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Full text of "Linguistic Survey Of India Vol V Part I Indo Aryan Family Eastern Group"

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A compound consonant preceded by a long rowel is generally reduced to a single
one, all except the last being omitted or replaced by anuntoika, Thus, tokknd, &v,
becomes hftnd.                                                                                                   * * *

Pinal e is often dropped, especially in the locative suffix **of nouns and in the
infinitive of verbs. Thus, bajite, at home, becomes barit ; kahite, to say, becomes tahit.

Pinal a is omitted in the third person Past and Pluperfect of verbs. Thus, gel fcr
gela, he went ; dchhil for achhila, he was ; kargil for kargila, he had made.

Short words with & in the first syllable, sometimes insert j, or less frequently Vf af fcer the
d in pronunciation. Thus, Mil for Ul> a rudder ; dij for ai> to-day ; auge for age, before.

In words of several syllables, especially those borrowed from Persian or Arabic, the*
accent is thrown back as far as possible, and the following syllables are lightened. Thus
hadydld (Arabic Jl^), a charge, becomes hdola, a kind of land tenure! elaka (Arabic

, connexion, becomes elakd.

Inanimate nouns drop the termination of
the Accusative* In the case of pronouns
the termination of the Ablative is added to
the Genitive case.


The following is an example of the declension of a noun :-«
Norn. put wput-e, a son.
Ace.   put-re.
Dat.      „
AbL put-tun*
Loc.   put-e or put~at.
Gen. put-ar.
Instr. put-ar-di.

An example of the plural is cMyar-hdla~re> to servants.   Some nouns form their

plurals in gun or un.   Thus, kuur*gun, dogs ; ghord*un, horses.
The following examples illustrate the declension of Pronouns :—

First Person,—^, I; a-re or Syd-re, me or to me; a-r or %5-r, my; a-rd or

ayd-rd) we.

Second Person,—^ thy; tdr9 thy, and so on.
Respectful forms,— Son$9 you ; aondr, your.
Third Person,—^, tSSh tdn, hete, he; tdr, tdn, his; t&tte, for him; tara, tdn&>

they, and so on.
Other Pronouns,— ei, this; Stwr9 hitdr,ot this; a$> U^ that; ?^, vho; ?5, what;

(a) Verb Substantive—

1.  dchti, I am, we are*

2.  achha, or dchhas.

3.  dchhe.

(6) finite Verb-

1.  Jwrir, kari, I make, we make, also,

1 am making, we are making,

2.  *arar, lara*.

I* jfearfr, iare, hoaorific, ^r/«ii.

, I was, we were.


karitS (or karitdm)

making, we were making.
karite dchhild.
karitc dthhil*