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THE HYMNS AND HYMN WRITERS 
OF THE CHURCH HYMNARY 



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HYMNS AND -,.OTN WRITERS 



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THE CHURCH HYMNARY 



BY 



JOHN ' BROWNLIE, D.D. 



HENRY FROWDE 

LONDON, EDINBURGH, GLASGOW, NEW YORK, 
TORONTO AND MELBOURNE 

1911 



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PREFACE 



THE preparation of The Church Hymnary by the four 
Presbyterian committees is a work of surpassing interest 
in the annals of Presbyterianism ; and its completion and 
publication were the event in our ecclesiastical history in 
the past year. 

The result, important in itself, is interesting and grati- 
fying in this, that it makes manifest to the world that the 
Scottish Churches are one. The reception given to the 
compilation, exceeding anything anticipated by the most 
hopeful, has removed that fact beyond all controversy. 
Time will doubtless reveal, in an even more palpable 
manner, that the expression of good will and brotherly 
regard is not accidental, but the prevailing sentiment of 
our people. In the midst of all our external divisions we 
cannot forget that we are of the same household. 

But not alone in Scotland, in Ireland also the spirit 
of good will has revealed itself ; and it would seem as if 
the Presbyterians there, and in our colonies throughout 
the world, were recalling their kinship, and gladly 
availing themselves of a circumstance which enables 
them to proclaim it. 

While to this sentiment is doubtless largely due the 
marvellous reception given to The Church Hymnary, 

a 8 



vi PREFACE 

the compilation is so altogether good, that a large measure 
of its success must be attributed to its own intrinsic worth. 

No one can close his eyes to defects when he sees them, 
and defects there are in The Church Hymnary ; but this 
must be said, that with all its defects, which are very 
patent in many cases, and certainly ought to be fewer, the 
collection is one of the best for congregational use in our 
language, This is a sober opinion expressed after having 
laid the book alongside the principal hymnals in use in 
Great Britain and America, and making careful and 
minute comparisons. 

Let it be said at once that this is not a book for 
hymnologists : it has been prepared for the purpose of 
giving to our people who may use The Church Hymnary 
a guide from which such information can be obtained, as 
shall enable them to use that praise book with greater 
interest and appreciation. 

It has been the endeavour of the author to make 
reference to every hymn -writer represented in the 
Hymnary, and to say something about every hymn. 

And considering that so few of our people, comparatively, 
know anything at all about the history of The Scottish 
Metrical Psalter, and The Translations and Paraphrases, 
and that these are still to a large extent the praise material 
of our Churches, it has been thought that a chapter giving 
some historical account of them might not be an unwelcome 
addition to the book. 

The author's heartiest thanks are due to the following 
contributors, who have added value to the book by their 
contributions : 

The Kev. Dr. Archibald Henderson, Crieff, secretary 
of the Joint Hymnal Committee, for the chapter on the 
preparation of The Church Hymnary. 



PREFACE Vli 

The Eev. Dr. Charles Gr. M c Crie, Ayr, who is at home 
in everything that pertains to Presbyterian public worship, 
for the chapter on The Scottish Metrical Psalter and The 
Translations and Paraphrases. 

The Eev. Dr. H. C. & Moule, Principal of Eidley Hall, 
Cambridge, for the article on Charlotte Elliott. 

The Eev. Dr. Hugh Macmillan, Greenock, for the 
account of a visit to the Convent of Mar Saba. 

The Eev. John Smith, B.D., Partick, convener of 
Sabbath School Committee of the Church of Scotland, 
for the introduction to the chapter on Children's 
Hymns. 

Mr. William Cowan, Edinburgh, secretary of the Joint 
Music Committee, for the chapter on the Music of The 
Church Hymnary. 

And very specially to the Eev. James Bonar, M.A., 
Eanfurly, Bridge of Weir, not only for the chapter dealing 
with the hymns of Horatius Bonar, but also for con- 
tinued and ungrudged help in more ways than can be 
indicated from the beginning of the preparation of this 
work until now. 

For the rest of the book the author is himself 
responsible. 

It should be mentioned that the arrangement of the 
various hymn-writers in sections has been regulated by 
the date of birth in each case. 

It is quite impossible when so many authorities have 
been consulted, and so many references made to hymno- 
logical works, memoirs, magazine and periodical articles, 
to give anything like a full list of these. But the author 
would very gratefully express his indebtedness to the 
many correspondents, some of them hymn-writers of note, 
and others representatives of hymn-writers deceased, who 



* 



Vlll PREFACE 

have with delightful generosity placed material at his 
hand, He is also indebted to the following sources of 
information : 

The hymnological works of Daniel, Mone, Dreves, 
Neale, Trench, Dtiffield, Christ and Paranikas, Littledale, 
Mrs. Browning, Ellerton, Selborne, Schaff, Miss Wink- 
worth, Hatfield, Ourwen, Stevenson, Mrs. Charles, Horder; 
also to the Geistlicher Liederschatz, and particularly to 
The Dictionary of Hymnology, edited by the Kev. Dr. 
Julian, Vicar of Wincobank, Sheffield, and the Eev. James 
Mearns, Vicar of Ashby-de-la-Launde, Lincohi . No one who 
desires to have a full and intelligent survey of hymnology 
can afford to dispense with a work to which so many 
master hands have contributed, &c. 

Very conscious of its many defects, it is yet the earnest 
desire of the author that this volume may aid our people 
in their endeavour to praise God, who is the King of all 
the earth, with understanding. 

JOHN BKOWNLIE, 

PORTPATRICK, 

April 20, 1899. 



NOTE TO EE-ISSUE, 1911. 

The author would avail himself of the opportunity which 
this re-issue offers to express his indebtedness to the many 
friends, both at home and abroad, who have in various 
ways given expression to their appreciation of this work, 
and have made acknowledgment of help derived from it. 

It is particularly gratifying to know that it has been 
found useful at Bible classes as a text book, and the hope 
is entertained that this cheap issue may make it possible 



PREFACE IX 

for ministers, and Bible class teachers generally, to avail 
themselves still further of the material which it places at 
their disposal. 

The lapse of time has made certain additions and 
emendations necessary, and these, which should enhance 
the value^of the book, will be found in an appendix. One 
of the additions is a list of hymn-writers deceased. In the 
course of twelve years the ranks of the nineteenth century 
hymn-writers of The Church Hymnary have been greatly 
thinned, and the names of those who have been removed , 
by death, with the dates, and, where it has been found 
possible, the places where the deaths occurred, are given. 

During the twelve years of its life, The Church 
Hymnary has secured and well maintained the right to 
be designated the book of common praise of the Presby- 
terian Church north of the Tweed, in Ireland, and in 
many of our colonies. The strange title has become 
a familiar one, and 'The Hymnary' is everywhere 
spoken of with an affectionate regard which is destined 
to grow as memories continue to gather around it. 

Much has contributed to this happy state of matters ; 
the long-felt need of such a book of praise; the conscious- 
ness of unity in the churches in the noblest exercise of 
the human soul ; the inherent excellence of the compila- 
tion; and the praiseworthy loyalty which everywhere 
greeted its appearance. 

It will doubtless surprise many to learn that copies of 
The Church Hymnary have been issued sufficient to supply 
one to every man, woman, and child in Scotland. The 
following particulars may be interesting. 

The sales during the past twelve years, that is since it 
was published, total considerably over 4,000,000 of the 
complete edition, and of this number more than 1,000,000 



X PREFACE 

were sold within the first few months of publication. Even 
last year, more than a quarter of a million were sold, and 
there is no sign whatever that the demand is diminishing. 
Naturally the largest demand is for the editions without 
music, but of the music editions nearly a million copies 
have been sold, and about sixty per cent, of these give the 
Staff-notation, and forty per cent, the Sol-fa. The family 
edition in the Staff-notation is most in demand of the 
music books. For the simple Sol-fa edition there is 
a good demand which is greater than for the four-part 
Sol-fa, but not so great as for the four-part Staff edition. 
No fewer than four editions have been printed especially 
for binding up with Bibles. These facts testify to the 
cordial welcome accorded to the book, and to its continued 
usefulness. 

J. B. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 



I. THE PREPARATION OF THE CHURCH HYMNARY . i 
II. NEW TESTAMENT AND PRIMITIVE CHURCH HYMNS n 

III. HYMNS FROM THE GREEK 17 

IV. HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 27 

V. HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN . . . .51 

VI. TRANSLATORS .73 

VII. THE SCOTTISH METRICAL PSALTER, TRANSLATIONS 

AND PARAPHRASES ., . " . . . -85 

VIII. THE RISE OF ENGLISH HYMNODY . . . .107 
HYMN-WRITERS BORN PRIOR TO 1600 . -113 

IX. HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1600 AND 1700 , 115 
ISAAC WATTS . . . . '. . .123 

X. HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 . 129 

CHARLES WESLEY . . . . . .131 

THE OLNEY HYMNS . . . . . .138 

POETS . . 144 

FEMALE HYMN-WRITERS . . . . .148 

CHURCH DIGNITARIES . . . . .154 

CLERGYMEN OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND . 160 

PRESBYTERIAN MINISTERS . . . . .168 

CONGREGATIONAL .MINISTERS . . . . 170 

BAPTIST MINISTERS .175 

ME'THODIST MINISTERS . . . . .178 

UNCLASSIFIED . , . . . . . 179 



xn CONTENTS 

PAGE 

XI. NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS . .185 

TRACTARIAN HYMN- WRITERS . . . .188 

CHURCH DIGNITARIES 197 

CLERGYMEN OF THE CHURCH OP ENGLAND . 207 

PRESBYTERIAN MINISTERS 221 

HORATIUS BONAR . .225 

OTHER MINISTERS 232 

FEMALE HYMN-WRITERS . . . . . . 234 

UNCLASSIFIED . . . . . .250 

XII. CHILDREN'S HYMNS 259 

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 264 

NINETEENTH CENTURY 267 

ANONYMOUS , 283 

XIII. AMERICAN HYMNS . . . . . . .285 

HYMN-WRITERS BORN PRIOR TO 1800 . . 290 

NINETEENTH CENTURY 295 

CHILDREN'S HYMNS . . . . . .312 

XIV. THE Music OF THE CHURCH HYMNARY . .317 

XV. TABLE OF CONSENSUS .329 

INDEX OF FIRST LINES 357 

INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS . . . .359 

APPENDIX 365 



THE PREPARATION 
OF THE CHURCH HYMNARY 



B 



I 



THE co-operation of four Churches "in its preparation 
invests The Church Hymnary with a special interest, as 
realizing, in some measure, the oneness of mind with which 
all Christians 'glorify the God and Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ,' and as a step towards the fulfilling of the 
desire for unity which is drawing the Churches which have 
adopted it into closer fellowship. The idea of a common 
hymn-book for the Scottish Presbyterian Churches is not 
new. It is, indeed, only within the last fifty years that 
there has arisen any difference in their material of Church 
praise ; for although one of the Churches, now included in 
the United Presbyterian Church, issued an authorized book 
of Sacred Songs and Hymns in 1794, the so-called Scottish 
version of the Psalms practically formed, with the Para- 
phrases, their common psalmody. In 1851 the then recently 
formed United Presbyterian Church authorized a hymn-book 
for use in public worship, and in 1876 published a new collec- 
tion under the title of The Presbyterian Hymnal. In 1861 
the Church of Scotland allowed the use of Hymns for Public 
Worship, of which an enlarged edition appeared in 1864. 
The first edition of The Scottish Hymnal was issued in 1870, 
and the second in 1884. The Free Church of Scotland 
followed with the first edition of its Hymn-book in 1872 ; 
and the second, and enlarged, in 1881, The Presbyterian 

B 2 



4 THE PREPARATION OF 

Church in Ireland had no recognized hymn-book, though 
hymns were used in several of its congregations, till it 
approved The Church Hymnary. 

The introduction of those various books, and of successive 
editions of each of them, intensified the desire in Scotland 
for a common hymnal. As early as 1870, when it was 
resolved by the Synod of the United Presbyterian Church 
to prepare The Presbyterian Hymnal, the convener of its 
Hymn Committee was instructed to communicate with the 
conveners of the Hymn Committees of the Church of Scot- 
land and the Free Church. He did so ; and in reply was 
informed that, as regards the Church of Scotland, the time 
was inopportune, as -its Committee was already too far 
advanced in the preparation of The Scottish Hymnal to be 
willing to delay its publication. On behalf of the Free 
Church it was answered that it was as yet unprepared to 
contemplate more than a small selection. 

Another and, as it proved, more auspicious occasion 
presented itself in 1891, when the Synod of the United 
Presbyterian Church resolved to revise its Hymnal. Nego- 
tiations were opened with a view to the co-operation of 
the three Scottish Churches, which happily resulted in 
their approval of the project. Though the other two 
Churches were not purposing revision of their hymn-books, 
which had been more recently revised than The Presby- 
terian Hymnal, it was recognized that the work, if jointly 
undertaken, would occupy several years, and that such an 
opportunity, if lost, might not again offer itself. 

The Hymn Committees of the three Churches thus in- 
structed favourably to consider the proposal, began their 
work by each appointing a small sub-committee of five 
members ; who, after a careful consideration of a tabulated 
list of the hymns in use in these Churches, unanimously 
reported that there was already such substantial agreement 
that no difficulty need arise in preparing a common hymnal. 



THE CHURCH HYMNARY . 5 

They further suggested that the Hymn Committee of each 
Church should appoint seven representatives to form a joint 
committee to proceed with the work. This was approved, 
and the Joint Hymnal Committee was accordingly appointed : 
and met for the first time, as thus constituted, on January 23, 
1893. Being commissioned to prepare a book of praise for 
three Churches, the Joint Committee naturally began its 
work by careful and repeated examination of the hymn- 
books in use in the three Churches \ Thereafter it carefully 
went through all the more important collections of hymns, 
including those sanctioned by the principal branches of the 
Christian Church at home and abroad. Some fifty hymn- 
books were thus searched for suitable material; and all 
suggestions from members of the committee, from whatever 
source, were carefully considered. The hymns thus 
provisionally selected were printed in a Draft Hymnal and 
Supplement, which were repeatedly revised. The hymns 
finally retained were then arranged topically, that those 
under each heading might be considered by themselves, 
that proportion might be kept between the various sections, 
as well as variety and sufficiency secured in each. While 
careful to retain hymns which familiar usage had endeared 
to the members of the several Churches, the Committee 
made room as far as possible for new hymns which were 
of intrinsic merit, and fitted to enrich the collection with 
fresh material of congregational praise. 

Early in 1895 the Joint Committee was able to submit 
its draft report to the general Hymn Committees of the 
three Churches for their consideration, and thereafter to 
the Supreme Courts of the Churches, in May of the same year. 

While the work, first suggested in May, 1891, was thus 

1 These \vere, in the Church of Scotland, The Scottish Hymnal ; 
in the Free Church, The Free Church Hymn-book and Home and 
School Hymnal ; and in the United Presbyterian Church, The Presby- 
terian Hymnal and The Presbyterian Hymnal for the Young. 



6 THE PREPARATION OF 

in progress, interest in it had been spreading. In the 
Autumn of 1892 a Conference was held in Toronto of 
the delegates from the Churches throughout the British 
Empire to the General Council of the Presbyterian Alliance 
then meeting in that city. At that Conference a resolution 
was cordially and unanimously adopted, approving the 
proposal of a common hymnal for all the Presbyterian 
Churches of the empire, and resolving to take what steps 
were possible towards its accomplishment 1 . A memorial 
from that Conference was submitted to the Joint Committee, 
and brought by it before the Supreme Courts of the Scottish 
Churches in 1893, which all regarded it with favour. 

In the Spring of 1894 the English Presbyterian Church 
appointed a committee of three members to co-operate in 
the work ; and in the Autumn of that year the Hymnal 
Committee of the Presbyterian Church of Canada opened 
communications with the Joint Hymnal Committee which 
led to an exchange of Draft Hymnals, and to the sending (in 
the Spring of 1895) Mr. MacDonnell and Mr. M c Millan to 
attend the meetings of the Joint Hymnal Committee, where 
they were most cordially welcomed. In the same year 
(1895) the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church 
in Ireland appointed a committee to select suitable material 
for a hymn-book; and that committee was, at its own 
desire, furnished with copies of the Draft Hymnal. 

In view of all suggestions received from members of 

1 The resolution adopted was in these terms : ' In the judgment of 
this Meeting it is very desirable to secure a common hymnal for the 
Churches in the British Empire holding the Presbyterian system ; and 
it is agreed to appoint a committee to prepare a statement to be com- 
municated to the Supreme Courts of the Churches here represented, 
and to correspond at once with Hymnal Committees (where such 
exist) in the several Churches, in order to have the matter of a 
common hymnal brought under the notice of the Supreme Courts 
at as early a date as possible, and to. take any other steps necessary 
to secure the object in view.' 



THE CHURCH HYMNARY 1 

Synod and Assemblies in Scotland, and from the committees 
of other Churches, the Draft Hymnal was again revised, 
and in 1896 submitted to and approved by the Supreme 
Courts of the United Presbyterian Church and the Free 
Church of Scotland, and the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, 
Seven representatives of the Church in Ireland joined 
the Committee, and took part in the final adjustment and 
publication of The Church Hymnary. In 1897, after some 
changes, in. which the other Churches concurred, the Church 
Hymnary was also approved by the Church of Scotland, 
and thus the project of a common hymnal for these four 
Churches was realized. 

The object which the Committee steadily pursued through- 
out its labours was to produce a collection of hymns which 
should be truly catholic, including representatives of every 
branch of the Church in its roll of authors, and comprehen- 
sive as a book must be which is intended for use in various 
churches and congregations. Obviously a book so prepared 
could not be exactly what any one of the Churches would have 
made it. Hymns which had, in the opinion of all the repre- 
sentatives of any one of the Churches, special acceptance 
in that Church, were retained ; where there was difference of 
opinion the committee felt free to judge on the intrinsic 
merit of each hymn \ Throughout the years of co-operation 
there subsisted the most cordial relations among all the 
members of the Committee, and when divisions were taken 
these never indicated the ecclesiastical connexion of those 
voting. The Joint Committee held in all fifty meetings, 
and its several sub-committees had many and protracted 
sederunts. Very special care was bestowed upon the text 

1 It may interest some to know how far The Church Hymnary 
agrees with the hymn-books in use in the three co-operating Scottish 
Churches. Excluding doxologies, &c., there are in all 625 hymns, of 
which 172 are in all the books, 128 are in two, 198 in one (119 in 
Scottish Hymnal alone, 33 in Free Church books alone ; 46 in United 
Presbyterian books alone), leaving 127 which are new to all. 



8 THE PREPARATION OF 

of the hymns to secure as far as possible fidelity to the 
original or authorized text. The hymns of living authors 
were submitted, in proof, to them ; in other cases the form 
of the hymn in accordance with the author's latest edition 
was adhered to. All changes felt to be necessary, if the 
hymns were to be retained, have been fully given in the 
Notes appended to the large type edition. In this part of its 
work the Joint Committee in its report has duly acknow- 
ledged its great indebtedness to two of its members in 
particular, the Eev. James Bonar, M.A., and Mr. James Thin. 
It should also be mentioned that much consideration was 
given to the arranging of the hymns. This was felt to 
be of great importance during the progress of the work, as 
enabling the Committee to judge each section by itself, to 
reduce the number by sifting where there was excess, and 
to seek additional hymns where there was lack. In con- 
sequence such sections as on ' Our Lord's Second Coming,' 
on ' The Holy Spirit,' and others, will be found fuller than 
in most hymn-books. The order of the hymns within each 
section was inevitably regulated, to some extent, by the 
arrangements necessary in the musical edition ; still, one 
reading through The Church Hymnary will at once recognize 
the progress of the order observed. The first 170 hymns 
are occupied with themes of praise of the Persons of the 
Trinity, and of their Work and Word ; the second part with 
hymns of the individual Christian life ; the third with the 
Church, or collective Christian life ; followed by a large 
number of hymns for special occasions, and a full provision 
of hymns for the young. To help the use of the hymns 
in private as well as public, a text of Scripture has been 
prefixed as an interpreting motto to each j and a classified 
index of these is supplied in the edition in which the Notes 
on the Text are also given. 

This history of its preparation will enable those interested 
to understand how The Church Hymnary took its final form 



THE CHURCH HYMNARY 9 

how while, as perhaps some may think, overburdened with 
' favourite ' hymns, it yet is truly, what it was meant to be, 
a fresh contribution to church song, truly catholic in gather- 
ing from all quarters Jiymns suited for the praise of the 
Evangelical Churches. Whatever defects attach to it, as due 
necessarily to the imperfection of all human works, to the 
methods by which, or the conditions under which the Joint 
Committee worked, it is the product of very much earnest 
and prayerful labour, by men, most of whom had taken 
responsible part in preparing denominational collections, 
who yet esteemed it a great privilege and honour to com- 
bine their best efforts and their experience in preparing 
a common book of praise which should supersede these. 
It is a clear-voiced witness to the unity of the faith in 
these Churches, and to their desire, superior to denomina- 
tional distinctions, to make the praises of their, sanctuaries 
more worthy of their one Lord. 



NEW TESTAMENT AND PRIMITIVE 
CHURCH HYMNS 



II 



CHRISTIANITY was borne into the world on the wings of 
song, but not the song of the Church : the Church was dead, 
and in the dead periods of her history no praise is found 
winging its way to G-od. It is when she has been roused to 
life and earnestness by the inspiration of a new hope, that 
the emotions are stirred, and the heart finds its expression 
in song. The chill dark night of legalisni and formalism 
had brooded long. The voice of the 1 prophets had sunk into 
silence ; and the unexpressed, because unconscious, longing of 
men's hearts, was for the dawning of the day that should 
give the promised blessings. 

That day is at hand, a brighter than the world had yet 
seen, and Mary breaks the stillness of the expectant hour 
with the strains of the Magnificat. She alone is inspired. 
It is given to a humble maiden of Israel to sing the. first 
Christian song, in the quiet of the home of her kinswoman 
Elisabeth, in the hill country of Juda. The greatest 
honour that could rest upon a woman of Israel has come 
to her, for she is the destined mother of the Messiah. 

My soul doth magnify the Lord, 

And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour; 

For He hath regarded the low estate of His handmaiden ; 

For behold, from, henceforth all generations shall call me blessed. 

A comparison of the Magnificat with the song of Hannah, 



14 NEW TESTAMENT AND 

recorded in the first chapter of I Samuel, is interesting, and 
inclines us to the belief that it was the model after which 
Mary framed her hymn. If such was the case, then doubt- 
less Mary was familiar with the Greek version of the Old 
Testament, for it is to the Greek version of Hannah's song, 
and not to the Hebrew, that the Magnificat has the closer 
resemblance. 

Versifiers have of course laid hands upon the Magnificat ; 
but in no case with anything approaching success. Nothing 
can surpass in beauty and stateliness the rhythmical prose 
of the New Testament version ; and the compilers of The 
Church Hymnary have done well to adopt it, and to dis- 
countenance all others. 

Song succeeds song at this glad time ; and no sooner dp 
the strains of the Magnificat die away, than the song of 
Zacharias proclaims the advent of the Baptist. 

Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, 

For He hath visited and redeemed His people. 

**** 

And Thou, Child, shalt be called the prophet of the Highest, 

For Thou shalt go before the face of the Lord to prepare His ways. 

In due time the son shall take up the prophecy which the 
father sang in the Benedictus, and say, 'Behold the Lamb 
of God, which taketh away the sin of the world.' 

And now it is the song of angels that we hear. The 
Messiah of God, Emmanuel, Christ is born. The day of 
days is dawning : it was meet that angels should greet it. 
' And there were in the same country shepherds abiding 
in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. And, 
lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory 
of the Lord shone round about them. . . . And suddenly 
there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host 
praising God, and saying, "Glory to God in the highest, 
and on earth peace, good will toward men." ' 

More beautiful, because more tender than the Benedictm, 



PRIMITIVE CHURCH HYMNS 15 

(if a comparison of subjects so sacred be allowable) is the 
pathetic song of Simeon the Nunc Limittis. The circum- 
stances of Simeon's song are touching. A devout man, he 
is waiting for the consolation of Israel, and it is given to 
him while in the temple to take the young Child in 
his arms ; and while his eyes behold the long hoped- 
for consolation, . the pent-up emotion of his heart finds 
expression : 

Now lettest Thou Thy servant depart, Lord, 
According to Thy word, in peace ; 
For mine eyes have seen Thy salvation. 

Down through the ages of Christendom these first Chris- 
tian songs have come, their beauty and their sweetness 
undiminished ; and still, as at the first, giving expression 
to the emotions of the human heart the Magnificat, the 
Benedictus, the Nunc Dimittis, just as they came from the 
lips of the inspired singers. But the Song of the Angels 
has been caught up, and from its strophes a nucleus has 
been formed, round which a noble song has entwined 
itself. 

. That these songs were sung in the apostolic and early 
Christian Church, with many others, mere fragments of 
which have been preserved to us, we can have no manner 
of doubt. We cannot carry back our prejudices to apostolic 

. times, and they in turn refuse to lend encouragement to 
them. Beyond the hymns of Mary, Zacharias, and Simeon, 
and perhaps the Angels' Song, if in its original form it can 
be considered, 7 we have no complete hymn in the New 
Testament, if we except the song of the disciples on their 
dismissal by the rulers in Jerusalem (in which the second 
Psalm is to some extent utilized), and the thirteenth chapter 
of i Corinthians. 

But the snatches of rhythmical prose to be found in many 
of the Epistles would seem to have formed part of hymns 
familiar to those to whom, the Epistles were addressed, of 



16 NEW TESTAMENT AND PRIMITIVE CHURCH HYMNS 

which the following from the sixth chapter of i Timothy is 
one of the best specimens : 

The Blessed an.d only Potentate, 
The King of all the kingly ones. 
The Lord of all the lordly ones, &c. 

The Ter Sanctus has its nucleus in the song of the 
seraphim in Isaiah's vision, ' Holy, holy, holy is the Lord 
of hosts.' In many respects it is the oldest hymn in the 
praise of the Christian Church. We find it in the Book of 
Eevelation, and it has come to us through the Greek and 
the Latin ; gathering around it, as it descends through the 
ages, the expressions of sanctified devotion. 
' In all likelihood the earliest hymns were in the Syriac 
language, which in course of time gave place to Greek. In 
the early centuries Greek, was the treasure-house of song, 
but when in the fourth century Latin hymnody took its rise, 
the hymn-writers of that language served themselves heirs 
to all that was best in the Greek. 



HYMNS FROM THE GREEK 



Ill 



IT is gratifying to find that we have even seven hymns 
from the Greek in The Church Hymnary, although strictly 
speaking only five of these are renderings, the other two 
being merely suggestions or imitations. They are among 
the best available, and to say that is to make a confession. 
The hymns of the Greek Church have been neglected in 
'the West. The office-books in which these hymns are 
preserved number seventeen volumes quarto, and must 1 
contain material of one sort or another for many thousands 
of hymns, yet it is doubtful if at the present time more 
than 150 pieces have' been rendered into English. Dr. John 
Mason Neale is the only scholar who has to any extent 
dealt with the interesting subject, and to him we are 
indebted for five of the seven hymns referred to. In his 
Introduction to the History of the Holy Eastern Church, and 
Hymns of the Eastern Church ; and in Dr. King's Rites 
and Ceremonies of the Greek Church in Russia, Dr. Little- 
dale's excellent Offices of the Holy Eastern Church, 
Mrs. Browning's Greek Christian Poets, A. W. Chatfield's 
Songs and Hymns of the earliest Greek Christian Poets, the 
article on Greek Hymnody in Dr. Julian's Dictionary, and 
Mr. Shann's translation of The Book of Needs, and of the 
Euchology, we have indicated almost the whole material at 
hand. 



20 HYMNS FROM THE GREEK 

No doubt much can be said by way of extenuation. of our 
almost culpable neglect of a subject so interesting from 
many points of view. For one thing, ,to the ordinary 
student of Greek it has little attraction, None of the 
Greek Christian poets are poets of more than ordinary 
merit, although when John of Damascus forgets his adver- 
saries, and when he is content to dispense with his 
rhythmical peculiarities and acrostic arrangements (which 
he seldom is) and allows his inspiration to fly forth uncaged, 
we have something worthy of the greatest Greek Christian 
poet. Others wrote more voluminously in some cases, but 
none so well. Gregory of Nazianzus wrote 30,000 verses ! 

And the Greek of the Christian poets is not the language 
of the men who inspired the world, and gained for them- 
selves and their works immortality not the Greek in 
subtilty, in variety of cadence, and intellectual possibilities 
of Homer and Pindar, Sappho and Aeschylus, Plato and 
Aristophanes. It is an instrument that has lost its edge 
and keenness. It offers few attractions to the men to 
whom the ancient Greek poets are a delight. 

But still further, by way of extenuation, the translator 
experiences great difficulties in finding suitable material. 
An excellent collection of sacred Greek poetry has been 
compiled by M. Christ and M. Paranikas, Anthologia Graeca 
Carminum Christianorum, published at Leipzig in 1871 ; but 
the hymns in that volume are in ,the classical measures, 
and (with the exception of those by John of Damascus, 
which are in iambics) were never admitted into the service- 
books of the Church. Tho hymns proper of the Greek 
Church are in the service-boeks, and are all in rhythmical 
prose. And here the difficulty begins. First of all to 
find the lines that would reward the work of metrical 
translation involves an amount of continued application, 
which taxes the patience to the utmost, for hymn, prayer, 
Scripture, and exhortation seem sometimes to run the one 



HYMNS FROM THE GREEK 21 

into the other, and where the one ends and the other 
begins is a toil to discover. Many of the hymns are 
exceedingly beautiful beautiful and tender in their ex- 
pression of the simple Gospel verities, for in this Greek 
hymns excel; but they are so tainted with mariolatry 
and hagiolatry, so crowded with symbolism the most 
grotesque and extravagant, that it is only by a process of 
sifting and careful gathering up and connecting, that centos 
can be formed fit to be used in our Protestant worship. 

Strange as it may seem, the utter simplicity of the hymns 
of the Greek Church is one of the greatest difficulties which 
the translator has to overcome. To render the rhythmical 
sections of the service-books into ordinary prose is a matter 
of no real difficulty, and in that form they have positively 
no attraction save for the specialist ; but to choose a stanza, 
preserve the thought and spirit of the lines, and give them 
the form of an orthodox English hymn that constitutes 
the real difficulty. We do not wonder that the best of 
Dr. Neale's so-called translations from the Greek are mere 
suggestions of the original. To the man who can breathe 
the spirit of those hymns, and revive that spirit in the 
stanzas of an English hymn, the field of enterprise is 
inexhaustible. 

Such are some of the drawbacks which the translator has 
to face and overcome ; but the gems with which the Greek 
service-books are studded are in many cases so bright and 
beautiful that it is worth while devoting time and patience 
to the discovery of them. Surely it is not too much to 
hope for that in these days when hymnody is receiving so 
much attention from men who in many cases have the 
necessary qualifications for the work, the poetry of the Greek 
service-books may have its share. 

The. oldest hymn in The Church Hymnary, outside of the 
New Testament hymns, is that one which begins in the 
original STO/UOV ira>\<av afta&v. It was in all probability 



22 ' HYMNS FROM THE GREEK 

the work of CLEMENT or ALEXANDRIA, born at Athens circa 
A.D. 170. He was a Stoic, but an earnest seeker after truth 
where he thought truth was to be found. Under the 
guidance of Pantaenus he was led to embrace Christianity, 
and was for some time head of the Catechetical School at 
Alexandria. He died about 220 A.D. Certain of his works, 
all subsequent to his conversion, are preserved to us in 
various editions there are two good volumes in the Ante- 
Nicene Christian Library, and in one of these we have 
a literal rendering of a dithyrambic ode to the Saviour. 
Here is the latter part of it: 'Guide [us] Shepherd of 
rational sheep ; guide unharmed children, Holy King, 
along the footsteps of Christ ; Heavenly Way, Perennial 
Word, Immeasurable Age, Eternal Light, Fount of Mercy, 
Performer of Virtue ; noble [is the] life of those who hymn 
God, Christ Jesus, heavenly milk of the sweet breasts of 
the graces of the Bride pressed out of Thy wisdom. Babes 
nourished with tender mouths, filled with the dewy spirit 
of the rational pap, let us sing together simple praises, true 
hymns to Christ [our] King, holy fee for the teaching of 
life.' From this it will be seen that the original hymn is 
merely a string of epithets ; and Dr. Hamilton M. Macgill, 
whose rendering of these lines has been adopted, has 
exercised great ingenuity in weaving from the overwhelming 
mass of material a hymn so beautiful : 

Lead, holy Shepherd, lead us, 

Thy feeble flock, we pray ; 
Thou King of little pilgrims, 

Safe lead us all the way. 

Next in point of age comes the hymn <&>? \\apbv ayias So^?. 
The author is unknown, but as it is quoted by St. Basil in 
the fourth century, and then as of unknown authorship, the 
likelihood is that it is one of the earliest Christian hymns, 
possibly of the second century. In the Greek Church it is 
generally attributed to Athenogenes the martyr, A. D. 196, 



HYMNS FROM THE GREEK 23 

and is the vesper hymn in the Greek Church service. The 
rendering : 

Hail, gladdening Light, of His pure glory pour'd, 
is from the pen of John Keble, the author of The Christian 
Year, and is deservedly the most popular of the many 
renderings of that hymn. 

ANATOLIUS (early in the seventh century) was an extensive 
hymn-writer, and over a hundred of his compositions find 
a place in the Greek service-books. There is little known 
about him. The hymn rfv wepav SieA0a>i/ is a cento from the 
Greek post-communion service, and is still, so Dr. Neale 
informs us, a great favourite in the Greek isles. t It is ,to 
the scattered hamlets of Chios and Mytilene, what Bishop 
Ken's Evening Hymn is to the villages of our own land.' 
The rendering: 

The day is past and over : 
All thanks, Lord, to Thee ; 

by Dr. Neale, is a very beautiful hymn, and is growing in 
favour. 

JOHN OE DAMASCUS is by far the most prominent and most 
poetical of all the Greek Christian poets. He dwelt for 
many years in- his native city of Damascus, a valiant cham- 
pion of orthodoxy against all comers. His influence in 
Greek hymnody was immense ; and he is held in high 
esteem by the Greek Church for his work in that depart- 
ment, and as a theologian. The Octoechus, which contains 
the ferial office, was, it is said, arranged by John of Damascus. 
There his canons are found, which are perhaps his greatest 
work in hymnody. He is represented in The Church 

Hymnaiy by two hymns, 'Ai/aorcio-ecos rj^pa and Tots efyas rits 

alavlas, very delightfully rendered by Dr. Neale as 

The day of resurrection ! 

Earth, tell it out abroad; 
and 

Those eternal howers 

Man hath never trod. " 



24 HYMNS FROM THE GREEK 

The first is an Easter hymn, and forms the opening ode of 
his great canon for Easter Day, called the ' Golden Canon ' 
and ' Queen of Canons.' The canon contains eight such 
odes, some of which are exceedingly fine, although some- 
times overweighted with excessive imagery. The second 
hymn ; is doubtless the result of some suggestion from the 
Greek, for no text at all corresponding to Dr. Neale's 
rendering can be found in the Pentecostarion, in which 
office it should be contained. If that be the case, it ought 
not to be ranked as a translation, but alongside other 
imitations, or as an original hymn. 

John retired eventually to the monastery of Mar Saba, 
where he spent a life of devotion, and sang those Christian 
songs which have cheered and inspired so many generations 
of Christians in the East. 

The following is a sketch of a personal visit to that 
monastery, which Dr. Hugh Macmillan has been good 
enough to send to the writer: 

'The Mar Saba Convent is unique among the religious 
institutions of the world. Its weird situation, and the 
strange associations which for more than a thousand years 
have gathered round it, create a spell of fascination which 
no traveller who visits the spot can resist. Passing 
through the dreary homeless waste of calcined limestone 
hills, which stretches between Jerusalem and the Dead Sea, 
you come at last to the gate of the monastery, perched like 
an eagle's nest on the edge of the gorge of the Kedron. 
You look sheer down from the parapet that guards the open 
court of the convent, five hundred feet or more, to the bottom 
of the defile, where the Kedron in intermittent threads of 
.silver languidly flows. The almost vertical rocks on either 
side are of stratified limestone of a reddish hue in nearly 
horizontal courses, the strata being of unequal hardness; 
causing, as the result of weathering, hollows and projections 
to appear in the face of the cliff. 



HYMNS FROM THE GREEK 25 

' Strange to say, when the din of theological strife was 
loudest in the world without, there arose in this secluded 
monastery a remarkable group of poetic men, who in their 
cells were stimulated to compose hymns of -peace and love 
which have been the most precious heirlooms of the Church 
ever since. The most celebrated of these was John of 
Damascus, whose empty tomb is in the church, his remains 
having been carried away to Constantinople. This great 
theologian and hymnist began his career as a high officer of 
state in his native city. After a most active and useful life 
in this capacity, he disposed of all his possessions among his 
relatives and the poor, and retired to the solitude of Mar Saba, 
where he spent his remaining years and died about 760. 
He lived at the time when the Eastern Church was on the 
eve of separation from the Western : but the great schism 
did not happen in his day. And therefore his unique 
position at the point of divergence gave him a commanding 
influence with both Churches. He is considered by almost 
universal consent to be the greatest poet of the Eastern 
Church. 

' Within the walls of Mar Saba were composed the noble 
strains breathing the glorious hopes of the Eesurrection 
which are still sung in the most impressive circumstances 
each Easter Day throughout the whole Greek Church, and 
which are solemnly chanted when the dead are. laid in the 
grave. He gave an immense impulse to Greek hymnody. 
Not only its doctrinal character, but its rhythmical models 
and its musical accompaniments were attributed to him. 

* It is a most interesting circumstance that STEPHEN THE 
SABAITE, so called to distinguish him from so many other 
Stephens, and because he was so closely identified with the 
monastery of Mar Saba, is said to have composed that 
beautiful and well-known hymn so often sung in our 
churches, Art thou weary, art thoti languid. Dr. Neale 
in his translation has greatly modified the original Greek 



26 HYMNS FROM THE GREEK 

words, the modification adding (which is not unusually the 
case) to the beauty and inipressiveness of the hymn.' 

Stephen was a nephew of John of Damascus, and died at 
Mar Saba in 794. 

It may be added that the modification is so great that 
the hymn Art tliou iveary is to all intents and purposes 
an original hymn. The same must be said of Imppy 
land of pilgrims, which is simply the result of a suggestion 
Dr. Neale got while reading a canon by Joseph of the 
Studium, or as he should rather be termed, JOSEPH THE 
HYMNOGRAPHER. The Studium was the name of a great 
monastery which existed at Constantinople, to which Joseph, 
a Sicilian by birth, who had . embraced the monastic life, 
retired early in the ninth century. He was the most 
extensive hymn-writer of the Greek Church, even more so 
than Gregory of Nazianzus, and the greater number of his 
compositions find a place in the Greek service-books. 



IV 
HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 



IV 



FAR differently has it fared with Latin hymnody. We 
how enter upon an expanse over which no clouds rest. 
Far as the eye can reach, on hill and plain, the light 
falls ; every level tract has been explored, and every height 
surmounted. 

From the fourth century, down to the date of the Paris 
Breviary, 1736, an uninterrupted stream of Latin hymns 
flowed. It had its windings, its narrows and rapids, its 
long lazy stretches where the pools stagnate, but it was 
one stream. 

Hymnologists, fired with a love for the subject, have 
brought together about 10,000 pieces ; and of these, many 
hundreds, in part or in whole, are suitable in every par- 
ticular for the purpose of praise in the Reformed Churches. 
Daniel, Mone, Dreves, and others Germans in almost 
every case be it noted, for Germans far surpass us in work 
hymnological have compiled from Missals and Breviaries 
in which they have been preserved, and from original 
manuscripts in monasteries and elsewhere, the excellent 
collections of 'Latin hymns associated with their names. 

And so the .great mass of hymn literature of the Western 
Church is at our hand ; and with the knowledge of the 
Latin language needful, the study of the subject may be 
pursued in comparative comfort with the help of Chevalier's 
Repertorium Hymnologicum, which is really a royal road 
to learning in Latin hymnology. 



30 HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 

It is interesting to study hymnology in its relation to 
Christian doctrine and life, and for that purpose Latin 
hymnody gives us much that is useful. In the growth 
of Latin hymns we can trace the growth of Christian 
doctrine. And not only were those hymns the reflection 
of the prevailing beliefs, they were also made the means by 
which it was sought to promulgate and propagate those 
beliefs. As jn the time of Chrysostom, the Arians 
were in the habit of marching through the streets of Con- 
stantinople singing their hymns, it became necessary for 
Chrysostom, so he thought, in order to counteract that in- 
fluence, to adopt like measures and encourage street-singing 
of orthodox hymns. Latin hymns were put to much the 
same use, so where the words of divines and the decisions 
of councils could not go, the simple hymns of faith, with 
their sweet insinuating influence, found men's hearts and 
taught them the truths of Gospel doctrine. 

The earliest Latin hymns deal with the Person of Christ. 
It was around that subject that the early Fathers fought 
with such determination, and from those hymns we gather 
what the belief of the struggling Church was that Jesus 
Christ was God Incarnate true God and true man. To 
the miraculous birth of our Lord great regard was paid. It 
was no obstacle to their mind that it was miraculous stu- 
pendously so. Enough to them that God had come to dwell 
with men, and in that great event, and in the union of the 
divine and human natures, was seen the answer to the 
longings of the human heart down through the ages, and 
the solution of all its doubts. 

But those early hymn-writers not only recognized the fact 
of the divine Incarnation, and its miraculousness ; they 
understood and appreciated its necessity. On that subject 
Latin hymnody is specially rich. Christ was the champion 
who entered the lists, and by His passion and death 
grappled with the adversary and overcame. The grand 



HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 31 

hymn of Fortunatus, Pange lingua gloriosi, which for 
adequate .reasons is not included in The Church Hymnary, 
expresses very thoroughly the mind of the Church. It is so 
altogether valuable in that respect, that we feel constrained 
to give a translation of the second part of it, beginning 
Lustra sex qui iam peregit, from the text of the Koman 
Breviary of 1632: 

Thirty years by God appointed, 

And there dawns the woful day, 
When the great Redeemer girds Him 

For the tumult of the fray, 
And upon the Cross uplifted 

Bears our load of guilt away. 

Ah ! 'tis bitter gall He drinketh 

When His heart in anguish fails; 
From the thorns His life-blood trickles, 
From the spear-wound and the nails ; 
But that crimson stream for cleansing, 
O'er creation wide prevails. 

Faithful Cross ! in all the woodland 

Standeth not a nobler tree, 
In thy leaf and flower and fruitage 

None can e'er thy equal be ; 
Sweet the wood and sweet the iron, 

Sweet the load that hung on thee. 



Only thou could'st bear the burden 

Of the ransom of our race, 
Only thou could'st be a refuge, 

Like the ark, 'a hiding-place, 
By the sacred blood anointed, 

Of the covenant of grace. 

Blessing, blessing everlasting, 
To the. glorious Trinity ; 
To the Father, Son, and Spirit 

Equal glory let there be; 
Universal praise -be given, 
To the Blessed one in Three 1 . 

1 Hymns of the Early Church, by the Eev. John Brownlie, 1896. . 



32 HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 

The last stanza, which is not by Fortunatus, but was 
probably added to the hymn in the seventh century, is 
a rendering by Hamilton M, Macgill, and has a place in 
The Church Hymnary as a doxology: 
Glory, glory everlasting. 

We have to confess that the references to the atonement 
of our Lord are few. But we can account for that. Men 
cannot deal with everything at once. Those were the days 
in which men fought for the Unity and Trinity of the 
Godhead, and for the divinity and true humanity of Christ ; 
but we have no reason to doubt that the Church understood 
and held by the vicariousness of His passion and death. 
We have it expressed in the hymn of Fortunatus just given, 
and if the Te Deum in its complete form dates as early as the 
fifth century, then we have at that time a most direct and 
clear reference to the atoning efficacy of Christ's death : 

We therefore pray Thee, help Thy servants : whom Thou hast 
redeemed with Thy precious blood. 

The position occupied by Latin hymnody in relation to 
the universal praise of the Church is very remarkable. 
There can be no doubt that it derived much of its inspira- 
tion from the earlier Greek hymns : indeed not a few of 
these have been reproduced in Latin : and when the stream 
had run its independent course, beautifying the lands 
through which it flowed with its refreshing and fertilizing 
influence, down to the later centuries, it did not die away ; 
but as a great river sometimes by many branches finds its 
way to the sea, this rush of Latin song by innumerable 
channels unites itself with the universal praise. Under 
the skilful leadership of Luther and others, the old Latin 
hymn-writers sang the Reformation into Germany, and have 
complexioned the praise of that people ever since. And 
although not so early, yet how truly have our English 
hymn-writers been inspired ! And still those immortal songs 
inspire, while the masterpieces find an honourable place in 



HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 33 

our praise-books alongside the hymns of Wesley, Bonar, and 
How. 

The Church Hymnary contains no fewer than thirty-one 
renderings from the Latin. In no hymnal of any of the 
Presbyterian Churches of Scotland hitherto published have 
so many found a place, In The Scottish Hymnal there are 
twenty-two ; in The Free Church Hymn-book seventeen, and 
in The Presbyterian Hymnal eighteen. 

While it is gratifying to find so many hymns from the 
Latin honoured at the hands of our latest compilers, there 
is still. room for regret that the number is not greater. 

The earliest Latin hymns are from the pen of Hilary. 
Before him we have none ; with him Latin hymnody 
begins. His voice is the first, and it is not without much 
sweetness. There is a beautiful simplicity about the hymns 
attributed to him, as if written before the days in which 
doctrines were elaborated, and men fought about them. 
But the 'Hammer of the Arians' (Malleus Arianorum) 
knew what doctrinal controversy meant. 

HILAKIUS PICTAVIENSIS was born at Poictiers famous in 
the world's history for the great men who have dwelt there- 
early in the fourth century, of well-to-do and influential 
heathen parents. He himself informs us that he lived in 
luxury, but was fortunate to have received in his youth the 
best education possible. We can fancy that his progress 
towards Christianity would be very gradual ; but he tells us 
how he was ultimately inclined to throw off the last vestige 
of paganism. When he read in the Scriptures that God is 
the great ' I Am/ that He held the winds in His fists, and 
that the heaven was His throne, and the earth His foot- 
stool, he concluded that that God surpassed all others in 
might, And when he read further that that God, loves us, 
then he was led to trust Him. But all was made plain to 
him when he turned to the Gospel of St. John, and he was 



Tk 



34 HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 

enabled with calmness and firmness to accept the Christian 
doctrines. 

Hilary, although married when the see of his native town 
became vacant, was nevertheless elected to it, and became 
Bishop of Poictiers. 

But it was against Arianism that Hilary worked, and by 
his zeal brought suffering upon himself, With a determina- 
tion and persistency all the more to be wondered at, seeing 
that the Emperor Constantius was himself an Arian, Hilary 
continued to purge the Church of that heresy. In that he 
was in a remarkable degree successful, doubtless as much on 
account of his tact as for any other reason. But his turn to 
suffer defeat came. The Arians gained the ascendency, and 
Hilary had to leave his country for Phrygia, to which he 
was banished. 

In A.D. 361, after the Council of Constantinople, when 
the Nicene Creed had been victorious, he returned to his 
bishopric, and resumed his Church-cleansing efforts. 

Hilary had one daughter, Abra. We mention the fact 
because she was the occasion of at least one of his sweetest 
hymns. In reply to one of her letters which he received 
during his banishment, he sent her two Latin hymns, one 
for the morning, and the other for the evening, with the 
injunction that she was to use them regularly. The morning 
hymn is unfortunately not in The Church Hymnary, and 
is mentioned here for the very good reason that it is the 
only substantially authenticated hymn of those generally 
ascribed to Hilary. So Abra was the occasion of perhaps 
the earliest Latin hymn in our possession, and its first 
singer. 

Of the other hymns commonly ascribed to Hilary, lam 
meta noctis transiit finds a place in The Church Hymnary. 
The rendering : 

Gone are the shades of night, 
The hours of rest are o'er ; 



HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 35 

is by the present writer. The ascription to Hilary is due 
to Daniel, the compiler of the Thesaurus Hymnologicus, who 
gives Cardinal Thomasius as his authority. In this Daniel 
errs, for the hymn appears in the Mozarabic Breviary of 
1502, and Thomasius quotes from that without giving 
Hilary's name. The information we have leads us to the 
conviction that the hymn is not Hilary's. 

To what extent Hilary was a hymn-writer we cannot 
tell with exactness. We know that he compiled a Liber 
Hymnorum, and no doubt many pieces .included in that 
volume were from his own pen; but we have scant infor- 
mation, and only a fragment of the Liber Hymnorum has 
been found. Hilary died at Poictiers, Jan. 13, 368. 

AMBROSE, the first great poet of the Latin Church, was 
born at Treves, in Gaul, early in the fourth century, probably 
in 340. Like Hilary, Ambrose had been accustomed to 
ease and comfort in his youth. His father was a Eoman 
noble, and wealthy. He was educated at Rome, and when 
qualified went to Milan, where he practised at the bar. 
Towards the middle of the century he received a consular 
appointment from the Emperor Valentinian in Upper Italy, 
his head quarters being still at Milan. His appointment to 
the bishopric was peculiar. Auxentius, former bishop, who 
had joined the Arians, died. It was the duty of Ambrose, 
by virtue of his civil office, to preside at the election of 
a successor. Great tact was demanded on account of the 
presence of rival elements created by the Arian controversy ; 
and so successful was he in controlling these, and so much 
did he delight both parties by his conduct, that a shout was 
raised and repeated, * Let Ambrose be bishop ! ' He is said 
to have endeavoured by every means in his power to escape 
having the bishopric forced upon him, even resorting to 
strange expedients, but all in vain : and in the end he was 
forced to submit, and. he became Bishop of Milan, A.D. 



36 HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 

374, Ambrose was an accomplished scholar, a polished 
orator, and of great natural ability and force of character. 

The Arian controversy gave him ample occasion to show 
of what stuff he was made. He held the churches in his 
diocese against the Arians on the death of the Emperor 
Valentinian, when that party, headed by the Empress, de- 
manded the use of them. The sermon in which he 
announced his intention to refuse the use of the churches 
to the heretical sect is preserved to us, and is a discourse of 
great power and eloquence. And he succeeded in the stand 
he made. He was a brave man, and it was the consciousness 
of right, and his determination to stand by it, that made him 
brave. Even crowned heads he feared not in the discharge 
of what he believed to be his duty. The Emperor Theodosius 
was refused admittance to the church at Milan by the in- 
trepid bishop, until he had done ample penance, because of 
a massacre instigated by him in Thessalonica. For eight 
months the penance was borne before restoration was 
granted by Ambrose. The influence of a man of that type 
in those days, when the powers of evil were strong and 
insolent, cannot be over-estimated. Doubtless the times 
made- the man, but the man in turn influenced the age for 
good in no small degree. He died on Easter Eve, A. D. 397. 

Of the large number of hymns ascribed to Ambrose, 
there are not more (according to the Benedictine editors 
of his works) than twelve which can with any degree of 
certainty be called . his. The more recent researches of 
Biraghi (1862) and Dreves (1893) ascribe to him eighteen 
hymns, viz. seven of the Benedictine twelve, six on 
individual saints, and (i) Hie est dies verus Dei; (2) ' flwc 
Sancte noils Spiritus; (3) Hector Potens verax Deus; (4) 
Rerwn Deus tenax vigor; (5) lesu corona virginum. Doubt- 
less many hymns are termed Ambrosian, for the simple 
reason that they are early hymns, and are written in 
that peculiar iambic measure which was adhered to by 



HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 37 

Ambrose : a measure that corresponds to that of our long- 
metre psalms. That Ambrose was an extensive hymn- 
writer, and that his hymns exercised great influence for 
several centuries, can scarcely be doubted. To him is due 
the introduction from the East of antiphonal (alternate) 
chanting into the Church services. 

Of the hymns attributed to Ambrose by the Benedictines, 
only one finds a place in The Church Hymnary, Splendor 
Paternae gloriae. The rendering : 

Jesus, Lord of heavenly grace, 
Thou Brightness of Thy Father's face, 

is a -bright morning hymn, and is by John Chandler, who 
has executed it with great taste and exactness. 

One other Ambrosian hymn is given, Nunc Smcte nolis 
Spiritus, rendered freely by Edward Caswall: 

Come, Holy Grhost, and through each heart 
The fulness of Thy glory pour. 

It is a hymn to the Holy Spirit, possibly by Ambrose, but 
found in no manuscript prior to the eighth century. 

The first mention of the Te Leum is in the year 502, and 
.then it was used as a Sunday morning hymn. The beautiful 
tradition assigning its joint authorship to Ambrose and his 
convert Augustine, may be given ; but it is without foun- 
dation. It is to the effect that at the baptism of Augustine 
in the Chur'ch of St. John at Milan, inspired by the fore- 
knowledge given him of the great future of his convert, 
Ambrose, standing before the altar, exclaimed in rapture: 
' We praise Thee, God : we acknowledge Thee to be the 
Lord/ Whereupon Augustine replied, '* All the earth doth 
worship Thee: the Father everlasting,' and thus in alternate 
strophes, bishop and catechumen continued until the whole 
hymn was composed. The possibility is that the Te Dcum 
is made up of a collection of antiphons familiar to the 
Church in earlier centuries, and that it assumed its present 
form somewhere about the beginning of the fifth century. 



38 HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 

It is not impossible that Ambrose may have had to do with 
the earlier elaboration of it. Two metrical renderings of 
the Te Deum find a place in The Church Hymnary, 

We praise, we worship Thee, God; 
Thy sovereign power we sound abroad; 

is a rendering of the first part, and is of unknown authorship. 
It first appeared in Gell's Psalms and Hymns, published in 
1815. The other : 

Thee God we praise, Thee Lord confess, 
Thee Father everlasting bless ; 

is by the late William Eobertson of Monzievaird, and has 
a place likewise in The Scottish Hymnal. Neither of these 
renderings is of more than very ordinary merit. The fine 
flowing strophes of the prose version cannot be superseded. 

Who the author of the ordinary prose version in use was, 
we cannot tell. It has been attributed to Bishop Cranmer. 
All that we can say is that it was prior to 1549, at which 
date it was printed in the Book of Common Prayer. 

That delightful morning hymn lam lucls orto sidere might 
be mentioned here, as having been ascribed, but erroneously, 
to Ambrose. It is doubtless as old as the fifth century, and 
has the peculiar characteristics of the hymns of that early 
period. Neale's rendering : 

Now that the daylight fills the sky, 
We lift our hearts to God on high, 

is an exceedingly good one. 

AUKELIUS CLEMENS PRUDENTIUS was born a few years 
later than Ambrose, A.D. 348, somewhere in the north of 
Spain, probably at Calahorra, near Saragossa. His parents 
were well-to-do, and he was highly educated. For some 
years he practised in the law-courts, and was eventually 
appointed to a judgeship. He did not embrace the Christian 
doctrines early ; but at the age of fifty-seven, sick of sin and 
the vices of his time, and sorely conscience-stricken, he 



HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 39 

t~* 

retired from the world, and gave himself up to sacred things. 
Then he became Christian, and wrote against the vices of 
the age. He wrote also many poems of. remarkable beauty. 
But it is as a hymn-writer that he is interesting here. 
That it was possible for Prudentius to write such beautiful 
Christianxlrymns in the midst of the semi-pagan conditions 
of his lifej speaks well for the sustaining and purifying 
influence of his Christianity. He died in Spain about 
A.D. 413. 

Prudentius was a poet of no mean order. ' The Horace 
and Virgil of the Christians ' he has been called, and the 
'Latin Watts.' One of his most inspiring hymns is Corde 
natus ex Parentis, skilfully rendered by Neale : 

Of the Father's love begotten 
Ere the worlds began to be. 

Here we may refer to two anonymous hymns which 
date probably from the sixth or seventh century, Angularis 
fmdamenium the second part of Urbs ~beata lerusalem of 
which we have two renderings: 

Christ is made the sure foundation, 
Christ the head and corner-stone, 
and 

1 Christ is our corner-stone, 

On Him alone we build. 

These versions are by men who have proved themselves 
skilful in that work : the first by Dr. Neale, and the other 
by John Chandler, and have both been used for many years 
at church dedication services. 
The second is Sancti, venite, corpus Christi sumite: 

Come, take by faith the body of your Lord, 
And drink the blood of Christ for you outpoured. 

The rendering is by Dr. Neale, but has been somewhat 
modified ; the necessity for that being apparent to all who 
can read the first line of the Latin. The original is found 
in an old Irish manuscript of the seventh century, written 



40 HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 

at Bangor, on Belfast Lough, about the year 690, The 

Doxology: 

Laud and honour to the Father, 

;s the last stanza slightly altered, of Urls "beaia lerusalem. 

THEODULPH OF ORLEANS wrote Gloria, lam, et honor when 
in prison at Angers, A. D. 821. The story goes that as the 
King of France, Louis Le Debonnaire I, passed the cell 
window in procession with the clergy and laity on Palm 
Sunday, Theodulph sang the newly-composed hymn, and 
so pleased was the king with it that he gave order for 
his liberation. The probability of this story is somewhat 
questionable, The inspiring rendering : 

All glory, laud, and honour 
To Thee, Redeemer King, 

is by Neale. The original poem contains seventy-eight lines, 
but the custom was to give only the first twelve in graduals 
and missals. Dr. Neale informs us that a ' verse was usually 
sung, till the seventeenth century, at the pious quaintness 
of which we can scarcely avoid a smile.' 

Be Thou, Lord, the Rider, 
. And we the little ass; 
That to God's holy city 
Together we may pass. 

Veni, Creator Spiritus, and Veni, Sancte Spiritus are the 
grandest and the sweetest hymns to the Holy Spirit in the 
entire range of hymnody. The former, with which we now 
deal, is the hymn most highly honoured by the Christian 
Church. As is the case with much of the best work done in 
this world, the author cannot be traced. Probably it should 
be ascribed to BHABANUS MAUEUS (died 856 A.D.), although 
the text- has not been found in any manuscript prior to the 
end of the tenth century. We have no fewer than three 
renderings of this hymn in The Church Hymnary by Tate 



HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 41 


and Brady, John Cosin, and John Dryden. That by Tate 

and Brady is the least successful: 

Come, Holy Ghost, Creator, come, 
And visit all the souls of Thine. 

It is lumbering, and in strange contrast with the grace of 
the original, That by John Dryden : 

Creator Spirit! by whose aid 

The world's foundations first were laid, 

has too many interpolations, and mechanical commonplaces. 
Of the three renderings, we think that by John Cosin is the 
best, although the translation is not quite faithful to the 

original: 

Come, Holy Ghost, our souls inspire, 
And lighten with celestial fire. 

BERNARD OP CLAIRVATJX, abbot, ecclesiastic, statesman and 
poet, perhaps the greatest man, certainly the most prominent 
figure of mediaeval times, was born in Burgundy, 1091, in 
the midst of the whirl of excitement caused by the preaching 
of Peter the Hermit, who sent the fiery cross over Europe, 
summoning the first Crusade, Early in life he entered the 
monastery of Citeaux with those of his kinsmen whom he 
could induce to accompany him. In course of time he was 
chosen by the abbot to set up and take charge of a sister 
monastery; and on the banks of the Aube the abbey of 
Clairvaux was established, of which he became abbot. He 
was a man of strong personality and magnetic influence. 
It is said that he ruled the mediaeval Christian world from 
Clairvaux, for kings and councillors did him obeisance. In 
1146 he preached the second Crusade, and stirred the heart 
of Europe. He died at Clairvaux, January 12, 1153. 

Bernard wrote the Joyful Ehythm on the name of 
Jesus, a sweet hymn, strongly evangelical, which has been 
repeatedly translated. Perhaps Caswall has been the most 
successful of all translators in his renderings of it, Two of 



42 HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 

these are in The Church Hymnary, lesu, dulcis memoria, and 
lesu, Hex admiraUlis, in the well-known lines : 

Jesus, the very thought of Thee 
With sweetness fills my breast; 

and 

Jesus, King most wonderful, 
Thou Conqueror renowned. 

Eay Palmer has given us another lesu, Dulcedo cordium, 
in the lines : 

Jesus, Thou Joy of loving hearts, 
Thou Fount of life, Thou Light of men. 

It is but truth to say that the foregoing centos are among 
the priceless treasures of our sacred song. A fourth cento 
from the same hymn Lux alma, lesu, mentium : 

Light of the anxious heart, 
Jesus, Thou dost appear, 

is by John Henry Newman. 

Bernard is also the reputed author of a series of poems 
addressed to our Lord upon the cross, which were freely 
translated into German by Paul Gerhardt. That one 
addressed to the Head of our Lord beginning in Latin Salve 
Caput cruentatum, and in German Hau$t mil Blut und 
Wunden, has been translated into English by Dr. J. W. 
Alexander, and fills a place in The Church Hymnary as : 

sacred Head now wounded, 
With grief and shame weighed down. 

Among the mass of mariolatry and hagiolatry through 
which one has to pass in dealing with mediaeval hymnody, 
it is refreshing to come across the sweet evangelicalthoughts 
of Bernard of Clairvaux. Any who may desire to become 
acquainted fully with the life and times of Bernard can 
have no difficulty in that matter, as several lives of the 
great ecclesiastic have been written. 

BERNARD OP MOBLAIX or CLUNY. We have another 
Bernard to deal with, but quite a different man. Born of 



HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 43 

4 

English parents at Morlaix in Brittany early in the twelfth 
century, he early entered the abbey of Cluny, where he 
lived quietly the devoted life of a monk ; meditated upon 
the corruptions of the evil times in which he lived, and 
cheered his soul with visions of the new Jerusalem. He 
died at Cluny, but the date of his death is uncertain. 
Unlike Bernard of Clairvaux, of whose life ample materials 
exist, very little is known regarding the life of Bernard 
of Cluny. 

His great poem is the Hora novissima, in which he laments 
and satirizes the sins of the age, and in which he dwells with 
rapture upon the glories of heaven. Dr. Neale was the first 
to introduce this wonderful poem to English readers, and 
he has with his usual felicity given several centos from 
it, which rank, and shall continue to rank, with our best 
hymns. There are four of these in The Church Hymnary. 
They are, Hor a novissima : 

The world is very evil, 
The times are waxing late ; 

Hie Ireve vivitur : 

Brief life is here our portion, 
Brief sorrow, short-lived care ; 

Olonapatriai 

For thee, dear, dear country, 
Mine eyes their vigils keep ; 

and Urbs Syon aurea : 

Jerusalem the golden, 
With milk and honey blest. 

The poem consists of 3,000 lines in dactylic hexameters : 
Hora novissima | tempora pessima | sunt vigilemus. 

How he managed to write the 3,000 lines in a measure so 
difficult to handle is hard to understand. The task certainly 
shows diligence and application. Even Bernard himself 



44 HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 

was surprised at his success, and ascribed it to the special 
grace of God. 

Bernard's hymns on the glories of heaven, beautiful as 
they are, are essentially monkish hymns, and serve to 
reveal to us the conceptions of heaven entertained by Ber- 
nard and his confreres. Heaven is apt to assume various 
complexions, according to the circumstances and conditions 
of our present life. To the poor and hungry it is a place of 
plenty, where poverty never pinches ; to the solitary and 
friendless, a place of communion and friendship ; to the 
toiling and careworn and sad, a place of rest and gladness. 
What was it to Bernard ? A city, a place in whose busy 
streets one can have constant intercourse with one's fellow 
men. Now, apart from the Scripturalness of the figure, 
how attractive must the thought have been to the lonely 

recluse : 

'I know not, I know not, 
What social joys are there.' 

The whole conception of the world as expressed in those 
hymns is monastic. That good man had been sickened 
with the sin of the world, had so brooded over it that he 
had come to transfer evil from souls to things, from 
men's hearts to the world. It was the world that was 
bad, and it was the world that had to be got rid of, and 
Bernard and others like him tried in their own way to 
get rid of it. Hence the pictures of the new Jerusalem. 
There is little spiritual about it. It is a material heaven. 
Having denied themselves those earthly blessings for which 
a wise Creator had designed them, having removed them- 
selves from, the scene of discipline for which God had 
intended them, they have to pay the penalty. They seek 
those blessings and expect that discipline where they have 
no right to expect them, and where they are not to be had. 
It is a truth that while the man who shuts himself out 
from the world is the man to whom heaven becomes most 



HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 45 

_/ 

material, the man who faces the world, lives in it, using it 
lawfully, and fighting with its evils, is the man whose 
conception of heaven becomes most spiritual. 

But when we have said all this, the hymns remain in all 
their beauty, and to those who can inspire them with life 
and spirituality they are beyond all expression valuable. 

It has seemed strange to some that Bernard, who fought 
so little, who may be said to. have retired from the fight, 
should make so much reference to toiling and struggling 
and fighting. In the serene quiet of Cluny, where was the 
fighting ? Not with his own heart, for the evil was in the 
world, and he had bidden the world good-bye. This can be 
historically accounted for in the fact of the Crusades. In 
Bernard's time the second Crusade was organized and carried 
out, and his mind was full of it. In the quiet of his cell he 
pictured the brave men fighting under the cross, and from 
the scene of conflict to the place of everlasting reward his 
fancy bore him, and he saw the victor crowned. 

And they who, with their Leader, 

Have conquered in the fight 
For ever and for ever 

Are clad in robes of white. 

The Veni, Sancte Spiritus, companion hymn to Vmi, Creator 
Spiritus, is fortunately better represented by its renderings : - 

Come, Thou Holy Paraclete, 
And from Thy celestial seat 

Send Thy light and brilliancy. 
and 

Come, Holy Ghost, in love 
Shed on us from above 

Thine own bright ray. 

The first is by Dr. Neale, and the second by Kay Palmer. 
Both versions have their peculiar excellences, but that by 
Neale has this additional advantage, that it retains the 
original measure: 



46 HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 

Veni Sancte Spiritus 
Et emitte coelitus, 
Lucis tuae radium. 

The author of this most beautiful hymn to the Holy Spirit 
is unknown. It has been attributed to Pope Innocent III 
(died 1216), but nothing can be said conclusively in regard 
to the authorship. May it not be that, like many a noble 
expression of heart which the world treasures with its best, 
this hymn was originally the work of some lowly soul too 
obscure ever to expect the regard of the world ? Or may 
it not have had a history akin to that of the Te Deum? 
May it not have existed in essence long before it took its 
metrical form ? Like the great river, may it not have had 
its source far from the busy habitations of men ; may its 
course not have been like the river's, ever widening and 
deepening as it flowed onward, till it became the broad, 
deep expanse that it is? Who can tell? It is all con- 
jecture. When we consider that the flood is broadening 
still we can take that view of it with less difficulty, for 
has it not from the earliest been the model to which devout 
hymnists have looked when new hymns to the Holy Spirit 
were to be penned ? To use another figure, this grand 
hymn stands in the centre, and the circumference is 
widening from generation to generation. 

The Stabat Mater dolorosa has been styled the most pathetic 
hymn of the Middle Ages. It was in all probability written 
in Italy in the thirteenth century, and according to some 
authorities, by Pope Innocent III, though the evidence in 
his favour is by no means conclusive. Others have ascribed 
it to Jacopone da Todi, otherwise called Jacobus de Benedictis 
(died 1306), but it is almost certainly before his time. As 
a great part of the hymn is a direct address to the Virgin 
Mary, it was impossible to include it in The Church Hymnary ; 
and of the version : 

Near the Cross was Mary weepijig, 
There her mournful station keeping, 



HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 47 

^ 

only the first verse can be called a translation, the remainder 
having only a bowing acquaintance with the Iiatin. This 
rendering was executed by Henry Mills, a minister of the 
Presbyterian Church of the United States, who was born at 
Morriston, New Jersey, March 12, 1786, .and died at Auburn, 
June 10, 1867. Dr. Mills did good work as a translator 
from the German. His volume Horae Germanicae, 1845, 
contains some creditable renderings. 

And now we come to what is perhaps the grandest hymn 
in any language, the Dies irae. According to the best autho- 
rities, the author was THOMAS OP CELANO. He was born at 
Gelano, in the kingdom of Naples, early in the thirteenth 
century ; was a Franciscan monk, and died about 1254. 
The theme of his great hymn, the Day of Judgment, is the 
most solemn, and the solemnity of the subject is emphasized 
by the triple peal of the stanzas : 

Dies irae, dies ilia, 
Solvet saeclum in favilla ; 
Teste David cum Sibilla. 

There are many versions of it in English, but it is really 
untranslatable. The rendering : 

Day of wrath ! day of mourning ! 
See fulfilled the prophets' warning, 

is by William Josiah Irons, and is one of the best. Dr. Irons 
wro'te his translation in Paris in 1848, after having heard the 
original impressively chanted by the priests in Notre Dame, 
during the funeral service of the Archbishop of Paris, who 
had been shot in the Eevolution. 
The other rendering, a very much condensed one : 

That day of wrath, that dreadful day, 
When heaven and earth shall pass away, 

is by Sir Walter Scott, and was introduced by him at the 
close of the Lay of the Lasi Minstrel. 

The remaining, less important, Latin hymns are the 
following. 



48 HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 

amor guam ecstaticus, a selection of stanzas from a poem 
on the Incarnation, from a MS. of the fourteenth century. 
The rendering : 

Love how deep, how broad, how high ! 
It fills the heart with ecstasy, 

is by Benjamin Webb, and somewhat heavy and somnolent. 
Coelestis formam gloriae is a chaste hymn from a fifteenth 
century manuscript. The translation is by Dr. Neale : 

wondrous type ! vision fair 

Of glory that the Church shall share. 

Another anonymous hymn of the fifteenth century is 
Gloriosi Salvatoris nominis praeconia. Dr. Neale has given 
us a stirring hymn in his English version : 

To the name of our Salvation 
Laud and honour let us pay. 

Dens, ego amo Te ; nee, is a somewhat relaxing hymn, 
may have been written by XAVIEE. He was born in 
Pampeluna in Spain, 1506. As a Jesuit missionary he 
visited India. He died in 1552. The rendering: 

God, I love Thee ; not that my poor love 
May win me entrance to Thy heaven above, 

is by the renowned hymn-writer Bishop Bickersteth. 

Adeste fiddcs, a very familiar hymn, is in all probability 
of the seventeenth century. It is of French origin, but 
unknown authorship. The popularity it has attained is in 
part due to its measure, its peculiar lilt, and in greater degree ' 
to its fine musical setting. There are two versions in the 
Church Hymnaiy: 

come, all ye faithful, 
Joyfully triumphant, . 

. and 

come, all ye faithful, 

Joyful and triumphant. 
The first by William Mercer, and the other by Canon Oakeley. 



HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 49 

^ 

filii et filiae is probably of the seventeenth century. It 
is an Easter hymn, and well expressed by Neale : 

sons and daughters, let us sing ! 
The King of heaven, the glorious King. 

Esca viatonm, a communion hymn, probably by some 
German Jesuit of the seventeenth century. The rendering : 

Bread of Life, from heaven 
To pilgrim saints now given, 

which is well done, is by Philip Schaff, who has given 
considerable service to the Church in hymnology. 

Veni, veni, Immanuel is an anonymous hymn of great 
value. It is a metrical setting of several Advent antiphons 
which are at least as early as the eleventh century, although 
the metrical arrangement is probably of the eighteenth 
century. The translation is by Dr. Neale: 

come, come, Immanuel, 
And ransom captive Israel. 

Finita iam smt praelia is probably also of the eighteenth 
century. In it the writer celebrates the triumph of Christ 
over death. It is rendered in a spirited manner by the 
Kev. Francis Pott : 

The strife is o'er, the battle done ; 

The victory of life is Avon. 

Sol jpraec&ps ra/pitur, an evening hymn translated by 
Caswall : 

The sun is sinking fast, 
The daylight dies. . 

As the original is lost, we are unable to say anything regarding 
it. The rendering makes a very good hymn. 
Jesus Christ is risen to-day 

is an Easter hymn, a translation, of uncertain date and author- 
ship, of the first two stanzas of the anonymous Latin hymn, 
Surrexit CJiristus hodie. The second, third, and fourth stanzas 
have no connexion with the Latin. 



50 HYMNS FROM THE LATIN 

From the foregoing sketch it may be gathered that Latin 
hymnody was at its purest, and marked by greatest simplicity, 
in the early centuries. By the eleventh century it had 
attained to its full strength and glory, which it retained till 
about the fourteenth century, in Bernard of Clairvaux, Bernard 
of Cluny, and Thomas of Celano, and many more not repre- 
sented in The Church Hymnary and just as notable in certain 
respects, By the sixteenth century the decadence had set in. 



V 
HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 



R O 



V 



LUTHER gave two precious gifts to the Fatherland the 
Scriptures in the language of the people, and in language 
so choice that to this day it is the standard of graceful 
German; and that inspiration which breathed in his own 
songs, and has given life and music to a succession of 
lyrists, who, for extent, variety, and beauty of work, have 
not been excelled, if equalled, at any time in any other land. 

We can understand the remark made by Coleridge, that 
Luther did as much for the Reformation by his hymns as 
by his translation of the Bible. The influence of the hymns 
was immediate and decisive, while that of the Bible was 
a growing influence. When the light began to break, 
and men came to realize to some extent the darkness and 
bondage in which they had lived, the battle-songs of the 
faith welcomed the dawn, and cheering the hearts of the 
people strengthened them to strike for complete and lasting 
freedom. An eye-witness of the Reformation, quoted in 
The Christian Singers of Germany, says: 'Who doubts 
not that many hundred Christians have been brought to 
the true faith by this one hymn alone (Nun freut eucli 
liebes Christen gemein), who before perchance could not so 
much as bear to hear Luther's name ; but his sweet and 
noble words have so taken their hearts that they were con- 
strained to come to the truth ? ' To show the marvellous 



54 HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 

influence of Luther's hymns, a remarkable incident asso- 
ciated with that same hymn is given by Miss Winkworth. 
'A number of princes belonging to the reformed religion 
were assembled at Frankfort, and wished to have an evan- 
gelical service in the church of St. Bartholomew. A large 
congregation assembled, but the pulpit was occupied by 
a Koman Catholic priest, who proceeded to preach according 
to his own views. After listening for some time in indignant 
silence, the whole congregation rose and began to sing the 
hymn to which we have referred till they fairly sang the 
priest out of church.' 

Germany has become the home of sacred song. Not only 
was Luther himself a hymn-writer of a very high order, he 
was also an inspirer of others in the same noble service. Not 
content to do what he himself could, he called upon others 
to follow his example. To Spalatin he wrote : ' We seek 
everywhere for poets. Now as you are such a master of the 
German tongue and are so mighty and eloquent therein, 
I entreat you to join hands with us in this work, and to 
turn one of the Psalms into a hymn . . . but I desire . . . 
that the words may be all quite plain and common . . . that 
the meaning should be given clearly and graciously, according 
to the sense of the Psalm itself.' And so there sprang 
up around him, and in succeeding years, men who had the 
rare gift of song and could use it, and because their efforts 
were appreciated and made use of, wrote more and improved 
their gift : men from the palace and the peasant's cot, and 
their ranks down to the present day remain full. 

We have remarked that Germany has become the home 
of sacred song. We can say that of no other country. 
And why did sacred song find a home there rather than 
in this land? We are not lacking in poetry and music. 
We are rich in lyrics. The answer is this. Germany 
prepared a home for sacred song and allured it thither, 
and treated it well. To put it very plainly, Germany at the 



HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN _ 55 

"^ 

Eeformation became Lutheran, not Calvinistic. This is 
not the place to detail, or to attempt to do so, the advan- 
tages which Calvinism has conferred upon the reformed 
Churches over which its sway extended- these have doubtless 
been many. One blessing we know it did not confer: 
freedom to worship the Creator as He by His inspiration 
has taught every creature, Generous impulse was stemmed. 
Luther said : ' I would fain see all arts, especially music, in 
the service of Him who created them' ; but Calvin put a ban 
upon poetry, music, and painting in an attempt to conform the 
Church to New Testament usage. So it has happened that 
while for three centuries the hearts of the German people 
have welled up in a grateful praise, which had no limits set 
to it save such as were fixed by reverence and devotion, 
we have been compelled for nigh the same extent of time 
to pour our praises into channels which had been set for us, 
and always through the same channels. 

If the Almighty has taught us one thing by His creation 
it is this, that He loves variety and individuality. A thousand 
songsters praise Him, each with a different song. But our 
praise has been systematized. And only now in the end of 
the years we are beginning to realize what we have known 
all along but have not felt at liberty to express, that the 
beautiful things are the things of God. 

And demand creates supply in the department of sacred 
song as in any other department. Praise fills a much more 
prominent place in the religious services of the people in 
Germany than it has hitherto done in our English services. 
One cannot but be struck, even in these days, with the 
deliberate manner in which a German congregation settles 
itself to the singing of a somewhat lengthy hymn to some 
graceful leisurely melody. Praise is not a ' preliminary ' in 
Germany, nor has it become, what is quite as bad, a mere 
adornment to the service; it is a real, serious part of the 
worship. Thus it is that for the constant supply of material 



56 HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 

for Church praise, rightly deemed so important, and wisely 
made so prominent, men still hear the call of the first great 
hymn-writer, and respond. 

In the year 1786, over a hundred years ago, a prominent 
German hymnologist compiled a catalogue, bound up in five 
volumes, of 72,733 hymns, and authorities tell us that -the 
number of German hymns cannot now be much short of 
100,000. Many of these must, of course, be of very inferior 
quality indeed ; but after making a large allowance for com- 
positions of that sort, there must still remain many thousands 
of hymns possessing excellences that constitute for them 
a valid claim to a place in Church Hymnals. 

A people's history has much to do with the character 
of their songs. In the dark experiences of the Thirty Years' 
War, from 1618 to 1648, which began in an unsuccessful 
attempt to crush the reformed faith, and in which Protestants 
suifered so grievously, a band of singers, whose notes for 
sweetness have never been surpassed, was raised up to cheer 
the drooping hearts of God's people. Songs sung in the 
night are always the sweetest songs; they have pathos and 
emotion, and appeal to the heart as songs sung in the 
sunshine never can. It was at that time and in such 
circumstances that Altenburg, and Lowenstern, and Gerhardt, 
Germany's sweetest singer, sang, bringing solace and in- 
spiration to sad hearts, a mission they perform to the present 
day. And so as we trace the hymnology of Germany down 
through the years we find, as in the case mentioned, the 
hymns bearing the complexion of the age in which they 
were made and sung. This is true of Germany as it is 
of no other country, for the hymns of the sanctuary are the 
hymns of the people. 

MARTIN LUTHER was born at Eisleben, November 10, 1483. 
His original intention was to qualify for the law, but his 
natural bent inclined him towards theology. In due time 



HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 57 



he entered the Augustinian monastery of Erfurt, where he 
lived a life of severity, but where he* failed to gain that 
peace of heart which he so earnestly sought. Having set 
himself to the study of the Scriptures, he came to adopt the 
belief that forgiveness of sin is by faith in Jesus Christ. 
A visit to Borne opened his eyes to the corruptions of the 
Church, but it was given to an agent of Leo X to bring 
Luther to the point of actions. That pope being sorely 
in need of money had sent John Tetzel, a Dominican, over 
Germany selling indulgences. This was too much for Luther 
to. bear quietly, so in October of the same year, 1517, he 
nailed his famous theses upon the door of the Castle Church 
at Wittenberg, in which he denied to the pope the power 
to forgive sins. In September of 1520 he was excommuni- 
cated, and in April of the following year a Diet was held 
at Worms, to which Luther was summoned to answer for 
his publications. Public excitement grew intense. His 
friends could see nothing before him but the stake, and 
he was entreated to absent himself. But the reply of the 
intrepid reformer was that were there as many devils in 
Worms as there are tiles on its housetops, he would go. 
In the face of the Diet he frankly and boldly acknowledged 
the authorship of his publications, and added, ' I am bound 
by the Scripture ; my conscience is submissive to the will 
of God. I can recant nothing, and will recant nothing V 

In 1525 Luther married Katherine von Bora, a nun who 
had renounced her vows. Through the subsequent years 
he fought the Reformation battle the Bible, pamphlets, 
and hymns scattering his adversaries. He died in his 
native town, February 18, 1546. 

1 ' So bin ich iiberwunden durch die von mir angefiihrten heiligen 
Schriften, und mein Gewissen ist gefangen in Gottes Wort : wider- 
rufen kann ich nichts und will ich nichts, dieweil wider das Gewissen 
zu handeln unsicher und gefahrlich ist. Ich kann nicht anders. Hier 
steh' ich. Gott helf mir 1 Amen.' 



58 HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 

One cannot fail to be struck with the widely separated 
extremes of Luther's nature. A stern man, a born warrior, 
bold and brave, and of an iron will, he was yet at times as 
gentle as a lamb, The hymns from his pen in The Church 
Hymnary indicate these extremes. We do not associate 
the poetic element with a man of Luther's sort ; yet he had 
it in a marked degree. He could sing a fighting-song, as 
we can gather from Ein' feste Burg, so delightfully literal, 
and breathing the yery spirit of the original, in the rendering 
of Thomas Carlyle 1 . This noble hymn was the voice of 
the Eeformation, which was essentially a battle, a struggle 
for liberty. It was not a time for formulating doctrines, 
that time had been. The doctrines of the Person and 
Work of Christ and of the Holy Spirit had been fought for, 
and formulated, and accepted they were in the creed of 
the Church. The Eeformation was a struggle with the 
powers of evil that would snatch from men for whom Christ 
died the blessings of His redemption. The Confessions of 
the reformers shall come by-and-by. 

A safe stronghold our God is still, 
A trusty shield and weapon. 

The date of the composition of that hymn is unknown. 
The opening lines of the fourth stanza : 

And were this world all devils o'er, 

And watching to devour us, 
We lay it not to heart so sore ; 

Not they can overpower us, 

sound very like what Luther said when urged to absent 
himself from the Diet of Worms, and it has been thought 
not unlikely that this hymn, which Frederick the Great 
was wont to call God Almighty's Grenadier March, was 
written at that very juncture when he most needed the 

1 Lines 7 and 9 of the second stanza are from the translation of 
Wm. Graskell (1805-84), Unitarian minister at Manchester from 1828 
till his death. 



HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 59 

refuge of which he sang, and that he sang of it because 
he felt its comfort. But there is no reliable evidence 
that it was written before 1529, when it first made its 
appearance; and the question of the date of composition 
has been thoroughly discussed. 

The hymn had a remarkable and enthusiastic reception 
all over Germany. It was hailed as the battle-song of the 
age. When a great event brought men together in numbers, 
Ein' feste 'Bwg was sung. The army of Gustavus Adolphus 
sang it before the battle of Leipzig, September 17, 1631 ; and 
it woke the echoes of the old Castle Church at Wittenberg 
during the Luther celebrations in 1882. 

We quite expect a man of Luther's disposition to write 
such a hymn, if a hymn he will write at all ; but the other 
extreme of his nature surprises us, as we see it in the very 
beautiful, simple, and tender Christmas hymn which he 
composed for his own five-year-old son Hans, Vom Himmel 
hoch da komm' icJi her, and which is to this day the favourite 
Christmas hymn of the Fatherland. It has been faithfully 
rendered by Miss Winkworth: 

From heaven above to earth I come, 
To bear good news to every home. 

We see Luther in another frame of spirit in Aus tiefer 
Noth sclirei icli m Dir, suggested by the one hundred and 
thirtieth Psalm, and expressed so beautifully in English 
by Richard Massie : 

From depths of woe I raise to Thee 
The voice of lamentation. 

This is by far the most beautiful of the three hymns by 
Luther which we have noticed. Besides being rendered in 
such a manner as almost to dispose of the suspicion of its 
being a translation, it has, in common with the other two, 
this additional recommendation, that it retains the original 
measure. 

Luther struck a note of faith in God, strong, glad, and 



60 HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 

confident, and the long line of hymn-writers succeeding 
caught his inspiration and prolonged the note, 

MICHAEL WEISSE is interesting to us chiefly as having 
been a contemporary of Luther. He was born about 1480 
at Neisse, Silesia. When a monk at Breslau, he came under 
the influence of the teaching of the great reformer and 
abandoned the monastic life. Then he joined himself to 
the Bohemian Brethren, and became a preacher of the re- 
formed faith. He was also deputed by the Brethren to visit 
Luther, and confer with him upon matters pertaining to the 
Reformation. 

He was not a poet of outstanding merit, but there is 
a simplicity and directness about his hymns which must 
have commended them to the age in which he lived. He 
also translated some of the choicest Bohemian hymns for 
the use of German Protestants. Nun lasst uns den Leib 
legraben, one of his hymns, is a funeral piece, faithfully 
rendered by Miss Winkworth: 

Now lay we calmly in the grave. 

This hymn has an interesting connexion with Scotland, 
having formed in a Scotch translation, which can be traced 
to The Gude and Godlie Ballates of the "Wedderburns, part 
of a burial service of the sixteenth century. 

The Scottish Reformation Standards avoid countenancing 
services either in the house, or at the grave, for reasons 
which must be quite obvious ; but there is a strange 
departure from this rule in The Forme and Maner of Buriall 
usit in the Kirk of Montrois, which may be seen in The 
Miscellany of the Wodrow Society. There we have a 
service in three parts : first, an exhortation ; second, a prayer ; 
third, singing ; and the hymn given is one of twelve stanzas 
in the Scottish vernacular, with the injunction, ' This sang 
is to be sung after this tune.' Unfortunately the 'tune' 
is not given, 



HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 6l 

What interests us here is that the hymn in its first seven 
and last stanzas is clearly a version of Nun lasst uns den 
Leib begraben. Here it is in full. ,It can be compared either 
with the German, or with Miss Winkworth's rendering in 
The Church Hymnary: 

1. Oure Broder lat ws put in graiff, 
And na dout thairof lat ws haiff, 
Bot he sail ryis at Domis-day, 
And sail immortall leve for ay. 

2. He is bot earth, and of earth maid, 
And man returne to earth * thruch deid ; 
Sail ryis syne fra the earth and ground, 
Quhen that the last trumpett sail sound. 

3. The saul regneth with God in gloir, 
And he sail suffir pane no moir, 
For that his faith was constantlie, 
In Ohristis bluid 2 allanerlye. 

4. His panefull pilgremage is past, 
And to ane end cum at the last ; 
3 Deand in Christis 4 zock full sweitt, 
Bot 5 zit is "levand in his Spreitt. 

5. The saull levis with God, I say, 
The bodye slepis quhill Domis-day; 

Than Christ sail bring thame baith to gloir, . 
To regnne with him for evir moir. 

6. In earth he had vexatioun, 
Bot now he hes salvatioun ; 
7 Eegnand in gloir, and bliss 8 but weir, 
And schynis as the sone so cleir. 

7. 9 Ze faithfull, thairfoir lat him sleip, 
And nocht lyke Heathen for him weip ; 
Bot deiplye prent into zoure breisfc, 
That death to ws approcheis neist. 

8. Quhen cumin is oure houre and tyme, 
That we man turnit be in 10 slyme ; 
And thair is nane uthir defence, 

Bot die in hoip with pacience. 

1 through death. 2 only. - 3 Dying. 

* yoke. 8 yet. 6 living. 

7 Keigning. 8 without doubt. 9 Ye faithful. 10 clay. 



62 HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 

9. Thocht pest or swerd wald ws prevene, 
Befoir oure houre to slay ws clene ; 
Thai can nocht pluk ane lytill heir, 
Furth of oure heid, nor do ws l deir. 

10. Quhen fra this warld to Christ we wend, 
Oure wretchit schort lyfe man haif ane end, 
Changeit fra pane and miserie, 
To lestand gloir eternallye. 

n. End sail oure dayes schort and vane, 

And synne, quhilk we could nocht refrane ; 
Endit salbe oure pilgremage, 
And brocht hame to oure heritage. 

12. Christ for Thy mycht and 2 celsitude, 
That for oure synnes sched thy blude, 
Grant ws in faith to leve and die, 
And syne ressaive oure sawlis to Thee. 

Verses 8, 9, 10 and n have no counterpart in the German, 
and have no doubt been added for some purpose or other by 
the translator 8 . 

More congenial to the spirit of our time is that other 
hymn by Weisse, Christus ist erstanden, also rendered by 
Miss Winkworth : 

, Christ the Lord is risen again. 
Michael Weisse died at Landskron, 1534. 

PETRUS HERBERT was the author of that fine hymn Die 
NacJit ist Jcommen, translated by Miss Winkworth : 

Now God be with us, for the night is closing. 
He was an accomplished hymn-writer, and gave much atten- 
tion to the subject of hymnology generally. The date of 
his birth is uncertain. He died 1571. 

PHILIPP NICOLAI, a staunch Lutheran, a keen controver- 
sialist, an eloquent preacher, and a poet of no mean order, 
was born at Mengeringhausen in Waldeck, August 10, 

1 harm. 2 highness. 

3 Vide Public Worship of Presbyterian Scotland, by C. G. MacCrie, 
D.D., pp. 130, 379. Edinburgh (William Blackwood and Sons), 1892. 



HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 63 

1556. He passed through, many trials in life ; hut perhaps 
the sorest was that in the midst of which he wrote 
Wacliet auf! ruftims die Stimme. When -pastor at.Unna, 
a frightful plague broke out, prolonging its ravages for 
seven months. During that time, from his own windows, 
he could see the endless procession of mourners hearing 
their dead to burial. In the midst of the depression conse- 
quent upon such a condition of life, his thoughts constantly 
dwelt upon mortality. But his strong faith in God ever 
carried them beyond the grave to the bliss of heaven. We 
can detect the current of his meditation in the inspiring 
hymn which Miss Winkworth has given us in English dress 
with such faithfulness : 

Wake, awake ! for night is . flying. 

The hymn-writer begins with the call of the watchman, but 
sings at the close of that which no eye hath seen, nor ear 
heard. He died October 26, 1608. 

JOHANN MICHAEL ALTENBURG lived during the sore expe- 
riences of the Thirty Years' War, which devastated the land 
through an entire generation, in which time four-fifths of the 
population perished ; and the troubles of the time have left 
their impress on his hymns. He was born in 1584, so he 
was but a young man when the war broke out (1618), and 
he died February 12, 1640, eight years before its termination. 
His inspiring hymn, Vermge nicM, du Hauflein Klein 1 , was 
written after the news came of the defeat of the Catholics by 
the Evangelicals at Breitenfeld, near Leipzig, September 17, 
1631. The translation in The Church Hymnary:- 

Fear not, little flock, the foe 
Who madly seeks your overthrow ; 

is by Miss Winkworth, 

1 Some German authorities ascribe this hymn to Grttstavus Adolphus. 
It is certainly called his battle-song. 



64 HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 

MARTIN KINCKART was born on April 23, 1586, at Eilen- 
burg in Saxony, where his father was a cooper. He attended 
the school of his native town, and went in 1601 to the 
University of Leipzig. After serving for some time as 
a master in the gymnasium of Eisleben, and filling some 
ecclesiastical appointments, he became Archidiaconus in 
Eilenburg 1617, where he died December 8, 1649. It may be 
seen from-these dates that Binckart lived during the Thirty 
Years' War. He endured terrible experiences at times, not 
unlike those of Nicolai, only more severe. Pestilence broke 
out among the refugees in Eilenburg ; the other clergy died, 
and over 8,000 persons fell before the dreadful scourge. In 
the beginning of the visitation he would sometimes read the 
burial service over fifty persons in a day ; but by-and-by the 
task became too heavy to face, and the dead were buried in 
trenches unblessed. 

What could induce a man passing through such experi- 
ences to write Nun dariket alle G-ott, a hymn that wells 
up with gratitude, is hard to conceive. It certainly was 
not written, as some have affirmed, upon hearing of the 
Peace of Westphalia (the close of the Thirty Years' War, 
1648), although it may have been written in anticipation 
of that peace. Surely he must have been able, in the midst 
of all his dark trials, to see the hand of God, so as to 
be in a fit frame of mind to write such a hymn. In 
Miss Winkworth's version : 

Now thank we all our God, 
With hearts and hands and voices, 

we have a beautiful hymn of praise and thanksgiving. It 
is the Te Deum of Germany, and should be oftener sung in 
our churches than it is. 

MATTHAUS VON LOWENSTERN, son of a saddler at Neustadt, 
in Silesia, and born there April 20, 1594. He too lived 
during the Thirty Years' War, arid died at Breslau in the 



HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 65 

year of peace, 1648. He had a varied experience, and his last 
position was that of states-councillor to Duke Carl Friedrich 
of Mimsterberg. 

His hymn, Christe, Du Beistand Deiner Kreuzgemeine, 
hints' at the condition of things when it was written. In 
the third verse of Philip Pusey's rendering, which is a 
very free one, 

Lord, Thou canst help when earthly armour faileth, 
we have suggested to us the strife that raged the while : 

Grant us Thy help till foes are backward driven ; 



Grant peace on earth and, after we have striven, 
Peace in Thy heaven. 

PAUL GERHAKDT. And now we corne to the prince of 
German hymn-writers. Paul Gerhardt was born at Grafenhai- 
nichen, near Wittenberg, March 12, 1607. He settled first 
at Mittenwalde, 1651, for six years, during which time he 
wrote many of his best hymns. From 1657 to 1666 he was 
Diaconus of St. Nicholas's Church at Berlin. Eventually he 
became Archidiaconus of Liibben, where he died June 7, 
. 1676. 

His hymns are the most beautiful, the most chaste, and 
the most popular in Germany. He is the Wesley of the 
Fatherland not for the number he wrote, but for their 
quality. Of his 123 hymns, which are without question 
works of real genius, nearly forty a very large proportion 
are in common use. He too lived through the horrors of 
the Thirty Years' War. Independently of that fact, his life 
was a sad one. Adversity haunted him. He married late 
in life, and of his five children only one survived childhood. 
He early, lost his wife. His lot at Liibben' was cast amid 
unsympathetic people, from whose cold touch his highly- 
strung, sensitive nature shrank. Haupt wll Slut und 
Wiwden, a free translation into German of the Latin hymn 
Sake Caput cruentatum, in which Gerhardt improves upon the 



66 HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 

original, is undoubtedly one of his best productions, The 
version : 

sacred Head now wounded, 

by Dr. J. W. Alexander, is a very good one. In the rendering 
of Befielil clii delne Wege : 

Commit thou all thy griefs, 

We have a good example of John Wesley's skill as a trans- 
lator. 

GEOKG NEUMARK was born at Langensalza, March 16, 1621. 
He became court poet, and registrar of Weimar, where he 
died July 18, 1681. His best hymn is Wer nur den Helen 
G-oit Itisst walten, founded on the text ' Cast thy burden upon 
the Lord, and He shall sustain thee.' Miss Winkworth 
gives the version : 

If thou but suffer God to guide thee. 

CHKISTIAN KNOEE, BAEON VON KOSENEOTH, born at Altrau- 
der, in Silesia, July 15, 1636. After graduating at Leipzig, 
he devoted himself to the study of Oriental languages and 
chemistry. He died at Sulzbach, in Bavaria, May 8, 1689. 
One of his hymns, Moryenglanz der E'wigMt, is a great 
favourite in Germany, and finds a place in every good 
hymnal. It is a morning hymn of great beauty. The 
translation beginning : 

Jesus, Sun of Righteousness, 

by Miss Borthwick, is exceedingly good, although somewhat 
free. 

SAMUEL KODIGAST, born at Groben, October 19, 1649, 
became rector of Greyfriars gymnasium, Berlin. He died 
March 29, 1708, The hymn Was Gott tlmt, das 1st tvohlgethan, 
one of two ascribed to him, has been rendered by Miss 
Winkworth : 

Whate'er my God ordains is right, 

and is a piece of that accomplished lady's best work. 



HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 67 

BENJAMIN SCHMQLCK was born at Brauchitzchdorf, in 
Silesia (where his father was Lutheran pastor), December 21, 
1672. He studied theology, and was in due time ordained 
to assist his father. If Gerhardt was the Wesley of Germany, 
in quality, Schmolck was Germany's Wesley in quantity, 
He wrote, and continued to write. He wrote too much, 
Distinctly inferior to Gerhardt, he became exceedingly 
popular j and of the 1,000, or thereby, pieces written by him, 
perhaps 200 are included in various German hymnals. He 
died February 12, 1737. Two of his compositions are in 
The Church Hymnary, Was G-ott thnt, das ist wohlgethan, So 
deriken, an expression of contentment in a scanty harvest ; 
and Liebster Jesu, ivir sind liier. The former is rendered by 
Sir Henry Baker : 

What our Father does is well, 
the latter by Miss Winkworth : 

Blessed Jesus, here we stand. 

The one is a hymn for the seasons ; the other is a baptismal 
hymn, the present translation of which was sung at the 
baptism of the Princess Victoria of Hesse, at Windsor 
Castle, April 27, 1863. 

LAURENTIUS LAURENTI (1660-1722), a considerably prolific 
hymn-writer of a singularly evangelical spirit, has given 
us Ermuntert euch, ihr Frommen,' suggested by the parable of 
the Ten Virgins, translated very faithfully by Mrs. Findlater, 

Rejoice, all ye believers. 

CATHARINA AMALIA DOROTHEA VON SCHLEGEL (1697-?) 
has given us one of the finest hymns of its kind, Stille, rnein 
Wille, dein Jesus Mlft siegen, so exquisitely expressed by 
Miss Borthwick : 

Be still, my soul : the Lord is on thy side. 

GERHARD TERSTEEGEN was born at Meurs, in Westphalia, 
November 25, 1697, His parents were tradespeople, and he 



68 HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 

became a ribbon-weaver. He seems to have been a man of 
peculiar religious tendencies. For five years lie remained in 
darkness and doubt, but was in due time granted such 
a manifestation of the love of God as banished his doubts 
for ever. Thereupon he drew out a covenant with God, 
which he signed (so it is said) with his own blood, and wrote 
the hymn Wie list du mir so inmg gut. He remained outside 
the Eeformed Church a Plymouthist in the seventeenth 
century, in Germany and devoted himself entirely to 
Christian work, in which he was maintained by his followers. 
Tersteegen was a good man doubtless, but not the sort of 
man by which the world is made appreciably better. He 
was a voluminous hymn-writer, and some of his productions 
are very beautiful. 

Thou hidden Love of God, whose height, 
Whose depth xmfathomed, no man knows, 

is a version of Verborgne Gottes-Liebe du, by John Wesley. 
His hymns are fitted rather for the closet than for the 
sanctuary ; as aids to devotion rather than matter for praise. 
We could not conceive of Tersteegen's hymns, much as we 
admire them for some things, ever becoming favourites with 
healthily religious men and women. He died at Muhlheim, 
worn out with toil for the good of others, April 3, 1769. 

NlKOLAUS LUDWIG, COUNT VON ZlNZENDORP, W3S of noble 

lineage, and was born May 26, 1700, at Dresden. His 
desire from the first was to study theology and enter the 
Church, but in this he was steadily opposed by his family, 
who desired that he should prepare for state service. This 
he did. 

In religious matters he came into prominence in con- 
nexion with certain refugees of the Bohemian Brethren from 
Moravia, who found religious freedom on his estates, There 
a religious community of Bohemian or Moravian Brethren 
was established, called Herrnbut, in which there were 600 



HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 69 

souls. By-and-by Moravian settlements were established 
over Germany. Zinzendorf became Bishop of the Moravian 
Brethren's Unity at Berlin in 1737. It was due to his 
inspiration that the Moravians became pioneers in foreign 
mission work, to which, to this day, they are devoted. The 
latter part of his life was spent at Herrnhut, where he died 
May 9, 1760. 

Zinzendorf was one of the foremost German hymn- 
writers. Had he written less, he would possibly have 
written better ; but at his best he is very good indeed. He 
exercises a wonderful play of the imagination, which in 
some cases goes a little too far, almost bordering on the 
irreverent ; but few can fail to be struck with the yearning 
tones of his hymns, by which the longing is expressed for 
greater devotion to Christ, and more constant, uninterrupted 
communion with Him. Christi Shit und G-erechtigJceit is 
a very fine hymn. Some of its verses have been rendered 
by John Wesley, perhaps rather freely, but well : 

Jesus, Thy blood and righteousness 
My beauty are, my glorious dress. 

The original hymn is a long one, and the four stanzas 
given make a good cento. Another very good and wearable 
hymn is Jem, geh' wran, which is known by every Sunday- 
school child in Germany. It is tastefully and faithfully 
rendered by Miss Borthwick: 

Jesus, still lead on, 
Till our rest be won. 

CHRISTIAN FURCHTEGOTT GELLERT, son of a Lutheran 
pastor, was born at Hainichen, in Saxony, July 4, 1715. 
He qualified for the Lutheran ministry, but ultimately 
became professor of philosophy in the University of Leipzig. 
Goethe and Lessing were among his students. He was 
a man of devoted life, and an extensive writer on various 
topics, for which he was greatly admired in his time. 

As a hymn-writer he has written some pieces which take 



70 HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 

their place with the classics of German hymnody. Jesus leU I 
mit Ihm aucli icli is an Easter hymn, didactic in style, but 
very beautiful and inspiring. The rendering by Frances E, 
Cox is a very true one : 

Jesus lives! no longer now 
Can thy terrors, death, appal me. 

It is given in an alternative form (No. 81) in which the 
rhyming couplet at the close of each stanza is omitted, the 
stanzas being thus reduced to quatrains. The six-line stanza 
is the original form. Gellert died at Leipzig, December 13, 
1769. 

MATTHIAS CLAUDIUS (1740-1815). Three hymns from his 
pen are found in German hymnals. One of these, Wir 
pfliigen, und ivir streucn, is a first-rate cento for the seasons. 
It is well rendered by Jane Montgomery Campbell, who has 
made certain modifications, quite justifiable, in her desire to 
give a really good English hymn : 

We plough the fields, and scatter 
The good seed on the land. 

HEINEICH SIEGMUND OSWALD (1751-1834) is one of the 
minor hymn-writers of Germany. Wem in Leidenstagen is 
the only one of his hymns that has been translated into 
English. Of the original fourteen stanzas we have six from 
the admirable rendering of Miss Cox: 

let him whose sorrow 
No relief can find, 

a good hymn for times of personal trial. 

JOHANN WlLHELM MEINHOLD (1797-1851) has given US 

Gruter Hirt, Dn hist gestttlt, rendered faithfully and well by. 
Miss Winkworth : 

Gentle Shepherd, Thou hast stilled 
Now Thy little lamb's brief weeping. 

It is a hymn for the time of death, particularly the death 



HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 71 / 

of a child, and was written on the death of the author's own 
child, July, 1833. 

ALBEET KNAPP was one of the most original of Germany's 
lyric hymn- writers, He was born at Tubingen, July 25, 1 798. 
He qualified for the Lutheran ministry, having studied and 
graduated at the University of his native town, and became 
finally Stadtpfarrer, or town minister, at Stuttgart, where 
nineteen years later he died, June 18, 1864. 

There can be no doubt that among modern German 
hymn -writers Knapp holds a first, if not the first place. 
He is lyrical and highly imaginative. In Germany his 
hymns are rapidly growing in favour, and find places in all 
new hymnals. Vaterlierz, das ErcV und Himmel scliuf is 
a very good baptismal hymn, in which Father, Son, Spirit, 
and Holy Trinity are in succession invoked for the blessing 
of the cnild. It fills a place not easily filled in hymnody. 
In the whole range of Latin hymnody there are no baptismal 
hymns. Hymns there are relating to the baptism of our 
Lord by John, and to John himself, but none suited to the 
observance of the ordinance. This lack can, of course, be 
accounted for when we remember who the writers of the 
Latin hymns for the most part were ; but why in the nine- 
teenth century, and in all lands, there should be such 
a dearth of baptismal hymns, is hard to understand. Miss 
Winkworth's version is as usual exceedingly good : 

Father, Thou who hast created all 

In wisest love, we pi'ay, 
Look on this babe, ... 

CARL JOHANN PHILIPP SPITTA. Son of a teacher of the 
French language at Hanover, was born there August r, 
1801. His father died early, and the lad was apprenticed 
to a watchmaker. He disliked the occupation, and aban- 
doned it on the death of a younger brother who had been 
preparing for the Church, and whose career he resolved to 



72 HYMNS FROM THE GERMAN 

adopt. He studied at the University of Gottingeii, and 
after qualifying, filled many ecclesiastical appointments in 
the kingdom of Hanover. He died at Burgdorf, where he 
was Lutheran Superintendent, September 28, 1859. Spitta 
began his student career under pronounced rationalist 
professors ; but eventually he experienced a great spiritual 
change, and from the composition of secular songs, in which 
he was a great adept, he gave up his leisure to hymn 
composition, with the result that he became one of the fore- 
most modern hymn-writers. His hymns are great favourites 
with the Evangelical Churches in Germany. They are as 
a rule short (and in that respect unlike most German hymns), 
very simple and chaste. What subject more beautiful to 
write about than selig Haus, ivo man Dich aufgenommen ? 
He knew that true religion always finds a place at home, 
and can best express itself there, and with the best results. 
Mrs. Findlater has given us a worthy rendering : 

happy home, where Thou art loved the dearest, 
Thou loving Friend, and Saviour of our race. 

Wir sind des Herrn, a hymn expressive of Christian service, 
is rendered in a spirited manner by C. T. Astley : 

We are the Lord's : His all-sufficient merit, 
Sealed on the cross, to us this grace accords.. 

Beimfriihen Morgenlicltt is an anonymous morning hymn, 
doubtless written in this century, probably in Franconia. 
The translation by Caswall : 

When morning gilds the skies, 
My heart awaking cries, 
' May Jesus Christ be praised ! ' 

seems freer than usual. Varying centos from the hymn are 
found in hymnals, but the stanzas chosen for The Church 
Hymnary are probably the best. They scarcely give the 
suggestion of a translation. 



VI 
TRANSLATORS 



VI 



SPECIAL mention must be made of those scholars who 
have laid their scholarship and culture on the altar of Christ, 
and by their translations have opened for us the treasure- 
house of the praise-literature of the Christian Church in all 
ages and all lands. The hymns of Ambrose and the 
Bernards are the hymns of our worship to-day ; and the 
songs of Luther, Gerhardt, and Zinzendorf, which have 
for so long given expression to the devotion of a devoted 
Fatherland, are a rich and welcome addition to our nineteenth- 
century praise-books. 

Twenty-four translators are honourably represented in The 
Church Hymnary by seventy-seven renderings. Of these 
five are from the Greek, with two which may be termed 
imitations ; thirty-eight from the Latin ; thirty from the 
German ; one from the French ; one from the Danish ; and 
one from the Welsh. In this section we include those 
names which are associated with hymnody by translation 
chiefly. 

JOHN DRYDEN, the English poet, was born at Aldwincle, 
All Saints, Northants, 1631. From Westminster School he 
went to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he resided till 
1657. He was of Puritan descent, but little of the Puritan 
revealed itself in his life. His claim to notice here rests 
upon his translation of the Veni, Creator Spiritus, a rendering 



76 TRANSLATORS 

too artificial to deserve commendation. It has come to 
be considered the right thing to give it a -place in every 
hymnal, but who sings it ? Of the fifteen church hymnals 
collated at the end of this book, Dryden's version of this 
grand hymn finds a place in twelve. 

Immortal honour, endless fame, 

the last stanza of the rendering, is used also as a doxology. 
Dryden was made Poet Laureate in 1670, and in 1685 he 
joined the Church of Eome. He died in 1701, and was 
honoured with burial in Westminster Abbey. 

JOHN CHANDLER was one of our most successful trans- 
lators of Latin hymns. He was born at Witley, Surrey, 
June 16, 1806. He studied at Corpus Christi College, 
Oxford ; and succeeded his father as vicar of his native 
parish in 1837. In the same year he published his Hymns 
of the Primitive Church, accompanied by the Latin texts ; 
many of the hymns, far from being ' Primitive,' dating only 
from the Paris Breviary of 1736. In 1841 he published 
The Hymns of the Church, mostly Primitive. In the 
preface to this work he says: 'This can hardly be called 
a new edition of The Hymns of the Primitive Church . . . 
seeing that the present work differs from the former one in 
several respects. Many of the hymns in that collection are 
omitted, some are greatly altered and almost rewritten.' It 
contains also his original compositions. 

Chandler's translations are all in beautiful English, and 
are in the truest and fullest sense poems. One of his 
best renderings, perhaps (next to ' Christ, our Hope, our 
heart's Desire,' his best) is : 

Jesus, Lord of heavenly grace, 
Thou Brightness of Thy Father's face. 

We have a specimen of his original compositions in : 

Above the clear blue sky, 
In heaven's bright abode, 



TRANSLATORS 77 

which is a very pretty children's hymn. He died at Putney, 
July i, 1876. 

HAMILTON MONTGOMERIE MACGILL came of a good Secession 
family. He was born at Catrine, in Ayrshire, March 10, 1807. 
To his mother, a woman of eminent piety, are to be traced 
those religious impressions which moulded his character, 
and made it so beautiful in later years. With a view 
to the ministry of his Church, he entered the University 
of Glasgow in 1827 ; and while there, and during his 
attendance for theology at the 'Hall,' made a brilliant 
record. In classics and philosophy he excelled. After 
being 'licensed' to .preach the Gospel by the presbytery 
of Kilmarnock in 1836, he accepted an invitation to be 
colleague and successor to Dr. Muter, of Duke Street 
Church, Glasgow ; but after three and a half years, on 
account of dissensions in the congregation, with which he 
had nothing whatever to do, and which he could not control, 
he was led to resign the charge. Shortly thereafter, a 
seceding section of the Duke Street congregation applied 
to the Glasgow presbytery to be formed into a new charge ; 
and the request being granted, Dr. Macgill, after refusing 
a call to Airdrie, accepted a unanimous call to be its first 
minister. In a short time a new church was built in 
Montrose Street, and an important congregation was soon 
gathered, to which he ministered for eighteen years. At the 
end of that period he was appointed by the Synod of the 
United Presbyterian Church to the post of Home Mission 
Secretary. For ten years he did good work for the Church 
in that office, but his strength being overtaxed by the heavy 
duties laid upon him, and his health threatening to give 
way, he was relieved of the office, and cordially appointed to 
the lighter work of Foreign Mission Secretary; and for 
eleven years served the Church in that capacity. 

In the midst of a very busy life, he. found time to follow 



78 TRANSLATORS 

certain literary pursuits. He was for many -years editor 
of the Juvenile Missionary Magazine. He wrote also the 
elaborate memoirs of his father-in-law, Dr. Heugh. But 
what is specially interesting to us, he contributed in a very 
direct and increasingly acceptable way to the praise of the 
Churches. His Songs of the Christian Creed and Life, 1876, 
are mostly translations from the hymns of the Greek and 
Latin Churches, seventy-three renderings in all, 

This special reference to Dr. Macgill and his work is 
made for the reason that he is the first Scottish Presby- 
terian who has to any extent introduced the hymns of the 
early and mediaeval Church to the notice of his fellow, 
countrymen ; and for this other reason, that now that an 
increasing interest is being manifested in those early hymns, 
the translations of Dr. Macgill ought to be better known 
than they are. He died at Belleville, Paris, June 3, 1880. 

WILLIAM JOSIAH IKONS, both as a translator and an 
original hymn-writer, holds a foremost place. Many of his 
original compositions have found a place in permanent 
hymnals ; while his rendering of the Dies irae one of the 
best of the many translations of that hymn is perhaps 
oftenest adopted by hymnal compilers. He was born at 
Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire, September 12, 1812. After 
studying at Oxford .(Queen's College), he became Curate 
of St. Mary's, Newington, 1835 > an ^ * n ^S? Vicar of 
St. Peter's, Walworth ; in 1838 Yicar of Barkway, Herts ; 
Vicar of Brompton, 1842, and Rector of St. Mary Woolnoth, 
as one of John Newton's successors, in 1872. He died 
June 18, 1883. 

EDWAKD CASWALL was born at Yately, Hampshire, July 
15, 1814. He was a student of Brasenose College, Oxford 
(1832-36), and when qualified became Perpetual Curate of 
Stratford-sub-Castle, near Salisbury. In 1847, influenced 
doubtless by the Tractarian movement, he abandoned the 



TRANSLATORS 79 

-^ 

Church of England, and joined the Koman communion ; and 
three years later became a priest of that Church, He was 
appointed to the Oratory, over which John Henry Newman 
presided, in Birmingham, and there remained tillhis death, 
January 2, 1878. . 

Caswall does not show that faithfulness to the original 
which characterizes both Neale and Chandler ; but his 
renderings, which are very numerous, are all exceedingly 
chaste. His Lyra Catholica contains 197 translations from 
the Latin. The most of his other translations and of his 
original hymns appeared in his Masque of Mary, 1858. 

When morning gilds the skies, 
My heart awaking cries, 

which had a German origin, is one of the most popular, and 
deservedly so, of his translations. Caswall, like many other 
translators, was also an original composer ; 

Days and moments quickly flying 
Blend the living with the dead : 

is a good hymn for funeral services, or when the old year 
is passing. Caswall, however, only wrote the first four 
stanzas of it. He also wrote a few children's hymns, 
without excelling : 

See ! in yonder manger low, 
Born for us on earth below, 

which is in some of its verses a good children's hymn for 
Christmas, but the couplet : 

He who, throned in height sublime, 
Sits amid the cherubim, 

does not look specially childlike ! 

JOHN MASON NEALE has done more in the department of 
the hymns of the early Church than all other translators 
put together. He was a pioneer. He ' bore the torch 
through dark labyrinths, and trod recesses long forsaken. 
Chandler and Caswall doubtless did good work in the same 



80 TRANSLATORS 

department, and about the same time, but it was different 
work, Neale's work was that of a discoverer and scientist. 
Chandler and Caswall were mere excursionists. Neale 
mapped the territory through which he passed, took the 
heights of its mountains, traced its rivers, and sounded its 
lakes. Others merely recreated, and brought back with 
them their impressions, and specimens of the produce of 
the country. And he was a man splendidly qualified for 
the work to which he set . himself, because of his great 
classical scholarship, his devout spirit, and cultured taste. 
His renderings are all marked by great faithfulness to the 
originals, and a dignity, and purity of diction, that breathes 
the very spirit of the early singers. At the close of this 
century Dr. Neale stands forth par excellence the interpreter 
of the praise literature of the early and mediaeval Church. 

He was born in London, January 24, 1818, and educated 
at Sherborne Grammar School, and Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, where he was the first man of his year. The spirit 
of the Church movement reached Cambridge, and Neale 
partook of it. In 1842 he was presented to a small 
incumbency in Sussex ; but ill health overtook him, and 
he was obliged to decline the appointment, and leave 
England for Madeira, where he spent about a year. In 
1846 he was presented to the Wardenship of Sackville 
College, East Grinstead, the emoluments connected with 
which amounted to the sum of 27 annually ! Later, he 
was offered the Provostship of St. Ninian's, Perth, but 
residence in Scotland was forbidden him on account of the 
delicate state of his health ; and so he had to refuse the 
honour, which had the munificent sum of 100 annually 
attached to it ! Such was the extent of the honour his 
Church felt inclined to give one of her most accomplished 
sons ! So Dr. Neale continued to reside at East Grinstead, 
and there he put forth his sympathies and active energies 
in the cause of Church revival. Directly by his literary 



TRANSLATORS 81 

and philanthropic work he aided that movement which was 
so actively forwarded at Oxford. 

In 1856 he set up a Sisterhood (St. Margaret's) .which 
included various institutions, and which in his lifetime 
brought him much odium and active opposition. This he 
managed (so consistent was his Christian character) to live 
down ; and St. Margaret's stands to-day, in the multiplicity 
of its organizations, a memorial of Dr. Neale's devotedness 
and Christian self-sacrifice. 

Dr. Neale was an extensive writer, both in prose and verse. 
With the latter alone we have to do here, although the 
former in many cases was hymnblogical. His renderings 
which have a place in The Church Hymnary are noted 
in the chapters devoted to hymns from the Greek and 
Latin, and no more requires to be said of them now. But 
Dr. Keale was not only a translator, he was also an original 
composer; and many of his hymns, both for adults and 
children, find a place in the permanent hymnals of the 
Christian Church, in this and in other lands. Of these 
only one finds a place in The Church Hymnary : 

All is bright and cheerful round us; 
All above is soft and blue ; 

an exceedingly fine hymn for the Spring. Two hymns 
which are mere suggestions from the Greek, and mentioned 
in that connexion, should really be classed with his original 
compositions, and they are two of our best hymns : 

'Art thou weary, art thou languid, 
Art thou sore distressed? 

and 

happy band of pilgrims, 
If onward ye will tread. 

Dr. Neale in his short life did not get much of the comfort 
of this world, as that is conferred by material blessings, 
but he left the world richer for his life. He died at 
East Grinstead, August 6, 1866. 



82 TRANSLATORS 

WILLIAM ROBERTSON was born at Cambuslarig, near 
Glasgow, where his father was minister, July 15, 1820. 
After preparatory study for the ministry at the University 
of Glasgow, he was appointed to the parish of Monzievaird, 
Perthshire, in 1843. Robertson interested himself in 
hymnology, and, besides writing a few original hymns, 
rendered the Te Deum into English verse. He was the 
author of that very fine baptismal hymn : 
A little child the Saviour came, 

one of the very best we possess, He died at Monzievaird, 
June 9, 1864, 

BENJAMIN WEBB was born in London in 1820, and educated 
at Trinity College, Cambridge. He filled several curacies 
from 1845 till 1851, in which year hs became Vicar of Sheen 
in Staffordshire, and in 1862 of St. Andrew's, Wells Street, 
London. Mr. Webb was one of the editors of The Hymnal 
Noted,- 1851-1854, to which he contributed a few render- 
ings; and later joint editor of The Hymnary, 1872. His 
renderings from the Latin are good. His original com- 
positions are not to any extent in popular use. 

Other translators from the Latin are JOHN KEBLE, 
J. H. NEWMAN, and FREDERICK OAKELEY (see Tractarian 
hymns) ; JOHN COSIN, WILLIAM MERCER, and SIR WALTER 
SCOTT (see hymns from the Latin) ; E. H. BICKERSTETH, and 
FRANCIS POTT (see Nineteeth Century Hymn-writers). 

Thirty renderings from the German enrich The Church 
Hymnary, representing nine translators. For nineteen of 
the renderings we are indebted to four ladies. 

FRANCES ELIZABETH Cox, daughter of George V. Cox, was 
born at Oxford in 1812. In 1841 she published Sacred 
Hymns from the German. In a second edition of the 
collection fifty-six translations find a place. Miss Cox did 
good service in the department of hymnody, all her ren- 
derings being true and graceful. She died in 1897. 



TRANSLATORS , 83 

Two Scottish hymn-writers take a place only second to 
Miss Winkworth as translators from the German. 

MRS. FINDLATEB (Sarah Borthwick) born November 26, 
1823, widow of the late Eric John Findlater, Free Church 
minister of Lochearnhead ; and JANE L. BORTHWICK, her 
sister, born in Edinburgh, April 9, 1813. Together these 
cultured sisters prepared a volume of Hymns from the Land 
of Luther. Their combined work comprises fifty-three ren- 
derings by Mrs. Findlater, and sixty-one by Miss Borthwick. 

Three original compositions from Miss Borthwick's pen 
have a place in The Church Hymnary, all of which are of 
considerable merit : 

Still on the homeward journey 
Across the desert plain, 

a hymn for anniversaries ; 

Come, labour on : 
Who dares stand idle on the harvest plain, 

a very spirited hymn, calling to Christian service ; and 

Thou knowest, Lord, the weariness and sorroAV 
Of the sad heart that comes to Thee for rest ; 

in which the worshipper is led to appeal to the sympathy of 
our Lord. Miss Borthwick died in 1897, and Mrs. Findlater 
is still with us. 

CHARLES TAMBERLANE ASTLEY was born at Cwmllecuediog, 
North Wales, May 12, 1825. He was a scholar of Jesus 
College, Oxford. In 1849 he became Incumbent of Holy- 
well, Oxford ; afterwards Vicar of Margate ; and Eector of 
Brasted, 1864-78. Mr. Astley has done good work as 
a translator from the German. His renderings are brought 
together in a small volume entitled Songs in the Night, 
1859. The hymn : 

We are the Lord's: His all-sufficient merit, 
Sealed on the cross, to us this grace accords ; 

is a free rendering from Spitta. The history of its compo- 



84 TRANSLATORS 

sition. and those published with it, is given in his preface : 
' The great majority of the following pieces were literally 
what the title indicates, Songs in the Night, given to me 
mostly in sleepless hours, during a very severe illness of two 
months, and a longer period of convalescence, at Pisa and 
Eome, in the Winter and Spring of 1858-9 ; and so great was 
the comfort I derived from those gifts of God, that through 
many sleepless nights and days of pain and weakness, I do 
not remember to have had, one weary half-hour.' Mr. Astley 
has been, since 1879, minister of a Presbyterian congregation 
at Llandudno, Wales. 

CATHERINE WINKWORTH, the gifted author of the Lyra 
Germanica, The Chorale Book for England, and The Christian 
Singers of Germany, was born in London, September 13, 
1829, and died suddenly at Monnetier, Savoy, July, 1878. 
In the second series of the Lyra Germanica we have some 
244 renderings from the work of the best German hymnists ; 
in The 'Chorale Book many more, with appropriate music ; 
while in her Christian Singers of Germany she has given 
us biographical and historical sketches of the hymn-writers 
and their hymns from the very earliest. Miss Winkworth 
has done more than any one else to familiarize English- 
speaking peoples with the hymns of Germany. 

Other translators from the German are : JOHN WESLEY 
(1703-91), EICHARD MASSIE. (1800-87), PHILIP PUSEY (1799- 
1855), J. W. ALEXANDER (1804-50), THOMAS CARLYLE (1795- 
1881), JANE M. CAMPBELL (1817-78) ; see hymns from the 
German. 

Translators from other languages are : Prom the Danish, 
S. BARING-GOULD (page 217) ; from the French, G. W. 
BETHUNE (page 295) ; and from the Welsh, PETER and 
WILLIAM WILLIAMS (page 160). 



VII 

THE SCOTTISH METRICAL PSALTER 
TRANSLATIONS AND PARAPHRASES 



VII 



WHEN on a visit to Edinburgh, the Anglo-Indian hero of 
Sir Walter Scott's Guy Mannering worshipped in Greyfriars' 
Church. As Dr. John Erskine was selected by the novelist 
to be the preacher, the fictitious incident may be placed any- 
where between 1758 and 1803. During the few minutes 
that probably elapsed between taking his seat alongside of 
Councillor Pleydell and the commencement of the service, 
Colonel Mannering may have occupied himself in examining 
the books lying on the sloping board of the pew. Prayer- 
book there would be none ; hymn-book he would not 
light upon ; nothing there but copies of the Scriptures, 
differing only in size of type and style of binding. Looking 
into the Bible placed for his use the stranger would find 
the sole provision for the praise of the service at the end 
of the volume. The material he would discover to be 
contained in three collections of metrical compositions, 
arranged in the following order, under the following 
titles : 

i. THE PSALMS OF DAVID IN METEE. Newly translated 
and diligently compared with the original Text and 
former Translations. More plain, smooth and agree- 
able to the Text than any heretofore. Allowed by 
the Authority of the General Assembly of the Kirk 
of SCOTLAND, and appointed to be sung in Congrega- 
tions and Families. 



88 THE SCOTTISH METRICAL PSALTER 

2. TRANSLATIONS AND PARAPHRASES, in verse, of several 

Passages of SACRED SCRIPTURE. Collected and pre- 
pared by a Committee of the General Assembly of 
the Church of Scotland, in order to be sung in 
Churches. 

3. HYMNS. 

By the time the Englishman had completed his survey 
the preacher, with narrow chest and ungainly actions, 
wearing a black unpowdered wig, would probably be on his 
feet to commence the service by giving out a portion taken 
from the first collection, to be sung by the congregation in 
a sitting posture, without the aid of any instrument, but led 
by an important functionary, the precentor, as he stood at 
a small enclosed desk immediately below the pulpit. 

It is the story of these three collections of metrical 
devotion, still bound up with Bibles and Testaments printed 
for the use of Scottish and Irish Presbyterians, that falls to 
be outlined in this chapter. 

I. THE PSALMS OF DAVID IN METRE. 

Before dealing with this collection it will be necessary to 
take a rapid survey of what the people of Scotland used from 
Eeformation days down to 1650, when the Psalter in the 
Greyfriars' Church Bible and still in use was sanctioned and 
adopted. 

Certain statements in Knox's History of the Eeformation 
clearly show that for twenty years before a complete Scottish 
Psalter existed vernacular versions of some of the Psalms 
were sung in Scotland. Where did these come from ? 
Mainly from the land of Luther, brought by two men, one 
an Englishman, the other a Scot. This was how it came 
about. 

COVERDALE AND THE WEDDERBURNS. Early in the six- 
teenth century Myles Coverdale, whose name holds a place of 



TRANSLATIONS AND PARAPHRASES 89 

honour in the annals of the English Bible, was an exile at 
Wittenberg. While there he formed acquaintance with the 
Handbooks of Psalms and Spiritual Songs which circulated 
freely in the Fatherland. The fruit of this acquaintance he 
gave to his countryinen,on his return to England, in a book 
of devotions bearing the title, Ghostly Psalms and Spiritual 
Songs. Contemporaneous with Coverdale were three Scots- 
men, sons of James Wedderburn, a Dundee merchant. 
While all the threexwere forced to seek safety in flight to 
a foreign land, the second, John by name, found his way to 
Wittenberg, and so became a fellow exile with Coverdale. 
The outcome of this exile and fellowship was the appearance 
in Scotland of several songs and ballads, to which in subse- 
quent collected issues there was given the quaint title, 
A Compendious Book of Godly Psalms and Spiritual Songs ; 
but since then better known as The Psalms of Wedderburn, 
The Psalms of Dundee, and, best of all, as The Gude and 
Godlie Ballates. 

Not stopping to inquire to what extent the Wedderburns 
took their material from Coverdale, or how far both the 
English and Scottish versifiers were indebted to German 
books of sacred song, we content ourselves with noting that 
in these English and Scottish selections are to be found 
renderings of the Psalms which Knox tells us George 
Wishart, the martyr, appointed to be sung on the night of 
his betrayal and arrest, and Elizabeth Adamson asked her 
sisters to sing when she was on her death-bed. 

THE PSALMS OF STERNHOLD AND HOPKINS. Then, in the 
reign of the boy -king, Edward VI, a selection of nineteen 
Psalms in metre Was published at London. The author 
was Thomas Sternhold, Groom or Gentleman of the King's 
Chamber. At a later date, 1549, the number of translations 
was increased to thirty-seven. By that time Sternhold was 
dead ; and John Hopkins, a schoolmaster and clergyman in 



go THE SCOTTISH METRICAL PSALTER 

Suffolk, had taken up his work, and added, in a subsequent 
issue, seven of his own renderings. 

Although devoid of literary merit, this collection of forty- 
four English metrical Psalms has an interest for us, because 
of the close relation in which it stands to the first complete 
and authorized edition of The Scottish Psalter, 

THE SCOTTISH PSALTEK or 1564. In 1564 there issued 
from the press of an Edinburgh printer a small octavo which 
purported to contain THE FORM OP PKAYEES AND MINIS- 
TRATION OF THE SACRAMENTS, &c., used in the English Church 
at G-eneva, approved and received l>y the Church of Scotland, 
ivhereunto, beside that ivas in the former looks, are also added 
sundry other prayers, with the whole Psalms of David in 
English metre. 

Two points of interest present themselves in this descrip- 
tive title. 

First. .The Continental connexion ' Used in the English 
Church at Geneva.' That can be easily and briefly ex- 
plained. The pitiless scourge of persecution in the reign of 
Queen Mary drove certain English and Scottish Protestants 
to Frankfort. Some of these refugees subsequently settled 
at Geneva. There, in 1555, they formed themselves into an 
English congregation, of which John Knox was for a time 
one of the ministers. For the use of this English Church 
there was printed, in 1556, a servicVbook containing, among 
other things, ' one-and-fifty Psalms of David in English 
metre.' It was this Book of Geneva, with some enlarge- 
ments and modifications, that Kobert Lekprevik reprinted 
at Edinburgh with the approval of the Church of Scotland. 

Second. The Psalter completion ' with the whole Psalms 
of David in English metre.' From the time the refugees 
took to issuing editions of then 1 'Forms,' the number of 
translated Psalms gradually increased, both on the Continent 
and in England. In 1561 the Genevan Psalter numbered 



TRANSLATIONS AND PARAPHRASES 91 

eighty-seven, and in 1562 the translation of all the 150 was 
completed in England. In the Psalter, when approved and 
received by the Church of Scotland, there are forty-one 
versions substituted for a corresponding number in the 
English Psalter of 1562. 

THE VEKSIONS OP CRAIG, KETHE, AND WHITTINGHAM. 
The larger share in the producing of these Scottish versions 
fell to three men John Craig and William Kethe, both 
Scots, and William Whittingham, an Englishman. Of all 
the 150 renderings only three can be said to be ' alive unto 
this day'; and of these three each of the above-named 
translators can claim one, 

1. The rendering of Psalm 145 in the Scottish Psalter of 
1564 is substantially the same as that in the Psalter at 
present in use, beginning with the lines : 

Lord, that art my God and King, 
Undoubtedly I will Thee praise. 

Of that version there is every reason to believe the author 
was John Craig, one of the ministers of Edinburgh. 

2. In the Edinburgh Psalter of 1564 is to be found, with 
slight modifications, the version of Psalm 100, so dear to 
Scottish hearts and ears, with this for opening verse : 

All people that on earth do dwell, 
Sing to the Lord with chereful voyce : 

Him serve with feare, his praise foorth tell : 
Come ye before him and re-joyce. 

It was the composition of William Kethe, a Scottish exile 
during the Marian persecutions, and one of the translators 
of the Genevan Bible. 

3. Psalm 124 in the Psalter of 1564 is practically the same 
as the second version in the present-day metrical version of the 
Psalms, the first verse of the former being in these words : 

Now Israel 

may say, and that truely, 
If that the Lord 

had not our cause mainteinde, 



92 THE SCOTTISH METRICAL PSALTER 

If that the Lord 

had not our right susteinde 
When all the worlcle 

against us furiously, 
Made their uproares, 

and said we shuld all dye. 

That composition falls to William Whittingham, an 
Oxford student, brother-in-law of Calvin, successor of Knox 
in the pastorate of the English congregation at Geneva, and 
later in life Dean of Durham, 

PART-SINGING OF PSALM 124 IN 1582. A striking incident 
associated with this same version of Whittingham has often 
been described. On September 4, 1582, the people of Edin- 
burgh turned out in their thousands to meet and welcome 
John Durie, one of their ministers, on his return from 
banishment. Forming a procession they ' took up the I24th 
Psalm, Now Israel may say, &c., and sang it in four parts, 
all being bareheaded,' 

THE PSALTER OF 1564 IN USE TILL 1650. The old version 
held the field in Scotland for eighty-five years. Keprints 
of it issued from time to time from the printing presses of 
Edinburgh and Aberdeen ; and some of these, printed at the 
capital, adopted the Scottish dialect, although the statement 
' in English metre ' was retained. 

' THE PSALMS OF KING DAVID, TRANSLATED BY KING JAMES.' 
Only one attempt was made to supersede the old version 
before it was laid aside in favour of the present one ; and 
that attempt, although made in high quarters, was not 
successful. 

That 'most high and mighty Prince,' the pedant King 
James VI, not content with having given his subjects a new 
translation of the Bible in 1611, undertook to supply Scot- 
land with a Prayer-book and a Psalter. The former of these 
he left to be compiled by Laud and other prelates, but the 



TRANSLATIONS AND PARAPHRASES 93 

latter he designed should emanate from himself. After 
translating thirty Psalms, he entrusted the remainder of the 
work to Sir William Alexander of Menstrie, who has a much 
better title to be considered the true author of the version 
than his royal master. Nevertheless, when the king's son 
and successor, Charles I, gave it to the world it appeared 
with the above title. Published in 1631, the version was 
reissued in 1637, forming part of "The Book of Common 
Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments ; and other 
parts of Divine Service for the use of the Church of Scotland. 
With a Paraphrase of the. Psalms in Metre by King James 
the VI.' Even had the literary merits of this Psalter been 
greater than they are, its association with Laud's Liturgy 
was sufficient to ensure its rejection in Presbyterian Scot- 
land. And so, when the attempt to assimilate the forms 
of Scottish worship to those of England collapsed like a 
house of cards, under the onslaught initiated by Jenny 
Geddes, and completed by the venerable Assembly of 1638, 
the royal version of the Psalms was swept aside. 

MOVEMENT IN THE DIRECTION OF A NEW PSALTER. Although 
the Scottish people refused to accept the Psalms of King 
James, they did not consider the Psalter in use incapable of 
improvement ; they were quite prepared to find it super- 
seded by a better. As early as 1647 it was acknowledged 
by such men as Samuel Eutherfurd and George Gillespie 
that there was- a necessity for a change, many exceptions, 
they admitted, being taken ' against the old and usual 
Paraphrase.' But what finally moved the Presbyterians of 
Scotland to lay aside their time-honoured Psalter and adopt 
one in more modern English dress wasbe it told to their 
lasting honour the desire for UNITY in religion and 
UNIFORMITY of practice in the three kingdoms of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland. One Confession of Faith, one Cate- 
chism, one Book of Discipline, one Directory for all the parts 



94 THE SCOTTISH METRICAL PSALTER 

of public worship such were the fine vision and the noble 
aim in the interests of which the Scottish Covenanters com- 
bined their forces with the Puritans of England, and the 
Church of Scotland sent Commissioners to the Assembly of 
Divines at Westminster in 1643. 

Had the Scottish Church thought only of herself, there 
were versions by Scotsmen she might have preferred. Sir 
William Mure of Eowallan in Ayrshire had versified some 
of the Psalms with such skill that Eobert Baillie preferred 
his translations to any other. Zachary Boyd of Glasgow 
had issued The Psalms of David in Metre. But these were 
passed over in favour of a metrical version of an Englishman 
because that commended itself to the Presbyterian Alliance 
meeting at London. 

THE PSALTER OF FRANCIS Sous. On April 15, 1646, an 
order was issued by the House of Commons ' That the Book 
of Psalms v set forth by Mr. Eous and perused by the 
Assembly of Divines be forthwith printed in sundry volumes. 
And that the said Psalms, and none other, shall, after the 
first clay of January next, be sung in all Churches and 
Chapels within the Kingdom of England, Dominion of 
Wales and Town of Berwick-upon-Tweede.'' Francis Eous, 
a native of Cornwall and a student at Oxford, Calvinistic in 
creed and Presbyterian in his views of Church government, 
was more than once returned to Parliament as member for 
Truro, proving himself a staunch supporter of the Cromwell 
policy. When lay commissioners were appointed to the 
Westminster Assembly, the member for Truro was one of 
their number. Thereafter the lucrative appointment of 
Provost of Eton College was conferred upon him and retained 
till his death in 1658. 

THE Eous VERSION IN SCOTLAND. The Church of Scotland 
spent upwards of three years in examining, adapting, and 
altering the Englishman's version of the Psalter, Indi- 



TRANSLA TIONS AND PARAPHRASES 95 

vidual ministers, considered experts in the art of poetic 
translation, had portions of the work assigned them for 
revision, and draft copies of it were forwarded to the leading 
Presbyteries throughout the country, with injunctions that 
suggestions be reported to a committee of ministers and 
elders appointed by the General Assembly. Only after a 
protracted and thorough revision did the Scottish Church, 
on November 23, 1649, pass an ' ACT FOR ESTABLISHING AND 
AUTHORIZING THE NEW PSALMES.' 

In this piece of legislation the Commission, in the exer- 
cise of the power given it by the General Assembly, approved 
'The Paraphrase of the Psalmes in Meter, sent from the" 
Assembly of Divines in England by our Commissioners ' ; 
appointed ' it to be printed and published for, publick use ' ; 
authorized it to be ' the only Paraphrase of the Psalmes of 
David to be sung in the Kirk of Scotland ' ; and discharged 
' the old Paraphrase and any other than this new Paraphrase, 
to be made use of in any congregation or family after the 
first day of May in the year 1650.' This action of the 
Church was followed up by a corresponding enactment of 
.the State, 

THE COMMITTEE OP ESTATES. At Edinburgh, on January 8, 
1650, the Committee of Estates, with full knowledge of 
what had been done by the Ecclesiastical Courts, also 
approved 'the said Paraphrase,' interposed ' their authority 
for the publishing and practising thereof,' and ordained 
'the same and no other to be made use of throughout this 
Kingdom.' 

FIRST AUTHORIZED EDITION OF PRESENT PSALTER. In 
1650, Evan Tyler, Printer, at Edinburgh, to the King's 
Most Excellent Majesty, printed and published ' a small 
octavo under the title which, in the opening of the chapter, 
we supposed came under the eye of Colonel Mannering in 



96 THE SCOTTISH METRICAL PSALTER 

Greyfriars' Church towards the close of the eighteenth 
century. While the main body of this version was the 
production of Kous the Englishman, he was very far from 
being the sole author of the work in its Scottish form. 
There are several instances of the substitution and the trans- 
position of words ; and there are cases in which the alteration 
is thorough, the aim of the revisionists evidently being to 
make the rendering simpler and more faithful to the original. 
In the revised Scottish version of the Westminster Psalter 
the versified translations of 1564 are retained in the case 
of Kethe's Psalm 100 as a first version, with Whittingham's 
Psalm 124, and Craig's Psalms 136 and 145 the latter as 
a second version, although all are more or less altered. 

Such is the story of the rise and growth of the Scottish 
metrical version of the Psalms which has been in use for 
wellnigh 250 years, and regarding which Eobert Baillie of 
Kilwinning, who watched the final stages of its formation 
with keenest interest, made the true forecast that its lines 
in spite of the uncouthness and ruggedness of some of them 
* are likely to go up to God from many millions of tongues 
for many generations/ 

THE PSALTER OF THE IRISH PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. 
Some twenty years ago the Presbyterian Church in Ireland 
was greatly agitated by the proposal to introduce hymns as 
a part of congregational praise. It was thought by the 
conservative party that if an amended version of the Psalms 
were drawn up and a greater variety of metre introduced 
the call for a hymn-book might be abandoned. The Irish 
General Assembly was willing to give the proposal a fair 
trial, and so in 1880 there was issued, 'by authority,' what 
is called 'The Psalter: a revised edition of the Scottish 
Metrical Version of the Psalms, with Additional Psalm- 
Versions.' As is stated in the short preface, the old version 
has been very tenderly dealt with, the emendations being 



TRANSLATIONS AND PARAPHRASES 97 

restricted to ' erroneous renderings, errors of syntax, faulty 
rhymes, obsolete words, or want of correspondence between 
the rhythm of sense and the rhythm of sound,' There is 
thus quite a number of Psalms on which no hand of altera- 
tion has been laid, and that holds good in the case of those 
in most familiar use ; while in the great majority of emenda- 
tions the alteration is restricted to the substitution of a 
word or the transposition of words. One illustration will 
suffice. In the Scottish Psalter of 1650 the rendering of 
two verses in Psalm 18 is this : 

Thou gracious to the gracious art, 

to upright men upright : 
Pure to the pure, fro ward Thou kyth'st 

unto the froward wight. 

As amended by the Irish Presbyterian Church the same 
verses run thus: 

Thou to the gracious showest grace, 

To just men just Thou art ; 
Pure to the pure, but froward still 

To men .of froward heart. 

It may be necessary to make another reference to the modern 
Irish version at a later stage of this chapter. Meanwhile 
we pass to the story of the second collection of metrical 
praise which Colonel Mannering discovered in the Bible 
lying before him in Greyfriars' Church, when he went to 
church in company with his friend Councillor Pleydell, 

II. THE PARAPHRASES. 

In addition to the Psalms, the Psalters of the Reformed 
Churches of Holland, Prance, and Germany contained 
metrical renderings of portions of Scripture and other pieces 
of a more general nature. As might be expected, considering 
their indebtedness to the last-named country, the collections 
of Coverdale and the Wedderburns include matter of a similar 
character. The English compilation was one of ( Spiritual 

H 



98 THE SCOTTISH METRICAL PSALTER 

Songs' as well as of 'Ghostly Psalms/ while the -Scotch 
miscellany was largely made up of ' Songs collected from 
sundry parts of the Scripture,' also of 'Ballads changed out 
of profane Songs into godly Songs.' In the incomplete 
Genevan Psalters which circulated in Scotland prior to 1564 
similar pieces find a place. The first complete and authorized 
Scottish Psalter appeared without paraphrase or song of any 
kind supplementary to the Psalms of David ; but the Edin- 
burgh edition of 1575 had five such pieces, a later had ten, 
while subsequent issues had as many as fourteen. 

CONCLUSIONS OR DOXOLOGIES. Among the most interesting 
matter in these service-books are the ( Conclusions,' which 
are in substance doxologies. One Edinburgh edition of 
the Psalms that of 1595 contains no less than thirty- 
two, being one for each form of metre. "We can only 
make room for one of these metrical pieces, and in doing so 
we ask our readers to observe how closely it corresponds 
to the ddxology which ranks as No. 638 in The Church 
Hymnary : 

Gloire to the Father, and the Sone, 

and to the halie 'Gaist, 
As it was in the beginning, 
is now, and ay shall last. 

PRELIMINARY STAGES OF ENLARGEMENT OF PSALTER. The 
Scottish version of the Westminster Psalter when pub- 
lished in 1650 appeared without music, without versified 
renderings of Scripture passages or spiritual songs, and 
without doxologies. It contained nothing but the so-called 
Psalms of David. It is, however, beyond all reasonable 
doubt that the Church of Scotland contemplated the enlarge- 
ment of her new praise-book by the addition of paraphrases 
of other portions of Scripture. As early as 1647, when 
taking steps for a thorough revision of the Eous transla- 
tion, the Assembly recommended that Mr. Zachary Boyd 
' be at the pains to translate the other Scriptural Songs in 



TRANSLATIONS AND PARAPHRASES ~ 99 

metre and report his travels also to the Commission of 
Assembly.' 

The Assembly of the following year instructed two of 
their number to revise the work of Boyd and report ; while 
the Assembly of 1650 the year in which the authorized 
Psalter was issued made hearty acknowledgement of the 
pains taken by several ministers to supply the Church with 
.verse renderings of songs not in the Hebrew Psalter. But 
the productions of these worthies do not appear to have got 
beyond the manuscript or draft stage. The enlarging pro- 
posal, although brought under the notice of the Church 
courts at various intervals, was hindered in execvition by 
the conflicts and controversies of Church and State in the 
close of the seventeenth and the opening of the eighteenth 
centuries. 

It was not till 1741 that anything definite and practical 
was done. In that year, when the business of the Assembly 
was really finished, and the fathers and brethren were 
about to sing Psalm 133, a proposal was sprung upon the 
House ' that it be recommended to some fit persons to turn 
some passages of the Old and New Testament into metre, to 
'be used in the churches as well as in private families.' All 
that could then be done was to refer the proposal to the 
Commission of Assembly to. consider and report. When the 
matter again came .before the supreme court in 1742 it was 
advanced a stage by the appointment of a committee, con- 
sisting of nineteen ministers and three elders, 'to make a col- 
lection of Translations into English Verse or Metre of Passages 
of the Holy Scripture.' For two years little was done. 1743 
was a blank year so far as report was concerned ; and the 
Assembly of 1744 simply augmented 'the Committee on 
Psalmody,' and placed the Kev. Patrick Cuming first leader 
of the Moderate party at its head as 'Moderator' or 
Convener. 

At last, in July 1745, there was sent forth from the 

H 2 



TOO THE SCOTTISH METRICAL PSALTER 

printing press of the printers to the Church of Scotland 
at Edinburgh a small duodecimo volume of ' TRANSLATIONS 
AND PAKAPHRASES of several Passages of Sacred .Scripture 
collected and prepared by a Committee appointed by the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, and by the Act 
of last General Assembly transmitted to Presbyteries for 
their consideration.' 

This provisional volume, now rarely to be met with, is of 
small bulk and of little value, It contains only forty-five 
pieces, and these are not arranged in any apparent order, 
certainly not according to the order of the books of Scripture, 
This collection of ' Pieces of Sacred Poesy,' as they are styled 
in the minutes of Assembly, was simply printed for the 
approval or disapproval of the Church, and so was not intro- 
duced into the public worship of Scotland, 

It took other thirty-six years of reporting and remitting, 
rearranging and recasting, before Scottish Presbyterians 
were put in possession of the Paraphrases of present-day 
use. In the summer of 1781 there was published a book 
of 126 pages, purporting to contain 'TRANSLATIONS AND 
PARAPHRASES in verse of several Passages of Sacred 
Scripture, collected and prepared by a Committee of the 
General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, in order to be 
sung in Churches.' This selection of metrical praise never 
received the formal sanction of the supreme court, the only 
enactment regarding it being of a provisional nature. On 
June i, 1781, the Assembly sent it down to Presbyteries 
for their opinion, 'and in the meantime they allow this 
collection of Sacred Poems to be used in public worship 
where the Minister finds it for edification.' 

The 1781 edition of the Paraphrases is an enlargement 
of that of 1745, The latter only contained forty-five pieces, 
whereas the former has sixty-seven. The compilers of this 
appendix to the metrical Psalter did not go far afield in 
search of their material. 



TRANSLATIONS AND PARAPHRASES 101 

THE WRITERS or THE PARAPHRASES. Outside of their 
own Church they only laid under contribution the produc- 
tions of one Irishman and two Englishmen. The Irish- 
man was Nahum Tate, a native of Dublin, associated with 
Dr. Brady in the preparation of an English version of the 
Psalms still in use, and a poet-laureate of his times. ' From 
that versifier they took a verse-rendering of the Song of the 
Nativity, which, as altered by the Scottish committee, begins 

with : 

While humble shepherds watch'cl their flecks 
in Bethleh'm's plains by night. 

The English divines whose skill in paraphrasing was made 
use of were Dr. Isaac Watts and Dr. Philip Doddridge. 
Dr. Watts was a prolific writer of divine songs and hymns. 
Of his hymns no less than twenty-one wer,e chosen for 
insertion in the Scottish Translations and^ Paraphrases, while 
other four are his to some extent. Among the best known 
are those which have for opening lines : 

As when the Hebrew prophet rais'd. 

I'm not asham'd to own my Lord. 

Bless'd be the everlasting God. 

Behold the glories of the Lamb. 

Philip Doddridge, another of England's Nonconformist 
worthies, was the author of Hymns founded on Various 
Texts of the Holy Scriptures. From these the Scottish 
Churchmen selected four, and, after subjecting them to 
a process of recasting, inserted them among their sixty- 
seven pieces, the opening words of the best known being: 

God of Bethel ! by whose hand. 

Hark, the glad sound, the Saviour comes ! 

Father of peace, and God of love ! 

The authorship of several of the Paraphrases cannot now be 
traced. Setting these aside, as also the contributions from 
over the border and across the Irish Channel, the remaining 
pieces fall to be distributed among eleven Scotsmen, 



102 THE SCOTTISH METRICAL PSALTER 

THE SCOTTISH ELEVEN. Of the eleven the best known 
are Thomas Blacklock, the friend of David Hume and the 
admirer and patron of Burns; Dr. Hugh Blair, an Edin- 
burgh minister and Professor of Rhetoric and Belles Letters ; 
Robert Blair, cousin of the foregoing, minister at Athel- 
staneford, a naturalist and scientist, and author of The 
Grave : a Poem -, Dr. John Morison, minister of Canisbay, 
author of the Communion hymn, 'Tivas on that night', 
and Michael Bruce, the poet of Lochleven and student of 
the Secession Church. Although the last-named Scot died 
shortly after entering upon his twenty-second year, he left 
what will keep his memory ever fresh and fragrant in his 
native land. He had written his Ode to the Cuckoo, and, 
among others, such Paraphrases of outstanding merit as : 

Behold ! the mountain of the Lord. 

Take comfort, Christians ! when your friends. 

v Where high the heavenly temple stands. 

True, all these poetical compositions were claimed by another 
of the eleven, after the death of Bruce ; and there are those 
in the present day who concede the claim in its entirety ; 
but if, on the one hand, the traditions of Kinross-shire and, 
on the other, the character and career of the claimant are 
allowed to decide the controversy, it will not be difficult to 
forecast the final award. 

THE Two REVISIONISTS. The work of altering and re- 
touching the selected compositions was largely the doing of 
two ministers of the Church of Scotland. 

First. William Cameron, who studied and graduated at 
Aberdeen, where he became the friend of Beattie, author of 
The Minstrel. He was for twenty-five years minister of the 
parish of Kirlmewton. The number of Paraphrases in which 
Cameron effected changes is estimated at thirty-nine by one 
authority, and thirty-four by another. 

Second, John Logan, who was for twelve years minister 



TRANSLATIONS AND PARAPHRASES 103 

\ 

of the Second Charge of South Leith, and author of a tragedy 
which, after a single performance on the stage of the Edin- 
burgh theatre, was withdrawn. Having demitted his charge, 
to avoid deposition, Logan removed to London, where, after 
a lingering illness embittered by neglect and poverty, he 
died in the fortieth year of his age. As a revisionist he is 
considered by experts to have effected changes in the structure 
or words of eight of the Paraphrases. To state how many 
of the others are neither adapted nor appropriated by the 
Leith minister, but are his own original compositions, would 
require us to enter upon the Logan-Bruce controversy, which 
is better left ifntouched. If the rule nil de mortuis nisi lonwn 
is to be observed in the case of John Logan, it \vill be wise 
to stop short at the nil, 

III. THE FIVE HYMNS. 

The advertisement prefixed to the Paraphrases of 1781 
concludes with the curt statement, ' a few hymns are sub- 
joined.' The few are five in number. The first three all 
. appeared in the same year 1712, all in the same publica- 
tion, the Spectator and all three, there is reason to believe, 
are from the pen of the classic English essayist, Joseph 
Addison. The fourth of the series is an amended and en- 
larged copy of one of Isaac Watts' Hymns and Spiritual 
Songs, the original having this for opening verse: 

Bless' cl morning, whose young dawning rays 

Beheld our rising God 
That saw Him triumph o'er the dust, 

And leave His last abode. 

As it appears in the Appendix to the Scottish collection this 
hymn of the English Independent has an additional verse 
in the form of a Gloria Patri taken from the New Version of 
the Psalms, executed by Tate and Brady and published in 
1696 : 



104 THE SCOTTISH METRICAL PSALTER 

To Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 

the God whom, we adore, 
Be glory as it was, and is, 

and shall be evermore. 

This doxology forms an historical link of connexion and 
succession between the thirty-two 'Conclusions' in the 
Scottish Psalter of 1595 and the fourteen 'Doxologies' of 
the Church Hymnary of 1898. The last of the five, with 
'The hour of niy departure's come' for opening line, is by 
some assigned to John Logan, although it has no place in 
the volume published by him. in the very year in which the 
Translations, Paraphrases, and Hymns appeared, By others 
it is claimed for Michael Bruce, on the ground that it breathes 
the very spirit of the short-lived poet, while it is not con- 
gruous with the spirit of Logan. The matter is still sul) 
juclice, and is likely to continue so for an indefinite period 
of time, 



ATTITUDE OP THE IRISH PRESBYTEEIAN CHURCH, 

When the Irish Presbyterian Church consented to a 
revision of the Psalter it was deemed right or prudent to 
publish the Translations and Paraphrases along with the 
altered version. The revision did not extend to the Appen- 
dix, and in order to guard the Church from appearing to 
have gone further than she was prepared to do in 1880, there 
was placed on the title-page of the appended matter the 
following : ' Note. In appending the Paraphrases and 
Hymns, the Committee are instructed to state, that the 
Book of Psalms forms the only Psalmody authorized by 
the General Assembly/ It is a significant note of progress 
in more than one direction when we find the Committee of 
compilation stating in the opening sentence of the preface 
to The Church Hymnary, that ' This collection of hymns [is] 
authorized for use in public worship by the Church of Scot- 



TRANSLATIONS AND PARAPHRASES 105 

land, the Free Church of Scotland, the United Presbyterian 
Church, and the Presbyterian Church in Ireland.' 

Such then is the story, told in outline and brief compass, 
of The Psalms of David in Metre, The Paraphrases, and The 
five Hymns, as these continue to be bound up with Bibles 
and Testaments printed for use in the public worship of 
Scottish and Irish Presbyterians, and with which is now 
associated The Church Hymnary. Taking a conjunct and 
comparative view of the seventeenth and eighteenth century 
collections, we need not hesitate to assign to the first of these 
the place of honour. There may be true poetry in some 
of the Paraphrases ; now and again the ring of evangelical 
truth can be detected; and around not a few of them 
hallowed associations have gathered. And yet, when all 
has been said, the judgement of /Rabbi* Duncan saint, 
scholar, and seer will be acquiesced in by most people: 
4 1 prefer the Psalms to the Paraphrases and Hymns. They 
call them Translations and Paraphrases ; and queer transla- 
tions some of them are. If they had given me translations, 
I would have let them keep their Paraphrases to themselves.' 



VIII 

THE RISE OF ENGLISH HYMNODY 
HYMN-WRITERS BORN PRIOR TO 1600 



VIII 

PBIOR to the Keformation, when Komanism held sway 
over the land, the hymns of the Latin Church were of 
course in use in Graduals and Missals in the ordinary 
Church services; but after that event they seem to have 
been set aside almost entirely. 

The Eeformation gave the Church of England its incom- 
parable Prayer-book, but it banished the hymns. There 
alone remained the Veni, Creator Spiritus, in the quaint 
lumbering rendering: 

Come, Holy Ghost, eternal God, 

Proceeding from above ; 
Both from the Father and the Son, 

The God of peace and love. 

Iii 1662 a revised version was introduced : 

Come, Holy Ghost, our souls inspire, 

and the Media Vita, which is given in rhythmical prose in 
the Office for the Burial of the Dead. To few who hear it 
does the thought occur that they are listening to a hymn 
of the tenth century ! Beyond that slight recognition, no 
regard seems to have been paid to the priceless treasures of 
Latin hymnody. 

Under what different conditions was the Keformation 
welcomed in Germany ! The hymns of the Latin Church 
had won the heart of Luther ere he abandoned the monk's 
cell, and when he came forth he gave them to the people, 



Iio THE RISE OF ENGLISH HYMNODY 

and inspired by their beauties he gave them more. With us 
a fear of everything that had the slightest connexion with 
the Roman Church quenched the voice of praise, just when 
men should have sung most gleefully. When, there were no 
hymn-writers to voice the praise of the Eeformed Church, 
many of the Latin hymn-writers could have done as noble 
service in that direction, as did Watts and Wesley at a much 
later period. 

Treatment of that sort having been meted out to the 
masterpieces of the ages, there was little encouragement 
afforded to men, even when the gift was theirs, to give songs 
in the vernacular. Such a condition might have been sooner 
outlived had there not come the Puritan reaction, by which 
the progress of hymnody was further retarded. 

During the seventeenth century hymn-singing was in- 
dulged in, here and there, in a very limited measure, among 
the Nonconformists of England, and in succeeding years 
increasingly ; but not until the nineteenth century dawned 
could it be said that hymns to any considerable extent were 
used in public worship. 

Hymns Ancient and Modern was published in 1861, and 
the entire Church hailed its advent. About the same time 
the Presbyterians in Scotland were bestirring themselves in 
a similar direction. In 1870 the Church of Scotland adopted 
The Scottish Hymnal, which had been in preparation for 
some years by a committee of General Assembly. The first 
hymnal of the Free Church of Scotland, Psalm Versions, 
Paraphrases, and Hymns, was issued in 1873 ; and The 
Presbyterian Hymnal, the authorized book of the United 
Presbyterian Church of Scotland, was issued in 1876. It is 
to be noted, however, that prior to the issue of The Presby- 
terian Hymnal the United Presbyterian Church had an 
authorized hymnal dating from 1852 ; while anterior to the 
Union of 1847 the Eelief Church had sanctioned the use of 
hymns ; and the Associate Synod was on the eve of doing 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN PRIOR TO 1600 III 

so when the Union negotiations caused the matter to be 
deferred. 

The middle of the nineteenth century marks the intro- 
duction of hymn-singing, on anything like a general scale, 
into the Reformed Churches of our land. Before the begin- 
ning of the century, our brethren in the south jerked out 
the dislocated measures of Sternhold and Hopkins, and later 
the more polished stanzas of Tate and Brady, while we in 
Scotland found our entire praise material in the Rous Version 
of the Psalter to a much later period. 

Hymn-writers there were a few in the sixteenth century, 
few indeed, but we may date the birth of English hymnody 
from the beginning of the seventeenth century. 

The causes which led to its birth at that time were in 
part identical with those that gave birth to hymnody in 
Germany ; but coming later into operation, much of their 
original force was spent. Indeed, the same causes led to 
the development of the poetic spirit in general from the 
time of Elizabeth onwards. It is hard to sing in the 
darkness, and with a load on the heart ; and that is 
the time in which a soul feels most inclined to break 
' forth into singing, when the morning has dawned, and the 
weight of sorrow which the night imposed has been re- 
moved. The mind, freed from the superincumbent weight 
of despotic ecclesiasticism, could not but break forth into 
singing ; and enveloped by an atmosphere from which the 
clouds of error had been swept, and, through which the sun 
shone in brilliance, the wonder to us now is not that 
singing was heard in the land, but that it could have 
been restrained so long after the first outburst of light. 

While we believe this to have been the prime contributing 
cause of the rise of hymnody in the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, there were yet other subordinate causes, 
all of which had their own influence. 
While the term educated can by no means be applied to 



112 THE RISE 'OF ENGLISH HYMNODY 

either England or Scotland at that time, nor for many 
generations later, still a rift had been made in the dark 
cloud of ignorance which enveloped the land, and men were 
becoming more intelligent and less superstitious. People, 
if not much improved educationally, were religiously very 
much improved. Hence by the beginning of the seventeenth 
century we have on the one hand a decided taste for sacred 
praise poetry, and appreciation of it by the religious people : 
while on the other hand we have men with the gift of 
song, and qualified to give expression to their thoughts, 
encouraged to do so, and to improve their efforts, by the 
knowledge that those efforts were in an increasing degree 
being relished. 

Mention must be made of another cause which materially 
contributed to the rise of hymnody at that time. It was 
only after the Reformation that the public services were to 
any extent conducted in the vernacular. Hence even had 
there been men possessing that buoyancy of spirit to which 
we have referred as being essential to the sustained produc- 
tion of song, while they themselves might have secured 
relief to unexpressed longings and aspirations, they could 
have found no impulse for continued effort when they knew 
that no place could be found for the product of such 
effort, no matter how worthy, in the praise of the Church. 
It is doubtful if Isaac Watts in his time would have been 
so profuse, had it not been that a congregation awaited his 
efforts from week to week ; and the same might be said of 
a greater hymnist than Watts, even Wesley. Multitudes 
took up his hymns as he penned them, and the result was 
that more were produced. It may appear somewhat 
mercenary, and unworthy a subject so beautiful, but it is 
nevertheless true, that the laws which govern demand and 
supply "in other departments have their decided influence 
even in the department of sacred song; and one of the 
reasons for the richness of the praise-books of the nineteenth 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN PRIOR TO 1600 113 

century is doubtless this, that demand is abroad. In The 
Church Hynmary there are 194 nineteenth-century hymn- 
writers, represented by no fewer than 406 hymns, including 
translations roughly two-thirds of the book. 

A few hymn-writers appear towards the latter half of 
the sixteenth century, three of whom have a place in The 
Church Hymnary. The remaining names are so few that 
they may be mentioned in passing. They are: George 
Wither, George Sandys, Eobert Herrick, the author of The 
Hesperides, and a very quaint litany to the Holy Spirit, 
which if sung to-day would certainly not contribute to the 
devotional mind of the worshipper ; and George Herbert, 
the model Eector of Bemerton, whose sacred pieces, although 
for the most part unfit for public service as hymns, are as 
devotional aids most valuable. 

JOHN MABCKANT (date of birth uncertain, but some time in 
the beginning of the sixteenth century) has given us that 
delightful hymn : 

Lord, turn not Thy face away 
From them that lowly lie. 

The hymn as it appears in The Church Hymnary is a recast 
from the pen of Bishop Heber. Marckant was a clergy- 
man of the Church of England, and fulfilled the duties of 
Incumbent of Clacton Magna about 1559. His hymn is 
perhaps the earliest English hymn in use. The original has 
eleven stanzas. Those which have been recast by Heber 
are the following : 

'Lord, turn not away Thy face 

From him that lyeth prostrate, 
Lamenting sore his sinful life 

Before Thy mercy gate : 

Which gate Thoii openest wide to those 

That doe lament their sinne : 
Shut not that gate against me, Lord, 
let me enter in. 



114 THE RISE OF ENGLISH HYMNODY 

I need not to confess my life, 

I am sure Thou canst tell: 
What I have beene and what I am, 

I know Thou knowest it well. 

Wherefore with teares I come to Thee, 

To beg and to intreate ; 
Even as the child that hath done evil], 

And feareth to be beate. 

Lord, I need not to repeate, 

What I doe beg or crave ; 
Thou knowest, Lord, before I aske, 

The thing that I would have. 

Mercy, good Lord, mercie I aske, 

This is the totall summe: 
For mercy, Lord, is all my sute ; 

Lord, let Thy mercy come. 

JOHN COSIN, D.D., was born at Norwich, November 30, 
1594, and died January 15, 1672. He studied for the Church 
at Cambridge, and thereafter held several ecclesiastical ap- 
pointments. He eventually became Bishop of Durham. His 
version of Veni, Creator Spiritus : 

Come, Holy Ghost, our souls inspire, 
And lighten with celestial fire ; 

is perhaps the best we have of that wonderful hymn. It is 
somewhat condensed', but very little is missed. As we 
have already mentioned, his version found a place in the 
English Church Book of Common Prayer, 1662. 

WILLIAM AUSTIN was born about 1587. He was a 
member of the legal profession, and wrote a few very fine 
Christmas carols, one of which is : 

All this night bright angels sing ; 
Never was such carolling. 

For poetic fervour and thorough excellence in every parti- 
cular, a finer carol we do not know of than this. He died 
in 1634, and was buried in St. Saviour's Church, Southwark. 



IX 

HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 

1600 dr 1700 



IX 



THE hymn-writers of the seventeenth century are fairly 
numerous, and the quality of their work in many cases of 
a very high order. The dawn is breaking, and the sunrise 
will soon be here. 

JOHN MILTON is best known as the author of Paradise 
Lost and Paradise Kegained, and other poems. He was born 
in London, December 9, 1608. Milton was educated privately, 
and thereafter at St. Paul's School and Christ's College, Cam- 
bridge. He had a great love for the study of languages, and 
became master of many, both ancient and modern. For many 
years he was in the whirl of political and ecclesiastical strife, 
and suffered much for his opinions. A Puritan, he had the 
misfortune to marry the daughter of a Cavalier, with the 
result that in a short time she left him for her father's house 
and refused to return. This experience led Milton to write 
a treatise, in which he maintained the lawfulness of divorce 
for disobedience : perhaps the most unpopular of all his 
writings. However, his wife repented, and having asked 
and received pardon, a reconciliation was effected. About 
the year 1644 his eyesight began to fail seriously, and in 
eight years thereafter he was totally blind. It was in his 
blindness that he composed his immortal poems Paradise 
Lost and Paradise Regained. The former was completed in 
1665, when he was in his fifty-seventh year, and published 
two years later, by a publisher to whom he had sold it for 
,5. He was promised a further sum of ,5 for every 1,500 



Il8 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1600 AND 1700 

copies sold. Three editions were called for within eleven 
years, so the poet received in all for his great work 15 ! 
Paradise Eegained was written in 1671 in the course of a 
few months. At the age of sixty-six John Milton died, 
November 8, 1674, and was buried in the chancel of St. Giles, 
Cripplegate, London. . 

Milton was the greatest of all poets who have consecrated 
their genius to the cause of Christianity, with perhaps the 
exception of Dante. To hymnology proper he has contributed 
little. Nineteen psalm versions were prepared by him, and 
from these several centos have been made, the most popular 
of which is : 

Let us with a gladsome mind 

Praise the Lord, for He is kind : 

which is a rendering of Psalm 130, very hearty and 
spirited. 

JOHN AUSTIN has given us the hymn : 

Blest be Thy love, dear Lord, 
That taught us this sweet way. 

He was born at Walpole, Norfolk, early in the century ; 
studied at Cambridge for the legal profession, and died in 
London in 1669. He belonged originally to the communion 
of the Church of England, but eventually went over to the 
Church of Kome. In 1668 he issued Devotions in the 
Antient Way of Offices ; that work contained forty-three 
hymns on various subjects, through which he has become 
associated with hymnody. 

EICHARD BAXTER, born atEowton, Shropshire, November 12, 
'1615, is best known as the author of The Saints' Everlasting 
Eest. He took orders in the Church of England, was Curate 
of Kidderminster, and later a chaplain to one of Cromwell's 
regiments. Afflicted through life with weak health, he was 
obliged to restrain himself from the active service which 
would otherwise have been his choice. Charles II offered him 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1600 AND 1700 lig 

a bishopric, which however he refused. Ultimately he retired 
from the Church of England, and became a Nonconformist. 
He composed Poetical Fragments, 1 68 1, in which there are 
several hymns, too doleful ever to become favourites. One 
however has taken hold of the heart of the Church : 

Lord, it belongs not to my care 
Whether I die or live; 

and is very expressive of the condition of mind in which 
Baxter lived. It is one, and the most popular, of several 
centos which have been taken from the larger piece : My 
ivhole, though broken heart, Lord. He died December 8, 
1691, at the age of seventy-six, having lived, despite his 
weak health, and contrary to all expectation, beyond the 
allotted years. 

THOMAS KEN, the first English hymn-writer of outstanding 
merit, and the author of morning, evening, and midnight 
hymns, was born at Berkhampstead, July, 1637. Losing 
his parents early, he was taken in charge by his sister, the 
wife of the famous Izaak Walton. To that devoted sister's 
care was due much of the piety and devotion of Ken's life. 
He was sent to Winchester College in 1650. Later he 
became a student at Oxford, when that University was under 
the control of Nonconformists; John Owen, the famous 
Puritan, being Vice-Chancellor, Thomas Ken was a remark- 
able man ; and in an age when sycophancy gained favour, he 
won his way to the highest positions by staunch adherence 
to principle, and strict observance of the claims of duty. 
For faithfulness in the discharge of his duty, when chaplain to 
the Princess Mary at the Hague, he was dismissed from that 
post ; but, strange to say, for a similar faithful discharge of 
duty he was made Bishop of Bath and Wells by Charles II. 
It happened in this way. The Court of Charles had its 
summer residence at Winchester, where Ken was dean. The 
gay monarch made request to Ken to have the use of the 



120 HYMN- WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1600 AND 1700 

deanery for a time as a residence for Nell Gwynn. This Ken 
stoutly refused to grant. The erratic monarch honoured him 
for his courage and honesty, and made him bishop. For 
refusing to read the Declaration of Indulgence James II cast 
him into the Tower, along with six other bishops. They 
were, however, acquitted on their trial. But when William III 
ascended the throne, Ken refused to take the oaths, and 
was therefore deprived of his see. 

Bishop Ken is known in hymnody by his surpassingly 
beautiful morning and evening hymns. So far as can be 
ascertained, those hymns first appeared in a Manual of 
Prayers for the use of the Scholars of Winchester College, 
1674, in which there is an injunction from, the writer that 
they be devoutly sung by the scholars, in their chamber 
morning and evening. There is nothing in the range of 
English hymns to exceed in beauty and perfection as hymns 
for the morning and evening : 

Awake, my sou], and with the sun 
Thy daily stage of duty run ; 

and . 

All praise to Thee, my God, this night, 
For all the blessings of the light ! 

How full each verse of the morning hymn is, and how 
perfect, as at once a hymn of praise and a prayer, the whole 
piece is ! It distinctly savours of the early Latin hymns, 
and we cannot but believe that the good bishop found his 
inspiration and his model in the hymns of the early Latin 
Church. The doxology with which his hymns close, printed 
separately at the end of The Church Hymnary, is the most 
popular doxology of any written : 

Praise God, from whom all blessings flow. 

In Harper's Magazine for December, 1897, we have an 
account of its splendid effect as sung at the Queen's Jubilee 
open-air service before St. Paul's Cathedral in June of that 
year : 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1600 AND 1WO J2I 

'There were ten thousand people singing :l Praise God, from whom 
all blessings flow" as loudly as they could, and with tears running 
down their faces. There were princesses standing up in their carriages, 
and black men from the Gold Coast, Maharajaha from India, and red- 
coated Tommies, and young men who will inherit kingdoms and 
empires, and archbishops, and cynical old diplomats, and soldiers and 
sailors from the "land of the palm and the pine," and from the seven 
seas, and women and men who were just subjects of the Queen, and 
who were content with that. There was probably never before such 
a moment in which so many races of people, of so many castes, and of 
such different values to this world, sang praises to God at one time 
and in one place, and with one heart.' 

After a long life of varied experiences, Bishop Ken (of 
whose character Macaulay said that it approached as near as 
human infirmity permits to the ideal perfection of Christian 
virtue) died at Longleat, March 19, 1710. 

JOHN MASON was born probably in the year 1646. He 
studied at Glare Hall, Cambridge, and eventually became 
Hector of Water Stratford, where he wrote a number of 
hymns, a few of which early found their way into the public 

praise, 

My Lord, my Love, was crucified, 
He all the pains did bear; 

is a good specimen of his work, but it does not place him 
high as a poet. The last stanza, beginning, 'Blest day of 
God, most calm, most bright,' sounds like an imitation of 
George Herbert. John Mason's compositions are contained 
in Spiritual Songs; or Songs of Praise with Penitential 
Cries to Almighty God, 1686. A copy of the collection, 
one of the earliest collections of hymns, may be seen at the 
British Museum. He died in 1694, in the full belief that he 
had -seen Christ in a vision, and that the Second Advent was 
close at hand. 

JOSEPH ADDISON was born at the rectory of Milston, in 
Wiltshire, 1672. He was sent to the Charterhouse, and 
later became a student at Oxford, where he distinguished 
himself in classics. He entered considerably into the politics 



122 HYMN- WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1600 AND 1700 

of his time, and was acquainted with all the foremost states- 
men ; holding office in more than one administration. He 
was in succession an Under-Secretary of State, Secretary 
to the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (1710), and a Principal 
Secretary of State, 1717. 

Addison, however, is best known as joint promoter with 
his friend Tlichard Steele, of the Spectator, which first 
appeared early in 1711. In the pages of that magazine 
Addison's contributions to literature are to be found. As 
a poet he has no name, and certainly none as a hymn-writer. 
It may not be known, even to many Scotsmen, that for 
many years three of his hymns have lain snugly behind the 
Scripture Paraphrases, within the boards of the Bible, so 
highly have hymns in general been esteemed in Scotland, 
and Addison's in particular ! Two of the three reappear in 
The Church Hymnaiy : 

The spacious firmament on. high, 
With all the blue ethereal sky, 
and 

When all Thy mercies, my God, 
My rising soul surveys, 

very precise, clearly cut lines, from a literary point of view 
highly commendable, but lifeless. 

There is something grotesquely ironical in the presence 
of those hymns, and the additional two, five in all, in the 
Scottish Bible. A stranger would certainly conclude that 
hymns were dear to the heart of the religious in Scotland 
when five of them are exalted to a place of such honour. 
But perhaps it is much to Scottish credit, when we consider 
the quality of the five, that hymns are not so dear to them 
after all. Who can tell how much those five hymns have 
had to do with the attitude of many towards hymns in 
general ! 

A third hymn from his pen is to be noted : 

How are Thy servants blest, Lord ! 
How sure is their defence ! 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1600 AND 1700 123 

Addison died at Holland House, Kensington, at the early 
age of forty-seven, in June, 1719. 



ISAAC WATTS. 

The grey dawn is about to flee before the sunrise. With 
Isaac Watts the first golden streaks of morn are seen: 
when a greater than he, Charles Wesley, strikes the 
harp, day will have been ushered in. Isaac Watts was 
born in Southampton, July 17, 1674, the. eldest of nine 
children; his father, a staunch Nonconformist, being, a 
deacon in the Independent congregation of that town. 
Those were the days in which dissent was a crime; and the 
same law that thrust the immortal dreamer into Bedford 
gaol, closed the door of Southampton gaol upon the worthy 
deacon and his pastor. But Watts did not miss the care of 
his father as he might have done, for he was blessed with 
an active planning mother, who looked well after her son ; 
and as he gave promise of future greatness, saw that the 
best education possible was given to him. He early turned 
his mind to the ministry ; and a good friend, struck with his 
exceptional ability, made an offer to educate him at his own 
expense, on the one condition that he would renounce dis- 
sent and enter the Church of England. But the generous 
offer was no temptation to the youth whose father had 
suffered for the principles which he himself had embraced, 
and it was accordingly refused. At the age of twenty he 
completed his studies, and with great modesty held back 
from accepting active pastoral work for some time, mean- 
while performing the duties of a tutor. It was' during those 
years of waiting that he exercised and perfected his gift as 
a hymn-writer. In 1698 he was ordained assistant pastor 
of the Independent Chapel, Mark Lane, London ; and a few 
years later, on the death of his senior colleague, became sole 
pastor. His pastorate was an exceedingly short one.- In 



124 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1600 AND 1700 

a few years his health gave way, and he was obliged to 
resign his charge. Accepting an invitation from his friend 
Sir Thomas Abney, to visit Abney Park, Stoke Newington, 
for a few days, the visit was lengthened out to thirty years, 
the remaining term of his life. He died November 25, 1748, 
in the seventy-fifth year of his age. 

Isaac Watts was, as the poet Montgomery termed him, 
the inventor of hymns -in our language ; and more than that, 
he did a good deal to secure for them a place in the public 
services. Doubtless his efforts in that direction would have, 
been less successful, had not his hymns presented peculiar 
attractions and fitness for public use in his time. The first 
congregation, strangely enough, to introduce them, was that 
congregation in which Watts himself worshipped in South- 
ampton ; giving us an exception to the rule that a prophet 
has no honour among his own kin. The little beginning is 
thus recorded. Watts on a certain occasion giving expres- 
sion to his disgust at the jolting lines of Sternhold and 
Hopkins, was told in return, rather sharply, by a deacon, to 
produce something better. Watts, put on his mettle, silently 
accepted the challenge, and next Sunday produced his first 
hymn, Behold the glories of the Laml), one of our Paraphrases, 
which was forthwith sung by the congregation line by line. 
In the last couplet of the first stanza, Watts deliberately, so 
we believe, pays the worthy deacon back, by announcing the 
advent of something better in the way of praise material 
than the past had given : 

Prepare new honours for His Name, 
And songs before unknown. 

Having begun so well, he continued, and for two years 
produced a new hynin for each Sunday. 

In due time Watts published his Hymns and Spiritual 
Songs, and later his version of the Psalms. His Psalms 
are a metrical version of the Psalter, in which, to use his 
own expression, he makes David a Christian a task with 



HYMN- WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1600 AND 1700 125 

which, we confess, we have not much sympathy, and in 
which he does not specially succeed, We question very 
much if Christianity improves David. Certainly it fails, 
under Watts, to improve his Psalter. We must, however, 
admit that he has managed to shape out a few good hymns 
from the material of the Psalter, but in the process the_. 
Psalms lose their identity. Two are especially beautiful, 
and deserve, very highly, the honour conferred upon them 
by giving them a place in every good hymnal : 

Our God, our help in ages past, 

Our hope for years to come, 
and 

Jesus shall reign where'er the sun 
Does his successive journeys run; 

the one a rendering of Psalm 90, and the other a rendering 
of Psalm 72. 

Before Jehovah's awful throne, 
Ye nations, how with sacred joy ; 

is a very acceptable rendering of Psalm 100, but is less suc- 
cessful than the other two. 

But we have something to. say about his Hymns and 
Spiritual Songs. We are bound to state as our decided 
conviction that nothing but the extreme poverty of English 
hymnody at this time can account for the marvellous popu- 
larity which those hymns in due time achieved. Of Watts' 
600 pieces, there may be thirty or forty possessing merit 
greater or less. If we are to credit his own statement he 
could have done much better. ' The metaphors are generally 
sunk to the level of vulgar capacities. If the verse appears so 
gentle and flowing as to incur the censure of feebleness, I may 
honestly affirm that it sometimes cost me labour to make it 
so. ... Some of the beauties of poesy are neglected, and 
some wilfully defaced.' Perhaps we should not say that 
we regret all this ; he knew best his mission as a pioneer 
hymn-writer, and perhaps hymns of a more poetic flight 



126 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1600 AND 1700 

might have flown too high ; and instead of Isaac Watts, 
Sternhold and Hopkins and Tate and Brady might have 
ruled the Church praise. So Watts was popular because he 
was rude (we use the word in a good sense) and because the 
popular taste was rude. 

It is just possible that the hymns of Watts suffer some- 
what from the want of variety in the measures. Possibly 
that too was deliberate on his part ; but one does weary of 
short, common, and peculiar metres, with which we are so 
familiar in the Scottish version of the Psalter. 

When all has been said, some of Watts' hymns remain 
a very precious possession of the Christian Church, and that 
too on account of their exceeding beauty. 

When I survey the wondrous cross. 

Can the pathos of this be surpassed in the case of any 
hymn ? How beautiful is the third verse : 

See! from His head, His hands, His feet, 
Sorrow and love flow mingled down ; 

Did e'er such love and sorrow meet, 
Or thorns compose so rich a crown? 

And how grand is the climax : 

Love so amazing, so divine, 
Demands my soul, my life, my all. 

Matthew Arnold deemed this the finest hymn in the 
English language. 
Other good hymns are : 

Join all the glorious names 
Lord of the worlds above, 

a version of Psalm 84. 
Very good and more familiar are : 

Not all the blood of beasts, 
and 

There is a land of pure delight, 

which takes Eome of us back to our Sunday-school days. 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1600 AND 1700 127 

Blest morning, whose first dawning rays 

is one of the five hymns bound with the Scottish Bible. The 
last twelve lines of that hymn are a really good doxology : 

To Him who sits upon the throne, 
and with Tate and Brady's : 

To Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 

is as popular in Scotland as the doxology of Bishop Ken is 
in England : 

Praise God, from whom all blessings flow. 
A very useful doxology is : 

From all that dwell below the skies. 

Had Watts written only two hymns, and had they been 
When I survey the wondrous Cross, and Our Gfod, our help in 
ages past, he would have lived. They are his best work as 
a hymn-writer. 

Some reference should be made to the National Anthem, 
which very appropriately has been included in The Church 
Hymnary ; but it is quite impossible to do more here than 
'simply refer to it. Those who wish to unravel the intricacies 
of its development would do well to study the article in 
Dr. Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology, p. 437. Suffice it to 
say that the authorship has been ascribed to Henry Carey, 
a distinguished ballad-writer and composer, who was born 
in the latter part of the seventeenth century, and died by 
his own hand in 1743. But his authorship is doubtful. 
All we can say is that in its original adaptation it was written 
probably about the year 1688. 



X 

HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 

1700 & 1800 



X 



CHARLES WESLEY. 

IN the eighteenth century the voice of melody is heard 
in all its sweetness. It gave us Charles Wesley, one of the 
greatest hymn- writers the world has seen ; and even had he 
not been surrounded by a brilliant throng, the century would 
still have been a bright one, lit up as it was with his match- 
less radiance. 

Son of Samuel Wesley, Kector of Epworth in Lincolnshire, 
and brother of the famous John Wesley, he was born in the 
. rectory of Epworth December 18, 1707. Being the youngest 
and eighteenth child of the family, to the support of which 
only a very small income was available, Charles Wesley 
was from his earliest years familiar with the pinch of poverty. 
But hard times make good men, and if Charles Wesley had 
to content himself with a minimum of creature comforts, 
and make the best of his lack of many advantages, he had 
blessings which cannot be overvalued. His father was a man 
of learning and piety ; while in his mother, Susanna Wesley, 
a woman of great accomplishment and earnest godliness, he 
had a guide and instructor for his early years, whose direc- 
tion was safe, and who did more to mould the poet's mind 
and shape his future character than we shall ever know. 

Charles Wesley got his early education at home in the 
rectory, under the immediate direction of his mother ; 

K2 



132 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

and when he had reached his eighth year was sent up 
to Westminster School, where an older brother, Samuel, 
held the position of second master, and with him he 
boarded. 

When at Westminster an offer, even more handsome 
than that which was made to Isaac Watts, was given 
to him, A gentleman of wealth, and a kinsman of 
the Wesleys, who had no child of his own, offered to adopt 
Charles and make him heir to 'his fortune. The young 
poet would seem to have had a plan of life even at that 
early age, for the offer so generously made was courteously 
and promptly declined. His brother John was wont to 
say that Charles had had a 'fair escape' from becoming 
a man of rank and wealth. It may be added that the youth 
^ho was ultimately adopted by that heirless individual 
became father of the Earl of Mornington, whose son, the 
Marquis Wellesley an older form of Wesley was the Duke 
of Wellington, of Waterloo fame. Southey remarks : ' Had 
Charles made a different choice, there might have been no 
Methodists, the British Empire might still have been 
menaced from Seringapatarn, and the undisputed tyrant of 
Europe might have continued to insult and endanger our 
shores.' 

After ten years at Westminster School, Charles Wesley 
was elected to Christ Church, Oxford, where he spent nine 
years, graduating in 1729. 

It was while a student at Oxford that there was inaugu- 
rated that movement of which his brother John afterwards 
became leader, which was termed the Methodist movement. 
At its inception, Wesley and those who were associated 
with him were extreme High Churchmen, but were impelled 
by a real and earnest desire to improve their religious life. 
They formed plans of study and devotion, strictly binding 
themselves to certain methods. To fixed hours of study 
they added regular weekly communion, stated times of 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 133 

fasting and prayer, philanthropic and home mission work. 
Thus they gained for themselves the name of Methodists. 
So far as Oxford was concerned, this movement, like the 
Tractarian movement of a hundred years later, soon disap- 
peared ; but when the evangelical revival under John 
Wesley began, with which Charles Wesley and Whitefield 
were identified, and which stirred England and certain dis- 
tricts of Scotland, those who gathered round the Wesleys 
and formed themselves into congregations, or societies, were 
again styled Methodists. 

In 1738 Charles Wesley was appointed to a curacy in the 
north of London, which, however, he failed to retain. His 
preaching, that of a pronounced and earnest evangelical, 
and perhaps marked by peculiarities not altogether palatable, 
gave much offense ; and fancying that if good work was to 
be done it must be done outside the regular Church services, 
he betook himself to the fields. Then began that course 
of itinerant preaching, in company with his brother John, 
which was fruitful of so much blessing. 

Charles Wesley ultimately settled in London, and died 
March 29, 1788, in the eighty-first year of his age. 

It would be difficult to say how much the success of the 
Methodist movement owes to the hymns of Charles Wesley. 
The music of the poet charmed the multitude ; and where 
the voice of John Wesley was never heard, the hymns of his 
brother ^Charles carried on the work. 

The hymns of John and Charles Wesley are contained 
in thirteen volumes. For every hundred written by Isaac 
Watts, Charles Wesley wrote a thousand. In looking over 
those volumes we are struck, at the first glance, with the 
variety of measures employed. He was a master of measure, 
and is not more at home with the iambic than with others 
more elaborate. There are few classical models which he 
has not mastered. 

Of course, by far the greater number of the 6000 or so 



134 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

hymns which he wrote are utterly unfit for use in Church 
praise. They served their time, and they are certainly 
interesting memorials of a wonderful religious upheaval. 
They are quite a theological compendium, theoretical and 
practical. There is hardly a text of Scripture that has 
not its hymn. Mediocrity you constantly find, sometimes 
unrelieved doggerel; but what else could be expected in 
thirteen volumes containing 6,000 hymns, nearly all by one 
writer ? 

In 1779 John Wesley prepared a hymnal 'Such as might 
be generally used in all our congregations throughout Great 
Britain and Ireland.' In that collection, which contains 
many hundreds by Charles Wesley, with a goodly number 
by Watts, there are hymns good, bad, and indifferent. In 
the face of that fact we cannot but reproduce part of his 
preface, which as a marvel of conceit could scarcely be 
surpassed, but giving tangible proof that the defects of his 
own work were not known to him : 

' May I be permitted to add a few words with regard to 
the poetry. Then I will speak to those who are judges 
thereof, with all freedom and unreserve. To these I may 
say without offence : (i) In these hymns there is no doggerel ; 
no botches; nothing put in to patch up the rhyme ; no 
feeble expletives. (2) Here is nothing turgid or bombast 
on the one hand, or low and creeping on the other. (3) Here 
are no cant expressions, no words without meaning. Those 
who impute this to us know not what they say. We talk 
common sense, both in prose and verse. (4) Here are, 
allow me to say, both the purity, the strength, and 
the elegance of the English language, and at the same 
time the utmost simplicity and plainness suited to every 
capacity.' 

One feature of Charles Wesley's hymns we must note. 
The Methodist movement from the first has been character- 
ized by a recognition of the immediate communion of the 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 135 



human soul, with God. This appears in the hymns of 
Wesley. It was as well, perhaps, that the great founder of 
Methodism started with a considerable belief in the authority 
of the Church, otherwise this individualism might have 
grown to an excess of familiarity which is ever the danger 
ahead of it. It is that excessive familiarity which drives 
us away from the hymns of Tersteegen and Zinzendorf. 
But there is everywhere a reverence in the individualism 
of Charles Wesley which seldom fails to commend itself. 

The Church Hyninary contains twenty-one hymns by 
Charles Wesley. They are for the most part hymns that 
are likely to live ; and many of them have associations the 
most precious attaching to them. In the first place we 

rank : 

love Divine, how sweet fchou art ! 

in our estimation one of the finest hymns in our language ; 

Jesus, Lover of my soul, 
the comfort of many a sin-sick, tempest-tossed soul ; and 

Love Divine, all loves excelling. 

These three are hymns of the rarest charm. 
As hymns of praise how bright and hopeful are : 

for a heart to praise my God ! 
for a thousand tongues, to sing, 

and 

Christ, whose glory fills the skies, 

which George Eliot puts into the lips of Seth Bede, and 
with which he sings down all his troubles. 
Hark ! the herald angels sing, 

is a cheerful Christmas hymn, and well known. 
For Easter could we have a more delightful hymn than : 

Christ the Lord is risen to-day. 

Less attractive, but good, is the Ascension hymn : 

Hail, the day that sees Him rise. 



136 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN tfOO AND I860 

Very plaintive and confiding are : 

Weary of wandering from my God, 
and 

Eternal Beam of Light Divine. 

Very exuberant is that other Ascension hymn : 
Eejoice, the Lord is King ; 

and also 

Soldiers of Christ ! arise. 
Come, Holy Ghost, our hearts inspire ; 
is one of the poorest of the twenty-one. 

Come, Thcu long-expected Jesus, 

Blow ye the trumpet, blow ! 

All ye that pass by, 

Come, let us join our friends above, 
and 

Forth in Thy name, Lord, I go, 

are of less merit, but are good wearable hymns, and are 
likely still to be of considerable use. 

We have left to the last what is, strictly speaking, not 
a hymn at all, but is certainly a very fine sacred lyric. 
If we would know the pathos of which Charles Wesley is 
capable we have but to read : 

Come, Thou Traveller unknown, 

which was suggested to the hymn-writer by the strange, weird 
incident at the brook Jabbok. It has seldom in the past 
been admitted into hymnals, perhaps for the reason stated ; 
but we are glad to see it in The Church Hymnary, if it 
should be there only to be read. 

In the original text the poem is in two parts, and as they 
together constitute such an exquisite lyric, we give them in 
full. It will be seen that the hymn in The Church Hymnary 
is made up of four stanzas from the first part, and three 
from the second : 

TART I. PART II. 

Come, Thou Traveller unknown, Yield to me now, for I am weak, 
Whom still I hold, but cannot see ; But confident in self-despair ; 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 137 



My company before is gone, 

And I am left alone with Thee ; 
With Thee all night I mean to stay, 
And wrestle till the break of day. 

I need not tell Thee who I am; 

My misery or sin declare.; 
Thyself hast called me by my name ; 

Look on Thy hands, and read it 

there. 

But who, I ask Thee, who art Thou ? 
Tell me Thy name, and tell me now. 

In vain Thou strugglest to get free, 
I never will unloose my hold ; 

Art Thou the Man that died for me ? 
The secret of Thy love unfold ; 

Wrestling, I will not let Thee go 

Till I Thy name, Thy nature know. 

.Wilt Thou not yet to me reveal 
Thy new unutterable name ? 

Tell me, I still beseech Thee, tell ; 
To know it now, resolved I am : 

Wrestling, I will not let Thee go, 

Till I Thy name, Thy nature know. 

'Tis all in vain to hold Thy tongue, 
Or touch the hollow of my thigh : 

Though every sinew be unstrung, 
Out of my arms Thou shalt not fly ; 

Wrestling, I will not let Thee go, 

Till I Thy name, Thy nature know. 

What though my shrinking flesh 

complain, 

And murmur to contend so long, 
I rise superior to my pain ; 
When I am weak then I am 

strong ; 
And, when my all of strength shall 

fail, 
I shall with the God-Man prevail. 

My strength is gone, my nature dies; 

I sink beneath Thy weighty hand ; 
Paint to revive, and fall to rise : 

I fall, and yet by faith I stand ; 
I stand, and will not let Thee go, 
Till I Thy name, Thy nature know. 



Speak to my heart, in blessings speak; 
Be conquered by my instant 

prayer. 
Speak, or Thou never hence shalt 

move, 
And tell me if Thy name is Love. 

'Tis Love! 'tis Love! Thou diedst 

for me ! 

I hear Thy whisper in my heart ; 
The morning breaks, the shadows 

flee; 

Pure universal Love Thou art ; 
To me, to all, Thy bowels move ; 
Thy nature and Thy name is Love. 

My prayer hath power with G-od; the 
grace 

Unspeakable, I now receive ; 
Through faith I see Thee face to face ; 

I see Thee face to face and live. 
In vain I have not Wept and strove ; 
Thy nature and Thy name is Love. 

I know Thee, Saviour, who Thoti art, 
Jesus, the feeble sinner's Friend ; 

Nor wilt Thou with the night depart, 
But stay and love me to the end : 

Thy mercies never shall remove ; 

Thy nature and Thy name is Love. 

The Sun of Eighteousness on me, 
Hath rose with healing in His 

wings ; 
Withered my nature's strength ; from 

Thee 

My soul its life and succour brings. 
My help is all laid tip above : 
Thy nature and Thy name is Love. 

Contented now, upon my thigh 
I halt, till life's short journey end ; 

All helplessness, all weakness, I 
On Thee alone for strength depend; 

Nor have I power from Thee to move : 

Thy nature and Thy name is Love. 

Lame as I am, I take the prey ; 

Hell, earth, and sin, with ease 

o'ercome ; 
I leap for joy, pursue my way, 

And as a bounding hart ply home, 
Through all eternity to prove, 
Thy nature and Thy name is Love. 



138 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

THE OLNEY HYMNS. 

An important event in the latter part of this century was 
the production and publication of what are known as the 
Olney Hymns. They were the outcome of the joint effort 
of William Cowper and John Newton. 

WILLIAM COWPER, author of The Task and many other 
poems an even greater name in the literary world than is 
Newton in the religious world was born at Berkhampstead, 
November 26, 1731. His father was rector of the parish. 
His first sorrow came to him when he was a mere boy, and 
seems to have left an abiding impression upon his sensitive 
nature the loss of his mother in 1737. 

In due time he was sent up to Westminster School, where 
his illustrious contemporary was educated. He seems, how- 
ever, to have come under very different influences when 
there from Wesley ; for he tells us that he became an 
' adept in the infernal art of lying ' while resident at that 
school. 

From Westminster School he entered a solicitor's office, 
where he was articled for three years. In 1752 he took 
chambers at the Middle Temple, continuing there for twelve 
years, but doing more at literature than law. Here, he tells 
us, he spent the years in a course of sinful indulgence, 
but it is quite evident that his words do not mean all 
that they express in their literalness. It was then indeed 
that he fell into that state of gloom and melancholy which 
proved his life-long affliction. Placing himself under the 
care of an eminent medical man, Dr. Cotton, for whom he 
ever evinced a most grateful regard, he in course of time 
regained mental health. 

His desire thereafter was to reside in the vicinity of 
Cambridge, and he eventually settled in Huntingdon ; and 
it was while there that he formed a friendship which proved 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 139 

to be the supreme comfort of his life, With Mr. and 
Mrs. Unwin, .whose names must go down to all time with 
that of the poet, he found a congenial home ; and after the 
worthy lady had been bereft of her husband, Cowper con- 
tinued to reside under her roof, in return for the comfort 
and cheer of his presence enjoying her motherly care. 

John Newton was at this time curate of the parish of 
Olney, and it was when calling upon Mrs. Unwin on a 
mission of condolence that he first met Cowper. So simply 
do events happen that are to affect our whole life and the 
lives of others ! The continued interest of Newton in 
their well-being induced them in 1767 to remove their 
place of residence to Olney ; and there began a friendship 
which Newton describes as most helpful to himself, and 
certainly the six years during which they were together were 
the happiest years of Cowper's life. Now and again he was 
stricken down Math his painful malady, but the comforts of 
God's Word, and the loving attentions of his friends, bore 
him through. 

Then were written the Olney Hymns, the design of which 
is thus characterized by Newton in his preface to the 
volume : ' A desire of promoting the faith and comfort of 
sincere Christians, though the principal, was not the only 
motive to this undertaking. It was likewise intended as 
a monument to perpetuate the remembrance of an intimate 
and endeared friendship.' Cowper died April 25, 1800. 

How different was the life, character, and temperament 
of Cowper's friend and coadjutor, JOHN NEWTON. He was 
born in London, July 24, 1725, of pious parents, and like 
Cowper lost his mother early. She had, however, stored 
her child's mind with the truths of God's Word, to which 
influence is no doubt due the ultimate course of Newton's 
life. 

At twelve years of age he was taken to sea by his father, 



140 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

who commanded a merchant ship. For some years he 
followed a seafaring life, and as his father's influence failed 
of its intended effect (through want of sympathy, it is said, 
with his son), he gradually drifted into sinful courses. His 
father's plans, which were honestly laid for the lad's good, 
were frustrated. He was impressed, and sent on board a 
man-of-war, but through his father's influence he was made 
a midshipman. From the war-ship he joined a vessel bound 
for the coast of Guinea, and while there was expelled 
by the captain on account of his wicked conduct. He 
got employment at Sierra Leone, but lost it, and was re- 
duced to the verge of starvation. It was on his way back 
to England that he reached the turning-point of his career. 
The vessel encountered a terrific storm. Hope was all 
but abandoned. As Newton, with others, took his turn at 
the pumps, and put forth what seemed to be a hopeless 
effort, it pleased God to speak to his heart. His past life 
came back, and bitter was his repentance. He made deep 
resolves ; and when he reached his native land his first act 
was to present himself at the Lord's Table, and there avow 
his changed life. 

His mind was turned towards the ministry ; and 
after due preparation he was offered and accepted the 
curacy of Olney, in the year 1764, when he had reached 
his thirty-ninth year. There, as we have seen, he met 
Cowper; and there he continued till January, 1780, when 
he was transferred to London, having been preferred 
to the rectory of St. Mary Woolnoth, Lombard Street. 
He died at the age of eighty-two, December 21, 1807. The 
following is the first part of his epitaph, written by himself: 

John Newton, Clerk, 

Once an infidel and libertine, 

A servant of slaves in Africa : 

Was by the -rich mercy of our Lord and Saviour 

Jesus Christ 
Preserved, restored, pardoned, 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 141 

And appointed to preach the Faith 
. He had long laboured to destroy. 
Near 16 years at Olney in Bucks : 
And 27 years in this church. 

The volume of Olney Hymns, 1779, bearing the names of 
Cowper and Newton, contains about 348 pieces. In the 
preface Newton says ' the hymns are distributed into three 
books. In the first I have classed those which are formed 
upon select passages of Scripture, and placed them in the 
order of the books of the Old and New Testaments. The 
second contains occasional hymns, suited to particular 
seasons, or suggested by particular events or subjects. The 
third book is miscellaneous, comprising a variety of subjects 
relative to a life of faith in the Son of God.' 

Of their number Cowper wrote about sixty-eight, and 
Newton the remainder. .Cowper would doubtless have 
written more but for the many interruptions he had to 
endure on account of his mental malady. In the preface 
Newton continues : ' We had not proceeded far upon our 
proposed plan before my dear friend was prevented by a long 
and affecting indisposition from affording me any further 
assistance ... I hung my harp upon the willows ... yet 
my mind was afterwards led to resume the service.' 

As we might expect from two men of such deep .and 
sore experiences, their hymns contain more than beautiful 
poetic fancies : they are full of the deep realities of human 
experience. Every line throbs with life. 

Cowper's pen writes of the purposes of God in our life. 
He tells us what sorrow is, and what God can accomplish 
in us by its means : 

The bud may have a bitter taste, 
But sweet will be the flower. 

He tells us too that to be left under the cloud is not to be 
forsaken of God, for : , 

Behind a frowning providence 
He hides a smiling face. 



142 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

The hymn from which these couplets are taken : 
God moves in a mysterious way, 

was written after a grievous visitation of mental distress. 
During its severity .he had resolved to take his own life. 
He gave his coachman orders to drive to the river Ouse. 
The night was dark, and the driver missed his way either 
by accident or of purpose ; and Cowper found himself back at 
his own house. By that time the cloud had left him, and 
he celebrated the providence of Gfod in the hymn referred to. 

In:- 

God of my life, to Thee I call ; 

we have the same lesson of G-od's purpose in his afflictions. 
How like a man of gloom and melancholy to sing : 

Sometimes a light surprises 
The Christian while he sings. 

Cowper had many surprises, for he had much gloom. We 
have the quiet meditative nature of the man in such 

hymns as: 

Far from the world, Lord, I flee, 

and 

for a closer walk with God, 

a very appropriate hymn for seasons of communion; and 
the finest of all his hymns : 

Hark, my soul ! it is the Lord. 
Very soothing and bright hymns for the sanctuary are : 

Jesus, where'er Thy people meet, 
and 

The Spirit breathes upon the word. 

Perhaps Cowper's best-known hymn is : 

There is a fountain filled with blood, 

and by no means deservedly so ; but popular taste is hard to 
understand. Its imagery is certainly not Scriptural ; and 
besides it gives a sensuous representation of the sacrifice 
of our Lord, which one hardly looks for outside the hymns 
of the mediaeval Latin Church. 



HYMN-WRITERS BO^f BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 143 

The characteristics of Newton's hymns are different. As 
in the case of Cowper, they breathe his experiences. He 
too can sing of God's providence and discipline in such 

hymns as: 

Quiet, Lord, my froward heart ; 

Why should T fear the darkest hour, 
and 

Though troubles assail. 

But his hymns have really one note, and it is an exalted one. 
It speaks of the unbounded love of the Saviour. Newton^ 
had been an abandoned sinner; the love of Christ had 
been revealed to him, and kindled a responsive glow in -his 
heart, and so he sang : 

How sweet the name of Jesus sounds 
In a believer's ear! 

Sweeter sounds than music knows 
Charm me in Immanuel's name; 

and 

One there is, above all others, 
Well deserves the name of Friend ; 

and these hymns are his best. 
Hymns very well suited to the service of the sanctuary 

are :- 

Approach, my soul, the mercy-seat, 
and 

Come, my soul, thy suit prepare. 

In these the strong unfaltering faith of Newton finds 
adequate expression. 
There is a more triumphant note in: 

Glorious things of thee are spoken. 

.. May the grace of Christ our Saviour, 

Now may He who from the dead, 
are both good dismission hymns. 

While with ceaseless course the sun, 

is a hymn on the flight of time, and not specially attractive, 



144 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BE^EEN 1700 AND 1SOO 

As might be expected, many of the Olney Hymns are 
valueless in the public praise. From a literary point of view 
much of Newton's work is of no value. But the hymns are 
all begotten of experience, and are for the most part healthful 
companions for hours of devotion. 



POETS. 

JAMES MONTGOMERY ranks in the very forefront. He was 
an Irishman, born in Scotland. His father was an Irish 
peasant ; and his mother, Mary Blackley, was in all proba- 
bility also Irish. His father came under the influence of one 
of the Moravian brotherhood, joined that sect, and after the 
necessary qualification, was appointed Moravian minister at 
Irvine, Ayrshire. There the poet was born, November 4, 
1771. His father designed him for the Moravian ministry, 
and he was accordingly sent for his education to the Mora- 
vian settlement at Fulneck, Yorkshire. After a while, 
feeling his utter unfitness for ministerial work, he abandoned 
the thought of entering upon it, and got employment in a 
retail shop near Wakefield. Unsettled, he ran away from 
his employer, and got another situation in the shop of a 
draper at Wath-upon-Dearne. 

He was now eighteen years of age, and had composed 
a number of poems. With these he went to London in the 
hope of finding a publisher, but alas ! was disappointed, and re- 
turned to Sheffield, where he entered the office of a journalist. 
Eventually he became editor and proprietor of the Sheffield 
Iris, and there the remainder of his life was spent. As a 
journalist he repeatedly got himself into trouble, and on 
more than one occasion suffered imprisonment. It is pleasant 
to think the Government that once imprisoned him voted 
him in after years a well-deserved pension of 200 a year. 

His early religious impressions returned with freshness 
in maturer years, and it was then that most of his hymns 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 145 

were written. Writing to a friend, he. said, ' When I was 
a boy I wrote a great many hymns ; but as I grew up and 
my heart degenerated, I directed my . talents, such as they 
were, to other services, and seldom indeed since my four- 
teenth year have they been employed in the delightful 
duties of the sanctuary. However, I shall lie in wait for 
my heart, and when I can string it to the pitch of David's 
lyre, I will set a psalm " to the Chief Musician." ' He wrote 
this in 1807, and those who know anything of Montgomery's 
hymns know that he waited for his heart to some purpose. 
His best hymns are in all hymnals ; and a goodly number 
have found a place in The Church Hymnary. The choice 
is an exceedingly good one, and very varied. 

From the pen of a Moravian hymn-writer we expect to 
have some good missionary hymns, and we have them : 

Hail to the Lord's Anointed, 

is a standard missionary hymn, worthy to take its place along- 
side Heber's world-famed From Greenland's icy mountains. 

Hark ! the song of jubilee, 
and 

Lift up your heads, ye gates of brass, 

are in the same category. 

Songs of praise the angels sang, 
and 

God is my strong salvation; 

are good specimens of his praise-songs. 
He has given us two very good hymns to the Holy 

Spirit: . 

Lord God, the Holy Ghost, 
and 

Spirit of the living God. 

A familiar communion hymn, but not so much in use at 
such times as might it be, is : 

According to Thy gracious word. 

For ever with the Lord! 
is, without doubt, his best-known hymn in Scotland. One 



146 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

more popular than now, it is likely to regain its popularity 
and retain it. Alongside of it may be placed that very 
delightful hymn : 

Jerusalem, my happy home, 

a version of the old hymn, Hierusalem, my happie home, 
entitled 'a song mad by F:,B: P:' if indeed the version is 
by Montgomery, and about that there is doubt. 
A very good hymn to the Trinity is : 

Holy, holy, holy Lord, 

overshadowed somewhat by Heber's grander hymn, but 

possessing merits of its own. 

'* 
Go to dark Gethsemane, 

is a very intense hymn, in which the principal incidents in 
our Lord's passion are touched upon. A hymn for the 

afflicted is: 

In the hour of trial. 

A hymn full of aspiration and holy longing is: 
God, Thou art my God alone. 
There is a holy sacrifice, 

is a hymn based on the text ' A broken and a contrite heart, 
Lord, Thou wilt not despise.' Dr. Julian attributes this 
hymn to Charlotte Elliott, vide Dictionary of Hymnology, 

page 1161. 

Friend after friend departs; 

is a hopeful hymn for the hour of death. 

Pour out Thy Spirit from on high ; 

is a most useful and appropriate hymn for ordination or 
induction services, and we have few hymns in our hymnody 
for such occasions. 

But the finest production, from a poetic point of view, is 
that poem on prayer: 

Prayer is the soul's sincere desire. 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 147 

But for the last verse, where the flame of prayer gleams 
forth, we should say it is a poem, not a hymn, and should 
be read, not sung. Some of the stanzas are exceedingly 
beautiful. 

James Montgomery died in his sleep at The Mount, 
Sheffield, April 30, 1854. 

SIR WALTER SCOTT, l the wizard of the pen/ as poet, 
novelist, and historian, has made his impression upon the 
age. His hymns were not written for the praise of the 
Church, but for a special purpose, from connexion with which 
he had doubtless no intention they should ever be dissociated. 
At the close of the Lay of the Last Minstrel occurs a very 
condensed rendering of the Dies irae : 

That day of wrath, that dreadful day. 
And that other beautiful hymn : 

When Israel of the Lord beloved, 
is the hymn of Rebecca in Ivanhoe, 

Scott was born in Edinburgh, August 15, 1771, and died 
at Abbotsford, September 21, 1832. 

HENRY KIRKE WHITE was born at Nottingham, March 21, 
'1785. The sad story of his short life is well known. His 
foot was on the threshold of fame, when at the early age of 
twenty-one he fell a victim to the fell disease which was, no 
doubt, bred by the hardships he had to endure while strug- 
gling to prepare himself for what he believed to be his 
life-work, a literary career. 

Together with a collection of miscellaneous poems, many of 
them exceedingly graceful, and all giving promise of future 
greatness, he has left us a few hymns, of which two have taken 
hold of the hearts of his countrymen. One of these is : 

Much in sorrow, offc in woe. 

This hymn, or rather ten lines of it (for Frances Fuller 
Maitland (1809-77) resumed, where Kirke White had left off, 
at Will ye flee in danger's hour?), was found after his death, 



148 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

written on the back of one of his mathematical papers. He 
was a student at Cambridge of great promise ; but after one 
year's residence at St. John's College, he succumbed to his 
malady, October 19, 1806. 

FEMALE HYMN-WKITEKS. 

The female hymn-writers of this century are few, but their 
work is in every case excellent. Some of their productions 
are among the finest in the whole range of English hymnody. 
In one or two instances they are unsurpassed for tender- 
ness and beauty. 

ANNE STEELE was born at Broughton, Hampshire, where 
her father was Baptist minister, in 1717. Cultured, pious 
and beautiful, she early gave herself to religious work. Her 
life was one of trial and sorest disappointment, and the 
discipline would seem to have left no trace of bitterness, but 
rather to have worked to the perfecting of her Christian 
character, and to the cultivation of a spirit of trust and 
resignation which everywhere breathes in her hymns. Her 
first sore trial came on the day fixed for her marriage. 
Shortly before the hour at which the ceremony was to have 
taken place the lifeless body of her affianced was found in 
the river where he had been bathing. 

She wrote many hymns, publishing two volumes in 1760, 
under the title of 'Poems on Subjects chiefly Devotional, by 
Theodosia.' A third volume was published after her death. 
The hymn beginning: 

When I survey life's varied scene, 

has a heavenly calm pervading it, which soothes the spirit 
while we read. The fourth verse is especially beautiful : 

Give me a calm, a thankful heart, 

From every murmur free ; 
The blessings of Thy grace impart, 

And let me live to Thee, 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 149 

y 

She never got over the sorrow that came to her when she 
looked for joy ; and after a life of suffering from broken 
health, she died November, 1778. On her tombstone in 
Broughton churchyard, where she was buried, we read the 
following lines : 

Silent the lyre, and dumb the tuneful tongue 
That sang on earth her great ^Redeemer's praise ; 

But now in heaven she tunes a nobler song 
In more exalted, more melodious lays. 

MRS. ALICE FLOWERDEW was born in 1759. Very little is 
known of her personal history beyond this, that she resided 
for some time in Jamaica, where her husband had a Govern- 
ment appointment. In her widowhood she conducted a 
ladies', school in the north of London. She died in 1830. 

A small volume of Poems on Moral and Eeligious Subjects 
was published in 1803, in which we find the very fine 

hymn : 

Fountain of mercy, God of love, 

one of the best harvest hymns we possess. 

HARRIET AUBER. There are three pre-eminently good 
hymns to the Holy Spirit in Christian hymnody the Vent, 
'Creator Spiritus, the Fern, Sancte Spiritus, and 
Our blest Redeemer, ere He breathed. 

Beyond doubt Miss Auber's hymn is the best hymn to the 
Holy Spirit in our language. It comes as near perfection 
as a hymn can possibly come. The original manuscript 
was an unusual one. The hymn was written by the gifted 
author with a diamond on a pane of glass as she composed 
it. For many years the pane of glass remained in the 
window sash of the house she occupied at Hoddesdon. 
Miss Auber was born in London, October 4, 1773. She 
wrote many hymns and devotional pieces, but nothing to 
equal or come near to her celebrated hymn to the Spirit. 
She died at Hoddesdon, Herts, January 20, 1862, in her 
eighty-ninth year. 



150 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

CHARLOTTE ELLIOTT. We have the following from the 
pen of the Rev. H. C. G-. Motile, D.D., Principal of Ridley 
Hall, Cambridge, regarding Charlotte Elliott and her famous 

hymn:- 

Just as I am, without one plea. 

' Some quite inaccurate accounts have appeared from time 
to time of the occasion of the writing of this memorable 
hymn. It has been said, for example, that it was the , 
writer's confession of faith at her conversion : the record of 
her first " sight of the Son of God, and belief, on Him." And 
it is true that no words could more perfectly express such 
an experience, as innumerable hearts have passed through 
it. Probably a vast number of those to whose souls the 
hymn has been a blessing have felt its power just in 
this way it has taken them by the hand, as it were, 
and led them to their Lord in the simplicity of first 
faith. 

' Yet the origin of the hymn was not of this sort, and its 
true history is well worth telling, for it throws light not 
only on the hymn, but on some most important aspects of 
the way of salvation ; not at the gate only, but all along 
the course. 

'Charlotte Elliott was born in 1789, and died in 1871. 
She was daughter of Charles Elliott, of Clapham and 
Brighton, and of Eling, his wife, whose father was Henry 
Venn, of Huddersfield and Yelling, Simeon's beloved elder 
friend. Henry Venn Elliott, founder of St. Mary's Hall, 
Brighton, and Edward Bishop Elliott, author of Horae 
Apocalypticae, were Charlotte Elliott's brothers. 

' Prom the first her training was such as would be' given 
in a home ruled by the noblest evangelical faith, and alive 
with mental interests and power. In the common sense of 
the words she was never " in the world " at all, though there 
was a time, at Clapham, when she entered a good deal, and 
with the utmost pleasure, into literary society. But she 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 151 

was always responsive to the Gospel of her home. I do 
not think she could point to any early crisis of conversion. 

1 Yet there were long periods in her young life when 
(partly no doubt as a consequence of weak health for all 
along she was often an invalid) her faith and hope were 
bewildered and beclouded. Profound conviction of sin (no 
mere invalidism, but the work of the Spirit) came upon her 
at one of these heavy times, and she wellnigh despaired of 
salvation. Then Caesar Malan crossed her path. It was in 
May, 1822, at her father's home, Grove House, Clapham. 
He was made the messenger of God to her. Peace and 
joy in believing were unfolded to her heart through his 
private ministry as never before ; she reckoned that time 
of intercourse as a bright new era for all the rest of her 
days. 

' But ill health still beset her. Besides its general trying 
influence on the spirits, it often caused her the peculiar pain 
of a seeming uselessness in her life while the circle round 
her was full of unresting serviceableness for God. Such 
a time of trial marked the year 1834, when she was forty- 
five years old, and was living in Westfield Lodge, Brighton, 

* 

that house of countless Christian memories, but now, some 
dozen years ago, levelled to the dust to make room for 
a huge hotel. 

' Her brother, the Kev. H. V. Elliott, had not long before 
conceived the plan of St. Mary's Hall, at Brighton a school 
designed to give, at a nominal cost, a high education to the 
daughters of clergymen : a noble work which is to this day 
carried on with admirable ability and large success. In aid 
of St. Mary's Hall there was to be held a bazaaiyan event 
then unusual, and a word which in those days carried with 
it no doubtful associations. Westfield Lodge was all astir ; 
every member of the large circle was occupied morning and 
night in the preparations, with the one exception of the 
ailing sister, Charlotte as full of eager interest as any of 



152 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

them, but physically fit for nothing. The night before the 
bazaar she was kept wakeful by distressing thoughts of her 
apparent uselessness ; and these thoughts passed by a 
transition easy to imagine into a spiritual conflict, till she 
questioned the reality of her whole spiritual life, and 
wondered whether it were anything better after all than an 
illusion of the emotions, an illusion ready to be sorrowfully 
dispelled. 

1 The next day, the busy day of the bazaar, she " lay upon 
her sofa in that most pleasant boudoir set apart for her in 
Westfield Lodge, ever a dear resort to her friends." The 
troubles of the night came back upon her with such force 
that she felt they must be met and conquered in the grace of 
God. She gathered up in her soul the great certainties, not 
of her emotions, but of her salvation : her Lord, His power, 
His promise. And taking pen and paper from the table she 
deliberately set down in writing, for her own comfort, "the 
formulae of her faith." Hers was a heart which always 
tended to express its depths in verse. So in verse she 
restated to herself the Gospel of pardon, peace, and heaven. 
"Probably without difficulty or long pause" she wrote the 
hymn, getting comfort by thus definitely "recollecting" 
the eternity of the Rock beneath her feet. There, then, 
always, not only for some past moment, but " even now " 
she was accepted in the Beloved" Just as I am." 

'As the day wore on her sister-in-law, Mrs. H. V. Elliott, 
came in to see her, and bring news of the work. She read 
the hymn, and asked (she well might) for a copy. So it 
first stole out from that quiet room into the world, where 
now for sixty years it has been sowing and reaping, till a 
multitude which God alone can number have been blessed 
through its message. 

'The hymn first appeared in print in 1834 in the Invalids' 
Hymn-book, compiled originally by Miss Kierman, and now 
rearranged by Miss Elliott. In 1835 it was printed, unknown 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1SOO 153 

to the writer and without her name, as a leaflet ; one of the 
first copies was given to her by a friend with the words, " I 
am sure this will please you ! " 

' Among the numberless recipients of " grace, mercy, and 
peace" through "Just as I am" was Dora Quillinan, the 
"one and matchless daughter" of William Wordsworth. 
In her last illness, I think in 1849, the hymn was sent to 
her by a friend. With hesitation, in her weakness, she 
allowed it to be read to her ; and then said at once, "That is 
the very thing for me." " Now my hymn," was the request 
each morning during the remaining months ; and she would 
repeat it after her husband, "line for line, many times, in the 
clay and night." 

'A few years ago I visited for the first time the churchyard 
of Grasmere. On Mrs. Quillinan's simple headstone I found 
traces of that message : a lamb engraved on the stone ; and 
beneath her name and date the text, "Him that cometh unto 
me, I will in no wise cast out." ' 

Miss Elliott was the author of many other hymns, several 
of which are in common use. 

My God and Father, while I stray 

breathes the spirit of submission which a life-long discipline 
gave. Another very fine hymn, which whispers the calm 
and beautiful experiences of her prayerful life, is : 

* 

My God, is any hour so sweet. 
Christian, seek not yet repose 

is not a true hymn, but is a very stimulating sacred song. 
Miss Elliott died at. Brighton, September 22, 1871. 

MARGARET (MALCOLM) CAMPBELL, LADY COCKBURN, daughter 
of Sir John Malcolm. Her hymns, of which she wrote a few, 
are of fair merit, and are chiefly in use among Plymouth 
Brethren, for the reason doubtless that she became attached 
to that sect. 



154 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

Praise ye Jehovah, praise the Lord most holy 
is a good expression of praise, and is found in a few per- 
manent hymnals. She died in 1841. 

FELICIA DOROTHEA HEMANS, the daughter of a Liverpool 
merchant, was born in that city in 1794. She was a poetess 
of minor reputation. Her work is marked by purity of 
sentiment. She had the lyrical gift, and some of her pieces 
possess a considerable degree of merit. The 'Better Land is 
perhaps her best known and most popular production. The 
piece which gives her a place with hymn-writers is : 

Lowly and solemn he 

Thy children's cry to Thee, 

taken from her poem on The Funeral Day of Sir Walter Scott. 
It is found in very few hymnals, and is not likely to attract 
greater attention in the future than it has done in the past. 
Mrs. Hemans died in Dublin, May 16, 1835. 

CHURCH DIGNITARIES. 

EICHARD MANT, Bishop of Dromore, was in his time a 
voluminous writer; and he has the distinction of having 
been one of the first translators of hymns from the Latin. 
His renderings, however, are not equal to those of Neale, 
Chandler, Caswall and others, and many of his original 
hymns have fallen out of common use. Two very attractive 
original compositions are still in a large number of hymnals, 
and they find a place in The Church Hymnary. 

Bound the Lord in glory seated, 

is a very stately hymn to the Holy Trinity. In the original 
text it begins, 'Bright the vision that delighted.' What is 
here the first stanza is in reality the second half of the first. 
Although an original composition, it appears in his Ancient 

Hymns, 1837. 

For all Thy saints, Lord, 

also an original composition, appeared in his Ancient 



. HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 -AND 1800 155 

Hymns, as a 'hymn on All Saints.' It has undergone a 
good deal of altering in several hymnals. 

Besides being a hymn- writer and translator, he prepared 
a metrical version of the Psalter in 1824. 

Eichard Mant was born at Southampton, where his father 
was Sector of All Saints Church, February 12, 1776. After 
receiving his early education at Winchester School, he pro- 
ceeded to Oxford, where he was a student of Trinity College. 
After taking orders, he became curate to his father at 
Buriton, Hants. In 1810 he was preferred to the vicarage 
of Coggeshall, Essex ; and three years later was appointed 
domestic chaplain to the Archbishop of Canterbury. In 
1816 he was made Eector of St. Botolph, London. Four 
years later he was consecrated Bishop of Killaloe, Ire- 
land ; and then, successively, Bishop of Down and Connor 
in 1823, and Bishop of Dromore in 1842. He died 
November 2, 1848. 

EEGINALD HEBEE, Lord Bishop of Calcutta, was born 
April .21, 1783, at Malpas in Cheshire. His parents occupied 
a good worldly position, his father being lord of the manor 
and patron of the rectories of Morton, in Yorkshire, and 
Hodnet, in Shropshire. 

Heber from the earliest revealed those qualities which 
made him at once famous and beloved. He was of a sweet 
disposition, and prayer was a constant exercise with him. 
His great kindness of heart won many friends. 

From his father he acquired the rudiments of classical 
learning, and at the age of seven translated Phaedrus into 
English verse. In November, 1800, he entered Brasenose 
College, Oxford, and there carried off the University -prize 
for Latin verse with his Carmen Seculare. 

In 1807 he was preferred to the family living of Hodnet, 
where he ministered for sixteen years. He became also 
preacher at Lincoln's Inn and a Bampton lecturer. 



156 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

Twice he refused the Bishopric of Calcutta, but after the 
second refusal he felt so strongly that he had left the path 
of duty that he wrote retracting the refusal. He sailed for 
Calcutta in 1823, but was permitted to work there for only 
three years. After a hard Sunday's work in Trichinopoly 
he went into his bath as was his custom. After a consider- 
able lapse of time, his servant found him lying, dead in the 
bath. He had been stricken with apoplexy. He died 
April 3, 1826, and was buried in the church of St. John's, 
Trichinopoly. 

Thackeray, in his Four Georges,' speaks of Heber as an 
ideal English gentleman. ' The charming poet, the happy 
possessor of all sorts of gifts and accomplishments birth, 
wit. fame, high character, competence he was the beloved 
priest in his own home of Hodnet, counselling the people 
in their troubles, advising them in their difficulties, kneeling 
often at their sick beds at the hazard of his own life ; where 
there was strife the peacemaker, where there was want the 
free giver.' 

It is as a hymn-writer, however, that we have to do with 
Heber, and as such he occupies a high place indeed. The 
poetic element is prominent in his hymns, and for that he 
is ranked with the few. Hence, with the other essential 
characteristics which go to make the true hymn, and 
which they possess in great measure, his hymns must live. 
His idea, we are told, when he began hymn-writing at 
Hodnet, was to complete a ' Christian year.' That, however, 
he never accomplished, but in the fifty-seven pieces which 
he has left us we have some of the finest gems of English 
hymnody. 

No hymn-writer has ever secured the honour that has 
fallen to Heber nearly all his hymns are in use. Some to 
a less extent than others, but all more or less. Slowly but 
surely he is becoming better known in Scotland. 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN tfOO-AND 1800 157 

His most popular hymns, and those most frequently in 
use, are perhaps his best. 

From Greenland's icy mountains, 

is one of our best missionary hymns. Only one other hymn 
is worthy a place beside it, and that, one is Montgomery's 
Hail to Hie Lord's Anointed. They are both noble hymns. 

The story of the composition of, Heber's hymn is interest- 
ing. He was on a visit to his father-in-law, the Vicar of 
Wrexham, and on the Saturday before Whit-Sunday, the 
day upon which a collection was to be taken in aid of the 
' Society for the Propagation of the Gospel,' the vicar asked 
Heber to compose something suitable, to be sung at the 
service next day. He retired and wrote off the first three 
stanzas of that hymn, but afterwards, thinking it incomplete, 
added the last verse 'Waft, waft, ye winds.' The hymn has 
not been altered much from the text of the original MS., 
which is still preserved, a fact which testifies to the exact- 
ness and literary precision of the author. In the original 
MS. savage stands for JieatJien in the second verse. On many 
a grand occasion has that inspiring hymn been sung, and its 
inspiration has given courage to many a heart in the midst 
of the discouragements of work in distant lands. 

The hymn : 

Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty! 

is certainly a sublime composition. Fortunate in being 
associated with music specially prepared for it by Dr. Dykes, 
the famous composer, it appears to advantage. Being 
a hymn for Trinity Sunday, the author could hardly avoid 
reference to the theological formula, but it is the one thing 
which, in the prominence, given to it, mars the hymn. It is 
too theological ; but when we have said that, the hymn 
remains unique in its beauty and majesty as a tribute of 
praise to the Trinity. We know no other hymn to the 



158 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

Trinity, the Te Deum excepted, that can be placed alongside 
of it, unless it be Marriott's Thou ivhose Almighty Word. 
Other hymns by Heber worthy of mention are : 

The Son of God goes forth to war, 
a bold and inspiring hymn ; 

Bread of the world, in mercy broken, 

a short communion hymn ; and the first stanza of the 
evening hymn: 

God, that madest earth and heaven, 

which was completed by the addition of a stanza by Arch- 
bishop Whately. 

Thou art gone to the grave 

is a funeral hymn, written after the death of his infant child. 
The choice of measure for this hymn is exceedingly happy, 
giving it that majestic roll which we associate with funeral 
odes. In: 

Brightest and best of the sons of the morning, 
we have the poetic element at its highest. 

Hosanna to the living Lord, 

is the least attractive of this gifted author's hymns in The 
Church Hymnary. 

Lord of mercy and of might 
is a short millennial hymn of great beauty. 

RICHARD WHATELY did little for hynmody, and claims 
notice here having written the second and concluding stanzas 
of Heber's evening hymn God that madest Earth and Heaven, 
beginning : 

Guard us waking, guard us sleeping. 

Originally the hymn was of one stanza, but it is much 
improved and rendered more complete by the addition. 

He was born in London, 1787, and studied at Oxford. 
He was a Fellow of Oriel College, and in 1831 was con- 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 159 

secrated to the archiepiscopate of Dublin, where he died, 
October 8, 1863. 

HENKY HAKT MILMAN, Dean of St, Paul's, was born 
February 10, 1791. He was educated at Eton and Oxford. 
At Oxford he had a distinguished career, and became an 
accomplished classical scholar. He was for some time 
Professor of Poetry at Oxford, and became the author of 
several theological and historical works. Among the latter 
is his famous History of the Jews, published in 1829. He 
was made a Canon of Westminster in 1835, and Dean of 
St. Paul's in 1849. 

His contributions to Hymnody are few but choice, and are 
all characterized by high literary excellence, and they have 
that lyrical flash which is indispensable to a good hymn. 

Dean Milman included Bishop Heber among his friends, 
and it was in Heber's Posthumous Collection, 1827, that 
Milman's productions first appeared. As a devotional poem, 
help us, Lord ; each hour of need- 

could not be surpassed. How very attractive are these 

verses : 

If, strangers to Thy fold, we call, 

Imploring at Thy feet 
The crumbs that from Thy table fall, 
'Tis all we dare entreat. 

But be it, Lord of mercy, all, 

So Thou wilt grant but this ; 
The crumbs that from Thy table fall 

Are light and life and bliss. 

Eide on! Eide on in majesty 

is a fine rendering of the striking scene at the close of our 
Lord's ministry, and is one of Milman's best hymns. 

When our heads are bowed with woe, 

is one of the few hymns which set forth the attractive 
humanity of our Lord. The refrain in the original? text is 
' Gracious son of Mary, hear/ doubtless to emphasize still 



160 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

further His humanity. It is to be regretted for that reason 
alone, that the line has been tampered with, and made to 
read 'Jesus, Man of Sorrows, hear.' Dean Milman died 
September 24, 1868. 

CLERGYMEN OF THE CHUECH OF ENGLAND. 

WILLIAM WILLIAMS, a Welshman, a native of Llandoveiy, 
was born in 1717. In 1740 he was ordained a deacon of 
the Established Church, and for three years did duty in two 
curacies. He became intimate with Whitefield, the Countess 
of Huntingdon, and other Methodists who encouraged him 
to become an itinerant preacher. The result was that the 
bishop denied him full orders. He accordingly associated 
with others who ultimately became Calvinistic Methodists 
and traversed Wales, north and south, stirring the people 
by his earnest appeals. He is said to have travelled on 
an average 2,230 miles yearly for forty-three years. He 
was the sweet singer of Wales, and did for that Principality 
what Watts and Wesley did for England. He wrote both 
in Welsh and English. After a long illness he died at 
Pantycelyn near his native place, January n, 1791. 

O'er those gloomy hills of darkness 
1'anks with our good missionary hymns. 

Guide me, Thou great Jehovah, 

is a widely known hymn, and is to be found in most 
present-day Hymnals. It was originally written in Welsh. 
The second and third verses were translated into English 
by the author, and the first verse by Peter Williams, born 
in Caermarthenshire, January 7, 1722, who, like William 
Williams, after serving in the Established Church for some 
time, joined the Calvinistic Methodists. He died August 8, 
1796. 

We are indebted to the Rev. Charles T. Astley, Llandudno, 
for the following account of William and Peter Williams : 



H YMN- WRI TERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 A ND 1800 161 

'William Williams and Peter Williams were in.no way 
related "after the flesh." though they both hailed from 
Caermarthenshire. William Williams, preacher and poet, 
was, and is still known as Williams of Pantycelyn. As a 
young medical student he was converted by the preaching 
of Howell Harris, at that time himself a young man of 
about twenty-six, who had just begun the practice of 
preaching from a gravestone on the churchyard wall to the 
retiring congregation at the parish church of Talgarth. 
Giving up his medical studies Williams was ordained 
a deacon of the Church of England in 1740. He was a 
prolific writer of hymns, several of which he wrote both in 
Welsh and English. Amongst these last were O'er these 
gloomy hills of darkness and Guide me, Thou great Jehovah. 
The former was composed early on a storm-threatening 
morning as he walked towards Bettws-y-coed. 

' Peter Williams was a .native of Caermarthenshire, and 
was converted by the preaching of Whitefield, and in 
consequence of disobedience to his tutor who had forbidden 
the students of Carmarthan College to go to hear that 
"fanatical preacher" a holy disobedience, He afterwards 
took orders in -the Church of England, but of course in those 
days his earnest preaching gave universal dissatisfaction.. 
These two young men, in company with Howell Harris, 
Daniel Eowlands, and HowellDavies, who were somewhat 
older, were the founders of the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists, 
or Presbyterianism in Wales, The first "Association," or 
General Assembly of the new body now lovingly called 
the " Old Body " was held at Watford, in Glamorganshire, 
in 1742, under the Presidency of George Whitefield.' 

MARTIN MADAN was born 1726. As a result of spiritual 
quickening under the preaching of Wesley he gave himself 
to the service of the Church.: his original intention having 
been to qualify for the bar. For some time he was a popular 

M 



162 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

preacher in the chapels of the Countess of Huntingdon, but, 
by the influence of that lady exercised in his favour, he 
received orders in the Church of England and was ordained 
chaplain of the Lock Hospital, Hyde Park Corner. He 
made A Collection of Psalms and Hymns Extracted from 
Various Authors, which for a time was largely used. 
Lo ! He comes with clouds descending, 

a spirited hymn on the second Advent, has in part been 
attributed to him; Charles Wesley, John Cennick, and 
perhaps Thomas Olivers sharing the honour. He died 
in 1790. 

AUGUSTUS MONTAGUE TOPLADY, is a more interesting 
personage. He was the son of Major Toplady who died at 
the siege of Carthagena, and was born in 1740 at Farnham, 
Surrey. Like many other men of his time who came 
ultimately to prominence, hs received his early education 
at Westminster School, studying afterwards at . Trinity 
College, Dublin, where he graduated. 

While yet a student he stumbled into a barn at a place 
called Codymain, where a plain-tongued layman named 
Morris was preaching. While listening to that man his 
spirit was awakened. Here is Toplady's own reflection 
upon the circumstance some time afterwards: 'That sweet 
text "ye who sometimes were afar off are made nigh by the 
blood of Christ " was particularly delightful and refreshing 
to my soul ; and the more so as it reminds me of the days 
and months that are past, even the day of my sensible 
espousals to the Bridegroom of the Elect. It was from that 
passage that Mr. Morris preached on the memorable evening 
of my effectual call . , . strange that I who had so long sat 
under the means of grace in England, should be brought 
near to God in an obscure part of Ireland, amid a handful 
of God's people met together in a barn, and under the 
ministry of one who could hardly spell his name.' 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 163 

Toplady was a stern Calvinist, and his antagonism to 
Wesley and the Wesleyans comes out. in such remarks 
as the following : ' I was awakened in the month of August, 
1755, but not as has been falsely represented under Mr. John 
Wesley, or any preacher connected with him . . . though 
awakened in 1755, I was not led into the pure and clear 
view of the doctrines of grace till the year 1758, when 
through the great goodness of God my Arminian prejudices 
received an effectual shock in reading Mr. Manton's sermon 
on the 1 7th chapter of St. John.' 

It is but just to say, that on the side of Wesley the 
feeling was quite as strong, and the expression of it 
sometimes more offensive. As for example : ' Mr. Augustus 
Toplady I know well, but I do not fight with chimney- 
sweeps. He is too dirty a writer for me to meddle with.' 

Before he had reached his eighteenth year Toplady issued 
a small volume of poetical pieces, but it came to nothing. 
He was not a poet. In 1762 he was ordained to the 
Christian ministry in the Church of England, and was 
preferred to the vicarage of Hembury, Devon, which he 
retained till his death in 1778. He died in his thirty- 
eighth year. 

He was the author of a considerable number of hymns, 
mostly of a doctrinal character, in which are emphasized 
the accepted doctrines of the Established Church. His 
object was to discredit the teaching of Wesley. As a result 
of their doctrinal complexion few of them are sung many 
of them shock us by their confused imagery. In no other 
hymn-writer, who has done anything to deserve praise, can 
we find such a medley of mixed metaphor and grotesque 
figures. Yet this man is the author of what is perhaps the 
best-known hymn in our language : 

Rock of Ages, cleft for me, 

and that hymn is an accumulation of misapplied metaphors, 
Rock, Water and Blood, To Thy Cross I cling, To -the fountain 

M 2 



164 HYMN-WAITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

fly, $c. So it is not poetic beauty, nor literary exactness, nor 
grace, nor style, that secures a hymn pre-eminence, and per- 
manence. What is it ? That verses, when critically examined, 
and found to be previously faulty, can yet be attractive and 
useful in a pre-eminent degree, is evidenced by the fact of 
the wide-spread popularity of this hymn, And how can 
this be? Doubtless because tersely, and with the necessary 
variety of treatment, it expresses, as is the case with similar 
hymns, the profoundest needs of the spirit. It begins with 
the alarm of conscience, the sinking of the hear.t which the 
vision of sin creates, and leaves the ransomed soul calm 
amid a dissolving universe. 

It may be stated that even in the production of this hymn 
the hatred of Toplady to Arminianism is brought out. 
It was written as an attack on the Arminian doctrine of 
perfection held and promulgated by Wesley ; and in the 
original issue bears the title, A living and dying prayer for 
tJie holiest 'believer in the ^vorld. 

Now, Bock of Ages finds a place in the Wesleyan 
Methodists' hymn-books ; and the circumstances in which 
the hymn is sung, are far from suggestive of the bitter 
controversy its author had with Wesley. So effectually 
is the wrath of man made to praise God. 

The circumstances in which this hymn was written are 
given in the Record of January 10, 1898 : ' Toplady was one 
day overtaken by a thunderstorm in Berrington Coombe .... 
a rocky glen running up into the heart of the Mendip range, 
and there, taking shelter between two massive piers of 
native limestone rock he penned the hymn Rock of Ages. 
There is probably no more beautiful spot in the district. 
On precipitous slopes the grey rock looks out among the 
brackens. At one point there is a precipitous crag of lime- 
stone a hundred feet in height, and right down its centre 
is a deep fissure. In that fissure Toplady took refuge and 
penned his hymn.' 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 165 

Object of my first desire, 

is a quiet meditative hymn, but not deserving of special 
notice. Not much more noteworthy is : 

Your harps, ye trembling saints. 

Toplady is known to-day as a hymn-writer because he wrote 
Eoch of Ages. His productions generally are little removed 
from doggerel, and certainly seldom rise above mediocrity, 

EDWARD COOPER, born 1770 and educated at Oxford, was 
for some time Rector of Yoxall, Staffordshire. He wrote 
very few hymns. 

Father of heaven, whose love profound 

is written in the form of a prayer to the Trinity. It is 
a very simple and attractive hymn, in which the functions 
of Father, Son, and Spirit are indicated, and an appropriate 
blessing sought from each. He died in 1833. 

JOHN CAWOOD has given us a dismission hymn of fair 

merit : 

Almighty God, Thy word is cast', 

suggested obviously by our Lord's parable of the sower. 
He wrote several other hymns, but none of outstanding 
worth. He was born at Matlock, 1775, occupied the in- 
cumbency of St. Anne's Chapel of Ease, Bewdley, and died 
in 1852, 

JOHN MARRIOTT wrote a few hymns, one of which ranks 
with our very best for missionary occasions : 
Thou whosa almighty word. 

It was written in 1813, but not till 1867 did it find a place 
in a permanent collection, when it was published in the 
Lyra Britannica. 

The author was born at Cottesbach, near Lutterworth, 
where his father was rector, in 1780. He was educated at 
Rugby, and afterwards became a Student of Christ Church, 



166 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1WO AND 1800 

Oxford, where he had a distinguished career. Taking 
orders in the Church of England, he was presented to the 
rectory of Church Lawford, which he held till his death, 
which took place at Broadclyst, near Exeter, March 31, 
1825. 

HENRY FRANCIS LYTE has gained a foremost place in the 
ranks of hymn -writers, not by any accident or freak of 
good fortune, but by the intrinsic value of his work. He 
was born 1793, in the border town of Kelso on the classic 
Tweed, which must in all time to come be associated with 
lyrical poetry, sacred and secular. He was of delicate frame 
from his youth ; and having to bear the hardship resulting 
from straitened circumstances all through his student course, 
his delicacy became confirmed. Taking orders in the 
Church of England he filled several curacies, and eventually 
became Perpetual Curate of Lower Brixham, Devon. 

In the year 1818 Lyte had an experience which changed 
the course of his whole subsequent life. He had hitherto 
gone with the stream, in idleness and frivolity, too common 
with many of the clergy of the Church of England at that 
time, to the neglect of his pastoral duties, arid greatly to the 
unfitting of himself for the sacred work of his office. But 
this in the providence of God came to an end. A neigh- 
bouring clergyman, one of his most intimate friends, fell 
sick, and was dying. He was in darkness. He had no 
hope in God. Lyfce, equally ignorant of the grace of God, set 
himself to lead the dying man into the light. Together 
they searched the Scriptures, and together they found the 
truth of God. The sick man died in the hope he had 
secured, and Lyte with new aims returned to the work of 
his calling for a few more years. 

His surroundings were not congenial, and with a fine soul 
that loved to muse on the beautiful things of God he some- 
times felt solitary. But he had early been taught to bear 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 167 

crosses, and this one he bore manfully. Had his life been 
other in its conditions, our hymnody might have been poorer 

to-day. 

Jesus, I my cross have taken 

is a very sweet hymn, and the breathing of a resigned con- 
fiding spirit. 

Pleasant are Thy courts above, 

a glad, buoyant hymn, is very fortunate in most cases in 
being associated with appropriate and good music. 
Praise, my soul, the King of Heaven 

is another glad hymn, brimful of praise, and well adapted 
for an opening hymn in public worship. 
that the Lord's salvation 

is one of the few missionary hymns in our language specially 

referring to the salvation of Israel. 

Not so well known, nor so fine as the foregoing, but 

deserving of a more prominent place than they occupy, and 

likely to get it, are- 
Far from my heavenly home, 

and 

Sweet is the solemn voice. 

But the hymn by which Francis Lyte^will continue to be 
known is his immortal hymn : 

Abide with me : fast falls the eventide. 

We class it with our evening hymns ; we could not do better; 
but Lyte sang of the evening of life, not of the evening of 
the day : 

Hold Thou Thy cross before my closing eyes, 
Shine through the gloom, and point me to the skies ; 
Heaven's morning breaks, and earth's vain shadows flee: 
In life and death, Lord, abide with me. 

So far as we can ascertain it was his last hymn. He was 
very ill : worn out with work and anxiety. Before leaving 
home for a sunnier clime, he had a parting communion 
service with his people. The strain was too great, He got 



168 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1SOO 

through the service with difficulty ; and after it was over 
entered his room, and throwing himself upon his couch, he 
soothed his mind and heart by composing Abide with me. 
The eventide was falling fast. He died at Nice, November 20, 
1847. 

WILLIAM HILEY BATHURST was born at Clevedale, near 
Bristol, 1796. Educated for the Church he took orders, 
and was appointed to the rectory of Barwick-in-Elmet, near 
Leeds. He was a classical scholar of considerable attain- 
ment, and wrote a number of hymns, several of which have 
found their way into permanent hymnals. 

for a faith that will not shrink 

is a hymn that is likely to grow in favour. Mr. Bathurst 
died November 25, 1877. 



PRESBYTERIAN MINISTERS. 

Presbyterian ministers are not much in evidence in this 
century as hymn-writers ; but we must bear in mind that 
hymns were not used by Presbyterians in the eighteenth 
century, and that prejudice against them was strong. They 
will have more to say for themselves when another century 
dawns. 

JOSEPH GRIGG was bom in humble circumstances about 
1720, He qualified for the ministry, and for some time was 
assistant in a Presbyterian church in London. He does not 
seem to have held any other appointment, and having married 
a lady of means he retired from active duty. 

His contribution to hymnody is a small one, but two of 
his hymns have long been in common use. 

Jesus! and shall it ever be, 
was written when its author was ten years .of age. It was 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1SOO 169 

afterwards recast by Benjamin Francis and much improved. 
The other hymn by which he is known is : 

Behold a Stranger at the door. 
He died at Walthamstow, Essex, in 1768. 

JOHN MOEISON was born in Aberdeenshire, 1749. He is 
supposed -to have been the translator of that communion 
hymn, No. 35 in the Scripture paraphrases : . 
Twas on that night when doomed to know, 

which to this day is, with few exceptions, sung at every 
communion service in the Presbyterian Churches of Scotland. 
There is no hymn around which so many hallowed associa- 
tions linger. We can all picture the familiar scene. While 
the hymn is being sung the communion elements are carried 
into the church by the reverent elders, and communicants 
solemnly take their places at the table. We should not like 
to have it different. 

There is no sign that the use of this hymn is less frequent 
than formerly. It is associated with the Scottish Commu- 
nion as no other hymn can ever be 1 . If the translation is 
not Morison's, then we cannot tell whose it is. He was 
minister of Canisbay in Caithness, where lie died in 1798. 

WILLIAM CAMERON, son of a farmer, was born near Ballater, 
Aberdeenshire, 1751. He studied for the ministry of the 
Church of Scotland at the University of Aberdeen. 

He is said to have written several of the Scottish para- 
phrases, and to have tinkered others. He is also held by 
some to have been the author of the hymn : 
Blest morning, whose first dawning rays, 

which has been bound up with the Scottish Bible for the past 

1 The Latin original, Node qua Christus rabidis Apellis, was the work of 
Andreas Ellinger, who was born at Orlamunde, not far from Jena, 
1526. He was a professor of medicine, and died at Jena, March 12, 
1582. 



170 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

hundred years, and seldom sung. It is a good Easter hymn, 
and ought to have a better future than it has had a past. 
Some credit him with the authorship- of the familiar 

doxology I- 
TO Him who sits upon the throne. 

For that honour, however, he has to reckon with Isaac 
Watts, Doubtless Watts wrote it and Cameron tinkered 
it. Mr. Cameron became minister of Kirknewton in Mid- 
lothian in 1786, and died there November 17, 1811. 



CONGREGATIONAL MINISTERS. 

PHILIP DODDRIDGE, a great name in the dissenting ministry 
in England in the eighteenth centuiy, was born in London, 
June 26, 1702, When quite young, an offer was made to 
him by the Duchess of Bedford, much the same as was 
made to Watts, to educate him for the ministry of the 
Church of England at her own charges. This Doddridge 
refused, and instead, qualified himself for service as a 
dissenting minister, aided by Mr. Clark, an Independent 
minister at St. Albans, who treated him as his own son. 
Like Charles Spurgeon of our time, he preached his first 
sermon when quite a youth at Hinckley, where he began 
ministerial work in 1722. A year later he was removed to 
Kibworth. 

The real work of his life began when he was settled in 
Castle Hill Meeting, Northampton, in 1729, There he was 
a man of affairs. In addition to his ministerial work, he 
was a devoted and skilled educationist, and besides preparing 
men in his seminary for the Nonconformist ministry, he 
gave to many lads the education necessary for certain 
callings in life. 

His Eise and Progress of Religion in the Soul is known 
to many. It was a work of great note in its time. It 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 171 

suggested Wilberforce's Practical View of Christianity, the 
work whjch Dr. Chalmers, who did so much for the Church 
of Scotland, tells us changed the whole current of his life. 

As a hymn-writer, Doddridge stands in the forefront. He 
is in many cases poetical and lyrical, and a warm spirit 
pervades his hymns. He wrote almost 400 pieces, so 
there must be not a few quite worthless in these clays ; 
but those pieces that are good are indeed good some of 
them excellent. 

Among his best is: . 

happy day, that fixed my choice. 

This grand hymn has suffered much from the hands of 
hymn-menders. It stands in The Church Hymnary true 
to the original text, with the exception of a slight alteration 
in verse 3, line i, where done is substituted for past. 

Ye servants of the Lord 

has long been familiar, and is likely to maintain its place in 
general esteem. 

God of Bethel, by whose hand, 

like the 23rd Psalm, apart from any literary merit which it 
may possess, is bound to our hearts by tenderest associations. 
In what circumstances of trial and sorrow have the last eight 
lines been sung, beginning, 1 spread Thy covering wings 

around!' 

See Israel's gentle Shepherd stand 

is a very sympathetic hymn. A very reverent hymn, though 
not much used in Scotland, is: 

My God, and is Thy table spread ? 

Less noteworthy are : 

Great-God, we sing that mighty hand, 

a New Year hymn ; and : 

Fountain of good, to own Thy love. 
It is doubtful what share Doddridge had in the composition 



172 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

of the latter hymn. He was not sole author. The 

doxology : 

Now to the King of Heaven 

from the Belief Hymn-book of 1833, is partly taken from 
Doddridge's Loud to the Prince of Heaven, and partly from 
Watts' version of Psalm 148. 

In December, 1750, Doddridge went to preach the funeral 
sermon of his friend and benefactor, Mr. Clark of St. Albans. 
On the journey he contracted a cold, which proved to be the 
beginning of the end. 

Compelled to leave this country for a milder climate, he 
made for Lisbon, where he died two weeks after his arrival, 
on October 26, I75 1 , in his fiftieth year. (For Doddridge's 
connexion with the Scottish paraphrases, see p. 101 ) 

JOSEPH HART was born in London in 1712. Little is 
known of his early life. He seems to have Been a man of 
linguistic accomplishment, for prior to his entry upon the 
work of the ministry he was engaged as a teacher of 
the learned languages. 

His resolve to devote his life to the Christian ministry 
was made after a spiritual awakening which he experienced 
while attending the service in a Moravian Church in 
London, Immediately thereafter many of his hymns were 
written. He became a man of earnest spirit, his hymns 
in many instances being calls to the careless and godless 
to seek the salvation of Christ. Of that character is : 

Come, ye sinners, poor and wretched. 

It is a strong appeal to sinners, and accordingly not a true 
hymn. For that reason, and for others as apparent, its 
popularity, which used to be great, is waning. 

He is also the author of an exceedingly fine hymn to the 
Holy Spirit, not less familiar : 

Come, Holy Spirit, come; 
Let Thy bright beams arise. 

He wrote many other hymns, some of which are in common 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 173 

use. They are largely represented in Mr. Spurgeon's 
hymnal, Our Own Hymn-book. 

Mr. Hart became pastor of the Independent Chapel, 
Jewin Street, London, in 1759, and died May 24, 1768. 

THOMAS KELLY, a most voluminous writer of hymns, 
son of an Irish judge, was born in Dublin, July 13, 1769, 
and educated for the bar at Trinity College of his native 
city. Abandoning his original purpose, he took orders 
and for a time devoted himself to earnest evangelical 
preaching. Deeming the Established Church too strait for 
him, and having incurred the displeasure of the archbishop, 
he abandoned it. He set himself to Church building at 
Wexford and other places, where he ministered on the lines 
of Independency. 

Being voluminous, his compositions are very unequal. 
He wrote more than Watts, and too much. One feature 
of his hymns is commendable they are hymns of praise. 
While many of them are below mediocrity and some even 
beneath notice, much that he has written must rank in the 
forefront with the very best in our language. 

As hymns of praise, and in varied measures, how 
triumphant are: 

We sing the praise of Him who died, 

a hymn beyond all commendation ; 

The Head that once was crowned with thorns, 

and 

Look, ye saints ! the sight is glorious. 

How majestic the roll of : 

Who is this that comes from Edom, 

and how surpassingly grand the subject ! 

Hark ! a voice ! it -cries from heaven 

is a very solemn and soothing funeral hymn. 

And not less soothing is the evening hymn : 
Through the day Thy love has spared us. 



1.74 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

Mr. Kelly has given us a hymn of a class of which we 
have few a prayer for departing missionaries : 

Speed Thy servants, Saviour, speed them. 

The above are distinctly among the best of his hymns, and 
they are exceedingly good for the most part. 
Of Thy love some gracious token 

is a dismission hymn of fair merit. He died May 14, 1854, 
having been sixty-three years a minister. 

RALPH WARDLAW claims a place of honour in the ranks 
of hymnologists for the good work done by him in many 
ways at a time in Scotland when little interest was shown 
in the subject. He composed a few hymns, all of them 
productions of some merit, The best beyond doubt is that 
one beginning : 

Christ, of all my hopes the ground, 

a hymn full of evangelical fervour, and altogether unobjection- 
able in any of its sentiments. It was written in 1817, and 
in its original form is a hymn of thirteen stanzas. A fairly 
good missionary hymn is : 

Lord our God, arise ! 

Dr. Wardlaw was born at Dalkeith, Midlothian, December 22, 
1779. He entered the University of Glasgow when only 
twelve years of age, and was ordained to Albion Street 
Congregational Church in 1803. In 1811 he was appointed 
Professor of Divinity in the Congregational Theological 
Hall, Glasgow. He died at Easterhouse, near Glasgow, 
December 17, 1853. 

ANDREW REED was born in London in 1787. He studied 
at Hackney College, and became minister of Wycliffe 
Independent Chapel in 1830. He was energetic and philan- 
thropic, founding no fewer than three great asylums .in 
Londonthe Hospital for Imbeciles, the London Orphan 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 175 

Asylum, and the Asylum for Idiots. He is better known 
for his philanthropy than as a hymn-writer. 

His Hymn-book contains about nineteen pieces from his 
own pen. To the same collection his wife contributed 
twenty-one pieces. 

Spirit Divine, attend our prayers 

deservedly finds a place in many hymnals. It was written 
in 1829, to be sung on a day appointed by the Board of 
Congregational Ministers for prayer to God for a revival 
of religion in the British Churches. 

Dr. Reed wrote his own epitaph, which is one of the best 
we have come across^ and well worth giving : 

I WAS BORN YESTERDAY, 

I SHALL DIE TO-MORROW, 

AND I MUST NOT SPEND TO-DAY 

IN TELLING WHAT I HAVE DONE, 

BUT IN DOING WHAT I MAY FOR 

HIM 
WHO HAS DONE ALL FOR ME. 

'7 sprang from the people, I have lived for the people the 
most for the most unhappy ; and the people when they Jcnoiv it 
tvill not suffer me to die out of loving remembrance.' 

He died February 25, 1862. 

BAPTIST MINISTERS. 

BENJAMIN FRANCIS was born in Wales in 1734. His 
hymns, with one exception, are without merit. 

Jesus ! and shall it ever be, 

is a first-rate hymn, but when we recollect that he has only 
part authorship in it, as stated on page 168, it becomes 
very doubtful if he is deserving of any notice whatsoever as 
a hymn-writer. 
He studied at Bristol Baptist College, and became minister 



176 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1SOO 

at Horsley, where he remained for forty-two years. He 
died in 1799. 

JOHN RIPPON as a hymn-writer has little claim to notice,] 
even less than Benjamin Francis. He is said to have added 
the sixth verse to : 

All hail, the power of Jesus' name ! 

and we are inclined to think that the hymn would be more 
perfect without it. The first five verses were written by 
Edward Perronet (1721-92) and form a most remarkable 
hymn, sure to become better known in Scotland than it has 
been. 

Dr. Rippon made a large collection of hymns from various 
sources in 1787, which was enlarged in subsequent years. 
Its sale was enormous, and he was very materially benefited 
by it. He was born in the year 1751 ; became Baptist 
minister of New Park Street, London, and died in 1836. 

KOBEET ROBINSON, the son of humble parents, was born at 
Swafflham, Norfolk, in 1735. Quite young, he was apprenticed 
to a hairdresser, but disliked the occupation. He was 
awakened spiritually by Whitefield's stirring sermon, of 
which so much is recorded, on the 'wrath to- come.' For 
years he groped in darkness ; but by-and-by, when twenty 
years of age, he found the light he sought. He became 
minister successively of a Calvinistic Methodist, an Inde- 
pendent, and a Baptist congregation, and was an author of 
considerable ability and versatility. 

His hymns are few, 

Come, Thou Fount of every blessing, 

being his best. The authorship has sometimes been denied 
him, and claimed for the Countess of Huntingdon; but 
authorities are agreed that Robinson's claims are paramount. 
It would seem to have been written as early as 1757, when 
Robinson was twenty-three years of age. After that time he 
lapsed into careless ways. It is told of him that on one 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 177 

occasion, while travelling by coach, his conduct was so objec- 
tionable that a lady in the "conveyance upbraided him for it. 
He seemed to be affected by what she said ; and seeing this, 
and desirous of improving the occasion, the good lady quoted 
a verse of Come, Thou Fount of every "blessing, informing him 
that the hymn had been the cause of much blessing to her. 
This was too much for Kobinson, who burst into tears, 
exclaiming, ' I am the poor unhappy man who composed it ; 
and I would give a thousand worlds, if I had them, to enjoy 
the feelings I had then.' He died suddenly, June 9, 1790. 

JOHN FAWCETT was born near Bradford in 1740. Origin- 
ally a Methodist having come under the influence of 
Whitefield he became a Baptist, and qualified for the 
ministiy of that Church. He was ordained to the pastorate 
at Wainsgate, Yorkshire, in 1765. The hymn : 

Blest be the tie that binds, , 

has a strange histoiy. It seems that Dr. Fawcett had made 
up his mind to remove to London, whither he had been 
called to succeed Dr. Gill. He had said farewell to his 
people the Sunday before. His goods filled the wagons 
that were to remove them, when, overcome by the sorrow 
of his flock, he resolved to remain with them. This he 
continued to do. The incident suggested the hymn. He 
died in 1817. 

He wrote several poems, and a few hymns. The latter, 
though of no poetic value, are warm in tone and highly 
spiritual. 

Dr.. Fawcett is credited with having been the author of 
the very popular hymn : 

Lord, dismiss us with Thy blessing ; 
Fill our hearts with joy and peace ; 

but of that we cannot be sure* The editors of several 
hymnals in use in Yorkshire in Dr. Fawcett's time ascribe 
the authorship to him; and probably, they were correctly 

N 



178 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

informed on the matter, certainly they ought to have been. 
But there is doubt. This must be said, that the hymn 
does not appear in Fawcett's works, 'nor does his editor lay 
claim to it. For a full discussion of the question see The 
Dictionary of Hymnology, page 686. 

JOSEPH SWAIN was bom at Birmingham in 1761. He 
early lost his parents, and was apprenticed to an engraver. 
His youth was spent in frivolity, till upon reading the 
Scriptures he was aroused, and became a man of eminent 
Christian character. He qualified for the Baptist ministry, 
and was ordained to the pastorate at Wai worth, London ; 
where, after a short ministry, he died in 1796. The few 
hymns he wrote are not of special value. 

Come, ye souls by sin afflicted, 

contains a very earnest Gospel call, but has never found 
much acceptance. 

METHODIST MINISTERS. 

JOHN BAKEWELL (1721-1819), one of Wesley's first local 
preachers, is a small name in hymnody. He wrote part of : 
Hail, Thou once-despised Jesus! 

a hymn of ordinary merit. He did the work of an evangelist 
with great earnestness, and lived to the great age of ninety- 
eight. 

THOMAS OLIVERS, a Welshman, born in Montgomeryshire, 
in 1725, He early lost his parents, and grew up little cared 
for, and with an indifferent education. For many years he 
led a loose life, and was known as the ' vagabond shoemaker.' 

He was arrested in his evil course by the preaching of 
George Whitefield. Thereafter John Wesley, recognizing 
his ability, joined him to his army of preachers, and sent 
him to work in Cornwall. 

He wrote a few hymns of considerable merit, 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 179 

The God of Abraham praise, 

a free rendering in a metrical form of the thirteen articles 
of the Jewish creed, is said to have been penned by him 
after a visit he paid to the synagogue. But for an interesting 
account of the origin of the hymn see the exhaustive 
article in The Dictionary of Hymnology, page 1149. 
The first two verses of the hymn : 

Lo ! He comes with clouds descending, 

have been said to have been written by him, but this is wrong. 
They are the work of Charles Wesley. He died in 1799. 

UNCLASSIFIED. 

JOHN CENNICK deserves to be remembered for a few valu- 
able contributions to our hymnody. His hymns are not of 
outstanding merit, but they ar6 lyrical ; and those of them 
which find a place in hymnals have secured the popular 
verdict, and are not likely to be soon displaced. 

Children of the heavenly King, 

is universally known, and is a good congregational hymn. 
The fifth stanza, the weakest, one always feels inclined to 
pass over. It spoils the hymn. 

' That weak man, Cennick,' as John Wesley was wont to 
style him, was born of a Quaker stock at Beading, December 
I2j 1718. He joined himself to the Church of England, of 
which he was for some time a member ; but coming Adel- 
ine influence of John Wesley and George Whitefield, he 
became a Methodist and lay preacher. Differing, however, 
from Wesley on certain doctrinal matters, he latterly 
became a Moravian. He was the author of many hymns, 
which were more commonly in use formerly, than now. 
Lo, He comes, with clouds descending, owes its existence to 
Cennick, who was the author of Lo, He cometh, countless 
trumpets, which forms its groundwork. He died in London 
July 4, 1755. 

N2 



180 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

WILLIAM SHRUBSOLE, jun., was born at Sheerness in 1759, 
and died at Highbury in 1829. He became a lay preacher 
in connexion with the Independents. His connexion with 
hymnody is slight, and is not likely to be long recognized. 

His hymn : 

Arm of the Lord, awake, awake ! 

has merit, but is not popular, although found in many 
hymnals. 

BERNARD BARTON, born in London in 1784, was a Quaker, 
and the author of several volumes of poetical compositions. 
It is somewhat strange that a Quaker should provide songs 
for the sanctuary, When his own persuasion refuses to sing. 
But after all, the two pieces from his pen which are included 
in The Church Hymnary are not in reality hymns. 

Walk in the light : so shalt thou know 

is a very pretty encouragement to Christian service ; while in 
, Lamp of our feet, whereby we trace, 

we have the Holy Scriptures apostrophized. Barton died in 
1849. 

Sin ROBERT GRANT was born in 1785, and educated at 
Cambridge University. He was made a Privy Councillor, 
and in 1834 became Governor of Bombay. 

His hymns are few, but are all of real merit. His best- 
known composition is : 

worship the King all-glorious above, 

universally and deservedly popular. Few better hymns have 
we for the opening of public worship. 

Saviour, when in dust to Thee, 

written in modified litany style, is exceedingly fine. !Not 
less so, but hardly so well suited to public service, is : 

When gathering clouds around I view. 
Sir Kobert died at Dapoorie, Western India, July 9, 1838. 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 181 

JOSIAH CONDER was born in London in 1789. He was an 
author of considerable merit. In hymnody his name is 
well known, and many of his productions are the valuable 
possession of the Christian Church, and are^ found in many 
hymnals. 

To his work as an author he added that of an editor, and 
edited in 1836 The Congregational Hymn-book : A Supple- 
ment to Dr. Watts' Psalms and Hymns. Two of his best 
compositions find a place" in The Church Hymnary : 

The Lord is King! lift up thy voice, 
a hymn in an exultant strain ; and 

How shall I follow Him I serve? 

one of Conder's best hymns, and giving expression to the 
yearning of a consecrated heart. He died December 27, 

1855- 

JAMES EDMESTON was born at Wapping, London, Septem- 
ber 10, 1791. We have two good hymns from his pen : 

Lead us, heavenly Father, lead us, 
and an evening hymn : 

Saviour, breathe an evening blessing. 

Both are good congregational hymns, and are sure to 
continue to be favourites. He was a most extensive hymn^ 
writer. About 2,000 pieces came from his pen, but 
only a very few have come into common use. Some of 
his children's hymns are very good. He practised as an 
architect during his life, and died January 7, 1867. 

WILLIAM FREEMAN LLOYD deserves to be remembered for 
his very beautiful hymn, so full of trust in the wisdom 

of God: ,, ,. . _, , , 

My times are in Thy hand. 

It is a hymn well deserving a place in every good hymnal. 

His contributions to hymnody are few, but some of his 
children's hymns are extremely good, Lloyd was one 



182 HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 

of the secretaries of the Sunday School Union. He was 
born at Uley, Gloucestershire, December 22, 1791 ; and 
died at Stanley Hall, in the same county, April 22, 1853. 

SAMUEL MILLER WARING (1792-1827) bears a name that 
will live in English hymnody in connexion with the work 
of his niece, Anna Laetitia Waring, one of our living hymn- 
writers, The very familiar doxology : 

Now to Him who loved us, gave us, 
was written by him. 

JOHN JAMES CUMMINS, for many years a director of the 
Union Bank of Australia, was born at Cork, Ireland, May 5, 
1795. He died at Wildecroft, Buckland, Surrey, Novem- 
ber 23, 1867. He is the author of : 

Jesus, Lord of life and glory, 

which is written in litany form. 

SIR EDWARD DENNY, Baronet, of Tralee Castle, County 
Kerry, was born October 2, 1796 ; and succeeded his father 
as fourth baronet, August, 1831. He resided much in 
London, where he was a conspicuous and honoured member 
of the Plymouth Brethren. He died June, 1889. In 1848 
he published his Hymns and Poems, and his contributions 
to the literature of the Brethren were numerous. By his 
tenantry he was held in high respect, and was considered 
an exceedingly lenient and considerate landlord. He was 
almost alone in escaping any reduction of rents at the 
hands of the Land Commissioners, a very palpable evidence 
of the relationship that existed between him and the tenants 
on his estate. 

A friend of Sir Edward writes : ' When I was with him 
in his ninetieth year at West Brompton, and as we were 
together in his library, he pointed to one book, remarking 
that under God to it he owed his conversion. That book 
was "Father Clement."' " 



HYMN-WRITERS BORN BETWEEN 1700 AND 1800 183 

He seldom took part in any public meeting, but privately 
proved himself a diligent servant of Christ. Some of his 
hymns are popular ; but many are so imbued with the 
doctrines of his sect as to limit their usefulness. 
t What grace, Lord, and beauty shone, 

is a hymn of great merit. 

Sweet was the hour, Lord, to Thee, 

Light of the lonely pilgrim's heart, 

and 

Sweet feast of love Divine ! 

a good communion hymn, reveal the meditative spirit of 
the writer. 

Praise the Lord ! ye heavens, adore Him ; 

is a free rendering of Psalm 148, and is a fine expression of 
praise. The authorship has not been ascertained. It has 
in error been ascribed to John Kempthorne, the son of 
Admiral James Kempthorne, who was born at Plymouth, 
June 24, 1775, and was Rector of St. Michael's, Gloucester, 
where he died, November 6, 1838. It first appeared about 
the year 1796, and is found with some of Kempthorne's 
hymns in the Hymns for the Foundling Hospital (1809). 



XI 

NINETEENTH CENTURA 
HYMN-WRITERS 



XI 



THE nineteenth century gives us a mighty army of 
hymn-writers, in which some of the sweetest singers of the 
Christian Church find a place. The spirit of the age is felt 
in its hymnody as in the departments of science and 
literature in general a spirit of progress and enterprise. 
The advance of education and the increase of culture tell 
upon the hymns of this century ; and the deepening earnest- 
ness of the Churches in all departments of Christian use- 
fulness has given a variety and a warmth of devotional 
feeling unsurpassed in the work of the preceding years. 
As the century advances we have to note a decline in 
a class of hymns which, however useful in a didactic sense 
in the past, are not ideal from the point of view of hymnic 
excellence: viz. what are termed doctrinal hymns. The 
catholicity of sentiment pervading our present-day hymns 
is very marked. 

.And the century, in the latter part of it, is remarkable 
for this, that it sees the use of hymns in the praise of the 
Church almost universally recognized. In Scotland (with 
the exception of a few of the smaller sects which are fast 
outliving their usefulness, and are vainly attempting to 
resist the legitimate demands of an age unparalleled in the 
history of the Christian Church for its zeal, and for its 
interest in all that pertains to the progress of Christ's 
Kingdom) the Churches are gladly availing themselves 
of the songs of the inspired servants of Christ, which they 



1 88 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

honourably associate in their worship with the Metrical 
Version of the Psalter, to which the hearts of Presbyterians 
are bound by very tender ties. 

* 

TRACTARIAN HYMN- WRITERS. 

The great Oxford movement of the first quarter of this 
century, which has been characterized by J. B. Mozley as 
a ' rallying round the v Church of England, its Prayer-book, 
its faith, its ordinances, its constitution, its catholic and 
apostolic character,' was primarily caused by the deplorable 
condition into which the Church had fallen. Here is what 
one of the leaders of the movement said regarding it :' To 
wean the Church from its Erastianism to militancy, where it 
might at least command respect for its sincerity ; to wean 
the bishops from their palaces, and lazy carriages, and 
fashionable families ; the clergy from their snug firesides, 
and marrying and giving in marriage : this was the first 
step. Slowly then to draw the people out of the whirl of 
business to thought upon themselves ; from self-assertion^ 
from the clamouring for their rights and the craving for 
independence, to almsgiving, to endurance of wrong, to the 
confessional ; from doing to praying ; from early hours in 
the office or the field to Matins, and daily service : this was 
the purpose of the Tractarian movement.' 

On the one hand the removal of Catholic disabilities 
threatened the wealth and position of the Church of England ; 
on the other there was advancing the movement of German 
rationalism, and the Church was too weak to withstand the 
combination. There was needed to save the Church, so the 
Tractarians thought, a positive dogma with all the authority 
that antiquity has gathered for it. This then was the aim 
which the leaders in the Oxford movement set before 
themselves in the Tracts for the Times to approximate the 
creed and practice of the Church of England to that of the 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 189 

Church of Borne, Tract XC distinctly proclaimed that 
a clergyman could remain in the Church of England while 
holding certain Eoman doctrines, such as the Mass, Iran- 
substantiation, &c., &c. 

Those most prominently associated with the movement, 
and all men of piety and scholarship, were John Keble (the 
accomplished author of The Christian Year), John Henry 
Newman, Hurrell Froude, Isaac Williams, Edward Bouverie 
Pusey, Frederick William Faber, and Henry Edward 
Manning. The leaders were John Keble and John Henry 
Newman. The first threatening of the great upheaval was 
given in the Oxford University pulpit, when Keble preached 
the Assize Sermon in 1833, taking for his subject ' National 
Apostasy.' For ten years the movement continued in activity, 
and at this time its energy is by no means spent. 

The immediate result of the movement was the secession 
of several clergymen of the English Church, notably of 
John Henry Newman, Frederick William Faber, and H. E. 
Manning, and the establishing of Roman practices in the 
Church in many districts. 

Reference is made here to the Oxford movement, for 
the reason that three of its leading spirits were hymn-writers, 
whose work is of the highest excellence. 

JOHN KEBLE was born on St. Mark's Day (April 25), 1792, 
at Fairford, in Gloucestershire. He was the eldest son of 
the Rev. John Keble, a man of scholarship, who gave the 
future hymn-writer the necessary education in his own home 
prior to his going to Oxford. He had a brilliant undergraduate 
career, and had the honour to be appointed Professor of 
Poetry. He was in the front of the Tractarian movement, 
and sang it into the hearts of others, as Luther did the 
.Reformation in Germany. John Keble sang the movement, 
and John Henry Newman preached it. Besides, he wrote 
eight of the Tracts for the Times. For several years Keble 



190 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

and Newman were closely associated, but ultimately they 
parted. Newman, too logical to do otherwise, entered the 
Church of Rome ; while Keble remained a ritualist in the 
Church of England. He filled several curacies, and eventu- 
ally became Vicar of Hursley, near Winchester. He was a 
man of deep reverence. 'His reverential feelings manifested 
themselves not merely in church, but in many almost in- 
voluntary habits of voice and gesture, in his family prayers, 
in conversation, or reading. His hand would, in prayer, 
be raised, so as to overshadow his eyes, or his voice would 
sink. Once a friend was about to read to him the daily 
prayers used by a poor Italian woman : he raised his hand 
to his forehead in the way I speak of, caught a low chair 
and knelt on it, as if that were the only proper position for 
him while the prayers were read.' 

He died on March 29, 1866. ' In the floor of the chancel, 
on the spot where his body rested during the service, the 
parishioners have placed a very beautiful brass cross, which 
records his name, the period of his incumbency, the day 
when he fell asleep in the Lord, and his age seventy-four 
years. This cross is let into a stone, round the edge of 
which, on a strip of brass, is inscribed a memorable portion 
of our Litany, which he so loved : "By THINE AGONY AND 

BLOODY SWEAT ,' BY THY CROSS AND PASSION ; BY TlIY 
PRECIOUS DEATH AND BURIAL ; BY THY GLORIOUS EESUREECTION 

AND ASCENSION; AND BY THE COMING OP THE HOLY GHOST, 
GOOD LORD, DELIVER us V ' 

The best of Keble's hymns are to be found in The 
Christian Year, which, as the title indicates, is a collection 
of hymns arranged for the various seasons in the Church 
calendar. When this collection first appeared in 1827, it 
had a most extraordinary reception. One hundred and 
eight thousand copies were issued in forty-three editions ; 
and in the nine months immediately following his death, 
' Memoir of the Kev. John Keble, M.A. (Coleridge). 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 191 

seven editions were issued of eleven thousand copies ; and it 
is selling 'largely still. 

We may remark that it is quite possible to say too much 
in praise of Keble's hymns. He was an artist rather than 
a poet. Style and finish characterize Keble. We seldom 
come across a thought that acts as an inspiration. When 
Keble gets a good thought, he generally makes too much of 
it, and we tire of it. His best hymn by far is : 
Sun of my soul, Thou Saviour dear, 

one of our finest evening hymns. 

Less familiar in Scotland, but also, very good, is his 
morning hymn: 

timely happy, timely wise, 

the opening hymn of The Christian Year. 

He was the author of one of the few marriage hymns we 
possess, and perhaps the best : 

The voice that breathed o'er Eden. 
Lord, in Thy name Thy servants plead, 
a hymn for the seasons, is not very successful. 

When God of old came down from heaven, . 
is the hymn for Whit-Sunday ; and 

There is a book, who rxms may read, 
the hymn for Septuagesima Sunday. 

Blest are the pure in heart, 

only part of which is the work of Keble, is the hymn 
in The Christian Year for The Purification, where it is 
a composition of seventeen stanzas. 

Keble's hymns are pleasant and profitable reading ; but, 
with few exceptions, are better suited to the hours of private 
devotion than to the public praise. 

JOHN HENRY NEWMAN was born in London, Feb. 21, 1801. 
His father was a banker in that city, and a man of strong 
religious convictions, who trained his son with all care in 



IQ2 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

the truths of the Word of God. He studied at Trinity 
College, Oxford, and graduated in 1820. In 1828 Newman 
became Incumbent of St. Mary's, Oxford ; and Chaplain at 
Littlemore. He was a leading spirit in the Tractarian 
movement, the writer of many of the Tracts, notably of 
Tract XC, which excited so much controversy ; and by his 
preaching in St. Mary's he deeply influenced the students 
of Oxford. 

He visited Rome in 1832, and while there wrote the 
verses which were included in the Lyra Apostolica, 1836, 
among which we find the piece beginning : ' Time was I 
shrank from what was right,' in which he reveals the 
thought of his heart, that for his Church he had a duty to 
perform, no matter what obstacles stand in the way. 

On his way home, and while becalmed in the Straits of 
Bonifacio, he composed, June 16, 1833, that beautiful 
hymn : 

Lead, kindly Light, amid the encircling gloom, 

in which the perplexity and doubt of his mind find expres- 
sion, and which is found now in almost every Church 
hymnal. And no wonder, for it is delightful, apart from 
its piety and devotion, as a draught from the ' well of 
English undefiled.' Newman has culled some of the most 
beautiful phrases from the masters of English, and presents 
them to us in a posy. 'Kindly Light,' 'encircling gloom,' 
'garish day,' 'o'er moor and fen, o'er crag and torrent,' 
' with the morn those angel faces smile.' We do not come 
across English like that nowadays : we must go back to the 
Elizabethan authors for it. It is one of the most dignified 
hymns in the English language. Shall we not say the 
most dignified? 

On his return in 1833, fully persuaded in his mind in 
regard to what should be done, he began with his associates 
the preparation and issue of the Tracts for the Times. Step 
by step Newman progressed towards Romanism, , At Little- 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 193 

more he set up a monastic community ; and in 1845 he took 
the only step that was possible for a man of his clear and 
logical mind, and formally entered the Church of Rome, 

He was first appointed to the Oratory of St. Philip Neri 
at Birmingham. Then he became Rector of the Roman 
Catholic University at Dublin, holding the office till 1858. 
He was made Cardinal in 1879. The later years of his life 
were spent at Birmingham. 

Newman did much for hymnody. His work in connexion 
with the hymns of the Latin Church was extensive. Besides 
compiling the Hymni Ecclesiae, which is a collection of. 
hymns chiefly from the Paris Breviary, he made some 
fine renderings from the Latin. 

Praise to the Holiest in the height, 

is a noble and dignified hymn, taken from The Dream of 
Gerontius, a poem which describes the journey of the 
soul to purgatory. It is chanted by an angelic choir while 
the soul is led into the presence of Immanuel, before 
entering purgatory. The hymn was a special favourite of 
William Ewart Gladstone, and was sung at his funeral 
service. In Newman's Apologia pro Vita Sua, we get a 
masterly statement and defence of his life and work. He 
died in 1890. 

FREDERICK OAKELEY, youngest son of Sir Charles Oakeley, 
was born at Shrewsbury, September 5, 1802. He studied 
at Christ Church, Oxford, and became a fellow of Balliol, 
1827. He took orders, and in 1839 was Incumbent of 
Margaret Chapel, London. While at Oxford he was in 
the heart of the -Tractarian movement, with which he fully 
sympathized. Like Newman, he eventually j oined the Church 
of Rome, 1845 ; and became a canon of the Roman Catholic 
district of Westminster, 1852. He died January 29, 1880. 
He shared with others the translation of Adeste Fideks : 

come, all ye faithful, ' 

Joyful and triumphant. . 





*94 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

ISAAC WILLIAMS was born in Wales, December 12, 1802. 
He studied at Trinity College, Oxford, where he won the 
prize for Latin verse in 1823. He filled several appoint- 
ments in the Church, among others the curacy of Wind- 
rush, 1829, and in 1832 the curacy of St. Mary's, Oxford, 
where John H, Newman was incumbent. There he became 
acquainted with John Keble, Hurrell Froude, and other 
Tractarians, with whose views he actively sympathized. He 
was the author of several of the Tracts, notably Tract LXXX, 
on 'Eeserve in the Communication of Knowledge,' which, 
little behind Tract XC, caused much controversy. Williams 
did much for Latin hymnody in his Hymns from the 
Breviary, and was a contributor to Newman's Lyra Aposto- 
lica. It may be mentioned that he was a candidate for the 
Professorship of Poetry at Oxford when Keble retired, but 
without success. The original composition : 

Lord, in this Thy mercy's day, 

first appeared in The Baptistery, 1842. He was also the 
author of the last verse of the Dies irae in the version 
included in The Church Hymnary. He died at Stinch- 
combe, May I, 1865. 

FREDEEICK WILLIAM FABEE was born in the vicarage of 
Calverley, Yorkshire, June 28, 1814. He was educated at 
Harrow, and Balliol College, Oxford, and was the winner 
of the University prize for English verse. In 1836 he 
became a fellow of University College, at the early age of 
twenty-two. Newman at that time exercised great influence 
at Oxford by his preaching in St. Mary's, and Faber, becoming 
one of his admirers, soon came to identify himself with the 
Tractarian movement. His heart was early in the Church 
of Eome, and repeatedly he found himself on the eve of 
renouncing Protestantism. This he ultimately did in 1846, 
after having been Kector of Elton, Huntingdonshire, for 
nine years. In a few years he was sent to London, to the 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 195 

Oratory of St. Philip Neri, Brompton, where he continued 
till his death, which took place September 26, 1863. 

Faber's hymns, one hundred and fifty in all, are arranged 
in his book under seven heads : (i) God and the Most Holy 
Trinity ; (2) The Sacred Humanity of Christ ; (3) The Blessed 
Lady, Joseph, and the Holy Family ; (4) Angels and Saints ; 
(5) The Sacraments, the Faith, and the Spiritual Life ; (6) 
Miscellaneous ; (7) The Last Things, One dislikes to subject 
Faber to criticism. He was a true poet, and his songs 
come as readily to his tongue as do the songs of the merle, 
and their notes are as sweet. One thing he has done for us 
all, Protestant and Roman Catholic alike : he has helped to 
bring God the Father and His earthly children nearer. He 
has helped us to realize the brotherhood of Christ ; and if he 
sometimes errs in his familiarity with divine things for 
he makes a boast of saying 'daring things to our dearest 
Lord ' we can understand him somewhat, and it is refresh- 
ing. How familiar the following lines, and how near a man 
must feel God to be to write them ! 

I would not sleep iinless Tliy hand 

Were underneath my head, 
That I might kiss it if I lay 

Wakeful upon my bed. 

It is strange that a Romanist, and one so ardently attached 
to his Church, should have been able to write so many 
hymns which, with only a few alterations or omissions, can 
be used by all worshippers of all sects. That is due to the 
fact that he is a poet first, and after that a Romanist and 
theologian, if indeed a theologian at all. He sang of the 
love of God because his heart was full of it. Had Faber 
moulded all his songs to express Roman dogma his name 
would never have been heard outside his own Church. 

Three of his hymns are in every hymnal. 

Hark ! hark, my soul ! angelic songs are swelling 

is musical and meaningless. 

2 



ig6 NINETEENTH CENTURY H^MN-WRITERS 

Paradise, Paradise ! x 
and 

Saviour, bless us ere we go ; 

are both very fine hymns. The first is somewhat relaxing, 
but is very beautiful and musical. The other is one of our 
good dismission hymns. 

I bow to thee, sweet Will of God, 

is ill adoration of the Will of G-od. We are not sure that 
we quite fall in with the sentiment of the last verse : 

111 that He blesses is our good, 

And unblest good is ill; 
And all is right that seems most wrong, 

If it be His sweet Will. 

The difficulty of Christian service is fully expressed in : 

it is hard to work_for God. 
Souls of men, why will ye scatter 

is a poem of surpassing beauty, in which the poet magnifies 
the love of God. 

The divinity of our Lord is extolled in : 
Jesus is God ! the solid earth. 
That hymn, with 

My God, how wonderful Thou art, 
and 

come and mourn with me awhile ; 

is not likely to increase in popularity in this practical age. 

We have a fault to find with Faber on the ground of the 
sensuousness of not a few of his pieces, but in that, of 
course, he is quite consistent with the general treatment 
of our Lord's Passion by the Eoman Church. 

We have however another charge to make, and when we 
are dealing with a poet, and one who should be able to guard 
against it, a serious charge. Some of his productions are 
the meanest doggerel. Set alongside his gems, we wonder 
their existence was tolerated for one day. But there they 
are in all their tawdry finery. Even in the middle of 
a poem which moves the heart, we are rudely shocked by 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS , 197 

some paltry stanza which has neither music nor merit. But 
we remember the defects of Isaac Watts and Charles 
Wesley ; and Faber remains one of the sweet singers of 
the Church universal. 

CHURCH DIGNITARIES. 

EDWARD ARTHUR DAYMAN was born at Padstow, in 
Cornwall, July n, 1807. He studied at Exeter College, 
Oxford ; took orders in 1835 ; in 1842 became Eector of 
Shillings tone, Dorset ; and in 1862 was made Honorary 
Canon of Bitton in Sarum Cathedral. 

Besides giving us several original hymns, a few of which 
have come into common use, Canon Dayman made several 
renderings from the hymns of the Latin Church. 

Sleep thy last sleep, 

is a very fine original hymn for funeral services. He has 
also given us a good hymn for travellers : 
Lord, be with us when we sail. 
He died in 1890. 

CHRISTOPHER WORDSWORTH, Bishop of Lincoln. From 
the pen of Bishop Wordsworth we have some of our very 

best hymns. 

Hallelujah ! hallelujah ! 

Hearts to heaven and voices raise ; 

is one of our most inspiring Easter hymns, and is sung with 
fine effect to Sullivan's Lux Eoi. The last stanza has 
a place in the collection of Doxologies at the end of The 
Church Hymnary. The hymn : 

Gracious Spirit, Holy Grhost, 

in praise of charity, is. another fine piece, and wedded to 
Sir John Stainer's Charity is sure to win its way. 

Hark ! the sound of holy voices, 
The day is gently sinking to a close; 

Father of all, from land and sea 
are all fine hymns. 



198 'NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

The two hymns by which Bishop Wordsworth is best 
known are, that triumphant hymn in praise of the day of 

rest : 

day of rest and gladness, 

and that very winning hymn on Christian giving : 
Lord of heaven and earth and sea, 

Christopher Wordsworth was born at Lambeth, Surrey, 
October 30, 1807. He got his early education at Win- 
chester School, whence he proceeded to Cambridge and 
became a student of Trinity College. He had a most 
distinguished career; and having gained a fellowship, he 
travelled for some time in Greece. The records of his 
travels he published in his Athens and Attica, 1836. 

In the same year he was appointed Head Master of 
Harrow, in 1844 became a Canon of Westminster, and in 
1869 was consecrated Bishop of Lincoln, which he continued 
to be till his death, March 20, 1885. Bishop Wordsworth 
was a writer on various subjects, and, as we have seen, a 
hymn-writer of great excellence. While Canon of West- 
minster he published The Holy Year, 1862, which con- 
tained, besides others, 117 original pieces. In a later edition 
the number of original pieces was increased to 127. Many 
of his hymns are largely in use and are growing in favour. 

It may be noted that Bishop Wordsworth was a nephew 
of the poet of the same name. 

HENEY ALFOED, Dean of Canterbury, was born in London, 
October 7, 1810. He got his early education in the Gram- 
mar School of Ilminster, Somersetshire ; and later became 
a student of Trinity College, Cambridge. After filling 
several appointments in the Church of England, he became 
in 1853 Incumbent of Quebec Chapel, London, and in 1857 
Dean of Canterbury. He died at Canterbury, January 12, 
1871. 

Dean Alford is well known in connexion with his great 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 199 

work on the New Testament, which cost him labour extend- 
ing through twenty years. But as a hymn-writer he 
occupies a place of prominence. His hymns are, indeed, not 
of the character that appeals to the multitude, but they have 
the qualities that last, and to devout, cultured souls they 
must ever be very precious. 

The three hymns in The Church Hymnary from his pen 
are, strange to say, all of a triumphant character. The best 
without doubt is : , 

Ten thousand times ten thousand, 

a hymn setting forth the heavenly glory, and often sung at 
funeral and memorial services. 

One of the finest harvest hymns in use, if not the finest, 

is :< 

Come, ye thankful people, come. 

' Forward ! ' be our watchword, 

is a processional hymn of great beauty, and is full of 
aspiration. 

JOHN ARMSTRONG, the author of: 

Thou who makest souls to shine, 

a good hymn for ordination and dedication services, was 
born at Wearmouth, August 22, 1813. He studied at 
Lincoln College, Oxford ; and, after taking orders, became 
Curate of Alford in 1837. Eventually he was consecrated 
Bishop of Grahamstown, South Africa, in 1853, an ^ died 
there May 16, 1856. 

ARTHUR PENRHYN STANLEY, Dean of Westminster, was 
born at Alderley, Cheshire, December 13, 1815, his father 
being rector of the parish at the time, and later Bishop of 
Norwich. He was educated under the famous Dr. Arnold 
at Kugby ; and thereafter was a student of Balliol College, 
Oxford, where he gained many distinctions, securing a 
fellowship of University College in 1838. Having taken 
orders, he was for twelve years tutor of his college ; Select 



200 . NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

Preacher (1845-46), Canon of Canterbury (1851-58), Pro- 
fessor of Ecclesiastical History and Canon of Christ Church 
(1856-64). In 1863 he declined the Archbishopric of Dublin, 
but in the following year became Dean of Westminster, and 
distinguished himself as no former dean had ever done, 
being a man of cultured mind and varied tastes. Dean 
Stanley was chosen to accompany the Prince of Wales on 
his Eastern travels, and on his return published his work on 
Sinai and Palestine. 

Dean Stanley is better known as a Church historian than 
as a hymn-writer. He has made several translations from 
the Latin, and is also the author of a few original pieces in 
The Westminster Abbey Hymn-book. 

He is gone beyond the skies; 

is a good Ascension hymn, and has secured considerable 
recognition. He died at the Deanery, Westminster, July 
18, 1881. 

CHARLES KINGSLEY, Canon of Westminster, was born at 
Holne Vicarage, Devonshire, June 12, 1819. He studied at 
Magdalen College, Cambridge, and in 1844 became Sector 
of Eversley, Hampshire, where he continued till his death, 
May 24, 1876. His is a well-known name in literature. In 
1848 he published the Saint's Tragedy, an historical drama. 
Alton Locke followed in 1849, and secured for the author 
the title of The Chartist Parson.' Yeast appeared in 1851, 
and deals with problems connected with agricultural 
labourers. Hypatia and Westward Ho! are historical 
novels. In 1859 he was appointed Professor of Modern 
History at Cambridge. 

Besides writing many other works in fiction, he composed 
many poems and songs of rare value. He has but a slight 
connexion with our hymnody, having written : 

From Thee all skill and science flow, 

a hymn that does not do credit to a man who had an 
indubitable share of the lyric gift. 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 201 

SAMUEL REYNOLDS HOLE, Dean of Rochester, was born at 
Ardwick, near Manchester, December 5, 1819, and after 
studying at Brasenose College, Oxford, became curate 
at Gaunton, 1844, and in 1857 was preferred to the vicarage 
of the same parish. In 1887 he was made a Doctor of 
Divinity by the Archbishop of Canturbury, and appointed 
to the deanery of Rochester, which he still holds. So far 
as we have been able to ascertain, Dean Hole is the author 
of but one hymn : 

Sons of labour, dear to Jesus, 

which appeared for the first time in the supplement to 
Hymns Ancient and Modern, 1889. 

EDWARD HAYES PLUMPTKE, Dean of Wells, was born in 
London, August 6, 1821. He was a distinguished student 
of University College, Oxford, and had a varied ecclesias- 
tical experience. In 1847 Chaplain, King's College, London ; 
1851-58, Assistant Preacher, Lincoln's Inn ; 1851-53, 1864- 
66, 1872-73, Select Preacher at Oxford ; 1863, Prebendary 
of St. Paul's ; 1864, Professor of New Testament Exegesis 
in King's College ; 1866-67, Boyle Lecturer; 1869, Rector 
of Plucldey, Kent ; 1873, Vicar of Bicldey. 

Dean Plumptre was not successful as a hymn-writer ; 
Thine arm, Lord, iu clays of old, 

lacks lyric fire. It is as a theologian that he will be 
remembered. He was installed Dean of Wells, December 21, 
1881 ; and died in 1891. 

WILLIAM WALSHAM How, Bishop of Wakefield, son of 
William Wybergh How. of Shrewsbury, was born Decem- 
ber 13, 1823. After a successful career at Wadham 
College, Oxford, he took orders, and was appointed Curate 
of St. George's, Kidderminster, in 1846, and of Holy Cross, 
Shrewsbury, 1848. He was successively Rector of Whit- 
tington, 1851 ; Rural Dean of Oswestry, 1853 ; Honorary 



202 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

Canon of St. Asaph's Cathedral. 1860, and Select Preacher 
at Oxford, 1869 ; in 1879 Suffragan Bishop of East 
London, under the title of Bishop of Bedford; and in 
1888 Bishop of Wakefield, which he held till his death 
in 1897. 

Bishop How was a man of rare virtues. It is impossible 
to say whether the virtues or the graces of the Christian 
character were more conspicuous in his life. As a hymn- 
writer he has a foremost place. To the collection of 
Church Hymns issued by the Society for the Propagation 
of Christian Knowledge he contributed many original 
pieces, not one of which but is of foremost merit. Of 
the sixty compositions from his pen in common use, all 
are worthy of the praise which has fallen to them. Of 
those in The Church Hymnary, the best known are : 

' Jesus ! ' name of wondrous love ; 
a very fine hymn on the Incarnation ; and 

For all the saints who from their labours rest, 
a very glad and exulting hymn. 

We give Thee but Thine own, 
and 

Thou through suffering perfect made, 

are both hymns setting forth the duty of Christian liberality. 
His hymns for the seasons are all of excellent quality : 
Summer suns are glowing 

is a bright, beautiful, glad hymn for summer-time ; 

Winter reigneth o'er the land, 
is as appropriate for winter-time ; and 

For all Thy love and goodness, so bountiful and free, 

is well suited to the spring-time, when the flowers appear 
on the earth, and the time of the singing of birds is come. 

On wings of living light, 

ranks in the forefront of Easter hymns. 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 203 

When the dark waves round us roll, 

is a beautiful hymn of Christian experience, founded on the 
incident on the Lake of Galilee. In the hymn : 

Jesus, Thou art 'standing 
the Gospel call is very earnestly urged, 

Word of God incarnate, 

is a good hymn on the truth of God shining on the holy 
page, and incarnate in Jesus. 

Soldiers of the cross, arise ! 

is a hymn for missionary services, but inferior to many we 
possess. 

Two hymns for special occasions deserve notice, as filling., 
a place for which we have few hymns : 
Bowed low in supplication, 

is a prayer for the progress of God's truth in one's own 
locality. For times of national prayer and humiliation, 
To Thee our God we fly - 

is very suitable. Bishop How was most successful as 
a writer of children's hymns. 

For all Tliy love and goodness, &c., it should be stated, 
was written by Frances Jane Douglas, and recast by her 
brother, Bishop How. 

HENRY TWELLS, Honorary Canon of Peterborough Cathe- 
dral, was born in 1823. Educated at St. Peter's College, 
Cambridge, he took orders, and became Curate of Great 
Berkhamstead in 1849, and after filling several other 
appointments was preferred to the rectory of "Waltham, 
Melton Mowbray, in 1871. He became honorary canon in 
1884. Mr, Twells ranks with one hymn in the forefront 
of living hymn-writers : 

At even, ere the sun was set. 

It was originally written for the first appendix of Hymns 
Ancient and Modern at the request of the late Sir Hemy 
Baker, at that time chairman of the compilers. ' Up to this 



204 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

time' (November 21, 1898), Canon T wells writes, 'I have 
been asked for permission to insert it in 157 hymnals, all 
over the English-speaking world, and connected, of course, 
with very different denominations of Christians. Many 
more hymnals have taken it without leave, of which I do 
not complain, except when they have altered it after their 
own fashion.' Canon Twells has written other hymns, 
a few of which have a place in Hymns Ancient and Modern, 
but none of them is equal in merit to this one. 

WILLIAM BRIGHT, Begins Professor of Ecclesiastical 
History, and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford, was born at 
Doncaster, December 14, 1824. He studied at University 
College, Oxford, where he had a brilliant record, and, after 
taking orders, became a tutor at Trinity College, Glenalmond, 
Perthshire, in 1848. After eleven years he was brought 
back to Oxford as Professor of Ecclesiastical History. His 
publications are numerous. 

As a hymn-writer he takes his place with that very fine 

hymn : 

And now the wants are told that brought 

which has passed into several hymnals. It was written in 
August, 1865. 'At this distance,' Canon Bright writes, 'I 
cannot remember what specially led me to write it, but I feel 
sure that I must have been thinking of Newman's great 
sermon, "The thought of God, the stay of the soul" 
(Parochial Sermons, vol. v. p. 313) ; very likely also a hymn 
of Faber's, My God, lioiv tvonderful Thou art, may have left 
its echo in my mind.' 

A few other hymns by the same author have found a 
place in permanent collections, notably .in Hymns Ancient 
and Modern. 

EDWARD HENRY BICKERSTETH, Bishop of Exeter, was 
born in London, January 25, 1825. He was a son of the 
late Kev. Edward Bickersteth, Eector of Watton, Herts., 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 205 

an author of various works, and a hymn- writer of some 
repute. He studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, and 
graduated with honours in 1847. After holding several 
curacies, he was preferred to the rectory of Hinton-Martell 
in 1852 ; and to the vicarage of Christ Church, Hampstead, 
in 1855. He became Dean of Gloucester in 1885, and was 
consecrated Bishop of Exeter the same year. 

Dr. Bickersteth is a poet and hymn-writer. As with 
many other hymn-writers of poetic feeling, his hymns are 
better adapted to private than public use. There is a 
directness of aim which reaches the individual conscience, 
a characteristic very apt to be lost in the multitude. Dr. 
Bickersteth has published many volumes of poems and 
hymns, from which about thirty pieces have been taken 
and find a place in the permanent hymnals of this country 
and America. 

Peace, perfect peace? in this dark world 'of sin'! 

was written in 1875, and first printed in leaflet form with 
five other hymns. 

1 Till He come ! ' let the words 

' presents one aspect of the Lord's Supper which is passed 
over in many hymnals, -"Ye do show forth the Lord's 
death till He come," and also our communion with those 
of whom we say, "We bless Thy holy name for all Thy 
servants departed this life in Thy faith and fear.'" As 
a translator from the Latin, Bishop Bickersteth has a place 
in The Church Hymnary (page 48). 

WILLIAM DALRYMPLE MACLAGAN, Archbishop of York, was 
born at Edinburgh, June 18, 1826. When quite young he 
served with the army in India, retiring with the rank of 
lieutenant. He became a student of St. Peter's College, 
Cambridge, and graduated in 1856. Taking orders, he held 
many appointments; and in 1878 was consecrated Bishop 
of Lichfield, and in" 1891 raised to the archbishopric of York. 



206 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

Archbishop Maclagan has not given himself much to 
literary work, and as a hymn-writer does not occupy 
a first place. 

' Lord, when Thy kingdom comes, remember me ! ' 

was written for Hymns Ancient and Modern in 1875. 
A much better hymn is : 

The saints of God 1 their conflict past. 

But neither of these hymns does more than give Arch- 
bishop Maclagan an ordinary place in the ranks of living 
hymn-writers. 

ISAAC GREGORY SMITH, Honorary Canon of Worcester, was 
born at Manchester, November 21, 1826. He was educated 
at Kugby School, and became a student of Trinity Col- 
lege, Oxford, where he had a distinguished career. In 1854 
he was preferred to the rectory of Tedstone-de-la-Mere, 
Hereford ; in 1872 to the vicarage of Great Malvern; and in 
1896 to the rectory of Shefford, Berks. He was a fellow 
of Brasenose College, and a Bampton Lecturer in 1873, and 
became honorary canon in 1887. Canon Smith has done 
good work as a compiler, and he is the author of several 
original hymns, a few of which are in the Westminster 
Abbey Hymn-book, and elsewhere. 

By Jesus' grave on either hand, 

is a very attractive hymn for Easter Eve, of five stanzas 
of triple rhyme, Canon Smith's hymns are not generally 
known north of the Tweed, but it will be surprising if this 
piece does not find acceptance. 

EGBERT HALL BAYNES, Honorary Canon of Worcester, was 
born at Wellington, Somersetshire, March 10, 1831, and 
studied at Oxford. He held several ecclesiastical appoint- 
ments, and in 1873 became honorary canon. In 1880 he 
was preferred to the vicarage of Holy Trinity, Folkestone. 

Canon Baynes engaged himself more in the work of 
hymnal compilation, than in original composition; but a 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 267 

few pieces of merit have come from his pen. Perhaps the 

best is:- 

Jesus, to Thy table led, 

a' good communion hymn. He died March 12, 1895. 



CLERGYMEN OF THE CHURCH OF 

JOHN HAMPDEN GURNEY was born in Sergeant's Inn, Fleet 
Street, London, August 15, 1802. He was the son of 
a Baron of the Court of Exchequer. After studying at 
Trinity College, Cambridge, he took orders in 1827, and 
became Curate of Lutterworth, Leicester, and in 1857 
Prebendary of St. Pancras. He was a man of great energy, 
and devoted himself with great heartiness to every good 
work. 

In addition to the work of hymnal compilation, he com- 
posed several hymns of merit. 

Lord, as to Thy dear cross we flee, 

a hymn in which the longing is expressed for sanctification, 
and entire consecration of life, is perhaps his best. 

We saw Thee not when Thou didst come 
in great part his own composition, is less successful. 
G-reat King of nations, hear our prayer, 

is a hymn in which confession is ma'de of national sin, He 
died in London, March 8, 1862. 

JOHN SAMUEL BEWLEY MONSELL, an Irishman and a clergy- 
man of the Irish Church, was born at St. Columb's, London* 
deny, March 2, 1811. He took orders in 1834, after 
a successful career at Trinity College, Dublin. He was 
preferred to the vicarage of Egham, and later to that of 
G-uildford, Surrey. His death was caused by the falling 
of a stone, which struck him whilst he was watching 
operations in connexion with the renovation of his church 



208 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 



at Guildford. He died April 9, 1875. He was the author 
of several hymns of great beauty. 

Sing to the Lord a joyful song, 
is a fine hymn to the Trinity. 

Rest of the weary, 
is a soothing, restful hymn. 

Sinful, sighing to be blest; 

is full of faith and fine feeling. Better known, but not 
more beautiful, are : 

To Thee, dear, dear Saviour, 
and that inspiring hymn : 

Eight the good fight. 
His best-known hymn is : 

Worship the Lord in the beauty of holiness. 
He has given us a very good hymn of dedication, which 
might be used with profit on occasions of harvest thanks- 

giving : 

Lord of the living harvest. 

WILLIAM PENNEFATHEK was born in Dublin, Feb. 5, 1816. 
He graduated at Trinity College of that city in 1840. 
Became Curate of Ballymacugh, and later Vicar of Mellinfont, 
near Drogheda. In 1848 he removed to England, and after 
occupying several incumbencies died in 1873. Shortly after 
his death his Original Hymns and Thoughts in Verse was 
published, containing some seventy hymns. Hitherto they 
have had but a limited recognition. 

Jesus, stand among us 

is a short hymn invoking the presence of Christ in the 
services of the sanctuary. 

FRANCIS MINDEN KNOLLIS was the author of the hymn : 

There is no night in heaven : 

to which John Ellerton (page 215) added the last verse. He 
was born at Penn, Buckinghamshire, November 14, 1816, 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 209 

and studied at Magdalen College, Oxford. Taking orders 
in 1838, he became Incumbent of Fitzhead, in the diocese of 
Bath and Wells, 1856. He died at Bournemouth, August 25, 
1863. 

JOHN ERNEST BODE was born in 1816, and educated at 
Eton, the Charterhouse, and Christ Church, Oxford. He . 
became Kector of Westwell, Oxfordshire, in 1847 ; and in 
1860 of Castle Camps, Cambridgeshire, Mr. Bode wrote 
only a few hymns, the best of which, and an excellent 
hymn, is : 

Jesus, I have promised 

a hymn with nothing mawkish in it : full of true Chris- 
tian manliness. It is becoming widely known, and should 
do good service on post-Communion occasions. He died 
October 6, 1874. 

HENRY DOWNTON, son of the sub-librarian of Trinity 
College, Cambridge, was born February 12, 1818, at Pulver- 
batch, Shropshire. He graduated at Cambridge, and after 
taking orders in 1849, became Perpetual Curate of St. John's, 
Chatham, where he remained till 1857. After having been 
British Chaplain at Geneva for some time, he became in 
1873 Rector of Hopton, Suffolk. He did good work in 
hymnody, both by translations from the French and by 
original compositions. A few of his hymns are in common 

USA 

For Thy mercy and Thy grace, 

is a good hymn for the close of the year. 

Lord, her watch Thy Church is keeping; 

is a missionary hymn of some merit. He died at Hopton, 
June 8, 1885. 

JAMES HAMILTON, born at Glendollar, April 18, 1819, 
was a student of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge; 
and after doing duty in several charges, became the Incum- 
bent of St, Barnabas, Bristol, 1866. In 1867 he was 

p 



210 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

preferred to the vicarage of Doulting, which he held till 
his death in 1896. Mr. Hamilton was the author of a few 
hymns which are of considerable merit. 

Jesus, Lord most merciful, 

a prayer to Jesus the Intercessor, is one of the best. 

SIR HENRY WILLIAMS BAKER, Baronet, was the son of 
a Vice-admiral of the Koyal Navy. He was born May 27, 
1821, and studied at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he 
graduated in 1844. Taking orders, he was preferred in 1851 
to the vicarage of Monkland, Herefordshire, which he held 
till his death. 

Sir Henry W. Baker is a great name in hymnody. He 
was editor of Hymns Ancient and Modern, and also of the 
London Mission Hymn-book, 1874. His hymns are all of 
first-rate quality. The rhythm is smooth and musical, the 
language simple and pure, and the thoughts bright and 
edifying. Besides composing many original pieces, he has 
given us some excellent translations. 

What our Father does is well : 

is a rendering of Schmolck's Was Gott flwt, das ist wohl- 
gethan, done in fine. style and very suitable as a harvest 
hymn. 

Among his best original compositions we rank: 

what, if we are Christ's, 
' one of his finest hymns ; 

The King of Love my Shepherd is, 

a very delightful rendering of Psalm 23 one 'of the best 

that there is. 

perfect life of love ! 

is an excellent hymn on the sufferings of our Lord. For 
special occasions we have quite a number of hymns from 

his pen : 

There is a blessed home, 

an exultant, hopeful, hymn ; 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 211 

Lord, Thy word abideth, 
an appropriate hymn for the close of a service ; 

God of love, King of peace, 
a beautiful prayer for peace- from war ; 

How welcome was the call, 

one of the very few good marriage hymns in our language. 
In the litany style he has given us : 

God of God, and Light of light. 
I am not worthy, holy Lord, 
is a very attractive hymn for Communion seasons. 

Sir Henry W. Baker succeeded to the baronetcy in 1851 
and died Feb. n, 1877. The third stanza of his own chaste 
rendering of the 23rd Psalm soothed his departing spirit : 

Perverse and foolish, oft I strayed ; 

But yet in love He sought me, 
And on His shoulders gently laid, 

And home rejoicing brought me. 

GrKEviLLE PniLLiMOEE was born in 1821, and studied at 
Christ Church, Oxford. After holding several preferments 
he became Rector of Ewelme in 1883, and died January 20, 
1884. 

From his pen we have a very useful hymn for ordination 

services : 

We pray Thee, Jesus, Who didst first 
The sacred band ordain. 

SAMUEL CHILDS CLAKKE, the accomplished Vicar of Thor- 
verton, Devon, was born January 6, 1821. He was a son of 
a general officer in the Royal Marines, and was born in the 
barracks at Plymouth. Educated at Queen's College and 
St. Mary Hall, Oxford, he took orders, and became Curate of 
Thorverton, then Yicar of St. Thomas by Launceston, and 
head master of the Grammar School there. In 1875 ne was 
preferred to the vicarage of Thorverton. Mr. Clarke is 
a sacred poet "of a high order, and has lately published his 

? 3 



212 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

collected compositions in one volume, Festival and other 

Hymns, 1896. 

dark and dreary day, 

is a very fine Passion hymn, and was first published in 
a musical leaflet. It appears in Mrs. Brock's Children's 
Hymn-book, and also in the Home and School Hymnal of 
the Free Church of Scotland. From his recently published 
volume many hymns might be taken which would adorn the 
services of the Church. . 

'Spared faculties and ability to do one's duty at seventy- 
eight are indeed subjects for thankfulness/ writes Mr. Clarke, 
May he be spared still to beautify our praise ! 

GODFREY THBING was bom at Alford, Somersetshire, 
March 25, 1823, his father being rector at the time. He 
was educated at Shrewsbury School, and became a student 
of Balliol College, Oxford. After holding several curacies, 
he succeeded his father in the rectory of Alford in 1858. 

Mr. Thring is a hymn- writer of note. Some of his com- 
positions rank with the best we possess. Besides composing 
hymns, he is a foremost hymnologist. A Church of England 
Hymn-book adapted to the Daily Services of the Church 
throughout the Year was published in 1880, and two years 
later The Church ofEngl and Hymn-book. 

His hymns are widely used both in this country and in 
America. They are marked by tenderness and pathos, and 
their literary quality is excellent. One of his most beautiful 
hymns is that one for the evening : 

The radiant morn hath passed away. 

Perhaps his most popular hymn is : 

Fierce raged the tempest o'er the deep, 
a very realistic hymn, and one of great beauty and pathos. 

Hail, sacred day of earthly rest, 
is a Sunday morning hymn of rare excellence ancl as 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 213 

a hymn of liearty praise nothing could be more appropriate 

than 

Saviour, blessed Saviour, 
Listen while we sing. 

Thou to whom the sick and dying 
is a good hymn of supplication, 

From the eastern mountains 

is a missionary hymn of average merit, and not likely to 
displace the more popular hymns of Heber and Montgomery. 

LAWRENCE TUTTIETT was born at Clayton, Devonshire, in 
1825. After studying at King's College, London, he took 
orders in 1848, and was preferred to the vicarage of Lea 
Marston, and later became Incumbent of the Episcopal 
Church, St. Andrews, Scotland. 

He was a hymn-compiler, and produced also some fine 
original compositions. 

quickly come, dread Judge of all : 

a very noble hymn on the second Advent ; and one of our 
best dedication hymns : 

Father, here we dedicate 

enrich The Church Hymnary. He died May 21, 1897. 

JOHN ELLERTON occupies a place in the foremost rank of 
hymn-writers and hymnologists. He compiled and aided 
in the compilation of several hymnals. But he is best 
known for his own compositions, many of which have 
a place in permanent collections. He was born in London, 
Dec. 16, 1826, and after graduating at Cambridge, where 
he was a student of Trinity College, he took orders, and 
was first appointed Curate of Eastbourne, thereafter holding 
several appointments, and finally becoming Eector of White 
Roding in 1886, He died June 15, 1893. 

A sad note pervades Ellerton's hymns, but they are not 
less attractive on that account. He brings a quiet light 



214 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

into the darkest experiences, which more than penetrates 

the gloom. 

Throned upon the awful tree, 

is a hymn on the Crucifixion, in which our Lord's sufferings 
are sadly depicted. Have we two more beautiful hymns for 
the hour of death than : 

When the day of toil is done, 
and 

Now the labourer's task is o'er. 

Very suitable for a Sunday evening and widely known are : 
Our day of praise is done ; 

The day Thou gavest, Lord, is ended ; 
and 

Saviour, again to Thy dear name we raise, 

hymns of the very highest order. 

This is the day of light : 
and 

Behold us, Lord, a little space 

are good Sunday morning hymns. The latter is perhaps 
better suited to a week-day service. 
Mr. Ellerton wrote also some good hymns for special 

occasions : 

Father all creating, 

a marriage hymn, written originally at the request of the 
Duke of Westminster, for the marriage of his daughter to 
the Marquess of Ormonde. 

Praise to our God, whose bounteous hand 
is a hymn for national thanksgiving. 

Shine Thou upon us, Lord, 

is a beautiful prayer for the blessing of God upon Christian 
workers and their work. For the service at the laying of 
the foundation stone of a church, Mr. Ellerton has given us 
a very good and appropriate hymn : 

In the name which earth and heaven. 

It may be mentioned that Mr. Ellerton wrote the last stanza 



NINETEENTH 'CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 215 

of Knollis' hymn, There is no night in heaven, in which 
he very skilfully combines the principal thoughts of the 
preceding verses : 

Lord Jesus, be our Guide; 
lead us safely on, 
Till night and grief and sin and death 
Are past, and heaven is won. 

LEWIS HENSLEY was born in 1827, and after a brilliant 

career at Trinity College, Cambridge, took orders, and held 

successively several appointments, and in 1856 was preferred 

to the vicarage of Hitchin, Hertfordshire. He became 

"rural dean in 1867. 

He has written a few hymns. One of real merit has 
found its way into several collections : 

Thy kingdom come, Grocl ; 

a hymn on the second Advent. 

ABEL GERALD WILSON BLUNT was born in 1827. He 
was a student of Pembroke College, Cambridge ; and became, 
in 1856, Incumbent of Crewe Green, Cheshire. He was 
preferred to the rectory of Chelsea, which he still holds. 
Here, Lord, we offer Thee all that is fairest, 

was written in 1879, for the children's flower-service which 
is held annually in St. Luke's Church, Chelsea. It is still 
sung on that occasion. This is the only hymn of the few 
written by Mr. Blunt that has come into popular favour. 
It will probably become better known in Scotland as the 
custom of holding flower-services grows. 

HENEY AETHUR MARTIN was born at Exeter, July 30, 
1831; and graduated at Christ Church, Oxford, in 1857. 
He became Curate of Hallow, Worcester, 1856 ; and Vicar 
of Laxton, in the diocese of Lincoln, in 1858, which 
he has just resigned. Mr. Martin is the author of four 
hymns, all of which appear in Church Hymns, 1871, issued 



2t6 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

by the Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge, 

The hymn : , . , _ . . , 

J Sound aloud Jehovah s praises ; 

is distinctly the best, and is sure to find a place for itself in 
the popular esteem. It was originally written in eight 
stanzas, of which five have been chosen by our committee. 

FRANCIS POTT, a translator (page 49) and original com- 
poser, was born December 29, 1832. He studied at 
Brasenose College, Oxford, and in 1856 became Curate of 
Bishopsworth, Gloucestershire. From 1866 to 1891 he held 
the rectory of Northill, Bedfordshire. 

Angel voices, ever singing 

is a most meritorious hymn, and one of Mr. Pott's best. It 
is a hymn of praise par excellence, is widely known, and in 
various quarters most deservedly popular. 
Forty days and forty nights 

a hymn by George Hunt Smyttan (c. 1825-75), was recast by 
Mr. Pott, and appeared in Hymns Ancient and Modern, 1861. 
Mr. Pott is also- the Editor of The Free-Rhythm Psalter 
(Oxford University Press), which has special regard to the 
true rhythm and true antiphony of both words and music 
in chanting. 

KICHARD FREDERICK LITTLEDALE was born in Dublin, 
September 14, 1833. He was educated at Trinity College 
there, and his student course was a most distinguished one. 
He won the gold medal in classics, and the Berkeley gold 
medal for Greek. After taking orders, he became Curate of 
St. Matthew's, Norwich, in 1856, and in the following year 
Curate of St. Mary's, Soho, London. He was a distinguished 
linguist and ranks with Dr. Neale as a translator. His trans- 
lations were chiefly from the Greek, but he has given us 
renderings of hymns from Latin, Syriac, German, and Italian. 

He was moreover an original composer, and several of his 
productions find a place in our permanent hymnals. In 
The Church Hymnary he is represented by a very small 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 217 

contribution, the second verse of Pollock's litany, Spirit blest, 
who art adored, beginning : 

Holy Spirit, Heavenly Dove, 
He died January n, 1890. 

SABINE BARING-GOULD was born at Exeter, January 28, 
1834. He studied at Clare College, Cambridge, and took 
orders in 1864, In 1867 he was appointed Incumbent of 
Dalton, having previously held the curacy of Horbury, near 
Waken 1 eld. In 1871 he was preferred to the rectory of 
Lew-Trenchard, Devon. Mr. Baring-Gould is a prolific 
writer on many subjects. As a hymn-writer he has given 
us a few compositions, and they are all of the best quality. 
The exceedingly graceful rendering of the Danish hymn 
Igjennem Nat og Traengsel : 

Through the night of doubt and sorrow 
is from his pen ; and also that very fine processional hymn, 
useful for church parade, and similar services: 

Onward ! Christian soldiers, 
and the best hymn of the kind in our language. 

FOLLIOTT SANDFORD PIEEPOINT was born at Bath, October 7, 
1835 ; and studied at Queen's College, Oxford, where he 
gained honours in classics. He has written several poems, 
which have been collected and published in small volumes 
at different times. 

One hymn by Mr. Pierpoint has gained very general 

acceptance : 

For the beauty of the earth. 

It first appeared in the Lyra Eucharistica, 1864, where it is 
a hymn of eight stanzas and brimful of praise. - 

EDWIN HATCH, a hymn-writer of very limited extent, 
born at Derby, September 4, 1835, wrote a delightful hymn 
to the Holy Spirit : 

Breathe on me, Breath of God ; 
which is an earnest prayer for greater consecration of life. 



2l8 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

k 

He was a student of Pembroke College, Oxford, and after 
taking orders, and spending some time in Canada, where he 
filled several appointments, he became Vice-Principal of 
St. Mary's Hall, Oxford, in 1867. 

His hymns were published after his death in a volume 
entitled Towards Fields of Light. He died Nov. 10, 1.889. 

THOMAS BENSON POLLOCK was born in 1836. He was a 
student of Trinity College, Dublin, and gained the Lord 
Chancellor's prize for English verse in 1855. He took 
orders, and after holding several curacies was preferred to 
the rectory of Pluckley, Kent, in 1869. Mr. Pollock gave 
his attention to metrical litanies, in the composition of 
which he was most successful. Four of his productions 
find a place in the Church Hyinnary. These are litanies 
on the seven words on the Cross : 

Jesus, in Thy dying woes, 
Jesus, pitying the sighs 
Jesus, loving to the end 
J. Jesus, whelmed in fears unknown, 
Jesus, in Thy thirst and pain, 
Jesus, all our ransom paid, 



Jesus, all Thy labour vast. 

A litany to the Holy Spirit : 

Spirit blest, who art adored ; 
a prayer for Divine guidance in all our experiences in life : 

Jesus, we are far away ; 
and for the presence of Christ in His Church : 

Jesus, with Thy Church abide. 
Mr. Pollock died in 1896. 

SAMUEL JOHN STONE was born at the rectory, Whitmore, 
Staffordshire, April 25, 1839. He studied at Pembroke 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS - 219 

College, Oxford. His first curacy was that of Windsor. In 
1874 he succeeded his father at St. Paul's, Haggerston ; and 
in 1890 was appointed Rector of All Hallows, London Wall. 
Mr. Stone is a hymn-writer of a high order, and his 'com- 
positions are numerous, and very uniform in quality. Many 
of them are in common use, but a few are better known 
than others. Such are : 

The Church's one foundation 

originally a hyinn of ten stanzas. Five stanzas are usually 
chosen for hymnal purposes, but the remaining five are so 
good that we feel constrained to give them : 

in. 
The Church shall never perish ! 

Her dear Lord to defend, 
To guide, sustain and cherish, 

Is with her to the end. 
Though there be those that hate her, 

And false sons in her pale, 
Against or foe or traitor 

She ever shall prevail. 

VI. 

So, Lord, she stands before Thee, 

For evermore Thine own ; 
No merit in her glory, 

Her boasting Thine alone ; 
That she who did not choose Thee 

Came chosen at Thy call, 
Never to leave or loss Thee 

Or from Thy favour fall. 

VII. 

For Thy true word remaineth ; 

No creature far or nigh, 
No fiend of ill that reigneth 

In hell or haunted sky ; 
No doubting world's- derision 

That holds her in despite 
Shall hide her from Thy vision, 

Shall lure her from Thy light. 



220 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

VIII. 

Thine, Thine, in bliss or sorrow, 

As well in shade as shine, 
Of old, to-day, to-morrow, 

To all the ages, Thine ! 
Thine in her great commission, 

Baptized into Thy name, 
And in her last fruition 

Of all her hope and aim. 

x. 
happy ones, and holy! 

Lord, give "us grace that we 
Like them, the meek and lowly, 

On high may dwell with Thee ; 
There past the border mountains, 

Where in sweet vales the Bride 
With Thee by living fountains, 

For ever shall abide. 

By inserting the stanzas which appear in The Church 
Hymnary in their right places, the complete poem is seen. 
It may be added that the poem is based on the ninth article 
of the Apostles' Creed, and its origin was the able statement 
made against the teaching of Bishop Colenso, by Bishop Gray, 
Cape Town, 

Weary of earth and laden with my sin, 

is a penitential hymn of much pathos. 

' Of all my hymns/ the author writes, ' it is the most dear 
to me, because of the letters I have received from, or about, 
persons to whose "joy and peace in believing" it has been 
permitted to be instrumental in the first instance or later.' 

The old year's long campaign is o'er ; 
is a good hymn for the New Year. 

EICHAED HAYES ROBINSON was the author of : 
Holy Father, cheer our way 

a very fine hymn for evening worship, written in simple 
and direct language. Mr. Robinson is not known to have 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 221 

written any other hymn than that one. He was born in 
1842. Having studied at King's College, London, he took 
orders, and was appointed Curate of St. Paul's, Penge. 
Thereafter he became Incumbent of the Octagon Chapel, 
Bath ; Curate of Weston ; and finally Incumbent of St. 
German's, Blackheath, 1884. He died in 1892. 

WILLIAM ST. HILL BOUKNE was born in 1846, and educated 
at the London College of Divinity. After holding several 
appointments from 1869, he was preferred to the vicarage 
of St. Luke's, Uxbridge Eoad, London, in January, 1887, 
which, he still holds. 

The sower went forth sowing; 

was written for the harvest festival of Christ Church, South 
Ashford, in 1874. It was first published in Church Bells ; 
and shortly thereafter the copyright was purchased by the 
proprietors of Hymns Ancient and Modern. The hymn has 
secured an immense popularity in the south, quite a number 
of authorities having given it the highest praise. 

The author writes, ' The most interesting thing connected 
with it is, I think, the circumstances under which the tune in 
Hymns Ancient andModern was written by Sir JohnFrederick 
Bridge. He received the MS. from the editor of the hymn- 
book, with a request that he would set it, just when one of 
his little girls was dying. The verse about Paradise touched 
him so much that writing the tune was something quite 
different from all his other musical work, and he named it 
after the child, " St. Beatrice." ' 



PRESBYTERIAN MINISTERS. 

GEORGE JACQUE was born January 18, 1804. He was 
educated at Glasgow University, and became in 1835 the 
minister of the South United Presbyterian Church, Auch- 



222 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

terarder. Two hymns from his pen are in The Presbyterian 
Hymnal, 1876, one of which is : 

Hark ! how heaven is calling. 

He died February 15, 1892. 

WILLIAM BRUCE was born at South Shields, April 7, 1812. 
He was educated at the University of Glasgow, and was 
ordained in 1838 minister of. Cowgate United Secession 
Church, Edinburgh. He wrote a few hymns, two of which 
were contributed to The Presbyterian Hymnal, 1876. One 

of these : . ,, mi , . . 

Holy Father, Thou hast given 

is a hymn of fair merit, on the Holy Scriptures. He died 
at Bridge of Allan in his seventieth year, in 1882. 

NOBMAN MACLEOD was born at Campbeltown, June 3, 1812, 
of which parish his father at that time was minister. After 
the usual preliminary education he attended the Universities 
of Glasgow and Edinburgh, and in 1838 was appointed to 
the parish of Loudoun, Ayrshire. He became one of the 
most influential ministers of the Church of Scotland, and 
championed its cause in 1843. In 1857 he became minister 
of the Barony Parish, Glasgow, and died in that city 
June 1 6, 1872. 

He was a large-hearted man, and a man of great versa- 
tility. For many years he was the popular editor of Gfood 
Words, and in 1869 presided over the General Assembly 
as Moderator. He wrote the hymn: 

Courage, brother! do not stumble, 
a hymn with a right manly ring in it. 

EGBERT MTJEKAY M'CHEYNE, the saintly minister of St. 
Peter's, Dundee, was born in Edinburgh, May 21, 1813, and 
was educated at the University there. His claim to a place 
among hymn-writers is not specially strong. He wrote 
several sacred pieces, two of which have been used as 
hymns. 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 223 

When tliis passing world is done, 

is a hymn expressive of the intense devotion of the author's 
nature. He died at Dundee, March 25, 1843. He is to be 
remembered more for the influence of his life, which has been 
perpetuated by Dr. Andrew Bonar's marvellously successful 
memoir. 

JAMES GRINDLAY SMALL, the author of that very popular 

hymn : 

I've found a Friend ; such a Friend ! 

was born in Edinburgh in 1817. He was educated at the 
University there, and studied theology under Dr. Chalmers. 
In 1843 he joined the Tree Church, and in 1847 became 
minister at Bervie. He was a poet of some merit, and 
besides other pieces he published Songs of the Vineyard, 
1846 ; Hymns for Youthful Voices, 1859 ; and Psalms and 
Sacred Songs, 1866. Mr. Small died at Kenfrew, on the 
Clyde, February n, 1888. 

JOHN Koss MACDTJFP was born at Bonhard, Perthshire, in 
1818. He was educated at the University of Edinburgh, 
and studied theology under Dr. Chalmers. He, however, 
remained in the Established Church after 1843, and ulti- 
mately became minister of the Church at Sandyford, Glasgow. 

Dr. Macduff had a busy pen, and his works have a large 
circulation. His hymns were published under the title of 
The Gates of Praise, in 1875. One is of special merit, and 
is well known : 

Christ is coming ! let creation. 
He died at Chislehurst, Kent, 1895. 

JAMES DEUMMOND BURNS was born in Edinburgh, February 
1 8, 1823. He became a student of the University of that 
city, and studied theology under Dr. Chalmers. In 1845 
he was ordained minister of the Free Church of Dunblane. 
Ill health overtook him, and in 1848 he had to seek a milder 



224 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

clime, In 1854 he accepted a call to Hampstead. In 1864 
he had again to leave this country in search of health, 
but died at Mentone, on November 27 of the same year. 
Mr, Burns was a man of poetic mind, and wrote several 
hymns, also a poem entitled A Vision of Prophecy, which- 
was published in 1854, and again, enlarged, in 1858. His 

hymn : 

Thou who didst on Calvary bleed, 

in litany style, is plaintive and sweet, 

Still with Thee, my God, 
is a revelation of the man's own soul. 

At Thy feet, our God and Father, 
is a good hymn for the New Year. 

ARCHIBALD HAMILTON CHAKTEEIS, Professor of Biblical 
Criticism in the University of Edinburgh, and the author of 
several works, was born in 1835. The hymn : 

Believing fathers oft have told 

is a composition full of vigour, and was originally written for 
the Young Men's Guild of the Church of Scotland. 

THEODORE MONOD, pastor of the French Reformed Church 
in Paris, was born in that city November 6, 1836. He 
studied for the ministry in America, and began active work 
in 1860. 

From the ' Notes' to The Presbyterian Hymnal, 1887, we 
get the following particulars regarding the hymn : 

the bitter shame and sorrow. 

1 By the Eev. Theodore Monod, Paris, written by him in 
English during a series of " consecration " meetings held at 
Broadlands, England, July, 1874. Given by the author to 
Lord Mount Temple at the close of the meetings, and printed 
by his lordship on the back of a programme card for another 
series of meetings held at Oxford in October, 1874.' 

GEORGE MATHESON, minister of St. Bernard's, Edinburgh, 
was born at Glasgow, March 27, 1842, He lost his eye- 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 225 

sight in youth, but studied for the Church at the University 
of Edinburgh with much distinction. His first charge was 
at Innellan, on the Clyde, to which he was ordained in 1868, 
He is the author of that exquisite hymn : 
Love that wilt not let me go, 

which for general congregational purposes is not likely to 
become popular, just for the reasons which give it such a 
high place amongst sacred song. It is too introspective. 
It is a song for one singer, and for a singer in very special 
circumstances and mood of mind. 

Dr. Matheson has very kindly sent the following interest- 
ing account of its origin : 'My hymn was made on a fine 
June evening of 1882. It is the quickest composition I 
ever achieved. It was done in three minutes. It seemed 
to me at the time as if some orte were dictating the thought 
to me, and also giving the expression. There was so little 
sense of effort that I had a sensation of passiveness. I was 
sitting alone in my study in a state of great mental depres- 
sion, caused by a real calamity. My hymn was the voice of 
my depression. It was not made for any utilitarian purpose ; 
it was wrung out spontaneously from my heart. It is worth 
while observing this, because it was to me a unique expe- 
rience. I have no natural gift of rhythm. All the other 
verses I have ever written are manufactured articles ; this 
came like a day-spring from on high.' Dr. Matheson's 
poetical pieces are collected and published under the title 
Sacred Songs. This hymn is, however, not among them. 

HOEATIUS BoNAK, 

His Life. Horatius Bonar gave instructions that no 
memoir of himself should be written, perhaps endeavouring 
to fulfil his own aspiration: 

My name and my place and my tomb all forgotten, 
The brief race of time well and patiently run, 

So let me pass away, peacefully, silently, 
Only remembered by what I have done. 



226 - NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN- WRITERS 

In consequence of this, any notice of him must be com- 
paratively slight. 

He was born in Edinburgh on December 19, 1808. His 
father, James Bonar, was Second Solicitor of Excise for 
Scotland ; he was an elder in the session of the congregation 
founded at Edinburgh by Lady Glenorchy, but connected 
with the Church of Scotland. Cheerful, sagacious, 
devout, and consistent, he spent a blameless life in the 
pursuits of business, philanthropy, and study. Horatius 
Bonar's mother, Marjory Maitland, won esteem and affection 
from all around by her childlike faith, her gentleness of 
spirit, and her overflowing kindliness ; at her death, on 
August 29, 1854, he wrote the poem beginning : 

Past all pain for ever, 

Done with sickness now, 
Let me close thine eyes, mother, 

Let me smooth thy brow. 
Eest and health and gladness, 

These thy portion now ; 
Let me press thy hand, mother, 
Let me kiss thy brow. 

Among other things besides parental influence which 
must have aided in awakening his spiritual life were these : 
the preaching of Thomas Snell Jones, educated at Trevecca, 
and afterwards minister of Lady Glenorchy's chapel; the 
sudden death of his father in 1821 ; the singularly happy 
death of a sister in 1822; the watchful guidance of his 
eldest brother, James, a man of original character and 
sterling worth, who filled a parent's place from the time of 
his father's death ; and the companionship of his older 
brother, John, and of his younger brother, Andrew. 

He was educated at the High School of Edinburgh, 
where, in common with his brothers, he was thoroughly 
grounded in classical learning. From the High School he 
went to the University, and while in the classes of Divinity 
received from Dr. Chalmers, the Professor of. Divinity, a 



'NINE TEENTH CENTUR y &YMN- WRITERS 227 

lasting impulse to the proclamation of Divine love in all its 
gracious simplicity ; and from Edward Irving, who visited 
Edinburgh about that time, an impulse to the study of 
prophecy which never exhausted itself. 

After being licensed he became missionary-assistant . to 
the Rev. James Lewis, of the South Parish, Leith. In 
1837 he was called to and ordained minister of the North 
Parish, Kelso. In 1843 he with his brothers and most of 
his ministerial friends left the Church of Scotland and 
became ministers of the Free Church of Scotland. 

In Kelso he proved himself to be indeed ' an ambassador 
for Christ/ 'a worker together with Him.' He devoted* 
himself first of all to the oversight of his own parish, but 
laboured also far and wide throughout the Borderland. 

The beauty of that district and its many associations, 
poetic and historic, insensibly affected him, and enriched 
him with visions of Nature under countless aspects, ' with 
thoughts too deep for tears ' ; we know this from many 
allusions in his poems, as well as from a touching refer- 
ence in the fragment which closed his literary labours. 

But Kelso gave him another gift ; it gave him, notwith- 
standing his pastoral diligence, leisure for study. And well 
he employed that leisure, industrious above most, missing 
few opportunities of learning and few opportunities of writing. 

In 1853 he was made Doctor in Divinity by the University 
of Aberdeen. 

In 1855-6 a journey to Egypt and Palestine, less common 
then than now, interrupted the quiet tenor of his course. 
He went to the East believing that its days of glory lie in 
the future ; and his imagination caught a glimpse of that 
glory. He returned from the East with his interest in 
Scripture, and particularly in prophecy, deepened, to 
pursue with redoubled, energy those inquiries which bear 
on sacred lands. 

But ' here have we no continuing city.' In 1866 he was 

2 ' 



228 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

called to the ministry of a congregation newly formed in 
Edinburgh. Towards the end of that year the ' Chalmers' 
Memorial Church,' built by his congregation, was opened 
for public worship, and in this church he laboured during 
the rest of his life. In 1883 he was Moderator of Assembly 
of the Free Church of Scotland. On April 5, 1888, his 
ministerial jubilee was celebrated ; and, to use Charles 
Wesley's dying words, ' in age and feebleness extreme/ he 
then appeared for the last time in public. 

After this, days and nights of weariness were his lot ; but 
at length he passed away in sleep, entering his heavenly 
home on July 31, 1889. 

His Equipment. Intellectually vigorous, sensitive to 
every impression, with a keen and lively humour, musing 
much, Horatius Bonar possessed also the creative or con- 
structive power essential to a poet. 

He was a catholic scholar, widely read in the classics, in 
the Fathers, in the literature of his own profession, and 
in books of his own day. But in regard to them his con- 
servative taste, if not a trace of caprice, made him jealous 
of authors whose fame threatened to obscure that of his old 
favourites. 

Had he been asked abruptly if he were a Calvinist, he 
would have answered abruptly that he was, and might have 
added a sharply-defined statement of his theological belief. 
But in fact the truths which ruled his life, which formed 
the staple of his preaching, and which became the main 
source of his poems, were these the exceeding love of God 
to man in Christ Jesus ; the blessedness of immediate and 
restful confidence in that love ; the necessary fruit of such 
confidence in a holy life ; the value of the Sacraments as 
the means and occasions of the closest communion with 
God ; and the prospect of our Lord's return as the proper 
hope of the Church. 
His Work : His PreacMng, The tone and modulation of 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 229 

his voice, peculiarly his own, were refined, winning, and 
impressive ; his manner was perhaps too solemn and too 
deliberate, yet it was pervaded with tenderness. The material 
of his discourses was plain, but the fabric was gracefully 
woven. Some disliked his preaching for its spirituality, 
some for its lack of embellishment, some because its language 
of conviction occasionally passed into the language of 
dogmatic assertion. But to multitudes it was the very 
message of life, and many remain who dwell lovingly on his 
services, especially at the table of the Lord, when he used 
to break the silence of expectancy with words of peace and 
joy and hope which seemed to descend from the throne of 
grace itself. 

His Books. Of his books this is not the place to speak. 
Many of them were temporary in fact if not in purpose ; 
some have run a longer .course ; a few, we may believe, will 
discharge a mission for years to come. We name some 
representative volumes: Believe and Live, 1839; The 
Night of Weeping, 1846 ; Prophetical Landmarks, 1847 ; 
The New Jerusalem, a Hymn of the Olden Time, edited 
with Preface and Notes, 1852 ; The Desert of Sinai, 1857 ; 
The Land of Promise, 1858; God's Way of Peace, 1862, 
translated into French, German, and Gaelic ; The Catechisms 
of the Scottish Keformation, edited with Preface and Notes. 

His Hymns. Dr. Bonar's hymns will, with a few excep- 
tions, be found in these works : Hymns of Faith and 
Hope, three series, 1857, 1861, 1866; The Song of the 
New Creation, 1872 ; Hymns of the Nativity, 1879 ; 
Communion Hymns, 1881 ; Until the Day Break, 1890. 
From one or other of these the hymns which are noted 
below have been selected for The Church Hymnary ; but 
No. 245 was taken from a Supplement to Psalms and 
Hymns for Use in the Baptist Denomination : 

10\ Glory be to God the Father. 
112, The Church has waited long. 



230 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

126. Light of the world ! for ever, ever shining. 

172. I heard the voice of Jesus say. 

173. Not what these hands have done, 
190. No! not despairingly. 

194. I lay my sins on Jesus. 

206. love that casts out fear. 

225. Calm me, my God, and keep me calm. 

245. Beloved, let us love : love is of God. 

254. Go, laboxir on : spend and be spent. 

285. Thy way, not mine, Lord. 

305. A few more years shall roll. 

393. When the weary, seeking rest. 

402. Father, our children keep. 

415. Here, my Lord, I see Thee face to face. 

420. For the bread and for the wine. 

508. Great Ruler of the land and sea. 



Dr. Bonar confessed that he could give little information 
concerning the circumstances amid which his hymns were 
written, or even concerning the times when they were 
written. But we know that they were the spontaneous, 
' inevitable ' expression of his thoughts and feelings during 
great part of his life ; and ^e know that round many of 
them associations of surpassing interest began to gather 
from the very first. 

Dr. Bonar, it must be acknowledged, wrote greatly too 
many hymns. He was often negligent of rhyme and 
rhythm. He seldom removed even obvious blemishes 
from his hymns after they were in type. 

Like other poets, moreover, he speaks with peculiar 
intimacy of sympathy, and peculiar precision of phrase to 
his own generation ; and the Catholic Church, in the exer- 
cise of its nobile officium, will by-and-by sift his hymns, 
approving some and rejecting some. 

Yet he is the principal hymn-writer of Scotland ; he 
ranks with the principal hymn-writers of England with 
Watts, with Wesley, with Heber, with Keble; and the 
hymns of few hymn- writers are so widely employed on 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 231 

both sides of the Atlantic at the present time as are those 
by him. 

We start with these facts ; we ask, What are the qualities 
which have given Dr. Bonar such a position? and we 
answer: 

His hymns are poetic. Seldom inspired by merely external 
circumstances, never inspired by Church system or by 
Church calendar, the best of them glow with tender emotion 
kindled by the contemplation of spiritual truth, or by the 
phases of spiritual life. They are wrought in obedience to 
the dictates of unobtrusive culture. They are coloured with 
the hues of Nature. They are brightened by the play of 
gentle fancy. They are 'developed from one theme. They 
are shaped into unity of 'form. 

They are childlike. They are written by one who has 
been ' born from above '; by one of whom it might be said : 

The common sun, the air, the skies, 
To him are opening Paradise 

by one who has 'lost himself in the love of his Father, 
and will not waste a thought on freaks of experience or 
subtleties of style. 

They are manly never gushing, never mawkish, never 
striking a false note in the way of sentiment. They are 
written by one who calmly encounters the facts of life ; by 
one who cheerfully accepts his calling as a servant and 
a soldier of the Lord ; by one who is willing to ' spend and 
be spent ' for Him. 

They are hopeful They are written by one who sustains 
himself with the assurance that, in no selfish sense, all 
things are working together for good ; by one whose 
thoughts are ever turning to the dawn of an eternal day ; 
by one who associates the fulfilment of his prospects with 
the advent and reign of our Lord ; by one who values the 
Sacrament of the Supper as the sign and seal of present and 
of final bliss, 



232 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

They are sympathetic sympathetic in variety of tone, 
sometimes reflective, sometimes plaintive, sometimes cheer- 
ful, sometimes exultant ; sympathetic also in aim, written 
by one of like passions with ourselves, Iby one whom life 
has tried and tested, by one who is eager to encourage 
and to strengthen his fellows 'by. the comfort wherewith 
he has been comforted of God.' 

These are some of the qualities which distinguish 
Dr. Bonar's hymns ; these are some of the qualities which 
have made them a cherished manual of devotion, and a 
treasury of song; these are some of the qualities which 
lead us to believe that many of his hymns will be prized 
by the Church of Christ during many days to come. 

OTHER MINISTERS. 

JOHN KEYNELL WREFORD (1800-81), a Unitarian minister, 
was the author of: 

Lord, while for all mankind we pray, 

THOMAS BAWSON TAYLOR was the son of a Nonconformist 
minister at Osset, Yorkshire, and was born there May 9, 
1807. From his memoirs which were prepared by Mr. 
Matthews in 1836, and went into a second edition in 1842 
under the editorship of James Montgomery, we gather 
many interesting particulars connected with his life and 
work. After spending some years in mercantile pursuits 
Mr. Taylor entered Airedale College and prepared for the 
Congregational ministry. In 1830 he accepted a charge at 
Sheffield, but weak health compelled him to retire. For 
some time he acted as tutor, in Airedale College, but died 
at Bradford, March 15, 1835, m ms twenty-ninth year. 

Several of his hymns are printed in his memoir ; one of 

which : 

I'm but a stranger here, 

is a hymn that for long has deservedly been a favourite, It 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 233 

is one of those hymns which might with intelligence be 
sung by young people. 

DAVID THOMAS wrote a few hymns of fair merit, some of 
which are found in our permanent hymnals. 

Show pity, Lord : 
For we are frail and faint ; 

is a plaintive appeal to the compassion of Christ. 

Dr. Thomas was horn February i, 1813, and was for 
several years Congregational minister at Stockwell. He 
prepared the Biblical Liturgy, 1874, which contains twenty- 
six of his original compositions, and was for some time 
editor of the Homilist. He died in 1894. 

EUSTACE KOGERS CONDER fills a subordinate place as a 
hymn-writer. He was a son of Josiah Conder, himself 
a hymn-writer, and represented in The Church Hymnary, 
and was born at St. Albans, April 5, 1821. He graduated 
at London University, and became pastor, first of the Con- 
gregational Church at Poole, Dorset, and later of East Parade 
Chapel, Leeds, to which he removed in 1861. A few of his 
hymns are in common use. 

Ye fair green hills of Galilee, 
is a good hymn on the example of Christ's life. 

HENRY AUGUSTINE COLLINS is the author of two hymns 
of average merit. He studied at Oxford somewhere about 
1852, and after ordination joined the Roman Church in 
1857. He was taken into the Cistercian Order in 1860. 

Jesus, my Lord, my God, my All, 
is one of the two hymns written by him. 

FREDERICK WILLIAM GOADBY, a minister of the Baptist 
Church of great promise, who died in his thirty-fifth year, 



234 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

lias left us a hymn, very suitable to Church dedication 

services : 

Thou, whose hand hast brought us. 

He wrote a few other hymns, but this is the only one 
in common use. It is included in the Baptist Hymnal. 

The son of a Baptist minister at Leicester, he was born 
there August 10, 1845. After qualifying he became (1868) 
pastor at Bluntisharn, Hunts., and in 1876 at Watford, where 
after four years' pastorate he died, October 15, 1880. 

ANDREW FERGUS FERGUSON was born in 1855. After 
qualifying for the ministry of the Evangelical Union Church, 
he became the minister of that denomination at Arbroath. 
In a short time he accepted a charge in the neighbourhood 
of Melbourne, where he still ministers. The hymn : 
Dear Lord, I now respond to Thy sweet call, 

was composed in 1884, and appeared in The Christian Neivs 
of Saturday, September 19, 1885. It is not known that 
Mr. Ferguson has written any other hymn. 

FEMALE HYMN-WRITERS. 

The female hymn -writers of the nineteenth century, 
British and American, are very numerous, and their hymns 
are in many cases valuable contributions to the Church's 
praise. Of their number no fewer than 61 are represented 
in The Church Hymnary, and of these 34 are living hymn- 
writers. 

MARGARET MACKAY has given us one of the finest hymns 
we possess for use in times of bereavement: 

Asleep in Jesus! bles.ed sleep, 

It was suggested to her by the simple inscription on a tomb- 
stone in a country churchyard in Devonshire : Asleep in 
Jesus. It does not appear that any others of her pieces have 
come into common use : she is one of the many whose fame 
as hymn-writers rests upon one hymn of excellence, 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 235 

She was the daughter of Captain Mackay, of Inverness, and 
was born at that town in 1802. She died at Cheltenham, 
Januarys, 1887. 

JULIA ANNE ELLIOTT is another of the' hymn- writers whose 
reputation rests upon one good hymn. She composed several 
pieces, but the best-known is that beautiful Sunday morning 
hymn addressed to Father, Son, and Holy Spirit : 

Hail, thou bright and sacred morn. 

Her maiden name was Marshall, and she was born at 
Ullswater early in the century. She was married to the 
Rev. H. V. Elliott, a brother of Charlotte Elliott (page 150), 
Incumbent of St. Maiy's, Brighton ; and died November 3, 
1841. 

SAEAH FLOWER ADAMS, the author of one of our most 
popular hymns : 

Nearer, my God, ' to Thee, 

was the daughter of Benjamin Flower, at one time the 
proprietor of the Cambridge Intelligencer. She was a member 
of the Unitarian congregation in London, ministered to by 
W. J. Fox ; and to his Hymnal, published in 1841, she 
contributed thirteen pieces. Nearer, my God, to Thee, one 
of the thirteen, is now in use all over the English-speaking 
world, and has been translated into several languages. It is 
a hymn of Christian aspiration, of rare excellence. It is one 
of those hymns which have had to bear much indignity at 
the hands of menders. Obviously a hymn to the Father, 
the name of the Son has in some cases been introduced 
into it by would-be hymn-menders, but why we cannot tell, 
unless for the reason that the writer was a Unitarian. 
We may safely affirm that had this hymn been written 
by Charles Wesley, or by any other author" holding Trinita- 
rian doctrine, no tinkering would have been resorted to. 
The text in The Church Hymnary is as it came from Mrs, 



236 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

Adams' pen, every line of which may be sung, by the most 
staunch Trinitarian. 
The doxology : 

Part in peace : Christ's life was peace, 

is also from her pen. She was born at Harlow, Essex, 
February 22, 1805 ; and died in London, August 14, 1848. 

ELIZABETH BARRETT BROWNING, wife of the poet Browning, 
and herself a poetess in the front rank, was the daughter of 
Edward Moulton Barrett, and was born at Coxboe Hall, 
co, Durham, March 6, 1806. She was one of the most gifted 
women of this century, and her works are well known. Her 
sacred pieces, however, while poems of the highest order, 
lack that subtle something which constitutes a good hymn. 

Of all the thoughts of God that are 

is a poem of great excellence. The original poem, entitled 
The Sleep, with the Scripture text, ' He giveth His beloved 
sleep,' contains nine stanzas. Of these, five are utilized in 
the present hymn, I, 4, 5, 6, and 9. It has a place in The 
Home and School Hymnal, and is now for the first time 
included in a prominent British collection for church 
use. It may be remarked in passing that a literal transla- 
tion of that text upsets the foundation of Mrs. Browning's 
hymn .Hie giveth to His Moved in their sleep. Mrs. Brown- 
ing died at Florence in 1861. 

JANE CREWDSON is another of the many gifted souls who 
have sung in the night. For many years she bore the 
burden of ill health, and in that time of sorrow poured 
out her heart in song. She published altogether four 
volumes of sacred song. Two of her productions have 
gained greater prominence than the others. They are : 

There is no sorrow, Lord, too light 

Saviour, I have nought to plead, 
which was written only a short time before her death. Her 



NINETEENTH CENTUR Y HYMN- WRITERS 237 

hymns, as might be expected, are of a meditative character, 
and for that reason are better suited to private devotion 
than to use in the praise of the sanctuary. She was born 
in Cornwall, October, 1809, and died at Summerlands, near 
Manchester, September 14, 1863. 

EMMA TORE, daughter of Dr. Leslie, Bishop of Kilmore, 
and wife of the Eev. Nicholas Toke, was born at Belfast, 
August 9, 1812. She does not fill an important place in 
hymhody. Her compositions are few, and only one or 
two have real merit. She died in 1872. 

Thou art gone up on high 

is a really good Ascension hymn, and is very widely used 
in English-speaking countries. 

MARY PETERS also fills a subordinate place. None of her 
hymns are of outstanding merit, although a fine spirit per- 
vades them all. 

Through the love of God our Saviour 

is full of hope and Christian trust, but somewhat .too 
boisterous to be suggestive of that spirit of resignation in 
which it is expected to be sung. She was a daughter of 
Eichard Bowly, and was born at Cirencester in 1813. 
Her husband, John Peters, was a rector in the Church of 
England. She died at Clifton, July 29, 1856. 

MARY HASLOCH, daughter of John Hasloch, sometime 
Congregational minister of Kentish Town, was born in 1816. 
She wrote a large amount of religious verse, which is in the 
possession of the Eev. J. Hasloch Potter, Upper Tooting, in 
MS. Very few of her compositions were ever printed. 

Christian, work for Jesus, 
is an earnest call to Christian service. She died in 1892. 

ELIZA SIBBALD ALUERSON, sister of the famous composer 
of hymn music, J. Bacchus Dykes, was born in 1818. She 



238 NltiETE'ENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

was married in 1850 to the Bev. W. T. Alderson, and died 
in 1888. Mrs. Alderson wrote very few hymns, only one 
of which is likely to be serviceable to the Church : 

And now, beloved Lord, Thy soul resigning 
a hymn on the last saying of our Lord on the cross. 

ANNE BRONTE, sister of the more famous Charlotte Bronte, 
author of Jane Eyre and other standard works in fiction, 
was the daughter of Patrick Bronte, Vicar of Haworth, 
Yorks., and was born in 1819, near Bradford. Among their 
other talents the sisters possessed the poetic gift, and they 
together compiled a volume of poems. Her hymn : 

Oppressed with sin and woe, 

is of fair merit. Anne Bronte does not rank with the best 
female hymn-writers. She died May 28, 1849, at the age 
of thirty years. 

MAKY FAWLER MAUDE, born 1819, is the author of that 
beautiful and widely known hymn : 

Thine for ever! God of love. 

Nothing could be better than her own account of it.. She 
writes : 

' In 1847 my husband was minister of the Parish Church 
of St. Thomas, Newport, Isle of Wight. We had very large 
Sunday schools, in which I taught the first class of elder 
girls, then preparing for their confirmation by the Bishop 
of Winchester. Health obliged me to go for some weeks to 
the seaside, and while there I wrote twelve letters to my 
class, which were afterwards printed by the Church of 
England Sunday School Institute. In one of the letters 
I wrote off, almost impromptu, the hymn Thine for ever. 
It must have been in some way seen by the committee 
of the Christian Knowledge Society, for early in the fifties 
I opened their newly published hymnal, much to my 
surprise, upon my own hymn. After that, application for 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 239 



its use came in from all quarters. Little did I imagine that 
it would be cliosen by our beloved Queen to be sung at the 
confirmation of a Royal Princess. 

i It was our custom in Chirk Vicarage to sing a hymn, 
chosen in turn, at our evening family prayer on the Lord's 
day. On Sunday, February 8, 1887, it was my husband's 
turn to .choose, and he gave out Thine for ever, looking round 
at me. On the eleventh he was singing with saints in 
Paradise. 

' In October, 1896, Archbishop Benson attended an early 
service in Hawarden Church, and sang to his favourite old 
Spanish air Thine for ever, not three hours before he died 
in the same church at a later service. The hymn was 
sung when his funeral left Hawarden, and was also the last 
sung over his grave in Canterbury Cathedral. 

' Now in my eightieth year, whenever I meet my hymn 
there seems written across it, to my mental vision, non 
nobis Domine.' 

The Spanish tune referred to is so beautiful that we feel 
inclined to give it, after having been at the trouble to 
procure a copy of it. It only requires to be known to 
become a general favourite in Scotland. 













240 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

ANNA LAETITIA WAKING, a most accomplished hymn- 
writer, was born at Neath, Glamorganshire, in 1820. She 
is not an extensive hymn-writer, but her compositions are 
all of a high order. A few of her pieces are in all first-rate 
collections, and are of that quality that assures permanency. 
In 1850 she published Hymns and Meditations, containing 
nineteen pieces ; in 1858 Additional Hymns were published, 
and later an edition by the Society for the Propagation of 
Christian Knowledge. 

My heart is vesting, my God, 

is a hymn based on the text, ' The. Lord is my portion, saith 
my soul/ Lam. iii. 24. It is a composition of eight stanzas 
of eight lines, from which four are usually taken. 

Father, I know that all my life 

is another most attractive hymn of resignation somewhat 
faulty in measure, but possessing a peculiar attraction that 
has made it a general favourite. 

ELIZA FRANCES MORRIS was born in London, 1821. She 
published in 1858 The Voice and the Reply ; and in 1866 
Life Lyrics. In these publications the few hymns with 
which she takes a place with hymn-writers are found. 

God of pity, God of grace, 

written in litany style, is from The Voice and the Reply. 
The hymn was written in 1857, and is found in a few of 
the principal hymnals. She died in 1874. 

CECIL FRANCES ALEXANDER was an extensive hymn- writer, 
especially for children. Her pieces number several hun- 
dreds. She was the second daughter of Major Humphreys, 
and was born at Miltounhouse, Tyrone, in 1823. Her 
husband, Dr. Alexander, was Bishop of Deny, and is now 
Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of all Ireland. Eight 
pieces for church use are found in The Church Hymnary. 
, The best of these are: 

His are the thousand sparkling rills 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 241 

a remarkable hymn and well written, suggested by the 
thirst of our Lord on the cross. 

The roseate hues of early dawn, 

is a very chaste poem, full of Christian desire and aspira- 
tion. A very good hymn to the Holy Spirit is : 

Spirit of God, that moved of old. 

Jesus calls us : o'er the tumult 

is a good hymn for ordinary congregational use, but of 
no special merit. The remaining hymns are distinctly 

less satisfactory. 

'Forgive them, My Father; 

is suggested by one of the sayings of our Lord on the cross. 
When, wounded sore, the stricken heart 

is a hymn expressive of .the sympathy of Christ. The 
Ascension hymn: 

The golden gates are lifted up, 

does not reach the high mark of Ascension hymns generally. 
When Jesus came to earth of old, 

is a fairly good hymn on the second Advent. Mrs. Alex- 
ander's best hymns are for . children, in which department 
she excelled. She died October 12, 1895. 

.f 

ANNE Eoss COUSIN, only daughter of the late David Eoss 
Cundell, M.D., Leith, was born in 1824, and became the 
wife of Rev. William Cousin, late Free Church minister at 
Melrose. 

Her poems have been collected in one volume, Iminanuel's 
Land and other Pieces, 1876. Many of her compositions 
are exceedingly attractive. Mrs. Cousin won her reputation 
as a poetess by The Last Words of Samuel Rutherford, 
from which the well-known hymn : 

The sands of time are sinking ; 
"is taken. 

B 



242 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 
Christ, what burdens bowed Thy head ! 

s 

is a Passion hymn of merit, emphasizing very strongly the 
substitutionary aspect of the Atonement. 

ADELAIDE ANN PEOCTEE was one of the most gifted female 
hymn-writers of the century, not for the quantity of her 
compositions but for their exceeding fine quality. 

She was the daughter of Bryan Waller Procter (Barry 
Cornwall), whose literary reputation is well known, and 
was born in Bedford Square, London, October 30, 1825, She 
joined the Koman Catholic Church when twenty-six years 
of age. Two hymns from her pen are among the beautiful 
things of hymnody : 

I do not ask, Lord, that life may be 
A pleasant road ; 

breathes a spirit of faith in God, and expresses that faith in 
language unsurpassed for beauty by any hymn-writer ; 

My God, I thank Thee, who hast made 
The earth so bright, 

has been described by Bishop Bickersteth as touching the 
chord of thankfulness in trial as perhaps no other hymn 
does, and is thus most useful for the visitation of the sick. 

Miss Procter was of a highly poetic temperament, which 
with her deeply religious nature combined to lead her to the 
Koman Church. That step, so far as we can see, did not 
mar her usefulness as a hymn-writer, for there is none of her 
compositions which cannot be used by any denomination of 
Christians, Miss Procter was able to see beneath the sur- 
face of things, and so she deals with the experiences which 
are the common lot of mankind. She was not without 
sorrow and suffering in her own short life, a fact that is 
plainly revealed in her hymns ; but in her case they had 
a sanctifying and sweetening effect, which makes the mourn- 
ful strains of her finest verses most fascinating. From her 
sorrow, joy came, She solved the problem of suffering : 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 243 

- I thank Thee more that all our joy 

Is touched, with pain, 
That 'shadows fall on brightest hours, 

That thorns remain, 
So that earth's bliss may be our guide, 
And not our chain. 

She died in London, February 2, 1864. 

MARY JANE WALKEE was a sister of James George Deck, 
himself a hymn-writer (page 250). In 1848 she was married 
to Edward Walker, Keetor of Cheltenham, and contributed 
several pieces to his Psalms and Hymns for Public and 
Social Worship, 1855. . 

Jesus. I will trust Thee ! 

is a hymn of great simplicity, and, though lacking in literary 
merit, has a beauty of its own. Mrs. Walker died in 1878. 

MARY SHEKLETON has given us a very beautiful hymn in 
praise of the love of Christ : 

It passeth knowledge, that dear love of Thine. 
She was born in 1827. Her hymns, like those of many who 
have enriched the praise of the Church, were written in 
years of weakness. Her compositions' are few, but are of 
more than average merit. She died at Dublin, Sept. 28, 1883. 

ELIZABETH CECILIA CLEPHANE was born at Edinburgh, 
June 18, 1830. She wrote a few hymns, two of which are 
in common use. One of these : 

There were ninety and nine that safely lay, 
was written in 1868, and appeared in The Children's Hour 
of the same year. 

Mr. Sankey recognized in it a hymn which might be useful 
in evangelistic work, and composed a tune for it, to which 
it is sometimes sung. Miss Clephane died at Bridge End, 
near Melrose, February 19, 1869. 

MRS. ELIZABETH CODXER is the author of the well-known 

hymn : 

Lord, I hear of showers of blessing. 

R 2 



244 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

She informs us that it was written in 1860, on hearing of 
the revival work then being carried on in Ireland. ' In that 
year God was pleased to use it, specially in America, in the 
conversion of many souls. He made the " even me " the 
deciding word which brought them to the feet of Jesus, 
and ever since then have come to me encouraging tokens 
of its having been owned and blessed in the great work 
of the Gospel. To Him be all the praise.' Mrs. Codner 
is identified with the work carried on in the Mildmay Hall. 

FKANCES EIDLEY HAVERGAL, youngest child of William 
Henry Havergal, Vicar of Astley, Worcestershire, was born 
December 14, 1836. She inherited all the advantages that 
came from a good parentage. Her father, besides being 
a worthy and good man, and an accomplished scholar, was 
both poet and musician qualities which revealed themselves 
even more distinctly in his gifted daughter. She was a 
woman of a deeply religious nature. Her disposition was 
beautiful from her earliest years, and it does not seem as if 
contact with the world in later years marred that beauty in 
the slightest degree. One of the most cultured women of 
her time, adding to scholarship of no mean order a refine- 
ment which should ever accompany it, but does not always 
do so, she was truly consecrated in every particular to the 
service of Christ. Her hymns testify to that. Of the nine 
compositions from her pen in The Church Hymnary, five 
are distinctly hymns of consecration, and in the remaining 
four the note is not awanting. 

Take my life, and letit be 
'Consecrated, Lord, to Thee 

is a very fine hymn. In a letter to a friend she wrote: 
' Perhaps you would like to know the origin of the hymn 
Take my life. I went for a visit of five days. There were 
ten persons in the house, some unconverted, and long prayed 
for ; some converted, but not rejoicing Christians. He gave 
me the prayer: "Lord, give me all in this house." Before 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 245 

I left the house every one had got a blessing. The last 
night of my visit I was too happy to sleep, and passed most 
of the night in praise, and renewals of my own consecration ; 
and these little couplets formed themselves, and chimed in 
my heart, one after another, "Ever, only, all for Thee.'" 
Other consecration hymns are : 

Jesu?, Master, whose I am, 
and 

Tliy life was giv.en for me, 

suggested by a picture of the Crucifixion, with the motto 
beneath it, ' This I have done for thee, what hast thou done 

for Me?' . 

. Lord, speak to me, that I may speak 

is not a hymn that can be of much use in public worship, 
A very bold and stirring hymn is : 

True-hearted, whole-hearted, faithful, and loyal. 
The above hymns all breathe the spirit of consecration, 

To Thee, Comforter Divine, 
is a very good hymn to the Holy Spirit. 

Thou art coming, my Saviour, 

a hymn on the second Advent, is not very happy. 

Who is on the Lord's side ? 

is quite worthy of being associated with the brave leader of 
Israel. A meditative hymn : 

Standing at the portal 
Of the opening year, 

is diffuse but full of hope. 

"While Miss Havergal has written much from which com- 
fort and stimulus for the Christian life can be got, and by 
what she has written done much to foster a religion of con- 
secration, she has written almost nothing really excellent 
from a poetic point of view. Here and there we cull a verse 
or couplet and no writer is so generally treated after that 
fashion as Miss Havergal of great beauty, but for a piece of 
undeniable poetic worth we search her books in vain. As 



246 NINETEENTH CENTURY 

a hymn-writer she will never be more popular than she is. 
The likelihood is that she will become less so. Her best 
hymn, and the one which has all the qualities of a true hymn, 
with the indispensable lilt of the lyric, is : 

Golden harps are sounding. 

That hymn will live as a children's hymn when much more 
which she has written is forgotten. Miss Havergal died at 
Caswall Bay, near Swansea, June 3, 1879. 

CHAEITIE LEES DE CHENEZ, author of : 
The King of Glory standeth 

is the daughter of Sidney Smith, Eector of Drumragh, co. 
Tyrone. She was born at Bloomfield, co. Dublin, June 21, 
1841. Her hymns are to be found in the Lyra Sacra 
Hibernica and other collections, and are collected and pub- 
lished in Within the Veil, 1867. Many of her productions 
have found favour in various quarters. The hymn referred 
to was contributed to the Lyra Britannica in seven stanzas, 
entitled Mighty to Save, and appears in several hymnals. 

HESTER PERIAM HAWKINS, wife of Joshua Hawkins, of 
Bedford, editor of The Home Hymn-book, is the author 
of several hymns written for special domestic and social 
events, for which she could not find hymns elsewhere, and 
which appear in that collection. 

Heavenly Father, Thou hast brought us 

was written in 1885 for the occasion of the golden wedding 
of her father and mother. By omitting the third stanza 
the hymn has been made useful for all anniversaries and 
special occasions. As we, however, have no hymn for such 
an interesting event as a silver or golden wedding, it might 
have been better to retain the third stanza in brackets. It is 
as follows, and alters the complexion of the entire hymn : 
Father, all Thy gifts are precious, 

But we thank Thee mcst for this, 
That so many years of toiling 
Have been soothed by wedded bliss; 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 247 

i 

Since our hearts were first united, 
Life has not been free from care, 

But our burdens were the lighter 
When each bore an equal share. 

SAEAH DOUDNEY was born near Portsmouth in 1842. 
She is well known in connexion with the many stories 
which she has written, which have appeared from time 
to time in the monthly serial publications. She has also 
composed a few hymns of merit, which have been collected, 
and are published in Psalms of Life, 1871. Several of her 
pieces appear in Songs of Gladness, 1871. 

Sleep on, beloved, sleep, and take thy rest ; 
is an exceedingly fine hymn, and is the favourite funeral 
hymn in America, It is growing in deserved popularity in 
this country, The Queen commanded it to be sung at the 
memorial service for the Duchess -of Teck, It was written 
under the influence of the death of one who had been a 
school friend. At the same time the writer had been deeply 
touched by the stories of the early Christians, and their 
perfect faith in reunion. The hymn made its first appear- 
ance in The Churchman's Shilling Magazine, and since then 
has passed into several hymnals. 

ANNIE LOUISA COGHILL, me WALKER, is the writer of 
that well-known and much sung hymn : 

Work, for the night is coming ! 

It was written when Miss Walker was seventeen years of 
age, and was included in a small volume of Original Hymns 
published in Canada in 1868. 

This hymn, in the first series of Mr. Sankey's Gospel 
Hymns, is ascribed to S. Dyer. When this came to 
Mr. Dyer's knowledge he repudiated the ascription. He 
had written a hymn on a similar topic, though not at all 
resembling Miss Walker's production, and no doubt the 
error arose from that coincidence. At the same time there 
was culpable carelessness; and the author does well to be 



248 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

annoyed at the mutilation and appropriation of her hymn, 
temporary though it was ; and it must have been equally 
annoying to Mr. Dyer to have another person's work ascribed 
to him. Editors have a duty to perform, and they do well 
to discharge it with all faithfulness. Mrs. Coghill writes, 
' The gentlemen who have reprinted my verses in recent 
years have had the courtesy to ask my permission to do 
so; for many years they made nothing but unauthorized 
appearances.' 

KATHERINE HANKEY is the author of that very popular 

hymn : 

Tell me the old, old story. 

The Old, Old Story is a poem of fifty verses, in two parts, 
Part I, which was written January 29, 1866, is entitled 
' The Story wanted,' and is made up of the eight stanzas 
which are known as the hymn. Part II, written Nov. 18, 
1866, is the answer to the request of the first part, and 
is entitled 'The Story told,' in which the story of the 
Fall, and of Christ's life and work, are given briefly and 
simply. It is rather odd that the request for the story, 
and not the story itself, should become the favourite 
hymn. The reason for that is a twofold one. First, and 
very practically, the introductory part of eight verses is 
far and away the better part of the poem, and constitutes 
a complete piece. But again, these verses express and inter- 
pret yearnings which are felt by all. Indeed it is that fact 
which gives them this popularity. 

DOROTHY FRANCES GURNEY, nee BLOMFIELD (wife of 
Mr. Gerald Gurney, whose father, Eev. A. T. Gurney, was 
a hymn-writer of some merit), is the author of the hymn: 

perfect Love, all human thought transcending. 
Here is Mrs. Gurney 's own account of its composition and 
history : 

'It was written one Sunday evening in a quarter of an 
hour, sixteen years ago, for my sister's marriage with 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 249 

Mr. Hugh Bedmayne, of Brathay Hall. We had all Ibeen 

singing hymns, and had just sung Kb. 12 in Hymns 

Ancient and Modern, when my sister remarked that it was 

her favourite tune, and that she wished the words were 

suitable to a wedding. "What is the use of having a sister 

who writes poetry," she added, "if she cannot -write me 

words for that tune ? " I said I would, and there and then 

took the hymn-book into the library, and wrote the hymn 

with hardly a pause. I wrote it at Pull Wyke, Anibleside. 

After that, it was sung privately at most of the London 

weddings for two or three years ; and then was put into the 

revised edition of Hymns Ancient and Modern. Sir Joseph 

Barnby set it for the wedding of Princess Louise of Fife, 

and it has been sung at all the subsequent royal weddings.' 

And only a few days ago (April 20, 1899) the same hymn 

was sung at the marriage of Lady Peggy Primrose, second 

daughter of the Earl of Kosebery, to the Earl of Crewe, in 

Westminster Abbey. 

Mrs. Gurney is a daughter of the late Eev. Frederick 
George Blomfield, eldest son of Bishop Blomfield, sometime 
Bishop of Chester and of London ; and was born in 1858. 

ELIZA HEATH has given us a good Easter hymn : 
Praise tlie Lord ; sing ' Hallelujah ! ' 

It is found in Hymns for the Use of the Churches (the 
praise-book of the Catholic Apostolic Church) and The 
Scottish Hymnal ; but it does not appear in any other of 
the principal hymnals. We are sorry not to be able to say 
anything regarding the writer of such a good hymn. 

MES. C. E. MAY is the writer of : 

Saviour, where shall guilty man. 

This hymn has a place in a few of our best collections, and 
is well worthy of better recognition. But we know next to 
nothing about the writer. It was first published in 1861. 



250 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

Present with the two or three 
by FANNY FREER (1801-91); 

Safely, safely gathered in, 
by MRS. HENRIETTA OCTAVIA DE LISLE DOBREE (1831-94) ; 

It is a day of gladness 
by MRS, CLAUDIA FRANCES HERNAMAN (1838-98) ; and 

Holy Father, in Thy mercy, 

by ISABELLA STEPHENSON (published in 1889), a hymn for 
travellers, are all hymns of merit, and are likely to be useful 
in the praise of the Churches. 

UNCLASSIFIED. 

MATTHEW BRIDGES was born at Maldon, Essex, July 14, 
1800. Originally connected with the Church of England, 
he became eventually a convert ' to Romanism. He was 
a brother of Charles Bridges, the well-known expositor of 
the Book of Proverbs and other books of the Holy Scriptures. 

His hymns are found in two small volumes, Hymns of 
the Heart and The Passion of Jesus. That stirring hymn, 
so full of praise : 

Crown Him with many crowns, 
is from his pen. He died in 1893. 

HENRY BATEMAN was a writer of hymns, chiefly for chil- 
dren, of some considerable repute. He was born at Burton- 
on-Trent, March 6, 1802, and died in 1872. He is to be 
distinguished from Christian Henry Bateman. 

Light of the world, whose kind and gentle care 

is a hymn of some merit, containing a prayer for divine 
guidance. 

JAMES GEORGE DECK was born in 1802. He entered the 
army, and did service for some time in India. On his retire- 
ment he joined himself to the Plymouth Brethren, and under- 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 25! 

took the charge of a congregation of that sect at Wellington, 
Somerset. He was a hymn- writer of some merit. 

Lord Jesus, are we one with Thee? 
is from his pen ; also that other hymn : 
Lamb of God, still keep me. 

His Hymns and Sacred Poems was published at Melbourne, 
1876, and a second edition in London, 1889. This volume 
contains all his compositions. He died in New Zealand, 
in 1884. 

GEORGE BAWSON, one of the few non-ministerial hymn- 
writers of this century, was born in Park Square, Leeds, 
June 5, 1807. 

Educated in Manchester, his attention was drawn to the 
practice of law ; and after the necessary training, which he 
underwent in an office at Leeds, he practised his profession 
in that town. 

He was of a sensitive and retiring disposition, delighBng 
in solitude and communings with nature. A member of 
the Congregational Church, , he took a deep interest in 
religious matters. His hours of leisure were hours of 
meditation, and the product of those hours is now happily 
the property of the Christian Church. 

That which specially delights us in the hymns of George 
Eawson, next to the pure poetic spirit in which they are 
expressed, is the utter lack of dogmatism. His hymns can 
be sung true evidence of the poetic spirit by any one who 
knows and loves God and His Son. Perhaps Mr. Eawson's 
non-ministerial training accounts somewhat for that feature, 
and yet it cannot altogether, for some of our most dogmatical 
brethren are to be found amongst those whose theology is 
according to their own order. He was a man taught of 
God's Spirit, and dealing with the grand truths which have 
a place prepared for them in every heart, whether they 



252 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

come to fill that place or not, lie is hailed as a sweet singer 
of the Church catholic. 

The hymns of George Bawson should be better known 
than they are. It is not to our credit that, in this age of 
hymn-singing, there should be but one hymn from his pen 
really known to our Scottish people : 

By Christ redeemed, in Christ restored. 

This much maybe said in explanation of what seems almost 
inexcusable George Kawson is one of our modern hymn- 
writers, and time may be needed to bring his work before 
the Christian Church. We are quite of the opinion that 
his hymns will become better known than they are. 
Come to our poor nature's night 

is a hymn to the Holy Spirit of great beauty. A small 
selection of his hymns the best of them is issued by 
the Religious Tract Society, entitled Songs of Spiritual 
Thought, He died March 2^ 1889. 

ALFRED LOED TENNYSON was born at the Manor House 
(then used as the rectory), Somersby, a sleepy Lincolnshire 
hamlet, August 6, 1809. He attended school at Louth from 
his seventh to his tenth year, and after some home training 
went up to Cambridge University and became a student 
of Trinity College, 1828. It was while at Cambridge that 
Tennyson formed that close intimacy with Arthur Hallam 
which was so early interrupted by death. We can hardly 
regret the grief which the loss of his friend caused to the 
heart of the poet, since it gave to us the imperishable In 
Memoriam. This is not the place to deal with the details 
of Tennyson's life and work. That has been exhaustively 
done by his son. He takes his place among hymn-writers 

with : 

Sunset and evening star. 

It was written on an October afternoon in 1889 after he had 
travelled from Aldworth to Farringford. The same afternoon 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 253 

he handed it. to his. family. , The ' moaning of the bar ' had 
been in his mind all the day. Not long before his death he 
expressed the wish to his son that Crossing the Bar should 
be printed at the end of all" editions of his works in future 
years. 
Tennyson received 

The laurel greener from the brows 
Of him that uttered nothing base 

in the end of 1850. As far back as 1865 he declined the 
honour of a baronetcy, which honour was again set aside 
a few years later. In March, 1884, he took his seat in the 
House of Lords under the title of Baron Tennyson of 
Aid worth and Freshwater. He died October 6, 1892. 

GEORGE WATSON was born at Birmingham-, in 1816. . He 
was a printer, and for many years exercised his calling in 
the cause of religion and philanthropy. The Sand of Hope 
Review, 1851, and The British Workman, 1855, the earliest 
.ventures of that class of literature, were issued from his 
press and under his editorship. The hymn : 

With the sweet word of peace 

was written for the occasion of the departure of the 
Key. Paxton Hood from Brighton for a lengthened change. 
It was afterwards included in Mr. Hood's Our Hymn-book. 
Other hymns from his pen were circulated in leaflet form. 
He died in 1898. 

THOMAS HORNBLOWER GILL, 'a more intellectual Charles 
Wesley,' is one of our most original hymn-writers. He is 
a warm admirer of Isaac .Watts, and it is doubtless due 
to his influence that his hymns have so much warmth. 
He was born at Bristol Eoad, Birmingham, February 10, 
1819, of a Presbyterian family and Puritan descent, one of 
his ancestors having been assistant to Richard Baxter at 
Kidderminster. 

Mr. Gill's hymns are not so popular as they might be, for 



254 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

the reason, doubtless, that they are too involved. In 
construction they are all that could be desired, and the 
fineness of their feeling is most attractive. His hymns are 
religious, but they are also ethical. Mr. Gill is a most 
extensive hymn-writer. About 200 pieces have come from 
his pen, over eighty of which are in use both in this country 
and in America. 

Eegarding the two compositions in The Church Hymnary, 
Mr. Gill has kindly written : ' The hymn beginning: 

We come unto our fathers' God ; 

built on verse i of Psalm 90, and intended to set forth 
the continuity and unity of God's people in all ages, had 
a somewhat remarkable birth. It was inspired by a lively 
delight in my Puritan and Presbyterian forefathers of East 
Worcestershire, 

'Descended from a Moravian martyr and an ejected 
minister, I rejoice not a little in the godly Protestant stock 
from which I spring. A staff handed down from him, and 
inscribed with the date 1692, was in my hand when I began 
the hymn. Its composition occupied and gladdened a wet 
Sunday in the November of 1868, and seldom have I spent 
a day so delightful. 

'In accordance with the delights of its production, has 
been the warmth and fulness of its acceptance. Of the 
290 hymns which comprise The Golden Chain of Praise, it 
has been most widely and warmly welcomed. No hymn 
is more often sung among English Nonconformists. In 
America, too, it is well known and highly prized. 

' Next to it in wealth and warmth of welcome has been 
the hymn: 

The glory of the spring how sweet ! 

That divine song, too, had a delightful birthday. It was 
born on the Whit-Sunday of 1867, a day of singular loveliness, 
wherein the glory of the renewed earth vividly imaged forth 
the bliss of the renewed soul. The force and fulness of the 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 255 

song cannot appear in the new hymn-book, wherein almost 
half the hymn is left out.' 

That the reader may judge of this for himself we give 
the verses omitted. 

ir. 

The blessed vernal airs to hail 

In their renewing power 
The new song of each nightingale, 

The' new. birth of each flower. 

* 

v. 

These sinful souls Thou hallowest, 

These hearts Thou makest new, 
These mourning souls by Thee made blest, 

These faithless hearts made true. 

VIII. 

Grant me the grace of the new birth, 

The joy of the new song ; 
The vernal bloom, the vernal mirth 

In my new heart prolong. 

IX. 

Still let new life and strength upspring, 

Still let new joy be given ! 
And grant the glad new song to ring 

Through the new earth and heaven. 

JOHN CAMPBELL SHAIKP (1819-85) was Principal of the 
University of St. Andrews, and Professor of Poetry at 
Oxford. He wrote Kilmahoe, &c., and many critical 
reviews, which, if not always profound, were ever Christian 
and elevating. The hymn: 

'Tvvixt gleams of joy and clouds of doubt 
is taken from a volume of poems entitled Glen Dessary. 

WILLIAM WHITING the author of what is perhaps our 
best hymn of supplication for those who are exposed to 
danger by sea :- 



Eternal Father, strong to save 



256 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

was born at Kensington, London, November i, 1825. He 
was educated at Clapham and Winchester Schools, and for 
many years was Master of the College Choristers' School, 
Winchester. The hymn was written for Hymns Ancient 
and Modern, but was to some extent altered from its original 
form before being added to that collection. It is widely 
used by congregations in towns and villages on our coasts 
in times of storm, and is in universal favour. The author 
wrote several other hymns, but none of these has had such 
wide acceptance as the one mentioned. He died in 1878. 

WILLIAM CHATTEBTON Dix, the son of John Dix, a surgeon 
at Bristol, was born in that town June 14, 1837, and was 
trained to a mercantile life. Mr. Dix was a hymn- writer of 
no mean order, not only producing original compositions, but 
also rendering into metrical -form some of Dr. Littledale's 
translations from the offices of the Greek Church. 

Of his original compositions about forty are in common 
.use in this country and in America, and are for the most 
part hymns of great merit. 

As with gladness men of old 

is among our best Christmas hymns ; and 

Alleluia ! sing to Jesus ! 

is a triumphant Ascension hymn. We have no warmer 
Gospel invitation in any hymn than that contained in his 
beautiful hymn suggested by the words of our Lord, ' Come 
unto Me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will 

give you rest': - 

'Come unto Me, ye weary. 

His harvest hymn : 

To Thee, Lord, our hearts we raise 

is a hymn of great beauty and dignity. Mr. Dix is an 
example of a hymn-writer whose work is of uniform high 
excellence. He died in il 



NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 257 

GEORGE KOBINSON is another hymn-writer of whom we 
know next to nothing. The hymn bearing his name: 

One sole baptismal sign, 

is fairly well known, and is a good hymn on the unity of 
the Church of Christ. It was published first in 1842. 

EDWARD WILTON EDDIS, the compiler of the hymn-book 
of the Catholic Apostolic Church, Hymns for the Use of the 
Churches, was born .in 1825. He is himself the author of 
sixty-two hymns, most of which are found in his own 
compilation. Very few of his hymns have found acceptance 
by the Church generally. 

Thou standest at the altar, 
is a hymn, of average merit, to Christ as Intercessor. 

EGBERT WALMSLEY, born 1831, is the author of that very 
attractive evening hymn : 

The sun declines ; o'er land and sea. 

We cannot help hazarding the opinion that such a beautifully 
simple hymn ought to have been included with the hymns 
for the young. Nothing could be finer "than the combination 
of words and music in this particular case. The hymn was 
written for the Manchester Sunday School Hymn and Tune 
Compositions, and won a prize. 

HENRY JENNER, born 1848, is the author of that very 
fine hymn on the unity of Christ's Church : 
Jesus, Thou hast willed it. 

Lord, Thy mercy now entreating, 

is a very fine hymn of compassion. It appears in The 
Scottish Hymnal, 1884, with the initials A. N. 
Other anonymous hymns are : 

Father, who art alone 

a very beautiful hymn for 'loved ones far away/ bearing 
the initials E. J. ; 

s 



258 NINETEENTH CENTURY HYMN-WRITERS 

Hark ! 't is the watchman's cry, 

a hymn on the second Advent, which appeared in The 
Revival, 1859; and the hymn: 

As darker, darker fall around 

appropriate for the evening service of the sanctuary. 



XII 

CHILDREN'S HYMNS 



3 2 



XII 



THE Book of Psalms is the great hymnary of the world. 
It was the first book used in the service of the Church. 
Boys and girls as well as men and women sang its songs of 
praise. There is something in it responsive to every heart, 
All ages, ranks, and conditions find a charm in its sacred 
songs. Prom several references it is evident that children 
were never lost sight of in the public worship of God. In 
the eighth Psalm the poet pictures himself, it may be with 
his children by his side, gazing at the splendour and 
brilliancy of an Eastern evening sky, God's glory shining in 
moon and star seen of all eyes, and confessed even by the 
lisping lips of children, ' Out of the mouth of babes and 
sucklings hast Thou ordained strength.' Age after age this 
Psalm had been sung in the Temple. On one great occasion 
(Matt. xxi. 1 6) it was quoted by our Lord. When the 
crowds joined in hosannas, the ready sympathy of childhood 
was so touched that it took up the cry. It has been said 
that only the chorister boys who sang in the Temple day by 
day took up the words and shouted in chorus, 'Hosanna, 
hosanna, to the Son of David! hosanna! hosanna!' That 
is indeed a beautiful thought, but it is more likely that all 
the. children who were in the Temple took up the cry. The 
surly Pharisees might frown ; the wise Kabbis might shake 



262 CHILDREN'S HYMNS 

their heads; but the children with their quick instincts, 
their open minds, their tender hearts, burst forth in 
hosannas to the Son of David. And Jesus answered the 
frowns of the Pharisees and the headshakings of the Rabbis 
by the question, ' Have ye never read, Out of the mouth of 
babes and sucklings Thou hast perfected praise ? ' 

From the early ages the Church has remembered these 
words and given the children a place in the praises of the 
sanctuary. Although little has come down to us, yet we 
are disposed to believe that the first Christian hymn-writers 
did not neglect to voice the thoughts and feelings of little 
children. Clement of Alexandria has a hymn ascribed to 
him, a translation of which appears in The Church Hymnary. 
The next prominent hymn-writer is Ephraem the Syrian, 
who was born about A. D. 307. at Nislbis, and died at Edessa 
of Mesopotamia, 373. He is described as a friend of children, 
who taught his little flock to sing in unison with the 
children in Paradise : 

Let little children be pledges with Thee, 

And above, in heaven, let them be Thy guests. 

But the chief object of much of his hymn-writing was 
to counteract the influence of Bardesanes the Gnostic, 
who flourished towards the end of the second century, and 
embodied his views in a hundred and fifty Psalms, in imita- 
tion of the Psalter, which were set to music by his son 
Harmonius. The Syrians were charmed with the fine words 
and rhythmical melody of this early hymn-book. The very 
boys and girls of Edessa knew the hymns and tunes by 
heart, and sang them to the sound of the guitar. Ephraem, 
when he saw this, applied himself to compose numerous 
hymns, and trained the daughters of the convent in the 
various keys and modulations of music. Very soon the 
whole city, men, women, and children, flocked together to 
hear them, and the hymns of Bardesanes were cast aside 
and forgotten. Doubtless there were other religious poets 



CHILDREN'S HYMNS 263 

Syrian, Greek, and Latin in the succeeding ages who wrote 
hymns for children as well as for men and women. But 
we owe much of what we have to post-Reformation times. 

The great soul of Luther, although occupied and troubled 
by the momentous events of his time, found room for the 
wants of little children. Isaac Watts stands out as the fore- 
runner of .our English hymn-writers for children. No one 
can write on hymnology without grateful thoughts of his 
work and memory. His Divine, Songs for Children, with 
a woodcut heading each hymn, gave the young a distinct 
position in the praises of the sanctuary. Charles Wesley, 
James Montgomery, Reginald Heber, and others followed 
up the work so well begun by Watts. Jane and Ann 
Taylor sisters of Isaac Taylor, author of The History of . 
Enthusiasm published Hymns for Infant Minds, which 
were popular in their day, and were highly commended by 
Dr. Arnold of Rugby and Archbishop Whately. Their book 
formed the connecting link between Isaac Watts' Divine 
Songs and Mrs. Alexander's Hymns for Little Children. 

But when we come to deal with the selection in Tho 
Church Hymnary we shall be told that it is small compared 
with Bateman's, and the Scottish National Hymnal for the 
Young, which is used in many Sunday schools. 

It is questionable, however, if a large variety is a distinct 
advantage. There are many hymns which are seldom, if 
ever, sung. There are some hymns which we never tire of. 
/Sing to me the old songs' is a natural wish of the human 
heart. Moreover, there are several hymns in the body of 
The Church Hymnary quite suitable for children. 

It would indeed be a great gain if the selection used in 
our Sunday schools were the same as that used in the church. 
A children's hymn-book entirely separate from the one used 
in the church is not to be commended. It is well that the 
child should begin to sing in the Sunday school from the 
selection in The Church Hymnary, and thus link his 



264 CHILDREN'S HYMNS 

earliest associations with the hymns sung in the great 
congregation. 

- We anticipate a warm welcome of The Church Hymnary 
by the children of our Churches, who love to lisp their joys 
in hymns whose words. and tunes in after years, when they 
seem to be forgotten, will come back to cheer them amid the 
storm and stress of manhood and womanhood, and fill them 
with happy memories of their earliest songs of praise in 
church and Sunday school. 

EIGHTEENTH CENTUEY. 

CHARLES WESLEY (p, 131), the hymn-writer of the 
Methodists, and the chief of all hymn-writers, wrote the 
inimitable hymn: 

Gentle Jesus, meek and mild. 

There are few children who have not been taught the 
sweet words of this hymn, Many generations of children 
have used it in part as an evening or a morning prayer. 
This hymn and Jesus, tender Shepherd, by Mary Lundie 
Duncan, vie with each other for that honour. 

MARIANNE NUNN was born at Colchester, August 17, 1778. 
Psalms and Hymns from the most Approved Authors (1817) 
is a compilation which was executed by Miss Nunn in com- 
pany with her brother, Eev. John Nunn. In that volume 
several of her original hymns are to be found, including : 

One is kind above all others; 

a hymn expressive of the deepest trust, and for long a 
favourite in Sunday schools in Scotland. Miss Nunn died 
in 1847. 

DOROTHY ANN THRUPP was born in London, June 20, 
1779. Her hymns are mainly for the use of children, and 
have found very general acceptance. Some of them are 
exceedingly good. Miss Thrupp ranks with our best hymn- 



CHILDREN'S HYMNS 265 

writers for children, She died in London, December 14, 

1847. 

Poor and needy though I be, 

first appeared in 1836 in her Hymns for the Young, a collec- 
tion of children's hymns by different authors. 
Saviour, like a shepherd lead us, 

appears in the same, collection, and has been erroneously 
ascribed to Miss Thrupp. The writer is unknown, 

ANN and JANE TAYLOR, two sisters, have done much to 
enrich our children's hymn-books. Their compositions are 
all above the average, and some of them are of very high 
merit indeed. Ann, the elder sister, was born in London, 
January 30, 1782. She was married in 1813 to Joseph 
Gilbert, classical tutor at the Congregational College, Mas- 
borough, Yorkshire. She wrote many pieces, and collected 
them in 1827, when they were published as Hymns for 
Sunday-school Anniversaries and Hymns for Infant Schools. 
Great God ! and wilt Thou condescend 

is her most widely known hymn. Mrs, Gilbert died, in 
1866. The younger sister, Jane, was born in London, 
September 23, 1783. 

Lord, I would own Thy tender care, 

a hymn of thanksgiving for daily mercies, is marked by great 
simplicity. The combined work of the two sisters is ample 
and good, If a comparison were made we might feel 
inclined to give the higher place to the hymns of Mrs. Gil- 
bert, as having more grace and literary finish, Jane Taylor 
died at Ongar, Essex, April 12, 1834. The sisters published 
their hymns conjointly in several volumes, 1809-10, Their 
father wrote : ' The little volume of Hymns for Infant Minds 
was found to be highly acceptable to children, and so useful 
in the business of early education that it obtained an exten- 
sive circulation. It was quickly reprinted in America, and 
translated into the German and Dutch languages. What 



266 CHILDREN'S HYMNS 

share of this success belongs to each of the contributors to 
the volume could not be ascertained, even if to make the 
inquiry were of any importance.' 

Jane Taylor herself reveals to us the secret of her success 
as a hymn- writer for children. She says : ' I think I have 
some idea what a child's hymn ought to be ; and when I 
commenced the task, it was with the presumptuous deter- 
mination that nothing should fall short of the standard 
I had formed in my mind. In order to do this my method 
was to shut my eyes, and imagine the presence of some 
pretty little mortal, and then endeavour to catch, as it were, 
the very language it would use on the subject before me. If 
in any instances I have succeeded, to this little imaginary 
being I should attribute my success, and I have failed so 
frequently, because so frequently I was compelled to say, 
" Now, you may go, my dear ; I shall finish the hymn 
myself 1 ."' 

EEGINALD HEBEK (page 155), the devoted Bishop of 
Calcutta, was the author of: 

By cool Siloam's shady rill 

a hymn for adults and children alike, and a great favourite 
both in this country and in America with the young. It is 
found in all good hymnals. 

JOHN KING (1789-1858), sometime Incumbent of Christ 
Church, Hull, was the author of: 

When, His salvation bringing. 

JAMES EDMESTON (page 181), in the multitude of his com- 
positions, has some very good children's hymns. One of 

them : 

Little travellers Zionwavd, 

has for a long time been a favourite in our Sunday schools. 
It sings of the welcome that awaits the ' little travellers 
from all parts of the world when they reach Zion. 
1 Curwen's Biographical Notes. 



CHILDREN'S HYMNS 267 

THOMAS BILBY was born at Southampton, April 18, 1794. 
He served for some time in the army. After leaving the 
army he became a teacher, and^rdved himself a most 
successful one, holding many jjafportant appointments. He 
wrote several hymns ; Jwft the one by which he will be 
remembered is : 

Here we suffer grief and pain ; 

a most remarkable line with which to begin a hymn for 
children, and enough, one would fancy, to put it aside as 
totally unfit for their use. But despite its proclamation of 
' grief and pain ' it is a general favourite. No doubt the 
taking tune has a good deal to do with its popularity, while 
its happy refrain more than compensates for the doleful 
beginning it makes. Mr. Bilby died September 24, 1872* 

HUGH STOWELL was born at Douglas, Isle of Man, 
December 3, 1799. He studied at Oxford, and became Sector 
of Christ Church, Salford, 1831, and, being a preacher of great 
power and fervour, crowds followed his ministry. He was 
rewarded for his faithfulness by being made an Honorary 
Canon of Chester Cathedral and Eural Dean of Salford. He 
wrote several very beautiful hymns which have found 
general acceptance. It would be well if none of our 
children's hymns fell below the standard oft- 
Jesus is our Shepherd. 
Canon Stowell died at. Salford, October 8, 1865. 

NINETEENTH CENTUEY. 
JOHN HENLEY was the author of the short hymn : 

Children of Jerusalem 

which has attained a considerable degree of popularity. It 
js not known that he wrote any other hymn. He was 
born at Torquay, South Devon, March 18, 1800, and for 
some years did duty as a Wesleyan minister. He died at 
Weymouth, May 2, 1842. 



268 - CHILDREN'S HYMNS 

, JOHN HAMPDEN G-URNEY (page 207) wrote : 

Fair waved the golden corn 

a very delightful hymn for the harvest season. It first 
appeared in Marylebone Psalms and Hymns, 1851, and is 
now found in most hymnals. 

JOHN BURTON, jun., born at Stratford, Essex, July 23, 1803, 
is an example of a man in humble circumstances in life, and 
with little education, who had the hynmic faculty and 
exercised it well. He was the son of a cooper and basket- 
maker in his native town, and for fifty years followed his 
father's calling, devoting the spare hours at his command 
to hymn-writing. Many of his pieces found a place in the 
religious magazines of his time, and the best of them gradu- 
ally crept into permanent collections. He wrote solely for 
the young. 

Mr. Burton was a Nonconformist, and a man of high 
Christian character, his Christianity having been perfected 
through much suffering. 

His compositions are included in several volumes, which 
were issued in his lifetime. One Hundred Original Hymns 
for the Young, 1850, and Hymns for Little Children, 1851, 
contain his best hymns. Among them there is no prettier 

hymn than : 

Saviour, while my heart is tender. 

i 

He died at Stratford in 1877. 

ELIZABETH MILLS, nee KING. Few hymns for the young 
have gained the popularity of : 

We speak of the realms of the blest. 

The writer, who died in her twenty-fifth year, had been 
reading Bridges' exposition of Psalm 119, and a remark 
of the expositor suggested by verse 44 struck her: 
' We speak of heaven, but oh ! to be there ! ' It was the 
keynote of her hymn, which for the past sixty years has 
been an immense favourite both in Scotland and in America. 



CHILDREN'S HYMNS 269 

It may be interesting to know that the hymn was written 
only a few weeks before the young author died. She was 
born at Stoke Newington, 1805, married Thomas Mills, M.P., 
and died April 21, 1829. 

JOHN CHANDLEK (page 76), the accomplished translator from 
the Latin, has given us a very beautiful hymn of praise to 
the Father, which is found in most children's collections: 

Above the clear blue sky. 

We are not aware that Mr. Chandler wrote other hymns 
for the young. 

ANDREW YOUNG was born in Edinburgh, April 23, 1807. 
He studied at the University there, and graduated, there- 
after devoting his life to the teaching of the young. He 
became Head Master of Niddry Street School, and later occu- 
pied the same position in Madras College, St. Andrews. 
He retired to Edinburgh in 1854, and in his retirement 
continued to interest himself in the young, especially in 
Sunday-school work. There is no more popular hymn 

than: 

There is a happy land. 

It has all the characteristics of a good hymn for children. 
There is nothing mawkish about it. It is bright and strong, 
and beautiful like the theme. Mr. Young wrote it at 
Kothesay, where he was spending a holiday. In the 
drawing-room of a friend a lady was playing an Indian air 
on the piano. He was very much struck with it. ' Play it 
again,' he said, adding, ' it will do for a children's hymn.' 
The request ' Play it again ' was made several times, and he 
left with the air ringing in his ear. That night The Happy 
Land was written, It was written in 1838, and has been 
translated into many languages, retaining its place in the 
estimation of all who love a really good child's hymn. 
Mr. Young was a poet, and his productions embrace many 
themes. They were collected and published in 1876: The 



270 CHILDREN'S HYMNS 

Scottish Highland and other Poems, He died at Edinburgh, 
November 30, 1889. 

JANE ELIZA LEESON, regarding whose life little can be 
procured, was a hymn-writer of considerable merit, Her 
best hymn for the children is : 

* 

Loving Shepherd of Thy sheep, 

which appeared in her Hymns and Scenes of Childhood, 
1842. 
In this also appeared : 

Saviour, teach me, day hy day, 

which is another good hymn. 

Miss Leeson was also a translator, and did some com- 
mendable work in the rendering of Latin hymns. She was' 
born in 1807, and died in 1882. 

ANNE SHEPHERD, nee HOULDITCH, who was born at Cowes, 
Isle of Wight, September 11, 1809, was the author of that 
deservedly popular hymn : 

Around the throne of God in. heaven. 

There are few but have that delightful hymn associated with 
their childhood. It has stood the test of time, and, like 
other really good hymns, retains its hold upon the hearts of 
our people. She died at Blackheath, January 7, 1857. 

JANE CEOSS SIMPSON, nee BELL, was born November 12, 
1811. She was the daughter of a Glasgow advocate, and 
sister of the late Henry Glassford Bell, the author of several 
poems of great excellence. Her hymns for children appeared 
in various magazines about the time of their production. 
Go when the morning shineth, 

is a very pretty hymn, and gives a call to continued and 
earnest prayer. It first appeared in 1831 in The Edinburgh 
Literary Journal, of which her brother was at that time 
editor. She is believed to be the author of: 

Star of peace to wanderers weary. - 



CHILDREN'S HYMNS 271 

It is a hymn for those at sea, and appeared in the Seaman's 
Devotional Assistant, New York, 1830. The hymn was at 
one time a great favourite with young 'people, and its 
presence in The Church Hymnary may give it a new lease 
of popularity. Mrs. Simpson died June 17, 1886. 

MARTHA EVANS SHELLY, nee JACKSON, is a native of Stock- 
port, born in 1812. Her hymn : 

Lord, a little band and lowly, 

is a good hymn, a general favourite, and worthily fills 
a place in all collections of children's hymns. 

We take the following account of the origin of the hymn, 
given by Mrs. Shelly, from Curwen's Biographical Notes : 
' At a Sunday-school meeting at Manchester the Eev. John 
Curwen one evening gave a lecture on singing. He sang 
a very pretty and simple tune, to which he said he had no 
suitable words, and wished that some one would write a 
hymn to it. I wrote these verses, and gave them to him 
after the close of the meeting.' 

CHRISTIAN HENRY BATEMAN is a name well known in 
Scotland. For many -years his compilations were used 
extensively. They were published by Messrs. Gall and Inglis, 
Edinburgh, and appeared in successive editions, each time 
enlarged, and were for many years the favourite hymnals 
for the young. Before 1881 they had gained a circulation 
of over six millions. 

Mr. Bateman composed several original pieces, the most 

popular being : 

Come, children, join to sing. 

He was born near Halifax, August 9, 1813, prepared for the 
Christian ministry in connexion with the Moravian Church, 
and eventually became a Congregational minister at Edin- 
burgh and elsewhere. In 1869 he took orders in the Church 
of England, and filled several appointments in England till 
his death, which took place in 1889. 



272 CHILDREN'S HYMNS 

MARY ANN S. DECK, nee GIBSON (born 1813), is the author 

of the hymn : 

There is a city bright; 

a hymn in praise of the heavenly Jerusalem, with a prayer 
that Christ would prepare for entrance to it. 

JEMIMA LUKE, nee THOMPSON, was born at Islington, 
August 19, 1813, In 1843 Miss Thompson was married to 
Samuel Luke, a Congregational minister. She has published 
several works, but is best known by her hymn : 

I think, when I read that sweet story of old. 

From an account which she has kindly sent of the origin 
of her popular hymn, we take the following : '.I went in the 
year 1841 to the normal infant school in Gray's Inn Eoad to 
obtain some knowledge of the system. Mary Moffat, after- 
wards Mrs. Livingstone, was there at the same time, and 
Sarah Eoby, whom Mr. and Mrs. Moffat had rescued in 
infancy when buried alive, and had brought up with their 
own children. 

'Among the marching pieces at Gray's Inn Eoad was 
a Greek air, the pathos of which took my fancy, and 
I searched Watts and Jane Taylor and several Sunday- 
school hymn-books for words to suit the measure, but in 
vain. 

'Having been recalled home, I went one day on some 
missionary business to the little town of Wellington, five 
miles from Taunton, in a stage-coach. It was a beautiful 
spring morning, it was an hour's ride, and there was no 
other inside passenger. On the back of an old envelope 
' I wrote in pencil the first two of the verses now so well 
known, in order to teach the tune to the village school sup- 
ported by my stepmother, and which it was my province to 
visit. The third verse was added afterwards to make it 
a missionary hymn.' 

Mrs. Luke resides at Newport, Isle of Wight, and to judge 



CHILDREN'S HYMNS 273 

by her handwriting, so steady and uniform, seems to be hale 
and well at her advanced age. 

MARY LUNDIE DUNCAN is one of the most interesting 
characters in the whole range of hymn-writers. Young, 
beautiful, and accomplished, she lived long enough to be 
remembered for all time. Those who knew her best 
could .detect in her a close resemblance in features and 
expression to the portrait of Madame G-uyon. Like her 
prototype, she had this feature of character a religiousness 
and devotion which sweetened the whole atmosphere of 
her surroundings. She was the daughter of the parish 
minister of Kelso, Eobert Lundie, and was born at the 
manse there, April 26, 1814. She was married July 11, 
1836, to William Wallace Duncan,, minister of Cleish, Kin- 
ross-shire. In the end of December, 1839, she wrote and 
invited her brother to come and spend part of his Christmas 
holiday at Cleish, remarking at the same time that she had 
a cold which his presence would help to drive away. She 
became ill and got gradually worse till she died, January 5, 
1840, at the early age of twenty-five. 

Her hymns, which were composed for her own children 
and doubtless witji no thought of publicity, are very tender 
and very beautiful. They first appeared at the end of 
that very delightful memoir penned by the loving hand 
of her own mother, which appeared in 1841, passing 
through many editions, and later, in 1842, in a separate 
booklet to the number of twenty-three. 

Jesus, tender Shepherd, hear me, 

is in many respects the best of her compositions. It is 
universally known all over Scotland, and many little ones 
use the first verse as an evening prayer. 

JOHN CURWEN is well known in connexion with his efforts 
to develop and promote the tonic sol-fa method of teaching to 
sing. He was born at Heckmondwike, Yorkshire, November 

T 



274 CHILDREN'S HYMNS 

14, 1817, and qualified for the ministry in connexion with 
the Congregational Church. He held several pastorates, 
but retired from the active work of the ministry in 1867, 
and established the publishing firm which is still concerned 
with the promotion of the sol-fa system. He aided in 
founding the Tonic Sol-fa Association in 1853. 

Mr. Curwen compiled The Child's Own Hymn-book, 1846, 
which contained two hymns of his own composition. One 

of these : 

I'm a little pilgrim, 

is very well known, and is found in all collections of hymns 
for children. This hymn, we are told in Curwen's Biographical 
Notes, had an altogether unromantic origin. 'A hymn with 
a similar first line had been inserted in a new edition of The 
Child's Own Hymn-book without the knowledge that it was 
copyright. At the last moment, when the index was stereo- 
typed and the book was at press, Mr. Curwen discovered 
the authorship, and permission to use it was refused either 
for love or money by the owner of the copyright. As a way 
out of the difficulty he wrote this hymn, which now appears 
in almost every children's collection.' It was a very fortu- 
nate difficulty Mr. Curwen found himself in, and the result 
is more than satisfactoiy. He died May 25, 1880. 

WILLIAM DICKSON was the author of another very popular 

hymn : 

Childhood's years are passing o'er us. 

He was born at Edinburgh, July 24, 1817, and educated at 
the High School and University of his native city. Although 
busily engaged with business, he was a most active Christian 
worker. Every good cause found a ready helper and sym- 
pathizer in Mr. Dickson. For thirty years he edited The 
Children's Record of the Free Church of Scotland, and 
annually there appeared in that publication a New Year 
hymn from his own pen for the children. This he continued 
to do for forty-two years. No one of- his compositions, 



CHILDREN 'S HYMNS 275 

however, has attained the popularity of Childhood's Years. 
Mr. Dickson died in 1889. 



WILLIAM MEYNELL WHITTEMOEE (1820-94) was ^ ne author 

of:- . 

I want to be like Jesus, 

a hymn of great simplicity and well suited to very young 
children. It finds a place in many hymnals. 

JOHN LYTH was born at York, March 13, 1821. He 
studied for the ministry of the Wesleyan Church, and for 
forty years did active duty as a pastor. Dr. Lyth wrote a few 
original pieces which were published in 1843, A Selection 
of Religious Poetry. His most popular hymn, which has 
gained its place in our favour solely on the ground of its 
own merit, is : 

There is a better world, they say. 

It was written for the anniversary of an infant school at 
Randwick, Gloucestershire, April 30, 1845. He died March 13, 
1886. 

SIR HENRY WILLIAMS BAKER, a considerable name in 
hymnody (page 210), was the author of the fine hymn : 

Lord Jesus, God and Man. 

JENNETTE THRELFALL was born at Blackburn, Lancashire, 
March 24, 1821, and died November 30, 1880. Her life 
was a clouded one. She early lost both parents and found 
a home with relatives, carrying with her brightness and joy, 
despite her sorrow and suffering. These were due partly 
to accidents she met with, by which she was maimed and 
rendered an invalid for life. Miss Threlfall wrote some 
good sacred verse, but her hymns are her, successful corn-- 
positions. They first appeared in Woodsorrel ; or, Leaves 
from a Retired Home, 1856; and later in Sunshine .and 
Shadow. 

T 2 



276 CHILDREN'S HYMNS 

Hosanna, loud hosanna, 

is a very glad hymn, well written, and a great favourite, 
founded on the incident at the entrance of our Lord to 
Jerusalem before the Crucifixion. 

When from Egypt's house of bondage 
is less successful, but a good hymn. 

RANDALL HUNTER BALLANTYNE (1821-61) is the author of:- 

How loving is Jesus, who came from the sky, 
a hymn in which the Gospel invitation is presented and 
urged. 

JAMES DRUMMOND BURNS (page 223) has given us : 

Hushed was the evening hymn, 

a hymn very pictorial, and attractive to the young mind. 
Few hymns for children have gained a more secure place in 
our hymnals. 

WILLIAM WALSHAM How (page 201) wrote several good 
hymns for the young, none better than : 

Who is this so weak and helpless, 

a Passion hymn, in which the sorrows of Christ are beauti- 
fully and pathetically told. 

Come, praise your Lord and Saviour 

is a good hymn of praise, arranged in The Church Hymnary 
to be sung by boys and girls alternately, verse by verse. 
Lord, this day Thy children meet 

is a hymn for Sunday services. 

MES. CECIL FRANCES ALEXANDER (page 240) was one of our 
most successful hymn-writers for children. She wrote many 
pieces, some of which are of great merit. She had the happy 
knack of presenting her thought in an attractive pictorial 
garb which never fails to arrest the youthful mind. One of 
her most successful compositions, and a great favourite, is : 
Once in royal David's city. 



CHILDREN'S HYMNS . 277 

Another, which displays the same features, is that very 
pathetic hymn : 

There is a green hill far away. 

It is worth while to point out the simplicity and purity 
of Mrs. Alexander's language, nowhere more strikingly dis- 
played than in this hymn. It is beautiful Saxon in almost 
every word. Not less attractive are : 

All things bright and beautiful, 
and 

Day by day the little daisy. 

Beyond the holy city wall 

is a hymn on the Crucifixion, very realistic. To very little 
children there are few hymns better adapted than : 

Do no sinful action ; 
the lessons are direct and plainly put. 

We are but little children weak, 

will rank with Mrs. Alexander's best work. Her hymns 
were collected and published in a small volume in 1848, 
Hymns for Little Children, and had a great run of popu- 
larity. Over a quarter of a million copies had been sold by 
1868. 

PHOSBE GARY (page 307), and not her sister Alice, as has 
been erroneously stated, wrote : 

A crown of glory bright 

a hymn of much beauty and simplicity. It is surprising 
that so few hymnals, comparatively, contain it. 

ALBERT MIDLANE, another author of a universally popular 

hymn : 

There's a Friend for little children, 

was born at Newport, Isle of Wight, January 25, 1825, 
three months after the death of his father. He had a very 
devout mother, and her son remembers her saying, when he 



278 CHILDREN'S HYMNS 

could hardly take in the meaning of the words, ' They told 
me when your dear father died that my child would be the 
Lord's gift to cheer and help me in my widowhood/ ' For 
fifty years he was able to prove the truth of the prediction. 
Mr, Midlane learned the trade of an ironmonger, and follows 
it still. But he does more. From the very earliest he has 
interested himself in Sunday-school work, and in his own 
locality is known as the poet-preacher of the 'Strict 
Brethren/ of which he is one, ministering regularly to a 
congregation of that sect. 

He began early to write hymns ; God Wess our Sunday- 
school, which is in many hymnals, having been written 
when he was seventeen years of age. This first hymn was 
written in 1841 at the request of a friend who had begun 
the publication of a paper called Good Neivs for the Little 
Ones. His famous hymn made its first appearance in the 
same paper in 1859. From the very first it attracted atten- 
tion, and has grown in favour ever since, having a sure place 
in every hymnal for children. 

Mr. Midlane is a voluminous writer of hymns on all sub- 
jects, and chiefly for children. He is a true friend to the 
children in that respect. The tone of his hymns is high, 
and there is manifest in them a loyalty to the Word of 
God. None of them, even the most popular, has much 
literary merit, though here and there we come across poetical 
thoughts very beautifully expressed. He has the double 
distinction of being the author of one of the most popular 
hymns in our language, and the most extensive composer 
for children. 

At the age of seventy-four Mr. Midlane is still actively 
engaged in good work at Newport. 

GEOKGE SAMUEL HODGES was born at Walmer in 1827. 
He studied at Jesus College, Oxford, and was preferred 
to the vicarage of Stubbings, near Maidenhead. We are 



CHILDREN'S HYMNS 279 

indebted to him for several hymns ; but the one by which 
he is best known is : 

Hosanna we sing, like the children dear 
which has had considerable acceptance. 

PEISCILLA JANE OWENS (born 1829) is the Writer of the 
missionary hymn of some merit : 

We have heard a joyful sound. 

SAMUEL COLLINGWOOD HAMEETON has given us : 
Waken, Christian children ! 

a Christmas carol of some merit. It appeared first in 1855, 
and is now included in several hymnals. He was born in 
1833, an( ^ a ^ er studying at Oxford became the Incumbent of 
St. Paul's, Warwick, and died there in 1872. 

JOHN ELLEETON (page 213) was also a writer for children, 
and we have several good hymns from his pen. 

The hours of day are over ; 

is an evening hymn of thanksgiving. Originally the first 
line read, 'The hours of school are over.' The alteration 
was made in 1871 for Church Hymns. 
More familiar and a better child's hymn is: 
Again the morn of gladness. 

This hymn is written in Mr. Ellerton's best style, .and is 
a good Sunday morning hymn. 

THOMAS JOSEPH POTTEE was born at Scarborough in 1827. 
He was educated at Cambridge, and thereafter took orders 
in the Roman Catholic Church. He composed a few original 
hymns, and made several. translations. His productions are 
chiefly in the hymnals of his own Church. 
Brightly gleams our banner, 

is a hymn of rare excellence, and, wedded to stirring music; 
is sure to grow in favour. Mr. Potter died in Dublin, 1873. 



280 CHILDREN'S HYMNS 

PATTY CAROLINE DUNSTERVILLE (1831-87) wrote : 

The day is done: God the Son, 

a hymn of merit, included in several hymnals, notably 
in The Scottish Hymnal, Children's Hymn-book of the 
Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge, and 
Congregational Sunday School Hymnal. 

FBEDEBIC WILLIAM FARRAR, Dean of Canterbury, was 
born at Bombay, August 7, 1831. He Was educated at 
King William's College, Isle of Man ; at King's College, 
London; and at Trinity College, Cambridge. 

Dean Farrar is a preacher of rare eloquence, his language 
being of the choicest. As an author he has published many 
works, especially in the department of Church history. 
There may be named The Life of Christ, The Early Days 
of Christianity, and The Life of St. Paul. But he has done 
very little in hymnody. 

In the field with their flocks abiding, 

is one of several carols which he has written, and the best 
of them all. It was written for the boys at Harrow School 
when he was assistant master there. 

THOMAS ALFRED STOWELL was born at Salford, July 15, 
1831. He was a student of Queen's College, Oxford, and 
eventually became, in succession to .his father, Eector of 
Christ Church, Salford. In 1879 he was appointed an 
Honorary Canon of Manchester Cathedral. His hymns are 
principally for children, and one of the best of them is : 

My Saviour, be Thou near me 

an evening hymn of much beauty, which is fast finding its 
way into permanent hymnals. 

BENJAMIN BUSSELL HANBY (1833-67) has given us the 
attractive Christmas hymn : 

Who is He, in yonder stall, - ' 



CHILDREN'S HYMNS 281 

which finds a place in many hymnals. It commends itself 
by its picturesqueness and simplicity, and is a great favourite 
with young people. 

EMILY ELIZABETH STEELE ELLIOTT was a hymn -writer of 
much merit. She was born at Brighton in 1835. She con- 
tributed several pieces to the Church Missionary Juvenile 
Instructor, of which she was the editor for six years. In 
1873 she published Chimes of Consecration, and in 1880 
Chimes for Daily Service. 

The hymns by which she is best known in Scotland are : 

There came a little Child to earth, 

which has a place in all the best hymnals, and is a good 
Christmas hymn ; and 

Thou didst leave Thy throne, 

another excellent Christmas hymn. Picturesque and attrac- 
tive, it is a great favourite, and vies with the other in 
popularity. Miss Elliott died in 1897. 

THOMAS BENSON POLLOCK (page 217), who has written so 
many litanies, was the author of: 

Jesus, from Thy throne on high, 
which is also in litany form. 

x 

FRANCES RIDLEY HAVEKGAL (page 244) wrote one of the 
finest children's hymns we possess : 

Golden harps are sounding. 

This Ascension hymn was composed by the gifted writer in 
1871. It was written leaning against a wall, and in an 
incredibly short time. We are bound to say that there are 
few better children's hymns in our language. 
God of heaven, hear our singing ; 

is a very bright hymn, and..contains a prayer for the spread 
of Christ's kingdom. 

Jesus, blessed Saviour, 
is another glad hymn, brimful of praise. 



282 CHILDREN'S HYMNS 

All our sinful words and ways, 

is a highly commendable hymn, in litany style, by L, F. It 
finds a place in Mrs, Brock's Children's Hymn-book, 1881, 
and is understood to have been that lady's own composition. 
It is also in The Home and School Hymnal, 1892, 

WILLIAM H. PARKER was born March 4, 1845, at Notting- 
ham. He is the author of several hymns. 

Holy Spirit, hear us; 
is in many respects his best composition, 

ANNIE MATHESON, the daughter of a Congregational 
minister, was born at Blackheath in 1853. She early began 
to write verses. When thirteen years of age she wrote the 
hymn, Jesus, the children are calling, which appeared in 
G-ood Words as a child's hymn. 

Dear Master, what can children do? 
is a good hymn expressive of Christian service. 

SABINE BARING-GOULD (page 217) is the author of that 
very fine evening hymn : 

Now the day is over, 
beautiful in thought, and simple in expression. 

MRS. E. SHEPCOTE is the author of: 
Jesus, holy, undefilod. 

Her husband, E. E. Shepcote, was for some time a clergy- 
man of the Church of England, but he and his wife 
eventually joined the Church of Rome. 

SARAH BETTS RHODES, nee BRADSHAW, of Sheffield, is the 
author of the hymn : 

God, who made the earth. 

She also composed the tune usually sung to it. It first 
appeared in 1870. 



CHILDREN'S HYMNS 283 



ANONYMOUS., 

A few anonymous hymns remain to be noticed, some of 
which are noteworthy. 

The wise may bring their learning, 

has a good deal to commend it. The lesson it contains is 
a useful one for our children to learn, that the youngest 
and the least well-equipped can .be of service to Christ in 

His kingdom. 

We '11 bring the little duties 
We have to do each day ; 

* 

And better are these treasures 

To offer to our King 
Than richest gifts without them ; 

Yet these a child may bring. 

This hymn has secured for 'itself considerable recognition, 
and is found in many modern hymnals. Another of the 

same class is : 

The fields are all white. 

The lesson is the same, but the duties have a deeper 
Christian complexion : 

We '11 work by our prayers, 
By the offerings we bring, 
By small self-denials. 

And yet another : 

what can little hands do. 

These hymns have their important lessons very simply 
expressed, and are. far removed from the namby-pamby stuff 
which so many think good material for children's worship. 

Whither, pilgrims, are you going, 

is a hymn with a good record, and we are glad to find it in 
The Church Hymnary. The Christian pilgrimage and its 
destination are very truly and effectively set forth in this 
hymn, and the language is quite simple enough for the 
youngest to understand. ' 



284 CHILDREN'S HYMNS 

The darkness now is over, 

is a very good morning hymn. It appears in collections 
with the initials E. T. 

, 'Follow Me,' the Master said; 

and ' . . 

Jesus, high in glory, 

are both good hymns. The latter has a considerable reputa- 
tion, and is found in most hymnals. It was originally taken 
from The Sabbath School Harmonist, 1847, 
Little children, praise the Saviour, 

is a very pretty hymn, and has many of the attractions 
of a good child's hymn. From the ' Notes ' appended to 
the large-type edition of the Church Hymnary, we get 
all the information available regarding it 'As in the 
Juvenile Harmonist, published by the Sunday School Union 
in 1837 or 1838 (the book is undated); here apparently 
the hymn was first printed, but efforts to ascertain the 
authorship have been unsuccessful.' 

Little children, wake and listen ! 

is a very good Christmas hymn, but it will hardly take its 

place with the many excellent Christmas hymns which we 

have. It appeared in Williamson's Children's Manual, 1876. 

Blessed Jesup, high in glory, 

Joy bells are sounding sweetly, 

are hymns of little merit. The latter is one of a class which 
does no credit to any hymnal. It is full of meaningless 
phrases. 

Perfection is not to be expected in any compilation of 
hymns, but approximation to that ideal should be aimed at. 
We are bound to say that, with the exception of a very few 
pieces, the hymns of the children's section are of a re- 
markably good quality. Where there is a straining after 
simplicity, and a use of maudlin phrases and hackneyed 
goodyisms, there should be nothing but condign condemnation 
meted out. The hymns of this section are remarkably free 
from such objectionable and noxious elements. 



XIII 

AMERICAN HYMNS 



XIII 

AMEKICAN hymnody is yet in its infancy, but we. predict 
for it ,a great future. When we consider the variety of 
characteristics which mark our kinsfolk in the West, and 
the bright buoyant spirit with which they are gifted ; when 
we remember under what different conditions, ecclesiasti- 
cally, socially, and politically, those characteristics have 
been formed ; when we view the vast territory they inhabit : 
its scenery so varied, and on so magnificent a scale ; and 
when we realize that the start made in literature, and which 
augurs so well, was made but recently, we cannot but 
believe that in that department of letters in which the soul 
finds truest and fullest expression, the poetical and lyrical, 
that great people shall yet secure for themselves a place 
of honour. 

Like ourselves, the Americans began to praise God in the 
sanctuary from a metrical version of the Psalter. When 
the early settlers had gathered themselves into communities 
the worship of God in public was speedily requested. In 
1620 the Pilgrim Fathers landed at Plymouth. In 1638 we 
find they had thirty ministers, and it w^as in the year 
following that they set about providing themselves with 
a praise-book. 

Here is an account of the production of the Bay Psalm 
Book, the first version in use in New England, taken from 
the Magnalia of Dr, Cotton Mather: 'About the year 1639* 



288 AMERICAN HYMNS 

the New English reformers, considering that their Churches 
enjoyed the other ordinances of heaven in their spiritual 
purity, were willing that "the Singing of Psalms " should 
be restored among them into a share of that purity. Though 
they blessed God for the religious endeavours of them who 
translated the Psalms into the meetre usually annexed at 
the end of the Bible, yet they beheld in the translation so 
many detractions from, additions to, and variations of, not 
only the text, but the very sense of the Psalmist, that it 
was an offense unto them. Resolving then upon a new 
translation, the chief divines in the country took each 
of them a portion to be translated : among whom were 
Mr. Welds, and Mr. Eliot of Eoxburg, and Mr. Mather, 
of Dorchester. . . . The Psalms thus turned into meetre 
were printed at Cambridge, in the year 1640. But after- 
wards it was thought that a little more of art was to be 
employed upon them ; and for that cause they were com- 
mitted unto Mr. Dunster, who revised and refined this 
translation ; and (with some assistance from Mr. Eichard 
Lyon, who being sent over by Sir Henry Mildmay as an 
attendant unto his son, then a student at Harvard College, 
now resided in Mr. Dtmster's house) he brought it into the 
condition wherein our Churches have since used it. Now 
though I heartily join with those gentlemen who wish that 
the poetry thereof were mended, yet I must confess that the 
Psalms have never yet seen a translation that I know of 
nearer to the Hebrew original ; and I am willing to receive 
the excuse which our translators themselves do offer us 
when they say : " If the verses are not always so elegant as 
some desire or expect, let them consider that God's altar 
needs not our polishings ; we have respected rather a plain 
translation than to smooth our verses with the sweetness of 
any paraphrase." ' 

This version in due course made room for that of Tate 
and Brady. But not till 1789, when that version was issued 



AMERICAN HYMNS 289 

with twenty-seven hymns appended, do we find hymns used 
in America: and then they were used by the Protestant 
Episcopalians, When hymns came to be used they were 
for the most part the productions of English hymn- writers 
Isaac Watts and others. So far as we have been able to 
ascertain, the earliest American hymn- writer was Dr. Mather 
Byles, who was born in 1706; and he wrote but few hymns, 
hone of which are in use in this country. 

From the beginning of this century American hymn- 
writers have rapidly increased in number, and their pro- 
ductions show those characteristics which we should have 
expected to find in them. There is vivacity ; a degree 
of freedom of expression which we have not yet acquired, 
and possibly never shall ; an entire absence of dogma ; 
a warmth of expression which we associate with Charles 
Wesley ; and withal a beauty of diction which constitutes 
many of their productions chaste and attractive. 

It is very remarkable, considering the youthfulness of 
American literature, that there are somewhere about 300 
of their hymns of the better sort in use in this country. 
They are not so well known as is another class of hymns 
which we more readily associate with America, viz. revival 
hymns. These do their work and disappear. They are 
ephemeral: they have none of the qualities which con- 
stitute a hymn that lasts. But the hymns to which we 
refer are of a thoroughly acceptable sort substantial, 
dignified. They are simply rushing into prominence, and 
the time is not far distant when our compilers must experi- 
ence an embarrassment of riches which they have not yet 
experienced, even in the midst of the wealth of hymn 
literature which is our present possession. 

It should not be overlooked that if we do not mend our 
ways in one particular, our hymnody must in the future 
take an inferior place, in point of quality, to that of 
America: and for this reason, that while our poets of repute 

u 



290 AMERICAN HYMNS 

seldom give attention to hymn-writing should we not 
rather say never give it? in America there has not been 
a poet of the first order who has not honoured himself in 
that department. Longfellow, "Wldttier, Holmes, Emerson, 
Lowell, Bryant, and others, poets of the first rank, have 
all been hymn-writers. Our poets and our hymn-writers 
are two different classes : in America they are one and 
the same. Our poets have all failed when they tried hymn- 
writing, American poets have all succeeded. 

Not only in original compositions are the Americans 
distinguishing themselves, they are also making their mark 
as translators. Such men as Bishop Coxe, Ray Palmer, and 
Philip Schaff (if we may call him an American), and others, 
have done noble service. In The Church Hymnary we 
have a specimen of what Ray Palmer could do in a transla- 
tion of the Veni, Sancte Spiritus. 

HYMN-WRITERS BORN PRIOR TO 1800. 

Prior to 1800 hymn-writers in America were few. Eight 
of their number are represented in The Church Hymnary. 

SAMUEL DAVIES, a minister of the Presbyterian Church 
in Virginia, was born at Newcastle, Delaware, November 3, 
1724 ; licensed to preach the Gospel in 1745, and ordained 
1747. He had the honour to succeed Jonathan Edwards in 
the Presidency of Princetown College. To that position he 
was raised in 1759, but only occupied it for two years. He 
died February 4, 1761. 

Dr. Davies was a man of great ability : a man of affairs as 
well as an author. His hymns might be styled weighty, 
and in that particular are unlike American hymns generally. 
For that reason they have never been popular. Very few 
are in common use in America or Great Britain. 

Great God of wonders ! all Thy waj's 

is an excellent hymn on the pardoning grace of God, and is 
a good sample of Dr. Davies' work. 



AMERICAN HYMNS 291 

TIMOTHY DWIGHT .was born at Northampton, Mass,, 
May 14, 1752. He was educated at Yale College, and 
became a tutor there. After acting for some time as a 
chaplain in the [Revolutionary Army, he filled the pastorate 
of a Congregational Church at Fairfield, Connecticut. 

In 1795 he was appointed President of Yale College. 
There he delivered his lectures on theology,, which have been 
published, and are known in this country as Dwight's 
System of Theology. At the request of the General Associa- 
tion of Connecticut he undertook to revise and complete 
Watts' version of the Psalms. This task he accomplished ; 
and to the volume he added several hymns, a few of which 
were from his own pen. Very few of Dr. Dwight's hymns, 
which are all Psalm versions, are in common use. 
I love Thy kingdom, Lord, 

is the best known of all his compositions, and is found in 
a few hymnals in this country. It is a version of Psalm 
137, and in the original text contains eight stanzas of four 
lines. He died at Newhaven, Connecticut, January u, 
1817. '. , 

THOMAS HASTINGS devoted his life to the advancement of 
sacred music. He was born at Washington, Connecticut, 
October 15, 1784. With his parents he bore the hardships 
of a pioneer's life, and with a degree of perseverance credit- 
able to him overcame many difficulties and achieved the 
purpose of his life. He was from the very earliest passion- 
ately fond of music. When quite young he set himself to 
master the theory. This he soon accomplished, and having 
equipped himself by all means in his power, eventually 
secured work as a teacher of music. In 1818 he first gave 
his attention to sacred music, and became leader of praise 
in several congregations successively. Having removed his 
residence to New York City, he undertook the conduct of 
the praise in Broorne Street Presbyterian Church ; and from 

u 2 



292 AMERICAN HYMNS 

the beginning of his residence in that city (1832) to his 
death, he gave all his time and energy 'to the culture of 
sacred music, He died May 15, 1872. 

Dr. Hastings (he was a Doctor of Music) was a hymn- 
writer of fair merit, none of his compositions rising to 
excellence. Music was his chief delight, and hymn-writing 
was a secondary matter. His hymns are full of earnestness, 
many of them being Gospel calls to the careless. 
Return, wanderer, to thy home, 

was suggested to him by the closing words of a sermon to 
which he had been listening. 

To-day the Saviour calls : 

was written from a sketch which was supplied to him by 
Dr. Samuel Francis Smith, a minister of the Baptist Church, 
and an extensive hymn- writer, whose hymns are largely in 
common use in America. Dr. Smith was born at Boston, 
October 21, 1808, and died in 1895. 

JOHN PIEBPONT was born at Lichfield, Connecticut, April 
6, 1785. He was a student of Yale College, and after 
graduating studied law, but found the profession distasteful 
and went into business as a dry goods merchant. By-and- 
by he prepared for the ministry, and in 1819 became pastor 
of Hollis Street Unitarian Church, Boston. In 1861 he 
did duty as chaplain to a regiment in the war of the 
Rebellion. 

Mr. Pierpont was a man of culture and literary taste, and 
has left several poems of much value, One poem on the 
Lord's Supper it lacks some of the characteristics of a 
hymn we cannot refrain from giving in full, it is so realis- 
tic, and so unlike the usual style of such hymns : 

The winds are hushed ; the peaceful moon 

Looks down on Zion's hill ; 
The city sleeps ; 'tis night's calm noon, 

And all the streets are still. 



AMERICAN HYMNS 293 

Save when, along the shaded walks, 

We hear the watchman's call, 
Or the guard's footsteps, as he stalks 

In moonlight on the wall. 

How soft, how holy is this light ! 

And hark 1 a mournful song, 
As gentle as those dews of night, 

Floats on the air along. 

Affection's wish, devotion's prayer, 

Are in that holy strain ; 
'Tis resignation, not despair, 

'Tis triumph, though 'tis pain. 

'Tis Jesus and His faithful few 

That pour that hymn of love ; 
G-od ! may we the song renew, 

Around Thy board above ! 

His hymn : 

Thou to whom in ancient time 

is a noble hymn, and perhaps the first really good American 
hymn. It was written for the opening of the Congregational 
Church in Barton Square, Salem, Massachusetts, 1824. 
Mr. Pierpont died at Medford, August 27, 1866. 

WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT, the son of Dr. Peter Bryant, was 
born November 3, 1794, at Cummington, Mass. He early 
gave evidence of the poetic gift, and when ten years of age 
contributed verses to the Hampshire Gazette. After study- 
ing law, and practising for some time, he gave himself to 
journalism, and became editor of the New YorJs Review. 
He died at Long Island, near New York, June 12, 1878. 

Mr. Bryant was a poet of great repute, is justly esteemed 
in America, and is well known and highly appreciated in 
this country. . He was a man of a religious spirit, and he 
devoted his gift in great part to the cause of religion. His 
'hymns are many, and are all compositions of high excel- 
lence. Three of his pieces find a place in The Church 
Hymnary. 



294 AMERICAN HYMNS 

Thou whose unmeasured temple stands 

is a hymn for church dedication, and was written in 1835 
for the dedication of a church in Prince Street, New York. 
The first line is sometimes made to read, ' Thou whose 
own vast temple stands.' 

North, with all thy vales of green, 

is a very stately missionary hymn. Another good mission- 
ary hymn : 

Look from the sphere of endless day, 

was written in 1840, for the anniversary of a missionary 
society. 

WILLIAM AUGUSTUS MUHLENBERG was born at Philadelphia, 
September 16, 1796. He was of German descent. His grand- 
father, Henry Melchior Mtihlenberg, was the founder of 
the Lutheran Church in America. He was a student of the 
University of Pennsylvania, where he qualified for the 
ministry. He was ordained in 1820, and became succes- 
sively Kector of St. James' Church, Lancaster, Pa., Principal 
of St. Paul's College, and Kector of the Church of the Holy 
Communion, New York City. Towards the close of his life 
he took charge of St. Luke's Hospital, which he had founded. 
He died in New York, April 6, 1877. 

He was a man of great modesty. He voted against the 
inclusion of one of his own hymns in the Episcopal Hymnal, 
although no one in the committee knew that it was his. 
Saviour, who Thy flock art feeding 

is a very tender baptismal hymn, and it is the production 
by which he is best known in this country. 

WILLIAM BULLOCK (1798-1874) was a missionary of the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. He was at one 
time Dean of Halifax, Nova Scotia. 

We love the place, God, 
is a revised form of a hymn which appeared in his Songs 



AMERICAN HYMNS 295 

of the Church, 1854, The revision was made by Sir H, W, 
Baker. 

GEOKGE WASHINGTON DOANE was born at Trenton, New 
Jersey, May 27, 1799. He was educated at the Union 
College, Schenectady, New York. After ordination he be- 
came assistant in Trinity parish, New York City ; and in 
1825 was appointed Professor of Belles Lettres in Trinity 
College, Hartford. He became Bishop of New Jersey in 
1832, and died at Burlington, April 27, 1859. 
Thou art the Way: to Thee alone 

is a hymn which has gained considerable acceptance in this 
country. 

NINETEENTH CENTUKY, 

Now we find ourselve's confronted by quite a galaxy of 
hymn-writers, many of them men of conspicuous ability in 
various departments, and as hymn-writers men of poetie 
genius in not a few instances. Twenty-five find a place 
in The Church Hymnary, exclusive of writers of children's 
hymns. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON BETHTJNE, an eminent minister of 
the Dutch Eeformed Church, was born in New York 
City, March 18, 1805. His father was a native of Ding- 
wall, Scotland, and a man of devoted Christian life, who 
with his wife gave their son a careful training, both from 
the Word of God and by Christian example. He studied 
at Dickinson College, Carlisle, Pa., and at Princeton ; and 
was licensed to preach the Gospel, July 11, 1826. He 
was settled as pastor of the Dutch congregation at Ehine- 
beck, New York ; and, after occupying several other pastor- 
ates, was settled in New York City as minister of Twenty-one 
Street Church. In 1861, on account of failing health, he 
went to Italy, and died at Florence, April 27, 1862. He 
was a faithful pastor, and possessed the hymnic faculty. 



296 AMERICAN HYMNS 

His compositions are few, and some of them have found 
acceptance. Besides original compositions he executed a 
rendering of the Greek hymn $<S? tXapov d-y'as 80^?. He is 
represented in The Church Hymnary by a translation of 
Dr. Cesar Malan's hymn, Non, ce n'est pas mourir : 

It is not death to die. 

Dr. Henri Abraham Cesar Malan was born at Geneva, 
Switzerland, July 7, 1787, and died May 14, 1864. He is . 
interesting to us on account of his connexion with the gifted 
author of Just as I am (page 150), and for this other reason, 
that he and Theodor Monod are the sole modern French 
hymn- writers represented in The Church Hymnary. 

JOHN GREENLEAF WHITTIER, the Quaker poet of America, 
was born near Haverhill, Mass., December 17, 1807. He 
got his early education at a village school. His father was 
a farmer, and Whittier worked on the farm till he had 
reached the age of twenty. Meanwhile his verses had found 
a corner in a local newspaper, the editor of which induced 
his father to give young "Whittier a better education. There- 
upon he was sent to the Academy of Haverhill, and while 
there supported himself by working as a shoemaker. There- 
after he went into journalism. His poems, in seven 
volumes, were published simultaneously in Boston and 
London (printed in America) in 1889, three years before his 
death. In the end of last year (1898) the only complete 
edition of Whittier's works ever printed in this country 
was issued by the Oxford University Press, under the. 
editorship of W. Garrett Horder. 

It is interesting to us to know that his muse was first 
inspired by reading the poems of Robert Burns, a copy of 
which had been left at his father's house by a pedlar. 

Whittier did yeoman service in the anti-slavery crusade, 
both as a journalist and as a poet. 

Like other American poets, he was a hymn- writer. Many 



AMERICAN HYMNS 297 

of his compositions find a place in the hymnals of American 

Churches, and not a few are in common use in this country. 

Four of his hymns enrich The Church Hymnary. These 

are: 

We may not climb the heavenly steeps, 

Lord and Master of us all, 

both centos from the poem entitled ' Our Master,' from which 
altogether six centos have been taken it is needless to say 
that the poetic element is prominent in these hymns, and 
that they rank with the foremost American hymns ; 
When on my day of life the night is falling, 

a hymn for the close of life, and a composition of rare 
beauty it is included in his volume, The Bay of Seven 
Islands, 1883 ; and 

Dear Lord and Father of mankind, 

taken from his poem, 'The Brewing of Soma,' a hymn of 
tender beauty. 

These hymns have received but scanty recognition in this 
country up to the present, but are sure to win their way into 
the regard of our people. They are worthy of it. Of course, 
Whittier is only now becoming known in this country; 
and it may be that no time has been lost by hymnal com- 
pilers in appropriating his work. In America his hymns 
are coining largely into common use. He died September 7, 
1892. 

SARAH ELIZABETH MILES, daughter of Nathanael W. 
Appleton, was born at Boston, March 28, 1807. She wrote 
a few hymns; one of which has found very general 
acceptance, having found a place in all good hymnals in 
America and in this country: 

Thou who didst stoop below. 

It first appeared in the Christian Examiner in 1827, when 
she was twenty years of age. It is her best hymn, and very 



298 AMERICAN HYMNS 

good work indeed for such a young writer. She died 
in 1877. 

KAY PALMER is the foremost American hymn-writer of the 
century, He was born at Little Compton, Rhode Island, 
November 12, 1808. He studied at Yale College, and quali- 
fied for the ministry of the Congregational Church ; and was 
ordained to his first charge, Bath, Maine, in 1835, remaining 
there for fifteen years. From Bath he went to Albany, where 
he ministered for another term of fifteen years ; and in 1860 
was appointed Secretary of the American Congregational 
Union. He held that position till 1878, when he retired and 
made his home at Newark, New Jersey, where he led an 
active life, though seventy years of age. His pen was busy 
to the last. He was a preacher of great power, and his 
services were in constant requisition. 

But it is as a hymn-writer that Dr. Palmer must live. 
Ray Palmer is the hymn-writer of America, as truly as 
Bryant is the poet. Hymn-writers do well to make his 
work their model, for his standard was high. The poetic 
and hymnic elements are alike present in his work. 

The compilers of The Church Hymnary have wisely 
drawn largely upon his work, for every composition from 
the pen of Dr. Palmer is an additional adornment to 
a hymnal. 

He died at the ripe age of seventy-nine years, at Newark, 
March 29, 1887. 

Take me, my Father, take me! 

is a hymn of great beauty, expressive of the surrender of 
a soul to God. 

Even more beautiful, and much more widely known, is : 
My faith looks up to Thee. 

This hymn was written by the author at the age of twenty- 
two, when fresh from college. He said of it that he wrote 
what he felt and with much emotion, ending the last line 



AMERICAN HYMNS 299 

with tears. No wonder the hymn has been so greatly 

blessed ! 

Jesus, these eyes have never seen 

is a hymn of unsurpassed beauty and tenderness. We cannot 
forget that it was the favourite hymn of the late Principal 
Brown, of Aberdeen. It is full of the poetic spirit, its 
emotion is overpowering, and the expression is chaste. 

Dr. Palmer was an accomplished translator from the 
Latin. His translation of the cento, Jesu, Dulcedo cordiiim, is 
one of the best renderings from the Latin : 
Jesus, Thou Joy of loving hearts. 
So also is his rendering of the Veni, Sancte Spiritus: 
Come, Holy Ghost, in love. 

Eay Palmer deserves a place beside the most accomplished 
English-speaking hymn-writers. 

OLIVER WENDELL HOLMES. It is not a little interesting to 
find the author of the Breakfast Table Talks among hymn- 
writers, as showing that all gifts, and qualifications of mind 
and heart, can be brought into use for the adornment of the 
temple of praise. We admire his wit and bright fancy, we 
enjoy his keen satire, and the rough treatment he measures 
out to all bigotries and superstitions : but somehow we 
should not have expected to find him in the company of the 
hymn-writers, had we not known him to be there. He 
was not only a writer of hymns, but he excelled in the art, 
and our only regret is that he did not write more. 

He was born at Cambridge, Mass., August 29, 1809, his 
father being at that time minister of the first Congregational 
Church of that place. He got his early education at Phillips 
Academy, Andover, and at Harvard College, where he 
graduated in 1829. After studying law for a short time, he 
left it and devoted himself to the study of medicine. He 
studied in Europe, as well as in America, and qualified at 
Harvard College in 1836. Two years later he was appointed 



300 AMERICAN HYMNS 

Professor of Anatomy and Physiology at Dartmouth, a posi- 
tion he held till 1847, when he received an invitation to 
occupy a similar position at Harvard College, which he 
accepted and held till 1882. 

From the very earliest he devoted all his spare time to 
literature. His first poem was published in 1830 ; and in 
1857 The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table appeared in the 
pages of the Atlantic Monthly. In the same monthly The 
Professor appeared in 1860, and The Poet in 1873. The 
poems and hymns which bespangle the pages of these works 
are collected, and (with others) have appeared in book form. 

The few hymns he wrote are full of tenderness and poetic 

spirit, 

Thou gracious God, whose mercy lends 

has not hitherto appeared in any Church hymnal in this 
country with the exception of The Home and School Hymnal. 
It was written for an annual meeting of his college class, 
and the first line in the original text reads 'Thou gracious 
Power.' When The Home and School Hymnal was compiled, 
Dr. Holmes allowed the alteration. It is a good hymn for 
anniversaries, and should speedily secure a place for itself 
in our esteem. Dr. Holmes died at Boston, October 7, 1894, 

EDMUND HAMILTON SEARS was the author of the two very 
fine Christmas hymns, one of which ranks with the first 
Christmas hymns in our language : 

It came upon the midnight clear, 

and is in every particular a thoroughly good hymn. No 
one can read it without being benefited, and to sing it with 
spirit and understanding to Sullivan's fine tune. Noel, is to 
enjoy a feast, How full of Christian hope, and how beauti- 
fully expressed, is the last stanza ! 

For, lo! the days are hastening on, 

By prophet bards foretold, 
When with the ever-circling years 

Comes round the age of gold, 



AMERICAN HYMNS 301 

When peace shall over all the earth 

Its ancient splendours fling, 
And the whole world give back the song 

Which now the angels sing. 

Mr. Sears was born at Sandisfield, Berkshire Co., Mass., 
April 6, 1810. He studied at Union College in 1834, and 
at Cambridge Divinity School in 1837. The year following 
he became minister of the first Unitarian Church, Wayland. 
In 1865 he removed to Weston, near Concord ; and died 
there, January 14, 1876. 

WILLIAM HENRY BURLEIGH was a hymn-writer of con- 
siderable note ; and he is unique in this particular, that he 
has more admirers in this country than in America. He 
was born at Woodstock, Connecticut, February 2, 1812. He 
revealed the poetic gift from his earliest years, and wrote 
much during the anti-slavery movement. In due time he 
devoted himself to journalistic work, and was ever ready 
with his pen to aid a good cause. In 1853 he was appointed 
harbour-master at New York ; and later, port warden. He 
died at Brooklyn, March 18, 1871. 

His hymn : 

Lead us, Father, in the paths of peace: 

is a prayer for guidance, but it has found little acceptance 
hitherto. 

CHARLES WILLIAM EVEREST was the author of one of our 
best known American hymns : 

' Take up thy cross,' the Saviour said. 

He was born at East Windsor, Connecticut, May 27, 1814. 
His first intention was to devote his life to journalism ; but 
changing his mind, he prepared for orders in the Episcopal 
Church. He studied at Trinity College, Hartford, and 
was ordained in 1842. In the same year he became Rector 
of Hampden, near New Haven, Connecticut, where he 



302 AMERICAN HYMNS 

continued for thirty-one years. He died at Waterbury, 
Connecticut, January n, 1877. 

Visions of Death and Other Poems was published in 1833, 
and from that volume this hymn is taken. It has been 
tinkered a good deal. The original text is as follows, and 
readers can judge for themselves if it is improved by the 

alterations or not: 

i. 

'Take up thy cross,' the Saviour said, 

' If thou wouldsfc My disciple be ; 
Take up thy cross with willing heart, 

And humbly follow after Me.' 

it. 

Take up thy cross ; let not its weight 
Fill thy weak soul with vain alarm ; 

His strength shall bear thy spirit up, 
And brace thy heart, and nerve thy arm. 

in. 
Take up thy cross, nor heed the shame, 

And let thy foolish pride be still ; 
The Lord refused not e'en to die 

Upon a cross on Calvary's hill. 

IV. 

Take up thy cross, then, in His strength, 
And calmly sin's wild deluge brave ; 

'Twill guide thee to a better liome, 
And point to glory o'er the grave. 

v. 

Take up thy cross, and follow on, 
Nor think till death to lay .it down ; 

For only he who bears the cross 
May hope to wear the glorious crown. 

DANIEL MARCH is the author of: 

Hark ! the voice of Jesus crying. 

A correspondent kindly sends the following: 'In 1867 
I was the guest of George H. Stewart, of Philadelphia, 
the famous Christian philanthropist, and president of the 



AMERICAN HYMNS 303 

Christian Commission which supplied the means of grace to 
the American soldiers during the civil war. He was chair- 
man, he told me, of a meeting at Washington in aid of the 
Commission ; and he gave out what is No. 433 in The Church 
Hymnary fliarfc'/ the voice of Jesus crying. He showed me 
a piece of crumpled paper which Abraham Lincoln, who 
was present, handed to him. On it was a request to sing 
that hymn again. It was sung again. This fact led the 
Americans to regard that hymn as Lincoln's favourite, and 
identify it with the work of Christ in the army. It thus 
became exceptionally popular in America.' The author 
is an American Congregational minister, and was born 
July 21, 1816. 

EDMUND TURKEY was born at Weston, Connecticut, May 6, 
1816. He prepared for the Baptist ministry at Madison 
University, New York ; and did duty as pastor to several 
congregations successively. In 1850 he was appointed 
Professor of Biblical Criticism at Madison University. He 
died at Washington, Columbia, September 28, 1872. He 
published two volumes of his hymns, but few of his produc- 
tions are in common use. The first two stanzas of : 

I will go in the strength of the Lord 

are his composition. The writer of the third stanza .is 
unknown. It is a hymn of very ordinary merit, and has no 
place in any other standard British hymnals ; nor, in this 
hymn-making age, is it ever likely to have. 

GEORGE DUFFIELD, the author of : 

Stand up ! stand up for Jesus ! 

was born at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, September 12, 1818. He 
studied at Yale College, and at Union Theological Seminary, 
New York, and qualified for the ministry of the Presby- 
terian Church. His first charge was at Brooklyn, where he 
remained for seven years. In 1847 he removed to Bloom- 



304 AMERICAN HYMNS 

field, New Jersey, where he ministered for four years. 
Called to Philadelphia in 1852, he spent ten years in that 
city. For the remaining years of his life he was an active 
pastor in the west. 

Mr. Duffield wrote a few hymns, some of which are in 
common use in America. But it is by Stand up ! stand up for 
Jesus ! that he is known all over the English-speaking world. 

The hymn has an affecting history. It was suggested 
to the writer by the dying message of Dudley A. Tyng, the 
faithful minister of Epiphany Church, Philadelphia, to the 
Young Men's Christian Association and others, during the 
great revival of 1858. On the Sunday before his death 
he had preached to 5,000 men, of which number 1,000, it 
was said, were awakened to religious inquiry. The text 
he took was Exocl. x. n. On the Wednesday .following he 
went to his barn, where a mule was at work on a horse- 
power shelling corn. He was patting the animal on the 
neck, when the sleeve of his silk study gown was caught by 
the wheels, and his arm was torn out by the socket. He 
died a few hours thereafter, sending his message, ' Tell them 
to stand up for Jesus.' Mr. Duffield preached his funeral 
sermon, and delivered the message. Later, he composed 
the hymn. Reference is made in the third verse to Mr. 
Tyng's last text. The original hymn contains six stanzas 
two more than are usually printed in hymnals. The two 
omitted in The Church Hymnary are: 

ir. 
Stand up ! stand up for Jesus ! 

The solemn watchword hear; 
If while -ye sleep He suffers 1 , 

Away with shame and fear. 
"Where'er ye meet with evil, 

Within you, or without, 
Charge for the God of battles, 

And put the foe to rout. 

1 Matt. xxvi. 36-46. 



AMERICAN HYMNS 305 

v. 

Stand up ! stand up for Jesus ! 

Each soldier to his post ; 
Close up the broken column 

And shout through all the host ! 
Make good the loss so heavy, 

In those that still remain, 
And 1 prove to all around you, 

That death itself is gain. 

Mr. Duffield died in 1888. 

AETHUE CLEVELAND COXE, Bishop of Western New York, 
the son of an eminent Presbyterian minister, was born at 
Mendham, New Jersey, May 10, 1818. He studied at the 
University of New York, and at the General Theological 
Seminary (Episcopalian). After ordination he filled several 
charges ; and in 1863 became Kector of Calvary Church, New 
York City. He was elevated to the episcopate in 1865, and 
resided thereafter at Buffalo. His writings were various, 
scholarly and cultured ; and he was a poet of mark. 

His hymns are found in the hymnals of all Churches 

save his own, for which his great modesty was responsible. 

He happened to be a member of the hymnal committee, 

and steadfastly refused to allow his hymns to be voted upon. 

Saviour, sprinkle many nations, 

is a very fine missionary hymn. The second stanza is 
specially noteworthy. It was ' begun on G-ood Friday, 1850, 
and completed in 1851, in the grounds of Magdalen College, 
Oxford ; first published in England, by Eev. E. Hawkins, 
that year.' Bishop Coxe died in 1896. 

ELIZABETH PEENTISS was the daughter of Dr. Edward 
Payson, and was born at Portland, Maine, October 26, 1818. 
In 1845 she was married to George L. Prentiss, Professor 
of Homiletics and Church Government in Union Theological 
.Seminary, New York. 

Besides compiling several hymnals, Mrs. Prentiss was 

x 



306 AMERICAN HYMNS ' 

a popular writer of stories. Stepping Heavenward had a 
great sale in America; over 70,000 copies were sold. It 
had also a large sale in this country. 

More love to Thee, Christ, 

is a good hymn of its type, and has a place in many hymnals. 
It first appeared in leaflet form in 1869. She died at 
Dorset, Vermont, August 13, 1878. 

SAMUEL LONGFELLOW, a brother of the poet, H. W. 
Longfellow, was born at Portland, Maine, June 18, 1819. 
After studying at Harvard College, and at the Divinity 
School, Cambridge, he became a minister of the Unitarian 
Church. His first charge was at Fall Kiver, where he was 
settled in 1848. After five years he was called to the second 
Unitarian Church, Brooklyn, New York ; and in 1860 to 
Germanstown, Pennsylvania : this charge he resigned in 1882. 

In 1846 he edited A Book of Hymns for Public and 
Private Devotion. He published Vespers in 1859 ; and 
Hymns of the Spirit in 1864. To these collections he 
contributed several hymns of his own composition. 

The summer clays are come again ; 
is a good hymn for the season which it extols. 
Again, as evening's shadow falls, 

is an appropriate hymn for evening service, Mr. Longfellow 
died in 1892. 

FRANCES JANE VAN ALSTYNE (page 314) is a most volu- 
minous writer of children's hymns, having written about 
3,000 Sunday-school pieces. She was born at South East, 
New York, March 24, 1823. Six weeks after birth she lost 
her eyesight. When twelve years of age she was admitted 
to the New York Institute for the Blind ; and, qualifying as 
a teacher, she taught the blind there till 1858. In that year 
she married Alexander van Alstyne, a musician, and also 
blind. 



AMERICAN HYMNS 307 

Two hymns from her pen find a place in The Church 

Hymnary : 

Jesus, Saviour, hear my call, 

a simple hymn of consecration ; 

and 

Kescue the perishing, 

which is in no sense of the word a hymn, It is often sung 
at mission meetings. 

PHCEBE GARY was born in the Miami Valley, near Gin- 
cinatti, September 4, 1824. Her elder sister, Alice, to whom 
she was fondly attached, was the more accomplished writer of 
verses ; but Phoebe wrote a few good hymns, which were 
published with other poems in Poems of Faith, Hope, and 
Love, 1868. 

In 1852 the sisters went to reside in New York, where 
they supported themselves with literary work, Phoebe 
Gary died at Newport, July 31, 1871, six months after her 
sister. The veiy attractive hymn : 

One sweetly solemn thought 

became widely known in this country, as many others did, 
after the visit of Messrs. Moody and Sankey in 1874. 

A story associated with this hymn, and given by Mr. 
Duffield in his English Hymns, is worth repeating, as 
showing the power for good which one of the simplest 
hymns, even, may be. 'In Macao, China, not far from 
Hong-Kong, the principal occupation of the inhabitants is 
gaming. Here, on a certain occasion, a traveller found a 
company of gamblers, in the back room on the upper floor 
of an hotel. At the table nearest him there was an 
American about twenty-five years old, playing with an old 
man. They had been betting and drinking. While the 
greyhaired man was shuffling the cards for a "new deal," the 
young man, in a swaggering careless way, sang to a very 
pathetic tune a verse of Phoebe Gary's beautiful hymn. 

X 2 



308 AMERICAN HYMNS 

One sweetly solemn thought. Hearing the singing, several 
gamblers looked up in surprise, The old man who was 
dealing the cards put on a look of melancholy, stopped for 
a moment, gazed steadfastly at his partner in the game, and 
dashed the pack upon the floor under the table. Then said 
he, "Where did you learn that tune?" The young man 
pretended not to know that he had been singing. "Well, 
no matter," said the old man, "I've played my last game, 
and that's the end of it. The cards may lie there till 
doomsday, and I'll never pick them up." The old man 
having won money from the young man, about one hundred 
dollars, took it out of his pocket; and handing it to the 
latter said, " Here, Harry, is your money : take it, and do 
good with it ; I shall with mine." As the traveller followed 
them downstairs, he heard them conversing by the doorway, 
and overheard enough to know that the older man was 
saying something about the song which the young man had 
sung.' 

JEREMIAH EAMES RANKIN. An account of Dr. Rankin's 
well-known composition : 

God be with you till we meet again, 

comes best from his own pen. ' It was written as a Christian 
.good-bye, and first sung in the first Congregational Church 
of which I was minister for fifteen years. We had Gospel 
meetings on Sunday nights, and our music was intentionally 
of the popular kind. I wrote the first stanza, and sent it to 
two gentlemen for music. The music which seemed to me 
best suited to the words was written by T. G. Tomer, 
teacher of public schools in New Jersey, at one time on the 
staff of General 0. 0. Howard. After receiving the music 
(which was revised by Dr. J. W. Bischoif, the organist of 
my church), I wrote the other stanzas.' 

The hymn was taken up at once by the Methodists. On 
one occasion, five meetings of different organizations at 



AMERICAN HYMNS 309 

Ocean Greve were heard to conclude their worship by its 
use, It has been translated into many languages. Dr. F. E. 
Clark, president of the Christian Endeavour, says it followed 
him as a benediction hymn all round the world. It was 
sung at the grave of Mrs. President Hayes. 

The author was born at Thornton, New Haven, January 2, 
1828. He is a graduate of Middleburgh College, and 
Andover Theological Seminary. He is of Scottish and 
English descent. For nine years he has now been President 
of Howard University, Washington, District of Columbia. 
Dr. Kankin has written many poems and a few hymns, 
and has likewise done some translation from the German. 
But none of his hymns has gained anything like the 
popularity of this one. 

EGBERT MURRAY was born at Earttown, Nova Scotia, 
December 25, 1832. He is a minister of the Presbyterian 
Church in Canada. Two hymns from his pen find a place 
in The Church Hymnary : 

Lord, Thou lov'st the cheerful giver, 
which is a good hymn on Christian liberality ; and 

From ocean unto ocean 

a good hymn, but from its figures more suitable for use 
in America than in this country. 

PHILLIPS BROOKS has but a slight connexion with 
hymnody. His single contribution is a very fine Christmas 
carol, which bids fair to find a place in all hearts in due 

time: 

little town of Bethlehem. 

It was written after having paid a visit to the birth-place 
of our Lord, in which the author spent Christmas Day, 
1866. 

Mr. Brooks was born at Boston in 1835. Having studied 
at Harvard College, he took orders ; and became Kector of 
Holy Trinity Church, Philadelphia, in 1859. Ten years 



310 AMERICAN HYMNS 

later he became Vicar of Trinity Church, Boston, and in 
1891 was consecrated Bishop of Massachusetts. He died 

1893. 

EDWARD AUGUSTUS COLLIEK, the author of the hymn to 

the Trinity : 

Thou, Lord, art God alone, 

is a Congregational minister at Kinderhook, New York 
State. He had a considerable part in the compilation of 
The American Church Hymnary. He is presently engaged 
in a revision of the Psalms, of which about 120 are now 
finished. 

JOHN WHITE CHADWIOK was born at Marblehead, Mas- 
sachusetts, October 19, 1840. He is a graduate of the 
Cambridge Divinity School, and was ordained December 
21, 1864, to the second Unitarian Church, Brooklyn, New 
York, He has written a few hymns. 

Now sing we a song for the harvest : 
is a good hymn for harvest thanksgiving services. 

WILLIAM BRYANT, minister of the first Presbyterian 
Church, Michigan, was born at Brighton (England) in 1850 ; 
and went to the United States in 1871, where he prepared 
for the ministry, and was ordained in 1879. 

The hymn : 

Standing forth on life's rough way, 

is dated June 23, 1874, and was written for the Neiv York 
Daily Witness, It has hitherto been attributed to William 
Cullen Bryant, the poet. 

Dr. Louis F. Benson, editor of The Hymnal, published 
by authority of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church in the United States, sends us the following : 

' Among the most patient and humble-minded of men is 
our fellow Churchman, Rev. William Bryant. More than 
a year ago I had occasion to inquire into the facts of his life. 



AMERICAN HYMNS . 311 

His biography, according to his own estimate of himself, 
runs in this way: "I was born in England in 1850, and 
ordained by the Presbytery of Troy, 1879. I have done 
nothing worthy of mention, I am now pastor of Mt. 
Clemens Church, and editor of the Michigan Presbyterian." 

'Now, no doubt, Mr. Bryant may be trusted as to dates 
and facts (if, indeed, a man is a competent witness to the 
date and place of his own birth), but I beg respectfully to 
question the accuracy of his statement that he has' done 
nothing worthy of mention. He wrote the striking poem 
or hymn of intercession for the children, Standing forth on 
life's rougli ivay. He wrote this piece, so he told me, while 
a resident of Elizabeth, New Jersey, on June 23, 1874 ; and 
first printed it in the Neiv York Daily Witness. Since 
then the poem has been widely copied both here and abroad. 
It was inserted in the new hymnal of the Congregationalists 
in England, and in The Home and School Hymnal of the 
Free Church of Scotland ; and quite recently the American 
Universalists here included it in their Church Harmonies. 

' These statements would no doubt lead one to suppose that 
the fact of Mr. Bryant's writing this hymn had, in spite of 
his modesty, been often mentioned. But in truth it would 
almost seem as if there had been a conspiracy of silence as 
to that : for in each one of these three cases, as in most 
others, the poem is attributed to William Cullen Bryant. 
Through all this persistent ignoring of the facts on the part 
of editors of hymn-books and other people, Mr. William 
Bryant has chosen to remain silent or nearly so ; enjoying, 
I dare say, the doubtful pleasure of having his verses attri- 
buted to a poet so eminent, and widely accepted as not 
unworthy of that poet.' 

We cannot" say that we altogether sympathize with 
Mr. Bryant in this matter of his hymn. Certainly hymnal 
editors in this country are not to be blamed for misattribut- 
ing the hymn, when even in his OAvn country his authorship 



312 AMERICAN HYMNS 

has not been known. A little sacrifice of modesty on 
Mr. Bryant's part would have put the matter of the 
authorship right ; and we are surprised that Mr. Bryant did 
not see it to be his duty to act when his verses were being 
attributed to 'a poet so eminent.' Perhaps the situation 
was too humorous to be disturbed. We may be allowed to 
suggest that the hymn might not have been so speedily 
appropriated but for the mistake regarding its authorship. 
So the hymn launched upon the world as the work of 
William Gullen Bryant may, now that it has been accom- 
panied so far, continue its mission, and do good service as 
the work of William Bryant. 

CHILDEEN'S HYMNS. 

THOMAS OSMOND SUMMERS was a minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, in the ministry of which he occupied 
Various charges. 

He interested himself in hymnology, and was the author 
of at least two hymns, both of which have a place in The 

Church Hymnary: 

The morning bright, 
and 

The daylight fades, 

are both good hymns, and are favourites in this country as 
well as in America; more especially the morning hymn, 
which is the more beautiful, 

/ 

From the biographical index of Stevenson's Hymns for 
Church and Home we take the following account of the 
origin of these hymns: 'My first child was born in 
January, 1845, When she was a year old, as I was 
descending the Tombigbee Kiver in a little steamer, I wrote 
a morning hymn for her on the back of a letter, transcribed 
it when I reached Mobile, and sent it to her at Tuscaloosa. 
That was the origin of The morning "bright / . . . My second 
child was born in 1847, and for her I wrote Tto daylight 



AMERICAN HYMNS 313 

fades, so far as I can recollect about 1849.' Dr. Summers 
was born in England in 1812, and died in America in 1882. 

ANNA BARTLETT WARNER, a sister of the author of, 
Queechy, was born in New York City in 1821. She has 
shown interest in hymnology by her compilations and by 
her original compositions and translations. She edited 
Hymns of the Church Militant, 1858. Several of her 
original hymns are of considerable merit : 
Jesus loves ine ! this I know, 
is a hymn specially suited to very little children ; 
The world looks very beautiful 

has gained considerable acceptance. Both hymns are in 
nearly every hymnal for the use of children. 

JULIA A. CARNEY is the writer of the hymn : 

Little drops of water. 

This hymn had been laid alongside one by Dr. Brewer, 
and it has been suggested that Mrs. Carney got her 
inspiration from it. The author, however, disposes of that 
suggestion at once, for she writes (see notes at the end 
of The Church Hymnary) : ' Written in 1845 by Julia A, 
Fletcher (now Mrs. Carney) ; Dr. Brewer's similar hymn 
was not written until 1848. Little drops of water was 
written while I was a teacher in the Boston Primary 
Schools ; soon after it was printed in the Gospel Teacher.' 
So Dr. Brewer must have made use of Mrs. Carney's 
opening stanza, for both hymns begin with the same four 
lines ! Dr. Brewer's hymn is as follows : 

Little drops of water, 

Little grains of sand, 
Make the mighty ocean, 

Make the beauteous land. 

Straw by straw the sparrow 

Builds its cosy nest, 
Leaf by leaf the forest 

Stands in verdure drest. 



3H AMERICAN HYMNS 

Letter after letter, 

Books and words are made ; 
Little, and by little, 

Mountains level laid. 

Drop by drop is iron 

Worn in time away; 
Perseverance, patience, 

Ever win their way. 

Every finished labour 

Once did but begin, 
Try, and go on winning, 

That's the way to win. 

FKANCES JANE VAN ALSTYNE (page 306). As is generally 
the case with great producers, the quality is unequal. 
Among the many hymns for children written by Mrs. van 
Alstyne a few are good. 

Safe in the arms of Jesus, 

is her best known hymn in this country. It was written in 
twenty minutes for W. H. Doane, a musician, who gave her 
the theme. We are not sure that we quite understand the 
hymn in some of its phrases, but it must surely be quite 
clear to the many who use it with appreciation ! 

If I come to Jesus, 
is a simple little hymn which may prove useful. 

WILLIAM OECUTT GUSHING is the author of that simple 
and very pretty hymn for young children : 

When He cometh, when He cometh 
To make up His jewels. 

He was born at Hingham, Massachusetts, December 31, 
1823 ; and has written several other hymns which have 
gained considerable reputation. Some of them are included 
in Mr. Sankey's hymn-books. 

KOBEET LOWKY, the author of the popular hymn : 
Shall we gather at the river, 

was born at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, March 12, 1826. 



AMERICAN HYMNS 315 

Shortly after leaving Lewisburg University, where he 
graduated in 1854, he entered the Baptist ministry. He 
has ministered at various places in the States, and was for 
a time Professor of Belles- Lettres in his own university. 

Dr. Lowry has taken part in the compiling of several 
hymn-books for children, and takes great interest in every- 
thing hymnological. The hymn quoted was written on 
a sultry afternoon in July, 1864, in his study at Brooklyn. 
An epidemic was working havoc at the time, and the 
question of meeting with friends hereafter occupied the 
pastor's mind. When he had written the hymn, he sat 
down at the organ and composed the time which is associated 
with it. 

HOEATIO RICHMOND PALMER .is an extensive music 
composer. He has issued class-books on the theory of 
music, and has edited several hymnals. We are not aware 
that he has written more than one hymn :- 

Yield not to temptation. 

A correspondent writes : ' I travelled in Palestine with 
H. R. Palmer, the author of the words and music of 
No. 561. He told me that when he was thinking of the 
temptation around the young, the idea of the hymn flashed 
upon him. The first two verses came to him without any 
effort, but the third verse cost him much trouble. 5 The 
hymn was written in 1868, and first published in the 
National Sunday School Teachers' Magazine. 

EMILY H. MILLER has written several hymns which have 
gained acceptance in both countries. 

I love to hear the story 

is one of these. It was written for The Little Corporal, of 
which Mrs. Miller was joint editor, and published in 1867. 
Mrs. Miller is the daughter of the Rev. Dr. Huntington, and 
was born at Brooklyn, Connecticut, October 22, 1833. 



316 AMERICAN HYMNS 

PHILIP P, BLISS was born July 9, 1838, at Clearfield/County 
Pennsylvania. When quite young he joined himself to the 
Baptists, but his life was latterly spent with the. Methodists. 
He had a wonderful gift of song. He could not only write 
stirring Gospel songs, but he could compose suitable and 
attractive music for them. No American hymn-writer is 
better known in this country. Mr. Sankey has much to do 
with his popularity, having introduced many of his hymns 
to the British public at revival services held over the United 
Kingdom in 1874. Some of those hymns only require to be 
named in order to be remembered both in their words and 
music. Almost persuaded now to believe ; WJwsoever heareth, 
shout, sJiout the sound ; lAgJit in the darkness, sailor ; Only an 
armour-bearer; Standing by a purpose true ; Ho, my comrades, 
see the signal ; and many more. Indeed, the greater number 
of the Gospel Songs and Solos sung by Mr. Sankey in this 
country were the compositions of Mr. Bliss. Literary merit 
there is little or none in these hymns, but they must be 
judged by other standards. They have been wonderfully 
blessed to the awaking of the careless and thoughtless. 

God is always near me, 

is the only hymn by this author in The Church Hymnary, 
a very simple and direct expression of the omnipresence 
of God. 

Mr. Bliss met death by accident on December 29, 1876. 
He was travelling towards Chicago, when at Ashtabula, 
Ohio, a railway bridge gave way and the whole train was 
thrown into the stream below. Mr. Bliss might have 
escaped, but in an endeavour to rescue his wife from the 
flaming car he was lost. 



XIV 

THE MUSIC OF THE CHURCH 
HYMNARY 



XIV 

IT is not possible, within the compass of a single chapter, 
to deal with the music of The Church Hymnary in the 
detailed and exhaustive way in which the hymns them- 
selves have been treated in the preceding chapters of this 
volume. All that can be attempted here is to give a short 
account of the method by which the tunes were selected 
and arranged, and a survey in very general terms of the 
body of musical material so brought together. 

The preparation of suitable music for The Church 
Hymnary was entrusted to a specially appointed committee, 
consisting of seven representatives from the standing com- 
mittees of each of the three co-operating Churches. At 
a later stage this number was increased by two additional 
members from each Church, and by representatives from 
the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. 

The Music Committee held their first meeting on January 
21, 1895, the Joint Hymnal Committee having by that date 
printed a Draft Hymnal for submission to the Supreme 
Courts of the several Churches. 

At this meeting a Sub-Committee, consisting of three 
members from each Church, were appointed to prepare 
a provisional list of tunes for the hymns in the Draft. 
During the succeeding fifteen months this Sub-Committee 
held nineteen meetings, at which they gave full and 



320 THE MUSIC OF THE CHURCH HYMNARY 

exhaustive consideration to the setting of each hymn. 
A very large number of hymnals and collections of tunes 
were consulted, and no available source was neglected from 
which good musical material might be procured. 

In April, 1896, the Sub-Committee having completed 
their work, submitted their Eeport, in which they gave a 
provisional selection of one or more tunes for each hymn 
in the Draft. On the subject of alternative tunes they 
made the following statement: "The Sub-Committee have 
suggested second or alternative tunes for a large number 
of hymns, not so much with a desire to multiply the use 
of second tunes as in order to facilitate the work of the 
Music Committee by giving a choice of suitable tunes from 
which one may be selected.' 

In the course of the following year twelve meetings of the 
Music Committee were held ; at which not only were the 
recommendations of the Sub-Committee carefully considered 
in detail, but opportunity was given to the members to bring 
forward any other tunes which they thought worthy of con- 
sideration. By these means every endeavour was made to 
secure the best and most suitable music for each hymn ; 
and it is hardly too much to say that in order to attain 
this result, almost every possible source was examined and 
exhausted. It is right to state that in all cases of hymns 
already in use in the Churches, the tunes set to such 
hymns in the existing books received the first consideration, 
and were departed from only when there seemed to be good 
reason for a change. 

At an early stage of their work, the Committee took into 
consideration the very important question of a Musical 
Editor ; and they unanimously and unhesitatingly came to 
the conclusion that the musician to whom they could with 
the greatest possible confidence entrust the duty was 
Sir John Stainer, Mus. Doc., Professor of Music in the 
University of Oxford. They felt that Sir John Stainer's 



THE MUSIC OF THE CHURCH HYMNARY 321 

life-long experience in everything that pertains to Church 
Music, as well as the character of his own contributions 
thereto, pointed him out as pre-eminently fitted for the 
work, should he be willing to undertake it. To their great 
satisfaction Sir John Stainer, after some consideration, 
agreed to accept the editorship ; and it is only due to him to 
say that his services to the book have been .simply invaluable. 
From first to last he spared no pains or trouble in order 
that the music might reach the highest standard of excel- 
lence, while at the same time he was always most ready to 
pay all reasonable deference and consideration to current 
usage and old associations. 

The selection of tunes, when finally adjusted by the 
Committee, was submitted to the Editor, who went carefully 
through the whole and returned the same to the Committee 
with his criticism on each adaptation, noting his approval, 
disapproval, or suggestion, as the case might be. The Com- 
mittee then discussed his conclusions in detail ; deciding 
in each case whether his verdict should be accepted, or 
whether there were considerations, either of existing 
association or otherwise, which should be submitted to him 
before a final decision was arrived at. 

The Committee then held several protracted meetings 
with" Sir John Stainer personally, at which all the adapta- 
tions and other matters still in abeyance were fully and 
frankly discussed and disposed of. 

It appeared both to the Committee and to the Editor that 
there were a number of hymns for which for various 
reasons it was desirable' to get new tunes specially written ; 
and Sir John Stainer was requested to send copies of the 
words of these to such composers as he thought would be 
most likely to do them justice. The Committee at the same 
time expressed their desire that he might see his way to 
write tunes for some of them himself. The result has been 
to enrich the book by many new tunes by some of the best 

Y 



322 THE MUSIC OF THE CHURCH HYMNARY 

composers of the clay, including a number of very fine 
compositions from the pen of the Editor. 

The question of the arrangement and harmony of non- 
copyright tunes was left entirely in the hands of the Editor. 
In the books hitherto in use many of these tunes appear 
with variations more or less important in the melodies, and 
in nearly all of them different harmonies have been in use. 
In every such case the different arrangements and harmonies 
of the tune were submitted to Sir John Stainer, who was left 
entirely free to adopt one or other of them, or to reharmonize 
the tune as he thought best. 

It will be seen from this short sketch of the Committee's 
proceedings that every care was taken to procure for each 
hymn the best possible musical setting, while at the same 
time paying due regard to the claims of existing usage. In 
order to show to what extent this latter consideration has 
aifected the final result, it may be interesting to give a few 
figures founded on a comparison of The Church Hymnary 
with the three books hitherto in use in the Churches con- 
cerned. These books are, The Scottish Hymnal, The Free 
Church Hymn-book, The Presbyterian Hymnal, and The 
Presbyterian Hymnal for the Young, the two last being taken 
together as forming one book. Excluding for the purposes of 
the comparison the section consisting of Doxologies, Canticles, 
&c. (Nos. 626-49), and reckoning Nos. 30 and 31 as one hymn, 
The Church Hymnary contains 624 hymns. Of these, 171 are 
found in all three of the above-named books ; 128 are in two 
out of the three ; 198 are in one book only ; and 127 are not 
found in any of them.. As regards music, the 171 hymns 
found in the three books may be classified as follows: 
60 are set to the same tune in all three ; 49 have the same 
time in two books, but a different one in the third ; while 
62 have a different tune in each book. It will thus be seen 
that the consensus in this respect is not by any means so 
* great as is probably generally supposed. Out of 624 hymns 



THE MUSIC OF THE CHURCH HYMNARY 323 

only 60 have hitherto been sung in all the Churches con- 
cerned to one and the same time. 

In no fewer than 57 of these, the tune hitherto in use has 
been retained ; and it may not be out of place to name the 
three exceptions, and give the reasons for the change of tune. 
They are: 

(1) No. 170, Tell me the old, old story. The form of this 
hymn hitherto in use is in stanzas of eight lines, with a 
chorus or refrain at the end of each stanza. This refrain 
was not written or sanctioned by the authoress; and she 
objects to the hymn being printed otherwise than as she 
wrote it, namely, in foui'rline stanzas without refrain. 
A slight examination will show that this is the proper 
structure of the hymn. The well-known tune by W. H. 
Doane, found in all the books, cannot of course be sung to 
a four-line hymn without refrain, and the Music Committee 
were therefore debarred from using it, and had to find a 
substitute. In the circumstances they thought it best to 
get an entirely new tune, and they were thoroughly satisfied 
with that which was written at their request by Mr. Josiah 
Booth. 

(2) No. 333, For thee, dear, dear country. The tune 
hitherto set to this hymn is 'Munich,' an adaptation of 
a German chorale. This tune has never become popular, 
and the representatives of all the Churches were unanimous 
in thinking that it should .be replaced by a tune somewhat 
brighter in character. The tune they selected was written by 
Dr. Charles Vincent for the hymn The sands of time are sink- 
ing] and. at the Committee's request, Dr. Vincent kindly 
made a slight alteration in the last line to suit the metre of 
the hymn under consideration. 

(3) No. 604, Again the morn of gladness. The tune 
'Dresden/ to which this has hitherto been sung, is the 
proper tune of the hymn We plough the fields and scatter, 
and it was thought desirable to confine that tune to its own 

y 2 



324 THE MUSIC OF THE CHURCH HYMNARY 

hymn ; giving, however, a reference to it, so that those who 
desire to do so might still use it for Hymn 604, 

With these three exceptions, therefore, every hymn 
which has hitherto been sung to the same tune in the 
three Churches, will be found set to that tune in The Church 
Hymnary. 

Of the 49 hymns having the same tune in two out of the 
three books, The Church Hymnary in seven cases retains 
loth the tunes hitherto in use ; in twenty-four cases the tune 
found in the two books is retained ; and in three cases that 
found in the third book ; so that only in fifteen cases out of 
the forty-nine are both the tunes in use rejected. 

Of the 62 hymns having a different tune in each of the 
three books, one or other of these tunes has been retained 
in forty instances. 

It is unnecessary to follow out this detailed analysis in 
regard to the hymns which have had a place in one or two 
only out of the three books, but it may be stated that of the 
128 found in two of the books, fifty-five have had the same 
tune in both ; and in forty-four of these cases, the tune has 
been retained in The Church Hymnary. 

These figures appear to be a sufficient reply to those who 
may feel disposed to complain of undue interference with 
existing associations. It should be remembered that the 
Committee had to deal with the usage not of one Church 
but of three, and it will be seen from the statistics now 
given, to what a comparatively small extent there has been 
in these Churches identity of usage in the matter of the 
adaptation of times to hymns. No doubt in the case of 
hymns to which different tunes have been in use, the 
Committee might have inserted all of these as alternatives ; 
but this would have been to defeat one of the principal 
objects for which the book was prepared, namely, to pro- 
mote uniformity in the service of praise in our different 
Churches. It seemed to the Committee highly desirable 



THE MUSIC OF THE CHURCH HYMNARY 325 

that advantage should be taken of the opportunity offered 
by the issue of the book, to secure that as far as possible 
each hymn should become wedded to its own special time. 

As already stated, the revision of the arrangements and 
harmonies of the tunes was left in the hands of the Editor, 
and to this matter he devoted very great care and attention. 
In the case of modern tunes (including all those of which 
the copyright has not yet expired) the harmony written by 
the composer has been adopted, a course which has not been 
uniformly followed by some recent editors. An example of 
this may be found in the tune ' Evan ' by the late W. H. 
Havergal. In none of the books hitherto in use in Scotland 
has the harmony authorized by the composer been adhered 
to. It has been restored in The Church Hymnary. In 
regard to the older tunes, the harmony of which has never 
been considered as fixed, and as a matter of fact is found to 
vary with every fresh editor, Sir John Stainer has taken 
care to adopt a harmony of a vocal and congregational 
character, and free from modern devices inconsistent with 
the period to which the tunes severally belong. As to the 
melodies of these tunes, in many cases the original form 
has been departed from by almost universal consent: as, 
for example, the tune 'St. Matthew,' the original form 
of which will be found inserted as an alternative at Hymn 
380 of Hymns Ancient and Modern. In this and all 
similar cases the current form has been retained. A few 
instances will, however, be found where the authentic form 
of the melody has been restored. One notable case is that 
of the tune 'Bethlehem,' the well-known adaptation from 
Mendelssohn's ' Festgesang.' Here the dotted minims in 
lines five, six and seven, and the absence of the slur on the 
last syllable of line six, are all in accordance with what the 
composer wrote. In some cases the authentic form of the 
tune has been in use in one book, while others have had 
it more or less altered, and in such the former has of course 



326 THE MUSIC OF THE CHURCH HYMNARY 

been preferred, One example of this is the tune 'Holy wood,' 
of which the original form as in Webbe's Collection is found 
in The Scottish Hymnal, while an altered form has been 
current in other books under the name of ' Dismission ' and 
'Augustine,' Another case is that of 'Angels' Song,' of 
which the form in The Free Church Hymn-book (with the 
exception of the third last note) is in accordance with the 
original, while in the other books the melody is altered and 
put into triple in place of common time. 

Looking at the collection of tunes as a whole, it will be 
found that they are drawn from a great variety of sources, 
and from the Church music of all periods, 

Of the "old plainsong melodies in use in -the Church pre- 
- vious to the Keformation, four have been included, and are 
set to the translations of the hymns to which they belong. 
These hymns are, Gorde natus ex Parentis (32), Veni, veni, 
Immanuel (109), Veni, Creator Spiritus (136), and lam lucis 
orto sidere (348). The arrangements of the two first by Sir 
John Stainer are published for the first time in The Church 
Hymnary. 

From the early metrical Psalters in use in England and 
Scotland during the period immediately succeeding the 
Reformation the following tunes are taken: 'Abbey,' 
'French,' 'London New,' 'Old 44th,' 'Rochester,' 'St, 
David,' 'St. Flavian,' 'St. Mary,' and 'Winchester'; 
while 'Commandments,' 'Old iooth,'and 'Old i34th, } come 
from the same period, but were originally drawn from the 
Huguenot Psalter of Marot and Beza. 

A considerable number of tunes are by noted English 
Church composers of last century. Among these may be 
mentioned 'St. Anne,' 'St. Matthew,' and 'Hanover,' by 
general consent attributed to Dr. William Croft; ' St. James,' 
by R. Courteville, organist of St. James', Westminster ; 
'St. Bride/ by Dr. Samuel Howard; 'Darwall,' by the 
Rev, J, Darwall, who composed no fewer than 150 tunes, one 



THE MUSIC OF THE CHURCH HYMNARY 327 

for each of the Psalms, the present being that for the I48th ; 
' Illsley,' by John Bishop, organist of Winchester Cathedral ; 
'Easter Hymn,' from a curious little collection called Lyra 
Davidica, published in 1708; '-Corinth,' 'Holywood,' and 
' Melcombe/ from the collection of Samuel Webbe, published 
in 1792. 

Largely owing, no doubt, to the impulse given by Luther 
to the cultivation of this department of Christian worship, 
the German. Protestant Church has exceeded all others in 
the enormous number of hymn-tunes which it possesses. 
One book on the subject deals with no fewer than 8,808 
separate tunes, and over 1,400 hymn-books. From this rich 
storehouse all modern hymn-books have largely borrowed, 
and The Church Hymnary is indebted to it for about sixty 
tunes. The sources from which these are taken range 
in date from the earliest books published in 1524, down to 
such recent collections as those of Kocher and Filitz. Among 
the German tunes are seven, which it is believed have not 
previously appeared in any hymn-book in this country. 
They are Nos, 34, 148, 191, 193, 210, 556, and 621. These 
have all been specially selected and arranged for the book 
by Sir John Stainer. 

As might be expected, by far the greater number of the 
tunes are by composers who are still alive, or who have 
flourished during the last half-century the period which 
has seen in all the Churches such a revival of interest in 
this part of public worship. Five composers, who have 
died within recent years, furnish between them no fewer 
than 138 tunes. These are : Dr. J. B. Dykes (45 tunes), 
Sir J. Barnby (32), Dr. W. H, Monk (25), Dr. H. J. Gaunt- 
lett (18), and Mr. H. Smart (18). Of times by composers still 
living, 31 are by Sir John Stainer, 26 by Sir A. Sullivan, 
and 15 by Dr. E. J. Hopkins. In addition to these, the 
Index contains the names of fully a hundred composers 
of the present day who are represented in the book. 



328 THE MUSIC OF THE CHURCH .HYMN ARY 

As has been already stated, a number of tunes were 
specially written for the book at the request of the Com- 
mittee. Of such new tunes there are 31 by various com- 
posers, besides 15 by the Editor himself. 

In the Index of Tunes the greatest care has been taken to 
ensure accuracy in the names and dates of the composers, 
or of the sources of the tunes ; and it is right to acknow- 
ledge that much of the information so given has been 
obtained from Mr. James Love's Scottish Church Music, an 
invaluable work of reference on the subject. Where the 
composer of a tune is unknown, the reference given is to 
the book or collection which contains the earliest appearance 
of the tune, so far as has yet been discovered. In a few 
cases, the evidence on this point being quite insufficient, 
it has been thought better to leave a blank, rather than 
perpetuate statements for which there is no sufficient 
authority. 



XV 
TABLE OF CONSENSUS 



XV 



IN the following table, tlie contents of the principal 
hymnals in use in this country and in America, twenty-four 
in number, are collated. They are the following : 

1. Hymns Ancient and Modern. 

2. The Scottish Hymnal. 

3. The Free Church Hymn-book. 

4. The Presbyterian Hymnal. 

5. Church Praise (English Presbyterian). 

6. Church Hymns (S.P.C.K.). ' 

7. The Hymnal Companion. 

8. Congregational Church Hymnal (Barrett). 

9. Congregational Psalmist Hymnal (Allon). 

10. Wesley's Hymns and New Supplement. 

11. Baptist Hymnal. 

12. Church Hymnal and Appendix (Irish Episcopal). 

13. The Hymnal (Protestant Episcopal Church of U.S.A.). 

14. The Hymnal (American Presbyterian). 

15. Presbyterian Book of Praise' (Canada). 

CHILDBEN'S COLLECTIONS, 

A. Home and School Hymnal (Free Church of Scotland). 

B. Presbyterian Hymn-book for the Young (U.P.). 

C. School Praise (English Presbyterian). 

D. Children's Hymn-book (Mrs. Brock). 

E. Congregational Sunday School Hymnal. 

F. Children's Worship (Congregational). 
Gr. Methodist Sunday School Hymn-book. 
H. The School Hymnal (Baptist). 

I. Children's Hymns with Tunes (S.P.C.K.). 



332 TABLE OF CONSENSUS 

The table has been prepared primarily to show the 
catholicity of the selection made by the compilers of The 
Church Hymnary ; and a glance over its pages will be suffi- 
cient to reveal that the hymns of the Churches in both 
countries are the hymns of The Church Hymnary. The 
consensus of taste is very suggestive and very remark- 
able. 

But other interesting results are obtained. We can name 
the most popular hymns of the age, so far as inclusion in 
hymnals affords evidence of popularity ; and surely the 
decision of the Churches as to what are the best hymns, if 
not the most popular in the general acceptation of that term, 
should be final. The hymnals which are presently in use have 
assumed their complexion as the result of a careful dealing 
with hymns for many years, and they contain what men in 
the best position to judge believe to be the best hymns, the 
most useful, and the most popular in a good sense. And 
here it is interesting to note that the hymns found in every 
hymnal are generally hymns of a high class, 

Only one hymn finds a place in all the hymnals collated, 
and that hymn is : 

Sun of my soul, Thou Saviour dear. 

So that hymn may be styled the greatest favourite, if not 
the most popular, of all hymns comprised in the twenty-four 
collated hymnals. 

The following hymns appear in twenty-three of the 
twenty-four hymnals collated : 

Art thou weary, art thou languid ? 

As with gladness men of old. 

From Greenland's icy mountains. 

Hark! the herald angels sing. 

Holy, holy, holy, Lord God Almighty. 

I heard the voice of Jesus say. 

Jesus, Lover of my soul. 

Just as I am, without one plea. 

Our blest Redeemer, ere He breathed. 



TABLE OF CONSENSUS 333 

The following are in twenty-two of the twenty-four 
hymnals : 

All hail, the power of Jesus' name. 
Awake, my soul, and with, the sun. 
Jesus shall reign where'er the sun. 
day of rest and gladness. 

worship the King, all glorious above. 
Kock of Ages, cleft for me. 

Saviour, blessed Saviour, listen while we sing. 

If we consider the Church hymnals alone, we find that 
no fewer than forty-two of the hymns of The Church 
Hymnary are included in all the hymnals collated. 

If we refer to the Children's hymnals, we find that there 
are twelve of the compositions included in The Church 
Hymnary which have a place in each of the nine collated. 
These are : 

Brightly gleams our banner. 

1 heard the voice of Jesus say. 

I think when I read that sweet story of old. 

Jesus, high in glory. 

Now the day is over. 

Once in royal David's city. 

Our blest Eedeemer, ere He breathed. 

Sun of my soul, Thou Saviour dear. 

There is a green hill far away. 

There is a happy land,' far, far away. . 

There's a Friend for little children. 

We are but little children weak. 

The table further indicates the hymnals which most 
closely approximate in their contents to The Church Hymnary 
and to each other. Of the 639 pieces, The Canadian Presby- 
terian Book of Praise contains 435, and so bears the closest 
resemblance to The Church Hymnary of all the other 
hymnals. Next to it come Church Praise (English Presby- 
terian) with 372 ; The Scottish Hymnal with 357 ; The 
Congregational Psalmist Hymnal with 352 ; The American 
Presbyterian Hymnal with 335 ; and The Hymnal Com- 
panion with 310. The hymnal differing most in its contents 



334 TABLE OF CONSENSUS 

being Wesley's Hymns and New Supplement with 116, 
This can be accounted for by the loyalty of the Wesleyans 
to their own hymn-writer. 

The children's collections approximating most nearly to 
The Church Hymnary are The Home and School Hymnal, 
with 226, and Children's Worship (English Presbyterian) 
with 213. . . . 

The table, which has been prepared with a considerable 
amount of difficulty, is exceedingly interesting and sugges- 
tive, and is capable of being used in many ways. 



OF CONSENSUS 



335 



TABLE OF CONSENSUS 


CHURCH HYMNARY CHURCH HYMNALS CHILDREN'S HYMNALS 


I ITOTAI, 


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1 A crown of glory bright 
A few more years shall roll 
A little child the Saviour came 
A safe stronghold our God is still . . 
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Above the clear bhie sTcy 
According to Thy gracious word 
Again, as evening's shadow falls 
Again the morn of gladness .. 
All glory, laud, and honour 
All hail, the power of Jesus' name.. 
All is bright and cheerful round us 
All our sinful words and ways 
All praise to Thee, my God, this nij 
All things bright and beautiful 
All this night bright angels sing 
All ye that pass by.. 
Alleluia ! sins; to Jesus 


Almighty God, Thy word is cast. 
And now, beloved Lord, Thy soul . . 
And now the wants are told 
Angel voices, ever singing 
Approach, my soul, the mercy-seat 



336 



TABLE OF CONSENSUS 



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TABLE OF CONSENSUS 



337 



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338 



TABLE OF CONSENSUS 



rH r-l iH TH rH 



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TH rH iH iH 



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TABLE OF CONSENSUS 



339 



S THlOOOrHJOOCi<M-# CO'IO H CO O O O CO CO OS l> l>. t- ^H <N.<N CO CO- rH CO rH 
O rH H rH rH CQ rH rH rH i-H rH rH <N 



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340 



TABLE OF CONSENSUS 



*< rH rH 



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W :: i :::::::::: 


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rHrH-rH ... 


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TABLE OF CONSENSUS 



34* 



3 



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342 



TABLE OF CONSENSUS 



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TABLE OF CONSENSUS 



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ght of the world, whose kind and 
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TABLE OF CONSENSUS 



345 



r-tr1r-lTH 



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TABLE OF CONSENSUS 



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TABLE OF CONSENSUS 



347- 



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OF CONSENSUS 



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TABLE OF CONSENSUS 



349 



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TABLE OF CONSENSUS 



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351 



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Stand up ! stand up for Jesus 

O4-r.-^>^-;-n<-r of. -fVio nnrfcal 


Standing forth on life's rough way ... 
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Still on the homeward journey 
Still with Thee, O my God 
Summer suns ai-e" glowing 
Sun of my soul, Thou Saviour dear . . . 
Sunset and evening star 


Sweet feast of love Divine 
Sweet is the solemn voice that calls . . . 


Sweet was the hour, O Lord, to Thee... 
Sweeter sounds than music knows 


Sleep on, beloved, sleep 
Sleep thy last sleep 
Soldiers of Christ ! arise 
Soldiers of the cross, arise ... 
Sometimes a light surprises... 
Songs of praise the angels san| 
Sons of labour, dear to Jesus 



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353 





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354 



TABLE OF CONSENSUS 



3 

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TABLE OF CONSENSUS 



355 



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356 



TABLE OF CONSENSUS 



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295 




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357 




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3 






INDEX OF FIRST LINES 



NOT INCLUDED IN THE FOREGOING. 



Adeste fideles, 48, 193. 
'Kvaaraaeus ^ue/>a, 23. 
Angularis fundamentum, 39. 
Arglwydd, arwain trwy'r anial- 

well, 160. 
Aus tiefer Noth schrei ich zu Dir, 

59- . , 

Befiehl du deine Wege, 66. 
Behold the glories of the Lamb, 

124. 
Beim frtihen Morgenlicht, 72. 

Christe, Du Beistand Deiner 

Kreuzgemeine, 65. 
Christ! Blut und Gerechtigkeit, 69. 
Christus 1st erstanden, 62. 
Coelestis formam gloriae, 48. 
Come Holy Ghost, Eternal God, 

109. 
Corde natus ex Parentis, 39, 326. 

Die Nacht ist kommen, 62. 
Dies irae, dies ilia, 47, 78. 

Ein' feste Burg ist unser Gott, 58, 

59- 
Ermuntert euch, ihr Frommen, 67. 

Flnita iam sunt praelia, 49. 

Gloria in excelsis, 14. 
Gloria, laus, et honor, 40. 
Gloriosi Salvatoris nominis prae- 

conia, 48. 
Guter Hirt, Du hast gestillt, 70. 



Hie breve vivitur, 43. 
Hora novissima, 43. 

Iam lucis orto sidere, 38, 376. 
Iam meta noctis transiit, 34. 
lesu, Dulcedo cordium, 42. 
lesu, dulcis memoria, 42. 
lesu, Kex admn-abilis, 42. 
Igjennem Natbg Traengsel, 217. 

Jesu, geh' vpran, 69. 

Jesus lebt ! mit Ihm auch ieh, 70. 

Liebster Jesu, wir sind hier^ 67. 
Lustra sex qui iam peregit, 31. 
Lux alma, lesu, mentium, 42. 

Media Vita, 109, 
Morgenglanz der Ewigkeit, 66. 

Nocte qua Christus rabidisApellis, 

169. 

Non, ce n'est pas mourir, 296. 
Nun danket alle Gott, 64. 
Nun freut eueh, liebe Christen- 

gemein, 53. 
Nun lasst uns den Leib begraben, 

60, 61. 
Nunc Sancte nobis Spiritus, 37. 

amor quam ecstaticus, 48. 

bona patria, 43. 

Deus, ego amo Te, 48. 

Esca viatorum, 49. 

nlii et filiae, 49. 



358 



INDEX OF FIRST LINES 



Haupt voll Blut und Wunden, 

42, 65. 
selig Haus, wo man Dich auf- 

genommen, 72. 
Vaterherz, das Erd' und 

Himinel schuf, 71. 
Oure Broder lat ws put in graiff , 6 1 . 

Pange lingua gloriosi, 31. 



ajias 8^^s, 22, 296. 



Salve Caput cruentatum, 42, 65. 
Sancti, venite, corpus Christ! 

sumite, 39. 

Sol praeceps rapitur, 49. 
Splendor Patera ae gloriae, 37. 
Stabat Mater dolorosa, 46. 
Stille, mein Wille, dein Jesus 

hilft siegen, 67. 
STO/HCW iroiAwv aSauiv, 21. 
Surrexit Christus hodie, 49. 

Tas '([Spas ras aluvias, 23. 
Te Deum laudamus, 32, 37. 
T^v fjjji.ipa.v bie\Q6)v t - 03. 
The winds are hushed ; the 
peaceful moon, 292. 



Thirty years by God appointed ,31. 

TJrbs beata lerusalem, 39. 
TJrbs Syon aurea, 43. 

Veni, Creator Spiritus, 40, 45, 75, 

109, 114, 326. 

Yeni, Sancte Spiritus, 40, 45. 
Veni, veni, Immanuel, 49, 326. 
Verborgne Gottes-Liebe du, 68. 
Verzage nicht, du Hauflein klein, 

63- 
Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich 

her, 59. 

Wachetauf! ruftunsdieStimme, 

63- 
WasGott thut, dasist wohlgethan , 

66. 
Was Gott thut, dasist wohlgethan, 

so denken, 67. 
Wem in Leidenstagen, 70. 
Wer nur den lieben Gott l&sst 

walten, 66. 

Wir pfliigen und wir streuen, 70. 
Wir sind des Herrn, 72. 



INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS 



Adams, Sarah Flower, 235. 
Addison, Joseph, 103, 121. 
Alderson (Dykes), Eliza Sibbald, 

238. 
Alexander, Cecil Frances, 240, 

263, 276. 
Alexander, James Waddell, 42, 

66, 84. 
Alexander, Sir Win., of Menstrie, 

93- 

Alford, Dean Henry, 198. 
Altenburg, Johann Michael, 56, 

63- 

Ambrose, 34. 
Anatolius, 23. 
Armstrong, John, 199. 
Astley, Charles Tiimberlane, 72, 

83, 160. 

Athenogenes, 22. 
Axiber, Harriet, 149. 
Augustine, 37. 
Austin, John, 118. 
Austin, William, 114. 
'Auxentius, 35. 

Baillie, Robert, 94. 

Baker, Sir H. W., 67, 210, 275. 

Bakewell, John, 178. 

Ballantyne, R. H., 276. 

Bardesanes, 262. 

Barnby, Sir Joseph, 327. 

Basil, St., 22. 

Baring-Gould, S., 84, 217, 284. 

Barton, Bernard, 180. 

Bateman, Christian H., 271. 

Bateman, Henry, 250. 



Bathurst, W. H., 168. 
Baxter, Richard, 118. 
Baynes, R. H., 206. 
Bay Psalm Book, 287. 
Benson, Archbishop, 239. 
Benson, Louis F., 310. 
Bernard of Clairvaux, 41, 42, 43, 

50. 

Bernard of Cluny, 42, 50. 
Bethune, GK W., 85, 295. 
Bickersteth, Bishop E. H.., 48, 82, 

204, 242. 

Bilby, Thomas, 267. 
Biraghi. 36. 
Bishop, John, 327. 
Blacklock, Thomas, 102. 
Blair, Hugh, 102. 
Blair, Robert, 102. 
Bliss, Philip P., 316. 
Blunt, A. G.W., 215. 
Bode, John E., 209. 
Bohemian Brethren, 60, 68. 
Bonar, Horatius, 225. 
Bonar, James, 8. 
Booth, Josiah, 323. 
Bora, Katherine von, 57. 
Borthwick, Jane L., 66, 67, 69,83. 
Bourne, W. St. Hill, 221. 
Boyd, Zachary, 94, 98. 
Brady, Nicholas, 101. 
Brewer, Dr. , 313. 
Bridge, Sir Frederick, 221. 
Bridges, Matthew, 250. 
Bright, Canon Wm., 204. 
BrontS, Anne, 238. 
Brooks, Phillips, 309. 



3 6 



INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS 



Browning, Elizabeth Barrett, 19, 

236. 

Brownlie, John, 31. 
Bruce, Midiael, 102, 104. 
Bruce, William,. 222. 
Bryant, William, 310. 
Bryant, William Cullen, 293. 
Bullock, William, 294. 
Burleigh, Wm. Henry, 301. 
Burns, James Drummond, 223, 

276. 

Burton, John, 268. 
Byles, Mather, 289. 

Calvin, John, 92. 
Calvinistic Methodists, 161. 
Cameron, Wm., 102, 169. 
Campbell, Jane M., 70, 84. 
Campbell (Malcolm), Margaret, 

Lady Cockburn, 153. 
Canada, Presbyterian Church of, 6. 
Carey, Henry, 127. 
Carlyle, Thomas, 58, 84. 
Carney (Fletcher), Julia A., 313. 
Gary, Phoebe, 277, 307. 
Caswall, Edward, 37, 41, 49, 72, 78. 
Cawood, John, 165, 
Cennick, John, 162, 179. 
Chadwick, J. W., 310. 
Chandler, John, 37, 39, 76, 79, 269. 
Charles I, 93. 
Charles II, 119. 
Charteris, A. H., 224. 
Chevalier, 29. 

Christ and Paranikas, MM., 20. 
Christian Year, The, 190. 
Citeaux, Monastery of, 41. 
Clark, Samuel Childs, 211. 
Claudius, Matthias, 70. 
Clement of Alexandria, 22, 262. 
Clephane, Elizabeth C., 243. 
Codner (Harris), Elizabeth, 243. 
Coghill (Walker), Annie L., 247. 
Coleridge, 53. 
Collier, E. A, 310. 
Collins, H. A., 233. 
Colquhoun (Fuller MaitIand),F.S., 

147. 

Conder, E. R., 233. 
Conder, Josiah, 81. 
Constantine, 34. 
Cooper, Edward, 165, 



Cqsin, John, 41, 82, 113. 
Courteville, R., 326. 
Cousin, Anne Ross, 241. 
Coverdale, Myles, 88. 
Cowper, William, 138. 
Cox, Frances E., 70, 82. 
Coxe, Bishop Arthur C., 305. 
Craig, John, 91, 96. 
Crewdson (Fox), Jane, 236. 
Croft, William, 326. 
Crusades, The, 41, 45, 
Cummins, J. J., 182. 
Curwen, John, 273. 
Gushing, Wm. 0., 314. 

Daniel, H. A., 29, 35. 

Darwall, J., 326. 

Davies, Howell, 161. 

Davies, Samuel, 290. 

Dayman, Edward A., 197. 

De Chenez (Smith), C. L., 246. 

Deck, James G., 250. 

Deck (Gibson), Mary A. S., 272. 

Denny, Sir Edward, 182. 

Dickson, William, 274. 

Dictionary of Hymnology, The, 

vi. 127, 146, 178. 
Diet of Worms, The, 57, 58. 
Dix, Wm. Chatterton, 256. 
Doane, George W., 295. 
Doane, W. H., 323. 
Dobree, Henrietta, 250. 
Doddridge, Philip, 101, 170. 
Doudney, Sarah, 247. 
Douglas (How), Frances J., 203. 
Dounton, Henry, 209. 
Dream of Gerontius, The, 193. 
Dreves, Guido Maria, 29, 36. 
Dryden, John, 41, 75. 
Duffield, George, 303. 
Duncan, Mary Lundie, 273. 
Dunsterville, Patty C. , .280. 
Dwight, Timothy, 291. 
Dykes, J. B., 157, 327. 

Eddis, Edward W., 257. 
Edmeston, James, 181, 266. 
Ellerton, John, 208, 213. 279. 
Ellinger, Andreas, 169. 
Elliott, Charlotte, 150, 235. 
Elliott, E. E. Steele. 281. 
Elliott, Julia Ann, 235. 



INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS 



361 



English Presbyterian Church, 6. 

Ephraem, 262. 

Everest, Charles Wm., 301. 

Faber, Frederick Wm., 189, 194, 

204. 

Farrar, Frederic Wm., 280. 
Fawcett, John, 177. 
Ferguson, Andrew F., 234. 
Findlater, Sarah Laurie, 67, 72, 83. 
Flowerdew, Alice, 149. 
Fortunatns, 31. 
Francis, Benjamin, 175. 
Frederick the Great, 58. 
Freer, Fanny, 250. 
Free Church Hymn-book, 33, 322. 
Froude, Hurrell, 189, 

Gaskell, William, 58. 
Gauntlett, H. J., 327. 
Gell, Philip, 38." 
Gellert, Christian F., 69. 
Gerhardt, Paul, 42, 56, 65. 
Gilbert (Taylor), Ann, 265. 
Gill, Thomas H., 253. 
Goadby, F. W., 233. 
Grant, Sir Eobert, 180. 
Gregory of Nazianzus, 20, 26. 
Grigg, Joseph, 168. 
Gude and Godlie Ballates. 89. 
Gurney (Blomfield), Dorothy F., 

248. 

Gurney, John H., 207. 268. 
Gustavus Adolphus, 59. 

Hamerton, Samuel C., 279. 

Hamilton, James, 209. 

Hanby, B. E., 280. 

Hankey, Katherine, 248. 

Harris, Howell, 161. 

Hart, Joseph, 172. 

Hasloch, Mary, 237. 

Hastings, Thomas, 291. 

Hatch, Edwin, 217. 

Havergal, Frances E., 244, 281. 

Havergal, W. H., 325. 

Hawkins (Lewis), Hester P., 246. 

Heath, Eliza, 249. 

Heber, Eeginald, 113, 155, 263, 

266. 

Hemans, Felicia D., 154. 
Henley, John, 267. 



Hensley, Lewis, 215. 

Herbert, George, 113. 

Herbert, Petrus, 62. 

Herriaman, Claudia F., 250. 

Herrick, Eobert, 113. 

Herrnhut, 68. 

Hilary of Poictiers, 33. 

Hodges, George S., 278. 

Hole, Dean Samuel E., 201. 

Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 299. 

Hopkins, E. J., 327. 

Hopkins, John, 89. 

How, Bishop W. W., 201, 276, 

Howard, Samuel, 326. 

Hymns Ancient. and. Modern, no. 

Innocent III, Pope, 46. 

Irish Presbyterian Psalter, 97, 1 04 . 

Irons, Wm. Josiah, 47, 78. 

Jacopone da Todi, 46. 
Jacque, George, 221. 
James VI, 92. 
Jenner, Henry, 257. 
John of Damascus, 20, 23, 25. 
Joseph (Hymnographer), 26. 

Keble, John, 23, 82, 189. 
Kelly, Thomas, 173. 
Ken, Bishop Thomas, 23, 119. 
Kethe, Wm., 91, 96. 
King, Dr., 19. 
King, John, 266. 
Kingsley, Charles, 200. 
Knapp, Albert, 71. 
Knollis, F. M., 208, 215. 
Knox, John, 90. 

Laurent!, 67. 
Leeson, Jane E., 270. 
Lekprevik, 90. 
Leo X, Pope, 57. 
Liber Hymnorum, 35. 
Lincoln, Abraham, 303. 
Littledale, E. F., 19, 216. 
Lloyd, Wm.F., 181. ,^, 

Logan, John, 102, 104. ^.v^'^, 
Longfellow, Samuel, 306;^ " >;%. 
Louis Le Debonnaire I, 46;^^ ;}^^ ; . 
Xowenstern, M. A. von, 56, '<!$>;; 
Lowry, Eobert, 314. ^ ' 

Luke (Thompson), Jemima, sf 2.;/ 



362 



INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS 



Luther, Martin, 32, 53,54, 55, 263. 
Lyte, Henry Francis, 166. 
Lyth, John, 275. 



McCheyne, Eobert M., 222. 
Macduff, John R., 223. 
Macgill, H. M., 22, 31, 77. 
Mackay, Margaret, 234. 
Maclagan, Archbishop, 205. 
Macleod, Norman, 222. 
Macmillan, Hugh, 24. 
Maclan, Martin, 161. 
Maitland, Frances Fuller, 147. 
Malan, Henri A. C., 151, 296. 
Manning, H. E., 189. 
Mant, Bishop Richard, 154. 
Mar Saba, 24. 
March, Daniel, 302. 
Marckant, John, 113. 
Marriott, John, 158, 165. 
Martin, Henry A., 215. 
Mason, John, 121. 

Massie, Richard, 59, 84. 

Mather, Cotton, 287. 

Matheson, Anne, 282. 

Matheson, George, 224. 

Maude (Hooper), Mary F., 238. 

May, 0. E., 249. 

Meinhold, J. W., 70. 

Mercer, Wm., 48, 82. 

Methodist Movement, The, 132. 

Midlane, Albert, 277. 

Miles (Appleton), Sarah E., 297. 

Miller, Emily Huntington, 315. 

Mills (King), Elizabeth, 268. 

Mills, Henry, 47. 

Milman, Dean H. H., 159. 

Milton,- Jphn, 117. 

Mone, F. J., 29. 

Monk, W.)H., 326. 

Monod, Theodore, 224. 

Monsell, John S. B., 207. 

Montgomery, James, 144, 147, 232, 
263. 

Morris, Eliza Frances, 240. 

Morrison, John, 402, 169. 

Moule, Principal, 150. 

Mozley, J. B., 188. 

Miihlenberg, Wi. A., 294. 

Mure, Sir Wm., of Rowallan, 94. 

Murray, Robert. 309. 



National Anthem, The, 127. 
Neale, John Mason, 19, 23, 39, 40, 

45, 48, 49, 79- 
Neumark, Georg, 66. 
Newman, John Henry, 42, 79, 82, 

189, 191. 

Newton, John, 139. 
Nicolai, Philipp, 62. 
Nunn, Marianne, 264. 

Oakeley, Frederick, 48, 82, 193. 
Olivers, Thomas, 162, 178. 
Olney Hymns, 138. 
Oswald, Heinrich S., 70. 
Owens, Priscilla Jane, 279.' 

Palmer, H. R., 315. 
Palmer, Ray, 45, 298. 
Paraphrases, The, 97, 100. 
Parker, W. H., 282. 
Pennefather, Wm., 208. 
Perronet, Edward, 176. 
Peter the Hermit, 41;^ 
Peters (Bowly), Mary, 237, 
Phillimore, Greville, 211. 
Pierpoint, F. S., 217.' 
Pierpont, John, 292. 
Plnmptre, Dean E. H., 201. 
Pollock, Thomas B., 217, 218, 281. 
Pott, Francis, 49, 82, 216. 
Potter, Thomas J., 279. 
Prentiss,. Elizabeth, 305. 
Presbyterian Hymnal, 3, 33, 109, 

322, 

Procter, Adelaide Anne, 242. 
Prudentius, 38. 
Psalm Versions, Paraphrases, and 

Hymns, 3, 109. 
Pusey, E. B., 189. 
Pusey, Philip, 65, 84. 

Rankin, J. E., 308. 

Rawson, George, 251. 

Reed, Andrew, 174. 

Rhabanus, Maurus, 40. 

Rhodes (Bradshaw), Sarah B., 

282. 

Rinckart, Martin, 64. 
Rippon, John, 176. 
Robertson, Wm., 38, 82. 
Robinson, George, 257. 
Robinson, R. H.. 220. 



INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS 



Robinson, Robert, 176. 
Rodigast, Samuel, 66. 
Rosenroth, Christian K. von, 66. 
Rons, Francis, 94. 
Rowlands, Daniel, 161. 

Sandys, George, 113. 
Sohaff, Philip, 49. 
Schlegel, K. A. D. von, 67. 
Schmolck, Benjamin, 67. 
Scott, Sir Walter, 47, 82, 147. 
Scottish Hymnal, The, 3, 33, 109, 

322. 

Sears, E. H., 300. 
Shairp, John C., 255. 
Shann, G. V., 19. 
Shekleton, Mary, 243. 
Shelly (Jackson), M. E., 271. 
Shepcote, E., 282. 
Shepherd (Houlditch), Anne, 270. 
Shrubsole, Win., 180. 
Simpson (Bell), Jane C., 270. 
Small, James G,,' 223. 
Smart, H., 327. 
Smith, Isaac G., 206. 
Smith, S. F., 291. 
Smyttaii, George H., 216. 
Spalatin, 54. 
Spectator, The, 103, 122. 
Spitta, Karl J. P., 71. 
Stainer, Sir John, 197, 320, 321, 

325> 327- 

Stanley, Dean A. P., 199. 
Steele, Anne, 148. 
Stephen (Sabaite), 125. 
Stephenson, Isabella S., 250. 
Sternhold and Hopkins, 89, no. 
Sternhold, Thomas, 89. 
Stone, Samuel J., 218. 
St'owell, Hugh, 267. 
Stowell, Thomas A., 280. 
Sullivan, Sir Arthur, 197, 327. 
Summers, T. 0., 312. 
Swain, Joseph, 178. 

Tate and Brady, 41, 103, in, 288. 
Tate, Nahum, 101. 
Taylor, Jane, 263, 265. 
Taylor, Thomas R., 232, 
Tennyson, Lord, 252. 
Tersteegen, Gerhardt, 67. 
Tetzel, John, 37. 



Thackeray, W. M., 156. 
Theodosius, 36. 
Theodulph of Orleans, 40. 
Thin, James, 8. 

Thirty Years' War, The, 56, 63. 
Thomas of Celano, 47, 50. 
Thomas, David, 233. 
Thomasius, 35. 
Threlf'all, Jennette, 275.. .;, 
Thring, Godfrey, 212. " ; 

Thrupp, Dorothy Ann, 264. 
Toke (Leslie), Emma, 237. 
Toplady, Augustus M., 162. 
Tractarian Movement, The, 188. 
TUNES: 
Abbey, 326. 
Angels' Song, 326. 
Augustine, 326. 
Bethlehem, 325. 
Commandments, 326. 
Corinth, 327. 
Darwall, 326. 
Dismission, 326. 
Dresden, 323. 
Evan, 325. 
French, 326. 
Hanover, 326. 
Holywood, 326, 327. 
Illsley, 327. 
London New, 326. 
Melcombe, 327. 
Munich, 323. 
Old 44th, 326. 
Old xooth, 326. 
Old I34th, 326. 
Rochester, 326. 
St. Anne, 326. 
St. Beatrice, 22. 
St. Bride, 326. 
St. David, 326. 
St. Flavian, 326. 
St. James, 326. 
St. Mary, 326. 
St. Matthew, 325, 326. 
Winchester, 326. 
Turney, Edmund, 303. 
Tuttiett, Lawrence, 213. 
Twells, Canon Henry, 203. 
Tyler, Evan, 95. 
Tyng, Dudley A., 304. 

Urban YIII, Pope, 40. 



3^4 



INDEX OF NAMES AND SUBJECTS 



Valentinian, 35, 36. 

Van Alstyne (Crosby), Frances J., 

306, 314. 
Vincent, Charles, 323. 

Walker (Deck), Mary Jane, 243. 

Walmsley, Robert, 257. 

Wardlaw, Ralph, 174. 

Waring, Anna L., 240. 

Waring, Samuel M., 182. 

Warner, Anna B., 313. 

Watson, George, 253. 
:.gWatts, Isaac, 101, 112, 122, 161, 
^-"263, 289. 

Webb, Benjamin, 48, 82. 

Webbe, Samuel, 327. 

Wedderburn, James, 89. 

Weisse, Michael, 62. 

Wesley, Charles, 112, 131, 162, 
179, 263, 264. 

Wesley, John,66,68, 69,84,134,161. 

Westminster Assembly, 94. 



Whately, Archbishop, 158. 
White,*Henry Kirke, 147. 
Whitefield, George, 161. 
Whiting, William, 255. 
Whittemore, W. Mi, 275. 
Whittier, John Greenleaf, 296. 
Whittingham, Wm., 91, 96. 
William III, 120. 
Williams, Isaac, 189, 1.94. 
Williams, Peter, 84, 160. 
Williams, William, 84, 160. 
Winkworth, Catherine, 54, 59, 60, 
61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 67, 70, 71, 84. 
Wither, George, 113. 
Wordsworth, Bishop C., 197. 
Wreford, John R., 232. 

Xavier, Francis, 48. 
Yoimg, Andrew, 269. 
Zinzendorf. Nikolaus L. von, 68. 



THE END 



APPENDIX 

HILARITJS, PICTAVIENSIS (p. 34). The morning hymn which 
Ilary is said to have written for his daughter Abra is that 
le beginning Lucis largitor splendide, the Latin text of which, 
ong with a translation, may be found in Dr. Hamilton 
iacgill's Songs of the Christian Creed and life (1876). 
!rs. Charles has also contributed a fine rendering of the 
tme hymn in The Voice of Christian Life in Song (1865). 
he companion evening hymn is probably lost, although 
d coeli clara non sum dignus sidere, the text of which can 
3 seen in Mone, vol. i, has been mentioned in that con- 
exion. It is very doubtful if there are any hymns, with 
le exception of the morning hymn referred to, which can 
ith any degree of certainty be attributed to Hilary, and 
nthorities are not satisfied as to its claims. 

WESLEY, CHAELES (p. 132, 1. 5 supra). The reference in 
lis paragraph is unfortunately worded. It would suggest 
hat the Marquis Wellesley, Governor-General of India, 
nd the Duke of Wellington were one and the same person, 
'hey were brothers, and the Marquis was the elder. Hence 
iouthey's reference to Seringapatam, and to the tyrant of 
lurope. 

Charles Wesley was one of a family of nineteen, the 
oungest son, and eighteenth child. The youngest child 
f the family of Samuel and Susannah Wesley was a 
aughter, Kezia. 

Bb 



366 APPENDIX 

LYTE, HENEY FRANCIS (p. 167). The following hymns 
are based upon. the Psalms indicated: 

Pleasant are Thy courts above Psalm Ixxxiv 

Praise my soul the King of heaven Psalm ciii 

that the Lord's salvation Psalm xiv 

Far from my heavenly home Psalm exxxvii 

Sweet is the solemn voice that calls Psalm cxxii 

Henry Francis Lyte was born at Ednam, near Kelso. 

WAKING, ANNA LAETITIA (p. 240), was the second daughter 
of Elijah and Deborah Waring, members of the Society of 
Friends, and was born at Plas-y-Yelin, Neath, Glamorgan- 
shire, in 1823. Miss Waring was baptized in the Church 
of England at Winchester in 1842, having left the Society 
of Friends two years before. Her hymn, Father, I know 
that all my life, was written at Clifton in 1845, where she 
died, May 24, 1910, in the 87th year of her age. 

MAY, CATHEEINE ELIZABETH (p. 249). Mrs. May, the writer 
of the hymn, Saviour, where shall guilty man, was the only 
daughter of Sir Henry William Martin, Baronet, of Lockinge. 
She was born at Lockinge Park, February 19, 1808. In 1837 
she was married to the Kev. George May, eldest son of 
George May, Esq., of Strode House, Herne, Kent, and died, 
his widow, September 12, 1873, at Totland, Isle of Wight. 

FBEEE, FKANCES (p. 250), a member of The Catholic and 
Apostolic Church, was born March 16, 1801, and died in 
June, 1891. Her hymn, Present ^vith the tiuo or three (1868), 
is in the C. A. Church Hymns for the Use of the Churches, 
1871, and other collections. 

DOBBEE, HENEJETTA OCTAVIA DE LISLE, nee BAYNES (p. 250), 
was born in 1831, and died November 26, 1894. In her 
latter days she -left the Church of England, and united 
herself to the communion of the Eoman Church. She 
wrote several hymns, some of which appear in Mrs. Brock's 



APPENDIX. 367 

Children's Hymn Book (1881), and bear the initials E. 0. D. 
Safely, safely gathered in appeared for the first time in that 
collection, and has since found its way into other hymnals. 

HEENAMAN, CLAUDIA FRANCES, nee IBOTSON (p. 250), was 
born at Addlestone, Surrey, October 19, 1838. Her husband, 
to whom she was married in September, 1858, the Eev. 
. J. W. D. Hernaman, was an Inspector of Schools. Besides 
being the writer of many original hymns, she did good work 
as a translator from the Latin. Some of her translations 
may be seen in The Altar Hymnal (1884). This is a day of 
gladness was written for Girls' Friendly Societies, and is 
included in Mrs. Brock's Children's Hymn Book. Mrs. 
Hernaman died October 10, 1898. ' 

JENNEB, HENEY (p. 257), son of H. L. Jenner, D.D., at 
one time Bishop of Dunedin, was born in 1848. His hymn, 
Jesus, Thou hast willed it, was written in 1870 for the 
anniversary of the Society for Promoting the Unity of 
Christendom. The first occasion on which it was sung 
was in procession at St. Michael's, Shoreditch, 1870. 

CAEY, PHOEBE (p. 277). The statement that the hymn, 
A crown of glory "bright, is by Alice Gary, and is to be found 
in the Lyra Sacra Americana, would seem to be erroneous. 
But did Phoebe Gary write it ? It is very doubtful. The 
hymn is not in that collection, nor is it in any volume 
published by Phoebe or Alice Gary, and it is not in their 
collected works published after their death. The earliest 
occurrence of this hymn is in C. C. Mudge's Sabbath Chimes, 
published at Brooklyn, 1859, where it is set to the well- 
known tune of l Heaven is my home ', the changes being : 

Ver. i, line 6 And keep it in my view. 
Ver. 2, line 6 My Saviour and my guard. 

It occurs also in The American Sunday School Hymn Book, 
compiled by a committee of New York pastors and super- 



368 APPENDIX 

intendehts, and published by The American Sunday School 
Union in 1860. In neither case is the name of the author 
given. It occurs again in Bradbury's Plymouth Sabbath 
School Collection (N. Y., 1865) and there it appears in four 
verses, The first runs : 

A crown of glory bright, 

By faith's clear eyes I see, 
In yonder realms of light 

Prepared for me. 

Ver. 2, line 2 And keep the crown in view. 
Ver. 3, line 3 And all my steps attend. 
Ver. 4, line 4 My Saviour and my friend. 

The tune is called 'One day nearer home', and inscribed 
' From John M. Evans '. Each verse has a refrain : 

I'm nearer my home, nearer my home, 

Nearer my home to-day; 
Yes, nearer my home in heaven to-day, 

Than ever I've been before. 

The refrain is obviously taken in substance from Phoebe 
Gary's hymn, One sweetly solemn thought, and that fact may 
account for the entire hymn having been attributed to her. 
But who the writer of it was, we cannot tell. 

OWENS, PRISCILLA JANE (p. 279), was born of Scotch and 
Welsh descent, July 21, 1829, and was till recently engaged 
in educational work at Baltimore. For fifty years she has 
interested herself in Sunday School work, and most of her 
hymns were written for Children's Services. We have heard 
the joyful sound was adapted to the chorus 'Vive le Koi' in 
the opera ' The Huguenots '. 

BKOCK, FRANCES ELIZABETH GEOKGINA, nee BAYNES (p. 282). 
The hymn, All our sinful ivords and ways, which finds a 
place in The Children's Hymn Book, edited by Mrs. Brock, 
and bearing the initials L. F., is that lady's own hymn. 
Mrs. Brock was born in Guernsey in 1827, and died there 



APPENDIX 369 

in 1905. In 1848 she was married to the Very Eev. Carey 
Brock, Dean of Guernsey, who was from 1850 to 1892 
rector of St. Pierre du-Bois, Guernsey. 



E, HAEEIET BUEN (p. 284), was born at Phila- 
delphia, Pa., August 28, 1807, and died at Chester, Pa., 
February 7, 1887. She was a school teacher, and conducted 
a successful girls' school at Philadelphia, where she is 
loyally remembered by many who were her pupils. She 
was a Protestant Episcopalian of the evangelical school, 
and most of her life was spent in religious work. For 
forty years she was the instructor of the Infant Sunday 
School of St. Andrew's Church, Philadelphia, and was a 
prolific writer of books for the. young. The hymn, Jesus, 
high in glory, was from her pen, and may be found in her 
volume Twilight Musings (Philadelphia, 1857), where, at 
page 250, it is entitled An Infant Hymn. 

BEOOKS, PHILLIPS (p. 309). little town of Bethlehem. 
This popular Christmas carol was not written till 1868, 
two years after its author had visited Palestine. It made 
its first appearance in the Christmas service of the Church 
of The Holy Trinity in Philadelphia, of which Mr, Brooks 
was then the pastor. There can be no doubt that it owes 
the popularity into which it immediately sprang to the 
attractive music to which it was set by Mr. Lewis H. Eedner. 
In a very short time it was included in The Church Porch, 
a collection of Sunday School hymns compiled by Dr. 
Huntington, rector of All Saints' Church, Worcester, Mass., 
who gave to the music the name ' St. Louis '. That tune 
has been superseded in The Church Hymnary and other 
collections by the much more attractive tune to our mind, 
composed by Dr. Barnby, ' Bethlehem Ephratah '. 

COLLIEE, EDWAED AUGUSTUS (p. 310), was born in New 
York city in 1837, graduated at the University of that city 



379 APPENDIX 

in 1857, and at Princeton Seminary 1860. He was 
ordained by the Presbytery of North River, November 6, 
1860, as pastor of the Dutch Eeformed Church, and has 
been minister at Kinderhook, N. Y., since 1864. 

List of Hymn-writers in The Church Hymnary who died 
dtmng the past twelve years. 

LOWEY, EGBERT (p. 314), died November 25, 1899. 

TWELLS, HENRY, Canon of Peterborough Cathedral (p. 203), 
died at Bournemouth, January 19, 1900. 

STONE, SAMUEL JOHN (p. 218), died in London November 
19, 1900. 

BRIGHT, WILLIAM, D.D., Regius Professor of Ecclesiastical 
History, and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford (p. 204), died 
at Oxford March 16, 1901. 

BLUNT, ABEL GERALD WILSON (p. 215), died February 8, 
1902. j 

FARRAR, FREDERIC WILLIAM, D.D.', Dean of Canterbury 
(p, 280), died at Canterbury February 22, 1903. 

CLARKE, SAMUEL CHILDS, Vicar of Thorverton, Devon 
(p. 21 1), died at Penzance February 22, 1903. 

THRING, GODFREY (p. 212), died September 13, 1903. 

RANKIN, JEREMIAH EAMES, D.D. (p. 308), President of 
Howard University, Washington, District of Columbia, 
died 1905. 

HENSLEY, LEWIS (p. 215), died suddenly in a railway 
carriage near Great Ry burgh, Norfolk, August I, 1905. 

BROCK, FRANCES ELIZABETH GEORGINA, M&BAYNES (p. 282), 
died in Guernsey, December, 1905. 

HEATH, ELIZA (p, 249), died at 4, The Cloisters, Gordon 
Square, London, December 25, 1905, in her 76th year. 

GILL. THOMAS HORNBLOWER (p. 253), died 1906. 



APPENDIX 371 

LUKE, JEMIMA (p. 272), died at Newport, Isle of Wight, 
February 2, 1906. 

BICKERSTETH, EDWARD HENRY, D.D., Bishop of Exeter 
(p. 204), died in London, May 16, 1906. 

MATHESON, GEORGE, D.D. (p. 224), resigned his position 
as senior minister of St. Bernard's, Edinburgh, July 26, 
1899, and died suddenly at Avenelle, North Berwick, 
August 28, 1906. 

COUSIN, ANNE Eoss (p. 241), died at Edinburgh, December 
6, 1906, aged 83. 

COGHILL, ANNIE LOUISE (p. 247), died 1907. 

MIDLANE, ALBERT (p, 277), died at Newport, Isle of 
Wight, February 27, 1909. 

POTT, FRANCIS (p. 216), died at Speldhurst, Kent, Octo- 
ber 26, 1909. 

WARING, ANNA LAETITIA (p. 240), died at Clifton, Bristol, 
May 24, 1910. 

MACLAGAN, WILLIAM DALRYMPLE, D.D., Archbishop of 
York (p. 205), died in London, September 19, 1910. 

To the foregoing list there are to be added the names of 
two contributors to this volume (p. v) : 

MACMILLAN, HUGH, D.D,, LL.D., died May 24, 1903. 

MCRIE, CHARLES GREIG, D.D., grandson of the biographer 
of Knox and Melville, died at Peebles, May 26, 1910. 



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