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Full text of "On the varieties of wheat"

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ON THE 






VARIETIES, 






PROPERTIES, AND CLASSIFICATION 



5 



OF 






WHEAT. 




By JOHN LE COUTEUR, Es«. 







CAPTAIN H. P. LATE 104th REGT. ; COLONEL 1st. REGT 
ROYAL JERSEY MILITIA j AIDE DE CAMP TO THE QUEEN 












. 



" Much food is in the tillage of the poor : but there is that is 

destroyed for want of judgment." 










I 



JERSEY : 

PRINTED BY H. PAYN, ROYAL SALOON; PUBLISHED BY 

HENRY WRIGHT, 
AGRICULTURAL LIBRARY, 51, HAYMARKET, LONDON. 



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CONTENTS. 






Page 
1 
7 



Chapter 

1. — Wheat, its origin and varieties 

2. — Faults in ordinary practice 

3. — On the choice of seed. ............. ••••• 11 

4-— A first comparative experiment.. . ••••♦.... , 17 

5.— On the roots and growth of wheat 29 

6.— On the necessity of preserving crops pure . . 36 

7. — On meal and bread...... •••••••.... 40 

8. — On manure for wheat.... »•••.»•*•••» 46 

9.— On a change and choice of seed. ...«••••«• 52 

10.— On the tendency of wheat to degenerate , « 58 

11.— On the disposition of wheat to sport 64 

12.— On the early habits of some varieties 68 

13.— On the properties of some varieties 73 

14. — Classification .... 77 

15. — On the relative advantages of the drill or broadcast system 83 



16— Result 



17. — Conclusion 



tf©o&9t*t«t*e*« 



90 
96 



















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i 



DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER. 



P\GE 



Wheat in its grassy state — to front 



ft 



Ears of wheat, 



do. 



30 
80 



Page 21. 



« 



CORRIGENDA, 



In the last line, after one, read ounce 



ct 



23. — Line one, for failed, read died. 
103.— Line 7, ellicers, read slicers. 





















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DEDICATION 



TO THE 



CENTRAL AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY 



OF 



GREAT BRITAIN AND IRELAND 



Gentlemen, 

Having had the honor and great gratification of 
assisting in the formation of your Society, which I 

do not hesitate to call one of the corner stones of the 
empire ; having also witnessed with admiration, so 
many individuals of various political opinions, setting 



them aside to 



for the common interests of 



Agriculture, which, unfortunately, is too clearly 
proved to be a business of loss ; I consider it becomes 
us all to work for the common good, and endeavour 
to assist the farmer, in such a way as may tend to 
extricate him from his difficulties. 

It would be great, nay, unmeasured presumption 
indeed, if so humble and unknown an individual as 
myself were to venture to assert, that the means he 
recommends will effect that object; but it may be 
reasonable to say, that it is believed they will be a 
first step towards it, since any improvement in culture, 

which may enable a man to better his condition, is in 

B 









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11 



DEDICATION. 



fact a pace gained towards the end in view. There 
are other considerations of far deeper import, which 
it would ill become me to touch upon, on this occa- 
sion ; but if the unassisted labours of one individual 
of your Committee, may lead to great and important 
results, relating to that first of products, Wheat ; and 



that investigations establish 



hav 



been correct ; it is hoped he will have merited your 



approbation. 
To you, G 



the great, I wish I could say 



the whole body of Farmers of the United Kingdom, 
I dedicate this little work, the result of five years 

of close attention and research. 

Several of you inspected the collection of one 
hundred and three varieties of Wheat, which I exhi- 

* 

bited at the Committee Room, these are now increased 
to upwards of one hundred and fifty sorts. 

That among these varieties, there are some that 



thrive better than others 



the par 



and situations adapted to each, all over the kingdom, 

is my firm belief. That one ear of a superior variety, 
sowed grain by grain, and suffered to tiller apart, 
produced four pounds four ounces of wheat ; whereas 
another ear, of an inferior sort, treated in the same 



manner, produced only 



pound 



is a 



proof that it is of paramount importance to select 
the most productive and farinaceous sorts for seed. 

It being obvious, that a farmer who would have sown 

























that I 




DEDICATION. 



his whole crop with the last named variety, would 

have probably been ruined, whereas, the superior 

variety would have enabled him to farm with profit. 

It is to the consideration of this general proposi- 



not to view it 



as a specimen of literary labour, with the eye of 
criticism, but as the mere statement of one, who hopes 
he may not have laboured in vain, for the interest of 
those whom he considers the true sinews of the land. 



farm 



It 



hoped it may lead to more 



tended and improved researches, in 



ery 



nty 



and province of the empire, as its principle extends 

to every cultivator of wheat throughout the universe. 

The writer had the honor to receive the followino- 

encouragement, from the venerable and much to be 

regretted Father of Modern Agriculture, the Right 

Honorable Sir John Sinclair, on exposing his views 
to him. 

"My Dear Sir, 

" I had the pleasure of receiving your obliging communication from Belle 
Vue. It contains much important information. The plan you describe, 
seems to be judiciously formed. I should be very glad, therefore, to see such 
an excellent system established also in this country ; but ever since the ex- 
tinction of the Board of Agriculture, which cost me so much trouble to esta- 
blish, and so much exertion to carry on, X have lost all hopes of seeing 

Agriculture again, placed in that splendid and flourishing state which it then 
exhibited. 

" I hope, however, that this will not discourage you from continuing your 
exertions, the success of which I trust you will have the goodness, from time 



With 



communicate 



which you are so laudably occupied. 



a 



1 remain, dear Sir, 



T© Colonel Le Couteur, 

&<?' &C. &c 



" Very faithfully your's, 



(Signed) 



"JOHN SINCLAIR/' 






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4 












1 



IV 



DEDICATION. 



With this encouragement from a Philosoph 



of 



* 



the most benevolent mind and extended knowledge, 
who had proved himself the farmer's friend and guide, 
I determine to submit my work to your favorable 
consideration, beseeching you to make allowances for 
the production of an unlettered soldier, who has for 
the last twenty years 



turned his 



word 



ploughshare," but who courts the deepest enquiry 
into a most important subject. 

I have the honor to be, 



Gentlemen, 

Your very faithful and obedient Servant, 

J. LE COUTEUR 


















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INTRODUCTION. 



It requires some apology and some sort of intro- 
duction from a person wholly unknown to Agricul- 
turists, when he rashly, it would seem, tells them, 
that the proper culture of wheat, is unknown, or un- 



practised An apology is easily made, the only ob 



ject of the writer being to become useful in the most 
unobstrusive manner, by endeavouring to better the 

condition of every cultivator of wheat ; and for an in- 
troduction he has only to use a greater name, that of 
Professor La Gasca, Curator of the Royal Gardens 

at Madrid, whose extensive collections of the varieties 
of wheat, and botanical researches into its nature as 
a plant, chiefly scientific and theoretical, led the au- 
thor to make practical experiments, on the growth 
and properties of wheat as a nutriment, which have 
already led to important results. 

To the Professor, I owe a great and lasting debt of 
gratitude, for having drawn my attention to the sub- 



ject 



Five years since, I accidentally saw with 



nishment and pleasure, about eighty distinct sorts of 
wheat growing in a nursery garden in Jersey ; some 



feet high 



some 



three inches long, others 



ly four; the ears of some 

six. Professor La Gasca, 




, 






ii 



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VI 



INTRODUCTION. 



whose they were, happened to join me, and though a 



V^ 



he politely explained their nature to me 



I requested him to visit my crops the following 
day ; I considered them as pure, at least as unmixed 
as those of my neighbours ; when to my dismay, he 
drew from three fields, three and twentv sorts — some 
white wheat, some red, some liver-coloured, some 
spring wheat; some dead ripe, the corn shakino- out 



some ripe, some half so, some in a milky state, and 



some green. 



I reflected on the subject, and immediately became 

convinced that no «rop in that state, could either 

produce the greatest weight of corn, give the largest 
quantity of flour, or make the best or lightest bread, 
such as would be produced from a field, in an equal 
and perfect state of ripeness. 



I directly conceived 




endeavour practi 



cally to ascertain, the relative properties of the best 

and most productive sorts of wheat ; I requested 
Professor La Gasca to shew me those which he con- 



fourteen s< 
the mode 



sidered the best. He pointed out 
these I grew with extreme care, in 
will be described hereafter. 

When the Professor saw the drift and result of my 
comparative experiments, he exclaimed : " Is it pos- 
sible that in one twelvemonth you have practically 
obtained the knowledge of what I have been for five 

and twenty years studying botanically 



but 



per 















INTRODUCTION. 



Vll 



out some 
mankind 



with diligence and courage, you will yet 



g 



benefit for 



y 



country, and for 



It is to the prosecution of these researches after 



five years of 



ppl 



I des 



the attention of the agricultural world 



say, that all I advance is to be received with 
that if experiments are to be made on th 



I will frankly 



which I shall throw 



they should first b 



on a 



blindly run into, as if all J 



be received as a certainty. The results to be ob- 

sarily 



tained in 



periments are 



slow, nearly a whole twelvemonth must elapse, before 
the seed which has been put into the ground, will be 

•the only valuable proof of the 



tible into bread 



experiment, 
that we shall 



It is, therefore, by slow approaches 
irrive at the perfect knowledge of { 



result, which, it is believed, will be most important 
m itself, and most valuable to all intelligent, indus- 
trious, and persevering farmers. 

The great first principle I wish to advocate, is the 
proper adaptation of varieties of wheat, to the various 
soils and climates, since it is the suitableness of each 









each 



that 



will enable the farmer to pay 

the rent of his land, by sowing one variety, where, he 



ould be 
th 



bl 



d 



f 




attempt 



ly better 



g 



If this end can be obtained, the object I have had 
































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INTRODUCTION. 



in view will be realised ; the farmer will be placed in 
a better situation than he is now ; the productiveness 
of the soil will be enormously increased, inasmuch 



as many unprod 
wheat suited to 



th 



lands may be made to g 
under a proper rotatior 



of 



cropping, and clean husbandry ; this last, I hold to be 
indispensible under all circumstances. 



If I 



fortunate 



■h g 



convince 



Agriculturists, that 



I have advanced facts ; and 
have carried conviction to their minds; the cultiva- 
tion of the most farinaceous wheats, white, red, 
yellow, or liver-coloured, each suited to their pecu- 
liar soils, will become a science, not unworthy, I 
deem it, the attention of the Government of this or 
any other country : and a national experimental farm, 
for the establishment of such researches, might be 
properlv placed under the control of the Chancellor 
of this and every other Government. 

The slow results attainable, only as I have before 
stated, at the expiration of a twelvemonth, conducted 

by a single individual, at considerable expense, much 
employment of time, some uncertainty, arising from 
occasional absence ; how useful soever, could not be 
compared with the utility of a national establishment, 
founded for the purpose of quickly ascertaining such 
important facts, where the results of many years of 
application by one person, would be attained in one 
or two seasons. 






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1 



I 




CHAPTER I. 



WHEAT,— ITS ORIGIN AND VARIETIES 















It is not the intention to write an elaborate treatise 
on this subject, which, although interesting to the 
learned and scientific reader, would be of no practical 
utility to the farmer, 
wholly uninteresting t 
history of wheat. 



It may, neverth 



back 



be 
the 



We learn from the sacred 



that it was of 



the earliest culture, « In the sweat of thy face shalt 

It is therefore to be presumed that 



thou eat bread 

wheat was coeval with the creation ; and that upwards 
of a thousand years before the christian era, some im- 
provement in its culture, and some knowledge of a 
superior variety, had been attained, by the circum- 
stance of its being stated, that " Judah traded in wheat 
of Minnith," perhaps meaning that such wheat of 
Minnith, was held to be in superior estimation. This 
may be the most ancient designation for any particu- 

owth of wheat, the superiority of which, at that 



arly period had eno-ao-ed 



fc>"5 



public 



Colu 



mella, who wrote about the time of our Lord, makes 



some interesting remarks on wheat 



4t 



The chief 



and the most profitable corns for men, are common 



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wheat, and bearded wh 



We have kn 



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" ral kinds of wheat ; but of these we must chiefly 
" sow what is called the red wheat, because it excels 
" both in weight and brightness. 

44 The white wheat must be placed in the second 
44 rank, of which the best sort in bread is deficient in 
44 weight. 

44 The trimestrian shall be the third, which hus- 
44 bandmen are mighty glad to make use of; for when, 
44 by reason of great rains, or any other cause, the 
44 early sowing has been omitted, they have recourse 
44 to this for their relief ; it is a kind of white wheat. 
44 Pliny says, that this is the most delicious and the 

44 daintiest of any sort of wheat, exceeding white, but 

44 without much substance or strength, only proper 
44 for moist tracts of land, such as those of Italy, and 
44 some parts of Gaul ; that it ripens equally, and 
44 that there is no sort of corn that suffers delay less, 

44 because it is so tender, that such ears of it that are 
44 ripe presently shed their grains ; but in the stalk, 






danffer than any other 



for it holds 






44 its ear always upright, and does not contain the 
44 dews, which occasion blasting and mildew. 

44 The other sorts of wheat are altogether super- 
44 fluous, unless any man has a mind to indulge a 
44 manifold variety, and a vain glorious fancy. 

44 But, of bearded wheat, we have commonly seen 
44 four sorts in use .; namely, that which is called 



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3 



' Clusinian, of a shining, bright, white colour ; 
' bearded wheat, which is called Venuculurn, 



a 



one 



sort of it is of a fiery red colour, and another sort 
4 of it is white ; but they are both heavier than the 
'CI 



usinian. The Trimestrian, or that of three 
month's growth, which is called Halicastrum ; and 
this is the chief, both for its weight and goodness. 
But these sorts, both of ordinary common wheat, 
and of bearded wheat, must, for these reasons, be 



kept by husbandmen, beca 
that any land is so 



it rarely happ 



situated that 



can content 



with one 



sort of seed, some part of 

happening, contrary to our expectation, to be \' 




dry 



But common wheat thrives best in a dry 



place, and bearded wheat is less affected by mois- 
ture. " 

Hence it appears, the Romans were aware of the 
propriety of selecting their wheat, and that it was 
then believed, that winter or beardless wheat was best 
suited to dry uplands, and bearded wheat to low, or 
moist lands. 

on to the winter wheats, some of which 



In addit 



he states to be bearded, he distinctly alludes to Tri- 
mestrian, or spring wheat, of which I shall speak 
hereafter. 

In Gerard's Herbal, printed in London, 1660, only 

five kinds of wheat are enumerated, which are thus 
spoken of : 



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44 1. Triticum Spica Mutica, white wheat. This 
kind of wheat, which Lobelius, distinguishing it by 
the eare, calleth Spica Mutica, is the most principal 
of all other, whose eares are altogether bare and na- 
ked, without awnes, or chaffie beards. 

" 2. The second kind of wheat, in root, stalkes, 
joints, and blades, is like the precedent, differing onely 
in eare, and number of graines, whereof this kinde 
doth abound, having an eare consisting of many 
ranks, which seemeth to make the eare double or 



square 



The root and grain is like the other, but 



bare and naked, but bristled 



bearded, with 



many 



sharp 



awnes, not unlike 



those of barley. 

" 3. Flat wheat 



:e unto the other kindes of 
wheat, in leaves, stalkes, and roots ; but is bearded 
and bordered with rough and sharp eiles, wherein 
consists the difference. (I know not what our author 
means by flat wheat, but I conjecture it to be the long 
rough eared wheat, which hath blueish eares when 
it is ripe, in other things resembling the ordinary 
red wheat.) 

" 4. The fourth kinde is like the last decribed, 
and thus differeth from it, in that this kind hath many 
eares, coming forth of one great eare, and the beards 
hereof be shorter than of the former kinde. 

like the second before de- 
scribed, and differeth from it in that this kinde is four 

square, somewhat bright and shining, the other not 



5. Bright wheat is 






' 











5 

" I think it a very fit thing (he states in a note) to 
adde in this place a rare observation, of the transmu- 
tation of one species into another, in plants ; yet 
none that I have read have observed, that two seve- 
ral o-raines, perfect in each respect, did grow at any 
time in one eare : the which I saw this yeare 1632, in 
an eare of white wheat, which was found by my very 
good friend Master John Goodyer, a man second to 



industrie and searching of pi 



his 



judgment or knowledge of them, 
was as large and faire as most 



This eare of wheat 

re. and about the 






middle thereof grew three or foure perfect oats in 
all respects : which being hard to be found, I held 

very worthy of setting downe, for some reasons, not 

to be insisted upon in this place." 

He also entertained the opinion, that, wheat " in 

a moist and darke soile, degenerateth sometime to be 
of another kinde" 

The singular fact mentioned above, relates to the 
chapter on the disposition of wheat to sport ; but I 
have copied it as I found it. I principally wished to 
show how few varieties were then known, and how 
indistinctly they were described. 

Modern writers have merely designated a number 
of varieties, but no attempt appears to have ever 
been made to class them correctly, or to ascertain 
their relative values by comparison. 

In Sinclair's " Hortus Gramineus Woburnensis," 







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forty-two of the cultivated varieties are enumerated, 
as winter or spring wheats, according to the arrange- 
ment of Linneus, which this illustrious writer, has 
merely given as a sort of botanical classification. 
The Maison Rustique, for 1835, enumerates thirty- 
nine varieties ; and although a short notice is given 
of them, it is by no means sufficient, as their farina- 
ceous qualities are not explained, nor is the classifi- 
cation, according to Professor LaGasca's notions, as 
he called all bearded wheats, spring wheats ; though 
he admitted many of them would be increased in 
produce, by being sown as winter wheats, and that 

many winter wheats might be made as late, and pro- 
duce as much as spring wheats. 

It is a classification of wheat, pointing out the rela- 
tive value, of varieties ; in their quantity of meal, the 
weight of bran and pollards, with the weight of straw 

of each, and their adaptation to soils, which is now 
required. 

That this would be a desideratum, no one I ima- 

gme will deny; but that it requires time, attention, 
and perseverance, to make such discoveries, will also 
be conceded, when it is stated that I already possess 

■ 

upwards of one hundred and fifty varieties, or sub- 
varieties. 



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• 



CHAPTER II. 



FAULTS IN ORDINARY PRACTICE. 



It may be useful, first to point out the defects, in the 
present practice of husbandry with respect to wheat. 
The usual mode, with the best farmers, is to purchase 
seed corn, where it is supposed to be clean, and pure, 
by the last expression, meaning wheat of one sort, or 

as little mixed as possible. But the ordinary practice, 
with those who may be said to supply the nation, is to 
procure seed wheat, where it can be got cheapest, 
without regard to mixture or purity, provided the 
sample is good, and appears likely to grow ; others 
do worse, and imagine, that poor lean shrivelled 
wheat, the refuse of their own stock, or some coming 
from a' distance, as a change ; is all that is required to 



ensure 



crop 



Other carelessness, previous 



after culture, need not here be treated of, as that 
would equally affect the best, as well as the worst 

le observation it would be well to make 



d 



O 



now, that the old practice of putting fresh manure 
to land intended for wheat, is decidedly dangerous, 
inasmuch as it tends to produce much grass or straw, 
and less grain, which grain is also of a dark and 



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coarse nature. Stable dung should be applied plen- 
tifully to the preparatory crop, and when lime or 
ashes are not procurable for the wheat crop, the 
early and free use of the hoe will supply their loss 
in a great measure ; but none save decomposed stable 
dung should be applied to wheat, if that manure 
be necessary. This is merely stated as a general ob- 
servation, as there may be soils which, without ma- 
nure, would be wholly unproductive. The experience 
of the writer being at present chiefly limited to what 
are commonly held to be good soils. 

The writer, in 1831, thought his crops were tole- 
rably pure, yet on Professor La Gasca walking 

through them, as he has stated in the Introduction, 
he selected from them twenty -three sorts, of which 

to be three weeks 



some have since been discovered 



later in ripening, than others. Hence, I repeat, it 
must be obvious, that corn harvested in an unequal 
state of ripeness, cannot be the best for the purpose of 
making bread, — when the greater part of the grain 
has been reaped in the state, the farmer consi- 
dered was fittest for the miller ; whilst the lesser 
part has been either in a milky state, or much over 
ripe, or some in states, between both. 

It must be obvious, that the greatest quantity 
of farina or meal, is not obtained from wheat 
reaped in this manner ; the largest quantity would 



be 



obtained, when every ear produced that 






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9 



fine, plump, thin-skinned, coffee-like looking g 



hich evidently 



much meal 



delicat 



transparent, thin-coated bran, such as some Dantzic, 
selected from the high-mixed produces. 

Hence it is assumed, that to have the best bread 
from any variety of wheat, is to have it so pure, that, 
supposing it to be grown on a level space, with one 
exposition, it will all ripen at the same time; slight 
differences being allowed for variation of soil, sub- 
soil, or accidental unequal distribution of manure ; 
but, speaking generally, it will ripen equally. Such 
variety, therefore, having ripened alike, will proba- 
bly, if grown on the good Kentish, Essex, Devonshire, 
or other soils specially adapted to the growth of corn, 
be (if reaped at the proper moment) in that exact 
state of plump, round form, which promises the great- 
est quantity of flour. 

cause why so much 



I must here ob 



the 



wheat appears to have many shrivelled, lean, ill-grown 
grains in it, arises often from the unequal growth of 
the many varieties that lurk in the purest crop. 

Much has been judiciously written on the growth 
and cultivation of wheat, which has tended to a ma- 
terial improvement in those farms where care has been 
taken, perceptible even to superficial observers ; but 
no writer has yet called the attention of the agricul- 
tural world to the cultivation of pure sorts, origina- 
ting from one single grain. It is contended that this 































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• 









10 



has been the root of all the evil ; many have attempt- 
ed to begin well, but few if any have thought of 
commencing from the original, and persevering in 

keeping it pure. 

This idea struck the author so powerfully, on the 

■ 

first conversation he had with Professor La Gasca, 
that it has never quitted him. His project was con- 
sidered visionary and unattainable. Old farmers said, 
that as no farmer in the world had ever thought of 
separating and classing wheat, it could not be done, 
it was impossible to get a pure crop ! The bees would 
mix the farina, mice would mix the grain, birds would 

do the same ; if it had been feasible, it would have 

been tried before. Corn factors assured him that the 

r 

climate of England was not calculated for the growth 



of such fine-skinned wheat as that of Dantzic, Yol- 
hynia and Sandomir. Professor La Gasca alone 
perceived and approved of the author's project. 

The learned Professor had been theoretically 
employed in the classification and scientific exami- 
nation of wheat as a plant, in the research and con- 
sideration of all its varieties; but it had escaped 
him to consider it in its properties, with relation to 
the food of man. This practical view the author took 
of it, and he determined to attempt to discover which 
were the most farinaceous and productive varieties, 
by comparing their characters and produce, one with 
another. 






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CHAPTER III 



ON THE CHOICE OF SEED. 



The usual mode, with the generality of farmers, is 
to procure any seed, that any neighbour, enjoying the 

reputation of being a good farmer, may have to sell. 



A more 



» 



procure 



seed from a distance, to require that it is fine, perhap 



pure ; they 



ha'v 



thought of changing 



they 



& 



renewing their seed occasionally. A still more 
ligent number having procured the best seed 
could obtain, of those sorts which observation, and 

* 

experience, have led them to know as being best suited 
to their soil and climate, have further observed, that 
mixtures in their crops prevented their ripenin 
the same moment, and have endeavoured to remedy 
this defect, by making selections by hand, of those 
varieties which appeared to them to be similar, and 
thus have greatly, and manifestly, improved their crop 

in produce and quality. 

A few farmers have proceeded a step further, and 
from having observed a stray ear of apparently un- 
usually prolific habits, have judiciously set it apart, 


























































i 
































\ 






























■ 























12 



and have raised a stock from it. Hence the Hedge 
Wheat, Hunters, Hicklings, and twenty more, that 
might be named; but it is contended that it is not 
sufficient, merely to have grown them pure for a short 
time ; it is necessary to keep them permanently so, if 
after a comparative examination, as to their relative 
produce in grain and meal, they shall be proved to 

* 

be the best ; or otherwise, to discard them for more 
valuable varieties. 

This was the chief consideration which led me to 

make comparative experiments, in order to obtain 

the best seed. 

I 

Hence, as a first step towards improvement, Pro- 
fessor La Gasca, having shewn me four ears of those 

he considered the most productive, I sorted as many 
as I could collect, of precisely the same varieties, 
judging by their external i 



ppear 



pure 



Such was my anxiety to attempt to raise a 
crop, that, in the month of November, 1832, 1 rubbed 
the corn from each ear, of all the four sorts I had se- 
lected, throwing aside the damaged or ill-looking 
grains, and reserving only, the plump and healthy. 

The first selection was apparently one wholly of a 
Dantzic sort — white and smooth-eared. In the pro- 
cess of rubbing out the corn, I was much surprised 



find that, thouffh 



£> 



of the 



5 



white 









ley differed greatly as to form ; some being round 

)ine oval and peaked, some plump but very small 









• 









n ^ 



I. 



















N' 



13 



some mor 



elongated, some with the 



much thicker than oth 



There 



or bran 
;o many 



with liver-coloured, yellow, and dark grains, among 

the white. 

The second sort was from a square, compact va- 
riety of wheat, the grains being very plump, round, 
of a coffee-like form, very thin-skinned and white. 
There was a pale red inferior variety among it, much 
thicker-skinned, but without any perceptible external 
appearance in the ear. 

- 

The third, was a downy or hoary variety, one of the 
" Veloutes " of the French, and " Triticum Koeleri" 

of Professor La Gasca ; a velvetty or hoary sort, 
which is supposed to be very permanent in its dura- 

* 

tion, as relates to keeping pure. I found moreover, 
that there were a few red grains, some yellow, and 
some liver-coloured sorts amongst this, in small pro- 
portions it is true, but being of prolific habits, subse- 
quent experience has taught, that they would soon 
have destroyed the purity of the crop, if cultivated 
without constant attention. 

The fourth selection was from a variety of red ear 



with yellow grains, more peaked than the " Golden 



Drop;" these were all plump and well grown, but 
though of productive habits, afford less flour and 
more bran than the white varieties. I discovered a 
red variety among it, bearing white grains, which I 

suspect to be very prolific and hardy. I gave a 









































i 





















































V 













i 






14 



sample of it to the Right Honorable Sir John Sin- 
clair, who greatly encouraged me to prosecute my re- 
searches, as being of the highest importance. There 
were also red ears, bearing liver-coloured grains, but 
these were chiefly lean and ill-grown. 

I generally, but not invariably found, that the grain 



of white 



the plumpest 



possessing the 



pecific gravity, or largest quantity of meal 



subject to which I shall devote a short chapter. 

The aspect of the grain in that dry season, led me 
to suspect, that white sorts of wheat will succeed best 
on dry soils and in warm climates, and that red and 
yellow, or the darker coloured, prefer wet seasons or 

moist soils. 

The care I took in making these selections, and the 

great number of sorts I found, of all shades and co- 
lours, forming varieties and sub-varieties, as they are 

* 

named by Professor La Gasca, confirmed my convic- 
tion, that the only chance of having pure sorts, was 
to raise them from single grains, or single ears. 

It is bat fair to add, that even the pains I took in 
making those first selections, amply rewarded my 
labours, as the produce of my crops was increased 
from an average of about twenty-three or twenty-five 
bushels an acre, to about thirty-four, and since I have 
raised wheat from single ears or carefully selected sorts, 
I have increased my crops to between forty and fifty 

bushels the acre. Hence, I have no doubt, that with 

















15 



extreme care, in obtaining the best and most suitable 
sorts of wheat, that land in high tilth, with fine cul- 
tivation, may be made to produce sixty or seventy 

bushels the acre. 

Columella, while recommending much attention to 

be paid in choosing seed, says : " I have this further 

direction to give, that, when the corns are cut down, 

■ 

and brought into the threshing floor, we should even 



then think of making provision of seed for the future 

seed-time ; for this is what Celsus says—" where the 
corn and crop is but small, we must pick out the best 
ears of corn, and of them lay up our seed separately 



by itself. 



On the other hand, when 



shall have a more 



larger 



& 



& 



plentiful harvest than ordinary, and a 
whatever part of it we thresh out, must be cleansed 
with the sieve ; and that part of it, which, because of 
its bulk and weight, subsides, and falls to the bottom 



& 



of the sieve, must always be reserved for seed ; for 
this is of very great advantage, because unless such 
care be taken, corns degenerate, though more quickly 
indeed in moist places, yet they do so also in such as 
are dry. Nor is there yet any doubt, but that from 
a strong seed, there may be produced that which is 
not strong ; but that which at first grew up small, it 



is manifest can never receive 



ngth, and g 



lar 



V^ 



therefore Yirgil, as of other things, so of this 






It 






1 
































16 



particular concerning seeds, has reasoned excellently 
and expressed himself in this manner : 



»V <c 



I've seen the largest seeds, tho' view'd with care r 







n " Degenerate, unless th'industrious hand, 
1 " Did yearly cull the largest. Thus all things, 
" By fatal doom, grow worse, and, by degrees, 
" Decay, forc'd "back into their primevous state 



i j 
















Thus, we perceive, the Romans, at the period of 
the Christian era, were urged to be careful in the 

selection of their seed wheat.* 



. 









: • 






i 





















ifer 










CHAPTER IV. 



A FIRST COMPARATIVE EXPERIMENT. 



Perceiving that there were so many varieties of 
wheat of similar external appearance, as even to 






baffle the experienced eye of Professor La Gasca, who 
once more obligingly pointed out, several varieties 

r 

of different colours, which he suspected to be the 
most productive ; I proceeded to put into practice 

what had occurred to me, to be the only secure mode, 
to ensure the growth of pure sorts of wheat ; namely, 



i 



to grow them from single grains, or from single ears, 
and to follow up the plan, by afterwards sowing only 
the produce of the most productive, so as to 



form 



stock 



Hence at the same time, that I grew the 



lected by the eye, in a field, drilled near other corn, 
in order to secure them from the birds, thus greatly 
to improve the purity of my general crops, I adopted 
the following method to grow the most pure, and 
farinaceous wheats. 

The number of grains in the ears, of fourteen sorts, 
were carefully counted; in the smallest ear, there 
were twenty-three grains, in the largest seventy-four. 

The soil intended for their reception was a fine rich 

E 






• 

















































■ 



1 

































1 































18 



oam. several feet in depth over red clay 



of ashes of sea-weed 



pread 



the 



bushe 
iv face 



which was dug about the same depth that the plough 
was intended to turn the furrow, for a wheat crop. The 
seed havino* been soaked in strong brine, in separate 



» 



then 



made 



dried with slacked lime, the drills 
inches apart, and the grains were 



dropped 



gly, at about three inches depth 



distances from each other of from three inches, to 
eleven ; the whole being in a square of twenty-two 

feet, or a perch (Jersey). 

By referring to the Table at page 19, it should be 



noticed, that the 



Nos. 15 and 16, which 



very thick, and rows 17, 18 and 19, which 
moderately thick, about as 



much 



by £ 

drill machine, at the rate of two or three bushels tc 
the acre, appeared above ground on the 24th of De 
cember, or in seventeen days ; whereas, all the singl. 



of every 



came up two days later 



A 



curious, but satisfactory proof, which experiments 
repeated since, for the purpose have confirmed, that 
the trains of wheat, when sown thickly, impart a 
certain degree of warmth to each other, and to the 
soil, which hastens their growth two or three days 
earlier than a single grain. 

Owing either to the cold, worms, or birds, (though 
care was taken to watch the corn,)or unknown causes, 
several of the single grains never came up, as will be 















: 



A* 



















a experiment made on fourteen varieties of Wheat, sown on the 7th December, 1838. Each row contained the grams of a single ear of con 
been soaked in brine for an hour, then dried as usual with lime. 27=1 denotes that 27 grains are equal to 1 scruple, apothecaries weight, &c. 



i- 



NOS. 



VARIETY AND DESCRIPTION. 



Triticum (Dantzic) Hybridum Candidum 



w 



Trit. Hyb. Album Densum.— Round White 



m 



Trit. Hyb. Album Densum. — Rubellum (reddish.) 



Trit. Hyb. (No, G. c.)— Fine White 



Trit. Hyb. Coturianum.— Seedling— Fine White.. 



Trit. Koeleri, No. 1.— White Downy 



Trit, Koeleri Coturianum.— Seedling Red Downy 



50 



Trit. Koeleri. — White Downy 



Trit. Hyb.— Red Compact.— Plump Whitish 



Trit. Hyb.— Red ear.— Whitish 



12 



13 



14 



15 



16 



17 



18 



Trit. Hyb.— White ear.— Reddish Yellow Grain.. . 



Trit. Hyb.— Yellow 



Trit. Hyb. — Grand Rubellum.— Liver Colored 



Trit. Hyb. — Reddish Yellow Grain 



Sown thick from a 
Pint of Seed similar 
to No. ], selected by 
Professor La Gasca. 



thk. 



19 White Dantzic 



I 



Dec 26 



\ 



24 th 



Aug. 5. 



625 



562 



556 



662 



CQ 



O 



Height. 



2nd 



355 



508 



363 



feet, inch 



■ '** - — -* 



■>•> 



">•> 



•>•> 



>5 



eight of corn 



Weight of] 
straw. 



75 



J5 



?? 



il 



oz. 







oz. 



REMARKS. 



White 



\ 



Stout straw. 



Do. Do. 



Straw very strong and thick 



Slight straw. 



Do. Do. 



Coarse Do. 



Fine Do. 



Coarse Do. 



Reddish Do. 



Do. 



Straw white and stout 



Coarse. 



5 Fine white straw* 



Do. 



Do. 



- Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 



Do. 
Do. 



Do. 









Do. 



■ 












\ 



X: 














21 



Return of Produce in weight of Corn, taking an average from No. 7, 
which had just twenty-three grains sown, shewing the relative weight 
of produce, as well as the total weight of the 14 sorts. 



NOS. 



a & 






Produced 



oz. gros 



Relative 
number. 




2 



350 



262 



326 



212 



o 



Surplus. Total 



Total Weigiit 
of Corn. 



lbs. 






256 


+ 


366 - 


: 625 


253 


+ 


309 = 


: 562 


272 


+ 


284 = 


: 556 


350 


+ 


312 zz 


: 662 


387 


* 




- 387 






m *JO/ 


384 


4- 


243 = 


: 627 



350 



649 



355 



508 



680 Grains produced a Total Weight of lbs. 
from a little more than one and a quarter of Corn. 



3 



oz. 



3 



gros 



2 



2 



2 



3 



1 



3 



12 






12 



1 



14 



3 



' 



1 



9 



4 4 



2 



9 



3 



8 



4 



4 



7 



11 



7 1 



2 



6 















6 



3 



■ 

I m 












1 

















* « 























































■ I 















I 













































• 


















22 




o 


o 1 


1 ° 


O 


o| 


l» 


o 


o| 


i <=> 


O 


O 


o 


! 

o 


— 


1 

o 

• 


Produce 
Flour 


as 


OS 


OS 


as 


y\ 


I- 


-> 


as 


^r 


as 


as 


^r 


^r 


o 


1 aq 
© 

I • 

aq 


tO 

GO 


to 


GO 




tO 

O 


as 


x| 


|s 


GO 


05 


oo 


O* 


o 


to 


* p- 



o 



CO 



GO 



o 1 


1 ° 


|o 


o 


© 


o 


o 


o 


O 


o 


o 


© 


o 


o 


o 

• 


CJi 


o« 


as 


Or 


Oi 


Oi 


o* 


m 


C7« 


as 


i-i 


C7» 


tf* 


£fc 


gros 


to 




to 

as 


CD 


,('X 


CAS 

to 


to 


^ 


»— 1 to 

f— o 




rf^ 


CO 


to 


grs. 



O 



P 























* 






o 

• 


CO 


tf* 


^ i 


1 *"* 


^ 


^ 


^ 


£* 


^ 


^ 


^ 


£» 


£> 


<yt 


1 aq 
o 

1 • 




£* 


CO 


co 
to 


to 


rf*. 


CO 

Cj I 


to 1 

GO 


tO 

CD 


CO 

to 


QJX 

O 


CD 


to 


to 


aq 

Ul 

• 



o 



o 




a 



I 

O I o 



N 



© o 



to 



Cji 



to 



co 
to 



to 

to 



CO 



^r 



as 



GO 



CO 



o 


gros. 


to 

as 


aq 

Hi 

Ul 

• 



H^ 



Ul 



aq P 



p- 



ct> 
p 
o 



»-♦* 



CD 



O 
CD 



O 



O 

Ul 



p- 



p 









. 



. 













I\ 










seen by the column, How many failed. No. 13, 
called " Grand Rubellum," by the Professor, or the 
red Lammas wheat, I believe, out of 58 grains lost 
14; whereas No. 5, the Coturianum, lost none. 
No. 1, a variety suspected to be delicate, but one of 
the best wheats, both for produce and meal, from 64 
grains, only lost 3. In this manner I was led to judge 
of the hardiness of the varieties, and I was well 
pleased to observe th at the white, or most valuable 

sorts, were full as hardy as the red. 

It appeared that out of seven hundred and fifty- 
four grains, the whole number sown singly, seventy- 
four never came up ; a loss of nearly one tenth, even 

with the care and attention I bestowed on them. 

I have further discovered, that some sorts are still 
more delicate, of very precarious and uncertain habits. 

The habit of growth of many varieties, differs very 
considerably ; some being of a close upright growth, 
others spreading and trailing along the ground ; some 
tillering sooner than others : those in the experiment 
had all done so by the middle of March. On the 
27th, they were hoed for the second and last time, 
and were afterwards perfectly free from weeds. 

I was not, at that early period of my research, so 
attentive to the moment of flowering as I have since 
been ; as the knowledge of that precise moment 
might prove of the greatest importance to an intel- 
ligent farmer, there being an interval of a week, or 



























" 
















r 
























» 












I 



I 
I 

1 
I 

I 
































































































i 












^r 






\ 






24 



V 

ten days, in the period of flowering of some of the 
sorts. Hence, a judicious selection, with due care as 
to the time of sowing the variety, that will soonest 
come into flower, would enable him, not only to keep 
his crops from intercrossing by the intermixture of 

their farina, but as they would ripen in succession, en- 

■ 

* 

able him also to bring in his crops in rotation, as 
each variety ripens, without being hurried by his 
whole crop being fit for harvesting at the same mo- 
ment, which is now too often the case. 

It may be noticed that a single grain, picked 



up 



on the high road by chance, which I imme- 
diately perceived to be of an entirely different 
form, and of a larger size, than any I had yet seen, 
though sown a week later than the others, was the 



cut 




first to ripen, and was 

has still preserved its 
having now a small field of it. 



the 31st of July 



It 



ly habit, which I kno 



No. 9, the latest, was only ripe on the 8th of Au- 



gust. 



This difference in the period of flowering and 



ripening, could further be increased by arrangement, 
as to exposition and soil. 

The next and chief object of attention, was their 
comparative produce in grain. 

No. 1, produced 3 lbs. 3oz. from 6] grains, and 



3 lbs. 9oz. weight of 



& 



of 



beautiful white 



lour : whereas No. 14, a red variety, only produced 

I 

from 59 grains, lib. 10 oz. of wheat, and 21b, 5 oz. of 












L 











ik r 









25 



straw. Here then was an immense advantage in favour 
of No. 1, which produced nearly double the quantity of 



wheat, and a third 



B 



of 



» 



being ten, whereas that of the inferior sort was only 

and Professor La Gasca, it must be recollected, 
imagined that this last, was one of the most productive 
varieties, evincing the positive necessity of compara- 
tive experiments, to ascertain the relative produce of 
wheat, which the theory alone, even 



of the learned 



Professor himself, could never have discovered ; he 
merely having judged, from the external appearance 
of the wheat, its squareness, and compact form ; than 

which, nothing could have proved more deceptive. 
No. 8, a downy variety, was still more productive 



than No. 1 



fifty -five g 



produced 4 lbs. 4 



of wheat, and 3 lbs. 13 oz. of straw, its average of 
tillers beinff 11 : the straw of a fine colour, and the 
sample very beautiful, though scarcely so fine, or 
thin-skinned as No. 1. This produced nearly three 
times as much corn as No. 14, and a third more straw. 
These comparisons decided me to attempt the fu- 
ture cultivation of those, I had discovered to be the 
most productive, by a comparison of the produce of 



whole 



From a further examination, as to the 



relative produce of 23 g 



* 

of every sort, taking 



Nos. 5 and 7, which had but that number of grains 
in an ear, and by thus drawing two scales of compa- 
rison, I hoped that a satisfactory conclusion might be 
































y 















■ 




















\\h 









\ 


















































■ 






26 



arrived at. Hence, the minimum, scale or number, 
was fixed on to compare their relative produce, from 
an equal number of grains. Thus, No. 7, containing 
twenty-three, the least number of grains in one ear, 
became the standard, to compare the relative pro- 
duce of the whole fourteen sorts. 

By following up these comparisons, it was sus- 
pected that Nos. 5, 7, 3 and 1 , were among the hardiest 



varieties ; but here their merits in some degree cease ■ 
No. 8 being the most productive, and Nos. 1 and 

■ 

6 being equal. No. 8 is also the second most pro- 
ductive in straw, the fourth in the average number of 
tillers, also the second in weight of grain, and the 

third in produce of flour. It was therefore believed 
to unite many good properties, and has proved to be 
a highly productive, and valuable variety, of a downy 
or hoary sort, with a roundish white grain, rather 
thin-skinned, producing very fine flour, which makes 
delicious white bread. It has produced fifty-one 
bushels to the acre. No. 1, being an ear of a fine 
variety of wheat from Dantzic, has also proved to be 
highly valuable, though the straw is so tall, that it 
might be apt to lay, in moist situations. 

I was induced also to cultivate No. 5, being: a seed- 

* 

ling variety, not at all disposed to sport or change, 
producing a very fine round white sample : it has 
proved very productive. It produced from 23 grains 

more than any, but then it had the advantage of double 



* 






- 




















27 



distance between the ©rains, which doubtless tended 



t> 



to its increase. Its average of tillers was 16. 

i 

By an examination of the comparative list, at page 
21, it will be perceived, that it was easy, to arrive at 
some sort of general conclusion, by attention to the 
produce of ears that contained nearly the same num- 
ber of grains, and again, by a second investigation, as 
to their relative produce throughout the whole, to 
establish, which were those most advisable for general 
crops. 

The continued investigations of two subsequent 
years, have further confirmed me in my original opi- 
nions. I am now convinced that a proper selection 

of wheat is indispensable, my crops "having almost 

doubled in produce ; since I have raised seed of a pure 
sort. Those intelligent and superior farmers, who 
have already made great strides towards pure crops, 
by a careful selection of seed, must not expect so 
great an increase. To those, however, I hold out 
decided hopes of improvement, by the means I 

ft 

recommend. 

It must appear obvious, from the tables I exhibit, 
that a farmer who would sow No. 14 on a soil which 
would equally suit No. 8, might be unable to pay his 
rent; whereas, had he happened to have sown 
]fto. 8, he would have had nearly three times more 
wheat, and a third more straw ; hence, it must be 

clearly seen, that in any intermixture of sorts in 





















■ 
























I 

A 













t 







28 



crops, some, as I have already stated, having no less 
than twenty-three varieties :— the loss of produce, as 
compared with entirely pure crops, suited to the soil 
and climate, would be in exact proportion to the 
number of less productive sorts so intermixed. 



- 



















» - 












































y 



, h.. 








* 



:■ 










\ 



CHAPTER V 



WHEAT 



Cft' 



It has been stated that wheat, when sown in Novem 
ber or December, appears in seventeen or nineteen 
days. An excellent article in the Georgieal Essays, 
led me to repeat a course of experiments made by the 
author, who speaks of them in the following manner : 
' It is not sufficient for a farmer to be acquainted 
with the nature of different soils, he should be ac- 
quainted with the nature of such plants as are used 



field husbandry 



The soil and roots 



* 



timately connected, that the knowledge of both be 



a 



comes 



ntial. Wheat has 



of 



*-■ 



41 



the 



44 



the first comes immediately from the grain, 
other shoots from the crown some time after 



I shall distinguish 



the 



by Seminal and Coronal 



'■' roots. 



" Plants, according to their species, observe a re- 
" gular uniformity in the manner of spreading their 
" roots; for which reason, the same grain cannot be 
" continued long upon the same soil. 



Is it not that 

44 each takes from the earth such parts as are con- 
" genial? The food of all plants is the same; only some 

some take it near the 



t* 



require more, some less 












. 



































! 












% 











- M 



I ! 












I 
I 

I 



1 










30 



" surface, others seek it deeper. This opens to our 

noble field of instruction. A careful in- 



view a 



pection of a healthy root, will at once demonstrat 



the bias of 



An examination of the soil 



a 



«t 



a 



show how far that, and the roots will coincide. 
" This is the rational basis of the change of spe- 
cies so well understood in Norfolk, where tap- 
' rooted plants always follow those that root su- 

perficially. 

Wheat being subject to the severity of winter, 
roots are wonderfully disposed, to withstand the 



u 



u 



inclemency of the 



A view of their shap 



<t 



direct us in the manner of sowing that 



the most 



^^ 



the same time enable 



for some of the phenomena 



" ble in the growth of it. I have observed that wheat 
" has a double root. The first, or seminal root, is 
" pushed out at the same time with the germ, which, 
" together with the farina, nourishes the plant, until 
" it has formed its crown." 

As I think I have followed the same course of ex- 
periments with even more care than the author of 
the above extract, I shall state my own observations 
in corroboration of it. 



Fig. 1 



Appearance of a grain 



of wheat which 



had been sown three inches deep, on the 12th Janu- 
ary, after sixteen days growth, with its germ and 
seminal root. 



. 



■ 









4* 










i 



I 



• 









^ 




A&uirL of 2) ant^c Wheat 



ymvn on fofiy)<K?f£52a^gaken up 

fiad not ?j&t 



'A 




\ \ 





A Grain of 
Sown on the, 72 JanZ7834 



o?i tte 7 f Jew ft 




iyrmed its Coronal fiools. 



was in $ris Tticdz ih 



f6£a,vs sown . 




??. jetfowvng . 






Z£c C&jbtzw /^fer 2./lzit^T£ y 



r - ** 






t 






' 

















I 









> 

















































■ 



t 


























X 






/ 












N 














t 



■ 






\ 






I 






' 






■• 
































































♦ I 



* 



.» 






■ 


















* 























1 


















* 



. .. 



: 






■ 



•..., ■ ".-■.: 



■■ 












* r 



> 



31 



* a 



Fig. 2.- — Appearance of a grain of wheat after fifty* 
two days growth, the coronal roots not yet having 
pushed ; a. the origin of the crown from which the 
plant tillers ; b. the pipe of communication, covered 
witTi a membranous sheath ; c. the grain with its se- 
minal roots. 

Fig. 3. — A grain of wheat after sixty days growth, 
just forming its upper set, 



or coronal roots. 



This 



was sown about 3 inches deep, thus the plants having 
been drawn from nature, and being exact in dimen- 



sions, 



show 



process 



the crown of the plant 



beo-inning; to tiller ; b. two coronal roots, an inch 



below the surf; 



pipe of communication to the 



seed, one inch and a half long. 

" In the Spring, when the crown has become suffi- 
" ciently large, it detaches a number of strong fibres, 
" which push themselves obliquely downwards. These 

roots. A small pipe preserves the 



(i 



are the coronal roots, 
communication between them and the seminal 

It makes an essential part of the plant, and 



" roots. 



«t 



i« 



is observed to be longer or shorter, according to 
the depth that the seed has been buried. 



It is re- 



44 markable, however, that the crown is always formed 
44 just within the surface. Its place is the same, 
4i whether the grain has been sown deep or superfi- 
cial. I believe I do not err, when I call this vege- 
table instinct. 



u 



u 
















































* I 










• 












I 
■ 

I 






I 



32 



- 

•* As the increase and fructification of the plant 
" depends upon the vigorous absorbtion of the coronal 
" roots, it is no wonder, that they should fix them- 
44 selves so near the surface, where the soil is always 

44 the richest. 

" From an attention to this circumstance, we are 

44 led to explain the operation of top dressings. In 

" the northern counties, wheat is generally sown late. 

44 When the frost comes, the coronal roots, being 



a 



This 



young, are frequently chilled, 
may, however, be easily prevented, by sowing more 
early, and burying the seed deeper. The seminal 
roots being out of the reach of the frost, will then 



a 



1 



>> 






be enabled to send up nourishment to the 
*' by means of the pipe of communication 

Fig. 4. — Shows a plant of wheat sown superficial. 
a. the crown and roots ; b. the pipe of communica- 
tion ; c, the seminal roots, and capsule of the grain. 

44 Hence, it is obvious, that wheat sown superfi- 
" cially, must be exposed to the severity of the frost, 
" from the shortness of the pipe of communication. 

The plant in that situation, has no benefit from 
44 its double root. On the contrary, when the grain 
44 has been properly covered, the seminal and coronal 
4 * roots are kept at a reasonable distance. The crown, 
44 being well nourished during the winter, sends up 

44 numerous stalks in the spring. On the tillering 



a 



. 



?. 






r 










Q 






■ 
















? 



33 



of the corn, the goodness of the crop principally 



depends 



A field of wheat, dibbled, or sown in equi-distant 



iw 



by the drill plough 



ways 



makes a better 



u 



one 



with the harrow 



In 



a 



u 



appearance than 

the one, the pipe of communication is regularly of 

the same length, but in the other, it is irregular ; 

being either too long or too short 

The elegant wr 



whom I have thus 



gely 



set of 



quoted, says truly, that a noble field of 

here opened to our view ; the double 

thrown out by wheat, shewing clearly that the first 

set, formed from the seed itself, and shooting down- 
wards, seek their nourishment and freshness from 
below, while the upper set, or coronal roots, receive 
theirs from the richer particles of the manure, which 

rise near the surface of the soil, also from top dress- 
ings, and from the influences of the atmosphere. 

This theory appeared so plausible and consonant 
to common sense, that the Author, a few years back, 
was induced to plough in some fine seed of Dantzie 
wheat, about seven or eight inches deep . 

It had been soaked, pickled and limed, and was in 
a rather pulpy, soft state ; the consequence was, that 
being buried too deep, and the winter and spring 
proving cold and wet, a vast quantity of the seed rot- 
ted instead of germinating, and proved a very losing 

crop, much to his regret and mortification. It is of 



' 

















il 






L 













:i . 



I 





















; 






■ 

I 

I 

I 






I 

I 






34 



the utmost importance to avoid running into extremes 
in the prosecution of any new experiment, how plau- 
sible soever it may appear. Had the seed been sown 
at four inches depth, it probably would have all ger- 
minated, or even had it been less soaked, and pickled 



time. But th 



have the 



minal roots at as great a distance from the coronal 
roots, as possible, in order that their nourishment 
should be drawn from opposite sources. 

The medium distance has ever since been followed 
from three to four inches, which appears to answer 
perfectly in this climate. 

It may be well to notice, that nature has in some 
measure pointed out that wheat may be sown quite 
superficial, as self-sown wheat is frequently seen very 
rich, and fine, under which circumstances it may not 
have been buried, a quarter of an inch, even supposing 
the wind, and rain, to have favored its deposition. 

Hence, it may be argued, that wheat does not re- 

■ 

quire to be sown very deep, but that a medium depth, 
sufficient to protect it from frost, so as also to enable 

■ 

its distinct set of roots to seek their food in different 
channels, is the safest practice ; the exact depth being 
a question of local experience, in relation with the 
nature of the soil and climate. 

The extraordinary and valuable propensity of some 
varieties of wheat, to tiller, which others, will by no 

means dp so much, is connected with this chapter. 






/ <■* 



.- ,r 







• 












35 






dry, attainable to all who will devote to its pursuit, 
that industry and enquiry, without which, their art 
is a mere mechanical operation, throwing in a little 



■ 

The average 



seed, and leaving nature to do the rest, 
tillering on that productive variety I have alluded to, 
was fifteen on forty plants, clearly evincing a prolific 
habit which has since been established. To ascertain 

- 

this prolific habit, was one of the great objects I had 
in view. 






One plant, from a single grain, of a downy variety, 

in 1833, threw out 32 tillers; all produced ears, with 
an average of 5o grains to each, or J. 600 grains from 
one ; an enormous produce, which no field cultiva- 
tion could be fairly expected to attain, as it is not the 
extraordinary quantities, which art may produce, ei- 
ther by extreme care, subdivision, and transplantation, 
that should be brought under the consideration of 
farmers; but the fair and legitimate mode of husban- 




















G 




































if 



















i: 

























I 



I 












i 




<*■ 



CHAPTER VI 



ON THE NECESSITY OF PRESERVING CROPS PURE 



Some corn factors have declared that it will be im- 
possible to grow wheat in this country, of such fine- 
ness, whiteness, and beauty, as is raised in the Polish 
provinces ofVolhynia, and Sandomir; unquestiona- 
bly, if success should attend the British husbandmen in 
discovering a variety, as plump, white and thin-skin- 



ned 



the celebrated 



mall portion of 



which, forms the precious part of that which is im- 
ported under the name of " high mixed," it might 
prove an interference with their line of business ; as 
the English baker would then look to the English 
farmer, for the most valuable meal he requires. 
In almost every branch of Horticulture, or Flori- 



culture, science, to meet the 



f luxury, has 



succeeded in triumphing over the impediments op- 
posed to it by climate and distance. The pine, the 
peach, and melon, are grown in equal, nay some 
assert, in greater perfection in England, than the in- 
digenous fruit ; and the dahlia, geranium, and lily 
tribes, are more varied than in their native soils, and 
by seedlings are naturalised to ours. 


















37 



These fruits and flowers are all classed, and named ; 
so are apples, pears, gooseberries, and a multitude of 



other fruits. The " Coccagee 



y* 



or " Siberian bitter 
3 the best for cider. 



and 



may be recommended as 

good ciderist would think of mixing every 



pple of every 



pe and unripe, for his 



but makes his selections from pure 



9 



whose pi 



perties and qualities are known. Strange that the 
same attention to selection and purity, has been over- 
looked in that product which is the chief sustenance 
and comfort of the human race. 



remains to 



which 



grow in this climate, without becoming flinty 

; and if they cannot be obtained of 



thick-skinned ; ai 

rieties from abroad, they may be got from seedlings 

at home. 

The Gracious Author of all things, may have boun- 
teously spread and multiplied this precious plant, for 
the very purpose of leading men to seek out, and 
discover those sorts, which are adapted for their re- 
spective climates ; and patient research only, may be 



quired 



May not some intelligent 



husbandman in Volhy ilia, perhaps only a shrewd prac- 
tical fanner, have discovered one sort, which exactly 
suits its climate, as also the market it is intended for • 
and without having written a treatise on the subject^ 
may he not have distributed it as a precious boon to 
his countrymen 4 ? Is any corn factor prepared to say, 













































i 












* 










' 







'J 






I 









1 









I 



I 












38 



that all the wheat grown in Volhynia, and Sandomir, 
is plump and perfect ? That no varieties are grown 
there, which may appear coarse, lean, or shrivelled ? 
Not having been there, I am unable to speak from 
personal experience ; but evidence, as far as exami- 
nation goes, and hearsay, lead one to believe that 
there, as well as elsewhere, seasons affect wheat, and 
deteriorate it, both in its appearance and intrinsic 

value. 

Hence, it is confidently assumed, that it only re- 






to be ascertained which 



the best British 



wheats 



order to secure them of British g 



from the climates of England, Ireland and Scotland, 
as pure, plump, and thin-skinned, as the choicest 
"high mixed." 

I have shewn the great productiveness of some 
sorts. I have often found, among some of the Dant- 



zic white wheat, a coarse red thick-skinned sort, 
which]in the ear was precisely similar in appearance 
to the proper one to be cultivated ; even so similar, 
as to be undistinguishable from it, when viewed by 
Professor La Gasca and myself, through a magnifying 



S 



lass ; it was only on examining the grain 



that the 



inferiority of one of the two was perceivable : there- 
fore, where seed is not originally procured pure, it 
should be selected, and all the grains of a different 
shade from the approved sort, removed ; or the mix- 
ture and deterioration of a crop might be such, as to 



H 











• 




lead a farmer to wonder, how it could thus have de 
generated, as it is termed, in the short space of 



season or two, in 



defiance of the expense he may 



have incurred, or of his care and dilig 



Two years 



a farmer requested me 



pure crop, there was no mixture in it ! In merely 
walking round the crop, which, in fact, was both pure 
and fine, in common parlance ; I selected from it ten 
varieties ; had I gone into it, ten more would proba- 

A crop of this variety, the 



bly have been found. 
Duck's Bill, then originally procured from Kiel, in 
the Baltic, which I saw this year as a second year's 
produce, is so intermixed, as almost to make it diffi- 
cult to pronounce what variety it is intended for. 
The Duck's Bill to which I allude, is very subject 









■jflP 



■ 



shake out from the ear, if 



all 



ripe 



and 



has proved to be only fit for making pastrj 






i 



for the purpose of makin 



household 



bread : hence the necessity of not only having wheat 

crops pure, but of knowing their particular qualities 

and properties. 































<- 






ffl 



















'■ t\ 











CHAPTER VII. 



ON MEAL AND BREAD, 












I Ik* 

IB 













I 












I 






The main object of farmers has been, merely to grow 
the largest possible crop of wheat, whereas the true 
aim of corn growers should be, to produce the largest 
quantity of meal or flour. It is to the real nutriment 
we should look — to those transparent, thin-skinned 
wheats, which are enveloped in so fine a husk or coat, 
or in so little bran, and contain so much meal, that 
when compared with the coarse red wheats, one is 



aim 



surpr 



d the pL 



should bear the same 



name ; some of these last having a large portion of 
thick, coarse bran, with dark, coarse-looking flour, 
affording much less bread than the former varieties, 
and that of an inferior quality. 

Some of these coarser descriptions of flour, are 
prepared for sale by being mixed with potato flour, 
or other compounds, to make up that adulterated 
bread which is often met with in cities. I have known 
bread, made from a judicious admixture of winter and 
spring wheats, to preserve a wholesome moisture, and 
to continue of good flavour for eight or ten days, 

whereas most London bread thus kept, would have 



w 









41 

become so dry as to be scarcely eatable, perhaps even 

mouldy. 

The difference of the nature and property of meal 

produced from various wheats, is such, that it should 
be clearly made known, and established, in order to 
enable millers to name the portion of dry light flour, 
or the portion of flour of a moist nature, required ; 
or that the combination of two, or more sorts, would 

exactly suit their purpose. 

The growers should supply the millers with wheat 
of known qualities, and the millers form the mixtures 



might de 



It will be recollected, that 



order to ascertain 



the relative specific 



ity of each variety of 



the number of grains were noted that exactly weighed 



pi 



pag 



e 



19 



Such was their differenc 



ly required fourteen_grains of one sort, of my 



own growth, to 



gh a scruple, whereas it took 



forty-two of a sample from the Baltic, which, pro 



babTy, must have 



sprouted. It is i 

mode of ascertaining which 



been kiln-dried, as not o 
ssumed that this may be 



good 



most meal 



it appears to be consonant to reason, that the heaviest 
grains should generally contain the greatest portion 
of farina, though I am yet unprepared to say posi- 
tively that the latter must be the finest, or whitest. 

attempt to ascertain the comparative weight 

of many varieties, by merely weighing them, led me 




• 



I 






1 1 









'.■ 









tli 











I 















'I 













I 




















42 



■ 



to prosecute my researches from the straw, and grain, 
on to the meal itself, in order to be fully satisfied 
which of the fourteen sorts under experiment, con- 
tained the greatest portion of meal or flour. 

Hence, I hoped to ascertain, if the most productive 
sort in grain, should also prove the most farinaceous ; 
a great, and important desideratum. I am truly 
happy to say that such was almost the result. I 
shall indicate how much further it requires to be 
prosecuted, to establish it. 

The mode I adopted, was to strike a measure full 
of each sort of wheat, which was then ground by my- 
self, in a small mill. The scale of weights used, was 
sixty-four grains apothecaries weight, equal to one 
gross, and eight gross, equal to one ounce, of sixteen 
to the pound. 

* 

It will be seen, by referring to the table, that a 

measure of No. 1 , or Jersey Dantzic wheat, weighed 
one ounce, five gross, and twenty-eight grains ; this 
produced one ounce and forty-two grains of flour, 
with only four gross and twenty-four grains of bran ; 
whereas, the most inferior variety, or that, which 

■ 

produced most bran and least meal, from the same 
measure, produced only six gross,three grains of flour, 
and six gross, thirty-seven grains of bran — in fact, 
more bran than flour. This, however, is not a con- 
clusive experiment to determine the growth of wheat 

on an extensive scale, as no one, it is hoped, has yet 



k 













43 

% 

had the misfortune to grow a pure crop of a very bad 
unproductive sort. But, if such were the fact, the 

meal, in addition to the 



fi 



difference in the produce of meal, in 
excess in the produce of grain, of the superi 
the inferior variety, would, if carried over t 
millions of acres employed in the cultivation of corn 
in the United Kingdom, make the quantity absolutely 

enormous. 

v Any person may, by examining the tables, find out 



the difference of produce in any two of the sorts, or 
the superiority of any one good 
thirteen sorts, which, tog! 



ther, mak 



p a mix ore 



\ 



- t 



■ - 



to be found in most fields ; by which he may sati* 
himself as to the positive advantage of estab] ; bit 
which is the variety of wheat best sui 1 to j o 
particular locality. 



The experiments mad 
led to the following res 



as describ 1 i ha\ 



. 



the hree f 



71L- 



• - -, -.1 






poa-as 



V G;>. 



It, del vent 



varieties of my own growth 

From a downy or hoary i 
of flour, with half a pint of yeast, five quarts and 
pint of water, and one oun 
pounds of beautiful light, white bread. 

From a Dantzic wheat flour, t! e same q 
with the same proportic of yeast, salt, and 
made twenty-four pounds 
bread, similar to French 



m "i 






. ol 






• 

■ 






1 



The same weight of spring 

ty-four pounds of inferior, i o 









; > 













































































I 






\ 









I i 













































44 



i he same weight of Rostock and Dantzic flour, 
from wheat grown in the Baltic, made only twenty- 
three pounds of bread, very light and good, but not 
so white by many shades, or well flavoured, as that 



made 



from the two first varieties of home-growth. 



These experiments having been made in my own 



presence, may be relied on. The dough was worked in 



the French mode, not pushed down, turned and work- 
ed with closed hands, but drawn up into lon«* strings 



and repeatedly lifted, in order to expose it to the ac- 

w 

tion of the air as much as possible, which tends great- 
ly to improve the bread, by rendering it more light 
and easy of digestion. 

The superiority of the meal of the hoary variety of 
wheat, which' furnished three pounds more bread on 
a baking of eighteen pounds of flour, or an increase 

of one sixth, over the Dantzic and Rostock, which 
was also a very fine sample of flour, is thus clearly 

established. 

It is said at the article " Baking," in the 2nd 

volume of the Encyclopedia Britannica, "that a sack 

of flour, weighing 280 lbs., and containing five bu- 



shels, is supposed capable of being baked into eighty 



loaves, in the Act of Parliament regulating th 



e assize 



upon bread. According to this estimate, one-fifth 
of the loaf consists of water and salt, the remaining 
four-fifths of flour- But the fact is, that the number 
of quartern loaves that can be made from a sack of 

flour, depends entirely upon the goodness of that 









' ■ 
















45 



article. Good flour requires more water than bad 



d old fl 



than new. Sometime 



hty 



rhty-three, or even eighty-six loaves, may b 
t of a sack; sometimes, scarcely eighty." 
Now, assuming these data 



o 



made 






to b 



the re^ 



suits I have < 

No. 8, will afford fl 
quartern loaves from 



btained, prove that the hoary wh 



53 f 

C&L 



ill make 






tv -three 



being; a superiority of 



ach sack, taking the medium numt 



^er 



;hty 



and this, b 



9 



the pure h 



without adul- 
un mixed with 



um to whiten it, or potato 



This superiority 



be it further observed 



good quality of flour, not over that of some spring 
wheat, or inferior red wheat, 
indicate hereafter. 



both of which I shall 













I t 



i 1 

































- ; 



< 















































1 J! 


































CHAPTER VIII. 



ON MANURE FOR WHEAT. 



The effect of different manures on wheat, is very 



markable : it will 



be necessary 



to say mu 
almost exhausted, having- 



the subject, as it is 
fully treated by far more able pens ; but having made 
some experiments on the subject, I may be excused 
from publishing their results. 

I confine my observations to those manures, which 
are within the reach of most farmers, with one or two 



exceptions, 



Stable manure will, in ordinary good soils, have 

the effect of causing the plants to tiller much, or to 
make straw and grass ; thereby diminishing the pro- 
duce in grain and meal considerably. 

Liquid manure, one-third stable drainings, and 
two-thirds water, which I caused to be poured once, 



h 



th 



tillering, mad 



grow rank and coarse, the grain of every variety of 
wheat was dark and thick-skinned, hence, containing 
less meal. The same quantity and mixture of liquid 
manure, poured a second time over another portion 
of wheat, caused it to grow so rank and full of leaves, 






~^F 






1 












47 



ra ther than straw, that only a few of the plants pro- 
duced ears of wheat, some having rnn up into sharp 
points, with merely the mdiments of ears indicated 
The few ears that produced corn, 



soft 



displayed 
form7ha7dly in the shape of meal, of a doughy 

idently unfit for the food of man 



besides, some of them were smutty 



Thus, an over 



pplication 



of manure, excellent, when judiciously 



pplied, becomes a poison, pr 



the same 



manner, 



the human 



constitution, a surfeit is 



usually the parent of some disease. 

The wheat on either side, of these experiment, 
which had only been manured with the ashes of Keif 



or Sea-weed, was healthy, products 



and far 



the highest d 



DUS 111 Uie illgiicac v^ B > — 

My attention, was particularly called to the 



pr 



of 




an 



old and 



per application 

enced farmer, who considered Kelp or the ashes of 

Rock Sea-weed , that which is cut; the best of 
I am convinced by subsequent experience, that two 

three pounds worth of it, per acre, spread at the pr 



per period, about 



two months befor 



ould always more than repay itself. 
It attracts moisture from the atmosphere, it i 
ally increases the volume of the grain and fin 



of the sampl 



but does not add to the weight of th 



though rendering it whiter 



o 



nd moi 



cr to cattle. It causes the wheat 






f I 



> 



: 






























a 
























II 

















. 






















healthy appearance, and 
after a crop of potatoes 



m excellent application 
parsnips, both of which 



i 



quire land to be richly dressed with stable or other 
rong manures, and has not the effect of decompo- 
ag them, as lime does. 
It is also destructive to insects, and to their < 



Inch 



the soil 



f- 






worms and wire-worms from 



come to 
on, in a 



surface and di 



forces the 
lurking pi 



th 



particularly when laid 



quantity than I hav 



farmers being in the habit of putting on double 
treble the quantity above stated— but I believe 



out havi 



produced 



tionably larger crops 



from inferior land ; though it has been asserted 



its effect is 



perman 



appa 



op 



» 



the 
poss 



I am inclined to believe, that paring and burnii 
old ley, will almost produce an equally good ef- 

for, although 



feet, where the land is suited for it 



sh 



es 



y 



be of 



quality 



peculiar to K 



11, the much greater portion of ashes, that can by 
s means be spread on the land, may make amends 
quantity, for quality. 



addit 



circumstance in favour of 



db 



D 



is, that all the seeds of 






ob 



f 



hich lie concealed 



thereby destroy ec 

repeated ploughin 



m 



ffe 



the 
tha 



Lirf, are 
by any 









'^r 



*<** V r 







49 



The careful experience of five years on th 



lias 



need me of the propriety of this practice 



11 y 



pecia 



on 



ground 



fested 



.th 



couch, or knot g 



From three acres of land that 



had bee 



pare 



and bur 



led, which produced five 
hundred and forty single horse loads of ashes, I ob- 
tained a very heavy crop of Turnips — the following 
year I raised ninety-one thousand pounds of Potatoes ; 
and, by an application of about forty-five bushels of 
lime per acre, I have since reaped fifty-one imperial 
bushels of beautiful wheat per acre ; the straw, also, 
was of very fine growth, five feet high, and exceed- 
ingly white and bright. 

Kelp ashes should lay on 
month or two previous to 
weaken their caustic 



the surface of the 






time, in order 



caustic power, or they are otherw 

pt to burn the young and tender shoots of the co 
s well as the larvae of insects ; but, by laying a c 

th of time on the surface exposed to the ; 

tion of the atmosphere, or perhaps, what would 

better practice, merely lightly turned into the s< 

they become eminently beneficial. 

I am so partial to the use of ashes, 



& 



that I should 



mmend those who have large woods or 



for 






to employ women and children to collect the dry 
and broken boughs, and under shrubs, to be burned 
for the sake of the ashes ; which would be found 
nearly equal to those of sea-weed, and could thus 










1 




1 

H 
H 

| 






! 





































r^v^-. ^ 
















] 






I 






































50 



be procured at a much cheap 



th 



t> 



e 



f 



b 



what 



■& 



a 



a most valuable 



besides gaining 
now wasted, or 
permanent ma- 



nure, perfectly free from weeds, and destructive to 

insects and worms. 

Ashes are further beneficial, inasmuch as they at- 
tract the moisture from fogs and dews, and retain it 
a considerable length of time, 

* 

Lime is so well understood as a manure for wheat, 
that it would be a mere waste of time to say more on 
the subject, than as far as my own experience goes ; 
it appears to impart a greater degree of whiteness to 
the Straw than any other manure. Its other excel- 
lent qualities of absorbing moisture from the Atmos- 
phere in dry w r eather, on light or gravelly soils, and in- 
creasing the weight of the grain, are well understood ; 



it is to be lamented that some general rule for its 
application is not made known, as, in the best books 
I have consulted on the subject, it varies in the extra- 
ordinary proportion from fifty-six to five hundred 
bushels per acre, which last appears to me to be an 

i 

absurd quantity. 

I have found it to answer perfectly at the rate of 
Forty or Fifty bushels an Acre on a good loam, and 
I should apprehend that double that quantity ought 
to be sufficient for the poorest land ; unless it be to 
destroy moss, when a still larger top dressing is re- 
quired, which, if well harrowed in, does it effectually. 





51 



Th 



commixture of turf and lime, 1 



if 



after 



ploughed in, in turn becomes itself, a manure for the 
very soil the turf previously rendered barren. 



S 



is said to be 



top dressing 



I 



have tried it but once, without having perceived the 
advantageous results that are said to be derivable 
from it, it is only in the environs of towns, or vil- 



\ 













n 



that it can be obtained in sufficient quantity 






be available to a large farmer. 



I 

I 









i 



















i 


































































CHAPTER IX 



ON A CHANGE AND CHOICE OF SEED. 



It is generally believed that an occasional, some 



say 



a frequent, change of seed 



us indispensable ; 

otherwise, the plant soon becoming familiarised to 

the soil, loathes it, as it were, and consequently di- 
minishes in produce. I am strongly inclined to be- 
lieve, that this is an erroneous idea ; partly owing, 









not only to negligence in the selection of seed, from 
the finest of a crop, but also to a want of attention in 
the arrangement of succession, which I have before 
spoken of. 

It is perfectly true, that all plants become tired of 

one soil, and of one manure, they, like the human 



race, have their appetites and loathings, and a person 
that would be forced constantly to eat the same sort 

* 

of food, would not only infallibly sicken of it, but 

* 

most likely suffer in his health. So it is, with the 



f wheat 



y other pi 



The best 




cultivator of Lucerne I have ever known, whose 
practice extended over forty years experience, as- 
sured me, that until he adopted the method of giving 
it fresh food yearly, he never made it produce as 
e had since done. One year, it was dressed with 










r 




3 



depomposed manure 
third. wtth salt ; and 



th 



next, wi 



th 



th 



fourth, with 



I have applied this principle to wheat— that which 



g 






becomes 



land, manured from the mixon, oi 

d for land prepared with lime, th 



->•*-* 






becomes seed for land dressed 
land dressed with mix< 



ith ash 



d manu 



am 



then 
1 so 



for 



on 



varying the food as much as possible, hen 
<^ood variety every chance of finding a r 



aeh 



It 



b 



tern could not be continued on a larger form, where 

;at come into rota- 



five or six hundred acres of wh 



that may 






but 



e*> 



tie address, and judgment, even on such a scale, by 



jud 



subord 



uld enabl 



farmer to 



urmount the difficulty, as fifty acres kept 



rota 



tion, 



such a farm, solely tor seed corn, even at 



thirty bushels the acre, would be th 



d quan 



tity. 



So 



farm, where only fifty 




wheat would be cultivated, five acres skilfully managed 
in the same way, might prevent the deterioration, or 
deo-enerating of a variety suited to the soil and cli- 



mate. 



It is sometimes difficult to replace 



a good 



and suitable variety, though it may have degenerated 

as it is called. 

Columella was so aware of the importance cf pro- 
curing the choicest seed, that he observes, " I have 

*< this further direction to give, that when the corns 























































• 















I 



































! 







54 



" are cut down, and brought into the threshing ffoor. 
" we should even then think of making provision of 

* 

" seed, for the future seed time ; for this is what 
'* Celsus says, where the corn and crop is but small, 
" we must prick out all the best ears of corn, and,o/' 



" them, lay up our seed separately by itself. On the 
** other hand, when we shall have a more plentiful 
'* harvest than ordinary, and a larger grain, whatever 
" part of it is thrashed out, must be cleansed with 
44 the sieve ; and that part of it which, because of its 

" weight and bulk, subsides, and falls to the bottom 

" of the sieve, must always be reserved for seed ; for 
" this is of very great advantage, because, unless 
" such care be taken, corns degenerate, though more 
" quickly indeed in moist places, yet they do so also 
" in such as are dry." 

This ancient, but most intelligent, and accomplish- 

ed farmer, and writer, was thus fully aware of the 
importance of selecting the finest, and choicest wheat 
for seed, evidently aware also, from the circumstance 
of his alluding to the heaviest wheat, sinking to the 
bottom of the sieve, that the most farinaceous wheat, 
was the most nutritious, and best fitted, for the pur- 
pose of nourishing the young plant, in its embryo 
state. Nor can there be a doubt, but that the most 
plump, well grown, and perfectly ripe wheat, is the 
fittest for seed. 



It has frequently puzzled me much to 



1 ma gi ne 



5 




















00 



upon what principle, some writers have recommended 
for seed, a sort of inferior grain, the refuse of a crop, 



best had been sent to the mar 



ow 



a principle so entirely contrary to the whole economy 
of nature, which usually produces the finest progeny, 
from the healthiest, and most robust parents, the same 
being improved, or 



weakened, in proportion to pro 



per 



mproper 



and 



ould for a 
but it was 
of sickly 



tent obtain, it is difficult 

merely argued, that because a 
seed was sown, and that a portion of it grew, and pro- 
duced a fair crop, it might be considered safe practice. 

Even from the finest seed after five years of experi- 
ments, I am persuaded that for a crop one-tenth, of the 
best grain perishes, or is destroyed by birds, mice, or 
insects ; but from some sorts which looked sickly, and 
were purposely tried, sown singly, grain by grain 
in 1833, I found that a liver coloured variety, which 
from the appearance of the ear, promised to be highly 
productive, though the grains 
three grains out of seventy tw 

to discard it as 



died 



hich induced 



me 



beino; too delicate 



being poor, and 

prepared 



lean, though grown 



ts grains 
rich, and 



1. Another variety, also from 
fed wheat, lost forty nine grains, out of sixty 
A sample of Golden drop, which I got at Mark 



bly 



had seven varieties in a hand 



ful and thirty four of these died, out of seventy 



i 













IV 




















. 


















































































6 




rams. 



Whereas from other healthy plump orains 
of several varieties, only nine, ten, and twelve died 
out of seventy two grains of each variety. 

Columella, also, entertained an idea regarding the 
degenerating of wheats which is still entertained by 

modern farmers, quite erroneously in my opinion * 
the causes of which according to my view of the 
question will be explained in the succeeding chapter. 
In 1834 the " Belle Vue Talavera," was so well 
grown and plump, that of three rows of seventy two 
grains each, not one died ; of No. 1 Dantzic, only 



three to four, in three rows of th 



e same number ; 



and of No. 2, " Album Densum" only eight, from 

the same number died. 

From one hundred and forty four grains, of a new 
white spring wheat, a very rare, hardy, and promisin 
variety, only ten died. Hence with both farinaceor 

and productive habits, I think I am also combinin 

or fifty 



& 



hardy qualities, selected from among fort 



& 



i 



which habits and 



q 



I am 



more 



quainted with, as far as regards this climate 



My general observations lead 



believe, th 



where wheat 



ppears to 



lookin 



grow 



lean 



an 



d 



o 



should be discarded from th 



P 



e 



after a fair 



say, aft 



ty 



third vear, as th 



d 



miiiht b 



& 



f 



th 



/ 

f being naturalised to th 



The fir 



should be made fro 



seed of the 



i 

















fl 



57 






best quality, if this fails after the third year, it evi- 
dently is unsuited to the soil and climate, and a new 
sort should be introduced. 

It must be obvious, that lean and shrivelled wheat, 
is not so likely to nourish the young; plant just start- 

3 state into life, with a mere 



ino- from its embryo 
miserable skin of a parent 



upon 



the line 



rich 
farii 



be i 
full 



with 



a 



plump 



1 



und 



f meal 



As well might a 



farmer expect to have a fine fat skipping calf, from 
poor lean Cow, fed or rather starved, on 



Dartmoor 



hea th . 









i 









1 1 









■ 





















I 




































■: 



































CHAPTER X 



o 



ON THE TENDENCY OF WHEAT TO DEGENERATE 



This term ** degenerate," is in common use among 



farmers, from a want of having duly reflected on the 

subject, and accepting for truth, the traditions or 
sayings, which become proverbial from father to son. 
If I rightly understand the signification of the 
term, it should mean, that the wheat, has changed its 
nature, it has become of an inferior quality, less 



M_ 



, ■ 



productive, and less suited to the soil than when ori- 









ginally sown. Now, having shewn the very consi- 
derable difference of produce in various varieties, 
some producing nearly double what others do; it 
stands to reason that if a farmer procured, what he 
used to consider a fine sample, apparently tolerably 
pure — and that a few grains, of a productive, but 
coarse sort, were intermixed with it, say for the sake 
of argument, fifty grains in a bushel, on the average, 

that this variety produced sixty grains to the ear, 
with an average of eight tillers to each grain ; here 
would be, four hundred and eighty grains, the pro- 
duce of one single ear, multiplied by the fifty grains 
in the bushel, or 24,000 grains in the produce of each 
bushel of an inferior sort, in the crop, the following 












\ 



























59 







*K 



y 



The second, or third year, if careful attention 
omitted in the selection of the seed, from the 






.... 



■■ 






o-inal sort meant to be produced, the crop would 

t3 



be thus almost changed, not degenerated : it would be 



■- *- 1 



■ 




no 



fault of the superior sort first imported, but 



holly the consequence of neglect in not having 



preserved it pure 
main the same, as 



forth 



e 



ginal sort would 



ds quality, but diminished 



quantity. So it will be in a g 



f thes 



or less pro- 

that lurk in 



portion, with each I 

a good crop, which they deteriorate in proportion, to 

their inferiority, either, in point of produce of meal, 

This is the case, even among the careful 
lections which I have made, for in the operations of 

by washing, 

» corn is of 



or straw. 




thrashing, winnowing, or preparin 

or pickling ; with all the care imaginabl 



small bulk, that some stray grains, if several 



& 



farm, will invariably lurk, and 



& 



the most pure crop— this I hold 



nder such circum 



be almost inevitable, but where only one 
good, and suitable sorts, are cultivated 



farm, mixtures ought to disappear altogethe 

* 

the stock continue pure, as long as proper 



on a 
and 



is 



paid 



This should be done by methodical 



gement ; first, by seeing the seed corn intended 



sow down an acre or two, 



future stock for a 



large farm, carefully selected by hand, if necessary. 
That sown by a drill machine, with a double distance 



K 












■ 



; ; 






' 
















i 















■ 















































60 



between each sowing of the drill, to enable a care- 
ful person, to reach from each side to the middle of 
the drill, when the wheat is ripening, to cut off any 
ears foreign to the crop. A guinea expended in ex- 
tra labour in this manner, would amply repay the 

farmer, in the future beauty, and produce of his crop. 

When the sheaves are tied I further send a person 

round them, to see 

excluded from it. 

All this may appear discouraging, but what success 
is to be obtained in this, or any other profession, (for 
I do not hesitate to call farming both a science and a 
profession,) without mental application, added to the 
" sweat of the brow" in order to learn how to culti- 
vate the soil with proper skill. 



if all strangers to the 



crop 



are 



A very good farmer in the Lothians 



me 





of wheat of his own growth— it had been 




intended for a white wheat, and was called so, but 

■ 

most of the white grains were ill grown and poor, 
whereas, a few grains of a red variety, mixed in the 
sample were very plump and farinaceous, evidently 
marking that the degenerated or red sort as it pro- 
bably was considered, was that, which would have 
ensured a heavy, well ripened, and remunerating crop. 
I trust that the growing of seed corn, for parti- 
cular localities, may become a distinct branch of the 
Agricultural profession. I do not feel envious of 
those admirable establishments the nursery, gardens 



; 












*■ 
















) 



I 



61 



f 



01 t 



Kingdom, which hourly clothe the face of 



j 



with new b 



refresh it 



ith 



del 



the result of close, and scientific 



gation, extracting 



like bees, sweets from every 



climate under the Sun 



d 




them 



foreign to many of their habits— yet I do hope 
species of nurseries for wheat, established 



all parts of the Empire, where it 
hat sorts of wheat are best suited for 



will be kn 



di 



wheth 



f clay 



me 



ther 



bases 



Itm 



ly stand 



white wheat which 



o 



on, that the fine 
rich fertile loam, 



bly 



of moisture, can not be 



per 



be sown 



poor bl 



pro 



soil, such as 



Bagshot heath, which of itself is incapable of 
ins;, or attracting moisture. 



B 



be 



d. that if 



ty, equally productiv 



ct 



s to quantity, though 



P 



ferinaceous, could be grown on such a 



d oreatly to be desired, and of 



much national imp 



An observation which I made 



e 



ads me to b 



i 



that such will be the result. In a piece of land , which 
had been ill prepared, and was poor and out of condi- 
tion a crop of white wheat had been sown ; it scarcely 



D 



o-rew three feet in height 

f fine, 



but 



o 



tall, rich brown wheat, with a large round 



i 






! 












i 






n 


















































I 



62 



but rather 
ductive va 



g 



It proved a highly 



Had I happened 



pro 
t th< 



field, with all such, instead, of having only had twenty 

bushels per acre, I should probably have reaped forty. 

Surely the attainment of such results, ought to be 



matter of 
ie national 



f increasing 



i. It is not my object ho we 
political economy, but I sh 



hesitate to point 



what 



PP 



to 



me 



be 



legitimate, and certain mode, of augmenting the ca- 






pital of the Kingdom, by the means of husbandry, 
now in so depreciated a state. 

The importance of the exact adaptation of plants, 
or their varieties to particular soils, has lately been 
hinted at, in other terms it is true, by a Medical Pro- 
fessor of great talent, and research ; who has traced 
the origin of the Cholera in India, to improper food 
or to the use of ill grown and vitiated rice. There 
can be no doubt, that if wheat unsuited to a particular 
soil be sown, the chances are, that it will not be pro- 
perly ripened, especially if in a moist or northern 
climate, where September or October weather may 
catch it ; under such circumstances, the crop must be 
reaped, thrashed out, and perhaps sold at a low rate, 
at all events some body must eat it, so that an unripe, 
impure, deteriorated aliment is circulated, to the 
injury of some portion of society ; had the seed 

been such as suited the soil, the contrary might be ex- 



t 



I 









■ 






















I f 






l i 









' 



63 






pected : a well ripened crop, enabling the farmer to pay 
rent • and a wholesome nutriment being brought 



his 



the market 



Ten or Twelve years ago, a very 



beautiful looking crop was sacrificed in th 



» 



manner 



vantages 



It was about the period, that a good deal 
m and circulated, respecting the great ad- 
to be derived, from cutting wheat, while 

■ 

means of consi • 



the grain was not fully ripened, as a 
derably increasing the quantity of meal 



It was therefore reap 



in an 



m 



5 



while the thumb nail could be pressed through the 

.... ^„ — -equence was, that it shrivelled, and I 

imagine never dried, for when it was ground into 




meal, and prepared for bakin 



& 



the dough would 



not rise, 



and the bread it produced was so heavy 



(absolutely lead-like, and indigestible,) 



that 



unfit for ordinary human 
whole crop was given to the pi 
It will not answer to run into 

* 



machs, and nearly the 



ing, all b- & 



should deviate from the 



farm- 
usual 



practice with caution, and commence with 
periments, which when established to be < 
principles, can be extended with safety. 



ex- 



correct 












1 1 







































■ 









CHAPTER XI. 



i» 



ON THE DISPOSITION OF WHEAT, TO SPORT, 











I 



Having doubted the general tendency of wheat to 
degenerate, I will now endeavour to shew how such 

careful observation. 



\ 



an accident may occur. From 
it appears that some varieties if sown the same day, 
differ in their period of flowering, many days : even 
ten or twelve intervening. Hence a farmer who 
might be desirous of cultivating two or three sorts 
on his farm, by attending to this circumstance, would 
scarcely stand a chance of intermixing his crop : as 
fecundation could only take place at the time, that 

each variety blooms. 



He might further increase th 



e 



diff. 



erence of the 



period, by sowing the earliest kind on the warmest 
exposition. Where the varieties flowered at the 
same period, there would certainly be danger of al- 
teration in a future cro 




The knowledge of the 



period of blooming of every variety should there 
fore become a science. 



It is very 



dinary that some sub 



(they should be called, )have a predisposition to sport 



to alter their appear 



A fine red sort No. 7 



















•' 






65 

in the original experiment, (see the first table,) 
sown with the others, pure apparently, but tc 
great surprise, even to that of Professor La G; 



my 



wh 



o 



witnessed the whole arrangement of it, and 



classed 



himself. 



of three nun 

. .-. ...-■ :- ■■■- 



which 



dred and fifty ears, the produce of forty six grains, 

there were two hundred of the original 

were a red compact hoary or velvetty kind, twentyjms 

ears of 
appearanc 



and forty three smooth chaffed whit 



■ 



ears. 



It might be conjectured that 



the 



t> 



or 



having been 



discovered in a field of 



parent ear, 

mixed white corn, .had been impregnated by the pol- 
len of four different sorts of wheat, which the 
peculiar conformation of an ear of wheat might 



admit 



Professor La Gasca classed the original 



edling 



Another instance of this propensity to sport, 
I found in a Kentish downy seedling of an unusually 
square compact form, bearing a fine white plump 



round grain 
it appeared 
the wind we 



I was anxious to propagate this, as 



and compact 



in 



form, that 



likely to have much power 



it was accordingly sown in 1833, but I had the mor- 
tification to find, that it produced a great number of 



X 



th red, eighty six of a whitish downy 3 



f 



smooth 



the 



ppearance of the 



though there was little differ 

o-rain : I therefore 



that 



produce aside, and tried to raise it from a single 


















' 
























































66 



to 



tin in 1834, but fr6m 72 grains, whereof 13 died 
ht ears were of a smooth sort, so that I considered 









The 



rigible, and have withdrawn it as a subvariety, 

itly liable to change. 

Talavera, flowering much earlier than any 
other, is sure to continue pure, unless stray grains 
happen to be accidentally mixed with it. No. 1 , which 
I call Jersey Dantzic, flowers ten days later, and is 
very little disposed to change ; I suspect, the taller 
wheats are not liable to be impregnated, by the 



shorter sorts, but the 



be the 



It 



is 



of consequence therefore to endeavour to keep all 
those varieties, which are found to answer the pur- 
pose required, as far apart from each other as 
possible. 



One sort that I grew close to some others 



the 



t 

course of experiments, so far from having any affi- 
nity for them, actually exhibited a sort of dislike or 



shrinking', from some of its neighbours ; it occurred 



» 




in a very rare sort, of spring wheat, bearing white 



g 



(most spring wheats bearing liver coloured 



wheat 



dark grains) this absolutely took a curve, eve 
trary to the prevailing winds, from a winter 
planted fourteen inches to its left, and bent towards 
some rows of spring wheat which were on its right, 
this last, another variety, showing no predilection, or 



dislike, towards either of 



g 



hbo 



Hence I 



am led to imagine, that from some unknown deli 















V 











^^ 









) 






pure crops 



besides attaining anoth 



essen 



tial object, that of having flour of a moist nature, 
from the spring wheat, to mix with the dryer flour 
of the winter variety. 




67 

cacy of habit, it loathed as it were the neighbour- 
hood of the winter wheat, and leaned towards its 
summer neighbour. This was the more remarkable 
as the periods of flowering of the summer and winter 
wheats, were not the same. I therefore conclude, 
spring wheat may be sown with perfect safety by the 

side of winter wheat, without any fear of inter- 
mixture. 

I hold it to be of paramount importance, to ascer- 
tain, and keep a note of the period of flowering of ^ 

■ 

each variety to be cultivated, on extensive farms, 
which will tend more to the keeping up a pure sort 
than any other method, care being taken also to 

cause the barn to be well swept, as each sort is finally 
disposed of. 

It may be of no small importance, to be able to 
sow spring and winter wheats at the same time, for 
it must be clearly understood that many spring 

ft 

wheats will stand the winter, as well as winter 
wheats, and as they would then invariably flower at 
different periods, it would be a certain mode of en- 





















1 












L 







i 





























































CHAPTER XII 



ON THE EARLY HABITS OF SOME VARIETIES 



It has long been the practice with intelligent far- 
mers, to procure seed wheat from warmer climates, 
especially those in the North, to whom it is impor- 
tant to obtain seed that may ripen a fortnight earlier 
than that of home growth. 

The chances are, that such wheat having the best 
and warmest weather to ripen in, will have attained 
its full state of maturity, hence not only be the most 
productive in farina, but also the fittest for seed. 

I have had occasion, this season, to satisfy myself 
by observation of the excellence of such practice 
through the kindness of the late Secretary to the 
Devon and Cornwall Horticultural Society, Mr. 
Hamilton, I was enabled to sow seven grains of the 
Victoria wheat grown on Dartmoor heath — they were 
very poor and lean, however five of them grew, 
throve and ripened among my select varieties. They 
were sown on the 10th of November, in order to 
compare the produce and volume of their grain, with 
some of the same sort, which were to be sown on the 
29th of March following — they rose on the seventeenth 
day, were in ear on the first of June, were in flower 

on the tenth, and were ripe on the 23d of July. 



'. 



\ 














I 



■■) 






69 



Those sown on the 29th of March were on a light 

V 

soil in a warm exposition, they came into ear on the 
19th of June, flowered on the first of July 
pened on the 20th 



of August 



nd 



The first of these 



two experiments establishes that it is a hardy variety 
as it stood the winter perfectly ; the ear and grain is 
also finer and plumper, than that sown in the spring. 

w 

The term " Tremois" wheat, however, does not 
apply to those climates, which are not sufficiently 

warm, to force the growth of corn so as to ripen it 
in ninety days ; this having taken one hundred and 



forty four to ripen 



Two samples of seed wheat 



from the Cape of Good Hope, one which I obtained 
through the attention of Mr. Collier, the Member of 
Parliament for Plymouth, and the other from a friend 
to whom it had been sent as a particularly fine sample, 
for seed, which it really was, 



observations. 



led to some interesting 
I was anxious to succeed in raising- 
wheat from the Cape, as it has been questioned whe- 
ther wheat which has crossed the line would vegetate 
this being stated in "The Fanner's Series, No. 74" 
of the Library of Useful Knowledge, Article, Bri- 



tish Husbandry, Chap, x, Page 156. 



" Some fine 



species have lately been imported from the Cape of 
Good Hope, and from Van Dieman's Land ; but it 
was found, when sown on one of the finest farms in 
Bedfordshire, that it would not grow ; and it is said, 
though we know not with what truth, that ** scarcely 

















































^ 









s. 



70 



any wheat is ever known to vegetate in this country 
that had crossed the Line, unless particular care be 
taken to preserve it from the effects of the atmos- 
phere." 

Hence it became an object of no small interest to 
succeed in raising it — it was with great satisfaction 

therefore, that I perceived both samples growing 
freely in November last. 

In the Spring, their growth, was quite different 
from that of any other wheat near them, whether from 
Dantzic, Poland, Carraccas, Essex, or this Island. 
It was much more upright, bushy, and of a lighter 
green, and trailed and tillered less. It put on also, 
a rather sickly appearance as if suffering from the 
cold. It came into ear on the 26th of May, six days 
earlier than the Carraccas wheat, but came into 
flower two days later, on the 12th of June, and only 

ripened on the 28th of July, live days later than the 
Victoria wheat, which had been sown the same day. 

It is to be observed that, there was much bearded 
or spring wheat among it, which appears, on first 
acquaintance, to have nearly similar habits, as the 
winter wheats, it came among, but seems to be very 
fine. Its real value will be ascertained by comparison 
with other spring wheats next year. 



The sickly appearance alluded 



heat 



bove 



indicative doubtless of a 



the 



y 






Cape \ 

description of smut, that appeared in it in June, 









i 











\ 



n 






I had 



71 



bserved previously to infest my 



wheat ; it destroyed many of the grains, some of them 
being reduced to a mere 



shell 



skin 



small worm. 

A most singular 



circumstance, may be noticed 
here ; I had sown sixty three drills of this same seed 
from the Cape, on the 29th March, in a field having 
a considerable reclination to the Southward— a warm 



yet exposed 



A great quantity of the seed 



perished, but all that rose, had a healthy appearance 



» 



of a dark 



in the garden ; 



it came into ear on the nineteenth of 
June, flowered on the first of July, and ripened on 
the tenth of August, not a single ear was infected 
with the yellow smut I complained of, in the experi- 
ment made in the garden among my select varieties. 
Hence it is clear that, this wheat from a hot climate, 
when sown in November on flat land suffered much 
from the cold and wet, where the very same sample 
of seed sown so late as the 29th February, on a warm 
slope exposed to the rays of the sun, found a genial 



and 



ewhat 



and 



ceeded perfectly. It is not unlikely, that the pro- 
duce of this last, sown with judgment, a little earlier, 



and in a warm exposition may bee 



valuable 



importation, and preserve early habits for more north 
ern climates. Some which 



was given me as " Ku 



■ 



banka," a thin liver colored wheat which was exhi 









n 












































'■ 





















72 



■ 

bited before the Channel Islands Committee in 1835, 
turned out to be a Spring or bearded variety ; it came 
into ear on the 1st of June, flowered on the 18th, and 
ripened on the 10th of August. It does not tiller 

much and appeared so like barley that I was doubtful 
what it should be ; it was a perfectly pure sample 



though much of it died. The Ducksbill 



ductive 



from Kiel, in the Baltic, is said 



duce meal fit only for pastry 



he finest 



pro- 
pro- 
that 



I have seen ; a cross with a variety producing a light 
dry meal would be highly advantageous — its habits 
are late, as it came into ear on the 12th of June, and 
flowered as late as the 29th, it however, ripened on 
the 6th August. The Golden drop, a fine brown eared 
variety is equally late. This is a very farinaceous 
sort, probably one of the best of the red wheats, on 
which as well as on spring wheats I shall treat apart, 

■my present observations being chiefly confined to 
white wheats, which are the first in order as to value. 



> 



a 




















! 



CHAPTER XIII. 



ON THE PROPERTIES OF SOME VARIETIES 



I have stated the relative weight, and fineness of 
quality, of the varieties, delineated in this volume. 
It may be well to say a few words in respect to 



their relative 



as to produce of 



It 



stated in the excellent work I have already quoted, at 
the Article - British Husbandry" Chap. X, Page 
154. " The straw is generally reckoned to be about 



double the wei gh t of the 



Acre, produc 



three quarters of wheat of the ordinary quality, may 
therefore be presumed to yield about twenty six hun- 



dred weight 



If the results obtained by my experiments are of 

the quantity of Straw produced from 



value 



leear of the best varieties, namely, No. 1, Jersey 

varieties, produced three 



Dantzic, one 



of the best 



pounds three ounces of wheat in round numbers, drop 



ping 



the fractional parts, and three pounds 



of 




six ounces more 



than 



wheat, 
pounds 



No. 2, "Album Denmm" produced two 

ounces of wheat and eight ounces 



twelve 



more 



straw than wheat 



No. 5 



u 



Coturianum 



six more 



straw, than 



and No. 8, " Koeler 



■ 

























































74 



four pounds four ounces of grain, and only three 
pounds thirteen ounces of straw. The next, No. 9, 
the Red compact, produced only two pounds, nine 
ounces of wheat from three pounds fifteen ounces of 



straw, 



f one pound six ounces of 



the grain in the last sort, whereas in the former 



No. 8 



a most excellent and superior variety, there 
was an excess in grain, of seven ounces over the 



straw — It must be obvious from these 



that by 



a proper system of culture, wheat should be brouo-ht 
to such perfection, as to produce more grain than 
straw, Nos. eight, ten, and thirteen having done : 
but I particularly allude to No. 8, from its bein 
exceedingly valuable variety, in every respect, 
the exception of retaining moisture in the ear, a 
siderable length of time after 
velvet husked, or downy. 

The observation from the ' 



rain, from its beino- 



" Library of Useful 
Knowledge" may be perfectly correct, as far as it re- 
gards ordinary husbandry, but it leads me to believe, 
what I have already hazarded to state, that the"pro- 
per culture of wheat is unpractised. 

It is a curious fact, that the fifth of a pint of seed 
of the Dantzic variety similar to No. 1, sown in drills, 
about as thick as a drill machine would have sown it, 

d 19, should have nearly 



Nos 15, 16, 17, 18 



accorded with the statement, for with the exception 

of No. 15, which produced only three pounds six 

















75 

ounces of corn, from about " two thousand" grains, 
they produced six pounds ten ounces, or very nearly 
double the weight of straw; corresponding with the ex- 
tract above alluded to— whereas row No. 1 of the very 
same sort, from only sixty one grains, produced within 
three ounces as much grain, but little more than half 
less straw. These surely are startling facts, worthy 
the consideration of more able farmers than the 
writer. 

The straw of No. 1, is of a beautifully white co- 
lour, very fine, but rather apt to lay in rich soils ; the 



tolerably 



the husk, not much 



liable to shed 



That of No. 2, is rather coarser and 



the grain is very tenacious in the 



No. 5 



has a short straw, white and 



s> 



ht 



also 



liable to shed the gra: 
shorter, but fine, and 



That of No. 8, is still 

ellent for fodder, indeed 



they appear to be among the very best, as cattle eat 
them all greedily ; as I have before observed this 
last being a hoary, or velvet eared variety, may not 
be suited for a damp climate, as it retains moisture, 
for a considerably longer period, than either of the 
former sorts — but on dry uplands, it is highly pro- 
ductive, and valuable in every respect. In damp 
situations, the smooth eared sorts, both white and 

The Talavera 



red, I apprehend to be the best 
I have raised from 



a single 



g 



has a 



ght 



white straw ; 



rather apt to lay in rich soils, 



M 















" 







































■* 



I 

t 




































; 



* 









76 



the ear being apparently 



too heavy for the stem ; 

but a variety very similar to it which was given me by 
Professor La Gasca, that was sown on a poor soil this 
spring, came very fine in the ear, though it not being 
above three feet high in the straw, enabled it to carry 
its head upright. Should it continue to possess this 
quality in richer land it will be a great improvement 

in the variety ; this I shall be enabled to ascertain next 
season. 

Mr. Knight the President of the Horticultural 



of London, has given some valuable 



hints 



S o cie ty I 

with respect to raising new varieties from seed ; and 
has described the mode of intercrossing them, by 
impregnating the female blossoms of one variety 

with the pollen or fecundating matter, of the male 

* 

organs of the other, which if not done with some 
degree of care and attention, being a nice and diffi- 

cult operation, may produce many varieties, of habits 
peculiarly liable to sport. I imagine that the only 

sure mode of preventing such an intermixture would 
be to leave only one female blossom on the plant to 
be impregnated, thus insuring a single variety of the 

* 

precise quality required. 

There can be no doubt that with due attention, the 

practice can be established as satisfactorily, as the 

success that has been met with, by those who have 

attended to the intercrossing of Geraniums, now 

grown of all shades and colours, almost at will. 






! <, 







M 









CHAPTER XIV 



CLASSIFICATION. 



The attempt to class the varieties of 



sary ; it is a laborious and difficult undertaking, which 
should be performed by a more scientific person than 
the writer. But as no one has yet done so, as a branch 
of AoTiculture, in those plain terms which may b 



o 



th 




scientific reader 



iy 



& 



mass of far 



I 



risk 



the trial for those sorts that are in usual cultivation 

I leave to Botanists the seven species of Triticum 

named in that very useful work, Loudon's Eneyclope 

dia of Agriculture, also the attempt at classificatio 



9 



th 

G 



made 
neith 



S 



very excellent book on 



o 



f these works, 



plaining' what 



I should consider to be, the principal object in view, 
the nature and real qualities of each variety, as to 
their properties for making bread. 

A gentleman who may be planting a garden, is de- 
sirous of having peaches, figs, pears, grapes, apples, 
even gooseberries, of particular seasons, flavours, 



qualities, and colours ; these are all named, and so 
intelligibly classed, that if the Nurseryman deceives 
him in one or two of them, he is set down as a person 
who is not to be depended upon : yet these luxuries, 
















; 



























' 









L 



78 



which do not directly affect the real prosperity of the 
country, are perfectly well understood ; but the nature 
of the most precious of all those plants, which one 
of the most profound writers has called " the only 
produce of land which always, and necessarily, affords 
some rent to the landlord," appears to have been 

overlooked — perhaps because it was so plentiful, and 
so diminutive. If Doctor Franklin's adage, " take 



< 



care of the pence, and the pounds will take care of 
themselves, is true," it is not less correct to say to a 
husbandman, in the selection of his seed wheat, 
" take care of the pecks, and the quarters will take 

care of themselves." 

To render the classification of wheat, well under- 
stood, it should be so clear and simple, that any 
farmer should be enabled to state the precise variety 
he wishes to raise, by applying to the seed merchant, 
a branch of business, which should belong to the corn 
trade. 

I should propose a classification as follows : 

BEARDLESS OR WINTER WHEATS. 

Class. 1. White Wheats, Smooth Chaffed. 






2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 
6. 

7. 
8. 



Do. 

Red 
Do. 



Do., 
Do., 
Do., 



Velvet Husked. 

Smooth Chaffed. 
Velvet Husked. 



Yellow, Do., Smooth Chaffed 



Do. 

Liver 

Do. 



Do., 
Do., 
Do., 



Yelvet Husked. 

Smooth Chaffed 
Yelvet Chaffed. 



1 


















79 



BEARDED OR SPRING WHEATS. 



1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 



White Spring Wheat 
Red Spring Wheat, 
Yellow Do., Do., 
Hoary Do., Do., 



The subvarieties, should be given a number and 

which number should be first added to the 



name 



local names, given to each, for which one common 
name should be substituted. 



ARRANGEMENT. 



1 



rh 



name of the wheat, and th 




soil and climate, it may be suited for, the proper pe- 
riod for sowing it, whether it be liable to injury from 
drought, moisture, or frost, in its pnrlv or later 
growth, and its liability to disease. 

2nd. The period of flowering or 
ripenin* 



bloomin 



o 



and 



3rd. The height and nature of the straw, wheth 



be white 



dark 



lored 



f 



liable to lay in wet seasons, or otherwise, 
fodder, thatching, bonnet makin 



If fit for 



4th. Nature of th 



ear, 



widely 



other purposes, 
hether compact, or 
inches. This would of 




spread, its length in 

vary in some soils, but it would be interesting 
to know such variations, the produce per acre. 

5th. The colour of the grain, (this will also vary 
with a change of soil), whether coarseor thin skinned, 

whether round or oval, large or small, whether liable 
to shake out or not. 
































I 























•. 



. 









: 



* 



l 

























80 



6th.' Nature of the flour and bran, with their rela- 
tive quantity. 

* 

7th. Whether the dough rises well or not. 

8th. Quantity of bread made from a given quau- 
tity of flour, its colour, if of a dry, or moist nature, 
and the length of time it will keep. 

SMOOTH CHAFFED. 

In Class 1 . — Nature and Habits . 

No. 1. Triticum Hybridum, Candidum Epulonum 
Leucospermum " La Gasca" — No. 1 in the table. 
A variety from Dantzic— ear full and large, rai 
from three and a half inches, to four and a half, in 






length. Grain, rather thin skinned, large, roundish, 



hardy. 



Tillers well, blooms rather early, tall, 4 feet 



8 inches, tenacious white straw. Rather liable to lay 
in rich land, sheds if over ripe, produces excellent 



Eitrhte 



P 



white bread of a rather dry nature, 
of flour have made twenty four pounds of bread, 
has produced fifty two imperial bushels of 63 lbs 
to the acre. 



No. 2. — Triticum Album Densum 



tt 



LaG 



asca, 



?? 



No. 2 in the table, I suspect it to be the " Froment 
Blanc de Hongrie"of the French, ear, compact, square, 
from two and a half, to three and a half inches long. 
Grain small, white, round and thin skinned ; hardy, 
tillers well, blooms a day or two later than No. 1, 
tall, 4 feet 8 inches, stout white straw, sheds little. 

No. 3. Triticum Hybridum, Coturianum a Com- 
pactum La Gasca, M. S. S., a Seedling of 1832. 



















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SmaZZ JHo?i?zd. 
Trziiaim £ydrida,m , 













of_£a £as-cO/ 




Gasca. 



Ze Coizfeztf: /after Naini? 



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Coiurianam a Coftwadzmi 






~&Ccizteuor. /after yVaiiwe 



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81 



No. 7 



the tabl 



E 



ar 



sh 



and 



pact, not 



quite so square as No. 2 which it otherwise resembles 
externally, from two and a half to three inches long, 
grain, plump and oblong, rather coarser skinned than 
No. 1, hardy, tillers remarkably. 



Blooms rather 

No. 2. Straw short and slight, four feet 

hiffh. not at all liable to be laid. Sheds little, highly 

afforded fifty eight imperial 



» 



productive! having! 

bushels to the acre, this season. 

No. 4. Triticum Hybridum, Talavera Belvuensis 
Ear Long, Straggling, and Pyramidal, from four tc 
six inches long. Grain large, oblong and thin skinned 



Tillers moderately 



Earliest to bloom, eight or ten 



days sooner than the three preceedin 



Straw 



tall, slight and bendin 



a 



and brittle if 



ripe 



liable to lay in rich land, highly farinaceous 



In Class 2 



Velvet Husked. White Wheat 



No. 1. Triticum Koeleri 



La Qasca. 1832 



Ear 



large, rather close. Downy or velvetty. White very 



plump, 



r 



oundish, oval, thin skinned grain. Tillers 



remarkably. Blooms rather early. Straw four feet 
four inches to four feet seven inches, very white and 
firm, not liable to shed, retains moisture from its 
huskiness, therefore should be harvested when dry, 
has produced twenty six pounds of superior white 
bread from eighteen pounds of flour, and has pro- 
duced fifty five imperial bushels of 64 lbs the acre. 
Such is the sort of classification I should wish to 
introduce, not one in a dead or botanical language, 






. 













I 

































J 





































I 



intellioible only to men of science, but one in the 
mother tongue which every farmer may comprehend, 
and by comparing his class book with the crops, or 
varieties that are lurking in them, may ascertain which 

they are. 

This is merely a first suggestion, time and further 

experience, guided by the experiments this little book 
may lead to, may prove the means of distinctly as- 
certaining and making known the habits and proper- 
ties of all sorts of grain. 





















I 









CHAPTER XV. 



ON THE RELATIVE ADVANTAGES OF THE DRILL OR 

BROADCAST SYSTEMS, 



Much has been written on this subject which still 
appears debateable. My own observation leads me to 
believe, that it rests mainly on the knowledge, skill, 



If 



:ilful and 
of years, 



and long practice of the farmer, 
intelligent farmer, has for a long 
hoed, manured, and treated his land, so as to have 
eradicated all the seed weeds from it, and it remains, 
in so clean a state, that nothing but the intended 

terminate : then indeed I should say the 



crop 



will 



broadcast system would afford the greatest produce. 
But if the case be with most farme rs, as my own, that 
the land to be cultivated, is loaded with the seeds of 
many descriptions of noxious weeds, then I contend, 
the drill, or partly fallowing process, is that, which 
is alone likely, to enable the farmer 



pensatin 



return from his crops 



obtain a com- 
I have observed 



a 



field of wheat 



broadcast in very good rich 



completely overrun with weeds, that at the 



very lowest computati 



thirds of 



In every case where the ordinary means are adopted, 
whether the expensive process of hand weeding, or 
the much less costly mode of hoeing broadcast, it is 



N 









































p 






























84 



attended with manifest risk if not most carefully and 
attentively performed, as any of the young tillers that 
may be drawn or cut, will reproduce fresh ones, the 



ears from which, ripen a fortnight or more, later than 



those which were uninjured; and the crop from such 
a mode of culture can never be, in the most fit state 
of ripeness for harvesting. 

By the drill process, just before, or about the pe- 
riod, that the wheat is 

which, from wheat sown on the 18th January,! found, 
as may be seen by the plate, to be on the 17th of 
April, there is ample time to have it, lightlv but care- 



forming its coronal roots, 



fully hoed, so that the 



ds may be 



pletely 



destroved, and the coronal roots find a well stirred 

soil to work in ; moreover the plants, being in a free 
atmosphere between the drills so cleaned, which the 
weeds previously to their destruction, breathed in 

common with them, have the whole benefit of the 
soil. 

Those who desire to sow clover and rye grass, in 
the Spring, will find it to be good practice, to sow 
them a day or two before the first hoeing is given, as 



the same stroke which destroys the weeds, mixes the 
grass seeds with the soil, which then take possession 
of it sooner than a second crop of weeds ; but this 

mode which I have found successful, in regard to the 
future hay crop, is, I consider, at the cost of several 
bushels per acre on the wheat crop. 






^^^ 




85 



My own practice is to put my seed wheat into fresh 
water, two or three bushels at a time, then stir it, 
till all the light, injured, or sickly grains, are floated, 
or skimmed off; the grain thus cleaned is put to soak 



hours in brine, mad 



h 



float 



potatoe ; it is then put to drain, and is well dried 



eked lime 



smutty 



ppear after such 



treatment. The land is prepared by two or three 



ghinffs. and a dressing of lime, ashes 




or some 



plou 

suitable manure, according to the change required 

ed. The wheat is then sown 
machine, one of very efficient 

mw den. of 



the food of th 



fiv 



a 




ml 



Oxford Street, in drill 



construction, made by S 



s 



nches apart, atth 



f two, to two and a half bushels the acre, after pota- 

* 

oes, or parsnips. 
One careful hoeing in April or May, is then suffi- 

t the wheat, to get the upper hand of 



abl 



I 



of my own invention, with a very 
not wider than a table knife, with 



and a very sharp edge 



ff like some 



9 



the sides being rounded 



ry 



ps 



I h 



seen. 



Th 



e 



kman is 



hoe 



b 



th 

th 



abled to pi 



ry 



roots 



the back of the 
rs of the wheat 



and thus scoop out any 



e 



d from them. In hoeing 



& 



ht alone- the drills, the work is performed very 






peedily, as the round proj 



sides of the h 














I 










■ 
























86 



guide the labourer, and prevent his cutting the plants, 
the blade being so narrow prevents any accumulation 
of earth on the hoe, which glides or cuts through the 
dry surface with great ease, and scarcely any resistance 
to the person^ using it. Women or even children 
can handle it with facility. My gardener has adopted 
it for all his drilled crops, finding it a safe, commo- 
dious, and very powerful instrument. The clover 
and grasses, are sown immediately after the crop has 
been harvested, which has been found to 
remarkably well, though at the expense of one addi- 
tional ploughing, a practice I have adopted, having 
observed it to be corroborative of Mr. Sinclair's ex- 



answer 



i 



periments, who states in the ** Hortus Gramineus 
Woburnensis," Page 248, " I have sown the seeds of 
the S3 me grasses in every month of the year, January 
excepted ; and though much depends on the weather 
and state of the ground, the results were always in 

favour of the month of September, and the beginning 

of August; and next to that, the middle or latter end 



of May according as the weather was dry." 

This principle is obviously in accordance with com- 
mon sense, for in the first place — the wheat crop 
receives the whole benefit of the manure which was 
intended for it, without being deprived of any part 
of it by the grasses, the land also is at it were, par- 
tially fallowed by the hoeing, in the spaces between 
the drills, and is thus cleared and prepared for the 











87 



t 



grasses, 



the most propiti 



of the year 



ording to the high authority just quoted— while 
the stubble that is lightly turned in, is itself a manure 



for them, and keeps the 



open and light 



proper state for the young seedlin 



Fallowing for a whole season is altogether too 



» 



expensive a mode, to be adopted by those, who pay 
a high rent for their land, as paring and burning, and 
the drill system, or a sort of half fallow will answer 
the purpose equally well. From land 



bad state infe 



ouch g 



very 



in 1832, by 



means 



f paring and burning, previous to taking a 
crop of potatoes, which produced thirty four thousand 
eiffht hundred pounds of saleable potatoes the a 

an after dressing of forty bushels to 



and with 



the 



of kelp or sea weed ashes, I raised forty bushels 



of fine wheat to th 



O 



I raised fifty 



five, and last season fifty one bushels to the acre; this 
year I hope to have reaped as much with drill hus- 
bandry though on land in a very bad state, which had 

been much neglected. 

These are not mere assertions without proof, as a 
reference to my corn and millers book, would furnish 
all the details. 

It may be seen what a perch of ground might be 
made to produce, by multiplying the nineteen rows 
exhibited in the tables, by the produce of No. 8, Koe- 



leri ; which would 




hty pounds 










l 










I 





























"- 






I 






) 
































,- v 1 





the acre. N 



I 



doubt that 



perch, or ninety bushels to 

ordinary as this may appea 

land, in a perfect state of tilth, and with seed suited 

to the soil and climate, may hereafter be made to bear 

that quantity. 

Herodotus mentions an encouraging fact, which 
should lead farmers to hope, not indeed to rival the 
produce of wheat in Egypt, but greatly to increase 

their own. In his Clio it is stated " of all countries 
which have come within my observation, this is far 
the most fruitful in corn. Fruit trees, such as the 
vine, the olive, and the fig, they do not even attempt 

to cultivate ; but the soil is so particularly well 
adapted for Corn, that it never produces less than 
two hundred fold ; in seasons which are remarkably 
favorable, it will sometimes rise to three hundred : 
the ear of their wheat as well as barley is four digits 



in size. 



The immense height to which Millet and 
Sesamum will grow, although I have witnessed it my- 
self, I know not how to mention, I am well aware 
that they who have not visited this country will deem 
whatever I may say on the subject, a violation of 

probability." 
This elegant and authentic historian, who flourished 

about four hundred and fifty years before the Chris- 
tian era, speaks of wheat producing two or three 
hundred fold — it is true the soil and climate of Egypt, 
are both highly favourable to the growth of wheat, 



» 













89 

but the produce is not extraordinary, if compared 
with the produce, from single ears of corn ; as No. 
7, which produced four pounds four ounces from fifty 



six trrains reckoning 9,000 grains to the pound 



« 










produce, between six and seven hundred, for one. 
Hence may not British culture be hereafter brought 
to equal Egyptian produce % 






't 







I 















fl 


















I 
I 





















; 



CHAPTER XVI 



a 



RESULT. 



v 





















By the evidence of Mr. Jacob, before the select 
committee on Agriculture, in 1833, whose authority 
is unquestionable, the average consumption of wheat, 
in the United Kingdom, may be about thirteen mil- 
lions of quarters, and the average produce per acre, 
of England and Wales, is about twenty one bushels ; 

■ 

this for the sake of argument I assume to be that of 

the whole Kingdom, though it will somewhat over- 
rate it for Ireland and Scotland ; then, deducting the 

average importation of wheat, since the year 1828, 

or a million and a half of quarters, we have about four 

millions, four hundred thousand acres in wheat an- 

nually. 

From the circumstance of some portion of the 



I 



sup 



country producing less than that average, 

pose the land under cultivation for wheat to be five 

millions of acres. 

Now assuming the average price of wheat for the 
last five years, to have been fifty shillings the quarter, 
it will readily be conceded that any means that could 
enable the farmer to raise one quarter of wheat, nay 

half a quarter, more per acre, would not only be a 



> 

















f 

■ 



91 



great individual advantage, but a very large increase 



of the national wealth 



great family 



and whether it be merely a portion of the great 



family, 



a 



family of Rothschilds for instance, who 



are enriched by the intelligence, activity, and per- 
severance of one individual, or every individual 
who by the application pf the same energies is en- 
abled to increase his own income, it is still so much 
increase of the national wealth, augmented in the 
ratio of the number so actively employed. 

* 

It follows, if the mode I suggest, of raising wheat 
suited to each soil and climate, be adopted ; it may 
reasonably be expected, in the course of three or four 
years, such is the amazing productiveness of wheat, 
that the country will be supplied with suitable 
seed ; and it is a consideration to which I earnestly 
call the attention of the Chancellor of the Exche- 
quer ; an increase of one quarter per acre, may be 
made to take place ; even more than this increase has 



occurred on my 



farm, where three quarters per 



» 



acre, was formerly the average, but has now gra- 
dually increased, in three years out of four, (one 
year's crop having been sacrificed to an experiment) 
from three or four, to six quarters per acre. Hence 
assumingthe increase to be only one quarter per acre, 
instead of the two, or three, which have taken place 
on my farm ; that increase on five millions of acres, 

at fifty shillings per quarter, would present an annual 

o 






























3 















•: 






k I 


















I 







































92 



the national wealth 



l- 



©ns five hundred thousand pounds. 

But this would not be the whole advantage gained. 
It is further stated by the same respectable authority, 
that, one million and a half of quarters have been 
imported from abroad since 1828, which may have 
been purchased for about two millions sterling ; or 
in other words, the English farmer lost that sum of 
money yearly, which he might have received for his 
wheat ; but which was sent out of the country, and 



paid to foreig 



Ag 



these diffe 



are 



merely calculated on the wheat; it is necessary to take 
into calculation the increase also, in the quantity of 
meal, that will accrue, when the system of classifi- 
cation, and the knowledge of the properties of each 
variety of wheat, is attained. 

I have shewn that eighteen pounds of good Dant- 

zic and Rostock flour, only made twenty three pounds 
of bread, also that eighteen pounds of a farinaceous 
variety of my own growth, have made twenty six 
pounds of bread. 



Here we have an excess of thr 



of 



pounds of bread on eighteen pounds of flour, or 
one sixth, from two superior sorts of meal, and I shall 
rest satisfied to make my statements from these 
though 1 am convinced, were I to make them from 
flour taken from the average mixtures which furnish 



the flour that is eaten a 
increase would be greater 



i 

the Kingdom, the 









93 



In the farmers series, No. 74, at the article " on 



Wheat" we find, 
forty eight pound 



a bushel of wheat 

both kinds of flou 



jrages 
f that 



d 



Second 



hence if 



superior 



f 



heat be mad 



prod 



an increase of 



g 



pounds of bread on every bushel 



here would 



be an 



of one shilling per bushel 



of bushel 



of four millions six hun 



dred thousand pounds a year, being a g 

of value in the produce of wheat ar 
amount of sixteen 



to the 



mill 



hund 



pounds sterling ; to which may be further added, the 
sum that is annually paid by Englishmen to Foreign- 
ers for corn, or two millions more, being a total 



year 



of eighteen millions, nine hundred thousand 
I shall expect to be told that, these are mere 
die and vain speculations, quite theoretical and vi- 
sionary, but I claim for consideration the experiments 
,)f five years, and the facts that I have been enabled 

I readily admit that to obtain 

a largce and 



deduce from th 



the vast result I appear to jump at, 
apparently unmanageable machinery would hav 

be put i 
action < 



motion, as well as the consentaneous 



f. as it 



hole peopl 



half, nay a quarter of the result 



But if 
inable. 



worth the attention of the Government, as 



well as of the whole body 



f Ag 



It 



is 



not a system of harassing and vexatious taxation, 






I 



9 








































* \ 






































94 






that I am advocating, to endeavour to relieve the 
country from a portion of the burthens whieh over- 
charge it ; but a course of regular, slow improve- 
ment, sure and infallible in its result, acting steadily 
upon the best feelings, and individual interests, re- 
quiring only a regular system guided by one firm and 
powerful mind, to put the machinery regularly into 
play. 

It is not surely, because the suggestion is simple, 

though new, perhaps I might add comprehensive ; that 

it may not educe eminent and lasting benefits to the 

entire family of man. I am satisfied with pointing 

out this, as one of the means to relieve the Agricul- 
tural interest, without going in to further details ; feel- 
ing persuaded that when the application of my prin- 
ciple shall have extended to red and yellow wheats, 
and spring wheats also, on neither of which, I have 

yet treated, but have made many experiments, to 
be published hereafter ; it will be seen that I have 
much underrated the mark. This proper adaptation 
of seed to particular soils, will have the effect of 
diminishing the risk of the farmer, — will therefore 

■ 

increase the demand for labour, and lead to an aug- 
mentation of the rate of wages. 

The application of the principle is universal, I 
have therefore already sent some select samples 
to Persia, to North America, and to the West 
Indies ; I only wish it to be given a fair and patient 







■ 






■*■ 












95 



trial ; it is in the proper and general application of 



that the adag 



Union is Power," will be found 



had I the means to set the machinery in motion, the 
result would be infallible, after the third or 



fourth 



seasons. 



It must also be kept in mind, that th 
calculated upon fair average crops, not 



the differences which may exist, between some of the 
best, and some of the worst varieties, that I have set 
forth in the tables, annexed to this book; nor on the 
extremes between crops in general cult 

If such were the case, the results 



more 



considerable, as the differ 



would be far 
between the 



inferior sort, is greater 



the whit 



I shall 



best red wheat and the 

than the difference, in 

further, shew, that the produce and value of sprin 

wheats, is various, should the hints I have thrown ou 

have been deemed worthy of attention. 



t> 



■ 






- 



i 















t* 



I 



| 






























II 


































CHAPTER XVIL 



CONCLUSION. 



1 have adverted in this little work to the opinion 

I entertain, that it is by the consentaneous exertions 
of the Agriculturists that they should hope for relief. 

I consider the establishment of a national 
mental farm would be the fiist step to take— as I had 



expen 



th 



honor to recommend such a 



meas 



to the 



Committee of the Central Agricultural Society; 
instead of writing a separate chapter on the subject, 
I shall annex my report, merely adding, that a small 
steam mill, adapted for threshing and winnowing 



corn, grinding and sifting it into flour, cutting chaff, 
grinding bones for manure, and various other pur- 
poses, such as have already been established on the 
Duke of Glocester's farmery, should bean appendage 

to the institution. 

It will be observed by the annexed report, that it 
was foreseen, that the conclusion arrived at by the 
Committee of the House of Commons, on the 2nd 
of August 1833, on the corn question, precluded the 
expectation that relief could be hoped for, through 
the agency of a new Committee, which, strange to 
say, on a second enquiry, has come to no conclusion 
at all ; though it is to be believed the original cause 





97 



beginning to be im 



of Agricultural distress is now 

derstood. 

To that I shall not now advert, but proceed 

my report, which follows • 

100 Quadrant, 20th December, 1835. 
My Lord and Gentlemen, 

Having been requested by a resolution of the 
Central Committee, of the Agricultural Society of 
Great Britain, and Ireland, held on the 17th instant, 



furnish a statement 



ferred on 



by 



e 



wi 



the Agricultural Interest generally, 

ihment of an experimental farm, in the 

immediate vicinity of London" ; I engage in the task 

th some diffidence, but with great pleasure. 

It may be pardonable, previously to my entering oi 

my subject, briefly to attempt to win the confidence 

of my brother farmers, to whose impartial consider- 

observations are particularly directed, 
that the humble individual who ad- 



t 



ation these 
by shewing 

dresses them 



pectedly 



for the first time, has 



claims to it, having for the last eighteen years 
ardently engaged in Horticulture and Agricul- 
and though an Honorary Secretary to an 
Agricultural Society, it is not in name only, as he has 
earned premiums in fair competition, for the superior 
rulture of wheat ; growth of new potatoes from seed ; 



some 
been 
ture ; 



mixed artificial g 



for the introduction of 



plements of husbandry, and for stock 
























I 
I 












i i 






1 


























. 





























































98 



The most ready mode of proving the utility of an 
Institution is by a statement of analogous facts the 
result of experience. In July, last year, having read 
in a French Agricultural publication, an account of 

■ 

an experimental farm and school, at Coetbo, in Brit- 
tany, about 300 miles from my residence in Jersey, 

I visited it in the hope that it would be useful to the 
Society, of which I am Secretary. 

It is situated in a beautiful and fertile country, well 
wooded and watered, but cultivated by the " Breton" 
farmers, just as their forefathers tilled it two hun- 
dred years ago. 



The College farm appears like 



a 



garden in a smiling wilderness, 



goes 



so far as culture 
I rose at four in the morning in order to wit- 
ness the whole course of labour in this interesting 
institution. 

There were from eighty to ninety Students under 
the superintendence and tuition of a Director, a 

Professor of Agriculture, and Agricultural Chemis- 
try, a Veterinary Surgeon, and an Agricultural 
Implement maker. 

At half past four they took a slight repast, and as 



the clock 



five 



employed, some 



harnessing the oxen and horses ; others in carting: out, 
and properly disposing the implements in the field ; 
others set to hoeing, others weeding, some ploughing, 
some hay making, in a word to the various labours 
of the season. 









99 



The School is divided into working parties of tei 
the head of each, is a steady young man of exp 



dth 



e 



Decurion" who directs the 



of his par 



In all difficult operations, a regular 



farming labourer is 



hand to perform them, but 



uch is the ardour and perseverance 
hat they rarely allow any difficulty 



f the youths, 
to arrest their 



progress. The duty of one decury or ten, is to dress 
feed, and litter, the cattle with as much regularity as z 



Cavalry corps dr 
farm yard 



their horses, also to keep the 
thus, all in turn, are made ac- 



ith every 



thing connected 



ith 



farm 



oxen, cows, pigs, or 



whether in regard to horses, 

manures. These last are made and husbanded, with 

the greatest care, the mixons being formed of sweep- 



t> 



and weeds that had not seeded 
layers with stable manure 



The drainin 



» 



f the stables, and straw yard 



be pumped 



hen required 



liquid manure, which is the best, most portable, b 



known in this country 



The learned Profess 



M. Donker, who is an ad 



mirable practical farmer, as polite and as communi 
native as he is learned, complained that he had no 

manure. I urged him to burn the undei 



sufficient manure 
wood, and decay 



timber of the large adj 



hich 



forests, through which wide roads were cut, \ 

would enable him to obtain an inexhaustible supply 



p 



























*J 

























. 1 







1 

























100 



morning. 



of ashes, the best of manures, either for turnips or 
wheat ; the cartage of ashes being easy, and the 
quantity required to dress the land, not great: in 
which he entirely coincided. 

At nine all come in to their studies, when they 
write remarks on the various operations of the 

From 11 to 12 is the breakfast hour. 
From 12 to 3 is time for recreation and studv which 

embraces for the first class, questions of the foil 
nature : — This farm of 600 acres, one eighth of which, 
is always to be in Beet root, is to be divided into the 
most eligible rotation of crops. Shew the most pro- 
fitable course, and describe the nature and chemical 
properties of the soil in each field, the proper ma- 
nures to be applied to them, the quantity of seed 
required for the crop, its culture, by previous plou^h- 



owmg 



ings, by after hoeing, or weeding, the cost and la- 
bour, and the probable return ? 

The plan of farming given by some of the youths 



would have done credit to an experienced farmer, 
and demonstrated clearly that though theory alone 
in farming, is an absurdity, the combination of prac- 

i 

scientific acquirements, will soon operate 



with 



From 



great amelioration in the Agricultural world 
three to seven, they prosecute their labour 
fields, heimr eight hours work in the day. They 



th 



e 



then 



& 



come in 



for di 



At eight the Direct 



port from every D 



3 



f the day 














101 



He then orders the work 



work, of his party of ten. 

i • ■« ' v ; n jp « concise lecture oi] 

for the ensuing day, giving a coi.cibc 

t • A u no ,.»<!«flrv to the proper culture of 
subject when necessary , w *■*■ i i ^ ^ 

unusual crop. A library 



th 



f Agricultural 



pen to the Students, till bed 



P 



nine. 



m 



this 



s 



The greatest order and regularity prevails 
admirable establishment, which is supported by tl 
French Government, and by voluntary contribution 

i from forty departments of 



ty 



th 



are 



Student 



France, besides a few more who pay lor insu ueuuu. 

Some of them had been in the learned professions, 
of law, medicine, and civil engineering, who having 
inherited estates, and be 



perm 



and cultivate their farms, came to the schc 
husbandry, farm-account keeping, the mod 
and feeding cattle, and all rural pursuits, 
form, a blue smock frock, 
ribband, contributed to giv 



The 



wi 



id red 



f rustic cheerfu 



ss throughout the whole establish 
The crop that appear 



to me to be most care 

d, was Beet root, in drills, which pro 

luced per acre about seven hundred and fifty pound 

f fine sugar, selling at ten pence the lb., as last a 



m 



fully 



it could b 



man 



The potatoe crop 



fine, very well horse-hoed and perfec 
The wheat crop was 






d 



f the ''Breton" farmers around, but fo 









> 






























































. 






1 




: 


































102 



reason. 



from not having been made in drills, which I recom- 
mended in future, until the weeds were extirpated 
from the soil. Indeed I ventured to urge the pro- 
priety of having all the crops in drills for the same 

The Swedish, and other turnips were also 
fine and clean. 

There were besides these principal staple crops, 
experimental crops of nearly 300 varieties, which it 

is unnecessary to enumerate, though some may be- 
come of paramount use to the farmer, such as the giant 
or red clover " Trifolium Incarnatum," which is an 
admirable supplementary crop when the turnip crop 
has failed ; I strongly urge farmers to try it, on a 
small scale first. It may be sown as late as Septem- 
ber, and furnishes a prodigious quantity of food in 
April or May, producing the finest butter possible if 
given to cows. 

The Students attend to the culture of these crops, 
study their nature, properties, and their effects on 
cattle, which are daily, nay sometimes hourly, noted. 

In turn they are present at all veterinary surgical 
operations, either on horses or horned cattle, and an 

r 

explanatory lecture, one of which I witnessed, forci- 
bly impresses on the minds of the Students, the nature 
and cure, of the disorder. 

The Professor of Agricultural implements, for thus 
he must be termed, demonstrates mathematically the 
points of greatest or least resistance, in the construc- 






l 








r 






103 



fall instruments and ploughs, all sorts of wh 



from the primitive plough of the Lj 



mere 



beam fift 

proved 



N 



feet long with a hook at its end 

Scotch swing; ploughs. 



Most 



hoes 



modern implements were to be seen here, the Flemish 
binot, new harrows, dibblers, drills, horse 

machines, turnip ellicers, chaff cutters, all 
up in the College work shops, ii 



n owing 
made 



manv 



by the Students 



;h as display 



de 



cided taste for mechanics, carpentry 



dulsre it, und 



& 



the Professor 
Here th 



number of 



» 



active, 



and enterprising youths, all ardent in the pursuit of 
that knowledge which 



the fiat of the most High 



a 



d from every quarter of their beautiful, fer 
d extended country, imparting to each other 
\oAo-e of its local wants, its various products 



its agriculture 

!y 



manu 



and commerce 



All 



pied in the enquiry 



misrht be 



tD 



their 



to fill and vepl 
fertile soil, all desirous to convey to thei 



most useful and beneficial 



pective districts the knowledge thus acquired : thes 
youths on their return home, would naturally presen 
reciprocal ties of friendship with th 



horn they 
ht never meet again, but whose correspondence on 
subjects relating to husbandry and the products which 

thev might exchange, would cement those ties. 



















; 

























I 

I 

f 






i- 













r 1 















1 



















' 



' 













104 



Can any reflecting mind deny that such an Insti- 
tution must prove eminently useful to an Agricultural 
country ? The truth is, that our intelligent and 
active neighbours have at length perceived and anti- 
cipated, that to act in detail and as a divided body, is 
not the means to attain great results — they have 

therefore stepped into unity of design, a day before 
ourselves. 

The kindly feeling towards an Englishman which 



husbandry generated in th 
delightful and impressive. 



) ; 



It was no longer the averted 



e Y 



d scowling 



brow auguring war and insult, which I witnessed ] 

* 

twenty years ago, but that primitive honest feeli 
of barter, expressed in these terms. " What will \ 
exchange with us for the new products we shall raise 

you will give us your hardware, 



& 



earthenw 



and 



manufactures, in exchange for brand 



and fruits, which 



y 




your climate 



Such 



timents generally diffused, will d 



more 



towards perfecting the amity between these two great 
nations, whose mutual interest, is peace and commerce, 
than a hundred formal treaties. 

Having shewn I trust, the manifest advantages of 



& 



an experimental farm, on the other side of the chan- 
nel, I proceed to shew that it was high time for that 
class of persons, among the most useful and intelli- 



gent 



y 



the 



farmers of this great 



country, instead of 











r f- 7 




105 



■y 



on 



periments in 



various corners of 



empire, experiments which how laudable soever, lost 
half their value, by being insulated and comparatively 



unknow 



onfined to certain limits ; to rise 



ibjectand desi 



a 



d 



to 



and 
the 



condense the fruits of all such experiments, sow- 
seeds of such acquired knowledge, and then scatter 

it abroad with a liberal hand. 

The Board of Trade is an office acknowledged by 

the Legislature, specially to protect the interest of 

ires ; but the Legislature 



commerce 



and manufact 



acknowledges no such board specially to protect the 
Agricultural interest, the origin of both the others. 
But the Central Committee of your Society sup- 
ported by your individual and joint interests, will 



presumed, have 



d 



preponderanc 
the means for 



soon, it is 

though without directly possessing 

obtaining information, which an office of the Go 



vernment would possess 



information of 



porta 



ppear 



by the evidence of Mr. Jacob 



before the Select Committee on Agriculture, which 

1833 : which was adverted, to by that Commit- 



shewins; th 



if the bad harvest of 1816 



unexpectedly to arise again, followed by a second bad 
harvest, there might exist such a deficiency of wheat 
as could not be supplied by all the world ;" and the 
Committee came to the conclusion, 

" That the increased supply from Ireland does not 




































1 































































306 



cover the deficiency ; and that in the present state 
of Agriculture, the United Kingdom is in years of 
ordinary production, partially dependent t on the 



»> 



supply of wheat from foreign countries. 

" The price of wheat for the last five years, as 
stated in 1833, notwithstanding several deficient 
crops, has not in the average exceeded 61s, 8d. per 
quarter ; the highest price within the same period 

was 76s. 7d., the lowest 51s. 3d. 

" Steadiness of price, which is conducive to settled 
habits, and forms the basis of all fixed engage- 
ments, is the primary object never again to be over- 

looked ; and your Committee cannot fail to remark, 
that there has been, coincident with the present sys- 






tern 



laws, a steadiness in the price of 



of which there has been rarely, if ever, an experience 
in any former period of equal duration ; and as du- 
ring the same period there has been a very consider- 
able difference in seasons, and in the actual amount 
of corn produced, it is but just to ascribe to the pre- 
sent system, a great degree of that steadiness of price 
which has unquestionably prevailed/' 

i 

I am not exactly aware whether the present system 
which then existed, is the system now, but one thing 
appears clear that the steadiness of price, has strangely 
vanished ; its fall from the lowest quotation of 1833, 
51s. 3d. in two years, being about fifteen shillings 
per quarter. Hence instability of price having fallen 



i 










on the country si 
quiry ought surely 
extreme depreciati 



107 

that period, some further 
be made on the causes of 

so that inferior lands cai 



longer he cultivated with any prospect of 



Th 



C 



further stated 



the whol 



be admitted that the difficulties are great and 

" the burdens heavy, which oppress the landed in- 
" terests ; hut contracts, prices and labour have a 
" strong natural tendency to adjust themselves to the 



" value of money once established, and it is hoped 
" that the balance ms»y be restored which will give to 
" the farming capital its fair return," and further on, 
in conclusion, " your Committee avow their opinion 



a 



that hopes of melioration in the condition of the 
tt landed interest, rest rather on the cautious for- 

* 

" bearance than on the active interposition of Par- 
" liament." 

From this it would appear that the agriculturists 
must rather trust to their own exertions, than hope for 
any relief from the Legislature, which has so recently 
been occupied in making, twelve thousand nine hun- 
dred and three questions, which with, the replies, oc- 
cupy 617 pages, on the causes of agricultural distress. 
It appears therefore doubtful, whether any legislative 
enactment could speedily relieve those heavy burdens 
which unhappily oppress agriculturists ; the various 
interests of the state requiring to be so nicely ba- 
lanced and adjusted, and being so closely interwoven, 

Q 


















■ 



























• 



4 













I 


















; 

















108 



tliat any concession made to one, might be detrimental 
to the others. Their ultimate interests are the same, 
for in all cases of successful industry, either in manu- 
factures or commerce, the first step that is taken by 
the individual who may have honorably risen to 

affluence, is to identify himself with the soil, by the 
purchase of an estate, and what does he then become ? 
one of ourselves, a farmer ! 

But the first and most legitimate step, towards 
relieving* the farming: interest, is to unite in 



one 

great body, steadily to examine, all the bearings of 
the question that affects its interests : not by merely 
calling out for help like the cartman in the fable, but 
by putting a shoulder to the wheel. By rousing ener- 

have long lain dormant ; by an enquiry 
into each other's wants; by the introduction of 



tries that 



new plants c 

tion of capi 



the soil ; by the applica- 



the growth of 



& 



new crops ; by 
pid interchange of commodities, the harbing 



a 



prosperity, which 



m communication and 



ay 



facil 



by pointin 



the farmer 



thatthesoil is not cultivated to its extent; by clearly 
exposing that if he grows a crop of weeds in addition 



to the crop he may have put 



the ground 



just so much produce taken from his capital and given 
to waste. This holds good with pastures as well as 
crops ; if nothing but nutritious herbage were grown, 
another head of cattle would be reared on every farm 















109 



ki 



*/* 



( 



f stock would 



portion to the superior culture of th 



F 



■h 



should 



h suggestions flow ? 



F 



an 



perimen 



far 



_ * 



pported 




11 



dited paper devoted to A 



I 



the 



al prospectus for the establishment 
/this Society, it was suggested to procure a public 
buildino- to contain a Library, a Museum, and a Lee 



Hall 
nnecessary 



N 



th 



would be premature 



for und 



d 
they 



be of the same importance to practical farmers 
experimental 
A farmei 



oming to London would perhaps hav 

ther time nor inclination, to sit down in a Library 

ok round a Museum, nor would he deriv< 



th 



information from a view of them, 
farm of which the following is an outline of the pi 
It should be from two to four hundred acres, in 1 
neighbourhood of London ; it is not improbable so 
patriotic person will offer such a piece of land 



Society 



It should be und 



management 



of 



Director, assisted 




Professor of A 



s> 



Chemistry 



vho would also teach farm account keep 



» 



and land 



» 



A Veterinary Surgeon 



an 



Implement maker might be attached to th 



tution. 



The School connected with it should receive one 

or two youths from every county in the Kingdom, 












































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110 



from sixteen 



» 



hteen, to twenty years of 



5 



fifty pounds a year. These would receive instruction 
in the science of agriculture, and in practical husband- 
ry, and perform work in the manner which I have 
described. None should leave the School without 
permission ; the infraction of all rules should be 

to be 
of fines 



punished by fines, to go to a stock 
awarded in premiums. A third r< 



purse 



repetition 
should involve expulsion. 

As a check, all payments should be made half 
yearly in advance, with a deposit, as a security for 
good conduct. 

Premiums for the best Essays on Agricultural 
given subjects, also for the most expert performances, 



either in 



ploughin 



g, sowing, 



or other operations, 
the President, in 




should be annually awarded 

presence of the Board and Members ; certificates of 

scientific, or practical knowledge should be given to 

successful competitors. 

The buildings connected with the farm, should be 
of an entirely plain, unostentatious character, con- 
structed solely with a view to perfect usefulness, and 
economy, suited to become models for larger or 
smaller faim yards, either experimental or private. 
The house for the Director, should be such as a gen- 
tleman of small fortune would build for himself, 
this should be so situated, as to overlook the farm 
yard from his bed room and study. 























Ill 



)n the prop 



selection of this individual, mucl 



would depend, he should be a thorough practical far 
mer of <rood education, entirely devoted to the pur 

rvir-nlture. A gentleman of unimpeach 



suit of Ag 



able 
moral 



ifl 



and character 



have a positive 



lence over theyoung men ; a few practical 
paid labourers and servants should be attached to the 
farm to instruct the students in the manual operations 

of husbandry. 

One wino- of the farmery should be destined for 
the cattle, horses, cows, and pigs, the whol 
from whose stables should 



manure 



The opposite 



pository 



t> 



for 



husbandry 



tanks, for liquid 

g should form, below, a 

sorts of machines or implements 



makers in Lond 
would be happy 



Two of the leading machine 
have already declared that they 

>nd one of each of their instru- 



m 



to such an institution. 



The 



mntry ma- 
all should 
or Board. 



chinists of talent would do the same ; 

be tried when required by the Director 

Here would be practical information 

farmer coming to London for a day or two would not 

have to do what has occurred to myself, lose much 



to g 






time in g 
the best \ 



the implement maker 



to see 



innowino;, or drill machine, but he would 
once compare their merits and know their prices, 
Here it may be excuseable to use a collequial style. 



He requires a 



winnowing machine 



that will clean 






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112 



by practical use ; there he would gain time and 



corn fit for the market at one passing. Here it is 
I should like to be convinced of the fact by seeing it 
work. Send to the barn for a bushel of wheat in 
sheaf, there would be demonstration. A chaff cutter, 
a turnip sheer, a drill, a horse hoe, a grubber, all 
could be shewn to a farmer wishing to purchase them, 

ex- 
perience, and would be correctly informed as to the 

comparative and real merits of each instrument. 

Here, economy and simplicity, in the construction 
of all implements of husbandry would be pointed 
out, and insisted on ; most of these are too expensive 
for farmers ; of what avail is it, if none but the 
really wealthy can purchase a drill machine. Few 
farmers can afford to pay twenty or thirty pounds for 
a complicated instrument, which, on his leaving home 



maybe put 



f ord 



the 



his pi 



substituting in their place, loss in the dis 



tribution of time, cost of repair, vexation and dis- 
appointment ; but if such instruments were made at 
a cost of five or six pounds, simple and strong, regu- 



performance, not liabl 



be put out of ord 



when fairly used — they would be a great saving to a 

farmer. 

The experimental farm would force these accom- 

modations. 

Over the repository should be a committee room, 

a library which would be filled in a month by volun- 



































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113 



tary contributions, with volumes now lying neglected 



on a thousand shelves, besides, rooms 

ther purp 



for seeds and 



These 



be in 



hool lecture room, and dormitories, should 
^ cc win o- and thus enclose the farm yard. 



The like practical knowledg 



nd informati 



wou 



Id be obtained from an i 
What are these boards and 



pection of the crops 



Read — Half 



an acre 



f Swedes manur 



with soot ; d 



ime 



do. with sea 



ashe 



with 
: do. 



milar 



with decomposed manure ; do. with fresh manure 
do. with liquid manure ; do. with bone dust. Simili 
periments to be made, and 



plained as above, on 

wheat, barley, potatoes, and on all the staple crops 

or new crops to be 
but all explained as 



f the countrj 



The unknow 



tried on a much small 

■ 

above, so as to enable i 



farmer to make his 



rk 



■ ' 



It is ot 

a series < 

some capital to suppor 



dividual could conduct 



f experiments with advantage, it requires 



that 



ensue on 



*\ 



uncertain 



periments, a joint stock 



here 



common to all would be unfelt, but the benefit gained 
by all, considerable by the certain information ob- 
tained ; of which a report should be published, either 

>r quarterly, in the cheapest possible form. 



monthly or 

An exact account of 



disbursements and 



l 



pts 



;hould be submitted to the Board half yearly 

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114 













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I may be pardonable to say a little on the subject 
of wheat. It is the surest test of a farmer's skill, if 
he usually raises a better than an average erop, his 
previous cultivation must have been judicious. It 
is that plant which has most engaged my attention, 
as the most useful to man. 

Several of the deputies from the various associa- 
tions and others, did me the honor to examine the one 
hundred and three varieties of wheat, which I laid 
on the table of your committee, 72 sorts of winter 
wheat, and 31 of spring wheat. 

Four years of close application and careful com- 
parison, have given me a knowledge of important 
properties in wheat perhaps generally unknown. 

- 

I shall merely give an outline of my researches, re- 
serving my entire views on the subject for a future 
communication. Professor La Gasca, curator of the 

Royal Gardens at Madrid, well known as one of the 



first botanists of the age, who had devoted twenty 



five years to the classification and study of wheat, 
as a plant, had done so theoretically, he had not had 
leisure to study its properties as a nutriment, to him 
I owe a great and lasting debt of gratitude, which 
I am rejoiced thus to acknowledge. Four years since 
I accidently saw with astonishment and pleasure, about 
eighty distinct sorts of wheat growing in a nursery 
garden in Jersey, some seven feet high, some only 
four, the ears of some three inches, others six. 












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115 



The Professor, whose they were, happened to j 



me 



d though a 



stranger, he politely explained 



their qualities to me. 

I requested him to come and 



my crops, the 



f< 



I considered as p 



nmixe d,as those of my neighbours, when to my dis- 
may he drew from the fields three and twenty sorts. 
Some were white, some red, some liver coloured, some 



dead 



spring- wheat, some 

riper, some in a milky state, and 

mediately became convinced ' 



pe, shaking out, some 



I 



1m 



» 



& 



that no crop in that 

could either produce the greatest crop of corn, 

the largest quantity of flour, make the best or 

est bread, such, as would be produced from a 

Md all in an equal and perfect state of ripeness. 

I directly conceived a plan to endeavour practical 
ly to ascertain the relative productive sorts of wheat 

I requested Professor La Gasca to shew me those 
■which he considered as the best 
He pointed out four 



these I grew with 
their time of appearance, the 



number of deaths, or grains that failed 



•their tiller 



ing, flowering, nnmber of ears, weight of straw, and 
produce of corn, flour, and bran, both separately and 



ay 



There is full three week's difference 



the ripening of some of them, time enough to insure 
a regular succession in sowing them. 

When the Professor saw the drift of my experi 



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116 



merits, he exclaimed, " Is it possible that in one 
twelvemonth you have practically obtained the know- 
ledge of what I have been five and twenty years in 
studying ; but persevere with diligence and courage 
you will yet work some great benefit for your coun- 
try and for the world." 



I did 



that 



even 



» 



those 14 



pointed out to me by my learned friend, he was not 

aware of their relative properties, from his having 
recommended me one so inferior that it produced 
only one pound ten ounces of wheat, whereas ano- 
ther, from an equal number of grains, produced four 

pounds four ounces. I found that the average of 
tillers of the first was only six, I think, for lam writing 
from memory, my books being in Jersey, and the lat- 
ter sort eleven ; being nearly double the quantity of 
straw, and more of wheat ; hence, the crop of one sort 

might be ruin to a Farmer, whereas the other would 
be comparative wealth. 

I have raised fifty-two imperial bushels the acre of 
two varieties this year, as a crop ; but, experimen- 
tally, I have raised seventy-two by garden culture. 

r 

From one of those sorts, I have made twenty-five 
pounds of fine while bread from eighteen pounds of 



flour. 



Some of the London bakers inform me that 



no Dantzic, or Essex wheat will do that. From a sin- 
gle ear I have raised a sufficient quantity in three 

years to sow four acres of a pure unmixed variety, of 












Y. - « 




















117 



great produce, both in straw and wheat 



Some good 



Farmers mix th 



of wheat, in order 
Now as their int 



lig 



what 4 ? half a crop at least. 

- has led them to discover that some sorts pe 



rish when others live, what is the remedy 



to 



a 



the precise sorts that are suited to the soil 



It must 



and climate, and thus insure a full crop. 

be supposed that all soils will grow white wheats ; 

some of them are so tender, that their culture would 



be a 



id failure, but there are pure 



or 



yellow, or liver colored wheats, that will afford under 
Providence certain and remunerating crops in poor 



has 



sh opinion, the truth of 

The bounteous Giver of all good 

beneficently adapted this wonderful and im 



soils. This 

be proved in time 



portant pi 

rishes 



to all 



and climates, that it flou 



clad regions, or on sun burned pla 



Hence even with the most careless culture, it affords 

food for man ; but surely this is not all that may be 
expected from civilized— from scientific 



May 



be permitted Him 



discover and 



those sorts which may be precisely suited to each 



and soil, and 



pt 



the infl 



of unpropitious seasons, almost ensure a full crop. 

May it not be questioned if that beautiful round 
plump, thin 



i. 



thin skinned white wheat, found among th 
Dantzic high mixed" as it is called, be not th 



result of the observation and sagacity of some 



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118 



ligent Polish or German farmer ? It is scarcely to be 
believed that it is owing solely to the effect of the 



soil and climate. 



The 



very 



term 



a 



high mixed," 



infers that it is grown pure, but then, it is too good 
for our market, so a little alloy is mixed with it, 



luxury demands a portion of 



small quantity 



of inferior corn is made to pass with the finest, and 
it arrives here as " high mixed," " second mixed " or 
" inferior mixed." A cargo of pure, white wheat is 

is cause to be san- 



unknown. Nevertheless there 



guine that English farmers will grow such, and that 
biscuit bakers and pastry cooks, will pay them, the 
highest prices, and not to the farmers of Fodolia and 
Volhynia. Several gentlemen have declared, that 
they would readily give a guinea a bushel for seed, of 
such pure wheats, as would suit their soils. 

Since this statement was commenced, I have re- 
ceived an offer to establish a private experimental 

farm which would supply such seed corn ; I have no 
private object in view ; my desire is the support of 
English farmers for this proposed establishment, and 
that their experimental farm, should supply them 
with pure wheats at their own price. 



The know- 



ledge and all samples, that 
cheerfully contributed to it 



I possess, shall be 



H 



ere 



would be 



a nucleus, a pivot to work from. It should be near 
the metropolis, for obvious reasons, such as facility 
of printing, and conveying knowledge, superinten- 



























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I 



































119 



dence by the Board, ready inspectio 
a neutral ground, where men 



It 



Id be 



of all parties, or po 



litical creeds might join, here might be laid to rest on 
Committee day s, and General Meetings, all the angry 
passions, and their concomitant evils. Let the yeo- 
men unite with the gentry as the true children of the 
soil, and rally round their Sovereign as the first of its 
farmers, and " union will prove to be strength." 

It is a subject which appears to be sufficiently im- 
portant, to awaken the attention, and engage the sup- 
ort of HisMajesty 's Government, as it might greatly 
L^se the income of the empire, considering it only 



matter of pounds, shillings, and pence, the risk 



may be seen by the followin 
"ThereVre 111 countries in the United Kingdom, 
but suppose that only 100 of them sent a student to 
an experimental farm-say of 200 acres, its income 

might be as follows : 



One 



hundred youths at a charge of £50 a-year 

each, would produce £5000, their labour estimated 

Fifty 

four course shift, in pure wheat, to be dis- 



pence a-day each, would be £750 more 



tributed as seed, at forty bushels the acre 
bushels at ten shillings would produce £1000 a-y 



2000 



more. 



All the other crops bein 



th 



pital 



and estimated 



may be supposed saleable 
£1000, which altogether would present an income 

f nearly £8000 a-year. 



Then deducting there 









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120 



from 
Ex- 



ay 



from the rent of 200 acres, at £5 a-year, per acre 
cost and tuition of each student, £50 a-year ; inte- 
rest on outlay for buildings, stock, ,£1000 a-year, in 
all £7000, would leave some profit to the farm. 

In addition would be an income, arising 
casual visitors, who should pay for admittance, 
periments might also be carried on for the improve 
ment of stock by crosses with foreign animals, either 
cattle, sheep, or poultry, through the favor and with 
the assistance of the Zoological Societies ; these 

might occasion further profit. 

I cannot close this statement without contra tulatino* 
the farmers of this great country on the formation of 
this auspicious Society. I view in it, the dawn of that 



portant 



wh 



ord shall be turned 



into a Ploughshare, and the weapons of war into 
pruning hooks." It is perfectly true that in no other 

country have persons of wealth and liberality carried 

on to the same extent, the multiplied and varied 
experiments that have been witnessed in England ; 
but it is no less true, that with a few exceptions, such 
as the splendid enquiry into the nature and properties 
of Grasses by the Duke of Bedford, under the di- 
rection of Mr. Sinclair; the admirable labours of Sir 
John Sinclair, and a few others, no positive body of 
information as to the results of series of varied ex- 



periments, has ev 



rer b 



een made known ; hence the 



researches of many patriotic and liberal labourers in 



















121 



Agricultural knowled 
to the circle of a pai 



o 



have either been confined 



or perhap 



that of 



county, 
results 



It is therefor 
f such invesi 



highly 



e 



expedient that the 
should be collected 



and published in the most acceptable form 
analogous experiments should " 



and that 



be conducted at the 
experimental farm, in various soils collected there, 
for the purpose of verifying former experiments by 



When England leads the way for 

If the affairs of 



additional proofs 

o-ood, all other nations will follow 
this noble institution be conducted in pure singlenes 
of heart and purpose, solely with the view of promo 
ting the common interest of Agriculture, its^prosp 
ty will be sure, its duration permanen " 



If, on the 



contrary, selfish or party views should creep mt< 
administration, it will languish, and speedily fall 

decay. 

Great Prophet 



I conclude with the emphatic words of the 



Give ye ear, and hear my 



hearken, and 



hear my speech 



Doth the ploughman plough all 



day 



Doth he open and break the clods 



u 



of his oround % When he hath made plain the face 



thereof, doth he 



broad the fitches and 



u 



scatter the cummin, and cast in the principal wheat 
and the ^appointed barley, and the rye in their 



v 



places 
Trusting that I have ensured your support; as an 














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122 



earnest of my sincerity, 1 beg to offer a donation of 
five pounds towards the experimental farm, and sub- 
scribe myself, 

> 

With great truth and respect, 
Tour much honored, and verv faithful humble 



servant, 



J. LE COUTEUR 



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PRINTED BY P. PAYN ; ROYAL SALOON. JERSEY 










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