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Disciples' Divinity House 


' * '' 



the STUDY 
of the HOLY 


Author of "The White Life"; "Christian Science, 

Tested by Philosophy, Medicine and 

Religion"? "Hell Why-What 

and How Long", etc. 

Second Edition. 

(lim b Disciple?/ Dr.rhUy ^Ir^ 

Introduction by 
William G. MooreKead, D. O. 


James H. Earl (Q Company 
178 "WasHington Street 

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Copyright, 1903. 

All rights reserved. 

This Book is Inscribed in Remembrance 


In becoming admiration for his high scholarship and his 

fidelity to the Wotd of God ; in loving testimony to his 

Christian manhood and his public service and with 

a grateful sense of his personal kindness, 

By one who knew him, learned of him, 

and loved him 




J The Name of the Spirit - - - - 17 

2 The Advent of the Spirit - ... 23 

3 The Personality of the Spirit ... 29 

4 The Deity of the Spirit ... - 33 

5 The Sealing of the Spirit ... - 36 

6 The Anointing of the Spirit ... 4J 

7 The Communion of the Spirit ... 46 

8 The Fruits of the Spirit .... 55 

9 The Baptism of the Spirit . - 72 
JO The Filling of the Spirit - 92 

JJ The Emblems of the Spirit - J39 

Fire ------- 

Wind ------- 

Water ------- 


Oil ------- 

Dove ------- 

J2 The Resistance of the Spirit - - - - 153 
Resisting the Spirit - - - - 
Grieving the Spirit - 
Quenching the Spirit - 
Tempting the Spirit - 
Defiling the Temple of the Spirit 
Despising the Spirit - 
Blaspheming the Spirit - - - 

Bibliography J92 


Our age is distinguished for its earnestness of study 
in the doctrine of the EDoly Spirit The last quarter 
of a century has been remarkable for the productive- 
ness of books on this great subject Naturally, there 
is considerable diversity as to the relative value of 
works on the person, and the functions of the spirit. 
Some confine themselves to a single phase of the 
Spirit's activity, while others treat of Him both as to 
His person and work. In all, however, there is ap- 
parent the desire to be true to the Scripture, which 
must always remain the one unchanging source of 
knowledge on this as on all other parts of revealed 
truth. There is manifest likewise the honest effort 
to be helpful to Christians who long to know more 
of the gracious Spirit without whose presence and 
assistance they feel themselves powerless as witnesses 
for Christ 

However copiously treated 1 , the great theme is not 
exhausted, nor can it be. For it is with one of the 
Persons of the Godhead we are dealing, hence the 
theme ig an infinite one. Accordingly, fresh studies on 
it are always in place. No one book nor all books 
combined have here spoken the last word. This mine 
of truth will be as productive for the generations to 
eome as it has been in the ages past. Since the Spirit 

8 Introduction 

is the Author of that mighty change <in men com- 
monly called regeneration, since He is the fountain 
of all I'rue holiness of life in the saved, since it is 
He who baptizes believers into the one Body, and is 
Himself the gracious Habitant of the body, fitting it 
by His presence and His grace for its glorious destiny, 
every new effort to shed light on His blessed work 
should be welcomed with gladness by the people of 

It is with sincere pleasure that this book by the 
Rev. W. E. Biederwolf is commended to Christian 
people. Certain features in it are noteworthy. First, 
it is conservative. By this is not meant that it deals 
only with those phases of the Spirit's work that are 
universally recognized and accepted, while those more 
recondite and difficult are passed over in silence, for 
the author grapples with some of the most mysterious 
and abstruse features of the great problem. "What 
is meant is, that the author is ruled by a wise caution 
an his treatment of the theme, and particularly in his 
expositions. He brings his views and the views of 
others also to the word of God as the arbiter and final 
test. There are no rash statements to be found' in it, 
and no fanciful or extreme positions are assumed. 
While not ignoring Christian experience touching the 
presence and influence of the Spirit in individual be- 
lievers, the author observes 1 on this profound and 


mysterious point a commendable reserve, and speaks 
with the hesitancy that must ever become the reverent 
inquirer in this field. And this is praiseworthy; for 
after all, blessed as Christian experience is, it is not 
nor can be the ultimate court of appeal in determining 
the divine action of the Spirit, nor can general deduc- 
tions be drawn therefrom as to how he operates and 
why. Our Lord spoke a very profound word, when, 
speaking of the Comforter, He said, "He shall not 
ppeak from Himself; He shall glorify Me." Rarely 
does the Spirit invite our attention to His own pres- 
ence and work in the soul; rather, He uniformly turns 
our thoughts and affections to the Lord Jesus, the 
object of our faith, the center and sum of our 
hope. We have long been convinced that to study 
the presence and work of the Spirit in the believer 
apart from the word is a mistake if not a perilous 
experiment. Even His witness with our spirit that 
we are the children of God (Rom. VIII: 16) is not 
apart from the word, nor yet from the glory of Christ 
in whom alone we are brought into the filial relation 
(Jno. 1: 12.) Scripture holds the supreme place, and 
the author of this book uniformally turns to it for 
light and guidance. 

Another thing is, these studies are reverential. 
jThere is everywhere manifest complete subjection to 
th authority of Scripture, and confidence in its un- 

10 Introduction 

erring teaching. This is refreshing, particularly in 
these degenerate times, when too many, alas, seem 
disposed to sit in judgment on the word, or bend it 
into conformity with their theories and presupposi- 
tions. Loyalty to God's truth is fast becoming the 
burning question of our day, even among evangelical 
churshes. Because of its unquestioning loyalty, this 
book will prove helpful and stimulating. 

Still another interesting feature of it is, its excel- 
lent bibliography. Most of that which has been pub- 
lished on the Holy Spirit since John Owen's book finds 
a place in this well-selected list. 

That God may use these studies relating to the per- 
son and work of His Divine Spirit for the furtherance 
of His cause and the good of His people is the prayer 
of the writer. 

Xenia Theological Seminary. 


This Mttte book is the outgrowth of the writer's own 
perplexity. This age is the dispensation of the third 
Person of the Trinity. For nineteen hundred years 
we have been saying, "I believe in the Holy Ghost," 
but how much do we believe in HSm, and what is it we 
believe about Him? The method of His operation 
must forever remain an inscrutable mystery to finite 
minds, and subtle metaphysical distinctions are as 
useless here as they are presumptuous; but when once 
we realize that every relationship to the Father and 
the Son is brought about, and every treasure of their 
infinite love is made over to us through that opera- 
tion, it will not seem strange that such great emphasis 
should be laid upon the necessity of an appreciation 
of what those relationships and treasures are in order 
to His Presence and power within us, such as God's 
plan for our Christian experience involves. 

The surprising thing is, that this emphasis has been 
so long delayed; indeed, the past nineteen years have 
seen more literature on this subject issue from the 
press than all the rest of the nineteen hundred to- 
gether. The "Bibliotheca" for forty-six years from 
the date of its first publication, 1844, contains not 
one article on the Holy Spirit; for more than forty 

12 By Way of Explanation 

years, from 1839, the "Methodist Quarterly"" con- 
tained but one article; the "Princeton Review," in 
fifty-six years, from 1838, only one, and the same 
thing is true of all other theological magazines. Dr. 
Charles Hodge gave us three ponderous volumes of 
Systematic Theology, containing two thousand and 
three hundred pages, and of this number only twelve 
pages were devoted to the subject of the Holy Spirit; 
and here, as well as in all other such literature, the 
question, as a matter of course, has been treated 
wholly as a theological dogma, with but little meaning 
for the life and experience of the believer. 

Surely in this day of spiritism this emphasis upon 
the relationship to the human soul of The Spirit, who 
as to "guide into all truth," is timely and fortunate. 
Would we but be guided by Hds gentle whisperings, 
what absurdities of belief and denials of Him of whom 
He came to witness might be spared. Yet not alone 
for this, but for what it is the privilege and the duty 
of a Spirit-indwelt man to be and do, is not this re- 
vival of interest in the teaching of the Scriptures 
concerning the Person and work of the Holy Spirit 
of God and of His Son Christ Jesus a matter of great 

It is hoped this little volume will commend itself, 
not as an earlier or later view simply clothed in new 
language, nor yet as another opinion on this so vitally 

By Way of Explanation 13 

important subject; human opinion is a worthless thing 
if only Scripture hath spoken plainly. Nor has it been 
meant in any way as controversal. The writer in his 
own anxiety to appreciate his privilege as a child of 
the Almighty has been left in confusion and uncer- 
tainty by at least seemingly contradictory statements 
of different teachers upon the relationship of this 
blessed Spirit of God to Efts children. For instance, 
when Dr. James Gray ("The Holy Spirit and the Be- 
liever," page 16), says, "The filling of the Spirit is for 
holiness," and Dr. Torrey ("The Baptism of the Holy 
Ghost," page 6) says, "The baptism of the Spirit has 
nothing to do directly with cleansing from sin, but Is 
connected with service," and when Dr. Gray (same 
page) says, "The anointing is for service," and Camp- 
bell Morgan ("Spirit of God," page 194) saysi, "The 
anointing which is on the child of God is that which 
was received at regeneration, and is not an experience 
after such a time," and when Dr. Chapman ("Received 
ye the Goly Ghost," page 75) says, "It is unscriptural 
for the Christian to be talking about the baptism of 
the Holy Ghost," and MacNeil ("Spirit-filled Life," 
page 38) says, "It surely cannot be unscriptural for a 
believer to pray, 'Lord Jesus, baptise me with the 
Holy Ghost;' " when these and many other such state- 
ments of apparent contradiction confront us we won- 
der whether the brethren! are disagreeing about 

14 By Way of Explanation 

experiences which are vitally important to every 
earnest child of God, or whether it is merely a differ- 
ence in nomenclature which amounts to nothing; and 
we have longed for some one to bring harmony, if 
possible, out of this apparent confusion. It is with 
this in view the writer has gone into ! a careful and, 
he hopes, an impartial exegesis of every passage in 
the Old and New Scriptures where mention is made of 
the Holy Spirit. It is his earnest desire mat these 
pages be received in the spirit they have been pro- 
duced, not as a challenge to any man's teaching, but 
as a sincere effort to get such teaching before us 
alongside the Word of God in such a way that the 
earnest inquirer may come out of what to many bas 
been a state of perplexity, to an appreciation of his 
spiritual privilege such as will commend itself to his 
own soul. 

To this end and that the student may gain a com- 
prehensive view of the present-day teaching, this 
teaching has been taken in quotation from the various 
volumes, the exact reference being noted in each in- 
stance by the page where it is written, and when 
alongside has been brought all of such Scripture as 
will bear upon the teaching in question, an endeavor 
has been made to help the reader to what we believe 
should commend itself to him as a safe 'and impartial 
explanation of such Scripture, and consequently the 

By Vvay of Explanation 15 

Scriptural way of viewing the matter under consider- 

The multiplication of words naff been studiously 
avoided; little thought is paid to style, other than 
to make it too plain for any misconstruction to be 
placed upon its meaning. A Bibliography has been 
added for those wishing to prosecute more thoroughly 
this important study. 

With earnest prayer that the blessing of Him of 
whom it so unworthily speaks may rest upon this 
humble effort to the edification and comfort of those 
in whom He dwells, it is sent forth upon its mission. 

W. E. B, 


>N the Old Testament are found! 
ninety distinct references to the 
Holy 'Spirit, among which are 
eighteen different designations; in 
the New Testament, two> hundred 
and sixty-four references and thirty- 
nine different designations; five of 
these are common to both, thus 
leaving fifty-two designations in the 
entire Word; expressive of His relation to God, 
seventeen; to the Son, five; to man, nineteen; of 
His own character, seven, and of His essential 
deity, five. For an exhaustive tabulation of 
these designations see 'Macgregor, "Things of 
the Spirit," page 17, or Gumming, "Through the 
Eternal Spirit," page 48. In the above fifty-two 
instances, four times He is called the Comforter, 
forty-three times the Spirit, in some one of His 
relations, the remaining five being descriptive 
phrases of the same Person. We have then two 

'.4 By Way of Explanation 

experiences which are vitally important to every 
earnest cMId of God. or whether it is merely a differ- 
ence ir nomenclature which amounts to nothing; and 
we nave longed for some one to bring harmony, if 
possible, out of this apparent confnsion. It is with 
;ii I; view tie "writer has gone into a careful and, 
ie hcr^s. an impartial exegesis of every passage in 
tie Old ^c. New Scriptures where mention is made of 
tie- Holy Spirit. It is his earnest desire taat these 
pa^es be received in the spirit they have been pro- 
c-j:-el not as a challenge to any man's teaching, but 
.is a sincere effort to get such teaching before us 
alongside the Word of God in such a way that the 
earnest inquirer may come out of what to many has 
been a state of perplexity, to an appreciation of his 
spiritual privilege such as will commend itself to his 
own sonl 

To this end and that the student may gain a com- 
prehensive view of the present-day teaching, this 
teaching has been taken in quotation from the various 
vo^tnnes, the exact reference being noted in each in- 
stance "by the page where it is written, and when 
alongside has been brought all of such Scripture as 
srill bear upon the teaching in question, an endeavor 
has been made to help the reader to what we believe 
should commend itself to him as a safe and impartial 
explanation of such Scripture, and consequently the 

By Way of Explanation 15 

Scriptural way of viewing the matter under consider- 

The multiplication of words has been studiously 
avoided; little thought is paid to style, other than 
to make it too plain for any misconstruction to be 
placed upon its meaning. A Bibliography has been 
added for those wishing to prosecute more thoroughly 
this important study. 

With earnest prayer that the blessing of Him of 
whom it so unworthily speaks may rest upon this 
humble effort to the edification and comfort of those 
in whom He dwells, It is sent forth upon its mission. 

W. E. B, 


the Old Testament are found! 
ninety distinct references to the 
Holy Spirit, among which are 
eighteen different designations; in 
the New Testament, two hundred 
and sixty-four references and thirty- 
nine different designations; five of 
these are common to both, thus 
leaving fifty-two designations in the 
entire Word; expressive of His relation to God, 
seventeen; to the Son, five; to man, nineteen; of 
His own character, seven, and of His essential 
deity, five. For an exhaustive tabulation of 
these designations see Macgregor, "Things of 
the Spirit," page 17, or Gumming, "Through the 
Eternal Spirit," page 48. In the above fifty-^two 
instances, four times He is called the Comforter, 
forty-three times the Spirit, in some one of His 
relations, the remaining five being descriptive 
phrases of the same Person. We have then two 

18 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

names applied to the third Person of the Trinity, 
namely, the Holy Spirit and the Comforter. 

"Spiritus" is the Latin word synonymous with 
the Greek word "Pn;euma," both literally signify- 
ing "breath" or "wind." As applied to the Divine 
essence there can be no allusion to their original 
meaning, which is but the imagery representa- 
tive of the Holy Spirit's presence and approach 
to men. The Holy Spirit is called the "breath 
of God" with reference to> His mode of sub- 
sistence, proceeding from God as the breath from 
the mouth. Notice the characteristic action of 
Jesus in John 20: 22. In referring to the breath 
or spirit of man the old English used the word 
".ghost," giving up the ghost; and so of the 
breath of God was used the expression "Holy 
Ghost," and 1 while the weird associations of the 
word ghost in its present-day signification are all 
forgotten when this blessed Personality is so 
designated, yet since the Latin "Spirit" has so 
truly become a part of the English language it 
would seem to be the more preferable designa- 
tion of the two, which the American Revised 

The Name of the Spirit 19 

Version has accordingly adopted. The Holy 
Spirit is not therefore called Spirit on account 
of the spirituality of His essence, for this is like- 
wise to be predicated of the Father and of the 
Son. Heither is He called Holy with reference 
to the holiness of His nature, for He is no more 
so than either of the other Persons of the 
Trinity; it has reference to His official charac- 
ter ; He is the author of all holiness. 

The other designation of this Holy Personage 
is the "Comforter," so called four times by Jesus 
in His farewell discourse, John 14: 1, 26; 15: 26, 
and 16: 7. This is the only single appellation 
suggestive of the (Spirit's character and work. 
The Greek word is "Parakletos." Given by 
Jesus as descriptive of "another" one like Him- 
self, rich in meaning as is the word itself, as a 
name for this divine Person whose relation to 
the Christian is so intimate, it ought to com- 
mend itself strongly and tenderly to the heart of 
every child of God. Because no word in the 
English language can furnish us with a transla- 
tion co-extensive with the infinite stretches of 

20 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

meaning in this word Paraclete, why, instead of 
crippling it with inadequate translations, is it not 
better to Anglicize it into Paraclete and! so> retain 
it both in Scripture and in usage? 

The same word in I John 2: I, referring to 
Christ, is translated 1 "Advocate," and Meyer, 
Godet, Westcott and many others so translate it 
in the Gospel, while Alford, Schaff and as 1 many 
others retain the translation "Comforter." Phil- 
ologically "parakletos" can no' more be rendered 
"comforter" than can "kletos" be rendered 
"caller"; this last must be "called," and, there- 
fore, "parakletos," "called to aid"; hence advo- 
cate, which accords with Greek usage where 
friends or agents stood before the judge to plead 
the cause of another. : 

The verb from which it comes is always, save 
in Acts 28: 20, used in the sense of "to comfort," 
but this active sense is easily contained in the 
idea of an advocate as involved! in the passive 
"called to aid." An advocate is one who stands 
by (Beistand-DeWette), not only as an inter- 
cessor but as a helper, comforter and consoler. 

The Name of the Spirit 21 

Furthermore, the noun was evidently imported 
irrespective of its derivation from the then 
current judicial phraseology, and this observa- 
tion has all the more weight, inasmuch as John, 
the only one who uses the noun Parakletos, is 
precisely the one who never uses the verb from 
which it is derived ; , and which is elsewhere so 
common in the New Testament. To this add the 
express use of "Advocate" in I John 2: i, and it 
would! seem that such must have been; the idea 
in the mind of Jesus as interpreted by John. 

Hence, if the word Paraclete is not to be 
retained, then of the two translations under 
consideration, "Advocate" as the more gram- 
matical and the more inclusive should be given 
preference; but it must be remembered that com- 
forting and aiding is an important part of a real 
advocate's work; yet as the thought of pleading 
is so prominently and almost exclusively as- 
sociated with the word advocate in this day we 
are more than ever impressed with the wisdom 
of retaining the original word Paraclete, called 
to aid. 

22 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

How muidhtihey wouldlneed such an one; Jesus 

had indeed been a Paraclete unto them. One 
upon whom they had leaned in every perplexity 
and trial; but now He was going away; welcome 
indeed then must have been His words falling 
in rich promise upon their waiting hearts. They 
were not to be deserted, but "another" Para- 
clete, such an one as Jesus was and yet another, 
was toi come; indeed the Coming One was to be 
no other than Christ Himself "I will not leave 
you orphans; I will come unto you." Not only 
was the Paraclete to take the place of the Christ 
they knew and loved and leaned upon in human 
form, but in His coming was to be returned to 
them, in presence invisible their then exalted 
and glorified Friend by whose loss they were 
now about to be bereaved. 


HE Holy Spirit has ever been omni- 
present, but He is here today in a 
sense which was not always true of 
Him. Three distinct periods of His 
operation are witnessed in the 

I. From creation to Christ; He 
shared the creative work, Gen. i : 2. 
He came upon men in the Old Tes- 
tament, I Sam. 10 : 6; He entered into them, 
Ez. 2: 2; He filled them, Ex. 28: 3; He strove 
with men, Gen. 6: 3, and spoke to them, Ezk. 
2: 2. 

II. From Christ to Pentecost. He filled 
John the Baptist, Luke i: 15; Elizabeth, Luke 
i: 41; Zacharias, Luke i: 67, and the Saviour. 
The Saviour 

(a) Was conceived by the Holy Spirit, 
Matt, i : 1 8, 20; Lu. i : 35. 

(b) Was anointed by the Holy Spirit, 'Matt. 

24 A Help to the Stuay of the Holy Spirit 

3: 10, 17; Mk. i: 10, ii ; Lu. 3: 21, 22; 
4: 18, and John 1 : 32, 33. 

(c) Was led by the Holy Spirit, Matt. 4: i; 
Mk. i: 12; Lu. 4: i. 

(d) Was taught by the Holy Spirit, Acts 
1:2; John 14: 10, 24. 

(e) Wrought miracles by the Holy Spirit, 12: 28; Lu. n: 20. 

(f) Offered Himself up through the Holy 
Spirit, Heb. 9: 14. 

(g) Was raised by the Holy Spirit, Rom. 
8: ii and 

III. From Pentecost to Parousia. Pentecost 
has been called by Augustine the "dies natalis" 
of the Holy Spirit. That the Holy Spirit came 
to us in this world shortly after the Saviour's 
ascension in a new and permanent capacity, 
the word's 1 of John 7: 39, make; evident, which 
coming 1 was in fulfillment both of Old Testament 
prophecy, Joel 2: 28, with Acts 2: 39, and of the 
Saviour's promise in John 14: 16 and 15: 26. Siee 
also Acts 2: 33. In one sense always here, but 
in another His abode before Pentecost was with 
the 'Father. Strictly speaking, there can be no 
localization of an omnipresent being since His 
omnipresence relates to His essence and! His 

The Advent of the Spirit 25 

comings and goings are accommodations to 
finite conception. 

The chief differences between His relation to 
the first and third (periods designated' are: 

1. In the first He came occasionally. "A 

transient visitor" Augustine; in the 
third He came to "abide" forever, John 
14: 16. 

2. In the first He equipped a few men foi 

the accomplishment of a special work; 
in the third He, offers Himself in ful- 
ness to all, Acts 2: 39. 

Notice also that in the first He was 
not revealed to the saints as a personal- 
ity distinct from God; God was known 
and! worshipped in His unity; the Trin- 
ity though implied was not clearly 

The time of the Spirit's coming to take up His 
permanent abode in the church was fifty days 
after the Saviour's resurrection, and called Pen- 
tecost, which in itself has no suggestion of ful- 
ness or outpouring, but is simply a designation 
of time meaning "fiftieth." The entire arrange- 
ment was definitely foreshadowed in Old Testa- 
ment rites, Lev. 23: 11-16. 

26 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

I. The slaying of the paschal lamb typified 
the sacrifice of the Saviour foretelling the day 
of its occurrence. 

'II. "On the morrow after the Sabbath" was 
the sheaf of first fruits to be waved before the 
Lord, foretelling the resurrection on the first 
day of the week. 

III. Then "seven Sabbaths shall be com- 
pleted even unto the morrow after the seventh 
Sabbath shall ye number fifty days," foretelling 
the time of the Spirit's advent. 

The disciples were told to tarry, Luke 24: 49, 
and they would be filled with the Spirit; they 
tarried ten days and the filling came. How often 
are they represented as wondering during these 
ten days why the filling did not come, and pos- 
sibly they did; but when it is said it was a waiting 
consequent upon the necessity of their first being 
emptied, we lose sight altogether of the dispen- 
sational character of the arrangement. They 
waited ten days for no other reason save that it 
was yet ten days until the fiftieth day would 
come. If the disciples did not at first divine this, 

The Advent of the Spirit 27 

as the days passed without the promise fulfilled, 
it would certainly have dawned upon them as the 
fiftieth day drew near. 

I. The time of the Spirit's advent was deter- 
mined by the Saviour's glorification, John 7: 39, 
and this finds explanation in that the office of 
the Spirit is to communicate to the church and 
to realize in the church the benefits of Christ's 
work, and only when this work was completed, 
when He had died for our sins, risen again for 
our justification, ascended to glory, there to be 
loiur /Intercessor* with the VFather^ only then 
could the Holy Spirit have a finished image to 
complete in the soul. "The Divine Artist could 
not fitly descend to make the copy before the 
original had been provided." Archer Butler. 

II. Pentecost inaugurated 1 the mystical 
Church of Christ. The disciples who fol- 
lowed Jesus were no longer a mere number of 
individuals concurring in sentiment concerning 
their Master, but were merged into a living vital 
unity, a temple indwelt of God through the 
Spirit, Eph. 2: 21, 22; I Cor. 3: 16. 

28 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

III. Pentecost was the Installation day of the 
Holy Spirit as Administrator of the affairs of the 
church "until He come." 

IV. Pentecost can no more be repeated than 
can Bethlehem, Calvary, or the resurrection. 


the Holy Spirit an influence, a vir- 
tue, an emanation from or manifes- 
tation of the divine, a mere imper- 
sonal force, or is the Holy Spirit a 
person intelligent and active? That 
the latter is true and not the former 
the following considerations will 
make apparent. 

I. The essential parts of person- 
ality are four: Understanding, will, affection 
and appreciation of the moral. All these are 
predicated of the Holy Spirit. 

(a) He is said to know the things of God, 
I Cor. 2: 10, ii. 

(b) He -distributes His gifts to every man 
as He will, I Cor. 12: n. 

(c) He loves and may be grieved, II Tim. 
i: 7 and Eph. 4: 30. 

(On the Love of the Spirit, see Gum- 
ming, "Through the Eternal Spirit," 

30 A Help to the Study, of the Holy Spirit 

(d) He reproves of sin, Jno. 16: 9, and 
guides into truth, Jno. 16: 13. 

II. Functions not ascribable to an influence, 
or to au'ght save a person are attributed to the 
Holy Spirit. He hears, Jno. 16: 13. He speaks, 
Acts 10: 19; 13: 2, 8; 8: 29; Jno*. 16: 13; Mark 
13: n; Heb. 3: 7. He prays, Rom. 8: 26. He 
teaches, Luke 12: 12; Jno. 14: 26. He forbids, 
Acts 16: 6, 7. He comforts, Acts 9: 31. He 
guides, Jno. 16: 13. He reveals, Jno. 16: 14, 15; 
Luke 2: 26. He witnesses, Rom. 8: 16. He 
strives with men, Gen. 6: 3. He quickens the 
memory, Jno. 14: 26. He performs miracles, 
Acts 2: 4; 8: 39. He calls to the ministry, Acts 
13: 2, and sets pastors over churches, Acts 
20: 28. 

III. M : en sustain relations toward the Holy 
Spirit such as are possible only toward a person. 
They grieve Him, Bph. 4: 30; they resist Him, 
Acts 7: 51; they sin against Him, Matt. 12: 31; 
Mark 3: 29; they invoke His communion, II 
Cor. 13: 14; they are baptized into His name, 
Matt. 28: 19; they lie to Him, Acts 5: 3; they 

The Personality of the Spirit 31 

rebel against Him, Isa. 63: 10; they insult Him, 
Heb. 10: 29. 

IV. The name given to the Holy Spirit and 
the pronouns used in reference to Him are dis- 
tinct proofs of His personality. 

(a) Jesus calls Him Paraclete, or one who 
comforts or stands by to aid. 

(b) Jesus uses the masculine pronoun, 
"When He, the Spirit, is come, He," 
etc. Even in John 14; 26, where the 
neuter relative agrees with the noun 
Spirit, the following pronoun, which 
naturally would be neuter, is mascu- 

V. That the Holy Spirit is a personality dis- 
tinct from the Father and the Son is evident from 
the fact that He is said to be the Spirit of God, 
Matt. 3: 16; I Cor. 6: n; H Cor. 3: 3; I Peter 
4: 4; and the Spirit of Christ, Rom. 8: 9; Phil. 
1:2; Acts 16: 7. He proceed'eth from God, 
John 16: 26; He is sent by the Father, John 14: 
26, and by the Sion, John 16: 26. They could not 
send themselves. Jesus says He will send an- 
other Paraclete, namely, one distinct from Him- 
self, and in Romans 1 8: 26, the Spirit is said to 

32 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

make intercession; certainly the Father could 
not make intercession to Himself. Htow the idea 
of the Holy Spirit as a distinct personality could 
be more clearly set forth than is donte in the 
Word of God is impossible for an unbiased mind 
to conceive. 


HE names of Divinity are ascribed 
to Him. In Isa. 6: 8, Isaiah 
says, "I heard the voice of Je- 
hovah saying, etc." In Acts 28: 5J 
Paul, quoting the passage, says, 
'"Well spake the Holy Spirit by 
Isaiah." In Jer. 31: 31, it is said, 
"Behold the days come saith Jeho- 
vah, etc. In Heb. 10: 15, it is said, 
referring to the same passage, "The Holy 
Spirit after that He said, etc." In Acts 5: 4, 
He is expressly called God. Peter said 
Satan had inspired Ananias to lie to the Holy 
Spirit, and them he added, "Thou hast not lied 
unto men but unto God" See also II Cor. 
3: 17, 18 (A. R. V.), where He is called the Lord. 
See also Eph. 2: 22; I Cor. 6: 19; Rom. 8: 9, 10. 
II. The perfections of Divinity are ascribed 
to the Holy Spirit. The attributes of God are 
the attributes of the Holy Spirit. 

30 A Help to the Study, of the Holy Spirit 

(d) He reproves of sin, Jno. 16: 9, and 
guides into truth, Jno. 16: 13. 

II. Functions not ascribable to an influence, 
or to au'ght save a person are attributed to the 
Holy Spirit. He hears, Jno. 16: 13. He speaks, 
Acts 10: 19; 13: 2, 8; 8; 29; Jno; 16: 13; Mark 
13: n; Heb. 3: 7. He prays, Rom. 8: 26. He 
teaches, Luke 12: 12; Jno. 14: 26. He forbids, 
Acts 16: 6, 7. He comforts, Acts 9: 31. He 
guides, Jno. 16: 13. He reveals, Jno. 16: 14, 15; 
Luke 2: 26. He witnesses, Rom. 8: 16. He 
strives with men, Gen. 6: 3. He quickens the 
memory, Jno. 14: 26. He .performs miracles, 
Acts 2: 4; 8: 39. He calls to the ministry, Acts 
13: 2, and sets pastors over churches, Acts 
20: 28. 

III. M : en sustain relations toward the Holy 
Spirit such as are possible only toward a person. 
They grieve Him', Bph. 4: 30; they resist Him, 
Acts 7: 51; they sin against Him, Matt. 12: 31; 
Mark 3: 29; they invoke His communion, II 
Cor. 13: i 4; they are baptized into His name, 
Matt. 28: 19; they lie to Him, Acts 5: 3; they 

The Personality of the Spirit 31 

rebel against Him, Isa. 63: 10; they insult Him, 
Heb. 10: 29. 

IV. The name given to the Holy Spirit and 
the pronouns used in reference to Him are dis- 
tinct proofs of His personality. 

(a) Jesus calls Him Paraclete, or one who 
comforts or stands by to aid. 

(b) Jesus uses the masculine pronoun, 
"When He, the Spirit, is come, He," 
etc. Even in John 14; 26, where the 
neuter relative agrees with the noun 
Spirit, the following pronoun, which 
naturally would be neuter, is mascu- 

V. That the Holy Spirit is a personality dis- 
tinct from the Father and the Son is evident from 
the fact that He is said to be the Spirit of God, 
Matt. 3: 16; I Cor. 6: n; II Cor. 3: 3; I Peter 
4: 4; and the Spirit of Christ, Rom. 8: 9; Phil, 
i: 2; Acts 16: 7. He proceed'eth from God, 
John 16: 26; He is sent by the Father, John 14: 
26, and by the iSbn, John 16: 26. They could not 
send themselves. Jesus says He will send an- 
other Paraclete, namely, one distinct from Him- 
self, and in Romans 1 8: 26, the Spirit is said to 

32 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

make intercession; certainly the Father could 
not make intercession to Himself. How the idea 
of the H'oly Spirit as a distinct personality could 
be more clearly set forth than is dome in tfie 
Word of God is impossible for an unbiased mind 
to conceive. 


HE names of Divinity are ascribed 
to Him. In Isa. 6: 8, Isaiah 
says, "I heard the voice of Je- 
hovah saying', etc." In Acts 28: 5," 
Paul, quoting the passage, says, 
"Well spake the Holy Spirit by 
Isaiah." In Jer. 31: 31, it is said, 
"Behold the days come saith Jeho- 
vah, etc. In Heb. 10: 15, it is said, 
referring to the same passage, "The Holy 
Spirit after that He said, etc." In Acts 5: 4, 
He is expressly called God. Peter said 
Satan had inspired Ananias to lie to the Holy 
Spirit, and them he added, "Thou hast not lied 
unto men but unto God" See also II Cor. 
3: 17, 18 (A. R. V.), where He is called the Lord. 
See also Eph. 2: 22; I Cor. 6: 19; Rom. 8: 9, 10. 
II. The perfections of Divinity are ascribed 
to the Holy Spirit. The attributes of God are 
the attributes of the Holy Spirit. 

34 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

(a) Eternity, Heb. 9: 14. Unto Him as unto 
Jehovah can the lofty praise of Ps. 90: 2, 
be ascribed. 

(b) Omniscience, I Cor. 2: 10, n; Isa. 

40: 13- 

(c) Omnipotence, Micah 3: 8. Proven by 

His works. (See III.) 

(d) Omnipresence, Ps. 139: 7, 10. Same 
idea in reference to God, Jer. 23: 24. 

III. The works of Divinity are ascribed to 
the Holy Spirit. 

(a) The work of creation is His. Gen. 1:2; 
Job 26: 13; Ps. 33: 6; Job 33: 4. 

(b) The work of providence is His, Ps. 
104: 30. 

(c) The work of regeneration and resurrec- 
tion are His, Jno. 3: 5, and Rom. 8: n. 
He is in fact the source of the miracu- 
lous, Matt. 12: 28; I Cor. 12: 9, u. 

IV. The worship of Divinity is given to 1 Him. 

(a) We are baptized into the name of the 
Holy Spirit as well as that of the Father 
and the Son, thus setting forth an equal- 
ity of dignity among the three. 

(b) Seven times in Rev. obedience to His 
admonition is enjoined upon us. 

(c) While there is no mention of direct 
prayer to Him] it is involved in His 
name (Paraclete one called to aid) and 
also in the Apostolic benediction, II Cor. 

The Deity of the Spirit 35 

13: 14, and the invocation of John, Rev. 

(d) :He may be sinned against in fact the 

only sin that can never be pardoned is 
directed against the Holy Spirit, Matt. 
12: 31, 32, in view of which His Godhead 
must certainly be recognized. 


HE idea of a seal is twofold, that of 
authentication and ownership or 
security. In John 6: 37, God's seal 
upon Christ is made to consist in 
the miracles .wrought by Christ 
through the power of the Spirit 
given to Him without measure, 
that is authentication. 

In Eph. 1:13, believers are sealed! 
with the promised iSpirit, promised by God 
through Joel. i 

Every genuine believer is sealed. The sealing 
is "next after faith," says Prof. Smeaton. 
Logically and theologically this is true, but 
chronologically they are practically simultane- 
ous, "upon believing we are sealed." Believ- 
ing is essential to and the foundation of seal- 
ing. The literal reading of Eph. 1 : 13, is "having 
believed," not "after that ye believed, ye were 
sealed." Campbell Morgan is therefore right 

The Sealing of the Spirit 37 

when he says, "The Sealing of the Spirit is iden- 
tical w'ith regeneration" ("Spirit of God'," page 
192.) He in fact makes it identical with the 
baptism of the Spirit, but in his mind this last is 
the same with regeneration. 

Moule refers the sealing to such experiences 
as Acts 8: 17 and 10: 44. 'M'acNeil ("Spirit- 
filled. Life," page 45), says it is the same as the 
baptism of the Spirit, by which he means a 
definite post-regenerative experience, and that 
Paul in Eph. i: 13, had in mind the incident of 
Acts 19: 1-7, which, however, is altogether 
gratuitous. Gordon, ("Ministry of the Spjirit," 
pages 88 and 99), and Gumming, ("Through 
the Eternal Spirit," page 112), have likewise so 
construed its meaning. Each of these last three 
writers conceives of the Filling of the Spirit and 
the Baptism of the Spirit and the Enduement 
of the Spirit as a later experience than regenera- 
tion, and make these and the sealing equivalent 
to one and the same thing; and unless Dr. John 
Owen, who has written so exhaustively on this 
subject ("Discourse Concerning the Spirit/' 

38 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

pages 406, 407), is to be quoted in support of 
the same position, his language at this point is 
not without ambiguity; all of which is very sur- 

Such experiences as the above mentioned are 
seals in the sense of God's approval and con- 
firmation, but either to thus limit the idea of a 
seal or to make such its primal reference is 
grammatically out of harmony with every New 
Testament passage which refers to the believer's 
sealing, as well as the only reference it can pos- 
sibly bear so far as the idea of ownership and 
security is involved in the word, which idea in 
this passage, Eph. i : 13, as in others similar to it, 
is God's ownership and securing of His people, 
of all believers. So teach Meyer, Ellicott, 
Hodge, Riddle and Smeaton. Of course God 
demands holiness, II Tim. 2: 19, but it is faith 
that saves, and to make God's ownership depend! 
on the filling of the Spirit is to make it, accord- 
ing to the construction of those with whom we 
are now taking issue, depend on something sub- 
sequent to regeneration. It is sad that all Chris- 

The Sealing of the Spirit 39 

tians are not filled with the Spirit; it would' be 
sadder still to think that all who are not thus 
filled will be disowned in the day of redemption 
"unto" which we are sealed. See Eph. 4: 30. 
Every Christian is sealed and has the "earnest of 
the Spirit," which is the Spirit Himself. 

There is one other passage, II Cor. 1 : 21, 22, 
"Now he which established us with you in 
Christ and hath anointed us is God, who hath 
also sealed us and given the earnest of the Spirit 
in our hearts." Here 'Hodge, Olshausen, 
Smeaton andi others refer the "us" in the two last 
instances not alone to Paul andi Timothy, but to 
all Christians as well. /Meyer and Lange say, 
Paul designedly distinguishes between "us with 
you" and "us," and referred the anointing and 
sealing to teachers only; they, however, admit 
that even their interpretation would not deny 
the anointing and sealing to all believers, and 
quote Eph. i: 13, and 4: 30, in substantiation. 
Yes, every child of God is sealed, and at the 
cominfg of the Lord He shall know us by the 
sign we bear. 

40 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

"The allusion to the seal as a pledge of pur- 
chase would be peculiarly intelligible to the 
Ephesians, for Ephesus was a maritime city and 
an extensive trade in timber was carried on there 
by the ship masters of the neighboring ports. 
The method of purchase was this: The mer- 
chant, after selecting his timber, stamped it with 
his own signet, which was an acknowledged 
sign of ownership. He often did not carry off 
his possession at the time; it was left in the har- 
bor with other floats of timber; but it was 
chosen, bought and stamped, and in due time the 
merchant sent a trusty agent with the, signet, 
who, finding that timber which bore a corres 
ponding impress, claimed and brought it away 
for the master's use. Thus the Holy Spirit im- 
presses on the soul now the image of Jesus 
Christ and this is the sure pledge of everlasting 
inheritance." Bickersteth, "The Spirit of Life." 


N Luke 4: 1 8, Jesus says He was 
"anointed," doubtless referring to 
His experience at baptism, and in 
Acts 4: 27, and 10: 38, the same 
thing is referred to. In the Old 
Testament priests, prophets and 
kings were anointed to signify their 
separation and consecration to 
office, and the passages above re- 

ferred to contain the same idea. The Anointing, 
as the Seal, is the Holy Spirit. 

Jesus as conceived by the Spirit, Luke i : 35, 
>and like John the Baptist, was certainly filled 
with the Spirit from His mother's womb. As a 
child we know He was filled, Luke 2: 40. The 
reception of the Holy Spirit at His Incarnation 
may certainly with propriety be called His first 
anointing, and may in a sense be considered as 
His only one. While as regards the baptismal 
anointing the immediate connection and refer- 

42 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

ence is to the manifest and visible resting upon 
Jesus of the Spirit at His baptism, yet it is not 
to be thought of as implying another andl dis- 
tinct reception of the Spirit, but the rather that 
the Spirit already in Him in fulness manifested 
Himself in a way annunciatory of Christ's offi- 
cial capacity. Smeaton, page 21, speaks of three 
degrees in Christ's anointing: at Incarnation, at 
Baptism and at Glorification. 

"In the New Testament, says Hodge, "official 
anointing is spoken of only in relation to Christ 
and never in relation to the Apostles or others." 
This is true, unless II Cor. 1 : 21, is an exception 
and this we are not inclined to believe. Now in 
I John 2: 20, the anointing is predicated of all 
believers; so likewise in II Cor. i: 21. There 
are those who speak of receiving an anointing 
for each particular service, (referring of course to 
a special filling for such special work), but 
such a use of the word anointing is without 
Scriptural warrant. Others draw such inference 
from (the supposed analogy between iQirist, the 
Anointed One, and Christians, but this is, after 

The Anointing of the Spirit 43 

all, a supposition which receives no encourage- 
ment from the reasonable inference of God's 
dealings with the perfect pattern and its imper- 
fect imitations. Mbrgan, page 194, has rightly 
said, "The anointing which is on the child of 
God is that which was received at regeneration." 
Gordon says, "Sealing and anointing and en- 
duement, (and by 'enduement,' he means the 
Baptism of the Spirit which in his mind is the 
same with the Filling of the Spirit) are 
one and the same experience." But if the 
seal is the sign of ownership, then those 
without this seal or special enduement are 
not God's property and the question will 
arise, how much of an enduement, of a fill- 
ing, or baptism of the Spirit must one have in 
order to be owned? As priests and kings were 
anointed so Christians receiving an anointing 
from the Holy One in the moment of regenera- 
tion, are conformably to Scripture (Rev. i: 6; 
5: 10), called "priests and kings unto God"; but 
of this glory, according to the idea now in re- 

44 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

view, all are deprived who are without this spec- 
ial post-regenerative experience. 

One Christian has or can have no more of an 
anointing than another; the anointing is the 
Holy. Spirit, and the expression, "the same 
anointing teacheth you all things," is but a call- 
ing to remembrance of what the same writer had 
said in his Gospel, John 16: 13, "Howbeit when 
He the Spirit of truth is come He will guide you 
into all truth." 

It is well to bear in mind, however, that al- 
though there is no Scriptural mention of the 
word anointing from which to draw a warrant 
for applying such a term to any experience of 
the believer apart from his regeneration, yet 
'there can be no reasonable objection to the use 
of such a term in connection with a post- 
regenerative experience if only we are care- 
ful to distinguish what is meant by it. If the 
search be one of words, once regenerated, there 
is no other anointing; if it be one of experience, 
call it what you will so long as the above cau- 
tion be observed. The Holy Spirit taking up 

The Anointing of the Spirit 45 

His abode in the individual seals him by that very 
act and also, according to Scriptural usage, anoints 
him; then once within He endues the soul with 
power according to the freedom given Him and the 
needs of the occasion. This it will shortly appear is 
the filling of the Spirit, but when that occasion is 
the going forth to service this preparation of the 
servant may with no impropriety, be called an anoint- 
ing, if it be borne in mind that it is nothing other 
than the Spirit's filling for the special service at 


N II Cor. 13: 14, Paul invokes for 
the Corinthian Christians the "com- 
munion of the Holy Spirit." It is 
impossible to tell precisely what 
Paul meant by the) word 1 translated 
communion, and to be arbitrary or 
over-positive in the exposition of 
such Scripture is simply to set your 
mind against the minds of countless 
other scholars toward' whom the impartial 
student must have respect. Not that we 
can wholly miss Paul's meaning, but that 
of the various shades of meaning belonging 
to any particular word it is not at all 
times possible to know just to which one the 
writer had reference. The Greek word is Koino- 
nia and is in both versions translated "commun- 
ion." It occurs in its various forms in the Sep- 
tuagint fifteen times, and in the New Testament 
eighty-two times. Of the New Testament men- 

The Communion of the Spirit 47 

tion it is fifty-five times variously translated 
"communion," "fellowship," "participation, 
"communication," and twenty-seven times in the 
sense of "common" or "unclean." In three of the 
fifty-five instances it is the eommunion of a per- 
son, IT Cor. 13: 14; Phil. 2: i; I Cor. 1:9. To 
these we wish to direct attention. The thought 
embodied 1 in them, however, can more accurately 
be discovered after the following observations. 
The word is used in the following senses : 

I. To be a partaker of a thing (I Tim. 5 : 22, 
etc^ eleven times. 

II. To be a participator in a thing (Phil. 4: 
14, etc.), nine times. 

'In each instance there is a "with some person," 
understood fourteen times, expressed by the 
(preposition "with" five times, and by "of them" 

TIL To have fellowship with a person (I Jno. 
1:3, etc.), five times; in each case there is an "in 
something," understood four times, and men- 
tioned once (Phil. 4:15.) In the first twenty (IJI) 
the thing in which was mentioned, and the per- 

48 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

son with whom understood'; in the last five -just 
(the reverse; thus in all the twenty-five the 
thought is that of Koinonia with a person in a 
thing, andi this same thought will, we believe, 
be seen to underlie every other use of the ex- 
pression. II Cor. 6: 14, light (personified) hav- 
ing fellowship with darkness (personified), that 
is, in the deeds of darkness, Eph. 5: n, fellow- 
ship, with evil men or the Evil One or with 
darkness (personified), in unfruitful works. 

IV. Five times it is a contribution, I Tim. 6: 
18; Rom. 15: 26; 12: 13; Heb. 13: 16; 1 Cor 

9= 13- 

V. Once it is a contributor, I Tim, 6: 18. 

VI. Once it is the act of contributing, Gal. 
6: 6. 

Ini these last seven the same idea is involved 
persons and things. What is fellowship but a 
union or communion of possessions? There can 
be no real communion without a sharing of what 
belongs to us whether it be a crust of bread, the 
interchange of thought, of affection or sympathy. 

VII. Four times it is said they had a com- 

The Communion of the Spirit 49 

munity of things, Acts 2: 44; 4: 32; Tit. 1:4; 
Jude 3; the above applies likewise to these. 

VIII. Twice it is to have a partner, II Cor. 
8: 23; Phile. 17. 

IX. Once it is to be a partner with someone, 
Luke 5 : 10. 

X. Twice it is to be a partner of someone, 
I Cor. 10 : 20; Heb. 10: 33. What is the thought 
in these last five but sharers with each other, 
hence fellowship, communion, in something. 

XI. Gal. 2: 9, To share with them in the 

XII. I Cor. 10: 18, To be a partaker of the 
altar, that is, of the blessing for which the altar 
stood, through God's sharing such blessings with 
them or furnishing them to them, the result of 
which of course is comimuniom with God by "such 

XIII. Acts 2: 42, Fellowship with each other 
in religious sympathies, service, community of 
goods, etc. 

XIV. Phile. 6, A difficult passage, "The faith 
which you have in common with the rest of us," 

50 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

being possibly the best of many explanations, in 
which case it would belong to those references' 
of "a community of things." On any of the pro- 
posed explanations, however, it is in harmony 
with the general idea which we have -seen to be 
resident in the expression, Koinonia with some 
one in something. 

Now to the three passages in question. An 
explanation of one will suffice for all. In II Cor. 
13: 14, Paul invokes for them the "communion of 
the Holy Spirit" Notice it does not say with 
the Holy Spirit, although the force of the preposi- 
tion we feel has been unduly pressed, for in I 
Cor. i : 9, we read that we are called into the 
fellowship of the Son, and in I John i : 3, it is said 
our fellowship is with the Son. There is a dis- 
tinction, but the ideas are interdependent, and to 
press the "of" relation to the exclusion of the 
"with" relation in the passage under considera- 
tion is hardly in keeping with impartial exegesis. 
Dr. Gumming, (Through the Eternal Spirit, 
page 185), adheres to the usually accepted 
meaning of communing or having fellow- 

The Communion of the Spirit 51 

ship with the Holy Spirit Himself. This 
thought of special intimacy with the Third Per- 
son of the Trinity is certainly very, attractive 
and is in keeping with the general tenor of Scrip- 
ture. It is, however, nowhere explicitly taught, 
and though involved in what Paul here says, can 
hardly be considered the primary idea. 

Now the eleven instances where "of" is used 
all contain the idea of "participation in," and 
owing to such analogy it is impossible to dispute 
with Meyer, Lange, Riddle, who here make the 
meaning "participation in the Holy Spirit," but 
in the eleven instances mentioned the participa- 
tion is in a thing; here Paul sipeaks of a person, 
and as the preposition "of" in this clause is of 
precisely the same grammatical .force as the "of" 
in the other two clauses of the verse, the grace of 
Chirst and the love of God being the grace and 
love of which they are the authors, so in the 
third clause it seems proper to make the Koino- 
nia that of which the Holy Spirit is the author, 
namely, the spiritual riches which He furnishes. 
To the above reasons we may add that as we 

52 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

have already seen and as all authority admits, 
such rendering is not in the least at variance with 
the linguistic usage of the word itself. 

In this pregnant truth there is involved a three- 
fold relationship which may in order be ex- 
pressed as the "of" relation, the "in" relation, 
and the "with" relation, any one of which must 
by the very nature of the idea include all the 
others. The "of" relation, the one of chief em- 
phasis here, refers to Koinonia as the spiritual 
riches communicated, that is, communications; 
the "in" relation refers to our participation in the 
things communicated, and the "with" relation to 
the communion (fellowship) with the Holy Spirit 
Himself in such participation, the whole of which 
of course proceeds upon the supposition of ?., 
previous participation in the Holy Spirit as the 
basic principle of all spiritual Koinonia. 

As before mentioned, 'fellowship with a person 
is impossible save through a participation in 
something which has become a common posses- 
sion through the gift of one or the other or mu- 
tually of both, and as one thus; participates he 

The Communion of the Spirit 53 

can but have communion with the furnisher of 
(the blessings at his disposal. 

What a depth of meaning to the word when 
thus construed; all the inexhaustible treasures 
that are hid in Christ, the very fulness of God! 
Himself to be ours through the H'oly Spirit, the 
Great Communicator, beginning with the very 
life that regenerates and ending with the glory 
that transfigures. There came from the press 
some years ago a strange book representing a 
man who had lived through a trance to a period 
a hundred years after it came upon him. So- 
ciety had made marvelous advances and every- 
where the man turned he was met with new reve- 
lations of grandeur and glory ; they were so many 
it took him months to comprehend them all, and 
oftentimes he would sit down to contemplate and 
to wonder at the marvelous things to which he 
had fallen heir. It is so with the study of the 
Holy Spirit. At every step we find some new 
treasure, some rich experience, to which we have 
become heirs through the "communion of the 
Holy Spirit," until long before we have compre- 

54 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

bended the half of our inheritance we are simply 
compelled to sit and wonder how it ever could be 
so. What are some of these treasures, these 
communications? Paul in another place has 
referred to them as "the fruit of the Spirit," and 
this chapter may properly be completed in an- 


N the few pages immediately follow- 
ing will be found the results of a 
careful effort to count up our treas- 
ures which are hid for us in Christ 
and made over to us through the 
Communion of the Holy Spirit. To 
have these things in overflowing 
abundance is the privilege of the 
Spirit-filled believer. How rich that 
heritage is may the following summary 
help us to appreciate. Of these graces, these 
communications, all of which are the fruit of the 
Spirit, we find distinct mention of no less than 

I. In Gal. 5 : 22, Paul enumerates the follow- 

(a) Love, general inner disposition. 

(b) Joy, because conscious of divine love. 

(c) Peace, inner tranquility. 

(d) Long-suffering, patience under trial. 

56 A Help to the Stuay of the Holy Spirit 

(e) Kindness, kindly disposed' to others. 

(f) Goodness, beneficence, kindness in ac- 

(g) Faithfulness, fidelity, trustworthi- 

(h) Meekness, mildness andi submissive- 
(i) Temperance, self-control. 

II. Peter also has a list, faith being pre- 
supposed as a foundation upon which they must 
rest, II Peter 1 : 5-8. 

(a) Diligence, earnest use of energies. 

(b) Virtue, manly courageousness in con- 

(c) Knowledge, recognition of the dutiful 
and appropriate. 

(d) Temperance, self-control. 

(e) Patience, perseverance in abuse and 

(f) Godliness, reverence for God and ac- 
tion accordingly. 

(g) Love of brethren, that .k, of Chris- 

(h) Love for all. 

This list differs in arrangement and constitu- 
ents from Paul's. Paul begins with love; Peter 
ends with it. Paul begins with love as the spring 
of all other graces because he is drawing a pic- 

The 'Fruits of the Spirit 57 

ture of the spiritual character in contrast to the 
works of the flesh. Peter is concerned here with 
the growth of spiritual character and so presup- 
poses faith as the foundation upon which by 
means of these varied virtues the superstructure 
is reared. 

The fruit of the Spirit as mentioned elsewhere. 

I. Faith. 

(a) I Cor. 12: 13, "Calling Jesus Lord by 
the Spirit," that is, justifying, saving 

(b) II Cor. 4: 13, Spirit of faith, referring 
not so much here to justifying faith as 
to confidence in God in the midst of af- 

(c) I Cor. 12: 9, Gift of faith a high de- 
gree of the ordinary grace, especially 
for miraculous manifestation; this seems 
to have been a gift designed es- 
pecially and probably only for the early 

II. Regeneration. 

(a) John 3: 5, 6, Born of the Spirit. 

(b) Titus 3: 5, Renewing by the Spirit. 
Lange refers this to a continued process, 
and while the word in itself so means, yet 
in this case the thought in question and 
the past tense of the verb "saved" 

58 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

(Meyer and Riddle) best refer it to the 
renewing of the soul at regeneration. 

III. Spiritual life. John 6: 63, the originator 
and supplier; also Rom. 8: 2. Rom. 8: 6, in ful- 
ness now and of course hereafter where it cul- 
minates in the perfect life. 

IV. Self-dedication to God. I Cor. 6: n. The 
word "sanctify" is in the middle voice and not 
the passive, as the Revised Version makes it, and 
denotes properly the setting apart of oneself as 
holy unto God. 

V. Sarictification. 

(a) I Cor. 6: n, Washed by the Spirit; the 
verb is middle and hence indicates our 
own effort united with that of the 

(b) I Cor. 6: n, Made righteous by the 
Spirit; this seems a solitary use of this 
verb in this sense; it is the verb's sim- 
plest sense. Most retain the usual sense 
of "declare just," but the order hardly 
permits this. (See Meyer.) 

(c) I Peter i: 2, and II Thes. 2: 1.3, In the 
sanctification of the Spirit. Whether 
this word denotes the process or the 
result of the Spirit's working it is in 
either case a fruit of the Spirit. It is 

The Fruits of the Spirit ' 59 

the sphere in which our election and 
choice to salvation is realized. 

(d) II Cor. 3: 18, Growth into the Christ 

(e) Rpm. 14: 17, Righteousness, that is, in- 
ner, Meyer, Godet; Lange, Hodge, 
Mioule, say imputed. The former is fa- 
vored by the context, by the practical 
nature of the discourse and by verses 16, 
18; 19, and also by the primary meaning 
of the word. Paul's general usage fa- 
vors the second view. See also Rom. 
8: 4. 

(f) Rom. 15: 1 6, Sanctified by the Holy 

VI. Victory over sin. 

(a) Gal. 5: 17; also Rom. 8: 2, if this refers 
to sanctification, which we are inclined 
to believe, though Dr. Hodge opposes 
such reference. 

(b) Rom. 8: 13, 'Mortifying the deeds of the 
body through the Spirit. 

VII. New power Sor spiritual conflict. Eph. 
6: 10. 

VIII. Likeness to Christ. Eph. 3: 19, "filled 
with all the fulness of God" which is contained in 
Christ (Coi. i: 19, and 2: 9.) Though not called 
a fruit of the Spirit, one cannot analyze the 

60 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

prayer in Eph. 3: 16-19, without seeing that such 
is the evident result of being strengthened 
through the Spirit. As Christ in Col. i : 19, is 
said to contain all the pleroma of God, so here 
such is the prayer for us, the pleroma being that 
with which God is 'filled, ithe divine perfections; 
and notice he says all the pleroma, His love, 
His knowledge, His power, His goodness, His 
holiness, etc. 

IX. Knowledge of divine truth. I Cor. 2: 
10, 14. 

(a) Eph. 1:17, "Wisdom" here refers to a 
general continued condition of illum- 
ination and "revelation," to an advance 
on wisdom, that is, the more special 
gift of insight. 

(b) John 16: 13, "Into all truth," full 
knowledge of the truth as it is in Christ; 
the whole truth of God. 

(c) John 14: 26, "Teach all things," refer- 
ring to a right and complete understand- 
ing- of the truth as it is in Christ. 

(d) I Cor. 2: 15, "All ^ things;" pre- 
eminently the deep things of God, 
verse 10, with a probable secondary 
reference to the affairs of life, that is, 
judgment and discretion in daily duty, 

The Fruits of the Spirit 61 

The following seems to have been limited to 
special agents, Apostolic. 

(a) John 16: 13, "Things to come," refer- 
ring not alone to eschatological revela- 
tions, but to the whole career of the 
church militant after the Spirit's com- 
ing. The destiny of the church. 

(b) Eph. 3 : 3, 5, The purpose of God as it 
is in Christ with a probable primal ref- 
erence to the inclusion of the Gentiles. 

(c) I Peter i: n, 12, Christ in them as the 

Examples Acts 1 1 : 28, Agabus prophesying. 

Acts 13: 2, Told to appoint to office; same ideai 
in 20: 28. 

Acts 20: 23, Revealed coming afflictions to 

Acts 21 : 4, Revealed coming afflictions to dis- 

Acts 21 : n, Revealed coming afflictions to 

X. Assurance of Sonship. Gal. 4: 6, here 
'the Holy -Spirit cries; Rom. 8: 15,here the 
human spirit cries; the idea is the same, because 
as Meyer says, "The Spirit is so completely the 

62 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

author of the Abba invocation that the man who 
invokes appears only as the organ of the Spirit." 
Here also belong Rom. 8: 16; Eph. i: 13; 4: 30; 
II Cor. i: 21, 22. 

XL Led by the Spirit. Gal. 5: 18; also Rom. 
8: 14, 1:4. 

(a) Gal. 5: 1 6, Walking about in the midst 
of daily duties. 

(b) Gal. 5: 25, A careful, studied walk, 
being the use of a different verb from 

S: 16. 

(c) Inward intimation, Acts 8: 29; n: 12; 
13: 4; also Acts 16: 6, 7. 

Some, Gumming, (Through the Eter- 
nal Spirit, page 196) notice a shade 
of meaning between the "forbid" of 
vs. 6 and the "suffer not" of vs. 7,' 
the latter leading of the Spirit not being 
so clear; the 5 first would not allow them, 
the second simply gave no permission. 

(d) Acts 19: 21, Purposed in the Spirit, 
the Holy Spirit, Gloag, Gumming; his 
own spirit, Meyer, Riddle, Racket, 
R. V. Even in the latter case it would 
be under the impulse of the Holy Spirit. 

(e) Acts 10. 9, Led 1 by a vision the call to 
Macedonia, 23: n, the visit to Rome 
confirmed ; Acts 10, Led up to pray, that 
is, given a vision and told to go. 

The Fruits of the Spirit 63 

(e) II Cor. 12: 18, Guided by the Spirit. 
iSimeon led by the Spirit, Lu. 2: 27. 
Jesus, Lu. i : 4, "led." The Holy Spirit, 
His ruling and guiding principle, in- 
duced Him to go, acting on His soul 
for that purpose; (en, with the dative.) 
Matt. 4: i, "Led up," the external 
idea more emphasized Actual guid- 
ance, (hupo, with the genitive.) MJk. 
i: 12, "Driveth," east out; the sense 
of urgency, compulsion. "Not that 
Jesus resisted but that His pure soul 
abhorred the personal contact with the 
Evil One." 

XII. Power for service. 

(a) II Tim. i : 7, Power in general, with a 
possible particular reference to cour- 

. (b) I Peter i: 12, I Thes. 1:5;! Cor. 2: 4, 
Power in preaching. 

(c) Acts i: 8, Power in witnessing, refer- 
ring here to every needed qualification 
equipment in general. 

XIII. Confidence and assurance in preach- 
ing. I Thes. i: 5 (Meyer and Lange.) This is 
the preferred interpretation rather than that the 
hearers receive the Gospel with assurance, as 
Riddle and others say. 

64 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

XIV. Calls, appoints and qualifies for office, 
Acts 20: 28. 

XV. Love of the brethren. Rom. 15: 30; 
II Cor. 6:8; Col. i : 8, and II Tim. i : 7. In this 
last reference Meyer, Olshausen, Bengel, Shiea- 
ton and Cumming say the reference is to the 
Holy Spirit; however we look at the passage it 
virtually amounts to this, for such a spirit we 
could not receive save through the Holy Spirit 
imparted to us who Himself has these character- 

XVI. Gives consciousness of God's love. 
Rom. 5:5; Cumming's idea of the Spirit loving 
us is certainly beautiful and legitimate; it does 
not rest so much on exegetical ground' as in that 
it must be really so. The Spirit cannot produce 
love in us unless He Himself is loving and loves. 
This is true of all the fruit of the Spirit. 

XVII. A comprehension and appreciation of 
Christ's love. Eph. 3: 18, 19. 

XVIII. Peace, -peace in general; peace with 
God, with man, and inner peace; also Rom. 8: 6. 
Gal. 5: 22, refers to inner peace solely. 

The Fruits of the Spirit 65 

XIX. Holy joy. Acts 13: 52; Rom. 14: 7. 

(a) ph, 5: 19, A heart of melody. 

(b) I Thes. i : 6, Joy in affliction. 

Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spirit; so rendered 
by the best MBS. 

XX. Hope. Rom. 15: 13. 

XXL Meekness. Gal. 6: i, and I Cor. 4: 21. 
Meyer, Hodge and Smeaton read here the Holy 
Spirit, while Riddle, Ellicott, Alford, Lange, 
Lightfoot and others, say it is best to read 
"spirit of meekness," referring to the human 
spirit, so read the authorized and 1 revised" ver- 
sions, and this is the more probable, although 
Meyer and Hodge say, and there is strength in 
the assertion, that when spirit is used with an 
abstract noun in the genitive it always means 
Holy Spirit, as Spirit of truth, John 15: 26; 16: 
13; I John 4: 6, of adoption, Rom. 8: 15, of faith, 
II Cor. 4: 13, of wisdom, Bph. i: 17; of power, 
II Tim. 1:7. 

XXII. Comfort. Acts 9: 31, Meyer, Alford, 
Lange, Gloag, Riddle, make the word mean ex- 
hortation; Hackett renders it "aid," referring it 

66 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

either to consolatory exhortation by the disciples 
inspired by the Spirit, or the people being moved 
by the Spirit's inward exhortation; but the idea 
of comfort is in the word, and is so used in the 
Ntew Testament, John 14: 16, 17, and to be so 
rendered suits well the context, the circum- 
stance of the church; so also Gumming, page 170. 

XXIII. Liberty. II Cor. 3: 17, The liberty 
which comes from a change of state and relation- 
ship, such as pertains to justification. 

XXIV. Thanksgiving for all things. Eph. 

5: 20. 

XXV. A submissive heart. Eph. 5:21; Phil. 

(a) Wives submitting to husbands, Eph. 

5: 22. 

(b) Husbands loving wives, 5: 25. 

(c) Children obeying fathers, 6: I. 

(d) Fathers not provoking children, 6: 4. 

(e) Servants obeying masters, 6: 5. 

(f) Masters forbearing toward servants, 

XXVI. Aid in trouble. Phil. 1 : 19, especially 
in Paul's case, comfort and courage. 

The Fruits of the Spirit 67 

XXVII. Unity. 

(a) Eph. 2 : 22, For the sake of strength. 

(b) Eph. 4: 3, In the church and among in- 

XXVIII. Access to. God. Eph. 2: 18, that is, 
led up to God by the Spirit. 

XXIX. Aid in prayer. 

(a) Jude 20 and Rom. 8: 26. The Holy 
Spirit discovers to us our poverty and 
the value of spiritual things, promotes 
the substance of all true prayer and in- 
cites to true faith. 

(b) Eph. 6: 18, Personal prayer and inter- 
cession; it will not do with Cumming, 
(Through the Eternal Spirit, page 240,) 
to say that intercession is here the 
special thing. See also Eph. 2: 18; 
and if prayer is implied in Gal. 4: 6, and 
Rora 8: 26, these passages also belong 

XXX. Worship by the Spirit. Phil. 3:3. He 
prompts, animates and directs it; singing, pray- 
ing, and all forms of worship are included, 
though Paul significantly chose the word used 
to describe Jewish worship by ritual and cere- 

68 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

mony; even in these outward forms the Spirit 
was to be recognized. 

XXXI. Communion. II Cor. 13: 14. 
Though the thought of fellowship in the sense of 
communion with the Holy Spirit is not the pri- 
mary one, such thought is necessarily involved in 
the word. See preceding chapter. Here also be- 
longs, Phil. 2: i. 

XXXII. Discipline. II Tim. i: 7. The 
word implies more than self-control, having an 
active signification, and describes a quality cal- 
culated to bring others to soberness and sound- 
ness of mind. 

XXXIII. Faithfulness in duty. II Tim. i: 
14, Guarding one's trust; probably in Timothy's 
case the Gospel and his ministry. 

XXXIV. II Cor. 6: 6. Just what relation 
"by (en) the Holy Spirit" bears to the rest of 
the discourse is uncertain ; not in so many words 
is it said those graces are fruits of the Spirit, but 
if Paul here introduces the Spirit as the source 
of them then we have a list of fruits as follows: 

(a Patience. 

The Fruits of the Spirit 69 

(b) Pureness, both moral sincerity and 

(c) Knowledge, evangelical, that is, of 
God's moral will. 

(d) Kindness. 

(e) Love of the brethren. 

XXXV. Patient waiting for future redemp- 
tion. Gal. 5: 5. 

XXXVI. First fruits of the Spirit. Rom. 8: 
23. Olshausen, DeWette and Meyer refer this 
to the early Christians receiving the Spirit in 
contrast to all Christians receiving* 'Him now and 
later, that is, a partitive genitive being used. 
Riddle says what we now possess is but first 
fruits of what we shall receive in glory; also parti- 
tive genitive. Hodge, Godet and Lange say the 
Holy Spirit is the "first fruits," as in Eph. 1:14, 
an earnest of what we shall be: appositional geni- 
tive. The second and third views are exactly 
alike in consequence, and as the word "first 
fruits" is always used with a partitive genitive we 
prefer Riddle's view. 

XXXVII. Redemption of the body at the 
resurrection. Rom. 8: n. Jesus so raised, Rom. 

70 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

8: ii ; also I Peter 3: 18, according to Smeaton, 
Gumming and the authorized version, but 
strongly opposed by Meyer, Riddle and the re- 
vised version. 

XXXVIH. Eternal life in glory. Gal 6: 8. 
Meyer would put Rom. 8: 6, here also, but the 
reference is hardly to be so limited, referring the 
rather to eternal life, spiritual here, and con- 
sequently hereafter of course. 

XXXIX. Inspiration. II Peter i: 21, The 
word is "borne on" the figure of a ship before 
the wind, 

XL. Christ was justified in the Spirit. I Tim. 

3: 16. 

(a) In His miracles, (b) In His spotless 
life, (c) In His resurrection. 

(a)' Our justification by the Spirit is seen by 
Hodge, Lange and Alford in I Cor. 6: n, 
but, as noted above, it has seemed pref- 
erable to take the word as ''Meyer does 
in its sense of sanctification. 

(b) Rom. 14: 17, The above three authori- 
ties take righteousness in this verse also 
in the sense of justification, though 
neither of them connect it with "in the 
Spirit"; this last phrase, however, is bet- 

The Fruits of the Spirit 71 

ter connected with all three of the pre- 
ceding word's and "righteousness" taken 
in the sense of holiness (Meyer and 

XLI. I Cor. 12: 8, 9, 10, Tfcese we are in- 
clined to believe are apostolic. 


HE -word baptism in connection with 
the name of the Holy Spirit is men- 
tioned seven times in the New Tes- 
tament, Matt. 3: ii ; 'Mark i: 8; 
Luke 3: 16; John i: 33, each refer- 
ring to John's testimony that the 
Coming One was to baptize with 
the Holy Spirit. In Acts i : 5, the 
risen Christ promises it; in Acts 
ii : 16, Peter quotes the promise as having 
been fulfilled in the case of Cornelius, and 
in I Cor. 12: 13, we are said to be 
baptized "en" one spirit into* one body. The 
preposition following the word baptize is in each 
case "en" save once, Mark i : 8, where it is omit- 
ted, the Holy Spirit, however, in each instance 
being in the same grammatical form dative, va- 
riously translated in, with and by. With Pente- 

The Baptism of the Spirit 73 

cost came the fulfillment of the promised bap- 
tism. These disciples we know were: 

1. Baptized with the Holy Spirit, Acts 1:5. 

2. Endued, clothed upon, -Revised Ver- 

sion, with power from on high, Lu. 
24: 49. 

3. Filled with the Spirit, Acts 2: 4, "Pletho," 

same word used in John 19: 24. 

In their case at least the words, "baptism," 
"enduement," "filling," referred to one and the 
same experience. This experience was accom- 
panied by certain miraculous manifestations, 
"sound as of rushing wind," "tongues of fire," 
and followed by certain miraculous results, such 
as "speaking in foreign tongues." 

This was fitting, first, as the inaugural of a 
new dispensation; second, because the disciples 
were in need of the miraculous how very much 
one can easily imagine. We are to bear in mind 
that the miracles were the accompaniments and the 
results of the baptism. 

The chief purpose of this baptism was quali- 
fication for the best possible service. 

74 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

The results i case of the disciples we're: 

(a) Miraculous powers, Acts 2: 4. 
(b) Witnessing, (i) With boldness, Acts 
2: 4. (2) With power, Acts i: 8; 2: 41; 
and no doubt to each of them was given 
other gifts not then recorded, Acts 19: 6; 
I Cor. 12: i, 12. 

Was this baptism their regeneration or were 
the disciples regenerated men before Pentecost? 
Rev. G. Campbell Morgan takes the former view 
'("The Spirit of God," pages 132 and 174.) Even 
were his conception true it would by no means 
be a necessary deduction therefrom that regen- 
eration was the thing of chief import at Pente- 
cost. We are forced 1 to feel that Dr. Morgan 
has emphasized the wrong thing. Certainly a 
believer after Pentecost would be a broader 
visioned and deeper experienced individual 
than one before. He would in some respects be 
a new man. Christ means immeasurably more 
to the 'Christian of today that He could possibly 
mean to the disciples in the period of his incar- 
nation. Regeneration is by an almost unani- 
mous opinion considered to be an act resulting in 

The Baptism of the Spirit 75 

the instantaneous change from spiritual death to 
spiritual life. Its metaphysical nature must for- 
ever remain a mystery, and) before thinking of 
the disciples as unregenerated one must rather 
thoroughly understand the nature of this mys- 
terious and divinely inwrought work and rather 
thoroughly appreciate the scope of the change 
resulting therefrom. Says Andrew Murray, page 
323, "To the disciples the Baptism of the Spirit 
was very distinctly not His first bestowal for 
regeneration but the definite communication of 
the Presence in power of their glorified Lord." 
Certainly the disciples had received the Holy 
Spirit before Pentecost; if not, how interpret 
John 20: 22? "He breathed on them and said 
receive ye the 'Holy Spirit." This Dr. M'organ 
calls a "prophetic breathing," a "typical act," 
page 108, and Dr. Gumming also concurs in 
this, saying the disciples here received nothing; 
but, first, the aorist imperative of the verb "re- 
ceive" argues against such a conception; second, 
the thought embodied in the verb "send" argues 
against it; third, the act of breathing is against 

76 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

it. (Same verb used in Gen. 2: 7.) Fourth, if 
nothing were received it would be only a repeti- 
tion of the Saviour's promise in 1 his farewell dis- 

Some argue the omission of the article before 
the Holy Spirit, making it refer not to the per- 
sonal Holy Spirit, but to His influence only, but 
such omission is of little or no import. Entirely 
too much stress has been laid upon every slight 
variation of expression. Seemingly unmindful 
that under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit the 
writer was not a machine, there have always been 
critics who could see the hand of several writers 
in one treatise or build an inverted pyramid of 
manuscript in defense of a theory resting upon 
the slightest grammatical deviation from the 
author's established style. (For a most excellent 
exposition on the use of the article in the New 
Testament see Gumming, "Through the Eternal 

Spirit," page 281.) Scofield says, "They first 
received the Holy Spirit here." ("Plain Papers 

on the Doctrine of the Holy Spirit," page 35.) 
With Bengle, Calvin, Olshausen, Stier, Alford, 

The Baptism of the Spirit 77 

Godet, Meyer and others we see in the passage 
in question an impartation of the Hloly Spirit, 
not so full and complete as at Pentecost, but 
quantitative at least, an impartation already to 
regenerate men or at least an impartation which 
effected that regeneration. (See Swete in Hast- 
ings' "Dictionary of the Bible" Article on 
"Holy Spirit." In Kuyper's recent studied work 
on the Holy Spirit, he gives a threefold relation 
of the Holy Spirit to the disciples. 

(1) Regeneration and subsequent illumina- 
tion, SMath. 16: 17. 

(2) Reception as official gift qualifying them 
for apostolic office, John 20: 22. 

(3) Pentecost. 

Torrey "Baptism of the Holy Spirit," page 6, 
refers to John 13: 10; 15: 13, "ye are clean," as 
witnessing the disciples' regeneration. With him 
is nearly all critical authority. Cumming, page 
98, speaking of the disciples at Pentecost, says, 
"They were new men, not in the sense of being 
born again, for assuredly they had all known 
that change before." 

78 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

We repeat, however, that even were this sub- 
jective change first wrought at Pentecost this 
would in no way militate against the fact that 
the distinctive feature of that occasion was not re- 
generation, but enduement for service. We must 
confess that the startling! thing about Dr. Mor- 
gan's book, "The Spirit of God," is the bold 
maneuver in exegesis by which he undertakes 
to substantiate the claim he has made. We have 
looked for his authority and have failed to find it. 
It is always inspiring to see a man who dares to 
differ from centuries of authority. However, in 
coming to safe views of 'Scriptural truths, we 
must have respect to what others have thought 
before us. In the attempt to establish a theory 
all men are susceptible to bias and the comfort- 
ing thing to the student in the critical exegesis of 
Scripture upon the subject is that he is coming 
in contact with the opinions of scholars who for 
the most part, and certainly so> far as this subject 
is concerned, were seeking to establish no theory, 
but searching from an independent viewpoint 
what things the Scripture really said. 

The Baptism of the Spirit 79 

Dr. Morgan, in support of his view, has sur- 
prisingly quoted a great number of baptismal 
passages in the 'New Testament as referring to 
the. baptism of the Holy Spirit. He quotes Rom. 
6: 3, 4. tWe have not found it possible to agree 

with such an interpretation of this passage. It is 
not the purpose of these pages to be controver- 
sial nor will their limits admit of extended argu- 
ment, but in consideration of what has just been 
said of exegetical opinion it is desired simply to 
say that the reverend scholar's position is taken 
in the face of overwhelming authority if such a 
thing there can be. This passage in Romans is 
taken to mean "water baptism," by Bengel, Cal- 
vin, Tholuck, Ruckert, Lightfoot, Lange, Meyer, 
Barnes, Stuart, Shedd, Schaff, Conybeare and 
Howson, Webster and Wilkinson, Hodge, Elli- 
Moule in his recent volume, Marvin R. Vincent 
in his Word Studies (just published) and all others 

"Baptism into" means baptism' in reference to 
and the phrase in no way teaches baptismal re- 
generation. As clear-viewed, Calvin said, "We 

80 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

ought in baptism to recognize a spiritual law; we 
ought in it to embrace a witness to the remission 
of sins and a pledge of our renewal, and yet so to 
leave both to Christ and the Holy; Spirit the 
honor that is theirs as that no part of the salva- 
tion be transferred to the sign." 

Gal. 3: 27; I Peter 3: 21, and Eph. 4: 5, are 
other passages quoted in face of the same array 
of authority. In Matt. 28: 19, among the last 
words of Jesus was the command to the disciples 
that they should "teach all nations, baptizing 
them in the name of the Father and of the Son 
and of the Holy Spirit." In Mark 16: 16, among 
His last words are, "He that believeth and is 
baptized shall be saved." This last Dr. Morgan 
calls the Baptism of the Holy Spirit (Spirit of 
God, page 118); the passage in Matthew cannot 
of course be so construed and what worthy rea- 
sons exist for considering the passage in Mark 
any different does not appear. 

Scofield says (Plain Papers on the Doctrine of 
the Spirit page 41) that from Pentecost to 
the case of Cornelius, Acts 10, opening the door 

The Baptism of the Spirit 81 

to the Gentiles, two -peculiarities mark the im- 
partation of the iSlpirit to believers, one of which 
was that "commonly an interval of time elapsed 
between the receiving of Christ by faith and the 
baptism of the Spirit." Beginning 1 with chapter 
ten he says the baptism came at the moment 
of regeneration. This is true in the case 
of Cornelius (Acts 10: 44 and n: 15), but was it 
the same kind of Baptism that came at Pen- 
tecost? If so, then although it came practically 
simultaneous with regeneration, it must have 
been something different from regeneration and 
conditioned by it. That the baptism in chapter 
ten was the same as that which the disciples and 
all others since Pentecost had received is evi- 
denced 1 by the miraculous gifts which) came with 
it and by Peter's account of it in the next chap- 

What has thus far been said has been offered 
in the defence of the view that the disciples at 
Pentecost were not necessarily unregenerate, 
and more particularly that the Baptism of the 

82 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

Holy Spirit they and all others (recorded) re- 
ceived, was not identical with regeneration. 

We now come to what has been our common 
error the old failure of definition; Scofield, 
(Plain Papers on the Doctrine of the Slpirit, 
page 42) beginning with Acts 10 as a starting 
point, (where, as we have seen, mention! is made 
of a Baptism of the Holy Spirit identical with 
that of Pentecost,) seeks to establish the fact that 
all believers are now and have been from that 
time, Acts 10, regenerated and baptized by the 
Spirit at one and the same time, and adduces in 
defence of such position the exceeding difficult 
passage in I Cor. 12: 13. This passage Morgan, 
(Spirit of God, page 174), also quotes as proof 
that regeneration and Spirit Baptism are identi- 
cal. If I Cor. 12: 13, refers to the Bap- 
tism of the Holy Spirit, it is identical with regen- 
eration, but do we not at once see that as such it 
is an altogether different kind of baptism from 
that of the Holy Spirit in Acts 10, or any time 
previous; in other words, if this baptism in I 

The Baptism of the Spirit 83 

Cor. 12: 13, is that of the Spirit, it is different 
from every other experience in the Word of God 
bearing that name. 

Granting t now for the moment that the word 
"baptism" in I Cor. 12: 13, has no reference to 
water, but refers solely to the regenerative work 
of the Spirit, we would have, in view of the above 
discussion and the present concession: 

(1) A Baptism of the Holy Spirit beginning 
at Pentecost (and ending, so far as the name is 
concerned, at Acts 10,) differing from regenera- 
tion, whatever may be the interpretation given to 
practically simultaneous with regeneration (Acts 
10) though conditioned by it. This baptism 
was a special enduement or filling of the Holy 
Spirit for service. 

(2) A Baptism of the Holy Spirit simulta- 
neous and identical with regeneration, a spiritual 
baptismal regeneration, which belongs not only 
to every believer since Acts 10, but has occurred 
in the case of every individual ever regenerated. 
Not every treatise has made this distinction clear. 
It is in fact the distinction noted by Cumming, 

84 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

page 117, between Christ baptizing men with the 
Holy Spirit and the Holy Spirit baptizing men 
into Christ. The first might properly be called 
the Baptism with the Holy Spirit, and the second 
the Baptism of the Holy Spirit. The first is 
Christ's baptism; the second is the Spirit's bap- 
tism. The Baptism of the Holy Spirit is there- 
fore, properly speaking, the same as regenera- 
tion, whatever may be the interpretation given to 
I Cor. 12: 13, and even though there be in the 
Scripture no specific mention of it in the exact 
phraseology we are using. In speaking, there- 
fore, of the post-regenerative experience under 
discussion the reader will note that through 
the remainder of these remarks the expres- 
sion, "Baptism 'with the Holy Spirit" is used. 
Nlow concerning I Cor. 12: 13; "For with one 
Spirit we were all baptized into one body." The 
Revised Version reads, "in one Spirit," but as 
it is the same preposition as is used in every 
other case, we see no reason for reading other 
than "with" (as expressive of the agent) in this 

The Baptism of the Spirit 85 

instance, especially if it means baptism in the 
sense above granted. 

Does it refer to water baptism or to the regen- 
erative impartation of the. Holy Spirit? The 
question is a difficult one, and no man can decide 
it and as the translator of Kling has said, 
"It will continue to be determined in accordance 
with the feeling and original preferences of differ- 
ent individuals." Authority, which preponder- 
ates in favor of the first, is divided so far as we 
have discovered as follows : For water baptism, 
Bengel, Meyer, Alford, DeWette, Kling, Ruck- 
ert, Luther, Beza, Calvin, Henry, Scott, Gum- 
ming, Vincent. For the regenerative baptism of 
the Holy Ghost apart altogether from water 
baptism, Hodge, Chapman, Scofield, Morgan, 

In Gal. 3: 27, and Bph. 4: 5, where the refer- 
ence as we have taken it is to water baptism, Paul 
says we are "baptized into Christ," and here he 
says, "we are baptized into Christ 'en' the Holy 
Spirit," and as it is not plain that he anvwhere 
else speaks of the regenerative act as a baptism 

86 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

it would seem the part of consistent exegesis to 
see a reference to water baptism here. 

This baptism is then either "in" the Holy Spirit 
as the element into which the baptized have been 
transferred and in which they are ever after ex- 
pected to live (the E. R. V. rendering seems to 
favor this as in every other instance where the 
same preposition is used "with" is given as the 
preferred meaning); or it is "with" or "by" the 
Holy Spirit in the sense that the Holy Spirit is 
the agent of the faith which is the necessary ac- 
companiment of every baptism into 'Christ. This 
is the explanation of Gumming (Through the 
Eternal Spirit, page 117.) 

Impossible to come to an unquestioned) 
decision, we must content ourselves with a 
preference. That preference is for the explana- 
tion of Gumming. In the word "baptism" there- 
fore, in this verse is to be found an immediate 
reference to water baptism. This brings the con- 
clusion that as a regenerative act the baptism of 
the Holy Spirit is nowhere mentioned in the 
Scripture. Hodge says, "any communication of 

The Baptism of the Spirit 87 

the Spirit may be called a baptism whether in his 
regenerating, sanctifying or inspiring 1 influ- 
ences." This is true, but his regenerating 1 in- 
fluence is not so called in Scripture and what we 
must in our now current discussions avoid is a 
confusion of terms. 

The Holy Spirit does baptize us into Christ 
whether so mentioned in Scripture or not, but 
this experience in reality is prior to that of which 
Paul speaks in I Cor. 12: 13, inasmuch as when 
a man comes to the baptismal place he is sup- 
posed to be already a regenerated individual ; he 
is then on the ground of his faith, previously pro- 
duced by the Holy Spirit, baptized into, that is, 
in respect to Christ. The other view which must 
also be worthily considered maintains that Paul 
here has no reference to water and speaks solely 
of the regenerative baptism by the Holy Spirit 
into Christ, which of course is experienced by 
everyone who believes. 

Our discussion has so far thus resolved itself: 
i. Every believer has had one Baptism of the 
Spirit (regenerative) whether the particular 

88 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

phraseology be so used in Scripture or not. 
2. If i Cor. 12: 13, refers immediately to regen- 
eration there is at least one express mention of 
this baptism in the Word. 3. To the apostles 


and early Christians was granted a Baptism with 
jthe Spirit (post-regenerative) filling them with 
power and preparing them for every emergency 
in Christian experience. 

Mow comes the other question, Is there such a 
thing as Christ baptizing men with the Holy 
Spirit today? May we be baptized as were the 
apostles? As far as the phrasing of that experi- 
ence is concerned, it nowhere in Scripture says 
we may; but it is the writer's opinion based upon 
his own experience that many an anxious one 
(has been led into confusion about this most im- 
portant matter bv expressions of different writers 
seemingly antagonistic because of an indiscrim- 
inating use of terms or a lack of explanation as 
to the exact meaning involved. For example, 
note the following: 

(i) "The believer may ask and expect what 

The Baptism of the Spirit 89 

may be termed a Baptism of the .Spirit," Murray, 
Spirit of Christ, page 323. 

(2) "The Baptism is not like the filliner pre- 
sented to us as a blessing for which the Christian 
is to seek," Moule, Veni Creator, page 222. 

(3) "Neither is there any gift He is more 
willing to bestow upon believers than this Divine 
Baptism"; Mahan, 'Baptism of the Holy 
Ghost, pages 48 and 49. 

(4) "It is not right that Christian people 
should profess to be waiting for the Baptism of 
the Spirit" ; Morgan The Spirit of God page 
176. i 

(5) "The Baptism of the Spirit is the begin- 
ning of the full life of Christian experience": 
dimming Through the Eternal Spirit page 

(6) "It is unscriptural for the Christian to be 
talking about the Baptism of the Holv Ghost": 
Chapman Received ye the Holy Ghost page 

(7) "It surely cannot be unscriptural for a 
believer to pray, Lord Jesus baiptize me with the 

90 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

Holy Spirit"; MacNeil Spirit-filled Life-^page 


(8) "It does not follow that every believer has 
received this Baptism of the Spirit"; Gordon 
The Ministry of the Spirit page 75. He goes 
on to show they may. 

(9) "And she (a Christian woman) received 
the Baptism of the Holy Ghost inside of ten min- 
utes"; Torrey, Baptism with the Holy Ghost, 
page 19. 

The experience which we are discussing is of 
vital importance to every believer, and anxious to 
know that he may have a thoughtful appreciation 
of the thing he is told to seek, is it any wonder 
he finds himself somewhat bewildered in the pres- 
ence of so many statements, some actually con- 
flicting, others apparently so, though a different 
experience is being described by the same name. 
Is there a "Baptism with the Holy Spirit" for the 
believer today? We have already said that in this 
particular phraseology, Scripture does not say 
there is; but may we have the experience belong- 
ing to it? Paul said in Eph. 5: 18, "Be filled with 

The Baptism of the Spirit 91 

the Spirit." Before attempting an answer to the 
above question let us endeavor to see something 
of what Paul meant by the experience to which he 
exhorts MS in the words, "Be filled with the 


N the chapter on the advent of the 
Spirit were noted three distinct 
periods of the Spirit's presence and 
operation. In each of these men 
were filled with the Spirit: 
I. In the Old Testament, Bezaleel, 
Ex. 28: 3; 31: 3; 35: 31. See also 
Deut. 34: 9. Eight times in the Old 
Testament the Spirit is said 1 to' be in 
men, twenty-seven times upon men, and three 
times to be clothed with men. These different 
expressions make no difference in the resulting 

II, From the Incarnation to Pentecost, John 
the Baptist, Luke i: 5; Elizabeth, Luke 1:4; 
Zacharias, Luke 1 : 67. In all 1 these instances the 
same Greek word, "pletho" (to fill) or its Hebrew 
equivalent, "male," as in the case of Bezaleel, is 
used, and in each case, according to the Spirit's 

The Filling of the Spirit 93 

economy prior to Pentecost, was the equipment 
of a special individual to do a special work. 

III. Pentecost and after. At Pentecost the 
disciples were baptized, Acts i: 5, endued with 
power, Luke 24: 49; and filled, Acts 2: 4; all in 
one and the same experience. This filling was 
accompanied by miraculous signs and followed 
by miraculous effects, but there was nothing 
miraculous about the filling itself. The writer 
means in this sense for instance, supposing 
Paul's regeneration to have occurred on his way 
to Damascus, there was nothing more miracu- 
lous about it than about yours or mine, the 
miracle (the blazing light, etc.), was the accom- 
paniment. These spiritual processes or acts are 
always in a sense miraculous, but the actual fill- 
ing and the actual regenerating were according 
to the regular method of operation, and if there 
is such an experience for the believer today, it 
will be the same kind of fi'llinig, given by the 
same method which the 1 disciples received by 
whatever name it may be called. 

In Acts 4: 8, Peter was filled again, and again 

94 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

with all the disciples, in 4: 31. Paul was filled in 
Acts 9: 17, and once more in 13: 9. We now call 
attention to the fact that Stephen in Acts 6: 37, 
and 7: 55, and Barnabas in Acts n: 24, are said 
to be men "full of the Holy Spirit," the adjective 
(irXtjpys) being used, whereas in the above-noted 
fillings, when used as a qualifying clause, the past 
participle (TrX^fleis) is employed as designative 
of something definitely done. Some have ac- 
cordingly found a distinction here which to a 
certain extent is a worthy one, though it 
sounds very strange to speak of a dif- 
ference between! being "full of the' Spirit" and 
being 1 "filled with the Spirit." The first refers 
more properly to the habitual fullness of the 
Spirit as a somewhat permanent state of the soul; 
the second to occasional experiences for special 

We remark, (i) It is not difficult to conceive 
of the distinction. We speak of a man well 
known for his godliness and spiritual power as 
being full of the Holy Spirit, without implying 
that he is filled to the utmost reach of his capacity 

The Filling of the Spirit 95 

for fulness as may be needful for him on some 
particular occasion. Peter was filled more than 
once and certainly after Pentecost he was, even 
as Barnabas and Stephen, a man "full of the Holy 
Spirit," though this particular expression is 
nowhere used of him in Scripture. And may 
we not think of Barnabas and Stephen, men full 
of the Spirit, Acts n: 24; 6: 5; 7: 55, being on 
some special occasion -filled with the Spirit for 
some special purpose. Says F. B. Meyer, "A 
Castaway," page 100, "You may be a man full of 
the Holy Ghost in your family, but before enter- 
ing your pulpit, be sure that you are especially 
equipped by a new reception of the Holy Ghost." 
The filling then with this distinction in mind 
would correspond! more nearly to what most 
people understand as the anointing the special 
equipment for a special purpose. Such was Acts 
2:4;4:8;i3:9, etc., while the fulness would find 
its reference to the more ordinary condition of 
every godly character to what Gumming calls, 
page 230, "the habit of the soul." 
(2) The distinction, if accepted, we are in- 

96 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

dined to think is one altogether of degree; the 
occasional filling being simply an increased 
supply of the same power already in pos- 
session such as the exigency of the occasion 
demands. It presupposes the need with which it 
comes and with which it departs ; it presupposes, 
of course, the fulness as the more habitual pos- 
session and is received upon exactly the same 
(conditions with it. 

What then was this experience which came to 
the disciples when in fulfillment of the promise 
that they should "be baptized with the Holy 
Spirit not many days hence" it is said in Scrip- 
ture, Acts 2 : 4, "They were all filled with the Holy 
Spirit?" What happened to the disciples when 
thus filled? It is not the name of an experience 
we are trying to establish, but its nature we would 
so far as possible understand. Have we not gone 
to unwarranted lengths in seeking to establish a 
difference in import in the meaning of "in," 
"with" and "by," and various other modes of ex- 
pression by which in Scripture it is evidently de- 
sired to convey the same thought? In the case 

The Filling of the Spirit 97 

of the household of Cornelius, Peter describes 
the one experience by "poured out," "fell upon," 
"received," "baptized" and)' "gave," and then said 
it was like Pentecost which therefore was also an 
"enduement" and a "nllimg." 

But when the disciples were filled at Pentecost 
iwhat we do know is that the Holy Spirit as a 
diivine personal Presence, so wrought upon or 
exercised Himself within them or so influenced 
them that the inner subjective change resultant 
therefrom fitted them for service and of course 
for holy living also, although note this last is 
never mentioned as a result of the filling re- 
ceived by the Apostles. The Holy Spirit 
then for the first time manifested Himself 
in fulness in the men of God and filled 
them for the particular service of the hour; had 
it been some great spiritual conflict through 
which they were to pass the filling which they 
received would! have been appropriate and ade- 
quate to that; had it been to endure martyrdom 
or suffer otherwise the filling would have been 
given for that, for although the occasion made 

98 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

equipment for service the prominent need it is 
not our thought that the filling of the Spirit is 
to be thus limited 1 . 

Now when Paul tells us in Eph. 5: 18, to "Be 
filled with the Spirit," it is doubtless with more 
immediate reference to that habitual fulness 
which ought to characterize the life of every be- 
liever. What he meant was "live the Spirit-filled 
life." But if the Spirit-filled life is held before us 
as a possible attainment, certainly the special 
filling needful at crisal moments in Christian ex- 
perience, which, after all, though the above dis- 
tinction be thoroughly appreciated, is the more 
ordinary fulness carried up to its highest mani- 
festation, will not be denied us if in the time of 
need we put ourselves in a condition to receive it, 
and what other could the Pentecostal experience 
and the special fillings that came to the Disciples 
be than a high degree of the same power which 
is necessarily associated with that fulness of the 
Spirit (Eph. 5: 18) which is the normal or healthy 
condition of soul and which ought to character- 
ize the life of every believer. 

The Filling of the Spirit 99 

It is an experience wrought upon our very in- 
most self. Its metaphysical nature is beyond 
finite comprehension. It is God Himself in the 
presence and Person of His Holy Spirit enter- 
ing into the throne room of a believer's being, 
ruling there with power for the perfection of life 
and commanding for the advancement of His 
kingdom the now divinely energized faculties of 
a God-possessed and God-empowered soul. 

In view of this it certainly will not be missing 
the truth if it is said with Gumming ("Through 
the Eternal Spirit," page 114), that for the 
Christian of today "in addition to the gift 
of the Spirit received at conversion there is 
another blessing corresponding in its sign and 
effects to the blessing received by the apostles 
at Pentecost," or with Boardman, ("In the Power 
of the Spirit," paige 2), that "All of every age who 
have shown by their fruits that they have had the 
apostolic enduement' of spiritual power, came 
into it by an experimental reception of the Holy 
Spirit not essentially different from that of the 
apostles and evangelists." 

100 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

If this filling received by the disciple today is 
not essentially different from the experience ac- 
corded to the early disciples by what name shall 
we call it? As learned Dr. 'Hodge has reminded 
us, any impartation of the Holy Spirit is a bap- 
tism, and certainly, apart from biblical phrase- 
ology, a filling with the Spirit may be called a 
baptism with the Spirit. Again since a not essen- 
tially different experience in the case of the. disci- 
ples is called a baptism would it not seem to be of 
Scriptural warrant, to call this filling also a bap- 
tism? But since Scripture does not use the term 
baptism, in the sense in which we are now speak- 
ing, when referring to this experience, in that 
portion of God's Word especially designed for the 
saints of this day the Epistles but does exhort 
the Christian to be filled with the Spirit, many 
have argued, especially since there is a question 
in the minds of some as to the similarity of these 
experiences, that it would be best to adhere in 
present-day terminology to the word "filling"; 
but if the use of such a term is calculated to mag- 
nify a difference which does not exist, such a dis- 

The Filling of the Spirit 101 

tinction in choice of words had better be aban- 
doned. What is there, therefore, but to conclude 
with Andrew Murray, "Spirit of Christ," page 
23, that the believer may come into an experi- 
ence of "what may be termed a baptism with the 
Holy Spirit." 

Possible objections to the above conclusion: 
i. It has been objected that the word bap- 
tism is not used in this connection with reference 
to believers in any of the Epistles. It is true 
the New Testament writers were very choice in 
their use of words, but this very fact cripples the 
objection, since Luke has made use of so many 
different expressions to describe the one experi- 
ence under consideration. Since also the term 
"filling" is used interchangeably with "baptism" 
in the Acts, and the mere fact that this was an ex- 
perience for the disciples is no reason in itself 
why it may not be ours, and since, after all, the 
point of discussion is an experience and not a 
word, the above objection is of insufficient force 
for any invalidation of the position we have 

102 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

2. It has been objected that a feature of the 
early baptism with the Spirit was the miraculous. 
The miraculous was not, however, essential to the 
thing itself; it was the accompaniment and a 
method of manifestation according 1 to the econ- 
omy of that iday. If it is the miraculous that 
determines the experience, then it is heartily con- 
ceded that there is no> baptism for the believer 
today, but a filling differing from the baptism in 
this particular. But the miraculous does not be- 
long to the nature of the filling, and with no dif- 
ference in the experience that comes to a Spirit- 
filled man today God could, if He chose, use him 
in setting the miraculous before the world, the 
subjective condition of the man being in no wise 
different from that which characterized the 
saints of earlier days. 

That the filling is not accompanied by miracu- 
lous manifestations today is true; that it is not 
followed by them is also true. Some of our rec- 
ognized teachers upon this subject have affirmed 
the opposite concerning the miraculous results 
of this experience; they claim to have witnessed 

The Filling of the Spirit 103 

such results. Possibly, they have failed in close 
discrimination between the miraculous and the 
working of natural law. 

'Neither their conviction nor their veracity is 
called in question, but the writer finds himself 
simply unable to believe it; he does believe the 
prayer of faith shall save the sick; he does believe 
in the physiological effect of faith and in the power 
of mental states over physical conditions; but 
when a man, Spirit-filled though he be, goes with 
me to the side of a mutilated, flesh-corroded leper 
or any person suffering with an organic ailment, 
and lifts him at once into the vigor of health, he 
will find another ardent believer of the genuinely 
miraculous result of the experience under consid- 

Bishop Taylor, according to Rev. Mr. Godbey, 
tells of a young lady, who, in three months, 

preached fluently to a nation of whose language 
she had been utterly ignorant. This Mr. Godbey 
calls the "Gift of Tongues." A Spirit-filled per- 
son can learn a great deal in three months by 
hard work, but the disciples spoke not only in 

104 A Help to the Stuay of the Holy Spirit 

one but in many tongues in less time than that. 
That such miraculous power did attend the gift 
of the Holy Spirit in the early church, Paul's 
letters render plain, I Cor. 12: 1-12. Whether 
the church has lost them through her unfaithful- 
ness or whether, which is more probable, as Dr. 
Meyer suggests, "special gifts being given for 
special purposes they are now withdrawn," is a 
question without a place in the purpose of this 

3. It has been objected that the filling en- 
joined by Paul in Eph. 5: 18, had for its' chief 
aim the development of character, while that of 
apostolic times was always connected with ser- 
vice. But in recording the growth of the church 
service would naturally be the point of emphasis 
though certainly a holy character must have been 
presupposed; while Paul in his thought for the 
Ephesian Christians would naturally emphasize 
that which is the foundation of all service. Luke 
was writing of the church; Paul was writing to 
the church; the purpose and consequent nature 
of the writings satisfactorily account for this dif- 

The Filling of the Spirit 105 

ference. If this be kept in mind, together with 
the explanation as given in the beginning of this 
chapter, the above objection in no sense invali- 
dates the argument set forth in these pages. 

4. It has been objected that the conditions of 
these experiences are different; to be filled with 
the Spirit, as understood today, calls for the full- 
est surrender and the most thorough consecra- 
tion, while in apostolic times it was granted to 
those who were evidently the most ordinary 
Christians. In answer to this it may be said: 

(a) There is no clear evidence that the three 
thousand at Pentecost were thus filled. 

(b) It has been thought that at such an ini- 
tial time, to lend the kingdom all possi- 
ble advance it may have seemed wise 
to the Head of the Church to bestow 
this gift on less stringent conditions. 

(c) The better answer, however, is that the 
objection involves an unwarranted as- 
sumption; there is no evidence that 
those filled were other than they who 
were of the required character for this 

In view of the first three objections, should 
any consider them formidable, there is no bap- 
tism with the Spirit for the believer today, but 

106 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

as already explained, the name and the miracle, 
as the point of emphasis, have no part in the 
nature of the act or process, for it is both, and 
if this last is not essentially different in either 
case, then the experience itself is virtually the 
same. If the Spirit's operations are essen- 
tially the same both in the baptism and the filling 
the name is of small importance; it is not ai ques- 
tion of nomenclature, but of a spiritual act and: 
process which remain in nature unchanged by 
whatever term it may be designated. 

We observe then: 

(i) There are many fillings. Two instances 
of Paul's filling have been noted, Acts 9: 17, and 
13: 9; the disciples were filled, Acts 2: 4, and 
again, 4: 31; and Peter, a third time, Acts 4: 8, 
each being an experience similar to Pentecost, 
says Kuyper, only weaker. These repeated fill- 
ings were all in view of service to be performed. 
That it was because these men had "passed into 
a realm of fear and trembling," Morgan, (Spirit 
of God, page '189), that such filling must again 
be renewed we cannot with certainty affirm; it is 

The Filling of the Spirit 107 

not so difficult to conceive of being always "full 
of the Spirit" as the normal condition or habit of 
the soul, but that any one, even Peter or Paul, 
should, despite the limitations of the human na- 
ture, remain continually in the overflowing con- 
dition, at the utmost height of spiritual power 
and attainment, should at every minute of life be 
filled with the Spirit to the measure which at 
some particular crisis is necessary to the highest 
glory of God is hardly possible to conceive. Such 
filling is, however, for us at whatever moment 
we need it and are ready to receive it. 

The Filling of the Spirit and what some have 
chosen to call and we have conceded may be 
called, the Baptism with the Spirit, being there- 
fore one and the same kind! of experience we fail 
to see the ground for saying, as does Gumming, 
(Through the Eternal Spirit, page 119), that 
there is but one baptism and many fillings, and 
that "the baptism is something not to be repeated 
in the experience of the man who receives it." 
MacNeil, (Spirit-filled Life, page 37), says, "The 
filling may be and ought to be repeated over and 

108 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

over and over again; the baptism need be but 
once"; and again he says, page 39, "He 
must not continue praying for the baptism, 
for that cannot be repeated; whereas, he may 
ask and obtain a fresh filling, a refilling with the 
Holy Spirit every day of his life." Erdman, Mor- 
gan, Chapman, Carson, all say, "one baptism 
and many fillings"; so also do Gumming and 

This is the oft-quoted formula of Dr. Erdman; 
but notice the above-mentioned writers do not all 
mean alike; the first group refer the baptism to 
regeneration, I Cor. 12: 13, for which there is 
reason, as already seen, and if admitted, the for- 
mula is true; Gumming and Mac-Neil, however, 
use the same formula and refer the baptism to 
the special experience after regeneration, in 
which case the distinction is not a worthy one. 

They say the baptism is the beginning of the 
full experience, and there can be only one be- 
ginning and therefore one baptism; but this 
makes no distinction in the experience. Cer- 
tainly there can be but one first, so also is there 

The Filling df the Spirit 109 

but one second, and along the line of Dr. Gum- 
ming'^ argument, with which we have in the main 
agreed, we find no room for saying the baptism 
of the Spirit can never be repeated. 

These baptisms, these fillings, by whatever 
name they are called are all alike save in measure, 
and the last one may be greater than the first. 
We have all heard of the Second Blessing, count- 
ing regeneration the first, but someone has wisely 
said, "I believe not only in a second but in a 
forty-second blessing." 

(2) This experience, this filling or baptism, is 
subsequent to regeneration. It may be received 
for the first time on the same occasion with our 
regeneration, but never in the same moment. 
Both logically and chronologically it is a subse- 
quent operation of the Spirit. "The reason," 
says William Kelly in his lectures on the "New 
Testament Doctrine of the Holy Spirit," page 
161, "is quite simple, for it is grounded on the 
fact that we are sons by faith in Christ, believers 
resting on redemption in Him." 

Between the regeneration of the disciples and 

110 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

their filling some time elapsed, Acts 2:4; it was 
so in the case of Paul, Acts 9: 17. If Paul's 
conversion occurred in the house of Judas, as 
Morgan would have us believe, and the filling 
likewise, still the latter would be subsequent to 
and dependent upon the former ; if he were born 
of the Spirit on the way to Damascus, as is prob- 
able, and which Morgan does not vehemently 
oppose, then how, according to Morgan, could 
the filling be simultaneous with the regeneration? 
(The Spirit of God, page 187.) 

The same thing was true in the case of the 
Samaritan Christians, Acts 8: 12-17. They be- 
lieved and were baptized in the name of Jesus 
under the preaching of a Spirit-filled man like 
Philip, and yet Dr. Morgan says none of them 
were converted or regenerated, reasoning that 
Simon Magus also> believed, but was not truly 
regenerated; but his case proves nothing as to 
the real condition of the others; the trouble with 
Simon Miagus was' his "heart was not right," and 
Peter told him so, but this argues nothing as to 
the heart condition of the others. The gospel 

The Filling of the Spirit 111 

Philip preached was certainly as pure as that 
which fell from the lips of Peter, and we can see 
no legitimate ground for not calling these people 
Christians, and yet they were given the blessing 
of which we speak as a later experience. 

The same thing is true of the believers in Acts 
19: 1-6. Scofield, page 47, and Morgan, page 180, 
says, "These people were not Christians." 

Most authorities hold differently. What we 
know is that they were disciples of John the Bap- 
tist, and in a certain sense it may be said they 
were not Christians. In which case neither were 
the disciples Christians before Pentecost, which 
position we have seen to be untenable. It is best 
to see in these people, whom Luke calls "dis- 
ciples" and "believers," certain ones whose spir- 
itual status warranted Paul holding before them 
the experience under consideration, to which as 
yet they were strangers and which, as we have 
seen, comes subsequent to regeneration. 

Im the case of Cornelius, however, Acts 10: 
45-46 and n: 15, the regeneration and 1 baptism 
were on the same occasion, practically simul- 

1 12 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

taneous, although even here the logical order, as 
well as the chronological by accurate distinction 
must have been first regeneration and then bap- 
tism, as was also the case of the Bphesian dis- 
ciples, Acts 19: 1-6, even though we think of their 
conversion in connection with the experience 
brought to them by Paul ; for they, first believing 
what Paul said, were baptized in the. name of 
Jesus, presupposing regeneration of course, and 
in this act a reception of the Spirit, Rom. 8:9; 
and then Paul laid his hands upon them, all of 
which took a few moments at least, and then they 
received the Holy Spirit in the sense of this dis- 

At the self-same time of a man's conversion 
he may be given a special filling or baptism to 
meet some particular demand of the hour, but 
into the Spirit-filled condition in the sense of the 
more ordinary fullness (Eph. 5: 18) he not only 
may enter at conversion, but God expects of him 
that he shall do so; these both, however, rest 
upon the fact that he is already botn of the 

The Filling of the Spirit 113 

(3) Is this condition the normal (healthy) and 
a possible continuous one? This is not a hard 
question. In the immediate sense of Eph. 5: 18 
(the more ordinary fullness) the answer is, Yes. 
In the sense of the special filling for a special 
purpose the answer is, No. Cumming (Through 
the Eternal Spirit, page 115), after likening 
this experience to the filling of the disciples, says, 
"It is only from want of faith that subsequent 
outpourings of the Holy Spirit become needful." 
But if the filling has respect to equipment for 
some particular purpose, certainly a special out- 
pouring or filling for the particular thing at hand 
is the original purpose of God. We can under- 
stand how the "fullness of the Spirit" as 
a habit of the soul is the normal and 
more continuous condition, as with Barnabas and 
Stephen, and believe we know some today of 
whom it may be said they are "full of the Holy 
Spirit," but between this and the more specific 
filling a difference of degree has already been 
noted. Says Morgan, page 186, "When a man is 
born of the Spirit he is baptized with the Spirit 

114 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

and is filled with the Spirit." That when a man 
is born of the Spirit he has the Spirit is- true, else 
She is none of His, Rom. 8:9; that he may then 
be filled with the Spirit is also true, as we have 
seen, but that he is then filled with the Spirit 
either in the sense of the fulness of the Spirit, as 
a habit of the soul, or in the sense: of being filled 
with the Spirit after the fashion now engaging 
our attention, we can find no warrant either in 
Scripture or in the possible conception of our 
own mind. 

(4) What is this filling of the Spirit? It 
is nothing less than the very presence of 
God Himself working His unhindered will in 
the human soul, in which is experienced His 
power of mastery over the sin principle and what- 
ever of the divine energy is necessary for the 
highest results in service or suffering. Power, 
energy, force are to be appreciated, not defined. 

There is power in fire; watch its unconquer- 
able march over a proud city whose mighty 
buildings of brick and stone and iron are melted 
at its touch. 

The Filling of the Spirit 115 

There is power in wind, driving the mighty 
ship across the seas, tearing deep-rooted forests 
from the earth, hurling huge buildings through 
space and sweeping whole cities into splintered 

There is power in water, the power of a flood, 
who can estimate it? 

Yet, if these could speak, they could not tell 
you what power is; but these are in Scripture 
made emblems of the Holy Spirit; the super- 
natural power of the Spirit is symbolized but 
only symbolized in the mighty dynamics of these 
natural elements. Undefinable as their energy 
is, much less can the Divine potency be 

What is power? "God hath spoken once, yes, 
twice have I heard this that power belongeth 
unto God." Nor can it be divorced from God; 
nor can any man obtain it save as God Himself 
comes with it, and the "filling of the Holy Spirit" 
is the very self of God, already indwelling the 
human soul through regeneration, working out His 
unhindered will in and through the now divinely 

116 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

controlled faculties in the fullest manifestation 
of all that man can be and do. 

The human will has allowed Him undisputed 
sway over the entire being so hallowed by His 
presence, and in turn with every other faculty 
of the inner man is energized with the very life 
of God Himself for the accomplishment in char- 
acter and service of that for which it hath pleased 
the Almighty to bestow them. 

Just here is, after all, the great difference in 
present-day teaching; much of other discussion 
springs, as has been noted, from a confusion in 
nomenclature. The difficult question and the 
one, after all, to which it is impossible to give 
an absolute and unqualified answer is this: (i) 
Is this experience the working of the Spirit al- 
ready within the believer; or (2) Is it another 
and special reception of the Spirit Himself; or 
(3) Is it both? To attempt such an answer as just 
indicated is for the finite to presume a knowledge 
sufficient to clarify the most infinite mystery, 
the omnipresence of a divine Personality. That 
it is the second apart from the first we believe to 

The Filling of the Spirit 117 

be wholly unscriptttral. That it is the first apart 
from the second is in a sense certainly true; as 
a divine Personality it is not in part but in His 
entirety that the Spirit of God 1 dwells in the be- 
liever; it is upon this view we are strongly in- 
clined to believe the chief emphasis should rest. 
We may have more of the Spirit's filling, that is, 
more of His power, more of His influence, 
more of the fruit of the .Spirit; but to speak of 
having more of the Spirit Himself, as does An- 
drew Murray, ("Spirit of Christ," page 321), is to 
come dangerously near to a species of mysticism 
hardly consistent with the accredited religious 
thought of the day. 

'However, the third of the above views, namely, 
the first two considered together, is not without 
argument in its favor. This is the view of An- 
drew Murray. He says, "Spirit of Christ," page 
320, "That there is a great deal of prayer in 
which the presence of the Spirit is forgotten, is 
ignored, I admit and deplore; and yet it would 
be falling into the other extreme, if, because God 
has given and: we have received the Spirit, we 

118 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

were no longer to pray for more of Him." F. B. 
Meyer also says, "Before undertaking any defin- 
ite work for God be sure you are equipped by a 
new reception of the Hbly Ghost." ("A Cast- 
away," page 100.) 

Mbule, commenting on Eph. 1:17, says, "We 
are not to think of the 'giving' of the Spirit as 
an isolated deposit of what, once given, is now 
locally in possession." This is true, as is also 
Murray's statement that "God has not given His 
Spirit in the sense of parting with Him." 

The Spirit is in heaven as well as in the be- 
liever, and He is at the same time in every be- 
liever, yet in speaking of a personality as we are, 
we have found ourselves unable to appreciate 
Mr. Murray's comparison of the desire for the 
Spirit's filling to the fingers crying to the heart 
for more blood, the branch crying to the vine for 
more sap, and the lungs crying to the air for 
more breath. 

There is in this mode of speaking the danger 
just referred to and the liability of leaving with 
the less thoughtful reader the impression of an 

The Filling of the Spirit 119 

influence rather than a personality. To define, 
especially in a theological sense, is always easier 
than to appreciate the subject of the definition 
as defined. Nowhere is this more true than in 
the case before us ; how much easier to define the 
Holy Spirit as a person than to think of the Holy 
Spirit as such when we are thinking of omni- 
presence or of soul experiences which we know 
are from God; and the very fact that this is so, 
together with the fact that so many, even am on.; 
those who may have the most correct definition, 
have accustomed themselves to think thus care- 
lessly about this blessed Presence, should guard 
us carefully against any mode of expression that 
might in any way seem to favor such impression. 
We have thought long here, but have been left 
always as at the outset The subject deals with 
Infinity, and while many have made statements 
conformable as they believe to Scripture, it is 
satisfying to note that not in a single volume 
is any attempt made to deal with this inscrutable 
mystery with a view to making it wholly intelli- 
gible to the finite mind; we are in the presence 

120 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

of the Infinite, and it becomes us to say, "'Speak 
Lord, for thy servant heareth," and to be satis- 
fied with what He says. 

This most precious bestowal we have been ac- 
customed to exiplain by figurative expressions; 
indeed, we have been taught in this by the in- 
spired writers themselves. Even baptism and 
filling are figurative as touching any relation the 
Holy Spirit can bear to an individual. We speak, 
as indeed does the Word, of His filling us, cloth- 
ing us, being poured upon us, etc.; all of which 
are accommodations to the finite. All the defini- 
tions in the world can never explain what God is, 
and no more can any amount of philosophizing 
explain how by His Spirit He enters into man, 
regenerates him or operates within him; this is a. 
mystery more infinite than life itself, but we have 
not only the postulates of reason that it may be 
so, but the Word of God and our own experience 
(that it is so, which is more powerful evidence 
than anything metaphysics could ever bring to 

The Filling of the Spirit 121 

(5) Is it a definite, conscious, once-for-all ex- 

Note the following expressions: 

"It is a crisis done definitely, done once for 
all." J. F. Carson, Evangelistic Work, Jan., 

"The baptism of the Spirit is the beginning of 
the full Christian experience and that can never 
be repeated." Cumming, "Through the Eternal 
Spirit," page 119. 

"He must not continue praying for the bap- 
tism for that cannot be repeated." MacNeil, 
"Spirit-filled Life," page 39. 

"It is a definite experience of which a person 
may know whether or not he has it." Torrey, 
"Baptism with the Spirit." 

These are but a few of the many similar ex- 
pressions that might be quoted from writers, 
all of whom are speaking of an experience sub- 
sequent to regeneration, such as is under consid- 

Certainly it is definite, an actual occurrence 
definitely brought to pass, else nothing to be ap- 

122 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

predated. Definiteness does not, however, nec- 
essarily imply consciousness. The act of self- 
dedication, the committal to God for this filling 
are both definite and conscious in the believer's 
experience, but the filling consequent thereon 
may not at the moment be realized in his con- 
sciousness; the filling is a reality within him, 

'How then, it is asked, does he come into the 
consciousness of it. In two ways, in three ways 
it may be said 1 . I know at once this filling is 
mine; having met the conditions as best I can, 
I receive the promise of the Spirit by faith, Gal. 
3: 14. I have taken God at Hlis word and I 
know. This may be called one way, but note the 
distinction between knowledge and conscious- 
ness as here used. I know in the above sense 
and yet I may not have come into the conscious- 
ness of it as a realized possession, and into' this 
consciousness I come in two> ways, the more 
usual of which, certainly the more satisfactory, 
is by H'is own manifestation in me and through 
me. As F. B. Meyer says, "Reckoning that God 

The Filling of the Spirit 123 

has kept His word with you dare to believe it, 
though you may not be conscious of any emo- 
tion, and you will find when you come to work or 
to suffer or to meet temptation that there will be 
in you the consciousness of a power which you 
have never known before, and which will indi- 
cate the filling of the Spirit." 

This by no means excludes the possibility of 
an immediate consciousness. The fiery tongues, 
the sound and the shaken house are no< more; 
the "electric waves" that seemed to go through 
Finney, and all such peculiar experiences are 
largely, if not wholly, matters of temperament; 
no matter how Spirit-filled some men might be- 
come, they never could approach unto anything: 
of such character, but may, nevertheless, have 
the more silent, quiet witness of a feeling within 
as deep, as sure, as self-satisfying. 

It is not our thought to speak in doubtful terms 
about the reality of this or the more extraordi- 
nary experiences of men like Finney, but only to 
affirm that such are not essential to the "filling" 

124 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

itself, and that the more usual way, into the con- 
sciousness of it is as above denoted. 

Is then this experience once for all? 

Whether it be the filling in the sense of the 
sudden, decisive experience for some specific 
purpose, or whether it be the more habitual ful- 
ness of the Spirit, the answer in either case is a 
decid'edi No. The fact that 'Scripture records' 
many fillings in the former sense ought to be an 
answer sufficiently definite in the negative so far 
as it is concerned. All who have claimed a dis- 
tinction between the first so-catted, never-to-be- 
repeated experience and later fillings, have ut- 
terly failed to show wherein the distinction con- 

That the fulness of the Spirit as the more 
permanent condition, of the soul is a varying 
quantity no one for a moment doubts; this be- 
longs to the rationale of the thing we are dis- 
cussing. The first departs with the occasion and 
its need; the second varies according as we com- 
mit to God or assume for ourselves the control 
of our life. And yet we hear of a "crisis," of 

The Fitting of the Spirit 125 

something "taking place once for all," and often 
the bewildered inquirer finds himself confronted 
with a certain day of the year as marking the 
exact time of this "never-to-be-repeated experi- 


Gumming, whose distinction between the bap- 
tism and the filling of the Spirit, is by no means 
a clear one, speaks of a "first time," (Through 
the Eternal Spirit, page 114.) Is not this, after 
all, the explanation? There was a time when they 
first consciously made what they conceived 
to be a definite and full surrender to God. In 
a very certain sense suchi a moment did 
mark a crisis. That popular surrender can, 
of course, never be repeated, nor ought there 
ever 1 to be occasion for any other like it, but the 
resulting experience to the soul was not the "fill- 
ing" in the more specific sense of equipment for 
some special purpose, but the "fulness" which 
must be presupposed in case of the former and 
which comes and goes according to the con- 
stancy of our abiding truly in Him. 

We deplore the tendency which would gather 

126 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

about the teacher bands of earnest inquirers 
who look upon him as having had some strange 
never-to-be-repeated experience, the lack of 
which has been crippling their own ministry, and 
who, when asking how to get it, are told to do 
so and so; and many of them will say, "All this 
have we done, and yet were never conscious of 
this experience of which you speak," and go 
away in uncertainty and sorrow, while the truth 
may be that many of them may have been in 
the possession of that very something, possibly 
in a greater degree than the one whose experi- 
ence they fain would know. 

The point of discussion is, as to what occurred 
at the time of this definite surrender, and that 
is the fulness of the Spirit exactly such as he 
may get many times later and exactly such as 
he may have had in less measure in times of 
lesser consecration before this crisis. 

This filling of the Spirit, however, it be viewed, 
is a matter of degree. Almost every Christian, 
shall we say every Christian, (yes, we must), is 
to a degree filled with the Spirit a degree that 

The Filling of the Spirit 127 

in some alas many is inappreciable; that de- 
gree increases according to our committal of 
ourselves to God 1 , and in moments of such deep 
definite conscious surrender as have been under 
consideration it leaps into fulness unmeasured, 
gives to the Christian the mastery over self, and 
sends him forth in the hour of service with a 
power that none can stay. 

This experience then viewed in either light is 
not a once-for-all occurrence. That there may 
be a crisis, a turning point in a man's spiritual 
life coming at the time of this first definite sur- 
render is true, but the fulness of the Holy Spirit 
which comes to him then is certainly no different 
in nature from, what to a certain though prob- 
ably slight degree was always his, nor necessarily 
different in degree from that which will come 
to him whenever he puts himself in a condition 
to receive it. 

We need the continual fulness of the Spirit, 
and there is but one way to get it, and but one 
way to keep it. Should we wander away from 
God and lose this priceless blessing, well-nigh 

128 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

altogether it may be, we will get it again if we 
seek it in the self-same way as before. We need 
also the refilling) of the Spirit for service as 
much as ever did the apostles, and we will get it 
in the same way whenever the occasion calls for 

Furthermore, as there are those who do not 
know the day of their regeneration, so there are 
those, to whose Spirit-filled condition their holy 
lives and works lend evidence as undeniable as 
ever any man showed forth, whose testimony is 
that they have grown into the realization of this 
blessed Spirit-filled condition coming to them in 
accordance with the same rule without their re- 
membering any such definite, never-to-be- 
repeated crisis in their lives. 

(6) And now we come to what is, after all, 
the important question. Paul said, "Be filled 
with the Spirit." As already explained, Paul's 
more immediate reference here was to living in 
the Spirit-filled condition, but the conditions 
governing the reception of the Spirit's fulness 
in this sense are likewise the underlying re- 

The Filling of the Spirit 129 

quirements for the occasional special fillings in 
view of some specific service to be performed. 
But how may I obtain this filling of the Spirit? 
There is one supreme condition already sug- 
gested There are, however, certain pre- 
requisites to this condition and which in the va- 
rious answers given to the above question have 
likewise, and not without warrant, been called 
conditions. We prefer, however, to call them 
prerequisites, especially as they are necessarily 
involved in the one supreme condition to which 
we shall shortly refer. Two of these pre- 
requisites refer to the disposition of the soul, and 
the third to the state of the soul, while what we 
shall call the one condition refers to an act of 
the soul. 

I. The first of these prerequisites is an In- 
tense, unselfish desire to be thus filled. iSiee Isa. 
44: 3, where the "water" and the '.Spirit" are 
synonymous. It is a blessing to be earnestly 
desired. But note this desire must be an un- 
selfish one. "It is no part of the Spirit's work 
to glorify us ; His great work is to glorify 

130 A Help to the Stuay of the Holy Sfint 

Christ" Macgregor, "A Holy Life," page 136. 
The desire to be used may be an accursed 
ambition ; it is only when, a deep, earnest desire 
for the honor and glory of Jesus marks the dis- 
position of him who covets this experience that 
he is coming into the place where it may be 

II. The second of these prerequisites, refer- 
ring also 1 to the disposition of the soul, is Faith. 
This is not the appropriating faith of Gal. 3: 14, 
but faith as John F. Carson has said, "to believe 
it is possible for you" ; faith to believe that God 
will do it for you because He has promised it; 
faith, as Stofield says, (Plain Papers on the Doc- 
trine of the Spirit, page 65) "to believe that 
the risen and glorified Christ is able and willing 
to bestow the fulness of the Spirit," and will 
bestow it. Faith in the appropriating sense 
though involved! in this former can be exercised 
only as the filling is accomplished. See Scofield, 
page 65, for a clear statement of this distinction. 

III. The third prerequisite, the one referring 
to the state of the soul, is Emptiness the neces- 

The Filling of the Spirit 131 

sary state of any vessel that is to be filled. We 
have been told to be consistent, to give up sin, 
to be emptied, but these are the very things no 
man can do, but they are the very things the 
Holy Spirit filling a man enables him to do, and 
it would be quite as pertinent to ask, "How may 
I be emptied?" A man is no farther along when 
he has been told of this necessary state of the 
soul than he was before. 

With these prerequisites clearly before us it 
is now in order to consider the one supireme, and 
what may be called, inasmuch as it refers neither 
to a disposition or a state, but to* an act of the 
soul, the only condition of thus receiving the 
Holy Spirit in the sense of infilling. This is 
what has been variously called "yieldedness" 
(Scofield), "abandonment" (M'organ), "full sur- 
render" (Chapman), "consecration" (MacNeil). 
These are all excellent and expressive terms. It 
is a whole-hearted, absolute, unqualified, com- 
mittal an unconditional surrender of ourselves 
to God. Of course this act is definite, and as 
concerns the will, final, irreversible, and never 

132 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

to be repeated, and it is God's idea that there 
should never be an occasion for any other like 
it, but the mistake must not be made of reading 
the ideal into the real. When Paul says, "yield 
yourselves," Rom. 6: 13, and "present your 
bodies a living sacrifice," Rom. 12: i, he uses 
the aorist it was to be done once for all, and 
this certainly is what every believer does or wills 
to d<o and thinks he does when he thus deliber- 
ately gives himself to God, but that any man ever 
so gave himself to God 1 as to leave no necessity 
for a further giving in all his life is to the writer 
a thing altogether inconceivable. 

Such a definite, irrevocable committal one is 
supposed to make in the. first glad hour of his 
surrender to Christ; in fact, he says he makes it; 
he means it, and upon such avowal he is received 
into church fellowship, but as he grows in the 
knowledge of God he discovers that true sur- 
render involves sacrifice which his earlier meager 
experience could not reveal to him, and so 
"from step to step>, from strength to strength, 
from faith to faith, the life goes on growing 'hum- 

The Filling of the Spirit 733 

bier, sweeter, more surrendered, and yet ever 
more filled! with the Holy Spirit." Gumming, 
"Through the Eternal Spirit," page 241. 

And there is one thing else to be considered. 
True, as Scofield says, (page 61), "A sacrificer 
under the dispensation of the law never dreamed 
of reasserting authority over a creature once 
brought to the priest," but in all such typifi ca- 
tions there was involved and necessarily the 
ideal of that which was to be, even as Paul 
expresses the same kind of an act by the aorist 
tense. Indeed, some have declared it a thing 
altogether impossible for man to make such an 
ideal surrender, seeing in it nothing less than 
the ill-disguised teaching of perfectionism, but 
even admitting the possibility of surrendering 
in this ideal way we must distinguish between a 
perfect life and a perfect surrender. 

The surrender is ideal, in intent at least, but as 
before noted, that no man, be his surrender ever 
so perfect came into a condition of life thereby in 
which he never found anything else to be surren- 
dered, so no man, no matter how perfect his sur- 

134 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

render, has ever been removed thereby from 
the possibility of the neglect of duty in some 
later period of his life ; and to make the surrender 
by which a man comes into the experience under 
consideration something never to be repeated is 
practically to make it permanent, to 1 ignore our 
frailty and our failures and to make no provision 
for the wanderer who must comei back to God! 
and receive the coveted blessing on a condition 
identical with that which governed its reception 
at the time of his first surrender. 

Dr. Scofield, page 63, deplores "the practice of 
continually repeated consecrations (so> called)," 
proving, as he thinks, the lack of this definite, 
once-for-all surrender. Certainly it is not God's 
idea that we should continually be doing a thing 
that should be done once for all, as the root 
meaning of consecration implies, and while pos- 
sibly another word might take its place, yet since 
in every human nature there is still what Dr. Van 
Dyke in his "Gospel for an Age of Sin," calls the 
"radical twist" so productive of "crooked re- 
sults," and since every sin is practically a taking 

The Filling of the Spirit 135 

the gift of ourselves from the altar, asserting the 
control of self, it is necessary whenever one is 
conscious of so having 1 done, to come to God in 
renewed consecration!; whether it be an unholy 
thought, a display of temper or some grosser 
displeasure to God' it is only a difference in de- 
gree after all. 

These remarks are not intended to deny that a 
man may have such a crisis marking day in his 
life from which he dates the first .great rilling of 
the Spirit, but to affirm that such a surrender is 
what we are supposed to make when we give our- 
selves to Christ, what in fact every really con- 
verted man wills to do and says he does, but 
which, alas for his weakness he finds he has not 
done, and must either by an ever-increasing spir- 
itual growth which involves surrender all along 
the way arrive, and yet be ever arriving at what 
is termed the "surrendered life," without the re- 
[meoibrance of any one particular crisal experi- 
ence step into the "surrendered life," and 1 conse- 
quently intoi such a fulness of the Spirit as he 
had never before realized, the filling of the Spirit 

136 A Help to the Stuay of the Holy Spirit 

which he then received, let it be repeated, differ- 
ing only in degree from what was his in previous 
times; for certainly a minister who looks with 
rich satisfaction and! rightly upon some such 
hour, possibly twenty years after he took upon 
himself the ordination vow, which in itself in- 
volves such a surrender, would not repudiate all 
his past life as being in no wise Spirit led, his 
preaching in no wise Spirit empowered, his 
earnest striving after holiness in no wise Spirit 

The filling of the Spirit we again remark is a 
matter of degree. Some have asked, "How much 
of the Spirit may I have?" 

We feel like answering, "You may have all 
there is of Him no more and no less," but refer 
the reader to the discussion elsewhere (page 93). 
But to have the Spirit is not to have Bis filling. 
The degree pertains Ito the filling; it is "evermore 
surrendered and evermore filled with the Holy 

What now does such surrender involve? As 
to service, "anything, any time, anywhere/' but 

The Filling of the Spirit 137 

something else must come first the emptiness, a 
heart emptied of sin and surrender implies the 
desire to have the heart emptied, and an effort 
on our part to bring it about. This effort is not, 
however, to be made alone as such it were 
fruitless but the Holy Spirit already within is 
there to help, and as the vessel is mad'e empty 
and cleansed is the filling of the Spirit made pos- 
sible. As Dr. Chapman ("Received ye the Holy 
Ghost," page 85) has said, "To give up ninety- 
nine parts of the nature and withhold! the hun- 
dredth is to put a hindrance in the way of the 
blessing." After all it seems that M'r. Boys was 
right, "If we were asked very briefly the true 
meaning of being filled with the Spirit we should 
say that it involved not our having more of the 
Spirit but rather the Spirit having more of us." 
("Filled with the Spirit," page 29.) 

Some have made faith (Gal. 3:4,) a condition 
of the filling; this, of course, is involved' in the 
faith already mentioned, as faith to believe He 
will give on a certain condition involves faith to 

138 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

believe that He has given when that condition 
is met. 

This is the faith that appropriates: having met 
the condition, reckon the thing done; wait not 
for any sound or coronet of flame, but .go forth 
to live and work not trying- to feel filled, but 
daring to believe that you are filled and that 
filling will become to you an experience more 
real than which there is none in all the universe. 

Being thus filled with the Spirit the varying 
measure of this condition is our faithfulness; as 
Morgan has said, page 231, "The filling of the 
Spirit is retained by abiding in Christ." Acts 
5:32 and' John 3:24, is the Bible rule for this 
retention. Yet we need for each separate ser- 
vice a new and additional equipment of power; 
not that all the filling has been lost, but that such 
equipment comes only as occasion demands; 
then in humble acknowledgement of any thing 
which may not have been as He would have it, 
by faith as before reckon the needed filling yours 
and going forth to duty let Him prove Himself 
unto you in power. 



ORBS are often but lame vehicles in 
the conveyance of truth. Often- 
times at their best they but "half 
reveal and half conceal" the hidden 
depths of thought. To say the Holy 
Sipirit is like the wind is to express 
more than many volumes can con- 
tain, and possibly just because this 
is so, God has chosen the use of 
many symbols to illustrate what otherwise, be- 
cause of the poverty of our language, we could 
never know. 

There are in the Scriptures six emblems of the 
Holy Spirit. 


In Isa. 4:4, He is called the "Spirit of burn- 
ing," where the reference is to the purging of 
Jerusalem from defilement. 

In Matt. 3: n, and Luke 3: 16, of Jesus it is 

140 A Help to the -Study of the Holy Spirit 

said, "He shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit 
and fire." To what does the "fire" refer? 

(1) Hell-fire. So Meyer, Lange, DeWette, 
Gess, Keim, Hengstenberg, Osterzee, and many 

(2) Suffering with view of purification. 

(3) Holy Spirit under the emblem of fire. 

(a) For fiery boldness and zeal. Farrar. 

(b) (For purification Godet, Calvin, Bengle, 
Olshausen, Riddle, Alford, Schaff, Andrew 
Miurray, Scofield, M'o'rgan and many others. 

Both the first and third! views have much to 
support them. The arguments are too lengthy 
to be here in place. We are inclined to' that 
which makes it an emblem of the Holy Spirit. 
It is hardly possible that the reference in John's 
words can be to the "tongues of fire" at Pente- 
cost, though the same divine principle has for its 
emblem there a visible manifestation of what is 
here expressed in word. If such reference: were 
in mind, the primary signification of the emblem 
as here used would at least be changed 1 , for, cer- 

The Emblems of the Spirit 141 

tainly apart from such reference, if the emblem 
refer at all to the Holy Spirit, the primary 
thought as conceived 1 by nearly all expositors 
must be to His purifying influences. Fire is a 
separator a purifier; we are counselled to buy 
gold refined by fire, Rev. 3:18, so the Holy 
Spirit, the fire of God, purifies the soul by con- 
suming everything in it out of harmony with the 
divine kingdom. 

(4) In Luke 12:49, Jesus says, "I came to 
cast fire upon the earth." Morgan, supported by 
abundant critical authority, refers the fire in this 
passage to the pentecostal effusion of the Holy 

The 'desire of the Son of Godl following the 
statement would seem to confirm this view; how- 
ever, the immediate reference to division, the 
natural and wise avoidance of imported mean- 
ing, and the equally consistent interpretation of 
the desire would seem' to favor the opinion of 
Meyer, Alford, Lange, and others, that the 
thought in mind was the spiritual excitement and 

142 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

discordi consequent upon the proclamation of the 
Gospel. * 

(5) In Acts 2:3, it is recorded that there 
appeared! unto them "tongues like as of fire." 
While the tongue had immediate reference to 
the instrument of service to be employed, the 
fiery appearance is taken by common consent as 
emblematic of the Spirit with distinct reference 
to His inspirational work and 1 consequent zeal 
and ardor of the disciples in the undertaking 
before them. 


The Holy Spirit is so revealed in three different 

(1) In Ezk. 37:7-10, occurs the reanimation 
of the dry bones through the agency of the Spirit 
of God where chiefly His vivifying power is set 

(2) Jno. 3 : 8, with reference to His regenera- 
tive work as indicative of! H!is mysterious, inde- 
pendent, irresistible, penetrating, vivifying and 
purifying influence. 

The Emblems of the Spirit 143 

(3) In Acts 2: 2, "a sound as of the rushing 
of a mighty wind" filled! the house indicative 
here of His mighty unseen power. The tongues 
were seen, the wind was heard, but neither was 
felt. Neither flame nor wind was a reality. The 
tongue of light resembled fire; the sound was 
only compared to that of a mighty rushing wind. 
Notice also that the house in Acts 4:3.11 ,was 

in. WATER. 

(1) In Ex. 17:6, we see Moses in obedience 
to divine instruction smiting a rock in the wilder- 
ness, and out of it came flowing water pure 
and fresh, of which the thirsty Israelites drank 
and were satisfied. That rock was Christ, I Cor. 
10:4, smitten for us, and that water life-giving 
and refreshing, the Spirit, poured out on the 
ground of his accomplished work. 

(2) In Ezk. 36:25-27, the people are to be 
sprinkled with clean water, a new heart and spirit 
given unto them and His, Spirit put within them; 
the reality of that which was typified in Num. 19, 

144 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

and referring beyond doubt to the converting 
and sanctifying influences of the Holy Spirit. 

(3) In Ezk. 47: i, the prophet in a vision sees 
a river of water flowing out from the temple 
running through the desert carrying life 
wherever it goes andl healing: at length the 
waters of the sea whither it flows. With this 
connect I Cor. 6: 19 and Jno. 7: 38-39. 

(4) In Jno. 3 : 5 is mentioned the birth "of 
water and of the Sipirit." Here again water is 
symbolic of the Spirit. No matter whether the 
water be referred to .Old Testament washings 
('Smeaton, Lampe); to John's baptism or to 
Christian baptism these all have the same under- 
lying 1 idea, they are symbolic representations of 
purification from, sin. So also Tit. 3 : 5. 

(5) In Jno. 4: 14, the Holy Spirit, according 
to Smeaton, Riddle, Lange, Calvin, Luthardt, 
Keil, is promised as a well of water springing up 
into everlasting life. This p ( hrase is referred by 
Justin and Cyprian to baptism; by Olshausen to 
Jesus Himself; by Meyer to the truth; by Tho- 
luck and Weiss to the word of salvation; by Gro- 

The Emblems of the Spirit 145 

tius to the evangelical doctrine; by Lucke to 
faith; by Westcott and Godet to eternal life itself. 

(6) In Jno. 7:38-39, it is said, "If any man 
thirst let him, come to me and drink," and that 
out of the believer should flow "rivers of living 
water," and while it is not said the Holy Spirit 
is the river, but only that such remarks were 
made with reference to the Holy Spirit ("this 
spake he of the Spirit") that is, the Holy Spirit 
was the agent and principle of the great outflow- 
ing streams of Christian influence and testi- 
mony, yet as the Holy Spirit is the inner fountain 
there is full propriety in finding in the passage an 
emblematic reference to> Him as a satisfying, 
transforming and 1 life-giving power. 


He is thus revealed three times. See chapter 
on the "Sealing of the Spirit." The Holy Spirit 
as a seal makes the believer secure as the prop- 
erty of God, works an assurance of such security 
in the believer's heart, Rom. 8: 16, bringing to 
him a consequent comfort and feeling of rest, 
transforming him into the likeness of Jesus, 

146 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

whose very image is om the seal and making this 
life a heaven, for as an earnest He has given 
Himself to us here with all that He brings as a 
foretaste of the coming inheritance of glory. 

V. OIL. 

Two hundred and two times in the Word the 
anointing with oil is referred to, in eighty-eight 
of which references the word oil in some form is 
mentioned. In addition to this, the word oil 
occurs ninety-nine times and the word ointment 
thirty-one times. We must be warned 1 , however, 
against endeavoring to see in every such usage 
a prefiguration of the Holy Spirit and His work, 
as some without warrant do. .Of many of these 
passages such reference is true; the immediate 
references in Scripture to the Holy Spirit as oil 
must, however, be gathered from the five pas- 
sages in which He is spoken of as anointing 
three of these, Luke 4:18; Acts 4:27; 10:38, 
refer to the anointing of Jesus, and the other two, 
I John 2:20, 27 and II Cor. 1:21, referring to 
the Holy Spirit as an anointing for the believer. 

There are four Scriptural uses of anointing: 

The Emblems of the Spirit 147 

(i) Anointing the guest, Eccl. 7:1; 9: 8; Prov. 
27:9; Luke 7:46. (2) Anointing for burial, 
Matt. 26:12; Jno. 12:3, 7. (3) Anointing for 
healing, Isa. i: 6; Jer. 8: 22; Luke 10: 34; Hark 
6:13; Jas. 5:14. (4) Anointing for separation 
unto a holy calling, Ex. 29: 7; 30: 23, 33. Every 
believer is a king and priest unto God, and for 
his holy life and vocation is set apart by the 
anointing received' at regeneration. The oint- 
ment was always charged with a sweet perfume; 
the odor of Mary's ointment filled all the room, 
and when the High Priest came forth his gar- 
ments anointed with holy oil, shed a rich fra- 
grance all about him. 'When describing the 
beauty of the character of Jesus, the inspired 
poet said, "All thy garments smell of Myrrh and 
Aloes and Cassia," and so the Christian who has 
the anointing from the Holy One is to be recog- 
nized by the sweet fragrance of holy character, 
the life that is redolent with holy and heavenly 

There are eleven passages in the Bible con- 
necting oil with light, Ex. 25:6; 27:20; 35:8, 

148 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

14, 28; 39:37; Nkrni. 4:9, 16; Lev. 24:2; Zecli. 
4:2-12; Matt. 25:3-6. The first eight are plain 
statements concerning the oil for the tabernacle 
light which is according to Old' Testament typol- 
ogy taken by an almost common consent as a 
prefiguration of the Holy Spirit. 

In Zech. 4: 2-12, Zerubbabel confronted with a 
mountain of hindrance is taught by the vision of 
a candle-stick fed by two inexhaustible ducts of 
oil from living olive trees, that the hindrance 
should be removed by the Spirit of the Lord; so 
the church is a bearer of light whose function is 
that of illumination for which it depends wholly 
upon its supply of oil from -God which is His 
Spirit. , ; 

In Matt. 25: 3-6, the oil in the lamps, as Stier 
(Words of Jesus, Vol. 3, page 311), has said, "is 
according to the general symbology of Scripture 
the Holy Spirit who nourishes the flame of life 
in the heart which without Him holds merely a 
dry extinguished wick in the bowl." Such refer- 
ence of the oil, as here used, to the Holy Spirit, 
is in accordance with the common consensus of 

The Emblems of the Spirit 149 

opinion. Oil is an illuminator and so is the flame 
of spiritual life kindled within and kept burning 
by the oil of the Spirit illuminating the con- 
science and dispelling the moral darkness of the 
heart, shining out into the world through the 
light of Christian character unto the glory of the 
Christian's Father, Matt. 5 : 16. 

The Oil of Joy. 

This expression in Isa. 61 : 3, derives its signifi- 
cance from the custom of festive anointings at en- 
tertainments, Ps. 23 : 5, and on occasions of great 
rejoicing. So in Ps. 104: 15, we read of "oil to 
make the face shine," but whether oil in such 
connection is ever used with figurative reference 
to the Holy Spirit is a question admitting of no 
certain solution. There is one passage in Heb. 
i : 9, declaring that Jesus was "anointed with the 
oil of gladness above his fellows"; this "oil of 
gladness" Smeaton, Gumming, Chapman, refer 
to the Holy Spirit, but this is in no wise certain. 
It refers to his exaltation, joy, the anointing 
being the setting apart to Has kingly office (Stew- 
art), or, which is more to be preferred, the crown- 

150 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

ing of the Sovereign with joy as at a royal ban- 
quet (Westcott, Olshausen) and by scarcely a 
modern exegete is referred to the Holy Spirit, 
while many stoutly combat any such allusion ; for 
instance, 'Meyer says, "The sense of the author is' 
departed from when the fathers and early exposi- 
tors interpret the expression of the anointing of 
the Son by the Holy Spirit"; and Olshausen says, 
"The anointing with oil of joy is not to be under- 
stood! of the anointing to the office of king or 
prophet, or even of the anointing with the Holy 
Sipirit in general, but the figurative expression is 
derived from the well-known custom of anointing 
the head at festivals." 

We do know that the Holy Spirit is the Spirit 
of joy, Gal. 5:22; Eph. 5:18, 19; I Thes. i:6; 
and the author of all spiritual gladness and no 
figure could be more appropriately applied to 
Him than the "oil of gladness," but that such is 
the reference in the passage before us is hardly 
to be maintained. 


The Holy Spirit is so revealed once. In each 

The Emblems of the Spirit 151 

of the gospels, Matt. 3:16; Mark 1:10; Luke 
3:22; Jno. 1:32, it is mentioned that the Holy 
Spirit in bodily shape, like a dove descended from 
Heaven and sat upon Jesus while He was pray- 
ing. Whether before the time of Christ the dove 
was regarded as a symbol of the Holy Spirit is a 
question of much interest. The dove of Noah's 
ark and of Solomon's Song are conceived to be 
types of the church ; among the Syrians the dove 
was considered as emblem of the fructifying 
powers of nature, and accordingly we find the 
Talmud translating in Gen. 1 : 2, "The Spirit of 
God like a dove brooded over the waters." In 
Cant. 2 : 12, it is said, "The voice of the dove is 
the voice of the Spirit." But at the Lord's bap- 
tism the Holy Spirit by descending-, in bodily 
shape, like a dove upon Jesus, established that 
gentle creature ever after as an emblem of Him- 

Think of the many beautiful characteristics of 
a dove. *How lovely was the character of Jesus 
because of those dove-like traits, sweet-tempered 
and gentle, yet just like Him may we be. There 

152 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

is gentleness, tenderness, loveliness, innocence, 
mildness, peace, purity, patience all this and 
more for him in whose heart is made a place for 
the dove-like Spirit to nestle. 


NDER the above phrase standing as 
the title of this chapter it has 
seemed wise to class all the sins 
against the Holy Spirit. We make 
a mistake in limiting the scope of a 
word by a solitary use of it in Scrip- 
ture. Ai true theory must above all 
represent a consistent philosophy. 
Dr. Chapman ("Life of Blessing," 
page 79), and Dr. tMbrgan ("Spirit of God," 
page 237), have said that only the unre- 
generate resist the Holy Spirit, presumably 
because the only mention of resisting the Holy 
Spirit, where the word resist is used', refers to 
the unregenerate; but certainly there is no way 
to sin against the Holy Spirit either by the Chris- 
tian or the unbeliever, save by resisting Him. 

So it is said only the Christian can grieve Him, 
presumably because the only mention of griev- 

154 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

ing the Holy Spirit, where the word grieve is 
used, refers to the believer; but surely the tender, 
loving heart of God is grieved by the stubborn 
resistance of the unregenerate. It is hardly wise 
to go through Scripture on such straight lines 
making divisions and: establishing theories on 
the shiigle use of an individual word. With this 
precaution the several phrases setting forth the 
sins against the Holy Spirit may now be exam- 

i. Resisting the Spirit. Used only once 
and of unregenerate persons, Acts 7: 51. It con- 
sists in the resistance of the will to the purpose 
of the Spirit of God as manifested! in His influ- 
ence and His work. "There is an element," says 
Gumming, page 270, "even in a Christian, which 
often, if not always, is found in the same attitude 
against the Holy Spirit." He quotes, and rightly, 
Gal. 5:17. It is impossible to divorce the Ego 
from the sinful principle still within the Chris- 
tian, and whenever this struggle goes on, even 
before the better side has gained the victory, and 
especially when, alas, the evil side does, there is 

The Resistance of the Spirit 155 

certainly a resistance to the will and work of the 
Holy Spirit. 

2. Grieving the Spirit. Used only once and 
of Christians, Eph. 4:30. It means "to make 
sorrowful," discovers His personality and reveals 
His tenderness. "It is not strange," says Sco- 
field, (Plain Papers on the Doctrine of the Spirit, 
page 54,) "that some have found here the 
mother part of the divine love." The immediate 
reference is to corrupt speech, as is shown by the 
context and the close connecting Greek particle 
"and," but of course the truth must admit of a 
wider reference, "Whenever He is thwarted," 
says Morgan, (Spirit of God, page 242,) "when- 
ever He is disobeyed, whenever He gives some 
new revelation of the Christ which brings no 
response, He is grieved." In Isa. 63: 10, the 
Holy Spirit is said to have been "vexed," as if he 
had become angry and this thought, Gumming, 
(Through the Eternal Spirit, page 271), prefers 
as that embodied in the original. Indeed, the 
Septuagint renders it "made angry." Ps. 78: 40, 
(however, can hardly be quoted (Gumming) in 

156 A Help to the Study of the Holy .Spirit 

confirmation of above rendering, if we keep in 
mind the personality of the Holy Spirit as dis- 
tinct from God. 

Although anger is closely connected with the 
thought resident in the word, as in Gen. 34:7, 
the form of the verb in Isa. 63 : 10 (Piel), de- 
mands the meaning "to cause acute pain," in 
which there is prominent the thought of "griev- 
ing," I Ki. 1:6; I Chron. 4: 10, and in fact the 
Revised Version so translates. If the idea of 
vexing in the sense of making angry be excluded 
from the word as used in the passage before us 
it is noteworthy that nowhere in the Word is 
such a frame of disposition ascribed to the Holy 
Spirit; tender and loving-, He may be grieved, 
but not angered. Can He be grieved away? By 
the unregenerate He can in the sense that the 
Holy Spirit forever ceases to plead with him for 
a place in his heart. It is then that a man has 
passed beyond the limit of resistance, that unseen 
line whichi Dr. J. Addis on Alexander has called 
"The hidden boundary between God's patience 

The Resistance of the Spirit 15? 

and His wrath." But the regenerate He never 

3. Quenching the Spirit, I Thes. 5: 19, used 
only once and of Christians. It is a metaphorical 
expression for putting out a fire. It is impossible 
by candid exegesis to confine this to any one 
manifestation of the Holy Spirit. The most prob- 
able reference is to "prophesying," a ! s noted 1 in 
the verse following, that is, to the gift for service. 
We quench Him when we refuse to do His bid- 
ding; when we attempt service without waiting 
upon Him; when timidity keeps us from speaking 
the truth in response to His bidding. We can- 
not, however, thus limit the meaning of the in- 
junction as does Dr. iMIorgan, (Spirit of God, 
page 244.) Of this particular reference in I 
Thes., exegesis makes us nowise certain, and 
even if it did, the phrase would not necessarily 
be limited thereby. The "tongue of fire," Acts 
2: 3, was the symbol of power for service, but 
there was also a "baptism of fire," Matt. 3: n, 
conceived by many as the Holy Spirit given for 
purification, and in Isa. 4:4, as conceived by 

158 A Help to the Stuay of the Holy Spirit 

many, (Smeaton, the "Doctrine of the Holy 
Spirit," page 32; Scofield, Plain Papers on the 
Doctrine of the Spirit, page 57,) He is 
called the "Spirit of burning," as a purifier, 
and both power for service and purity of 
life are effected by the presence and effort of 
the Hbly Spirit within us. This would all be 
true even were no such figures used in the word. 
"To quench the Spirit, therefore, is to resist this 
twofold work of purification and of use," Sco- 
field, page 57. The quenching of the Spirit may 
properly be said to be an offence limited to the 

4. Tempting the Spirit. The word "tempt" 
in this passage is better translated "try" or 
"test." It comes from 1 "pe'irazo" and has a two- 
fold meaning. 

(I). To try, to put to the test. 

(a) God tests men, 'Heb. u: 17. 

(b) Men test God, Acts 15: 10 and 5: 9. 

(c) -Men test themselves, II Cor. 13: 5. 

(d) M'en test each other. 

(II.) To tempt to sin. This is the work of 

The Resistance of the Spirit 159 

the Evil One. God tempts no man, neither can 
He be tempted, Jas. i: 13. Peter said Ananias 
lied to the Holy Spirit, Acts 5 : 3. He also says 
in the ninth verse they agreed to "test" the Holy 
Spirit. Now without any thought of the Holy 
Spirit they may have agreed to lie to Peter, and 
Peter filled with the Holy Spirit, being His bearer 
and organ, rightly interpreted the attempted de- 
ception as practised not upon himself but upon 
the Spirit. 

But since Peter, in verse nine, says they agreed 
together to test the Holy Spirit and such concep- 
tion implies a conscious act and deliberate pur- 
pose, and since so manifest was the Spirit's pres- 
ence and power through the gift of discernment 
and tongues and physical manifestations, that the 
most thoughtless could not but be aware of His 
presence and of His power as resting especially 
upon the apostles, and the possibility of His dis- 
covering to them, the proposed deception would 
therefore naturally occur to them; it is certainly 
the more probable solution of the occurrence, 
however, Peter's statement may be explained, to 

160 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

conclude that with the primal purpose of possibly 
(gaining an enviable reputation or securing a 
maintenance (what it was must be conjectured) 
they planned to deceive Peter, which thing in- 
volved a testing of the Holy Spirit to which 
they deliberately gave themselves. Gumming, 
(Through the Eternal Spirit, page 273,) says 
they tempted the Holy (Spirit "to desert the 
church as His dwelling place and resign His 
task," but hardly in this sense can the Holy Spirit 
be tempted. 

'Nowhere is it said that we tempt the Holy 
Spirit as that expression is construed by lan- 
guage or usage. There is mentioned, however, 
ithe sin of testing the Holy Spirit or God, dis- 
trusting His infinite perfections and putting Him 
to the test by our dispositions and actions. In 
the case of Ananias and Sapphira it consisted 
primarily in testing His omniscience and His 
operation whether He would know of the decep- 
tion! and reveal it to Peter. Can the Christian 
test the Holy Spirit? 

Ananias doubted His punishment (whether 

The Resistance of the Spirit 161 

the Holy Spirit would discover the deception or 
do anything if He did); Christians have dis- 
trusted Hlis readiness to bless. Ananias tested 
the former, which was a sinful thing to do; Chris- 
tians test the latter, which is certainly a good 
thing to do. Prove Me, test Me, He says. Test 
/then has a two-fold meaning. It is doubtful 
whether a Christian ever tests God in the evil 
sense. Were Ananias and Sapphira Christians? 
Augustine and a multitude of others say, Yes. 
As many more say, No. Nobody knows, but if 
they were, their case could hardly argue anything 
for Christian experience today, as spiritual mani- 
festations do not today furnish the same oppor- 
tunity. The unregenerate test Him always, 
chiefly by distrusting His warning to leave them, 
upon continued resistance, in the hands of God 
for punishment, thus counting upon the long for- 
bearance of God that He will save them in spite 
of their sin. 

From the above it is plain there is a difference 
between lying to the Holy iSipirit and testing the 
Holy Spirit, though both may belong to the same 

162 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

act. We may be said to lie to the Holy Spirit in 
a sense similar to that of Ananias in so much as 
we practise deception upon the church or upon 
the believer indwelt as they are by the Spirit. 
Though to the Christian it may not at the time 
so appear nor be thought of as intentionally 
directed against the Holy Spirit, yet in reality 
his sin has been not so much against the Spirit 
filled 1 man, as it has been against the Spirit filling 
the man. Certainly the Holy Spirit is grieved 
by all such resistance to His holy will. 

5. Defiling the temple of the Spirit. A 
temple classically means "the dwelling place of a 
D'eity." The word is used twice in connection 
with the Holy Spirit, I Cor. 3: 16, 17, and 6: 19, 
the former referring to the church to Christians 
in their organized capacity and the latter to the 
Christian in his individual capacity. As by the 
Shechinah God dwelt in and sanctified the Jewish 
temple so by His Spirit He indwells and sancti- 
fies the Christian temple. 

The word "defile," I Cor. 3: 16, is the same as 
"destroy" in the same verse, and means "to bring 

The Resistance of the Spirit 163 

into a worse state/' "to mar," "to injure" and 
then "destroy." In the old Testament any neg- 
lect of the temple, any desecration of it was con- 
sidered as destroying it. We defile the temple 
'of the Holy Spirit in its organized capacity (the 
church), in all the church strife and division, 
(this is the primal reference in this third chapter 
of I Gor.), and in any perversion from its God 
intended use. In 6: 19, "fornication" as a sin 
against the body is under consideration!, which 
body Paul calls a "temple of the Holy iSpirit," 
inasmuch! as the body is the vehicle and taber- 
nacle of the human spirit which is indwelt by the 
Spirit of God. We sin against the body as God's 
temple through every form of bodily abuse. In 
both these instances we are resisting and griev- 
ing the Holy Spirit. 

As the lie, Acts 5 : 3, need not necessarily be 
construed as directed deliberately against the 
Holy Spirit (it is impossible to analyze the minds 
of the sinning pair), so may the sins against the 
temple be likewise considered. But as Peter, 
because filled with the Holy Spirit and acting 

164 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

for the Holy Spirit, construed the lie not. as to 
him but in reality to the Holy Spirit, so sin 
against the Spirit inhabited, temple (church or 
believer), may be called 1 , in fact must be, a sin 
against the Holy Spirit, even though, as in the 
case of the lie, the offending one may not have 
consciously so directed it. 

6. Despising the Spirit, H'eb. 10:29. A sin 
described by a word not elsewhere found in the 
New Testament. Literally, it means to insult. 
It is used here as designating that insult and out- 
rage offered to that blessed Spirit through whom 
all divine influences are conveyed to men. It 
here, Heb. 10 : 29, refers to the sin of apostasy 
and is used in connection with the disposition 
and actions of those who, as elsewhere described, 
Heb. 6:4, 5, were once enlightened, and made 
partakers of the Holy Ghost, tasted of the 
heavenly gift, of the good word of God and the 
Ipowers of the age to come. 

By many scholars this sin has been made iden- 
tical with the blasphemy against the Spirit as set 
forth in the Gospels. In a certain sense this is 

The Resistance of the Spirit 165 

true, both arising from the same disposition of 
soul and both referring to a high degree of in- 
solent and! determined opposition to the won- 
drous unfolding and most manifest working of 
the Holy Spirit's power. A difference, however 
appears in the character of the sinning subjects, 
the sin described in the Gospels being that of 
those who from the beginning had malignantly 
; set themselves to oppose the divine power as 
manifested in the Son of God, the latter, as we 
have seen, being that of those who had to a high 
degree received His grace and acknowledged the 
truth of the Spirit's teaching. While the former, 
as often observed, is more malignant in its mani- 
festation; the latter, considering the position and 
knowledge to which they had attained and the 
divine influences they had enjoyed, seems scarcely 
less diabolical. How solemn then is the warning 
of the apostle against the commission of this 
awful crime, with which he brings the paragraph 
to a close, "It is a fearful thing to fall into the 
hands of the living God 1 ." 

7. Blasphemy of the Spirit. The Unpardon- 

166 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

able Sin. What is it? Who shall 'presume to 
say? Did not the Master leave it shrouded in 
certain mystery? We present herewith in clear 
outline the different opinions and such evidence 
as would seem to justify what to the writer ap- 
pears the safest interpretation of Scripture as it 
bears on the solemn investigation before us. 

In Matt. 12: 31, 32, the Saviour says, "Where- 
fore I say unto you every sin and blasphemy 
shall be forgiven unto men; but the blasphemy 
against the Holy Spirit shall not be forgiven unto 
men. And whosoever speaketh a word against 
the Son of Man, it shall be forgiven him, but 
whosoever speaketh against the Holy Spirit it 
shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world 
nor in the world to come." In Mark 3 : 28-30, it 
is also written, "Verily I say unto you, All sins 
shall be forgiven unto the sons of men and the 
blasphemies wherewithsoever they blaspheme; 
but he that shall blaspheme against the Holy 
Spirit hath never forgiveness but is guilty of 
eternal sin; because they said, He hath an un- 
clean Spirit"; and in Luke 12: 10, is found, "And 

The Resistance of the Spirit 167 

whosoever shall speak a word against the Son of 
Man it shall be forgiven him; but unto him that 
blasphemeth against the Holy Spirit it shall not 
be forgiven." 

Before adverting to the different interpreta- 
tions certain helpful observations and distinc- 
tions may properly and with profit be noticed 

(1) Every sin is a sin against the Holy Spirit 
though far from approaching the nature of this 
one inexpiable sin which Jesus calls blasphemy 
against the Spirit. The name "Sin against the 
Spirit" is therefore open to misunderstanding 
and should give place to the proper designation 
used by Jesus. 

(2) The word translated "blasphemy (either 
from /3Aa7rr<o, to injure, and ^M speech; or 
from /3Xa, braggart, stupid, and <j>rj[M] speech), 
originally means malicious speaking! against 
sacred things, and is used of different degrees 
of sinning, up to the blasphemy of Jehovah in the 
Old Testament and the Holy Spirit in the New. 

(3) Jesus evidently had in mind the unpardon- 

168 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

able offense of the Old Testament dispensation 
where in Lev. 24:16, it is stated (R. V.), "He 
that blasphemeth the name of the Lord shall 
surely be put to death." Under this law Stephen 
was stoned, but by so much is the grace of the 
New Testament dispensation superior that blas- 
phemy against God shall be forgiven, yea, He 
even goes on to say that he who "speaketh 
against" the Son of Man shall be forgiven, but 
the speaking against the Holy Spirit such blas- 
phemy but sounds the sinner's eternal doom. 

We see no objection, therefore, to Olshausen's 
distinction of three degrees in the sin of blas- 
phemy; that against the Father, against the Son 
and against the Holy Spirit. But to find! the 
ground for such gradation in -the relative rank of 
the three persons in the Godhead is entirely with- 
out warrant. By such arrangement the Father 
would stand the lowest in the Trinity. The ag- 
gravation of the crime is determined not by the 
rank of the object blasphemed, but by the added 
clearness of the revelation of God given to man 
through the revelation of the Spirit, in propor- 

The Resistance of the Spirit 169 

tion to which the sin is all the more conscious 
and determined. 

It is safe to say the view which makes this sin 
ipossible only when Christ was visibly present 
among men (Menken, Jerome, Chrysostom), has 
little, if anything, in its favor. Saul was a blas- 
iphemer, I Tim. 1:13, and the Jews crucified 
Jesus after the resurrection of Lazarus, but they 
did it in the ignorance of unbelief. Saul was par- 
doned and of the Jews Jesus said, "Father, for- 
give them, they know not what they do"; but the 
more comprehensive and convincing the "greater 
works," John 14: 12, of this day, the more power- 
ful the convictions of the Spirit who was to come 
in such capacity after Christ, the less possible 
does the plea of ignorance become and the more 
possible the terrible crime in question. The un- 
pardonable sin, Stier has well said, is "pre- 
eminently the sin of the last time." 

With these observations before us we now 
inquire into the nature of the sin itself. 

The various explanations, while differing much 
in their specific interpretation, are, after all, as 

170 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

we hope to make clear, but the emphasis 1 of dif- 
ferent sides of the same truth. They may be 
arranged under two general heads. 

1. Those which make it some definite thing 
the sinner has done. 

2. Those which make it a state of soul to 
which he has arrived. Let us now analyze these 
two views. The first may again be conveniently 
divided as follows: 

(i) Those making it one particular sin, as 
ascribing the miracle of Jesus to Satan. That 
this is the sin, Wesley declares "nothing is more 
clear in the Bible." Since the days of miracles 
are past, says Broadus, therefore the unpardon- 
able sin can no longer be committed. Christ, 
however, did not say the Pharisees had' com- 
mitted this sin, and the most that can be posi- 
tively argued is that their conduct proved them 
well on the way toward it. M : ark 3: 30 does not 
necessarily impute the sin unto them. "Because 
they said He had an unclean Spirit," may be 
simply the ground on which He based the warn- 
ing. However, though this be true, we are in- 

The Resistance of the Spirit 171 

clined to believe with Meyer, Broadus, Delitzsch 
and others, that they did commit the sin in ques- 
tion, though this, of course, must remain doubt- 
ful. That they could be warned against it is to 
some (Stier, Lange, Chadwick), argument they 
had not committed it; but could not those solemn 
words have sounded their doom as well as 
warned them of impending' d'anger? To some 
Christ's prayer on the cross argues they had not 
committed it ; it is said that if the crucifiers with 
all their evidence from a three years' ministry 
knew not what they were doing, scarcely could 
these who thus far had only eighteen months of 
it. It does not appear, and yet the instance before 
us had its peculiar aggravations, while even 
Christ's last prayer could have its general refer- 
ence without including, some, even many, who 
stood within the sound of it. However, if this 
allegation of the Pharisees was an instance of the 
sin in question, how does it follow with Wesley 
that it can be "this and nothing more?" iMight 
this not have been but one instance of it? The 
occasion) made this utterance the natural expres- 

172 A Help te the Study of the Holy Spirit 

sion of their wicked hearts, but could not. the 
same sinful disposition have prompted and 
prompt today other utterances just as heinous, 
and so leave the soul subject to the same fearful 
condemnation? The blasphemous utterance 
was the occasion of the Saviour's fearful declara- 
tion; it was, we are strongly inclined to believe, 
an instance of this most fearful of crimes, but 
that such crime must be confined to this one par- 
ticular ascription we can gather no semblance 
of worthy proof from the pages of Scripture. 

(2) Another shade of opinion under this same 
general view is that the sin consists in any blas- 
phemous utterance of sufficient malignity and 
heinousness to deserve the condemnation given 
it by the Saviour. This is certainly an advance 
over the preceding opinion; it has not only in its 
favor equally with the other the derivative mean- 
ing of blasphemy (a malicious verbal utterance), 
but also the almost universal concession that 
blasphemy against the Spirit is not something 
directed against the Spirit personally. The Jews 
had no thought of malice against the Holy Spirit ; 

The Resistance of the Spirit 1 73 

it was all directed against Christ. Why should 
it be any more harmful to speak a word against 
the Spirit than to speak against either of the 
other persons of the Godhead? It is not the 
rank of the Person, but the increased clearness 
of revelation as furnished by the Spirit, in the 
face of which a man knowingly and wilfully sins 
that aggravates the crime and makes it unpar- 
donable. Blasphemy against God and the Son 
of Man is pardonable, but blasphemy against the 
Father or the Son is also unpardonable, if com- 
mitted under the. above noticed 1 conditions, for 
by that very fact it becomes blasphemy against 
the Spirit. 

That the blasphemy must, however, according 
to the etymology of the word, manifest itself in 
some verbal expression is the distinguishing 
characteristic of the present opinion, and the 
condition which J. J. Owen and others have 
made imperative to its correct interpretation. 

(3) There is yet a third shade of opinion be- 
longing to this same general view, namely, that 
this sin is any act verbal or otherwise of equal 

174 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit . 

malignity and heinousness with such utterances 
as have been under consideration. This has the 
etymology of the word blasphemy against it. The 
Saviour said it was injurious speaking against 
the Spirit that was unpardonable, and a rigid con- 
sistency with the letter would compel us at once 
to reject the opinion now before us. It is not 
unreasonable to suppose that every malicious and 
wilful opposer of Christ will manifest his opposi- 
tion in verbal expression, and all other cases of 
unpardonable sinning noted in the Word may, 
we believe, be seen at least to include such mani- 
festation; but is such strict adherence to the 
letter either necessary or Wise? Certainly deeds 
are as damnable as words and dispositions as 
contemptible as verbal expressions, and with 
certain propriety we may speak of a man's con- 
duct being blasphemous as well as anything he 
might say. Thus we hear Whedon, Oettinger 
and others declaring that blasphemy may as truly 
be committed in thought or in act as in speech, 
and may rather be defined as the offering a pre- 
sumptuous insult to God. 

The Resistance of the Spirit 175 

The arguments in favor of the first general 
view are: 

I. The Saviour's words undoubtedly had par- 
ticular reference to something the Pharisees did. 

II. He expressly said that doing something 
(speaking against the Holy Spirit), was the Un- 
pardonable Sin. 

III. In a very certain sense it is a thing done, 
a word expressed, a deed committed, a thought 
entertained that must be subject or not to divine 
clemency. If by a state expositors mean a con- 
dition of soul, this God would have remedied but 
not forgiven. 

If now the first general view be accepted, the 
first shade of opinion under it we decidedly reject; 
the second is favored by the etymology of the 
word; the third, which includes the other two, is 
favored by the very nature of sin in general, by 
the spirit rather than the letter of the term blas- 
phemy and by reasonable inference from: all 
other Scripture bearing upon the sin in question. 
If the sin, therefore, be understood as something 
done, the last mentioned opinion is decidedly 

176 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

preferable. A final conclusion, however, must 
be reserved until we have examined the other 
general view, namely, that the blasphemy of the 
Holy Spirit is a state of soul to which the man 
by repeated sinning has arrived. Here mention 
should be made of the opinion of Augustin who 
made the sin in question to be "Final Indepen- 
dence." This was the view also of Guthrie and 
of Chalmers, and is held by a few today. With 
this view Prof. Smeaton of Edinburg coincides. 
It is, however, strenuously opposed by the vast 
majority of modern scholars. What is it but 
the substitution of 1 a foregone conclusion for the 
disposition that made it inevitable? 

To this second general class belongs Calvin, 
and following him. almost uniformly the Re- 
formed divines who make this state to be one 
of wilful and malicious opposition to the most 
convincing evidence as furnished by the Holy 
Spirit. A few of the definitions that may prop- 
erly be classed here are as follows: Riddle, "A 
state of wilful determined opposition in the pres- 
ence of light to the power of the Holy Spirit, vir- 

The Resistance of the Spirit 177 

tually a moral suicide, a killing of the conscience 
so that the human spirit is absolutely insuscep- 
tible to the influences of the Holy Spirit." Oos- 
terzee, '"Conscious and stubborn hatred against 
God and that which is divine as it exists in its 
highest development." Stier, "We regard the 
Unpardonable Sin, of which Christ was led to 
speak from a special occasion so that He charac- 
terized it according to one of its expressions 
not merely in this or that other of its manifold 
expressions, but in its deepest ground it is the 
rejection of the perfectly known, immediate tes- 
timony of the Spirit developed in a human being 
till it brings him to the same nature with Satan." 
Qettingen, ."Perpetual impenitence and incre- 
dulity even to the end, which from a rebellious 
and mo'st obstinate repudiation of the testimony 
of the Holy Spirit manifesting Himself in the 
Gospel and. working in the hearts of men confess 
to light set forth through word and deed in blas- 
jpiheming the Holy Spirit." 

Now what is meant by the state of the soul? 
We have used the term soul as the more general 

178 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

and designative of the psychical man to which 
the powers of the mind and heart appertain. We 
speak of the state of a man's health; the state of 
his body, sound or unsound; and so we speak 
of the state of a man's soul as being 1 one of spirit- 
ual insusceptibility, dead and incapable of spirit- 
ual impression. This state or condition of ll.v 
soul may properly be distinguished from the 
principle of sin within the man; it is resultant 
condition of the unrestrained operation of that 
principle, and like the principle is not subject to 
divine pardon. God never forgives principles; 
He never forgives a state as just conceived; it 
must be subject to cure rather thao to pardon. 
The principle of sin (sin in its root) in a man 
manifests itself first in simple indifference to the 
claims and strivings of the Spirit (what Nitzsch 
calls "passive neutrality"); this might be called 
the defensive attitude, simply resisting the Spirit. 
In some cases certain elements and conditions 
contrive to change this indifference into an ac- 
tive opposition; the principle of sin no longer 
merely resists but begins to oppose; it takes up 

The Resistance of the Spirit 179 

an offensive attitude and as this active antagon- 
ism increases, growing more confirmed and more 
hateful with advancing years, the soul hardens 
and as a consequence of it loses its religious sus- 
ceptibility, which condition marks the limit to- 
ward which every unconverted man is tending 
and beyond which he can not go* and be in a 
savable condition. It is that 

" , bourne by us unseen, 
By which each path is crossed, 
Beyond which God Himself hath sworn 
That he who goes is lost." 

Herein is one way of conceiving of the state 
of the soul, but may we not with equal propriety 
conceive of this condition as productive of the 
outward expression whereby the inner disposi- 
tion becomes manifest to the world? In fact, so 
most expositors speak of it. Attempt has been 
made to distinguish between the state of the soul 
as a condition and a disposition. This may be 
done, but it tends rather to obscure than to 
clarify and involves the inquirer himself in a 

180 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

state of psychological confusion. In the last 
analysis the hardened condition of the soul is 
nothing less nor more than the disposition of 
confirmed obdurateness. It is the hardened 
mind that antagonizes, the hardened 1 heart that 
hates what is divine, and when we speak of reli- 
gious insusceptibility, we can properly mean 
nothing more than one characteristic of the inner 
man to whom such state of soul pertains. It at 
once becomes evident therefore that whether we 
speak of the Unpardonable Sin as an act or as a 
state of sin it is but one or the other of two ways 
of referring to the same thing. The former de- 
fines the sin in terms of the fruit of the tree; the 
latter defines it in terms of the tree itself. (Matt. 

12: 33> 34-) 

Although in Christ's solemn declaration there 
may have been and doubtless was the intentional 
reference to an individual actual sin, it is plain 
that as such it could not exist save as the veriest 
acme of a sinful development of what Julius 
Muller calls "an accumulated degeneracy of the 
moral condition," for certainly says this same 

The Resistance of the Spirit 181 

scholar in. his profound; work on the "Christian 
Doctrine of Sin," page 476, Vol. II, "this sin is 
not a merely outward act, as if by the secret 
magic of certain words which do not emanate 


from the depths of the heart, one could commit 
the worst sin and consign himself immediately 
to eternal perdition." 

In view of all which, it must be clear that it is 
the condition of the man rather than any action 
that makes his case hopeless, and that therefore 
it must be in respect to this crime as all others, as 
Stier has well said, "the internal sin as such that 
is judged, though apprehended and convicted in 
its expression." The above distinction is of 
course necessary in any attempted analysis of 
the sin in question, or any other sin, but that in 
definition it should result in defining the sin in 
one aspect to the exclusion of the other is not 
only unnecessary, but unfortunate and unwise. 
Delitzsch has expressed himself in a way that 
ought to meet with entire approval. He says, 
"It is not the individual word of blasphemy 
itself, or the individual deed of blasphemous op- 

182 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

position, but these taken in connection with the 
disposition of mind which is manifested in them, 
that constitutes the Unpardonable Sin." 

Whether forgiveness would be denied, if 
craved, is a useless inquiry, since the sin is un- 
pardonable not on God's account, but on the sin- 
ner's account, for he is, as Riddle says, "virtually 
a moral suicide," having forever killed his con- 
science and destroyed his religious susceptibility 
and removed himself from the possibility of ever 
asking forgiveness. Repientance is the gift of 
God and the unpardonable sinner has driven 
from him the only person who could ever work 
repentance in his heart. 

Another question of the present investigation 
pertains to the more exact nature of the disposi- 
tion which drew upon it the fearful judgment of 
Christ. It was not only that of confirmed re- 
sistance to the Spirit as we have tried to show, 
but a malicious and hateful antagonism of the 
Spirit, (Muller, Stier, Grashof, Calvin.) Such 
certainly is to be gathered from all othjer pas- 
sages descriptive of the sin, and such certainly 

The Resistance of the Spirit 183 

was the disposition of the blaspheming Jews in 
the Gospels. It was as Stier has said, "the coii- 
summated sin of the d'evil." Their repudiation 
of the Christ was made in the presence of the 
clearest light; but to have acknowledged this 
man to be the Christ would have been to repu- 
diate their past and to have sacrificed their cause, 
and this with diabolical meanness they resolved 
they would not do. They will escape the neces- 
sity of believing; deny the fact (the cure) they 
cannot; interpret it they will; they will ascribe it 
to the power of the devil. False and absurd, 
frateful and hellish, but what matter, let Judaism 
be saved be the consequence what it may! ! ! ! 
It was an opposition that was conscious, deter- 
mined, prolonged, hateful a voluntary closing 
their eyes to the most abundant light and this 
with most malicious intent. 

Grasping the blasphemy of the Holy Spirit, 
therefore, for its complete characterization both 
in the tree and the fruit thereof, Matt. 12: 33, 34, 
and still in harmony with Christ's apprehension 
of it in one of its expressions, we would define 

184 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

the Unpardonable Sin as the blasphemous mani- 
festation in word or deed of an internal state of 
soul to which a man has arrived by a continued 
resistance and increasing opposition to the clear- 
est and most undoubted revelation of God's 
Spirit, which state when once attained, is one of 
contemptuous and malicious hatred 1 of all that 
pertains to the Son of God and which by its very 
nature is bound to manifest itself as such. 

With this we believe a fair exegesis of all other 
passages relating to this sin will agree. Since 
the Saviour said that all other sins but this were 
pardonable, it is at once evident that all other 
cases of fatal sinning mentioned in the word must 
be identical and harmonious with the one of 
which the Saviour speaks (so most authority), 
I John 5: 16; II Tim. 3: 8; Jude 12: 13; Heb. 
6: 4-8; 10: 26-31. 

Two questions remain for brief notice. The 
first is, Who commits the blasphemy against the 
Holy Spirit? Some answer, "The regenerate 
only." But if the Jews to whom Jesus spoke 
concerning this sin were guilty of it, as we are 

The Resistance of the Spirit 185 

inclined to believe, to what a destructive enerva- 
tion of the idea contained in the new birth must 
ithis opinion lead. Even if they did not commit it, 
the mere fact that as unregenerate men they 
could be warned as well on the way toward it is 
entirely subversive of the opinion just expressed. 
Others, while admitting what is beyond doubt 
the fact, that the unregenerate commit the sin, 
also urge the opinion that it may be committed 
by the regenerate, and employ in defense of their 
position the passages in Heb. 6: 4-8; 10: 26-31, 
as descriptive of the once regenerate. These pas- 
sages in Hebrews refer to apostasy, the way to 1 
which lay through the sin we have been dis- 
cussing; this we may maintain beyond a reason- 
able doubt, but as to the former character of the 
persons described we find ourselves confronted! 
with the never-to-be-settled question! so long dis- 
puted by the chief schools of theological 
thought ; the Calvinistic on the one side and the 
Lutheran and Armenian on the other. Into this 
question it is not the purpose of these pages to 
enter. The unregenerate, and we are inclined to 

186 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

think only the unregenerate, may commit the 
Unpardonable Sin. 

The other question is, Will a proper under- 
standing! of the blasphemy against the Holy 
Spirit, the alone unpardonable sin, permit of its 
identification with the grieving away of the 
Spirit through a simple indifference to His 
claims and strivings as is so often represented in 
the preaching of today? 

There is manifestly a difference between a 
state of confirmed indifference and one of ma- 
licious and hateful antagonism, though both are 
evidently phases of the same moral obliquity, 
and in harmony with the discussion of this sub- 
ject as set forth in the preceding pages, a nega- 
tive answer we feel should be given to the above 

Gurlitt characterizes the blasphemy against 
the Holy Spirit as "contemptuous indifference 
to what is divine and holy." Just wherein lies 
the exact point of transition between sin of lesser 
culpability and the blasphemy against the Spirit 
no mortal mind can ever tell, but contemptu- 

The Resistance of the Spirit 187 

ously declaring in the face of the clearest and 
most convincing light, the redemption of Christ, 
the things of the Spirit to be matters of indiffer- 
ence, to be, in fact, foolishness who will say 
that such a thing is not of sufficient culpability in 
itself to merit the judgment of blasphemy against 
the Holy Spirit? But this is different from that 
.simple indifference to the claims of the Spirit, 
which continues increasingly in the lives of so 
many about us until they, are at last seemingly 
lost to all impression. 

That a high degree of spiritual enlightenment 
is necessary to the commital of the blasphemy 
against the Spirit we have already seen, which 
fact is clearly set forth by such Scriptural pas- 
sages as are descriptive of it, and some have 
argued, and not without force, that under such 
circumstances simple indifference is impossible; 
a clear conception of moral good implies an im- 
perative; to be convicted of the truth, they say, 
demands its acceptance or its wilful and scornful 

Again, others have stoutly contended against 

188 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

the thought that a man through simple indiffer- 
ence can ever become completely insensible to 
spiritual impression. To whom is it given to 
say? But that simple indifference may so cul- 
minate, seems to be reasonable, merely as the 
result of natural law in the spiritual world. That 
law is, if a man will not see, he 'shall not see. 

The neglect to use a faculty for its God-given 
purpose means its final atrophy. One need not 
break his arm to destroy its powers; simply tie 
it to the side and leave it there long enough; 
bandage the eye long enough and it will lose 
forever its power to see; stop the ears long 
enough and they will become soundless forever; 
harden the heart long enough and it will lose 
forever its capacity to feel. If this is true and 
a man becomes "past feeling," Bph. 4: 19, 
through continued indifference, although his 
condition would be equally hopeless with that of 
the blasphemer of the Spirit (and for this reason 
so many have identified them), the distinguishing 
feature would be not alone in the nature of the 
states in question, but that the blasphemy 

The Resistance of the Spirit 189 

against the Spirit, as seen in the case of the blas- 
pheming Jews, is characterized in its outward 
expression as the fruit of a malicious disposition, 

while this other has its reference solely to the 
condition of the man himself. 

It is evident whether we identify or distinguish 
the two forms of sinfulness under discussion that 
one is equally as fatal as the other, and it is cer- 
tainly true that sinful derelopment in the case 
of every sinner must, unless arrested by Re- 
demption, complete itself in such a condition of 
soul as forever settles the sinner's doom. 

"There is a time, we know not when, 

A place we know not where, 
That marks the destiny of men, 

For glory or despair. 

There is a line by us unseen, 

That crosses every path; 
The hidden boundary between 

God's patience and His wrath. 

To pass that limit is to die, 
To die as if by stealth; 

190 A Help to the Study of the Holy Spirit 

It does not quench the beaming eye, 
Or pale the glow of health. 

The conscience may be still at ease, 

The spirits light and gay; 
That which is pleasing still may please, 

And care be thrust away. 

But on that forehead God has set 

Indelibly a mark- 
Unseen by man for man as yet 

Is blind and in the dark. 

And still the doomed man's path below 
May bloom as Eden bloomed 

He did not, does not, will not know, 
Or feel that he is doomed. 

He knows, he feels that all ds well, 

And every fear is calmed; 
He lives, he dies, he wakes in hell, 

Not only doomed but damned* 

Oh, where is thisi mysterious bourne 
By which our path is crossed: 

Beyond which God Himself hath sworn, 
That he who goes is lost? 

The Resistance of the Spirit 191 

How far may men go on in sin? 

How long win God forbear? 
Where does hope end and where begin 

The confines of despair? 

An answer from the skies is sent: 

'Ye that from God depart, 
While it is called today, repent, 

And harden not your heart!' " 


For those desiring to enter more thoroughly 
into this important study the following catalogue 
of those works which have come under the writ- 
er's notice andi which he has found helpful in the 
prosecution of his own study is appended. The 
year of issue is given as indicative of the more 
recent opinion. Books marked with a star (*) 
are specially helpful for those who do not care 
for the more extended study: of the subject. 

1674. On the Holy Spirit Owen. 

1814. A practical Treatise on the Ordinary Opera- 
tions of the Holy Spirit S. S. Faber. 

1847. The Office and Work of the Holy Spirit- 
James Buchanan. 

1849. The Work of the Holy Spirit W. H. Stowell. 

1854. The Mission of the Comforter. J. G. Hare. 

1856. The Tongue of Fire. William Arthur. 

1856. Inquiry on the Work of the Holy Spirit 

1865. The Scripture Testimony to the Holy Spirit 
James Morgan. 

1866. The Temporal Mission of the Spirit. H. B. 

Bibliography 193 

1869. The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit. Walker. 
1875. The Paraclete. Joseph Parker. 
1882. The Work of the Holy Spirit in Man. G. 

1882. The Doctrine of the Holy Spirit. Smeaton. 

1883. Emblems of the Holy Ghost. Philip Norton. 

1885. Ethics of the Holy Ghost Philip Norton. 

1886. The Holy Spirit in Man. McMillan. 
1888. The Spirit of Christ. Andrew Murray. 
1890. Power from on High. Mills. 

1892. The Greatest Need of the Church. B. F. 

1S92. Seven Lamps of Fire. Philip Norton. 

1892. The Filling of the Spirit. B. F. Meyer. 

1898. The Holy Ghost Dispensation. D. Clark. 
The Holy Spirit. J. H. Brooks. 

1894. *The Ministry of the Holy Spirit. A. J. Gor- 

1894. Received ye the Holy Ghost.-J. W. Chap- 

1895. The Baptism of the Holy Ghost. R. A. Tor- 

1896. The Spirit's Seal. Moore. 
1896. The Spirit-filled Life. MacNeil. 

1896. *Through the Eternal Spirit Gumming. 
1896. The Holy Spirit in New Testament Scrip- 
tures. Scofield. 

194 Bibliography 

1897. A Holy Life. Macgregor. 
1897. Another Comforter. McC/lure. 

Pray for the Holy Spirit William Scribner. 

*Be Filled with the Spirit E^ Boys. 

The Baptism of the Holy Ghost Mahan. 

In. the Power of the Spirit Boardman. 

Veni Creator. H. G. C. Moule. 
1897. The Spirit's Seal. E. W. Moore. 

1897. *The Threefold Secret of the Holy Spirit.- 
J. H. McConkey. 

1898. Acts of the Holy Spirit A. T. Peirson. 

1898. The Things of the Spirit. Macgregor. 

1899. *Plain Papers on the Doctrine of the Holy 
Spirit. Scofield. 

1899. The Spirit and the incarnation.-W. L. 

1900. *The Spirit of God. Campbell Morgan. 
1900. The Holy Spirit and the Believer.-James M. 


1900. The work of the Holy Spirit Kuyper. 
The Gifts of the Holy Spirit Vaughan. 
The Holy Spirit, the Paraclete. Robsons. 
Vox Dei. Bedford. 

Emblems of the Holy Spirit. F. E. Marsh. 
1902. Holy Spirit H. B. Swete, in Hastings Bible 
In the Power of the Spirit. Boardman. 

Bibliography 195 

Personality and Offices of the Comforter. Heber. 
Person and Work of the Holy Ghost Hutch'ings. 
Person and Office of the Holy Spirit. Webb. 
Work of the Holy Spirit. Candlish. 
Administration of the Holy Spirit in the Body of 
Christ. Moberly. 

I HALL 113