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B'nai B'ritk Women's Grand Lodtfe, District No. 4 


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Mr. & ?4rs. Roy Papermaster 

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Prepared by More than Four Hundred Scholars and Specialists 


Cyrus Adler, Ph.D. {Departments of Post- 
Biblical Antiquities ; the Jews of America) . 

Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D. (Department 
of History from 1492 to igoi). 

Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D. (Department of 
Rabbinical Literature) . 

Richard Gottheil, Ph.D. {Departments of 
History from Ezra to 1492 ; History of 
Post - Talmudic Literature) . 

Joseph Jacobs, B.A {Departments of the 
fews of England and Anthropology ; Revi- 
sing Editor) . 

Marcus Jastrow, Ph.D. (Department of the Talmud). 

Morris Jastrow, Jr., Ph.D. (Department of the Bible), 

Kaufmann Kohler, Ph.D. (Departments of Theology 
and Ph ilosophy ) . 

Frederick de Sola Mendes, Ph.D. (Chief of the 

Bureau of Translation ; Revising Editor). 

Isidore Singer, Ph.D. (Department of Modern 
Biography from fyjo to 1901) . 

Crawford H. Toy, D.D., LL.D. (Departments of 
Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic Literature) . 


Projector and Managing Editor 


(see page v) 




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N.Y. 2, N.Y. 


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/ AQ 



(Departments of Post-Biblical A nticptities; the Jews of 


President of the American Jewish Historical Society ; Librarian* 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 


{Department of History from W'2 to 1901.) 

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 

Ohio ; Editor of M Deborah." 


(Department of Rabbinical Literature.) 
New York ; .Author of "* Die Haggada bei den Kirchenvatern." 


(Departments of History from Ezra to 11*92 ; History of Post- 

Talmudie Literature.) 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia University, New York; 

Chief of the Oriental Department, New York Public Library; 

President of the Federation of American Zionists. 


(Departments of the Jews of England and Anthropology; 

Revising Editor.) 

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical Society of England ; 
Author of "Jews of Angevin England, 1 * etc. 


(Department of the Talmud.) 

Rabbi Emeritus of the Congregation Rodef Shalom, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. ; Author of "Dictionary of the Talmud." 


{Department of the Bible.) 

Professor of SemUie Languages and Librarian in the University 
of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa.; Author of "Relig- 
ion of the Babylonians and Assyrians," etc. 


(Departments of Theology and Philosophy.) 

Rabbi of Temple Beth-El, New York ; President of the Board of 

Jewish Ministers, New York. 


(Chief of the Bureau of Translation; Revising Editor.) 

Rabbi of the West End Synagogue, New York ; Vice-President 

of Board of Jewish Ministers, New York. 


Managing editor. 
(Department of Modern Biography from 1750 to 1901.) 


(Departments of Hebrew Philology and Hellenistic 


Professor of Hebrew in Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.; 
Author of "The Religion of Israel," "Judaism and 

Christianity," etc. 



Rabbi of the Congregation Zichron Ephraim, Dean of the Jewish 

Theological Seminary, New York. 


Rabbi Emeritus of Zlon Congregation, Chicago; Author of " A 
Practical Grammar of the Hebrew Language." 


Rabbi Emeritus of Temple Emanu-Ei, New York. 


Rabbi of Chicago Sinai Congregation, Chicago, III.; Professor of 

Rabbinical Literature and Philosophy, University of 

Chicago ; Editor of the " Reform Advocate." 


Head of the Department of Semitic and Egyptian Literatures, 
Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C. 


Professor of Oriental Languages, University College, Toronto, 
Canada; Author of ** History, Prophecy, and 

the Monuments." 


Rabbi of the Shearith Israel Congregation (Spanish and Portu- 
guese), New York ; President of the Advisory Board of 
Ministers of the Jewish Theological Seminary. 


Professor of Talmudie Literature, Hebrew Union College, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio ; Author of " Introduction to the Talmud/* 


Professor of Hebrew Language and Literature and President of 

Andover Theological Seminary, Andover, Mass.; Author 

of a Commentary on the Book of Judges, etc. 


Rabbi of the Congregation Bene Israel : Professor of Homiietics, 

Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio ; President of 

Hebrew Sabbath School Union of America. 


Professor of Semitic Languages and Literature, University of 
Chicago, III. ; Author of "The Monuments and 

the Old Testament/* etc. 

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Chief or tue Russian Section of The Jewish Encyclo- 

In charge of Slavonic Department* New York Public Library. 


President of Central Conference of American Rabbis; Rabbi of 

Temple Emanu-El, New York. 


of tbe Congregation Emanu-El, San Francisco, Cal.; Pro- 
fessor of Semitic Languages and Literatures, Uni- 
versity of California, Berkeley, Cal. 


Editor of * % The Literary Digest," New York. 



Coeditor of tbe " Jewish Quarterly Review " ; Author of "Jew- 
ish Life in tbe Middle Ages," etc. ; Senior Tutor 
in Jews* College, Loudon, England. 

W. BACHER, Ph.D., 

Professor In the Jewish Theological Seminary, Budapest, 


M. BRANN, Ph.D., 

Professor In tbe Jewish Theological Seminary, Breslau, Ger- 
many : Editor of " Monatsschrift fur Geschichte und 

Wissenscbaft des Judentbums." 

H. BRODY, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Naohod, Bohemia, Austria ; Coeditor of " Zeitschrif t fur 

Hebralsebe Bibliographic" 


Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary, Constantinople, 



Professor of Literary Arabic at the Special School of Oriental 
Languages, Paris, France ; Member of the French Institute. 

Author of " lstoriya Yevreyev," Odessa, Russia. 

« • 


Principal of Jews' College, London, England; Author of "Tbe 

Jewish Religion," etc. 


Professor of Semitic Philology, University of Budapest, Hungary. 


Chief Rabbi of Vienna, Austria. 


St. Petersburg, Russia. 


Chief of tbe Hebrew Department of the Imperial Public Library, 

St. Petersburg, Russia. 


Chief Rabbi of France ; Honorary President of tbe Alliance 

Israelite Universelle ; Officer of tbe Legion 
of Honor, Paris, France. 


Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary ; Corresponding Member of 

Royal Academy of History, Madrid, Spain. 



Professor Emeritus of Psychology, University of Berlin ; Meran, 

a ustria. 


Member of the French Institute : Professor at the Free School 

of Political Science, Paris, France; Author of 

" Israel chez les Nations." 


Professor in tbe Jewish Theological Seminary ; Editor of 
" Revue des Etudes Juives," Paris, France. 


Chief Rabbi of Padua ; Professor of Hebrew at the University, 

Padua, Italy. 


Chief Rabbi of Szegedin, Hungary; Author of "DieAramaischen 



Principal of the Jewish Theological Seminary ; Chief Rabbi of 

Florence, Italy. 

H. OORT, D.D., 

Professor of Hebrew Language and Archeology at the State 

University, Leyden, Holland. 


Formerly Librarian of tbe Reale Biblioteca Palatina, Parma, 



Formerly Professor of History at the Universities of Bonn and 

Brussels; President of the Deutscb-JudJscbe 

Gemeindebund, Berlin, Germany. 


Rabbi in Warsaw, Russia. 


Professor of Hebrew, University College, London, England; 

Reader In Rabbinic, University of Cambridge: 

Author of " Studies in Judaism " 


Secretary-General of the Jewish Colonization Association, Paris, 



Professor of Philosophy, University of Bern, Switzerland ; Editor 
of " Archiv fur Geschichte der Philosophic" etc. 


Professor of Old Testament Exegesis and Semitic Languages, 

University of Berlin, Germany. 


Master of St. John's College, Cambridge, England ; Editor of 

"Sayings of the Jewish Fathers," ete. 


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A. Bii 

A. Co 

A. E 

A. F 

A. G 

A. Go 

A. Ki 

Cyrus Adler, Ph.D., 

President of the American Jewish Historical 
Society ; President of the Board of Directors 
of the Jewish Theological Seminary <>f Amer- 
ica; Assistant Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution, Washington, I). C. 

Alexander Buchler, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Keszthely, Hungary. 

A. Cowley, M.A., 

Oriental Sublibrarian, Bodleian Library, Ox- 
ford University, Oxford, England. 

A. Eckstein, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Bamberg, Bavaria, Germany. 

A. Freimann, Ph.D., 

Editor of the ifc Zeitsehrift fur Hebraisebe 
Bibliographic " ; Librarian of the Hebrew De- 
partment, Stadtbibliothek, Frankfort-on-the- 
Main, Germany. 

Adolf Guttmacher, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Baltimore Hebrew Congregation, Bal- 
timore, Md. 

A. Gornfeld, 

Counselor at Law, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

Alexander Kisch, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Meysel Synagoge, Prague, Bohemia, 

A. M. F Albert M. Friedenberg, B.S., LL.B., 

Counselor at Law, New York City. 

A.P A. Porter, 

Formerly Associate Editor of "The Forum," 
New York; Revising Editor "Standard Cyclo- 
pedia" ; New York City. 

A. Pe A. Peiginsky, Ph.D., 

New York City. 

A. S. I Abram S. Isaacs, Ph.D., 

Professor of Germain Language and Litera- 
ture, University Graduate Seminary, New- 
York City; Rabbi, B"nai Jeshurnn Congrega- 
tion, Paterson, N. J. 

A. S. W A. S. Waldstein, B.A., 

New York City. 

A. Ta Aaron Tanzer, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Hohenems, Tyrol, Austria. 

A. W Albert Wolf, 

Dresden, Saxony, Germany. 

B. Ei Benzion Eisenstadt, 

Teacher, New York City. 

B. *Fr Bernhard Friedberg, 

Frankfort-on-tbe-Main, Germany. 

B. Gr Bernhard Greenfelder, 

St. Louis, Mo. 

B. P Bernhard Pick, Ph.D., D.D., 

Pastor of St. John's Lutheran Church, New- 
ark, N. J. 

C. A. R C. A. Rubenstein, 

Rabbi, Har Sinai Temple, Baltimore, Md. 

C. I. de S — Clarence I. de Sola, 

President of the Federation of Canadian Zion- 
ists; Belgian Consul, Montreal, Canada. 

C. 1# Caspar Levias, M.A., 

Instructor in Exegesis and Talmudic Aramaic, 
Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

C S 


D. L 

D. M. H.. 

D. P 

D. Su 

E, C 

E. Gr. H. . • . 

E, J 

E, K 

E. M. E.... 

E. Ms 

E. N 

E. N. S..,. 

E. Sc 

E. Schr 

E. SI 

F. C 

F. H. V... 

F « u ♦ B* « » 

F. L. C. 

F. S 

F. T. H.. 


..Carl Siegfried, Ph.D., LL.D. (deceased), 
Late Professor of Theology at the University 
of Jena, Germany. 

, . Gotthard Deutsch, Ph.D. , 

Professor of Jewish History, Hebrew Union 
College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

..David Leimdorfer, Ph.D., 
Rabbi, Hamburg, Germany. 

. .D. M. Hermalin, 

Editor of the "Dally Jewish Herald" and 
"Volksadvoeat," New York City; Brooklyn, 
N. Y. 

. .David Philipson, D.D., 

Rabbi, B'ne Israel Congregation; Professor of 
Homiletics, Hebrew Union College, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. 

. David Sulzberger, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

..Executive Committee of the Editorial 

..Emil G. Hirsch, Ph.D., LL.D., 

Rabbi, Sinai Congregation : Professor of Rab- 
binical Literature and Philosophy, University 
of Chicago; Chicago, 111. 

. .Emil Jelinek, 
Vienna, Austria. 

..Eduard Konig, Ph.D., LL.D., 

Professor of old Testament Exegesis, Univer- 
sity of Bonn, Germany. 

..Ezekiel Moses Ezekiel, 
Bombay, India. 

.Edgar Mels, 
New York City. 

..Eduard Neumann, Ph.D., 

Chief Rabbi, Nagy-Kanisza, Hungary. 

..Elvira N. Solis, 
New York City. 

..Emil Schlesinger, Ph.D., 
Rabbi, St. Gallen, Switzerland. 

. E. Schreiber, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Emann-El Congregation, Chicago, 111. 

...E. Slijper, Ph.D., 
Leyden, Holland. 

..Frank Cramer, B.Sc, 
New York City. 

..Frank H. Vizetelly, F.S. A., 

Associate Editor of the "Columbian Cyclo- 
pedia" and of the Standard Dictionary; 
New York City. 

..Frederick J. Bliss, Ph.D., 

New York City. 

.Francis L. Cohen, 

Chief Minister, Sydney, N. S. ^Y., Australia. 

..Flaminio Servi (deceased). 

Late Chief Rabbi of Casale M on ferrato, Italy ; 
Editor of "II Yessillo Israelitico." 

..Frederick T. Haneman, M.D., 
Brooklyn, N. Y. 

..Richard Gottheil, Ph.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages, Columbia 
University, New York ; Chief of the Oriental 
Department, New York Public Library: New 
Y'ork City. 

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G. A. B 

G. D. R 

G. F. M 

G. H. C 

G. L 

H. B 

H. F 

H. Fr 

George A. Barton, Ph.D., 

Pr It-** r f I5ft»in*i .. it raltifv ami Semitic 
laitir u- T ts, linn Maw i ( ollmre, Bryn Mawr, 

George D. Rosenthal, 

\ ittiua Lmrtneer, si. Lo.hs, Mo. 

George F. Moore. M.A., D.D M 

Pi fi» r f 1U< ileal Lilt rain re and tin* His- 
t rs f lMiinon*, Hanard University, Catn- 
\ n I J* , M«'s>. 

. G. Herbert Cone, 

i i • v ral Law. A hany, N. V. 

. .. Goodman Lipkind, B. A., 
Ha hi . V\v Yolk city. 

....H. Brody, Ph.D., 

K,ii»i 1 : i oediior of the "Zeitschrift fur He- 
brawne If ililio^rmpbie *' * Naehod, Bohemia, 


Herbert Friedenwald, Ph.D., 

For rncrly superintendent oft lie Department of 
Manu^-ripts, Library of CongrtsJ;, Washing- 
t« ii. D.C; KeeurdingSeerelaryof the American 
Jr\v>>] Historical Society. Philadelphia, Pa. 

Harry Friedenwald, M.D., 

Piof«*vs. ]• of i >p]nlialiii4ilci£ry and otology, Col- 
lege of Physicians and surgeons, Baltimore, 

H. G. F. 

H. M 

... H. G. Friedmann, B.A., 
New York City. 

... Henry Matter, Ph.D., 

Professor of Talmud and Instructor inJndseo- 
Arabic Philosophy, Hebrew Union College, 
Cincinnati. Ohio. 

H. M. H Henry Minor Huxley, A.M., 

Formerly Assistant Professor of Anthropology 
at Harvard University; Worcester, Mass. 

...Herman Rosenthal, 

chief of the Slavonic Department of the New 
York Public Library. New York City. 

H. R 

H. S 

H. V 

I. B 

I. Be 

I. Ber. 


I. Bro 

I. Co 

I. D 

I. E 

I. G. D 

I. H 

I. L. B 

Henrietta Szold, 

Secretary of the Publication Committee of the 
Jewish Publication Society of America, New 
York City. 

— Hermann Vogrelstein, Ph.D., 

Itabbi. Konigsberg, East Prussia, Germany. 

Isaac Bloch, 

chief Itabbi, Nancy, France. 

— Immanuel Benzing-er, Ph.D., 

Professor of old Testament Exegesis, Uni- 
versity of Berlin, Germany ; Jerusalem. Pal- 

— Israel Berlin, 

( bemist. New York City. 

— Isaac Broyde' (ftfficr Editor), 

Doctor of the University (if Paris, France; for- 
merly Librarian of the Alliance Israelite Uni- 
verse! Ii*, Paris, France; New York City. 

— I. Brock, 

Teaeher, Rogasen, Posen, Germany. 

— Israel Cohen, 

London, England. 

— Israel Davidson, Ph.D., 

Semitic Scholar and Author. New York City. 

. . .Ismar Elbogen, Ph.D., 

Profes-or of History at the Lehranstalt fiir 
die Wlsseiisehaft desjudenthums, Berlin, Ger- 

....I. George Dobsevagre, 
New York < It v. 

....Isidore Harris, A.M., 

Kabbl, West London Synagogue, London, 

. . .1. L. Bril, 

As*or-iate Editor of "The American Hebrew," 
New York < it v. 

I. Lb 

I. M. C... 

I. M. P... 

I. War 

J. Br 

J. D. E... 

J. F 

J. F. McC 

J. F. McL 

J. G. L. . . . 

.Immanuer Low, Ph.D., 

t luef Rabbi, Szeged in, Hungary. 

I. M. Casanowicz, Ph.D., 

Unit ml States National Museum, Washington, 
D. C. 

.Ira Maurice Price, Ph.D., LL.D., 

Professor of Semitic Languages and Litera- 
ture, University of Chicago. Chicago. III. 

Isidor Warsaw, 

Kabbi, Woodville. Miss. 

.Joseph Jacobs, B.A., 

Formerly President of the Jewish Historical 
Society of England ; Corresponding Member 
of the Royal Academy of History, Madrid; 
New York City. 

.J. Brennsohn, Ph.D., 
Mitau, Conrland, Russia. 

. Judah David Eisenstein, 
Author, New York City. 

.Julius Frank, 

Kabbi, oheb Shalom Tteform Congregation, 
Heading, Pa. 

.J. Frederic McCurdy, Ph.D., LL.D., 

Professor of Oriental Languages, University 
College, Toronto, Canada. 

.J. F. McLaughlin, M.A., B. D., 

Professor of Oriental Languages and Litera- 
ture, Victoria College, Toronto, Canada. 

J. G. Lipman, Ph.D., 

Assistant Agriculturist, New Jersey State Ex* 
periment Station, New Brunswick, N. J. 

.Julius Gottlieb, M.A., Ph.D., 
New York City. 

.J. Hessen, 

Counselor at Law, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

.J. de Haas, 

Journalist, New York City. 

.Julius H. Greenstone, 
Itabbi, Philadelphia, Pa. 

.J. H. Hollander, Ph.D., 

Assistant Professor of Political Economy, 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

.Jacques Kahif, 
Kabbi, Paris, France. 

Joseph Lebovich, 

Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

.J. Leonard Levy, Ph.D., 

Kabbi, Kodeph Shalom Congregation, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

.J. L. Lait, 

Journalist, Chicago, 111. 

.Jonas M. Myers, 

Kabbi, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. 

.J. Reach, Ph.D., 

Kabbi, Kaudnitx, Bohemia, Austria. 

.Joseph Sohn, 

Contributor to "The New International En- 
cyclopedia": formerly Musical Critic on the 
New York "American and Journal*'; New 
York city. 

J. S. R J. S. Raisin, 

Kabbi, Gemilut Chesed Congregation, Fort 
Gibson, Miss. 

J. Go 

J. H 

J. de H 

J, H. G 

J. H. Ho. . . . 

J. Ka 

J. Leb 

J . Lt. L. , . . . . 

J. L. La. . . . 

J, M. M 

J. Re 

J. So 

J. Sto 

J. Ta 

J. Z. L 


.Joseph Stolz, D.D., 

Kabbi. Isaiah Temple, Chicago, 111. 

.Jacob Tauber, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Prerau, Moravia, Austria. 

.Jacob Zallel Lauterbach, Ph.D. (Office 

Rabbi. New York City. 

.Kaufraann Kohler, Ph.D., 

Kabbi Emeritus of Temple Beth-El, New 
York; President of the Hebrew Union Col- 
leg**, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

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L. A. R Ludwig A. Rosenthal, 

Rabbi, Rogasen, Posen, Germany. 

L. B Ludwigr Blau, Ph.D., 

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary ; Edi- 
tor of "Magyar Zsido Szemle 1 ' ; Budapest, 

L. G Louis Ginzberg, Ph.D., 

Profe»»sor of Talmud, Jewish Theological Sem- 
inary of America, New York City. 

L. H. G Louis H. Gray, Ph.D., 

Assistant Editor of the M Orientalische Blbllo- 
graphie* 1 ; formerly on the editorial staff of 
"The New International Encyclopedia M ; 
Newark, N. J. 

L. Hii L. Hiihner, A.M., LL.B., 

Counselor at Law, New York City. 

L. Lew Louis Lewin, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Pinne, Posen, Germany. 

L. N. D Lewis N. Dembitz, D.H.L., 

Counselor at Law, Louisville, Ky. 

L. V Ludwig Venetianer, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Ujpest, Hungary. 

L. Wy L. Wygodsky, 

Journalist, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

M. Bu Moses Buttenwieser, Ph.D., 

Assistant Professor of Exegesis, Hebrew Union 
College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

M. Co Max Cohen, 

Counselor at Law, New York City. 

M. Fr M. Franco, 

Principal, Alliance Israelite Universelle 
School, Demotica, Rumelia, Turkey. 

M. Gr M. Grunwald, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Israelitische Kultus-Gemeinde. Vienna : 
Editor of the "Mitteilungen zur Judisehen 
Volkskunde M ; Vienna, Austria.. 

M. H. H M. H. Harris, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Temple Israel of Harlem, New York 

M. J. K......Max J. Kohler, M.A., LL.B., 

Counselor at Law ; Corresponding Secretary 
of the American Jewish Historical Society, 
New York City. 

M. K Meyer Kayserling, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Budapest, Hungary. 

M. Lan Max Landsbergr, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Berith Kodesh Congregation, Roches- 
ter, N. Y. 

M. L. B Moses Lob Bamberger, Ph.D., 

Rabbi ; Lecturer in Rabbinic, Jewish Semi- 
nary, Wiirzburg, Bavaria, Germany, 

M. Lib Morris Liber, 

Rabbi, Paris, France. 

M. Mr M. Margel, Ph.D., 

Rabbi. Pozega, Slavouia, Austria. 

M. My M. Mysh, 

Counselor at Law, St. Petersburg, Russia. 

M. R Max Rosenthal, M.D., 

Visiting Physician, German Dispensary, New 
York City. 

M. Sc Max Sehloessinger, Ph.D., 

Librarian and Lecturer on Biblical Exegesis, 
Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

M. Sch M. Schorr, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Lemberg, Galicia, Austria. 

M. Schl Max Sehlesinger, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Beth Emeth Congregation, Albany, 
N. Y. 

M. Sel Max Seligsohn (Office Editor), 

Doctor of the University of Paris, France; 
New York City. 

M. Sz Moritz Schwarz, Ph.D., 

Chief Rabbi, Raab, Hungary. 

M. W. M....Mary W. Montgomery, Ph.D., 

New York City. 

P. Wi Peter Wiernik, 

Journalist, New York City. 

R. H. K Rosa H. Knorr, 

New York Citv. 

R. Ka R. Kalter, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Potsdam, Prussia, Germany. 

R. N Regina Neisser, 

Author, Breslau, Silesia, Germany. 

R. P Rosalie Perles, 

Author, Konlgsberg, East Prussia, Germany. 

S Isidore Singer, Ph.D., 

Managing Editor. New York City. 

S. F S. Funk, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Boskowitz, Moravia, Austria. 

S. Fu Samuel Fuchs, Ph.D., 

Chief Rabbi, Luxemburg, Luxemburg. 

S. G S. Gundelfinger, Ph.D., 

Darmstadt, Germany. 

S. H. L Sylvan H. Lauchheimer, 

Counselor at Law, New York City. 

S . Hu S. Hurwitz, 

New York City. 

S. J. L S. J. Levinson, 

Brooklyu, N. Y. 

S. K S.Kahn, 

Rabbi, Nimes, France. 

S. Kr Samuel Krauss, Ph.D., 

Professor, Normal College, Budapest, Hungary. 

S. M S. Mendelsohn, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, Temple of Israel, Wilmington, N. C. 

S. Man ,S. Mannheimer, B.L., 

Instructor, Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, 

S. O Schulim Ochser, Ph.D., 

Rabbi, New York City. 

S. S Solomon Schechter, M.A., Litt.D., * 

President of the Faculty of the Jewish Theo- 
logical Seminary of America, New York City. 

T Crawford Howell Toy, D.D., LL.D., 

Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Mass. 

U. C Umberto Cassuto, 

Editor of %% La Rivista Israel idea," Florence, 

V. E Victor Rousseau Emanuel, 

Laurel, Md. 

V. R Vasili Rosenthal, 

Krementchug, Russia. 

W. B Wilhelm Bacher, Ph.D., 

Professor, Jewish Theological Seminary, Buda- 
pest, Hungary. 

W. M. M....W. Max Miiller, Ph.D., 

Professor of Bible Exegesis, Reformed Episco- 
pal Theological Seminary, Philadelphia, Pa. 

W. N Wilhelm Nowack, Ph.D., 

Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Uni- 
versity of Strasburg. Germany. 

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N. B. — In the following list subjects likely to be sought for under various headings are repeated 
under each heading. Cross-references in this list are to other items in the list, not to articles in 
the Encyclopedia. 


Altneuschule, Exterior and Interior Views of the, at Prague 156-158 

America: see Richmond. 

Amsterdam, Interior of a Synagogue at. From an etching by Rembrandt 874 

Purim Ceremonies in the Synagogue at, 1731 plate between 280-281 

Arch of Octavian, the Entrance to the Old Ghetto at Rome 449 

Archeology: see Coins; Inscription; Pierleoni ; Pottery; Prague; Rachel; Romp:. 
Architecture: see Prague; Rasiii Chapel; Rome; Rothschild "Stammhats" ; Synagogues. 

Ark of the Law in the Castilian Synagogue at Rome 452 

in the Synagoga dos Templos at Rome 454 

in the Synagogue at Konigliche Weinberge, near Prague 160 

Arms of the Rapoport Family 320 

Art: see Archeology; Architecture; Chairs; Phylacteries; Prague; Pulpit; Purim; Rings; 

Austria: see Prague. 

Baer, Seligman, Page from the Siddur Edited by, Rodelheim, 18G8 177 

Bassevi House, Court of the, Prague 161 

Betrothal Rings 428, 429 

Bible, Hebrew, Page from the, Printed at Riva di Trento, 1561. 432 

see also Psalms. 

Bragadini, Printer's Mark of the 202 

Brisbane, Queensland, Synagogue at 286 

Catacombs at Rome, Entrance to the Ancient Jewish 446 

Ca viilli of Venice, Printer's Mark of 203 

Cemeteries at Saint Petersburg, Views of the Old and Modern 643, 645 

Cemetery at Prague, Tombstones in the Old Jewish 165 

View of, on Josefstrasse 162 

Censored Page from Hebrew Psalms with KimhFs Commentary, Naples, 1487 247 

Ceremonial: see Phylacteries; Purlm; Rings; Sabratii; Sacrifice; Salonica. 

Chair, Rashi's, at Worms 327 

Chairs from Synagogues at Rome 456-458 

Coin, So-Called, of Solomon 428 

Coins, Polish, with Hebrew Characters , 562, 563 

Colophon Page from the First Edition of Rashi on the Pentateuch, Reggio, 1475 329 

Costumes of Dutch Jews, Seventeenth Century 371-374 and Frontispiece 

of German Jews, Sixteenth and Eighteenth Centuries 188 

of Prague Jews, Eighteenth Century 154-156 

of Salonica Jews 658 

of Samareand Jewess 668 

of Samaritans 672. 678 

Elijah, Chair of, in a Synagogue at Rome 458 

England: see Portsmouth. 

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ius, Paul, of Isny, Printer's Mark of 202 

FarisAol, Abraham, Illuminated First Page of a Siddur, Written at Ferrara, 1528, by 175 

First Editions: Colophon Page from Rashi on the Pentateuch, Rcggio, 1475 329 

Page from the First Illustrated Printed Haggadah, Prague, 152G 167 

"Five Synagogues/' The, of the Old Ghetto at Rome 451 

Foa. Tobiah. of Sabbionetta, Printer's Mark of 203 

Frankfort-on-the-Main, The Rothschild u Stammhaus "at 490 

Germany: see Pueshviu; ; Ratisbox. 

Gersonides of Prague, Printer's Mark of 

Ghetto: see Prague; Rome; Safed; Salonica; Samakcand. 


Haggadah, Page from the First Illustrated Printed, Prague, 1526 167 

Page from Passover, of 1695, Depicting the Ten Plagues 71 

* 4 Hainan Klopfers " Used on Purim by Jewish Children of Russia 276 

Host Desecration at Presburg, 1591 , 188 

Incunabula: see Naples; Reggio. 

Inscription, Ancient Samaritan 670 

Royal Stamp on Jar-Handle, Discovered in Palestine 148 

see also Coins. 

Italy: see Pisa; Rome. 

Karaite Siddur, Page from, Printed at Budapest, 1903 179 

Konigliche Weinberge, near Prague, Interior of the Synagogue at 160 

Manuscript : see Puayeu-Book. 

Map of Pithom-lleroopolis 63 

Showing the Road S vstem of Palestine 435 

see also Plan. 

Marriage Rings 428, 429 

Midrash Tehillim, Title-Page from, Prague, 1613 249 

Music: "Rahem na 'Alaw" 310 

Musical Instruments: see Pipes. 

Naples, Censored Page from Hebrew Psalms with Kimhi's Commentary, Printed in 1487 at 247 

New York, Title-Page from Isaac Pinto's Translation of the Prayer-Book, Printed in 1766 at 55 

Octavian, Arch of, the Entrance to the Old Ghetto at Rome. 449 

Pale of Settlement, Map of Western Russia Showing the Jewish 531 

Palestine, Map Showing the Road System of 435 

see also Pottery; Safed; Samaria; Samaritans. 

Phillips, Henry Mayer, American Lawyer and Politician 4 

Jonas, American Revolutionary Patriot 4 

Phylacteries and Bags 21, 22, 25, 26 

and Their Arrangement on Head and Arm 24 

Picart, Bernard, Title-Page from the " Tikkun Soferim," Designed by 29 

Pierleoni, Tomb of, in the Cloisters of St. Paul, Rome 33 

Pinsker, Lev, Russian Physician 52 

Pinto, Isaac, Title-Page from His Translation of the Prayer- Book, Printed at New York, 1766 55 

Pipes in Use in Palestine 57 

Pisa, Old Tombstones from the Jewish Cemetery at 61 

Pithom-lleroopolis, Map of 63 

Plagues, The Ten, According to a Passover Haggadah of 1695 71 

Plan of the City of Prague in 1649, Showing Position of Jewish Quarter 153 

of the Ghetto at Rome, 1640 447 

Platea Jwbea of the Old Ghetto at Rome 448 

Poltava, Russia, Synagogue at 119 

Ponte, Lorenzo da, Italian-American Man of Letters 124 

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Portraits: see 

Pill M.I PS, Hknuy Mavkk. 
Phillips, Jonas. 


iUniNovicii, osip. 
Haiu.nowitz, Hikscii. 
Rapoport, Solomon Lob. 


Ukikman, Jacob. 
Ukland, Adrian. 
IMcardo, David. 
Kick. Abraham. 


Rothschild, Ha ron Alphonsk. 
Rothschild, Ha ron Ja.mks. 
Rothschild, Ha ron Lionel Nathan. 

Rothschild, Mavkr amsciiel. 
Rothschild, Nathan Mayer. 
Rothschild, Nathaniel, Lord 
!Ubi nstein, A nton . 
sachs, Michael. 
Sachs, Senior. 
Salant, Sam r el. 
Salomon, Gotthold. 
Salomons, Sir David. 


Portsmouth, England, Interior of Synagogue at 135 

Possart, Ernst von, German Actor and Author 146 

Pottery Discovered in Palestine 148, 149 

Prague, Altnenselnile at, Exterior and Interior Views of the 156-158 

Court of the Bassevi House at 1G1 

Exodus of Jews from, 1745 155 

Gild-Cup of the Jewish Shoemakers of, Eighteenth Century 156 

• Interior of the Synagogue at Konigliehe Weinherge, near 160 

— - Jewish Butcher of, Eighteenth Century 156 

Jewish Cemetery on Josefstrasse 162 

— — Plan of the City of, in 1649, Showing Position of Jewish Quarter 153 

Procession of Jews of, in Honor of the Birthday of Archduke Leopold, May 17, 1710 154 

— - Purim Players at, Early Eighteenth Century . 276 

Kabbiner Gasse 162 

— Shames Gasse 163 

Tombstones in the Old Jewish Cemetery at 165 

Wechsler Gasse Synagogue. 159 

Typography : Page from the First Illustrated Printed Haggadah, 1526 167 

Title-Page from Midrash Tehillim, 1613 249 

Prayer-Book : Colophon Page of the Siddur Rab Amram, Written in 1506 at Traui 173 

Illuminated First Page of a Siddur, Written by Abraham Farissol. Ferrara, 1528 175 

Karaite Siddur, Budapest, 1903 179 

■ Page from the Baer Siddur, Rodelheim, 1868 177 

Title-Page from Isaac Pinto's Translation of the, New York, 1766 55 

Presburg, Host Desecration at, 1591 188 

Visit of King Ferdinand to a Jewish School at, 1830 189 

Printer's Mark of Abraham Usque, Ferrara 202 

of Antonio Giustiano, Venice 202 

■ of the Bragadini, Venice 202 

of Cavalli. Venice 203 

of Gad ben Isaac Foa, Venice 203 

■ of Gersonides, Prague 203 

of Isaac ben Aaron of Prossuitz, Cracow 200, 202 

of Jacob Mcrcuria, Hi va di Trento 202 

of Judah Lob ben Moses, Prague 203 

of Me'ir ben Jacob Firenze 203 

of Moses and Mordecai Kohen 203 

■ of Paul Fagius. Isny 202 

■ of Solomon Proops, Amsterdam 203 

of Soncino, Rimini 202 

of Tobiah Foa, Sabbionetta 203 

of Zalman, Amsterdam 203 

Procession of Jews of Prague in Honor of ihe Birthday of Archduke Leopold. May 17, 1716 154 

Proops, Solomon, of Amsterdam, Printer's Mark of 203 

Psalms, Censored Page from Hebrew, with Kimhi's Commentary, Naples, 1487 247 

Pairo from Polyglot, Genoa, 1516 243 

Title-Page from Midrash to, Prague, 1613 249 

Pulpit from a Synagogue at Modena, Early Sixteenth Century 268 

Interior of Synagogue Showing the. From a fourteenth-century manuscript 267 

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Purim Ceremonies in the Synagogue at Amsterdam, 1731 plate hdirccn 280-281 

- Hainan Klopfers " Used by Jew Mi < 'hihlren of Russia on 276 

Observance «>f, in a German Synagogue of the Eighteenth Century 277 

- — Plnver*. From Leu^deu, 1657 275 

at Prague. Early Eighteenth Century 276 

Queensland : ><-e Bhimjank. 

Rabbiner Gasse, Prague 162 

Rabbinoviez. Raphael. Talmudical Scholar 298 

Rabinovich, Quip. Russian Author and Journalist 301 

Rabinowitz. Ilirseh, Russian Scientist and Publicist 303 

Rachel, Traditional Tomb of 306 

" Rahem na ' Alaw/ Music of 310 

Rapoport Family, Arms of 320 

Solomon Lob. Austrian Rabbi and Scholar 322 

Rashi, Colophon of the First Edition of the Commentary on the Pentateuch by, the First Dated Hebrew 

Book. 1475 329 

Chapel at Worms 324 

Chair in the 327 

Cross-Section of the 326 

Interior of the 325 

Ratisbon, Interior of the Old Synagogue at 330 

Raziel. Sepher, Page from the, Amsterdam, 1701 336 

Reggio, Colophon Page from the First Edition of Rashi on the Pentateuch, the First Dated Hebrew 

Book, Printed in 1475 at 82U 

Isaac Samuel, Austro-Italian Scholar and Rabbi 360 

Reifman, Jacob, Russian Hebrew Author 366 

Reland, Adrian, Dutch Christian Hebraist 369 

Rembrandt, Interior of a Synagogue at Amsterdam, from an Etching by 374 

Jewish Beggar, from an Etching by 371 

Portraits of Seventeenth-Century Jews, Painted by 372, 373, and Frontispiece 

Ricardo, David, English Political Economist 402 

Rice, Abraham, American Rabbi 405 

Richmond, Va., Sj'nagogue at 407 

Riesser, Gabriel, German Advocate of Jewish Emancipation 410 

Riga, Russia, Synagogue at 417 

Rings, Jewish Betrothal and Marriage 428, 429 

Riva di Trento, Page from Hebrew Bible Printed in 1561 at 433 

Road System of Palestine, Map of the 435 

Rodenberg, Julius, German Poet and Author 439 

Rome, Arch of Octavian, the Entrance to the Old Ghetto at 449 

Ark of the Law in the Synagoga dos Templos at 454 

Arks of the Law in the Castilian Synagogue at 452 

Chair of Elijah in a Synagogue at 458 

Entrance to the Ancient Catacombs at 447 

Entrance to the Ghetto at, About 1850 462 

Exterior and Interior Views of the New Synagogue at 464, 465 

u Five Synagogues " of the Old Ghetto at 451 

Nook in the Old Ghetto at 460 

Plan of the Ghetto at, 1640 446 

Platea Juda?a of the Old Ghetto at 448 

Rabbis' Chairs in Synagogues at 456, 457 

Rua Via in, Showing Entrance to the Old Talmud Torah 461 

Tomb of Pierleoni in the Cloisters of St. Paul at 33 

Rothschild, Baron Alphonse, Present Head of the French House 498 

Baron James, Founder of the French House 501 

Baron Lionel Nathan, Financier and First Jewish Member of English Parliament 501 

Mayer Arnschel, Founder of the Rothschild Family 490 

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Rothschild, Nathan Mayer, Founder of the English House 494 

» A Pillar of the Exchange. " From an old print 496 

Nathaniel, Lord, Present Head of English House 503 

"Stanimhaus," Frankfort-on-the-Main 490 

Rubinstein, Anton, Russian Pianist and Composer 507 

Russia, Map of Western, Showing the Jewish Pale of Settlement 531 

Polish Coins of the Middle Ages, with Hebrew Characters 502, 503 

see also Poltava; Riga; Saint Pktkhsiumk;. 

Sabbath, Device for Keeping Water and Food Warm on 594 

Eve Ceremonies in a German Jewish Home of the Eighteenth Century 593 

Light, Candlestick Used in Blessing 1 he 591 

Sachs, Michael, German Rabbi 013 

Senior, Russian Hebraist 014 

Sacrifice, Samaritan Place of 073 

Safed, View of the Jewish Quarter at 034 

Saint Petersburg, Russia, Synagogue at 041 

Views of the Old and Modern Cemeteries at 043, G45 

Salant, Samuel, Jerusalem Rabbi 047 

Salomon, Gotthold, German Rabbi 053 

Salomons, Sir David, English Politician and Communal Worker 050 

Salonica, Group of Jews of 058 

Scene in the Old Jewish Quarter at 057 

Samarcaud, High Street in Old, Showing the Ghetto 007 

Jewess of 008 

Samaria, View of, from the Southeast . . . , 009 

Samaritan Characters, Ancient Inscription in 070 

Place of Sacrifice 073 

Samaritans at Prayer 074 

Groups of 072, 078 

Shames Gasse, Prague 1 03 

Siddur: see Prayer-Book. 

Solomon, So-Called Coin of 203 

Soncino, Printer's Mark of 203 

Synagogues: see Amsterdam; Brisbane; Poltava; Portsmouth; Prague; Richmond; Riga; 

Rome; Saint Petersburg. 
see also Pulpit ; Purim; Rashi Chapel. 

Tefillin and Bags 21-26 

Ti tie-Page from Isaac Pinto's Translation of the Prayer-Book, New York, 17GG 55 

from Midrash Tehillim, Prague, 1013 249 

from the "Tikkun Soferim," Designed by Bernard Picart . . ♦ 29 

Tomb of Pierleoni in the Cloisters of St. Paul, Rome 33 

of Rachel, Traditional 30G 

Tombstones from the Old Jewish Cemetery at Pisa 01 

from the Old Jewish Cemetery at Prague 165 

Types: see Salonica; Samarcand; Samaritans. 

Typography: see Genoa; Naples; New York; Picart; Prague; Printer's Mark; Raziel; Reggio. 

Usque, Abraham, Printer's Mark of 202 

Worms, Exterior, Interior, ami Cross-Sectional Views of the Rashi Chapel at 324-326 

Zalman of Amsterdam, Printer's Maik of 203 

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Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 


Jewish Encyclopedia 

PHILIPSON, DAVID : American rabbi ; born 
at Wabash, Ind., Aug. 9, 1862; educated at the 
public schools of Columbus, Ohio, the Hebrew 
Union College of Cincinnati (graduated 1883; D.D. 
1886), the University of Cincinnati (B.A. 1883), and 
Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. On Jan. 

1, 18S4, he became rabbi of the liar Sinai congrega- 
tion at Baltimore, Md., which position he held until 
Nov. 1, 1888, when he became rabbi of the B'ne 
Israel congregation of Cincinnati. He is also pro- 
fessor of homiletics at the Hebrew Union College. 

Philipson has held many offices of a public nature 
in Cincinnati. He has been a trustee of the Asso- 
ciated Charities (since 1890); trustee of the Home 
for Incurables (1894-1902); director of the Ohio 
Humane Society (since 1889) and of the United Jewish 
Charities (since 1896); corresponding secretary of 
the Central Conference of American Rabbis (1889- 
1892; 1894-98), and director of the same society 
(since 1898); governor of the Hebrew Union College 
(since 1892); director of the American Jewish His- 
torical Society (since 1897); member of the publica- 
tion committee of the Jewish Publication Society 
(since 1895); and president of the Hebrew Sabbath 
School Union of America (since 1894). 

He is the author of " Progress of the Jewish Re- 
form Movement in the United States," in "J. Q. 
B." x. (1897) 52-99; and "The Beginnings of the 
Reform Movement in Judaism," ib. xv. (1903) 575- 
621 ; " The Jew in English Fiction," Cincinnati, 1889 
(revised and enlarged, 1902); "Old European Jew- 
ries," Philadelphia, 1894; "The Oldest Jewish Con- 
gregation in the West," Cincinnati, 1894; "A Holiday 
Sheaf," ib. 1899; and, jointly with Louis Grossman, 
he lias edited " Reminiscences of Isaac M. Wise," ib. 

a. F. T. H. 

PHILISTINES : A people that occupied terri- 
tory on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea, south- 
west of Jerusalem, previously to and contemporane- 
ously with the life of the kingdoms of Israel. Their 
northern bou ndary reached to the " borders of Ekron, " 
and their southwestern limit was the Shihor, or brook 
of Egypt (Wadi al-'Arish), as described in Josh. xiii. 

2, 3. Their territory extended on the east to about 
Beth-shemesh (I Sam. vi. 18), and on the west to the 
sea. It was a wide, fertile plain stretching up to the 
Judean hills, and adapted to a very productive 

In Biblical times this territory was occupied by 
several peoples, the most prominent of all being the 
Philistines proper. There are found the giants or 
Anakim in Joshua's da}' and even down to David's 
time in Gaza, Gath, and Ashdod. It must be con- 
cluded, too, from Joshua's conquests that the Ca- 
naanites were to be met with here and there through- 
out this territory. It is also to be 
Territory, presumed from the records that other 

peoples, such as the Amalekites and 
the Geshurites, lived near this territory if they did 
not actually mingle with the Philistines. 

Who were the Philistines proper? The Biblical 
record states that they came from Caphtor (Amos 
ix. 7; Deut. ii. 23), that they were Caphtorim (Deut. 
I.e.), and that they were u the remnant of the sea- 
coast of Caphtor" (Jer. xlvii. 4, Hebr.). The table 
of nations (Gen. x. 13, 14) names the Philistines and 
the Caphtorim as descendants of Mizraim. The 
gist of these references leads one to look for 
Caphtor as the native land of the Philistines. There 
is a variety of opinion as to the location of this place. 
The Egyptian inscriptions name the southern coast 
of Asia Minor as " Kef to. " The latest and with some 
plausibility the best identification is the island of 
Crete. The Septuagint makes the Cherethites in 
David's body-guard Cretans. Others have identified 
Caphtor with Cappadocia, or Cyprus, or with some 
place near the Egyptian delta. The prevailing 
opinion among scholars is that the Philistines were 
loving pirates from some northern coast on the 
Mediterranean Sea. Findinga fertile plain south of 
Joppa, they landed and forced a foothold. Their 
settlement was made by such a gradual process that 
they adopted both the language and the religion of 
the conquered peoples. 

When did the Philistines migrate and seize their 
territory in this maritime plain V The inscriptions of 

Kameses III., about Joshua's day, de- 
Origin, scribe sea- peoples whom he met in 

conflict. Among these foreigners are 
found the Zakkal from Cyprus, and the Purusati 
(Pulusata, Pulista, or Purosatha). Both have Greek 
features; and the second are identified with the 
Philistines. In the inscription of this Egyptian 
king, they are said to have conquered all of north- 
ern Syria west of the Euphrates. It is known, too, 
that the successors of Barneses III. lost their Syrian 
possessions. It is supposed that during this period 

X.— 1 

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the Purusati, accompanied by their families, were 
pushed or crowded out of their homes by the national 
migrations from the northeast in Asia Minor, and, 
coming both by land and bv sea, secured a foothold in 
southwestern Palestine. The time of this supposed 
settlement was that of the twentieth dynasty of Egypt. 
Of course their first settlements were on a small 
scale, and probably under Egyptian suzerainty. 
Later, as Egypt lost her grip on Asia, the Puru- 
sati became independent and multiplied in numbers 
and strength until they could easily make good their 
claim to the region in which they had settled. 

According to the Old Testament, the Philistines 
were in power in their new laud at least as early as 
the Exodus (Ex. xiii. 17. xxiii. 31). Josh. xiii. 2, 3 
lends color to the view that they had specific bound- 
aries in the time of the conquest. During the period 
of the Judges they were a thorn in the side of 
Israel (Judges iii. 31, v. 6, x. 11, xiii.-xvi.). They 
were so well organized politically, with their five 
great capitals, Ashdod, Ashkelon, Ekron, Gath, and 
Gaza, anil a lord over each with its surrounding 
district, that Israel in its earlier history was put to 
a decided disadvantage (I Sam. iv. 17, vii. 2-14). 
Their supremacy over Saul's realm (ib. xiii. 3 et 
scq.) and their restriction of Israel's arms made the 
Philistines easy rulers of their mountain neighbors. 
Saul's defeat of them at Michmash (ib. xiv.) was 
only temporary, as he finally fled to Gilboa before 
the invincible ranks of these warriors. 

Not until David's assumption of supremacy over 
all Israel and after two hard battles were the Philis- 
tines compelled to recognize the rule of their 

former subjects. This broke their 
power so effectually that they never 
entirely recovered. After the disrup- 
tion of the kingdom of Solomon the 
Philistinessecured their independence, 
which they possessed at intervals down to the over- 
throw of the Israelitish kingdoms. During this en- 
tire period they are found exercising the same hos- 
tility toward the Israelites (Amos i. 6-8; Joel iii. 
4-8) that characterized their earlier history. In this 
same period the Assyrian conquerors mention sev- 
eral Philistine cities as objects of their attacks. The 
crossing and recrossing of Philistines territory by the 
armies of Egypt and Asia finally destroyed the 
Philistines as a separate nation and people; so that 
when Cambyses the Persian crossed their former 
territory about 525, he described it as belonging to 
an Arabian ruler. 

The Philistines' language was apparently Semitic, 
the language of the peoples they conquered. Their 
religion, too, was most likely Semitic, as they are 

found worshiping the deities met with 
among other Semitic peoples. They 
were governed, in Israel's early his- 
tory, by a confederation of five kings or 
rulers of their chief cities. Their army 
was well organized and brave, and consisted of in- 
fantry, cavalry, and chariotry. In fine, they were a 
civilized people as far hack as they can be traced ; and 
as such they became relatively strong and wealthy 
in their fertile plains. They engaged in commerce, 
and in their location became thoroughly acquainted 
with the great peoples of their times. Their dis- 




and Gov- 

appearance as a nation from history occurred about 
the time of the conquest of Cyrus. 

Bibliography : MoCurdy, History, Prophecy, and the Monu- 
ments, J., $8 1U2-194; G. A. Smith. Historical Geography of 
the Holy Land, eh. ix.: Brugsch, Egypt Under the Pharaohs* 
ch. ix., xiv.; W. M. Muller, Asien und Europa, ch. xxvi.- 
xxix.: Sf-hwaliy, Die Haste der PhiliMtia\ in Zeitsehrift 
ftlr )Vii<scnschaftlichc Theologie, xxxiv. 103 et seq.\ W. J. 
Beecher, in Hastings, Diet. Bible, s.v.; G. F. Moore, iu Cbeyne 
and Black, Eneye. Bibl. s.v. 

K. G. H. I. M. P. 

: American family, especial!)' prom- 
inent in New York and Philadelphia, and tracing its 
descent back to Jonas Phillips, who emigrated from 
Germany to England in 1751 and thence to America 
in 1756. The genealogical tree of the family is given 
on page 3. 

Henry Phillips, Jr. : Archeologist and numis- 
matist; born at Philadelphia Sept. 6, 1838; died 
June, 1895; son of Jonas Altamont Phillips. He 
was well known for his studies in folk-lore, philology, 
and numismatics, both in the United States and in 
Europe. Two gold medals were conferred upon him 
by Italian societies for his writings. He was treas- 
urer (1862) and secretary (1868) of the Numismatic 
and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia, and a sec- 
retary (from 1880) and the librarian (from 1885) of the 
American Philosophical Society, as well as member 
of many other learned societies at home and abroad. 

Phillips' works on the paper currency of the 
American colonies and on American Continental 
money were the first on those subjects. His works 
have been cited by the United States Supreme Court 
in a decision on the "Legal Tender Cases." Among 
his writings may be mentioned : " History of Ameri- 
can Colonial Paper Currency" (1865); "History of 
American Continental Paper Money " (1866) ; " Pleas- 
ures of Numismatic Science" (1867); "Poems from 
the Spanish and German" (1878); "Faust" (1881); 
and four volumes of translations from the Spanish, 
Hungarian, and German (1884-87; see Appleton's 
"Cyclopedia of American Biography," i v. ; Henry 
S. Morais, "The Jews of Philadelphia," s.v. ; Oscar 
Fay Adams, "A Dictionary of American Authors," 
p. 295, New York, 1897; "Proceedings of the 
American Philological Association," 1896). 

a. L. Hu. 

Henry Mayer Phillips : American lawyer, 
congressman, and financier; son of Zalegman and 
Arabella Phillips; born in Philadelphia June 30, 
1811, where he attended a private school and the 
high school of the Franklin Institute; died Aug. 28, 
1884. Phillips was admitted to the bar Jan. 5, 1832. 
Immediately after his admission he accepted the po- 
sition of clerk of the Court of Common Pleas. 

In Dec, 1841, he was elected solicitor of the dis- 
trict of Spring Garden. In the October election of 
1856 he was chosen a member of the thirty-fifth 
Congress and served during 1857-59. He addressed 
the House of Representatives on the admission of 
Kansas into the Union under the Le Compton Con- 
stitution on March 9, 1858, and on June 12 he spoke 
on the expenditures and revenues of the country. 

In Dec, 1858, he was elected grand master of the 
Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the 
State of Pennsylvania, and was reelected in 1859 and 
1860. On Dec. 4, 1862, he was chosen trustee of the 

Jefferson Medical College to fill a vacancy caused 

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Phillips, Morris 


Henry M. Phillips. 

bv the death of his brother J. Altamont Phillips, 
and subsequently became its treasurer. 

The Court of Common Pleas appointed him a 
member of the board of park commissioners May 
13, 1*67. and March 12, 18*1, he was elected presi- 
dent of the board. He was appointed a member of 
the board of city trusts Sept. 2. 1*69, became its 

vice-president May 11, 
1870, and on March 13, 
1878, was chosen its presi- 
dent, which office he re- 
signed in Dec, 1SS1. 

In lb70 Phillips was 
appointed a member of 
the commission for the 
construction of a bridge 
crossing the Schuylkill 
River. He was one of the 
original members of the 
Public Buildings Com- 
mission established in 1870, 
but resigned the next year. 
In 1870 he was chosen a 
director of the Academy 
of Music, became its presi- 
dent in 1372. and resigned in 1884. He was elected 
a member of the American Philosophical Society 
in Jan., 1871, and a director of the Pennsylvania 
Railroad, Northern Central Railroad, Philadelphia, 
Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad, and of the 
Western Union Telegraph Company in March, 1874. 
He became a director of the Pennsylvania Company 
for Insurance on Lives and Granting Annuities on 
Oct. 16, 1874. 

On Dec. 20, 1882, he presided at the "bar dinner" 
given to Chief Justice Sharswood on the retirement 
of the latter; this was the last public occasion in 
which he participated as a member of the Phila- 
delphia bar, of which he had become a leader. 

Phillips was a member of the Sephardic (Spanish 
and Portuguese) Congregation Mickve Israel of 
Philadelphia. In former years, more especially in 
the period from 1830 to 1851, he took considerable 
interest in its affairs, taking an active part in the 
controversy between Isaac Leeser and the congre- 
gation ; his efforts were largely instrumental in elect- 
ing Sabato Morais as minister of the congregation on 
April 13. 1851. 
a. D. Su. 

Isaac Phillips : Lawyer; born in New r York 
June 1(3, 1812; died there 1889; son of Naphtali 
Phillips. He was appointed by President Pierce 
appraiser of the port of New York, which position 
lie occupied for many years, and he was well known 
politically. He took a deep interest in educational 
matters, being a commissioner of the New York 
board of education ; he was likewise the editor of va- 
rious newspapers in the city of Xew York, grand 
master of the freemasons of the state of Xew York, 
and an active member of the Xew York Chamber 
of Commerce. He married (1) Sophia Phillips and 
(2) Miriam Trimble. 

Jonas Phillips : The first of the family to settle 
in America ; born 1730, the place of his birth being va- 
riously given as Rusick and Frankfort-on-the-Main; 
died at Philadelphia, Pa., Jan. 29, 1803; son of Aaron 

Jonas Phillips. 

Phillips. He emigrated to America from London in 
Nov., 1756, and at first resided in Charleston, S. C. f 
where he was employed by Moses Undo. He soon 
removed to Albany, and thence, shortly afterward, 
to Xew York, where he engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits. As early as 1700 he was identified with a 
lodsfc of freemasons in that citv. In 1762 he mar- 
ried Rebecca Mendez 
Machado (see Ma- 
en ado). In 1760 he 
became a freeman of 
Xew York. 

At the outbreak of 
the American Revo- 
lution Phillips fa- 
vored the patriot 
cause; and he was an 
ardent supporter of 
the Xon-Importation 
Agreement in 1770. 
In 1776 he used his 
influence in the Xew 
York congregation to 
close the doors of the 
synagogue and re- 
move rather than 
continue under the 

British. The edifice was abandoned ; and, with the 
majority of the congregation, Phillips removed to 
Philadelphia, where he continued in business until 
1778. In that year he ioined the Revolutionary 
army, serving in the Philadelphia Militia under Colo- 
nel Bradford. 

"When Congregation Mickve Israel was estab- 
lished in Philadelphia, Phillips was one of its active 
founders, and was its president at the consecration 
of its synagogue in 1782. After the Revolution he 
removed to Xew York, but soon returned to Phila- 
delphia, where he continued to reside until his death. 
His remains, however, were interred at Xew York 
in the cemetery, on Xew Bowery, of Congregation 
Shearith Israel. His widow survived until 1831. 
Of his twenty-one children, special mention should 
be made of the following six: 

(1) Rachel Phillips: Born 1769; died 1839; 
married Michael Levy, and was the mother of Com- 
modore Uriah P. Levy of the United States navy. 

(2) Naphtali Phillips : Born 1773; died 1870; 
married (1797) Rachel Mendez Scixas (d. 1822) of 
Newport, R. I. One year after her death he married 
Esther (b. 1789; d. 1872), the daughter of Benjamin 
Mendez Seixas. Phillips was the proprietor of the 
"National Advocate," a New York newspaper, and 
was also president of Congregation Shearith Israel 

in that city. 

(3) Manuel Phillips : Assistant surgeon in the 
United States navy from 1809 to 1824; died at Vera 
Cruz in 1826. 

(4) Joseph Phillips : Died 1854. He served in 
the War of 1812. 

(5) Aaron J. Phillips : Actor and playwright; 
horn in Philadelphia; died at New York in 1826. 
He made his first appearance at the Park Theater, 
New York, in 1815, and was successful in Shakes- 
peare's u Comedy of Errors." Later he became a 
theatrical manager (see Charles P. Daly, "Settle- 

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Phillips, Morris 

ment of the Jews in North America," pp. 102-103, 
120, New York, 1803). 

(6) Zalegman Phillips: Lawyer; born 1779; 
died Aug. 21, 1839. He was graduated from the 
University of Pennsylvania in 1795, and became one 
of the leading criminal lawyers of Philadelphia. 

Jonas Altamont Phillips: Lawyer; born at 
Philadelphia 1806; died there 1802; brother of Henry 
M. Phillips. He became prominent as a lawyer, and 
in 1847-48 was the Democratic candidate for the 
mayoralty of Philadelphia. President Buchanan is 
said to have tendered him the position of judge of 
the United States District Court, which he declined. 
In 1837 he married Frances Cohen of Charleston, 

8. C. 

Jonas B. Phillips : Dramatist ; born Oct. 28, 
1805, at Philadelphia; died 1809; son of Benjamin J. 
Phillips. He became known as a dramatist as early 
as 1833. Among the plays he produced were: " Cold 
Stricken" (1838), "Camillus," and "The Evil Eye." 
Subsequently he studied law and became assistant 
district attorney for the county of New York, hold- 
ing that appointment under several successive ad- 
ministrations (see Daly, I.e. p. 145). 

Jonas N. Phillips : Born 1817; died 1874; son 
of Naphtali Phillips. He was chief of the volunteer 
fire department in the city of New York for many 
years, and president of the board of councilmen and 
acting mayor in 1857. 

Naphtali Taylor Phillips: Lawyer; born in 
New York Dec. 5, 1868; son of Isaac Phillips by his 
second wife. He has held various political offices, e.g. : 
he was member of the New York state legislature 
(1898-1901), serving on the judiciary and other com- 
mittees and as a member of the Joint Statutory 
Revision Commission of that body (1900); and dep- 
uty comptroller of the city of New York (from 1902), 
He is also a trustee of the American Scenic and His- 
toric Preservation Society, andamemberof the Sons 
of the American Revolution and of the New York 
Historical Society. He is treasurer of the Jew- 
ish Historical Society and has contributed several 
papers to its publications. For fifteen years he has 
been clerk of Congregation Shearith Israel. In 
1892 Phillips married Rosalie Solomons, daughter of 
Adolphns S. Solomons. Mrs. Phillips is an active 
member of the Daughters of the American Revo- 

Bibliography: Cbarles P. Daly, Settlement of Ihe Jews in 
North Ameriea* New York, 1893 ; Isaac Markens, The He- 
}>rewx in America* ib. 1888; Henry S. Morais, Tlte Jews of 
Philadelphia, Philadelphia, 181U: H. P. Rosenbach, The 
Jews in Philadelphia, 1883; N. Taylor Phillips, in Publ. 
Am. Jew. Hist. Soe. ii. 51, iv.304 et seq.; Sabato Morais, ib. 
i.; M. J. Kohler, ib. iv. 89; Herbert Friedenwald, ib. vi. 50 et 
seq. (other references are found In almost all the volumes 
issued by the society); L. Huhner, Xe iv York Jews in the 

Hist. Soe. Col. for 1885, p. 49. 

L. lit. 

PHILLIPS, BARNET : American journalist; 
born iu Philadelphia Nov. 9, 1828; educated at the 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, whence 
he was graduated in 1847. Shortly afterward lie 
set out for Europe, where he continued his studies 
and engaged in journalism. On his return to the 
United States, Phillips joined the staff of the "New 

York Times " and published two books, "The Strug- 
gle " and "Burning Their Ships." Phillips' connec- 
tion with the "New York Times" extends over 

thirty years. 

a. F. II. V. 

Lord mayor of London; born in London in 1811; 
died there Oct. 9, 1889. He was a son of Samuel 
Phillips, tailor, and was educated at Neumegen's 
school at Highgate and Kew. In 1833 he married, 
and soon afterward entered into partnership with 
his brother-in-law Henry Faudel, thus laying the 
foundation of the firm of Faudel, Phillips & Sons. 
He then became an active worker in the community, 
beingelected president of the Institution for the Relief 
of the Jewish Indigent Blind in 1850 and president 
of the Hebrew Literary Society. He rendered im- 
portant services in the foundation of the United 
Synagogue, of which he was elected a life-member 
in June, 1880. For thirty years Phillips was a mem- 
ber of the Hoard of Deputies as representative of 
the Great and Central synagogues; he served as a 
member of the Rumanian Committee, and was a 
vice-president of the Anglo-Jewish Association. 

Benjamin Phillips will be chiefly remembered for 
the prominent part he took in the struggle for the 
removal of Jewish disabilities. In 1846 he was 
elected a member of the common council as repre- 
sentative of the ward of Farringdon Within. After 
being returned at every subsequent election, he was 
elected alderman of the ward in 1857. In 1859 he 
held the office of sheriff, and on Sept. 29, 1865, was 
elected lord mayor. He performed the duties of 
mayor with marked distinction, and the King of the 
Belgians, whom he entertained, conferred upon him 
the Order of Leopold. During his mayoralty he 
rendered considerable help in personally raising 
£70,000 toward the great Cholera Fund. In recog- 
nition of these services he was knighted by Queen 
Victoria. In 1888, owing to advancing years, lie re- 
tired from the court of aldermen, being succeeded 
in the office by his second son, Alderman Sir George 
Faudel-Phillips, who was unanimously elected. 

Sir Benjamin Phillips was for many years a mem- 
ber of the Spectacle-Makers Company (of which he 
was master) and was on the commission for the Lieu- 
tenancy of the City of London. 

Bibliography: Jew. Chron. and Jew. World, Oct. IS, 18S9; 
The Times andotber London newspapers, Ocl. 10, 1889. 

J. G- L. 

PHILLIPS, GEORGE LYON : Jamaican pol- 
itician; born in 1811; died at Kingston, Jamaica, 
Dec. 29, 1886. One of the most prominent and in- 
fluential residents of Jamaica, he held the chief 
magistrateship of the privy council and other im- 
portant executive ollices on the island. During the 
anxious period known as the "Saturnalia of Blood " 
Phillips especially conserved the. interests of the col- 
ony by his gentle and calm demeanor at councils of 

Bibliography: Falmouth Gazette (Jamaica), Dee. 31, 1SS5; 
Jew. World, Jan. 2tf, 18*7 : Jew. Chron. Feb. 4, 1NS\ 


G. L. 

PHILLIPS, MORRIS : American journalist 
and writer; born in London, England, May 9, 1834. 

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Phillips, Philip 
Philo Judaeus 



Phillips received his elementary education in Cleve- 
land. Ohio, and later continued his studies under 
private tutors in New York, lie studied for the 
legal profession, first in Buffalo and later in New 
York. But the opportunity being open to him of 
association with Nathaniel Parker Willis as joint 
editor of the " New York Home Journal," he em- 
braced it at once, and from Sept., 1S54, until the 
death of Willis in Jan., 1867, Phillips was associate 
editor of that periodical, of which he then became 
chief editor and sole proprietor. Phillips was a 
prolific writer and an extensive traveler; as such 
he held commissions as special correspondent for 
several daily newspapers, aud published in many 
magazines the fruits of his observations. 
a. F. H. V. 

, -— ..-.— *- : American jurist; born 
in Charleston, S. C, Dec. 17, 1807; died in Wash- 
ington, D. C, Jan. 14, 1884. He was educated at 
the Norwich Military Academy in Vermont and at 
Middletown, Conn. He then studied law and was 
admitted to the bar in 1829, settling in Cheraw, 
S. C. He was a member of the Nullification Con- 
vention of 1832. Elected to the state legislature 
iu lb34, he resigned in 1835 and moved to Mobile, 
Ala., where he practised law. He was president 
of the Alabama State Convention in 1837, and was 
elected to the state legislature in 1844, being re- 
elected in 1852. In 1833-55 he was a member of 
Congress from Alabama. He then moved to "Wash- 
ington, where he continued his profession until the 
Civil war, when he migrated to New Orleans. After 
the war he returned to Washington and resided there 
until his death. In 1840 he prepared a "Digest of 
Decisions of the Supreme Court of Alabama," and he 
wrote "Practise of the Supreme Court of the United 
States." He married Eugenia Levy of Charleston, 
S. C, on Sept. 7, 1836. 

Bwliokraphy: Brewer, A lab a ma, pp. 406-407: Garrett, Rem- 
\nisccncc8 of Public Men in Alabama, 1872, pp. 405-407. 

a. A. S. I. 

PHILLIPS, PHINEAS: Polish merchant; 
flourished about 1775. He held the position of chief 
of the Jewish community at Krotoschin, at that 
time a fief of the princes of Thurn and Taxis. The 
reigning prince held Phillips in considerable esteem 
and entrusted him with personal commissions. 

In the course of business Phillips attended the 
Leipsic fairs and those held in other important Con- 
tinental cities. In 177.1 he extended his travels to 
England. Once there, he settled for some time in 
London, where he carried on an extensive business 
in indigo and gum. 

After his death, while on a visit to his native 
town his son Samuel Phillips established himself 
in London and became the father of Sir Benjamin 
Phillips and grandfather of Sir George Faudel- 
Piiillii's, Bart., both lord mayors of London. 

BiBuoriRAPiir : Jcu\ Chron. Oct. IB, 1889. 

G. L. 

PHILLIPS, SAMUEL: English journalist; 
born at London 1815; died at Brighton Oct., 1854. 
lie was the son of an English merchant, and at fif- 
teen yearsof age made his debut as an actor at Cov- 

en t Garden. Influential frieuds then placed him 
at Cambridge, whence he passed to Gottingen Uni- 
versity. Phillips then came to London, and in 1841 
turned Ins attention to literature and journalism. 
His earliest work was a romance entitled * Caleb 
Stukeley," which appeared in u Blackwood's Maga- 
zine " and was reprinted in 1843. Its success led to 
further contributions to "Blackwood's," including 
" We Are All Low People There" and other tales. 

Phillips continued to write for periodicals, and he 
was subsequently admitted as literary critic to the 
stall of the "Times." His articles were noted for 
their vigor of expression and their wealth of ideas. 
Dickeus, Carlyle, Mrs. Stowe, and other popular 
writers were boldly assailed by the anonymous 
critic, whose articles became the talk of the town. 
In 1852 and 1854 two volumes of his literary essays 
were published anonymously. Phillips was also 

associated with the "Morning Herald " and "John 


When the Society of the Crystal Palace was formed 
Phillips became secretary and afterward literary 
director. In connection with the Palace lie wrote 
the "Guide " and the "Portrait Gallery." 

Bibliography: The Times (London), Oct. 17, 1854; Didot, 
Nouvcau Biographic General; Chambers, Cite, of English 

J. G. L. 

PHILO JTJDiEUS: Alexandrian philosopher; 
born about 20 B.C. at. Alexandria, Egypt; died after 
40 c.e. The few biographical details concerning 
him that have been preserved are found in his own 
works (especially in "Legatio ad Caitim," §§ 22, 28; 
ed. Mangey [hereafter cited in brackets], ii. 5G7, 
572; "De Specialibus Legibus," ii. 1 [ii. 299]) and 
in Josephus ("Ant." xviii. 8, § 1 ; comp. ib. xix. 5, 
§ 1 ; xx. 5, § 2). The only event that can be deter- 
mined chronologically is his participation in the 
embassy which the Alexandrian Jews sent to the 
emperor Caligula at Home for thepurposeof asking 
protection against the attacks of the Alexandrian 
Greeks. This occurred in the year 40 c.e. 

Philo included in his philosophy both Greek wisdom 
and Hebrew religion, which he sought to fuse and 
harmonize by means of the art of allegory that he 
had learned from the Stoics. His work was not ac- 
cepted by contemporary Judaism. "The sophists 
of literalness,"as he calls them (" De Somniis,"i. 16- 
17), "opened their eyes superciliously " when he ex- 
plained to them the marvels of his exegesis. Greek 
science, suppressed by the victorious Phariseeism 
(Men. 99), was soon forgotten. Philo was all the 
more enthusiastically received by the early Chris- 
tians, some of whom saw in him a Christian. 

His Works : The Church Fathers have preserved 
most of Philo's works that are now extant. These 
are chiefly commentaries on the Pentateuch. As 
Ewald has pointed out, three of Philo's chief works 
lie in this field (comp. Siegfried, " Abhandlung zur 
Kritik der Schriften Philo's," 1874, p. 565). 

(a) He explains the Pentateuch catechetical!)', in 
the form of questions and answers ( u Z?/ryfxara ml 
Avgeic, Quasstiones et Solutiones "). It can not now 
be determined how far he carried out this method. 
Only the following fragments have been preserved: 
passages in Armenian in explanation of Genesis and 

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Phillips, Philip 
Philo Judeeus 

His Alle- 

Exodus, an old Latin translation of a part of the 
"Genesis," and fragments from the Greek text in 
the "Sacra Parallela," in the "Catena," and also in 
Ambrosius. The explanation is confined chiefly to 
determining the literal sense, although Philo fre- 
quently refers to the allegorical sense as the higher. 
(b) That he cared mainly for the latter he shows 
in his scientific chief work, the great allegorical 
commentary, NS/uuv 'lep&v 'A/Jj/yopiai, or "Legum 

Allegoria?," which deals, so far as it 
has been preserved, with selected 
passages from Genesis. According to 
Philo's original idea, the history of 
primal man is here considered as a 
symbol of the religious and moral de- 
velopment of the human soul. This great commen- 
tary included the following treatises: (1) u De Alle- 
goriis Legum," books i.-iii., on Gen. ii. 1-iii. la, 
8b-19 (on the original exteut and contents of these 
three books and the probably more correct combina- 
tion of i. and ii., see Schurer, "Gesch." iii. 503); (2) 
" De Cherubim," on Gen. iii. 24, iv. 1 ; (3) " De Sacrifi- 
ces Abelis etCaini," on Gen. iv. 2-4 (eomp. Schurer, 
Lc. p. 504); (4) "De Eo Quod Detenus Potiori Insi- 
diatur"; (5) "De Posteritate Caini," on Gen. iv. 
16-25 (see Cohn and Wendland, "Philonis Alex- 
andriui," etc., ii., pp. xviii. et seq., 1-41; " Philolo- 
gus,"lvii. 248-288); (6) "De Gigantibus," on Gen. 
vi. 1-4; (7) "Quod Deus Sit Immutabilis," on Gen. 
vi. 4-12 (Schurer [Lc. p. 506] correctly combines Nos. 
6 and 7 into one book ; Massebieau [" Biblioth£que de 
l'Ecole des Hautes Etudes," p. 23, note 2, Paris, 
1889] adds after No. 7 the lost books Ilepl Aiatiqncbv) ; 

(8) " De Agricultura Nol\" on Gen. ix. 20 (comp. Von 
Arnim, "Qnellenstudien zu Philo von Alexandria," 
1899, pp. 101-140); (9) " De Ebrietate," on Gen. ix. 
21 (on the lost second book see Schurer, I.e. p. 507, 
and Von Arnim, I.e. pp. 53-100); (10) "Resipuit 
Nog, seu De Sobrietate," on Gen. ix. 24-27; (11) 
" De Conf usione Linguarum," on Gen. xi. 1-9; (12) 
"De Migratione Abrahami," on Gen. xii. 1-6; (13) 
"Quis Rerum Divinarum Heres Sit," on Gen. xv. 
2-18 (on the "work Ylepl Mtad&v cited iu this treatise 
see Massebieau, Lc. pp. 27 et seq., note 3); (14) "De 
Cougressu Qmerendie Eruditionis Gratia," on Gen. 
xvi. 1-0; (15) "De Profugis," on Gen. xvi. 6-14; 
(16) "De Mutatione Nominum," on Gen. xvii. 1-22 
(on the fragment " De Deo," which contains a com- 
mentary on Gen. xviii. 2, see Massebieau, I.e. p. 
29); (17) "DeSomniis," booki., on Gen. xxviii. 12 
etseq., xxxi. 11 etseq. (Jacob's dreams);" DeSomniis," 
book ii., on Gen. xxxvii. 40 et seq. (the dreams of 
Joseph, of the cupbearer, the baker, and Pharaoh). 
Philo's three other books on dreams have been lost. 
The first of these (on the dreams of Abimeleeh and 
Laban) preceded the preseut book i., and discussed 
the dreams in which God Himself spoke with the 
dreamers, this fitting in very well with Gen. xx. 3. 
On adoxographic source used by Philo in book i\, 
§ 4 [i. 623], see Wendland in "Sitzungsbericht der 
Berliner Akademie," 1897, No. xlix. 1-6. 

(e) Philo wrote a systematic work on Moses and 
his laws, which was prefaced by the treatise "De 
Opificio Mundi," which in the present editions pre- 
cedes "De Allegoriis Legum," booki. (comp. "De 
Abrahamo," § 1 [ii. 1], with " De Pnemiiset Poenis," 

§ 1 [ii. 408]). The Creation is, accordiug to Philo, 
the basis for the Mosaic legislation, which is in 
complete harmony with nature ("De Opificio 
Mundi," § 1 [i. 1]). The exposition of the Law then 
follows iu two sections. First come the biographies 
of the men whoautedated the several written laws of 
the Torah, as Enos, Enoch, Noah, Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob. These were the Patriarchs, who were 
the living impersonations of the active law of virtue 
before there were any written laws. Then the laws 

are discussed in detail: first the chief 

On the ten commandments (the Decalogue), 

Patriarchs, and then the precepts in amplification 

of eaeli law. The work is divided into 
the following treatises: (1) "De Opificio Mundi" 
(comp. Siegfried in "Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaft- 
liche Theologie," 1874, pp. 5(52-565; L. Cohu's im- 
portant separate edition of this treatise, Breslau, 1889, 
preceded the edition of the same in " Philonis Alexan- 
dria," etc., 1896, i.). (2) "De Abrahamo, "on Abra- 
ham, the representative of the virtue acquired by 
learning. The lives of Isaac and Jacob have been 
lost. The three patriarchs were intended as types of 
the ideal cosmopolitan condition of the world. (3) 
"De Josepho," the life of Joseph, iutended to show 
how the wise man must act in the actually existing 
state. (4) "DeVita Mosis," books i.-iii. ; Schurer, 
I.e. p. 523, combines the three books into two; but, 
as Massebieau shows (I.e. pp. 42 etseq.), a passage, 
though hardly an entire book, is missing at the end 
of the present second book (Wendland, in "Hermes," 
xxxi. 440). Schiirer (I.e. pp. 515, 524) excludes this 
work here, although he admits that from a literary 
point of view it fits into tins group; but he considers 
it foreign to the work in geueral, since Moses, un- 
like the Patriarchs, can not be conceived as a uni- 
versally valid type of moral action, and cau not be 
described as such. The latter point may be ad- 
mitted; but the question still remains whether it is 
necessary to regard the matter iu this light. It 
seems most natural to preface the discussion of 
the law with the biography of the legislator, while 
the transition from Joseph to the legislation, from 
the statesman who has nothing to do with the divine 
laws to the discussion of these laws themselves, is 
forced and abrupt. Moses, as the perfect man, 
unites in himself, in a way, all the faculties of the 
patriarchal types. His is the "most pure mind" 
("De Mutatione Nominum," 37 [i. 610]), he is the 
"lover of virtue," who has been purified from all pas- 
sions ("De Allegoriis Legum," iii. 45, 48 [i. 113, 115]). 
As the person awaiting the divine revelatiou, he is 
also specially fitted to announce it to others, after 

having received it in the form of the 

On the Commandments {ib. iii. 4 [i. 89 <^ seq.]). 

Law. (5) "De Decalogo," the introductory 

treatise to the chief ten command- 
ments of the Law. (6) "De Specialibus Legibus," 
in which treatise Philo attempts to systematize the 
several laws of the Torah, and to arrange them in 
conformity with the Ten Commandments. To the 
first and second commandments he adds the laws 
relating to priests and sacrifices; to the third (mis- 
use of the name of God), the laws on oaths, vows, 
etc. ; to the fourth (on the Sabbath), the laws on 
festivals; to the fifth (to honor father and mother), 

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Philo Judaeue 



the laws on respect for parents, old aire, etc. ; to the 
sixth, the mbrriage laws; to the seventh, the civil 
and criminal laws; to the eighth, the laws on theft; 
to the ninth, the laws on truthful testifying; and to 
the tenth, the laws on lust (coin p. Stade-Holtzmann, 
"Gesch. des Volkes Israel," 1SS8, ii. 535-545; on 
Philo as influenced by the Halakah, see B. Hitter, 
" Philo und die Halacha," Leipsic, 1879, and Sieg- 
fried's review of the same in the "Jenaer Litera- 
turzeitung," 1ST9, No. 35). The first book includes 
the following treatises of the current editions: u De 
Circumcisione " ; " De Monarchia," books i. and ii. ; 
"De Sacerdotum Honoribus"; " De Victimis." On 
the division of the book into these sections, the titles 
of the latter, and newly found sections of the text, 
see SchQrer, I.e. p. 517; Wendland, I.e. pp. 13G et 
seq. The second book includes in the editions a sec- 
tion also entitled " De Specialibus Legibus " (ii. 270- 
277), to which is added the treatise ki De Scptenario," 
which is, however, incomplete in Mangey. The 
greater part of the missing portion was supplied, 
under the title " De Cophiui Fcsto et de Colendis 
Parentibus," by Mai (1818), and was printed in 
Richter's edition, v. 48-50, Leipsic, 1828. The com- 
plete text of the second book was published by 
Tischendorf in his "Philonea" (pp. 1-83). The 
third book is included under the title "De Speciali- 
bus Legibus " in cd. Mangey, ii. 299-334. The fourth 
book also is entitled "De Specialibus Legibus"; to 
it the last sections are added under the titles "De 
Judice" and "De Concupiseentia" in the usual edi- 
tions; and they include, also, as appendix, the sec- 
tions ** De Justitia " and " De Creatione Princi- 
pum." (7) The treatises "De Fortitudine," "De 
Caritate," and " De Pcenitentia " are a kind of appen- 
dix to i# De Specialibus Legibus." Schurer (I.e. pp. 
519 [note 82], 520-522) combines them into a special 
book, which, he thinks, was composed by Philo. 
(S) " De Pnemiis et Pcenis " and " De Execratione." 
On the connection of both see Schurer, I.e. pp. 522 
et seq. This is the conclusion of the exposition of 
the Mosaic law. 

Independent Works: (1) "Quod Omnis Probus 
Liber," the second half of a work on the freedom of 
the just according to Stoic principles. The genu- 
ineness of this -work lias been disputed by Frankel 
(in "Monatsschrift," ii. SQetseq., Gl etseq.) t by Griltz 
(" Gesch." iii. 464 et seq.), and more recently by Ans- 
feld(1887), Ililgenfeld (in "Zeitschrift fur Wissen- 
schaftliche Theologie," 1888, pp. 49-71), and others. 
Now Wendland, Ohle, Schurer, Massebieau, and 
Krell consider it genuine, with the exception of the 
partly interpolated passages on the Essenes. (2) 
" In Flaccum " and " De Legatioue ad Caium," an ac- 
count of the Alexandrian persecution of the Jews 
under Caligula. This account, consisting originally 
of five books, has been preserved in fragments only 
(see Schl'irer, I.e. pp. 525 et seq.). Philo intended to 
show the fearful punishment meted out by God to 
the persecutors of the Jews (on Philo's predilection 
for similar discussions see Siegfried, " Philo von Al- 
exandria," p. 157). (3) "DeProvidentia," preserved 
only in Armenian, and printed from Aucher\s Latin 
translation in the editions of Richter and others (on 
Greek fragments of the work see Schttrer, I.e. pp. 
531 etteq.). (4) "De Animalibus" (on the title see 

Schurer, I.e. p. 532; in Richter's ed. viii. 101-144). 
(5) 'YTrotferttia ("Counsels"), a work known only 
through fragments in Eusebius, * 4 Pneparatio Evan- 
gelica," viii. 6, 7. The meaning of the title is open 
to discussion; it may be identical with the follow- 
ing (No. G). (G) Repl 'lov6uim\ an apology for the 
Jews (Schurer, I.e. pp. 532 et seq.). 

For a list of the lost works of Philo see Schurer, 
I.e. p. 534. 

Other Works Ascribed to Philo : (1) "De Vita Con- 
templativa" (on the different titles com p. Schurer, 
I.e. p. 535). This work describes the mode of life 
and the religious festivals of a society of Jewish 
ascetics, who, according to the author, are widely 
scattered over the earth, and are found especially 
in every nome in Egypt. The writer, however, 
confines himself to describing a colony of hermits 
settled on the Lake Mareotis in Egypt, where each 
lives separately in his own dwelling. Six days 
of the week they spend in pious contemplation, 
chieily in connection with Scripture. On the sev- 
enth day both men and women assemble together in 
a hall; and the leader delivers a discourse consist- 
ing of an allegorical interpretation of a Scriptural 
passage. The feast of the fiftieth day is especially 
celebrated. The ceremony begins with a frugal 
meal consisting of bread, salted vegetables, and 
water, during which a passage of Scripture is inter- 
preted. After the meal the members of the society 
in turn sing religious songs of various kinds, to which 
the assembly answers with a refrain. Tlieceremony 
ends with a choral representation of the triumphal 
festival that Moses and Miriam arranged after the 
passage through the Red Sea, the voices of the men 
and the women uuiting in a choral symphony until 
the sun rises. After a common morning prayer each 
goes home to resume his contemplation. Such is 
the contemplative life (3 tog OeuprjrtKdq) led by these 
QepaTrevrai ("servants of Yiiwii "). 

The ancient Church looked upon these Therapeuta? 
as disguised Christian monks. This view has found 
advocates even in very recent times; Lucius' opin- 
ion particularly, that the Christian monkdom of the 
third century was here glorified in a Jewish disguise, 
was widely accepted ("Die Therapeuten," 1879). 
But the ritual of the society, which was entirely at 
variance with Christianity, disproves this view r . 
The chief ceremony especially, the choral represen- 
tation of the passage through the Red Sea, has no 
special significance for Christianity; nor have there 
ever been in the Christian Church nocturnal festi- 
vals celebrated by men and women 
" De Vita together. But Massebieau ("Revue 
Contempla- de ITIistoire des Religions," 1887, xvi. 
tiva." 170 et seq., 284 et seq.), Conybeare 

("Philo About the Contemplative 
Life," Oxford, 1895), and Wendland ("Die Thera- 
peuten," etc., Leipsic, 1896) ascribe the entire work 
to Philo, basing their argument wholly on linguistic 
reasons, which seem sufficiently conclusive. But 
there are great dissimilarities between the funda- 
mental conceptions of the author of the "De Vita 
Contemplativa" and those of Philo. The latter 
looks upon Greek culture and philosophy as allies, 
the former is hostile to Greek philosophy (see Sieg- 
fried in " Protestantischc Kirchenzeitung," 1896, No. 

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Philo Judeeus 

42). He repudiates a scieuce that numbered among 
its followers the sacred baud of the Pythagoreans, 
inspired men like Parmenides, Empedocles, Zeno, 
Cleanthes, lleraclitus, and Plato, whom Philo prized 
("Quod Omnis Probus," i., ii. ; "Quis Rerum Divi- 
iiarum Ileres Sit," 43; "De Providentia," ii. 42, 48, 
etc.). He considers the symposium a detestable, 
common drinking-bout. This can not be explained 
as a Stoic diatribe; for in this case Philo would uot 
have repeated it. And Philo would have been the 
last to interpret the Platonic Eros in the vulgar way 
in which it is explained in the "De Vita Contempla- 
tiva," 7 [ii. 480], as he repeatedly uses the myth of 
double man allegorically in his interpretation of 
Scripture ("De Opificio Mundi," 24; "De Allegoriis 
Legum," ii. 24). It must furthermore be remem- 
bered that Philo in none of his other works men- 
tions these colonies of allegorizing ascetics, in which 
he would have been highly interested had he known 
of them. But pupils of Philo may subsequently 
have founded near Alexandria similar colonies that 
endeavored to realize his ideal of a pure life tri- 
umphing over the senses and passions; and they 
might also have been responsible for the one-sided 
development of certain of the master's principles. 
While Philo desired to renounce the lusts of this 
world, he held fast to the scientific culture of Hel- 
lenism, which the author of this book denounces. 
Although Philo liked to withdraw from the world 
in order to give himself up entirely to contempla- 
tion, and bitterly regretted the lack of such repose 
("De Specialibus Legibus," 1 [ii. 299]), he did not 
abandon the work that was required of him by the 
welfare of his people. 

(2) "De Incorruptibilitate Mundi." Since the 
publication of I. Bernays' investigations there has 
been no doubt that this work is spurious. Its Peri- 
patetic basic idea that the world is eternal and in- 
destructible contradicts all those Jewish teachings 
that were for Philo an indisputable presupposition. 
Bernays has proved at the same time that the text 
has been confused through wrong pagination, and 
he has cleverly restored it (" Gesammelte Abhand- 
lungen," 1885, i. 283-290 ; " Abhandlung der Berliner 
Akademie," 1876, Philosophical-Historical Division, 
pp. 209-278; ib. 1882, sect. iii. 82; Von Arnim, I.e. 
pp. 1-52). 

(3) "De Mundo," a collection of extracts from 
Philo, especially from the preceding work (comp. 
Wendland, "Philo," ii., pp. vi.-x.). (4) "De Samp- 
sone" and "De Jona," in Armenian, published with 
Latin translation by Aucher. (5) " Interpretatio 
Hebraicorum Nominum," a collection, by an anony- 
mous Jew, of the Hebrew names occurring in Philo. 
Origen enlarged it by adding New Testament 
names ; and Jerome revised it. On the etymology of 
names occurring in Philo's exegetical works see be- 
low. (6) A "Liber Antiquitatum Biblicarum," 
which was printed in the sixteenth century and then 
disappeared, has been discussed by Cohn in "J. Q. 
R." 1898, x. 277-332. It narrates Biblical history 
from Adam to Saul (see Schurer, I.e. p. 542). (7) 
The pseudo-Philonic " Breviarium Temporum," pub- 
lished by Annius of Viterbo (see Schurer, I.e. note 

His Exegesis. Cultural Basis : Philo, of Jewish 

descent, was by birth a Hellene, a member of one 
of those colonies, organized after the conquests of 
Alexander the Great, that were dominated by 
Greek lauguage and culture. The vernacular of 
these colonies, Hellenistic Greek proper, was every- 
where corrupted by idiotisms and solecisms, and in 
specifically Jewish circles by Hebraisms and Semi- 
tisms, numerous examples of which are found in the 
Septuagint, the Apocrypha, and the New Testa- 
ment. The educated classes, however, had created 
for themselves from the classics, in the so-called 
koivt/ 6tdltKToq y a purer medium of expression. In 
the same way Philo formed his language by means 
of extensive reading of the classics. Scholars at an 
early date pointed out resemblances to Plato (Snidas, 
s.v. ; Jerome, " De Scriptoribus Eeclesiasticis," Cata- 
logue, s.v.). But there are also expressions and 
phrases taken from Aristotle, as well as from Attic 
orators and historians, and poetic phrases and allu- 
sions to the poets. Philo's works offer an anthology 
of Greek phraseology of the most different periods; 
and his language, in consequence, lacks simplicity 
and purity (see Treitel, "De Philonis Judsei Ser- 
mone," Breslau, 1870; Jessen, "De Elocutione Phi- 
lonis Alexandriui," 1889). 

But more important than the influence of the lan- 
guage was that of the literature. He quotes the 
epic and dramatic poets with especial frequency, or 
alludes to passages iu their works. He has a wide 
acquaintance with the works of the Greek philos- 
ophers, to which he was devoted, owing to them his 
real scholarship, as he himself saj r s (see "De Con- 
gressu Quoerendae Eruditionis Gratia," 6 [i. 550]; 
"De Specialibus Legibus," ii. 229; Deane, "The 
Book of Wisdom," 1881, p. 12, note 1). He holds 
that the highest perception of truth is possible only 
after a study of the encyclopedic sciences. Hence 
his system throughout shows the influence of Greek 
philosophy. The dnalistic contrast between God 
and the world, between the finite and the infinite, 
appears also in Neo-Pythagorism. The influence 

of Stoicism is unmistakable in the doc- 
Influence trine of God as the only efficient cause, 
of in that of divine reason immanent in 

Hellenism, the world, in that of the powers ema- 
nating from God and suffusing the 
world. In the doctrine of the Logos various ele- 
ments of Greek philosophy are united. As Heinze 
shows ("Die Lehre vom Logos in der Grieehischen 
Philosophie," 1872, pp. 204 et seq.), this doctrine 
touches upon the Platonic doctrine of ideas as well 
as the Stoic doctrine of the yeviKurardv rt and the 
Neo -Pythagorean doctrine of the type that served at 
the creation of the world ; and in the shaping of the 
7i6yog To^ievq it touches upon the Heraclitean doctrine 
of strife as the moving principle. Philo's doctrine 
of dead, inert, non-existent matter harmonizes in its 
essentials with the Platonic and Stoic doctrine. His 
account of the Creation is almost identical with that 
of Plato; he follows the latter's "Tiimeus" pretty 
closely iu his exposition of the world as having no 
beginning and no end ; and, like Plato, he places the 
creative activitv as well as the act of creation out- 
side of time, on the Platonic ground that time begins 
only with the world. The influence of Pythago- 
rism appears in the numeral-symbolisui, to which 

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Philo Judeeus 



Philo frequently recurs. The Aristotelian contrast 
between dwa/ui and ivrcAixcu* ("Metaphysics," iii. 
73) is found in Philo, - De Allegoriis Leguni," i. 64 
(on Aristotle see Freudenthal in "Monatsschrift," 
1S75. p. 233). In his psychology he adopts cither the 
Stoic division of the soul into eight faculties, or the 
Platonic trichotomy of reason, courage, and desire, 
or the Aristotelian triad of the vegetative, emotive, 
and rational souls. The doctrine of the body as the 
source of all evil corresponds entirely with the 
Xeo-Pvthafforean doctrine: the soul he conceives as 
a divine emanation, similar to Plato's voi>c (see 
Siegfried, "Philo," pp. 139 et seq.). His ethics and 
allegories are based on Stoic ethics and allegories. 
Although as a philosopher Philo must be classed 
with the eclectics, he was not therefore merely a com- 
piler. He made his philosophy the means of de- 
fending and justifying the Jewish religious truths. 
These truths he regarded as fixed and determinate; 
and philosophy was merely an aid to truth and a 
means of arriving at it. With this end in view 
Philo chose from the philosophical tenets of the 
Greeks, refusing those that did not harmonize with 
the Jewish religion, as, e.g., the Aristotelian doc- 
trine of the eternity and indestructibility of the 

Although he devoted himself largely to the Greek 
language and literature, especially Greek philoso- 
phy, Philo's national Jewish education is also a fac- 
tor to be taken into account. While he read the Old 

Testament chiefly in the Greek trans- 

His Knowl- lation, not deeming it necessary to use 

edge of the Hebrew text because he was under 

Hebrew, the w r rong impression that the Greek 

corresponded with it, he nevertheless 
understood Hebrew, as his numerous etymologies of 
Hebrew names indicate (see Siegfried, "Philonisehe 
Studien," in Merx, "Archiv fur Wissenschaftliche 
Erforschung des A. T." 1871, ii. 2, 143-163; idem, 
" Hebraisehe Worterklarungen des Philo und Hire 
Einwirkung auf die Kirchenvater," 1863). These 
etymologies are not in agreement with modern He- 
brew philology, but are along the lines of the etymo- 
logic mid rash to Genesis and of the earlier rabbinism. 
His knowledge of the Halakah was not profound. 
B. Ritter, however, has shown (I.e.) that he was 
more at home in this than has been generally assumed 
(see Siegfried's review of Ritter's book in "Jenaer 
Literaturzeitung," 1879, No. 35, where the principal 
points of Philo's indebtedness to the Halakah are 
enumerated). In the Haggadah, however, he was 
very much at home, not only in that of the Bible, but 
especially in that of the earlier Palestinian and the 
Hellenistic Mid rash (Frankel, "Ueber den Einfluss 
der Paliistinensisehen Exegese auf die Alexaudri- 
nische Hermeneutik," 1851, pp. 190-200; Sehtlrer, 
I.e. p. 546; "De Vita Mosis," i. 1 [ii. 81]). 

His Methods of Exegesis: Philo bases his doctrines 
on the Old Testament, which he considers as the 
source and standard not only of religious truth but 
in general of all truth. Its pronouncements are for 
him divine pronouncements. They are the words 
of the upoc ?-<$ynf , detot; /.6yo$, 6p\?oc ?u$yof ( u De Agricul- 
ture No6,"§12 [i, 308]; "De Somniis," i. 681, ii. 25) 
uttered sometimes directly and sometimes through 
the mouth of a prophet, especially through Moses, 

whom Philo considers the real medium of revelation, 
while the other writers of the Old Testament appear 
as friends or pupils of Moses. Although he distin- 
guishes between the words uttered by God Himself, 
as the Decalogue, and the edicts of Moses, as the 
special laws (* De Specialisms Legibus," §§ 2 et seq. 
[ii. 800 rf seq.]; " De Pnciniis etPoenis," § 1 [ii. 408]), 
he does not carrv out this distinction, since he be- 
lieves in general that everything in the Torah is of 
divine origin, even the letters and accents ( fc * De Mu- 
tatione Nominum," § 8 [i. 587]). The extent of his 
canon can not be exactly determined (coinp. Horne- 
mann, " Observationes ad Illustrationem Doetrina) 
de Canone V. T. ex Philone," 1776; B. Pick, 
"Philo's Canon of the O. T.," in "Jour, of Exeg. 
Society," 1895, pp. 126-143; C. Bissel, "The Canon 
of the O. T.," in "Bibliotheca Sacra,". Ian., 1886 : pp. 
83-86; and the more recent introductions to the Old 
Testament, especially those of Buhl, "Canon and 
Text of the O. T." 1891, pp. 17,43,45; Kyle, "Philo 
and Holy Script," 1895, pp. xvi.-xxxv. ; and other 
references in Schurer, I.e. p. 547, note 17). He does 
not quote Ezekiel, Daniel, Canticles, Ruth, Lamen- 
tations, Ecelesiastes, or Esther (on a quotation from 
Job see E. Kautzsch, " De Locis V. T. a Paulo 
Apostolo Allegaiis," 1869, p. 69; on Philo's manner 
of quoting see Siegfried, I.e. p. 162). Philo regards 
the Bible as the source not only of religious revela- 
tion, but also of philosophic truth; for, according 
to him, the Greek philosophers also have borrowed 
from the Bible: Heraclitus, according to "Quis 
Kerum Divinarum Heres Sit," § 43 [i. 503]; Zeno, 
according to "Quod Omnis Probus Liber," § 8 [ii. 

Greek allegory had preceded Philo in this field. 
As the Stoic allegorists sought in Homer the basis 
for their philosophic teachings, so the Jewish alle- 
gorists, and especially Philo, went to the Old Testa- 
ment. Following the methods of Stoic allegory, 

Ihey interpreted the Bible philosoph- 

Stoic ically (on Philo's predecessors in the 

Influence, domain of the allegoristic Midrash 

among the Palestinian and Alexan- 
drian Jews, see Siegfried, I.e. pp. 16-37). Philo bases 
his hermeneutics on the assumption of a twofold 
meaning in the Bible, the literal and the allegorical 
(comp. "Quod Dens Sit Immutabilis," § 11 [i. 280]; 
44 De Somniis," i. 40 [i. 656]). He distinguishes the 
tort] Kat <pavepa arrodoat^ (" De Abrahamo," § 36 [ii. 29 
et seq.]), "ad litteram"in contrast to "allegoriee" 
( i4 Qusestioues in Genesin," ii. 21). The two inter- 
pretations, however, are not of equal importance: 
the literal sense is adapted to human needs; but the 
allegorical sense is the real one, which only the ini- 
tiated comprehend. Hence Philo addresses himself 
to the fivcrac ("initiated ") among his audience, by 
whom he expects to be really comprehended ("De 
Cherubim," § 14 [i. 47]; "De Somniis," i. 33 [i. 
649]). A special method is requisite for determin- 
ing the real meaning of the words of Scripture 
(" Canons of Allegory," " De Victimas Offerentibus," 
§ 5 [ii. 255] ; " Laws of Allegory," " De Abrahamo," 
§ 15 [ii. 11]); the correct application of this method 
determines the correct allegory, and is therefore 
called "the wise architect" (" De Somniis," ii. 2 [i. 
660]). As a result of some of these rules of inter- 

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Philo Judeeus 

pretation the literal sense of certain passages of 
the Bible must be excluded altogether; e.g., passages 

in which according to a literal inter- 
Attitude pretation something unworthy is said 
Toward of God ; or in which statements are 
Literal made that are unworthy of the Bible, 
Meaning", senseless, contradictor)', or inadmissi- 
ble; or in which allegorical expres- 
sions are used for the avowed purpose of drawing 
the reader's attention to the fact that the literal sense 
is to be disregarded. 

There arc in addition special rules that not only 
direct the reader to recognize the passages which 
demand an allegorical interpretation, but help the 
initiated to find the correct and intended meaning. 
These passages are such as contain: (1) the doubling 
of a phrase; (2) an apparently superfluous ex- 
pression in the text; (3) the repetition of statements 
previously made; (4) a change of phraseology — all 
these phenomena point to something special that the 
reader must consider. (5) Au entirely different 
meaning may also be found by a different combination 
of the words, disregarding the ordinarily accepted 
division of the sentence in question into phrases 
and clauses. (6) The synonyms must be carefully 
studied; e.g., why labg is used in one passage and 
yivoc in another, etc. (7) A play upon words must be 
utilized for finding a deeper meaning; e.g., sheep 
(TTp6[iaToii) stand for progress in knowledge, since 
they derive their name from the fact of their pro- 
gressing (7rpoj3aiveiv) y etc. (8) A definite allegorical 
sense may be gathered from certain particles, ad- 
verbs, prepositions, etc. ; and in certain cases it 
can be gathered even from (9) the parts of a word ; 
e.g., from (ha in (hfaevKog. (10) Every word must- 
be explained in all its meanings, in order that 
different interpretations may be found. (11) The 
skilful interpreter may make slight changes in a 
word, following the rabbinical rule, "Read not so, 
but so" (Ber. 10a). Philo, therefore, changed ac- 
cents, breathings, etc., in Greek words. (12) Any 
peculiarity in a phrase justifies the assumption that 
some special meaning is intended; e.g., where fiia 
(" one ") is used instead of 7rp6r^ (" first " ; Gen. i. 5), 
etc. Details regarding the form of w f ords are very 
important: (13) the number of the word, if it show-s 
any peculiarity in the singular or the plural; the 
tense of the verb, etc. ; (14) the gender of the 
noun; (15) the presence or omission of the article; 
(16) the artificial interpretation of a single expres- 
sion ; (17) the position of the verses of a passage ; (18) 
peculiar verse-combinations; (19) noteworthy omis- 
sions; (20) striking statements; (21) numeral sym- 
bolism. Philo found much material for this sym- 
bolism in the Old Testament, and he developed it 
more thoroughly according to the methods of the 
Pythagoreans and Stoics. He could follow in many 
points the tradition handed down by his allegorizing 
predecessors ("De Vita Contemplativa," § 8 [ii 

Philo regards the singular as God's number and 
the basis for all numbers ("De Allegoriis Legum," 
ii. 12 [i. 66]). Two is the number of schism, of that 
which has been created, of death ("De Opificio 
Mundi, § 9 [i. 7] ; " De Allegoriis Legum, " i. 2 [i. 44] : 
"De Somniis," ii. 10 [i. 688]). Three is the number 

of the body("De Allegoriis Legum," i. 2 [i. 44]) 
or of the Divine Being in connection with His fun- 
damental powers (" De Sacrifices Abe- 
Views on lis et Caini," §15 [i. 173]). Four is 
Numbers, potentially what ten is actually, the 

perfect number ( 44 De Opificio Mundi," 
§$ 15, 16 [i. 10, 11], etc.); but in an evil sense 
four is the number of the passions, natty ("De Con- 
gressu Qmerendaj Eruditionis Gratia," § 17 [i. 532]). 
Five is the number of the senses and of sensibility 
( u De Opificio Mundi," § 20 [i. 14], etc.). Six, the 
product of the masculine and feminine numbers 3x2 
and in its parts equal to 3 + 3, is the symbol of the 
movement of organic beings (" De Allegoriis Legum, " 
i. 2 [i. 44]). Seven has the most various and mar- 
velous attributes ("De Opificio Mundi," £g 30-43 [i. 
21 et seq.] ; comp. I. G. Mllllcr, "Philo und die Welt- 
schopfung," 1841, p. 211). Eight, the number of the 
cube, has many of the attributes determined by the 
Pythagoreans (" QuDestiones in Genesin," iii. 49 fi. 
223, Aucher]). Nine is the number of strife, ac- 
cording to Gen. xiv. (" De Congressu Q'u. Eruditionis 
Gratia," § 17 [i. 532]). Ten is the number of per- 
fection (" De Plantatione NoS," § 29 [i. 347]). Philo 
determines also the values of the numbers 50, 70, 
and 100, 12, and 120. (22) Finally, the symbolism of 
objects is very extensive. The numerous and 
manifold deductions made from the comparison of 
objects and the relations in "which they stand come 
very near to confusing the whole system, this being 
prevented only by assigning predominance to certain 
forms of comparison, although others of secondary 
importance are permitted to be made side by side 
with them. Philo elaborates an extensive symbol- 
ism of proper names, following the example of the 
Bible and the Midrash, to which he adds many new 
interpretations. On the difference between the 
physical and ethical allegory, the first of which 
refers to natural processes and the second to the 
psychic life of man, see Siegfried, I.e. p. 197. 

Philo's teaching was not Jewish, but was derived 
from Greek philosophy. Desiring to convert it into 
a Jewish doctrine, he applied the Stoic mode of alle- 
goric interpretation to the Old Testament. No one 
before Philo, .except his now forgotten Alexandrian 
predecessors, had applied this method to the Old 
Testament — a method that could produce no lasting 
results. It was attacked even in Alexandria (" De 
Vita Mosis," iii. 27 |ii. 168]), and disappeared after 
the brief florescence of Jewish Hellenism. 

His Doctrine of God: Philo obtains his theol- 
ogy in two ways: by means of negation^and by posi- 
tive assertions as to the nature of God (comp. Zeller, 
44 Philosophic der Griechen," 3d ed., hi., § 2, pp. 
353-360; Drummond, " Philo Judaeus," ii. 1-64, Lon- 
don, 1888). In his negative statement he tries to 
define the nature of God in contrast to the world. 
Here he can take from the Old Testament only cer- 
tain views of later Jewish theology regarding God's 
sublimity transcending the world (Isa. lv. 9), and 
man's inability to behold God (Ex. xxxii. 20 et seq.). 
But according to the conception that predominates 
in the Bible God is incessantly active in the world, 
is filled with zeal, is moved by repentance, and 
comes to aid His people; He is, therefore, entirely 
different from the God described by Philo. Philo 

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Philo Judasus 



does not consider God similar to heaven or the world 
or man; He exists neither in time nor space; He has 
no human attributes or emotions. Indeed, He has 
no attributes whatever ((JtAoiv), and in consequence 
no name (appr / -^) t and for that reason he can not be 
perceived by man (d*ara7.#Trof). He can not change 
(d-pf— oc) ; He is always the same (aidios). He needs 
no other being (xptj^uv ovdevbg rd rrapa^av), and is self- 
sufficient (?ai~u ikqi-oc). He can never perish (hqdap- 
-oc). He is the simply existent (6 uv y to ov) t and as 
such has no relations with any other being (rd yap fi 
6v tarn' ov\i ruv ~pog ri). 

It is evident that this is not the God of the Old 
Testament, but the idea of Plato designated as 0*of, 
in contrast to mutter. Nothing remained, therefore, 
but to set aside the descriptions of God in the Old 
Testament by means of allegory. Philo character- 
izes as n monstrous impiety the anthropomorphism 
of the Bible, which, according to the literal mean- 
ing, ascribes to God hands and feet, eyes and ears, 
tongue and windpipe ( u De Confusione Linguarum," 
§ 27 [i. 425]). Scripture, he says, adapts itself to 
human conceptions (ib.); and for pedagogic reasons 
God is occasionally represented as a man ("Quod 
Deus Sit Immutabilis," § 11 [i. 281]). The same 
holds good also as regards His anthropopathic at- 
tributes. God as such is untouched by unreason- 
able emotions, as appears, e.g., from Ex. ii. 12, where 
Moses, torn by his emotions, perceives God alone to 
be calm (" De" Allegoriis Legum," iii. 12 [i. 943]). 
He is free from sorrow, pain, and all such affections. 
But He is frequently represented as endowed with 
human emotions; and this serves to explain expres- 
sions referring to His repentance. 
Similarly God can not exist or change 
in space. He has no " where " (~ov, ob- 
tained by changing the accent in Gen. 
iii. 9: "Adam, where [?rov] art thou?"), 
is not in any place. He is Himself the 
place; the dwelling-place of God means the same 
as God Himself, as in the Mishnah DipD = " God is " 
(comp. Freudenthal, "Hellenistische Studien," p. 
73), corresponding to the tenet of Greek philosophy 
that the existence of all things is summed up in God 
(comp. Schurcr, "Der Begriff des Ilimmelreichs," 
in " Jahrbuch fur Protestantische Theologie," 1876, 
i. 170). The Divine Being as such is motionless, as 
the Bible indicates by the phrase "God stands" 
(Deut. v. 31 ; Ex. xvii. G). It was difficult to har- 
monize the doctrine of God's namelessness with the 
Bible; and Philo was aided here by his imperfect 
knowledge of Greek. Not noticing that the Sep- 
tuagint translated the divine name Yhwii by Kvptog, 
he thought himself justified in referring the two 
names Oidg and Kipior to the two supreme divine 

Philo's transcendental conception of the idea of 
God precluded the Creation as well as any activity 
of God in the world; it entirely separated God from 
man; and it deprived ethics of all religious basis. 
But Philo, who was a pious Jew, could not accept 
the un-Jewish, pagan conception of the world and 
the irreligious attitude which would have been the 
logical result of his own system; and so he accepted 
the Stoic doctrine of the immanence of God, which 
led him to statements opposed to those he had 

Views on 

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previously made. While he at first had placed God 
entirely outside of the world, he now regarded Him 
as the only actual being therein. God is the only 
real citizen of the world ; all other beings are merely 
sojourners therein ("De Cherubim," § 34 [i. 661]). 
While God as a transcendent being could not 
operate at all in the world, He is now considered 
as doing everything and as the only cause of all 
things (^De Allegoriis Legum," iii. 3 [i. 88]). He 
creates not only once, but forever (ib. i. 13 [i. 44]). 
He is identical with the Stoic "efficient cause." lie 
is impelled to activity chiefly by His goodness, 
which is the basis of the Creation. God as creator 
is called Oedg (from riOt/pi; comp. " De Confusione 
Linguarum," § 27 [i. 425]). This designation also 
characterizes Him in conformity with His goodness, 
because all good gifts are derived from God, but 
not evil ones. Hence God must call upon other 
powers to aid Him in the creation of man, as He 
can have nothing to do with matter, which con- 
stitutes the physical nature of man : with evil 
He can have no connection; He can not even pun- 
ish it. God stands in a special relation to man. 
The human soul is God's most characteristic work. 
It is a reflex of God, a part of the divine reason, 
just as in the system of the Stoics the human soul is 
an emanation of the World-Soul. The life of the 
soul is nourished and supported by God, Philo using 
for his illustrations the figures of the light and the 
fountain and the Biblical passages referring to these. 
Doctrine of the Divine Attributes : Al- 
though, as shown above, Philo repeatedly endeav- 
ored to find the Divine Being active and acting in 
the world, in agreement with Stoicism, yet his Pla- 
tonic repugnance to matter predominated, and con- 
sequently whenever he posited that the divine could 
not have any contact with evil, he defined evil as 
matter, with the result that lie placed God outside 
of the world. Hence he was obliged to separate 
from the Divine Being the activity displayed in the 
world and to transfer it to the divine powers, which 
accordingly were sometimes inherent in God and 
at other times exterior to God. This doctrine, as 
worked out by Philo, was composed of very differ- 
ent elements, including Greek philosophy, Biblical 
conceptions, pagan and late Jewish views. The 
Greek elements were borrowed partly from Platonic 
philosophy, in so far as the divine powers were con- 
ceived as types or patterns of actual things ( u arche- 
typal ideas"), and partly from Stoic philosophy, in so 
far as those powers were regarded as the efficient 
causes that not only represent the types of things, 
but also produce and maintain them. They fill the 
whole world, and in them are contained all being and 
all individual things ("De Confusione Linguarum,' 1 
§ 34 [i. 431]). Philo endeavored to harmonize this 
conception with the Bible by designating these 
powers as angels ("De Gigantibus," § 2 [i. 2G3] ; 
"De 8011111118," i. 22 [i. G41 ct seq.~\) y whereby he des- 
troyed an essential characteristic of the Biblical view. 
He further made use of the pagan conception of 
demons (ib.). And finally he was influenced by the 
late Jewish doctrine of the throne-chariot (ntyjJD 
niDID), in connection with which he in a way de- 
taches one of God's fundamental powers, a point 
which will be discussed further on. In the Haggadah 



Philo Judeeus 

this fundamental power divides into two contrasts, 
which modify each other: CTDrnn msi p.l JVJD. 
In the same way Philo contrasts the two divine at- 
tributes of goodness and power (ayaOdrr^ and upxh> 
iVwafitg xapiartui] and ovynoAacTiK?/). The}" are also ex- 
pressed in the names of God; but Philo's explanation 
is confusing. 4k Yuwn " really designates God as the 
kind and merciful one, while "Elohim" designates 
him as the just one. Philo, however, interpreted 
"Elohim" (LXX. Oeog) as designating the "cosmic 
power"; and as he considered the Creation the most 
important proof of divine goodness, lie found the 
idea of goodness especially in Oedg (" De Migratione 
Abrahami," $ 32 [i. 404]). On the parallel activity 
of the two powers and the symbols used therefor 
in Scripture, as well as on their emanation from 
God and their further development into new pow- 
ers, their relation to God and the world, their 
part in the Creation, their tasks toward man, etc., 
see Siegfried, " Philo," pp. 214-218. Philo's expo- 
sition here is not entirely clear, as lie sometimes con- 
ceives the powers to be independent hypostases and 
sometimes regards them as immaueut attributes of 
the Divine Being. 

The Logos : Pliilo considers these divine powers 
in their totality also, treating them as a single 
independent being, which he designates "Logos." 
This name, which he borrowed from Greek philos- 
ophy, was first used by Heraclitus and then adopted 
by the Stoics. Philo's conception of the Logos is 
influenced by both of these schools. From Heracli- 
tus he borrowed the conception of the "dividing 
Logos " (Myog ropevg), which calls the various objects 
into existence by the combination of contrasts (" Quis 
Rertim Divinarum Ileres Sit," § 43 [i. 503]), and 
from Stoicism, the characterization of the Logos as 
the active and vivifying power. But Pliilo borrowed 
also Platonic elements in designating the Logos 
as the "idea of ideas" and the "archetypal idea" 
(" De Migratione Abrahami," § 18 [i. 452] ; " De Spe- 
cialisms Legibus," § 30 [ii. 333]). There are, in ad- 
dition, Biblical elements: there are Biblical passages 
in which the word of Ynwn is regarded as a power 
acting independently and existing by itself, as 
Isa. lv. 11 (com p. Matt. x. 13; Pro v. xxx. 4); these 
ideas were further developed by later Judaism in 
the doctrines of the Divine Word creating the world, 
the divine throive-chariot and its cherub, the divine 
splendor and its shekinah, and the name of God as 
well as the names of the angels; and Philo borrowed 
from all these in elaborating his doctrine of the 
Logos. He calls the Logos the "archangel of many 
names," "taxiarch" (corps-commander), the "name 
of God," also the "heavenly Adam" (comp. "De 
Confusione Linguarum," § 11 [i. 41 lj), the "man, 
the word of the eternal God." The Logos is also 
designated as "high priest," in reference to the ex- 
alted position which the high priest occupied after 
the Exile as the real center of the Jewish state. 
The Logos, like the high priest, is the cxpiator of 
sins, and the mediator and advocate for men: itcirrtg 
("Quis Rerum Divinarum Ileres Sit," $ 42 [i. 501], 
and Trapa&TjTog ("De Vita Mosis," iii. 14 [ii. 155]). 
From Alexandrian theology Philo borrowed the idea 
of wisdom as the mediator; he thereby somewhat 
confused his doctriue of the Logos, regarding wis- 

dom as the higher principle from which the Logos 
proceeds, and again coordinating it with the latter. 
Philo, in connecting his doctrine of the Logos 
with Scripture, first of nil bases on Gen. i. 27 the re- 
lation of the Logos to God. lie trans- 
Relation of lates this passage as follows: "He 
the Logos made man after the image of God," 
to God. concluding therefrom that an image 

of God existed. This image of God 
is the type for all other tilings (the "Archetypal 
Idea" of Plato), a seal impressed upon things. The 
Logos is a kind of shadow cast by God, having the 

outlines but not the blinding light of the Divine 

The relation of the Logos to the divine powers, 
especially to the two fundamental powers, must 
now be examined. And here is found a twofold 
series of exegetic expositions. According to one, 
the Logos stands higher than the two powers; ac- 
cording to the other, it is in a way the product of 
the two powers; similarly it occasionally appears 
as the chief and leader of the innumerable powers 
proceeding from the primal powers, and again as 
the aggregate or product of them. In its relation 
to the world the Logos appears as the universal 
substance on which all things depend ; and from this 
point of view the manna (as > evik<1)T(it6v ti) becomes 
a symbol for it. The Logos, however, is not only 
the archetype of things, but also the power that 
produces thefn, appearing as such especially under 
the name of the Logos ro/ievg (" the divider"). It 
separates the individual beings of nature from one 
another according to their characteristics; but, on the 
other hand, it constitutes the bond connecting the 
individual creatures, uniting their spiritual and 
physical attributes. It may be said to have in- 
vested itself with the whole world as an inde- 
structible garment. It appears as the director and 

shepherd of the things in the world 

Pneuma- in so far as they are in motion. The 

tology. Logos has a special relation to man. 

It is the type; man is the copy. The 
similarity is found in the mind (vole) of man. For 
the shaping of his nous, man (earthly man) has the 
Logos (the "heavenly man") for a pattern. The 
latter officiates here also as "the divider" (rofieig), 
separating and uniting. The Logos as " interpreter " 
announces God's designs to man, acting in this 
respect as prophet and priest. As the latter, he 
softens punishments by making the merciful power 
stronger than the punitive. The Logos has a spe- 
cial mystic influence upon the human soul, illu- 
minating it and nourishing it with a higher spiritual 
food, like the manna, of which the smallest piece has 
the same vitality as the whole. 

Cosmology : Philo's conception of the matter 
out of which the world was created is entirely un- 
Uiblical and un-Jewish; he is here wholly at one 
with Plato and the Stoics. According to him, God 
docs not create the world-stuff, but finds it ready 
at hand. God can not create it, as in its nature it 
resists all contact with the divine. Sometimes, fol- 
lowing the Stoics, he designates God as "the efficient 
cause," and matter as "the affected cause." He 
seems to have found this conception in the Bible 
(Gen. i. 2) in the image of the spirit of God hover- 

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Philo Judaeus 



ing over the waters ("De Opificio Mundi," § 2 [i. 
12]). On the connection < f the*e doctrines with the 
speculation? on the jy!«n3 fXTTO* see Siegfried, I.e. 
pp. 230 et s<q. 

Philo, again like Plato and the Stoics, conceives 
of matter as having no attributes or form; this, 
however, does not harmonize with the assumption 
of four elements. Philo conceives of matter as evil, 
on the ground that no praise is meted out to it in 
Gtfnesis ("Qui.* Kerum Divinarum Heres Sit," § 32 
[i. 405J). As a result, lie can not posit an actual 
Creation, but only a formation of the world, as Plato 
holds. God appears as demiurge and cosmoplast. 

Philo frequently compares God to an architect or 
gardener, who formed the present world (the Kocpos 
aic^r^oc .according to a pattern, the ideal world (kocuoc 
1-0/,-c*). Philo takes the details of his story of the 
Creation entirely from Gen. i. A specially impor- 
tant position is assigned here to the Logos, which 
executes the several acts of the Creation, as God 
can not come into contact with matter, actually 
creating only the soul of the good. 

Anthropology. The Doctrine of Man as a Nat- 
ural Being : Philo regards the physical nature of man 
as something defective and as an obstacle to his de- 
velopment that can never be fully surmounted, but 
still as something indispensable in view of the 
nature of his being. With the body the necessity 
for food arises; as Philo explains in various alle- 
gories. The body, however, is also of advantage 
to the spirit, since the spirit arrives at its knowledge 
of the world by means of the five senses. But 
higher and more important is the spiritual nature of 
man. This nature has a twofold tendency: one 
toward the sensual and earthly, which Philo calls 
sensibility (aicd/jag), and one toward the spiritual, 
which he calls reason (vols). Sensibility has its seat 
in the body, and lives in the senses, as Philo elabo- 
rates in varying allegoric imagery. Connected with 
this corporeality of the sensibility are its limitations; 
but, like the body itself, it is a necessity of nature, 
the channel of all sense-perception. Sensibility, 
however, is still more in need of being guided by 
reason. Reason is that part of the spirit which 
looks toward heavenly things. It is the highest, 
the real divine gift that has been infused into man 
from without (" De Opiticio Mundi," i. 15; " De Eo 
Quod Deterius Potiori Insidiatur," i. 206); it is the 
masculine nature of the soul. The volq isoriginally 
at rest; and when it begins to move it produces the 
several phenomena of mind (hdvfirjfiara). The prin- 
cipal powers of the vovg are judgment, memory, 
and language. 

Man as a Moral Being : More important in Philo's 
system is the doctrine of the moral development of 
man. Of this he distinguishes two conditions: (1) 
that before time was, and (2) that since the begin- 
ning of time. In the pretemporal condition the 
soul was without body, free from earthly matter, 
without sex, in the condition of the generic (yevtuog) 
man, morally perfect, i.e., without flaws, but still 
striving after a higher purity. On entering upon 
time the soul loses its purity and is confined in a 
bod}*. The nous becomes earthly, but it retains a 
tendency toward something higher. Philo is not 
entirely certain whether the body in itself or merelj 

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in its preponderance over the spirit is evil. But 
the body in any case is a source of danger, as it 
easily drags the spirit into the bonds of sensibility. 
IJere, also, Philo is undecided whether sensibility is 
in itself evil, or whether it may merely lead into 
temptation, and must itself be regarded as a mean 
(//teror). Sensibility in any case is the source of the 
passions and desires. The passions attack the sensi- 
bility in order to destroy the whole soul. On their 
number and their symbols in Scripture see Siegfried, 
I.e. pp. 245 et seq. The ** desire " is either the lustful 
enjoyment of sensual things, dwelling as such in the 
abdominal cavity {nm/aa), or it is the craving for this 
enjoyment, dwelling in the breast. It connects the 
nous and the sensibility, this being a psychologic 
necessity, but an evil from an ethical point of view. 

According to Philo, man passes through several 
steps in his ethical development. At first the sev- 
eral elements of the human being are in a state of 
latency, presenting a kind of moral neutrality which 
Philo designates by the terms u naked " or "medial." 
The nous is nude, or stands midway so long as it 
has not derided either for sin or for virtue. In this 
period of moral indecision God endeavors to prepare 
the earthly nous for virtue, presenting to him in the 
"earthly wisdom and virtue" an image of heavenly 
wisdom. But man (nous) quickly leaves this state 
of neutrality. As soon as he meets the woman 
(sensibility) he is filled with desire, and passion en- 
snares him in the bonds of sensibility. Here the 
moral duties of man arise; and according to his at- 
titude there are two opposite tendencies in hu- 

Ethics. Sensual Life : The soul is first aroused 
by the stimuli of sensual pleasures; it begins to turn 
toward them, and then becomes more and more in- 
volved. It becomes devoted to the body, and begins 
to lead an intolerable life (pto$ ajiorog). It is inflamed 
and excited by irrational impulses. Its condition is 
restless and painful. The sensibility endures, ac- 
cording to Gen. iii. 16, great pain. A continual 
inner void produces a lasting desire which is never 
satisfied. All the higher aspirations after God 
and virtue are stifled. The end is complete moral 
turpitude, the annihilation of all sense of duty, the 
corruption of the entire soul: not a particle of the 
soul that might heal the rest remains whole. The 
worst consequence of this moral death is, according 
to Philo, absolute ignorance and the loss of the 
power of judgment. Sensual things are placed 
above spiritual ; and wealth is regarded as the high- 
est good. Too great u value especially is placed 
upon the human nous; and things are wrongly 
judged. Man in his folly even opposes God, and 
thinks to scale heaven and subjugate the entire 
earth. In the field of politics, for example, he at- 
tempts to rise from the position of leader of the 
people to that of ruler (Philo cites Joseph as a type 
of this kind). Sensual man generally employs his 
intellectual powers for sophistry, perverting words 
and destroying truth. 

Ascent to Reason* Abraham, the "immigrant," is 
the symbol of man leaving sensuality to turn to 
reason ("De Migratione Abrahami," § 4 [i. 439]). 
There are three methods whereby one can rise toward 
the divine: through teaching, through practise 



Philo Judaeus 

(aoKTjoig), and through natural goodness (ootorrjg). 
On Philo's predecessors on this poiut see Siegfried, 
I.e. p. 257. 

The method through teaching begins with a pre- 
liminary presentiment and hope of higher knowl- 
edge, which is especially exemplified in Enos. The 
real "teaching" is represented in the ease of Abra- 
ham, the u lover of learning." The pupil has to pass 
through three stages of instruction. The first is that 
of "physiology," during which physical nature is 
studied. Abraham was in this stage until he went to 
Harau; at this time he was the u physiologer " of na- 
ture, the ** mcteorologcr." Recognizing his short- 
comings, he went to I la ran } and turned to the study 
of the spirit, devoting himself atfirst to the prepara- 
tory learning that is furnished by general education 
(eyKiKhog Tratdeia) ; this is most completely analyzed 
by Philo in u Dc Congrcssu Qua?rcnche Eruditionis 
Gratia," § 3 [i. 520]. The pupil must study gram- 
mar, geometry, astronomy, rhetoric, music, and 
logic; but he can never attain to more than a partial 
mastery of these sciences, and this only with the 
utmost labor. He reaches only the boundaries of 
knowledge (errtorrj/ir/) proper, for the u soul's irra- 
tional opinions" still follow him. He sees only the 
reflection of real science. The knowledge of the 
medial arts (fiiaac rexvai) often, proves erroneous. 
Hence the "lover of learning " will endeavor to be- 
come a "wise man." Teaehiug will have for its 
highest stage philosophy, which begins to divide 
the mortal from the immortal, finite knowledge from 
infinite knowledge. The tendency toward the sen- 
suous is given up, and the insufficiency of mere 
knowledge is recognized. He perceives that wisdom 
(ao<pia) is something higher than sophistry (co<pioreia) 
and that the only subject of contemplation for the 
wise is ethics. He attains to possession (Kryoig) and 
use (xPV at s)\ and at the highest stage he beholds 
heavenly things, even the Eternal God Himself. 

By the method of practise man strives to attain to 
the highest good by means of moral action. The 
preliminary here is change of mind (fieravoia), the 
turning away from the sensual life. This turning 
away is symbolized in Enoch, who, according to 
Gen. v. 24, " was not." Rather than undertake to en- 
gage in the struggle with evil it is better for man to 
escape therefrom by running away. He can also 
meet the passions as an ascetic combatant. Moral 
endeavor is added to the struggle. Many dangers 
arise here. The body (Egypt), sensuality (Laban 
and others), and lust (the snake) tempt the ascetic 
warrior. The sophists (Cain, etc.) try to lead him 
astray. Discouraged by his labors, the ascetic 
flags in his endeavors; but God comes to his aid, as 
exemplified in Eliezer, and fills him with love of 
labor instead of hatred thereof. Thus the warrior 
attains to victory. He slays lust as Phinehas slays 
the snake; aud in this way Jacob ("he who trips 
up"), the wrestling ascetic, is transformed into 
Israel, who beholds God. 

Good moral endowment, however, takes prece- 
dence of teaehiug and practise. Virtue here is not 
the result of hard labor, but is the excellent fruit 
maturing of itself. Noah represents the prelimi- 
nary stage. He is praised, while no really good deeds 
are reported of him, w T hence it may be concluded 

Views on 

that the Bible refers to his good disposition. But 
as Noah is praised only in comparison with his 
contemporaries, it follows that he is not yet a per- 
fect man. There are several types in the Bible rep- 
resenting the perfect stage. It appears in its purest 
form in Isaac. He is perfect from the beginning: 
perfection is a part of his nature (<pioig); and he can 
never lose it (av-f/Koog ml avrofiddfig). With such per- 
sons, therefore, the soul is in a state of 
rest and joy. Philo's doctrine of vir- 
tue is Stoic, although he is undecided 
whether complete dispassionateness 
(a~adeta; " Dc Allegoriis Legum," iii. 45 [i. 513]) or 
moderation (fitTpioxadelv; "Dc Abrahamo," § 44 [ii. 
137]) designates the really virtuous condition. Philo 
identifies virtue in itself and in general with divine 
wisdom. Hence he uses the symbols interchange- 
ably for both ; and as he also frequently identifies 
the Logos with divine wisdom, the allegoric desig- 
nations here too are easily interchanged. The Gar- 
den of Eden is " the wisdom of God " and also " the 
Logos of God " and "virtue." The fundamental vir- 
tue is goodness; and from it proceed four cardinal 
virtues — prudence, courage, self-control, and justice 

((ppdvyotg, avdpia, ciotypocvvr}, dtKatoovvq) — as the four 

rivers proceed from the river of Eden. An essential 
difference between Philo and the Stoics is found in 
the fact that Philo seeks in religion the basis for all 
ethics. Religion helps man to attain to virtue, 
which he can not reach of himself, as the Stoics 
hold. God must implant virtue in man ("De Alle- 
goriis Legum," i. 53 fi. 73]). Hence the goal of the 
ethical endeavor is a religious one: the ecstatic con- 
templation of God and the disembodiment of souls 
after death. 

Hellenistic Judaism culminated in Philo, and 
through him exerted a deep and lasting influence on 
Christianity also. For the Jew r s themselves it soon 
succumbed to Palestinian Judaism. The develop- 
ment that ended in the Talmud offered a surer guar- 
anty for the continuance of Judaism, as opposed to 
paganism and rising Christianity, than Jewish Hel- 
lenism could promise, which, with all its loyalty to 
the laws of the Fathers, could not help it to an inde- 
pendent position. The cosmopolitanism of Chris- 
tianity soon swept away Hellenistic Judaism, which 
could never go so far as to declare the Law super- 
fluous, notwithstanding its philosophic liberality. 
(For the extent and magnitude of Philo's influence 
on Judaism and Christianity see Siegfried, I.e. pp. 

Bibliography: Schurer, Gcseh.; Siegfried, Philo von Alex- 
andria, etc., 1875. On the Greek >1SS. of Philo's extant 
works: SchQrer, I.e. iii. 493, note 26; Cohn-Wendland, Phi- 
lonis Ale.rand7i.iri Opera Quw Supersunt* yo\. i., pp. i.- 
exiv.; voi. il., pp. i.-xxxiv.; vol. iii., pp. i.-xxii. On the indi- 
rect sources that may be used for reconstructing the text: 
Sohurer, I.e. pp. 494 e^eg., notes 28, 29. On translations of Phi- 
lo's works : Schurer, I.e. p. 49T>. note 30; Cohn-Wendland. I.e. 
voi. i., pp.ixxx. etseq. Other German translations: M. J[osi], 
Philos Gemmmelte Schriften Ucbcrsctzt* Leipsic, ia r >6~73; 
M. Friedlander, Ueher die Philanthropic des Mosaisehen 
Gcsctzes, Vienna, 1880. 

t. C. S. 
His Relation to the Halakah : Philo's rela- 

tion to Palestinian exegesis and exposition of the 
Law is twofold : that of receiver and that of giver. 
While his method of interpretation was influenced 
by the Palestinian Midrash, he in his turn influenced 

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Phiio Judseus 



His Debt 

to the 

this MMrash; for many ct his ideas were adopted 
by Palestinian scholars, and are still found scattered 
through mt the Talmud and the 3Iidrashim. The 
Palestinian Halakah was probably known in Alexan- 
dria even before the time of Phiio, and was appar- 
eutlv introduced bv Jndah b. Tabbai, or Joshua b. 
Perahvah. who tied from the persecutions of Ilyr- 
can us to Alexandria, where he remained for some 
time. Phiio had. moreover, the opportunity of 
studvint: Palestinian exeiresis in its home; for he 
visited Jcnwil» in once or twice, and at these times 
could communicate his views and his method of 
exeiresis to the Palestinian scholars. Furthermore, 
later teachers of the Law occasionally visited Alex- 
andria. among them Joshua b. Hauauiah (comp. 
Niildah Glib); and these carried various Philonic 
ideas back to Palestine. The same expositions of 
the Law and the same Biblical exegesis are very 
frequently found, therefore, in Phiio and in the 
Talmud and Midrashim. The only means of as- 
certaininir Philo's exact relation to Palestinian 
exeiresis lies in the determination of the priority of 
one of two parallel passages found in both authori- 
ties. In the solution of such a problem a distinction 
must first be drawn between the Halakah and the 

"With regard to the Halakah, which originated in 
Palestine, it maybe assumed with certainty that the 
interpretations and expositions found in Phiio which 

coincide with those of the Halakah 
have been borrowed by him from the 
latter; and his relation to it is, there- 
fore, only that of the recipient. Any 
influence which he may have exercised 
upon it can have been only a negative one, inasmuch 
as he aroused the opposition of Palestinian scholars 
by many of his interpretations, and inspired them 
to controvert him. The following examples may 
serve to elucidate his relation to the Halakah: Phiio 
saysC* De Specialibus Legibus,"ed. Leipsic, § 13, ed. 
3Iaugey [cited hereafter as 31.], 312), in interpreting 
Deut. xxii. 23-27, that the distinction made in the 
Law as to whether the violence was offered in the 
city or in the field must not be taken literally, the 
point being whether the girl cried for help and could 
have found it, without reference to the place where 
she was assaulted. The same view is found in the 
Halakah : u One might think that if the deed occurred 
in the city, the girl was guilty under all circum- 
stances, and that if it took place in the field, she 
was invariably innocent. According to Deut. xxii. 
27, however, 'the betrothed damsel cried, and there 
was none to save her.' This shows that wherever 
help may be expected the girl is guilty, whether 
the assault is made in the city or in the field; but 
where no help is to be expected, she is innocent, 
whether the assault occurs in the city or in the field" 
(Sifre, Deut. 243 [ed. Friedmann, p. 118b]). Phiio 
explains (I.e. < 21 [M. 319-320]) the words "God 
delivers him into his hand" (Ex. xxi. 13, Ilebr.) as 
follows: "A man has secretly committed a premed- 
itated murder and has escaped human justice; but 
his act has not been hidden from divine vengeance, 
and he shall be punished for it by death. Another 
man who has committed a venial offense, for which 
he deserves exile, also has escaped human justice. 

This latter man God uses as a tool, to act as the 
executioner of the murderer, whom lie causes him 
to meet and to slay unintentionally. The murderer 
has now been punished by death, while his execu- 
tioner is exiled for manslaughter; the latter thus 
suffering the punishment which he has merited be- 
cause of his original minor offense." This same in- 
terpretation is found in the Halakah as well (Mak. 
10b; comp. also 3Iek., Mishpatim, iv. [ed. Weiss, 
p. 80a]). In explaining the law given in Deut. xxi. 
10-14, Phiio says, furthermore ("De Caritate," $ 14 
[31. 304]), that a captive woman taken in war shall 
not be treated as a slave if her captor will not take 
her to wife. The same interpretation is found in 
the Halakah (Sifre. Deut. 214 [ed. Friedmann, p. 
113a]), which explains the words u lo tit'amcr bah" 
(= "thou shalt not do her wrong") to mean, "thou 
shalt not keep her as a slave." 

Numerous instances are also found in which, 
though Phiio departs in the main point from the 
Halakah, he agrees with it in certain details. Thus, 
iu interpreting the law set forth in Ex. xxi. 22 
(" De Specialibus Legibus," £ 19 [3L 31?]) he differs 
entirely from the Halakah, except that he says that 
the man in question is liable to punishment only in 
case he has beaten the woman on the bellv. The 
Halakah (3Iek. I.e. v. [ed. "Weiss, p. 90a]) deduces 
this law from the word "harah"(= "pregnant"). 

Phiio agrees with the Halakah also in his justifi- 
cation of various laws. The law eiven in Ex. xxii. 
1, according to which the owner has the right to 
kill a thief, is based by Phiio on the assumption that 
the thief breaks in with murderous intent, in which 
case he would certainly be ready to kill the owner 
should the latter try to prevent him from stealing 
("De Specialibus Legibus," § 2 [31. 337]). The 
3Iishnah (Sanh. viii. 6 and Talmud 72a) gives the 
same explanation. 

It is especially interesting to note that Phiio bor- 
rowed certain halakot that have no foundation iu 
Scripture, regarding them as authoritative interpre- 
tations of the law in question. lie says, for instance 
(I.e. % 5 [31. 304]), that the marriage of a Jew with 
a non-Jewish woman is forbidden, no matter of 
what nation she be, although the Talmud says ('Ab. 
Zarah 36b) that, according to the Pentateuchal law 
(Deut. vii. 3), onh r a marriage with a member of any 
of the seven Canaanitish peoples was forbidden, the 
extension of this prohibition to all other nations 
being merely a rabbinic decree. 

The most important feature of Philo's relation to 
the Halakah is his frequent agreement with an 
earlier halakah where it differs from a later one. 
This fact lias thus far remained unnoticed, although 
it is most important, since it thus frequently be- 
comes possible to determine which portions of the 
accepted halakah are earlier and which are later in 
date. A few examples may serve to make this 

clear. Phiio says ( u De Caritate," § 14 
[31. 393]), in explaining the law given 
in Deut. xxi. 10-14, regarding a 
woman taken captive in war, that she 
must cut her nails. This interpreta- 
tion of verse 12 of the same chapter 
agrees with the earlier halakah, represented by K. 
Eliezer (Sifre, Deut. 212 [ed. Friedmann, p. 112b]); 


"with the 



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Philo Judaeus 

but the later halakah (Sifrc, I.e.), represented 
by R. Akiba, explains the words u we-'asetah 
et-ziparneha " as meaning "she shall let her nails 
grow. " Again, Philo says ( u De Specialibus Legibus, " 
£ 19 [M. 317]), in interpreting the law of Ex. xxi. 
18-19: "If the person in question has so far recov- 
ered from Ins hurt that he is able to go oxit again, 
although it may be necessary for him to be assisted 
by another or to use crutches, his assailant is no 
longer liable to punishment, even in case his victim 
subsequently dies; for it is not absolutely certain 
that his death is a result of the blow, since he has 
recovered in the meantime." Hence Philo takes the 
phrase "upon his stall" (ib. verse 19) literally. In 
like manner he interprets (I.e. % 2 [M. 336-33?]) the 
passage kt lf the sun be risen upon him " (ib. xxii. 3) 
as follows: "If the owner catches the thief before 
sunrise he may kill him; but after the sun has risen, 
he no longer lias this right." Both these explana- 
tions by Philo contradict the accepted lialakah, 
which interprets the passages Ex. xxi. 19, xxii. 3, 
as well as Dent. xxii. 17, figuratively, taking the 
phrase ''upon his stall" to mean "supported by his 
own strength," and interpreting the passage "If the 
sun be risen upon him " to mean " when it is clear as 
daylight that the thief would not have killed the 
owner, even had the latter prevented him from the 
robbery" (comp. Mek., Mishpatim, vi. [ed. "Weiss, 
p. 88b]). Philo here follows the earlier lialakah, 
whose representative, R. Eliezer (Sifre, Deut. 237 
[ed. Friedmann, p. l"18a]), says "debarim ki-kcta- 
bam " (="the phrases must be taken literally"). 
Although only Deut. xxii. 17 is mentioned in Kct. 
46a and Yer. Ket. 28c in connection with R. Eliezer s 
statement, it is not express!}' said that such state- 
ment must not be applied to the other two phrases; 
and it may be inferred from Philo that these three 
phrases, which were explained figuratively by R. 
Ishmael, were taken literally by the old lialakah. 

The same agreement between Philo and the earlier 
lialakah is found in the following examples: Philo 
takes the phrases Ex. xxi. 23-25 and Deut. xix. 21, 
"eye for eye," "tooth for tooth," etc., literally, say- 
ing (I.e. §*33 [M. 329]) that, according to the Mo- 
saic law, the " lex talionis " must hold. 
Supports This explanation differs from that of" 
the " Lex the accepted lialakah, which interprets 
Talionis." the phrases in question as meaning 

merely a money indemnity (Mek. I.e. 
viii. [ed, Weiss, p. 90b] ; B. K. 98b-94a), whereas 
the earlier lialakah (as represented by R. Eliezer, R. 
K. 94a) says " 'ay in tahat 'ayin mammash " (= "an 
eye for an eye" is meant in the literal sense). This 
view of the earlier lialakah was still known as such 
to the later teachers; otherwise the Talmud (B. K. 
I.e.) would not have taken special pains to refute this 
view, and to prove its incorrectness. 

It frequently happens that when Philo differs 
from the lialakah in expounding a law, and gives 
an interpretation at variance with it, such divergent 
explanation is mentioned as a possible one and is dis- 
proved in the Talmud or the halakic midrashim. This 
fact is especially noteworthy, since in many cases it 
renders possible the reconstruction of the earlier liala- 
kah by a comparison with Philo's interpretations, 
as is shown by the following example: Philo says 


(I.e. £ 27 [M. 323]), in discussing the law of Ex. xxi. 
28-21), that if an ox known to be vicious kills a per- 
son, then the ox as well as its owner shall be sen- 
tenced to death. Philo interprets the words "his 
owner also shall be put to death" (ib. verse 29) to re- 
fer to "death by legal sentence," although in certain 
circumstances the Law may exempt the owner from 
this penalty and impose a fine instead. The ac- 
cepted lialakah, however, explains the phrase in 
question to mean that the owner will suffer death 
at the hand of* (Sod, while human justice can punish 
him only by a line, in no case having the right to 
put him to death because his ox has killed a man 
(Mek. I.e. x. [ed. Weiss, p. 93a]; Sanh. 15a, b). 
This interpretation of the lialakah was not, on the 
other hand, universally accepted; for in Mek. I.e. 
and especially in the Talmud, I.e. it is attacked 
in the remark: "Perhaps the passage really means 
that the owner shall be sentenced to death by a 
human court." It appears from this statement as 
well as from Sanh. i. 4 (comp. Geigcr, "Urschrift," 
pp. 448 et seq.) that the earlier lialakah held that the 
owner should be sentenced to death. This view 
was vigorously opposed by the later lialakah, and 
was not entirely set aside until a very late date, as 
appears from Sanh. I.e. 

It is impossible, however, to ascribe to the earlier 
Halakah all the interpretations of Philo that are 
mentioned and refuted in the Talmud and the hala- 
kic midrashim; and extreme caution must be ob- 
served in determining which of Philo's interpreta- 
tions that differ from the accepted lialakah are to be 
assigned to the earlier one. Many of Philos ex- 
planations are quoted according to the 
Influence rulings of the court of Alexandria and 
of the to its interpretation of the Law, and 
Court of Al- were never recognized in the Pales- 
exandria, tinian lialakah. They are, neverthe- 
less, cited as possible interpretations, 
and. are refuted in the Talmud and in the Midrashim, 
Alexandrian judicial procedure in general being 
frequently made an object of criticism. 

Philo's relation to the Palestinian haggadic exe- 
gesis is different, for it can not be said that wherever 
Palestinian ideas coincide with his own it must in- 
variably have formed the basis of his statements 
(comp. Freudenthal, "llellenistisehe Studien," pp. 
57-77). "While this dependence may have existed 
in numerous instances, it mav confidentlv be affirmed 
that in many other cases the Palestinian sources bor- 
rowed ideas which Philo had drawn from Hellenistic 
authorities. The following examples may serve to 
show that the Palestinian Ilaggadah is indebted to 
Philo: Gen. R. viii. 1 explains the passage Gen. i. 27 
to mean that God originally created man as an An- 
imooYXOS, this idea being first expressed by Philo 
in explanation of the same passage (" Dc Opificio 
Muudi," § 24 [M. 17] and more clearly in "De Alle- 
goriis Lcguni," ii. 4 [M. 40]). In like manner the 
idea expressed in Gen. R. xiv. 3 of a twofold creation 
of man, in part divine and in part earthly, has been 
taken from Philo, who was the first to enunciate this 
doctrine C De Opificio Mundi," § 12 [M. 49-50]), while 
the interpretation given in Ex. R. xxvi. 1, that Moses 
was called bv the same name as the water, is certainly 
taken from Philo, who says ("Vita Mosis," i. 4 [M. 

V o 

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83]) that Mo*c« received his name because he was 
fun ml in the water, the Egyptian word for which is 




In the case of many of the ideas and principles 
found botli in Philo and in the Tnlmudic and 

Midnvshie literature it is impossible to 

Relation to assert that there has been borrowing 

Palestinian on either side; and it is much more 

Haggadic justifiable to assume that such ideas 

ILxegesis. originated independently of each 

other in Palestine and in Alexandria. 
This may have been the case also with the rules of 
hermeneuties. The principles which Philo framed 
for the allegoric interpretation of Scripture corre- 
spond in part to the exegetic system of the Pales- 
tinian Halakah. It is highly probable, however, 
that neither borrowed these rules from the other, 
but that both, feeling the need of interpreting Scrip- 
ture, though for different purposes, independently 
invented and formulated these methods while fol- 
lowing the same trend of thought. Some examples 
of similarity in the rules may be given here. Philo 
formulates the principle that a deeper meaning is 
implied in the repetition of well-known facts ("De 
Congressu Eruditionis Gratia," $ 14 [M. 529]); and 
this same rule was formulated by Akiba also (Sifre, 
Num. 2, according to the reading of Elijah Wilna). 
Philo states as another rule that there is no superflu- 
ous word in the Bible, and wherever there is a word 
which seems to be such, it must be interpreted. 
Hence he explains ( u De Profugis," § 10 [M. 554]) the 
apparently superfluous word in Ex. xxi. 12. This 
principle is formulated by Akiba also(Ycr. Shab. xix. 
l?a; comp. alsoSanh. 64b, where Akiba deduces the 
same meaning from the apparently redundant word 
in Num. xv. 31, as Philo does from Ex. xxi. 12). 

Bibliography: Z. Frankel, Ucber den Einflus* der Palttsti- 
nui*i*chen Eregeae aufdie AlexandrinixchcIIermeneutik, 
pp. 190-192, Leipsic. 1K51 ; idem, Uehcr Pah'tetinemixche und 
AUxawlrintechc Schriftforschung,in The Programme of 
the lire si an Seminary, 1854; Bernhard Hitter. Philo und 
die Halaeha. ib. 1*79; tiralz, Da.s Korbfcst der Erstlinge bei 
Philo, in MonaMchrifU 1S77, pp. 433-442; Carl Siegfried, 
Philo ron Alexandria als Au.sleger da* Alten Testaments* 
Jena, 1*75: N.J. Weinstein, Zur (tenesisder Agada: partii.. 
Die Akxamtrimnche Agada, Gottingen, 1901. 

T. J. Z. L. 

PHINEHAS: 1.— Biblical Data : Son of Elea- 
zar and grandson of Aaron (Ex. vi. 25; I Chron. v. 
30, vi. 35 [A. V. vi. 4, 50]). His mother is said to 
have been one of Putiel's daughters; and it seems 
that he was the only child of his parents (Ex. I.e.). 
Phinehas came into prominence through his execu- 
tion of Zimri, son of Salu, and Cozhi, daughter of 
Zur, a Midianite prince, at Shittim, where the Israel- 
ites worshiped Baal-peor. Through his zeal he also 
stayed the plague which had broken out among the 
Israelites as a punishment for their sin ; and for this 
act he was approved by God and was rewarded 
with the divine promise I hat the priesthood should 
remain in his family forever (Num. xxv. 7-15). 
After this event Phinehas accompanied, as priest, 
the expedition sent against the Midianites, the result 
of which was the destruction of the latter (ib. xxxi. 
6 ct see/.). When the Israelites had settled in the 
land of Canaan, Phinehas headed the party winch 
was sent to remonstrate with the tribes of Reuben 

of the altar that had been built by them east of th 
Jordan (Josh. xxii. 13). 

At the time of the distribution of the laud, Phinc 
has received a hill in Mount Ephraim, where hi 
father, Eleazar, was buried (ib. xxi v. 33). He i 
further mentioned as delivering the oracle to th 
Israelites in their war with the Benjamitcs (Judge 
xx. 28). In I Chron. ix. 20 lie is said to have beei 
the chief of the Korahites who guarded the entranc 
to the sacred tent. 

The act of Phinehas in executing judgment an< 
his reward are sung by the Psalmist (Ps. cvi. 30 
31). Phinehas is extolled in the Apocrypha also 
u And Phinehas, the son of Eleazar. is the third ii 
glory" (Ecclus. [Sirach] xlv. 23); **Aud he wa- 
zealous for the law, even as Phinehas did unt< 
Zimri, the son of Salu " (1 Mace. ii. 2G). 

e. g. u. M. Sel. 

In Rabbinical Literature : Phinehas i: 

highly extolled by the Rabbis for his promptnes: 
and energy in executing the prince of the tribe o 
Simeon and the Midianitish woman. While cvei 
Moses himself knew not wiiat to do, and all tin 
Israelites were weeping at the door of the Taber 
nacle (Num. xxv. 6), Phinehas .alone was self-pos 
sessed and decided. He first appealed to the brav« 
men of Lsrael, asking who would be willing to kil 
the criminals at the risk of his own life; and, receiving 
no answer, he then undertook to accomplish the ex 
ecution himself (Sifre, Num. 131; Targ. pseudo 
Jonathan to Num. xxv. 7). According to Midr 
Agada to Num. I.e., however, Phinehas thought thai 
the punishment of Zimri was incumbent on him, say 
ing: "Reuben himself having committed adulter) 
[Gen. xxxv. 22J, none of his descendants is qualified 
to punish the adulterers; nor can the punishment b< 
inflicted by a descendant of Simeon, because the 
criminal is a Simeonite prince; but I, a descend 
ant of Levi, who with Simeon destroyed the inhab- 
itants of Shechem for having committed adultery, 
will kill the descendant of Simeon for not having 
followed his ancestor's example." Phinehas, having 
removed the iron point from his spear (according tc 
Pirke R. El. xlvii., it was Moses* spear that Phine- 
has had snatched), leaned on the shaft as on a 
rod; otherwise the Simeonites would not have al- 
lowed him to enter the tent. Indeed, the people in- 
quired his object in entering the tent, whereupon 
he answered that he was about to follow the ex- 
ample of Zimri, and was admitted unopposed. 
After having stabbed the man and the woman, 
Phinehas carried both of them on his spear out of 
the tent so that all the Israelites might see that they 
had been justly punished. 

Twelve miracles were wrought for Phinehas at 
this time, among others the following: he was 
aided by divine providence in carrying the two 
bodies on his spear (comp. Josephus, * 4 Ant." iv. 6, 
§ 12); the wooden shaft of the spear supported the 

weight of two corpses; the lintel of 
the tent was raised by an angel so 
that Phinehas was not required to 
lower his spear; the blood of the 
victims was coagulated so that it 
might not drop on Phinehas and render him nn- 




and Gad and the half-tribe of Manasseh because J clean. Still, when he came out the people of the 

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tribe of Simeon gathered around him with the in- 
tention of killing him, upon which the angel of 
death began to mow down the Israelites with greater 
fury than before. Phinehas dashed the two corpses 
to the ground, saying: "Lord of the world, is it 
worth while that so many Israelites perish through 
these two?" and thereupon the plague was stayed. 
An allusion to this incident is made by the Psalm- 
ist: "Then stood up Phinehas, ami executed judg- 
ment" (Ps. cvi. 30), the Rabbis explaining the word 
" wa-yefallel" as meaning "lie disputed with God." 
The archangels were about to eject Phinehas from 
his place, but God said to them: "Leave him; lie 
is a zealot, the son of a zealot [that is, Levi], one 
who, like his father [AaronJ, appeases My anger" 
(Sanh. 82b; Sifre, I.e. ; Targ. pseudo-Jonathan to 
Num. xxv. 7; Tan., Ralak, 30; Num. R. xx, 26). 
In Ber. 6b, however, the above-quoted passage from 
the Psalms is interpreted to mean that Phinehas 
prayed to God to check the plague. The people of 
all the other tribes, out of envy, mocked Phinehas, 
saying: "Have ye seen how a descendant of one who 
fattened ["pittem "] calves for sacrifices to the idol 
[referring to his grandfather Putiel; comp. Jetuho 
in Rabbinical Literature] killed the prince of a 
tribe?" God then pointed out that Phinehas was 
in reality the son of Eleazar and the grandson of 
Aaron (Sanh. I.e.; 15. R. 109b; Sifre, I.e.). 

Although the priesthood had been previously 
given to Aaron and his offspring, Phinehas became 
a priest only after he had executed Zimri, or, ac- 
cording to R. Ashi, after he had reconciled the tribes 
in the affair of the altar (Zeb. 101b; comp. Puine- 
iias, Biblical Data). The priestly portions of 
every slaughtered animal — the shoulder, the two 
cheeks, and the maw (Deut. xviii. 3) — were assigned 
by God to the priests solely because of the merit of 
Phinehas in killing Zimri and Cozbi: the shoulder 
as a reward for carrying on his shoulder the two 
corpses; the two cheeks, for having pleaded with 
his mouth in favor of the Israelites; and the maw, 
for having stabbed the two adulterers in that part 
(Sifre, Deut. 165; II ill. 134b; Midr. Agada to Num. 
xxv. 13). Owing to the sad consequences attending 
the Israelites' lapse into idolatry, Phinehas pro- 
nounced an anathema, under the authority of the 
Unutterable Name and of the writing of the tables, 
and in the name of the celestial and terrestrial courts 
of justice, against any Israelite who should drink 
the wine of a heathen (Pirke R. El. xlvii.). 

Phinehas accompanied, in the capacity of a priest 
specially anointed ("meshuah milhamah ") for such 

purposes (com]). Deut. xx. 2), the ex- 
Other pedition sent by Moses against Midian. 
Exploits. The question why Phinehas was sent 

instead of his father is answered by 
the Rabbis in two different ways: (1) Phinehas went 
to avenge his maternal grandfather, Joseph (witli 
whom certain rabbis identify Putiel), upon the Mid- 
ianites who had sold him into Egypt (comp. Gen. 
xxxvii. 28-3G). (2) He went simply because Moses 
said that he who began a good deed ought to finish 
it; and as Phinehas had been the tirst to avenge 
the Israelites upon the Midianitcs, it was proper that 
he should take part in the war against the latter 
(Sifre, Num. 157; Sotah 43a; Num. R. xxii. 4). 

Phinehas was one of the two spies sent by Joshua 
to explore Jericho, as mentioned in Josh. ii. 1 etseq., 
Caleb being the other. This idea is based on the 
Masoretic text of verse 4 of the same chapter, which 
reads * 4 wa-tizpeno " = "and she hid him," that is to 
sa} r , one spy only ; for Phinehas, being a priest, was 
invisible like an angel (Num. R. xvi. 1). This is 
apparently the origin of the Rabbis' identification 
of Phinehas with the angel of God sent to Bochirn 
(Judges ii. 1; Seder 'Olam, xx.; Num. R. I.e. ; 
comp. Targ. pseudo- Jonathan to Num. xxv. 12). 
On the identification of Phinehas with Elijah see 
Elijah in Rabbinical Literature. 

According to R. IJ. 15a, the last verse of the Rook 
of Joshua was written by Phinehas. The Rabbis, 
however, hold that the hill where Eleazar was 
buried (see Phinehas, Biblical Data) was not ap- 
portioned to Phinehas as a special lot, but was in- 
herited by him from his wife, and was therefore 
called by his name (R. B. 111b). Apart from his 
identification witli Elijah, Phinehas is considered by 
the Rabbis to have attained a very great age, since 
according to them he was still living in the time of 
Jephthah, 340 years after the Exodus (comp. Judges 
xi. 2G). In the matter of Jephthairs vow, Phinehas 
is represented in a rather unfavorable light (see 
jEniTHAii ix Rabbinical Literature). For him 
who sees Phinehas in a dream a miracle will be 
wrought (Ber. 5Gb). 

e. c. 31. Sel. 

2* Son of Eli, the high priest and judge of Israel ; 
younger brother of llophni. According to I Sam. 
ii. 12-17, the two brothers broke the law given in 
Lev. vii. 34 (whence they were termed "sons of 
Belial r ) by striking the llesh-hook in the pot and 
taking for themselves whatever meat it brought up, 
even against the wish of the sacrifices As judges 
they sinned through licentious conduct with the 
women who went to Shiloh (I Sam. ii. 22). In 
punishment for these sins it was announced to Eli 
that his sons should perish on the same day (ib. ii. 34) ; 
and in the ensuing battle between Israel and the 
Philistines both fell beside the Ark (ib. iv. 11). 

A posthumous son was born to the wife of Phine- 
has, whom she called Ichabod (I Sam. iv. 19); and 
in continuation of the priestly genealogy a grand- 
nephew of Phinehas, named Ahijah, is mentioned in 
connection with the battle of Jonathan against the 
Philistines (ib. xiv. 3). 

3. Father of Eleazar, a priest who returned from 
captivity witli Ezra (Ezra viii. 33). 

e. o. it. S. O. 

PHINEHAS : Guardian of the treasury at Jeru- 
salem. In the last days of Jerusalem, in the year 
70 c.e., he followed the example of his priestly col- 
league Jesus b. Thebouthi, and betrayed his trust; 
collecting many of the linen coats of the priests, their 
girdles, much purple and silk which had been pre- 
pared for the sacred curtain, and the costly spices 
for the hoi v incense, to save his life he went over 
to the Romans (Joscphus, "R. J." vi, 3, § 3). He 
appears to be identical with the Phinehas mentioned 
in the Mishnah Shekalim v. 1, who was guardian of 
the sacred wardrobe. See Phinkiiasb. Samuel. 

g. S. Kr. 

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Phinehas ben Clusoth 



Idumeans. Simon b. Giora undcitook several ex- 
peditions into the territory of the Idumeans to req- 
uisition provisions for his people. The Idumeans, 
after their complaints in Jerusalem had not brought 
asM<tanee, formed a band of volunteers numbering 
20,000 men, who from that time acted as wildly 
and mercilessly as did the Sicarians. Their lead- 
eis were Johannes and Jacob b. Sosa, Simon b. 
Kathla.aud Phinehas ben Clusoth (Joscphus, "B.J." 
i\\ 4, £ fc J . 

o. S. Kr. 

PHINEHAS B. KAMA (generally called R. 
Phinehas, and occasionally Phinehas ha-Ko- 
hen) : Palestinian amora of the fourth century; 
born probably in the town of Siknin, where he was 
living when his brother Samuel died (Midr. Shemuel 
ix \ lie was a pupil of It. Jeremiah, of whose 
ritual practises he gives various details {e.g., in Yer. 
Kil. aiHj; Yer. Hag. 80b; Yer. Kct. 41a), and of R. 
Hilkiah. He seems also to have lived for a time in 
Babylonia, since a K. Phinehas who once went from 
that country to Palestine is mentioned in Yer. *Er. 
22d as conversing with R. Judah b. Shalom. This 
passage apparently refers to Phinehas b. llama, as 
a conversation between him and Judah b. Shalom is 
also related elsewhere (e.g., Ex. R. xii.); and it like- 
wise explains the fact that R. Phinehas transmitted 
a halakah by Hisda (Yer. Sanh. 25e). His haggadie 
aphorisms, mentioned in B. B. llfia, were, therefore, 
probably propounded by him during his residence 
in Babvlonia, and were not derived from Pales- 
tine, as Baeher assumes (" Ag. Pal. Amor." p. 311, 

When the purity of the descent of the Jewish 
families in Babylonia was doubted in Palestine, 
Phinehas publicly proclaimed in the academy that 
in tiiis respect Palestine outranked all countries ex- 
cepting Babylonia (Kid. 71a). Many halakic sen- 
tences by Phinehas have been preserved, most of 
which occur in citations by llananiah (e.g., Yer. 
Demai 23b; Yi#r. Ma'as. 50c; Bik. God; Yer. Pes. 
3od; and elsewhere). Phinehas himself occasionally 
transmitted earlier halakic maxims (e.g., Yer. Pes. 
29c), and is frequently the authority for haggadie 
aphorisms by such scholars as R. lloshaiah (Lam. 
R. proem xxii. ; Cant. R. v. 8, end), Reuben (Tan., 
Kedoshim, beginning), Abbahu (Gen. R. lxviii. 
1;, and many others (comp. Baeher, I.e. p. 314, 
note 4). 

Phinehas* own haggadah is very extensive, and 
includes many maxims and aphorisms, as well as 
homiletic and exegetie interpretations. The follow- 
ing citations may serve as examples of his style: 
'• Poverty in the house of man is more bitter than 
fifty plagues" (B. 15. 110a). "A chaste woman in 
the house protecteth and reconcileth like an altar" 
(Tan., Wayishlah, on Gen. xxxiv. 1). " While other 
laws decree that one must renounce his parents on 
pledging his allegiance as a follower and soldier of 
tl r king [the reference may be to Matt. x. 35-37], 
ine Decalogue saith: 'Honor thy fatiier and thy 
mother'" (Num. R. viii. 4). u Ps. xxvi. 10 refers 
to dice-players, who reckon with the left hand and 
sum up with the right, and thus rob one another" 

Oniv Calif - Digitized 

(Midr. Teh. ad loc). "The name that a man wins 
for himself is worth more than that which is given 
him by his father and mother" (Eccl. R. vii. 4). 

BiBLiOdiiAniY : Baeher, Ay. Pal. Amor, in. 310-344. 

ic. c. J. Z. L. 

PHINEHAS BEN J AIR : Tannaof the fourth 
generation; lived, probably at Lydda, in the second 
half of the second century; son-in-law of Simeon 
ben Yohai and a fellow disciple of Judah I. He 
was more celebrated for piety than for learning, al- 
though his discussions with his father-in-law (Shab. 
33b) evince great sagacity and a profound knowl- 
edge of tradition. A haggadah gives the follow- 
ing illustration of Phinehas' scrupulous honesty: 
Once two men deposited with him two seahs of 
wheat. After a prolonged absence of the depositors 
Phinehas sowed the wheat and preserved the har- 
vest. This he did for seven consecutive years, and 
when at last the men came to claim their deposit 
he returned them all the accumulated grain (Deut. 
It. iii.). 

Phinehas is said never to have accepted an invita- 
tion to a meal and, after he had attained his major- 
ity, to have refused to eat at the table of his father. 
The reason given by him for this course of conduct 
was that there arc two kinds of people: (1) those 
who are willing to be hospitable, but can not af- 
ford to be so, and (2) those who have the means but 
are not willing to extend hospitality to others (Hub 
7b). Judah I. once invited him to a meal, and ex- 
ceptionally he decided to accept the invitation; but 
on arriving at the house of the patriarch he noticed 
in the yard mules of a certain kind the use of which 
was forbidden by local custom on account of the 
danger in handling them. Thereupon he retraced 
his steps and did not return (Hul. I.e.). 

Special weight was laid by Phinehas upon the 
prescriptions relating to the tithe. This feature of 
Phinehas' piety is described hyperbolically in the 
Haggadah. The latter relates a story of a mule be- 
longing to Phinehas which, having been stolen, was 
released after a couple of days on account of its re- 
fusal to eat food from which the tithe had not been 
taken (Gen. It. xlvi. ; comp. Ab. It. N. viii., end). 
To Phinehas is attributed the abandonment by Judah 
I. of his project to abolish the year of release (Yer. 
Demai i. 3; Ta'an. iii. 1). 

Phinehas draws a gloomy picture of his time. 
"Since the destruction of the Temple," he says, 

"the members and freemen are put to 

Account of shame, those who conform to tin 1 Law 

His Own are held in contempt, the violent and 

Times. the informer have the upper hand, and 

no one cures for the people or asks 
pity for them. We have no hope but in God" 
(Sotah 49a). Elsewhere he says: " Why is it that 
in our time the prayers of the Jews are not heard? 
Because they do not know the holy name of God " 
(Pesik. It. xxii., end; Midr. Teh. to Ps. xci. 15). 
Phinehas, however, believes in man'sperfcctibility, 
and enumerates the virtues which render man 
worthy to receive tin 1 Holy Spirit. The Law, he 
says, leads to carefulness; carefulness, to diligence; 
diligence?, to cleanliness; cleanliness, to retirement; 
retirement, to purity; purity, to piety; piety, to 

by Microsoft <§> 



Phinehas ben Clusoth 

humility; humility, to fear of sin; fear of sin, to 
holiness; holiness, to the reception of the Holy 
Spirit; and the Holy Spirit, to resurrection (*Ab. 
Zarah 20b; with some slight variants, Sotah ix. 15). 

The Ilairsmdah records many miracles performed 
by Phinehas. Among these* is that of having passed 
on dry ground through t lie Kivcr Ginai, -which he 

had to cross on Ins wav to ransom 

Miracles prisoners (Yer. Denial i. 3). Accord- 
Attributed ing to another version, Phinehas 

to Him. performed this miracle while he was 

going to the school to deliver a lec- 
ture. His pupils, who had followed him, asked if 
they might without danger cross the river by the 
same way, whereupon Phinehas answered: "Only 
those who have never offended any one may do so" 
(Huh Ta). To Phinehas is attributed the authorship 
of a later midrash entitled u Tadshe" or "Baraita 
de-Rabbi Pinehas ben Ya'ir." The only reasons for 
this ascription are the facts (1) that the midrash be- 
gins with Phinehas* explanation of Gen. i. 11, from 
which the work derives its name, and (2) that its 
seventh chapter commences with a saying of his on 
the tree of knowledge (sec Jew. Encyc. viii. 578, 
s.v. MmiiARii Tadsiik). Phinehas was buried in Ke- 
far Hiram. 

Bibliography: Heilprin. Seder ha-Dorot* ii.: Jellinek, B. H. 
iii. 104 et acq.* vi. £*: Jim Chananja, iv. 374; Baclier, A it. 
Tan. ii. 405 et seq.: Isaac Halevy, JJuittt ha-JUahonim, ii. 4S; 
Kraunscliweiger, Die J^ehrer tier Miachna, p. 241, Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main. 1903: Epstein, Beitriigc zur Jildischen 
AltcrthwnskundCi i.» p. x. 

w. u. I. Bit. 

PHINEHAS B. SAMUEL: The last high 
priest; according to the reckoning of Josephus, the 
eighty-third since Aaron, lie was a wholly un- 
worthy person who was uot of high-priestly lineage 
and who did not even know what the high priest's 
office was, but was chosen by lot, and in 67-08 was 
dragged by the revolutionary party against his will 
from his village Aphthia, where he was a farmer, to 
Jerusalem, to take the place of the deposed Matthias 
ben Theophilus. lie w r as clothed in the high-priestly 
garments and instructed as to what he had to do on 
every occasion. lie was an object of ridicule for 
the evil-minded, but this godlessness drew tears 
from the eyes of the worthy priests. lie met his 
death probably in the general catastrophe. His name 
is written in various ways by Josephus ( U B. J." iv. 
3 t ^ 8, ed. Niese). It is supposed that he was iden- 
tical with the DHIS mentioned in the Mishrmh as a 
functionary of tin* Temple; in this case his correct 
name would be Phineas. But Josephus writes this 
Biblical name diiferentlv. In regard to the Phinehas 
mentioned by the Kabbis see Pjijneiias, guardian of 
the treasury. 

Bibliography : Derenbourg, Essai sur V Hist aire de la Pales- 
tine, p. 20*1: Grille Gcuch* iii. 4< 751 ; Schiirer, Gcsch. i . 3, 
01* ; ii. 3, 220. 

G. S. Kit. 

PHOCYLIDES. See Pseupo-Puocylides. 

PHRYGIA : Province in Asia Minor. Anti- 
ochns the Great transferred 2,000 Jewish families 
from Mesopotamia and Babylonia to Phrygia and 
Lydia (Josephus, "Ant." xil 3, g 4). They settled 
principally in Laodicea and Apamca. The Christian 
Apostles also were familiar with Jews from Phrygia 

(Acts ii. 10). Christian teachings easily gained en- 
try there on account of the numerous Jews in the 
country. It is noteworthy that in the Phrygian city 
Mantalos there is an inscription written from right 
to left (Kainsay,"The Historical Geography of Asia 
Minor," p. 150, London, 1800). In the Byzantine 
period Aniorion was a Phrygian city, in which Jews 
held the supremacy (see Jew. Encyc. iii. 453, s.v. 
Byzantine Emimkk). Ibn Khurdadhbah also men- 
tions a Ilisn al-Yahud (= u Jews' Castle"; Kamsav, 
ih. p. 4 15) in this region. 

Bibliography: Scliiirer, Gcsch. Iii. 3, 5, 10, i:j ; W. M. Ram- 
say, The Cities and Bishoprics of Phrygku i., part ii M 067- 
07*5, London, 1S97. 

g. S. Kit. 

PHYLACTERIES ("tefillin").— Legal View : 
The laws governing the wearing of phylacteries 
were derived by the Rabbis from tour Biblical pas- 
sages (Deut. vi. 8, xi. 18; Ex. xiii. 9, 10). While 
these passages were interpreted literally by most 
commentators (com p., however, Ibn Ezra and 
RaShbaM on Ex. xiii. 9), the Kabbis held that the 
general law only was expressed in the Bible, the 
application and elaboration of it being entirely mat- 
ters of tradition and inference (Sanh. 88b). The 

Is * 



(In the British Museum.) 

earlier tannaim had to resort to fanciful interpreta- 
tions of the texts in order to find Biblical support 
for the custom of inscribing the four selections in 
the phylacteries (Men. 34b: Zeb. 37b; Sanh. 4b; 
Rashi and Tos. ml he.). There are more laws — 
ascribed to oral delivery by God to Moses — clns- 
terinjr about the institution of tetillin than about any 

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other institution of Judaism (Men. 33a; Yer. Meg. 
i. 9; Maimonides, in u Yad f " Tefillin, i. 3, mentions 
ten; Rodkinwolm, in "Tefillah le-Mosheh," p. 20, 
ed. Presburg, 18S8, mentions eighteen ; comp. Weiss, 
"Dor," i. 74-75). Thus, even if most Jewish com- 
mentators are followed in their literal interpretations 
of the Biblical passages mentioned above, rabbinic 
interpretation and traditional usage must still be 
relied upon for the determination of the nature of 
the teflllin and the laws concerning them (see Piiy- 
lactehiks — Historical and Cuitjcal, Views). 
Phylacteries, as universally used at the present 

(Nrn^yO; Men. 33a) at the ends, through which are 
passed leathern straps (nij?1¥"i) made of the skins of 
clean animals (Sliab. 28b) and blackened on the out- 
side (Men. 85a; comp. "Sefer Husidiin," ed. Wisti- 
netski, § 1669). The strap that is passed through 
the head-phylactery ends at the back of the head in 
a knot representing the letter T; the one that is 
passed through the hand-phylactery is formed into 
a noose near the box and fastened in a knot in the 
shape of the letter * (comp. Heilprin, "Seder ha- 
Dorot," i. 208, ed. Maskileison, Warsaw, 1897, where 
a wonderful storv in relation to the laws governing 

Phylacteries and Bag. 

(In the United States National Museum, Washington, D. C.) 

Details of 

time, consist of two leathern boxes — one worn on 
the arm and known as "shel yad " (Men. iv. 1) or 

4: shel zeroa* " (Mik. x. 3), and the other 
worn on the head and known as "she! 
rosli " — made 1 of the skins of clean ani- 
mals (Men. 42b; Sanh. 48b; "Yad," 
I.e. Hi. 13). The boxes must be square 
(Men. 33a); their height may be more or less than 
the length or the width ("Yad," I.e. Hi. 2); and it 
is desirable that they be black (Shulhan 'Aruk, Orah 
Hayyim, 32, 40). The boxes are fastened on the 
under side with square pieces of thick leather 
(fcOlJVn; Men. 33a) by means of twelve stitches 
made with threads prepared from the veins of clean 
animals '(Shah. 28b), and are provided with loops 

Univ Calif - Digitized 

the making of these knots is told). The box con- 
taining the head-phylactery has on the outside the 
letter {*>, both to the right (with three strokes: 
I?) and to the left (with four strokes; t#; Men. 35a; 
comp. Tos., *.r, "Shin "; probably as a reminder to 
insure the correct insertion of the four Biblical pas- 
sages); and this, together with the letters formed by 
the knots of the two straps, make up the letters of 
the Hebrew word "Shaddai" (HC = "Almighty," 
one of the names of God; Men. 35b; Rashi, s.i\ 
" Kesher "). The measurements of the boxes are not 
given; but it is recommended that they should not 
be smaller than the width of two lingers ('Er. 95b; 
Tos.,s.r. "Mukom "; Men. 35a; Tos., s.v. "Shin"). 
The width of the straps should be equal to the 

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length of a grain of oats. The strap that is passed 
through the head -phylactery should be long enough 
to encircle the head and to allow for the knot; and 
the two ends, falling in front over either shoulder, 
should reach the navel, or somewhat above it. The 
strap that is passed through the hand-phylactery 
should be long enough to allow for the knot, to en- 
circle the whole length of the arm, and then to be 
wound three times around the middle linger (" Yad," 
I.e. iii. 12; Orah Hayyim, 27, 8, 11). 

Each box contains the four Scriptural passages 
Ex. xiii. 1-10, 11-16; Deut. vi. 4-9, xi. 13-21 (comp. 

Zolmr, ed. Amsterdam, 1789, to Bo, p. 
Contents. 43a, b), written with black ink (Yer. 

Meg. i. 9) in Hebrew square charac- 
ters (fin^S 1 ; Meg. 8b; Soforim xv. 1) on parch- 
ment (Shab. 79b; Men. 32a) specially prepared for 
the purpose (Orah Hayyim, 32, 8; comp. "Be'er 
Heteb" and "Sha'are Teshubah," ad loe.) from 
the skin of a clean animal (Shab. 108a). The hand- 
phylactery has only one compartment, which con- 
tains the four Biblical selections written upon a 
single strip of parchment in four parallel columns 
and in the order given in the Bible (Men. 34b). The 
head-phylactery has four compartments, formed 
from one piece of leather, iu each of which one selec- 
tion written on a separate piece of parchment is de- 
posited perpendicularly. The pieces of parchment 
on which the Biblical selections are written are in 
either case tied round with narrow strips of parch- 
ment and fastened with the thoroughly washed hair 
of a clean animal (Shab. 28b, 108a), preferably of 
a calf C Yad," I.e. iii. 8; Orah Hayyim, 32,*44). 
There was considerable discussion among the com- 
mentators of the Talmud (Men. 34b) as to the order 
in which the Biblical selections should be inserted 
into the head-phylactery. The chief disputants in 

this case were R. Solomon Yizhaki 
(Rashi) and R. Jacob b. Meir Tarn 
(Rabbenu Tarn), although different 
possible arrangements have been sug- 
gested by other writers ("Shimmusha 
Rabba" and RABaD). The following diagram 
shows the arrangements of the Bible verses as ad- 
vocated respectively by Rabbenu Tarn and Rashi 
(comp. Rodkinssohn, "Tefillah le-Mosheh," p. 25): 

ment of 

R. Tarn 


Ex. xiii. 1-10, 

Has hi 

Ex. xiii. 11-16, 

in*3^ ^ rvm 

Ex. xiii. 1-10, 

Ex. xiii. 11-16, 

-jiozp -o rvm 

Deut. xi. 13-21, 

rice 2N mm 

Deut. vi. 4-9, 

The prevailing custom is to follow the opinion of 
Rashi ( u Yad," I.e. iii. 5; comp. RABaD and u Kcsef 
Mishneh" ad loe.\ Orah Hayyim, 34, 1), although 
some are accustomed, in order to be certain of per- 
forming their duty properly, to lay two pairs of 
tefillin (comp. *Er. 95b), one prepared in accordance 
with the view of Rashi, and the other in accordance 
with that of Rabbenu Tarn. If, however, one is 
uncertain as to the exact position for two pairs of 
tefillin at the same time, one should first "lay " the 
tefillin prepared in accordance with Rashi's opinion, 

the service, without pronouncing a blessing lay 
those prepared in accordance with Rabbenu Tain's 
opinion. Only 'the specially pious wear both kinds 
(Orah Hayyim, 534, 2, 3). 

The parchment on which the Biblical passages are 
written need not be ruled ("Yad," I.e. i. 12), al- 
though the custom is to rule it. A pointed instru- 
ment that leaves no blot should be used in ruling; 
the use of a pencil is forbidden (Orah Hayyim, 32, 
6, Isserlcs' gloss). The scribe should be very care- 
ful in writing the selections. Before 
Mode of beginning to write he should pro- 
Writing, nounce the words, "I am writing this 

for the sake of the holiness of tefillin"; 
and before he begins to write any of the names of 
God occurring in the texts, he should say, "I am 
writing this for the sake of the holiness of the 
Name." Throughout the writing his attention must 
not be diverted; "even if the King of Israel should 
then greet him, he is forbidden to reply" ("Yad," 
I.e. i. 15; Orah Hayyim, 32, 19). If he omits even 
one letter, the whole inscription becomes unfit. If 
he inserts a superfluous letter at the beginning 
or at the end of a word, he may erase it, but if 
in the middle of a word, the whole becomes unfit 
("Yad," I.e. ii. ; Orah Hayyim, 32, 23, and "Be'er 
Heteb," ad loe.). The letters must be distinct and 
uot touch each other; space must be left between 
them, between the words, and between the lines, as 
also between the verses (Orah Hayyim, 32, 32, Is- 
series' gloss; comp. "Magen Abraham" and "Be'er 
Heteb" ad loc). The letters p TJttlK? where they 
occur in the selections are adorned with some 
fanciful ornamentation (Men. 29b; see Tos., s.v. 
"Sha'atnez "); some scribes adorn other letters also 
(Orah Hayyim, 36, 3, and "Be'er Heteb," ad loe.). 
In writing the selections it is customary to devote 
seven lines to each paragraph in the hand-phylac- 
tery, and four lines to each paragraph in the head- 
phylactery (Orah Hayyim, 35). 

In putting on the tefillin, the hand-phylactery is 
laid first (Men. 36a). Its place is on the inner side 
of the left arm (ib. 36b, 37a), just above the elbow 
(comp. "SefcrHasidim,"§§434, 638, where the exact 
place is given as two fist- widths from the shoulder- 
blade; similarly the head-phylactery is worn two 

fist-widths from the tip of the 
nose); and it is held in position 
by the noose of the strap so that 
when the arm is bent the phy- 
lactery may rest near the heart 
(Men. 37a, based on Deut. xi. 8 ; 
comp. "Sefer Hasidim," §§435, 
1742). If one is left-handed, he 
lays the hand-phylactery on the same place on his 
right hand (Men. 37a; Orah Hayyim, 27b). After 

the phylactery is thus fastened on the 
bare arm, the strap is wound seven 
times round the arm. The head-phy- 
lactery is placed so as to overhang the 
middle of the forehead, with the knot of the strap at 
the back of the head and overhanging the middle of 
the neck, while the two ends of the strap, with the 
blackened side outward, hang over the shoulders in 
front (Orah Hayyim, 27, 8-11). On laying the hand- 
phylactery, before the knot is fastened, the following 

Deut. vi. 4-9, 

Deut. xi. 13-21, 

nsir ex rvm 

Put on. 

and then, removing these during the latter part of 

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benediction is pronounced: " Blessed art Thou . . . 
who sanctifieth us with His commandments and 
hast commanded us to lav tetillin. ,J Before the head- 
phylactery is fastened the blessing is repeated with 
the substitution of the phrase "concerning the com- 
mandment of tefilliu ?% for "to lav tetillin," Some 

glorious kingdom for ever and ever/' lest the second 
benediction be pronounced unnecessarily. If lie who 
lays the tetillin has talked between the laying of the 
hand-phylactery and that of the head-phylactery, 
he should repeat both blessings at the laving of the 
latter (.Men. 36a; " Yad," I.e. iv. 4, 5; Orah Hay vim, 

A. For the arm. 

Phylacteries and Their Arrangement. 
B. As adjusted on the arm. C. For the head. D. Jew wearing phylacteries. 

(From Picart, 1725.) 

authorities are of the opinion that the blessing on 
laying the head -phylactery should he pronounced 
only when an interruption has occurred through 
conversation on the part of the one engaged in per- 
forming the commandment; otherwise the one bless- 
ing pronounced on laying the hand -phylactery is 
sullicient. The prevailing custom, however, is to 
pronounce two blessings, and, after theseeond bless- 
ing, to say the words, 'WlWjW^bftf ^uWlti^i 

25, 5; Isserles' gloss, 9, 10; comp. ib. 20G, 0). Then 
the strap of the hand-phylactery is wound three 
times around the middle linger so as to form a 

£• and the passages IIos. ii. 21 and 

The 22 are recited. The seven twistings 

Blessings, of the strap on the arm are then 

counted while the seven wordsof Deut. 
iv. 4 are recited. A lengthy prayer in which the sig- 
I B^9 a MG9AJLU J £ IciUliUiis explained and which con- 




tains traces of cabalistic influence is recited by some 
before putting on the tefillin. After the tefillin are 
laid Ex. xiii. 1-16 is recited. In removing the tefil- 
lin the three twistings on the middle linger are 
loosened first; then the head-phylactery is removed ; 
and finally the hand-phylaclery (Men. 36a). It is 
customary to lay and to remove the tefillin while 
standing; also to kiss them when they are taken 
from and returned to the phylactery-bag (Orah 
Hayyim, 28. 2, 3). 

Originally tefillin were worn all day, but not 
during the night (Men. 3Gb). Now the prevailing 
custom is to wear them during the daily morning 
service only (comp. Ber. 14b). They are not worn 
on Sabbaths and holy days ; for these, being in them- 
selves' 4 signs," render the tefillin, which are to serve 

is engaged in the study of the Law (Ii. Jonah to 
Alfasi on Ber. ii. 5, s.i\ " Le-Memra "), and scribes 
of and dealers in tefillin and mezuzot while engaged 
in their work if it can not be postponed, are also 
free from this obligation (Suk. 2Ga; Orah Hayyim, 
38, 8-10). It is not permitted to enter a cemetery 
(Ber. 18a) or any unseemly place {ib. 23a; Shab. 
10a), or to eat a regular meal or to sleep (Ber. 23b; 
Suk. 2Ga), while wearing tefillin. The bag used for 
tefillin should not be used for any other purpose, un- 
less a condition was expressly made that it might 
be used for any purpose (Ber. 23b; Sanh. 48a). 

Maimonides (" Yad," I.e. iv. 25, 2G) concludes the 
laws of tefillin with the following exhortation (the 
references are not in Maimonides): 

"The sanctity of tefillin is very great (comp. Shab. 49a; 

Phylactery for arm. 

(From the Cairo Genizah.) 

as signs themselves (Ex. xiii. 9, 16), unnecessary 
(Men. 36b; l Er. 96a). In those places where tefillin 
are worn on the week-days of the festivals (see 
Holy Days), and on New Moons, they are re- 
moved before the "Musaf" prayer (Orah Hayyim, 

25, 13). 

The duty of laying tefillin rests upon males 
after the age of thirteen years and one day. Women 
are exempt, from the obligation, as are also slaves 
and minors (Ber. 20a). Women who wish to lay 
tefillin are precluded from doing so (Orah Hayyim, 
38, 3, Isserles' gloss); in ancient times this was not 
the case ('Er. 96a, b). A mourner during the first 
day of his mourning period (M. K. 15a; Suk. 25b), 
a bridegroom on his wedding-day (Suk. I.e.), an 
excommunicate, and a leper (M. K. 15a) are also 
exempt. A sufferer from stomach-trouble (Hul. 
110a), one who is otherwise in pain and can not 
concentrate his mind ("Yad J' he. i\\ 13). one who j comp. a. v.; m 

univ Calif - Diaitizea bv Wi 

Masseket Tefillin, toward the end: Zobar, section kV Wa'etha- 
nan," p. 209b). As long as the tefillin are on the head and on 
the arm of a man, he is modest and (iod-fearing and will 
not be attracted by hilarity or idle talk, and will have no evil 
thoughts, but will devote all his thoughts to truth and right- 
eousness (comp. JHen. 43b ; tk Sefer Hasidim," § 554). Therefore, 
every man ought to try lo have the tefillin upon him the whole 
day (Masseket Tefillin, I.e.; comp. Sifre to Deut. v. 9); for only 
in this way can he fulfil the commandment. It is related that 
Ran (Abba Arika), the pupil of our holy teacher (R. Judah ha- 
Nasi), was never seen to walk four cubits without a Torah, with- 
out fringes on his garments (" zizit "), and without tefillin (Suk. 
29a, where R. Johanan b. Zakkai and R. Eliezer are mentioned ; 
comp. Meg. 24a, where R. Zerais mentioned). Although the Law 
enjoins the wearing of tefillin the whole day, it is especially com- 
mendable to wear them during prayer. The sages say that one 
who reads the Shema k without tefillin is as if he testified falsely 
against himself (Ber. 14b, 15a). He who does not lay tefillin 
transgresses eight commandments (Men. 44a ; comp. R. H. 17a); 
for in each of the four Biblical passages there is a commandment 
to wear tefillin on the head and on the arm. But he who is ac- 
customed to wear tefillin will live long, as it is written, * When 
the Lord is upon them they will live ' " (Isa. xxxviii. 10, Hebr.; 




BiBLior.RAPiir: Mas&eket Tefilliiu published by Kirchbeim in 
bis edition of ibe seven smaller treatises of tbe Talmud, Frank- 
fort-on-tne-Main, 1S51 ; Rosn. JUlkot TiMUtu in Halaknt 
Kr\annoU and Shimmu.*ha Rabba, published wilb Menabot 
ih ino*t editions of ihe Talmud ; Kol B*> % i 2\ % Furtb, 1782; 
Hambunrer, li.B.T. ii., s.v. Tephillin ; Hasiinps, Diet. Bible ; 
Friediander, Ttu* Jewish Religion* pp. XU-SU, London, 1900: 
Rodkius4^n, Tttillah le-Mo*heh, Presburp, 1$N3; Zunz, G.S. 
ii. 172-176, Berlin, 1^76. 

K. c. J* H. G. 

Historical View : The only instance of the 

name * phylacteries " in Biblical times occurs in the 
New Testament (Mult, xxiii. 5). whence it lias passed 
into the 1 a n - 
g tinges of Eu- 
rope. Iu rab- 
binical literature 
it is not found 
even as a foreign 
word. The Sep- 
tuagint renders 

" totnfot" (A. 
V. and R. V. 
" frontlets"; 
Ex. xiii. 16 and 
Deut. vi. 8) by 

a a a 7. e v r 6 v ( = 

* something im- 
movable ") ; nor 
do Aquila and 
Svmmachus use 
the word " phy- 
lacteries." The 
Targumim (Jon- 
athan, Onkelos) 
and tlie Pesliitta 
use "tefillin" 
(Ex. xiii. 9, 16; 
xxviii. 37; Dent, 
vi. 8, xxviii. 10; 
Ezek. xxiv. 23; 
Cant. viii. 1) or 
"totafot" (II 
Sam. i. 10; Ezek. 
xxiv. 17 et seq.). 
The terms "te- 
fillah," "tefillin" 
only are found 
in Talmudic lit— 
craturc, a 1 - 
though the word 
" totafah " was 
still current, be- 
ing used with 
the meaning of ** frontlet " (Shab. vi. 1). The con- 
clusions in regard to the tefillin which are based 

on its current name "phylacteries," 
Name and therefore, lack historical basis, since 
Origin. this name was not used in truly Jew- 
ish circles. 
In regard to their origin, however, the custom of 
wearing protecting coverings on the head and hands 
must be borne in mind. Saul's way of appearing in 
battle, with a crown on his head and wearing brace- 
lets, is connected with this idea. The Proverbs re- 
flect popular conceptions, for they originated in 
great part with the people, or were addressed to 
them. Prov. i. 9, iii. 3, vi. 21, and vii. 3 (com p. 
Jer. xvj-i. 1, xxxi. 32-33) clearly indicate the custom 


(In the jxMWeSBlon of Maurice Herrmann, New York.) 

of wearing some object, with or without inscription, 
around the neck or near the heart; the actual cus- 
tom appears in the ligure of speech. In view of 
these facts it may be assumed that Ex. xiii. 9, 16, 
and Deut. vi. 8, xi. 18 must be interpreted not fig- 
uratively but literally ; therefore it must be assumed 
that the custom of wearing strips inscribed with 
Biblical passages is commanded in the Torah. 
"Bind them as signs on thy hand, and they shall be 
as totafot between thy eyes" assumes that totafot 

were at the time 
kuown and in 
use, but that 

thenceforth the 
words of the 
Torah were to 
serve as totafot 

• • 

(on signs see also 
I Kings xx. 41 ; 
Ezek. ix. 4, 6; 
Psalms of Solo- 
mon, xv. 9; see 
Breast - plate 
of the High 
Priest; Cain). 
It isnot known 
whether this 
command was 
carried out in 
the earliest time, 
and if so, in 
what manner. 
But from the 
relatively large 
number of regu- 
lations referring 
to the phylac- 
teri es — som e 
of them con- 
nected with the 
names of the 
first tannaim — 
and also from 
the fact that 
among the fifty- 
five "Sinaitic 
c o m m ands " 
("halakah lc- 
M o s h e h mi- 
Sinai") -eight re- 
fer to the tefillin 
alone and seven to the tefillin and the Torah to- 
gether, it follows that they were used as early as 

the time of the Soferim — the fourth, 
or at least the third, century n.c. 
The earliest explicit reference to them 
that has been preserved — namely, in 
the Letter of Aristeas (verse 159; see 
Kantzsch, " Apokryphen," ii. 18) — speaks of them 
as an old institution. 

Josephus ("Ant." iv. 8, § 13) also regards them 
as an ancient institution, and he curiously enough 
places the tefillin of the head first, as the Talmud 
generally does (comp. Justin, "Dial, cum Tryph." 
ed. Otto, ii. 154). The tefillin are mentioned in con- 
nection with Simeon b. Shetah, brother-in-law of 

■ • 7 

Epoch of 

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Alexander Janna?us (Yer. Hag. 77d); and Shammai 
produces the tefillin of liis mother's father (Mek., I5o, 
§ 17 [cd. Fried man n, 21b]; the parallel passage Yer. 
*Er. 26a reads " Ilillel "). Tlie date liere given is the 
seventh decade of the first century B.C. Schorr (in 
"Ile-IIaluz," vol. iv.) assumes that thev were intro- 
dueed in the Maccabean period, and A. Kroehmal re- 
gards the reference to Elisha's "wings" (Shah. 44a; 
Yer. Ber. 4c) as indicating that he was one of the first 
of the high priests to wear the tetillah (" 'lyyun Te- 
fillah," pp. 27 et seq.). Johanan b. Zakkai never 
went four ells without tefillin ; neither did his pupil 
Eliezer (Yer. Ber. 4c). Gamaliel II. (e. 100 c.E.) 
gives directions as to what shall be done with te- 
fillin found on the Sabbath, making a distinction 
between old and new tefillin ('Er. x. 1), a fact that 
clearly indicates the extent to which they were used. 
Even the slaves of this patriarch wore tefillin (Yer. 
c Er. 26a). Judah b. Bathyra refers, about 150 C.E., 
to the tefillin which he inherited from his grand- 
father; these were inscribed to the dead awakened 
by Ezekiel (xxxvii. ; Sanh. 92b). In the following 
centuries they were used to an increasing extent, as 
appears from the numerous sentences and rules re- 
ferring to them by the authorities of the Babylonian 
and Palestinian Talmnds. 

Tefillin resembled amulets in their earliest form, 
strips of parchment in a leather case, which is called 

either " bag " or " little house." Tefil- 

Earliest lin and "keme'ot " are, in fact, often 
Form. mentioned side by side (Shab. vi. 2: 

Mik. vi. 4; Kelim xxiii. 9; et al.), and 
were liable to be mistaken one for the other ('Er. x. 
1 et al.). as in the case of the Torah roll, the only 
permissible material was parchment, while the "me- 
zuzah " was made of a different kind of parchment 
(Shab. viii. 3 et al.); for this reason a discarded 
tefillah could be made into a mezuzah, but not vice 
versa (Men. 32a). It was made square, not round 
(Meg. iv. 8). The head-tefillah consisted of four 
strips in four compartments, while the hand-tefillah 
consisted of one strip. The former could be made 
out of the latter, but not vice versa; and they were 
independent of each other (Kelim xviii. 8; Men. iii. 
7, iv, 1, 34b; Yer. Hag. 77d et passim). The here- 
tics had a way of covering the tefillah with gold, 
wearing it on the sleeve and on the forehead (Meg. 
iv. 8). The straps (Yad. iii. 3) were made of the 
same material as the boxes, but could be of any color 
except blood-red ; they were sometimes blue or of a 
reddish purple (Men. 35a). 

The most important tefillah was the head-tefillah 
(Kelim xviii. 8 et passim). It was put on according 
to rule (Sheb. iii. 8, 11; Men. 36a) and was worn 
from morning until night, with the exception of 
Sabbath and feast-days (Targ. to Ezek. xiii. 10; 
Men. 36b); some wore tefillin also in the evening, as 
did Akiba ('Er. 96a), Abbahu (Yer. 'Er. 26a), Rabba 
and Iluna (Men. 36b) during the evening prayer, 
and Ashi (beginning of 5th cent.). 

The head-tefillah was the principal one, because 
the tefillah worn on the arm was not visible (Men. 
37b). A Jew was recognized by the former, which 
he wore proudly, because, according to Dcut. x. xviii. 
10, all peoples knew thereby that the Name of the 
Elernal had been pronounced over him (Men. 35b; 

Targ. Esth. viii. 15; comp. Cant. viii. 1; Ezek. 
xxiv. 17, 23). Jerome says (on Galatians iv. 22) 
that the Jews feared to appear in the cities, because 
they attracted attention; probably they were recog- 
nized by the tefillah. It was not worn in times of 
danger ('Er. x. 1). The law in regard to tefillin, 
therefore, which did not demand obedience at the 
peril of life, had not taken such a deep hold upon 
the people as other laws (Shab. 130a; R. II. 17a; 
Yer. Her. 4c; Pesik. R. f ed. Friedmann, p. lllb). 
However, it must not be inferred from this state- 
ment that the tefillah was not worn to any great 
extent (Rodkinson, "Ursprung und Entwickelung 
des Phylacterien-Ritus bei den Juden," p. 5), but 
merely that it was not generally worn. 

The tefillin have been connected with magic, as 
the name " phylacteries " primarily indicates. Fried - 
litnder takes the tefillah to be a substitute for the 

"signum serpentinum " of the antino- 

Tefillin mistic Gnostics. The tefillin, how- 

and Magic, ever, originated at a time prior to that 

of the Gnostics, as has been shown 
above. Although the institution of the tefillin is re- 
lated in form to the custom of wearing amulets, in- 
dicating the ancient views regarding that means of 
protection, yet there is not a single passage in the 
old literature to show that thev were identified with 
magic. Their power of protecting is similar to that 
of the Torah and the Commandments, of which it is 
said, "They protect Israel" (Blau, " Altjudisches 
Zauberwesen," p. 1J>2). One of the earliest tannaim, 
Eliezer b. Ilyrcamis (b. 70 c.E.), who laid great 
stress upon the tefillin, actively advocating their 
general use, derives the duty of wearing them from 
Josh. i. 8, "Thou shalt meditate therein day and 
night" (treatise Tefillim, near end). In conform- 
ity with this view they contain chiefly the Shema', 
the daily reading of which takes the place of the 
daily study of the Bible. 

The tannaitic Midrash, indeed, takes pains to prove 
that the Decalogue has no place in the tefillin (Sifre, 
Dcut. 34, 35; Ber. lib). Jerome, therefore (to Matt. 
xxv. 3), is not correct in saying that the tefillin eon- 
tain also the Ten Commandments; although this 
may have been the case among the "minim," or 
heretics. The newly discovered Hebrew papyrus 
with Shema* and Decalogue belonged, perhaps, to 
the tefillah of a "min." The Samaritans did not ob- 
serve the command to wear the tefillah (Men. 42b, 
above). They are ranked with the pagans, there- 
fore, as persons not fit to write them (26.). 

Although the tefillin were worn throughout the 
day, not only in Palestine but also in Babylon, the 

custom of wearing them did not be- 

In the come entirely popular; and during 

Diaspora the Diaspora they were worn no- 

and Post- where during the dav. But it ap- 

Talmudic pears from the Letter of Aristeas and 

Times. from Josephus that the tefillin were 

known to the Jews of the Diaspora. 
At this time it may have become customary to wear 
them only during prayer, traces of this custom 
being found in Babylon (Men. 36b). In France 
in the thirteenth century they were not generally 
worn even during prayer (Rodkinson, i.e., quoting 
Tos. Shab. 49a; comp. "Semag," Commandment 

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No. 3; Graiz, •"Ge*ch." vii. 71). The difference of 
opinion between Imac ( \imh\ ; d. 11 US) and his grand- 
son Jacob Tarn (d. 1171) in regard to the arrangement 
of the four sections indicates that no tixed custom in 
wearing them had arisen. Kashi and Tarn's tetillin 
are referred to; scrupulously pious persons put on 
the tetillin of H. Tarn lifter pmyer(Men. 34b; Shulhan 
*Aruk, Orah Havyim. 34). There were differences 
of opinion between the Spanish ami the German Jews 
in regard to the knot in the strap (see illustrations in 
SurenhusiiH, cited below). At the time of the He- 
form movement, in the tirst half of the nineteenth 
century, especially in Germany, the custom of wear- 
ing the tetillin, like other ritual and ceremonial ordi- 
nances, was attacked, calling forth the protests of 

Bibliography: The chief works are: Klein, Die Totaphot 
nach Ihbtl und Tradition in Jahrb. ftlr Protectant incite 
Th<nb>vit\ 1*&\. pp. <*k}-0S9, and M. L. Rociklnson, Ur- 
spruua uml Entwickeluna des Phidacterien-Ritux hei den 
Juden. Pn-sbun?, WK3 (reviewed in B. E. J. vi. 2*$); idem, 
HiMoruof J millets* Charnisand Tali#maus % Xew York, 1893. 
For description and lltusiniiions see Surenhusius,3/i*7i««/?,vol. 
i.. An >ierdam, Itfcw (before p. t>>, and Bodenx'hatz, Kirehliehe 
Vtrfa^unudcr HfiutiyenJudeiu iv. 14-19; see also Winer, 
B. IL 3*1 ed.. i. oti, ii. 2m; Hamburper. R. B. T.ii. 10t>5. 1203- 
12i »j ; HMMinjrs. Diet. Bible. UUm-SU; Z. Frankel, Veber 
den Kin flu** der Pah'trtinLschen Exeuese auf die Alcxan- 
drinische Hermenrutik. pp. 10 vt *c</„ Lelpsic 1851; M. 
Friedlander, Der Antichrist in den Vorchristlichcn Jll- 
dtechen Quelle n. pp. l.V>-li>>, Oottincren, H*U ; M. Grunbaum, 
Ge*ammelte Auf silt 208 et stq.. Berlin. 1901 ; Herzfeld, 
Ge*ch. des Vetlhc* Inrael, Hi- 223--*:25. Nordbausen, 1S57; A. 
Krocbmal. *Tmnm Tenllah. pp. 24 et scq., Lemberp, 1885; S. 
Munk, Palestine, p. »W; O. H. Schorr, in Hc-Haluz % vol. iv.; 
Schurer, Grsch. 3d ed„ ii. 484 et acq.; Zunz, ('}. S. *ii. 173-17G 
{TeHllin. cine Bttrachtuna). See earlier christian bibliog- 
raphy in Sehurer, Gench. 

J. L. B. 

Critical View : The etymology of the term — 

from the Greek or/ aKTijfnov, itself derived from tyv/.ao- 
cetv(= " to guard against evil." M to protect ") — indi- 
cates the meaning, in the Hellenistic period, to have 
been " amulet " (an object worn as a protection 
against evil). The language of the four passages in 
which a reference occurs to "sign upon the hand" 
and 4 * frontlets,'* or ''memorials," "between the eyes" 
(Ex. xiii. 0. 10; Deut. vi. 8, xi. 18, Hebr.) proves 
that among the Hebrews the practise of wearing ob- 
jects of this kind around the forehead and on the hand 
muM have prevailed. Later rabbinical exegesis re- 
garded the tiirurative reference and simile in Deut. 
vi. Hand xi. ltt as u command to be carried out liter- 
ally. Comparison with Ex. xiii. 9, 16, where the same 
terminology is employed, suilices to demonstrate that 
in Dent. vi. H, xi. IS the writer expressed himself fig- 
uratively, with allusion, of course, to a popular and 
wide-spread custom. It is plain that a sound con- 
struction of the Deuteronomic passages must reject 

the interpretation which restricts the 
bearing of the phrase "ha-debarim ha- 
elleh " (Deut. vi. 0) to the immediately 
preceding Shema', or of "debarai el- 
leh " of Deut. xi. IS to the preceding 
verse. In the phraseology of Deuteronomy, "these 
my words " embrace the whole book, the Torah, and 
it would have been as impossible to write the whole 
book on one's hand as it was to carry the sacrifice of 
the first-born (Ex. xiii.) as "a sign on one's hand." 
Prow i. 9, iii. 3, vi. 21, vii. 3, and Jer. xvii. 1, xxxi. 
33 illustrate in what sense the expressions " write " 
or "bind " in this connection are to be taken. As a 
matter of fact, phylacteries as described by the Rabbis 



did not come iuto use before the last pre-Christian 
century; the Samaritans knew nothing of them. 

That amulets and signs were in use among the an- 
cient Hebrews is evident from Gen. iv. 15 (Cain's 
sign), I Kings xx. 41, and Ezek. ix. 4-6 (comp. Rev, 
vii. 3; xiii. 10; xiv. 1, 9; Psalms of Solomon, xv, 10). 
Originally, the "sign " was tattooed on the skin, the 
forehead ("between the eyes") and the hand natu- 
rally being chosen for the display. Later, some 
visible object worn between the eyes or bound on 
the hand was substituted for the writing on the skin. 

But the original practise is still discernible in the 
use of the word "yad " (hand) to connote a " token " 
(Ex. xvii. 16) with an inscription, the "zikkaron," 
which latter is the technical term, appearing in Ex. 
xiii. and Deut. xi. 18. This fact explains also the 
original value of the word "yad" in the combina- 
tion "yad wa-shem " (hand and name; Isa. lvi. 5). 
The passage from Isaiah just quoted plainly shows 
that such a yad wa-shem was effective against that 
the Semite dreaded most — oblivion after death. 
The words "ot," "shem," and "zeker" are often 
used interchangeably (e.g., Isa. Iv. 13 and Ex. iii. 
15), and it is probable that originally they desig- 
nated visible tokens cut into the flesh for purposes 
of marking one's connection with a deity or a clan 
(see Circumcision; Covenant; Totemisw). The 
common meanings of these words, "sign," "name," 
and u memorial," are secondary. The phrase k% to lift 
up the name" in the Decalogue indicates fully that 
"shem " must have been originally a totemisticsign, 
affixed to a person or an object. 

The etymology of "totafot," which, probably, 
should be considered singular and be pointed "tote- 
fet," is not plain. The consensus of modern opin- 
ion is that it designates a round jewel, like the 
"netifot" (Judges viii. 26; Isa. iii. 19), therefore a 
charm, though others believe its original meaning to 
have been " a mark " tattooed into the flesh (Siegfried- 
Stade, "Lexicon"). It is to the habit of wearing 
amulets or making incisions that the law of Deute- 
ronomy refers, as does Ex. xiii., advising that only 
God's Torah, as it were, shall constitute the pro- 
tecting "charm" of the faithful. 

Bibliography : Das Kainzeichcn, in Stade's£cf<,sc7m*/£,1S94 ; 
(t. Klein. Totaplwt nach Bihel und Tradition, in Jdhrhueh 
ftlr Protectant tec he Tiicolouic. 1881 ; Hastings, Diet. Bible. 

E. G. H. 
PHYSICIAN, See Medicine. 

PIATELLI. See An aw. 

PICART, BERNARD : French designer and 
engraver; born at Paris June 11, 1073; died at Am- 
sterdam May 8, 1733. He was descended from a 
Protestant family and received his earliest instruc- 
tion from his father, Etienne Picart, and from Le 
Brim and Jouvenet. At an early age Picart showed 
a marked facility in the imitation of the great mas- 
ters. In 1710 he settled at Amsterdam, where he 
supplied plates and engravings to printers and book- 
sellers. Picart designed and executed avast num- 
ber of plates, about 1,300 of which arc still extant. 
These represent a variety of subjects, a number of 
them depicting Biblical topics. That part of his 
work which is of Jewish interest is contained in the 
"Ceremonies des Juifs," the first volume of the 
"Ceremonies et Coutumes Keligieuses de Tous les 

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(From the Sulzberger collection In the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York. J 

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Peuples du blonde ? ' (11 vols., Amsterdam, 1723- 
1743 . Tiiese plates, all of which are faithfully and 
carefully prepared, arc among the earliest engra- 
vings on Jewish ecclesiastical and ceremonial sub- 
jects. The following is a list of them, given in the 
order in which they up pear in the original edition: 
(1 Interior of the Portuguese Synagogue at Amster- 
dam; (2) Jew with Phylacteries and Praying-Scarf; 
(3) Arba* Kanfot, Sabbath Lamp, Mazzot, Lnlab, 
Etrog, Mezuzah, and Shofar; (4) Benediction of the 
Priests in a Portuguese Synagogue at The Hague; 
(5) Elevation of the Law; (6) Sounding the Shofar 
on New-Year's Day; (7) The Day of Atonement (in 
the Synagogue); ($) Search for Leaven; (U) Pass- 
over Meal; (10) Feast of Tabernacles (in the Syna- 
gogue); (V) Feast of Tabernacles (at Home); (12) 
Rejoicing of the Law (in the Synagogue); (13) Es- 
corting Home the Bridegroom of the Law; (14) Im- 
plements of Circumcision; Scroll of the Law, with 
Mantle, Crowns, etc. ; (lo) Circumcision; (16) Re- 
demption of the First-Born ; (17) Marriage Among the 
Portuguese Jews; (18) Marriage Among the German 
Jews; (19) Circuit Round the Coffin ; (20) Interment. 
An English translation of the work cited was 
printed by William Jackson (London, 1733). It 
contains, in addition to Picart's drawings, which in 
this translation are engraved by Du Bose, several 
good engravings of similar Jewish subjects by F. 
Morcllon la Cave. 

Bibliography: Bryan's Dictionary of Painters and En- 
f/ranr-s iv. 112, London, 1904: Jacobs and Wolf, Bihl. An- 
alo-Jud. p. 70, London, 1888: Thomas, Diet, of Biography 
and Mythology. Philadelphia, 1901. 

J. I. G. D. 

worker; born at Aleppo 180G; died at London, Eng- 
land, Oct. 19, 1879. He was a member of an ancient 
Eastern family; his immediate ancestors were en- 
gaged in the Russian consular service. He went to 
England about 1843, and soon after his arrival there 
became active in communal affairs. He advocated 
the founding of Jews' College, and was a member 
of its council until his death. He was one of the 
founders of the Society for the Diffusion of Relig- 
ions Knowledge, and wrote many of its tracts. A 
good Hebrew scholar, he wrote several odes for reci- 
tation on public and festive occasions. 

Picciotto was for a considerable period a member 
of the Board of Deputies, and was conspicuous in 
the deliberations of that body* for his indefatigable 
zeal and his experience in Eastern affairs. He acted 
as commissioner for the board at the time of the war 
between Morocco and Spain in 1859-00. He visited 
Gibraltar and Morocco to distribute relief and wrote 
a leport, as a result of which the Jewish schools at 
Tetuan, Tangier, and Mogador were founded. 

His son James Picciotto (born in 1830; died in 
London Nov. 13, 1897) was for many years secretary 
to the council of administration of the Morocco Re- 
lief Fund. He retired in 1890, failing health com- 
pelling his resignation. He is known as the author 
of " Sketches of Anglo-Jewish History." London, 
1877, a reprint of articles which originally appeared 
in the "Jewish Chronicle." 

Bibliography: Jew. World, Oct. 24, 1870; Jew. Chron. Oct. 
?A. 1879, and Nov. 19, 1807. 

J. G. L. 

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PICHLER, ADOLF: Austrian painter; born 
in 1834 at Cziifcr, in the county of Presburg, Hun- 
gary. At the age of thirteen he went to Budapest, 
where he supported himself by tutoring while pre- 
paring himself to teach. After receiving his teach- 
er's diploma lie entered the Academy of Fine Arts, 
where he soon won the first prize for a study of a 
head. Before long he was one of the most popular 
drawing-teachers in Budapest. He then went to 
Munich to study under Wilhelm von Kaulbach and 
Yolz. One of his works dating from that time is 
the "Jew at Prayer." His best-known picture is 
his first work, "Moses, on His Descent from Sinai, 
Finds the People Worshiping the Golden Calf." His 
other works include: "The Death of Jacob," "The 
Maiden of Judah," " Spinoza as Glass-Polisher," " Ju- 
dah ha-Lcvi," and many historical paintings and 

»• R. P. 

PICHON (PICHO), JOSEPH: "Almoxarife" 
and "contador mayor" (i.e., tax-collector-in-chief) 
of the city and the archbishopric of Seville; ap- 
pointed in 1369 by Henry II. of Castile, who es- 
teemed him highly on account of his honesty and clev- 
erness. But on charges brought by some rich core- 
ligionists who also had been admitted at court, 
Pielion was imprisoned by command of the king and 
sentenced to pay 40,000 doubloons. On paying this, 
large sum within twenty days he was released and 
restored to office; in turn, he brought a serious ac- 
cusation against his enemies, either in revenge or in 

Henry had died in the meantime, and his son, 
John I., was his successor. Many rich and influen- 
tial Jews had gathered from different parts of the 
country for the auction of the royal taxes at Burgos, 
where the coronation of John took place. These Jews 
plotted against the life of Pichon, who was very 
popular among the Christians and who had received 
marked attentions from the courtiers. It is not 
known whether he is in any degree to be blamed for 
the extraordinary tax of 20,000 doubloons which 
Henry had imposed upon the Jews of Toledo; but, 
however this may have been, some prominent Jews, 
representing various communities, went to the king- 
on the day of the coronation, and, explaining to him 
that there was among them a "malsin," i.e., an in- 
former and traitor who deserved death according to 
the laws of their religion, requested him to em- 
power the royal officers to execute the offender. It 
is said that some minions of the king, bribed by the 
Jews, induced John to give the order. The dele- 
gation then took this order, together with a letter 
from several Jews who were the leaders of the com- 
munity, to Fernan Martin, the king's executioner. 
The latter did not hesitate to fulfil the royal com- 
mand. At an early hour on Aug. 21, 1379, he went 
with Don Zulcma (Solomon) and Don Zag (Isaac) to 
the residence of Pichon, who was still sleeping. 
Pielion was awakened on the pretext that some of 
his mules were to be seized; and as soon as he ap- 
peared at the door Fernan laid hold of him and, with- 
out saying a word, beheaded him. 

The execution of Pichon, whose name had been 
concealed from the king, created an unpleasant sen- 
sation. The monarch was exceedingly angry that 




lie had been inveigled into signing the death-war- 
rant of a respected and popular man who had faith- 
fully served his father for many years, lie had Zu- 
lema, Zag, and the chief rabbi of Burgos, who was 
in the plot, beheaded; and Martin was to have 
shared the same fate, but was spared at the interces- 
sion of some knights. lie, however, paid for his 
hastiness in the affair by the loss of his right hand. 
As a consequence of Pichon's execution, the Cortes 
deprived the rabbis and the Jewish courts of the 
country of the right to decide criminal cases. The 
affair had the most disastrous consequences for the 
Jews of Spain, stimulating the hatred of the popu- 
lation against them, and contributing to the great 
massacre of the year 1391. 

Bibliography : Ayaia, Cronica de D. Juan J. il. 120 et scq.; 
Zunlga, Anales de Scvilla % il. 130, 211 et scq.; Itlos, J fiat, ii. 
3;J3 et scq.; Grfltz, Geseh. viil. 45 et scq.; R. E. J. xxxviii. 258 
et seq. 
s. M. K. 

author; lived in Turkey at the end of the seven* 
teenth century. He was the author of "Minhage 
ha-Bedikah be-'Ir Saloniki," a work relating to the 
method which was followed of making meat kasher 
in the slaughter-house at Salonica. 

Bibliography: Azulai, Shem ha-Galolim % s.v.: Franco, His- 
toire des Israelites de V Empire Ottoman* p. 125, Paris, 1897. 

s. M. Fn. 

PICK, AARON: Biblical scholar; born at 
Prague, where he was converted to Christianity and 
lectured on Hebrew at the university; lived in Eng- 
land during the first half of the nineteenth century. 
He was the author of translations and commentaries 
of various books of the Bible, his works comprising: 
a literal translation from the Hebrew of the twelve 
Minor Prophets (1833); of Obadiah (1884); and of 
the seventh chapter of Amos with commentary. In 
1837 he produced a treatise on the Hebrew accents; 
and in 1845 he published "The Bible Student's Con- 
cordance." He was, besides, the author of a work 
entitled "The Gathering of Israel, or the Patriarchal 
Blessing as Contained in the Forty-ninth Chapter of 
Genesis: Being the Revelation of God Concerning 
the Twelve Tribes of Israel, and Their Ultimate 

s. I. Co. 

PICK, ALOIS : Austrian physician, medical au- 
thor, and dramatist; bom at Karolinenthal, near 
Prague, Bohemia, Oct. 15, 1859. lie studied medi- 
cine at the universities of Prague and Vienna (M.D., 
Prague, 1883). The same year he joined the hospi- 
tal corps of the Austrian army ; and at present (1905) 
he holds the position of regimental surgeon ("Kegi- 
mentsarzt,"). He is also chief physician at the first 
Army Hospital, Vienna. In 1890 he became privat- 
docent and in 1904 assistant professor at the Uni- 
versity of Vienna. 

Pick has contributed many essays to the medical 
journals, among which may be mentioned: "Zur 
Lehrc von den Atembewegungen der Emphyse- 
matiker,"in "Prager Medizinische Wochcnschrift, ,> 
1883, No. 17; "Beitnlgc zur Pathologic und Thcra- 
pie der Hcrzneurosen," ib. 1884, No. 44; "Der Re- 
spiratorische Gaswechsel Gesundcr und Krkranktcn 
Lungcn," in "Zeitschrift fur Klinische Medizin," 

Berlin, xvi. ; " Ueber das Bewegliche Ilerz," in 
"Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift," 1889; "Zur 
Frage der Hepatogenen Dyspcpsie," ib. 1903. He is 
also the author of " Vorlesungen liber Magen- und 
Darmkrankheiten," Vienna, 1895. Aside from these 
medical works, Pick is the author of two small 
farces, " Briefsteller f t\r Liebende " and " Lord Beef- 

III ULior.KA I'll y: Kisenberg, lkiA Geistigc Wiciu i. 409, ii. 372- 
373, Vienna, 1803; I'hki-1, Biog. Lex. 

s. F. T. II. 

PICK, ARNOLD; Austrian psychiatrist; born 
at Gross-Meseritseh, Moravia, July 20, 1851; edu- 
cated at Berlin and Vienna (M.D. 1875). He became 
assistant physician at the lunatic asylum at Wehnen, 
Oldenburg (1875), and at the state asylum at Prague 
(1877); privat-docent at Prague University (1878); 
and was appointed in 1880 chief physician at the 
asylum in Dobrzan, which position he held till 1886, 
when he was elected professor of psychiatry at 

Among his many works may be mentioned : " Bei- 
triige zur Pathologic und zur Pathologischen Ana- 
tomic des Centralnervensystems" (with Kahler), 
Leipsic, 1880; and "Beitrage zur Pathologic und 
Pathologischen Anatomic des Centralnervensystems 

mit eiuem Excurse zur Normaleu Anatomic Dcssel- 
ben," Berlin, 1898. 

Bibliography : Pagel, Bing. Lex. 


F. T. II. 

PICK, BEHRENDT : German numismatist and 
archeologist; born Dec. 21, 1861, at Posen. After 
passing through the Friedrich-Wilhelms Gymna- 
sium of his native city, he went in 1880 to the Uni- 
versity of Berlin (Ph.D. 1884), where he studied 
classical philology. On the advice of Theodor 
Mommsen, of whose favorite pupils lie was one, he 
took up as his specialty epigraphy and numismatics. 
After a short term of service as librarian at the Royal 
Library, Berlin, Pick in 1889 became privat-docent 
in archeology at the University of Zurich, and in 
1891 was appointed assistant professor there. In 
1893 he accepted a position at the ducal library and 
in connection with the ducal coin-collection of Gotha, 
being made director of the latter in 1899. He was, 
besides, appointed in 1896 lecturer on numismatics 
at the University of Jena, which position he still 
(1905) holds. 

Pick's chief work is volume i. ("Dacia und Moe- 
sia") of "Die Antiken Munzen Nordgrieehenlands" 
(Berlin, 1898), a publication issued by the Berlin 
Academy of Sciences. S. 

PICK, ISAIAH. See Bekux, Isaiah b. Lokb. 

PICK, PHILIPP JOSEPH: Austrian derma- 
tologist; born at Xeustadt, Bohemia, Oct. 14. 1834. 
He studied natural sciences and medicine at Vienna 
(M.D. 1860) and acted as assistant in several uni- 
versity hospitals. In 1868 he removed to Prague 
and became privat-docent in the German university 
there. In 1873 he was appointed assistant professor, 
and in 1896 professor, of dermatology in the same 

In 1869 Pick founded in conjunction with Ilein- 
rich Auspitz the "Archivfur Dermatologie." etc., 
of which, since the death of his colleague in 1886, 

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Pico de Mirandola 



he lias been sole editor. 3Ianv essays of his have 
appeared in this journal and in the medical papers 
of Vienna and Prague. In li s 9 he helped to found 
the Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft, of which 
he was the tirst president. 

At the celebration, in 189S of the twenty-fifth an- 
niversary of his appointment as assistant professor 
his pupils and colleagues prepared a jubilee volume, 
edited hv Neis&er. 

Bibliography: Papvl, Hi hi. Lt.t. 

F. T. II. 

VANNI FREDERICO (Prince of Concordia): 
Italian philosopher, theologian, and cabalist; born 
Feb. 24. 1403. at .Mirandola; died at Florence Nov. 
17, 1494. (lifted with high intellectual powers, he 
commence 1 the studv of thcoloirv at an earlv aire. 
graduated from the University of Bologna, and at 
the age of twenty-three published 900 theses against 
the views of the philosophers and theologians of his 
time (" Conclusiones Philosophical Cabalistiea? et 
Theologize/' Home, 148G). These theses included 
one which postulated that the Cabala best proves 
the divinity of Jesus. Pico received his cabalistic 
training from Johanan Aleman, from whom he also 
obtained three cabalistic works which he translated 
into Latin: the commentary of 3Ienahem Hecanati 
on the Pentateuch, the "llokmat ha-^Xefesh " ( = 
"Scientia Aninne ") of Eleazar of Worms (printed at 
Lcmberg, 1875), and the "Sefer haOda'alot" of 
Shem-Tob Falaqucra. He tried to harmonize the 
philosophy of Pinto and Aristotle with the Cabala 
ami Neo-Platonism, but his excessive devotion to 
the Cabala resulted in an ascetic and mvstical 
tendency, which brought him into conflict with 
the Church. He was accused of heresv, but was 
acquitted, and retired to Florence, where he spent 
the rest of his life with a friend. 

Pico was one of the first to collect Hebrew manu- 
scripts. Of his books, which were widely read, two 
may here be mentioned: (1) '' Cabal istanim Selec- 
tioncs," Venice, 15G9: (2) "Opera," Bologna, 1496; 
Venice, 149S; Basel, 1557. 

Bibliography: DrpydorfT. Da* Smtcm drs J. Pico, Marburg, 
W>>: I)i (Uovunni. Pirn delta Mirandola, Filosttfu Plato- 
n ic*h Florem-H, ts->:>; i<u> m , Pico Xrlla Storia del' Hinasci- 
incnto,?u\. I'almno, 1KM ; (iriitz, Orseh. viii. 245-24 7 : Geda- 
liah ilm Vahyu, Shahhcbt ha-Kabbalah. t>. 50a, Amsterdam, 
IffiC ; Zuuz. Z. G. i»p. S, 522. 

»• s. o. 

PICTORIAL ART : There are no ancient re- 
mains showing in what way, if any, the Jews of 
Bibb* times made use of painting for decorative or 
other purposes. For the references in the Bible 
see Painting. Daring the Middle Ages painting 
was a craft which was monopolized by the gilds, 
and Jews were thereby prevented from showing any 
proficiency in the art. The only direction in which 
the hitter evidenced any skill was in the illumina- 
tion ot" manuscripts (see Mamxiupts). 

In modern times painting was at first mainly 
directed to sacerdotal, decorative purposes, but 
Jews were precluded from thus employing it, even 
in their own synagogues, by the rabbinical inter- 
pretation of the second commandment. It is not, 
therefore, surprising that it is only with emanci- 
pation that any Jewish names are found in the au- 

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nals of painting. During the last 150 years a cer- 
tain number of Jews have displayed considerable 
skill as artists, chief among them being Joseph Is- 
raels in Holland. A few Jewish painters, prominent 
among whom are S. J. Solomon in England and E. 
31. Lilien in Germany, have in recent years devoted 
their talent to specifically Jewish subjects. The 
following is a partial list of Jewish painters who 
have distinguished themselves in modern times: 

America: Max Rosenthal (b. 1833), historical 
portraits; Max Wcyl (b. 1837), landscapes; Henry 
M osier (b. 1841), genre and portraits; Toby Edward 
Rosenthal (b. 1848), genre; Herman Naphtali Hyne- 
inan (b. 1849), genre; Katherine 31. Cohen (b. 1839), 
portraits; George da Mariuro Peixotto (b. 1859), 
portraits and mural decorations; Albert Rosenthal 
(b. 1803), portrait-etching; Albert Edward Sterner 
(b. 18G3), genre and water-colors; Louis Loeb (b. 
18CG), landscapes and portraits; Augustus Koopman 
(b. 18(59), genre and portraits; Leo 31ielziner (b. 
18G9), portraits; Louis Kronberg(b. 1872), portraits; 
Edmond Weill (b. 1872), genre; J. Campbell Phillips 
(b. 1873), negro life, and portraits; J. 3Iortimer 
Lichtenauer (b. 1876), mural decorations. 

Austria-Hungary: Anton Rafael 3Iengs (1728- 
1779), historical, genre, and portraits; Friedrich 
Friedlander(I). 1825), military subjects and portraits; 
Adolf Pichler (b. 1834), historical; Leopold Horo- 
witz (b. 1837), portraits and subjects from Jewish 
life; Lajos Bruck (b. 184G), subjects from Hun- 
garian folk-life and portraits; Karl Karger (b. 
1*48), genre; Joseph Koves (b. 1853), portraits and 
genre; Isidor Kaufmann (b. 1853), subjects from 
Jewish life and genre; Gustav Mannheimer (b. 
1854), landscapes; Camilla Fricdlandcr (b. 185G; 
daughter of Friedrich Friedlander), still life; Ernst 
Berger (b. 1857), Biblical subjects; Gyula Basch (b. 
1859), genre and portraits; Adolf Ilirschl (b. 18G0), 
historical; Alexander Nyari (b. 1801); 3Iax Bruck 
(b. 1863), genre; Adolf Fenyes (b. 18G7), genre; 
Philip Laszlo (b. 18G9), portraits; Karl Reinhard 
(b. 1*72), genre; Arpad Basch (b. 1873), water-colors; 
Leopold Pollak (180G-80), genre and ])ortraits. 

Denmark: Ismael Israel 3Iengs (1690-1765), 
miniature and enamel; Karl Ilcinrich Bloch (b. 
1834), scenic and genre; Ernst Meyer (1797-1861), 
genre; David 3Ionies (1812-94), historical, genre, 
and portraits; Geskel Saloman (1821-1902), genre. 

England: B. S. 31arks (b. 1827), portraits; Felix 
Moscheles (b. 1833): Carl Schloesser (b. 183G); 
Simeon Solomon (c. 1850), Preralfaelitc; Solomon 
J. Solomon, A.ILA. (b. 18G0), genre and portraits; 
Alfred Praga (b. 18G0), genre and miniature; Abra- 
ham Solomon (1824-G3); Isaac Snowman (b. 1874); 
Ellen Gertrude Cohen (b. 1870), portraits and genre; 
Solomon Alexander Hart, U.A. (1806-81), scenic, 
genre, and portraits: Lionel Co wen (1846-95). 

France: Felix Dias (1794-1817); Emilc Levy 
(b. 182G), subjects from Jewish religious history; 
Jacob Emilc Edouard Brandon (b. 1831), genre; 
Constant Mayer (b. 1832), genre and portraits; Jules 
Worms (1). 1*32), humoristic genre; Zacharie Astruc 
(b. 1839), genre and panels in water-color; Henri 
Leopold Levy (b. 1840), historical and genre; Al- Levy (b. 1843), Jewish life; Leo Herrmann 
(b. 1853), genre; Ferdinand lleilbuth (182G-79), 



Pico de Mirandola 

genre and portraits; Alphonse Ilirscli (1843-84), 
genre and portraits ; Henry Baron (1816-85), his- 
torical and genre; Auguste ILidamard (1823-86), 
genre; Benjamin Eugfine Ficlicl (1826-95), historical 
and genre; Eugfine Alean (1811-98), genre. 

Germany: Philipp Arons (b. 1821), portraits; 
Rudolf Jonas (b. 1822), landscapes; Louis Kutzcn- 
stein (b. 1824), portraits; Karl Daniel Friedrich 
Bach (1756-1829), historical, genre, animals, and 
portraits; Moses Samuel LOwc (1756-1831), minia- 
ture and pastels; Felix Possart (b. 1837), landscapes 
and genre; Hermann Junker (b. 1838), subjects from 
Jewish life; Julius Bodenstein (b. 1847), land- 
scapes; Jeremiah David Alexander Fiorino (179G- 
1847), miniature; Max Liebermann (b. 1849), scenic 
and genre; Rudolf Christian Eugen Bendemann (b. 
1851), historical, genre, and mural decorations; Karl 
Jacoby (b. 1853), historical and genre; Felix Dor- 
chardt (b. 1857), scenic and portraits; Max Kahn 
(b. 1857), genre; Wilhelm Feltlmann (I). 1859), land- 
scapes; Karl Blosz 
(b. 1860), genre; 
Julius Muhr(1819- 
1865), genre; Her- 
mann Goldschmidt 
(1802-66), historic- 
al; Eduard Magnus 
(1799-1872), por- 
traits and genre; 
Johannes Veit 
(1790-1854) and 
Philipp Veit (1793- 
1877), religious, his- 
torical, and genre; 
Julius Jacob (1811- 
1882), landscapes 
and portraits; 
Moritz Daniel Op- 
penheim (1801-82), 
subjects from Jew- 
ish life, portraits, 
and genre ; Benja- 
min Ulmann (1829-84), historical; Eduard Julius 
Friedrich Bendemann (1811-89), Biblical subjects, 
portraits, and genre; Max Michael (1823-91), genre; 
Alfred Hethel (1816-59) and Otto Bethel (1822-92), 
frescos, historical, and genre; Karl Morgenstern 
(1812-93), landscapes; Friedrich Kraus (1826-94), 
portraits and genre; Louis Neustatter (1829-99), 
genre and portraits; Solomon Hirschfelder (1832- 
1903), genre. 

Holland: Joseph Israels (b. 1824), genre; David 
Bles (1821-99), genre. 

Italy : Raphael Baehi (c. 1750), miniature; Tullo 
Massarani (b. 1826), genre; Giuseppe Coen (1811- 
1856), landscapes and architectural; Leopold Pol lak 
(1806-80), genre and portraits. 

Rumania: Barbu Iscovescu (1816-54); Julius 
Feld (b. 1871), portraits and genre. 

Russia and Poland : Isaac Lvovich Asknazi 
(b. 1856), religious subjects, genre, and portraits; 
Jacob Semeuovich Goldblatt (b. 1860), historical; 
Moisei Leibovich Maimon (b. I860), genre and por- 
traits; Peter Isaacovich Geller (b. 1862), Jewish his- 
torical subjects; Samuel Ilirszenberg (b. 1866), 
genre and scenic; Maurice Griin (b. 1870), genre 

and portraits; Jacques Kaplan (b. 1872), portraits 
and genre; Alexander Lesser (1814-84), historical; 
Leonid Osipovich Pasternak (b. 1862), genre and 

BiBLiofiiUPiiY: JtUUfiche Kilnstler, Berlin, 1903; S. J. Solo- 
mon, In J. Q. It. 1U03. 

J. F. C. 

PIDYON HA-BEN. See Primogeniture. 

PIERLEONI : Noble Roman family of Jewish 
origin. A Jewish banker of Koine who had acquired 
a princely fortune was baptized in the first half of 
the eleventh century, took the name of Benedictus 
Ghristianus, and married the daughter of a Roman 
nobleman. Leo, the offspring of this union, and 
one of the most powerful magnates of the city, had 
a castle in Trastevere and affiliated himself with 
the papal party, and his son Petrus Leonis, from 
whom the family derives its name, continued his 
father's policy, controlling the Isola Tiberina in ad- 
dition to the castle 
in Trastevere, and 
having another 
castle opposite the 
Tiber bridge near 
the old theater of 

Marcel his, which 
was included in the 
fortifications. He 
was the leader of 
the papal party and 
the most faithful 
and powerful pro- 
tector of the popes. 
Urban II. died in 
Petrus* castle, and 
the latter defended 
the cause of Paschal 
II. against the anti- 

Tomb of Pierleoni in the Cloisters of St. Paul, Rome. 

(From Lancianl, M New Tales of Ancient Rome.") 

popes and the em- 
peror. "When 
Henry V. came to 
Home Petrus Leonis was at the head of the papal 
legation which effected a reconciliation between the 
pope and the emperor, but PaschaPs attempt to make 
the son of Petrus prefect of the city caused a riot. 
Petrus was prominent in the liberation of Pope 
Gelasius II., and when Petrus died in 1128 his son of 
the same name was cardinal, and had on several 
occasions rendered service to the Church. In 1130 
Cardinal Pierleoni was elected pope under the name 
of Anacletus II., while the counter party chose 
Innocent II. The schism lasted for eight years, until 
the death of Anacletus, after which the family of 
Pierleoni made peace with the pope, retaining its 
power and influence, and being distinguished by 
various honors. Leo and Petrus, the brother and 
nephew of Anacletus, were papal delegates at Sutii 
in 1142, and another brother, Jordan, with whom the 
era of senators begins, became the head of the Roman 
republic as Patricius in 1144, while a sister is said 
to have been the wife of Roger I. of Sicily. In the 
twelfth century Cencius Pierleoni was "seriniarius" 
of the Church, and in 1204 John Pierleoni, who had 
been appointed elector by Pope Innocent III., chose 
Gregory Petri Leonis Rainerii as senator. The leg- 

X.— 3 

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end which traces the lineage of the family of Picr- 
leoni to the ancient Roman noble family of the Anion 
is as apocryphal as the story of the descent of the 
Hap§burgs from the counts of Aventin, who be- 
longed to the Pierleoni. 

Bibliography: Baronii»!s Annates EctteMastici, years 1111, 
1115: Gregorovius, Gesch.derStadt Horn itn Mittelalter^lv. 
349 et ?cq.. 391 et uq.\ vols. iv. and v., passim ; Liber Pantifi- 
calit, ed. Duchesne, ii. 310, 807,318, 322, Sitf, 344, 347 ; Monu- 
menta Get-mankv Hi^torica* v. 472 et seq., xi. 614, xll. 711 ; 
Duchesne, HwUtria Francorxun i?criptorr*, iv. 376 ; Ollvleri, 
J7 Scnato di Roma, p. 1n5; Vogelsiein and Rieper, Gesch. 
derJuden in Horn. f. 214 et uq. % 215, 221 et xeq.; Kehr, in 
ArehivUt dtlla R. Sucietd Romana di Storia Patria, xxiv. 
tl901), pp. 253 rt *eq. 

s H. V. 

PIGEON. See Dove. 

PIGO : Italian family of rabbis. Formerly the 
name was as a rule transcribed Figo ; in an Ital- 
ian document of 1643 it appears in the form " Piehio " ; 
and in Hebrew it is sometimes written Vp*B. To 
this family belong Ephraim Pigo, a learned man 
who died in Venice in 1605 or 1606, and the rabbis 
JudahPigoand Solomon Pigo ; the latter appear 
in the rcsponsa "Ma vim Kabbiin " of Rabbi Raphael 

Another branch of the family lived in Turkey. 
Moses Pigo (d. in Adrianople 1576) wrote "Zik- 
ron Torat Mosheh," a dictionary of the haggadic 
themes (Constantinople, 1554; Prague, 1623). His 
son Joseph Pigo of Salonica was the author of 
"Teshubot"and "Dine Eedikat ha-Re'ah " (Salo- 
nica, 1652). 

Bibliography: Mortara, lndice, pp. 49, 50; Berliner, Luhot 
Abanim, Nos. 130, 131: Winter and Wunsche, DieJ&dische 
Literatur. 11. 652 et s<:g.; Steinschnelder, Cat. Bodl. col. 746; 
BeDjacob, Ozar ha-Sefarim, p. 232; Furst, Bibl. Jud. 1. 240. 

G. I, E. 

PI-HAHIROTH: A place in the wilderness 
where the Israelites encamped when they turned 
back from Etham. It lay between Migdol and the 
sea "before Raal-zephon " (Ex. xiv. 2, 9; Num. 
xxxiii. 7, 8). The etymology of the name, which is 
apparently Egyptian, was the subject of much spec- 
ulation by the ancient commentators. The Septua- 
gint, while treatiug the word as a proper name in 
Numbers (Eipud; translating, however, "»a by Gr6fia) t 
translates it in Exodus by rfjq enav?^^ (= "sheep- 
fold " or "farm-building"), thus reading in the He- 
brew text nmjn *D- The Mekilta (Beshallah, Wa- 
yehi, 1) identifies the place with Pithom, which was 
called Pi-hahiroth ( = " the mouth of freedom ") after 
the Israelites had been freed from bondage, the place 
itself being specified as a valley between two high 
rocks. The Targum of pseudo-Jonathan (ad loc.), 
while following the Mekilta in the interpretation of 
"Pi-hahiroth," identifies the place with Tanis. 

The theory of an Egyptian etymology was ad- 
vanced by Jablonsky, who compared it to the Cop- 
tic " pi-akhirot" = " the place where sedge grows," 
and by Naville, who explained the name as "the 
house of the goddess Kerhet." On the basis of this 
latter explanation, Fulgenee Fresnel identified Pi- 
hahiroth with the modern Ghuwaibatal~Bus(= "the 
bed of reeds"), near Has Atakah. 

Bibliography: Selble, in Hastings, Diet Bible. 

E. o. n; 

M. Sel. 

KOHEN : German rabbi; mentioned in "Likku^e 
Maharil," bilkots "Shabbat" and "Yom Kipp'ur." 
He addressed two letters to the community of Hal- 
berstadt, in which he discussed the commandments 
and prohibitions. He requested that his epistles 
might be copied and read to others. These letters 
were printed at Basel in 1599. 

Bibliography : Michael, Or Tia-JFTaj/yim, No. 42. 

e. a 

S. O. 

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PILATE, PONTIUS : Fifth Roman procurator 
of Judea, Samaria, and Idumaea. from 26 to 36 of the 
common era; successor of Valerius Gratus. Accord- 
ing toPhilo("De Legationead Caium,"ed. Mangey, 
ii. 590), his administration was characterized by cor- 
ruption, violence, robberies, ill treatment of the peo- 
ple, and continuous executions without even the 
form of a trial. His very first act nearly caused a 
general insurrection. While his predecessors, re- 
specting the religious feelings of the Jews, removed 
from their standards all the effigies and images when 
entering Jerusalem, Pilate allowed his soldiers to 
bring them into the city by night. As soon as this 
became known crowds of Jews hastened to Caesarea, 
where the procurator was residing, and besought 
him to remove the images. After five days of dis- 
cussion he ordered his soldiers to surround the peti- 
tioners and to put them to death unless they ceased 
to trouble him. He yielded only when he saw that 
the Jews would rather die than bear this affront. 
At a later date Pilate appropriated funds from the 
sacred treasury in order to provide for the construc- 
tion of an aqueduct for supplying the city of Jeru- 
salem with water from the Pools of Solomon; and 
he suppressed the riots provoked by this spoliation 
of the Temple by sending among the crowds dis- 
guised soldiers carrying concealed daggers, who 
massacred a great number, not only of the rioters, 
but of casual spectators. 

In spite of his former experience of the sensitive- 
ness of the Jews with regard to images and emblems, 
Pilate hung up in Herod's palace gilt shields dedi- 
cated to Tiberius, and agaiu nearly provoked an in- 
surrection. The shields were removed by a special 
order of Tiberius, to whom the Jews had protested. 
Pilate's last deed of cruelty, and the one which 
brought about his downfall, was the massacre of a 
number of Samaritans who had assembled on Mount 
Gerizim to dig for some sacred vessels which an 
impostor had led them to believe Moses had buried 
there. Concerning this massacre the Samaritans 
lodged a complaint with Vitellius, legate of Syria, 
who ordered Pilate to repair to Rome to defend him* 
self. On the participation by Pilate in the trial and 
crucifixion of Jesus see Crucifixion; Jesus of 

The end of Pilate is enveloped in mystery. Ac- 
cording to Eusebius ("Hist. Eccl." ii. 7), he was 
banished to Vienna (Vienne) in Gaul, where various 
misfortunes caused him at last to commit suicide; 
while the chronicle of Malalas alleges, with less 
probability, that he was beheaded under Nero. A 
later legend says that his suicide was anticipatory of 
Caligula's sentence; that the body was thrown into 
the Tiber, causing disastrous tempests and floods; 




that it afterward produced similar effects in the 
Rhone at Vienne; and that, finally, it had to be con- 
signed to a deep pool among the Alps. 

Bibliography: Josephus, Ant. xviii. 3, § 12; idem, B.J. ii. 9, 
§§ 2A ; Ewald, Gesch. iv. 594 ; v. 4&-05 ; vi. 319, $&-&&, 343 ; 
Gratz, Gesch. ill. 253-271 ; Schurer, Gcsch. i. 488-4U2 ; Bninn, 
Die Sdhnt des Herodes, 1873, pp. 1-16 ; Mominsen, ROmixche 
Geschichte, v, 508 cfc acq. 

B. I. Bit. 

PILEGESH (Hebrew, t^Djcomp. Greek, ttc/U 
lanic).— Biblical Data : A concubine recognized 
among the ancient Hebrews. She enjoyed the same 
rights in the house as the legitimate wife. Since it 
was regarded as the highest blessing to have many 
children, while the greatest curse was childless- 
ness, legitimate wives themselves gave their maids 
to their husbands to atone, at least in part, for their 
own barrenness, as in the cases of Sarah and Hagar, 
Leah and Zilpah, Rachel and Bilhah. The concu- 
bine commanded the same respect and inviolability 
as the wife; and it was regarded as the deepest dis- 
honor for the man to whom she belonged if hands 
were laid upon her. Thus Jacob never forgave his 
eldest son for violating Bilhah (Gen. xxxv. 22, xlix. 
4). According to the story of Gibeah, related in 
Judges xix., 25,000 warriors of the tribe of Benja- 
min lost their lives on account of the maltreatment 
and death of a concubine. Abner, Saul's first gen- 
eral, deserted Ish-bosheth, Saul's son, who had re- 
proached his leader with having had intercourse 
with Rizpah, the daughter of his royal father's con- 
cubine, Aiah (II Sam. iii. 7); and Absalom brought 
the greatest dishonor upon David by open inter- 
course with his father's concubines (ib. xvi. 21 et seq.). 
The children of the concubine had equal rights 
with those of the legitimate wife. Abraham dis- 
missed his natural sons with gifts (Gen. xxv. 6), and 
Jacob's sons by Bilhah and Zilpah were equal with 
his sons by Leah and Rachel ; while Abimelech, who 
subsequently became king over a part of Israel, was 
the son of Gideon-jerubbaal and his Shechemite con- 
cubine (Judges viii, 31). In the time of the Kings 
the practise of taking concubines was no longer due 
to childlessness but to luxury. David had ten con- 
cubines (II Sam. xv. 16), who, however, also did 
housework; Solomon had 300 (I Kings xi. 30); and 
his son Rehoboam had sixty (II Chron. xi. 21). 

Bibliography: Hastings. Diet. Bible, s.v. Marriage; Stade, 
Gesch. Isr. i. 385, 636; Hamburger, R. B. T. s.v. Kchswcib. 

E. G. II. S. O. 

- — In Rabbinical Literature : According to the 
Babylonian Talmud (Sanh. 21a), the difference be- 
tween a concubine and a legitimate wife was that 
the latter received a Ketubaii and her marriage 
was preceded by a formal betrothal ("kiddushin "), 
which was not the case with the former (comp. Rashi 
on Gen. xxv. G, and Nahmanides ad loc). Accord- 
ing to R. Judali (Yen Ktt. v. 29d), however, the 
concubine also received a ketubah, but without the 
aliment pertaining to it. 
e. c. S. O. 

PILGRIMAGE : A journey which is made to 
a shrine or sacred place in performance of a vent or 
for the sake of obtaining some form of divine bless- 
ing. Every male Israelite was required to \ isit the 
Temple three times a year (Ex. xxiii. 17; Deut. xvi. 

16). The pilgrimage to Jerusalem on one of the 
three festivals of Passover, Shabu'ot, and Sukkot 
was called "re'iyah" (="the appearance"). The 
Mishnah says, "All are under obligation to appear, 
except minors, women, the blind, the lame, theaged| 
and one who isill physically or mentally." A minor 
in this case is defined as one who is too young to be 
taken by his father to Jerusalem. According to the 

Mosaic law every one should take an 

Pilgrimage offering, though the value thereof is 

to First not fixed (comp. Ex. xxxiii. 14; Deut. 

Temple, xvi. 17); the Mishnah, however, fixed 

the minimum at three silver pieces, 
each of thirty-two grains of fine silver (Hag. i. 1, 2). 
While the appearance of women and infant males 
was not obligatory, they usually accompanied their 
husbands and fathers, as in all public gatherings 
(Deut. xxxi. 12). The Talmud plainly infers that 
both daughters and sons joined the pilgrims at the 
Passover festival in Jerusalem (Pes. 89a; Git. 25a). 
According to the Biblical accounts, Jeroboam, 
who caused the secession of Ephraim from Judaic 
made two calves of gold, placing one in Dan and the 
other in Beth-el, to divert the pilgrims from Jerusa- 
lem (I Kings xii. 26-33). He stationed guards on 
the boundary -lines of his dominions to prevent the 
festival pilgrimages to the Temple (Ta'an. 28a). So 
great a menace to the Ephraimite government were 
the Temple pilgrimages that even King Jehu, who 
destroyed the Ba'al, feared to remove the golden 
calves of Jeroboam (II Kings x. 28, 29). In Judea 
the pilgrimages to Jerusalem were kept up regu- 
larly, but the principal gathering of the people was 
on the Sukkot festival, called "Hag ha-Asif" = 
"Festival of Gathering" (I Kings viii. 05; II Chron. 
vii. 8, 9). King Josiah revived the Passover pil- 
grimage to Jerusalem (II Kings xxiii. 23). King 
Hoshea, son of Elah, dismissed the guards and per- 
mitted the people to go undisturbed to Jerusalem 
for the festivals (Yer. Ta'an. iv. 7; Git. 88a). 

During the time of the Second Temple, the Ju- 
deans ruled Palestine and as a united people cele- 
brated the Feast of Sukkot in Jerusalem (2seh. viii. 
17). From beyond Palestine, especially from the 

River Euphrates, they journeyed to 
Pilgrimage Jerusalem for the festivals. Some 
to Second even endangered their lives passing 
Temple, the guards posted to stop the pilgrim- 
ages (Ta'an. 28a: Gratz, "Gesch." 3d 
ed., iii. 157, 668). The number of Jewish pilgrims 
to the Temple was computed by the governor 
Gesius Flokus (64-66), who counted 256,500 pas- 
chal lambs atone Passover festival; allowing ten 
persons to one lamb, this would make 2,565,000 pil- 
grims (Josephus, "B. J." vi. 9). The Tosefta re- 
cords the census of Agrippa, who ordered the priests 
to take one hind leg of every paschal lamb, and 
counted 1,200,000 legs, which would make the total 
12,000,000 (Tosef., Pes. iv. 64b). These figures are 
evidenily exaggerated, and are based on the desire 
to double the 600,000 of the Exodus, a tendency 
frequently noticed in the Haggadah. It is calculated 
that ancient Jerusalem comprised an area of 2,400,- 
000 square yards, and, allowing 10 yards for each 
person, would contain 240,000 persons (see Luncz, 
"Jerusalem," i., English part, pp. 83-102). 

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The facilities provided for the convenience of the 
pilgrims were such as to encourage pilgrimages. 
Special measures were taken to repair the roads 
leading to Jerusalem and to dig wells along the 
route (Shek. i. 1, v. 1). Thirty days before the fes- 
tival it was forbidden to engage professional mourn- 
ers to bewail the dead lest they get their compensa- 
tion from the money intended to be spent in Je- 
rusalem (M. K. viii. 1). The hides of the sacrifices 
were left to compensate the innkeepers for lodging 
the pilgrims, and no other fee was allowed (Yoma 
12a). The inhabitants of Jerusalem received the 
pilgrims hospitably; the priests permitted them to 
see the show bread and told them of the miracle 
connected with it (Yoma 21b). Public speakers 
praised and thanked the pilgrims (Suk. 49b; Pes. 
5b). The ceremony attending the offering of the 
first-fruits (see Bikkurim) in Jerusalem (Deut. xxvi. 
2-4), which commenced on Shabu'ot (the Feast of 
Harvest; com p. Ex. xxiii. 16), is supposed to give 
a general idea of the reception accorded to the 

The pilgrimages to Jerusalem did not cease with 
the destruction of the Temple (Cant. R. iv. 2). The 
women often joined their husbands, sometimes in 

spite of the protests of the latter (Ned. 

Post-Exilic 23a). But the joy that attended the 

Pil- former pilgrimages, when the Temple 

grimages. was still in existence, changed to 

lamentations for the loss of national 
and political independence. The pilgrims mourned 
the destruction of the Temple and cried : " Thy holy 
cities are now in ruins; Zion is a wilderness; Jeru- 
salem is a desolation. Our Sanctuary, the pride of 
our ancestors, is burned down, and all our precious 
things are destroyed " (M. K. 26a). 

The Karaites, in the ninth century, likewise 
showed great devotion* to Jerusalem. Their hakam, 
Sahl ibn Mazliah, wrote to Jacob b. Samuel that 
Karaite pilgrims of various towns gathered to pray 
for the restoration of Zion; these pilgrims he de- 
scribed as Nazarites who abstained from wine and 
meat (Pinsker, "Likkute Kadmoniyyot," Appendix, 
p. 31). A company of Karaites, headed by Moses 
ha-Yerushalmi, journeyed from Chufut-Kale ("The 
Jewish Rock "), from the Crimea, and from the Cau- 
casus. The inscription on Moses' tombstone, dated 
4762 (1002), reads: " Good luck followed him and his 

companions to the tomb of King David 
and of his son Solomon, which no 
other persons heretofore had been per- 
mitted to enter." All pilgrims to Pal- 
estine were sent out with music and 
song in honor and praise of the Holy Land. The 
pilgrims on their return were known as " Jerusalem - 
ites" (see the Karaite Siddur, part iv. ; "Luah Ere/ 
Yisrael," v. 22). 

The Turkish conquest under Saladin (1187) secured 
to the Oriental Jews the privilege of visiting Jeru- 
salem and the sacred places. Numerous pilgrims 
went from Damascus, Babylonia, and Egypt, and 
they remained in Jerusalem over Passover and Sha- 
bu'ot. Nahmani, in a letter dated 1208, writes: 
"Many men and women from Damascus, Babylon, 
and their vicinities come to Jerusalem to see the site 
of the Holy Temple and to lament its destruction." 






About fifty years later Estori Farhi notes the custom 
of the brethren of Damascus, Aleppo, Tripoli, and 
Alexandria to goto Jerusalem for the holy days "in 
order to express their grief" ("Kaftor wa-Ferah," 
ed. Edelmann, vi. 19). Among the Eastern Jews, 
especially those of Babylonia and Kurdistan, it has 
been the custom from the fourteenth century onward 
to go on a pilgrimage at least once a year, many of 
them actually walking the whole distance. The 
era of the Crusades evidently encouraged pilgrim- 
ages of Jews from Europe; a most noteworthy ex- 
ample is that of Jcdaii ha-Levi (1140). Me'ir of 
Rothenburg was made a prisoner on his way to Pal- 
estine. Samuel b. Simson (13th cent.) received per- 
mission from the governor of Jerusalem to visit the 
cave of Machpelah at Hebron. It was on his invi- 
tation that 300 rabbis journeyed from France and 
England into Palestine in 1210. These pilgrimages 
became so frequent that Hayyim ben Hananeel ha- 
Kohen felt compelled to issue a warning against 
them (Tos. Ket. 110b, s.i\ nEIX fcOfll). 

The expulsion of the Jews from Spain in 1492, and 
the consequent settlement of many exiles in Turkish 
territory, largely increased the number of pilgrims. 

The goal of their journeys was chiefly 
the tomb of Samuel the Prophet at 
Ramah, where they held annual com- 
munions and celebrations, similar in 
character to the celebrations instituted 
on Lag be-'OMER, a century later, at the tombs of 
R. Simeon b. Yohai and his son Eleazar in Meron. 
In 1700 Judah be-Hasid of Siedlce and Gedaliah of 
Siemjatiszcz started upon a pilgrimage from Poland 
(Gratz, "Gesch." x. 340); they were accompanied 
by R. Nathan Note, rabbi at The Hague and author 
of "Me'orot Natan." In 1765 a company of four- 
teen families from Poland and Lithuania, mostly 
Hasidim, went on a pilgrimage to Palestine. Among 
them was Simhah b. Samuel, author of "Binvan 

■ * » 

shel Simhah." He writes that he staved at Con- 
stantinople, where the Jewish community provided 
passage lor the pilgrims to Palestine. There were 
110 Sephardim in the vessel that took him to Jaffa 
(Luncz, "Jerusalem," iv. 137-152). 

In modern times the term "pilgrimage," with its 
ancient and medieval meaning, has ceased to be ap- 
plicable. Sir Moses Montefiore and his wife Judith 
made a visit of piety to the Holy Land in 1828; in 
a later one they were accompanied by L. L5we, 
and many other individuals made similar visits. 
The Zionist movement led to the formation of a 
number of parties for the purpose of making visits 
of piety to Palestine and the holy places. While 
on such a visit, in 1890, R. Samuel Mohilewer and 
Dr. Joseph Chazanowiez founded a Jewish library 
in Jerusalem. The Jews of Palestine complain of 
the lack of interest on the part of their coreligionists 
elsewhere as compared with the thousands of Chris- 
tians who avail themselves of modern opportunities 
to visit the Holy Land. 

The following is a partial list of noted Jewish 
pilgrims and visitors to Palestine from the twelfth 
century up to the present time: 

1140. Judah ha-Levl. 
1105. Moses Maimonides. 
1171. Benjamin of Tudela. 

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1178. Pethahiah of Repensburg. 

1210. Abraham Maimonldes. 

1210, Samuel b. Sinison with It. Jonathan ha-Kohen of Lunei 

<" Itine*raires, M pp. 115, 122). 
12] G. Judah al-ljfarlzl. 

1257. Jelriel of Paris. 

1258. Jacob of Paris ("SImane ha-Kebarim "). 
1207. Moses Nahmanl. 

1318. Estori Farhl. 

1334. Isaac b. Joseph Ohelo of Spain (author of "Shibhe dl-Ye- 
rushalayhn "). 

1438. Elijah of Forrara (author of u Ahabat Ziyyon "). 

1440. Isaac b. Alpera of Malaga (who corresponded with Rabbi 
Dnran ; "Sefor Yuliasin," ed. FMpowskl, p. 228). 

1450. Joseph b. Nuhinan ha-Levi (sent list of sacred tombs to 
Rabbi Duron; "Sefer Yuliasln," I.e.). 

1481. Meshullam b. Menabem of Volaterra (see his letters In 
Luncz's "Jerusalem," i. 100-227). 

1488. Obadiah da Bertinoro. 

1500. Jacob Silkili of Sicily ("Sefer Yuhasin," I.e.). 

152:5. Israel of Perugia (" Jerusalem," lii. 97). 

1523. David Ueubeni. 

1535. Isaac MeTr Latif. 

1540. Gershon b. Asher Scarmelo (author of "Yihus ha-Zaddl- 

1564. Uri b. Simeon of Biel (author of ik Yil?us ha-Abot"). 

1582. Simeon Hack (letters in "Jerusalem," ii. 141-157). 

1000. Solomon Shlomel b. Hayyim of Lattenburg. 

1614. Mordecai b. Isaiah Lite of Raussnitz, Austria. 

1G24. Gershon b. Eliezer ha-Levi (author of kV Gelilot Ere? Yis- 
rael" ). 

1641. Samuel b. David Yemshel ( l, c , d> > ), a Karaite, (The name 
" Yemshel " Is the abbreviation of m^c* laDtt'C ^5? ni:\) 
He was accompanied by Moses b. Elijah ha-Levi of 
Kaffa, Feodosia (Gnrland, "Glnze Yisrael," pp. 31-43). 

1650. Moses b. Naphtali Hirsch Prager (author of kt Darke ?iy- 

1685. Benjamin b. Elijah, a Karaite (" Ginze Yisrael," pp. 44-54). 
1701. Judah he-Hasld of Siedlce. 
1740. Hayyim Abulafla of Smyrna. 

1747. Abraham Gershon Kutewer (of Kuty), brother-in-law of 
Israel BeSHT. 

1753. Aryeh Judah Meisel of Opatow. 

1758. Joseph Sofer of Brody (author of " Iggeret Yosef," a jour- 
nal of his travels, Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1761). 

17&"). Slmhah b. Joshua (author of ,k Sippure Erez ha-Galtt"). 

1765. Moses ha-Yerushalml (author of " Yede Mosheh," de- 
scription of sacred graves). 

1768. Perez b. Moses (author of "Shebah u-Tehillah le-Erez 
Yisrael," Amsterdam, 1769). 

1777. Israel Politzkl, Menabem Mendel of Vitebsk, and Abraham 
Kallsker (Luncz, "Jerusalem," v. 164-174). 

1799. Nahman Bratzlavof Rorodok\a Hasid (author of "Maggid 
Sihot," a description of his journey to Palestine). 

1805. Menahein Mendel and Israel of Shklov (disciples of Elijah 
of Wilna). 

1828. Moses Monteflore. 

1833. Joseph Schwarz (author of " Tebifot ha-Arez "). 

1837. Menahem Mendel b. Aaron of Kamenec (author of fcl k Ally- 
yat ha-Arez," Wilna, 1839). 

1854. Albert Cohn of Paris. 

1&50. L. A. FrankI (author of "Nach Jerusalem "). 

1807. Charles Netter of Paris. 

1872. Heinneh Graetz. 

1890. R. Samuel Mohilewer. 

1897. Israel Zangwill. 

1898. Theodor llerzl. 

For a list of sacred tombs see Tombs; see also 
Traveleks in Palestine. 

Bibliography: Carmol.w Ttineraircs de hi Terre Sairtfe, 
Brussels, 1847; Gurland, Ginze Yisrael, vol. i., Lyck, 18G5; 
Luuez, Lnah, v. 5-59. 

d. ' J. D. E. 

Pilgrimages are made usually on fixed days in the 
year, called by the Oriental and North-African Jews 
"days of zi'arah "; on such days it is customary to 

visit the tombs or relics of certain per- 
Customs. sonages who in early or medieval times 

were famous as kings or prophets or 
for their holj r lives. There are other holy places 
which the people honor as they will and at any 

time. The days of pilgrimage are celebrated by 
prayers, rejoicings, and popular festivals. 

In Jerusalem a crowd of Jews gathers before the 
western wall of the Temple of Solomon ("Kotel 
Ma'arabi") every Friday evening and on the eves of 
feast-days, as well as on twenty-three successive 
days from the eve of the 17th of Tamnmz to the 
0th of Ab inclusive. On the latter date this re- 
ligious service occurs at midnight. On the 6th of 
Siwan, the Day of Pentecost, the Sephardic Jews 
go to pray at the tombs of the kings of Judah at the 
foot of Blount Zion. On the following day they 
pray at the tomb of the high priest Simon the Just, 
and at the tombs of other holy men in the neighbor- 
hood, while the Ashkenazim gather at the tombs of 
the kings of Judah. On the 18th of lyyar, called 
" Lag be-'Omer," all the Jews of Jerusalem, Sephar- 
dim and Ashkenazim, pray at the tomb of Simon 
the Just. 

At IJurak, between Jerusalem and Bethlehem, is 
the tomb of Rachel, wife of the patriarch Jacob, to 
which the Jews of Jerusalem go by turns during 
Die thirty days of the month of Elul. But the 15th 
of Heshwan is especially consecrated to this pilgrim- 
age (Benjamin II., "Mas'e Yisrael," pp. 3-6, Lyck, 
1859). At Kama, near Jerusalem, known in Arabic 
as "Nabi Samwil," all the Jews of the latter city 

gather on the 28th of lyyar at the 

In tomb of the prophet Samuel. The 

Palestine, pious even pass the night there. At 

Khaifa, a port of Palestine, on the eve- 
ning of the Sabbath which follows the anniversary 
of the destruction of the Temple, the Jews hold a 
popular festival, with illuminations, in a grotto, sit- 
uated on the summit of Blount Carmel, in which the 
prophet Elijah is said to have taken refuge from 
the persecution of King Ahab. At Tiberias on the 
night of the 14th of lyyar, known as u Pesah Sheni " 
(Num. ix. 9-14), Jews gather from all parts of Pal- 
estine, and there are brilliant illuminations and a 
popular festival at the tomb of Pabbi Me'ir ("Ba'al 

ha-Nes " = " the miracle- worker "). 

At Safed, from the morning after Passover (22d 

of Nisan) till the 18th of lyyar, every week the 
Jewish population ceases to work, and makes pil- 
grimages to the suburbs in the following order; 
namely, to (1) Biria, where is the tomb of Benaiah 
ben Jehoiada, David's general; (2) the tomb of 
the prophet llosea in the cemetery; and (3) 'Ain 
Zaitun, to the tomb of Joseph Saragossi, a Spanish 
immigrant who reorganized the community of Sa- 
fed in 1492. On the night of Lag be-'Omer all the 
able-bodied Jews of Safed and several thousands 
of pilgrims from Palestine, Turkey, northern Africa, 
the Caucasus, and Persia celebrate a great popular 
festival with illuminations at Meron, near Safed, at 
the mausoleum of Simeon ben Yoi.iai. At each 
new moon it is considered essential among the Ash- 
kenazim of Safed — men, women, and children — to 
make a pilgrimage to the tomb of Isaac Luiua, the 
famous cabalist. At Sidon, toward the end of ly- 
yar, people from the most distant parts of Palestine 
make a pilgrimage to the tomb of Zebulun, one of 
the sons of the patriarch Jacob. 

Places of pilgrimage exist not only in Palestine, 
but also in Mesopotamia, Kurdistan, Egypt, Algeria, 

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and Morocco. In Mesopotamia the places of pilgrim- 
age are Bagdad, Eiffel, and Bassora. At Bagdad, 
at the very gates of the town, is the mausoleum of the 
high priest Joshua, known under the popular name 
of the M Kohen Mausoleum. " At each new moon it is 

visited by thousands of Jews and es- 
In Meso- pecially by barren women. In the 
potamia. local cemetery the tomb of the sheik 

Isaac, a revered Jew, is also an object 
of frequent pilgrimages. At Ketil, a locality in Irak 
near the ruins of Babylon, is the tomb of the prophet 
Ezekiel, to which the Jews of Mesopotamia go on 
pilgrimage on the Gth of Si wan (Pentecost). AtBas- 
6ora the tomb of Ezra is visited on the same date. 

In Kurdistan the Jews have three places of pil- 
grimage: (1) In the district of Elkosh, near Mosul, 
the tomb of the prophet Xahum is a place of pil- 
grimage for fourteen days, the eight days preceding 
and the six following Pentecost. Readings are given 
from the prophecy of Xahum from a manuscript 
supposed to have been written by the prophet him- 
self. (2) At Kerkuk, between the upper and lower 

parts of the town, are four tombs, said 
In Kurdis- to be those of Daniel, Hananiah, Mish- 
tan and ael, and Azariah, to which the Jews of 
Persia. the district make pilgrimages at Pen- 
tecost. (3) In the locality of Bar-Ta- 
nura, thirty hours distant from Mosul, is a grotto in 
which the prophet Elijah is said to have taken ref- 
uge. Several times a year the Jews of this region 
go thither on pilgrimage and contribute to the main- 
tenance of the grotto. 

In Persia there are two places to which Jews 
make pilgrimages. (1) At Ilamadan, near the for- 
tress, is an ancient mausoleum containing the tombs 
of Mordecai and Esther. On the 14th of Adar, the 
festival of Purim, the Jews of the region read the 
Book of Esther at these tombs; pilgrimages to them 
are made also at each new moon and in times of 
danger. (2) Twelve and one-half miles from Ispa- 
han, in the middle of the fields, is a little synagogue 
which, according to local tradition, contains the 
tomb of Sarah, daughter of Asher (Num. xxvi. 46). 
The Jews of the neighborhood go thither on pil- 
grimage on the 1st of Elul. 

At Fostator Old Cairo, in Egypt, three miles from 
Cairo, is a synagogue built in the year 1051 (29 
ShaMmn, a.h. 429) by Abu Sa'ad, a favorite of the 
calif AlMustansir Ma'ad (Griltz, "Gesch." vi. 152). 

This synagogue contains a tomb in 

In Egypt, which, according to local tradition, 

Algeria, the prophet Jeremiah rests, and two 

and little rooms built over the places where 

Morocco, the prophets Elijah and Ezra prayed. 

On the 1st of Elul alt the Jews of 
Cairo go on pilgrimage to Fostat and hold a mag- 
nificent festival there. 

There exist in Algeria traditional tombs of revered 
Jews which are venerated euuallv bv Jews and Mo- 
hammcelans. Prayers are said at them in times of 
stress, but not at regular dates. In the district of 
southern Oran, in the region of Nedrona, inhabited 
by the Traras, arc* the tombs of Sidi Usha (Joshua) 
and his father, Sidi Nun. In the department of 
Oran on the I5if frontier is the torn!) of a certain 
R. Jacob Roshdi, which is freepiently visited. 

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In Morocco, as in Algeria, certain tombs are 
equally venerated by Jews and Mohammedans, but 
there are no fixed days for prayer ; e.g. : at Al-Kasar, 
that of K. Judah Jabaii ; at Tarudant, that of R. Da- 
vid ben Baruch ; and at Wazan, that of R. Amram 
ben Diwan. Amram was one of the rabbis sent out 
periodically by the rabbinate of Palestine to collect 
money. lie traveled in company with his son; and 
when the latter fell sick, Amram prayed to God to 
accept the sacrifice of his own life and to save that of 
his child. The son recovered, but the father died, and 
was buried at Jabal Assen. His tomb is said to be 
surrounded by a halo, and miracles are said to have 
taken place there. The 7th of Iyyar is the principal 
day of the local pilgrimages (see "Journal des De- 
bats," Paris, Oct. 27, 1903). 

In Podolia and Galicia and even in the northern 
parts of Hungary the tombs of Ilasidic rabbis and 
miracle-workers are visited on the anniversaries of 
their deaths, and on other occasions by people in dis- 
tress. Lamps are burned and prayers are recited ; 
and often letter-boxes are found at the tombs, in 
which the pilgrims deposit slips on which their 
wishes are written. 

Bibliography : Luncz, Lucth Erez YisraeU Introduction, Jem- 
salem, 1895; Henjamin II., Mai'e Yisrael, Lyek, 1859; Bul- 
letin Annuel de V Alliance Israelite Unircrselle* 1888, 
1898; Revue des Ecolcs de V Alliance Israelite Uuivcrsclle^ 
Paris, 1901, 1902. 

I). 51. Fk. 

PILLAR: The word "pillar" is used in the 
English versions of the Bible as an equivalent for 
the following Hebrew words: 

(1) "Omenot," feminine plural of the active par- 
ticiple of pK = "support," "confirm." This word 
occurs only in II Kings xviii. 16. In the Revised 
Version (margin) the rendering is "door-posts." 

(2) "Mazzebah"(H. V., margin, "obelisk"). This 
denotes a monolith erected as a monument or me- 
morial stone (as the " pillar of Rachel's grave," Gen. 
xxxv. 20, and "Absalom's monument," II Sam. 
xviii. 18; comp. I Mace, xiii. 27-30), or as a bound- 
ary-mark and witness of a treaty (Gen. xxxi. 44-54; 
comp. Isa. xix. 19), or as a memorial of a divine ap- 
pearance or intervention. Such stones often ac- 
quired a sacred character, and were regarded as 
dwelling-places of the Deity or were made to serve 
as rude altars upon which libations were poured 

(Gen. xxxv. 14, xxxviii. 18-22; I Sam. 
Memorial vii. 12; possibly also Gen. xxxiii. 20, 
Stones. where the verb used indicates the orig- 
inal reading to have been H3XD = 
"pillar," instead of rQTD = "altar"). 

In the earlier periods of Hebrew history and as 
late as the reign of Josiah one or more of these stone 
pillars stood in every sanctuary or "high place." 
Thus 5Ioses built an altar at Sinai, and "twelve pil- 
lars according to the twelve tribes of Israel " (Ex. 
xxiv. 4; comp. Josh. xxiv. 26; Ilos. iii. 4, x. 1-2; 
Isa. xix. 19), Similar pillars stood at the Canaan- 
itish altars of Baal (Ex. xxiii. 24, xxxiv. 13; Dent, 
vii. 5, xii. 3; II Kings iii. 2, x. 26-27) and in the 
sanctuaries of Tyre (Ezek. xxvi. 11) and of Ileliop- 
olis, in Egypt (Jer. xliii. 13). The recent excava- 
tions of t lie Palestine Exploration Fund at Gezer 
have revealed a row of eight monoliths on the site 
of the ancient high place. These are hewed to a 

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roughly square or round section and one to a sharp 
point ("Pal. Explor. Fund Quarterly Statement," 
Jan., 1903). 

By the Deuteronomie and Levitical codes the use 
of the mazzebah as well as of the asherim at the 
altars of Jehovah was forbidden as savoring of idol- 
atry (Deut. xvi. 21-22; Lev. xxvi. 1). It is proba- 
ble that these had become objects of 
Deutero- worship and as such were denounced 
nomic and by the Prophets (Mic. v. 13-14; comp. 
Levitical I Kings xiv. 23; II Kings xvii. 10, 
Pro- xviii. 4, xxiii. 14). Some such stone 

hibitions. idols seem to be referred to in Judges 

iii. 19, 26 (comp. the Arabic "nusb"). 
The term "hammanim," rendered "images" and 
"sun-images," is probably used of later and more 
artistically shaped or carved pillars of the same 
character as the mazzebah (Lev. xxvi. 30; Isa. xvii. 
8, xxvii. 9; Ezek. vi. 4, 6; II Chron. xiv. 3, 5; 
xxxiv. 4, 7). 

(3) "Nezib " (from the same root as " mazzebah "), 
while rendered "pillar" in Gen. xix. 26, is elsewhere 
translated "garrison" (I Sam. x. 5) and "officer" 
(I Kings iv. 19). In the second passage, however, 
the Septuagint renders it by ardory/m, "i.e., prob- 
ably a pillar erected as a symbol or trophy of Phi- 
listine domination " (Driver, "Hebrew Text of Sam- 
uel," p. 61; so, also, H. P. Smith, Wellhausen, and 

(4) "Mis'ad " (I Kings x. 12; R. V., margin, "rail- 
ing," "prop "). The precise meaning is unknown. 

(5) " 4 Ammud," the word which occurs most fre- 
quently in this sense, is used of the pillars or col- 
umns which support a house or the roof of a house 
(Judges xvi. 25-29), of the posts w T hich supported 
the curtains of the Tabernacle (Ex. xxvii. 10, 17; 
xxxvi. 36-38; Num. iii. 36-37), and of the pillars in 
the Temple (I Kings vii. 2, 3, 6; comp. Ezek. xlii. 
6; Prov. 5* 1). They were made of acacia-wood 
(Ex. xxvi. 32, 37; xxxvi. 36), of cedar (I Kings vii. 
2), or of marble (Esth. i. 6; comp. Cant. v. 15). A 
detailed description is given in I Kings vii. of two 
"brass or bronze pillars which were fashioned by Hi- 
ram for King Solomon and set up in the 

Pillars of porch of the Temple, and to which were 

the given the names "Jachin" ("He [or 

Temple, "It"] shall establish") and "Boaz" 

(" In him [or " it "] is strength "). The 
word is used also of the columns or supports of a 
litter (Cant. iii. 10). It denotes, too, the column of 
smoke rising from a conflagration (Judges xx. 40), and 
particularly the column of smoke and of flame which 
attended the Israelites in the wilderness (Ex. xiii. 
21-22, xiv. 24; Num. xiv. 14). An iron pillar isa 
symbol of strength (Jer. i. 18); and in poetry the 
earth and the heavens are represented as resting on 
pillars (Job ix. 5, xxvi. 11; Ps. lxxv. 4). 

(6) "3Iazuk," probabl} r a molten support; hence 
a "pillar" (I Sam. ii. 8). 

(7) " Timarah " ; in the plural, " pillars " of smoke 
(Cant. iii. 6; Joel iii. 3). Compare "tomer " (Jer. x. 
5, R. V., margin; Baruch vi. 70), which probably 
means a "scarecrow." 

Bibliography : W. R. Smith* Rel. of Sem. 2d ed., pp. 201-212, 
456-457; Nowack, Hcbrttische Archttologie; Wellhausen, 
ResteArabuschen Ileidentumcs, 2d ed.. pp. 101, 141 ; Conder, 
Syrian SUme Lore* new ed., p. 86; Driver, Commentary on 

Qcn. rxviii. 22 % and on Deut. xvi. SI ; DUlmann, Commentary 
on the same passage* ; Whltehouse, Pillars, in Hastings, Diet. 

k. c. J. F. McL. 

PILLAR OF FIRE: The Israelites during their 
wanderings through the desert were guided in the 
night-time by a pillar of fire to give them light (Ex. 
xiii. 21 ; Num. xiv. 14; Neh. ix. 12, 19). The pillar 
of fire never departed from them during the night 
(Ex. xiii. 22); according to Shab. 33b, it appeared 
in the evening before the pillar of cloud had disap- 
peared, so that the Israelites were never without a 
guide. God troubled the Egyptian hosts through 
a pillar of fire and of cloud (Ex. xiv. 24). There is a 
legend that Onkelos, by narrating to the messen- 
gers sent by the emperor to seize him that God 
Himself was the torch-bearer of the Israelites, con- 
verted them to Judaism (*Ab. Zarah 11a). 

e. g. ii. M. Sel. 

PILLITZ, DANIEL. See Bukgek, Tmeodor. 

PILPUL : A method of r \ almudic study. The 
word is derived from the verb "pilpel" (lit. "to 
spice," "to season," and in a metaphorical sense, "to 
dispute violently " [Tosef., Ii. B. vii. 5] or "clev- 
erly" [Shab. 3la; B. M. 8f>b]). Since by such dis- 
putation the subject is in a way spiced and seasoned, 
the word has come to mean penetrating investiga- 
tion, disputation, and drawing of conclusions, and 
is used especially to designate a method of studying 
the Law (Ab. vi. 5; Baraita, B. B. 145b; Tern. 16a; 
Ket. 103b; Yer. Ter. iv. 42d). Foranother explana- 
tion of the word, as derived from the Hebrew "pil- 
lel," see J. B. Lewinsohn, "Bet Yehudah," ii. 47, 
Warsaw, 1878. 

The essential characteristic of pilpul is that it 
leads to a clear comprehension of the subject under 
discussion by penetrating into its essence and by 
adopting clear distinctions and a strict differentiation 
of the concepts. By this method a sentence or maxim 
is carefully studied, the various concepts which it 
includes are exactly determined, and all the possible 
consequences to be deduced from it are carefully 
investigated. The sentence is then examined in its 
relation to some other sentence harmonizing with it, 
the investigation being directed toward determining 
whether the agreement appearing on a superficial 
contemplation of them continues to be manifest when 
all the possible consequences and deductions are 
drawn from each one of them; for if contradictory 
deductions follow from the two apparently agreeing 

sentences, then this apparent agree- 

Deserip- ment is not an agreement in fact. 
tion of Again, if two sentences apparently 

Method, contradict each other, the pilpulistic 

method seeks to ascertain whether this 
seeming contradiction may not be removed by a more 
careful definition and a more exact limitation of the 
concepts connected with the respective sentences. 
If two contiguous sentences or maxims apparently 
imply the same thing, this method endeavors to 
decide whether the second sentence is really a repe- 
tition of the first and could have been omitted, or 
whether by a more subtle differentiation of the con- 
cepts a different shade of meaning may be discovered 
between them. Similarly if a regulation is mentioned 
in connection with two parallel cases, this method 

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determines whether it might not have been concluded 
from the similarity of the cases itself that the regu- 
lation applying to the one applied to the other also, 
and why it was necessary to repeat explicitly the 

same regulation. 

The pilpulistic method, however, is not satisfied 
with merely attaining the object of its investiga- 
tion. After having reached the desired result in one 
way, it inquires whether the same result might not 
have been attained in another, so that, if the first 
method of procedure should be eventually refuted, 
another method and another proof for the result at- 
tained may be forthcoming. This method is fol- 
lowed in most of the Talmudic discussions on regu- 
lations referring to the Law, and in the explanations 
of seutences of the Mishnah, of which an example 
mav be given here. 

The Mishnah says (B. M. i. 1): "If two persons 
together hold a garment in their hands, and one of 
them asserts 'I have found it,* and the other like- 
wise says 4 1 have found it,' and the first one says ' It 
belongs entirely to me/ and the second likewise 
savs ' It belongs entirely to me,' then each one shall 
swear that not less than one-half of the garment is 
rightfully his, and they shall divide the garment 
between them." The Gemara explains this mishnah 
as follows: "The reason for the two expressions, 
* the one says " I have found it," f and ' the one says 
"It belongs entirely to me," ' is sought because it is 
obvious that, if the person insists that he found it, 
he lays claim to its possession." After some futile 
attempts to prove by means of quibbling interpre- 
tations that one of these sentences alone would have 
been insufficient, the Gemara comes to the conclusion 
that two different cases are discussed in the Mish- 
nah. Iu the first case a garment has been found, 

and each of the two persons insists 

An that he has found it; in the second 

Example, case a garment has been acquired by 

purchase, each person insisting that it 
belongs to him, since he has purchased it. Then the 
Gemara inquires why decisions had to be rendered 
in both cases, and if it would not have been suffi- 
cient to give a decision in the one case only, either 
that of acquisition by purchase or that of finding. 
The Gemara then proves that the two ways of ac- 
quisition, by purchase and by finding, differ in cer- 
tain respects, and that if a decision had been given 
for the one case, it could not have been coucluded 
therefrom that it applied to the other case also. 

After this Mishnah sentence itself has been ex- 
plained, its relation to other sentences is inquired 
into. Does this Mishnah sentence, according to 
which both parties swear, agree with the principle 
of Ben Nanus, who says, in a case in which two 
parties contradict each other (Shebu. vii. 5), that 
both parties should not be allowed to swear? It is 
then shown that, according to Ben Nanos, too, both 
parties might be allowed to take the oath, since both 
might swear truthfully; for it might be possible 
that the garment in dispute belonged to both of 
them together, since both together might have 
found or purchased it, each one swearing merely 
that not less than onp-half belongs to him. Then it 
is sought to ascertain whether the Mishnah contra- 
dicts the decision of Symmachus (B. K. 35b; B. M. 

102), according to whom the two parties should di- 
vide the object in dispute between them without 
swearing. After a few other attempts at a solution, 
which are, however, futile, the Gemara comes to the 
conclusion that the mishnah in question agrees in 
principle with Symmachus, and that the oath which 
the Mishnah prescribes for both parties is merely 
an institution of the sages; otherwise any one 
might take hold of another person's garment and 
insist that it belonged to him, in order to obtain 
possession of at least one-half of it (B. M. 2a-3a). 

This example, although presented here in a very 
abbreviated form, will suffice to give an idea of the 
pilpulistic method of Talmudic discussion. As a 
method of studying the Law, there was, even in 
the Talmudic period, side by side and in contrast 
with it, another method, which consisted rather in 

collecting, arranging, and preserving 
Tradition the halakic sentences. The represent- 

Versus ative of the last-named method was 

Pilpul. called u ba'al shemu'ot " := " possessor 

of the tradition," while the represent- 
ative of the former was called "ba'al pilpul " = 
"master of ingenious disputation and deduction n 
(B. B. 145b). In Yer. Hor. iii. 48c the one is called 
" sadran " (arranger), while the other is termed " pal- 
pelan " (disputator). 

Both methods were necessary for Talmudism, 
which rested, on the one hand, on the solid ground 
of tradition, and, on the other, on the independent 
development of what had been handed down. The 
one method furnished the technical knowledge of 
the traditions, while the other furnished the means 
of creating by ingenious deductions something new 
out of that which existed and had been transmitted. 
The method of arranging and collecting was pre- 
ferred to the method of ingenious disputation and 
deduction (Yer. Jlor. iii. 48c); and the learned man, 
called "sinai," was considered to be greater than 
the clever pilpulist, who was termed "uprooter of 
mountains" (Ber. G4a;*IIor. 14a). Although the pil- 
pulist had the advantage of being able to arrive at 
new conclusions and new doctrines and to render 
new decisions in cases which had not been provided 
for in the works of tradition, and before which the 
student of tradition stood helpless, he had neverthe- 
less to contend with certain disadvantages. The 
clever person is often careless ('Er. 90a); and the 
more acute and hair-splitting liis arguments are, the 
more likely they are to result in false deductions, as 
Jtaba pointed out (B. M. 9Gb; Niddah 33b). Many 
of the amoraim were opposed to the method of 
the pilpul, which was cultivated especially at 
Pumbedita from the time of It. Judah b. Ezekiel. 
Some even went so far as to designate this method, 
on which the Babylonian Talmud is based, although 
in a more rational and logical form, as "ambiguous 
obscurity " (Sanh. 24a; comp. Samuel Edels in his 
" Hiddushe Haggadot," ad loc). 

In the post-Talmudie period the Geonim and the 
first commentators on the Talmud confined them- 
selves more to arranging and explaining the text, 
some even despising the ingenious method of the 
pilpul (comp. Itashi on Hul. 81a and on Sanh. 42a). 
lint the tosafists again introduced the method of 
the pilpul, which then became predominant. Dur- 

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ing the fourteenth century and the first decades of 
the fifteenth, however, the study of the Talmud was 

pursued along different lines, probably 

Develop- in consequence of the pitiful condition 
merit of the Jews in most countries. It 

of Pilpul. became shallow and weak and entirely 

lacking in independence. Memo- 
rizing and technical knowledge ("beki'ut") took the 
place of minute analysis. A rabbi was considered 
great in proportion to his knowledge of the text of 
the different codes necessary for practical decisions. 
But about the middle of the fifteenth century 
new life was infused into the study of the Talmud 
by the rein trod nction of the pilpulistic method, 
which laid greater stress ou the clever interpreta- 
tion of the text than on the study of its halakic re- 
sults. This method, which, in its hair-splitting dia- 
lectics and its detailed analysis as well as in its sur- 
prising deductions, surpasses the clever tosafistic 
method of teaching, originated in Poland and Ger- 
man)', and spread thence to other countries. It was 
cultivated by the most prominent rabbis; and the 
real importance of a rabbi was thought by some to 
lie in his ability to analyze cleverly and treat crit- 
ically the subject in question (Israel Bruna, in 
Joseph Colon's Rcsponsa, No. 170). Nor does Jo- 
seph Colon deny (ib.) that the method of the pil- 
pul is an excellent one, saying merely that the 
knowledge of the Talmud and of the codes is more 
val liable and more useful for the rabbi. 

The pilpulistic method of study soon degenerated 
into sophistry. It was no longer regarded as a 
means of arriving at the correct sense of a Talmudic 
passage and of critically examining a decision as to 
its soundness. It was regarded as an end in itself; 

and more stress was laid on a display 
Tendency of cleverness than on the investigation 

Toward of truth. This new development of 
Casuistry, the pilpul is ascribed to Jacob Pol- 

lak, who lived at the end of the fif- 
teenth century and in the beginning of the sixteenth. 
This pilpul par excellence was pursued especially 
under two forms. In the one, two apparently widely 
divergent halakic themes were placed in juxtaposi- 
tion, and a logical connection between them was 
sought by means of ingeniousand artificial interpreta- 
tionsand explanations, but in such a way that the con- 
nective thread between them appeared only at the end 
of the treatise : this was the " derashah. " In the other 
form an apparently homogeneous theme was dis- 
sected into several parts, which were then again com- 
bined into an artistic whole: this was the so-called 
" hilluk " (analysis, dissection). The treatises follow- 
ing this method of the pilpul in both of these forms 
were called "hiddushim" or "novelhe" (original 
products) because thereby the most familiar objects 
were made to appear in a new 7 light. Various meth- 
ods of dialectics were originated by 
The means of which these hillukim and 

Hillukim. derashot were built up and developed. 

Every school had its own way of find- 
ing and disclosing the hiddushim; as examples the 
method of Nuremberg and that of Ratisbon may be 

General rules were laid down even for the applica- 
tion of this sophistic treatment to the Talmud, the 

codes, and the commentaries. The following rule, 
for instance, was formulated: "If any person raises 
an objection at the end of a sentence, he must at 
once be asked why he reserved his objection until 
the end of the argument, instead of speaking at the 
beginning of it. Then it must be proved by the ob- 
jector that if the objection had been raised at the 
beginning of the sentence a refutation of it might 
have been found, and that only if the objection is 
raised at the end of the discussion, can it be claimed 
that all possible refutations of the main argument 
have been removed and that such an argument be- 
comes valid " (comp. on this rule Jellinek in "Bikku- 
rim," pp. 3 et seq.). 

The adherents of this pilpulistic method did not, 
however, intend, by their ingenious disputations, to 
draw deductions for practical purposes. Its chief 
representatives, in order that they might not 
influence any one in practical matters, did not 
commit the results of their disputations or their 
hiddushim to writing. They intended merely to 
sharpen the minds of their pupils and to lead 
them to think independently; for this course prece- 
dent was to be found in the Talmud (Ber. 33b; 'Er. 
13a). To this end riddles were often given to the 
pupils; also questions that were manifestly absurd, 
but for which a clever pupil might find an answer. 
The earliest collection of such riddles is found in a 

work by Jacob b. Judah Landau, who 

Riddles of lived at the end of the fifteenth cen- 

Pilpul. tury, hence about the time when this 

new method of the pilpul was devel- 
oped; this collection is appended to his work 
"Agur" (cd. Piotrkow, 1884, pp. 72a et seq.). The 
following example may be quoted: "How was it 
that of two boys who were born on two successive 
days of the same year the one who was born a day 
later than the other attained first to the legal age of 
thirteen years required for becoming a bar miz wah ? " 
Answer: "The boys were born in a leap-year, which 
has two months of Adar. One boy was born on the 
29th of the first Adar; the other, on the first of the 
second Adar. The thirteenth year following, in 
which the boys became bar mizwah, was an ordi- 
nary year, with only one month of Adar. The 
younger boy, who was born on the 1st of Adar 
(Sheni), reached his legal age on the 1st of Adar in 
that year, while the elder boy, who was born on the 
29th of the first month of Adar, reached his legal age 
only on the 29th of Adar in the thirteenth year." 

Many prominent rabbinical authorities protested 
against this degenerated method of the pilpul {e.g., 
R. Liwa b. Bezaleel, MaHaRaL of Prague, Isaiah 
Horowitz [author of "Shene Luhot ha-Berit"], Jair 
Hayyim Bacharach in his rcsponsa "Haw wot Yair" 
[No. 123J, and other Polish and German rabbis; 
comp. Jellinek in "Bik^rim," i. 4, ii. 5); but their 
attacks upon it were futile. The method predomi- 
nated down to the nineteenth century, being culti- 
vated by the most gifted rabbis in all countries, al- 
though in a more or less modified form, according 
to the individuality of the rabbis in question and 
the dominant movements in the countries them- 
selves. It applies the same treatment to the Talmud 
as to the codes and the commentaries, and attempts 
to confirm or refute the view expressed in one com- 

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mcntary, or the rule laid down in one code, by 
means of ingenious and at times hair-splitting de- 
ductions drawn from an earlier commentary or code, 
or especially a remote Talmudic passage. Two ex- 
amples may be cited here: 

Maimonides ("Yad," *Edut, xviii. 2) lays down 
the principle that a witness can be convicted of hav- 
ing given false testimony and becomes amenable to 
punishment by proof of an alibi only when such 
proof does not disprove the facts set forth in his tes- 
timony. When the testimony of those who bring 
proof of the alibi refutes at the same time the testi- 
mony of the witness for the prosecution, then this is 
regarded merely as a contradiction between the two 
groups of witnesses, and the one group is not con- 
sidered to be refuted by the other. This principle 
is attacked by R. Hay vim Jonah (quoted by R. Jona- 
than EvbesehiUz in his " Urim we-Tummim," section 
"Tummirn," 38) through the combination of two Tal- 
mudic passages and a clever deduction therefrom. 
There is a Talmudic principle to the effect that the 
testimony of a witness in which he can not possibly be 
refuted by proof of an alibi is in itself invalid (Sanh. 
41a; B. K. 75b). This principle is perhaps based on 
the supposition that the witness, if not restrained by 
the fear of being convicted and punished, will more 
readily make false statements. Another Talmudic 
sentence says: •' A appears as witness against B 
and testifies that the latter committed an assault 
upon him (A) against his will. If another witness, 
C, can be found to corroborate this statement, then 
B is liable to be executed on the testimony of the 
two witnesses A and C" (Sanh. 9b). Now, if the 
statement of A should be refuted by a proof of 
alibi, then this proof would at the same time dis- 
prove the alleged commission of the crime; for, in 
the absence of A, B could not have committed the 
assault in question upon him. According to the 
principle laid down by Maimonides, the refutation 
of A's statement by proof of an alibi would be con- 
sidered merely as a contradiction and not as a refu- 
tation, and A would not be punished as a person 
who had been convicted. Hence A would not be 
in danger of being refuted and punished, and his 
testimony would, according to the principle (Sanh. 
41a), be invalid in itself. It therefore necessarily 
follows from the Talmudic sentence in question 
that the testimony of A is valid, and that the prin- 
ciple of Maimonides in regard to the nature of the 
proof of alibi is erroneous. EybeschUtz attempts to 
uphold the principle of Maimonides by quoting even 
more ingenious combinations. 

Another example, by Aryeh LOb b. Asher, one of 
the keenest casuists of the eighteenth century, may 

be given. He proves the correctness 
Examples of one view, and "oo ipso*' the in- 
of Method, correctness of another, from a Tal- 
mudic passage. The Talmud says 
(Pes. 4b): "The search for and removal of leav- 
ened matter on the eve of the Passover is merely a 
rabbinical prescription ; for it is sufficient, according 
to the command of the Torah, if merely in words or 
in thought the owner declares it to be destroyed and 
equal to the dust." Rashi says that the fact that 
such a declaration of the owner is sufficient is de- 
rived from an expression in Scripture. The tosafot, 

how r ever, claim that this can not be derived from the 
particular expression in Scripture, since the word 
there means " to remove " and not " to declare des- 
troyed." The mere declaration that it is destroyed 
("bittul ") is sufficient for the reason that thereby 
the owner gives up his rights of ownership, and 
the leavened matter is regarded as having no owner 
(" hefker "), and as food for which no one is responsi- 
ble, since at Passover only one's own leavened food 
may not be kept, while that of strangers may be 
kept. Although the formula which is sufficient 
to declare the leavened matter as destroyed is not 
sufficient to declare one's property as having no 
owner, yet, as R. Nissim Gerondi, adopting the 
view of the tosafot, explains, the right of owner- 
ship which one has in leavened matter on the eve 
of the Passover, even in the forenoon, is a very 
slight one; for, beginning with noon, such food may 
not be enjoyed ; hence all rights of ownership be- 
come illusory, and, in view of such slight right of 
ownership, a mere mental renunciation of this right 
suffices in order that the leavened matter be consid- 
ered as without an owner, R. Aryeh L5b (in his 
"Sha'agat Aryeh, Dine Hamez," § 77) attempts to 
prove the correctness of this tosafistic opinion as 
elaborated by R. Nissim, and to prove at the same 
time the incorrectness of Rashi 's view, from the fol- 
lowing Talmudic passage: "Pes. 6b says that from 
the hour of noon of the eve [of Passover] to the con- 
clusion of the feast the mere declaration of destruc- 
tion does not free a person from the responsibility 
of having leavened matter in his house; for since he 
is absolutely forbidden to enjoy it, he has no claim 
to the ownership, which he renounces by such a 
declaration." The Gemara (7a) endeavors to refute 
this assertion by the following baraita: " If a person, 
sitting in the sehoolhouse, remembers that he has 
leavened matter in his house, he shall mentally de- 
clare it to be destroyed, whether the day is a Sab- 
bath or the feast-day." Although the tasting of 
leavened matter is forbidden on the feast-day, yet 
the baraita says that the owner shall mentally de- 
clare it to be destroyed; hence it follows from the 
baraita that a declaration of destruction is effective 
even at a time when one may not enjoy the leavened 
food at all. R. Aha b. Jacob declares thereupon 
that the baraita deals with a case in which a person 
remembers that he has left some freshly kneaded 
dough at home which is not yet leavened, but may 

become leavened before the owner 

Further returns home in order to bake it. At 
Examples, the moment of his remembering it, 

however, thedoughisnot yet leavened, 
and hence may be used for all purposes; it is there- 
fore the property of the owner, who can mentally 
declare it to be destroj f ed, i.e., he may renounce his 
right of ownership. 

Thus far the Talmudic passage. The "Sha'agat 
Aryeh " then asks how the Gemara can conclude 
from the baraita, which says that during the feast 
even leavened matter may be mentally destroyed, 
that such a declaration of destruction is valid if one 
may not partake at all of such leavened food. This 
baraita perhaps agrees with the view of Jose the 
Galilean, who says that leavened matter may be 
enjoyed during the feast in any way excepting by 

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eating it. If the baraita adopts the point of view of 
Jose the Galilean, then it may declare correctly that 
leavened matter may be mentally destroyed on the 
feast-day also, since the owner may enjoy it in every 
way except as food and hence has the right of own- 
ership. When, however, the leavened matter may 
not be enjoyed, as is the ruling of the accepted hala- 
kah, no one has the right of owuership and, there- 
fore, of declaring the leavened matter in question des- 
troyed. But if one assumes with K. Nissim and the 
tosafot that a mental declaration of destruction is ef- 
ficacious because it is a form, though a weakened 
one, of the hefker declaration, then this weakened 
form of the hefker declaration is sufficient in the 
case of leavened matter only because the right of 
ownership in it is a weakened one. The right of 
ownership in the leavened matter is a weakened one 
only because through the interdiction against par- 
taking of such food this right becomes of itself illu- 
sory from a certain period, namely, from the hour 
of noon of the eve of the feast. If this view is as- 
sumed to be correct, then the baraita can not ex- 
press the view of Jose the Galilean; for, according 
to him, the right of owuership in the leavened mat- 
ter is a strong and inalienable one, since one may 
fully enjoy it even during the feast, with the excep- 
tion that one may not use it as food. But if the 
right of ownership is not a weakened one, then, ac- 
cording to the foregoing statements, a weakened 
form of the hefker declaration is not sufficient; hence 
the bittul declaration is insufficient for the purpose 
of declaring the leavened matter to be property be- 
longing to no one. The baraita, which refers to a 
mental declaration of destruction, can not therefore 
express R. Jose's view. 

The attempt of the Gemara to conclude from the 
baraita that a bittul declaration would be valid also 

in case a person might have no enjoy - 

Compliea- ment whatever from leavened matter 

tions. is therefore a correct one. According 

to Rashi's view, however, that the 
view of the bittul declaration being sufficient is de- 
rived from a certain expression in Scripture, this 
bittul declaration is valid according to R. Jose too; 
since it does not depend on the kind of right of 
ownership, the baraita passage quoted might ex- 
press the view of R. Jose, although it speaks of 
bittul. Hence the attempt of the Gemara to con- 
clude from the baraita that bittul would be valid 
even if one might not in any way enjoy the leavened 
matter, is erroneous; for the baraita, which refers 
to bittul during the feast, expresses R. Jose's 
view, that during the feast also leavened matter 
may be enjoyed in any way except by eating it. 
The method of the Gemara, therefore, proves the 
correctness of the tosafistic opinion, represented by 
R. Nissim, and the incorrectness of Rashi's opinion. 

This latter example is especially interesting be- 
cause it shows the weak foundation on which such a 
pilpulistic structure is reared. It rests on the highly 
improbable, if not false, assumption that the Gemara 
has carefully weighed and considered all points, and 
still can find no other refutation of its attempt to 
draw the desired conclusion from the baraita than 
that advanced by R. Aha b. Jacob. And the whole 
fabric falls to pieces with the assumption that the 

Gemara could have refuted its attempt by assuming 
that the baraita expressed the view of R. Jose, but 
that R. Aha b. Jacob thought to find a better refu- 
tation by assuming that the baraita expressed the 
view generally accepted, and not the single view of 
R. Jose, which was rejected by the majority of 

The method of the pilpul was not confined to the 
study of the Talmud and the codes; it was applied 
also in the field of Homiletics and in that of the 
Ilaggadah. A short haggadic sentence of the Tal- 
mud or Midrash was cleverly interpreted so as to af- 
ford material for an entire treatise on some halakic 

theme. Sometimes such a so-called 

Applied " curious midrash sentence " (" midrash 
Outside the peli ") was invented as a starting-point 

Talmud, for some ingenious explanation. The 

Biblical personages were made the 
mouthpieces of the principles of Maimonides accord- 
ing to Joseph Caro's interpretation, or of decisions 
by Isaac Alfasi according to It. Nissim Gerondi's 
interpretation. Abinielech is said to have been 
guided by a Talmudic principle in his behavior to- 
ward Abraham and Sarah. The antagonism between 
Joseph and his brothers is ascribed to differences of 
opinion regarding a halakic regulation. Pharaoh is 
said to have based his refusal to liberate Israel on 
certain Talmudic-rabbinic principles; and Hainan's 
wife, Zeresh, is said to have deduced from certain 
Talmudic teachings that her husband would not 
be able to maintain his position against the Jew 

Many homiletic works and commentaries on the 
books of the Bible, from the beginning of the six- 
teenth century down to the nineteenth, follow 
this method. Among these R. Judah Rosanes* 
"Parashat Derakim" and R.Jonathan Eybesehtitz's 
"Ya'arat Debash" are especially noteworthy for 
their acuteness and their clever combinations. On 
the special forms of pilpulistic methods in different 
countries and at different times, see Talmud. 

Bibliography: Gudemann, Die NeugestaUung des Rahbi- 
nerwesen* im Mittelalter, in Monat&tchrit'U 1864, pp. 42&- 
433; idem, Gesch. ill. 79-83; Jellinek, Le-Korot Seder ha- 
LimmiuU in Keller's Bikkurim. f. 1-26, ii. 1-19. 

e. c. J. Z. L. 

PILSEN : City in Bohemia. According to doc- 
uments of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, 
Jews were then living in Pilsen, and they had a syn- 
agogue and a cemetery. In the sixteenth century 
they were expelled, as were the Jews of most of the 
other cities of Bohemia. It was not until alter 1848 
that Jews were allowed to resettle in Pilsen. An 
increasing number of Jewish families from several 
villages in the neighborhood, where they formed 
large communities, then removed to the city; serv- 
ices were at first held in a rented chapel; and soon 
afterward the district rabbi of Pilsen, Ansehel Kaf- 
ka, took up his residence in the city. In 1859 the 
community, which then numbered seventy families, 
received its constitution, being one of the few newly 
formed congregations in Bohemia whose statutes 
were confirmed. In the same year a synagogue was 
dedicated, and a four-grade school was organized. 
In 1875 another synagogue was annexed to the 
older one; and in 1893 a handsome new building was 
erected at a cost of nearly 1,000,000 crowns. Heine- 

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maim Yogelstein was called to the rabbinate in 1867, 
and officiated until 1880, bis successors being Nathan 
Porges (1880-82), Jecbeskel Caro (1882-91), and 

Adolf Posnanski (since 1891). 

In 1904 the community numbered 3,170 persons, 
including 724 taxpayers, in a total population of 
68,079; and the annual budget amounted to 73,756 

Bibliography: Jahrhuch fllrdie Israditischen Oemeinden 
in B0hmen % 1S94 ; Union Kaltndtr, 1905. 

d. A. Kr. 


Y: Poetess of Spanish descent; lived in England 
in the early part of the eighteenth century, as did also 
Abraham Henriques Pimentel. She wrote "Es- 
pejo Fiel de Vidas " (London, 1720), laudator}' Span- 
ish verses on the Spanish metrical translation of the 
Psalms by the Marano poet Daniel Israel Lopez 

Bibliography : Kayserllnpr, Scphardim Romanische Poesien 
der Judcn in Spanien* pp. 251, 299. 

j. I. Co. 

PIN. See Text. 

PINA, DE : Portuguese Marano family some 
members of which were able to escape the Inquisi- 
tion and to confess Judaism openly in Amsterdam. 

Jacob (Manuel) de Pina: Spanish and Portu- 
guese poet; born of Marano parents in Lisbon in 
1616; went to Holland about 1660. In Amsterdam 
he openly accepted Judaism and took the name 
Jacob. In Lisbon he had published a "comedia 
burlesca " entitled " La Mayor Hazana de Carlos 
VI." and a volume of humorous poems entitled 
"Juguetes de la Ninez y Travesuras del Ingenio" 
(1650), which are the same as the "Chansas del In- 
genio y Dislatas de la Musa " mentioned in Wolf (see 
bibliography below). Jacob mourned in elegies the 
deaths of Saul Levi Morteiraand the martyrs Bernal 
and Lope de Vera; and in 1673 he celebrated in a 
Portuguese poem the verses of Joseph Penso, and 
in a Spanish one the translation of the psalms of Ja- 
cob Judah Leon. 

Bibliography : Barrios, Relation de los Poetas* p. 54 ; idem, 
Coro de las Musas* p. 505; idem, Goviemo Popular Jit- 
dayeo. p. 45; Barbosa Machado, Bibliotheca Lusitana* ill. 
341 ; Wolf, Bibl. Hebr. HI. 521, iv. 870: Kayserling, Sephar- 
dim> pp. 253 et scq.i idem, Bibl. Esp.~Port.-Jud. p. 89. 

s. M. K. 

Paul de Pina : Born after 1580 in Lisbon. Poet- 
ically gifted and inclined to religious fanaticism, he 
was about to become a monk, and for this purpose 
made a journey to Rome. One of his relatives rec- 
ommended him to the physician Filotheo Eliau (Eli- 
jah) Moxtalto in Leghorn, and the latter won the 
young man for the religion of his ancestors. Paul 
went to Brazil, and thence returned to Lisbon, where 
ne still continued to appear as a Christian. He did 
not fully embrace Judaism until after the Franciscan 
monk Diego de la Axumcjao had courageously suf- 
fered the death of a martyr for the Jewish faith. In 
1G04 Paul hastened to Amsterdam, where as a Jew lie 
was called Rohel Jeshumnand became prominent 
in the community. In honor of the synagogue Bet- 
Ya'akob he in 1624 composed in Portuguese poet- 
ical dialogues between the seven principal moun- 
tains of Palestine in praise of the faith of Israel. 

These dialogues were printed in Amsterdam in 1767, 
and they are reprinted in Kayserling, "Sephardim," 
p. 340. 

Bibliography : Gratz, Gesch. 3d ed., ix. 484, x. 4 ; Kayserling* 
Sephardim, p. 175. 

G. I. E. 

rabbi; flourished at the end of the seventeenth cen- 
tury; grandson of R. Zebi Hirsch, rabbi of Lublin. 
lie was rabbi of Pinczow and other places, and 
parnas at Cracow. Pinczow was the author of 
u Dammesek Eli'ezer " (Jesnitz, 1723), notes on the 
Masoretic text of the Bible, and "Mishnat Rabbi 
Eli'ezer" (Amsterdam, 1725), expositions of Tal- 
raudic haggadot. 

BiBLiOGRAPny : Fuenn, Kcneset YisraeU p. 131, Warsaw, 1886 ; 
Fiirst, Bibl. Jud. i. 2*3; Roest, Cat. Rosenthal. Bibl. 1. 317, 
ii. Supplement, No. 396; Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. No. 4993. 

11. K. A. S. W. 

SHON : Polish physician and Tahnudist of the 
eighteenth century. lie was the author of : "Meleket 
Mahashebet," part i., "Ir Heshbon" (Frank fort-on- 
tbe-Main, 1765), on arithmetic and algebra; part ii., 
"Berure ha-Middot" (Berlin, 1765), on geometry; 
"Ma'aneh Eliyahu " (Zolkiev, 1758), discussions on 
the Talmudic treatises Bezah and Baba Mezi'a, to- 
gether with some rabbinical decisions and responsa; 
"Nibhar me-Haruz" (1772), extracts from the book 
"Ha-'Ikkarim," reproduced in an easy style and in 
the form of a dialogue between teacher and pupil; 
"Had rat Eliyahu "(parti., Prague, 1786), homiletics; 
"She'elot u-Teshubot Ge'one BatraV (Sudilkov, 
1795), collected from the responsa of the later rabbis. 

Bibliography : Fuenn, Kenesct Yisrael, p. 118, Warsaw, 1880; 
Fiirst, Bibl. Jud. i. 237 ; Benjacob, Ozar ha~Se faring pp. 134, 
330, Wilna, 1880. 

H. R. A. S. W. 

PINCZOW, JOSEPH B. JACOB : Polish rabbi 
and author; flourished in Poland in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries; descendant of R. Jacob 
Pollak, son-in-law of R. Moses Krtimer, chief rabbi 
of Wilna, and pupil of Zebi Hirsch, rabbi of Lublin. 
Pinczow was at first head of a yeshibah at Wilna; 
he then became rabbi of Kosovi (1G88), and afterward 
of Seltzy, where he maintained a yeshibah. On ac- 
count of persecutions he in 1098 fled to Hamburg, 
where he remained till 1702, returning then to Seltzy. 
Here the plague broke out in 1706; and Pinczow, 
whose life had often been threatened on account of 
accusations made against the Jews, fled to Berlin. 
In this city he printed his book " Posh Yosef " (1717), 
on Talmudic halakot and haggadot, and arranged 
according to the order of the treatises. The rabbis 
who wrote the haskamot for this work, among whom 
was R. Jehiel Michael of Berlin, praise effusively 
Joseph's learning and piety. 

One of Pinczow 's sons, Moses, was rabbi of 

BiBLiOGRApnv : Fuenn, Kcneset YisraeU P. 493, Warsaw, 1886; 
idem, Kiwah IWcmauah* p. 96, Wilna, 1800; Fiirst, BibL 
Jud. ii. 114; Walden, Shem ha-Gedolim he-Hadash, i. 55, 
Warsaw, 1882. 

ii. k. A. S. W. 

PINE (PNIE), SAMSON : German translator 
of the fourteenth century. He was probably born 
at Peine, a city in the province of Hanover, whence 

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his name is derived and where a Jewish community 
had existed from very early times. Later he lived 
at Strasburg. Pine is chiefly remembered for the 
assistance lie rendered in 1336 to two German poets, 
Claus Wysse and Philip)) Kolin of Strasburg, who 
prepared a continuation of Wolfram von Esehen- 
bach's JUiddle High German poem "Parzival," after 
the French poem in the Kuedigervon Manesse man- 
uscript. In the parchment manuscript on which 
they wrote, these poets thank Pine for his services in 
translating the poem into German and in inventing 
rimes for it. Incidentally, Pine is thanked as a Jew 
by faith; the note is couched in metrical terms; 
and Pine is referred to twice in ten lines as a Jew. 

Bibliography: Giidemann, Gesch. ill. 159 et seq.: Karpeies, 
Geseh. dcr Jildischen Literattn\ p. TOO, Berlin, 1880; idem, 
Jewish Literature* pp. 35, 87, Philadelphia, 1895. 

D. A. M. F. 

scholar; born at Tysmenitz, Galicia, Dec. 21, 1805; 
died at Galatz, Rumania, Aug. G, 1870. After hav- 
ing studied Talmud and rabbinics in his native 
town, Pinelesat the age of fifteen removed toBrody, 
where he married. In his new home he began to 
study German and the secular sciences, particularly 
astronomy. As most of the Jews of Brody at that time 
were of the Hasidic type, Pineles was, on account 
of his scientific studies, accused of heresy, and was 
obliged to justify himself before his father-in-law. 
About 1853 Pineles went to Odessa, where he lived 
till the Crimean war (1855), and then he settled perma- 
nently at Galatz. 

Pineles wrote articles on various scientific sub- 
jects, particularly on astronomy and calendar-ma- 
king, in most of the Hebrew periodicals, and carried 
on in "Kerem Hemed" (vol. ix., letters 4, 5, 16, 17, 
18) and in " Ha-Maggid " a polemical correspondence 
on astronomical subjects with Hayyim Selig Slo- 
nimski. He acquired particular renown on account 
of his work "Darkah shel Torah " (Vienna, 1861), 
a critical interpretation, divided into 178 paragraphs, 
of several passages of the Talmud, particularly of 
the j\Iishnah, followed bv a treatise on calendar- 
making, including tables. Pineles says in the 
preface that the objects of the book are: (1) to jus- 
tify the oral law; (2) to defend the Mishnah against 
both its admirers and its detractors; and (3) to ex- 
plain several sayings of the earlier amoraim as well 
as difficult passages in the Jerusalem Talmud and 
some in Babli. The most noteworthy feature of this 
work is its defense of the Mishnah. Pineles explains 
several mishnayot differently from the Amoraim, 
who, as he declares, "very often distorted the Mish- 
nah." It is true that ttapoport, Hirsch Chajes, 
Naehman Krochmal, and other critics had similarly 
differed from the Amoraim; hut besides extending 
his criticism to the whole Mishnah, Ins predeces- 
sors having dealt with only a small portion of it, 
he also deviated from the amoraic interpretation 
even where it concerned the Halakah. This and 
his interpretation of the sayings of the earlier amo- 
raim, which differed from that of the later amoraim, 
called forth protests from some of his contempora- 
ries. Waldberg, a Rumanian scholar, published a 
polemical work entitled "Kakh Hi Darkah shel 
Torah" (Jassy, 1804-68), in refutation of Pineles' 

criticisms. It is evident, however, that Pineles did 
not act in an antireligious spirit; for, as stated 
above, he defended the Mishnah against its detract- 
ors like Schorr and Geiger, attacking the latter's 
"Ursehrift unci Uebersetzung der Bibel" (££ 144- 
107), to which Geiger replied in his " JUd. Zeit." (v. 
146 et seq.). 

UinuoniiAPiiY: Fu<*nn, Kcneset Yisrart, pp. 280 et seq.; Zelt- 
lltu Bill. l'ost-Mendds. pp. 208, 367, 402. 

s. M. Sel. 


English dramatist; born in London May 24, 1855; 
eldest son of John Daniel Pinero. He is descended 
from a Sephardic family. As a boy Pinero was 
articled to a firm of solicitors; and while in their 
oilice he absorbed much of that knowledge of human 
nature and human emotions which has made his 
productions famous. 

The law, however, had few attractions for him, 
and in 1874 he joined the company of the Theatre 
Royal, Edinburgh, being engaged as "general util- 
ity man." Two years later he went to'the Lyceum, 
London, where he gained invaluable experience in 
stagecraft under (Sir) Henry Irving. As an actor 
Pinero was not successful, and he soon turned his 
thoughts to play-writing. In 1877 he wrote in a sin- 
gle afternoon "Two Hundred a Year," which was 
produced at the Globe Theatre with some measure 
of success. Soon afterward " The Money Spinners," 
written with almost equal rapidity, was produced at 
the St. James's by John Hare and the Kendalls and 
made a great hit (1880). He then produced in ten 
days " Lords and Commons," following it with "The 
Magistrate," which made Pinero famous and estab- 
lished his reputation on a firm foundation. 

His literary activity has been remarkable and un- 
flagging; and "The Schoolmistress," "The Squire," 
"Dandy Dick" (written in three weeks), "The 
Rocket," and "The Hobby Horse " appeared succes- 
sively at short intervals. Then came his first real 
success, "Sweet Lavender," a play redolent with 
pathos and sweetness. Subsequently the influence 
of Ibsen began to make itself felt in Pinero's work, 
after he had written " The Profligate," " The Weaker 
Sex," "The Cabinet Minister," "The Times," 
"The Amazons," and "Lady Bountiful." "The 
Second Mrs. Tanqueray" was distinctly in Ibsen's 
manner; it was succeeded by "The Notorious Mrs. 
Ebbsmith," followed, in the same style, by "The 
Benefit of the Doubt" and "The Princess and the 

In 1898 Pinero, reverting to his earlier models, 
produced "Trelawuy of the Wells." He returned 
to the problem play in "The Gay Lord Quex " 
(1899), followed by " Iris " (1901) and " Letty " (1903), 
of the same class. 

Bibliography: The Critic, xxxril. 117: CasselVs Magazine* 
xxviii. .354 ; Pall Mall Magazine, July, liXK), p. 331; Who's 
Who, 1904. _ , r 

j. E. Ms. 

Shklov, government of Moghilef, Russia, in the 
eighteenth century; descendant of the families of 
Jacob Polak and Judah LSI) Puchowitzer. He was 
the author of * Tanna debe Eliyahu " (Zolkiev, 1753), 
on religion and ethics, divided into seven parts ac- 

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cording to the seven days of the week, with an ap- 
pendix containing discussions on Berakot, extracted 
from his unpublished book, "Tosafot Me'ore ha- 

Bibliography: Fuenn, Keneset Yterad. p. 118; Benjacob, 
Ozar ha-Sefarim, p. t>">7 ; Kaban, Anaf l Kz AboU P- xix., 
Cracow, l\m. 

ii. n. A - k- " • 

mudist and Hebraist; born at Rozhauy, govern- 
ment of Grodno, Sept. 26, 1342. He was the son of 
Noah Pines and the son-in-law of Shemariah Lurin, 
rabbi of Moghilef . After being educated in the local 
Hebrew school and in theyeshibah, where he distin- 
guished himself in Talmudic study, he became a 
merchant, giving lectures at the same time in the 
yeshibah of his native town. He was elected dele- 
gate to a conference held in London by the associa- 
tion Mazkereth Mosheh, for the establishment of 
charitable institutions in Palestine in commemora- 
tion of the name of Sir Moses Montefiore; in 1878 
he was sent to Jerusalem to establish and organize 
such institutions. He has lived since then in Pales- 
tine, working for the welfare of the Jewish commu- 
nity and interesting himself in the organization of 
Jewish colonies in Palestine. He was excommuni- 
cated by the Palestinian rabbis for interfering in 
communal affairs, but was sustained bj f the Euro- 
pean rabbinates. He is now (1905) director of the 
Ashkenazic hospital at Jerusalem and lecturer at 
several of the yeshibot. lie has written: "Yalde 
Ruhi " (part i., u Rib 'Ammi," Mayence, 1872, on the 
position of Israel among the nations; part ii., u IIa- 
Havim weha-Yahadnt," #>., 1873, on the relation of 
Judaism to the times); "Torat Mishpete Togarma " 
(in collaboration with his son-in-law David Yelliu; 
Jerusalem, 1887); "'Abodat ha-Adamah," on agri- 
culture in Palestine (Warsaw, 1891). He was one of 
the founders of the Orthodox biweekly journal 
"Ha-Lebanon" (1864), has edited and annotated 
Shershevsky's "'Olam Katan," on anatomy and 
chemistry (Jerusalem, 1886), and has contributed 
to numerous journals and magazines published in 

Bibliography: Eisenstadt, Dor Rahbanaw ive~Soferau\ ill. 
&5. Wilna, 1901: Zeitiin, Bibl. Post.-Mendels. p. 2t>7, I^ipsic, 
1891-95 ; Lippe, Asaf ha-Mazkir, i. 367, Vienna, 1881 ; Ha- 
Zefirah, 1880, No. 34. 
H. R. A. S. W. 

PINK AS, JACOB: German journalist and com- 
munal worker; born Aug., 1788; died in Cassel Dec. 
8, 18G1. He was the son of Salomon (1757-1837), a 
miniature-painter who had received special privi- 
leges exempting him from some of the Jewish dis- 
abilities (comp. "Sulamith," viii. 406), and had been 
granted the title of court painter to the Elector of 
Hesse-Cassel. Jacob Pinhas prepared to follow his 
father's calling; but the events of the Napoleonic 
era caused him to abandon the vocation of an artist 
for that of a journalist. When Cassel became the 
seat of the kingdom of Westphalia, the "Monitenr," 
its official organ, was published there, and Pinhas, 
being conversant witli both German and French, 
was appointed a member of its editorial staff. After 
the battle of Waterloo he obtained from tho elector 
license to publish the " Kassersehe Allgemeine Zei- 
tung," which he continued to edit till his death. He 

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advocated a constitutional form of government, and 
although this was considered revolutionary, his 
moderation aud his honesty gained for him the con- 
fidence of the government, which always sought his 
advice on Jewish matters. For his literary merits 
the University of Marburg in 1817 bestowed on him 
the degree of Ph.D. 

When, in 1821, the Jewish congregations of Hesse- 
Cassel received a new organization, being divided 
into four territories, Pinhas was appointed head of 
the u Vorsteheramt " of Niederhessen. As such he 
was instrumental in drawing up the law of Dec. 
23, 1823, on the organization of the Jews, and in 
establishing the normal school of Cassel. When, 
later on, the "Landesrabbinat" was organized, 
Pinhas was made its "secular member." He was 
instrumental also in the drafting of the law of Oct. 
31, 1833, which gave full citizenship to such Jews as 
were willing to abandon petty trading. This law 
was the first of its kind in Germany; but it remained 
to a great extent a dead letter owing to the reaction- 
ary policy of the government authorities. 

Theyear 1848 brought upon Pinhas all the unpopu- 
larity which was the lot of those known to be sympa- 
thizers with the government, even when, like Pinhas, 
they had always defended moderately liberal prin- 
ciples. During the period of reaction following the 
abrogation of the constitution in 1852, even Pinhas* 
enemies acknowledged the far-sightedness of the 
man whom they had bitterly opposed; and it was 
due to his influence that the reaction did not go as 
far as had been demanded. 

Of Pinhas' literary works, two volumes of the 
"Archives Diplomatiques Generates des Annees 
1848 et Suivantes" (Gottingen, 1854-55), which he 
published conjointly with Carl Murbard, deserve 

Bibliography : Allg. Zeit. des Jud. 1862, No. 2. 


PINHEIRO, MOSES : One of the most influ- 
ential pupils and followers of Shabbethai Zebi ; lived 
at Leghorn in the seventeenth century. He was 
held in high esteem on account of his acquirements; 
and, as the brother-in-law of Joseph Ergas, the well- 
known anti-Shabbethaian, he had great influence 
over the Jews of Leghorn, urging them to believe 
in Shabbethai. Even later (1667), when Shabbethai's 
apostasy was rumored, Pinheiro, in common with 
other adherents of the false Messiah, still clung to 
him through fear of being ridiculed as his dupes. 
Pinheiro was the teacher of Abraham Michael Car- 
doso, whom he initiated into the Cabala and into the 
mysteries of Shabbethaianism. 

Bibliography : Gratz, Gcsch. 3d ed., x. 190, 204, 225, 229, 312. 
j. M. Sel. 

PINKES (DpJD, from ff«vaf="a board," "a 
writing-tablet"): Term generally denoting the regis- 
ter of any Jewish community, in which the proceed- 
ings of and events relating to the community are 
recorded. The word originally denoted a writing- 
tablet, of which, according to the Mishnah (Kelim 
xxiv. 7), there were three kinds: (1) a tablet covered 
with dust, used chiefly for marking thereon arith- 
metical calculations, and large enough to serve as a 
seat; (2) one covered with a layer of wax, the wri- 

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ting upon which was executed with a stylet; and 
(3) a smooth tablet written upon with ink. Later 
the term was applied to a book composed of such 
tablets (comp. Shab. xii. 4-5), and afterward to any 
book. The term "pinkes" as denoting a register 
occurs in the Mishnah : " The pin^es is open, and the 
hand writes" (Ab. iii. 16). See Council of Fouk 
Lands; Takkanait. 
e. c. M. Sel. 

PINKHOF, HERMAN: Dutch physician; 
born at Rotterdam May 10, 1863; educated at the 
University of Leyden (M.D. 1886). He established 
himself as a physician in Amsterdam. Since 1893 
he has been collaborator on the "Ncderlandsch Tijd- 
schrift van Geneeskunde," for medical ethics and 
professional interests. In 1895 he founded the Soci- 
ety for the Promotion of the Interests of Judaism in 
Holland, and since 1898 he has been president of the 
society formed for the purpose of combating the 
Neo-Malthusiun principles, of which he is one of (lie 
most vigorous opponents. He has written many 
articles on this subject. 

In 1890 he published "Abraham Kashlari: over 
Pestachtige Koortsen(Werken van het Genootscbap 
voor Natuur Genees en Heelkunde)." 

Pinkhof is a member of the curatorium of Dr. 
Dinner's Theological Seminary of Amsterdam. 

s. E. Sl. 

PINNE : City in the province of Posen, Ger- 
many. Jews are first mentioned there in 1553, in 
connection with a "privilegium " issued by the lord 
of the manor restricting them in the purchase of 
leather. In 1624 Juspa Pinner, and from 1631 to 
1652 his son-in-law Leiser Pinner, are mentioned as 
holding various honorary offices in Posen. The 
community of Pinne, owing to the practise of the 
Polish kings and nobles of endowing churches with 
sums exacted from the Jews, became heavily in- 
debted to Catholic churches and hospitals. A di- 
vorce case in Pinne in 1764 created a sensation. 
After the decree had been granted, the man con- 
cerned asserted that he had not been the woman's 
husband, but was another person from Przemysl. 
This statement led to lengthy discussions, which are 
given in two contemporary collections of responsa, 
the controversy continuing until two authorities 
finally declared the divorce to be illegal. The Jew- 
ish tailors of Pinne originally belonged to the Chris- 
tian tailors' gild, which had received its charter 
from the lord of the manor; but subsequently they 
formed a gild of their own, which still existed in 

A "privilegium " was given to the community by 
the lord of the manor under date of June 10, 1789; 
but the document refers to rights which had been 
granted before that time. Its thirty-four articles 
may be summarized as follows: The rabbi, hazzan, 
teachers, and the cemetery are exempt from taxation 
by the lord; there shall be unrestricted rights of 
trade ; butchers may sell only in the Jews' street, and 
shall pay two stone of tallow to the castle; admis- 
sion of foreign Jews may be granted only by the 
elders of the community, who shall be elected annu- 
ally at the Passover ; the rabbi shall officiate as lower 
judge, while the lord of the manor shall be the su- 

perior judge; if one party to a case is a Christian, 
the elders of the Jews shall act as lower judges; 
criminal cases may be brought only before the court 
of the castle; Jews may not acquire real estate out- 
side of the ghetto; a tax of 600 gulden a year shall 
be paid to the castle; Jews may not leave their 
houses during Cat holic processions ; assaults on Jews 
by Christians shall be severely punished. 

When the city came under Prussian rule in 1793 
it contained 39 Jewish houses in a total of 129, and 
219 Jews in a population of 789. There were 86 
Jewish families in the town in 1795; more than 350 
Jews in 1827; 847 in 1857; 672 in 1871; and 376 in 
1895. The reader's prayer-book contains a prayer for 
Napoleon I. dating from the time when Pinne be- 
longed to the duchy of Warsaw (1807-15). 

Since the second half of the eighteenth century 
the following rabbis have officiated: 

Isaac b. Moses; Solomon, b. Isaac; Naphtali b. 
Aaron; Mordecai b. Michael Moses (d. 183* or 1824); 
Dob Bar b. Schrag-g-a Philippsthal (until 1832), author 
of "Nahale Debash": Isaac b. Jacob Lewy (until 1834); 
Aryeh lib bush Landsbergr (1834 -39): Joseph Hayyim 
Caro ; Jacob Mattithlah Munk 0852-55), author of 
* k *Et Sefod"; Oberdorfer (1857-62); Abraham Isaiah 
Caro (1864-88), author of an extract in Mecklenburg's " Ha-Ke- 
tab weha-Kabbalab " ; Solomon Goldschmidt (1889-90), 
author of "Gescb. der Juden in England": Moses Schle- 
sing-er (1890-96), author of "Pas Aramalscbe Verbinn fin Je- 
rusalennschen Talmud," and editor of Aaron ha-Kohen of 
Lund's "Orhot Hayyim"; and Louis Lewin (since 1897), 
author of "R. Simon b. Jochai," "Gesch. der Juden in Inow- 
razlaw," "Judenverfolgungen fm Zweit^n Scbwediscb-Pol- 
nisehen Kriege," and "Geseb. der Juden in Lissa." 

The community has produced a number of Jewish 
scholars, among whom may be mentioned Gustav 
Gottheil and E. M. Pinner. 

Bibliography: Louis Lewin, Axis der Vergangenheit der 
Jildisehen Gemeinde zu Pinne* Pinne. 1903; manuscripts 
in the archives of the Jewish congregation of Posen. 

i). L. Lew. 

PINNER, ADOLF : German chemist ; born at 
Wronke, Posen, Germany, Aug. 31, 1842; educated 
at the Jewish Theological Seminary at Breslau and 
at the University of Berlin (Doctor of Chemistry, 
1867). In 1871 he became privat-docent at the Uni- 
versity of Berlin. In 1873 he became assistant pro- 
fessor of chemistry at the University of Berlin, and in 
1874 professor of chemistry at the veterinary college 
of that city. In 1884 he was appointed a member 
of the German patent office, and in the following 
year, of the technical division of the Prussian De- 
partment of Commerce. He has received the title 
"Geheimer Regierungsrath." 

Pinner has contributed many essays to the profes- 
sional journals, among winch may be mentioned: 
" Darstcllungund Untersuchungdes Butylchlorals," 
in " Annalen der Chemie," clxxix., and in "Beriehte 
der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft," 1870-77; 
"Ueber Imidoftther," in "Annalen," cexevii. and 
crxeviii., also in "Beriehte," 1877-97 (which essays 
he combined in book form under the title a Ueber 
Imidoftther und Dessen Derivate"); "Die Conden- 
sation des Acetons," in " Beriehte," 1881-83 ; " Ueber 
Hydantoie und Urazine," in "Beriehte," 1887-89; 
"Ueber Nieotin," in "Beriehte," 1891-95, and in 
44 Archi v der Pharmazie," ccxxxi,, cexxxiii. ; 
"Ueber Pilocarpin," in "Beriehte," 1900-8. 

He is also the author of "Gesetze der Naturer- 

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scheiuuugcti " and of " Repetitorium cler Chemie." 
in two volumes, on organic and inorganic chemis- 
try respectively (11th ed., Berlin, 1902). The latter 
work is well known to all German students of 
chemistry, and it has been translated into English, 

Russian, and Japanese. 
8. F. T. II. 

ANDER STJSSKIND : German Talmudist and 
archeologist ; born in Pinnu about 1800 ; died in Berlin 
1880. His tirst work, bearing the pretentious title 
of " Kizzur Talmud Yerushalmi we-Talmud Babli " 
= u Compendium of the Jerusalem Talmud and of 
the Babylonian Talmud" (Berlin, 1831), contained 
specimens of translation of both Talmuds and an at- 
tempted biography of the tanna Simeon b. Yohai. 
It was published as the forerunner of his proposed 
translation of the Talmud ; and his travels through 
German}', France, England, Italy, Turkey, and Rus- 
sia were probably undertaken for the purpose of 
furthering that plan. Pinner went from Constanti- 
nople to St. Petersburg in 1837, and secured the per- 
mission of Emperor Nicholas I. to dedicate the trans- 
lation to him. It was to have been completed in 
twenty-eight folio volumes; but only one appeared, 
the tractate Berakot, which was published five years 
later (Berlin, 1842). This is a splendidly printed 
book, dedicated to the emperor, who also heads the 
list of subscribers. The latter includes the names 
of the kings of Prussia, Holland, Belgium, and Den- 
mark, and of about twenty-five dukes, princes, arch- 
bishops, and bishops. The volume contains appro- 
bations from several rabbis, none of whom lived in 
Russia, in which country only representatives of 
Haskalak, like Abraham Stern, Isaac Baer Levin- 
sohn, Jacob Tugcndhold of Warsaw, and Abraham 
b. Joseph Sack of Wilna, favored the undertaking. 
Their approval was given in signed eulogies, which 
follow the approbations of the non-Russian rabbis. 

Three years after the appearance of the tractate 
Berakot, Pinner, who had apparently remained in 
Russia in the hope of being able to continue the 
publication of the translation, gave to the world his 
famous u Prospectus der Odessaer Gesellschaft fur 
Geschichte und Altherthum GehOrenden Acltes- 
ten Hebriiischen und Rabbinischen Manuscripte " 
(Odessa, 1845), which for the first time brought to 
the attention of the world the archeological dis- 
coveries (mostly spurious) of Abraham Fiukovicii. 
The publication of facsimiles, on which Simlmh 
Pinsker and other investigators founded their the- 
ories on "nikkud" (punctuation), was, according to 
Geiger (" Wiss. Zeit. Jtid. Thcol." vi. 109), Pinner's 
only service to science. His own investigations, like 
his translations, were considered by competent crit- 
ics to be of no value. 

Other works of Pinner were: "Was Ilaben die 
Israeliten in Sachsen zu llofTen und Was 1st Ihnen 
zu Wilnsehen?" Leipsie, 1833; "Offenes Scnd- 
schreiben an die Nationen Europa's und an die Stiinde 
Norwegens," Berlin, 1848; " Denksehrift an die 
Juden Preussens, Besonders ftir die Juden Berlins," 
ib. 185G, on the political and religious condition of 
the Jews; " Kol Kore, Aufruf an die Orthodo.xen 
Rabbinen Europa's und die Nothwendigkeit einer 
Streng Orthodo.xen, Allgemeinen Rabbiner-Ver- 

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sammlung Dargestellt," ib. 1858. He is, besides, sup- 
posed to be the author of an incomplete catalogue 
of Hebrew 1 ' books and manuscripts (see Roest, "Cat. 
Rosenthal. Bibl."s.e.). 

Bibliography: Ally. Zeit. desJud. vol. i.. No. 1; Bischoff, 
Kritinche Geschichte der 'Talmud-UcbcrtietzanQeii* p. 68, 
Frankfort-on-tbe-Main, 1*99; Fiirst, BihlJud. iii.103; A'e- 
rcm Itemed, ii. 174, 194: Orient, Lit. 1847, Nos. 1-2; Mc- 
Clintock and Strong, Cyc. xii. 7?t>; Steinschneider. Cat. Bodl, 
s.v.; Zeitlin, liibl. Puat-Mi ndcte. pp. 2GS-209. 

s. P. Wi. 

PINSK : Russian city in the government of 
Minsk, Russia. There were Jews in Pinsk prior to 
the sixteenth century, and there may have been an or- 
ganized community there at the time of the expul- 
sion of the Jews from Lithuania in 1495; but the 
first mention of the Jewish community there in Rus- 
sian-Lithuanian documents dates back to 1506. On 
Aug. 9 of that year the owner of Pinsk, Prince Feo- 
dor Ivanovich Yaroslavich, in his own name and in 
that of his wife, Princess Yelena, granted to the Jew- 
ish community of Pinsk, at the request of Ycsko Mey- 
erovich, Pesakh Yesofovich, and Abram Ryzhkevich, 

and of other Jews of Pinsk, two par- 
Early eels of land for a house of prayer and 

Jewish. a cemetery, and confirmed all the 

Settlers, rights and privileges given to the 

Jews of Lithuania bylviug Alexander 
Jagellon. This grant to the Jews of Pinsk was con- 
firmed by Queen Bona on Aug. 18, 1533. From 1506 
until the end of the sixteenth centurv the Jews are 
frequently mentioned in various documents. In 
1514 they were included in the confirmation of privi- 
leges granted to the Jews of Lithuania by King 
Sigismund, whereby they were freed from special 
military duties and taxes and placed on an equality, 
in these respects, with the other inhabitants of the 
land, while they were also exempted from direct 
military service. They were included among the 
Jewish communities of Lithuania upon which a tax 
of 1,000 kop groschen was imposed by the king in 
1529, the entire sum to«be subject to a pro rata con- 
tribution determined upon by the communities. 
From other documents it is evident that members of 
the local Jewish community were prominent as tra- 
ders in the market-place, also as landowners, lease- 
holders, and farmers of taxes. In a document of 
March 27, 1522, reference is made to the fact that 
Lezer Markovich and Avram Volchkovich owned 
stores in the market-place near the castle. In an- 
other document, dated 1533, Avram Markovich was 
awarded by the city court the possession of the estate 
of Boyar Fedka Volodkevich, who had mortgaged it 
to Avram's father, 51 ark Yeskovich. Still other 
documents show that in 1540 Aaron Ilieh Khoroshenki 
of Grodno inherited some property in Pinsk, and 
that in 1542 Queen Bona confirmed the Jews Kher- 
son and Nahum Abramovich in the possession of the 
estate, in the village of Krainoviehi, waywodeship 
of Pinsk, which they had inherited from their father, 
Abram Rvzhkevich. 

Abram Ryzhkevich was a prominent member of 
the Jewish community at the beginning of the six- 
teenth century, and was active in communal work. 
He was a favorite of Prince Feodor Yaroslavich, who 
presented him with the estate in question with all 
its dependencies and serfs. The last-named were 

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relieved from the paymeut of any crown taxes, ami 
were to serve A brain Ryzhkevich exclusively, lie 
and liis childreu were regarded as boyars, and shared 
the privileges and duties of that class. 

Pcsakh Yesofovich, mentioned with Yesko Mcyer- 
ovich and Abram Ryzhkevich in the grant to the 
Jewish community of 1506, took an important part 
iu local affairs. Like Abram Ryzhkevich, he was in- 
timate with Prince Feodor Yarosla- 
Pesakh Ye- vich, w r as presented by tlie prince with 
sofovich. a mansion in the town of Piusk, and 

was exempted at the same time from 
the paymeut of any taxes or the rendering of local 
services, with the exception of participation in the 
repairing of the city w T alls. The possession of this 
mansion w T as confirmed by Queen Bona to Pesakh's 
son Nahum in 1550, he having purchased it from 
Ueutz Misevich, to whom the property was sold 
by Valium's father. Inheriting their father's in- 
fluence, Nahum aud his brother Israel played im- 
portant roles as merchants and leaseholders. Thus 
on June 23, 1550, they, together with Goshka Mosh- 
kevieh, were awarded by Queen Itona the lease of 
the customs and inns of Pinsk, Kletzk, and Goro- 
detzk for a term of three years, and had the lease 
renewed iu 1553 for a further term of three years, 
on payment of 875 kop groschen and of 25 stones of 
wax. In the same year these leaseholders are men- 
tioned in a characteristic lawsuit. There was an 
old custom, known as "kanuny," on the strength of 
which the archbishop was entitled to brew mead 
ami beer six times aunually without payment of 
taxes. The Pesakhovich family evidently refused 
to recognize the validity of this privilege and en- 
deavored to collect the taxes. The case was carried 
to the courts, but the bishop being unable to show 
any documents iu support of his claim, aud admit- 
ting that it was merely based on custom, the queen 
decided that the legal validity of the custom should 
not be recognized ; but since the income of the 
"kanuny" was collected for the benefit of the 
Church the tax-farmers were required to give an- 
nually to the archbishop 9 stones of wax for can- 
dles, "not as a tax, but merely as a mark of our 
kindly intention toward God's churches." 

The Pesakhovich family continues to be mentioned 
prominently in a large number of documents, some 
of them dated in the late sixties of the sixteenth 
century. Thus in a document of Slay 19, 1555, 
Nahum Pesakhovich, as representative of all the 
Jews in the grand duchy of Lithuania, lodged a 
complaint with the king against the magistrate and 
burghers of Kiev because, contrary to the old-estab- 
lished custom, they had prohibited the 
Jews from coming to Kiev for trading 
in the city stores, and compelled them 
to stop at, and to sell their wares in, 
the city market receutly erected by the 
burghers. Postponing his final decision until his 
return to Poland, the king granted the Jews the 
right to carry on trade as theretofore. 

In a document of Oct. 31, 1558, it is stated that 
the customs, inns, breweries, and ferries of Pinsk, 
which had been leased to Nahum and Israel Pesak- 
hovich for 450 kop groschen, were now awarded to 
Khaim Rubinovich for the annual sum of 550 gro- 

The Pe- 

schen. This indicates that the Pesakhovich family 
was yielding to the competition of younger men. 

An interesting light is shed on contemporary con- 
ditions by a document dated Dec. 12, 1561. This 
contains the complaint of Nahum Pesakhovich 
against Grigori Griehin, the estate-owner in the 
district of Pinsk, who had mortgaged to him, to 
secure a debt of S3 kop groschen and of 5 pails of 
unfermented mead, six of his men in the village 
of Poryechye, but had given him only five men. 
The men thus mortgaged to Nahum Pesakhovich 
were each compelled to pay aunually to the hitter 
20 groschen, one barrel of oats, and a load of hay; 
they served him one day in every seven, and assisted 
him at harvest-time. This would indicate that the 
Jews, like the boyars, commanded the services of 
the serfs, and could hold them under mortgage. 
In another document, dated 1505, Nahum Pesakho- 
vich informed the authorities that he had lost in the 
house of the burgher Kimich 10 kop groschen and 
a case containing his seal with his coat of arms. 

In 1551 Pinsk is mentioned among the communi- 
ties whose Jews were freed from the payment of the 
special tax called "serebschizna." In 1552-55 the 
starostof Pinsk took a census of the district in order 
to ascertain the value of property which was held in 
the district of Queen Bona. In the data thus secured 
the Jewish house-owners in Pinsk and the Jewish 
landowners in its vicinity are mentioned. It ap- 
pears from this census that Jews owned property 
and lived on the following streets: Dymiskovskaya 
(along the river), Stephanovskayaulitza (beyond the 
Troitzki bridge), Vclikaya ulitza from the Spasskiya 

gates, Kovalskaya, Grodetz, and Zhi- 

The Pinsk dovskaya ulitzi, and the street near the 

Jewry in Spass Church. The largest and most 

1555. prominent Jewish property-owners in 

Pinsk and vicinity were the members 
of the Pesakhovich family — Nahum, Mariana, Israel, 
Kusko, Rakhval (probably Jerahmeel), Mosko, and 
Lezer Nahumovich ; other prominent property- 
owners were Ilia Moiseyevich, Nosko Moiseyevich, 
Abram Markovich, and Lezer Markovieh. The syn- 
agogue and the house of the cantor were situated 
in the Zhidovskaya ulitza. Jewish settlements near 
the village of Kustzieh are mentioned. 

A number of documents dated 1561 refer in vari- 
ous connections to the Jews of Pinsk. Thus one of 
March 10, 1561, contains a complaint of Pan Andrei 
Okhrenski, representative of Prince Nikolai Radzi- 
will, and of the Jew Mikhel against Matvei Voitek- 
hovich, estate-owner in the district of Piusk; the 
last-named had sent a number of his men to the 
potash-works belonging to Prince Radziwill and 
managed by the Jew above-mentioned. These men 
attacked the works, damaging the premises, driving 
olT the laborers, and committing many thefts. 

By a decree promulgated May 2, 1561, King Sigis- 
mund August appointed Stauislav Dovorino as su- 
perior judge of Piusk and Kobrin. and placed all 
the Jews of Pinsk and of the neighboring villages 
under his jurisdiction, and their associates were 
ordered to turn over the magazines and stores to the 
magistrate and burghers of Pinsk. In August of the 
same year the salt monopoly of Piusk was awarded 
to the Jews Khemiya and Abram Rubinovich. 

X.— 4 

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But on Dec. 25, 1564, the leases were awarded to 
the Jews Vaska Medenchich and Gershon Avramo- 
vich, who offered the king 20 kop groschen more 
than was paid by the Christian merchants. In the 
following year the income of Pinsk was leased to 
the Jew David Shmerlevich. 

In the census of Pinsk taken again in 1566, Jew- 
ish house-owners are found on streets not mentioned 
in the previous census; among these were the Stara, 
Lyshkovska, and Sochivchinskaya ulitzy. Among 
the house-owners not previously mentioned were 
Zelman, doctor (" doctor," meaning " rabbi " or " day- 
van "), MeTr Moisevevla, doctor, Novach, doctor, 
and others. The Pesakhovich family was still 
prominent among the landowners. 

In a circular letter of 1578 King Stephen Bathori 
informed the Jews of the town and district of Pinsk 
that because of their failure to pay their taxes in 
gold, and because of their indebtedness, he would 

send to them the nobleman Mikolai 

Under Ste- Kindei with instructions to collect the 

phen sum due. By an order of Jan. 20, 1581, 

Bathori. King Stephen Bathori granted the 

Magdeburg Rights to the city of 
Pinsk. This provided that Jews who had recentlj* 
acquired houses in the town were to pay the same 
taxes as the Christian householders. Thenceforward, 
however, the Jews were forbidden, under penalty 
of confiscation, to buy houses or to acquire them in 
any other way. Elsewhere in the same document the 
citizens of Pinsk are given permission to build a 
town hall in the market-place, and for this purpose 
the Jewish shops were to be torn down. The grant 
of the Magdeburg Rights was subsequently con- 
firmed by Sigismund 111.(1589-1623), LadislausIV. 
(1633), and John Casimir (1650). 

In spite of the growing competition of the 
Christian merchants, the Jews must have carried on 
a considerable import and export trade, as is shown 
bv the custom-house records of Brest-Litovsk. 
Among those who exported goods from Pinsk to 
Lublin in 1583 Levko Bendetovich is mentioned (wax 
and skins), and among the importers was one Hay- 
vim Itzkhakovich (steel, cloth, iron, scythes, prunes, 
onion-seed, and girdles). Abraham Zroilevich im- 
ported caps, Hungarian knives, velvet girdles, linen 
from Glogau, nuts, prunes, lead, nails, needles, 
pins and ribbons. Abraham Meyerovieh imported 
wine. Other importers were A bra in Yaknovich, 
Yatzko Nosanovich, Yakub Aronovich, and Hilel 
and Rubin Lazarevich. 

About 1020 the Lithuanian Council wps organ- 
ized, of which Pinsk, with Brest-Litovsk and Grod- 
no, became a part. In 1640 the Jews Jacob Rabin- 
ovicli and Mordecai-Shmoilo Izavelevich applied in 
their own name, and in the names of all the Jews 
then living on church lands, to Pakhomi Oianski, 
the Bishop of Pinsk and Turov, for permission (o 
remit all taxes directly to him instead of to the par- 
ish priests. Complying with this request, the 
bishop reaffirmed the rights previously granted to 
tin 1 Jews; they were at liberty to build houses on 
their lots, to rent them to newly arrived people, to 
build inns, breweries, etc. 

Toward the middle of the seventeenth century the 
Jews of Pinsk began to feel more and more the ani- 

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mosity of their Christian neighbors; and this was 
true also of other Jewish communities. In 1647 

"Lady" Deborah Lezerovuand her son 

Increasing "Sir" Yakub Lezerovich complained 

Anti- to the magistrates that their grain and 

Jewish hay had been set on tire by peasants. 

Feeling. In the following year numerous com- 
plaints of attack, robbery, plunder, 
and arson were reported by the local Jews. Rebel- 
lion was in the air, and with the other Jewish com- 
munities in Lithuania that of Pinsk felt the cruelties 
of the advancing Cossacks, who killed in great num- 
bers the poorer Jews who were not able to escape. 
Prince Radziwill, who hastened to the relief of the 
city, finding the rioters there, set it on fire and 
destroyed it. 

Hannover, in " Yewen Mezulah," relates that the 
Jews who remained in Pinsk and those who were 
found on the roads or in the suburbs of that city 
were all killed by the Cossacks, lie remarks also 
that when Radziwill set fire to the town, many of 
the Cossacks cudeavored to escape by boats and 
were drowned in the river, while others were killed 
or burned by the Lithuanian soldiers. Mei'r ben 
Samuel, in "Zuk ha-'Ittim," says that the Jews of 
Pinsk were delivered by the townspeople (i.e., the 
Greek Orthodox) to the Cossacks, who massacred 

Evidently Jews had again appeared in Pinsk by 
1651, for the rural judge Dadzibog Markeisch, in 
his will, reminds his wife of his debt of 300 gulden 
to the Pinsk Jew Gosher Abramovich, of which he 
had already repaid 100 gulden and 110 thalers, and 
asks her to pay the remainder. In 1662 the Jews of 
Pinsk were relieved by John Casimir of the head- 
tax, which they were unable to pay on account of 
their impoverished condition. On April 11, 1665, 
the heirs of the Jew Nathan Lezerovicli were 
awarded by the court their claim against Pana 
Terletzkava for 69,209 zlot. For her refusal to al- 
low the collection of the sum as ordered bj r the 
court she was expelled from the country. In 1665, 
after the country had been ruined bj r the enemy, the 
Jewish community of Pinsk paid its proportion of 
special taxation for the benefit of the nobility. 

Beyond the fact that Hasidism developed in the 
suburb of Karlin (see Aaron ben Jacob of Kar- 
wx), little is known about the history of the Pinsk 
community in the eighteenth century; but since the 
first quarter of the nineteenth century the Jews 
there have taken an active part in the development 
of the ex port and import trade, especially with Kiev, 
Krementchug, and Yekaterinoslav, with which it is 
connected by a steamship line on the Dnieper. 
Many of the members of t he Jewish community of 
Pinsk removed to the newly opened South-Russian 
province and became active members of the various 
communities there. In the last quarter of the nine- 
teenth century prominent Jewish citizens of Pinsk 

developed to a considerable extent 

In the its industries, in which thousands of 

Nineteenth Jewish workers now find steady oc- 

Century. cupation. They have established 

chemical-factories, sawmills, a match- 
factory (400 Jewish workers, producing 10,000,000 
boxesofmatchesperannum; established by L.IIirsch- 

by Microsoft ® 




man in 1900), shoe-nail factory (200 Jewish work- 
ers), candle-factory, cork-factory, parquet-factory, 
brewery, and tobacco-factories (with a total of bOO 
Jewish workers). The Luriesand Levineshave been 
especially active in that direction. Another cork- 
factory, owned by a Christian, employs 150 Jewish 
workers; and the shipyards (owned by a French- 
man), in which large steamers and sailing vessels are 
built, also employs a few hundred Jews. Besides 
these, there are many Jewish artisans in Pinsk who are 
occupied as nailsmiths, founders, workers in brass, 
and tanners; in soap-manufactories, small brew- 
erics, violin-string factories, the molasses- factory, 
the flaxseed -oil factory, and the tallit-factory. In 
all these the Jewish Sabbath and holy days are 
strictly observed. Many Jewish laborers are em- 
ployed on the docks of Pinsk and as skilled boatmen. 
Pinsk lias become one of the chief centers of Jew- 
ish industry in northwest Russia. The total out- 
put of its Jewish factories is valued at two and a 
half million rubles. The pay of working men per 
week in the factories is: 




3 to 7 rubles. 

3 to 5 " 


6 to 18 " 

6 lo 16 " 

1 .20 to 2.50 rubles. 

Watch -factories 

Caudle " 

1.20 to 2.50 kt 

Since 1890 there have been technical classes connected 
with the Pinsk Talmud Torah, where the boys learn 
the trades of locksmiths, carpenters, etc., and technol- 
ogy, natural history, and drawing. 

Bibliography: Eegestu i Nadpisi; Russko-Ycvreiski Ar- 
khiv. vols. i. and ii.; Voskhod, Oct., 15)01, p. 23; Welt, 1898, 
No. 11. 

J. G. L. 

The first rabbi mentioned in connection with Pinsk 
is R. Simson. With R. Solomon Luria (MallRaSh) 
and R. Mordecai of Tiktin, he was chosen, in 1508, 
to adjudicate the controversy relating to the asso- 
ciation of Podlasye. His successors were : R. Napb- 
tali, son of R. Isaac Katz (removed to Lublin; d. 
1G50); R. Moses, son of R. Israel Jacob (c. 1G73; 
his name occurs in the"Sha*are Shamayim"); R. 
Naphtali, son of R. Isaac Ginsburg (d. 1G87); R. 
Samuel Halpern, son of R. Isaac Hal pern (d. 1703; 
mentioned in "Dibre Hakamim," 1691); R. Isaac 
Meir, son of R. Jonah TVomini ; R. Samuel, son of 
R. Naphtali llerz Ginzburg (mentioned in u 'Am- 
mnde 'Olam," Amsterdam, 1713); R. Asher Ginz- 
burg (mentioned in the preface to "Ga'on Lewi"); 

R. Israel Isher, son of R. Abraham 

Rabbis. Mamri (mentioned in Tanna debe 

Eliyahu, 1747); R. Raphael, son of 
R. Jekuthiel Siissel (1708 to 1773; d. 1804); R. 
Abraham, son of R. Solomon (mentioned in the 
"Netib ha-Yashar"); R. Levy Isaac; R. Abigdor 
(had a controversy with the Hasidim on the ques- 
tion of giving precedence in prayers to "llodu" 
over "Baruk she-Amar"; the question was sub- 
mitted for settlement to Emperor Paul L: "Vosk- 
hod," 1893,).); R.Joshua, son of Shalom (Phine- 
has Michael, "Masseket Nazir," Preface); R. Hay- 
yim ha-Kohen Rapoport (resigned in 1825 lo go to 
Jerusalem; d. 1840); Aaron of Pinsk (author of 

"Tosefot Aharon," Konigsberg, 1858; d. 1842); R. 
Mordecai Saekheim (1843 to his death in 1853); R. 
Eleazar Moses Hurwitz (I860 to his death in 1895). 

Among those members of the community of 
Pinsk who achieved distinction were the following: 
R. Elijah, sou of R. Moses ("Kiryah Ne'emanah," 
p. 125); R. Moses Goldes, grandson of the author of 
"Tola'at Ya'ukob "; R. Kalouymus Kalman Ginz- 
burg (president of the community); R. Jonathan 
('* Dibre Rah Meshallem "); R. Solomon Bachrach, 
son of R. Samuel Rachrach (" Pinkas Tiktin"): R. 
Ilayyim of Karlin (** 'Ir Wilna," p. 31); R. Solomon, 
son of R. Asher ("Gcbnrath He-Or"); R. Joseph 
.lanower ("Zeker Yehosef," Warsaw, I860); R. 
Samuel, son of Moses Levin ("Ba'al Kedoshim," 
j). 210); R. Asher, son of R. Kalouymus Kalman 
Ginzburg ("Kiryah Ne'emanah," p. 185); R. Gad 
Asher, son of R. Joshua Rokeah (" Anshe Shem," p. 
G3); R. Joshua Ezekiel {ib.)\ R. Hayyim SchOnlinkel 
(ib. p. 70); R. Abraham Isaac ("Birkat Rosh "); R. 
Notel Michael SchOniinkel ("Da'at Kedoshim," p. 
181); Zeeb, Moses, Isaac, and Solomon Wolf, sous 
of R. Samuel Levin; R. Jacob Simhah Wolfsohn 
("Anshe Shem," p. 40); R. Aaron Luria; R. Samuel 

The writers of Pinsk include: R. Moses Aaron 
Schatzkes (author of "Mafteah"), R. Zebi Hirsch, 
Shereshevski, A. B. Dobsevage, X. 31. Schaikewitz, 
Baruch Epstein, E. D. Lifshitz. Abraham Kunki 
passed through Pinsk while traveling to collect 
money for the support of the Jerusalem Talmud To- 
rah (preface to " Abak Soferim," Amsterdam, 1701). 

In 1781 the heads of the Jewish congregations of 
Pinsk followed the example of some Russian Jewish 
communities by excommunicating the Hasidim. In 
1799 the town was destroyed by fire, and its records 
w T erclost. Pinsk has two cemeteries: in the older, in- 
terments ceased in 1810. The total population ot the 
town (1905) is about 28,000, of whom 18,000 are Jews. 

Karlin : Until about one hundred years ago Kar- 
lin was a suburb of Pinsk, anil its Jewish residents 
constituted a part of the Pinsk community. Then 
R. Samuel Levin obtained the separation of Karlin 
from Pinsk (Steinschneider, "'Ir Wilna," p. 188). 
In 1870 the Hasidim of Karlin removed to the 
neighboring town of Stolin. The rabbis of the Mit- 
naggedim of Karlin include: R. Samuel Antipoler; 
R. Abraham Rosenkranz; the "Rabbi of Wolpe" 
(his proper name is unknown); R. Jacob (author of 
"Miskenot Ya 4 akob ") and his brother R. Isaac (au- 
thor of "Keren Orah"); R. Samuel Abigdor Tose- 
fa'ah (author of "Shc'elot u-Tcshubot ") ; David 
Friedmann (the present [1905] incumbent; author 

of " Yad Dawid "). 

n. k. B. Ei. 

Talmudist of the eighteenth century. He was a 
descendant of Nathan Spira of Cracow, and the 
author of the Talmudieal work'^eta* Sha'ashu'im " 
(Zolkiev, 1748), which contains novella 1 on the sec- 
tion Nashim of the Babvlonian Talmud and on the 
tractates Makkot and Shebu'ot, besides some collec- 

Bibliography : FiirsU Bihl. Jud. If i. 104; Zedner. Cat. ITchr. 
Book* Brit. >fw*. p. 210; Fuenn. Kcncsct Yisraeh pp. 1S0- 
187, Warsaw, 1886. 
K. C. P. Wl. 

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Lev Pinsker. 


Russian physician; bom at Tomashev, government 
of Piotrkow (Piotrikov), Poland, 1821; son of Sim- 
hah Pinsker; died at Odessa Dec. 21, 1891. Pinsker 
obtained his earlv education in his father's school, 
the curriculum of which included not only general 
subjects but also specifically Jewish ones. After 
finishing his course there he entered the gymnasium, 
and later the Richelieu Lyceum. On graduating 
from the latter institution he accepted the position 
of instructor hi the Russian language at the Jewish 
school in Kishinef. In the following year he began 
a medical course in the University of Moscow, and 

while still a student dis- 
played great courage in 
devoting himself to the 
care ol hospital patients 
suffering from cholera, 
which disease was at that 
time (1S48) epidemic. On 
completing his course he 
returned to Odessa, and 
soon after was appointed 
to the staff of the city hos- 
pital, having been highly 
recommended by the au- 
thorities. His great in- 
dustry and thoroughness 
gradually won for him the 
recognition of his col- 
leagues and of the public, 
and within ten years he became one of the foremost 
physicians of Odessa. 

Pinsker likewise took an active interest in com- 
munal affairs. He also published occasional arti- 
cles in the periodicals "Sion," "Den," and "Raz- 
svyet." Though not a prolific writer, Pinsker evinced 
much originality and feeling; and Ins articles were 
always forceful. He pleaded earnestly for more 
freedom for the Russian Jews, and endeavored to 
convince the latter of the great value of modern 
education. In time Pinsker came to see that the 
Russian Jew could not expect much from an auto- 
cratic government, and that any deliverance for him 
must come through his own exertions. The expres- 
sion of this conviction appears in his " Antoemanci- 
pation," which appeared in 1881 over the nom de 
plume "Ein Russischer Jude." The author's name 
soon became known, however, and the pamphlet 
created much comment and discussion. Pinsker 
advocated therein the acquisition of land by the 
Jews, inasmuch as without homes of their own they 
would always remain strangers. 

A congress of delegates from almost all the coun- 
tries of Europe met to discuss the fundamental idea 
set forth by Pinsker, but failed to formulate an ef- 
fective plan for the solution of the problem. The 
only practical outcome was the establishment of a 
society for the aid of Jewish immigrants in Pales- 
tine and Syria. As chairman of this society Pinsker 
energetically devoted himself to the question, work- 
ing patiently throughout the remainder of his life for 
the establishment of Jewish settlers in the Holy Land. 

Bibliography: N\ S. Rsushkovski, Sovrcmcnnyye Russho- 
Ycvrcwhiyc DyeyatelU P» 01, Odessa, 1899. 

n. h. J. G. L. 

PINSKER, SIMHAH : Polish Hebrew scholar 
and archeologist; born at Tarnopol, Galicia, March 
17, 1S01 ; died at Odessa Oct. 29, 1864. He received 
his early Hebrew 1 ' education in the heder and from 
his father, Shebah ha-Levi, a noted preacher, who 
instructed him in mathematics and German also. 
In his youth Pinsker was an enthusiastic admirer of 
the Hasidim, but soon forsook them. He at first 
engaged in business, but, having no aptitude there- 
for, was obliged to abandon it. He then went to 
Odessa, and, owing to his calligraphic skill, became 
secretary to the rabbi. Here, in conjunction with 
Isaac Horowitz of Brody and Littenfeld, Pinsker 
succeeded in establishing a public school for Jewish 
children, of which he himself served as principal 
until 1840. 

At that time Abraham Fikkovicii, a Karaite 
scholar, brought to Odessa a number of ancient 
manuscripts, unearthed in the Crimea. Among 
these was one of the Later Prophets which had a 
singular punctuation, differing widely in the form 
of the vowels and singing-accents from the one then 
in use. This manuscript gave ample opportunity 
to Pinsker to satisfy his propensity for research. 
He at once set himself to the task of deciphering the 
system of punctuation, and satisfactorily accom- 
plished it. He had already become known as an ar- 
cheologist of merit through his contributions to the 
" Orient"; but with this discovery his fame was es- 
tablished. He was thereupon honored by the Kus- 
sian government with two gold medals and with the 
title "Honorable Citizen"; and the community of 
Odessa bestowed upon him a life-pension of 300 
rubles a year. 

Pinsker then retired from communal work, and 
repaired to Vienna in order to devote the rest of his 
life to his researches and to the arrangement and 
publication of his works. Of these the first and 
most important one was "Likkute Kadmoniyyot" 
(Vienna, I860), in which he describes the different 
periods of development in the history of Karaism. 
lie maintains that the term "Karaite" is derived 
from the Hebrew " kara " (Nip) = "to call," " to in- 
vite," and that its use dates from the first period of 
the schism, when the members of this sect sent mes- 
sengers throughout Jewry "to invite" the people 
to join their ranks ("Likkute Kadmoniyyot," p. 
16). Pinsker moreover attempts to show through- 
out the whole work that to the scholars of this 
sect who preceded the orthodox Biblical scholars 
and grammarians is due the correct system of Bib- 
lical orthography, grammar, and lexicography ; and 
that even in their poetry the Karaites were models 
for the Hebrew poets of the Middle Ages, such as 
Ibn Gabirol and Judah ha-Levi (ib. p. 107). The 
"Likkute Kadmonivvot" made such an impression 

• • • • * * * 

upon the scholarly world that Jost and Graetz pub- 
licly avowed their indebtedness to the author, the 
former even changing, in consequence, some of the 
views expressed in his history of the Jewish sects. 

The other great work of Pinsker, published in 
his lifetime, was " JIabo el ha-Nikkud ha-Ashshuri 
weha-Babli " (Vienna, 1863), an introduction to the 
Babylonian-Hebraic system of punctuation ; it con- 
tains the results of his examination of the manu- 
scripts in the Odessa library. As an appendix to it is 

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printed the " Yesod Slispar," by Abraham ibn Ezra, 
on the Hebrew numerals. Pinsker's oilier works are: 
an edition of the "Miklol" (Lyck, 1802), Hebrew 
grammar by D. Kimhi, with emendations by Pinsker 
and others; "Sefer ha-Ehad " (Odessa, 1807), on the 
nine cardinal numbers, by Abraham ibn Ezra, with 
commentary; and "Mishle ha-Gezerali weha-Bin- 
yan" (Vienna, 1887), on the Hebrew verb. Pinsker 
left, besides, a considerable number of manuscripts 
on the Hebrew language and literature. 

At Vienna, Pinsker lectured for some time at the 
bet ha-midrash ; but, his health soon failing, he was 
brought back by his children to Odessa, where he 

Bibliography: Zederbaum, in Mizpah, iv. 13-14; idem, in 
Ha~Meliz. 18G4, No. 42; Ha-Maa'wU 18B5, Nos. 7-10 ; Mn- 
natsschrift y x. 17t> et seq.x He-Haluz y v. 50 ct acq.; Mazkir 
li-lienc Iienhef, in Ha-Shahar, i. 40 et scq.: H. S. Morals, 
Eminent Israelites of the Nineteenth Century, pp. 270 et 
scq., Philadelphia, 1880. 

ii. h. A. S. W. 

PINTO or DE PINTO : Family of financiers, 
rabbis, scholars, soldiers, and communal workers, 
originally from Portugal. Members of it lived in 
Syria in the beginning of the sixteenth century; and 
in 1535 there was at Rome a Diogo Rodrigues Pinto, 
advocate of the 3Iaranos. Rut its most prominent 
members lived in Holland, particularly in Amster- 
dam, in the beginning of the seventeenth century. 
They were among the greatest financiers in that 
city; and one of them bequeathed several millions 
to the Jewish community, to the state, to Christian 
orphanages and churches, and to the Christian clergy 
(see his testament in Schudt, " Jndische JMerkwiir- 
digkeiten," i. 292). Members of the family were also 
prominent in South America, namely, in Brazil and 
in Dutch Guiana, in the beginning of the eighteenth 
century. About the same time other members set- 
tled in the United States, becoming very influential, 
especially in the state of Connecticut, where they 
took an active part in the Revolution. The earliest 
mention of the Pintos in the Connecticut records is 
under date of 1724; in those of New York, 1736. 
The best-known members of this family are: 

Aaron de Pinto : Trustee of the Portuguese con- 
gregation at Amsterdam in the beginning of the 
eighteenth century. He supported Solomon Ayl- 
lon against Zebi Ilirsch Ashkenazi. Ayllon con- 
vinced Pinto that it was his duty to uphold the 
superiority of the Portuguese community over the 
Ashkcnazim. He thus helped greatly to protect Ne- 
hemiah Hayyun and to persecute Ashkenazi. Pinto 
and Ayllon even suggested that Ashkenazi should 
be cited before the Portuguese council, which, since 
he did not heed the summons, excommunicated him. 

D. 31. Sel. 

Aaron Adolf de Pinto: Dutch jurist; son of 
Moses de Pinto and Sara Salvador; born at The 
Hague Oct. 24, 1828; studied law at Leyden (LL.D. 
1852). In 1862 he was appointed referendary in the 
Department of Justice, in 1871 "Raadsadviseur," 
and in 1876 justice of the Supreme Court; he be- 
came vice-president of that court Dec. 31, 1903. 
He has been a member of the Royal Academy of 
Sciences since 1877. The law of 1872, abolishing 
tithes, was drawn up by De Pinto. From 1870 to 
1881 he was secretary of a commission appointed to 

prepare a penal code, which was put in force in 
188G; he was a member also of the colonial penal 
code commission. He is the author of the "Me- 
morie van Toelichting op het Wetsontwerp tot Af- 
sehailing van de Doodstraf." Prom 1888 to 1902 De 
Pinto was editor-in-chief of the " Weekblad voor het 
Recht," and he was one of the foundersof the Juris- 
tenvereeniging. He lias published: 4i Wetboek van 
Strafrecht voor Nederland.sch Incite; Wetboek voor 
Europeanen, Gevolgd door Memorie van Toelich- 
ting" (The Hague, I860); "Hezzien Wetboek van 
Strafvordering " (2 vols., Zwolle, 188G-88); "Het 
Proces Dreyfus Getoetst met Wet en Recht" (2 
vols., 1898-99). De Pinto is commander of the 
Order of the Netherlands Lion and officer of the 
Crown of Italy. 

Bihmography: Eiyrn Hoard, 1898 (with portrait); Ecu 
Halve Eeuu\ i. 190 ; ii. 52, 57, 60. 

s. E. Sl. 

Abraham Pinto : Cofounder, with his brother 
David Pinto, of the Portuguese community at Rot- 
terdam in the beginning of the seventeenth century. 
The two brothers established also a school (Jesiba de 
los Pintos), which, in 1GG9, after the death of one of 
the founders, was transferred to Amsterdam. 

Abraham Pinto : Soldier in the American army 

in 1775, at the time of the Revolution, lie was a 

member of Company X, Seventh Regiment of the 

State of Connecticut. 
d. M. Sel. 

Abraham de Pinto: Dutch jurist; born at The 
Hague May 27, 1811 ; died there May 2G, 1878. He 
studied lawat Leyden (LL.D. 1885) and wasawarded 
a gold medal by the university for a competitive 
thesis entitled "Exponaturetad E.xamen Revocetur 
Locus C. C. de Causa Obligandi" (1835). In 1835 
he became editor-in-chief of the "Weekblad voor het 
Recht," and from 1840 to 1876 he edited the period- 
ical " Themis," which he had founded. Abraham de 
Pinto was a member of the municipal council of The 
Hague from 1851 until his death. He was president 
of the Sephardic congregation, and on his initiative 
was founded the "Maatschappij tot Nut der Israe- 
lieten in Nederland " (1850). He was appointed 
"Landsadvoeaat" Dec. 27, 18C3. 

De Pinto published the following works: "Een 
Woord over de Circulaire van den Minister van 
Justitie "(The Hague, 1850); " Ilandleiding tot de 
Wet op den Overgang van de Vroegere tot de 
Nieuwe Wetgeving" (ib. 1850); "Handleiding tot 
het Wetboek van Burgerlijke Rechtsvordering " 
(2d ed., 3 vols., 1857); " Adviezcn 1838-52" (Zwolle, 
1862); "Handleiding tot het Wetboek van Koop- 
handel " (3d ed., 2 vols., ib. 1879); * Handleiding tot 
de Wet op de RechterlijkeOrganisatie en het Beleid 
der Justitie" (2d ed., ib. 1880); 4i Handleiding tot 
het Wetboek van Strafvordering ' (2d ed., 2 vols., 
ib. 1882); u Handleiding tot het Burgerlijk Wet- 
boek" (6th ed., ib. 1883-85). 

Bibliography: Weekblad voor het Rrcht, 1878, Nos. 4240, 
4241; Iloest, Xieuw&bodCi Hi. 4U; lirinkman, Catali>gu*- 

s. E. Sl. 

Daniel Pinto : Syrian Talmudist; lived at Aleppo 
in the seventeenth eenturv. He and Moses Galaute 
went to Smyrna iu order to pay homage to Shab- 
bethai Zebi. 

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David Pinto : Cofounder, with his brother Abra- 
ham, of the Portuguese community at Rotterdam. 

David Pinto : A rich broker of Amsterdam in 
the eighteenth century who sided with Jonathan 
EyuesciiCtz in his controversy with Jacob Emden. 

Bibliography: Gnitz, Gcseh. 3d ed.. ix. 262; x. 13, 211,321, 
3te : Huhner, in Publ. Am. Jew. Hint. Soe. xi. 88 et seq. 

Isaac Pinto : Dutch captain of the beginning of 
the eighteenth century. At the head of a company of 
Jews, Pinto in 1712 heroically defended the village 
of Savanna in Surinam and beat off the French 
under Cassard. Sou they ("History of Brazil," ii. 
241) speaks of a captain named Pinto, who, when 
the Dutch were for the second time besieged at He- 
cife, defended the fort single-handed, until, over- 
whelmed by superior numbers, he was obliged to 
surrender, lie. is probably identical with the sub- 
ject of this article. 

Bibliography: Felsenthal and Gotiheil in Pultl. Am. Jew. 

Hist. Soe. iv. 3; G. A. Kohut, ib. ill. 118 ct seq.; Koenen, 

(iesehiedeni* derJoden in Nedt rland, pp. 281,294; Simon 

Wolf. The American Jew as Patriot, Soldier, and Citizen, 

p. 452. 

d. M. Sel. 

Isaac Pinto: American ritualist; born about 
1721; died Jan., 1791; member of Congregation 
Shearitli Israel in the city of New York, lie is re- 
membered chietiy for having prepared what is prob- 
ably the earliest Jewish prayer-book published in 
America, and certainly the tirst work of its kind 
printed in New York city. The work appeared in 
1760, and the title-page reads as follows: "Pravcrs 
for Shabbath, Kosh-llashanah and Ivippur, or the 
Sabbath, the beginning of the year, and the Day of 
Atonement, with the Amidah and Musaph of the 
Moadim or Solemn Seasons, according to the Order 
of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews. Translated 
by Isaac Pinto and for him printed bv John Holt in 
New York. A.M. 5526." It seems that the ma- 
hamad of the London congregation would not per- 
mit this translation to be published in England (see 
Jacobs and Wolf, "Bibl. Anglo-Jud." p. 174, Lon- 
don, 1*88; G. A. Kohut, in "Publ. Am. Jew. Hist. 
Soc." iii. 121; Ladv Magnus, "Outlines of Jewish 
Hislory," p. 348, Philadelphia, 1890). 

Pinto was the friend and correspondent of Ezra 
Stiles, president of Yale College, who as late as 1790 
mentions him in his diary as u a learned Jew at New 
York." From Stiles* account it appears that Pinto 
was a good Hebrew scholar, studying Ibn Ezra in 
tin* original. An Isaac Pinto, possibly identical 
with the subject of this article, appears to have been 
a resident of Si rat ford, Conn., as early as 1748 
("Colonial Keeords of Connecticut," ix. 400). 

Bibliography : The Literary Diary of Ezra Stiks. ed. F. B. 
Ut'Xler, .Ww York, li)0l ; (;enr*r<* A. Kohut, Ezra Stile* and 
tit* Jews. ib. \\xti ; Morris JasLniw, In Publ. A m. Jew. Hist. • 
Sor. x. -.); Leon Hiibner, The Jews of Xew England Prior 
to 1W), ib xi. Ho. 

J. L. Hi:. 

Isaac de Pinto : Portuguese moralist of Jew- 
ish origin; born 1715; died Aug. 14. 17H7, at The 
Hague*. He tirst settled at Bordeaux*, and then re- 
moved to Holland. Pinto was a man of wide infor- 
mation, but did not begin to write until nearly fitly, 
when he acquired a reputation by defending his co- 
religionists against Voltaire. In 1702 he published 
his u Kssai sur le Luxe" at Amsterdam. In the 

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same year appeared his "Apologie pour la Nation 
Juive, ou Reflexions Critiques." The author sent 
a manuscript copy of this work to Voltaire, who 
thanked him. Gcexee reproduced the " Apologie" 
at the head of his " Lett res de Quelques Juifs Portu- 
gais, Allemauds et Polonais, a M. de Voltaire." In 
1768 Pinto sent a letter to Diderot on "Dn Jen de 
Cartes." His " Traitede la Circulation ctdn Credit " 
appeared in Amsterdam iu 1771, and was twice re- 
printed, besides being translated into English and 
German. His u Precis des Arguments Con t re les 
Materialistes" was published at The Hague in 1774. 
Pinto's works were published in French (Am- 
sterdam, 1777) and also in German (Leipsic, 1777). 

Bibliography: D\<\ot % Xmtvellc Biographic Generate, p.2$2; 
Barbier, Dicttonnaire des Anonymcs', Dietionnairc d^Eeo* 
nomie Politicale, li.; Querard, La France Litteraire, hiAll- 
gemcine Littcratxirzeitung, 1<87, No. 273. 

D. I. CO. 

Jacob Pinto: Early Jewish settler at New Haven, 
Conn., when* he was residing in 1759; brother of 
Solomon Pinto. He figures repeatedly in Connecti- 
cut records between 1765 and 1776. Pinto espoused 
the patriot cause at the outbreak of the American 
Revolution; and he appears to have been a member 
of a political committee at New Haven in 1775. His 
name appears, with that of other influential citizens 
of the place, in a petition to the Council of Safety 
for the removal of certain Tories in 1776. 

Bibliography: J. W. Barber, Connecticut Historical Collec- 
tions, p. 176, New Haven, n.d.; Leon Huhner, The Jews of 
New England Prior to 1800, in Pul>l. Am. Jew. Hint. Soc. 
xi. 93, and authorities there cited. 

Joseph Jesurun Pinto: American rabbi; born 
probably in England; died 1766. lie was leader 
of Congregation Shearitli Israel, New York, from 
1759 to 1766, having been selected for the posi- 
tion and sent to New York by the London con- 
gregation pursuant to a request from that of New 
York. A letter from the former to the latter, dated 
1758, relating to the matter is still extant. Pinto 
became a minister as a very young man, and in 
1762 married Rebecca, daughter of Moses de la 
Torre of London. The only literary production of 
his that has come down is a form of prayer for a 
thanksgiving service for the " Reducing of Canada," 
published at New York in 1760. 

Bibliography: N. T. Phillips, in Pul>1. Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. 
i\. 49-51, vl. 1&»; Charles 1\ Daly, The Settlement of the Jews 
i)t Xarth America, p. 50, New York, 1893; M. faster, Hist, 
of Pcvis Marks, London, 1901. 

J. h. Ilu. 

Josiah ben Joseph Pinto (RIF) : Syrian rabbi 
and preacher; born at Damascus about 1565; died 
there Feb. or March, 164*. His father, Joseph 
Pinto, was one of the rich and charitable men of 
that city. Josiah was a pupil of various rabbis in 
Talmud and Cabala, and later, after his father's 
death, he* studied Talmud under Jacob A hula fin, who 
ordained him as rabbi. Pinto's permanent residence 
was at Damascus, where later he olliciated as rabbi 
until his death. He went twice to Aleppo, and 
in 1625 he removed to Safed with the intention of 
settling there; but the death of his young son, 
Joseph, which occurred a year later, induced him to 
return to Damascus. 

Pinto was the author of the following works: 
" Kcsef Nibhar" (Damascus, 1616), a collection of 

by Microsoft ® 





O R 


* *• 




The ^fMIDAH and MUSAPH of the MO^DIM, 

O R 


» — 


According to the Order of the Spanilh and Portuguefe Jews. 




* X 


Translated by ISAAC PINTO. 


And for him printed by JOHN HOLT, in New- York; 

> A, M. 5526. 




Title-Page from Isaac Pinto's Translation of the Prayer-Book, Printed at New York, 1760. 

(From the Sulzberger collection in the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York,) 

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homilies and comments on Genesis and Exodus; 
** Kesef Mezukkak " (finished 1025, and published at 
Venice, 162$), a honiiletic commentary on the Pen- 
tateuch, followed by a pamphlet entitled u Kesef 
To'afot," glosses on the Pentateuch; "Me'or 4 Ena- 
vim," commentarv on Jacob ibn Habib's "'En 
Ya'akob," which is a collection of the haggadot of 
the Babylonian Talmud (part i. f with the text, Yen- 
ice, 1643; part ii., with other commentaries and the 
text, Amsterdam, 1754); " Kesef Zaruf " (ib. 1714), 
commentary on Proverbs; and "Nibhar mi-Kcsef^ 
(Aleppo, 1S69). Some of Ins responsa are to be 
found in the collection of Yom-Tob Zahalon and in 


Aaron AlfandariV' Yad Aharon." His unpublished 
works are: "Kesef ^Nim'as," a commentary on 
Lamentations; "Kebuzzat Kesef," a collection of 
civil laws and of laws concerning women; and a 
collection of responsa. 

Bibliography: Azulal,Sfiem ha-Gcdolim,\.; Fuenn, Kencsc t 
Yi*raelp.&*2; Furst, Bibl.Jud. Hi. 104 ; Elijah VitaSassoon, 
in Ha-Lebanon, vil. 15, 23; Steinsctmeider, Cat. Iiodl. cols. 

D. M. Sel. 

Juan Delgado Pinto. See Delgado. 

Solomon Pinto : American patriot in the Revo- 
lutionary war. A settler at New Haven, Conn., he 
served as an officer iu the Connecticut line through- 
out the war, and was among the patriots wounded 
in the British attack upon New Haven Jul}- 5 and 
6, 1779. Pinto's name appears repeatedly in Revo- 
lutionary records; and he has the additional distinc- 
tion of having been one of the original members of 
the Society of the Cincinnati in Connecticut. He is 
mentioned as late as 1818. 

Bibliography: Record of Service of Connecticut Men in 
the War of the Revolution, pp. 218, 325. 360, 373,553.636, 
Hartford. 1889; Leon Hiihner, The Jews of Xew Eng- 
land Prior to 1S00, in Publ. Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. x\. 94-95, 
and authorities tbere piven; G. H. Hollister, The History 
of Connecticut, ii. 372, New Haven, 1855; Royal R. Hinraan, 
Historical Collection* p. 567, Hartford, 1U2. 

J. L. He. 

PIOTRKOW: Town in Russian Poland, near 
Warsaw. For some time Piotrkow was the seat of 
the Polish diet. At the diet of 1538, held there, it 
was enacted that no Jew should be permitted to 
farm the taxes, and that Jews should wear distinct- 
ive garments, *'so that they might be distinguished 
from Christians." An ti Jewish laws were passed 
also by the diets of 1562, 1563, and 1565, these diets 
being influenced by the Jesuits. The Jewish com- 
munit} r of Piotrkow, however, is speeificall}" men- 
tioned for the first time in 1567, when two Jews, 
Isaac Borodavka and Mendel Isaakovich, were tax- 
farmers in that town ("Gramoty Velikikh Knyazei 
Litovskikh," p. 104). In the disastrous time be- 
tween 1648 and 1658, the period of the Cossack up- 
rising, the Jewish community of Piotrkow suffered 
with the other communities in Poland. There were 
then fifty families there, "almost all the members of 
which were killed" by the Cossacks ( u Le-Korot ha- 
Gezerot," v. 19). In 1807 Piotrkow had' a large 
Jewish community, having one synagogue, several 
houses of prayer, and thirty six Hebrew schools. 
An old and celebrated Hebrew printing-press is 
established there. The town has a total population 
of 24,866. 

Bibliography: Entziklopcdicheski Slovar. xxiii. 472; Gratz, 
(itsch.i Hebrew transl.) vil. 318, 328 ; viii. 152 ; Rcgesty, i., No. 

ii. n. A. S. W. 

PIOVE DI SACCO Open *T3"B) : Small Ital- 
ian city in the district of Padua ; the tirst in that terri- 
tory to admit Jews. A loan-bank was opened there 
by an association ("'consortium*) before 1373, and 
was probably an unimportant institution, as it paid 
a yearly tax of only 100 lire. When, in 1435, the 
Jews of Padua were forbidden to lend money, they 
transacted their business through their fellow bank- 
ers at Piove. Xo Jews except a few money-brokers 
seem to have lived here; and apparently these were 
expelled at an early date. Piove never had a 
ghetto. Leone Komaniui Jacur is now (1903) the 
representative for Piove in the Italian Chamber of 

The city owes its importance to the fact that a 
Hebrew printing-press was temporarily established 
there. Meshullam Cusi Rafab. Moses Jacob printed 
at Piove Jacob b. Asher's " Arba 4 Turim " in folio, 
1475, this being the second work issued there. 
Complete copies of this edition are extremely rare. 
A fine impression on parchment is in the city library 
at Padua (B. P. 574). The "Arba 1 Turim " was 
circulated both as an entire work and in the sepa- 
rate parts. 

Bibliography : A. Ciscato, Gli Ehrei in Padora. 1901, pp. 21, 
53, 15.s ; G. B. de Rossi, Annoles Hcbrao-Typographici, etc., 
xv.. No. 2. 

G. I. E. 

Univ Calif - Digitized 

: Musical instrument akin to the flute. 
The flute was a favorite instrument of the ancients. 
The monuments show flutes of various shapes. On 
the Egyptian monuments are pictured (1) single- 
tubed direct flutes made of reed or wood, (2) rather 
long cross-flutes, and (3) long, thin, double-tubed 
flutes, the tubes of which, however, were not fast- 
ened together. On Assyrian monuments is depicted 
a shorter, more trumpet-shaped double flute. The 
Syrians used the small gingras — known also to the 
Athenians — only a span long, with a penetrating, 
mournful sound. The flutes used by the Greeks 
were verj r varied; and it is probable that the Israel- 
ites, too, played several kinds; but, unfortunately, 
nothing definite about their shape is known. 

(1) The u halil," from u lmlal" (to bore through), 
was a hollowed piece of wood. The name is evidence 
for the fact that the flute was made from cane or 
wood. It consisted of a tube and a tongue of cane. 
The number of holes in the tube was originally only 
two, three, or four; later it was increased. The 
tones of such an instrument were naturally limited, 
and it was manifestly necessary to have a special 
flute for each key. It was not until art was more 
highly developed that an instrument was made 
which could be played in different keys. Among 
the Israelites the halil was used for music played at 
meals on festive occasions (Isa. v. 12), in festal pro- 
cessions (I Kings i. 40), and during the pilgrim- 
ages to Jerusalem (Isa. xxx. 29). The Israelites used 
also the "nebi'im"in connection with the kettle- 
drum (I Sam. x. 5). The flute was, in addition, the 
special instrument to denote mourning (Jer. xlviii. 
36); and among the later Jews flute-playing was 

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considered so essential at funerals that even the 
poorest would not do without it. 

In the days of the Old Testament there were no 
flute-players in the Temple orchestra. In the Mish- 
nah, 'Ar. ii. 3, mention is made that flutes were 
played; it states that at the daily services from 
two to twelve flutes were used. But they aecom- 



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Pipes in Use in Palestine. 

(Inthe United States Natloual Museum, Washlogton, D. C.) 

panied psalm-singing only at the slaughtering of 
the paschal lambs, on the first and seventh days of 
the Passover, and during the eight days of the 
Feast of Tabernacles, when a flute was played be- 
fore the altar to aceompanj r the singing of the 
"Hallel" (comj). Tacitus, "Historia," v. 5). 

(2) A second kind of wind-instrument, known from 
very early times, was the"'ugab," which was es- 
sentially an instrument to express joyousness, and 
was played for the amusement of the people, but 
never at divine service. According to tradition, 
which connects the use of the 'ugab with Jubal 
(Gen. iv. 21), the instrument was a bagpipe ("sum- 
pongah"; Dan. iii. 5). The same sort of instru- 
ment — called "ghaitah" in North Africa — is used in 
Arabian music. The older descriptions correspond 

in the main with the form now found in Egypt, 
Arabia, and Ital}\ Two pipes are inserted in a 
leathern bag; one above, into which the player 
blows; and the other, provided with holes, at the 
bottom or slanting at the side, so that it may be 
played with the fingers. 

(3) The instrument mentioned in the Hebrew text 
of Dan. iii. 5, 7, 10, 15, under the name "mashro- 
kita,'' is the syrinx, or Pan flute, which generally 
consisted of seven to nine reed tubes, of different 
lengths and thicknesses, arranged in a row. It was 
the favorite instrument of shepherds in the Orient, 
where it is used even at the present time. "Whether 
it was known to the Hebrews is very doubtful. 

(4) "Nckeb " (Ezek. xxviii. 13 ct seq.) is generally 

understood to denote a kind of flute; but this is 

more than doubtful. The word is most likely a 

technical term used in the goldsmith's art. 
e. a. ii. W. K. 

PIPERNO, SETTIMIO: Italian economist; 
born at Rome 1834. He is (1905) professor of statis- 
tics and political economy in the Technical Institute 
of Rome, director of the Cesi Technical School, 
and a member of the board of administration of the 
Jewish community of Rome. Piperno is the author 
of the following works, in addition to various journal- 
istic articles: "Studio sulla Morale Indipendente " ; 
"Studio sulla Percezione"; "Elementi di Scienza 
Economica Esposti Secondo i Xuovi Programmi 
Governatiei per gl* Istituti Teenici," Turin, 1878; 
"II Riconoscimento GiuridicodelleSocieta di JNIutuo 
Soecorso," Rome, 1882; "La Pensioni di Vecchiaia 
Presso le Societa di Mutuo Soecorso Italiane," 
Turin, 1883; "La Nuova Scuola di Diritto Penale 
in Italia, Studio di Scienza Sociale," Rome, 1886. 

Bibliography: De Gubernatis, Diz. Biog.; idem, Ecrtvatns 
du Jour. 

ON: English statesman; born in London 1840; 
died at Guildford, Surrey, Jan. 9, 1903; third son of 
Solomon Benedict de Worms, a baron of the Austrian 
empire. He was educated at King's College, Lon- 
don, and became a barrister in 1863. As Baron Henry 
de Worms he sat in the House of Commons as Con- 
servative member for Greenwich from 1880 to 1885, 
and for the East Toxteth division of Liverpool from 
1885 to 1895, when he was created a peer. He was 
parliamentary secretary to the Board of Trade in 
1885 and 1886 and from 1886 to 1888, and under-sec- 
retary of state for the colonies from 1S88 to 1892. 
In 1888 he was president of the International Con- 
ference on Sugar Bounties, and as plenipotentiary 
signed the abolition treat}' for Great Britain. He 
became a member of the Privy Council in the same 
year. He was a roval commissioner of the Patri- 
otic Fund, and one of the roval commissioners of 
the French Exhibition of 1900. His works include: 
"England's Policy in the East" (London, 1876), 
"Handbook to the Eastern Question " (5th ed., Lon- 
don, 1877), "The Austro-Hungarian Empire n 
(2d cd., London, 1877), "Memoirs of Count Beust" 

(ib. 1887). 

In 1864 he married Fanny, daughter of Baron von 
Tedesco of Vienna, and in 1887, after her death, 
Sarah, daughter of Sir Benjamin Samuel Phillips. 

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Pirhe SJafon 

de-Rabbi Eli'ezer 



Lord Pirbright was for several years president of 
the Anglo-Jewish Association, but resigned in 1886 
owing to objections raised to his having attended 
the nuptials of his eldest daughter in a church. 
During his parliamentary career he was a warm ad- 
vocate of the cause of Jews in lands of oppression, 
especially Rumania ("Jew. Chrou." Jan. 16, 1903). 

Bibliography: JHioV Who, 1903; Jewish Year Book. 1903. 

j. V. E. 

PIRHE ZAFON. See Peiuodicals. 
PIRKE ABOT. See Abot. 

midrashic work ou Genesis, part of Exodus, and a 
few sentences of Numbers; ascribed to H. Eliezer 
b. Hyrcanus, and composed in Italy shortly after 
S33. It is quoted immediately before the end of the 
twelfth century under the following titles: Pirkc 
Rabbi Eli'ezer ha-Gadol (Maimonides, "Moreh," 
ii. t xxvi); Pirkc Rabbi Eli'ezer ben Hyrcanus 
("Seder R. Am ram." ed. Warsaw, 1865, p. 32a); 
Baraita de-Rabbi Eli*ezer( rt k Aruk," s.r. ap~\p; Rashi 
on Gen. xvii. 3; gloss to Rashi ou Meg. 22b; David 
Kimhi, "Shorashim," *.r. TIJJ); Ilaggadah de-Rabbi 
Eli'ezer ben Hyrcanus (R. Tarn, in Tos. Ket. 99a). 
The work is divided into fifty-four chapters, which 
may be divided into seven groups, as follows: 

i. Ch. i., ii. : Introduction to the entire work, 
dealing with the youth of R. Eliezer, his thirst for 
knowledge, and his settlement at Jerusalem. 

ii. Ch. iii.-xi. (corresponding to Gen. i.-ii.): The 
six days of the Creation. On the first day occurred 

the creation of four kinds of angels 
Contents, and of the fortv-seven clouds. The 

second day: the creation of heaven, 
other angels, the fire in mankind (impulse), and the 
fire of Gehenna. The third day : the division of the 
waters, fruit-trees, herbs, and grass. The fourth 
day: creation of the lights; astronomy and the 
determination of the intercalation. The leap-year 
reckoning is imparted to Adam, Enoch, Noah, 
Sheni, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. The fifth day: 
birds and fishes; enumeration of the kinds which 
may be eaten. The story of Jonah, which is said 
to belong to the fifth day. The sixth day: God's 
conference with the Torali in regard to the way in 
which man should be created. Siuce God is the 
first king of the world, all the great rulers are enu- 
merated in order to refer to God as the first one. 

iii. Ch. xii.-xxiii. (= Gen. ii.-viii., xxiv., xxix., 
1.): The time from Adam to Noah. The placing of 
man in the Garden of Eden aud the creation of Eve. 
Description of the three evil qualities which shorten 
the life of man — envy, lust, and ambition. Identi- 
fication of the serpent with Samael. Announcement 
of the ten appearances of God upon earth ( u< eser 
yeridot'*). First appearance of God in the Garden 
of Eden, and the punishment of the first pair. The 
two ways, the good and the evil, are pointed out to 
Adam, who enters upon his penitence. (The story 
is interrupted here, to be continued in ch. xx.) De- 
tailed discussion of the three pillars of the world — 
the Torali, the 'Abodah, and the Gemilut l.Iasadim. 
God's kindness toward Adam, that of the llananites 
toward Jacob, and the consideration to be shown to 

those in mourning. The literary quarrel between 
the Shammaites and the Ilillelites as to whether 
heaven or earth was created first. The ten things 
which were created on Friday evening. Exegesis of 
Psalm viii., which Adam sang in the Garden of Eden. 
Discussion of the Habdalah blessing of the Sabbath 
evening and the completion of Adam's penitence. 
Cain and Abel; Cain's penitence. IJirth of Seth; 
the sinful generation. Story of Noah. 

iv. Ch. xxiv.-xxv. (= Gen. ix., x., xi., xviii., 

xix.): The sinful generation. Nimrod. God's sec- 
ond appearance. The confusion of tongues and the 
Dispersion. Nimrod is killed by Esau, who takes 
his garments, which Jacob then puts on in order to 
secure the blessing. 

v. Ch. xxvi. -xxxix. (= Gen. xl.,1.): From Abra- 
ham to the death of Jacob. The ten temptations of 
Abraham. Lot's imprisonment and Abraham's pur- 
suit of the kings. God's covenant with Abraham. 
The circumcision, and the appearance of the angels. 
Identification of Hagar with Keturah, and the story 
of lshmael. The sacrifice of Isaac. Isaac and Rc- 
bekah, Jacob and Esau. Proofs given by Elijah, 
Elisha, and Shallum b. Tikwah that the dead are 
resurrected through the liberality of the living. 
Those that will be found worthy to be resurrected. 
From the sale of the birthright to the time when 
Jacob left Beer-sheba. From Jacob at the well to 
his flight from Laban's house. Repetition of the 
three preceding chapters. Story of Diuah and of 
the sale of Joseph. God's fourth appearance — in 
the vision of Jacob while on his way to Egypt. Jo- 
seph and Potiphar. Joseph in prison ; interpretation 
of the dream ; the sale of the grain. Jacob's bless- 
ing and death. 

vi. Ch. xl.-xlvi. (=Ex. ii.-iv., xiv.-xx. f xxxii.- 
xxxiw): From the appearance of Moses to the time 
when God revealed Himself to him in the cleft of 
the rock. Fifth appearance of God — to Moses, from 
the burning bush. The miracles performed by Moses 
before Pharaoh. God's sixth appearance — on Sinai. 
Pharaoh's persecution. The value of penitence; 
Pharaoh is not destroyed, but becomes King of Nin- 
eveh. Amalek's pursuit in the desert: Saul and 
Amalek; Amalek and Sennacherib. The golden 
calf; Moses' descent from the mountain; his prayer 
because of Israel 's sin. Moses on Sinai ; his descent, 
aud the destruction of the golden calf. Seventh ap- 
pearance of God — to Moses. 

vii. Ch. xlvii.-liv. (= Ex. xv. ; Num. ii., v., xi.- 
xiii., xxv., xxvi.; in these chapters the sequence 
thus far observed is broken): The sin committed at 
Baal-poor. The courage of Phinehas. The priestly 
oflice conferred upon him for life as a recompense. 
Computation of the time Israel spent in servitude 
down to the exodus from Egypt. Continuation of the 
story of Amalek. The passing over to Nebuchad- 
nezzar and Ilaman. Story of Esther. Holiness of 
the months and of Israel. Enumeration of the seven 
miracles: (1) Abraham in the furnace; (2) Jacob's 
birth; (3) Abraham's attainment of manhood (com p. 
Sanli. 107b); (4) Jacob sneezes and does not die; (5) 
the sun and moon remain immovable at the com- 
maud of Joshua; (6) King Hezekiah becomes ill, but 
recovers; (7) Dauiel in the lion's den. Closes is 
slandered by Aaron and Miriam. Absalom and his 

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Pirhe Zafon 

Pirke de-Rabbi Eli'ezer 

death. God's eighth appearance — in punishment 
of Miriam. 

The Pirke appears, according to Zunz, to be in- 
complete, and to be merely a fragment of a larger 
work. Sachs, on the other hand, thinks that it was 

compiled from two previous works 
Com- by the same author, the relation of the 

position, two productions to each other being 

that of text and commentary, the text 
giving merely the story of the Bible, which was in- 
terrupted by the commentary in the form of the 
Haggadah, and the commentary being intended for 
reading during the ten days of penitence. Horwitz 
thinks that the author developed those Bible stories 
which bore relation to the entire nation, dealing 
lightly with those that concerned only individuals. 

Jost was the first to point out that in the thirtieth 
chapter, in which at the end the author distinctly 
alludes to the three stages of the Mohammedan con- 
quest, that of Arabia Cnjn KEPD). of Spain (QVI "N), 
and of Home (W) ^yiJ *p3; $30 c.e.), the names of 
Fatima and Aycsha occur beside that of Ishmael, 
leading to the conclusion that the book originated 
in a time when Islam was predominant in Asia 
Minor. As in ch. xxxvi. two brothers reigning 
simultaneously are mentioned, after whose reign 
the Messiah shall come, the work might be ascribed 
to the beginning of the ninth century, for about 
that time the two sons of Harun al-Rashid, El- 
Amin and El-Mamun, were ruling over the Islamic 
realm. If a statement in ch. xxviii. did not point 
to an even earlier date, approximately the same 
date might be inferred from the enumeration of the 
four powerful kingdoms and the substitution of 
Ishmael for one of the four which are enumerated 
in the Talmud and the Mekilta. 

The author seems to have been a Palestinian; this 
appears not only from the fact that some of the cus- 
toms to which he refers (in ch. xiii. and xx.) are 
known only as Palestinian customs, but also from 
the fact that nearly all the authorities he quotes are 
Palestinian, the exceptions being R. Mesharshia 
and R. Shemaiah. In no case can this work lie 
ascribed to R. Eliezer (80-118 c.e.), since he was a 
tanna, while in the book itself the Pirke Abot is 
quoted. Late Talmudic authorities belonging to the 
third century c.e., like Shemaiah (ch. xxiii.), Ze'era 
(ch. xxi., xxix.), and Shila (ch. xlii., xliv.), are also 

The following customs and regulations of the Jews 
arc referred to in the Pirke de-Rabbi Eli'ezer: Reci- 
tation of Ps. xcii. during the Friday evening serv- 
ices (ch. xix. ; comp. Shab. 118a). The blessing 
"Bore me'ore ha-csh " (Praised be the Creator of the 
tire) recited during the Habdalah (ch. xx. ; comp. 
Pes. 59a). Contemplation of the tinger-nails during 
this blessing (ch. xx.). After the Habdalah, pour- 
ing of the wine upon the table, extinguishing the 
candle in it, dipping the hands in it, and rubbing 
the eyes (eh. xx.). The prohibition against women 
doing fancy-work on the day of the New Moon (ch. 
xH\). The blessing of "taf" on the first day of the 
Passover (xxxii.). The sounding of the shofar after 
the morning services in all the synagogues on the 
New Moon of the month of Elul (ch. xlvi.). The 
regulation that during the recitation of the "Kol 

Nidre" on the Day of Atonement two prominent 
members of the community shall stand beside the can- 
tor (xliv.), and that on Thursday all 
Customs worshipers must stand while reciting 
Mentioned, prayers (ch. xlvi.). The addition of 

Deut. xi. 20 to the daily reading of 
the"Sheina' " (ch. xxiii.). The banquet after the cir- 
cumcision (ch. xxix.; comp. Midr. Teh.,ed. Ruber, 
p. 234b). The chair of Elijah during the circum- 
cision (ch. xxix.). The covering of the prepuce 
with earth (eh. xxix.). The performance of the 
marriage ceremony under a canopy (ch. xii.). The 
standing of the hazzan beside the bridal couple (ch. 
xli.). The pronouncing of the blessing upon the 
bride by the hazzan (ch. xii.). The regulations pro- 
viding that no woman may go out with uncovered 
head (ch. xiv. ; comp. Ket. 72a); that the groom 
may not go out alone on the bridal night (ch. xvi. ; 
comp. Ber. 54b); that mourners must be comforted 
in the chapel (ch. xvii.); that the dead may be 
buried only in "takrikin " (ch. xxxiii. ; comp. M. K. 
27a, b); that a person sneezing shall say, "I trust in 
Thy help, O Lord," while any one hearing him shall 
say, "Your health!" (ch. lii.) — sickness having been 
unknown before the time of the patriarch Jacob, 
whose soul escaped through his nose when he sneezed. 
The following chapters close with benedictions 
from the"Shemoneh 'Esreh": ch. xxvii. : "Praised 
be Thou, O Lord, the shield of Abraham"; ch. 
xxxi. : "Praised be Thou, O Lord, who revivest the 
dead " ; ch. xxxv. : " Praised be Thou, O Lord, Holy 
God"; ch. xl. : "Praised be Thou, O Lord, who 
dost pardon knowingly"; ch. xliii. : "Praised be 
Thou, O Lord, who demandest penitence." Chap- 
ters xvii., xxx., xxxi., xlvi., li., lii., liv. also remind 
one of the " 'Amidah." 

The author dwells longest on the description of 
the second day of Creation, in which the "Ma'aseh 
Merkabah " (Ezek. i.) is described in various forms, 
and although this passage recalls Donolo and the 
Alphabet of R Akiba, it is evidently much older, 
since it does not mention the "Hekalot." This de- 
scription is connected with that of the creation of 
the seven planets and the twelve signs of the zodiac, 

the reference to the "mahzors" and 

The the "tekufot," and the discussion of 

Tekufot. the intercalation. In the series of 

years (3, 6, 8, 11, 14, 17, 19 in the 
cycle of 19) in which the intercalation takes place 
the author substitutes the fifth year for the sixth. 
His cycle of the moon, furthermore, covers twenty- 
one years, at the end of which period the moon again 
occupies the same position in the week as at the be- 
ginning, but this can happen only once in 689.472 
years, according to the common computation. 

On the connection of the Pirke de-Rabbi Eli- 
'ezer with the IViraita of Samuel, see Sachs in " Mo- 
natsschrift," i. 277. Manuscripts of the Pirke are 
found at Parma (Xo. 541), in the Vatican (No. 303; 
dated 1509), and in the llalberstain library. The 
following editions are known: Constantinople, 1518; 
Venice, 1548; Sabbionetta, 1508; Amsterdam, 1712; 
Wilnn, 1837; Lemberg, 1SG4. A commentary upon 
it, by David Luria, is included in the Wilna edition, 
and another, by Abraham Broyde, in the Lemberg 

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Bibliography: Zunz, G. V. pp. 283 ct seq.\ Jost, Gcsch. des 
Judenthums und Seiner Sckten, p. 35, note 2, Leipsic, 1858; 
Senior Sachs, in Kerem Hemcd, viil. 34; Ueber daxGcgen- 
seitige VerhCHtni^s. etc., in MonattschrifU i. 277; Tehiyalu 
Berlin, 1SS0. p. 14, note 5; p. 20, note 2; H. Kabana, in //a- 
Maggid. viii. 6; S. Friedmann, in Habmer's J\ld. Lit.-Blatt. 
viii. 30-31, 34, 37 : M. Steinschneider, in Ha-YonaK i. 17, Ber- 
lin, 1S51; R. Kirchheim, in Introduetio in Libnim Talmu- 
dicum de Samaritanis. p. 25. Frankfort-on-tbe-Main, 1^51 ; 
Meir ba-Levi Horwitz, Mishnat Rabbi Eliezer, in Ha-Mag- 
gid % xxi i., Nos. 8-30; Fuenn, Kenexet YteraeU i. 321-044, War- 
saw, InvJ; Israel Luria, in Kokebe Yizhak, xxv. 82; Israel 
L£vi, in R. E.J. xviii. K3; Creizenacb, in Josfs Atinaktu ii. 
140; Gratz, in MonatxschrifL 1*59, p. 112, note 5; Bacber, 
Ag. Tan. i. 122-123, Strasbufg, 1903. 


S. O. 

sian physician and pedagogue; born 1810; died Nov., 
18S1. He was professor at the University of Dor- 
pat. As a statesman Pirogov belonged to that re- 
nowned circle of men whose cooperation in educa- 
tional matters was sought by Alexander II. in the 
first years of his reign. His u Voprosy K Zhizni," 
in "Morskoi Sbornik " (1856), dealing mainly with 
educational problems, led to his appointment as 
superintendent of the Odessa school district (1856- 
1858), and later to that of the Kiev district (1858- 
1861). In this capacity he learned to know, for the 
first time, the Jewish people; and as scholar and 
seeker after truth, as the true friend of enlighten- 
ment and the enemy of class antagonism, he treated 
the Jews in a kindly spirit and displayed unusual 
interest in the educational problems concerning 
them. His attitude toward the Jews is best shown 
by the words which he addressed to the Jewish 
community of Berdychev on his retirement from 
the superintendency of the Kiev district: "You are 
conveying to me the appreciation of my sympathy 
for the Jewish people. But I deserve no credit for 
it. It is a part of my nature. I could not act con- 
trary to my own inclinations. Ever since I began 
the study of civics from the standpoint of science, I 
have fejt the greatest antagonism for class preju- 
dices; and involuntarily 1 applied this point of view 
also to national distinctions. In science, in practi- 
cal life, among my colleagues, as well as among my 
subordinates and superiors, I have never thought of 

drawing distinctions as prompted by 
Friendly class and national exclusiveness. I 
Attitude have been guided by these convictions 

Toward also in my relations with the Jews 
the Jews, when brought in contact with them in 

private and public life. These con- 
victions, the result of my education, having been 
developed by lifelong experience, are now second 
nature with me, and will not forsake me to the end 
of mv life." 

This attitude of Pirogov, acknowledged bj r all as 
a prominent man, was for the Jews of great social 
moment; but aside from this he took an active part 
in the development of Jewish education also. No- 
ticing that the Jewish youth in the search for en- 
lightenment encountered obstacles on the part of the 
Russian government as well as of the Jewish people, 
the great mass of which was hostile to general edu- 
cation, Pirogov made timely appeals to the Chris- 
tians as well as to the Jews. Being familiar with 
the methods of instruction in the various Jewish and 
Christian schools, Pirogov, while superintendent of 
the Odessa district, published a special paper on the 

Odessa Talmud Torah in the"Odesski Vyestnik," 
citing it as an example for the Christian elementary 
schools, and noting also the conscious efforts of the 
Jews in the acquisition of knowledge. Further- 
more, while still superintendent he published in the 
Russo-Jewish journal " Razsvyct," in 1860, an article 
on the necessity of enlightenment among the Jewish 
masses; and he invited the educated Jews to form 
an organization for the purpose, avoiding violent 
and unworthy methods in the treatment of their 
opponents. Pirogov also deemed it the duty of the 
Russian public to lend its aid to young Jewish stu- 
dents. *' Where are religion, morality, enlighten- 
ment, and the modern spirit," said Pirogov, "when 
these Jews, who with courage and self-sacrifice en- 
gage in the struggle against prejudices centuries 
old, meet no one here to sympathize with them and 
to extend to them a helping hand?" 

There existed at that time Jewish government 
schools which were very unpopular among the 

Jewish masses owing to the manner in 

Appoints which thej' were conducted; and Piro- 

First Jew- gov devoted much work toward ma- 

ish School king them reallv serve their avowed 

Principal, purpose. His initiative and exertions 

led, among other tilings, to the aboli- 
tion of the rule under which only Christians were 
eligible for appointment as principals of these 
schools. In most cases the principals, coarse and 
uneducated, were unfriendly to the Jews. Pirogov 
appointed the first Jewish principal, U. S. Rosen- 
zweig, one of the most eminent Jewish pedagogues 
in Russia. 

Pirogov rendered a further service of great im- 
portance to the Jews by aiding those who wished to 
enter the general middle and higher institutions of 
learning, and in this connection he worked out and 
presented to the ministry plans for the reorganization 
of the Jewish schools, etc. His task was by no 
means an easy one; for at that time Pirogov was the 
only patron of the Jewish youth. It is said that the 
contemporary minister of public instruction meas- 
ured the distance between the Jewish schools and 
the churches. 

Pirogov lent his aid particularlj r in the organiza- 
tion at the University of Kiev of a fund for aiding 

Jewish students; it was also he who 
Aids Jew- took the first steps toward enabling 

ish Stu- Jews to carrv on their studies with 

dents at government aid, to receive scholar- 
University, ships, etc. Guided by the same edu- 
cational motives, while superintendent 
of the Odessa district he advocated allowing the 
publication of the first Russo-Jewish journal, the 
"Razsvyet," and the Hebrew paper " Ha-Meliz." 

Unfortunately Pirogov's efforts met with no sup- 
port ; his views on the education of the Jews evoked 
no sympathy; and in the course of time access for 
the Jews to the general schools became more difficult. 

Bibliography : M. Morgulis, X. T. Pirogov, in Voskhod* 1881, 
No. 5; N. Botvinnik, Yzglyady Pirogova na Yoprosy Pros- 
vyescheniya Yevrcyei\ in Voskhod, 1903, No. 8: N. Bakst, 
Pamyati Pirogo\ s a n in Ru.wlti Yevrei, 1882, No. 1; Sochine- 
niya, N. I. Pirogova, 2 vols., St. Petersburg, 1900. 

II. U. * 

PISA : Town in Tuscany, Italy, at the mouth of 
the River Arno; formerly a port of the Tyrrhenian 

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Sea. The settlement of Jews in Pisa dates back to 
very early times; the first mention of a congrega- 
tion is met with in the "Itinerary " of Benjamin of 
Tudela, who found twenty families there (c. 1165). 
The importance of Pisa as a commercial town ren- 
ders it probable that the congregation continued to 
exist; and this supposition is directly confirmed by 
statutes of the republic issued during the thirteenth 
century, which exclude Jews from giving evidence, 
and command them to wear the Jews' badge. The 
population, possibly envious of the trade of the 
Jews, was hostile to them. 

Some distinction was bestowed upon the congre- 
gation by the settlement of the Da Pisa family, whose 
members, by their eminence, education, and readi- 
ness to sacrifice, were extensively and benevolently 
active in behalf of the Jews. About 1400 Jehiel b. 

and had become subject to the Medici, who, well 
aware of the advantages which the state would de- 
rive therefrom, permitted the settlement of Jewish 
immigrants from Spain and Portugal. When, about 
1590, the Medici opened the harbor of Leghorn, they 
asked Jews to settle there also; and in 151)3 the 
authorities of the congregaiion of Pisa, to which 
Leghorn was for the time being subordinate, were 
granted the privilege of naturalizing foreign Jews. 
The young congregation of Leghorn soon separated 
from that of Pisa and outnumbered the latter consid- 
erably. The Jews of Pisa fared as did those of other 
Tuscan towns. They were obliged to live in a 
ghetto, and were restricted in their rights; but in 
general they were treated kindly. With the en- 
trance of the French, in 1798, the Jews were accorded 
full citizenship. The Restoration of 1814 acknowl- 

*>> *■••%"- -I *\ 


Old Tombstones from the Jewish Cemetery at Pisa. 

(From a drawing by Albert Hockrdter.) 

Mattithiah da Pisa founded a loan-bank in Pisa. 
He represented the congregation at the Congress of 
Bologna in 1415, and at Forli in 1418. His grand- 
son, Jehiel, a Maecenas of Jewish poets and scholars, 
was a friend of Don Isaac Abravanel, who was as- 
sociated with him and who while still in Spain laid 
claim to his assistance for his oppressed brethren. 
At the same time, Jehiel himself was in danger; as 
elsewhere in Italy after 1450, the Dominicans harassed 
the Jews in Pisa; and in 1471, apparently during 
the presence of Bernardin of Feltrc in the city, an 
assault was made upon their houses. Numbers of 
fugitives from Spain and Portugal disembarked at 
the port of Pisa, among them the Yahya family. 
Isaac da Pisa, the son of Jehiel, took care of the fu- 
gitives and assisted them to find new means of sup- 
port. The same intentions guided also his nephew, 
Jehiel Nissim b. Samuel da Pisa, who, in 1525, shel- 
tered David Reubeni under his roof for several 
months, and furthered his enterprises, from which 
Jehiel expected much benefit for all Jews. 

Pisa in the meanwhile had lost its independence 

edged the independence of the congregation; the 
ghetto w r as abolished ; and gradually the rights of 
the Jews were extended ; but only the establish- 
ment of the kingdom of Italy (1861) brought full 

Of rabbis and scholars in Pisa the following are 
known: Jehiel b. Mattithiah da Betel (14th cent.); 
Daniel b. Samuel Kofe b. Daniel Dayyan da Pisa; 
Raphael b. Eleazar Meldola (1750); Jacob b. Moses 
Senior; Eliezer b. Jacob Supiuo (about 1800); Judah 
Coriat; and A. V. de Bcnedetti. Active at the uni- 
versity were: Sal vadore de Bcnedetti, the translator 
of Judah ha-Levi; Alessandro d'Aucona, for many 
years the dean; and Vittorio Supiuo, now (1905) also 
rector. David Castelli was secretarv of the Jewish 
congregation in 1865. Pisa had temporarily a He- 
brew printing-office in the eighteenth century. 

In 1865 the Jews numbered 450; in 1901 there 
were 500 in a total population of about 61,300. 

Bibliography : Erseh and G ruber. Encyc. section il„ part 27, 
I>. Ml : Corrkre Israclitiah x., xi.; R. E. J. xxvi.; Mortara, 
Indict passim. 

G. I. E. 

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Pisa, Da 



PISA, DA: Italian family, deriving its name 
from the citv of Pisa. It can be traced back to tbe 

fifteenth centurv. 

Abraham ben Isaac da Pisa : Talmudist; son 
of Isaac ben Jehiel; lived in Bologna, where he died 
in 1").>4. lie was often consulted about religious 
questions. One of his responsa is found in the col- 
lection of Menahem Azariah da Fano, in which, de- 
spite his veneration for Meir ben Isaac Katzexel- 
lknbogen of Padua, Abraham refutes the latter *s 
arguments and expresses the wish that, for the sake 
of harmony, the rabbis would agree upon one au- 
thority in accordance with whose decisions religious 
questions might be decided. A court banker, Abra- 
ham suffered much from the exactions of the popes 
during the Turkish wars, and consequently "was in 
straitened circumstances. Not being able to pub- 
lish his responsa, lie left them in manuscript, with 
other works of his. 

In the list of names in the archives of the Jewish 
communitv of Home for the vears 1530 to 1542 is 
found the name of Solomon da Pisa (see Vogelstein 
and Rieger, "Gesch. der Juden in Rom," ii. 419), and 
among the prominent members of the community 
during the period 1542-1005 were Abraham ben 
Joseph and Moses ben Solomon da Pisa (ib. ii. 
421). Two of the later descendants of this family 
"were Giuseppe Pisa (1). 1827, Ferrara; d. Milan, 
Feb. 24, 1904) and his nephew Ugo Pisa. The for- 
mer, a merchant and manufacturer, took an active 
part in the revolutionary movement of 1848. 

Other distinguished members of the family were 
Jehiel (see Jew. Encyc. vii. 83) and Isaac ben Je- 
hiel (for whose son Abraham sec above). 

Daniel ben Isaac da Pisa: Wealthy and learned 
philanthropist of the sixteenth century. lie was 
called to the rabbinate of Rome during the pontifi- 
cate of Clement VII., and succeeded in bringing 
harmony into that community. He united into one 
congregation the different elements, consisting of 
Italian and foreign-born Jews, and instituted a coun- 
cil of sixty members to administer the affairs of the 
amalgamated congregation. The decisions of this 
council were declared legal by a papal decree of 
Dec. 12, 1524. While David Reubeni was at Rome, 
Daniel da Pisa provided for his wants and served as 
his interpreter before the pope. Through Daniel's 
influence Reubeni received from Clement VII. letters 
of recommendation to the King of Portugal and to 
other Christian monarchs. 

Bibliography: Gratz. Gesch. ix. 248; Gedaliah Ibn Yabya, 
ShaUhelet ha-Kabbalah. ed. Venice, p. G5b; Heilprin, Seder 
ha-DoroL t. 23& 24"* Warsaw, 18*3; David Kaufmann, in R. 
E. J. xxvi. 81-00, xxtx. 146-147, xxxi. 05 et *eg. % xxxii. 130- 
1&4 : Michael, Orha-Hayyim % No. 144 : It VetsiUo Israelitieo, 
1904, p. ia r >; Vopretslein and Rieger, Geseh. der Juden in 
Rom, ii. 40, 44, 128. 

d. S. Man. 

Ugo Pisa: Italian writer and senator; born 
Aug., 1845. After taking part in the campaign of 

I860 he studied law. In 1869 and 1870 he was at- 
tached to the Italian consulate at Constantinople, 
and was then secretary of legation in China, Japan, 
London, and Berlin successively. In 1873 he entered 
the Ranca Pisa of Milan; he was elected common 
councilor, judge of the tribunal of commerce, coun- 
sel and president of the chamber of commerce, and 
finally senator (Nov. 17, IftOS). 

Pisa is the author of the following works: "As- 
sicurazione Colletiva Contro gl* lnfortunii sul La- 
voro, ed Intervento del Patronato Milanese per Fa- 
cilitarne rApplicazione," Milan, 1885; "Liberi Pro- 
tezionisti eSocialisti," ib. 1892; in collaboration with 
G. Fraschi, u Sulla Opportunity di Dare Maggiore 
Ellieaeia Practica all' Azione del Consiglio delP In- 
dustrie e del Commercio," ib. 1893; % * Relation sur 
la Prevoyance pour les Accidents de Travail en 
Italic l«82-89 ,f (in "Congrfis International des Acci- 
dents du Travail et des Assurances Sociales & 
Milan v ), ib. 1894; u Delle Xonne per Regolare il Li- 
cenziamento degli Agenti di Commercio," etc., ib, 
1894; " Relation sur la Prevoyance pour les Acci- 
dents du Travail en Italic" (in vt Comite Italien des 
Sciences Sociales pour l'Exposition de Paris"), ib. 

Bibliography: J 11 'wtr azione Italiana, 1898, part ii., p. 425. 

s. U. C. 

PISGAH (always with the article: Ha-Pis- 
gah) : .Mountain in Moab, celebrated as one of the 
stations of the Israelites in their journey through 
that country (Num. xxi. 20) and as the place of one 
of Balak's sacrifices (ih. xxiii. 14), but chiefly as the 
place of Moses* death after he had beheld from 
its summit fc 'all the land of Gilead, unto Dan; and 
all Naphtali, and the land of Ephraim and Ma- 
nasseh, and all the land of Judah, unto the hinder 
[western] sea; and the south, and the plain of the 
valley of Jericho, the city of palm-trees, unto Zoar " 
(Deut. xxxiv. 1-2, R. V.). It is identified (ib. 
xxxiv. 1) with Mount Xebo; and in Num. xxiii. 
14 the "field of Zophim " is the "top of Pisgah." 
Under the u slopes of Pisgah " was the " sea of the 
Arabah " or Dead Sea (Deut. iii. 17, iv. 49; Josh. xii. 

3, xiii. 20, R. V.). 

Pisgah has been identified also with the modern 
Naba, a ridge which projects westward from the 
plateau of Moab, near the northeastern end of the 
Dead Sea, about five miles southwest of Heshbon, 
and 2,643 feet above the Mediterranean and 3,935 feet 
above the Dead Sea. It is described by G. A. Smith 
("Historical Geography of the Holy Land," p. 
5G3) as about two miles long, with a level top about 
one-half mile broad. "It is of flinty limestone, 
mostly barren." It commands an extensive view of 
the whole of western Palestine. There are two 
summits; the higher, Ras Naba; the lower and out- 
ermost, Ras Siyaghah. The latter commands the 
whole of the Jordan valley and is probably identical 
with the "top of Pisgah which looketh down upon 
Jeshimon " (Num. xxi. 20, R. V., margin). 

The name "Pisgah " has not survived till modern 
times, unless in "Ras Fashkah," a headland on the 
opposite or western side of the Dead Sea. It is said 
to have been still used, however, in the time of 
Eusebius (in the form $aoy6; comp. LXX. $aoya, 
Qaaxa) for a district in that region (Eusebius, 
"Onomasticon," ed. Lagarde, pp. 124-125, 237). 

Bibliography: O. a. Smith, Ifiatnrical Geography of the 
JJotu Land, pp. 5{>2-5M>; Tristram, Land of Moab, pp. 339- 
340; Survey of Eastern Palestine, pp. 154-156, 198-203; Con- 
dor, Helh and Moab. 3d ed., pp. 132 et seq.; Driver, Commen- 
tary on Deuteronomy (xxxiv. 1). 

k. c. J. F. McL. 

PISGAH, HA-. See Periodicals. 

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Pisa, Da 


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PITHOM (DHQ; LXX. Uet66 t nufcfyi): One of the 
cities which, according to Ex. i. 11, was built for 
the Pharaoh of the oppression by the forced labor 
of the Israelites. The other city was Raamses; and 
the Septuagint adds a third, "On, which is Ileliop- 
olis." The meaning of the term nU3DO nj?, ren- 
dered iu the Authorized Version " treasure cities" 
and in the Revised Version "store cities," is not defi- 
nitely known. The Septuagint renders rSXeic bxvpai 
"strong [or "fortified"] cities." The same term 
is used of cities of Solomon in I Kings ix. 19 (eomp. 
also II Chron. 
xvi. 4). The lo- 
cation of Pithom 
was a subject of 
much conjec- 
ture and debate 
until its site was 
discovered by E. 
Naville in the 
spring of 1883. 
Herodotus (ii. 
158) says that 
the canal made 
by Necho to con- 
nect the Red Sea 
with the Nile 
"passes Patu- 
mos, a city in the 
Arabian nome." 
This district of 
Arabia w r as the 
twentieth nome 
of Lower Egypt, 
and its capital 
was Goshen 
(Egyptian," Ko- 

The site of 
Pithom, as iden- 
tified by Naville, 
is to the east of 
the Wady Tu- 
milat, south- 
west of Ismailia. 
Here w r as for- 
merly a group 
of granite stat- 
ues representing 

Rameses II., 
standing be- 
tween two 
gods; and from 

tliis it had been inferred that this was the city 
of Raamses mentioned in Ex. i. 11. The excava- 
tions carried on by Naville for the Egypt Ex- 
ploration Fund disclosed a city wall, a ruined 
temple, and the remains of a series of brick buildings 
with very thick walls and consisting of rectangular 
chambers of various sizes, opening only at the top 
and without any communication with one another. 
These are supposed to have been the granaries or 
store-chambers, from which, possibly, the army may 
have been supplied when about to set out upon ex- 
peditions northward or eastward. The city stood in 
the eighth nome 

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the statement of Herodotus is not exactly correct. 
It was known in the Greek period as Ileroopolis 
or Heroonpolis. The Egyptian name, "Pithom" 
(Pi-Tum or Pa-Turn), means "house of Turn" [or 
"Atum"], i.e., the sun-god of Heliopolis; and the 
Greek word "Hero" is probably a translation of 

The discovery of the ruins of Pithom confirms the 
Biblical statement and points to Rameses 11. as the 
Pharaoh that oppressed Israel. The name of the 
city Pi-Tum is first found on Egyptian monuments 

of the nineteenth 
dynasty. Im- 
portant evidence 
is thus afforded 
of the date of the 
Exodus, which 
must have taken 
place toward the 
end of the nine- 
teenth dynasty 
or in the be- 
ginning of the 
twentieth dy- 

In the Middle 
Ages Fay u m 
was called 
"Pithom" by 
the Jews, so that 
the Gaon Saadia 
is termed "Al- 
Fayyumi" in 
Arabic (Ilebr. 
and he himself 
translates " Pi- 
thom " in Ex. i. 
11 by "Al Fay- 

Bibliography: Na- 
ville, Tfw Store 
City of Pithom* 
etc.* in Memoir of 
Egypt Explora- 
tion Fund, 1885: 
Sayce, Higher 
Criticism and the 
Momtmc nta, 1894, 
pp. 2i9 et acq. % 250 
ct acq.; Driver, in 
Hoparth's Au- 
thority and Ar- 
chtrologih li>99, 
pp. 54 ct seq., 61, 

e. c. J. F. McL. 

PITTSBURG: Second largest city in the state 
of Pennsylvania. With Allegheny, the twin-city 
on the north side of the Allegheny River, it is the 
chief city of western Pennsylvania. 

There are no reliable records of the beginnings of 
the Jewish community; but it has been ascertained 
that between 1838 and" 1844 a small number of Jews, 
mostly from Baden, Bavaria, and Witrttemberg, set- 
tled in and around Pittsburg. These were joined 
by others in 1847 and by still others in 1852, who 
included in their numbers the founders of Jewish 
communal life. The first Jewish service was held 
. in the autumn .of 1844, while the lirst attempt at 

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organization was made in 1847, when a mere band- 
ful of men combined with the hope of forming a 
congregation. They worshiped in a room on Penn 
street near Walnut (now 13th) street, having en- 
gaged the Rev. 3Iannheimer as cantor. They 
formed also a Bes Almon Society, and purchased 
a cemetery at Troy Hill. The congregational body 
finally became known as k4 Ez Hajjim." It lacked 
homogeneity on account of the varying religions 
views of its members; and divisions and reunions 
took place from time to time until about 1853, when 
a united congregation was formed under the name 
"Rodeph Shalom." In 1864 a further division oc- 
curred, the seceders chartering a congregation under 
the name "Ez Hajjim " in 1865, and purchasing a 
cemetery at Sharpsburg. 

Congregation Rodeph Shalom first worshiped in 
a hall over the Vigilant engine-house on Third 
avenue, then in the Irish hall on Sixth street, and 

in 1861 built on Hancock (now Eighth) 

Congrega- street the first synagogue in western 

tion Pennsylvania. In 1879 it purchased 

Rodeph the West View Cemetery. In 1884 the 

Shalom, synagogue was enlarged, but it was 

subsequently torn down, and the pres- 
ent building, under erection during 1900 and 1901, 
was dedicated on Sept. 6 and 7 of the latter year. 
Among the early readers and teachers of Rodeph 
Shalom were Sulzbacher and Marcuson. In 1854 
William Armhold took charge of the congregation, 
remaining till 1865, when he went to Philadel- 
phia. During his administration the congregation 
erected the temple on Eighth street; and, in con- 
junction with Josiah Cohen, he conducted a school 
which was maintained from 1860 to 1868. From 
1865 to 1870 L. Xaumburg was teacher and reader; 
and in his day the Reform movement was con- 
siderably advanced. The first rabbi of the con- 
gregation was Lippman Mayer, who came from 
Selma, Ala., in the spring of 1870. He success- 
fully guided the congregation along advanced 
Reform lines until his retirement as rabbi emeritus 
in 1901. By that time he had seen his congregation 
grow from a membership of 65 to 150. He was 
succeeded (April 1, 1901) by J. Leonard Levy, the 
present (1905) incumbent, who was called from 
Reform Congregation Keneseth Israel, Philadel- 
phia. In the past two years Rodeph Shalom has 
grown considerably. Its present number of mem- 
bers and seat-holders exceeds 400 ; and it is worthy 
of record that on the day after the dedication of the 
new temple (Sept. 8, 1901) the congregation con- 
tributed a sum of money which not only liquidated 
a debt of nearly $100,000, but left a surplus of over 

Rodeph Shalom, which during the past sixteen 
years has been presided over by Abraham Lippman, 
has since 1901 issued, for the use of its members and 
others : " A Book of Prayer " for the Sunday services ; 
"A Text-Book of Religion and Ethics for Jewish 
Children"; "A Home Service for the Passover"; 
44 A Home Service for Hanukkah"; "The Children's 
Service"; "Sabbath Readings" for each Sabbath of 
the year; and three volumes of Sunday lectures. 
The congregation distributes these Sunday lectures 
weekly in pamphlet form to all who attend the serv- 

ices, and also furnishes gratuitously a special edi- 
tion to non-Jewish residents of Allegheny county. 

The Ez Hajjim congregation worshiped for a time 
in a hall in the Dennis block on Second avenue, 
and in 1882 purchased its present building on Fourth 
and Ross streets. It has prospered, and is an active 
force in Jewish congregational and communal life. 
Among its ministers may be mentioned: A. Crone 
(1874-81); A. Bernstein (1881-91); F. Salinger (1891- 
1897); Michael Fried (since 1898), the present (1905) 
incumbent, a graduate of the Jewish Theological 
Seminary of America. Ez Hajjim belongs to the 
school of progressive conservatism, and now has 
family pews and confers the rite of confirmation. 
It has inaugurated Friday evening services and 
has a Ladies' Auxiliary Society, a flourishing re- 
ligious school, and a growing alumni association. 

Pittsburg is notable in American Jewish history 
on account of the conference (see Jew. Encyc. iv. 
215, $.i\ CoNFEitENCES, Rabbinical) held there in 
1885, and is also well known as a generous supporter 
of all national Jewish movements, notably the He- 
brew Union College and the Denver Hospital. 
Among the more prominent local philanthropic and 
charitable institutions maybe mentioned the follow- 
ing: (1) J. 31. Gusky Orphanage and Home, with 
the Bertha Rauh Cohen Annex. The Home was 
founded in 1890 by Esther Gusky, in memory 
of her husband, Jacob Mark Gusky. The Annex 
was the gift in 1889 of Aaron Cohen in memory of 
his wife, Bertha Rauh Cohen, the only daughter 
of Rosalia Rauh and the late Solomon Raul). 

The Home has 62 inmates, an annual 

Philan- income of about $10,000, and an en- 
thropic As- dowment fund of §67,000. (2) The 
sociations. United Hebrew Relief Association, 

a union of the Hebrew Benevolent 
Society and the Hebrew Ladies' Aid Society. It 
dispenses §10,000 yearly, and has a sinking-fund 
of 829,000. (3) The Columbian Council School, a 
social settlement. It conducts a large number of 
classes, public lectures, a library, public baths, a 
gymnasium, etc. The bath-house was the gift of 
Alexander Peacock. The disbursements are about 
§6,000 annually. (4) The Ladies' Hospital Aid se- 
curesand pays for hospital attention for the sick poor. 
Ithasan annual income of about §8,000, and is at pres- 
ent endeavoring to erect a Jewish hospital. (5) The 
Young Ladies' Sewing Society, which dispenses 
clothing to the poor ; income about §2,000 annually. 

The Concordia Club fosters Jewish social life 
in Pittsburg. The Council of Jewish Women 
is represented by the Columbian Council. The 
Y. M. II. A. has been reorganized, and gives 
promise of great activity. The Independent Or- 
der of B'nai B'rith has five lodges; and the Inde- 
pendent Order of the Free Sons of Israel, the Sons 
of Benjamin, Sons of Israel, and Sons of Abraham 
have two each. There are two weekly papers, one 
in English, "The Jewish Criterion," of which Rabbi 
Levy and Charles II. Joseph are the editors, and one 
in Jiukeo-German, the " Volksfreund." 

The Jews of Pittsburg are prominent in the profes- 
sions and in commerce. Donors to non-sectarian 
charities include J. D. Bernd and Isaac Kaufmann, 
the latter of whom in 1895 gave the Emma Kaufmann 

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Free Clinic to the medical department of the West- 
ern University. Among those who have held posi- 
tions in public life are Emanuel A Vert- 
Prominent heimer, select councilman and member 
Jews. of the state house of representatives; 

Morris Einstein, select councilman (15 
3 r cars); Josiah Cohen, judge of the Orphans* Court; 
E. E. Mayer, city physician ; L. S. Levin, assistant 
city attorney. Isaac W. Frank is president of the 
National Founders' Association, and A. Leo Weil is a 
member of the executive committee of the Voters' 
Civic League. 

Since 1882 there has been a steady increase in the 
number of Jews in Pittsburg, the new settlers com- 
ing mostly from eastern Europe. Russian, Ruma- 
nian, and Hungarian Jews have come in large num- 
bers, and are beginning to display an appreciable 
interest in public affairs. They have six synagogues 
(whose rabbis include A. M. Ashinsky and M. S. 
Sivitz), many hebras, and a number of small relig- 
ious societies. The Pittsburg Jewry strongly sym- 
pathizes with the Ziouistic movement, having a 
large number of Zionistic societies. The number of 
Jewish inhabitants is estimated at between 15,000 
and 25,000, in a total population of about 322,000. 

Bibliography: History of Congregation Rodeph ShaU)m % 
1899; articles in the Jewish Criterion* 1901, and American 
Israelite, 1893. 

A. J. L. L. 

PIUS IV. (Gian Angelo Medici) : Pope from 
1559 to 1505. He was a Milanese of humble origin, 
and became cardinal under Paul III., through the 
lattcr's relations with Gian's brother Giangiacomo, 
who had made himself master of Sienna. Gian, who 
enjoyed the pope's confidence, was clever, good- 
natured, condescending, somewhat worldly-minded, 
and in every way a complete contrast to the fanatical 
Paul IV., after whose death he succeeded to the 
papacy. This contrast appeared in the severity 
with which he dealt with Paul's favorites. Al- 
though he did not favor the Inquisition, he did not 
dare attack it. He convened the Council of Trent 
for the third time, and succeeded in having it 
brought to a satisfactory termination through the 
ability of the president of his choice, Marone. 

The Jews breathed more freely under Pius. It 
was due to his intervention that Emperor Ferdinand 
canceled the edict of expulsion which had been is- 
sued against the Bohemian Jews. He bettered the 
condition of the Jews in Rome and in the Pontifical 
States by changing and in part revoking the restric- 
tions imposed by Paul IV., and by granting them 
the following privileges: to lay aside the Jews' 
badge when traveling, if they remained only for one 
day in any place; to enlarge the ghetto, and to open 
shops outside of it; and to acquire real estate beyond 
the ghetto limits to the value of 1,500 gold ducats. 
The Jus Gazaka or Gazaga, of later date, rests 
upon a decree to prevent the increase of rent in the 

Pius ordered the restoration of account-books and 
communal records which had been confiscated, and 
pardoned all the trespasses committed by the Roman 
Jews against Paul's decrees except murder, coun- 
terfeiting, mockery of Christianity, and lese-majesty. 
He even granted the Jews permission to print the 

Talmud, though under a different name. His suc- 
cessor, Pius V., followed in Paul IV. 's footsteps. 

BiiiLioiHupii v : (iriltA Geseh. ix. 303 ; Joseph ha-Kotaen, *Emek 
ha~]!aha y i>p. ]24 et mq.\ David Gang, %emah Daivid for the 
year 1550; Kunke, G etch, tier Ptipste, I. 2(i"> et sea.; Stern, 
Urhundliche licitrtige, p. 137 ; Vo^ulstein and lUeper, Gc*ch. 
derJudcn in Ilottu \U 1G0 et scq.; Zunz, iu Geiger's )VUh. 
Zcit.Jtld. Tficol. v. 40. 

»■ II. V. 

PIYYUT (plural, Piyyutim) : Hymn added to 
the older liturgy that developed during the Tal- 
mudic era and up to the seventh century. The 
word is derived from the Greek term for poetry, 
perhaps more directly from notnrfc. The author of 
a piyyut is called "payyctan," a Neo-IIebrew form 
derived from " piyyut." In midrashic literature the 
word "piyyut" is used merely in the general sense 
of "fiction" (Gen. R. Ixxxv.; Talk., Dan. 1003), 
while " payyetan " is used in the technical sense of an 
author of synagogal poetry. R. Eleazar, son of 
Simon b. Yohai, was called a student of the Bible 
and the Mishnah, a payyetan, and a preacher (Lev. 
R. xxx.; Pesik. 179a, ed. Ruber; Zunz, "G. V." p. 
380; idem, "S. P." p. 60). 

The oldest piyyutim are anonymous. They were 
written during the era of the early Gconim (c. 7th 
cent.) and arc embodied in the prayer-book. They 

show an attempt at meter, and, as in 
Historical some late Biblical poetical composi- 

Develop- tions, the successive lines are often al- 
ment. phabetically arranged. Examples of 

this kind are found in the Sabbath morn- 
ing prayer "El Adon, ha-Kol Yoduka,"in the peni- 
tential prayers " We-IIu Rahum" for Mondays and 
Thursdays, and elsewhere. 

The oldest payyetan known byname is Jose ben 
Jose (ha-Yatom): his date can be fixed only from 
the fact that he was known to Saadia, who quotes 
him; but this merely proves that he lived not later 
than 850. The next payyctan known is Yannai, 
who is said to have been the teacher of the most pro- 
lific and popular of the old payyetanim, Eleazar ben 
Kalir. The latter's most famous successor was Saadia 
Gaon, iu the tenth century. From that time the pay- 
yetanim become very numerous and are found iu 
all larger Jewish settlements, notably in Germany, 
France, Spain, and Italy. Zunz (" Literaturgesch.") 
counts over 900 names of payyetanim. It seems 
likely that they were influenced by the troubadours 
and the minnesingers, both in the writing of their 
poems and in their musical settings. 

Iu Germany in the eleventh century there were 
Moses ben Kalonymus, Meshullam ben Kalonymus, 

Simon ben Isaac, and Gcrshom ben 

In Judah; in the twelfth centurv Jcku- 

Germany, thiol ben Moses of Spcyer, Menahem 

France, ben Machir of Ratisbon, MeTr ben 

Spain, and Isaac (the hazzau), Kalonymus ben 

Italy. Judah, Eliezer ben Nathan (author of 

the history of the persecutions during 
the Crusades), Ephraim ben Isaac of Ratisbon, and 
Ephraim ben Jacob of Bonn; in the thirteenth cen- 
tury Moses ben Hasdai ipn (of Tachau ?), Eleazar 
ben Judah of Worms, and Eliezer ben Joel ha-Levi. 

In France Benjamin ben Samuel of Coutances 
(11th cent.; Gross, "Gallia Judaica," p. 553), Yom- 
Tob bcu Isaac of Joiguy (martyred at York in 1190), 

X.— 5 

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Rashi, and many of the tosatists. were liturgical 
poets, as were Moses of Coucy and Abraham and 
Jedaiah Bedcrsi. 

In Spain, where Hebrew poetry reached the high- 
est development, the best liturgical poets were Sol- 
omon ibn Gabirol, Judah ha-Lcvi, and Abraham and 
Moses ibn Ezra. A large number of others whose 
names are famous in philosophical and Talmudic 
literature wrote liturgical poems, as Joseph ben 
Isaac ibn Abitur, Isaac Ghayyat, Judah ben Bileam, 
Bahya ben Joseph ibn Pakuda, and Isaac ben Ren- 
ben of Barcelona; even Maimonidesis known as the 
author of a few hvmns. 

In Italy, where, according to some, Eleazar Kalir 
had his home, there were payyetanimfrom the tenth 
to the eighteenth century. According to Zunz, Sol- 
omon ha-Babli of the tenth century lived in Rome 
("Babel " being a metonymic name for Rome). To 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries belong Isaiah 
di Trani and Immanucl of Rome. After the four- 
teenth, payyetanim became fewer, and their produc- 
tions were rarely embodied in the official liturgy. 
Generall v their pivvutim were written to commemo- 
rate some local event. Thus Baruch ben Jehiel ha- 
Kohen wrote on the devastation wrought during the 
time of the Black Death (1347) ; Abigdor Kara, on the 
persecution in Prague (1380); Samuel Sehotten, on 
the fire in Frankfort-on-the-Main (1711); Jacob ben 
Isaac, on the conquest of Posen by a hostile army 
(1716); and Malachi ha-Kohen, on an earthquake 
that threatened Leghorn (1742). The Thirty Years' 
war (1618-48), also the Cossack persecutions under 
Chmielnicki (1648), produced an extensive literature 
of such piyyntim. 

The piyyntim arc of various kinds, according to 
their theme, their place in the liturgy, or their form. 

The Selihah, the penitential prayer, 

Classifica- occupies the foremost rank and is 

tion. most likely the oldest The " We-Hu 

Rahum," for Mondays and Thursdays, 
was known as early as the time of the Geonim. It 
was originally composed for fast-days, as were some 
of the older, anonymous sclihot: the "El Melek 
Yosheb" and the various litanies, which are, in 
parts, found in Talmudic literature; the "Abinu 
Malkenu"; and the "Mi shc-'Anah." A common 
theme of the selihot is the sacrifice of Isaac (see 
' Akedah). Another regular feature of the peniten- 
tial prayers is the confession of sins ("widdui"), 
in which the initial letters of the successive lines are 
generally in alphabetical order. The introductory 
part is called the "petihah,"and the closing part the 
Ptzmon, to which there is a refrain. 

The hymns for holy days and some special Sab- 
baths are more specifically called "piyyntim," or 
often, wrongly, "yozerot." They are divided ac- 
cording to their place in the regular liturgy. Those 
that are inserted in the evening prayer (" 'arbit ") are 
called Ma'arabiyyot ; those inserted in the first 
benediction of the morning prayer arc called Yozer, 

from the benediction " Yozer Or " ; in 
Special the second benediction, Ahabah, 

Names. from the initial word of that benedic- 
tion; those inserted in the benediction 

following the Shema' are called Zulat, from the key- 
words "En Elohim zulatcka," or Ge'ullah, from 

the benediction "Go'el Yisrael." Other namea 
taken from the characteristic words of the passages 
in which the piyyntim arc inserted are Ofan and 
Me'orah* Kerobot (incorrectly Keroboz, perhaps 
under French influence; Zunz, "S. P." p. 65) is the 
name of a piyyut inserted in theTefillah proper (see 
Kekobot and Shemoneu 'Eskeii). Another name, 
rarely used, for the same piyyut is Shib'ata, from 
"shib'ah " (= "seven "), because the tefillot for Sab- 
bath and holy days consist of seven benedictions. 
A special class of piyyufcim is formed by the Toka- 
hah (= "reproof "), penitential discourses some- 
what similar to the widdui, and the Kinau for the 
Ninth of Ab. 

According to their poetical form there are to be 
distinguished the Sheniyah, the stanzas of which 
consist of two lines each ; the Shelishit, consisting 
of three lines; the Pizmon, already mentioned; the 
Mostegab, in which a Biblical verse is used at the 
beginning of every stanza; the Shalnaonit, a meter 
introduced by Solomon ha-Babli (Zunz, "S. P." p. 
167; idem, " Ritus," p. 135). The poetical form was 
originally acrostic, according to the alphabet in 
proper order (3"N) nr reversed (p'n^n) or in some 

artificial form (D"X>X). In later times, beginning 
with the eleventh century, it became customary 
for the author to weave his name into the acrostic, 
sometimes adding an invocation ; for instance, "May 
he prosper in the Law and in good deeds." 

The days on which piyyutim arc inserted in the 
regular liturgy are the holy days (including Purim 
and the Ninth of Ab) and a number of Sabbaths 

which possess special significance, as 

When Piy- the Four Parasuiyyot, including the 

yutim Are Sabbaths falling between them (" Haf- 

Recited* sakot"); the Sabbaths on which New 

Moon falls; Hanukkah Sabbath; Sab- 
bath Bereshit, when the first portion of the Torah 
is read ; Sabbaths on which the Scriptural reading 
has some special significance, as when the sacrifice 
of Isaac (Wayera), or the Song of Moses (Beshal- 
lah), or the Ten Commandments (Yitro), or the law 
of the Red Heifer (Hukkat) is read; and other Sab- 
baths. The persecutions during the Crusades con- 
stitute the theme of the "Zulat," on the Sabbaths 
intervening between Passover and Pentecost Spe- 
cial events, as a circumcision on the Sabbath or a 
wedding during the week, are celebrated by appro- 
priate piyyntim. On this point the various rites, as 
the Ashkcnazic, the Polish, the Sephardic, the Italian, 
those of Carpentras and Oran, Frankfort-on-thc- 
Main, Worms, and Prague, and other prominent 
old communities, differ very greatly, as they differ 
also with regard to the pieces selected for the holy 
days. In general, however, every minhag has given 
preference to the works of local authors. 

The natural development of the language intro- 
duced into the piyyutim not only the Xeo-Hebrew 
words which are found in the prayers of Talmudic 
times, such as "'olam" in the sense of "the uni- 
verse" (Biblical Hebrew, "eternity"), "merkabah" 
(= " the divinechariot"), "hitkin " (= "to arrange"), 
but also a large number of new words formed on 
models and from roots found in Talmudic and mid* 
rashic literature or arbitrarily developed from such 
words as are met with in the works of the oldest 

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payyetanim. Thus Jose ben Jose employs "shu'at 
ketoret" (= 4< the service of the frankincense") in 
his ritual for the Day of Atonement (Landshuth, 
"Siddur Ilegyon Leb," p. 507, K5nigsberg, 1875), 

an expression the use of which has 
Philolog- only a weak support in the Biblical 

ical and 4< sha'ah " (comp. Gen. iv. 5). The 
Dogmatic typical development of the mannerism 

Charac- of the payyetanim is found as early as 

teristics. in the works of Yanuai — for instance, 

in his piyyut f° r Passover eve, em- 
bodied in the Haggadah and in the Ashkenazic 
ritual for the Sabbath preceding Passover ( u Az 
Rob Nissim n )„ lie uses by preference sucli rare 
and poetical expressions as " zarah " (= " to call ") in- 
stead of " kara," and " sab " (=" he spoke ") for u dib- 
ber"; and such midrashic allegorical designations 
as " ger zedek " for Abraham, " Patros " for Egypt ; 
and he arbitrarily mutilates Biblical and rabbin- 
ical words (e.g., flD^D [=" the camp"] from Dp*D 
[Greek, rdt-tc], the Aramaic translation of "degel" 
in Num. ii. 2). 

The master in this line is Kalir, whose pflp ftf in 
the kerobah for Sabbath Zakor (the Sabbath prece- 
ding Puriin) has become proverbial for its manner- 
isms (see Erter, ki Ha-Zofeh," Vienna, 1864). No bet- 
ter, as a rule, is its intrinsic worth as poetry. The 
piyyut suffers from endless repetitions and from ex- 
cessive attention to rime and the acrostic. One of 
the most curious instances is afforded by the selihah 
of Ephraim ben Jacob of Bonn (12th cent.), beginning 
"Ta shcum'," and found in the Ashkenazic ritual for 
the fifth day after New-Year. The author, who 
shows a remarkable command of the Talmudic idiom 
and a profound knowledge of Talmudic dialectics, 
argues with God, in the style of the Talmudic dis- 
course, to prove that Israel should receive far better 
treatment at His hands, saying, " To every question 
there is an answer ; only mine remains unanswered ! " 

There are, however, a few noble exceptions, as 
Judah ha-Levi's poems, notably his famous ode on 
Zion, found in the liturgy for the Ninth of Ab, and 
Solomon ibn Gabirol's hymns, as hiswondert'ul pen- 
itential hymn "Shomarnti be-Rob Yegoni " in the 
Ashkenazic ritual for the Fast of Gedaliah. Abra- 
ham ibn Ezra's religious poetry, while noble in 
thought and grammatically correct, lacks the in- 
spiration of true poetry. 

Amoug the German and French payyetanim, Solo- 
mon ben Abun of France (12th cent.) and Simon 
ben Isaac of Worms (10th cent.) likewise may be 
quoted as exceptions. While both poets labor 
under the difficulties created by the customs of 
acrostic, rime, and midrashic allusion, they display 
deep religious sentiment and are free from that 
mannerism which seeks distinction in creating diffi- 
culties for the reader. Simon ben Isaac's poem 
beginning "Atiti le-hananek," which serves as an 
introduction to the kerobah for the Shaharit serv- 
ice of the second New-Year's day (Ashkenazic 
ritual), is a noble expression of trust in God's 
mercy, not unworthy of Ps. exxxix., from which 
the author drew his inspiration. The pizmon 
"Shofet Kol ha-Arez," by Solomon ben Abun (Zunz, 
"Literaturgesch." pp. 311-312), found in the Ash- 
kenazic ritual for the day preceding New-Year and 

for the Shaharit service on the Day of Atonement, 
expresses in profoundly religious tones the belief in 
divine justice. 

It seems, as has already been stated, that the 
payyetanim, like the troubadours, conceived their 

poetry as something that possessed no 
Opposition liturgical character in the strict sense 
to of the word. The degree of approval 

Piyyutim, with which these hymns were re- 
ceived, or of personal respect which 
the author, in many instances a local rabbi, en joyed, 
decided for or against the insertion of the piyyutim 
in the MAnzon of the congregation. Opposition to 
the inclusion of the piyyut. * n the regular prayer as 
an unlawful interruption of divine service is found 
as early as the eleventh century. Rabbenu Tarn 
(Jacob ben McYr) defends the practise against the 
objections of Hananeel and Hai Gaon (" Haggahot 
Maimoniyyot," in "Yad," Tefillah, vi. 3). Jacob 
ben Asher disapproves of the practise, quoting the 
opinion of his father, Asher ben Jehiel, and of MeTr 
ha-Kohen. Still, in the fourteenth century the cus- 
tom was so well established that Jacob Molln 
(Maharil; Hilkot Yom Kippur, p. 47b, ed. War- 
saw, 1874), disapproved not only of the action of his 
disciples, who preferred to study in the synagogue 
while the congregation recited the piyyutim, but 
also of any departure from local custom in the selec- 
tion of the piyyutim and the traditional airs(Isserles, 
in notes on Tur Orah Hayyim, 68; Shulhan *Aruk, 
Orah Hayyim, 619). 

Other objections, from the esthetic standpoint, 
and on account of the obscure and often blasphe- 
mous language used, have been presented in a mas- 
terly criticism upon Kalir's piyyutim by Abraham 
ibn Ezra (commentary on Eccl. v. 1). These objec- 
tions, against which Heidenheim endeavored to de- 
fend Kalir (commentary on the Jterobah for the 
Musaf of the Day of Atonement), were revived in 
the earliest stages of the Reform movement (see 
Zunz, "Ritus," pp. 169 et seg.). Indeed, as early as 
the beginning of the eighteenth century dogmatic 
objections to the piyyutim were raised, chiefly in 
regard to addressing prayers to the angels, and to 
certain gross anthropomorphisms (Lampronti, u Pa- 
had Yizhak," s.v. Vm¥, pp. 33b et seq.)— objections 
the force of which some of the strictest Orthodox 
rabbis, like Moses Sofer, recognized. (See Anthro- 
rOMOlUMUSM and Antukopopattiism. 

The Reform movement resulted in the general 
disuse of the piyyutim even in synagogues in 
which otherwise the traditional ritual was main- 
tained; but in such synagogues and even in almost 
all those which use the Reform ritual, some of the 
most popular piyyutim for New-Year and the Day 
of Atonement have been retained. 

The verbal difficulties of the piyyut made com- 
mentaries a necessity, so that even the authors them- 
selves appended notes to their piyyutim. An ex- 
haustive commentary by Johanan Treves was pub- 
lished in the Bologna (1541) edition of the Roman 
Mahzor. Of the later commentators none has done 
more valuable work than Wolf Heidenheim, who, 
however, limited himself to the Ashkenazic and to 
the Polish ritual. He was the first, also, to write a 
correct German translation of the whole Mahzor, but 

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neither his nor Michael Sachs's translation succeed 
in the almost impossible task of remaining faithful to 
the original and producing at the same time a read- 
able text in German. The same may be said of the 
translations in other modern languages. An excep- 
tion exists in the work of Seligmann Heller, who 
succeeded in producing a really poetical version of 
some of the piyyutim. 

Bibliography : Mabztn\ed. Hefdenhefm, Introduction ; Zunz, 
S. P.\ idem, Littraturut'*ch.: idem, IHUis; Gesletmer, Maf- 
teach ha-Pijutim % Berlin, 1889; Weiss, Dar % iv. S21-22IS; 
Landshutb. Ammudeha-'Abodah ; Fleckeles, Teahubah mc- 
Ahabah. vol. i.. No. 1, Prague, 1809; Wolff, Die Stimmen 
dtr Aeltesten und Glaubwllrdigstcn Itabbinen tlbcr die 

Pijutim % Lelpsic, 1S57. 


PIZMON: Hymn with a refrain; usually the 
chief poem in the scheme of selihot sung or recited 
by the cantor and congregation in alternation. Of 
the mauy etymological derivations suggested for 
the word, "psalm" (Greek, -^a?.fi6c) seems the most 
likely. Others which have been offered find the 
origin of the word in the Aramaic DID (lamenta- 
tion), the Hebrew fa (treasure; comp. DJ"DD)i the 
Greek Troty/ia (poem), or the French " passemente- 
rie " or German " posamentir " (embroidery). 

Among the Sephardim any important hymn, in 
parts of the service other than the selihot, con- 
structed in metrical stanzas with a refrain, is termed 
a pizmon. Such, for example, are Ahot Ketannau 
and 'Et Sha'are Razon. These and others like 
them are distinguished by a special traditional mel- 
ody. This is also the case with the chief pizmonim 
of the Ashkenazim (comp. Bemoza'e Menttkah; 
Yisrael Nosiia*; Zekor Berit); but several are 
chanted to a general melody for such poems, for 
which see Selihah. 

On the use of the word " pizmon n among the Jews 
of South Arabia, see "Berliner Festschrift," p. 12. 

Bibliography: Aruch Cornpletum, ed. Kohut, s.v. pcifl, 
where valuable material is given. 

A. r . L. C. 


ZER HA-LEVI : Italian Talmudist and physi- 
cian; flourished in the first half of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. As physician he was active in Cremona; as 
editor, in Venice. In the latter city he w r as em- 
ployed in the Bomberg printing establishment, and 
wrote an introduction to the edition of Mainionides' 
"Yad ha-Hazakah" published there. 

According to a statement of Landshuth, Pizzi- 
ghettone was rabbi in Ferrara; but this statement is 

Bibliography: Mortara, Indice; I. T. Eisenstadt, Da'at Kc- 
doshim. p. 58; Landshuth, 'Ammude ha- K Abodah % p. 343; 
FQrst, Bibl. Jud. iii. 106. 

e. c. A. Pe. 

Hebraist and pedagogue; born at Lomza Feb. 15, 
1853. After having studied Talmud and rabbinics, 
lie devoted himself to modern Hebrew literature, 
publishing successively : " Bat Yi f tali " (Lyck, 1873), 
a Biblical poem; "Ke'uyim ha-Debarim le-Mi she- 
Amaram" (Warsaw, 1880), criticisms on Biblical and 
Talmudical legends; "Sefer Jliktabim ha-Shalem " 
(ib. 1882), a Hebrew letter-writer, containing 150 
specimens of letters on ■different subjects; "Nit'e 
Na'amanim " (ib. 1884), 100 stories for the young; 
"Kur ha-Mibhan" (ib. 1887), a book for teachers, 

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containing a Biblical catechism; "Haskalah Medu- 
mah M (ib. 1888), a sketch of Jewish life. 

In 1893 Pjurko published eleven stories for chil- 
dren, two of which were written by his son Hay- 
yim, and in 1894 "Shebet Sofer ha-Shalem," n new 
letter-writer, also containing 150 specimens. Iii the 
same year he published " Yalkutha-Ke'im,"a gram- 
matical work in verse, and issued a new and revised 
edition of his "NiVeNa'amanim." "Kief lia-Mngen," 
a grammar for school courses, was published in 

In 1899 Pjurko began the publication of the 
weekly periodical*" Gan Slm'usliu'ini," in which, be- 
sides numerous articles by him, two of his works 
deserving special mention were published, namely, 
" Ab le-Banim " (1899) and u Ha-Rab wc-Talmidaw " 
(1900). The latter work consists of essays on gram- 
mar. In addition, Pjurko has contributed to many 

Hebrew periodicals. 

ii. u. B. Ei. 

PLACE-NAMES : The geographical names of 
Palestine are not so often susceptible of interpreta- 
tion as the personal names, which frequently form 
regular sentences referring to divine action (see 
Names). The majority of place-names, probably, 
preceded the Israelitish conquest, as is shown by the 
fact that several of them have already been identified 
in the name-list given in the Egyptian and Assyrian 
monuments (see map, Jew. Encyc. ix. 48G). Here 
there are towns, like Joppa, Jerusalem, Gaza, Dor, 
and Ajalon, which have had a continuous existence 
under one name for over three thousand years. Even 
of the compound names, some existed in the early 
lists, showing that Abel, Ain, and Beth were used 
from the earliest times to designate respectively 
meadows, springs, and shrines. 

Some of the names of places bear evidence of the 
existence of shrines of local deities; thus, Beth- 
shemesh and En-shemesh were devoted to the wor- 
ship of the sun; Beth-anath and Beth-dagon to 
Ana tli and Dagon respectively. Ash tart seems to 
have been the local deity of Ashteroth Karnaim, 
and it has been suggested that the various place- 
names containing "rimmon" (En-rimmon, Gath- 
rimmon, etc.) indicate a deity of that name, though 
"rimmon " itself means "pomegranate." In a few 
cases the indefinite term "el " is used, as in Beth-el, 
Penuel, and Jezreel. It is uncertain whether these 
places were named in honor of the Israelitish god or 
of some Canaanite local deity. 

In addition to such theophorous names there are 
many which are derived from plants, as Beth-tap- 
puah (the apple-tree); Hazezon-tamar (the city of 
palm-trees; another name for Jericho); while Elim 
and Elon imply the oak. Similarly, place-names are 
derived from animals, as from the stag (Ajalon), the 
gazel (Ophrah), the wild ass (Arad), the calf 
(Eglon), and the kid (En-gedi). Bird-names are 
more rare, Beth-hoglah (the partridge) being the best 
known. The place Akrabbim was probably named 
after the scorpions which abounded there (for a 
fuller list see Jacobs, "Studies in Biblical Archaeol- 
ogy," PP. 101-103). 

Some of these names occur in plural or in dual form, 
as Eglaim, Mahanaim, Diblathaim; in the vocalized 
text of the Bible, Jerusalem also has this form. In 

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the majority of cases, it appears this refers to some 
duplication of objects — in the case of Jerusalem, to 
the twin hills upon which it is situated. There are 
a certain number of compound names conveying in- 
formation as to the localities, as those compounded 
with "en w (spring), e.g., En-rogel, En-gedi; with 
"beer" (well), e.g., Bcer-sheba, Beeroth; with 
"hazar" (village), e.g., Hazar-gaddah ; with "ir" 
(town), e.g., Ir-nahash; with "kir" or "kiryah" 
(city), e.g., Kir-Moab; and with "gath" (wine- 
press), e.g., Gath-rimmon. 

Natural features gave names to other places, as 
the predominant color in Lebanon (white), or Adum- 
mim (red). The size of a town gave rise to the 
names Kabbah (great), and Zoar (small), while its 
beauty is indicated in Tirzah and Jotbah. The 
need of defense is indicated by the frequency of 
such town-names as Bozrah, which means literally 
a "fortified place," Gedcr, a "walled place," and 
Jlizpah, a "watch-tower." 

Perhaps the most frequent component is "beth," 
implying, as a rule, a sacred shrine. This, however, 
is sometimes omitted, as is shown in the case of Beth- 
baal-meon, which occurs also as Baal-mcon, though 
sometimes the second component is omitted and the 
word reduced to Beth-meon. It has been conjectured 
that the name of Bethlehem is connected with the 
Babylonian god Lahamu. Especial interest at- 
taches to the place-names Jacob-el and Joseph-el, 
which occurred in the Egyptian hieroglyphics, and 
are supposed to throw light upon the names of the 

Altogether, there are about fifteen hundred place- 
names occurring in the Old Testament and Apocry- 
pha, the majority of which still need philological 
inquiry. Many names relating to places occur in 
the Old Testament with specialized meanings which 
are not adequately represented in the English ver- 
sions, as Shefelah (the maritime plain of Phenicia) ; 
so with Negeb (southern Judea). 

Bibliograptiy : G. B. Gray, In Cheyne and Black, Encyc. 
BibL; G. Grove, in Stanley's Sinai and Palestine, pp. 


PLACZEK, ABRAHAM: Austrian rabbi; 
born at Prerau Jan., 1799; died at Boskowitz Dec. 
10, 1884. In 1827 he became rabbi in his native 
city, and from 1832 to 1840 he officiated at "Wciss- 
kirchen, in Moravia, whence he was called to Bos- 
kowitz. In Oct., 1851, he succeeded S. R. Hirsch as 
acting " Landesrabbiner " of Moravia, and in this office 
he successfully defended the rights of the Jews, espe- 
cially during the period of reaction. Placzek was 
one of the most prominent Talmudists of his time, 
as well as a successful teacher, and carried on corre- 
spondence with eminent rabbis, in whose collections 
of responsa his name is frequently mentioned. 

Bibliography: Die Netizeit, 1884, p. 483; G. Deutsch, In 
Luah, ed. Epstein, Briinn, 1885. 

s. S. F. 

rabbi; born at Wcisskirchen, Moravia, Oct. 1, 1835; 
son and successor of Abraham Placzek. In 1858 he 
founded a high school at Hamburg, and two years 
later was called to Brttnn. Since 1884 he has been 
styled " Landesrabbiner " of Moravia, after having 

had charge of that rabbinate as assistant to his father 
from 1861. It is mainly due to him that only men 
with un academic and theological training are ap- 
pointed as rabbis in Moravia. Placzek is now (1905) 
chief rabbi of BrQnn, a knight of the Order of Fran- 
cis Joseph, and curator of the Israelitiseh-Theolo- 
gische Lehranstalt at Vienna; he was likewise 
founder of the Proseminar, with which a cantors' 
school is connected, as well as of a number of phil- 
anthropic societies. lie is an honorary member also 
of several political societies. 

Placzek has published, in part under the pseudo- 
nym Benno Planek: "Gcdichte" ("Im Eruw, 
Stimmungsbildcr," 1867), the novel " Der Takif," 
and other works, several of which have been trans- 
lated into English, French, and Hebrew. He is 
known also as a naturalist (comp. "Kosmos," v., 
vols. iii. and x.), his scientific w r orks including: "Die 
Alien," " Wiesel und Katzc," "Der Vogelgesang 
nach Seiner Tendenz und Entwicklung," "Vogcl- 
schutz oder Inscktcnschutz," "Zur Klilrung in der 
Vogelfrage," " Atavismus," and "Kopf und Ilerz " 
(an introduction to the study of animal logic). 

s. S. F. 

PLAGUE. — Biblical Data: Word which is 
used in the English versions of the Bible as a 
rendering of several Hebrew w T ords, all closely re- 
lated in meaning. These arc: (1) "Maggefah " (a 
striking, or smiting): Used in a general way cf the 
plagues inflicted upon the Egyptians (Ex. ix. 3-4); 
of the fatal disease which overtook the spies (Num. 
xiv. 37), and of that which slew many of the people 
after the rebellion of Korah (Num. xvi. 48-49), and 
at Shittim because of idolatrous practises at the 
shrine of Baal-peor (Num. xxv. 8, 9, 18; Ps. cvi. 29- 
30); of the tumors which attacked the Philistines on 
account of the presence of the Ark (I Sam. vi. 4), and 
of the three days' pestilence winch ravaged Israel 
after David's numbering of the people (II Sam. 
xxiv. 21, 25); of a disease of the bowels (II Chron. 
xxi. 14-15), and, prophetically, of a plague which 
shall consume the flesh of the enemies of Jerusalem, 
both man and beast (Zech. xiv. 12, 15, 18). 

(2) "Negef," from the same root and with the 
same general meaning as "maggefah" (a blow, 
a striking): Used of the plague of Baal-peor 
(Josh. xxii. 17), of that which followed the rebellion 
of Korah (Num. xvi. 46-47), and with a general ap- 
plication (Ex. xii. 13, xxx. 12; Num. viii. 19). The 
corresponding verb is used with the sense of **to 
plague" in Ex. xxxii. 35, Josh. xxiv. 5, and Ps. 
lxxxix. 23. 

(3) "Nega* " (a touch, a stroke): Used of the last 
of the Eg3 r ptian plagues (Ex. xi. 1) and many times 
of leprosy (Lev. xiii., xiv., and xxiv., and generally 
in I Kings viii. 37-38 and Ps. xci. 10). The corre- 
sponding verb, in addition to a general use in Ps. 
lxxiii. 5, 14, is used of the plague wiiich afflicted 
Pharaoh and his house because of the wrong done 
to Abram (Gen. xii. 17). 

(4) "Makkah" (a blow, a wound): Used of the 
plague which was due to the eating of quails (Num. 
xi. 33), of the plagues of Egypt (I Sam. iv. 8), and 
more generally (Lev. xxvi. 21 ; Deut. xxviii. 59, 61 ; 
xxix. 22; Jer. xix. 8, xlix. 17, 1. 13). 

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(o) "Deber": Rendered "plagues" in Hos. xiii. 
14; "murrain" (i.e., cattle-plague) in Ex. ix. 3; and 
"pestilence" in Ex. v. 3, ix. 15; Num. xiv. 12, and 

Hab. iii. 5. 
e. c. J. P. McL. 

In Rabbinical Literature : Commenting on 

the words of Jetliro, M For in the thing wherein they 
dealt proudly he was above them" (Ex. xviii. 11), 
the Talmud says: "The Egyptians were cooked in 
the pot in which they cooked others" (Sotali lla) t 
that is, the punishment was made to correspond to 
their crime, on the "jus taiionis" principle. This 
refers to Pharaoh's edict to the effect that all Jew- 
ish infants were to be cast into the Nile, the Egyp- 
tians being punished by the plague that turned the 
water of the Nile to blood. AC the same time this 
plague proved that the Nile was not a deity as the 
Egyptians believed. Furthermore, the Egyptians 
suffered to the full extent the evils of the plagues, 
and did not derive any benefit, however indirect, 
therefrom. Hence, the frogs died in heaps "and the 
land stank"; while the u, arob," which the Rabbis 
say was a mixture or drove of wild animals (not 
"a swarm of flies"), disappeared after the plague 

ceased, and " there remained not one " : 

i ' Lex so that the Egyptians might not profit 

Taiionis." from the hides of the animals, which 

they might have done had the latter 
died like the frogs. Two theories have been ad- 
vanced for the plague of darkness, one of which 
is that the plague was intended to hide the anni- 
hilation of the wicked Israelites who, refusing to 
leave Egypt, died there. 

The period of each plague was seven days (Ex. 
vii. 25); and twenty-four days intervened between 
one plague and the next. The ten plagues lasted 
nearly twelve months ('Eduy. ii. 10; comp. Ex. R. 
ix. 12). The order and nature of the plagues are 
described by R. Levi b. Zachariah in the name of R. 
Berechiah, who says: "God used military tactics 
against the Egyptians. First, He stopped their 
water-supply (the water turned to blood). Second, 
He brought a shouting army (frogs). Third, He shot 
arrows at them (lice). Fourth, He directed His le- 
gions against them (wild animals). Fifth, He caused 
an epidemic (murrain). Sixth, He poured naphtha 
on them (blains). Seventh, He hurled at them stones 
from a catapult (hail). Eighth, He ordered His 
storming troops (locusts) against them. Ninth, He 
put them under the torturing stock (darkness). 
Tenth, He killed all their leaders (first-born)" (Yalk., 
Ex. 182; Pesik. R. xvii. [ed. Friedmann, 89bJ).' 

Ten other plagues were indicted on the Egyptians 
in the Red Sea (Ab. v. 6; Ah. R. N. xxxiii. ; comp. 

ed. Schechter, 2d version, xxxvi.), in 
the various ways in which Pharaoh 
and his hosts were drowned. R Jose 
the Galilean says: "The Egyptians 
in the Red Sea suffered fifty plagues. 
In Egypt the 'finger' of God was recognized by the 
ten plagues; but at the Red Sea God's powerful 
* hand ' was visible [Ex. xiv. 31, Hebr.], which being 
multiplied by five fingers makes fifty plagues." R. 
Eliczer multiplied these by 4, making 200 plagues; 
and R. Akiba multiplied them by 5. making 250 
plagues. Each adduced his multiplier from the 

Plagues in 


Red Sea. 

verse: "He cast upon them (1) the fierceness of his 
anger, (2) wrath, (3) and indignation, (4) and trouble, 
(5) by sending evil angels among them " (Ps. lxxviii. 
49). R. Eliezcr does not count "fierceness of his 
anger" (Mek., Ex. vi. ; comp. Ex. R. xxiii. 10; see 
also the Passover Haggadah). 

The order of the plagues in the Psalms differs 
from that in Exodus. R. Judah indicated the latter 
order by the mnemonic combination 2nN2 CHy "pn, 
consisting of the initial letters of the ten plagues 

as follows: nmx via pnc f nan any d s ::d ynsv di 

rnTD3 (ri3D) yc*n = (1) water turning to blood, (2) 
frogs, (3) lice, (4) swarms of beasts, (5) murrain, (6) 
blains, (7) hail, (8) locusts, (9) darkness, (10) slaying 
of the first-born. The ten plagues are further- 
more divided thus: three performed through Moses, 
three through Aaron, three directly by God, and 
one, the sixth, through Closes and Aaron together 
(Ex. vii. 17-x. 21; "Shibbole ha-Leket," ed. Buber, 

p. 97b). 
k. c. J. D. E. 

Critical View: In the majority of cases the 

plague is regarded and spoken of as a divine visita- 
tion, a penalty inflicted upon the individual, family, 
or nation because of sin. Even the common disease 
of leprosy is said to be "put in a house" by God 
(Lev. xiv. 34). The exact nature of the fatal sickness 
which attacked the people on more than one occasion 
in the wilderness is a matter of conjecture, but there 
can be little doubt that it was the bubonic plague 
which destroyed the Philistines (I Sam. v. 6-12). 

The calamities inflicted upon the Egyptians be- 
cause of Pharaoh's refusal to let the people of Israel 

go into the wilderness to observe a feast 
Plagues of to Yiiwn are designated "plagues" 

Egypt. (Ex. ix. 14, xi. 1). The narrative in 

Exodus tells of ten such visitations. 


According to the critical analysis of the sources of 
this narrative it appears that one, probably the ear- 
liest, story (J) tells of seven of the ten plagues(viz., 
1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10); another (E), of four, or possibly 
six (viz., 1, 3 [?], 7, 8, 9, 10 [?]); and the third (P), 
of six (viz., 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 10). Psalm lxxviii. recalls 
seven, and Psalm cv. eight, of these. It is possible 
that one or more of the plagues may be duplicated 
in the narrative as it now stands. 

The first plague was the defilement of the river. 
"All the waters that were in the river were turned 
to blood. And the fish that was in the river died " 
(Ex. vii. 21). The Egyptians regarded the Nile as 
a god (seeMaspero, "Dawn of Civilization," pp. 36- 
42), and no doubt, to the Hebrew writer, this visita- 
tion seemed peculiarly appropriate. The water of 
the Nile regularly becomes discolored from minute 
organisms or from decaying vegetable matter and 
mud carried down by the Hoods which reach Egypt in 
June. The color is said to vary from gray-blue to 
dark red. A cause of this plague might therefore 
be found in the presence of an unusually large 
quantity of such impurities, making the water 

putrid. The second plague was a 
multitude of frogs. The third and 
fourth consisted of swarms of insect 
pests, probably stinging flies or gnats. 
The fifth was a murrain, or cattle-plague, probably 

Details of 

anthrax or rinderpest. Pruner ("Krankheitcn des 

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I * 


P?JT7 ** fh HP- |3>ptf 

jj pfa {tsar p 


p6r n, w ^Svj fr*S ?56 

ham VJlW 

• ^ 

j^frjp fin ?i \3ko » 

* ■ 

pf?u poo p*? 'j'&7 



jstTfr -?r7f bio 



» *■ 




* r* 

pfcnjpo .p>)j 


yo n y i 

win *un 



• .* 

•pP*VP*»? {fplT3P6 


nno5- r)?Q 

. pw&i *nSfin 

■>p*p #«pc:Vi^. 

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The Tex Plagues, According to a Passover Haggadah of 1605. 

(From the Sulzberger collection In the Jewiah Theological Seminary of America, New York.) 

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■ \ 





Orients," Erlangen, 1847) describes an outbreak of 
the last-named in Egypt in 1842. 

The sixth plague was one of boils which Philo(" De 
Vita Moysis") describes as a red eruption in which 
the spots became swollen and pustular, and in which 
44 the pustules, confluent into u mass, were spread 
over the body and limbs." This description, if cor- 
rect, would point to smallpox. The seventh plague 
was a great storm of hail; the eighth, a swarm of 
locusts destroying the crops and even the leaves and 
fruit of the trees. The ninth was a "thick dark- 
ness" continuing for three days. It has been sug- 
gested that such a darkness might have been caused 
by the south or southwest wind, which blows about 
the time of the vernal equinox, bearing clouds of 
sand and fine dust that darken the air (see 
Denon, "Voyage dans l'Egypte," p. 2S6, Paris, 
1S02); this wind blows for two or three days at a 
time. The tenth and last plague was the destruc- 
tion of the first-bom, when Yinvn "gave their life 
over to the pestilence and smote all the first-born of 
Egypt" (Ps. Ixxviii. 50-51). 

Bibliography: Dilimann-Ryssel, Exodus und Leviticus* 
Leip^e, 1897; Primer, Krahkheiten des Orients* Erlangen, 
1847; A. Macalister, Medicine and Plague* in Hastings, 
Diet. Bible. 

E. C. J. F. McL. 

PLANTS.— In tlie Bible : The following names 
of plants and plant materials are found in the Old 


[The plant-names in this table follow the order of the Hebrew 
alphabet, but are transliterated according to the system adopted 
by The Jewish Encyclopedia.] 

Hebrew Name. 


AbatUnim (plu- 



Agam, agmon.. 

Ahalim, ahalot 



Ahu, gome 

A tad 


Elan (see zori).. 

Allah, allon 

Algummim, al- 

muggim (pi.). 


Botanical Name. 

Popular Name. 

Cyperus Papyrus, Linn. (?).... Papyrus (?). 
Citrullus vulgaris, Schrad .Watermelon. 

fruit of Capparisspinosa, Linn. 

Juglans regia, Linn 

J uncus, Arundo. Phragmites. . 

Aquilaria Agallocha, Roxb. 
(Gildemeister and Hoffmann, 
"Die Aetherischen Oele," p. 
645, note). 

Eruca sativa. Lam. (?) 

Origanum Maru, Linn 

Cypenis Papyrus, LJnn 

Lycium europasum, Linn 

Pistacia Terebintbus, var. Pal- 

aestina, Engl. 

Thorny caper. 
Rush, reed. 


Wild marjoram. 




Sandalwood (?). 




Cedrus Libani Cedar of Leba- 

| non. 

a conifer, Pinus or Abies Pine or fir. 

Tamarix Syrlaca, Boiss.,orTa- Tamarisk, 
marix articulata, Vahl. 

Botnlm (pi.) 

Bezalim (pi.)... 


Berosh, berot. . . 

Basam, bosem 



Cilician spruce. 

Stlnkweed (?). 
gum of the Balsamodendron 

Mukul, Hooker, 
fmit of Pistacia vera, Linn.... Pistachio, 
mulberry In the Mishnah 

a sort of fruit. 

Allium Cepa, Linn 

Phieopappus scoparius, Sieb.. . 
Abies Cillclca, Ant. and Ky . . . 
vegetable lye of Mesembryan- 

themum, Salicornia, Aizoon, 


Balsamodendron Opobalsa- 

mum, Kunth. 
not a plant, but erroneously 

Identified by Wellhausen and 

Kautzsch with Malabathrum. 

Coriandrum sativum, Linn. . . . 'coriander. 

Hebrew Name. 


Botanical Name. 

Gome (see ahu). 




Duda'im (pi.).. 




Hadas . 

(prototype) Plantago Cretica, 
Linn., Gundelia Tournefor- 
tJi, Linn., Centaurea myrio- 
eepbala, Schrad., and others 
(Fonck, "Streifzuge," etc.. 
p. 87 ; Kemer, M Ptianzenle- 
ben," ii. T87). 

Popular Name. 

rolling balls of 
dry weeds, 
as explained 
by Bar He- 
bnens on Ps. 
l.xxxiil. 14. 

Vltis vinifera, Linn Grape-vine. 

Cupressus Cypress. 

Mandragoraofflcinarum, Linn. Mandrake. 
Andropogon Sorgbum, Linn... Bread, durra* 
a thistle, especially Centaurea Star-tblstie. 
Calcitrapa, Linn., and others. 




Habazzelet . . 


Hittah ... 



i 4 t L f+ 1 1 »••••■•■■» 



Karkom . . 

Myrtus communis, Linn Myrtle. 

Olea Europa?a, Linn 

Colchicum, especially Colehl- 

cum Steveni, Kunih. 
Solanum coagulans, Forsk. . . . 
probably Echinops viscosus, 

DC: perhaps Acanthus Syri- 

acus, Linn. 

Triticum vulgare, Linn 

resin of Ferula galbaniflua, 

Boiss. and Buhse. 
Anchusa, Linn 


According t o 

tradition, a 

fodder for 



Allium Porrum, Linn 

Latbyrus, Linn 

figurative for M zayit' 


Libneh . 

Luz (see sha 

Lo t .......... . 


Mor. . . i 

Cuminum Cyminum, Linn.... 

Triticum Spelta, Linn 

Lawsonia alba. Lam 

root of Curcuma longa, Linn, 

Populus alba, Linn 

from Boswellia Carteria, Bird- 
wood, and others. 

mastic (sic) of Pistacia Len- 

tiscus, Linn. 
Artemisia monosperma, Delile, 

Artemisia Judaica, Linn. 

Nahalolim (pi.) 

Nahal (see ta 

Nataf , 

Nekot , 

Nerd . . . 


Atriplex Halimus, Linn 

especially from Commiphora 
Abyssinica, Engl., and Com- 
miphora Schimperi, Engl, 
(according to Holmes, per- 
haps Commiphora Kataf, 
Engl., Balsamodendron Ka- 
fal, Kunth ; see Gildemeister 
and Hoffmann, Lc. p. 039; 
Schweinfurth, " Berichteder 
Deutschen Pharmacologiseh- 
cn Gesellschaft," ill. £37. 
cited by Gildemeister and 
Hoffmann, ?.c. p. 037). 

according to Saadia, Prosopfs 
Stephanlana, Wllld. 

resin of Styrax officinalis, Linn, 
tragacanth of Astragalus gnm- 

mlfer, LabilL, and others, 
a prickly plant, which can not 

be identified with certainty. 
Nardostachys Jatamansi, DC. 


PoterJum spinosum, Linn (?).. 

Bugloss or alka 



White poplar. 



Sillon (pi. sallo- 
. nim). 
Seneh IRubus sanctus, Schreb 

varieties of as 

Alhagi (?). 



Thorny burnet; 
perhaps, also, 
other thorn- 

Thorn, thorn- 


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Hebrew Name. 


'Adashlni (pi.). 
*Ez shemen 

Botanical Name. 


4 Arot, consid- 
ered by the 
LXX. as Iden- 
t \ c a 1 with 
tk a&u." 



according to lbn Janah, Atra- 
pbaxls splnosa, Linn.; ac- 
cording to Jerome, Urttca, 

Lens esculenta, Mnch 

Ekcagnus hortensls, M. Bleb. 
(?), Pinus Halepensls, Mill. 

Populus Euphratlca, OHv 






Zlnnim (pi. ze- 

Zafzaf ah 

Zorl (see elah) . 

Platanus orientalis, Linn 

Junlperus oxycedrus, Linn.. . . 

Vlclafaba, Linn., probably also 
Vigna Sinensis, var. sesqul- 
pedalis, Linn. 

Panicnm miliacenm, Linn.(?). Millet. 

Citrnllus Coloeyntnis (Linn.), Bitter 
Schrad. ber. 

Linutn usitatissiraura, Linn... Flax. 

Popular Name. 

Atraphaxis, or 


Euphrates pop 



• bean. 


Kiddah, ke 
' zPab. 



Kaneh. . 

Keneh bosem 
' and kaneh ha- 




Klshshu'im (pi.) 


Zizyphus spina-Christi, Linn... 

Salix safsaf , Forsk 

resin of Pistacia Terebinthus, 
var. Palrestina, Engl., but, 
according to Jewish tradi- 
tion, resin of Commiphora 
Kataf, Engl. (Balsamoden- 
dron Kafal, Kunth). 

varieties of Cinnamomum Cas- 
sia, Bl. 




Ricinus communis, Linn 

Urtica, Linn (?) 

Arundo Donax, Linn., and 

Phragmites communis, Trin. 

Acorus Calamus, Linn 

Rotera . . 

Sorah (same as 
doban [?]). 





shush an. 


• • 

Shayit (?). 


Snaked, luz — 

Cinnamomum Zeylanicum, 


Nigella sativa, Linn 

Cucumls Chate, Linn., and Cu- 

cumis sativus, Linn. 
according to Post, Citrullus 

Colocynthus (Linn.), Schrad. 

(see pakku*ot), but this is 

very doubtful). 

Punica Granatum, Linn 

Retama Rsetam (Forsk.), Web. 


Common castor- 
oil plant. 




Te'ashsliur ... 

Artemisia, Linn 

Hordeum, Linn 

Allium sativum, Linn.. 
Lilium candidum, Linn 

Acacia Nilotica,Del.,and 

Paliurus aculeatus, Linck (?) . . 

Prunus Amygdalus, Stokes 

( Amygdalus communis, 

Ficus Sycomorus, Linn 

Calamns (Gilde- 
raeister and 
Hoffmann, i.e. 
p. 384). 





Tamar, and pos- 
sibly also na- 



Ficus Carica, Linn 

Cupressus sempervirens, Linn. 

according to the Targ., Cornus 
mas, Linn., or Cornus Austra- 
lia, Cam. 

Phoenix dactylifera, Linn 

Mains communis, Desf 

(1) according to Saadia and 
lbn Janah, Pinus Halepensis, 
Mill.; (2) according to the 
Vulgate, Ilex, either Quercus 
Ilex, Linn., or Quercus coc- 
ci f era. Linn. 











Cornel, dog 



(1) Pine; (2) oak 

In the Apocrypha : In the Apocryphal books 

the following plants and plant-products are men- 
tioned: vine, 1)211111, tig, olive-tree, mulberry-tree 
(pomegranate), wheat, barley, pumpkin, rush, reed, 
grass, cetlar, cypress, terebinth, mastic, holm-oak, 
rose, lily, ivy, hedge-thorn, spices, cinnamon, aspal- 
athus, myrrh, gal ban urn, stacte, and incense. The 
rose and ivy are mentioned in the Mishnah also; 
but they do not occur in the Hebrew Old Testa- 

The rose-plant of Jericho, mentioned in Ecclus. 
(Sirach) xxiv. 14, has been identified, through over- 
hasty speculation, with Anastatica Hierochuntica, 
which, however, is not found in that district. This 
Anastatica is frequently used by the Christians as a 
symbol, while the modern Jews have frequently 
mentioned it in their poetry. The Asteriscus pyg- 
mceus, Coss., which grows at Jericho, also has been 
regarded as the rose of Jericho. The branches of 
the Anastatica bend inward when the fruit becomes 
ripe, so that the numerous closed, pear-shaped pods, 
found at the ends of the branches, seem to be sur- 
rounded by a lattice. In the case of the Asteriscus, 
on the other hand, after the time of ripening it is 
not the branches, but the top leaves, grouped in 
rosettes, which close over the fruit (Robinson, 
"Palastina," ii. 539; Sepp, "Jerusalem und das 
Heilige Land," i. 610; Post, "Flora of Syria, Pales- 
tine, and Sinai," p. 67; Kerner, "Pflanzenleben," 

ii. 783). 

In Philo and Josephus : Philo gives no addi- 
tional information regarding the knowledge of bot- 
any possessed by the Jews in antiquity. It is true 
that he made allegorkal use of grass and flowers, 
wild trees and those Uiat bear fruit, the oak, the 
palm, and the pomegranate, incense, and the tree of 
life (Siegfried, "Philo von Alexandria," pp. 185 
et seq., Jena, 1875), but he wrote neither on botany 
nor on agriculture (Meyer, "Gesch. der Botanik," ii. 
80). Josephus, on the other hand, deserves special 
mention, since he was the only author in Jewish an- 
tiquity who attempted to describe a plant in exact 
detail. He says, in his discussion of the head-dres3 
of the high priest (" Ant." iii. 7, § 6) : " Out of which 
[the golden crown] arose a cup of gold like the herb 
that we call 'saccharus,' but which is termed 
* hyoscyamus ' by the Greeks." The form a&Kxapov 
is the Greek transliteration of the Aramaic "shak- 
runa," which is not mentioned again until it is named 
in the medical work ascribed to Asaph ben Bere- 
chi aii. The next description of the plant is given 
in Hebrew by Azariah dei Rossi ("Me'or 'Enayim," 
eh. xlix.). Josephus describes it from personal 
observation and shows a very clear knowledge of the 
peculiarities of the plant. In describing it he men- 
tions the pfaw, or poppy, for the first time in Jew- 
ish literature, as well as the plants elfcfiov (rocket), 
(iowiac, and ai&iip'mq. He is likewise the first to refer 
to the chick-pea in 'epeiSh'Ouv oikoc ("B. J." v. 12, 
§ 2), the vetch ("karshinna"; Vicia Ervilia, Linn.; 
dpopog, ib. v. 10, § 3), the fenugreek (Trigonella 
Fcenum-Gra>cum, Linn. ; r??*c, ib. iii. 7, § 29), the 
amomum ("Ant." xx. 2, § 3) growing near Carrh*?, 
and the laurel- wreaths of the Romans {6a$vq f "B. J." 

vii. 5, § 4). # 

The second specifically botanical reference is to 

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the -f/yavov, a rue of extraordinary size growing in 
the precincts of the palace at Macharus. The rue is 

mentioned by Josephus ("B. J." vii. 6, 

Plants § 3) tor the first time among Jewish 

First Men- writers, though it occurs also in Luke 

tioned by xi. 42. Later the Greek name appears 

Josephus* as a foreign word in the Mishnah. The 

rue at Machrcrus was equal to any fig- 
tree in height and breadth, and according to tradition 
it had been standing since the time of Herod; the 
Jews cut it down when they occupied this fortress. 
The valley bounding the city on the north, Josephus 
contiuues, is called Ba'arali (mj?3; Epstein, u Mi- 
Kadmoniyyot," p. 10S), and produces a marvelous 
root of the same name. " It is a flaming red, and 
shines at night." Then follows the popular de- 
scription of a magic root that can be drawn from 
the earth only by a dog, which loses its life thereby. 
..Elian (c. 180) repeats the tale; but a picture in the 
Vienna manuscript of Dioscorides, made in the fifth 
century, is the earliest proof that this mj r sterious 
root was supposed to be the mandragora or man- 
drake (Ferdinand Colin, in " Jahresbericht der 
Schlesischen Gesellschaft fur YaterUtndische Cul- 
tur, " botanical section, 1887, 27, x. ; " Verhandlungen 
der Berliner Anthropologischen Gesellschaft," 17, x. 
[1S91J 730; 19, xii. 749. Instead of a dog, an ass 
pulls out the root according to Midr. Agada, ed. 
Buber, on Gen. xlix. 14. On the human form of the 
mandrake see Ibn Ezra on Cant. vii. 14; Salfeld, 
"Hohelied," p. 72. The popular belief regarding 
the mandragora is given in full by Judah Hadassi 
[1148] in "Eshkol ha-Kofer," 152c; Maimonides, 
"Moreh," French transl. by Munk, iii. 235; Gtide- 
mann," Gesch."iii. 129; GrUnbaum, " Jtidisch-Deut- 
sche Chrestomathie," p. 176). 

Josephus was also the first to mention the so-called 
Sodom-apple, Calotropis procera, Willd. (Post, I.e. 
p. 526), describing it as a fruit exactly resembling 
edible apples in color, but composed only of ashes, 

and crumbling in the hand to dust 
The (" B. J. " iv. 8, § 4). He speaks highly 

Sodom- also of the fruitfulness of Palestine, 

Apple. mentioning particularly the palms 

("Ant." iv. 6, § 1; " B. J." i. 6, § 6; 
iii. 10, § 8; iv. 8, §§ 2, 3, 4) and balsam at Jericho 
("Ant." xiv. 4, §1; xv.4,§2)and Engedi (ft. ix. 1, 
§ 2), as well as the palms at Phasaelis, Archelais (ft. 
xviii. 2, § 2), and Pera?a ("B. J." iii. 3, § 3). The 
balsam-tree was introduced by the Queen of Sheba, 
and was afterward planted ("Ant." viii. 6, § 6) and 
tapped ("B. J." i. 6, § 6). At Jericho the cypress 
(Kv-pog f ib. iv. 8, § 3) and the fivpofidlavog (ib. iv. 8, 
$ 3) also grew. In Peraa, furthermore, there were 
fruitful places where olive-trees, vines, and palms 
flourished (ib. iii. 3, § 3), but the fruits of Gennesaret 
surpassed all (ib. iii. 10, § 8, a statement which is 
confirmed by the Talmud). 

Naturally every recapitulation of Biblical history 
contains references to all the Biblical plants; and in 
Josephus references are found to Adam's fig-leaves 
(" Ant."i. 1, § 4); the olive-leaf of Noah's dove (ib. i. 
3, §5); Noah's vine (ft. i. 6, §3); Ishmael's fir-tree (ft. 
i. 12, § 3, t/Arr} % as LXX. and Josephus render D^JVBVl 
by analogy with NrWK); Abraham's oak, Ogyges 
(ib. i. 10, § 3); the terebinth standing near Hebron 

since the creation of the world ("B. J." iv. 9, § 7); 
Esau's lentil pottage ("Ant. ".ii. 1, § 1); Reuben's 
mandrakes (ib. i. 19, £S); the wheat-sheaf in Joseph's 

dream (ib. ii. 2, § 2) and the grapes in 

Biblical the visions of the two Egyptians (ib. 

Names ii. 5, §2); Moses' ark of bulrushes (ft. 

Recapitu- ii. 9, § 4), and the burning bush ((SaTog, 

lated by ib. ii. 12); the manna that was like 

Josephus. bdellium and coriander (ib. iii. 1, § 6); 

the blossoming almond-rod (ft. iv. 4, § 
2); the seventy palms (ft. iii. 1, § 3); Rahab's stalks 
of flax (ft. v. 1,§ 2); the trees in Jotham 'sparable (ft. 
v. 7, § 2); the cypress and thistle of the parable in II 
Kings xiv. 9 (ft. ix. 9, § 2); Hiram's cedar-trees (ft. 
vii. 3, §2; viii. 2, §7; 5, §3; "B. J." v. 5, §2); the 
pine-trees, which Josephus says were like the wood 
of fig-trees (™£wva, "Ant." viii. 7 f § 1); the lilies 
and pomegranates on the pillars of the Temple 
(ft. viii. 3, § 4) and on the golden candlestick (iii. 
6, § 7). 

Solomon " spoke a parable on ever}* sort of tree, 
from the hyssop to the cedar" (ib. viii. 2, § 5) and 
built the Apvfiuv (ib. viii. 6, £ 5; comp. dpvpdg, " oak- 
coppice, "ft. xiv. 13, § 3; "B. J." i. 13, § 2; Boett- 
ger, "Topographisch-Historisches Lexicon zu den 
Schriften des Flavins Josephus," p. 105). 

Josephus, as w T ell as the Biblical narrative, men- 
tions apples eaten by Herod (" Ant."xvii. 7; "B. J." 
i. 33, § 7); fig-trees ("Ant." viii. 7, § 1 ; "B.J." vii. 
6, § 3); pomegranates ("Ant." iii. 7, § 6); cages of 
sedge(ft. ii. 10, § 2); wheat(ft. xvii. 13, §3; "B. J." 
v. 13, $ 7); wheat and barley ("Ant." ix. 11, §2; 
"B. J." v. 10, § 2); barley alone ("Ant." iii. 10, § 6; 
v. 6, § 4); and herbs (la X aveia t "B. J." iv. 9, § 8). 

In describing the legal code, Josephus recapitu- 
lates the following Biblical plants: hyssop at vari- 
ous sacrifices ("Ant."ii. 14, § 6; iv. 
Plants 4, § 6) ; flax in the priestly robes (ft. 
Named in iii. 7, § 7) ; pomegranates, signifying 
the Legal lightning, on the high priest's gar- 
Code, ments ( i4 B. J." v. 5, § 7); lilies and 

pomegranates on the golden candle- 
sticks ("Ant." iii. 6, §7); cinnamon, myrrh, cala- 
mus, and iris("!kiddah")in the oil of purification (ft. 
iii. 8, § 3; Whiston: "cassia"); cinnamon and cassia 
("B. J." vi. 8, § 3); the first-fruits of the barley 
("Ant." iii. 10, §5); he likewise cites the precept 
against sowing a diversity of plants in the vinej T ard 
(ft. iv. 8, § 20). In like manner the Biblical meta- 
phor of the broken reed (ft. x. 1, § 2) is repeated. 

Josephus is of course acquainted with the citron- 
apple, mentioned in the Mishnah and forming part 
of the festival-bush together with the palm-branch, 
willow, and myrtle, although he calls it vaguely the 
" Persian apple " (/Ltfjlav rfjg Uepoiag), not the " Median " 
("Ant." iii. 10, § 4). He is more accurate in desig- 
nating the fruit itself (tarpia, ib. xiii. 13, § 1). The 
golden vine of the Temple is mentioned twice (ft. 
xiv. 3, § 1; "B. J." v. 5, §4). 

The " Yosippon" (ed. Gagnier, ii. 10, § 70) men- 
tions among the wonders seen by 
The Alexander on his way to India a tree, 

"Yosippon." pDp12D*N, which grew until noon, 

and then disappeared into the earth. 
In the same work (ii.ll, §77) the trees of the sun and 
moon forewarn Alexander of his early death- 

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In the New Testament : The following names 

of plants may be cited from the New Testament: 

New Testament 

aypte'Acuo? (op- 
posed to koA- 



ajxireAo? (<TTa<t>v- 

afiuifXOV. t . , 






17 6 v 007x0 f 

0i>ivo<;, derl va- 
il ve from eMa. 


Botanical Name 

Olea Europa?a, Linn., var. syl- 

rVqullarla Agallocba, Roxb... 


tcpiOij , 

KpWQV , 

#CV/Uttl/01^ # » » , , 

hlfiavos , . . , 
\ivov . «... . , 





XTtTOS, ora^us.. . 




0"l>K*j , <J V K 0M, 



v<T<rt*)iTo<; , . 

Anetbuni graveolens, Linn... 

Artemisia, Linn 

Rubus, Linn 

Olea Europa*a, Linn 

LoHum temulentum, Linn.... 


Thuja artlculata, Vahl . . 

Arundo Donax, Linn., and 
Phragmitls commu- 
nis, Trin. 

Ceratonia Slliqua, Linn . 

Hordeum, Linn 

Lilium eandidum, Linn 

Cuminum Cyminum, Linn ... 

Linum usitatisslmum, Linn.. 

from the Tamarix mannifera, 
Ehrenberg, and Albagi Mau- 
rorum, DC. 

Nardostachys Jatamansi, DC. 

Ruta, Linn 

Sinapls, Linn 


Morus nigra, Linn .... 
Ficus Sycomorus, Linn 

Fleus Carica, Linn .... 

Trlbulus terrestris, Linn 

Origanum Mara, Linn 

Phoenix dactylifera, Linn 

Popular Name. 

Wild olive of 
northern Syria. 








Bearded darnel. 




bread, b. 






Flax (used only 
for wick and 
for linen gar- 





Wheat, grain. 





W T ild marjoram 

More general terms are avQos (flower), pordvri (herbage), &V- 
tpov (tree), *A>}>a (branch), \d\avov (vegetable), <t>pvy*vov 
(brushwood), <t>vreia (plant), \Awpo? (green), xopros (grass). 

The following names of plants are found in proper 
names in the New Testament: the palm (Thamar), 
the lily (Susanna), the fig (Beth-phage), the narcis- 
sus (as the name of the Roman Narcissus) ; the name 
of the date has been conjectured to form part of the 
name of Bethany (Bet-hine). The crown of thorns 
placed on Jesus may have been composed of the 
garland-thorn, Paliurus aculeatus, Lam., of the ju- 
jube, Zizyphus vulgaris, Lam., or of a variety of 
hawthorn, the Cratcegus Azarolus, Linn., or the Cra- 
taegus monogyna, Willd. 

In the Pseudepigrapha : There are few ref- 
erences to plants in the pseudepigrapha, so far as 
the latter are included in Kautzsch's collection ("Die 
Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testa- 
ments," Freiburg-im-Breisgan and Leipsic, 1900, 
cited here as K.). In these references Biblical figures 
and concepts prevail for the most part. The fertility 
("shebah ha-arez ") which was the glory of Pales- 
tine (Deut. viii. 8) is lauded by Aristeas (§ 112; K. 
ii. 15), who praises the agriculture there. "The 
land," he says, "is thickly planted with olive-trees, 
cereals, and pulse, and is rich in vines, honey, fruits, 
and dates." When Abraham entered Palestine he 
saw there vines, figs, pomegranates, the " balan " 
and the "ders" (two varieties of oak, flafaxvos and 

rfpi'C), terebinths, olive-trees, cedars, cypress-trees, 
frankincense-trees (?Jfiavo$), and every tree of the 
field (Book of Jubilees, xiii. 6; K. ii. 63). 

According to the later (Christian) version of the 
Greek Apocalypse of Baruch (iv. ; K. ii. 451), Noah 
planted the vine only because the wine was destined 
to become the blood of Jesus; otherwise, the vine 
from which Adam ate the forbidden fruit would 
have fallen under a curse. Noah is saved like one 
grape of a whole cluster, or one sprig in an entire 
forest (II Esd. ix. 21; K. ii. 384). The vine is also 
mentioned in the Sibylline Books (iv. 17; K. ii. 201), 
the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch (x. 10; K. ii. 415), 
and in the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs 
(Levi, 2; K. ii. 466), where the Lord becomes to 
Levi his farm, vine, fruits, gold, and silver. When 
the Messiah shall come the earth will bring forth 
its fruit ten thousandfold; and on each vine there 
will be 1,000 branches; on each branch, 1,000 clus- 
ters; and on each cluster, 1,000 grapes; and each 
grape will yield a "cor" of wine (Syriac Apoc. 
Baruch, xxix. 5; K. ii. 423). The Syriac Apoc- 
alypse of Baruch (xxxvi. 3 et seq. ; K. ii. 424 el seq.) 
contains also a vision of a forest, a vine, and a cedar, 
and the Book of Jubilees (xiii. 26; K. ii. 65) men- 
tions tithes of seed, wine, and oil. 

Fig-leaves are said to grow in paradise, a belief 
based upon the Biblical account (Apoc. Mosis, 
§ 21 ; K. ii. 522), while, according to the Ethiopic 
Apocalypse of Baruch, the figs which Ebed-melech 
carries remain fresh and unwitherecl during his sleep 
of sixty-six years and arc taken to Babylon by an 
eagle (p. 402). 

Among other trees and fruits mentioned in the 
pseudepigrapha are: the olive-tree (Sibyllines, iv. 
17; K. ii. 201 ; Test. Patr., Levi, 8, p. 467; instead of 
"siah" [Gen. xxi. 15], the Book of Jubilees, xvii. 10; 
K. ii. 70, reads "olive-tree "), palms (Enoch, xxiv. 4; 
K. ii. 254), dates of the valley (Jubilees, xxix. 15; 
K. ii. 90), nut-tree (Enoch, xxix. 2; K. ii. 256; not 
the almond-tree, which is mentioned shortly after- 
ward, ib. xxx. 8), almonds and terebinth-nuts (Jubi- 
lees, xiii. 20; K. ii. 109, following Gen. xliii. 11), 
aloe-tree (Enoch, xxxi. 2; K. ii. 256), cedar (Test. 
Patr., Simeon, 6; K. ii. 464). A book sprinkled with 
oil of cedar to preserve it is described in the As- 
sumption of Moses (i. 17; K. ii. 320); the locust-tree 
(Enoch, xxxii. 4; K. ii. 256), and, especially, oaks 
also are mentioned, as in the Syriac Apocalypse of 
Baruch (lxxvii. 18; K. ii. 441); they are said to grow 
at Hebron (Enoch, vi. ; K. ii. 414), at Mamre (Jubilees, 
xiv. 10; K. ii. 65), and in the land of Sichem(Jubilees, 
xxxi. 2; K. ii. 92); the oak is likewise mentioned 
in the lament over Deborah (Jubilees, xxxii. 30; lv. 

ii. 96). 

Of all the information regarding trees the most 
interesting is the list of evergreens given in Jubilees 
(xxi. 12; K. ii. 76), while this class of trees is also 
alluded to in Enoch (iii. ; K. ii. 237) and in the 
Testament of Levi (ix. ; K. ii. 468; L5w, p. 59). 
Similar catalogues occur in the Talmud and Mish- 
nah, and in the Greek writings on agriculture. The 
Book of Jubilees mentions the following as appro- 
priate for the altar: cypress, juniper, almond-tree 
(for which, following Dillmann, "acacia" has been 
suggested as an emendation), Scotch pine, pine, 

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cedar, Cilician spruce, palm (?), olive-tree, myrtle, 
laurel, citron (Citrus medica, Risso), juniper (? Ethi- 
opic u arbot," for which Dillmann conjectures "ar- 
kot," apKex^oq), and balsam. 

On account of their beauty the following flowers 
are mentioned in the pseudepigrapha: lily (Test. 
Patr., Joseph. 18; K. ii. 502), rose (Test. Patr., 
Simeon, G; K. ii. 464; Enoch, Ixxxii. 16; K. ii. 287; 
cvi. 2. 10; K. ii. 308 et seq. : " rubra sicut rosa " and 
"rubrior rosa ": it is also mentioned in the Apocry- 
pha, Mishnah, Targum, and LXX.), and the rose- 
laurel. The oleander seems to be intended by "the 
field of Ardaf " in II Esd. (ix. 26 ; K. ii. 385) (the last 
letter with the variants "s," "d," *t, w and tr b"). 
"Harduf* ("hirduf," u hardufni") is a borrowed 
word even in the -Mishnah, and shows, together with 
the Arabic "diflah," that the Serium Oleander, Linn., 
came from Europe, or, more exactly (according to 
O. Schrader, in Hehn, u Kulturpflanzen," 6th ed., p. 
405), from the Spanish west. The plant had reached 
Greece before the time of Dioscoridesand Pliny; and 
it may have grown wild in Palestine by the end of 
the tirst century just as it does at present; it is 
alwavs found in w r ater-eourses, and flourishes from 
the level of the Ghor to an altitude of 3,280 feet in 
the mountains (Post, I.e. p. 522). To such a region 
the seer of II Esdras was bidden to go, there to sus- 
tain himself on the flowers of the field. In Sibyl- 
lines (v. 46; K. ii. 206, a passage originally heathen) 
the flower of Nemea, ai/.tvov (parsley), is mentioned. 

As in the Bible narrative, thorns and thistles ap- 
peared after the fall of man (Apoc. Mosis, § 24; K. 
ii. 522), while thorns and prickly briers are men- 
tioned in the Sibyllines (Preface, 24 et seq. ; K. ii. 
184). The Biblical "duda'im," mentioned in the 
Testament of Issachar (i. ; K. ii. 478), are mandrakes, 
which grow in the land of Aram, on an elevation, be- 
low a ravine. Tithes of the seed are mentioned (Jubi- 
lees, xiii. 26; K. ii. 65); while according to Aris- 
teas (§ 145; K. ii. 17), the clean birds eat w r heat 
and pulse. Egypt is mentioned (Sibyllines, iv. 72; 
K. ii. 202) as producing wheat; and the marrow of 
wheat, like the Biblical "kilyot hittah" ("kidneys of 
wheat," Deut. xxxii. 14), is spoken of in Enoch (xcvi. 
5; K. ii. 302), while II Esdras (ix. 17; K. ii. 384) de- 
clares (R. V.): "Like as the field is, so is also the 
seed; and as the flowers be, such are the colors also." 
In the same book (iv. 31 etseq. [R. V.]; Iv. ii. 357) 
occurs also an argument "de minore ad maius," 
found in the Bible likewise: "Ponder now by thy- 
self, how great fruit of wickedness a grain of evil 
seed hath brought forth. When the ears which are 
without number shall be sown, how great a floor 
shall they fill!" (comp. the "kal wa-homer" in II 
Esd. iv. 10, end; K. ii. 355; and see Schwarz, " Der 
Hermeneutische Syllogismus," p. 82, Vienna, 1901). 
Lolium (Ci^dviov) is mentioned in Apoc. Mosis, $ 16 
(K. ii. 520). Among the spices and condiments, cin- 
namon is described as obtained from the excrement 
of the worm which comes from the dung of the 
phenix (Greek Apoc. Baruch, vi. ; K. ii. 453), and is 
also mentioned in Enoch, xxx. 3, xxxii. 1 ; K. ii. 256; 
Apoc. Mosis, £ 20; K. ii. 524; Vita Adas et Eva:*, § 
43; K. ii. 520. Pepper, spoken of in Enoch (xxxii. 
1 ; K. ii. 256), is new, although it is met with as 
early as the Mishnah. 

Among other plants mentioned in the pseudepig- 
rapha are: aloe-trees (Enoch, xxxi.; K. ii. 256); 
balsam (ib. xxx. 2); galbanum (ib. ; Jubilees, iii. 
27, xvi. 24; K. ii. 45, 69); sweet-calamus and saffron 
(Apoc. Mosis, I.e. ; Vita AdrcetEva?, I.e.); costus-root 
(Jubilees, xvi. 24; K. ii. 69); ladanum, and similar 
almonds (Enoch, xxxi. 2; K. ii. 256); gum-mastic 
(Enoch, xxxii. 1, xxx. 1; K. ii. 256; myrrh (Enoch, 
xxix. 2; Iv. ii. 256; Jubilees, xvi. 24; K. ii. 69); 
nard (Jubilees, iii. 27, xvi. 24; K. ii. 45, 69; 
Enoch, xxxii. 1; K. ii. 256; Apoc. Mosis, § 29; 
K. ii. 524); nectar, called also balsam and galbanum 
(Enoch, xxxi. 1 ; K. ii. 256); storax (Jubilees, iii. 27, 
xvi. 24; K. ii. 45, 69); incense (Enoch, xxix. 2; lv. 
ii. 256; Jubilees, iii. 27, xvi. 24; K. ii. 45, 69; Test. 
Patr., Levi, 8; K. ii. 467). 

Aristeas (§ 63; K. ii. 10) describes pictorial repre- 
sentations of plants as decorations on state furniture, 
including garlands of fruit, grapes, ears of corn, 
dates, apples, olives, pomegranates, etc. He speaks 
also (§ 68, p. 11) of the legs of a table which were 
topped with lilies, and (§ 70; K. ii. 11) of ivy, acan- 
thus, and vines, as well as of lilies (§ 75; K.ii. 11), and 
of vine-branches, laurel, myrtle, and olives (£ 79; Iv. 
ii. 12). Plant-metaphors taken from the Bible and 
applied to Israel and Palestine are: vines and lilies 
(II Esd. v. 23 et seq. ; K. ii. 361) and the vineyard 
(Greek Apoc. Baruch, i. ; Iv. ii. 448). 

In poetic and haggadic interpretations wood shall 
bleed as one of the signs of the approaching end of 
the world (II Esd. v. 5; K. ii. 359; Barnabas, xii. 1), 
and the trees shall war against the sea (II Esd. iv. IS 
et seq. ; K. ii. 356). At the last day many of man- 
kind must perish, even as the seed sow r n by the hus- 
bandman ripens only in part (ib. viii. 41 ; K. ii. 381), 
although every fruit brings honor and glory to 
God (Enoch, v. 2; K. ii. 237). In the Greek Apoca- 
lypse of Baruch (xii. ; Iv. ii. 456) angels bear baskets 
of flowers which represent the virtues of the right- 
eous. In the saered rites, palm-branches, fruits of 
trees (citrons), and osier-twigs are mentioned (Jubi- 
lees, xvi. 31 ; K. ii. 70). 

At the commandment of God on the third day of 
Creation, "immediately there came forth great and 
innumerable fruits, and manifold pleasures for the 
taste, and flowers of inimitable color, and odors of 
most exquisite smell " (II Esd. vi. 44, R. V. ; Iv. ii. 
367); and the beauty of the trees in paradise is also 
emphasized (ib, vi. 3; Iv. ii. 364). The tree of 
knowledge and the tree of life appealed powerfully 
to tho fancy of the pseudepigraphic writers. The 
former, from which Adam ate, is supposed, on the 
basis of other Jewish traditions, to have been either 
the vine (Greek Apoc. Baruch, iv. ; K. ii. 451) or the 
fig (Apoc. Mosis, § 21 ; Iv. ii. 522). The Book of 
Enoch (xxxii. 3 el seq. ; Iv. ii. 256) describes the tree 
of knowledge thus: " Its shape is like the pine-tree; 
its foliage like the locust-tree; its fruit like the 
grape." The tree of life is planted for the pious (II 
Esd. viii. 52; Iv. ii. 382), and is described in Enoch 
(xxiv. 3 et seq. ; K. ii. 254) as fragrant and with un- 
fading leaves and blossoms and imperishable wood, 
while as in the accounts in the Old and the New 
Testament its fruit, w T hich is like that of the palm, 
gives eternal life (Enoch; II Esd. I.e.; Test. Patr., 
Levi, 18 ; K. ii. 471, reads " tree " instead of " wood "). 

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It is the tree of paradise, and from it flows the heal- 
ing oil, the oil of life, the oil of mercy (Vita Ada* et 
Evas §§ 36, 41 ; Apoc. Mosis, £ 9; K. ii. 518, 520). 

In the Mishnah and Talmud : The Mishnah 

has preserved only about 230 names of plants, of 
which about 180 arc old Hebrew and forty are de- 
rived from Greek terms. In the Talniudic literature 
of the post-Mishnaic period 100 names of plants arc 
found in the Jerusalem Talmud and 175 in the Baby- 
lonian; about twenty of these names are of Greek 
origin. In the Mishnah, Talmud, Midrash, and 
Targum the following plants are mentioned as in- 
digenous to Palestine and Babylon : 

[Abbreviations : B. = Babylonian Talmud : Y. = Jerusalem 
Talmud ; M.'= Mishnah ; Midr. = Midrash ; T. = Targum. In 
the following table the name of the botanical family is printed 
in small capitals.] 

Name in Mishnah, 
Talmud, etc. 

kcjni wnnns 

©*p-u, B 

pj, Bible, M.; njdu, 
pry, M., Y., B. 

jhn, M 

,-iVn, Bible, M.; kdcdo, 

T., Y., B. 
ru$3, M., Bible......... 

ppPD^D, M 

0D)S, M.; D^S, M., T... 

t)^sn % B.; •omvi, M... 

DiD^p, M., Y 


nsDiBTi r\k> M 

jnrw, M.; *onw, T., 

Y M B. 

jW'n, M.; nnrvnxN(?), 


]JCU, M.; njdu 
pD31D, B. 

rvnSn, Bible, M., 


hwj, ^Ss, M.; NmD, B. 
(onsp, bud; Nms, 
B., blossom; nwON, 
Bible, M.; «n^OO, B., 

pov^n piUT 

piT, M.; NpS'D, B.... 

DWJ?S M.; juaSioip, 
pnyn, Y. 

N^ipi np-v, B 

V.1N, M., B 

Botanical Name. 


AUsma Plantago aqua- 
tica, Linn. 


Narcissus poeticus, 
Linn., Narcissus Ta- 
zetta, Linn., and vari- 

Vitis viniXera, Linn ... . 


Rhus Coriaria, Linn ... . 

Pistacia Terebinthus, 
var. Palsestina, Engl. 

Pistacia vera, Linn 

Pistacia vera, Linn 

resin of ^bdd, M., Pis- 
tacia Lentiscus, Linn. 


Nerium Oleander, Linn. 


Hedera Helix, Linn. . . . 

Arum orientaie, M . Bieb. 

Arum Palcestinum, 

Colocasia antiquorum, 



Citrus medica, Reiss. . . . 


Leontice Leontopeta- 
lum, Linn. 


Cordia Myxa, Linu 

Popular Name 

Water -plan- 




Pistachio - nut 


Anchusa officinalis, 


Capparis spinosa, Linn., 
and varieties. 

Biitum virgatum, Linn. 
Chenopodium, Linn 

Beta vulgaris, Linn 

Atriplex Tataricum, 
Linn., Atriplex Hali- 
mus, Linn. 

Salicornia herbacea, 

Salsola, Linn 








Thorny caper 



Glasswort (see 
also under 


Name in Mishnah, 
Talmud, etc. 



pD s D, B 


njj? 1 *, Bible: prrDfiN. 
Y M B.; n-pj, T. 

NDT^n, M., T., B 

D-wf\ M., Y.. B., Midr.; 
"UJ3, B. (not pmjs, 
despite Kohut, ** A rucli 
Completum," s.v.) 

no:;, M., T., Midr.... 

-im, Bible, M.. T., 
Midr.; totTi, B. 

pnn. nxp, M.; wpnre, 
T„ Y.; 'mni'cNTiT', 


Botanical Name. 


Cistus creticus, Linn., 
cislus ladaniferus, 
Linn., and others. 

Popular Name 

bush, rock 



pti»Siy, M.; piropna, 

joib:n (>SrvD^?), Y.; 
onrn, B. 

mp >vhw % M.; pnSij\Y. 

(inc, M.) NrPVUD, B.. 

mm, M.; NDn, Y., B., 

d^Sj mrn, M 


Matricaria Chamomlila, 

Linn., and Matricaria 

Artemisia vulgaris, 

Artemisia monospcrma,' Wormwood. 

I >«*!., and Artemisia 

Judaica, Linn. 
Echinops splnosus, Erldnops (?). 

Linn., or Erblnops 

vlscosus, DC. 
Cynara Scolymus, Linn. Artichoke. 

Cynara Syrica, Bolss.. Cardoon. 
and Cynara Cardun- 
culus, Linn. 
Centaurea Calcitrapa, btar-thistie. 
Linn. I 

Seed of 


Nra^iP, T., B.; k."i*jiip 
<?), B. 

pSonttD^, M.; NTc 

NPK, B. 

pc? Yf* Bible, M.; eo*?, 
M.; pm, Y. 

HN, Bible, M. ,B.; n"mn, 

c»dSu, N-nSa?, Dmp, 
Dnnp, B. 
tpna, nna, Bible, M., 

T., Y., B.; nhv^n, B.; 
ptoStf, Midr. 

m&o, M., B.; ndo, B... 

pin, T., Midr 

naS, M„ B.; n^Sj->u 
npdS, B. 

31^0, M., Y., B. ....... - 

S*nn, M., B., 

|DD% M 

•wronp,M.; pvnavo. 


vj»*u (^cn Sc» 'j), M., 


D^nss\ M.; >Snn, B.; 

pDv**nr, Y. 
ri32P, M.; Nrocp, B.: 

pvjjj, Y. 

Carthamus tlnctorius, Safflower, saf- 
Linn. fmn. 

Cichorium End i via .Chicory. 

Cichorium divarica- Chicory. 

turn, Schousb. 
Picris Sprengeriana Plcrls or 

(Linn.), Poir., or daudelion. 

Taraxacum, Juss. 
Lactuca Scarioia, var. Lettuce. 

sativa (Linn.), Boiss. 

Lactuca saligna, Linn. Willow-let- 




Cupressus semperri- Cypress, 
rens, Linn. I 

fruit of Pinus plnea, Pine. 

Pinus Ualepensis, Mill. 

Cedrus Llbanl 

Abies Cilicica, Ant. and 


Cuscuta, Linn 


Cornus mas, Linn., and 
Cornus Australis, 


Brassica Rapa, Linn — 

Brass! ca oleracea, Linn. 

Slnapis alba, Linn., and 
Sinn pis juncea, Linn. 

Brassica nigra (Linn.), 
Koch, or Slnapis ar- 
vensis, Linn.; Slnapis 
an'cnsis, var. turgida 
( l>el.), Asch. and 
Schwelnf., and var. 
A Illonll (Jacqu.), 
Asch. and Schwelnf. 

Brassica oleracea, var. 
botrytis, Linn. 

Eruca sativa, Lam 

Lepidium sativum, 

Lepidium Chalepense, 
Linn., or Erucaria 
Alepplca, Gaerin. (?;. 

Aleppo pine. 

Cedar of Leba- 




Cornel, dog 




Wild mustard, 


Eruca, wild 
and culti- 

Pepper wort 


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Name in Mishnab, 
Talmud, etc. 

Botanical Name. Popular Name 

S^N. ^i;\ M Iberis (Iberis Jonlani, Candytuft. 

Boiss., Iberis Taurica, 
DC, Iberis odorata, 
i Linn.). 
D'JD'N, D*», M isatis tinctoria, Linn... Dyer*s-w*ad. 

p;x. Die;, M.: n^jis, Y., Raphanus sativus, Linn. Radish (two 
B.; Nr*n, B. I varieties). 

Cryptogam i a. 

pnxjr (ft2*3h M.; Equlsetum, Linn Seouring-rusb, 

C12C2. Y. horsetail. 

nj"»ji % M Ceteraeh offlcinarum. Milt waste (?) . 

*or:, B Pteris aquilina, Linn... Brake. 

-tt> V, M.: p^-cSr, Y. Adiantum Capillus-Ve- Maidenhair 
(?). nerls, Linn. (but see 

Mentha Pu- 
legi u m, 
Linn., penny- 
royal, under 

p;3"V>, M., Y Seolopendrium vulgare, Hart's-tongue. 


D^p^s% M Roceella tinctoria. Litmus. 

Achar. | 

r\"W B Lecanora or Sphrero- Manna-lichen. 


nvafl (pi.), M., Y.: Fungus Fungus. 

ntj'c, B. I 

Z y • z d , pi::', M.; Tuber Truffle. 

N k *n;', Y.; N-na, B. 


nrp, Bible, M.; N'£p Cucumis Chate, Linn., Cucumber. 

(pl.hT.jNrxo.Nn-s, and Cucumis sativus, 

B. Linn, 
peev*::, M., T., Y., B., Cucumis Melo, Linn Muskmelon. 


rvr:iN, Bible, M Citrullus vulgaris. Watermelon. 

• Schrad. 

nyipn, Bible, M 'Citrullus Colocynthis Colocvnth. 

(Linn.), Schrad. 
P> s i, N^v* M.; n-\->, Lagenaria vulgaris, Ser. 
H7">p, B. : 

P^2"\p, M., Y LufTacyIlndrica(Linn.), 

i Roem., or Luffa 
iEgyptlaca, Mill. (?). 

mm npn* Ecbailium Elaterium, 

; Rich. 


p-^N, M.; p^:ifl, Y .. Corylus Aveliana, Linn. 

ev^a, T., Y., B.; z*ro 

(pi.), Midr. (Biblical 
proper name B'W). 

P^n, M.; *<*£?, B.; 

C^isSe (?), M. 

Quercus cocclfera, Linn., 
and varieties Quercus 
Lusitanica, Lam., 
Quercus Cerrls, Linn., 



Squirting cu- 


Turkey oak, 



NO, Bible; *sj>, M.; Cyperus Papyrus, Linn., 

p-nx, M., T., B. | and others. 

-17D. Y. (PalestinianrCyperus eseulentns, Galingale. 



*hro (pi.), T., B., Midr. 

Linn, (and Cyperus 
longus, Linn., Cyperus 
capitatus. Vent.). 
Cyperus rotund us, Linn. 


JVWN, M., T„ B. Buxus Iongifolia, Boiss. 
G?sn*fi.M. ?);prDpis, 
Y., Midr. 



.•^13, Bible, M.; np<t, 
B.; n:;-\ M. (?). 

E\n«3 (pi.), M.; j;c (?), 

niH, M.. Y-, B 

inn, Bible, M. <-nvr ?, 

Bible, V.). 
NS*i N£^n, B 

1D>C% M 

Ricinus communis, 


Li nn ., or A izoon, 
Linn. (V comp. Sail- 
cornia, Linn.). 


Panlcum miliaceuin, 


Oryza satlva, Linn 

Andropogon Sorghum, 


Andropogon Schoenan- 

thus, Linn. 
A vena.. 





Fig -marigold, 



Durra, guinea 

Beard -grass. 

Name in Mishnah, 
Talmud, etc. 

Botanical Name. Popular Name* 

M., Y.. B., Midr. >). 
njp, Bible, M.; N^p,Y., 

B.; Djir, T. 
I^n, r u *n, M 

pjir, M., Midr 

r^2\ M.; n-2% B. Cynodon Dactylon, B e r m u d a 
(identical with a«n, Linn. grass, scutch 

AnindoDonax,Linn.,or Persian reed. 
Phraginites com- 
munis, Trin. 1 

Eragrostis cynosuroides 
(Retz.), Roem. and 
Lolium temuientum. Bearded dar- 
1 Linn. nel, tares, 

rcn, Bible, M., T., Y., Triticum vulgare, Linn. Wheat. 

B., Midr. 
ncor, Bible; pcDij, M.; 

Nrjo, T., B.; N3^U, 

Sps? nSiatr, M.; ^xj* 

nSjtp, N-cn, B. 
rnipf, Bible, M.; 

NrnjTD, T., Y. 

Triticum Speiu, Linn.. Spelt. 

*£gi lops, Linn. (?) Goat-grass. 

Horcleum distychum Barley, 
and Hordeinn vulgare, 

r^v, M.; xr^wz*. B. Hordeum bulbosum, 

Linn. (?). 


pc"\ Bible, M.; Njrn. PunieaGranatum,Linn. Pomegranate. 
T., B., Midr.; nx:, B. 


TZ^n* B. (?) Hypericum, Linn St. John's- 

■ wort. 

iris Paliestina, Baker, Iris. 

Iris psendacorus. 

Linn., and others. 
Crocus sativus, Linn.... Crocus. 

*r 1 ' ^ % *U • * X • «■•••-«••• 

2iro,M.,Y., B.; xnsri, 

pED\ B 

tun, Bible, M.; nhjin, B. 

p<n C*n). M., B.; x>c, 
M.; Nrax, B.; nctrn 
(hd v j\ M.). 

P<3TN, M 


Jasminum officinale. Jasmine 



Jug lan dace.*:. 
Juglans regia, Linn.... Walnut. 


J uncus or Cyperus 

Reed or sedge 


Lavandula Stcecbas^Lavender (?). 
Linn. : 

•i;j:,TOM.; xr\yz (?), Menthasylvestris,Linn., Mint. 
Y. aud others. 

■v;^\ M.; pjnifi,B Mentha Pulegium, Pennyroyal. 

I Linu. 
3i?N, Bible, M.; »n:» Origanum Manx, Linn.. .Marjoram. 

tviD^o, pircisr, B. j I 

nwD, M.; nnx, Y., B.; Thymus, Linn., aud Sa- Savory. 

*NS»n, NP">2N, B. 

n^mp, M., Y., B 

piN, Bible, M. ?; 

NJfil, B. 

tureia, Linn. 
Calamintha, Moench.. . . Calamint. 

n;, Laurus nobitis, Linn. 

DiD"^r, M., Y., B., Midr. 

r*DD>', M 

«cnn, T. tarn, Bible). 

jn*?p, M.: wr^^jr, 

noi*>, B. 
ni^nnj (pi.), M.; 

♦pip-on, Y., B.; S>S3 

N^C. B. 

% Nio ^pip^jn (?) 

^?) Laurel, 


Luplnus Tennis, Forsk. 
Lupinus Palffistinus, 

Boiss., and Lupinus 

pllosus, Linn. 
Retama Retain, 

(Forsk.), Web. 
Trigonella Fa^num- 

gra?cum, Linn. 
Melilotus, Tourn 



NrDfiDN, B 
NU'IC, B... 

■ « 

nj»n, M.; toj\-\ T M B 
(Bible, ru?:, ?). 

pert, M.; '•x^^n, B , 

n*P*:j, m., y 

Mellloius (?), Medicago 

(?), Trigonella (V), 

Trifolium (?\. 
Medicago satlva, Linn., 

Glycyrrhiza glabra, 

Alhagl Maurorum, DC. 

Cicer arletlnum, Linn.. 
Vicla sativa, Linn 


Sweet clover, 

Medic, or 
clover, trefoil. 



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Name In Misbnah, 
Talmud, etc. 

nrr-o, M.; *nrp, B... 
nenj?, M. (Bible); 

, NHD^E, T., B. 

Sid, Bible, M., T., Y.... 

p^n ^u>, M.; njiicnD 

T"y\$2\ M.; , N^DD, 

YV, >D^U, NP S *D£>. 

(?), M.; p-nrvc\ 
npDD (variants 

Botanical Name. 

Vicla Ervilia, Linn 

Lens esculenta, Moencb. 

Popular Name. 


Vigna Sinensis (Llnn.).iBean. 

Endl. (not Pbaseolus| 

vulgaris, Linn.). 
Vieta Faba, Linn. (Faba 

vulgaris, Moeneh.). 

Straight bean. 

■V0D, M.; NJltt^D, Y.... 

*cmn (Snn, Bible).... 
nam, M.; npiS^d, Y... 

NXen, B 

p ' J ij *. , 3X ,«.•»«»«•««««• 
31"\n, M M Y. B 


nBtt\ Bible, from which 
comes NPVDn NPrn, 

fcOppN, B 

Pbaseolus Mungn, Linn. 

o^cn *js Syc npn\ M.; 

N3"\Nl, B. ?). 

MSy, M.; ni^s, B.; miSn, 

S*D, Bible, M.; NDC£',B. 

o^onon o^sa, M. (?).. 

D'JI^pn D"Ss3, M 

Si^sa* M.; n^wSjd, Y. 
ntt»"o, M. (Txn, Bible); 

D^op, M., T., Y., B.; 
>pnr, T., Y„ B. 

nr >irns, M 

Lathyms, Linn 

Laibyrus Clcera, Linn.. 
Lathyrus sativus, Linn. 

Dolichos Lablab, Linn.. 
Cassia obovata. Col lad. 

or Cassia acuti folia, 

Del. (?) 
Ceratonia Siliqua, Linn. 

Prosopis Stephanlana 

Two varieties of Acacia, 

sap of Acacia Nilotica, 


Lemna minor, Linn 

Four indeter- 
minate varie- 
ties of beans. 

Three indeter- 
minate varie- 
ties of pulse, 
= S y r 1 a e 
variety of 

I fairy- podded 


Vetch ling. 

Aleppo senna, 

or senna. 

Saint -John's - 
bread, carob. 
(see below). 



Name in Mishnah, 
Talmud, etc. 


Aloe vera, Linn. 

Allium Cepa, Linn 

Allium Ascalonicum, 



Die, Bible, M.; jvjevj\ 

.M.; ndip. NP^ErtP, Y. 

aSnn y^ M... 

ruz>rz\ Bible, M., T.; 

junp. Y. 
•pen Pj'J'i^, M 

iPtt'D, M.; njp^, T., Y., 

NJijnn, n'] snnn 

Allium Cepa, Linn 

Allium Porrum, Linn.. 

Allium curtum, Bolss. 

and Gaill. (?). 
Allium sativum, Linn. . . 

Ornithogalum, Linn. . . . 
Lilium candidum, Linn. 



Summer on 


Fritillaria, Linn 

Linum usitatisslmum, 


Lorantbus Acaciae, 


"\0D, Bible, M.; njijrr La wsonia alba, Linn.... 
(?), M. 





Fritillary (?). 

njn^n, Njsnn, B 

M.; kj£3u nc>\ Y., B.; 

Nrp, B. 

Dm, Bible. M.; ndn, T., 





Malva rotundifolia. Common mal- 
Linn. low and 


Gossypium herbaceum. Cotton-plant. 


Myrtus communis. Myrtle. 

Botanical Name. .Popular Name 


nsDn Sid,. M-: n^d Nelumbtum apeelosum, Lotus. 
ion*D.or%Y.onnV) wind. 

t * T 1*0 % i' »»••••«••••••••*• 


Fraxinus Ornus, Linn.. A*h. 
PM, Bible, M., T., Y., Olea Europa-a, Linn — tilhe. 
B., Mldr. 


Phtrnix dactylifera, Date-pu in. 

Linn. ' 
Vouutr palmu. 

^ palm. 

Pa paver ace.*.. 

NP^D. B.., Papaver IUueas, Linn. Corn-fv ppv. 

JVD1N, Y opium from Papaver Common pop- 

Romnlferum. Linn., py. 
1 var. glabrum. Bolss. 

p3T>, M Glauclumeornleulatuin. Horn-poppy. 


psp, Bible, M.; Spi,M., 
.T., Y., B. 


D^s, M.; np^js, B 

Platan a ce.*:. 

|1D"1J?, Bible; N:nn,T., Platanus orlenlalls, Oriental plan* 

Y., B. 

n?n 313N, M.; Hnosin, 
n^hi N"U2Vi, B. 

Nrno^c, Y., B. 



Polygonum nvlculare, 
Linn., or Polygonum 
equlsellfonne, Slbib. 
and Sm. 



N£2DP, M 

M. ; Portulaca oleracea, Purslan*\ 


Cyclamen Coum, Mill.. Round -leaved 
and Cyclamen lull- 1 cyclauieu. 
folium, S. et S. (?/ 

hn\") (n>yDi n\n), M.; 
NPmjn N"\p">', B. 

n2fp, Bible 

n^c^te), M. (?) 

pen (pi.), M.; «nj3, B. 
pnrT, M.,Y.; ^d^, b. 

nps% nS Bible, M., T.; 

xn^^% B. 

pD"\c[N], M., Y 

nvjpoo-vn, M.; ppc, 
M. (?); prjinN, Y.; 
nao, B. (?). 

ruo, Bible, M.; N^D, 
N^OS, T., Y., B. 

Vm, M„ T., Y'., B 

djn, ^S^aioDnp, M.,.. 

D^DD, M. (Y.) 

niflP, Bible, M.; -urn, 
T., Mldr.; C>n, 'in), 

B. . 

pu'no, nV^D^'S, M.; 

N'* , *"'1™0 B. • . . t 

-i-irn Cw), M. [pvjircn, 

mn;, M.; -tr^is, B — 


Ranunculus sceleratus..Crowr<x»t, but- 
Linn., and other spe-j tercup. 

NiRella sativa, Linn 

Nutmeg - flow- 

nsifi, M.; NP10, B 

yD< M.; HTV2 (?), 
NiJ^C, B. 


Luteola tlnctorla, Web., Dyer's- 
Reseda luteola, Linn. we«»d (?). 


Zizyphus lolus, Lam.. Jujube, and 
and Zizyphus spina- Christ's- 
Chrisll, Linn. thorn. 

Zizyphus vulgaris. Lam. Common Ju- 



Amygdalus communis. Almond. 

Perslca vulgaris. Mill... Peach. 
Prunus domestlca, Linn. Plum. 

Rubtis sanctus, Schreb., Blackberry. 

or R n bus discolor, 

Willd. and Nees. 
Rosa, Linn Rose. 

Pyrus communis. Linn. Pear. 
Pyrus Syriaca, Bolss. (?)| 
Mains communis, Desf.. Apple. 

Cydonia vulgaris. Wllld. Quince. 

Sorbus. Linn s-rviee-iree. 

Mespllus Germanica. Medlar. 

Cratjegus Azarolus, Hawthorn. 



Rublatinctorum, Linn., Madder. 


Ruta gnivwlens, Linn., Rue, and Alep- 
and Ruta Chalep«'nsis, po rue. 
Linn., and variety 
bract<K>sa, Bolss. 

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Name In Mishnab, 
Talmud, etc. 

Botanical Name. 

Popular Name. 

naicn r^ s p* % M., Iden- 
tical with jo2r,B.(?). 

Peranum Harniala, 


new:*, Bible, M 


Salix Safsaf, Forsk., 
or SalLx alba, Linn 

Harmei, Syr- 
Ian rue or 
a variety 
of mullein 


Willow, or 
white wi l- 
( low. 

Krs s n f n s u Ns^n, B. >alix (nigricans. Fries.?) Black willow. 

E upb rates 
poplar (2>s\ 
osier, accord- 
ing to Hai 
Gaon, Salix 
Linn. [?]). 

H3"t7, Bible, M.; nt2">n, 
NmnN, B. 

Popuius Euphratica, 


Verbascum, Linn 


uy~MP, M.; k 

Mullein (see 
H arm a I a, 
Linn., under 

rvJ\T., Sesamum Indicum, sesame 


p%-% Bible, M.(T.,Y.,B.) 

w^wr *3;j,\ B 

-cn, Bible, Nrrs, T.... 


Solanum coagulans, 

Solanum nigrum, Linn. 
Lycium Europium, Box-thorn. 

C'KiP, Bible; Nnn3\ Mandragora of fieina- Mandrake. 
T.; pD % 3D, B. 


<SrN, Bible) Nr3, B... 


njomn, M 

-\3D13, M., Y„ B.; -u, 



0^3, M„ Y., B 

nnn;3^ -0013, M. ; 

pr^Dro-fi, Y. 

nrvDn('n),M.; *orj,B. 

HM^3, B.; D3*V* M - <?)- 

pau, M.; tocis\ Y.; 

D^3VJ\ M. (?). 

n«n\ M.; Ditor, n-ns, 

B. (?) . 

n3c% M 

pJlfiSOK, M., Y 

pC3, Bible, M., T., B... 

rum, Linn. 


Tamarlx articulata, 
Vabl, and others. 


fiber of Corcborus, 


Erynglum Creticum, 

Coriandrum sativum, 

Blforatestlculata, DC.(?) 
Coriandrum tordyiioi- 

des, Boiss. (?) 
Apium graveoiens, 

Petroselinum sativum, 


Ammi majus, Linn., 
Ammi copticum, 
Linn., and Ammi Vis- 
naga, Linn. 

Carum Carui Linn 

Fcenlculum officinale, 

A variety of Ferula. 



Button snake- 

r^o, M., Mldr 

Anetbum graveoiens, 

Daucus Carota, Linn... 
Cuminum Cyratnum, Cumin. 



Bull wort, bisb- 






Celtis australls, Linn... Southern hack- 

p3vt\ M.; pair, Y... 

■ berry. 

nu% M., Y., B Morus nigra, Linn Black mul- 
nj^nr, Bible, M.; Ficus Carica, Linn Fig. 

ncp>c\ Bible*, m!! Mi'dr.; Ficus Sycomorus, Linn. 
N::piii\ T. 

Capriflcus, wild varie- 
ties of Ficus Carica, 
Linn., variety of Fi- 
cus genuina, Boiss., 
of Ficus rupestris, 
Haussk., etc,. 

Cannabis satlva, Linn., 

Urtica urens, Linn. 

Di3jp, M. 
K3TCip, T 



Nettle (?) (see 
Tribulus ter- 
restris, un- 
der Zygo- 

Name in Mishnah, 
Talmud, etc. 

NCJNl *C\p 

n 3 m p, corrupted 

N S 1DV*T. (?). 

Botanical Name. 


Avicennia officinalis, 
Linn. <?). 


Tribulus terrestrls, 
Linn., or Urtica urens, 

Popular Name. 

Avicennia (?). 

Land - caltrop, 
or nettle. 

The foreign plants mentioned in the Talmud in- 
clude the following, although the Bosicellia was 
cultivated in Palestine in antiquity: 

Hebrew Name. 

cu»3 njf\ Bible; 

NSD13, T. 

c~n, M 



Botanical Name. 

Popular Name. 

prions, M.; ' s ipp, Y„ B. 
C-MP(p^M3),M.; n?t:': 


-U2, Bible, T., B., Midr. 


pM>a); D2»3, Bible. 
njnK Bible, M., T., B. 

A mom urn. 



pziPi Bible, M., Y M 

njn^p, M 

DS^DS, B. (read ED'D).. 

nj3Sn, Bible, M., T., B. 

Acorus Calamus, Linn. . Sweet-flag, cal 

Amomum, Linn 

A m o m u m C a rd a m o- 


Saussurea Lappa, Clarke 

(Aucklandia Costus, 

Falconer; Gildeuieis- 

ter and Hoffmann, 

f.c. p. 901). 
gum-resin of Commi- 
phora Abyssinica, 

Engl., Commiphora 

Schimperi, Engl., and 

Balsamodendron Opo- 

balsamum, Kunth., 

Commiphora Opobal- 

samum (Linn.), Engl, 
frankincense of Bos- 

wellia serrata, Roxb., 

and others, 
resin of the dragon-tree, 

Calamus Draco, Willd. 

(Dracaena Draco, 

Linn., etc.). 
Cinnamomum Zeylani- 

cum, Nees. 

D^oso >2>*n 

-nj nSor, M., Bible; 

nSai2\ T. 
ScSd, m., y., b 

bark of Cinnamomum 
Zeylanicum, Nees. 

Dalbergia Sissoo, Roxb. 


Galbanum from Ferula 

galbaniflua, Boiss. and 

Myristica fragrans, 
Houtt., and others. 




Nardostachys Jataman- 
si, DC. 

Piper nigrum, Linn. . . . 

ciSn, M.; nj-un, T., B.; Scorodosma (Ferula) 

from this, nv*n. Asafoetlda (Linn.), 

Benth. and Hook. 

Tectona grandis, Linn.. 

H)H'z\ B.; from this, 


Zingiber officinale, 


Ceylon ebony. 


A species of 
nutmeg and 
mace from 
the nutmeg- 


Black pepper* 



The following are names of briers not yet identi- 
fied: *N3in, rnn, «ny\ am muvi;, pp. Tradi- 
tion, comparative philology, and botany alike fail 
to furnish anv aid in the identification of the follow- 
ing names of plants, which appear, for the most 
part, only once: 

pK, M. (Nrun^, Y.); pv:tn, M. (not lichens); k^pn, Y.; 
nhshk, B. (not St-John's-wort); jnsi, M.; pniSnSn (pSnSn), 
M.; Nnnfin, Y.; "]Sr, M. (not blossoms of the KiVo-apos); 
nS^2, M. (not the oak or the ash); res, B.; nSnDS, Y.; 
jtt»]? nS;c, M. ; r'ams (risnnc), M. ; to^mc, Y. ; rn^ 

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(nn^), (not Verbascum, mullein); o*32> nsj? t M.; hmS^d <not 
^«Ai<r<ro<^vAAo^ batm); p s mo and varieties; nj^b»o and 
varieties; rusS mp (not Cojrtus Arabicus, Linn.). 

Where tradition is lacking it is extremely diffi- 
cult to identify the plant-names recorded in the 
Mishnah and Talmud, though inferences may occa- 
sionally be drawn from the plants mentioned in 
connection with a problematical term. An instance 
of this is the D^D^a, mentioned together with the 
;mn, carob, St.-.lohn's-bread (Ter. ii. 4; Tosef. v. 

38=Yer. 'Orlah ii. 62a; Yer. Bik. 
iii. 65, 13c; Tk. i. 6), and which oc- 
curs by itself (D*D^33t? pCW: Tosef., 
Ter. vii. 37; Yer. Ter. viii. 45, 68b; 
Sifra, Shemot, 57a; Hul. 67a). This 
was traditionally explained as a variety of bean 
(" Halakot Gedolot," ed. Hildesheimer, 547, 4, where 
the correct reading is ^pn = TaSHBaZ, iii. 11, 
^pfrO), but later was regarded as an acorn. The 
proximity of the carob suggested Cercis Siliquas- 
trum, Linn. (Leunis, "Synopsis," § 437, 14), the 
Judas-tree, on which Judas Iscariot is said to have 
hanged himself, although according to other tradi- 
tions he died ou an elder or a jujube. Pulse is called 
"false carob," dypia ZvloKeparea (Lenz, "Botanik der 
Griechen und Romer," p. 733; Fraas, "Synopsis," 
p. 65; Post, I.e. p. 297). It is, however, to [)e identi- 
fied with the Prosopts Stephaniana (W\\\d.), Spreng., 
which belongs to the same family. This is in ac- 
cordance with the view of Ascherson, who was sur- 
prised, while in the oases, by the similarity of the 
sweet, well-flavored pulp of the fruit of this tree 
with that of the St.-John's-bread (ib. p. 298). 

In the Geonic Literature: The geonic 

period, which came to an end in 1040 (see Gaon), 
saw a development of the botanical knowledge of 
the Babylonian Jews, as is evident from the deci- 
sions of the Geonim and the first great post-Tal- 
mudic-halakic work, the "Halakot Gedolot" (cited 
hereafter as "H. G."). The chief cultivated plant 
that is mentioned in this work for the first time in 
Hebrew literature is the sugar-cane. Other im- 
portant trees, plants, and fruits mentioned are the 
following: tree and fruit of the Musa sapientium, 
Linn., the banana, perhaps also a variety of the 
Musa paradisiaca, the plantain, under the Arabic 
name "mauz," derived from the Sanskrit ( a H. G." 
56, 19; 57, 5; "Responsa der Geonim," ed. Lyck, No. 
45, p. 18; "Toratan shel Rishonim," ii. 56; "Shibbole 
ha-Leket," 12b; RaDBaZ, ed. Ftirth, No. 531, s.v. 
"Hai"; "Bet Yosef," Orah Hayyim, 203; L5w, 
"Aramaische Pfianzennamen," p. 336); Daucus 
Carota, Linn., carrot, nfj (also in Arabic and Syriac, 
"H. G." ed. Hildesheimer, 60, 19; ed. Venice, 8, b4; 
"Eshkol," i. 68, 10; Post, I.e. p. 372; L5w, I.e. p. 86); 
^3ilp, Sinapis arvensis, Linn., a variety of mustard, 
put in brine in Roman fashion ("H. G." ed. Hildes- 
heimer, 72; read thus instead of *nD31D; Post, I.e. 
p. 76; LOw, I.e. p. 178); plums, under the name of 

insn, like the Syrian "haha"("H. G." 
ed. Venice, 7, c!5; L0w, I.e. p. 149); 
\>D ("H. G." ed. Venice, 8, b23; lack- 
ing in ed. Hildesheimer, 58, 28; "Esh- 
kol," i. 68, ^», as in Syriac), a vari- 
ety of bean (in this same passage and in "H. G."ed. 
Hildesheimer, 547, 5, also ^P3, Arabic "bakilta"); 

4 ' Halakot 

another variety of bean (Lttw, I e. p. 245), *pS^H 
("II. G." 58, 4-5), myrohalan, as in Syriac, from the 
Arabic "halilaj," not mentioned again until the time 
of Asaph hen Beiechiah, hul used later in nil the 
works on medicine (Stcinsehneider, " Heilmiltelmi- 
men der Amber," No. 1997; L&w, I.e. p. 129), xn^U* 
("H.G."ed. Venice, 8b, 21-22), the Aramaic form of 
the mishnaic ri3t M , a Persian loan-word, appearing 
again in Asaph (Low, I.e. p. 373); mjU CO, marginal 
gloss in "H. G."(ed. Hildesheimer, 57, 6), a ground- 
fruit. In " II. G." 70, last line = " Eshkol," i (W, the 
Arabic "hinnah" is used for the Biblical "henna" 
(Low, I.e. p. 212). 

Other Arabic and Persian names of plants which 
are mentioned in works of the Geonim are: ^"ini M , 
hemp-seed ("II. G." 56, 20; "Eshkol," i. 6*. with 
"resh," but in ed, Venice, 7b, rightly with "daiet "; 
RaDBaZ, ed. FQrth, 531, *.r. "Hai"; Low, I.e. pp. 
211, 248); }2D2, Polypodium (" II. G." 111. 5; Law, 

I.e. p. 268); U&\1\ lirah&ica /A;/*i, 

Persian Linn., turnip ("II. G." 72,21 ; Mishnah, 

and Arabic Talmud, nE&; Low, I.e. p. 241); HNL M 
Names. D1DDK ("II. G." ed. Venice, 8c). Oey- 

mum bcutlicum, Linn., basil; -Q12V. 
pine-nuts (ib. ed. Hildesheimer, 57, 8; ed. Venice, 
7d; "Eshkol," i. 67); SO«3U( rt H. G."57, en<l ; Hai, 
in "Responsa der Geonim, Kehillat Shelomoh," ed. 
Wertheimer, No. 9; Harkavy, " Responseu der Geo- 
nim," p. 28 ; L6w f I.e. p. 286); JD1D, the Arabic 
equivalent of D^poyn rOBW, lily (*H. G." 70, end); 
KD^n (ib. 546, 10). A number of Arabic names 
of plants may be found in the marginal glosses of 
the Vatican manuscript of the "Halakot Gedolot," 
as "hasak," thorn, gloss on TH (ib. 160, No. 36): 
JDDJ (read 3DB33), violet, on ^rD (ib. 70. No. 102; 
"Eshkol," i.' 68; RaDBaZ, i. 44 = nin&n, "Kenesct 
ha-Gedolah," Orah Hayyim, 204; D^NM. responsa, 
"Debar Shemuel," No. 2; e6iN"l. Lebush, Orah 
Hayyim, 216, 8); p^KDH. equivalent to the Arabic 
"sil," on pnn( u H. G." 92, No. 29; Harkavy, I.e. 

p. 209). 

The Geonim, especially Hai Gaon (see Hai hex 
Siierira), prefer to give their explanations in Ara- 
bic. In the responsa the Harkavy edition, for exam- 
ple,has " abnus, " " shauhat," " sasam "(p.185 ; Krauss, 
"Lehnw5rter," ii. 46), "abhul" (p. 23; "Responsa 
der Geonim," ed. Cassel, p. 42a), "anjudan" (p. 23), 
" babunaj "(ib. p. 209), " sunbul al-nardin" (p. 29), and 
"kurnub" (ib. p. 208). In his commentary on the 
Mishnah (Toharot) Hai Gaon gives, as a rule, the 
Arabic names of the plants side by side with the 
Aramaic terms, as, for example: "isfunj." "asal." 
"thayyil" (Harkavy, I.e. p. 22), "jauz buwn." 
"juliban," "harshaf," "hulbah" [ib. p. 23), 
"hiltith," "haifa," "khiyar," "khayzuran." "dar 
sini " "rajlah," "rumman," "za'faran," "sadhab." 
"safarjal," "silk," "shuniz," "shaytaraj, v "futr." 
"kitha' al-himar," "kirtim," "kar'ah," "kasab al- 
bardi," "kummathra," "mahruth," u na'na\" 

The Arabic names of plants in the " 'Aruk " are 
drawn almost without exception from geonic 
sources. The list is as follows (in the order of the 
Arabic alphabet): 

Ajam, dan (tbis and 4 uyun ai- AVakiya, n*^n. % 

bakar,8.v.rPD-^)- Unbub Rl ' ra * ^ alr * * 

X.— 6 

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Baks, jnrc'N. 

Baklah, ruVyjVrn (ill. 395a). 
Bakkam, ncs-*. 

Ballut. octS. 
Bunduk, pijis. 
Jlllauz. Kjsia p"Ufi. 
Jumuialz, p»DJ. 

Julban, ^ie, ncM3. 

jHabb al*mulufc, nvja-Oi. 

Qarmal, tnas»« 

ijulbah, jr-Sr. 

£alfa, f]Sn. 

Minimis, c*ji£N. 

Handakuk, rrj"U"U, 

Hanzal. ->jj:>. 

kbirwa\ m^vs. jrrox. 

Kbashkbasb, pic. 

Dar slni, p.:p. 2-n, prn 

(M.*16lb, 428b). 
Dar kisab, nn^p. 
Rajlab, N?\n. ru^jrn (ii. 

Za^rhab al-kblyar, 7-' mra 

Zargbun, j£j s r r"C\ 
Za'rur, -my. 
Zawan, p;v. 
Safarjal, pnc 

Silk, 3<:ij;\ j^D (i. 79b). 
Summak, jin (also s.r. r."3 
raXH.'Xo. 2 in Paris MS.). 

Slmslm, srsvr. 
Sbajar maryam, n«i. 
Sbub, 'nv:'N. 
?aRblr al-adbnab, a*jrip* 
Sanaubar, \&& yy. 

'Ate, NSDN. 

Tkruban, C^jznpy. 
Gbubalra', ^ysmTp. 
Fuji, ptt. 

Farfabin, puiSj^h. 
Fustak, pro^c (s.v. \2D). 

Fukka\ nv\3B ($.i>. pn--) 
Faljan, crc 
Fuwwab, n*ns- 
Kakullab, ^lfljrc (11. 241b). 
Karnablt, np:nr. 

KaranfuU ifliD. 
Kutniyya, rvyjp. 
Kuikas, D^p (not rp 1 *). 

Kabar (kifar), 

(viil. 248). 
Karratb, npn*. 
Karats, Dc"0. 
Kuzburab. -ooia 

Kusbut, neo. 
Kamab, pn23. 

Labsan, |Dfi^. 
NVna\ xrj .. 

Nil, DEDN. 
Hlndaba, o^n. 

ffS, NH^D 


For a proper understanding of the Talmudic 
writings constant reference must be made to the 
traditions of the Babylonian schools, preserved in 
the decisions, commentaries, and eompendiums of 

the Geonim and their pupils. Most 
Hai Gaon. Jewish statements about plants like- 
wise rest on such traditions, of which 
the greatest number is preserved in the writings of 
Hai Gaon. Hehasalsokeptanumberof old Aramaic 
words in his explanations, such as NDT1, radish; 
N^Ttp, camomile; «JK3^n(K^On[*]; LQw, I.e. pp. 
140, 309, 326; Harkavy, I.e. p. 209). R. Hananeel 
hex Hushiel preserved a considerable amount of 
botanical information from geonic sources, and this 
was made more generally known by the u< Aruk." 
For example, he strikingly describes sago as "a 
substance like meal, found between the fibers of the 
palm" (Kohut, u Aruch Completum," vi. 65a); co- 
conuts as coming from India (ib. vi. 10a); arum (r\yp) 
as a plant whose roots are eaten as a vegetable with 
meat, and which has leaves measuring two spans 
in length and two in breadth (ib. v. 29a); and reeds 
as growing after their tops have been cut off (ib. iii. 
420b). Mention is made of a prickly food for camels 
(ib. ii. 130b), as well as of castor-oil and its use (ib. 

vii. 19b). Lupines and a certain other 

Hananeel pulse, he declares, do not grow in 

b. Hushiel. Babylon (ib. vi. 229b). He is unable to 

describe Peganum Ihirmala, Linn., ac- 
curately, but says it is one of the plants used for 
medicinal purposes, while its small, blackish seed, 
which has a strong and unpleasant smell, is very hot 
(ib. viii. 19b), in the technical sense of the Greek 
medical writers; it is mentioned here for the first 
time in rabbinical literature (Meyer, "Gesch. der 
Botanik," ii. 192; comp. Galen, xii. 82: "It is hot 
in the third degree"). According to Sherira Gaon, 
pll seeds are hot, and therefore the seed-bearing 
onion-stalk also is hot (Kohut, I.e. v. 330a; these 
are the first traces of Greek medicine in rabbinical 

literature). Cedar-wood becomes moist in water, but 
tig-wood remains dry ("Da'at Zekeuim, Hukkat," 

beginning), according toSaadia Gaon, 
Saadia. whose translation of the Bible is the 

chief source of inanv identifications 
of Biblical plants, since, where definite traditions 
were lacking, he introduced definite Arabic terms 
to make his translation readable (Bacher, " Die 
Bibelexegese," p. 6). 

In conclusion, a few more botanical details from the 
writings of the Geonim may be mentioned: the ac- 
curate differentiation of capers, their buds, blossoms, 
fruit, and parts; the correct explanation of "aspara- 
gus " as the tender roots of cabbage, not asparagus 
(Harkavy, I.e. p. 196); and an accurate definition of 
JVOlp (ib- P- 1^9). Hai Gaon clearly describes the 
Cuscuta (ib. p. 215 ; L5w f I.e. p. 231) and the heads of 
camomile, and gives a brief account of the Xtwro 
= Arabic "ghubaira'" (Harkavy, I.e. p. 28; "Ke- 

hillat Shelomoh, " ed. Wertheimer, No. 9). The arti- 
choke is also well characterized by Sherira and Hai 
when they say that the spines are taken off, and the 
inside of the plant is eaten (Abu al- Walid, Dictionary, 
115, 17; 392, 4 [ed. Bacher] ; D. Kimhi, "Miklol,"s.r. 
Ijny). One geonic writer, probably Hai, identifies 
JYiyipD with the eggplant, but for historical reasons 
this can not be accepted. 

In the geonic period Eldad bex Maiili iia-Dani 
invented his "darmush" for pepper, and also de- 
clared that neither thorns nor thistles grow in the 
lands of the Lost Ten Tribes (D. II. Muller, "Die 

Recensionen und Versionen des Eldad 
ha-Dani," pp. 18, 68, Vienna, 1892), 
which devote themselves to the culti- 
vation of flax (ib. p. 1). To the same 
period belongs the medical work of AsArn ben Bere- 
chiaii, which is based upon the Syriac translation of 
Dioscorides, aud has thus preserved many Syriac 
names of plants. Shortly after Asaph came Shab- 
bethai Donnolo (946), who was primarily a writer 
on medicine. In the "Sefer ha-Yakar," eh. iii.-iv., 
however, he enumerates the plants that improve or 
injure the quality of honey. 

The list of thirty varieties of fruit given by 
pseudo-Ben Sira is noteworthy, even though it is 
borrowed from Greek sources. The passage is dis- 
cussed by Low (I.e. pp. 2 et *eq.) with reference to 
Mas'udi (ib. p. 4; see also Bnill, "Jahrb." i. 205). 
Even before Low, Noldeke had suggested that 
there were Arabic recensions of the passage (L5w, 
I.e. p. 417); and their existence is evident not only 
from Mas'udi but also from Tabari (" R. E. J." xxix. 
201). According to Steinschneider ("Hebr. Bibl." 
1882, p. 55), the thirty varieties of fruit are mentioned 
as Palestinian also by Hayyim Vital in Natan Spira's 
"Sha'are Yernshalayim," vi. 6, end. 

In the Post-Geonic Period: Information 

concerning the knowledge of plants in the post- 
gconic period must be sought in the translations of 
the Bible, the commentaries on the Bible and Tal- 
mud, and the lexicons. Here it will be sufficient 
to mention some of the statements of H. Gcrshom, 
the 'Aruk, Rashi, and a few other writers. 

In the commentaries which are probably correctly 
ascribed to him R. Gershom ben Judaii has the 
oldest foreign words (KOnigsberger, " Fremdsprach- 


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R. Ger- 

liche Glossen, I. — R. Gerschom h. Jchutla," 189G; 
Braudin, "Les Loazim cle H. Gershom," in u Publ. 
Ecolc Nationale des Charles," pp. 15 ft wq. 9 Tou- 
louse, 1898; "H. E. J." Nos. 83, 84, 85. Brandin 
consulted the manuscripts also; but, strangely 
enough, he has not the gloss o*D?Q, B. B. 2b, and 
this is also lacking in Ltfw's alphabetical list of Ger- 
shom 's foreign words). Brandin transcribes the 
following foreign plant-names: "aveine," wild bar- 
ley ; " bayes," fruits of the laurel ; " boso " (Italian), 
"bois," boxwood; "cro," "crocu orientel," saffron; 
"homlon," hop; "kind" ("chmiel," Slavonic); 
" kos," "kost," costmary ; u lafire " (Italian, " lasero "), 
laserwort ; " lesche, " sedge ; " lor, " laurel ; " molse, " 

moss; "ortyes,^ nettles; Spores," 

leek; "sape," fir-tree; "sigle," rye; 

"spieu," ear of corn, spikenard; 

" tel," linden-tree ; " ternure," ternage ; 
"torn," torus (Menahem b. Solomon, nTI); "wa- 
ranze," madder-root; and )*Dp (on pty |*y, Tumid 

The linden is mentioned here for the first time in 
Jewish literature. Later, n?X is translated u linden " 
in Germany (Grunbaum, I.e. p. 27), and Baruch 
Lindau(1788) renders mt?K by "linden." The only 
linden that Post (l.c t p. 8) knows in Palestine is the 
Tilia argentca, Desf., the Oriental silver linden, 
■which grows in the region of the Amana. No linden 
is mentioned as coming from Egypt (Ascherson and 
Schweinfurth, "Flore d'Egypte," p. 53). Nor did 
the Syrians know how to translate tytlvpa, the name 
of silver linden; the Arabic rendering by Berggren 
(in a manuscript belonging to the Deutsche Morgen- 
l&ndische Gesellschaft) is "zihr al-mahlab." The 
word "thore," mentioned above, also is of interest, 
as R. Gershom ben Judah is the oldest source for 
the word. 

According to Gustav Schlessinger, Bashi has the 
following French names of plants: 

French Name. 


French Name. 


Aloes (aloTne)... 
Aloisne, alnisne. 




Wild blite. 





shallot, clbol. 




Sorb, serviee- 



Croc, groe. 






Erbe felchiere . . 
Erbe sabonalre.. 


Soap wort. 

Aristoloebe (?) .. 

Spelt, [nard 

Kspic, spic 


Nurd, spike 


Fasele, faseole.. 
Fenocle, fenoil.. 
Fenugrec, fene- 













Geneivre, geni- 



Caprier ......... 





Cerfnel, eerfoll.. 

crespigno (?). 
Guesde, waisde . 
Ierre, ere, edre. . 







Cipoule, ciboute. 

Wild vine. 

Cold re 



Corme, connier . 

1-j ' * I »■•••••»•»••• 



Mamihjc Iluarhound. 

Melon Melon. 

MPiiU* Mini. 

Meurler, niuii- M u 1 be r ry 
rler. | tree. 

Mil Millet. 

Molse Moss. 

Nesple, neple . . . Medlar. 

NIele K oh e-en m 

plon. mul 

Olme Elm. 

Urlle NelUe. 

Oseille sorrel. 

Osre, osier Osier. 

Paille, polle fo- Slraw. 

nrre (?). 

I'auis, penlz Panlc-jrrass. 

1'asieque Watermelon. 

l'e r seeh e, pre- Peach. 

see he. 

Peuplier, pou-|Poplar. 

Pin Pine-tree. 

Planeon (?) [Sapling. 

Poniel. i 

Porchaille, por- Purslane. 

eh 11 ague. 

Pore, porele Pore. 


pollol. I 

Provain ! Sllp. 

Prune, prunier.. Plum-tree. 
Pulpiet, pour- Purslane. 


Freiieb Name. 


Hoik •• 



Spanish ciiino- 
u lie, It m r- 


Iila< W berry - 



Itow'll, joseim . 

lltlde Hue. 


Sale«« Willow. 

Salvee, M*l\le. 



Seltfle H\<» 

Sevel Ih-tlgi*. 

Sorbler, cormler. Sen u»- - tftni, 

j w»rb. 

Soiiflie Slump. 

Pan Tan. 

1'liore Crowfoot. 

'Ill, tell, te| Llnden-narl, 

Trellle Vino-arbor. 

[Tremble Asp«-n. 

Troche r|u»l«T of 

owers or 




Tndel, pecce Halm. 

Vedllle Temlrll. 

Vera nee, va- 

Verdun* Verdure. 

Vice, veee , Veleti. 

Viole, vlole* Vlulei. 

iZinzlbre Ginger. 

Most of the "loazim" of the Mnhzor Vilrv. ad- 
mirably discussed by Gustav Schlessinger, come 
from Rashi. Among the names of plants are: 










Eliandre (for 


Pn ii 






Erbe felchiere 


lies' ne 


Erbe sabonalre 

Ml re (myrrbe) 

Rude (rue) 




Sal run 



Pels (pois) 

The Arabic names of plants found in the " *Aruk" 
of R. Nathan b. Jehiel have already been given, since 

they are derived for the most part, 

The though not exclusively, from geonic 

'Aruk. sources. His vernacular glosses in 

part taken from Gershom, are belter 
preserved than Rashi's foreign words, of which 
twelve arc lacking in Kohut's Italian index. 

[In the following list the references, unless otherwise Mated, 
are to Kohut, "Aruch Completum."] 

R. E. J. 




Albatro (vl. 185a). 
Aloe (1. 25JU)). 

Aneto (viil. 24a). 
Appio (iv. 34 ia; 

xxvll. 241). 
Armoraecio (vii. 2Sb). 
Aspnrapo (iv. 15Sa). 
Assafellda (error for 

AtrepJce (v. 49b). 
Avellaoa ill. 42a); noeella (vi. 

307b; Menahem b. Solomon, 

" Hckel Tob," p. xii.). 
A vena (see sepde). 
Balsamo (vii. ivlb). 
Hambapia (vii. 3Rli). 
Bassillco (iv. ZUh), 
Hiela, bliti (1. 7»b. 138b: 

ponto [hereafter cited 

Sip.] on Kll. i. 3; notable- 

Bosso, busso (I. 314a, vi. 32^a). 



Brasile (vii. 277b; Sip. on 

Kll. ii. 5). 
Canapa <vlL131a; Sip. on Kll. 

v. \>\ * % a. K.J." xxvii.246). 
Canella (ill. l«ilb). 
Cappero Iv. 374b, vl. 421a, vll. 

21a; Sip. <»n lK*m. I. 1 : 

Ma'as. iv. (»i. 
Cardl dome^llcl (vi. l«»b; ?ip. 

on sheb. ix. 5; comp. car- 

dalore. vl. 144 . 
Cardo (vl. Wm ; %% B. K. J." 

x.xvli. 24>). 
Carelto, not corieccla (Hi. 

Cerasa (ill. 5b). 
Clcercbla, cicercla (Hi. 43lb % 

vl.30la, b; Sip. un KILL Ii. 
Clcerl 1. 23te : Sip. on Kll. 

ill. 2; Teah Hi. 3). 
Cinnaniomo (Hi. 3(6a). 

Col«H*a.sia (v. lVa>. 

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Coriandro, culiandro (ii. 239a, 
241b, iv. 272a; Menahem, 
"Sekel Tob," p. xii.; Sip. 
on Kii. i. 2; Sbeb. ix. 1; 
" R. E. J." xxvii. 245, note). 

Corme (French) salvalico (iv. 

Costo (vii. Wa, 223b; Sip. on 

Kil. i. M. 
Cotoirna (iil. 343a; "R. E. J." 

xxvii. 248; sip. on KII. i. 1). 
Crespino (vi. 210a ; " R. E. J/' 

xxvii. 246; Menahem, I.e. 

p. xi.). 
Croeo orientale (vi. 320b, vii, 

Daitile, glom (vi. 32b). 
Ellotropio (vi. 252b). 
Ellera, edera (iii. 472a, vii. 

l**b; % R. E.J." xxvii. 247; 

Sip. on Kil. v. 8). 
Erba*rlaucio (ii. 2U0b>. 

Fasiuolo, fasolo (vi. 301b ; Sip. 

on Kil. i. 2). 
Fava, faba, faba blanca (vi. 

301b; Sip. on Kil. i. 1). 
Ferula ivJIi. 19b). 
Finoccbio, fenuclo (iv. 158a, 

viii. Ola: "R. E. J. M xxvii. 

245; Sip. on Sbeb. ix. 1). 
Forra^Rio (i. 190a). 
Fungo (iii. 14b, vi. 318b; "R. 

E. J. " xxvii. 248). 
Galla (iii. 431b). 
Garofano, giroflo (iv. 301b; 

"R. E. J." xxvii. 242). 

Gelso (ii. 129b: d*"S on 'oSiS 
nSsn ; Sip. on Sheb. vii. 5 ; 

*D^*% Ma 'as. i. 2). 
Glande (v.3Ga,393a; vi. 104b). 
Gomma (ii. 378b, vii. 122a). 
Indaeo, indieum (i. 172a; Sip. 

on Kil. ii. 5). 
Indivia (error for "sena- 

Isopo (\i. 2b; Sip. on Sbeb. 

vin. 1>. 
Lambrusco (ii. 339b). 
Lasero puzzolenioorpurulen- 

to (Menabem, I.e., t©;n*?ib), 
not laserpiiium (iii. 421a). 
Lattujza (iii. 364b ; % ; R. E. J." 

xxvii. 243, njibS, NpiisS 

Menahem, i.e. ; Sip. on Kil. 

i. 2). 
Laudano (error for "ladano") 

(v. 18b). 
Lauro (vi. 256b; "R. E. J." 

xxvii. 243). 
Legume (vii. 83a ; Sip. on Hal. 

*Llsca (vl. 75a). 
Lupino (false reading, ii. 362a, 

I v. 333a). 
Malva (iii. 246b. 404b ; vi. 391a; 

Sip. on Kil. i. 8). 
Marrobbio (v. 53b, vili. 245a; 

" R. E. J. M xxvii. 244 ; Men- 

ahem, I.e.). 
Menta (i. 131a ; v. 181a, 349b; 

"It. E. J. M xxvll.243). 
Mora (viii. 291a). 
♦Nervolo (?, vi. 30b; Ainu, 

Sip. on Kil. I. 1; V-nmj. 

Caleb Afendopolo, Kil. 16b; 

Kohut, **Arueb Comple- 

tunV 1 ervolo [?]. 
NIgella (vii. 175b, iii. 306b; 

not glogllo, logllo, but nl- 

gella. corn-campion, con- 
fused with darnel). 
Nocella (see avellana). 
Origano (vl. 2b; Sip. on Sbeb. 

viii. 1). 

Or20 (vii. 256b). 

Papavero (vi. 410). 

Pastinaca (v. 346b). 

Pera (i. 25a; Sip. on Kil. 

Persica (i. 242a). 
Pigna (vi. 2:39b). 
Pilairo (iii. 243b, 441b). 
Pisi (pisello; vi.30ib; Sip. on 

Kil. I. 1). 

Polio (iii. 248b ; vi. 315b, 2b; 
Sip. on Sbeb. viii. 1). 

Porri (iv. 342b; 1% R. E. J." 
xxvii. 245; Sip. on Sheb. 
vii. 1; Kil. i. 2). 

Proeacchia, porcacchia (ill. 
395a, iv. 263a, vii. 253a ; Sip. 
on Sheb. ix. 1). 

Piugna (iii. 155a, iv. 351b, vl. 
294a; %i R. E.J." xxvii. 248): 
xtd r^nD(?)-Nini3 (vi. 
412a; Mussana, jujubes, ac- 
cording toBuxtorf )^p m \n' m% M:, 

VS'-ns (viii. 281a; Ben 

Sira, " Pflanzennaraen,' 1 3; 

Caleb Afendopolo, twice 

with M r." Kohut, i.e. iv. 

263a» is incorrect). 
Radice (v. 364b ; Sip. on Kil. 

i. 5). 
Ramolaccio (see armoraccio). 
Robbia (vii. 175b; Sip. on 

Sheb. v. 4, N*n). 
•;»M:n (vi. 196a; neither ra- 

muccio nor rusco). 
Rosmarino (iil. 410a; "R. E. 

J.' 1 xxvii. 246). 
N"pn, Nn'n, nn (iii. 262a). 
Rticbetta oruga (i. 3(K5a, iv. 

345a CRuea di Petro "; 

Sip. on Sheb. i. 1). 
Ruta (vi. 291b; "R. E. J.' 1 

xxvii. 246; Sip. on Kil. i. 8; 

Sheb. ix. 1). 
Salvatico, selvatico (vi. 355b). 
Sanguine (iii. 241b). 
Satureia (iii. 511a; v. 349b; 

vi. 2b, 173a). 

variant reading, avena (vlll. 
13b: xrn, Menahem, I.e.). 
Senazione (iii. 222a; Caleb 
Afendopolo, Kil. 17a, 

^"ttfrsK domestlche and fo- 

restiche (vi. 210a), not sonco 

(comp. "R. E. J." xxvii. 

Sesamo (viii. 109b). 
Sisimbrio (t. 297a, vi. 2b ; Sip. 

on Sheb. viii. 1). 
Sorbo (vi. 185a; see "alba- 

tro," ' fc R. E. J." xxvll. £48; 

Sip. on Dem. i. 1), 
Sorgo (viii. 144a). 
Spelda, espelta (III. 168a; 

nx s "£5^% Menahem, i.e.; Sip. 

on KII. i. 1). 
Spicanardl (v. 334b, viii. 13a; 

"R. E.J." xxvii. 242). 
Tartufo, tartufolo (vl. 318b; 

ik R. E. J. M xxvii. 248). 
Veccla (III. 221b. iv. 343b, vl. 

301b; Sip. on KII. i. 1). 
Zenzero (iii. 30.5a ; "R. E. J." 

xxvii. 247; n:!M, Sip. on Ur- 
iah 11.10). 

Zenzevero, zenzlberi (H. 

ZlzzaniaOi. 233} Is wrong, even 
if the word were Italian ; it 
Is Aramaic, however. 

Zlzzlba (?) (Hi. 321b). 

Zucchero (ill. 473a) Is 1310. 
and Is not Italian. 

In the twelfth century R. Isaac ben Mei.ciiize- 
dek of Siponto took over from the " ' Aruk " forty- 
one Italian names of plants and a few 
Arabic ones, while the Greek terms, 
such as dfftjg aud fjvloKipara, and the 
following Italian words occur for the 
first time in his work: 

R. Isaac 


di cavolo 
Esplca vulpl 




Meli porcaroli 









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Ciceri llmpidi 



A large number of his plant-names still await iden- 
tification. Asparagus proper, which has erroneously 
been supposed to be mentioned in the Talmud 
(Krauss, u Lehn w5rtei\" ii. 93), seems to occur first in 
Isaac's commentary on Sheb. ix. 1 as^n2V=""lDD^, 
"sparagio" (cited in " Kaftor wa-Ferah," 107b, Ber- 
lin; J1EDX, corresponding to fc the Arabic "hilyaun" 
= "asparagus" ; see Aldabi, "Shebile Emunah," p. 

75a; Tobias Cohen, 151a: D H DVJ> or JV^H is wild 
asparagus; pTHV, the cultivated kind). Isaac is 
also the first post-Talmudic author to mention the 
cornel or dogwood (corniolo ; Kpavea), in the passages 
Peah i. 5, Ma'as. i. 2, where he rejects the view that 
it is identical with jitf, sumac. 

Maimonides gives the names of plants exclusively 
in Arabic in his commentary on the Mishnah; and 
these terms have been discussed by Low in his 
"Aramaische Pflanzennamen," on the basis of the 
Berlin manuscripts of thi^ gloss. In his medical wri- 
tings likewise Maimonides follows the Arabic phar- 
macology; for instance, ninety -one vegetable reme- 
dies are mentioned in his "Dietetics"; but these be- 
long rather to the history of medicine. From his 
"Moreh " mention may be made of the story of the 
Nabatsean cultivation of the mandrake and althea 
("Moreh," French transl. by Munk, iii. 235), the 
reference to indigo (ib. i. 392), and the expression 
"like a locust-bean," meaning "practically worth- 
less " (ib. i. 157). Maimonides has won a lasting 
name in the history of botany. Even after Sprengel 
("Gesch. der Botauik," i. 178) had tried to identify 
the plants mentioned in the mishnaic tractate Kila- 
yim, basing his investigation on the Latin transla- 
tion of the commentary of Maimonides iu the edition 

of the Mishnah by Sureuhuis, Mayer 
("Gesch. der Botanik," iii. 220), allu- 
ding to the plants mentioned in "'Uk- 
zin," declared that Maimonides had 
given his interpretations with discrimination and 
had displayed an unmistakable knowledge of bot- 
any; but that, though he had a wide acquaintance 
with plants, his explanations were drawn chiefly 
from school traditions, and were not the result of 
independent investigation. Proceeding on the an- 
thropocentric theory of the universe, Maimonides 
declares in his introduction to the Mishnah that trees 
and plants were created for the nourishment or heal- 
ing of man, even though in some cases he fails to 
recognize this, or has never known it; and although 
the uses of all the plants on the earth may not )*et 
be understood, each successive generation will be- 
come acquainted with new herbs and fruits which 
will prove of great advantage to it, 

by Microsoft ® 





Of the later halakic writers the only one to be 
mentioned here is Estori Fakiii (flourished in the 

thirteenth and fourteenth centuries), 
Estori who made a careful geographical and 
FarhL scientific exploration of Palestine. 

His remarks on plants in his " Kaf tor 
wa-Ferah " may readily be seen in the third index of 
Lunez's edition of that work, for which L5w ar- 
ranged the data in their proper order. The com- 
ments in Wiesner's Hungarian biography of Farhi 
(p. 31, Budapest, 1896) on certain botanical notes of 
the halakist are very inadequate. Farhi's statements 
regarding shallots and onions in Syria are note- 
worthy, as are also his identification of Cordia Myxa, 
his accounts of Musa and Badingan, and the collo- 
quial Arabic name for Pyrns Syriaca (Boiss.), equiva- 
lent to '•DDID^K, which explains the Syriac ND^DID 

(L5w, I.e. p. 208). 

According to Buber( u Sekel Tob," Introduction, 
p. xi.) f Menahem b. Solomon (1139) has the follow- 
ing names of plants in addition to the 
Menahem list already quoted from the " 'Aruk " : 

b. Solomon. WTO XTO on XDDH; TmQ H1J 

on pmn; iTVn on ,TTI (probably de- 
noting B. Gershom's "thora"); \rh on D^DZl; its 
resin 1lDr6; n^llp^V, chicory (see Isaac Siponto 

above); lOVUn on |^mn ; WDC on D^>. 

In order to define the heterogeneous plants more ac- 
curately, the Karaite Caleb Afendopolo of Adria- 
nople (end of the 15th cent.) arranged an alphabetical 
list of about sixty plant-names, and, following Mai- 
monides in the main, tried to identify the plants and 
explained them in Arabic, Turkish, modern Greek, 
and Rumanian. Of this list, which appeared in the 

appendix to "Adderet Eliyahu," the 
Caleb following may be mentioned as of 

Afendo- botanical importance: D^Un he re- 
polo, gards as medlars, called also nVE*On 

(LOW, I.e. p. 114; "R. E. J. "xviii. 
112, on "nespole"; Joseph Perles, "Beitntge zur 
Gesch. der Hebraischen und Aramaischen Studien," 
pp. 135 et seq.), because they have five seeds, lie 
relates that the banana, DKD, was described by 
Japheth ha-Levi (93B) as a cross between the date- 
palm and the colocasia; w T hile he (Afendopolo) 
learned from the Karaite Joseph ha-Kohen that it 
w T as a cross between the date-palm and the sugar- 
cane. Joseph told him also that the colocasia had a 
rootstock as large as an ox -head, and that it was the 
daily food in Egypt, wiiere one head often brought 
as much as 900 dirhems. He describes the cucum- 
ber {Cucumis Ghate, Linn.), which was widely cul- 
tivated in Egypt, as very long and as thick as the 
finger (ib. vii. 17b). The "nabk" {Zizyphus spina- 
Christi, Linn.), Christ's-thorn, he describes as sweet, 
and as large as a hazeluut (see Post, I.e. p. 201), 
while its shell was half red and half green, and its 
kernel was like that of an olive or common jujube. 
In his time, as at present, the tree was very common 
in Egypt (Ascherson and Schweinfurth, I.e. p. 59). 
Why Afendopolo ("Adderet Eliyahu," Appendix, p. 
16c) uses the Hebrew or Aramaic XVH (Low, I.e. p. 
225) for " parsley " is not clear. 

In connection with Afendopolo two older Karaite 
lexicographers may be mentioned, David n. Aijha- 

iiam (AI-Fusi)und Ali li. Suliuiimn, in whose works, 
according to Piiiskers extruels ( M LikkiUe Kudiiio- 

niyyot," pp. 2UU tt *cy.) ( tin* following 

David names of plants are mentioned: u san- 

Al-Fasi dal/'D^HN sandalwood ; w ma*nUir"or 

and Ali b. "za'atar/'aiTN. "sasam" or "abiins," 

Sulaiman. D'EO^X, ebony ; M kuiim/'nvttt fundus; 

M ku/.burah/'lJ, coriander, "inj/'nEU; 
"khatmiyah," niD^fl: "za'urur" or * #4 ans»l," pvyj, 
"wars" or "nilufaiy* VU; "sa'ntnr" ( ' M za'ntar"). 
nEHD; u dulb, w pDny f u l.ian?ul,"roypQ: "knrfah"or 
"kist," mp; "karnafal."pcop; "kazah," "shnniz," 
PISp (Piusker, erroneously, D^V2 JHT;; "snlikhah." 

r6nt>; u sant," D"0^; u jninmai/," n?^pL"; "slmrbin." 
"abhal," "saj," or "shimashar/ 1 inin. "Henna" 
in Pinsker, I.e. p. 212, note 2, is an en or. 

Biuliogkaphy : (ieorpe E. Post, Flora of Syria* PaU*tinc. 
and Sinai from titt Taurw* to I inn Muhammad.and from 
the Mediterranean Sea to the Syrian iJruert* IMrut, W.«i; 
J. Bornmuller, Kin Beit rag zur Krnntnitw d*r Flora nm 
Sjfrien und Pahl.stina (In Vrrhandlungm d*r %tntbigi*ch- 
Boianischcn (jrsrlbuhaft in IS'iVh, IK*» ; I>*"t>oi<l h-mk, 
Strcifzttgc Durvh die Hihlisrhc Flora, Kn-ibiirjr-lih-Hn-is- 
guu, 1U0U, with a complete bibliography, pp. xi. tt m#/. 

E. G. II. I. Lfj. 

the second century c. k. Like Todos (Theodoi us) the 
Roman, his probable contemporary, Plutou sought 
to inspire his persecuted coreligionists with resigna- 
tion and steadfastness, reminding them that others 
had suffered before them for their faith and had l>een 
ultimately delivered. "Ilananiah, Mishael, and 
Azariah," said he, "derived courage to resist Nebu- 
chadnezzar, at the risk of being bunnd " (Dan. iii. 
13), from the Scriptural assurance (Dent. iv. 29), 
"If from thence thou slialt seek the Lord thy God, 
thou shalt iind him, if thou seek him with all thy 
heart and with all thy soul " (Alidr. Teh. xxviii. 1). 
Platon construes literally the Scriptural saying 
(Deut. iv. 11), "Ye came and stood under the moun- 
tain." According to him, Sinai was detached from 
the earth and suspended in the air, while the Israel- 
ites stood under it (Cant. It. viii. 5; com p. Aumxi 

b. Hamak). 

Bibliography: Vopelstein and Rleper, Ocsch. derjuden in 
Rom, i. 10 ( J ct seq.< 176. 
E. C. k- *!■ 

PLEDGES : The law against taking pledges for 
debt is drawn from the following passages: "No 
man shall take the mill or the upper millstone to 
pledge: for he taketh a man's life to pledge" (l)eiit. 
xxiv. 6, H. V.), "nor [shall he] take the widow's 
raiment to pledge M (ib. xxiv. 17, H. V): "And if 
he be a poor man, thou shalt not sleep with his 
pledge: thou shalt surely restore to him," etc. (i*. 
xxiv. 12-13. R. V.); and Ex. xxii. 2(3 to like etTeet 
The "taking to pledge" in these passages is under- 
stood as meaning a seizure to secure an overdue 
debt, not the taking of a pledge by consent at the 

time of a loan. 

The oral law goes in its interpretation far beyond 
the letter of Scripture. The Mishimh says (B. M. 

ix. 13): "He who takes a mill to pledge 

In the breaks a negative command, and is 

Mishnah. guilty for each of two implements, the 

lower and the upper millstone [refer- 
ring to Deut. xxiv. fi]; and this applies not only to 
a mill, but to any implement wherewith life-giving 

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food is made, for it is said, * he taketh man's life to 
pledge.'" "One does not distrain the goods of a 
widow, whether she be poor or rich" (referring to 
ib. xxiv. 17). "He must return the pillow for the 
night, and the plow for the day; but if the debtor 
dies, thev need not be returned to the heirs." The 
seizure in this way is of use to the creditor only to 
preserve his lien and to prevent the debt from run- 
ning out in the year of release. Elsewhere ('Ar. 
vi. 3), on the occasion of an execution on behalf of 
the Sanctuary, but as a rule applicable to all debts, 
the Mishnah reserves to the debtor (1) food for thirty 
days; (2) clothing for a year, bed and bedding, san- 
dals, and phylacteries; (3) to a mechanic his tools, 
such as adzes and saws, two of each kind, and, ac- 
cording to K. Eliezer also, to a farmer his yoke of 
beasts for the plow, and to a carrier his ass. But ac- 
cording to the prevailing opinion (' Ar. 23b), oxen and 
asses are not regarded as tools and are not exempt. 

There is a discussion in the Talmud (Shab. 128a) 
as to what should be done in the case of a man 
heavily in debt and clothed in a robe worth 2,500 
shekels. Should it be taken from him and clothing 
suited to his position given him? R Ishmael an- 
swers, "All Israelites are the sons of kings, and no 
garment is above their rank." From these passages 
in Mishnah and Talmud the Shulhan 'Aruk draws 
the following rules (Hoshen Mishpat, 97): 

The officer of the court can not seize a hand-mill, 
but a water-mill is landed estate, and, without being 
actually seized, is treated like lands (see Appraise- 
ment). But if the creditor undertakes to remove 
parts of a water-mill, they become personalty and ex- 
empt. Pans and pots for cooking, a knife for slaugh- 
tering, and the like, are "implements for life-giving 
food." If such things are taken to pledge, the 

creditor must return them. Accord- 
Further ing to R. Moses Isserles, such tools as 
Develop- barber's scissors are not exempt, nor 
ment. are beasts of the plow. Scissors for 

cutting grass are clearly exempt, the 
grass being food. If a man has five hand-mills in 
use, none of them can be seized ; but if only one is 
in use, the others are subject to seizure. Food itself 
is subject after the lawful allowance is set aside. 

The officer can not seize a garment which the 
debtor has on his body, nor the vessel from which 
he is eating, and he must leave a couch or bench to 
sit upon, and a bed and mattress to sleep upon. 
Though seizing all the rest, he must return bed- 
clothes for the night, and tools for the daytime. It 
should be remembered that household goods are not 
sold, but simply held as security; other goods are 
sold after the lapse of thirty days. The obligation 
to return household goods holds even when the 
debtor is rich in landed estate. 

The officers who arrange* satisfaction say to the 
debtor: "Bring all your movable property, not 

keeping back as much as one needle." 
Exemp- From the whole they set aside for him 
tions from provisions for thirty days (as a " mid- 
Pledge, dling man," says K. Moses Isserles, 

though he had lived like a poor man 
before) and clothes for twelve months, excepting, 
however, silken garments or a gold-embroidered 
turban; .these things they take from him, and give 

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him a sufficient supply of clothing better suited to 
his condition (contrary to R. IshmaeTs view). They 
set aside also bed, mattress, and bedclothes, but these 
things are not set aside as exempt if they are the prop- 
erty of the wife and children, who simply keep what 
they have; for it is the husband's duty to support 
them. Sandals and phylacteries arc exempt. A me- 
chanic is allowed a double set of tools (as in the 
Mishnah); farm- or draft-animals are not set aside, 
nor the skipper's ship or boat, nor the professional 
scholar's books. The creditor lias priority over the 
wife's right of maintenance, but he can not seize her or 
her children's clothing, nor the cloth which has been 
dyed for their use, nor the shoes bought for them, even 
though they have not been worn, nor books bought 
for the children's education. According to some 
opinions, the finer clothes for the wife's wear on Sab- 
baths and festivals are not exempt, and certainly gar- 
ments containing gold or silver clasps, if bought by 
the husband for the wife, are subject to his debts. 
Where, however, they form part of her dowry they 
are exempt. 

The allowances named above are to be set aside 
from either land or personalty. There is some dis- 
pute as to whether the allowance ("siddur") is to 
be set aside where the debt has been incurred for 
wages or for the hire of beasts, and not for money 
or property ; also as to how far the debtor can waive 
the allowance when contracting a loan. But the 
debtor can not waive the exemption of "implements 
for life-giving food," as no stipulations can be made 
contrary to the provisions of the Torah. However, 
the Hoshen Mishpat closes the subject with a 
clause which might defeat all these humane provi- 
sions: if the debtor has sworn that he will pay the 
debt, he must give up even his last shirt — a clause 
which allows the parties to supersede by private 
arrangement the words of the Law. 

Maimonides, who treats of exemptions in the 
" Yad,"Malweh, iii., says nothing about the debtor's 

oath as a means of nullifying clauses, 

Waiving* either in written or in oral law, made in 
of Rights, favor of poor debtors — an oath which 

the creditor might have forced from 
him as a condition of the loan. In fact, the creditor 
may not be allowed to accept such a suicidal fulfil- 
ment of the oath, for all standards acknowledge the 
Scriptural commandment "thou shalt not exact of 
thy brother " (Dent, x v. 3, Hebr.) as forbidding such 
harsh measures as well as such pressure as would 
drive the debtor to encroach on his wife's property. 

The standards agree on the treatment of widow 
debtors. Maimonides (J.r.) says: "Whether a widow 
be rich or poor you can not take her goods in pledge, 
either at the time of the loan or by way of execu- 
tion." This leaves really no way of enforcing a de- 
mand against a widow, unless she have real estate 
or outstanding loans, and the rule, if fully enforced, 
would have destroyed the credit of widow traders. 

The Mishnah gives the measure of a debtor's ex- 
emptions in dealing with the demands of the treas- 
urer of the Sanctuary, as shown under Estimate. 
Here the exemption is based on Lev. xxvii. 8 
(Hebr.): "If thy brother has come down " (become 
poor), etc. (see Ar. 24a). 

s. s. L. N. D. 

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Historical View : In ancient Israel every 

loan was an act of charity. Therefore, if the cred- 
itor had taken a garment as a pledge lie had to return 
it before nightfall, whether lie had received pay- 
ment or not (Ex. xxii. 26-27; Deut. xxiv. 13-14). 
The Talmud (B. M. 14b) explains this to include 
every article which can not be spared, so that the 
garment needed during the day must be returned 
before morning, and the garment needed at night 
must be returned before nightfall. Similar^, the law 
which prohibits the taking of a millstone as a pledge 
{Deut. xxiv. 6) is explained as applicable to every ar- 
ticle which is as necessary as a millstone (Sif re, I.e. [ed. 
Friedmann, p. 123a]). Therefore the creditor should 
not make any use of the pledge ; and he is responsible 
for its safety, just as every depositary is responsible 
for things held in trust (Hoshen Mishpat, 72). 

The development of money-lending among the 
Jews as their almost exclusive occupation, which 

began in the twelfth century, was in 

Medieval all likelihood the consequence of the 

Times, persecutions during the First Crusade 

(Honiger, "Zur Gesch. der Juden im 
FrUhern Mittelalter," in "Zeitschrift fur Gesch. der 
Juden in Deutschland," i. 65-97, 136-151); and the 
lawsof pawnbroking became more and more detailed. 
This is shown by the fact that the charter granted 
by Henry IV. to the Jews of Speyer and Worms 
(1084-90) does not mention money-lending as an oc- 
cupation of the Jews at all, while the charter of 
Frederick II. of Austria (1244) devotes nine of its 
thirty sections to the regulation of pawnbroking. 
This negative evidence is strengthened by the fact 
that in the ninth century the anti-Jewish writers 
Agobakd and Amulo, who were so bitter in their de- 
nunciation of the Jews, are silent on this point. It 
remains evident, therefore, that loaning money on 
pledges, as money-lending in general, has been the 
occupation of the Jews only since the twelfth century, 
when St. Bernard of Clairvaux condemned the per- 
secution of the Jews, saying that where there were 
no Jews, Christian usurers acted much worse 
(Migne, "Patrologia," clxxxii. 567; Aronius, "Re- 
gestcn," p. 112; Griitz, "Gesch." vi. 166; Stobbe, 
"Die Juden in Deutschland," p. 107). 

The law of Frederick II. of Austria expressly 
permits Jews to take any article as a pledge, without 
inquiriug iuto the right of possession of the bor- 
rower; the exception to this is that bloody or wet 
garments may not be accepted, for in such a case 
suspicion of robbery is reasonable. On the " Privile- 
gium Fridericianum " were based such later laws as 
that issued by Ottoear II. of Bohemia in 1254, the 
laws of Bela IV. of Hungary, of the dukes of Silesia 
and Poland, and a prohibition against lending money 
on sacred objects — Pope Gregory I. (590-604) and 
Charlemagne (806) had already declared that such 
objects should not be sold to Jews. A similar pro- 
hibition is found in a law issued by Philip August 
of France (1206). The rabbinical synods of the 
twelfth and thirteenth centuries adopted the same 
law, evidently because of the excuse which the dis- 
covery of church articles in a Jewish house would 
give for riots (Gratz, "Gesch." vi. 199). This prin- 
ciple is often repeated in legislations of the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries. 

In general, legislation concerning the Jews recog- 
nized the rabbinical law, even in dealings between 

Jews and Christians; so a Jew who had 

Babbinical advanced money on a stolen article whs 

Law. entitled to recover the amount he had 

loaned on it, including interest, if he 
could swear that he did not know it had been stolen. 
The same held good with regard to stolen property 
which had been bought. This law is explained by 
the Talmud as necessitated by the needs of business 
life (p)vr\ mpn ; B. K. 115a; Hoshen Mishpat, 357, 
1). Various German laws demanded that the goods 
must have been delivered in daytime and without 
any secrecy ("unverhohlen und unverstohlen "). 
This recognition of the rabbinical law was fiercely 
condemned by the ecclesiastical authorities— <.</., by 
the Fourth Lateran Council (1215) and by various 
diocesan synods— as favoring the Jews at the ex- 
pense of the Christians, who were compelled by law 
to return stolen property which they had bought, but 
without any prospect of indemnity. The "Privi- 
legium Fridericianum " (§ 7), and a great many 
other laws, freed the Jewish pawnbroker from re- 
sponsibility in case of the loss of the pledge by fire 
or robbery, or in any other way. The manner and 
fact of loss, however, had to be established by oath 
or through witnesses. This legal enactment is in 
conflict with the rabbinical law which considers the 
pawnbroker as a depositary (1D£> 101fc f )» i".*., re- 
sponsible in case of death or theft (Hoshen Mishpal, 
72, 2). 

While the state law in this case is more favorable 
to the pawnbroker than is the rabbinical law, in re- 
gard to the unredeemed pledge it is more favorable 
to the debtor. The rabbinical law declares that the 
pledge is forfeited if it is not redeemed on the day 
the payment falls due (Hoshen Mishpat, 73, 13), 
though some authorities demand that the pledge 
shall not be sold until thirty days after payment falls 
due (ib. 3, 14). The "Privilegium Fridericianum " 
(§ 27), however, demauded that the pledge should 
be kept one year and one day. This stipulation wns 
adopted in many places up to the fifteenth century. 
The privilege of lending money on pledges carried 
with it a certain obligation. Thus the Augsburg 

law declares that every Jewish money- 
lender is bound to advance money on 
a pledge to the extent of two-thirds of 
its value ; while the city of Wiuterthur 
found it necessary to declare, in a 
charter of 1340, that a Jew is not liable to punish- 
ment if he is unable to lend a Christian the sum de- 
manded (Stobbe, "Die Juden in Deutschland. 1 ' pp. 
lYSetscq.). The Strasburg law of 1375 makes it the 
duty of the Jews to lend money on pledges to any 


In the frequent anti-Jewish riots which occurred 

from the twelfth to the fifteenth century the mob 
sacking the houses of the Jews often took the 
pledges, and, as a rule, the king issued quitclaim* 
after he had received part of the plunder. Tin's 
was done very frequently by Charhs IV., aft<r 
the Black Death (1348-51). A typical instance is 
that of NOhdmxokn. Under these circumstances it 
is not to be wondered at that Jewish law at that 
period dealt with the Christian debtor as with an 


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enemy in war. Thus medieval rabbis decided that 
if a non-Jew loaned to a Jew money on a pledge, 
and then lost the pledge, and a Jew found it, the 
latter should return it to the Jewish debtor (Hoshen 
Mishpat. 72, 38). Similarly, the law permits a Jew- 
ish creditor to keep the pledge after the death of 
the Christian debtor, even where its value much ex- 
ceeds the amount of the debt (ib. 72, 40). 

The Jewish concern with pledges is especially 
connected with the Italian "monte di pieta," pawn- 
shops established by the ecclesiastical authorities in 
the fifteenth century, in opposition to Jewish money- 
lenders and for charitable purposes. The name is 
found also in French ("mont de piete")and in Latin 
("mons pietatis"; lit. "mountain of charity"); it 
is supposed to have originated from the use of the 
word "monte" in the sense of kt store" or "stock of 
goods," and especially with regard to banking, in 
the sense of a M pile of coin." 

The great change of economic conditions in the 
fifteenth century in connection with the troubles in 
the Church created among the mendicant orders an 
eager desire to bring themselves into prominence. 
The Franciscans were especially active in promoting 

schemes for economic improvement. 
Monte Barnabas of Terni began preaching 

di Pieta. against money-lenders in Perugia, and 

succeeded in forming a company of 
citizens who furnished monevfora loan-bank which 
would lend at a lower rate of interest than that 
charged by the Jews. This first "mountain of 
piety " was founded in 1462, and others followed 
very soon in various cities of Italy; that in Orvieto, 
1464, was sanctioned by Pope Sixtus IV. Espe- 
cially active was the Franciscan Beknaudinus of 
Feltke, who worked for the promotion of the pop- 
ular pawnshops, chiefly in order to create an oppor- 
tunity to attack the Jews. The Dominicans, jeal- 
ous of the success of the Franciscans, opposed this 
movement, claiming that the exaction of even a low 
rate of interest was contrary to the Christian law; 
while the Lateran Council (1512-17) and the Council 
of Trent (1545-63), as well as various popes, declared 
for the Franciscans. 

But in Rome, which was under the direct govern- 
ment of the pope, such institutions were not organ- 
ized. While the operations of the loan-banks inter- 
fered with the business of the Jews, they were not 
able to drive the Jews to abandon money-lending 
altogether; and therefore a special law was passed 
by the "signoria" of Venice, in 1547, prohibiting 
money-lending by Jews in Padua. In Isthia, Jews 
who had lost their business opportunities elsewhere 
were privileged to conduct loan-banks. So in 
Pirano. in 1484, where a bank was founded by Moses 
Saeerdote and three others; it continued its opera- 
tions until 1634, when a monte di pietft was estab- 
lished and their privilege was withdrawn. In Capo 
d'Istria, Jewish money-lenders were called upon 
when the monte di pieta had become bankrupt. In 
1611 France introduced the system, but there it had 
no anti-Jewish purpose. Since the middle of the 
eighteenth century the restrictions against Jewish 
money-lenders in Italy have been removed. 

In the fifteenth century the business of the Jews 
consisted chief! v in pawnbroking, as Israel Isserlein 

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states (•' Teruniat ha-Deshen, " part i. , No. 309). They 
dealt with all classes of people, even with princes 
and kings. King Rupert (1403) pawned his silver 
to Jews (Stobbe, I.e. p. 240); the empress Maria, 

widow of Maximilian II., pawned her 

In silver to Mordecai Meisel (1578) for 

Germany. 2,000 florins ( u Zeit. fur Gesch. der Ju- 

den in Deutschland," ii. 175). From 
the fifteenth century on, however, the restriction of 
money-lending by Jews became the rule. In 1530 
and 1544 respectively, the Reichstags of Augsburg 
and Speyer issued strict regulations in regard to ex- 
cessive rates of interest and other abuses (see Josel 
of Rosiieim). The Landesordnung for Bohemia, 
1579, restricted the money-lending of the Jews to 
pawnbroking in order to exclude them from banking 
on a larger scale ("Zeit. fur Gesch. der Juden in 
Deutschland," ii. 173). 

The Judenstattigkeit of Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
1614, limited the rate of interest for loans on pledges 
to 8 per cent ; the same was done for Fulda in 1615 
(ib. iii. 178). How precarious this business was 
even then is proved by Gliickel von Hameln, who 
tells in her memoirs of an attempt to take a pledge 
from her father's shop by force. The danger in 
dealing with creditorsof this class evidently induced 
some medieval rabbis to permit a pawnbroker to 
redeem a pledge for a creditor on the Sabbath (Orah 
Hayyim, 325, 3). 

With the development of the banking business 
through the court Jews in the seventeenth century, 
and the gradual concession of economic freedom, 
pawnbroking among the Jews became rare, and, in 
fact, in recent times, disreputable (see also Bank* 

Bibliography: RhuHian Viruft, Hoshen Mishpat* 72-73; 
Zeitsehrift filr Gesch. der J mien in Dcutsehland, 1. 65-97, 
136-151; Stobbe, Die Juden in Deutschland Wdhrend des 
Mittelaltcrs, pp. 112-131, Brunswick, 1S66; Soberer, Die 
BechtsvrrhdUnisse der Juden in den Dcxdsch-Ocslerreieh- 
isehen Ltindcrn, pp. 196-209,211-216, Leipsie, 1901; Cerettf, 
Storia di Monti di Pieta, Padua, 1752; Ciscato, Gli Ehrei 
in Padova. pp. 48-€7. 245-247, Padua, 1901 ; Xuova Eneielo- 
pedia Haliana, s.v. Monte di Pieta (where further literature 
is quoted). 


PLEIADES : The word "Kimah," which occurs 
in three passages in the Bible (Job ix. 9, xxxviii. 
31, and Amos v. 8), each time in connection witli 
Ouiox, is translated by the Septuagint once by 
U?,eid6a (Job xxxviii. 31); and Aquila, who repre- 
sents the tradition of the scribes, gives the same 
rendering in Amos v. 8, being followed therein by 
Symmaehus and Theodotion. The word is retained 
in the Targum, which indicates that it was then 
used in the vernacular; so that the meaning given 
the term in the Talmud and by Aquila may be ac- 
cepted as correct. Although the etymology is not 
altogether certain, it may be assumed that " Kimah " 
is connected either with the Hebrew DID = u to 
heap up," or with the Assyrian "kamu" = "hej 
bound" (Delitzsch, in "Proc. Soc. Bibl. Arch." 
xii. 185). j 

According to the Talmud (Ber. 58b), this cluster 
is called "Kimah " because it consists of about 100 
stars CnCD = HXEO). The constellation i$ in the I 
northern sky, with its tail to the west of the Milky 
Way (ib. ; com p. Pes. 94b). For the most impor- 
tant reference to the Pleiades, which have always 

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attracted attention on account of their brilliancy and 
number, see Okion (comp. also Jew. Encyc. ii. 249b, 
s.v. Astronomy). 

Biiijjografiiy: Sehiaparelli, L'Astronomla neW Antico Tes- 
tament^ p. 79, Milan, 1903 ; Hastings, Diet. Bible, iii. 890; 
Hamburger, It. B. T. ii. 80. 

k. L. B. 

PLESSNER, ELIAS : German rabbi ; son of 
Solomon Plessneh; born Feb. 19, 1841, at Berlin; 
died at Ostrowo March 30, 1898. He studied at the 
University of Berlin, and received his degree as 
Ph.D. from the University of Tubingen (1870). In 
1871 he was appointed "Stiftsrabbiner " at Hanover, 
and was called April 20, 1873, to the old community 
of Rogasen as successor to Moses Feilchenfeld. In 
Sept., 1885, he was called to Ostrowo as successor to 
the late I. M. Freimann, remaining there until his 

Plessner rendered great services to homiletic liter- 
ature by publishing the following works by his 
father: " Sabbathpredigten," " Festreden," and 
"Nachgelassene Schrift en " (Frankfort, 1884). His 
own works include: In German: "Stellung "und 
Bedeutungder Israelitischen Frau bei den Hebr&ern " 
(Ostrowo) ; " Der Grabsteiu in Seiner HOheren Bedeu- 
tung " ; " Ezechiel Landau und Moses Mendelssohn. " 
In Hebrew: "Matbea* shel Berakot " ; " 'Asa rah 
Ma'amarot " ; " Dibre Tamrurim we-Tauhumim," 
Posen, 1871; "She'elah u-Teshubah be-'Inyan Behi- 
rah," Berlin, 1889; "Hitmannut Kohen Gadol," Ber- 
lin, 1895. 

s. I. Bro. 

PLESSNER, SOLOMON : German preacher 
and Bible commentator; born at Breslau April 23, 
1797; died at Posen Aug. 28, 1883. Having lost his 
father when very young, Plessner had to support 
his mother and himself. He engaged in business, 
but found time to study Hebrew, rabbinics, and 
German, under Wessely's influence. At the age of 
seventeen Plessner began to study Wessely's He- 
brew translation of the Apocrypha, resolving to con- 
tinue the translation himself. He indeed published 
at Breslau in 1819 his Hebrew translation of the 

Apocrypha] additions to the Book of 

Becomes Esther, under the title "Hosafah li- 

Eminent Megillat/ Ester," with a literary-histor- 

as a ical introduction. At the same time 

Preacher, he became known as an eloquent 

preacher. Many of his sermons were 
published, among them his funeral oration on the 
death of Abraham Tiktin, bearing the Hebrew title 
"Zeker Zaddik li-Berakah" (Breslau, 1821). 

Plessner through his sermons was recognized as a 
warm defender of Orthodox Judaism, and on this 
account was congratulated by Akiba Eger, rabbi of 
Posen. Soon the conflict arose between the Ortho- 
dox and Reform Jews concerning the introduction 
of the organ into the syuagogal services. Plessner 
naturally fought against the Keform leaders; and as 
they were the more powerful and began to perse- 
cute him, forbidding him through the police to de- 
liver any sermon, he in 1823 settled at Festenberg, 
a small town in Silesia. In 1825, the government of 
the province of Posen having issued a decree for- 
bidding Talmudic instruction in schools, Plessner, 
at Eger's request, summed up all the observations 

and opinions of Christian scholars, beginning with 
Jerome, on the Talmud. This document, pub- 
lished the same year at Breslau un- 
His Mem- der the title "Kin Wort zu Seiner 
oir on the Zeit oder die Autoritftt drr JndiVhen 
Talmud. Traditionslchre," with a part of it in 

Hebrew entitled "'Kdut le-Yisnul/' 
was in 182G presented to the Posen government. 
Accompanied with a petition signed by the presi- 
dents of several communities, it proved i-Hieacious; 
and the anti-Tahnudic decree was revoked. 

In 1830 Plessner removed to Berlin, where for a 
short time he was a teacher in the normal school. 
Although possessing all the knowledge necessary 
for an Orthodox rabbi, he persistently declined 
rabbinical oflice, preferring freedom of speech. He 
earned a livelihood by preaching every other Satur- 
day in the Berlin bet ha midrash, continuing at the 
same time his study of the Apocrypha. In 1*32 his 
"Nozelim Min Lebanon " was published in I5« rlin. 
This work consisted of a Hebrew translation of a 
part of the Apocrypha, with an appendix, entitled 
" Duda'im," containing exegetical notes, verses in 
Hebrew and German, and sermons (see Gei^er, 
" Wiss. Zeit. Jud. Thcol." i. 204 tt acq ). The fol- 
lowing year he was invited to dedicate the new 
synagogue at Bromberg, for which occasion he com- 
posed poems in Hebrew and in German, which wore 
published under the title "Shirim la-Hanukkat Bet 
ha-Tefillah " (Berlin, 1834). In his sermons Pkasncr 
adopted the expressions of the most eminent Chris- 
tian preachers, interspersing his sen- 
Removes tenccs with verses of Schiller and 
to Goethe, and rejecting the derashic or 

Berlin. homiletic interpretation of the Bible. 

In 1834 he began to publish his ser- 
mons in yearly volumes under the general title M Be- 
lehrungen und Erbauungen " (2d ed. Berlin, 1S-10. 
under the title "Religiose Vortrage"). In l*3s 
Plessner published his "Dat Mosheh wi-Ychudit," a 
catechism in twelve parts, preceded by an introduc- 
tion, on the nature and history of Jewish religious 
instruction. His oratorical talent is particularly ex- 
hibited in his "Mikra'e Kodesh " (Berlin, 1841). a col- 
lection of holy-day sermons for the years lb35 to 1^39. 
A powerful party of antagonists worrying Plessner 
beyond endurance on account of his outspokenness, 
he left Berlin and settled at Posen (1843\ where lie 
was active as a preacher for forty years. In Posen 
Plessner preached chiefly at the Neuschul. During 
his residence in that city he published the following 
works: "Shay la-Mora " (Posen, 184o\ poem in honor 
of Moses Montetiore ; "Shire Zimrah " (Berlin, lfcMO), 

poems composed on the occasion of 

Settles in the completion of the publication of 

Posen. the Talmud by the Talmud society 

Hebrat Shas; "Shire Zimrah " (ih. 
1865), Hebrew poems composed for the celebration 
of the one hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the 
foundation of the society of mohelim. 

After Plessner's death two collections of his scr- 
monswerepublishedatFrankfort-on the-.Main: "Sab- 
bathpredigten " (I8S4) and 4i Festprcdigt* n " (ISitfrj. 

Bibliography: Fursi. Bihl. Jut', til. 107; II. Hir^hMJ. in 
Elk's Plessner, Hiblinelu* utnl lintihiutx hf* nus >» b nun 
Plc&mers Nachla&e : Zeitliu, Bibl. l 9 i#l-M< mUh. p. 271. 
s. M. Skl. 

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PLETSCH, SOLOMON : German physician of 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries; a native of 
Regensburg. Pletsch was in 1394 appointed city 
surgeon of Frankfort-on-the-Main with a salary of 
36 gulden per year. Besides, the city furnished him 
with six ells of cloth for his uniform, which was of 
the same color and quality as that of the Christian 
officials. Thus the only difference between Pletsch 
and his Christian predecessors and successors was 
in the form of the oath, the former taking it More 
Judaico. In the letter of commission, Pletsch 
bound himself to treat gratuitously all the members 
of the council witli their servants and all the sick 
Jews who might be received at the hospital, and to 
take moderate fees from the citizens. 

Bibliography: M. Horovitz, JlhUschc Aerzte in Frankfurt- 
am*Maiiu p. 0, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 18S6; Landau, 
Gesch. dcr JUdi&chen Aerztc, p. 102, Berlin, 1895. 

d. M. Sel. 

PLCCK (PLOTZK) : Government in Russian 
Poland, with a Jewish population (1897) of 50,473 
(in a total population of 553,094), which is the 
smallest Jewish population of any government in 
the Pale of Settlement. 

The most important of the district towns in the 
government of Plock are: 

Mlawa, which has 5,123 Jews in a total pop- 
ulation of 11,211 (1897). R. Jehiel Michael Sagalo- 
vich (born 1862) became the rabbi of the community 
in 1S94. 

Plock, the capital of the government, wiiich had 
only about 6,000 inhabitants in 1816 (when it came 
under Russian domination, after having been held by 
Prussia under the provisions of the second partition 
of Poland in 1793), had a total population of 27,073 
in 1897. Of this number more than 10,000 are Jews. 
In the city there are several synagogues, a Talmud 
Torah (founded 1868), a Gemilut Hasadim (founded 
1873), and a well-equipped hospital. It has also a 
Jewish boys' school attended by more than one hun- 
dred pupils. Instruction in the Hebrew faith is im- 
parted to Jewish students attending the local gym- 
nasium by A. J. Papierno, a prominent Maskil who 
has resided in Plock since 1870, and who established 
a library there in 1900. 

Owing to the influence of the Ilasidim the Jewish 
community of Plock frequently changed its rabbis 
during the nineteenth century, and the term of sev- 
enteen years during which R. Azriel Aryeh Rakovski 
held that position, which he resigned in 1880, was con- 
sidered an extremely long one. Aryeh L5b Zunz or 
Zuenz also was rabbi of Plock and later of Praga, but 
removed to Warsaw, where he died April 22, 1833. 
Since 1897 R. Ezekiel Libshitz (born in Rossienny, 
in the province of Kovno, in 18G4), son of R. Ilillel 
Libshitz of Lublin, and who, like his father, is a Tal- 
mudist and able scholar, has been the rabbi of Plock. 

Przasnysz, with 4,500 Jews among its 8,586 in- 
habitants; it has two synagogues. 

Sierpce, with about 600 Jewish families among 
its 8,560 inhabitants. The Jews of Sierpce are bur- 
dened with a tax of 68 rubles which they have to 
pay annually to the owner of the town on account 
of a debt said to have been contracted by a certain 
David, of whose origin nothing is known ( u Ha- 
Meliz," 1883, No. 105). 

Bibliography: Brockhaus-Efron, Entziklopcdichcski S?o- 
rar, s.v.; Ha-Mcli^ 1878, No. 9; 1S8S, No. 33; 1890, No. 200; 
Ha-Zc1irah % 1876, No. 4 ; 1900, No. 44 ; Yevnin. Nahalat 'Ola- 
7?u'm, pp. 14-15, Warsaw, 1882; Walden, Shem ha-Gcdolim 
hc-Hada£h y p. 80, Warsaw, 1882. 

II. R. P. Wl. 

PLOTKE, JULIUS : German lawyer and com- 
munal worker; born at Borek, province of Posen, 
Oct. 5, 1857; died at Frankfort-on-the-Main Sept. 
27, 1903. Having finished his studies at the gymna- 
sium at Krotoschin and the University of Berlin, he 
practised law in Boekenheim from 18S5 to 1888, 
when lie entered iuto partnership with Councilor of 
Justice S. Fuld in Fraukfort-on-the-Maiu. Plotke 
was elected to the board of trustees of the Frankfort 
congregation, and participated in all movements for 
the relief of his oppressed coreligionists, being a 
trustee of the Jewish Colonization Association, of 
the Alliance Israelite Uuiverselle, of the Ililfsverein 
der Deutschen Juden, and similar organizations. 
He wrote various pamphlets and articles on the con- 
dition of the Jews of Russia and Rumania. 

Bibliography: Jlldixche Prcssc, 1903, pp. 441-442; Oester- 
reiehische Wochemchrift % 1903, pp. 64&4>49; Jew. Chron. 
Oct. 2, 1903, p. 23 : Allg. Zeit. des Jud. 1903, pp. 4S4-485. 

s. D. 

PLOWING : No description of the plow (" maha- 
reshet ") is found in the Bible ; but it may be assumed 
with certainty that the implement resembled, on the 
whole, the very simple plow which is still used by 
the fellahs of Palestine. It consists of a long pole 
with a wooden crosspieee at the lower end, and a 
handle parallel to the latter at the upper end, by 
means of which the plow is guided. The wooden 
foot ends in an iron share, slightly convex above, be- 
ing 34 cm. long and 18 cm. wide at the back. This 
point has to be sharpened occasionally (com p. I Sam. 
xiii. 20). It is uncertain whether the "et " mentioned 
in the passage just cited is a different kind of plow 
from that described above; Fr. Delitzsch takes 
" et " to be the plowshare, which cuts the furrows, 
while the plow itself casts up the earth. As the 
fellahs generally do not remove the stones from the 
fields, thinking that the soil thereby retains the 
moisture for a longer period, that kind of plow is 
not wholly impractical, since it may readily be 
drawn through the stony soil. Moreover, this plow 
is easily used, being light enough to be lifted out of 
the furrow witli one hand and to be replaced in the 
same way. Its disadvantage is that it does not plow 
deeply enough — only about 8 to 10 cm. — the laud 
being therefore neither suiliciently utilized nor prop- 
erly freed from weeds. As a consequence the latter 
grow rankly, and the grain requires additional han- 
dling before it can be used or brought to market. 

The plow was drawn, as it commonly still is to- 
day, by a yoke of oxen, and on light soil by an ass 
(Isa. xxx. 24, xxxii. 20); but the yoking together of 
ox and ass, which is not seldom seen to-day, was 
forbidden, at least at the time of the Deuteronomist 
(com p. Deut. xxii. 10). The ox walks in front of 
the plow, usually in the yoke which is attached to 
t he beam. To-day the yoke is fastened to the neck 
of the animal in such a wav that the two blocks of 
wood which extend on each side of the neck from 
the yoke downward may be fastened at the lower 
end by a rope and the ox's neck be enclosed in a 

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frame. The plower holds in his right hand the 
plow-handle and the guiding-rope, and in Ins left 
die ox-goad ("malmad"; Judges iii. 31; I Sam. 
dii. 21). To one end of the latter is attached an iron 
point, with which the oxen are goaded to quicken 
ilieir pace, and to the other end is fastened a small 
ron shovel which is used to remove the earth cling- 
ng to the plowshare. 

In ancient times, as to-day, it was doubtless hardly 
iiiilieieiit to plow the fallow land once only, but it 
md to be gone over three times. The first plowing 
in the winter) was followed by a second (in the 
spring), and a third (in the summer); the careful 
lusbandmau even plowed a fourth time (late in the 
dimmer). After the plow had turned the soil over, the 
atter was made smooth by a harrow, which perhaps 
consisted merely of a strong board or a roller (Hos. 
c. 11 ; Isa. xxviii. 4). 

JlBUOGRAPiiY : Z. D. P. V. ix. 2i et seq. 

E. G. II. W. N. 

PLUM. See Peacii. 

PLUNGIAN : Old town in the government of 
Jovno, district of Telshi, Russia. Among the ear- 
ier rabbis of Plungiau were Jacob b. Zebi, a resi- 
lent of Grodno, who gave his approbation to his 
rounger brother's work, "Ohole Yehudah " (Jess- 
litz, 1719), and Dob Bar, who in 1726 addressed a 
mlakic question to R. Ezekiel Katzenellenbogen of 
Vltona (responsa "Keneset Yehezkel," No. 7, Al- 
ona, 1732). Its most prominent rabbi in the nine- 
eenth century was Jehiel Heller, who died there 
n 1861. Ilillel Libschitz (b. 1844), formerly of Su- 
valki and now (1905) rabbi of Lublin, officiated at 
Plungian from 1878 to 1880. Its rabbi at the be- 
ginning of the present century was Zebulon Loeb 
3arit (see "Ha-Zefirah,"1897, Nos. 40, 56), who died 
n 1903. 

Other prominent men who came from or were 
ictive in Plungian were: Zechariah Plungian or 
Jimner (d. 1715), author of "Sefer Zekirah " (1st ed. 
Hamburg, 1709), on religious ethics and folk-medi- 
line, which passed through many editions; Morde- 
jai b. Joseph (great-grandson of Mordecai Jaffie 
" Lebush "]), and his son Joseph, " rosh medinah " of 
Plungian in the eighteenth century (see Jaffe 
family). Mordecai Plungian (originally Plungian- 
;ki), also a descendant of the Jalfe family, and one 
)f the most prominent iMaskilim of the nineteenth 
century, was born at Plungian in 1814. 

A record of the proceedings before R. Dob Bar 
Faffe, dayyan of Plungian, and of the decisions ren- 
dered by him, is preserved in the New York Pub- 
lic Library. Its earliest entry is dated 1856, and the 
latest 1881. 

The population of Plungian, which is mostly Jew- 
ish, numbered 3,593 in 1873, and 3,583 in 1897. 

Bihliograpiiy : Brockhaus-Efron, Entziklopedieheski Slovar\ 
F.isenstadt-Wiener, Da'at Kcdoshinu pp. 34, 35, St. Peters- 
burg, 1897-98. 

u. n. P. Wi. 

CAI (MARCUS): Kussiau Hebraist and author; 
born at Plungian, in the government of Wilna, 
1814; died at Wilna Nov. 28, 1883. He was a 
descendant of Mordecai Jaffe, author of the " Lebu- 

shiin." While still young Plungian became a Tal- 
niudist of high repute. After a couple of years 
of an unhappy married life he left his native town 
and settled at Troki, where he devoted himself en- 
tirely to rabbinical studies. Soon, howcvc r, he was 
compelled to leave that place, having displeased 
the ultra-conservatives by his more or less advanced 
ideas. He then went to Wilna, where he earned a 
scanty livelihood by delivering rabbinical lectures, 
which were greatly appreciated by the Tnlmwdists 
of that place. In the* meanwhile Plungian devoted 
himself to secular studies also, and acquired, in 
a relatively short time, a thorough knowledge of 
several European languages and literatures. This 
acquisition procured for him first the position of 
teacher in a high school, and in 1HG7 that of instruc- 
tor in Talmud and religious codes in the rabbinical 
seminary at Wilna. 

Plungian was very unhappy in his old np\ The 
rabbinical seminary was closed in 1873, and he 
had no other position than that of corrector in the 
printing-office of Homm, which he had held since 
18G9. In his literary career he had the misfortune 
to displease both the Orthodox, who accused him of 
heresy, and the liberals, who regarded him as a 
conservative; hence he was persecuted by the 
former and repudiated by the latter. 

Plungian was the author of the following works: 
"Talpiyyot" (Wilna, 1849), on the henneneutic 
rule "Gezerah Shawah" in the Habvloniau Talmud, 
explaining the logical principles upon which it is 
based and criticizing the views expressed on the 
subject by Kashi and the tosaflsts; "Kerem li- 
Shelomoh " (ib. 1851), commentary on Eeclesjastes, 
published together with the text; "Ben Porat " (ib. 
1858), biography of Manasseh ben Porat, with ex- 
egetic and philological dissertations; "Shebet Elo- 
ah" (ib. 1862), episode of the eighteenth century, 
with arguments against the blood accusation ; "Or 
Boker" (ib. 1868), three critical treatises on the 
Masorah as interpreted in the Talmud; "Kerem 
li-Shelomoh" (ib. 1877), commentary on Canticles, 
published together with the text. 

Plungian left several works in manuscript, 
among them a treatise on the Hebrew verbs of four 
letters, partly published in "Kerem Homed " (ix.); 
and "Ma'amar Mordekai," a commentarv on all the 
haggadot found in "'En Ya'akob." In addition 
Plungian contributed to nearly all the Hebrew peri- 

Bibliography : Ifa-Shahar, xi. fi3T>: X. Nathanson, Stfat 
KmeU Warsaw, 1887; Zrttlin, Bihl. Pmt-Maulfte. p. 'ST2; 
Kerem Itemed, ix. 136; Ha-Meli^ 1883, Nos. 89. m. 

II. K. I. Br. 

PLYMOUTH: Seaport in the county of Devon, 
England; one of the principal ports of that country. 
A few Jewish families were living there in 1740. 
Among the Sj'nagogue deeds is a lease of a garden, 
dated 1752, the signature to which is witnessed by 
one Jac. Myer Sherrenbek; it evidently refers to the 
old burial-ground near the Citadel. In 17G2 the 
mayor and commonalty leased to Samuel Chapman 
a plot of ground for ninety-nine years; and one 
Chapman executed a deed of trust reciting that the 
lease had been acquired by him at the sole expense 
"of the said J. J. Sherrenbek and Gumpcrt Mirhael 

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Emdon, elders of the Synagogue of the Jews." In 
the same year £300 was raised on mortgage "to 
complete the buildings, edifices, and erections now 
building thereon, and which is designed for a Jew- 
ish synagogue or place of worship for those profess- 
ing the Jewish religion." In 1786 this lease was 
surrendered, and a new one was entered into with 
five leading Protestant citizens, who held the same 
in trust for one A. Joseph. Eleven years later an- 
other lease was granted to the following three 
Jewish holders: Henry Hart, Joseph Joseph, and 
Samuel Hart; and in 1834 the freehold of the svna- 
gogue was transferred to other trustees. In 18G8 a 
new burial-ground, adjoining the Christian ceme- 
tery, was acquired; and in 1873 the congregation 
purchased the ground ou which the synagogue 
house now stands. 

One of the most prominent of Plymouth Jews 
was the late Jacob Nathan, who left a considerable 
sum of money to Jewish and Christian local chari- 
ties. Among his bequests was one of £13,000 
(§65,000) to found and maintain a Jewish school 
for the poor. This school was established in 1869, 
and has an average attendance of fifteen scholars. 
Solomon Alexander Hart, K.A., a native of Plym- 
outh, bequeathed £1,000 to the congregation, and 
one of his masterpieces, a The Execution of Lady 
Jane Grey," to the corporation. It is one of the 
chief adornments of the municipal chamber. 

The synagogue in Catherine street retains its an- 
cient features— a latticed women's gallery, a beauti- 
fully carved wooden Ark, antique silver sets of 
bells, and old brasswork. It has a membership of 70. 
There are, besides the Jacob Nathan Day School, 
two Jewish charities, the Ladies' Hebrew Benevo- 
lent Society and the Sick Visitiug Society. There are 
also several Jewish social institutions. The Jews of 
Plymouth number about 300 in a total population of 
107,500. Except for two families, the present (1905) 
Jewish community comprises recent settlers. 

Bibliography: Jewish Year Book, 1904. 
J. I. H. 


DAH LOB BEN JOSEPH : Russian rabbi and 
preacher; flourished at Pinsk in the latter part of the 
seventeenth century; died in Palestine, whither he 
went before 1681. He was the author of : "Keneh 
Hokmah" (Frankfort-on-the-Oder, 1681), a work 
consisting of seventeen "derashot" on penitence; 
" Derek Hokmah " (ib. 1683), a treatise in thirty-two 
sections on morals; "Dibre Hakamim " (Hamburg, 
1692), a work in two parts: the first, entitled " Da'at 
Hokmah," being a treatise in four sections on morals 
and asceticism; the second, "Mekor Hokmah," con- 
taining notes to the Shulhan 'Aruk, Orah Hayyim, 
up to No. 240. At the end of this work is a pam- 
phlet, entitled "Solet Belulah," containing novclhc 
on the Talmud. Thirty-two treatises taken from 
the above-mentioned works were published in one 
volume bv Solomon Pinkerle under the title "Kebod 
IJakamini" (Venice, 1700). 

BinuocRAPH y : Furst, Bitd. Jud. lii. 108 : Nepi-Ghirondl, Tole- 
do! (h'doU Yi*rad< p. 189 ; Steiuschnekler, Cat. Bodl. cols. 


M. Ski*. 

POCOCK, EDWARD: English Christian Ori- 
entalist and theologian ; born at Oxford Nov. 8, 
1604; died there Sept. 12, 1691. He studied Orien- 
tal languages at Oxford and elsewhere; was chap- 
lain of the English "Turkey Merchants" in Aleppo 
from 1630 to 1636; and became professor of Arabic 
at Oxford in 1636. He spent the period from 1637 
to 1640 in Constantinople, and on returning to Eng- 
land in 1647 resumed his professorship of Arabic at 
Oxford; he became professor of Hebrew, also, in 
1649, which position he held until his death, al- 
though frequently attacked for political reasons. 
During his stay in the East he collected many valu- 
able manuscripts, among them one of the Samaritan 

Among Pocock's works may be mentioned 
"Porta Mosis" (Oxford, 1655), a translation of six 
sections of Maimonides' commentary on the Mish- 
nah (Arabic text in Hebrew characters, with Latin 
translation). This was the first book printed in 
Hebrew characters in Oxford. In 1657 was pub- 
lished Walton's polyglot edition of the Bible, for 
which Pocock collated manuscripts of the Arabic 
Pentateuch and furnished notes explaining the dif- 
ferent Arabic versions. 

Pocock was the author of the following commen- 
taries: on Micah and 3Ialachi (Oxford, 1677); on 
Hosea (ib. 1685); and on Joel (ib. 1691). These 
commentaries evidence the wide extent of Pocock's 
knowledge of Hebrew language and science, rab- 
binical and sacred. 

Bibliography: Twells, The TAfe of Dr. Edward Pocock, 
London, 1740: AUibone, Diet, of British and American 
Authors \ McClintoek and Strong, Cya Dictionary of 
National Biography. 

t. F. T. H. 

PODIEBRAD, DAVID: Austrian writer; born 
in 1816; died Aug. 2, 1882. He received his educa- 
tion in the yeshibah of Prague and by private tui- 
tion. He was especially interested in the history 
of the Jews in Prague, where for thirty years he 
occupied the position of secretary of the hebra 
kaddisha. He collected many manuscripts and me- 
morials concerning the Jews of Prague. He pub- 
lished Benedict Foges' work, " Altertumerder Prager 
Josefstadt," Prague, 1870, which was based mainly 

on documents collected by Podicbrad. 

s. A. Ki. 

PODIVIN. See Kostel. 

PODOLIA: Government in southwestern Rus- 
sia, on the Austrian frontier (Galicia). It is a center 
of many important events in the history of the Rus- 
sian Jews. Polish and Russian documents of 1550 
mention Jewish communities in Podolia, but from 
tombstones discovered in some towns of the govern- 
ment it is evident that Jews had lived there much 
earlier. (For the earlier history see Lithuania and 
RrssiA; for the sufferings of the Jews in the middle 
of the seventeenth century see Cossacks' Uprising; 
for the revolt of the Ukrainians against the Jews of 
Podolia in the eighteenth century see Haidamacks.) 
Ruined by persecutions lasting for centuries, Podolia 
became the breeding-place of superstition and re- 
ligions intolerance, which flourished there more than 
in any other place within the Pale. Owing to the 
extremely impoverished condition of its Jews, Shab- 

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bethai Zebi, the Frankists, and the llusidim found 
in Podolia a most fertile soil for the spread of their 
doctrines (see Ba'al Shem-Tob; Frank, Jacob; 
Hasidim). Podolia was annexed to Russia at the 
end of the eighteenth century. The Jewish popula- 
tion of Podolia in 1887 was 325,907— about 12 per 
cent of the general population; the Jews still live 
mostly in small towns and villages. The capital of 
Podolia is Kamenetz-Podolsk. 

Bibliography : Orshanskl, Yevrei v Rossi i ; Bershadskl, TA- 
tovskiye Yevrei; Litlnskl, Korot ha~Yehudim Jte-I'orfolia 
(unreliable); Voakhod^ 1897; liannover, Yexven Me~ulah. 

ii. n. S. 11 u. 

Podolia: Population (Census of 1897). 



Bratziav (Braslavl) 











Total in Government. 
















n. r. V. R. 

POETRY.— Biblical : The question whether 
the literature of the ancient Hebrews includes por- 
tions that may be called poetry is answered by the 
ancient Hebrews themselves. A distinction be- 
tween different classes of writings is evident in such 
a fact as that the section II Sain, xxiii. 1-7 is 
designated in the (later) heading as " the last words 
of David," although other utterances of this king 
are reported as late as I Kings ii. 9 ; it is not known, 
however, whether the words of David cited in 
II Sam. Lc. are called his "last words" on account 
of their substance or of their form. Again, the au- 
thor of Ps. xlv. has designated it as a "ma'aseh," 
i.e., "a product" ; and this expression corresponds in 
a remarkable degree with the Greek Trubjctc., although 
he may have applied that term to the psalm only on 
account of its contents. Rut that the ancient He- 
brews perceived there were poetical portions in their 
literature is shown by their entitling songs or chants 
such passages as Ex. xv. 1 et seq. and Num. xxi. 17 et 
seq. ; and a song or chant (" shir ") is, according to the 
primary meaning of the term, poetry. In the first 
place, therefore, these songs of the Old Testament 
must be considered if the qualities that distinguish 
the poetical products of the ancient Hebrews from 
their ordinary mode of literary presentation arc to be 

Characteristics of Ancient Hebrew Poetry: (1) An- 
cient Hebrew poetry contains no rime. Although 
the first song mentioned above (Ex. xv. 1 et seq.) 
contains assonance at the ends of the lines, as in 
"anwehu" and "aromemenhu" (ib. verse 2), such 
consonance of "hu" (= "him") can not well be 
avoided in Hebrew, because many pronouns are 
affixed to words. Furthermore, rime occurs only 
as sporadically in Hebrew poems as in Shakespeare; 

act of "Hamlet" Then* is no poem in the Old Tes- 
tament with ii final rime in every line, although 
Hellermnnn (" Versuch liber die* Mctrikder llebrfter," 
18113, p. 210) alludes to an exception, meaning prob- 
ably Ps. cxx.wi., the rime throughout which poem 
consists only in the frequent repetition of tin- word 
"hasdo." II. Grimme lias stated in hi* article 
"Durehgereimte Gediehte im A. T." (in Burden- 
hewer's "Hibl. Studicn." 1801, vi. t, 2) that su< h 
poems an* represented by Ps. xlv., liv., and Siraeh 
(Kcclus.) xliv. 1-14; but he regards the eonsonance 
of final consonants as rime, eg., " 4 ozneA" and "ubiA " 
(Ps. xlv. 11), while rime proper demands at least the 
assonance of the preceding vowel. 

(2) The employment of unusual forms of Ian* 
guage can not be considered as a sign of unciciit 
Hebrew poetry. In the sentences of Noah, * g. f ((Jen. 
ix. 23-27) the form "lamo" occurs. Put this form, 

which represents partly " lahem " and 

Unusual partly " lo f " has many count* rparts in 

Forms. Hebrew grammar, as, for example, 

"kemo" instead of "kc M (Ex. xv. 5, 
8); or "emo" = "them" (ib. verses 9, 15); or u emo" 
= "their" (Ps. ii. 3); or "elemo" = "to them" 
{ib. verse 5) — forms found in passages for which no 
claim to poetical expressions is made. Then t It* re 
are found i4 hayeto" = "beast" ((Jen. i. 24), "osri" 
= " tying" (ib. xlix. 11), and "yeshu'atah" = 
"salvation" (Ps. iii. 3)— three forms that probably 
retain remnants of the old endings of the nomina- 
tive, genitive, and accusative: "u(n)/' "i(n) t " 
"a(n)." Again, in Latnech's words, "Adah and 
Zillah, hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, 
barken unto my speech " (Gen. iv. 23), the two 
words "he'ezin " and "imrah " attract attention, be- 
cause they occur for the first time in this passaire. 
although there had been an earlier opportunity of 
using them. " lle'ezin " = " to liarken " could have 
been used inst as well as its svnonvm "shama'" 
= " to hear" in Gen. iii. 8, 10 it seq., but its earliest 
employment is in the above-cited passage G« n. 
iv. 23. It occurs also in Ex. xv. 26; Num. xxiii. 
18 (a sentence of Balaam); Deut. i. 45, \xxii. 1; 
Judges v. 3; Isa. i. 2, 10; viii. 9; xxviii. 23; xxxii. 
9; xiii. 23; li. 4; Ixiv. 3; Jer. xiii. 15; llos. v. 1; 
Joel i. 2; Neh. ix. 30 (in a prayer); and in II Ohron. 
xxiv. 19 (probably an imitation of Isa. Ixiv. :t). 
Furthermore, "imrah " = " speecli " might have been 
used instead of the essentially identical "duhax* in 
Gen. xi. 1 et seq. t but its earliest use is, as stated 
above, in Gen. iv. 23. It is found also in Deut. 
xxxii. 2. xxxiii. 9; II Sam. xxii. 31; Isa. v. 24, 
xxviii. 23, xxix. 4, xxxii. 9; Ps. xii. ?, etc.; Prov. 
xxx. 5; and Lam. ii. 17. In place of "a<liim" = 
"man " (Gen. i. 2(3 et seq.) "cnosh " is employed in 
Deut. xxxii. 26; Isa. viii. 1; xiii. 7, 12; xxiv. G; 
xxxiii. 8; li. 7, 12; lvi. 2; Jer. xx. 10; Pt. viii. 5, 
ix. 20, x. 18, lv. 14. lvi. 2. lxvi. 12, lxxiii. 5. xc. 
3, ciii. 15, civ. 15, exliv. 3; Job iv. 17; v 17; vii. 
1, 17; ix. 2; x. 4; xiii. 9; xiv. 19; xv. 11; xxv. 4, 
6; xxviii. 4, .13; xxxii. 8; xxxiii. 12.20; xxxvi. 25; 
II Chron. xiv. 10 (comp. the Aramaic "enash v in 
Dan. ii. 10; Ezra iv. 11, vi. 11). For a systematic 
review of similar unusual forms of Hebrew cram- 
mar and Hebrew words occurring in certain por- 
tions of the Old Testament see E. KOnig, " Stilts- 

e.g. , in " thing " and " king " at the end of the second 

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tile," etc., pp. 277-283. Such forms have been called 
"dialcctus poetica" since the publication of Robert 
Lowth's M Pradectiones de Sacra Poesi Ilebrrcorum," 
iii. (1753); but this designation is ambiguous and 
can be accepted only in agreement with the rule "a 
parte potiori lit denominatio"; for some of these 
unusual forms and words are found elsewhere than 
in the "songs" of the Old Testament, as, e.g., the 
"hayeto " of Gen. i. 24 mentioned above, which was 
probably preferred as an archaic form in the solemn 
utterance of God, while in the following sentences 
of the narrator (verse 25) the ordinary form " hayyat " 
is used. 

Again, these unusual forms and expressions do 
not occur in all songs (comp. Num. xxi. 17 et seq. 
and II Sam. iii. 33 et seq.), and there are several of 
the Psalms that have none of these peculiarities, as, 
for instance, Ps. cxlix., although the opportunity 
to use them existed. The present writer is of opin- 
ion that the use of these peculiar forms of expres- 
sion is connected more with the tastes of a certain 
(earlier) period, when unusual, archaic, and dialectic 
forms were chosen to embellish the diction. The fact 
that "he'ezin" occurs also in II Chron. xxiv. 
19 is explainable likewise on the theory that 
poetico-rhetorical expressions later became compo- 
nent parts of common speech, as, for example, 
"hammah" = "glowing one," a rare expression in 
Biblical Hebrew for the sun (Isa. xxiv. 23, etc.), but 
one which is frequently used in this sense in the 
Mishnah (Ber. i. 2; iii. 5, etc.). 

(3) Not even the "parallelismus membrorum" is 
an absolutelv certain indication of ancient Hebrew 
poetry. This " parallelism " is a phenomenon no- 
ticed in the portions of the Old Testament that 

are at the same time marked fre- 

Parallel- quently by the so-called "dialectus 
ism. poetica"; it consists in a remarkable 

correspondence in the ideas expressed 
in two successive verses; for example, the above- 
cited words of Lamech, "Adah and Zillah, hear my 
voice ; ye wives of Lamech, barken unto my speech " 
(Gen. iv. 23), in which are found "he'ezin" and 
"imrah," show a remarkable repetition of the same 
thought. See Parallelism in Hebrew Poetry. 

But this ideal eurythmy is not always present in 
the songs of the Old Testament or in the Psalter, 
as the following passages will show: "The Lord is 
my strength and song, and he is become my salva- 
tion " (Ex. xv. 2). " Saul and Jonathan, the beloved 
and the lovely, in life and in death they were not 
divided" (II. P. Smith, in "International Commen- 
tary," on II Sam. i. 23). "Ye daughters of Israel, 
weep over Saul, who clothed you in scarlet, and tine 
linen " (ib. 24). " And he shall be like a tree planted 
by the rivers of water, that bringeth forth his fruit 
in his season " (Ps. i. 3; comp. ib. ii. 12); "I laid me 
down and slept; I awaked ; for the Lord sustained 
me. I will not be afraid of ten thousands of people, 
that have set themselves against me round about" 
(ib. iii. G-7 [A. V. 5-6] ; see also ib. iv. 7 et seq., ix. 4 
et seq.). Julius Ley (" Leitfaden der Hebraischen 
Metrik," 1887, p. 10) says therefore correctly that 
"the poets did not consider themselves bound by 
parallelism to such an extent as not to set it aside 
when the thought required it " This restriction f 

umv Cam - uigmzed 

must be made to James Robertson's view ("The 
Poetry of the Psalms," 1898, p. 160): "The distin- 
guishing feature of the Hebrew poetry ... Is the 
rhythmical balancing of parts, or parallelism of 

(4) The poetry of the ancient Hebrews is not dis- 
tinguished from the other parts of the Old Testa- 
ment by rhythm based on quantity, 

Q,uantita- though in view of Greek and Roman 
tive poetry it was natural to seek such a 

Rhythm, rhythm in the songs and Psalms of the 

Old Testament. William Jones, for 
example ("Poeseos Asiatics Commentarii," ch. ii., 
London, 1774), attempted to prove that there was a 
definite sequence of long and short syllables in the 
ancient Hebrew poems; but he could support this 
thesis only by changing the punctuation in many 
ways, and by allowing great license to the Hebrew 
poets. However, on reading the portions of the 
Old Testament marked by the so-called "dialectus 
poetica" or by parallelism (e.g., Gen. iv. 23 et seq.) 
no such sequence ot long and short syllables can 
be discovered ; and Sievers (" Metrische Untersuch- 
ungen," 1901, §53) says: "Hebrew prosody is not 
based on quantity as classical prosody is." 

(5) Hebrew poetic form is based on accent. Al- 
though Hubert Grimme recognizes this fact, he is in 
danger of recurring to the view that quantitative 
meter may be found in ancient Hebrew poetry, hav- 
ing recently formulated his rules in his "Metres et 
Strophes" (1901, pp. 3 et seq.) and in "Psalmenpro- 
bleme " (1902, pp. 4 et seq.). Nivard Schloegl ("Ec- 
clesiasticus," 1901, p. xxi.) also adopts this view. 
Although both admit that the Hebrew poet regarded 
the accented syllables as the chief syllables of the 
line, they hold that these syllables contained a 
certain number of moras, only a certain number of 
which could occur between two accented syllables. 
This view is too mechanical, in the present writer's 
opinion ; and Sievers also says (I.e. % 81) : " Grimme's 
morse are more than questionable." 

Gustav Bickell holds that the poetical rhythm of 
the Hebrews consisted in the regular succession of 
accented and unaccented syllables, saying distinctly : 
"The metrical accent falls regularly upon every al- 
ternate syllable" ("Z. D. M. G." 1881, pp. 415, 418 

et seq.). This statement, however, 

Bickell's does not agree with the nature of He- 

Recon- brew poetry as it actually exists, as has 

struction. nowhere else been more clearly proved 

than in Jacob Eeker's "Professor 
Bickell's ' Carmina Veteris Testamenti Metriee,' das 
Neueste Denkmal auf dem Kirchhof der Hebrfl- 
ischen Metrik" (1883). Ecker shows in this pam- 
phlet (hat Bickell removed or added about 2,600 syl- 
lables in the Psalms in order to obtain the "regular 
succession of accented and unaccented syllables." 
As illustrating the shortcomings of Bickell's view it 
may be pointed out that he holds that the poetic 
portions of the Book of Job are composed in cata- 
lectic iambic tetrameters; hence he transcribes Job 
xxxii. 6 as follows: "CVir ani lejamim, V'attem 
sabim jeshishim ; c Al-ken zachalt vaira\ Mechav- 
vot de'i et'khem " — i.e., he adds the word "zabim," 
and suppresses the alTormative "i " of "zahalti," al- 
though.the "1 " distinguishes this form from that of 

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the second person singular feminine; hence it is not 
surprising that Sicvers says (I.e. §55): "I can do 
nothing further with Hickell's system." 

Most scholars now hold that the Hebrew poet con- 
sidered only the syllables receiving the main accent, 
and did not count the intervening ones. Examples 
contrary to this are not found in passages where 
forms of the so-called "dialectus poetica" are used, 
as Ley holds in his "Grundztige des Khythmus, 
des Vers- und Strophenbaues in dor Ilebriiischen 
Poesie," pp. 99, 116; and the present writer has 
proved (in his "Stilistik," etc., p. 333, for example) 
that the choice of " lamo " instead of " lahem " favors 
in only a few passages the opinion that the poet in- 
tended to cause an accented syllable to be followed 
by an unaccented one. Such passages are: Gen. 

ix.26; Ps. xliv. 4, lxvi.7; Job xxiv. 17, 
Accentual xxxix. 4; and Lam. i. 19. Ley has not 
Rhythm, noted that the choice of "lamo "dis- 
turbs the mechanical succession of un- 
accented and accented syllables in the following pas- 
sages: Deut. xxxii. 32, 35; xxxiii. 2; Ps.ii.4; xxviii. 
8; xliv. 11; xlix. 14; lv. 20; Ivi. 8; Iviii. 5,8; lix. 9; 
Ixiv. 6; lxxiii. 6, 10, 18; lxxviii. 24, 66; lxxx. 7; 
lxxxviii. 9; xcix. 7; cxix.165; Prov. xxiii. 20; Job 
iii. 14; vi. 19; xiv. 21; xv. 28; xxii. 17, 19; xxiv. 
16; xxx. 13; Lam. i. 22; iv. 10, 15 (for other exam- 
ples see K5nig, I.e. pp. 333 et seq.). Hence most 
scholars now r hold that the rhythm of Hebrew r poetry 
is similar to that of the German "Nibelungenlied " 
— a view that is strongly supported by the nature 
of the songs sung to-day by the populace of modem 
Palestine. These songs have been described by L. 
Schneller in his"Kennst Du das Land?" (section 
"Musik")in the following words: "The rhythms 
are manifold; there may be eight accents in one 
line, and three syllables are often inserted between 
two accents, the symmetry and variation being de- 
termined by emotion and sentiment." Not less 
interesting are G. Dalman's recent observations in 
Palestine. He says: "Lines with two, three, four, 
and five accented syllables may be distinguished, 
between which one to three, and even four, unac- 
cented syllables may be inserted, the poet being 
bound by no definite number in his poem. Occa- 
sionally two accented syllables are joined " ("Paltts- 
tinischer Diwan," 1901, p. xxiii.). 

Such free rhythms are, in the present writer's 
opinion, found also in the poetry of the Old Testa- 
ment. Under the stress of their thoughts and feel- 
ings the poets of Israel sought to achieve merely the 
material, not the formal symmetry of correspond- 
ing lines. This may be observed, for example, 
in the following lines of Ps. ii. : "Serve the Lord 
with fear" (" 'Ibdu et-Ynwii be-yir'ah," verse 11), 
" rejoice with trembling " (" we-gilu bi-re'adah," ib.). 
This is shown more in detail by Konig, I.e. p. 334; 
and Cornill has confirmed this view (" Die Metrischen 
Stticke des Ruches Jeremia," 1901, p. viii.) by say- 
ing: "Equal length of the several stichoi was not 
the basic formal law of Jeremiah's metric construc- 
tion. " Sievers is inclined to restrict Hebrew rhythm 
by various rules, as he attacks (I.e. §§ 52, 88) Budde's 
correct view, that "a foot which is lacking hi one- 
half of a verse may find a substitute in the more 

tar xu Hiob," p. xlvii.). Furthermore, the verse of 
the Old Testament poetry is naturally iambie or 
nuapestic, as the words are accented on one of the 
final syllables. 

A special kind of rhythm may be observed in the 
dirges, called by the Hebrews "kinot." A whole 
book of these elegies is contained in the Old Testa- 
ment, the first of them beginning thus: M How doth 
the city sit solitary— that was full of pi*oph* — liuw 
is she become as a widow — she that was great 
among the nations— and princess among the prov- 
inces—how is she become tributary !" (Lam. i. 1). 

The rhythm of such lines lies in the 

The fact that a longer line is always fol- 

Dirges. lowed by a shorter one. As in the 

hexameter and pentameter of Latin 
poetry, this change was intended to symboli/.e the 
idea that a strenuous advance in life is followed 
by fatigue or reaction. This rhythm, which may 
be designated "elegiac measure," occurs also in 
Amos v. 2, expressly designated as a kinah. The 
sad import of his prophecies induced Jeremiah also 
to employ the rhythm of the dirges several times in 
his utterances (Jer. ix. 20, xiii. 18 tt ncq.). He refers 
here expressly to the "mekoncnot " (the mourning 
women) who in the East still chant the death-song 
to the trembling tone of the pipe (ib. xl viii. 136 it 
seq.). " Kinot " are found also in Ezek. xix. 1 ; xxvi. 
17; xxvii. 2; xxxii. 2 ct seq., 16, 19 it teq. This 
elegiac measure, being naturally a well-known 
one, was used also elsewhere, as, for example, in 
Ps. xix. 8-10. The rhvthm of the kinah has been 
analyzed especially by Budde (in Stade's "Zeit- 
sehrift," 1883, pp. 299 etseq.). Similar funeral songs 
of the modern Arabs are quoted by Wetzstein (in 
u Zeitschrift fur Ethnologic," v. 298 et scq.) y as, e.g. : 
"O, if he only could be ransomed! truly, I would 
pay the ransom! " (see Krtnig, I.e. pp. 315 it seq.). 

A special kind of rhythm was produced by the 
frequent employment of the so-called anadiplosis, a 
mode of speech in which the phrase at the end of 
one sentence is repeated at the beginning of the 
next, as, for instance, in the passages " they came not 

to the help of the Lord [i\*., to protect 

Ana- Yawn's people], to the help of the 

diplosis. Lord against the mighty" (Judges 

v. 23; comp. "zidkot" [ib. 11a] and 
" nilhamu " [ib. 19a-20a, b]), and " From whence shall 
my help come? .My help cometh from the Lord" 
(Ps. exxi. lb-2a, R. V). Many similar passages 
occur in fifteen of the Psalms, exx.-exxxiv., which 
also contain an unusual number of epanalepses, or 
catch-words, for which the present writer has pro- 
posed the name " LcittOne." Thus there is the repe- 
tition of "sbakaii" in Ps. cxx. 5. 6: of "shalom" 
in verses 6 and 7 of the same chapter; and the catch- 
word "yishinor" in Ps. exxi. 7, 8 (all the cases are 
enumerated in Konig, I.e. p. 302). As the employ- 
ment of such repetitions is somewhat suggestive of 
the mounting of stairs, the superscription 44 shir 
ha-ma'alot," found at the beginning of these fifteen 
psalms, may have a double meaning: it may indicate 
not only the purpose of these songs, to be sung on the 
pilgrimages to the festivals at Jerusalem, but also 
the peculiar construction of the songs, by which 
the reciter is led from one step of the inner life to 

ample thought of this shorter line " (" Handkommen- 

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the next. Such graduated rhythm may be observed 
elsewhere; for the peasants in modern Syria accom- 
pany their national dance by a song the verses of 
which are connected like the links of a chain, each 
verse beginning with the final words of the prece- 
ding one (Wetzstein, I.e. v. 292), 

Alphabetical acrostics are used as an external em- 
bellishment of a few poems. The letters of the 
alphabet, generally in their ordinary sequence, stand 
at the beginning of smaller or larger sections of Ps. 
ix.-x. (probably), xxv., xxxiv., xxxvii., cxi., cxii., 

cxix.,cxlv. ; Prov. xxxi. 10-31 ; Lam. 
Acrostics, i.-iv. ; and also of Sirach (Ecclus.) li. 

13-29, as the newly discovered He- 
brew text of this book has shown (see Ackostics, 
and, on Ps. xxv. and xxxiv. especially, Hirsch in 
"Am. Jour. Semit. Lang." 1902, pp. 167-173). Al- 
phabetical and other acrostics occur frequently in 
Neo-IIebraic poetry (Winter and Wunsche, u Die 
JUdischeLiteraturseit Abschlussdes Kanons," 1894- 
1896, iii. 10). The existence of acrostics in Baby- 
lonian literature has been definitely proved (II. 
Zimmern, in "Zeitschrift fur Keilschriftforschung," 
1895, p. 15); and alphabetical poems are found also 
among the Samaritans, Syrians, and Arabs. Cicero 
says ("De Divinatione," II., liv.) that the verse of 
the sibvl was in acrostics; and the so-called "Orac- 
ula Sibyllina" contain an acrostic in book 8, lines 

A merely secondary phenomenon, which distin- 
guishes a part of the poems of the Old Testament 
from the other parts, is the so-called "aeeentuatio 
poetiea"; yet it calls for some mention, because it 
has been much slighted recently (Sievers, I.e. § 248, 
p. 375). Although not all the poetical portions of 
the Old Testament are marked by a special accentu- 
ation, it is noteworthy that the Book of Job in iii. 
3-xlii. 6 and the books of Psalms and Proverbs 
throughout have received unusual accents. This 
point will be further discussed later on. 

Correct insight into the rhythm of the poetry of 
the Old Testament did not die out entirely in Jew- 
ish tradition; for Judah ha-Levi says (in his"Cu- 

zari," ed. in Arabic and German by II. 

Ilirschfeld, 1885-87, ii., §£ 69 et seq.): 

" ' Hodu le-Ynwn ki-tob ' [Ps. exxxvi. 

1] maybe recited * empty aud full 1 

in the modulation of ' le'oseh nifla- 
'ot gedolot lebaddo ' " (verse 4), meaning that an 
"empty" line of the poem maybe modulated in the 
same way as a " full " line, the rhythm consequently 
not being dependent on a mechanical correspondence 
of the number of syllables. It is true that Josephus 
says that Moses composed the song in Ex. xv. 2 

et seq. tv i^a/iirpu rdvu (" Ant." ii. 16, § 4), but he 

probabl}' found mere superficial resemblances to 
hexameters in the rhythm of Hebrew poetry. The 
same holds good of the statements of Jerome and 
other Christian writers (K&nig, I.e. pp. 341 et seq.). 

Division of the Poetical Portions of the Old Testa- 
ment According to Their Contents : (a) First may be 
mentioned poems that deal principally with events, 
being epic-lyric in character: the triumphal song 
of Israel delivered from Egypt, or the Sea song 
(Ex. xv. 1-18); the mocking song on the burning 
of Heshbon (Num. xxi. 27-30); the so-called Swan 



omnipresence and 
His omnipotence 


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song of Moses (Deut. xxxii. 1-43); the song of Deb- 
orah (Judges v.); the derisive song of victory of 
the Israelitish women (" Saul hath slain," etc. ; I Sam. 
xviii. 7); Hannah's song of praise (ib. ii. 1-10); 
David's song of praise on being saved from his ene- 
mies (II Sam. xxii.); Hezekiah's song of praise on 
his recovery (Isa. xxxviii. 9-20); Jonah's song of 
praise (Jonah ii. 3-10); and many of the Psalms, 
e.g., those on the creation of the world (viii., civ.), 
and on the election of Israel (xcix., c, cv.). A sub- 
division is formed by poems that deal more with de- 
scription and praise: the so-called Well song (Num. 
xxi. 17 et seq.); the song of praise on the uniqueness 
of the God of Israel (Ps. xcv., xcvii.); and those 
on His eternity (ib. xc); His 
omniscience (ib. exxxix.); and 
(ib. cxv.). 

(b) Poems appealing more to reason, being essen- 
tially didactic in character. These include: fables, 
like that of Jotham (Judges ix. 7-15, although in 
prose); parables, like those of Nathan and others (II 
Sam. xii. 1-4, xiv. 4-9; I Kings xx. 39 et seq., all 
three in prose), or iu the form of a song (Isa. v. 
1-0); riddles (Judges xiv. Wet seq.; Prov. xxx. 11 
et seq.); maxims, as, for instance, in I Sam. xv. 22, 
xxiv. 14, and the greater part of Proverbs; the 
monologues and dialogues in Job iii. 3 et seq. ; com- 
pare also the reflections in monologue 
in Ecclesiastes. A number of the 
Psalms also are didactic in character. 
A series of them impresses the fact 

that Ynwii's law teaches one to abhor sin (Ps. v., 
1 viii.), and inculcates a true love for the Temple and 
the feastsof Ynwn (Ps. xv., lxxxi., xcii.). Another 
series of Psalms shows that God is just, although it 
may at times seem different to a short-sighted ob- 
server of the world and of history (" theodieies": 
Ps. xlix., lxxiii. ; comp. ib. xvi., lvi., Ix.). 

(c) Poems that portray feelings based on individ- 
ual experience. Many of these lyrics express joy, 
as, e.g., Lantech's so-called song of the Sword (Gen. 
iv. 23 et seq.)\ David's "last words" (II Sam. xxiii. 
1-7); the words of praise of liberated Israel (Isa. 
xii. 1-6); songs of praise like Ps. xviii., xxiv., 
exxvi., etc. Other lyrics express mourning. First 
among these are the dirges proper for the dead, as 

the kinah on the death of Saul and 
Lyrics. Jonathan (II Sam. i. 19-27); that on 

Abner's death (ib. iii. 33 etseq.); and 
all psalms of mourning, as, e.g., the expressions of 
sorrow of sufferers (Ps. xvi., xxii., xxvii., xxxix.), 
and the expressions of penitence of sinners (ib. vi., 
xxxii.. xxxviii., Ii., cvi., exxx., cxliii.). 

(tf) Fiually, a large group of poems of the Old 
Testament that urge action and are exhortatory. 
These may be divided into two sections: (1) The poet 
wishes something for himself, as in the so-called 
"signal words " (Num. x. 35 etseq., "Arise, Yiiwh," 
etc.); at the beginning of the "Well song (ib. xxi. 17 et 
^<7.,"ali be'er"); in the daring request, "Sun, stand 
thou still" (Josh. x. 12); in Habakkuk's prayer 
(" tefillah";IIab. iii. 1-19); or in psalms of request for 
help in time of war(xliv., Ix., etc.) or for liberation 
from prison (exxii., exxx vii., etc.). (2) The poet pro- 
nounces blessings upon others, endeavoring to move 
God to grant these wishes. To this group belong 




the blessing of Noah (Gen. i\\ 25-27), of Isaac (ib. 
xxix. 28 et$eq.) y and of Jacob (t&. xlix. 3-27); Jethro's 
congratulation of Israel (Ex. xviii. 10); the blessing 
of Aaron (Num. vi. 24-2G)and of Balaam (ib. xxiii. 
7-10,18-24; xxiv. 5-9, 17-24); Moses* farewell (I)eut. 
xxxiii. letscq.); the psalms that begin with "Ashre " 
= "Blessed is," etc., or contain this phrase, as Ps. i., 
xli., lxxxiv. 5etseq., 13, cxii., cxix., exxviii. 

It was natural that in the drama, which is in- 
tended to portray a whole series of external and in- 
ternal events, several of the foregoing kinds of poems 
should be combined. This combination occurs in 
Canticles, which, in the present writer's opinion, is 
most correctly characterized as a kind of drama. 

The peculiar sublimity of the poems of the Old 
Testament is due partly to the high development 
of monotheism which finds expression therein and 
partly to the beauty of the moral ideals which 
they exalt. This subject has been discussed in a 
masterly way by J. D. Michaclis in the preface to his 
Arabic grammar, 2d cd., pp. xxix. et seq. y and by 
Kautzsch in "Die Pocsie und die Poetischen Biicher 
des A. T."(1902). 

The more recent comparative study of the history 
of literature lias brought out the interesting fact 
that the poetic portions of the several literatures 
date from an earlier time than the prose portions. 
This fact was even recognized by the Romans, as is 
shown by several sentences by Strabo and Varro 
that have been collected by E. Norden in his work 
u Antike Kunstprosa," 1898, p. 32. It therefore cor- 
responds to the general analogy of the 
Relative history of literature that the poetic 
Age narrative of the battle of the Israelites 
of Poetry, against the northern Canaanites, which 

is usually called the song of Deborah 
(Judges v. 1 et seq.) y is held by modern scholars to 
be an earlier account of this historic event than the 
prose narrative of the battle (found ib. iv. 14 et $eq.). 
Modern scholars generally agree on this point in ref- 
erence to the relative antiquity of prose and poetry. 
Wellhausen says expressly : "We know that songs 
like Josh. x. 12 et seq., Judges v., II Sam. i. 19 et seq. y 
iii. 33 et seq. t are the earliest historical monuments " 
("Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels," viii. 2). 

But now a new question has arisen as to the rela- 
tion between prose and poetry in the Old Testament, 
which calls for brief discussion in the final section 
of this article. 

How much of the Old Testament is to be included 
under poetry? This is the most recent question re- 
garding the Old Testament poetry; and several schol- 
ars are inclined to answer that the entire Hebrew 
Bible is poetry. Hence the following points call for 
examination: (a) Can the prophetic books be con- 
sidered as poetry? Setting aside the many modern 
exegetes of the Old Testament who have gone so far 
as to discuss the meters and verse of the several 

prophets, it may be noted here merely 
Extent of that Sicvers says (I.e. p. 374) that 

Poetry the prophecies, aside from a few ex- 

in the Old ceptions to be mentioned, are coip&o 

Testament, poetic, i.e., in verse. But the fact 

must be noted, which no one has so 
far brought forward, namely, that every single ut- 
terance of Balaam is called a sentence (" mashal " ; 

Num. xxiii. 7, 18; xxiv. 3, 15. 20, 23), while in the 
prophetic books this term is nut applied to the 
prophecies. There "masha!" is used only in the 
Book of K/.ekiel, and in fin entirely dilferent sense, 
namely, that of figurative speeeh or allegory (K/.ek. 
xvii. 2, xxi. 5, xxiv. 3). This fact seems to show 
that in earlier times prophecies were uttered more 
often in shorter sentences, while subsequently, fn 
keeping with the development of Hebrew literature, 
they were uttered more in detail, and the sentence 
was naturally amplified into the discourse. This 
view is supported by Isa. i., the first prophecy 
being as follows: "Banim giddalti we romamti," 
etc. There is here certainly such a symmetry in 
the single sentences that the rhythm which has been 
designated above as the poetic rhythm must be 
ascribed to them. But in the same chapter there 
occur also sentences like the following: "Arzekcm 
shemamah 'arckem serufot-esh; admatekem le ncg- 
dekem zarim okelim otah " (verse 7), or this, w When 
ye come to appear before me, who hath required 
this at your hand, to tread my courts?" (verse 12). 
In the last pair of lines even the translation suffi- 
ciently shows that each line does not contain three 
stresses merely, as does each line of the words of 
God (verses 2b, 3a, b). Hence the present writer 
concludes as follows: Although the prophets of 
Israel inserted poems in their prophecies (Isa. v. 1 
et seq.) t or adopted occasionally the rhythm of the 
dirge, which was well known to their readers (Amos 
v. 2 et scq. ; see above), their utterances, aside 
from the exceptions to be noted, were in the freer 
rhythm of prose. This view is confirmed by a sen- 
tence of Jerome that deserves attention. He says in 
his preface to his translation of Isaiah: "Let no one 
think that the prophets among the Hebrews were 
bound by meter similar to that of the Psalms." 
Finally, the present writer thinks that he has proved 
in his pamphlet "Neucste Prinzipien der A It testa - 
mentlichen Kritik," 1902, pp. 31 et seq. t that even 
the latest attempts to find strophes in Amos i. 2 it 
seq. arc unsuccessful. 

(b) Some scholars have endeavored to include in 
poetry the historical books of the Old Testament 
also. Sievers includes, besides, the prologue and 
the epilogue of the Book of Job. The first line is as 
follows: "There was a man in the land of Uz, whose 
name was Job," the Hebrew text of which has, ac- 
cording to Sievers, six stresses; the next line, which 
may be translated "and that man was perfect and 
upright, and one that feared God and eschewed evil," 
contains, according to the same writer, eight stresses. 
The next line has also six stresses, but then follow 
lines with 4 + 3, 3 + 3, 3, 4, G, 4 + 3, 4 -f 3 stresses. 
However, the form of these lines is not such m to 
justify one in removing the barrier that exists by 
virtue of the differences in the very contents of the 
prologue, the epilogue, and the dialogues of the 
book, between i. 1 etseq., xlii. 7 et scq., and iii. 8-xlii.O. 
This view is furthermore confirmed by the remark- 
able circumstance, alluded to above, that not the 
entire Book of Job, but only the section iii. 3-xlii. 
G, has the special accentuation that was given to the 
entire Book of Psalms and the Proverbs. Further- 
more, Jerome, who knew something of Jewish tra- 
dition, savs explicitly that the Book of Job is writ- 

X.— 7 

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ten in prose from the beginning to iii. 2, and that 
prose is again employed in xlii. 7-17. 

Sievers, finally, has made the attempt (I.e. pp. 3S2 
et seq.) to show that other narrative portions of the 
Old Testament are in poetry. The first object of 
his experiments is the section Gen. ii. 4b et seq., "In 
the day that the Lord God made the earth and the 

heavens/' etc. He thinks that the 
Sievers' Hebrew text has lines of four stresses 
Views- eacli ; but, in order to prove this state- 
ment, even at the beginning of verse 
4b, he is forced to regard the expression **be-yom" 
as an extra syllable prefixed to ** *asot." He is also 
obliged to strike out the word 4 * ba-arcz " at the end of 
verse 5a. although it has just as much meaning as has 
the word " al ha-arez " at the end of verse 5c. Then 
he must delete the words "but there went up a mist 
from the earth, and watered the whole face of the 
ground " (verse 6), which contains not four, but six- 
stresses. He adds in explanation : * They do not fit 
into the context, as has long since been recognized." 
This refers to the view (Holzinger, in **K. H. C." 
1S93, ad loc.) that "ed " in Gen. ii. 6 can not mean 
44 mist," because this "ed" is said to "water," while 
mist merely dampens the ground. But the meta- 
phorical expression "to water" is used instead of 
u to dampen " just as "ed " is used in Job xxxvi. 27, 
and there are no grounds for the assertion that the 
statement made in verse 6 does "not fit into the 
context." On the contrary, verses 5a and 6 corre- 
spond in the same way as do 5b and 7. Sievers 
attempts similarly to construct other lines of four 
stresses each in Gen. ii. 4b et seq. ; but perhaps 
enough has been said to show that his experiments 
do not seem natural, and can not extend the 
boundaries of poetry beyond those recognized here- 

Bibliography : For the bibliography of the earlier works deal- 
ing- wilh the various questions in connection with Old Testa- 
ment poetry, Ed. K5nig, Stilistik, Rhctorik, Poet lk< 1900, pp. 
305 et seq.: E. Sievers, Mctri&che Untermchunven: I. Stu- 
dien zur Hebrtliachen Metrik* 1901 ; Nivard Schloegl, Eecle- 
siaMicti* {xxxix. 12-xlix. 16) Ope Artis Metrical in For mam 
OrUfinalem Redactus. 1901 ; Cantieum Ccinticorum Hehra- 
tee, 1902; Hubert Grim me, PsalmeJiprobleme* 1902. pp, 1-19. 

E. G. II. E. K. 

Didactic : The oldest form of didactic poetry 

is mnemonic verse, which was often used in post- 
Biblical Hebrew even after the didactic poem was 
fully developed. Among the oldest examples of 
didactic poetry are mnemonic strophes on calendrie 
topics and Masoretic rules. Soon, however, the 
circle widens and all poetry is absorbed in the 
didactic poem. In a general view there are first to 
be considered calendrie calculation and everything 
connected with it. 

On conjunction and the leap-year there are works 
— sometimes mnemonic strophes, sometimes longer 

poems — by the following authors: 
Calendrie Jose al-Xaharwani (" Kerem Ilemed," 

Verses. ix. 41-42; com p. Harkavy, "Studien 

und Mitteilungen," v. 116), Saadia 
Gaon (see Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." cols. 2170 
el seq.; Berliner, in supplement to "Mafteah," p. 
15), Simson of Sens and Elijah b. Nathan (Stein- 
schneider, "Cat. Berlin." section ii., p. 73), Abraham 
ibn Ezra (Kobak's " Jeschurun," iv. 222). Profiat 
Duran ("Ma'aseh Efod," notes, p. 44), Moses b. 

Shem-Tob b. Jeshuah, David Vital (Steinschneider, 
"Jewish Literature," p. 244), and EHab b. Matti- 
thiah (Benjacob, "Ozar ha-Sefarim," p. 578, No. 
567). Two anonymous authors (Steinschneider, 
"Cat. Berlin," section ii., p. 72; Profiat Duran, I.e. 
notes, p. 45) wrote about the quarter-day; and Elia- 
kim ha-Levi wrote verses on the determination of 
the feast-days (Steinschneider, "Cat. Berlin," section 
ii., p. 73). 

Philologj* and the sciences related to it occupy a 
large space in the history of didactic poetry. Gram- 
mar was treated by Solomon ibn Gabirol in a didactic 
poem of 400 metrical lines, but only a part of it, 
ninety-eight lines, has been preserved (the latest, 
critical edition is that of Egers in the "Zunz Jubel- 
schrift"). Ibn Gabirol was followed by many 
others, as Elijah Levita ("Pirke Eliyahu," first 
printed in 1520), Moses Provencal ("Be-Shem Kad- 
mon," Venice, 1597), A. M. Greiding ("Shirah Ila- 
dashah," first ed., Zolkiev, 1764), Abraham Gemilla 
Atorgo (date uncertain; see Steinschneider, "Cat. 

Munich," Nos. 241-242). The col- 
Grammar: lection of words with the "left sin" 
Mne- (" sin semolit "), which perhaps Joseph 
monie b. Solomon was the first to make, 
Verses. was worked over by Hayyim Caleb 

(Benjacob, I.e. p. 578, No. 569), by 
Aaron Hamon (in Isaac Tshelcbi's "Semol Yisrael," 
Constantinople, 1723), and by Moses Pisa ("Shirah 
Hadashah " and " Hamza'ah Hadashah," first printed 
in "Shir Emunim," Amsterdam, 1793). The enig- 
matic poem of Abraham ibn Ezra on the letters- 
1 A ,H ,N is well known; around it has collected a 
whole literature of commentaries in rime and in 
prose. A didactic poem on prosody by an anony- 
mous writer has been published by Goldblum ("Mi- 
Ginzc Yisrael," i. 51). Of Masoretic didactic poems, 
the well-known one on the number of letters of the 
alphabet in the Biblical books is by some attributed 
to Saadia Gaon; by others, to Saadia b. Joseph 
Bekor Slior (see Steinschneider, "Cat. Bodl." col. 
2225). A didactic poem on the accents was written 
by Jacob b. Meir Tarn (Kobak's " Jeschurun," vol. 
v.), and, later, one by Joseph b. Kalonymus, who 
devoted a special poem to the accents in the books 
n"D"N. t\e. t Psalms, Proverbs, Job (sec "Ta'ame 
Emet,"ed. Berliner, Berlin, 1886). 

The halakic sciences, religious law, and Talmudic 
jurisprudence have employed the poets even more 
than has the linguistic sciences. Ilai Gaon treated 
in metrical verse of property and oaths according 
to Talmudic law ("Sha'arc Dine Mamonot we- 
Sha'are Shebu'ot," ed. Halberstam, in Kobak's 
"Ginze Nisturot," iii. 30 el seq.). An anonymous 
writer produced the whole of Iloshcn Mishpat in 
verse ("'En Mishpat," 1620); Mordecai b. Ilillel 
("Ililkot Shehitah u-Bcdikah," commentated by 

Johanan Treves, Venice, c. 1545-52), 
Halakic Israel Najara ("Shohate ha-Yeladin," 
Poems. Constantinople, 1718), David Vital 

(supplement to " Seder Berakah," Am- 
sterdam, 1087), and many others versified the regu- 
lations concerning shehitah and bedikah; an anony- 
mous writer (perhaps Mordecai b. Ilillel) versified 
the whole complex system of dietary regulations 
(Benjacob, I.e. p. 45, No. 877); another anonymous 

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author worked over the treatise Hullin (Moses Ha- 
bib, "Darke No'am," Venice, 154G; Steinschneider, 
"Cat. Bodi." col. 2538, s.v. "Shem-Tob ibn Fiila- 
quera"); and Isaac b. Abraham Hayyot, the whole 
"Yoreh De'ah " ("Pene Yizhak," Cracow, 151)1). 
Saul b. David elaborated the thirty-nine principal 
kinds of work forbidden on the Sabbath ("Tal 
Orot," Prague, 1615); Elijah b. Moses Loanz, tlie 
Sabbath regulations in general (in "Zemirot u-Tush- 
bahot," Basel, 1599); and Abraham Samuel, the 
whole Mishnah treatise on the Sabbath ("Sliirat 
Dodi," Venice, 1719). The Shulhan 'Aruk in its 
entirety found a reviser in Isaac b. Noah ha-Kohen 
("Sefer ha-Zikkaron," n.d., n.p.). 

Here belong also a large portion of the halakic 
piyyutim (see Dukes, "Zur Kenntniss der Neuhe- 
briiischen Religittsen Poesie," p]>. 42 et seq.) and the 
general and special Azhakot. In this connection, 
too, should be mentioned the didactic poems on the 
Mishnah treatises of the Talmud. Of these, per- 
haps the first was composed by Sa'id al-Damrari 
(Steinschneider, "Cat. Berlin," section ii., p. 8); the 
same material was treated of by Isaac Samora; 
while Saadia b. Danan in his didactic poem on this 
subject brings in the separate sections of the trea- 
tises (in Gavison, "'Omer ha-Shikhah," pp. 123 et 


The philosophical didactic poem is also very well 
represented. Levi b. Abraham b. Hayyim wrote 
1,840 lines ("Batte ha-Nefesh weha-Lehashim " ; see 
Ben Jacob, I.e. p. 90, No. 693) on the "seven kinds 
of wisdom" ("sheba' hakamot"); Solomon b. Im- 
manuel da Piera translated Musa b. Tubi's philo- 
sophical didactic poem in metrical 
Philosophic verse ("Batte ha-Nefesh," ed. Hirsch- 
Poems. feld, Ramsgate, 1894); Abraham b. 

Meshullam of Modena wrote in rime 
a commentary on philosophy (see Michael, "Or 
ha-Hayyim," No. 187; "Bi'ur le-Hokmat ha-Pilo- 
sofia ba-Haruzim "); Anatoli (Seraiah ha-Levi) 
wrote on the ten categories; another poem on the 
same subject is printed in "Kobez *al Yad " (ii., 
"Haggahot." p. 10); Shabbethai b. Malkiel in- 
cluded the four forms of syllogism in four lines 
(Steinschneider, "Cat. Leyden," p. 218); and the 
"thirteen articles of faith" exist in countless 
adaptations. Mattithiah Kartin versified the "Mo- 
reh Nebukim" (Steinschneider, "Ilebr. Uebers." p. 
428); Mordecai Lowenstamm, the "Behinat 4 01am" 
("Shire ha Behinah," Breslau, 1832). The Cabala, 
too, received attention, as witness the adaptations 
of the ten Sefirot. Of other sciences only medicine 
need be mentioned. A didactic poem on the eon- 
trolling power of the twelve months is attributed 
to Maimonides (Steinschneider, "Cat. Berlin," sec- 
tion i., p. 39); Solomon ibn Ayyub translated Avi- 
eenua's didactic poem on medicine in metrical verse 
(Steinschneider, "Hebr. Uebers." p. 700); AM.Iarizi 

was the author of a metrical dietetic 

Poems on thesis ("Refu'ot ha-Gewiyah," first in 

History "Likkute ha-Pardes," Venice, 1519). 

and Dietetic-ethical mnemonic verses by 

Medicine- Shem-Tob ibn Falaqnera likewise 

are well known ("Iggeret Hanhagat 
ha-Guf weha-Nefesh"; see Steinschneider, "Cat. 
Munich," No. 49). 

History also was frequently the subject of didac- 
tic poems. The historical piyyutim should hardly 
be mentioned here; at an early date, however, 
a certain Saadia, about whom nothing definite ia 
known, composed a learned history in rime (Zunz, 
"Z. G." p. 71); Falaqnera was theunthorof n " Megil- 
lat ha-Zikkaron," of which only the title is known; 
to Simon b. Zcmah Duran is attributed the author- 
ship of a didactic poem on the chain of tradition 
(Steinschneider, "Cut. Bodl." ml. £H02); and Mc sen 
Kicti's masterpiece "Mifcdush Mr'ul " may also be 
mentioned, although it is not strictly a didactic 
poem. Poets wrote about games also, especially on 
chess, e.g., Abraham ibn Ezra (see Steins< lmcidcr, 
"Sehach bei den Judcn," Berlin, lfc73i; and there 
have not been wanting those who versified all the 
books of the Bible. This was not done, however, 
for didactic purposes; and such productions do not 
belong to the class of poetry of which this article 

See, also, Faiile; Polkmics; Puovijuis. 

J. If B. 

Lyric: Lyric poetry being essentially the ex- 
pression of individual emotion, it is natural that in 
Hebrew literature it should be, in the main, devo- 
tional in character. Post-Biblical lvrics are confined 
within a small scale of human feeling. Love for i Jod 
and devotion to Zion are the predominant notes. The 
medieval Hebrew poet sang less frequently of wine. 
woman, and the pleasures of life, not because the 
Hebrew language does not lend itself to these topics, 
but because such ideas were for manv centuries in- 
congruous with Jewish life. Yet there is no form 
of lyric poetry which has been neglected by -the 
Hebrew poet. Ode and sonnet, elegy and song are 
fairly represented, and there is even an adequate 
number of wine-songs. 

Secular poetry in Hebrew literature may be said 
to date from the middle of the tenth century. In 
the time of Samuel ha-Nagid (d. 1055) it had already 
attained a degree of perfection. Still it is dillleult 
to find, in that early period, lyric poetry which is 
not devotional, or non-devotional poetry which is 
not didactic or gnomic in character. Perhaps the 

earliest secular lyric poem is the wine- 
In Spain, song ascribed to Solomon ibn Gabirol 

(10*21-70), said to have been written 
against a niggardly host who placed waUr instead 
of wine before his guests. The first great poet to 
give prominence to non-devotional lyric poetry was 
Moses ibn Ezra (1070-1 131*). who devoted several 
chapters of his " Tarshish " to the praise of \\ ine and 
music, friendship and love. The secular lyric* of 
his more famous contemporary .lutlnh ha-Le\i 
(1086-1142) are mostly occasional poems, such as 
wedding-songs, panegyrics, unci the like. Abraham 
ibn Ezra (1092-1HV7) wrote a number of beautiful 
poems of a personal character, but they belong to \\\ct 
epigrammatic rather than to the lyric cIimw ot litera- 
ture. Judah al-Huri/i (11^1-12-30), though the first 
poet of note to devote himself entirely to secular 
poetry, is more of a satirist than a lyrist. Of the 
liftv chapters of which his "Tahkemoni" consists 
the twenty-seventh is the only one* which sines tint 
praise of "wine. The rest are satires, didactic or 
gnomic in character. 

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The true ring of non-devotional lyric poetry, 
however, is not to be found in Hebrew literature 
until the time of Immanuel of Home (1265-1330). 
He united in himself the warm imagination of the 

Orient and the erotic spirit of Italy. 
Immanuel In a stvlemore flexible even than that 
of Rome, of Ilarizi he gives utterance to pas- 
sionate love with such freedom of 
expression that the Rabbis thought it justifiable 
to forbid the reading of his "Mahberot" on the 

From Immanuel there is a stretch of almost three 
centuries before another great lyric poet is met with. 
Israel b. Moses Najara is universally acknowledged 
to be one of the sweetest singers in Israel. He is, 
however, more of a devotional poet, and his right to 
be included here comes from the fact that he sincrs 
of God and Israel in terms of love and passion. In 
fact, he is so anthropomorphic in his expressions 
that Menahem di Lonzano condemned him for it. 
Nevertheless the latter, though of a serious turn of 
mind, indulged in lighter compositions when the 
occasion presented itself. His poem for Purim 
(" 'Abodat Mikdash," folio 74, Constantinople) is 
one of the best wine-songs in Hebrew literature. 

From Najara two centuries pass before true lyric 
poetry is again met with. This is a period of transi- 
tion in Hebrew poetry. The Hebrew bard had just 
begun to come under the influence of European lit- 
erature, and as yet had had no time to assimilate 
what he had absorbed and strike out in a way of his 
own. The drama is introduced into Hebrew litera- 
ture in the works of Solomon Usque, Joseph Penso, 
and Moses Zacuto. Yet, though the form in which 
these poets threw their compositions is dramatic, 
the temperament is lyric in all of them. For the 
same reason Moses Hayvim Luzzatto must be re- 
garded as one of the best lyric poets of the eighteenth 

The success which Wessely's "Songs of Glory" 
("Shire Tiferet") met gave rise to a great number 

of imitators, and almost every one 
Wessely. who could w r rite verse essayed the epic. 

But soon this German school was over- 
shadowed by the Russian lyric school, of which 
Abraham Dob Bar Lebensohn and his son Mieah 
were the acknowledged leaders. From that day 
until now the palm has been held by the Russian 
poets. With the exception of Joseph Almanzi and 
Samuel David Luzzatto of Italv, and MeYr Letteris 
and Naphtali Herz Imber of Galicia, all the more 
eminent modern Hebrew poets belong to Russia. 

Judah L5b Gordon, though decidedly a greater 
master of Hebrew than his preceptor Mieah Leben- 
sohn, can not be assigned to an exalted position as a 
lyric poet. As a satirist he is supreme; as a lyrist 
he is not much above the older and is far below the 
younger Lebensohn. The most fiery of all modern 
lyrists is undoubtedly Aba K. Schapira. Z. H. 
Mane is sweeter, M. M. Dolitzky is more melodious, 
D. Frischman is more brilliant, and X. II. Imber 
sounds more elemental ; but Schapira has that pow r er 
which, in the language of Heine, makes his poetry 
"a fiery pyramid of song, leading Israel's caravan 
of affliction in the wilderness of exile." Of living 
poets the nearest to approach him is II. N. Bialik 

and A. Libushitzky, though neither has }-et arrived 
at maturity. See Drama, Hebkew; Eric Poetky; 
Piyyut; Satire. 

Bibliography : Delitzsch, Zur Geach. der Jlldischen PocMe ; 
Sieinschneider, Jewish Literature. 

j. I. D. 

DECAI (called also Pavieti) : Italian Talmudist 
and writer on religious ethics; born at Asti, Pied- 
mont; flourished in the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. His only known work is " Kizzur Reshit 
Hokmah" (Venice, 1600; Cracow, 1GG7; Amster- 
dam, 1725; Zolkiev, 1806), an abridgment of the 
" Reshit Hokmah" of Elijah de Vidas. It is in- 
tended to teach an ascetic and ethical life. 

Bibliography: Furst, Bihl. 
ha-Sefarim, p. 542, No. 42. 


JucL ii. 22-23; Benjacob, Ozar 

S. O. 

POGORELSKY, MESSOLA : Russian physi- 
cian and writer; born at Bobruisk March 7, 1862; 
educated at the gymnasium of his native town ; stud- 
ied medicine at the University of St. Vladimir in 
Kiev, where he was graduated in 1890. In the same 
year lie was appointed government rabbi at Kher- 
son, a position which he held until 1893. Pogorel- 
sky is a prolific writer on medical and on Jewish 
subjects. Among his treatises of interest to Jewish 
readers are: "Cireumcisio Ritualis Hebneorum" 
(written in German and published at St. Petersburg, 
1888); "Yevreiskiya Imena, Sobstvennyya," on 
Jewish names iu Bible and Talmud, published in 
the "Voskhod" and in book-form (ib. 1893); "O 
Siiilisye po Biblii " (Zara'ath), on syphilis according 
to the Bible (ib. 1900); "Ob Okkultismye," occult 
science according to Bible and Talmud (ib. 1900). 

His medical essays have appeared in u St. Peters- 
burger Medicinische Wochenschrift," "Russkaya 
Meditzina," and other Russian periodicals. 

h. r. J. L. La. 

POGROMY. Sec Russia. 


POITIERS : French city; capital of the depart- 
ment of Vienne. In 1236 the Jews of Poitiers and 
the adjacent country were harried by the Crusaders, 
although Pope Gregory IX., in a letter to the bishop, 
strongly condemned their excesses. Four years 
later (1240) Nathan ben Joseph engaged in a debate 
with the Bishop of Poitiers. Alphonse de Poitiers, 
yielding to the demands of the Christian inhabit- 
ants, ordered the expulsion of the Jews from the 
city (1249) and the cancelation of all debts due them 
from the Christians. He was not disdainful of their 
knowledge of medicine, however; for when he was 
attacked, in 1252, with a serious affection of the 
eyes he called in a celebrated Jewish physician of 
Aragon, named Ibrahim. In 12G9 he compelled all 
Jews remaining in his dominions to wear the badge 
of the wheel on their garments. In 1273 the coun- 
cil of Poitiers forbade landed proprietors to make 
any contracts with the Jewish usurers, and ordered 
Christians generally not to lend money to the Jews 
or to borrow from them, except in cases of extreme 
necessity. In 1290 all Jews were expelled from the 
city by Philip the Fair. 

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Bibliography: Boutarlc, SI. -Louis el Alehouse de Poitiers, 
p. 87; Depping, Les Juifs dans le Moifen Aye, pp. 1158-130; 
Gross, Gallia J udaica. p. 03; Saiffe, LchJuU'h du iMnaue- 
doc, pp. 22, 20; Ibn Verga, Shcbet Yehudah, p. 114 ; It. E. J. 
L 230, ill. 216, vi. 83. 
G. S. K. 

POITOXJ : Ancient province of France. Several 
Jewish communities were founded there in the 
twelfth century, notably those of Niort, Bressuirc, 
and Thouars (department of Deux -Sevres), Chatcl- 
lerault (Vienne), and JMortagnc aud Tyfauges(La 
Vendee). About the year 1160 the scholars of the 
province took part in the synod convened at Troyes 
under the auspices of R. Tarn and RaSHBaM. In 
1236 Pope Gregory IX. interfered in behalf of the 
Jews of Poitou, then persecuted by the Crusaders. 
Alphonse de Poitiers displayed great severity in all 
his dealings with the Jews. In 1249 he expelled 
them from Poitiers, Niort, St. - Jean - d'Angely, 
Saintes, St.-Maixent, and Rochelle, and five years 
later lie released the Christians from all interest due 
to Jews. In 1267 Jews were forbidden to take part 
in public functions or to build new synagogues. A 
poll-tax was imposed on them in 1268, and they were 
obliged, under pain of imprisonment, to declare the 
exact value of their possessions, whether personal 
property or real estate. Alphonsc exacted with the 
utmost rigor the payment of the taxes he imposed 
on them, and disregarded the measures taken in their 
behalf by the Bishop of Toulouse. In 1269 he com- 
pelled them to wear the badge; but in 1270 he ex- 
empted the Jew Mosset of St.-Jean-d'Angely and 
his two sons, on the payment of a sum of money, 
from the obligation of wearing this badge before 
All Saints' day. In the same year he appointed the 
Dominican prior of Poitiers and a secular priest 
chosen by the royal councilors to conduct an inves- 
tigation of usury in the jurisdiction of Poitiers. He 
ordered that every Christian should be believed upon 
oath in regard to any sum less than six sols; the in- 
quisitors were to pronounce upon cases not involving 
more than one hundred sols, while cases involving 
greater amounts were to be referred to the decision 
of the sovereign. In 1296 the Jews were expelled 
from Poitou, Philip the Fair exacting in return from 
the Christians, who benefited by the expulsion, a 
"fuage" (hearth-tax) of 3,300 pounds. In 1307 a 
question was raised regarding the rent of a house 
and lands situated at Chatillon-sur-Indre, which had 
formerly belonged to the Jew Croissant Castellon, 
called the "Poitovin," the son of Bonfil de Saint- 

The Jews of Poitou were persecuted in 1320 by 
the Pastoureaux, and in 1321 were accused of having 
poisoned the springs and wells. Only one scholar 
of Poitou is known— R. Isaac, mentioned as a com- 
mentator on the Bible (Zunz, "Z. G." p. 89). 

Bibliography: Depping, LesJuifs dans le Moyen Age, pp. 
88, 129; Dom Vaissete, Hixtoire Generate de Lanuuedoc, jii. 
510,513; Guillaume rie Nangis, Cojdinuatio, p. 78; Malvezln. 
Hist, den Jut/s de Bordeaux, pp. 45-46: R. E. J. ii- 44 : ill. 
216; vi. 83; ix. 138; xv. 237. 244 ; Saijre, Lex Juifsdu Lanauc- 
doc, pp. 20, 26 ; Gross, Gallia Judaica, pp. 451 ei acq. 

g. S. K. 

POLA. See Istria. 

POLACCO, VITTORIO: Italian jurist of Po- 
lish descent; born at Padua May 10, 1859. Since 
1884 he has been professor of civil law at the Univer- 

sity of Padua. His chief works are: "Delia Divl- 
sione Operuta da Ascendent! Fra Diseendenti." Pad* 
ua, 18N-1; "Delia Da/.ione in Pnguiiirnto,"* vol. i., 
ib. 18S8; "CuntroilDivor/.io." ib. 1892; "La Ques- 
tioncs del Divorzio c gli Israeliti in Italia," id. 1894; 
" Le Obbliga/.ioni nel Diritto Civile Italiano," ib. 
1898. lie has also contributed numerous articles on 
legal topics to tlie " Areliivio Giuridico," the "Atti 
della R. Aecademia di Scienze, Letteie ed Arti" ot 
Padua, the "Atti del H. Istituto Vcneto," and other 
8. R. II. K. 

POLAK, GABRIEL JACOB : Talmudist and 
bibliographer; bom June a, 1803; died May 11, 1809, 
at Amsterdam, where he was principal of a school. 
He was the author of the following works, all pub- 
lished in Amsterdam: "Bikkurc ha-Shuimh" (1811), 
a Dutch and Hebrew almanac for the year 5004 , u Di- 
bre Kodesh " (1845), a Dutch-Hebrew dictionary; 
"Hulikot Kedem" (1847), a collection of Hebrew 
poems; "Ben Gorni" (1851), a collection of eawiys; 
"Sha'ar Ta'ame Sifrc Einet " (1858), an introduction 
to a treatise on the accents in the books of Job and 
the Psalms; a valuable edition of Bedersi's work 
on Hebrew svnonvms, "Hotem Toknit" (1^05); a 
biography of the poet David Franco Mendes and his 
contemporaries, in " Ha-Maggid," xii. , and " McTr 
'Enayim," a descriptive catalogue of the libraries of 
Jaeobsohn and MeYr Rubens, a work of great bib- 
liographical value. 

Polak's editions of the rituals arc noted for their 


Bibliography: Fflrst. Bihl.Jud.Ui. 1^0; UoesU Cat. Rosen- 
thal. Bill. pp. 940-943; Zeitlin, Kiryat Scfer, 11. 273. 

s. M. L. IJ. 

POLAK, HENRI: Dutch labor-leader and poli- 
tician; born at Amsterdam Feb. 22, 18G8. Till his 
thirteenth year he attended the school conducted by 
Halberstadt, a well-known teacher of Jewish mid- 
dle-class boys, and afterward learned from his uncle 
the trade of diamond -cutting. In 1887 and 18*8 and 
again in 1889 and 1890 he lived in London, where 
he became interested in socialism. Returning to 
Holland, he became attached to the Sociaal Demo- 
cratischc Bond, which he left in 1893 on account of 
its anarchistic principles. With Troelstra and Van 
der Goes he founded the periodical " De Nieuwe 
Tijd." In 1894 he became one of the twelve found- 
ers of the Sociaal Democratische Arbeiders Partij 
(S. D. A. P.); in 1898 he became a member of its 
committee; and since 1900 he has been its chairman. 

On Nov. 7, 1894, on the occasion of a sirike in 
the Dutch navy-yards, a confederation was formed 
of different parties, with a central committee of 
which Polak was chosen chairman. In Jan., 1*95. 
he was appointed chairman of the Algeme< ne Neder- 
landsche Dianmntbewerkers Bond (A. X. D. B), 
which union had its origin in that strike. Since 
then he has been editor-in-chief of the - Wcckblad." 
Polak gave up his trade of diamond-cutting and de- 
voted himself to the organization of the A. X. D. B., 
which is considered the greatest and best-organized 
union in the Netherlands. Besides many minor 
strikes'Polak has directed seven important ones, and 
has succeeded in obtaining: (1) the abolition of the 

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truck system; (2) an advance of the rate of wages 
from 50 to 200 per cent ; and (3) the shortening of 
the working-day from twelve to nine hours. The 
A. X. D. B. strives to raise the moral ami intellectual 
status of its members by arranging lecture courses 
and by maintaining a library. It includes nine sec- 
tions of the diamond industry, with a membership of 
7,500—4,500 Jews and 3,00lTciiristians. It is with- 
out any political tendency; and since 1900 it has had 
a building of its own, and its own printing-office 
with twenty-five employees. 

Polak is a member of the committee for statistics 
(since 1900), chairman of the Kamer van Arbeid 
(since 1900), member of the municipality (since 
1902), and chairman of the Alliance Uuivcrselle des 
Ouvriers Diamantnires (siuce 1903). He has a great 
predilection for history. Besides some brochures 
for socialistic propaganda Polak has translated S. 
and B. Webb's "History of Trade Union" ("Ge- 
schiedenis van liet Britsche Vereenigingsleven," 
Amsterdam, 1900) and "Theorie en Praktijk van het 
Britsche Vercenisingsleven," ib. 1902. He is corre- 
spondeut of the "Clarion," u Xeue Zeit," "JMouve- 
ment Socialiste," and other papers. 

s. E. Sl. 

POLAK, HERMAN JOSEF : Dutch philolo- 
gist; born Sept. 1, 1844, at Leyden; educated at the 
university of that city (Ph.D. 1809). From 1866 to 
1869 he taught classics at the gymnasium of Leyden ; 
from 1873 he taught history at that of Rotterdam; 
and from 1882 he was conrector and teacher of clas- 
sics there. In 1894 he was appointed professor of 
Greek at Gr5uingen University. 

Polak is a member of the Royal Academy of 
Sciences and of the Maatschappij voor Letterkunde 
of Leyden. Besides his doctor's dissertation " Ob- 
servationes ad Scholia in Homeri Odysseam " (1869), 
Polak has published the following works: "Bloem- 
lezing van Grieksche Dichters " (1875; 2d ed. 1892); 
"Ad Odysseam Ej usque Scholiastas Cuitc Se- 
cundum" ([Briel, 1881-82); aud "Stndien" (1888). 
He has also contributed a great number of essays 
to "Mnemosyne," "Hermes," "Museum," "Tyd- 
spiegel," "Gids," "Elsevier," and other journals. 

BiBLlOGRAPnY : Jaarbnek Groningsehc Universiteit, 1894-95; 
Oiize Hoogleeraareiu p. HO; En Halve Eeuu\ ii.27,270, 275. 

8. E. Sl. 

POLAK, JAKOB EDUARD : Austrian physi- 
cian ; born 1818 at Gross-Morzin, Bohemia; died 
Oct. 7, 1891; studied at Prague and Vienna (M.D.). 
About 1851, when an envoy of the Persian govern- 
ment went to Vienna to engage teachers for the mil- 
itary school at Teheran, then about to be organized, 
Polak presented himself as a candidate. He arrived 
in the Persian capital in 1851, much impaired in 
health by the long voyage; and, pending the organ- 
ization of the school, studied the language of the 

In spite of the many obstacles which he encoun- 
tered — particularly the defective state of medical 
science, which was not then taught in class, and the 
Islamic prohibition against the dissection of bodies 
— Polak soon achieved a reputation in Persia, anil 
enjoyed the especial conlidence of Shah Nasir-ed- 
Din. At first he lectured in French, with the aid of 

an interpreter; but after a year he was able to 
lecture in Persian, anil later published in Persian a 
work on anatomy. He compiled also a medical 
dictionary in Persian, Arabic, and Latin, in order 
to provide a system of terminology. Finally he 
founded a state surgical clinic containing sixty beds. 
A serious illness in 1855 obliged him to give up his 
professional work; but he continued his literary 

As physician to the shah, Polak occupied a high 
position. About 1861 he returned to Vienna, and 
whenever the shah visited Austria Polak greeted 
him at the frontier. His "Persieu, das Land und 
Seine Bewohner; Ethnograpische Schilderungen," 
appeared at Leipsic in 1SG5. 

Bibliography: Orasche, in Neue Freic Prc$se % Oct. 14, 1891. 
s. E. J. 

POLAND. See Russia. 

TURE : Although pagan nations as a rule were not 
prone to intolerance in matters of religion, they 
were so with regard to Judaism. They were highly 
incensed agaiust the people which treated so con- 
temptuously all pagan divinities and reviled all that 
was sacred in pagan eyes. Especially embittered 
against the Jews were the Egyptians when, through 
the translation of the Bible, they were informed of 
the pitiful role ascribed to their ancestors at the 
birth of the Jewish nation. In Egypt, therefore, 
originated the an ti -Jewish writings, and the apolo- 
getic and polemical works in defcuse 
First Ap- of Judaism against paganism. As 
pearance in early as the middle of the third pre- 

Egypt. Christian century a Theban priest 

named Manctho, iu his history of the 
Egyptian dynasties, written in Greek, violently at- 
tacked the Jews, iuventingall kinds of fables con- 
cerning their sojourn in Egypt and their exodus 
therefrom. The substance of his fables is that a 
number of persons suffering from leprosy had been 
expelled from the country by the Egyptian king 
Amenophis (or IJocchoris, as he is sometimes called), 
and sent to the quarries or into the wilderness. It 
happened that among them was a priest of Ileliopo- 
lis of the name of Osarsiph (Moses). This priest 
persuaded his companions to abandou the worship 
of the gods of Egypt and adopt a new religion 
which he had elaborated. Under his leadership the 
lepers left Egypt, and after many vicissitudes and 
the perpetration of numerous crimes they reached 
the district of Jerusalem, which they subdued. 

These fables, together with those invented by 
Antioehus Epiphanes in connection with his alleged 
experiences in the Temple of Jerusalem, were re- 
peated and greatly amplified by Posidonius in his 
history of Persia. The accusations thus brought 
against the Jews were that they worshiped an ass in 
their Temple, that they sacrificed annually on their 
altar a specially fattened Greek, and that they were 
filled with hatred toward every other nationality, 
particularly the Greeks. All these malevolent fic- 
tions found embodiment in the polemical treatises 
against the Jews by Apollouins Molon, CI nx? rem on, 
Lysimachns, Apion, and others (see Eusebius, 
"Pnvparatio Evangclica," x. 19; Josephus, "Contra 

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Ap." ii. 7, § 15), and were taken up and retailed, with 
sundry alterations and additions, by the Homau his- 
torian Trogus Pompeius, and especially by Tacitus, 
who, in this respect, displayed such ingenuity as to 
excite the envy of the greatest casuists among the 

To the various incidents which, according to 
Manetho, accompanied the Exodus, Tacitus traces 
the 6rigin of nearly all the religious customs of the 
Jews. Abstinence from the use of swine's llesh is 
explained by the fact that the swine is peculiarly 
liable to the itch and therefore to that very disease 
on account of which the Jews were once so severely 
maltreated. Frequent fasting is alleged by him to 
have been instituted in commemoration of the star- 
vation from which they had escaped in the wilder- 
ness. Their observance of the seventh day of the 
week is assumed to be due to their finding a resting- 
place on the seventh day (Tacitus, "Hist." v. 2etseq.). 
It is not astonishing, therefore, that, thus represented, 
the Jewish religion was looked upon by the major- 
ity of educated people as a"barbara superstitio" 
(Cicero, "Pro Flacco," xxviii.), and that the Jewish 
nation was made the butt of the wit of the Roman 
satirists Horace, Juvenal, and Martial. 

To defend the Jewish religion and the Jewish race 
against the slanderous attacks of the heathen there 
appeared, at various intervals, from about the sec- 
ond pre-Christian century to the middle of the sec- 
ond century c.e., apologetical and 
polemical works emphasizing the su- 
periority of Judaism over paganism. 
To works of this kind belong the ex- 
planation of the Mosaic law by Aristobulus of 
Paneas, the Oraeula Sibyllina, the Wisdom of Solo- 
mon, the apoealpyses, the Jewish-Hellenistie wri- 
tings of Alexandria (see Hellenism), especially 
those of Philo, and lastly Josephus* "Contra Apio- 
nem." The aim of all these works was the same, 
namely, severe criticism of idolatry and vigorous ar- 
raignment of the demoralization of the pagan world. 
A new polemical element was introduced by 
Christianity — that of the interpretation of the Bib- 
lical text. Having received from Judaism its ethical 
principles, the new religion, in order to justify its dis- 
tinctive existence, asserted that it had been founded 
to fulfil the mission of Judaism, and endeavored 
to prove the correctness of this allegation from 
the Bible, the very book upon which Judaism is 
founded. Aside from the Gospels and the Acts of 
the Apostles, the first Christian polemical work 
against the Jews was the account of the dialogue 
between Justin Martyr and the Jew Tryphon, which 
took place shortly after the Bar Kokba war against 
the Romans. The Church father endeavored to 
demonstrate that the prophecies concerning the Mes- 
siah applied to Jesus, while the Jew met his argu- 
ments with the traditional interpretation. Justin 
displayed great bitterness against the Jews, whom 
he charged with immorality and with having ex- 
punged from their Bibles much that was favorable 1 
to Christianity ("Dial, cum Try ph." ^ 72, 73, 114). 
These charges were repeated by the succeeding 
Christian polemists; while that of having falsified 
the Scriptures in their own interests was later made 
against both Christians and Jews by the Mohammed- 


ans. A remarkable feature in Justin's dialogue is 

the politeness with which the disputants speak of 

each other; at the close of the debate Jew ami 

Christian confess that they have learned much from 

each other and part with expressions of mutual good- 

More bitter in tone is the dialogue, belonging to th<* 
same period, written hy the converted Ji w Ariston 
of Pella, and in which a Christian named Jason and 
a Jew named Pnpiseusure alleged to have discussed 
the nature of Jesus. Among other polemical works 
directed against the Jews the most noteworthy are: 
"The Canon of the Church," or "Against the Jmh- 
izers," by Clement of Alexandria (see Kusehins, 
"Hist. Eccl." vi. 13); "Contra (Visum," by Ori^cn; 

flpof 'lowJmotY. by Claudius Apol- 
linarius; " Ail versus Judaos." by Ti r- 
tullian; "Ad versus Judaos"and "Th§- 
timonia," by Cyprian; " Demonstrulio 
Evangelica," by Eusebius; " De Incarnation** !>•] 

Verbi," by Athanasius of Alexandria; tin* "Homi- 
lies" of John Chrysostom; the "Hymns" of Kphrat- 
em Syrus; "Ad versus Hsercses" and "AncyrotuA," 
by Epiphanius; "Dialogus Christiani el Judtti dc 
St. Trinitate," by Jerome. The main points dis- 
cussed in these works are the dogma of the Trin- 
ity, the abrogation of the Mosaic law, and especially 
the Messianic mission of Jesus, which Christians en- 
deavored to demonstrate from tin* Old Testann nt. 
Some of the Church Fathers emphasized their argu- 
ments with curses and revilings. They reproached 
the Jews for stiff-neekednessand hatred of Chri>tians; 
they were especially bitter against them for persist- 
ing in their Messianic hopes. The following pas- 
sage from one of Ephraem Syrus* "hymns" against 
the Jews may serve as an example of the polemical 
attitude of the Church Fathers: "Jacob blessed 
Jndah, saying, 4 The scepter shall not depart from 
Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until 
Shiloh come ' [Gen. xlix. 10]. In this passage the 
Jews that perceive not search if there be a scepter 
or an interpreter between his [Judah 's] feet, for the 
things that are written have not been fulfilled, 
neither have they so far met with accomplishment. 
But if the scepter be banished and the prophet 
silenced, let the people of the Jews be put to shame, 
however hardened in impudence they be." 

The Jews did not remain silent, but answered 
their antagonists in the same tone. This at least is 
the assertion of Jerome in the preface to his com- 
mentary on the Psalms, where he says that in his 
time discussions between the Church and the Syna- 
gogue were very frequent. He further assert* that 
it was considered a great undertaking to ent< r into 
polemics with the Jews— a proof that contests oft< n 
ended in favor of the latter. However, in spite of 
the frequency of discussions, no particular Jewish 
polemical work of that period has survived; the 
only source of information concerning the nature of 
these discussions is a number of dialogues recorded 
in the Talmud and Mid rash. These dialogm s. like 
others between Jews and pagan® found in the same 
sources, were more in the nature of eood-humoit-d 
raillerv than of serious debate. The rabbis who 
excelled in these friendly passages of arms with 
pagans, Christians, and Chiistian Gnostics were 

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Johanan ben Zakkai, Gamaliel II., Joshua ben Han- 
aniab, and Akiba. Johanan ben Zakkai answered 

several questions of an aggressive na- 

Discus- ture put by a Roman commander as 
sions in the to the contradictions existing between 

Talmud. Num. iii. 22, 28, 34 and the 39th verse 

of the same chapter (Bek. 5b) and 
between Ex. xxxviii. 26, 27 and Gen. i. 20, ii. 19 
(Hul. 27b); also as to the regulation in Ex. xxi. 29 
(Yer. Sanh. 19b) and the law concerning the red 
heifer (Pesik. 40a). 

Interesting are the accounts of the debates which 
Gamaliel, Eleazar, Joshua ben Hauaniah, and Akiba 
held with unbelievers at Rome (see Bacher, "Ag. 
Tan." i. 85). It is noteworthy that even in the 
time of Gamaliel the Christians used as an argu- 
ment against Judaism the misfortunes that had be- 
fallen Israel. In discussing with Gamaliel, a " min " 
quoted Hosea v. to demonstrate that God had 
completely forsaken Israel (Yeb. 102b; Midr. Teh. 
to Ps. x.). A similar argument "was used, not in 
words but in gesture, by another min against Joshua 
ben Hananiah, who answered by a sign that God's 
protecting hand was still stretched over Israel (Hag. 
5b). This took place in the palace of Hadrian, 
who questioned Joshua as to how God created 
the world (Gen. R. x.); concerning the angels 
(Gen. R. lxxviii. ; Lam. R. iii. 21); as to the res- 
urrection of the body (Gen. R. xxviii.; Ecel. 
R. xii. 5); and in regard to the Decalogue (Pesik. 

R. 21). 

But rabbinical polemics assumed a more violent 
character when the Church, having acquired polit- 
ical power, threw aside all reserve, and invective 
and abuse became the favorite weapons of the assail- 
ants of Judaism. A direct attack upon Christianity 
was made by the Palestinian amora R. Simlai. His 
attacks were especially directed against the doctrine 
of the Trinity (Gen. R. viii. ; Yer. Ber. ix. lid, 12a). 
A later Palestinian amora, R. Abbahu, refuted all 
the fundamental dogmas of Christianity (Yalk., 
Gen. 47; Gen. R. xxv. ; Shab. 152b). With re- 
gard to the doctrine of the Trinity, Abbahu says: 
" A thing of flesh and blood may have a father, a 
brother, or a son to share in or dispute his sover- 
eignty, but the Lord said, ' I am the Lord thy God! 
I am the first ' — that is, I have no father — ' and be- 
sides me there is no God '—that is, I have no son " 
(see Isa. xliv. 6; Ex. R. xxix.). Commenting upon 
Num. xxiii. 19, Abbahu says, "God is not a man, 
that he should repent; if a man say, 'I am God/ 
he lieth ; and if he say, * I am the son of man ' [Mes- 
siah], he shall repent; and if he say, ' I shall go up 
to heaven ' — he may say it, but he can not perform 
it" (Yer. Ta'an. I 1). 

The Church Fathers who lived after Jerome knew 
less and less of Judaism, and merely repeated the 
arguments that had been used by their predecessors, 
supplemented by more or less slanderous attacks 
borrowed from pagan anti Jewish writings. Spain 
became from the sixth century a hotbed of Chris- 
tian polemics against Judaism. Among the numer- 
ous works written there, the oldest and the most 
important was that of Isidorus Ilispalensis. In a 
book entitled "Contra Judaeos," the Archbishop of 
Seville grouped all the Biblical passages that had 

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been employed by the Fathers to demonstrate the 
truth of Christianity. Whether learned Spanish 

Jews took up the controversy and re- 
Polemics plied to Isidorus' arguments by coun- 
with ter-treatisesin Latin, as GrUtz believes 
Christians. ("Gesch." v. 75 et seq.), is doubtful. 

In Spain, as everywhere else in that 
period, the Jews paid little attention to attacks writ- 
ten in Latin or Greek, which languages were not 
understood by the masses. Moreover, the Christian 
dogmas of the Trinity, the Incarnation, etc., seemed 
to them to stand in such direct contradiction to both 
the letter and the spirit of the Old Testament that 
they deemed it superfluous to refute them. 

The expansion of Karaism during the ninth and 
tenth centuries awakened in the Jews the polemical 
spirit. Alive to the dangers that threatened tradi- 
tional Judaism through the new sect, which, owing 
to the inertness of the Geonim of the Babylonian 
academies, was rapidly growing, several rabbinical 
scholars took up the study of both Biblical and sec- 
ular sciences, winch enabled them to advance against 
the Christians as well as the Karaites a systematic 
defense of Jewish beliefs. The first known poleinist 
of that period was David ibn Merwan al-Mukam- 
mas, who devoted the eighth and tenth chapters of 
his u< Ishrun al-Makalat" to the refutation of Chris- 
tian dogmas. He was followed by Saadia Gaon, 
who, both in his commentaries on the Bible and in 
the second chapter of his philosophical "Emunot 
we-De'ot," assailed the arguments of the Church. 
He maintainetl that the Jewish religious system, 
which allowed man to approach as nearly as is pos- 
sible to perfection, would always exist, and would 
not be replaced by any other, least of all by the 
Christian, which transmuted mere abstractions into 
divine personalities. 

More aggressive was Saadia's contemporary, the 
Karaite Al-Kirkisani. In the third treatise of his 
"Kitab al-Anwar wal-Marakib" (ch. xvi.) he says 
that "the religion of the Christians, as practised at 
present, has nothing in common with the teachings 
of Jesus. It originated with Paul, who ascribed 
divinity to Jesus and prophetic inspiration to him- 
self. It was Paul that denied the necessity of obey- 
ing the commandments and taught that religion 
consisted in humility; and it was the Nicene Coun- 
cil which adopted precepts that occur neither in the 
Law nor in the Gospels nor in the Acts of Peter 
and Paul." Equally violent in their attacks upon 
Christianity were the Karaite writers Japheth ben 
Ali and Hadassi— the former in his commentaries 
on the Bible, and the latter in his "Eshkol ha- 
Kofer," in which the fundamental dogmas of Chris- 
tianity arc harshly criticized. The assertion of the 
Christians that God was born of a woman and as- 
sumed a human form in the person of Jesus is con- 
sidered by Hadassi to be blasphemous. Moreover, 
the reason given by the Church that God willed the 
incarnation of Jesus in order to free the world from 
its thraldom to Satan, is declared by him to be 
absurd; for. he asks, has the world grown any bet- 
ter as a result of this incarnation? are there fewer 
murderers, adulterers, etc., among the Christians 
than there were among the pagans? 

The first works wholly devoted to the refutation 

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of Christianity appeared in the second half of the 
twelfth century in Spain — the preeminently fertile 
source of anti-Jewish writings between the sixth 
and fifteenth centuries. They were the outgrowth 
of the restless aggressiveness of the Christian clergy, 
who, taking advantage of the irruption of fanati- 
cism marking the period of the Crusades, planned 
the wholesale conversion of the Jews through the 
medium of polemical works written by converts 
from Judaism. These converts, instead of confining 
themselves to the usual arguments drawn from the 
Old Testament, claimed to demonstrate from the 
Haggadah that Jesus was the Messiah — from the 
very part of rabbinical literature which they most 
derided and abused! This new method of war- 
fare was inaugurated in Spain by 
Petrus Al- Petrus Alphonsi (whose name before 
phonsi and baptism was Moses Sephardi) in his 
Jacob ben series of dialogues against the Jews, 
Reuben, the disputants being himself before 

and himself after conversion (Cologne, 
1536; later in "BibliothecaPatrum,"ed. Migne,clvii. 
535). To arm themselves against these attacks 
learned Spanish Jews began to compose manuals 
of polemics. About a quarter of a century after the 
composition of Judah ha-Levi\s famous apologetical 
work, the "Cuzari," in which Judaism was defended 
against the attacks of Christians, Karaites, and 
philosophers, Jacob ben Reuben wrote the "Sefer 
Milhamot Adonai." This is divided into twelve 


chapters, and contains, besides refutations of the 
Christian arguments drawn from the Old Testa- 
ment, a thorough criticism of the Gospels and the 
Acts of the Apostles, in which he points out many 

About the same time Joseph Kimhi, also a native 
of Spain, wrote the "Sefer ha-Berit," a dialogue be- 
tween a believer and an apostate. The believer 
maintains that the truth of the religion of the Jew T s 
is attested by the morality of its adherents. The 
Ten Commandments, at least, are observed with 
the utmost conscientiousness. The Jews concede 
no divine honors to any besides God ; they do not 
perjure themselves, nor commit murder, nor rob. 
Jewish girls remain modestly at home, while Chris- 
tian girls are careless of their self-respect. Even their 
Christian antagonists admit that the Jew practises 
hospitality toward his brother Jew\ ransoms the 
prisoner, clothes the naked, and feeds the hungry. 
The accusation that the Jews exact exorbitant inter- 
est from Christians is balanced by Kimhi's state- 
ment that Christians also take usurious interest, 
even from their fellow Christians, while wealthy 
Jews lend money to their coreligionists without 
charging any interest whatever. 

Great activity in the field of polemics was dis- 
played by both Jews and Christians in Spain in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Among the 
Christian works of the thirteenth century the most 
noteworthy are the "Capistrum Juda3orum" and 
the "Pugio Fidei" (Paris, 1651; Leipsic, 1667). In 
the latter w r ork, Raymund Martin endeavored to 
demonstrate from the Talmud, Midrash, and other 
sources that Jesus is announced in rabbinical litera- 
ture as the Messiah and the son of God ; that the 
Jewish laws, although revealed by God, were abro- 

gated by the advent of the Messiah; that the Tul- 
mudists corrupted the text of the Bible, ns is indi- 
cated in the "Tikkun Soferim." Some 
Raymund of Martin's arguments were used by 
Martin and Pablo Christian]" inhisdisputation with 
Nah- NnhmanidcR, who victoriously com- 
manides. bated them before King James and 

many ecclesiastical dignitaries. Hoth 
theargumentsand their refutation were reproduced in 
a special work entitled " Wikkunli," written by Kah- 
manides himself. The subjects discussed were; (1) 
Has the Messiah appeared? (2) Should the Messiah 
announced by the Prophets be considered as a god, 
or as a man born of human parents? (3) Are the 
Jews or the Christians the possessors of the true 
faith? A direct refutation of Raymund Martin's 
"Pugio Fidei" was written by Solomon Adret, who, 
in view of the misuse of the Naggadah by converts 
to Christianity, wrote also a commentary on that 
part of the Jewish literature. 

The production of Jewish polemical works in 
Spain increased with the frequency of the attacks 
upon Judaism, in the fourteenth and fifteenth cen- 
turies, by baptized Jews. Of the latter the most 
renowned were: Alfonso of Valladolid (Abner of 
Burgos), author of the anti- Jewish works " Moreh Ze- 
dek" (Spanish version, "El Mustador") and "Teshu- 
bot 'al Milhamot Adonai " (Spanish, "Los Batallos 
de Dios"); Astruc Raimuch (Christian name, Dios 
Carne), who was the author of a letter, in Hebrew, 
in which he endeavored to verify, from the Old 
Testament, the doctrines of the Trinity, original 
sin, redemption, and transubstantiation; Pablo de 
Santa Maria (Solomon Levi of Burgos), author of a 
satire on the festival of Purim, addressed to MeYr 
ben Solomon Alguades; Geronimo de Santa Fe 
(Joshua ben Joseph al-Lorqui), who wrote the anti- 
Jewish "Traetatus Contra Perfidiam Judieorum" 
and "De Judieis Erroribus ex Talmuth " (the latter 
was published, under the title " Hebneomastic," at 
Zurich, 1552; Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1G02; Ham- 
burg, n.d. ; and in Bibliotheca Magna Veterum Pa- 
trum, Lyons [vol. xxvi.], and Cologne, 1618). 

Against the writings of these converts, the two 
last-named of whom organized the disputation of 
Tortosa, held before Benedict XIII. (Pedro de Luna) 
in 1413, there appeared a series of works which are 
remarkable for the aggressiveness of their tone. 
The first of this series was the *"Ezer ha-Dat" of 
Ibn Pulgar. It is divided into eight chapters (" sbe- 
'arim "). the last of which is devoted wholly to the 
work of Alfonso of Valladolid. To the letter of 
Astruc Raimuch there appeared two answers, the 
more interesting of which is that of Solomon ben 
Reuben Bonfcd, in rimed prose. Apologizing for 
discussing the contents of a letter not addressed to 
him, Boufed minutely examines the Christian dog- 
mas and proceeds to show how irrational and unten- 
able they are. - You twist and distort 

Pablo de the Biblical text to establish the doc- 
Santa Maria trine of the Trinity. Had you a quri- 
and Joseph ternity to prove, you would demon- 
ibn Vives. strate'it quite as strikingly and con- 
vincingly from the Old Testament. " 
An answer to Pablo's satire was written by Joseph 
ibn Vives al-Lorqui. The writer expresses his aston- 

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ishment that Pablo should have changed his faith. 
Satirically he canvasses the various motives which 
might have led him to take such a step — desire for 
wealth and power, the gratification of sensual long- 
ings — and naively concludes that probably Pablo 
had carefully studied Christianity and had come to 
the conclusion that its dogmas were well founded. 
He (Joseph), therefore, begged Pablo to enlighten 
him on eight specific points which seemed to war- 
rant doubts as to the truth of Christianity: (1) The 
mission of the Messiah announced by the Prophets 
was to deliver Israel. Was this accomplished by 
Jesus? (2) It is expressly stated by the Prophets 
that the Messiah would assemble the Jews, the de- 
scendants of Abraham, and lead them out from 
exile. How, then, can this be applied to Jesus, who 
came when the Jews still possessed their land? (3) 
It is predicted that after the arrival of the Messiah, 
Palestine, peopled by the descendants of Jacob, who 
would have at their head David for king, would en- 
joy unbroken prosperity. But is there any country 
more desolate than that land is now? (4) After the 
arrival of the Messiah, God, the Prophets foretold, 
would be recognized by the whole universe. Has 
this been fulfilled ? (5) Where is the universal peace 
predicted for the Messianic time by the Prophets? 

(6) Where is the Temple, with its divine service by 
the priests and Levites, that the Messiah was to re- 
store, according to the predictions of the Prophets? 

(7) Great miracles are foretold — the worship in Jeru- 
salem of God by all nations; the war between Gog 
and Magog ; etc. Did these take place at the time of 
Jesus? (8) Did any prophet predict that the Messiah 
would abrogate the Mosaic law? "These," says 
Joseph ibn Vives, "are only a few of the numerous 
doubts that have been suggested to me by the words 
of the Prophets. Much more difficult to allay are 
my doubts concerning the birth, death, and resur- 
rection of Jesus, his intercourse with his disciples 
and others, his miracles; but these I would discuss 
orally, and not in writing." 

A general work against Christianity was written 
in Spanish, under the title "Tratado" (" Bittul 'Ikkere 
ha-Nozerim " in the Hebrew translation of Joseph 
ibn Shem-Tob), by the philosopher Hasdai Crescas. 
In a dispassionate, dignified manner he refutes on 

philosophical grounds the doctrines of 

Hasdai original sin, redemption, the Trinity, 

Crescas. the incarnation, the Immaculate Con- 
ception, transubstantiation, baptism, 
and the Messianic mission of Jesus, and attacks 
the Gospels. Another general anti-Christian work, 
entitled "Eben Bohan," and modeled upon the 
"Milhamot Adonai " of Jacob ben Reuben, was 
written at the end of the fourteenth century by 
Shem-Tob ben Isaac ibn Shaprut, who, in 1376, de- 
bated in public at Pamplona with Cardinal Pedro 
de Luna, afterward Benedict XIII., on the dogmas 
of original sin and redemption. The book is di- 
vided into fifteen chapters, the last being devoted 
to the refutation of the work of Alfonso of Valladolid 
against the " Milhamot Adonai " of Jacob ben Reuben. 

Of the same character as the "Eben Bohan," and 
of about the same date, are the works written by 
Moses Cohen of Tordesillas and by Hayyim ibn 
Musa, entitled respectively " 'Ezer ha-Emunah" and 

"Magen wa-Romah." A masterpiece of satire upon 
Christian dogma is the " Iggeret al-Tchi ka-Aboteka," 
written at the beginning of the fifteenth century by 
Profiat Duran and addressed to the baptized Jew 
David lionet Bongoron. It was so skilfully com- 
posed that until the appearance of Joseph ibn Shem- 
Tob's commentary thereon Christian authors believed 
it to be favorable to Christianity, and frequently 
quoted it under the corrupted title " Alteca Boteca " ; 
but when they perceived the real character of the 
epistle they strove to destroy all the copies known. 
Associated with this letter is Duran's polemic " Iveli- 
mat ha-Goyim," a criticism of Christian dogma, 
written in 1397 at the request of Hasdai Crescas, 
to whom it is dedicated. It was much used by his 
kinsman Simon ben Zemah Duran in his attacks 
upon Christianity, especially in those which concern 
the abrogation of the Mosaic law and are made in his 
commentary on the sayings of the Fathers (" Magen 
Abot," published separately under the title " Keshet 
u-Magen," Leghorn, 1785; reedited by M. Stein- 
schneider, Berlin, 1881). 

The earliest anti-Jewish writings in France date 
from the first half of the ninth century. Between 
825 and 840 Agobard, Bishop of Lyons, wrote three 
anti-Jewish epistles, among which was one entitled 
"De Insolentia Juda?orum," and one "Concerning 

the Superstitions of the Jews" (" Ago- 
In bardi Opera," ed. Migne, civ.). The 

France. author endeavors, in the latter work, 

to show from various Biblical pas- 
sages that the society of Jews should be avoided 
even more than association with pagans, since Jews 
are the opponents of Christianity. He recounts the 
judgments passed by the Church Fathers upon the 
Jews, the restrictive measures taken against them 
by different councils, their superstitions, and their 
persistent refusal to believe in Jesus. Agobard's 
successor in the diocese of Lyons, Bishop Ainolo, 
also wrote against the Jews, denouncing their super- 
stitions, calling attention to the invidious expres- 
sions used by them to designate the Apostles and 
the Gospels, and exposing the fictitious character of 
their arguments in defense of their Messianic hopes 
("Contra Judfeos," ed. Migne, cxvi.). 

However, works like those of Agobard and Amolo 
were very rare in France in the tenth and eleventh 
centuries; they began to multiply only after the 
Crusades, when every priest considered himself 
charged with the duty of saving Jewish souls. The 
many anti-Jewish works of the twelfth and thir- 
teenth centuries include: "De Incamatione, Adver- 
sus Judoeos," by Guilbert; "Annulusseu Dialogus 
Christiani et Judiei de Fidei Sacramentis," by Ru- 
pert; "Tractatus Ad versus Jmheorum Inveteratam 
Duritiem," by Pierre le Venerable; "Contra Judre- 
orum" (anonymous) ; "Liber Contra Perfidiam Ju- 
dicorum," by Pierre of Blois: "Altercatio Juda?i 
de Fide Christiana," by Gilbert Crcpin ; " De Messia 
Ejusque Adventu Pneterito," by Nicolas de Lyra. 
From the thirteenth century polemical works in 
French began to appear, as, for instance, " De la 
Disputation de la Synagogue et dela Saintc Eglise" 
(Jubinal, "Mystches du XV Siecle," ii. 404-408); 
"La Disputation du Juyf et du Grestian" (" His- 
toire Litteraire de France," xxiii. 217). 

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On the part of the Jews there appeared in north- 
ern France a collection of replies made "to infidels 
and Christians " by several members of the Ollicial 
family, especially by Joseph the Zealot (who is 
credited with the redaction of the Hebrew version, 
entitled " Wikkuah," of the disputation of 1240 be- 
tween Nicholas Don in and four representatives of 
the Jews), Jehiel of Paris, Judah ben David of 
Melun, Samuel ben Solomon, and jtfoses do Coucy. 
The characteristic features of these controversies are 
the absence of fanaticism in the clerical disputants 
and the freedom of speech of the Jews, who do not 
content themselves with standing upon the defen- 
sive, but often attack their opponents, not with dia- 
lectics, but with clever repartee. The following 
may serve as an example: Nathan ben Meshullam 
was asked to give a reason for the duration of the 
present exile, while that of Babylon, which was in- 
flicted upon the Jews as a punishment for the worst 
of crimes, idolatry, lasted only seventy years. He 
answered: "Because in the time of the First Temple 
the Jews made stone images of Astarte and other 
statues which could not last for long; while in the 
time of the Second Temple they deified one of them- 
selves, Jesus, to whom they applied many prophecies, 
thus creating a durable idol which attracted many 
worshipers. The gravity of the fault, therefore, called 
for a corresponding severity in the punishment." 

Regular treatises in defense of Judaism against 
the attacks of Christianity began to appear in south- 
ern France. The most important of these were: the 
"Sefer ha-Berit" of Joseph Kimhi (see above); 

the "Mahazik ha-Emunah " of Mor- 

In deeai ben Josiphiah; the "Milhemet 

Provence. Mizwah " of Meir ben Simon of Nar- 

bonne; and three works by Isaac ben 
Nathan — a refutation of the arguments contained 
in the epistle of the fictitious Samuel of Morocco 
(who endeavored to demonstrate from the Bible the 
Messiahship of Jesus); "Tokahat Mat 'eh," against 
Geronimo de Santa Fe; and "Mibzar Yizhak," a 
general attack upon Christianity. An interesting 
polemical work was written in France at the end of 
the eighteenth century by Isaac Lopez, under the 
title "Kur Mazref ha-Emunot u-Mar'eh ha-Emet." 
It is divided into twelve chapters or "gates," and 
contains, besides a refutation of the Christian argu- 
ments drawn from the Old Testament, a thorough 
criticism of the Gospels and the Acts of the Apos- 
tles, in which the author points out many contra- 
dictions and false statements. He accuses Paul of 
hypocrisy for prohibiting in one country what he 
allowed in another. Thus, for instance, to the Chris- 
tians of Rome, who clung to the Mosaic law, he did 
not dare to recommend the abrogation of circumci- 
sion and other commandments: "For circumcision 
verily profiteth, if thou keep the law; but if thou 
be a breaker of the law, thy circumcision is made 
uneirenmeision." "Do we then make void the law 
through faith? God forbid: yea, we establish the 
law " (Rom. ii. 25, iii. 31). But to the Galatians he 
said: "Behold, I Paul say unto you, that if ye be 
circumcised, Christ shall profit you nothing. For 
I testify again to every man that is circumcised, he 
is a debtor to do the whole law " (Gal. v. 2, 3). "If 
this is the case," asks Lopez, "why did not Paul, 

who was circumcised, observe the Mosaic law? 
Then, again, why did he cause his disciple Timothy 
to be circumcised V" To the Hebrews Paul said, 
"He that despised Moses* law died without mercy 
under two or three witnesses" (ljeb. x. *JS) ; but to 
his disciple Titus he wrote, "But avoid foolish 
questions, and genealogies, and contention*, and stri 
vings about the law; for they lire unprofitable and 
vain" (Titus iii. U). 

Although the " Dispntatio Christianornm et Jud.T- 
orum Olim Koum* Ilabita Coram Imperative Con- 
stantino" (Mayence, 1514) is founded on a fiction, 
there is no doubt that religious controversies be- 
tween Christians and Jews in Italy were held as 
early as the pontificate of Boniface IV. (00K-0IB). 

Alenin (735-804) relates that while he 
In Italy, was in Pavia a disputation took place 

between a Jew named .Julius and 
Peter of Pisa. Yet in spite of the frequency of re- 
ligious controversies anti-Jewish writings were very 
rare in Italy before the Crusades; the only work of 
the kind known to belong to the eleventh century 
was that of Damiani, entitled "Antilogus Contra 
Jnd&os," in which he sought, by means of numer- 
ous passages from the Old Testament, such as those 
relating to the Creation, the building of the tower 
of Babel, the triple priestly benediction, the thrice- 
repeated "Holy," and the Messianic passages, to es- 
tablish the Christian doctrines of the Trinity and 
the divinity of Jesus (Migne, " Patrologia," 2d series, 
1853; comp. Vogelstein and Ricger, "Gesch. der 
Juden in Rom," i. 26 et $eg.). 

But from the time of the pontificate of Innocent 
III. anti-Jewish writings in Italy, as elsewhere, be- 
gan to multiply. To the earlier calumny that the 
Talmud contained blasphemies against Christianity, 
there was added, after the twelfth century, the accu- 
sation that the Jews used Christian blood for ritual 
purposes. About the same time also there appeared 
the charge that the Jews pierce the consecrated host 
until blood flows. The first Jewish polemical wri- 
ter in Italy seems to have been Moses of Salerno, 
who, between 1225 and 1240, composed "Ma'amnr 
ha-Emnnah" and "Ta'anot,"iu both of which he 
attacked the fundamental dogmas of Christianity. 
They were followed by other polemics, the most 
important of which are the " Milhamot Adonai " (or 
"She'elot u-Teshubot." or " 'Edut Adonai Ne'cma- 
nah "), by Solomon ben Jekuthiel ; the M Magen Abra- 
ham" (or "Wikkuah"), by Abraham Fari&eol: aud 
the "Hassagot *al Sifre lia-Sliilliiliiiii/ 9 hy Brieli 

The shamefully oppressive economic and polit- 
ical conditions under which the Jews labored in 
Germany and in Austria during the Middle Aires 
rendered them regardless of the flood of anti-Jewi<h 
writings with which those countries became inun- 
dated. It was^iot until the fifteenth century that a 
polemical work against Christianity appeared in 

Austria. This was written by Lip- 
In mann Mttlhausen. under the title ">» 
Germany fer ha-Xizzahon." and it consisted of 
and 354 paragraphs, the last ritrht of whi< h 
Austria- contained a dispute which took place 

between the author and a convert 
named Peter. Lipmann quotes in his work 346 
passages from the Old Testament, upon which his 

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argument against Christianity is based. Very char- 
acteristic is his objection to the divinity of Jesus. 
"If really God had willed to descend upon the earth 
in the form of a man, He, in His omnipotence, would 
have found means to do so without degrading Him- 
self to be born of a woman." The Gospel itself, ac- 
cording to Lipmann, speaks against the assumption 
that Jesus was born of a virgin, since, with the pur- 
pose of showing that he was a descendant of David, 
it gives the genealogy of Joseph, the husband of 


Among the numerous objections raised by Lip- 
mann to the doctrine of redemption, mention maybe 
made of the following: "Why," asks he, "did God 
cause Jesus to be born after thousands of generations 
had lived and died, and thus allow pious men to 
suffer damnation for a fault which they had not 
committed? Was it necessary that Christ should 
be born of Mary only, and were not Sarah, Miriam, 
Abigail, Hulda, and others equally worthy of this fa- 
vor? Then, again, if mankind be redeemed through 
Christ, and the original sin be forgiven through his 
crucifixion, why is the earth still laboring under the 
Lord's curse: * In sorrow thou shalt bring forth chil- 
dren.' 4 Thorns also and thistles shall it bring forth 
to thee' [Gen. iii. 16, 18]? Were there invisible 
curses which have been removed, while the visible 
were allowed to remain? " As may be readily sur- 
mised, the "Seferha-Xizzahon " called forth a num- 
ber of replies from Christians. Of these there were 
published Wilhelm Schickard's "Triumphator Vap- 
ulans, sive Refutatio Blasphemi Libri Ilebraici " (Tu- 
bingen, 1629), Stephen Gerlow's "Disputatio Con- 
tra Lipmanni Nizzachon " (Konigsberg, 1647), and 
Christian Schotan f s " Anti-Lipmanniana" (Franeker, 
1659). In 1615 there appeared also in German}' a 
polemical work in Judaeo-German entitled "Der 
Jlidische Theriak" ; it was composed by Solomon 
Offenhausen, and was directed against the anti-Jew- 
ish "Schlangeubalg" of the convert Samuel Brenz. 
The Jewish work which more than any other 
aroused the antagonism of Christian writers was the 

"Hizzuk Emunah" of the Karaite 

Isaac Isaac Troki, which was written in Po- 

Troki's land and translated into Latin, Ger- 

" Hizzuk man, Spanish, and English. It occu- 

Emunah." pies two volumes and is subdivided 

into ninety-nine chapters. The book 
begins by demonstrating that Jesus was not the 
Messiah predicted by the Prophets. "This," says 
the author,, "is evident (1) from his pedigree, (2) 
from his acts, (3) from the period in which he lived, 
and (4) from the fact that during his existence the 
promises that related to the advent of the expected 
Messiah were not fulfilled." His argument on 
these points is as follows: (1) Jesus' pedigree: With- 
out discussing the question of the relationship of 
Joseph to David, which is very doubtful, one may ask 
what has Jesus to do with Joseph, who was not ins 
father? (2) Hisacts: According to Matt. x. 34, Jesus 
said, " Think not that I come to make peace on earth ; 
I come not to send peace but the sword, and to set a 
man at variance against his father, and the daughter 
against her mother, and the daughter-in-law against 
her mother-in-law." On the other hand, Holy 
Writ attributes to the true and expected Mes- 

siah actions contrary to those of Jesus. (3) The 
period of his existence: It is evident that Jesus did 
not come at the time foretold by the Prophets, for 
they predicted the advent of Messiah at the latter 
days (Isa. ii. 2). (4) The fulfilment of the Messianic 
promises: All the Prophets predicted that at the ad- 
vent of the Messiah peace and justice would reign in 
the world, not only among men but even among the 
animals; yet there is not one sincere Christian who 
would claim that this has been fulfilled. 

Among Isaac Troki's objections to the divinity of 
Jesus the following may be mentioned: The Chris- 
tian who opposes Judaism must believe that the Jews 
tormented and crucified Jesus either with his will or 
against his will. If with his will, then the Jews 
had ample sanction for what they did. Besides, if 
Jesus was really willing to meet such a fate, what 
cause was there for complaint and atlliction? And 
why did he pray in the manner related in Matt. 
xxvi. 39? On the other hand, if it be assumed that 
the crucifixion was against his will, how then can 
he be regarded as God — he, who was unable to re- 
sist the power of those who brought him to the 
cross? How could one who had not the power to 
save his own life be held as the Savior of all man- 
kind? (ch. xlvii.). 

In the last chapter Isaac quotes Rev. xxii. 18, and 
asks how Christians could consistently make changes 
of such a glaring nature; for the change of the Sab- 
bath from the seventh to the first day of the week 
was not authorized by Jesus or any of his disciples; 
and the partaking of the blood and flesh of a stran- 
gled beast is a palpable infringement of the dictates 
of the Apostles. 

A series of apologetic and polemical works, writ- 
ten in Spanish and Portuguese by scholarly refugees 
from Spain and Portugal, appeared in the sixteenth 
and seventeenth centuries, in Holland and in some 
places in Italy. Of these the most important are: 

" Sobre el Capitulo 53 de Ezaya e au- 

By tros Textos de Sagrada Escritura," by 

Maranos. Montalto; "Livro Fayto . . . em Que 

Mostraa Verdad de Diversos Textos e 
Cazas, Que Aleg5o as Gentilidades para Confirmar 
Suas Seictas," by the same author; "Tractadode la 
Verdad de la Ley" (Hebrew trans!, by Isaac Gomez 
de Gora, under the title "Torat Mosheh "), by Saul 
Levi Morteira; "Tratado da Calumnia," by Nah- 
mios de Castro; "Fuenta Clara, las E.xcellencias y 
Calumnias de los Hebreos," by Isaac Cardoso; 
" Prevenciones Divinas Contra la Vance Idolatria de 
las Gentes" and u Expliea<;ao Paraphrastica Sobre o 
Capitulo 53 de Propheta Isahias," by Balthazar 
Orobio de Castro; "Fortalazzo" (Hebrew transl. by 
Marco Luzzatto), by Abraham Peregrino. 

Though much less violent than the Christian anti- 
Jewish writings, an extensive anti-Jewish polemical 
literature has been produced by Mohammedan schol- 
ars. The subject-matter of this literature is closely 
connected with the earlier attacks upon Judaism 
found in the Koran and the tradition ("hadith "), 
the most debated charge being that of having falsi- 
fied certain portions of the Holy Scriptures and 
omitted others. Among the examples of falsifica- 
tion is the Biblical account of the sacrifice of Abra- 
ham, in which, according to the Mohammedans, the 

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Police Law 

name of Isaac was substituted for that of Ishmael. 
The passages omitted contained the predictions re- 
garding the advent of Mohammed and his mission 
to all mankind. A common point for controversy 
also was the question of the abrogation of the divine 
laws— the Sabbath law, the dietary laws, and other 
Biblical commandments. 

On the Jewish part very little was written against 
Islam, and besides occasional attacks scattered 
through the Biblical commentaries of the Kabbin- 
ites and Karaites, and the philosophical works of 

Saadia, Abraham ibn Daud, Judah ha- 
In Islam, Levi, Moses ben Maimon, and others, 

Jewish literature contains but two 
productions of any extent that are devoted to an 
attack upon Islam: the "Ma'amar *al Yishmael" of 
Solomon ben Adret, refuting the attacks upon the 
Bible by Abu Mohammed ibn Hazm, and the 
"Keshet u-Magen " of Simon Duran. 

The following is an alphabetical list of printed 
polemical works in Hebrew and Judceo-German: 

THUfcO ^n *?N mJN, Proflat T)nran. Published with the anti- 
Christian satire of Solomon Bonfed 
and the disputation of Shein-Tob ben 
Joseph Falaquera. Constantinople, 
1570-75; Breslau, 1844, in the col- 
lection dthdm ymp. with a German 
translation by Geiger. 

Vvtai jnpvp m *\ n"UN, Joseph ibn Vives 1 answer to Pablo Chris- 
tian!. Published in u Bibre Haka- 
mim," Metz, 1849. 
>jV?trn n>ntf (Disputatio Leoni Josephl Alfonsi cum 

Rabbi no Judah Mizrahi), Isaac Baer 
Levinsohn. Leipsic, 1864. 

I D^D^n hjidn, Hayyim Viterbo. Printed in M Ta'an Ze- 

kenim," Frankfort-on-tbe-Main, 1855. 

njDN 'D, disputations collected from the Talmud 

and Midrashim. Isny, 1542. 
O^on ddn, Levinsohn. Against tbe accusation of 

ritual murder. Odessa, 1864 ; Warsaw, 

JUU3"*"y?D "^n "p3, Isaac Jacob ben Saul Ashkenazi. Am- 
sterdam, 1696. 
onsun «npy SitOD, Hasdai Crescas. Published by Ephraim 

Delnard, Kearny, N. J., 1894. 
r\DV mis pi Isaac Onkeneira. Constantinople, 1577. 
n^Dn '0, Joseph Kimhi. Partly published with 

the " Milheraet Hobah," Constantino- 
ple, 1710.' 
Ointojiv Dso, M. Rosenschein. London. 
nnn nan, Isaac ba-Levi Satanow. Berlin, 1800? 

JH Spa ntHVi, Don David Nasi. Frankfort-on-the-Main, 

1866, and by Ephraim Deinard, Kearny, 
N. J., 1894. 
Sntp 'n nu>). In WagenseiPs "Tela Ignea Satanse, 

Freiburg, 1681. 
jaD"Vi rna^i. In WagenseiPs "Tela Ignea Satanne, 

Freiburg, 1681, and by Stclnsebneider, 
Stettin, 1860. 
»nnp maM, Solomon ben Jekuthiel (see Jellinek, 

Cn nicnSc) "B. h." II. 43). 

Vaan?, Levinsohn. Odessa, 1864; Warsaw, 1878. 
njiDN pim, Isaac Trokl. Published by Wagenseil, 

and later in Amsterdam, 1705 ; Jerusa- 
lem, 1845; Leipsic, 1857. In Judaeo- 
German, Amsterdam, 1717 ; in English, 
by Mocatta, London, 1856. 
pN""K3 Vtt'nv, Solomon Zalman Offenhausen. Amster- 
dam, 1737; under the title "Sefer ha- 
Nizzahon," ilanau, 1615 ; with a Latin 
translation, Altdorf, 1680. 
nu>D«n rpXD "na, Isaac Lopez. Metz, 1847. 
oncN W*S Kozin. Smyrna, 1855. 
rnxo ncnSc, Solomon ben Simon Duran. Published 

with the " Keshet u-Magen," Leipsic, 




O^tt'3 ncnSc, Rosenberg. Wilna, 1871. 
nhvi ncnSc, Benjamiusohn. New York, 1S98. 

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ncian -nroj. Publihlieil byAbrahum B«*rl)ner, Altona, 


•»mr* nxj, W. Kliur. Chicago, 1KC. 
pnsjn 'a, Llpmunn I'uhlihh**d by Wa- 

geusell, unci at AtiiHN-nlum, I7l«, 1711, 
mid KftiilgMbcfY, IM7. 
D^nWM l*3ip, vurious nllglous UlapuUilloi*. Pub- 

lUln-d by Abraham (jelg*«r, Hn-afau, 
JWiom'J J?tj?u>V;"\ (fUbrh'I lniuie l*r<*»bnrK<*r. Prague. 1K&. 

For later polemics see Anti-Skmitihm ; CoNvrii- 
sion; Disputations. 

Biiilioqraphv: Ileutheu Polemics: Frankel, in Mortals- 
xehrift, lHTifl, ;p. Ml \t\ ; <,riitz, \h. ih?-\ pp. \[m%*\\ ciiwi. 
Heathen Itecordx to theJeirixh Scripture IIMory. Ixnrion, 
1850; idem. Notice of the Jews ami Thtir Count r)l l*U the 
Classic Writer* of A nliquity, Umihnu 1*71' ; L.iMttrr. Qui* I 
de Judttorum Morihun Atone Instituti* Script or tim* Ho- 
mania Persuasum f\ierit, Berlin, 1*72; Thianmnrt, f> Qui 
Tacit e Dit desJuifs au Commencement ilu Lure V. «/** 
II Moires, in R. K. J. xix, 18U: Th»'iMlon- RHnarh, Tirt* 
(VAutcurs Grees el Itomains Ueliitif* nu Jmla\*m, Part-, 
1895; SchQrer, Gcsch. 111. Htl et aeq.\ Frl«*d lander, iit*ch. der 
Jildischen Apoloyctik* VM\. 

Christian Polemics: Wolf, liihl. Ilehr. II. 1^*3 ft neq.x IK3 
Rossi, Hibliotheca A ntlclirirtiana, Parma, IHJi); KaymTllns?, 
Bihl. Enp.-Port.-Jud. pp. 114 etaeo.; Sn*lns«-hnHd»r, JruHih 
Literature, p. 314; Winter and WQnsche, JUdixclir I At era- 
tw\ Hi. (555-670; Hamburger, H. li. T. Supplement, I'««i, ji.v. 
Disputation; Ziegier, fteligifae DuanttatUtnen im Miltfl- 
alter, Frankfort-on-the-Main, lsW; Isidore I/>eh, La t'ontrt* 
ve rue Hcligieuse Entrc le* Ch r Hie met h* Juifx du M* iye n 
Age, Paris, 1&S8; Israel Levi, in li. E.J. v.SAl'cf «rr/.; (.H- 
ger, Prolten JUdischer VertheUligunu Gegcn Chrixtenthum, 
in Breslauer's Jahrhiteiu I., ii. (1S50-61). 

Mohammedan Polemics: Steinschneider, PolrmUehc und 
Apoiogetische Literatur in Arabixcher Sprache Zu*i*chen 
Muslimen, Christen, und Juden, In Almandlungeji filr d\e 
Kunde dex Morgenlandex.vL, No. 3; GoIdzlh»*r, Uthtr Mu- 
hammedanische Polemik Gegen Ahl ai-Kital). in Z. Ih 
3f. Q. xxxii. 341-387; Schrelner, Zur Gcseh. der PoUmik 
Zwischen Juden und Muhammedanern,\b, xlii. 5U1 <J75. 

J. I. Bu. 

POLEMON II.: King, first of the Pontus and 
tbe Bosporus, then of the Pontus and Cilicia, and 
lastly of Cilicia alone; died in 74 c.e. Together 
with other neighboring kings and princes, Polemon 
once visited King Agrippa I. in Tiberias (Josephus, 
"Ant." xix. 8, § 1). The Herodian princess Bere- 
nice, of whom it was reported that she held forbid- 
den relations with her brother, chose Polemon for a 
husband, in order to mend her reputation, she being 
at the time the widow of Herod of Chalcis. Pole- 
mon married her not so much for her beauty as for 
her riches; and he adopted Judaism, undergoing the 
rite of circumcision. His wife soon left him, how- 
ever, and Polemon abandoned his Judaism {ib. x.\. 
7, § 3). According to the Christian Bartholoineus 
legend, he accepted Christianity, but only to be- 
come a pagan again. If there is any trutti in the 
story, the numerous Jews living in the Bosporus 
kingdom must have taken an interest in his eon- 
version to Christianity and also in its bring made 
known in the mother country. 

BiBLiOGRAPnv: Gr&tz.tfw/i.4th ed.. III. m 42*: (lUl^hmld, 
Kleine Sf/irf/f*i!.lt.35I,3T>3; Prutopographia /mjxru H-> 

main". Hi. 59, No. 406. „ _ 

O. SL IvR. 

POLICE LAWS: Laws regulating intercourse 
among citizens, and embracing the care and pres- 
ervation of the public peace, health, safely, moral- 
ity, and welfare. The prevention of crime is the 
main object of the police law*, although there arc 
many other points not strictly involved in the pop- 
ular definition of crime, but materially afFertinir the 
security and convenience of the public, which are 
recognized as lying within their province. 

It is a moot question whether the cities of Judea 

Police Laws 



had a regulated police force during Biblical limes. 
There are manv terms in the Bible which have been 
translated to denote magistrates or police officers; 
but the correctness of the translation is questioned 
in almost every instance by modern scholars (see 

Government). The Deuteronomic 
In Biblical code (Pent. xvi. 18) enjoins the ap- 

Times. pointment of "shoterim" (A. V. "offi- 
cers"; LXX. ypafi[iaroeica}L))ei£\ Tar- 
gum. rjjjna : and almost all Jewish commentators, 
"police officers" whose duty it was to execute the 
decisions of the court; comp. Rasbi and Ibn Ezra, 
Midr. Tan. and Midr. Lekah Job ad he. ; Pesik. R, 
ed. Friedmann, p. 149b; ^laimonides, " Yad," Sanhe- 
drin, i. 1, and " Lehem Mishneh " ad loc. ; comp, Prov. 
vi. 7) alongside the *\shofetim" (judges) in every 
town (comp. Ezra vii. 25, A. V. ; LXX. ypafifiaretc). 
As far as can be gleaned from the Biblical records, the 
duties of the " shoterim " were to make proclamations 
to the people, especially in time of war(Deut. xx. 
o, 8, 9; Josh. i. 10, iii. 2), to guard the king's person 
(I Cliron. xxvii. 1), to superintend public works (II 
Chron. xxxiv. 13; comp. Ex. v. 6, 10, 14, 19, where 
the same term is applied to Pharaoh's taskmasters), 
and other similar services. The frequent mention 
of the shoterim together with the judges (Dent, 
xvi. 18; Josh. viii. 33, xxiii. 2, xxiv. 1; I Chron. 
xxiii. 4, xxvi. 29), or with the ciders of the commu- 
nity (Num. xi. 16; Deut. xxix. 9, xxxi. 28) who 
acted as judges in earlier times (see Eldek; Judge), 
would seem to indicate that these officials were at- 
tached to the courts of justice, and held themselves 
in readiness to execute the orders of the officiating 
judge. Josephus relates ("Ant." iv. 8, § 14) that 
every judge had at his command two such officers, 
from the tribe of Levi. That Levites were later 
preferred for this office is evident also from various 
passages in Chronicles (I Chron. xxiii. 4, xxvi. 29; 
II Chron. xxxiv. 13). Besides officers of the town 
there were also officers for every tribe, similar, prob- 
ably, to the modern district police (Deut. i. 15 ; Sifre, 
Deut. 144; Sanh. 16b). The chief of the judicial de- 
partment established by Jehoshaphat seems to have 
had also chief jurisdiction over the police (11 Chron. 
xix. 11; comp. ib. xxvi. 11). Mention is also made 
of watchmen who patrolled the city at night and 
attacked all suspicious persons (Cant. iii. 3, v. 7). 

The Temple had a police force of its own, most of 
its officers being Levites. These were the gatekeep- 
ers ("sho'arim "; I Chron. ix. 17, 24- 

Temple 27; xxvi. 12-18), the watchmen that 

Police. guarded the entrance to the Temple 

mount, and those that had charge of 
the cleaning of its precincts (Philo, cd. Cohn, iii. 
210). Levites were stationed at twenty- one points 
in the Temple court; at three of them priests kept 
watch during the night. A captain patrolled with 
a lantern, to see that the watchmen were at their 
posts; and if one was found sleeping, the captain 
had the right to beat him and to set tire to his gar- 
ments (Mid. i. 1, 2). The opening and the closing 
of the gates, considered to be a very difficult task, 
and requiring, according to Josephus ("B. J." vi. 5, 
§ 3; "Contra A p." ii. 10), the services of at least 
twenty men, was also one of the watchmen's duties; 
and a special officer was appointed to superintend 

that work (Shek. v. 1; comp. Sehurer, "Gesch." 
Eng. ed., division ii., i. 264-268; see Temple). 

The Mishnah (Ket, xiii. 1) mentions two judges 
of "gezerot" (lit. "prohibitions," "decrees"; see 
Gezekaii), Admon ben Gaddai and Ilanan ben 
Abishalom (Hanax the Egyptian), who were in 
Jerusalem during the latter part of the second com- 
monwealth, and the baraita quoted in the Gemara 
(Ket. 105a) adds one more, named Nahum the Mede. 
The meaning of- the term "gezerot" in this con- 
nection, and the significance and functions of these 
judges, have been variously explained by modern 
scholars (see Frankel, "Darke ha-Mishnah," p. 61; 
idem, in "Monatssehrift," 1852, p. 247, note 5; 
Weiss, "Dor," i. 103; Sidon, "Eine Magistratur iu 
Jerusalem," in Berliner's "Magazin," 1890, pp. 198 
et seq. ; Grunwald, ib. 1891, p. CO); but it is safe to 
assume that the functions of these judges were simi- 
lar to those of modern police magistrates (comp. 
Yer. Ket. xiii. 1), although they may have had also 
some judicial authority in petty cases. These, un- 
like the judges of courts of justice, received a stipu- 
lated salary from the Temple treasury ("Terumat 
ha-Lishkah," Shek. iv. 2). Each of them was al- 
lowed ninety-nine manahs per annum, which sum, 
if not sufficient for his support, might be increased 
(Ket. 105a; comp. "Yad," Shekalim, iv, 7, where 
the annual salary is given as ninety manahs). 

Mention is made in the Talmud of various police 
officials that held office in the Jewish communities 
of Palestine and Babylon. The Greek names by 
which most of them were known indicate that they 
were introduced during a later period, after Hellenic 
influence had become strong among the Jews. Most 
of these officials received their authority from the 

local courts, and were appointed by 
them as adjuncts to the communal 
organization. Officers were appointed 
for the following duties: to supervise 
the correctness of weights and meas- 
ures (D'WOX* a corruption of D^OI^n J S=«yopavo/iof; 
Sifra, Kedoshim, viii. 8; 13. B. 89a); to regulate the 
market price of articles (B. B. 89a; according to an- 
other opinion, it was unnecessary to appoint offi- 
cials for this purpose, since competition would reg- 
ulate the price; in Yer. B. B. v. 11, Bab is mentioned 
as having been appointed to this office by the exil- 
arch); to allot land by measurement, and to see 
that no one overstepped the limits of his field (B. B. 
68a and KaSIIBaM ad loc. ; in B. M. 107b, Adda, the 
surveyor [n^nV^Dl, is mentioned as holding the 
office; comp. *Er. 56a). Besides these, mention is 
made of watchmen who guarded the city (B. B. 68a, 
according to the interpretation of Maimonides in his 
Commentary of the Mishnah, and of R. Hananeel. 
quoted in RaSIIBaM ad loc. ; comp. Git. 80b; Sanh. 
98b; Yer. Hag. i. 7; Sheb. iv. 2, end) and of mounted 
and armed watchmen who maintained order in the 
suburbs (B. B. 8a; comp. Yeb. 121b). There were 
also officers in charge of the dispensation of charity 
(B. B. 8b). Permission was given to the authorities 
of every town to supervise the correctness of weights 
and measures, to regulate the market price of 
articles and of labor, and to punish those who did 
not abide by the regulations (ib.). The salaries of 
all these officers were drawn from the town treas- 




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Police Laws 

ury, to which all the inhabitants had to contribute 
(see Domicil). 

The police laws of the Bible and of the Talmud 
are very numerous. The Biblical commandment to 
build a battlement around the roof of a house, " that 
thou bring not blood upon thine house, if any man 
fall from thence" (Deut. xxii. 8), was regarded by 
the Rabbis as a general principle, from which were 

derived many regulations the object 
Special of which was to insure public safety. 
Police Thus, it was forbidden to harbor a 
Laws. vicious dog or to keep a broken lad- 
der on one's premises (IS. K. 15b), or 
10 keep a pit or a well uncovered or unfenced 
(Sifre, Dent. 229; "Yad," Rozeah, xi. 4). Dogs 
had to be kept chained ; they might be let loose 
during the night only in places where a sudden at- 
tack of an enemy was feared (B. K. 83a). Untamed 
animals, especially cats that might injure children, 
might not be kept; and any one was permitted to 
kill such an animal found on the premises of a Jew 
(ib. 80b; com p. Hul. 7b). A ruined wall or a de- 
cayed tree was not allowed to remain in a public 
place. The owner was given thirty days 1 notice to 
remove it; but if the danger was imminent he was 
compelled to remove it forthwith (B. M. 117b; 
"Yad," Nizke Mamon, xiii. 19; Shulhan 'Aruk, 
Hoshen Mishpat, 416, 1, and Isserles' gloss). No 
one was permitted to throw stones into the street 
(B. K. 50b) or to build a tunnel under the public 
thoroughfare (IS. B. 60a), except by special permis- 
sion of the city authorities and under their super- 
vision (Hoshen Mishpat, 417, 1, Isserles' gloss, and 
" Pithe Teshubah " ad loc). Weapons might not be 
sold to suspicious persons ('Ab. Zarah 15b; "Yad," 
Rozeah, xii. 12, 14; Shulhan 'Aruk, Yoreh Dc'ah, 
151*, 5)'. 

Another set of police regulations was based on 
the Biblical expression "Neither shalt thou stand 
against the blood of thy neighbor" (Lev. xix. 16). 
The Rabbis made it obligatory upon any man who 
saw one drowning, or in danger of an attack by 
robbers or by a wild beast, to endeavor to save him 
(Sifra ad loc ; Sanh. 73a). The court was obliged 
to furnish safe passage to travelers in dangerous 
places; so that, wh,en a murdered man was found, 
the elders of the nearest town could conscientiously 
sav, "Our hands have not shed this blood" (Deut. 
xxi. 7;-Sifre ad loc; Sotah 45b, 46a; "Yad," I.e. 
ix. 3; ib. Ebel, xiv. 3). The court was obliged also 
to provide wide avenues, furnished with posts and 
directions, leading to the cities of refuge, so that one 
who had committed murder unwittingly might have 
easy access to them in his escape from the hands of 
the go 'el (B. IS. 90a; Mak. 10a; see Asylum ; Aven- 
ger of Blood). 

Numerous laws were instituted by the Rabbis 
with the view of preserving the health of the com- 
munity (see Health Laws). The laws tending to 

the preservation of the life of dumb 

Sanitary creatures, and to the considerate care 

Laws. of them, also formed a large portion 

of rabbinic legislation (see Cruelty 
to Animals). The care of the poor and the proper 
distribution of charity were also regulated by law 
(see Charity). Many provisions are found in the 

Talmud the purpose of which was to guard frw 
commercial intercourse. Koads leading from one 
town to another had to be at least idght cubits 
wide; so that two wagons, going in opposite dim 
tions, might pass without difficulty. Koads leading 
to commercial centers were to be at least fiixt<<n 
cubits wide (B. 15. 100a, b; KuSIIHaM ad /«*■). 
Balconies or other extensions of houses projecting 
to the public thoroughfare and trees in the publie 
streets whose branches might obstruct the pn* i/c 
of a rider mounted on his camel were also prohibited 
(IS. IS. 2?b, (50a). Trees growing near ihe brink of 
a river, if they impeded freight-laborers in tlu-ii 
work, might be cut down with impunity (15. M 
107b). Building-materials might not be prepared in 
the public street. Stones and bricks brought for 
immediate use in a building might be deposited in 
the street; but the owner was held responsible for 
any injury caused thereby (ib. HHb). One who 
broke a vessel left in the public street was not re- 
quired to pay any damages; but the owner of the 
vessel was held responsible for any injury caused 
by it, or even by its sherds, if he intended to make 
use of them (B. K. 28a; see II aha Kamma). Dur- 
ing the summer months no water might be poured 
into the street; and even in the rainy season, when 
this was permitted, the one who poured the water 
was held responsible for any injury resulting from 
it (B. K. 6a, 30a). The pious used to bury their 
potsherds and broken glass three "tefahim " (fists) 
deep in the tield in order that they might cause no 
injury to any one nor impede the plowshare in its 
course; others burned them; and others, again, 
threw them into the river (ib. 30a). Among the ten 
ordinances that applied especially to Jerusalem were 
the prohibitions against any projections from pri- 
vate houses to the street, against the establishment 
of potteries, against the planting of gardens (cxeept 
rose-gardens that were supposed to have existed 
since the times of the early prophets), against keep- 
ing chickens, and against dunghills within the city 
limits (B. K. 82b). 

Provisions were also made by the Rabbis with 
the view of guarding the personal liberty and honor 
of the members of the community. Stealing a per- 
son and selling him into slavery was 
Laws Re- punishable by death, according to the 
lating to Mosaic law (Ex. xxi. 16). "They are 
Liberty. My [God's] servants, but not servants 

to servants," was a principle often 
enunciated by the Rabbis (IS. M. 10a: Kid. 021). 
based on Lev. xxv. 42). Imprisonment as a punish- 
ment is not mentioned in the Bible, although later 
it was employed in the case of certain transgressions 
(see Imprisonment). The payment of damages for 
the infliction of a personal injury included al*o a 
fine for the shame which was canned by such an 
injury (see Damage). In indicting the punishment 
of flagellation no more than the prescribed number of 
stripes might be given, "lest, if he should exceed, 
and beat him above these with many stripes Unm 
thy brother should seem vile unto thee" (Pent. xxv. 
3; sec Cohpuiwvl IVnismmknt). Posthumous in- 
dignities at the public execution of a criminal were 
prohibited; and when hanging after execution was 
enjoined, the body was not allowed to remain on 

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Police Laws 



the gallows overnight (Deut. xxi. 23; see Capital 

The laws of morality and chastity were elaborated 
by the Rabbis in greatest detail (see Chastity; 
Ethics). The gambler was regarded as an outcast: 

his testimony was not admitted in evi- 
Public dence (see Evidence), nor was his 
Morality, oath believed (see Gambling; Per- 
jury). The Rabbis took especial care 
in interpreting and elaborating the laws touching 
upon the property rights of iudi viduals. The bound- 
aries of fields were accurately marked; and a curse 
was pronounced upon him who should remove his 
neighbor's landmarks (Deut. xix. 14, xxvii. 17; see 
Boundaries). Special officers were, therefore, ap- 
pointed, as stated above, to measure the fields and 
to determine the situation and limits of every one's 
land. It was forbidden to keep animals that might 
injure the crops of another (B. K. ?9b). Dove-cots 
were to be fifty cubits distant from a neighbor's 
land, in order that the birds might cause no injury 
to the seeds (B. B. 23a). Wells, pits, and caves 
might not be dug in the vicinity of a neighbor's 
property (ib. 17a). An oven might not be con- 
structed in one's house, unless it was so built as to 
guard against any danger from fire (ib. 20b). "Win- 
dows and doors might not be constructed so as to 
face the windows and doors of a neighbor's house 
(ib. 11a; see Easement; Hazakaii). 

It was not permissible to buy stolen goods or such 
as might be suspected of having been stolen. No 
milk, wool, lambs, or calves might be bought from 
a shepherd (B. K. 118b), nor wood or fruit from a 
hired gardener (ib. 119a). Nothing might be bought 
from women who had no personal property, nor 
from minors or slaves, except such objects respect- 
ing which there could be no suspicion (ib.), nor 
might anything be taken from them for safe-keep- 
ing (B. B. 51b). 

Not only was cheating in business forbidden (Lev. 
xxv. 14, 17), but even dissimulation in speech and 
misleading statements were prohibited (B. M. 58b), 
even when a non-Jew was concerned (Huh 94a). 
Objects might not be "doctored" or ornamented 
with the intention of deceiving the bu3 r er, nor might 
the finer parts of an article be prominently displayed 
in order to attract the eye (B. M. 60a, b). If water 
was accidentally mixed with wine, the wine might 
not be sold unless the buyer was notified of the ac- 
cident (ib.). Special officers were appointed to test 
the quality of wine in order to guard against adul- 
teration (Tosef., Kelim, U. K. vi. 10; comp. 'Ab. 
Zarah 58a, and Rashi, s.v. " Agardemin "). After an 
animal had been slaughtered a butcher might not 
arrest the free flow of the blood in order to make 
the meat weigh more (Hul. 113a). 

The prohibition against false weights and meas- 
ures applied not only to their use (Lev. xix. 35, 36), 
but also to the mere presence of them in one's 

house (Deut. xxv. 13-16; B. B. 89b). 

Weights K. Levi declared that the sin of using 

and false weightsand measures was greater 

Measures, than that of the breach of the laws of 

chastity ; for the latter could be atoned 
for by repentance, while the former could not, unless 
the transgressor returned to each one whom he had 

deceived the amount lost by the deception, which 
was almost impossible (13. B. 88b). Weights might 
not be made of lead, iron, or any other metal liable to 
accumulate rust, but only of stone or glass (ib. 89b). 
They might not be left in salt; for this might in- 
crease their weight (ib.). Ample space was to be 
allowed to admit of the scales swinging freely (ib. 
89a). The measures were to be cleaned at least 
twice every week; the weights, at least once every 
week; and the scales, after every time that they 
were used (ib. 88a). The measures were to be 
so graded that each one, whether dry or liquid, 
should be one-half of that preceding it (ib. 89b, 90a). 
The seller was required to add T ^ in liquid and -^ 
in dry measures to the actual amount required, in 
order that he might be certain that the measure was 
correct (ib. 88b). In places where the custom was 
to sell by level measures one was forbidden to sell 
heaped measures aud raise the price accordingly, 
and vice versa (ib. ; see Weights and Measures). 

Raising the market price by speculation was re- 
garded with disfavor by the Rabbis; and he who 
practised it was classed together with the usurer and 
with him who used false weights and measures, to 
all of whom they applied the words of Amos viii. 
4-8 (B. B. 90b). It was forbidden to export from 

Palestine, even to the neighboring land 

Market of Syria, necessary articles of food 
Laws. (ib.). In times of famine one was not 

permitted to store up necessary arti- 
cles of food, even the products of his own field, but 
was required to put them on the market. At other 
times the storage of foodstuffs was permitted to 
the farmer, but not to the speculator (ib.). Middle- 
men were not tolerated, unless they improved the 
product either by grinding the grain into flour or 
by baking the flour into bread (ib. 91a; comp. 
RaSHBaM, s.v. "En"). The retail storekeeper 
might not derive for himself a gain larger than one- 
sixth of the cost of the article (ib. 90a). The inhab- 
itants of a town had the right to bar outsiders from 
its market, although much freedom was exercised 
by the town authorities when the question of allow- 
ing a learned man to sell his goods was brought be- 
fore them (ib. 21b, 22a). Pedlers might not be de- 
barred from selling their goods; for there was an 
ancient tradition that Ezra had permitted pedlers 
to sell cosmetics to women in all places (B. K. 
82a, b) ; they might, however, be prevented from 
settling in a town (B. B. 22a; see IIawkeks and 

The property of a person unable to defend himself 
was protected in the following ways: (1) In the case 
of minors, tin court appoiuted a guardian (Ket. 18b, 
20a); (2) in the case of the insane, the government 
took charge of their property (flag. 3b; Yoreh 
De'ah, i. 5); (3) in the case of an absent defendant, 
the court appointed a curator, provided he had left 
because his life was imperiled; otherwise, the court 
intervened only if he had died during his absence 
and his property was about to be divided among bis 
relations (B. M. 38b, 39a). 

The only material permissible for legal documents 
was material of a kind that would render erasures 
or changes easily recognizable (Git. 23a; Hoshen 
Mishpat, 42, 1). 

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Police Laws 

Bibliography: Blocb, Das Monaisch-Ttilmudische PolizeU 
recht. Budapest, 1879; Hamburger, It. B. T. II., s.v. rotizci; 
Hastings, Dirt. Bible, s.v. Magistrate ami Officer; Saal- 
schutz, Dan Mosaische Rccht* ch. v., Berlin, 18m. 

e. c. J. II. G. 

POLIDO, DAVID. See David Raphael ben 


POLISHER JTJDEL. See Periodicals. 

POLITZER, ADAM: Austrian aurist; born at 
Alberti-lrsa, Hungary, Oct. 1, 1835; studied medicine 
at the University of Vienna, receiving his diploma 
in 1859 and becoming assistant at the university 
hospital. Politzer established himself as a physi- 
cian in the Austrian capital; was admitted to the 
medical faculty of the university there as privat- 
doccnt in aural surgery in 1861 ; became assistant 
professor in 1870; was chief of the aural surgical 
clinic in 1873, and professor in 1895. 

Politzer has arranged a well-known anatomical 
and pathological museum for the aural-surgical 
clinic. He has written many essays for the medical 
journals, and is the author of: "Die Beleuch- 
tungsbilderdesTrommelfells," Vienna, 1865; "Zelin 
Wandtafeln zur Anatomic des Gehororgans," ib. 
1873; "Atlas der Beleuehtungsbilder des Trommel- 
fells " (containing 14 colored tables and 3D2 diagrams 
and illustrations), ib. 1876; "Lehrbuck dcr Ohren- 
heilkunde," Stuttgart, 1878 (4th ed. 1902); "Die 
Anatomische Zergliederung des Menschlichen Gehor- 
organs im Normalen und Kraii ken Zustande, " ib. 1889. 

Bibliography: Paget, Biog. Lex. 

s. F. T. H. 

Isaac b. Joseph. 

POLL-TAX : The custom of taxing a popula- 
tion at a certain amount per head dates back to very 
indent times. The first time such a tax is men- 
tioned is in Ex. xxx. 12-16, where it is stated that 
3very male " from twenty years old and above " 
shall give, as "a ransom for his soul," half a shekel 
for an offering unto the Lord. There were three 
3ther annual contributions obligatory on males, the 
imounts being proportioned according to their 
neans(comp. Deut. xvi. 16-17). Although the con- 
tribution of half a shekel was required only at the 
;ime of the numbering of the children of Israel, the 
•abbinical law makes it an annual tax. There are, 
lowever, in the Bible traces of a regular poll-tax. 
Ezekiel, remonstrating against exactions, pointed 
)ut that the shekel was twenty gerahs (Ezek. xlv. 
)-12). This shows that in Ezckiel's time the princes 
mposed a greater exchange value on the shekel than 
-he prescribed twenty gerahs (comp. Ex. I.e.). 

Nehemiah reduced the contribution from half a 
ihekel to one-third of a shekel, which was used for 
he maintenance of the Temple and for the purchase 
)f the sacrifices (Neh. x. 33-34 [A. V. 32-33]). The 
Rabbis also, probably on the basis of the passage 

in Nehemiah, declared that the pre- 

Shekel scribed half-shekel contribution should 

Tax. be employed for the purchase of all 

the sacrifices necessary in the service 
)f the Temple and for the maintenance of the Tem- 
)le and the fortifications of Jerusalem (see Shekel 
n Rabbinical Literature). Besides this eon- 
ribution for religious purposes, the Jews were re- 

quired at various limes to pay poll-tnxcsof unknown 
amounts to their rulers. An inscription of Sen- 
nacherib shows that he imposed a per capita lax on 
all his subjects; the Jews paid the same lax when 
they were under Syrian control. In the time of the 
Second Temple the Greeks, particularly the Selni- 
citJan rulers, apparently exacted a eapitatit n tax 
from the Jews (Josephus, "Ant." xiii. 2. ; 3; romp 
I .Mace. x. 29); YVilcken ("GricehiscYhc OftCniku," 1. 
245 f* scq.) f however, denies that the capitation ux 
existed before Augustus. Krom the rvipu of the 
latter the Romans exacted from the Jews among 
other taxes one known as the "triljutum capitis " 
The Jews rose against this tax, which was both 
ignominious and burdensome. 

The historians do not agree as to the contribution 
per capita under Herod, against whose oppressive 
taxations the Jews complained to the Roman em- 
peror ("Ant." xvii. 11, $ 2). Josephus does not 
mention auy census which the Romans took in con 
nection with a " tributum capitis" at the time of 
Herod. Still, Wieseler ("Synopse," pp. 100 <7 **y.) 
and Zumpt ("Geburtsjahr Christi," pp. 196 e^ **/.) 
maintain that such a census was taken at that time, 
and that it was the cause of the sedition stirred 
up by the scribes Judas, son of Saripheus, and 
Matthias, son of Margolothus ("Ant." xvii. 6, § 2/. 
According to these two historians, while tin* other 
taxes were levied by Herod himself in order to meet 
the expenses of internal administration of the prov- 
ince the capitation tax was paid into the Roman 

In 70 c.e. Titus, being informed that the Jews 
had paid half a shekel per capita to the Temple, de- 
clared that it should thereafter be paid into the im- 
perial treasury. This practise continued up to the 

reign of Hadrian, when the Jews ob- 
Under the tained permission to apply the half- 
Romans, shekel to the maintenance of their 

patriarch (comp. Basnage, "Ilistoire 
des Juifs," iv., ch. iv.). Nevertheless, it appears 
from Appian ("Syrian War," § 50) that Hadrian 
imposed on all the Jews of his empire a heavy poll- 
tax. It is further stated that the contribution of a 
half-shekel continued to he paid to the Roman em- 
peror, that it was remitted only under Julian the 
Apostate, and that Theodosius reimposed it. This 
poll-tax existed during the Middle Ages under the 
name of "der goldene Opferpfenmg." In the 
Orient the Jews paid the hall-shekel for the main- 
tenance of the exilarch, and Pethaiiiah of Regens- 
burg relates that lie found at Mosul six thousand 
Jews, each of whom paid annually a gold piece, one- 
half of which was used for the maintenance of the 
two rabbis, while the other half was paid to the 
emir (Depping, " Juden im Mittelalter," p. 13*). 

The age at which the Jews became liable to the 
poll-tax varied in different countries. In Germany 
every Jew and Jewess over twelve years old paid 
one gulden. In Spain and England, in 1273, the ace 
was ten years. The amount varied in different 
epochs. In Anjou the Jews paid ten M sok tour- 
nois"as a poll-tax; on certain occasions the poor 
Jews claimed to be unable to pay this poll tax- in 
these cases its collection was left to the community, 
which was responsible to the government for 1,0^0 

X.— 8 

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individuals, even when the number of Jews in the 
city was smaller. In England the tallage for crown 
revenue occasionally took the form of a poll-tax. 
In Italy, according to Judah Minz (Responsa, No. 
42), a poll-tax was imposed on the community by 
its chiefs to the amount of half the communal ex- 
penses, the other half being raised by assessment. 
Ill Turkey, in the fifteenth century, the Jews were 
subject to a light poll-tax, payable only by males 
over twelve years of age. To defray congrega- 
tional expenses, the Jewish communities until re- 
cently assessed equally every head of a household 
( u rosh bayit") in addition to collecting a tax on 
property (Euach). A similar tax was demanded 
from every family by the Austrian government (see 
Familiantex Gesetz). 

Bibliography: Abrahams, Jewish Life in the Middle Aaes % 
pp. IQetseq.; Deppinp, Leu Jitifs dam le Moyen Age, Ger- 
man trans!., pp. 24, 28, 138, 189; Gratz, Gesch. 3d ed., in. 9, 
260; Lx. 30; Nubling, Judenaemeinden des Mittelaltcrs, pp. 
xxxvi. et scq.< 261 et seq.< 435 ct seq.; Reynier, Kconamu 
Politique et Rurale des Arabes et des Juifs, pp. 311 et seq. 
Geneva, 1820 ; Schurer, Gesch. 3d ed., i. 229 et seq., 529 e 




M. Sel. 


Austrian manufacturer and philanthropist; born at 
Wescheraditz, Bohemia, in 1817 ; died at Vienna June 
1, 1884. Pollak was trained for a technical career. 
In 1836 he established at Prague a factor}" for the 
manufacture of matches, and was so successful that 
within ten years he was able to export his goods. 
He established branch offices at London in 184G, 
at New York in 1847, and at Sydney in 1850, and 
extended his trade to South America during the 
years that followed. In 1858 he began to trade with 
Japan, established a branch at Yokohama in 1859, 
and the next year received permission to import his 
goods into Russia. Many of the inventions and 
improvements used in the manufacture of matches 
originated in his establishments, and as a conse- 
quence he was awarded many prizes in international 
expositions. His chief factories were at Prague, 
Budweis, and Vienna, with branches at Christians- 
berg, Maderhausen, and Wodnitza. 

Pollak's philanthropy was directed principally to 
popular education and the encouragement of scien- 
tific studies. His name is most closely associated in 
this connection with the Rudolphinum at Vienna, 
founded in commemoration of the birth of the 
Crown Prince Rudolph of Austria and dedicated 
Dec. 19, 1868. In this establishment 75 students at- 
tending the Polytechnic receive board, lodging, and 
all aids to study free. It has an endowment of 160,- 
000 florins, while the interest of an additional 5,000 
florins is devoted to prizes for proficiency in physics 
and chemistry. Pollak also founded a large non- 
sectarian kindergarten at Baden. In 1869 he was 
ennobled by the emperor with the title "Von Rudin." 

8. E. J. 

POLLAK, JACOB: Founder of the Polish 
method of halakic and Talmudic study known as 
the Pilpul; born about 1460; died at Lublin 1541. 
He was a pupil of Jacob Makgoliotii of Nurem- 
berg, with whose son Isaac he officiated in the rab- 
binate of Prague about 1490; but he first became 
known during the latter part of the activity of Judah 

Minz (d. 1508), who opposed him in 1492 regarding 
a question of divorce. Pollak's widowed mother- 
in-law, a wealthy and prominent woman, who was 
even received at the Bohemian court, had married 
her second daughter, who was still a minor, to the 
Talmudist David Zchner. Regretting this step, she 
wished to have the marriage annulled ; but the hus- 
band refused to permit a divorce, and the mother, 
on Pollak's advice, sought to have the union dis- 
solved bv means of the declaration of refusal 
( 4t mi'un ") on the part of the wife, permitted by 
Talmudic law. Mexaxiem of Merseuuug, a recog- 
nized authority, had decided half a century previ- 
ously, however, that a formal letter of divorce was 
indispensable in such a case, although his opinion 
was not sustained by the Oriental rabbis. When, 
therefore, Pollak declared the marriage of his sister- 
in-law null and void, all the rabbis of Germany 
protested, and even excommunicated him until 
he should submit to Mcualicm's decision. Judah 
Minz of Padua also decided against Pollak, who 
was sustained by one rabbi only, MeTr PfetTerkorn, 
whom circumstances compelled to approve this 
course (Judah Minz, Responsa, No. 13; Grittz, 
44 Gesch. "2d ed., ix. 518). 

Pollak had a further bitter controversy, with 
Minz's son Abraham, regarding a legal decision, in 
which dispute more than 100 rabbis are said to have 
taken part (Ibu Yahya, "Shalshelet ha-Kabbalah," 
ed. Amsterdam, p. 51a). 

After the accession of Sigismund I., in 1500, many 
Jews left Bohemia and went to Poland, founding a 
community of their own at Cracow. Pollak fol- 
lowed them, officiating as rabbi and organizing a 
school for the stud}' of the Talmud, which, up to 

that time, had been neglected in Po- 

Becomes land. This institution trained young 
Rabbi men to introduce the study of the 
of Cracow. Talmud iuto other Polish commu- 
nities. In 1530 Pollak went to the 
Holy Land, and on his return took up his residence 
at Lublin, where he died on the same day as his 
opponent, Abraham Minz. His most famous pupils 
were Shachna of Lublin and Meir of Padua. 

Pollak, in transferring the study of the Talmud 
from Germany, where it had been almost entirely 
neglected in the sixteenth century, to Poland, ini- 
tiated a movement which in the course of time domi- 
nated the Talmudic schools of the latter country. 
The sophistic treatment of the Talmud, which Pollak 
had found in its initial stage at Nuremberg, Augs- 
burg, and Ratisbon, was concerned 
Introduces chiefly with the mental gymnastics of 
Pilpul into tracing relationships between things 

Poland. widely divergent or even contradictory 

and of propounding questions and 
solving them in unexpected ways. 

Pollak's contemporaries were unanimous in re- 
garding him as one of the great men of his time, 
although the exaggerations to which his method 
eventually led were later criticized with severity 
(comp. Gans, "Zemah Dawid," ed. Ollcnbach. p. 
31a). Pollak himself, however, was not responsible 
for these, since he modestly refrained from publish- 
ing the decisions at which he arrived by his system, 
uot wishing to be regarded as a casuist whose deci- 

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sions were to be implicitly followed. Only a few 
quotations from him are found in the works of other 

Bibliography: Jost, Gcsch. dcs Judenlhums uttii Seiner 
Sektcni iii. 240 et scq.; (iriilz, Gcsch. 2d ed., Ix. 58 el w-f/.; 
Zuuz, U. S. Iii. 84 et sea.; Hrull's Jahrb. vli. 31 ci scr/.; bem- 
bltzer, Kritische Brief e, etc., p. 19, Cracow, 1891. 

s. E. N. 


Austrian rabbi; born iu Hungary in 1798; died at 
Trebitsch, Moravia, Dec. 16, 1879, where he officiated 
as rabbi from 1828 until his death. He wrote a 
commentary, entitled "Mekor Hayyim" (Presburg, 
1849; 3d cd. Warsaw, 1885), on K. Isaac Arama's 
philosophical work " 4 Akedat Yizhak," and a biog- 
raphy of the same scholar. Pollak was also the 
author of a number of Hebrew songs in the annual 
"Bikknre ha-'Ittim," and of a scholarly essay on 
the Talmudic rules of the N^pD^ DN ^ in Stern's 
"Kebuzat Hakamim," besides being a regular con- 
tributor to many Hebrew periodicals. 

Bibliography: Fuenn, Kcncset YisracUp. 306; Furst, Bihl. 
J ml. iii. HI : XeuzciU 1879, pp. 40^-412; Ha-Magaid, 1880, p. 
21 ; Zeitlin, Kiryat Scfer, ii. 277. 

s. M. L. B. 

POLLAK, KAIM: Hungarian w T riter; born at 
Lipto-Szent-Miklos Oct. 6, 1835; educated in the 
Talmud at his native city, at Presburg, and at 
Satoralja Ujhely. In 1858 he weut to Prague, where 
he attended Rapoport's lectures, and then taught 
successively at the Jewish schools in Szegzard, Hod 
Mezo Vasarhely, and Alt-Ofen. When, in 1870, the 
Jewish school of the last-named community was 
made a municipal common school, Pollak was re- 
tained in his position, which he continued to hold 
until he was pensioned in 1902. 

Pollak has been a prolific writer. Resides several 

text-books, one of which, a geometry for public 

schools, has passed through eight editions (1st ed. 

1878), he has published the following works: 

"Heber. -Magyar Teljes Szotar" (Budapest, 1880), a 

complete Hebrew-Hungarian dictionary; "Valoga- 

tott Gyongyok" (ib. 1886), a Hungarian translation 

of GabiroPs "Mibliar ha-Peninim " ; "Megillal An- 

tioehus" (Drohobicz, 1880), a Hungarian translation 

with Hebrew notes; Gabirol's "Tikkun Middot 

ha-Ncfesh" (Budapest, 1895); "Izrael Nepenek 

Multjabol" (ib. 1896); Gabriel Schlossberger's 

"Petah Teshubah" (Presburg, 1898); "Josephini- 

sclie Aktenstueke fiber Alt-Ofen" (Vienna, 1902); 

and "Die Erinnerung an die Vorfahren " (ib. 1902), 

a history of mourning customs. In 1882 and 1883 

Pollak edited the religions journal " Jesehurun," 

directed mainly against Rohling. 
s. L. V. 

POLLAK, LEOPOLD : Genre- and portrait- 
painter; born at Lodenitz, Bohemia, Nov. 8, 1806; 
died at Rome Oct. 16, 1S80. He studied under Berg- 
ler at the Academy of Prague, and later in Munich 
and (after 1833) in Rome. He became a naturalized 
citizen of Italy. 

Of Pollak's paintings, several of which were en- 
graved by Mandel and Straucher, the following may 
be mentioned: "Shepherdess with Lamb" (Ham- 
burger Kunsthalle); "The Shepherd Boy"(Redern 
Gallery, Berlin); "Zuleika," from Byron's poem; 

and *' Maternal Love*." Ik* painted also a portrait 
of Biedel, which is owned by the Neue Pinakothek 

in Munich. 

BiliMOUiUPiiY: BrynifM IHetinnant t%f Pauttetn and Fn- 
\Wiwr** London. U"H : UaiiN WotfKuiiK Mwi-r. Allymeuw 
KUnmcr-Lexictm, Haiikfon-oii-Uje-Malh, !H*\ 


P V 

POLLAK, LUDWIG: Austrian iin-lu-jiloKitt; 
born in Prague Sept. 1 !, 1H& (Ph.l) Vi, mm 1^93). 
In 1893 he was sent for a year In tin* Austrian gov- 
ernment to Italy and Greece; mid since that time he 
has lived in Home. Besides shorter jourueyi in 
1900 he made an extensive scientific tour through 
Egypt, Syria, and Asia Minor. In l*'js j„ « s 
elected corresponding member of the Gciuuui Ar- 
cheologieal Institutes. 

Pollak has published: "Zwei Vascnausd< r \\ < rk- 
statt Hierons," Leipsic, 1900; and " Klas*isdie Autik* 
Goldschmiedearbeiten im Resit zc Seiner KmiIImi/ 
A. T. von Nclidow, Kaiscrlich Kus<isch< n H.-.m h if- 
tersin Rom," ib. 1903. S. 

KENAU ; Austrian financier; born ut Vii-mi t Ike. 
24, 1827; died there Aug. 20, 1904. After bavin: 
the gymnasium of his native city, at the age of 
twenty-two, he took charge of hi« father's whole- 
sale leather business, and soon succeeded in ext< nd- 
ing his export trade to France and Germany. In 
1857 he was elected to the municipal council of Vi- 
enna, and took an active part in the relief and o n- 
struction works in the year of the great tlood (ls*iV2). 
Soon afterward he took charge* of the budget oJ the 
city of Vienna, acting as auditor until his resigna- 
tion in 1885. In 1*07 he was sent hv the citv of 
Vienna as one of the delegates on the occasion of the 
coronation of the King of Hungary at Budapest, 
and in 1873 he was made chairman of the executive 
committee of the Vienna Exposition, lie entered 
the Niederosterreichisehe Escomptebank n^ exam- 
iner, and was director-general and vice-presrident 
from 1885 to 1898, also officiating as deputy of the 
Vienna chamber of commerce, director of tla Winter 
Kaufmannshalle, and examiner of the Austro-IIun- 
garian bank. 

Pollak took a very active part in the alTnirs of 
the Jewish community, tilling various oHic«s. in- 
cluding finally that of president from .May 4. ltr>-l. to 
Dec. 27, 1885. Besides many other decoration*, he 
received the cross of the Letrion of Honor, in n cog mi 
tion of his services at the Paris Exposition of l s 7 s ; 
five vears before, for his services in connection \n it li 
the Exposition of Vienna, lie had received from tin* 
Austrian emperor the patent of nobility with the 
title " \ r on Borkcnau." 

s. E. .1. 

POLLITZER, ADOLPH: Violinist; born at 
Budapest July 23, 1832; died in London .Nov It. 
1900. In 1842 la 1 left Budapest for Vienna, where 
he studied the violin under Buhm: ami in hi* four- 
teenth year he took the fir^t prize at the Vienna 
Conservatorium. After a concert tour in G< rmany, 
he went to Paris and studied under Alard In isJJO 
he crossed the Channel, and in London his nnmk- 
able talents as a violinist were speedily recocrni7«d 
He became leader at Her Majesty's Theal re under 

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Sir Michael Costa and also led the new Philharmonic 
Orchestra and the Royal Choral Society. 

Pollitzer stood preeminent in his day as an inter- 
preter of classic chamber music, his playing attain- 
ing to what ma}' be called "the great style." As a 
teacher of his instrument he was regarded as the 
most eminent of his time in England, and many 
pupils who attained distinction had studied under 
him. In 1861, on the establishment of the London 
Academy of Music, he was appointed professor of 
the violin. This post he held till 1870, in which 
year he succeeded Dr. Wylde as principal of the 
Academy, and retained this position until his death. 

Bibliography: Jew, Chron. Nov. 23, 1900. 
J. G. L. 

POLLONAIS, AM^LIE : French philanthro- 
pist; born at Marseilles in 1833; died at Cap Ferrat 
July 24, 1S9S; daughter of Joseph Jonas Cohen, and 
wife of Desire Pollonais. In 1868 she published 
her "Reveries Maternelles," in which she developed 
an entire system of education for children, and the 
next year she followed this with her " Philosophic 
Enfantine," a method of self-instruction for chil- 
dren. For her devotion to the wounded in the 
Franco-Prussian war she received the medal of the 
Red Cross Society; and her subsequent visits to the 
huts of the peasantry in the canton of Villefranche 
formed the basis of her most important work, "A 
Travers les .Mansardeset lesEcoles" (1886). 

Amelie Pollonais was one of the founders of the 
"Gazette des Enfants,"and after 1887 a contributor 
to the "Foyer Domestique." In 1898 she founded 
a societ3 T in the interest of prisoners and released con- 
victs, reporting her progress in "La Femme." She 
was president of the Societe des Beaux-Arts of Nice. 
Shortly after her death the name of the Place de la 
Marine and the Boulevard de Saint-Jean, at Ville- 
franche, was changed to Amelie Pollonais. 

s. J. Ka. 

POLLONAIS, GASTON: French journalist; 
born at Paris May 31, 1865; son of Desire Pollonais, 
mayor of Villefranche, and of Amelie Pollonais. 
About 1890 he began journalistic work as the 
local correspondent of the "Independance Beige," 
and contributed at the same time to a Lc Voltaire," 
" Le Figaro," and " Le Gaulois." lie then succeeded 
Fernand Xau as editor of u Le Soir," but, leaving 
that paper, returned to "Le Gaulois," to which he 
has now (1905) been a contributor for five years. 
During the Dreyfus affair Pollonais was an enthu- 
siastic adherent of the nationalist party. In 1902 
he became a convert to Catholicism, his godparents 
being the Marquis de Dion and Francois Coppee. 
Pollonais is known also as a dramatist, having pro- 
duced "Le Jour de Divorce," "Celle Qu'il Faut 
Aimer," "Eve," and "Le Degel." 

s. J. Ka. 

POLNA AFFAIR: An accusation of ritual 
murder in Polna resulting from the murder of 
Agnes Ilruza March 29, 1899. Polna, a city in the 
district of Deutschbrod, Bohemia, with a population 
of 5,000, including a small Jewish settlement, was 
shocked by a cruel murder. Agnes Ilruza, a girl 
nineteen years old, living in Klein Veznic, a village 
two miles from Polna, and going every day to the 

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citj r to work as a seamstress, left her place of 
employment on the afternoon of March 29, 1899, and 
did not return to her home. Three days later 
(April 1) her body was found in a forest, her throat 
having been cut and her garments torn. Near by 
were a pool of blood, some blood-stained stones, 
parts of her garments, and a rope with which she 
had been either strangled to death or dragged, after 
the murder, to the place where the body was found. 
The suspicion of the sheriff was first turned 
against four vagrants who had been seen in the 
neighborhood of the forest on the afternoon of the 
day when the murder was supposed to have been 

committed. Among them was Leo- 
pold Hilsner, a Jew, twenty-three 
years old, who had been a vagrant 
all his life. Suspicion against him 
was based on the fact that he had beeu 
frequently seen strolling in the forest where the body 
was found. A search in his house showed nothing 
suspicious. He claimed to have left the place on 
the afternoon of the murder long before it could have 
been committed: but he could not establish a per- 
fect alibi. Hilsner was arrested and tried at Kut- 
tenbergSept. 12-16, 1899. He denied all knowledge 
of the crime. The only object which could be used 
as evidence against him was a pair of trousers on 
which some stains were found that, according to 
the testimony of chemical experts, might have been 
blood, while the garment was wet as if an attempt 
had been made to wash it. The most important 
witness against him was Peter Peschak, who claimed 
to have seen Hilsner, at a distance of 2,000 feet, in 
company with two strange Jews, on the day on which 
the murder was supposed to have been committed 
and on the spot where the body was found. An- 
other witness claimed to have seen him come from 
that place on the afternoon of March 29 and to have 
noticed that he was very much agitated. Both the 
state's attorney and the attorney for the Hruza fam- 
ily made clear suggestions of ritual murder. Testi- 
mony had proved that Hilsner was too weak to have 
committed the crime by himself. Still he was sen- 
tenced to death for participation in the murder, while 
his supposed accomplices were undiscovered and no 
attempt was made to bring them to justice. 

On the ground of technicalities an appeal was 
made to the supreme court (Cassationshof), which 
ordered a new trial, to be held at Pisek in order to 
avoid intimidation of the jury by the mob, and that 
it might not be influenced by political agitation. 
On Sept. 20, 1899, a few days after the first trial, 
Hilsner was frightened by his fellow prisoners, who 
showed him some carpenters working in the court- 
yard of the jail and told him that they were con- 
structing a gallows for him. Thej r persuaded him to 

give the names of lus accomplices, as 

The "Con- by doing so he would obtain a commu- 

fession." tation of his sentence. Hilsner, a man 

of little intelligence, fell into the trap, 
and implicated Joshua Erbmann and Solomon 
AVassermann as those who had assisted him. Being 
brought before the judge on Sept. 29, he declared 
that this charge was false. On Oct. 7, however, he 
reiterated the charge, but again recanted on Nov. 
20. Fortunately for those he had accused, they were 

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able to prove perfect alibis, one of them having 
been in jail on the day of the murder, while the 
other proved, from certificates of poorhouses in 
Moravia which he had visited as a beggar, that he 
could not possibly have been in Polna on that day. 

Meantime anti-Semitic agitators tried their best 
to arouse a strong sentiment against the Jews in 
general and against Hilsner in particular. The 
"Deutsches Volksblatt" of Vienna sent a special 
reporter to the place to make an investigation. 

Hilsner's brother was made drunk at 

Anti- a w T ine-shop and was induced to tell 

Semitic what the anti-Semites wished him to 

Agitation, say. The "Vaterland," the leading 

organ of the clericals, reiterated the 
blood accusation and produced evidence that the 
Church had confirmed it. In various places where 
political tension was very strong, as in Holleschau 
and in Nachod, sanguinary excesses took place. 
Neither a public indignation meeting which Mas 
called by the Jewish congregation of Vienna (Oct. 7) 
nor an appeal which was made to the prime minister 
had any tangible effect. 

The sentence of four months in jail imposed 
upon August Schreiber, one of the editors of the 
"Deutsches Volksblatt," for libeling the Jews (Dec. 
11) only added fuel to the fire. Violent speeches 
against the Jews were delivered in the Reichsrath 
(Dec. 12) ; and Dr. Baxa, the attorney for the Hruza 
family, in a speech delivered in the Bohemian Diet 
(Dec. 28), accused the government of partiality to 
the Jews. 

Meantime Hilsner was accused of another murder. 
Maria Klima, a servant, had disappeared July 17, 
1898, and a female body found Oct. 27 following 
in the same forest where that of Agnes Hruza had 
been discovered, had, with great probability, been 
identified as that of the missing girl. Decomposition 
was, however, so advanced that not even the fact 
that the girl had been murdered could be estab- 
lished. Hilsner, charged with this crime also, was 
tried for both murders in Pisek (Oct. 25-Nov. 14, 
1900). The witnesses at this trial became more defi- 
nite in their statements. Those that at the first trial 
had spoken of a knife which they had seen in Hils- 
ner's possession, now asserted distinctly that it was 
such a knife as was used in ritual slaughtering. The 
strange Jews who were supposed to have been seen 
in company with Hilsner were more and more par- 
ticularly described. When witnesses were shown 
that the testimony given by them at the second trial 
differed from that given at the first trial, they said 
either that they had been intimidated by the judge 
or that their statements had not been correctly 

A special sensation was created by Dr. Baxa, who 
claimed that the garments of Agnes Hruza had been 
saturated with blood after the first trial in order to 
refute the supposition that the blood had been used 
for ritual purposes. The anti-Semites sent agitators 
to the place of trial, "L'Antijuif " of Paris being 
represented by a special reporter. A Bohemian jour- 
nalist, Jaromir HuSek, editor of "£esky Zajmy," 
constantly interrupted the trial by making remarks 
which were intended to prejudice the jury against 
the defendant. 

The verdict pronounced Hilsner guilty of having 
murdered both Agnes Hruza and Mark Kliiim and 
of having libeled Joshua Erbmann and Solomon 
Wassermann. lie was sentenced to death (Nov. 14, 
1900), but the sentence was commuted by the «m- 
peror to imprisonment for life. Owing to\h<< agiui- 
tionof Hit anti-Semite*, various attempts to prove 
Hilsner's innocence were futile, cspee iallv that made 
by Professor Alusitryk of the Bohemian" l/nivcn-ity 
in Prague, a Christian who proposed the theory that 
Agnes Hruza was not killed at the place where her 
body was found and that she was most likth the 
victim of a family quarrel, aud that made by Dr. 
Bulowa, a Jewish physician. *n. 

POLONNOYE : Town in the district of Novo- 
grad, Volhynia, Russia. It was a fortified place in 
the middle of the seventeenth century, when about 
12,000 Jews found there a refuge from the neigh 
boring townsat the time of the Co^acks' Uimummj. 

Polonnoye had two well-known rabbis in the 
seventeenth century, Solomon Harif and his son 
Moses, who later became rabbi of Leinberg (see 
Buber, "Anshe Shem," p. 1G0, and 1). Mairtfid, 
"Zur Geschichte und Genealogie der GUnzhiirer.^ 
p. 221 , St. Petersburg, 1899); but the best known 
occupant of the rabbinate was undoubtedly Jacob 
Joseph ha-Kohen (d. 1769), whose principal work, 
"Toledot Ya'akob Yosef " (Miedzyboz and Koretz. 
1780, and numerous other editions), in which the 
teachings of H. Israel Ba'al Shem were first set 
forth in literary form, was burned in the syna- 
gogue-yard of Wilua when the war against l.lasidism 
was commenced there. 

Polonnoye had a Hebrew printing-office at the 
end of the eighteenth century and at the beginning 
of the nineteenth. The earliest work which is 
known to bear the imprint of that town is the re- 
sponsa collection "Me'ir Netibim" (1791), by H. MeTr 
b. Zebi Margoliot; and the latest is Havvim ibn 
'Attar's "Risbon le-Ziyyon " (1809), on a part of the 

At present (1905) the population of Polonnoye ex- 
ceeds 10,000, about 50 per cent of whom are Jews. 

Bibliography: Brockhaus-Kfron, Entziklomdichrski Shnyir; 
Graetz, Hist. v. It; Hannover, Ynccn Mezulah* pp. :> ft 
seq. % Cracow, 1896; Walden, Shem ha-Gcdolim hc-JIartasK 
p. 103, Warsaw, 18S2. 

n. a. P. Wi. 

POLOTSK (POLOTZK): District town in the 
government of Vitebsk, Russia. The first mention 
of its Jewish community occurs in 1551, when, at the 
Polish Diet held at Wilna, Polotsk is expressly named 
in a list of towns whose Jews were to be exempt 
from the special tax known as "Sereheshchizna " 
(" Akty Yuzhnoi i Zapadnoi Rossii." i. 133). There 
are indications, however, of the existence of Jews at 
Polotsk as early as 1490 ("Sbornik linperatorskavo 
Istoricheskavo Obshehestva," xxx v. 41-43). In 1500 
the baptized Jew Abraham Ezefovjrh, a non-resi- 
dent of Polotsk, is spoken of as farmer of its rev- 
enues and customs ("Aktovya Knitzi Metriki Litov- 
skoi Zapisei," No. 8), similar positions being held 
about 1525 by his brother Michael (tb. No. 14, p. 
235), and about the middle of the same century by 
another Jew, Felix (ib. No. 37. p. 242). 

In 1563, in the war between the Russians and the 

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Poles over Smolensk, the Muscovite grand duke 
Ivan the Terrible, having captured Polotsk, ordered, 
according to the testimony of an eye-witness, that 
all the Jews who refused to adopt Christianity — 
about 300 in number — should be thrown into the 
Diina (Sapunov, " Vitebskaya Starina," iv. 1 19. 1^9, 
232). In 1580, however, a Jewish community is 
again found in the town; but the letters patent of 
the so-called "Magdeburg Rights" of that year 
contain an edict against the Jews of Polotsk, de- 
priving them of the right to trade and to build or buy 
houses (" Akty Yuzhnoi i Zapadnoi Kossii," iii. 255). 
About seventy-five years later (1655), the Russians, 
with whom the Cossacks under Chmielnicki w T ere 
allied, again overran Lithuania, and the Jewish 
communitv at Polotsk met the fate of its fellow 
communities in Poland in the bloody years of 1G4S 
and 1649. The estates of the slaughtered Jews seem 
to have been distributed among the army officers 
and the nobility ("Yitebskaya Starina," iv., part 2, 

p. ii). 

In the sixteenth century Polotsk was more pros- 
perous than Wilna. It had a total population of 
100,000, and presumably its Jewish community was 
well-to-do, although the fact that its taxes were 
farmed to two Jews of Wilna (see R. Solomon Luria, 
Responsa, Xo. 4) might be adduced as evidence to 
the contrary. 

Before Polotsk was finally annexed to Russia (1772) 
it had lost its former importance, and a majority of 

its inhabitants were Jews. The town 
Under the was at first incorporated in the gov- 
Russians. eminent of Pskov. In 1777 it was 

made a government city, and is men- 
tioned as such in the letter against Ilasidism which 
was sent out by Elijah Gaou of Wilna in 1796 (see 
Yazkan, "Rabbenu Eliyahu me- Wilna," p. 73, 
Warsaw, 1900, where "Gubernia Plock " is a mis- 
print for " Polotsk "). In 1780 the town had 360 
wooden houses, of which 100 belonged to Jews; but 
the number of Jewish families amounted to 478, as 
against 437 Christian families. In the same year 
Russia, in the flush of exultation over the lion's 
share in the division of Poland which had fallen 
to her, gave the Jewish merchants of the govern- 
ment of Polotsk equal rights with other merchants 
( fct Polnoye Sobraniye Zakonov," xx\, Xo. 14,962). 
Fourteen years later, however, this policy was 
changed, and a double tax was imposed in Polotsk 
and in several other governments upon the Jews 
who wished to avail themselves of the privilege to 
become recognized burghers or merchants. In case 
a Jew desired to leave Russia he could do so only 
afler having paid in advance the double tax for 
three years (ih. xxiii., Xo. 17,224). In 1796 Polotsk 
became part of the government of White Russia; 
since 1S02 it lias been a part of the government of 
Vitebsk. The policy of discriminating against tin; 
Jews was manifested again in 1839, when all the mer- 
chants of Polotsk except Jewish ones were granted 
immunity from gild- and poll-taxes for ten years 
("Polnoye Sobraniye Zakonov 1 1." xii., Xo. 10,851). 

Polotsk has been one of the strongest centers of 
Ilasidism in Lithuania, and has hern also the seat 
of a zaddik. On the whole, however, Polotsk has 
never been distinguished as a center of Jewish 

learning, and the names of but very few ? of its ear- 
lier rabbis or scholars have been preserved in Jew- 
ish literature. Among them were Zebi Ilirsch b. 
Isaac Zack, rabbi of Polotsk and Shkud (1778), 
who was probably succeeded by Judah Lob b. 
Asher Makgolioth; Israel Polotsker, one of the 
early Hasidie rabbis (at first their opponent), who 
went to Palestine in 1777, returned, and died in Po- 
land ; and R. Phinehas b. Judah Polotsk, ** maggid " 
of Polotsk for eighteen years in the latter part of the 
eighteenth century and author of numerous works. 
R. Phinehas b. Judah afterward settled in Wilna; 

he became a pupil of Elijah Gaou, and 

Rabbis and died there Jan. 15, 1823. Among the 

Scholars, later rabbis of Polotsk were Senior 

Solomon Fradkin, Jacob David Wi- 
lowsky, Judah Meshel ha-Ivohen Zirkel, and Solo- 
mon Akselrod (b. Xov. 1, 1855; became rabbi of 
Polotsk in 1901). Senior Solomon Fradkin was 
known later as Reb Zalmen Lubliner (b. Liadi, gov- 
ernment of Moghilef, 1830; d. Jerusalem April 11, 
1902); he was rabbi of Polotsk from 1856 to 1868. 
Jacob David Wilowsky, later rabbi of Slutsk and 
chief rabbi of the Orthodox congregations of Chi- 
cago (1903-4), was rabbi from 1883 to 1887. Judah 
Meshel ha-Kohen Zirkel (b. 1838) assumed the rab- 
binate in 1895, and occupied it until his death, May 

26, 1899. 

The Hasidim of Polotsk usually maintain their 
own rabbinate; in the latter part of the nineteenth 
century it was held by Eliezer Rirkhan (see Efrati, 
"Dor we-Dorslunv," p. 58, Wilna, 1889). The en- 
graver and author Yom-Tob, who became well 
know r n in England under the name of Solomon 
Bennett, was born in Polotsk about 1757, and lived 
there until about 1792 (see "Ha-Meliz," 1868, pp. 
85, 161-162). 

The population of Polotsk in 1897 was over 20,000, 
of which more than half are Jews. It has most of 
the institutions usually found in a Russian Jew T - 
ish community, including a government school for 
boys. It is an Orthodox community, and the sale, by 
a Jew, of anything on a Sabbath is almost an un- 
heard-of occurrence there (" Ha-Meliz." 1897, Xo. 89). 
The district of Polotsk, exclusive of the city, has 
only 3 Jewish landowners in a total of 567. 

BinuoGRAPU y : Griitz, GcscJi. Hebrew transl., vli. 358, vlii. 150; 
Knfziklopfilieheski Slovat\ xxiv. 3GS; Hvgcsly. j., Nos. -OS, 
473,528-5:30,621,901); Berslmdski, Lilortkim '-YcvrciiL p. 340; 
idem, Bussko-Yevrciski Arkhii\ i.. No. 97; ii.. No. 100; iii., 
Nos. 60, 71, 84 ; B. (). Lewanda, Shorn ik Zakonov, Nos. 33, 43, 
359; Fuenn, Jyiryah Ne'cmanah, pp. 14, a35, Wilna, i860; 
Gurland, Le-Kovot ha-Gczcrot bc-YisnteU iv. 34; Eisen- 
sladl- Wiener, 'OaUtt Kecloshim* p. 16, St. Petersburg 1897- 
1898; Eisenstadl, Itafiltanaw in i-$of€ ra n\ iii. 5-38, iv. 29; 
Waldcn, Shan ha-Gcdolim lie-lladaxlu p. 75. 

it. u. " A. S. W.-P. Wr. 

commentator on the Bible; lived at Polotsk, Poland, 
in the eighteenth century, lie wrote commentaries 
on four hooks of the Old Testament, as follows: 
"Shebi't mi Yehudah " (Wilna, 1803), on Proverbs; 
"Derek ha-Melek " (Grodno, 1S04), on Canticles; a 
commentary on Eeclesiastes (ih. 1S04); and"Gibe'at 
Pinehas " (Wilna, 1808), on the Hook of Job. Other 
works by him are: an extract, which lie entitled 
w Kizzur Eben Bohan " (ib. 1790), from the great 
work of Kalonymns b. Kalonymus; "Rosh ha- 
Gibe'ah " (ib. 1820), in two sections, the lirst treat- 

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ing of morals and asceticism, and the second con- 
taining sermons on the Four Parashiyyot; and 
"Maggid Zedek," on the 613 commandments, which 
work is still unpublished. 

Bibliography: Furst. BihLJud.UL tit; Benjacofo, Ozarha- 
Sefarim, p. 3, No. 5, ct passim. 

K. c. S. O. 

POLTAVA: Government of Little Russia, which 
came under Russian domination in 1764, and whose 
present organization was established in 1802. It has 
a Jewish population of 111,417, the total population 
being 2,780,427 (census of 1897). See table at end of 

Poltava: Capital of the above-named govern- 
ment. It had a small Jewish community, almost 
entirely Hasidic, before Jews from Lithuania, Po- 
land, and other 

parts of Russia j — ■ 

began to arrive 
there in larger 
numbers after 
the great "Ilyin- 
skaya" fair had 
been transferred 
to thatcitv from 
Romny in 1852. 
A Sabbath- and 
for Jewish ap- 
prentices was es- 
tablished there 
in 1861 ("Ha- 
Karmel," Rus- 
sian Supple- 
ment, 1861, Nos. 
46-47). Aaron 
Zeitlin then held 
the position of 
"learned Jew" 
under the gov- 
ernor of Poltava. 

dim, or Mitnag- 
gedim, soon in- 
creased in num- 
bers, and erected 
a synagogue 
for themselves 

about 1870. In 1863 Aryeh Lob Seidener (b. 1838; 
d. in Poltava Feb. 24, 1886) became the govern- 
ment rabbi, and during the twenty-three years in 
which he held the position he was instrumental in 
establishing various educational and benevolent in- 
stitutions and in infusing the modern spirit into the 
community. He was assisted in his efforts by the 
teachers ]\Iichael Zerikower, Eliezer Ilavvim Rosen- 
berg, Abraham Nathansohn, and other progressive 
men. In 1890 Aaron Gleizer, son-in-law of Lazar 
Zweifel, was chosen to succeed Seidener. Eliezer 
Akibah Rabinovich (b. Shilel, government of Ivovno, 
May 13, 1862), whose project of holding a rabbinical 
conference in Grodno in 1903 aroused intense oppo- 
sition, has been rabbi of Poltava since 1893. One of 
the assistant rabbis, Jacob Mordecui Dezpalov, 
founded a yeshibah there. Poltava has a Talmud 
Torah for boys (250 pupils), with a trade-school con- 

nected with it, and a corresponding institution for 
girls. It has a Jewish home for the igt d (lfi iunritt h 
in lH97),a Hebrew literary soci< ty.and h< m rul ( hiri 
table ami Zionist oi e;ani/aiions. Tin* most pi-nmi 
nent among the Maskilhn or pio<T< ssj\ <• ]|<|» , w 
scholars who have resided in Poltava mi* K/t ki< I l» 
Joseph Mandelstamm (born in Zh-iijory. p»\< mini Mt 
of Kovno, in 1812, died in Poliava Apiil 1H, \*\\\ 
author of the Bibliral ononnst icon" < )/ ir )ri hh< m t 
(Warsaw, IMS'),, with a "Srf< r ha Millu im/'i r sup- 
plement, whieh was printed posthumously in is'jj. 
He was the father of I)r Max M won si \m\i of 
Kiev. Michel Gordon's well-known Yiddi n oi*g 
beginning Mhr s. it doeh, R< h Yud, in Poltav i 
gewen " is a humorous allusion to the moiid pitfalls 
in the way of pious Jews of the older P >b ]j c«*m 

muni t i< s u ho 

Synagogue at Poltava, Russia. 

(From a photograph.) 

setth-d in tin* lib 
eral mindt d Pcl- 
tava. The wri 

ter Ale\aiid< r 

Sllsskii.d Huhi 
novirli, A. M. 
Roruchov leon- 
(ributor to " If i 
Shiloah **>, and 

Ren/ion NI irkiu 
(journalist are, 
residents of Pol- 
tava. Among; 
the prominent 
Jews of Poltava 
in earlv times 
were the fami- 
lies of Zelenski, 
Portugalov. and 

Wars ha vs ki . 
The citv has a 

total population 
of 53,000, of 

whom 7,000 are 

K r e m e n - 
tchug : City in 
the covernment 
of Poltava, <. n 
the hft bank < f 
the Dnieper. It 
now (1905)includcs the suburb of Kryuk< iv on the op- 
posite bank, and has the largest Jewish community in 
the government, 35,179— or about 60 percent of the to- 
tal population of the city (1897). It was the tint of 
the important cities of southwestern Russia to which 
Jews from Lithuania and Poland began to thx k 
about the middle of the nineteenth century. Evi n lu 
the calamitous years 1S81- s *2. when anti-Jewish ri jts 
occurred in the government of Poltava. Dinner- 
ous Je\vs from other places went to Krenmntrhug, 
where the local Jewish community raisid fur them a 
relief fund of about -10,000 rubh s. 

R. Isaac of Krcmcntehug. who died there Dee., 
1833, was anions the earliest Hftsidim of that r ity. 
Xextin importance was Abraham Fradkin (to vrh in 
Jacob Lapin addressed a ktt«r which appctr^ in 
his "Kesct ha Sofer, w pp. 11-15. Berlin. 1^7 
Other prominent men in the Jewish cemmunity 

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were: Lipavski, Zlatopolski, Michael Lady z hen ski, 
Sergei (Shmere) Rosenthal, David Sack (son of 
Hayyim Sack of Zhagory), and Solomon, Marcus, 
and Vasili Rosenthal. 

Among those who went to Krementchug in 1S64 
was Herman Rosenthal, who established a printing- 
office there in 1869, and organized a circle of Maski- 
lim, among whom were Eliezer Schclmaxx, J. 
S. Olschwaxg, L. and M. Jakobovich, and M. Sil- 
berberg (see Zederbaum, u Massa Erez, ? * in u Ha- 
Meliz," 1869, No. 1). Rosenthal published the first 
work of 31. Morgulis on the Jewish question, "So- 
braniye Statei " (1S69), the first almanac of Kremen- 
tchug, and man}' other works. He was for eight 
years a member of the city council (1870-78), and it 
was owing to his efforts that the Realnoye Uchi- 
lishche (Realgymnasium) was built in 1872. The 
best-known rabbi of Krementchug was Joseph b. 
Elijah Tumarkin, who died there in 1875. After his 
death theMitnaggedim elected Meir LftbMALBiM as 
rabbi, but he died while on his way to assume the 
position (Sept., 1879), and the candidate of the Hasi- 
dim of Lubavich, Hirsch Tumarkin, the brother and 
son-in-law of Meir's predecessor, was elected to the 
position. The government rabbis were Freidus 
(1S65), Mochan (1867-71), a son-in-law of Seidener 
of Melitopol, Ch. Berliner, and Freidenberg(whowas 
reelected in 1899). The present (1905) rabbi is Isaac 
Joel Raphalovich. 

Krementchug has numerous synagogues and the 
usual educational and charitable institutions, in- 
cluding a Talmud Torah, with a trade-school in 
connection with it, founded by Mendel Seligman; 
a hospital, with a home for aged persons ( u IIa- 
Meliz," 1890, No. 139); the society Maskil el Dal 
(founded 1898); and several Zionist organizations. 
It is the most important business and industrial 
center in the government. 

About a dozen other cities and tow r ns in the govern- 
ment of Poltava contain Jewish communities, those 
of Pereyaslavl and Romny being among the largest. 


Ha-Zefirah, 1897, No. 14. 

H. 11. 

P. Wl. 

Population of Poltava Government in 1897. 

















Total in government 










a r >,179 








11. H. 

V. R. 

POLYGAMY : The fact or condition of having 
more than one wife or husband at a time; usually, 

the practise of having a pluralitj* of wives. "While 
there is no evidence of a polyandrous state in prim- 
itive Jewish society, polygamy seems to have been 
a well established institution, dating from the most 
ancient times and extending to comparatively mod- 
ern days. The Law indeed regulated and limited 
this usage; and the Prophets and the scribes looked 
upon it with disfavor. Still all had to recognize 
its existence, and not until late was it completely 
abolished. At no time, however, was it practised so 
much among the Israelites as among other nations; 
and the tendency in Jewish social life was always 
toward Monogamy. 

That the ideal state of human socictv, in the mind 
of the primitive Israelite, was a monogamous one is 
clearly evinced by the fact that the first man 
(Adam) was given only one wife, and that the first 
instance of bigamy occurred in the family of the 
cursed Cain (Gen. iv. 19). Noah and his sons also 
are recorded as having only one wife each (ib. 
vi. 7, 13). Abraham had only one wife; and he 
was persuaded to marry his slave Hagar (ib. xvi. 2, 
3; see PiLEGESn) only at the urgent request of his 
wife, who deemed herself barren. Isaac had only 
one wife. Jacob married two sisters, because lie 
was deceived by his father-in-law, Laban (ib. xxix. 
23-30). He, too, married his wives' slaves at the re- 
quest of his wives, who wished to have children (ib. 
xxx. 4, 9). The sons of Jacob as well as Moses and 
Aaron seem to have lived in monogamy. Among 
the Judges, however, polygamy was practised, as 
it was also among the rich and the nobility (Judges 
viii. 30; comp. ib. xii. 9, 14; I Chron. ii. 26, iv. 5, 
viii. 8). Elkanah, the father of Samuel, had two 
wives, probably because the first (Hannah) was 
childless (I Sam. i. 2). The tribe of Issachar was 
noted for its practise of polygamy (I Chron. vii. 4). 
Caleb had two concubines (ib. ii. 46, 4S). David 
and Solomon had many wives (II Sam. v. 13 ; I Kings 
xi. 1-3), a custom which was probably followed 
by all the later kings of Judah and of Israel (comp. 
I Kings xx. 3; also the fact that the names of 
the mothers of most of the kings are mentioned). 
Jehoiada gave to Joash two wives only (II Chron. 
xxiv. 3). 

There is no Biblical evidence that any of the Proph- 
ets lived in polygamy. Monogamous marriage was 

used by them as a symbol of the union 
Prophetic of God with Israel, while polygamy 

Attitude, was compared to polytheism or idola- 
trous worship (Hos. ii. 18; Isa. 1. 1; 
Jer. ii. 2; Ezek. xvi. 8). The last chapter of Prov- 
erbs, which is a description of the purity of home 
life, points to a state of monogamy. The marriage 
with one wife thus became the ideal form with the 
great majority of the people; and in post-exilic 
times polj'gamy formed the rare exception (Tobit i. 
10; Susanna 63; Matt. xvii. 25, xix. 9; Luke i. 5). 
Herod, however, is recorded as having had nine 
wives (Josephus, "Ant." xvii. 1, § 3). 

The Mosaic law, while permitting polygamy, in- 
troduced many provisions which tended to confine 
it to narrower limits, and to lessen the abuse that 
might arise in connection with it. The Israelitish 
woman slave who was taken as a wife by the son of 
her master was entitled to all the rights of matri- 

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 




mony (see Husband and Wife), even after he had 
taken another wife; and if they were withheld from 
her, she had to be set free (Ex. xxi. 9-11; see 
Slaves). One who lived in bigamy might not show 
his preference for the children of the more favored 
wife by depriving the first-born son of the less 
favored one of his rights of inheritance (Deut. xxi. 
15-17; see Inheritance). The king should not 
44 multiply wives*' (ib. xvii. IT; com p. Sanh. 21a, 
where the number is limited to IS, 24, or 48, accord- 
ing to the various interpretations given to II Sam. 
xii. $); and the high priest is, according to the rab- 
binic interpretation of Lev. xxi. 13, commanded to 
take one wife only (Yeb. 59a; comp. Yoma 2a). 

The same feeling against polygamy existed in 
later Talmudic times. Of all the rabbis named in 
the Talmud there is not one "who is mentioned as 

having lived in polygamy. The gen- 
Rabbinic eral sentiment against polygamy is 
Aversion, illustrated in a storv related of the 
to son of R. Judah ha-Xasi (Ket. 62a). 

Polygamy. A peculiar passage in the Targum 

(Aramaic paraphrase) to Ituth iv. 6 
points to the same state of popular feeling. The 
kinsman of Elimelech, being requested by Boaz 
to marry Ruth, said, "I can not redeem; for I 
have a wife and have no riirht to take another in 
addition to her, lest she be a disturbance in inv 
house and destroy my peace. Redeem thou; for 
thou hast no wife." This is corroborated by R. 
Isaac, who savs that the wife of Boaz died on the 
day when Ruth entered Palestine (B. B. 91a). Po- 
lygamy was, however, sanctioned by Jewish law and 
gave rise to many rabbinical discussions. "While 
one rabbi savs that a man mav take as manv wives 
as he can support (Raba, in Yeb. 65a), it was recom- 
mended that no one should marrv more than four 
women (ib. 44a). R. Ami was of the opinion that a 
woman had a right to claim a bill of divorce if her 
husband took another wife (ib. 65a). The institu- 
tion of the Ketubah, which was introduced bv the 
Rabbis, still further discouraged polygamy ; and 
subsequent enactments of the Geonim (see Mullers 
"Mafteah," P- 282, Berlin, 1891) tended to restrict 
this usage. 

An express prohibition against polygamy was 
pronounced by R. Gershom b. Judah, "the Light of 

*the Exile " (960-1028), which was soon 

Rabbi accepted in all the communities of 

Gershom's northern France and of Germany. The 

Decree. Jews of Spain and of Italy as well as 

those of the Orient continued to prac- 
tise polygamy for a long period after that time, al- 
though the influence of the prohibition was felt even 
in those countries. Some authorities suggested that 
R. Gershom's decree was to be enforced for a time 
only, namely, up to 5000 a.m. (1240 c.e. ; Joseph 
Colon, Responsa, No. 101 ; see Shulhan *Aruk, Eben 
ha-'Ezer, i. 10, Isserles* gloss), probably believing 
that the Messiah would appear before tbat time ; but 
this opinion was overruled by that of the majority 
of medieval Jewish rabbis. Even in the Orient mon- 
ogamy soon became the rule and polygamy the ex- 
ception; for only the wealthy could afford the lux- 
ury of many wives. In Africa, where Mohammedan 
influence was strongest, the custom was to include 

in the mania er contract the f«llo\vii,tr i4ruLrnij.Ii. 
"The said bridegroom . . . herein pniiis<s that 
he will not take a second wife during ;h« hfrtime 
of the said bride . . . except? with her roust ut, and, 
if he transgresses this oath and tikis a se*< id wife 
during the lifetimeof the sai 1 bride and with nt htr 
consent, he shall give her every titth of what is 
written in the uiftrrififre settlement, t« vth* r with 
all the voluntary additions herein d<Uiihd. p ng 
all to her up to the last furthintr, and In *lwll'fri*> 
her by regular divorce instantly and with li tii g 
solemnity/' This condition was rigidly uf.r, 1 
by the rabbinic authorities (see Abrahams "Jewish 
Life in the .Middle A •res," p. 12m. 

The Jews of Spain practiced polygamy as ht<- 
as the fourteenth century. The < xifv r qui rcium t 
there was a special permit, for which a ceruin sum 

was probably paid into the king's 
Later treasury each time a Jew t <k an 

Instances, additional wife (Jacobs, *\S ,urct\" p. 

xxv., Xo. 104, Loudon, 1*(M >u h 
cases, however, were rare exceptions. The Span- 
ish Jews, as well as their brethren in Italy an 1 in 
the Orient, soon gave up these practfos; and t 
day, although the Jews of the Ea*t live under Mo- 
hammedan rule, but few cases of polygamy are 
found anions: them. 

In some exceptional cases bigamy was permitted 
(see Bigamy): but this was in very rare cases only, 
and the consent of 100 learned men of thice dif- 
ferent states was required (see Insanity). "While 
in the case of the 'Agunaii one witness who tes- 
tifies to the death of her husband is sufficient to 
permit the woman to remarry, in the case of the 
woman's disappearance some authorities ("Bet 
Shemuel" on Eben ha- 4 Ezer, 15S, 1; 15, 20i are of 
the opinion that the testimony of one witness is not 
sufficient to permit the husband to remarry (see 
Fassel, "Mishpete El; Das Mosaisch-Habbini^che 
Civilrecht," §§ 63, 112, Xagy-Kanizsa, 1«52|. Lau r 
authorities, however, permit him to remarry even 
when there is only one witness to testify to the 
death of his wife, and even when that witness did 
not know her personally, providing that afte r lie had 
described the deceased woman the husband rcc ag- 
nized the description as that of his wife ("Noda' 
Bihudah,'' series ii., Eben ha-'Ezer, 7. b; camp 
"Hatam Sofer" on Eben ha-'Ezer, re*pou«um 2; 
"Pithe Teshubah '* on Eben ha-'Ezer, 1, 10 . 

In spite of the prohibition against polygamy and 
of the general acceptance thereof, the Jewish law- 
still retains many provisions which apj ly mily 

to a state which permits ] lyjamy. 

Survivals The marriage of a marri d man is 

of legally valid and needs the f nnality 

Polygamy, of a bill of divorce f( r its diss< luti< n, 

while the marriage of a married w< man 
is void and has no binding force I Eben ha 'Ezer, 1, 
10; comp. u Pithe Tishubah," £ 20, where is quoted 
the opinion of some authorities that after a man takts 
a second wife he is not compelled to div< re*e her . 
The Reform rabbis in conference as-< mlUd (PI ila 
delphia. 1*69) decided that "the marrhje of a mar 
rieel man to a second woman can neither uke p'ure 
nor claim religious validity, just as little as the 
marriage of a married woman to another man, but, 

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 

Polyglot Bible 



like this, is null and void from the beginning." Still, 
with the majority of Jews, this is not even an open 
question, and the marriage of a married man is con- 
sidered just as valid as that of an unmarried man; 
it not only requires the formality of divorce in the 
case of separation, but also makes him subject to the 
laws of relationship; so that he can not afterward 
marry the wife's sister while the wife is living, nor 
can he or his near relatives, according to the laws 
of consanguinity, enter into matrimonial relations 
with any of her near relatives (see Markiage). 

Bibliography: Hastings. Diet. Bible, s.v. Marriage; Ham- 
burger, H. B. T., s.v. Vielweihcrci; Frankel, Gmndlinien 
ties Mosaisch-Talmudischen Ehereehts, Breslau, 1800; Lich- 
lens!iin % Dti Ehc nach Mosaiseh-Talmudiseher Auffassunu* 
ib. tS79; Klugman, Stellung der Frau irn Talmud, Vienna, 
1898; Rabbinowioz, Meho ha-Talm\id % Hebr. trans]., p. 80, 
Wilna,lS94; Buchholz, Die Fa milk, Breslau, 18(57; Mielziner, 
Tlie Jewish Law of Marriage and Divorce* Cincinnati, 1884 ; 
Duscbak, Das Mosaisch-Talmudiscltc Ehcrecht, Vienna, 
E. C J. II. G. 

POLYGLOT BIBLE. See Bible Editions. 

POMEGRANATE (pon : Punica Oranatum): 
A tree of the myrtle family. The pomegranate was 
carried into Egypt in very early historic times 
(comp. Num. xx. 5), and was also cultivated in Pal- 
estine, Assyria, and most of the countries bordering 
the Mediterranean. The spies brought pomegran- 
ates, grapes, and figs as signs of the fertility of 
Canaan (ib. xiii. 23). Several Biblical passages in- 
dicate that the pomegranate was among the com- 
mon fruit-trees of the country (Deut. viii. 8; Joel i. 
12; Hag. ii. 19). A famous pomegranate-tree grew 
at Gibcah in the time of Saul (I Sam. xiv. 2). Pome- 
granate-groves, as well as the beautiful flower of the 
tree, are mentioned in the Song of Solomon; and the 
fruit furnishes similes (Cant. iv. 3, 13; vi. 7, 11 ; vii. 
13). The pomegranate was used in art. The two 
pillars, Jachin and Boaz, were ornamented with a 
representation of it (I Kings vii. 18); and pomegran- 
ates were embroidered on the garment of the high 
priest (Ex. xxviii. 33). 

Throughout the East the pomegranate is the sym- 
bol of luxuriant fertility and of life. Pomegranates 
are eaten raw, their acid juice being most refreshing 
(comp. Cant. iv. 3). They are also dried (comp. 
Ma'as. i. 6). The juice mixed with water is to-day 
a favorite drink in the East; in former times it was 
also prepared as a kind of wine (Cant. viii. 2; Pliny, 
"Hist. Naturalis," xiv. 19). 

e. o. ii. I. Be. 

POMIS, DE (D^mann p) : An old Italian Jew- 
ish family which claimed descent from King David. 
According to a legend, reproduced by De Pomis in 
the introduction to his lexicon "Zemah Dawid," the 
Pomcria family was one of the four families brought 
from Jerusalem to Rome by Titus. The family is a* 
most important one, being related to that of Anaw. 
Members of the family are said to have lived in Rome 
until about 1100, when they emigrated, scattering 
through Italy. Most of them settled at Spoleto in 
Umbria, where, according to the account of David 
de Pomis, they and their descendants remained for 
420 years; but when Central Italy was sacked by 
the army of Charles V. of Spain in 1527, the family 
fell into the hands of the enemy and lost its entire 
property. In the introduction to his dictionary 

Univ Calif - Digitized 

David de Pomis incorporates his autobiography, and 
traces his genealogy back to the martyr Elijah de 
Pomis, as follows: David (b. 1525), Isaac, Eleazar, 
Isaac, Abraham, Menahem, Isaac, Obadiah, Isaac, 
and Elijah. This would set the date of Elijah at 
approximately 1270, which is historically correct. 
As the last-named lived at Rome, however, the 
statement that the family left that city about 1100 
can not be correct. Moreover, members of the 
family did not live 420 years, but only 220 years, 
at Spoleto. 

Bibliography: David de Pomis, £rma& Da in* d. Introduction; 
Nept-Ghirondi, Toledot Gedole YisraeU p. 84; Yogelstein 
and Kieger, Gcsch. der Juden in Rom, i. 257. 

G. I. E. 

David ben Isaac de Pomis : Italian physician 
and philosopher; born at Spoleto, Umbria, in 1525; 
died after 1593. When David was born his father 
was rich ; but soon after, he lost his fortune in the 
following manner : When the Imperialists plundered 
Home, Isaac, fearing that they would attack Spo- 
leto, sent all his possessions to Camerinoand Civita. 
The troops of Colonna surprised the convoy on its 
way, and confiscated all of Isaac's goods. He then 
settled at Bevcgna, where David received his early 
education. In 1532 Isaac de Pomis settled at Todi 
and confided the instruction of his son to his uncles 
Jehiel Alatino and Moses Alatino, who taught 
the boy the rudiments of medicine and philos- 

David was graduated, Nov. 27, 1551, as " Artium 
et Medicine Doctor " at the University of Perugia. 
Later he settled at Magliano, where he practised 
medicine, holding at the same time the position of 
rabbi. The anti-Jewish laws enacted by Paul IV. 
deprived David of his possessions and likewise of 
his rabbinate; and he entered the service of Count 
Nicolo Orsini, and five years later that of the Sforza 

The condition of the Jews of the Pontifical States 
having improved on the accession of Pius IV., David 
went to Home, and, as the result of a Latin dis- 
course delivered before the pope and cardinals, ob- 
tained permission to settle at Chiusi and to practise 
his profession among Christians. Unfortunately, 
Pius IV. died seven days later, and the permission 
was annulled by Pius V. David then went to 
Venice, where a new permission was granted to him 
by Pope Sixtus V. 

De Pomis was the author of the following works: 
(1) "Zemah Dawid," a Hebrew and Aramaic dic- 
tionary dedicated to Pope Sixtus V., the words 
being explained in Latin and Italian, Venice, 1587. 
This dictionary, variously estimated by the lexicolo- 
gists (comp. Richard Simon in the appendix to 
" De Ceremoniis Judaeoruin " ; David de Lara in the 
introduction to "*Ir Dawid"), was modeled after 
Jchicl's lexicographical work, "*Aruk." (2) "Ko- 
helet," the Book of Ecclesiastes translated into Ital- 
ian, with explanatory notes, ib. 1571, dedicated to 
Cardinal Grimani. (3) #< Discorso Intorno all* Umana 
Miscria, e Sopra il Modo di Fuggirla," published as 
an appendix to "Kohelet," ib. 1572, and dedicated 
to Duchess Margarcte of Savoy (David also trans- 
lated the books of Job and Daniel; but these were 
never published). (4) "Brevi Discorsi et Eficacis* 

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Polyg-lot Bible 

simi Kicordi per Liberare Ogni Citti Oppressa dal 
Mai Contagioso," ib. 1577. (5) " Enarratio lire vis de 
Senum Allectibus Pnecavendis At<|iiu Curandis" 
dedicated to the doge and senate of Venice, ib. 1588. 
(6) A work on the divine character of the Venetian 
republic, which he cites in his "Enarratio Brevis," 
but which has not been preserved. (7) " De Medico 
Hebneo Enarratio Apologiea," ib. 1588. Thisapolo- 
getical work, which defends not only Jewish phy- 
sicians, but Jews in general (sec some extracts trans- 
lated in Winter and Wiinsche, "Die jQdische 
Litteratur," iii. 698 et $cq.) t earned much praise from 
Roman patricians, such as Aldus Manutius the 
Younger, whose letter of commendation is prefixed 
to the book. 

Bibliography: Wolf, BihL llehr. 1. 311-313; Jost, AnnaUn y 
1839. p. 223: Gratz, Gese/i.ix.504 ; 11 Yessillo I*rarfitieo,1875, 
p. 175; 1876, p. 319; Berliner's Magazin, 1*75, p. 48; Stein- 

Hist o i re des Medee insJu */s, i . 150- 1 53. 

I. Br. 

Elijah de Pomis : Rabbi and director of the 
community of Rome; died as a martyr Tammuz 20, 
5058 (= July 1, 1298). When the Roman commu- 
nity was assailed under Boniface VIII., Elijah was 
the first to be seized. To save his coreligionists he 
pleaded guilty to all the charges brought against 
him, and was sentenced to trial by fire and water, 
perishing in the former, whereupon the confiscation 
of his property, the principal object of the trial, was 
carried out. Two anonymous elegies were com- 
posed on his death. 

Bibliography : Kobez *aJ Fad, iv. 30 et seq.; Berliner, Geseh. 
der Juden in Horn, ii. 57; Vogelstein and Rieger, Gexch. 
der Juden in Rom, i. 257. 

Moses de Pomis and Vitale de Pomis were 

known under the name Alatino. 

g. I. E. 

POMPEY THE GREAT (Latin, Cneius 
Pompeius Magnus) : Roman general who sub- 
jected Judea to Rome. In the year 65 B.C., during 
his victorious campaign through Asia Minor, he sent 
to Syria his legate Scaurus, who was soon obliged 
to interfere in the quarrels of the two brothers 
Aristobulus II. and Hyrcanus II. When Pompey 
himself came to Syria, two years later, the rivals, 
knowing that the Romans were as rapacious as they 
were brave, hastened to send presents. Pompey 
gradually approached Judea, however; and in the 
spring of 03, at the Lebanon, he subdued the petty 
rulers, including the Jew Silas (Josephus, "Ant." 
xiv. 3, § 2) and a certain Bacchius Judams, whose 
subjugation is represented on a coin (Reiuach, " Les 
Monnaies Juives," p. 28). Pompey then came to 
Damascus, where the claims of the three parties to 
the strife were presented for his consideration — those 
of Hyrcanus and Aristobulus in person, since the 
haughty Roman thus exacted homage from the Ju- 
dean princes, while a third claimant represented the 
people, who desired not a ruler but a theocratic re- 
public (Josephus, § 2; Diodorus, xl. 2). Pompey, 
however, deferred his decision until he should have 
subdued the Nabateeans. 

The warlike Aristobulus, who suspected the de- 
signsof the Romans, retired to the fortress of Alex- 
akdrium and resolved to offer armed resistance; but 

nt the demand of Pompey lit- sunvnd* n-d the f< r- 
tress and went to Jerusalem, iiriuidmg to <•< ntinili' 
his opposition there (.lofti-plm*, "Ant ' xiv «**. / \ . 
?'(/<//>, "B. J." i. 0, £* I, Tj) Pompey r<»llo%«l him 
by way of Jericho, aii<l as ArMi hiilimii piin d« eim-d 
it advisable to surrender to the Ruin u . lVinpey 
sent his legate <Iabinins to take po sion of tl,< 
city of Jerusalem. 

Tin's lieutenant found, howevor, tliiil tlxre \\<re 
other defenders there besides AriUohulu , w In it - 
upon Pompey declared Aiistobulus a \nm r and 
began to besiege the city. Altlmu h the party 
of Hyrcanus <»pened the $i\U s to the |{< nmn«, thf 
Temple mount, which was ^ irrisomd by the peo- 
ple's party, hud to be taken lj\ means ».f i«mts 
brought from Tyre; and it va« storm* d only ift< r u 
siege of three months, and tin n on a Mbbnth, a In u 
the Jews were not defending the wills. Jo* phus 
calls the day of the fall of Jerusalem "tin div of 
the fast" (rrjarflarij/itpa; "Ant." xiv. 4, / :* ; but in 

this he merely followed the phraseology of his (5i n- 
tile sources, which regarded the Sabbath as a fast- 
day, according to the eurrent (Jreco-Koman vi< w. 
Dio Cassius says (xxxvii. 10) correctly that it was 
on a "Cronos day," this term likewise denoting the 

The capture of the Temple mount w is accom- 
panied by great slaughter. The priests who w< re 
officiating despite the battle were massacred by the 
Roman soldiers, and many committed suicide; while 

12,000 people besides were killed. Pompey himself 
entered the Temple, but he was so awed by its sanc- 
tity that he left the treasure and the costly vessels 

untouched ("Ant." xiv. 4, §4; tt B. J." i" 7. § 6; 
Cicero, " Pro Flacco," $ 67). The leaders of the war 
party were executed, and the city and country were 
laid under tribute. A deadly blow was struck at 
the Jews when Pompey separated from Judea the 
coast cities from Raphia to Dora, as well as all the 
Hellenic cities in the east Jordan country, and the 
so-called Decapolis, besides Scythopoli* and Sa- 
maria, all of which were incorporated in the new 
province of Syria. These cities, without exception, 
became autonomous, and dated their coin* from the 
era of their "liberation " by Pompey. The small 
territory of Judea he assigned to Hyrcanus, with 
the title of "ethnarch" ("Ant/W.r. ■ "B. J. M J.<\; 
comp. "Ant." xx. 10. § 4). Aristobulus. together 
with his two sons Alexander and Antignnus, and 
his two daughters, was carried captive to Home to 
march in Pompey *s triumph, while many otlirr Jew- 
ish prisoners were taken to the same city, this cir- 
cumstance probably having much to do with the 
subsequent prosperity of the Human community. 
Pompcy's conquest of Jerusalem is £< m rally be- 
lieved to form the historical background cf the 
Psalms of Solomon. 

Bibliography: Moramsen. lWm\.< hv iW«r) ichte r \\ >\ . lit, 

113-154: Griiiz. r;w/i. 4th ed., HI. 1''"- 1--: Nl »*y,- '' h - 
3d ed., t. 204 -HM ; Hertimr. f.'mr/i. <I» r Ju left in h . t >. 
Frankforl-on-the-Main. Ixffl <\vluulml«* i!*l iut>JrwH< 
inunily of Home was fouiitl*^] bv Toin^v. »wn i:iM *M 
fall of Jerusalem nierelv inriva**'*! il* nun N rs : • p. * * c« ■ 
stein and Rieger. tr c*7i. ihr Juden \n II n, J. \ B« r in. 




in the government of Kovno. Hu>- -i. In 17 v 0Coui t 

Univ Calif - Digitized by Microsoft ® 




Nikolai Tvszkiewicz bv cutting down a forest that 
lay between New and Old Poniewicz helped mate- 
rially in enlarging the city to its present size and 
in founding the suburb Xikolayev. Poniewicz came 
under Russian dominion after the last partition of 
Poland, and it became a part of the government of 
Kovno in 1842. More than half the population of 
the cit v consists of Jews, and there is also a small Ka- 
raite community. In 1865 the number of inhabit- 
ants was 8,071, of whom 3,648 were Jews including 
70 Karaites. By 1884 the population had increased 
to 15,030, including 7,899 Jews, but in 1897 the total 
population is given as 13,044. Poniewicz has one 
synagogue built of brick and seven built of wood. 
The Karaite community also maintains a synagogue. 
Of other institutions in the city there are a govern- 
ment school for Jewish boys, one for girls, a hospi- 
tal (opened 1886), and a Talmud Torah. There are 
in addition numerous other communal institutions 
and societies. 

R. Isaac b. Joseph (d. before 1841), whose name 
is signed to an approbation in the * 'Ateret Posh " 
(Wilna, 1841), is one of the earliest known rabbis of 

Poniewicz. R. Moses Isaac, of Li bau, 
Rabbis and Plungian, and Taurogen, was prob- 

Scholars. ablv his successor, and was himself 

succeeded bv R. Hillel Mileikovski or 
Salanter. R. Elijah David Rabinovich-Te'omira 
succeeded R. Hillel. He was born in Pikeln, gov* 
ernment of Kovno, June 11, 1845, and now (1904) is 
rabbi at Jerusalem. Rabinovich occupied the posi- 
tion of rabbi of Poniewicz from 1873 to 1893, when 
he went to Mir as the successor of R. Yom-Tob Lip- 
man Roslanski. 

The poet Leon Gordon commenced his career as 
a teacher in the government school of Poniewicz, 
where he remained until 1860 and married the grand- 
daughter of one of its former prominent citizens, 
Tanhum Ahronstam (died Nov. 10, 1858; see "Ha- 
Maggid," ii.,No. 50, and Gordon's letters, Nos. 1-36). 
Isaac Lipkin, son of R. Israel Lipkin (Salanter), was 
also a resident in the city until his death. The ear- 
liest known " maggid " or preacher of Poniewicz 
wasMenahem Mendel, author of "Tamim Yahdaw " 
(Wilna, 1808). 

The district of Poniewicz, which contains twenty- 
three small towns and villages, had in 1865 7,410 
Jew T s (including 351 Karaites), of whom 59 were agri- 
culturists. In 1884 it had 34,066 Jews in a total 
population of 200,687, and in 1897 43,600 Jews in a 
total population of 210,458. 

Bibliography: Atenitzin, Statist ichenki Vremcnnxk, etc., 
series 111., No. 2, St. Petersburg, 1884; Brock haus-Efron, EnU 
zikloi>cdicha<ki Slovar, s.v.; Jildisches Volk*hlatt % St. Pe- 
tersburg, 1886, No. 33; Semenov, Russiaii Geographieal Die- 
tioyiaru. s.v.; Eisenstadt, Dor Rabhanavo wc~Sofcraw % ii. 
29, 43, 52 ; iv. 21, 34. 

II. K. P. Wl. 

CONEGLIANO): Italian -American man of letters, 
composer, and teacher; born at Ceneda, Italy, 1749; 
died 1837. lie belonged to a well-known Jewish 
family, which had produced the distinguished Ital- 
ian-Turkish diplomatist Dr. Israel Coneoliano. 
"With his parents and brothers, Da Ponte, for ma* 
terial reasons, was baptized in his fourteenth year, 
and the new name which he was destined to make 

Lorenzo da Ponte. 

famous was adopted in honor of a Catholic bishop 
who was his protector. 

At an early age he became professor of belles- 
lettres at Treviso, later at Venice, and published va- 
rious poems, including a political satire, which led to 
his exile. Da Ponte went to Austria, where lie soon 
won the favor of the emperor Joseph II., was ap- 
pointed "poet" to the imperial theaters in Vienna, 
and in that capacity met Mozart. He composed for 
the great musician the 
libretti to his famous 
operas u Manage de 
Figaro" and "Don 
Juan," and became an 
important figure in 
court, literary, and mu- 
sical circles. On the 
death of Joseph II. he 
lost favor, and after 
various vicissitudes, in- 
cluding several years 
of service as dramatist 
and secretary to the 
Italian Opera Company 
in London, he emi- 
grated to America 
early in the nineteenth 
century. Again un- 
fortunate, he was compelled to earn a subsistence 
by teaching Italian. He wrote various plays, son- 
nets, and critical essays, made a translation of the 
Psalms, and managed Italian operatic performances. 
From 1826 until his death he was professor of the Ital- 
ian language and literature at Columbia College. He 
encouraged the study and developed the apprecia- 
tion of Dante in America, and won considerable 
influence over many pupils. He became involved in 
a controversy with Prescott, the historian, concern- 
ing Italian literature, Prescott's rejoinder to him 
being preserved in the historian's "Miscellaneous 
and Critical Essaj's." 

Da Ponte was instrumental in bringing the Garcia 
Opera Company to the United States, the first to 
play there. He himself became manager of a simi- 
lar company in New York in 1833, by which an 
opera composed by him at the age of eighty was 
presented, his niece being introduced in it as the 
prima donna. His best-known work is his ex- 
tremely interesting "Memoirs," which Tuckerman 
has compared to Franklin's autobiography, and 
which appeared in various Italian editions, in a 
French translation (1860), with an introduction by 
Lamartine, and also in German form. A notice- 
able revival of interest in Da Ponte's career, which 
had been well-nigh forgotten, was called forth re- 
cently by the publication in Italy, in 1900, of his 
works, together with his biography, in an elaborate 
edition of 500 pages, and of various popular essays 
dealing with his career. His Jewish antecedents 
were commented upon in various biographies, and 
were emphasized by contemporaries for the purpose 
of injuring his position. His "Memoirs" indicate 
that even in his youth he was proficient in Hebrew, 
and the impress of his ancestry and of his early 
Jewish studies has been discerned by critics of his 
works and views. 

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Bibliography: Marehesan, Delia Vita e delle Opera di Lo- 
renzo da Ponte, Trevlso, 1900; H. E. Krehblei, Music and 
Manners: Henry Tuekerman, in Putnam's Magazine, 18M, 
xit. 527 (reprinted In Dublin University Magazine, Ixxx. 
215); Jewish Comment* Aug. 9, 1900: see also KrehblH's re- 
view of Prof. Marehesan's work In the Tribune, New York, 
Sept. 9, 1900. 

A. ]\I. J. K. 

PONTOISE : French town ; capital of an arron- 
dissement in the department of Seinc-et-Oisc. It 
contained a Jewish community as early as the elev- 
enth century. In 1179 (according to some authori- 
ties, iu 1166 or 1171) the Jews of Pontoise were ac- 
cused of the murder of a Christian child named 
Richard, whose body was taken to the Church of the 
Holy Innocents at Paris and there venerated as that 
of a martyr. A document of 1294 relates that the 
abbe of Saint Denis bought a house at Pontoise be- 
longing to a Christian heavily indebted to the Jews 
there, who were paid the purchase-money through 
the provost Robert de Raan. The Jewish names 
which appear in this document are those of Magis- 
ter Sanson, Meuns de Sezana, and Abraham de Novo 
Castello. In 1296 Philip the Fair made a gift to his 
brother Charles, Count of Valois, of Joce or Joucet, 
a Jew of Pontoise, and his children, David, Aroin, 
Haginot, Beleuce, Hanee, and Sarin. In the same 
year Joucet of Pontoise was appointed financial 
agent between the crowu and his coreligionists of 
Amiens, Senlis, and Champagne, and in 1297 Philip 
the Fair made him arbiter in a litigation which had 
arisen between himself and his brother Charles re- 
garding forty- three Jew r s whom the latter claimed as 
natives either of his county of Alencxm or of his 
lands in Bonmoulinsand Chateauneuf-en-Thymerais. 

The principal Jewish scholars of Pontoise were: 
Jacob de Pontoise ("Minhat Yehudah," pp. 4b, 
24b), Moses ben Abraham (Tosef., Pes. 67b; Hag. 
19b; Yoma 6b, 64a; Yeb. 61a), and Abraham de 
Pontoise ("Kol Bo," No. 103). 

Bibliography: Depping, LesJuifsdans le Moyen Age, pp. 
93, 146: Dom Bouquet, HUstortens de France, xxv. 768; Du- 
bois, Htetoria Ecclesice Parisiensis* ii. 142; MoreYi, Diction- 
naxre Historique, s.v. Richard; R. E. J. Ii. 24, ix. 63, xv. 
234, 250; Gross, Gallia J udaica, pp. 442-445. 

g. S. K. 

binical writer; lived at Smyrna at the end of the 
eighteenth century. He was the author of a w r ork 
entitled "Shebet Binyamin" (Salonica, 1824), on 
drawing up commercial papers. He had two sons, 
Hayyim Isaiah and Hiyya. 

Bibliography: Hazan, Ba~Ma*alot WShelomoh, pp. 31, 95; 
Franco, Histoire des Israelites de V Empire Ottoman, p. 266. 

s. 31. Fr. 

PONTREMOLI, ESDRA : Italian rabbi, poet, 
and educationist; born at Ivrea 1818; died in 1888; 
son of Eliseo Pontreinoli, rabbi of Nizza, where 
a street was named after him. In 1844 Esdra Pon- 
tremoli became professor of Hebrew in the Collegio 
Foa at Vercelli. He was for fifteen years associate 
editor of " Edueatore Israelita." He translated Luz- 
zatto's " Derek Erez " into verse under the title "II 
Falso Progresso " (Padua, 1879). 

Bibliography: II Vessillo Israelitico. 1888. 


PONTREMOLI, HIYYA : Turkish rabbinical 
author; died at Smyrna in 1832; son of Benjamin 

Pontremoli. Hiyya Pontrcinoli wrote, among other 
works, the "Zappihit bi-Debash," a collection of 
rcsponsa on Orah Unyyim. 

Bibliography: Hiizim, Ua-Ma\itot U-Sk+tumuh.w 31 *&* 
Franco, llUUiirt dc* teraHiU* dt VKinjurr (jUoumm. \>'. 


M. Fu. 

POOR, RELIEF OF. See Ciiaiuty. 
POOR LAWS. See Citaimty. 

POPES, THE: The Roman Church does not 
claim any jurisdiction over person** nho have not 
been baptized; therefore the relations of the popes, 
as the heads of the Church, to the Jews have liiei-n 
limited to rules regarding the political, commercial, 
and social conditions under which Jews might reside 
in Christian states. As sovereigns of the Papal States 
the popes further had the right to legislate on the 
status of their Jewish subjects. Finnlly, voluntary 
action was occasionally taken by the popes on be- 
half of the Jews who invoked their aid in times of 
persecution, seeking their mediation as the highest 
ecclesiastical authorities. The general principles 

governing the popes in their treat men l 

General of the Jews are practically identical 
Principles, with those laid down in the Justinian 

Code: (1) to separate them from social 
intercourse with Christians as far as possible; (2) to 
prevent them from exercising any authority over 
Christians, either in a public (as oflicials) or a pri- 
vate capacity (as masters or employers); (3) to ar- 
range that the exercise of the Jewish religion should 
not assume the character of a public function. On 
the other hand, however, the popes have always 
condemned, theoretically at least, (1) acts of violence 
against the Jews, and (2) forcible baptism. 

The history of the relations between the popes 
and the Jews begins with Gregory I. (590-004), who 
may be called the tirst pope, inasmuch as his author- 
ity was recognized by the whole Western Church. 
The fact that from the invasion of the Lombards 
(568) and the withdrawal of the Byzantine troops 
the Roman population was without a visible head of 
government made the Bishop of Home, the highest 
ecclesiastical dignitary who happened to he at the 
same time a Roman noble, the natural protector of 
the Roman population, to which the Jews ako he- 
longed. Still, even before this time, Pope Gelatins 
is mentioned as having recommended a Jew, Tele- 
sinus, to one of his relatives as a very reliable man, 
and as having given a decision in the case of a 
Jew against a slave who claimed to have been a 
Christian and to have been circumcised by his mas- 
ter against his will (Mausi, " Concilia. M viii. 131; 
Migne, "Patrologia Orstco Latina." lix. 146; Yogel- 
stein and Rieger, "Gcseh. tier J mien in Rom." I. 
127-128). In the former instance the pope acted 
merely as a private citizen; in the latter he was 
most likely called upon as an ecclesiastical expert to 
give a decision in a local affair. The legend may 
also be quoted which makes of the apostle Pel* r 
an enthusiastic Jew who nurely pretend* d zeal 
for Christianity in order to assist his persecute 
coreligionists (Jellinck, " B. H." v. 60-62, vi. 9-10; 
Vogelstein and Rieger, I.e. i. 165-16S; "Allg. Zeit. 
des Jud." 1903). 

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Nevertheless, the history proper of the popes iu 
their relation to the Jews begins, as said above, with 
Gregory I. He often protected the Jews against 

violence and unjust trcatmeut on the 

Gregory part of oilicials, and condemued forced 
the Great, baptism, but he advised at the same 

time the winning of the Jews over to 
Christianitv bv offeriutr material advantages. Very 
often he condemned the holding of Christian slaves 
by Jews(Griitz, "Gesch."v. 43; Vogelstein and Rie- 
ger, l.c.i. 132-13.1). A very obscure order is contained 
in a letter of Pope Nicholas I. to Bishop Arsenius of 
Orta, to whom he prohibits the use of Jewish gar- 
ments. Leo VII. answered the Archbishop of JMa- 
yence, who asked whether it was right to force the 
Jews to accept baptism, that he might give them 
the alternative of accepting Christianity or of emi- 
grating (Arouius, " Regesten v ; comp. Vogelstein 
and Rieger. I.e. i. 139). Axacletus II. (antipope), 
whose claim to the papal throne was always con- 
tested, was of Jewish descent, and this fact was used 
by his opponents in their attacks upon him. Bene- 
dict VIII. had a number of Jews put to death on 
the ground of au alleged blasphemy against Jesus 
■which was supposed to have been the cause of a de- 
structive cyclone and earthquake (c. 1020; Vogel- 
stein and Rieger, I.e. i. 213). 

In the bitter tight between Gregory VII. and the 
German emperor Henry IV. the pope charged the 
emperor with favoritism to the Jews, and at a synod 
held at Rome in 1078 he renewed the canonical laws 
which prohibited giving Jews power over Chris- 
tians; this necessarily meant that Jews might not be 
employed as tax-farmers or mint-masters. Calixtus 
II. (1119-24) issued a bull in which he strongly con- 
demued forced baptism, acts of violence against the 
lives and the property of the Jews, and the desecra- 
tion of their synagogues and cemeteries (e. 1120). 
In spite of the strict canonical prohibition against 
the employment of Jews in public capacities, some 
popes engaged their services as financiers and phy- 
sicians. Thus Pope Alexander III. employed Jehiel, 
a descendant of Nathan ben Jehiel, as his secretary 
of treasury (Vogelstein aud Rieger, I.e. i. 22.1). 

The extreme in the hostile enactments of the 
popes against the Jews was reached under Inno- 
cent III. (1198-1216), who was the most powerful 
of the medieval popes, and who convened the 

Fourth Lateran Council (1215); this 

Innocent council renewed the old canonical pro- 
Ill, hibitions against trusting the Jews 

with public offices and introduced the 
law demanding that Jews should wear a distinctive 
sign on their garments (see Badge). The theolog- 
ical principle of the pope was that the Jews should, as 
though so many Cains, be held up as warning exam- ■ 
pies to Christians. Nevertheless he protected them 
against the fury of the French Crusaders (Gratz, 
I.e. vii. 5; Vogelstein and Rieger, I.e. i. 228-230). 
Gregory IN., who in various official documents in- 
sisted on the strict execution of the canonical laws 
against the Jews, was humane enough to issue the 
bull "Etsi Judrcorum" (1233; repeated in 1235), in 
which he demanded that the Jews in Christian coun- 
tries should be treated with the same humanity as that 
with which Christians desire to be treated in heathen 

lauds. His successor, Innocent IV., ordered the burn- 
ing of the Talmud in Paris (1244); but Jewish his- 
tory preserves a grateful memory of him on account 
of his bull declariug the Jews innocent of the charge 
of using Christian blood for ritual purposes (see 
Blood Accrs.vriox). This bull was evidently the 
result of the affair of Fulda (1238), concerning which 
Emperor Frederick II. also issued a warning. The 
defense of the Jews against the same charge was 
undertaken by Gregory N., in his bull "Sicut Ju- 
da3is" (Oct. 7/1272; Stern, " Urkuudliehe BeitrUge," 
i. 5). 

The relations of the popes to the Jews in the sub- 
sequent two centuries present a rather monotonous 
aspect. They issued occasional warnings against vio- 
lence, threatened the princes who allowed the Jews 
to disregard the canonical laws concerning badges or 
concerning the employment of Christian servants, 
but conferred minor favors on certain Jews. As a 
typical instance, it may be noted that Boniface VIII., 
when the Jews did him homage, insulted them by 
returning behind his back the copy of the Torah 
presented to him, after making the oft-repeated 
remark about reverence for the Law but condemna- 
tion of its misrepresentation. 

The excitemeut of the Church during the Hussite 
movement rendered the Jews apprehensive, and 
through Emperor Sigisinund, who was heavily in- 
debted to them, they obtained from Pope Martin V. 
(1417-31; elected by the Council of Constance after 
the Great Schism) various bulls (1418 and 1422) in 
which their former privileges were confirmed and in 
which he exhorted the friars to use moderate lan- 
guage. In the last years of his pon- 
Martin V. tificate, however, he repealed several 

of his ordinances, charging that they 
had been obtained under false pretenses (Stern, I.e. 
i. 21-43). Eugene IV. and Nicholas V. returned to 
the policy of moderation, especially in advising the 
friars against inciting mobs to acts of violence. 
Sixtus IV., while sanctioning the Spanish Inquisi- 
tion, repeatedly endeavored (1482 and 1483) to check 
its fanatic zeal aud prohibited the worship of the 
child Simon of Trent, whom the Jews of Trent were 
falsely accused of having murdered (1474). He also 
employed several Jews as his physicians. 

Alexander VI. (Borgia), known in history as the 
most protligate of all the popes, was rather favor- 
ably inclined toward the Jews. It is especially note- 
worthy that he allowed the exiles from Spain to set- 
tle in his states, and that he fined the Jewish com- 
munity of Rome for its objection to the settlement in 
its midst of these unfortunates. Occasionallv, how- 
ever, he ordered the imprisonment of Maranos; and 
on the whole it seems that the pope's leniency was 
prompted by his greed. Leo X. also, the humanist 
on the throne of St. Peter, was in general favorably 
inclined toward the Jews, whom he employed not 
only as physicians, but also as artists and in other 
positions at his court. The beginning of the Ref- 
ormation inlluenced his action in the controversy 
between Reuciilin and Pfeffekkorn, which he 
settled in such a way as not to give any encourage- 
ment to those who demanded reforms in the Church. 

Clement VII. (1523-34) is known in Jewish history 
for the interest which he took in the case of the Mea- 

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sianic pretender David Reubeni, and for the protec- 
tion which he granted to Solomon Molko, who, as 
an apostate, had forfeited his life to the Inquisi- 
tion. He also issued an order to protect the Maranns 
in Portugal against the Inquisition (1533 and 1534). 

The Reformation and the consequent strictness in 
enforcing the censorship of books reacted on the 

condition of the Jews in so far as con- 
The Ref- verts from Judaism eagerly displayed 
ormation. their zeal for their new faith by de- 
nouncing rabbinical literature, and es- 
pecially the Talmud, as hostile to Christianity. Con- 
sequently Pope Julius III. issued an edict which 
demanded the burning of the Talmud (1553) and 
prohibited the printing of it by Christians. In 
Home a great many copies were publicly burned 
(Sept. 9, 1553). The worst was yet to come. Paul 
IV. (1555-59), in his bull "Cum nimis absurdnm" 
(July 12, 1555), not only renewed all canonical re- 
strictions against the Jews— as those? prohibiting 
their practising medicine among Christians, em- 
ploying Christian servants, and the like— but he 
also restricted them in their commercial activity, 
forbade them to have more than one synagogue in 
any city, enforced the wearing of the yellow hat, 
refused to permit a Jew to be addressed as u signor," 
and finally decreed that they should live in a ghetto. 
The last measure was carried out in Rome with un- 
relenting cruelty. 

After a short period of respite under Paul IV. 's 
successor, Pius IV. (1559-66), who introduced some 
alleviations in his predecessor's legal enactments, 
Pius V. (1566-72) repealed all the concessions of his 
predecessor, and not only renewed the laws of Paul 
IV., but added some new restrictions, as the pro- 
hibition to serve Jews by kindling their fires on the 

Sabbath; he excluded them from a 

Pius V. great number of commercial pursuits, 

and went so far in his display of 
hatred that he would not permit them to do homage, 
although that ceremony was rather a humiliation 
than a distinction (1566). Three years later (Feb. 
26, 1569) the pope decreed the expulsion of the Jews 
from his territory within three mouths from the date 
of the promulgation of the edict, and while the 
Jews of Rome and Ancona were permitted to re- 
main, those of the other cities were expelled. They 
were permitted to return by the next pope, Gregory 
XIII. (1572-85), who, while he showed an occasional 
leniency, introduced a large number of severe re- 
strictions. Thus, the Jews were prohibited from 
driving through the streets of the city, and they 
were obliged to send every week at least 150 of their 
number to listen to the sermons of a conversion- 
ist preacher (1584). The terrible custom of keep- 
ing Jews in prison for a certain time each year, and 
of fattening them and forcing them, for the amuse- 
ment of the mob, to race during the carnival, when 
mud was thrown at them, is mentioned (1574) as 
"an old custom " for the first time during Gregory's 


Sixtus V. (1585-90), again, was more favorable to 
the Jews. Aside from some measures of relief in 
individual instances, he allowed the printing of the 
Talmud after it had been subjected to censorship 
(1586). The policy of succeeding popes continued 

to vary. Clement VI II MW U\n\ } kKa iii i mimI an 
edict (if expulsion (1.7j;S). whii h was .til) < pn ntly 
repealed, and in l In- sunn* \e ar prohibite d tin print- 
ing of the Talmud. 1'ndtr Chun nt X Hi7u 7fl) 
a pupal (ndcr suspended the Inquisition in 1'ortu 
gal (U>74); but an attempt to inter* st tin pop* in 
the lot <>f the .lews of Vienna, who wen <\p«H«d 
in 1070, failed. Tin* worst f< iture of the* iiinn* r 
ous (Usabilities of the Jews under pip.d doinin 
ion was the closing of the gate* of tin Kui,an 
ghetto during the niirht. N-ve re p<n;dti<s aw do d 
a .lew leaving the ghetto after dark, or a < hristim 
entering it. 

Pius VI. (1775-1*00) issued an ediet whieh re- 
newed all the restrictions enact* d from th • thirt* t n'h 

century. The cen^orshipof books w is 
Pius VI. strictly enforced; Jews w< re n< i pi r- 

mitted any tombstones in tin ir gn\< 
yards; they were forbidden to remodel or enkip* 
their synagogues; Jews might not hivenu\ inter- 
course with converts to Christianity , th< v were ie- 
quired to wear the yellow badge on tin ir h its 1 oth 
within and without the ghetto; they wen not | « r- 
mitted to have shops outside the ghetto, or eru r i»«* 
Christian nurses for their infants; they nii^ht not 
drive through the city of Home; and their attuid 
ance at conversionist sermons was enfore< d. Win n 
under Pins VI. 'a successors the pressure of other 
matters caused the authorities to become ne*glig«»nt 
in the fulfilment of their duties, these rules w«r 
often recn forced with extreme rigor; such \vn* t In- 
case under Leo XII. (1S20). 

Pius IX. (1846-78), during the first two year* of 
his pontificate, was evidently inclined to ad >pt a 
liberal attitude, but after his return from < \il< lie 
adopted with regard to the Jews the same pi lit y 
as he pursued in general. * lie condemned as abom 
inable laws all measures which gave political frie - 
dom to them, and in the case of the abductijn of 
the child Moktara (1858), whom a senant uirl 
pretended to have baptized, as well as in the sim- 
ilar case of the boy Fortunate) CoPn(l s 04 . showed 
his approval of the medieval laws as* enaetnl by 
Innocent III. He maintained the ghetto in Kmnp 
until it was abolished by the Italian occupation of 

Rome (1870). 

His successor, Leo XIII. (1878-1903), was the first 
pope who exercised no territorial jurisdiction ovrr 
the Jews. His influence, nevertheless, was | re ju- 
dicial to them, lie encouraged anti-Semitism by 
bestowing distinctions on leading anti-Se mitie puli 
ticians and authors, as Lueger and Prima nt he r< 
fused to interfere in behalf of Captain Phmh * ur 
to issue a statement against the blond act i< i. 
In an otlicial document he denounced Juw* fi<< 
masons, and anarchists as the < in mu« of the Cli ireh. 

Pius X. (elected VMi) is not sutliric ntly known to 
permit a judgment in re* card to his attitud. toward 
the Jews. He received Hkuzl and *omeotl#< r .lew* 
in audience, but in his diocese of Mlmtua. I>< f< n he 
became pope, he had pmhibiteel the* e e h hmtion cf i 
solemn mass on the king's birthday because- the city 
council which asked for it had attended a cvU I « i- 
tion in the synagogue. 

BniLJOeiRAPliv: Berliner, Cfch. <Ur Jt< f>;n in U i , Franli- 
fort-on-ttae-Muin, 1^33: YOKelsti-tn and UUpr, <*-/'. r 

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Juden in Rnm % Berlin, 1895; Stern. Urkundliehc Bcitrtige 
iiber die Stellung der PUpste zu den Juden, Kiel. 1893-95 ; 
Pastor, Gesch.derPdpnte ; Mausi, Co7iciUa % Bidlarium Mag- 


The following is a partial account of the more im- 
portant bulls issued by popes with reference to the 
Jews up to the middle of the eighteenth century: 

1120. Calixtus II. issues bull beginning "Sicut Judaeis non " and 
enumerating privileges of the Jews (Vogelstein and 
Rieger, "Gesch. derJuden in Rom," i. 219 [hereafter 
cited as V. R.]). 

1145. Eugenius III., ordering Jews to remit interest on debts of 
Crusaders while absent (Baronius, " Annales "). 

1191. Clement III. confirms the bull "Sicut Jurists non" (Rios, 
" Hist/* ii. 469 [hereafter cited as Rios]). 

1199 (Sept. 15). Innocent III. confirms "Sicut Judaeis non." 

1207 (Jan.). Innocent III., ordering Jews of Spain to pay tithes 
on possessions obtained from Christians (Rios, i. 300). 

1216 (Nov. 6). Honorius III. in favor of German Jews, confirm- 
ing the "Sicut Judsis non" of Clement III. (V. R. 

1219. Honorius III., permitting the King of Castile to suspend 
the wearing of the badge (Aronius, "Regesten," i.362). 

122$ (Oct. 21). Gregory IX., remitting interest on Crusaders* 
debts to Jews and grantiug a " moratorium " for repay- 
ment (V. R. t. 233). 

1233 (April 6). Gregory IX. issues the bull " Etsi Judaeorum," 

demanding same treatment for Jews in Christian lands 
as Christians receive in heathen lands (V. R. i. 234). 
1233. Gregory IX., in bull " Sufllcere debuerat," forbids Chris- 
tians to dispute on matters of faith with Jews (" Bulla- 
rium Romanum," iii. 479). 

1234 (June 5). Gregory IX. to Thibaut of Navarre, enforcing 

the badge (Jacobs, " Sources," Nos. 1227, 13S8). 
1235. Gregory IX. confirms "Sicut Judaeis non." 
1239 (June 20). Gregory IX., confiscating all copies of Talmud 

(V. R. i. 237). 
1240. Gregory IX., ordering all Jewish books In Castile to be 

seized on first Saturday in Lent while Jews were in 

synagogue (Rios, i. -363). 
1244 (March 9). Bull " Impia gens" of Innocent IV., ordering 

Talmud to be burned (Zunz, " S. P." p. 30). 

1246 (Oct. 21 ) . Innocent I V. confirms " Sicut Judaeis non." 

1247 (May 28). Innocent IV. issues the " Divina justltia nequa- 

quam," against blood accusation. 

1247 (July 5). Innocent IV. issues the " Lacrymabilem Judoeo- 
rum Alemanias," against blood accusation (Baronius, 
"Annales," 1247, No. 84; Stobbe, "Die Juden in 
Deutschland," p. 185; Aronius, " Regesten," No. 243). 

1250 (April 15). Innocent IV., refusing permission to Jews of 
Cordova to build a new synagogue (Aronius, " Regesten," 
p. 369) . 

Innocent IV., expelling Jews from Vienne (Ray- 
" Annales"; V. R. i. 239). 

Innocent IV. confirms " Sicut Judceis non." 
Clement IV. issues the "Turbato corde " calling 
upon Inquisition to deal not only with renegades, but 
also with the Jews who seduce them from the faith 
(" Bullarium Romanum," iii. 78G ; V. It. i. 243). 

1272. Gregory X. confirms the " Sicut Judaeis non " ( V. R. i. 245, 
with edition of a denial of blood accusation: Stern, 
" Crkundliche Beltrage Gber die Stellung der Piipste zu 
den Juden," p. 5). 

1272 (July 7). Gregory X., against blood accusation (Scberer, 
" Rechtsverhaitnisse der Juden," p. 431). 

1274. Gregory X. confirms " Sicut Judaeis non." 

1278 (Aug. 4). Nicholas III. issues the " Vineam sorce," order- 
ing conversion sermons to Jews (" Bullarium Roma- 
num," iv. 45). 

1286 (Nov. 30). Bull of Honorius IV. to Archbishop of York 
and of Canterbury, against Talmud (Raynaldus, "An- 
nales"; Scherer, " Rechtsverhaitnisse," p. 48). 

1291 (Jan. 30). Nicholas IV. issues the "Orat mater ecclesia" 
to protect the Roman Jews from oppression (Theincr, 
" Codex Diplomaticus," i. 315; V. R. i. 252). 

1299 (June 13). Boniface VIII. issues bull "Exhlbita nobis," 
declaring Jews to be included among powerful persons 
who might be denounced to the Inquisition without the 
name of the accuser being revealed (V. It. 1. 251). 

1317. John XXII. orders Jews to wear badge on breast, and issues 
bull against ex-Jews (Zunz, "S. I\" p. 37). 




(July 23). 

(Sept. 25). 
(July 26). 

1320 (June 28). John XXII., ordering that converts shall retain 
their property ("Bullarium Romanum," III., ii. 181; 
Ersch and G ruber, " Eneyc." section ii., part 27, p. 149; 
V. R. i. 305). 

1320 (Sept. 4). John XXII. issues to French bishops bull against 

1337 (Aug. 29). Benedict XII. issues the bull " Ex zelo fldei," 
promising inquiry into host-tragedy of Pulka (Raynal- 
dus, "Annales" ; Scherer, "Rechtsverhaitnisse," p. 368) . 

1315 (July 5). Clement VI., against forcible baptism. 

1348 (July 4). Clement VI. confirms "Sicut Judaus non." 

1348 (Sept. 26). Clement VI., ordering that Jews be not forced 
into baptism : that their Sabbaths, festivals, synagogues, 
and cemeteries be respected ; that no new exactions be im- 
posed (Aronius, "Regesten," ii.200; V.R. i.313; Raynal- 
dus, " Annales," 1348, No. 33 ; Gratz, " Geseh." viii. 351). 

1365 (Juiy 7). Urban V. confirms "Sicut Juda?is non." 

ia^9 (July 2). Boniface IX. confirms " Sicut Judieis non." 

1390 (July 17). John of Portugal orders bull of Boniface IX. of 
July 2, 1389, to be published in all Portuguese towns 
(Kayserling, " Gesch. der Juden in Portugal," p. 39). 

1397 (April 6). Boniface IX. confirms by bull grant of Roman 
citizenship to the Jewish physician Manuele and his son 
Angelo (V. R. i. 317). 

1402 (April 15). Boniface IX., granting special privileges to 
Roman Jews— reducing their taxes, ordering their 
Sabbath to be protected, placing them under the juris- 
diction of the Curia, protecting them from oppression 
by olllcials ; all Jews and Jewesses dwelling in the city 
to be regarded and treated as Roman citizens (V. R. i. 

1415 {May 11). Benedict XIII., "Etsi doetoribus gentium," 
against Talmud or any other Jewish book attacking 
Christianity (Rios, ii. 626-653; see years 1434 and 1442, 

1417. Bull against Talmud (Jost. " Gesch. der Israeliten," vii. 60). 

1418 (Jan. 31). Martin V., forbidding the forcible baptism of 
Jews or the disturbance of their synagogues (Ray- 
naldus, "Annales" ; V. R. i. 4). 

1420 (Nov. 25). Martin V. issues to German Jews bull "Con- 
cessum Judaeis," confirming their privileges (V. R. I. 5). 
No Jew under twelve to be baptized without his own and 
his parents' consent (Scherer, "Rechtsverhaitnisse," p. 

1420 (Dec. 23). Martin V. issues "Licet Judaeoruni omnium," 

in favor of Austrian Jews. 

1421 (Feb. 23). Martin V., in favor of Jews and against anti- 

Jewish sermons ; permits Jewish physicians to practise 
(V. R. i. 5). 

1422 (Feb. 20), Martin V. confirms "Sicut Judaeis non." 

1423 (June 3). Martin V. issues bull "Sedes apostolica," re- 

newing the law regarding badge (V. R. i. 8). 
1426 (Feb. 14). Martin V. issues bull against Jews (Zunz, W S, 
P." p. 48). 

1429 (Feb. 15). Martin V. issues the "Quamquam Judaei," which 
places Roman Jews under the general civic law, protects 
them from forcible baptism, and permits them to teach 
in the school (Rodocachi, " 11 Ghetto Romano," p. 
147; V.R. i. 8). 

1432 (Feb. 8). Eugenius IV. Issues a bull of protection for Jews, 
renewing ordinances against forcible baptism and dis- 
turbance of synagogues and graveyards (V. R. i. 10). 

1434 (Feb. 20). Eugenius IV., prohibiting ant i- Jewish sermons 
(V. R. i. 11). 

1442. Bull of Benedict XIII. published at Toledo (Rios, iii. 44). 

1442 (Aug. 8). Eugenius IV. issues a bull against Talmud (shortly 
after withdrawn; Zunz, "S. P." p. 49). The Jews 
were ordered to confine their reading of Scripture to the 
Pentateuch; handwork was forbidden to them; no 
Jews were permitted to be judges (Rieger, 11). 

1447 (Nov. 2). Nicholas V. confirms "Sicut Judaeis non." 

1451 (Feb. 25). Bull of Nicholas V. prohibiting social inter- 
course with Jews and Saracens (" Vita Nicolai," v. 91; 
V. R. i. 496). 

1451 (May 28). Bull of Nicholas V., similar to that of Aug. 8, 
1442, to extend to Spain and Italy; the proceeds to be 
devoted to the Turkish war (V. R. i. 16). 

1451 (Sept. 21). Nicholas V. issues the "Roraanus pontifex," re- 
lieving the dukes of Austria from ecclesiastical censure 
for permitting Jews to dwell there (Scherer, "Rechts- 
verhaitnisse," pp. 423-425). 

1472 (Feb. 21). Sixtus IV., ordering taxation of Roman Jews at 
a tithe during the Turkish war, a twentieth otherwise 
(compounded for 1,000 gulden in 1488), and a carnival 
tax of 1,100 gulden (V, R. i. 126). 

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1481 (April 3). Sixtus IV., ordering all Christian princes to 

restore all fugitives to Inquisition of Spain (ltfos, ill. 

379; V. H. I. 21). 
1481 (Oct. 17). Bull of Sixtus IV. appointing Tomasde Torque- 

raada Inquisitor -general of Avignon, Valencia, and 

Catalonia (Rios, iii. 256). 
1500 (June 1). Alexander VI., demanding for three years for 

lhe Turkish war one-twentieth (see 1472) of Jewish 

property throughout the world (V. It. i. 28, 120). 
1524 (April 7). Clement VII. issues bull in favor of Maranos 

(V. It. i. 59). 

li\31 (Dec. 17). Bull introducing Inquisition Into Portugal at 
Evora, Coimbra, and Lisbon (Gratz, "Gesch." ii. 2*56). 

1540. Paul III., granting Neo-Christians family property except 
that gained by usury, also municipal rights, but must 
not marry among themselves or be buried among Jews 
(V. It. i. 63). 

1540 (May 12). Paul III. Issues "Licet JudiBi," against blood 

1554 (Aug. 31). Julius III., in bull " Pastoris jeterni vices," 

imposes tax of ten gold ducats on two out of the 115 
synagogues in the Papal States (Rodocachi, " II Ghetto 
Romano," p. 228 : V. It. i. 145). 

1555 (March 23). Paul IV., claiming ten ducats for each syna- 

gogue destroyed under bull of July 12, 1555 (V. It.i. 155). 
1555 (July 12). Paul IV. issues the " Cum nimfcs absnrdum " for 
Jews of Rome, which renews most of the Church laws, 
including the order to wear the yellow hat and veil, not 
to hold any real property (to be sold within six months), 
not to trade except in second-hand clothing, not to count 
fragments of month in reckoning interest; to sell 
pledges only eighteen months after loan and to repay 
surplus, to keep business books in Italian in Latin script, 
to live only in specified quarters with only two gates, 
not to be called "Signor," to maintain only one syna- 
gogue (V.R.i. 152-153). 

1555 (Aug. 8) . Bull of Paul IV.: Jews may dispense with yellow 
hat on journeys; dwell outside ghettos when the latter 
are crowded ; acquire property outside ghettos to extent 
of 1,500 gold ducats ; Jews of Rome are released from 
unpaid taxes on payment of 1,500 scuti; Jews may have 
shops outside ghetto ; rents in ghettos may not be raised 
(V.R.i. 161-162). 

1567 (Jan. 19). Bull of Pius V., " Cum nos nuper," orders Jews 
to sell all property in Papal States (V. R. i. 164). 

1569 (Feb. 26). Bull of Pius V., " Hebrseoram gens," expels 
Jews from the Papal States, except Rome and Ancona, in 
punishment for their crimes and hfc magic" kV. R. i. 168). 

1581 (March 30). Bull "Multos adhuc ex Christianis " renews 
Church law against Jewish physicians (V. R. I. 174). 

1581 (Junel). Gregory XIII. issues the "Antiqua Judieorum 
improbitas," giving jurisdiction over Jews of Rome to 
Inquisition in cases of blasphemy, protection of heretics, 
possession of forbidden works, employment of Christian 
servants (V. R. i. 174). 

1584 (Sept. 1). Bull '"Sancta mater ecclesia" orders 150 Jews 
(100 Jews, 50 Jewesses) to attend weekly conversionist 
sermons (Zunz, "S. P." p. 339; Jost, "Gesch. der Is- 
raeliten," iii. 210; V. R. 1. 173). 

1586 (Oct. 22). Bull of Sixtus V., favorable to Jews (Gratz, 

%4 Gesch."ix. 482). 

1587 (June 4). Sixtus V., granting Magino di Gabriel of Venice 

the monopoly of silk-manufacture in Papal States for 
sixty years, and ordering five mulberry -trees to be 
planted in .every rubbio of land (V. R. i. 181). 

1592 (Feb. 28). Bull of Clement VIII.. "Cum sn?pe accidere," 

forhidding Jews to deal in new commodities (V. R. i. 

1593 (March 8). Bull of Clement VIII., in favor of Turkish 

Jews (Gratz, "Gesch." ix. 486). 

1604 (Aug. 23). Bull of Clement VI1L, in favor of Portuguese 
Maranos (Gratz, "Geseh." ix. 500). 

1610 (Aug. 7). Paul V., "Exponi nobis nuper fecistis," regu- 
lates dowries of Roman Jews (V. R. i. 196). 

1658 (Nov. 15). Alexander VII., in bull "Ad ea per qua?," orders 
Roman Jews to pay rent even for unoccupied houses 
in ghetto, because Jews would not hire houses from 
which Jews had been evicted (V. R. i. 215). 

1674 (Oct. 3) . Clement X., suspending operations of Portuguese 
Inquisition against Maranos (Gratz, "Gesch." x. 276 ; 
V. R. i. 223). 

1679 (May 27). Innocent XI. suspends grand inquisitor of Por- 
tugal on account of his treatment of Maranos (Gratz. 
tl Gesch."x.279). 

X.— 9 


(Feb. 28). Bull " Postrcmo mense superloris anni" of 
Benedict XIV. confirms decision of Roman Curia of Oct. 
22, 1597, that a Jewish child, once baptized, even against 
canonical law, must be brought up under Christian in- 
fluences (V. It. i. 242-245; Jost, "Geseh." xl. 250 u.). 


POPP^A SABINA: Mistress and, afler 62 
C.K., second wife of the emperor Nero; died 65. She 
had a certain predilection for Judaism, and is char- 
acterized by Josephus ("Ant." xx. 8, § 11 ; u Vila." 
§ 3) as Oeooefti/c ("religious"). Some Jews, such as 
the actor Alityros, were well received at court, 
and Popprea was always ready to second Jewish pe- 
titions before the emperor. In 64 Josephus went to 
Rome to obtain the liberation of some priests related 
to him who had been taken captive to that city for 
some minor offense. With the help of Alityros, Jo- 
sephus succeeded in gaining the intercession of the 
empress, and returned home with his friends, bear- 
ing rich gifts with him. 

When King Agrippa added a tower to the ancient 
palace of the Ilasmoneans, at Jerusalem, that he 
might overlook the city and the Temple and watch 
the ceremonial in the sanctuary, the priests cut off 
his view by a high wall. He then appealed to the 
procurator Festus, but a Jewish delegation sent to 
Rome succeeded through Poppa?a's intercession in 
having the case decided in favor of the priests. The 
last procurator, Gessius Florus (64-66), owed his ap- 
pointment to the empress, who was a friend of his 
wife Cleopatra. 

BiBLiOGRAPnv: Gratz, Gesch. 2d ed., iii. 331 rt zeq.: Fried- 
lander, Darstellungen am der Sittengesehichte Rom.% i. 34*; 
Hertzberg, Geseh. des ROmixehcn Kaixcrr ticket pp. 237 ct 
seq.x Schiller, Getch. des R6misehen Kateerrcichrs I'ntcr 
iVero, p. 528: Vogelstein and Ri ege r, Gesch. der Juden in 
Rom, i. 21, 74, 101 ; Schurer, Geseh. 1. 57, 489, 494 ct seq.; ii. 


E. N. 

POPPER, DAVID : Austrian violoncellist ; 
born at Prague June 18, 1845; a pupil of Golter- 
mann at the Conservatorium in that cit v. At the ace 
of eighteen he made a tour through Germany, and 
was at once acknowledged to be one of the leading 
cellists of his time. On his return Popper, on the 
recommendation of Hans von Btilow, was appointed 
a member of Prince von Hechingen's orchestra at 
L5wenburg. He made frequent tours through Ger- 
many, Holland, Switzerland, and England, every- 
where winning enthusiastic applause: and in Vienna 
he received an appointment as solo violoncellist in 
the court orchestra. He later became prominently 
known as one of the principal members of the Hell- 
mesberger Quartet. In 1872 he married Sophie 
Menter, the pianist, from whom he was divorced in 


Since 1873 Popper has traveled considerably, re- 
siding in London, Paris, St. Petersburg, Vienna, and 
Berlin. He is now (1905) professor at the Landes 
musikakademie in Budapest. Among his composi- 
tions for the cello, most of which enjoy great pop- 
ularity, the following may be mentioned as the 
most noteworthy: u Romance. " op. 5; "Serenade 
Orientalc," op. 18; "Nocturne," op. 22; " Gavotte, * 
op. 23 (arranged for violin by L. Auer): "Seeond 
Nocturne," op. 32 (arranged for violin by E. Saurei ); 
"Tarantello," op. 33: "Elfentauz," op. 39 (arranged 
for violin by C. Halir); "Spauische Tanze," op. 54; 

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Popper . 

Porges von Portneim 



"Spinnlied." op. .Vi: "Requiem/* op. GO; " bnga- 
risehe Khapsodie," op. s . 

Bini.iiMiRAPilY: Musikali+vhcs U'uchciiblatL Leipsic, vi. 335; 
Kkmaun. Mn^iK- Lew ikon. 

J. bo. 

POPPER, JOSEF: Austrian engineer and au- 
thor-, born Feb. 22, LS3\ at Koiin, Bohemia. Besides 
essay < on machinery published in the "Sitzungs- 
berichle der Kaiserliehen Akadeniie der Wissen- 
sehaftcn," and in several technicnl journals, he has 
written: "DasUeeht zu Leben nnd die Ptlichf zn 
Stcrbcn" (1^7 S ); "Hie Physikalisehen Grundsatze 
der Elcktrischen Kra ft Libert railing ,f (1884); "Fiirst 
Bismarck und der Autisemitismns " (1886); "Die 
Teehnischcn Fort>chritte nach Hirer Acsthetischen 
und Kulturcllcn Hedeutnng "(lS>'9); " Flugteehnik " 
(1**>9) ; " Phautasiecn ernes Realisten " (1S991 

Popper was the tirst to conceive the idea of the 
transmission < f electrical power; and lie explained 
it in 1S02 in a communication to the Imperial Acad- 
emy of Sciences, Vienna, which published the same 
in 1SS2. 


POPPER, SIEGFRIED: Austrian naval con* 
structor; born at Prague 184b. Educated at the 
polytechnic high schools of Prague and Carlsruhe, 
he worked for two years in machine-shops and then 
entered (1869) the Austrian navy as assistant con- 
structor. In 1902 he was appointed director of 
naval construction. In 1904 he was made naval 
constructor-general with the rank of rear-admiral. 

Popper lias supervised the building of several 
Austrian men-of-war, among them the cruisers 
"Panther," "Leopard." "Tiger," the armored cruis- 
ers "Maria Theresia," "Kaiser Karl VI.," "St. 
Georsr," and the armored battleships "Vienna," 
-Monarch," "Budapest," "Habsburg," "Arpad," 
"Babenberg," "Erzherzog Karl," and " Erzherzog 
Friedrich." The nine last named were built after 

his designs. 

F. T. II. 

* ■ 

POPPER, WILLIAM: American Orientalist; 
born at St. Louis, Mo., Oct. 29, 1874; educated at 
the public schools of Brooklyn, >\ Y., the College 
of the Citv of New York, Columbia College (A.B. 
1890 , and Columbia University (A.M. 1897; Ph.D. 
1899). In 1899 he went abroad and took postgrad- 
uate courses at the universities of Berlin, Strasburg, 
and Pari*. The year 1901-2 he spent in traveling 
through Egypt, Syria, Palestine, Hainan, the north 
Syrian desert, and Mesopotamia. 

"Returning in 1902 to New York city, Popper be- 
came connected with The Jkwisii Encyclopedia 
as associate revising editor and chief of the bureau 
of translation. In 1903, and again in 1904. he was 
appointed Gustav Gotthnl lecturer in Semitic lan- 
guages at Columbia University, 

Popper is the author of "The Censorship of He- 
brew Books" (New York, 1899). 

x F. T. It. 

POPPER, WILMA: Hungarian authoress; born 
at Raab, Hungary, May 11, 1857; educated in her 
native town. She commenced to write at an early 
age. Besides contributing numerous essays to the 
German periodicals, she has published the following 
volumes of stories and sketches: "Milrchen nnd Ge- 

sehichten," Leipsic, 1891; "Altmodische Leute," 
Dresden and Leipsic, 1894; " Miiiiuturen," ib. 1897; 
"Neue Miirchen nnd Geschichten," ib. 1898; "Son- 
derlinse f "i6. 1899; "Xieten." 16. 1900; "Gegeu i\vn 
Strom/' tb. 1902; "Die Fahne Hoch,"**. 1902; "Fra- 
tres Sumus," ib. 1903; "Fiiufe ans Einer llQlse," 

Vienna, 1903. 

F. T. II. 

* * 

COHEN : German rabbi ; born at Prague in the 
middle of the seventeenth century ; died at Frank- 
fort-on-the-Main in 1740. His father, who was a 
distinguished Talmudist, instructed him in rabbin- 
ical literature, in which he acquired great pro- 
ficiency. He was successively rabbi at Coblenz, 
Treves, Ilalberstadt, and in 1718 he was called to 
the rabbinate of Frankfort-on-the-Main. 

Poppers was the author of two works: "Shab 
Ya'akob," containing responsa divided into two vol- 
umes (Frankfort-on-thc-Main, 1742), and "Hiddu- 
shim," Talmudical novella) inserted by Shabbethai 
ben Moses in his "Minhat Kohen " (Fiirth, 1741). 

Bibliography: AzulaL Shcm ha-GeiUilinu i. 92; Carmoly.ln 
Hevue Orientate* il. 247 ; Stemscbneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1193. 

E. C I- Bu. 

KOHEN ASHKENAZI : Bohemian rabbi and 
cabalist; born at Prague; died at Jerusalem in Feb. 
or March, 1662. He studied the Cabala under Israel 
Ashkenazi and Jacob Zemah, and he wrote a great 
number of works, all in the spirit of Isaac Lnria; 
thirty-nine of them have "Or" as the beginning of 
their titles, in reference to his name "Mei'r." His 
works which have been published are: "Or Zad- 
dikim" (Hamburg, 1690), a mystical methodology, 
or exhortation to asceticism, based upon Isaac 
Lnria's writings, the Zohar, and other moral works 
(an enlarged edition of this work was published 
later under the title "Or ha-Yashar " [Fiirth, 1754]); 
"Or Pene Melek," a treatise on the mysteries of the 
prayers and commandments, condensed and pub- 
lished under the title "Sefer Kawwanot Tefillot u- 
Mizwot" (Hamburg, 1690); " Me ore Or," an alpha- 
betical arrangement of the cabalistic sacred namfcs 
found in Isaac Lnria's "Sefer ha-Kawwanot," pub- 
lished by Elijah b. Azriel, with the commentary 
" Ya'irNalib" of Nathan Mannheimer and Jacob b. 
Benjamin Wolf, under the title "Me'orot Natan " 
(Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1709); "Mesillot Hokmah " 
(Shklov, 178">), regulations and rules for the study 

of the Cabala. 

Among his unpublished works the following may 
be mentioned: "Or Hah," a commentary on the 
Zohar; "Or ha-Abukah," a treatise on the Cabala; 
"Or Zarua\" a commentary on Hayyim Vital's 
"Derek 'Ez ha-llayyim"; "OrNcr,"on the trans- 
migration of souls; "Or Zah,"on the order in which 
souls are linked together; "Derushiin 'al ha-Torah," 
homilies on the Pentateuch; " Matok ha-Or," a caba- 
listic commentary on the haggadah of the Talmud 
and Midrash Kabbah. 

Bibliography: Azulal, Slwm ha-Ged<>Um.\.l%)\ Fiirst, BiM. 
J ud. iii. 113-114 ; Steinsehuelder, Cat. Bodl. col. 1709. 

K# M. Sel. 

NATSBLATTER. See Periodicals. 

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Porges von Portheim 

PORCUPINE : Rendering adopted by many 
commentators for the Hebrew "kipped," for which 
the English versions have correctly Bittern. The 
porcupine (Hy&trix crintata) is, however, very com- 
mon in Palestine. It is considered by the natives as 
a larger species of hedgehog. Thus the Arabic 
"kunfod " (hedgehog) is often applied to the porcu- 
pine also. 

In the Talmud the porcupine is assumed to be 
referred to by the terms np)K (Hid. 122a), "kippod " 

or "kippor" (Kil. viii. 5), and ^« (B. B. 4a). In 
the last-cited passage it is related tiiat Herod put 
out the eyes of Baba b. Zuta by binding porcupine 
skin around them. The skin of the porcupine was 
also wrapped around the udders of the cow to pre- 
vent them from being sucked by animals (Shab. 54b). 

BiuiJOGRAiMiv: Tristram, Nat. Hist. p. 125; Lewysohn, Z. T. 
p. liH). 

E. G. 11. I. M. C. 

MIN: Rabbi in Prague in the seventeenth century. 
Under the title "Zikron Aharon " he wrote an intro- 
duction to the "Kizznr Ma 'a bar Yabbok " concern- 
ing the ancient Jewish customs relating to death 
and the dead, and containing also counsel for per- 
sons suffering from venereal disease. This work, 
published first at Prague in 1682, has been often 

Bibliography: Filrst, Bihl. Jud. i. 22; Benjacob, Ozar ha- 
Sefarim* p. 157 ; Stelnschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 718. 

E. C. S. O. 

TALI HIRSCH: Rabbinical author; lived at 
Jerusalem at the beginning of the seventeenth cen- 
tury. He was the author of " Darke Zij'yon " (Am- 
sterdam, 1650), written, in Judaso-German, after he 
had removed to Prague. The work is in four parts 
and is illustrated. Part 1 deals with the return to 
Palestine; part 2 with prayer; part 3 with teaching; 
and part 4 with the commemoration of the dead. 

Bibliography: Sleinschneider, Cat. Bodl. col. 1827; Furst, 
Bihl. Jud. li. 398 ; Wolf, Bihl. Hehr. in. 764 ; Benjacob, O^ar 
ha-Sefartin, p. 121, No. 538; Luncz, Jerusalem* Hi., No. 44. 

E. C. S. J. L. 

PORGES, NATHAN : German rabbi ; born at 
Prossuitz, Moravia, Dec. 21, 1848. He was edu- 
cated in his native town, at the gymnasium at 
01miitz,and at the University (Ph.D. 1869) and the 
Jewish Theological Seminary (rabbi 1869) of Breslau. 
He became successively rabbi at Nakel (1875), 
Mannheim (1879), Pilsen (1880), Carlsbad (1882), and 
Leipsic; he has officiated in the last-mentioned city 
since 1888. 

Porges has written many articles, essays, and 
critiques for the periodicals, especially for the 
"Revue des Etudes Juives," the "Monatsschrift fttr 
Geseh. und Wissenschaft des Judenthums," "Zeit- 
schrift fi'ir Hebrilische Bibliographic," and the " Cen- 
tralblatt fur Bibliothekswesen," and is the author of 
"Ueber die Verbalstammbildung in den Semitischen 
Sprachen," Vienna, 1875; "Bibelkunde und Babel- 
funde," Leipsic, 1903. 


P. T. II. 

nent Bohemian family of which the following mem- 
bers won particular distinction : 

Joseph Porges, Edlor von Portheim: Aus- 
trian manufacturer and art patron; born at Prague 
1817; died there Sept. :i, 1904; son of Moses Poiu.ns 
von PoimiKiM. On completing his studies at the 
gymnasium he entered his father's cotton. mills; 
there he occupied various positions until l^7:j, 
when the business was converted into ii Fto< k com- 
pany, of whose board of directors he was president 
for several years. His leisure time was devoid to 
literature ami music, and he wiw well known as a 
violoncello virtuoso. Porges founded the Prague 
Kammennusikvereins, and was also interested in the 
Deutsches Theater of that city. His philanthropy 
was extensive, the Josefstiidter Kiudcrbewfdiran- 
stalt, founded by his father, being an espt < ial < b- 
ject of his benevolence. 

Leopold Judah Porges von Portheim : Bo- 
hemian manufacturer, alderman, and director of the 
Jewish community of Prague; born April 4, I7b4; 
died at Prague Jan. 10, 1809. 

Moses Porges, Edler von Portheim: Manu- 
facturer and vice-burgomaster of Pragin--Siniehow ; 
knight of the Order of Francis Joseph; born Dec. 
13, 1781 ; diedat Prague May 21, 1870. He was one 
of the earliest and most prominent of the large 
manufacturers of Austria, and was very closely 
associated with his younger brother, Leopold Judah. 
Moses and Leopold, the sons of the highly respected 
but poor Gabriel Porges of the Spiia family, ex- 
perienced adventures in the camp of the sectarian 
Joseph Prank at Offenburg which have been de- 
scribed by Grlttz in his "Frank und die Frankisten " 
(Breslau, 1868) and his "Gesch." x. (last note), and 
in greater detail by Dr. S. Back in " Monatsschrift '' 
(1877, pp. 190 ct seq.). Disillusioned, they returned 
to Prague, and began a small linen business, and in 
1808 commenced, with a single cotton-printing press 
and in a dark shop on the Moldau, an industrial 
activity which was destined later to reach great 

In 1830 the rapidly growing business was trans- 
ferred to the suburb of Smichow, where it devel- 
oped into one of the largest establishments of the 
Austrian monarchy, and in 1841 the emperor Ferdi- 
nand conferred upon the brothers the patent of hered- 
itary nobility with the title "von Portheim," in 
recognition of the fact that they were the first cotton- 
manufacturers to employ steam in their works. 
When this patent had beeu offered Moses in the pre- 
vious year, lie asked the Oberstbnrggraf G. v.Chotek 
for a decree of emancipation of the Jews instead, but 
this request was not granted. Moses later purchase d 
and operated the porcelain -factory at Chodau to- 
gether with the mines belonging to it. and after the 
passage of the laws of 1861 he and Ins brother en- 
tered politics, the latter being elected to the diet, 
while the former olliciated for several years n$ viee- 
burgomaster of Prague-Smiehow. The most note- 
worthy among the numerous benefactions of Mo«s 
Porges is the still existing creche, which, without 
distinction of creed or nationality, for eight mouths 
of the year, receives and cares for 150 children daily 
while their parents are at work 

Bibliography: H. I. Lawlftii, Prayer Xrkrohw. IWiie, 
1883: Bohemia, May 23* 1*70; Grfiiz. In Monntt-chrtn. IN., 

pp. 100 etscq. . .. 

8. A. Kr. 

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* 4 incision 

PORGING (Hebrew, n,n lit. 
Judteo-German, "treibcrn"): The cutting away of 
forbidden fat and veins from kasher meat. The 
Mosaic law emphatically forbids the eating of the 
fat and blood of cattle or poultry, the fat and 
blood of peace-offerings being appropriated as sac- 
rifices to God. The prohibition is "a perpetual 
statute " in all generations everywhere (Lev. iii. 17, 
vii. 25-27). What constitutes "heleb"( = "forbid- 
den fat ") is deduced from the descri ption of the heleb 
appropriated for sacrifice, namely, the "fat that 
covereth the inwards" (intestines) and "the fat on 
the kidneys by the flanks and the caul [lobe] above 
the liver" (ib. iii. 3, 4). All other fat is regarded 
by the strict Mosaic law as "shuman " (= "permit- 
ted fat "), though the Rabbis iiave made the pro- 
hibition more extensive (see Fat). The Mosaically 
forbidden blood-vessels in animals comprise the 
main arteries and the nervus ischiadicus ("gid ha- 
nasheh"; Gen. xxxii. 32). The Rabbis, however, 
have extended the prohibition to the principal veins 
that connect with the arteries and tendons. 

To guard against an infringement of the prohibi- 
tion of eating blood, the kasher meat is salted to 
extract the blood from the surface of the meat. The 
salted meat is then placed in a perforated vessel or 
on a plank in a slanting position to allow the ex- 
tracted blood to drain off for half an hour, after 
which the meat is thoroughly cleansed with water; 
but inasmuch as the salt can not extract the blood 
from the closed veins, the latter must first be ex- 
cised or severed by porging. 

The responsibility of the porger (" menakker ") is as 
great as that of the shohet. In former times the pro- 
fessional porger was not allowed to be a butcher, as 
it was apprehended that self-interest might interfere 
with the proper performance of his duty; but to 
save the expense of hiring a special porger a butcher 
who has a reputation for honesty and ability is now 
permitted to perform the porging. 

Preparatory to the porging, twelve ribs of the ani- 
mal are cut open from the chest dowmvard. The 
following order of the various operations in porging 
is arranged according to the opinion of the best 

(1) Cutting toe. head of the animal into two parts and remov- 
ing the eyes therefrom; cleaving the skull and removing from 
the brain ihe upper membrane, as well as the lower membrane 
adhering to ihe bone ; extracting the red veins from the brain ; 
(2) extracting veins from the back of the ears; (3) incising the 
lower jaws and extracting a vein on each side close to the 
tongue ; (4) cutting away the root of the tongue and extracting 
a blood-vessel ; (5) extracting two veins, one red and one white, 
on each side of the neck opposite the "shehitah" incision; 
(6) cutting around each side of the breast close to the flesh and 
extracting two veins, one red and one white, running along 
each side ; (7) severing each shoulder with its fore leg from the 
body ; cutting into the shoulder in the center and extracting a 
thick white vein ; cutting the upper part of the fore leg length- 
wise and extracting a vein running from the spine to the hoof 
(to eradicate this vein requires a deep incision) ; (8) cutting the 
leg and extracting one red vein at the lower end and another 
vein on the side near the bone (the porger then turns to the 
portion from which be extracted the breast-vein) ; (0) removing 

the membrane of the kidneys, and the fat un- 
SucceesivG derneath them (the heads of the forbidden fat- 
Operations, veins then become visible ; there are to the 

right [as the porger faces the front of the 
carcass, which is suspended with the head up] three veins 
that split in two, and to the left two veins that split in three: 
when the body is warm these veins may be extracted easily) ; 

(10) separating the membrane from the lobe of the liver; 

(11) separating and removing the fat from the loins (there 
are on the end of the thigh near the flank two streaks of fat 
which are exposed within the animal when it is alive, but 
which after death are covered by the shrunken flesh ; this flesh 
must be cut open and the fat removed); {\2) drawing the in- 
testines from their position and removing the upper entrail : ex- 
tracting the veins from the ileum (tojr) and stripping the fat 
from the mesentery (xrosis-p); the fat from the stomach, 
belly, reticulum (?)Di:n r^), and anus (DD^n); also that ad- 
hering underneath the diaphragm ("C S "^D) and that on the 
small intestines (pp^) ; removing the fat of the tntestines along 
one arm's length (24 inches) from the root (the intestines 
through which the food passe* do not contain forbidden biood- 
veins); (13) separating the membrane and fat from the spleen 
and extracting the main vein, together with three fat-veins ; (14) 
extracting the veins of the lungs and burstiug the bronchi 
(,iuid~d) and removing the appendix (x-ni); (15) removing 
the lobes of the heart because they contain too many blood-vessels 
for removal; eutling the heart crosswise to extract the blood; 
removing the membrane and four veins ; (16) removing the gal| 
and the fat attached to the liver ; cutting the liver to allow the 
blood to run from it; (17) removing the fat from the flanks with 
their upper and lower membranes, scraping off the fat under- 
neath, and extracting a vein from each; (18) removing the 
membrane and extracting the large veiu of the testicles, which 
must be cut apart before salting; (19) removing the lower en- 
trail at the end of the rectum («rwo) ; taking the fat from the 
rectum: (20) severing the tail and extracting a vein which divides 
into twoand which is connected with the flanks; cutting away the 
extra fatty portion of the tail ; (21) disjoining the thigh and re- 
moving the sex genitals ; extracting six veins from the hips and 
scraping off the fat around them ; cutting open the udder and 
squeezing out the milk (the first vein of the thigh is the nervus 
ischiadicus, which lies deep near the bone and runs through the 
whole thigh ; the second vein is near the flesh); extracting the 
sinews in the shape of tubes (rupijp), which connect.wtth the 
nervi ischiadic! of the two thighs (see Hui. 92b-93b),and scra- 
ping off the adjacent fat; (22) making incisions above the 
hoofs; extracting the cluster of sinews (pTJn nc>X) from the 
lower middle joint of the hind leg. 

Some authorities modify this order and omit sev- 
eral items; for instance, they leave the fat under- 
neath the diaphragm, or, on extracting a red veiu, 
leave the white vein which is alongside it. 

The porger generally uses a special knife for the 
fat and a smaller one for the veins. If he uses the 
same knife for both he must wipe it, before opera- 
ting on the veins, with a cloth which is suspended for 
this purpose from the lower part of the animal. 

The principal operations of the porger are per- 
formed in the lower extremities of the animal, and 
in consequence of the scarcity of competent porgers 
many Jewish communities in Europe have since the 
seventeenth century not used the lower part or sir- 
loin of the animal, the butcher selling that part 
to non-Jewish customers. But in the Orient and in 
several cities in Russia, such as Wilna and Kovno, 
where non -Jewish consumers of meat are few in 
comparison with the Jewish population, the sirloin 
is porged and sold to Jews. 

The porging of small cattle is performed with a 
smaller knife or with the hand. Fowl need no ex- 
tensive porging, beyond the severing of the head 
and the extracting of one vein opposite the shehi- 
tah incision, the cutting into the wings and the 
legs, also the lungs and heart, and the removal of 
two guts, known as "terefah wurst," and the gall. 

See Bedikaii ; Blood ; Fat ; Siieiiitaii ; Teuekaii. 

Bibliography: Maimonides. YcuL MtVakalot AsttmU vl.- 
vtll.: Txtr and Shulhau *Aruk* Yorth Dr % ah % M 65, 60; Le- 
bush, ''Afrrct Zahdh, order Xil$k\n\ § 65, end: I^aae ha- 
Kohen. ZUtrhc Kohen, pp. 39-ft£ Leghorn, 1832; Wiener, 
JIUUxehr Speinc(irnrt2r. n $$ 1,3, 4. Rreslau, 1805; Jaeoh Sor- 
zena. Serf ft* ha-Xikkxtr. and abridgment of same bv Zebi ben 
Isaac Jacob, Venice,' 1595; Joshua Segre, Nikrat Iasur (see 
Hen Jacob, Ozar ha-Scfarim, p. 403). 
E. c. J. D. E. 

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PORK. See Swine. 

PORTALEONE (rplX *W) : Jewish family of 
northern Italy, which probably derived its name 
from the quarter of Portaleone, situated in the vicin- 
ity of the ghetto of Home. In 1399 Elhanan Por- 
taleone was dayyan in Lorn hardy. The family in- 
cluded many physicians also among its members, 
Guglielmo (Benjamin) Portaleone acting in this 
capacity for Ferdinand I. of Naples, and subse- 
quently lor Galeazzo Sforza of Milan, after whose 
death he settled in his native city Mantua, where 
he practised until 1500. He, as well as his sons, 
grandsons, and great-grandsons, enjoyed the favor 
of the Gonzagas in Mantua, many of them being 
physicians to the members of that house. The 
following members of the Portaleone family deserve 
special notice: 

Abraham Portaleone: Physician in Mantua; 
died July 29, 1612; great-grandson of Guglielmo 
Portaleone (sou of David, son of Lazzaro, son of 
Guglielmo) ; pupil of Jacob Fano. Dukes Gugli- 
elmo and Vincenzo, in whose service he was, granted 
him privileges in 1577 and 1587 respectively; and 
Pope Gregory XIV. gave him a dispensation which 
enabled him to attend Christians. At the request 
of Duke Guglielmo he wrote two medical treatises 
in Latin, which he dedicated to his patron, under 
the titles " Consilia Medica" and "Dialogi Tres de 
Auro " respectively ; the latter treatise was published 
in 1584. 

David Portaleone: Physician in Mantua; died 
in 1655; son of Abraham Portaleone. He succeeded 
his father in his position as physician to the dukes 
of Gonzaga. 

Guglielmo (Benjamin) Portaleone : Physi- 
cian; son of David Portaleone; took his degree at 
Sienna in 1639, and was licensed in Mantua. After 
the death of David Portaleone, Duke Charles II. re- 
quested Pope Innocent X. to grant Guglielmo the 
same privilege as had been bestowed upon his father 
and grandfather. 

To a different branch of the family belongs Leone 
Ebreo, or Leone Sommo (di Sommi, '♦DIDD), who 
was otherwise known under the name Judah b. 
Isaac Portaleone. See Judah Leone ben Isaac 

Bibliocrapiiy : On the family in general : Wolf, in Ally. Zcit. 
des Jud. 1862, p. 635 ; Steinsehneider, Hebr. Bibl. vi. 48 ct 
seq., xx. 47; Mortara, in R. E. J. xii. 112 ct seq.; idem, /?i- 
dice, p. 51. On Abraham Portaleone : Wolf, in Hebr. Bibl. i. 
18; Mortara, in R. E. J. iii. 96, xii. 115; Reifmann, Ha-Sha- 
har, HI.; Steinsehneider, in Monatsschrift, xlii. 263. On 
Leone Ebreo : D'Ancona, Origini del Tcatro in Italia, ii. 401 
ct seq.; Dejob, in R. E. J. xxiil. 378 ct $cq.; Neubaner, in 
lsr. Lctterbodc, x. 113 et seq.; Perreau, in Vcssillo Israeli- 
tico, 1883, pp. 373 ef seq.; Peyron,in Attidella R. Accadcmia, 
xix.; Steinsehneider, in Isr. Lettcrbode, xii. 73 ctxeq.x idem, 
in Monatssehrift, xlil. 467 ct seq.; Vogelstein and Rieger, 
Gcseh. dcr Judenin Rom, ii. 103; Zunz, in Kerem Itemed, 
v. 154; Creizenacb, Gcsch. des Ncucren Dramas, 1901,11. 

0. H. V. 


See Sanhedkin. 

PORTLAND. See Oregon. 

PORTO (OPORTO) : Capital of the Portuguese 
province of Entre-Douro-e-AIinho. After Lisbon it 
possessed in former times the largest Jewish congre- 
gation of the country, and it was the seat of the pro- 
vincial rabbi or chief judge. As everywhere else, the 

Jews of Porto lived in their " Juderm." B v n , m . 
inand of King John I., Victoria and S. -Miguel 
streets, near the present location of the Benedictine 
convent, were assigned to them for residence in 188«. 
In the latter street was the synagogue, which Im- 
manuel Aboub records that he saw; and the sluirs 
which lead from Helmonle to the old Judrriu me 
still known as the "Eseadasde Esnogu"(_ ".syna- 
gogue steps ,f ). 

Although the Porto city council opposed l\m ad- 
mission of Jewish refugees from Spain, apparently 
on hygienic grounds (14*7), Porto was allotted as the 
place andS. Miguel as the street of residence in thirty 
Spanish Jewish families which, through the agi-d 
Kabbi Isaac Aboab, negotiated with King .John II. 
for permission to settle in Portugal in 1491. The 
house of each of these immigrants was marked with 
the letter " P," the initial of the name of the city. 

The Porto Jews paid to the city a yearly tax of 
200 old maravedis, or 5,400 sueldos, for the square 
in which the synagogue stood; and even shortly 
before the expulsion they had to pay an annual tax 
of 10,000 reis. Many of them left the city after the 
edict of expulsion; but some remained behind as 
secret Jews. The tribunal of the Inquisition was in- 
troduced into Porto in 1543 (see Jew. Encyc vi. 599, 
s.v. Inquisition). 

Isaac Aboab died at Porto in 1493; and here were 
born Imrnanuel Aboab, author of "Nomoiogia "; 
Uriel or Gabriel da Costa, the physician Diego Jo- 
seph, Abraham Ferrar, etc. At present (1905) Jews 
are again living in Porto. 

Bibliography: Aboab, Nomologia o Discursos Legates, p. 
299; Kayserlinj?, Gesch.der Juden in Portugal, pp. 13,49, 
108 et seq.; J. Mendes dos Remedies, Os J miens cm PtrriugaU 
pp.261, 360 et seq. 

s. M. K. 

PORTO. See Rome. 

PORTO : Italian family of which the following 
members are noteworthy : 

Abraham b. Jehiel ha-Kohen Porto : Italian 
scholar; flourished about 1600. After living in Cre- 
mona and 3Iantua, he resided in Verona, where in 
1594 he edited and printed the"Minhah Belulah" 
of his kinsman Abraham Menahem Porto. He him- 
self wrote: "Hawwot Ya'ir" (Venice, 1628). an 
alphabetical collection of Hebrew words, with their 
cabalistic explanations; "Gat Rimmon," a collection 
of poems; and commentaries on the Pentateuch 
( u Shimmush Abraham ") and on the Psalms (" Hasde 
Dawid "), none of which has been published. 

Bibliography: Fursi, Bibl. Jud. lit. 115 et seq.; Nept-Ghl- 
rondi, Toledot Gednle YtiracU P- 35. 

Abraham Menahem Porto. See Rapa (Poit- 
to), Mexahkm Abraham ben Jacob iia-Kohkn. 

Emanuel Porto or Menahem Zion Porto 
Cohen: Italian rabbi; born at Triest toward the 
end of the sixteenth century; died at Pndua about 
16G0. He was an excellent mathematician and as- 
tronomer, and his works w^ere highly praised by 
Andrea Argoli and extolled in Italian sonnets by 
Tomaso Ercaloni and Benedetto Luzzatto. In 1641 
Gaspard Scttppius, editor of the " Mercurius Quadra- 
linguis," recommended Porto, in terms which were 
very complimentary to the rabbi, to Johannes Bux- 
torf, with whom Porto later carried on an active cor- 

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Porto was the author of the following works: (1) 

"Breve Istituzione della Geographia," Padua. 1640. 

(2) " Diplomologia, Qua Duo Seriptura? Miracula de 

Regressu Solis Tempore Hiskkv et Ejus Immobili- 

tate Tempore Josuce Declarantur," ib. 1643. This 

work, dedicated to the emperor Ferdinand III. and 

written originally in Italian, was translated by the 

author himself into Hebrew, and by Lorenzo Dal- 

naki of Transylvania into Latin. (3) M Porto Astrono- 

mico" (ib. 1636), divided into four parts, dedicated 

to Count Benventito Petazzo, Padua. (4) M 'Obar 

lc-Soher" (Venice, 1627), a treatise on arithmetic in 

twelve chapters, published by Porto's disciple Ger- 

shon Hefez. 

Bibliography : De Rossi, Dizu>naru\ il. 93 ; Furst. Bihl. J\uJ. 
lii. llti; siHnsobneider, Cat. Bodl.jrol. 72J; Nepi-Ghirondi, 
Tolalot (IcihiU Yisraclv.&'iS: Ozar Xchmaih Hi. 132; Kay- 
serlinjr, tu /?. E. J. xiii. ~6s €t scq. 

g. I. Bn. 

Moses b. Abraham Porto: Kabbi iu Venice; 

died in 1G24. 

Moses b. Jehiel Porto : Kabbi in Povigo about 
160U; born in Venice; brother of the Veronese 
printer Abraham Porto. He was the protagonist in 
the controversv re sard ins: the mikweh in Rovigo, 
in which no less than seventy rabbis participated. 
On this subject he wrote a work entitled u Paige 
Mavim " in which he first states the case and then 
quotes twenty-eight opinions in favor of his deci- 
sion. This portion is followed by another entitled 
4i Mish'an Mayim," which is a criticism of the rejoin- 
der of the opposition, the "Mashbk Milhamot," and 
by an examination of the responsa contained in it. 
Porto's work was published in Venice in 1608, and 
is very rare. 

Bibliography: Turst, Bill. Jud. iii. 110; Mortara, Indicc, 
p. 51. 

Zechariah. ben Ephraim Porto : Italian scholar 
of the seventeenth century, noted for his learning 
and still more for his virtues. lie was a native of 
Vrbino, and lived at Florence and Rome, where he 
officiated as rabbi, although he modestly refused to 
assume that title. He wrote a work entitled " Asaf 
ha-Mazkir," containing a list of all the explanations 
and comments found in the fc "En Ya'akob " and 
treating of the haggadic passages of the Talmud. 
He himself would not publish this book; it was 
printed after bin death bv the Roman community 
(Venice, 1688; according to Zedner, 167.1). In his 
will Porto made many communal bequests for Tal- 
mud Torahs and for dowries. 

BniMOGRAPliY : Xepl-Ghtrondt. Tolctlot Grthtlc I7.srad, p. 99; 
FfirsK Bihl. Jud. HI. 117; Zedner, Cat. lichr. Bttoks Brit. 
Mux. p. 7v*. 

G. I. E. 

and dramatist; born of Italian parents at Bordeaux 
in 1849. lie entered a banking-house at an earl}* 
age, but was discharged on account of his poetic 
tendencies. He then studied law, but soon turned 
to his true vocation. 

Porto-Riche has published the following volumes 
of pnrtry: "Prima Verba." 1872: "Tout K'est pas 
Kos. "1*77; tk Vnnina," 1S70; and u Bonheur Man- 
que," lHSU, a little* book of melancholy verses in 
which the author relates the memories of his lonely 
childhood. I lis dramatic works are as follows: 

"Le Yerligc," 1S73, a play in one act, represented 
at the Qd£on, and marking the commencement of 
his dramatic success; and " Un Drame sous Philippe 
II.," 1875. 

Estranged from his relatives and without money, 
Porto-Riche now saw several of his works rejected. 
The Comedie Franeaise refused " Lcs Deux Fautes" 
(which, however, was later presented at the Odeon in 
1*78), u Le Calice," " Le Comte Marcelli," and " L'ln- 
iidele," 1891 ; but in 1888 " La Chance de Francoise," 
a one-act piece in prose, presented at the Theatre 
Libre, marked an epoch in the contemporary his- 
tory of the theater, and through it he now ranks 
as the leader of a school. lie lias written also 
"Amoureusc," 1891; *Le Passe," 1897. a remark- 
able coined}' which was revived at the Comedie 
Franfaise iu 1902; and "Theatre d'Amour," 1898. 
Porto-Riche has likewise been the dramatic critic 
of the "Estafette," succeeding Armand Silvestre, 
and of u La France" and u La Presse." 

Bibliography: Xouvtau Larousnc [Uustrv; Lanson. ///*- 
toire dc la Litth'aiutr Franca far, Paris, 19tfci; lialtier, iu 
Le Temps, May IS, 191)4. 

s. J. Ka. 

PORTSEA. See Portsmouth. 

PORTSMOUTH : English fortified seaport on 
the coast of Hampshire. The Portsmouth (Port- 
sea) congregation is one of the oldest in the English 
provinces, having been founded in 1747 with a rab- 
binate of its own. During the Napoleonic wars the 
commercial activity of Portsmouth as a garrison and 
naval town attracted a large number of Jews; and 
at that time there were two synagogues. After the 
peace of 1815, the Jewish inhabitants having dimin- 
ished in numbers, the newlv built edifice ceased to 
be used, and was finally transferred to a dry-goods 
dealer. The present synagogue is the earlier building, 
which was constructed in the styleof the Great Syna- 
gogue, in Duke's place, London. At one time the 
entrance to theplaceof worship was gained through 
the slums of the town. More than fifty years ago 
this entrance fell into disuse, and a handsome new 
approach on the opposite side of the synagogue, in 
Queen street, was constructed. Following a medi- 
eval Jewish custom, the Portsmouth synagogue 
had at one time its hall and cooking-utensils for the 
celebration of Jewish weddings. 

The social position of the Portsmouth Jews at the 
commencement of the nineteenth century may he 
inferred from the unfavorable estimate given in 
Marryat's novels; and there was formerly an in- 
scription on one of the local places of amusement 
which lead: u Jews and dogs not admitted." 

The Portsmouth congregation was one of the first 
in connection with which religious classes were held 
for the instruction of the young. The Hebrew 
Iienevolent Institution is one of the oldest Jewish 
charities, having been founded 100 years ago. 
Portsmouth has other Hebrew chanties, but its most 
important institution is an educational one. In 
1855 the late Lewis Aria, a native of Hampshire, 
bequeathed a large portion of his property to be ap- 
plied, in the case of certain eventualities, to the 
establishment of a college for the support and edu- 
cation of young men desirous of being trained as 
Jewish ministers. The college was to be established 

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Interior of Synagogue at Portsmouth, England. 

(From a painting In the possession of Dr. IL Perelrs Mendes, New York.) 

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at Portsea, and its advantages were to be restricted 
to natives of Hampshire. Nearly twenty years 
elapsed before this bequest became available. In 
1874 the Aria College was established at Portsea 
in accordance with the testator's wishes; but the 
clause restricting its benefits to natives of Hampshire 
not being found practicable, the institution was 
thrown open to students for the Jewish ministry 
irrespective of birthplace- Several occupants of 
ministerial posts in England and America have 
graduated at this institution. The college has had 
two principals, the late A. F. Ornstein and I. S. Mei- 
sels. Isaac Phillips has ministered to the Ports- 
mouth community for upward of thirty years. 

At one time Portsmouth possessed a large convict 
prison which contained a number of Jewish prison- 
ers; and Alderman A. L. Emanuel acted as honorary 
Jewish prison-visitor. Alderman Emanuel has been 
twice elected mayor of Portsmouth. The Jewish 
inhabitants of the town are estimated at 500, in a 
total population of 189,1(50. 

Bibliography: Jew. World. Dec. 2, 1887; Jew.Chron. March 
22. 29, 1872; Jewish Year Book, 1903. 

J. I. H. 

PORTUGAL (ancient Lusitania) : Kingdom in 
the southwest of Europe. The condition of its Jews, 
whose residence in the country is contemporaneous 
with that of the Jews in Spain, while in general 
like that of their coreligionists in the neighboring 
kingdom of Castile, was in some respects different. 
The influence of the canonical law was felt much 
later here than in Spain and not so violently. Until 
the expulsion there were no active hostilities against 
the Jews in Portugal. Affonso Henriques (1139-85), 
the conqueror and first king of Portugal, found 
Jews already settled in Santarem, Lisbon, and Beja: 
and, according to Herculano, he is said to have found 
villages and localities which were wholly or to a 
great extent inhabited by Jews. He pursued the 
tolerant policy of his grandfather Alfonso VI. of 
Castile, and issued letters of protection to the Jews, 
as also to the floors of Faro. He, moreover, em- 
ployed Jews in his service, as, for instance, Dom 
Yahya ibn Ya'ish (ancestor of the widely branching 
Yahya family), who was his receiver of customs 
("almoxarife"), and to whom he gave two estates 
(Aldeas dos Negros) which had belonged to the 
Moors (c. 1150). Affonso Henriques' son Sancho I. 
(1185-1211) also was tolerant ; likewise Sancho's son 
Affonso II. (1211-23), who employed Jews as farmers 
of the taxes and as tax-collectors, although under him 
the hostile attitude of the Church began to be felt. 
Affonso confirmed the resolutions passed by the Cor- 
tes at Coimbra in 1211, to the effect that a Jew who 

had been baptized might not return to 

In the Judaism, and that no Jew might pre- 

Thirteenth vent his children from embracing 

Century. Christianity or disinherit them for so 

doing. On the other hand, he opposed 
the promulgation of the canons of the Lateran Coun- 
cil (1215) with regard to the Jews. Affonso II. died 
under a ban, and his son Sancho II. (1223-46) con- 
tinued the struggle with the Church. In spite of 
the canonical prohibition, he appointed Jews as tax- 
farmers. Probably it was he who appointed D. Jo- 
seph ibn Yahya as almoxarife; he also permitted 

him to build a magnificent synagogue in Lisbon 
(Carmoly, "Biographic der Jachiaden," p. 2, where 
"icy [5010 = 1250] should probably be read instead 

of ontry [5020]). 

In consequence of this favor shown to the Jews, 
Pope Gregory IX. sent an order to the bishops of 
Astorga and Lugo to protest against these infringe- 
ments of ecclesiastical ordinances. The papal threats 
had little effect upon Affonso III. (1246-79), son of 
Sancho II., who had been deposed by the pope. 
The clergy complained to the latter in 1258 that the 
king gave to the Jews public offices in which they 
assumed authority over Christians, and that he did 
not compel them to wear the Jews' badge or to pay 
the tithe to the Church. This petition seems not to 
have had the desired effect on Affonso III. He 
commanded that Moorish slaves when bought by 
Jews should not obtain freedom, and that Christians 
should not evade payment of their debts by selling 
goods which they had mortgaged to the Jews 
(J. Mendes dos Remedios, " Os Judeus em Portugal," 
p. 427). Further, Alfonso III. organized the inter- 
nal affairs of the Jews of his kingdom, to whom 
Affonso I. had already granted autonomy in civil as 
well as in criminal cases. Above all he issued a 
decree regulating the rights and duties of the rabbis, 
which was revised in 1402 under John L The 
" rabbi mor " (chief rabbi) stood at the head of the 

Portuguese Jews, and, like the "rab 

The Rabbi de la corte" (court rabbi) in Castile, 

Mor. was an officer of the crown and the 

most prominent person in the entire 
Jewry. He had his own seal, which bore the Por- 
tuguese coat of arms and the legend "Sello do 
Arrabbi Mor de Portugal." All his official documents 
began with the following words: U N. N., Arrabbi 
Mor, por men Senhor El-Rey, das Communas dos Ju- 
deus de Portugal e do Algarve" (i.e., "N. N., chief 
rabbi, through my lord the king, of the communi- 
ties of the Jews in Portugal and Algarves "). On the 
rabbi mor devolved the duty of visiting all the com- 
munities of Portugal every year. He supervised 
the administration of legacies and funds for orphans, 
examined all accounts rendered to him by the direct- 
ors and treasurers concerning the income and ex- 
penditure of the communities, and, through his " por- 
teiro " (messenger), com pelled tardy tax payers to pa) r . 
He had authority to compel the communities to ap- 
point local rabbis and teachers and to enforce the 
latter to accept the positions to which they had been 
elected. The local rabbi might not issue writs of 
protection except in cases where the royal provin- 
cial authorities were permitted to grant them. He 
might not, moreover, institute a general contribution, 
nor could he alienate real estate of the community 
without its assent. The rabbi mor was accompanied 
on his official tours by an "ouvidor " (chief justice), 
who was an expert in Jewish law ; by a " chanceller " 
(chancellor), under whose supervision was the office 

of the seal; by an "escrivilo" (secre- 

His tary), who received and drew up the 

Duties and protocols; and by a "porteiro" (mes- 

Staff. senger), who was under oath and took 

charge of the occasional seizures, exe- 
cuted sentences of punishments, etc. The rabbi mor 
chose the chief justices for the seven provinces of 

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the country, who were stationed at the respective 
capitals— at Oporto (Porto) for the province Entre- 
Douro-e-Minho; atMoncorvo for Tras-os-Montes: at 
Covilha for Beira-Alta; at Viseu for Beira-Baixa; 
at Santarem for Estremadura; at Evora for Alem- 
tejo; and at Faro for Algarve. Each provincial 
judge carried an official seal bearing the Portuguese 
coat of arms and the legend "Sello do Ouvidor das 
Communas de . . . ," and had a chancellor and 
secretary who might be either a Jew or a Christian. 
The judge decided cases which were brought before 
him on appeal or on complaint of the local rabbi. 
Each place in which a certain number of Jews re- 
sided had a local rabbi, who was chosen by the com- 
munity and confirmed in office, in the name of the 
king, by the rabbi mor, to whom he was subordinate. 
The* local rabbi had civil and capital jurisdiction 
over the Jews of his district, and to him was respon- 
sible the butcher ("degollador ") appointed for the 
community. The butcher had to make a consci- 
entious report to the tax-collector of the number 
of cattle and fowl killed by him. 

The internal affairs of the Jewish communities 
were regulated by directors ( u procuradores"), who 
were assisted on special occasions by confidential 

men ("homes boOs das communas " or 
Regulation "tobe ha-'ir"). In each community 
of Jewish was a notary to draw up written con- 
Internal tracts. After the edict of John I. all 
Affairs* documents had to be written in the 

language of the country, and not in 
Hebrew. The oaths of Jews in lawsuits among them- 
selves or against Christians w r ere very simple as com- 
pared with those of Jews in Castile, Aragon, and 
Navarre. The Jew swore in the synagogue with a 
Torah in his arm and in the presence of a rabbi and 
of a royal officer of the law. On Sabbath and feast- 
days Jcw t s might not be summoned to court, nor 
could any legal proceedings be taken against them. 
It was strictly forbidden to cite a Jew before a 
Christian judge. Whoever acted contrary to this 
law was liable to a fine of 1,000 gold doubloons, and 
the rabbi mor was required to keep him in custody 
until the sum should be paid. 

In Portugal, as in Spain, the Jews lived in sepa- 
rate " Juderias," or Jew lanes. The capital possessed 
the largest community, and Jew f s resided also in 
Alcazar, Alcoitim, Aliezur, Alter-do-Clnlo, Alvito, 
Alvor, Barcellos, Beja, Bragan£a, Cacilla, Castro- 
Marim, Chaves, Coimbra, Couto, Covilh&, Elvas, 
Estremos, Alanquer, Evora, Faro, Gravao, Guarda, 
Guimaraes, Lamego, Leiria, Louie (which had its 
own Jew valley, Val de Judeo), Mejanfrio, Miranda, 
Moneorvo, Montemor, Oporto, Penaina^or, Porches, 
Santarem (where the oldest synagogue was located), 
Silves t Tavira, Trancoso, Villa Marim, Villa-Viciosa, 
and Viseu. The Jews of Portugal had to pay the 
following taxes: the u Juderega" or " Judenga," a 

poll-tax of 30 dinheiros, fixed here, as 
Taxation, in Castile, in remembrance of the thirty 

pieces of silver paid to Judas Iscariot; 
a personal tax of 5 maravedis for every boy from 
seven to fourteen years of age, and 2^ maravedis for 
each girl from seven to twelve, 1 maravedi for every 
unmarried male over fourteen living: in the home 
of his parents, and \ maravedi for every unmarried 

female over twelve. Married people paid 20 soiidi. 
The rabbinate tax, known as " Arabiado," fell to the 
crown. From the reign of King Sancho II . \sho 
was interested in the development of the navy, the 
Jews were obliged to pay a navy tax. For inch 
ship fitted out by the king they had to pro\ ide an 
anchor and a new anchor tow sixty ells long, or in- 
stead to make a money payment of fJO livres. A 
poll-tax of 1 maravedi was levied on them in sev- 
eral places, also a customs and a road tax, from 
which Christians were exempt. The Jews paid 
King Affonso IV. (1325-57) 50,000 livres annually in 
direct taxes. All that a Jew bought or sold was 
subject to a special tax— each head of cattle* or 
fowl which he killed, every fish and every measure 
of wine that he bought. The special taxes, as in 
other states, were based on the principles then gen< r- 
ally recognized with regard to the position of the 
Jews, but restrictions were first enacted upon recog- 
nition of the canonical law and its incorporation into 
the law of the land. 

Under Diuiz (1279-1325), the son and successor of 
Affonso III., the Jews remained in the favorable situ- 
ation the}' had enjoyed up to that 
Favorable time. This was due in no small nifiis- 
Attitude of ure to the influence which D. Judah, 
Diniz. chief rabbi at that time, and D. Geda- 

liah, his son and successor, who were 
also the king's treasurers, had with the king. Geda- 
liah*s representations as to the partiality of the 
judges was not without effect. The favor and pro- 
tection, however, granted the Jews by the king in- 
creased the hatred of the clergy against them. They 
complained that Diniz permitted the presence of 
Jews at his court and entrusted them with official 
positions, that he did not compel them to wear 
badges, and that he allowed them the free exercise 
of their religion, "The Jews are becoming proud 
and conceited," they rep.orted to Rome; "they adorn 
their horses with tassels, and indulge in a luxury 
that has an injurious effect on the inhabitants of the 
country." But not until the reign of Affonso IV. 
(1325-57), who was unfavorably disposed to the Jews, 
did the clergy accomplish anything with their com- 
plaints. Immediately after his accession the law 
was enforced by which Jews were prohibited from 
appearing in public without a badge — the six- 
pointed yellow star in the hat or on the upper gar- 
ment — and were forbidden to wear gold chains. He 
limited their freedom of emigration, declaring that 
no one who owned property of the value of 500 livres 
might leave the country without royal permission, 
under penalty of forfeiting his property, which, to- 
gether with that of those who went with him. would 
fall to the king. They had also to suffer from the 
growing hatred of the populace, incited by the 
clergy, who made the Jews responsible for the 
plague which raged in the year 1350. King Pedro 
I. (1357-07), however, who was a model of justice, 
protected them against the violence of the clergy and 
nobles (see Pedro I.), and under his benevolent rule 
their prosperity increased. His body-physician was 
Rabbi Mor D." Moses Navarro, who together with 
his wife established a large entail near Lisbon. 
Under Ferdinand I. (1367-83), who wasa spendthrift 

and who employed his Jewish treasurer D. Judah 

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in his financial operations, and still more under the 
regency of his wife, the frivolous and highly unpop- 
ular Leonora, the Jews were prominent 
Under in Portugal. After the death of the 
Ferdinand king, Leonora deposed D. Judah and 
I. the Jewish collector of customs at Lis- 

bon on the representations of the city 
deputies; but when she wished to have her daughter 
Beatrix and the hitter's husband, John I. of Castile, 
recognized as regents of the country, and the people 
rebelled, killed Leonora's favorites, and proclaimed 
John vice-regent of the kingdom (1385), Leonora fled, 
accompanied by her confidants, the above-mentioned 
D. Judah and the wealthy D. David Negro- Yahya. 
Disputes between her and John I. of Castile, who 
waged war against Portugal, ended in an open breach 
on the occasion of the nomination to the head rab- 
binate of Castile. Leonora demanded the place for 
her favorite D. Judah. but the king, at the desire of 
his wife, appointed D. David Negro- Yahya. Em- 
bittered by this, Leonora plotted against the life of 
her son-in-law; hut her plan was frustrated by D. 
David Negro, and Leonora was banished to a convent 
in Tordesillas; the life of D. Judah was spared on 
the plea of D. David Negro. The possessions of D. 
Judah, D. David, and other Jews who had sided 
with the banished queen and had fled from Portu- 
gal, were confiscated and given to the bravest knights 
by D. John, who became king after the withdrawal 
of the King of Castile (1411). 

John I., in spite of the fact that he favored con- 
version and granted special privileges to the con- 
verted, was a friend and protector of the Jews. 

Through the efforts of Rabbi Mor D. 

John I. Moses Navarro, they were shielded 
a Friend to from the severe persecutions which 
the Jews, their coreligionists in Spain expe- 
rienced in 1391, and also from the zeal 
and sermons of conversion of Vicente Ferrer. John 
protected the Jews who had fled from the persecu- 
tions in Spain. On the other hand, he enforced the 
laws compelling the Jews to wear the badge and 
prohibiting them from entering Christian taverns or 
holding official positions; but these were often dis- 
regarded. Only a short time before his death (1433) 
he was accused of having Jewish physicians at the 
court and of permitting Jewish tax-collectors to ex- 
ercise executive authority. His son Duarte (1433- 
143S) tried completely to separate the Jews from the 
Christian population, in spite of the influence ex- 
erted over him by his body-physician and astrologer 
ilestrc Guedelha(Gedaliah) ibn Solomon ibn Yahya - 
Negro. When the latter, as is said, advised the 
king to postpone the ceremonies of coronation and 
the king refused to do so, he announced to him that 
his reign would be short and unfortunate. Duarte 
was indeed unfortunate in his undertakings. His 
brother D. Fernando, who borrowed large sums from 
D. Judah Abravanel and sent the king a Jewish 
surgeon, Mestre Joseph, from Fez, in 1437, died in 
a Moorish prison; and Duarte himself, while still in 
the full vigor of manhood, was carried off by the 
plague after a short reign. Under Duarte's son, the 
mild and gentle Alfonso V. (1438-81), M who exercised 
justice and kindness toward his people," the Jews 
again enjoyed freedom and prosperity. It was 

their last tranquil period upon the Pyrenean penin- 
sula. They resided outside the Juderias; the}' were 
distinguished from the Christians by no external 
tokens; and they held public offices. Alfonso V. 
appointed I). Isaac Abravanel to be his treasurer 
and minister of finance, and several members of the 
Yahya family were received at court. Joseph l?en 
David ibn Yahya stood in especial favor with the 
king, who called him his "wise Jew," and who, be- 
ing himself fond of learning, liked to discuss scien- 
tific and religious questions with him (Ibn Verga, 
"Shebet Yehudah," pp. 61 el seq.< 108 el seq.). 

The favors shown to the Jews and the luxury 
displayed by them, which even the king with all 
his gentleness reproved, increased the hatred of the 
people more and more. In 1449 for the tirst time 

in Portugal this feeling broke out in 

Revolt of a revolt against the Jews of Lisbon; 

1449. the Juderia was stormed, and several 

Jews were killed. The king inter- 
vened, and imposed strict penalties on the ring- 
leaders, but the complaints against the Jews contin- 
ued. At the assemblies of the Cortes in Santa rem 
(1451), Lisbon (1455), Coimbra (1473), and Evora 
(1481) restrictions were demanded. "When D. Af- 
fonso died," says Isaac Abravanel, "all Israel was 
filled with grief and mourning; the people fasted 
and wept." 

Aflonso was succeeded by his son John II. (1481- 
1495), a morose, distrustful person, who did away 
with the powerful lords and the house of Bragan^a 
in order to create an absolute kingdom, and seized 
their possessions for the crown. He showed favor 
to the Jews, and as often as it was for his advantage 
employed them in his service. His body-physicians 
were I). Ledo and D. Joseph Vecinho, the latter of 
whom, together with D. Moses, the king's mathema- 
tician, had also made himself useful in the art of 
navigating; his surgeon was a D. Antonio, whom he 
induced to accept Christianity, and who then wrote 
a slanderous book against his former coreligionists. 
The king employed the Jews Joseph Capateiro of 
Lamego and Abraham of Beja to transact business 
for him. He was also friendly toward those Jews 

who, exiled from Spain, had sought 
Under refuge in Portugal ; he promised to 
John II. receive them for eight months in re- 
turn for a poll-tax of 8 crusados to 
be paid in four instalments, and to provide enough 
ships for them to continue their journey. His only 
purpose in granting them protection was to replenish 
the state treasury. He appointed Oporto and other 
cities for their temporary residence, although the in- 
habitants protested. The number of immigrants 
amounted to nearly 100,000. From Castile alone 
more than 3,000 persons embarked at Benevento for 
Bragan<;a ; at Zamora, more than 30,000 for Miranda ; 
from Ciudad-Rodrigo for Villar, more than 35,000; 
from Alcantara for Marvflo, more than 15,000; and 
from Badajoz for Elvas, more than 10,000 — in all 
more than 93,000 persons (Bernaldez, in A. de Castro, 
"Historia de los Judios en Espafia," p. 143). John 
II. did not keep his promise. Not until after a long 
delay did he provide ships for them. The suffering 
which the emigrants were obliged to endure was 
terrible. Women and girls were outraged by the 

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ship captains and sailors in the presence of their 
husbands and parents, and were then thrown into 
the water. The Portuguese chroniclers agree with 
Jewish historians in the description of these fiendish 
acts. Those who tarried in the country alter the 
prescribed period were madeslavesand given away. 
John went even further in his cruelty, lie tore the 
little children away from the parents who remained 
behind, and sent them to the newly discovered island 
of St. Thomas; most of them died on the ships or were 
devoured on their arrival bv wild beasts; those who 
remained alive populated the island. Often brothers 
married their own sisters (Usque, "Consolagam," 
etc., )). 197a; Abraham b. Solomon, "Sefer ha-Kab- 
balah," in Neubauer. U M. J. C." i. 112). John II. is 
called " the AVicked " by Jewish historians and once 
also "the Pious." 

After John's death his cousin and brother-in-law 
D. Manuel, called "the Great," ascended the throne 
of Portugal (1495-1521). At first he was favorably 
inclined toward the Jews, perhaps through the 
influence of Abraham Zacuto, his much-esteemed 
astronomer; he restored to them the freedom which 
John had taken from them and generously declined 
a present of money which the Jews offered him in 
token of their gratitude. Political interests, how- 
ever, brought about only too soon a change in his atti- 
tude. Manuel thought to unite the whole peninsula 
under his scepter by marrying a Spanish princess, 
Isabella, the young widow of the Infante of Portu- 
gal and daughter of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabel- 
la of Castile. The latter couple, who had driven the 
Jews out of their own land (1492), made their con- 
sent dependent on the condition that 
Under Manuel should expel all the Jew T s from 
Manuel the his country. lie brought the matter 
Great. before his state council, some mem- 
bers of which warned him against the 
expulsion of such a useful and diligent people, 
who would settle in Africa, where they would add 
strength to the Mohammedans and become danger- 
ous to Portugal. On the other hand, the party hos- 
tile to the Jews referred to Spain and other states 
in which Jews were not tolerated. The king's 
course was decided by Isabella herself, who wrote to 
him to the effect that she would not enter Portugal 
until the land was cleaned of Jews (G. Heine, in 
Schmidt's "Zeitschrift fur Geschichte," ix. 147). 
On Nov. 30, 149G, the marriage contract between 
Manuel and Isabella was signed, and on Dec. 4 of 
the same year the king issued an order at Muja 
(Muga), near Sautarem, directing that all Jews and 
Jewesses, irrespective of age, should leave Portugal 
before the end of Oct., 1497, under penalty of death 
and confiscation of their property ; that any Christian 
found concealing a Jew after the expiration of the 
prescribed period should be deprived of all his prop- 
erty ; and that no future ruler on any pretext what- 
ever should permit Jews to reside in the kingdom. 
The king granted the Jews free departure with 
all their property, and promised to assist them 
as far as possible (the decree of banishment, which, 
according to Zacuto, "Yuhasin," p. 227 [where 

*O0"! v lin''D should be read instead of Vd], was 
issued Dec. 4, is found in the "Ordenayoos d' el 
Key D. Manuel" [Evora, 1056]. ii. 41, and in Kios. 

"Hist." iii. G14 ct *q.\ see also "H. E. J." iii. 2sr> 

In order to retain the Jews in the country as con- 
verts Manuel issued ihe inhuman decree "that on a 
certain day all Jewish children, irrespective* of sex, 
who should have reached their fourth year and 
should not have passed their twentieth should he 
torn from their parents and brought up in the 
Christian faith at the expense of the king, lie did 
tins "for reasons which compelled 1dm to it," ac- 
cording to the assertion of Abraham b. Solomon ot 
Torrutiel, on the advice of the converted Levi ben 
Shem-Tob ("Sefer ha-Kabbalah." cd. Neubauer, I c. 
i. 114) and in opposition to the will of his slate 
council assembled at Estremoz, which, with the 
noble bishop D. Fernando Coutinho at its head, em- 
phatically declared against this enforced baptism. 
The Jews in Evora, as in the country general! \ , re- 
ceived the news of the intended deed on Friday, 
March. 17, 1497; and iu order that parents might not 
have time to get the children out of the wav. the 

king had the crime committed on Sun- 
Forcible day, the first day of the Passover, 
Baptism of March 19 (not early in April, as is 
Children, usually stated; see Zacuto, I.e. p 227). 

According to Usque (Lr. p. 19Sj, Jews 
up to the age of twenty-five years C'vintceinco 
annos"; not fifteen, as Griitz, "Gesch." viii. 392, de- 
clares) were taken; according to Herculano (I.e. i. 
125), the age limit was twenty years (see also Goes, 
"Chrou." xx. 19). Pathetic scenes occurred on this 
occasion. Out of sympathy and compassion many 
Christians concealed Jewish children that they might 
not be separated from their parents. Many parents 
smothered their children in the last farewell em- 
brace or threw them into wells and rivers and then 
killed themselves. "I have seen with mv own 
eyes," writes the noble Coutinho, "how a father, 
his head covered, with pain and grief accompanied 
his son to the baptismal font and called on the All- 
knowing as witness that they, father and son, 
wished to die together as confessors of the Mosaic 
faith. I have seen man}' more terrible things that 
were done to them." Isaac ibn Zachin, the son of 
an Abraham ibn Zachin, killed himself and his chil- 
dren because he wished to see them 
Compul- die as Jews. As the last date for 
30ry Con- the departure of the Jews drew near 
version the king announced after long hesitn- 
of 20,000 tion that they must all go to Lisbon 
Jews. and embark there. About 20,000 per- 
sons flocked together to the capital 
and were driven like sheep into a palace with a sev- 
en teen -window front, destined for the temporary re- 
ception of foreign ambassadors. On its site to-day 
stands the Donna Maria Theater. Here they were 
told that the time allotted for their departure had 
elapsed, that they were now the king's slaves and 
that he would deal with them according to his will. 
Instead of food and drink they received the visits of 
the converted Mestre Nicolflo (body-physician to 
the young queen) and Pedro de Castro, who was a 
churchman and brother of iSieolao. All sorts of 
promises were made in the attempt to induce t he Jews 
to accept Christianity. When all attempts to shake 
their faith had failed the kincr ordered his bailiffs to 

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use force. The strongest and handsomest Jewish 
young men were dragged into church by the hair 
and beard to be baptized. 

Only seven or eight heroic characters, ,4 somentc 
sete ou vito cafres con tu masses/' as Herculano re- 
ports from a manuscript, offered an obstinate oppo- 
sition; and these the king caused to be transported 
across the sea. Among them were probably the 
physician Abraham Saba, whose two sons were 
forcibly baptized and thrown into prison; Abraham 
Zacuto, the mathematician and astrologer of D. 
Manuel; and the scholar Isaac b. Joseph Caro, who 
had tied to Portugal from Toledo and had here lost 

all his sons. 

Even the Portuguese dignitaries, and especially 
Bishop Osorius, were deeply moved by this cruel 
compulsory conversion; and perhaps it was due to 
the latter that Pope Alexander VI. took the Jews 
under his protection. Manuel, perhaps advised by 
the pope to do so, adopted a milder policy. On 

May 30, 1497, he issued a law for the 

Protection protectionof theconverted Jews, called 

for "Christaos novos" (Neo-Christians), 

Maranos. according to which thev were to re- 

main undisturbed for twenty years, 
the authorities to have during that time no right to 
impeach them for heresy. At the expiration of this 
period, if a complaint should arise as to adherence 
to the old faith only a civil suit was to be brought 
against them, and in case of conviction the prop- 
erty of the condemned was to pass to his Christian 
heirs and not into the fiscal treasury. The posses- 
sion and use of Hebrew books were forbklden except 
to converted Jewish physicians and surgeons, who 
were allowed to use Hebrew medical works. Fi- 
nally, a general amnesty was promised to all Neo- 
Christians (documents in Kayserling, " Geschichtc 
der Juden in Portugal." pp. 3il et seq.). 

Those Jews who were living as pretended Chris- 
tians took the first opportunity to leave the country. 
Whoever could sold his property and emigrated. 
Large numbers of secret Jews set sail for Italy, 
Africa, and Turkey. Thereupon, on April 20 and 
21, 1499, Manuel prohibited the transaction of busi- 
ness with Neo-Christians and forbade the latter to 
leave Portugal without the royal permission. They 
were thus obliged to remain in a country in which 
a fanatical clergy was constantly inciting against 
them a populace that already hated and despised 
them. In April, 1506, a savage massacre occurred 
in Lisbon. On April 19 and the following days 
over 2,000 (according to some over 4,000) secret 
Jews were killed in a most terrible fashion and 
burned on pyres. Manuel indicted a severe pen- 
alty on the Dominican friars who were the leaders 
in the riot; they were garroted and then burned, 
while the friars who had taken part in the revolt 
were expelled from the monastery. The king 
granted new privileges to the secret Jews and per- 
mitted them, by an edict of March 1, 1507, to leave 
the country with their property. To show them his 
good-will he renewed the law of May 30, 1497, and 
on April 21, 1512, prolonged it for a further period 
of twenty years. In 1521, however, lie again issued 
a law forbidding emigration under penalty of con- 
fiscation of property and loss of personal freedom. 

So long as Manuel lived the Neo-Christians or 
Maranos. were not disturbed, but under his son and 
successor, John III. (1521-57), the enmity against 

them broke out anew. On Dec. 17, 

Tntroduc- 1531, Pope Clement VII. authorized 

tion of the the introduction of the Inquisition into 

Inquisition Portugal, after the Maranos of that 

(1531). country had prevented it for fifty 

years. The. number of Maranos who 

left the country now increased steadily, especially 

under the reign of King Sebastian (1557-78), who 

permitted them free departure, in return for the 

enormous payment of 250.000 ducats, with which 

sum he carried on his unfortunate war against 


Bibliography: F. BrandSo, Monorchia Lusitana, passim; 
Ruv de Pina, Chronico do Rcy D. Duarte ; idem. Chronica 
(V cl Rcy D. Jodo L: idem, Chronica do Scnhor Rcy D. Af- 
fonso; idem. Chronica d y cl Rcy D. Jodo II. in C>>llcccdo 
dos Incditos dc Historia Portugucza: F. Lopez, Chronica 
d' cl Rcy D. Pedro, in Collcccdo, iv. 17, 20: Sousa, Prova*, 
ii. 20, 855; iii. 581, 028; iv. 28; DamiOo de Goes, Chronica do 
Screnissimo Scnhor Rci D. Manuel, x. 13 ct scq.„ 20; Oso- 
rius, Dc Rebus Emanuelis, etc., 7a, 12b ct sea.: Garcia de 
Rezende, Chronica dos VaUrosos c Insignos Fcitos del Rcy 
Dom Jodo II. pp. 68 ct seq.. 96 ct seq., 132 ct seq.'. Usque, 
Consolaqam as Tribulacocns dc YsraeU pp. 188, 195 ct scq.i 
Joaquira Jos. Ferreira Gordo, Mcmoria Sobre os Judcos cm 
Portugal, in Mernorias da Acadcmia Real das Scicncias, 
iv. 2 (reprinted, without naming author or source, in Re vista 
Peninsular, ii. 520 ct acq., Lisbon, 1856); A. Herculano, Histo- 
ria dc Portugal ii. 322 ct acq.; iii. 107, 128, 138, 215; iv. 210; 
idem. Da Origan c Estabclccimcnto da Inqumcdo cm Por- 
tugal L 65, 95 ct seq., 100 ct seq.* 120 ct seq., 138 ct seq., Lis- 
bon, 1854; S. Cassel, in Erseh and Gruber, Encyc. section iU 
part 27, pp. 226 ct scq.x Rios. Hist. i. 266 ; ii. 185, 265, 455; iii. 
179, 3&i; Kayserlinjr, Gesch. der Juden in Portugal, Berlin,, 
1867 ; J. Mehdes dos Remedies, Os Judcus em Portugal, i.„ 
Coimbra, 1895; Gratz, Gcsch. vii. 169; viii. 49, 374 ct seq.; J, 
Q. R. 1900, xv. 251-274, 529-330. 

D. M. Iv. 

The anticlerical movement instituted by Marquis 
Pombal, the all-powerful minister of King Joseph 
I. (1750-77), lessened the rigor of the Inquisition. 
As early as May 2, 1768, the lists containing the 
names of the Neo-Christians were ordered to be sup- 
pressed; a law of May 25, 1773 (the year when the 

Jesuit order was abolished), decreed 

Reset- that all disabilities based on descent, 

tlement. chiefly directed against the Maranos, 

should cease; and finally the Inquisi- 
tion, whose powers had been considerably restricted 
by a law of Sept. 1, 1774, was altogether abolished 
on March 31, 1821. 

The first Jew to settle in Portugal after the ex- 
pulsion of 1497 was Moses Levy, an English subject 
from Gibraltar ("Jew. Chron/Oct. 21, 1904, p. 10), 
although the treaty of Utrecht (1713), by which Gib- 
raltar had been ceded to England, had expressly 
stipulated (article x.) that the Jewish subjects of 
England should not have the right of residence in 
Portugal. The statement of Thiers ('* Histoire du 
Consulat ct de rEmpire," xi. 71, Paris, 1851) that the 
French troops upon their invasion of Portugal in 
1807 were hailed by 20,000 Jews, is certainly a gross 
exaggeration, as is also the statement ( u Revue Ori- 
entate," 1841, vi. ; reprinted in " Allg. Zeit. des Jud." 
1841, p. 681) that there were 2,000 to 2,500 Jews in 
Portugal in 1825. It has been proved, however, 
that as early as 1801 the Jews of Lisbon bought a 
plot in the English cemetery of that city, where the 
oldest tombstone still extant bears the date of 1804. 
A formal motion, proposed by Joseph Ferrjlo in the 
Cortes, Feb. 26, 1821, to admit the Jews into the 

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country, was defeated ; and the constitution of 182G, 
while declaring Roman Catholicism to be the state 
religion, allowed foreigners freedom of worship, 
provided they conducted it in places not bearing the 
signs of a public house of worship. 

Outside of Lisbon there is only one congregation 
in Portugal possessing a house of worship (erected 
1850). namely, that of Faro; it numbers about fif- 
teen families and dates from 1820. A few Jews are 
living in Evora, Lagos, and Porto; but they are 
not organized into congregations. A settlement, 
which has of late been steadily decreasing, exists in 
S. Miguel on the Azores; but it is so small that its 
members have to semi to Gibraltar every year 
for some coreligionists in order to secure the re- 
quired Minyan for the services of the great holy 

The Jewish inhabitants of Portugal numbered in 
1903 about SOOsoulsin a total population of 5,428,591. 
Most of them are merchants and shipowners, while 
a few are professors, among them being Jacob 
Bensaudo, who holds the chair of English at Porto 
and has published various text-books. James Ana- 
hory Athias is an officer in the navy ("Jew. Chron." 
Jan. 31, 1902). Lisbon has a rabbi, and Faro a 
hazzan. The rabbinical office in Lisbon was occu- 


pied for a long time by Jacob Toledano of Tangier, 
who died in 1899; the present (1905) incumbent is 
Isaac J. Wolfiusohn. Guido Chayes, Portuguese 
consul in Leghorn, was made a count by King Carlos 
in 1904 ( u Vessillo Israelitieo," 1904, p. 196). Sir 
Isaac Lyon Goldsmid w r as created Baron of Pal- 
mcira in 1845, and Sydney James Stern, now Lord 
Wandsworth, was created a viscount in 1895. 



Russian physician and author ; born at Poltava 1835 ; 
died at Samara 189G. After studying medicine at 
the universities of Kharkov and Kiev, he served for 
a time as army surgeon. He then settled in the 
government of Perm, w T here, however, he was not 
permitted to practise medicine. Portugalov there- 
fore sought occupation in the field of literature. 
His first article ("Shadrinsk i Cherdyn ") was pub- 
lished in the " Arkliiv Sudebnoi Meditziny " ; his next 
contributions were to the "Dyclo" and "Nedyelya," 
mainly on hygienic subjects. At last an opportu- 
nity came to him to take up the practise of medicine; 
he was appointed city physician at Krasnoufimsk, in 
the government of Perm, thereafter becoming suc- 
cessively sanitary supervisor of two mining districts 
in the Ural Mountains and district physician (1870- 
1880) of Kamyshlova, Samara, etc. Portugalov 
devoted much of his time to philanthropic work, 
maintaining an especially active campaign against 
drunkenness. In his last years he expressed his 
sympathy with the New Israel movement then de- 
veloping in Russia. 

Portugalov's works include : " Voprosy Obshchest- 
vennoi Gigiycny " (1874); "Ycvrei Reformatory" 
(St. Petersburg, 1882); "Znamenatelnyya Dwizhen- 
niya v Yevreistvyc " (ib. 1884). 

Bibliography: Entzihlopedicheski Slovar^ xxiv. 634, 
n. R. A. S. W. 

POSEKIM. See Pesak. 

POSEN: Province of Prussia, formeilyn pirt 
of the kingdom of Poland, it was annexed by the 
former country after the partition of the latter in 
1772 and 1798. In the first half of the thirteenth 
century, when the Germans < rossed the frontii r and 
began to settle in the territory of Posen, a large 
number of Jews seem to have come with them. 
Even before that time, however, Jews were living 
in Great Poland, which covered a somewhat larger 
area than the modern province of Pop* n Thus 
they are mentioned as residents of Deutsch Krone 
in the eleventh century, of Gnesen in the eleventh 
and twelfth centuries, and of Meseiitz in the four 
teenth century. The dates of the first allusions to 
Jews in the principal cities of Great Poland are as 
follows: Kalisz, 1354; Posen, 1379; Peisern, 13H>, 
Schmiegel, 1415; Inowrazlaw (Hohensnl/.a), 1447. 
Schneidernllhl, sixteenth century; Lcnczyce, 1517; 
Schwerin -on - the- Warta, 1520; HromberjL\ 1525. 
Fraustadt, 1526; Lowicz, about 1537; Prime 1553; 
Brzeaz, 1555; Petrikau, 1555; Exin, 1559, Schrimm, 
1573; Lissa, 1580 or shortly afterward; Schwer- 
senz, 1590; Neustadt, 1595; Grfttz, 1597. Kempcn. 
seventeenth century, shortly after the founding of 
the city ; Wronke, 1607; Warsaw, 160m ; Krotoschin. 
1617; Wreschen, 1621; Pakosch, 1G24; Samh r. 
1626; Kolo, 1629; Fordon, 1633; Jarotschin, 1037; 
Nakel, 1641; Filelme, 1655; Kobylin, 1656; Rog i- 
sen, 1656; Lask, 1685; Wollstein,* 1690; Rawilseh, 
1692; Obornik, 1696; and Goslin, 1698. See Po- 
land, under Russia. 

In a document which was issued by Sigismund 1., 
dated Aug. 6, 1527, R. Samuel Margolioth of Posen 
was confirmed as chief rabbi of Great Poland, and 
was vested with important powersover all the Jews 
of that district. The synod of Great Poland, which 
had at its disposal a stated clerk ( u sofer medinah n ), 
tax-assessors and tax-collectors, is first mentioned in 
1597; it sat in that yearand in 1609 at Posen, S( vcral 
times between 1635 and 1649 at Gnesen, in 166^ at 
Kalisz, in 1681 at Neustadt-on-thc-Warta, in 1691 at 
Jarotschin, and in 1733 at Kobylin. Its functions 
included the election of the chief rabbi of Great 
Poland, the adoption of measures of protection 
against common dangers (especially the frequent 
charge of ritual murder), the collection of the poll- 
tax and of sums needed for the general welfare , the 
negotiation of loans for communal purposes, the 
subvention of works of Jewish literature, and ap 
probations for printing (see Approbation). 

The Jews of Great Poland were not exempt from 
persecution, which, however, generally occurred in 
times of war or economic depression. An outbreak 
against them took place on the German frontier in 

1349, the year of the Black Death, 

During when 10,000 Jews were killed, the 

the Black commercial retrogression of Great Po- 

Death. land in the fourteenth century bring 

ascribed to this persecution Main- 
Jews were martyred during the war between Swe- 
den and Poland in 1656; and a smaller numb* r died 
in the Northern war in 1707 ami 1716 Social op- 
pressions were frequently caused by the Citbolic 
clergy and by the German merchants for nliiri >u<* 
and commercial reasons. The clergy first legislated 
concerning the Jews of Great Poland in 1267 at the 

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Council of Brc^lau, in accordance with the canons of 
the Lnteran Council. The right to give permission 
for the building of new synagogues was reserved to 
the Archbishop of Gnesen and the Bishop of Posen. 
In the twelfth century Jews were employed at Gne- 
sen as fanners of the mint and as coiners, a few under 
IJoleslaw IV. (1146-73), and a larger number under 
Mieczyslav III. (1173-77, 1 195-1202). The inscrip- 
tions on these coins are partly in pure Hebrew, and 
partly in Polish in Hebrew letters, as r\2M2 H3*U. 

1*1312 myu. *p D ^ 2 ^P XntfDl«>M "Micszko krol 
Polski " [Mieszko, Polish king]\ ?|DV NpiTO C [May 
God] increase Mieszko''), and pns 1 12 DH12N 
Similar coins are found in the cabinets of the Polish 
aristocracy, the Padziwills, Sapiehas, and others, in 
the Thomson collection at Copenhagen, and in the 
Pretorius collection at Breslau. 

It is noteworthy thai in the fourteenth century 
the " grod " or county courts took up the cases of 
Jewish creditors against their aristocratic debtors; 
that Jews were permitted to acquire land, a privi- 
lege which was subsequently repealed ; that women 
as well as men engage^ in money-lending ; and that a 
case set for a Sabbath was postponed to another day 
on the Jews' account. It appears that all the Jews of 
Great Poland carried their cases against the aristoc- 
racy to the u grod " of Posen, not to the courts of the 
other cities. Although their condition was more 
favorable than in later centuries, as is evidenced by 
the fact that the epithet " unbelieving Jews," subse- 
quently current, was not applied to them at that 
time, the general statutes of the archdiocese of 
Gnesen decreed that they should wear a piece of 
blood-red cloth on the breast. In general they were 
not permitted in the cities under the jurisdiction of 
prelates, and in some instances they were expelled 
from some of the other towns also. 

In the following centuries the Jews were subjected 
to varying treatment, according as the cities or ter- 
ritories were under royal, ecclesiastical, or aristo- 
cratic dominion. The words of R. 
Privileges Moses Isserles, uttered with regard to 
and Little Poland, are applicable to his 

Jurisdie- coreligionists of Great Poland as well: 
tion. "Every city has its special tax and 

its special governor; and even the 
king [of Poland] does not rule over them, but only 
their own lord of the manor." These lords granted 
privileges to their Jews, acted as their judges, and 
even sentenced them to death, while from them the 
numerous Jewish gilds received their statutes. The 
Jews followed many callings at this tjme, being tai- 
lors, furriers, bakers, braiders, butchers, glaziers, 
tanners, barbers, goldsmiths, gold-embroiderers, 
gold -refiners, jewelers, button-makers, capmakers, 
seal-engravers, silk-dyers, horn-workers, cooks, por- 
ters, musicians, etc. 

In the course of centuries numbers of German 
Jews fled to Poland from the hardships which they 
suifered at home; in 1474, emigrants went from 
Bamberg to Posen; in 1510, from the electorate of 
Brandenburg to Meseritz; after 1070, from Vienna 
to Sch wersenz ; and in 1700, from Fulda to Sch werin- 

The ritual of Great Poland differed in various points 
from that observed elsewhere, containing, for exam- 

ple, irs own D*£X yiX ^N for morning worship on 
Mondays and Thursdays. Hebrew printing-presses 
existed at Lissa and Posen in the sixteenth century, 
although no extant work can with certaintv be as- 
signed to those establishments. Between 1772 and 
1775 Frederick the Great held the northern part of 
the country, the so-called district of the Xetze, which 
contained more than 0,000 Jews. It was contrary to 
the policy of Prussia to tolerate such a large number of 
Jews within its borders; and since they were not all 
engaged in profitable employments, Frederick de- 
cided to send at least two-thirds of them across the 
Polish boundary-line, a course from which his ollicials 
were unable for some years to dissuade him. Jewish 
affairs were regulated by the u General-Juden-Begle- 
ment " of Aug. 9, 1773, which deprived the Jews of 
their old privileges, their treatment being dictated by 
fiscal considerations. When the southern partof the 
country also came under Prussian rule, in 1793, one- 
twentieth of the population consisted of Jews. On 
the day on which homage was paid to the new 
ruler they recited a prayer in Hebrew and one in 
German, the latter composed by Hart wig Wrcs- 
sely. The status of the Jews was now determined 

by the " General-Juden-Reglement " 
" General- of April 17, 1797, which aimed to 
Juden- make them, as mechanics and trades- 
Re- men, useful members of the state, 
glement." Again they lost their old privileges; 

nor was there any improvement in 
their condition when, ten years later, the country was 
made partof the duchy of Warsaw. The monstrous 
kasher-meat tax was especially burdensome to the 
Jews. They rejoiced in their reunion with Prussia 
in 1815; but they did not obtain their promised polit- 
ical equality until the enactment of the "Jews' 
Law" of June 1, 1838, which conferred citizenship 
upon the wealthy and educated classes, and that of 
July 23, 1847, which put the Jews on a par with their 
brethren of the older Prussian provinces. The 
censuses of the Jews in the province an* as follows: 
43,3l5in 1797 and 1804; 9,690 families in 1809; 05,131 
Jews in 1825; 77,102 in 1840; 76,757 in 1849; 62,438 
in 1875; 44,346 in 1890; and 40,019 in 1900. The 
decrease is due to emigration to the west of Europe 
and to foreign countries. 

The ghettos of Posen have produced many promi- 
nent men, such as the historians Ileinrich Graetz of 
Xions and Julius Fi'irst of Zerkowo, the philosopher 
Moritz Lazarus of Filehne, the politician Ednard 
Lasker of Jarotschin, and the composer Louis Le- 
wandowski of Wreschen. 

The City of Posen : Posen, the capital of the 
province, containing (1903), among 117,014 inhabit- 
ants, 5,810 Jews, was always the principal commu- 
nity of Great Poland, except in the last two-thirds of 
the eighteenth century, when it temporaril}' gave 
place to Lissa; and it took precedence at the Coun- 
cil of Porn Lands whenever that body assembled in 
Great Poland. The earliest Jewish settlement (prob- 
ably on the right bank of the River Warta) in the 
city of Posen, was under the jurisdiction of the king, 
not of the municipality. Subsequently it included 
the Jndenstrasse, the Schnmaeherstrassc, and a por- 
tion of the Wrackerstrasse. Most of the houses were 
built of wood, so that there were frequent con- 

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flagrations, with attendant robbery and murder; 
and the .catastrophes of 1590 are commemorated 
in the elegies of two liturgical poets. The stu- 
dents of the Jesuit college became troublesome 
neighbors in 1573; and they were restrained from 
attacking the Jews only in consideration of a 
money payment. In the sixteenth century com- 
merce was restricted, although at that time the 
Jews, who numbered 3,000, formed nearly one-half 
of the entire population. There were 49 stone houses 
in the Jews' street in the early part of the sixteenth 
century: 80 in 1549; 75 in 1590 before the lire of 
that year; 137 altogether in 1641; 9S in 1710; and 
109 in 1714. At the beginning of the seventeenth 
century the community, in spite of its many suffer- 
ings, numbered 2,300 persons: but this number was 
subsequently reduced to the extent of one-half. 

The following is a description of the communal 
constitution in the seventeenth and eighteenth cen- 
turies. At the head of the community were five 
"parnasim" (directors), assisted by three "tubim" 
and five councilmen, this board of thirteen being 
called a Kaual. Seven "memunnim" acted as a 
kind of police, and live municipal representatives 
( u tube ha-Mr") decided cases involving real estate, 
while seven men supervised the morals, etc., of 
the members, and the " parnase medinah " watched 
over Jews from other places who merely sojourned 
in Posen. Each synagogue had its directors; and 
artisans, working men, and even Jewish servant- 
girls, were organized in unions presided over by 
elected ollicers. There were several civil courts, 
in which the associate rabbis as well as the chief 
rabbi sat; and there was, furthermore, a mixed 
court in which Jewish and Christian judges decided 
cases between those of the two creeds. All these 
officials were under oath and, with the exception of 
the chief rabbi, were elected annually during the 
intermediate days of Passover by the "kesherim" 
(trusty men) of the congregation. 

In consequence of the Swedish war, political dis- 
orders, and accusations of ritual murder, which were 
especially virulent in 173G, the population dimin- 
ished, while the debts to the nobil- 
Increased ity, churches, convents, and Catholic 
Taxation, clergy increased rapidly, amounting 

in 1774 to the enormous sum of 947,- 
540 gulden 19 groschen, which was reduced by a 
state commission to 086,081 gulden 20 groschen. 
These debts had not been entirely paid even as 
late as 1864. The community began to flourish 
under Prussian rule; and up to about 1850 was the 
largest in Prussia. 

Posen has produced a large number of men prom- 
inent in many fields of activity. The first Talmud- 
ists of the city arc mentioned about the middle of 
the fifteenth century; and the following rabbis have 
olliciated there: 

Pechno (mentioned 1389-93); Moses Mariel (r. 1455); 
Moses b. Isaac Minz U474-150S); Menahem Mendel 
Frank ; Moses (1516); Samuel Margrolioth (<\ 1527-51); 
Schachno (1544); Solomon b. Judah Lobisch Iiieber- 
mann (r. 1551-57); Aaron (1557); Eliezer Ashkenazi 
(15S0); Solomon b. Judah Lobisch II. (r.1581); Judah 
Iidwb. Bezaleel (1585-8$, 1592): Mordecai Jaffe (c. 1599- 
1612); Aaron Benjamin b. Hayyim Morawczyk (c. 
1623-31); Simon Wolf b. David Tebele Auerbach (c. 
1625-29); Hayyim b. Isaac ha-Kohen (1630-35); Moses 

b. Isaiah Menahem, calli-d Moses Rabbi Mendelw 
(HttV-41): Sheftelb. Isaiah Horowitz IM1 > ; Ioaac 
b. Abraham (NOT-afi); Isaiah b. Sheitel Horowitz 
UOHH-89); Naphtali Kohen <169<H7<n ; Jacob b. Isaac 
(1714 29); Jacob Mordecai b. Naphtali Kohen M7.J2- 
I736>; Raphael Kohen U774 7*5 : Joseph Zobi Hirsch 
Janow b. Abraham (177(1 77 r. Joseph ha-Zaddilc b. 
Phinehas U7*0 l*ni); Moses Samuel b. 'Phineha* 
(1802 ti>: Akiba Eg-er Uh|.v;17>: Solomon E«rer usm f»2 ; 
Moritz Goldstein (preaWier, M* :*\ ; Joseph Perlcs liu 
the Brm]iTK<Mi»Hmh\ l*02 7lr. Wolf Feilchenfeld urt#«r 
1H72); and Philipp Bloch (at the Ht (nl« n/« iim-IikIc In in t 71 
to the present lime, VM>). 

Gnesen : According to a legendai v aeeount a svn 
agogue existed at (riicsen as early as HOfi At the 
end of the fifteenth and tin 1 beginning of ih«- six- 
teenth century tiie Jews of Gnesen paid lnrge taxes 
to the king, in 1-191) Cardinal Archbishop Frederic k 
protected them against tne exorbitant denmnds of 
the Jewish tax collector; in 1567 tin*}* were gi\t*n 
two royal letters of protection, one n laling tu tbe 
woolen trade, and tlie other regarding laxis unjust- 
ly collected from them; and four years later a Jew- 
was placed under the exclusive jurisdiction of the 

In 1582 the Jew T s made a contract for the construc- 
tion of a synagogue, and in 1000, on the oatli < f our 
of the elders of the community, the king granted 
them a copy of their earlier privileges, which had 
been destroyed in a tire in 1G37, as well as a m-n- 
eral confirmation of their privileges. In 1054 Jesuit 
students plundered the Jews' street; and two years 
later some Jews were slain. The statute concerning 
tailors dates from 1779, Christian merchants being 
exempted by their statutes from receiving Jews into 
their gilds. The community of Posen raised a relief 
fund for its Gnesen brethren after the lire of 1710. 
In 1819 the archives were burned. In 1744 there 
were only 60 Jews in the city; but in 1793, when 
the Prussians took possession, there were 685, in- 
cluding 53 tailors, 10 butchers, and 6 furriers. By 
1800 the Jewish population of Gnesen hud increased 
to 761, and by 1857 to 1,750; but in 1900 it num- 
bered only 1,179. The synagogue was built in IMfl. 

The following rabbis have olliciated at Gnesen: 

Benjamin, director of a Talmudic school i 1.VJ0): Uri Lip- 
mann ^lefez b. Israel Seligmann (15nm; Abraham 
b. Judah ha-Levi (1005); Samuel <r. !«M: Enoch b. 
Abraham (1647, 1656); Mordecai (c. 17KH; Joel Heilprin 
ic.1820); Gebhardt (1847-52 >: M.S. Zuckermandl (1^7 ; 
M. Horovitz (1875-78); N. Ehrenfeld and M. Jacobaon 
(since 1890). 

The community has numbered anion it its mem- 
bers liturgical poets, halakie coditicrs. and anthers 

of responsa. 

Kempen: The Jews of Kempcn rectived their 
privileges in 1074 and 17^0 from the lords ot the 
manor; and in 10^9 a further privilege protecting 
them in the exercise of their worship was ^ranled 
by the provost under orders irom the avsisiai t 
bishop of Breslau. The musicians had their own 
gild (this still numbered 26 members in l*fU In 
1690 the hebra kaddisha was founded; ami in 1797 
the synagogue was built, after a conflagration hid 
destroyed the greater part of the Jews' street. At 
that time there were 1.500 Jews in the city, con-til u 
ting one half of the popnlaiion. In lfrin there w< re 
3 559 Jews in a total populate n of 6.1S1 ; 3.3*0 !n 
1857; and 1,059 in 1900. In 184s the community 
was ravaged by cholera. 

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The following rabbis have officiated at Kempeu: 

Moses b. Hillel ^ha-Darshan," 1691); Moses 
Manes <c. 1770); Meshullam Zalman Kohen (e. 1784); 
Joseph M. M. U\ 1n«) ; Israel Jonah Landau (1820, 
1SJ3 : his son Joseph Samuel Landau (d. 1837); Israel's 
son-in-law Mordeeai Zeeb Ashkenazi; Me'ir Lobush 
ben Jehiel Michael Malbim <1M1 50 ; Jacob Simhah 
Hehfisch ; and L. Miinz, the present (1905) incumbent. 

Amoug the Jews of Kernpen have been transla- 
tors of pmyers, authors of Talniudic novelhv, poets, 
writers, authors of responsa, and preachers. 

Krotosehin : The community of Krotoschin suf- 
fered so sev( rely bv sword and famine during the 
Swedish war in 1656 that only tiftv families re- 
mained out of 400. It quickly revived, however, 
and after the second half of the seventeenth century 
the Jews were in close industrial relations with 
Silesia, and had their own svnagogue at Breslau. 
while their Talmud Torah was one of the foremost 
of the country. Krotoschin, like Posen, Lissa, and 
Kalisz, was one of the leading communities of Great 
Poland, sending representatives to the general synod 
of Great Poland and to the Council of Four Lands. 
In a document dated 1773 it is called an "important 
community, with many sages and men learned in 
the Law." In 1710 it suffered from a conflagration, 
receiving aid from Posen. The mutual rights of 
Jews and Christians as regards liquor licenses were 
defined in 1726 and 1728, and thestatutesof the lord 
of the manor were promulgated in the latter year 
and in 1730. In 1738 a fee for every corpse taken 
to Krotoschin had to be paid to the pastor of each 
place through which the cortege passed; and in 
1828 the recruits' tax was levied in consequence of 
a conflagration. The synagogue, which was dedi- 
cated in 1845, was at that time the finest in the 
province. In 1800 there were 1,701 Jews in the city, 
forming the third largest community of Posen. In 
1837 there were 2,213 Jews at Krotoschin; 2,098 in 
1857; and 670 in 1900. 

The following is the list of rabbis: 

Hirsch b. Samson (e. 1617); Menahem Man Ashke- 
nazi (c. lG4b>; Israel Heilprin ; Menahem Mendel b. 
Meshullam Auerbach (1673: d.1089); Ezekiel b. Me'ir 
ha-Levi (1691,1700); Mordeeai (before 1715); LbbMunk; 
Menahem Mendel Jankau (Jenikau?) (1726); Mena- 
hem Mendel Auerbach b. Moses (1732, 1755); Meshul- 
lam Zalman Kohen (c. 1760-70); Aryeh Lbb Caro (e. 
1779 »; Benjamin b. Saul Katzenelnbogen (1785, 1792); 
Zebi Hirsch b. Raphael ha-Kohen (1825): Raphael 
Zebi; Israel b. Judah Jj'oh (1844 >; Samuel Mendel- 
sohn, acting chief rabbi (1853, 1&58); David Joel (1871, 1880); 
Eduard Baneth (1*82-95); and H. Bergrer, tbe present 
(1905 > Incumbent (since 1895). 

In 1^33 a Hebrew printing-press was founded, 
which has issued a large number of works. This 
community has numbered among its members many 
prominent scholars and writers, authors of sermons 
and of halakic and haggadic novella*, commentators 
on the Bible, patrons of Jewish science, grammari- 
ans, bibliographers, and printers. 

Bibliography: Lewin, Gesch. der Juden in Lissa. pp. 1 et 
*rq. % 3. 5,e/ passim, Pinne, 1904: idem. Die Judmverfoh 
gungen im Zwciten Schwcdisch-Pulnisrhrn Kriegr.pp. Get 
fteq.. Pos^n. 1901; idem, in Heppner-H< j rzberg, Aus Yergan- 
gcnhril und Gcgemcarl der Juden und di r Jlldisefien Gc- 
meinden in dm Posener Landcn, pp. 12, 09, 77, 100, 108 ct 
neq., Koschmln, 1904; idem* In Zeitschrift drr HiMorisehen 
fjrselJuchaft filr die Provinz Posen, xv. 57 ct seq.; Posener 
Staedsarchiv Inscriptiones UWhov, 1597. p. 4ilb; Znnz, % Tr 
ha-Zalck, p. 43, J>mb»'rg,]H74 ; Zeitschrift dcr Ilistorischen 

Gcsellschaft ftlr die Provinz Posen, i. 391 et seq.. 395; Iv. 
190, 322, 324 et seq.; v. 298 ; vi., p. xxvi. ; xi. 3?1: Warschauer, 
ib.xix. 42, 14 ct seq.; idem. Die Stddtischen Archive in der 
Provinz Paten, pp. ti3 et acq., 80, 110, LeJpsic, 1901; tbe 
manuscript * % keshmm " book of the community of Posen, pp. 
7b, 14b, 21a, 22b, 37a, 39b, 219b; Brann,* Uabbinats 
'in SchtieidemUhl, p. 8, Breslau, 1894; idem, in GriitzJubcl- 
schrift. PP. 221), 229, 231, 205, ib. 1887; idem, Gesch. der 
Juden in Schlesien. Appendix ii., p. xix.; Kriedberg, Gesch. 
der Jlidischen Typographic in Krakau, pp. 10 (note 22), 
21, Cracow, 1900; Bloch, in Zeitschrift der Ilistorischen 
Gesi'llschaft ftlr die Provinz Pouch, vi. 143, 103; Idem, Der 
Streit urn den March des Maimotiides in . . . Posen nmdic 
Mitte des 16. Jahrh.An Monatsschrifl. 1903, pp. 153 et seq.; 
Polkowski, Dieouvcrte a Gleboki. pp. 3 ct seq., 14, 31, 41, 
40, 49, 77 et seq., Gnesen, '1870; Reiubold, Chronik des 
Krcise* und der Stadi Birnbaum, p. 132, Birnbaum, 
1843 ; firfiia, Gesch. 1803, vti. 402ct seq.; Codex Diplomatics 
Majoris Pojonkr, No. 42*3, Posen, 1877; Lekczyckt, Die Act- 
testen Gross- Pol nischen Grodbtlcher, 1., Preface, pp. xli., 15, 
24, 170; U., Preface, p. xil., Lelpsic, 1ns7; Perles, in Monats- 
schrift. xiii. 283 et passim, xiv. 89 et passim ; Historische 
MonatsbUttter fUr die Provinz Pt>sen, i. 117, iii. 100; Kaui- 
mann. Die Letzie Vertreibung der Juden aus Wien und 
XiederOsterrcieh. pp. 121, 221, Budapest, 1889; Znnz, Hit us, p. 
75; Bergmann, Zur Gesch. der EntwkkeJung Dcutscher, 
Polnischer, und Jiidischer BevOlkerung in der Provinz 
Posen, pp. 44, 291, Tubingen, 1883; Uonue and Simon, Die . .. 
1 r e rh Ultn isse dcr Juden . . . des Pre uss ischen Staai cs y p . 25, 
Breslau, 1843; Wegener, Der Wirtschaftliehe Kampf der 
Deutsche n mitden Polen urn die Provinz Posen, p. 230, Po- 
sen, 1903; Fetlchenfeld, Die Innerc Verfassung der JUdi- 
schen Gemcindc zu Posen im 17. und 1$. Jahrhundert, in 
Zeitschrift dcr Historischen GescUscfiaft ftlr die Provinz 
Posen, xi. 122 et seq.; Bruit's Jahrb. YU.Wetseq., 188; Stern- 
berg, Gesch. der Juden in Polen, p. 8, Leipsic, 1870; Sirisa, 
Beschreibung von Slid- und Xcu-Ostprcussen, p. 508, ib. 
1797; Heilprin, Seder ha-DoroU i- 248, iii. 4, Warsaw, 1881 ; 
Wiener, Da\it Kedoshim, pp. 10, 58, 77, 115, 117, 125, 133, 199, 
St. Petersburg, 1S97; Herzberg, G etch, dcr Juden in Brom- 
berg, p. 70, Frankfort-on-tbe->iain, 1903; Dembitzer, Kelilat 
YofiAi.Mbetseq., Cracow, 1893; Zeitschrift fUr Gesch. und 
Landeskundc dcr Provinz Posen, iii. 30 ; Der Israel it. 1902, 
p. 188; Lowenstein, BHittcr ftlr JUdische Geschiehte und 
Litteratur % iii.44ef seq.. 50; iv.HOrf seq.; ProvinziahBltit- 
terfilrdas Grossherzugthum Posen, i. 01; Jeschurun, p. 
107, Plesehen, 1902; Meyer, Gesch. des Landes Posen, p. 370, 
Posen, 1881; Israel ilisches Familienblatt, No. 40, Hamburg, 
1903; Roest, Cat. Rosenthal. Bibl. pp. 25, 319, 378, 502, 581, 
032, 043, 685; Kohen Zedek, Shem u-She'ertU pp. 15, 57, 
Cracow, 1895. 

p. L. Lew. 

POSING or BOSING (Hungarian, Bazin) : 
Small town in the county of Presburg, where on 
May 27, 1529 (Friday, Siwan 13), thirty Jews were 
burned to death on the accusation of haying mur- 
dered a Christian child for ritual purposes. The 
charge was invented by the lord of the place, Franz, 
Count of St. Georgen and Posing, who wished to 
rid himself of the debts which he owed to the Jews 
of Marchegg and Pdsing. Isaac Mandel, prefect 
of the Hungarian Jews, demanded protection and 
justice at the hand of King Ferdinand 1. for the 
Jews of both these places; but the feudal lord did 
not heed the king's warning. The memor-book of 
the Cracow hebra kaddisha records the names of 
those who suffered death at this time. In order to 
witness the martyrdom the inhabitants of Neisse, 
Olmiitz, and Vienna, as well as those of the neigh- 
boring cities, poured into POsing. Among those 
who suffered was Moses b. Jacob Kohen, who with 
his children voluntarily cast himself into the flames. 
The Jews of Marchegg were saved, as in the mean- 
time the missing child was found alive. 

For centuries after this event Jews were not per- 
mitted to live in Posing, nor even to spend a night 
there. When a Posing senator gave shelter to the 
Jew Lazar Hirsch, the excited populace besought 
King Leopold I. (10.17-1705) to confirm their old 
right of prohibiting Jews from sojourning there. 
The king decided in favor of the town, and Lazar 
Hirsch was compelled to remove to the estate of the 
counts of Palffy. 

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Bibliography: G. Wolf, in Leopold Rosenberg Jahrhuch ftlr 

die Inraelitutchen Cultusgemeinden in Ungnrn, i. 263- 

273, Arad, 18G0; Biichier, A Zniddk TOrtenete Bwlapcsten, 

p. 90, Budapest, 1^01 ; Kaufmann, in Monataschrift, 1894, 

pp. 426-429; Sokolow, in Ha-A*if % vi. 133; Ain Ernchrock- 

cnlieh GcxchichU etc., ed. BQchler, in Magyar Zsidd 
Szemte, xi. 90. 

d. A. Bu. 

POSNANSKI, ADOLF : Austrian rabbi ; born 
at Lubraniec, near Warsaw, June 3, 1854; educated 
at the gymnasium, the university, and the rabbin- 
ical seminary at Breslau, where he worked under 
Heinrieh Graetz and Manuel Joe*l, and at the Sor- 
bonne in Paris, where he was leader to the Orien- 
talist Joseph Derenbourg. While a student at Bres- 
lau he gave religious instruction in the secondary 
schools of that city, and officiated as rabbi at Rei- 
chenberg, Bohemia, from 1888 to 1891, when he was 
called to Pilsen. Posnanski is a member of the board 
of directors of the Gesellschaft zur Forderung der 
Wissenschaft des Judenthums at Berlin. 

His publications are as follows: "Ueber die Reli- 
gionsphilosophischen Anschauungen des Flavius Jo- 
sephus," Breslau, 1887; "Shiloh: Ein Beitrag zur 
GeschichtederMessiaslehre; i. Theil, Die Auslegung 
von Genesis c. 49, v. 10 im Altertum bis zu Ende 
des Mittelalters," Leipsic, 1904, containing also quo- 
tations from Hebrew and Arabic manuscripts to- 
gether with rare prints. 

A. Ki. 


POSNER, CARL: GeVman physician and med- 
ical writer; born at Berlin Dec. 16, 1854; son of 
Louis Posner; educated at the universities of Berlin, 
Bonn, Strasburg, Leipsic (Ph.D. 1875), and Giessen 
<M.D. 1880). From 1878 to 1880 he was assistant 
in the pathological institute at Giessen; and till 
1886 assistant of Furstenheim in Berlin, where he 
settled as a physician. He became privat-doccnt in 
1890, and received the title of professor in 1895. 

Since 1889 Posner has been editor of the "Berliner 
Klinische Wochenschrift," and since 1894 of Vir- 
chow's" Jahresberieht liber die Leistungen und Fort- 
schritte in der Gesammten Medizin." Among his 
works maybe mentioned: "Diagnostik der Harn- 
krankheiten," 1893 (2d ed. 1896); and "Therapieder 
Harnkrankbeiten," 1895 (2d ed. 1898). 

Bibliography : Pagel, Biog. Lex. 

b. F. T. H. 

HERZ; Polish Talmudic compiler; lived about 
the middle of the seventeenth century in Posen, and 
later in Krotoschin. He was the author of " Yalkut 
Dawid" (Dyhernfurth, 1691), homileiic collectanea 
on the Pentateuch from the Talmud, the Midrashim, 
and the post-Talmudic authors. The work was 
edited by his father, Naphtali Herz Spitz. Fuenn's 
opinion ("Keneset Yisrael," p. 248) that David is 
identical with David Tebele Posner, author of 
"Sha'are Ziyyon," seems to be erroneous. 

Bibliography: Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim, ii.66; Steinschnel- 
der. Cat. Bodl. col. 863; Brann, in Monatsschrift, 1896, p. 

E. C. I. BeU. 

rian manufacturer; born 1822; died 1887 at Buda- 
pest. In 1852 he founded the largest printing, 
lithographing, and bookbinding establishment in 
Hungary; and he was sent by his government as a 

X.— 10 

commissioner to the expositions of London (1871) 
Vienna (1873), and Triest (.18*2). In lMH-i he was 
empowered by Trefort, the minister of education, 
to introduce the reproduction of maps into Hun- 
gary; and that country is greatly indebted to him 
in connection with the graphic arts and the pap< r 
industry. King Francis Joseph 1. ennobled him in 
1873, and bestowed upon him the title of royal coun- 
cilor in 1885. His Nvork is successfully carried on 

by his son Alfred. 

Bibliography : Pallas Lex. xiv. 

L. V. 

POSNER, MEIR (called also Munk or Meir 
Pinner) : Prussian rabbi; born 1735, died at Dan- 
zig Feb. 3, 1807. He was rabbi of the Schotllund 
congregation in Danzig from 1782 till his death. 

Posner was the author of "Bet Mei'r" (Frankfort 
on-the-Oder, 1787; Lemberg, 1836), a comme.-iturv 
on the Shulhan 'Aruk, Eben ha- 4 Kzer, and novella? 
thereon, entitled "Zal'ot ha-Bayit," published to- 
gether with the former work. 

Bibliography ; FQrst, Bihl. Jud. ill. 117-1 1H ; Benlacob, <nar 
ha-Scfarim % p. 74, No. 355. 

D - s. 0. 

bi; born at Landsberg about 1778 (?); died in Lns- 
lau in 1863; son of Joseph Landsberg, rabbi of Po- 
sen. At Solomon's wish his sons erected a wooden 
monument over his grave at Loslau. 

Posner was the author of several as yet unpub- 
lished works, among which are: "Zemir 'Arizim," 
an apologetic work written against young persons 
who consider the study of the Talmud unnecessary; 
"Gal 'Ed," moral and instructive letters for sons 
when leaving the paternal house to attend the yeshi- 
bah; "Nir Rash," commentary on the whole Penta- 
teuch, with various notes on Rashi ; " Dodo Yegalle- 
nu," novelise on the Talmud; "Bet ha-Nizoz" in- 
troduction to the Talmud; "Noter ha-Keramim." 
advice to fathers concerning the support of their 
families and the education of their children. 

In 1870 there appeared in Krotoschin a book enti- 
tled "To'ar Pene Shelomoh," which contained, be- 
sides Posner's biography after his marriage, biog- 
raphies of his ancestors as far back as the beginning 
of the seventeenth century, together with much 
that refers to the historv of civilization at that time 
and in the eighteenth century. Scholars, however, 
disagree as to whether the "To'ar " is Posner's own 
work or a revisal of a manuscript of his. by his 
eldest son, Moses, who was once rabbi of Posen. 

Bibliography: Tn'arPene Shelomoh, Krotoschin . 1*70; Ha- 
Jfrffe, Aprit 17, 18*7, p. 9U6. 

K. c. S O. 

POSaTn£RES(^n^p^niDorrn^pL i nD)orVAU- 
VERT: Town in the department of the Gard. 
France, where Jews are known to have lived since 
the twelfth century. When Benjamin of Tudela 
visited the city, about 1165, the commuuitv was 
composed of forty members, among whom he men- 
tions Joseph ben Menahem, Benveniste, Benjamin, 
and Abraham and Isaac ben Moses ("Itinerary," i. 
5). At its head was Abraham ben David (RABaD 
III.); his school was attended by many students 
from distant countries, whom he welcomed with 
much hospitality. In 1172 Abraham suffered a short 

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. .. — i . 

imprisonment, at the close of which his persecutor. 
Elzear, the seignior of Pobquicrcs, was summoned 
to Carcassonne by his suzerain, Count Roger II., to 
explain his conduct toward the famous opponent of 
Maimonides. It was doubtless after this event that 
Abraham quit Posquieres, to reside sometimes at 
Lune 1 and sometimes at Montpellier, but chiefly at 
Ximes, where he lived for many years, thus gaining 
the surname of "Nemsi" (scholar of Ximes), or 
".Master of the City of the Woods" ("Rabbi mi-Kir- 
yat Ye'arim "). Some Jewish natives of Posquieres 
are mentioned as living at Carpeutras in 1400 and at 
Perpignan in 1413 and 1414. Among the scholars 
of the citv were: Isaac the Blind or Isaac of Pos- 
quieres, "Father of the Cabala"; his nephew Ashcr 
ben David ben Abraham beu David; and the Bib- 
lical commentator Menahem ben Simeon. 

Bibliography: Carmolv, BUxjraphie des Israelites de France, 

p. 130; dratz, Gesch. vt.243. W9: Idem, LesJuifsen E*paune % 

iransl. by Georges sienne, p. 365: Gross, Gallia Judaica, pp. 

446-450 ; idem, in MnnatasehrifU 1*73-74 ; Joseph Simon, His* 



«;. S. K. 

.-«>— 4.-X.J ; utatu inMonatssennrt, in.*-«4; josepnbimon, ins- 
(tire desJuifsdc Ntmcs* p. 13; ttenan-Neubauer, Les Hah- 
tins Francais, pp. 518-520: Shchtt Ychudah, pp. 76a, 78a ; 
Fcinim De'im, pp. 227-248; Zunz, G. £. iii. 147-150. 

POSREDNIK. See Periodicals. 

POSSART, ERNST VON : German actor and 
author; bom at Berlin May 11, 1841. When seven- 
teen years old he was apprenticed to the Schroeder- 
'sche Buch- und Kunst-Handlung, a well-known 
publishing-house in Berlin, where he became ac- 
quainted with the actor Kaiser, who offered to teach 
him elocution without compensation. After study- 
ing for three years, 
Possart, in 1861, 
made his debut at 
the Urania amateur 
theater, Berlin, as 
Riecaut in "Minna 
von Barnhelm " and 
lago in "Othello," 
and with such suc- 
cess that lie was en- 
gaged to play sec- 
ond character roles 
at the city theater 
of Breslau. There 
he stayed till 1862, 
when he accepted 
an engagement at 
a Berlin theater, to 
play leading parts. 
The following year 
he was in Hamburg, impersonating the charac- 
ters formerly undertaken by Goruer. From 1864 
to 1887 he was connected with the Munich Royal 
Theater, plaving the leading roles, and becom- 
ing in 1^73 chief stage-manager ("Oberrcgisseur "). 
In 1878 he received the titles of professor and 
director of the Royal Theater. During his vaca- 
tions he accepted engagements at the principal Ger- 
man theaters in Europe. From 1880 he produced 
plays in Munich, with all-star casts. During the 
five years following his resignation (1887-92) lie 
starred at the leading theaters, visiting America in 
138H and 1800. In 1892 he returned to the Royal 
Theater as "Gencraldirektor," becoming "Intend- 

Ernst von Possart. 

ant" in 1895 and being knighted by the crown of 
Bavaria.. He still (1905) resides in Munich. 

His talent as actor and manager is equally great; 
his judgment of the capability of different actors 
is' remarkable, always recognizing and assigning 
to each individual the part most suited to him; and 
he has the faculty of giving life and importance to 
minor parts. He is also very successful as an in- 
structor, having been the teacher of many actors 
now prominent. 

Possart is at present the foremost of German 
actors. His repertoire is manifold. lie has ap- 
peared in Schiller's dramas as Franz Moor, Bur- 
leigh, Talbot, Landvogt Gutsier, Konig Philipp, and 
OetaiHo Piccolomini ; in Lessing's, nsA'a than der Wctse 
and Marinclli; in Goethe's, as Carlos, Mephuto, 
Antonio, Alba, and Yansen; in Shakespeare's, as 
King John, Richard //., Richard III., 11a mlct, Lear, 
Shyloek\ and logo ; in Byron's "Manfred" as Man- 
fred \ in Bjornson's "Fallissement " as Berent; in 
Topfers "Des lvonigs Befehl " as Fricdrich der 
Grosse; and in lleigel's "Josephine Bonaparte " as 
Sapolcon. One of his greatest characters is that of 
the Jew in "1/ Ami Fritz." 

Under Possart 's directions was built the Prinz- 
regenten Theater at Munich, where under his man- 
agement the great works of Wagner and Mozart 
have been ably reproduced. 

Possart is the author of: "KOnigliche Theater- 
sehule Munelien," 1877; " Uebcr die Gesammtauf- 
f filming des Goethe'schen Faust," 1895; " Die Xcu- 
einstndierungund Neuauffuhrungdes Mozart 'schen 
Don Giovanni, der Zauberflote, des Wallenstein " ; 
"Das Recht des Herzens," drama, 1898; "Im Aus- 
sichtswagen," comedy, 1898; "Aus Meinen Erin- 
nerungen," Munich, 1901 (first appeared in the 
"Munchner Allgemeine Zeitung"); " Festvortrag in 
der Deutschcn Shakespeare Gescllsclmft zu Wei- 
mar," Weimar, 1901. He has also edited Shake- 
speare's "King Lear" (1875), "The Merchant of 
Venice" (1880), "Coriolanus" (1882), and "Peri- 
cles" (1884). 

Bibliography: Meyers Konversat ions- Lex ikon ; Brockhaus 
Ko i \ re rsa t io n s- Lex iko n . 

s. P. T. II. 

POSSART, FELIX: German landscape and 
genre painter; born in Berlin March 7, 1837. Heat 
first intended to pursue a juridical career,* arid lieki 
for some years an otliee as " Amtsrichter" in his 
native town; but at length his love for painting 
became so strong that he decided to devote his entire 
time to this art. He studied assiduously under 
Eschke and Glide, and devoted himself espeeiallj' to 
painting scenes and landscapes of southern Spain, 
which country he visited several times, first in 1882. 
He traveled extensively also in the Black Forest, 
the Bavarian highlands, Switzerland, and Italy. 

Of his paintings the following maybe mentioned: 
"Interior of Alcazar, Seville"; "Moorish House in 
Granada"; "The Lion Court in the Alhambra"; 
"View of the Alhambra from Darrothal"; "The 
Interior of the Cautiva Tower of the Alhambra"; 
" Frigidarium of the Moorish Bath in the Alhambra " ; 
"The Escorial"; "Landscape of Southern Spain"; 
"Fort Alicante"; "In the Alhambra's Myrtle- 

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Grove"; "View of Tangier"; "Christ's Entry iuto 
Jerusalem"; and "The Lord's Supper." 

Bibliography: Singer, Alluemeinas KHmllcr- Lexicon, 
Fran kfort-on-the- Main, lbUS; Mater* KonverMtUms-Lcxi- 
fcon, Berlin, 1897. _ r% 

8. F. C. 

AiniAiiAM Abklk ben Abkaiiam Solomon. 

POTCHI, MOSES: Karaite scholar; lived at 
Constantinople in the second half of the sixteenth 
century. lie belonged to the Maruli family, the 
name of which was adopted by his son Joseph. 
Simhah Luzki attributes to Potchi the nn published 
work "Shclemut ha-Nefesh," which deals with the 
creation of the world, the existence of God, and 
similar subjects. A poem by Potchi, eulogizing 
the "Sha'ar Yehudah " (Constantinople, 15bl) of 
Judali Poki, is prefixed to that work. 

Bibliography: Simhuh Luzki, Orah Zathl ikinh p. 2&i; Fiirst, 
(j each. desKariitr't. iii. 23; Neubauer, Ansder PeleMmr- 
grr JiiWioMtfr, p.64 ; Gottlober, Bikkttrct Ic-Tolcdot ha-Ka- 

r a* im* p. 204. , T ^ 

K. I- BlL 

(JH3 *B1D) : Name of an Egyptian officer. The form 
"Potiphar " is probably an abbreviation of "Poti- 
phera"; the two are treated as identical in the 
Septuagint, and arc rendered Uerpe^g or Hcrc^c. 
"Poti-phera" is the Hebrew rendering of the Egyp- 
tian "P , -di-p'-R < " = u He whom Ra [i.e., the sun- 
god] gave." This name has not been found in 
Egyptian inscriptions; but names of similar form 
occur as early as the twenty-second dynasty. 

Potiphar was the Egyptian officer to whom Jo- 
seph was sold (Gen. xxxvii. 36, xxxix. 1). He is 
described as a "saris" of Pharaoh, and as "captain 

of the guard" (Hcbr. D^rUUn HC). The term 
"saris" is commonlv used in the Old Testament of 
eunuchs; but occasionally it seems to stand in a 
more general sense for "court official," and some- 
times it designates a military officer (II Kings xxv. 
19; comp. ib. xviii. 17; Jer. xxxix. 3, 13). The 
second title, "captain of the guard," is literally 
"chief of the slaughterers," and is interpreted by 
some to mean "chief of the cooks" (comp. I Sam. 
ix. 23, 24, where mt3 = "cook"). The former 
is much the more probable meaning here, and is 
supported by the closely corresponding title (21 
D^rQDn) of one of the high military officers of 
Nebuchadnezzar (II Kings xxv. 8, 10; comp. Dan. 
ii. 14). Nothing, however, of this office is definitely 
known from Egyptian sources. 

Poti-pherah was a priest of On (Hcliopolis), whose 
daughter Asenath became the wife of Joseph (Gen. 
xli. 45, 50; xlvi. 20). See also Joseph. 

e. g. n. J. F. McL. 

nobleman and convert to Judaism; burned at the 
stake at Wilna May 24, 1749. There are several 
versions of the remarkable story of this martyr, 
whose memory is still revered among the Jews of 
Russia as that of the Ger Zedek (righteous prose- 
lyte). A Russian translation, from the Polish of 
Kraszcwski's "Wilna od Poczatkow Jego do Roku 
1750," in which he claims to have followed a 
Hebrew original, relates that young Potocki and 

his friend Zaremlm, who went fmm Poland to at tidy 
in Paris, became interested in an old Jew whom 
they found poring over a 1 irge volume when llay 
entered his wine-shop. His teachings and < .\ plaint- 
tionsof the Old Testament, to which thc\ as R« mm 
Catholics, wen* total strangers, so impnwd lhnn 
that they prevailed upon him to instruct them in 
Hebrew. In six mouths they acquired profit icn< \ in 
the Biblical langungcund a .strong inclination tow an! 
Judaism. They resohed Logo to Amsterdam, whh h 
was one of the few places in Europe at that t me 
where a Christian could openly embrace Judaum. 
But Potocki first went to Koine, whence, ulti-r < « n- 
vineing himself that he could no longer r< m tin i 
Catholic, he went to Amsterdam and took upon bint- 
self the covenant of Abraham, assuming the name 
of Abraham ben Abraham. 

After residing a short time in Germany, wlmh 
country he disliked, he returned to Poland, and for 
a time lived among the Jews of the town of live 
(government of Wilna), some of whom seemed to I e 
aware of his identity. While in the synagogue < f 
live one day he was irritated into commenting *<*- 
vcrely upon the conduct of a boy who was diM tub- 
ing those occupied in prayer and study. The boi 's 
father was so enraged that he informed the authori- 
ties that the long-sought "Ger Zedek " was in live. 
Potocki was arrested ; the entreaties of his mother 
and friends failed to induce him to return to Chris- 
tianity; and after a long imprisonment he was 
burned alive in Wilna, on the second day of Mia 
bu'ot. It was unsafe for a Jew to witness the burn- 
ing; nevertheless one Jew, Leiser Zhiskes, who had 
no beard, went among the crowd and succeeded by 
bribery iu securing some of the ashes of the martyr, 
which were later buried in the Jewish cemt tery. 
A letter of pardon from the king arrived too late 
to save the victim. 

Potoeki's comrade Zaremba rettirned to Poland 
several years before him, married the daughter of a 
great nobleman, and had a sou. He remained true 
to the promise to embrace Judaism and took his 
wife and child to Amsterdam, where, after he ami 
his son bad been circumcised, his wife also became 
a Jewess; then they went to Palestine. 

There is reason to believe that the actual teat In r 
of Potocki, perhaps the one who induced the two 
young noblemen to embrace Judaism, was their 
own countryman Mcnahem Man ben Aryeh Lob t f 
Visun, who was tortured and executed iu Wilna at 
the age of seventy (July 3, 1719). Tradition has 
brought this Jewish martyr into close connection 
with the "Ger Zedek," but fear of the censor has pre- 
vented writers in Russia fromsa\ing anything ex- 
plicit on the subject. 

zewskl, Vcvrewkaw Biblintekn, in. WkSW: B. Man IU- 

\un la-Mo % cd, p. 13* Vienna, Is,. 

st a mm, Ilaz 
II. H. 

P. Wl. 

POTSDAM: City in the Prussian province of 
Brandenburg. It was the residence of the electors 
of Brandenbunr; and here the Great Elector. Friu- 
crick William, Ratified May 20. 1671. the agreement 
by which he permitted fifty families of the \ lenna 

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exiles (comp. Jew. Encyc. ii. 329, iii. 70) to settle in 
his dominions. David .Michel is the first Potsdam 
Jew of whom there is record. His name occurs in a 
document of 1G90. In the catalogue of the visitors to 
the Leipsie fair, Jews of Potsdam are mentioned in 
1693 and 1694. The foundation of the congregation, 
however, dates from the first half of the eighteenth 
century, when David Hirsch(Prttger) received (1730) 
special letters of protection to enable him to estab- 
lish silk- and velvet-factories in Potsdam. Other 
Jewish manufacturers, similarly privileged, soon 
followed; and in 1743 the congregation, numbering 
ten families, acquired a cemetery. In 1754 it en- 
gaged a hazzan, who acted as sexton also, and in 
1760 a rabbi, Jehiel Michel, from Poland, who offi- 
ciated until 1777. In 1767 the first synagogue was 
dedicated in the presence of the Prince and Princess 
of Prussia. The report, however, that King Fred- 
erick the Great erected this synagogue at his own 
expense is a legend, based on the fact that he granted 
the congregation a loan. 

The various Jew taxes, to which in 1769 the com- 
pulsory purchase of china from the royal porcelain - 
factory (comp. Jew. Excyc. v. 502b) was added, 
and the heavy burden of the mortgage on the syna- 
gogue, brought the congregation to the verge of 
financial ruin; but the new constitution, passed in 
1776, and the repeal of the law compelling the Jews 
to buv the roval china restored order. Both Fred- 
erick William II. and Frederick William III. showed 
their interest in congregational affairs by granting 
subsidies for the remodeling of the synagogue. 
The congregation showed its patriotism by giving 
up the silver ornaments of the synagogue for the 
war fund in 1813. One of its members, ^Marcus 
Liebermann, was killed in the war of 1813, and thir- 
teen members of the congregation fought in the 
Franco-Prussian war (1870-71), one of whom was 
decorated with the Iron Cross for bravery displayed 
on the battle-field of Spichern. 

A new constitution was adopted in 1888; and the 
new synagogue, built at a cost of 120,000 marks, 
was dedicated June 17, 1903. In Jan., 1905, the cit}' 
council passed an ordinance prohibiting the Shehi- 
tah C Allg. Zeit. des Jud." Jan. 13, 1905). 

Of the rabbis of Potsdam after the above-men- 
tioned Jehiel Michel the following are known: 
David Koppel Reich, who was bookkeeper in one of 
the manufactories and officiated temporary after 
Jehiel Michel's death; Samuel Apolant (1851-57); 
Tobias Cohn (1857-96); Paul Hieger (1896-1902); 
and Robert Kaelter (since 1902). Of the prominent 
men who were born at Potsdam may be mentioned: 
the engraver Abraham Abkahamson; the inventor 
of galvanoplasty, Moritz Hermann von Jacobi; his 
brother, the mathematician Karl Gustav Jakob 
Jacobi; the poet, physician, and privy councilor 
B. Zelenziger; and the medical professors Julius 
Hirschberg, Martin Bernhardt, and Max Wolff. 

In 1900 the Jews of Potsdam numbered 442 in a 
total population of about 60,000. 

BinuooRAPiiY: Kaelter, Gcsch. tier J&dischen Gemcindc zu 
Potsdam, Potsdam, 1903. 

D. R. Ka. 

POTTERY.— Biblical Data : There can be no 
doubt that the Israelites first learned the art of ma- 

king pottery on Palestinian soil. The nomad in his 
continual wanderings can not use the breakable 
wares of the potter; and the proper vessels for the 
latter\s use are the leathern bag and hollowed fruits 
or wooden bowls. Even after their settlement the 
Israelites seem to have maintained for some time a 
disinclination to the use of earthen vessels; and 
mention of earthenware occurs in onl} r one passage 
in early literature (II Sam. xvii. 28). Naturally the 
Cauaanites were the teachers of the Israelites; but 
no doubt the Canaanites in their turn learned the 
potter's art from the Phenicians, who supplied for- 
eign countries with pottery, and who, perhaps, even 
went through Palestine peddling their wares. The 
handicraft docs not appear to have developed until 
the time of the later kings. 

The process by which pottery is made was famil- 
iar to the Prophets and to the people. They under- 
stood the kneading of the potter's clay ("homer"), 
which was trodden by the feet (Isa. xli. 25); and 
Jeremiah mentions the potter's disks ("obnayim "), 
which, as the name indicates, were two in number, 
revolving one above the other. The lower and 
larger disk was set spinning bj r the feet, while the 
clay, placed on the upper disk, which followed the 
motion of the lower one, but could be turned in the 
opposite direction also, was molded with the hands 
into the desired shape. The process of burning and 
glazing vessels is not mentioned until considerably 

Royal Stamp on Jar-Handle. 

(Fn the possession of the Palestine Exploration Fund.) 

later (comp. Prov. xxvi. 23; Sirach [Ecclus.] xxviii. 
34); but there can be little doubt that the Canaan- 
ites, and through them the Israelites, learned this 
part of the craft from the Phenicians at a rather 
early period. In Jeremiah's time a potter's work- 
shop was probably located in one of the valleys in 
the neighborhood of the Potters' Gate (comp. Jer. 
xviii. 1 et 8eq. y xix. 1). 

The custom of making colored drawings on the 
vessels was probably also of Phenician origin, and 
was known at an early period, certainly in pre-exilic 
times. Some finds at Jerusalem, showing careful 
execution, must, from their location in the lowest 
strata, be assigned to the time of the Kings. Coin- 
pared with these the finds at Tell al-Hasi seem very 
primitive. Perhaps the former are of Phenician 
workmanship and the latter are domestic imitations. 
The ornaments in both cases are purely geometric. 

It is known that earthenware was frequently used 
as a symbol of fragility and of that which may be 

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(From Uliss ana Maeruistv*^* Excaxittu ns uiTjVrirtiInr/7 




quickly and completely destroyed (com p. Ps. ii. 9; 
lsa. xxii. 34; Jer. xix. 11). God. as the Creator, 
especially as the Creator of man and as the Lord 
who decides the fate of individuals and nations ac- 
cording to His judgment, is often likened to a potter 
(lsa. xxix. 16. xlv. 9, Ixiv. b; Jer. xviii. 0, xix. 11; 
Sirach [Ecclus.] xxxiii. 13 . It is probable that the 
reference in Zech. xi. 13 is to the Temple treasure 
("ha-ozar v )and not to the potter ( w yo?er "). 

K. G. 11. W. N. 

Early Pre-Israelitic Period : This period be- 
gins with the earliest known pottery (probably be- 
fore 1700 B.C.), and ceases with the appearance of 
Phenician and Myeena?an influence (about 1500 B.C.). 
In deteriorated forms some of the types continued 

later. The chief characteristics are as 
Various follows: (1) the absence of wheel- 
Strata, turned ware, except possibly late in 

the period ; (2) the peculiar ledge- 
handles fixed on the sides of jars, found also in the 
early Egyptian ware which connects with the first- 
dynasty pottery; (3) methods of heating the sur- 
face, such as scraping with a comb, and the use of 
burnished lines on a colored face; and (4) potters' 
marks, comparable with early Egyptian specimens. 
Late Pre-Israelitie Period : The beginning of 
this period is marked by the appearance of the 
above-mentioned foreign influence on the pottery of 
Palestine, about 1500 B.C. How far tins influence 
extended into the Jewish monarchy is vet to be de- 
termined ; the choice of the name therefore was sug- 
gesied by the origin of the types. Among the 
characteristics of the period may be noted the fol- 
lowing: (1) almost universal use of the wheel; (2) 
direct Cypriote (or Phenician) and Mycenaean im- 
portations; (3) local imitations of these; (4) introduc- 
tion of the lamp in its earliest known form (an open 
bowl with pinched spout and rounded bottom); (o) 
small teraphim or idols; and (6) painted ornamenta- 
tion, consisting of lines, zigzags, spirals, birds and 
other animals, etc. This is perhaps the most unique 
characteristic. While certain resemblances to Pheni- 
cian, Mycenaean, and especially Cappadocian mo- 
tives may be traced, the differences are so great as 
to permit one to regard this form of decoration as 
a native production. 

Jewish Period: It has been intimated that the 
line of demarcation between this period and the 
preceding one is not distinct. By Jewish pottery 
are meant those types in which the foreign influence 
is almost lost, or at best appears in deteriorated 
forms, and which certainly prevailed during the 
later years of the Jewish kingdom, though some of 
them also survived its overthrow. The forms are, 
as a rule, rude and ungainly, and decoration, except 
in the stvle of burnished lines, is rare. Some of the 
minute flasks are hand-mad*'; but the pottery is 
generally wheel-turned. Greek importations occur. 
The most interesting features of this period are 
the stamped jar-handles, falling into the following 
two groups; (1) Handles stamped with the Hebrew 
seal of the potter or owner. On some of these the 
Phenician characters arc exquisite. Though the 
Divine Name (VT or IT) often occurs in compounds, 
vet in the same stratum with these handles are often 
associated heathen teraphim and other symbols. 

(2) Royal stamps. The oval stamped on the handles 
contains one of two symbols, both of which are Egyp- 
tian in origin. The first represents a 
Character- searabanis with four extended wings: 
istics the second, a winged disk. In all 
of Jewish eases are found two lines of writing; 

Pottery, above the symbol occurs the word "J^D^ 

( u to the king'*); below, the name of 
a town. Although these handles have been found 
at seven sites, only four place-names occur: pun 
(Hebron), *j*f (Ziph), nsvj' (Shocho), and rWCD 
(Memshath V). The first three arc Scriptural names; 
the last appears nowhere in the Bible. Bliss regards 
the place-names as indicating the sites of royal pot- 
teries (see the obscure reference in I Chron. iv. 23). 
Macalister would consider them to be the centers of 
districts in which taxes in kind destined for the cap- 
ital were collected (eomp. I Kings iv. 7-19 with II 
Chron. xxxii. 28). According to the first supposi- 
tion, the inscription would represent a dedication of 
the jars to the king by the royal potters; according 
to the second, a dedication of their contents bv the 
taxed districts. The jars to which the handles were 
affixed are dated tentatively between G50 and 500 
B.C., though they may be earlier. Thus u the king " 
may be relegated either to the later Jewish mon- 
archy or to the period of Persian sovereignty. The 
representation of the sea ra bun is and winged disk 
might be used as an argument in favor of a period 
of heathen domination. 

Seleucidan Period: While some of the Jewish 
types come down to this period, it is chiefly char- 
acterized by Greek importations and imitations. 
Among the former are the well-known Rhodian am- 
phora with inscribed handles. 

The post-Seleucidan pottery has not been sys- 
tematically studied; but it may be roughly divided 
into Roman, Byzantine, and Arab. Stamps of the 
tenth legion (Fretensis) are common near Jerusa- 
lem. Byzantine times show lamps with Christian 
inscriptions. The geometrical decoration of the 
Arab period should be carefully distinguished from 
the pre-Israelitic ornamentation, to which it bears a 
superficial resemblance. 

The pottery of southern Palestine from early pre- 
Israelitic times to the close of the Seleucidan period 
has been svstematicallv studied in a series of ex- 
cavations undertaken by the Palestine Exploration 
Fund. Petrie led the way in 1890, in a reconnais- 
sance of Tell al-Hasi (Lachish), where he was fortu- 
nate in finding the steep eastern slope so encroached 
upon by the stream that the various strata of the 
mound (60 feet in height) were practically laid bare. 
Both Phenician and Greek types were found, serv- 
ing to date approximately the local types with 
which thev were associated or which thev overlaid. 
Bliss, systematically cutting down (1891-93) one- 
third of the mound, was able not only to verify Pe- 
trie's general chronological scale, but also to add to 
the material available for study. Owing to the dis- 
turbed nature of the soil, the excavations at Jerusa- 
lem (conducted by Bliss and Dickie, 1894-97) were 
of little help in the systematization; but the latter 
was greatly forwarded bv the finds in the four strat- 
ified mounds of Tell Zakariya, Tell al-Safi, Tell al- 
Judaidah, and Tell Sandabaunah, excavated by Bliss 

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and Macalister in 1898 and 1900. In 1902 Macalister 
began the excavation of Gezer, where much early 
pottery 1ms also been found. On the basis of these 
discoveries (prior to the campaign still [1905] in 
progress) Bliss and Macalister have classified the 
pre Roman pottery of southern Palestine under the 
four chronological groups mentioned above: (1) 
early pre-Israelitic; (2) late p re-Israeli tic; (3) Jew- 
ish; and (4) Seleucidan. 

BiniJOfiRAPiiv : W. M. Flinders Petrie, Tdl-cl-JIcsy (Laehish), 
London, 1H9I : F. J. Bliss, A Mound of Many Citie.% or Tell- 
el-Hesij tixvavatcth lb. 1894; Idem and It. A. S. Macalister, 
K.rvaralions in Palestine, 1898-1900, ib. 1902; F. B. Welch, 
The Influence of theJEgean Civilization on Southern Pal- 
estine. \u Pal. Erplor. Fund, Quarterly State meuM'JOO. p. 
312. A collection of Palestinian pottery, arranged and classi- 
fied by Bliss, may be seen in the government museum in Jeru- 

K. G. II. F. J. B. 

POULTRY.— Biblical Data: The rearing of 
domestic fowl for various uses became a part of 
Palestinian husbandry only after the return from 
Babylon (see Cock; Hen); but from Isa. Ix. 8 it 
appears that at the time when that passage was 
written the dove was to a certain degree domesti- 
cated (see Dove). The " fowls " (" zipporim ") served 
on the table of Nehemiah (Neh. v. 18) probably in- 
cluded pigeons and other small birds. Besides there 
are mentioned as having been used for food the quail 
(Ex. xvi. 13 and parallels) and "fatted fowl "( u bar- 
burim abusim "; I Kings v. 3 [A. V. iv. 23J). 

As all birds not named in the catalogues of Lev. 
xi. and Deut. xiv. were clean, they and their eggs 
no doubt largely entered into the diet of the He- 
brews from early times, and the requisite supply 
must have been obtained by fowling. The numer- 
ous terms for the instruments of fowling and hunt- 
ing, and the various metaphors derived 
from them, testify, in fact, to the vogue 
of these practises in ancient Israel. 
There were the net (" reshet " ; Prov. 
i. 17; IIos. vii. 12, etc.), and the trap 
and snare ( u pah " and " mokesh " ; Amos iii. 5, etc.). 
Besides there are mentioned "hebel" (Ps. cxl. 6; 
properly "rope" or "cord"; A. V. "snare"; R. V. 
w noose M ); " zammim " (Job xviii. 8-10; A. V. " rob- 
bers " ; R. V. "snare"); and "sebakah" (ib.; A. V. 
"snare"; R. V. "toils"). The bow and sling 
(" kela' ") were possibly also employed to bring down 
birds. The use of a decoy is perhaps alluded to in 
Jer. v. 26 (comp. Ecclus. [Sirach] xi. 30; see Pak- 
tiudge). For modern methods of fowling in Pal- 
estine see Tristram, "Nat. Hist." p. 1G3. 

The use of eggs is perhaps indicated in Isa. x. 14 
and Job vi. 6 (comp. Jer. xvii. 11). The law of 
Deut. xxii. 6, in order to forestall blunting of the 
tender feelings as well as the extermination of cer- 
tain species of birds, prohibits the taking of the 
mother and young from the nest at one and the 
same time (known in later rabbinical literature as 
the ordinance of "shilluah ha-kan "). 
In the Talmud : The Talmud gives the num- 
ber of unclean birds after the Pentateuch lists as 
twentv-fonr, and then adds: "the clean birds are 
without number " (Hub 63b). The characteristics of 
the clean birds are given (ib. 65a) as follows: (1) they 
do not kill or eat other birds; (2) they have a super- 
numerary toe ("czba* yeterah "), which is inter- 



preted to mean either an additional toe behind the 
others, or an elongation of the middle toe; (3) they 
are supplied with a nop; (|) their stomach's have 
two skins, which can be easil\ separated; (ol they 
eateh food thrown to tin in in the air, but bring it 
to the ground, when they divide it with their bills 
before eating it, while the nnehan birds devour it 
in the air, or press it with one foot to the giound 
and tear it with their bills. .Many birds ah- de- 
clared to be doubtful (ib. 62a, b). A distinrtii n is 
made (ib, 42a) between Inrge fowl ("'of ha-ga* " 
geese, hens) and small ("'of ha -dak," ilov< s, sor- 
rows). "Zippor," denoting in the Old Testament 
the sparrow and other small birds, occurs in the 
Talmud as a general name for any clean bird (ih. 

The fowl mentioned as domesticated arc* the dove, 
the goose, the hen (see the special articles thereon), 
and the duck ("bar aweza" ; Bezah 32b; H K.92b. 

Hul. 02b). The tiesh of fowl was es- 
Do- peeiallv the food of thenired and feeble 

mesticated (Yer. Peah viii. 21a); otherwise it was 
Fowl. considered inferior to the meat of cat- 
tle, so that after blood-letting the lat- 
ter was preferred (Me 1 ]. 20b). City residents, being 
wealthy, consumed much poultry (Bek. 10a). The 
art of fattening fowl is described in Shab. l">5b. 
The rearing of poultry in Jerusalem, and by priests 
throughout Palestine, was forbidden on account of 
the possible pollution of holy things (B. K. 79b) 

Fowling isoften referred to in the Talmud (comp. 
Pes. 23a; Bezah 24a), metaphorically in Ab. iii 
20. In addition to the weapons of the fowler (and 
hunter) mentioned in the Old Testament there are 
enumerated, in Kelim xxiii.4, the " maddaf " (sloping 
board), "palzur," "agon," "ratub." and "kelub 11 
(basket). The "nesheb" was especially used for 
catching pigeons (B. K. 89b). Birdlime ("debek") 
and the rod ("shafshef ") on winch it was smeared 
are mentioned (Shab. 78b), and the art of falconry i* 
referred to (ib. 94;i). The ordinance of "shilluah 
ha-kan" is confined by the Talmud to clean birds 
(Hul. 138b). See, also, Eggs. 

Bibliography: Tristram, Nat. Hint. p. 162; Lewysohn. Z. T. 
pp. 4, 7, 11, 15, 45, 160. 
L C. I. M C. 

POVERTY : Condition or proportion of poor m 
a population. Although the riches of the Jews 
have passed into a proverb, all social observers are 
agreed that the Jews have a larger proportion of 
poor than any of the European nations among whom 
they dwell. In 1801 the number of poor, i.e. to- 
tally dependent, among the adult workers of the 
Jewish population of Prussia was 6.46 per cent, as 
against 4. 19 per cent in the general population On 
the other hand, there were among the Jews of Italy 
in 1871 only .09 per cent who were technically 
paupers, as compared with 2.2 per cent in the cen- 
eral population. In 1871 in Budapest 24 2 p< r cent 
of the 21,071 adult Jewish workers were clas*itied as 
among the poor, while in 1SS3 there were in London 
no less than 11,099 in 47,000. or 23 per cent, who 
accepted some form of charity (Jacobs. kt Studies in 
Jewish Statistics, "p. 12). In 1^69 Jeittt les estimated 
that 43 per cent of the Jewish population of Vii nna 
lived in two rooms or le*s. In Holland the propor 

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tion of poor among the Jews is statistically deter- 
mined bv the census. In that of 1900 there were 
found to be no fewer than 12,500 poor in Amster- 
dam; 846 in The Hague; 1,750 in Rotterdam; 663 
in Gr&ningen; and 349 in Aruhern ("Joodsche Cou- 
rant," 1903, p. 44), or 16,108 (i.e., 22 per cent) in 
72,378, the total Jewish population of these cities. 

In 189S inquiry was made by the Jewish Coloni- 
zation Association into the social condition of the 
Jews in Russia, extending over territory which in- 
cluded 709,248 Jewish families, of which 132,853 
applied for gratuitous mazzot at Passover. The 
percentage varied throughout the country: in the 
government of Poltava it was 24.5; in Lithuania 22; 
while in the whole Pale of Settlement it was 19.4, 
and in Poland 16.9. The percentage of Jews ac- 
cepting this form of charity in small towns was 
18.2; in middle-sized towns, 19.4; and in large 
towns 30.3, the poor tending to crowd into the larger 
centers. The number of Russo-Jewish poor has in- 
creased in recent years. Whereas in 1894 there were 

85,183 families which could be classed 

Russian under this head, the number had in- 
Statistics, creased tol08,922in 1898, forming 27.9 

per cent of the Jewish population. 
The same tendency is shown by the evidence of free 
burials. Thus in 1901, of the 5*523 funerals in War- 
saw, 2,401, that Is, 43.5 per cent, were free, whereas 
in 1873 the percentage was only 33.6. (In London 
in 1903 the free funerals numbered 1,008 in a total 
of 2.049, or almost 50 per cent.) In 1899 in Odessa 
1.880 funerals in 2,980 were free. In the same town 
during the winter of the year 1902 no less than 
32.31 percent of the Jewish population, or 48,500 
in 150,000, had to appeal for coal and mazzot to 
the benevolence of their coreligionists ("Judische 
Statistik," p. 287). This is not to be wondered at, 
since the best-paid workers among them received 
on an average $2.75 a week; while in the cork 
industries girls received from §3.25 to $4 a month. 
Tchubinsky found the average income for a Jewish 
family in the Ukraine to be about 290 rubles (E. 
Reclus, "Nouvelle Geographic," v. 518), and hence 
was not surprised to find 20,000 mendicants in the 
eastern part of that territory (#.). Altogether the 
evidence is overwhelming as to the very large pro- 
portion of poor among Jews throughout Europe. 
The Jewish Colonization Association estimates that 
7 per cent of Russian Jews are absolutely supported 
by the rest, whereas in the general population of 
England only 2.4 per cent, and in Germany only 3.4 
per cent, are in that dependent condition. 

In the Polish provinces the maximum of tailors' 
earnings is under 6 rubles a week; that of shoe- 
makers is even less. In the southwestern provinces 
of Russia tailors' earnings range from 150 to 300 
rubles a year; shoemakers' from 100 to 300. In the 
southern provinces over 80 per cent of the artisan 
Jewish population earn less than 400 rubles per an- 
num. Seamstresses rarely earn more than 100 rubles 
a year; and instances are recorded where they have 
been paid as little as 4 copecks (2 cents) for making 
a shirt ("Jew. Chron." Nov. 4, 1904). 

It is, however, in Galicia that the greatest 
amount of evidence of pauperism among Jews is 
found. .The "Juden-Elend " there has passed into 

a proverb. Thisaccounts for the fact that of 60,763 
Jews and Jewesses who migrated from Galicia in 
1899 and 1900, no less than 29,980 were without oc- 
cupation, though this number, it should be added, 
included wives and children. 

Bibliography: Jacobs, Studies in Jcxcish Statistics, p. 31; 
JUdischc Statittik. pp. 287-2y2; Collection of Materials on 
the Economic Pt)situjn of the Jews in Russia, Si. Peters- 
burg 1904. 

A. J. 



POZNANSKI, SAMUEL: Arabist, Hebrew 
bibliographer, and authority on modern Karaism; 
rabbi and preacher at the Polish synagogue in 
Warsaw; born at Lubranice, near Warsaw, Sept. 3, 
1864. After graduating from the gymnasium of 
Warsaw, he continued his studies at the university 
and the Hochschule ftirdie Wissenschaft des Juden- 
thums in Berlin, forming an intimate friendship with 
his teacher Moritz Steinschneider, for whose eighti- 
eth birthday in 1896 he edited the "Festschrift." 

Poznanski is the author of the following works: 
"Eine Hebriiische Grammatik desDreizehnten Jahr- 
hunderts" (Berlin, 1894); "Mose b. Samuel ha-Ko- 
hen ibn Chiquitilla Nebst den Fragmenten Seiner 
Schriften" (Leipsic, 1895); "Isak b. Elasar ha- 
Levis Einleitung zu Seinem Sephath Jethcr" (Bres- 
lau, 1895); " Aboul Farad j Haroun ben al-Faradj le 
Grammairien de Jerusalem et Son Mouschtamil" 
(Paris, 1896); "DieGirgisani-Handschriften im Brit- 
ish Museum" (Berlin, 1896): "Karaite Miscellanies" 
(London, 1896); "Mesroial Okbari, Chef (rune Secte 
Juive du Neuvtfme Siecle" (Paris, 1896); "The 
Anti-Karaite Writings of Saadjah Gaon " (London, 
1897); "Jacob ben Ephraim, ein Anti-KarSischer 
Polemiker des Zehnten Jahrhunderts " (Breslau, 
1900, in "Kaufmann Gedenkbuch "); " Perush R 
Sa'adyaGaon le-Dani'd " (Berdychev, 1900); "Tan- 
houm Yeruschalmi et Son Commentaire sur le Livre 
de Jonas" (Paris, 1900); "Miscellen liber Saadja 
III.: Die Beschreibung des Erl3sungs«Jahres in 
Emunoth we-Deoth ch. 8" (Breslau, 1901): "Tehil- 
lah le-Dawid " (Kaufmann) in Hebrew (Warsaw, 
1902); "Le Commentaire sur le Livre d'Osee par 
Eliezer (on Eleazar) de Beaugency" (Berdychev, 
1902); "Anan et Ses Ecrits" (Paris, 1902); "Der 
Arabische Kommentar zum Buche Josua von Abil 
Zakarja Jahja Ibn Baram " (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 
1903); "Ephrajim ben Schemarja de Fostat et 
I'Aeademie Palestinienne " (Paris, 1904); "Scheeh- 
ters Saadyana" (Frankfort- on -thfc- Main, 1904); 
" Fragments de l'Exegese Biblique de >Tenahcni bar 
Chelbo" (Warsaw, 1904); "Ibn Hazm liber Jft- 
dische Sekten " (London, 1904). He has contributed 
also numerous articles to the "Monatsschrift," 
Stade's "Zeitschrift," "Ha-Goren" (Berdychev), 
" Ha-Zefirah "(Warsaw), " Revnedes Etudes Juives," 
and the "Jewish Quarterly Review." 

H. K. A. Kr. 

PRADO, MOSES : Christian convert to Juda- 
ism ; lived in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies, first at Marburg, Germany, and later at Sa- 
lonica, Turkey. His Christian name was Conrad 
Victor, and he filled the position of professor of the 
classic languages at the University of Marburg. 

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Finding it impossible to accept the dogma of the 
Trinity and of the divinity of Jesus, he went, in 
1607, to Salonica, where he embraced Judaism, as- 
suming the name of Moses Prado. After a residence 
of seven years in that city lie began to solicit per- 
mission from the Duke of Hesse to return to Mar- 
burg, where he had left his wife. In a series of 
letters addressed by him to an old friend at Marburg 
named Hartmanu, Moses justifies himself for em- 
bracing Judaism. The truth of Judaism, he declares, 
is beyond question, since both the Mohammedans 
and the Christians are compelled to acknowledge it. 
He only asks the Duke of Hesse to show himself as 
tolerant as the sultan, who grants freedom of eon- 

himself more entirely to his increasing clerical 
duties. Professor Prng numbered mwny Ohmtiim 
divines among his pupils. 1 Ie w as a memlx r of tin- 
Liverpool Literary and Philosophical Society and 
served upon its council; he* translated some Pheni- 
cian inscriptions said to have been found in Brazil, 
and the inscription on the Moabile Stone. 

BlULIOGItAI'IIY : Jtir. ('hi on. Her. HI, IKM ; Jm , WorUU Jan. 
li, t««. 

J- « L. 

PRAG, JOSEPH: Knglish communal and 
Zionist worker; born at Liverpool in 1MD; edneated 
at the Liverpool Institute and at Quern's College, 
Liverpool. Prag has long been a I em if r in Zif ni<t 

Plan of the City of Prague in 1649. Star Shows position of the Jewish quarter. 

(From a contemporary print.) 

science to every man. The desired permission was 
refused, and Moses remained at Saloniea until his 

Bibliography: Sehudt, Compendium IHMoriee Judaicaw. 
494 ; idem, Drtichv Philologiar, pp. £39 ct acq.; Rasnage, 
Histoire dcsJnifs* xiv. 844 ; IHefenbach, Judaiis Converses, 
p. 14 1 ; H. L. Benttiem, De Statu Iietyii ficclcsiastico ct 
Scholastics ii. 2150; Cerenius, Animadversion es llistorico- 
Philolayiccc % vili. 218 et secy. 

D. I. Bit. 


PRAG, JACOB: Professor of Hebrew and rabbi 
at Liverpool ; born at Danzig 1816; died at Liver- 
pool Dec., 1881. lie studied at the rabbinical school 
at Li ban and occupied his first position at the age 
of eighteen. He was afterward appointed rabbi 
at Shoenek, Prussian Poland. lie later was called 
to the Old Hebrew Congregation at Liverpool to 
fill there the post of rabbi, which he held till his 
death. Shortly after he had settled in Liverpool lie 
was elected Hebrew master of the Congregational 
School-; he filled also the chair in Hebrew at Queen's 
College, Liverpool. After twelve years* service he 
resigned the latter appointment in order to devote 

circles, but does not follow the Herzl movement, 
retaining allegiance to the Chovevei Zion, the Kng- 
lish section of which lie founded. He has con- 
tributed to the reviews articles on the question of 
the colonization of Palestine. Prag is a member of 
the council of the Anglo-Jewish Association and 
acted as its delegate in 1901. at Berlin, to the Inter- 
national Conference on the Jews of Hnniania. He 
took an active part in arranging matters after the 
anti-Jewish disturbances in Limerick. 

Bnn.iOGRAPiiY : Jewish Year Booh, 5tsr>4 (l!*ft-4i. 

,i. V. E. 

PRAGER, MOSES. See Mosi -;s iikn Mkna- 


PRAGUE : Capital of Bohemia; the first Bohe- 
mian city in which Jews set tied. Ileferenee lo them 

is found as earl v ns UUli. when the Jew 
Ibrahim ibn Jacob mentioned them as 

of Ottocar. 

frequenting the slave - market. I 

• _ 

thahiah of Kcirensburg sinned from 

Prague on his journey to the East 

(1187). In 1254 Ottocar issued certain regulations in 

regard to the Jews of Prague (Celakowsky, u Codex 

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.Juris Munieipioruin," i. 5;, which were summed up, 
in 1969, as follows: 

(1) The Jews may lake interest at the rate of 5 pfennig in toe 
mark, pfennig in the pound, and 1 pfennig in $i. CJ) When 
a Jew is plaintiff against n Christian, lie must produce Christian 
as well as Jewish witnesses, aud vice versa. (3) A Jew found 
with an unmarried Christian woman shall be sentenced to death. 
4) A Jew found with a married Christian woman shall be Im- 
paled at the cross-roads. {'» Mood-siained garments may not 
be taken in pledge. u») A Chrislian killing a Jew shall be sen- 
tenced to death. T) A Jew takiinr an ecclesiastical vessel in 
pledge shall surrender it on demand without reimbursement, 
(s) a Jew called upon to take an oath in a lawsuit concerning 
a i hrisLian shall swear by the Pentateuch. 

John "ohne Land, v in 1336, sentenced several Jews 
to be burned at Prague on the accusation of having 
partaken of Christian blood; after this he had their 
sviiaiTOirue torn down, where he is said to have found 
much money. Charles IV. continued (1356) the 
regulations of Ottoear. In 1361 he personally ex- 

In 1303 King Weuceslaus IV. renewed the regula- 
tions issued by Ottoear; in 1419 the Bohemian Diet 
decreed that a Jew could take iu pledge only ob- 
jects that had been officially inspected. During the 
Hussite wars the Jews of Prague sided with the fol- 
lowers of IIuss and aided them in digging the moat 
at the Vyschrad. When this was captured in 1421 
the citizens plundered the ghetto. It was again 
despoiled in 1448, after Podiebrad captured Prague, 
and in 1483. At Podiebrad 's request King Ladislaus 
(1440-57) issued several decrees relative to the Jews 
of Prague, which were based upon the so-called law 
of Sobeslai, dating from the time of the Hussite wars. 
During the king's sojourn at Prague, in 1497, he 
granted the Jews the privilege of lending money on 
landed property, and on notes of the burgraves of 
the city, at 20 per ceiit interest, u so as to enable 
them to support their wives and children." But two 


(From Schudt, '* Judische Merck wurdigkeilen," 1717.) 

amined the notes held by the Jews against citizens 
of the Altstadt and canceled those which had not 
been paid; five years later he transferred the house 
of the Jew Lazarus, in the vicinity of the Church 
of St. Nicholas, to the university. Under Wen- 
ceslaus IV. an attack upon the ghetto occurred. 
Some children had thrown stones at the host which 
the clergy were carrying in procession on the day 
after Good Friday, whereupon the clergy, and espe- 
cially Jesek Ctyrhranny, exhorted from the pulpit 

the people* to take vengeance. The pop- 
Massacre ulaee thereupon attacked the ghetto 
of 1389. (April 18, 13*9) and killed about 3.000 

Jews. On Easter Monday following, 
Iluler, one of the roval chamberlains, ordered that 
the Jews should be legally punished; accordingly 
five tons of silver were taken from them, and part 

of the ghetto was burned. Abigedor Kaiia's eletrv 

L t .' 

nxpnn 72 JIN. winch is recited on the Day of Atone- 
ment, is;i memorial of this persecution. 

Univ Calif - Digitized 

years afterward he forbade them to lend money 
on anv notes whatever. 

The council of the Neustadt determined, in 1503, 
not to admit any more Jews. The Jews therefore 
sent a messenger to King Ladislausll. (1471-1510) 
at Budapest; but though they obtained permission to 

enter the city, their commercial activity 

Perseeu- was curtailed in that they were permit- 

tions. ted only to take small articles in pledge, 

and as interest only three pfennig in the 
u schock"; further, they were permitted to barter 
only in the market, and were forbidden to peddle sec- 
ond-hand clothes. In 1507 the council of the Altstadt 
commanded the Jews to close their synagogue at 
once and leave the ghetto, because they had failed to 
pay punctually the yearly dues to the citizens of the 
Altstadt. The Jews again sent a messenger to King 
Ladislausll., who permitted I hem to remain one year 
longer in the ghetto. In the meantime two Jews 
paid the interest to the bailies for Mikulasz Ilofic. 

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On St. Philip's day, in 1514, a elemented Jew killed 
a Christian child with a stone; in punishment he 
was broken on the wheel at the foot of the gallows; 
only a heavy storm prevented the populace from 
falling upon the Jews. 

The question as to whether the Jews of the Alt- 
stadt were subjects of the king or of the town coun- 
cil, which had been in dispute for a long time, was 
finally decided in 1515: the Jews were to recognize 
the suzerainty of the king, while paying, at the 
same time, taxes into the municipal treasury. It 
was further decreed, in the same year, that if a Jew 
had made a loan on a mortgage, and the debtor 
brought the mutter before the burgrave, if the Jew 

whip; after which tln-jr otfeied him 100 ducats. On 
this occasion the kin*; assigned all the taxes of tliu 
Jews to the citizen Lew of Prague, who in return 
agreed to protect them; and the khu n.pcaled the 
decree of expulsion which the- KlliMjhnu' ('animal " 
had obtained tin* year b( fure hum the Hr») J , „,j fill 
Diet. On Feb. 5, 1527. the, by command <>f the 
authorities, went to the gates of tin ghetto to meet 
King Ferdinand, the 'Mews* ibig" hein L r cmied at 
the head of the procession, before the rabbi ; th«- king 
promisee! to protect them in UHr religion and th< ir 
rights. In 1530 the Jewish merchants w ere lorbiddi n 
to display their wares in IjidMaiis Hall, whi< h was 
used as a conference-room by the Hula miati delegates 



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ExoDrs of Jews from Prague, 1745. 

(From a contemporary print.) 

still insisted on being satisfied lie should be com- 
pelled to leave the city immediately. The Jews were 
not allowed to take interest of more than two pfen- 
nig in the schock; they were not permitted to mix 
Silesian coin with Kuttenberg money; and they 
were compelled to wear the prescribed mantle and 
cap, on pain of a line of two groschen. On March 
11, 1518, the Jews of Prague agreed to pay fifty 
schock, Bohemian coin, to the burgrave in return for 
having their cemetery and bath protected. 

When Louis II., the last Polish king of liohemia, 
entered the city (1522) the Jews met him in solemn 
procession, singing psalms, while the rabbi carried 
the scrolls of the Law under a silken canopy. 
When the Jews requested the king to touch the 
Torah, he complied, not with his hand, but with his 

Edict of 

to the Diet. In 1540a Jew wascaught smelting silver, 
and in consequence a second edict of expulsion was 

proposed and passed by the Dirt in 
1541. Fifteen Jewish families only 
were permitted to remain, down to 
1543, in which Year Ferdinand renewed 
their letters of convoy and issued 
fifteen others. In 1545 all Jew* leaving the city re- 
ceived letters of convoy, at the request of the queen 
and of Sigismund of Poland. In 1557 seventy houses 
were burned in the ghetto of Prague, and in the same 
year Ferdinand swore t lint he would no longi r suffer 
any Jews in Prague, Mordccai hi n Zeinah So.v i.vo 
thereupon went with a petition from the Jew* to 
Pope Pins IV., who released the king from his 

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Jewish Butcher of Prague, 
Eighteenth Century. 

In 1561 the king decreed that the Jews of Prague 
should once a week attend a Jesuit sermon in the Sal- 
vator-Kirche, and should send their children thither. 

In 1566 Maximilian de- 
creed that the Jews 
should never again be 
expelled from Prague. 
When the emperor and 
empress went to the 
city, in 1571, they vis- 
ited the ghetto, going 
on foot through many 
of its narrow streets, 
the Jews meeting them 
in solemn procession. 
In 1585 the Jews of 
Prague complained of 
the burgrave and the 
estates to Emperor Ru- 
dolph II., who shortly 
after ordered the bur- 
grave to cease annoy- 
ing the Jews. The 
intermediaries between 
the king and the Jews 
in the sixteenth cen- 
tury were Jacob Bas- 


and Mordecai Marcus 
Meisel. In 1621 Wallenstein commanded that no 
soldier should sell anything without the consent 
of his captain. Shortly after (1623) a soldier stole 
some valuable curtains from the palace of Prince 
Lichtenstein, selling them to the Jew Jacob ben Jeku- 
thiel Thein. When the theft was announced in the 
synagogue Thein offered to restore the goods; but 
Wallenstein insisted on having the Jew punished, and 
the elders of the com- 
munity had great trouble 
in obtaining his release. 
They were commanded 
to carry ten open bags 
of silver (11,000 florins) 
from the house of the 
citizen Smiricky to the 
town hall of the Altstadt 
in order that all persons 
might take cognizance 
of this punishment. 
During this time Thein, 
guarded by two dogs, 
sat under the gallows on 
the banks of the Moldau, 
before the house of the 
executioner. Themonev 
was to be deposited in 
the town hall in perpet- 
ual memory of the family 
of Wallenstein, the in- 
terest to be applied to 
the aid of Jewish and 
Christian young men 

studying Catholic theology (see Fcrim Furiiang). 

The condition of the Jews of Prague became worse 

under Ferdinand III. New poll- and war-taxes were 

introduced in 1638, and in 1639 a tax for the main- 

Glfd-Cup of the Jewish Shoe- 

makers of Prague, Eighteenth 




tenance of the army. In 1645 the Jews of the ghetto 
were ordered to furnish several hundred uniforms 

for the soldiers, but the latter were 
never quartered in the ghetto. In 
1648 the Jews contributed 1,500 gul- 
den to the defense of the city. There 
were in all 2,000 Jews in the ghetto in 
1652, but their ranks were considerably thinned by 
the great plague of 16S0. The ghetto was destroyed 
by fire on June 21, 1689; French incendiaries had 
started the fire near the Valentinkirehe, and the 
flames spread over the entire ghetto within two 
hours; the ten massive synagogues were either 
burned to shells or reduced to ashes. One hundred 
Jews who had sought refuge in the synagogue near 
the cemetery were caught under the roof as it fell 
in. Some escaped with a part of their possessions 
to the banks of the Moldau, only to be plundered 
by Christians. The Jews found shelter among the 
Christians for the next three months.; but the arch- 


The Altneuschule, Prague, from the West. 

(From & photograph.) 

bishop finally forbade them to accept such hospital- 
ity, on the ground that they derided the Christian re- 
ligion ; the Jews then