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TRUBNER'S 

ORIENTAL SERIES 



TRUBNER'S ORIENTAL SERIES 

POPULAR RE-ISSUE AT A UNIFORM PRICE 
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ALBERUNT : India. An Account of the Religion, Philosophy, 
Literature, Geography, Chronology, Astronomy, Customs, Laws, 
and Astrology of India, about A.D. 1030. By Dr. EDWARD C. 
SACHAU. 

ARNOLD (Sir E.) : Indian Poetry and Indian Idylls. Containing 
' The Indian Song of Songs ', from the Sanskrit of the Gita 
Govinda of Javadeva ; Two books from ' The Iliad of India ' 
(Mahabharata) ; ' Proverbial Wisdom',' from the Shlokas of 
the Hitopadesa, and other Oriental Poems. 

EARTH (Dr. A.): The Religions of India. Authorized 
Translation by Rev. J. WOOD. 

BIGANDET (B. P.) : Life or Legend of Gaudama, the Buddha 

of the Burmese ; with Annotations, the Ways to Neibban, and 
Notice on the Phongyies or Burmese Monks. 

BEAL (Prof. S.) : Life of Hiuen-Tsiang. By the Shamans 
Hwui Li and YEN-TSUNG. With a Preface containing an Account 
of the Works of I-Tsing. 

BEAL (Prof. S.) : Si-Yu-Ki : Buddhist Records of the Western 
World. Translated from the Chinese of Hiuen-Tsiang. 

BOULTING (Dr. W.) : Four Pilgrims: I., Hiuen-Tsiang; 
II., Saewulf ; III., Mohammed Ibn Abd Allah; IV., Ludovico 
Varthema of Bologna. 

COWELL (Prof. E. B.) : Sarva-Darsana-Samgraha ; or 
Review of the Different Systems of Hindu Philosophy. By 
MADHAVA ACHARYA. Translated by Prof. E. B. COWELI., M.A., 
and Prof. A. E. GOUGH, M.A. 

DOWSON (Prof. J.) : Classical Dictionary of Hindu Mythology 
and Religion, Geography, History, and Literature. 

EDKINS (Dr. J.) : Chinese Buddhism : A Volume of Sketches, 
Historical and Critical. New and Revised Edition. 

HAUG (Dr. M.) : Essays on the Sacred Language, Writings, 
and Religion of the Par sis. 

ROCKHILL (W. W.) : The Life of the Buddha and the Early 
History of hiis Order. Derived from Tibetan works in the 
Bkah-hgyur and. Bstan-hgyur. Followed by notices on the early 
history of Tibet and Khoten. 

WEBER (Dr. A.) : History of Indian Literature. Translated by 
JOHN MANN, M.A., and THEODORE ZACHARIAE, Ph.D. Fourth 
Edition. 

Other Volumes to follow. 



LONDON 
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., Ltd. 




THE BUDDHA IN MEDITATION. 

(A bronze statue by E. H. Brewster). 



IFi 



THE LIFE-,OP :. 
GOTAMA ;,:THE ;BUPP;HA. 

(Compiled exclusively from the Pali Canon) 

* Y * f *j^'' '* \ 

BY 

E. H. BREWSTER V 



With an Introductory Note by 
C. A. F. RHYS DAVIDS, D.Lit., M.A. 



LONDON 

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., LTD. 

NEW YORK : E. P. DUTTON & CO. 

1926 



Printed in Great Britain by Stephen Austin & Sons, Ltd., Hertford. 



765034 



To 
PROF. T. W. RHYS DAVIDS 

and 

MRS. C. A. F. RHYS DAVIDS 
whose translations and expositions 

of the Pali Canon 

have made this work possible, 

it is gratefully dedicated 

by 
E. H. B. & 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTORY NOTE BY MRS. C. A. F. RHYS DAVIDS . xi 
PREFACE . . . . . ... xv 

PART I 

THE EARLIEST YEARS 

The Prophecy of Asita 3 

The Threefold Pride . 5 

PART II 

DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

The Sublime Story . . . . . . . 9 

The Noble Quest 23 

The Conquest of Fear . . . . .27 

Enlightenment attained ...... 30 

An Ancient Path . . . . . . - .40 

The Chronicle of Gotama . . . . 44 

PART III 

FIRST EVENTS AFTER THE ENLIGHTENMENT 

The Buddha enjoys the Bliss of Emancipation . .49 
Under the Bodhi Tree he meditates on the Chain of 

Causation 49 

Under the Ajapala Tree he defines the True Brahman . 50 
Under the Muchalinda Tree he defines the Highest 

Happiness 51 

Under the Rajayatana Tree he receives his First Lay- 
Disciples 52 



viii CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Under the Ajapala Banyan Tree he is moved by Com- 
passion to become the Teacher of Men ... 53 
The First Sermon and First Disciples (These attain 

Arahantship) 57 v' 

Discourse on Body and Mind as not Self ... 66 

The Story of Yasa 67 

The First Women Lay-Disciples .... 72 
Further Ordinations and Attainment of Arahantship . 73 
Sending forth the First Missionaries and a Story of Mara . 75 
Ordination by the Threefold Refuge .... 76 
The Buddha declares his and his disciples' Freedom 

from Fetters 77 

Story of the Thirty Rich Young Companions . . 78 
Concerning Magical Powers and the Jatilas . . 79 

The Fire Sermon . . . . . . 87 V 

The Conversion of King Bimbisara and Brahmans of 

Magadha 89 v 

The Conversion of Sariputta and Moggallana . . 94 

PART IV 

THE BUDDHA'S RELATION WITH HIS DISCIPLES AND OTHERS 

Ordination of Rahula 103 

The Well-Tuned Lute 105 

Residence during the Rainy Season (Vassa) . . 107 

Advice regarding Vassa 107 

The Blessed One waits upon a neglected Monk . . Ill 

The Helper of the Individual 112 

Tissa ......... 113 

The Admission of Women to an Order of Nuns . .115 

Nakulapitar ........ 121 

Meghiya ......... 122 

Sona Kotikanna ....... 126 

Exhortation ........ 130 

Sand Castles 131 



CONTENTS ix 

PAGE 

The Blessed One seeks Solitude ..... 132 

Reprimanding Cruelty 134 

Mara would tempt the Buddha with worldly Power . 135 

How the Blessed One met Censure .... 136 

Holding in Reverence ...... 139 

The Teacher as Way-shower 141 

Dissension in the Order ...... 142 

A Description of the Buddha given by one Brahman to 

other Brahmans 163 *" 

Advice to a Brahman ...... 164 

Ananda ......... 167 

Sunita, a former Scavenger of Flowers . . . 168 

Chulla-Panthaka . . . . . . . 169 

PART V 

LAST EVENTS IN THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA 

The Exalted One is consulted on Matters of State * . 173 
The Exalted One speaks on the Welfare of his Disciples 176 
What may be said of all Buddhas . . . .178 

A frequently repeated Text 180 

A Sermon to Householders 181 

The Exalted One speaks on the Four Noble Truths . 183 

The Mirror of Truth 183 

The Courtezan Ambapali appears . . . .186 
The Enlightened One is attacked by Sickness. But 

delivers a Sublime Discourse . . . .189 
The Buddha decides when to pass away . . .192 
Ananda petitions the Buddha not to pass away . .195 
The Buddha gives a Summary of His Teachings . .196 

The Four Great Authorities 198 

The Buddha accepts Food from Chunda . . . 200 

The Clarifying of a Stream 201 

Stories concerning Concentration .... 203 
The Buddha and Ananda presented with Robes . . 206 



x CONTENTS 

PAGE 

The Exalted One speaks of Chunda . . . , . . . 207 
Under the Twin Sala Trees . . . .209 

Places to be revered . ... . 212 

The Monks' Conduct towards Women . . . 213 

Regarding the Remains of the Buddha . . . 213 
Ananda . . . . . . . . . 214 

The Mallas come to pay their Respects . . .217 
Subhadda . . . . ... . 219 

The Last Words of the Buddha . . ... 223 

The Buddha attains Parinibbana . . . . 225 

Events immediately following the Passing away of the 

Buddha . . 226 

Index . . 239 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

TT is at the request of my good friend Earl Brewster that I 
-*- write these lines as sponsor to his book. Two years ago 
I suggested he should undertake it. Henry Warren's worthy 
Buddhism in Translations was, in its materials, too much of a 
chronological hash to be a safe guide to the general reader. 
And it covers too wide a field to secure high relief for the special 
theme which this book seeks to word. It has been no small 
pleasure to have witnessed, and now and then helped forward 
the accomplishment of the task. ' 

None of us but must feel a profound regret that when, 
after the death of their great leader, the Buddhist monk- 
community, as their records tell, sought to collect in some 
fixed order and oral form, their common stock of rules and of 
remembered sayings, they did not make it of equally prime 
importance to do as much for the story of his whole last life 
on earth. That we must now piece together scraps of 
biography and autobiography embedded in those rules and 
those sayings is the only way left us to make good that 
negligence. This piecmg-together is the aim of the author. 

But it were futile to lament over what is lost. There is 
enough in what we have to form a picture of the man who 
was, in his life and in his faith, the faith, namely, that true 
religion lay in the way of daily life growing into noble worth, 
a very brother-man to men. And we trust that for the readers 
of these passages such a man will shine forth. I would ask 
those readers to. bear in mind three points : the picture 
etched here of Gotama's little world, the winnowing that 
is necessary as we read, and the picture of the real man 
that our winnowing yields. 

First then, the world about him. A religious teacher 
and reformer of those days in India was bound to work largely 
with and on the world of the professionally religious. And 
I am glad that the compiler has worded these as ' monks '. 



xii INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

Bhikkhu means almsman. But ' monk ' is, in what it calls up 
for us, nearer the truth. It is nearer the truth than ' brethren ', 
much nearer the truth than ' priests- '. In ' monks ' we have at 
least the very clue to the world in which the books cited from 
came to be. We only hide that world when we use other 
words. It is a world which does not take as its forward view 
and ideal the value of life as such. The monk has turned his 
back on life as ' growth in the world '. He is cultivating a 
special, restricted quality of growth. If he be of other creeds 
he looks, it may be, to growth less hampered when earth life 
is over. But the Buddhist monk saw growth in no worlds 
beyond earth. He only saw, here or there, a cutting-off of 
coming-to-be. This cutting off might be here and now, it 
might be in some other world. If he was in the way to his 
highest good, he was not as a vigorous growing tree. He 
was a rotting tree. If he was at the close of that way, he was 
as. a tree-stump with severed roots. He did not believe in the 
growth of man's life taken as whole. He had a vista of 
many lives, of many worlds, but he threw away much of the 
teaching that lay therein. 

Now how far do we get a true picture of the founder 
of ' Buddhism ' when we picture him in this monk-world ? 
Was he wholly of it, or was he not wholly of it ? Here it is 
that we must try to winnow wheat from chaff. It is a difficult 
task, but we must do it, else we come to wrong conclusions. 
Every reader should do it, for it is only the writer of a romance 
who will so serve up the past as to bear the reader's imagination 
passively along. And let him not shrink from charges of 
' eclecticism ', of winnowing out only ' what does not 
appeal to him '. Let him seek the very man, the live, the 
heard, the seen, the fellow ' man '. Let him dwell less on the 
externals, the imputed speech belonging to that place, that 
time. So reading he may be surprised to find how much towards 
a real man these little passages yield wherein at first stands 
so dim a figure. We have here a very man if we will work him 
out. Out, that is, from much chaff. Without winnowing, 
we might conclude he was a mighty talker. But whereas it 
was a set opening to countless clerical sermons to make them 
' word of the Buddha ', the more living interviews show him 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE xiii 

working a great effect by very few words. In the little 
Nakulapitar Sutta (p. 121) an instance is given. But in the 
scriptures, when that ailirig man has left the teacher's 
magnetic presence braced and cheered, he is intercepted by 
disciples, who are made to explain with much formula-talk 
what the teacher really meant ! Was it perhaps thus that 
the formula-talks came gradually to be put into the mouth 
of the man of the few winged words ? We must not forget that 
he was as noted for his silence, as for his words, and that he 
was known as one who was wont to sit in ' the noble silence ' 
with his disciples, as others did not. 

Again, with no sifting we might estimate him as a very 
wonder-man. Yet, looking closer, we see him shrinking from 
the hopeless effort to influence his tradition-bound world; 
we see him casting aside his two carefully thought out 
messages (see p. 54) and preaching on quite other themes when 
he made his start ; we see him arguing against letting women 
enter his monk-world, then giving way to the loving cousin > 
we see him claiming to be building a world-creed, yet fore- 
telling its end in 500 years ; we see him Unking up the way of 
man closely with other worlds, yet teaching that, ' if there be 
no other world/ the good life is yet the best ; we see him 
wording the worth of happiness, yet made to say that the 
wise see happiness ' as ill '. 

Again, with no sifting we might accept him as beyond all 
measure vain and egoistic, speaking of himself, and not 
' officially ' only, as not even the most blustering Homeric 
warrior ever spoke. Yet we hear him bidding his foEowers 
weigh the moral worth of his teaching before accepting him, 
take it and not him as their leader, be their own guides and 
not be merely willed by any teacher. 

Out of my own sifting I think of him with deep love and 
reverence, not as the monk, nor as the weak man, nor as the 
wonder-man, nor as the vain man. I think of him as the 
Brother-man, as a wilier of the welfare of men, as the worker 
of the things that are worthy, as the warder of his brethren's 
will. I think of him as a Helper as few have been, as one who 
worded for men the ' better ' within them which then and there 
no creed was wording, as a helper of the many folk of his own 



xiv INTRODUCTORY NOTE 

world, as a helper toward the worlds of man's wayfaring, 
as a believer, in spite of monkish ideals, in the hope that lies 
in coming to be. And I think of him as a teacher whose help 
was given so straightly to this man and- to that, that, so far 
from talking in set forms of words, he was incapable of saying 
anything in the same words twice. 

The Pali canon of the three Pitakas is, as compared with 
the date of the Teacher, and as we Have it, not a very old 
compilation. The piecing of it together took centuries. 
Nor can it well have passed on in tongues of Ceylon reciters 
and emerged long after in writing without undergoing much 
change of complexion and perhaps of contents. Nevertheless 
no other records as yet seem to yield us any more archaic 
figure of Gotama. And if it be the oldest figure of him that 
we can get, it is much to be able to learn what it is, before 
we consult records more mediaeval, or any more modern 
idea of him based on these. The collection of life-episodes in 
these pages makes no claim to be exhaustive of such episodes, 
but it would not be easy to find much to add from the Canon 
itself. Responsibility for the English rendering lies more 
on the shoulders of us older translators than on the author's. 
His be the credit for a compilation that many will appreciate, 
from which many may learn. 

o C. A. F. RHYS DAVIDS. 

CHIPSTEAD, SURREY, 
1925. 



PREFACE 

TT TESTERN students, ever since the beginning of their 

* interest in Buddhism, have felt the need of a com- 
pilation of such accounts of the Buddha's life as are 
scattered through the Pali Canon. 

Rhys Davids, some thirty years ago, in his " American 
Lectures ", called attention to this need. To make such a 
compilation was a matter of the greatest difficulty for these 
students until the Pali Text Society should have published the 
necessary documents. This has in our generation been com- 
pleted ; so that now we have printed, and in Roman script, 
all of the books of the Pali Canon. 

We also have translations of a goodly number of these books. 

Previous compilations of the life of the Buddha have been 
culled from sources some of which are not only uncanonical 
but are so far separate in time and thought that, to those 
who know the history of Buddhism, they bear such an 
appearance as would the New Testament, with Milton's 
Paradise Regained put between St. Luke and St. John, and 
then maybe some verse of Dante added. It is interesting to 
observe in the simpler Canonical scriptures the earlier stages 
of an oral tradition as compared with later writings. 

In the Pali Canon is to be found the most reliable account 
of the Buddha's life ; to a few points of which historical 
research is bringing verification. The Canon hi its present form 
was arranged (though not written), at the Council of Patna, 
about 250 B.C., from worded memoirs then considered more- 
or less authoritative. These memoirs were of various dates, 
from those handed down it may be from the sixth century B.C.,. 
the Founder's time, to later more discursive matter, compiled, 
it may be, scarcely earlier than that Council. 1 In India such. 

1 Possibly not even before the Council. 



xvi PREFACE 

preservation by memory of religious teaching has always 
been considered the best method ; and there it is still so 
considered. 

Indeed the Buddha is represented in these ancient memoirs 
as questioning disciples regarding their memory of some of 
these very verses ; and there also the collection of memoirs 
is frequently referred to as an existing body of doctrine under 
different heads. It is thought probable by modern scholars, 
that at the Council the memoirs in prose, and possibly the 
anthological memoirs, were re-edited in their present form of 
refrains in prose and verse, so as to render them easier for 
memorizing in the more literary diction which had gradually 
superseded the original lingua franca, usually called Magadhi, 
in which they had been handed down. For this subject the 
reader is referred to books on the history of Buddhism. 

Soon before the Council of Patna the famous edicts of 
the Emperor Asoka were written on stone, numbers of which 
can still be read ; where is found reference to portions of 
the Anguttara, the Sutta Nipata, the Iti-Vuttaka, the 
Majjhima Nikaya, probably the Digha-Nikaya, and what 
seems to be the Vinaya, e.g. Patimokkha (see Rhys Davids' 
Buddhism, page 225). The entire Canon was put in writing 
in Ceylon about two centuries after the Council of Patna. 

It may not be out of place here to state why the Jatakas, 
which are a Canonical work, are not used in this compilation. . 
That wonderful collection of Folk-Lore consists of prose and 
verse of varying dates, while the introduction to the Jataka 
Commentary, which contains an account of the Buddha's 
life down to his thirty-sixth year, was written perhaps in the 
5th century A.D. that is, some eight hundred years later than 
the editing of the Canon. There is in this introduction and 
in the introductory episodes to the Jatakas a good deal of bio- 
graphical material, but it belongs to Commentary rather than 
to Canon, and hence is outside the range of this little book. 

I would not wish to give such an emphasis to historical 
evidence, important as it is, which would confuse it with 
religious values. All schools of Buddhism, I believe, would 
maintain that what is important in their religion belongs 
to personal experience, and should be tested by it. But to 



PREFACE xvii 

combine in one volume the history of its Founder, according 
to the earliest sources that survive, is a work which cannot 
fail to be of great value to students of Buddhism, for reasons 
most obvious, and especially to those who come to the 
Buddha for guidance. It is attempted to make this present 
compilation inclusive of all such purely canonical material, 
avoiding only repetition. 

There are three attempts in the Canon at what appears 
to be consecutive biography and even autobiography of the 
Buddha : firstly the two accounts in the Majjhuna-Nikaya 
(No. 26 and 36) giving his search for truth ; secondly the 
fragments in the first part of the Mahavagga of the Vinaya which 
relate the commencement of his ministry, and thirdly the Maha- 
Parinibbana-Suttanta of the Digha-Nikaya, dealing with the 
last weeks of his life. These have formed the structure around 
which I have placed the rest. With reluctance I have had to 
exclude much inspiring material as not sufficiently relevant 
to the purpose of this book ; especially is this true of many 
Suttas and of certain ' Psalms ' of the Brethren and Sisters. 

These ancient scriptures show a considerable literary 
development, as will be seen from the archaic form of my 
first selections compared with later ones. The diversity in 
such material prevents this book from having much literary 
unity ; furthermore I have drawn upon various translators. 
My own knowledge of Pali is too limited to undertake 
independently, even if it were desirable, much translation 
for such a compilation. And when that work has been as 
well done as the translations of Rhys Davids, which not only 
have contributed so much to Pali scholarship, but are also an 
important addition to the riches of English literature, it 
would be indeed remiss in an English compilation not to 
profit by this great work. Where I have not followed the 
translator, the divergence is due to a later translation having 
been given by that translator himself, or to a choice 
between later differing authorities. Occasionally I have left 
several interpretations of the same word, hoping thereby to 
convey a better understanding of its meaning. For the 
several selections where I have ventured my own translation, 
unguided by an English one, I have generally had most valuable 



xviii PREFACE 

aid from Mrs. Rhys Davids. In all other cases mention is 
given, with the text, of the translator who has been 
followed, or who has guided me. I have favoured a literal 
translation. 

The study of Pali reminds me of astronomical research ; 
with stronger lenses " dark spots " appear in the firmament 
of Pali words : the mystery of the language and those ancient 
days increases. 

The material problems then were simpler ; perhaps, partly 
because of that, the mental life was deeper; but however 
that may be, the mental life was different, and we find words 
which indicate conceptions that defy translation. One such 
word is ' dhamma '. It is defined as doctrine, righteousness, 
condition, phenomenon, thing, reality, truth, ideal, law, order, 
norm, object, idea, wisdom . . . (see the Pali Text Society's 
Pali-English Dictionary and expositions by Mrs. Rhys Davids, 
M. & W. Geiger and others). In this compilation I have left 
the word generally untranslated, not because it was not 
easy to choose some one of these many words, but because I 
believe that by seeing the original word in its contexts the 
reader is more likely to arrive at that meaning which gives 
to the word its individuality. Dhamma is often translated 
doctrine, or truth, but Pali contains other words which must 
be translated by these words. Mrs. Besant has translated 
the Sanskrit form (dharma) as duty, or the law of unfolding 
life ('of unfolding world-order' were better), which seems to 
me a happy rendering. Comment on other words will be 
found in the notes accompanying the texts. 

I take this opportunity of acknowledging with gratitude 
my indebtedness to the translators and publishers of books 
who make this present one possible ; very especially to the 
Pali Text Society, and to Mrs. Rhys Davids who so generously 
and tirelessly has advised me through many years of study. 

May this book serve to increase understanding of the 
Buddha, the Dhamma and that old world life which was 
the Sangha ! 

E. H. BEEWSTER. $ 

TORRE DEI QUATTRO VENTI, o 
CAPRI, ITALY. s 



PART I 
THE EARLIEST TEARS 



Honour to the Exalted One 
The Arahant Buddha Supreme 

THE PROPHECY OF ASITA 

(FROM THE POEM " NALAKASUTTA " OF THE SVTTA-NIPATA) 

The Seer Asita saw in their leisure hour groups of next- 
world devas joyful and glad, and the devas of bright garments, 
holding scarves and eagerly praising their ruler. 

Seeing the devas so pleased and uplifted, paying due heed, 
he thereupon said : " Why is the assembly of devas so 
greatly pleased, why are you waving scarves ? " 

" There was not such excitement when in the battle with 
the Asuras they were defeated and the devas were victorious. 
What wonder have the devas seen that they rejoice so 
greatly ? " 

" They shout and sing and make music, they wave their 
arms and dance ; I ask you, inhabitants of Meru's peaks, 
O sirs, quickly dispel my doubt." 

"The Bodhisatta, the excellent pearl, the incomparable, 
is born for good and for blessing in the world of men, in 
the Sakyas' town, in the country of Lumbini. Therefore 
are we glad and are greatly rejoicing." 

" He, the most excellent of all beings, the highest man, 
the bull of men, the most excellent of all creatures, will 
turn the wheel (of the Dhamma) in the Wood of the Seers, 
roaring like a lion, mighty lord of beasts." 

(The Saint Asita) having heard those tidings, descended 
swiftly. Then he went to the dwellings of Suddhodana, 
and being seated there he thus addressed the Sakyas : 
" Where is the prince ? I too wish to behold him." 

Then the Sakyas showed to Asita, the child, their prince, 
who was like the shining gold, beaten out by a very skilful 
(smith) in the mouth of a crucible, beaming with glory and of 
peerless beauty. 



4 EARLIEST YEARS 

Seeing the prince shining like crest of flame, glowing like 
the bull of stars going through the sky, like the clear sun 
free from clouds in autumn (Asita) was joyous, he obtained 
abundant rapture. 

The air-devas held in the sky a canopy of a thousand 
circles, and many branches, and yaks' tails with golden 
handles were fanned ; but those who held the yaks' tails 
and the canopy were not seen. 

Then the Seer (Asita) with matted hair, known as Dark 
Glory, welcomed him with uplifted heart and happy mind 
(who was) like a beautiful gem on an orange cloth, the white 
canopy carried above his head. 

And he, having welcomed, as he was fain to do, the bull 
of the Sakyas, and, as adept in signs and runes, with glad 
thoughts raised his voice, saying : " This one is peerless, 
he is chief among those who stand upon two feet." 

Then remembering his own forth-faring, he was distressed 
and wept. The Sakyas seeing the Seer weeping, asked : 
" Might there be for us danger to the boy ? " 

Seeing the Sakyas disturbed the Seer said : "I mind me 
of nothing baneful for the boy, nor will there be for him danger, 
for he is no inferior. Be without care." 

"This prince will touch the height of perfect enlighten- 
ment ; he will turn the wheel of the dhamma, 1 he seeing the 
exceedingly pure, feeling compassion for the welfare of the 
many, spread abroad by him will be the holy life." 

" But my life here will soon be at an end, within (his life- 
time) there will be death for me ; I shall not hear the dhamma 
of the incomparable Burden-Bearer, therefore I am afflicted 
woeful and in ill plight." 

Having brought forth great joy to the Sakyas, he 
departed from within the palace, leading the religious life; 
then having compassion for his own sister's son, he led him 
to take up the holy life under the incomparable Burden- 
Bearer, 

(Saying) : " When thou nearest from others the report 
of the Buddha, of him who has arrived at perfect enlighten- 

1 On the retention of this word see Preface. 



PROPHECY OF. ASITA 5 

ment, and walks the way of the dhamma ; go there and asking 
for instructions lead the holy life under that Blessed One." 

Thus taught by him of friendly mind, by him who saw 
into the future, what is exceedingly pure, Nalaka dwelt with 
his accumulated merits and with guarded senses, looking 
forward to the Victorious One. 

Then when the time of Asita's prophecy had arrived, 
hearing report as the Victorious One turned the wheel (of 
the dhamma), he went and saw the Chief of Saints, and 
after being converted he asked the great Sage for the highest 
wisdom. 



THE THREEFOLD PRIDE (MEMORIES OF YOUTH) 

(ANGUTTARA-NIKAYA, Vol. I, p. 145.) 

" I was tenderly cared for, monks, supremely so, 
infinitely so. At my father's home lotus-pools were 
made for me ; in one place for the blue lotus-flowers, 
in one place for white lotus-flowers and in one place 
for red lotus-flowers ; blossoming for my sake. And, 
monks, I used only unguents '"from Benares. Of Benares 
fabric were my three robes. Day and night a white umbrella 
was held over me, so that I might not be troubled by cold, 
heat, dust, chaff, or dew. I dwelt in three palaces, monks ; 
in one for the cold, in one for the summer, and in one for 
the rainy season." 

" When in the palace for the rainy season, surrounded 
during the four months by female musicians, I did not 
go down from the palace." 

" And, monks, while in another's dwelling only a dish 
of red rice and rice soup would be offered to the servants 
and slaves, in my father's house not only rice but a dish with 
rice and meat was given to the servants and slaves." 

" Endowed, monks, with such wealth, being nurtured with 
such delicacy, there came this thought : " Verily the 
unenlightened worldling himself subject to old age, without 
escape from old age, when he sees another grown old, is 
oppressed, beset and sickened. I too am subject to old age 



6 EARLIEST YEARS 

and cannot escape it. If I, who am subject to old age and 
without escape from it, should see another one who is grown 
old, and should be oppressed, beset, and sickened, it would not 
be well with me. While I thought thus, monks, all pride 
of youth left me." 

" Verily the unenlightened worldling himself subject to 
sickness without escape from sickness, when he sees another 
sick, is oppressed, beset, and sickened. I too am subject 
to sickness and cannot escape it. If I, who am subject to 
sickness without escape from it, should see another one who 
is sick, and should be oppressed, beset, and sickened, it 
would not be well with me." 

" While I thought thus, monks, all pride in health left me." 

" Verily the unenlightened worldling himself subject 
to death without escape from it, when he sees another dead, 
is oppressed, beset, and sickened. I too am subject to death, 
and cannot escape it. If I, who am subject to death without 
escape from it, should see another one who is dead and 
should be oppressed, beset, sickened, it would not be well 
with me." 

" While I thought thus, monks, all pride in life left me." 



PART H 
DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 



THE SUBLIME STORY 
\ 

(FROM DlGHA NIK AY A XIV) 

Closely following the Rhys Davids translation 

(This story is presented in the Canon as told by Gotama 
to Ms disciples concerning the earliest of the seven Buddhas 
recognized in the oldest books, Vipassin, " seer," but as true 
for each of the others. Since it is the Gotama-story that has 
been applied to the rest, we give it here as such.) 

Now Gotama, when as Bodhisat he ceased to belong 
to the hosts of the heaven of Delight, descended into his 
mother's womb, mindful and self-possessed. 1 That, in such 
a case, is the rule. 

It is the rule that, when the Bodhisat ceases to belong 
to the hosts of heaven of Delight, and enters a mother's 
womb, there is made manifest throughout the world 
including the worlds of the gods, the Maras and the Brahmas 
and the world (of earth) with its recluses and brahmans, 
its princes and peoples an infinite and splendid radiance 
passing the glory of the gods. Even in those dark spaces 
which are between the worlds, baseless, murky and dark, 
and where even the moon and sun, so wondrous and mighty, 
cannot prevail to give light, even there is made manifest 
tnis infinite and splendid radiance, passing the glory of the 
gods. And those beings who happen to be existing there, 
perceiving each other by that radiance say : " Verily there 
be other beings reborn here." And the ten thousand worlds 
of the universe tremble and shudder and quake. And that 
this infinite splendid radiance is made manifest in the world, 
passing the glory of the gods, that, in such a case, is the rule. 

It is the rule that, when a Bodhisat is descending into 
a mother's womb, four sons of the gods go toward the four 
quarters to protect him saying : " Let no one, be he human, 

1 This and some of the following recur in Majjhima Nikayaiii, 1 19 f. 



io DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

or non-lmman, or whatsoever he be, work harm to the 
Bodhisat or to the mother of the Bodhisat." That in such 
a case, is the rule. 

It is the rule that, when the Bodhisat is descending into 
a mother's womb the mother of the Bodhisat is a woman, 
virtuous through her own nature ; averse from taking life, 
averse from taking what is not given, averse from unchastity, 
averse from lying speech, averse from indulgence in strong 
drinks. That, in such a case, is the rule. 

It is the rule that when a Bodhisat is descending into 
a mother's womb, that mother has no mind for indulgence 
in the pleasures of sense with men, and is incapable of trans- 
gression with any man whatever, who may be enamoured 
of her. That, in such a case, is the rule. 

It is the rule that, when the Bodhisat is descending into 
a mother's womb, that mother is living in the enjoyment 
yielded by the five senses, is addicted to it, possessed of it, 
surrounded by it. That, in such a case, is the rule. 

It is the rule that, when the Bodhisat is descending into 
a mother's womb, no ailment whatever befalls that mother ; 
at ease is she and unafflicted in body ; and within her womb 
she sees the Bodhisat complete, in the endowment of all 
his organs and his limbs. Just as if, brethren, there were 
a beautiful cat's-eye of purest water, octangular, cut with 
supreme skill, translucent, and flawless, excellent in every 
way. And through it were strung a thread, blue or orange, 
red, white, or yellow. If a man who had eyes to see were 
to take it into his hand, he would clearly perceive how the 
one was strung on the other. Even so, brethren, when 
the Bodhisat is descending into a mother's womb, no ailment 
whatever befalls that mother, at ease is she and unafflicted 
in body ; and within her womb she sees the Bodhisat complete 
in the endowment of all his organs and his limbs. That 
in such a case, is the rule. 

It is the rule that, on the seventh day after ,the birth of 
a Bodhisat, the mother of the Bodhisat dies, and is reborn 
in the heaven of Delight. That in such a case, is the rule. 

It is the rule that, whereas other women bring forth after 
bearing either nine or ten months, the mother of a Bodhisat 



THE SUBLIME STORY n 

brings not forth till she has borne the child ten months. That , 
in such a case, is the rule. 

It is the rule that, whereas other women bring forth sitting 
or reclining, the mother of a Bodhisat brings forth, not so, 
but standing. That, in such a case, is the rule. 

It is the rule that, when a Bodhisat issues from his mother's 
womb, gods receive him first, afterwards men. That, in 
such a case, is the rule. 

It is the rule that, when a Bodhisat issues from his mother's 
womb, and has not yet touched the earth, four sons of 
the gods -receive him, and present him to the mother, 
saying : " Rejoice, lady, for mighty is the son that is born 
to thee." That, in such a case, is the rule. 

It is the rule that, when a Bodhisat issues from his mother's 
womb, he comes forth stainless, undefiled by watery matter, 
undefiled by mucus, undefiled by blood, undefiled by any 
uncleanness whatever, pure, spotless. Just as if, brethren, 
a jewel were laid down on Benares muslin, the jewel is not 
stained by the muslin, nor is the muslin stained by it ; and 
why is that ? Because of the purity of both. Even so is 
it at the birth of a Bodhisat. That, in such a case, is the rule. 

It is the rule that, when a Bodhisat issues from his mother's 
womb, two showers of water appear from the sky, one of 
cold, the other of warm water, wherewith they do the needful 
bathing of the Bodhisat and of his mother. That, in such 
a case, is the rule. 

It is the rule that, when a Bodhisat has come to birth, 
he stands firm on both feet, and, with his face to the north, 
takes seven strides, the while a white canopy is held over 
him, and, looking around on every side, he utters as with the 
voice of a bull : " Chief am I in the world, eldest am I in 
the world, foremost am I in the world. This is the last 
birth. There is now no more coming to be." That, in such 
a case, is the rule. 

It is the rule that, when a Bodhisat issues from his mother's 
womb, there is made manifest throughout the universe 
including the worlds of the devas, the Maras, and the Brahmas, 
and this world with its recluses and brahmans, its princes 
and peoples an infinite and splendid radiance passing the *? 



12 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

glory of the devas. Even in those spaces, which are between 
the worlds, baseless, murky and dark, and where even moon 
and sun, so wondrous and mighty, cannot prevail to give light, 
even there is manifest this infinite and splendid radiance, 
passing the glory of the devas. And those beings who happen 
to be existing there, perceiving each other by that radiance, 
say : " Verily there be other beings reborn here." And the 
ten thousand worlds of the universe tremble, and shudder 
and quake. And this infinite and splendid radiance is made 
manifest hi the world, passing the glory of the devas. This, 
in such a case, is the rule. 

When the boy Gotama was born, they brought word 
to Suddhodana the raja, saying : "A son, my lord, is born 
to you. May it please you to see him ? " Now when 
Suddhodana, the raja, had seen the babe, he sent for the 
brahman soothsayers, saying : " Let the reverend brahman 
soothsayers see the child. ' ' Then, brethren, when the brahman 
soothsayers had seen the child, they said to the raja : " Rejoice, 
sire, for one of the mighty ones is born your son. Fortune 
is yours, sire, good fortune is yours, in that in your family 
such a son has come to birth. For this babe, sire, is 
endowed with the thirty-two marks of the Great Man ; and 
to one so endowed two careers lie open, and none other. 
If he live the life of the house, he becomes Lord of the Wheel, 
a righteous Lord of the Right, ruler of the four quarters, 
conqueror, guardian of the people's good, owner of the Seven 
Treasures. His do those seven treasures become, to wit : 
the Wheel Treasure, the Elephant Treasure, the Horse 
Treasure, the Gem Treasure, the Woman Treasure, the Steward 
Treasure, the Eldest Son Treasure making seven. 1 More 
than a thousand sons will be his, heroes, vigorous of frame, 
crushers of the hosts of the enemy. He, when he has conquered 
this earth to its ocean bounds, is established not by the 
scourge, not by the sword, but by righteousness. But if 
such a boy go forth from the life of the house, into the homeless 
state, he becomes an Arahant, a Buddha Supreme rolling 
back the veil from the world. 

1 For explanation of each of these see Dialogues of the Buddha II, 
No. xvii, translated by Rhys Davids. 



THE SUBLIME STORY 13 

And what, sire, are the thirty-two marks of the Great 
Man, wherewith endowed this child hath two careers open 
to him, and only two : that of the Lord of the Wheel . . . 
that of Buddha Supreme ? 

This babe, sire, has feet with level tread. That this 
is so counts to him as one of the marks of a Great Man. 

On the soles of the babe's feet wheels appear with a thousand 
spokes, with tyre and hub in every way complete. That this 
is so counts to him as one of the marks of a Great Man. 

This babe has projecting heels, 

He is long in the fingers and long in the toes. 

Soft and tender in hands and feet, 

With hands and feet like a net. 

His ankles are like rounded shells; 

His legs are like an antelope's. 

Standing and without bending he can touch and rub his knees 
with either hand. 

His male organs are concealed in a sheath. 

His complexion is like bronze, the colour of gold. 

His skin is so delicately smooth that no dust cleaves to his 
body. 

The down on it grows ha single hairs, one to each pore, 

The small hairs on his body turn upward, every hair of it, blue- 
black in colour like eye-paint, in little curling rings, curling 
to the right. 

This babe has a frame divinely straight. 

He has the seven convex surfaces. 

The front half of his body is like a lion's. 

There is no furrow between his shoulders. 

His proportions have the symmetry of the banyan-tree : the 
length of his body is equal to the compass of his arms, and 
the compass of his arms is equal to his height. 

His bust is equally rounded. 

His taste is supremely acute. 

His jaw is as a lion's. 

He has forty teeth, 

Regular teeth, 

Continuous. 

The eye-teeth very lustrous. His tongue is very long. 

He has a divine voice, like a karavlka-bird's. 

His eyes are intensely blue. 

He has the eyelashes of a cow. 

Between the eyebrows appears a hairy mole, white and like soft 
cotton down. 

His head is like a royal turban. This too counts to him, as one 
of the marks of a Great Man. 

Endowed, sire, as is this babe with these two-and- 



14 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

thirty marks of the Great Man, two careers and none other 
are open to him . . . (as above). Thereupon the raja 
let the brahman soothsayers be invested with new robes 
and gratified their every desire. 

And the raja engaged nurses for the babe Gotama. Some 
suckled him, some washed him, some nursed him, some 
carried him about on their hip. And a white canopy was 
held over him day and night, for it was commanded : " Let 
not cold or heat or straws or dust or dew annoy him/' And 
the boy Gotama became the darling and the beloved of the 
people, even as a blue or red or white lotus is dear to and 
beloved of all, so that he was literally carried about from 
hip to hip. 

And when the boy Gotama was born, he had a lovely 
voice, well modulated and sweet and charming ; just as 
the voice of the karavika-bird in the mountains of Himalaya 
is lovely and sweetly modulated and charming. 

And when the boy Gotama was born, there was manifested 
in him the clairvoyant eye born of the result of his karma, 
by the which verily he could see as far as a league by day 
and eke by night. 

And when the boy Gotama was born, he looked forward 
with unblinking eyes, like devas in the heaven of Delight. 
Now it was because of this, people exclaiming a Seer, a Seer ! 1 
that this became his name. And again, brethren, while 
raja Suddhodana was sitting as a judge, he would take the 
boy on his hip and so lay down the law as to the causes arising 
till verily the boy, thus seated on his father's hip, and con- 
tinually considering, would also determine the points of 
the matter according to justice. Then at the thought : 
" It is the babe who is judging cases aright, ever more 
and more did that word * A Seer, a Seer ', become said 
of him." 

Now raja Suddhodana had three palaces built for the 
boy Gotama, one for the rains, one for the whiter, and one 
for the summer, and he had them fitted with every kind 
of gratification for the five senses. Thus it came to pass 

1 Vipassin ! This is the name ascribed to the first of the seven 
Buddhas, concerning each of whom this legend was held to be true. 



THE SUBLIME STORY 15 

that Gotama spent the four months of the rainy season in 
the rains-palace, ministered to by bands of female musicians ; 
and not once did he come down (from the upper terrace) 
into the mansion. 

Here endeth the Birth Chapter. 

II 

Now the young lord Gotama when many days had passed by, 
bade his charioteer make ready the state carriages, saying : " Get 
ready the carriages, good charioteer, and let us go through 
the park to inspect the pleasaunce." "Yes, my lord," 
replied the charioteer, and harnessed the state carriages 
and sent word to Gotama : " The carriages are ready, my 
lord ; do now what you deem fit." Then Gotama mounted 
a state carriage, and drove out in state into the park. 

Now the young lord saw, as he was driving to the park, 
an aged man as bent as a roof gable, decrepit, leaning on 
a staff, tottering as he walked, afflicted and long past his 
prime. And seeing him Gotama said : " That man, good 
charioteer, what has he done, that his hair is not like that 
of other men nor his body ? " 

" He is what is called an aged man, my lord." 

" But why is he called aged ? " 

" He is called aged, my lord, because he has not much 
longer to live." 

" But then, good charioteer, am I too subject txx old age, 
one who has not got past old age ? " 

" You, my lord, and we too, we all are of a kind to grow 
old, we have not got past old age." 

" Why then, good charioteer, enough of the park for to-day. 
Drive me back hence to my rooms." 

" Yea, my lord," answered the charioteer, and drove 

him back. And he, going to his rooms sat brooding sorrowful 

and depressed, thinking " Shame then verilv_bfi^apoa- this 

thing called birth, since to one born old age shows -itself 

Tikrthat ! " 

Thereupon the raja sent for the charioteer and asked him : 



16 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

" Well, good charioteer, did the boy take pleasure in the 
park ? Was he pleased with it ? " 

" No, my lord, he was not." 

" What then did he see on his drive ? " 
(And the charioteer told the raja all.) 

Then the raja thought thus : " We must not have 
Gotama declining to rule. We must not have him going 
forth from the house into the homeless state. We must not 
let what the brahman soothsayers spoke of come true." 

So, that these things might not come to pass, he let the 
youth be still more surrounded by sensuous pleasures. And 
thus Gotama continued to live amidst the pleasures of sense. 

Now after many days had passed by, the young lord 
again bade his charioteer make ready and drove forth as 
once before ... 

And Gotama saw as he was driving to the park, a sick 
man, suffering and very ill, fallen and weltering in his own 
water, by some being lifted up, by others being dressed. 
Seeing this, Gotama asked : " That man, good charioteer, 
what has he done that his eyes are not like others' eyes, 
nor his voice like the voice of other men." 

" He is what is called ill, my lord." 

" But what is meant by ill." 

" It means, my lord, that he will hardly recover from 
his illness." 

" But am I too, then, good charioteer, subject to fall 
ill ; have I not got out of reach of illness ? " 

" You, my lord, and we too, we all are subject to fall 
ill, we have not got beyond the reach of illness." 

"Why then, good charioteer, enough of the park for 
to-day. Drive me back hence to my rooms." " Yea, 
my lord," answered the charioteer and drove him back. 
And he, going to his rooms sat brooding sorrowful and 
depressed, thinking: "Shame then verily be upon this 
thing called birth, since to one born decay shows itself like 
that, disease shows itself like that ! " 

Thereupon the raja sent for the charioteer and asked him : 
" Well, good charioteer, did the young lord take pleasure 
in the park and was he pleased with it ? " 



THE SUBLIME STORY 17 

" No, my lord, he was not." 

" What did he see then on his drive ? " 

(And the charioteer told the raja all.) 

Then the raja thought thus : " We must not have 
Gotama declining to rule ; we must not have him going forth 
from the house to the homeless state ; we must not let what 
the brahman soothsayers spoke of come true." 

So, that these things might not come to pass, he let the 
young man be still more abundantly surrounded by sensuous 
pleasures. And thus Gotama continued . to live amidst 
the pleasures of sense. 

Now once again after many days ... the young lord 
Gotama . . . drove forth. 

And he saw, as he was driving to the park, a great con- 
course of people clad in garments of different colours 
constructing a funeral pyre. And seeing this he asked his 
charioteer : " Why now are all those people come together 
in garments of different colours, and making that pile ? " 

" It is because some one, my lord, has ended his days." 

" Then drive the carriage close to him who has ended 
his days." 

"Yea, my lord," answered the charioteer, and did 
so. And Gotama saw the corpse of him who had ended 
his days and asked : " What good charioteer, is ending 
one's days ? " 

" It means, my lord, that neither mother, nor father, 
nor other kinsfolk will now see him, nor will he see them." 

" But am I too then subject to death, have I not got 
beyond reach of death ? Will neither the raja, nor the 
ranee, nor any other of my kin see me more or shall I again 
see them ? " 

" You, my lord, and we too, we all are subject to death, 
we have not passed beyond the reach of death. Neither 
the raja, nor the ranee, nor any other of your kin will see 
you any more, nor will you see them." 

"Why then, good charioteer, enough of the park for 
to-day. Drive me back hence to my rooms." 

" Yea, my lord," replied the charioteer, and drove him 
back. 



i8 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

And he, going to his rooms, sat brooding sorrowful and 
depressed, thinking : " Shame then verily be upon this 
thing called birth, since to one born the decay of life, since 
disease, since death shows itself like that ! " 

Thereupon the raja (questioned the charioteer as before 
and as before let Gotama be still more surrounded by 
sensuous enjoyment). And thus he continued to live amidst 
the pleasures of sense. 

Now once again after many days . . . the lord Gotama 
. . . drove forth. 

And he saw, as he was driving to the park, a 
shaven-headed man, a recluse, wearing the yellow robe. 
And seeing him he asked the charioteer : " That man, 
good charioteer, what has he done, that his head is unlike 
other men's heads and his clothes too are unlike those 
of others ? " 

" That is what they call a recluse, because, my lord, 
he is one who has gone forth." 

" What is that, ' to have gone forth ? '" 

" To have gone forth my lord, means being thorough 
in the religious life, thorough in the peaceful life, thorough 
in good actions, thorough in meritorious conduct, thorough 
in harmlessness, thorough in kindness to all creatures." 

" Excellent indeed, friend charioteer, is what they call 
a recluse, since so thorough is his conduct in all those 
respects, wherefore drive me up to that forthgone man." 

" Yea, my lord," replied the charioteer and drove up to 
the recluse. Then Gotama addressed him, saying : " You, 
master, what have you done that your head is not as other 
men's heads, nor your clothes as those of other men ? " 

" I, my lord, am one who has gone forth." 

" What, master, does that mean ? " 

" It means, my lord, being thorough in the religious life, 
thorough in the peaceful life, thorough in good actions, 
thorough in meritorious conduct, thorough in harmlessness, 
thorough in kindness to all creatures." 

"Excellently indeed, master, are you said to have gone 
forth, since so thorough is your conduct in all those respects." 
Then the lord Gotama bade his charioteer, saying : 



THE SUBLIME STORY 19 

" Come then good charioteer, do you take the carriage and 
drive it hence back to my rooms. But I will even here cut 
off my hair, and don the yellow robe, and go forth from the 
house into the homeless state." 

" Yea, my lord," replied the charioteer, and drove back. 
But the prince Gotama, there and then cutting off his hair 
and donning the jjellow robe, went forth from the house 
into the homeless state. t 

Now at Kapilavatthu, the raja's seat, a great number 
of persons, some eighty-four thousand souls, 1 heard of what 
prince Gotama had done and thought : " Surely this is no 
ordinary religious rule, this is no common going forth, in 
that prince Gotama himself has had his head shaved and 
has donned the yellow robe and has gone forth from the 
house into the homeless state. If prince Gotama has 
done this why then should not we also ? " And they all 
had their heads shaved, and donned the yellow robes, and 
in imitation of the Bodhisat, they went forth from 
the house into the homeless state. So the Bodhisat went 
on his rounds through the villages, towns and cities accom- 
panied by that multitude. 

Now there arose in the mind of Gotama the Bodhisat, 
when he was meditating in seclusion, this thought : " That 
indeed is not suitable for me that I should live beset. 'Twere 
better were I to dwell alone, far from the crowd." 

So after a time he dwelt alone, away from the crowd. 
Those eighty-four thousand recluses went one way, and 
the Bodhisat went another way. 

Now there arose in the mind of Gotama the Bodhisat 
when he had gone to his place, 2 and was meditating in 
seclusion, this thought : " Verily this world has fallen upon 
trouble ; one is born, and grows old, and dies ; and falls 
from one state, and .springs up in another. And from 
this suffering, moreover, no one knows of any way of escape, 
even from decay and death. O, when shall a way of escape 
from this suffering be made known, from decay and from 
death?" 

1 The number is an usual idiom for a great many. 
3 Under his Wisdom-tree, says the Commentary. 



20 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

Then to the Bodhisat this thought occurred : " What 
now being present, is decay and dying also present ; what 
conditions decay and dying ? " 

. Then from attention to the cause arose the conviction 
through reason : " Where birth is, there is decay and dying ; 
birth is the condition of decay and dying." 

Then to the Bodhisat this occurred: "What now 
being present, is birth also present ; what conditions birth ? " 
Then from attention to the cause rose the conviction through 
reason : " Where becoming is, birth also is ; becoming is the 
condition of birth ? " 

Then to the Bodhisat this occurred : " What now being 
present, is becoming also present ; what conditions becoming " ? 

" Where grasping is, there is becoming ; grasping is the 
condition of becoming "... 

" What now being present, is grasping also present, what 
conditions grasping ? " . . . 

" Where craving is, there is grasping ; craving is the 
condition of grasping." . . . 

" What now being present, is craving also present ; what 
conditions craving ? " . . . 

" Where feeling is, there is craving ; feeling is the condition 
of craving." . . . 

" What now being present, is feeling also present ; what 
conditions feeling ? " . . . 

" Where contact is, there is feeling ; contact is the condition 
of -.feeling." . . . 

" What now being present, is contact also present ; what 
conditions contact ? " . . . 

" Where is the sixfold field, there is contact ; the sixfold 
field is the condition of contact." 1 . . . 

"What now being present, is the sixfold field also present ; 
what conditions the sixfold field ? " . . . 

" Where name-and-form 2 is, there is the sixfold field ; 
name-and-form is the condition of the sixfold field." . . . 

" What now being present, is name-and-form also present ; 
what conditions name-and-form ? " . . . 

3 i Buddhist psychology regards mind as a sixth sense. 

* Here name-and-form has the signification of mind and body. 



THE SUBLIME STORY 21 

" Where cognition is there is name-and-form ; cognition 
is the condition of name-and-form." 1 

" What now being present, is cognition also present ; 
what conditions cognition ? " . . . 

" Where name-and-form is, there is cognition ; name- 
and-form conditions cognition." 

Then to Gotama the Bodhisat this occurred : " Cognition 
turns back from name-and-form ; it goes not beyond. Only 
as follows can one be born or grow old, or die, or fall from 
one condition, or reappear in another ; that is, in that 
cognition is conditioned by name-and-form, and name-and- 
form by cognition, the sixfold field by name-and-form, 
contact by the sixfold field, feeling by contact, craving 
by feeling, grasping by craving, becoming by grasping, 
birth by . becoming, decay and dying by birth, and so too 
grief, lamentation, ill, sorrow and despair come to pass, 
such is the coming to be of this entire body of ill." 

" Coming to be, coming to be." At that thought there 
arose to Gotama the Bodhisat a vision into things not called 
before to mind, and knowledge arose, reason arose, wisdom 
arose, light arose. 

Then to Gotama the Bodhisat this occurred : " What 
now being absent, is decay and dying also absent ; by ceasing 
of what does decay and dying cease ? " Then from attention 
to the cause arose the conviction through reason : 

" Where birth is absent, decay and dying are absent ; 
when birth ceases, decay and dying ceases" . . . 

" Where becoming is absent, birth is absent ; when 
becoming ceases, birth ceases" ... 

" Where grasping is absent, birth is absent ; when grasping 
ceases; becoming ceases "... 

" Where craving is absent, grasping is absent ; when 
craving ceases, grasping ceases "... 

" Where feeling is absent, craving is absent ; when feeling 
ceases, craving ceases" . . . 

1 Ancient and modern commentators think that the omission here 
of the two -ultimate links in the " Chain of Causation ", as elsewhere 
given, ignorance and effective mental properties (sankhara), may come 
from their predominating force being in a previous life : the " chain " 
here confining itself to the present and the next life. 



22 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 



" Where contact is absent, feeling is absent ; when contact 
ceases, feeling ceases " . . . 

"Where the sixfold field is absent, contact is absent ; when 
the sixfold field ceases, contact ceases" . . . 

" Where name-and-form is absent, the sixfold field is absent ; 
when name-and-form ceases, the sixfold field ceases "... 

" Where cognition is absent, name-and-form is absent ; 
when cognition ceases name-and-form ceases" . . . 

" Where name-and-form is absent, cognition is absent ; 
when name-and-form ceases, cognition ceases." 

Then to Gotama the Bodhisat this occurred : " Lo, I have 
won to this, the way to enlightenment through insight. 
And it is this, that from name-and-form ceasing, cognition 
ceases, and conversely ; that from name-and-form ceasing, 
the sixfold field ceases ; from the sixfold field ceasing, contact 
ceases ; from contact ceasing, feeling ceases ; from feeling 
ceasing, craving ceases ; from craving ceasing, grasping 
ceases ; from grasping ceasing, becoming ceases ; from 
becoming ceasing, birth ceases ; from birth ceasing, decay 
and dying, grief, lamentation, ill, sorrow and despair cease. 
Such is the ceasing of this entire body of ill." 

" Ceasing to be, ceasing to be," at. that thought there 
arose to Gotama the Bodhisat a vision into things not called 
before to mind, and knowledge arose, reason arose, wisdom 
arose, light arose. 

Thereafter the Bodhisat dwelt in the discernment of the 
rising and passing away of the five groups (of individual 
life) depending on grasping : " Such is form, such is the 
coming to be of form, such is its passing away; such is 
feeling, such is the coming to be of feeling, such is its passing 
away ; such is perception, such is its coming to be, such is 
its passing away ; such are the synergies, such is their coming 
to be, such is their passing away ; such is cognition, such 
is its coming to be, such is its passing away." 

And for him, abiding in the discernment of the rising 
and passing away of the five groups depending on grasping, 
not long was it before his heart void of grasping, was set 
free from the cankers. 

END OF PART II 



THE NOBLE QUEST 23 

(The comparison of this account with the life of Gotama 
as found in the Vinaya Texts, Majjhima and Samyutta 
Nikayas, is of much interest to students of Buddhism. But 
it now follows so closely the narrative of Gotama, elsewhere 
given in this book, from the Vinaya that we omit the remaining 
part of this discourse. 

It is true that this account has important omissions which 
are interesting to note. They are the absence of events 
corresponding to those under the Ajapala, Muchalinda and 
Rajayatana-trees ; mention is not made of previous teachers, 
or others corresponding to the five ascetics ; nor the sermons 
preached to them on the " Middle Way " and the " Absence 
of Self ". But there is the same account given of Gotama's 
disinclination to teach the Dhamma, his persuasion by 
a great Brahma, his first discourse in a place called the- 
" Deer park ", the formula of his discourses to lay-converts 
on generosity, morality, heaven, the danger of vanity and 
the defilement of lusts ; and that of his discourses to monk- 
converts on the advantage of renunciation, and the " Truths " 
which the Buddhas alone have won ; that is to say, the 
doctrine, of Sorrow, of its origin, of its cessation, and the 
"Path" his conversion of great multitudes, the attainment 
of Arahantship by his disciples, his sending them out to 
preach the Dhamma, and the regular recitation of the 
Patimokkha.) 



THE NOBLE QUEST x 

(FROM MAJJHIMA-NIKAYA, 2&h SUTTA) 

" Before I was fully enlightened, monks, being not yet the 
Buddha, only a Bodhisatta, myself subject to birth, old 
age, disease, death, sorrow and corruption, I sought what 
was subject to birth, old age, disease, death, sorrow and 
corruption. 

" Then, monks, it occurred to me : ' Why do I seek thus ? ' 

1 The translation in some places omits repetitions. 



24 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

" What if now, perceiving the wretchedness of these states, 
I were to seek the incomparable security of a Nibbana free 
from birth, old age, disease, death, sorrow and corruption ? 

" After a time, monks, while yet of tender age, with the 
black hair of a lad, in the fulness of my youth, just entering 
manhood, against the wishes of my weeping parents, I had 
my hair and beard shaved off, put on the yellow robes and 
went forth from the home into the homeless life. 

" So having become a recluse, searching for what is good, 
seeking the peerless way of desirable peace, I went to Alara 
Kalama and I spoke to him thus : 

'Brother Kalama, I would like to lead the religious life 
under your dhamma and discipline.' 1 

" Then, monks, Alara Kalama addressed me as follows : 
'Let your reverence remain. Of such a nature is this 
dhamma that in a brief time an intelligent man can learn 
for himself, realize and live in the possession of what is 
taught.' 

" And, monks, in a brief time, I quickly learned that 
dhamma. And I, and the others with me, just by lip- 
profession, just by verbal assertion, uttered the Wisdom 
doctrine and the Elders' doctrine, and claimed that 
' I know, I see ! ' Then, monks, came to me the thought ; 

" Not by mere faith Alara Kalama announces that he 
has learned this dhamma for himself, realized it, and abides 
in the possession of it. Surely Alara Kalama knows and 
understands this dhamma ". 

" Then I went, monks, to where Alara Kalama was, and 
addressed him thus : ' Up to what does this dhamma lead, 
brother Kalama, concerning which you say that you have 
learned it for yourself, realized it and abide in its possession ? ' 

" When I thus questioned Alara Kalama, he replied that 
it led to the realm of non-existence. Then, monks, came 
to me the thought " : 

"Not .only Alara Kalama has faith; I also have faith. 
Not only Alara Kalama has energy, . . . mindfulness, . . . 
concentration, . . . wisdom. I also have them. What if 

1 The term here is dhamma-vinaye ; a compound so significant in 
Buddhist terminology. 



THE NOBLE QUEST 25 

I now were to strive for the realization of that dhamma, of 
which Alara Kalama declares that he has learned it for 
himself, realized it, and abides in its possession." 

" In a brief time, monks, I quickly learned that dhamma 
for myself, realized it and abode in its possession. Then, 
monks, I approached where Alara Kalama was, and 
addressed him thus : 

" ' Brother Kalama, is this as far as the dhamma leads, 
of which you declare that you have learned it for yourself, 
realized it and abide in its possession ? ' 

" ' This is as far, brother, as the dhamma leads, of which 
I have declared that I have learned it for myself, realized 
it and abide in its possession.' 

" ' I too, brother Kalama, have learned this dhamma 
for myself, realized it and abide in its possession.' 

" ' Fortunate we are, brother. Supremely favoured, that 
we should meet such a true ascetic as your reverence. 
As I have declared the dhamma, so have you learned it ; 
as you have learned it, so have I declared it. As I know 
the dhamma, so you know the dhamma ... As I am, so are 
you ; as you are, so am I. Come then, brother, together we 
will direct this company of disciples.' 

"Thus, monks, Alara Kalama, my teacher, made me 
his pupil, as equal to himself , and honoured me with very 
great honour. Then, monks, came to me the thought : 

" ' This dhamma leads not to detachment, to absence 
of passion, to cessation, to abatement, to higher knowledge, 
to full enlightenment, to Nibbana, but only to the attainment 
of the sphere of rfothingness.' 

" And I did not find that dhamma sufficient, monks, 
unsatisfied I went away from there. 

"Then, monks, searching for what is good, seeking the 
peerless way of the desirable peace, I came near to where 
Uddaka, the disciple of Rama, was ; and approaching, 
I spoke to Uddaka as follows : 

" ' Brother Rama, I would like to lead the religious life 
under your dhamma and discipline.' 

" Then, monks, Uddaka, the disciple of Rama, addressed 
me as follows : 



26 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

" ' Let the honourable one remain. Of such a nature 
is this dhamma, that in a brief time an intelligent man 
can learn for himself, realize and live in possession of what 
is taught.' 

"Then, monks, in a brief time I quickly learned 
that dhamma. And I, and others, just by lip-profession, 
just by verbal assertion, uttered the Wisdom doctrine 
and the Elders' doctrine, and claimed that ' I know, 
I see ! ' 

" Then, monks, the thought came to me : 

Not by mere faith, Rama announces that he has learned 
this dhamma for himself, realized it, and lives in the 
possession of it. Surely Rama knows and understands 
this dhamma.' 

"Then, monks, I went to where Uddaka, the disciple 
of Rama was, and addressed him thus : 

" ' Up to what does this dhamma lead, brother Rama, 
concerning which you say that you have learned it for 
yourself, realized it, and abide in its possession ? ' 

" When, monks, I thus had questioned Uddaka the 
disciple of Rama, he replied, that it led to the realm of 
neither perception nor non-perception. 

" Then, monks, came to me the thought : 

" ' Not only has Rama faith, I also have faith. Not 
only has Rama energy, . . . mindfulness, . . . concen- 
tration, wisdom ; I also have them. What if I now were to 
strive for the realization of the dhamma, of which Rama 
declares that he has learned it for himself, realized it and 
abides in its possession ? ' 

" In a brief tune, monks, I quickly learned that dhamma 
for myself, realized it and abode in its possession. Then, 
monks, I approached where Uddaka, the disciple of Rama 
was, and addressed him thus : 

" ' Brother, is this as far as the dhamma leads, of which 
you declare that you have learned it for yourself, realized it, 
and abide in its possession ? ' 

" ' This is as far, brother, as the dhamma leads, of which 
I have declared that I have learned it for myself, realized it, 
and abide in its possession.' 



CONQUEST OF FEAR 27 

" ' I too, brother, have learned this doctrine for myself, 
realized it, and abide in its possession.' 

" ' Fortunate we are, brother, supremely favoured, that 
we should meet such a true ascetic as your reverence. 
As I have declared the dhamma, so have you learned it ; 
as you have learned it, so have I declared it. As I know 
the dhamma, so you know the dhamma ... As I am, so 
are you ; as you are, so am I. Come then, brother, together 
we will direct this company of disciples.' 

" Thus, monks, Uddaka the disciple of Rama, my teacher, 
made" me, his pupil, as equal to himself, and honoured me 
with very great honour. Then came to me the thought : 

" ' This dhamma does not lead to detachment, to absence 
of passion, to cessation, to abatement, to contemplation, 
to full enlightenment, to Nibbana, but only as far as the 
realm of neither perception nor non-perception.' 

" And, monks, I did not find that dhamma sufficient ; 
unsatisfied I went away from there. Then, monks, searching 
for something good, seeking the peerless way of desirable 
peace, I passed through the land of Magadha from place 
to place, and came near to the town of Uravela. There 
I saw a well placed plot of ground ; a serene dense grove, 
a clear flowing stream, suitable for bathing, refreshing, all about 
were villages in which to go for alms. Perceiving this, monks, 
it occurred to me . . . ' Here is everything necessary for the 
struggle of a worthy man.' 

" And there, monks, as all was suitable for the struggle, 
I settled down." 



CONQUEST OF FEAR 
(TRANS. FROM A PORTION OF MAJJHIMA-NIKAYA, 4th SVTTA) 

(The Buddha is addressing the Brahman Janussoni) 

And to me also before my full enlightenment, being still 
only imperfectly enlightened, but verily seeking to attain 
enlightenment, I also thought : " Hard is it to live y in the 



28 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

depths of the forest, in remote places ; difficult to rejoice 
in solitude and retirement ; unsettling to the mind for the 
monk who has not reached tranquillity." 

Then I said within myself: "All those ascetics and 
brahmans who resort to remote places in the depths of the 
forest, while they are not pure in body, action, word, thought, 
or way of life ; filled with covetousness, lust, keen passions, 
hatred and corrupt thought and desires ; possessed by sloth 
and torpor ; unbalanced and unpacified in mind ; full of 
doubts and uncertainty ; or who resort to the forest in 
self-conceit and in disparagement of others ; terrified, 
cowardly, with desire for honour and fame ; indolent and 
apathetic, inert, feeble and forgetful; lacking intelligence, 
uncontrolled, wavering in mind ; without reason, stupid, 
they, because of these impurities, invoke fear and terror. 
But I resort to the remote places in the lonely depths of the 
forest, following purity of body, action, word, thought and 
way of life ; freed from covetousness, filled full with loving 
kindness, with sloth and torpor banished ; serene of mind, 
conquered every doubt, not exalting myself nor disparaging 
others, gone excitement and fear, satisfied with little, resolved 
and strenuous, collected in mind, who have won concentration 
and the blessing of the higher knowledge. Whatsoever 
Noble Ones there be who resort to remote places in the 
lonely depths of the forest, thus purified and thus \ attained, 
of such am I." 

Then perceiving that these purifications and attainments 
were mine, serenity in the Me of the forest arose in me. Then 
I said within myself : " How now, if upon those noted 
auspicious nights of the full moons and the eighth 
of the waxing and waning moon, I should seek the 
shrines in grove and forest and under the trees, and abide 
on such a night in those places of horror and hair-raising, 
so that, forsooth, I might contemplate that fear and horror." 

And subsequently on those auspicious nights of the full 
moons and the eighth of the waxing and waning moons I 
sought the shrines in grove and forest and under the trees, 
and abode on such nights in those places of horror and 
hair-raising. And while I stayed there some beast approached, 



CONQUEST OF FEAR 29 

a peacock caused a twig to fall, the wind rustled among 
the fallen leaves ; and I thought : ' Now comes that fear 
and terror ! ' 

Then I said within myself : "But why at any rate should 
I await expecting that fear ? How if when that fear and 
terror really come I indeed should overcome that fear and 
terror just as I happen to be ? " 

And that fear and terror came as I walked to and fro, 
but I neither stood still, nor sat down, nor lay down, until, 
walking to and fro, I had overcome that fear and terror. 
And that fear and terror came as I stood still, but I neither 
walked to and fro, nor sat down, nor lay down, until, 
standing still, I had overcome that fear and terror : and 
that fear and terror came over me as I sat ; but I neither 
lay down nor stood up nor walked to and fro, until, sitting, 
I had overcome that fear and terror. And that fear and 
terror came over me as I lay down ; but I neither sat up 
nor walked to and fro until, lying down, I had overcome 
that fear and terror. 

There are many ascetics and brahmans who conceive 
night to be just the same as day, and day just the same 
as night. This I call delighting in illusion on the part of 
those ascetics and brahmans. Now I perceive that when -night 
is here, it is night, when day is here, it is day. 

Now who can say this truly of anyone, can truly say it also of 
me : "A being without illusion has been born, .for the good 
of many, for the benefit of many, out of compassipn for the 
world, for the blessing, the welfare and the happiness of 
gods and men. " 

There I dwelt, strenuous, serene, attentive, mindful, with 
body cool and calm, with mind collected and tranquil . . . 

Here follows a description of the Enlightenment as in 
Majjhima-Nikdya 36. 



30 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

ENLIGHTENMENT ATTAINED 

(FROM THE MAHASACCAKA SUTTA) 

Containing a further description of the Buddha's search for enlighten- 
ment, taken from Sutta No. 36 of the Majjhima-Nikaya. 

(The Buddha is addressing Aggivessana.) 

" Here there came to me, Aggivessana, three comparisons 
spontaneously, not previously heard. 

" Thus if, Aggivessana, a damp, muddy piece of wood 
should be thrown into the water.; and a man come there 
provided with a piece of wood to rub (thinking) : ' I wish 
to make a fire, to produce light.' What think you now, 
Aggivessana, could this man possibly make a fire, produce 
light by rubbing a damp, muddy piece of wood which had 
been thrown into the water ? " 

" Certainly not, Gotama." 

" And why not ? " 

" That piece of wood, Gotama, is damp, muddy and also 
had been thrown into the water. All the trouble and bother 
of the man would be in vain." 

" Now it is just so, Aggivessana, with certain ascetics 
or brahmans, who are not weaned from the body, who are 
not inwardly rid of, and wholly allayed what in their desires 
is the wish of desire, the snare of desire, the dizziness of 
desire, the thirst of desire, and the fever of desire ; if now 
these good ascetics and brahmans experience painful, 
piercing, terrible sensations that arise in them, then they 
are incapable of wisdom, of insight, and of the incomparable 
full awakening ; and also if these good ascetics and brahmans 
do not experience painful, piercing, terrible sensations that 
arise in them, then also they are incapable of wisdom, of 
insight, and of the incomparable full awakening. Now this 
comparison, Aggivessana, was the first to come to me, spontan- 
eously, not previously heard. 

" And then, Aggivessana, there came to me a second 
comparison spontaneously, not previously heard. Thus if, 
Aggivessana, a damp, muddy piece of wood should be cast far 
from the water upon the ground, and a man should come 



ENLIGHTENMENT ATTAINED 31 

provided with a piece of wood to rub (thinking) : ' I wish 
to make fire, to produce light.' What do you think now, 
Aggivessana, could this man possibly make fire, produce 
light, by rubbing the damp and muddy piece- of wood cast 
far from the water on to the ground ? " 

" Certainly not, Gotama." 

" And why not ? " 

" That piece of wood, Gotama, is damp and muddy and 
also it has been cast from the water on to the ground, all 
the trouble and bother of the man would be in vain." 

" Now exactly like this, Aggivessana, it is with certain 
ascetics or brahmans, who have overcome the body, and 
also desire, who nevertheless are not inwardly rid of and 
have not wholly allayed what in their desires is the wish 
of desire, the snare of desire, the dizziness of desire, the 
thirst of desire, the fever of desire ; if now these good ascetics 
and brahmans experience painful, piercing, terrible sensations 
that arise in them, they are incapable of wisdom, of insight, 
and the incomparable full awakening ; and even if these 
good ascetics and brahmans experience not these painful, 
piercing, terrible sensations that arise in them, then also 
they are incapable of wisdom, of insight, and the incomparable 
full awakening. This comparison, Aggivessana, was the 
second to come to me, spontaneously, not previously heard. 

" And then, Aggivessana, there came to me a third com- 
parison, spontaneously, not previously heard. Thus, Aggi- 
vessana, if a dry, clean piece of wood, that (once) had been 
cast far from the water upon the ground, and a man should 
come provided with a piece of wood to rub (thinking) : 
' I wish to make fire, to produce light.' What do you think 
now, Aggivessana, could this man possibly make fire, 
produce light, by rubbing the dry, clean piece of wood cast 
far from the water upon the ground ? " 

" Certainly, Gotama." 

" And why ? " 

" That piece of wood is dry and clean and lies on the ground 
out of the water." 

" Now exactly like this is it with certain ascetics and 
brahmans that have been weaned from the body, and also 



32 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

from desires, that are inwardly rid of and have wholly allayed 
what in their desires is the wish of desire, the snare of desire, 
the dizziness of desire, the thirst of desire, the fever of desire, 
if thus these good ascetics and brahmans feel painful, piercing, 
terrible sensations, that arise in them, then" they are capable 
of wisdom, of insight, and the imcomparable full awakening ; 
and even if these dear ascetics and brahmans do not feel 
painful, piercing, terrible sensations, that arise in them, 
also then they are capable of wisdom, of insight, and of the 
incomparable full awakening. 

" This comparison, Aggivessana, was the third to come to 
me, spontaneously, not previously heard. 

" These three comparisons, Aggivessana, came to me 
spontaneously, not previously heard. 

" Then, Aggivessana, this came to me : ' What if I 
now with gritted teeth, and my tongue cleaving to my 
palate, should master, crush, and force my thought by the 
mind ? ' And I now, Aggivessana, with gritted teeth, 
and tongue cleaving to my palate, mastered, crushed, and 
forced my thought by the mind. While I thus, Aggivessana, 
with gritted teeth, and my tongue cleaving to my palate, 
mastered, crushed, and forced my thought by the mind, the 
sweat oozed out from under my arm-pits. Just as, Aggi- 
vessana, a strong man seizing another weaker one by his 
head or shoulder masters, crushes and forces him, Aggivessana, 
so with gritted teeth and tongue cleaving to my palate I 
mastered, crushed, and forced my thought by the mind until 
the sweat oozed out from under my arm-pits. Also verily, 
Aggivessana, energetic and not weakened was my force, 
present and irremovable my attention, but my body being 
driven by such painful effort was agitated and disturbed. 
However, Aggivessana, my condition was such that the 
painful feelings arisen in me could not obsess my thought. 

" Then, Aggivessana, this came to me : ' What if 
I now concentrate my attention in Jhana, without 
breathing ? ' 

" So now, Aggivessana, I held the inbreathings and out- 
breathings of the mouth and nose. Then, Aggivessana, 
with holding the inbreathings and outbreathings of the 



ENLIGHTENMENT ATTAINED 33 

mouth and nose there was an extraordinary roar in the ears 
of the going out of the air. Just as indeed the swollen 
bellows of a forge make an extraordinary roar, so now, 
Aggivessana, with holding the inbreathing and outbreathing 
of the mouth and nose, was the extraordinary roar in the 
ears due to the going out of the air. 

" Verily, Aggivessana, energetic and not weakened 
was my force, present and irremovable my attention, but 
my body being driven by such painful effort was agitated 
and disturbed. However, Aggivessana, my condition was 
such that the painful feelings arisen in me could not obsess 
my thought. 

"Then, Aggivessana, this came to me: 'What if I 
now still more concentrate my attention in Jhana, without 
breathing ? ' 

" So now, Aggivessana, I held the inbreathing and out- 
breathing of the mouth and nose and ear. Then, Aggivessana, 
with the holding the inbreathings and outbreathings of the 
mouth, and nose and ear, violent airs shook my head. Just 
as if, Aggivessana, a strong man should cleave his head with 
a sharp point of a dagger, also in precisely the same way 
while I held the inbreathings and outbreathings of the mouth, 
nose and ear, violent airs shook my head. Verily, Aggi- 
vessana, energetic and not weakened was my force, present 
and irremovable my attention, but my body being driven 
by such painful effort was agitated and disturbed. However, 
Aggivessana, my condition was such that the painful feelings 
arisen in me, could not obsess my thought. 

" Then, Aggivessana, this came to me : ' What if I 
now still more concentrate my attention in Jhana, without 
breathing ? ' And I now, Aggivessana, held the inbreathing 
and outbreathing of the mouth, nose and ear. Then, 
Aggivessana, with the holding of the inbreathings and out- 
breathings of the mouth, nose and ear were violent pains 
in the head. Just as if, Aggivessana, a strong man should 
give rapid beatings of a strong piece of leather upon the head, 
also in precisely the same way, while I held the inbreathings 
and outbreatbings of the mouth, nose and ear were the violent 
pains in the head. 



D 



34 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

" Verily, Aggivessana, energetic and not weakened was 
my force, present and irremovable my attention, but my 
body being driven by such, painful effort was agitated and 
disturbed. However, Aggivessana, my condition was such 
that the painful feelings arisen in me could not obsess my 
thought. 

" Then, Aggivessana, this came to me : ' What if I 
now still more concentrate my attention in Jhana, without 
breathing ? ' 

" So now, Aggivessana, I held the inbreathings and out- 
breathings of the mouth, and nose and ear. Then, Aggi- 
vessana, with the holding the inbreathings and outbreathings 
of the mouth, nose and ear, violent winds tore at my belly. 
Just as if, Aggivessana, a deft butcher, or butcher's apprentice, 
with a sharp carving knife should carve the stomach, so, 
Aggivessana, while I held the inbreathings and outbreathings 
of the mouth, nose and ear, violent winds tore at my belly. 
Verily, Aggivessana, energetic and not weakened was my 
force, present and irremovable my attention, but my body 
being driven by such painful effort, was agitated and dis- 
turbed. However, Aggivessana, my condition was such that 
the painful feelings arisen in me could not obsess my thought. 

" Then, Aggivessana, this came to me : ' What if I 
now still more concentrate my attention in Jhana, without 
breathing ? ' 

" So now, Aggivessana, I held the inbreathings and out- 
breathings of the mouth, nose and ear. Then, Aggivessana, 
with holding the inbreathing and outbreathing of the mouth, 
nose and ear, a violent burning was in my body. Just 
as if, Aggivessana, two strong men should seize a weaker 
man by both the arms and roll him and throw him down 
into a ditch full of burning coals, so, Aggivessana, while 
I held the inbreathings and outbreathings of the mouth, 
nose and ear a violent burning was in my body. Verily, 
Aggivessana, energetic and not weakened was my force, 
present and irremovable my attention, but my body being 
driven by such painful effort was agitated and disturbed. 
However, Aggivessana, my condition was such that the 
painful feelings arisen in me, could not obsess my thought. 



ENLIGHTENMENT ATTAINED 35 

" Then, Aggivessana, a deva seeing me spoke thus : ' The 
ascetic Gotama is dead.' Other devas then said : ' The 
ascetic Gotama is not dead but he is dying,' and other devas 
said : ' The ascetic Gotama is not dead and he is not dying ; 
an arahant (saint) is the ascetic Gotama, he is even dwelling 
in the state of arahantship.' 

" Then, Aggivessana, this came to me : ' What if I 
should entirely abstain from food ? ' Then Aggivessana, 
the devas drew near to me and said : ' Do not now, sir, 
entirely abstain from food ; even if now, sir, you should 
entirely abstain from food then we shall instil heavenly 
nourishment through the pores of your skin, indeed you shall 
remain alive.' Then, Aggivessana, this came to me : 
' What if I now indeed should practise utter fasting, but 
these devas should instil heavenly nourishment through 
my pores 'and thus I should be sustained, then that would 
be for me a. lie.' 

" And, Aggivessana, I rejected the devas and said : ' It 
is enough.' 

" Then, Aggivessana, came to me the thought : ' What 
if I now take less and less nourishment, as much as will go in 
the hollow of two hands, of bean-soup, or of pea-soup, or 
of lentil-soup ? ' And, Aggivessana, I took less and less 
nourishment, one or two handfuls of bean-soup, or of pea- 
soup, or of lentil-soup. And while I thus, Aggivessana, 
took less and less nourishment, one or two handfuls. of bean- 
soup, or pea-soup, or lentil-soup, my body became exceeding 
thin. Like dried canes now became my arms and legs, 
withered through this extremely scanty diet ; like the foot 
of a camel became my buttock, through this extremely 
scanty diet ; like a string of beads became my spinal column ; 
with the vertebrae protruding, through this extremely scanty 
diet ; just as the roof-beams of an old house sharply protrude, 
so protruded my ribs, through this extremely scanty diet ; 
just as in a deep well the little water-stars far beneath are 
scarcely seen, so now in my eye-balls the sunken pupils 
are scarcely seen, through the extremely scanty diet; as 
a wild gourd, freshly cut, in the hot sun becomes empty and 



36 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

withered, so now becapae empty and withered the skin of 
my head, through this extremely scanty diet. 

"And when, Aggivesasna, I wished to touch my belly, 
I reached to the back of my spine, and when I wished to touch 
my spine, I again reached to the belly. Thus near, Aggi- 
vessana, had come my belly to the spinal column, through 
this extremely scanty food. And if I wished, Aggivessana, 
to evacuate my bowels and urinate, I fell forward, through 
this extremely scanty diet. Then to reinforce this body, 
Aggivessana, I chafed the limbs with the hand. And while, 
Aggivessana, I thus chafed the limbs with the hand, there 
fell from the skin the badly rooted hair, through this extremely 
scanty diet. 

" Then, Aggivessana, men beheld me and said : ' The 
ascetic Gotama is black.' Other men said : ' The ascetic 
Gotama is not black, the ascetic Gotama is brown.' And 
other men said : ' The ascetic Gotama is not black and the 
ascetic Gotama is not brown, the ascetic Gotama is yellow.' 
So much, Aggivessana, had the clear pure colour of my skin 
been smitten by this scanty diet. 

" Then, Aggivessana, this came to me : ' Whatever 
ascetic or brahman in the past has ever felt such painful, 
burning, bitter sensations ? This is the uttermost, beyond 
this one cannot go. Whatever ascetics orbrahmansin the future 
ever will feel such painful, burning, bitter sensations ? This 
is the uttermost, beyond this one cannot go.' ' Whatever ascetics 
or brahmans hi the present feel such painful, burning, bitter 
sensations ? This is the uttermost, beyond this one cannot 
go.' Now not by this terrible asceticism do I win beyond 
the human, do I win distinction of truly genuine knowledge. 
There is perhaps another way of enlightenment. 

" Then Aggivessana, this came to me : 'I remember indeed, 
once, while my father was doing the work * of the Sakyan, 
I, sitting under the shade of a rose-apple tree, aloof from 
desire, aloof from things not good, with thinking and with 
thought sustained, entering to have become a dweller in the 
first Jhana, born of solitude, full of joy and happiness.' Is 
not this the way of enlightenment ? 

1 That is plowing, see Buddhist Birth Stories, 2nd edition, p. 163. 



ENLIGHTENMENT ATTAINED 37 

" Then, Aggivessana, came to me the consciousness 
following on attention : ' This is the way of enlightenment.' 

" Then, Aggivessana, this came to me : ' Why should 
I perhaps fear this happiness, this happiness otherwise than 
by sense-desire, otherwise than by things not good ? ' 

" Then, Aggivessana, this came to me : ' No, I do not 
fear this happiness, which is otherwise than by sense-desire, 
than by things not good.' 

" Then, Aggivessana, this came to me : ' I cannot easily 
reach this happiness with a body so exceedingly weakened : 
what if \ now take solid food, rice soup ? ' And then I 
I took solid food, rice soup. 

" At that tune, Aggivessana, five ascetics lived near to 
me : (thinking) ' When the ascetic Gotama will have gained 
for us the dhamma, he will share it with us.' But 
when I now, Aggivessana, took solid food and cooked rice, 
then those five ascetics separated from me, and went away 
saying : ' The ascetic Gotama giving up exertion, falls 
into luxury.' 

" And I now, Aggivessana, taking solid food, gained 
strength, aloof from desire, aloof from things not good, 
with thinking, and with thought sustained, I entered on 
and became a dweller in the first Jhana, born of solitude, full 
of joy and happiness. Yet the feeling of joy which in that 
way arose in me Aggivessana, could not obsess my thought. 

"After suppressing attention and investigation, Aggivessana, 
I entered on and became a dweller in the second Jhana, 
born of that interior concentration of mind, when 
reasoning and investigation cease, tranquil, uplifted, full of 
joy and happiness. Yet the feeling of joy which in that 
way arose in me, Aggivessana, could not obsess my thought. 

" By the fading out of joy I remained equable mindful 
and attentive ; producing in my body that happy state 
of insight of which the Ariyans say : ' Equable and 
mindful, he dwells in happiness,' and I entered and became 
a dweller in the third Jhana. Yet the feeling of happy ease 
which in that way arose in me, Aggivessana, could not obsess 
my thought. 

" Rejecting joy and sorrow, Aggivessana, and rejecting 



38 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

former gladness and sadness, entering, I dwelt in the fourth 
Jhana, joy and sorrow perishing, a state of pure lucidity 
and equanimity. Yet the happy feelings which in that way 
arose in me, Aggivessana, could not obsess my thought. 

" With the mind thus composed, pure, translucent, straight- 
forward, cleansed of dross, supple, ready for action, firm, 
incorruptible, I bent down my mind to the memory of former 
lives. I remembered many former lives : one birth, then 
two births, then three births, then four births, then five 
births, then ten births, then twenty births, then thirty births, 
then forty births, then fifty births, then a hundred, then 
a thousand, then a hundred thousand, then epochs during 
various evolutions of the world, then epochs during various 
dissolutions of the world, then epochs during both evolutions 
and dissolutions of the world. In such a place, such was 
my name, such my family, such my state, such my office, 
I experienced such good or such evil, such was the end of my 
life ; from there I passed away and entered again another 
life, there I was now, I had such a name, such my family, 
such my state, such my office, I experienced such good or 
such evil, such was the end of my life, from there I passed 
away and entered again another life. Thus I did remember 
many various forms of previous lives, with all their special 
details, and with all their special relations. In the first watch 
of the night came to me this first knowledge. Ignorance was 
dispelled, knowledge was born, darkness was dispelled, light 
was born, while I dwelt, alert, ardent and strenuous. 
Yet the happy feelings which in that way arose in me, 
Aggivessana, could not obsess my thought. 

With my mind thus composed, pure, translucent, straight- 
forward, cleansed of dross, supple, ready for action, firm, 
incorruptible, I directed the mind to the knowledge of v 
the decease and rebirth of beings. With pure deva-eye sur- 
passing that of men, I saw beings decease and be reborn, 
common and noble, beautiful and ugly, happy and sorrowful ; 
I realized how these beings always reappeared according to 
their actions, and I thought : " These good beings are certainly 
not right in actions, not right in words, not right in 
thoughts, they revile what they should honour, they esteem 



ENLIGHTENMENT ATTAINED 39 

7 that which is dangerous, they do that which is dangerous ; 
with the dissolution of the body after death they go the 
baneful way to perdition, to hell. Those good beings, 
however, who are right in actions, right in words, 
right in thoughts, who revile not what they should 
honour, esteem that which is right, do that which is right ; 
with the dissolution of the body after death, go the blissful 
way to the heavenly world. 

" Thus I saw with pure deva-eye, surpassing that of men, 
beings deceasing and reborn, common and noble, beautiful and 
ugly, happy and sorrowful ; I understood how beings always 
fared according to their actions. In the middle watch of the 
night came to me this second knowledge. Ignorance was dis- 
pelled, knowledge was born, darkness was dispelled, light was 
born, while I dwelt alert, ardent, and attentive. Yet the feeling 
of joy which in that way arose in me could not obsess my 
thought. 

" With my mind thus composed, pure, translucent, straight- 
forward, cleansed of dross, supple, ready for action, firm, 
incorruptible, I directed my mind to the destruction of the 
Cankers (Deadly Floods, Delusions) : 

" I knew as it really is : ' This is ill.' 

I knew as it really is : ' This is the origin of ill/ 

I knew as it really is: ' This is the cessation of ill.' 

I knew as it really is : ' This is the path that leads to the 
cessation of ill.' 

" I knew as they really are : These are the Cankers. 

" I knew as it really is : 'This is the origin of the Cankers. 

I knew as it really is : ' This is the cessation of the Cankers. 

I knew as it really is : ' This is the Path that leads to the 
cessation of the Cankers. 

" Thus knowing, thus seeing, my mind was set free from 
the delusion of hankering after sensuous life, was set free 
from the delusion of hankering after becoming, was set 
free from the delusion coming from, ignorance. 

" In this freedom and emancipation this knowledge arose : 
Rebirth has been destroyed. The higher life has been ful- 
filled." 



40 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 



AN ANCIENT PATH 

(SAM YUTTA-NIKAYA, Vol. II, p. 104 (trans, p. 72) 

(Mrs. Rhys Davids's trans.) 

While at Savatthi the Exalted One said : 
Before I was enlightened, brethren, it came to me, a 
Bodhisat yet unenlightened, thus : Alas ! this world has 
fallen upon trouble. There is getting born and growing 
old and dying and falling and arising, but there is not the 
knowing of an escape from suffering, from decay-and-death. 
O when shall an escape be revealed from suffering, from decay- 
and-death ? Then, brethren, this came to me : What now 
being, does decay-and-death come to be ? What conditions 
decay-and-death ? To me, brethren, thinking according 
to law came grasp of insight : Where there is birth, decay- 
and-death comes to be ; decay-and-death is conditioned 
by birth : To me, brethren, came this : What how being, 
does birth come to be ? does becoming come to be ? does 
grasping come to be ? does craving come to be ? does feeling 
come to be ? does contact come to be ? does sense come 
to be ? does name-and-shape come to be ? what conditions 
name-and-shape ? To me, brethren, thinking according to 
law, came grasp of insight : where there is consciousness, 
there is name-and-shape ; name-and-shape is conditioned 
by consciousness. To me, brethren, came this : what now 
being, does consciousness come to be ? what conditions 
consciousness ? To me, brethren, thinking according to 
law came grasp of insight : where there is name-and-shape, 
there is consciousness ; consciousness is conditioned by 
name-and-shape. To me, brethren, came this : This con- 
sciousness turns back, it goes no further than name-and-shape. 
Thus far are ye born, or grow old, or die, or fall, or arise. 
Consciousness, namely, comes to pass conditioned by name- 
and-shape, name-and-shape conditioned by consciousness, 
sense conditioned by name-and-shape, contact conditioned 



AN ANCIENT PATH 41 

by sense, whence come to pass, feeling, craving, grasping, 
becoming, birth, decay-and-death, with grief, lamenting, 
suffering, sorrow, despair even such is the coming to be 
of this entire mass of ill. 

Coming to be, coming to be ! At the thought, brethren, 
there arose in me concerning things not taught before vision ; 
knowledge arose, insight arose, wisdom arose, light arose. 

To me, brethren, came this : What now not being, 
does decay-and-death not come to be ? From the ceasing 
of what ceases decay-and-death ? To me, brethren, thinking 
according to law, came grasp of insight : Where there is 
not birth, decay-and-death is not ; from the ceasing of 
birth ceases decay-and-death. To me, brethren, came 
this : What now not being does birth not come to be, . . . 
does becoming, does grasping, craving, feeling, contact, 
sense, name-and-shape not come to be ? From the ceasing 
of what, does name-and-shape cease ? To me, brethren, 
thinking according to law came grasp of insight : where 
consciousness is not, name-and-shape come not to be. From 
the ceasing of consciousness ceases name-and-shape. 

To me, brethren, came this : Won have I to the path of 
enlightenment, to this, that from the ceasing of name-and- 
shape consciousness ceases ; from the ceasing of consciousness 
name-and-shape ceases ; from the ceasing of name-and-shape 
sense ceases ; from the ceasing of sense contact ceases . . . 
yea, feeling, craving, grasping, becoming, birth, decay-and- 
death, with grief, lamenting, suffering, sorrow, despair cease. 
Even such is the ceasing of this entire mass of ill. 

Ceasing, ceasing ! At that thought, brethren, concerning 
things not taught before there arose in me vision, know- 
ledge arose, insight arose, wisdom arose, light arose. 

Just as if, brethren, a man faring through the forest, 
through the great wood should see an ancient path, an ancient 
road traversed by men of former days. And he were to 
go along it, and going along it he should see an ancient city, 
an ancient prince's domain, wherein dwelt men of former 
days, having gardens, groves, pools, foundations of walls, 
a goodly spot. And that man, brethren, should bring word 
to the prince or to the prince's minister : " Pardon, lord, 



42 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

know this. I have seen as I fared through the forest, through 
the great wood, an ancient path, an ancient road traversed 
by men of former days, I have been along it and going along 
it I have seen an ancient city, an ancient prince's domain, 
wherein dwelt men of former days, having gardens, groves, 
pools, foundations of walls, a goodly spot. Lord, restore 
that city." And, brethren, the prince or his minister should 
restore that city. That city should thereafter become 
prosperous and flourishing, populous, teeming with folk, 
grown and thriven. 

Even so have I, brethren, seen an ancient path, an ancient 
road traversed by the rightly enlightened ones of former 
times. 

And what, brethren, is that ancient path, that ancient 
road traversed by the rightly enlightened ones of former 
times ? 

Just this Ariyan eightfold path, to wit, right views, right 
amis, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, 
right mindfulness, right concentration. This, brethren, 
is that ancient path, that ancient road, traversed by the 
rightly enlightened ones of former times. Along that have 
I gone, and going along it I have fully come to know decay- 
and-death, I have fully come to know the uprising of decay- 
and-death. I have fully come to know the ceasing of decay- 
and-death, I have fully come to know the way going to the 
ceasing of decay-and-death. Along that have I gone, and 
going along it I have fully come to know birth, yea, and 
becoming and grasping, and craving, and feeling, and contact, 
and sense, and name-and-shape, and consciousness. Along 
that have I gone, and going along it I have fully come to know 
activities, I have fully come to know the uprising of activities, 
I have fully come to know the ceasing of activities, I have 
fully come to know the way going to the ceasing of activities. 
This that I have fully come to know I have declared to the 
brethren, to the sisters, to laymen, to laywomen,even this divine 
life, brethren, that is prosperous, and flourishing, wide- 
spread, and to be known by many, and multiplied so far 
as it is well made manifest by devas and men. 



GOING FORTH FOR A RELIGIOUS LIFE 43 
THE GOING FORTH FOR A RELIGIOUS LIFE 

(VERSES FROM THE SUTTA NIPATA, 405-24) 

I will praise the going forth, even as the far-seeing One 
went forth, even as, considering, he approved of going forth. 

Cramped is this household life, the home of dust. 

Free as air is going forth. Thus seeing he went forth. 

Going forth he rejected wrong-doing in action, and having 
put away wrong-doing in speech, he wholly purified his way 
of living. 

To the mountain fortress of the Magadhese, to Rajagaha 
came the Buddha. 

Rich in the signs of worth, he accepted alms for food. 

Standing on the upper terrace of his palace, Bimbisara 
saw him. 

On recognizing these signs, he spoke of this matter. 

" Sirs, mark this man, he is handsome, great and pure, 
guarded in conduct he looks but as far as a plow." 

With downcast eyes, and self-possessed is he, verily of 
no mean birth. 

Let the king's messenger make haste (and find out) where 
the monk will go ? 

Thus sent, the messengers followed after him, and asked : 
" Where will the monk go ? where does he abide ? " 

He going from house to house, guarded and well restrained 
the door (of sense), calm and self-possessed, his bowl was 
quickly filled. 

His round for alms completed, the Sage departed from the 
town. He reached Pandava. There he will abide. 

As soon as they had seen him stop, there the messengers 
drew near, and one messenger returned to the king, 
announcing : 

" This monk, Sire, like a great tiger, like a lion in his 
mountain cave, has seated himself on the eastern slope 
of Mount Pandava." 

On hearing the messengers' words the Khattiya hastening 
in a fine chariot went out to the Pandava mountain. 



44 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

The Khattiya (after) driving where a chariot might go, 
alighted and drawing near on foot saluted him. 

After having greeted him with courteous speech and being 
seated, the king said :, 

" Young and of tender years art thou, a young man in 
his first youth, thy colour is as fine as that of a high-born 
Khattiya. 

" To you leading a band of heroes, causing the vanguard 
to shine, I would give wealth. Accept this then, and tell 
us your lineage." 

" Close upon the slopes of the Himalayas, O king, there 
lives a people endowed with wealth and energy, folk of 
Kosala. 

" By race descendants from the Sun, by birth Sakyas are 
they. 

" From that family have I gone forth, no longer craving 
sensual pleasures. 

" Seeing the danger in sensual pleasures, considering the 
going forth as safe, I shall go on in the struggle, for in that 
my mind rejoices." 



THE CHRONICLE OF GOTAMA, TWENTY-FIFTH EXALTED ONE 

(FROM THE BUDDHAVAMSA, XXVI 1) 
Translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids 

I am the Buddha of to-day, Gotama of Sakyan growth, 
striving in my striving I won the uttermost enlightenment. 

Asked by Brahma and calmed I set rolling the Norm- 
wheel, first understood among eighteen myriads. 

Thereafter teaching, I had a concourse past reckoning 
of men and devas, among whom was the second understanding. 

Just here have I admonished my own offspring ; not 
to be counted are they of the third understanding. 

As one is the concourse of my disciples ; there was a coming 
together of twelve hundred and fifty monks, great seers. 

1 According to commentarial tradition, the whole of this little poem 
was uttered by Gotama when visiting his home after becoming Buddha. 



THE CHRONICLE OF GOTAMA 45 

Shining and flawless from the midst of the company of 
monks I give everything wished for as a gem giving all that 
men desire. - 

To them who are fain for fruit, to them who seek to give 
up desire for, rebirth I have set forth the fourfold truth, 
in compassion for living things. 

There was understanding of the Norm by ten times twenty 
thousand, an understanding by one of two, in number 
incalculable. 

Made clear and for the multitude, potent and prosperous 
and in full bloom : here is the holy teaching of me, Sage of 
the Sakyas." 

Some hundreds of monks, canker-free, their passions 
gone, their hearts at peace and minds intent, all and ever 
ward me round. 

They now who at this time put off man's estate, these 
monks in training, not yet ripe hi mind, by wise men revered, 

Praising the-Ariyan Way a folk ever delighting in the 
Norm, men self-possessed, wayfarers through the worlds, 
they will awaken. 

My city is called Kapilavatthu, my father prince 
Suddh6dana, my mother who bore me the lady Maya. 

For nine and twenty years I dwelt at home, in three peerless 
mansions, Rama, Surama, Subhata, 

Adorned by forty thousand women, Bhaddakaccha the 
woman, Rahula the son. 

When by chariot and horse I went out and saw the four 
signs, I for six years fared a faring of painful striving. 

The Wheel by me set rolling at Benares in the Isipatana, 
I Gotama the Buddha am the refuge of all living things. 

Kolita and Upatissa the two monks are my chief disciples, 
Ananda is my attendant ever near me. 1 

Khema and Uppalavanna are my chief women disciples, 
Chitta and Hatthalavaka are my chief attendant laymen. 

Nanda's mother and Uttara are my chief attendant lay- 
women. At the root of the aspen tree I won uttermost 
enlightenment. 

1 Commentarial tradition assigns this post to Ananda during the 
last twenty-five years of Gotama's life. 



46 DISCIPLINE AND ENLIGHTENMENT 

Glory of a fathom long reaching to sixteen cubits ever 
is mine. A short century is my life that now goes on. 

So long abiding I make many folk to cross over, fixing 
the torch of the Norm for them that are to come. 

I, no long time with my disciple band, shall here go out 
utterly as a fire when fuel is destroyed. 

Both these incomparable ardours and these ten powers 
and this body of many virtues, structure of two and thirty 
features, 

Casting a splendour unique six-rayed like the sun, all 
will wholly fade away are not all things empty. 



PART III 

FIRST EVENTS AFTER THE ENLIGHTENMENT 



FIRST EVENTS AFTER THE ENLIGHTENMENT 

FROM THE MAHAVAGGA OF THE VINAYA TEXTS 
(Adapted, from Rhys Davids' s and Oldenberg's translation, S.BJZ.) 



THE BUDDHA ENJOYS THE BLISS OF EMANCIPATION 
UNDER THE BODHI-TREE HE MEDITATES ON THE CHAIN OF CAUSATION 

At that time the Blessed Buddha dwelt at Uruvela, on the 
bank of the River Neranjara, at the foot of the Bodhi-tree 
just after he had become enlightened. And the Blessed Buddha 
sat cross-legged at the foot of the Bodhi-tree during seven 
days, enjoying the bliss of emancipation. 

Then the Blessed One (on the seventh night) during the 
first watch of the night fixed his mind upon how things come 
to be (that is upon the " causal chain ") in direct and in reverse 
order : 

Because of ignorance, synergies (or activities). 

Because of synergies, consciousness. 

Because of consciousness, mind and body. 

Because of mind and body, the sixfold provinces (of the 
senses). 

Because of the sixfold provinces, contact. 

Because of contact, feeling. 

Because of feeling, craving. 

Because of craving, grasping. 

Because of grasping, becoming. 

Because of becoming, birth. 

Because of birth, decay, and death, sorrow, lamentation, ill, 
grief, and despair. 

Such is the coming to pass of this entire body of ill. Again, 
from the ceasing of ignorance, which consists in the complete 
absence of lust, synergies cease : 

From the ceasing of synergies, consciousness ceases. 

From the ceasing of consciousness, mind and body cease. 

From the ceasing of mind and body, the sixfold provinces 

cease. 
From the ceasing of the sixfold provinces, contact ceases. 

E 



50 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

From the ceasing of contact, feeling ceases. 

From the ceasing of feeling, craving ceases. 

From the ceasing of craving, grasping ceases. 

From the ceasing of grasping, becoming ceases. 

From the ceasing of becoming, birth, decay and death, 
sorrow, lamentation, ill, grief, and despair cease. Such 
is the cessation of this entire body of ill. 

Knowing this the Blessed One then on that occasion 
pronounced this solemn utterance : " Verily when things 
become manifest to the ardent, meditating brahman then 
all doubts fade away, since he understands thing-with- 
cause." 

Then the Blessed One during the middle watch of the 
night, again fixed his mind upon, how things come to be 
(i.e. " the causal chain ") in direct and reverse order : 
(as above) . . . Such is the cessation of this entire body 
of ill. 

Knowing this the Blessed One then on that occasion 
pronounced this solemn utterance : " Verily when things 
become manifest to the ardent, meditating brahman, then 
all his doubts fade away, since he has understood the 
cessation of causes." 

Then the Blessed One during the third watch of the night 
(again) fixed his mind upon the " Causal chain", in direct 
and in reverse order : (as above). 

Knowing this the Blessed One then on that occasion 
pronounced this solemn utterance : " Verily when things 
become manifest to the ardent, meditating brahman, he 
stands dispelling the hosts of Mara, like the sun that 
illuminates the sky." 

Here ends the account of what passed under the Bodhi-tree. 



II 

UNDER THE A JAP ALA-TREE 

Then the Blessed One, at the end of those seven days, 
arase from the state of meditation, and went from the foot 
of the Bodhi-tree to the Ajapala banyan-tree (banyan tree 



UNDER THE MUCHALINDA-TREE 51 

of the goat-herds). And when he had reached it, he sat 
cross-legged at ' the foot of the Ajapala banyan-tree 
for seven days, enjoying the bliss of emancipation. 

Now a certain brahman, who was of a haughty disposition, 
went to the place where the Blessed One was ; having 
approached him, he exchanged greetings with the Blessed 
One ; having exchanged with him greetings and complaisant 
words, he stationed himself near him ; then standing near him, 
that brahman thus spoke to the Blessed One : " By what, 
Gotama, does one become a brahman, and what are the 
characteristics that make a man a brahman ? " 

And the Blessed One, having heard that, on this occasion 
pronounced this solemn utterance : " That brahman, who 
has pushed out 1 evil, who is not haughty, not impure, self- 
restrained, who is a master of knowledge, who has led the 
holy life, that brahman may rightly speak the holy word, 
he who is puffed up about nothing in the world." 
Here ends the account of what passed under the Ajapala-tree. 



Ill 

UNDER THE MUCHALINDA-TREE 

Then the Blessed One at the end of those seven days, 
arose from that state of meditation, and went from the 
foot of the Ajapala banyan-tree to the Muchalinda-tree. 
And when he had reached it, he sat cross-legged at the foot 
of the Muchalinda-tree uninterruptedly during seven days, 
enjoying the bliss of emancipation. 

At that time a great cloud appeared out of season, rainy 
weather which lasted seven days, cold weather, storms 
and darkness. And the Naga (or Serpent) king Muchalinda 
came out from his abode, and seven times encircled the 
body of the Blessed One, with his windings, and kept 
extending his large hood over the Blessed One's head, 
thinking to himself : " May no cold (come to) the Blessed 
One ; May no heat (come to) the Blessed One ; May no touch 
1 The usual play on the words brahmano, bdh-ita. 



52 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

of gadflies and gnats, storms and sunheat and reptiles 
(come to) the Blessed One." 

And at the end of those seven days, when the Naga king 
Muchalinda saw the open, cloudless sky, he loosened his 
windings from the body of the Blessed One, made his own 
appearance disappear, created the appearance of a youth, 
and stationed himself in front of the Blessed One, raising 
his clasped hands, and paying reverence to the Blessed One. 

And the Blessed One perceiving that, on this occasion, 
pronounced this solemn utterance : " Happy the solitude 
of him who is content, who has heard the Truth, who sees. 
Happy is non-malice in this world, (self) restraint toward 
all beings that have life. Happy is passionlessness in this 
world, the getting beyond all sense-desires. The suppression 
of that ' I am ' conceit, this truly is the highest happiness." 

Here ends the account of what passed under the Muchalinda-tree. 



IV 

UNDER THE RAJAYATANA-TREE 

Then the Blessed One, at the end of those seven days, 
arose from the state of meditation, and went from the foot 
of the Muchalinda-tree to the Rajayatana (tree) ; when he 
had reached it, he sat cross-legged at the foot of the 
Rajayatana-tree during seven days, enjoying the bliss of 
emancipation. 

At that time Tapussa and Bhallika, two merchants, 
came travelling on the road from Ukkala (Orissa) ^to that 
place. Then a deva who had been (in a previous life) 
a blood-relation of the merchants Tapussa and Bhallika, 
thus spoke to the merchants Tapussa and Bhallika : " Here, 
my noble friends, at the foot of the Rajayatana-tree, is 
staying the Blessed One, who has just become a Buddha. 
Go and show your reverence to him, the Blessed One, by 
(offering) ricecake and honeycomb. Long will this be to 
you for a good and for a blessing." 

And the merchants took the rice cake and honeycomb, 



UNDER THE AJAPALA BANYAN-TREE 53 

and went to the place where the Blessed One was; having 
approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, 
they placed themselves near him ; standing there, the 
merchants thus addressed the Blessed One : " May, Lord, 
the Blessed One accept from us rice cake and honeycomb, 
that this may long be to us for a good and for a blessing." 

Then the Blessed One thought : " The Tathagatas do 
not accept (food) with their hands. Now with what shall 
I accept the rice cake and the honeycomb ? " Then 
the four Maharaja gods, understanding by the power of 
their minds the reflection, which had arisen in the mind 
of the Blessed One, offered to the Blessed One from the four 
quarters (of the horizon) four bowls made of stone (saying) : 
" May, Lord, the Blessed One accept herewith the rice cake 
and honeycomb." The Blessed One accepted those new 
stone bowls ; and therein he received the rice cake and 
honeycomb, and these, when he had received, he ate. 

And Tapussa and Bhallika, the merchants, when they 
saw that the Blessed One had cleansed his bowl and bis 
hands, bowed down in reverence at the feet of the Blessed One 
and thus addressed the Blessed One : " We take our refuge, 
lord, in the Blessed One and in the Dhamma ; may the 
Blessed One receive us as disciples who from this day forth 
while our life lasts, have taken their refuge (in him)." 

These were the first in the world to become lay disciples 
of the Two Words. 1 

Here ends the account of what -passed under the Rdjdyatana-tree. 



V 

UNDER THE AJAPALA BANYAN-TREE 

Then the Blessed One, at the end of those seven days, 
arose from that state of meditation, and went from the foot 
of the Rajayatana-tree to the Ajapala banyan-tree. And 
when he had reached it the Blessed One stayed there at 
the foot of the Ajapala banyan-tree. 

1 Buddha, Dhamma, not yet Sangha. 



54 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

Then in the mind of the Blessed One, who was alone, 
and had retired into solitude, the following thought arose : 
" I have penetrated this dhamma which is profound, 
difficult to perceive and to understand, which brings quietude 
of heart, which is exalted, which is unattainable by reasoning, 
is abstruse, intelligible only to the wise. This people on 
the other hand, is given to habit, intent upon habit, 
delighting in habit. To these people therefore hard to 
see is this matter, to wit, that this is caused by that, how 
things come to be ; most hard also to see is this matter, 
to wit, the tranquillization of all synergies, the renouncing 
of all the grounds (of re-birth) the destruction of craving, 
the absence of passion, ceasing, Nibbana." 

Now if I teach the dhamma, and other men are not able 
to understand my preaching there would result but weariness 
and annoyance for me. 

And then the following stanzas, unheard before, occurred 
to the Blessed One : " With great pains have I acquired it. 
Enough of making known ! This doctrine will not be easy 
to understand for beings that are oppressed by lust and 
hatred. Steeped in lust, shrouded in thick darkness, they 
will not see what goes against the stream, abstruse, deep, 
difficult to perceive, and subtle." 

When the Blessed One had pondered over this matter, 
his mind became inclined to remain in quietude, and not 
to preach the dhamma. 

Then Brahma Sahampati, understanding by the power 
of his mind the reflection which had arisen hi the mind of 
the Blessed One, thought : " Alas ! The world perishes. 
Alas ! the world is destroyed if the mind of the Tathagata, 
of the holy, of the fully ever Enlightened One inclines itself 
to remain in quietude and not to preach the dhamma." 

Then Brahma Sahampati disappeared from the Brahma 
world, and appeared before the Blessed One, (as quickly) 
as a strong man might stretch his bent arm out, or draw 
back his outstretched arm. 

And Brahma Sahampati adjusted his upper robe so as 
to cover one shoulder, and putting his right knee on the 
ground, raised his joined hands towards the Blessed One, 



UNDER THE AJAPALA BANYAN-TREE 55 

and said to the Blessed One : " Lord, may the Blessed One 
preach the dhamma! May the Perfect One preach the 
dhamma ! There are beings whose mental eyes are darkened 
by scarcely any dust ; but if they do not hear the dhamma, 
they cannot attain salvation. There will be they who 
understand the dhamma." 

Thus spoke Brahma Sahampati; and when he had thus 
spoken, he further said : " The dhamma hitherto manifested 
in the country of Magadha had been impure, thought out 
by contaminated men. But do thou now open the door 
of the Immortal; let ~them hear the dhamma of the 
Spotless One." 

" As a man standing on a rock, on a mountain's top, might 
overlook the people all around, thus Wise One, ascending 
to the highest abode of dhamma look down, all-seeing One, 
upon the people lost in suffering, overcome by birth and 
decay, thou who hast freed thyself from suffering." 

" Arise, hero, victorious one ! Wander through the world, 
leader of the caravan, who thyself art free from debt. 
May the Blessed One preach the dhamma ! There will 
be they who will understand." 

When he had thus spoken the Blessed One said to Brahma 
Sahampati : " The following thought, Brahma, has occurred 
to me, : I have penetrated this dhamma which is profound, 
difficult to perceive and to understand, which brings 
quietude of heart, which is exalted, which is unattainable 
by reasoning, is abstruse, intelligible (only) to the wise. 
This people, on the other hand, is devoted to things settled, 
intent upon things settled, delighting in things settled. 
To these people therefore hard to see is this matter, i.e., 
that this is caused by that, to see how things come to be ; 
most hard also to see is this matter, i.e., the tranquillization 
of all synergies, the renouncing of all the grounds (of re-birth), 
the destruction of craving, the absence of passion, ceasing, 
Nibbana. Now if I proclaim the dhamma, and other men 
are not able to understand my preaching there would result 
but weariness and annoyance for me. And also, Brahma, 
the following strange stanzas have come to my mind, 
unheard of before : ' With great pains have I acquired it, 



56 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

Enough of making known ! This doctrine will not be easj' 
to understand for beings that are lost In lust and hatred. 
Steeped in lust, shrouded in thick darkness, they will not 
see what goes against the stream, abstruse, deep, difficult 
to perceive, and subtle.' I have pondered over this matter, 
Brahma, and my mind has become inclined to remain in 
quietude and not to preach my dhamma." 

... (A second and third time Brahma Sahampati made 
the same supplication ; twice the Blessed One made the 
same reply. 

Then the Blessed One, when he had heard Brahma's (third) 
solicitation, looked full of compassion towards sentient 
beings over the world with the Buddha-eye. And the 
Blessed One, looking over the world with the Buddha-eye 
saw beings whose mental eyes were darkened by scarcely 
any dust, and beings whose eyes were covered by much 
dust, beings sharp of sense and blunt of sense, of good 
disposition and of bad disposition, easy to instruct and 
difficult to instruct, some of them seeing the dangers of 
future life and of sin. 

As in a pond of blue red or white lotuses, some born in 
the water, grown up in the water, do not emerge over the 
water, but thrive hidden under the water ; and other lotuses, 
born in the water, grown up under the water, reach to the 
surface of the water ; and other lotuses, born in the water, 
grown up in the water, stand emerging out of the water, 
and the water does not touch them, 

Thus the Blessed One, looking over the world with the 
eye of a Buddha saw beings whose mental eyes were different, 
. . . and when he had thus seen them, he addressed 
Brahma Sahampati in the following stanza : " Wide opened 
is the door of the undying to all who are hearers ; 
let them send forth faith to meet it. The dhamma sweet 
and good I spake not to men, Brahma, ware of the 
weary task." 

Then Brahma Sahampati understood : " The Blessed 
One grants my request that he should preach the dhamma." 
And he bowed down before the Blessed One, and passed 



THE FIRST SERMON 57 

round him with his right side towards him ; and then he 
straightway disappeared. 

Here ends the story of Brahma's request. 1 



VI 



THE FIRST SERMON AND FIRST DISCIPLES THE ATTAINMENT OF 

ARAHANTSHIP 

Now the Blessed One thought : "To whom shall I 
preach the dhamma first ? Who will understand this 
dhamma readily ? " 

And the. Blessed One thought : " There is Alara Kalama ; 
he is clever, wise, and learned ; long since has the eye of 
his mind been darkened by scarcely any dust. What if 
I were to preach the dhamma first to Alara Kalama ? 
He will readily understand this dhamma." 

Then an invisible deva said to the Blessed One : " Alara 
Kalama died, lord, seven days ago." And knowledge 
sprang up in the Blessed One's mind that Alara Kalama 
had died seven days ago. And the Blessed One thought : 
*' Highly noble was Alara Kalama. If he had heard my 
dhamma, he would readily have understood it." 

Then the Blessed One thought : "To whom shall I 
preach the dhamma first ? Who will understand this 
dhamma readily ? " And the Blessed One thought : " There 
is Uddaka Ramaputta ; he is clever, wise, and learned ; 
long since has the eye of his mind been darkened by scarcely 


1 This account of Brahma Sahampati's request and the following 
account up to the Buddha's first sermon is also given in Sutta 26 of the 
Maj jhima Nikaya. Physiologists tell us that we live because we wish 
to live: in the above account we have a profound change in the 
Buddha's life. His search had been realized : from now on the only 
basis of his life is compassion. 



58 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

any dust. What if I were to preach the dhamma first to 
Uddaka Ramaputta ? He will easily understand this 
dhamma." 

Then an invisible deva said to the Blessed One : " Uddaka 
Ramaputta died, Lord, yesterday evening." And know- 
ledge arose in the Blessed One's mind that Uddaka Ramaputta 
had died the previous evening. And the Blessed One 
thought : " Highly noble was Uddaka Ramaputta. If he 
had heard my doctrine, he would readily have understood it." 

Then the Blessed One thought : "To whom shall I 
preach the dhamma first ? Who will understand this 
dhamma readily ? " And the Blessed One thought : " The 
five monks have done many services to me ; they attended 
on me during the time of my ascetic discipline. What 
if I were to preach the dhamma first to the five monks ? " 

Now the Blessed One thought : " Where do the five 
monks dwell now ?" And the Blessed One saw by the power 
of his divine, clear vision, surpassing "that of men, that the 
five monks were living at Benares, in the deer-park Isipatana. 
And the Blessed One, after having remained at Uruvela 
as long as he thought fit, went forth to Benares. 

Now Upaka, a man belonging to the Ajivaka sect (i.e., 
the sect of naked ascetics), saw the Blessed One travelling 
on the road, between Gaya and the Bodhi-tree ; and when 
he saw him, he said to the Blessed One : " Your countenance, 
friend, is serene, your complexion is pure and bright. In 
whose name, friend, have you retired from the world ? 
Who is your teacher ? Whose dhamma do you profess ? " 

When Upaka the Ajivaka had spoken thus, the Blessed 
One addressed him in the following stanzas : " I have 
overcome all foes ; I am all-wise ; I am free from stains in 
all things ; I have left everything ; and have obtained 
emancipation of craving. Having myself gained knowledge, 
whom should I call my master ? I have no teacher ; no 
one is equal to me ; in the world of men and of devas no 
being is like me. I am the holy one in this world, I am 
the highest teacher, I alone am the perfectly ever enlightened 
one (sammasambuddho) ; I have gained coolness and have 
obtained Nibbana. To set in motion the wheel of the 



THE FIRST SERMON 59 

dhamma, I go to the city of the Kasis (Benares) ; I will 
beat the drum of the Immortal in the darkness of this world." 

(Upaka replied) : " You profess then, friend, you are 
worthy to be Victor everlasting ? " 

(Buddha said) : " Like me are all Victorious Ones who 
have reached extinction of the cankers; I have overcome 
sinful states ; therefore, Upaka, am I the Victorious One." 

When he had spoken thus, Upaka the Ajivaka replied : 
" It may be so, friend " ; shook his head, took another road, 
and went away. 

And the Blessed One, wandering from place to place, 
came to Benares, to the deer park Isipatana, to the place 
where the five monks were. And the five monks saw the 
Blessed One coming from afar ; when they saw him, they 
took counsel with each other, saying : " Friends, there 
comes the samana Gotama, a man of full habit, who has 
wavered in his exertions, and who has turned away to 
luxury. Let us not salute him, nor rise from our seats 
when he approaches, nor take his' bowl and his robe from 
his hands. But let us put there a seat ; if he likes, let 
him sit down." 

But when the Blessed One gradually approached near 
unto those five monks, the 'five monks kept not their 
agreement. They went forth to meet the Blessed One ; 
one took his bowl and his robe, another prepared a seat, 
a third one brought water for the washing of the feet, a 
foot-stool, and a towel. Then the Blessed One sat down 
on the seat they had prepared ; and when he was seated, 
the Blessed One washed his feet: Now they addressed the 
Blessed One by his name, and with the appellation " Friend "- 1 

When they spoke to him thus, the Blessed One said to 
the five monks : " Do not address, monks, the Tathagata 
by his name, and with the appellation ' Friend '. The 
Tathagata, > monks, is the holy, perfectly ever Enlightened 
One. Give ear, O monks. The immortal (Amata) has 
been won by me : I will teach you ; to you I preach the 
dhamma. Do you walk in the way I show you, and you 

1 Avuso, the word used by one religieux to another as an equal or 
inferior. 



60 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

will live ere long, even in this life, having fully known 
yourselves, having seen face to face, that incomparable 
goal of the holy life, for the sake of which clansmen rightly 
give up the world and go forth into the houseless state." 

When he had spoken thus, the five monks said to the 
Blessed One : " By those observances, friend Gotama, 
by those practices, by those austerities, you have not won 
to power surpassing that of men, nor to higher knowledge 
and vision. How will you now, living with full habit, 
having given up your exertions, having turned to luxury, 
be able to obtain power surpassing that of men, and the 
higher knowledge and vision ? " 

When they had spoken thus, the Blessed One said to 
the five monks : " The Tathagata, O monks, does not 
live with full habit, he has not given up exertion, he 
has not turned to luxury. The Tathagata, monks, is the 
holy, most fully Enlightened One. Give ear, O monks, 
the immortal has been won ; I will teach you ; to you I will 
preach the dhamma. Do you walk in the way I show you ; 
you will live ere long, even in this life, having fully known 
yourselves, having seen face to face that incomparable 
goal of the holy life, for the sake of which clansmen rightly 
give up the world and go forth into the houseless state." 

. . . (The five monks repeat twice the same remonstrances, 
to which the Blessed One makes, the same replies.} 

When they had spoken thus, the Blessed One said to 
the five monks : " Do you admit, monks, that I have 
never spoken to you in this way before this day ? " 

" You have never spoken so, lord." 

" The Tathagata, monks, is the holy, fully Enlightened 
One. Give ear, O monks ... (as above). 

And the Blessed One was able to convince the five monies ; 
and the five monks again listened willingly to the Blessed 
One ; they gave ear, and fixed their mind on the knowledge 
(imparted .to them). 



THE FIRST SERMON 61 

The Buddha's First Sermon, known as the Foundation of the Kingdom 
of Righteousness or the Setting in Motion of the Wheel of the Dhamma. 

The Mahavagga continues : 

And the Blessed One thus addressed the five monks : 
" There are two extremes, monks, which he who has given 
up the world, ought to avoid. 

What are these two extremes ? A life given to pleasures, 
devoted to pleasures and lusts; this is degrading, sensual, 
vulgar, ignoble, and profitless. 

And a life given to mortifications ; this is painful, ignoble, 
and profitless. 

By avoiding these two extremes, monks, the Tathagata has 
gained the knowledge of the Middle Path which leads to insight, 
which leads to wisdom, which conduces to calm, to knowledge, 
to Sambodhi (Supreme Enlightenment), to Nibbana. 

Which, monks, is this Middle Path the knowledge of which 
the Tathagata has gained, which leads to insight, which 
leads to wisdom, which conduces to calm, to knowledge, 
to Sambodhi, to Nibbana ? 

It is the Noble Eightfold Path, namely : right views, 
right intent, right speech, right conduct, right means of 
livelihood, right endeavour, right mindfulness, right 
meditation. 

This, monks, is the Middle Path the knowledge of which 
the Tathagata has gained, which leads to insight, which 
leads to wisdom, which conduces to calm, to knowledge, 
to perfect enlightenment, to Nibbana. 

This, monks, is the Noble Truth of Suffering 1 ; birth is 

- suffering; decay is suffering; illness is suffering; death 

is suffering ; presence of objects we hate, is suffering ; 

separation from objects we love, is suffering ; not to obtain 

what we desire, is suffering. 

> In brief, the five aggregates which spring from grasping, 
they are painful. 

This, monks, is the Noble Truth concerning the Origin 
of Suffering; verily it originates in that craving, which 
causes the renewal of becomings, is accompanied by sensual 

1 The Pali word is dukkha which in some places we have more 
accurately translated as III. Compiler. 



62 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

delight, and seeks satisfaction now here, now there ; that 
is to say, craving for pleasures, craving for becoming, craving 
for not becoming. 

This, monks, is the Noble Truth concerning the Cessation 
of Suffering. Verily, it is passionlessness, cessation without 
remainder of this very craving ; the laying aside of, the giving 
up, the being free from, the harbouring no longer of, this 
craving. 

This, monks, is the Noble Truth concerning the Path 
which leads to the Cessation of Suffering. Verily, it is this 
Noble Eightfold Path, that is to say, right views, right 
intent, right speech, right conduct, right means of 
livelihood, right endeavour, right mindfulness and right 
meditation. 

This is the Noble Truth concerning Suffering ; thus, monks, 
in things which formerly had not been heard of have 
I obtained insight, knowledge, understanding, wisdom, 
intuition. This Noble Truth concerning Suffering must be 
understood; thus, monks, in things which formerly had 
not been heard of have I obtained insight, knowledge, 
understanding, wisdom, and intuition. This Noble Truth 
concerning Suffering I have understood. Thus, monks, 
in things which formerly had not been heard of have I 
obtained insight, knowledge, understanding, wisdom, and 
intuition. 

This is the Noble Truth concerning the Origin of Suffering ; 
thus, monks, in things which had formerly not been heard 
of have I obtained insight, knowledge, understanding 
wisdom, intuition. This Noble Truth concerning the 
Cause of Suffering must be abandoned . . . has been 
abandoned by me. Thus, monks, in things which formerly 
had not been heard of have I obtained knowledge, under- 
standing, wisdom, and intuition. 

This is the Noble Truth concerning the Cessation of 
Suffering, thus, monks, in things which formerly had not 
been heard of, have I obtained insight, knowledge, under- 
standing, wisdom, intuition. 

This Noble Truth concerning the Cessation of Suffering 
must be seen face to face . . . has been seen by me face 



THE FIRST SERMON 63 

to face, thus, monks, in things which formerly had not 
been heard of, have I obtained insight, knowledge, under- 
standing, wisdom, intuition. 

This is the Noble Truth concerning the Path which leads 
to the cessation of suffering, thus, monks, in things which 
formerly had not been heard of, have I obtained insight, 
knowledge, understanding, wisdom, intuition. This Noble 
Truth concerning the Path which leads to the cessation 
of suffering must be realized . . . has been realized by me, 
thus, monks, in things which formerly had not been 
heard of, have I obtained insight, knowledge, under- 
standing, wisdom, intuition. 

As long, monks, as I did not possess with perfect purity 
this true knowledge and insight into these four Noble Truths, 
with its three modifications and its twelve constituent parts, 
so long, monks, I knew that I had not yet obtained the highest 
absolute enlightenment in the world of men and gods, in 
Mara's and in Brahma's world, among all beings, samanas, 
and brahmans, gods and men. 

But since I possessed, monks, with perfect purity this 
true knowledge and insight into these four Noble Truths, 
with its three modifications and its twelve constituent parts, 
then I knew, monks, that I had obtained the highest, 
universal enlightenment in the world of men and gods. 
.... (etc., as above.) 

And this knowledge and insight arose in my mind : ' The 
emancipation of my mind cannot be shaken ; this is my last 
birth ; now shall I not be born again.' " 

Thus the Blessed One spoke. The five monks were 
delighted, and they rejoiced at the words of the Blessed One. 
And when this exposition was propounded, the venerable 
Kondanna obtained the pure and spotless Dhamma-eye 
(that is to say, the following knowledge) : " Whatsoever 
is an arising thing, all that is a ceasing thing." 

And as the Blessed One had set going the wheel of the 
dhamma, the earth-inhabiting devas shouted : " Truly 
the Blessed One has set going at Benares, in the deer park 
Isipatana, the wheel of the dhamma, which may be opposed 
neither by a samana, nor by a brahman, neither by a deva, 



64 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

nor by Mara, nor by Brahma, nor by any being in the 
world." 

Hearing the shout of the earth-inhabiting devas, the 
four firmament-devas shouted . . . (etc., as above). Hearing 
their shout the Tavatimsa devas, . . . the Yama devas, ... 
the Tusita devas, . . . the Nimmanarati devas, . . . the 
Paranimmitavasavatti devas, . . . the Brahma-world devas 
shouted : " Truly the Blessed One has set going at Benares, 
in the deer park Isipatana, the wheel of the dhamma, which 
may be opposed neither by a samana nor by a brahman, 
neither by a deva, nor by Mara, nor by Brahma, nor by 
any being in the world." 

Thus in that moment, in that instant, in that second 
the shout reached the Brahma world ; and this whole system 
of ten thousand worlds quaked, was shaken, and trembled ; 
and an infinite, mighty light was seen through the world, 
which surpassed the light that can be produced by the 
divine power of the devas. 

And the Blessed One pronounced this solemn utterance : 
" Truly Kondanna has perceived it (annasi) truly Kondanna 
has perceived it." Hence the venerable Kondanna received 
the name Annatakondanfia (Kondanna who has perceived 
the doctrine). 

And the venerable Afmatakondanna, having seen the 
dhamma, having mastered the dhamma, having understood 
the dhamma, having penetrated the dhamma, having over- 
come uncertainty, having dispelled all doubts, having gained 
full knowledge, dependent on nobody else for knowledge 
of the doctrine of the Teacher, thus spoke to the Blessed 
One : " Lord let me become a recluse under the Blessed 
One, let me receive ordination." " Come, monk," said the 
Blessed One, " well taught is the dhamma ; lead a holy life for 
the sake of the complete ending of suffering." 

Thus this venerable person received ordination. 

And the Blessed One administered to the other monks 
exhortation and instruction by discourses relating to the 
dhamma. And the venerable Vappa and the venerable 
Bhaddiya, when they received from the Blessed One such 
exhortation and instruction by discourses relating to the 



THE FIRST SERMON 65 

dhamma, obtained the pure and spotless dhamma-eye 
(that is to say, the following knowledge) : " Whatsoever 
is a beginning thing, all that is an ending thing." 

And having seen the dhamma, having mastered the 
dhamma, having understood the dhamma, having pene- 
trated the dhamma, having overcome uncertainty, having 
dispelled all doubts, having won confidence, dependent on 
nobody else for knowledge of the religion of the teacher, 
they thus spoke to the Blessed One : " Lord, let us become 
a recluse under the Blessed One and receive ordination." 

" Come, monks," said the Blessed One, " well taught 
is the dhamma, lead a holy life for the sake of the complete 
ending of 111." Thus these venerable persons received 
ordination. 

And the Blessed One, living on what the monks brought 
him, administered to the other monks exhortation and in- 
struction by discourses relating to the dhamma ; in this 
way the six persons lived on what the three monks brought 
home from their alms. 

And the venerable Mahanama and the venerable Assaji, 
when they received from the Blessed One such exhortation 
and instruction by discourses relating to the dhamma, 
obtained the pure and spotless dhamma-eye (that is to 
say, the following knowledge). " Whatsoever is a beginning 
thing all that is an ending thing." 

And having seen the dhamma, having mastered the 
dhamma, having understood the dhamma, having pene- 
trated the dhamma, having overcome uncertainty, having 
dispelled all doubts, having gained full knowledge, dependent 
on nobody else for knowledge of the doctrine of the 
Teacher, they thus spoke to the Blessed One : " Lord, 
let us become a recluse under the Blessed One and receive 
ordination." 

" Come, monks," said the Blessed One, " well taught is the 
dhamma, lead a holy life for the sake of the complete ending 
of 111." Thus these venerable persons received ordination. 



66 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 



Anattalakkhana Sutta or Discourse on Not Having Signs of the Self. 

And the Blessed One spoke thus to the five Bhikkhus : 
"The body (rupa), monks, is not the self. If the body, 
monks, were the self, the body would not be subject to 
disease, and we should be able to say : ' Let my body be such 
and such a one, let my body not be such and such a one.' 
But since the body, monks, is not the self, therefore the 
body is subject to disease, and we are not able to say, ' let 
my body be such and such a one, let my body not be such 
and such a one.' " 

Sensation (vedana), monks, is not the self ... (as above) ; 
perception (saniia) is not the self . . . synergies (sankhara's) 
are not the self . . . consciousness (vinnana) is not the 
self ... (as above). 

" Now what do you think, monks, is the body permanent 

or perishable ? " 
"It is perishable, lord." 
" And that which is perishable, does that cause pain 

or joy ? " 

" It causes pain, lord." 
" And that which is perishable, painful, subject to change, 

is it possible to regard that in this way ? This is mine, 

this am I, this is myself ? " 
" That is impossible, lord. " 

(Here follows the same dialogue regarding sensation, 
perception, synergies, and consciousness) ... 

" Therefore, monks, whatever body has been, will be, and 
is now, belonging or not belonging to sentient beings, gross 
or subtle, inferior or superior, distant or near, all that body 
is not mine, is not me, is not my self ; thus it should be 
considered by right knowledge according to the truth. 

(The same is stated of sensation, perception, synergies and 
consciousness.) 
Considering this, monks, the wise and noble disciple turns 



THE STORY OF YASA, 67 

away from 1 the body, turns away from sensation, turns away 
from perception, turns away from the synergies, turns away 
from body and mind. 

Turning away he loses passion, losing passion he is 
liberated, in being liberated the knowledge comes to him : 
' I am liberated,' and he knows rebirth is exhausted, the 
holy life is completed, duty is fulfilled ; there is no more 
living in these conditions." 

Thus the Blessed One spoke. The five monks were 
delighted, and rejoiced at the words of N the Blessed One. 
And when this exposition had been propounded, the minds 
of the five monks became free from attachment to the world, 
and were released from the cankers. 

At that time there were six Arahants (persons who had 
reached absolute holiness) in the world. 

(End of the first portion for recitation) 

VII 

THE STORY OF YASA 

At that tune there was in Benares a youth of good family, 
Yasa by name, the son of a setthi (leading burgess) and 
delicately nurtured. He had three palaces, one for winter, 
one for summer, one for the rainy season. In the palace 
.for the rainy season he lived during the four months (of 
that season) surrounded with musicians among whom 
no man was, and he did not descend from that palace (all 
that time). Now one day Yasa, the clansman, who 

1 I have ventured to use " turns away from " for nibbindati : 
although I find Rhys Davids and Oldenberg use : "becomes weary," 
Warren translates: "conceives an aversion for," the Pali Text's 
Society's "Pali-English Dictionary" sanctions: " turns away from." 

Since the Buddhist seeks to gain a state of equanimity above 
aversion and weariness, I have chosen a translation which seems to 
me more consistent. Perhaps : "becomes free from," or " finds a way 
out from," would have been permissible. Nibbindati is derived from 
nir + vindati. Nir means out, away. Vindati means to find, and to 
know. 

(See the Pali Text Society's Pali-English Dictionary or Andersen's 
Pali Glossary.) 



68 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

was endowed with, and possessed of the five pleasures of 
sense, while he was attended (by those female musicians), 
fell asleep, sooner than usual ; and after him his attendants 
also fell asleep. Now an oil lamp was burning through 
the whole night. 

And Yasa, the clansman, awoke sooner than usual; 
and he saw his attendants sleeping ; one had her lute leaning 
against her arm-pit ; one had her tabor leaning against 
her neck ; one had her drum leaning against her arm-pit ; 
one had dishevelled hair ; one had saliva flowing from her 
mouth ; and they were muttering in their sleep. One would 
think it was a cemetery one had fallen into. When he saw 
that, the evils manifested themselves to him ; his mind 
became weary. And Yasa gave utterance to this solemn 
exclamation "Alas, what distress! alas, what danger!" 

And Yasa, the clansman, put on his gilt slippers, and 
went to the gate of his house. Non-human beings opened 
the gate, in order that no being might prevent Yasa 
leaving the world, and going forth into the houseless 
state. And Yasa went to the gate of the city. Non- 
human beings opened the gate, in order that no being 
might prevent Yasa leaving the world, and going forth into the 
houseless state. And Yasa went to the deer park Isipatana. 

At that time the Blessed One, having arisen in the night, 
at dawn was walking up and down in the open air. And 
the Blessed One saw Yasa, the clansman, coming from 
afar. And when he saw him, he left the place where he 
was walking, and sat down on a seat laid out. And Yasa 
gave utterance near the Blessed One to that solemn 
exclamation : " Alas, what distress ! alas, what danger ! " 
And the Blessed One said to Yasa, " Here is no distress, 
Yasa, here is no danger. Come here, Yasa, sit down ; I 
will teach you the dhamma." 

And Yasa, the clansman, when he heard that there was 
no distress and that there was no danger, became glad 
and joyful ; and he put off his gilt slippers, 1 and went to 
the place where the Blessed One was \ having approached 

1 The Tibetan version makes him wade through a stream. Rockhill's 
Life of the Buddha, p. 38. 



THE STORY OF YASA 69 

him and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he 
sat down near him. When Yasa was sitting near him, 
the Blessed One, preached to him in due course : that is 
to say ; he delivered the discourse on giving, the discourse 
on morals, the discourse on heaven, about the evils, the 
vanity, and the sinfulness of desires, and about the blessings 
of the abandonment of desire. 

When the Blessed One perceived that the mind of 
Yasa was prepared, impressible, free from obstacles (to 
understanding the dharnma), elated, and believing, then 
he preached what is the original doctrine of the Buddhas, 
namely 111, the Cause of 111, the Cessation of 111, the Path. 
Just as a clean cloth free from black specks properly 
takes the dye, thus in Yasa, even while sitting .there, 
arose the pure and flawless dhamma-eye (that is the 
knowledge) ; " Whatsoever is an arising thing, that is a 
ceasing thing." 

Now the mother of Yasa having gone up to his palace, 
and not seeing Yasa, went to the setthi, the householder, 
her husband, and having approached him, she said to the 
setthi, the householder : " Your son Yasa, householder, 
has disappeared." Then the setthi, the householder, sent 
messengers on horseback to the four quarters of the horizon ; 
and he went himself to the deer park Isipatana. Then the 
setthi, the householder, saw on the ground the marks 
of the gilt slippers ; and when he saw them, he followed 
them up. 

And the Blessed One saw the setthi, the householder, 
coming from afar. On seeing him, he thought : " What 
if I were to* effect such an exercise of miraculous power 
that the setthi, the householder, sitting here, should not 
see Yasa who is sitting here also." And the Blessed One 
effected such an exercise of his miraculous power. 

And the setthi, the householder, went to the place where 
the Blessed One was ; having approached him, he said to 
the Blessed One : " Pray, lord, has the Blessed One seen 
Yasa, the clansman ? " 

" Well, householder, sit down. Perhaps, sitting here, 
you may see Yasa, the clansman, sitting here also." 



70 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT . 

And the setthi, the householder, thinking : " Indeed, 
sitting here I shall see Yasa sitting here also," became 
glad and joyful, and having respectfully saluted the Blessed 
One, he sat down near him. 

When the setthi, the householder, was sitting near him, 
the Blessed One preached to him in due course ; that is to 
say ; he delivered the discourse on giving, the discourse 
on morals, the discourse on heaven, about the evils, the 
vanity and the sinfulness of desires and about the blessing 
of the abandonment of desire. 

And the setthi, the householder, having seen the dhamma, 
having mastered the dhamma, having penetrated the 
dhamma, having overcome uncertainty, having dispelled 
all doubts, having gained full knowledge, dependent on 
nobody else for the knowledge of the doctrine of the Teacher, 
said to the Blessed One : " Glorious, lord, glorious, lord ! 
Just as if one should set up lord what had been overturned, 
or should reveal what had been hidden, or should point 
out the way to one who had lost his way, or should bring 
a lamp into the darkness, in order that those who had eyes 
might see visible things, thus has the Blessed One preached 
the dhamma in many ways. I take my refuge, lord, in the 
Blessed One, and in the Dhamma, and in the Fraternity 
of monks ; may the Blessed One receive me from this day 
forth while my life lasts as a lay-disciple who has taken 
refuge." 

This was the first person in the world who became a lay- 
disciple by the threefold word (Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha). 

And Yasa the clansman while instruction was ad- 
ministered (by the Buddha) to his father, contemplated 
the stage of knowledge which he had seen with his mind 
and understood ; and his mind became free from attachment 
to the world, and was released from the cankers. 

Then the Blessed One thought : " Yasa the clansman, while 
instruction was administered to his father has con- 
templated the stage of knowledge which he had seen with 
his mind and understood ; and his mind has become free 
from attachment to the world, and has become released 
from the cankers. It is impossible that Yasa the clans- 



THE STORY OF YASA 71 

man should return to the world and enjoy pleasures, as 
he did before, when he lived in his house. What if I were 
now to put an end to that exertion of my miraculous power." 
And the Blessed One put an end to that exertion of his 
miraculous power. 

Then the setthi, the householder, saw Yasa sitting there. 
On seeing him he said to Yasa: "My son Yasa, your 
mother is mourning and grieving ; give life to your 
mother." 

Then Yasa looked at the Blessed One. And the Blessed 
One said to the setthi, the householder : " What do 
you think then, householder ? That Yasa has won 
only an imperfect degree of knowledge and insight into 
the dhamma as you have yourself ? Or rather that 
he was contemplating the stage of knowledge which he 
had seen with his mind and understood; and that his mind 
has thus become free from attachment to the world, and 
has become released from the cankers ? Now would it 
then be possible, householder, that Yasa should return 
to the world and enjoy pleasures as he did before, when 
he lived in his house ?" 

"Not so lord." 

" Yasa, householder, had won, like yourself, an imperfect 
degree of knowledge and insight into the dhamma. But 
when he was contemplating the stage of knowledge which 
he had seen with his mind and understood, his mind became 
free from attachment to the world, and became released 
from the cankers. It is impossible, householder, that 
Yasa should return to the world and enjoy pleasures as he 
did before, when he lived in his house." 

"It is all gain, lord, to Yasa, it is high bliss, lord, for 
Yasa, that the mind of Yasa has become free from attach- 
ment to the world, and has become released from the 
cankers. Might lord the Blessed One consent to take 
his meal with me to-day together with Yasa as his 
attendant ? " 

The Blessed One expressed his consent by remaining 
silent. Then the setthi, the householder, when he under- 
stood that the Blessed One had accepted his invitation, 



72 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

rose from his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One. 
and passing round him with his right side towards him, 
departed thence. 

And Yasa, soon after the setthi, the householder, was 
gone, said to the Blessed One : " Let me be made under 
the Master, the Blessed One, a recluse and be ordained." 

" Come, Monk/' said the Blessed One, " well taught is 
the dhamma ; lead the holy life for the sake of the entire 
endmaking of 111." 

Thus this venerable person received the upasampada 
ordination. At that time there were seven Arahants in 
the world. 

End of the story of Yasa's leaving the world. 



VIII 

THE FIRST WOMEN LAY-DISCIPLES 

And in the forenoon the Blessed One, having put on his 
under-robes, took his alms-bowl, and, with his robe on, 
went with the venerable Yasa as his attendant to the house 
of the setthi, the householder. When he arrived there 
he sat down on a seat laid out for him. Then the mother 
and the former wife of the venerable Yasa went to the place 
where was the Blessed One ; having approached him and 
having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, they sat 
down near him. 

Then the Blessed One preached to them in due course ; 
that is to say, he delivered the discourse on giving, . . . 
(as intchap. 7, 5, 6, down to :) ; thus there arose in them, 
while sitting there, the pure and spotless dhamma-eye (that is 
the knowledge) : " Whatsoever is an arising thing all that is 
a ceasing thing." 

And having seen the dhamma, having mastered the 
dhamma, having understood the dhamma, having pene- 
trated the dhamma, having overcome uncertainty, having 
dispelled all doubts, having gained full knowledge, dependent 
on nobody else for the knowledge of the Teacher's doctrine, 



ATTAINMENT OF ARAHANTSHIP 73 

they thus spoke to the Blessed One : " Glorious, lord, 
glorious, lord ! Just as if one should set up what has 
been overturned, or should reveal what had been hidden, 
or should point out the way to one who had lost his way, 
or should bring a lamp into the darkness, in order that those 
who had eyes might see visible things, thus has the Blessed 
One preached the doctrine in many ways. We take our 
refuge, lord, in the Blessed One, and hi the Dhamma, and 
in the Order of monks ; may the Blessed One receive us from 
this day forth, while our life lasts, as disciples who have 
taken their refuge in him. 

These were the first women in the world who became 
lay-disciples by the three words (Buddha, Dhamma, Sangha). 

And the mother and the father and the former wife of 
the venerable Yasa with their own hands served and offered 
excellent food, both hard and soft, to the Blessed One and 
to the venerable Yasa ; and when the Blessed One had 
finished his meal, and cleansed his bowl and his hands, 
they sat down near him. Then the Blessed One taught, 
incited, animated, and gladdened the mother, and father, 
and the former wife of the venerable Yasa by religious 
discourse ; and then he rose from his seat and went away. 



IX 
FURTHER ORDINATIONS AND ATTAINMENT OF ARAHANTSHIP 

Now four lay persons, friends of the venerable Yasa, 
belonging to the setthi families of Benares, and to the highest 
after the setthi families, by name Vimala, Subahu, Punnaji, 
and Gavampati heard : " Yasa the clansman has cut 
off his hair and beard, and has put on yellow robes, and has 
given up the world, and gone forth into the houseless state." 
When they had heard that, they thought : " Surely that 
cannot be a common dhamma and discipline, that cannot 
be a common renunciation of the world, if Yasa the clans- 
man has cut off his hair and beard, and has put on yellow 
robes, and has given up the world, and gone forth into the 
houseless state." 



74 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

Those four persons went to the place where the venerable 
Yasa was ; having approached him and having respectfully 
saluted the venerable Yasa they stood by his side. And 
the venerable Yasa went with his four lay friends to the 
place where the Blessed One was ; having approached him 
and having respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat 
down near him. Sitting near him, the venerable Yasa 
said to the Blessed One : " Lord, here are four lay friends 
of mine, belonging to the setthi families of Benares and 
to the highest after the setthi families ; their names are 
Vimala, Subahu, Punnaji, and Gavampati. May the Blessed 
One administer exhortation and instruction to these four 
persons. " 

Then the Blessed One preached to them ... (as above). 

And having seen the dhamma . . . (even as with Yasa, 
they became) dependent on nobody else for the knowledge 
of the Teacher's doctrine, they thus spoke to the Blessed 
One : " Lord, let us receive the first and the complete 
ordinations from the Blessed One." 

"Come, monk," said the Blessed One, "well taught is 
the dhamma; lead a holy life for the sake of the entire 
endmaking of 111." 

Thus these venerable persons received the upasampada 
ordination. And the Blessed One administered to these 
monks exhortation and instruction by discourse relating 
to the dhamma. While they received exhortation and 
instruction from the Blessed One by discourse relating to 
the dhamma, their minds became free from attachment 
to the world, and were released from the cankers. 

At that tune there were eleven Arahants hi the world. 

Here ends the story of the ordination of the four laymen. 



X 

Now fifty lay persons, friends of the venerable Yasa, 
belonging to the highest families in the country and to 
those next to the highest, heard ... (as above in chap. 9). 



THE FIRST MISSIONARIES 75 

While they received exhortation and instruction from the 
Blessed One by discourse relating to the dhamma, their 
minds became free from attachment to the world, and were 
released from the cankers. 

At that time there were sixty-one Arahants in the world. 



XI 

SENDING FORTH THE FIRST MISSIONARIES, AND A STORY OF MARA 

And the Blessed One said to the monks : "I am delivered, 
monks, from all fetters, human and divine. You, monks, 
are also delivered from all fetters, human and divine. 
Go ye now, monks, and wander for the gain of the many, 
for the welfare of the many, out of compassion for the world, 
for the good, for the gain, and for the welfare of gods and 
men. Let not two of you go the same way. Preach, 
monks, the dhamma which is lovely in the beginning, 
lovely in the middle, lovely at the end, in the spirit and 
in the letter; proclaim a consummate, perfect, and pure 
life of holiness. There are beings whose mental eyes are 
covered by scarcely any dust, but if the dhamma is not 
preached to them, they cannot attain salvation. They 
will understand the dhamma. And I will go, monks, to 
Uruvela, to Senani-town, in order to preach the dhamma. 

And Mara the Wicked One went to the place where the 
Blessed One was ; having approached him, he addressed 
the Blessed One in the following stanza : " Thou art bound 
by all fetters, human and divine. Thou art bound by 
strong fetters. Thou wilt not be delivered from me, recluse ! " 

Buddha replied : "I am delivered from all fetters, 
human and divine. I am delivered from the strong fetters. 
Thou art struck down, O Death." 

(Mara said) : " The fetter which pervades the air, with 
which mind is bound, with that fetter I will bind thee. 
Thou wilt not be delivered from me, O recluse." 

(Buddha replied) : " Whatever forms, sounds, odours, 
tastes, or contacts there are which please the senses, in me 
desire for them has ceased. Thou art struck down, O Death." 



76 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

Then Mara the Wicked One understood: "The Blessed 
One knows me, the Well-farer knows me." And, sad 
and afflicted, he vanished away. 

Here ends the story of Mara. 



XII 

ORDINATION BY THE THREEFOLD REFUGE 

At that tune the monks brought (to Buddha), from 
different regions and different countries, persons who desired 
to leave the world and be ordained, thinkhig : " The 
Blessed One will confer on them the one and the other 
ordination." But the monks became tired (from the 
journey), and those also who desired to obtain the 
ordination. Now when the Blessed One was alone and 
had retired into solitude, the following consideration pre- 
sented itself to his mind : " The monks now bring to me 
from different regions and different countries persons who 
desire to obtain ordination, thinking : ' The Blessed One 
will confer on them the ordination.' Now both the 
monks become tired, and those also who desire to 
obtain ordination. What if I were to grant permission to 
the monks, saying : ' Confer henceforth, monks, in the 
different regions, and in different countries, both modes 
of ordination yourselves.' " 

And the Blessed One, having left his solitude in the evening, 
in consequence of that, and on this occasion, after having 
delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed the monks : 
" When I was alone, monks, and had retired into solitude, 
the following consideration presented itself to me : What 
if I were to permit ... (as above). 

I grant you, monks, this permission : Confer henceforth 
in the different regions and in the different countries 



ORDINATION BY THREEFOLD REFUGE 77 

both modes of ordination yourselves (on those who desire 
to receive them.) And you ought monks, to confer them 
hi this way : Let him (who desires to receive ordination), 
first have his hair and beard cut off, let him put on yellow 
robes, adjust his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, 
salute the feet of the monks (with his head), and sit down 
squatting ; then let him raise his joined hands and tell 
him to say : 

' I take my refuge hi the Buddha, I take my refuge in 
the Dhamma, I take my refuge in the Sangha. And for the 
second tune I take (as above . . . Sangha). And for 
the third time I take my refuge in the Buddha, and for the 
third time I take my refuge in the Dhamma, and for the 
third tune I take my refuge in the Sangha I ' 

I prescribe, O monks, that the world be left and 
ordination given by the three tunes repeated declaration 
of taking refuge." 

End of the account of ordination by the three-fold declaration 

of taking refuge. 



XIII 

THE BUDDHA DECLARES HIS FREEDOM FROM FETTERS 

And the Blessed One, after having kept the rains-residence, 
thus addressed the monks : " By wise contemplation, 
monks, and by wise right exertion have I attained 
the highest emanicipation, have I realised the highest 
emancipation. Attain ye also, monks, the highest 
emancipation, realise the highest emancipation, by wise 
contemplation, and by wise right exertion." 

And Mara, the Wicked One, went to the place where 
the Blessed One was ; having approached him, he addressed 
the Blessed One by the following stanza : " Thou art 
bound by Mara's fetter's, human and divine. Thou art 
bound by strong fetters. Thou wilt not be delivered from 
me, recluse ! " 



78 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

(Buddha replied) : " I am delivered from Mara's fetters, 
human and divine. I am delivered from the strong fetters. 
Thou art struck down, O Death." 

Then Mara the Wicked One understood : " The Blessed 
One knows me, the Wellfarer knows me " ; and, sad and 
afflicted he vanished away. 



XIV 

STORY OF THE THIRTY RICH YOUNG COMPANIONS 

And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at Benares as 
long as he thought fit, went forth to Uruvela. And the 
Blessed One left the road and went to a certain grove ; 
having gone there, and having entered it, he sat down at 
the foot of a tree. At that time there was a party of thirty 
friends, rich young men, who were sporting in that same 
grove together with their wives. One of them had no wife ; 
for him they had procured a harlot. Now while they did 
not pay attention, and were indulging in their sports ; that 
harlot took up the articles belonging to them and ran away. 

Then those companions, doing service to their friend, 
went in search of that woman ; and roaming about that 
grove, they saw the Blessed One sitting at the foot of a tree. 
Seeing him they went to the place where the Blessed One 
was ; having approached him, they said to the Blessed One : 
" Pray lord, has the Blessed One seen a woman passing by ? " 
" What have you to do, young men, with the woman ? " 
" We were sporting, lord, in this grove, thirty friends, rich 
young men, together with our wives. One of us had no 
wife ; for him we had procured a harlot. Now, lord, while 
we did not pay attention, and were indulging in our sports, 
that harlot has taken up the articles belonging to us, and 
has run away. Therefore, lord, we companions, doing 
service to our friend, go in search of that woman, and roam 
about the grove." 

" Now what think you, young men ? Which would be 



THE JATILAS 79 

the better for you ; that you should go in search of a woman, 
or that you should go in search of yourself ? " 1 

" That, lord, would be the better for us, that we should go 
in search of ourself." 

If so, young men, sit down, I will preach to you the 
dhamma. The rich young companions replied : " Yes, 
lord," and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, and sat 
down near him. 

Then the Blessed One preached to them ... (as above 
in chap. 8, or 9). 

And having seen the dhamma ... (as above in chap. 
9 down to :) Thus these venerable persons received 
ordination. 

Here ends the story of the thirty rich young companions. 
End of the second portion for recitation. 



XV 

CONCERNING MAGICAL POWERS AND THE JATILAS 

(In this chapter the same story is told in two somewhat different forms 
I have omitted the first one : . . . 2-5). COMPILER. 

And the Blessed One, wandering from place to place, 
came to Uruvela. At that time there lived in Uruvela 
three Jatilas, Uruvela Kassapa, Nadi Kassapa (Kassapa 
of the River, i.e. the Neranjara), and Gaya Kassapa (Kassapa 
of the village Gaya) . Of these the Jatila Uruvela Kassapa was 
chief, leader, foremost, first, and highest over five hundred 
Jatilas ; Nadi Kassapa was chief, leader, foremost, first and 
highest over three hundred Jatilas, Gaya Kassapa was chief, 
leader, foremost, first, and highest over two hundred Jatilas. 

Near the Neranjara river the Blessed One said to the 
Jatila Uruvela Kassapa : " If it is not disagreeable to 
you, Kassapa, let me dwell one night in your fire room." 

1 Or " of the Self " (attdnarri gaveseyydthd). " Self " in India might 
also mean " spirit " and " World-Soul ". 



8o EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

"It is not agreeable to me, great recluse. There is a 
savage snake king there, possessed of magical power, a 
dreadfully venomous serpent ; let him do no harm to you." 

" He is not likely to do any harm to me ; pray, Kassapa, 
allow me a place in your fire room." 

When he saw that Kassapa had given his permission, 
fearlessly he, who had overcome all fear, entered. When 
the chief of serpents saw that the Sage had entered; he 
became irritated, and sent forth a cloud of smoke. Then 
the chief of men, 1 joyful and unperplexed, also sent forth 
a cloud of smoke. 

Unable to master his rage, the chief of serpents sent forth 
flames like a burning fire. Then the chief of men, the perfect 
master of the element of fire, also sent forth flames. When 
they shone forth both with then: flames, the Jatilas looked 
at the fire room (saying) : " Truly the countenance of 
the great recluse is beautiful, but the Naga will do harm 
to him." 

And when that night had elapsed, the flames of the Naga 
were extinguished but the various-coloured flames of him 
who is possessed of magical powers remained. Dark blue 
and red, light red, yellow, and crystal-coloured flames of 
various colours appeared on the Angirasa body. 2 Having 
put the chief of serpents into his alms-bowl, he showed 
him to the brahman (saying) : " Here you see the Naga, 
Kassapa ; his fire has been conquered by my fire. 

And the Jatila Uruvela Kassapa, having conceived great 
faith in the Blessed One in consequence of this wonder, 
said to the Blessed One : " Stay with me, great recluse, 
I will daily provide you with food." 

End of the first Wonder. 

1 Manussanago can be literally either " The Snake among mea " 
or " The Elephant among men ". 

2 The Gautamas, according to Vedic tradition, belong to the Angirasa 
tribe. 



THE JATILAS 81 

XVI 

(Continued] 

And the Blessed One resided in a certain grove near the 
hermitage of the Jatila Uruvela Kassapa. And on a beautiful 
night the four firmament devas, filling the whole grove 
with light by the brilliancy of their complexion, went to the 
place where the Blessed One was ; having approached him 
and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, they stood in the 
four quarters like great firebrands. 

And when that night had elapsed, the Jatila Uruvela 
Kassapa went to the place where the Blessed One was ; 
having approached him, he said to the Blessed One : " It is 
time, great Samana, 1 the meal is ready. Who were they, 
great Samana, who came this beautiful night, filling the 
whole grove with light by the brilliancy of their complexion, 
to the place where you were, and having approached you 
and respectfully saluted you, stood in the four quarters 
like great firebrands ? " 

" They were the four firmament devas, Kassapa, who came 
to me in order to hear my preaching." 

Then the Jatila Uruvela Kassapa thought : " Truly 
the great Samana possesses high magical powers and great 
faculties, since even the four firmament devas come to 
hear his preaching. He is not, however, holy 2 like me." 

And the Blessed One ate the food offered by the Jatila 
Uruvela Kassapa and continued to stay in that same grove. 

End of the second Wonder. 

(Chapter XVII and XVIII contain accounts as above 
of the appearance of Sakka, ruler of the devas, and Brahma 
Sahampati.) 

XIX 

(Continued) 

At that tune a great sacrifice which the Jatila Uruvela 
Kassapa used to celebrate was approaching, and all the 
people of Anga and Magadha wished to go to that sacrifice 

1 Pronounce samana, = recluse. 

2 Lit. : worthy : araha. 



82 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

carrying abundant food, both hard and soft. Now the 
Jatila Uruvela thought : " Presently my great sacrifice 
is approaching, and all the people of Anga and Magadha 
will come and bring with them abundant food, both hard 
and soft. If the great Samana should perform a wonder 
before that great assembly, gain and honour would increase 
to the great Samana, and my gain and honour would diminish. 
that the great Samana might not come here to-morrow ! " 

Then the Blessed One, understanding by the power of 
his mind this reflection which had risen in the mind of the 
Jatila Uruvela Kassapa, went to Uttarakuru ; having 
begged alms there, he took the food (he had received) to 
the Anotatta lake ; there he took his meal and rested during 
the heat of the day at the same place. 

And when the night had elapsed, the Jatila Uruvela 
Kassapa went to the place where the Blessed One was ; 
having approached him, he said to the Blessed One : " It is 
tune, great Samana, the meal is ready. Why did you not 
come yesterday, great Samana ? We were thinking of 
you : ' Why does the great Samana not come ? ' and 
your portions of food, both hard and soft, were served 
for you." 

(Buddha replied) : " Did you not think, Kassapa : 
' Presently my great sacrifice (as above down to :) O that 
the great Samana might not come here to-morrow ? ' 

"Now I understood, Kassapa, by the power of my mind 
this reflection which had risen in your mind, and I went 
to Uttarakuru ; having begged alms there, I took the food 
to the Anotatta lake ; there I took my meal and rested during 
the heat of the day at the same place. " 

Then the Jatila Uruvela Kassapa thought : " Truly 
the great Samana possesses high magical powers and great 
faculties, since he is able to understand by the power of his 
mind the thoughts of other people. He is not, however, 
holy like me." 

And the Blessed One ate the food offered by the Jatila 
Uruvela Kassapa, and continued to stay in that grove. 

End of the fifth Wonder. 



THE JATILAS 83 

XX 

(Continued) 

At that time the Blessed One had rags taken from a dust 
heap (of which he was going to make himself a robe). Now 
the Blessed One thought : " Where shall I wash these 
rags ? " Then Sakka the king of the devas, understanding 
in his mind the thought which had risen in the mind of the 
Blessed One, dug a tank with his own hand, and said to 
the Blessed One : " Lord, might the Blessed One wash 
the rags here." 

And the Blessed One thought : " What shall I rub the 
rags upon ? " Then Sakka king of the devas, understanding 
in his mind the thought which had arisen in the mind of 
the Blessed One, put there a great stone and said : " Lord, 
let the Blessed One rub the rags upon this stone. " 

... (The Blessed One on this occasion was aided in 
several similar ways which he related to Kassapa.) 

Then the Jatila Uruvela Kassapa thought : " Truly 
the great Samana possesses high magical powers and great 
faculties, since Sakka the ruler of the devas does service 
to him. He is not, however, holy like me." 

And the Blessed One ate the food offered by the Jatila 
Uruvela Kassapa, and continued to stay in that same grove. 

And when that night had elapsed, the Jatila Uruvela 
Kassapa went to the place where the Blessed One was ; 
having approached him, he announced to the Blessed One 
that it was time, by saying : " It is time, great Samana, 
the meal is ready." 

(Buddha replied) : "Go you, Kassapa ; I will follow 
you." Having thus sent away the Jatila Uruvela Kassapa, 
he went to pluck a fruit from the rose-apple tree in which 
India lies ; then arriving before Kassapa he sat down in the 
room where Kassapa's (sacred) fire was kept. 

Then the Jatila Uruvela Kassapa saw the Blessed One 
sitting in the fire room ; seeing him he said to the Blessed 
One: "By what way have you come, great Samana? 



84 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

I have departed before you, and you have arrived before 
me and are sitting in the fire room." 

" When I had sent you away, Kassapa, I went to pluck 
a fruit from the rose-apple tree in which India lies ; then 
I arrived before you and sat down in the fire room. Here 
is the jambu fruit, Kassapa, it is beautiful, fragrant, and 
full of flavour ; you may eat it, if you like." 

" Nay, great Samana, to you alone it is becoming to eat 
it ; eat it yourself. " 

And the Jatila Uruvela Kassapa thought : " Truly the 
great Samana possesses high magical powers and great 
faculties, since he is able, having sent me away before him, 
to go and pluck a fruit from there, and then to arrive 
before me and to sit down in the fire room. He is not, how- 
ever, holy like me." 

And the Blessed One ate (as above described). 

And when that night had elapsed (as above described). 
Having thus sent away the Jatila Uruvela Kassapa, he went 
to pluck a fruit from a mango tree growing near the rose- 
apple tree (as above described). He went to pluck a fruit 
from an emblic myrobalan tree (as above described). He 
went to pluck a fruit from a yellow myrobalan tree growing 
near the rose-apple tree (as above). He went to the next 
world to pluck a paricchattaka flower ; then arriving before 
Kassapa he sat down in the fire room. Then the Jatila 
Uruvela Kassapa saw ... (as above). 

" When I had sent you away, Kassapa, I went to the 
next world to pluck a paricchattaka flower ; then I arrived 
before you, and sat down in the fire room. Here is 
the paricchattaka flower, Kassapa ; it is beautiful and 
fragrant ; you may take it if you like." 

" Nay, great Samana, to you alone it is becoming to keep 
it ; keep it yourself." 

And the Jatila . . . (thought as above). "He is not, 
however, holy like me." 

At that tune one day the Jatilas, who wished to attend 
on their sacred fires, could not succeed in splitting fire-wood. 
Now these Jatilas thought : " Doubtless this is the great 
psychic power of the great Samana, that we cannot succeed 



THE JATILAS 85 

in splitting fire-wood." Then the Blessed One said to the 
Jatila Uruvela Kassapa : " Shall the fire-wood be split, 
Kassapa ? " 

"Let it be split, great Samana." 

Then in a moment the five hundred pieces of fire-wood 
were split. And the Jatila Uruvela Kassapa thought : 
" Truly the great Samana possesses great psychic power, 
and great authority, since even the fire-wood splits itself 
(at his command). He is not, however, holy like me." 

At that time the Jatilas, who wished to attend on their 
sacred fires, could not succeed in lighting up the fires. (As in 
the preceding story.) 

At that tune the Jatilas after having attended on their 
sacred fires, could not succeed in extinguishing the fires 
(as above). 

At that time in the cold winter nights, in the time between 
the Ashtaka festivals, when snow falls, the Jatilas plunged 
into the river Neranjara, and emerged again, and repeatedly 
plunged into the water and emerged. And the Blessed 
One created five hundred vessels with burning fire ; at those 
the Jatilas coming out of the river warmed themselves. 
And the Jatilas thought : " Doubtless this is the great 
psychic power of the great Samana that these vessels with 
fire have been caused to appear here." Then the Blessed 
One said to Kassapa : " Let the fires warm you, Kassapa ! 
Let them warm you, great recluse ! " And the Jatila 
Uruvela Kassapa thought : " Truly the great Samana 
possesses high magical powers and great faculties, since he 
can create such great vessels with fire. He is not, however, 
holy like me." 

At that time a great rain fell out of season ; and a great 
inundation rose. The place where the Blessed One lived 
was covered with water. Then the Blessed One thought : 
" What if I were to cause the water to recede round about 
and if I were to walk up and down in the midst of the water 
on a dust-covered spot." And the Blessed One caused the 
water to recede round about, and he walked up and down 
in the midst of the water on a dust-covered spot. 

And the Jatila Uruvela Kassapa, who was afraid that the 



86 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

water might have carried away the great Samana, went 
with a boat together with many Jatilas to the place where 
the Blessed One lived. Then the Jatila Uruvela Kassapa 
saw the Blessed One, who caused the water to recede round 
about, walking up and down in the midst of the water on 
a dust-covered spot. Seeing him, he said to the Blessed One : 
" Are you there, great Samana ? " 

" Here I am, Kassapa," replied the Blessed One, and he 
rose in the air and stationed himself in the boat. 

And the Jatila Uruvela Kassapa thought : " Truly the 
great Samana possesses great psychic power and great 
authority, since the water does not carry him away. He 
is not, however, holy like me." 

Then the Blessed One thought : " This foolish man will 
still for a long time be thinking thus : ' Truly the great Samana 
possesses great psychic power, great authority ; he is not, 
however, holy like me.' What if I were to agitate this 
Jatila?" 

And the Blessed One said to the Jatila Uruvela Kassapa : 
" You are not holy (araha), Kassapa, nor have you even 
entered the path of Arahantship, nor do you live in such a 
way of life by which you will become holy, or enter the path 
of Arahantship." 

Then the Jatila Uruvela Kassapa prostrated himself, 
incUning his head to the feet of the Blessed One and said to 
the Blessed One : " Lord, let me receive ordination from 
the Blessed One." 

(Buddha replied) : " You, Kassapa, are chief, leader, 
foremost, first, and highest of five hundred Jatilas ; go 
first and inform them of your intention, and let them do 
what they think fit." 

Then the Jatila Uruvela Kassapa went to those Jatilas ; 
having gone to them, he said to those Jatilas : " I wish, 
sirs, to lead a religious life under the direction of the great 
Samana ; you may do, sirs, what you think fit." 

(The Jatilas replied) : " We have won faith, sir, in 
the great Samana long since ; if you will lead, sir, a 
religious life under the great Samaria's direction, we will all 
lead a religious life under the great Samana's direction." 



THE FIRE SERMON 87 

Then the Jatilas flung their hair, then: braids, their pro- 
visions, and the things for the agnihotra sacrifice into the 
river, and went to the place where the Blessed One was ; 
having approached him and prostrated themselves before 
him, inclining their heads to the feet of the Blessed One, 
they said to the Blessed One : " Lord, we would receive 
ordination from the Blessed One." 

" Come, monks," said the Blessed One, " well taught 
is the dhamma ; lead a holy life for the sake of the complete 
extinction of ill." 

Thus these venerable persons received the upasampada 
ordination. 

And the Jatila Nadi Kassapa saw the. hair, the braids, 
the provisions, the things for the agnihotra sacrifice, which 
were carried down by the river ; when he saw that, he became 
afraid that some misfortune might have befallen his brother. 
He sent some Jatilas, saying : " Go and look after my 
brother," and went himself with his three hundred Jatilas 
to the venerable Uruvela Kassapa ; having approached 
him, he said to the venerable Uruvela Kassapa : " Now, 
Kassapa, is this better ? " 

(Uruvela Kassapa replied) : " Yes, friend, this is better." 

. . . (The same is recounted of Nodi Kassapa and Gaya 
Kassapa and the Jatilas under them.} 

At the command of the Blessed One the five hundred 
pieces of fire-wood could not be split and were split, the fires 
could not be lit up and were lit up, could not be extinguished 
and were extinguished ; beside he created five hundred 
vessels with fire. Thus the number of these miracles amounts 
to three thousand five hundred. 



XXI 

THE FIRE SERMON 

And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at Uruvela as 
long as he thought fit, went forth to Gayasisa, accompanied 
by a great number of monks, by the thousand monks who 



88 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

all had been Jatilas before. There near Gaya, at Gaya-Head, 
the Blessed One dwelt together with those thousand monks. 
There the Blessed One thus addressed the monks : 

" Every thing, monks, is burning. 

And how, monks, is every thing burning ? 

The eye, monks, is burning ; visible things are burning ; 
eye-consciousness is burning ; eye-contact is burning ; 
and whatever sensation produced by the cause of eye- 
contact, be it pleasant, or painful, or neither pleasant 
or painful, that also is burning. 

With what is it burning ? 

I declare unto you, that it is burning with lust, with 
hatred, with delusion, it is burning with birth, decay, 
death, grief, lamentation, suffering, dejection and 
despair. 

The ear is burning, sounds are burning . . . 1 

The tongue is burning, tastes are burning . . . 

The body is burning, tangibles are burning . . . 

The mind is burning, things are burning . . . 

The mind-consciousness is burning, mind-contact is burning, 
and whatever sensation produced by the cause of mind- 
contact, be it pleasant or painful, or neither pleasant 
nor painful, that also is burning. With what is it 
burning ? 

I declare unto you that it is burning with lust, with 
hatred, with delusion, it is burning with birth, decay, 
death, grief, lamentation, suffering, dejection, and 
despair. 

Considering this, O monks, a learned disciple, walking 
in the Noble Path, turns 2 away from the eye, turns away 
from the visible things, turns away from mental impressions 
based on the eye, turns away from the eye-contact, be it 
pleasant or painful, or neither pleasant nor painful. 

. . . (Similarly he turns away from all the senses.) 
Turning away, he divests himself of passion ; passionless 

1 The omissions in this paragraph follow the same line of relationship 
as that given above concerning the eye. 

2 See previous note on Nibbindati, p. 66. 



CONVERSION OF KING BIMBISARA 89 

he is liberated. Being liberated he is aware that he is 
liberated ; and he knows, that rebirth is exhausted, that 
the holy life is completed, that duty is fulfilled, and that 
there is no further return to this world." 

When this exposition was propounded, the minds of those 
thousand monks became free from attachment to the world, 
and were released from the cankers ! 

Here ends the sermon on " The Burning". 

End of the third portion for recitation concerning the Wonders 

done at Uruvela. 



XXII 

THE CONVERSION OF KING BIMBISARA AND THE BRAHMANS OF 

MAGADHA 

And the Blessed One, after having dwelt at Gaya-Head 
as long as he thought fit, went forth to Rajagaha, accom- 
panied by a great number of monks, by the thousand 
monks who all had been Jatilas before. And the Blessed 
One, wandering from place to place came to Rajagaha. 
There the Blessed One dwelt near Rajagaha, in the Latthivana 
pleasure garden, near the shrine of Supatittha. 

Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara heard : " The 
Samana Gotama the son of the Sakyans, an ascetic of the 
Sakya tribe, has just arrived at Rajagaha and is staying 
near Rajagaha, in the Latthivana pleasure garden, near 
the sacred shrine of Supatittha. Of him, the blessed Gotama, 
such a glorious fame is spread abroad : Truly he is the 
blessed, holy, absolute Buddha, proficient in knowledge and 
conduct, the Wellfarer, who understands all worlds, the 
highest one, who guides men that are teachable, the teacher 
of gods and men, the blessed Buddha. He makes known 
the truth, which he has understood himself and seen face 
to face, to this world-system with its devas, its Maras, 
and its Brahmas ; to all beings, samanas and brahmans, 



go EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

gods and men ; he preaches that dhamma which is lovely 
in the beginning, lovely in the middle, lovely at the end, 
in the spirit and in the letter ; he proclaims the consummate 
perfect, and pure holy life." It is good to obtain the sight 
of holy men (Arahants) like that. 

And the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara, surrounded 
by twelve myriads of Magadha brahmans and householders, 
went to the place where the Blessed One was ; having 
approached him and respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he 
sat down near him. And of those twelve myriads of Magadha 
brahmans and householders some also respectfully saluted 
the Blessed One and sat down near him ; some exchanged 
greeting with the Blessed One, having exchanged with 
him greeting and complaisant words, they sat down near 
him ; some bent their clasped hands towards the Blessed 
One and sat down near him ; some made known their name 
and family name before the Blessed One and sat down near 
him ; some sat down near him silently. 

Now those twelve myriads of Magadha brahmans and 
householders thought : " How now is this ? Does the 
great Samana follow the holy life under Uruvela Kassapa, 
or does Uruvela Kassapa follow the holy life under the 
great Samana ? " 

And the Blessed One, who understood in his mind the 
reflection which had arisen in the minds of those twelve 
myriads of Magadha brahmans and householders, addressed 
the venerable Uruvela Kassapa in verse : " What hast 
thou seen, O dweller of Uruvela, that thou who art called the 
gaunt one hast forsaken the fire ? I ask thee, Kassapa, this 
matter : How is it thou hast forsaken the fire sacrifice ? " 
(Kassapa replied) : " It is sights and sounds, and also 
tastes, and women of sense-desire that the sacrifices promise ; 
because I understood that whatever belongs to the grounds 
of rebirth is impure, I took no more delight in sacrifices and 
offerings." 

" But if your mind, Kassapa," said the Blessed One, " found 
there no more delight either in sights, or sounds, or tastes 
what forsooth is it in the world of men or gods in which 
your mind, Kassapa, now finds delight ? Tell me that." 



CONVERSION OF KING BIMBISARA 91 

(Kassapa replied) : "I have seen the good state where 
is no ground (of rebirth), and no hindrance, which cleaves 
not to sensual life, which changes not, whence is no straying 
from; therefore I took no more delight in sacrifices and 
offerings." 

Then the venerable Uravela Kassapa rose from his seat, 
adjusted his upper robe so as to cover one shoulder, 
prostrated himself, rnclining his head to the feet of the 
Blessed One, and said to the Blessed One : " My teacher, 
lord, is the Blessed One, I am his pupil ; my teacher, lord, 
is the Blessed One, I am his pupil." Then those twelve 
myriads of Magadha brahmans and householders understood : 
" Uruvela Kassapa follows the holy life under the great 
Samana." 

And the Blessed One, who understood in his mind the 
reflection that had arisen in the minds of those twelve 
myriads of Magadha brahmans and householders, preached 
to them in due course (as above in Chap. 7). Just as a clean 
cloth free from black specks properly takes the dye, thus 
eleven myriads of those Magadha brahmans and house- 
holders with Bimbisara at their head, while sitting there, 
obtained the pure and spotless eye of the dhamma (that 
is the knowledge) : " Whatsoever is an arising thing all 
that is a ceasing thing." One myriad announced their 
having become lay-followers. 

Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara having seen 
the dhamma, having mastered the dhamma, having pene- 
trated the dhamma, having overcome uncertainty, having 
dispelled all doubts, having gained full knowledge dependent 
on nobody else for the knowledge of the Teacher's doctrine, 
said to the Blessed One : "In former days, lord, when 
I was a prince, I entertained five aspirations ; these are 
now fulfilled. In former days, lord, to me when I was 
a prince, came this thought : ' O that I might be 
inaugurated as king ! ' That was my first aspiration, lord ; 
that is now fulfilled. ' And might then a holy one, a fully 
Enlightened One come over into my kingdom 1 ' This was 
my second aspiration, lord ; that is now fulfilled. 'And 
might I minister to that Blessed One ! ' That was my 



92 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

third aspiration, lord ; that is now fulfilled. ' And might 
he, the Blessed One, preach the dhamma to me ! ' This 
was my fourth aspiration, lord ; and that is now fulfilled. 
' And might I understand the dhamma of that Blessed One ! ' 
This was my fifth aspiration, lord ; this is now fulfilled. 
These were my five aspirations, lord, which I entertained 
in former days when I was a prince ; these are now fulfilled. 

" Wonderful, lord ! Wonderful, lord ! Just as if one should 
set up, lord, what had been overturned, or should reveal 
what had been hidden, or should point out the way to one 
who had lost his way, or should bring a lamp into the 
darkness, in order that those who had eyes might see visible 
things, thus has the Blessed One preached the dhamma 
in many ways. I take refuge, lord, hi the Blessed One, 
and in the dhamma, and in the fraternity of bhikkhus 
(monks) ; may the Blessed One receive me from this day 
forth, while my life lasts, as a lay-disciple who has taken 
refuge in him. And might the Blessed One, lord, consent 
to take his meal with me to-morrow together with the 
fraternity of monks." 

The Blessed One expressed his consent by remaining 
silent. 

Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara, when he 
understood that the Blessed One had accepted his invitation, 
rose from his seat, respectfully saluted the Blessed One, 
and, passing round him with his right side towards him, 
went away. And when the night had elapsed, the Magadha 
king Seniya Bimbisara ordered excellent food, both hard 
and soft, to be prepared, and had dinner-time announced 
to the Blessed One in the words : " It is time, lord, the 
meal is ready." And in the forenoon the Blessed One, 
having put on his under-robe, took his alms-bowl, and with 
his robe on, entered the city of Rajagaha accompanied 
by a great number of monks, by the thousand monks who 
all had been Jatilas before. 

At that time Sakka the ruler of the devas, assuming the 
appearance of a young brahman, walked in front of the 
fraternity- of monks with Buddha at its head, singing the 
following stanzas : " The Tamed One with the tamed, with 



CONVERSION OF KING 'BIMBISARA 93 

the former Jatilas, the Liberated One with the liberated, 
the Blessed One, in colour like fine wrought gold, hath 
entered Rajagaha." 

"The Freed One with the freed, with the former Jatilas 
(etc., as above). 

" He who has crossed over with them who have crossed 
over, with the former Jatilas, the Released One with the 
released, the Blessed One, in colour like fine wrought gold, 
hath entered Rajagaha." 

" He who is possessed of the ten noble states and of 
the ten Powers, who understands the tenfold dhamma 
and who in ten ways hath won (his goal), he the Blessed 
One, surrounded by ten hundred of followers hath entered 
Rajagaha." 

The people when they saw Sakka the king of the devas, 
said : " This youth indeed is handsome, this youth indeed 
has a lovely appearance, this youth indeed is pleasing. 
Whose attendant may this youth be ? " When they talked 
thus, Sakka the king of the devas, addressed those people 
in this stanza : " He who is wise, entirely tamed, the 
unrivalled Buddha, the Arahant, the Wellfarer in the world, 
his attendant am I." 

And the Blessed One went to the palace of the Magadha 
king Seniya Bimbisara. Having gone there, he sat down 
with the monks who followed him, on seats laid out for 
them. Then the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara with 
his own hands served and offered excellent food, both hard 
and soft, to the fraternity of monks with the Buddha at 
its head ; and when the Blessed One had finished his meal 
and cleaned his bowl and his hands, he sat down near him. 

Sitting near him the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara 
thought : " Where may I find a place for the Blessed One 
to live in, not too far from the village and not too near, 
suitable for going and coming, easily accessible for people 
who keep on seeking (him), by day not too crowded, where 
there is little sound, little noise by night, sequestered, hidden 
from men, well fitted for a retired life ? " 

And the Magadha king Seniya Bimbisara thought : 
" There is the Veluvana, my pleasure garden, which is not 



94 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

too far from the town and not too near, suitable for going 
and coming . . . What if I were to make an offering of 
the Veluvana pleasure garden to the fraternity of monks, 
with the Buddha at its head ? " 

And the Magadha king Seniya Binibisara took a golden 
vessel (with water in it, to be poured over the Buddha's 
hand) ; and made a pure gift to the Blessed One, saying, 
" I give this Veluvana pleasure garden, lord, to the fraternity 
of monks with the Buddha at its head." The Blessed One 
accepted the park. Then the Blessed One, after having 
taught, incited, animated, and gladdened the Magadha king 
Seniya Bimbisara by religious discourse, rose from his seat 
and went away. 

And in consequence of this event the Blessed One, after 
having delivered a religious discourse addressed the monks : 
" I allow you, monks, to receive the donation of a park." 



XXIII 

THE CONVERSION OF THE Two CHIEF DISCIPLES, SARIPUTTA AND 

MOGGALLANA 

At that time Sanjaya a wandering ascetic (paribbajaka) 
resided at Rajagaha with a great retinue of wandering 
ascetics, with two hundred and fifty wandering ascetics. 
At that time Sariputta and Moggallana (two young 
brahmans) led a religious life as followers of Sanjaya, the 
wandering ascetic ; these had given their word to each other : 
" He who first attains to the immortal shall tell the other one." 
. Now one day the venerable Assaji in the forenoon, 
having put on his under-robes, and having taken his alms- 
bowl and outer robe, entered the city of Rajagaha for alms ; 
his walking, turning back, regarding, looking, drawing 
(his arms) back, and stretching (them) out was decorous; 
he turned his eyes to the ground, and was dignified in deport- 
ment. Now the wandering ascetic Sariputta saw the 
venerable Assaji, who went through Rajagaha for alms, 
whose walking, etc., was decorous, who kept his eyes to the 



SARIPUTTA AND MOGGALLANA 95 

ground, and was dignified in deportment. Seeing him, 
he thought : " Indeed this person is one of those monks 
who are the worthy ones (Arahants) in the world, or who have 
entered the path of Arahantship. What if I were to 
approach this monk and to ask him : ' In whose name, 
friend, have you retired from the world ? Who is your 
teacher ? Whose dhamma do you profess ? ' " 

Now the wandering ascetic Sariputta thought : " This 
is not the time to ask this monk ; he has entered the inner 
yard of a house, walking for alms. What if I were to follow 
this monk step by step, according to the course recognised 
by those who want something ? " 

And the venerable Assaji, having finisTied his alms- 
pilgrimage through Rajagaha, went back with the food 
he had received. Then the wandering ascetic Sariputta 
went to the place where the venerable Assaji was ; having 
approached him, he exchanged greetings with the venerable 
Assaji ; having exchanged with him greetings and com- 
plaisant words, he stationed himself at his side ; standing 
at his side the wandering ascetic Sariputta said to the 
venerable Assaji : " Your countenance, friend, is serene ; 
your complexion is pure and bright. In whose name, friend, 
have you retired from the world ? Who is your teacher ? 
Whose dhamma do you profess ? " 

(Assaji replied): "There is, friend, the great recluse 
the Sakya's son, who has retired from the world, out of 
the Sakya clan ; in this Blessed One's name, have I retired 
from the world ; this Blessed One is my teacher, and of 
the dhamma of this Blessed One do I approve." 

" And what, venerable Sir, is the doctrine which your 
teacher holds ? And what does he preach to you ? " 

" I am only a young disciple, friend ; I have but recently 
received ordination ; and I have newly adopted this dhamma 
and discipline. I cannot explain to you the dhamma 
in detail ; but I will tell you in short what it means." 

Then Sariputta, the wandering ascetic, said to the venerable 
Assaji : " So be it, friend, tell me as much or as little as 
you like, but tell me the meaning, I want just the meaning. 
Why make so much of the letter ? " , 



96 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

Then the venerable Assaji pronounced to the wandering 
ascetic Sariputta the following teaching of the dhamma : 
" Of all objects which proceed from a cause, the Tathagata 
has explained the cause, and he has explained their cessation 
also ; this is the doctrine of the great Samana." 

And Sariputta, the wandering ascetic, after having heard 
this dhamma-text obtained the pure and spotless dhamma- 
eye (namely) : " Whatsoever is an arising thing, all that is 
a ceasing thing." (And he said) : " Even if this alone 
be the dhamma, you have indeed seen the sorrowless way, 
lost sight of and passed over for many myriads of aeons." 

Then the wandering ascetic Sariputta went to the place 
where the wandering ascetic Moggallana was. And the 
wandering ascetic Moggallana saw the wandering ascetic 
Sariputta coming from afar ; seeing him, he said to the 
wandering ascetic Sariputta : " Your countenance, friend, 
is serene; your complexion is pure and bright. Have you 
then really reached the immortal, friend ? " 

" Yes, friend, I have attained to the immortal." 

"And how, friend, have you done so ? " 

. . . (Then Sariputta told him of his meeting with Assaji). 

And the wandering ascetic Moggallana, after having heard 
this dhamma-text, obtained the pure and spotless dhamma- 
eye (that is the following knowledge) : " Whatsoever is an 
arising thing, all that is a ceasing thing." (And Moggallana 
said) : " Even if this alone be the dhamma, indeed you 
have seen the sorrowless way, lost sight of and passed over 
for many myriads of aeons." 



XXIV 

(Continued) 

Then the wandering ascetic Moggallana said to the 
wandering ascetic Sariputta, " Let us go, friend, and join 
the Blessed One ; that he, the Blessed One, may be our 
teacher." 



SARIPUTTA AND MOGGALLANA 97 

(Sariputta replied) : " It is on our account, friend, that 
these two hundred and fifty wandering ascetics live here, 
and it is we whom they regard ; let us first take leave 
of them ; they will do what they think fit." 

Then Sariputta and Moggallana went to the place where 
those wandering ascetics were ; having approached them 
they said to the wandering ascetics : " Friends, we are 
going to join the Blessed One ; he, the Blessed One, 
is our teacher." 

(The wandering ascetics replied) : " It is on your 
account, sirs, that we live here, and it is you whom we 
regard ; if you, sirs, will lead the holy life under the 
great Samana, we all will lead the holy .life under the 
great Samana." 

Then Sariputta and Moggallana went to the place where 
the wandering ascetic Sanjaya was ; having approached 
him, they said to the wandering ascetic Sanjaya : " Friend, 
we go to join the Blessed One ; he, the Blessed One, is our 
teacher." 

(Sanjaya replied) : " Nay, friends, do not go ; we will 
all three look after this company." 

. . . (And a second and third time Sariputta 
and Moggallana said this and Sanjaya answered as 
before.) 

But Sariputta and Moggallana took with them those 
two hundred and fifty wandering ascetics and went to the 
Veluvana. And the wandering ascetic Sanjaya began on 
the spot to vomit hot blood from his mouth. 

And the Blessed One saw them, Sariputta and Moggallana, 
coming from afar ; on seeing them he thus addressed the 
monks : " There, monks, arrive two companions, Kolita 
and Upatissa ; 1 these will be my chief pair of disciples, 
an auspicious pair." 

When they who were unsurpassed for depth and breadth 
of knowledge and who were set free by the perishing of the 
grounds of becoming, had arrived at the Bamboo grove, then 
the Teacher declared concerning them : " There arrive two 

1 Their family names. 



98 EVENTS AFTER ENLIGHTENMENT 

companions, Kolita and Upatissa, these will be my chief 
pair of disciples, an auspicious pair." 

Then Sariputta and Moggallana went to the place where 
the Blessed One was ; having approached him, they 
prostrated themselves, with their heads at the feet of the 
Blessed One, and said to the Blessed .One : " Lord, let us 
receive ordination from the Blessed One." 

" Come, monks," said the Blessed One, " well taught 
is the dhamma ; lead a holy life for the sake of the complete 
ending of ill." Thus these venerable persons received 
the upasampada ordination. 

At that time many distinguished young Magadha noble- 
men led a holy life under the direction of the Blessed One. 
The people were annoyed, murmured, and became angry 
(saying), "The Samana Gotama causes parents to be 
childless ; the Samaria Gotama causes wives to become 
widows ; the Samana Gotama causes the uprooting of 
families. Now he has ordained one thousand Jatilas, and 
he has ordained these two hundred and fifty wandering ascetics 
who were followers of Sanjaya, and these many distinguished 
young Magadha clansmen are now leading a holy life under 
the Samana Gotama. And moreover, when they saw the 
monks they chid them in the following stanza : " The 
great Samana has come to Giribbaja (i.e. Ragagaha) of the 
Magadha people, leading with him all the followers of 
Sanjaya ; who will be the next to be led by him ? " 

The monks heard those people that were annoyed, 
murmured, and had become angry ; these monks told this 
thing to the Blessed One. (He replied) : " This noise, monks, 
will not last long ; it will last only seven days ; after seven 
'days it will be over. And if they chide you, monks, in 
this stanza : ' The great Samana has come, etc.,' you 
should rebuke them in the following stanza : ' It is truly 
by a good dhamma that the great heroes, the Tathagatas, 
lead. Who will murmur at the wise, why grudge the wise 
men leading righteously ? '" 

At that time when the people, seeing the monks, chid 
them in the following stanza : " The great Samana has 



SARIPUTTA AND MOGGALLANA 99 

come, etc.," then the BMkkhus replied to the revilers . . . 
(as the Blessed One had directed). 

Then the people understood : " It is by dhamma, and 
not unrighteously, that the Sakyaputtiya Samanas lead 
men " ; and thus the noise lasted only seven days, and 
after seven days it was over. 



PART IV 

THE BUDDHA'S RELATIONS WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

AND OTHERS 



ORDINATION OF RAHULA 

(V IN AY A TEXTS, I. p. 207) 
(Adapted from Rhys Davids' s and Oldenberg's trans,) 

Then the Blessed one after having resided at Rajagaha 
as long as he thought fit, went forth to Kapilavatthu. 
Wandering from place to place he came to Kapilavatthu. 
There the Blessed One dwelt in the Sakya country, near 
Kapilavatthu, in the Nigrodharama (Banyan Grove). 

And in the forenoon the Blessed One, having put on his 
under-robes, took his alms-bowl and with his robe on went 
to the residence of the Sakyan Suddhodana (his father). 
Having gone there he sat down on a seat made ready. 

Then the princess, who was the mother of Rahula, said 
to young Rahula : " This is your father, Rahula ; go and 
ask him for your inheritance." 

Then young Rahula went to the place where the Blessed 
One was ; having approached him, he stationed himself 
before the Blessed One and said : " Your shadow, Samaria, 
is a place of bliss." 

Then the Blessed One rose from his seat and went away, 
and young Rahula followed the Blessed One from behind 
and said : " Give me my inheritance, Samana ; give me 
my inheritance, Samana." 

Then the Blessed One said to the venerable Sariputta: 
" Well, Sariputta confer ordination on young Rahula." 

(Sariputta replied) : " How shall I confer, lord, ordination 
on young Rahula ? " 

Because of that and on this occasion the Blessed One, 
after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed 
the monks : " I prescribe, monks, the ordination of novices 
by the threefold declaration of taking refuge. 

" And you ought, monks, to confer ordination (on a novice) 
in this way : Let him first have his hair and beard cut off ; 
let him put on yellow robes, adjust his upper robe so as 



104 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

to cover one shoulder, salute the feet of the monks (with 
his head), and sit down squatting, then let him raise his joined 
hands and tell him to say : ' I take my refuge in the Buddha, 
I take my refuge in the Dhamma, I take my refuge in the 
Samgha. And for the second time, etc. And for the third 
time, etc.' 

" I prescribe monks, the ordination of novices by this three- 
fold declaration of taking refuge." 

Thus the venerable Sariputta conferred ordination on 
young Rahula. 

Then the Sakyan Suddhodana went to the place where 
the Blessed One was ; having approached him and having 
respectfully saluted the Blessed One, he sat down near him. 
Sitting near him the Sakyan Suddhodana said to the Blessed 
One : " Lord, I ask one boon of the Blessed One." (The 
Buddha replied) : " The perfect ones, Gotama, are beyond 
granting boons." (Suddhodana said) : " Lord it is proper 
and blameless." (The Buddha): "Speak, Gotama." 

" Lord, when the Blessed One gave up the world, it was 
a great pain to me ; so it was when Nanda did the same ; 
my pain was excessive when Rahula too did so. The love 
for a son, lord, cuts into the skin ; having cut into the skin 
it cuts into the hide ; having cut into the hide, it cuts into 
the flesh . . . the ligaments . . . the bones ; having cut 
into the bones, it reaches the marrow and dwells in the marrow. 
Pray, lord, let their reverences not confer ordination on 
a son without his father's and mother's permission." 

Then the Blessed One taught the Sakyan Suddhodana 
(etc., see Chap. 39). " Let no son, monks, receive 
ordination without his father's and mother's permission. 
He who confers ordination (on a son without that permission), 
is guilty of a misdeed." 



THE WELL-TUNED LUTE 105 



THE WELL-TUNED LUTE 
A PARABLE OF THE MIDDLE WAY 

(FROM VINAYA TEXTS, MAHAVAGGA V, .194/0 

. . . The venerable Sona (Sona Kolivisa) soon after his 
higher ordination resided in the Sitavana grove. 

While he with zealous determination was walking to 
and fro, his feet were wounded, and the place where he 
walked became covered with blood, like a ' slaughter-house 
for oxen. Then when the venerable Sona had gone apart 
and was deep in meditation, there arose this consideration : 
" Though I live as one of those disciples of the Blessed One 
in the practice of strenuous effort, yet my mind has not 
been set free from the cankers through absence of craving. 

" And at my home much wealth is stored up for me. It is 
both possible to enjoy that wealth and to do good deeds. 
Let me now, then, returning to the lower state, enjoy my 
wealth and do good deeds." 

Now the Blessed One perceived the thought of the venerable 
Sona ; and as quickly as a strong man can stretch forth 
his arm, or can draw it back again, when it has been stretched 
forth, he disappeared from the hill of the Vulture's Peak, 
and appeared in the Sitavana grove. Then the Blessed 
One as he was going through the sleeping-quarters, arrived 
with many monks where the venerable Sona had walked 
to and fro. 

When the Blessed One saw that the place where the 
venerable Sona had walked to and fro was covered with 
blood, he said to the monks : " Whose walking place is 
this, monks, which is covered with blood, like a slaughter- 
house for oxen ? " 

" Lord, while the venerable Sona was walking to and fro 
here with zealous determination, his feet were wounded ; 
and so this place has become covered with blood ..." 

Then the Blessed One went to the house in which the 
venerable Sona was living, and there he sat down on a seat 



io6 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

prepared for him. And the venerable Sona bowed down 
before the Blessed One, and seated himself at one side. 
Then the Blessed One said to the venerable Sona : " Is it 
not true Sona that in your mind, when you had gone apart 
and were deep in meditation, there arose this thought : 
' Though I have become one of those disciples of the Blessed 
One in the practice of strenuous effort, yet my mind has 
not been set free from the cankers through absence of craving. 
And at my house much wealth is stored up for me. It is 
both possible to enjoy that wealth and to do good deeds. 
Let me now, then, returning to the lower state enjoy my 
wealth and do good deeds ? ' " 

"Yes, Lord." 

" Now what think you, Sona ? You were skilled, were 
you not, in the strings of the lute, when you used to 
live in the world ? " 

"That is true, Lord." 

" What think you, Sona ? When your lute strings 
were stretched too much, then had your lute any sound, 
was it in a fit condition to be played upon ? " 

" No, Lord." 

"What think you, Sona? When the strings of your 
lute were too loose then had your lute any sound, was it in a 
fit condition to be played upon ? " 

" No : Lord." 

" What think you, Sona ? When the strings of your 
lute were neither too much stretched nor too loose, but 
fixed in even quality, had your lute sound then, was it in 
a fit condition then to be played upon ? " 

" Yes, Lord." 

" Thus, Sona, does too strenuous effort lead to overstrain, 
and too weak effort to sloth. Therefore, O Sona, be you 
steadfast in evenness of effort, press through to evenness 
of your mental powers. Let that be the object of your 
thought." 

" Just so, Lord," said the venerable Sona, and he barkened 
to the word of the Blessed One. 



VASSA 107 

RESIDENCE DURING THE RAINY SEASON VASSA 

(VINAYA TEXTS I, A 298.) 
(Mainly from Rhys Davids' s and Oldenberg's trans.) 

At that time the Blessed One dwelt at Rajagaha, in the 
Bamboo Grove, in the Squirrels' Feeding Ground. At that 
time the retreat during the rainy season had not yet been 
instituted by the Blessed One for the monks. Thus the 
monks went on their travels alike during winter, summer, 
and the rainy season. 

People were annoyed, murmured, and became angry, 
saying : " How can the Sakya Samanas go on their travels 
alike during winter, summer, and the rainy season ? They 
crush the green herbs, they hurt vegetable life, they destroy 
the life of many small living things. Shall the ascetics 
who belong to other schools, whose doctrine is ill preached, 
retire during the rainy season and arrange places for them- 
selves to live in ; shall the birds make their nests on the 
summits of the trees ; and retire during the rainy season, 
and arrange themselves places to live in ; and yet the Sakya 
Samanas go on their travels alike during winter, summer, 
and the rainy season, crushing the green herbs, hurting 
vegetable life, and destroying the life of many small things ? " 

Now some monks heard those people that were annoyed, 
murmured, and had become angry. 

These monks told this thing to the Blessed One. 

In consequence of that and on this occasion the Blessed 
One, after having delivered a religious discourse, thus addressed 
the monks : 

" I prescribe, monks, that you enter upon retreat in the 



rains.' ' 



ADVICE REGARDING VASSA 

(VINAYA TEXTS I, p. 325 /.) 
(Adapted from Rhys Davids' s and Oldenberg's trans.} 

At that time the Blessed Buddha dwelt at Savatthi ; 
in the Jetavana, the garden of Anathapindika. At that 



io8 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

time a number of monks, companions and friends of each 
other, entered upon retreat hi a certain district of the Kosala 
country. Now those monks thought : " What shall we 
do in order that we may keep retreat well, in unity and in 
concord and without quarrel, and that we may not suffer 
from want of food ? " 

Then those monks thought : " If we do not speak to 
or converse with each other, if he who comes back first 
from the village, from his alms-pilgrimage, prepares seats, 
gets water for washing the feet, a footstool, and a towel, 
cleans the slop-basin and gets it ready, and puts there 
(water to) drink and food. 

" And if he who comes back last from the village, from his 
alms-pilgrimage, eats, if there is any food left (from the 
dinner of the other monks) and if he desires to do so ; and 
if he does not desire (to eat) throws it away, at a place free 
from grass, or pours it away into water in which no living 
things are ; puts away the water for washing the feet, the 
foot-stool, and the towel ; cleans the slop-basin, and puts 
it away, puts the water and the food away, and sweeps 
the dining-room. 

" And if he who sees a water-pot, or a bowl for food, . . . 
empty and void, puts it (into its proper place), and if he is not 
able to do so single-handed, calls someone else and puts it 
away with their united effort without uttering a word on 
that account, thus shall we keep Vassa well, in unity, and 
in concord, and without quarrel, and not suffer from want 
of food." 

And those monks did not speak to or converse with each 
other. He who came back from the village from his amis- 
pilgrimage first, prepared seats (etc., as above) . . . without 
uttering a word on that account. 

Now it is the custom of the monks who have finished their 
rains residence, to go to see the Blessed One. Thus those 
monks, when they had finished their retreat, and when the 
three months had elapsed, set their places of rest in order, 
took then* alms-bowls, and robes, and went on their way 
to Savatthi. Walking from place to place they came to 
Savatthi, to the Jetavana, the garden of Anathapindika, 



ADVICE REGARDING VASSA 109 

to the Blessed One ; having approached the Blessed One 
and respectfully saluted him they sat down near him. 

Now it is the custom of the Blessed Buddhas to exchange 
greetings with incoming monks. And the Blessed One 
said to those monks : " Do things go well with you, monks ? 
Do you get enough to support yourselves with ? Have you 
kept the rain-retreat well, in unity, and in concord, and with- 
out quarrel ? and have you not suffered from want of food ? " 

" Things go well with us, lord ; we get enough, lord, where- 
with to support ourselves ; we have kept retreat well, in 
unity, in concord, and without quarrel ; and have not 
suffered from want of food." 

The Tathagatas sometimes ask about what they know ; 
sometimes they do not ask about what they know. They 
understand the right time when to ask, and they understand 
the right time when not to ask. The Tathagatas put 
questions full of sense, not void of sense ; to what is void 
of sense the bridge is pulled down for the Tathagatas. For 
two purposes the blessed Buddhas put questions to the 
monks, when they intend to preach the doctrine, or when 
they intend to institute a rule of conduct to their disciples. 

And the Blessed One said to those monks : "In what 
way, monks, have you kept retreat well, in unity, and in concord, 
and without quarrel and not suffered from want of food ? " 

" We entered upon retreat, lord, a number of monks, 
companions and friends of each other, in a certain district 
of the Kosala country. Now, lord, we thought : ' What 
shall we do (etc., p. 108, 1. 3) ? ' Then we thought, lord : 
' If we do not speak (etc., ibid.).' Thus, lord, we did 
not speak to or converse with each other (etc., down to:) 
without uttering a word on that account. In that way, 
lord, we have kept retreat well, in unity, and in concord, 
and without quarrel ; and have not suffered from want of 
food." 

Then the Blessed One thus addressed the monks : " Indeed, 
monks, these foolish men who profess to have kept retreat 
well, have kept it badly ; indeed, monks, these foolish men 
who profess to have kept retreat well, have kept it like a 
herd of cattle ; indeed have kept it like a herd of rams ; 



no THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

indeed have kept it like a company of indolent people. How 
can these foolish persons, monks, take upon themselves 
the vow of silence, as other sects do ? 

" This will not do, monks, for converting the unconverted 
. . . they will be repulsed, and the converted estranged." 

And when he had rebuked them he delivered a religious 
discourse, he thus addressed the monks : 

" Let no one, monks, take upon himself the vow of silence, 
as other sects do. He who does commits a misdeed. 

' ' I prescribe, monks, that the monks, when they have finished 
their rains residence, hold ward-mote 1 with each other in 
these three ways : by what has been seen, or by what has 
been heard, or by what is suspected. 

" Hence it will result that you live in accord with each other, 
that you atone for the offence (you have committed), and 
that you keep the rules of discipline before your eyes. 

" And you ought, monks, to hold ward-mote in this way : 
Let a learned, competent monk make this known before 
the Sangha : ' Let the Sangha, reverend sirs, hear me. 
To-day is the ward-mote day. If the Sangha is ready, let 
the Sangha hold ward-mote.' 

" Then let the senior monk adjust his upper robe so as to 
cover one shoulder, sit down squatting, raise his joined hands, 
and say : ' I pronounce my warding, friends, before the 
Sangha, by what has been seen, or by what has been heard, 
or by what is suspected ; may you speak to me, sirs, out 
of compassion towards me ; if I see (an offence), I will atone 
for it. And for the second time, etc. And for the third 
time I pronounce my warding . . . (etc., down to) ... 
if I see (an offence), I will atone for it.' 

" Then let (each) younger monk adjust his upper robe . . . 
'(etc.)." 

1 Pavarana. 



A DESERTED MONK 111 

THE BLESSED ONE WAITS UPON A DESERTED MONK 

(VINAYA TEXTS II, f. 240.) 

At one time a certain monk had an illness of the bowels, 
and he lay fallen in his own excrement. Now when the 
Blessed One, followed by the venerable Ananda, was 
passing by the sleeping quarters he came to the cell of 
that monk and saw him in such a condition. And seeing 
he went to him and said : " What is it, monk, are you ill ? " 
" I have an Illness of the bowels, lord." 
" Have you no one to wait upon you, monk ? " 
" No, lord." 

" Why do not the monks wait upon you ? " 
" Because, lord, I am of no service to the monks." 
Whereupon the Blessed One said to the venerable Ananda : 
" Go, Ananda, and bring some water, let us bathe this monk." 
" Yes, lord," replied the venerable Ananda to the Blessed 
One, and brought the water. Then the Blessed One poured 
the water, while the venerable Ananda washed him. And 
the Blessed One holding him by the head, and the venerable 
Ananda by the feet, they lifted him and laid him down 
upon his bed. 

Then on that occasion and in that connection, the Blessed 
One called a gathering of the Order, and asked the 
monks : " Monks, in such and such a quarter is there a 
monk who is sick ? " 
" Yes, lord." 

" And, monks, what is the matter with that monk ? " 
" He has an illness of the bowels, lord." 
" And is there no one to wait upon him, monks ? " 
" No, lord." 

" But why do not the monks wait upon him ? " 
" That monk, lord, is of no service to the monks, hence 
they do not wait upon him." 

" Monks, you have no mothers or fathers who might wait 
upon you. If, monks, you do not wait upon one another, 
who forsooth will wait upon you ? Whosoever, monks, 
would wait upon me, he should wait upon the sick. 



H2 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

"If he have a preceptor his preceptor should wait upon 
him as long as his life lasts until he is recovered, and 
the same if he have a teacher, a co-disciple of the same vihara 
or a disciple lodging with his teacher. And if he have 
none of these, then the Sangha should wait upon him ; and 
whosoever does not do so, shall be guilty of offence." 1 



THE HELPER OF THE INDIVIDUAL 

(FROM MAJJHIMA NIK AY A II, p. Iff? f.) 
(Mrs. Rhys Davids's translation) 

Then the young brahman Subha visited the Exalted One 
and greeted him and took his seat beside him and said : 
" The brahmans, master Gotama, say thus : ' A man who 
lives in the world can lead a life of rectitude, of righteousness, 
of moral worth ; a man who leaves the world does not lead 
such a life. Here what has Master Gotama to say ? ' " 

" I am one who here distinguishes, young brahman, I 
do not here generalise. Whether it be of the layman or of 
the recluse, wrong practices I do not praise. Neither the 
layman not the recluse, if he lead a wrong life can live rightly, 
righteously, worthily, because of his wrong practices. 
Whether it be of the layman or of the recluse right practices 
I praise. Both the layman and the recluse if they lead the 
right life, can live rightly, righteously, worthily, because 
of their right practices ? " 

" The brahmans, Master Gotama, say thus : ' The business 
of domestic lif e which is important, of many interests, of much 
enterprise, of much toil brings much reward ; the business 
of life out of the world is unimportant, of few interests, 
of little enterprise, of little toil brings little reward. Here 
what says Master Gotama ? ' " 

" Here too, young brahman, I distinguish, I do not 
generalise. There is business which is of great importance, 
many interests, much enterprise, much toil which brings 
little reward. Other such business brings much reward. 

1 It is noteworthy that this touching episode occurs not under The 
Duties, but under The Dress, of the Monks. ED. 



TISSA 113 

There is business of little importance, small interests, little 
enterprise, little toil which brings little reward. Other such 
business brings much reward. Of the first two kinds is 
tilling the land. Of the other two kinds is trade. And 
domestic life is like tilling the land ; lif e out of the world 
is like trade." 



TlSSA 

(SAMYUTTA-NIKAYA III} 
(Trans, by F. L. Woodward, in Kindred Sayings, Vol. Ill) 

At Savatthi ... In the Park. 

Now at that time the venerable Tissa, nephew to the 
Exalted One's father, thus spoke to a number of brethren : 

" Truly, friends, my body has become as if drugged ; 
the four quarters are become dim in my eyes, and the 
teachings are no longer clear to me. Sloth and torpor 
possess my heart ; joyless to me is the righteous life, and 
I waver in the teachings." 

Thereupon a number of brethren went to the Exalted 
One, saluted him and sat down at one side. 

So seated, those brethren said to the Exalted One : " Lord, 
the venerable Tissa, nephew to the Exalted One's father, 
speaks thus to a number of brethren : ' Truly friends, my 
body is become as if drugged. The four quarters are dim 
to my eyes, and the teachings are no longer clear to me. 
Sloth and torpor possess my heart : joyless to me is the 
righteous life, and I waver in the teachings.' " 

At that, the Exalted One, called to a certain brother : 

" Come thou, brother, and in my name bid hither brother 
Tissa, saying : ' Friend Tissa, the Master would speak to 
you.' " 

" Even so, lord," said that brother in reply to the Exalted 
One, and he went to the venerable Tissa and said to him : 
" Friend Tissa, the Master would speak to you." 

" Even so, brother," said the venerable Tissa in reply 
to that brother, and came to the Exalted One, saluted him 
and sat down at one side. 



H4 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

As lie thus sat the Exalted One thus spake unto the 
venerable Tissa : " Is it true, as they say, Tissa, that you 
said this to a number of brethren : ' Truly, friends, my body 
is become as if drugged . . . and so on ... and I waver 
in the teachings ? ' " 

" True, lord." 

" Now as to that, what think you Tissa ? In a body that 
is not rid of lust, rid of desire, of love, of thirst, of fever, 
and craving, in such a body do there arise states of change 
and instability ? Do sorrow and grief, woe, lamentation 
and despair arise ? " 

" Yes, lord." 

" Well said, well said, Tissa. And is it so likewise with 
feeling . . . with perception, with the activities and with 
consciousness ? " 

" Yes, lord." 

" Well said, well said, Tissa. So it is likewise with a 
mind that is not rid of lust, of desire, of love, thirst, 
craving and fever : in such a mind there do arise 
sorrow and grief, woe, lamentation and despair. Now 
what think you, Tissa ? In a body that is rid of all these, 
in such a body do there arise sorrow, grief, woe, lamentation 
and despair ? " 

" Surely not, lord." 

"Well said, well said, Tissa. And as with body, so also 
with feeling, perception, the activities and consciousness, 
do they arise ? " 

" Surely not, lord." 

" Well said, well said, Tissa. So it is with a mind 
that is rid of lust. Now what think you, Tissa ? Is body 
permanent or impermanent ? " 

" Impermament, lord." 

" Is feeling, is perception, the activities, is consciousness 
permanent or impermanent ? " 

" Impermanent, lord." 

" Wherefore, he who seeth this ... he knows : . . . ' for 
life in these conditions there is no hereafter.' 

" Suppose now, Tissa, there be two men, one unskilled 
and the other skilled in wayfaring. And the one who is 



ADMISSION OF WOMEN 115 

unskilled asks the way of the other who is skilled in that 
way. And that other replies : ' Yes, this is the way good 
man. Go on for a while and you will see the road divide 
into two. Leave the path to the left and take the right- 
hand path. Go on for a little, and you will see a thick forest. 
Go on for a little and you will see a great marshy swamp. 
Go on for a little and you will see a steep precipice. Go 
on for a little and you will see a delightful stretch of level 
ground.' 

" Such is my parable, Tissa, to show my meaning ; and 
this is the meaning thereof. By ' the man who is unskilled 
in the way ' is meant the many-folk. By ''the man who is 
skilled in the way ' is meant a Tathagata, an Arahant, 
a Fully Enlightened One. By ' the divided way ' Tissa, 
is meant 'the state of wavering'. The left-hand path is 
a name for this false eightfold path, to wit : the path of 
wrong views, wrong intentions and so forth. The ' right- 
hand path ', Tissa, is a name for this Aryan Eightfold Path, 
to wit : right views, and so forth. The ' thick forest ', Tissa, 
is a name for ignorance. The ' great marshy swamp ', Tissa, 
is a name for the sense-desires. The ' steep precipice ', 
Tissa, is a name for vexation and despair. The ' delightful 
stretch of level ground', Tissa, is a name for Nibbana. 

"Be of good cheer, Tissa ! Be of good cheer, Tissa ! I to 
counsel (you) ! I to uphold ! I to teach ! " 

Thus spake the Exalted One, and the venerable Tissa was 
comforted and welcomed the words of the Exalted One. 



ADMISSION OF WOMEN TO AN ORDER OF NUNS 

(FROM THE CHULLAVAGGA. TENTH KHANDHAKA. VINAYA TEXTS) 
(Following mostly Rhys Davids' s and Oldenberg's translation, S.B.E,) 

I 

Now at that tune the Blessed Buddha was staying among 
the Sakyas in Kapilavatthu, in the Nigrodharama. And 
Maha-Pajapati 1 the GotamI went to the place where the 

1 Maha-Pajapati was sister to the Buddha's mother, and was also 
married to his father : after his mother's death she was foster-mother 
to the young Gotaina. 



n6 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

Blessed One was, and on arriving there, bowed down before 
the Blessed One, and remained standing on one side. And 
so standing she spake thus to the Blessed One : 

" It would be well, lord, if women should be allowed to 
renounce their homes and enter the homeless state under 
the doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata." 

" Enough, Gotami. Let it not please thee that women 
should be allowed to do so." 

(And a second and a third time did Maha-Pajapatl the 
Gotami make the same request in the same words, and receive 
the same reply.) . . . 

Then Maha-Pajapati the Gotami, sad and sorrowful for 
that the Blessed One would not permit women to enter 
the homeless state, bowed down before the Blessed One, 
and keeping him on her right hand as she passed him, departed 
thence weeping and in tears. 

Now when the Blessed One had remained at Kapilavatthu 
as long as he thought fit, he set out on his journey towards 
Vesali ; and travelling straight on he in due course arrived 
thereat. And there at Vesali the Blessed One stayed, in 
the Maha-vana in the Kutagara Hall. 

And Maha-Pajapati the Gotami cut off her hair, and put 
on orange-coloured robes, and set out, with a number of 
women of the Sakya clan, towards Vesali ; and in due course 
she arrived at Vesali, at the Mahavana, at the Kutagara 
Hall. And Maha-Pajapati the Gotami, with swollen feet 
and covered with dust, sad and sorrowful, weeping and in 
tears, took her stand outside under the entrance porch. 

And the venerable Ananda saw her so standing there, 
and on seeing her so he said to Maha-Pajapati : " Why 
standest thou there, outside the porch, with swollen feet 
and covered with dust, sad and sorrowful, weeping and in 
tears ? 

" Inasmuch, Ananda, as the lord, the Blessed One, 
does not permit women to renounce their homes and enter 
the homeless state under the doctrine and discipline pro- 
claimed by the Tathagata." 

Then did the venerable Ananda go up to the place where 
the Blessed One was, and bow down before the Blessed 



ADMISSION OF WOMEN 117 

One, and take his seat on one side. And, so sitting, the 
venerable Ananda said to the Blessed One : 

" Behold, lord, Maha-Pajapati the Gotami is standing out- 
side under the entrance porch, with swollen feet and covered 
with dust, sad and sorrowful, weeping and in tears, inasmuch 
as the Blessed One does not permit women to renounce their 
homes and enter the homeless state under the doctrine and 
discipline proclaimed by the Blessed One. 

" It were well, lord, if women were to have permission 
granted to them to do as she desires." 

" Enough, Ananda. Let it not please thee that women 
should be allowed to do so." 

(And a second and a third time did Ananda make the 
same request, in the same words, and receive the same 
reply.) ... 

Then the venerable Ananda thought : " The Blessed 
One does not give his permission, let me now ask the Blessed 
One on another ground." And the venerable Ananda said 
to the Blessed One : 

" Are women, lord, capable when they have gone forth 
from the household life and entered the homeless state, 
under the doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the Blessed 
One are they capable of realising the fruit of conversion, or 
of the second Path, or of the third Path, or of Arahantship ? " 

" They are capable, Ananda." 

" If then, lord, they are capable thereof, since Maha- 
Pajapati the Gotami has proved herself of great service 
to the Blessed One, when as aunt and nurse she nourished 
him and gave him milk, and on the death of his mother 
suckled the Blessed One at her own breast, it were well, 
lord, that women should have permission to go forth from 
the household lif e and enter the homeless state under the 
doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata." 

" If then, Ananda, Maha-Pajapati the Gotami take upon 
herself the Eight Chief Rules, let that be reckoned to her 
as her ordination." 

(They are these) : "A nun, even if of a hundred years 
standing, shall make salutation to, shall rise up in the presence 
of, shall bow down before, and shall perform all proper duties 



n8 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

towards a monk, if only just initiated. This is a rule to be 
revered and reverenced, honoured and observed, and her 
life long never to be transgressed. 

"A nun is not to spend the rainy season in a district 
in which there is no monk. 

" This is a rule . . . never to be transgressed. 

" Every half month a nun is to await from the Bhikkhu- 
sangha two things, the asking as to (the date of) the Uposatha 
ceremony, and the (tune when the monk) will come to give 
the Exhortation. 

" This is a rule . . . never to be transgressed. 

" After keeping the rainy season the nun is to hold 
Pavarana (to enquire whether any fault can be laid to 
her charge) before both Sanghas as well that of the 
monks as that of nuns with respect to three matters, 
namely, what has been seen, and what has been heard, and 
what has been suspected. 

" This is a rule . . . never to be transgressed. 

" A nun who has been guilty of a serious offence is to 
undergo suitable discipline towards both the Sanghas (monks 
and nuns). 

" This is a rule . . . never to be transgressed. 

" When a nun, as novice, has been trained for two years 
in the Six Rules, she is to ask leave for the upasampada 
ordination from both the Sanghas (as well that of monks 
as that of nuns). 

" This is a rule . . . never to be transgressed. 

" A nun is on no pretext to revile or abuse a monk. 

" This is a rule . . . never to be transgressed. 

" From henceforth official admonition by nuns of monks 
is forbidden, whereas the official admonition of nuns by 
monks is not forbidden. This is a rule . . . never to be 
transgressed. 

" If Ananda, Maha-Pajapati the GotamI take upon herself 
these Eight Chief Rules, let that be reckoned to her as her 
ordination." 

Then the venerable Ananda, when he had learnt from the 
Blessed One these Eight Chief Rules, went to Maha-Pajapati 



ADMISSION OF WOMEN 119 

the Gotami and (told her all that the Blessed One had said, 
to which she replied) : 

" Just, Ananda, as a man or a woman, when young and 
of tender years, accustomed to adorn himself, would, when 
he had bathed his head, receive with both hands a garland 
of lotus flowers or jasmine flowers or atimuttaka flowers, 
and place it on the top of his head ; even so do I, Ananda, 
take upon me these Eight Chief Rules never to be transgressed 
my life long." 

Then the venerable Ananda returned to the Blessed One, 
and bowed down before him, and took his seat on one side. 
And, so sitting, the venerable Ananda said to the Blessed 
One : " Maha-Pajapati the Gotami, lord, has taken upon 
herself the Eight Chief Rules, the aunt of the Blessed One 
has received the upasampada ordination." 

" If, Ananda, women had not received permission to go 
out from the household life and enter the homeless state, 
under the doctrine and discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata, 
then would the pure religion, Ananda, have lasted long, the 
good law would have stood fast for a thousand years. But 
since, Ananda, women now have received that permission, 
the pure religion, Ananda, will not now last so long, the good 
law will now stand fast for only five hundred years. Just, 
Ananda, as houses in which there are many women and but 
few men, are easily violated by robbers, by burglars ; just 
so, Ananda, under whatever doctrine and discipline women 
are allowed to go out from the household life into the home- 
less state, that religion will not last long. 

" And just, Ananda, as when disease, called mildew, falls 
upon a field of rice in fine condition, that field of rice does 
not continue long ; just so, Ananda, under whatsoever 
doctrine and discipline women are allowed to go forth from 
the household life into the homeless state, that religion 
will not last long. And just, Ananda, as when disease, 
called blight, falls upon a field of sugar-cane in good con- 
dition, that field of sugar-cane does not continue long ; just 
so, Ananda, under whatsoever doctrine and discipline women 
are allowed to go forth from the household life into the home- 
less state ; that religion .does not last long. And just, 



120 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

Ananda, as a man would in anticipation build an embankment 
to a great reservoir, beyond which the water should not 
overpass ; just even so, Ananda, have I in anticipation 
laid down these Eight Chief Rules for the nuns, their life 
long not to be overpassed." 

Here ends the Eight Chief Rules for the Nuns. 

II 

Now Maha-Pajapati the Gotami went up to the place 
where the Blessed One was, and bowed down before him, 
and stood respectfully on one side. 

And, so standing, Maha-Pajapati the Gotami spake thus 
to the Blessed One : " What course, lord, should I pursue 
towards these women of the Sakya clan ? " Then the Blessed 
One taught Maha-Pajapati the Gotami and incited her and 
aroused her, and gladdened her with religious discourse ; 
and she, so taught, incited, aroused, gladdened, bowed 
down before the Blessed One and keeping him on her right 
hand as she passed him, she departed thence. Then the 
Blessed One, in that connection, delivered a religious discourse, 
and said to the monks : 

" I allow nuns, O monks, to receive the upasampada 
ordination from monks." 

Now those nuns said to Maha-Pajapati the Gotami: 
" Neither have you received the upasampada ordination, 
nor have we ; for it has thus been laid down by the Blessed 
One : ' Nuns are to be ordained by monks.' " 

Then Maha-Pajapati the Gotami went to the venerable 
Ananda, and (repeated their words to him). And the 
venerable Ananda, went to the Blessed One and (repeated 
them to him ; to which the Blessed One replied) : 

" In that moment, Ananda, when Maha-Pajapati the 
Gotami took upon herself the Eight Chief Rules, that was 
to her as the upasampada ordination." 



Now Maha-Pajapati the Gotami went to where the Blessed 
One was, and bowed down before him, and stood respectfully 



NAKULAPITAR 121 

on one side. And so standing, Maha-pajapatl the Gotami 
said : " May the Blessed One preach to me the dhamma 
in outline ; so that, having heard the doctrine of the Blessed 
One I may remain alone and separate, earnest, zealous, 
and resolved." 

" Of whatsoever doctrines thou shalt be conscious, Gotami, 
that they conduce to passion, and not to peace, to pride 
and not to veneration, to wishing for much and not to wishing 
for little, to love of society and not to seclusion, to sloth and 
not to the exercise of zeal, to being hard to satisfy and not 
to content verily mayest thou then, Gotami, bear in mind 
that that is not dhamma, that that is not the discipline, 
that that is not the teaching of the Master. But of what- 
soever doctrines thou shalt be conscious, Gotami, that they 
conduce to peace and not to passion, to veneration and not 
to pride, to wishing for little and not to wishing for much, 
to seclusion, and not to love of society, to the exercise of 
zeal and not to sloth, to content and not to querulousness 
verily mayest thou then bear in mind that that is dhamma, 
and that is the discipline, and that the teaching of the 
Master." 



NAKULAPITAR 

(FROM SAMYUTTA-NIKAYA III) 
Trans, by F. L. Woodward, Kindred Sayings, Vol. Ill 

Thus have I heard : The Exalted One was once staying 
among the Bhaggi, at Crocodile-Haunt in Bhesakala Grove 
in the Deer-Park. Then the housefather Nakulapitar came 
to the Exalted One, saluted him, and sat down at one side. 

As he sat there, the housefather Nakulapitar addressed 
the Exalted One, saying : " Master, I am a broken-down 
old man, aged, far-gone in years, I have reached life's end, 
I am sick and always ailing. Moreover, Master, I am one 
to whom rarely comes the sight of the Exalted One and the 
worshipful brethren. Let the Exalted One cheer and comfort 
me, so that it be a profit and a blessing unto me for many 
a long day." 



122 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

" True it is, true it is, housefather, that your body is weak 
and cumbered. For one, carrying this body about, house- 
father, to claim but a moment's health would be sheer 
foolishness. Wherefore, housefather, thus you should train 
yourself : ' Though my body is sick, my mind shall not be 
sick.' Thus, housefather, must you train yourself." 



MEGHIYA 

(FROM THE UDANA IV) 
(Adapted from the trans, by Maj. D. M. Strong) 

Thus have I heard. On a certain occasion the Blessed 
One dwelt at Chalaka on the Chalaka mountain. 

Now at that time the venerable Meghiya was the servitor 
of the Blessed One. And the venerable Meghiya went to 
where the Blessed One was and, drawing near, he saluted 
the Blessed One and stationed himself respectfully apart, 
and while thus standing the venerable Meghiya said to the 
Blessed One : " I wish, lord, to enter the village of Jantu 
to go on my rounds for alms." 

" Very well, Meghiya, do as you think fit." 

And the venerable Meghiya clothing himself in the fore- 
noon and taking his alms-bowls and tunic entered the Jantu 
village for alms. And when he had gone his rounds and 
finished his meal, he went to the banks of the Kimikala- 
river, and as he wandered from place to place along the 
banks of the river, he beheld an enchanting and delightful 
grove of mango trees. And when he saw it, he exclaimed : 
"How beautiful, how lovely is this mango grove. Truly 
this is a fitting place for a scion of good family to 
struggle and strive (after holiness). If the Blessed One 
consents, I will return to this mango grove and there 
struggle and strive (after holiness)." And the venerable 
Meghiya went to where the Blessed One was and, drawing 
near, he saluted the Blessed One and sat down respect- 
fully apart and while thus sitting, he said to the Blessed 



MEGHIYA 123 

One : "In the forenoon, lord, having put on my garments 
and taking my alms-bowl and tunic, I entered the Jantu 
village for alms, and when I had gone my rounds and finished 
my meal, I went to the banks of the Kimikala-river and 
wandering on foot from place to place, I beheld an enchanting 
and delightful grove of mango-trees, and when I saw it, 
I exclaimed : ' How lovely, how beautiful is this mango 
grove. Surely this is a fitting place for a son of good family, 
to struggle and strive. If the Blessed One will consent, 
I will return to this mango grove, and struggle and strive 
(after holiness).' If, lord, the Blessed One consents I will go 
to that mango grove and enter into the struggle." 

When these words had been spoken, the Blessed One 
said to the venerable Meghiya : " Wait a while. Meghiya, 
we are alone, wait at least till some other monk arrives." 

And a second tune the venerable Meghiya spoke to the 
Blessed One, saying : " No further duties, lord, have to be 
performed by the Blessed One, to what is done nought is to add. 
But I, lord, have duties still to perform, to what is done there 
is to be added. If, lord, the Blessed One consents, I would go 
to that mango grove, and enter upon the struggle." 

A second time, the Blessed One said to the venerable 
Meghiya : " Wait a while, Meghiya, we are alone now, wait 
at least till some other monk arrives." 

A third time the venerable Meghiya said to the Blessed 
One : (as above . . .) . 

" As to the struggle, Meghiya, what may we say about it ? 
Do now as you think best." 

And the venerable Meghiya arose from his seat, and saluted 
the Blessed One, and passing round keeping his right side 
to him, he went to the mango grove, and entering it sat 
down during the heat of the day at the foot of a tree. 

And while living in that mango grove, the venerable 
Meghiya was constantly assailed by three kinds of evil and 
unlawful thoughts, namely lustful thoughts, malicious 
thoughts, and cruel thoughts. 

And the venerable Meghiya thought to himself : " How 
strange is it, how marvellous is it, that I, who through faith 
have abandoned my home for the homeless state, should 



124 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

be filled with these evil and unlawful thoughts, namely 
lustful thoughts, malicious thoughts, and cruel thoughts." 

And the venerable Meghiya arose from his solitary 
communings and went to where the Blessed One was and 
having saluted the Blessed One, he sat down respectfully 
apart and while thus sitting he said to the Blessed One : 
" While living in that mango grove, lord, I was assailed by three 
evil and unlawful thoughts, namely lustful thoughts, malicious 
thoughts, and cruel thoughts and I thought how strange, how 
marvellous is it, that I who through faith have abandoned 
my home for the homeless state, should be assailed by these 
three evil and unlawful thoughts." 

" For the immaturely released heart, O Meghiya, five 
conditions conduce to maturity. What are these five ? 

" i. In this world, Meghiya, a monk should have a virtuous 
friend, a virtuous companion. For the immaturely released 
heart, Meghiya, this is the first condition which conduces 
to maturity. 

"2. Further, Meghiya, a monk should be pious, should 
live a life of restraint according to the precepts, and be 
endued with right conduct, perceiving danger in the least 
fault, and adopting the moral precepts should exercise himself 
therein. For the immaturely released heart, Meghiya, 
this is the second condition which conduces to maturity. 

" 3. Further, Meghiya, there should be discourses such 
as tend to the eradication of evil, to the opening up of 
purpose, to an utter weariness of the world, to passionless- 
ness, to cessation, to tranquillity, to the higher knowledge, 
to supreme enlightenment, to Nibbana, that is, discourses 
on frugality, on contentment, solitude, exclusiveness, effort, 
and exertion, piety, self-concentration, wisdom and emanci- 
pation as resulting from insight acquired by knowledge 
by means of such discourses satisfaction is obtained, and 
trouble and difficulties are overcome. 

" For the immaturely released heart, Meghiya, this is the 
third condition which conduces to maturity. 

" 4. Further, Meghiya, the monk should live a life of effort 
and exertion, abandoning unlawful practices, he should 
practise what is lawful, he should be resolute, put forth 



MEGHIYA 125 

his strength, not throwing down the burden in the practice 
of those things that are lawful. 

" For the immaturely released heart, Meghiya, this is the 
fourth condition which conduces to maturity. 

"5. Further, Meghiya, the monk should have wisdom, 
should be endowed with the knowledge of the ' rise and set ' 
of things, of sublime penetration, and of that which leads 
to the complete cessation of sorrow. 

" For the immaturely released heart, Meghiya, this is the 
fifth condition which conduces to maturity. 

"For the immaturely released heart, Meghiya, these are 
the five conditions which conduce to maturity. 

" Thus, Meghiya, when a monk has provided himself with 
a virtuous friend, a virtuous companion, a virtuous associate, 
it is to be expected that he will become pious, that he will 
live a life of restraint according to the precepts and be endued 
with right conduct, and seeing danger in the least of sins, 
will adopt the moral precepts and exercise himself therein ; 
and those discourses which tend to the eradication of evil, 
to a beneficial expansion of the heart, to an utter weariness 
of the world, to the cessation of all desire, to tranquillity, 
to the higher knowledge, to supreme enlightenment, to 
Nibbana, namely, discourses on frugality, contentment, 
solitude, exclusiveness, effort and exertion, piety, self- 
concentration, wisdom and emancipation, resulting from 
insight acquired by knowledge, by the means of such 
discourses satisfaction is obtained and trouble and difficulties 
overcome. 

" Thus the monk with a virtuous friend, a virtuous com- 
panion, a virtuous associate will live a life of effort and 
exertion, and abandoning unlawful practices, will practise 
what is lawful, he will be resolute, put forth his strength 
and not throw down the burden in the practise of what 
is lawful. 

" Thus the monk with a virtuous friend, a virtuous com- 
panion, a virtuous associate, will become wise, will be 
endowed with the knowledge of the ' rise and set ' of 
things, of sublime penetration and of that which conduces 
to the complete cessation of sorrow. 



126 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

"Moreover, Meghiya, the monk who holds to these five 
conditions, must give special attention to four other 
conditions ; in order to abandon lust he must dwell on the 
impurity (of the body), in order to forsake malice, he must 
dwell on kindness, with a view to the excision of (evil) thoughts 
he must practise meditation by inhalations and exhalations ; 
for the removal of the pride which says : M am,' he must 
exercise himself in the consciousness of impermanence. 
By the consciousness of impermanence, the consciousness 
of non-self is established, he who is conscious of non-self 
succeeds in the removal of the notion ' I am/ and in this 
very existence attains to Nibbana." 

And the Blessed One, in this connection, on that occasion, 
breathed forth this solemn utterance : 

"He who judges not aright these mean and subtle thoughts 
Whereby the mind is puffed up and inflated 
Wanders from birth to birth with wavering mind. 
But the awakened, ardent and mindful, who keeps such thoughts 

in subjection 
' Has rid him of the thoughts which puff up and inflate the mind.' " 



SONA-KOTIKANNA 

(FROM THE UDANA, V, 6) 
(Adapted from the trans, by Maj. Strong) 

Thus have I heard : On a certain occasion the Blessed 
One dwelt at Savatthi, in the Jetavana, the garden of Anatha- 
pindika. 

Now at that time the venerable Mahakaccana 1 was living 
iri the Avanti country, on the hill called the Precipice, in 
Kuraraghara. And at that time the lay-disciple Sona- 
Kotikarma was the servitor of the venerable Mahakaccana. 

While enjoying the bliss of solitude, this thought arose 
in the mind of the lay-disciple Sona-Kotikanna : " According 
to the doctrine taught by the venerable Mahakaccana it is 

1 Pronounce -kacchana. 



SONA-KOTIKANNA 127 

not easy for the man who dwells at home, to live the higher 
life, in entire fulfilment, in complete purity, in all its bright 
perfection. What if I were to shave my head and beard, 
assume the yellow-robe, and go forth from my home into 
the homeless ? " 

And the lay-disciple Sona Kotikanna went to where the 
venerable Mahakaccana was and drawing near, he saluted 
the venerable Mahakaccana and sat down apart, and while 
thus sitting he said to the venerable Mahakaccana : " Just 
now, sir, as I was enjoying the bliss of solitude, this thought 
arose in my mind. ' According to the doctrine, etc. (as above 
transl.).' May it please the lord Mahakaccana to receive 
me into the Order of those who have renounced the world." 

When these words had been spoken, the venerable 
Mahakaccana said to the lay-disciple Sona Kotikanna : " Hard 
is it, O Sona, to live for a life-tune the higher life, to partake 
of one meal a day, to sleep apart. I pray you, Sona, to remain 
for the present in the condition of a householder, while 
practising the precepts of the Buddhas, and partaking of 
one meal a day, and sleeping apart." 

And the fancy which the lay-disciple Sona Kotikanna 
had for the ascetic life subsided. 

A second time, as the lay-disciple Sona Kotikanna was 
enjoying the bliss of solitude, this thought arose : " According 
to the doctrine, etc. (as above . . .) What if I were to, etc. 
(as above . . .) and go forth from my home into the 
homeless ? " 

A second time the venerable Mahakaccana said : " Hard 
is it, O Sona, etc. (as above . . .)." 

A third time, as the lay-disciple Sona Kotikanna was 
enjoying the bliss, etc. (as above . . .) : " May it please 
the lord Mahakaccana to receive me into the Order of those 
who have renounced, the world ? " 

And the venerable Mahakaccana received the lay-disciple 
Sona Kotikanna into the Order of those who have renounced 
the world. 

Now at that time there were very few monks in the Southern 
districts of the Avanti country. 

At the end of three years, the venerable Mahakaccana with 



128 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

difficulty and trouble, collecting monks from here and there, 
managed to form a Chapter of ten monks. And the venerable 
Sona was admitted into the higher ranks of the Order. 

As the venerable Sona was passing the rainy season in 
solitude, there occurred to him the thought : " I have not 
seen the Blessed One, face to face, but I have heard he is 
such and such. If my teacher approves, I will go and see 
the Exalted One, that Arahant, the Supreme Buddha." 
" And the venerable Sona, arising at eventide from his 
solitary communings went to where the venerable Mahakaccana 
was, and drawing near saluted him and sat down apart and 
while thus sitting the venerable Sona said to him : " Just 
now, lord, while passing the rainy season in solitude this 
thought occurred to me : ' I have not seen the Blessed One 
(as above . . .). I will go and see . . . the Supreme 
Buddha/ " 

"It is well, Sona, it is well, go and see the Exalted One, 
that Saint, the Supreme Buddha. You will behold the holy, 
the gracious one, the dispenser of joy, whose senses are placid, 
whose spirit is at rest, who has attained to supreme self- 
conquest, he who has v/on, the subdued, the guarded one, whose 
senses are stilled ; and when you behold him, in my name, 
bow down, in salutation at his feet and say : ' My master, 
lord, the venerable Mahakaccana bows his head in salutation 
at the feet of the Exalted One, and asks : If there is any 
slight ailment, if there is freedom from bodily fatigue, if he 
is vigorous, strong and in good health ? ' " 

"Be it so," said the venerable Sona and praising the 
words spoken by the venerable Mahakaccana, and giving 
thanks, he put his sleeping place in order, and taking 
his alms-bowl and robe departed on his way to Savatthi. 
And wandering from place to place he came at the Jetavana, 
the garden of Anathapindika at Savatthi, where the Blessed 
One dwelt and drawing near he saluted the Blessed One 
and sat down apart and while thus sitting he said to the 
Blessed One : " My master enquires if there is any slight 
ailment, etc. (as above ...)." 

" I trust, monk (said the Blessed One) that you bear 
up, that you are able to carry on, that you have 



SONA-KOTIKANNA 129 

had little fatigue on the journey, that you have not been 
wearied in quest of alms." 

" It is to be borne, Exalted One, there can be carrying 
on, I have had little fatigue on the journey, I have 
not wearied myself in quest of alms." 

And the Blessed One called the venerable Ananda to him 
and said : " Prepare, Ananda, a sleeping place for this newly 
arrived monk. The Blessed One desires to share a cell with 
the venerable Sona " ; and he prepared a sleeping place for 
the venerable Sona in the cell which the Blessed One 
occupied. And the Blessed One having spent the greater 
part of the night sitting in the open air, washed his feet 
and entered the cell. And the venerable Sona, having 
spent the greater part of the night in the open air, washed 
his feet and entered the cell. 

And the Blessed One arising in the morning, called the 
venerable Sona to him and said : " May the Doctrine become 
so clear that you may recite it to the monks." 

" Be it so," said the venerable Sona in assent to the Blessed 
One, and he intoned all the sixteen chapters of the 
" Atthaka." * 

And the Blessed One, at the conclusion of the venerable 
Sona's recitation, expressed his delight, saying : " Excellent, 
monk, excellent. Those sixteen chapters of the ' Atthaka ' 
have been well grasped, thoroughly thought out, and 
understood; you are gifted with a sweet voice, distinct 
and faultless, and are able to explain the meaning of 
things. How many years have you been ordained ? " 

" One year, sir." 

" Why, monk, did you delay it so long ? " 

" For a long time, sir, I saw the worthlessness of sense- 
desires; moreover the householder's life is crowded with 
business and many anxieties." 

And the Blessed One, in this connection, on that occasion, 
breathed forth this solemn utterance : 

" He who has seen the perils of the world, 
Has learnt the Norm and cannot be reborn, 
He, Ariyan, in evil finds no joy ; 
In evil lies no pleasure for the pure." 

1 The Octet, or fourth section of the canonical book " Sutta Nipata ". 



130 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

EXHORTATION 

(SAMYUTTA-NIKAYA XVI, 7) 
(As translated by Mrs. Rhys Davids, Kindred Sayings, Vol. II) 

At Rajagaha at the Bamboo Grove : 

Now the venerable Maha-Kassapa came into the presence 
of the Exalted One ... To him seated the Exalted One 
said this : " Exhort the brethren, Kassapa. Give them 
discourse on doctrine, Kassapa. Either I or thou must 
exhort the brethren. Either I or thou must give them 
discourse on doctrine." 

" Just now, lord, it is difficult to speak to the brethren. 
They are in a state that makes it difficult to speak to them. 
They are intractable, they pay no deference to instruction. 
For instance, lord, I saw Bhanda, the brother who is the 
colleague of Ananda, and Abhinjika who is the colleague 
of Anuruddha out-talking each other thus : ' Come, brother, 
which will speak the more ? which will speak the better ? 
which will speak the longer ? ' " 

Then the Exalted One addressed a brother : " Come thou, 
brother, tell my word to Bhanda the brother who dwelleth 
with Ananda and .Abhinjika, the brother who dwelleth 
with Anuruddha : ' The Master would speak to you.' " 

" Even so, lord," responded that brother, and delivered 
the message. 

" Even so, brother," responded those brethren, and came 
into the presence of the Exalted One, saluted him, and sat 
down beside him. To them thus seated the Exalted One 
said this : " Is it true what they say, brethren, that ye have 
been out-talking each other : ' Which of us will speak the 
more, the better, the longer ? ' " 

" Even so, lord." 

"Do ye affirm, brethren, that I have been teaching you 
to out-talk each other in this way : ' Come brother, which 
of us will speak the more, which will speak better, which 
will speak longer ? ' " 

" Not so, lord." 

" If as you say, brethren, ye do not affirm that I have been 



SAND-CASTLES 131 

teaching you thus, whatever then, futile men that ye are, 
have ye come to know, have ye come to see, in a Doctrine 
and a Discipline so well declared, wherein ye are in orders, 
that ye should be out-talking each other as to what ye have 
learnt, saying : ' Come brother, which of us will speak the 
more, the better, the longer ? ' " 

Then those brethren, falling prone at the feet of the Exalted 
One, spake thus : " Transgression hath overcome us, lord, 
so foolish, so stupid, so wrong were we, in that we, who are 
in orders under a Doctrine and Discipline so well declared, 
did out-talk one another therein saying : ' Come, brother, 
which of us will talk more, will talk better, will talk longer ? ' 
May the Exalted One accept this our confession, lord, for 
restraint in the future." 

" Verily, brethren, hath transgression overcome you, 
so foolish, so stupid, so wrong were ye in that ye, who are 
in orders under a Doctrine and Discipline so well declared, 
did out-talk each other after this fashion. But inasmuch 
as ye, brethren, have seen your transgression as transgression, 
and have made confession, as is right, we do accept this from 
you. For this, brethren, it is to grow in the Ariyan Discipline, 
when having seen transgression as transgression we make 
confession as is right, and in future practise self-restraint." 



SAND-CASTLES 

(SAMYUTTA-NIKAYA III) 

(Trans. : F. L. Woodward, under the title " A Being ", Kindred Sayings, 

Vol. Ill) 

At Savatthi. (Then the venerable Radha came to the 
Exalted One.) Seated at one side the venerable Radha 
thus addressed the Exalted One : 

" ' A being. A being/ " they say lord. "Pray, lord, how far 
is one called a being ? " 

" That desire, Radha, that lust, that lure, that craving, 
which is concerned with body, entangled thereby, fast 
entangled thereby, therefore is one called a being. 



132 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

" That desire, that lust, that craving, that lure which is 
concerned with feeling, with percepti9n, the activities, 
consciousness, entangled thereby, fast entangled thereby, 
therefore is one called a being. 

" Just as when, Radha, boys or girls play with little sand- 
castles. So long as they are not rid of lust, not rid of desire, 
not rid of affection, thirst, feverish longing and craving 
for those little sand-castles, just so long do they delight in 
them, are amused by them, set store by them, are jealous 
of them. 

" But, Radha, as soon as those boys or girls are rid of lust, 
of desire and affection, are rid of thirst, feverish longing 
and craving for those little sand-castles, straightway with 
hand and foot they scatter them, break them up, knock them 
down, cease to play with them. 

" Even so, Radha, do you scatter body, break it up, knock 
it down, cease to play with it, apply yourself to destroy 
craving for it. So also with feeling, perception, the activities 
... do you scatter consciousness, Radha, break it up, knock 
it down, cease to play with it, apply yourself to destroy 
craving for it. 

" Verily, Radha, the destruction of craving is Nibbana." 



THE BLESSED ONE SEEKS SOLITUDE 

(FROM THE UDANA, IV, 5) 
(Closely following trans, by Maj. Strong) 

Thus have I heard. On a certain occasion the Blessed 
One dwelt at Kosambi, in the Ghosita monastery. 

. Now at that time the Blessed One was living surrounded 
by a crowd of monks and nuns, of male and female lay disciples, 
of kings and their ministers, as well as by heretical sects and 
their pupils, and he suffered annoyance and discomfort. 

And this thought occurred to him : " Surrounded by 
a crowd of monks and nuns, male and female votaries, of 
kings and their ministers, as well as by heretical sects and 
their pupils, I suffer annoyance and discomfort. What 
if I were to live alone, remote from the crowd ? " 



BLESSED ONE SEEKS SOLITUDE 133 

And the Blessed One, robing himself in the forenoon and 
taking his alms-bowl and robe, entered Kosambi for alms. 
Having walked about Kosambi for alms, he returned from his 
rounds and after finishing his meal, he himself put in order his 
sleeping place, and taking his alms-bowl and robe, and without 
informing his servitor or giving notice to the Brethren he 
departed, alone, without a companion, in the direction of 
Palileyyaka, and wandering from place to place, he reached 
Palileyyaka, and took up his abode there. 

And the Blessed One sojourned in the dense grove Rakkhila, 
in the vicinity of Palileyyaka, at the foot of the Bhadda 
Sal tree. 

Now a certain noble elephant lived there, who was much 
worried by a crowd of male and female elephants, young 
elephants and elephant calves. He had to feed on blades 
of grass with their tips broken off, and they ate the young 
branches which he himself had broken down. He had also 
to drink water that had been polluted and when he plunged 
(into the water) to cross over, the female elephants rubbed 
their bodies against him. In consequence of this crowd 
he was annoyed and lived ill at ease. 

And this thought occurred to the noble elephant : " Sur- 
rounded by a crowd of male elephants, female elephants, 
young elephants and elephant calves, I have to feed on blades 
of grass with their tips broken off and they eat the young 
branches I myself have broken down. I have also to drink 
water that has been polluted and when I plunge to cross 
over, the female elephants rub their bodies against me. In 
consequence of this crowd I am annoyed and live ill at ease. 
What if I were to live alone, remote from the crowd ? " 

And the noble elephant leaving the herd went to the deep 
groves of Rakkhila in the vicinity of Palileyyaka, to the 
foot of the Bhadda Sal tree, where the Blessed One was. 
And when he arrived there, he removed the grass from the 
spot which the Blessed One occupied, and brought with his 
trunk drinking water for the Blessed One. 

And as the Blessed One was rejoicing in the calm of solitude 
and isolation this thought arose : " Formerly I lived a life 
of annoyance and discomfort surrounded by monks and 



134 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

nuns . . . Now no longer surrounded by monks and nuns 
... I live in comfort and at ease." 

And in the mind of the noble elephant this thought arose : 
" Formerly, I lived a life of annoyance and discomfort 
surrounded by male elephants and female elephants . . . 
Now no longer surrounded I live in comfort and at ease." 

And the Blessed One, with reference to his own solitude, 
and perceiving what was passing in the mind of that noble 
elephant, breathed forth this solemn utterance : 

" The heart of the noble elephant (with tusks like plough-poles) 
Is at one with the heart of the Noble One 
In that alone he delights in the forest." 



REPRIMANDING CRUELTY 

(FROM THE UDANA, V, 4) 

(Closely following trans, by Maj. Strong) 

Thus have I heard. On a certain occasion the Blessed 
One dwelt at Savatthi, in the Jetavana, the garden of 
Anathapindika. 

Now at that tune a number of young men, between 
Savatthi and the Jetavana, were ill-treating some fish. 

And the Blessed One, robing himself in the forenoon and 
taking his alms-bowl and robe, entered Savatthi for alms. 
And the Blessed One beheld these young men, between 
Savatthi and the Jetavana, ill-treating the fish and when he 
saw them, he went to where the young men were and drawing 
near, said to them : " Young men, have you yourselves 
a dread of pain, is pain hateful to you ? " 

" Yes, sir, we dread pain, pain is hateful to us." 

And the Blessed One, in this connection, on that occasion, 
. breathed forth this solemn utterance : 

"If pain is hateful to you, perform no evil deed openly or in secret. 
If you should do, or do now an evil action, 
There is no escape for you.from pain tho' ye flee and run away." 



BUDDHA TEMPTED WITH WORLDLY GOODS 135 
MARA WOULD TEMPT BUDDHA WITH WORLDLY POWER 

(FROM SAMYUTTA-NIKAYA, I-IV, 10) 
(Trans, by Mrs. Rhys Davids, Kindred Sayings, Vol. I) 

The Exalted One was once staying among the Kosalese 
hi the Himalaya regions, dwelling hi a leaf-hut. 

Now as the Exalted One was meditating hi privacy, this 
thought arose hi his heart : " Is it possible to exercise 
governance without smiting nor letting others slay, without 
conquering nor causing others to conquer, without sorrowing 
nor making others sorrow righteously ? " 

Then Mara the evil one, discerning what was hi the mind 
of the Exalted One, drew near to him, and said : " Let 
the Exalted One, lord, exercise governance, let the Blessed 
One rule without smiting nor letting others slay, without 
conquering nor causing others to conquer, without sorrowing 
nor making others sorrow, and therewithal ruling righteously." 

" Now what, O evil one, hast thou hi view, that thou speakest 
thus to me : ' Let the Exalted One exercise governance. 
Let the Blessed One rule righteously? ' " 

" Lord, the four stages to potency have by the Exalted 
One been developed, repeatedly practised, made a vehicle, 
established, persevered in, persisted in, well applied. Thus 
if the Exalted One were to wish the Himalaya, king of the 
mountains, to be gold, he might determine it to be so, and 
the mountain would become a mass of gold." 

(The Exalted One) 

"And were the mountain all of shimmering gold, 
Not e'en twice reckoned would it be enough 
For one man's wants. This let us learn 
To know, and shape our lives accordingly. 
He that hath suffering seen, and whence its source 
How should that man to sense-desires incline ? 
If he but understand rebirth's substrate 
And know ; here hangs the world bound fast alway, 
He fain must work the bonds to eliminate." 

Then Mara the evil one thought : " The Exalted One 
knows me. The Blessed One knows me," and sad and sorrow- 
ful he vanished there and then. 



136 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

How THE BLESSED ONE MET CENSURE AND CAUTIONED 

NEW CONVERTS 

(VINAYA TEXTS MAHAVAGGA VI, 31) 
(Abridged!) 

Once many important Licchavis were assembled in their 
town-hall and in various ways they praised the Buddha, 
the Dhamma, and the Sangha. At that time Siha, their 
general-in-chief, a follower of the Nigantha sect, was sitting 
with them. And he thought : " Surely the Blessed One 
must be an Arahant Buddha, for these many important 
Licchavis assembled here in their town-hall in various ways 
praise the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Sangha. Suppose 
I go to visit him, the Arahant Buddha." 

Then the General Siha went and said to Nigantha Nataputta : 
" I wish, lord, to go and visit the Samana Gotama." 

" Why should you, Siha, who believe in effective action 
(morally merited) go to visit the Samana Gotama, who 
denies effective, action ? ... he teaches a dhamma of non- 
effective action ; and in this dhamma he trains his disciples." 
Then the wish to visit the Blessed One abated in the 
General Siha. 

(A second and third time these circumstances occurred 
as above related. Then Siha reflected) : " What will the 
Niganthas do to me whether they approve or not ? Suppose 
I were to go, without consulting the Niganthas, to visit 
the Blessed One, the Arahant Buddha." 

. . . Then Siha went to the Blessed One and having 
respectfully saluted him, he sat down near him and said : 
" I have heard, lord, that the Samana Gotama denies effective 
action ; he teaches a dhamma of non-effective action, and 
in this dhamma he trains his disciples. Do they who speak 
thus speak the words of the Blessed One, or do they not 
slander him falsely, are they declaring a dhamma in conformity 
with his dhamma ? As it is our wish, lord, to avoid making 
false accusations against the Blessed One, there is nothing 
blameworthy in a discussion like this concerning matters 
of the dhamma." 



HOW THE BLESSED ONE MET CENSURE 137 

"There is a way, Siha, in which one could truly say of 
me : ' The Samana Gotama denies effective action ; he 
teaches the doctrine of non-effective action ; and in this 
doctrine he trains his disciples.' But also, Siha, there is a 
way on which one could truly say of me : ' The Samana 
Gotama teaches effective action ; he teaches the dhamma 
of action ; and in this dhamma he trams his disciples.' 

" Also, Siha, there is a way in which one could truly say 
of me : ' The Samana Gotama maintains annihilation, 
disgust, suppression, ascetic ardour, non-rebirth, and courage.' 

" In what way is it, Siha, that one truly could say of me 
(these things) ? . . . I teach, Siha, the not doing of such 
actions as are unrighteous by deed, by word, by thought ; 
I teach the not bringing about of the many states, which 
are evil and not good. In this way, Siha, one truly could 
say of me : ' The Samana Gotama teaches non-action.' 
And in what way is it Siha, that one truly speaking could 
say of me : ' The Samana Gotama teaches action and so 
trains his disciples ' ? I teach, Siha, the doing of such actions 
as are righteous by deed, word and thought ; I teach the 
doing of manifold dhammas which are good . . . 

" And in what way is it, Siha, that one truly could say 
of me : ' The Samana Gotama teaches annihilation ' ? 
I teach the annihilation of the manifold dhammas which 
are evil and not good. 

" And hi what way is it, Siha, that one truly could say 
of me : ' The Samana Gotama teaches disgust ' ? Verily 
I am disgusted at unrighteous actions whether of deed or 
word or thought. I teach a dhamma of disgust at the 
bringing to pass of dhammas which are evil, not good . . . 

" And in what, Siha, could one say truly of me : ' The 
Samana Gotama teaches suppression ' ? Verily, I teach, 
Siha, a dhamma of the suppression of greed, hatred and 
delusion. I teach a dhamma for the suppression of manifold 
dhammas which are evil and not good . . . And in what 
way is it, Siha, that one truly could say of me : ' The Samana 
Gotama, teaches ascetic ardour ' ? I teach, Siha, the burning 
away of dhammas which are evil and not good, and all 
unrighteous actions, in deed, word of thought. He for 



138 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

whom dhammas which are evil and not good are to be burnt 
away, are put away, are rooted out as a palm-tree made 
baseless, so that they are made never to become again and 
cannot arise in the future, him I call an ascetic. 

" Now the Tathagata, Siha ... is such an one. 

" And in what way is it, Siha, one truly could say of me : 
' The Samana Gotama is not for rebirth ' ! He who has freed 
himself from the necessity of returning in the future into 
a mother's womb, and of being reborn into new becomings, 
who has rooted out rebirth, and has done away with it as 
a palm-tree made baseless, so that it is made never to become 
again, such a person do I call ' not for rebirth '. Now the 
Tathagata, Siha, is such an one. 

" And in what way is it, Siha, that one could truly say of 
me : ' The Samana Gotama is courageous ' ? I am courageous, 
Siha, by the highest courage, therefore I teach courage and 
train my disciples in it . . . " 

Then when he had spoken thus, Siha, the general, said 
to the Blessed One : " Glorious, lord, glorious, lord. As 
though one were to set up what had been overthrown, 
or should manifest what had been hidden, or should indicate 
the way to one who had lost his way, or should bring a 
lamp into the darkness, that those who had eyes might see 
visible things, so has the Blessed One taught the dhamma in 
many ways. 

" I take my refuge, lord, in the Blessed One, and hi the 
Dhamma, and in the Bhikkhu-Sangha, may the Blessed One 
receive me from this day hence as long as my life lasts as 
a disciple who has taken refuge." 

" Consider first, Siha, that which you are doing. It is 
proper that well-known people like you, should consider." 

" Lord, by this, my joy and satisfaction in the Blessed 
One still has increased, because the Blessed One thus advises 
me ... If the other Titthiya teachers had made me their 
disciple, they would carry banners through all Vesali 
(calling) : ' Siha, the general, has become our disciple.' 
Yet the Blessed One says to me : ' Consider first . . . ' 
For the second time I take my refuge in the Blessed One, 
in the Dhamma, and in the Sangha ; may the Blessed One 



HOLDING IN REVERENCE 139 

receive me from this day hence as long as my life lasts as 
a disciple who has taken refuge." 

" For long, Siha, your family has been a well-spring to 
the Niganthas. You should consider it right therefore 
in the future to give them food when they come." 

" Lord, by this, my joy and satisfaction in the Blessed 
One still has increased, because the Blessed One (thus 
advises me) . . . 

" I have been told, lord : The Samana Gotama says : 
' To me alone gifts should be given. To my disciples alone 
gifts should be given ; to no one else's disciples gifts should 
be given. Solely what is given to me has great reward; 
what is given to others has no great reward. Solely what 
is given to my - disciples has great reward ; what is given 
to the disciples of others has not great reward.' But the 
Blessed One urges me to give also to the Niganthas. Well, 
lord, we will see what will be seasonable. For the third 
time, lord, I take my refuge in the Blessed One, the Dhamma 
and the Sangha ..." 



HOLDING IN REVERENCE 

(SAMYVTTA-NIKAYA I, VI, 2) 

(Mrs. Rhys Davids's trans., Kindred Sayings, Vol. I) 

Thus have I heard : The Exalted One was once staying 
at Uruvela, on the banks of the river Neranjara, beneath 
the Goatherd's Banyan, just after he had become fully 
enlightened. 

And to the Exalted One, as he meditated in privacy, the 
thought arose in his mind : " It is ill to live paying no one 
the honour and obedience due to a superior. What recluse 
or brahman is there under whom I could live paying him 
honour and respect ? " 

Then the Exalted One thought : " For the perfecting 
of the moral code (if) imperfectly carried out, I should live 
under another recluse or brahman, paying him honour and 
respect. But I see not anywhere in the worlds of devas, 



140 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

Maras, Brahmas, not among recluses and brahmans, not 
among the whole race, human or divine, any other recluse, 
or any brahman more accomplished in moral conduct than 
myself, and under whom I might live, paying him honour and 
respect. 

" So, too, for the perfecting of concentrative studies, for 
the perfecting of studies in insight, for the perfecting of 
study in emancipation, for the perfecting in contemplation 
of the knowledge of (my) emancipation (if) imperfectly 
achieved, I should live under another recluse or a brahman, 
paying him honour and respect. But I see not anywhere 
in the world of devas, Maras, Brahmas, nor among recluses 
and brahmans, not among the whole race, human or divine, 
any other recluse or brahman more accomplished in any 
of these branches than myself and under whom (for that 
reason) I should live, paying him honour and respect. 

"This Norm then, wherein I am supremely enlightened 
what if I were to live under it, paying it honour and respect ? " 

Thereupon Brahma Sahampati, becoming aware in thought 
of the thoughts of the Exalted One, even like a strong man 
stretching his bent arm out, or drawing together his out- 
stretched arm, vanished from the Brahma world and appeared 
before the Exalted One and Brahma Sahampati draping 
his outer robes over one shoulder, raised his joined hands 
towards the Exalted One and said : 

" Even so, Exalted One, Even so, Blessed One, they, lord, 
who in time past were Arahants, Buddhas Supreme, those 
Exalted Ones did also live only under the Norm, honouring 
and respecting it. They also, lord, who in time to come 
will be Arahants, Buddhas Supreme, they will live only under 
the Norm, honouring and respecting it. Let the Exalted 
One also, lord, who now is Arahant Buddha live only under 
the Norm, honouring and respecting it." 

Thus spake Brahma Sahampati, and thereafter he spake 
thus : 

" They who were Buddhas in the days of yore, 

And they who will be Buddhas yet to come, 
i And he who Buddha is in this our day, 
Slayer of griefs for many multitudes : 



THE WAY-SHOWER 141 

All these have ever lived or now do live 
Holding in reverence the holy Norm. 
Ay, in the days to come so will they live. 
Wherefore let whoso fain is for his good, 
Aspiring to be numbered 'mong the great, 
Hold ever holy Norm in reverence, 
Remembering the Buddhas' ordinance." 

THE TEACHER AS WAY-SHOWER 

(AJJHIMA-NIKAYA. II, p. 4) 
(Trans, by Mrs. Rhys Davids) 

Then the brahman Moggallana the accountant said : 
" Why, Master Gotama, is it, seeing that there is a Nibbana 
and a way to it and Gotama as director, that some of his 
disciples under .his teaching win Nibbana in uttermost 
fulfilment and some do not ? " 

" As to that, brahman, it is thee that herein I will question. 
As thou mayest see fit, so answer. What thinkest thou ? 
Art thou wise in the way that leads to Rajagaha ? " 

" Yes, master, I am." 

" Suppose then a man were to come fain to go to Rajagaha, 
and were to ask thee to direct him. Thou mightest say 
to him : ' Good, my man ! This way goes to Rajagaha ; 
go for a while along it, then wilt thou see such a village. 
Go for a while, then wilt thou see a certain township. Go 
for a while, then wilt thou see a lovely park, a lovely grove, 
a lovely plain, a lovely pool.' He by thee thus bidden may 
take a wrong road and go the reverse way. Then a second 
man might come and be fain even so, and be even so bidden, 
and he might go safe to Rajagaha. Why is it that, seeing 
there is a Rajagaha and a way to it and thou director, that 
one man goes wrong, and one goes right ? " 

" What can I do here, master Gotama ? Way-shower 
am I." 

" Even so, brahman, what can I do here ? Way-shower 
am I." 

" He, brahman," said Ananda, " the Exalted One, is one 
who is discoverer of the undiscovered way, revealer of 
the unrevealed way, declarer of the undeclared way, knower 
of the way, wise in the way, skilled in the way." 



142 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 



DISSENSION IN THE ORDER 

(FROM THE VINAYA-TEXTS ; SEVENTH KHANDHAKA OF THE 

CHULLAVAGGA) 

(Following closely Rhys Davids's and Oldenberg's translation, S.B.E., 
the first part somewhat abridged) 

Now at that time the Blessed One was staying at Anupiya, 
a town belonging to the Mallas. Then the most distinguished 
young men of the Sakyan clan had renounced the world in 
imitation of the Blessed One. 

There were the two Sakyan brothers, Anuruddha, who 
had been very delicately nurtured, and Mahanama. 

And Mahanama went to Anuruddha saying : 

" Either do you renounce the world, or I will do so." 
(And Anuruddha replied) " I am delicate. It is impossible 
for me to go forth from the household life into the homeless 
state. Do you do so." 

" But come now, dear Anuruddha, I will tell you what 
is incident to the household life. First, you have to get 
your fields ploughed. When that is done, you have to get 
them sown. When that is done, you have to get the water 
led down over them. When that is done, you have to get 
the water led off again. When that is done, you have to 
get the weeds pulled up. When that is done, you have to 
get the crop reaped. When that is done, you have to get 
the crop carried away. When that is done, you have to get 
it arranged into bundles. When that is done, you have to 
get it trodden out. When that is done, you have to get the 
straw picked out. When that is done, you have to get all 
the chaff removed. When that is done, you have to get it 
winnowed. When that is done, you have to get the harvest 
garnered. When that is done, you have to do just the same 
next year, and the same all over again the year after that. 

" The work is never over ; one sees not the end of one's 
labour. O, when shall our work be over ? When shall 
we see the end of our labours ? When shall we, still possessing 
and retaining the pleasures of our five senses yet dwell at 
rest ? Yes, the work, dear Anuruddha, is never over ; 



DISSENSION IN THE ORDER 143 

no end appears to our labours. Even when our fathers and 
forefathers had completed their time, even then was their 
work unfinished. 

" Then do you take thought for the household duties. 
I will go forth from the household life into the houseless 
state." 

And Anuruddha the Sakyan went to his mother, arid said 
to her : 

" I want, mother, to go forth from the household life 
into the houseless state. Grant me thy permission to do so." 

And when he had thus spoken, his mother replied to 
Anuruddha the Sakyan, and said : " You two, dear 
Anuruddha, are my two sons, near and dear to me, in whom 
I find no evil. Through death I shall some day, against 
my will, be separated from you ; but how can I be willing, 
whilst you are still alive, that you should go forth from the 
household life into the houseless state ? " 

(And a second time, Anuruddha the Sakyan made the 
same request, and received the same reply. And a third 
time Anuruddha the Sakyan made the same request to his 
mother.) 

Now at that time Bhaddiya the Sakyan Raja held rule 
over the Sakyans ; and he was a friend of Anuruddha the 
Sakyan's. And the mother of Anuruddha the Sakyan, 
thinking that that being so, the Raja would not be able 
to renounce the world, said to her son : "If, dear Anuruddha, 
Bhaddiya the Sakyan raja will renounce the world, you 
also may go forth into the houseless state." 

Then Anuruddha the Sakyan went to Bhaddiya the Sakyan 
raja, and said to him : " My renunciation of the world, 
dear friend, is being obstructed by you." 

"Then let that obstruction, dear friend, be removed. 
I am with you. Renounce the world according to 
your wish." 

" Come, dear friend, let us both renounce the world 
together." 

" I am not capable, dear friend, of giving up the household 
life. Whatsoever else you can ask of me, that will I do. 
Do you go forth (alone)." 



144 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

" My mother, dear friend, has told me that if you do so, 
I may. And you have even now declared ' If your renuncia- 
tion be obstructed by me, then let that obstruction be 
removed. Even with you will I renounce the world according 
to your wish.' Come, then, dear friend, let us both renounce 
the world." 

Now at that time men were speakers of truth, and keepers 
of their word, which they had pledged. And Bhaddiya 
the Sakyan Raja said to Anuruddha the Sakyan : " Wait, 
my friend, for seven years. At the end of seven years we 
will renounce the world together." 

" Seven years are too long, dear friend. I am not able 
to wait for seven years." 

Anuruddha finds the offers of six years and so on down to 
one year, of seven months and so on down to one month, and 
a fortnight, too long a time to wait. Then the raja says : 

" Wait, my friend, for seven days, whilst I hand over 
the kingdom to my sons and my brothers." 

" Seven days is not too long. I will wait thus far " 
(was the reply). 

So Bhaddiya the Sakyan Raja, and Anuruddha, and 
Ananda, and Bhagu, and Kimbila, and Devadatta just 
as they had so often previously gone out to the pleasure- 
ground with fourfold array even so did they now go out 
with fourfold array, and Upali the barber went with them, 
making seven in all. 

And when they had gone some distance, they sent their 
retinue back, and crossed over into the neighbouring district, 
and took off their fine things, and wrapped them in their 
robes, and made a bundle of them, and said to Upali the 
barber : "Do you now, good Upali, turn back, these things 
will be sufficient for you to live upon." 

But as he was going back, Upali the barber thought : 
" The Sakyans are fierce. They will think that these young 
men have been brought by me to destruction, and they will 
slay me. But since now these young men of the Sakyan 
clan can go forth from the household life into the houseless 
state, why indeed should not I ? " And he let down the 
bundle (from his back), and hung the bundle on a tree, 



DISSENSION IN THE ORDER 145 

saying : " Let whoso finds it take it, as a gift " and returned 
to the place where the young Sakyans were. 

And the Sakyan youths saw him coming from afar, and 
on seeing, they said to him : " What have you come back 
for, good Upali ? " 

Then he told them (and they replied) : 

" Thou hast done well, good Upali, in that thou didst not 
return ; for the Sakyans are fierce, and might have killed thee." 

And they took Upali the barber with them to the place 
where the Blessed One was. And on arriving there, they 
bowed down before the Blessed One, and took their seats 
on one side. And so seated they said to the Blessed One : 
" We Sakyans, lord, are haughty. And this Upali, the 
barber, has long been an attendant, lord, upon us. May the 
Blessed One admit him to the Order before us, so that we 
may render him respect and reverence, and bow down with 
outstretched hands before him (as our senior), and thus 
shall the Sakyan pride be humbled in us Sakyans." 

Then the Blessed One received first Upali, the barber, 
and afterwards those young men of the Sakya clan, into 
the ranks of the Order. And the venerable Bhaddiya, 
before the rainy season was over, bacame master of the 
Threefold Wisdom ; and the venerable Anuruddha acquired 
clairvoyance ; and the venerable Ananda realised the effect 
of having entered upon the Stream ; and Devadatta attained 
to the kind of psychic power which is attainable even by 
those who have not entered upon the Excellent Way. 

Now at that time the venerable Bhaddiya, who had retired 
into the forest to the foot of a tree, into solitude, gave 
utterance over and over again to this ecstatic exclamation : 
" O happiness ! O happiness ! " And a number of monks 
went up to the place where the Blessed One was, and bowed 
down before him, and took their seats on one side. And, so 
seated, .they (told the Blessed One of this), and added: 
" For a certainty lord, the venerable Bhaddiya is not con- 
tented as he lives the life of purity ; but rather it is when 
calling to mind the happiness of his former sovereignty, that 
he gives vent to this saying." 

Then the Blessed One addressed a certain monk, and 



146 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

said : "Do you go, monk, and in my name call Bhaddiya 
the monk, saying : ' The Teacher, venerable Bhaddiya, 
is calling for you.' " 

" Even so, lord," said the monk, in assent to the Blessed 
One. And he went to Bhaddiya, and called him. 

" Very well," said the venerable Bhaddiya, in assent to the 
monk, and he came to the Blessed One, and bowed down 
before him, and took his seat on one side. And when 
he was so seated the Blessed One said to the venerable 
Bhaddiya : 

"Is it true, as they say, that you Bhaddiya, when retired 
into the forest to the foot of a tree, into solitude, have given 
utterance over and over again to this ecstatic exclamation : 
' O happiness ! O happiness ! ' What circumstance was 
it, O Bhaddiya, that you had in your mind when you acted 
thus ? " 

" Formerly, lord, when I was a king, I had a guard com- 
pletely provided both within and without my private 
apartments, both within and without the town, and within 
the (borders of my) country. Yet though, lord, I was thus 
guarded and protected, I was fearful, anxious, distrustful, 
and alarmed. But now, lord, even when in the forest, 
at the foot of a tree, in solitude, I am without fear or anxiety, 
trustful and not alarmed; I dwell at ease, subdued, secure, 
with mind as peaceful as an antelope's. It was when 
calling this fact to mind, lord, that I gave utterance over 
and over again to that cry : ' happiness ! O happiness ! ' " 

Then the Blessed One, on hearing that, gave utterance 
at that time to this song : 

" The man who harbours no harsh thoughts within him, 
Who cares not whether things are thus or thus, 
His state of joy, freedom from grief or care, 
The very gods obtain not to behold." 

Now when the Blessed One had stayed at Anupiya as 
long as he thought fit, he set out on his journey towards 
Kosambi. And journeying straight on he arrived in due 
course at Kosambi, and there, at Kosambi, he stayed at 
the Ghosita Arama. 

Now the following thought occurred to Devadatta, when 



DISSENSION IN THE ORDER 147 

he had retired into solitude, and was plunged in meditation : 
" Whom now can I so gain over that, he being well pleased 
with me, much gain and honour may result to me ? " And 
it occurred to him, " Now this prince Ajatasattu is young, 
and has a lucky future before him: Let me gam him over ; 
and he being well pleased with me, much gain and honour 
will result." 

Then Devadatta folded up his sleeping-mat, and set out, 
fully bowled and robed, for Rajagaha ; and in due courSe 
he arrived at Rajagaha. Then he laid aside his own form, 
and took upon himself the form of a child clad in a girdle 
of snakes, and appeared on the lap of prince Ajatasattu. 
Then was prince Ajatasattu terrified, and startled and 
anxious, and alarmed. 

And Devadatta said to prince Ajatasattu, " Are you 
afraid of me, O prince ? " 

" Yes, I am. Who are you ? " 

" I am Devadatta." 

" If you, Sir, are really the worthy Devadatta, be good 
enough to appear in your own shape." 

Then Devadatta, laying aside the form of the child, 
appeared there before prince Ajatasattu with his inner 
and outer robes on, and with his bowl in his hand, ^nd 
prince Ajatasattu was well pleased with Devadatta by 
reason of this marvel of psychic power, and morning and 
evening he used to go in five hundred chariots to wait upon 
him, and food was brought and laid before him in five 
hundred dishes. 

Then there arose in Devadatta's mind, possessed and 
vanquished by gain and favours and fame, some such 
thought as this : " It is I who ought to lead the Bhikkhu- 
sangha." And as the idea rose up within him (that moment) 
was Devadatta deprived of his psychic power. 

Now at that time the Blessed One was seated preaching 
the dhamma, and surrounded by a great multitude, including 
the king and his retinue. And Devadatta arose from his 
seat, and arranging his upper robe over one shoulder 
stretched out his joined hands to the Blessed One, and 
said to the Blessed One : 



148 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

"The Blessed One, lord, is now grown aged, he is old 
and stricken in years, he has accomplished a long journey, 
and his term of life is nearly run. Let the Blessed One 
now dwell at ease in the enjoyment of happiness, reached 
even in this world. Let the Blessed One give up the 
Bhikkhu-sangha to me, I will be its leader." 

" Enough, Devadatta. Desire not to be the leader of 
the Bhikkhu-sangha." 

(Again Devadatta makes the same request and receives 
the same reply. After the third tune the Blessed One 
says) : 

" I would not give over the Bhikkhu-sangha, Devadatta, 
even to Sariputta and Moggallana. How much the less, 
then, to you, vile spittle-dribbler ! " 

Then Devadatta thought : " Before the king and his 
retinue the Blessed One denies me, railing me ' spittle-dribbler ', 
and exalts Sariputta and Moggallana." And angry and 
displeased he bowed down before the Blessed One, and 
keeping him to the right hand as he passed him, he departed 
thence. 

This was the first time that Devadatta bore malice against 
the Blessed One. 

And the Blessed One said to the monks : " Let then 
the Sangha, monks, carry out against* Devadatta the act 
of Proclamation in Rajagaha, to the effect that whereas 
the nature of Devadatta used to be of one kind it is now 
of another kind, and that whatsoever he shall do, either 
bodily or verbally, in that neither shall the Buddha be 
recognised, nor the Dhamma, nor the Sangha, but only 
Devadatta." 

.And the Blessed One said to the venerable Sariputta, 
" Do you then, Sariputta, proclaim Devadatta throughout 
Rajagaha." 

" In former times, lord, I have sung the praises of Devadatta 
in Rajagaha, saying, ' Great is the psychic power of the son 
of Godhi. Great is the might of the son of Godhi.' How 
can I now proclaim him throughout Rajagaha ? " 

" Was it not truth that you spoke, Sariputta when you 
(so) sang his praises ? " 



DISSENSION IN THE ORDER 149 

" Yea, lord." 

" Even so, Sariputta, do you now, speaking the truth, 
proclaim Devadatta throughout Rajagaha." 

" Even so, lord," said Sariputta in assent to the Blessed 
One . . . 

. . . Then Sariputta, being so appointed, entered Rajagaha 
with a number of monks, and proclaimed Devadatta 
accordingly. And thereupon those people who were un- 
believers, without devotion or insight, spake thus : " They 
are jealous, these Sakyan Samanas. They are jealous of 
the gain and hospitality that fall to Devadatta." But those 
who were believers, full of devotion, able, and gifted with 
insight, spake thus : " This cannot be any ordinary affair, 
in that the Blessed One has had Devadatta proclaimed 
throughout Rajagaha." 

And Devadatta went to Ajatasattu the prince, and said 
to hun : " In former days, people were long-lived, but now 
their term of life is short. It is quite possible, therefore, 
that you may end your life while you are still a prince. 
So do you, prince, kill your father, and become the Raja, 
and I will kill the Blessed One, and become the Buddha." 

And prince Ajatasattu thought : " This worthy Devadatta 
has great powers and might ; he will know." And fastening 
a dagger against his thigh, he entered with violence and 
at an unusual hour, though fearful, anxious, excited, and 
alarmed, the royal chamber. And when the ministers, 
who were in attendance in the private chamber saw that, 
they seized him. And when, on searching him, they found 
the dagger fastened on his thigh, they asked him : 

" What were you going to do, O prince ? " 

" I wanted to kill my father." 

" Who incited you to this ? " 

" The worthy Devadatta." 

Then some of the ministers advised : " The prince should 
be slain, and Devadatta, and all the monks." Others of 
them advised : " The monks ought not to be slain, for 
they have done no wrong ; but only the prince and 
Devadatta." Others of them again said : " Neither should 
the prince be slain, nor Devadatta, nor the monks." But the 



150 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

king should be told of this and we should do as the king 
shall command." 

So these ministers, taking the prince with them, went 
to the Raja of Magadha, to Seniya Bimbisara and told 
him what had happened. 

" What advice, my friends, did the ministers give ? " . . . 

(When they had told him all as before) he said : 

" What, my friends, can the Buddha, or the Sangha, 
or the Dhamma have to do with this ? Has not the Blessed 
One had a proclamation already made throughout Rajagaha 
concerning Devadatta, to the effect that whereas his nature 
used to be of one kind, it is now of another ; and that what- 
soever he shall do, either in act or word, in that shall neither 
the Buddha, nor the Dhamma, nor the Sangha be required, 
but only Devadatta ? " 

Then those ministers who had advised that the prince 
and Devadatta and all the monks should be slain, them he 
made incapable (of ever again holding office). And those 
ministers who had advised that the prince should be slain 
and Devadatta, them he degraded to lower offices. But 
those ministers who had advised that neither should the 
prince be slain, nor Devadatta, nor the monks, but that 
the king should be informed of it, and his command followed, 
them he advanced to high positions. 

And the Raja of Magadha, Seniya Bimbisara, said to the 
prince Ajatasattu, " Why did you want to kill me, prince ? " 

" I wanted the kingdom, king." 

" If you then want the kingdom, prince, let this kingdom 
be yours." And he handed over the kingdom to Ajatasattu, 
the prince. 

Then Devadatta went to prince Ajatasattu, and said : 
" Give such orders, king, to your men that I may deprive 
the Samana Gotama of life." 

And Ajatasattu, the prince, gave orders to his men : 
" Whatsoever the worthy Devadatta tells you, that do." 

Then to one man Devadatta gave command : " Go, my 
friend, the Samana Gotama is staying at such and such 
a place. Kill him, and come back by this path." 

Then on that path he placed other two men, telling them, 



DISSENSION IN THE ORDER 151 

" Whatever man you see coming along this path, kill him, 
and return by that path." Then on that he placed other 
four men (and so on up to sixteen men). 

And that man took his sword and shield, and hung his 
bow and quiver at his back, and went to the place where 
the Blessed One was, and when at some little distance from 
the Blessed One, being terrified, anxious, excited, and 
alarmed, he stood stark still and stiff. 

On the Blessed One seeing him so he said to the man : 
" Come hither, friend, be not afraid." 

Then that man laid aside his sword and his shield, took 
off his bow and his quiver, and went up to the Blessed One ; 
and falling at his feet, he said to the Blessed One : " Trans- 
gression, lord, has overcome me even according to my folly, 
my stupidity, and my unrighteousness, in that I have come 
hither with evil and with murderous intent. May the Blessed 
One accept the confession I make of my sin in its sinful- 
ness, to the end that in future I may restrain myself 
therefrom." 

" Verily, my friend, transgression has overcome you . . . 
But since you, my friend, look upon your sin as sin, and duly 
make amends for it, we do accept (your confession of) it. 
For this, friend, is progress in the discipline of the Noble 
One, that he who has seen his sin to be sin, makes amends 
for it as is meet, and becomes able in future to restrain himself 
therefrom." 

Then the Blessed One discoursed to that man in due order, 
that is to say he spake to him of giving, of righteousness, 
of heaven, of the danger, the vanity, and the defilement 
of lusts, and of the advantages of renunciation. And when 
the Blessed One saw that the man had become prepared, 
and upraised and believing in heart, then he proclaimed 
that, which is the special doctrine of the Buddhas ; that 
is to say, Suffering, its Origin, its Cessation, and the Path. 
And just as a clean cloth from which all stain has been washed 
away will readily take the dye, just even so did that man 
obtain, even while sitting there, the pure and spotless Eye 
of the Truth (that is to say, the knowledge that) whatsoever 
is an arising thing all that is a ceasing thing. Thus did the 



152 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

man see, and master, and understand, and penetrate the 
Truth ; and he overcame uncertainty, and dispelled all 
doubts, and gained full knowledge, becoming dependent 
upon no one else for his knowledge of the doctrine of 
the Teacher. And he addressed the Blessed One and 
said : 

" Most excellent, lord (are the words of your mouth) most 
excellent. Just as if a man were to set up that which is 
thrown down, or were to reveal that which is hidden away, 
or were to point out the right road to him who has gone astray, 
or were to bring a light into the darkness so that those who 
had eyes could see visible forms just even so, lord, has 
the Dhamma been made known to me, in many a figure, 
by the Blessed One. May the Blessed One accept me as 
a disciple as one who, from this day forth as long as life 
endures, has taken refuge in him." 

And the Blessed One said to the man : " Do not, my 
friend, leave me by that path. Go by this path," and so 
dismissed him by another way. 

But the two men thought : " Where now can that man 
be, who was to come alone ? He is delaying long." And 
as they were going to meet him, they caught sight of the 
Blessed One sitting at the foot of a certain tree. On seeing 
him they went up to the place where he was and saluted him, 
and took their seats on one side. To them also the Blessed 
One discoursed (and they were converted as the other man 
had been, and he sent them back by another way. And the 
same thing occurred as to the four, and the eight, and the 
sixteen men). 

And the one man returned to Devadatta, and said to him : 
" I cannot, lord, deprive the Blessed One of life. Great 
is the psychic power and might of the Blessed One." 

" That will do, friend, you need not do so. I will slay the 
Blessed One myself." 

Now at that time the Blessed One was walking up and 
down (meditating) in the shade below the mountain called 
the Vulture's Peak. And Devadatta climbed up the Vulture's 
Peak, and hurled down a mighty rock with the intention 
of depriving the Blessed One of life. But two mountain 



DISSENSION IN THE ORDER 153 

peaks came together and stopped that rock, and only 
a splinter falling from it made the foot of the Blessed 
One bleed. 

Then the Blessed One, looking upwards said to Devadatta: 
" Great, foolish man is the demerit you have brought forth 
for yourself, in that with evil and murderous intent you have 
caused the blood of the Tathagata to flow." 

And the Blessed One said to the monks : " This is the 
first time that Devadatta has heaped up (against himself) 
a deed which will work out its effect in the immediate 
future, in that with evil and murderous intent he has caused 
the blood of the Tathagata to flow." 

And the monks having heard that Devadatta was com- 
passing the death of the Blessed One, walked round and 
round the Vihara, making recitation in high and loud tones, 
for a protection and guard to the Blessed One. On hearing 
that noise the Blessed One asked the venerable Ananda 
what it was. And when Ananda (told him) the Blessed 
One said : " Then, Ananda, call the monks in my 
name, saying : ' The teacher sends for the venerable 



ones.' " 



And he (did so) and they came, and saluted the Blessed 
One, and took their seats on one side. And when they were 
so seated, the Blessed One said to the monks : " This, monks, 
is an impossible thing, and one that cannot occur, that one 
should deprive a Tathagata of life by violence. The 
Tathagatas, monks, are extinguished in due and natural course. 
. . . Go, therefore, monks, each one to his vihara, for the 
Tathagatas require no protection." 

Now at that time there was at Rajagaha an elephant 
named Nalagiri, fierce? and a manslayer. And Devadatta 
went into Rajagaha, and to the elephant stables, and said 
to the elephant-keepers : "I, my friends, am a relative of 
the raja's, and am able to advance a man occupying a low 
position to a high position, and to order increase of rations 
or of pay. Therefore, my friends, when the Samana Gotama 
shall have arrived at this carriage-road, then loose 
the elephant Nalagiri, and let him go down the 
road." 



154 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

" Even so, sir," said those elephant-keepers in assent 
to Devadatta. 

And when the Blessed One early in the morning had dressed 
himself, he entered Rajagaha duly bowled and robed, and 
with a number of monks, for alms ; and he entered upon 
that road. On seeing him the elephant-keepers loosed 
Nalagiri, and let it go down the road. And the elephant 
saw the Blessed One coming from the distance ; and as soon 
as it saw him, it rushed towards the Blessed One with uplifted 
trunk, and with its tail and ears erect. 

When those monks saw the elephant Nalagiri coming 
in the distance, they said to the Blessed One : " This elephant 
lord, Nalagiri, is fierce, and a manslayer, and it has got into 
this road. Let the Blessed One, lord, turn back ; let the 
WeUfarer turn back ! " 

" Come on, monks, be not alarmed. There is, monks, 
no possibility. This, monks, is an impossible thing, and one 
that cannot occur, that one should deprive a Tathagata of life 
by violence. The Tathagatas, monks, are extinguished in due 
and natural course." 

(The monks appealed to him a second and third time, 
receiving the same reply.} 

Then at that time the people climbed up and sat on the 
upper storeys of the houses, and on to the balconies, and 
on to the roofs. And those of them who were unbelievers, 
and without faith, or insight, said : " Truly the great Samana 
is beautiful ; the elephant will do him hurt." But those 
who were believers, full of devotion, able, and having under- 
standing said : " At last elephant will wage war with 
elephant." * 

And the Blessed One caused the sense of his love to pervade 
the elephant Nalagiri, and the elephant, touched by the 
sense of his love, put down his trunk, and went up to the 
place where the Blessed One was, and stood still before him. 
And the Blessed One, stroking the elephant's forehead with 
his right hand, addressed him in these stanzas : 

1 Naga, ndgena : the word means both, elephant and great man. 



DISSENSION IN THE ORDER 155 

" Touch not, O elephant, the elephant of men ; for sad, 
O elephant, is such attack, 

For no bliss is there, O elephant, when he is passed from 
hence, for him who strikes the elephant of men. 

Be not then mad, and neither be thou careless, for the care- 
less enter not into a state of bliss, 

Rather do thou thyself so act, that to a state of bliss thou 
mayest go." 

And Nalagiri the elephant took up with his trunk the 
dust from off the feet of the Blessed One, and sprinkled 
it over its head, and retired, bowing backwards the while 
it gazed upon the Blessed One. 

And Nalagiri the elephant returned to the elephant stables, 
and stood in its appointed place and became once more 
the. tame Nalagiri. And at that time the people sung these 
verses : 

" They can be tamed by sticks and goads and whips, 
But the great Sage has tamed this elephant without a weapon 
or a stick." 

The people were angry, murmured and became indignant, 
saying : " How wicked is this Devadatta, and how wretched, 
in that he can go about to slay the Samana Gotama, who 
is so mighty and so powerful." And the gain and honour 
of Devadatta fell off, while that of the Blessed One increased. 

Now at that time, when the gain and honour of Devadatta 
had fallen off, he went, surrounded by monks, to people's 
houses, appealing for alms. The people were angry and 
murmured, and became indignant, saying : " How can 
the Sakyaputtiya Samana live on food that they ask for 
at people's houses ? Who is not fond of well-cooked food ? 
Who does not like sweet things ? " 

The monks heard of this and told the matter to the Blessed 
One. The Blessed One said to the monks : " Therefore 
do I lay down this rule, monks, for the monks that (not more 
than) three shall enjoy an alms (together) at people's houses 
and this for the sake of three reasons (to wit) ; for the 
restraint of the evil-minded, and for the ease of the good, 
lest those who have evil desires should, in reliance upon 
a particular party (among the monks), break up the Sangha, 
and (lastly) out of compassion for the laity. (A monk) who 



156 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

shall enjoy an alms in parties of more than three, shall be 
dealt with according to law." 

Now Devadatta went to the place where Kokalika and 
Katamoraka-tissaka, and the son of Khanda-devi and 
Samuddadatta were, and said to them : " Come, sirs, 
let us stir up a division in the Samana Gotama's Sangha, 
and in the body of his adherents." 

When he had thus spoken, Kokalika said to Devadatta : 
" The Samana Gotama, sir, is mighty and powerful. How 
can we (do such a thing) ? " 

" Come, sirs, let us go to the Samana Gotama, and make 
the following five demands, saying : ' The Blessed One, 
lord, has declared in many a figure the advantages of the 
man who wishes for little, who is easy to satisfy in the matter 
of support and nourishment, who has eradicated evil from 
his mind, has quelled his passions, and is full of faith, of 
reverence, and of the exercise of zeal. The following five 
things, lord, conduce to such a condition. It would be good, 
lord, if the monks should be lifelong dwellers in the woods. 
He who were to go to the neighbourhood of a village 
would thereby commit an offence. It would be good if they 
should, their lives long, beg for alms. He who should 
accept an invitation, would thereby commit an offence. 
It would be good if they should clothe themselves, their 
lives long, in cast-off rags. He who should accept a gift 
of robes of a layman, would thereby commit an offence. 
It would be good if they should dwell, their lives long, under 
the trees. He who should (sleep) under a roof, would 
thereby commit an offence. It would be good, if they should, 
their lives long, abstain from fish. He who should eat 
fish, would thereby commit an offence. 5 The Samana 
Gotama will not grant these things. Then will we gain over 
the people by means thereof. 

" Yes. It is possible so to stir up divisions in the Sangha, 
and in the party of the Samana Gotama. For the people 
believe in ascetic measures." 

And Devadatta, went to the Blessed One, surrounded 
by his friends, and made these demands (in the words just 
set out.) 



DISSENSION IN THE ORDER 157 

" No, Devadatta. Whosoever wishes to do so, let him 
dwell in the woods ; whosoever wishes to do so, let him dwell 
in the neighbourhood of a village ; whosoever wishes to do 
so, let him beg for alms ; whosoever wishes to do so, let him 
accept invitations from the laity; 'whosoever wishes to do 
so, let him dress in rags ; whosoever wishes to do so, let him 
receive gifts of robes from laymen. Sleeping under trees 
has always been allowed by me, Devadatta, for eight months 
in the year ; and the eating of fish that is pure in the three 
points : to wit, that the eater has not seen, or heard, or 
suspected that it has been caught for that purpose." 

And Devadatta, pleased and delighted that the Blessed 
One had refused the five demands, arose from his seat, and 
keeping him on his right hand as he passed him, departed 
thence with his friends. And he entered Rajagaha, and 
urged his view upon the people by means thereof, saying : 
" Such and such things did we ask, sirs, of the Samana 
Gotama. He would not allow them, but we live in accordance 
with them." 

Then those of the people who were unbelievers, and without 
reverence or insight, said : " These Sakyan Samanas have 
eradicated evil from their minds, and have quelled then- 
passions, while on the other hand the Samana Gotama is 
luxurious and his mind dwells on abundance. But those 
of the people who were believers, and full of reverence and 
insight, were indignant, became vexed, and murmured, 
saying : " How can Devadatta go about to stir up division 
in the Sangha of the Blessed One, and in the party that is 
subject to him ? " 

The monks, hearing them so murmuring, told the matter 
to the Blessed One. 

" Is it true, Devadatta, as they say, that thou goest about 
to stir up division in the Sangha, and in the body of my 
adherents ? " 

" It is true, lord." 

" Enough, Devadatta. Let not a division in the Sangha 
seem good to thee ; grievous is such division. Whosoever, 
Devadatta, breaks up the Sangha, when it is at peace, he gives 
birth to a fault (the effect of) which endures for a kalpa, 



158 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

and for a kalpa is he boiled in niraya. But whosoever, 
Devadatta, makes peace in the Sangha, when it has been 
divided, he gives birth to the highest merit, and for a kalpa 
is he happy in heaven. Thou hast gone far enough, 
Devadatta. Let not a division in the Sangha, Devadatta, 
seem good to thee. Grievous, Devadatta, is such division." 

Now the venerable Ananda, having dressed himself early 
in the morning, went duly bowled and robed into Rajagaha 
for alms. And Devadatta saw the venerable Ananda pro- 
ceeding through Rajagaha for alms. On seeing that he went 
up to the venerable Ananda, and said to him : "At once, 
from this day forth, friend Ananda, I intend to perform 
Uposatha, and to carry out the formal proceedings of the 
Order, without either the Blessed One or the Monk-Sangha." 

And when the venerable Ananda had gone through 
Rajagaha for alms, and had returned from his rounds, and 
had finished his meal, he went to the Blessed One, and bowed 
down before him, and took his seat on one side. And when 
he was seated, he told the Blessed One : " This very day, 
lord, Devadatta will break up the Sangha." 

Then the Blessed One, when he heard that, gave utterance 
at that time to this expression of strong emotion : 

" Easy is a good act to the good, a good act is hard to the 
wicked ; 

" Easy is evil to the evil, but evil is hard for the Noble 
Ones to do." 



IV 

Now Devadatta on that day, which was Uposatha, arose 
from his seat, and gave out voting-tickets, saying : " We 
went, sirs, to the Samana Gotama and asked for the Five 
Points, saying : (as above). These the Samana Gotama 
will not allow ; but we live in accordance therewith. Who- 
soever of the venerable ones approves of the Five Things, 
let him take a ticket." 

Now at that time there were five hundred monks, Vesaliyans 
and belonging to the Vajjians, who had but recently joined 



DISSENSION IN THE ORDER 159 

the Order, and were ignorant of what he had in hand. These 
took the voting-tickets, believing (the Five Points to be 
according to) the Dhamma, and the Vinaya, and the teaching 
of the Master. And Devadatta, having thus created a 
division in the Sangha, went out to the hill Gaya Head, taking 
those five hundred monks with him. 

Then Sariputta and Moggallana went to the Blessed One, 
and bowed down before him, and took then: seats on one side. 
And when they were so seated, Sariputta said to the Blessed 
One : " Devadatta, lord, has gone forth to Gaya Head, taking 
five hundred monks with him." 

" Verily, Sariputta and Moggallana, there must be a feeling 
of kindness towards those young monks among you both. 
Go therefore, both of you, before they have fallen into entire 
destruction." 

" Even so, lord," said Sariputta and Moggallana, in assent 
to the Blessed One. And rising from their seats, they bowed 
down before him, and keeping him on their right hand as 
they passed him, they set out for Gaya Head. 

Then at that time a certain monk, standing not far from the 
Blessed One began to weep, and the Blessed One said to him : 
" Why, monk, dost thou weep ? " 

" Those lord, who are the Blessed One's chief] disciples, 
Sariputta and Moggallana, even they have gone to Devadatta's 
side, approving the dhamma of Devadatta." 

" That, monk, would be impossible, that Sariputta and 
Moggallana should approve his teachings. They are gone 
only to gain those monks over again." 

Now at that tune Devadatta, surrounded by a great number 
of adherents, was seated, preaching the dhamma. And 
when he saw from afar Sariputta and Moggallana coming 
towards him, he said to the monks : " See, monks, how well 
preached must be my doctrine, in that even the two chief 
disciples of the Samana Gotama Sariputta and Moggallana 
are coming to join me being pleased with my dhamma." 

When he had thus spoken, Kokalika said to Devadatta : 
" Venerable Devadatta, trust not Sariputta and Moggallana, 
for they are inclined towards evil, and under the influence 
of evil desires." 



160 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

" Nay, my friend, let us bid them welcome since they take 
pleasure in my dhamma." 

And Devadatta invited Sariputta to share his own seat, 
saying : " Come, friend Sariputta. Sit thou here." 

" Nay," said Sariputta, and taking another seat, he sat 
down on one side. And Devadatta instructed and incited 
and aroused and gladdened the monks far into the night 
with religious discourse ; and then made request to Sariputta, 
saying : " The assembly, friend Sariputta, is still alert 
and sleepless. Will you, friend Sariputta, be so good as to 
think of some religious discourse to address to the Bhikkhus ? 
My back is tired and I would stretch myself a little." 

" Even so, friend," said the venerable Sariputta, in assent 
to Devadatta. And Devadatta spread his waist-cloth 
folded in four on the ground, and lay down on his right 
side. And in a moment even sleep overcame him who was 
tired, and had lost his presence of mind and his self- 
consciousness. 

Then the venerable Sariputta taught and exhorted the 
monks in a religious discourse touching the marvels of 
preaching ; and the venerable Moggallana taught and exhorted 
the monks in a religious discourse touching the marvels 
of psychic power. And whilst they were being taught and 
exhorted those monks obtained the pure and spotless dhamma- 
eye (that is the knowledge that) " whatsoever is an arising 
thing all that is a ceasing thing ". Then the venerable 
Sariputta addressed the Bhikkhus, and said : " Let us go, 
my friends, to the Blessed One's side. Whosoever approves 
of his dhamma, let him come." 

And Sariputta and Moggallana went back to the Veluvana, 
taking those five hundred monks with them. But Kokalika 
awoke Devadatta, and said : " Arise, friend Devadatta. 
Your monks have been led away by Sariputta and Moggallana. 
Did I not tell you, Devadatta, not to trust Sariputta and 
Moggallana, in that they were inclined towards evil, and 
were under the influence of evil desires ? " 

Then hot blood came forth from Devadatta's mouth. 

But Sariputta and Moggallana went to the place where 
the Blessed One was, and bowed down before him, and took 



DISSENSION IN THE ORDER 161 

their seats on one side. And when they were so seated, 
Sariputta said to the Blessed One : 

" It were well, lord, that monks who have turned aside 
to schism should be ordained afresh." 

" Nay, Sariputta, let not the reordination of schismatical 
monks seem good to thee. But rather cause such monks 
to confess that they have committed a transgression. 
And how, Sariputta, did Devadatta treat you? " 

" When Devadatta, lord, had instructed and aroused and 
incited and gladdened the monks far into the night with 
religious discourse, he then made the request to me, saying : 
' The assembly, friend Sariputta, is still alert and sleepless. 
Will you, friend Sariputta, think of some religious discourse 
to address to the monks ? My back is tired, and I would 
stretch myself a little.' This, lord, was the way in which 
Devadatta behaved to me." 

Then the Blessed One addressed the monks, and said : 

" Once upon a time, monks, there was a great pond in 
a forest region. Some elephants dwelt beside it ; and they, 
plunging into the pond, plucked with their trunks the edible 
stalks of the lotus plants, washed them till they were quite 
clean, masticated them without any dirt, and so ate them up. 
And that produced in them both beauty and strength, and 
by reason thereof, they neither went down into death, nor 
into any suffering like unto death. 

" Now among those great elephants, monks, there were 
young elephants, calves, who also, in imitation of those 
others, plunged into that pond, and plucked with their 
trunks the edible stalks of the lotus plants ; but they did 
not wash them till they were clean, but masticated them, 
dirt and all, and so ate them up. And that produced in 
them neither beauty nor strength ; and by reason thereof 
they went down into death, and into suffering like unto death. 
Just so, monks, will Devadatta die who, poor creature, is 
emulating me. 

" Like the elephant calf who eateth mud in imitation 
of the great beast that shakes the earth, and eats the lotus 

M 



162 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

plant, and watches through the night among the waters 
so will he poor creature die that emulateth me. 

" A monk who is possessed of eight qualifications is worthy, 
monks, to do the work of an emissary. And what are the 
eight ? The monk must be able to hear and to make others 
listen, able to learn, able to bear in mind, able to discern, 
and to make others discern, skilful to deal with friends and 
foes, and no maker of quarrels. These are the eight qualifi- 
cations of which when a monk is possessed, he is worthy, 
monks, to do the work of an emissary. 

" Sariputta, monks, being possessed of eight qualifications, 
is worthy to do the work of a messenger. What are the eight 
(etc. as in last paragraph.) ? 

" He who on entering a company that is violent of speech, 
Fears not, forgoes no word, disguises not Ms message, 

- Is unambiguous in what he says, and being questioned angers not, 
Of such is surely the monk worthy to go on a mission. 

" Devadatta, monks, being overcome, his mind being taken 
up by eight evil conditions, is irretrievably (doomed to) 
remain for a kalpa in states of suffering and woe. And what 
are the eight ? He is overcome, his mind is obsessed, by gain, 
by want of gain, by fame, by want of fame, by honour, by 
want of honour, by his having wicked desires, and by his 
having wicked friends. These, monks, are the eight evil 
conditions by which Devadatta being overcome, and his 
mind being obsessed, he is irretrievably (doomed to) remain 
for a kalpa in states of suffering and woe. 

" It would be well, monks, that monks should continue 
in complete ascendency over any gain or loss, any fame 
or the reverse, any honour or dishonour, any evil longing or evil 
friendship, that may accrue to them. And for what reason ? 
For as much, monks, that bad influences asavas arise, 
full of vexation and distress, to one who is not continuing 
in complete ascendency over each of these eight things ; 
but to one, who is so continuing such influences arise not. 
This is the reason, monks, why it would be well (etc., as before). 

" Let us then, monks, continue in complete ascendency, 
over any gain or loss, any fame or the reverse, any honour 



A DESCRIPTION OF BUDDHA 163 

or dishonour, any evil longing or evil friendship, that may 
accrue to us. And thus, monks, should you train yourselves. 
" There are three evil conditions, monks, by which 
Devadatta being overcome, and his mind being taken up, 
he is irretrievably doomed to remain for a kalpa in states 
of suffering and woe. And what are the three ? His having 
wicked desires, and his having wicked friends, and his having 
come to a stop on the way because he had already attained 
to some lesser distinction. These are the three (etc., as before) : 

"Verily, let no wicked desire whatever arise within you. 
Know rather from this what is the outcome thereof. 
Known was he as wise, reputed to be trained ; 
Aglow with glory did Devadatta stand (thus have I heard). 
He gave himself to vanity, to attacking the Tathagata : 
He fell into the Avichi hell, guarded fourfold and terrible. 
The injurer of the good, of the man who does no wrong, 
Him sin pervades, the man of cruel heart, and void of love. 
Though one should think the ocean to befoul with but one 

poison pot, 

Yet could he not befoul it, for awful is the sea, and great ; 
Just so though one would injure the Tathagata by words 
That perfect one, that peaceful heart against hint, the words 

would not avail. 

Let the wise bhikkhu make a friend of, and resort to him 
By following whose way he will come to the end of griefs." 



A DESCRIPTION OF THE BUDDHA GIVEN BY ONE BRAHMAN 

TO OTHER BRAHMANS 

(DlGHA-NJKAYA, IV) 

(Tvansl. by Rhys Davids, in Dialogues of the Buddha, Vol. I) 

" Truly, sirs, the venerable Gotama is well born on both 
sides, of pure descent through the mother and the father 
back through seven generations, with no slur put upon him 
and no reproach in respect of birth. 

" Truly, sirs, the Samana Gotama has gone forth (into 
the religious life) giving up the great clan of his relations. 

" Truly, sirs, the Samana Gotama has gone forth (into 
the religious life) giving up much money and gold, treasure 
both buried and above the ground. 



164 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

" Truly, sirs, the Samana Gotama, while he was still a 
young man, without a grey hair on his head, in the beauty 
of his early manhood, has gone forth from the household 
life into the homeless state. 

" Truly, sirs, the Samana Gotama, though his father and 
mother were unwilling, and wept, their cheeks being wet 
with tears, nevertheless cut off his hair and beard, and donned 
the yellow robes, and went out from the household life into 
the homeless state. 

" Truly, sirs, the Samana Gotama is handsome, pleasant 
to look upon, inspiring trust, gifted with great beauty of 
complexion, fair in colour, fine in presence, stately to behold. 

" Truly, sirs, the Samana Gotama is virtuous with the 
virtue of the Arahants, good and virtuous, gifted with 
goodness and virtue. 

" Truly, sirs, the Samana Gotama hath a pleasant voice, 
and a pleasing delivery, he is gifted with polite address, 
distinct, not husky, suitable for making clear the matter 
on hand." 



ADVICE TO A BRAHMAN. 

(MAJJHIMA NIK AY A I) 
(Closely following Lord Chalmers in Further Dialogues of the Buddha, I) 

Thus have I heard. Once when the Lord was staying 
at Savatthi in Jeta's grove in Anathapindika's pleasaunce, 
he addressed the monks as follows : 

" Even as a foul and dirty piece of cloth, if dipped by 
the fuller in blue, yellow, red, or pink dye would take the 
dye badly and not come out a good colour, and that because 
of the cloth's impurity ; even so, monks, when a man's 
heart is impure, woe must be expected to ensue ; and, 
conversely, just as cloth in the fuller's hands takes the dye 
well if it be pure and clean, so, when a man's heart is pure, 
bliss may be expected to ensue. 

" Now, what are the heart's impurities ? They are avarice 
and covetise, malevolence, anger, malice, rivalry, jealousy, 



ADVICE TO A BRAHMAN 165 

grudging, envy, hypocrisy, deceit, imperviousness, outcry, 
pride, arrogance, inflation, and indolence. Recognizing 
that each in turn of these is an impurity of the heart, a 
monk puts them from him ; and when at last he has 
put them all from him, he comes to full belief in the 
Enlightened One and to recognition of him as the Lord, 
Arahant all-enlightened, walking by knowledge, blessed, 
understanding all worlds, the matchless tamer of the human 
heart, teacher of gods and men, the Lord of Enlightenment ; 
he comes to full belief in the Doctrine and to recognition 
of it as having been excellently expounded by the Lord, 
as being here and now and immediate, with a welcome to all 
and with salvation for all, to be comprehended of each man 
of understanding ; he comes to belief in the Lord's Con- 
fraternity and to recognition of it as schooled aright and 
as walking uprightly, trained in all propriety and in duty, 
the Brotherhood of the conversion with its four pairs making 
up the eight classes of the converted, right worthy to receive 
gifts, hospitality, donations and reverence, unrivalled through- 
out the world as the field for garnering merit. To the utter- 
most, every form of self-seeking is renounced, spewed out, 
discharged, discarded and abandoned. Realizing that he 
has come to full belief in the Enlightened One and in his 
Doctrine and in his Confraternity the Brother reaches 
fruition of spiritual welfare and of its causes together with 
the gladness attendant thereon ; from such gladness is born 
zest, bringing tranquillity to the body ; with his body now 
tranquil, he experiences satisfaction, wherein he finds peace 
for his heart. A monk who has reached this pitch 
in virtue, character and lore, may, without harm or hurt, 
eat the choicest rice with all manner of sauces and curries. 
Just as a foul and filthy cloth, if plunged in clear water, 
becomes pure and clean, and just as silver, if passed through 
the furnace, becomes pure and clean ; even so can such 
a monk eat as he will without harm or hurt. 

" With radiant thoughts of love, of pity, of sympathy, and 
of poised equanimity, his mind pervades each of the world's 
four quarters, above, below, across, everywhere ; the whole 
length and breadth of the wide world is pervaded by the 



166 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

radiant thoughts of a mind all-embracing, vast, and boundless, 
in which no hate dwells nor malevolence. 

" Thus much is so, says he to himself ; there is a lower 
and there is yet a higher stage ; Deliverance lies beyond 
this realm of consciousness. When he knows and sees this, 
his heart is delivered from the Cankers of sensuous pleasure, 
of continuing existence, of ignorance ; and to him thus 
Delivered comes knowledge of his Deliverance in the con- 
viction : Rebirth is no more ; I have lived the highest life ; 
my task is done ; and now for me there is no hereafter. 
Such a monk is said to be inly washen." 

Now at this tune there was sitting near the brahmin 
Sundarika-Bharadvaja who asked whether the Lord. went 
to the river Bahuka to bathe. 

" What boots the river Bahuka, brahmin ? What can 
it do ? " 

"It is reputed to cleanse and give merit ; many have 
their burthen of evil borne away in its waters." 

Thereupon, the Lord addressed the brahmin in these 
lines : 

" In Bahuka, at Adhikakka's ghat, 
Goya, Sundarika, Sarassatl, 
Bdhumatl, Paydga, there the fool 
may bathe and bathe, yet never cleanse his heart. 
Of what avail are all these ghats and streams ? 
They cleanse not heart or hand of guilt. 
For him whose heart is Cleansed, each day is blest, 
each day is hallowed ; pure of heart and mind, 
he hallows each new day with vows renewed. 
So hither, brahmin, come and Bathe as I ! 
Love all that lives, speak truth, slay not nor steal, 
no niggard be but dwell in faith, and then 
why seek Gay a? 'Tis but a pool for thee." 

Hereupon the brahmin said to the Lord : " Excellent, 
Gotama, excellent ! It is just as if a man should set 
upright again what had been cast down, or reveal what 
had been hidden away, or tell a man who had gone astray 
which was his way, or bring a lamp into darkness so that 



ANANDA 167 

those with eyes to see might see the things about them ; 
even so, in many a figure, has the reverend Gotama made 
his plan clear. I come to Gotama as my refuge and to 
his Doctrine and to his Confraternity. I ask him to admit 
me as a disciple and to confirm me therein." 



ANANDA 

(THERA-GATHA CCLX) 
(Transl. by Mrs. Rhys Davids, Psalms of the Brethren.) 

For five-and-twenty years a learner I ; 
No sensual consciousness arose in me. 
O see the seemly order of the Norm ! 
For fi ve-and-twenty years a learner I ; 
No hostile consciousness arose in me. 

see the seemly order of the Norm ! 

For five-and-twenty years on the Exalted One 

1 waited, serving him by loving deeds, 
And like his shadow followed after him. 

For five-and-twenty years on the Exalted One 
I waited, serving him with loving speech, 
And like his shadow followed after him. 
For five-and-twenty years on the Exalted One 
I waited, serving him with loving thoughts, 
And like his shadow followed after him. 
When pacing up and down, the Buddha walked, 
Behind his back I kept the pace alway ; 
And when the Norm was being taught, in me 
Knowledge and understanding of it grew. 
But I am one who yet has work to do, 
A learner with a mind not yet matured ; 
And now the Master hence hath passed away, 
Who e'er to me such sweet compassion showed. 

Grieving at the Death of the Beloved Teacher 

The firmament on every hand 
Grows dim, yea all confused stand 
The truths I seemed to understand. 
Gone is the noble friend we love 1 
And dark is earth and heaven above. 

1 According to the Commentary, this refers not to Gotama, but to 
Sariputta, who predeceased Gotama. It is conceivable that the editors 
found the allusion too familiar. But it is just this touch the word of 
one who knew Gotama personally and intimately that has for us 
the ring of a genuine reference to the Master. 



168 THE BUDDHA WITH HIS DISCIPLES 

And is the comrade passed away ? 
And is the Master gone from hence ? 
No better friend is left, methinks, 
Than to mount guard o'er deed and sense. 
They of the older time are gone 
The new men suit me not at all. 
Alone to-day this child doth brood, 
Like nesting bird when rain doth fall. 



SUNITA 
THERAGATHA CCXLII 

Humble the clan wherein I took my birth, 
And poor was I and scanty was my lot ; 
Mean task was mine, a scavenger of flowers. 
One for whom no man cared, despised, abused, 
My mind I humbled and I bent the head 
In deference to a goodly tale of folk. 
And then I saw the All-Enlightened come, 
Begirt and followed by his bhikkhu-train. 
Great champion ent'ring Magadha's chief town. 
I laid aside my baskets and my yoke, 
And came where I might due obeisance make, 
And of his loving kindness just for me, 
The chief of men halted upon hisjwray. 
Low at his feet I bent, then standing by, 
I begged the Master's leave to join the Rule 
And follow him, of every creature chief. 
Then he whose tender mercy watcheth all 
The world, the Master pitiful and kind, 
Gave me my answer : Come, almsman, he said. 
Thereby to me was ordination given. 

Lo, I alone in forest depths abode. 

With zeal unfaltering wrought the Master's word, 

Even the counsels of the Conqueror. 

While passed the first watch of the night there rose 

Long memories of the bygone line of lives. 

While passed the middle watch, the heav'nly eye, 

Purview celestial, was clarified. 

While passed the last watch of the night, I burst 

Asunder all the gloom of ignorance. 

Then as the night wore down at dawn 

And rose the sun, came Indra and Brahma, 

Yielding me homage with their clasped hands : 

Hail unto thee, thou nobly born of men. 

Hail unto thee, thou highest among men : 

Perished for thee are all th'intoxicants ; 

And thou art worthy, noble sir, of gifts. 



CHULLA-PANTHAKA 169 

The Master, seeing me by troop of gods 
Begirt and followed, thereupon a smile 
Revealing, by this utterance made response : 
' By discipline of holy lif e, restraint 
And mastery of self : hereby a man 
Is holy ; this is holiness supreme." 



CHULLA-PANTHAKA 

THERAGATHA CCXXXVI 

Sluggish and halt the progress that I made, 

And therefore was I held in small esteem. 

My brother judged I should be turned away, 

And bade me, saying : " Now do thou go home." 

So I, dismissed and miserable, stood 

Within the gateway of the Brethren's Park, 

Longing at heart within the Rule to stay. 

And there he came to me, the Exalted One, 

And laid his hand upon my head ; and^took 

My arm and to the garden led me back. 

To me the Master in his kindness gave 

A napkin for the feet and bade me thus : 

" Fix thou thy mind on this clean thing, the while 

Well concentrated thou dost sit apart." 

And I who heard his blessed Word abode 
Fain only and alway to keep his Rule. 
Achieving concentrated thought and will, 
That I might win the crown of all my quest. 
And now I know the where and how I lived, 
And clearly shines the eye celestial ; 
The threefold wisdom have I made my own, 
And what the Buddha bids us do is done. 
In thousand different shapes did Panthaka 
Himself by power abnormal multiply ; 
And seated in the pleasant Mango-Grove, 
Waited until the hour should be revealed. 
Then did the Master send a messenger, 
Who came revealer of the hour to me, 
And at th' appointed time I flew to him. 
Low at his feet I worshipped ; then aside 
I sat me down, and me so seated near 
Whenas he had discerned, the Master then 
Suffered that men should do him ministry. 1 
High altar he where all the world may give, 
Receiver of th' oblations of mankind, 
Meadow of merit for the sons of men, 
He did accept the gifts of piety. 

1 Panthaka had not been called to the lunch given to the Buddha 
and several of his disciples. The Master having left him meditating 
on purity by the clean towel as object-lesson, refused to eat until 
Panthaka had been sent for, and served first. 



PART V 
LAST EVENTS IN THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA 



LAST EVENTS IN THE LIFE OF THE BUDDHA 



COMPILER'S NOTE 

(In the Maha-Parinibbana Suttanta, which is part XVI 
of the Digha-Nikaya, we have what seems to be a successive 
history of the last months of the Buddha's life, similarly as 
we find in the Mahdvagga of the Vinaya Texts an account 
of his life immediately following the Enlightenment. 

The Buddha becomes aware that it is his last journey among 
his disciples, and we find him delivering sermons on the same 
heads at various places. From the nature and succession of the 
events here recorded it would seem that this Suttanta gives also a 
fair picture of what was the daily life of the Buddha, during 
those more than forty years of his ministry. 

Rhys Davids remarks that this Suttanta covers ninety-six 
pages in the Pali-Text, and that only about one-third is not 
found elsewhere in the Canon, in nearly identical words, and 
that that proportion would be still reduced if one were to include 
Passages of similar tendency or of shorter length. 

The selections in the following chapter are adapted from 
this Suttanta as translated by Rhys Davids in Volume II 
" Dialogues of the Buddha ".) 

THE EXALTED ONE is CONSULTED ON MATTERS OF STATE 

Thus have I heard. The Exalted One was once dwelling 
in Rajagaha, on the hill called the Vulture's Peak. Now at 
that time Ajatasattu, the son of the queen-consort of the 
Videha clan, the king of Magadha, had made up his mind 
to attack the Vaj jians ; and he said to himself, " I will strike 
at these Vajjians, mighty and powerful though they be, 
I will root out these Vajjians, I will destroy these Vajjians, 
I will bring these Vajjians to utter ruin." 



174 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

So he spake to the brahmin Vassakara (the Rain-maker) 
prime-minister of Magadha, and said " Come you, brahmin, 
do you go to the Exalted One, and bow down in homage 
at his feet on my behalf, and inquire in my name whether 
he is free from illness and suffering, and in the enjoyment 
of ease and comfort, and vigorous health. Then tell him 
that Ajatasattu, son of the Vedehi, the king of Magadha, in 
his eagerness to attack the Vajjians, has resolved ' I will 
strike at these Vajjians, mighty and powerful though they 
may be, I will root out these Vajjians, I will destroy these 
Vajjians, I will bring these Vajjians to utter ruin'. And 
bear carefully in mind whatever the Exalted One may 
predict, and repeat it to me. For the Buddhas speak nothing 
untrue." 

Then the brahmin Vassakara, the Rain-maker, hearkened 
to the words of the king, saying : " Be it as you say." 
And ordering a number of state carriages to be made ready, 
he mounted one of them, left Rajagaha with his train, and 
went to the Vulture's Peak, riding as far as the ground was 
passable for carriages, and then alighted and proceeded 
on foot to the place where the Exalted One was. On arriving 
there he exchanged with the Exalted One the greetings 
and compliments of politeness and courtesy, sat down 
respectfully by his side . . . (and then delivered to him 
the message even as the king had commanded). 

Now at that time the venerable Ananda was standing 
behind the Exalted One, and fanning him. And the Blessed 
One said to him : " Have you heard this, Ananda, that the 
Vajjians foregather often and frequent the public meetings 
of their clan ? " 

" Lord, so I have heard," replied he. 

"So long, Ananda," rejoined the Blessed One, "as the 
Vajjians foregather thus often, and frequent the public 
meetings of their clan ; so long may they be expected not to 
decline, but to prosper. 

"... So long, Ananda, as the Vajjians meet together 
in concord, and rise in concord, and carry out their under- 
takings in concord, so long as they enact nothing, not already 
established, abrogate nothing that has been already enacted, 



THE EXALTED ONE IS CONSULTED 175 

and act in accordance with the ancient institutions of the 
Vajjians, as established in former days so long as they 
honour and esteem and revere and support the Vajjian 
elders, and hold it a point of duty to hearken to their words 
so long as no women or girls of respectable families are 
detained among them by force or abduction so long as 
they honour and esteem and revere and support the Vajjian 
shrines in town and country, and allow not the proper 
offerings and rites, as formerly given and performed, to fall 
in disuetude so long as the rightful protection, defence 
and support shall be fully provided for the Arahants among 
them, so that Arahants from a distance may enter the realm 
and the Arahants therein may live at ease so long may 
the Vajjians be expected not to decline, but to prosper." 

Then the Exalted One addressed Vassakara the brahmin 
and said : 

" When I was once staying, brahmin, at Vesali at the 
Sarandada Shrine, I taught the Vajjians these conditions 
of welfare ; and so long as these conditions shall continue 
to exist among the Vajjians, so long as the Vajjians shall 
be well instructed in those conditions, so long may we expect 
them not to decline, but to prosper." 

" We may expect, then," answered the brahmin, " the 
welfare and not the decline of the Vajjians when they are 
possessed of any one of these conditions of welfare, how 
much more so when they are possessed of all the seven. 
So, Gotama, the Vajjians cannot be overcome by the king 
of Magadha ; that is, not in battle, without diplomacy or 
breaking up their alliance. And now, Gotama, we must 
go ; we are busy and have much to do." 

"Whatever you think most fitting, brahmin," was the 
reply. And the brahman, Vassakara, the Rain-maker, 
delighted and pleased with the words of the Exalted One, 
rose from his seat, and then went his way. 



176 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

THE EXALTED ONE SPEAKS ON THE WELFARE OF HIS 

DISCIPLES 

Now soon after (Vassakara) had gone, the Exalted One 
addressed the venerable Ananda, and said : " Go now, 
Ananda, and assemble in the Service Hall such of the monks 
as live in the neighbourhood of Rajagaha." 

And he did so ; and returned to the Exalted One, and 
informed him, saying : " The company of monks, lord, 
is assembled, let the Exalted One do as seemeth to him fit." 

And the Exalted One arose, and went to* the Service Hall ; 
and when he was seated, he addressed the monks and said : 

" I will teach you, seven conditions of the welfare of a 
community. Listen well and attend, and I will speak." 

" Even so, lord," said the monks, in assent, to the 
Exalted One ; and he spake as follows : 

" So long, monks, as the brethren 1 foregather oft, and 
be frequently in assembly so long as they meet together 
in concord, and end their meeting hi concord, and 
carry out in concord the duties of the Order so long as 
the brethren shall establish nothing that has not been already 
prescribed, and abrogate nothing that has been already 
established, and act hi accordance with the rules of the 
Order as now laid down so long as the brethren honour 
and esteem and revere and support the elders of experience 
and long standing, the fathers and leaders of the Order, 
and hold it a point of duty to hearken to their words 
so long as the brethren fall not under the influence of that 
craving which, springing up within them, would give rise 
to renewed existence so long as the brethren delight in 
forest abodes so long as the brethren so train their 
minds in self-possession that good men among their fellow- 
disciples shall come to them, and those who have come 
shall dwell at ease so long may growth be expected of the 
brethren, not decline. 

" So long as these seven conditions shall continue to exist 
among the brethren, so long as they are well-instructed 
in these conditions, so long may growth be expected of 
the brethren, not decline. 

1 Brethren = monks =bhikkhu. 



THE EXALTED ONE SPEAKS 177 

" Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach you, O 
brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I will speak." 
And on their expressing their assent, he spake as follows : 
" So long as the brethren shall not engage in, or be fond 
of, or be connected with business so long as the brethren 
shall not be in the habit of, or be fond of, or be partakers 
in idle talk so long as the brethren shall not be addicted 
to, or be fond of, or indulge in slothfulness so long as the 
brethren shall not frequent, or be fond of, or indulge in 
society so long as the brethren shall neither have, nor fall 
under the influence of wrong desires so long as the brethren 
shall not become friends, companions, or intimates of evil- 
doers so long as the brethren shall not come to a stop in 
mid-way, because they have attained to any lesser thing 
so long may the brethren be expected not to decline, but 
to prosper. 

" So long as these conditions shall continue to exist among 
the brethren so long as they are instructed in these 
conditons so long may growth be expected of the brethren, 
not decline. 

" Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach you, O 
brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I will speak." 
And on expressing then: assent, he spake as follows : 
" So long as the brethren shall be full of faith, modest 
in heart, afraid of blame, full of learning, strong in energy, 
shall have presence of mind and wisdom, so long may growth 
be expected of the brethren, not decline. 

" So long as these conditions shall continue to exist among 
the brethren so long as they are -instructed in these 
conditions so long may growth be expected of the brethren, 
not decline. 

" Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach you, O 
brethren listen well and attend, and I will speak." 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake as follows : 
" So long as the brethren shall exercise themselves in the 
sevenfold higher wisdom, that is to say, in mental activity, 
search after truth, energy, joy, peace, earnest contemplation, 
and equanimity of mind so long may the brethren be 
expected not to decline, but to prosper. 

N 



178 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

" So long as these conditions shall continue to exist among 
the brethren so long as they are instructed in these 
conditions so long may growth be expected of the brethren, 
not decline. 

" Other seven conditions of welfare will I teach you, O 
brethren. Listen well, and attend, and I will speak." 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake as follows : 

" So long as the brethren shall create in themselves the 
idea of impermanence, the idea of no unchanging principle, 
the idea of corruption, of danger, of riddance, of passionless- 
ness, of ceasing, so long may growth be expected of the 
brethren, not decline. . . . 

" Six conditions of welfare will I teach you, O brethren. 
Listen well and attend, and I will speak." 

And on their expressing their assent, he spake as follows : 

" So long as the brethren shall persevere in kindness of 
action, speech, and thought among their fellow-disciples, 
both in public and in private so long as they shall divide 
without partiality, and share in common with then: upright 
companions, all such things as they receive in accordance 
with the just provisions of the Order, down even to the 
mere contents of a begging-bowl so long as the brethren 
shall live among the saints in the practice, both in public 
and in private, of those virtues which, unbroken, intact, 
unspotted, unblemished, are productive of freedom, and 
praised by the wise ; which are untarnished and which are 
conducive to concentration of heart so long as the brethren 
shall live among the saints cherishing, both in public and 
in private, that noble and saving view which leads to 
the complete destruction of the sorrow of him who acts 
according to it so long may the brethren be expected 
not to decline, but to prosper ..." 



WHAT MAY BE SAID OF ALL BUDDHAS 

Now the venerable Sariputta came to the place where 
the Exalted One was, and having saluted him, took his 
seat respectfully at his side, and said : " Lord, such faith 



WHAT MAY BE SAID OF ALL BUDDHAS 179 

have I in the Exalted One, that methinks there never has 
been, nor will there be, nor is there now any other, whether 
wanderer or brahmin, who is greater and wiser than the 
Exalted One, that is to say, as regards enlightenment." 

" Grand and bold are the words of thy mouth, Sariputta ; 
verily, thou hast burst forth into a song of ecstasy of course 
then, thou hast known all the Exalted Ones who in long 
ages of the past have been Arahants, Awakened Ones, 
comprehending their minds by thine, and aware what their 
conduct was, what their wisdom, what their mode of life, 
and what the emancipation they attained to." 

" Not so, O lord." 

" Of course then thou hast perceived all the Exalted Ones 
who in long ages of the future shall be Arahants, Awakened 
Ones comprehending (in the same manner their minds 
with thine) ? " 

" Not so, O lord." 

But at least then, Sariputta, thou knowest me as the 
Arahant, Awakened One now alive, and hast penetrated 
my mind (in the manner I have mentioned). 

" Not even that, O lord." 

"Thou seest then, Sariputta, that thou knowest not the 
hearts of the Arahants, Awakened Ones of the past and 
of the future. Why therefore are thy words so grand and 
bold ? Why dost thou burst forth into such a song of 
ecstasy ? " 

" O lord. I have not the knowledge of the hearts of 
the Arahants, Awakened Ones that have been, and are 
to come, and now are. I only know 'the lineage of the faith. 

" Just, lord, as a king might have a border city, strong 
in its foundations, strong in its ramparts and towers, and 
with only one gate ; and the king might have a watchman 
there, clever, expert, and wise, to stop all strangers and 
admit only men well-known. And he, on patrolling in 
his sentry walks over the approaches all round the city, 
might not so observe all the joints and crevices in the ram- 
parts of that city as to know where even a cat could get out. 
He might well be satisfied to know that all living things 
of larger size that entered or left the city, would have to 



i8o LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

do so by that gate. Thus only is it, lord, that I know the 
lineage of faith. 

" I know that the Arahants, Awakened Ones of the past, 
putting away all hankering after the world, ill-will, sloth, 
worry and perplexity those five hindrances, mental faults 
which make the understanding weak training their minds 
in the four kinds of mental activity ; thoroughly exercising 
themselves in the sevenfold higher wisdom, received the 
full fruition of Enlightment. And I know that the Arahants, 
Awakened Ones of the time to come will (do the same) . And 
1 know that the Exalted One, the Arahant, Awakened One 
of to-day, has (done so) now." 



A FREQUENTLY REPEATED TEXT 

(The following text is delivered so often, during these last 
months of the Buddha's life, as he travelled from place to place, 
that it may well be regarded as part of his farewell message. 
Note is made of it having been given in eleven of the fourteen 
places he is mentioned as having visited-: it is repeated each 
time in the original, like a recurring theme in music.) 
COMPILER. 

There too at Nalanda in the Pavarika mango grove the 
Exalted One held that comprehensive . religious talk with 
the brethren, saying : 

" Such and such is upright conduct ; such and such is earnest 
contemplation, such and such is wisdom. Great becomes 
the fruit, great the advantages of earnest contemplation, 
when it is set round with upright conduct. Great becomes 
the fruit, great the advantage of wisdom when it is set round 
with earnest contemplation. The mind set round with 
wisdom is set quite free from the delusions, that is to say, 
from the delusion of sensuality, from the delusion of re-birth, 
from the delusion of opinion, from the delusion of ignorance." 



SERMON TO HOUSEHOLDERS 181 



A SERMON TO HOUSEHOLDERS 

Now when the Exalted One had sojourned as long as 
he thought fit at Nalanda, he addressed the venerable 
Ananda, and said : " Come, Ananda, let us go on to 
Pataligama." 

" So be it, lord," said Ananda, in assent, to the Exalted One. 

Then the Exalted One proceeded, with a great company 
of the brethren to Pataligama. 

Now the disciples at Pataligama heard of his arrival 
there, and they went on to the place where he was, took 
their seats respectfully beside him, and invited him to their 
rest-house. And the Exalted One signified, by silence 
his consent. 

Then the Pataligama disciples seeing that he had accepted 
the invitation, rose from their seats, and went away to the 
rest-house, bowing to the Exalted One and keeping him 
on their right as they passed him. On arriving there, they 
strewed all the rest-house with fresh sand, placed seats 
in it, set up a water-pot, and fixed an oil lamp. Then they 
returned to the Exalted One and saluting him they stood 
beside him, and told him what they had done and said : 
" It is time for you to do what you deem most fit." 

And the Exalted One robed himself, took his bowl and 
other things, went with the brethren to the rest-house, 
washed his feet, entered the hall, and took his seat against 
the centre pillar, with his face towards the east. And the 
brethren also, after washing their feet, entered the hall, 
and took their seats round the Exalted One, against the 
western wall, and facing the east. And the Pataligama 
disciples too, after washing their feet entered the hall, and 
took their seats opposite the Exalted One, against the 
eastern wall, and facing towards the west. 

Then the Exalted One addressed the Pataligama disciples, 
and said " Fivefold, O householders, is the loss of the wrong- 
doer through his moral failure. In the first place the wrong- 
doer failing in morals falls into great poverty through 
carelessness ; in the next place his evil repute gets noised 



182 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

abroad ; thirdly, whatever society he enters whether of 
nobles, brahmins, heads of houses, or men of a religious 
order he enters with diffidence and confused ; fourthly, 
he is confused in mind when he dies ; and lastly, on the 
dissolution of the body, after death he is reborn into some 
unhappy state of suffering or woe. This, O householders, 
is the fivefold loss of the evil-doer." 

Fivefold, O householders, is the gain of the well-doer 
through his moral development. In the first place the well- 
doer, morally developed, acquires great wealth through 
his industry ; in the next place good reports of him are spread 
abroad ; thirdly, whatever society he enters, whether of 
nobles, brahmins, heads of houses, or members of a religious 
order, he enters confident, and self-possessed ; fourthly, 
he dies not confused in mind ; and lastly, on the dissolution 
of the body, after death, he is reborn into some happy state 
in heaven. This O householders is the fivefold gain of the 
well-doer. 

When the Exalted One had thus taught the lay disciples 
at Pataligama, and incited them, and roused them, and 
gladdened them, far into the night with religious discourse, 
he dismissed them saying : 

" The night is far spent, O householders. It is time 
for you to do what you deem most fit." 

" Even so, lord," answered the disciples of Pataligama, 
and they rose from their seats, and bowing to the Exalted 
One, and keeping him on their right hand as they passed 
him, they departed thence. 

(While at Pataligama we are told that the Buddha saw 
thousands of devas, unseen by others, encouraging the building 
of a new city Pdtaliputta, concerning which the Buddha 
-prophesied its greatness, but he adds that the danger of fire, 
and water, and dissension among friends hung over the city ; 
this prophecy seems to have been fulfilled. He is invited by 
the chief ministers of Magadha to take his meal with them ; 
and when he leaves the city they propose to name after him 
the gate through which he passes and the ferry at which he 
crosses the river. But when the Buddha reaches the river 



THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS 183 

" as instantaneously as a strong man would stretch forth his 
arm, or draw it lack again when he had stretched it forth ", 
he vanished from the one side, and stood on the further bank 
with the company of monks.} 



THE EXALTED ONE SPEAKS ON THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS 

Now the Exalted One addressed the venerable Ananda 
and said : " Come, Ananda, let us go on to Kotigama." 

" So be it, lord," said Ananda, in assent, to the Exalted One. 

The Exalted One proceeded with a great company of the 
brethren to Kotigama ; and there he stayed in the village 
itself. 

And at that place the Exalted One addressed the brethren, 
and said : " It is through not understanding and pene- 
trating four Aryan Truths, O brethren, that we have run 
so long, wandered so long both you and I." 

" And what are these four ? " 

" The Aryan truth about sorrow ; the -Aryan truth about 
the cause of sorrow, the Aryan truth about the cessation 
of sorrow ; and the Aryan truth about the path that leads 
to that cessation. But when these Aryan truths are under- 
stood and penetrated, the craving for future life is rooted 
out, that which leads to renewed becoming is destroyed, 
and then there is no more birth. " Thus spake the Exalted 
One ; and when the Happy One had thus spoken, then again 
the Teacher said : 

By not seeing the Aryan Truths as they really are, 
Long is the path that is traversed through many a birth ; 
When these are seen, the cause of rebirth is removed, 
The root of sorrow uprooted, then is no more becoming. 



THE MIRROR OF TRUTH 

Now when the Exalted One had remained as long as he 
thought fit at Kotigama, he addressed the venerable Ananda, 
and said : " Come, Ananda, let us go on to the Nadikas." 



184 LAST EVENTS IN tIFE OF BUDDHA 

" So be it, lord," said Ananda, in assent, to the Exalted One. 

And the Exalted One proceeded to the Nadikas with 
a great company of the brethren ; and there at Nadika, 
the Exalted One stayed in the Brick Hall. 

And the venerable Ananda went to the Exalted One and 
paid him reverence and took his seat beside him. And when 
he was seated, he addressed the Exalted One, and said : 
" The brother named Salha has died at Nadika lord. Where 
has he been reborn, and what is his destiny ? The sister 
named Nanda has died, lord, at Nadika. Where is she 
reborn, and what is her destiny ? " (And in the same terms 
he inquired concerning the lay disciple Sudatta and the 
devout lady Sugata, the lay disciples Kakudha, and Kalinga, 
and Nikata, and Katissabha, and Tuttha, and Santuttha, 
and Bhadda and Subhadda.) 

The brother named Salha, Ananda, by the destruction 
of the delusions has by himself, and in this world, known 
and realised and attained to Arahantship, to emancipation 
of heart and to emancipation of mind. The sister named 
Nanda, Ananda, has, by the complete destruction of the five 
bonds that bind people to these lower worlds of lust, become 
an inhabitant of another world, there to pass entirely away, 
thence never to return. The lay-brother, Sudatta, Ananda, by 
the complete destruction of the three bonds, andby the reduction 
to a minimum of lust, ill-will, and stupidity, has become 
a once-returner, who on his only return to this world will 
make an end of sorrow. The lay-sister Sujata, Ananda, 
by the complete destruction of the three bonds, has become 
converted, is no longer liable to be reborn in a state of 
suffering, and is assured of hereafter attaining to enlighten- 
ment. The lay-brother Kakudha, Ananda, by the complete 
destruction of the five bonds that bind people to these lower 
worlds of lust, has become an inhabitant of another world, 
there to pass entirely away, thence never to return. (The 
same of Kalinga, Nikata, Katissabha, Tuttha, Santuttha, 
Bhadda, and Subhadda and with more than fifty lay- 
brethren in Nadika.) 

More than ninety lay-brethren in Nadika, who have 
died, Ananda, have by the complete destruction of the 



THE FOUR NOBLE TRUTHS 185 

three bonds, and by the reduction of lust, ill-will, and 
stupidity, become once-returners, who on their only return 
to this world will make an end of sorrow. More than five 
hundred lay-brethren of Nadika who have died, Ananda, 
have by the complete destruction of the three bonds become 
converted, are not longer liable to be reborn in a state of 
suffering, and are assured of hereafter attaining enlightenment. 

Now there is nothing strange in this, Ananda, that a human 
being should die ; but that, as each one does so, you should 
come to me, and inquire about them in this manner, that 
is wearisome to me. I will, therefore, teach you a way 
of truth, called the Mirror of Truth, which if a disciple of 
the noble ones possess he may, if he should desire, himself 
predict of himself : " Purgatory is destroyed for me, and 
rebirth as an animal, or a ghost, or in any place of woe. 
I am converted, I am no longer liable to be reborn in a state 
of suffering, and am assured of hereafter attaining to 
enlightenment." 

What then Ananda, is this Mirror of Truth ? (It is the 
consciousness that) the disciple of the Arahants is in the 
world possessed of faith in the Buddha believing the Exalted 
One to be the Arahant, the Fully-Enlightened One, Wise, 
Upright, Wellfarer, Worldknowing, Supreme, the Bridler 
of men's wayward hearts, the Teacher of gods and men, 
the Exalted and Awakened One. And that he (the disciple) 
is possessed of faith in the Truth believing the Truth to 
liave been proclaimed by the Exalted One, as being 
here and now and immediate, welcoming all, leading to 
salvation, and to be attained to by the wise, each one for 
himself. And that he (the disciple) is possessed of faith 
in the Order believing the multitude of the disciples of 
the Exalted One who are walking in the four stages of the 
noble eightfold path, the righteous, the upright, the just, 
the law-abiding believing this Order of the Exalted One 
to be worthy of honour, of hospitality, of gifts, and of reverence ; 
to be the supreme "sowing-ground of merit for the world ; 
to be possessed of the virtues beloved by the good, virtues 
unbroken, intact, unspotted, unblemished, virtues which 
make men truly free, virtues which are praised by the wise, are 



186 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

untarnished by the desire of future life or by the belief in 
the efficacy of outward acts, and are conducive to con- 
centration of heart. 

This, Ananda, is the way the Mirror of Truth, which if 
a disciple of the noble ones possess he may, if he should so 
desire, himself predict of himself : " Purgatory is destroyed 
for me ; and rebirth as an animal, or a ghost, or in any place 
of woe. I am converted ; I am no longer liable to be reborn 
in a state of suffering, and am assured of finally attaining 
to enlightenment." 



THE COURTEZAN AMBAPALI APPEARS 

Now when the Exalted One had remained as long as he 
wished at Nadika he addressed Ananda, and said : " Come, 
Ananda, let us go on to Vesali." 

" So be it, lord," said Ananda, in assent, to the Exalted One. 

Then the Exalted One proceeded, with a great company 
of the brethren to Vesali ; and there at Vesali, the Exalted 
one stayed at Ambapali's grove. ' 

Now there the Exalted One addressed the brethren and 
said : " Let a brother, monks, be mindful and self-possessed ; 
this is our instruction to you." 1 

" And how does a brother become mindful ? " 

"Herein, monks, a brother continues as to the body, so 
to look upon the body that he remains strenuous, self- 
possessed and mindful, having overcome both the hankering 
and the dejection common in the world.. (And in the same 
way as to feeling, moods, or ideas, he continues so to look 
upon each) that he remains strenuous, self-possessed, and 
mindful, having overcome both the hankering and the 
dejection, common in the world." 

"And how does a brother become self-possessed ?" 

" He acts, monks, in full presence of mind whatever .he 

1 This is a frequently occurring subject in Buddhist teaching, but 
here the commentator Buddhaghosa suggests it is due to the imminent 
approach of the beautiful courtezan. The meeting with Ambapali 
also occurs in the Vinaya Texts. Ambapali means ' Row of Mangoes.' 



THE COURTEZAN AMBAPALI APPEARS 187 

may do, in going out or coming in, in looking forward or 
looking round, in bending in his arm or in stretching it forth, 
in wearing his robes or in carrying his bowl, in eating or 
drinking, in masticating or swallowing, in obeying the calls 
of nature, in walking or standing or sitting, in sleeping or 
waking, in talking and in being silent. 

" Thus let a brother, monks, be mindful and self-possessed ; 
this is our instruction to you." 

Now the courtezan Ambapali heard that the Exalted - 
One had arrived at Vesali, and was staying there at her 
mango grove. And .ordering a number of state vehicles 
to be made ready ; she mounted one of them, and went forth- 
with her train from Vesali towards her garden. She went 
in the carriages as far as the ground was passable for 
carriages ; there she alighted ; and she proceeded on foot 
to the place where the Exalted One was, and took her seat 
respectfully on one side. And when she was thus seated 
the Exalted One instructed, aroused, incited, and gladdened 
her with religious discourse. 

Then she instructed, aroused, incited and gladdened 
with his words addressed the Exalted One, and said : 

" May the Exalted One do me the honour of taking his 
meal, together with the brethren, at my house to morrow ? " 

And the Exalted One gave, by silence, his consent. Then 
when Ambapali the courtezan saw that the Exalted One had 
consented, she rose from her seat and bowed down before 
him, and keeping him on her right hand as she passed him, 
she departed thence. 

Now the Licchavis of Vesali heard that the Exalted One 
had arrived at Vesali, and was staying at Anibapali's grove. 
And ordering a number of state carriages to be made ready ; 
they each mounted one of them and went forth with then: 
train from Vesali. Some of them were dark, dark hi colour, 
and wearing dark clothes and ornaments ; some of them 
were fair, fair in colour, and wearing light clothes and 
ornaments ; some of them were red, ruddy in colour, 
and wearing red clothes and ornaments ; some of them were 
white, pale in colour, and wearing white clothes and 
ornaments. 



i88 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

And Ambapali drove up against the young Licchavis, 
axle to axle, wheel to wheel, and yoke to yoke, and the 
Licchavis said to Ambapali the courtezan, " How is it, 
Ambapali, that thou drivest up against us thus ? " 

" My lords, I have just invited the Exalted One and his 
brethren for their morrow's meal," said she. 

"Ambapali, give up this meal to us for a hundred thousand," 
said they. 

" My lords, were you to offer all Vesali with its subject 
territory, I would not give up so honourable a feast." 

Then the Licchavis cast up their hands, exclaiming : 

" We are outdone by this mango girl. We are out-reached 
by this mango girl," and they went on to Ambapali's grove. 

When the Exalted One saw the Licchavis approaching 
in the distance, he addressed the brethren, and said : 

" Brethren, let those of the brethren who have never 
seen the next world devas, gaze upon this company of the 
Licchavis, behold this company of the Licchavis, compare 
this company of the Licchavis for they are even as a company 
of next world devas." 

And when they had ridden as- far as he ground was passable 
for carriages the Licchavis alighted there, and then went 
on foot to the place where the Exal ed One was, and took 
their seats respectfully by his side. And when they were 
thus seated the Exalted One instructed and roused and 
incited and gladdened them with religious discourse. 

Then they instructed, and roused and incited, and 
gladdened with his words addressed the Exalted One, 
and said : " May the Exalted One do us the honour of taking 
his meal, together with the brethren, at our house to-morrow ? " 

" I have promised, Licchavis, to dine to-morrow with 
Ambapali the courtezan," was the reply." 

Then the Licchavis cast up their hands, exclaiming : 

" We are outdone by this mango girl, we are outreached 
by this mango girl." And expressing their thanks and 
approval of the words of the Exalted One, they rose from 
their seats and bowed down before the Exalted One, and 
keeping him on their right hand as they passed him, they 
departed thence. 



A SUBLIME DISCOURSE 189 

And at the end of the night Ambapali the courtezan made 
ready in her mansion sweet rice and cake, and announced 4 

the tune to the Exalted One saying : " The hour, lord, has 
come, and the meal is ready." 

And the Exalted One who had dressed himself early in 
the morning, took his bowl, and his robe, and went with 
the brethren to the place where Ambapali's mansion was ; 
and when he had come there he seated himself on the seat 
prepared for him. And Ambapali the courtezan set the 
sweet rice and cakes before the Order, with the Buddha 
at their head, and waited upon them till they refused 
any more. 

And when the Blessed One had quite finished his meal, 
and had cleansed the bowl and his hands, the courtezan 
had a low stool brought, and sat down at his side, and 
addressed the Exalted One, and said : 

" Lord, I present this pleasaunce to the order of monks, 
of whom the Buddha is the chief." And the Exalted One 
accepted the gift; and after mstructing, and rousing, and 
inciting, and gladdening her with religious discourse, he rose 
from his seat and departed thence. 



THE ENLIGHTENED ONE is ATTACKED BY SICKNESS BUT 
DELIVERS A SUBLIME DISCOURSE 

Now when the Exalted One had remained so long as he 
wished at Ambapali's grove, he addressed Ananda, and said : 
" Come, Ananda, let us go on to Beluva." 

"So be it, lord," said Ananda, in assent, to the 
Exalted One. 

Then the Exalted One proceeded with a great company 
of the brethren to Beluva, and there the Exalted One stayed 
in the village itself. 

Now the Exalted One there addressed the brethren, and 
said : " Monks, do you take up your abode round about 
Vesali, each according to the place where his friends, 
acquaintances, and intimates may live, for the retreat in the 



igo LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

rainy season (for Vassa). I shall enter upon the rainy season 
here at Beluva." 

"So be it, lord," said these brethren, in assent, to the 
Exalted One. And they entered upon the rainy season 
round about Vesali, each according to the place where his 
friends, acquaintances, and intimates lived, whilst the Exalted 
One stayed even here at Beluva. 

Now when the Exalted One had thus entered upon the 
rainy season, there fell upon him a dire sickness, and sharp 
pains came upon him, even unto death. But the Exalted 
One, mindful and self-possessed, bore them without complaint. 
Then this thought occurred to the Exalted One : "It would 
not be right for me to pass away without addressing the 
disciples, without taking leave of the Order. Let me now, 
by a strong effort of the will, bend this sickness down 
again, and keep my hold on life, till the allotted time be 



come." 



And the Exalted One, by a strong effort of will, bent that 
sickness down again, and kept his hold on life till the time 
he fixed upon should come. And the sickness abated 
upon him. 

Now very soon after the Blessed One began to recover. 
And when he had quite got rid of his sickness, he came out 
from his lodging, and sat down in the shadow thereof on a 
seat spread out there. And the venerable Ananda went 
to the place where the Exalted One was, and saluted him, 
and took a seat respectfully on one side, and addressed the 
Exalted One, and said : 

" I have beheld, lord, how the Exalted One was in health, 
and I have beheld now how the Exalted One had to suffer. 
And though at the sight of the sickness of the Exalted One 
my body became weak as a creeper, and the horizon became 
dim to me, and my faculties were no longer clear, yet not- 
withstanding I took some little comfort from the thought 
that the Exalted One would not pass away until at least 
he had left instructions as touching the Order." 

" What then, Ananda, does the Order expect of me ? 
I have preached the dhamma without making it either 
inner or outer; for in respect of doctrines, Ananda, the 



A SUBLIME DISCOURSE 191 

Tathagata has no such thing as the teacher's (closed) fist. 
Surely should there be any one who harbours the thought : ' It 
is I who will lead the brotherhood/ or, ' The Order is dependent 
upon me,' it is he who should lay down instructions in any 
matter concerning the Order. Now the Tathagata, Ananda, 
thinks not that it is he who should lead the brotherhood, 
or that the Order is dependent upon him. Why then should 
he leave instructions in any matter concerning the Order ? 

But I, Ananda, am now grown old, and full of years, my 
journey is drawing to its close, I have reached my sum of. 
days, I am in the years eighty and more of age ; and just as a 
worn-out cart, Ananda, can be kept going only with the help 
of thongs, so, methinks, the body of the Tathagata can only 
be kept going by bandaging it up. It is only, Ananda, 
when the Tathagata, by ceasing to attend to any outward 
thing, becomes plunged by the cessation of any separate 
sensation in that concentration of heart, which is concerned 
with no material object, it is only then that the body of the 
Tathagata is at ease. 

" Therefore, O Ananda, be ye lamps 1 unto yourselves. 
Be ye a refuge to yourselves. Betake yourselves to no external 
refuge. Hold fast to the dhamma as a lamp. 1 Hold fast 
as a refuge to the dhamma. Look not for refuge to any 
one besides yourselves. And how, Ananda, is a brother 
to be a lamp a unto himself, a refuge to himself, betaking 
himself to no external refuge, holding fast to the dhamma 
as a lamp, 1 holding fast as a refuge to the dhamma, looking 
not for refuge to any one besides himself ? 

" Herein, monks, a brother continues, as to the body, 
so to look upon the body that 'he remains strenuous, 
self-possessed, and mindful, having overcome both the 
hankering and the dejection common in the world. (And 
hi the same way) as to feeling . . . moods . . . ideas, 
he continues so to look upon each that he remains strenuous, 
self-possessed, and mindful, having overcome both the 
hankering and the dejection common in the world. 

" And whosoever, Ananda, either now or after I am dead, 

1 Dtya may be translated also as islands. 



IQ2 BUDDHA DECIDES WHEN TO PASS AWAY 

shall be a lamp unto themselves, and a refuge unto themselves, 
shall betake themselves to no external refuge, but holding 
fast to the dhamma as their lamp, and holding fast as their 
refuge to the dhamma, shall look not for a refuge to any 
one besides themselves, it is they, Ananda, among my 
Bhikkhus, who shall reach the very topmost Height, whosoever 
of them are anxious to learn." 



THE BUDDHA DECIDES WHEN TO PASS AWAY 

Now the Exalted One robed himself early in the morning, 
and taking his bowl in the robe, went into Vesali for alms. 
When, after he had returned from his round for alms, he had 
finished eating the rice, he addressed the venerable Ananda, 
and said : " Take up the mat, Ananda, I will go and spend 
the day at the Chapala Shrine." 

" So be it, lord," said the venerable Ananda, in assent, 
to the Exalted One. And taking up the mat, he followed 
step for step behind the Exalted One. 

So the Exalted One proceeded to the Chapala Shrine, 
and when he had come there he sat down on the mat spread 
out for him, and the venerable Ananda took his seat respect- 
fully beside him. Then the Exalted One addressed the 
venerable Ananda, and said : 

" How delightful a spot, Ananda, is Vesali, and how 
charming the Udena Shrine and the Gotamaka Shrine, and the 
Shrine of the Seven Mangoes, and the Shrine of Many Sons, 
and the Sarandad Shrine, and the Chapala Shrine. 

" Ananda, whosoever has developed, practised, dwelt 
on, expanded and ascended to the very heights of the four 
paths of Iddhi, and so mastered them as to be able to use 
them as a vehicle, and as a basis, he, should he desire it, 
could remain in the same birth for an aeon or for that portion 
of the aeon which had yet to run. Now the Tathagata has 
thoroughly practised and developed them, and he could, 
therefore, should he desire it, live on yet for an aeon, or for 
that portion of the aeon which has yet to run." 



BUDDHA DECIDES WHEN TO PASS AWAY 193 

But even though a suggestion so evident and a hint 
so clear were thus given by the Exalted One, the venerable 
Ananda was incapable of comprehending them ; and he 
besought not the Exalted One, saying : " Vouchsafe, lord, 
to remain during the aeon. Live on through the aeon, O 
happy One. For the good and the happiness of the great 
multitudes, out of pity for the world for the good and the gain 
and the weal of gods and men." So far was his heart 
possessed by the Evil One. 

A second and a third time did the Exalted One (say the 
same thing, and a second and a third time was Ananda's 
heart thus hardened). - 

Then the Exalted One addressed the venerable Ananda, 
and said : 

" You may leave me, Ananda, a while, and do whatsoever 
now seemeth to you fit." " So be it, lord," said the venerable 
Ananda, in assent, to the Exalted One, and passing him 
on the right sat down at the foot of a certain tree not far 
off thence. 

Now not long after the venerable Ananda had been gone, 
Mara, the Evil One, approached the Exalted One and stood 
beside him. And so standing there, he addressed the Exalted 
One- in these words : 

" Pass away now, lord, let the Exalted One now die. Now 
is the tune for the Exalted One to pass away, even according 
to the word which the Exalted One spoke when he said : 
' I shall not die, Evil One, until the brethren and sisters 
of the Order, and until the lay-disciples of either sex shall 
have become true hearers, wise and well trained, ready and 
learned, carrying the doctrinal books in their memory, 
masters of the lesser corollaries, that follow from the larger 
doctrine, correct in life, walking according to the precepts, 
until they, having thus themselves learned the doctrine 
shall be able to tell others of it, preach it, make it known, 
establish it, open it, minutely explain it, and make it clear, 
until they, when others start vain doctrine easy to be refuted 
by the truth, shall be able in refuting it, to spread the 
wonder-working truth abroad. 

" And now, lord, the brethren and sisters of the order 



194 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

and the lay-disciples of either sex have become (all this), 
are able to do (all this). Pass away now therefore, lord, 
let the Exalted One now die. The time has come for the 
Exalted One to pass away, even according to the word which 
he spake when he said : ' I shall not die, O Evil One, until 
this pure religion of mine shall have become successful, 
prosperous, wide-spread, and popular hi all its full extent 
until, in a word, it shall have been well proclaimed among 
men. And now, lord, this pure religion of thine has become 
(all this). Pass away now therefore, lord; let the Exalted 
One now die. The time has come for the Exalted One to 
pass away." 

And when he had thus spoken, the Exalted One addressed 
Mara, the Evil One, and said : " Make thyself happy, Evil 
One, the death of the Tathagata shall take place before 
long. At the end of three months from this tune the Tatha- 
gata will pass away." 

Thus the Exalted One while at the Shrine of Chapala 
deliberately and consciously emptied (himself of) the conditions 
of life. 1 And on his so rejecting there arose a mighty 
earthquake, awful and terrible, and the thunders of heaven 
burst forth. And when the Exalted One beheld this, he 
broke out at that time into this hymn of exultation : 

His sum of life the sage renounced : 
The cause of life immeasurable or small ; 
With inward joy and calm he broke, 
Like coat of mail, his life's own cause. 

Between this and the following account we omit discourses 
on eight proximate and eight remote causes of earthquakes, 
the eight kinds of assemblies, the eight powers of mastery, the 
eight stages of deliverance. 

1 Ayu-sankhara. 



ANANDA PETITIONS THE BUDDHA 195 



ANANDA PETITIONS THE BUDDHA NOT TO PASS AWAY 

(The Enlightened One has just recounted to Ananda the two appearances 
of Mara when he begged the Buddha to pass away) 

" And now again, Ananda, the Tathagata has to-day at 
Chapala's Shrine consciously and deliberately rejected the 
rest of his allotted term of life." 

And when he had thus spoken the venerable Ananda 
addressed the Exalted One, and said : " Vouchsafe, lord, 
to remain during the aeon ; live on through the kalpa, 
O Exalted One. For the good and the happiness of the 
great multitudes, out of pity for the world, for the good 
and the gain and the weal of gods and men." 

" Enough now, Ananda, beseech not the Tathagata," 
was the reply. " The time for making such request is past." 

And again, the second tune, the venerable Ananda 
besought the Exalted One (in the same words). And he 
received from the Exalted One the same reply. 

And again, the third time, the venerable Ananda besought 
the Exalted One (in the same words). 

" Hath thou faith, Ananda, in the wisdom of the 
Tathagata ? " 

" Even so, lord." 

" Now why then, Ananda, dost thou trouble theTathagata 
even until the third time ? " 

" From his own mouth have I heard from the Exalted 
One, from his own mouth have I received this saying : 
' Whoever has developed, practised, dwelt on, expanded, 
and ascended to the very heights of the four paths to Iddhi, 
and so mastered them as to be able to use them as a vehicle 
and as a basis, he, should he desire it, could remain in the 
same birth for an seon, or for that portion of the ason which 
is yet to run.' Now the Tathagata has thoroughly practised 
and developed them (in all respects as just now fully described) 
and he could, therefore, should he desire it, live on yet for 
an aeon, or for that portion of the aeon which has yet to run. 

" Hast thou faith, Ananda ? " 

" Even so, lord." 



196 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

" Then, O Ananda, thine is the fault, thine is the offence, 
in that when a suggestion so evident and a hint so clear 
were thus given thee by the Tathagat, thou wast yet incapable 
of comprehending them, and thou besoughtest not the 
Tathagata, saying : ' Vouchsafe, lord, to remain during 
the aeon for the good and the happiness of the great multitudes, 
out of pity for the world, for the good and the gain and the 
weal of gods and men/ If thou shouldst then have so 
besought the Tathagata, the Tathagata might have rejected 
the appeal even to the second time, but the third tune he 
would have granted it. Thine, therefore, O Ananda, is 
the fault, thine is the offence." 

(Here occurs with much repetition a list of several occasions 
when Ananda failed to ask the Buddha to remain for an aeon, 
or the remainder of one.) 

" But now, Ananda, have I not formerly declared to you 
that it is in the very nature of all things, near and dear 
unto us, that we must divide ourselves from them, leave 
them, sever ourselves from them ? How, then, Ananda, 
can this be possible where as anything whatever born, brought 
into being and organized, contains within itself the inherent 
necessity of dissolution, how then can this be possible that 
such a being should not be dissolved ? No such condition 
can exist. And that which, Ananda, has been relinquished, 
cast away, renounced, rejected, and emptied out by the 
Tathagata the remaining sum of life surrendered by him 
verily with regard to that the word has gone forth from the 
Tathagata, saying : ' The passing away of the Tathagata 
shall take place before long. At the end of three months 
from this time the Tathagata will die/ That the Tathagata 
for the sake of living should repent him again of that saying, 
this can no wise be." 



THE BUDDHA GIVES A SUMMARY OF His TEACHINGS 

(Then the Exalted One said) : 

" Come, Ananda, let us go to the Kutagara Hall, to the 
Mahavana." 



A SUMMARY OF BUDDHA'S TEACHINGS 197 

" Even so, lord," said the venerable Ananda, in assent, 
to the Exalted One. 

Then the Exalted One proceeded, and Ananda with him, 
to the Mahavana, to the Kutagara Hall ; and when he had 
arrived there he addressed the venerable Ananda, and said : 

"Go now, Ananda, and assemble in the Service Hall 
such of the brethren as reside in the neighbourhood of Vesali." 

" Even so, lord," said the venerable Ananda, hi assent, 
to the Eaxlted One. And when he had assembled in the 
Service Hall such of the brethren as resided in the neighbour- 
hood of Vesali, he went to the Exalted One and saluted 
him and stood beside him. And standing beside him, he 
addressed the Exalted One, and said : 

" Lord, the assembly of the brethren has met together. 
Let the Exalted One do even as seemeth to him fit." 

Then the Exalted One proceeded to the Service Hall, 
and sat down there on the mat spread out for him. And 
when he was seated the Exalted One addressed the brethren, 
and said : 

" Therefore, brethren ye to whom the truths I have 
perceived have been made known by me having thoroughly 
made yourselves masters of them, practise them, meditate 
upon them, and spread them abroad ; in order that pure 
religion may last long and be perpetuated, in order that 
it may continue to be for the good and the happiness of the 
great multitudes, out of pity for the world, to the good and 
the gain and the weal of gods and men. 

" Which then, brethren, are the truths which, when 
I had perceived I made known to you, which when you 
have mastered it, behoves you to practise, meditate upon, 
and spread abroad, in order that pure religion may last 
long and be perpetuated, in order that it may continue, 
to be for the good and the happiness of the great multitudes, 
out of pity for the world, to the good and the gain and the 
weal of gods and men. 

" They are these : 

The four earnest meditations, 

The fourfold right struggle, 

The four stages of psychic power, 



198 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

The five moral powers, 
The five organs of spiritual sense. 
The seven lands of wisdom, and 
The Aryan eightfold path. 

" These, brethren, are the truths which, when I had per- 
ceived, I made known to you, which when you have mastered 
it behoves you to practise, meditate upon, and spread abroad, 
in order that pure religion may last long, and be perpetuated, 
in order that it may continue to be for the good and the 
happiness of the great multitudes, out of pity for the world, 
to the good and the gain and the weal of gods and men." 
And the Exalted One exhorted the brethren, and said : 
" Behold now, brethren, I exhort you saying : * All 
component things must grow old. Accomplish with diligence. 
The final extinction of the Tathagata will take place 
before long. At the end of three months from this time 
the Tathagata will die. 

' " ' My age is now full ripe, my life draws to its close ; 
I leave you, I depart, relying on myself alone. 
Be earnest then, O brethren, holy, full of thought. 
Be steadfast in resolve. Keep watch o'er your own hearts. 
Who wearies not, but holds fast to this truth and law, 
Rid of this sea of birth, shall make an end of grief.' " 

(Then the Exalted One visits five other places, delivering 
mostly discourses which have been given above.) 



THE FOUR GREAT AUTHORITIES 

Now there at Bhoga-nagara the Exalted One stayed 
at the Ananda Shrine. 

There the Exalted One addressed the brethren and said : 
" I will teach you, O brethren, these four Great Authorities. 
Listen thereto, and give good heed, and I will speak." 

" Even so, lord," said the brethren, in assent, to the 
Exalted One, and the Exalted One spoke as follows : 

" In the first place, brethren, a brother may say thus : 
' From the mouth of the Exalted One himself have I heard, 
from his own mouth have I received it. This is the truth, 
this the law, this the teaching of the Master . . . ' 



THE FOUR GREAT AUTHORITIES 199 

" Again, brethren, a brother may say thus : ' In such 
and such a dwelling-place there is a company of the brethren 
with their elders and leaders. From the mouth of that 
company have I heard, face to face have I received. This 
is the truth, this the law, this the teaching of the Master.' 

" Again, brethren, a brother may say thus : ' In such 
and such a dwelling-place there are dwelling many elders 
of the Order, deeply read, holding the faith as handed down 
by tradition, versed in the truths, versed in the Regulations 
of the Order, versed hi the summaries of the doctrines of 
the law. From the mouth of those elders have I heard, 
from their mouth have I received it. This is the truth, 
this the law, this the teaching of the Master . . . ' 

" Again, brethren, a brother may say: 'In such and such 
a dwelling-place there is there living a brother, deeply read, 
holding the faith as handed down by tradition, versed in 
the truths, versed in the regulations of the Order, versed 
in the summaries of the doctrines and the law. From the 
mouth of that elder have I heard, from his mouth have 
I received it. This is the truth, this the law, this the teaching 
of the Master.' 

" The word spoken, brethren, by that brother (and of each 
of the other brethren) should neither be received with praise 
nor treated with scorn. Without praise and without scorn 
every word and syllable should be carefully understood, 
and then put beside the Suttas and compared with the 
rules of the Order. If when so compared they do not 
harmonize with the Suttas, and do not fit in with the rules 
of the Order, then you may come to the conclusion : ' Verily, 
this is not the word of the Exalted One, and has been wrongly 
grasped by that brother.' Therefore, brethren, you should 
reject it. But if they harmonize with the Suttas and fit 
in with the rules of the Order, then you may come to the 
conclusion : ' Verily, this is the word of the Exalted One, 
and has been grasped well by that brother . . . ' 

''These, brethren (you should receive as ) ... the Four 
Great Authorities." 



200 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 



THE BUDDHA ACCEPTS FOOD FROM CHUNDA 

Now when the Exalted One had remained as long as he 
desired at Bhogagama, he addressed the venerable Ananda, 
and said : " Come, Ananda, let us go on to Pava." 

" Even so, lord," said the venerable Ananda, in assent 
to the Exalted One. And the Exalted One proceeded with 
a great company of the brethren to Pava. And there at 
Pava the Exalted One stayed at the Mango Grove of Chunda, 
who was by family a worker in metals. 

Now Chunda, the worker in metals, heard that the Exalted 
One had come to Pava, and was staying there in his Mango 
Grove. 

And Chunda, the worker in metals, went to the place 
where the Exalted One was, and saluting him took his seat 
respectfully on one side. And when he was thus seated, 
the Exalted One instructed, aroused, incited and gladdened 
him with religious discourse. 

Then he, instructed, aroused, incited and gladdened by 
the religious discourse, addressed the Exalted One, and said : 
" May the Exalted One do me the honour of taking his meal 
together with the brethren, at my house to-morrow ? " 

And the Exalted One signified by silence his consent. 

Then seeing that the Exalted One had consented, Chunda, 
the worker in metals, rose from his seat and bowed down 
before the Exalted One and keeping him on his right hand 
as he passed him, departed thence. 

Now at the end of the night, Chunda, the worker in metals, 
made ready in his dwelling-place sweet rice and cakes, and 
a quantity of truffles. And he announced the hour to the 
Exalted One, saying : " The hour, lord, has come and 
the meal is ready." 

And the Exalted One robed himself early in the morning, 
and taking his bowl, went with the brethren to the dwelling- 
place of Chunda, the worker in metals. When he 1 had come 
hither he seated himself on the seat prepared for him. 
And when he was seated he addressed Chunda, the worker 
in metals, and said : " As to the truffles, you have made 



THE CLARIFYING OF A STREAM 201 

ready, serve me with them, Chunda ; and as to the other 
food, the sweet rice and cakes, serve the brethren with it." 

" Even so, lord," said Chunda, the worker in metals, 
in assent, to the Blessed One. And the truffles he had 
made ready he served to the Exalted One ; whilst the other 
food, the sweet rice and cakes, he served to the members 
of the Order. 

Now the Exalted One addressed Chunda, the worker in 
metals, and said : " Whatever truffles, Chunda, are left 
over to thee, those bury in a hole. I see no one, Chunda, 
in earth nor in Mara's heaven, nor in Brahma's heaven, 
no one among samanas and brahmins among gods and men, 
by whom, when he has eaten it, that food can be properly 
assimilated, save by a Tathagata." 

" Even so, lord," said Chunda, the worker in metals, 
in assent, to the Exalted One. And whatever truffles 
remained over those he buried in a hole. And he went 
to the place where the Exalted One was ; and when he had 
come there, took his seat respectfully on one side. And 
when he was seated, the Exalted One instructed, and aroused 
and incited and gladdened Chunda, the worker in metals, 
with religious discourse. And the Exalted One then rose 
from his seat and departed thence. 

Now when the Exalted One had eaten the rice prepared 
by Chunda, the worker in metals, there fell upon him a dire 
sickness, the disease of dysentery, and sharp pain came 
upon him, even unto death. But the Exalted One, mindful 
and self-possessed, bore it without complaint. And the 
Exalted One addressed the venerable Ananda, and said : 
" Come, Ananda, let us go on to Kusinara." 

" Even so, lord," said Ananda, in assent, to the Exalted One. 



THE CLARIFYING OF A STREAM 

Now the Exalted One went aside from the path to the 
foot of a certain tree, and when he had come there he addressed 
the venerable Ananda, and said : " Fold, I pray you, 



202 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

Ananda, the robe in four ; and spread it out for me. I am 
weary, Ananda and must rest awhile." 

" Even so, lord," said the venerable Ananda, in assent, 
to the Exalted One, and spread out the robe folded in fourfold. 

And the Exalted One seated himself on the seat prepared 
for him ; and when he was seated, he addressed the venerable 
Ananda, and said : " Fetch me, I pray you Ananda, some 
water. I am thirsty, Ananda, and would drink." 

When he had thus spoken, the venerable Ananda said 
to the Exalted One : " But just now, lord, about five hundred 
carts have gone over. That water stirred up by wheels 
has become shallow and flows fouled and turbid. This 
river Kakuttha, lord, not far off is clear arid pleasant, cool 
and transparent, easy to get down into, and delightful. 
There the Exalted One may both drink the water and cool 
his limbs." 

Again the second time the Exalted One (made his request). 
And again the second time the venerable Ananda replied 
as before. . . . But after a third request from the Exalted 
One, Ananda said : " Even so, lord . . . and taking a 
bowl he went down to the streamlet. And lo, the streamlet 
which stirred up by the wheels, was but just now become 
shallow, and was flowing fouled and turbid, had begun, 
when the venerable Ananda came up to it, to flow clear 
and bright and free from all turbidity. 

Then Ananda thought : " How wonderful, how marvellous 
is the great might and power of the Tathagata. For this 
streamlet which stirred up by the wheels was but just now 
become shallow and was flowing foul and turpid, now as 
I come up to it, is flowing clear and bright and free from all 
turbidity." 

And taking the water in the bowl he returned towards 
the Exalted One ; and when he had come where the Exalted 
One was he said to him : " How wonderful, how marvellous 
is the great might and power of the Tathagata. For this 
streamlet which, stirred up by the wheels, was but just 
now become shallow and was flowing foul and turbid, now, 
as I come up to it is flowing clear and bright and free from 
all turbidity. 



CONCENTRATION 203 

" Let the Exalted One drink the water. Let the Happy 
One drink the water." 
Then the Exalted One drank of the water. 



STORIES CONCERNING CONCENTRATION 

Now at that time a man named Pukkusa, a young Mallian, 
a disciple of Alara-Kalama, was passing along the high road 
from Kusinara to Pava. And Pukkusa, the young Mallian, 
saw the Exalted One seated at the foot of the tree. On seeing 
him, he went up to the place where the Exalted One was, 
and when he had come there, he saluted the Exalted One, 
and took his seat respectfully on one side. And when he 
was seated, Pukkusa, the young Mallian, said to the Exalted 
One : " How wonderful a thing it is lord, and how marvellous, 
that those, who have gone forth out of the world, should 
pass their time in a state of mind so calm. 

" Formerly, lord, Alara-Kalama was once walking along 
the high road; and leaving the road he sat himself down 
under a certain tree to rest during the heat of the day. Now, 
lord, five hundred carts passed by, one after the other, each 
close to Alara-Kalama. And a certain man, who was following 
close behind that caravan of carts, went up to the place 
where Alara-Kalama was, and when he was come there 
he spake as follows to Alara-Kalama : 

" ' But, lord, did you see those five hundred carts go by ? ' 

" ' No, indeed, friend, I saw them not.' 

" ' But, lord, did you hear the sound of them ? ' 

" ' No, indeed, friend, I heard not then* sound.' 

" ' But, lord, were you then asleep ? ' 

" ' No, friend, I was not asleep.' 

" ' But, lord, were you then conscious ? ' 

" ' Even so, friend.' 

" ' So that you, lord, though you were both conscious and 
awake, neither saw nor heard the sound of five hundred 
carts passing by, one after the other, and each close to you. 
Why, lord, even your robe was sprinkled over with the 
dust of them.' 



204 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

" ' It is even so, friend/ 

" Then thought the man : ' How wonderful a thing it 
is, and how marvellous that those who have gone forth out 
of the world, should pass their time in a state of mind so 
calm. So much so that a man though being both conscious 
and awake, neither sees, nor hears, the sound of five hundred 
carts, passing by, one after the other, and each close 
to him.' 

" And after giving utterance to his deep faith in Alara- 
Kalama, he departed thence." 

" Now what think you, Pukkusa, which is the more difficult 
thing either to do or to meet with, that a man, being conscious 
and awake, should neither see nor hear the sound of five 
hundred carts passing by, one after the other, close to him ; 
or that a man, being conscious and awake, should neither 
see nor hear the sound thereof when the falling rain goes 
on beating and splashing and the lightnings are flashing forth, 
and the thunderbolts are crashing ? " 

" What in comparison, lord, can these five hundred carts 
do, or six or seven or eight or nine hundred, yea, even hundreds 
and thousands of carts ? 

" That certainly is more difficult, both to do and to meet 
with, that a man, conscious and awake, should neither see, 
nor hear the sound thereof when the falling rain goes on 
beating and splashing, and the lightnings are flashing forth, 
and the thunderbolts are crashing. . 

" Now on one occasion, Pukkusa, I was dwelling at Atuma, 
and was at the Threshing-floor. And at that time the falling 
rain began to beat and to splash, and the lightnings to flash 
forth, and the thunderbolts to crash ; and two peasants, 
brothers, and four oxen were killed. Then, Pukkusa, a 
great multitude of people went forth from Atuma, and went 
up to the place where the two peasants, brothers, and the 
four oxen were killed. 

" Now at that tune, Pukkusa, I had gone forth from the 
threshing-floor, and was walking up and down thinking 
at the entrance of the threshing-floor. And a certain man, 
Pukkusa, came out of that great multitude of people, up 
to the place where I was, and when he came up he saluted 



CONCENTRATION 205 

me, and took his place respectfully on one side. And as he 
stood there, Pukkusa, I said to the man : 

" ' Why then, friend, is this great multitude of people 
assembled together ? ' 

'"But just now, the falling rain began to beat and to splash, 
and the lightnings to flash forth, and the thunderbolts to 
crash ; and two peasants, brothers, were killed, and four 
oxen. Therefore is this great multitude of people gathered 
together. But where, lord, were you ? ' 

" ' I, friend, have been here all the while.' 

" ' But, lord, did you see it ? ' 

" ' I, friend, saw nothing.' 

" ' But, lord, did you hear it ? ' 

" ' I, friend, I heard nothing.' 

" ' Were you then, lord, asleep ? ' 

" ' I* friend, was not asleep.' 

" ' Were you then conscious, lord ? ' 

" ' Even so, friend.' 

" ' So that you, lord, being conscious and awake, neither 
saw, nor heard the sound thereof when the falling rain went 
on beating and splashing, and the lightnings were flashing, 
and the thunderbolts were crashing.' 

" ' That is so, sir.' 

" Then, Pukkusa, the thought occurred to that man : 

" ' How wonderful a thing is it, and marvellous, that those 
who have gone forth out of the world should pass their time 
in a state of mind so calm, so that a man, being conscious 
and awake, neither sees, nor hears the sound thereof when 
the falling rain is beating and splashing, and the lightnings 
are flashing forth, and the thunderbolts are crashing.' And 
after giving utterance to his deep faith in me, he departed 
from me (with the customary demonstrations of respect)." 

And when he had thus spoken, Pukkusa, the young Haitian, 
addressed the Blessed One in these words : " Now I, lord, 
as to the faith that I had in Alara Kalama, that I winnow 
away as in a mighty wind, and wash it away as hi a swiftly 
running stream. Most excellent, lord, are the words of 
thy mouth, most excellent. Just as if a man were to set 
lip that which is thrown down or were to reveal that which 



206 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

is hidden away ; or were to point out the right road to him 
who has gone astray, or were to bring a lamp into the darkness 
so that those who have eyes can see visible forms, just 
even so, lord, has the dhamma been made known to me, 
in many a figure, by the Exalted One. And I, even I, betake 
myself, lord, to the Exalted One as my refuge, to the Dhamma 
and to the Brotherhood. May the Exalted One accept 
me as a disciple, as a true believer, from this day forth, as 
long as life endures." 



PUKKUSA PRESENTS THE BUDDHA AND ANANDA WITH 

ROBES OF GOLD 

Now Pukkusa, the young Mallian, addressed a certain 
man and said : " Fetch, I pray you, my good man, a pair of 
robes of cloth of gold, burnished and ready for wear." 

" So be it, sir," said that man in assent, to Pukkusa, the 
young Mallian, and he brought a pair of robes of cloth of 
gold, burnished and ready for wear. 

And the Mallian Pukkusa presented the pair of robes of 
cloth of gold, burnished and ready for wear, to the Exalted 
One, saying : " Lord, this pair of robes of burnished cloth 
of gold is ready for wear. May the Exalted One show me 
favour and accept it at my hands." 

" In that case, Pukkusa, robe me in one, and Ananda in 



one." 



" Even so, lord," said Pukkusa, in assent, to the Exalted 
One ; and in one he robed the Exalted One, and hi one, 
Ananda. 

Then the Exalted One instructed and aroused and incited 
and gladdened Pukkusa, the young Mallian, with religious 
discourse. And Pukkusa, the young Mallian, when he had 
been instructed and aroused and incited and gladdened 
by the Exalted One with religious discourse, arose from his 
seat, and bowed down before the Exalted One ; and keeping 
him on his right hand as he passed him, departed thence. 

Now not long after the Mallian Pukkusa had gone, the 



THE EXALTED ONE SPEAKS OF CHUNDA 207 

venerable Ananda compared that pair of robes of cloth of gold, 
burnished and ready for wear, to the body of the Exalted 
One ; and when it was so compared to the body of the Exalted 
One it appeared to have lost its splendour. 

And the venerable Ananda said to the Exalted One : 
" How wonderful a thing it is, lord, and how marvellous 
that the colour of the skin of the Exalted One should be so 
clear, so exceeding bright. For when I compared even this 
pair of robes of burnished cloth of gold and ready for wear 
to the body of the Exalted One, lo, it seemed as if it had lost 
its splendour." 

"It is even so, Ananda, there are two occasions, Ananda,, 
on which the colour of the skin of a Tathagata becomes clear 
and exceeding bright. What are the two ? 

" On the night, Ananda, on which a Tathagata attains- 
to the supreme and perfect insight and on the night in which 
he passes finally away in that utter passing away which 
leaves nothing whatever to remain, on these two occasions 
the colour of the skin of the Tathagata becomes clear and 
exceeding bright. 

" And now this day, Ananda, at the third watch of the 
night, in the Upavattana of Kusinara, in the Sala Grove 
of the Mallians, between the twin Sala-trees, the utter passing, 
away of the Tathagata will take place. 

" Come, Ananda, let us go on to the river Kakuttha." 

" Even so, lord," said the venerable Ananda, in assent,. 
to the Exalted One. . . . 



THE EXALTED ONE SPEAKS OF CHUNDA 

Now the Exalted One with a great company of the brethren 
went on to the river Kakuttha ; and when he had come there, 
he went down into the water, and bathed and drank. And 
coming up out again on the other side he went on to the 
Mango Grove. 

And when he was come there he addressed the venerable 
, Chundaka and said : " Fold, I pray you, Chundaka, a robe 



2 o8 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

in four and spread it out. I am weary, Chundaka, and would 
lie down." 

" Even so, lord," said the venerable Chundaka, in assent, 
to the Exalted One. And he folded a robe in four, and 
spread it out. 

And the Exalted One laid himself down on his right side, 
with one foot resting on the other ; and calm and self- 
possessed he meditated, intending to rise up again in due time. 
And the venerable Chundaka seated himself there in front 
of the Exalted One. . . . 

And the Exalted One addressed the venerable Ananda, and 
said : " Now it may happen, Ananda, that some one should 
stir up remorse in Chunda the smith, saying : ' This is evil 
of thee, Chunda, and loss to thee, in that when the Tathagata 
had eaten his last meal from thy provision, then he died.' 
Any such remorse, Ananda, in Chunda the smith should 
be checked by saying : ' This is good to thee, Chunda, and 
gain to thee, in that when the Tathagata had eaten his last 
meal from thy provision, then he died.' From the very 
mouth of the Exalted One, Chunda, have I heard, from his 
own mouth have I received this saying : ' These two offerings 
of food are of equal fruit, and of equal profit, and of much 
greater fruit and much greater profit than any other, and 
which are the two ? 

" ' The offering of food which, when the Tathagata has eaten, 
he attains to supreme and perfect insight and the offering 
of food which, when a Tathagata has eaten, he passes away 
by that utter passing away in which nothing whatever remains 
behind these two offerings of food are of equal fruit and 
of equal profit, and of much greater fruit and much greater 
profit than any others. There has been laid up by Chunda the 
smith a karma redounding to length of life, redounding 
to good birth, redounding to good fortune, redounding to 
good fame, redounding to the inheritance of heaven, and 
of sovereign power.' In this way, Ananda, should be checked 
any remorse in Chunda the smith." 



UNDER THE TWIN SALA-TREES 209 

UNDER THE TWIN SALA-TREES 

Now the Exalted One addressed the venerable Ananda, 
and said : " Come, Ananda, let us go on to the Sala Grove 
of the Mallas, the Upavattana of Kusinara on the further 
side of the river Hiranyavatl." 

" Even so, lord," said the venerable Ananda, in assent, 
to the Exalted One. 

And the Exalted One proceeded with a great company 
of the brethren to the Sala Grove of the Mallas, the Upavattana 
of Kusinara, on the further side of the river Hiranyavatl, 
and when he had come there he addressed the venerable 
Ananda and said : 

" Spread for me, I pray you, Ananda, the couch with its 
head to the north, between the twin Sala-trees. I am weary, 
Ananda, and would lie down." 

" Even so, lord," said the venerable Ananda, in assent, 
to the Exalted One. And he spread a covering over the 
couch with its head to the north, between the twin Sala- 
trees. And the Exalted One laid himself down on his right 
side, with one leg resting on the other ; and he was mindful 
and self-possessed. 

Now at that time the twin Sala-trees were all one mass 
of bloom with flowers out of season ; and all over the body 
of the Tathagata these dropped and sprinkled and scattered 
themselves out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas 
of old. And heavenly Mandarava flowers too, and heavenly 
sandal-wood powder came falling from the sky, and all over 
the body of the Tathagata, they descended and sprinkled 
and scattered themselves, out of reverence for the successor 
of the Buddhas of old. And heavenly music was sounded 
in the sky, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas 
of old. And heavenly songs came wafted from the 
skies, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas 
of old. 

Then the Exalted One addressed the venerable Ananda, 
and said : " The twin Sala-trees are all one mass of bloom 
with flowers out of season ; all over the body of the Tathagata 
these drop and sprinkle and scatter themselves out of 



210 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old. And 
heavenly Mandarava flowers too, and heavenly sandal-wood 
powder come falling from the sky, and all over the body 
of the Tathagata they descend and sprinkle and scatter 
themselves, out of reverence for the successor of the Buddhas 
of old. And heavenly music sounds in the sky, out of 
reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old. And 
heavenly songs come wafted from the skies out of 
reverence for the successor of the Buddhas of old (in text, 
Tathagata.) 

" Now it is not thus, Ananda, that the Tathagata is rightly 
honoured, reverenced, venerated, held sacred or revered. 
But the brother or the sister, the devout man or the devout 
woman, who continually fulfills all the great and lesser duties, 
who is correct in life, walking according to the precepts, 
it is he who rightly honours, reverences, venerates, holds 
sacred, and reveres the Tathagata, with the worthiest homage. 
Therefore, Ananda, be ye constant, in the fulfilment of 
the greater and of the lesser duties, and be ye correct 
in life walking according to the precepts ; and thus, Ananda, 
should it be taught." 

Now at that time the venerable Upavana was standing 
in front of the Exalted One, fanning him. And the Exalted 
One was not pleased with Upavana and he said to him : 
" Stand aside, brother, stand not in front of me." 

Then this thought sprang up in the mind of the venerable 
Ananda : " This venerable Upavana had long been in close 
personal attendance and service on the Exalted One. And 
now, at the last moment, the Exalted One is not pleased 
with Upavana, and has said to him : ' Stand aside, brother, 
stand not in front of me.' What may be the cause and 
what the reason that the Exalted One is not pleased with 
Upavana, and speaks thus with him ? " 

And the venerable Ananda said to the Exalted One : 
" This venerable Upavana has long been in close personal 
attendance and service on the Exalted One. And now at 
the last moment, the Exalted One is not pleased with Upavana, 
and has said to him : ' Stand aside, brother, stand not 
hi front of me.' What may be the cause and what the reason 



UNDER THE TWIN S ALA-TREES 211 

that the Exalted One is not pleased with Upavana, and speaks 
thus with him ? " 

" In great numbers, Ananda, are the devas of the ten- 
world-systems assembled together to behold the Tathagata. 
For twelve leagues, Ananda, around the Sala Grove of the 
Mallas, the Upavattana of Kusinara, there is no spot in 
size even as the pricking of the point of the tip of a hair 
which is not pervaded by powerful devas. And the devas, 
Ananda, are murmuring and say : ' From afar have we come 
to behold the Tathagata. Few and far between are the 
Tathagatas, the Arahant Buddhas who appear in the world ; 
and now to-day in the last watch of the night, the death 
of a Tathagata will take place ; and this eminent brother 
stands in front of the Tathagata, concealing him, and in his 
last hour we are prevented from beholding the Tathagata ' ; 
thus, Ananda, do the devas murmur." 

" But of what kind of devas is the Exalted One 
thinking ? " 

" There are devas, Ananda, in the air, but of earthly 
mind, who dishevel their hair and weep, who stretch forth 
their arms and weep, who fall prostrate on the ground, and 
roll to and fro in anguish at the thought : ' Too soon will 
the Exalted One die. Too soon will the Exalted One 
pass away. Full soon will the light of the world vanish 
away.' 

"There are devas, too, Ananda, on the earth, and of 
earthly mind, who tear their hair and weep, who stretch 
forth their arms and weep, who fall prostrate on the ground, 
and roll to and fro in anguish at the thought : ' Too soon 
will the Exalted One die. Too soon will the Wellfarer 
pass away. Full soon will the Eye of the world disappear 
from sight.' 

" But the devas who are free from passion bear it, calm 
and self-possessed mindful of the saying which begins : 
' Impermanent indeed are all component things. How then 
were it possible ? ' 1 " 

1 The saying is more fully stated in the section above, on 
p. 196. 



212 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 



PLACES TO BE REVERENCED 

" In times past, lord, the brethren, when they had spent 
the rainy season in different districts, used to come to see 
the Tathagata, and we used to receive those very reverend 
brethren to audience, and to wait upon the Exalted One. 
But, lord, after the passing away of the Exalted One, we 
shall not be able to receive those very reverend brethren 
to audience, and to wait upon the Exalted One." 

" There are these four places, Ananda, which the believing 
clansman should visit with feelings of reverence. Which 
are the four ? 

" The place, Ananda, at which the believing man can say 
' Here the Tathagata was born/ 

" The place, Ananda, at which the believing man can say : 
' Here the Tathagata attained to the supreme and perfect 
insight/ is a spot to be visited with feelings of reverence. 

" The place, Ananda, at which the believing man can say : 
' Here the kingdom of righteousness set on foot by the 
Tathagata/ is a spot to be visited with feelings of reverence. 

"The place, Ananda, at which the believing man can say : 
' Here the Tathagata passed finally away hi that utter 
passing away which leaves nothing whatever to remain 
behind/ is a spot to be visited with feelings of reverence. 
These are the four places, Ananda, which the believing 
clansman should visit with feelings of reverence. 

" And there will come, Ananda, to such spots, believers, 
brethren and sisters of the Order, or devout men and devout 
women, and will say : ' Here was the Tathagata born/ 
or, ' Here did the Tathagata attain to the supreme and 
perfect insight/ or, ' Here was the kingdom of righteousness 
set on foot by the Tathagata/ or, ' Here the Tathagata 
passed away, in that utter passing away which leaves nothing 
whatever to remain behind/ 

" And they, Ananda, who shall die while they, with believing 
heart, are journeying on such pilgrimage, shall be reborn 
after death, when the body shall dissolve, in the happy 
realms of heaven." 



" 
" 



CONDUCT TOWARDS WOMEN 213 



THE MONK'S CONDUCT TOWARDS WOMEN 

" How are we to conduct ourselves, lord, with regard 
to womankind ? " 
" As not seeing them, Ananda." 
" But if we should see them, what are we to do ? " 

No talking, Ananda." 

But if they should speak to us, lord, what are we to do ? " 

Keep wide awake, Ananda." 



ANANDA QUESTIONS REGARDING THE REMAINS OF THE 

BUDDHA 

" What are we to do, lord, with the remains of the 
Tathagata ? " 

" Hinder not yourselves, Ananda, by honouring the 
remains of the Tathagata. Be zealous, I beseech you, 
Ananda, in your own behalf. Devote yourselves to your 
own behalf. Be earnest, be zealous, be intent on your 
own good. There are wise men, Ananda, among the nobles, 
among the brahmans, among the heads of houses, who are 
firm believers in the Tathagata ; and they will do due honour 
to the remains of the Tathagata." 

" But what should be done, lord, with the remains of 
the Tathagata ? " 

" As men treat the remains of a king of kings, so, Ananda, 
should they treat the remains of a Tathagata." 

" And how, lord, do they treat the remains of a king 
of kings ? " 

" They wrap the body of a king of kings, Ananda, in 
a new cloth. When that is done they wrap it in carded 
cotton wool. When that is done they wrap it in a new 
cloth, and so on till they have wrapped the body in fivehundred 
successive layers of both kinds. Then they place the body 
in an oil vessel of iron, and cover that close up with another 
oil vessel of iron. They then build a funeral pyre of all 
kinds of perfume, and burn the body of the king of kings. 



214 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

" And then at the four cross roads they erect a cairn 
to the king of kings. 

" This, Ananda, is the way in which they treat the remains 
of a king of kings. 

" And as they treat the remains of a king of kings, so, 
Ananda, should they treat the remains of the Tathagata. 
At the four cross roads a cairn should be erected to the 
Tathagata. And whosoever shall there place garlands 
or perfumes, or paints, or make salutation there or become 
in its presence calm in heart that shall long be to them for 
a profit and a joy. 

" The men, Ananda, worthy of a cairn, are four in number, 
Which are the four ? 

" A Tathagata, an Able Awakened One, is worthy of 
a cairn. One awakened for himself alone 1 is worthy of 
a cairn. A true hearer of the Tathagata is worthy of a 
cairn. A king of kings is worthy of a cairn. 

" And on account of what circumstance, Ananda, is 
a Tathagata, an Able Awakened One, worthy of a cairn ? 

" At the thought, Ananda, ' This is the cairn of that 
Exalted One, of that Able Awakened One,' the hearts of 
many shall be made calm and happy ; and since they there 
had calmed and satisfied their hearts, they will be reborn 
after death, when the body has dissolved, in the happy 
realms of heaven. It is on account of this circumstance, 
Ananda, that a Tathagata, an Able Awakened One is worthy 
of a cairn ..." 

(The same circumstances on account of which one is worthy 
of a cairn is repeated for the one awakened for himself alone, 
the true hearer, and the king of kings.} 



REGARDING ANANDA 

Now the venerable Ananda went into the Vihara, and 
stood leaning against the lintel of the door, and weeping 
at the thought : " Alas ! I remain still but a learner, one 

1 A Paccheka-buddha. 



REGARDING ANANDA 215 

who has yet work to do. And the Master is about to 
pass away from me he who is so kind." 

Now the Exalted One .palled the brethren, and said : 
" Where then, brethren, is Ananda ? " 

" The venerable Ananda, lord, has gone into the Vihara, 
and stands leaning against the lintel of the door, and weeping 
at the thought : 'Alas ! I remain still but a learner, one 
who has yet work to do. And the Master is about to pass 
away from me he who is so kind.' " 

And the Exalted One called a certain brother, and said : 
" Go now, brother," and call Ananda in my name, and say, 
' Brother Ananda, the Master calls for thee.' " 

" Even so, lord," said the brother, in assent, to the 
Exalted One. And he went up to the place where the 
venerable Ananda was, and when he had come there, he said 
to the venerable Ananda : " Brother Ananda, the Master 
calls for thee." " Very well, brother," said the venerable 
Ananda, in assent, to that brother. And he went up to the 
place where the Exalted One was, and when he had come 
there, he bowed down before the Exalted One, and took 
his seat respectfully on one side. 

Then the Exalted One said to the venerable Ananda, 
as he sat there by his side : " Enough ! Ananda. Grieve 
not ; lament not ! Have I not already, on former occasions, 
told you that it is in the very nature of all things most 
near and dear unto us, that we must divide ourselves from 
them, leave them, sever ourselves from them ? 

How, then, Ananda, can this be possible -Vhereas anything 
whatever born, brought into being, and organized contains 
within itself the inherent necessity of dissolution ; how, 
then can this be possible, that such a being should not 
dissolve ? No such condition can exist. For a long time 
Ananda, have you been very near to me by acts of love, 
kind and good, that never varies, and is beyond all measure. 
For a long time, Ananda, have you been very near to me 
by words of love, kind and good, that never varies, and 
is beyond all measure. For a long time, Ananda, have 
you been very near to me by thoughts of love, kind and 
good, that never varies, and is beyond all measure. You 



216 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

have done well, Ananda, be earnest in effort, and you shall 
soon be free from the Cankers." 

Then the Exalted One addressed the brethren, and said : 
" Whosoever, brethren, have been Able Awakened Ones 
through the long ages of the past, they also had servitors, 
just as devoted to those Exalted Ones as Ananda has 
been to me. 

" He is a clever man, brethren, is Ananda, and wise, 
he knows when it is the right tune for the brethren or for 
the sisters of the Order, for devout men and devout women, 
for a king or for a king's ministers, or for other teachers, 
or for their disciples to come and visit the Tathagata. 

" Brethren, there are these four wonderful and marvellous 
qualities in Ananda. Which are the four ? 

" If brethren, a number of the brethren of the Order 
should come to visit Ananda, they are filled with joy on 
beholding him ; and if Ananda should then preach the dhamma 
to them, they are filled with joy at the discourse ; while 
the company of brethren is ill at ease, brethren, when Ananda 
is silent. 

" If, brethren, a number of the sisters of the Order . . . 
or devout men ... or of devout women, should come to 
visit Ananda, they are filled with joy on beholding him ; 
and if Ananda should then preach the dhamma to them, 
they are filled with joy at the discourse ; while the company 
of sisters is ill at ease, brethren, when Ananda is silent. 

" Brethren, there are these four wonderful and marvellous 
qualities in a king of kings. What are the four ? 

" If, brethren, a number of nobles, or brahmans, or heads 
of houses, or members of a religious order should come to 
visit a king of kings, they are filled with joy on beholding 
him ; and if the king of kings should then speak, they 
are filled with joy at what he said ; while they are ill at ease, 
brethren, when the king of kings is silent. 

" Just so, brethren, are the four wonderful and marvellous 
qualities in Ananda. 

" If, brethren, a number of the brethren of the Order, 
or of the sisters of the Order, or of devout men, or of devout 
women should come to visit Ananda, they are filled with 



MALL AS PAY THEIR RESPECTS 217 

joy on beholding him ; and if Ananda should then preach 
the dhamma to them, they are filled with joy at the discourse ; 
while the company of brethren is ill at ease, when Ananda 
is silent. 

" Now these, brethren, are the four wonderful and 
marvellous qualities that are in Ananda." 



THE MALLAS* COME TO PAY THEIR RESPECTS 

When he had thus spoken, the venerable Ananda said 
to the Exalted One : 

" Let not the Exalted One die in this little wattle-and-daub 
town, in this town in the midst of the jungle, in this branch 
township. For, lord, there are other great cities, such as 
Champa, Rajagaha, Savatthi, Saketa, Kosambi. Let the 
Exalted One die in one of them. There there are many 
wealthy nobles and brahmans, and heads of houses, believers 
in the Tathagata, who will pay due honour to the remains 
of the Tathagata." 

" Say not so, Ananda. Say not so, Ananda, that this 
is but a small wattle-and-daub town, a town in the midst 
of the jungle, a branch township. 

" Long ago, Ananda, there was a king, by name Maha- 
Sudassana, a king of kings, a righteous man who ruled in 
righteousness, lord of the four quarters of the earth, conqueror, 
the protector of his people, possessor of the seven royal 
treasures. This Kusinara, Ananda, was the royal city 
of King Maha-Sudassana, under the name of Kusavati, 
and on the east and on the west it was twelve leagues in 
length, and on the north and on the south it was seven leagues 
in breadth. 

" That royal city Kusavati, Ananda, was mighty and 
prosperous, and full of people, crowded with men, and 
provided with all things for food. Just, Ananda, as the 
royal city of the gods, Alakamanda, by name, is mighty, 
prosperous, and full of people, crowded with devas, and 



2i8 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

provided with all kinds of food, so, Ananda, was the royal 
city Kusavati mighty and prosperous, full of people, crowded 
with men and provided with all kinds of food. 

" Both by day and night, Ananda, the royal city KusavatI 
resounded with the ten cries ; that is to say, the noise of 
elephants, and the noise of horses, and the noise of chariots ; 
the sounds of the drum, of the tabor, and of the lute ; the 
sound of singing, and the sounds of the cymbal and of the 
gong ; and lastly, with the cry, ' Eat, drink, and be merry/ 

" Go now, Ananda, and enter into Kusinara, and inform 
the Mallas of Kusinara, saying : This day, O Vasetthas, 
in the last watch of the night, the final passing away of the 
Tathagata will take place. Be favourable herein, O Vasetthas, 
be favourable ! Give no occasion to reproach yourselves 
here after saying : ' In your village did the death of our 
Tathagata take place and we took not the opportunity of 
visiting the Tathagata in his last hours." 

" Even so, lord," said the venerable Ananda, in assent, 
to the Exalted One, and he robed himself and taking his 
bowl, he entered into Kusinara attended by another member 
of the Order. 

Now at that time the Mallas of Kusinara were assembled 
in the council hall on some (public) affair. 

And the venerable Ananda went to the council hall of the 
Mallas of Kusinara ; and when he had arrived there, he 
informed them, saying : " This day, O Vasetthas, in the 
last watch of the night, the final passing away of the Tathagata 
will take place. Be favourable, herein O Vasetthas, be 
favourable ! Give no occasion to reproach yourselves here- 
after, saying : ' In our own village did the death of our 
Tathagata take place, and we took not the opportunity 
of visiting the Tathagata in his last hours.' " 

And when they had heard this saying of the venerable 
Ananda, the Mallas with their young men and maidens and 
their wives were grieved, and sad, and afflicted at heart. 
And some of them wept, dishevelling their hair, and stretched 
forth their arms and wept, fell prostrate on the ground, 
and rolled to and fro in anguish at the thought : " Too soon 
will the Exalted One die. Too soon will the Wellfarer 



SUBHADDA 219 

pass away. Full soon will the Light of the world 
vanish away." 

Then the Mallas, with th,eir young men and maidens and 
their wives, being grieved, and sad, and afflicted at heart, 
went to the Sala Grove of the Mallas, to the Upavattana, 
and to the place where the venerable Ananda was. 

Then the venerable Ananda thought : " If I allow the 
Mallas of Kusinara one by one, to pay their respects to the 
Exalted One, the whole of the Mallas of Kusinara will not 
have been presented to the Exalted One until this night 
brightens up into dawn. Let me, now, cause the Mallas 
of Kusinara to stand in groups, each family in a group, and 
so present them to the Exalted One, saying : ' Lord, a Malla 
of such and such a name with his children, his wives, his 
retinue, and his friends, humbly bows down at the feet of 
the Exalted One.' " 

And the venerable Ananda caused the Mallas of Kusinara 
to stand each family in groups and so presented them to the 
Exalted One, and said : 

" Lord, a Malla of such and such a name, with his children, 
his wives, his retinue, and his friends, humbly bows down 
at the feet of the Exalted One." 

And after this manner the venerable Ananda presented 
all the Mallas of Kusinara to the Exalted One in the first 
watch of the night. 



SUBHADDA 

Now at that time a Wanderer named Subhadda, who was 
not a believer, was dwelling at Kusinara. And the Wanderer 
Subhadda heard the news : " This very day, they say, in 
the third watch of the night will take place the final passing 
away of the Samana Gotama. ..." 

Then the Wanderer Subhadda went to the Sala Grove of 
the Mallas to the Upavattana of Kusinara, to the place where 
the venerable Ananda was. And when he had come there 
he said to the venerable Ananda : " Thus have I heard 



220 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

from fellow Wanderers, old and well stricken in years, 
teachers and disciples, when they said : ' Sometimes and 
full seldom do Tathagatas appear in the world, the Able 
Awakened Ones.' Yet this day, in the last watch of the night, 
the final passing away of the Samana Gotama will take place. 
Now a certain feeling of uncertainty has sprung up in my 
mind ; and this faith have I in the Samana Gotama, that 
he, methinks, is able so to present the dhamma that I may 
get rid of this feeling of uncertainty. O that I, even I, 
Ananda, might be allowed to see the Samana Gotama!" 

And when he had thus spoken the venerable Ananda 
said to the Wanderer Subhadda : " Enough, friend Subhadda, 
Trouble not the Tathagata. The Exalted One is weary." 

And again the Wanderer Subhadda (a second and third 
time made the same request in the same words, and received 
the same reply). 

Now the Exalted One overheard this conversation of the 
venerable Ananda with the Wanderer Subhadda. And the 
Exalted One called the venerable Ananda, and said : "It 
is enough, Ananda. Do not keep out Subhadda. Subhadda, 
Ananda, may be allowed to see the Tathagata. Whatever 
Subhadda may ask of me, he will ask from a desire for know- 
ledge, and not to annoy me. And whatever I may say 
in answer to his questions, that he will quickly understand." 

Then the venerable Ananda said to Subhadda, the Wanderer: 
" Enter, friend Subhadda, for the Exalted One gives you 
leave." 

Then Subhadda, the Wanderer, went in to the place where 
the Exalted One was and saluted him courteously, and 
after exchanging with him the compliments of esteem and 
of civility, he took his seat on one side. And when he was 
thus seated, Subhadda, the Wanderer, said to the Exalted 
One : " The leaders in religious life who are heads of companies 
of disciples and students, teachers of students, well known, 
renowned founders of schools of doctrine, esteemed as good 
men by the multitude, to wit, Purana Kassapa, Makkhali 
of the cattle-pen, Ajita of the garment of hair, Kacchayana 
of the Pakudha-tree, Sanjaya, the son of the Belatthi slave- 
girl, and the Nigantha of the Nathas, have they all, according 



SUBHADDA 221 

to their own assertion, thoroughly understood things or 
have they not ? or are there some of them who have under- 
stood, and some who have not ? " 

" Enough, Subhadda. Let this matter rest whether 
they, according to their own assertion, have thoroughly 
understood things, or whether they have not, or whether 
some of them have understood and some have not. The 
dhamma, Subhadda, will I teach you. Listen well to that, 
arid give ear attentively, and I will speak." 

" Even so, lord," said the Wanderer Subhadda, in assent, 
to the Exalted One/ 

And the Exalted One spake : " In whatsoever dhamma and 
discipline, Subhadda, the Aryan eightfold path is not found, 
neither in it is there found a man of saintliness (samana) 
of the first, or the second, or of the third, or of the fourth 
degree. And in whatsoever dhamma and discipline, Subhadda, 
the Aryan eightfold path is found, in it is found the man 
of true saintliness of the first, and the second, and the third, 
and the fourth degree. Now in this dhamma and discipline, 
Subhadda, is found the Aryan eightfold path, and in it too, 
are found, Subhadda, the men of true saintliness of all the 
four degrees. Void are other systems of saints (samana' s). 
And in this one, Subhadda, may the brethren live the life 
that is right, so that the world be not bereft of Arahants. 

But twenty-nine was I when I renounced 

The world, Subhadda, seeking after Good. 

For fifty years and one year more, Subhadda, 

Since I went out, a pilgrim have I been 

Through the wide realm of System and of Dhamma. 

Outside of that there is no ' saint.' 

" Yea, not of the first nor of the third, nor of the fourth 
degree. Void are other systems of saints. But in this one, 
Subhadda, may the brethren live the perfect life, that the 
world be not bereft of Arahants." 

And when he had thus spoken, Subhadda, the Wanderer, 
said to the Exalted One : " Most excellent, lord, are the 
words of thy mouth, most excellent. Just as if a man were 
to set up that which is thrown down, or were to reveal that 
which is hidden away, or were to point out the right road 



222 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

to him who has gone astray, or were to bring a lamp into 
the darkness, so that those who have eyes can see visible 
forms ; just even so, lord, has the dhamma been made known 
to me, in many a figure, by the Exalted One. And I, even I, 
betake myself, lord, to the Exalted One as my refuge, to 
the Dhamma, and to the Order, I would fain be accepted 
as a probationer under the Exalted One, as a full member 
in his Order." 

" Whosoever, Subhadda, has formerly been a follower 
of another doctrine, and thereafter desires to be received 
into the higher or the lower grade in this dhamma and 
discipline, he remains on probation for the space of four 
months and at the end of the four months, the brethren, 
exalted hi spirit, receive him into the lower or into the higher 
grade of the order. Nevertheless in this case I acknowledge 
the difference in persons." 

" If lord, whosoever has formerly been a follower of another 
doctrine, and then desires to be received into the higher 
or the lower grade in this dhamma and discipline, if, in that 
case, such a person remains on probation for the space of 
four months ; and at the end of four months, the brethren, 
exalted in spirit, receive him into the lower or into the higher 
grade of the Order, I too, then, will remain on probation 
for the space of four months ; and at the end of the four 
months let the brethren, exalted in spirit receive me into the 
lower or into the higher grade of the Order." 

But the Exalted One called the venerable Ananda, and 
said : " Well then, Ananda, receive Subhadda into the 
Order." 

" Even so, lord," said the venerable Ananda, in assent, 
to the Exalted One. 

And Subhadda, the Wanderer, said to the venerable 
Ananda : " Great is your gain, friend Ananda, great is 
your fortune, friend Ananda, in that you all have been 
sprinkled with the sprinkling of discipleship in this brother- 
hood at the hands of the Master himself." 

So Subhadda, the Wanderer, was received into the higher 
grade of the Order, under the Exalted One ; and from 
immediately after his ordination the venerable Subhadda 



LAST WORDS OF THE BUDDHA 223 

remained alone and separate, earnest, zealous, and resolved. 
And ere long he attained to that supreme goal of the higher 
life, for the sake of which the clansmen go out from all and 
every household gain and comfort, to become houseless 
wanderers, yea, that supreme goal did he, by himself, and 
while yet in this visible world, bring himself to the knowledge 
of, and continue to realize, and to see face to face. 

And he became conscious that birth was at an end, that 
the holy life had been fulfilled, that all that should be done 
had been accomplished, and that after the present life there 
would be no more of that. 

So the venerable Subhadda became yet another among 
the Arahants ; and he was the last disciple whom the Exalted 
One himself converted. 



. THE LAST WORDS OF THE BUDDHA 

Now the Exalted One"" addressed the venerable Ananda. 
and said : "It may be, Ananda, that in some of you the 
thought may arise : ' The word of the Master is ended, we 
have no teacher more.' But it is not thus, Ananda, that 
you should regard it. The Dhamma, and the Rules of the 
Order, which I have set forth and laid down for you all,, 
let them, after I am gone, be the Teacher to you. 

" Ananda, when I am gone, address not one another in 
the way in which the brethren have heretofore addressed 
each other, with the epithet that is, of ' Avuso ' (Friend). 
A younger brother may be addressed by an elder with his> 
name, or his family name, or the title ' Friend.' But an 
elder should be addressed by a younger brother as ' Sir' 
or as ' Venerable Sir.' 

" When I am gone, Ananda, let the Order, if it should sa- 
wish, abolish all the lesser and minor precepts. 1 

"When I am gone, Ananda, let the higher penalty be^ 
imposed on brother Channa." 

1 The Order refused to avail themselves of this permission. 



224 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

" But what, lord, is the higher penalty ? " 

" Let Channa say whatever he may like, Ananda, the 
brethren should neither speak to him, nor exhort him, nor 
admonish him." 1 

Then the Exalted One addressed the brethren, and said : 
" It may be, brethren, that there may be doubt or misgiving 
in the mind of some brother as to the Buddha, or the Dhamrna, 
or the Sangha, or the Path, or the Method. Inquire, brethren, 
freely. Do not have to reproach yourselves afterwards with the 
thought : ' Our teacher was face to face with us, and we 
could not bring ourselves to inquire of the Exalted One 
when we were face to face with him.' " 

And when he had thus spoken the brethren were silent. 

And again the second and the third time the Exalted 
One addressed the brethren, and said : "It may be, brethren, 
that there may be doubt or misgiving in the mind of some 
brother as to the Buddha, or the Dhamma, or the Sangha, 
or the Path, or the Method. Inquire, brethren, freely. Do 
not have to reproach yourselves afterwards with the thought : 
' Our teacher was face to face with us, and we could not bring 
ourselves to inquire of the Exalted One when we were face 
to face with him.' " 

And even the third time the brethren were silent. 

Then the Exalted One addressed the brethren, and said : 
" It may be, brethren, that you put no questions out of 
reverence for the teacher. Let one friend communicate 
to another." 

And when he had thus spoken the brethren were silent. 

And the venerable Ananda said to the Exalted One : 
" How wonderful a thing is it, lord, and how marvellous. 
Verily, I believe, that in this whole assembly of the brethren 
there is not one brother who has any doubt or misgiving 
as to the Buddha, or the Dhamma, or the Sangha, or the Path, 
or the Method." 

"It is out of the fullness of faith that thou hast spoken, 
Ananda. But, Ananda, the Tathagata knows for certain 

1 We are told that this brother was one who had committed some 
offence against the Order, that the penalty was sufficient to open his 
eyes to his faults, and that finally he attained the " supreme goal " 
of the Buddhist faith. 



THE BUDDHA ATTAINS PARINIBBANA 225 

that in this whole assembly of the brethren there is not 
one brother who has any doubt or misgiving as to the Buddha, 
or the Dhamma, or the Sangha, or the Path, or the Method. 
For even the most backward, Ananda, of all these five 
hundred brethren has become converted, is no longer liable 
to be born in a state of suffering, and is assured of 
hereafter attaining to the Enlightenment (of Arahantship)." 

Then the Exalted One addressed the brethren, and said : 
" Behold now, brethren, I exhort you, saying : ' Decay is 
inherent hi all component things. Accomplish earnestly ! ' " 

This was the last -word of the Tathagata. 



THE BUDDHA ATTAINS PARINIBBANA 

(Passing through the nine states called Anupubba-Viharas) 
Then the Exalted One entered into the first stage of 
Rapture. 1 And rising out of the first stage he passed into 
the second. And rising out of the second, he passed into 
the third. And rising out of the third stage he passed into 
the fourth. And rising out of the fourth stage of Rapture, 
he entered into the state of mind to which the infinity of 
space is alone present. And passing out of the mere con- 
sciousness of the infinity of space he entered into the state 
of mind to which the infinity of thought is alone present. 
And passing out of the mere consciousness of the infinity 
of thought, he entered into a state of mind to which nothing 
at all was specially present. And passing out of. the conscious- 
ness of no special object he fell into a state between conscious- 
ness and unconsciousness. And passing out of the state 
between consciousness and unconsciousness he fell into a 
state in which the consciousness both of sensations and of 
ideas had wholly passed away. 

Then the venerable Ananda said to the venerable Anu- 
ruddha : " Lord, Anuruddha, the Exalted One is dead." 

" Nay, friend Ananda, the Exalted One is not dead. 
He has entered into that state in which both sensations 
and ideas have ceased to be." 

1 = jhana . rapt interest 



226 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

Then the Exalted One passing out of the state in which 
both sensations and ideas have ceased to be, entered into 
the state between consciousness and unconsciousness. And 
passing out of the state between consciousness and uncon- 
sciousness he entered into the state of mind to which nothing 
at all is specially present. And passing out of the conscious- 
ness of no special object he entered into the state of mind 
to which the infinity of thought is alone present. And passing 
out of the mere consciousness of the infinity of thought 
he entered into the state of mind to which the infinity of 
space is alone present. And passing out of the mere 
consciousness of the infinity of space he entered into the 
fourth stage of Rapture. And passing out of the fourth 
he entered into the third. And passing out of the third 
stage he entered into the second. And passing out of the 
second he entered into the first. And passing out of the first 
stage of Rapture he entered into the second. And passing 
out of the second stage he entered into the third. And passing 
out of the third stage he entered into the fourth stage of 
Rapture. And passing out of the last stage of Rapture 
he immediately expired. 



EVENTS IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWING THE PASSING AWAY 

When the Exalted One died there arose, at the moment 
of his passing out of existence, a mighty earthquake, terrible 
and awe-inspiring : and the thunders of heaven burst forth. 

When the Exalted One died, Brahma Sahampati, at the 
moment of his passing away from existence, uttered this 
stanza : 

" They all, all beings that have life, shall lay 

Aside their complex form that aggregate 

Of mental and material qualities, 

That gives them, or in heaven or on earth, 

Their fleeting individuality. 

E'en as the teacher being such a one, 

Unequalled among all the men that are, 

Successor of the prophets of old time, 

Mighty by wisdom, and in insight clear 

Hath died." 



PASSING AWAY OF THE BUDDHA 227 

When the Exalted One died, Sakka, the ruler of the devas, 
at the moment of his passing away from existence, uttered 
this stanza : 

" They're transient all, each being's part and powers, 
Growth is their very nature, and decay. 
They are produced, they are dissolved again : 
To bring them all into subjection that is bliss." 

When the Exalted One died, the venerable Anuruddha, 
at the moment of his passing away from existence, uttered 
these stanzas : 

" When he who from all craving want was free, 
Who to Nibbana's tranquil state had reached, 
"When the great sage finished his span of life, 
No gasping struggle vexed that steadfast heart. 

" All resolute, and with unshaken mind, 
He calmly triumphed o'er the pain of death. 
E'en as a bright flame dies away, so was 
The last emancipation of his heart." 

When the Exalted One died, the venerable Ananda, at 
the moment of his passing away from existence uttered 
this stanza: 

" Then was there terror. 
Then stood the hair on end. 
When he endowed with every grace 
The supreme Buddha died." 

When the Exalted One died, of those of the brethren 
who were not yet free from the passions, some stretched 
out their arms and wept, and some fell headlong on the 
ground rolling to and fro in anguish at the thought : " Too 
soon has the Exalted One died ! Too soon has the Wellfarer 
passed away ! Too soon has the Light gone out in the 
world!" 

But those of the brethren who were free from the passions 
(the Arahants) bore their grief collected and composed at 
the thought : " Impermanent are all component things. 
How is it possible that (they should not be dissolved). Then 
the venerable Anuruddha exhorted the brethren and said : 
" Enough, my brethren, Weep not, neither lament. Has 
not the Exalted One formerly declared this to us, that it 



228 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

is in the very nature of all things near and dear unto us, 
that we must divide ourselves from them, leave them, sever 
ourselves from them ? How then, brethren, can this be 
possible that whereas any thing whatever born, brought 
into being, and organised contains within itself the inherent 
necessity of dissolution how then can this be possible 
that such a being should not be dissolved ? No such condition 
can exist. Even the devas, brethren, will reproach us." 

" But of what kind of devas, sir, is the venerable Anuruddha 
thinking ? " 

" There are devas, brother Ananda, in the air, but of 
earthy mind, who dishevel their hair and weep, and stretch 
forth their arms and weep, fall prostrate on the ground, 
and roll to and fro in anguish at the thought : ' Too soon 
has the Exalted One died. Too soon has the Light gone 
out in the world/ 

"There are, devas, too, Ananda, on the earth, and of 
earthy mind, who tear their hair and weep, and stretch 
forth their arms, and weep, fall prostrate on the ground 
and roll to and fro in anguish at the thought : ' Too soon 
has the Blessed One died. Too soon has the Happy One 
passed away. Too soon has the Light gone out in the world.' 

" But the devas who are free from passion bear it, calm 
and self-possessed, mindful of the saying, which begins : 
' Impermanent indeed are all component things. How 
then is it possible . . . (that such a being should not be 
dissolved) ? '" 

Now the venerable Anuruddha and the venerable Ananda 
spent the rest of the night in religious discourse. Then the 
venerable Anuruddha said to the venerable Ananda : "Go 
now, brother Ananda into Kusinara and inform the Mallas 
of Kusinara, saying : ' The Exalted One, O Vasetthas, has 
passed away ; do, then, whatever seemeth to you fit.' " 

" Even so, lord," said the venerable Ananda, in assent, 
to the venerable Anuruddha. And having robed himself 
early in the morning, he took his bowl, and went into 
Kusinara with one of the brethren as an attendant. Now 
at that time the Mallas of Kusinara were assembled in the 
council hall concerning that very matter. 



PASSING AWAY OF THE BUDDHA 229 

And the venerable Ananda went to the council hall of 
the Mallas of Kusinara ; and when he had arrived there, 
he informed them saying :"'" The Blessed One, O Vasetthas, 
has passed away ; do, then, whatever seemeth to you fit." 

And when they had heard this saying of the venerable 
Ananda, the Mallas with their young men and their maidens 
and their wives, were grieved, and sad, and afflicted at heart. 
And some of them wept, dishevelling their hair, and some 
stretched forth their arms and wept ; and some fell prostrate 
on the ground, and some reeled to and fro in anguish at the 
thought : " Too soon has the Exalted One died. Too soon 
has the Wellfarer passed away. Too soon has the Light 
gone out in the world." 

Then the Mallas of Kusinara gave orders to their attendants, 
saying : " Gather together perfumes and garlands and ' all 
the music of Kusinara." And the Mallas of Kusinara took 
the perfumes and garlands, and all the musical instruments, 
and five hundred suits of apparel, and went to the Upavattana, 
to the Sala Grove of the Mallas, where the body of the Exalted 
One lay. There they passed the day in paying honour, 
reverence, respect, and homage to the remains of the Exalted 
One with dancing and hymns, and music, and with garlands 
and perfumes ; and in making canopies of their garments 
and preparing decoration wreaths to hang thereon. 

Then the Mallas of Kusinara thought: 

" It is much too late to burn the body of the Exalted One 
to-day. Let us now perform the cremation to-morrow." 
And in paying honour, reverence, respect, and homage to 
the remains of the Exalted One with dancing, and hymns, 
and music, and with garlands and perfumes ; and in making 
canopies of their garments, and preparing decoration wreaths 
to hang thereon, they passed the second day too, and then 
the third day, and the fourth, and the fifth, and the sixth 
day also. 

Then on the seventh day the Mallas of Kusinara thought : 
" Let us carry the body of the Exalted One, by the south 
and outside, to a spot on the south, and outside of the city, 
paying honour, and reverence and respect, and homage, 
with dance and song, and music, with garlands and perfumes, 



230 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

and there, to the south of the city, let us perform the cremation 
ceremony." 

And thereupon eight chieftains among the Mallas bathed 
their heads, and clad themselves in new garments with the 
intention of bearing the body of the Exalted One. But, 
behold, they could not lift it up. 

Then the Mallas of Kusinara said to the venerable 
Anuruddha : " What, lord, can be the reason, what can 
be the cause, that eight chieftains of the Mallas who have 
bathed their heads, and clad themselves in new garments 
with the intention of bearing the body of the Exalted One, 
are unable to lift it up ? " 

" It is because you, O Vasetthas, have one purpose and 
the devas have another purpose." 

" But what, lord, is the purpose of the devas ? " 

" Your purpose, O Vasettha, is this : ' Let us carry the body 
of the Exalted One by the south and outside, to a spot on 
the south, and outside the city, paying it honour, and 
reverence, and respect, and homage, with dance and song, 
and music with garlands and perfumes, and there, to the 
south of the city, let us perform the cremation ceremony.' 
But the purpose of the devas, Vasettha, is this : ' Let us 
carry the body of the Exalted One by the north to the north 
of the city, and entering the city by the north gate, let us 
bring it through the midst of the city into the midst thereof. 
And going out again by the eastern gate, paying honour, 
and reverence, and respect, and homage, to the body of 
the Exalted One, with heavenly dance, and song, and music, 
and garlands, and perfumes, let us carry it to the shrine of 
the Mallas called Makuta-bandhana, to the east of the city, 
and there let us perform the cremation ceremony/ " 

" Even according to the purpose of the devas, so, lord, 
let it be." 

Then immediately all Kusinara down even to the dust 
bins and rubbish heaps became strewn knee-deep with 
Mandarava flowers from heaven, and while both the devas 
from the skies, and the Mallas of Kusinara upon earth, paid 
honour and reverence, and respect, and homage to the body 
of the Exalted One, with dance, and song, and music, with 



PASSING AWAY OF THE BUDDHA 231 

garlands, and with perfumes, they carried the body by the 
north to the north of the city ; and entering the city by the 
north gate they carried it jthrough the midst of the city 
into the midst thereof ; and going out again by the eastern 
gate they carried it to the shrine of the Mallas, called Makuta- 
bandhana ; and there, to the east of the city, they laid 
down the body of the Exalted One. 

Then the Mallas of Kusinara said to the venerable Ananda : 
" What should be done, lord, with the remains of the Tatha- 
gata?" 

" As men treat the remains of a king of kings, so, Vasetthas, 
should they treat the remains of a Tathagata." 

" And how, lord, do they treat the remains of a king of 
kings ? " 

"They wrap the body of a king of kings, Vasetthas, in 
a new cloth. When that is done they wrap it in carded 
cotton wool. When that is done they wrap it in a new cloth, 
and so on till they have wrapped the body in five hundred 
successive layers of both kinds. Then they place the body 
in an oil vessel of iron, and cover that close up with another 
oil vessel of iron. They then build a funeral pyre of all 
kinds of perfumes and burn the body of the king of kings. And 
then at the four cross roads they erect a cairn to the king 
of kings. This, Vasetthas, is the way in which they treat 
the remains of a king of kings. 

" And as they treat the remains of a king of kings, so, 
Vasetthas, should they treat the remains of the Tathagata. 
At the four cross roads a cairn should be erected to the 
Tathagata. And whosoever shall there place garlands 
or perfumes or paint, or make salutation there, or become 
in its presence calm in heart, that shall long be to them 
for a profit and a joy." 

Therefore the Mallas gave orders to their attendants, 
saying : " Gather together all the carded cotton wool of 
the Mallas." 

Then the Mallas of Kusinara wrapped the body of the 
Exalted One in a new cloth. And when that was done, 
they wrapped it in carded cotton wool. And when that 
was done, they wrapped it in a new cloth, and so on till they 



232 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

had wrapped the body of the Exalted One in five hundred 
layers of both kinds. And then they placed the body in 
an oil vessel of iron, and covered that close up with another 
oil vessel of iron. And then they built a funeral pyre of 
all kinds of perfumes, and upon it they placed the body 
of the Exalted One. 

Now at that time the venerable Maha Kassapa was 
journeying along the high road from Pava to Kusinara with 
a great company of the brethren, with about five hundred 
of the brethren. And the venerable Maha Kassapa left the 
high road, and sat himself down at the foot of a certain tree. 

Just at that tune a certain naked ascetic who had picked 
up a Mandarava flower in Kusinara was coming along the 
high road to Pava. 

Now the venerable Maha Kassapa saw the naked ascetic 
coming in the distance, and when he had seen him said to 
that naked ascetic : 

" Friend, surely thou knowest our Master ? " 

" Yea, friend, I know him. This day the Samana Gotama 
has been dead a week. That is how I obtained this Mandarava 
flower." 

On that of those of the brethren who were not yet free 
from the passions, some stretched out their arms and wept, 
and some fell headlong on the ground, and some reeled to 
and fro in anguish at the thought : " Too soon has the Exalted 
One died. Too soon has the Wellfarer passed away. Too 
soon has the Light gone out in the world." 

But those of the brethren who were free from the passions 
(the Arahants) bore their grief self-possessed and composed 
at the thought : " Impermanent are all component things. 
How is it possible that (they should not be dissolved) ? " 

Now at that time a brother named Subhadda, 1 who had 
been received into the Order in his old age, was seated in 
that company. 

And Subhadda, the recruit in his old age, said to those 
brethren : " Enough, sirs. Weep not, neither lament. 
We are well rid of the great Samana. We used to be annoyed 

1 This can not be the same Subhadda who was the last convert under 
the Buddha. 



PASSING AWAY OF THE BUDDHA 233 

by being told : ' This beseems you, this beseems you not.' 
But now we shall be able to do whatever we like ; and what 
we do not like, that we shall not have to do." 

But the venerable Maha Kassapa exhorted the brethren : 
" Enough, my brethren, Weep not, neither lament. Has 
not the Exalted One formerly declared this, that it is in the 
very nature of all things near and dear unto us that we must 
divide ourselves from them, leave them, sever ourselves 
from them ? How then, brethren, can this be possible, 
whereas anything whatever born, brought into being, and 
organized contains within itself the inherent necessity of 
dissolution how then can this be possible that such a being 
should not be dissolved? No such condition can exist." 

Now just at that time four chieftains of the Mallas had 
bathed their heads and clad themselves in new garments 
with the intention of setting on fire the funeral pyre of the 
Exalted One. But, behold, they were unable to set it alight." 

Then the Mallas of Kusinara said to the venerable Anu- 
ruddha : " What, lord, can be the reason, and what the cause 
(of this) ? " 

" The purpose of the devas, O Vasetthas, is different." 

" But whatj sir, is the purpose of the devas ? " 

" The purpose of the devas, O Vasetthas, is this : ' That 
venerable brother Maha Kassapa is now journeying along 
the way from Pava to Kusinara with a great company of 
the brethren, with five hundred brethren. The funeral 
pyre of the Exalted One shall not catch fire until the venerable 
Maha Kassapa shall have been - able reverently to salute 
the feet of the Exalted One." 

" Even according to the purpose of the devas so, sir, let 
it be." 

Then the venerable Maha Kassapa went on to Makuta- 
bandhana of Kusinara, to the shrine of the Mallas, to the 
place where the funeral pyre of the Exalted One was. And 
when he had come up to it he arranged his robe on one 
shoulder ; and after bowing down with clasped hands, he 
thrice walked reverently round the pyre, and then, uncovering 
the feet, he bowed down in reverence at the feet of the 
Exalted One. 



234 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

And those five hundred brethren arranged their robes 
on one shoulder ; and bowing down with clasped hands, 
they thrice walked reverently round the pyre, and then 
bowed down in reverence at the feet of the Exalted One. 

And when the homage of the venerable Maha Kassapa 
and of those five hundred brethren was ended, the funeral 
pyre of the Exalted One caught fire of itself. 

Now as the body of the Exalted One burned itself away, 
from the skin and the integument, and the flesh, and the 
nerves, and the fluid of the joints, neither soot nor ash 
was seen. Only the bones remained behind. Just as one 
sees no soot and ash when ghee or oil is burned ; so as the 
body of the Exalted One burned itself away, from the skin 
and the integument, and the flesh, and the nerves, and the 
fluid of the joints, neither soot nor ash was seen. Only 
the bones remained behind. And of those five hundred 
pieces of raiment the very innermost and outermost were 
both consumed. 

And when the body of the Exalted One had been burnt 
up, there came down streams of water from the sky and 
extinguished the funeral pyre of the Exalted One ; and 
there burst forth streams of water from the storehouse of 
the waters (beneath the earth), and extinguished the funeral 
pyre of the Exalted One. The Mallas of Kusihara also 
brought water scented with all kinds of perfumes, and 
extinguished the funeral pyre of the Exalted One. 

Then the Mallas of Kusinara surrounded the bones of the 
Exalted One in their council hall with a lattice work of 
spears, and with a rampart of bows ; and there for seven 
days they paid honour, and reverence, and respect, and homage 
to them with dance, and song, and music, and with garlands 
and perfumes. 

Now the king of Magadha, Ajatasattu, the son of the 
queen of the Videha clan, heard the news that the Exalted 
One had died at Kusinara. 

Then the king of Magadha, Ajatasattu, the son of the 
queen of the Videha clan, sent a messenger to the Mallas, 
saying : " The Exalted One was a Kshatriya and so am I. 
I am worthy to receive a portion of the relics of the Exalted 



PASSING AWAY OF THE BUDDHA 235 

One. Over the remains of the Exalted One will I put up 
a sacred cairn, and in their honour will I celebrate a feast." 

And the Licchavis of Vesali heard the news that the 
Exalted One had died at Kusinara. And the Licchavis 
of Vesali sent a messenger to the Mallas, saying : " The 
Exalted One was a Kshatriya and so are we. We are worthy 
to receive a portion of the relics of the Exalted One. Over 
the remains of the Exalted One will we put up a sacred 
cairn, and in their honour will we celebrate a feast." 

And the Sakiyas of Kapila-vatthu heard the news that 
the Exalted One had died at Kusinara. And the Sakiyas 
of Kapila-vatthu sent a messenger to the Mallas, saying : 
" The Exalted One was the pride of our race. We are 
worthy to receive a portion of the relics of the Exalted One. 
Over the remains of the Exalted One will we put up a sacred 
cairn, and in their honour will we celebrate a feast." 

And the Bulis of Allakappa heard the news that the Exalted 
One had died at Kusinara. And the Bulis of Allakappa 
sent a messager to the Mallas, saying : " The Exalted One 
was a Kshatriya and so are we. We are worthy to receive 
a portion of the relics of the Exalted One. Over the remains 
of the Exalted One will we put up a sacred cairn, and in 
their honour will we celebrate a feast." 

And the Koliyas of Ramagama heard the news that the 
Exalted One had died at Kusinara. And the Koliyas of 
Ramagama sent a messenger to the Mallas, saying : " The 
Exalted One was a Kshatriya and so are we. We are worthy 
to receive a portion of the relics of- the Exalted One. Over 
the remains of the Exalted One will we put up a sacred 
cairn, and in their honour will we celebrate a feast." And the 
brahmin of Vethadipa heard the news that the Exalted 
One had died at Kusinara. And the brahmin of Vethadipa 
sent a messenger to the Mallas, saying : " The Exalted 
One was a Kshatriya, and I am a brahmin. I am worthy 
to receive a portion of the relics of the Exalted One. Over 
the remains of the Exalted One will I put up a sacred cairn, 
. and in their honour will I celebrate a feast." And the Mallas 
at Pava heard the news that the Exalted One had died at 
Kusinara. 



236 LAST EVENTS IN LIFE OF BUDDHA 

Then the Mallas of Pava sent a messenger to the Mallas, 
saying : " The Exalted One was a Kshatriya and so are we. 
We are worthy to receive a portion of the relics of the Exalted 
One. Over the remains of the Exalted One we will put 
up a sacred cairn, and in their honour will we celebrate 
a feast." 

When they heard these things the Mallas of Kusinara 
spoke to the assembled crowds, saying : " The Exalted 
One died in our village domain. We will not give away 
any part of the remains of the Exalted One." 

When they thus had spoken, Dona the brahmin addressed 
the assembled crowds, and said : 

" Hear, gracious sirs, one single word from me. 

Forbearance was our Buddha wont to teach. 

Unseemly is it that over the division 

Of the remains of him who was the best of beings. 

Strife should arise, and wounds and war. 

Let us all, sirs, with one accord unite 

In friendly harmony to make eight portions. 

Wide spread let cairns spring up in every land 

That in the light of the world mankind may trust." 

" Do thou then, O brahmin, thyself divide the remains 
of the Exalted One equally into eight parts, with fair division." 

" Be it so, sirs," said Dona the brahmin, in assent to the 
assembled brethren. And he divided the remains of the Exalted 
One equally into eight parts, with fair division. And he said 
to them : " Give me, sirs, this vessel, and I will set up 
over it a sacred cairn, and in its honour will I establish 
a feast." 

And they gave the vessel to Dona the brahmin. 

And the Moriyas of Pipphalivana heard the news that 
the Exalted One had died at Kusinara. 

Then the Moriyas of Pipphalivana sent a messenger to 
the Mallas, saying : " The Exalted One was a Kshatriya 
and so are we. We are worthy to receive a portion of the 
relics of the Exalted One. Over the remains of the Exalted 
One will we put up a sacred cairn and in their honour will 
we celebrate a feast." 

And when they heard the answer, saying : "There is 
no portion of the remains of the Exalted One left over : 



PASSING AWAY OF THE BUDDHA 237 

the remains of the Exalted One are all distributed," they 
took away the embers. 

So the king of Magadha, Ajatasattu, the son of the queen 
of the Videha clan made a cairn in Rajagaha over the remains 
of the Exalted One, and celebrated a feast. 

And the Licchavis of Vesali made a cairn in Vesali over 
the remains of the Exalted One, and celebrated a feast. 

And the Sakiyas of Kapila-vatthu made a cairn hi Kapila- 
vatthu over the remains of the Exalted One, and celebrated 
a feast. 

And the Bulis of AUakappa made a cairn in Allakappa 
over the remains of the Exalted One,' and celebrated a feast. 

And the Kiloyas of Ramagama made a cairn hi Ramgama 
over the remains of the Exalted One, and celebrated a feast. 

And Vethadipaka the brahman made a cairn in Vathadipa 
over the remains of the Exalted One, and celebrated a feast. 

And the Mallas of Pava made a cairn over the remains 
of the Exalted One and celebrated a feast. 

And the Mallas of Kusinara made a cairn in Kusinara 
over the remains of the Exalted One, and celebrated a feast. 

And Dona the brahmin made a cairn over the vessel (in 
which the remains had been collected) and celebrated a feast. 

And the Moriyas of Pipphavana made a cairn over the 
embers, and celebrated a feast. 

Thus were there eight cairns (thupas) for the remains, 
and one for the vessel, and one for the embers. 

This is what came to be. 

(Eight measures of relics there were of him of the far-seeing eye, 
Of the best of the best of men. In India seven are worshipped . 
And one measure in Ramagama, by the kings of the serpent race. 
One tooth, too, is honoured in next world, one in Gandhara's city, 
One in the Kalinga realm, and one more by the Naga race. 
Through their glory the bountiful earth is made bright with 

offerings painless 
For with such are the Great Teacher's relics best honoured by 

those who are honoured, 
By gods and by Nagas and Mngs, yea, thus by the noblest of 

humans. 

Bow down with clasped hands. 
Hard, hard is a Buddha to meet with through hundreds of ages 1) 

End of the Book of the Great Decease. 
END 



AUTHORITIES 



Vinaya-Pitaka 



Mahavagga I 
I 

III 
IV 
V 
VI 
VIII 
Cullavagga VII 
X 



PAGE 

.49-99 

. 103 

. 107 

. 107 

. 105 

. 136 

. Ill 

. 224 

. 115 



Sutta-Pitaka 

Digha-Nikaya, IVth Suttanta 
,, XlVth ,, 

,> it XVIth ,, 

Majjtuma-Nikaya, IVth. Sutta . 

Vllth 
XXVIth 
XXXVIth 
XCIXth 
CVIIth 
Samyutta-Nikaya, I ... 

JL * 

II p. 104 (Nagararri) 

-LJL 

III . 
Ill 
III . 

Anguttara-Nikaya, I, 145 
Sutta-Nipata, Nalaka-Sutta . 

Pabbajja- ,, 
Thera-theri-gatha, CCXXXVI 
CCXLII 

> > ,, CCLX 

Udana, IV . 
IV, 5 
V 4 

) j V,T . 

t , V,D . 

Buddhavamsa, XXVI 



163 

9 

173 

27 
164 

23 

30 
112 
141 
139 
135 

40 
130 
113 
121 
131 

i 

f43 
169 
168 
167 
122 
132 
134 
126 
44 



INDEX 



Admission of women, 115. 
Ajapala tree, 23, 51, 53. 
Ajatasattu, King of Magadha, 147, 

173. 

AJara Kalama, teacher, 24, 57. 
alms, 43, 95. 
alone, 19. 

Ambapali, courtezan, 186. 
ancient path, 41. 
Ananda, 45, 144, 214, 216, 227. 
Anuruddha, 142, 227. 
appearance, 43, 164. 
arahant, 4, 12, 115, 140, 175. 
arahantship, 23, 35, 73. 
Asita's prophecy, 3. 
Assaji, 95. 

B 

Bathing, rite of, 167. 

becoming (i.e. rebirth, bhava), 20, 

39 f ., 49, 89. 
Benares, 45, 58, 63. 
Bhaddakaccha, 45. 
Bhaddiya, 143 f . 
Bhagu, 144. 
Bhallika, 52. 
Bhanda, 130. 
Bimbisara, King of Magadha, 43, 

90, 150. 
Bodhi-tree, 49. 
Bodhisat, 3, 9, 10, 40. 
Brahma, 23-44, 54-6, 140. 

world, 54. 

brahmans, 9, 11, 29. 
Buddha, see Gotama. 



Cairns, erection of, 234 f. 
Chapala shrine, 192. 
charioteer, 15, 17, 19. 
chief disciples, 45. 

laymen, 45. 

women disciples, 45. 

Chunda the smith, 200-8. 
clairvoyant-eye, 14, 39. 



clarifying a stream, 202. 

closed hand, 190. 

" coming to be," 21, 41-2, 49. 

compassion, 29-45, 56, 57 (note), 

75* 

completion of the holy life, 89. 
concentration, 24-6, 37-178, 203-5. 
concord, 174, 178. 
conditions for the immature, 124-6. 

for welfare of Order, 176. 

of decay, 40. 

of rebirth, 184 f. 

conduct towards women, 213. 
confession, 131. 
conqueror, 12. 

consciousness (or ' mind '), 46, 66, 

67, 114, 132. 
contact, 20-2, 40, 41, 49. 
conversion of Sariputta and Mog- 

gallana, 94. 
the five monks, 60 ; of first 

layman, 67 ; of first women, 72. 
courage, 137. 

craving, 20, 21, 41, 55, 132. 
cremation, 234. 
cruelty to fish rebuked, 134. 
cutting the hair, 19. 



Daily life, 173. 

death, 6, 21, 23, 40, 41, 49. 

deliverance from, 75. 

of Gotama, 226. 

decay, 16, 18, 20, 21, 40, 41, 49, 88. 
descent, 163. 
desire, 28, 30-6, 131. 
destruction of sorrow, 178. 
detachment, 25. 
Devadatta, 144, 146, 148, 156. 
devas, 3, 11, 12, 35, 42, 53, 211. 
dhamma, 3-5, 23-7, 37, 54-8, 191. 

meaning of, 95-6, 223. See also 

Introduction. 
Dhamma-eye, 63 f., 65, 69, 72, 

91, 96, 160. 
dhammas, 50. 
disciples, 25, 44. 

chief, 45. 

R 



242 



INDEX 



discipline, 24, 31-121. 
discourses for the immature, 124. 
disinclination to teach, 55. 
distribution of the relics, 234, 237. 
duration of the religion, 119. 
donning the yellow robe, 19. 



Earnestness, 121. 

Elders, doctrine of, 24, 26. 

elephant tamed, 154. 



Fear, conquers, 27 f. 
fire, sermon, 87. 
first, disciples, 57. 

discourse, 23. 

missionaries, 75. 

fish, eating of, 157. 
forest life, 28. 

founding the Order, 64 f . ; of nuns, 

116f. 
funeral sports, 229. 



Gaya, 87. See also Kassapa. 
going forth, 16 f., 19, 42, 44. 
going out utterly, 46 
GOTAMA, becomes ascetic, 19, 332 f. 

birth, 1, 9 f ., 12. 

dies, 218, 225 f. 

family, 12, 45. 

hesitates, 54. 

is ill, 190, 201. 

is in danger, 149 f., 152 f. 

labours to help, passim. 

rearing, 5, 14. 

renounces world-life, 19, 24, 



Jatilas, 179. 



43. 



seeks teaching, 24. 
sees ills of life, 15 f. 
thinks out a view, 19 f., 40. 
teaches a message (not the 



view), 61. 



H 



Hatthalavaka, 44. 
haughty brahman, 51. 
Himalayas, 44. 
household life, 43, 142. 



Ill, 33, 134. 
Isipatana, 45, 63. 



K 



Kapilavatthu, 45. 

Kasi, 59. 

Kassapa, Maha, 232. 

Gaya, NadI, 79 f . 

of Uruvela, 79 f . 

Kimbila, 144. 
Kolita, 45. 

Kosala, 44. 



Last words, 225. 
leading the Order, 191. 
lineage, 179. 
lives, former, 38. 

memory of, 38. 

lotus pool (simile), 56. 
lute (simile), 106. 

M 

Maha-PajapatI, step- and foster- 
mother, 115 f. 
Mallas, 218, 228. 
Mara, 75, 135. 
Maya, 45. 
Meghiya, 122. 
Middle Path, the, 61. 
Moggallana, 94, 159. 
mother of Gotama, 9 f., 45. 
mother of Rahula, 103. 
Muchalinda tree, 23, 51. 



N 

Nakulapitar, advice to, 121. 

Naga king, 51 f. 

Nalaka, 5. 

Nanda, 104. 

Neranjara, 49. 

Nibbana, 241, 27, 64 f., 115, 126, 

132, 141. 
Norm, 45, 140, 167. 

wheel of, 44 

nuns, see Maha-Pajapati. 



Old age, 5 f., 20 f., 23, 191. See 

also ' decay ' (same word, jara). 
ordination, 65, 74, 76, 103. 
original doctrine of the Buddhas, 69. 



INDEX 



243 



Parents, 164. 

permission, 104-24. 

Path, the eightfold, 44, 115, 221. 
passing away or Parinibbana, 22, 

225 f. 

petitioned not to die, 195. 
precepts, minor, might be abolished, 

223. 
prophesies death, 194. 



Quest, the noble, 23. 
questioning the monks, 109. 

R 

Radha, 131, 133. 
Rahula, 45, 103. 
rainy season, 77, 110, 115. 
Rajagaha, 43. 
Rajayatana-tree, 23, 52. 
recluses, 8, 18 and passim. 
renouncing the world, 142 f. 
right views, etc., 39. 



Sakka,'92 f. 

Sakyans, 3, 36, 45. 

Sariputta, 94, 159 f. 

schism, 161. 

seeking enlightenment, 23, 29. 

self, 66 f . 

shrines, 28. 

sickness, 6, 201. 

Siha, 136. 

Sona Kotikanna, 126 f. 

soothsayers, 12, 14, 17. 

struggles, 27, 44. 

Subhadda, 219 f., 223. 

Suddhodana, 3, 12, 14, 45. 

summary of teaching, 197 f. 

Sunita, 168. 

super-man, the, 12 f. 



Tapussa, 52 f. 
Tathagata, 53, 115. 
teacher, 25, 223. 

other teachers, 221. 

threefold purity, 28. 

refuge. 

wisdom, 145. 

Tissa, 113. 
truffles, 200. 

truths, the four, 39, 183. 
two extremes, 61. 



U 

Uddaka, Ramaputta, 25 f. 
Upaka, 58. 
Upali, 144. 
Upatissa, 45. 
Upavana, 210. 
Uruvela, 49, 79 f. 



Veluvana, 94. 
Vipassin, 9. 



W 



Way, 22. See Path, Middle Path, 

Wayshower, 145. 

Wheel of the Dhamma, 3, 5, 63. 

Will our body, 190 

Wisdom doctrine, 24, 26. 

Wisdom tree, 19. 

World, veil of, 12. 

Worlds, passim. 



Yasa, 67. 

Yellow robe, 18 f., 24. 

Youth, 24, 27, 164. 



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