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KHARli-THAB DIAM1CT OE MA^BE^M.                                        91

As regards consonants, there is a tendency to aspiration, as in dhur> for dtir,
distant. So, h is inserted, as in y*dhak (yahok) for ek> one ; chahardte, for char&tte,
to feed.

The letter n is liable to become f, with nasalisation of the preceding vowel.

Thus murish, for munis, a servant ; £%ri for £uni, having heard ; jvr%*9 for jinis,
things ; marash, for mdnush, a man. This is really an attempt to pronounce a cerebral
#, the sound of which has been lost in Bengali, but which still exists in Oriyaand in the
languages of Western India. At the beginning of a word, it becomes 19 itilahi, I am
not; lay, is not

The letter I sometimes becomes r, as in saka?9 for sakal, all ; dkdr, a famine ;
nikri, having come out ; but it more usually becomes #, as in «a&, for lok, a person ;
kahindk, he said ; hatfdk, it happoped ; g$ndk, I am gone, or he went; d*n$k, he came ;
kunnu, for kariltt, karimi, I committed ; nagnek, for Idgilek, they began ; bhan for
bhdla, good ; and many others.

The letter y> added to a consonant doubles it, and is not itself .pronounced. Thus
ndoFtt) pr. ndddv, sweetmeats.

Of course, $, sh and s are all indifferently pronounced as,$&.

Note the curious word dhdimend, running— apparently a corruption of dhdvamana.


(a) Pleonastic Suffixes,— These are fa (gen. tdr), and gd* Both are common.
Thus, dui~td9 two ; chad-td, the son ; dailat-t&r9 of wealth ; chhdo-gd, the son ; sa&ar-gd,
all; hdt-gd, the hand.

(ft) The Accusative-Dative usually ends in k§. Thus baWd-lee, to the father,
Note, however, ghara-Jc jdt, going to the house*

(<?) The Genitive is regular. Thus, naker, of a person ; babbdr, of a father,
but gh&ra*k pds (Bihari), near the house.

(<Z) The Instrumental-Locative usually ends in e. Thus, mdjhe, in; ghare, in
a house ; bhake, by hunger ; and many others*

Sometimes it ends in t.   Thus g$nd-t> on going ; bttniyd*t, on saying.

(e) The signs of the Ablative are hate and tMK8. Thus dhur hate, from a
distance ; mahar hdt-gd hate, from my hand; naukd th%k%> from the boat.

(/) The Plural seems, as a rule, to be the same as the singular* When neces-
sary, regular Bengali forms are used.


First Person,— *»«& I ; mahar t my ; mahar -ke, mut-ke> me, to me ; wwt-ra, we.
In the phrase mm dosh han'dk, by me a fault has been, it seems as if mm was in the
case of the Agent, or Instrumental. Of. Hindustani, mujh *e dosh *«£.

Second Person,—*^ th(ra J t&kar$ tahar, thy.

Third Person,—*^ be; Hi, he (correlative) ; tdhar> tdhdr, his ; tdhar-ke, tahar-ke,
him, to him ; tdha*te> on that ; tahara, tdf ird> they ; tdhdrder^ of them ; tdhar-dike* to

Ehdy> on this.

Adjectives,—^ this ; M> ai, that

OtherS|— Anything, kichhtt, kis; anyone, keha; any, kon (not tone).
* Bengali.