I ter 1
Baltimore pad Chic
Admission to the
Phi Mu Honorary Engineering Fraternity
University of Maryland.
-*- FORE W R D -*-
In the limited space and time, the author has
necessarily dealt with only the most important and interest-
ing features of the subject as he sees them.
He has shown the extension of the system to its
most important terminals. The relation "between the devel-
opment of the telegraph and the Baltimore and Ohio is not
known to many, and is, therefore, of interest. Of special
interest to a fraternity of this sort are the developments
of tracks and trusses. Such excellent examples of engineer-
ing practice as Magnolia Cut-off, the New Goal Pier and the
New Grain Elevator of the Baltimore and Ohio could not be
EXTEH3I0K OF THE SYSTEM .
By 1835 the tracks had reached Washington and Harpers Ferry.
The westward march had continued until in 1842 Cumberland, Maryland,
was reached. This distance of 172 miles was just about half way to its objective,
the Ohio River, as set forth in the charter.
It was fearless progressiveness that urged on and stimulated the skill
of the fathers of the feat, and by January 1, 1853, the original Baltimore and
Ohio line, as chartered from Baltimore to the Ohio River, was a reality when
the tracks of the Company reached Wheeling, W* Va., a distance of 579 miles,
just 26 years from its birth and 25 years from the laying of the first stone.
Following this, its extensions were more rapid in the West. In 1857
the Parker sburg Branch Railroad was completed and the Baltimore and Ohio was
extended to Parker sburg, W« Va., also on the banks of the Ohio River. Onward
its progress continued. By connections and agreements with other railroads, it
reached Cincinnati, Ohio, over the Parker sburg Branch Railroad and the Marietta
and Cincinnati Railroad, and subsequently through connection with the Ohio and
Mississippi Railway it stretched out to St. Louis, Mo., May 1, 1857.
This onward progress was temporarily halted from 1861 to 1865, the
years during which the United States was rent by Civil War. The Baltimore and
Ohio tracks from Washington to Harpers Ferry, W. Va., run just north and south
of the principal battlefields, so the railroad suffered much from destruction
of tracks and loss of equipment.
In 1871, the Pittsburgh and Connellsville Railroad completed its line
between Cumberland, Md. and Pittsburgh, Pa., and under its lease to the Baltimore
and Ohio, that Company obtained entrance into Pittsburgh. Connection was made
with Chicago, 111. in 1874 by a line through "Wheeling, W* Va,, Newark, Ohio, and
- 2 -
By the acquisition of the Pittsburgh and Western Railway, the Pitts-
burgh, Cleveland and Toledo Railway, and the Akron and Chicago Junction Railway,
the Baltimore and Ohio had a shorter route into Chicago in 1891, the route that
it now uses for its through trains. Many branch lines were acquired, webbing
the chief industrial centers of the United States with rails, now part of the
Baltimore and Ohio system. In 1909, the Baltimore and Ohio acquired the
Cincinnati, Hamilton and Dayton Railway, making a neiv line for it from Cincinnati
through Dayton to Toledo, Ohio, which is now the Toledo Division of the system.
In 1386, the Baltimore and Ohio had completed its line into Philadel-
phia, Pa., and by means of the Philadelphia and Heading Railway and the Central
Railroad of New Jersey effected an entrance into New York City, where on Staten
Island it operates extensive and important waterfront terminals.
The Baltimore and Ohio has continually built and acquired, and the rails
located as they are with abundant natural resources within easy access, reach
thirteen of the richest states in the Union, carrying a regular flow of diversi-
fied traffic in addition to a great volume of coal and other minerals.
Pioneer in many things, the Baltimore and Ohio was the first to
recognize the importance of establishing export terminals to carry on trade
with foreign countries, and as early as 1868 steamship connections from the
Company's waterfront terminals at Locust Point, Baltimore, to Europe through
Bremen were established. Locust Point is today the principal Atlantic terminal
of the Company, and here are located the most modern facilities for local and
export traffic, especially those facilities for handling coal and wheat.
The Company employs 12,000 people and puts into circulation in the
City of Baltimore approximately |25,0Q0,00O a year. Its investments in property
and facilities in Baltimore exceed $50,000,000.
Other important eastern terminals are at New York and Philadelphia.
At Chicago, with terminal and belt line consisting of 81 miles through the in-
dustrial section of the city, the Baltimore and Ohio interchanges traffic
directly with 32 other railroads. At St. Louis, its other western terminus,
is one of the proprietary companies jointly owning the terminal properties
and belt line, through which interchange of traffic is made with the west and
In 1921, the Baltimore and Ohio opened an office in London, England,
under the supervision of which there are 36 subsidiary foreign agencies through-
out Europe, as far north as Sweden, as far south as Italy and as far east as
Greece. These sub-agencies make it possible to issue through bills-of-lading
from the shipping point in Europe to the interior destination in the United States.
THE RELATION OF TH5 DEVELOPMENT OF THE TELEGRAPH TO THE BALTIMORE & OHIO .
The first telegraph line in the world was built along the Baltimore and
Ohio Railroad between Baltimore and "Washington through aid given by the Company
to the inventor, Professor Morse.
Congress having granted $30,000 to Professor Morse to build a line of
telegraph, the Baltimore and Ohio granted the use of its right-of-way between
Viashington and Baltimore. The line was laid underground in a trench two inches
wide and twenty inches deep. This trench was dug by a specially cons time ted
heavy plow, built at the Mt. Clare Shops. On account of leakage, this con-
struction was abandoned and the wires were strung on poles. This line connected
the Baltimore and Ohio depot at Baltimore with the Capitol at Washington, and
the first message, "What hath God wrought", was sent on May 24, 1884.
By 1846 the telegraph line had been extended to New York and over the
lines of the railroad, and commercial messages were handled.
With a view of sharing with the public this means of quick communica-
tion, the Baltimore and Ohio Telegraph Company was chartered on January 7, 1882.
By 1886 the corapany had grown to control some 50,000 miles of wire, extending
from Maine to the Gulf, westwardly to Kansas City, and to eastern Texas. The
telegraph company continued to operate its lines until October 5, 1887, when
they were sold to the Western Union Telegraph Company.
TYT5S OF BRIDGES US3D OH TH5 BALTIMORE AND OKIO RAILROAD .
The stone arch bridge ims fully explained by an earlier initiate in
his treatment of "The Carrol lton Viaduct".
The "Wooden Truss Bridge" represents an early type of railroad truss.
It was designed by Mr. B, H, Latrobe, Chief Engineer of the Baltimore and Ohio,
in the summer of 1833. The material was American white pine. The roof timbers
were protected from fire by a sheet iron ceiling.
The Howe Truss marks a definite step in the development of the modern
railroad bridge. It was the earliest type of simple truss and was patented in
the United States in 1840,
The design combines the use of timber and metal. In the earlier
trusses of this type iron was used only for the vertical web members, but a
later development was the substitution of iron for wood in the bottom chord.
The Pratt Truss was introduced in 1844 as a modification of the Howe
In its original form, the Pratt Truss combined the use of timber and
metal. Few Pratt trusses in the original form were built, and after 1850, the
Pratt truss was widely adopted for spans in which metal alone was used. Panel
joint connections were usually made by pins. The Pratt truss with both pin
and rivet connections is still used extensively for railroad and highway bridges.
The JThipple Truss was introduced in 1847, It is a development of the
Pratt truss, involving the use of a double set of web members, each diagonal,
usually extending over two panels. Trusses of this type were used in wrought
iron construction for spans of greater length than the ordinary Pratt truss.
The Bollman Truss was introduced about 1850 by T, r endel Bollman, Ilaster
of Road of the Baltimore and Ohio, and bridges of this type were extensively
used for railroad purposes until about 1875. This was one of the earliest
type of bridges in which iron was used exclusively.
The Fink Truss was invented by Albert Fink in 1852, while employed
in the office of the Chief Engineer of the Baltimore and Ohio at Baltimore.
The Fink Truss was widely used for both railroad and highway purposes
between 1852 and 1880. A modified form is still used for roof trusses.
This truss is a development and improvement of the Bollman type with
a view to simplicity and economy of material. A series of inverted "A" frames
is used, and the loads are gradually transferred from the smaller to the larger
trusses and thence to the end supports.
The "barren Truss has, with the improvement of riveting methods, largely
superseded the Pratt Truss for short spans, and is extensively used for long
span railroad bridges.
Plate Girders. The use of girders for short spans commenced at an
early period of railroad development. The dimensions of plate girders have
gradually been increased until for spans up to 125 ft. they have largely super-
seded truss construction.
Plate girders may be of the "deck" type in which the floor system rests
on the top flange, or the "through" type in which it is carried by the bottom
flange. The plate girder is of sturdy construction and maintenance charges
TRACK DBVELOEMBHT SBiCS 1841 .
In 1841, B. H. Latrobe,of the Baltimore and Ohio, designed a rail
known as the "Z n rail which was a combination of iron and wood. The iron part
of this rail was similar to half of the "U" rail section which was the fourth
type of rail and the first rolled in America. This rail weighed 40 lbs, per yd,
and was rolled at the Mt. Savage Iron Works, near Cumberland, Md. These "U"
rails were placed on wooden stringers and iron ties.
The fifth type of rail was the N T" or pear-shaped rail (1851-1852).
This type of construction marked the beginning of the use of cross ties placed
I. Woon String
4. Wood String
5. Cross Tie and
L'kakshai>f,i> R VII.
8. Cross Tie and
direetly on a bed of stone ballast. The "T" shape has been preserved through
.the years to date, the principal changes being in the weight and distribution
In 1869, the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad first used steel rail in re-
newing its existing lines in 1869. These rails were rolled in England.
In 1874, due to increased traffic and heavier locomotives, a 67-pound
Bessemer rail was developed. This rail was rolled by the Cambria Steel Company
at John stown, Pennsylvania.
The first 85 pound rail was used by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in
1889, and was employed as standard for both renewals and extensions until 1900.
The A. 8. C. E. 100 pound rail was used as standard on the Baltimore
and Ohio until 1908 when the 100 pound A, R. A. rail came into general use.
This rail was made of open hearth steel and gave a harder and longer wearing
than the Bessemer process steel previously used. Tie plates and rail anchors
came into use with this rail. Treated ties were used experimentally in 1909,
and in 1913 became standard.
Since 1921 due to the heavy increase of wheel loads, the ISO pound
A. R. A rail was adopted by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad as standard con-
struction for heavy- traffic freight and high-speed passenger lines.
the magnolia PUT-OFF.
The Magnolia Cut-Off on the East End of the Cumberland Division of the
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, costing 06,000,000 for a little more than 11 miles
of road, is one of the most expensive pieces of roadway in the United States.
The new line is 5.78 miles shorter than the old and contains 877 degress
less curvature. The eastbound grade is 0.10^ compensated as compared with OoSOJ^
uncompensated, end the westbound grade is 0.40/J compensated as compared with
0,55^ uncompensated. It is conservatively estimated that this out-off will save
:j? 500, 000 a year due to elimination of helper service and facilitating movement
RIVER WALL WEST OP PAW PAW, LOOKING EAST
1NTKKTKACK WALL, LOUKINC KAST
NEW AND OLD LINK, LOOKING WttsT TnU'.Mi]) rtii: l-:.\>]' J'c»UTaI. ok iWKmnkHS H \Ma.
POTOMAC RIVER, MAGNOLIA BRIDGE, LOOKING MAST
1HJ1- [iri.LV ltl.l. f LOOKING l..\SL
This section was formerly termed the "Neck of the Bottle" as traffics
converging from Chicago and St. Louis passes through this restricted portion
and diverges to New Engl and , Central Penn sylvan ia, the South and Tidewater,
The grade scheme is based on the lowest possible grade from the Maryland, "(Vest
Virginia and Pennsylvania coal fields to tidewater*
Four tunnels were driven, the Stuart, Carothers, Grahm, and Randolph,
having a total length of 6,912 feet. A total of 5,300,000 cu. yds. of exca-
vation was involved, not including 240,000 cu, yds. of rock from the tunnels.
The 4,900 ft. of retaining wall and 2,000 ft. of bridge work required the
placing of 3,000 tons of steel and 71,000 cu. yds. of concrete, not including
55,000 cu. yds, for tunnel lining*
The new line is laid with 100 pound A. R, A, Section B rail, 25 percent
of whioh is open hearth, and the remainder Bessemer steel. Track centers are
14 ft. and No. 16 crossovers are used.
A force of 2500 men were employed on this work for whom model camps
were erected. The contractor's plants aggregated 22 power shovels, 55 locomotives,
2 locomotive cranes, 550 dump cars, 6 concrete plants, 1 traveler, 116 air and
steam drills and 2 power plants.
The improvements were completed prior to schedule time, with the cost
slightly lower than estimated. The first train was run over the new line
December 5, 1914, since which time it has been in continuous operation. This
cut-off is one of the best examples of the management of the Baltimore and Ohio
to maintain the reputation as the line of service.
THE EXPORT COAL PIER AT CURTIS BAY, BALTIMORE, MP .
In the beginning of 1915 it became evident that new facilities must
be developed for transferring coal from cars to vessels. Investigation of this
problem resulted in the construction of the immense concrete and steel conveyor-
belt coal pier, whose four moving towers attract the attention of all who visit
*4 LOADING TOWtH
2000 TON': PEfl KOUB
EQUIPPED WITH WE
*3 LOADING TOWER
100 TONS PER HOUR
EOU1PPE0 WITH ONE
MECHANICAL TRIM ME R
'Z LOADING TOWER
200Q TONS PER HCHK
EQUIPPED WITH ONE
■ I LOAMS; TOWER
SOOO TONS PES KO/R
EQUIPPED WITH ONE
2-4S' BELT CONVEYORS AMD MACHINES
ON BID!! OF PICH
4Q - 260,000 * 8R0S6
WEIGHT CARS PER HOUR
4o- zao.000 * gro ss
WEIGHT CARS PER HOUR
THE BALTIMORE and OHIO RAILROAD COMPANY CURTIS BAY COAL PIER
LOADING CAPACITY 7000 TOMS OF COAL PER HOUR
IIS OVER t
WITH ECUIFMCNT MOUSED
' m j-
i l\ I \
"« « «'<■
i"l S «_
117' OVER FENDERS
15 TONS PER MINUTE; 1500 TONS P£Ft HOUR
MAXIMUM THROW 50 FT.
BUILT UNDER PATENTS OWNED AND
CONTROLLED BY FRANCIS LEE STUART.
View Looking Toward End of Curtis Bay Coal Pier — Showing 60 -inch Rubber Belts
Conveying Coal to Movable Coal-Loading Towers
Curtis Bay Coal Pier — General View
Curtis Bay Coal Pier
Lane-Galloway Mechanical Trimmers working in a vessel
Lane - Galloway Trimmer Throwing 25 Tons per Minute,
1500 Tons per Hour. Maximum Throw 50 Ft.
Practically No Breakage.
The Curtis Bay Export Conveyor-Belt Coal Pier of the Baltimore and
Ohio Railroad Company has the largest capacity of any coal pier in the world.
Mechanical facilities have been furnished which permit the maximum loading
of 7,000 tons of coal per hour into vessels.
This pier marks an entirely new departure in coal terminals. Instead
of the usual high structure to which railroad cars are by one means or another
elevated and then emptied into bunkers through which chutes lead into vessels
alongside, this plant consists of a pier 117 ft. wide, 700 ft. long, the deck
of which is 8 ft. above mean tide. The pier deck is entirely of reinforced
concrete construction, supported upon 1664 pre-cast concrete piles. The water
around the pier and the channel leading to it has a minimum depth of 35 ft.
Some distance back of the shore and of the pier are two car dumpers.
Each dumper feeds three belts 60 inches wide, with a maximum capacity of 2000
tons per hour and a maximum speed of 500 ft. per minute.
The two railway tracks serving the pier are diagonal to it. Each
track leads to a car dumping machine, which elevates and overturns the coal
oars, dumping their contents into an elevated bin of 120 tons capacity. The
two machines can handle a maximum of 80 cars per hour. The cars have a gross
weight of 280,000 pounds or a coal capacity of 100 tons. Over 50 cars per
hour per car dumper have been dumped, the cars being ordinary coal cars in
use on the railroad, having a capacity of 50 tons of coal. For frozen ooal
in cold weather a thawing shed is provided.
Two belts in each car dumper group run out on to the pier to a load-
ing tower. These belts take the direct discharge from the elevated bins, thus
giving a regular flow of coal to the main conveyors, and relieving the latter
of heavy wear. The third belt in each group conveys coal to a storage bin.
For each car dumper there are two movable coal loading towers; each loading
tower is equipped with a cage supporting a shuttle ram. The cage is lowered
or raised to suit the height of the vessels being loaded, and has a variation
of height of 27 ft,, the minimum height above water being 15 ft. The shuttle
ram can be run out on each side of the pier a maximum distance of 45 ft. With
the towers traveling along the pier in a longitudinal direction and the shuttle
working in and out at right angles and being capable of vertical adjustment,
this apparatus will load a hatch uniformly.
Lane Galloway Mechanical Trimmers are used to trim the coal in the
These export facilities represent an investment of approximately
)3, 000,000. The pier was constructed 1916-1917, and the mechanical trimmers
were added in 1920.
THE nm GRAIN ELEVATOR AT LOCUST POINT, BALTIMORE, MP .
The most efficient and fastest grain elevator in this country is now
in service at the Locust Point Marine Terminals of the Baltimore and Ohio.
Under forced operation an ordinary vessel can be loaded in three hours.
The total shipping capacity of this plant is 150,000 bushels per hour. This
amount can be divided, or 75,000 bushels per hour can be concentrated in one
vessel. At some berths wheat alone can be loaded, while at others mixed cargoes
can be loaded.
The important auxiliary operations of drying, cleaning, transferring
and mixing grain can be carried on simultaneously without interfering with the
major operations of receiving and shipping.
The plant has at present a storage capacity of 5,000,000 bushels which
may be extended to 6,000,000 bushels as the plant has been designed for this.
This is the first elevator to be designed and built entirely in accord-
ance with the new regulations recently adopted by the National Board of Fire
\i. VIKW (If OKAIX ICLBVATOK ANU MARINE TERMINAL FACILITIES
OF THE BALTIMORE ANI> OHIO RAILROAIJ
LOCUST POINT, HA1.T1M1IKM, MA It VI. A Nil
BALTIMORE & OHIO RAILROAD COMPANY I I tAI
[.in is | POINT, BALTIMORE, NED,
The entire plant is built of concrete, steel and other fire resist-
ing materials, supported where necessary on concrete piles.
The new grain facilities were erected in 1924 as part of a program
of improvements at the Locust Point Terminals of the company, involving over
110,000,000. It is hoped that they will have a large part in putting Baltimore
in the 100,000,000 bushels per year class.
IN TBS BEGIMIHG AND N07. r .
The speed of the first locomotive was about 10 miles per hour, while
today speeds of from 45 to 65 miles per hour are attained.
The first investments of the company totaled about $500,000; today
it has assets of over $1,000,000,000,
The first line ran from Baltimore to ^llicott's Kills, about 14 miles.
Today, the Baltimore and Ohio System embraces over 5,000 miles, touches IS states
and serves eight of the ten largest cities in the United States,
- BIBLIOGRAPHY -
1. The Catalogue of the Centenary Exhibition of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad,
2. Pamphlet on the Baltimore and Ohio as a Factor in Foreign Trade,
3. Pamphlet on Kagnolia Cut-off.
4. Pamphlet on Export Coal Pier.
5. Pamphlet on New Grain Elevator,
6. Foreword to the Corporate History of the Baltimore and Ohio.
7. Annual Report of the Company for 1927,
Much valuable assistance and information was obtained from Mr, E. L. Gosnell,
Assistant to the Chief Engineer of the Baltimore and Ohio, and his Assistant,