Note that the second person honorific of the Prefpnt >
M tit Fint Vi&£ No-ia. A'w thai th» PWM* De£*t»
RooUa.be. Verbal Nouns, AotcJ, being.
Prevent /«/«fr/tfii^ '«* *h/, .
i an* 2 W;H,
I '*' A' " c
haohi, being. Present Participle, hc&te, while being.
I hjvek:'£, I. W JUT
Pr-JM^ /^/?W^, ! AS. >
Past » howa, been.
2a, tea jjj/j
Conjunctive „ kdit having bepn. Conditional „ i4/e, A<I/<W, on being.
&' J&V? &#
Ptytrftcf I rad U-*1-..
Similarly are conjugated the roots fa, say, to, take, ra, step, la, IMW, ar.a
fl, place. Also the Mowing, amongst others-
cause to eat
cause to remove
cause to get
cause to be brought
He down, sleep
Conj. Part. First Verbal XCBB.
H5M12IS FOI ui cvjrjr0A«o»»,— Som? rerhn
drwji tbr termination ira ttf tK? wvoiid ^rrson ncr.-icn<3r!fi« o!
the preset*.* Thm, Hi, tboa eaitst.
In t!& ca»? r,f Tra:;s!t;ri' vi-ibs, th* letter e Is ur:a!2v
to the third persi-n of the Patt ard sf the Phperfwt Thus
gi/e, re g^t, hvlilf, he (poke, ftcfj-ifff, he ha*l
Th(? same ttwclratka !« sf,iaetim« found
v<*rb%, ThTis, iAt/r or dftif c» he came*
Boot, 6W, speak.
Verbal Nou-ns, oo?5, speaking.
Present Participle, bMe, while speaking.
Past „ tola, spoken.
Conjunct. „ o«/i, having spoken.
Conditional „ bvlilc, buHlat, on speak-
Similarly are conjugated—
Prettnt, I speak.
l.tWff. 2j.Wa. Si.Wcw. 3. to. Boot. Slcaning. OQBJ. Ptat Fta* V. S.
P<wf, I spoke.
te. (3. kdile.) a» bring i!»i ««,!.
v, t shall speak. aA ccme
frWim, etc. »-ir strike
«, speak* ^ be abk
, 6oit, / ii? hit, be nwewary
Pretext Definite, I am speaking. nomr be unable
and many others.
Pluperfect, I had spoken, buli-tilt.
taD CONJUGATION— Boot, gw, depart.
Present, I deport, gutft etc. Patt, 1 departed, gut itt.
Similarly are conjugited—
Verbal Nouns, ^Mia^departing. ,, ffittib&i departing.
Future, I shall depart, gtfim*
Root. Meaning. Conj. Part First V. X.
gutftZ, departing. Present Participle, gitfSte, while departing.
Imperative, depart thon, <p*i.
k&r make, do idn
Past „ 9*&, departed. Conjunct „ W», kving departed. Conditional „ (futile, gitfild, on departing.
Present Dejinite, I am departing, Pluperfect, 1 had 'departed, jpftfift.
for run, move t&ri naral not to move nar&li
and many other*.
C —Irregular Verbs.— The root
ciple»zow5; Conjunctive Participle, gdi ;
. Verbal Nouns, #m>&, tfba, &&& ; Prnent Participle, g5Se ; Post Parti-
gtft, $Mat. Present,^; Part,^; Pntari,f5»; Preient Definit
. Pment Participle, tife ; Past ParticipX «%« ,-Conjuwrfive Participle, rff; Con-
ditional Participle, *fr, AW. Present, 1. ^ 2<L %«, 26. eity*, 3. diye; Past, ^5; Future, dim ; and so on.
The root z?, live, is conjugated like di, substituting i for * throughout. This is * mere matter of swllmg.
Theroot^; cut &fo lengths, is conjugated like a verb of the fiwt conjugation, tt^pt that its Fi«t Verbal Noun, Past Participle, Second
person Honorific Present, are tern.
D.-Kegative VerbsV-lKB means c there is not.' To express negation otherwise, *+ «& «, »«, M «r sio i» prefixed to the Verb, the
vowel of the prefix corresponding with the first vowel of the verb. Thus, wtJutf, I am not \ *M*> he will not give ; *«&**«, he dow not listen,
When the first vowel of the verf is a. the prefix is «* or M, as nSftf or «ei#, I /b not ?o. If the T^Jw?" ^ s Tel> ?ly . ? fcl«fi«*
as in oZ%, he appears, *oty, he does not ippcar. The Pa«t of ***& is *q*U, \ did not go, and so in the other taM formed with 5rA The
First Verbal Noun is, of course, no$owa. The negative of the root jrfr, U able, v pen under tht lecoud conjugation, and of /£»•, ran, moTe,
under the third. Ntt used with the present tens* gives it a past meaning, Thus, turn diyS mi> thon gawst not.
E.-CaTttal Verb8.-Cansal verbs are formed much as in Bengali Exampi* <rf C^usali vA _Donbl< ( Causajf an rim undff tbe first
conjn^Son. As a rule, the root of a Causal verb if the same as t to First Verbal Noun ol the simple verb. Similarly, that of a Donbla Causal
is the same as the First Verbal Noun of the Causal
F.-Passive Voice.-Fonned by conjugating the Past Participle with U Ems, molt dig tei#> it Is tebg given to me. Or by con-
jugatlng the First Verbal Noun with *5. Thu, Mb fart &y> that is found, literally, tto finding that goes on.
G,-Oompound Verbs.-Jcgtfm^i«e» are formed by conjugating the Accusative or Dative of th« Second V«r]»l Noun with the root
Mget. Permit**, by conjugating the same form with 4 give. Thus,$t l^^,be<Ww|M>misrfontodoj ; t*mi a*a*lp kM>
bkog kh&a-lai pab&, yon will certainly get to undergo punishment j mok Unb* %*, allow me to do. Ztewfcjw/tow, the same form with
ijfe wi»h, « in ^»* Uriba Teteri, you wish to do. lawpfow, the flutive of the same noun wtth Mar> KIIC, berin, w in
dAaM, yon begin to do, PoMMt, the Accusative of the same noun with jtfr, be able, at in Mriiw p8ro, I CM 3
fotm with ttg, Mt, »lwayi in the third person, whatever the person of the subject, as In may Mnb* l$$e, I must to,