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Full text of "Linguistic Survey Of India Vol V Part I Indo Aryan Family Eastern Group"

MAYING.                                                              421
The vowel e usually appears as a, as in ago, for ego, one. The diphthong di or <w, is
pronounced something like ei, and is indifferently written ai, at, and ei. Thus, jaifai,
jditai, or jeitai, they will go; petheilo, for the Bengalipdthdila, he sent; yaimpa, or
yeimopd, middle.
Pronounce o|as in' hot'; 6 as in ' home.'
NOTJNS.—Article,—The Indefinite article is ago, one which follows the noun it
qualifies. Thus, m&nv, ago, a man. It sometimes combines with the noun as in gor&got,
for gora, agot, on a horse. The Demonstrative pronoun, augo, autd, or avkhond, or some
other of its forms, is used for the Definite article. Thus, bdyok khvld augoi, the younger
brothei'; raja cgoi, the king; ptitok ogd, the son; saruk autd, the share; tar phdm
okhondt, to the place of him, to his place. As in the case of the Indefinite article, it
follows the noun it qualifies. When a noun with an article is declined, the declensional
suffixes are added to the article, not to the noun, as in mdwt agor, of a man, and okhondt
just given.
Pleonastic suffixes.—The suffixes go and khan, khond, or khnd, are very frequently
added to a noun or pronoun without affecting the sense.
Gender.—This, when necessary, is indicated hy the addition of words signifying sex.
The most common seem to be Idbd for males and dmom and jeld for females. Thus gora
Idbd, a horse; gora dmom or gora jeld, a mare. There are also traces of the expression
of gender by alteration of the terminations of words, as in gordni, a mare; yaimopd
putok> middle son; yeimopi mSlole, middle wife. Compare the suffixes IdM and pa, male,
and among andjpi female, in Meithei.
Nouns Of Relationship.—These optionally take the termination 5*, no doubt the
same as the Assamese ek, meaning «his,' although, as is common in similar cases, the
signification has been lost. Thus, bdpok, a father, originally «his father'. So p&tok, son;
mdlok, wife.                                                                             ^
Number.—The plural is indicated by adding some word meaning all or many ,
such as UU, all; lokei, people; and others. The plural is only indicated when the
number is not evident from the context. Lokei itself is said to be a plural of lok, as jelei
is oijeld.
Case.—The Nominative takes the termination e before transitive verbs, as in
Assamese "and Bengali. Thus, bdpoke ditto, the father gave. When this e is added to
the pleonastic suffix go, the two become got.
The Accusative usually takes no termination. Sometimes it takes the termination
re which, after a consonant, becomes ore, for the sake of euphony. Thus, puiokore
kilallu, I struck the son; tempdkore gure, having covered the clod; td-re, him. When
the emphatic suffix aw is added, the e of re is elided, as in dgo-r-m, M having seen)
even one (thief). In one case I, the termination of the instrumental is used for the accu-
sative, viz., gordl uUwdt tMId, (they) put the horses there.
The termination of the Instrumental is ol as in tdrvdl-khanrol, with a sword.
After a vowel it becomes Id, as in autd-lo, by that,
Eor the Dative, the termination re is used, as for the accusative. Thus, fc**»*
to a father, hnor-ore, to the swine. More usual is the use of the old Kuki suffix r^t
which, afte a consonant, becomes enphonically or^ TM% »^v « *S?T?i
to a father. Okd or Madded to the genitive means' for', as in Meroko or fate** for
what, why ? tarokd> for him*