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28                                                                  BENGALI.

4 Although, for the sake of completeness, the vowel signs % f!, % Ifi, and j Ifi are
included in the list of characters, they are not used at all in ordinary Bengali. They
are, however, required in transcribing Sanskrit grammatical works into the Bengali
character, and in Sanskrit grammars written for the two of Bengali students.

* The forms of the vowels given above ?yrc the initials, and are used only at the
beginning of a word; when subjoined to a consonant they take the following forms :

a (not expressed)                  d t

if           O            e C           ai I

u .              u ,              5 Ct          au C\

* hi the following cases the combination of consonant and vowel gives rise to
 peculiar forms:
K   r   with     u   is   written   yp               y a with A   u  is written u
"                                      *>                                                                                        ,                    N  &                        +*
\       ?        I*       v         &        *f                           P                      ^   #        l>       ^       ^        J*        M           ^5
*   A       ^                  *      I      *fp    >,   (                *f (occasion-
ally).
* When one consonant follows another with no vowel between* the two are, as in
D6vanagarif combined into oue compound letter*   In most cases the dements of the
compound are easily distinguishable, as in "Jt&a, Rkltt) ymnti; but thro are ome in
which the elements are so altered as to be with difficulty r<?co$m$ed.   The most com-
monly met with are the following:
1. Nasals preceding other consonants (called.in Bengali Anka-phalA)*
*    n with    ^   Aa   makes   T   nka>         \   n   with   *f   tha   rnakos    y ntka*
*    n    H       %   ga              T   ^a.         ^   n            H   dh(*       ,        1 ndha*
<fy n    n      F   oha     n       ^f   fioha*       ^   m         *f   jpa               *t mpa*
^ 9          W   rfa      ,       ^   ^?a.        3   m         ^    ma             nr mmn.
S* Sibilants preceding other consonants (called A*k&~phal&) :
^   a      with      <3   Ma      makci}      1
?   $A                ^   /a                        l
^   9k               t   ?w*             j           
3. Miscellaneous
fe    f       with     I       /a       makes       $    tta
<$   t          ,       ^       <a                          a
^   <               t      *         ,          t   Aa.
*   rf                       f          !*<            >               *     <WAa.
^   *                    <5        t&                            vp     Wa
*f /               <fli       ^                    w   ;8a   (pronounced/a)*
*  0                   ^         rf^a          w             ^    gdha.
\ ^                  f         rf&a          t             ^[    ftrfJia.
\ A              f      na                    ?   Aa-
\  *         tf       V       ma                    ^   Ama.
^ *                *       tJla         it            *    i^Aa (^a),