responsum of 1872, encouraged the acceptance 
of these statutes and opposed the principle of preserving the 
status quo (oh 307, 310). When the controversy broke out be- 
tween Samson Raphael *Hirsch of Frankfurt and Seligmann 
Baer ^Bamberger of Wuerzburg on whether to cooperate with 
the Reformers or form separatist congregations, Bamberger 
ruling that it was permitted to form one community with 
them, Schick protested in his responsum (oh 306), and un- 
der his influence Bamberger's view was rejected and Hirsch's 
opinion in favor of separation accepted. 

Despite all his vigorous opposition to Reform, Schick 
took a moderate stand in certain matters. Thus he resisted 
the demand of the Orthodox rabbis for a prohibition against 
preaching in the vernacular, stating that "in the case of a God- 
fearing man, who we are certain is a talmudic scholar, and who 
preaches in the vernacular, and whose sole intention is to ex- 
tend the border of our holy To rah ... I find no reason to forbid 
him where the Congregation only wishes to listen in the ver- 
nacular, or if he does not do so they will appoint another who 
is unfit" (oh 70), and he refused to sign the takkanah of the 
rabbis which was adopted at the instigation of the extremist 
Hillel Lichtenstein, "that it is forbidden to preach or to listen 
to a sermon in a non- Jewish tongue." His love for the old yi- 
shuv in Erez Israel is reflected in his polemic against Graetz s 
pamphlet Mikhtav Zikkaron ("Memorial Letter") which ca- 
lumniated the organization of the old yishuv and protested 
especially against *halukkah y the lack of schools, and the pau- 
city of secular knowledge. 

Schick was a prolific respondent. Almost 1,000 of his re- 
sponsa are extant: 345 on Orah Hayyim (Munkacz, 1880), 410 
on Yoreh Deah (1881), 155 on Even ha-Ezer (Lemberg, 1884), 
and 62 on Hoshen Mishpat (ibid.). A new edition in two vol- 
umes was published in New York in 1961. He also published 
glosses to the Mitzvot ha-Shem (Pressburg, 1846) of Baruch b. 
Zevi Hirsch Heilprin and expositions and novellae on the 613 
commandments, in two parts (Munkacz, 1895-98). The work 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



on the 613 precepts was originally larger, but when Joseph 
*Babad's Minhat Hinnukh (1869) was published first, Schick 
was distressed, saying that the latter had anticipated half his 
work, and as a result he abbreviated it. Also published were 
aggadic novellae on Avot (Paks, 1890); Maharam Schick, on the 
Pentateuch (Munkacz, 1905), and on Hullin (Satmar, undated); 
and Derashot (new edition 1968), including discourses given 
by him during the years 1839-72. His son, Joseph, published 
his fathers works (oh 264) and wrote a short introduction to 
the Yoreh Deah section of the responsa. Schick's son-in-law 
was Jacob Prager (oh 184; eh 99, 136), whose novellae are 
quoted at the beginning of Schick's responsa to Yoreh Deah. 

bibliography: S.Z. Schick, Mi-Moshe ad Moshe (1903), 23 f.; 
P.Z. Schwarz, Shem ha-Gedolim me-Erez Hagar, 2 (1914), 12a no. 180; 3 
(1915), 44f., nos. 21-24; M.Z. Prager, Maharam Schick alAvot (1929), 
contains Toledot Maharam Schick: J.J. (L.) Greenwald (Grunwald), 
Li-Felagot Yisrael be-Ungarya (1929), 91-95; idem, Le-Toledot ha- 
Reformazyon ha-Datit be-Germanya u-ve-Ungarya... (1948); H.Y.T.L. 
Braun, Darkhei Moshe he-Hadash (1942); E.F. Feldmann (ed.), Sheelot 
u-Teshuvot Maharam Schick, oh (1961), introd.; M.M. Pollak (ed.), 
Derashot Maharam Schick (1968), introd., 5-23. 

[Yehoshua Horowitz] 

°SCHICKARD, WILHELM (Schickhard, Schickart, Guil- 
lielmus Schick(h)ardus; 1592-1635), German ^Hebraist, Ori- 
entalist, mathematician, and astronomer. Born in Herrenberg, 
Wuerttemberg, Schickard initially studied theology and be- 
came a Lutheran pastor; but he then began to devote his at- 
tention to Oriental languages and the sciences. In 1619 he was 
appointed professor of Hebrew at the University of Tuebingen, 
where he broadened his knowledge of Semitics and published 
several works displaying his profound erudition in Hebrew 
and rabbinic studies. In 1631 Schickard was appointed to the 
chair of astronomy at Tuebingen, after which he wrote many 
scientific treatises, but also continued to lecture on Hebrew 
until his death of the plague at the age of 43. 

In the Horologium Hebraeum (Tuebingen, 1614), Schick- 
ard provided a highly intensified course in the Hebrew lan- 
guage, and the book was reprinted several times during the 
following decades. In another work, BeHinat ha-Perushim... 
hoc est examinis commentationum rabbinicarum in Mosen 
prodromus... (ibid., 1621), he condemned the practical Kab- 
balah, and went so far as to berate Johann *Reuchlin for tak- 
ing it seriously. Schickard, who corresponded with Johannes 
Buxtorf 11, also published Mishpat ha-Melekh: Jus regium He- 
braeorum (1625); the quaintly entitled Purim, sive Bacchanalia 
Judaeorum (1633); and Ecologae sacrae Veteris Testamenti He- 
braeo-Latinae (1633), in Latin and Hebrew, which contained 
extracts from the Bible, the Targum, and the Mishnah. His Ar- 
bor Derivationis Hebraeae, issued by his son, appeared posthu- 
mously in 1698 and his Nova etplenior Grammatica Hebraica 
in Tuebingen in 1731. 

bibliography: Speidel, in: W. Schickard, Horologium He- 
braeum (1731 ed.). introd.; Steinschneider, Cat Bod, 2564, no. 7130; 
adb, 31 (1890), 174 f.; F. Secret, Les Kabbalistes Chretiens de la Re- 
naissance (1964), 330. add. bibliography: Ch.F. von Schnurrer, 

Biographische und litterarische Nachrichten von ehemaligen Lehrern 
der hebraeischen Litteratur in Tubingen (1792), 160-225; F. Seek (ed.), 
Wilhelm Schickard... (1978); idem (ed.), Zum 400. Geburtstag von 
Wilhelm Schickard (1995). 

[Godfrey Edmond Silverman / Aya Elyada (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHIDLOWSKY, LEON (1931- ), Israeli composer. Born in 
Santiago, Chile, Schidlowsky first studied piano and later har- 
mony and composition at the National Conservatory of Music 
in Santiago. He continued his studies in Germany (1952-55). 
Returning to Chile, he was active in promoting contempo- 
rary music and in 1967 became professor of composition at 
the University of Chile. He immigrated to Israel in 1969 and 
was appointed professor of composition at the Rubin Academy 
of Music at Tel Aviv University. Schidlowsky was in charge of 
musical education at the Hebrew Institute in Santiago, and 
a number of his works dating from that time express the re- 
cent sufferings of the Jewish people - Kristallnacht Symphony, 
Lamentation, Memento, Kaddish, and others. In Israel he wrote 
Babi Yar, for piano, percussion, and strings (1970); Serenata, 
for chamber orchestra (1970); and Rabbi Akiva, for soloists, 
choir, and orchestra (1972). His work Dadayamasong, a dra- 
matic scene for voice, clarinet, alto saxophone, cello, piano, 
and percussion, received a prize at the unesco International 
Composer s Rostrum (1976). He wrote in a variety of styles, 
from atonality to aleatory and graphic compositions, and was 
one of the most dedicated and consistent representatives of 
the innovative avant-garde in Israel. 

add. bibgliography: ng 2 ; A. Tischler,A Descriptive Bibli- 
ography of Art Music by Israeli Composers (1989), 203-18. 

[Uri (Erich) Toeplitz and Yohanan Boehm / 

Jehoash Hirshberg (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHIFF, ADAM (i960- ), U.S. lawyer, congressman. Schiff 
represents California's 29 th Congressional District, including 
the communities of Alhambra, Altadena, Burbank, Glendale, 
Griffith Park, Monterey Park, Pasadena, San Gabriel, South 
Pasadena, and Temple City. Born in Framingham, Massa- 
chusetts, he is a graduate of Stanford (1982) and Harvard Law 
School (1985). Schiff served with the U.S. Attorneys Office in 
Los Angeles for six years (1987-93), most notably prosecuting 
the first fbi agent ever to be indicted for espionage. He ran for 
the State Assembly three times and lost to James Rogan twice. 
First elected to the State Senate in 1996, he was its youngest 
member. He chaired its Judiciary Committee and the Joint 
Committee on the Arts. He spearheaded legislative efforts to 
guarantee up-to-date textbooks in the classroom, overhaul 
child support, and pass a patient's bill of rights. He also taught 
political science at a local community college. 

In 2000 he ran for Congress, defeating incumbent James 
Rogan, who had served on the House Judiciary Committee 
and pushed the impeachment of President Bill Clinton. Much 
of his initial support came from a backlash against Rogan. At 
the time, it was the most expensive race in history and one of 
the very few in which the impeachment was the issue. Hol- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


lywood mogul David *Geffen raised millions of dollars to 
defeat Rogan. 

Schiff was a member of the House Judiciary Committee 
and the House International Relations Committee. He contin- 
ued his interest in education. He was a self-described moder- 
ate and joined the "Blue Dog Democrats." He served on the 
Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism and Homeland 
Security and the Subcommittee on the Constitution. As con- 
gressman he introduced the Deadly Biological Agent Con- 
trol Act to bolster the security at labs that stock agents such 
as anthrax, and the Sky Police Act to increase air security by 
training local police to serve as air marshals. He also intro- 
duced the Air Cargo Security Act to ensure that all air cargo 
on passenger planes be screened for explosives. 

In March 2003, Schiff joined Reps. David Scott and Steve 
Israel in forming the Democratic Study Group on National 
Security in an effort to educate, inform, and develop policy 
on emerging national security issues. The group has hosted a 
wide range of speakers on topics such as international terror- 
ism, defense, military transformation, shifting alliances, Iraq, 
homeland security, non-proliferation, Iran, Korea, the United 
Nations, and missile defense. 

He also introduced the Rim of the Valley Corridor Study 
Act to enlist the National Park Service in protecting open 
space in Southern California. A member of the bipartisan 
House Education Caucus comprised of former educators, 
Congressman Schiff fought to expand opportunities for stu- 
dents. He introduced the Access to Higher Education Act to 
increase federal aid to students in public colleges, was instru- 
mental in crafting legislation to create federal merit grants for 
students who excel in math and science, and cosponsored leg- 
islation to refocus national education policy on helping states 
and local school districts raise academic achievement levels. 
Schiff also supported federal assistance for class-size reduc- 
tion, music and art education, and after-school programs. 

bibliography: L.S. Maiseland I. Forman, Jews in American 
Politics (2001); M. Barone and R.E. Cohen, The Almanac of Ameri- 
can Politics (2005). 

[Michael Berenbaum (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHIFF, ANDRAS (1953- ), pianist. Born in Budapest, he 
started piano lessons with Elisabeth Vadasz and made his 
debut at the age of nine. He continued his musical studies at 
the Franz Liszt Academy, and later in London with George 
Malcolm. After winning prizes at the Tchaikovsky Competi- 
tion in Moscow (1974) and at the Leeds International Com- 
petition (1975), Schiff embarked upon an international ca- 
reer. He gained recognition for his insightful and intellectual 
interpretations of the music of Bach. Recitals and special 
cycles of Bach, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Cho- 
pin, Schumann, and Bartok formed an important part of his 
activities, and he moved easily between solo recitals, concer- 
tos, ensemble playing, and the use of singers (notably Peter 
Schreier) and instrumentalists. He increasingly conducted 
performances of concertos from the keyboard. Schiff was 

the founder and the artistic director from 1989 to 1998 of 
the annual Musiktage Mondsee. In 1999 he created his own 
chamber orchestra, the Cappella Andrea Barca. His Haydn 
festival in the Wigmore Hall won the Royal Philharmonic So- 
ciety/Charles Heidsieck Award for the best concert series of 
1988-89, and in 1989 he was awarded the Wiener Flotenuhr, 
the Mozart Prize of the City of Vienna. He was also awarded 
the Bartok Prize (1991); the Claudio Arrau Memorial Medal 
from the Robert Schumann Society (1994); the Kossuth Prize, 
the highest Hungarian honor (1996); and the Musikfest-Preis 
Bremen (for outstanding international artistic achievement) 
in 2003. In 2001 he became a British citizen. Among his pub- 
lications are "Schubert's Piano Sonatas: Thoughts about In- 
terpretation and Performance," in Schubert Studies (1998), 

bibliography: Grove online; Baker s Biographical Dictionary 

(1997); C. Montparker. "The Insights and Intellect of Andras Schiff," 

in: Clavier, 34, no. 8 (1995), 6-11. 

[Naama Ramot (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHIFF, DAVID TEVELE (d. 1792), rabbi of the Great Syn- 
agogue, London, from 1765 until his death. He was born in 
Frankfurt and served as Maggid ("preacher") in Vienna, head 
of the betha-midrash in Worms, and dayyan in Frankfurt. His 
rabbinate in London was marked by the continued growth 
of the Ashkenazi population (symbolized by the enlarge- 
ment of the Great Synagogue in 1766), and by the progressive 
(though sometimes reluctant) recognition of the rabbi of the 
Great Synagogue as head of all English Ashkenazim. When 
the Hambro' Synagogue appointed Meshullam Zalman (Israel 
Solomon), grandson of Jacob *Emden, as their rabbi, most 
provincial Ashkenazim still recognized the authority of Schiff, 
but in * Portsmouth there was a bitter split on the issue. After 
Meshullam Zalman left London in 1780, Schiff acted for the 
Hambro' Synagogue also and the rift ended. Overworked and 
underpaid, he tried unsuccessfully to obtain appointments at 
Rotterdam and Wuerzburg. Schiff s responsa Leshon Zahav 
were published posthumously by his son (Offenbach, 1822). 
Several of his sermons are still extant, but his letters to Lord 
George ^Gordon, refusing to receive him into the synagogue, 
have not been preserved. 

bibliography: V.D. Lipman, Social History of the Jews in 

England, 1850-1950 (1954), 38-39; C. Roth, The Great Synagogue, 

London, 1690-1940 (1950), 29, 125 ff.; C. Duschinsky, Rabbinate of the 

Great Synagogue (1921), index. 

[Vivian David Lipman] 

SCHIFF, DOROTHY (1903-1989), U.S. newspaper publisher. 
Born in New York City, she was daughter of Jacob *Schiff. 
Early interest in civic affairs led her to join the Ellis Island In- 
vestigating Commission and the Women's Trade Union League 
of New York. She became a director of the Henry Street Settle- 
ment and of Mount Sinai Hospital, and in 1937 was appointed 
by Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia to the New York City Board of 
Child Welfare. Her association with the liberal New York Post 
began in 1939. In 1942 she became president and publisher, 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



and later editor in chief. She was the first woman newspaper 
publisher in New York. Under her direction, the paper grew 
in circulation and revenue. When, in the 1960s, many metro- 
politan newspapers in the U.S. were forced to suspend pub- 
lication, the New York Post continued to thrive. Eventually it 
became the only evening newspaper in New York City. In 1976 
she sold the Post to publisher Rupert Murdoch but remained a 
consultant to the paper until 1981. Schiffwas married to pub- 
lisher George Backer, newspaper editor Theodore O. Thack- 
rey, and Zionist leader Rudolph *Sonneborn. 

bibliography: Current Biography, 26 (Jan. 1965), 27-29. 

add. bibliography: J. Potter, Men, Money and Magic: The Story 

of Dorothy Schiff (1977) . 

[Lawrence H. Feigenbaum] 

SCHIFF, HUGO (1834-1915), Italian organic chemist. Born in 
Frankfurt, Schiffwas the brother of physiologist Moritz Schiff. 
He left Germany for political reasons. He was at University of 
Berne, Switzerland, and then joined his brother in Florence, 
where he was a professor at the Istituto di Studi Superiori 
(1863-66). He later worked in Pisa and the University of Turin 
(1876-79) and then returned to his professorship in Florence 
(1879). Compounds obtained from an aldehyde or a ketone 
and a primary amine are still known as "Schiff bases." 

SCHIFF, JACOB HENRY (1847-1920), U.S. financier and 
philanthropist. Born in Frankfurt, Germany, he was the de- 
scendant of a distinguished rabbinical family (see *Schiff, 
Meir b. Jacob). He received a thorough secular and religious 
education at the local school of the Israelitische Religionsge- 
sellschaft, then followed his father, Moses, who was associ- 
ated with the Rothschild banking firm, into that occupation. 
At the age of 18 Schiff immigrated to the United States, en- 
tered a brokerage firm in New York, and became a partner in 
Budge, Schiff and Co. In 1875 he married the daughter of Sol- 
omon Loeb, head of the banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb and Co., 
and entered that firm. Schiff s remarkable financial abilities 
were recognized when he was named head of Kuhn, Loeb in 

Schiff s firm soon became one of the two most powerful 
private investment banking houses in the United States, par- 
ticipating actively in fostering the rapid industrialization of the 
U.S. economy during the late 19 th and early 20 th century. Such 
firms as Westinghouse Electric, U.S. Rubber, Armour, and 
American Telephone and Telegraph were financed to some 
extent through Kuhn, Loeb's efforts. In addition, Schiff served 
as director or adviser of numerous banks, insurance compa- 
nies, and other enterprises. His role in the consolidation and 
expansion of the American railroad network, the backbone 
of an industrialized society, was particularly influential. He 
gave his support to Edward H. Harriman in the reorganiza- 
tion of the Union Pacific Railroad and was a staunch associate 
of James J. Hill of the Great Northern Railway for many years. 
Huge sums were obtained by Kuhn, Loeb for the Pennsylvania, 
Baltimore and Ohio, and other railroad systems. 

Schiffwas prominently involved in floating loans to the 
government at home and to foreign nations, the most spec- 
tacular being a bond issue of $200,000,000 for Japan at the 
time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05. Deeply angered 
by the antisemitic policies of the czarist regime in Russia, he 
was delighted to support the Japanese war effort. He consis- 
tently refused to participate in loans on behalf of Russia and 
used his influence to prevent other firms from underwriting 
Russian loans, while providing financial support for Russian 
Jewish ^self-defense groups. Schiff carried this policy into 
World War 1, relenting only after the fall of czarism in 1917. 
At that time, he undertook to support the Kerensky govern- 
ment with a substantial loan. 

It was said of Schiff that "nothing Jewish was alien to 
his heart." Personally devout, proud of his family and re- 
ligious heritage, Schiff used his immense personal wealth 
and influence on behalf of his coreligionists everywhere. His 
widespread philanthropic activities and communal interests 
brought him recognition as the foremost figure of his time 
in American Jewry. Although affiliated with Temple Emanu- 
El and the Reform movement in the United States, Schiff re- 
tained many of the Orthodox habits of his youth. He was es- 
pecially active in the establishment and development of the 
Jewish Theological Seminary, viewing it as the fountainhead 
for a "reasonable Orthodoxy" attractive to the masses of newly 
arrived immigrants. Other institutions of Jewish learning, in- 
cluding Yeshivath Rabbi Isaac Elchanan (later Yeshiva College 
and University), as well as Hebrew Union College, received 
generous support from Schiff. Realizing the need for trained 
religious teachers, he provided funds for the establishment of 
Teachers' Institutes at the Jewish Theological Seminary and 
Hebrew Union College. When the New York Kehillah was or- 
ganized, Schiff made substantial contributions to its Bureau of 
Jewish Education and supported the Uptown Talmud Torah 
in New York and similar schools. 

Schiff had a deep interest in Jewish literature and con- 
tributed generously to the Jewish Publication Society. He 
provided funds for a new English translation of the Bible by 
Jewish scholars and established a fund for the translation 
and publication of a series of Hebrew classics. His donations 
aided the publication of the Jewish Encyclopedia; the acqui- 
sition by the Library of Congress and the Jewish Theologi- 
cal Seminary Library of major collections of rare books and 
manuscripts; and the establishment of the Jewish Division of 
the New York Public Library. His philanthropies were accom- 
panied in many cases by intense personal participation. For 
example, not only was he a major contributor to the Monte- 
fiore Hospital in New York, of which he was president for 35 
years, but he managed to visit there almost weekly. There were 
few Jewish institutions in New York or elsewhere, which did 
not benefit from Schiff s attention and funds. Such agencies 
as the Hebrew Free Loan Society, Educational Alliance, Home 
for Aged and Infirm Hebrews, ymh a, United Hebrew Chari- 
ties, Jewish Protectory and Aid Society, and Hebrew Technical 
School, were among those receiving his aid. He was a large- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


scale contributor to the relief of victims of Russian pogroms 
(1903-05), to the American Jewish Relief Committee during 
World War 1, and to postwar European Jewish relief. Schiff, 
who had access to American presidents, used his influence 
with them in urging U.S. support on behalf of Jews victim- 
ized in Eastern Europe. In 1906 he joined with other Jewish 
leaders in the formation of the American Jewish Commit- 
tee and subsequently took a very active part in its efforts to 
protect the rights of Jews abroad and in the United States. Of- 
fended by Russia's refusal to honor passports held by Ameri- 
can Jews, Schiff was prominent in the successful campaign to 
abrogate the Russo-American Treaty of 1832. During World 
War 1, Schiff and the established American Jewish leadership 
came under increasing fire from newer, Zionist-oriented Jew- 
ish groups. He had strongly opposed the Zionist movement, 
rejecting it as a secular, nationalistic perversion of the Jewish 
faith, incompatible with American citizenship. On the other 
hand, he did aid agricultural projects and the Haifa Technical 
Institute in Palestine. Recognizing changing world conditions, 
Schiff announced in 1917 his support of a cultural homeland 
in Palestine for the Jewish people. 

Proud of his Americanism, Schiff contributed gener- 
ously in time and money to a multitude of civic activities and 
philanthropies. He donated $1,000,000 to Barnard College; 
contributed funds to establish the Semitic Museum at Har- 
vard University as well as large sums to other universities; and 
supported the Henry Street Settlement, the American Red 
Cross, Tuskegee Institute, and countless others. He served on 
the New York City Board of Education, was vice president of 
the Chamber of Commerce, and participated in several special 
mayoral commissions. Although linked by family and cultural 
ties to Germany, Schiff patriotically supported the American 
war effort when the United States entered World War 1. 

bibliography: P. Arnsberg, Jakob H. Schiff (Ger., 1969), 
incl. bibl.; C. Adler, Jacob H. Schiff: His Life and Letters, 2 vols. (1928); 
dab, 16 (1935), 430-2; H. Simonhoff, Saga of American Jewry (1959), 
346-54; N.W. Cohen, in: jsos, 25 (1963), 3-41; Z. Szajkowski, ibid., 
29 (1967), 3-26; 75-91; T. Levitan, Jews in American Life (1969), 152-5. 
add. bibliography: N. Cohen, Jacob H. Schiff: A Study in Ameri- 
can Jewish Leadership (1999). 

[Morton Rosenstock] 

MaHaRaM; Morenu Ha-RavMeir Schiff; 1605-1641), talmud- 
ist and rabbinic author. Born in Frankfurt, where his father 
was a member of the bet din and a communal leader, Schiff 
was, in his early youth, considered a scholar of unusual ability. 
While still a boy, he turned to *Meir of Lublin with halakhic 
problems. At the age of 17, he was appointed rabbi of the im- 
portant community of Fulda, where he also headed a notable 
yeshivah. He wrote down the essence of his lectures, novel- 
lae, and comments, which extend over the whole Talmud, but 
most of it was destroyed by fire in 1711. There exists a tradi- 
tion that he was appointed rabbi of Prague in 1641. However, 
if the statement of his grandson is to be trusted, namely, that 

he lived only 36 years, he must have died immediately after his 
appointment. The novellae Maharam Schiffwere published in 
Homburg-vor-der Hoehe (on Bezah, Ket., Git., bm, and Hul., 
in 1737, and on Shab., bk, bb, Sanh., and Zev, in 1741). They 
were much sought after by students and were regarded as es- 
sential for the study of Talmud. Many editions were published, 
and they were also incorporated in the standard editions of 
the Talmud. A new annotated edition of his novellae on Git- 
tin was published by S. Schlesinger in 1963. 

Schiff avoids the casuistic manner that was prevalent in 
the yeshivot in his time and strives to arrive at an understand- 
ing of the text as its stands. For this reason, he also opposed 
suggestions that the traditional readings were faulty. In writ- 
ing of pilpuly he complains of "the ink that has been spilled 
and the pens broken to give pilpulisitc interpretations to pas- 
sages of the Talmud which I am able to explain according to 
this plain meaning." His books are distinguished by brevity 
and clarity of language. He takes special care to stress that he 
does not wish to give halakhic decisions, referring the reader 
on each occasion to the relevant halakhic literature. At the end 
of each tractate he gives an exposition connecting the tractate 
concluded with the one about to be studied at the yeshivah. In 
consequence, it is possible to determine the exact dates and 
order in which he taught. His novellae bear witness to his in- 
tellectual integrity. On more than one occasion he writes "I 
was mistaken," "There is no value in all I have written." He was 
acquainted with the works of his contemporaries, such as Sol- 
omon b. Jehiel *Luria, Samuel *Edels, and Meir of Lublin, and 
more than once disparages their views, belittling and scorn- 
ing them with such phrases as "this is fit for children," "empty 
words," "he extends himself over a few futile difficulties." Be- 
cause of the large interval between the writing and publication 
of his work, many errors crept in. Consequently many super- 
commentaries have been written, the most well known and 
the best being that of Mordecai Mardush of Poritsk, which is 
printed in the standard editions of the Talmud. 

The many sermons appended to his books reveal that 
Schiff was a strong personality who did not hesitate to rebuke 
his community about those matters of which he disapproved. 
He accuses many of the communal leaders of desecrating the 
Sabbath, of not studying the To rah, of failing to support schol- 
ars, and of other offenses. His style in preaching does not differ 
from that of his contemporaries. Here he does permit himself 
the use of pilpul, although he eschewed it in the study of the 
Talmud. He also wrote on kabbalistic themes. The Schiff fam- 
ily of bankers are among his descendants. 

bibliography: S.A. Horodezky, Le-Korot ha-Rabbanut (1910, 
repr. 1914), 191-200; J.J.(L.) Greenwald (Grunwald), Lifnei Shetei Mebt 
Shanah, Toledot ha-Rav Eleazar Kallir u-Zemanno (1952), 34; M. 
Horovitz, Frankfurter Rabbinen, 2 (1883), 35-40. 

[Itzhak Alfassi] 

SCHIFFMAN, LAWRENCE H. (1948- ), U.S. Judaic scholar. 
Born in New York and educated at Brandeis University (B.A., 
M. A. 1970, Ph.D. 1974), Schiffman taught at the University of 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



Minnesota (1971-72), Hebrew Union College -Jewish Institute 
of Religion, New York (1975-79, 1983, and 1986), and from 1972 
at New York University, where he was named Edelman Pro- 
fessor and chairman and director of undergraduate studies 
of the Skirball Department of Hebrew and Judaic Studies. He 
was a visiting professor at Yale, Ben-Gurion, Duke, Johns Hop- 
kins, Toronto, and other universities, and lectured widely at 
universities and other public forums. Schiffman was the pro- 
gram director of n yu s excavations at Tel Dor, in conjunction 
with The Hebrew University and the Israel Exploration Soci- 
ety (1980-83), and was a fellow of the Institute for Advanced 
Studies at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (1989-90). He 
served on the editorial board of the journal Dead Sea Discov- 
eries from 1994. He was a fellow of the Association for Jewish 
Studies, the American Academy for Jewish Research, the So- 
ciety for Biblical Literature (Qumran Section), and the Dead 
Sea Scrolls Foundation, among other scholarly and profes- 
sional associations. He was a member of the editorial board 
for the Oxford Dead Sea Scrolls publication project Discover- 
ies in thejudean Desert horn. 1991 until its completion in 2002 
and co-edited the Oxford Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls 
(with J.C. VanderKam, 2000). He was one of the organizers, 
and a director, of the Friedberg Genizah Project (1999-2002). 
He was the recipient of numerous grants for his work on the 
Dead Sea Scrolls and the Cairo Genizah texts. 

Schiffman is a leading scholarly authority on early post- 
biblical Judaism, with a particular interest in the Dead Sea 
Scrolls. He is known not only to the scholarly community but 
to the general public, having been featured in several television 
documentaries on the Qumran discoveries. Schiffman's major 
work, Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls (1994), argues that the 
Qumran community was founded by a schismatic Sadducean 
sect, rather than by a (proto- Christian) group of Essenes, and 
that not all the texts originated at Qumran. Among his other 
books are The Halakhah at Qumran (1975), Sectarian Law in 
the Dead Sea Scrolls: Courts, Testimony, and the Penal Code 
(1983), Who Was a Jew? Rabbinic and Halakhic Perspectives on 
the Jewish-Christian Schism (1985), From Text to Tradition: A 
History of Judaism in Second Temple and Rabbinic Times (with 
Michael Swartz, 1989), The Eschatological Community of the 
Dead Sea Scrolls: A Study of the Rule of the Congregation (1989), 
Hebrew and Aramaic Incantation Texts from the Cairo Genizah 
(1992), Halakhah, Halikhah U-Meshihiyyut bi-Megillot Mid- 
bar Yehudah (Law, Custom, and Messianism in the Dead Sea 
Scrolls , 1993), and Texts and Traditions: A Source Reader for 
the Study of Second Temple and Rabbinic Judaism (1998). He 
also edited a number of volumes of scholarly papers and essays 
and published many scholarly articles and reviews. 

[Drew Silver (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHIFRIN, LALO (Boris; 1932- ), composer, pianist, and 
conductor of Argentinian birth. He studied music, piano, and 
harmony in Buenos Aires and later in the Paris Conservatoire 
(1950), guided by Koechlin and Messiaen. Returning home, he 
established himself as a composer, arranger, conductor, and 

pianist who was equally at ease in popular, jazz, and art-music 
circles. He founded Argentina's first big band and later moved 
to New York (1958). There he played the piano in Dizzy Gil- 
lespie's jazz quintet (1960-62) and recorded with other known 
jazz artists. From 1962 to the early 1980s Schifrin concentrated 
on composition. He went to Hollywood (1964) and wrote nu- 
merous scores for both television and the cinema, including the 
memorable themes to Mission Impossible and Dirty Harry. 

His works often involve jazz, funk, and disco elements, as 
well as a synthesis of contemporary art-music elements. Schi- 
frin wrote many vocal and instrumental works in other fields, 
including concertos, suites, an oratorio (The Rise and Fall of 
the Third Reich, 1967), ballets and symphonic pieces. Among 
his later commissions was Fantasy for Screenplay and Orches- 
tra (2002-3). Schifrin taught composition at ucla (1968-71) 
but, from the 1980s onwards, concentrated on conducting, 
performing with leading orchestras such as the London Phil- 
harmonic and Symphony Orchestras, the Vienna so, the Los 
Angeles Philharmonic, and the Israel Philharmonic. He con- 
ducted several concerts of the "Three Tenors" and was ap- 
pointed music director of the Glendale so (1989-1995). During 
his illustrious career, Schifrin received four Grammy Awards 
and six Oscar nominations. Among his other honors were 
bmi Lifetime Achievement Award (1988), Distinguished Artist 
Award (1998), and honorary doctorates. He was honored by 
the Israeli government for his "Contributions to World Un- 
derstanding through Music" and by the sac em and Cannes 
Film Festival in recognition of his significant contribution to 
music, film and culture. 

bibliography: "Schifrin Wows Them in Israel with Music 
and Media Appearances (Tel Aviv Spring Festival)," in: Variety, 303 
(May 20, 1981), 97; V. Sheff, "Lalo Schifrin - Profile," in: bmi - Mu- 
sic World (Winter 1989), 52-5; J. Burlingame, "Lalo Schifrin: An Ap- 
preciation," in The Cue Sheet, Jan. 2001, 17:1 (Jan. 2001), 3-20; Grove 


[Naama Ramot (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHILD, EDWIN (1920- ), rabbi and community leader. 
Schild was born in Koeln-Muelheim (Cologne), Germany, 
and spent his teenage years under Nazi restrictions and per- 
secution. In 1938, while he was attending the Jewish Teacher's 
Seminary in Wuerzburg, Schild survived Kristallnacht, only 
to be picked up by the Nazis and incarcerated in the Dachau 
concentration camp. He was released on condition that he 
emigrate. Early in 1939 Schild was able to arrange passage 
through the Netherlands to continue his studies at Yeshiva 
Torath Emeth in London, England, where he remained un- 
til May 1940. As the threat of a German invasion of the U.K. 
loomed and fears grew of covert Nazi agents, Schild was 
caught up in the mass internments of "enemy aliens." He was 
one of more than 2,200 mostly Jewish German and Austrian 
refugees transfered to Canada and incarcerated in detention 
camps. Although Canadian authorities were soon aware that 
most of the internees were legitimate refugees, anti-Jewish 
sentiment within the government kept the refugees locked 
behind barbed wire. Schild was interned from July 1940 to 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


February 1942. He was able to continue his studies within the 
camps and, when released, completed his academic and rab- 
binical studies in Toronto. 

The senior rabbi of Toronto's Conservative Adath Israel 
Congregation from 1947 to 1989, Rabbi Schild, whose parents 
perished in the Shoah, devoted his career to promoting cross- 
cultural and interfaith relations. He chaired the Canadian Di- 
vision of the Rabbinical Assembly of America and the Canada- 
Israel Committee, Ontario Region, and was an active board 
member of the Christian- Jewish Dialogue and honored with 
the Human Relations Award from the Canadian Council of 
Christians and Jews. In retirement he remained active as rabbi 
emeritus and embarked on yearly lecture tours of Germany, 
where he continued his interfaith efforts. In 2001 Rabbi Schild 
became a Member of the Order of Canada. He wrote The Very 
Narrow Bridge. A Memoir of an Uncertain Passage (2001). 

[Paula Draper (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHILDER, PAUL FERDINAND (1886-1940), Austrian 
psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. Schilder was born in Vienna 
and studied medicine. His involvement with philosophic 
problems brought him to psychiatry; the year of his gradua- 
tion he published three papers on neuropathological subjects. 
In 1914 his study of symbolism in schizophrenia intensified 
his earlier interest in Freud's work. Schilder combined con- 
cepts of the somatopsychic with Freud's idea of body ego and 
thus arrived at his own formulation of the body image. Along 
with his increasing interest in psychological and psychoana- 
lytic problems, Schilder retained his deep interest in neuro- 
pathology, especially in early perception. The interrelation of 
the organic and psychological was to characterize Schilder's 
work for the rest of his life. 

He published Selbstbewusstsein und Persoenlichkeitsbe- 
wusstsein (1914), in which he applied the principles of Ed- 
mund *Husserl's phenomenology to the psychiatric problem 
of depersonalization. After serving in World War 1 Schilder 
returned to Vienna to join the staffof Julius von Wagner- Jau- 
regg's psychiatric clinic. He was invited to become a member 
of the Vienna Psychoanalytic Society, and in 1920 he deliv- 
ered his first paper, "Identification," before the society. While 
at the clinic he wrote on the psychogenic aspects of organic 
conditions of the brain and published Seele und Leben (1923); 
Medizinische Psychologie (1923; Medical Psychology, 1953); and 
Entwurfzu einer Psychiatrie aufpsychoanalytischer Grundlage 
(1925; Introduction to a Psychoanalytic Psychiatry, 1952). 

In 1928 Schilder accepted the invitation of Adolf Meyer 
to go to the Johns Hopkins University Medical School. He was 
appointed clinical director of psychiatry at Bellevue Hospital 
and research professor of psychiatry at New York University 
College of Medicine in 1930. Schilder's later publications in- 
clude Brain and Personality (1951) and The Image and Appear- 
ance of the Human Body (1935). He continued his teaching 
and research with various coworkers, especially with Lauretta 
Bender, whom he married in 1937. He pioneered psychoan- 
alytic group therapy and finally became interested in child 

psychology, in which field he was critical of many aspects of 
Freud's conclusions. 

bibliography: I. Ziferstein, in: F. Alexander et al. (eds.), 

Psychoanalytic Pioneers (1966), 457-68; O.F. Norton, Psychoanalytic 

Theory of Neurosis (1945), 650-2. 

[Louis Miller] 

SCHILDKRAUT, RUDOLPH (1862-1930), German actor; 
a star of the European and American theater. Born in Istan- 
bul, Schildkraut grew up in Romania, and studied in Vienna. 
He subsequently acted in Vienna, Hamburg, and Berlin and 
won acclaim on the German stage with his portrayal of Shy- 
lock, which remained one of his great roles. Another of his 
notable characterizations was Jankel Shabshowitz in Sholem 
*Asch's God of Vengeance (1918). For five years he played at 
the Deutsches Schauspielhaus and then at Max *Reinhardt's 
theater. Going for a few years to America in 1911, he appeared 
for a season in the Yiddish theater, after which he resumed 
playing in German and English. The Yiddish plays in which 
he starred ranged from Kreutzer Sonata, based on Tolstoy, to 
*Shomer's Eikele Mazik. Back in Germany, he performed in 
movies such as Der Shylock von Krakau (1913), Daemon und 
Mensch (1915), and Schlemihl (1915), in which he acted along- 
side his son, Joseph, in the latter's debut. After the family im- 
migrated to America, he appeared in films such as His People 
(1925), The King of Kings (1927), A Ship Comes In (1928), and 
Christina (1929). 

His son, Joseph schildkraut (1896-1964), grew up 
in Vienna, spent three years (1910-13) at the Academy of 
Dramatic Arts in New York during a tour his family made 
in America, but made his stage debut in Berlin under Max 
Reinhardt, in 1913. Returning to the United States he acted in 
Liliom (1921-23) and Peer Gynt (1923) for Theater Guild, then 
went to Hollywood and into a film career. He starred in many 
pictures and for a time managed the Hollywood Playhouse. 
Among his many roles, he appeared as Alfred Dreyfus in the 
movie The Life ofEmile Zola (1937), for which he received the 
1938 Academy Award for the Best Supporting Actor, and the 
heroine's father in The Diary of Anne Frank (1959). Schildkraut 
was an actor of vivid personality and wide range. His autobi- 
ography, My Father and I, appeared in 1950. 

bibliography: New York Times (Jan. 23, 1964). 

[Joseph Leftwich / Noam Zadoff (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHILLER, ARMAND (1857-?), French journalist. Born 
near Paris, Schiller worked in his father's printing house, 
studied law, and wrote for various papers. In 1879 he became 
general secretary of the editorial board of the daily Le Temps 
and held that position for many years. He was a professor at 
the Ecole du Journalisme, was made a member of the Legion 
of Honor in 1892, and elected syndic of the Association Pro- 
fessionelle des Journalistes in 1897. 

°SCHILLER, FRIEDRICH VON (1759-1805), German poet, 
playwright, and philosopher, whose works influenced Hebrew 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



literature and the *Haskalah. Schiller had only a few Jewish 
contacts, although he knew the writings of Moses ^Mendels- 
sohn and had a high regard for Solomon *Maimon. Schil- 
ler's stage adaptation of 1801 popularized *Lessing's Nathan 
der Weise. In his own writings there are only a few allusions 
to Jews. Perhaps the most intriguing of these is Moritz Spie- 
gelberg, a character in his early drama Die Raeuber (1781). 
Though not explicitly presented as a Jew, Spiegelberg occasion- 
ally lapses into a Judeo- German idiom, speaks of Judaizing, 
and even refers to a project for the reestablishment of a Jew- 
ish state. In this portrayal Schiller may have had in mind the 
ideas diffused at the time in his native Wuerttemberg by fol- 
lowers of Jacob *Frank. Although Ludwig *Geiger and others 
denied that the character was a Jew, the Nazis inevitably pre- 
sented him as one. During the 1920s, Erwin Piscator s Berlin 
production of Die Raeuber presented Spiegelberg in the guise 
of Leon * Trotsky. 

There are echoes of biblical style in Schiller's poems, as 
in the ode to joy, "An die Freude" and in his dramas. While 
Schiller praised the "Hebrew nation" as important for "univer- 
sal history" in his treatise Ueber die Sendung Moses (1790), he 
also adopted the hostile Bible interpretation quoted by *Vol- 
taire, claiming that leprosy was the chief cause of the *Exo- 
dus from Egypt. 

Translations and imitations of Schiller's poems and plays 
were published by maskilim in Galicia, and later in Russian Po- 
land, notably by Abraham Ber *Gottlober, Micah Joseph *Leb- 
ensohn, Meir Halevi *Letteris, and Solomon Judah *Rapoport. 
Between 1817 and 1957 almost 60 Hebrew versions of works 
by Schiller by more than 80 translators were published. They 
include *Bialik's translation of the drama Wilhelm Tell. Yid- 
dish parodies of Schiller's poems were extremely popular; Or- 
thodox homes which banned other non-religious literature 
made an exception in the case of his works. German Jews, 
too, showed admiration for Schiller. *Heine, who parodied 
"An die Freude" in his "Prinzessin Sabbat? praised Schiller as 
the poet of freedom and internationalism. Ludwig August 
* Frankl and Leopold * Kompert showed their admiration for 
him in establishing a Schiller Stiftung to propagate his works, 
and rabbis, including Samson Raphael *Hirsch, eulogized him 
in their sermons. Jews stressed the poet's quest for a physical 
and spiritual freedom untrammeled by nationalist dogma, 
his belief in human equality influenced by *Rousseau, and 
his idealism. They identified Schiller with Germany and Ger- 
many with Europe, seeing in Schiller's writings the bridge to 
European culture. 

bibliography: O. Frankl, Friedrich Schiller in seinen Be- 
ziehungen zu den Juden und zum Judentum (1905); L. Geiger, Die 
Deutsche Literatur und die Juden (1910), 125-60; S. Lachower, in: Yad 
la-Kore, 4 (1956/57), 59-75 (bibl. of Heb. trans.); P.F. Veit, in: Germanic 
Review (1969), 171-85; G. Scholem, in: Commentary, 11 (1966), 33-34; 
G. Rappaport, Jewish Horizons (1959, Heb. section), 17-22. 

SCHILLER (formerly Blankenstein), SOLOMON (1879- 
1925), Hebrew educator and Zionist writer. Born near Bialy- 

stok, Schiller moved to Lvov to avoid conscription. His pam- 
phlet in Polish on Jewish nationality and his articles dealt with 
the ideological basis for Zionism. He participated in the First 
Zionist Congress in Basle (1897) and laid the foundations for a 
nationalist Hebrew education in Galicia. In 1910 Schiller emi- 
grated to Erez Israel and settled in Jerusalem, where he was a 
teacher and later principal of the Jerusalem Rehavyah Gym- 
nasium. His published articles were collected and edited by 
Rabbi Binyamin in Kitvei Shelomo Schiller (1927). 

bibliography: D. Sadan, Goral ve-Hakhraah, Mishnato shel 
Shelomo Schiller (1943), incl. bibl. p. 167-75. 

[Getzel Kressel] 

rabbi and scholar. Born in Altofen (Budapest), Schiller re- 
ceived a traditional rabbinic education, attending Hungarian 
and other institutions, notably the Lutheran College at Eperjes 
(Presov); he graduated from the University of Jena in 1845. At 
Eperjes Schiller was given a faculty appointment for Hebrew 
and also became the local rabbi, and the atmosphere of toler- 
ance in the college influenced him permanently. He succeeded 
markedly in child education, and through his eloquence in 
the pulpit, he fostered Hungarian patriotism. His rabbinical 
teachers, who included Aaron *Chorin, were moderates, but in 
1845 he vigorously attacked in print the Reform resolutions of 
the Frankfurt Rabbinical Conference. During the Hungarian 
revolution, led by Kossuth (1848-49), Schiller added the Mag- 
yar "Szinessy" to his name and enlisted; he was wounded and 
captured but escaped from Temesvar via Trieste to England, 
where in 1851 he became rabbi of Manchester. While endeav- 
oring to keep traditionalists and would-be reformers together, 
he became embroiled with the chief rabbi Nathan *Adler by 
attempting to extend his ecclesiastical jurisdiction over north- 
ern England; he was then persuaded by the reformers to join 
their new dissident synagogue, although his personal practice 
and outlook remained strongly traditional throughout his life. 
Schiller resigned his rabbinical post in i860 and moved in 
1863 to Cambridge. His bibliographical erudition earned him 
the appointment in 1866 as teacher (later reader) of talmudic 
and rabbinic literature at Cambridge University. He was the 
first professing Jew formally entrusted by Cambridge with the 
subject, and he taught and inspired a distinguished list of gen- 
tile rabbinical scholars, which included C. Taylor and W.H. 
Lowe. Schiller's principal scholarly achievement was his prolix 
Catalogue of Hebrew Manuscripts Preserved in the Cambridge 
University Library, a portion of which was published in 1876. 
He edited Book One of David *Kimhi's commentary on the 
Psalms (1883) and *Romanelli's account of his Moroccan trav- 
els (Massa ba-Arav, 1885). 

bibliography: R. Loewe, in: jhset, 21 (1968), 148-89. 

[Raphael Loewe] 

SCHILLINGER, JOSEPH (1895-1943), music theorist and 
composer. Born in Kharkov, Schillinger studied conducting 
and composition with Nicolai Tcherepnin, among others, at 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


the St. Petersburg Conservatory (1914-18). Until his emigra- 
tion to New York in 1928, Schillinger pursued a career in the 
Ukraine as conductor and composer and helped organize the 
first jazz concert in Russia (1927). In New York, Schillinger 
continued to compose as well as teaching, but he is mainly 
remembered for his systematic theory of music composition, 
in which his mathematical training is evident. Schillinger be- 
lieved in scientific methods as the basis of artistic creativity 
in all the arts (as described in The Mathematical Basis of the 
Arts, 1948). His most important book, The Schillinger System of 
Musical Composition (2 vols., 1941, 1946), attempts to explore 
all possible permutations of every musical parameter, showing 
them as geometrical forms. This modernist approach might 
be conceived as a predecessor of set theory, yet Schillinger s 
actual theory is limited to rather conventional constraints. For 
example, he presented rhythmic permutations in conventional 
meters only (see also Encyclopedia of Rhythms (1966)), and 
focused on unusual syncopations. Schillinger s private pupils 
include Jewish jazz composers George *Gershwin and Vernon 
Duke, as well as Oscar *Levant and Benny *Goodman, who 
were probably attracted by Schillinger s approach to rhythmic 
devices. Among his compositions are First Airphonic Suite (or- 
chestra, 1929), The People and the Prophet (ballet, 1933), and 
many songs and piano pieces 

bibliography: ng 2 ; F. Schillinger, Joseph Schillinger: A Mem- 
oir (1949); P. Nauert. "Theory and Practice in Porgy and Bess: The 
Gershwin- Schillinger Connection," in: The Musical Quarterly (1994). 

[Yossi Goldenberg (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHINDLER, ALEXANDER M. (1925-2000), U.S. Reform 
rabbi, president of Union of American Hebrew Congrega- 
tions. Alex Schindler was one of the best-known and most 
admired Jewish leaders in America in the last quarter of the 
20 th Century. He was born in Munich, Germany, in 1925, the 
son of a Yiddish poet and a feisty Jewish businesswoman. The 
family fled Hitlerism and made its way to New York City and 
then to Lakewood, New Jersey, where they made their living 
as chicken farmers. He enrolled at ccny at the age of 16 and 
enlisted in the army in World War 11, joining the ski troop- 
ers and winning a Purple Heart and a Bronze Star for bravery 
in the battles of Italy. After the war, he decided to become a 
rabbi, graduating from the Hebrew Union College and then 
serving seven years as assistant rabbi of Temple Emanuel of 
Worcester, Massachusetts. 

He was known as a bold and successful leader of Reform 
Judaism but also as the preeminent spokesman of the entire 
Jewish Community in support of the cause of Israel. In the 
wider American community, Schindler was a well-known ad- 
vocate of civil rights, economic justice, and improved inter- 
faith relations. Known as a passionate spokesman of Reform 
Judaism, Schindler managed to gain the respect and affection 
of leaders of all denominations, bridging the gulfs of denomi- 
national and institutional rivalries. An assertive liberal in both 
religion and politics, he formed lasting friendships and alli- 
ances with traditional and conservative Jews in Israel and in 

America. He was a warm man, whose word could be trusted 
and thus even those who opposed him on ideological grounds 
never personalized those differences. He enjoyed a deep per- 
sonal friendship with the long time leader of Agudath Israel 
in the United States Rabbi Moshe Sherer, though the two men 
could not have been further apart ideologically. 

Reform Judaism is unique among American religious 
denominations in that the leader of the movement is the pro- 
fessional president of the congregational body rather than 
the head of a rabbinical school. As president of the Union of 
American Hebrew Congregations (now called Union for Re- 
form Judaism), he significantly enlarged the membership of 
the Union and the scope of its program, lifting the Reform 
Jewish movement to the largest branch of American Juda- 
ism. As leader of the Union, he envisioned and brought into 
reality a Liberal Torah Commentary, the first such publica- 
tion in America. He pioneered a revolutionary outreach pro- 
gram, in which congregations reach out to interfaith couples 
to make the non- Jewish partner comfortable and to encour- 
age that partner to convert. He spearheaded a campaign of 
gender equality, transforming the American synagogue and 
the Reform rabbinate. He led a campaign for recognition of 
gay rights in the movement and in the rabbinate. He broke 
new and controversial ground - both within and outside the 
Reform movement - by championing the doctrine of patri- 
lineal descent so that authentic Jewish identity would derive 
not only from a Jewish mother but equally from a Jewish fa- 
ther. Though differing with halakhah, the Reform position 
was in some ways more stringent than halakhah in that the 
identity was not automatic but had to be acknowledged and 
affirmed. He championed social justice, demanding economic 
justice for the weak and the poor even in the face of Reagan 
social cuts. He strengthened the work of the Religious Action 
Center in Washington and was a crucial part of efforts to es- 
tablish a religious action center in Israel as well. He pushed 
for the creation of a Reform Zionism, leading to the creation 
of arza, the Reform Zionist association and a vital Reform 
Zionist movement. As an educator, he succeeded in gaining 
the approval of a pilot project for Reform Jewish day schools, 
which now includes seventeen full-time Reform day schools 
in the U.S. and Canada. 

He became the best-known American Jewish leader 
of that era when he was elected chairman of the Presidents 
Conference of Major Jewish Organizations, the authorita- 
tive assembly of American Jewish leadership in support of 
Israel, during an especially tumultuous time. Becoming chair- 
man in 1976, he was at his post when Menachem *Begin was 
elected prime minister of Israel. Shattering the long-estab- 
lished partnership between Israels Labor governments and 
American Jewry, Begins election was a shock to American 
Jewry. Schindler, a lifelong liberal and dove, publicly em- 
braced Begin, a man with whose views he disagreed, as the 
elected prime minister of Israels democracy, and demanded 
that the Jewish establishment give Begin a fair chance and 
not delegitimize him at the outset. This led to a deep per- 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



sonal friendship, in which Begin consulted with Schindler at 
many pivotal moments, including on the eve of Camp David 
and peace with Egypt, honored Schindler in Jerusalem, and 
brought him as his guest on official visits to Egypt and other 
countries. Despite this deep personal friendship, which en- 
dured until Begins death, Schindler did not refrain from ad- 
vocating a two-state partition, condemning Israel's invasion 
of Lebanon, and demanding equal respect for all branches of 
Judaism in Israeli life. 

In all his life, Schindler prided himself on being, like his 
father before him, an ohev y 'israel , a lover of the Jewish peo- 
ple. Although he lifted and strengthened the Reform Jewish 
movement, he took most pride in knitting together the frac- 
tious strands of Jewish life and Jewish unity. 

[Albert Vorspan (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHINDLER, KURT (1882-1935), conductor, composer/ 
arranger, and music editor. Born in Berlin, he studied at the 
piano conservatory with Friedrich Gernsheim and Carl An- 
sorge. He later studied musicology at the University of Berlin 
with Carl Stump and Max Friedlander. The latter introduced 
him to European folk music, while Gernsheim, in whose 
choral society he participated, instilled in him an interest in 
choral music. He made his official debut as composer at the 
Krefeld Music Festival (June 1902). As an opera conductor, 
he conducted the Stuttgart Opera (1902) and the Staatsthe- 
ater in Wuerzburg (1903), and he was assistant to Felix Mottl 
and Hermann Zumpe at Munich and to Richard Strauss at the 
Berlin Opera (1904). Invited to join the conducting staff at the 
Metropolitan Opera, he immigrated to the United States in 
1905. In 1909, he established the MacDowell Chorus, which, 
at Mahler's suggestion, evolved into the Schola Cantorum of 
New York. Until Schindler's resignation in 1926, the Schola 
ranked among the most outstanding choral societies in North 
America, whose programs combined master choral works, in- 
terspersed with novel arrangements of European folksongs, 
mainly Russian and Spanish. For two decades (1907-27), he 
served concurrently as music editor for the publishers G. 
Schirmer and Oliver Ditson. From 1912 to 1915 he served as 
choral director at Temple Emanuel. In 1926, at the point of 
physical and mental exhaustion, he sought refuge in Spain, 
where, from 1929 to 1933, he made three trips throughout 
northern Spain and Portugal which resulted in the posthu- 
mously published Folk Music and Poetry of Spain and Portugal 
(New York, 1941; Salamanca, 1991). In 1933, he established the 
first music department at Bennington College, Vermont, but 
resigned shortly thereafter due to failing health. 

bibliography: ng 2 (includes a listing of his compositions 
and writings); Diccionario de la Musica Espahola e Hispanoameri- 
cana (Madrid. 2002). 

[Israel J. Katz (2 nd ed.)] 

°SCHINDLER, OSKAR (1908-1974), one of Israel's ^Righ- 
teous Among the Nations, made famous by Thomas Keneal- 
ly's novel and Steven ^Spielberg's 1993 film Schindler s List. He 

was a Nazi and a war profiteer and yet essential to saving the 
lives of more than 1,000 Jews. 

Schindler was born in Svitavy (Zwittau) in what af- 
ter World War 1 became Czechoslovakia. In the mid-i930s 
Schindler joined Nazi Germany's military counterintelligence 
agency, the Abwehr, as a spy. He was arrested by the Czechs in 
1938 for spying and after his release as part of the 1938 Munich 
Accord, helped with the invasion of the rest of Czechoslova- 
kia and Poland in 1939. After World War 11 began, Schindler 
moved to Cracow, Poland, where he took over a former Jewish 
enamelware factory, Emalia, with the idea of making as much 
money as he could. At the instigation of his Jewish factory 
manager, Abraham Bankier, Schindler began to hire more and 
more Jews. Over time, he gained a reputation for treating his 
Jews well and in the fall of 1943 met with Jewish Agency rep- 
resentatives in Budapest, who convinced Schindler to act as a 
go-between for them in Cracow. Over time, his motivations 
changed and he became determined to save his Jews. By this 
time, Schindler had transformed Emalia into a subcamp of the 
nearby Plaszow camp, commanded by the monstrous Amon 
Goeth. When ordered by Goeth to close Emalia in the sum- 
mer of 1944, Schindler instead got permission to move 1,000 
Jews and the armaments wing of Emalia to Bruennlitz near 
his hometown. Though Schindler had nothing physically to 
do with the writing of the famed Schindler's List, there would 
have been no lists (one for men, one for women) without his 
Herculean efforts to transfer these Jewish workers. Between 
October 1944 and May 1945, another 98 Jews would be taken in 
by Schindler at Bruennlitz. During this period, he spent almost 
all of the money he had made in Cracow to save 1,098 Jews. 

After the war, he and his wife, Emilie, who was with him 
at Bruennlitz, fled first to Bavaria and then to Argentina, the 
latter move with the help of a generous grant from the ^Ameri- 
can Jewish Joint Distribution Committee. Successful and in- 
novative in wartime, Schindler was never able to duplicate that 
success or even a measure of it in his postwar life. Schindler 
returned to Germany in 1957 to apply for reparations for his 
lost factories from the West German government and never 
returned to Argentina and Emilie. 

He was nominated to be in the first group of Righteous 
Among the Nations in 1962 though this nomination was 
withdrawn because of charges that he had stolen property 
and harmed several Jews during the war. Schindler became 
particularly close to the large community of Schindler Jews 
in Israel during this period and spent some of the happiest 
moments of his life in Israel. After his death in Hildesheim, 
West Germany, in the fall of 1974, his body was transferred 
to Israel, where he was buried in the Latin Cemetery on Mt. 
Zion. He and Emilie were named Righteous Among the Na- 
tions by Yad Vashem in 1993. 

bibliography: E.J. Brecher, Schindler s Legacy: True Stories 
of the List Survivors (1994); D.M. Crowe, Oskar Schindler: The Untold 
Account of his Life, Wartime Activities and the True Story Behind the 
List (2004); T. Keneally, Schindler s List (1982). 

[David Crowe (2 nd ed.)] 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


SCHINDLER, RUDOLPH M. (1887-1953), U.S. architect. 
Born in Vienna, Schindler immigrated to America in 1913, 
and settled in Chicago. He worked in the office of Frank Lloyd 
Wright from 1916 to 1921. His Lovell House, Newport Beach 
(1926), represents a fusion of Wright's style with the interna- 
tional modern style as interpreted in Central Europe. After 
1926 he worked with Richard *Neutra in Los Angeles. The 
buildings they produced were among the earliest examples 
of the international style in the U.S. 

SCHINDLER, SOLOMON (1842-1915), U.S. Reform rabbi 
and social worker. Schindler, born in Neisser, Silesia, the son 
of an Orthodox rabbi, was sent to Breslau when he was 13 to 
train for the rabbinate. After two years he gave up his rabbini- 
cal studies, graduating from the gymnasium and eventually 
qualifying as a teacher. In 1868 he led a small congregation in 
Westphalia, but his views proved too liberal. A speech attack- 
ing Bismarck's conduct in relation to the Franco -Prussian War 
led to Schindler's departure from Germany, and he settled in 
the U.S. in 1871. At first he supported his family by peddling 
shoelaces, but after a short time became rabbi of the Adath 
Emuno Congregation, Hoboken, n.j. In 1874 Schindler was 
appointed rabbi of Congregation Adath Israel, Boston (Tem- 
ple Israel). Until his time it had conformed to Orthodox prac- 
tice, but under his leadership an organ, family pews, vernacu- 
lar prayers, and eventually Sunday services were introduced. 
Schindler's sermons and lectures attracted wide attention in 
Boston. Influenced by Darwinism and Bible criticism, he 
adopted a radical and even assimilationist standpoint and 
was closely associated with Boston's advanced thinkers, 
particularly Minot J. Savage, a rebel against Christian Or- 
thodoxy who eventually led the New York Community 
Church. From 1888 to 1894 Schindler was a member of the 
Boston School Board. Schindler's theological and political 
radicalism, and apparently his German background, proved 
unpalatable to his congregation, and he retired from the rab- 
binate in 1894, becoming superintendent first of the Fed- 
eration of Jewish Charities and then of the Leopold Morse 
Home (1899). In a sermon entitled "Mistakes I Have Made" 
(1911) he withdrew from his earlier radicalism. Among 
Schindler's publications were Messianic Expectations and 
Modern Judaism (1886), and Dissolving Views in the History 
of Judaism (1888). 

bibliography: A. Mann, Growth and Achievement of Temple 
Israel; 1854-1954 (1954), 45-62; dab, 16 (1935), 433-4; A. Mann, Yankee 
Reformers of an Urban Age (1954), 52-72 and passim. 

[Sefton D. Temkin] 

SCHIPER, IGNACY (Yizhak; 1884-1943), historian and 
public worker. Schiper was born in Tarnow, Galicia. From his 
youth he was a member of the Po'alei Zion movement, and 
from 1922 of the General Zionists (Al ha-Mishmar), holding 
various public positions in the parties and acting as their emis- 
sary. During 1922-27 he was a deputy in the Polish Sejm. After 
the establishment of the Institute of Jewish Sciences in Warsaw 

in 1928, he lectured on the history of Jewish economy. Schiper 
died in a German concentration camp near Lublin. 

Although his academic education was essentially a legal 
one, Schiper took an interest in historical research throughout 
his life. Within the group of Jewish historians which emerged 
in Galicia in the early 20 th century (*Balaban, *Schorr), Schiper 
distinguished himself in the history of economics and of pop- 
ular culture (in Yiddish). Whether this was due to his social 
outlook or to his limited Hebrew education, he thought that 
the study of the spiritual history of the nation and its leaders 
had been exhausted; "the Sabbath-Jew with his extra soul" 
was already well known, and there arose a need, he felt, to be- 
come acquainted with the secular aspect of the nation's life. 
Schiper's first work, in the sphere of Jewish economics, was 
his original research on the beginnings of capitalism among 
the Jews of the Western world (Anfaenge des Kapitalismus bei 
den abendlaendischen Juden im frueheren Mittelalter, 1907), 
which was also translated into Russian and Yiddish. Schiper 
then turned his attention to research into Jewish economy in 
Poland, at first during the Middle Ages and then during the 
modern era also. 

His principal works in this sphere are Studya nad stosun- 
kami gospodarczymi Zydow w Polsce podczas sredniowiecza 
(1911, Yid. tr. 1926), and Dzieje handlu zydowskiego na ziemiach 
polskich (1937). Of his studies on the history of culture, two of 
his works are of note: Kultur-Geshikhte fun di Yidn in Poyln 
beysn Mitlalter (1926), which deals with the way of life of the 
Jews, and Geshikhtefun der Yidisher Teater-Kunst un Drame: 
fun di Eltste Tsaytn bis 1/50 (3 vols., 1927-28), which deals with 
theatrical art and drama. Schiper also occupied himself with 
other historical questions, such as Jewish autonomy in Po- 
land, but he dealt mainly with Jewry's relationship to the ex- 
ternal world, using primarily non- Jewish sources. A historian 
of great intuition and imagination, he promoted and enriched 
historical research on Polish Jewry, though he did not always 
trouble to establish his ideas on a firm historical footing. 

bibliography: J. Hirschhaut, Fun Noenter Over, 1 (1955), 

185-263 (incl. bibl.); R. Mahler, in yivo Bleter, 25 (1945/46), 19-32; 

J. Shatzky, ibid., 39 (1954/55), 352-4; Y. Gruenbaum, Penei ha-Dor, 1 

(1958), 379-85; S. Eidelberg (ed.), Yizhak Shipper; Ketavim Nivharim 

ve-Divrei Haarakhah (1967). 

[Israel Halpern] 

SCHIRMANN, JEFIM (Hayyim; 1904-1981), scholar of 
medieval Hebrew poetry. Born in Kiev, Schirmann received 
a doctorate in Berlin for his thesis Die hebraeische Ueberset- 
zung der Maqamen des Hariri (Frankfurt 1930). He was one 
of the first to undertake research in medieval Hebrew poetry 
at the Schocken Institute for Research (first in Berlin, then in 
Jerusalem). In 1937 he began teaching medieval Hebrew po- 
etry at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and subsequently 
was appointed to the chair in this subject. From 1954 to 1969 
he edited *Tarbiz> a quarterly for Jewish studies. He was a 
member of the Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities 
and of the Academy of the Hebrew Language. In 1957 he was 
awarded the Israel Prize for Jewish Studies. 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



Schirmann's research spans the entire range of medieval 
Hebrew poetry. He began his activities by investigating the He- 
brew poetry of Spain, both as an independent area of research 
and also with reference to its links with Arabic literature. At 
the same time he studied Italian Hebrew poetry. He compiled 
two large and unique anthologies of the most important ex- 
isting texts of (1) Hebrew poetry written in Italy between the 
ninth and 20 th centuries, Mivhar ha-Shirah ha-Ivrit be-Ital- 
yah (Berlin, 1934); and (2) Hebrew poetry written in Spain 
and Provence from the 10 th to the 15 th centuries, Ha-Shirah 
ha-Ivrit bi-Sefarad u-vi-Provence (1961 3 ). Schirmann laid the 
foundations for modern research and critical evaluation of 
secular and sacred Hebrew poetry, as well as of the rhymed 
tales composed by the Jews of Spain and Italy. 

His many works in this field include "Ha-Meshorerim 
Benei Dor am shel Moshe ibn Ezra vi-Yhudah ha-Levi" (in: 
ymhsi, 3 pts., 2 (1936), 4 (1938), 6 (1945)); "Hayyei Yehudah 
ha-Levi" (in: Tarbiz, 9 (1938) and 11 (1939)); "La metrique quan- 
titative dans lapoesie hebra'ique du Moyen Age" (in Sefarad y 8 
(1948)); "Samuel Hannagid, the Man, the Soldier, the Politi- 
cian" (in jsos, 13 (1951)); "The Function of the Hebrew Poet 
in Medieval Spain" (ibid., 16 (1954)); "La poesie hebra'ique du 
Moyen Age en Espagne" (in Melanges de philosophie et de lit- 
ter ature juives, 3-5 (1962)), and "The Beginning of Hebrew 
Poetry in Italy" (in The World History of the Jewish People, 
Vol. 11: The Dark Ages, 1966). 

Schirmann's later researches were devoted primarily to 
early medieval Hebrew poetry. Of particular note is the es- 
say "Hebrew Liturgical Poetry and Christian Hymnology" 
(jqr 49, 1953, pp. 123-161), Shirim Hadashim min ha-Genizah 
("New Poems from the Genizah," 1965), which contains, be- 
sides a large collection of unknown texts from different peri- 
ods, a number of very important critical monographs on po- 
ets from various centers of Jewish life (Erez Israel, Babylonia, 
North Africa, and Spain), and his collected articles in Hebrew, 
Studies in the History of Hebrew Poetry and Drama (1979). His 
critical edition of the secular poetry of Solomon ibn Gabirol 
(1974), completing the work initiated by H. Brody, can be seen 
as one of his most mature contributions to the history of me- 
dieval Hebrew poetry. 

Several years after Schirmann's death, E. Fleischer pub- 
lished in two large volumes the important notes that he had 
left on the history of medieval Hebrew poetry with his own 
observations, updated bibliography, and commentaries: The 
History of Hebrew Poetry in Muslim Spain (1995) and The His- 
tory of Hebrew Poetry in Christian Spain and Southern France 
(Heb., 1997). 

Schirmann's numerous publications and long teaching 
career led to the creation of a new attitude toward research 
in medieval Hebrew culture. His approach to the Hebrew in- 
tellectual creativity of the Middle Ages was within the wider 
context of general contemporary culture, and he emphasized 
its connection with other cultures and literary creativities. 

bibliography: S. Abramson and A. Mirsky (eds.), Sefer 
Hayyim Schirmann (1970); D. Pagis and E. Fleischer, ibid., 413-27, 

(bibl). add. bibliography: D. Pagis, E. Fleischer, Y. David, Kitvei 
Profesor Hayim Shirman (1904-1981): Reshimah Bibliyografit (1983). 

[Ezra Fleischer /Dan Pagis] 

SCHISGAL, MURRAY (1926- ), U.S. playwright. Schisgal 
was born in New York. His initial intention was to become a 
lawyer, and he did receive an LL.B. from Brooklyn Law School 
in 1953. Schisgal's first successful stage hit was the double bill 
The Typists and The Tiger (1963), which starred Eli Wallach 
and Anne Jackson. This was followed by his biggest hit com- 
edy, Luv (1964), which was nominated for two Tony Awards - 
Best Play and Best Author. It was later made into a motion 
picture starring Jack Lemmon and Peter Falk (1967). Schisgal 
also wrote the play Jimmy Shine (1968), which starred Dustin 
Hoffman. Schisgal's other Broadway plays included The Chi- 
nese and Dr. Fish (1970 ), An American Millionaire (1974), All 
over Town (1975), and Twice around the Park (1983). He also 
wrote the plays Ducks and Lovers (1972), Popkins (1984), and 
Oatmeal and Kisses (1990). 

With Larry *Gelbart he co-wrote the screenplay for 
Tootsie (1982), for which they received an Oscar nomination. 
He also produced the films Boys and Girls (2000) and A Walk 
on the Moon (1999). 

Schisgal was nominated for an Emmy award for his tv 
productions The Devils Arithmetic (1999) and A Separate Peace 
(2004). Schisgal's novel Days and Nights of a French Horn 
Player was published in 1980. 

[Jonathan Licht / Ruth Beloff (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHLAMME, MARTHA HAFTEL (1922-1985), folk-art 
singer, pianist, and actress. Schlamme was born in Vienna, 
the only daughter of Meier and Gisa Braten Haftel, who were 
Orthodox Jews. She and her parents escaped the Nazis in 
1938 through France to England, where her parents were in- 
terned by the English government on the Isle of Man. Mar- 
tha chose to leave the Jewish school she attended and joined 
her parents there. At the camp she met Engel Lund, a singer 
from Iceland, who inspired her to become an international 
singer. Martha came to the U.S. in 1948, shortly after marry- 
ing Hans Schlamme. 

Schlamme began her concert career in the Catskills, 
singing in Hebrew and Yiddish. Her venues soon included 
college campuses, concert halls, and nightclubs, as well as ra- 
dio and television. By i960, she had performed over a thou- 
sand concerts. A supreme interpreter of folk song, Schlamme 
concertized and recorded in 12 languages. She enthusiasti- 
cally sang Jewish songs throughout her career. On the Van- 
guard, Folkways, Columbia, and mgm labels she produced 15 
albums including Martha Schlamme Sings Israeli Folk Songs 
(1953); Martha Schlamme Sings Folk Songs of Many Lands 
(1958); and Martha Schlamme Sings Jewish Folks Songs (1957, 
and vol. 2, 1959). 

Schlamme's early enthusiasm for Kurt * Weill brought her 
considerable attention and fame. She performed Weill's songs 
in Edinburgh at a venue called the Howff. This show grew and 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


eventually came to New York, playing for months. For over 
20 years she included Weill's music in her programs and pro- 
duced the recordings The World of Kurt Weill in Song (1962), 
and A Kurt Weill Cabaret (1963). In 1965, she starred in a pro- 
duction of Weill's Mahoganny at the Stratford Festival in On- 
tario and two years later sang at Ravinia Music Festival in A 
Kurt Weill Cabaret with Alvin Epstein. In 1985, she appeared 
with Epstein at the Israel Festival in Jerusalem. 

Schlamme sang on Broadway, playing the role of Golde 
in Fiddler on the Roof in 1968, and that same year appearing in 
A Month of Sundays and Solitaire, Double Solitaire. Schlamme 
became a teacher of song and acting at the Circle in the Square 
Theater School in New York and H.B. Studio. She was also 
close to activists in leftist politics, giving numerous benefit 
concerts. She recorded German Folk Songs on the Folkways 
label with Pete Seeger. In the 1960s, after an annulment of her 
first marriage, she married Mark Lane, a Democratic politi- 
cian. Martha Schlamme suffered a stroke onstage at the Chau- 
tauqua Festival at age 60 in front of a large audience and died 
in nearby Jamestown, New York. 

[Judith S. Pinnolis (2 nd ed.)] 

man theologian and preacher. The young Schleiermacher was 
an admirer of Henriette * Herz and frequented the salons of 
Berlin. He answered David *Friedlaender's audacious Send- 
schreiben an Probst Teller (1799) by advocating that Jews, as 
individuals, be granted complete emancipation in order to 
save the Church from contamination by insincere converts 
seeking equality. In his Reden ueber die Religion (1799; On Re- 
ligion, 1955), he contended that Judaism was a dead religion, 
the essence of which lay in God and His chosen people. This 
historical dialogue, however, had ceased abruptly with the fall 
of the Jewish state; thus Judaism was not a true religion but 
rather a political body. Equating revelation with religious ex- 
perience, he placed the Old Testament in a very subordinate 
position in relation to the New. On the other hand Schleier- 
macher, a powerful preacher, exerted a decisive influence on 
the style of L. * Zunz and other Jewish preachers of the era. 
Occasionally he attended the synagogue to listen to the young 
preachers, making comments to them afterward. 

bibliography: F. Schleiermacher, Briefe bei Gelegenheit der 
politisch-theologischen Aufgabe und des Sendschreibens juedischer 
Hausvaeter von einem Prediger ausserhalb Berlins (1799); A. Altmann, 
in: ylbi, 6 (1961), 3-60; idem, in: Studies in 19 th Century Jewish Intel- 
lectual History (1964), 72f.; W. Dilthey, Leben Schleiermachers (1966); 
H. Liebeschutz, Das Judentum im deutschen Geschichtsbild von Hegel 
bis Max Weber (1967), index, add. bibliography: F. Schleierm- 
acher, Kritische Gesamtausgabe (1985- ); M. Wolfes, in: Aschkenas, 

14:2 (2004), 485-510. 

[Andreas Kennecke (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHLESINGER, family of Austrian *Court Jews, marx 
(mordecai) schlesinger, son of Moses Margulies (*Mar- 
gelioth), was active as military purveyor to the Austrian court 
before the 1670 expulsion of Vienna Jews, as well as finan- 

cier to the court and supplier of precious metals for the royal 
mint. A leader of the Vienna community, he participated in 
the negotiations for the return of the expellees and was mur- 
dered in 1683 in Klosterneuburg. His son, benjamin wolf 
(d. 1727), settled in Eisenstadt in 1679 and was a large-scale 
military and coin supplier, particularly in Hungary, where he 
served the noble Esterhazy family. His business activity was 
conducted, however, from Vienna. 

Another son, Israel, was an ancestor of the renowned 
*Eger family, marx (markus) schlesinger (d. 1754) fig- 
ured prominently in the numerous wars of the period as a 
large-scale military purveyor, as well as financier to the Aus- 
trian court in millions of florins. In 1731 he was nominated 
imperial court purveyor (Hoffaktor) by Emperor Charles vi; 
he was already purveyor to the courts of electoral Palatinate, 
electoral Mainz, and ducal Brunswick, as well as court jew- 
eler and purveyor to Charles Alexander of Wuerttemberg as 
of 1736. Although his forefathers had belonged to the *Oppen- 
heimer and *Wertheimer circles, Marx was himself patron of 
Isaac *Leidesdorfer and L. * Gomperz. His far-flung activities 
eventually embroiled him in lawsuits with the government, 
and he died in extreme poverty, as did most of his children. 

bibliography: M. Grunwald, Samuel Oppenheimer und 
sein Kreis (1913), index; Magyar Zsido Okleveltdr, 3 (1937); 5 (i960); 9 
(1966); 10 (1967); 12 (1969), index s.v.; A.F. Pribram, Urkunden und 
Akten zur Geschichte der Juden in Wien (1918), index; B. Wachstein, 
Die Inschriften des alten Judenfriedhofes in Wien, 1 (1912), index; S. 
Stern, The Court Jew (1950), index. 

SCHLESINGER, family of music publishers, adolf mar- 
tin schlesinger (1768-1848) was born in Berlin, where in 
1810 he founded the firm Schlesinger sche Buch und Musika- 
lienhandlung, which was one of Beethoven's publishers. His 
greatest publication was Bach's St. Matthew Passion (1829). 
His two sons were heinrich schlesinger (1807-1879) 
and moritz (maurice) adolf schlesinger (1797-1871). 
Heinrich maintained the Berlin firm, while in 1834 Moritz es- 
tablished a firm in Paris which published works by Mozart, 
Chopin, Berlioz, *Meyerbeer, and Donizetti, and the Gazette 
(later Revue) Musicale. The German firm passed into other 
hands in 1864, and the French one in 1846. 

SCHLESINGER, AKIVA JOSEPH (1837-1922), one of 
the first visionaries of modern Zionism. Born in Pressburg, 
Schlesinger was a graduate of Hungarian yeshivot and a stu- 
dent of Kabbalah. He was one of the spokesmen of the extreme 
religious elements of the Hatam Sofer (see Moses *Sofer) 
school of thought, which advocated complete separation from 
the "enlightened" and "neologic" elements. In his book Lev 
Ivri ("Hebrew Heart," 1865), he sharply attacked the "meshan- 
nim" and "mithaddeshim" ("innovators" and "reformers"). In 
1870 Schlesinger went to Erez Israel out of a conviction that 
the sole hope for religious Jewry lay in the establishment of 
a religious Jewish community in the Land of Israel. In 1873 
he published the book Hevrat Mahzirei Atarah le-Yoshnah or 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



Kolel ha-Ivrim ("The Society for the Restoration of Things to 
Their Former Glory" or "The Community of Hebraists"), in 
which he expounded his plan for the establishment of a world- 
wide association for the consolidation of religious Jewry. This 
association would set up a network of schools to educate the 
young generation in a religious spirit; its center would be in 
Jerusalem and its aim would be the establishment of a Jew- 
ish community living off the fruits of its own labor and in the 
spirit of the Torah. In his book Schlesinger expressed ideas 
similar to those which were later adapted by the Zionist move- 
ment (collection of contributions and tithes for the upbuilding 
of the country, renaissance of the Hebrew language, agricul- 
tural settlement, organization of self-defense, abolition of the 
barriers between communities and kolelim and their amalga- 
mation into one - Kolel ha-Ivrim). Schlesinger was the leader 
of a group of Jerusalemites who tried to change the *halukkah 
system and divert the funds to agricultural settlement. The 
halukkah trustees, who feared Schlesinger s ideas as a threat 
to their hegemony, boycotted and persecuted him, and he re- 
ponded with harsh polemic. In 1878 Schlesinger was one of 
the founders of Petah Tikvah and, with the establishment of 
the new settlement, he called on religious Jewry to establish 
their own settlement movement to encompass truly religious 
Jews, without "heretical and outside elements." 

bibliography: Minz and Kahane, in: L. Jung, Men of the 
Spirit (1963), 61-82; A.Y. Shahrai, Rabbi Akiba Joseph Schlesinger 
(Heb., 1942); Y. Trivaks and E. Steinman, Sefer Meah Shanah (1938), 


[Yehuda Slutsky] 

SCHLESINGER, BENJAMIN (1876-1932), U.S. trade union 
leader and journalist. Born in Krakai, Lithuania, Schlesinger 
immigrated to Chicago in 1891, working in a sweatshop as a 
sewing-machine operator. At the end of the 1890s he moved 
to New York City. In 1903 Schlesinger was elected president 
of the infant International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union 
(ilgwu), but within a year a coalition of more conservative 
trade unionists defeated his bid for reelection. He then man- 
aged the New York Cloakmakers' Joint Board of the ilgwu 
but left in 1907 to become managing editor of New York's Jew- 
ish Daily Forward. During his seven years with the Yiddish 
daily, Schlesinger maintained his interest in the ilgwu, influ- 
enced union affairs, and prepared himself to return to union 
office at a more opportune time. 

From 1910 to 1914, the radical socialist New York cloak- 
makers clashed with the more conservative and moderate 
leaders on the ilgwu's general executive board. The cloak- 
makers were defeated, but at the 1914 ilgwu convention 
they succeeded in removing the officeholders and elected 
Schlesinger president. Though committed to class warfare, 
he attempted to persuade socialists to abide by contractual 
agreements with employers. During the 1916 strike in the cloak 
trade, Schlesinger commanded the loyalty of both union radi- 
cals and conservatives, made himself acceptable to employ- 
ers as a negotiator, and gained the support of local reformers 

and city officials. With the help of New York City's reform 
mayor, John Purroy Mitchell, he wrung from the cloak man- 
ufacturers an exceptionally favorable agreement, which re- 
lieved the union from resorting to independent arbitration 
and placed greater power in the hands of the trade unionists 

From 1914 to 1923 Schlesinger guided the ilgwu with 
firmness and perception, until it became one of the largest 
and most progressive trade unions in the nation. But in 1923, 
worn down by years of poor health and depressed by the intra- 
union struggle between communists and anti-communists, 
Schlesinger resigned and returned to serve the Forward. In 
1928, with the anti-communists in control, the ilgwu, its trea- 
sury depleted and its ranks decimated, turned to Schlesinger. 
He strove to revive internal unity, but the task, aggravated by 
the advent of the Depression, proved too much for him. He 
died shortly after his reelection in 1932. 

[Melvyn Dubofsky] 

SCHLESINGER, FRANK (1871-1943), U.S. astronomer and 
pioneer in stellar photography. Born in New York, Schlesinger 
obtained his doctorate with a thesis on a new type of measure- 
ment of a star cluster. He then began to develop his original 
methods for the determination of stellar parallaxes by means 
of celestial photography, revolutionizing the subject. In 1905 he 
was appointed director of the Allegheny Observatory, where 
he worked on the orbits of spectroscopic binary stars, devis- 
ing simple methods of reducing spectrograms, and designing 
a new, sensitive measuring machine. In 1914 he started his am- 
bitious plan of a large-scale parallax program. Within six years 
the first 365 star distances were determined, parallaxes with 
an average probable error of less than one hundredth of a sec- 
ond of arc. In 1920 he became director of the Yale University 
Observatory, and in 1925 he set up a South African station at 
Johannesburg with a 26-inch telescope of 36 feet focal length. 
The importance of these "trigonometric parallaxes" lies in the 
fact that they are the basis of the present distance scale of the 
universe. With their help, all spectroscopic and other distance 
determinations are eventually calibrated. In 1940 Schlesinger 
published his first "Bright Star Catalogue," giving all the es- 
sential data for all stars brighter than 6.5 visual magnitude. 
He did outstanding work on stellar proper motions and star 
positions obtained with wide-angle cameras, and a long series 
of these "Zone Catalogues" was published in the Yale Obser- 
vatory Transactions. Schlesinger was a leading figure in the 
formation of the International Astronomical Union. He was 
its president from 1932 to 1935, and many other academic hon- 
ors were awarded to him. 

bibliography: Bibliographical Memoirs of the National 
Academy of Science, 24 (1947), 105-44; Spencer Jones, in: Monthly 
Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 104 (1944), 94-98. 

[Arthur Beer] 

SCHLESINGER, GEORG (1874-1949), German engineer. 
Born in Berlin, Schlesinger became professor of industrial sci- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


ence at Berlin's Technische Hochschule in 1904, one of the few 
Jews to hold such a position. A pioneer of industrial psychol- 
ogy, he created the department of psychotechnics. He wrote 
Psychotechnik und Betriebswissenschaft (1919) and edited the 
journal Werkstatt-Technik. He also designed modern factories, 
especially textile works. Dismissed from the Hochschule in 
!933> Schlesinger went to Brussels University (1934-39), then to 
England, where he directed production engineering research 
at Loughborough College, Leicestershire. 

SCHLESINGER, GUILLERMO (1903-1971), rabbi of the 
Congregacion Israelita de la Repiiblica Argentina. Born in St. 
Gallen, Switzerland, son and grandson of rabbis, he graduated 
from the Theological Seminary of Breslau (then Germany), in 
1934 and received a Ph.D. in public economy from the Uni- 
versity of Zurich in 1936. He immigrated to Argentina in 1937 
and assumed the rabbinical chair of the Congregacion Isra- 
elita in Buenos Aires. In 1939-1956 he was also the director 
of the Cursos Religiosos Israelitas (Jewish Religious Courses) 
of this congregation, which sustained a wide network of Jew- 
ish complementary schools, especially in the provinces and 
some in Buenos Aires. For many decades Rabbi Schlesinger 
was considered a semi-official chief rabbi of the community, 
especially among non- Jewish society, but not within Jewish so- 
ciety. In 1956 he participated in the establishment of the Latin 
American Fraternity of Synagogues. In 1961 Rabbi Schlesinger 
received an honorary doctorate from the Jewish Theological 

Seminary of America. 

[EfraimZadoff(2 nd ed.)] 

African financier and entrepreneur. The son of an Austrian- 
Jewish immigrant in the United States, he went to South Af- 
rica in 1894. He built up an extensive financial and industrial 
empire in a relatively short time, beginning his career in Jo- 
hannesburg as an insurance agent. In a few years he had es- 
tablished his own insurance and banking companies. In real 
estate he helped to develop a number of townships in Johan- 
nesburg and other cities. In 1914 he opened a chain of theaters 
and cinemas and for a long time held a virtual monopoly in 
those fields. He formed the first film production company 
in South Africa and, at his studios in Johannesburg, made 
the first regular South African newsreels and the earliest 
full-length films. He also established a broadcasting service, 
which was eventually taken over by the state to become the 
South African Broadcasting Corporation. His citrus-grow- 
ing estate at Zebedelia (Transvaal) became one of the biggest 
in the world. He regarded this as his crowning achievement 
and, at his own wish, was buried there. His interests extended 
to Rhodesia, Portuguese East Africa, and Tanganyika, and he 
owned music halls in England. He played little part in public 
life but headed the Keren Hayesod campaign when Chaim 
*Weizmann visited South Africa in 1932. 

He was succeeded as head of the Schlesinger Organization 
by his only son, john samuel schlesinger (1923- ). 

bibliography: A.P. Cartwright, South Africa's Hall of Fame 


[Louis HotzJ 

SCHLESINGER, JOE (1928- ), Canadian journalist, broad- 
caster. Schlesinger was born in Vienna and raised in Bratislava, 
Czechoslovakia. On June 30, 1939, only 11 years old, he and his 
younger brother, Ernie, escaped the Nazis, being among 664 
children removed to England by young British stockbroker 
Nicholas Winton. Schlesinger spent the war years in a board- 
ing school run by the Czech government -in -exile. At the end 
of the war, the brothers returned to Czechoslovakia in a fu- 
tile search for their parents. Following a bout of tuberculosis, 
Schlesinger began work in Prague as a translator for the Asso- 
ciated Press but, escaping the Communist takeover of Czecho- 
slovakia, in 1950 he made his way to Canada. 

Schlesinger began his journalism career as editor of the 
campus newspaper while studying economics at the Univer- 
sity of British Columbia. From 1955 to 1962 he was a reporter 
for the Vancouver Province, Toronto Star, and United Press 
International, and then for the Herald Tribune in Paris until 
1966. He found reporting foreign news a calling, "... inter- 
preting it, clarifying it, demystifying it, and making it inter- 
esting and relevant." 

Schlesinger returned to Canada to begin a more than 
40-year career in television at the Canadian Broadcasting 
Corporation (cbc). He held several key cbc posts, including 
executive producer of National News, head of tv News, chief 
political correspondent, and, notably, foreign correspondent. 
Schlesinger covered major events around the world, includ- 
ing the Arab-Israeli conflict, often from the heart of the ac- 
tion. Twice a refugee from Czechoslovakia, he returned to 
Prague to witness the Velvet Revolution that overthrew the 
Communist regime. "It was," Schlesinger recalled, "one of the 
great moments of my life. I was able to return, and watch that 
era,' that tyranny - the last of it - vanish. It was a kind of a 
personal vindication." 

After retiring from the cbc news service in 1994, Schles- 
inger continued to produce and host documentaries, and he 
remains senior correspondent of cbc s flagship news program, 
cbc News: The National. His journalism was honored by three 
Gemini Awards and the John Drainie Award for distinguished 
contribution to broadcasting. He holds several honorary doc- 
torates, and in 1995 he was named to the Order of Canada. He 
wrote Time Zones: A Journalist in the World (1990). 

[Paula Draper (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHLESINGER, JOHN (1926-2003), English director. 
Schlesinger was born in London. Educated at Oxford, he 
toured in repertory until 1959 and then directed bbc-t v films. 
His first feature film was A Kind of Loving (1962), followed by 
Billy Liar (1963), Darling (Oscar nomination for Best Picture 
and Best Director, 1965), Far from the Madding Crowd (1967), 
Midnight Cowboy (Academy Award winner for Best Picture 
and Best Director, 1969), Sunday, Bloody Sunday (1971), The 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



Day of the Locust (1975), Marathon Man (1976), Yanks (1979), 
The Falcon and the Snowman (1985), Madame Sousatzka 
(1988), The Innocent (1993), and Cold Comfort Farm (1995). 
Schlesinger directed several plays, including Timon of Athens 
for the Royal Shakespeare Company He was one of the most 
important British filmmakers of the post- 19 60 period. 

[Jonathan Licht] 

SCHLESINGER, KARL (1889-1938), Austrian financier and 
economist. He introduced methods of mathematical analy- 
sis and the calculation by probability of the movements of 
money and capital. Born in Budapest, Schlesinger lived in 
Vienna where he was a wealthy board member of many in- 
dustrial and financial corporations. He was one of the few 
non-academic economists of reputation who were members 
of the Vienna Economic Society. Most of his views were ex- 
pounded among friends during spirited sessions in Viennese 
coffeehouses. Schlesinger took his own life when the Germans 
entered Vienna in 1938. 

His writings include Theorie der Geld-und Kreditwirt- 
schaft (1914); Veraenderungen des Geldwertes im Kriege (1916); 
Ueber die Produktionsgleichungen der oekonomischen Wert- 

lehre (1931). 

[Joachim O. Ronall] 

SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN, state of Germany. In the 17 th cen- 
tury Danish kings, rulers of the dual duchies of Schleswig and 
Holstein, invited Sephardi merchants to settle there, and com- 
munities were founded in * Glueckstadt, Rendsburg, Friedrich- 
stadt, and * Altona, which became the seat of the rabbinate and 
the leading community. While the other communities gradually 
declined economically, Altona prospered and attracted German 
Jews, who were permitted to settle in these cities and enjoyed 
special privileges despite the opposition of the Sephardim. 

On March 29, 1814, the Jews in Denmark were granted 
emancipation, but this was abolished at the Congress of 
* Vienna by a decision which applied to the lands of the Ger- 
man Confederation. Jewish equality was championed by S.L. 
*Steinheim and Gabriel * Riesser. It was advocated in a series of 
petitions to the conservative provincial estates, and favored by 
King Christian vin. Equality was temporarily obtained dur- 
ing the 1848-49 revolution, proclaimed by the parliament of 
the revolutionary duchies in which Jews participated; during 
the revolution Jews first settled in *Kiel. On July 14, 1863, a law 
granting complete emancipation was enacted. A year later the 
duchies were detached from Denmark and passed to Prussia 
in 1866. The Jewish population numbered 3,674 in 1835 (2,014 
in Altona; 188 in Glueckstadt; 292 in Rendsburg; and 373 in 
Friedrichstadt, where they were 17% of the population). The 
figures were about 6,000 in 1925, with 5,000 in Altona, 600 in 
the new community of Kiel, and the remainder divided among 
the other dwindling communities; Altona was incorporated 
into Hamburg in 1937. 

Rudolf Katz (d. 1961) was minister of justice of the state of 
Schleswig- Holstein in i960, when there were 107 Jews in Kiel. 

bibliography: W. Victor, Die Emanzipation der Juden in 
Schleswig-Holstein (1913); Jahrbuch fuer die juedischen Gemeinden 
Schleswig-Holstein und der Hansestaedte (1929-38); A. Linnvald, in: 
Zeitschrift der Gesellschaft fuer Schleswig-Holsteinsche Geschichte, 
57 (1928), 299-364; H. Kellenbenz, Sephardim an der unteren Elbe 

of the 14 th century), Alsatian rabbi and rosh yeshivah. Samuel 
took his name from Schlettstadt, the town where he was ap- 
parently born. ^Joseph (Joselmann) b. Gershom of Rosheim 
(in Sefer ha-Mikneh y written in 1546, publ. 1970) describes 
him as "a pious man, head of the exile," but biographical de- 
tails about him are scant; however there is some information 
about a calumny in Strasbourg in which Schlettstadt was in- 
volved and which was the cause of his wandering to various 
countries. The affair is recounted in two sources: by Joseph 
of Rosheim (ibid. y jf.), and in the documents of excommu- 
nication published by N. *Coronel in Hamishah Kunteresim 
(1864), 107b ff. Two Jews from Strasbourg were involved in a 
conspiracy with the knights of Andlau who were in the vicin- 
ity of the city. After Samuel issued an unheeded warning to the 
conspirators, the citizens approached him to pass judgment 
on them, and he sentenced them to death. The sentence was 
carried out on one of the informers, but his companion fled to 
the knights and apostasized. When the knights discovered that 
the informer had been put to death, they went to war against 
the men of Strasbourg, and Samuel was compelled to flee the 
city. He escaped, concealing himself in the fortress of Hohen- 
landsberg near Strasbourg, and lived there together with the 
students of his yeshivah for a number of years (1370-76). It 
seems likely that some of the members of the community had 
a hand in the incitement against Samuel, who waited in vain 
for the community leaders to take the steps that would enable 
him to return (it seems that it was necessary to appease the 
knights of Andlau with money). 

In 1376 Samuel left his hiding place and traveled to the 
East. On his way he passed through several communities in 
Germany, where he received letters from various rabbis (in- 
cluding *Meir b. Baruch ha-Levi of Vienna) referring to him 
in complimentary terms and calling for action on his behalf. 
After 1381 he arrived in Babylonia, where he obtained a deed 
of excommunication from the nesiim David (b. Hodaiah?) and 
Jedidiah (b. Jesse?), apparently directed against those individu- 
als in Strasbourg who were involved in the affair. It laid upon 
the members of the community the duty of doing everything 
necessary to enable Samuel to return to Strasbourg and com- 
pensate him for his suffering and losses. From Babylonia he 
proceeded to Jerusalem, where he obtained two documents 
(published by Coronel) signed by various scholars (among 
them immigrants from Italy and Germany) supporting the ex- 
communication by the nesiim. As proved by H. Frankel (Ha- 
Miknehy introd. 17), Joseph of Rosheim relied on this deed in 
his account of the incident, although there are certain varia- 
tions between his description of the affair and that retailed in 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


the deed. Equipped with these documents, Samuel made his 
way back and reached Regensburg. The people of Strasbourg 
made their peace with him. When he reached the Rhine, the 
students of the yeshivah came to meet him, accompanied by 
Samuel's son Abraham, whose boat capsized; he was drowned 
in the river before his father's eyes. There is a theory that Sam- 
uel met his death in the expulsion and massacre of the Jews 
of Strasbourg in the years 1380-88. 

Samuel's best-known work is his Ha-Mordekhai ha-Katan 
(so called by Israel *Bruna in his responsa, Stettin i860 ed., 
nos. 163, 170, 181a, 194 p. 72a, 207, 244), also referred to as Ha- 
Mordekhai ha-Kazar (Israel Isserlein, Terumat ha-Deshen, 
pesakim no. 192; Jacob Weil, responsa no. 88), and Kizzur 
Mordekhai (Azulai, Sh-G s.v.). As its title indicates, it is an 
abridgment of the Mordekhai by *Mordecai b. Hillel (in the 
Rhenish version). This work is mentioned by Jacob *Moelln 
(Responsa (Hanau 1610 ed.) nos. 87 and 174), and in Min- 
hagim, Hilkhot Sukkah (Warsaw, 1874 ed., 52a) it is referred to 
as the l< Mordecai [sic!] compiled by Samuel Schlettstade" and 
by Jacob *Landau in his Agur. From the extensive use made 
of it, it would appear that it had an independent value. The 
work has not yet been published, though many manuscripts 
of it are known. The work was compiled in 1376 (according to 
information in Ms. Parma, De Rossi no. 397, written in 1391), 
while Samuel was in the fortress of Hohenlandsberg. The date 
(1393) given in an Oxford manuscript (Neubauer, Cat., no. 
672) is not, as Neubauer thought, the date of composition, 
but of the copying. 

Samuel added notes containing rulings and additions 
from the work of various posekim to the Mordekhai which 
appear as an appendix in the printed editions (since the 1559 
edition of Riva di Trento). These notes were written in the 
margins of the Rhenish version of the Mordekhai and included 
additions which are apparently extracts from the Austrian 
version (see Kohn, bibl.). Samuel's authorship of these notes, 
which was established by Zunz (hb, 9 (1869), 135), is clear from 
the notes to the Mordekhai, Gittin 456: "And 1 Samuel the un- 
worthy," and Yevamot 111: "And see there in Ha-Mordekhai ha- 
Katan which I compiled"; it is possible, however, that not all 
the notes were compiled by him. The question of the author 
of the minor halakhot (zizit, mezuzah, Sefer Torah, and tefil- 
lin) in the Mordekhai is not yet clear. H.J.D. Azulai pointed out 
that Mordecai b. Hillel was not their author and that they did 
not occur in the Mordekhai. Zunz's conclusion that the author 
is Samuel because they are found in Ha-Mordekhai ha-Katan 
is not reliable, because, although it is certain that the minor 
halakhot found their way into the Mordekhai from it, it is not 
indisputable that Samuel was the author. An inscription in the 
Oxford manuscript (Neubauer, Cat, no. 672) of Ha-Mordekhai 
ha-Katan seems to indicate that Samuel was the author. It 
states: "The Alfasi and the Mordekhai did not compile works 
on the minor [tractates] . In consequence I, the unworthy, have 
done so . . ."; so too in the inscription on another such manu- 
script (Oxford 673). Nevertheless, the notes on the minor hala- 
khot are certainly by Samuel and they contain allusions to his 

notes on the Mordekhai (no. 968) and vice versa (Mordekhai 
Haggahah Shab. 456, end of ch. 2). Jacob Weil (Responsa, 147) 
mentions a responsum written by Samuel. 

Samuel's grandson, Abraham's son, compiled a work 
called Shem ha-Gedolim, containing biographical and biblio- 
graphical information (published by I. Benjacob in the collec- 
tion Devarim Attikim, 2 (1846), 7-10). 

bibliography: E. Carmoly, La France Israelite (1858), 138-44; 
Graetz-Rabbinowitz, 6 (1898), i4f.; Graetz, in: mgwj, 24 (1875), 
408-10; M.S. Kohn, ibid., 26 (1877), 429-32, 477-80, 517-23 (= Sinai, 
14 (1944), 38-45); Zunz, in: hb, 9 (1869), 135; Zunz, Ritus, 215; Neu- 
bauer, Cat, nos. 672, 673, 675, 676, 2444; N. Coronel, Hamishah Kun- 
teresim (1864), mb-2b; M. Wiener, in: Achawa Vereins-Buch fuer 
1867-5627, 110-3; J- Freimann (ed.), Joseph b. Moses, Leket Yosher, 
2 (1904), introd. 35 no. 73; H. Frankel-Goldschmidt (ed.), Joseph of 
Rosheim, Sefer ha-Mikneh (1970), 15-18 (introd.), 7-9, 24-29; Weiss, 
Dor, 5 (19 04 4 ), 174 f. 

[Shlomoh Zalman Havlin] 

SCHLIEFER, SOLOMON (1889-1957), rabbi of the Great 
Synagogue in Moscow. Schliefer was born in Aleksandrovka, 

Ukraine, where his father, Jehiel Mikhel Schliefer, officiated as 
rabbi. In the yeshivah of Lida he was a disciple of the founder 
of *Mizrachi, Rabbi Isaac Jacob *Reines, and, after being or- 
dained as rabbi, he married Reines' granddaughter. After his 
father's death Schliefer became rabbi of Aleksandrovka, where 
his wife and son died of starvation during the civil war after 
the 1917 Revolution and his mother and brothers were mur- 
dered by Ukrainian nationalists. For a time during the early 
stages of the Soviet regime, Schliefer made his living as an ac- 
countant, but in 1922 he settled in Moscow and became sec- 
retary of the Great Synagogue congregation. Eventually he 
was appointed rabbi and chairman of the congregation and 
was very skillful in steering his way between the obligatory 
contacts with the Soviet authorities and his devotion to Ju- 
daism, to the congregation, and to the many Jewish refugees 
who fled to Moscow during World War 11 from various parts 
of the country. 

Though careful not to serve as a tool of the official propa- 
ganda line on Jewish matters, Schliefer could not avoid sign- 
ing a statement of several prominent Soviet Jews against the 
"aggression" of Israel during the Sinai Campaign, published 
in Izvestiya (Nov. 29, 1956). At that time he also received per- 
mission from the authorities to print - for the first time un- 
der the Soviet regime - a Jewish prayer book (3,000 copies). It 
consisted of photostated pages from pre -revolutionary prayer 
books, from which any reference to wars and victories (as, 
e.g., in the Hanukkah benedictions) were omitted. Schliefer 
called it Siddur ha-Shalom ("Peace Prayer Book," instead of 
the customary Siddur ha-Shalem, "complete prayer book"). He 
also printed for members of his congregation a Jewish calen- 
dar for the year 5717. Shortly before his death he opened and 
headed, with official authorization, the only legal yeshivah in 
the U.S.S.R., under the name Kol Ya'akov, which was located in 
the synagogue building. Under his successor, Rabbi Judah Leib 
*Lewin, a small number of ritual slaughterers were trained 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



there, many of them from the Georgian Soviet republic. His 
son moses (by his second wife), who served as an officer in 
the Soviet army, was killed at the front in 1943. 

SCHLOESSINGER, MAX (1877-1944), scholar and Zionist 
worker. Schloessinger, born in Heidelberg, was educated at 
the Universities of Berlin and Vienna, at the Israelitische Leh- 
ranstalt Vienna, and at the Berlin Hochschule fuer die Wis- 
senschaft des Judentums. In 1903 he moved to New York as 
office editor of the Jewish Encyclopaedia. The following year 
he was appointed librarian and instructor at Hebrew Union 
College, Cincinnati, but resigned in 1907 following a dispute 
over Zionism. Returning to Germany, he began a successful 
import-export business. Shortly after the outbreak of World 
War 1 he moved to Holland for business reasons, and then 
settled in Palestine. 

Schloessinger was active in Zionist work in Holland, 
serving as director of the Jewish National Fund. His friend- 
ship with J.L. *Magnes when both were students in Berlin led 
him to a close identification with the work of the Hebrew Uni- 
versity. Schloessinger served as a member of the university's 
board of governors from its inception, and at various times 
acted as deputy to Magnes in the office of chancellor. In rec- 
ognition of his contributions to the study of Islamic Jewish 
literature, Schloessinger was made a fellow of the University 
School of Oriental Studies. Owing to ill health, he moved to 

New York in 1939. 

[Sefton D. Temkin] 

SCHLOSSBERG, JOSEPH (1875-1971), U.S. trade union 
leader and journalist. Born in Koidanovo (now Dzerzhinsk), 
Belorussia, he went to the U.S. in the 1880s and worked in the 
sweatshops of the needle trade in New York City. The harsh 
and degrading working conditions among the immigrants in 
these places led him to join the radical left wing of the Amer- 
ican socialist movement. He challenged Joseph *Barondess 
for leadership of the garment workers and broke with Mor- 
ris *Hillquit, Meyer *London, and Abraham *Cahan over 
socialist policies and tactics. When Hillquit, London, and 
Cahan left the socialist labor party in 1898 and formed the 
more moderate socialist party, Schlossberg remained loyal to 
the revolutionary socialist labor party and edited the party's 
weekly Der Arbeyter. In 1913, during the strike of New York 
City men's tailors, Schlossberg supported the tailors against 
their parent organization, the United Garment Workers of 
America (ugwa), which opposed the strike. As a result of the 
conflict with the ugwa's national officials, the tailors formed 
their own local organization, the Brotherhood of Tailors, and 
elected Schlossberg secretary. In 1914 Schlossberg's supporters 
seceded from the ugwa convention and founded the Amal- 
gamated Clothing Workers of America (acwa). The new or- 
ganization elected Sidney *Hillman president and Schlossberg 
secretary- treasurer, and for the next 25 years they proved an 
able and successful team. As secretary-treasurer he adminis- 
tered the organization's accounts, edited the union's journal 

Advance and its seven foreign-language journals, and wrote 
books and pamphlets on the programs of the acwa, strenu- 
ously advocating social reform. 

In 1940 Schlossberg resigned from office and devoted his 
time to community and Zionist affairs. Following the estab- 
lishment of the State of Israel he worked for the *Histadrut, 
the Israel General Federation of Labor in the U.S., and became 
chairman of the American National Committee for Labor 
Israel. He believed that Israel's labor movement could achieve 
the socialist community that had eluded him in America. 

bibliography: Rejzen, Leksikon, 4 (1929), 670-2. 

[Melvyn Dubofsky] 

Polish talmudist. Schmelkes studied under his uncle Isaac 
*Schmelkes, rabbi of Lemberg. Although he was ordained rabbi 
in his youth and considered an outstanding talmudist, he at first 
refused to accept rabbinic office and engaged in business. When 
his business failed, however, he was appointed in 1893 rabbi of 
Przemysl, but the appointment was not officially recognized by 
the government. In 1898 he was appointed rabbi of Kolomyya, 
but his experiences there were difficult. In 1904 he returned to 
Przemysl and this time was recognized as chief rabbi. He was 
one of the few rabbis in Poland who officially joined the Zionist 
movement, and he played an active role in Zionist congresses. 
Schmelkes distinguished himself by his activities in the diffi- 
cult period through which Galician Jewry passed during World 
War 1. When he was expelled from Przemysl during the war, 
he refused to leave until the last Jews had departed. For a time 
he stayed in Vienna, returning to Przemysl in 1917. One of his 
sons, Moses, died in Siberia. Schmelkes had great influence 
both in hasidic circles and among the maskilim. 

Most of his works in manuscript were lost, and only a 
small section of his novellae and sermons entitled Imrei Re- 
gesh (Piotrkow, 1931) was published. Supplements to them - 
Masoret ha-Shas (Talmud cross-references) - arranged by him 
were preserved; some of them were published by J.L. Maimon 
(see bibliography). 

bibliography: A. Cahana, Divrei Zikkaron (1933); J.L. 
Maimon, Middei Hodesh be-Hodsho, 4 (1958), 137-8; Sefer Przemysl. 

[Itzhak Alfassi.] 

SCHMELKES, ISAAC JUDAH (1828-1906), talmudic scho- 
lar of Galicia. Schmelkes was born in Lemberg and was the 
son of Hayyim Samuel Schmelkes, claiming descent from 
Eleazar b. Samuel Schmelke *Rokeah (see introduction to Beit 
Yizhak, Or ah Hayyim, Przemysl, 1875). A pupil of Joseph Saul 
ha-Levi *Nathanson, head of the local bet din, he was hailed 
in his youth as a brilliant talmudic student. He served as head 
of the bet din in a number of towns before being appointed in 
Lemberg, where he remained until his death. His Beit Yizhak 
(6 vols., 1875-1908), on the four parts of the Shulhan Arukh, 
was widely acclaimed. His opinion on halakhic questions was 
sought by many prominent contemporary scholars. 

[H.D. Modlinger] 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


SCHMELZ, USIEL OSCAR (1918-1995), demographer. Born 
in Vienna, Schmelz settled in Erez Israel in 1939. From 1958 
he headed the demographic and social divisions of the Cen- 
tral Bureau of Statistics, and from 1961 was Research Fellow in 
Jewish Demography at The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. 
Among his publications are Jewish Demography and Statistics; 
1920-1960 (1961), a bibliography, and Criminal Statistics in 
Israel (1962-64). He was co-editor of Jewish Population Studies, 
1961-1968 (1970), to which he contributed A Guide to Jewish 
Population Studies. He was Encyclopaedia Judaica departmen- 
tal editor for demography of contemporary Jewry. 

SCHMERLING, LOUIS (1912-1991), U.S. organic chemist, 
born in Milwaukee. Schmerling spent his working career with 
Universal Oil Products Company and did research in the field 
of hydrocarbon chemistry. He took out over 200 patents relat- 
ing to catalysts, petroleum conversion, petrochemicals, insec- 
ticides, and flameproofing intermediates. 

°SCHMID, ANTON VON (1765-1855), Christian publisher 
of Hebrew books in Vienna and patron of Hebrew literature. 
Apprenticed to the court printer Kurzbeck, Schmid was sent 
to the Oriental academy to study Hebrew. In accord with the 
policy of Joseph 11 to eliminate foreign competition in Hebrew 
publishing, he was sent to Lvov (Lemberg) to learn typeset- 
ting. Schmid showed efficiency and rapidly rose to be man- 
ager of the Hebrew department. Thereafter, he established 
himself as an independent printer of Hebrew books, greatly 
benefiting from an 1800 ordinance prohibiting the import of 
Hebrew books by Jews who were themselves excluded from 
the publishing business. His books, which gained a deserv- 
edly high reputation, were bought in the Jewish centers of 
Galicia and Hungary, as well as abroad. Schmid later began 
publishing books in other Oriental languages and in 1823 was 
ennobled. He published the standard works, the Babylonian 
Talmud and Shulhan Arukh, as well as halakhic works and 
Jewish philosophy. 

He employed Jewish typesetters and proofreaders, mainly 
from Galicia, who were granted special residence permits in 
Vienna. Among them were many luminaries of Haskalah 
literature: Salomon *Loewensohn, Samson *Bloch, Samuel 
*Romanelli, Judah Leib ben Ze'ev, Meir Obernik, and others. 
In 1820 Schmid encouraged Shalom ha-Cohen to publish the 
first volume of a yearbook, *Bikkurei ha-Ittim ("First Fruit of 
the Times"), an important element in the development of the 
Haskalah movement in Austria. Schmid was also the first to 
print *Kerem Hemed, the most important scholarly journal 
of the time. He donated a collection of all the Hebrew books 
he had published to the Vienna Jewish community (1814), 
which became the nucleus of the communal library. The firm 
was continued by his son Franz, who eventually sold it to the 
father of Isidor * Bush. 

bibliography: M. Grunwald, Vienna (1936), index; H.D. 
Friedberg, Toledot ha-Defus ha-Ivri (1937), 94-101; K. von Wurzbach, 
Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, 30 (1875), 209-12; 

A. Yaari, Diglei ha-Madpisim ha-Ivriyyim (1944), 97, 174-5; A.F. Pri- 
bram, Urkunden undAkten zur Geschichte derjuden in Wien, 2 (1918), 
380; B. Wachstein, in: Die hebraeische Publizistik in Wien (1930), xvff. 
(first pagin.); R.N.N. Rabinowitz, Maamar al Hadpasat ha-Talmud, 
ed. by A.M. Habermann (1952), 128-9, x 33> 1 4°- add. bibliogra- 
phy: R. Julius, in: Jewish Book Annual, 51 (1993-94), 195-202. 

[Henry Wasserman] 

SCHMIDT, JOSEPH (1904-1942), singer. Schmidt was born 
in Davideni, Bukovina. During World War 1 his family set- 
tled in Czernowitz, where he began singing in the synagogue 
choir and soon embarked on concert appearances. Parallel 
with these he became cantor in Czernowitz, and later at the 
Leopoldstadt Synagogue in Vienna and at the Adas Yisroel 
Synagogue in Berlin. Despite the extraordinary brilliance of 
his lyrical tenor voice, a stage career proved almost impossi- 
ble, since Schmidt was only 4 feet 10 inches tall. His impresa- 
rios found the means of overcoming this difficulty by building 
his career on radio concerts, recordings, and operetta films in 
which his stature was raised by adroit camera work. Schmidt 
became one of the major European stars in the field of oper- 
etta and light music, and his recordings were bestsellers of the 
period. He also appeared successfully in England, the United 
States, France, and Belgium, and visited Palestine in 1934. In 
1940 he was saved from arrest by gentile friends during the 
German invasion of Belgium and brought through France to 
Switzerland. Interned in a refugee camp ("Auffangs-Lager") 
in Gyrenbad, he contracted a serious throat ailment but was 
refused special treatment and admission into the regional 
hospital. He subsequently died in the camp. The quasi-auto- 
biographical film Ein Lied geht um die Welt, in which he had 
starred, was reissued with scant success in 1952. 

bibliography: Baker, Biog Diet, s.v.; C. Ritter, Ein Lied geht 
um die Welt (1955), a novel; K. and G. Ney-Nowotny, Joseph Schmidt; 
das Leben und Sterben eines Unvergesslichen (1963). 

[Bathja Bayer] 

SCHMIDT, SAMUEL MYER (1883-1965), newspaper edi- 
tor, medical director, and representative of the Va'ad Hatzalah. 
Schmidt was born in Kovno, Russia (later Kaunas, Lithuania). 
His family came to Boston in 1896; Schmidt, one of six chil- 
dren, attended public school for a year, then worked at a vari- 
ety of odd jobs to help him support the family. In 1899, he was 
offered a job in a rubber factory. There, he lost his right arm in 
a grinding accident but was determined not to be defeated by 
his disability. After trying a number of businesses, he prepared 
himself to enter mit in 1907. He majored in biology and public 
health and graduated in 1911. While in school he volunteered 
in settlement houses in Boston, teaching Americanization 
classes to new immigrants. In 1913 Schmidt was appointed as 
an industrial health inspector and also director of the Boston 
Evening Center, carrying on his settlement work. Through 
an acquaintance with Boris *Bogen, (a national social work 
leader), he came to Cincinnati for one year to serve as super- 
intendent of the Jewish Settlement. He returned to Boston, but 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



the following year, joined the Joint Distribution Committee s 
(jdc) Zionist Medical Unit in Palestine, assigned especially 
to the problems of sanitation, cholera, and malaria. In 1919, 
he returned to the U.S., then accepted the call of the jdc and 
went to Poland as a member of the first relief unit. From 1921 
to 1923, he served as medical director for Poland. 

In 1926, he returned to Cincinnati to help organize the 
Wider Scope Program (later, Hillel). Schmidt published a 
manual on Jews and Jewish history for students. That same 
year he decided to establish a newspaper; the Every Friday 
was to serve as "a mirror of Jewish life in Cincinnati," reflect- 
ing the whole spectrum of Jewish life and opinion in the city. 
The paper underwent its vicissitudes with financial problems 
during the Depression, and competition with another Jewish 
paper which sought to undermine its circulation, but Schmidt 
persevered, and the paper continued weekly publication for 
almost 40 years. 

In 1939 an editorial by Schmidt about the uprooting of 
Talmudic academies in Eastern Europe caught the attention of 
Rabbi Eliezer ^Silver, head of the Union of Orthodox Rabbis 
and the Orthodox leader of the Cincinnati community. Silver 
prevailed on Schmidt to go to Lithuania as a representative of 
the Va'ad Hatzalah, to bring rescue and relief to the rabbis and 
students of the Eastern European yeshivot who had gathered 
in Vilna. So honored by this commission and impressed with 
the piety and purity of the rabbis he met, Schmidt determined 
to become a "whole Jew" and undertake a serious program of 
study and practice when he returned to Cincinnati. 

When the war ended, Schmidt returned once more to 
Europe to give comfort and sustenance to the survivors of 
the Holocaust in the displaced persons camps. He described 
his reaction to these encounters in articles he sent home to 
the Every Friday. His readers back home were thus made in- 
tensely aware of the tragedy of the European Jews. On October 
3, 1965, Samuel Schmidt collapsed and died in the presence of 
500 friends and family members, at his own testimonial din- 
ner in Cincinnati. 

[Nancy Klein (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHMIEDL, ADOLF ABRAHAM (1821-1914), Austrian 
rabbi and scholar. Born at Prossnitz (Prostejov), Moravia, 
Schmiedl served as rabbi in Gewitsch, Moravia (1846-49); 
then as Landesrabbiner at Teschen, Silesia (to 1852) and later 
at Bielitz (Bielsko), Prosnitz, and Vienna. 

Among his published works are Studien ueber juedische, 
insbesondere juedisch-arabische Religionsphilosophie (1869), 
Saadia Alfajumi und die negativen Vorzuege seiner Religi- 
onsphilosophie (1870), and Die Lehre vom Kampf urns Recht 
im Verhaeltniss zum Judentum und dem aeltesten Christen- 
tum (1875). He also published two volumes of homilies on 
the Pentateuch (Sansinim y 1859, 1885) and Lekah Tov (Dutch 
translation, 1866). 

SCHMOLKA, MARIE (1890-1940), Czech leader of the Jew- 
ish women's movement and social worker. Marie Schmolka 

(nee Eisner), who was born in Prague, became associated with 
the Czech democratic movement and alienated herself from 
Judaism. After the death of her husband, a lawyer in Prague, 
she toured the Near East, and her visit to Palestine reawak- 
ened her attachment to Judaism. Upon her return to Prague, 
she joined the Zionist Organization, the wizo, and the Jew- 
ish Party, of which she soon was one of the central figures. In 
the early 1930s she was the moving spirit in the establishment 
of the relief committee for the Jews of *Subcarpathian Ruthe- 
nia. In 1933 she was the initiator and director of the committee 
assisting Jewish refugees from Germany and later became the 
director of *hicem. She subsequently took the central role in 
the relief campaign for Nazi victims, both Jews and non-Jews, 
and acted as the chairman of the coordinating committee of all 
the refugee organizations. She often attended the conferences 
of international committees in Geneva, Paris, London, and 
*Evian, as well as Jewish conferences dedicated to social and 
national causes. Her struggle on behalf of Jewish refugees who 
were stranded in no-man's-land (the narrow strip between the 
1939 German and Czechoslovak borders) attracted worldwide 
attention. When Hannah *Steiner, the president of the Czech 
wizo, was arrested on the day after the German occupation 
of Prague in March 1939, Marie Schmolka presented herself to 
the Gestapo and declared that she was responsible for all the 
activities of the relief committee. She was arrested and impris- 
oned for about two months in the notorious Pankrac prison. 
After her release, she resumed her work. In August 1939 she 
was authorized by the Nazi authorities to travel to Paris and 
London for negotiations to accelerate Jewish emigration from 
the Protectorate of Bohemia -Moravia. When World War 11 
broke out, she established herself in London, where she was 
active on behalf of the Czechoslovak Jewish refugees and ex- 
iles. There she died suddenly, in March 1940, and was eulo- 
gized by Jan *Masaryk. 

bibliography: Marie Schmolka Society of Women Zion- 
ists from Czechoslovakia, In Memoriam... (1944); wizo, Saga of a 
Movement; Wizo: 1920-19/0 (1970), 236-8; C. Yachil, Devarim al ha- 

Ziyyonut ha-Czekhoslovakit (1967). 

[Chaim Yahil] 

SCHNABEL, ARTUR (1882-1951), pianist and teacher. A 

prodigy, born in Lipnik, Moravia, Schnabel studied in Vienna 
with Leschetitzky and from 1925 taught at the Hochschule 
fuer Musik in Berlin. He appeared as a soloist in the cities 
of Europe and on U.S. tours and also became widely known 
as a chamber- music player, especially with the violinist, Carl 
Flesch. When the Nazis came to power he settled in Switzer- 
land and held, at Lake Como, master classes that acquired 
international fame. During World War 11 he lived in the U.S. 
Schnabel was a noted interpreter of Mozart, Schubert, and 
Brahms, and his readings of Beethoven were considered the 
most authoritative of his time. His playing was intellectual and 
contemplative rather than emotional. He was also a composer 
in a modernistic, atonal style, his compositions including a 
symphony, a piano concerto, orchestral and chamber music, 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


and songs. He edited Beethoven's piano sonatas with an un- 
precedentedly detailed commentary, and also the Beethoven 
piano-violin sonatas jointly with Flesch. He wrote Reflections 
on Music (1933), Music and the Line of Most Resistance (1942), 
and My Life and Music (1961). 

bibliography: C. Saerchinger, Artur Schnabel, a Biogra- 
phy (1957). 

SCHNAITTACH, village in Bavaria, Germany. Although a 
Jew is first mentioned in 1498 at a trial in Schnaittach, some 
Jews presumably settled there long before that date. In 1505 
an organized community is documented which by 1529 main- 
tained a rabbi, a synagogue, and a cemetery (the oldest Jew- 
ish tombstone is from 1423). Six to 12 families resided there 
in the 16 th century. During the Thirty Years' War (1618-48) 
Schnaittach suffered frequent pillage. A number of i8 th -cen- 
tury * Court Jews came from Schnaittach, among them Selig- 
man Loew and Anschel Levi. In 1747 there were 49 tax-paying 
families. A new cemetery was opened in 1833, and the ancient 
synagogue was restored in 1858 and again in 1932. The Ortho- 
dox community reached its peak in 1837, numbering 262 (17.6% 
of the population) and then declined to 175 in 1867; 53 in 1900; 
and only 42 in 1933. On Nov. 10, 1938, during Kristallnacht, 
the synagogue was desecrated (scrolls and other sacred ob- 
jects were rescued by some sa men), but its historical value 
saved it from arson. By January 1939 the community no lon- 
ger existed. The community has continued to maintain three 
cemeteries, although there were no Jews residing in the village 
in 1971. From 1985 to 1996 the building complex of the former 
synagogue, the ritual bath, and the rabbi's and cantor's house 
were restored. Since then, it has housed a remarkable exhibi- 
tion on rural Jewish life in south Germany, presented by the 
Jewish Museum of Franconia (which has sites in Fuerth and 

bibliography: fjw, 283; pk Bavaria, add. bibliogra- 
phy: M. Hildesheimer, The History of the Kehilat Schnaittach, vol. 
1-3 (1980); W. Tausendpfund and G. Wolf, Die juedische Gemeinde 
von Schnaittach (Mitteilungen. Altnuernberger Landschaft, vol. 30, 
3) (1981) ; Germania Judaica, vol. 3 (1987), 1327-29; T. Harburger, Die 
Inventarisierung juedischer Kunst- und Kulturdenkmaeler in Bayern, 
vol. 3 (1998), 677-87; B. Purin, Juedisches Leben in Schnaittach (1999); 
idem, Judaica aus der Medina Aschpah. Die Sammlung des Juedischen 
Museums Franken in Schnaittach (2003). websites: www.aleman-; 

[Larissa Daemmig (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHNAPPER, BER (1906-?), Yiddish poet. Born near Lem- 
berg, the son of a poor cobbler, he was associated with the 
Galician Neo-Romantics whose center was Lemberg. His first 
book of lyrics Opshoym ("Scum," 1927) was influenced by his 
townsman, the poet M.L. *Halperin. In gray images and pessi- 
mistic tones, it depicted the small, decaying villages with their 
crooked streets and crumbling houses. In his last lyric collec- 
tions, Mayn Shtot ("My City," 1932), Mayse un Lid ("Story and 
Poem," 1934), and Bloe Verter ("Blue Words," 1937), the mood 
was more nostalgic. "Lid tsu a Shtekn" ("Song to a Cane"), 

written on the eve of World War 11, when Polish hooligans 
were attacking Jews with their canes, is an expression of the 
Jewish people's protest to heaven that a tree branch designed 
by God to blossom was being transformed by man into a club 
with which to split skulls. New poems continued to appear 
in journals into 1940. It is not clear when and where he died. 

bibliography: M. Ravitch, Mayn Leksikon (1945), 264-6. 

ADD. BIBLIOGRAPHY: LNYL, 8 (1981), 748 

[Melech Ravitch / Jerold C. Frakes (2 nd ed.)] 

rabbi. Born in New York City, Schneeberger obtained his B. A. 
and M.A. degrees from Columbia College. After receiving 
his rabbinical degree in 1871 from Rabbi Israel Hildesheimer 
in Berlin, he returned to New York in 1872 to become rabbi 
of Congregation Poel Zedek and one of the first native-born 
rabbis in the U.S. From 1876 until his death he served at Con- 
gregation Chizuk Amuno in Baltimore. He was active in local 
Hebrew education, the American Jewish Committee, and the 
Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of the United States 
and Canada. In addition he helped found the Jewish Theo- 
logical Seminary in 1886 and translated the Book of Ezekiel 
for the Jewish Publication Society Bible translation (1917). He 
was the author of The Life and Works of Rabbi Yehuda Hanasi 
(1870) and contributed articles to the Jewish Messenger and 
the American Hebrew. 

bibliography: Goldman, in: ajhsq, 57 (1967), 153-90. 

[Israel M. Goldman] 

SCHNEERSOHN, family of hasidic leaders; descendants of 
the zaddik Shneur Zalman of Lyady, the founder of Chabad 
Hasidism (popularly known as *Lubavitch). (See Chart: 
Schneersohn Family). For details see *Shneur Zalman of Ly- 

SCHNEERSOHN, ISAAC (1879-1969), communal leader in 
Russia; founder of the ^Centre de Documentation Juive Con- 
temporaine (cdjc) in France. Born in Kamenets-Podolski, 
Russia, of the ^Schneersohn hasidic family of Lubavitch rabbis, 
he completed his studies in 1905, and became *kazyonny rav- 
vin y first in Gorodnya and then in Chernigov. He was instru- 
mental in the founding of several mutual aid organizations, 
cooperatives for Jewish artisans, and old-age homes. He also 
contributed to the improvement of the Jewish school system. 
In Russia, Schneersohn was a member of the moderate lib- 
eral Russian party, the Constitutional Democrats ("Cadets"). 
From 1916 to 1918 he was a member of the town council, later 
deputy mayor, of Ryazan. Schneersohn arrived in France in 
1920 where he became an industrialist but pursued his Jew- 
ish social work as well. During World War 11, as a refugee in 
southern France, he founded the Centre de Documentation 
Juive Contemporaine (cdjc) within the underground move- 
ment in Grenoble (1943). He became its founding chairman 
and presided over it until his death. After the liberation of 
France, the cdjc became a vital institute for the research of 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 




d.c. 1790 




"ha-Tanya" GD 

of Lyady 

of Lubavich GD 

d. 1792 ® d.c. 1800 

d. 1876 GD of Cherkassy 


d. 1861 GD "Zemah Zedek" 




of Ovruch GD 


of Kopys 



of Lyady 



of Nezhin 







of Kopys 


of Rechitsa GD 



of Boburisk 

of Lyady GD 


I d. 1942 1866-1920 

1882-1971 iSV 1880-1950 


1902-1994 ^ 

the Holocaust. By 1969, it had published 42 historical volumes, 
all of which are prefaced by Schneersohn. In 1952, Schneer- 
sohn launched the idea of a memorial to the unknown Jewish 
martyr. Despite many obstacles, this memorial was inaugu- 
rated in Paris on Oct. 30, 1956. Schneersohn's memoirs on the 
Russian period of his life were published in 1967 in Yiddish, 
under the title Lebn un Kamffun Yidn in Tsarishn Rusland 
1905-1917, Zikhroynes. 

bibliography: Le Monde Juif, 25 no. 54 (1969), 1-11. 

[Leon Czertok] 

hasidic rabbi, head of the Chabad-Lubavitch movement and a 
central figure in the world of Torah, Hasidism, and Kabbalah. 
Schneersohn was the seventh generation, in direct male de- 
scent of *Shneur Zalman of Lyady, the founder of the move- 
ment and the dynasty. 

Schneersohn's main teacher in Jewish studies was his fa- 
ther, R. Levi Isaac Schneersohn, who was rabbi of Yekateri- 
noslav (now Dnepropetrovsk) in southern Russia, while his 
mother Hannah, the daughter of R. Meir Solomon Yanovsky, 
rabbi of Nikolaev, took care of his general education which 
included Russian, French, and mathematics. In 1924 he be- 
came engaged to his relative Hayyah Mushka, daughter of R. 
Joseph Isaac Schneersohn, then leader of Chabad. 

Following the intervention of various governments, his 
future father-in-law was permitted to leave Soviet Russia in 
1926, together with all the immediate members of his family, 
but Menachem Mendel was refused permission. As a result of 
strenuous efforts by his future father-in-law, however, he was 
enabled to come to Warsaw in 1929, where the marriage took 
place. It was already hinted at the wedding that R. Joseph Isaac, 
who had no sons, had designated Menachem Mendel as his 
successor, and after the marriage he began to instruct him for 
his future role, especially in the manuscripts of the previous 
Chabad leaders, only a few of which had been revealed to the 
followers of the movement. 

Menachem Mendel also continued with his secular stud- 
ies and in 1936 came to Paris, where he studied philosophy at 
the Sorbonne and graduated in electrical engineering, after 
which he returned to Warsaw. In 1940 R. Joseph Isaac suc- 
ceeded in escaping from war-torn Warsaw, and after an ad- 
venturous journey arrived in New York. There he immediately 
took steps to rescue his son-in-law, who finally arrived in New 
York in 1941, where he obtained a position as an electrical en- 
gineer in the United States Navy. 

In 1944 his father-in-law appointed him to head the Ke- 
hath Publishing House which began to publish the basic books 
of the Chabad doctrine. Menachem Mendel embellished the 
books with a wealth of quotations, explanations, and com- 
ments which revealed his comprehensive knowledge, partic- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


ularly in the field of Kabbalah and Hasidism. In 1946 he was 
appointed head of the Merkos l'lnyonei Chinuch of the Habad 
movement and, under his direction, there were established 
throughout the world yeshivot and schools, both for boys and 
girls, in the spirit of Chabad Hasidism. 

Immediately after the death of his father-in-law (Jan. 28, 
1950 - Shevat 10, 5710) R. Menachem Mendel was appointed 
his successor. From then on he devoted himself to the devel- 
opment of the Kabbalist philosophy of Chabad Hasidism and 
energetically applied himself to spreading Jewish knowledge 
throughout the world. From his small office at 770 Eastern 
Parkway, Brooklyn, he exercised control over hundreds of ed- 
ucational institutions, and to his headquarters there streamed 
pilgrimages of his admirers and those who sought answers to 
problems affecting the Jewish world, the State of Israel, or the 
world of religion as a whole, particularly in the sphere of re- 
ligious mysticism. The "Rebbe," as he was universally known, 
laid down clear directives on all subjects. 

R. Menachem Mendel displayed an ambivalent attitude 
towards the State of Israel; on the one hand he supported the 
doctrine of the right to the whole of the historic territory of 
the Land of Israel and forcefully objected to the surrender of 
any part of it, and on the other hand he vigorously criticized 
the way of life in Israel and negated the system of education 
prevailing there and even designated the State as part of the 
Diaspora (galut). Nor did he encourage his followers to go on 
ally ah. He waged a constant battle on the question "Who is 
a Jew?" forcefully insisting that only a person converted ac- 
cording to halakhah can be recognized as such. In the sphere 
of religious observance he demanded the wholehearted and 
meticulous observance of halakhah as well as of all customs 
sanctified by Jewish tradition. His followers are obliged to de- 
vote themselves to "spreading the fountains outside" by dem- 
onstrating both on the highways and public places in the large 
cities, as well as in small and neglected centers, in such details 
as the donning of phylacteries, the kindling of Sabbath lights, 
pronouncing the benediction over the lulav, the sounding of 
the shofar, the eating of matzah shemurah, etc. These activi- 
ties are organized as "military operations," with a fleet of ve- 
hicles which are known as "mitzvah tanks." From the Merkos 
l'lnyonei Chinuch there emerge streams of books, pamphlets 
and journals, designed for all age groups, in Hebrew, Yiddish, 
English, French, Russian, Arabic, German, and Turkish. 

The "Rebbe" did not venture abroad and did not visit 
Israel. A modern, up-to-date communications center was 
installed at his headquarters, and from it all his talks were 
broadcast to over 30 communities throughout the world. R. 
Menachem Mendel vigorously denied the validity of scientific 
theories on the eternity of the world and published articles in 
which he denied that in fossils or even in archaeological ar- 
tifacts there is any evidence to support it. He also adamantly 
opposed interfaith discussions or compromises in Jewish prac- 
tice, but maintained that every Jew has to be attracted through 
love and affection towards observance of Judaism. 

[Shmuel Avidor Hacohen] 

Although never declaring himself to be the Messiah, 
the fact that the Rebbe was unequivocally of the opinion that 
these were messianic times led many in Lubavitch to imag- 
ine that the Rebbe himself was the Messiah. By 1990, a cult of 
personality swelled around the Rebbe. Sidewalk vendors sold 
postcards, hasidic tracts, and every conceivable souvenir im- 
printed with the Rebbe's face. Some Hasidim took the dollars 
the Rebbe was in the habit of handing out and laminated the 
Rebbe's face over George Washington's. The messianic excite- 
ment was strongest in Crown Heights and Kefar Habad. By 
distinct contrast, the Rebbe's thousands of emissaries outside 
Crown Heights almost unanimously tried to distance them- 
selves from the messianism and downplayed its significance. 

In 1993, Schneersohn suffered a stroke that left him 
speechless and increasingly isolated from his Hasidim, with 
rare appearances limited to his wheelchair being perched on 
a balcony above the synagogue in 770 Eastern Parkway. When 
he was sighted, his Hasidim below the balcony would often 
erupt into messianic song, and imagined that the speechless 
Rebbe nodded his head in approval. There were occasional at- 
tempts by some Hasidim to get the Rebbe to "reveal himself." 
But one of the Rebbe's closest aides in his secretariat, Rabbi 
Yehuda Krinsky, always insisted that the Rebbe, while deeply 
committed to the messianic idea, never encouraged or wanted 
the speculation that he was the presumptive Messiah. 

Schneersohn's death punctured the messianic balloon, 
though it is estimated that about a quarter of the hard-core 
believers in Crown Heights and Kefar Habad continued to 
maintain that Schneersohn might yet be the Messiah, despite 
his death, a belief that became a lightning rod for criticism 
from the rest of the Jewish community, including fierce criti- 
cism from the Rebbe's emissaries as well. 

After the Rebbe's death, the focal point for many of 
Schneersohn's followers became his grave in Queens, known 
as the "Ohel," where the Rebbe shared an open-roofed mauso- 
leum in the Lubavitch plot in Old Montifiore Cemetery with 
his predecessor and father-in-law. 

In an atmosphere that evokes the Western Wall, pilgrims 
to the grave come around the clock to recite Psalms, light can- 
dles, and bring letters requesting the Rebbe's intercession in 
Heaven. Chabad supporters purchased several private homes 
in the Cambria Heights section of Queens, just yards from 
Schneersohn's resting place, for a visitors center, a medita- 
tion area, study halls, and offices for support staff. Requests 
for the Rebbe's blessings continue to be sent every day by e- 
mails or faxes from around the world. On anniversaries spe- 
cial to Chabad, or on the eve of Jewish holidays, the visitors 
number well into the thousands. 

[Jonathan Mark (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHNEIDER, ALAN (Abram Leopoldovich Schneider; 

1917-1984), U.S. theatrical director. Born in Kharkov, Russia, 
Schneider taught drama at Catholic University, Washington, 
d.c. He staged Saroyan's Jim Dandy in 1941, and works by 
Shakespeare, Moliere, Chekhov, and Wilder before becoming 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



artistic director of the Arena Stage in Washington. He pro- 
duced Waiting for Godot in 1956 and, after meeting Edward 
Albee in i960, he directed all of Albee's plays, including Who's 
Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1962), for which he won a Tony 
Award. He also directed plays by Harold Pinter. 

Schneider was nominated for four other Tonys for Best 
Director: The Ballad of a Sad Cafe (1964); Tiny Alice (1965); A 
Delicate Balance (1967); and You Know I Cant Hear You When 
the Waters Running (1968). 

Schneider wrote Theatre Profiles (1982) and Entrances: An 
American Directors Journey ', which was published in 1986. 

add. bibliography: H. Maurice, (ed.), No Author Better 
Served: The Correspondence of Samuel Beckett and Alan Schneider 

SCHNEIDER, ALEXANDER (1908-1993), violinist. Born in 
Vilna, Schneider became leader of the Frankfurt Symphony 
Orchestra. Immigrating to the United States in 1933, he joined 
the Budapest Quartet as second violinist until 1944, and again 
from 1957, and formed several other chamber music ensem- 
bles. Together with the cellist Pablo Casals, he established the 
annual festivals held at Prades in the Pyrenees from 1950 on- 
ward and in Puerto Rico from 1957. He conducted at these fes- 
tivals and also visited Israel for the summer music festivals. 

SCHNEIDER, IRVING (1917- ), U.S. real estate owner, 
philanthropist. Schneider graduated from the City College of 
New York in 1939 and spent all his professional career in real 
estate. For 50 years, Schneider was with Helmsley- Spear, ris- 
ing to executive vice president and longtime partner of Harry 
Helmsley, the real estate magnate, in New York City. When 
Helmsley died in 1997, Schneider and Alvin Schwartz, who was 
married to Dorothy Spear, became co-chairman of the firm, 
which had its heyday in the 1960s and 1970s. But in the early 
years of the 21 st century, the firm still managed 86 buildings, 
including the Empire State Building. Schneider, with Schwartz 
and Helmsley, owned a great deal of property in Manhattans 
garment district and numerous office buildings. In May 1996 
Helmsley- Spear was managing about 28 million square feet in 
107 buildings in New York. After her husband's death, Leona 
Helmsley, who succeeded him, agreed to sell Helmsley- Spear 
to Schneider and Schwartz, ending a lawsuit they had brought 
against her, charging that she had tried to strip the company of 
assets, lowering its potential value to them. Helmsley- Spear s 
interests included stakes in the Helmsley Park Lane Hotel, 
the St. Moritz, the Starrett- Lehigh Building, and the Lincoln 
Building. Schneider and his wife were noted for their philan- 
thropic support of two medical facilities for children, the Sch- 
neider Children's Medical Center of Israel in Petah Tikvah, the 
most advanced pediatric hospital in the Middle East, and the 
Schneider Children's Hospital in New Hyde Park, n.y. Sch- 
neider was vice chairman of the Association for a Better New 
York, vice president of the Realty Foundation of New York, 
an honorary trustee of the City College Fund, a life trustee 
of the u j a- Federation of New York, a member of the United 

Hospital Fund's President's Council and a board member of 
Tel Aviv University. He was a member of the board of gover- 
nors of the Jewish Agency, a trustee of the Health Insurance 
Plan and vice chairman of National uja. In 2004 Schneider 
gave $15 million to Brandeis University for its Heller School 
for Social Policy and Management to provide space for the 
Schneider Institute for Health Policy to expand its education 

and research agenda. 

[Stewart Kampel (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHNEIDER, MATHIEU (1969- ), U.S. hockey player, two- 
time nhl All-Star, U.S. Olympic team and Team U.S.A. mem- 
ber. Born in Manhattan and raised in New Jersey, Schneider 
was introduced to hockey at a young age by his father, who 
was an amateur hockey player and coach. A talented defender 
with solid offensive skills, Schneider was drafted by the Mon- 
treal Canadiens out of high school in the third round of the 

1987 draft. After two seasons training in the Ontario Hockey 
League and being named an ohl First Team All-Star in both 

1988 and 1989, Schneider was ready for service in the nhl, 
quickly becoming one of the Canadiens' top-scoring defen- 
semen and a key component of their 1993 Stanley Cup team. 
Over the course of his 18 -year career with six different teams 
through 2006, Schneider proved to be one of the most dura- 
ble hockey players, and is only the eleventh American-born 
defenseman in nhl history to play in over 1,000 games. On 
November 26, 2005, Schneider registered a hat trick, becoming 
the first Detroit defenseman to accomplish the feat in 20 years. 
His skills on the ice have earned him a number of honors, in- 
cluding being named an All-Star in 1996 and 2003, a member 
of the U.S. Olympic team in 1998 and 2006, a member of Team 
U.S.A. in 1996 and 2004, and an alternate captain of the n.y. 
Islanders in 1996 and the l.a. Kings in 2001-3. 

[Robert B. Klein (2 nd ed.)] 

grammarian. Schneider was born in Ligum close to Shavli, 
Lithuania, In addition to his comprehensive knowledge of 
Bible, Talmud, and Hebrew grammar, he also acquired a broad 
knowledge of classical literature and engaged in research in the 
Latin and Greek languages. His main occupation was in the 
sphere of Hebrew language. From an early age he maintained 
himself by teaching and from 1896 lived in Vilna, where for 
many decades he was a leading figure in Zionist activity and 
education. He began to publish from 1888 (in Ha-Zefirah) ar- 
ticles on educational topics, and in 1889 he published in Vilna 
an educational book, Beit ha-Sefer, which later appeared in 
several parts and numerous editions. As a result of this occu- 
pation he began linguistic research. 

At first he published critical studies of many known 
grammar books in the periodicals Ha-Shiloah, Ha-Tekufah, 
Ha-Zefirah, Ha-Zeman, Tarbut, Haolam and Ha-Yom, and 
then commenced to publish his magnum opus in which he 
summarized his life's work in research into the language - 
Torat ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit be-Hitpattehutah ha-Historit me- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


Reshitah ad ha-Zeman ha-Aharon (vol. 1, pt. 1, historical sec- 
tion, 1923, 19282; pt. 2, Torat ha-Kol (phonetics), 1924; pt. 3, 
Torat ha-Tavnit (morphology), first half 1924, second half 
1925; vol. 2, Torat Shimmush ha-Lashon (syntax), pts. 1 and 2, 
1939-40; pt. 3 was not published). He edited the periodicals 
Li-Sheelot ha-Yom (1919), Mehkerei Lashon 1920), and Zera- 
mim (1932). 

He continued working on his book in the ghetto of Vilna 
during World War 11. He was killed in Punar. 

bibliography: His autobiography, in: Hadoar, 21 (May 8, 
1942); I. Klausner (ed.), Sefer Yovel ha-Esrim shel ha-Gimnasyah ha- 
Ivrit... be-Vilna (1936), 51-54. memoirs: M. Dworzecki, Yerusha- 
layim de-Lita ba-Meri u-va-Shoah (19512), 29-30; S. Vardi, in: Lesho- 
nenu, 11 (1941-43X 305-6; Z. Har-Zahav, Dikduk ha-Lashon ha-Ivrit, 

1 (i95i)> 250-1. 

[Getzel Kressel] 

SCHNEIDERMAN, HARRY (1885-1975), U.S. editor and or- 
ganization executive. Born in Saven, Poland, he was taken to 
the U.S. in 1890. From 1909 until his retirement in 1949 he was 
a member of the staff of the American Jewish Committee and 
functioned as its chief administrative officer from 1914 to 1928. 
He also undertook important editorial work, notably as editor 
of the American Jewish Year Book from 1920 to 1948. 

In addition to editing numerous periodicals and refer- 
ence works, he also compiled The Jews in Nazi Germany (1933, 
1935 2 ) and was coeditor of the Contemporary Jewish Record 
(1938-45), and chairman of the editorial board of Who's Who 
in World Jewry (1955, 1965 2 ). Schneiderman was a founder and 
officer of the Jewish Book Council of America. 

[Harry J. Alderman] 

SCHNEIDERMAN, ROSE (1882-1972), U.S. labor union 
organizer and executive; sister of Harry Schneiderman. She 
was born in Saven, Poland, and taken to New York City in 
1890. She soon went to work in a store, and later in a factory, 
and in 1903 she helped to organize the United Cloth, Hat, 
Cap and Millinery Workers Union. In 1904 she became its 
secretary and a member of its national executive board. She 
also helped organize the White Goods Workers Union and 
was in charge of its general strike in 1913. From 1914 to 1917 
she was a general organizer of the International Ladies Gar- 
ment Workers Union. Schneiderman was a delegate to the 
First National Working Women's Congress in Washington in 
1918, to the Peace Conference in Paris in 1919, and to the In- 
ternational Congress in Vienna in 1923. Deeply involved in 
Farm Labor politics, she was that party's candidate for the U.S. 
Senate from New York in 1920. Schneiderman was president 
of the Women's Trade Union League from 1918 until her re- 
tirement in 1949, serving as labor adviser to several national 
labor and government agencies. She wrote (with Lucy Gold- 
thwaite) All for One (1967), an account of her work in the 
labor movement. 

SCHNIRER, MORITZ TOBIAS (1861-1941), physician and 
early Zionist. Born in Bucharest, from 1880 Schnirer lived in 

Vienna, where he qualified as a doctor in 1887. In 1882 he was 
among the founders of the *Kadimah society, the first nucleus 
of the Zionist movement in Austria. He joined * Herzl upon 
the latter's first appearance and assisted in preparations for the 
First Zionist Congress, the introduction of the ^shekel, and the 
founding of the * Jewish National Fund. He was also the mov- 
ing spirit behind the drawing up of the first constitution of the 
Zionist movement. Schnirer accompanied Herzl on his trip to 
Erez Israel to meet Kaiser William 11 (1898) and was a member 
of the Zionist Executive until the Fourth Zionist Congress. The 
lecture he delivered at the First Congress formulated what was 
to remain the basic policy of political Zionism on settlement 
in Erez Israel for many years, i.e., that settlement activities 
should not be continued until the Zionist movement received 
a charter for that purpose. Disagreement with Herzl and the 
demands of his medical practice prevented Schnirer from con- 
tinuing to play an active role in the movement, although he 
remained in close contact with the Zionist Organization. He 
had a very large practice, and his medical textbooks (among 
others Encyklopaedie der praktischen Medizin (1906-09) and 
Taschenbuch der Therapie... (1925) ran into many editions. 
He also served as the editor of professional journals in Ger- 
man and French for several decades. He committed suicide 
together with his wife during World War 11. Schnirer's remi- 
niscences of his Kadimah days were published by N. Sokolow 
in Hibbat Zion (1935). 

bibliography: L. JafFe, Sefer ha-Congress (1950 2 ), 359-60; N. 

Sokolow, Hibbath Zion (Eng., 1935), index; T. Herzl, Complete Diaries, 

ed., by R. Patai, 5 (i960), index. 

[Getzel Kressel] 

SCHNITTKE, ALFRED (1934-1998), composer. The son of 
a German Jewish father and a German mother, Schnittke was 
born in Soviet Russia. His first music studies between 1946 
and 1948 were connected primarily with Vienna, where his 
father was working after World War 11. He then absorbed the 
Austrian- German culture that marked him for the rest of his 
life. However, he was also educated in Russia. He studied in 
1949-53 at the Choirmaster Department of the October Revo- 
lution Musical College, Moscow, now the Schnittke Institute; 
and in 1953-58 he studied composition at the Moscow Con- 
servatory. After having taught instrumentation at the Moscow 
Conservatory (1962-72), he became a freelance composer and 
between 1962 and 1984 wrote 66 film scores as well as concert 
and theater works. His early compositions, like the oratorio 
Nagasaki (1958), were influenced by the Russian tradition of 
19 th century music. In the 1960s Schnittke himself studied 
the Western music of the 20 th century that was formerly for- 
bidden in the U.S.S.R. but at that time already tolerated. A 
great sensation of the 1970s was the 1974 premiere of his First 
Symphony, a polys tylistic work following the traditions of 
Mahler and Berio in a highly individual way. The symphony 
was banned immediately after the first performance and re- 
mained so until Gorbachev came to power (1985). Being al- 
ways uncommitted to the official Soviet ideology, Schnittke 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



expressed his Christian religious beliefs in many of his works, 
including the Second Symphony (1979), which followed the 
Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Mass. In his Fourth Sym- 
phony (1983), Schnittke strove, in his own words, "to find the 
general in the dissimilar," while using melodic elements from 
Russian Orthodox, Gregorian, Protestant Lutheran, and syn- 
agogue chant and combining them in the final section of the 
work. From 1990 he lived in Hamburg (Germany), where he 
taught composition at the Hochschule fuer Musik und Theater. 
He was the recipient of several honors, including the Russian 
State Prize (twice, 1986 and 1995) and awards from Austria, 
Germany, and Japan. 

bibliography: ng 2 ; A. Ivashkm, Alfred Schnittke (1996); A. 
Ivashkin (ed.), Schnittke Reader (1999). 

[Yulia Kreinin (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHNITZER, ADOLF (1889-1989), Swiss jurist. Born and 
educated in Berlin, Schnitzer left Germany in 1933. After 
World War 11 he was a professor of German law at Geneva 
University and a consultant on international law. He was an 
authority on private international law and published numer- 
ous books and articles including Handbuch des Inter nation- 
alen Privatrechts (1958 4 ). 

SCHNITZER, SHMUEL (1918-1999), Israeli journalist. Born 
in The Hague, Schnitzer immigrated to Palestine in 1939. He 
entered journalism first at Yedioth Aharonoth, but left it for 
Maariv in 1948 in the so-called "putsch" led by Dr. Azriel 
* Carlebach. With their sharp analysis, his polemics attracted 
a loyal readership. He was appointed editor of Maariv in 
1980, but his term was marked by a sharp, continuing drop 
in Maariv s circulation, and in 1985 he was replaced as editor 
by Iddo Dissentchik but continued to write his column until 
the day he died. In 1997 the Israel Prize committee canceled 
its decision to award Schnitzer the prize for journalism after 
the Press Council ruled that a column Schnitzer had written 
in 1994 about Ethiopian Jews, which accused the Israeli gov- 
ernment of permitting the aliyah of "thousands of apostates 
carrying dangerous diseases," was racist. 

[Yoel Cohen (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHNITZLER, ARTHUR (1862-1931), Austrian playwright 
and author. Schnitzler s father, Professor Johann Schnitzler 
(1835-1593), was an eminent Viennese throat specialist. Since 
his patients included dramatic and operatic stars, young 
Schnitzler was in constant contact with theatrical life and 
began writing plays while still a youth. After qualifying as 
a physician at the University of Vienna, he edited the medi- 
cal journal Internationale klinische Rundschau (1887-94). His 
own professional articles dealt mainly with psychotherapy, 
and his friend Sigmund *Freud later paid tribute to his po- 
etic intuition. 

In 1893 Schnitzler published a collection of seven short 
plays titled Anatol after the central character, an elegant phi- 
landerer. The book had a prologue in verse by Hugo von *Hof- 

mannsthal. His first full-length play, DasMaerchen (1894), was 
a failure, but Liebelei y produced in 1895 at the Viennese Burg- 
theater, proved so successful that Schnitzler decided to devote 
himself almost entirely to writing. Reigen (1900), a series of 
interconnected dialogues satirizing conventional love affairs, 
gave rise to a lawsuit in Berlin. (Years later Max Ophuels pro- 
duced Liebelei as a comedy and, after World War 11, turned 
Reigen into the internationally successful film, La Ronde.) 

As Schnitzler grew older, the inconstant bachelor and the 
single girl ceased to occupy the center of his attention, and he 
became increasingly interested in relations between husband 
and wife. In many of his works, especially in the full-length 
plays Der einsame Weg (1904), Zwischenspiel (1906), Der Ruf 
des Lebens (1906), and Das weite Land (1911), he explored with 
growing sensitivity the problems of married life. In groping for 
a satisfactory substitute for the traditional marital relationship 
and for a morality better adapted to 20 th -century psychology, 
he pursued various, amoral bypaths, but ultimately came to 
reject all moral systems, old and new alike. In the years be- 
fore World War 1 his plays were among those most often per- 
formed on the German and Austrian stage. He was also writ- 
ing some of the novellas which were always a favorite genre 
and included Lieutenant Gustl (1901), Casanovas Heimfahrt 
(1918), and Fraeulein Else (1924). 

In 1912 Schnitzler dramatized a problem of medical ethics 
in Professor Bernhardi. In this play a physician, who regards it 
as his duty to relieve the final hours of a dying man, prevents 
a Catholic priest from administering the last rites, fearing that 
this might subject his patient to unnecessary suffering. Since 
the physician is a Jew, he becomes a target for antisemitic at- 
tacks. Here, as in the novel Der Weg ins Freie (1908), Schnitzler 
expressed his views on the place of the Jew in modern life. He 
held that antisemitism was the natural outcome of the Jews' 
historical position as a minority group in every land, and that 
no amount of Jewish or Christian sentimentality would eradi- 
cate anti-Jewish prejudice. He had a positive outlook on the is- 
sue of Jewish survival and derided those Jews who hid their or- 
igin. He prophesied that, as the liberals and Pan-Germans had 
betrayed them, so would the politicians of the left. Schnitzler 
accepted neither Zionism nor assimilation as a solution, be- 
lieving that each individual had to make his own adjustment. 
For himself, he preferred to continue the struggle against his 
enemies in Vienna, where he felt himself at home. 

bibliography: R.H. Allen, An Annotated Arthur Schnitzler 
Bibliography (1966); J. Koerner, Arthur Schnitzlers Gestalten undPro- 
bleme (1921); R. Specht, Arthur Schnitzler (Ger., 1922); W. Mann, in: 
G. Krojanker (ed.),Juden in der deutschen Literatur (1926), 207-18; S. 
Liptzin, Arthur Schnitzler (Eng., 1932); H. Kohn, Karl Kraus, Arthur 
Schnitzler, Otto Weininger; aus dem juedischen Wien der Jahrhundert- 
wende (1962), 13-29; O. Schnitzler, Spiegelbild der Freundschaft (1962); 
H.W. Reichert and H. Salinger (eds.), Studies in Arthur Schnitzler: 
Centennial Commemorative Volume (1963); H. Zohn, Wiener Juden in 
der deutschen Literatur (1964), 9-18; G. Baumann, Arthur Schnitzler 
(Ger., 1965); W.H. Rey, Arthur Schnitzler; die spaete Prosa als Gipfel 
seines Schaffens (1968); H. Kohn, in: ylbi, 6 (1961), 152-69. 

[Sol Liptzin] 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


SCHOCKEN, family active in book publishing, Jewish cul- 
ture, and newspaper publishing in Israel. The family dynasty 
was headed by Salman *Schocken (1877-1959), Zionist, art and 
book collector, and publisher. Born at Margonin, province of 
Posen (now in Poland), in 1901 Schocken, together with his 
brother Simon, founded the I. Schocken Soehne at Zwickau, 
which developed into a prosperous chain of 19 department 
stores. Passionately interested in Judaism, he used his fortune 
to collect rare books and manuscripts, and Jewish works of art. 
In 1929 he founded the Research Institute for Medieval He- 
brew Poetry in Berlin, which edited hitherto unknown medi- 
eval Hebrew manuscripts that Schocken had acquired. 

The Schocken Press 

In 1931 Schocken Verlag was established, becoming an im- 
portant avenue for the publication of Jewish literature in Ger- 
many, with the express aim of educating an assimilating com- 
munity about its Jewish heritage. One of its first authors was 
S.Y. *Agnon, who was patronized by Salman Schocken from 
the first stages of his literary career. In 1934 Schocken him- 
self moved from Berlin to Jerusalem, transferring both the 
Institute for Medieval Jewish Poetry and his library and art 
collections there. In addition to the works of S.Y. Agnon and 
Franz * Kafka, to which Schocken possessed the world rights, 
the press published more than 200 books in Germany, includ- 
ing the works of Martin * Buber, Franz * Rosenzweig, Baruch 
*Kurtzweill, Leo *Baeck, Hermann *Cohen, and Gershom 
*Scholem. Schocken was active in Zionist affairs first in Ger- 
many and later in Palestine, in the Jewish National Fund, and 
on The Hebrew University's Executive Council. In 1940 he 
moved to the United States, and years later moved to Switzer- 
land, where he died. After his death, the Institute for Hebrew 
Poetry and his library and collections in Jerusalem became 
the *Schocken Institute for Jewish Research of the * Jewish 
Theological Seminary of America. 

Following its closure by the Nazis in 1938, the Schocken 
Press was re-established in Tel Aviv. After Salman Schocken's 
departure for the United States with most of his children, the 
Schocken Press in Tel Aviv was managed by his son ger- 
shon "gustav" (1912-1990) until 1970. Gershon, who had 
studied economics at Heidelberg University and the London 
School of Economics, continued the press's orientation to- 
ward high-quality Jewish and Hebrew literature, including 
the works of Nathan *Alterman, Saul *Tchernichowsky, and 
Uri Zevi *Greenberg. In 1962 Dan *Miron, a professor of lit- 
erature (who was married to Yael, the daughter of Gershon's 
brother Gideon Schocken, himself an idf army general), was 
appointed editor of the Schocken Press, and brought Yehuda 
*Amichai's works to the publishing house. But Gershon's in- 
volvement in the Schocken Press took second place to his 
main work as editor in chief of the ^Haaretz newspaper, and 
his seat in the Knesset in 1955-59 f° r the Progressive Party. 
In 1972 Gershon's daughter, raheli edelman (1942- ), a 
graduate in literature and economics, took over the press. The 
middle-sized publishing house became eclectic and financially 

sounder. Edelman branched out to include translations of for- 
eign literature, selective non-fiction (including Shabbetai Te- 
veth's biography of David Ben- Gurion), educational texts, and 
children's books. Contemporary Israeli literature was shunted 
aside. She was chairperson of the Book Publishers' Associa- 
tion of Israel in 1983-94. 

In 1945, five years after his arrival in New York, Salman 
Schocken opened the Schocken Press in New York. It became 
a focus for German Jewish emigres like Hannah *Arendt and 
Nahum * Glazer, who became the press's editor in chief. After 
Salman Schocken's death, his son Theodore and son-in-law 
Herzl Rome took over the press with varying degrees of finan- 
cial success. Among its Jewish authors were Nahum *Sarna, 
Cecil *Roth, Simon *Wiesenthal, Harold *Kushner, Lucy *Da- 
widowicz, and Aharon *Appelfeld. The press, which became 
structurally independent of the Tel Aviv-based Schocken 
Press, expanded from its focus on Jewish books into such fields 
as educational publishing, women's studies, history, literary 
criticism, and the Montessori books as well as cook books, 
particularly as mainstream U.S. publishers began to discover 
the Jewish book market. In 1987 the press was bought by Ran- 
dom House, but it remained as a separate imprint, structurally 
tied to Pantheon Books. 


Gershon Schocken was most remembered as the publisher 
and editor for 51 years of the Haaretz newspaper which grew 
to become an independent quality daily. The financially ailing 
newspaper had been purchased by his father in 1935. Gershon 
continued the intellectual tradition which had characterized 
the paper under Moshe Gluecksohn's editorship. He succeeded 
in stabilizing the paper financially, ending Gluecksohn's prac- 
tice of accepting financial support from Zionist institutions. 

Notwithstanding the need for socio-economic justice in 
the young state, Haaretz under Schocken's editorship favored 
free enterprise, criticizing the excesses of collective social- 
ism which characterized the first 30 years of statehood. After 
the 1967 war, concerned at the demographic threat which the 
annexation of the West Bank and Gaza posed to the Jewish 
character of the state, Haaretz advocated giving up most of 
the territories. In supporting the creation of the Jewish state, 
Gershon Schocken had sought to imbue it with the human- 
istic values that had influenced him in his youth in Germany. 
In the 1950s Haaretz questioned unlimited Jewish aliyah from 
North Africa, favoring a more selective policy. While cherish- 
ing Jewish culture, he opposed theocratic excesses, favoring a 
separation of state and religion, and Jewish pluralism. 

Influenced by the European tradition of quality journal- 
ism, Gershon Schocken assiduously adhered to the separation 
of fact and comment, with the newspaper comprising two in- 
dependent sections, news and opinion. However, this distinc- 
tion was blurred somewhat later in the 1980s and 1990s, as 
Haaretz, like other newspapers, sought to carve out a place for 
itself in an age when television and radio had become the chief 
providers of breaking news, leaving the newspaper to con- 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



centrate on analysis and background. While the newspaper s 
editorial board reflected a spectrum of liberal and left-wing 
secular views, Schocken would use his veto as editor-in-chief 
to determine the line when there were differences of opinion. 
Socially reclusive, he also distanced himself from political 
leaders, with the noted exception of Chaim *Weizmann. In 
the 1940 and 1950s his relations with Ben-Gurion were tense. 
HaaretZy regarded by many as a maverick publication, cham- 
pioned the rule of law and human rights and the exposure of 
official corruption. Yet the paper was a member of the Editor's 
Committee - in effect a mechanism enabling Israeli official- 
dom to win the cooperation of the media on sensitive defense 
and diplomatic matters - and at times Schocken even served 
as its chairman. In 1991 Ariel *Sharon unsuccessfully sued the 
paper and its reporter Uzi Benziman after it accused him of 
deceiving Prime Minister Menachem *Begin during the 1982 
Lebanon war when he was defense minister. 

The arts and literature had a respected place in the news- 
paper, with a weekly Friday literature supplement from 1963, 
as well as another, more popular mid-week version introduced 
in 1995. Schocken himself wrote some poetic works under the 
pseudonym of Robert Pozen. He had attempted unsuccess- 
fully between 1938 and 1942 and in 1948-49 to found evening 
newspapers - Ha-Shaah and Yom-Yom. Haaretz branched out 
to the local newspaper market with the creation of local news- 
papers in Jerusalem (Kol ha-Ir) and Tel Aviv (Ha-Ir) in 1979 
and 1980, respectively, successfully tapping local advertising 
potential. Untypical of local journalism, which was inclined 
towards sensationalism, editorial content in the Schocken 
chain of 14 local newspapers was quality upmarket. 

From the late 1980s, the newspapers heavy style was 
spruced up with the arrival, as deputy editor (and after Ger- 
shon Schocken s death, editor), of Hanoch *Marmori, a graphic 
artist who introduced modern design and oversaw the expan- 
sion of the newspapers size. 

Gershon's son, amos schocken (1944- ), a graduate in 
economics from The Hebrew University and business man- 
agement from Harvard University, had been appointed by his 
father as the Haaretz chain's managing director. He began a 
daily newspaper, Hadashot, in 1983, in an attempt to compete 
with the two major dailies, Yedioth Aharonoth and Maariv. 
Featuring many photos and headlines, the newspaper was 
decidedly anti- establishment. In 1984 the paper was closed 
briefly by the military censor, after it broke censorship reg- 
ulations and printed a photo of an apprehended terrorist in 
the so-called No. 300 bus affair, who was later killed. Ha- 
dashot failed to carve out an audience for itself and, facing 
heavy losses, folded in 1992. With Gershon's death, Amos be- 
came Haaretz publisher. At the turn of the century, Haaretz's 
editorial board was split over the Palestinian intifada, with 
Amos Schocken taking a decidedly left-wing position that 
justified the refusal of Israeli soldiers to serve in the territo- 
ries for reasons of conscience. By contrast, Marmori as edi- 
tor took a centrist position. With the demise of the party po- 
litical press, Haaretz had become the country's only quality 

daily newspaper, with an important role in influencing the 
national agenda. 

In 1997 Schocken established an English-language edi- 
tion of Haaretz^ including a translation of the Hebrew edition, 
and the local printing of the International Herald Tribune. He 
also began English-language and Hebrew-language internet 
newspaper websites drawing on Haaretz's newsgathering re- 
sources. Both developments strengthened Haaretz's standing, 
abroad and at home, beyond its narrow, elitist Hebrew audi- 
ence. But he failed in his bid in the 1990s to branch out into 
the electronic media. 

bibliography: H. Amior, "Haaretz Production: The Ideolog- 
ical Dispute Between the Owner and the Editor," in: Ay in Shevi'it, 47 
(Nov. 2003) (Heb.); I. Elazar, "It's All About Money: Haaretz Changes 
Face," in: Ayin Shevi'it, 55 (March 2005) (Heb.); Katherine McNamara, 
"A Conversation About Schocken Books with Altie Karper," in: Ar- 
chipelago, 5; H. Negid, "The Schocken Tribe," in: Maariv (March 29, 
1991) (Heb.); A. Rubenstein, "A Man of the Twentieth Century," in: 

Haaretz (Jan. 18, 1991) (Heb.). 

[Yoel Cohen (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHOCKEN, SALMAN (1877-1959), Zionist, art and book 
collector, and publisher. Born at Margonin, province of Po- 
sen (now in Poland), in 1901 Schocken, together with his 
brother Simon, founded the concern of I. Schocken Soehne 
at Zwickau, which developed into a prosperous chain of 19 
department stores. Passionately interested in Judaism, as 
well as in all aspects of the mind, he used his fortune to col- 
lect rare books and manuscripts and became a Maecenas of 
general and Hebrew literature. He was patron and publisher 
of S. Y. *Agnon from the first stages of his literary activity. In 
1929 he founded the Research Institute for Medieval Hebrew 
Poetry (under the direction of Hayyim *Brody) in Berlin, 
transferred to Jerusalem in 1934; it was concerned with edit- 
ing hitherto unknown medieval Hebrew manuscripts which 
Schocken had acquired. In the early years of the Nazi rule 
Schocken Verlag, Berlin (1931-38), as a Jewish concern, was 
entitled to publish Jewish authors. Later Schocken established 
publishing houses in Tel Aviv (Hebrew) and New York (Eng- 
lish). In 1934 Schocken moved from Berlin to Jerusalem and 
transferred his library and collections there, but went on to 
the United States in 1940. 

From 1912 to 1945 he was very active in Zionist affairs. He 
was a director of the Jewish National Fund and a member of 
other public bodies. From 1934 to 1945 he was chairman of the 
Executive Council (administration) of The Hebrew University. 
After his death, the Institute for Hebrew Poetry and his library 
and collection in Jerusalem became the *Schocken Institute for 
Jewish Research of the * Jewish Theological Seminary of Amer- 
ica. In 1952 a Festschrift, AleiAyin, was published in his honor, 
containing contributions on biblical and post-biblical Hebrew 
literature and belles lettres by a circle of his friends, including 
Martin Buber, Gershom Scholem, and S.Y. Agnon. 

His son, gershon (1912-1990; see previous entry), 
was the owner and chief editor of the leading morning daily 
Haaretz (from 1939). He was director of the family publish - 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


ing house in Israel and was a Knesset member representing 
the Liberal party (1955-59). 

bibliography: S. Moses, in: ylbi, 5 (1960), 73-104; G. 
Schocken, in: Haaretz (Oct. 18, 1967). 

SCHOCKEN INSTITUTE, scholarly institute in Jerusalem 
which houses the Schocken Library and the Research Insti- 
tute for Medieval Hebrew Poetry The Schocken Library was 
started in Germany at the beginning of the 20 th century by 
Salman *Schocken and grew into one of the largest and most 
important collections of early Hebraica in the world. In 1934 
the library was moved to Jerusalem, to a building especially 
constructed for its purposes by Eric ^Mendelsohn. The collec- 
tion includes 60,000 volumes, among them several thousand 
first and early editions and incunabula (books printed before 
1501; the incunabula are held at the Jewish National and Uni- 
versity Library). 

Starting in the early 1930s, the Research Institute for He- 
brew Poetry collected photographs of poetic *Genizah frag- 
ments from the major libraries of the world. Under the direc- 
tion of H. *Brody, with A.M. *Habermann, J. *Schirmann and 
M. *Zulay, the Institute issued publications in the field of me- 
dieval Hebrew poetry, and seven volumes of studies (Yedibt 
ha-Makhon le-Heker ha-Shirah ha-Ivrit, 1-7 (1933-58)). Of 
special note are M. Zulay's edition of the piyyutim of *Yan- 
nai (1938); H. Brody's edition of Moses *Ibn Ezra's Diwan (2 
vols., 1935-42); A.M. Habermann's edition of the piyyutim of 
*Simeon b. Isaac (1938); and J. Schirmann's anthology of Italian 
Hebrew poetry, Mivhar ha-Shirah ha-Ivrit be-Italyah (1934). 

In 1961 the Schocken Institute became associated with 
the * Jewish Theological Seminary of America. In 1964 E.S. 
Rosenthal became research director of the Institute, and its 
activities were gradually enlarged. An institute for Talmud 
was added, which prepares critical editions of talmudic texts 
and their commentaries. The Institute published a yearbook, 
Perakim. Renewing its activities in the field of medieval po- 
etry under the directorship of J. Schirmann, the Institute pub- 
lished M. Zulay's Ha-Askolah ha-Payytanit shel Rav Saadyah 
Gabn (1964); Sh. Abramson's Bi-Leshon Kodemim (1965); and 
J. Schirmann's Shemuel Romanelli (1969). 

Later activities included the acquisition of the Rabbi 
Moses Nahum Yerushalimsky Collection, consisting of more 
than 25,000 archival items, including more than 6,000 letters 
and 4,000 postcards. The archive contains a wealth of raw 
material on public issues, Jewish education, Jewish law and 
customs, and numerous communal problems of Russian and 
Polish Jewry in the late 19 th century. The library of Saul Lieber- 
mann, one of the leading Jewish scholars of our generation, 
was brought to Israel in the 1989. It consists of over 10,000 
volumes of unique rabbinic and research reference material, 
including many first editions. Liebermann's notes and glosses 
are to be found among many of the book leaves. 

bibliography: H. Brody, in: ymhsi, 1 (1933), ix-xvi; 3 (1936), 


[H. Jacob Katzenstein] 

SCHOEFFER, NICOLAS (1912-1992), sculptor and painter. 
Schoeffer was born in Kalosca, Hungary, and after studying 
at the Academy of Fine Arts, Budapest, he continued at the 
Ecole des Beaux- Arts, Paris. From 1935 he lived permanently 
in Paris. He was one of the leading contemporary exponents 
of kinetic art. While his origins lie in sculpture, his earliest 
important influence was the abstract painting of Mondrian. 
Based on the theory of Cubism, Mondrian's work narrowed 
artistic expression and experience to the interplay of squares 
and right angles and the intensity of a few primary colors. 
Schoeffer concentrated entirely on the right angle, from which 
he developed a theory of "Spatiodynamism." In a lecture at 
the Sorbonne in 1954, he defined this theory as "the construc- 
tive and dynamic integration of space in a plastic work." In 
practice, the art objects based on this theory are metal con- 
structions whose composition creates or suggests illusory 
movement. In due course Schoeffer incorporated transparent 
materials in his work, so that the interplay with solid metals, 
which in turn dissected space rather than encasing or occupy- 
ing it, resulted in a greater lightness and diversity of rhythms. 
One of his most successful essays is the 52-meter-tall "lumino- 
dynamic" tower in Bouverie Park, Liege, which incorporates 
rectangular and highly polished rotating elements to reflect 
light as well as sound. This tower relates to further theories 
of "Luminodynamism" and "Chronodynamism"; the first in- 
volves polished reflective surfaces and the second synchro- 
nized sound effects. Schoeffer made a number of public tower- 
sculptures to illustrate these theories. Audiovisual experiments 
occupied him in later years, in particular the "Musiscope," 
whereby he "played" a keyboard which both makes sounds 
and projects color formations on a screen. He also produced 
a series of brilliant mobile sculptures, usually in transparent 
plastics, which rotate electrically and reflect light. 

[Charles Samuel Spencer] 


(1892-1985), German organic chemist. From 1927 to 1934 he 
was professor of organic chemistry at the Berlin- Charlotten- 
burg Polytechnicum. Forced to leave Germany, he spent three 
years in the department of Medical Chemistry of the Univer- 
sity of Edinburgh, Scotland, and then was professor of chem- 
istry at the University of Cairo until 1957 and director of its 
chemical institute. Returning to Berlin, he was made profes- 
sor emeritus at the Polytechnicum in 1958. 

SCHOENBERG, ARNOLD (1874-1951), composer, teacher, 
and theorist; discoverer of the "method of composition with 
twelve tones related to one another" as he himself described 
it. Born to an Orthodox family in Vienna, Schoenberg be- 
came converted to Christianity in 1898 under the influence 
of Gustav *Mahler. He returned to Judaism, however, on July 
2 4> 1933 > a t a formal religious ceremony in Paris, at which 
one of the witnesses was Marc * Chagall. Schoenberg was ex- 
tremely active on behalf of German refugees during the Nazi 
period. He was a devoted Zionist and in 1951 accepted an in- 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



vitation to head the Rubin Academy for Music established in 
Jerusalem, but his state of health prevented him from taking 
up the appointment. 

In music he was self-taught, except for several months of 
instruction from his friend, the composer Alexander Zemlin- 
sky (1872-1942), who eventually became his brother-in-law. 
The deepest creative influences in his early years were Brahms 
and Wagner, as can be seen in his early string quartet in D 
major (1897), his string sextet Verklaerte Nacht (1899), and 
his gigantic cantata Gurrelieder (1900-11). 

Schoenberg became increasingly free in his treatment 
of dissonance until his work transcended tonality. His piano 
piece Opus 11, no. 1 (1909) is the first composition to dispense 
completely with "tonal" means of organization. There followed 
a series of compositions in which extreme emotionality was 
counterbalanced by extreme brevity. Sometimes, as in Erwar- 
tung (1909) and Pierrot Lunaire (1912), a text helps to provide 
that unity which "classical" tonal means could no longer fur- 
nish. Schoenberg was continually seeking new means of tonal 
organization. After much experimentation he told Josef Ruler 
in July 1921: "Today I have discovered something which will 
assure the supremacy of German music for the next hundred 
years." It was the method of composition with twelve tones 
("dodecaphony"). In this method, a basic row containing the 
twelve notes of the chromatic scale, in an order predetermined 
by the composer, serves as the foundation for an entire compo- 
sition. Schoenberg found this method invaluable for securing 
unity. He used it for the rest of his life, with occasional returns 
to tonality, as in the suite for strings in g major (1934). 

It was many years before Schoenberg won full accep- 
tance as a composer, but in 1925 he was appointed director 
of a master school for musical composition at the Prussian 
Academy of Arts in Berlin. This position was taken from him 
on "racial" grounds in September 1933, and he responded with 
a formal return to the Jewish faith, which he had abandoned 
in his youth. A month later he emigrated to America. After a 
year in Boston and New York, he taught for many years, first 
at the University of Southern California, then at the Univer- 
sity of California in Los Angeles. In America Schoenberg com- 
pleted some of his best works. These include his fourth string 
quartet (1936); Kol Nidre (1939); piano concerto (1942); and 
A Survivor from Warsaw (1947). During this period he also 
wrote four of his theoretical books: Models for Beginners in 
Composition (1943), Structural Functions of Harmony (1954), 
Preliminary Exercises in Counterpoint (1963), and Fundamen- 
tals of Musical Composition (1967). His Style and Idea appeared 
in 1950 and his Letters, edited by E. Stein, in 1964. His Jewish 
loyalties, the Holocaust, and the establishment of the State of 
Israel are strongly reflected in his musical works, in works such 
as Der Biblische Weg, and the cantatas Dreimal Tausend Jahre 
and Israel Lives Again. The texts of these works were written 
by Schoenberg himself, with the exception of that of Dreimal 
Tausend Jahre, which was written by Rabbi Dagobert Runes. 
Three of his great works with religious themes, the cantata Die 
Jakobsleiter, the opera Moses and Aaron, and the cycle of Mod- 

ern Psalms, were unfinished at his death on July 13, 1951. Moses 
and Aaron, however, has been highly successful in its two-act 
form, and this dramatic confrontation of priest and prophet 
may well stand as Schoenberg s strongest work. 

Schoenbergs influence on the music of the 20 th century 
was immense. After World War 11 his technique of composi- 
tion was studied intensively both in Europe and United States, 
after the ban on it during Nazi rule. At the same time, some of 
the postwar avant-garde composers who considered Schoen- 
berg not consistent enough when using his own technique 
preferred to lean on the work of his famous pupil Webern, 
who was more strict in following the rules of dodecaphony. 
However, despite all the debates about Schoenbergs method, 
he is now considered a brilliant innovative mind and one of 
the classics of 20 th century music. 

bibliography: R. Leibowitz, Schoenberg and His School 
(1949); D. Newlin, Bruckner - Mahler - Schoenberg (Eng., 1947), 
209-77; R- Leibowitz, Schoenberg and His School (1949); H.H. Stuck- 
enschmidt, Arnold Schoenberg (Ger., 1951, Eng., 1959); J. Rufer, The 
Works of Arnold Schoenberg (1962); K.H. Woerner, Schoenbergs Moses 
and Aaron (1963); W. Reich, Schoenberg; A Critical Biography (1971); 
mgg; Riemann-Gurlitt; Grove Diet.: Baker, Biog Diet. add. bib- 
liography: ng 2 ; C. Rosen, Arnold Schoenberg (1975); E. Hilmar 
(ed.), Arnold Schoenberg: Gedenkausstellung 1974 (1974); C. Dahlhaus, 
Schoenberg and the New Music (1987); A.L. Ringer, Arnold Schoenberg: 
The Composer as Jew (1990); J. Brand and C. Hailey (eds.), Construc- 
tive Dissonance: Arnold Schoenberg and the Transformations of 20 th - 
Century Culture (1997); A.L. Ringer, Arnold Schoenberg: Das Leben 

im Werk (2002). 

[YuliaKreinin(2 nd ed.)] 

SCHOENE, LOTTE (nee Charlotte Bodenstein, 1891-1977), 
soprano singer. Schoene was born in Vienna, where she stud- 
ied, making her debut at the Volksoper there in 1912. In 1917 
she was engaged at the Vienna Imperial Opera, and sang there 
until 1925, after which year she moved to Berlin. She also sang 
regularly at the Salzburg Festival from 1922 to 1934, her pure 
lyric soprano in Mozart roles winning great admiration. She 
settled in Paris in 1933, and made appearances at the Opera 
and Opera- Comique, but on the outbreak of World War 11 
she went into hiding in the French Alps. In 1945, Schoene 
resumed her career as a concert singer, but retired in 1953 to 

teach singing in Paris. 

[Max Loppert (2 nd ed.)] 

°SCHOENERER, GEORG VON (1842-1921), Austrian anti- 
semitic politician. Schoenerer, the son of a railway entrepre- 
neur and nobleman, was elected to parliament (Reichsrat) in 
1873 after making a name for himself as an energetic estate 
owner who improved the economic and social lot of the peas- 
ants. There he joined the left-wing, radical-democrat national- 
ists and repeatedly shocked the house with his outspoken anti- 
clericalism, anti-Hapsburg views, and demagoguery. In 1878 
he began to air opinions about the allegedly harmful Jewish 
plutocracy and its domination of the press, but his opposition 
to the admission of Jewish refugees from Russian pogroms in 
1882 was unsuccessful. He was supported by Heinrich * Fried- 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


jung and Victor *Adler, who helped him draft the popular 
n-point Linz program (which combined Prussian-oriented 
nationalism, social reform, and semi-socialistic measures). 
Schoenerer added a twelfth point in 1885: "In order to realize 
these reforms, the removal of Jewish influence from all fields 
of public life is indispensable." Despite his continuing popular- 
ity, Schoenerer was never able to forge a stable party organiza- 
tion and was constantly causing rifts in his ranks. On March 
8, 1888, after a drinking bout, he led an assault on the offices 
of the Neues Wiener Tageblatt y which he considered Jewish- 
owned, for prematurely announcing the decease of Emperor 
William 1 of Germany. Despite the support of K. *Lueger and 
others, he was stripped of his title, deprived of his seat for five 
years, and imprisoned. He returned to parliament in 1897 with 
five supporters, and in 1901 his party obtained 21 seats. How- 
ever, his party soon distintegrated and Austrian antisemites 
came to prefer Lueger s clerical and pro-Hapsburg * Christian 
Social Party. 

Schoenerer s ambitions were thwarted by his own intran- 
sigence, self-glorification, and despotic manner, which left him 
isolated politically. His long-term significance for the rise of 
Nazism was decisive. He turned to racism, acclaiming Karl Eu- 
gen *Duehring and other racists, and helped spread the "Voel- 
kische Weltanschauung? Successful in enlisting the support 
of various and often conflicting social strata, he gained main 
adherents from the small-town lower-middle class and was 
extremely popular with the Burschenschaften (see ^Students' 
Associations, German), who formed his bodyguard, uniting 
these elements with his vulgar slogan: What the Jew believes 
is irrelevant, the piggish mess lies in the race. ("Was der ]ude 
glaubt, ist einerlei. In der Rasse liegt die Schweinerei"). 

He was much admired by the Nazis, who, immediately 
after the Anschluss y named a street in the Jewish section of 
Vienna for him; they also promoted Eduard Pichl's study 
on him and, in 1942, held a memorial exhibition in Vienna. 
Schoenerer has importance for historians because he was the 
first to exploit antisemitism in changing the direction of for- 
eign policy and disrupting the internal structure of the state, 
techniques later closely copied by Nazism. 

bibliography: F. Bilger, in: Neue Oesterreischische Biogra- 
phie, (1938), 76-87 (incl. bibl.); O. Karbach, in: jsos, 7 (1945), 3-30; 
D. van Arkel, "Anti-semitism in Austria" (unpublished Ph.D. thesis, 
Leiden University, 1966); C.E. Schorske, in: The Journals of Modern 
History y 59 (1967), 343 ff. add. bibliography: A.G.Whiteside, The 
Socialism of Fools. Georg Ritter von Schoenerer... (1975), index; P. Pul- 
zer, The Rise of Political Anti-Semitism in Germany and Austria (1988), 
index; M. Wladika, Hitlers Vaetergeneration... (2005). 

[Henry Wasserman / Evelyn Adunka (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHOENFELD, JOSEPH (1884-1935), Hungarian Zionist 
and editor of Hungarian/Zionist periodicals. He was among 
the founders of Maccabea, the Zionist students' society in Bu- 
dapest, which was founded on HerzTs initiative in 1903 and 
prepared Hungarian -speaking Zionist leaders for Hungary, 
Slovakia, Transylvania, and North Yugoslavia. From 1912 to 

1914, and then from 1927 to 1935, he was the editor of the or- 
gan of the Hungarian Zionist Federation Zsido Szemle ("Jew- 
ish Review"). His articles defended the Zionist movement 
against opposition, especially by the Jewish weekly Egyenloseg 
("Equality"), which enjoyed the support of the Budapest Neo- 
log community and advanced an assimilationist line. 

Schoenfeld fought for the reunification of Hungarian 
Jewry, which had split into opposing groups - Orthodox and 
Neolog - in 1871. He was a gifted orator, employing humor 
and sarcasm in his speeches. He translated HerzTs Derjuden- 
staat into Hungarian in 1919, and published Vissza a Gettoba 
("Return to the Ghetto," 1919) and Harcban a Zsidosdgert ("In 
the Battle for Israel," 1928), both of which contain a selection 
of his articles on Jewish problems and Zionism in Hungary 
and in general. 

bibliography: H.Z. Zehavi, Me-ha-Hatam Sofer ve-ad Herzl 

(1965), 325-6. 

[Jekutiel-Zwi ZehawiJ 

SCHOENHACK, JOSEPH (1812-1870), Hebrew writer and 
lexicographer. Born in Tiktin, Poland, he wrote one of the 
first works on natural science in Hebrew - Toledot ha-Arez y 
in three volumes (Toledot ha-Hayyim (1841, with commenda- 
tory prefaces by rabbis and maskilim) y Toledot ha-Zemahim y 
and Toledot ha-Muzakim (both 1859), treating, respectively, 
zoology, botany, and mineralogy. The books were schemati- 
cally presented - the names of the animals, plants, and min- 
erals appeared in Hebrew with a German translation (in He- 
brew letters); the text was augmented by many footnotes that 
examined the names of species mentioned in the Bible and in 
talmudic literature. He used a German name only when no 
Hebrew name was available. With the help of Schoenhack, 
Mendele Mokher Seforim determined the names of animals 
in his book Toledot ha-Teva. 

Schoenhack also compiled a dictionary, Ha-Mashbir he- 
Hadash y for the language of the Tar gum, the Talmud, and the 
Midrash (1859) based on the Arukh by *Nathan of Rome, but 
he noted the origin of each word and translated it into Ger- 
man (in Hebrew letters). In 1869 he added to Ha-Mashbir a 
book called Sefer ha-Milluim y in which he added words not 
printed in the Arukh. 

bibliography: Klausner, Sifrut, 4 (1954), 133; Ha-Maggid, 

49 (1870), 388. 

[Yehuda Slutsky] 

SCHOENHEIMER, RUDOLF (1898-1941), German bio- 
chemist. Born in Berlin, Schoenheimer worked in the Insti- 
tutes of Pathology of the universities of Berlin (1922-23) and 
Leipzig (1923-25). He was a leader in the Blau-Weiss Zionist 
Youth Movement. In 1926 he became professor of pathologi- 
cal chemistry at the University of Freiburg. With the advent 
of the Nazi regime, he went to America, as professor of bio- 
logical chemistry at Columbia University (1933-41). His career 
ended in suicide during World War 11. 

Using stable isotopes (particularly deuterium and nitro- 
gen-15) as tracers, he followed the metabolism of cholesterol 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



and of fats through the mammalian body, and his findings led 
to marked changes in the views then held on metabolism. 

bibliography: Clarke in: Science, 94 (1941), 553; Quastel, 

in: Nature, 149 (1942), 15; J.C. Poggendorff, Biographisch-literarisches 

Handwoerterbuch der exakten Naturwissenschaften, 7a (1961), incl. 

bibl. of his works. 

[Samuel Aaron Miller] 

SCHOEPS, HANS JOACHIM (1909-1980), professor and 
scholar of religious history. Schoeps, who was born in Ber- 
lin, emigrated to Sweden in 1938, returning to Germany after 
World War 11. In 1947 he began teaching religious and intel- 
lectual history at the University of Erlangen and was appointed 
professor in 1950. From 1947 he edited Zeitschrift fuer Reli- 
gions-und Geistesgeschichte. While his interests have ranged 
over a wide field, his writings have dealt mainly with earliest 
Christianity. Schoeps' relationship to the Jewish community 
has been a clouded one. Beginning with his early publications 
in the 1930s, Schoeps, a prolific writer, adopted a radical dia- 
lectical Jewish theology which excluded all nomistic as well 
as national-cultural elements, bringing Judaism very close to 
Christianity but stopping short of baptism. His speculative 
theological position, influenced by the writings of the 19 th - 
century Jewish philosopher Solomon Ludwig *Steinheim, was, 
he wrote, acceptable neither to liberals nor Orthodox. More 
significant, however, was his espousal of an extreme German 
nationalism, which led, in the decisive year of 1933, to the con- 
viction that it was possible for the "German Jews," as distin- 
guished from the Eastern European Jews then in Germany and 
the Zionists, to come to terms with the National Socialists. 

Among his books are Theologie und Geschichte desjuden- 
christentums (1949); Aus fruehchristlicher Zeit (1950); and Paul 
(Ger. 1959; Eng., 1961). The Jewish Christian Argument (1965) 
is a useful description of the view of Christianity in the writ- 
ings of Jewish authors. In 1956 he published his autobiography, 
Die letzten dreissig Jahre. In it he noted with regret his failure 
to recognize the true face of Nazism (his own parents died in 
concentration camps). Of Judaism itself he wrote of a hope 
for something completely new that in confrontation with the 
death of the six million might yet emerge. 

bibliography: K. Toepfner (ed.), Wider die Aechtung der 
Geschichte (1969); G. Lindeskog, ibid., 15-18. 

[Lou H. Silberman] 

SCHOLEM (Shalom), GERSHOM GERHARD (1898-1982), 
the most important scholar of Jewish mysticism and a tow- 
ering figure in Jewish intellectual life. Born to an assimilated 
family in Berlin, he was attracted in his youth to Judaism and 
Zionism and studied major Hebrew Jewish texts and Kabbalah 
by himself. After completing a Ph.D. thesis in 1923 on Sefer ha- 
Bahir, he arrived in Israel, and taught at the Hebrew Univer- 
sity, becoming the first professor to devote all his studies and 
teaching to the topic of Jewish mysticism. His achievement in 
surveying all the major stages and writings belonging to this 
topic is staggering. In the difficult times of the 1920s and 1930s, 

he traveled to all the major European libraries and systemati- 
cally studied all the available manuscripts. In 1939 he delivered 
a series of lectures in New York, which became the first com- 
prehensive analysis of the historical and phenomenological as- 
pects of the entire range of Jewish mysticism: Major Trends in 
Jewish Mysticism, which is also his most influential and widely 
read book. One of the chapters of this book, dealing with the 
Heikhalot literature, was complemented by a collection of 
studies printed in New York, under the title Jewish Gnosticism, 
Merkabah Mysticism, and the Talmudic Tradition. 

Building upon his perusal of manuscripts, he published 
from the mid-i920s a series of articles in Hebrew in which he 
identified many anonymous manuscripts, and from 1948, a se- 
ries of analyses about the beginning of Kabbalah. In its most 
elaborated form, it appeared in English posthumously as Or- 
igins of the Kabbalah, translated by A. Arkush and edited by 
R.Z.J. Werblowsky (1987). 

Alongside those studies he identified, published, and an- 
alyzed in detail the main documents pertinent to Shabbatean - 
ism, and in 1957, he published in Hebrew the most important 
synthesis of the historical and religious aspects of the Shab- 
batean movement in the lifetime of * Shabbetai Zevi. Sixteen 
years later, Princeton University Press produced an enlarged 
English version of this book, Sabbatai Sevi, the Mystical Mes- 
siah, translated by R.J.Z. Werblowsky. 

From 1948, Scholem was a permanent participant in the 
Eranos encounters in Ascona, Switzerland, where he lectured 
and interacted with the major scholars of religion of his gener- 
ation, such as Carl G. Jung, Mircea Eliade, and Henry Corbin. 
The lectures he delivered there in German were printed in the 
volumes of Eranos Jahrbuch and collected in two German vol- 
umes, translated into English by R. Manheim as On the Kab- 
balah and Its Symbolism (1969) and On the Mystical Shape of 
the Godhead (1991), and into Hebrew by Joseph ben Shlomo 
as Pirkei Yesod be-Havanat ha-Kabbalah u-Semaleha (1976). 
These studies represent the most important articulations of 
Scholem's phenomenology of Kabbalah, treating seminal mat- 
ters in Jewish mysticism. In 1972 he formulated his last sum- 
mary of his understanding of Kabbalah in the various entries 
he contributed to Encyclopedia Judaica, which were collected 
in the volume Kabbalah (1974). 

The main themes that represent his thought are the emer- 
gence of Kabbalah in Europe in mid-12 th century as the result 
of a synthesis between Gnostic and Neoplatonic elements; 
the rise of messianic interest among the kabbalists after the 
expulsion of the Jews from Spain; the reaction to the trauma 
of the expulsion in the theories of the Safed kabbalists, espe- 
cially the Lurianic one; the spread of this type of messianic 
Kabbalah among wider audiences, which prepared the way for 
the emergence of the Shabbatean movement, and last but not 
least, the assumption that the wide influence of the Shabbatean 
movement had an impact on the emergence of three main 
religious developments since the 18 th century: Hasidism, En- 
lightenment, and Reform. Scholem was especially interested 
in Messianism and dedicated much of his energy to writing 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


seminal studies about the "messianic idea" in Judaism in all 
its forms: see especially The Messianic Idea in Judaism (New 
York, 1972). A leitmotif in his writing is the importance of 
antinomian, paradoxical, and dialectical forms of thought in 
Kabbalah on the one hand, and the absence of mystical union 
in Jewish mysticism, on the other. 

His deep involvement in the intellectual life in Israel 
and in the Jewish world generated numerous articles, most of 
which have been collected in three Hebrew volumes edited by 
Abraham Shapira, and in some English ones. 

Scholem established a school of scholars in Jerusalem 
which he described as historical-critical, and directed a se- 
ries of doctoral theses by renowned scholars such as Isaiah 
Tishby, Efraim Gottlieb, Rivka Schatz-Uffenheimer, Meir 
Benayahu, Joseph ben Shlomo, Amos Perlmutter, Yehuda 
Liebes, and Amos Goldreich. His impact on a long line of 
Israeli and American scholars and intellectuals was tremen- 
dous. Among them we may enumerate Zalman Shazar, S.Y 
Agnon, Isaac Baer, Nathan Rotenstreich, Chaim Wirszubski, 
and R.J.Z. Werblowsky; and in America, Harold Bloom, Rob- 
ert Alter, and Cynthia Ozick. 

Scholem was widely recognized as the leading scholar in 
Judaica in the 20 th century and was accorded numerous prizes 
and honorary titles, among them the Israel Prize, the Bialik 
Prize, and the Rothschild Prize, and served as the head of the 
Israeli Academy of Science and Humanities. 

He wrote an autobiography, From Berlin to Jerusalem , 
and corresponded with many persons, including Walter Ben- 
jamin. Several monographs have been dedicated to his life 
and thought: e.g., David Biale, Gershom Scholem, Kabbalah 
and Counter-History (Cambridge, ma, 1979), and Joseph Dan, 
Gershom Scholem and the Mystical Dimension of Jewish His- 
tory (New York-London, 1988). 

His rich library is indubitably the best one in the field of 
Jewish mysticism, and it became part of the Jewish National 
and University Library, serving as a major resource for stud- 
ies in the field. A catalogue raisonne of his library has been 
printed in two volumes, edited by Joseph Dan and Esther 
Liebes, The Library of Gershom Scholem on Jewish Mysticism 

(Jerusalem, 1999). 

[Moshe Idel (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHOLEM, WERNER (1895-1940), communist politician 
and lawyer. Scholem was the third son of the Berlin printer 
Arthur Scholem and his wife, Betty, and the elder brother of 
Gerhard (Gershom) *Scholem. After a short involvement with 
Zionism, Scholem became a member of the Socialist Party at 
the age of 18. Being attached to the leftist and pacifistic wing 
of the spd, he refused to volunteer for service in World War 1. 
In 1915 he was drafted and was wounded a year later. In 1917, 
while taking part in an anti-war demonstration in uniform, 
he was arrested and accused of high treason, yet was released 
after a few months. Scholem moved to Hannover and married 
a comrade from the workers' movement, Emmy Wiechelt. Af- 
ter the foundation of the uspd (Independent Social Demo- 

cratic Party of Germany) he became editor of the Party's pa- 
per, Volksblatt, in Halle/Saale. In 1921 he became the youngest 
member of the Preussischer Landtag and was appointed to the 
editorial board of the Rote Fahne. He was elected to the Reich- 
stag in 1924 and became a leading figure of the kpd (Com- 
munist Party of Germany). In 1926 he was expelled from the 
Communist Party as a prominent protagonist of the so-called 
"ultra-left" anti-Stalinist opposition. Scholem turned away 
from politics and resumed his law studies, which he finished 
in 1931. After the Nazis came to power, Werner and Emmy 
Scholem were immediately imprisoned, but soon released. In 
April they were arrested again, this time by the Gestapo, and 
accused of high treason. With the help of a friend, Emmy was 
released and managed to escape with the couple's two daugh- 
ters to London in 1934. In 1935 Scholem was interned in the 
concentration camp Torgau, and was transferred to Dachau 
in 1937. On July 17, 1940, Werner Scholem was murdered in 
the Buchenwald concentration camp. 

bibliography: I. Shedletzky (ed.) Mutter und Sohn imBrief- 
wechsel 1917-1946 (1989); M. Buckmiller and P. Nafe, in: M. Buck- 
miller, D. Heimann, and J. Perels (eds.), Judentum und politische 
Existenz (2000), 61-81. M.Triendl and N. Zadoff, in: Freitagi6 (June 

18, 2004), 18. 

[Mirjam Triendl (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHOLES, MYRON S. (1941- ), economist, financier, and 
educator; joint winner of the 1997 Nobel Prize for economics. 
Born in Timmins, Ont., Scholes earned his B.A. in economics 
in 1962 at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont., where he 
had lived since the age of 10. He completed his M.B.A. in 1964 
and Ph.D. in 1969 at the University of Chicago. While working 
on his dissertation, he took a position in 1968 as assistant pro- 
fessor in finance at the Sloan School of Management at Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology (mit). In 1973 Scholes returned 
to the University of Chicago as an associate professor (later pro- 
moted to professor) in the Graduate School of Business; a de- 
cade later, in 1983, he joined the finance and law faculty at Stan- 
ford University's Graduate School of Business and Law School 
and attained his current status of emeritus in 1996. 

Scholes grew up surrounded by family who were in- 
volved in business; in particular, his mother directed him to- 
ward the field and even assisted him with his first investment 
account as a teenager. After his mother's death when he was 
16, he remained mindful of her vision for his future through- 
out his academic years. During his graduate studies he devel- 
oped a passion and dedication for research. 

In his 30 -plus years of teaching, Scholes wrote a vast col- 
lection of articles on economic and finance topics in various 
business periodicals. However, none were more revolution- 
ary than his and Fischer Black's 1973 "The Pricing of Options 
and Corporate Liabilities" in the Journal of Political Economy, 
which introduced their equation on stock options pricing. 
Later that year Robert Merton's similar research culminated 
in his paper "The Theory of Rational Option Pricing" (in the 
Bell Journal of Economics), and the three collaborated to prove 

ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 



their theory in the live market with their 1976 mutual fund, 
Money Market/Options Investment, Inc. The successful results 
caused a dramatic eruption of "derivatives" markets, and its 
usage has not only endured but also led to Scholes and Mer- 
ton's selection as co-recipients of the 1997 Nobel Prize in eco- 
nomics. (Black had passed away in 1995.) 

Among Scholes' many professional affiliations were man- 
aging partner at Oak Hill Capital Management, chairman of 
Oak Hill Platinum Partners, and the American Finance As- 
sociation's president in 1990, as well as serving on the board 
of directors of several corporations. In 1993 Scholes and Mer- 
ton were two founders of the Greenwich, Conn. -based Long- 
Term Capital Management (ltcm), a hedge fund that he left 
not long after its downfall in 1998 (but prior to its liquida- 
tion in 2000). He holds honorary doctoral degrees from the 
University of Paris-Dauphine (1989), McMaster University 
(1990), and Belgium's Katholieke Universiteit Leuven (1998). 
In 1991 he co-wrote with Mark A. Wolfson the book Taxes 
and Business Strategies: A Planning Approach (updated sec- 
ond edition, 2001). 

[Dawn Des Jardins (2 nd ed.)] 

SCHOMBERG, English family, meyer loew schomberg 
(1690-1761), born in Fetzburg, Germany, was one of the first 
Jews to be accepted at a German university, receiving a de- 
gree in medicine from the University of Giessen (1710). He 
subsequently settled in London, and became a member of the 
Royal College of Physicians (1722) and a Fellow of the Royal 
Society (1726). Appointed physician to the Great Synagogue, 
he built up a fashionable clientele. He wrote Emunat Omen in 
1746, criticizing the English Jewish community for its mean 
outlook and defending his own unorthodox way of life. His 
sons ceased to be identified with Judaism, isaac schomberg 
(1714-1780), the eldest, became (after some initial difficul- 
ties) censor of the College of Physicians. His twin, Raphael 
or ralph schomberg (1714-1792), was a notary public as 
well as a physician. He tried his hand at literature and pub- 
lished volumes of poetry and plays which were of poor quality. 
henry schomberg (c. 1715-1755) rose to the rank of lieuten- 
ant colonel in the army. Meyer's youngest son, sir Alexan- 
der schomberg (1720-1804), commanded the ship which 
covered Wolfe's landing at Quebec in 1759 during the British 
conquest of Canada. He served as the model for Hogarth's 
painting A Naval Officer and was knighted in 1777. He was 
the father of Admiral sir Alexander wilmot schomberg 
(1774-1850), naval writer, and probably of isa ac schomberg 
(1753-1813), commissioner and deputy comptroller of the navy 
(1808-13) an d editor of Naval Chronology (1802). Members of 
the family continued to be prominent in British life, particu- 
larly in the navy and army, until recently. However, they had 
no Jewish associations. This family was unrelated to another 
family of British Schombergs, the Dukes of Schomberg and 
their descendants, who were gentiles from Germany. They 
were also prominent in British public life and military affairs 
in the 18 th and 19 th centuries. 

bibliography: A. Rubens, Anglo-Jewish Portraits (1935), 
109-11, 155; P. Emden, Jews of Britain (1943), 83-85; B.G. Sack, His- 
tory of the Jews in Canada, 1 (1945), 44-45, 250; C. Roth, History of 
the Great Synagogue London, 1690-1940 (1950); Samuel, in: jhset, 20 
(1964), 83-100; D.M. Little and G.M. Kahrl (eds.), Letters of David 
Garrick, 3 vols. (1963), index, add. bibliography: odnb online; 

Katz, England, 232-33. 

[Cecil Roth] 

SCHON, FRANK, BARON (1912-1995), British industrial- 
ist. Schon was born in Vienna and educated at the universi- 
ties of Prague and Vienna, where he studied law. After settling 
in England, he founded in West Cumberland the chemical 
manufacturing firm of Marchon Products in 1939 and Solway 
Chemicals in 1943; he was chairman and managing director 
of both until 1967. In 1956 Marchon Products became part of 
Albright and Wilson, of which Schon was a director from 1958 
to 1972; he was a director of Blue Circle Industries (formerly 
Portland Cement) from 1967 to 1982. Schon took a prominent 
part in the public and cultural life of the north of England, 
serving on the council and court of Durham University and 
Newcastle University. He was chairman of the Cumberland 
Development Council from 1964 to 1968. From 1969 to 1979 
he was chairman of the National Research Development Cor- 
poration, a public agency concerned with the promotion of 
inventions in the national interest. He was knighted in 1966 
and created a life peer in 1976. 

bibliography: H. Pollins, Economic History of the Jews in 

England (1982), 220-1 

[Vivian David Lipman] 

SCHONFELD, VICTOR (1880-1930), English rabbi and ed- 
ucator. Schonfeld was born in Hungary. He served as rabbi of 
the Montefiore Society in Vienna until 1909, when he went to 
the North London Beth Hamidrash, which became the Adath 
Yisrael Synagogue in 1911. In 1920 Schonfeld took up an invi- 
tation to become head of the Mizrachi schools in Erez Israel; 
dissatisfied with conditions, he returned to his former post 
two years later. In 1927 he founded the Union of Orthodox 
Hebrew Congregations in England, and in 1929 he established 
the Jewish Secondary Schools Movement. Schonfeld was an 
outstanding preacher and teacher, wielding great influence 
beyond the confines of his congregation, partly through the 
youth society, Ben Zakkai, which he founded. Apart from 
publishing a number of textbooks for religious schools, a vol- 
ume of his sermons and essays was published posthumously 
by his son Solomon (Judaism as Life's Purpose, 1930; a shorter 
edition Life's Purpose, 1956). 

solomon schonfeld (1912-1984) was born in Lon- 
don and succeeded his father in 1933 as rabbi of the Adath 
Yisrael Synagogue, resigning from this post after 25 years' 
service; he also took over as presiding rabbi of the Union of 
Orthodox Hebrew Congregations. Schonfeld became prin- 
cipal of the Jewish Secondary Schools Movement, which he 
successfully expanded after World War 11. Together with his 
father-in-law, Chief Rabbi Joseph *Hertz, he set up the Chief 


ENCYCLOPAEDIA JUDAICA, Second Edition, Volume 18 


Rabbi's Emergency Council, which in 1938-39 brought rabbis 
and other religious personnel to England from Central Europe 
and provided them with positions. Through the same organi- 
zation he saved, both before and after the war - from Poland 
in particular - man