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Full text of "Linguistic Survey Of India Vol V Part I Indo Aryan Family Eastern Group"

BENGALI.

A verb whose root ends in a vowel, forms its Present as follows:—

1.  khdir, 1 eat, we eat.

2.  khdor.

8. JcMer, or khdr.

Past.      '                                             Pluperfect.

1.  kargyam,  kargi  or karilam

91 made, we made.

2.  kargya  or karild (karid), or

karildk*

3.  kargye or karil*

>am,  I had  made,  we  had

made.
kargild) or kargili.

karvtt.

Transitive verbs often preserve the final a in the third person. Thus, ka'tta, he
said; dila, he gave; I have not met instances of this in the case of Intransitive verbs.
We have gel, he went, not gela.

The Past tense in gi, gya, gyes is restricted to verbs whose roots end in r, r, or g.
For the g, j is sometimes substituted. Thus dhargi or dharji, I seized. Other verbs
take, in the Past tense, the terminations yi> ya, and ye, before which i is inserted if the
root ends in a vowel. Examples are the following:—

1.  rdkhyam or rdkhyi, I kept.

2.  rAkhya, or rdkhiya.

3.  rdkhyfy pronounced rdikhye.

ichdiyi or khdildm, I ate, we ate.
khdiya.
khdiye or khdilla.
Tlie Pluperfect is formed by adding lyom (1st person), Id or li (2nd person), and I
(3rd person) to the first person of the Past tense. "We thus get rdkUlyam> I had kept;
kMiyilyam, I had eaten; and so on.
Future*
1.  karyum, kargyam, karba> or karbdm, I shall make, we shall make.
2.  karbd.
3.  karbya or karbe.
Before all these terminations, i may optionally be inserted. Thus, kariywn>
kari<jyam> kariba> or karibdm.
Imperative.
2.  i?a?a, do thou.   With a negative, na kario.
3.  karuk* honorific k&ratak.
Infinitive,—kartt(e)tkart(e)9 or karitdm, to make.
Present Participle,—karit(e)9 or kart(e)> making.
Conjunctive Participle,—kari, or kariydre, having made, making.
The Past Conditional or Past Habitual is illustrated in the specimens by bhardita,
he would fill; khdita, they used to eat.   Mr. Pargiter does not describe this tense^
which is apparently the same as in standard Bengali.
The verb  %dit5, to go, has an irregular Conjunctive Participle, goi, having gone,
which is often added to other verbs to render them more forcible.   Thus, Si geldm goi,
1 went away; deo goi, give away.
For further particulars of the grammar, and for a vocabulary of words peculiar to
the dialect, see Mr. Pargiter's work above mentioned.