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Cambridge University Press 






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An account of the early archaic pottery and of the 
figurines, archaic and classical, with supple- 
mentary lists of the finds of glass, beads 
and metal, from excavations made by 
R. M. BURROWS and P. N. URE 
in 1907, 1908, 1909 and by 
P. N. and A. D. URE in 
1921 and 1922 







trav eOp6vros ?pyov 


Preface page xi 



(i) Their contents and significance 4 

(n) Methods of burial 5 

(in) The individual graves 8 


Note on shape names 16 

I. Geometric and related 17 

,11. "Argive Monochrome" 18 

III. Protocorinthian ' ' 19 

IV. Corinthian 22 

V. Bucchero 46 

VI. Black Glaze Vases 47 

VII. Boeotian Black Figure 50 

VIII. Coarse Ware 52 








APPENDIX : Aryballoi and related vases from other sites 90 

Index 105 


Fig. i. Pithos burials zoia, loib page n 

Figs. 2 and 3. Pithos burials 125 a, b, c, d, e 12 

Fig. 4. Pithos burial 132 13 

Fig. 5. Details of decoration of aryballos 50. 258 b 36 

Fig. 6. Details of decoration of aryballos 50. 258 c 38 

Fig. 7. Small pot 101 a. 3 50 

Fig. 8. Head-dresses of sixth-century "pappades" and of a fifth- 
century seated figure 58 

Fig. 9. Grave area excavated at Rhitsona, 1907-22 

between p. 108 and plates 

Plates I, II. Graves 

Plates III-XII. Grave furniture, mainly aryballoi 

Plates XIII-XXI. Grave furniture, mainly figurines 

at end 

[Note. The punctuated number affixed to each object gives the number 
of the grave followed by the number of the individual object in the 
grave catalogue. The bracketed number gives the height in fractions of 
a metre except when a prefixed d. or 1. indicates that the measurement 
given is the diameter or the length.] 


The subject of this monograph is the material that had to be held over 
from our last Rhitsona publication, Sixth and Fifth Century Pottery from 
Rhitsona (1927). Of the graves now published for the first time 86-93, 95^ 
97, 99 were excavated by Burrows in 1909, graves 101 a, 101 b, 103, i25a-e, 
132, 134? i4 r > H5 by my wife and myself in 1921 and 1922. In the second 
section of this book (Figurines, etc.) the material includes unpublished 
objects from these three excavations and figurines not hitherto adequately 
published from the earliest of our excavations, carried out in 1907 and 1908. 

The many and deep debts to colleagues and friends that we had incurred 
in the course of our work in the cemetery at Rhitsona and in the museum 
at Thebes were acknowledged in the preface to Sixth and Fifth Century 
Pottery, but they have since been constantly growing, and at the risk of some 
repetition I cannot deny myself the pleasure of further acknowledgments. 

First and foremost I have to thank once more the Greek authorities. The 
generous and broad-minded way in which they allow foreign archaeologists 
to take part in the excavation of their country can hardly be paralleled 
in modern times and is in the true Periclean tradition. More particularly 
I must thank my friend A. D. Keramopoullos, who, in the early days of our 
excavations, was ephor of antiquities for Boeotia. It is due to him that the 
complete finds from each of our graves are exhibited as a unity in the cases 
of the museum at Thebes. The temptation to follow the easy and unscientific 
course of exhibiting only the show pieces and keeping the mass of material 
out of sight is even now not always resisted in some quarters, and was the 
normal procedure twenty-five years ago. Looking back now, I am more than 
.ever impressed with our good fortune in having found as ephor in Boeotia 
so distinguished a scholar and archaeologist as Keramopoullos and one so 
much ahead of his time. His lead has been ably followed by his successors 
at Thebes, my friend N. G. Pappadakis, now professor in the university 
of Salonika, and Chr. Karouzos, the present ephor, both of whom have 
always been ready with the utmost generosity, often at great personal 
inconvenience, to help our work in every possible way. 

The British School at Athens, through whom we obtained our permits to 
dig, has continued to be consistently helpful. And as this report concludes 
at least the first long chapter in the history of Rhitsona excavations, I 
cannot refrain from mentioning, besides R. M. Dawkins and A. J. B. Wace, 
the directors during the years when we were digging, two other members 
of the school from whom I have received special help: in the earlier 
campaigns the late F. W. Hasluck, whose friendly counsel in the early days 
of our excavations is still a vivid memory, and more recently my old pupil 
R. P. Austin, who, while working at his own finds from Haliartos, has given 
us valued aid from time to time and especially when last I was at Thebes 
in 1933 revising the MS. of this monograph. 


The points on which I have received help from archaeologists and 
museum curators in various parts of Europe and America are too numerous 
and varied for me to attempt any detailed acknowledgments here; but to 
these compulsory omissions one exception must be made. No one who has 
worked long at the excavation of Greek cemeteries will deny the place of 
honour that must always be held by the veteran P. Orsi. His great publi- 
cations of the Greek cemeteries of Megara Hyblaea and Gela in Monumenti 
Antichi and of Syracuse in Notice degli Scavi are the models that everyone 
is bound to follow and develop; but many of his graves are unfortunately 
still unpublished and can only be studied in the cases of the museum at 
Syracuse. It is no small pleasure to me to recall the ready courtesy with 
which he allowed me every opportunity of so doing when I was in Sicily in 

To my collaborator in the excavation of 1921 and 1922 I owe a debt that 

I shall not attempt to assess : it includes a full share of the records made at 
the actual excavations and of the original cataloguing of the finds and 
furnishing, from a grant made to her by University College Reading, the 
funds for the excavations of 1922. 

And lastly there remains the quite incalculable debt that this mono- 
graph and its writer owe to the first excavator of Rhitsona, Ronald 
Burrows. My accounts of the graves excavated in 1909 are taken entirely 
from his 1909 day-book; the illustrations of them on plates I and II are 
from his photographs; in the descriptions of the objects from these graves 
I have made constant use of his MS. catalogue written in 1912, and it 
needs only a glance at the contents of these graves to realise how rich and 
instructive they are in the light of Burrows' detailed records. Apart how- 
ever from these records of simple observed fact, it would not be fair to make 
Burrows responsible for any statement in this book. His last illness over- 
took him before he had begun any special study of Corinthian pottery. The 
least that I can do is also the most, to dedicate this book to him in the sense 
of the quotation from Pindar that I have placed beneath the dedication. 

The expenses of the publication have once more been most generously 
met by the Research Board of Reading University. The various departments 
of the Cambridge Press have shown their customary friendliness, courtesy, 
patience and skill. To them also my warmest thanks. 

P. N. URE 


The first part of this study deals with the vases from graves of the eighth and 
seventh centuries and the early part of the sixth, in which the Corinthian 
aryballos and its Protocorinthian predecessor are the commonest and most 
characteristic types. The graves in which these vases were found are for 
the most part unpublished, and a preliminary section deals with the methods 
of burial employed at Rhitsona through this period and gives an account 
of the individual burials. The earliest of these graves are the earliest so far 
discovered on the site and go back to the Geometric period ; the latest, of 
the early sixth century, bring us down to the beginning of the period already 
studied in Sixth and Fifth Century Pottery from Rhitsona. In the main pottery 
section of the present study all the vases from these earlier graves are 
similarly recorded and discussed from the Geometric of the earliest graves 
, to the Boeotian Black Figure of the latest. In the case of the dominant vase 
type, the Corinthian aryballos and its close relation the bombylios or 
alabastron, I have for completeness carried the account down to the period 
of the mid-sixth-century graves already published in previous reports. 
The vases are grouped according to their methods of decoration "orange 
quarters", bands and dots, animals in pure silhouette, animals with in- 
cisions, warriors, floral patterns, etc., with chronological sub-groupings of 
each main type. 

To this main section on the Rhitsona vases I have added, in the form 
of an appendix, a list of parallels from other sites to the various types of 
Corinthian aryballos and bombylios from the Rhitsona finds. For the other 
classes (i-m, v-vm) of the main pottery section parallels have been quoted 
only occasionally and rather arbitrarily. The material has either been 
dealt with in previous studies, or is not sufficiently abundant to justify the 
appendix form of treatment, and I did not want to overload the report of 
the actual finds with extraneous material. 

The second part deals with the Rhitsona figurines from their earliest 
appearance at Rhitsona, about the beginning of the sixth century, onwards. 
These figurines come mainly from published graves, but no article, or even 
section of an article, has so far been devoted to them. In our earlier 
publications the individual figurines were briefly described and occasionally 
illustrated in the catalogues of the contents of the various graves; in our 
latest and longest publication (Sixth and Fifth Century Pottery, 1927) the 
limited means at our disposal and the mass of the vase material we had to 
deal with forced us to concentrate exclusively on the vases and to do no 
more for the figurines than merely list them in our grave catalogues with 
bare references to their types. I have therefore expanded here the record of 
the figurines from the earlier graves into a brief account of the whole 
Rhitsona series. 


In shorter sections that follow, the finds of glass, beads and metal objects 
are for the same reason treated in the same way. 

Finally I have catalogued, in the briefest possible form, largely by means 
of references to the sections on the various types of vases and figurines, the 
full contents of each individual grave not previously published. 1 

For the purely Boeotian products, and particularly the figurines of the 
pappas and horseman types, the report is necessarily thrown back on 
earlier Rhitsona publications. For the Protocorinthian material I have 
made free use of Johansen's Vases Sicyoniens. The use I have been able to 
make of Winter's Antike Terracotten and of Jacopi's admirably prompt 
publications of the recently excavated cemeteries at lalysus and Camirus 
(Clara Rhodos, in and iv, 1929 and 193 1 ) has been limited by the inadequacy 
of both the illustrations and the explanatory text. Even so, however, the 
Rhodian reports have proved most valuable for confirming the dates or 
establishing the non-local character of many groups of the Rhitsona finds. 

As regards the main pottery section that dealing with Corinthian 
bombylioi and aryballoi my chronological groupings start from the 
evidence of the Rhitsona graves, controlled by a comparison with that 
provided by the cemeteries of Sicily and Italy, to examine which I visited 
the museums of Sicily in 1929 and various Italian museums in 1930. My 
conclusions have been reached independently of Payne's Necrocorinthia. As 
that work is likely for its many merits to remain for long the standard 
reference book on Corinthian pottery, it will be well to say at once that 
though I find myself in practical agreement with his chronology, my three 
groups of Corinthian graves do not altogether correspond to his three 
periods, the principal difference being that his very comprehensive "early" 
period includes much that I had regarded and still regard as middle. 
White dots, bounding lines above and below the picture, rosettes with 
incised centres are all normal on certain groups of Payne's "early" vases. 
They are most exceptional in the earliest Corinthian graves at Rhitsona 
(see further under iv. iv. a below, p. 29) . Even this difference, however, is 
largely a matter of approach: Necrocorinthiais a study of archaic Corinthian 
art; in the present study we are concerned almost exclusively with small 

1 Besides the material from the graves that are catalogued either here or in previous 
reports, I have included some objects which are listed as coming from graves 15, 105, 117, 
136. Grave* 136 is not a grave but a cluster of objects, mainly of the fifth century, that 
were found together in the neighbourhood of the Geometric grave 134. Grave 15 is a 
burnt grave of about 500 B.C. that was partly excavated in 1907 and reopened and cleared 
by Burrows in 1909 and only partly catalogued by him, doubtless because the mending 
was not finished when he left Thebes. When I returned to work in the museum in 1922 
I could not satisfy myself as to what objects precisely had come from the grave and it 
seemed undesirable to include this somewhat doubtful entity among our authenticated 
grave groups. Graves 105 and 117 are burnt graves of the middle of the sixth century in 
which the vases happened to be particularly damaged and broken and at the same time 
not apparently of particular interest. As a mere matter of time and expense we did not 
see our way to turn our mender on to this somewhat thankless task, the more so since his 
services were wanted by other archaeologists elsewhere. It was, indeed, only by their 
courtesy and consideration that we were able to employ him as long as we did. 


vases that are all varieties of what is practically one shape, the aryballos, 
and are dealing with this limited material rather from the archaeological- 
historical than from the artistic point of view. On the latter the Rhitsona 
material has little to contribute, but for the history of the more mechanical 
types, which are comparatively neglected by Payne, it forms a useful basis 
for a fuller study, and I have accordingly listed somewhat fully examples 
noted from other sites. Although such lists contribute almost nothing to the 
history of Corinthian art, they are much needed for the study of Corinthian 
trade and industry. 

As in the case of our previously published graves, the new material here 
dealt with is all to be seen in the cases of the vase room of Thebes Museum. 
There still remain a few entirely unpublished graves, whose contents, 
seeming to us too damaged or too undistinguished to justify the time and 
expense involved in mending and recording, have been returned to the 
boxes in which we brought them from Rhitsona and stored, duly labelled, 
in the apotheke of the museum. Finality is of course impossible in dealing 
with a mass of material such as that which is to be found on a site like 
Rhitsona, quite apart from the probability that so much of it is still to be 
excavated, but with the publication of this report we have now put on 
record the history of the cemetery from the eighth to the third century B.C., 
discussed in some detail every class of object so far found there, and, with 
the few exceptions just noted, published detailed catalogues of the contents 
of every individual grave. 




In the excavations of 1907 and 1908 only six graves were found of a period 
earlier than that of the (middle and late) sixth-century graves from which 
come the four-handled Boeotian bowls or kylikes that are the most distinctive 
of the Rhitsona finds. Of these six graves, published J.H.S. xxx, p. 336 f., 
one (i) belonged to the Geometric period, three (6, 75, 13) to the Proto- 
corinthian, two (14, 4) to the Corinthian. The finds of 1909 and 1921, 
1922 multiplied this number. They cover the same period, but whereas the 
number of pre-Gorinthian graves was only doubled, that of the graves of 
the Corinthian period was increased tenfold. Not only are the Corinthian 
graves much more numerous; they are also much more richly furnished. 
Whereas our pre-Corinthian graves contained on an average only some 
half-dozen vases each, six of the Corinthian (4, 14, 87, 91, IOID, 141) 
contained on an average over thirty each, two (95, 99) over fifty, one 
(145) nearly one hundred, one (86) nearly three hundred. The total 
material is therefore now enough to justify conclusions as to some of the 
more prevalent vase types in these graves and to afford a useful context 
for discussing some of the more unusual objects. 

The graves fall into well-marked groups which can be. arranged in a 
chronological order based on broad and well-established lines of stylistic 
development. When so arranged the constant association of certain types or 
sub-types or, again, their constant absence from such and such a group of 
graves enables us to date them more precisely than has hitherto been done 
and to trace the often quite arbitrary variations that they underwent. The 
changes in question and indeed the types that undergo them are frequently 
of no aesthetic or stylistic significance; but for historical purposes the dating 
of these vases is of some importance. They belong to the earliest period at 
which the Greek world comes into the full light of history. It is a period 
when literary sources need specially to be supplemented by archaeological, 
and it fortunately so happens that archaeology finds it comparatively easy 
to give useful information. We are dealing with the epoch of the greatest 
diffusion of the free Greek city state. For many of these cities, and especi- 
ally for the enterprising settlements that formed the outer Greek world, 
literary evidence is lamentably lacking. Where this is so the sites themselves 
can sometimes speak to us through the vases and potsherds which have been 
and still are being unearthed on them. But to understand what these 
witnesses have to say we must have the most precise information possible 
as to the time arid place of their production. The commoner the ware, the 
more important does this information become. 

One source of such information, at least for purposes of dating, is certainly 
to be found in our series of graves. There is indeed the question as to how 


far ceramic fashions were uniform in the various parts of the Greek world. 
Emporiae in Spain or Olbia in South Russia may have been years behind 
the times at this period just as we know that Olbia was in later days. But 
the causes that made Olbia so old-fashioned in the post-Augustan period 
were not yet operating anywhere, and there is a strong case for holding 
that mass production went with a widespread uniformity of fashion. To go 
into so wide a question is, however, beyond the scope of this report. 

The important fact about our graves is that, like those of later periods 
already published, each had been normally used but once. In the great 
majority of cases we find a single skeleton plainly occupying the whole 
grave and obviously the recipient of its whole contents. In no instance do 
we find a grave twice used in such a way as to cause confusion between the 
offerings made at two different interments. One of our graves indeed, 145, 
occupied the same shaft as grave 139, but the latter, which is some century 
and a half later, lay so much higher than 145 that the two graves were 
entirely distinct. 1 In four graves (90, 132, 134, 145) the remains of the 
skeleton were very scanty, while in two (101 b, 103) there were no traces of 
bone at all. Of these six graves three (90, 132, 101 b) were pithos burials. 
It is hardly conceivable that pithoi were reopened and used a second time. 
The stone grave 134 has also every appearance of having been used once 
only and never subsequently disturbed till the time of excavation. The 
only case where a definite element of doubt enters is that of grave 141 and 
even here the limits of uncertainty are strictly circumscribed. (For details 
see below, p. 14.) Exceptional instances like this serve to emphasise our 
good fortune in having so large a series of well-furnished graves each with 
a number of vases that were unquestionably all buried in a single day. 

Relative dates can only very occasionally be established from the relative 
positions of two graves. The case of graves 145 and 139 has just been 
mentioned. Grave 88 must be earlier than 90 and 92 since the heavy 
sarcophagus of 88 could not possibly have been got into position without 
disturbing the other two if they had been already there. On the pithos 
groups 101 a, b and 125 a-e see the section on pithos burials immediately 

(Plates i, ii and figs. 1-4) 

The graves are of three different kinds: (i) simple shaft graves with no 
remains of coffin or bier, though there is a certain presumption that biers 
or coffins of wood were employed in them as we know they were in graves 
of the next period; 2 (2) graves in which the body was enclosed in a sarco- 
phagus or slabs of stone; and (3) pithos burials. 

(i) Simple shaft graves: 89, 91, 97, 141 of the early Corinthian period 

(a, p. 22) ; 87, 92, 95 of our middle Corinthian period (b, p. 22) ; 86, 99, 

145 of our late Corinthian period (c, p. 22); 103 of the early Boeotian- 

kylix period. This type of burial goes back to the period of Geometric 

1 See VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 6. 2 Ibid. p. 3. 


pottery (see grave i, J.H.S. xxx, p. 341) and early Protocorinthian (grave 
6, ibid. p. 344). It is used almost exclusively during the last three quarters 
of the sixth century. 

(2) Stone slabs are used for one of our two Geometric graves (134, 
below, pp. 14, 88). The stone sarcophagus of the Protocorinthian grave 88 
(pi. i) is the only one so far found at Rhitsona. It is also unique in 
having as part of its covering a stone that had previously been part of an 
olive press (pi. i). Stone slabs are used for the late Protocorinthian grave 
13 (J.H.S. xxx, p. 346). After that none occur for about two centuries. 
Possibly the inscribed tombstones that came in soon after may have used 
up the limited available supply of suitable slabs (see, e.g. Black Glaze Pott. 
pi. xix) . The practice of enclosing the body in stone slabs reappears towards 
the end of the fifth century and is common in the fourth: see e.g. ibid. 
graves 52, 55-60 (56, pi. xiv), 30, 33, 34. It survived into the third 
century (ibid, graves 66, 67, 68: 67, pi. xvm) and with it the Proto- 
corinthian practice of using second-hand material (see ibid. pi. xix, the 
slab inscribed EVDDVAOS, borrowed for grave 67 from a gravestone of 
probably fifth century date). 

(3) Pithos burials (90, 96, 101 a, 101 b, 125 a, 125 b, 125 c, 125 d, 125 e, 
132: 90 and 132 Protocorinthian, the rest Corinthian). These show some 
variety both in the matter of the jars used and in the way the body was 
disposed in them. Most frequently one large pithos is used with a smaller 
vase to act as lid: so 101 a and 101 b (fig. i), 125 c, d, e (figs. 2, 3). The lid 
vase in this case is normally a smaller edition of the big pithos (e.g. 101 b. 
40, pi. xn), but in 101 a it is the unusual vase 101 a. 4 (pi. xn), which was 
obviously made for some quite different purpose (dairy?). Sometimes two 
pithoi of about the same size are placed mouth to mouth: so 125 a, figs. 2, 3. 
In all cases both burial vases are lying on their sides. For grave 96 three 
pithoi seem to have been used, the bottom of the middle pithos being 
knocked out, to allow the head to find a resting place in the third jar (see 
further, p. 10). 

In grave 96, as also in 125 b and 125 d, the body lay full length or at 
least as near full length as the mode of burial allowed. In graves 101 a, 
125 a, 125 c, 125 e the body lay huddled up. Elsewhere the bones were 
too fragmentary to allow of any conclusion. Pithoi were not used ex- 
clusively for the burial of infants. The skeleton found extended in grave 
125 d had thigh bones -035 m. thick and measured 4ft. 2 in. (1-26111.) 
with the extremities missing; that of grave 96, as roughly sketched by 
Burrows, extends almost the full length of the burial pithoi which is just 
5 ft. (1-49 m.) ; that of grave 125 e measured 3 ft. (-90 m.) in a huddled 
position, and one of the long bones was -03 m. thick. In others, where the 
bones were too ill-preserved to measure the skeleton as a whole, there were 
fragments of leg bones which even if almost complete indicate something 
more than an infant: e.g. grave 101 a, -23 m.; 125 a, '26m.; 125 b, 
30 m.; 125 c, -24 m. Grave 132 is that of a small child, as is shown by the 
double teeth without roots. 


Burial in "two pottery vessels with mouths joined together, lying 
horizontally", is a practice of high antiquity. In Babylonia it goes back to 
the time of Hammurabi and even earlier, 1 but at Rhitsona it is found only 
during a limited period and appears to have a shorter history than either 
of the alternative methods just described. Our oldest example is perhaps 
grave 90, which contained a comparatively early Protocorinthian vase; 
but as it contained nothing else there can be no certainty that the vase does 
not considerably antedate the pithos. The next oldest (if we date 90 by the 
vase found in it) is grave 132, with typical furniture of the late Proto- 
corinthian style. There is no doubt that pithos burials were common 
throughout, the Corinthian period, though none of our examples seem to 
belong to the earliest phase of the style. Our latest burials of this sort may 
belong to the period of our earliest Boeotian-kylix graves. If, as suggested 
in VI and VCent. Pott. p. 5, pithos burials gave way to tile graves, they may 
have continued in use till the end of the sixth century, for the second half 
of which we have at present no example of either, our earliest tile grave 
being 121 (ibid. pp. 3, 5, 10), which is probably to be dated at the 
beginning of the fifth century rather than the very end of the sixth. 
There are of course other possibilities, e.g. that the tile type was introduced 
considerably earlier than our earliest example, or that between the two the 
terra-cotta larnax enjoyed a brief vogue. Our one Rhitsona larnax (grave 
131, ibid. p. ii and pi. n) is about contemporary with our earliest tile 

The series of pithos burials 125 a-e occupies a single trench and originally 
there were other pithos graves that continued the series eastward, but 
were broken into and cleared away when the burial in grave 123 took place 
(see Viand V Cent. Pott. p. 5) . Except for the fact that the 1 25 a pithoi were 
superimposed on those of 125 b, the positions of the pithoi did not allow of 
any safe conclusions as to the relative dates of the various graves. What 
does seem fairly certain is that the graves of this series stand in some special 
relation to one another. The interval between the earliest and the latest of 
them need not be very long. A similar supposition is natural in the case 
of graves 101 a and b, though possibly the stone that both connects and 
divides them may have been placed there merely to keep the earlier of the 
burials in position, either originally (cp., though of quite different shape, 
the stones used for grave 131, ibid. p. n and pi. n) or at the time of the 
later interment. 

It seems that, with reservations, we can trace the history of burial 
practices at Rhitsona from the eighth to the third century. It is, however, 
interesting and important to note how very local this history is. At Halae 
in the neighbouring and generally friendly country of Locris, where between 
1911 and 1914 American archaeologists excavated 280 graves that dated 
from the middle of the sixth century to Roman times, funeral fashions 
followed a different course: "Monolithic sarcophagi predominated in the 
sixth and fifth centuries ... Pithoi are common at all times". 2 
1 C.A.H. i, p. 548. 2 A.J.A. 1915, p. 424. 



GRAVE 86 (pi. n, showing skull and east vase mass) : Shaft grave with side 
ledges. Nothing was found above the ledge level except burnt earth at a 
depth of -90 m. At each end of the grave was a vase mass extending -40 m. 
towards the middle of the grave. The ends of this grave were not cleared 
until the middle had been completely dealt with. 1 On the floor of the 
grave between the two vase masses a single skeleton lay extended, its skull, 
which lay on its left cheek, close up to the east vase mass with several 
aryballoi protruding right over it, the body lying on its back down the 
middle of the grave. The feet were gone but the lower end of the shin bones 
were -28 m. distant from the beginning of the west vase mass. 

GRAVE 87: Shaft grave, exceptional in having the ledge which runs down 
the sides continued round the short ends, and in having a second ledge at 
the short ends -07 m. above the continuous ledge. The skeleton lay with 
its head to the east, the skull resting on its right cheek. The top of the skull 
was -34 m. from the east end. There were no traces of bones below the 
knees. The vases, only twenty-eight in number, were scattered over the 
whole extent of the grave. 

GRAVE 88 (pi. i) : Sarcophagus of stone (direction 100) with stone olive 
press as cover of the head and middle : the part of the lid that covered the 
lower part of the body consisted of a separate stone that was found smashed. 
At the foot end of the coffin two large rough stones were found inside, that 
perhaps originally formed part of the lid. The sarcophagus itself was 
25 m. deep inside, -37 m. outside; outside breadth at head -79 m., at 
bottom -53 m. : the sarcophagus narrows by curving slightly inwards from 
about halfway down; the foot too runs in a slight curve; total outside 
length 1-82 m.; the olive press part of the lid (see pi. i) is -17 m. thick: on 
its under side as placed on the sarcophagus it shows a round sinking -06 m. 
deep and -61 m. inside diameter, *66 m. outside, and a sunk channel running 
to the edge of the stone as shown in the figure; the fragments of the other 
part of the lid show a rim all round of -07 m. depth. The sarcophagus is 
now in the court of the museum at Thebes. The skeleton lay stretched out, 
the skull lying on the right cheek: total length i'6om. The vases were 
found, no. i by the left shin, no. 3 by the left hip, nos. 2 and 4 by the right 
hip; the fibulae lay above the shoulders, no. 5 on the left side, no. 6 on the 

GRAVE 89 (pi. i) : Shaft grave with side ledges. The skeleton lay with the 
head at the east end of the grave, the skull resting on the right cheek. The 
whole skeleton lay considerably nearer to the south than to the north side 

1 This was done, and steps were cut some way down the middle of one side of the grave 
as being the best way to prevent the vase masses at the two ends being damaged during 
excavation. The objections to it are (i) that the vases are not always confined to the two 
ends, and (2) that in many cases this method would prevent the skeleton being photo- 
graphed or examined as a whole. In excavating a large cemetery it is, however, certainly 
right to vary the method of excavation. 


of the grave, though the skull, by rolling over on to its right cheek, had 
come to rest midway between north and south. The bones of the right arm 
and of the legs down to the ankles were in their normal positions, but the 
rib bones were found clustered on the south side of the grave in the region 
of the left shoulder and upper arm, and next to them but nearer to the left 
thigh bone were the vases. Length of skeleton from top of head to ankles 
1-48 m. A strange white substance was observed on the floor of the grave 
in the south part of the space between the skeleton's legs. 

GRAVE 90: Pithos burial, -23 m. due east of grave 88 (pi. i). The pithos 
was in fragments of which the highest were found TO m. and the lowest 
46 m. below the level of the top of the grave 88 sarcophagus; greatest 
length of the pithos remains -70 m.; greatest breadth -57 m. Nothing was 
found inside the pithos except one little Protocorinthian lekythos, much 

GRAVE 91 : Shaft grave. Owing to the situation of this grave, which led to 
its being opened from the side, it was not possible to ascertain whether it 
had a ledge. The grave was exceptionally narrow. The skeleton lay with its 
head to the east, the skull resting on its right cheek, and the crown of the 
skull lying -23 m. from the east end; the bones of the body were badly 
perished, especially on the right side^ but their traces were discernible in 
the earth. The Protocorinthian lekythos no. i was found 1 just below the jaw 
of the skeleton. 

GRAVE 92 (pi. i) : Shaft grave. The skeleton lay on its back just to the 
north of grave 90 and the eastern part of grave 88, the head lying 1-18 m. 
east of the east end of grave 88, the legs extending -46 m. along its north 
side; the feet and lower part of the shin bones lay between the north side 
of the grave 88 sarcophagus and the skull of grave 85 ; length of bones 
preserved (from top of skull to right ankle) 1-70 m. Burnt earth was ob- 
served before the leg bones were uncovered. Six aryballoi, including the 
"bucchero" no. 16, show signs of burning. 

GRAVE (?) 93: The vase and fragments catalogued under this grave 
number were found some -40 to -50 m. above the contents of grave 92 ; but 
as Burrows' day-book states that they appeared and were removed after 
the removal of the contents of grave 92, these "grave 93" objects must have 
lain somewhat to the side of the lower finds. 

GRAVE 95 (pi. i) : Shaft grave. The position of this grave, like that of 
grave 91, necessitated its being opened from the side, and it was therefore 
not possible to ascertain whether it had a ledge. The skeleton lay extended 
with its head to the east; length of bones preserved 1-60 m. On the bones 
of two of the fingers were bronze rings. Three Geometric fragments were 
found at the bottom of the grave with the Corinthian vases. They plainly 
come from an earlier burial disturbed by the diggers of grave 95, and must 
have fallen or worked their way down to the position they were found in 
at the time of the grave 95 interment. The illustration in pi. i is from a 


photograph taken when only a cluster of aryballoi from this grave had 
been unearthed. The skull lay just north of this cluster and slightly lower 

GRAVE 96: Pithos grave. The body was laid out in three pithoi, the 
easternmost and smallest (diam. -40 m.) containing the skull, the middle 
pithos (diam. -50 m.) containing arm bones and ribs; and the western- 
most and largest (diam. -76 m., see pi. i) the leg bones. The total length 
of the pithoi as they lay in the ground was i -49 m. The two larger were 
laid mouth to mouth, and the end of the middle pithos was no doubt 
knocked out to give passage to the head. When discovered they were all 
much broken. The pithoi lay in a rectangular grave 1-90 m. long, i-io m. 
broad, at a depth of 2-30 m. There was no ledge. Direction 71. Nothing 
was found in the small pithos except the skull, in the middle pithos was the 
quatrefoil aryballos i, in the large pithos were the aryballoi 2, 3, 6 and the 
horseman 8. The aryballoi 4 and 5 and the horse 9 were found outside the 
large pithos. The position of 7 is not recorded. 

GRAVE 97 (pi. i) : Shaft grave with ledges. The skeleton lay outstretched 
with the skull resting on the right cheek; length from crown of skull to 
furthest remains of leg bones 1-67 m., of which the last -47 m. consisted of 
nothing more than traces. The cooking pot 1 2 was found in the middle of 
the extreme west end; the oenochoe i between the upper ends of the 
thigh bones; most of the other vases were scattered between the legs. 

GRAVE 99: Shaft grave, apparently without ledges. The skull was appa- 
rently that of a small child. The highest finds were at a depth of '86 m. An 
iron nail -09 m. long with head -02 m. broad was found right at the bottom 
of the extreme west end of the grave. 

GRAVES loia and b (pi. n and fig. i). The top sides of both pithoi 
appeared at a depth of about -80 m. The stone (S), of which the fragment 
found standing upright in situ kept the lid vase of 101 b in position, 
originally stretched farther north and rested also against the bottom of the 
101 a pithos. 

101 a (pithos shown in pi. n; see also fig. i): length of pithos -99 m., 
greatest width, as measured in situ, '68 m., width of mouth -45 m., direction 
80; skull (A), very much crushed, rested on bottom side of neck of pithos, 
facing south, fragments of it were found in the vase which served as a 
pithos lid, some teeth (B) in a break in the neck of the pithos, hand (?) 
bones (C) and long bones (D, -21 and -23 m. long as preserved) right on the 
bottom side of the pithos. The three vases lay just outside the pithos, close 
up to its neck, no. i on the south side, nos. 2 and 3 on the north. 

101 b: length of pithos -90 m., greatest width as measured in situ -86 m., 
thickness -025 m.; the material is inferior to that of pithos 101 a; direction 
88; no remains of bones. Inside the pithos several shells, two much like 
winkles, the others (some very tiny) long and thin, and one leg of figurine 



39; inside the pithos lid the rest of figurine 39 and vases 6 and 34. Vases 4, 
5, 7, 10/14, 22, 28 were found outside the pithos lid on the south side, the 
rest of the offerings were massed along the north side of the grave, 13, 15, 
21, 23, 24, 25, 30, 35, 37 outside the pithos lid, the remainder, forming the 
main mass, outside the pithos: see pi. n, from a photograph taken after lid 
and pithos of 101 b and vases on either side of lid had been removed (the 
pithos in the illustration, pi. n, is 101 a) : the vase mass there seen is -73 m. 
from end to end and -28 m. in height, the lowest lying on the floor of the 
grave at a depth of i -48 m. The lower vases in the illustration are not 
directly below the higher; the mass broadened downward following the re- 
ceding contours of the pithos. Why the offerings were so preponderatingly 
on one side of the grave is uncertain. We may compare the shaft grave 
123, VI and V Cent. Pott. pp. 5-6. 

Fig. i. Pithos burials 101 b (left), 101 a (right). 

GRAVE 103: Shaft grave. No traces of bones. The vases were found in 
clusters by the sides of the gravel nos. 3 and 5 right in the north-east 
corner, 2 and 7 by the south wall -20--3O m. from the south-east corner, 
i and 6 half-way along the north wall, 4, 8 and 9 farther west along the 
north wall, about -60 m. from the north-west corner. 

GRAVES 125 a-e: figs. 2, 3; total length of trench 4-5 m., direction about 

1 25 a : two large pithoi mouth to mouth ; foot pithos -76 m. long, 73 across ; 
head pithos -71 m. long, -78 across; the skeleton lay with head at bottom of 
head pithos, arms reaching down into the mouth of the foot pithos, and legs 
contracted (see fig. 3) ; skull at depth of i-i i to 1-22 m., long bones between 
the two pithoi at 1-16 m., those at west end of foot pithos on north side at 
1-32 m., on south side at 1-45 m. Evidently the body was laid in an un- 
dulating position, following the ups and downs of the two pithoi; the skull 
(much flattened) must have originally been higher up and nearer the 
bottom (east end) of the pithos, for it was found pierced from base to 
crown by a long bone -02 m. thick on which it presumably impaled itself 
when it became detached from the trunk and rolled downwards. It was 
badly decayed, and disintegrated during a careful attempt to remove it. 



Of the offerings none was found inside; most were just outside round the 
lips of the two pithoi: 2, 3, 4, 7, 16 on the north side, 6 and 9-14 on the 
south side, I and 5 close against the bottom of the head pithos (i.e. right 
at the east end of the grave) also on the south side. The original position 
of 8 and 15 is uncertain, as when we unpacked in Thebes Museum the 
records inserted with these two vases had been partly gnawed away by 










Fig. 3 

Figs. 2 and 3. Pithos burials 125 a, b, c, d, e: fig. 2 showing the pithoi as seen when 
first uncovered, fig. 3 the bones as they appeared when the upper sides of the pithoi 
had been removed. 

i25b: crushed under 125 a, so that measurements were sometimes 
difficult. The foot of the grave was -76 m. east of the foot of 125 a. Total 
length i '37 m. ; the foot pithos appears to have been about -90 m. long, 
the head vase about -45 m. The body was extended full length with head 
and feet touching the bottom of the two pithoi (i.e. the east end of the east 
pithos and the west end of the west pithos), and face looking straight up; 
the arms extended from the one pithos into the other, with finger bones in 


the neck of the foot pithos. The five vases were found in a cluster outside 
the mouth of the head pithos on the north side at a depth of 1*2 m. The 
position of the whole skeleton is given in fig. 3, bottom, that of the skull 
(in the head pithos which was not crushed under 125 a) is given both there 
and in the sketch of the whole trench. 

125 c: foot pithos -70 m. long, -60 across as it lay; fig. 2 marks fragments 
that apparently belonged to a lid vase, but remains of the whole skeleton, 
including skull, were contained in the one pithos. The skull appeared at a 
depth of i -27 m., bones near it at i -35 m. Most of the offerings were found 
in the pithos, including the vases i, 3, 4, 5, and the figurines, ring(s) and 
beads nos. 12-27. The vases 2, 6, 8, 9, 10 (and probably 7, n, for which 
our records are defective) lay outside the pithos, no. 6 above it, nos. 2, 8, 9, 
10 on the south side, near the mouth. 

125 d: the head pithos was hopelessly crushed; it contained the skull, 
also much'crushed, but still almost upright, at its east end (i.e. bottom); 
the skeleton as it lay extended (see fig. 3) measured 1-26111., direction 
95 ; depth to top of skull i -22 m., to elbow i -42 m., to right knee i -32 m., to 
feet 1-50 m. The offerings were all found by the mouth of the foot pithos, 
near the top. 

125 e: the skull lay in the head pithos facing south; the foot pithos had 
handles "a colonnetta"; the skeleton lay in a flatter position than the 
others, the variation of level being only -iom. (cp. I25d). The solitary 
aryballos (no. i) was found at a depth of 1-36 m., north of the mouth of 
the head pithos. 

Fig. 4. Pithos burial 132. 

GRAVE 132 (fig. 4) : from end to end of the two pithoi 1-25 m., direction 
65; direction of foot pithos 55; depth to bottom of foot pithos 2-13 m., of 
head pithos 2-03 m.; foot pithos -73 m. long, -63 m. across; head pithos 
51 m. long, -38 m. across; skull just inside mouth of head pithos, resting 
right on inside of lip; very much decayed, but from the position of the 


teeth (see above, p. 6) lying across the skull it appears to have been facing 
upwards; under it were some small fragments of bronze. Of the vases i 
was found outside the pithoi near the neck on the north side, the rest all in 
the foot pithos, 2 and 5 about the middle, 6 and 7 near the mouth on the 
south side, 3 and 4 towards the middle of the south side. 

GRAVE 134: of rough stone slabs, three for lid '13-- 15 m. thick. Inner 
length of grave 1-22 m., width -40 m., direction 80; depth to top of stone 
lid i -02 m., to bottom 1-72 m.; skull at east end with crown -05 m. from 
east wall; no other bones. Of the vases 2 and 3 were found resting on the 
lid (2 at west end), the others inside, 5 in north-east corner just by skull, 
i in north-west corner, 4 by south wall -45 m. from the east end. On the 
floor of the grave there were also minute traces of bronze. 

GRAVE 141 : Shaft grave. No ledge, but the shaft narrowed gradually 
downwards on all four sides (cp. the later shaft graves, VI and V Cent. 
Pott. p. 5f). Skull right against east end nearer north side than south; 
arms right against north and south sides; thigh bones also well preserved. 
Of the vases j-io are unburnt and were found right at the bottom of the 
grave, 3 and 10 close to the skull, the rest in a row between the right arm 
of the skeleton and the north wall of the grave. The others are all burnt and 
were found in the east half of the shaft (about -30 m. from the east end and 
about midway between north and south) at a depth that varied from 
i -14 to 1-37 m., the depth to the floor of the grave being 1-90 m. There can 
be no doubt that all these burnt vases form a single group. Not only are 
they homogeneous in style, but of the fragments of no. 19 some were found 
at the 1-14 m. level and others at the 1-37. The only question is whether 
they are part of the original furniture of grave 141. Both sets of vases 
suggest the same approximate date. The burnt group is certainly not the 
earlier and therefore cannot be the remains of an earlier grave disturbed 
on the day when 141 was dug. A second possibility is a shallow burnt 
grave above the deeper unburnt. This would indeed be quite in keeping 
with Rhitsona practice. But the disposition of the burnt vases does not 
support the theory of an independent burnt grave, the types of which at 
Rhitsona are familiar. On the whole therefore it seems more likely that 
these vases are KTepicjiAocTcc belonging to the same burial as the unburnt 
vases and skeleton below. They may be belated offerings of mourners who 
arrived too late for the actual funeral, but in any case their date of burial 
would probably still be practically the same as that of vases i-io. 

GRAVE 145 (pi. n, showing east vase mass) : Shaft grave. Skull lay with 
crown -10 m. from east end, towards the north side of the grave. No other 
bones found. The vases (as so often in graves of the Boeotian-kylix period) 
were massed at the two ends of the grave. The east vase mass (pi. n), 
23 m. high, extended -18 m. west; the west vase mass, -35 m. high, ex- 
tended about -15 m. east; the east vase mass contained vases 2, 4, 10, n, 
13, 14, 26, 27, 28, 29, 37-58, 69-74, 77-82, 83, 84, the figurines 94, 97 and 


the bronze spirals 100; the west mass included all the other objects except 
three aryballoi of which one lay right at the bottom against the north wall 
midway between the two ends, one (no. 25) right at the bottom against the 
south wall about -90 m. from the west end, and the third (no. 9) right on 
the south wall about -30 m. from the east end and -30 m. above the floor 
of the grave. The shaft of this grave was reopened down to the level of the 
ledge for the fifth-century burial grave 139 (see above, p. 5, and VI and 
V Cent. Pott. p. 6). 

Table of dimensions of shaft graves 1 

No. of Length Width above Width at Depth to Depth to 

grave (m.) ledge (m.) bottom (m.) ledge (m.) bottom (m.) Direction 

86 2-84 1-33 1-18 1-95 3-32 

87 2-i4 2 1-18 0-67 i'7i 3 2-17 

89 2-35 i-o 0-63 2-06 2-60 67 

9 i 1-97 0-43 2-25 84 

95 2-20 0-92 2-13 77 

97 2-30 1-05 0-73 2-10 53 

99 1-76 0-60 1-17 

103 2-12 0-81 0-56 1-36 1-9 75 

141 1-50 0-54 i'9 75 

145 2-30 1-25 0-77 1-90 2-39 80 

1 The measurements of grave 92 are not to be found, nor the direction of graves 86, 

87? 99- 

2 This is the length at the bottom of the grave. Measured above the upper-end ledges 

it is 2-50 m., above the lower end-ledges 2-24 m. For the unusual double ledges at the 
narrow ends see above, p. 8. 

3 This is the depth to the continuous ledge. The depth to the upper end-ledges is 
i -64 m. 



Most of the vases listed and discussed below are small oil-vases of a variety 

^ ^^^.^p^MMata^ ,^-^imiXWiM^-^^^ 

ofrelated shapes, which have all at one time or another been given the 
name, qualified or unqualified, of aryballos, though for some of them other 
names lekythos, bombylios, alabastron are now more generally em- 
ployed. The rest of the Rhitsona pottery that we are here concerned with 
owes much of its interest to the fact that we can associate it with this or 
that phase or form of the aryballos. This is why I chose the name as a 
convenient title for the pottery section of this study. But as lucidity is 
desirable and uniformity of nomenclature not yet attained, I am stating 
here how I have used these four names. 

ARYBALLOS: I have followed everyone 1 in using this name for the spherical 
or globular little vases (e.g. all the vases of pi. vm) that form the vast 
majority of the Corinthian vases from Rhitsona. Where a qualifying epithet 
seems needed I have used "ball" or "ball-shaped" (Kugelaryballos) 
rather than the vaguer "round" or the somewhat heavy "spherical" or 
"globular". By "flat-bottomed" aryballos I mean the shape of 86. 252 
(pi. iv) or 86. 259, 50. 258 (pi. vn) with a really flat bottom that forms a 
distinct element of the shape; by barrel-bodied such vases as 13. 10, 
J.H.S. xxx, p; 349, fig. 12. 

LEKYTHOS: the little Protocorinthian vases such as 99. i ; 88. 1-4; 90. i ; 
91. 1,2 (all pi. m) ; 89. i (pi. iv), etc. This is the name given by its original 
owner, Tataie, to the specimen Johansen, Vases Sicyon. pi. 15. 5. Johansen 
himself prefers aryballos (ibid. p. 16, n. i), as less liable to cause confusion; 
but we more often want to distinguish these little vases from their Corin- 
thian equivalents than from the funnel-necked oil (?) jugs that were used 
in a quite different way. Payne's "pointed aryballos" (Necrocorinthia, 
p. 269, etc.) for the later and slenderer varieties of this shape is open to the 
further objection that no examples quoted by him or known to me are 
pointed. I would reserve the epithet "pointed " for the Italic shape of e.g. 
Louvre E 99, Pottier, Vases Antiques du Louvre, pi. 39, where it is strictly 
correct. In the matter of qualifying epithets, though not of the noun they 
qualify, I have followed Johansen. 

BOMBYLIOS:! have used this rather than the prevalent "alabastron" for 
oval-bodied hemispherical bottomed vases such as 92. i (pi. iv); 97. 3, 6, 
7, 9; 141. i (pi. v). Later examples with the bottom flattened just enough 
to enable the vase to stand precariously, e.g. 86. i (pi. v), I have qualified 

1 Not quite everyone: Perdrizet calls them bombylioi, which has led Payne (Necro- 
corinthia, p. 284, cat. no. 378) to list the fragmentary ball aryballos Fouilles de Delphes, 
v, tig. 569 as an "alabastron". 


as flattened ; flat-bottomed, besides being unduly optimistic, is required to 
describe something more definite in the case of aryballoi. 

ALABASTRON: this term is manifestly appropriate for the long thin vases 
(suggestive of those actually made of alabaster) for which Payne uses the 
name "long" or "elongated" alabastron. It seems a pity not to keep it 
unqualified for this shape, which does not occur among the finds of pottery 
from Rhitsona. The only Rhitsona example is of glass (80. 268, pi. xxi). 


GRAVES i, 134 (mid-eighth century ?) ; see also 6 (early Protocorinthian) 
and 91 (early Corinthian). 

The Geometric graves i, 134 are the oldest so far excavated at Rhitsona. 
Their contents, curiously miscellaneous but for that very reason best 
considered all together, may be divided into two groups, the one showing 
comparatively fine pale buff clay, the other a clay generally coarse and 
always of a reddish tinge. Classifications based on clay can be misleading, 
and they must be used with special care when dealing with such coarse 
wares as those that here concern us. To regard a reddish tinge as in itself 
a decisive criterion would for instance lead to the conclusion that though 
the body of the Boeotian bird-kylix 51.2 (B.S.A. xiv, pi. xv. a) was Boeotian, 
the foot had been imported from a land of pale buff clay. But taken with 
other evidence it does confirm the view that we have here two groups of 
vases, one imported, the other local. To the imported group belong the 
oenochoe from grave i (1.4, J.H.S. xxx, p. 343, fig. 6), the two little 
jugs 134. 3 and 4 (pi. in), and probably, though the clay is not so pale, 
the big vase 134. 5 (pi. in). To the local group we may assign the 
remaining vases from the two graves (i. 1-3, J.H.S. xxx, p. 342, fig. 5; 
134. i (pi. in), 2). 

Of the probably imported vases the little pair 134. 3, 4 (pi. m) both in 
shape and fabric belong to a class which is commonly attributed to the 
Argolid (see next section: "Argive Monochrome") . The pale clay vases from 
our two Geometric graves are therefore probably Argive in the Pheidonian 
sense of the word, and may be regarded as the precursors of the Proto- 
corinthian and Corinthian ware that found so large an entry into Boeotia 
in the succeeding period. 

Of the probably local vases 134. 2 is naturally taken as a Boeotian trans- 
lation of 134. 3, 4; the little two-handled cup i. i with its reddish clay and 
yellowish slip at once recalls the most characteristic group of late Boeotian 
Geometric vases, that, namely, under Euboeic-Cycladic influence. The 
other three vases are rougher and heavier. The best of them, however, 
(134. i) shows just the same treatment of the lower part as is found in the 
two-handled cup i. i (viz. a rough band of streaky black round the lower 
part of the side, bottom flat and reserved with one incised ring), while on 



the other hand in fabric it is certainly far nearer to the two remaining vases 
from grave i (i. 2, 3). 

Related to the probably local group from the Geometric graves are a 
few vases from later graves. The little jug 6. 3, for instance, from an early 
Protocorinthian grave (J.H.S. xxx, p. 345, fig. 8), shows the same coarse 
clay and the same flat bottom with incised circles as the coarse and prob- 
ably local vases from the Geometric graves. We may compare also two cups 
from the early Corinthian grave 91:91.27 (pi. in), hgt. -05 m., one vertical 
handle not rising above lip; red on buff (for black on ferruginous?) ; inside 
all red ; back of handle horizontal bands; 91. 28 (pi. m), hgt. -05 m. with 
two handles; outside red (wavy band with narrow straight band above and 
broad straight band below) on light buff (for black on ferruginous?); 
inside same colours, three red bands and perhaps red centre. 91. 27 is 
probably a late example of Boeotian Geometric and, though it has not the 
characteristic yellow slip of i. i, may well be a lineal descendant of the 
earlier vase. 91. 28 is probably to be assigned to the same fabric. For the 
two modes of linear decoration cp. the mid-sixth-century Boeotian kan- 
tharoi 50. 6, 7, J.H.S. xxx, p. 342, fig. 4. 

For detailed descriptions of the grave i vases see J.H.S. xxx, pp. 341-2, of 
the grave 134 vases see Catalogue below, p. 88. 


The Geometric grave 134, the early Protocorinthian 6, the late Proto- 
corinthian 132 and the late Corinthian 125 c and 145 contained examples, 
original or imitation, of a well-known ware in a pale clay, sometimes with 
impressed bands of decoration, that is generally attributed to the Argolid 
(Pfuhl, Mai. und^eich. 75, fig. 25, "argivisch-monochrom", cp. Johansen, 
Vases Sicyon. p. 22 and fig. u). Our most characteristic example is the 
long-necked 6. i (J.H.S. xxx, p. 343, fig. 6), which alone has the im- 
pressed decoration, in one of its most distinctive arrangements. The short- 
necked vases 134. 3, 4 show that this fabric goes back to the Geometric 
period. The shape of the grave 134 examples recurs in grave 6 (from which 
grave we have the little vase 6. 4, J.H.S. xxx, p. 345, fig. 8, disconcertingly 
intermediate both in shape and fabric between the presumably imported 
134. 3, 4 1 and the presumably local 134. 2) and in grave 132 from which 
comes 132. i, of coarse very pale buff clay full of little holes. This short- 
necked shape cannot be instanced from graves of the developed Corinthian 
period. The long-necked form however persists without any decoration 
and with body more hemispherical into the period of graves 125 c 
(125 c. i, pi. m) and 145 (145. i), both of which belong to the latest group 

1 134. 3 and 4 are certainly of the same fabric, though 134. 4 seems to have been 
originally painted black (see Catalogue below, p. 88). For the close connexions of 
"Argive Monochrome" with Protocorinthian and late Geometric see Johansen, Vases 
Sicyon. pp. 22-3. The Boeotian imitation 134. 2 (see details in the Catalogue below) seems 
inspired by a painted original. The unpainted 134. 3 type has been found at Corinth 
(Ceramicus) in late Geometric graves. 


(c, below, p. 22) of our Corinthian graves. 145. i, but not 125 c. i, has 
slightly brownish clay; but the whole treatment of these two vases, especi- 
ally in the neck with its suggestion of both fluting and entasis, shows that 
they are the same fabric. 

List of Rhitsona examples 

6. i : J.H.S. xxx, pp. 344-5 and p. 343, fig. 6. 
6. 4: ibid. p. 345, fig. 8. 
125 c. i (pi. m) : hgt. -06 m. 

132. i : hgt. -08 m.; handle missing, shape much like 134. 4 (pi. m). 
134. 3 and 4 (pi. m) : see Catalogue below, p. 88. 

145. i : shape like 125 c. i (pi. m) : hgt. -103 m. : thin buff fabric with fine 


See graves 6, 75 (late eighth century), 88, 90 (end of eighth century or 
beginning of seventh), 13, 132 (third quarter of seventh century), also the 
Corinthian graves 91 (late seventh century), 99 (early sixth century). - 

Next in time to the purely Geometric graves come those which contained 
groups of fairly early Protocorinthiari vases but nothing demonstrably 
later. Unfortunately Rhitsona has revealed only two such complete graves, 
6 (J.H.S. xxx, p. 344 f.) and 88. Of these 6 is the earlier, as is shown not 
only by the shapes of the Protocorinthian vases but also by the associated 
finds (see pp. 18-19, 21-22). The two little Protocorinthian lekythoi 6. 5, 
6. 6 (ibid. p. 345, fig. 8) are of a squat early form ("aryballe ovoide a decor 
subgeometrique" of Johansen, Vases Sicyon. p. 74). The four examples from 
grave 88 are larger and a trifle slenderer and less broad of shoulder. Though 
the ground colour varies from greenish to brown and the decoration from 
red to black, they form a homogeneous group, nos. 3 and 4 making a pair 
(plainly contemporary despite the early motive on no. 3 noted by Johansen, 

These two graves and grave 75 (J.H.S. xxx, pp. 342-4, figs. 6, 7), from 
which comes one good fragment (75. i) of a large version of 6. 5 and 6 and 
one complete imitation Protocorinthian vase (75. 4, ibid. fig. 6, see below, 
p. 21), are the only three at Rhitsona which contained fibulae (ibid. figs. 
6, 7, 8 and below, pi. m). 

Our only other early Protocorinthian vases are 99. i (pi. m) and 90. i 
(pi. m). According to its shape 99. i should be the earliest of all (Johansen, 
Vases Sicyon. p. 17). It comes from a comparatively late Corinthian grave, 
and on johansen's dating must have been buried some hundred and fifty 
years after it was made. I see no reason why this should not be so. The vase 
is worn and in poor condition and the furniture of our single interment 
graves at Rhitsona certainly contain occasional heirlooms. These little 
lekythoi and aryballoi are especially hardy. No other kind of vase. is so 
often unearthed intact. An above-ground life of a century and a half is 



perfectly possible. We need only assume two living owners, each of whom 
possessed it from childhood to old age, before it was offered to the child who 
was buried in grave 99. 90. i is slenderer than the grave 88 vases and the 
double band of dots round the middle also points to a later date, as does 
also the position of the grave in relation to that of 88 (see above, p. 5). 

The two remaining lekythoi with linear Protocorinthian decoration are 
91. i and 2 (pi. in), both of the later piriform shape with very small foot 
and thicker lip. They come from a grave of which the contents are pre- 
dominantly early Corinthian (group a, below, p. 22). 91. i is recognised 
by Payne as one of the few types of Protocorinthian lekythos that run on 
into the early period of Corinthian, see Necrocorinthia, cat. 479 and fig. 8 B, 
contemporary with the scale vases from graves 13 and 132. 91.2, however, 
is a late example of the Protocorinthian lekythos pure and undefiled. 1 

The piriform lekythos is best represented at Rhitsona by the scale- 
pattern series, 2 13. 3-7 (J.H.S. xxx, p. 347 and p. 349, fig. n) and 132. 2. 
Graves 13 and 132 are very similar in their contents and are certainly to be 
placed at the end of the Protocorinthian series, not so very long before the 
earliest of the graves with round-bodied Corinthian aryballoi. 3 The details 
of decoration on these scale-pattern vases are all common in the fully 
developed Corinthian style. 

There are two other piriform lekythoi from Rhitsona, 13. 8 (J.H.S. xxx, 
p. 349, fig. 1 1), with simple bands, and the somewhat obese 89. i (pi. iv), 
with orange quarterings (see further under iv. i), both motives common in 
our earliest graves with round-bodied Corinthian aryballoi. Both vases 
show, purple over the black (13. 8 three fine bands over each of the broad 
black bands, 89. i broad purple bands running down some of the quarter- 
ings), a fact which connects them both with one another and with the 
developed Corinthian style. 

The little squat barrel-shaped scale aryballoi found in graves 13, 132 
(13. 9, 10, n, J.H.S. xxx, p. 349, figs. 1 1, 12 ; 132. 3-7),* and still more the 
aryballos with orange quarterings 13. 12, ibid. fig. i2, 5 all announce the 
speedy advent of the round-bodied or ball aryballos. The bombylios has 
already arrived (13. 13, scales, 13. 14, stag etc., ibid. pp. 348, 349, figs. 10, 

List of Rhitsona examples 

6. 5, 6; 13. 3-1 1 ; 75. i : see J.H.S. xxx, pp. 343-9. 

88. 1-4 (all pi. m) : hgt. -065, -07, -07, -07 m.; top of lip: between circles 

1 91. 2 and 99. i 'are both cases of Protocorinthian found in single interment graves 
with Corinthian incised rosette vases. Payne, p. 26, states that he knows of no such 
instances. His argument, however, is confirmed rather than weakened by these exceptions, 
in which the Protocorinthian vases are so obviously heirlooms. 

2 Cp. Johansen, Vases Sicyon. pi. XLII. i . 

3 See most recently Payne, Necrocorinthia, p. 22 f. 

4 Two similar vases in Corinth Museum. 

5 Payne, Necrocorintkia, p. 34, wrongly describes this flat-bottomed vase as a fully 
developed round aryballos like his fig. 126. 


concentric with mouth i, 2, 4 dots, 3 rays; back of handle: i, 2, vertical 
lines, 3, 4 three vertical lines with a set of three horizontal above and below; 
neck: i, 2, 3 plain, 4 bands; shoulder: i, 2 two dogs running, 3 three birds' 
heads with incised eye and line across neck, 4 upward and downward 
pointing rays; bottom: i, 2 ground colour, 3^ 4 painted except foot ring; 
colouring: i, 2 partly, 3, 4 entirely brick red instead of black; main zone i, 
2 four dogs, 2 with dotted ring-and-centre as field ornament. 

89. i (pi. iv) : hgt. -09 m., see under iv. i, pp. 23, 24. 

90. i (pi. m) : hgt. -07 m., top of lip like 88. 3; back of handle and neck 
too worn to distinguish; shoulder: three (?) running dogs; body: broad 
band, narrow band, three rows of dots, narrow band, two broad bands, 
four narrow bands, rays; bottom plain. 

91. i and 2 (both pi. m) : hgt. -065, -075 m.; top of lip: i like 88. 3, 2 
circles concentric with mouth; back of handle: i damaged and uncertain, 
2 three horizontal lines; neck plain; shoulder: three rough half spirals 
(degraded from birds of 88. 3?), i to right, 2 to left; body: i four double 
rows of dots alternating with five sets of four thin bands, rays; 2, see pi. m, 
three running dogs; bottom black. 

99. i (pi. m) : hgt. -06 m. ; top of lip: circles concentric with mouth; 
handle missing; shoulder: three spirals as on 91. i between downward 
pointing rays; body: bands, thin except near bottom; bottom plain. 

132. 2: piriform lekythos; hgt., with foot broken off, -092 m.; colour all 
gone; top of lip: apparently circles concentric with mouth; back of handle: 
vertical wavy line; shoulder: daisy pattern; main zone scales with double 
incisions; above foot: daisy pattern. Gp. 13. 3, J.H.S. xxx, p. 349, fig. 1 1, 
and for back of handle 13. 10, ibid. fig. 12. 

132. 3-7: squat barrel-bodied aryballoi with ring foot; hgt. -058, -068, 
055, -065, -06 m.; main zone scale pattern, cp. 13. 9, J.H.S. xxx, p. 349, 
fig. 11:3 to P f lip concentric circles; back of handle plain; 4 like 3 but 
taller and back of handle horizontal lines; 5 like 4 but top of lip daisy 
pattern with broad short petals; 6 like 5 but top of lip like 3 and 4; 7 like 6 
but circles on top of lip broader, back of handle zigzag; bottom: 3-6 con- 
centric circles, 7 plain. 

Local imitations of Protocorinthian are probably to be seen in the 

75- 4 ' Jug : J.H.S. xxx, p. 343, fig. 6. 

97. i (pi. iv) : hgt. -07 m.; lip and body bands, black on buff; shoulder, 
neck and handle plain; bottom flat and reserved; a later and squatter 
version of the above, from an early (group a, below, p. 22) Corinthian 

6. 2 : bowl (kalathos) with holes in the bottom; J.H.S. xxx, p. 343, fig. 6. 
The fabric is not unlike that of the grave i oenochoe (see p. 17); the clay 
is somewhat gritty and not quite so pale, but it is far less tinged with brown 
than that of many Corinthian aryballoi; the shape is known in Proto- 
corinthian (Johansen, Vases Sicyon. fig. 43) but it is essentially that of the 


local vase i. 3 (J.H.S. ibid. fig. 5). In i. 3 holes are pierced not as here in 
the bottom but just under the rim (three in a row -01 m. apart and -01 m. 
below the rim). The shape, however, complete with holes in the bottom, 
was certainly Boeotian at a later period, see e.g. an example in Thebes 
Museum, old collection, in the earlier Boeotian-kylix style (class i of Viand 
VCent. Pott. p. 13) and one in the Reading University collection (purchased 
in Athens) of the later class n (ibid. p. 15) . Our vase may therefore be local, 
and at any rate shows that this type was known in Boeotia from the very 
beginning of the archaic period. 


The graves in which Corinthian is the predominant fabric may be divided 
chronologically into three groups. 1 

Group a (graves 14, 89, 91, 97, 141) follows closely on the latest Proto- 
corinthian group in which the typical vase is the piriform lekythos with 
scale pattern: cp., e.g., grave 13 (scale vases) with grave 14 (our group a). 
The characteristic vases in this group of graves are small bombylioi and 
aryballoi, both round-bottomed, decorated with animals, birds, floral 
patterns, etc. that vary much both in type and grouping. The warrior 
aryballos has scarcely emerged, only one example (91. 19, a comparatively 
careful vase) occurring in the whole series. 

In the group b graves (4, 87, 92, 95, 125 a, 125 b) the warrior aryballos 
becomes common. This group is distinguished from the next by its numerous 
affinities with group a. 

In the group c graves (86, 99, 101 b, 125 c, 145) the warrior aryballos is 
still common, though it shows greater sameness and carelessness. Both in 
the abundance and in the character of their contents the graves of this 
group are the obvious precursors of the earliest of our Boeotian-kylix graves 
(group A graves of B.S.A. xiv, p. 305 f. and VI and V Cent. Pott, from Rhit- 
sona, pp. 12, I3 2 ), in which other styles of pottery come to the front and 
Corinthian persists only in certain forms that are already prominent in our 
group c graves. These stereotyped survivals are extremely numerous. The 
Boeotian-kylix graves have in fact yielded over 1000 specimens, mostly 
ball aryballoi with quatrefoil or cinquefoil ornament (below iv, viii, pp. 43- 
46) but including also larger vases flat-bottomed aryballoi and flattened 
bombylioi. The warrior aryballos, however, the typical vase of our group b 
and group c graves, has entirely disappeared. Our lavishly furnished 
Boeotian-kylix graves thus afford valuable evidence, both positive and 
negative, for the chronological classification of the graves of groups b and 
c above, in which Corinthian is still the live and dominant style. 

In the light of this well-marked sequence of grave groups it becomes 

1 Graves 96, 101 a, 125 d, 125 e have been omitted from this classification, which their 
meagre contents do not help to establish. 

2 To the period of these group A (early Boeotian bird-kylix) graves we should probably 
assign the scantily furnished grave 103 and possibly also the still poorer grave (?) 93, both 
catalogued below, pp. 86, 84. 


possible to trace chronological developments or at least changes in most of 
the main vase types. 1 

In the matter of absolute dating, especially for the earlier periods, I owe 
much to Payne, whose discussion in Mecrocorinthia of the whole question and 
in particular of the relations of Corinthian to Protocorinthian has resolved 
many difficulties. The late Protocorinthian or transitional graves 13 and 
132 are on this reckoning placed between 640 and 625 B.C. Our group a 
Corinthian graves fall into the period 625-600 B.C., to which Payne assigns 
his early Corinthian, though within these limits I am inclined to give them 
rather earlier dates than Payne, all well before the end of the century 
(Payne puts grave 14 at the turn of the seventh and sixth centuries, p. 57, 
or at the very beginning of the sixth, p. 291, n. 2: cp. Payne, p. 56 on 
grave 91, and p. 57 on grave 97). A date for any of our group a graves so 
late as the very end of the seventh century seems hardly to allow time 
enough for the developments in burial fashions and burial furniture fhat 
are to be traced in our groups b and c, since the late group c grave 86 can 
hardly be dated much after 580 B.C. (see below under vn, "Boeotian Black 
Figure", pp. 51-52). Our group a graves would thus be dated say 625- 
605 B.C., our group b at the turn of the century, our group c about 590- 
570 B.C. This means for our Corinthian periods a dating consistently earlier 
than Payne's, who dates his Middle Corinthian 600-575 B.C., and late Corin- 
thian I (to which belong the typical contents of our group c graves) 575- 
550 B.C. Payne's dating for some of the late Corinthian I aryballos types is 
certainly too late, at least for Rhitsona : types such as the animal and warrior 
aryballoi, characteristic of grave 86 (see nos. 35-54 and 67-84) but entirely 
absent from even our earliest Boeotian-kylix graves 49 and 50, cannot on 
any showing have persisted down to 550 B.C. ; the evidence of these lavishly 
furnished graves (B.S.A. xiv, pp. 250-64) renders it unlikely that they 
survived much later than 570 B.C. 

ORANGE QUARTERS: Payne, cat. 378, 638, 1262, 1294 

This scheme of decoration goes back to the period of our later Proto- 
corinthian graves, as is shown by 13. 12 (pi. iv; J.H.S. xxx, p. 348 and 
fig. 12). The grave 13 type does not recur, but the orange-quarter scheme 
of decoration is found on a lekythos of characteristic Protocorinthian shape, 
89. i (pi. iv), from a very early (group a) Corinthian grave. 89. i has the 
incised lines double, 13. 12 has them single. Both single and double lines 
can therefore be traced back to the early period of this form of decoration. 
The great majority of the specimens fall into two groups, .one of ball- 
shaped, the other of flat-bottomed aryballoi. 

Ball aryballoi (Payne, fig. 126, no. 638, who aptly calls them "football 

All five of our group a Corinthian graves (14, 89, 91, 97, 141) contained 

1 See above, p. 4. 


small ball aryballoi with this decoration in its most characteristic form (see 
pi. iv, 89. 5 and 97. 10). In graves 14, 91, 97 the incised lines are all single; 
in 89 and 141 they are mainly double. The type is commonest, however, 
in the somewhat later (group b) grave 95, and is found also in the group b 
graves 4 and 87, in all three graves always with single incisions. It is not 
found in any of our group c graves. It seems therefore to have been most 
popular during the period of our group a and group b graves. But vases 
similarly decorated, though different in fabric (99. 50-52, 101 b. 34: see 
below, p. 46, class v), occur in group c graves, and one isolated example in 
the normal fabric was found among the 420 vases of the early Boeotian- 
kylix grave 49 (49. 231, B.S.A. xiv, p. 252). It is therefore not at all 
certain that the type became obsolete when it ceased to be popular. 

Flat-bottomed aryballoi (Payne, fig. 162, no. 1294): 

This other common type of orange-quarter aryballos (the name is here 
less appropriate) is larger and has a flat bottom with a slightly moulded 
foot. The incised lines do not cover the whole extent of the body. The 
shoulder is decorated with a daisy pattern, below which run several 
horizontal bands. The commonest variety has one or two similar horizontal 
bands just above the foot (seefor all details just mentioned 86. 252 (pi. iv)). 
In a few cases these lower bands are lacking and the incisions run right 
down to the foot. 4. i and 40. 24 have daisy pattern on the top of the lip, the 
rest all have concentric circles. 

This flat-bottomed type is first found in grave 4 (group b, one example) 
and grave 86 (group c, seven examples) . It is common in the early 
Boeotian-kylix graves. Its latest occurrence is in grave 126 (one example). 
Double incisions (on 126 running right to the bottom, on 4 nearly so) occur 
in the early example from grave 4 and the latest, that from grave 126. The 
grave 86 examples are all like no. 252 (pi. iv) with single incisions. The 
considerable series from the Boeotian-kylix graves 40, 49, 50 and (with 
one exception) 51 have double incisions, a fact-that suggests that with this 
precise type single incisions were popular first. Further than that it would 
be rash at present to suggest any chronological classification. 

List ofRhitsona examples 
Protocorinthian-shaped lekythos : 

89. i (pi. iv) : hgt. -09 m. ; incised lines doublej broad purple bands down 
some of the quarterings. See also under section in above. 

Ball aryballoi : 

87. i : hgt. -065 m.; incised lines single both on body and on top of lip. 
89. 5 (pi. iv), 6, 7: hgt. -055, -06, -065 m.; incised lines double on top of lip 

of all three, on body of 5 and 6 ; 5 apparently all black, 6 and 7 too 

worn to see. 
91. 3-5: hgt. -06 m.; incised lines all single; traces of purple on 91. 3; the 

others too worn to see. 


95. 3-14 : hgt. -06 m. ; incised lines all single ; the only three which have any 
considerable remains of colour show a thinner white stripe painted 
over the black (or purple) of every third quarter. 

97. 10 (pi. iv): hgt. -065 m.; incised lines all single; quarters black and 
purple alternately. 

141. 5-10: hgt. 'O62--O68 m.; incised lines double except on body of 5 and 
on top of lip of 6; all seem to have originally had some quarters with 
a purple stripe covering nearly all the black and some quarters with 
a band of white dots running from top to bottom. 

4. 19, 20: see J.H.S. xxx, p. 355 and fig. 17. 

14. 23, 24: see ibid. p. 353. 

49. 231 : see B.S.A. xiv, p. 252. 

Flat-bottomed aryballoi: 

Small early: 

13. 12: see J.H.S. xxx, p. 348 and p. 349, fig. 12 and here pi. iv. 
Larger and later: 

86. 252-258: hgt. !! m;, all like 252 (pi. iv); top of lip circles concentric 
with mouth; neck daisy pattern; bottom plain reserved; colours 
generally faded, but quarters probably black and purple alternately. 

4. i : see J.H.S. xxx, p. 353. 

40. 19-24: see J.H.S. xxix, p. 313. 

49. 232-239: B.S.A. xiv, p. 252. 

50. 244-251: ibid. p. 259. 

51. 219-224: ibid. p. 268. 

126. 29: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 95. 

DIVERSIFIED WITH ZONES OF DOTS: Payne, cat. 376, 377, 639-642, 644, 1261 

.(a) Bombylioi: 

These form among the Rhitsona series a well-marked group represented 
by nineteen examples, of which twelve come from group a graves (14, 89, 
97, 141), five from the group b graves 92, 95, one from the group c grave 
101 b. This last vase is larger than any of the others except 97. 2. The 
floruit of these vases is therefore to be put in the earlier part of our period; 
the mode of decoration began still earlier, cp., e.g., the Protocorinthian 
lekythos 13. 8, J.H.S. xxx, p. 349, fig. u. Zones of dots many deep (e.g. 
97. 3 and 141. i, both pi. v) and zones of short vertical lines (e.g. 14. n, 
see ibid. p. 351, fig. 14 and cp. the Protocorinthian lekythos 91. i, pi. m) 
seem signs of earliness. Bands of even thickness covering the vase from 
bottom to neck, e.g. 92. i (pi. iv), 95. i, are confined to graves of the 
middle group (b). With our one example from a group c grave (101 b) 
compare the iv. iii vase 86. i (pi. v), similar to it both in its exceptional 
size and in the way that broad and narrow bands alternate. 


(b) Ball aryballoi : 

These occur throughout the Corinthian period, being well represented 
from the early (group a) graves 14, 91 to the late (group c) graves 86, 145. 
They do not survive into the period following, no example occurring 
among the hundreds of aryballoi from graves 49, 50, 51. In this they 
resemble the warrior aryballoi (class iv. vi), some of which are practically 
iv. ii vases with the warriors superimposed on a broad zone of dots. Where 
dots form a single zone it is generally round the middle of the body. 

The details of decoration do not appear to fall into any chronological 
arrangement, but it may be noted that of twenty-eight complete examples 
from the six early graves 14, 91, 141 (group a), 87, 92, 95 (group b) only 
one measures -065 m. in height, the rest varying from -045 to -06 m. ; of 
fifty-eight complete examples from the five graves 4 (group b), 86, 99, 
101 b, 145 (group c) twenty-six measure -o7--o8 m. in height, the rest 
vary from -06 to just under -07 m. Grave 4 on this showing falls rather 
into group c than group b; but of the nine examples from it four measure 
just -06 m., three '065, only two -07. These measurements are quite com- 
patible with a date towards the end of the group b period assigned to this 
grave on other grounds. 

We may class here the exceptional vase 86. 27 (pi. v), hgt. -055 m., 
with bands, now purple, round only the lower part, black dots on top of 
lip, short vertical bars on side of lip, one vertical line on the handle. 

(c) The two little fiat-bottomed aryballoi 92. 14 (pi. iv), 15 come from a 
group b grave. For shape and size the nearest Rhitsona parallels come from 
the late Protocorinthian grave 13 (see 13. 12, J.H.S. xxx, p. 349, fig. 12) 
and from the (probably late) group a grave 141 (see p. 14). 

(d) Amphoriskoi: 

Five from grave 86 and two from grave 99, both graves of group c. 
The shape occurs elsewhere at Rhitsona only in early Boeotian-kylix graves 
(see under 103. 9, below, p. 86). 

List of Rhitsona examples 
(a] Bombylioi: 

89. 2, 3: hgt. -08 m.; zone of dots on body ten deep; daisy pattern (black) 

on lip, neck, and bottom of 2, neck only of 3, 
92. i (gl. iv)~3: hgt. -07 m.; plain bands except for daisy pattern on neck; 

clay of i deep brown. 
95. i, 2: hgt. -075, -07 m.; like 92. 1-3. 
97. 2, 3 (pi. v), 4: hgt. -12, -095, -08 m.; body of 2 has two zones of dots, 

upper thirteen deep, lower nine; 4 has three zones each with one row 

of very short vertical lines; lip of 2 missing; daisy pattern on lip of 3 

and (with band outside) 4, on neck of 2, 3, 4, and on bottom of 4. 
101 b. i : hgt. -i 15 m. ; one zone of dots two deep; bands, purple and black, 

one thick generally alternating with two thin; daisy pattern, thin, on 

neck only. 


141. 1-3, 1 1 : hgt. 'O8--O75 m.; dots on 2, 3 as on i (pi. v), on 1 1 two zones 
each three deep; dots also on side of lip of 2; daisy pattern on lip of 
i (black between red bands), 2 (black), on neck and bottom of 1-3 
and (blob-like) n. 

14. 11-13: see J.H.S. xxx, p. 351 (n, ibid. fig. 14) and Arch. Eph. 1912, 
pi. 7. 4. 

(b) Ball aryballoi: 
On back of handle normally horizontal bands: 

86. 7-19: hgt. o75-'O7m.; narrow zone of dots round middle of body; 

daisy pattern on shoulder; just above bottom 7-10 have two narrow 
. zones of either degenerate daisy pattern or short vertical lines. 
86. 20-26: 20, hgt. -07 m., 21-26, hgt. -o65--o6 m.; bands only, except for 

daisy pattern on shoulder. 

86. 27 (pi. v) : hgt. -055 m. ; the bands, confined to the lower half, are now 


87. 2-13: hgt. 'o6-'O5 m.; all as 87. 2 (pi. iv) ; daisy pattern on bottom as 

well as shoulder; bands purple and black alternately. 

91. 6-8: hgt. -05, -05, -045 m.; dots on 91. 6 only, one zone two deep; daisy 

pattern on shoulder and bottom of 6, 7, shoulder only of 8; bands 
broad on body of 7, 8, thin on lip of 7, 8 and oh bottom of 8; 9-1 1 
fragmentary, like 7, 8. 

92. 4, 5 and (pi. v) 6: hgt. -058, -058, '058 m.; dots on 92. 6 only, see pi. v; 

daisy pattern on shoulder of all three, on. bottom of 4, 5; bottom of 

6 missing. 
95. 15-17: hgt. -065, -05, ?m.; daisy pattern on shoulder and bottom; 

bands alternately purple and black; dots only on fragmentary 95. 17, 

one zone two deep and perhaps others. 
99. 4, 5: hgt. -08, -065 m.; zone of dots round body four deep; daisy 

pattern on shoulder only; 99. 4 has bands thick, and on back of handle 

three vertical lines. 
101 b. 2-18: 2, 6, hgt. -06 m., H, 18, hgt. -07 m., rest, -o65-'o68 m.; 2-12 

no dots, 2-5 bands all broad like 87. 2 (pi. iv) ; 6-1 1 bands round upper 

part of body more numerous and less broad; 12 fragmentary; 13-18 

dots, one zone two deep. 
125 a or b. i : fragmentary; on shoulder blobs, on body (more than half 

missing) bands. 
125 b. i, 2 : hgt. -068 m., fragmentary; no dots; daisy pattern on shoulder 

and bottom now ground colour on reddish brown; on lip and main 

zone of body bands now thin of reddish brown arid thicker of ground 

colour: but bands and petals of ground colour show traces of having 

been originally black. 
141. 12-16: hgt. -055, -06, -055, ? (fragmentary), -055 m.; dots: one zone 

of large, two deep, on 12, of smaller, three deep, on 13, 14, four deep, 

on 15, two zones, each two deep, on 16; daisy pattern, mostly of early 

blob-like form, on shoulder of 12-16 and bottom of 12-15. 


145. 2-12: 2, hgt. -072 m., pi. v, bottom plain bands; so 3-6, hgt. -07- 
062 m., but on 4-6 plain bands on top of lip and on 6 dots round side 
of lip; 7, 8, hgt, -075 m., dots three deep, top and side of lip bands 
only; 9-12, hgt. -065, -07, -07, -07 m., like 7, 8, but on 9-11 bands 
broader, daisy pattern on shoulder very elongated, on 12 dots only 
two deep. 

4. 10-18: see J.H.S. xxx, pp. 354-5. 

14. 25-28: see ibid. p. 353 and figs. 16, 15, p. 352. 

(c) Small flat-bottomed aryballoi: 

92. 14 (pi. iv), 15: hgt. -055 m.; bands black and purple, daisy pattern on 
bottom and shoulder only. 

(d) Amphoriskoi: 

86. 261 (pi. iv)-265 (three of these are listed by Payne under a wrong 
rubric, as his nos. 1081-1083): hgt. '115, TO, TO, -095 m., ?; like 99. 48 
(pi. iv), 49, except that as far as can now be seen, the necks of the grave 
86 examples have no zigzag, and that in 86. 261, 262 mouth and neck, 
in 86. 261, 262, 264 foot and body, are more clearly divided. Clay 
varies from pale buff to pale green. 

99. 48 (pi. iv), 49: hgt. TO m. ; colours faded, black certain but no signs 
of purple; ground greenish buff; neck, zigzag; shoulder, daisy pattern; 
body, bands thick and thin with one zone of dots two deep. 


Animals in simple silhouette with no incisions or accessory colours: 
Payne's "subgeometric": see cat. 367-375, 631, 632?, 965-969, 1033- 
1039, 1074, 1292, 1293. O n tne bombylios 86. i (pi. v) the animals 
occupy a comparatively narrow zone which alone distinguishes the vase 
from those of class iv. ii. Somewhat similar animals, also in pure silhouette, 
but thinner and more geometrical, occur on the round-bodied aryballoi 

87. 14 and 125 a. i (both pi. v), where also, though the main zone is much 
bigger, the other decoration is mainly linear. 

The combination of plain bands and silhouetted animals recalls some of 
the less inspired efforts of the Protocorinthian style; the grave 86 vases 
(i and probably 2, see details below), where the general scheme of decora- 
tion is distinctly Protocorinthian, are also of a shape that is of comparatively 
early origin. But grave 86 is one of the latest of our group c, and 86. i and 2 
need not be regarded as much earlier than their date of burial. The treat- 
ment both of the animals and of the field dots is characteristic of the period, 
and the silhouette style had a long subsequent history in Boeotia. 1 The two 
round-bodied aryballoi 87. 14 and 125 a. i occur in two separate group b 
graves. We may therefore regard their thin long-legged animals, moving 
freely in a space little encumbered by field ornaments (occasional large dots 
or blobs), as the more or less immediate ancestors of those on the grave 

1 Cp. the gebmetricising group of Black Figure vases, J.H.S. XLIX^ p. 160 f. 


86 bombylioi. The relations of these degraded animals to those on Boeotian 
geometricising Black Figure vases have still to be traced. 

List of Rhitsona examples 
All have daisy pattern on shoulder only. 

(a) Bombylioi: 

86. i (pi. v) : hgt. -12 m.; animal zone: four grazing deer (goats?) and one 
duck; 86. 2: lower part missing, probably like 86. i. 

(b) Round-bodied aryballoi: 

87. 14 (pi. v): hgt. -055 m.; animal zone: horned deer (?) grazing; lip 

125 a. i (pi. v) : hgt. -05 m.; animal zone: four very degenerate deer (?) ; 
dots on side of lip. 


IV.iv.a (Payne, Early Corinthian, Alabastra A, pp. 280-3, Aryballoi 
E, p. 2 go 1 ). Characteristic of our group a graves is a series of small round- 
bottomed bombylioi and aryballoi pf fairly refined workmanship with 
animal decoration in a free field covering the greater part of the body. The 
top of the lip (see 89. 8, pi. vi) shows a daisy pattern, generally in red and 
black, the bottom of the body a daisy pattern, in some cases abbreviated 
into a ring of large dots; in neither position are the petals or dots bordered 
by linear bands, nor do linear bands occur below the daisy pattern that 
runs round the neck or shoulder. The side of the lip normally has a band of 
dots. The field rosettes, as also the large found rosettes below the handle 
on 91. 13, 14, 15, have the petals marked by incised lines running from side 
to side and crossing at the centre; only 97. 7 (bombylios) and 14. 1 6 
(aryballos) deviate from this type: 97. 7 shows field rosettes with a circle 
incised in the centre; 14. 1 6 has, besides rosettes of the normal type above 
the cock, a large rosette in front of him with two concentric circles incised 
in the centre as on one common type of vase from group c graves (see 
iv. iv. c, group 2, p. 34) . On the aryballoi the back of the handle has always 
either horizontal bands or a vertical zigzag line, in one case (97. 1 1, pi. vi) 
with black triangles in the angles; it is never plain or with two straight 

1 Payne's class E of early aryballoi corresponds with his class A of early "alabastra" 
(bombylioi) and I should have inclined to give it the corresponding place. His first four 
aryballos classes (A-D, pp. 288-90) all have one or more features which before seeing his 
Necrocorinthia I had come to regard as foreign to the earliest phase of fully developed 
Corinthian, at least as far as these small aryballoi and "alabastra" are concerned, viz. 
bounding lines above and below the picture, white dot decoration as described by him, 
p. 284, rosettes with incised centre. On the white dot decoration see Payne's own excellent 
observations, loc. ciL; bounding lines and rosettes with incised centres both do occur in 
early Corinthian, but both, I think, prelude the beginning of g. later phase (see below, 
under iv. iv. b). On the whirl or crescent- wheel ornament that decorates the bottom of the 
aryballoi of Payne's groups A, B, D see below on aryballoi of my class iv. iv. c, group i. 


vertical lines as so often on aryballoi of class iv.iv. c. Red or purple and 
incisions are freely used. 

List of Rhitsona examples 
. Bombylioi: 

89. 4: hgt. -08 m.; lion and rosettes; worn. 

97. 5: hgt. -115 m.; three rosettes between cocks facing. 

97. 6 (pi. v, bis): hgt. -085 m.; lotus-palmette pattern between cocks 


97. 7 (pi. v, bis) : hgt. -10 m.; swan between lions facing. 
97. 8: hgt. '085 m.; front, siren; back, swan. 
97. 9 (pi. v) : hgt. -08 m.; winged figure (Artemis) grasping in either hand 

a long-necked bird. 

141. 4 (pi. v): hgt. TO m.; lions facing. 
14. 2-10 : see J.H.S. xxx, pp. 350-1; 2, 3, 4, 6, ibid. figs. 13, 14, Payne, 

cat. 286-288 (main themes are sirens, cocks, ducks, swans?). 

Aryballoi (Payne, p. 290, n. i): 

89. 8 (lip, pi. vi) : hgt. -055 m. ; much damaged; lion with incised hatching 

for mane facing left, owl under handle. 

91. 12-15: hgt. -07, -06, -06, -05 m.; long-necked bird; 15, back of handle 
/ -^ vertical zigzag line with vertical straight line on either side. 
91. 1 6 (pi. vi): hgt. -055 m.; panther protome; red exceptionally bright, 

hardly so powdery and distinct from purple as on 14. 17 (Arch. Eph. 

1912, pi. 7. 3, owl), but very like that on 14. 14 (panther). 
91. 17: hgt. -07 m.; siren; back of handle, zigzag. 
91. 1 8 (pi. vi): hgt. -055 m.; horseman; field ornament behind horse 

resembles letters EK (so 14. 14). 
97. n : hgt. -07 m.; front, long-necked bird (duck?) between panthers; 

back (pi. vi), swan (Payne, 568). 
141. 17 (pi. vi): fragmentary; duck (?) with outstretched wings; lip 

normal; bottom apparently plain. 
14. 14-19, 22: see J.H.S. xxx, p. 352; 14 (Payne, 567), 18, 22, ibid. figs. 

15, 16; 17, Arch. Eph. 1912, pi. 7. 3. The last of this list (14. 22 : lion's 

scalp, no field ornament) belongs to the same group as 14. 20, 21 

(where the lion's scalp is replaced by a helmeted head), dealt with 

below under iv. v, early aryballoi. 

We should probably class here also 

125 a. 2: fragmentary and much worn; swan or siren with outstretched 
wings; probably like 

125 e. i : hgt. -05 m.; chipped and worn; swan with outstretched wings; 
usual iv. iv. a details except that side of lip has black band and that 
the daisy pattern on lip, shoulder and bottom are all black. 

4. 22-31 : see under iv. iv. b, below, p. 32. 


IV. iv. b. The middle phase of the incised animal style is very poorly 
represented at Rhitsona. This is probably an accident of excavation. The 
nature of the gap in our series is indicated by the finds from e.g. Sicily, 
Rhodes and Delos, and by the series, mostly from miscellaneous or un- 
known sites, in our great museums. The BOMBYLIOI of this middle phase 
are generally large (cp. iv. iv. c), but still, for the most part, round- 
bottomed. Some are treated mainly like the iv. iv. a examples, but show 
amongst their field ornaments rosettes of the later forms ; see e.g. Athens, 
Nicole, pi. 4. 854; Copenhagen, C.V.A. pi. 86. 3. Others, unlike the 
iv. iv. a vases, show bands above and below the main zone, but fewer and 
thinner than on the iv. iv. c vases, where they are characteristic; the daisy 
pattern still holds its own against the encroaching bands on lip and bottom; 
the rosettes are dominantly and often exclusively of the iv. iv. a type; see 
e.g. Bib. Nat. C.V.A. pi. 15. 2-3, 9-10 (both Camirus); Vroulia, Kinch, 
pi. 34. 2, 13; Gela, Mon. Ant. xvn, figs. 77, 180. The ARYBALLOI are less 
distinctive, but here again we find vases with most features of the iv. iv. a 
series but with centred rosettes intruding or a band appearing above or 
below the figured decoration: see e.g. Boeotia, Louvre L 32, C.V.A. m. c. a, 
pi. 5; Syracuse, sep. 192, Notiz. 1895, p. 130; Camirus, Bib. Nat. C.V.A. 
pi. 15. i and 6; Camirus, Berlin, Furt, 1080 (Payne, 582). We should pro- 
bably assign to this period, though late in it, the particular group of ball 
aryballoi with crescent-wheel pattern on the bottom discussed just below 
in connexion with Rhitsona 4. 32. 

Vases of this middle phase particularly affect rows of fine white dots to 
pick out details of the figures; when the rosette with double incised centre 
appears, a ring of these dots is often placed between the two incised circles : 
cp. the dots on the shields of the warriors, who also first appear in force at 
this period. This is the period when rosettes begin to be scattered in wild 
confusion, 1 though the practice lasted on long afterwards; see e.g. J.H.S. 
xxx, p. 337, fig. 2 (4. 32 from a grave of this period, 51. 33 from a grave 
of the middle of the sixth century). The material which comes under the 
types just indicated is rich and varied, particularly so that from theHeraeum 
at Delos published by Dugas (whose otherwise excellent descriptions do not, 
however, distinguish the different types of Corinthian rosette) . Some of it 
may well represent good work contemporary with our third period. But a 
discussion of material on which Rhitsona throws no direct light is beyond 
the scope of this study. 

Rhitsona examples 
We may perhaps place here 

99. 2 and (pi. vi)3: hgt. -095 m., and, lip missing, -09 m.; bird with 
cock's (?) head, long thin fan tail and outspread wings; lip and bottom 
plain bands; bands below daisy pattern on neck; field rosettes, scanty and 

1 This, like the other details enumerated above, appears in some groups of Payne's 
early Corinthian. See above, p. 29, n. i . 


sketchy, include some with incised circle in centre. These details of decora- 
tion all connect with iv. iv. c below. But the size of these vases and their 
shape with round bottom range them with iv. iv. a as against iv.iv. c, 
where the bombylioi are larger and their bottoms flattened. Grave 99 
must be a fairly late group c grave (cp. both the character and the amount 
of its furniture) ; but the worn state of this pair of bombylioi makes it not 
unlikely that they are considerably older than their date of interment. We 
are therefore justified in regarding them as transitional between our two 
main series (a and c) in date as well as in type. 


4- 2, 3, 32 (2, 32, J.H.S. xxx, pp. 354, 337, figs. 1 7, 2) : grave 4 is the only 
group b grave with a series of animal aryballoi. Ten of them (4. 22-31) 
seem to be late examples of iv. iv. a. These ten are the worst preserved and 
presumably the oldest from the grave. Of the others 4. 2, 3 (hgt. '085 m.; 
siren) already have bands round lip and bottom and below the daisy 
pattern on the shoulder. The large rosette below the handle (ibid. fig. 1 7) 
is of the later (iv. iv. c) type with double incised circle in centre. Most of 
the rosettes, however, are of the earlier (iv. iv. a) type with incised lines 
crossing in the centre, and the handle has the zigzag characteristic of 
iv. iv. a. The third vase, 4. 32, has already been compared (ibid. p. 337) for 
its general style and effect with kotylai from the comparatively late group A 
Boeotian-kylix grave 51 (a little after 550 B.C.). It is the first instance we 
have met with of an aryballos that has the bottom decorated with a whirl 
or crescent-wheel ornament. For a discussion of these crescent-wheel- 
bottomed aryballoi see below under our iv. iv. c, group i . 

IV. iv. c. The distinguishing features of this class are the prevalence of 
simple bands for the subordinate parts of the decoration, the partial or 
complete discarding of the iv. iv. a rosette with incised lines crossing at the 
centre, and a marked tendency towards standardisation, which indicates 
that the style is suffering from loss of vitality if not the approach of senile 


Four from grave 86, perhaps the latest of our group c graves, two from 
grave 50, one of the earliest graves of the succeeding (Boeotian-kylix) 
period : 

The vases are much larger, the execution coarser, the bottom flattened 
sufficiently for the vase to stand. On the top of the lip and above and 
below the animal zone, which occupies most of the body, bands. The field 
ornaments include dots grouped in rough circles (B.S.A. xiv, pi. x. h; cp. 
below, class, warrior aryballoi), dots bordering part of the figure 
(86. 6, pi. vi, cp. iv. iii vases, e.g. 86. I, pi. v, and flat-bottomed iv. iv. c 
aryballoi, e.g. 50. 258, B.S.A. xiv, p. 259, fig. 10 and here pi. vn), and, in 
grave 86 only, rosettes both of the earlier (iv. iv. a) sort with incised lines 


crossing at the centre, and of the later (iv. iv. c, group 2) sort with double 
incised circle at centre (86. 5, 3, 6, pi. vi), or amorphous with incised lines 
roughly parallel (86. 3, pi. vi, below the duck). 

List of Rhitsona examples 

86. 3-6 (Payne, 1217, 1205, 1217 B, 1217 A) : hgt. -235, -235, -205, -205 m.; 

main subject : 3 (pi. vi), griffon birds and duck; 4, cocks facing with 

tails crossing behind; 5 (pi. vi), lions facing with raised tails not quite 

meeting behind; 6 (pi. vi), griffon. 
50. 259, 260 (Payne, 1222) : hgt. -17 m.; see B.S.A. xiv, p. 259 and pi. x. h, 

and below, under iv. vii. c, p. 42 and pi. ix. 

Ball aryballoi : 

The chief material is the fine series from grave 86. Of thirty-nine 
examples from this one grave thirty-seven can be distributed between three 
well-marked groups : 

IV.iv.c, group i. On top of lip a narrow zone of petal pattern between 
plain bands (see 86. 29, 30, pi. vii) ; side of lip and shoulder, dots; back of 
handle, two vertical black bands; bottom crescent-wheel pattern (whirl) 
recalling the typical Fikellura pattern : no field ornament. 

List of Rhitsona examples 

86. 28-34: hgt. -06 m.; main subjects: 28 (back, pi. vii), birds facing floral 
ornament; 29 (pi. vii), sphinx; 30 (pi. vii)~34, winged horse to right. 

The crescent-wheel bottom has already been noticed on the iv. iv. b 
aryballos 4. 32, which belongs, however, to another group, distinguished 
by the lavish use of field ornaments and a different treatment of lip and 
handle (both missing in 4. 32) and shoulder: on the top of the lip the daisy 
pattern is bigger and the bands less prominent; the back of the handle 
affects horizontal bands, straight or wavy; the main zone shows a framing 
band above as well as below. See Payne, fig. 124 and cat. p. 288, group B, 
nos. 488-494 A (cp. also 495-513, 514-516, 517-519: horsemen, etc., 
dancers, hoplites) and contrast for our iv. iv. c, group i (Payne's group D) 
ibid. fig. 125. 

Both groups are assigned by Payne to his early Corinthian period. The 
view is scarcely tenable unqualified, and indeed Payne himself only main- 
tains it with qualifications (p. 289, cp. p. 304). The multitudinous and 
miscellaneous field rosettes of his B vases and the absence of field ornament 
in his group D are both arguments against a very early Corinthian date. 
Both groups show at their best features that put them not earlier than the 
white dot style which I have already argued is only comparatively early 
Corinthian. The Rhitsona examples are far from being the best of the series 
and may well be among the latest. But though their worn condition is very 
likely due to their being earlier than most of the vases from the richly 
furnished grave in which they were found, on the other hand, the grave is 


one of the latest of our late Corinthian graves and it contained as many as 
seven of these vases. 

Against giving them a . date much earlier than that of our grave are 
vases such as the Gela pyxis, Mon. Ant. xvn, pp. 53-4, fig. 26, and Gabrici 
on this and related vases, Mon. Ant. xxn, p. 467, quoted in the Appendix to 
this section under iv.iii (below, p. 93). Besides supporting a late date for 
our iv. iv. c, group i vases, the Italian and Sicilian finds show the close 
connexion of our group i vases with vases of class iv. iii, which also have to 
be dated late on the evidence of associated finds. 

IV.iv.c, group 2. Well-drawn animals and careful rosettes with a circle 
or two concentric circles incised in the centre and incisions separating the 
petals; lip and bottom plain bands; shoulder and back of handle plain. 

List of Rhitsona examples 

86. 35-49: hgt. -O6--O7 m.; main subject: 35-40 (35, 36, pi. vn), goat to 
left showing one horn; 41 (pi. vn), boar; 42 (pi. vn), panther facing 
bird; 43 (pi. vn)-49, siren. 

We may also class here the following closely related vases : 

86. 65 (pi. vn) : goat as on 86. 35-40, but rosettes reduced to simple blobs 
such as are not uncommon on the iv. iv. c bombylioi; 86. 66: siren to 
right facing flower on stalk as on 86. 85 (pi. ix), no field rosettes. 

101 b. 19 (pi. vn), 20: hgt. -07 m.; goat to left, but rosettes of iv. iv. a type 
and goat's eye bigger with incised pupil; behind the goat (but not 
under the handle) 101 b. 19 has a large circle with a small rough 
rosette in centre (cp. 92. 9, pi. vm). The drawing is more careless than 
on the grave 86 vases, but not necessarily later; more probably these 
are careless specimens of an earlier type. 

145. 13 (pi. vn) : hgt. -065 m.; siren; rosettes of iv.iv. a type; so probably 
145. 14. 

IV.iv.c, group 3. Subordinate parts as on group 2, but the animals 
more carelessly drawn and the field rosettes amorphous : 

List of Rhitsona examples: hgt. -oG-'oy m. 

86. 50 (pi. vii)-54: goat to right with both horns showing; 55 (pi. vn)~59: 
lion full face; 60-6 1 : lion side face; 62 : swan; 63-64: siren. 

IV.iv.c, group 4. This group, which is not represented in grave 86, 
differs from the preceding three in having daisy pattern and bands on the 
shoulder (as on the bombylioi and flat-bottomed aryballoi of this class) . 
Field ornaments are comparatively rare; the top of the lip has a ring of 
dots or small petals with plain bands on either side. The two points last 
mentioned relate this group with group i above; but the bottom has plain 
bands (as on vases of groups 2 and 3). Bands are sometimes replaced by 
groups of thin lines. Back of handle, horizontal lines on 99. 13 and 145. 15; 
on the rest too worn to see. 


List of Rhitsona examples 

gg. 7-11 : hgt. -065 m.; 12-14: hgt. -06 m.; 7-11, siren with lines framing 
outspread wings as on 145. 15 (pi. vn) : 8-10, small rosette below the 
siren's body; 12, lion with head fronting; 13, winged horse to left, a 
few rosettes without incisions; 14, too worn to see. 

145. 15 (pi. vn): hgt. -07 m.; siren with lines framing outspread wings; 
top of lip bands only; no field ornaments. 

Of these three groups (2, 3, 4) group 2 is the most characteristic; group 3 
is an inferior variety of group 2, though whether the inferiority is due to a 
slightly later date or mere carelessness is uncertain. Group 4 is related to 
the group i aryballoi with crescent wheel on the bottom by the scarcity of 
field rosettes and the treatment of the lip; its stereotyped sameness (see 
list of examples from other sites, below, Appendix, p. 95) shows it to be the 
later, but confirms the comparatively late persistence of group I . 

Flat-bottomed aryballoi: 

Only three examples occurred in the graves here published, namely 
86. 259, 260 and 96. 7. These three, however, form a group with other vases of 
the same shape from the early Boeotian-kylix graves 49 and 50. This group 
is obviously to be classed with the iv. iv. c bombylioi which have been 
already dealt with and which likewise cover the period from grave 86 to 
graves 49 and 50. Except in the case of 96. 7 the shoulder has a daisy 
pattern and the main scene is bordered by bands above as well as below. 
The field rosettes are sometimes of the iv. iv. a form but carelessly rendered 
so that the lines do not all cross at the centre (49. 241), sometimes 
they show the later form with incised centre, either single (96. 7) or 
double (50. 258 a, b), sometimes they are amorphous (49. 241 and, pi. vn, 
86. 259) ; in some cases they degenerate into large dots (50. 253, J.H.S. xxx, 
p. 336, fig. i), which may form a sort of frame to the figures (50. 258, pi. vn 
and B.S.A. xiv, p. 259, fig. 10) . The top of the lip has plain bands except 50. 
258 a and b (see below) ; the side of the lip, where not completely worn, 
shows plain bands except for 86. 259, 260, which have dots. The back of 
the handle varies: for 50. 258 and 258 b see below; others show horizontal 
bands. The height varies from -09 to -15 m. As on the bombylioi, animals 
are sometimes found together with floral motives which may reappear on 
other vases without the animals. The vases 50. 258 a and b (fig, 5) form 
a trio with 50. 258 c (fig. 6 and below, iv. v), where the bird is replaced by 
a human figure. The iv. i (orange quarters) vases of this shape also show 
common features as far as the main design admits. The grave contexts 
probably indicate the dates of the individual vases listed below, except 
that the very worn condition of 50. 258 a and b suggests a date somewhat 
earlier than that of the burial, a conclusion supported by their obvious 
affinities with vases from grave 86. Such a fine pair of vases might well be 
something of an heirloom. Grave 96 contained only a few quatrefoil 
aryballoi and two horse figurines. There is nothing in either the context 



or the character of the grave 96 example to suggest a date far removed 
from that of the grave 86 examples. 

List of Rhitsona examples 

86. 259 (pi. vn) : hgt. -135 m.; eagle between sphinxes; back plain; back 
of handle worn. 

86. 260: hgt. -10 m.; sirens facing; worn; details as 259. 

96. 7: worn and broken: hgt. 'iom.; siren with outspread wings (of the 
later shape, as on e.g. the bombylios 86. 3) ; small petals and no bands 
on shoulder, only one band below; a few rosettes with incised centres 
in field; handle too worn to see; all rather poor work. 

49. 241: hgt. -125111.; see B.S.A. xiv, p. 252; geese averted; for floral 
ornament see iv. vii below. 

50. 252, 253 : hgt. -09, -10 m.; siren (not sphinx) ; see B.S.A. xiv, p. 259 and 

J.H.S. xxx, p. 336, fig. i. 

50. 258 a and b (fig. 5): hgt. '145, -15 m.; these two fine vases (as also 
258 c, see iv. v) are very worn and broken, and were mended only 
after the publication of B.S.A. xiv; swan to right with outspread wings; 
top of lip, thin-petalled daisy pattern between thin bands; back of 
handle, of a uncertain, of b, on either side a row of inward pointing 
triangles that leave a broad zigzag running down the middle. 

Fig. 5. Details of decoration on body, lip, and handle of 50. 258 b. 

50. 258 1 1 hgt. -125m.; owl, pigeon, and eight-legged swastika; back of 
handle X; see B.S.A. xiv, p. 259, fig. 10 and below, pi. vn. 

1 Payne may be right (p. 203) in assigning this vase to Boeotia on the ground of its 
"very coarse style and technique", but I cannot associate it with any unquestionably 
Boeotian set of vases. 



IV.v.a: with no bands on the body either above or below the main 

Rhitsona has yielded no vases that strictly conform to this class; but we 
may note here 

97. 9 (winged Artemis grasping birds) : listed above under iv. iv. a. . 


14. 20, 21 (J.H.S. xxx, p. 351, fig. 14 and p. 352); helmeted head. 
91. 18 (already listed under iv.iv.a): horseman. 

These three aryballoi have in common an extreme simplicity of com- 
position, due partly to their themes but partly, too, to the virtual absence 
of field ornament. (The three large rosettes on the back of 14. 20 and 21 
may be regarded as substantive decoration.) Very closely related with 
14. 20 and 21 is 14. 22 (see under iv.iv.a), where the helmeted head is 
replaced by a lion's scalp. 

IV. v. a and b : 

Ball aryballoi: runners or dancers with bands above and below: 

141. 18 (pi. vi), 19, and 125 a. 3, all fragmentary, but apparently all 
similar in style, for which see the vase figured. Grave 141 belongs to our 
earliest Corinthian group (a), 125 a to our middle group (b). The two 141 
vases, however, were not found at the bottom of the grave but some two 
feet higher. Unlike the vases from the bottom those found at this higher 
level were burnt, and there is the possibility that they are later than the 
interment. 1 The style of the decoration suggests an earliest date hardly 
earlier than that of the iv. iv. b vases. 

List of Rhitsona examples 

141. 18 (pi. vi) : hgt. about -065 m.-j rosettes both with incised lines crossing 
at the centre and incised amorphous; lip (a fragment which almost 
certainly belongs) has bands on top and probably dots on side; 
bottom missing, but cp. 141. 19. 

141. 19: seems to be practically a- duplicate of 18; bottom, bands. 

125 a. 3: figures, one with arms outstretched and knee raised; rosettes 
amorphous as on vases figured J.H.S. xxx, p. 337, fig. 2. 

IV.v.b and c: 

Flat-bottomed aryballoi: we may note here, though the figure is super- 
human : 

50. 258 c (fig. 6) : hgt. -15 m., winged figure running to right; rosettes 
both with incised lines crossing at centre and with double incised circle 

1 See, however, on methods of burial, p. 14. 


at centre and purple blobs over the black; side of mouth, dots; back of 
handle probably a vertical zigzag. This vase is identical in style with 
50. 258 a and b, on which see above, under iv. iv. c. 

Fig. 6. Details of decoration of 50. 258 c. 

IV. vi: ROUND-SHIELDED WARRIORS: Payne, 1244-1249 
The Rhitsona examples are all ball aryballoi. The one example from a group a grave is 91. 19 (pi. vm) : 
hgt.-o65 m. ; two warriors ; in field dots, small crosses, one larger cross with dot 
in each angle, and, under handle, large circle with dot in centre. This vase 
differs from all the numerous iv. vi. b and iv. vi. c examples in having a 
daisy pattern (all black and no bands) on the top of the lip, no daisy 
pattern and no bands on the shoulder, and round the bottom no bands but 
only a small ring of dots. In all these points it resembles the animal and 
floral aryballoi from the group a graves (see iv. iv. a above and iv. vii. a 
below). The warriors, who are not yet quite so degenerate as they become 
in the next phase, make full use of the unconfined field, their heads ex- 
tending right up to the shoulder and their feet right to the bottom. Traces 
of purple on the shields and of white dots round the shield rims. Side of 
lip small dots; back of handle two horizontal lines. 

IV. vi. b. The iv. vi. b vases all have bands round the top of the lip (for 
the only variant see 4. 4, J.H.S. xxx, p. 354, fig. 18), daisy pattern and 
bands on the shoulder, and bands below the main zone. They are distin- 
guished from the iv. vi. c vases by their variety of treatment and by the 
relative care with which the warriors are depicted. The side of the lip 
prefers dots to the bands almost universal on iv. vi. c vases. The back of the 
handle may have either the horizontal bands of iv. vi. c (but more variously 
treated) or vertical bands, or a zigzag. Below the handle there is frequently 
a large circle with a dotted centre (see e.g. 92. 9, pi. vm, which has, 
however, a central star instead of the dot). The warrior zone shows various 
ornaments in the field: dot rosettes (e.g. 87. 15, pi. vm), amorphous black 


rosettes with arbitrary incisions (e.g. 95. 25, pi. vm), "snow storm" 
dots as on iv. ii vases, but sometimes interspersed with blobs and amorphous 
or cruciform rosettes (e.g. J.H.S. xxx, p. 354, fig. 18, 4. 9, 4). Feet and 
features of warriors sometimes still have a faintly human touch (e.g. 87. 24, 
pi. vm). Shield emblems are sometimes indicated in silhouette on a 
reserved shield (e.g. 95. 18, 95. 24, pi. vm). This class represents the final stage of uniformity and stan- 
dardised slovenliness. On the side of the lip all show bands (e.g. 86. 72, 73, 
pi. vm) excepting only 99. 15, 1 6 and 125 c. 3, 4 (dots). The back of the 
handle always shows horizontal bands, which on the grave 86 examples are 
reduced to one. There is never any ornament beneath the handle, and the 
main zone has no field ornament. The features of the warriors are ultimately 
indicated by a single incised line (e.g. 86. 73, pi. vm) ; their shields are in 
simple silhouette with an incised circle just inside the rim. 

List of Rhitsona examples 
From group a graves: 

91. 19 (pi. vm) : see under iv. vi. a just above. 

From group b graves: 

87. 15-28: hgt. -065--055 m.; 15 (pi. vm)-i9, six warriors; 20, 21, five; 
22, 23, four; 24 (pi. vm)-27, three; 28, two; in field 15-19 dot rosettes, 
20, 21, 23-28 either amorphous with arbitrary incisions or thin cruci- 
form with none; only 22 has no field ornament; side of lip of 15-20, 
22 dots, of rest bands; on shoulder of 24 daisy pattern (inadvertently?) 
omitted; back of handle has four horizontal bands on 15-19, fewer on 
rest; on back of body 28 has circle with dot in centre; traces of purple 
rare but most vases worn; only 22 has white shield dots preserved. 

92. 7-9 (8, 9 pi. vm) : hgt. -06, -06, -08 m.; 7, three warriors with cross in 

black on reserved shield, 8, 9, four; back of handle of 7 horizontal 
bands, of 8 (pi. vm) vertical bands, of 9 zigzag (hardly visible pi. vm); 
below handle 7 has circle with cross in centre and on either side, like 
9 (pi. vm), 8 is plain. 

95. 18-48 fall into well-marked groups: 

A. 18-36: hgt. 'O6--O7 m.; dots on side of lip; vertical bands, one or 
three, on back of handle ; comparatively thin bands round shoulder and 
bottom: 18 (pi. vm)-2i, five warriors, those on 18 showing shields in 
outline with black or purple cross as episemon; 22-24 (pi- VIII )j f ur 
warriors; shields in outline with bird as episemon (except one shield 
on 24, which shows ordinary silhouette with incised rim) ; 25 (pi. vm)- 
27, and, fragmentary, 28, four warriors, amorphous rosettes; 29-35, 
four warriors, no field ornament; so probably the fragmentary 36. 

B. 37-42 : small and squat, hgt. -05 m. ; side of lip, band; back of handle, 
horizontal bands; bands on shoulder and bottom thicker than in 
A vases; three warriors with white dots on shield rim; between the 


warriors often two blobby rosettes or big dots; at back of vase circle, 
with centre, between small rough crosses or rosettes. v 
G. 43-48: hgt. -o6-'o65 m.; dots round side of lip as on A vases; hori- 
zontal bands on back of handle and thicker bands above and below 
main zone as on B; no field ornaments; 43 (pi. vm)-45, four warriors; 
46 (pi. vm)-48, three warriors. 

125 a. 4-13: hgt. 4, -055m.; 5-10, -06 m.; n, -065 m.; 12-13, -07 m.; 
4-6, three warriors, 7-13, four; shields generally as on 95. 46 (pi. vm) 
with rim black and centre red, but on 6 that of right warrior has two 
parallel lines incised slantways across the red centre, that of middle 
warrior a rough rosette with incisions on a reserved centre, on 8 they 
have a cross incised on the centre, on 12, 13 they are small and reach 
only to the knee; in the field 5 has one small rough rosette between the 
two hindermost warriors, 12, 13 dot rosettes as on 87. 15 (pi. vm) and 
two thin bands running round the middle of the body level with the 
centre of the shields; on side of lip 6-9 have dots; on shoulder instead 
of daisy pattern 4 has large oblong dots ; back of handle, horizontal 
bands; below handle 5 and 10 have circle with dotted centre. 
Nos. 7, 8, 9, ii come very close to class iv. vi. c. 

125 b. 3 (pi. vm), 4: hgt. -055, '05 m.; 3, three warriors; shields with black 
rim and purple centre; for small heads of warriors cp. 4. 6; J.H.S. 
xxx, p. 354, fig. 18; boots have curled-up toes; spears pass unusually 
from behind feet to before face; before foremost warrior one amor- 
phous rosette with incisions; on back of handle three vertical bands; 4 
(worn) , two warriors with shields touching and behind the hinder what 
seems to be a shield hanging loose; between hind warrior and soldier- 
less shield two blob rosettes; round main zone apparently two bands 
running as on 125 a. 12, 13, but at level of warriors' faces; round 
shoulder, in place of normal daisy pattern, big dots; other details as on 
grave 95, group B. 

4. 4-9 : see J.H.S. xxx, pp. 353-4. 

From group c graves: 

86. 67-84: hgt. -o6-'o65 m.; 67, four warriors; 68, three warriors; class 
iv. vi. b ; in field amorphous rosettes, some with arbitrary incisions; faces 
better indicated than on iv. vi. c vases ; back of handle, three horizontal 
bands, the two lower with a vertical band on either side; 69-72 
(pi. vm), four warriors; 73 (pi. vm)-82 (and probably the fragmentary 
83. 84), three warriors; class iv. vi. c, all like 72, 73, pi. vm; on back of 
handle one horizontal band (corresponding with the one band on the 
side of the lip) ; nothing below handle; white dots round rim of shield 
only on 69 and 83. 

99. 15, 16: hgt. -055, -05 m.; three warriors; class c, but 16 appears 
to have a zone of blobs between the bands on top of lip, and on side of 
lip both have dots. 

125 c. 3-8: hgt. o6- < 07 m. ; three warriors; normal c., except that 


3 (hgt. '06 m.) and 4 (hgt. -07 m.) have dots on side of lip; warriors 
of 5 have no feet, those of 4 are less microcephalic than the rest and 
alone have white dots round rim of shield. 

145. 16-26, hgt. -055--o6 m.; 27 (very faded), hgt. -07 m.; three warriors; 
class iv. vi. c; on back of handle two to four horizontal bands; bands 
above and below warriors rather heavy; only 16, 17 have white dots 
round rim of shield; on 27 warriors march to left. 


See Payne, p. 145 f. Designs made up of lotuses or palmettes are found 
on aryballoi and bombylioi all through the Corinthian period and on into 
the next. To judge from the Rhitsona material they are at first applied 
mainly to small ball aryballoi, later to large flat-bottomed aryballoi with 
ring foot. The absence from our later (group c) graves of ball aryballoi 
thus decorated (86. 85, pi. ix, is the one exception) may perhaps be 
explained by the overwhelming vogue of the quatrefbil, cinquefoil and 
sixfoil vases of class iv. viii. 

IV. vii. early (a) and middle (b): 

A double-lotus pattern (upright over inverted) occurs on the iv. ivi a 
bombylios 97. 6 (pi. v), where, however, it serves only to separate the two 
cocks which are the main motive. 

Ball aryballoi: 

From the group a grave 91 comes a series (91. 20-25) that in subordinate 
details corresponds with the animal vases of the iv. iv. a series. The main 
ornament is made up of two or three palmettes variously grouped. All 
show field rosettes of the earliest form and all but one (25) show one large 
rosette of the same early type below the handle. Various details, however, 
point to a date for this series fairly late in our earliest period: 20-23 show 
the side of the lip deep and slightly concave; on 20 (the best preserved of 
these three) white dots are used on the central ovals in a way that recalls 
the warriors of the next period (note that the earliest of all our warrior 
aryballoi 91.19 comes from this grave) ; 25 shows the fan-shaped "rosette" 
(see pi. ix) as well as the normal group a form. 

From the group b grave 95 come three examples: one, 95. 49, is a 
(probably) later version of 91. 25 (pi. ix, which, besides using field orna- 
ments more lavishly, has a finer ring of dots at the bottom and a zigzag 
on the back of the handle). The second, 95. 50 (pi. ix), also has most of the 
features of the grave 91 group, though the treatment of the palmette and 
lotus approximates to that found on vases from later graves (86. 85 and 
50. 259). The third, 95. 51 (pi. ix), has the top of the lip, the shoulder and 
the bottom all treated in the way typical of our latest phase. The band of 
palmettes running right round the vase also relates it to the vases of a later 


phase. The grave 95 group thus illustrates the transition from early to late 

From grave 4, another group b grave, we have the vase 4. 33 (J.H.S. 
xxx, p. 354, fig. 17), where again the daisy pattern and bands on the 
shoulder indicate a later phase than that of grave 91. This vase is our 
earliest example of a cruciform arrangement of four palmettes, not unlike 
that found on the flat-bottomed iv. vii. c aryballoi from graves 49 and 50. 
It appears to be a development of the double-palmette type of 91. 25 and 
95- 49- 

IV. vii. late (c) : 


A palmette above an inverted lotus appears between two birds on the 
large flat-bottomed bombylioi 50. 259 (pi. ix), 260, for which see under 
iv. iv. c and just above on 95. 50. 

Ball aryballoi: 

The only example is the isolated 86. 85 (pi. ix). For the field dots cp. 
J.H.S. xxx, p. 336, fig. i, no. 253 of the still later grave 50. 

Flat-bottomed aryballoi : 

From graves 49 and 50 there are seven examples (see list below) all with 
a cruciform floral pattern. One of these combines palmette with lotus, the 
rest have a pattern of four palmettes. Two of the vases show birds as well. 
The series represents what was probably a waning rather than a growing 
fashipn at the time of these two burials, but it certainly establishes the 
floruit of this standardised type as early in the second quarter of the sixth 

List of Rhitsona examples (iv.vii. a, b and c) 

97. 6 (pi. v): see under iv.iv. a, p. 30; cp. Payne, 273-276. 
50. 259 (pi. ix), 260: see under iv. iv. c, p. 33. 

Ball aryballoi: 

91. 20-25: hgt. 20-23, -07 m.; 24-25, -065 m.; top of lip, daisy pattern; 
side of lip, dots; bottom of 21, 23, daisy pattern, of 20, 22, 24, 25, dots; 
back of handle of 21-23, 25, zigzag, of 24, worn, of 20, horizontal 
lines; below handle of 20-24 one large rosette; main design of 20 
(pi. ix)-22, three palmettes based on three ovals (cp. Payne, fig. 58 c), 
of 23, 24 (pi. ix), two palmettes grouped horizontally, of 25 (pi. ix), 
two palmettes grouped vertically. 1 

95- 49~5 J : hgt- '6, *o6, -055 m.; on top of lip of 49, 50, daisy pattern, of 
51, bands; on shoulder 51 only has daisy pattern and bands; on bottom 
49, 50 have oblong dots, 51 bands; main ornament of 49 like 91. 25 

1 Nos. 20-22 are the " many examples " of Payne, cat. 633 ; nos. 23-25 should have been 
listed under his group 634-637. 


(pi. ix), of 50 and 51 see pi. ix: 51 has ten double palmettes running 

right round the vase. 
86. 85 (pi. ix) : hgt. -06 m. 
4. 33: see J.H.S. xxx, pp. 353-5 and fig. 17. 

Flat-bottomed aryballoi : 

Back of handle of 50. 258 St Andrew's cross ; of the rest, where dis- 
tinguishable, horizontal bands. 

49. 240: hgt. -12 m.; B.S.A. xiv, p. 252; same floral design as on 50. 254, 
g.v., but the vase 49. 240 is thinner and taller and the floral design is 
taller and thinner to correspond. 

49. 241 : hgt. -125 m. ; ibid. p. 252, and above under iv. iv. c, pp. 35, 36; the 

floral design has top and bottom parts lotus ; field rosettes with incised 
lines crossing at centre and amorphous. 

50. 254-257: hgt. -og-'iom.; all alike, see 50. 254, J.H.S. xxx, p. 336, 
fig. i. 

50. 258 (pi: vn): hgt. -125 m.; B.S.A. xiv, p. 259 and fig. 10, and above 
under iv. iv. c. 


It is best to treat as a separate class from iv. vii the commonest of all 
types of decoration on aryballoi, that namely which is based on a radiating 
pattern of four, five or six lanceolate leaves drawn in thick outline which 
generally frames a smaller leaf of the same pattern in purple or black 
silhouette. These vases were produced in immense numbers far on in the 
sixth century and ceased to be used only at its close, but they were already 
popular during the last phase (c) of the purely Corinthian period and 
begin earlier still. For the later phases, from the first appearance at 
Rhitsona of the Boeotian kylix, see J.H.S. xxix, pp. 309-10 and Arch. 
Eph. 1912, pp. 113-14 and figs. 10-13 (i n the underline to fig. 13 correct 
3, 2, i to i, 2, 3). It will be useful therefore to summarise here their earlier 


From the graves of our earliest group (a) there are only two examples : 
14. 29 (J.H.S. xxx, p. 351, fig. 14 and here pi. ix) and 91. 26; one of 
these two, 14. 29, shows an unusual treatment of the tongue pattern be- 
tween the two bottom leaves (contrast the normal 86. 198, pi. x), the other, 
91. 26, has thin bands on the top of the lip (contrast the late example, 
Arch. Eph. 1912, p. 113, fig. 10), and the side hatchings seem to have an 
outer framing line like the petals; hgt. o6 m. 

In the group b graves there are eight examples: 92. 10-13 ( IO > * I >'P^ IX )> 
95- 5 2 53 (both pi. ix), 125 a. 14, 125 b. 5 (none from 4 or 87); none of 
them quite conforms to the type that became normal in the Boeotian- 
kylix period: between the two lowest leaves all except 95. 52 have a comb 


pattern (like e.g. 125 b. 5, pi. ix, but sometimes with a feather-stitch 
pattern running down the middle of the back of the comb), 95. 52 has 
hatching much like that commonly found between the two leaves on either 
side; round the side of the lip all have dots (see again 125 b. 5), not the 
plain band that later becomes the rule; on the top of the lip 92. 13 and 
125 a. 14 have a daisy pattern in place of the normal bands seen on the 
rest; except on 95. 52 the back is not left plain, as normally on later 
examples, but shows either a cross in a circle (92. 10-13, 95. 53) or an 
eight-rayed star (125 a. 14, 125 b. 5) ; in height all except 95. 53 are above 
or below the standard (-o65--o7 m.) of the final phase: 

92. 10-12, -08 m.; 95. 52, -075m.; 95. 53, -065 m.; 92. 13, 125 a. 14, 125 
b. 5, -06 m. 

In the group c period the type becomes extremely common, five graves 
containing 209 examples, most of which conform to the type that prevailed 
during the succeeding period of the group A Boeotian-kylix graves (Arch. 
Eph. 1912, p. 113, figs. 10, n). Details for these 209 vases are best given 
in catalogue form : 

List of 'vases from group c graves : 

86. 86-198 (pi. x) : usual hgt. -o6--O7 m.; on top of lip instead of normal 
band two vases, 86. 86, 87, have a ring of small petals or rays between 
bands (as on group I aryballoi of class iv. iv. c, e.g. 86. 29, 30, pi. vn), 
one, 86. 88 (hgt. -055 m.), a ring of lambdas with apex towards 
centre; below the handle twenty-two examples have a rough star 
pattern, generally much as on the cinquefoil vase 86. 220 (pi. x), but 
in four cases (e.g. 86. 89, pi. x) enclosed in a circle. The hatching 
between the two leaves on either side is sometimes, but not always, finer 
than that normally found on vases from graves of the succeeding 

99. 17 (pi. x)~45: hgt. of 17-39, *6 m.; of 40-45, -08 m.; top of lip of 1.7 
has five-petalled rosette pattern in outline; under handle 44, 45 have 
a rough circle. 

101 b. 21-29: hgt. -06-- 07 m.; 23 has parallel incised lines round lower 
part, as if originally intended to be otherwise decorated; so also 99. 

125 c. 9-11 : hgt. -06, -06, -065 m.; on top of lip 125 c. 9 has black daisy 

pattern; otherwise no deviations from the standard type of group A 
Boeotian-kylix graves. 

145. 28-82: hgt. of 28, -07m.; 29, -08 m.; 30-33, -077 m.; 34-59, -08 m.; 
60, -077m.; 61-67, -075 m.; 68-74, -07 m.; 75-76, -063 m.; 77-80, 
055 m.; 81-82, -051 m.; 28 has on top of lip reserved rosette pattern 
much as on 99. 17 (pi. x) but with six petals; 29 has comb pattern (as 
on 125 b. 5, pi. ix, but with feather stitch along back) ; below handle 
30-32 have an eight-rayed star, 33 a rough cross. 


We may list here, all from graves with scanty contents (see above, 
p. 22, n. i): 

1 01 a. 1,2: hgt. 'o68, '07 m.: i (pi. x) is unique; 2 has daisy pattern on 
top of lip and, like i also, a wheel pattern below handle (cp. 92. 
10, pi. ix), but is otherwise normal. 

96. 1-5: all normal. 

125 d. i, hgt. -065 m., and 125 d or e. i: normal. 

List of vases from Boeotian-kylix graves: 

To the 730 examples recorded in J.H.S. xxix and Arch. Eph. 1912 we 
must add 211 published in Viand V Cent. Pott, (see pp. 78-9 and catalogue 
of graves 85, 102, 104, no, 112, 113, 115, 126) and the six from grave 
103, which, though published here as an aryballos grave, probably belongs 
to the Boeotian-kylix period : 

103. 1-6: hgt. -075, -075, -072, '063, -08, '05m.; normal except that 4 and 5 
have star under handle; among the bars connecting the top pair of 
leaves and among those connecting the bottom i and 2 have a feather- 
stitch pattern, 3 a zigzag. (For a third variant cp. Arch. Eph. 1912, 
p. 113, fig. 11.52).- 


The name group A Ginquefoil was given by us in J.H.S. xxrx to a star- 
patterned type which had then been found only in our group A Boeotian- 
kylix graves and there only in small numbers. It has now been found much 
more plentifully in two of the latest group (c) of our Corinthian graves 
(86, 101 b), one example in the scantily furnished grave 125 d, probably of 
the same period, and two in the probably somewhat later grave 103. 
Similar vases but with six leaves occurred in three of our group c Corinthian 
graves (86, 99, 145). Both cinquefoils and sixfoils from the group c graves 
usually have two or three of the leaves left in double outline as on 86. 199 
(pi. x), the only exceptions being three grave 86 cinquefoils, of which two 
have all five leaves with black centre and the third has all five apparently 
left in double outline, and the grave 99 sixfoil with all six leaves filled in. 
The centre of the pattern is normally a circle as on 86. 199 (pi. x) or Arch. 
Eph, 1912, p. 114, figs. 12, 13 right, with various minor deviations; only 
145. 93 (sixfoil) and 103. 7 (cinquefoil) have no central circle: in its place 
145. 93 has three lines joining diagonally the bottoms of each opposite pair 
of leaves and producing a rimless six-spoke wheel pattern; 103. 7 is similar, 
but with only two lines joining diagonally the top four leaves. Under the 
handle fourteen of the grave 86 examples and all those from 101 b, 103, 
125 d, 145 have a star (e.g. 86. 220, pi. x), which in three of the grave 86 
vases and eight of the 145 is framed by a circle as on the quatrefoil vase 
86. 89 (pi. x). The lip of 99. 46 and 145. 85-93 shows dots on the side, on 
the top rosette as on 99. 17 (pi. x); on the rest there are bands in both 


There can be no doubt about the homogeneity of this class nor of its 
period, which must coincide with that of our group c Corinthian graves 
and the very earliest of the Boeotian-kylix graves. It appears later and 
disappears earlier than the far more abundant quatrefoil type, but it has 
a direct descendant in the group B cinquefoil (J.H.S. xxix, p. 309, Arch. 
Eph. 1912, p. 114, figs. 12, 13, middle and left), whose floruit coincided with 
our group B Boeotian-kylix graves. 

List of Rhitsona examples 
From Corinthian graves: 

86. 199 (pi. x)-22o (pi. x): hgt. -07506 m., cinquefoil ; 221, sixfoil, other- 
wise like 199. 

99. 46 : hgt. -09 m. ; sixfoil. 

101 b. 30-33 : hgt. -07, -07, -068 m., fragmentary; cinquefoil. 
125 d. 2 : hgt. -07 m. ; cinquefoil. 
145. 83-93 : hgt. -o8--o73 m. ; sixfoil. 

From Boeotian-kylix graves: 

Grave 49 three cinquefoils. Grave 50 two cinquefoils, see J.H.S. xxix, 
p. 310 and Arch. Eph. 1912, p. 113 and p. 114, figs. 12, 13- 1 Grave 103 (see 
just above under quatrefoil) two cinquefoils, nos. 7, 8, hgt. -08, -06 m. 7 
with two leaves (right upper and left lower) left in double outline, 8 with all 
five filled in ; both have a wheel beneath the handle. Grave no one cinque- 
foil, no. 84, see VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 88. Grave 21 one sixfoil, 21. 2, see 
B.S.A. xiv, pp. 298, 306. The other aryballos from this grave, 21. 3, is a 
group B cinquefoil. In ibid. p. 306, written when our aryballoi had not yet 
been studied and classified, the unusualness of finding this sixfoil type in 
such late company was not appreciated. 2 For a similar case see J.H.S. 
xxix, p. 318, grave 12, no. 25. 

91. 29 (pi. m), 92. 16, 99. 50-52 (50 and 52, pi. iv), 101 b. 34. 

The orange-quartered aryballoi 92. 16, 99. 50-52 (50 and 52, pi. iv), 
101 b. 34 are of an unusual fabric. 99. 50 (hgt. -055 m.) and 101 b. 34 
(fragmentary) are of a black colour that permeates the clay right through; 
in 92. 1 6 (fragmentary) the black penetrates only about half way; 99. 51, 
52 (hgt. -06, -065 m.) are only partially black outside, the rest of the 
surface being a slightly lustrous buffer biscuit colour; unfortunately for 
our purpose they are intact and their inner composition indeterminable. 
Similar to these aryballoi is the cup 91. 29 (pi. m), which, however, is 
distinguished from the aryballoi by the dull sooty colour of the black and 

1 In the underline of fig. 13 for i, 2, 3 read 3, 2, i, and in the bottom line read 500 for 


2 Payne, p. 148, apparently dates these multifoils last quarter of the sixth century, 
probably about half a century too late. 


the fineness of the fabric. The graves from which these vases come showed no 
traces of burning except 92. The effect must therefore be intentional and 
the fabric is to be regarded as a sort of bucchero. 

The aryballoi just listed form an obvious group. The brown gritty clay 
of the example from grave 92 is enough to show that they are not Corinthian 
and to render it possible that they are of local make. Similar vases, how- 
ever (Protocorinthian-shaped lekythoi, bombylioi, alabastra, as well as 
aryballoi), are not uncommonly found in quite other parts of the Greek 
world, notably in Rhodes and Sicily, as the list appended shows. The 
alabastra of this fabric found in some numbers in Sicily are almost certainly 
of local manufacture (Sicilian or Italian), like the vases of similar shape 
decorated in an Italian version of the Corinthian style. The aryballoi 
from other sites are sometimes much like the Rhitsona examples: so 
three in Eleusis Museum, one in Syracuse (no. 13722, Scav. Oraz. 
Amabile, 1893); more often the incisions are replaced by flu tings which 
stop short well below the neck: so Vroulia, Kinch, plates 31, 32, 33; 
Gamirus Brit. Mus. 60. 2-1. 26, 60.4-4, 4^j other examples in Syracuse 

The finds associated with the ball aryballoi in Rhodian and Sicilian 
graves range from late Protocorinthian to Corinthian of our second style. 
The shapes of the bombylioi and Protocorinthian lekythoi point to their 
covering between them about the same period. 


Some of these vases are plain black, some with bands of purple or of 
purple and white. 

It will be best to start with the series of vases from grave 86. 

Lekythos: 86. 266 (pi. XH, hgt. -185 m.) ; purple for pairs of bands round 
mouth and top, middle and bottom of body, and neck moulding; bottom 
underneath (flat and forming sharp angle with foot ring) all reserved. 

This lekythos is one of a group of which the most notable example is 
49. 270, B.S.A. xiv, p. 254, which differs only in that it is without the 
middle pair of purple bands and is nearly twice the height. Other examples 
are 49. 268 and (uncatalogued ibid.} 50. 281 a and b (hgt. -17, -i6m.); 
cp. also 49, 269 and 271. The group from graves 49 and 50 establishes the 
floruit of the type (which is confirmed by the Black Figure vases of the same 
shape from the same two graves, Viand V Cent. Pott. pp. 40-1), and affords 
one strong argument for allowing only a short interval between these 
graves and the earlier 86. 

Small jug: 86. 267 (pi. xn, hgt. -07 m.); very worn, possibly plain black; 
bottom (flat with no foot ring) reserved buff; mouth flat as of aryballos; 
handle flat in section. 

This little jug is not unlike 115. 39, VI and V Cent. Pott. pi. x, which, 
however, has redder clay and no separate neck or base; both underneath 


are perfectly flat. A third example, taller and thinner, hgt. -09 m., with 
ring moulding round bottom of neck and rudimentary foot ring, comes 
from the unpublished grave 116, a poorly furnished grave of the early 
Boeotian-kylix period. These little jugs may therefore be assigned to the 
time of our earlier Boeotian-kylix graves and the period immediately 

Lekane : 86. 268 (pi. xn, hgt. -058 m.) ; inside black with one broad purple 
line just below lip and three pairs of thinner lines towards centre; top of 
lip, thick black bars on buff; body outside probably all black except 
reserved band at level of handles; handles black outside, reserved in; 
bottom underneath (slightly convex) reserved with thin black ring en- 
closing large black dot in centre and broad black band on inner side of 
foot ring. 

This is likewise an early example of a series to which belong the Rhitsona 
examples 126. 118, 119, VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 31. 

Cups: (a) squat kotylai : 86. 269-272 (pi. xn) : 269, 270, hgt. '053, diam. 
ii m.; 271, 272, hgt. -055, diam. -095 m.; foot underneath (269, 270 like 
that of the lekane 268 in section; 271, 272 like the lekythos 266) all reserved; 
body, inside and out, black, on 269, 270 plain but streaky, on 271, 272 with 
broad purple bands, one outside just below handles, one inside just below 
rim; at bottom of inside 271 has two purple rings, 272 one, much broader. 

These four cups form two very similar pairs. They do not belong to any 
of the types recorded in Viand V Cent. Pott., though with some of them they 
have fairly close relations. The broad purple bands on 271, 272 are like 
those on the kantharoi from our earliest Boeotian-kylix graves. These 
kotylai therefore, like the Black Figure kantharoi, below, p. 50, point to 
a date for grave 86 not so very much earlier than that of graves 49 and 50. 

(b) Little cups with offset rim and one or two vertical handles rising a 
little above it have a longer if rather fragmentary history. The shape was 
already in use in the Geometric period (see e.g. the one-handled i . 2, 
J.H.S. xxx, p. 342, fig. 5, which, however, has no separate foot), and 
appears fully developed in the early Corinthian grave 91 (see the two- 
handled 91.28 and the one-handled 9 1 . 29, pi. in) . Neither of the grave 9 1 
cups is normal black glaze ware. Of that our earliest example is the one- 
handled 101 b. 35 (pi. xii, hgt. -037 m.) from a grave roughly contemporary 
with 86 and therefore earlier, but not very much earlier, than the not 
dissimilar 1 15. 41 (Viand V Cent. Pott. pi. x). This last vase was found with 
the little black jug 1 1 5. 39 (ibid.}, which has already been compared with the 
similar little jug from grave 86. It brings us very near to miniature 
kantharoi of the early Boeotian-kylix period such as 51. 305, Black Glaze 
Pott. pi. vn, or 104. 40, 41, Viand V Cent. Pott. p. 87, which have their one- 
handled counterparts in such vases as 49. 418, 419 and a similar cup, 
slightly larger and fuller, from the unpublished grave 116, which belongs 
early in the period of the Boeotian-kylix graves. 

(c] The small cylindrical handleless cup 125 a. 15 (pi. xii, hgt. -044 m.) 


shows broad purple bands bordered above and below by thin bands of 
white (just below rim inside, just above bottom out). It comes from a 
Corinthian grave of our middle group (b, p. 22). Its style of decoration is 
the same as that of the next vase. 

Large Bowl: 101 a. 4 (pi. xii), with three handles, broad flat rim, and 
spout, that served as covering to the burial pithos (see p. 10 and fig. i) : 
hgt. as preserved -25 m., outer diam. of rim -40 m., inner -33 m., width of 
rim -035 m. ; foot ring, too much damaged to determine height, splayed 
considerably; inside of back handle and bottom of body underneath, 
including inner side of foot ring, reserved in pinkish buff; rest of vase dull 
black except for two broad bands of purple, each with a white band above 
and below, round the body, and vertical and horizontal bands of purple 
forming a check pattern on the back handle above the hole level. Clay 
reddish and comparatively good with little if any grit. The bowl was no 
doubt intended for dairy use. The rim would be appropriate for cheese- 

Grave 101 a contained only three vases; one, however, is a nearly 
normal quatrefoil aryballos (above p. 45). The grave is probably contem- 
porary with our latest group of Corinthian graves. It may even be as late 
as the earliest of the Boeotian-kylix series. 

There is a similar bowl in Thebes Museum from Halae, large, but not 
quite so large as ours, with the same arrangement of spout and handles; 
but the bowl narrows towards the top and the flat rim extends outwards 
as well as inwards from the top of the bowl; the bowl narrows more 
towards the foot, which is more splayed than ours ; the back handle is 
smaller and lacks the hole. This Halae bowl, is certainly intended for the 
same purpose as ours. It appears to be plain black with the lower part 
reserved. It was found, so Miss H. Goldman kindly informs me, on the 
Halae Acropolis, and comes from a deposit round an altar foundation 
with other objects of which none can be dated earlier than the first (or 
possibly second) quarter of the sixth century while all must have been 
deposited before the end of the century. Miss Goldman dates her bowl 
early sixth century. 

Small pot: 101 a. 3 (pi. xn) : hgt. -08 m.; for curious shape of inside see 
fig. 7; outside and top of mouth mottled black and brown (poor firing for 
black), bottom reserved, inside reserved but with the paint from the 
outside running down a little all the way round; brownish buff clay (less 
red than that of 101 a. 4), rather coarse. 

In its outer shape this curious little pot bears a certain resemblance to 
the "Lydian" perfume vases published by Rumpf in Ath. Mitt. 1920, 
p. 163 f. It is probably an alabastron for very precious ointment. This 
would be placed in the lower and narrower part, which is just wide enough 
and deep enough to allow a finger to reach the bottom; the broader upper 
portion in that case received the stopper. The closest parallel I know to 
this internal arrangement is in a little vase in Corinth Museum of about the 


same size as ours, but externally of RumpPs Lydian shape. It comes from 
trench H beside grave cccxcm and is labelled as a "Lydian vase imported 
from Sardis": the vase is burnt grey and decorated with black bands. A 
less close parallel is Bonn, Akad. Kunstmus. no. 22 (Fontana, no. 4), more 
elongated and tapering than ours: external height -093 m., internal depth 
045 m. ; but here the vase inside opens out below the neck more into the 
shape of a somewhat flattened sphere: glaze leaden black where not 
reddish from bad firing: on top of mouth a ring of JS pattern. Cp. also 
Clara Rhodos, iv, fig. 359. 

Fig. 7. Small pot 101 a. 3. 


. 86. 273 (pi. xi) : kantharos, hgt. -15 m.; handles, one missing, with cross 
pieces; clay light pinkish brown; A lions facing; B sirens facing; field 
ornament, mainly double-centred rosettes but including two small thin 
black crosses with no incisions; purple for manes, bellies and details of 
flanks of lions, for faces, bodies and alternate feathers of sirens, and in some 
cases for centre and petal tips of large rosettes. Inside five broad purple 
bands on black; lower part of outside, except reserved side of base, black 
with three purple bands, the middle band extending over the moulding 
between foot and body; foot underneath runs up gradually and is reserved 
with two black bands. 

86. 274 (pi. xi) : kantharos, hgt. -i 15 m. ; A and B four revellers; on A all 
are dancing; on B one is vomiting, while right in his face his unsympathetic 
neighbour kicks up his leg with Boeotian heartiness and claps his hands 
under his raised thigh. The revellers are clad in tight short purple chitons 
(some of them padded) ; purple is used also for the tip of the monstrous 
hanging phallus of the figure next but one to the vomiter and for bands 
outside as on 86. 273; inside three purple bands; side of base reserved; foot 
underneath (all reserved) rises gradually to near the centre where it runs 
up sharply. 


In shape 1 and subordinate details of decoration the two grave 86 
kantharoi are very closely related to one another. Stylistically both have 
close affinities with the "comast" group of Attic cups which is admirably 
dealt with by Payne (pp. 194-201) and convincingly explained by him as 
a direct imitation of his Corinthian "Gorgoneion" group (pp. 310-1.2). 
Some of the comasts on our 86. 274 wear the tight padded chiton charac- 
teristic of the Corinthian cups and their Attic imitations; 86. 273, though 
not adorned with comasts, shows a theme (affronted lions) found on vases 
of the "comast" group and field rosettes of the characteristic "comast" 
group type (double incised centre, added purple on centre and tips of 
petals). 2 

This pair of kantharoi is one of many indications that grave 86 is earlier, 
but not so very much earlier, than our two earliest Boeotian-kylix graves, 
49 and 50, both of which also contained Boeotian Black Figure kantharoi: 

49. 266, 267 (Black Glaze Pottery, pi. vn), 50. 265 (B.S.A. xiv, pi. x. a, f, g). 
On the kantharoi from graves 49 and 50 the revellers have discarded the 
padded chiton, but some of those of 49. 267 still show the marks of its 
sleeves (not visible in the coarse-screened reproductions of Black Glaze 
Pottery] as do also, curiously enough, some of Payne's "comast vase" 
comasts; 3 the reveller who is peering into his lordly cup on 50. 265 (B.S.A. 
xiv, pi. x. a, top zone, left) stands in a significantly similar attitude to the 
grave 86 comast who has so palpably emptied his too often; the floral 
ornament on the lower zone of 50. 265 is a variant on the constantly 
recurring floral motive of the "comast group" cups. Like the contents in 
general of graves 49 and 50 as contrasted with those of 86 the Boeotian 
Black Figure kantharoi bear evidence of the waning of Corinthian influence 
and the rise of Attic. 

The precise spacing out of our great Boeotian-kylix graves (notably 49, 

50, 51, 31, 26, 1 8) over the second half of the sixth century, the period that 
they roughly cover, is a matter of some difficulty. If we are to avoid 
awkward hiatuses we must not put 49 and 50 much before the exact middle 
of the century, 4 but 550 seems to be about the latest possible date for them 
and they may be ten years earlier. 

1 3 a (P- I2 ) of my classification of Boeotian Pottery for the Union Acad. Internationale. 

2 Payne (p. 60 and ibid. n. 6) quotes this vase (86. 273) as clearly reflecting early Attic 
style, and probably to be dated at the end of the first quarter of the sixth century. In my 
classification I listed both vases as archaic Boeotian B.F. under Corinthian influence 
(group n. B 3 . i. b, ibid. p. 14); they certainly go together and both may derive from the 
Attic "comast" group. But Attic influence in Rhitsona is not otherwise noticeable at the 
time of this interment and these kantharoi may well derive direct from Corinth. Contrast 
the state of things at the time of the grave 49 and 50 interments (early Peisistratus period) 
when Attic Black Figure vases were being imported in some numbers. 

3 Payne, pp. 194-6, nos. 8, 9, 10, 25. 

4 Our kantharos 50. 265 stands very close indeed to a group similarly figured but with 
hexagonal-sectioned handles (3 b of my classification, p. 12). This form of handle recurs on 
black glaze kantharoi from graves of the very end of the sixth century (see VI and V Cent. 
Pott. p. 34 under 80. 225) and is closely related to the triangular-sectioned handles, 
similarly cut away at the top, of the Teisias black glaze kantharoi (ibid, under 133. 55) 



Grave 86 should perhaps be put some twenty years earlier still (580- 
570 B.C.). Less than twenty years seems a short period for the complete 
disappearance of so many Corinthian aryballos types that are still abundant 
in grave 86 (animal aryballoi, warrior aryballoi, etc.) and the appearance 
in such abundance in graves 49 and 50 of Boeotian bird-kylix vases, black 
glaze kantharoi, and Attic Black Figure. This dating is supported by 
Payne's chronology for his "comast" vases. Historians who have not been 
led astray by recent heresies on the dates of the Corinthian tyrants will 
notice that at Rhitsona on this reckoning Corinthian influence is eclipsed 
by Attic in the period between the fall of Periander at "Corinth and the rise 
of Peisistratus at Athens. 


Coarse little cooking pots on attached stands: 97. 12 (pi. xn), fragmentary; 
inner depth of pot -055 m., inner diam. -06 m. For complete examples see 
13. i (J.H.S. xxx, p. 347, fig. 9, where the corresponding measurements 
are -08, -065 m.), 13. 2 (ibid. p. 348, fig. 16), 14. i (ibid. p. 350). This type, 
so primitive alike in fabric and design, has now been found at Rhitsona in 
three separate graves, all probably of the second half of the seventh century. 
It has not been found in any other context, earlier 1 or later. See Boeotian 
Pott. ofGeom. and Arch. Styles (Classification Cer. Antiq.), i. B 9 . 

Pithoi: 101 b. 40 (pi. xn, hgt. -40 m.) : coarse red clay with much white 
grit. On these burial pithoi see above, p. 6, under Methods of Burial. 
Those which contained the body were of course much larger, and there 
is a certain variety in the shape, but mending these huge crumbly vases, 
many of which are almost hopelessly disintegrated, is a particularly long 
and thankless task, and only this small and comparatively well preserved 
one has been attempted. They are certainly of local fabric: see Boeotian 
Pott, of the Geom. and Arch. Styles, i. B 1 . In date they range from the third 
quarter of the seventh century to the second quarter of the sixth. 

which also come from graves of the end of the century. The prevalence of this little 
mannerism on black glaze kantharoi of the end of the century is perhaps an argument 
against putting the hexagonal-sectioned group of Black Figure kantharoi further back 
than we are compelled to. 
1 Except perhaps the fragment 75. 3, J.H.S. xxx, p. 343. 


No figurines have so far been found at Rhitsona either in Geometric or in 
Protocorinthian graves or in graves of our two earlier Corinthian groups. 
They first appear in graves of our third Corinthian group (c), and from 
that time onwards, throughout the periods of our Boeotian bird-kylix 
graves and the subsequent periods of late Boeotian Black Figure they are 
a normal though never an essential part of the grave furniture. 


Considering the extremely primitive character of our earliest types in both 
modelling and decoration it is interesting to notice how late they make 
their appearance, probably after the beginning of the sixth century. For 
half a century or so onward from this first appearance we find two schemes 
of decoration : (a) black, often misfired to red, on brown or drab, and (b) red 
and black on white. 

The latter lasts longest, being used exclusively for figurines of these 
primitive types from graves of the last quarter of the century. From about 
the middle of the century these red on white figurines often show details in 
yellow as well as black and red. The colour scheme is in fact precisely that 
of vases of the Boeotian-kylix style and there can be no doubt that vases and 
figurines are products of the same purely local potteries. 1 The earliest red 
on white figurines from Rhitsona come from graves that are perhaps two 
decades earlier than the earliest of our Boeotian-kylix graves; but, as 
already suggested (Viand V Cent. Pott. p. 12), this fact may mean, not that 
the first figurines in this style were made before the first vases, but that the 
vases were only admitted as grave furniture with the change of fashion in 
grave furniture, which all through the seventh century at Rhitsona had 
favoured vases of quite small size. 

The black on brown figurines have likewise their vase counterparts in the 
Class in Boeotian-kylix vases of VI and V Cent. Pott. pp. 1 7-1 9. In this case, 
however, to judge from the grave contexts, the earliest of our figurines 
must be half a century earlier than the earliest vases. It is not impossible 
that the black on brown figurines derive ultimately not from any Boeotian- 
kylix workshop but from the workshops that produced the late Geometric 
amphorae of the type first studied by Wide (Jahrb. xiv, p. 78 f., where, how- 
ever, he does not distinguish them from their " Euboeic-Cycladic " proto- 
types). The wavy vertical bands so common on the pappades (e.g. 40. 129, 
J.H.S. xxix, p. 314, fig. 4) are a favourite motive on these amphorae 

1 Cp. also Winter, Typen, i, p. 5 (pappades whose decoration shows some of the most 
characteristic of the vase motives, including the bird (no. 3) to which the vases owe their 
German name of Vogelschalen. The "polos" figurines (see below, p. 61) might well be 
regarded as a link between the vases and the figurines proper. 


(e.g. Pfuhl, Mai. und %eich. in, pi. 5. iS). 1 Horses with obvious affinities to 
our primitives in brown and black are found not uncommonly in the place 
of knobs or handles on the lids of Geometric vases, including some Boeotian 
Geometric (e.g. the Munich jug, Arch. Anz. 1913, p. 445, no. 4 and the 
Hanover pyxis, Prdhist. eitschr. I (1909), pi. xm. i). None of these large 
late Boeotian Geometric vases has so far been found at Rhitsona, but a few 
small fragments of one were found by Burrows when digging grave 95. The 
vase they belonged to must be earlier than the grave (contents of the middle 
Corinthian period) ; but there is nothing to show how much earlier. 

For the whole primitive series the evidence at our disposal points to the 
following developments. The seventh-century Boeotian potters who pro- 
duced the latest of the big Boeotian Geometric vases also produced 
primitive horse figurines and proto-pappades in the black on brown style. 
The red on white style, both for vases and figurines, arose probably about 
the end of the seventh century under the influence of the Corinthian pottery 
which dominates West Greek ceramics at this time. Figurines in the earlier, 
black on brown, style continued to be produced in large numbers till the 
middle of the sixth century. The comparatively few black on brown vases 
of the Boeotian style, which seem all to belong to the second half of the 
sixth century, are the product of the workshops that had previously been 
producing black on brown horses and pappades. The making of figurines 
and the making of vases are as yet hardly differentiated, but in the last 
quarter of the sixth century we begin to find, along with late examples of 
these primitive types, other figurines which are manifestly the work of a 
craftsman who has specialised in this particular art. We reach a new phase 
in the history of the figurine. 



i. From early sixth-century graves : body more or less cylindrical : 
125 c. 12 (pi. xm) : hgt. -15 m. Body below arms very columnar, above 
them much flatter. The head (?) terminates upwards in a spiral, a fore- 
runner of the standardised type of the mid-sixth-century. Decoration 
brick red on buff, a misfire for black on brown; round the body eight 
bands, down the back of the neck three wavy lines (hair?); face (?) and 
neck show traces of white which forms a sharp right angle under the spiral. 
125 d. 4 (pi. xm) : hgt. as preserved -13 m. Base nearly circular, body 
oval. Decoration entirely gone; ground colour pinker than the buff of the 
other grave 125 figurines. 

1 For much more distinctive borrowing from late Geometric vase painting see such 
Boeotian figurines (not, it is true, pappades) as Winter, Typen, i, p. 6. 2, 3. 

2 I keep this convenient name for these draped standing or occasionally seated 
figures. It derives from the common type wearing the polos in which the combination 
of cylindrical hat, long skirts and outstretched arms suggested to the Greek workmen 
the Greek priest of to-day. The figures probably represent a goddess. 


145. 98 (pi. xm): hgt. -II m. Columnar like 125 c. 12, terminating at 
top in a similar but still more rudimentary spiral, just below which on either 
side a hole is bored for the eyes (cp. the squatting animal 99. 53, pi. xvn, 
and the riders 96. 8 and, pi. xv, 145. 96). 

ii. From mid-sixth-century graves: flat bodied: a standardised type: 
cup-shaped hat with hollow on top 1 and vertical bars round outside; bird- 
shaped faces with the painted eye (just like that of the corresponding 
horses, e.g. 1 10. 1 16, pi. xv) filling either side of it and upward turned spiral 
above it, hair painted in three long curls behind and one in front over each 
shoulder; bars across top of each arm, necklace with pendants, at waist line 
a band of dots above a wavy line (for examples see under 49. 426-430) ; 
skirt vertical wavy lines (with bow of waist band hanging between the 
central two at the top); below this vertical bars or triangles pointing up- 
wards; base always slightly hollowed underneath: hgt. of 40. 129 is -13 m., 
that of the rest is from -15 to -17 m. 

40. 129: J.H.S. xxix, p. 314, fig. 4; the shape and decoration of this 
example are both typical of the rest of the series listed immediately below, 

49. 426 (pi. xm)-43o : B.S.A. xiv, p. 255 ; across the breast four have a 
horizontal wavy line with dots above it, the other a swastika with dots be- 
side it. 

51. 311: B.S.A. xiv, p. 270. 

no. ii i : Viand V Cent. Pott. p. 88: hgt. -17 m. ; two rows of dots round 
the waist and ampler pendants to the necklace than on 40, 129. 



The shape is essentially that of the black on brown figures listed above, 
with body generally flat and board-like, though in one or two examples it 
approximates to the columnar type. The build, however, gets less robust in 
every way, and the head develops differently. The coloured decoration 
shows a different set of motives differently grouped. Wavy lines are much 
less in evidence; hatching is much employed. 

i. From early sixth-century graves : 

125 d or e. 2 (pi. xra) : hgt. as preserved -09 m. ; body oval in section; 
base underneath perfectly flat; a band of vertical lines across breast and 
arms, another across bottom of skirt, between these two bands traces of 
lines running slantwise; the whole very worn and with only slight traces of 
the white ground. 

125 c. 13 (pi. xm) : hgt. -13 m. ; body comparatively narrow but much 
flatter and more board-shaped than last; the markings still discernible 
(enormous eye occupying the whole face, cross-hatchings across front of 

1 Seen from behind, the neck and head of these figurines looks much like the neck 
and mouth of a lekythos. 


arms and breast) are all red. The base is concave below. The head termi- 
nates upwards in a rudely modelled spiral. 

86. 293 (pi. xm)-2g6: hgt. -155 m.; all red on white; base concave 
below; body flat and board-like; head same type as that of 125 c. 13, but 
the top-curl has grown in size at the expense of the bird-face: the actual 
spiral is only slightly modelled, if at all. 

Of the above examples 125 d or e. 2 stands before and perhaps outside 
our main series: its only direct progeny is 51. 320 (pi. xm), for which see 
under mid-sixth century. 125 c. 13 is the earliest example of a type whose 
history can be traced all through the sixth century. The 125 c figurine has 
all the same features (less fully developed) as 86. 293-296. The grave 86 
group in their turn are plainly the immediate predecessors of a whole 
series of figures from mid-sixth-century graves, to which we may now 

ii. From mid-sixth-century graves : 

(a] With face still very primitive 

Two variants emerge, neither of which, however, becomes quite so 
standardised as does the cup-capped black on brown type. One of these 
two (see 117. 4, pi. xm) is merely a continuation of the 86. 293-296 type 
but with the neck more triangular and the head more exiguous: the top 
feature of all is now generally modelled in the form of a spiral curling from 
the back forwards and downwards, though in some cases it remains a simple 
disc (when seen in profile), as in the grave 86 examples. Seen from the 
back the whole figure from head to foot is perfectly flat and board-like. 
In the other variant (see 117. i and 2, pi. xm) nose and chin are for the 
first time separately modelled; the head-dress is concave (as in the black 
on brown type), but the concavity is tilted to the back of the head, and the 
cap rises in front in a small triangular peak or apex. 

To the first or chinless group belong : 

40. 130: J.H.S. xxix, p. 315 and p. 314, fig. 4. 

1 10. 1 12 : VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 88 : hgt. -155 m. 

1 17. 4 (side view, pi. xm) : hgt. '19 m. ; whole figure burnt grey (disc not 
moulded into a spiral). 

126. 123: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 96: hgt. -125 m. (disc not moulded into 
a spiral) ; colours gone, clay brownish buff. 

We may place here also 

126. 124 (pi. xiv) : VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 96 : hgt. -18 m. ; broader than 
most, and above the bird-face, which should perhaps in this case be 
regarded as exclusively nose, the mitre-like hat (?) is simply an extension 
of the board-like body. 

To the group with separate chins and noses belong: 

no. 113: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 88: hgt. -18 m., and probably no. 114, 


ibid., but decoration all gone and head and right arm missing; hgt. as 
preserved *i6 m. 

1 17. i (pi. xm) : hgt. -20 m. ; colours as preserved dark reddish brown on 
powdery white. 

1 17. 2 (side view, pi. xm) : hgt. -20 m. ; like 117. i, but colours all gone, 
lower part now grey, upper brown clay colour. 

117. 3: hgt. -20 m. ; like 117. i and 2, colours all gone except that face 
and bottom of skirt show traces of red. 

We may add here 

1 17. 5 (pi. xm) : hgt. as preserved -09 m.; good red on white; the missing 
head may have been of the more advanced type dealt with immediately 


51.' 320 (pi. xra) : B.S.A. xiv, p. 270 ; body almost cylindrical, base quite 
flat, face gone, but the general shape shows that it was originally provided 
with a full set of features. This little figurine is much like 125 d or e. 2 as 
far as the latter goes (which is only up to the neck). The colours are all 
gone and I am not sure it should not be put among the black on brown. It 
certainly forms a link between the pre-pappas columnar type and the 
pappas with fully human head to which we now turn: 

(b) With fully modelled faces 

A third group which, first appears in mid-sixth-century graves differs 
from those just listed in having the features of the face more or less care- 
fully modelled. The head-dress now appears to which this "pappas" class 
of figurines mainly owes its name, though it does not yet show the purely 
cylindrical form that most recalls the present-day Greek priest: in some 
cases a sort of disc, plainly connected with that of the chinless group, runs 
out at right angles in front: so 1 10. 1 15 (pi. xiv), 104. 44, 49. 433 and (less 
pronounced) 40. 133; in others a disc is set flat on the front of the polos, 
which runs up to a point and the projecting disc or volute appears below 
it (so 49. 431 (pi. xiv) 51. 317). These fragile figures are often badly 
damaged and have lost their head-dress in whole or in part. 

40. 131-133: J.H.S. xxix, p. 315; no. 131, ibid. p. 314, fig. 4. 

49. 431 (pi. xiv and fig. 8^-433 : B.S.A. xiv, pp. 255-6; 432 (fig. 8) 
(only head preserved) is similar to 431 but lacks the discs and volute; 
the head of 433 (fig. 8) was found after the publication of B.S.A. xiv; 
total hgt. -19 m. 

50. 405: B.S.A. xiv, p. 264. 

51. 317 (fig. 8)-3ig: B.S.A. xiv, p. 270. 

1 10. 1 15 (pi. xiv) : Viand VCent. Pott. p. 88 ; only head, bust and left arm 
preserved and these with decoration completely burnt away; hgt. from top 
of hat to bottom of chin -075 m. 

104. 44: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 87 : hgt. -235 m. ; broken and worn; no 


trace of any colours except white ; head of same type as no. 115. 104. 43, 
ibid, may be mentioned here, but it is headless and fragmentary and its 
type cannot be determined. 




Fig. 8. Head-dresses of sixth-century "pappades" and (138. 9) fifth-century 

seated figure 

iii. From late sixth-century graves : 

These carry on the type with fully modelled faces and high head-dress. 
A few examples (5. 35, fig. 8; 31. 366, see B.S.A. xiv, pi. xn, figure on 
extreme right; and almost certainly 31. 363, see ibid, second figure from 
left) have the polos in its purest form, forming a sort of cup like those of the 
mid-sixth-century series but without any peak or attached discs. These 
same examples have also the thin face characteristic of the mid-sixth- 
century type. The rest, as far as their heads are preserved, show a mask- 
like treatment of the polos, only the front part being rendered (see e.g. 
26. 236, fig. 8). The polos is uniformly simple in its modelling, the one 
exception being 3 1 . 367, where we have the front part of a more elaborate 
head-dress with sunk hollows in the lower part and semicircular indenta- 
tions in the rim: see B.S.A. xiv, pp. 279, 280, and below, pi. xiv. This 
figurine too shows the earlier and thinner type of countenance. A rounder 
and more cheerful type efface is normal in these later graves. 

31. 362-367 (367, pi. xiv): B.S.A. xiv, pp. 279-80; 362-366, ibid. 
pi. xii. a, 364 also in colours, ibid. pi. vn. A. On nos. 363, 366, 367 see 
just above. 


130. 1 20 1 1 hgt. -2i m. ; polos of the mask type with red and yellow (?) 
bands; moulded ear-discs; skirt apparently much like that of 31. 365 
(B.S.A. xiv, pi. xii. a, first figure from right) with a zone of vertical strokes 
at the bottom red, black and yellow. 

127. 61 : Viand V Cent. Pott. p. 97 : hgt. -20 m. ; colours gone; features and 
style of head-dress indistinguishable, but remains point to mask type of 

112. 71-73 (all pi. xiv) : Viand V Cent. Pott. p. 90 and pi. n (which shows 
71 in situ in the grave) : hgt. -29, -21 and about -20 m. Nos. 71 and 72 are 
very similar to the cheerful broad-faced trio from grave 31 (nos. 362, 364, 
365) but with their colours less well preserved : on the skirt, between the 
lateral borders of slanting lines, in place of the two Maltese crosses of 
31. 364 (B.S.A. xiv, pi. vn), 71 shows a red triangle at top and bottom and 
apparently some black spirals ; on 72 and 73 this part of the decoration is 
indistinguishable; at the bottom of the skirt 71 has three bands of egg and 
tongue (red and yellow in black frame), 72 one, 73 two; 71 and 72 normal 
mask type of polos ; 73 too damaged to be sure. 

5.35 (fig. 8) : Arch. Eph. 1912, pp. 1 18-19 j polos of the full cup-like form, 
see general remarks just above. 

26. 236 (fig. 8)-238: B.S.A. xiv, pp. 285-6 ; only 236 has polos preserved 
(of usual mask type) . 

80. 269 and (pi. xiv) 270: VI and V Cent.. Pott. p. 84 : hgt. -15 m., -23 m. ; 
both with black and yellow as well as red. Polos of 270 of mask type; of 
269 missing. 

1 8. 256-258: B.S.A. xiv, p. 295 ; no. 256 has polos of normal mask type, 
as has also 258; the head-dress of 257 has broken away and I now cannot 
find it nor any traces of the discs and front spiral recorded in B.S.A. xiv. 
Both 257 and 258 have now been made up from numerous fragments. 
No. 258, hgt. -24 m., has earrings, vertical lines across the breast and arms, 
short horizontal lines in a row down either side, and a sort of half herring- 
bone pattern down the middle; no. 257, hgt. without lost head-dress *2 1 m., 
has other details like 258, but down the middle of the skirt a pattern, sug- 
gestive of a double lotus, based on red and yellow triangles. 

133. 67: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 99: hgt. -225m.; head damaged; 
probably capped by polos of mask type ; across breast vertical lines ; down 
middle of skirt herring-bone pattern, lines all red, done with a fine brush. 


From grave 145 (about 580 B.C.): 

145. 99 (pi. xra) : hgt. -195 m. ; head-dress red, face (no features modelled) 
white with coloured details too worn to distinguish; neck white with three 
red bands; arms and chest cross-hatched red on white; check pattern 
round the waist made up of red lines on white with one square of top row 

1 The figurines from grave 130, here numbered 120, 121, 122, were inadvertently 
omitted from the catalogue VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 98. 


filled in with black, one square of the middle and bottom rows partly filled 
in with red; of the big triangles of the top part of the skirt the first upward- 
pointing on the left is red, the next upward-pointing black in red frame, the 
adjacent downward-pointing red, the other two were probably white; the 
hatching of the lower part is red on white. The back is rough, clay colour 
(brownish buff), and originally had a sort of prop (cp. 126. 125 just below), 
which was, however, broken off in antiquity; traces of white on back of 
legs arms and head. 

From grave 126 (540-530 B.C.) : 

126. 125 (pi. xiv) : VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 96 : hgt. -13 m.; the back prop 
is cylindrical, -025 m. in diam., arms indicated by a ridge along either side 
of the board-like body, the hair, also modelled, hangs in three locks on 
either side of the face, the feet project -02 m., the polos is round, *oi m. 
high, with only a slight sinking on top; eyes wide and staring, mouth 
straight; clay buff, colours all gone but for traces of white. 

From grave 31 (about 520 B.C.): 

31. 368 (pi. xiv), with baby in arms, see B.S.A. xiv, p. 280, and cp. 
Winter, Typen, i, p. 29. 6. The mother's polos is of the same simple cup 
shape as those worn by the standing figures 31. 366 and 5. 35. The baby 
also wears a cap, of the type, running to a point in front, affected by the 
nose and chin group of mid-sixth-century standing figures (i 17. 2, pi. xm) ; 
its face is of the bird variety and entirely occupied by its eyes : there is no 
chin, and, naturally, no curl. 

31. 368 a: fragments of another seated figure with baby in arms. 
Baby 368 a is just like the 368 baby, but has got his arms free; the mother 
seems very similar to 368 but her head is completely missing. 

3 1 . 368 b : torso with arms of another seated pappas of about the same 
size as 368 and 368 a, but the arms are of the normal pappas type; head 
and legs completely missing. 

From an early fifth-century grave: 

131. 14 (pi. xiv) : Viand VCent. Pott. p. 98 : hgt. -16 m. ; the back support 
broken off and missing; face very rudimentary, with nose strongly marked 
but chin only very weakly; the polos shows a slight sinking on top; colours 
very worn; across the chest and skirt remains of band of broken meander. 
This figurine was buried with the draped standing figure 131. 15 (pi. xix)! 
It may have been old at the time, but there is no need to assume that it 
was. Boeotian four-handled kylikes were also buried with it; these latter 
belong to the very last phase of the style which is well established as having 
lasted on into the early years of the fifth century. This pappas may have 
been made, as well as buried, at the same time and in the same place as the 



The polos-like head-dress of the pappades has its independent counterpart 
in a series of vase-like figurines (if they can rightly be counted as figurines) 
of the same fabric and decorated with the same motives in the same colours 
as are the pappades themselves. The only example from Rhitsona is 

80. 7 (pi. xvm) : VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 82, where it is placed among the 
vases and misnamed ("kalathos") : hgt. to rim -17 m. ; decoration red, 
black and yellow on powdery white. The "polos" itself is a hollow cylinder 
with neither top nor bottom, the inside (plain) showing wheel marks as on 
the inside of aryballoi, etc. Outside decorated in three zones: upper 
continuous band of horizontal palmettes, middle rosettes 1 and Maltese 
crosses 2 alternately in panels, lower plain white with a broad red band at 
the bottom (which is partly restored in plaster). The object set on the rim 
(some sort of fruit?) snows red blobs on a white ground with six bright red 
shoots ( ?) twirling upwards from the top of it. The much worn disc that 
projects from the middle zone appears to show two bands of short red lines 
arranged concentrically and some yellow on the powdery white. 

For other examples of this shape and suggestions as to its significance 
see Arch. Anz. 1933, pp. 7-8 and the literature there cited. 





(i) From early sixth-century graves: 
Horses : 

145. 94 (pi. xv) : hgt, -125 m. ; body black with white dots running from 
top of head to bottom of each foreleg and across chest, also along back and 
down tail, where they become bars. Only the head is left in the ground 
colour (buff) with black markings for (extremely round) eyes, etc. 4 

This spirited black steed with spots of white stands somewhat apart from 
our main primitive series, in which the bands round the barrel recall the 
wooden horses of our own early days; but see my general observations just 
below on the history of the black on brown horse. 

10 1 b. 38, 39 (both pi. xv) : hgt. '105, *i 18 m. ; no eyes; head and neck 
all black. 

96. 9 : hgt. -085 m. ; neck short, nose negligible. Bands on barrel and legs 
run slantways on one side.; on the other horizontally, so that the body bands 
run on this side not round the barrel but from chest to rump. No eyes; 
head and neck striped all over like body. For general shape and decoration 

1 Cp. the vases 26, 2-4, B.S.A. xiv, p. 282. 

2 Cp. the vase 82. 9, VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 84, and the pappades 31. 364, B.S.A. xiv, 
pi. vn A, Winter, Typen, i, p. 31. 5. 

3 Cp. Winter, Typen, i, p. 7. 

4 Cp. Brit. Mus. 34 from Corinth; another example in Thebes. 


cp. the horse of 145. 96 (pi. xv). Grave 96 should perhaps be placed at the 
beginning of our mid-sixth-century group, cp. just below on 96. 8 (horse 
with rider) and cp. no. 119 (horse from mid-sixth-century grave). 

Horses with riders : 

145. 95 (pi. xv): hgt. -i 65m.; rider missing. The whole animal is 
striped; no indication of eyes. The long tail is attached, like that of 145. 96, 
to the left back leg. 

145. 96 (pi. xv) : hgt. -07 m. ; the hole (eye socket) in the rider's head 
goes right through. Horse all roughly striped with no eyes indicated. 

145. 97 (pi. xv): hgt. -085 m. ; head of the monkey rider missing; the 
paws of all his four feet are indicated by incisions. 

86. 275 (pi. xv) : hgt. -12 m. ; horse's eye painted, ears modelled; rider's 
legs modelled. 

86. 276: hgt. -12 m. ; like 86. 275, but rider's legs not indicated, nor 
horse's eyes or ears, the whole animal being striped like 145. 95. 

96. 8 : hgt. to rider's head -085 m. ; horse's head missing ; rider (monkey) 
has hole for eye as on 145. 96. The meagrely furnished grave 96 may belong 
to our mid-sixth-century group, but this figurine is to be grouped with 
J 45- 96, 97, which it resembles in posture. Like 145. 97 it has lost its 
colours, but the perforated eye of 96. 8 and the incised paws of 145. 97 both 
occur together on the squatting black on brown bear 99. 53 (pi. xvn) and 
confirm the grouping together of these three monkey ridden steeds. 

(ii) From mid-sixth-century graves : 

no. 119 (pi. xv) : Viand V Cent. Pott. p. 88 : hgt. -09 m. ; somewhat similar 
to 96. 9 above, but with a better developed head and slightly different 
markings ; no indication of eyes. 

Horses with riders: 

49. 421-425: B.S.A. xiv, p. 255: hgt. -IO--I2 m. ; all like no. 116 (just 
below and pi. xv), 

50. 388-390: B.S.A. xiv, p. 263: hgt. -I2--I3 m. ; like no. 116 (pi. xv), 
but the horse of 389 has no reins, that of 390 no reins and no eyes. 

50. 391 (pi. xv) : hgt. to horse's head -095 m. ; B.S.A. xiv, p. 264, listed 
among the red on whites, but the brick red on buff which are now its 
colours are more probably a faded black on brown. The horse has affinities 
with no. 119. 

51. 308-310: B.S.A. xiv, p. 270: hgt. !! m. ; 308 like no. 116 (pi. xv); 
309 and 310, colours worn; 309 appears to have had the horse's legs en- 
tirely black or mottled black on brown (not black bands) 5310 (pi. xv), the 
rider clasps the neck of his steed with arms and legs : the .steed is equally 
bow-legged from every view-point. 

no. 116 (pi. xv), 117: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 88: 116, hgt. -13 m.; 117, 
almost a duplicate of 116 but slightly smaller, hgt. to rider's head !! m. 
(115 in no. 1 1 6), head of horse missing. 


We may trace a certain development in the history of the black on brown 
horse. In our early sixth-century graves he may be nearly all black 
(145. 94, pi. xv), in which case the artist follows the practice of early 
archaic vase painters and gives special attention to the features of the 
reserved head ; or he may be striped all over except for a black head and 
neck (101 b. 38, 39, both pi. xv) ; or he may be striped absolutely all over, 
eye, or the place where the eye should be, included (145. 95, 96, both 
pi. xv; on 145. 96 the all-striped treatment is applied to the monkey rider 
as well as to the horse) . The stripes are laid on at discretion in any or all 
directions, and there is much variety in the pose of the horse. 

The advent of a strictly standardised treatment is heralded by the pair 
of cavaliers from grave 86 (86. 275, pi. xv, and 86. 276), both of which 
could fall in with a troop of regulars from our mid-sixth-century graves and 
not be at all conspicuous, though 276 is still eyeless and 275 has modelled 
ears for the horse and modelled legs for the rider which were not accepted 
as part of the later standardised equipment. The standardised mid-sixth- 
century type may be seen in 1 10. i 16 (pi. xv). The pose of horse and rider, 
the markings on face, neck, body and legs of the horse, including the big 
dots on his chest and the painted eyes and reins, are repeated on no. 117 
(head missing) , 49. 42 1-425, 50. 388, 5 1 . 308. Of the other black on browns 
from mid-sixth-century graves 50. 389 and 390 and 51. 309 are of the 
regulation shape and stance but (like 86. 275 and 276) not yet fully stan- 
dardised in their markings, while 50.391, 51.310 and the horse no. 119 
are quite uninfluenced by the standardised type. 

, / 


(i) From .early sixth-century graves r 

86. 277 (pi. xvi)-2g2: hgt. i2--i5m. ; only a few show markings in 
black: 277-284 (and probably some of the more fragmentary examples) 
are normal early type (see my synopsis on p. 65) ; one, with very short 
barrel, has an enormous neck, broad and absolutely flat in front. 

Horse with bare-legged rider sitting sideways: 

125 d. 3 (pi. xvi): fragmentary and worn: hgt. from back of horse to 
head of rider -06 m. ; red bands on white. 

(ii) From mid-sixth-century graves : 

The red on white style gets more and more popular and finally eclipses 
the black on brown, as may be seen from the following lists. 


40. 134, 135: J.H.S. xxix, p; 315: hgt. -i 6, -17 m. 

49. 438 (pi. xvi)-444: B.S.A. xiv, p. 256. 

50. 393-402: B.S.A. xiv, p. 264; most are orthodox (see below), but a 


few are rather miscellaneous; the details of these nonconformists are not 
worth description. 

51. 312-316: B.S.A. xiv, p. 270. 

no. 120-131 : VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 88; tall thin animals, mostly about 
15 m. high, in similar attitude to 145. 94 (pi. xv) but with longer and 
thinner legs still further extended. No. 120 has the forelegs vertical and is 
standing impatient to join his galloping mates. The nose is sometimes 
snouty. The figurines from this burnt grave are discoloured and sometimes 
worn, but the horses just listed (120-131 ; contrast 1 19 above) seem other- 
wise pretty uniform, and red or black on white seems fairly certain for 
some of the troop. 

117. 6, 7 (both pi. xvi): hgt. -16, -08 m.; both are burnt grey all over; 
117. 6 still shows markings on head and tail. Grave 117 is a burnt grave 
very similar in character to 1 10. 

Horses with riders : 

49. 434 (pi. xvi)-437 : B.S.A. xiv, p. 256. 

50. 392 (pi. xvi): B.S.A. xiv, p. 264: very small, hgt. -07 m.; the rider 
carries a round shield. 

no. 118 (pi. xvi): VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 88: hgt. -09 m., to head of 
rider -12 m; colours all gone, but horse and rider have the attitude and 
proportions of the normal red on white type (e.g. B.S.A. xiv, pi. xn. e or 
J.H.S. xxix, p. 317, fig. 6); the rider towers high above his short-necked 

117. 8-1 1 (for 10 see pi. xvi): 8, hgt. about -125 m., to head of rider 
about -ii m., part of front legs missing, much like 10 (pi. xvi); moulded 
blob for eye of horse; horse's neck shows red, rather wavy, lines on white; 
9, hgt. about -105 m., to head of rider about -10 m., similar to 8 but with 
rider not glued so tight to horse's neck; eye of horse less button-like; burnt 
and no decoration preserved ; part of legs missing; 10 (pi. xvi), hgt. -112m., 
to rider's head -102 m., burnt all grey; n, fragments of horse and rider; 
horse with same blobby eye. Only 8 has clear traces of red on white, but 
all four figurines are so much alike that the same scheme of decoration may 
be assumed fairly safely for the other three. On grave 117 see p. 2, n. i. 

(iti) From late sixth-century graves: 

31. 373: B.S.A. xiv, p. 280: hgt. -14 m. 

12. 91 : J-H.S xxix, p. 320. 

H2- 78, 79: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 90; both very fragmentary, but 
apparently of the common long-legged short-barrelled type; 78 colours all 
gone except for traces of white ground; 79 remains of red on white, short 
slanting lines on leg, straight lines running right down tail. ~ 

1 20. 53: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 93; much broken and battered, but 
apparently of the red on white class; good stout legs. 

127. 62-64: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 97: 62, hgt. -145 m., 63, hgt. -127 m., 


64, fragmentary: fairly long barrel; decoration, all red, best preserved on 
62, which shows legs and tail as 112. 79. 

Horses with riders : 

31. 370-372: B.S.A. xiv, p. 280; no. 370, ibid. pi. xn. e. 

12. 90: J.H.S. xxix, p. 320 and p. 317, fig. 6. 

112. 77 (pi. xvn): VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 90, a quite different type; 
monkey rider with red jacket and yellow cap (or ears), horse shows a red 
line running down each leg on one side, colours gone on other; hgt. to top 
of horse's head -085 m., of monkey's -09 m. 

The red on white series shows from the first certain differences from the 
black on brown in the treatment of the decoration. The lines on the neck 
and legs are thinner and more numerous and tend to be more slanting; 
the horses and their riders are thinner and taller; they too are less fond of 
the vertical position than their black on brown brothers. These tendencies 
grow more marked as time goes on. In the grave 86 series, 86. 277 
(pi. xvi)-292, the horses have not yet the exaggerated stride of the mid- 
sixth-century series (see e.g. 117. 6, pi. xvi) and the legs show horizontal 
bands all round; but the tail already prefers a herring-bone pattern to 
horizontal bands. 

The typical horse of the mid-sixth-century graves is a rather larger 
beast. We have just described his main features. The legs are extended at 
the gallop; the neck, very broad from front to back and thin from side to 
side, continues the line of the forelegs; the barrel is short; the eye is 
moulded in relief like a button: so 117. 6 (pi. xvi); 40. 134, 135; 
49. 442-444; 50. 399-402; 51. 314-316. The face is sometimes shaped like 
a bottle with cylindrical neck, producing a very snouty effect: so 40. 134, 

Other red on white horses from these mid-sixth-century graves continue 

the less exaggerated grave 86 type (see 86. 277, pi. xvi) : so 49. 438 
(pi. xvi)~44o, 50. 393 and (variants) 394-398, no. 122, 123 and perhaps 
others (fragmentary). 

Red on white horses with riders are fewer than those without riders: 
the ridden type seems hardly to have become standardised, but it is 
difficult to judge from our examples, which are few and mostly ill-preserved. 
The best perhaps is 49. 434 (pi. xvi). Two of the remaining examples from 
grave 49, which have lost most of the rider, show horses with extraordinarily 
heavy heads. The little mounted warrior with round shield 50. 392 (pi. xvi) 
is riding his horse in much the same manner as the shieldless riders of 
117. 8-1 1 (for 117. 10 see pi. xvi), except that the latter have their thighs 
almost horizontal with their knees reaching well towards the horse's 
breast. In all these instances the tiny crouching rider is altogether eclipsed 
by the neck of his mount. Contrast no. 118 (pi. xvi), where he towers 
bolt upright above it. 

Unlike the black on brown series, which comes to an end about the 
middle of the sixth century, the red on white horses, both with and without 


riders, continue to be found in graves of the last quarter of the century: 
see the list just above and the examples figured B.S.A. xiv, pi. xn. e and 
J.H.S. xxix, p. 317. The cavalier's hat of the B.S.A. xiv illustration (a sort 
of tall dunce's or jester's cap falling forward in a complete loop on to the 
forehead) is characteristic, as are also the ears of the horses, pricked up and 
pressing sharply against the end of the mane which looks from in front as if 
the ears were holding it in position. The arms of the cavaliers are ribbony 
and recall the handles of contemporary Boeotian kylikes. 


Sheep and oxen modelled in just the same way as the horses occur occa- 
sionally; all our examples have the red on white style of decoration (mostly 
with black and yellow) ; none has been found in our early sixth-century 

From mid-sixth-century graves we have: 

40. 136: J.H.S. xxix, p. 315 and p. 314, fig. 4: ox. 
50. 403 : B.S.A. xiv, p. 264 : ram. 
50. 404: ibid.: ox. 

From late sixth-century graves : 

3 1 - 374j 375 : B.S.A. xiv, p. 280: rams. 

112. 80 (pi. xvn) : VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 90: hgt. -105 m.;Tam, slanting 
red lines across legs, broad bands, red and (?) yellow across back, straight 
red lines down tail just as on the horse from this grave 112. 79 (above p. 64) . 


From early sixth-century graves : 

99. 53 (pi. xvn) : hgt. -085 m. ; incisions for claws, holes for eyes and 

101 b. 36 (pi. xvn): hgt. -068 m.; 37, hgt. without head (missing) 
075 m. 

From a mid-sixth-century grave : 

126. 126 (pi. xvn) : VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 96: hgt. -08 m.; misfired red 
on buff (for black on brown) . The face has no features except the ears (or 
horns? The workmen at once named this creature Satanas). Gp. Winter, 
Tjpen, i, p. 222. i (ten examples, all from Boeotia). 

These squatting animals are identical in style and fabric with the in- 
human riders on some of the horses listed above. 



From a late sixth-century grave: 

31. 369: B.S.A. xiv, p. 280 and pi. xn. h. 

Like the faces of many of the pappades listed above, this whole figurine 
takes us beyond the purely primitive. Note too that, unlike the typical 
primitive figurine, this silen is hollow. That he should be listed with the local 
primitives is shown by the centaur figures, Winter, Typen, i, p. 36. i . 


In the same style of decoration (red on white) as the cattle listed above we 
have a series of birds (mainly with outspread wings) on a cylindrical or 
conical stand. Like the cattle, these birds are found in graves of the middle 
and latter part of the sixth century. 

(i) Ifrom mid-sixth-century graves : 

40. 137: J.H.S. xxix, p. 315 and p. 314, fig. 4. 

no. 132: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 88: hgt. -085 m., width across wings 
about '14 m., diam. of base -04 m. 

117.12 (pi. xvn) : hgt. -10 m.; bird all burnt grey with markings black. 

Similar to the above but with folded wings are 

49. 445: B.S.A. xiv, p. 256. 

104. 42 (pi. xvn) : Viand V Cent. Pott. p. 87: hgt. -085 m., length -125 m.; 
across the back slanting red lines bounded at. neck and tail by a black band 
running straight across; red and black lines running down the tail. 

(ii) From late sixth-century graves: 

31. 376: B.S.A. xiv, p. 280 and pi. xn. d (photographed without the 
stand or the tips of the outspread wings) . 

1 12. 8 1 (pi. xvn) : Viand VCent. Pott. p. 90: hgt. -075 m.; neck extremely 
thin and long (-03 m.) ; body and tail differently shaped from those of the 
birds listed above; wings partly broken away; red herring-bone on white 
(cp. the pappas 133. 67) on the lower part of the body and tail, part of right 
wing towards tip red, but colours mainly gone. 

In the same style as these last, but with folded wings and no stand, the 
bird resting on its two legs (which are now modelled) and the end of its 
tail, is 

26. 239 (pi. xvn): B.S.A xiv, p. 286 (and perhaps 26. 240, ibid.}. In 
markings and modelling 26. 239 goes with the conical-stand archaic series. 
In pose it anticipates the late archaic series dealt with below (n. g). The 
colouring seems to me now to be pure "pappas" in spite of what we said in 
B.S.A. xiv, p. 286. That these birds come from the same workshops as the 
pappades is shown by such figurines as Winter, Typen, i, p. 30. 3 (where we 
find the same bird on the same stand except that the bird's neck and head 



have been replaced by a neck and head of the normal pappas type) and 
p. 34. 10 (a pappas feeding (?) three birds). Our birds with outspread 
wings are plainly close relations of the birds on the Boeotian kylikes. 

(iii) Perhaps the last of all the figurines in the primitive pappas 
technique is 

138. 15 (pi. xx) : Viand V Cent. Pott. p. 101 : dove (?), hgt. to top of head 
035 m., length from head to tail -07 m., breadth across wings -035 m. ; 
body and wings are of the same thickness ; the legs appear to grow from 
the outer corners of the wings; the underneath is apparently black, the 
upper side shows black and white and traces of red, but the colours are too 
worn to ascertain pattern. Grave 138 is probably to be dated about 
440-430 B.C. This particular object may be considerably earlier, but vases 
and figurines of the Boeotian-kylix style are found too frequently in early 
fifth-century graves to make a mid-fifth-century date for this lonely dove at 
all improbable. 


From graves of the last quarter of the sixth century and the beginning of the 

The objects listed in this section mark the transition from the primitives 
of section i to the classical types of section in. The Rhitsona primitives, as 
we have just seen, form a homogeneous series, all produced locally by the 
same workshops and possibly by the same workmen who produced the 
vases of the Boeotian bird-kylix style. They are indeed perhaps best 
explained as by-products of the vase industry. Much as the ultra-primitive 
appeals to the prevalent taste, it cannot be disputed that these primitive 
Boeotian figurines are lacking equally in artistic pretensions and technical 
skill. From the point of view of the coroplasts who made the figures of our 
classical series (listed as class in below) the makers of even our best pappades 
did not know the rudiments of their art. The finely moulded faces of these 
board-like figures might well be regarded as standing in much the same 
relation to the whole figurine as do the moulded heads that so often adorn 
Corinthian jugs and pyxides to the vases that they adorn. 

But in the graves of the last quarter of the sixth century we find along 
with figurines of our primitive series others which have emancipated 
themselves from the vase-maker and either artistically or technically 
started on the road that leads direct to the achievements of the coroplasts 
of the classical age. The best substantive works (genre groups, seated or 
standing figures) are still largely modelled in solid clay, comparatively thin 
walls of clay and the use of the mould being limited mainly to simple figures 
like doves and apples (?) or to masks which can hardly be regarded as 
figures in the round. But the elements of later developments are already 

The various groups listed below in this section form a by no means 
homogeneous whole, and the question as to where the figurines were made 


becomes less easy to answer. It is no longer the case that the objects all 
have an obviously local character. Some of the types indeed seem more or 
less peculiar to Boeotia, but others are recorded from many parts of the 
Greek world. The divorce of the figurine from the vase deprives us of one 
great aid towards determining its place of manufacture. In the pages that 
follow I have not attempted to do much more than indicate, where there 
seems tcsbe some presumption that the type is, or is not, Boeotian. 



31. 378 (pi. xvm) : B.S.A. xiv, p. 280 and pi. xii. f: horseman. 

1 8. 267: B.S.A. xiv, pp. 296-7, fig. 21 and pi. vn. B: cook. 

The cook forms one of a series of genre subjects (cooks, bakers, barbers, 
etc.) which have been found in some numbers in Boeotia (Winter, Typen, i, 
p. 35, cp. especially no. 3). For the horseman I know of no close parallels, 
but the rendering is an attractive mixture of the ripe archaic with the late 
primitive, and there seems no doubt that he should be classed as a more 
distinguished brother of the barbers, bakers and cooks. 


18. 266; B.S.A. xiv, p. 296 and pi. xni. f; cp. Winter, Typen, i, p. 192. 3 
(two examples, both from Boeotia) ; body hollow, as shown by a small hole 
broken in the bottom. 


112. 75 (pi. xix) : VI and V Cent. Pott. p. go: hgt. -195 m.; kore recalling 
marble maidens from the Acropolis: base solid (like figure) and very 
roughly made; numerous traces of white ground, very few of added colours : 
purple for necklace/ yellow for pendant from it, red for drapery down right 

131. 15 (pi. xix) : VI and V Cent. Pott. pp. 98-9, found inside the larnax, 
ibid. pi. ii : hgt. -134 m.; thin square base in front, merging completely into 
the figure at the back; left arm hangs straight down, right rests on breast; 
hair parted in middle, no locks over shoulders and no moulded indication 
of hair at the back. 

Both these figures, though not as quite so board-like as "pappades", are 
distinctly thin from back to front. For 112. 75, cp. Mon. Ant. xxxn. 
pi. LV. 5, from Selinus, Malophoros sanctuary. 


82. 40 (pi. xix), Viand V Cent. Pott. p. 84: hgt. -10 m. ; chair red in front, 
sides and back white; red diadem above hair; black band round neck with 
three red ornaments hanging from it; garments show red borders from 
breasts to feet. A hole, -01 m. in diameter, runs up the figure from the 


middle of the bottom (there is no separate base), otherwise the figure is 

112. 74: Viand V Cent. Pott. p. 90, small; smaller than 121. 36 and with- 
out the head-dress, but too much decayed to determine details of type; 
probably more like 138. 10 (for 121. 36 and 138. 10 see below). 

121. 36 (pi. xix)-3g: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 94: 36, hgt. -11 m.; body 
white with a red necklace; back of chair red; 37 almost duplicate of 36, but 
colours all gone and head and part of chair missing; 36 and 37 are hollow, 
a cone, -04 m. in diameter at the bottom (the figure itself measures at the 
bottom about 06 by -06 m.), running up to an apex at about the level of 
the neck; 38 smaller, very badly preserved, bottom part, face and colours 
all gone; in size and shape as far as distinguishable like 82. 40; solid and 
with a similar hole about -01 m. in diameter running up the figure from the 
bottom; 39 hopelessly decayed, apparently more or less solid, rather bigger 
than 38. 

133. 68: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 99: hgt. -08 m.; no trace of colours. This 
little figure seems to be modelled solid. Shape like 138. 10 (pi. xx) but 
without the slight modellings to indicate arms and legs and chair. 

For these seated figures cp. examples from Camirus, Clara Rhodos, iv, 
figs. 142, 181, 234, 323. 


112. 76 (pi. xvn): VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 90: hgt. -07 m.; body (and 
apparently face) brick red. Solid, or at any rate with no openings ; the back 
is semi-cylindrical. 

This is a widely distributed type, variants of which are recorded from 
Boeotia, Attica, Melos, Rhodes, Reggio and Cumae: see Winter, Typen, i, 
p. 215, and add Clara Rhodos, iv (Gamirus), figs. 137 and 145, 204, 370. 


All have a single suspension hole in the top of the head. 

26. 241 : B.S.A. xiv, p. 286 and pi. xii. g: hgt. -10 m.; the figure is cut 
away to form a bust with no straight lines or sharp angles in the outline. 

80. 271: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 84: hgt. -095 m.; a badly damaged 
duplicate of 26. 241. 

131. 16: Viand V Cent. Pott. p. 99: very fragmentary: hgt. efface -06 m.; 
apparently same type with same blobbed hair as 26. 241 and 80. 271. 

46. 159: J.H.S. xxix, pp. 327-8 and fig. 12: hgt. -09 m.; shape like last 
but the bust is cut rather squarer, the hair differently moulded (in waves, 
not blobs) and colour scheme different. 

15. i (pi. xvm) : see above, p. 2, n. i : hgt. -13 m.; bust of a different cut 
from that of the four just listed, so that the figure seems very short in the 
neck. Burnt, but remains of red on white, including red mouth. The hair 
is blobbed like that of 26. 241, 80. 271 and 131. 16. 

1 8. 265 (pi. xvm): B.S.A. xiv, p. 296: hgt. -i6m.; of a quite different 


shape from the above, with neck (?) elongated to produce a semi-columnar 
effect and cut away at the bottom so that it stands. The hair is not modelled 
but is painted, just showing in black below the head-band; the diadem 
above the head-band-is white with red bars. 

For 26. 241 cp. Clam Rhodos, iv (Camirus), fig. 323, four examples (from 
a grave which 'contained also one of the 18. 265 type, several small seated 
figurines of our late archaic types and late Black Figure vases of our graves 
26-18 period); Mon. Ant. xxn. pi. LXXIII. 6 (from Cumae). 

For 46. 159 cp. Clara Rkodos, iv, fig. 137. 

For 1 8. 265 cp. Winter, Typen, i, p. 236. 6 (numerous examples from 
Rhodes), p. 237. 2 (examples from Boeotia). To the Rhodes examples add 
Clara Rhodos, iv, figs. 137, 181 and 186, 234 and 246, 256, 290, 323. 




Grave* 36. 21 (pi. xyii): hgt. -06 m.; 22, hgt. -05 m.; both hollow; 21 
has a small circular hole (like that e.g. in the doves below) at the back, 
just below the end of the spinal ridge. The smaller 22 (much broken) 
appears to have no such hole. On the circumstances of the find see J.H.S. 
xxix, p. 329. 

Hare : 

1 8. 263 (pi. xvn) : B.S.A. xiv, p. 295. I am inclined now to regard this 
animal as a crouching hare. It is modelled hollow and (like the cock 
130. 121) left entirely open at the bottom. Length -07 m., hgt. and width 
04 m. 

Dove (?) with folded wings: the hollow figure rests on feet and tail; 
no base or stand. Colours normally a pinkish red on white as found often 
on fifth-century figurines. All except 18. 259 have a small round hole in 
the bottom and the light weight of this figurine shows it hollow like the 

18. 259 and (pi. xvn) 260: B.S.A. xiv, p. 295. 

46. 158: J.H.S. xxix, p. 327. 

131. 17, 18: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 99: total length -13, -n m.; both 
covered with white; no remains of red over the white, which is much worn. 

Cock : 

130. 121 (pi. xvn): omitted VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 98: hgt. '125111., 
length -ii m.; the hollow figure rests on the very short legs and the 
plumage below the tail; decoration in bands of black and red on white. 
The bell-shaped hollow is not unlike that of the seated figurine 121. 36, but 
less strictly conical. 

Tortoise : 
. 122 (pi. xvii): omitted VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 98: length -07 m., 


hgt. -04 m. ; hollow with a small round hole at the tail. Colours all gone, 
but traces of white ground on front part. 

18. 261 : B.S.A. xiv, p. 295 ; very similar to last, but no holes or openings; 
apparently solid. 


18. 262 (pi. xvii): B.S.A. xiv, p. 295; flat and solid, the under side 
perfectly flat and smooth. 

Quince (?) or Apple (?) : 

1 12. 82 : Viand V Cent. Pott. p. 90: very fragmentary: hgt. about -07 m.; 
hollow with a small hole at the top. Traces of white ground colour. 
1 8. 264 (pi. xvii) : B.S.A. xiv, p. 295: hgt. -07 m.; very similar to last. 

121. 35 (pi. xix) : VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 94: length as preserved (three 
quarters of whole?) -08 m.; bands of black, red and yellow on white run 
down towards the bottom. 

Perirrhanterion (?) : 

31. 377: B.S.A. xiv, p. 280 and pi. xn c; so probably 

15. 2 : see p. 2, n. i ; only neck, length -075 m., preserved, and 

I 33- 69: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 99; only fragments preserved. 

For the pigs cp. Clara Rhodos, iv, fig. 319. 

For the doves cp. Arch. Anz. 1912, p. 361, fig. 53 (from Olbia); Clara 
Rhodos, iv, figs. 159, 204, 319, 370 (Camirus). 

For the cock cp. Clara Rhodos, m, fig. 247 (lalysus). 

For the tortoises cp. Clara Rhodos, in (lalysus), fig. 233; iv (Camirus), 
figs. 159, 221, 319. 

For the perirrhanterion (?), cp. Clara Rhodos, TV, figs. 137, 290, called 
by Jacopi, ibid. pp. 146, 265 spindles (fuso); for the sprinkler (perir- 
rhanterion) interpretation, see the Black Figure examples with funeral 
scenes, Athens CC 1079, Berlin F 2104, Bologna, Pellegrini, Cat. Vas. 
Ant. no. 190, fig. 20 (C.V.A. m. He, pi. 24). 



Where not otherwise stated, the base is hollow and there is a large rect- 
angular opening in the back. 

(i) First half of the fifth century: 

Grave (?) 52. 17: Black Glaze Pott. pi. x and p. 42; the square hollow 
base is only slightly higher than that of 131. 15 (pi. xix); there is no 
opening in the back of the figurine, which may be placed not much after 
the latest of our late archaic series (131.15). 


Taller base, square and hollow like the last: 

Grave* 136. i (pi. xix) (see above, p. 2, n. i) : hgt. -266 m.; the opening 
in the back is -03 m. wide, -07 m. high, and starts '075 m. from the bottom; 
traces of white but no colours. Gp. Arch. Anz- 1902, p. 112, fig. 5. 

(ii) Second half of the fifth century: 

138. 8 (pi. xx): VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 101: hgt. -i8m.; hair and all 
details of eyes black, lips red, cheeks red shading off into brown and giving 
very well the effect of a dark complexion, the rest all white with details 
in red, viz. two thin lines for lower border of apoptygma, two a little thicker 
for bracelet on right wrist, a broad band running down right side of peplos 
and a broad band round front and sides of base. Base tall (-02 m. in front, 
03 m. at back). The rectangular opening in the back is -03 m. wide, 
06 m. high and starts -04 m. from the bottom. 

There is a similar figurine, not so well preserved, and with the hair not 
so full, from the Thespian polyandrion of 424 B.C. 

The rest of this series (ii) all have the hair modelled in rows of super- 
imposed blobs coloured bright red. In some (e.g. ii4a.i8, 57.12) head 
and neck stand free; in others (e.g. 57. ii) they are framed by what is 
presumably a veil that falls from the low polos-shaped head-dress down the 
back. A glance at 1 14 a. 1 8 will show how necessary something of the kind 
appears to be to help the neck to support the weight of the towering head 
of hair. The opening at the back of these figures is sometimes enormous. 
That of 57. ii (-36 m. high) is -23 by -07 m. wide. 

1 14 a. 1 8 (pi. xx) : Viand V Cent. Pott. p. 91 : hgt. -225 m. ; left arm hangs 
straight down, right on breast; red for hair, broad band round edge of 
overfall and top of base. 

57. 11-16: Black Glaze Pott. pp. 43-44 (see also p. 26); nos. n, 12, 13, 
ibid. pi. xi. No. 12 much resembles 114 a. 1 8 just above. So also 

59 and 60. xix: Slack Glaze Pott. p. 46. 

60. 45 and perhaps 46, 47 : Black Glaze Pott. p. 48. Perhaps we should list 
here also the fragmentary 

55. 16: Black Glaze Pott. p. 50. 

(iii) Fourth century: 

56. 6: Black Glaze Pott. pi. xiv and p. 49. The only figurine approaching 
the Tanagra style found at Rhitsona. 

(b] LEDA (?) AND SWAN 

57. 17: Black Glaze Pott. pi. xi and p. 44; cp. Winter, Typen, i, p. 69. 7. 
Late fifth century. 

55. 17: Black Glaze Pott. pi. xv and p. 50; fragmentary, type not certain. 
30. 31 : Black Glaze Pott. pi. xvn and p. 55; base round, with a moulding 
at top and bottom. Middle of fourth century. 



Second half of fifth century: 

139. 44 (pi. xx): Viand V Cent. Pott. p. 101 and p. 7, fig. 2: hgt. -20 m.; 
red for all nude parts including face and hair; white shows in supports or 
background below both arms and on right arm; band of red round upper 
edge of base with white below it; between and round the feet bright yellow; 
back plain clay with traces of white here and there. Modelling of body 
rather flat; hair flat and wig-like; both arms hang down at side; it is not 
clear whether he is holding anything. No opening at the back. Grave 139 
is probably to be dated 440-430 B.C. A very similar figure, but larger and 
with a large rectangular opening in the back and short hair, was found in 
the Thespian polyandrion. 

139. 45: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 101; very badly damaged, perhaps same 
type as last. 

First half of fourth century: 

107. 9: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 87; fragments of small figurine on tall 
base. ' 

Middle of fourth century : 

34. 39-45: Black Gla^e Pott. pp. 51-2 and (39 and 40) pi. xv; hair in 
superimposed rows of red blobs as on the draped female series from 
graves 57, 114 a, etc. Graves 57 and 1 14 a are late fifth century, grave 34 
is probably after 350 B.C. The interval is rather long considering that the 
two series are .palpably brothers and sisters. Both types, however, are 
known from very numerous examples which point to a long vogue. That 
the sisters are distinctly the elder in origin is shown not only by the vase 
contexts of our graves but also by their columnar stance, as contrasted with 
the more Praxitelean stance of the young men. The atrocious treatment of 
the hair is also naturally explained as of female origin. 


Middle of fifth century: 

138. 9 (pi. xx) : VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 101 : hgt. -16 m.; red for front 
of chair, for necklace, for bracelet (two red lines) on each wrist, for border 
of apoptygma (two red lines), for a line across knees and for a wavy line 
across lap. The goddess wears under her peplos a yellow chiton of which the 
sleeves are visible from shoulder to elbow (where folds of white peplos 
falling away from shoulder on either side are plainly visible) and across the 
ankles below the bottom of the white peplos. The high triple peak of the 
head-dress rises from the back of the head (see fig. 8) in contrast to the 
pappas fashion of the preceding century (e.g. 49. 431 and 432, 26. 236, 
also fig. 8) . The figure is hollow and completely open at the bottom with 
a rectangular opening in the back -04 m. wide, -055 m. high and starting 
03 m. from the bottom. 


For the yellow chiton worn beneath a long overgarment cp. the Black 
Figure skyphos 18. 95, Viand VCent. Pott. p. 60 and pi. xvm. (For a different 
interpretation see Rumpf, Gnomon, vi, 1930, p. 326.) 

138. 10 (pi. xx): VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 101: hgt. -09 m.; back of chair 
indicated only by a slight widening at the back of the figurine from 
shoulders to seat without any allowance for extra depth; actual seat 
indicated only by a slight square projection on either side. Figure white 
with red details, viz. as preserved, fillet, lips, neckband with brooch (?) in 
front of right shoulder, a broad band across bottom of skirt and in front of 
skirt between the legs as far up as the knees and probably up to the lap. 
Figure hollow and completely open at the bottom; no base and no opening 
at back. 

108. 7 (pi. xx) : VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 88: hgt. -14 m.; traces of dark red 
for hair and of red rather lighter but bright for front of chair and feet; 
traces of straight bands (colour indistinguishable) across breast and of a 
red band across back of figure -04 m. from bottom. No opening in the back 
and only a small one (-015 m. in diameter and imperfect at that) in the 
, base. 

First half of fourth century: 

107. 8: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 87; small, fragmentary, details scarcely 


The only figurine vases so far unearthed at Rhitsona are 

105. i (pi. x)~3: Corinthian ram-aryballoi : no. i, hgt. -07 m., length of 
body -06 m., width -04 m. Body covered with dots except underneath, 
where we have a broad zigzag between two straight lines running down the 
belly. There is a hole through each horn which would enable the vase to be 
strung up and a hole in the top of the ram's head (diam. about | centi- 
metre) forming the mouth of the vase. Nos. 2 and 3 like i but with heads 
missing. From a burnt grave of the middle of the sixth century, see p. 2, n. i . 

22. 9 and 10: B.S.A. xiv, p. 304; no. 9, ibid. pi. xm. c; head oenochoae; 
22. 9 is no. 4 of Beazley's list, J.H.S. XLIX, p. 76; 22. 10 is the vase referred 
to ibid. p. 53. These two head oenochoae were buried with the kotyle by 
the Brygos painter (22. 8), B.S.A. xiv, pi. xiv, and the Red Figure kylix 
(22. 7), ibid. pi. xm. b. 

57. 3: boot-shaped lekythos, Black Glaze Pott, pi, xi and p. 43, late fifth 

For 105. 1-3, cp. Maximova, Vases plastiques, i, pp. 104-5 and list, ibid. 
p. 105, n. i; n. pi. XL. 149. 

For 571 3, cp. C.V.A. Gallatin Collection (U.S.A.), pi. 30, 4 (from 
OJbia?), and, not so close, Arch. Eph. 1907, p. 82, nos. 35, 36, fig. 16 
(from Chalcis). 


Amphoriskoi : 

31. 361 : B.S.A. xiv, p. 279; this is practically a duplicate of 

26. 235 : ibid. p. 285 and pi. xn. b. 

46. 157: J.H.S. xxix, p. 327 and fig. n. 


80. 268 (pi. xxi) : VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 84: hgt. -12m. 

Of these bottles 31. 361, 1 26. 235 and 80. 268 are of precisely the same 
fabric, the dark blue glass, more or less translucent, being decorated with 
thin wavy bands of white. The other vase, 46. 157, is in a different style: 
the wavy bands thicker and applied not in white but in yellow and light 
blue and the total effect much more like enamel. Graves 31, 26, 80 roughly 
cover the last quarter of the sixth century; grave 46 is later and belongs to 
the first quarter of the fifth; the amphoriskos 46. 157 illustrates a style which 
had a long subsequent history. The grave 46 type of amphoriskos and the 
grave 80 type of alabastron are both found in the Thespian polyandrion. 

For 80. 268 cp. 

Gamirus, Clara Rhodos, iv, figs. 76, 131, 221, 223, 234, 256; lalysus, 
Clara Rhodos, m, figs. 166, 210, 277. 

For 46. 157 cp. 

Gamirus, Clara Rhodos, iv, figs. 85 (three examples, later than 46. 157), 
1 68, 287; lalysus, Clara Rhodos, m, figs. 204, 210, 234. 

These Rhodian finds are repeatedly associated (in single interment 
graves) with other objects (figurines, Black Figure and white ground vases) 
that recall the contexts of the Rhitsona examples and confirm their dating 
late in the sixth century or early in the fifth. 


(i) From an early sixth century grave: 

125 c. 14-26 (pi. x: from left to right 14-17 top row, 18-21 middle row, 
22-25 bottom row, 26 bottom) : miscellaneous in size, shape and material: 
21 is -008 m. diam., -003 m. thick; 26 is -03 m. diam., -025 m. thick; the 
flat conical beads with fluted sides nos. 14 and 17, the spherical no. 19 
(shape distorted by a shadow in the illustration) and the flattish no. 24 are 
all of a chalky sort of paste; the large spherical no. 26 with three eyes in 

1 The present black colour of 31. 361 is due to burning. There are no other burnt 
objects from this very richly furnished grave, but a single burnt object, especially when it 
is a somewhat exceptional vase like this, may be due to circumstances such as sometimes 
led to the burial of vases that had been broken and mended. 


relief is also of some sort of paste: the hole shows a brownish grey, the sur- 
face is black with brown grit showing, making it rough and suitable for the 
application of colour; 15 is of green soapstone, 16 carnelian, 18 a purplish 
pebble, 20 (shaped like a stone axe) black soapstone, 21 pebble, 22 green 
soapstone, 23 and 25 (both shaped like a double flattened cone) transparent 
iridescent glass. 

(ii) Fifth century: 

136*. 2 (pi. xix) (on the cluster of objects recorded as "grave" 136 see 
above, p. 2, n. i) : string of one hundred and twenty-seven glass beads : for 
shapes see the illustration: diam. varies from -015 to -008 m., of which 
about -005 m. is accounted for by the hole, making some of them almost 
ring-shaped. In colour a few are plain : pea-green, dark blue, milk-white, 
yellow; most, however, are decorated with eyes: those in the outer ring of 
the illustration are a light bluish green with dark blue eyes which generally 
have a white frame; sometimes there is a blue centre, then a white ring, 
then a blue ring and then a framing ring of white : those in the inner ring 
of the illustration are similar except that they are yellow instead of bluish 
green. A few of the beads are double and have a double row of eyes. As 
found in the ground the beads lay in a straight row which extended -48 m. 
Along with them were found the remains of a soft white metal clasp, seen 
in the illustration at the top of the outer ring and in the centre. 

139. 58-61 : VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 102. 

57. 18: Black Glaze Pott. p. 44 and pi. xi. 

36*. 28: J.H.S. xxix, p. 331. 

144. 13: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 102 (a single bead, burnt grey). 

The grave 57 beads are of the same glass and show the same types in the 
same varieties as those from grave* 1 36. Of the grave 1 39 beads one ( 1 39. 58) 1 
belongs to this same series, being of the blue-eyed yellow variety. Grave 57 
is late fifth century, grave 139 is to be dated about 440-430 B.C. The 
cluster of objects which we have called grave* 136 belong mainly to the 
second quarter of the fifth century. Those listed under grave* 36 were also 
found in a disturbed state (see J.H.S. xxix, p. 329), but are largely to be 
dated fairly well on in the first half of the fifth century. Beads of all these 
varieties have been found in great number in the Theban Kabeirion 
(Athens, Nat. Mus. 10540). The range of colours of these glass beads 
connects them with the grave 46 type of glass bottle rather than with the 
type found in graves 31, 26, 80. All the evidence thus goes to show that 
beads of the grave* 136 type were in vogue before the middle of the fifth 
century and remained so at least till the end of it. 

1 The others have all decayed into a powdery white substance which gives no 
indication of their original appearance. 




49. 446: B.S.A. xiv, p. 256: bowl, diam. -195 m.; the plain rim is just 
01 m. deep; below it there was a row of embossed godrons, some of which 
still remain attached, -01 m. wide; there are remains of other godrons 
025 m. wide with a concave or inverted godron in the middle. Except for 
the rim the fragments are very broken and decayed; no remains of the 
middle. The bowl was probably a phiale mesomphalos. It was buried at 
the end of the first half of the sixth century. Cp. Clara Rhodos, m, fig. 103. 

80. 273 (pi. xxi) : Viand V Cent. Pott. p. 84; the actual space covered by 
the fragments as arranged on pi. xxi is about -25 by -20 m.; the godrons 
in the bottom row are about -03 m. long; the repousse work is of the same 
style as that of the grave 49 bowl, but there is no trace of any bowl rim, 
and the numerous chain-like fragments and the pieces of fancy work in 
the bottom row of the illustration all suggest an elaborate piece of personal 
adornment. It was buried at the end of the sixth century. 


Vases mended in antiquity with lead CLAMPS or RIVETS were found in 
several of our graves of the end of the sixth century and beginning of the 
fifth, viz. 

1 8. 223: Black Glaze Pott. p. 18 and pi. v; to mend bowl of kantharos. 

80. 113: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 82 ; nine rivet holes but no remains of the 

46. 146 and 147: Black Glaze Pott. pp. 18-19; l ea d used to solder on the 
foot of the kantharos, which had broken off at the top of the stem. 


139. 57: VI and V Cent. Pott. pp. 7, 102; the strip of lead as preserved 
measures about -20 m. in length. It was buried about 440-430 B.C. 


136*. 2 (pi. xix) : the clasp of the bead necklace, see above under beads; 
the long strip seen at the top of the illustration is -07 m. to the bend (it 
would be -ii m. straightened out), the short -03 m. ('07 m. straightened 
out) ; both pieces are angular and ribbon-like in section (except the closed 
end of the smaller piece), the larger having an appreciable width (about 
004 m.). The wire the beads are strung on is, of course, modern. 



6. 8, 9 : J.H.S. xxx, p. 346; 6. 8, ibid. figs. 6 and 8 (pp. 343, 345). 

75. 5, 6 and (?) 7: J.H.S. xxx, p. 344; 75. 5, ibid. fig. 7. 

These fibulae, of the type with large square catch plate and saucer bows, 


come from two graves of the early Protocorinthian period. Cp. the iron 
fibulae of the same shape from a later Protocorinthian grave, 88. 5 (pi. 
m), 6. 

36*. 26: J.H.S. xxix, p. 331 : fragmentary; pin about -07 m. long; thin 
semicircular bow. 


Rings of bronze spiral have been found in ten different graves of which the 
earliest is early Protocorinthian, the latest are late Corinthian. Where the 
rings are preserved complete the coil that forms the ring proper terminates 
at either end in a spiral that lay flat on the back of the finger (see J.H.S. 
xxx, pp. 343, 345, figs. 6, 8). In two of the four examples from the early 
Protocorinthian grave 6 (6. 12, 13) the ring proper is composed not of the 
normal coil but of a strip of bronze plate, which on no. 1 3 is ornamented 
with a band ofTaised dots. It is doubtless an accident that no examples 
were found in any of our earliest group of Corinthian graves : 

From Protocorinthian graves: 

6. 10-13: J.H.S. xxx, p. 346; 10 and 12, ibid. fig. 8, p. 345. 
75. 8, 9, 10 : J.H.S. xxx, p. 344 and fig. 6, p. 343. 

From Corinthian graves of our group b : 

4. 41-43: J.H.S. xxx, p. 356. 

87. 29 (pi. xxi) : six coils preserved: inner diam. -018 m. 

92. 1 8 (pi. xxi) : four coils preserved: smallest inner diam. -018 m. 

95. 55-59: 55 and 56 (both pi. xxi) still on finger bone: smallest diam. 
018, -015, -019 m., ?, ?; 55 seven coils preserved, 56 eight, 57 five, 58, 59 

125 a. 1 6 : six coils, diam. -02 m.; both ends broken off. 

From Corinthian graves of our group c : 

86. 297 (pi. xxi): six coils preserved: ends as preserved plain; length 
o 1 6 m.; inner diam. -013 m. 

125 c. 27: fragments of two or more rings: biggest fragment, -015 m. 
long, now broken in two, has six coils, diam. not quite -02 m. ; another set 
of fragments shows eight coils and one terminating spiral; another, still 
more broken, shows about ten coils of which the smallest is only just 
015 m. diam. 

145. 100: six coils, diam. -015 m., and further small fragments. 

Simple hoop rings : 

36*. 27: J.H.S. xxix, p. 331: fifteen rings of thin bronze plate; date 
uncertain; see ibid. p. 329. 

131. 19, 20: VI and V Cent. Pott. pp. n, 99: plain and very thin; diam. 
013 m.; early fifth century. 



13. 15: J.H.S. xxx, p. 348: diam. -023 m.; too corroded to see whether 

91. 30 (pi. xxi) : one large and three small fragments of disc with twelve- 
petalled rosette in repousse work: original diam. '035 m. 

4. 40: J.H.S. xxx, p. 356; similar to 91. 30: original diam. -06 m. 

80. 274, 275: Viand V Cent. Pott. p. 84: small fragments; 274 flat (disc?), 
275 slightly cylindrical. 

68. 3 : Black Glaze Pott. p. 57. 

Grave 13 belongs to Payne's transitional period (640-625 B.C.). Grave 
91 belongs to the first, grave 4 to the second of our three chronological 
groups of Corinthian graves. The nondescript fragments from graves 80 
and 68 were buried in the last years of the sixth century and the middle of 
the third respectively. 



26. 242, 243: B.S.A. xiv, p. 286 and fig. 16, J.H.S. xxxi, p. 81, fig. 10; 
buried in the last quarter of the sixth century. 


46. 161 : J.H.S. xxix, p. 328; six small nails, -05 m. long; buried early 
in the fifth century. 

139. 50-52 : Viand VCent. Pott. pp. 7, 101 ; with mushroom-shaped heads : 
length -023 m. ; buried about 440-430 B.C. 


Bronze needles have been found from time to time in graves of which the 
earliest belong to the second half of the fifth century, the latest perhaps to 
the middle of the third, viz. 

111.4: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 89 : length -065 m. 

138. 1 6 (pi. xx) : VI and V Cent. Pott. pp. n, 101 : length -09 m. 

139. 53: VI and V Cent. Pott. pp. 7, 101 : length -092 m. 

57. 19 and (?) 20: Black Glaze Pott. p. 44 (19, fragment, -05 m. long; 
20, square sectioned, head spear-shaped, fragment, -05 m. long). 
56. 7 : Black Glaze Pott. p. 49 : fragment. 
34. 48: Black Glaze Pott. p. 52. 
66. 2 1 : Black Glaze Pott. p. 56 and pi. xvm : fragment, -06 m. long. 


Bronze strigils have been found in two graves, which we date 440-430 
(139) and about 424 B.C. (123). In both graves strigils of iron (see below) 
were also found. In grave 139 there was a bronze needle as well. The 
bronze strigils were: 

139. 46 (pi. xx)~4g: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 7, fig. 2 and p. 101; 46, 
diagonal measurement from bend of handle to tip -24 m. ; 47, fragmentary, 
smaller than 46 but bigger than 48; 48, diagonal measurement -19 m.; 49, 
fragmentary, same size as 48 ; all four are of the shape of 46. 


123. 35: VI and V Cent. Pott. pp. 5-6 and fig. i and p. 94; same type as 
the grave 139 examples. 
See also under Iron Strigils, 59. i . 



88. 5 (pi. m), 6: single saucer bow and square catch plate: 5, length 
075 m., end of pin corroded into catch, wire of pin round; 6, like 5 but 
slightly smaller, pin and plate missing. From a Protocorinthian grave with 
vases of a later phase than those found with the bronze fibulae 6. 8, 9. See 
Blinkenberg, Fibules Grecques et Orientates, p. 155. 


26. 244: B.S.A. xiv, p. 286 and J.H.S. xxxi, p. 81, fig. 10; for the bronze 
tripod stand an4 handles of this vase see above under Bronze. 


13. 16: J.H.S. xxx, p. 348 and fig. 12 (p. 349) : present length -09 m.; 
flat head with two round beads close under. From a late (transitional) 
Protocorinthian grave. 


99. 54: see p. 10: -09 m. long with head -02 m. broad. 

49. 447: B.S.A. xiv, p. 256 and pp. 242-3, fig. 6. 

50. 406: B.S.A. xiv, p. 264 and pp. 242-3, fig. 7. 

51. 321 : B.S.A. xiv, p. 270. 
31. 379: B.S.A. xiv, p. 281. 
26. 245 : B.S.A. xiv, p. 286. 
18. 270: B.S.A. xiv, p. 298. 
12. 92 : J.H.S. xxix, p. 320. 

46. 1 60: J.H.S. xxix, p. 328 and fig. 13 (p. 329). 

80. 276: VI and V Cent. Pott. pp. 8, 84. 

112. 83: Viand V Cent. Pott. pp. 9-10, 90. 

130. 119: VI and V Cent. Pott. pp. n, 98. 

133. 70: VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 99. 

123. 37-39: VI and V Cent, Pott. pp. 5, 94. 

139. 56: VI and V Cent. Pott. pp. 7, 101. 

Except for 99. 54 and 123. 37-39, 139. 56 all these nails come from 
Boeotian-kylix graves that date from a little before 550 B.C. to the early 
years of the fifth century. The nails are often inserted in small pieces of iron 
plate and belong to the wooden coffin or bier. The nails from graves 123 
and 139 point to a similar coffin or bier having been sometimes used during 
the third quarter of the fifth century. At the end of the fifth century stone 
slabs came back into use to line the graves (e.g. grave 57, Black Glaze Pott. 
p. 42) and the coffin nail went out. 

99. 54 is the earliest of our nails. It is the only example so far found in any 

u 6 


of our Corinthian graves. The grave it comes from is one of our latest 
group (c), which immediately precedes our earliest group of Boeotian- 
kylix graves (49, 50, etc.) and in the character and quantity of the grave 
furniture directly leads up to it. On the other hand this isolated nail is 
meagre evidence from which to reconstruct a mode of burial. Possibly it 
should be connected rather with the equally isolated and robust iron pin 
from grave 13 (see just above), where stone slabs are used to line and cover 
the grave. Similar stone slabs were also used for the (early) Corinthian 
grave 14 and, though the evidence at this upper end of our series is less 
abundant, it seems not unlikely that the iron coffin nail came in when the 
stone slab went out. 


139. 54, 55: VI and V Cent. Pott. pp. 7 (fig. 2) and 101 : very fragmentary. 
123. 36: VI and V Cent. Pott. pp. 5-6 (fig. i) and 94: fragments. 
144. 12: VI and V Cent. Pott. pp. 7-8 and 102 : fragments. 

59. i : Black Glaze Pott. p. 46: fragments of two large iron strigils and a 
bronze ring belonging to one of them. 

60. i : Black Glaze Pott. p. 47 and pi. xn. 

55. 18: Black Glaze Pott. p. 50: small fragments. 
34. 46, 47: Black Glaze Pott. p. 52. 
33. 51 : Black Glaze Pott. p. 53. 

This series covers the century from about 440 to 340 B.C., but all are so 
very badly broken and corroded that it seems impossible to hope to trace 
any changes of shape. The far better preserved bronze examples all come 
from the two earliest graves of the series. 


1 8. 268: worked bone, two fragments of a strip, B.S.A. xiv, p. 298. 

80. 272 (pi. xxi): worked bone, VI and V Cent. Pott. p. 84. 

139. 62: astragaloi, VI and V Cent. Pott. pp. 6, 7, 102. 

57. 21 : white lead pastilles, yiuOOiov, Black Glaze Pott. p. 44. 

97. 14 (pi. x) : small alabastron of burnt limestone. 



1-6: bombylioi: i (pi. v) hgt. -12 m., class iv. iii (silhouette animals), 
p. 29; 2 upper part like i, lower missing; 3-6 (3, 5, 6 pi. vi) hgt. -235, 
235, '205, -205 m., class iv. iv. c (animals), p. 33. 

7-251: ball aryballoi: 7-26 class iv. ii (bands and dots), p. 27; 27 
(pi. v) see under class iv. ii, p. 27; 28-66 class iv. iv. c (animals), pp. 33, 34: 
28-34 (28, 29, 30 pi. vn) group i, 35-49 (35, 36, 41, 42, 43 pi. vn) 
group 2, 50-64 (50, 55 pi. vn) group 3, 65 (pi. vn) and 66 see under 
group 2, p. 34; 67-84 (72, 73 pi. vm) class iv. vi (warriors), p. 40; 85 
(pi. ix) class iv. vii (lotus and palmette), p. 43; 86-221 class iv. viii: 86- 
198 (89, 198 pi. x) quatrefoil, p. 44, 199-220 (199, 220 pi. x) cinque- 
foil, p. 46, 22i r sixfoil, p. 46; 222-251 fragments of about thirty more 
aryballoi too broken and worn to classify. . 

252-260: larger, flat-bottomed aryballoi: 252 (pi. iv)-258 class iv. i 
(orange quarters), p. 25; 259 (pi. vn), 260 class iv. iv. c (animals), p. 36. 

261 (pi. iv)-265: amphoriskoi, class rv. ii (bands and dots), p. 28. 

266-272 : black glaze vases, mostly with purple lines, class vi, pp. 47-48 : 
266 (pi. xn) lekythos, hgt. '185111.; 267 (pi. xn) small jug, hgt. -07 m.; 
268 (pi. xn) lekane, diam. -165 m.; 269-272 (pi. xn) squat kotylai, hgt. 
053-055 m. 

2 73> 274 (both pi. xi): Boeotian Black Figure kantharoi, hgt. -15, 
115 m., class vn, pp. 50-52. 

275-296: figurines: 275 (pi. xv), 276 horsemen, black on brown, 
p. 62; 277 (pi. xvi)-2g2 horses, red on white, p. 63; 293 (pi. xin)- 
296 pappades, red on white, see p. 56. 

297 : bronze ring, see p. 79 and pi. xxi. 


1-28: ball aryballoi: i class iv. i (orange quarters), p. 24; 2 (pi. iv)-i3 
class iv. ii (bands), p. 27; 14 (pi. v) class iv. iii (silhouette animals), 
p. 29; 15-28 (15 and 24 pi. vm) class iv. vi. b (warriors), p. 39. 

29 : bronze ring, see p. 79 and pi. xxi. 


1-4 (all pi. in) : Protocorinthian lekythoi, see class in, pp. 20-21. 
5 (pi. m), 6: iron fibulae, see p. 81. 


i (pi. rv): Protocorinthian lekythos, hgt. -09 m., see class m, pp. 20-21, 
and also under class iv. i (orange quarters), pp. 23, 24. 

2-4: bombylioi, hgt. -08 m. : 2, 3 class iv. ii (bands and dots), p. 26; 
4 class iv. iv. a (animals), p. 30. 



5-9: ball aryballoi: 5 (pi. iv)~7 class iv. i (orange quarters), p. 24; 8 
(pi. vi) class iv. iv. a (animals), p. 30; 9 fragments, small. 
10: white substance, see above, p. 9. 

GRAVE go 1 
i (pi. m) : Protocorinthian lekythos, hgt. -07 m., see under class in, p. 21. 


i and 2 (both pi. m) : Protocorinthian lekythoi, hgt. -065, -075 m., see 
under class m, pp. 20, 21. 

3-26: ball aryballoi, much worn: 3-5 class iv.i (orange quarters), p. 24; 
6-1 1 class iv. ii (bands and dots), p. 27; 12-18 (16, 18 pi. vi) class iv. iv. a 
(animals), p. 30; 19 (pi. vm) class iv. vi. a (warriors), p. 39; 20-25 (20, 
24, 25 pi. ix) class iv. vii (palmettes), p. 42; 26 class iv. viii, quatrefoil, 
p. 43. 

27? 28 (both pi. in) : cups, hgt. -05 m., see under class i, p. 18. 

29 (pi. in) : cup, hgt. -04 m., fabric black all through, see under class v 
(bucchero), pp. 46-47. 

30 (pi. xxi) : fragments of bronze disc, see p. 80. 

31 (very possibly intrusions) : fragments of rough ware, fragments of lid 
of Corinthian pyxis, and a few small fragments of aryballoi. 


i (pi. iv)~3: bombylioi, class iv. ii (bands), p. 26. 

4-13: ball aryballoi : 4, 5, and (pi. v) 6 class iv. ii (bands and dots), 
p. 27; 7-9 (8, 9 pi. vm) class iv. vi (warriors), p. 39; 10-13 ( IO > ll P^ IX ) 
class iv. viii, quatrefoil, pp. 43-44. 

14 (pi. iv), 15: flat-bottomed aryballoi, hgt. -055 m., class iv. ii (bands), 
p. 28. 

16: ball aryballos, bucchero, see class v, pp. 46-47. 

17 (pi. iv): aryballos with no handle and narrow lip, hgt. -06 m., clay 
red at the core, polished streaky red outside. 

18: bronze ring, see p. 79 and pi. xxi. 

GRAVE (?) 93 

1-3: ball aryballoi: i hgt. -07 m., 2 and 3 fragmentary: class iv. viii, 
p. 43 f. : i and 2 quatrefoil, 3 cinquefoil. 

4: uncertain fragments. 

5: miniature Boeotian (?) Black Figure kantharos, hgt. -035 m., part of 
body and one handle missing : A long-legged bird facing horse, B bird and 
lion or dog; all in rough silhouette. with no incisions: possibly akin to the 
Geometricising series J.H.S. XLIX, pp. 160 f. Repeated efforts by various 
hands failed to secure a satisfactory photograph of this elusive little vase. 
The grave context may be mid-sixth century, see above, p. 22, n. 2. 

1 Some half-dozen fragments recorded by Burrows as found on the way down to this 
grave are not here catalogued; there is no evidence that any of them belonged. 


GRAVE 95* 

1, 2: bombylioi, class iv. ii (bands), p. 26. 

3-54: ball aryballoi: 3-14 class iv. i (orange quarters), p. 25; 
15-17 class iv. ii (bands and dots), p. 27; 18-48 (18, 24, 25, 43, 46, pi. vm) 
class iv. vi (warriors), pp. 39, 40; 49-51 (50, 51 pi. ix) class iv. vii (lotus 
and palmette), pp. 42-43; 52, 53 (both pi. ix) class iv. viii, quatrefoil, 
pp. 43-44; 54 fragments. 

55-591 bronze rings, see p. 79 and (55 and 56) pi. xxi. 


1-6: ball aryballoi: i hgt. -075 m., 2-5 -06 m., class iv. viii, quatrefoil, 
p. 45 ; 6 fragments, some with incisions. 

7: flat-bottomed aryballos, hgt. -10 m., class iv. iv (animals), p. 36. 

8, 9: figurines, black on brown: 8 monkey (?) on horse, very rough, hgt. 
085 m.; 9 horse, hgt. -085 m. See pp. 61, 62. 


i (pi. iv) : oenochoe (imitation Protocorinthian), hgt. -07 m., class in, 
p. 21. 

2-9: bombylioi: 2,3 (pi. v), 4 class iv. ii (bands and dots), p. 26; 5-9 
(6, 6, 7, 7, 9 pi. v) class iv. iv. a (animals), p. 30. 

10, ii : ball aryballoi: 10 (pi. rv) class iv. i (orange quarters), p. 25; 
ii (pi. vi) class iv. iv. a (animals), p. 30. 

12 (pi. xn) : rough cooking pot, see class vm, p. 52. 

13: from depth of two metres, a few fragments of coarse ware and 

14 (pi. x) : alabastron, hgt. -055 m., of burnt limestone, 2 very light in 
weight, quite white where chipped but surface partly yellow, partly 
mottled black. 

GRAVE 99 3 

i (pi. in) : Protocorinthian lekythos, hgt. -06 m., see under class ra, 
p. 21. 

2, 3 (pi. vi): bombylioi, hgt. -095, -09 m., class iv. iv. b (animals), 
pp. 31-32. 

4-47: ball aryballoi: 4, 5 class iv. ii (bands and dots), p. 27; 6 class 
iv. iv. a (?) siren (fragmentary) ; 7-14 class iv. iv. c, group 4 (animals), p. 35; 

1 On three Geometric fragments found in this grave but not belonging to it see under 
grave 95 in the section on methods of burial, p. 9. 

2 " So Naville, Waldemar, Schmidt, and also von Bissing, who says it has been subjected 
to burning (which makes limestone grow lighter), but does not think it Egyptian." R.M.B. 

3 Several small fragments listed by Burrows as found in excavating this grave plainly 
formed no part of its furniture but found their way down either when the grave was 
being dug or when it was excavated. The most notable is a sherd of a large Boeotian 
Geometric vase. 


15, 1 6 class iv. vi (warriors), p. 40; 17 (pi. x)~46 class iv. viii: 17-45 
quatrefoil, p. 44; 46 sixfoil, p. 46; 47 fragmentary and indeterminate. 

48 (pi. iv), 49: amphoriskoi, class iv. ii (bands and dots), p. 28. 

50 (pi. iv), 51, 52 (pi. iv) : hgt. '055, -06, -065 m. : ball aryballoi, normal 
shape but unusual fabric, see class v (bucchero), p. 46. 

53 (pi. xvn) : figurine: bear (?) squatting, see p. 66. 

54: iron nail, see p. 10 and pp. 81-82. 

GRAVE 101 a 

i (pi. x), 2: ball aryballoi, class iv. viii, quatrefoil, p. 45. 

3 (pi. xii and fig. 7), small pot for ointment, see class vi, pp. 49, 50. 

4 (pi. xn) : bowl, diam. -40 m., see class vi, p. 49, and also pp. 6, 10 and 
fig. i. 

5: coarse pithos, see under class vm, p. 52, and also p. 10. 

GRAVE 101 b 

i : bombylios, class iv. ii (bands and dots), p. 26. 

2-33: ball aryballoi: 2-18 class iv. ii (bands and dots), p. 27; 19 
(pi. VH), 20 class iv. iv. c (animals), group 2, p. 34; 21-33 class iv. viii: 
21^29 quatrefoil, p. 44, 30-33 cinquefoil, p. 46. 

34: ball aryballos, fragments just sufficient to establish shape; bucchero, 
class v, p. 46. 

35 (pi. xii): little one-handled black glaze cup, see class vi, cups (b}, 
p. 48. 

36-39: figurines: 36 (pi. xvii), 37 seated apes, see p. 66; 38, 39 (both 
pi. xv) horses, see p. 61. 

40 (pi. xii), small pithos, and 41, large pithos: see under class vm, p. 52, 
and see also pp. 10-11 and fig. i. 

GRAVE 103 

1-8: ball aryballoi, class .iv. viii: 1-6 quatrefoil, p. 45; 7, 8 cinquefoil, 
p. 46. 

9: amphoriskos, hgt. -085 m., like 50. 13-15, B.S.A. xiv, p. 258, and 
1 10. 88, 89; 126. 80, 81, VI and V Cent. Pott. pp. 88, 95, but with only two 
fine brown lines running round the reserved band on the body. 

The following may be intrusions: 10: three coarse fragments, apparently 
all from one bowl, hgt. about -055 m., clay brown and very gritty, found 
about one foot down; ii, 12, 13: three coarse fragments, two glazed, one 
unglazed, from three different pots, found at a depth of five feet, one foot 
from the west end of the grave. 


1-14: ball aryballoi: i (pi. v) class iv. iii (silhouette animals), p. 29; 2 
(fragments) class iv. iv. a (animals), p. 30; 3 class iv. v (runners and 


dancers), p. 37; 4-13 class iv. vi (warriors), p. 40; 14 class iv. viii, 
quatrefoilj pp. 43-44. 

15. (pi. xn) : small handleless cup, see class vi, pp. 48-49. 

16: six spirals of bronze ring, see p. 79. 

17, 18: pithoi in which the body was buried, see pp. 11-12. 

GRAVE 125 b 

1-5: ball aryballoi: 1,2 class iv. ii (bands), p. 27; 3 (pi. vm), 4 
class iv. vi (warriors), p. 40; 5 (pi. ix) class iv. viii, quatrefoil, pp. 43-44. 
6, 7: pithoi in which the body was buried, see p. 12. 

GRAVE 125 a or b 

The following from their position may have belonged either to 125 a or 
125 b: 

125 a or b. i and 2: ball aryballoi: i class iv. ii (bands), p. 27; 2 class 
indeterminable, lower part missing. 


1 (pi. m): small jug, see class n ("Argive Monochrome"), p. 19. 

2-1 1 : ball aryballoi: 2 worn and probably early, round the bottom a 
ring of dots; 3-8 class iv. vi (warriors), pp. 40-41; 9-11 class iv. viii, 
quatrefoils, p. 44. 

12, 13 (pi. xm) : figurines, pappades, see pp. 54, 55-56. 

14-26 (all pi. x) : beads, see pp. 76-77. 

27: bronze spiral rings, see p. 79. 

28, 29: pithoi in which the body was buried, see p. 13. 

GRAVE 125 d 

1, 2: ball aryballoi, class iv. viii: i quatrefoil, 2 cinquefoil, pp. 45, 46. 
3, 4: figurines: 3 (pi. xvi) rider, side saddle, on horse, see p. 63; 

4 (pi. xm) pappas, see p. 54. 

5, 6: pithoi in which the body was buried, see p. 13. 

GRAVE 1256 

i : ball aryballos, chipped and worn, see under class iv. iv. a (animals), 

P- 3- 

2, 3: pithoi in which the body was buried, see p. 13. 

GRAVE i25d or e 

The following from their position may have belonged either to I25d or 
125 e: 

i : ball aryballos, hgt. about -07 m. (lip missing), class iv. viii, quatrefoil, 
p. 45, much like I25d. i. 

2 (pi. xm) : figurine, pappas, see p. 55. 


GRAVE 132 

i: small jug, see under class n ("Argive Monochrome"), p. 19, shape 

much like 134.4 (P^ IH )> P- *% 

2-7: Protocorinthian, main decoration scale pattern: 2 piriform 
lekythoi; 3-7 squat barrel bodied aryballoi, see under ra, pp. 20, 21. 

8, 9: pithoi, see p. 13. 

GRAVE I34 1 

i (pi. m) : hgt. -06 m. } two-handled cup, streaky brownish black on pinkish 
buff; inside a streaky brown all over, apparently with a small reserved 
circle, pinkish buff, in centre of bottom; underneath flat with no moulding 
and all ground colour; inside of handles and part of body opposite reserved ; 
clay gritty as is also that of no. 2. Cp. the Attic cup, Cambridge, C.V.A. 
pi. 1. 1 6 and a similar cup in Berlin University. 

2, 3 and (pi. m) 4 : hgt. -075, -09, -06 m., small jugs, all same shape 
except that 3 and 4 have handle almost as broad as mouth, while 2 has 
handle narrow and meeting body at more of an angle; 2 is of rather coarse 
reddish clay originally covered with a buff slip over which round lower 
part of body ran broad black bands, partly red from bad firing; similar 
bands but thinner on back of handle; 3 of finer pale buff clay with no trace 
of colour or decoration; 4 now buff like 3 but all over shows traces of colour 
which suggest that it was originally painted black. 

5 (pi. m) : hgt. -18 m, handleless pot with holes for suspension (or attach- 
ment of lid?) on either side -025 m. apart; decoration chocolate brown, 
very streaky in parts, but this may be the result of wear rather than work- 
manship; bottom all reserved. 

GRAVE 141 

(a) unburnt vases from the bottom of the grave : 

1-4: bombylioi: i (pi. v)~3 class iv. ii (bands and dots), p. 27; 4 
(pi. v) class iv. iv. a (animals), p. 30. 
5-10: ball aryballoi, class iv. i (orange quarters), p. 25. 

(b) burnt vases found at a higher level (see p. 14) : 

ii : bombylios, class iv. ii (bands and dots), p. 27. 

12-20: ball aryballoi: 12-16 class rv. ii (bands and dots), p. 27; 17 
(pi. vi) class iv. iv. a (animals), p. 30; 18 (pi. vi), 19 class iv. v (runners 
and dancers), p. 37; 20, bottom missing, hgt. about -065 m., all blaclc, 
with no traces of either colour or incisions. 

21 : aryballos, flat-bottomed, rather squat, hgt. about -06 m., colours 
gone but incisions numerous, showing v. iv. a rosettes; for shape cp. 92. 14, 


1 In the case of this, the earliest grave here published, the scanty and miscellaneous 
contents conform to no type yet established, and it seems best to give the detailed descrip- 
tions all together here in the catalogue (cp. above, pp. 17-19). 


GRAVE 145 

i: jug, shape and fabric like 125 c. i, pi. m, class 11 ("Argive Mono- 
chrome"), above, pp. 18-19. 

2-93: small ball aryballoi: 2 (pi. v)-i2 class iv. ii (bands and dots), 
p. 28; 13-15 (13, 15 pi. vn) class iv. iv. c (animals): 13, 14 group 2; 
15 group 4, pp. 34, 35; 16-27 c ^ ass IV - y i' c (warriors), p. 41 ; 28-82 class 
iv. viii, quatrefoil, p. 44; 83-93 class iv. viii, sixfoil, p. 46. 

94-99 : figurines : 94, 95 (both pi. xv) horses (95 originally with rider) 
(see pp. 61, 62); 96, 97 (both pi. xv) monkeys on horseback (see p. 62); 
98, 99 (both pi. xm) pappades: 98 standing, see p. 55; 99 seated, 
see pp. 59-60. 

100: six spirals of bronze ring, see p. 79. 



GRAVE 132 

i: small jug, sec under class n ("Argivc Monochrome 1 '), p. 19, shape 

much like 134.4 (pi- II[ )> P- l "- 

2-7: Protocorinthiau, main decoration scale pattern: 2 piriforrn 
lekythoi; 37 squat barrel bodied aryballoi, see under in, pp. 20, 21. 

8, 9: pithoi, see p. 13. 

GRAVE I34 1 

i (pi. in) : hgt. -06 m., two-handled cup, streaky brownish black on pinkish 
bufT; inside a streaky brown all over, apparently with a small reserved 
circle, pinkish buff, in centre of bottom; underneath flat with no moulding 
and all ground colour; inside of handles and part of body opposite reserved; 
clay gritty as is also that of no. 2. Cp. the Attic cup, Cambridge, C.V.A. 
pi. i. 1 6 and a similar cup in Berlin University. 

2, 3 and (pi. in) 4: hgt. -075, -09, -06 m., small jugs, all same shape 
except that 3 and 4 have handle almost as broad as mouth, while 2 has 
handle narrow and meeting body at more of an angle; 2 is of rather coarse 
reddish clay originally covered with a buff slip over which round lower 
part of body ran broad black bands, partly red from bad firing; similar 
bands but thinner on back of handle; 3 of finer pale buff clay with no trace 
of colour or decoration; 4 now buff like 3 but all over shows traces of colour 
which suggest that it was originally painted black. 

5 (pi. in) : hgt. -18 m, handleless pot with holes for suspension (or attach- 
ment of lid?) on either side -025111. apart; decoration chocolate brown, 
very streaky in parts, but this may be the result of wear rather than work- 
manship; bottom all reserved. 

GRAVE 141 

(a] unburnt vases from the bottom of the grave: 

1-4: bombylioi: i (pi. v)~3 class iv. ii (bands and dots), p. 27; 4 
(pi. v) class iv. iv. a (animals), p. 30. 
5-10: ball aryballoi, class iv. i (orange quarters), p. 25. 

(b) burnt vases found at a higher level (see p. 14) : 
ii : bombylios, class iv. ii (bands and dots), p. 27. 

12-20: ball aryballoi: 12-16 class iv. ii (bands and dots), p. 27; 17 
(pi. vi) class iv. iv. a (animals), p. 30; 18 (pi. vi), 19 class iv. v (runners 
and dancers), p. 37; 20, bottom missing, hgt. about -065 m., all black, 
with no traces of either colour or incisions. 

21 : aryballos, flat-bottomed, rather squat, hgt. about -06 m., colours 
gone but incisions numerous, showing v. iv. a rosettes; for shape cp. 92. 14, 

1 In the case of this, the earliest grave here published, the scanty and miscellaneous 
contents conform to no type yet established, and it seems best to give the detailed descrip- 
tions all together here in the catalogue (cp. above, pp. 17-19). 


GRAVE 145 

i: jug, shape and fabric like 1250:. i, pi. in, class n (" Argivc Mono- 
chrome"), above, pp. 18-19. 

2-93: small ball aryballoi: 2 (pi. v)-i2 class iv. ii (bands and dots), 
p. 28; 13-15 (13, 15 pi. vn) class iv. iv. c (animals): 13, 14 group 2; 
15 group 4, pp. 34, 35; 16-27 class iv. vi. c (warriors), p. 41 ; 28-82 class 
iv. viii, quatrefoil, p. 44; 83-93 class iv. viii, sixfoil, p. 46. 

94-99: figurines: 94, 95 (both pi. xv) horses (95 originally with rider) 
(see pp. 61, 62); 96, 97 (both pi. xv) monkeys on horseback (see p. 62); 
98, 99 (both pi. xm) pappades: 98 standing, see p. 55; 99 seated, 
see pp. 59-60. 

100: six spirals of bronze ring, see p. 79. 


APPENDIX TO SECTION IV (pp. 22-46 above) 




IV. i (pp. 23-25): "ORANGE QUARTER" VASES 

Lekythoi. Megara Hyblaea, sep. 166, Man. Ant. i, p. 866 f., double incisions on middle 
zone of body, daisy pattern on lower part and shoulder. So also Arkades, Crete, Ann. 
Scuol. Atene, x-xn, fig. 102. 

Bombylioi. Contemporary with our ball aryballoi are small bombylioi similarly decorated : 
Payne, cat. 378 (Delphi, Fouilles, v, fig. 569;- Syracuse, Notiz. 1895, 174; Berlin 3698; one 
from Megara Hyblaea); omit Delphi (see above, p. 16 n. i) and add 

Megara Hyblaea, graves 433, 609 and 613 (single incisions), 708 (double incisions); one 

of these presumably included in Payne, 378; 
Tarquinii (Tarquinia Mus.) (double incisions) ; 
Corinth Museum (single incisions), ibid, (double incisions). 

Large bombylioi with flattened bottom decorated like Dugas, Delos Heraeum, pi. 30. 428 
(Payne, 793) are later, contemporary with the earliest of the larger flat-bottomed aryballoi. 

Ball aryballoi ("s" below indicates single incisions, "d" double): Payne, 638 (quoting, 
besides Rhitsona, Gela, sep. 1 73, and, without references, Rhodes, Crete, Selinus, 
Corneto, Corinth): 

Eleusis Museum; 

Orchomenos: B.C.H. 1895, p. 197, nos. 479-491 (485-487 d); 

Thebes, Louvre L 31, C.V.A. in. c. a, pi. 5. 5 and 6 (s); 

Delos Heraeum, Dugas, pi. xxn, 172-176 (s); , 

Smyrna, Berlin, Furt. 1086; 

Camirus, Clara Rhodos, iv, figs. 346 (four examples, ibid. p. 316), 418; 

lalysus, Clara Rhodos, in, figs. 70 and 71 and pi. vn (all one example, s); 

Megara Hyblaea (Syracuse Mus.), sep. 30, Man. Ant. i, p. 820 (s), sep. 613 (s), sep. 441 (d) ; 

Gela (Syracuse Mus.), sep. 173 (s) (Payne, p. 291, n. 2); 

Cumae (Naples Mus.), Mon. Ant. xxn, pi. 54. 8, pp. 305, 316 (d); 

Nola, Berlin, Furt. 1087; 

Suessula, Notiz. 1878, pi. 5. 5 (s); 

Satricum (Villa Giulia), several examples (s); 

Tarquinii (Tarquinia Mus.), seven examples (s), two with incised petals on lip; 

Chiusi Museum, Coll. Paolozzi (s) ; 

Arkades, Crete, Ann. Scuol. Atene, x-xii, fig. 214 and pi. 18 (s). 

We may place at the end of this list 

Camirus, Berlin, Furt. 1088 (d; the quarterings divide only the middle zone of the body; 
above and below this horizontal bands, on shoulder daisy pattern, as on the flat- 
bottomed vases, Payne, 1294, etc - listed below); so also: 

Syracuse, Syracuse Mus. 2194. 

Flat-bottomed aryballoi: 

Small early: with 13. 12 J.H.S. xxx, p. 348 and fig. 12; cp. Syracuse Museum, scavi Via 
Minerva, hgt. -06 m., where, however, we have two zones of elongated tongue pattern 
separated by a thin reserved band round the middle of the body. 

Later: in the list below "s" indicates single incisions, "D" daisy pattern on lip, "B" 
bands on lower part of body; where not thus indicated, the incisions are double and run 
right down to the foot ring, and the top of the lip shows bands. 

Payne, 1294, quotes examples from Caere (Louvre), Delos, Gela, S. Russia: add 


Agrigentum (Museo Civico) (B) ; 

Agrigentum (?) (Coll. Giudice) (B); 

Gela (Palermo Mus.) (B) ; 

Licadia Euboea (Syracuse Mus.) ; 

MegaraHyblaea (Syracuse Mus.), sepp. 583 (B), 429, 802; scavi 1879 (Notiz. 1880, pp. 37f.) ; 

Sicily (?) (Palermo Mus.) (B?); 

Gumae (Naples Mus.) (B, D, side of lip dots). 

IV. ii. (pp. 25-28): BAND AND DOT VASES 

The appended numerals indicate the number of rows of dots : e.g. 3-3 indicates two 
zones of dots each three deep; "Dm" indicates daisy pattern on top of lip; "dm" small 
daisy or large dot pattern (always between rings) on top of lip; "d" dots on side of lip; 
"Db" and "db" respectively daisy pattern and ring of large dots (or very small petals) 
round the bottom of the body. Apart from these indications the decoration consists en- 
tirely of bands except for the almost invariable daisy pattern on the shoulder: 

Bombylioi (Payne, 376, 377, quoting Lausanne 4304 (Rhodes), Graef, 406 (pi. 15), 
Arch. Eph. 1910, 289, fig. 9 (Bassae), Dugas, pi. 28, 382-383 (Delos), Berlin 3131 (6-6 
Greece), Syracuse tomb 200, Megara Hyblaea tomb 734): 
Elaeus (Louvre), worn; 
Delos Heraeum, Dugas, pi. 28. 375-383: 383 (12, Dm, Db) ; 382 (6) ; 381-378 (2 with thin 

dividing line) or (i-i); 377~375 bands only, of even thickness; 380 and 378-6 Db; 
Thebes (Boeotia), Louvre L 5, C.V.A. in. c. a, pi. i. 7 (4-4); 
Vroulia, Kinch, pi. 33, p. 2 (2-2 each pair with thin dividing line, Db) ; 
Rhodes (Florence Mus.), bands; 

Camirus, Clara Rhodos, iv, fig. 26 and p. 57. 15 (three examples); 
lalysus, Clara Rhodos, in, pi. vi. n. 2 (2-2-2) ; pi. vi. xxxni. 5 (2) ; 
Greece (Chalcis?), Coll. Desypris, three examples: i and 2 (12, Dm, Db, d), 3 (2); 
Arkades, Ann. Scuol. Atene, x-xn, figs. 126 (12), 148 (2-2-2 with dividing lines); 
Gela, Bitalemi (Syracuse Mus.), Man. Ant. xvn, p. 635: three examples: (5), (2-2), (2-2- 

2-2, each pair with thin dividing line) ; 
Megara Hyblaea (Syracuse Mus.), sepp. 166 (Man. Ant. i, p. 865: bands in groups of 

three), 336 (bands of equal thickness), 442 (2-2-2), 499 (four examples, all 10), 502 

(3~3)> 586 (2-2-2, Db), 705 (7), scavi 1879 (4-4, Dm); 
Selinus, Malophoros (Palermo Mus.): three examples (2-2, dm, Db), four examples 

bands only (of equal thickness), two of the four Db; 
Syracuse (Syracuse Mus.), sep. 152 (Notiz. 1895, p. 12 1), two examples (both 10, dm, 

Db); sep. 200 (Notiz. 1895, p. 131) (7 or 8, Dm, Db), with bands right at bottom; 

no. 2184 (6, Db) ; no. 5999 (2-2-2-2-2, each pair with thin dividing line, Db) ; sep. 

450 (Notiz- 1895, p. 177), thick bands; 
Sicily (Agrigentum ?), Coll. Giudice, five examples: (10, Dm, db), (2-2, dm), (5-5), 

bands of even thickness, bands of even thickness (Db) ; 
Palermo Museum, bands, thick and thin; 
Reggio Museum: (6) (from Petelia); one deep zone of dots or two or more less deep 

(from Labocetta, worn); bands only in groups of three; 
Cumae (Naples Mus.) (see Mon. Ant. xxir, p. 290, pi. 55. 4), six examples with dots, 

including (n), (4-2), (2-2-2-2-2); others with bands only; Bonn, Akad. Kunstmus. 

1615, fragments of several examples (some, but not all, Italic). 
Rome (Esquiline), Mon. Ant. xv, pi. 10. 4 (i-i); 
Tarquinii (Tarquinia Mus.), Poggio Gallinario tomba i a (with early Corinthian cock 

bombylios) : two, i-i ; one, bands only. The museum at Tarquinia (Corneto) 

contains many examples of these band and dot bombylioi and aryballoi, some Greek, 

some local imitations; 

Etruria: Florence Mus. 3669 (5-4); ibid, bands, one thick and three thin alternately; 
Chiusi Museum, from Coll. Paolozzi: one example, hgt. about -10 m. (4-4; bands purple 

on black); another similar (5); another smaller (3); others certainly Italian; 
Fabriano (Ancona Mus.), Notiz. 1899, p. 380 (4?). 


Ball aryballoi (Payne, 639-642, 1261, quoting Delos, Dugas, pi. 22, Megara Hyblaea, 
graves 262, 455, 648, Cumae, Man. Ant. xxn, pi. 55. 3) : 

Delos Heraeum, Dugas, pi. 22, 154-171: 168, 167 (8), 166 (6), 165, 164, 163 (4), 171, 

170, 162, 161 (3), 160, 159 (2-2), 169, 158 (2), 157, 156 (2, with thin dividing line), 

155, 154, thick bands; Dm 168; Db 154-158, 168; d 159-166, 168; 
Camirus, Clara Rhodes, iv, fig. 346 ; 
lalysus, Clara Rhodos, in, figs. 49, 70 and plates vi, vit; 
Rhodes (Florence Mus.), bands only; Rhodes (Siana), Berlin 3060, Arch. Anz. 1886, 

p. 144 (3, d; on handle three vertical lines, the middle one wavy); 
Arkades, Crete, Ann. Scuol. Atene, x-xn, figs. 131, 175 (bands only); 
Elaeus (Louvre), (3, d); 

Greece (Ghalcis?, Coll. Desypris), (4), (4, Db) ; 
Eleusis Museum (5, d), another example bigger (2) ; 
Gela, Bitalemi (Syracuse Mus.), (3, Dm, d)-, Palermo Mus. (4, d); 
Megara Hyblaea (Syracuse Mus.): sepp. 240 (Man. Ant. i, p. 891) (i, Db), 336 (4), 

369 .(4), 502 (4, d), 648 (2), 974 (2, Db); 
Selinus, Malophoros (Palermo Mus.), eight examples: viz. no. i (4), side of lip angular s 

pattern; nbs. 2 and 3 (3) d, handle zigzag; no. 4 (2); nos. 5 and 6 (2) Db; no. 7 

bands; no. 8 bands, db; 
Syracuse (Syracuse Mus.), no. 2182 (4, d); 
Sicily (Agrigentum ?), Coll. Giudice, (5, d } Db); 
Palermo Museum, three examples, one (4, d), back of handle vertical bands; two, 

bands only; 

Reggio Museum (provenance unknown but probably neighbouring site), bands only; 
Cumae (Naples Mus.), Man. Ant. xxir, p. 284 and pi. 55. 3, seven examples, including 

(2-2, d, no daisy on shoulder), (2), bands only; 
Emporiae: Anuario d'Estud. Catalans, 1908, p. 210, n. 21, bands (probably of Italian fabric, 

but cp. e.g. Delos Heraeum, Dugas, pi. 22. 155). 

Flat-bottomed aryballoi: Payne, 644, quoting Thera (Dragendorff, n, 34, fig. 103), Thebes 
(Hague, C.V.A. HI, c, pi. 5. 16), Cumae (Naples): 

Cumae, Mon. Ant. xxii, pi. 55. 7 (bands, Db, Italian) ; 

Grammichele (Syracuse Mus.), (3, dm, side of lip angular s pattern, bottom flat but 

without ring moulding) ; 
Megara Hyblaea (Syracuse Mus.): sep. 499 (2-2, Dm); sep. 613 (bands of equal 

thickness) ; 

Selinus, Malophoros (Palermo Mus.), bands, worn; Mon. Ant. xxxn, pi. 87. 8 (5); 
Syracuse (Syracuse Mus.), sep. 516, Notiz. 1895, p. 188 (2-2, Dm, d, Db); 
Chiusi Museum, no. 690 (bands only: perhaps Italian). 

Amphoriskoi : 

Aegina, Hague C.V.A. in. c, pi. 2. i; 
Copais district, Reading University, 26. xii. 6; 
Camirus, Clara Rhodos, TV, figs. 342, 346; 
lalysus, Clara Rhodes, in, pi. vi. 

The Sicilian evidence confirms the Boeotian. Bombylioi with one deep zone of dots 
seem never to be associated with objects later than our first Corinthian period. They are 
several times found with a context of early Corinthian and Protocorinthian. The context 
of the other varieties of band and dot vases ranges from Protocorinthian to middle 

It is worth noticing also that the Emporiae ball aryballos, though presumably an 
Italian imitation of our class, is decorated in a way that at Rhitsona in conservative 
Boeotia was obsolete before the first appearance of Attic Black Figure, and seems to have 
had much the same floruit in the less backward and less remote Sicily. 



Bombylioi: hgt. normally oGs-'oym.; figures normally dogs : Payne, 367-375 (examples 

from Athens (Acropolis), Orchomenos, Gela, Syracuse, Rhodes, Olbia) : add 
Delos Heraeum, Dugas, pi. 29. 386, 387: both Db, some purple bands; 387, two zones of 

dots (2-2); 

Camirus: Bibl. Nat. C.V.A., in. c, pi. 8. 10, hgt. -08 m.; Clara Rhodes, iv, fig. 399; 
Megara Hyblaea, sepp. 382 (two zones of dogs, one of dots two deep), 608 (Dm, zone of 

dots two deep), 793 (boars, two zones of dots (4-3)) : these three vases all with datable 


Syracuse (Syracuse Mus.), no. 2235; no. 2230, hgt. -05 m., two zones of dots (2-2), birds; 
Sicily (?), Palermo Mus.; 
Labocetta, Reggio Mus., Db. 

Ball aryballoi: Payne 631, 632 (?), Delos. 

Athens, Nat. Mus. magazine, no. 306 (elongated animals, framing dots) ; 
Orchomenos: B.C.H. 1895, p. 196, fig. 18, four grazing deer; 
Reading University^ 26. vii. 6, bought in Athens (three grazing deer) ; 
Megara Hyblaea, sep. 744 (dancers in snowstorm, Db); 
Syracuse (Syracuse Mus.), no. 2284 (dancers in snowstorm, Db) ; 
Selinus, Malophoros (Palermo Mus.), elongated animals (d) ; 
Smyrna, Berlin, Furt. 1066 (main zone horsemen and foot soldiers (?), lower zone 

elongated animals and three men fighting) ; 
Berlin University, D 703 (elongated animals). 

Other shapes: Payne, 965-9 (kotylai), 1033-9 (plates), 1292-3 (flat-bottomed aryballoi), 
1296-7 (pyxides), 1074 (amphoriskos). 

These lists show that bombylioi are fairly common, but the examples are nearly all small 
and the figures nearly always dogs, with boars or birds by way of occasional variety. The 
Protocorinthian parentage of these small bombylioi is patent, but where found with a 
context the other vases include Corinthian, sometimes late Corinthian. Cp. Payne, p. 283. 
These small bombylioi, like the corresponding figureless band and dot vases, may be 
assigned to our first two Corinthian periods. Rhitsona 86. i, with its greater size, 
flattened bottom, and dot-framed grazing goats, represents a typical development of 
our third period. 

The ball aryballos material is more meagre. Omit the figures from the snowstorm 
dancer vases and we have a band and dot type that might be of any Corinthian period; 
but the warriors of our class rv. vi vases ("warrior aryballoi") do not venture out into the 
snow till our second period, and whether it was they or these naked dancers who set the 
fashion it is probable that the fashion once set was quickly followed. The elongated 
animals of the Athens aryballos class it with the vases of other shapes that we have next 
to consider and date it in our third Corinthian period. This accords quite well with our 
Corinthian b date for the two Rhitsona aryballoi. The animals on them are well set up 
as compared with the half-reptile quadrupeds of the Athens vase. 

The vases of other shapes form a more or less homogeneous group that has already had 
attention drawn to it by Gabrici, Man. Ant. xxn, p. 467. Grazing cervides are of 
constant occurrence. Frequently they are grazing in a snowstorm (cp. the dancers 
on the ball aryballoi); in other cases they are framed with dots as on the Rhitsona 
bombylios. The late date of these vases is recognised by Gabrici, who refers to finds of 
them in sixth-century graves. Various details confirm the view that they all belong to our 
latest Corinthian period : the Gela pyxis shows the crescent-wheel pattern of our ball 
aryballoi class iv. iv. c, group i and also clumsy winged horses not unlike those of one 
series of vases in that group (86. 30-34) ; framing dots are characteristic at Rhitsona of 
Corinthian c and the beginning of the succeeding early Attic period. They occur on our 
bombylios (86. i, pi, v), which there is no reason to date much earlier than the time 
when it was buried. 



IV. iv. a: Early Corinthian (pp. 29-30). These are listed at some length by Payne: see 

Bombylioi : 

lions facing: 208-244; panthers: 245-257; add Louvre L 9, G.V.A. m. c. a, pi. 2; 
cocks: 267-290; add Louvre L 11 and 12, C.V.A, in. c. a, pi. 2; Camirus, Clara Rhodos, 

iv, figs. 13, 48, 404, 407, 418; Reading University, 27. iv. 10, bought in Athens; 
swans, etc.: 291-307; add Clara Rhodes, iv, fig. 313; 
sirens: 327-341; add Clara Rhodos, iv, fig. 346; 
Artemis with swans: 355-357; add Louvre L 16, C.V.A. in. c. a, pi. 2. 

Aryballoi : 

lions and panthers: Payne, 564-566, 569-573 (567, 568 are Rhitsona 14. 14, 97. 1 1) ; add 
Clara Rhodos, iv, fig. 350; 

lion or panther protome: Payne, 573 A-575; add Hoppin Coll. C.V.A. pi. 1.2 (bought in 
Athens) ; 

cocks: Payne 586-591 ; add Vroulia, Kinch, pi. 40. 12, 6; Gela, sep. 173 (Man. Ant. xvn, 
p. 109); Tarquinia, R.C. 4003; 

owl: Payne, 584; 

swans (?) : the commonest type is a single bird with both wings outspread : Payne, 585, 
quoting examples at Munich, Delos, Carthage, Corinth, Corneto (presumably 
R.C. 2001 and 2900), Carlsruhe, Palermo (presumably 292 from Gela and two 
from Selinus, Malophoros sanctuary), Eleusis, Berlin (1083, from Greece; add 1084, 
from Corinth), Paris, Cab. Med. (from Camirus). Add also Syracuse, from Gela, 
two examples; Reading University, 29. iv. 3, provenance not known. 

Of Payne's Delos list (Dugas, pi. 23. 222-241) no. 223 does not belong here but to 
our third Corinthian period; 221 (to be added to Payne's list), 230, and probably a 
few others, have not both wings spread; 221, 222, 230, and perhaps a few others, 
lack petals on the shoulder; 241 and also 242, 243 show a bird in the same posture 
as those just listed but with an entirely different head. 

sirens: Payne, 579-583; add Delos, Dugas, pi. 24. 255, 257. 

IV. iv. b: Middle Corinthian. See above, pp. 31-32, where parallels are quoted to 
the very few examples from Rhitsona. 

IV. iv. c: Late Corinthian (pp. 32-36): 

Bombylioi: Payne, 1206-1216, 1218-1221, 1223-1224 A. Particularly close to the 
Rhitsona vases both in style and in nearly all the subordinate details are nos. 1207, 
1216 (CCsoo), 1226 (Nicole, 868), 1227. Add 

Bonn 298 (swan and lizard, from Attica), 845 (chimaera, from Athens); 
Cologne, Wallraff Mus. 65 (winged bearded figure running; fairly careful work); 
Hague, C.V.A. in. c, pi. 4.5 (winged demon; daisy pattern between bands on lip, double 

row of dots between bands on shoulder; from Boeotia) ; 
Boeotia, private collection (hgt. -21 m., sphinx with spread wings; daisy pattern between 

bands on lip) ; 

Farnham, Pitt Rivers Mus. (double lotus between panthers) ; 
Louvre L 23 (Olympia district?), C.V.A. m. c. a, pi. 3 (griffin-bird). 

Ball aryballoi: 

Group i (p. 33) : Payne, 538-552, 561-563, ibid. p. 339, Mon. Ant. xxxii, pi. 88. 6, 7; add 
Kleonai, Berlin, Furt. 1076 (double lotus between owls); 
Greece, Berlin, Furt. 1075 (horsemen; handle plain); 
Delos, Dugas, pi. 23. 244 (cock; handle seven vertical bands); 


Megara Hyblaea, Syracuse Mus. 7872, scavi 1879 (winged running figure; side of lip 

band); * 

Kyme, Bonn 1615 (fragments including lion (?) and bull (?)); 
Tarquinii, Tarquinia Mus. (ox-head); Berlin, Furt. 1077 (ox-head); 
Unknown sites: Bonn, Inv. 27 (ox-head); Cologne, WallraffMus. (chimaera); 
Also Agrigentum, Coll. Giudice, B 58, B 243. 

Group 2 (p. 34): Payne, 1236, 1237, Delos, Dugas, pi. 24. 269, 270, goat to 1.; so 
Boeotia, private collection, two examples goat, one siren; 
Reading University, 27. iv. 9, bought in Athens (goat); 
Selinus, Malophoros sanctuary (goat) ; 
Palermo Museum (Sicily?) (goat) ; 
Naples Museum (goat) ; 
Tarquinii, Tarquinia Mus. (siren). 

Group 3 (p. 34): Payne 1235, 1238, 1234, Delos, Dugas, pi. 24. 268, 272, 256, goat 
to r., winged horse, siren; 

Egypt: Louvre, C.V.A. m, c. a, pi. 28. 6 (lion). 

Reading University, 26. viii. 2, provenance not known (goat to r., framing dots). 

Group 4 (where "b" is appended it indicates that there are bands only on the lip): 

Calauria: Ath. Mitt. 1895, p. 321, fig. 37 (mouth missing: Payne, 1243 B); 

Delos, Dugas, pis. 23. 223 (b), 24. 259; 

Megara Hyblaea, sep. 210, Man. Ant. i, p. 879; 

Selinus, Malophoros sanctuary; Man. Ant. xxxn, pi. 88. 2; another example shows bird 

with outspread wings, at back a cross in a circle (b) ; 
Tarquinii, Tarquinia Mus. 

Brussels: C.V.A. m. c. pi. i. 22 (b; side of lip dots); 
Naples Museum, no. 3265 (62) ; 


Rhodes, Florence Mus. 81742 (daisy on lip bigger than usual); 
Copenhagen (acquired Rome): C.V.A. pi. 87. 5 (Payne 1241). 

Flat-bottomed aryballoi (pp. 35-36) : 

Payne, 821-860 A (middle Corinthian) and 1264-1291 (late Corinthian), excluding the 
Rhitsona examples there listed and certain examples with purely human or floral figures. 

Delos, Dugas, pi. 26. 347; 

Vroulia, Kinch, pi. 28. 10; 

Rhodes, Florence, no. 79246; 

Boeotia: Bonn, Inv. 384 (panthers and comasts; amorphous and big centred rosettes); 

Greece: Bonn, Inv. 813 (winged running man and panther, draped spearman, goose: 

cp. 50. 258 c); ibid. Inv. 812 (goose between griffin birds, dots in field); 
Yale, Baur, no. 88; 

Caltagirone (Monte S. Mauro), Man. Ant. xx, p. 817, fig. 71; 
Selinus, Malophoros sanctuary, Palermo Mus., five examples; 
Syracuse, Syracuse Mus. no. 12183 and another, from Predio Novantieri; 
Megara Hyblaea, Syracuse Mus., scavi 1879; sepp. 21, 136 (Mon. Ant. i, pp. 807, 

856), 436, 885. 
Unknown site: Copenhagen, C.V.A. pi. 87. 3. 

The favourite motive on this flat-bottomed group is the siren with outspread wings of 
the later (not sickle-shaped) type; occasionally the siren is bearded. Swans or geese, lions 
or panthers, and sphinxes are also not uncommon, as is likewise a floral ornament between 
the animals or birds. One example, Hague, C.V.A. in. c, pi. 6. 3, has goat and rosettes 


almost exactly as on ball aryballoi of our class iv. iv. c, group 2 (see e.g. 86. 35, pi. vn). 
Human beings occasionally intrude, but are rarely dominant and seldom, if ever, appear 
alone : see further under class iv. v. 

Aryballoi of this flat-bottomed form are rarely found without bands on the shoulder at 
the top of the main zone, and those where there are no such bands (e.g. Delos, Dugas, 
pi. 26. 349, Athens CG, pi. 22. 487, Munich, Sieveking-Hackl, pi. 9. 323, cp. also 
Rhitsona 96. 7 above) generally betray a fairly late date in other ways. They are an 
argument for taking back the beginning of the series into the middle Corinthian period 
(as Payne, p. 304, does on more general grounds) , but the fact that they are so occasional 
points to a date of origin for the whole series when the middle Corinthian style was already 
well established. Contrast the ball aryballoi with crescent-wheel pattern on the bottom, 
where we have one whole series (our class iv. iv. c, group i ) with the shoulder so treated 
and evidence for a pedigree that goes distinctly farther back. 


IV. v. a. For the ball aryballoi with helmeted head (Rhitsona 14. 20, 21) cp. Berlin 
3694 (same sloping shoulder; on handle horizontal lines). 

IV. v. a and b: 

Ball aryballoi with runners and dancers : the two are not always easily distinguished, but 
figures associated with horsemen are presumably runners, the very common padded 
figures are of course dancers (see Payne, p. 1 18 f.) : 

runners: Selinus, Malophoros sanctuary (Palermo Mus.), three examples, two of them 

Mon. Ant. xxxn: pi. 87. 5, with horsemen (Payne, p. 339, early Corinthian), pi. 88. i 

(Payne, ibid, late middle or late Corinthian) ; 
Syracuse, no. 12169, predio Novantieri. 
dancers: Payne, 528-530, 533-537, 620; cp. but with crescent-wheel pattern bottom 515: 

the above all early and generally large; for later examples see Payne, 1251-1254. 


Delos, Dugas,. pi. 24. 301, 302; 

Chalcis (?), Coll. Desypris (Athens), two examples, one with thin daisy pattern be- 
tween bands on lip and bottom; 
Boeotia, private collection, two examples; 
Reading University, 26. xii. 4, Copais district; 
Agrigentum (?), Coll. Giudice; 
Megara Hyblaea, sepp. 442, 640, 648, 980; 
Naples Museum; 

Tarquinii, Tarquinia Mus. R.C. 2843 and two others, and (larger) R.C. 3500; 
Tubingen, Watzinger, no. 0.31; 
Bonn, nos. 28 (dancers and goose), 2057; 
Camirus, Clara Rhodos, iv, figs. 346 and 350. 
Brussels C.V.A. in. c, pi. 1.27 (= Payne 1250). 

For a dancer aryballos with no bands on the body of the vase see Delos Heraeum, 
Dugas, pi. 25. 326 (Payne, 625) ; as with the warrior series (iv. vi below) such examples in 
the earlier manner are extremely rare. 1 

IV. v. b and c : Flat-bottomed aryballoi : human figures occur occasionally among the 
animals of our class iv. iv vases (q.v.): We may note too the vases with helmeted head" 
between panthers, Munich, Sieveking-Hackl, pi. 9. 320 (Payne, 1274); Athens GG 491 

1 Cp. the corresponding rarities in the flat-bottomed series of animal aryballoi. Note 
also a bombylios at Palermo (hgt. about -08 m.), where our runner appears without bands 
above or below him but a date at the very end of our early Corinthian series is indicated 
by the centred rosettes. 


(Payne, 1275); Palermo Mus, (from Selinus, Malophoros sanctuary). For Rhitsona 
50. 258 c cp. in particular Athens GG, pi. xxn, 490 (Payne, 859) and Bonn Inv. 813 
(purchased in Athens). 

IV. vi (pp. 38-41): WARRIOR ARYBALLOI 

Payne, 1245-1249, gives only a few unassorted examples (including the Delos series) 
with the remark that similar vases have been found in a great many sites and are so 
numerous that there is no need to multiply examples. The fact that these vases are so 
numerous and so widely distributed is precisely my reason for listing and grouping them. 
On earlier types of warrior aryballoi (early or early-middle Corinthian) see Payne's 
"warrior" group, nos. 495-503 (hoplites fighting), 517-522 A, 522 c, 524-526 (hoplites 
marching, often accompanied, as on the fighting group, by horsemen), of which no 
examples have been found at Rhitsona. In the late-middle and late Corinthian periods the 
warriors seldom do anything but march: for a late-middle or early-late case of these 
warriors fighting see Berlin, Furt. 1074. 

IV. vi. a (p. 38) : 

Gela, Santuario Bitalemi (daisy, not dots, round the bottom, four warriors; otherwise like 

the one Rhitsona example, 91. 19); 
Berlin 3072 (one warrior faces seated figure : shape and subordinate details like Rhitsona 

14. 20); 
Gp. also Delos, Dugas, pi. 25. 306 (warriors facing: one of the rosettes has incised centre). 

IV. vi. b (pp. 38, 39, 40) : 

With dot rosettes : side of lip generally band : 

Delos, Dugas, pi. 24. 297, 298; 

Thebes: Bonn 800 (lip, shoulder, bottom daisy pattern; above and below warriors thick 

and thin bands; hgt. 1 7m.); 
Greece : Copenhagen, C. V,A. pi. 87. 1 1 ; 
Syracuse, sep. 516, Notiz. 1895, p. 188; 
Gela (Palermo Mus.) ; 

Selinus, Malophoros (Palermo Mus.) : three examples (one with dots on side of lip) ; 
Cumae (Naples Mus.) ; 
Cp. also the bombylios, Delos, Dugas, pi. 31. 458. 

Groups of four dots, groups of three dots or single dots infield: 

Selinus, Malophoros (Palermo Mus.) : dots in groups of four, dotted circle under handle; 
Megara Hyblaea (Syracuse Mus.), sep. 397: dots in groups of three; 
Megara Hyblaea (Syracuse Mus.): single dots; 
Selinus, Malophoros (Palermo Mus.) : single dots, few and large; 
Cp. also the flat-bottomed aryballoi, Dugas, pis. 25. 355, 28. 353 (Payne, 820). 

Silhouette rosettes, generally amorphous and sometimes incised: 

Camirus, Clara Rhodos, rv, figs. 346 and 350 (perhaps with crescent-wheel pattern on 

bottom as on next group) ; 
Delos, Dugas, pi. 24. 281, 300, 285; 
Thebes, Louvre L 36, C.V.A. in. c. a, pi. 6. i, 2; 
Syracuse, Via Minerva (?) (Syracuse Mus. 33884); 
Selinus, Malophoros (Palermo Mus.), two examples; 
Naples Museum (Coll. Santangelo) ; 
Etruria (Florence Mus.)> two examples. 

So, but with crescent-wheel pattern round the bottom and other details as on our class TV. iv. c, 
group i (p. 33): 

Agrigentum, Coll. Giudice : bird as blazon on shield, field rosettes incised amorphous, lip 

Megara Hyblaea (Syracuse Mus.), sep. 346: field rosettes with double incised centre. 


Snowstorm. The flakes are probably derived from the dots of the dot and band vases 
(iv. ii) which certainly go back farther. For an early warrior vase where the troops 
march through not snowflakes but a shower of flowers see Tarquinii (Tarquinia Mus.), 
Payne, 532 (early middle Corinthian) : 

Delos, Dugas, pi. 24. 274 (storm very local), 275: cp. also ibid. pis. 28. 354 (Payne, 1280: 

flat-bottomed), 31. 457 (bombylios); 
Kalauria, Ath. Mitt. 1895, p. 322, no. i; 
Kleonai, Berlin, Furt. 1068 (horizontal lines on handle, bands on top of lip, dots on 

side) ; 

Orchomenos, B.C.H. 1895, p. 201, nos. 607-611; 
Reading University, 26. vii. 4 and 5, bought in Athens (horizontal bands on handle, 

bands on top of lip, dots on side, three warriors, central warrior of no. 4 with flying 

bird on shield); 

lalysus, Clara Rhodes, in, fig. 105; 
Elaeus, Louvre, room G (large : top of lip two narrow zones of leaf between bands ; side 

of lip two rows of dots; handle numerous horizontal lines between double vertical; 

bands above and below warrior zone numerous and varied) ; 
Megara Hyblaea (Syracuse Mus.), three examples: grave 26 (with daisy between bands 

on top of lip); grave 219, grave 339: see Man. Ant. i, pp. 818, 884-5; 
Selinus, Malophoros (Palermo Mus.), six examples: one with vertical lines on handle, 

one with band on side of lip, one with some small incised rosettes among the snow- 
flakes ; 

Cumae (Naples Mus.) ; 
Tarquinii (Tarquinia Mus.), six examples: on one (5467) the snowflakes are interspersed 

with rosettes, the bottom shows a big daisy pattern; on several (including 5467) 

top of lip has petals between bands (cf. Rhitsona 4. 4) ; 
Vulci (Berlin, Furt. 1072) : vertical zigzag on handle; bands on top of lip, dots on side. 

Unknown sites: 

Munich, Sieveking-Hackl. pi. 9. 308 (Payne, 1249); 
Naples Museum; 
Yale Cat. Baur, no. 87. 

JVb field ornament. These vases often approach and sometimes surpass the class w. vi. c 
examples in carelessness, but show dots on side of lip or else some other detail here specified 
that distinguishes them from those listed under class rv. vi. c. 

Delos, Dugas, pi. 24. 286 and 289 (cross under handle), 282 (circle under handle), 287 

and 295 (cross and circle under handle), 288, 290, 294, 296; 
Athens, Acropolis (?), Copenhagen, C.V.A. pi. 87. 12; 
Boeotia, Louvre, C.V.A. in. c. a, pi. 6. 3, 4; 
Camirus, Bib. Nat. C.V.A. in. c, pi. 13. 22 (Payne, 1247); 
Rhodes, Florence Mus. 81744; 
Gela, Santuario Bitalemi (Syracuse Mus.), five examples, one figured, Man. Ant. xvii, 

fig. 447 : so three others, except that one of the three has a circle above a cross under 

the handle; the fifth has bands on side of lip, circle with cross in centre and two 

crosses on either side under handle; 
Megara Hyblaea (Syracuse Mus.), five examples : one (from grave 825) like the fifth from 

Gela but with the circle under handle not flanked by crosses; of the other four two are 

from grave 708, one from scavi 1879; 
Selinus, Malophoros (Palermo Mus.), nine examples: one with daisy between bands on 

top of lip; one with band on side of lip, dots for daisy on shoulder, and cross and 

crescent under handle; one with vertical lines on handle; 
Tarquinii (Tarquinia Mus.), R.C. 1347. 

Unknown sites : 

Bonn S 29 (side of lip dots, handle vertical bands) ; 

Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, cross in circle flanked by crosses under handle; 
Naples Museum, two examples. 


IV. vi. a, b or c: 

Camirus, Clara Rhodos, iv, fig. 275 and p. 246, fig. 374; 

Tanagra (Schimatari Mus.) : I counted 273 examples in 1909 and noted a few as having 
daisy pattern on lip. 

IV. vi. b or c: 

Orchomenos, B.C.H. 1895, pp. 201-2, nos. 612-626 (details not always given in de Rid- 
der's short verbal descriptions but all have bands above and below the warriors, see 
ibid. p. 191; nos. 607-611 belong to the snowstorm group and have been listed 
accordingly) ; 

Camirus, Clara Rhodos, TV, figs. 346, 396 ; 

lalysus, Clara Rhodos, in, pi. vir. 

IV. vi. c (pp. 39, 40, 41 : last phase of the series with no field ornament) : 

Delos, Dugas, pi. 24. 283, 277, 299, 284, 279, 280, 293, 291, 292; 
Megara Hyblaea (Syracuse Mus.), scavi 1879, one example; 
Selinus, Malophdrbs (Palermo Mus.), five examples; 
Tarquinii, R.C. 2256. 

Unknown sites : 

Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, one example; 
Hague, C.V.A, in. c. pi. 5. 9; 
Palermo Museum, one example. 

IV. vii. (pp. 41-43): LOTUSES AND PALMETTES 

This material is well dealt with by Payne in Chapter x (Floral Ornaments). Except, 
however, for the quatrefoil and related ornaments (ibid. fig. 54), which I deal with in a 
separate section below (class iv.viii), these ornaments are not treated by him at all fully 
in special relation to the aryballos. The list that follows, which was drawn up by me before 
the publication of Necrocorinthia, deals exclusively with aryballoi and bombylioi. Where 
possible I have referred to Payne's numbers. 

For 97. 6 (pi. v) lotus over inverted lotus, forming the centre of a heraldic group, cp. the 
early bombylioi, Payne, 273-6, 298; add Louvre L 9, C.V.A. in. c. a, pi. 2. i and the 
ball aryballos, Bonn 1662. 

The pattern survives, sometimes in a somewhat more spreading form, at least well into 
our second period: see e.g. Payne, 292, 403 (the Dugas reference should be pi. 30 not 31), 
546, 550, and the aryballos Palermo Mus. 706 (Selinus), all of which have features foreign 
to the earliest Corinthian. 

For 95. 50 (pi. ix), palmette with sweeping tendrils over inverted lotus, cp. Payne, 637 
(Copenhagen, C.V.A. Denmark, pi. 87. 13); add 

Megara Hyblaea, scavi 1879 (Syracuse Mus. no. 2181); 
Selinus, Malophoros (Palermo Mus.). 

The above vases, like 95. 50 itself, have all the subordinate details of an early Corinthian 
animal aryballos (see under class iv. iv. a above) ; the Copenhagen vase has rosettes with 
arbitrary double incisions as on the early Corinthian floral 91. 25 (see immediately 

The pattern persists into our latest period where it appears on 

Delos Heraeum, Dugas, pi. 27. 343 (Payne, 1279: flat-bottomed aryballos, early phase of 

late Corinthian). 
Cp. the more elongated version on the still later bombylios Rhitsona 50. 259 (pi. ix: 

between swans as on Delos, 343). 

Sometimes the pattern suffers abridgement : e.g. the tendrils may entirely disappear : so 

Megara Hyblaea, scavi 1879, Syracuse Mus. 2250 (large ball aryballos, hgt. -10 m., 
late phase of early Corinthian ( ?) , on either side a cock, at back a big rosette) ; 



Megara Hyblaea, sep. 436 (flat-bottomed aryballos : on either side a sphinx, at back a 
swan; context of middle to late Corinthian bombylioi); 

or the palmette may shrink to a mere knob while the tendrils double and develop as 
on 91. 25: so 

Syracuse, sep. 241, ball aryballos no. 13653 (middle Corinthian with bands round the 
shoulder and bottom). 

For 91. 25 (pi. ix), palmette over inverted palmette, cp. 
Louvre 361 (Payne, 634 ; Italy: Pettier, Vases Antiques, pi. 40, same.rpsettes with double 

incisions as on 91. 25); 
Athens, Nat. Mus. magazine, no. 335 (groups of dots in field) ; 

lalysus, Clara Rhodes, m, pi. vn, gr. xxxm. 7 and fig. 49 ; ... 

Bonn 1664, 

A later variant shows a rosette with double incised centre between the extremities of 
the tendrils on either side : so 

Gela (Syracuse Mus. no. 20061); 
Megara Hyblaea, scavi 1879; 
Cumae (Naples Mus.). 

These last lead up to the late middle Corinthian type 4. 33, where lateral, palmettes 
take the place of the central rosettes, and we get a quadruple or cruciform pattern 
confined in a zone. 

Another variety of about the same date is 

Selinus, Malophoros: tendrils abbreviated so that they do not cross; a panther on either 
side; figures confined in a zone; rosettes include the fan-shaped type. 

For 91. 23, 24 (pi. ix), two palmettes grouped horizontally, cp. 

Delos Heraeum, Dugas, pis. 22 and 64. 181 (Payne, 633); 

Eleusis Museum, 81 1 ; 

Syracuse, sep. 202 (Syracuse Mus. no. 13599), Notiz- 1895, p. 131; 

Gela, Bitalemi, Man. Ant. xvn, p. 632 (two examples, one with a double centred rosette, 

bands on top of lip, vertical bands on handle). 
Brussels, C.V.A. ni. c, pi. i. 32 (Payne 633: back, swan; lip, shoulder and bottom, daisy 

and bands) ; 

Munich : Sieveking-Hackl, pi. 9. 296 (Payne, 633) ; 
Naples Museum, nos. 83 and 589. 

On the Naple vases the bottom tendrils, crossed as on the Rhitsona examples, contain 
a third small palmette; on all the others the bottom tendrils form a simple oval as on our 
triple palmette examples 91. 20-22 (see just below). 

Except for the Brussels vase, which belongs to our second period, and the resetted Gela 
example, which cannot be much earlier than the beginning of our third, all these vases 
are to be ascribed to our first period. A variant, Naples Mus. no. 61, in which the tendrils 
are more extended up and down while the palmettes spread less and a swan faces the 
pattern on either side, I should be inclined to put into our middle period. 

For 91. 20 (pi. ix)-22, triple palmette, cp. 
Delos Heraeum, Dugas, pi. 22. 183 (Payne 633); 
Naples Mus., unknown site. 

Quadruple palmette: 

The earliest example from Rhitsona is 4. 33, which, as we have just seen, is a develop- 
ment of the double palmette type 91. 25. An earlier example (still early Corinthian) of 
the same development is 

Selinus, Malophoros, Man. Ant. xxxn, pi. 88. 3 (Payne, p. 339). 

From other sites, however, we have ball aryballoi on which a quadruple palmette 
motive is treated on precisely parallel lines to the double and triple patterns of our 


Corinth : Munich, Sieveking-Hackl, pi. 9. 297 (Payne, 633 : at back a water bird) ; 
Vroulia, Kinch, pi. 34. i, 4 (at back a large rosette, type not stated, but cp. next example) ; 
Gela, Bitalemi, Mon. Ant. xvn. p. 632 (at back early Corinthian rosette; no rosettes in 

front) ; 
Tarquinii (Tarquinia Mus.) (at back rosette with incised centre). 

These early quadruple palmettes produce a predominantly circular effect. The motive 
is seen in a more cruciform variety on some vases that belong to the middle or late 
Corinthian period and show bands above or else below the main design : e.g. 

Megara Hyblaea: scavi 1879, Syracuse Mus. no. 216 (bombylios, hgt. -10 m., bands 

on lip and below main zone but none on shoulder) ; 

Coll. Desypris, Athens (flat-bottomed aryballos : bands on lip and shoulder) ; 
Satricum: Villa Giulia (ball aryballos; shoulder dots only, bottom bands). 


On the vases just described the four members of the pattern are palmettes of roughly the 
same size. In our latest group we find a different treatment of the quadruple motive. 
Perhaps as a result of its being confined in a frieze or zone either side member tends to be made 
equal in height to the two central. We find not only quadruple palmettes but also quadruple 
lotuses or arrangements of two lotuses and two palmettes. The favourite shape for this 
motive is now the flat-bottomed aryballos: see e.g. Payne, 1283-1288, and (Rhitsona 
49.240, 241, 50.254-7) 1289: add 

Reading University, 26. xn. 5 from. Copais district. 

Similar cruciform patterns occur on a number of late bombylioi, e.g. 

Munich, Sieveking-Hackl, pi. 9. 291 (hgt. -22 m.; Payne, 1220); 
Athens CC 507 (Boeotia, hgt. -22 m., just like Munich 291 ; Payne, 1221) ; 
Selinus, Malophoros (smaller, at centre of cross a daisy pattern in a ring with white dots) ; 
Gela : Mon. Ant. xvn, p. 97, fig. 59 (sep. 136 : an earlier vase without the bands on the body, 
and hgt. only -135 m.). 

As a rule the design is not, like those of the early Corinthian aryballoi, built on a group 
of circles or ovals. Often the pattern is plainly designed to form a cross, with a large single 
leaf filling each of the four angles formed by the four flowers. A connecting link between 
the earlier and later series may be found in such vases as 

Syracuse, S. Lucia, necrop. Predenomidica : ball aryballos of our middle period : lip, 
shoulder, and bottom daisy between bands; side of lip dots; handle zigzag; main 
zone a quadruple lotus-palmette based on four ovals but with the leaf ornament just 
referred to between the flowers; on each side a duck (?); rosettes early Corinthian 
and fan-shaped. 


Quatrefoil: there are no examples from Rhitsona of the fine vases of the types of Payne, 
484-485 A, figs. 54 B, c, D, where the four foils are subordinate to a cruciform lotus pattern 
with details cross-hatched and the side lotuses already disintegrating, the side of the lip 
also normally cross-hatched and the top showing a reserved rosette pattern (as on 99. 17, 
pi. x), and the handle often elaborate. As Payne seems right in deriving the simpler 
though less comprehensible Rhitsona forms from this finer and more complicated type, it 
becomes relevant here to quote further examples, if only as an aid to estimating the 
significance of the lack of any examples from our site. 

To Payne's list: 484 (Vatican 85) ; 485 (Louvre E 352, 358, 590) ; 485 A (Aegina 589; 
British Mus. A 1081; Athens CC 498; Carlsruhe W 66, 67; Florence 3750; one at 
Corinth; Oxford 506; Mon. Ant. xvn, 634, fig. 447): add 

Thebes (Berlin, Furt. 1042); 
Salonika Mus. (on handle, net pattern) ; 

Megara Hyblaea, Syracuse Mus. nos. 10309 (grave context included a normal quatrefoil 

. and a snowstorm warrior aryballos); 8216 (side of mouth Z pattern, grave context 

(gr. 240) included Protocorinthian scale lekythos, early Corinthian bird bombylios, 


etc. and also a black lekane) ; 1 1 728 (top of lip daisy petals between bands, back of 
handle cross-hatched; grave context (gr. 706) included small Protocorinthian 
bombylios and kotyle with running dogs: Payne p. 287, n. 2); 

Syracuse, Syracuse Mus. sep. 192 (top of lip bands; grave context included a white-dot 
style ball aryballos) Notiz. 1895, p. 130; 

Selinus, Malophoros sanctuary, Palermo Mus., three examples, one Man. Ant. xxxn, 
pi. 87. 10; 

Agrigentum (?), Coll. Giudice, B 19; ibid, a bombylios, hgt. about -12 m. (lip Z pattern, 
at back an early incised rosette) ; 

Gumae, Naples Mus., one example: 

Tarquinii, Tarquinia Mus. R.G. 3315 and another (like Payne, 484); two others like 

Payne, 485 A (top of lip ten-petalled rosette; side dots); 
Orvieto, Duomo Mus. no. 706 (side of lip double row of dots) ; 
Boulogne Mus. (top of lip bands, side Z pattern). 

Quatrefoils of the Rhitsona type (Payne, 1263, fig. 161): ("D" indicates daisy pattern, 
"R" reserved rosette pattern on top of lip, "d" dots, "Z" pattern so shaped, on side 
of lip, "C" comb pattern at bottom of floral complex) : 

Tanagra: Louvre L 29 C.V.A. m. c. a, pi. 5. i, 2; 

Tanagra: Schimatari Mus.: I counted four hundred and seventy-one examples in 1909, 

a few of them D; 

Exarcho (Abac), Chaeronea Mus., ten examples; 
Thebes: Louvre L 30, C.V.A. m. c. a, pi. 5. 3, 4; 
Eleusis Mus., small; 
Nauplia Mus., three examples; 

Salonika Mus., one normal, one with dots (very small petals) between bands on top of lip; 
Greece: Berlin, Furt. 1035 (Rd); 

Greece (acquired in Athens): Copenhagen, C.V.A. ra. c. pi. 87. 17 (d), 18 (d); 
Delos, Dugas, pis. 22, 23. 188-215 (201 D, 202, 206, 209 d, 214 Z; as at Rhitsona the size 

of the hatched motives varies greatly) ; 
Vroulia (Rhodes): Kinch, pi. 28. 13; 
Monolithos (Rhodes): Copenhagen, C.V.A. pi. 87. 20; 
Camirus: Berlin, Furt. 1038 (Z); Bib. Nat. C.V.A. m. c, pi. 13. 12; Clara Rhodes, iv, 

figs. 318, 346, 364; lalysus, Clara Rhodos, m, pi. vi (graves 48, 183, 242); 
Rhodes: Florence 81743 (dC); 

Arkades, Crete, Ann. Scuol. Atene, x-xn, figs. 153 (and pi. 18), 164. 
Syracuse: Syracuse Mus., three examples; 
Megara Hyblaea, Syracuse Mus., from graves 16 (Mon. Ant. i, p. 803), 86 (two, small), 

210, 219 (ibid. pp. 839, 884), 333 (big), 465, 578, 816, 908 (big), scavi 1879 (d), 

and others; 
Gela, Syracuse Mus., from Bitalemi site seven examples (one Rd, one Dd) Mon. Ant. 

xvn, p. 633, fig. 447; grave 462, one; Palermo Mus., one; 
Selinus, Malophoros sanctuary, twenty-eight examples (of which two R (but many 

petalled), one dC, several d, one with cross-hatching on side of lip) ; 
Palermo, Palermo Mus., two; 

Agrigentum (?): examples in the Museo Civico and in the Coll. Giudice; 
Medma?, Reggio Mus. (d); 
Cumae, Mon. Ant. xxii, pi. 55. 10, nine examples; 
Nola, Naples Mus. (large) ; 
Naples Mus., unknown sites, four examples; 
Tarquinii, Tarquinia Mus., one dC, two small; 
Chiusi Mus., Coll. Paolozzi, one; 

Quatrefoils: variants from the normal : 

Selinus, Malophoros, one example (Dd) with lozenges in double outline replacing the 
side hatchings and the foils similarly in outline with only a simple line inside, top 
motive of the floral complex a trident-shaped lotus, bottom ring of dots; 


Selinus, Malophoros, one example Dd, handle horizontal bars between two vertical, 

bottom (usually covered by the quatrefoil pattern) small daisy pattern as on early 

Corinthian animal aryballoi and bombylioi, top member of the floral complex a 

somewhat trident-like lotus ; 
Camirus, Bib. Nat. C.V.A. m. c, pi. 13. 15 (Dd, handle zigzag, bottom small daisy 

pattern; shows the foils springing from a clearly marked lotus cross, though in a 

different form from that of the Payne, 484-485 group; 
Siana, Berlin 3061, Arch. Anz. 1886, p. 144, a duplicate of Bib. Nat. pi. 13. 15; very similar 

is also Berlin University D 702 ; 
Camirus, Berlin, Furt. 1045 shows cross-hatching in the vertical members and a sort of 

three-pronged lotus bud motive at the sides. 

Besides the multitudinous ball aryballoi we may note as exceptional: 


Athens, Nat. Mus. magazine, no. 3525; 
Corinth Mus., several examples; 
Camirus, Clara Rhodos, iv, fig. 346; 

Selinus, Malophoros sanctuary, Palermo Mus., hgt. about TO m. 
Agrigentum (?), Coll. Giudice, mentioned above p. 102. 

Flat-bottomed aryballos: 
Palestrina district: Mon. Ant. xv, pi. 17. 21. 

Cinquefoils, sixfoils, etc. : foils arranged in a star pattern (" group A " cinquefoils of Rhit- 
sona list). In the list below 5, 6, etc. immediately after the bracket indicate the number 
of foils, the detail immediately after the bracketed number refers to the centre of the 
star; "R" indicates reserved rosette pattern on top of lip, "d" dots on side of it. 

Exarcho (Abac) : Chaeronea Mus., one example; 

Schimatari-Tangra Museum: I counted thirty-five examples in 1909. 

Nauplia Mus., four examples (5); 

Reading University, 25. vi. i (5, wheel pattern), bought in Greece; 

Thebes: Bonn, Inv. 80 1 (8, dot rosette, Rd); 

Delos, Dugas, pi. 22. 187 (6, dot rosette, lip missing); 

Greece: Copenhagen, C.V.A. pi. 87. 16 (6, dot rosette, Rd); 19 (6); 

Agrigentum?, Coll. Giudice (5, dot rosette) ; 

Gela, Syracuse Mus., sep. 462 (5). 

Unknown sites: 

Blois Mus. (6, concentric circles, Rd) ; 
Berlin 3147, Arch. Anz.. 1889, p. 93 and figure ibid. (8, crescent wheel, Dd, bottom small 

daisy pattern, handle zigzag, foils all with heavy black outline and heavy purple 

Berlin 3177 (6, diagonal lines (stalks?), Rd). 

Smaller vases (hgt. o>j--oG m.) : foils joined to centre by short stalks: 
Delos, Dugas, pis. 22 and 64. 184; 

Selinus, Malophoros sanctuary (Palermo Mus.), two examples; 
Gela (Palermo Mus.), one example; 
Palermo Mus., uncertain site, one example. 

"Group B" cinquefoils: Arch. Eph. 1912, p. 114, figs. 12 and 13. 2 and 3 (see above, 
p. 46, n. i); referred to below as A.E. 2 and A.E. 3: 

Schimatari-Tanagra Mus.: I counted forty-seven examples in 1909; 

Exarcho (Abac), Chaeronea Mus., one example (A.E. 2). 

Megara Hyblaea, sep. 707 (Syracuse Mus. 12113) (A.E. 2); 

Agrigentum (?), Museo Civico (A.E. 2); 

Pantelleria (between Sicily and Tunis), not quite normal, Mon. Ant. ix, p. 532, fig. 69. 


Acropolis maidens, 69 
alabaster, 17, 47 
alabastron, i, 16, 17, 49 

of glass, 76 

of limestone, 82, 85 
amphibians, 71-72 
amphorae, late Geometric, 53 
amphoriskos, 26, 28, 83, 86 

of glass, 76 

animals, silhouette, i, 28-29, 83, 86, 93 
animals with colours and incisions, I, 29- 
36, 38, 52, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 


ape, 86. See also monkey 
apple, 68, 72 
"Argive Monochrome", 17, 18-19, 87, 88, 


Artemis, 30, 37 
aryballos, 16, and passim 
astragaloi, 82 

baby (with pappas), 60 

Babylonia, 7 

baker, 69 

"band" vases, 20, 84, 85, 87 

"band and dot" vases, i, 20, 25-28, 83, 

84, 85, 86, 88, 89, 91-92, 93 
barber, 69 

barrel-shaped aryballoi, 16, 20, 21, 88 
beads, 2, 13, 76-77, 78, 87 
bear, 66, 86 
Beazley, J. D., 75 
bier, 5, 81 
bird, 30, 33-37, 42, 53 n. i 

(figurine) 67-68, 71-72. See also cock, 


as episemon, 39 
birds' heads, 21 
von Bissing, W., 85 n. i 
Black Figure, Attic, 47, 51, 52, 71, 72, 75, 

Boeotian, I, 28 n. i, 29, 48, 50-52, 53, 


black glaze, 47-50, 52, 83, 86 
Blinkenberg, Ghr., Fibules Grecgues et 

Orientales, 81 
boar, 34 

" Boeotian Kylix" style (= "Bird kylikes"), 

4, 17, 22, 43, 52, 53, 60, 66, 68 
bombylios, 16, and passim 
bone, worked, 82 
bones, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10-14 
boots, 40 

boot-shaped lekythos, 75 
bowl, 49, 86 
bracelet, 78 

(on figurine), 73, 74 

bronze, 9, 14, 15, 78-81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 87, 89 
Brygos painter, 75 
"bucchero", 9, 46-47, 84, 86 

Camirus, 2, 31, 47, 70, 71, 72, 76 

carnelian, 77 

cattle, 66, 67 

centaur, 67 

Ghalcis, 75 

cheese-making, 49 

child burials, 6 

chiton, 74, 75 

cinquefoil aryballoi, 22, 41, 45-46, 83, 84, 

86, 87, 103 
clamps, 78 
cock, 30, 31, 33, 41 
(figurine), 71, 72 
coffin, 5, 81, 82 

comasts, 50, 51, 52. See also dancers 
cook, 69 

cooking-pot, 10, 52, 85 
Corinth, 18 n, i, 52, 61 n. 4 
Corinthian ware, 22-46 and passim 
crescent- wheel ornament, 29 n. i, 31, 32, 

33, 35^93, 96, 97 
cross, as episemon, 39 

Maltese, 59, 61 

St Andrew's, 43 
Cumae, 70, 71 
cup, 48, 51, 84, 86, 87, 88. See also kotyle 

dairy utensil, 6, 49 

dancers, 33, 37, 87, 88, 93, 96 

deer, 29 

Delos, 31 

diadem (on figurine), 69, 71 

disc, bronze, 80, 84 

1 Whether vase pictures or figurines are referred to below is not indicated except where 
both come under one single heading. The geographically-grouped lists of parallels to Rhitsona 
vases given in the Appendix are not here indexed. 



dog, 21 

dove, 68, 71, 72 

duck, 29, 30, 33 

Dugas, C., Vases de VHtraion, 31 

eagle, 36 

earrings (on figurine), 59 

egg, 71, 72 

Emporiae, 5 

Euboeic-Cycladic pottery, 1 7, 53 

fibulae, 8, 19, 78, 79, 81, 83 
figurines, 53-75 and catalogue passim 
figurine vases, 75 - 
Fikellura ware, 33 

"football" aryballoi, 23. See also orange Locris, 7 

Kinch, K. F., Vroulia, 31, 47 
kore, 69 
kothon, 80, 8 1 
kotyle, 32, 48, 75, 83 
kylbc, 75 

larnax, terra-cotta, 7, 69 
lead, 78 
Leda, 73 
lekane, 48, 83 
lekythos, 16 and passim 

boot-shaped, 75 
limestone, 82, 85 
lion, 30, 33, 34, 35, 50, 51 
lion's scalp, 30, 37 

frog, 72 
fruit, 71-72. See also apple, etc. 

Gabrici, E., 34 

Gela, 31, 34 

genre groups, 68, 69 

Geometric vases, 17-18 and passim 

lotus and palmette patterns, 41-43, 83, 85, 

" 99-I0 1 
Lydian perfume vase, 49, 50 

masks (protomai), 70 

Maximova, M., Vase's plastiques, 75 

Melos, 70 

metal, 2, 77, 78-82. See also bronze, etc. 

Geometricising Black Figure, 28 n. i, 29, 84 monkey, 62, 63, 65, 66, 85, 86, 89 

glass, 2, 17, 76, 77 
goat, 29, 34, 93 
Goldman, Miss H., 49 
goose, 36 

Gorgoneion vases, 5 1 
griffon, 33 

Halae, 7, 49 
Hammurabi, 7 
hare, 71 

head, helmeted, 30, 37 
hoplites, 33. See also warriors 
horse (figurine), 10, 35, 54, 55, 61-66, 83, 
85, 86, 89 

winged, see winged horse 
horseman (figurine), 2, 10, 35, 55, 62-66, 
69, 83, 85, 87, 89 

on vase, 30, 33, 37 

lalysus, 2, 72, 76 

iron, 10, 79, 80, 81-82, 83, 86 

Italy, 2, 34, 47 

Jacopi, G., 2, 72 

Johansen, K. F., 2, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21 
jug, 17, 21, 47, 48, 87, 88, 89. See also 

Kabeirion, 77 

kalathos, 21, 6 1 

kantharos, 18, 48, 50, 51, 78, 83, 84 

museums : 

Athens, National Museum, 31, 72, 77 
Berlin, 31, 72 
Berlin University, 88 
Bologna, 72 
Bonn, 50 
Cambridge, 88 
Copenhagen, 31 
Corinth, 20, 49 
Eleusis, 47 
Hanover, 54 

London, British Museum, 47, 61 n. 4 
Munich, 54 

Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale, 31 
Paris, Louvre, 31 
Reading, 22 
Syracuse, 47 
Thebes, 3, 8, 12, 22, 49, 61 n. 4 

nail, bronze, 80 

iron, 10, 81-82, 86 
Naville, E., 85 n. i 
necklace, 78 

(on figurine), 55, 69, 70, 74, 75 
needle, 80 

oenochoe, 10, 17, 21, 85 

head-, 75 

ointment vase, 49, 86 
Olbia, 5, 72, 75 
olive press, 6, 8 



"orange-quarter" vases, i, 20, 21, 23-25, 

35> 46, 83, 84, 85, 88, 90-91 
owl, 30, 36 
oxen, 66 

Sardis, 50 

satyriskos, 70 

scale pattern, 20, 21, 88 

Schmidt, H., 85 n. i 

Selinus. Malophoros sanctuary, 69 

palmette pattern, 41-43, 84, 100, 101. See shaft graves, 5, 8, 9, 10, n, 14 
also lotus. 

panther, 30, 34 

panther protome, 30 

pappas, 2, 53 n. i, 54-60, 67, 68, 69, 74, 
83, 87, 89 

Payne, H. G. G., Necrocorinthia, 2, 16, 20, 

sheep, 66 
shells, 10 

shield, 40, 64, 65. See also warriors 
shield emblems, 39 

Sicily, 2, 31, 34, 47, 92. See also Gela, 
Selinus, Syracuse 

23, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 36 n. i, 38, 41, silenus, 67 

42, 46 n. 2, 51, 52, 80 and Appendix silhouette animals, see animals, silhouette 

Peisistratus, 52 
peplos, 74 

Perdrizet, P., Fouilles de Delphes, 16 n. i 
perfume vase, 49 
Periander, 52 
perirrhanterion, 71, 72 
Pfuhl, E., Malerei und eichnung, 18, 54 
Pheidon, 17 
phiale mesomphalos, 78 

Pig> 7*> 72 
pigeon, 36 

pin, 8 1, 82 

silver, 78 

siren, 30, 34, 35, 36, 50, 85 

sixfoil, 41, 45-46, 83, 86, 89, 103 

skeleton, see bones 

soapstone, 77 

Spain, 5 

spear, 40. See also warriors 

sphinx, 33, 36 

spindle, 72 

sprinkler, see perirrhanterion 

squatting creatures, 55, 66, 67, 70, 86 

stone slabs, 5, 6, 14, 8 1, 82 

strigil, 80-8 1, 82 

pithos, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 1 1, 12, 13, 49, 52, 86, subgeometric style, 28-29, 93 

polos, 54 n. 2, 57, 58, 59, 60, 73 

(figurine), 53 n. i, 61 
Pettier, E., Vases Antiques du Louvre, 16 
Protocorinthian ware, 19-22 and passim 

local imitations of, 21-22, 85 
protomai (masks), 70 
pyxis, 84, 93 

suspension holes, 88 
swan, 30, 34, 36, 73 
swastika, 36, 55 
Syracuse, 31 

Tanagra, 73 

Tataie, 16 

Teisias, 51 n. 4 

Thespian polyandrion, 73, 74, 76 

quatrefoil aryballoi, 10, 22, 35, 41, 43-45, tile graves, 7 
46, 49, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 101-103 tombstone, 6 

quince, 72 

ram, 66 

ram-aryballos, 75 

Red Figure, 75 

Reggio, 70 

reins, 62, 63 

revellers, see comasts 

Rhodes, 31, 47, 70, 71, 76. See also 

Camirus, lalysus, Vroulia 
rider, see horseman 
ring, 9, 13, 79, 82, 83, 84, 85, 87, 89 
rivet, 78 

Rumpf, A., 49, 50, 75 
runners, 37, 86, 88, 96 
Russia, South, 5. See also Olbia 

sarcophagus, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 

tortoise, 71, 72 
tripod stand, 80, 81 
tyrants, 52 

Vroulia, see Kinch 

Waldemar, 85 n. i 

warriors, i, 22, 26, 31, 32, 38-41, 52, 83, 

84, 85, 86, 87, 89, 93, 97-99 
white ground vases, 76 
white lead, 82 
white substance, 9, 84 
Wide, S., 53 
winged horse, 33, 35, 93 
winged human figure, 30, 37, 38 
winkles, 10 
Winter, F., Typen, 53 n. i, 54 n. i, 61 n. 2, 3, 

66, 67, 70, 71, 73 


For a full account of the grave area see B.S.A. xiv, pp. 228-232. 
The positions of graves 1-79 and of the wall tjSeo, (cp. Black Glaze 
Pott. pi. XVIII), excavated 1907-8, are here reproduced from 
B.S.A. xiv, p. 230, fig. i. The new graves, like the old, all lay 
in the angle between the main road from Thebes to Chalcis and 
the very third class road that branches off from it to Vathy 
(Aulis). Graves 80-100, excavated in 1909, all lay a little to the 
north of the Vathy road: 85, 88, 90-95, 99, 100 forming a cluster 
some 60 m. east from the fork of the two roads, the rest at various 
points further east from a little way south-west of grave 40 to a 
little north-east of grave 18. The 1921-2 graves lay mainly in 
two groups : one off the south side of the Ghalcis road some i oo 
to 1 1 o m. north-east from the fork, the other along the Vathy road 
continuing in a north-easterly direction the line of graves dug 
in 1907-9; the 1921-2 continuation lies south of the wall i/3ea. 
One result of our operations at this point was that the local traffic 
obligingly diverged a few yards to the south and there is now a 
short loop or by-pass somewhat as indicated by the dotted lines 
on the plan. 

f 99 95)92*93 

5 10 15 20 metres 

1 i i i i 

Fig. 9. Grave area excavated at Rhitsona, 1907-22. 




Grave 88 


pp. 5-10 

Grave 92, skeleton and vases; 
Grave 88, top slab in situ; 

Grave go, fragments of pithos 
(near basket) ; Grave 95 
(cluster of aryballoi) 

Grave 89 

Grave 97 

Grave 96, west pithos 

Grave 88 


pp. 5-10 

Grave 92, skeleton and vases; 
Grave 88, top slab in situ; 

Grave 90, fragments of pithos 
(near basket) ; Grave 95 
(cluster of aryballoi) 

W$ 'M^ v ? ^>"*-Wj! 

Grave 89 

Grave 97 

Grave 96, west pithos 

PP- 5~ J 5 

Grave 101 a, 

Grave 101 b, 
vases north 
of pithos 
(which was 
removed before 
the photograph 
was taken) 

Grave 86, 
east end 

Grave 145, 
east end 


PP- 5- T 5 

Grave 101 a, 

Grave 101 b, 
vases north 
of pithos 
(which was 
removed before 
the photograph 
was taken) 

Grave 86, 
east end 

Grave 145, 
east end 

134- 4 (-o6) 


pp. 17-21, 46-47. 8l 

134. 5 (-18) 

134. i (-06) 

125 c. i (-06) 

91. 27 (-05) 

- 2 (-075) 

9 1. 28 (-05) 


pp. 17-21, 46-47, 8 r 

134. 1 (-06) 

134. 4 (-06) 

134-5 (-18) 

125 c. i (-06) 

91. 28 (-05) 

92. 17 (-o6) 

97. i (-07) 

13. 12 (-05) 


pp. 20-28, 46-47, 84 

89. I (-09) 

99. 52 (-065) 

99- 50 (-055) 

89- 5 (-055) 

97. 10 (-065) 

86. 252 (-11) 

87. 2 (-06) 

86.261 (-115) 

99. 48 (-10) 

92. 14 (-055) 

92. i (-07) 

92. 17 (-o6) 


PI>- 20 -2?!, 46' 47, . 


13. i a (-o.-j) 

99- 52 (-065) 



97. 10 (-065) 

86. ar,a (-11) 

86. aGi (-115) 

99- 48 (!()) 


97- 3 (-095) 

92. 6 (-058) 


pp. 25-30, 41, 42 

145. 2 (-072) 






141. i (-08) 

97- 3 (-095) 

97- 7 


PP- 29-33, 37 

97. II (-07) 


141. 17 

141. 1 8 

91. 1 6 (-055) 






91. 1 8 (-055) 


PP- 2f)- 33. 37 

97. n ('07) 

89. 8 


141. 17 

f)I. ifi (-055) 

8G. 3 


91. I 8 (-Of,:-,) 

86. ag (-o6) 

86. 28 (-06) 

86. 30 (-06) 


PP- 33-36, 43 

86. 43 (-065) 

86. 35 (-065) 

86. 36 (-065) 

86. 4 i (-o6 5 ) 

86. 42 (-07) 

101 b. 19 (-07) 

86. 50 (-07) 

86. 65 (-07) 

86. 55 (-065) 

H5- 13 

86. 259 (-135) 

50. 258 (T25) 

86. 29 (-06) 

86. 28 (-06) 

86. 30 (-06) 


PP- 33-3 6 5 43 

86. 43 

86. 35 (-065) 

86. 36 (-065) 

86. 41 (-065) 

86. 42 (-07) 

101 b. ic) (-07) 

:56. 50 (-07) 

86. 65 (-07) 

86. 55 (-065) 

H5- 13 

M- '-'59 ( -1 35) 

91. 19 (-065) 

87. 15 (-065) 

pp. 38-40 

87. 24 (-055) 

95. 24 (-06) 

95. 25 (-06) 

95. 18 (-06) 

92. 9 (-08) 

95. 46 (-06) 

95- 43 (-06) 

92. 8 (-06) 

1 25 b. 3 (-055) 

86. 72 (-06) 

86. 73 (-06) 

JM.ATK vnr 
pp. 3 ,|.o 

gi. ig (-065) 

. 15 (-065) 

95- 24 (-06) 

95- 25 (-06) 

9-,. i'! (-of)) 

;;-.' e *f.o f-ar'tj;,. 

92. 9 (-08) 

95. 46 (-06) 

92. a (-06) 

'-'5 b - 3 (-055) 

pp. 41-44 

95. 50 (-06) 

95- 51 ('OSS) 

91. 25 (-065) 

86, 85 (-06) 

95- 53 (-065) 

95. 52 (-075) 

14. 29 

50. 259 (-17) 

92. 10 

92. IT 

125 b. 5 (-06) 

pp. 41-44 

91. 24 (-065) 

gi. 20 (-07) 


91. 25 (-065) 

86. 85 (-06) 

95- 53 (-065) 

95- 52 (-075) 

14. 29 

50- 259 ('I?) 

92. 10 


125 b. 5 (-oG) 


pp. 44-46, 82, 75-77 

99- 17 (-06) 

86. 198 (-065) 

IOI a. I (-068) 

86. 89 (-065) 

86. 220 (-06) 

86. 199 (-075) 


105. i (-07) 

125 c. 14-17, 18-21, 22-25, 26 


pp. 44-46, 8-, 75-77 

99- '7 (-06) 

86. 198 (-oGf,) 

8b. 89 (-065) 

8G. 020 (-06) 

86. 199 (-075) 



i of,, i ('07) 

c.. 14-17, 

pp. 50-52 

86. 273 (-15) 

.274 (-115) 

f I. AT K XI 
pp. -,0 "jL> 

8H. 274 (-115) 

ioi a. 4 (-25, d. -40) 


pp. 6, 10-11, 47-50, 52 

ioi b. 40 


ioi a. 4 

ioi a. 3 (-08) 

97. 12 (d. -06) 

125 a. 15 ioi b. 35 

(044) (-037) 

86. 266 (-185) 86. 267 (-07) ' 86. 268 (d. -165) 

86. 272 (-055) 


pp. 6, i o-i j, 47 50, f,'.> 

1 01 a. 4 (-25, d. -40) 

101 a. 4 

101 a. 3 ('<)8) 

25 a. 15 


101 b. -j-, 


86. aM (-185) 8(j. LjGy (-07) 

8G. >(] (d, 

125 c. 12 (-15) 1250.13 (-13) 125 d. 4 (-13) 125 d. or 

e. 2 (-09) 


PP- 54-57. 59-6o 

145. 98 (-11) 

86. 293 (-155) 

145- 99 (-195) 

117. 5 (-09) 117. i (-20) 

117. 2 (-20) 117. 4 


49. 426 (-15) 

51. 320 (-12) 

t25 c. 12 (-15) 1250. 13 (-13) 125 d. 4 (-13) 125 d. or 

e. 2 (-09) 


PP- 54-57> 

145. 98 (-11) 


145-99 (-195) 

II 7-5('9) 117. i (-20) 117. 2 (-20) 117.4 49- 426 (-15) 


51. 320 

pp. 56-60 

126. 125 (-13) 

IIO. I 15 

126. 124 (-18) 

49.431 (-265) 

112. 71 (-29) 112. 72 (-21) 112. 73 (-20) 

pp. 56-60 


80. 270 (-23) 

112. 71 (-29) 112. 72 (-21) 112. 73 (-20) 

pp. 61-63 

145. 94 (-125) 

50.391 (-105) 

1 10. 1 16 (-13) 

H5-94 - 

pp. 61-63 

ioi b. 38, 39 (-105, -118) Jt 


T..y .;- -&$%* '~'-'i-": . '>' 

/,*.!. .. ..).\? '* '-\ii.|..t"M T.. ?. 

145- 96, 97 (-07, ; 8 5) 

50- 39 1 (- 

1 10. 1 1 6 (-13) 

pp. 63, 64 

117. 10 (-112) 

117.6, 7 (-16, -08) 

pp. 63, 64 

49- 438 (-15) 

49- 434 

50. 392 (-07) 

1 10. 1 18 (-12) 

1 17. 10 (-i 12) 

117. 6, 7 (-16, -08) 


pp. 65-67, 70-72 

99- 53 (-085) 

. 12 (*l6) 

104. 42 (-085) 

1 8. 264 (-07) 

101 b. 36 (-068) 

112. 76 (-07) 

126. 126 (-08) 

112-81 (-075) 112. 77 (-09) 

112. 80 (-105) 

130. 122 (-04) 

130. 121 (-125) 

36*. 21 (-06) 

26. 239 (-06) 

3. 260 (-085) 

1 8. 263 (-04) 

18. 262 (1. -045) 

99- 53 (-085) 

- 12 (*IO) 

104.42 (-085) 


pp. 65-67, 70-72 

101 b. 36 (-068) 

I 12. 76 (-07) 

126. 126 (-08) 

112-81 (-075) 112. 77 (-09) 

I 12. 80 (-105) 

130. 122 (-04) 

130. 121 (-125) 

18. 264 (-07) 

36*. 21 ( - o6) 

26. 239 (-06) 

18. 260 (-085) 

1 8. 263 (-04) 

18. 262 (1. -0.1.5) 


pp. 61, 70-71, 69 

31. 378 (-17) 


pp. Gi, 70-71, 69 

80. 7 (-17) 

31. 378 (-17) 


PP- 69, 70, 72, 73, 77> 7 8 

75 (-195) 

- 15 (-13) 

82. 40 (-10) 

121. 35 (c. -10) 

121. 36 (-II) 

136*. I (-266) 

136*. 2 


pp. 69, 70, 72, 73, 77, 7 8 

2- 75 (''95) 

131- 15 (-13) 

i2i. 35 (c. -10) 

82. 40 (-10) 

121. 36 (-II) 

136*. a 


pp. 68, 73-75, 80 

lpif> '. 

'.<<> n ?LF" ; 

. -r , i-t >- w si' K ' 

; L^J; 

138. 15 10 

16 (1. -09) 8 (-18) 

1 08. 7 (-14) 

139. 44 (-20) 

4, 3, i, 2, 7 6 

1143. 18 (-225) 

139. 46 (-24) 


pp. 68, 73-75, Bo 


/'> .-; 

6v"f- p ,A. 



T( ( .-, r .1 , 7 

138. 15 


i6(l. -09) 8 (-18) 

4> 3. i, 2, 7 

rr>. 7 (-14) 

i 1 a. iH 

80. 268 (-12) 


86. 297 


80. 272 


pp. 76, 78-80, 82 

92. 18 


80. 273 

87. 29 

86. 297 

pp. 76, 78-80, 

92. 18 

8o. 268 (-12) 


80. 272 

9 1 - 30 

80. 273 


111 II I 

18 438 378