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Full text of "Linguistic Survey Of India Vol V Part I Indo Aryan Family Eastern Group"

8 as sh is almost the only circumstance in which the modern eastern languages do not all
agree in following the custom of the ancient Magadhi.
. Turning now to inflexion, it may be broadly stated that all the languages of the
Eastern Group (and also Marathi) fchow a greater tendency
to inflexional synthesis than do those of the Western. Most
of the inflexional procedure of the Western languages is carried out by the addition of
separate words, which are still separate words even when added to the main base. For
instance 'a house' is ghar. If, in Hindi, we wish to sayc of a house,' we must add the
separate word M, and, if we wish to say c in a house,' we must add the separate
word me, thus, ghar*k&> ghar»mff* In other words, the language is, so far as
this part of its grammar is concerned, in the analytic stage. On the other hand, these
ideas in the Eastern Group are not conveyed by the addition of separate words but by
true inflexion. Thus, Bengali gharer, Assamese yharar, Oriya gharara, Bihari ghwak,
of a house; Bengal), Assamese, Oriya, and Bihari, (cf. the Marathi gharf) ghare, in a
house. In other words the language is, so far as this part of its grammar is concerned,
in the synthetic stage. Again, in Hindii * I went' is mat chala. It is necessary to state
the pronoun, or we shall not know who has gone. On the other hand, for the Same idea,
Bengali has chalil&m, Assamese salilo, Oriya chalili, and Bihari cWldhu (of. Marath!
t$al*l5)) in all of which the meaning of the first personal pronoun is as much included
as in the Latin wi. These words mean only ' I went.1 They cannot mean * you went'
or* he went.1
Descending to details, we shall commence with declension, or the inflexion of noune
and pronouns.   As a broad rule we may say that every
Declension.               Indo-Aryan noun or pronoun has a direct and an oblique
form in each number. The two forms are, it is true, often identical, but each exists,
and each has all the same its separate origin. The identity of appearance, when it
occurs, is only accidental. Thus, in Hindi, the word for 'horse' has its direct form
ghor&, and its oblique form ghofe. Similarly the word for * house * has its direct form
gh<xr> and its oblique form also g har, similar in appearance, but different in its prigin.
The former is derived from the Vedic word gfihafa a house, and the second from the Vedic
word gfihasya,) of a house. Words like ghofa, which thus end in a in Hindi, and have
an oblique form in e, are called strong forms of abases, while words like ghar (properly
ghara) which in Hindi are pronounced as if they ended in a consonant, are weak forms of
a-bases. It may be stated, roughly speaking, that in languages of the Western Group
strong fortfts of 0-hases are the only nouns whose oblique forms differ from their direct
forms. In the Eastern Group* many weak forms of a-bases have also oblique forms differ-
ing from the direct ones. Thus, in Bihaii, pahar, direct form, means * a guard,' and its
oblique form is pah*r&. In the Eastern Group, the direct strong form of a-bases always
ends in <z, but in the Western Group, it usually ends in aw or o. The only exception is
Panjabi, in which it ends in 0, which form has been borrowed from that language by
literary Hindi: Thus, the word for * horse * in the Eastern Group is everywhere ghora,
but in the Western Group we have true Hindi ghoraw, Gujarati ghodo, and Panjabi,
with its imitetor literary Hindi, gjioda or ghoju. Here again Marathi follows the
Eastern Group. In the Eastern Group the oblique form of all strong a-bases, and of all
weak Abases whose oblique form differs from the direct, always ends in &. But in the
Western Group, except in Gujarati and Bajasthani, in the case of strong bases only it