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Xotc The cimdt of'tiie line trails oftfie dtv is about ta-o&a 7talf3IUes 

\ Clnnvh 01 '' the Holy' Sepulchre 

2 ^fostfue of Omar 

3 Principal Greek Convent 

4 ^i!iyfyair"ari Conrerit 
.5 ^rlnnenzan CorjvenT 

6 {'tirf/en tifdj7iwii'ian Convent 

7 .fi'u-s -Sr/iaaoaue 

8 Mar. IScJiacl 

9 'Christian Burial 

10 HeztkiaJis Pool 

11 Jewish Burial Ground 

12 SfahomcAan Burial Ground 



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Baptist Union TliaoL Ssm. Coll. 



For the Sunday School Union of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
at the Conference Office, 200 Mulberry-street. 

J. Collord, Printer. 

Entered according to act of Congress, in the year 1839, by 
T. Mason & G. Lane, in the clerk's office of the Southern 
District of New-York. 





THE DICTIONARY, which is now presented to" the reader, 
is the result of the most careful and patient investigation. 
The' author, of course, has been indebted to various sources 
for materials ; but all the articles, with few exceptions, have 
been sent to the press in manuscript ; and, during two years 
past, all the time which could in justice be spared from other 
duties has been exclusively devoted to the preparation of 
this work. 

In most Dictionaries of the Bible, a large proportion of 
the matter consists of Scripture narrative. But Bibles are 
too numerous, and their contents too well understood by 
that class of persons who read Bible Dictionaries, to render 
such details necessary. 

The object of this work is simply to explain and illustrate 
the meaning of this precious book ; and no name or term 
occurring in the Bible has been omitted, respecting which 
any thing could be ascertained which was judged important 
in the accomplishment of this object, or which would seem 
to be desirable ia-a work of this kind. I have derived great 
assistance from works which would not -be likely to fall in 
the way of common readers. Such as Gesenius's Hebrew 
and English Lexicon, translated from the Latin. 

This invaluable work is purely a philological work j and 
although it rarely presents any allusion to theological senti- 
ments, no student of the Bible should be without it. 


The Greek and English Lexicon of the New Testament, 
by Dr. Robinson, the translator of Gesenius. 

This work bears in every page marks of integrity, learn- 
ing, and diligence. In both of the above-named works, 
attention has been given to the interpretations of difficult 
passages ; and therefore the two together form a good com- 
mentary on the original Scriptures. Besides, Dr. Jahn's 
Biblical Archaeology, Robinson's Calmet, the Biblical Re- 
pository, the works of Professor Stuart, Dr. A. Clarke, 
Burckhardt, Macknight, Watson, and others, have been 
constantly at hand. Geographical articles have received 
particular attention ; no fact is stated but on the latest and 
best authority, and on which the reader may depend. The 
references are all made in every article for the purpose of 
illustration; and no article should be considered as read 
until every passage is examined. 

Respecting the engravings, the reader may rely on their 
accuracy also. No pains or has been spared to 
procure those which are correct ; and they are executed by 
one of the best artists in our country. 

The division and accentuation of the words have been 
carefully attended to;. and, in some instances, they have 
been respelled, as a guide to their correct pronunciation. 

In the pronunciation, observe the following rules : 

1. When a vowel is followed by an accent, it has the long 
sound, as A'bel, but otherwise, the short sound as Ad'am. 

3. Every final i, marked as a distinct syllable, has the 
long sound as a'i, Hu-sha-i. 

3. Ch is pronounced like k, as Che'bar, except in cherub, 
cherubim, Rachel, Chittim. 

4. G is hard before e, and i, as Gehazi, Gideon. 

New-York, July 6, 1838. 



AARON, (A'ron,) the son 
of Amram and Joch'e-bed, of 
the tribe of Levi. Aaron was 
three years older than his 
brother Moses ; and in effect- 
ing the deliverance of the 
Hebrews we find them con- 
stantly associated. During 
the march of the children of 
Israel through the wilderness, 
Aaron and his sons were ap- 
pointed by God to exercise 
for ever the office of priests 
in the tabernacle. 

After the tabernacle' was 
built, Moses consecrated Aa- 
ron to the high priesthood 
with the holy oil, and invested 
him with his priestly robes, 
his garments " of glory and' 
beauty." Two miraculous in- 
terpositions confirmed him in 
his office of high priest, as 
of Divine appointment. The 
first was the destruction of 
Ko'rah, who sought that office 
for himself, and of the two 
hundred and fifty Levites who 
supported his pretensions, 
Num. xvi. The second was 
the blossoming of Aaron's 
rod, which was designed " to 
cause the murmurings of the 
Israelites against him to 

Aaron married E-lish'e-ba, 
the daughter of Amminadab, 


of the tribe of Judah, by 
whom he had four sons, Na'- 
dab and Abi'hu, EJe-a'zar 
ahdlth'a-mar,,23. The 
first two were killed by fire 
from heaven, as a punish- 
ment for presuming to offer 
incense with strange fire in 
their censers, Lev. x, 1, 2. 
From the two others the suc- 
cession of high priests was 
continued in Israel. 

The account of the death 
of Aaron is peculiarly solemn 
and affecting. As he and Mo- 
ses, in striking the rock at 
Meribah, Num. xvi, had not 
honoured God by a perfect 
obedience and faith, he in his 
wrath declared unto them that 
they should not enter into the 
promised land. Soon after, 
the Lord commanded Moses, 
" Take Aaron, and Eleazar 
his son, and bring them up to 
Mount Hor ; and strip Aaron 
of his garments," his splen- 
did pontifical vestments, 
" and put them upon Eleazar 
his son ; and Aaron shall be 
gathered unto his people, and 
shall die there." In Deutero- 
nomy it is said that Aaron 
died at Mo-se'ra; because 
that was the name of the dis- 
trict in which Mount Hor was 

ABB ( 

---AARONITES, Priests 
wio served the sanctuary, of 
the family of Aaron. 

S AB, in the Hebrew chrono- 
logy, the eleventh month of 
the civil year, and the fifth of 
the ecclesiastical year, which 
began with Ni'san. This 
month answered to the moon 
of July, comprehending part 
of July and of August, and 
contained thirty days. 

VA-BAD'DON, Heb. cor- 
responding to Apollyon, Gr. 
that is, Destroyer, is repre- 
sented, Rev. ix, 11, as king 
of the locusts, and the angel 
of the bottomless pit. 

-A-BA'NA. Probably a 
branch of the Barrady, or 
Chrysor'rhoas, which derives 
its source from the foot of 
Mount Lib'a-nus, eastward. 
'Perhaps the Pharpar is the 
same with Oron'tes, the most 
noted river of Syr'ia, which 
rises a little to the north or 
north-east of Damascus, 2 
Kings v, 12. 

SAB'A-RIM, mountains east 
of Jordan, over against Jeri- 
cho, on the northern border 
of Moab, within the limits of 
the tribe of Reuben. 

- AB'BA, a Syr'i-ac word, 
which signifies father. The 
learned Mr. Selden, from 
the Babylonian Ge-mar'a, has 
proved that slaves were not 
allowed to use the title abba 
in addressing the master of 
the family to which they be- 
longed. This may serve to 
illustrate Rom. viii, 15, and 
Gal. iv, 6. St. Paul and St. 
Mark added to it when wri- 


ting to foreigners the explana 
tion, father. 

sA-BED'NE-GO, the Chal- 
dee name given by the king 
of Babylon's officer to Aza- 
ri'ah, one of Daniel's com- 
panions, Dan. i, 7. This name 
imports the servant of Nago, 
or Nego, which is supposed 
to signify the sun, or morning 

The second son 
and Eve, and born 
probably in the second or 
third year of the world, and 
was killed about the year of 
the world, 139. 

sA'BEL-MIS'RA-IM, the 
flooV of Atad, beyond the 
river Jordan, where Joseph, 
his brethren, , and the Egyp- 
tians mourned for the death 
of Jacob, Gen. 1, 11. 

v-A'BEL-SHIT'TIM, a city 
situate in the plains of Moab, 
beyond Jordan, opposite to 

V NA-BFA, the same as A-bi'- 
jjth, a descendant of Eleazar, 
son of Aaron, and head of the 
eighth of the twenty -four com- 
panies into which the Jewish 
priests were divided. 

vA-BFA-THAR, the tenth 
high priest among the Jews, 
and fourth in descent from 
Eli, 2 Sam. viii, 17. 

AA'BIB, the name of the first 
Hebrew sacred month, ExocL 
xiii, 4. This month was af- 
terward called Ni'san ; it con- 
tained thirty days, and an- 
swered to part of our March 
and April. Abib signifies 
green ears of corn, or fresh 
fruits. It was so named he- 

. ABO 

cause corn, particularly bar- 
ley, was in ear at that time. 
\A-BFHU, the son of Aaron, 
the high priest, was con- 
sumed, together with his bro- 
ther Nadab, by fire sent from 
God, because he had offered 
incense with strange fire, in- 
stead of taking it from the 
altar, Lev. x, 1, 2. This ca- 
lamity happened A. M. 2514 ; 
within eight days after the 
consecration of Aaron and his 

>AB-I-LE'NE, a small pro- 
vince in Ccelo Syria, between 
Lebanon and Antilibanus. 

>A-BIM'E-LECH. This 
seems to have been the title 
of the kings of Philistia, as 
Caesar was of the Roman em- 
perors, and Pharaoh of the 
sovereigns of Egypt. It was 
the name also of one of the 
sons of Gideon, who became 
a judge of Israel, Judges ix ; 
and of a Jewish high priest, 
1 Sam. xxi, 1. 

^A-BI'RAM, the eldest son 
of Kiel, the Bethelite. 

2. ABIRAM, the son of Eliab, 
of the tribe of Reuben, was 
one of those who conspired 
with Korah and Dathan 
against Moses in the wilder- 

"AB'1-SHAG, a young wp- 
manya native -of Shunam, in 
the tribe of Issachar. 

JUBISH'A-I, the son of 
Zeraiah, David's sister. 

liB'NER was the uncle of 
King Saul, and the general of 
his army. 

J\.-BOM->iN-A/TiON. This 

wWd is applied to idolatry 
and idols, not only because 

r ABR 

the worship of idols is in 
itself an abominable thing, 
but likewise because the 
ceremonies of idolaters were 
almost always of an infamous 
and licentious nature. The 
" abomination of desolation," 
Matt, xxiv, 15, 16 ; Mark xiii, 
14; without doubt, signifies 
the ensigns of the Roman ar- 
mies under the command of 
Titus, during the last siege 
of Jerusalem. The images 
of their gods and emperors 
were delineated on these en- 
signs ; and the ensigns them- 
selves, especially the eagles, 
which were carried at the 
heads of the legions, were 
objects of worship ; and, ac- 
cording to the usual style of 
Scripture, they were there- 
fore an abomination. 

In general, whatever is mo- 
rally or ceremonially impure, 
or leads to sin, is designated 
an abomination to God. Thus 
lying lips are said to be an 
abomination to the Lord. 
Every thing in doctrine or 
practice which tended to cor- 
rupt the simplicity of the 
Gospel is also in Scripture 
called abominable ; hence 
Babylon is represented, Rev. 
xvii, 4, as holding in her 
hand a cup "full of abomi- 
nations." In this view, to 
"work abomination, 1 ' is to 
introduce idolatry, or any 
other great corruption, into 
the Church and worship of 
God, 1 Kings xi, 7. 

<A'BRAM, and A'BRA- 
HAM, father of a great multi- 
tude, the son of Terah, born 
at Ur, a city of Chaldea, 

ACC 8 

A. M. 2008, only two years 
after the death of Noah. 

The wide and deep impres- 
sion made by the character 
of Abraham upon the ancient 
world is proved by the reve- 
rence which people of almost 
all nations and countries have 
paid to him, and the manner 
in which the events of his 
life have been interwoven in 
their mythology, and their re- 
ligious traditions. His his- 
tory is given in the book of 
Genesis, and is one of deep 

^AB'SA-LOM, the son of 
David by Ma'a-chah, daugh- 
ter of the king of Geshur ; 
distinguished for his fine per- 
son, his vices, and his unna- 
tural rebellion. 

\AC'CAD, one of the four 
cities built by Nimrod, the 
founder of the As-syr"i-an 
empire. (See Nimrod.) Gen. 
x, 10. Thus it appears that Ac- 
cad was contemporary with 
Babylon, and was one of the 
first four great cities of the 

\AC-CEPT', to take plea- 
sur*e in, either in whole or in 
part. The phrase, to accept 
the person of any one, is a He- 
brew idiom, and signifies, to 
regard any one with favour or 

N^C-CESS', free admis- 
sion, open entrance. Our ac- 
cess to God is by Jesus 
Christ, the way, the truth, 
and the life, Rom. v, 2 ; Eph. 
ii, 18. Under the law, the 
high priest alone had access 
into the holiest of all; but 
when the veil of the temple 

ACC , 

was rent in twain, at the 
death of Christ, it was de- 
clared that a new and living 
way of access was laid open 
through the veil, that is to 
say, his flesh. By his death, 
j the middle wall of par- 
tition was broken down, and 
Jew and Gentile had both 
free access to God ; whereas 
before, the Gentiles had no 
nearer access in the temple 
worship than to the gate of 
the court of Israel. Thus the 
saving grace and lofty privi- 
leges of the Gospel are .equal- 
ly bestowed upon true be- 
lievers of all nations. 

V-C^CHO, a seaport of 
Palestine, thirty miles south 
of Tyre, Acts xxi, 7 ; after- 
ward called Ptol-e-ma'is, and 
now Akka by the Arabs, and 
Acre by the Turks. It was 

fiven to the tribe of Asher, 
udges i, 31. 

<sAC-CURS'ED, denotes 
the\5utting off or separating 
any one from the communion 
of the Church, the number of 
the living, or the privileges 
of society ; and also the de- 
voting an animal, city, or 
other thing to destruction. 
A-nath'e-ma was a species of 
excommunication among the 
Jews, and was often prac- 
tised after they had lost the 
power of life and death, 
against those persons who,_ 
according to the Mosaic law, 
ought to have been executed. 
Mar-a-na'tha, a Syriac word, 
signifying the Lord cometh, 
was added to the sentence to 
express their persuasion that 
the Lord God would come to 

ACH 1 

ake vengeance upon that 
guilt which they, circum- 
stanced as they were, had 
not the power to punish, 1 
Cor. xvi, 22. 

According to the idiom of 
the Hebrew language, ac- 
cursed and crucified were sy- 
nonymous terms. By the 
Jews every one who died 
upon a tree was reckoned 
accursed, Deut. xxi, 23. 

^-CEL'DA-MA, (A-sel'~ 
da-tna,) a piece of ground, 
without the south wall of Je- 
rusalem, oh the other side of 
the brook Silo'am. It was 
called the Potter's Field," be- 
cause an earth or clay was 
dug in it, of which ppttery 
was made. It was likewise 
called the Fuller's Field, be- 
cause cloth was dried in it. 
But it having been afterward 
bought- with the money by 
which the high priest and 
rulers of the Jews purchased 
the blood of Jesus, it was 
called " Aceldama," or the 
Field of Blood. 
VA-CHA'I-A. This name is 
used to denote the whole of 
Greece,- as it existed as a 
Roman province ; or A-cha'- 
i-a Proper, a district in the 
northern part of the Pel-o- 
pon-ne'-sus, on the bay of 
Corinth," and in which the 
city of that name stood. It 
appears to have been used in 
the former sense in 2 Cor. xi, 
10 ; and in the latter, in 
Acts xix, 21. 

SACHAICUS, (A-Ttay'-e- 
kus;) a native of A-cha'i-a, 
and disciple of St. Paul. 

, the son of Car- 


mi, of the tribe of Judah, 
who having taken a part of 
the spoils of Jericho, against 
the injunction of God, who 
had accursed or devoted the 
whole city, was, upon being 
taken by lot, doomed to be 
stoned to death. The whole 
history is recorded, Joshua 

\A'CHISH, king of Gath, 
to 1 * 1 whom David withdrew 
from the dominions of Saul. 
same with Ec-bat'a-na, the 
royal city, Ezra vi, 2. 

WCHOR, troubling, & val- 
leybetween Jericho and A'i. 
So called from the trouble 
brought upon the Israelites 
by the sin of Achan. 
^CA.CH'ZIB, a city on the 
coast of the Mediterranean, 
in the tribe of Ash'er, and one 
of the cities out of which 
that tribe did not expel the 
inhabitants, Judges i, 31. It 
is situated about ten miles 
north of Ptol-e-ma'is. 

TEES. This book, in the 
very beginning, professes it- 
self, to be a continuation of 
the Gospel of St. Luke ; and 
its style bespeaks it to be 
written by the same person. 
This is the only mspired 
work which gives us any-his- 
torical account of the pro- 
gress of- Christianity after 
our Saviour's ascension. It 
comprehends a period of 
about thirty years, but it by 
no means contains a general 
history of the Church during 
that time. The latter part of 
the book is confined to the 




history of St. Paul, of whom 
St. Luke was the constant 
companion for several years. 

As this account of St. Paul 
is not continued beyond his 
two years' imprisonment at 
Rome, it is probable that this 
book was written soon after 
his release, which happened 
in the year 63 ; we may there- 
fore consider the Acts of the 
Apostles as written about the 
year 64. 

M.D'AM. The manner in 
which the creation of Adam is 
narrated indicates something 
peculiar and eminent in the 
being to be formed, and which 
serves to impress us with a 
sense of the greatness of the 
work. Every thing as to man's 
creation is given in a solemn 
and deliberative form, and 
contains also an intimation of a 
trinity of persons in the God- 
head, all equally possessed 
of creative power, and there- 
fore Divine, to each of whom 
man was to stand in relations 
the most sacred and intimate : 
" And God said, Let us 
make man in our image, after 
our likeness ; and let them 
have dominion," &c. 

2. It may be next inquired 
in what that imag e of God, in 
which man was made, con- 

It is manifest from the his- 
tory of Moses, that human 
nature has two essential con- 
stituent parts, the BODY form- 
ed out of pre-existing matter, 
the earth; and a LIVING SOUL, 
breathed into the body by an 
inspiration from God. 

The "image" or likeness 

of God in which, man was 
made has, by some, been as- 
signed to the body ; by others, 
to the soul. It has, also, 
been placed in the circum- 
stance of his having " domi- 
nion" over the other crea- 
tures. As to the body, it is 
not necessary to prove that 
in no sense can it bear the 
image of God; that is, be 
"like" GoA. 

Equally unfounded is the 
notion that the image of God 
in man consisted in the " do- 
minion" which was granted 
to him over this lower world. 

.When God is called " the 
Father of spirits," a likeness 
is suggested between man 
and God in the spirituality of 
their nature. In spirituality, 
and, consequently, immateri- 
ality, this image of God in 
man, in the first instance, 

The sentiment expressed 
in Wisdom ii, 23, is an evi- 
dence that, in the opinion of 
the ancient Jews, the image 
of God in man comprised im- 
mortality also. 

To these we are to add the 
intellectual powers, and we 
have what divines, in perfect 
accordance with the Scrip- 
tures, have called " the NA- 
TURAL image of God in his 
creatures," which is essential 
and ineffaceable. Man was 
made capable of knowledge, 
and he was endowed with li- 
berty of will. 

This natural image of God 
was the foundation of that 
HOEAL image by which also 
man was distinguished. XJn- 

ADA 11 

less he had been a spiritual, 
knowing, and willing being, 
he would have been wholly 
incapable of moral qualities. 
That he had such qualities 
eminently, and that in them 
consisted the image of God, 
as well as in the natural attri- 
butes just stated, we have" al- 
so the express testimony of 
Scripture, Eccl. vii,29 ; Col. 
iii, 10; Eph. iv, 24. 

3. On the intellectual and 
moral endowments of Adam 
as to capacity, his intellect 
must have been vigorous be- 
yond that of any of his fallen 
descendants ; which itself 
gives us very high views of 
the strength of his under- 
standing, although we should 
allow him to have been cre- 
ated " lower than the angels." 

On the degree of moral ex- 
cellence also in the first man, 
if we attend to the passages 
of Holy Writ above quoted, 
we shall be able to ascertain, 
if not the exact degree of his 
moral endowments, yet that 
there is a certain standard 
below which they cannot be 
placed. Generally, he was 
made in the image of God, 
which, we have already prov- 
ed, is to be understood moral- 
ly as well as naturally. Man, 
therefore, in his original state 
was sinless ; there was no 
obliquity in his moral princi- 
ples, his mind, or affections ; 
none in InV conduct. He 
was perfectly sincere and ex- 
actly just, rendering from the 
heart all that was due to 
flod and to the creature. 
Tried by the exactest plum.' 


met, he was -upright ; by the 
most perfect rule, he was 

4. The salvation of Adam 
has been disputed ; for what 
reason does not appear, ex- 
cept that the silence of Sdip- 
ture, as to his after life, has 
given bold men occasion to 
obtrude their speculations 
upon a subject which called 
for no such expression of opi- 
nion. As nothing to the con- 
trary appears, the charitable 
inference is, that as he was 
the first to receive. the pro- 
mise of redemption, so hie 
was the first to prove its vir- 
tue. It is another presump- 
tion, that as Adam and Eve 
were clothed with skins of 
beasts, which could not have 
been slain for food, these 
were the skins of their sacri 
fices ; and as the offering of 
animal sacrifice was an ex- 
pression of faith in the ap- 
pointed propitiation, to that 
refuge we may conclude they 
resorted, and through its me- 
rits were accepted. 

5. That Adam was a type 
of Christ, is plainly affirmed 
by St. Paul, who calls him 
" The figure of him who was 
to come." Adam and Christ 
were each a public person, a 
federal head to the whole race 
of mankind ; but the one was 
the fountain of sin and death, 
the other of righteousness 
and life. 

M.D'A-MANT, a stone of 
unpenetrable hardness. 

\A'DAR, the twelfth month 
of the ecclesiastical, and the 
sixth of the civil year among 




the Hebrews. It contains 
but twenty-nine days, and 
answers to our February, and 
sometimes enters into March, 
according to the course of 
the moon, by which they re- 
gulated their seasons. 
NAD'DER, a venomous ser- 
pent, more usually called the 
viper. See viper. 

In Psalm Iviii, 5, reference 
is made to the effect of musi- 
cal sounds upon serpents. 
That they might be rendered 
tame and harmless by certain 
charms, or soft and sweet 
sounds, and trained to delight 
in music, was an opinion 
which prevailed very early 
and universally. 

But on some serpents these 
charms seem to have no 
power; and it appears from 
Scripture, that the adder 
sometimes takes precautions 
to prevent the fascination 
which he sees preparing for 
him : " for the deaf adder 
shutteth her ear, and will not 
hear the voice of the most 
skilful charmer." The threat- 
ening of the Prophet Jeremi- 
ah proceeds upon the same 
fact : " I will send serpents" 
(cockatrices) "among you, 
which will not be charmed, 
and they shall bite you." In 
these quotations, the sacred 
writers, while they take it 
for granted that many ser- 
pents are disarmed by charm- 
ing, plainly admit that the 
powers of the charmer are in 
vain exerted upon others. 

To ^D-JURE', to bind by 
oath, as under the penalty of 
a fearful curse, Joshua vi, 

26 ; Mark v, 7. 2. To charge 
solemnly, as by the authori- 
ty, and under pain, of the 
displeasure of God, Matti 
xxvi, 63 ; Acts xix, 13. 

\AD'MA, one of the five ci- 
ties which were destroyed 
by fire from heaven, and bu- 
ried under the waters of the 
Dead Sea, Gen. xiv, 2 ; Deut. 
xxix, 23. 

UD'-O-NI-BE'-ZEK, i. e . 
the lord of Bezek, king of the 
city Bezek, in Canaan,, se- 
venteen miles north-east from 
Napolose. He was a power- 
ful and cruel prince, who, 
having at various times taken 
seventy kings, ordered their 
thumbs and great toes to be 
cut off, and caused them, like 
dogs, to feed on the crumbs 
that fell from his table. After 
Joshua's death the tribes of 
Judah and Simeon. marched 
against Adoni-Bezek, van- 
quished him ; and, having ta- 
ken him prisoner, cut off his 
thumbs and great toes. Ado- 
nirBezek acknowledged the 
retributive justice of this pu- 
nishment from God.' He was 
carried to Jerusalem, where 
he died, A. M. 2570, Judges 
i, 4-7. 

A-DOP'TION. Ah act by 
which one takes another into 
his family, owns him for his 
son, and appoints him his 

2. Adoption, in a theologi- 
cal sense, is that act of God's 
free grace, by which, upon 
our being justified by faith in 
Christ, we are received into 
the family of .God, and en- 
titled to the inheritance of 




heaven. This appears not so 
much a distinct act of God, 
as involved in, and necessa- 
rily flowing from, our justifi- 
cation ; so that at least the 
one always implies the other. 
The apostles in using the 
term appear to have had be- 
fore them the simple view, 
that our sins had deprived us 
of our sonship, the favour of 
God, and the right to the in- 
heritance of eternal life ; but 
that, upon our return to God, 
and reconciliation with him, 
our forfeited privileges were 
not only restored, but greatly 
heightened through the pater- 
nal kindness of God. 

3. To this state belong, 
freedom from a servile spirit, 
for we are not servants but 
sons ; the special love and 
c%re of God our heavenly Fa- 
ther ; a filial confidence in 
him; free access to him at 
all times and in all circum- 
stances ; a title to the hea- 
venly inheritance ; and the 
Spirit of adoption, or the wit- 
ness of the Holy Spirit to 
our adoption, which is the 
foundation of all the .comfort 
we can derive from those 
privileges, as it is the only 
means by which we can know 
that they are ours. 

4. The last mentioned 
great privilege of adoption 
merits special attention. It 
consists in the inward wit- 

. ness or testimony of the Holy 
Spirit to the sonship of be- 
lievers, from which -flows a 
comfortable persuasion or 
conviction of our present ac- 
ceptance with God, and the 

hope of our future and eter- 
nal glory. This is taught in se- 
veral passages of Scripture : 
Rom..viii, 15, 16;. Gal. iv, 
4-6. To these texts are to 
be added all those passages, 
so numerous in the New 
Testament, which express 
the confidence and the joy 
of Christians; their friend- 
ship with God ; their confi- 
dent access to him as theii 
God ; their entire union and 
delightful intercourse with 
him in spirit. 

sort of Sen-nach'e-rib, king 
of Assyria. 

Also one of the gods ador- 
ed by the inhabitants of Seph- 
ar-va'im, who were settled in 
the country of Sa-mar'i-a, in 
the room of the Israelites, 
who were carried beyond the 

city in Lesser Asia, on the 
west coast of l^ys'i-a, ovei 
against the isle of Lesbos. 

VL'DRI-A. This name is 
now confined to the Gulf of 
Venice. But in St. Paul's 
time it was extended to al 
that portion of the Mediter 
ranean between Crete anc 

\A-DUL'LAM, a city it 
the tribe of Judah, to th< 
west of Hebron, whose kin| 
was slain . by Joshua, Josh 
xii, 15. 

\A-DUL'TER-Y,the viola 
tion of the marriage^ bed 
The law of Moses punishet 
with death both the man anc 
the woman who were guilt] 
of this crime, Lev. xx, 10 




If a woman was betrothed to 
a man, and was guilty of this 
infamous crime before the 
marriage was completed, she 
was, in this case, along with 
her paramour, to be stoned, 
Deut. xxii, 22-24. 

This procedure had the ef- 
fect of keeping in mind, 
among the Jews, God's high 
displeasure against this vio- 
lation of his law; and the 
Christian will always remem- 
ber the solemn denuncia- 
tions of the New Testament 
against a crime so aggravated, 
whether considered in its ef- 
fects upon the domestic re- 
lations, upon the moral cha- 
racter of the guilty parties, 
or upon society at large, 
" Whoremongers and adul- 
terers God will judge." 

In the prophetic scriptures 
it is often metaphorically ta- 
ken, and signifies idolatry, 
and apostasy from God, by 
which men basely defile 
themselves, and wickedly 
violate their covenant relation 
to God, Hos. ii, 2 ; Ezek. xvi. 

lAD'VO-CATE, a patron, 
one who pleads the cause of 
any one before another. In 
this sense the term is applied 
to Christ our intercessor, 1 
John ii, 1. 

\A.G'A-BUS,a prophet, and, 
as\he Greeks say, one of the 
seventy disciples of our Sa- 

"U/GAG. This seems to 
have been a common name 
of the princes of Am'a-lek, 
one of whom was very power- 
ful as early as the time oC 
Moses, Num. xxiv, 7. 

called, Gal. iv, 24, 25. 
^.G'ATE. A precious stone, 
a variety of the flint and semi- 
pellucid. Its variegations 
are without end, and some- 
times most beautifully dis- 
posed, representing plants, 
trees, rivers, clouds, &c. 

\lGE, in the most general 
sense of the term, denotes 
the duration of any substance, 
animate or inanimate ; and 
is applied either to the whole 
period of its existence, or to 
that portion of it which pre- 
cedes the time to which the 
description of it refers. In 
this sense it is used to sig- 
nify either the whole natural 
duration of the LIFE of man, 
or any interval of it that has 
elapsed before the period of 
which we speak. When age 
is understood of a certain 
portion of the life of man, its 
whole duration is divided into 
four different ages, viz., in- 
fancy, youth, manhood, and 
old age : the first extending 
to the fourteenth year ; the 
second, denominated youth, 
adolescence^ or the age of 
puberty, commencing at four- 
teen, and terminating at about 
twenty-five ; manhood, or the 
virile age, concluding at fifty ; 
and the last ending at the 
close of life. 

In chronology is used for a 
century, or a period of one 
hundred years ;-and is some., 
times used among the ancient 
poets in the same sense as 
generation, or a period of 
thirty years. 

xA-GRlP-'PA, surnaraed 


Herod, the son of Ar-is-to- 
bulus and Berenice and 
grandson of Herod the Great, 
was born three years before 
the birth of our Saviour, 
and seven years before the 
vulgar, asra. After the death 
of his father Aristobulus, Jo- 
se'phus informs us that He- 
rod, his grandfather, took 
care of his education, and 
sent him to Rome to make 
his court to Ti-be'rius. Soon 
after this, Ti-be'rius died; 
and Ca-lig'u-la, succeeding 
him, heaped many favours 
and much wealth upon Agrip- 
pa, set a royal diadem on his 
head, and gave him the te- 
trarchy which Philip, the son 
of Herod'the Great, had pos- 
sessed, that is, Batansea and 
Trach-o-ni'tis. . To this he 
added that of Ly-sa'ni-as ; 
and Agrippa returned very 
soon into Judea, to take pos- 
session of his new kingdom ; 
to which was afterward add- 
ed, A. D. 41, by Claudius, 
all Judea and the kingdom of 
Chalcis, which had been pos- 
sessed by Herod his brother. 
Thus Agrippa became of a 
sadden one of the greatest 
princes of the east, and was 
possessed of as much, if not 
more territory, than had been 
held by Herod the Great, his 
grandfather. He returned to 
Judea, and governed it to the 
great satisfaction of the Jews. 
But the desire of pleasing 
them, and a mistaken zeal for 
their religion, induced him to 
put to death the Apostle 
James, and to cast Peter into 
prison with the same design ; 

15 AGR 

and, but for a miraculous in- 
terposition, which, however, 
produced no effect upon the 
mind of the tyrant, his hands 
would have been imbrued in 
the blood of two apostles, the 
memory whereof is preserved 
in Scripture. At Cses-a-re'a 
the inhabitants of Tyre and 
Sidon waited on him to sue 
for peace. Agrippa, being 
come early in the morning 
into the theatre, with a de 
sign to give them audience, 
seated himself on his throne, 
dressed in a\ robe of silver 
tissue, worked in the most 
admirable manner. The ris- 
ing sun darted his golden 
beams thereon, and gave it 
such a lustre as dazzled the 
eyes of the spectators ; and 
when the king began his 
speech to the Tyrians and 
Sidonians, the parasites 
around him began to say, it 
was " the voice of a god and 
not of a man." Instead of re- 
jecting these impious flatte- 
ries, Agrippa received them 
with an air of complacency ; 
and the angel of the Lord 
smote him because he did not 
give God the glory. Being 
therefore carried home to his 
palace, he died at the end of 
five days, racked with tor- 
menting pains in his bowels, 
and devoured with worms. 
Such was the death of Herod 
Agrippa, A. D. 44, after a 
reign of seven years. He left 
a son of the same name, and 
three daughters Ber-ni'ce, 
who was married to her uncle 
Herod, her father's brother. 
A-GRIP'PA, son of the 




former Agrippa. Claudius 
gave him the provinces of 
Gaulonitis, Trach-o-ni'tis, 
Batanoea, Paneas, and Ab-i- 
le'ne, which formerly had 
been in the possession of Ly- 
sanias. After the death of 
Claudius, Nero, who had a 
great affection for ; Agrippa, to 
his other dominions added 
Julias in Perae'a, and that 
part of Galilee to which Tari- 
chsea and Tiberias belonged. 
Festus, governor of Judea, 
coming to his government, A. 
D. 60, King_ Agrippa and Ber- 
ni'ce, his sister, went as far 
as Cassarea to salute him ; 
and as they continued there 
for some time, Festus talked 
with the king concerning the 
affair of St. Paul, who had 
been seized in the temple 
about two years before, and 
within a few days previous 
to bis visit had appealed to 
the emperor. Agrippa wish- 
ing to hear Paul, that apostle 
delivered that noble address 
in his presence wjhich is re- 
corded, Acts xxvi. 

U/GUR. The thirtieth 
chapter of Proverbs begins 
with this title : " The words 
of Agur, the son of Ja'keh ;" 
and the thirty-first, with " the 
words of King Lemuel ;" with 
respect to which some con- 
jecture that Solomon de- 
scribes himself under these 
appellations ; but it seems 
most reasonable to consider 
them as denoting real per- 
sons some inspired Jewish 

, the son and suc- 
He began 

cessor of Omfi. 

his reign over Israel, B. C. 
914, and reigned twenty-two 

2. AHAB and Zedekiah 
were two false prophets, who, 
about B. C. 594, seduced the 
Jewish captives at Babylon, 
with hopes of a speedy deli- 
verance, and stirred them up 
against Jeremiah, Jer. xxix, 
21" 22 

^A-HAS-U-E'RUS was the 
king of Persia. The Ahasue- 
rus of the book of Esther is 
supposed to" be Xerxes of 
profane history, who succeed- 
ed his father Darius about B. 
C. 485, and was succeeded 
by his son Artaxerxes Lon- 
giin'a-nus, about B. C. 464, 
and is chiefly known in his- 
tory by the vast preparations 
which he made for the inva- 
sion of Greece. Ahasuerus 
is also a name given in Scrip- 
ture, Ezra iv, 6, to Cam-by'- 
ses, the son of Cyrus ; and 
to As-ty'a-ges, king of the 
Medes, Dan. ix, 1. 
\A-HA'VA. The name of 
a river of Babylonia, or rather 
of Assyria, Ezra viii, 15. 

.A'HAZ succeeded his fa- 
thea^Jotham, as king of Israel, 
at the age of twenty years, 
reigned till the year before 
Christ, . 726, and addicted 
himself to the practice of 

-< A-HITH'O-PHEL; a na- 
tive* of Giloh, who, after hav- 
ing been David's . counsellor, 
his most intimate and valued 
friend, joined in the rebellion 
of Absalom, and assisted him 
with his advice, B. C. 1023 
2 Sam. xv, xvii. 

ALB 17 

VA-HOL'I-BAH. This and 
Aholah are two feigned names 
made use of by Ezekiel, xxiii, 
4, to denote the two kingdoms 
of Judah and Samaria. Aho- 
lah and A-hol'i-bah are repre- 
sented as two sisters, of 
Egyptian extraction. Aho- 
lah stands for Samaria, and 
Aholibah for Jerusalem. 
^A'i, a town of Palestine, 
sittfate west of Be.thel, and at 
a small distance north-west 
of Jericho. 

,,,AIR, that thin, fluid, elas- 
tic^eompressible body, called 
the atmosphere, which sur- 
rounds the earth to a consi- 
derable height. In Scripture 
it is sometimes called heaven ; 
as, "the birds of heaven." 
To " beat the air," to " speak 
in the air," 1 Gor. ix, 26, sig- 
nify to fatigue ourselves, in 
\ r ain, and to speak to no pur- 
pose. ? 

"XJA-LON, '(A.d'ja-lon,) a 
city of the Canaanites ; the 
valley adjoining to which is 
memorable in sacred history 
from the miracle of Joshua, 
Josh, x, 12, 13. 
\AL'A-BAS-TER, the name 
o a genus of fossils nearly 
allied to marble. It is a bright, 
elegant stone, sometimes of 
a snowy whiteness. It may 
be cut freely, and is capable 
of a fine polish-; and, being 
of a soft nature, it is wrought 
into any form or figure with 
ease. Vases or cruises were 
anciently made of it, where- 
in to preserve odoriferous li- 
quors and ointments. 
^iL-BE'IT. An old word, 
foralthough, notwithstanding. 


\ AL-EX-AN'DRI-A, a fa- 
moius city of Egypt, and, dur- 
ing the reign of the Ptole- 
mies, .the regal capital of that 
kingdom. It was founded by 
Alexander the Great, who 
drew the plan of the city 
himself, and peopled it with 
colonies of Greeks and Jews. 

Alexandria owed much of 
its celebrity as well as its 
population to the Ptolemies. 
Ptolemy Soter, one of Alex- 
ander's captains, who, after 
the death of this monarch, 
was first governor of Egypt, 
and afterward assumed the 
title of king, made this city 
the 1 place of his residence, 
about B. C. 304. This prince 
founded an academy, called 
the Muse'um, in which a so- 
ciety of learned men devoted 
themselves to philosophical 
studies, and the improvement 
of all the other sciences ; and 
he also gave them a library, 
which was prodigiously in- 
creased by his successors. 
He likewise induced the mer- 
chants of Syria and Greece 
to reside in this city, and to 
make it a principal mart of 
their commerce. His son and 
successor, Ptolemy Philadel- 
phus, pursued the designs of 
his father. 

In the hands of the Ro- 
mans, the successors of the 
Macedonians in the govern- 
ment of Egypt, the trade of 
Alexandria continued to flou- 
rish, until luxury and licen- 
tiousness paved the way, as 
in every similar instance, for 
its overthrow. 

Alexandria, together with 

ALL 18 

. the rest of Egypt, passed from 
the dominion of the Romans 
to that of the Sar'a-cens. 
With this event, the sun of 
Alexandria may be said to 
have set : the blighting hand 
of Islam-ism was laid on it ; 
and although the genius and 
the resources of such a city 
could not be immediately de- 
stroyed, it continued -to lan- 
guish until the passage by 
the Cape of Good Hope, in 
the fifteenth century, gave a 
new channel to the trade 
which for so many centuries 
had been its support ; and at 
this day, Alexan'dri-a, like 
most eastern cities, presents 
a mixed spectacle of ruins 
and wretchedness, of fallen 
greatness and enslaved hu- 
man beings. 

It was in a ship belonging 
to the port of Alexandria, that 
St. Paul sailed from My'ra, a 
city of Lyc'i-a, on his way to 
Rome, Acts xxvii, 5, 6. Alex- 
andria was also the native 
place of Apollos. 

X A'L1-EN. Foreigner, one 
belongins to another country. 
.^AL'LE-GO-RY, a figure 
in mejorie, whereby we make 
use of terms which, in their 
proper signification, mean 
something else than what 
they are brought to denote ; 
or it is a figure whereby we 
say one thing, expecting it 
shall be understood of ano- 
ther, to which it alludes ; or 
which, under the literal sense 
of the words, conceals a fo- 
reign or distant meaning. An 
allegory is, properly, a con- 
tinued metaphor, or a series 


of several metaphors in one 
or more sentences. Such is 
that beautiful allegory in 
Psalm Ixxx; in which th 
people of Israel are repre- 
sented linder the image of a 
vine, and the figure is sup- 
ported throughout with great 
correctness, and beauty. 
Whereas, if, instead of de- 
scribing the vine as wasted 
by the boar from the wood, 
and devoured by the wild 
beasts of the field, the psalm- 
ist had said, it was afflicted 
by heathens, or overcome by 
enemies, which is the real 
meaning, the' figurative and 
the literal meaning would 
have been blended, and the 
allegory ruined. 
\AL-LE-LTJ'IA, (Al-lc-ht'- 
y<m,) praise the Lord; or, 
praise to the Lord. This word 
occurs at the beginning or at 
the end of many psalms. Al- 
leluia was sung on solemn 
days of rejoicing. This ex- 
pression of joy and praise 
was transferred from the sy- 
nagogue to the church. 
NAL^MIGHT'Y, an attribute 
01 the Deity, Gen. xvii, 1. 
Of the omnipotence of God, 
we have a most ample reve- 
lation in the Scriptures, ex- 
pressed in the most sublime 
language. From the annun- 
ciation by Moses of a Divine 
existence who was "in the 
beginning," before all things, 
the very first step is to the 
display of his almighty power 
in the creation out of nothing, 
and the immediate arrange- 
ment in order and perfection, 
of the u heaven and the earth ;" 




by which is meant, not this 
globe only with its atmos- 
phere, or even with its own 
celestial system, but the uni- 
verse itself; for " he made the 
stars also." We are thus at 
once placed in the presence 
of an agent of unbounded 
power; for we must .all feel 
that a being which could 
create such a world as this, 
must, beyond all'comparison, 
possess a power greater than 
any which we experience in 
ourselves, than any which 
we observe in other visible 
agents, and to which we are 
not authorized by our obser- 
vation or knowledge to as- 
sign any limits of space or 

One limitation of the Di- 
vine power, it is true, we can 
conceive, but it detracts no- 
thing from its perfection. 
Where things in themselves 
imply a contradiction," they 
cannot be done by God, be- 
cause contradictions are im- 
possible in their own nature. 
In like manner, God cannot 
do any thing that is repugnant 
to his other perfections : he 
cannot lie, nor deceive, nor 
deny himself ; for this would 
be injurious to his truth. He 
cannot love sin, nor punish 
innocence; for this would 
destroy his holiness and good- 
ness : and therefore to ascribe 
a power to him that is incon- 
sistent with the rectitude of 
his nature, is not to magnify 
but debase him ; for all .un- 
righteousness is weakness, a 
defection from right reason, 
deviation from the perfect 

rule of action, and arises 
from a want of goodness and 
power. In a word, since all 
the attributes of God are es- 
sentially the same, a power 
in him which tends to de- 
stroy any other attribute of 
the Divine nature, must be a 
power destructive of itself. 
Well, therefore, may we con- 
clude him absolutely omnipo- 
tent, who, by being able to 
effect all things consistent 
with his perfections, showeth 
infinite ability, and, by not 
being able to do any thing 
repugnant to the same per- 
fections, demonstrates him-' 
self subject to no infirmity. 
\\AL'MONDTREE. A tree 
resembling the peach tree in 
'its leaves and blossoms, but 
the fruit is longer and more 
compressed, the outer green 
coat is thinner and drier 
when ripe, and the shell of 
the stone is not so rugged. 
This stone, or nut, contains 
a kernel, which is the only 
esculent part. The whole 
arrives at maturity in Sep- 
tember, when the outer tough 
cover splits open and dis- 
charges the nut. 

The hoary head is beauti- 
fully compared by Solomon 
to the almond tree, covered 
in the earliest days of spring 
with its snow-white flowers, 
before a single leaf has bud- 
ded: "The almond tree shall 
flourish, and the grasshoppet 
shall be a burden, and desire 
shall fail," Eccl. xii, 5. Man 
has existed in this world but 
a few days, when old age be- 
gins to appear, sheds its 

ALT 20 

snows upon his head, prema- 
turely nips his hopes, dark- 
ens his earthly prospects, and 
hurries him into the grave. 

14.LM S . Any thing given 
to relieve the afflicted and 

t^.L'MUG TREE, a cer- 
tain- kind of wood. 

SA'LOE, (Alo,) commonly 
catted the aloe-wood, an 
East Indian tree that grows 
about 8 or 10 feet high. It is 
highly odoriferous, and, in 
connection with other aroma- 
tics, was used by the ancients 
to preserve dead bodies from 

^AL'PHA, the first-letter of 
theNSreek alphabet ; Omega 
being the last letter. Hence 
Alpha and O-me'ga is a title 
which Christ appropriates to 
himself, Rev. i, 8 ; xxi, 6 ; 
xxii, 13 ; as signifying the 
beginning and the end, the 
first and the last, and thus 
properly denoting his perfec- 
tion and eternity. 

S^L-PHE'US, father of 
James the Less, Matt, x, 3 ; 
Luke vi, 15. Alpheus was 
the husband of Mary, believ- 
ed to have been sister, to the 
mother of Christ ; for which 
reason James is called the 
Lord's brother ; but the term 
brother is too general in its 
application to fix their rela- 
tion, though the fact is pro- 

2. ,ALPHEUS, father of Le- 
vi, or Matthew, whom Jesus 
took to be an apostle and 
evangelist, Mark ii, 14. 

XAI/TAR. Sacrifices are 
nearly as ancient as worship, 


and altars are of almost equal 
antiquity. The first altars 
which God commanded Mo- 
ses to raise were of earth or 
rough stones ; and it was de- 
clared that if iron were used 
in constructing them, tKey 
would become impure, Exod. 
xx, 24, 25. The altar which 
Solomon erected in the tem- 
ple was of brass, but filled, it 
is believed, with rough stones, 
2 Chron. iv, -1-3. It was 
twenty cubits long, twenty 
wide, and ten high. That 
built at Jerusalem, by Ze- 
rub'ba-bel, after the return 
from Babylon, was of rough 
stones ; as was that of Mac- 
cabeus. Josephus says that 
the altar which in his time 
was inthe temple was of rough 
stones, fifteen cubits higli, 
forty long, and forty wide. 

The principal altars among 
the Jews were those of 'in- 
cense, of burnt offering, and 
the altar or table for the show 
bread. The altar of incense 
was a small table of shittim 
wood covered with plates of 
gold. It was a cubit long, a 
cubit broad,' and two cubits 
higlu At the four corners 
were four horns. The priest, 
whose turn it was to offi- 
ciate, burnt incense on this 
altar, at the time of the morn- 
ing sacrifice. He did the 
same also in the evening. At 
the same time the people 
prayed in silence, and their 
prayers were offered up by 
the priests. The altar of 
burnt offering was of shittim 
wood also, and carried upon 
the shoulders of tbe priests, 

CovePs Die. 

p. 21. 


AMD 23 

by staves of the same wood, 
overlaid with brass. In Mo- 
ses' days it was five cubits 
square, and three high : but 
it was greatly enlarged in the 
days of Solomon, being twen- 
ty cubits square, and ten in 
height. It was covered with 
brass, and had a horn at each 
corner to which the sacrifice 
was tied. This altar was 
placed in the open air, that 
the smoke jnight not sully the 
inside of the tabernacle or 
temple. On this altar the 
holy fire was renewed from 
time to time, and kept con- 
stantly burning. Hereon, 
likewise, the sacrifices of 
lambs and . bullocks were 
burnt, especially a lamb every 
morning at the third hour, or 
nine of the clock, and" a lamb 
every afternoon at three, 
Exod. xx, 24, 25 ; xxvii, 1, 2, 
4; xxxviii, 1. The altar of 
burnt offering had the privi- 
lege of being a sanctuary or 
place of refuge. 

Sacrifices, according to the 
laws of Moses, could not be 
offered except by the priests ; 
and at any other place than 
oil the altar of the tabernacle 
or the temple. Furthermore, 
they were not to be offered to 
idols, nor with any supersti- 
tious rites. See Lev. xvii, 
1-7 ; Deut. xii, 15, 16. 
"^M'A-LEK-ITES, a peo- 
ple> whose country adjoined 
the southern border of the 
land of Canaan, in the north- 
western part of Arabia Pe- 

M-BAS'SA-DOR, ames- 
fee" $f*z bv a sovere'ssii to 

' AME 

transact affairs of great mo- 
ment. Ministers of the Gos- 
pel are called ambassadors, 
because, in the name of Je- 
sus Christ, the King of kings, 
they declare his will to men, 
and propose the terms of 
their reconciliation to God, 
2 Cor. v, 20 ; Eph. vi, 20. 
AM'BER, Ezek. i, 4, 27 ; 
2 ; a hard, inflammable 


bitumen, chiefly found in the 
mines of Prussia. When 
rubbed it is highly endowed 
with that remarkable proper- 
ty called electricity ; a word 
which the moderns have 
formed from its Greek name, 
" electron" But the ancients 
had also a mixed metal of 
fine copper and silver, re- 
sembling the amber in colour, 
and called by the same name. 
X^A-MEN', in Hebrew, sig- 
niii^s true, faithful, certain. 
It is also understood as ex- 
pressing a wish, " Amen ! so 
be it!" or an affirmation, 
'^Amen, yes, I believe it," 
Num. v, 22. At the conclu- 
sion of the public prayers, 
the people anciently answer- 
ed with aloud voice, "Amen." 
AMEN is a title of our 
Lord. "The Amen, the 
true and faithful witness," 
Rev. i, 14. 

' AM'E-THYST, (Am'me- 
thisf:) A transparent gem 
of a colour which seems com- 
posed of a strong blue and 
deep red ; and, according as 
either prevails, affords differ- 
ent tinges of purple, some- 
times approaching to violet, 
and sometimes even fading 
to a rose colour. The orien- 

AMM 24 

tal is the hardest, scarcest, 
and most valuable. It was 
the ninth stone in the pecto- 
ral of the .high priest, and is 
mentioned as the twelfth, .in 
the foundations of the New 

>A-MIN'A-DAB, a Levite, 
wiftU whom the ark was de- 
posited after it was brought 
back from the land of the 
Philistines. Also, some skil- 
ful charioteer who was cele- 
brated for his swift driving, 
Cant, vi, 12. 

\pI'MON, or BEN-AM'- 
Mr, the son of Lot, by his 1 
3'oungest daughter, Gen. xix, 
38. He was the father of the 
Ammonites, and dwelt on the. 
cast side of the Dead Sea, in 
the mountains of Gilead. 

SAM'MON-ITES, the de- 
scendants of Ammon, the son 
of Lot. They took posses- 
sion of the country called by 
their name, after having dri- 
ven out the Zamzummins, 
who were its ancient inhabit- 
ants. The precise period at 
which this expulsion took 
place is not ascertained. The 
Ammonites had kings, and 
were uncircumcised, Jer. ix, 
25, 26, and seem to have been 
principally devoted to hus- 
bandry. They, as well as the 
Moabites, were among the 
nations whose peace or pros- 
perity the Israelites were for- 
bidden to disturb, Deut. ii, 
19, &c. However, neither 
the one nor the other were to 
be admitted into the congre- 
gation to the tenth genera- 
tion, because they did not 
come ovit to relieve them in 


the wilderness, and were im- 
plicated in hiring Balaam to 
curse them. Their chief and 
peculiardeity is, in Scripture, 
called Moloch. 

ylM'O-RITES, the de- 
scekdants of the fourth son 
of Canaan, (Gen. x, 16,) 
whose first possessions were 
in the mountains of Judea, 
among the other families of 
Canaan : but afterward they 
passed the Jordan, and ex- 
tended their conquests over 
the finest provinces of Moab 
and Ammon ; seizing and. 
maintaining possession of 
that extensive and " almost 
insulated portion of country 
included between the rivers- 
Jordan, Jabbok, and Arnon. 

sA'MOS, the fourth of the 
minor' prophets, who in his 
youth had been a- herdsman 
in Tekoa, a small town about 
twelve miles south-east of 
Jerusalem. He was sent to 
the people of Samaria, to 
bring them back to God by 
repentance, and reformation 
of manners. Amps was call- 
ed to the prophetic office in 
the time of Uzziah, king of 
Judah, and Jeroboam, the 
son of Joash, king of Israel, 
B. C. 785. The whole book 
of Amos is animated with a 
fine and masculine eloquence. 
U/NAK, AN'A-KIM, fa- 
mdfcs giants in Palestine, 
whose descendants were ter- 
rible for their fierceness and 

sA-NATH'E-MA, signifies 
something set apart, sepa- 
rated, or devoted, or the for- 
mula by which this is effect- 

AND 25 

ed. To anathematize is 
generally understood to de- 
note the cutting off or sepa- 
rating any one from the com- 
munion of the faithful, the 
number of the living, or the 
privileges of society ; or the 
devoting of aii animal, city, 
or other thing to destruction. 

NA-THA. "If any man love 
not the Lord Jesus Christ, 
let him be Anathema, Maran- 
atha," 1 Cor. xvi. 22. Why 
these two words, one. Greek 
and the other Syriac, were 
not translated, is not obvious. 
They are the words with 
which the Jews began their 
greater excommunication, 
whereby they not only ex- 
cliided sinners from their so- 
ciety, but delivered them up 
to the Divine anathema, that 
is, to misery in this life, and 
perdition in the life to come. 
"Let him be Anathema," is 
" Let him be accursed." Mar- 
anatha signifies, "The Lord 
cometh," or " will come ; " 
that is, to take vengeance. 

^AN'DREW, an apostle of 
Jestis Christ, a native of 
Beth-sai'da, and the brother 
of Peter. He was at first a 
disciple of John the Baptist, 
whom he left to follow our 
Saviour, after the testimony 
of John, John i. 29, and was 
the first disciple received by 
our Saviour. Andrew then 
introduced his brother Si- 
mon, and they went with him 
to the marriage in Cana, but 
afterward returned to their 


ordinary occupation, not ex- 
pecting, perhaps, to be far- 
ther employed in his service. 
However, some months, after, 
Jesus meeting them, while 
fishing together, called them 
to a regular attendance upon 
him, and promised to make 
them fishers of men, Matt, 
iv. 19. 

_ AN'GEL, an intelligent spi- 
rit, the first in rank and dig- 
nity among created beings. 
The word, angel is not pro- 
perly a denomination of na- 
ture, but of office; signifying 
a messenger, a person em- 
ployed to carry one's orders, 
or declare his will. Thus it 
is St. Paul represents angels, 
Heb. i, 14, where he calls 
them "ministering spirits." 
Some of these are spoken of 
in Scripture in !>uch a man- 
ner as plainly to signify that 
they are real beings," of a spi- 
ritual nature, of high power, 
perfection, dignity, and hap- 
piness. Others of them -fire 
distinguished as not having 
kept their first station, Jude 
6. These are represented as 
evil spirits, enemies of God, 
and intent on mischief. The 
devil, as the head of them, 
and they as his angels, are 
represented as the rulers of 
the darkness of this world. 

Following the Scripture 
account, we shall find men- 
tion 'made of different orders 
of these superior beings ; for 
such a distinction of orders 
seems intimated in the names 
'given to different classes. 
Thus we have thrones, domi- 
nions, principalities, or prince 





doms, powers, authorities, 
ing ones, cherubim and sera- 
phim. We learn also from 
Scripture, that they dwell in 
the immediate presence of 
God; that they "excel in 
strength ;" that they are im- 
mortal ; and that they are the 
agents through which God 
very often accomplishes his 
special purposes of judgment 
and mercy. Nothing is more 
frequent in Scripture than the 
missions and appearances of 
good and bad angels, whom 
God employed to declare his 
will; to correct, teach, re- 
prove and comfort. God gave 
the law to Moses, and ap- 
peared to the old patriarchs, 
by the mediation of angels, 
who represented him, and 
spoke in his name, 'Acts vii, 
30, 35; Gal. iii, 19; Heb. 
xiii, 2. 

Some think that angels ex- 
isted long before the forma- 
tion of our solar system ; and 
Scripture seems to favour 
this opinion, Job xxxviii, 4, 7, 
where God says, " Where 
wast thou'when I laid the 
foundations of the earth? 
and all the sons of God 
shouted for joy ." 

As to the doctrine of guard- 
ing angels presiding over the 
affairs of empires, nations, 
provinces, and particularper- 
sons, though received by the 
later Jews, it appears to be 
wholly pagan in its origin, 
and to have no countenance 
in the Scriptures. The pas- 
sages in Daniel brought to 
favour this notion are capa- 
ble of a much better explana- 

tion ; and when our Lord de 
clares that- the "angels" of 
little childten "do always 
behold the face of .God," he 
either speaks of children as 
being the objects of the gene- 
ral ministry of angels, or, 
still more probably, by angels 
he there means the disembo- 
died spirits of children; for 
that the Jews called disem- 
bodied spirits by the name 
of angels, appears from Acts 
xii, 15. 

The exact number of an- 
gels is nowhere mentioned 
in Scriptuie ; but it is always 
represented as very great, 
Daniel vii, 10 ; Matt, xxvi, 
53 ; Psa. Ixviii, 17. These 
are all intended not to ex- 
press any exact number, but 
indefinitely a very large one. 
Dr. Prideaux observes, that 
the minister of the synagogue, 
who officiated in offering the 
public prayers, being the 
mouth of the congregation, 
delegated by them as their 
representative, messenger, or 
angel, to address God in 
prayer for them, was called 
the angel of the Church ; and 
that from hence the chief mi- 
nisters of the seven Churches 
of Asia are in the Revelation, 
by a name borrowed from the 
synagogue, called angels of 
those Churches. 

LORip,pr,VAe Angel Jehovah, 
a title given to Christ in his 
different appearances , to the 
patriarchs and others in the 
Old Testament. 

The collation of a few pas- 
sages, or of the different parts 




of the same passages of 
Scripture, "will show that Je- 
hovan, and " the Angel of the 
Lord," when used in. this 
eminent sense, are the same 
person. Jacob says of Beth- 
el, where he had exclaimed, 
" Surely Jehovah is in this 
place ;" " The Angel of God 
appeared to me in a dream, 
saying, I am the God of 
Bethel." Upon his deathbed 
he gives the names of God 
and Angel to this same per- 
son: "The God which fed 
me all my life long unto this 
day, the Angel which re- 
deemed me from all evil, 
bless the lads." So in Ho- 
sea xii, 4, 5, it is said, "J3y 
his strength he had power 
with God; yea, he had power 
over the Angel, and prevail- 
ed." 5* We found him in 
Bethel, and there he spake 
with us, even the Lord God 
of' hosts; the Lord is liis 
memorial." Here the same 
person has the names, God, 
Angel, and Lord God of hosts. 
"The Angela/ the Lord call- 
ed to Abraham a second time 
from heaven, and said, By 
myself have I sworn, saith 
the Lord, (JEHOVAH,) that, 
since thou hast done this 
thing, in blessing will I bless 
thee." The Angel of the 
Lord appeared to Moses in a 
flame of fire ; but this same 
Angel " called to him out of . 
the bush, and said, i am the 
God of thy fathers, the God 
of Abraham, the God of Isaac, 
and the God of Jacob ; and 
Moses hid his face, for he 
was afraid to look upon God." 

The Jews held this Word, 
or Angel of the Lord, to be 
the future Messiah, as ap- 
pears from the writings of 
tiieir older rabbins. 
^ANG'ER, a resentful emo- 
tiomof thejnind, arising upon 
the*receipt, or supposed re- 
ceipt, of an affront or injury ; 
and also simple feeling of 
strong displacency at that 
which is in itself evil, or base, 
or injurious to others. In the 
latter sense it- is not only 
innocent but commendable. 
Strong displeasure against 
evil doers, provided it be free 
from hatred and malice, and 
interferes not with a justpla- 
cableness, is also blameless, 
Eph.- iv, 26, When it is vin- 
dictive against the person of 
pur neighbour, or against the 
innocent creatures of God, it 
is wicked, Matt, v, 22. When 
anger, hatred, wrath, and 
fury, are ascribed to God, 
they denote no tumultuous 
passion, but merely his holy 
and just displeasure with sin 
and sinners, and the evidence 
of it in his terrible threaten- 
ings, or righteous judgments, 
Psa. vi, 1, and vii, 11. 
YAN'I-MAL, is an organiz- 
ec^md living body, endowed 
with sensation. The He- 
brews distinguished animals 
into pure and impure, clean 
and unclean ; or those which 
might be eaten and offered, 
and those whose use was pro- 
hibited.- The sacrifices which 
they offered were of the beeve 
and of the sheep kind. 

Beside these, many others 
might be eaten, wild or tame ; 




as the stag, the roebuck, and 
in general all that have cloven 
feet, and that chew the cud, 
Lev. xi, 2, 3, &c. All that 
have not cloven hoofs, and 
do not chew- the cud, were 
esteemed impure, and could 
neither be offered nor eaten. 
The fat of all sorts of animals 
sacrificed was forbidden to 
be eaten. The blood of all 
kinds of animals, and in all 
cases, was prohibited on pain 
of death, Lev. iii,-17 ; vii, 23- 
27. Neither did the Israel- 
ites eat animals which had 
been taken and touched by a 
devouring or impure beast, as 
a dog, a wolf, a boar, &c., 
Exod. xxii, 3; nor of any 
animal that died of itself. 
Whoever touched its carcass 
was impure until the even- 
ing ; and til] that time, and 
before he had washed his 
clothes, he did not return to 
the company of other Jews, 
Lev. xi, 39, 40 ; xvii, 15 ; xxii, 
8. Fish that had neither fins 
nor scales were unclean, 
Lev. xi, 20. Birds which 
walk on the ground with 
four feet, as bats, and flies 
that have many feet, were 
impure. The law, however, 
excepts locusts, which have 
their hind feet higher than 
'those before, and rather leap 
than walk. These were clean, 
and might be eaten, Lev. xi, 
21, 22, as they still are in 

\ AN'ISE, an annual plant, 
w\p. known, the. seeds of 
which have an aromatic 
smell, a pleasant warm taste, 
and a carminative quality. 

AN'NA, the daughter of 
Pha : nu'el, a prophetess and 
widow, of the tribe of Asher, 
Luke ii, 36, 37. She was 
married early, and had lived 
only seven years with her 
husband. Being then disen- 
gaged from the ties of mar- 
riage, she thought only of 
pleasing the Lord ; and con- 
tinued without ceasing in the 
temple, serving God night and 
day, with fasting and prayer, 
as the evangelist expresses 
it; which "is to be xinder- 
stood no otherwise than that 
she constantly attended the 
morning and evening sacrifice 
at the temple ; and then with 
great devotion offered up her 
prayers to God ; the time of 
morning and evening sacrifice 
being the most solemn time 
of prayer among the Jews, 
and the temple the most so- 
lemn place for this devotion." 

AN'NAS was the son of 
Seth, and high priest of the 
Jews. He succeeded Jo-a'- 
zar, the son of Simon, en- 
joyed the high priesthood 
eleven years, and was suc- 
ceeded by Ishmael, the son 
of Pha'bi. After he was de- 
posed, he still preserved the 
title of high priest, and had a 
great share in the manage- 
ment of public affairs. He is 
called high priest in conjunc- 
tion with Uai'a-phas, when 
John the Baptist enteredupon 
the exercise of his mission. 

A-NOINT', to pour oil up- 
on, Gen. xxviii, 18 ; xxxi, 13. 

Under the law persons and 
things set apart for sacred 
purposes were anointed with 




the holy oil ; which appears 
to have been a typical repre- 
sentation of the communica- 
tion of the Holy Ghost to 
Christ and to, his Church. 
See Exod. xxviii, xxix. 
Hence the Holy Spirit is 
called an unction or anointing, 
1 John ii, 20, 27; and our 
Lord is called the "JVIes-si'- 
uh," or ',' Anointed One," to 
denote his being called to the 
offices of mediator, prophet, 
priest, and king, to all of 
which he was consecrated-'by 
the anointing of the Holy 
Ghost, Matt, iii, 16, 17. 

ANON, a word in use 
when our translation of the 
Bible was made, and signi- 
fies quickly, immediately. 

ANSWER, (an'ser.) Be- 
side the common usage of this 
word in the sense of a reply, 
it has other significations. 
Moses, having composed a 
thanksgiving, after the pas- 
sage of the Red Sea, Miri- 
am, it is said, answered, " Sing 
ye to the- Lord," Sue., mean- 
ing that Moses, with the men 
on one side, and Mirf-am, 
with the women, on the other 
side, sung the same song, as 
it were, in two chorusses, or 
divisions ; of which one an- 
swered the other, Num. xxi, 
17,- "Then Israel sung this 
song, Spring up, O well, an- 
swer unto it;" that is, sing 
responsively, one side (or 
choir) singing first, and then 
the other. Exod. 15, 21. 

To ansioer is also used in 
Scripture for the commence- 
ment of a discourse, when no 
reply to any question or ob- 

jection is intended. This 
mode of -speaking is often 
used by the evangelists, 
."And Jesus answered and 
said." It is a Hebrew idiom. 
ANT, a little insect, fa- 
mous from all antiquity for 
its social habits, its economy, 
unwearied industry, and pru- 
dent foresight. It has afford- 
ed a pattern of commendable 
frugality to the profuse, and 
of unceasing diligence to the 
slothful. Solomon calls the 
ants "exceeding wise; for 
though a race not strong, yet 
they prepare their meat in 
the summer." He therefore 
sends the sluggard to these 
little creatures to learn wis- 
dom, foresight, care, and dili- 

pounded of Anti, against, and 
Christ, may either signify one 
who assumes the place and 
office of Christ, or one who 
maintains a direct enmity 
and opposition to him. The 
anti-christ mentioned by the 
Apostle John, 1st epistle ii, 
18, and more particularly de- 
scribed in the book of Reve- 
lation, seems evidently to be 
the same with the man of sin, 
&c., characterized by St. 
Paul, Thess. ii; and the 
whole .description literally 
applies to the papal power. 

AN'TI-OOH, 1, a city of 
Upper Syria, on the river 
Orontes, about twenty miles 
from the place where it dis- 
charges itself into the Medi- 
terranean. It 'was built by 
Se-leu'cus Ni-ca'nor, about 
three hundred years before 




Christ ; and became the seat 
of empire of the Syrian kings 
of the Mac-e-do'ni-an race 
and afterward of the Roman 
governors of the eastern pro 
vinces ; 'being very centrally 
and eommodlously situated 
midway between Constanti- 
nople and Al-ex-an'dri-a, 
about seven hundred miles 
from each, in 37 17' north 
latitude, and 36 45' east lon- 
gitude. No city, perhaps, 
Jerusalem excepted, has ex- 
perienced more frequent re- 
volutions, or suffered more 
numerous and dire calami- 
ties, than An'ti-och ; as, be- 
side the common plagues of 
eastern cities, pestilence, fa- 
mine, fire, and sword, it has 
several times been entirely 
overthrown by earthquakes. 

Antioch was the birthplace 
of St. Luke and The-oph'i- 
lus, and the see of the mar- 
tyr Ig-na'ti-us. In this city 
the followers of Christ had 
first the name of Christians 
given them. 

2. Beside the Syrian capi- 
tal, there was another Anti- 
och, visited by St. Paul when 
in Asia, and called, for the 
sake of distinction, Antioch 
of Pi-si' di-a, as belonging to 
that province, of- which it 
was the capital. Here Paul 
and Barnabas preached ; but 
the Jews, jealous, as usual, 
of the reception of the Gos- 
pel by the Gentiles, raised a 
sedition against them, and 
obliged them to leave the city, 
Acts xiii, 14, to the end. 

AN'TI-PAS, the faithful 
martyr or witness mentioned 

in the book of Revelatioaf ii, 

AN-TIP'A-TRIS, a town 
in Palestine, situated in a 
pleasant valley, near the 
mountains, in the way from 
Jerusalem to Cass-a-re'a. Jo- 
se'phus places it at about 
the distance -of seventeen 
miles from Jop'pa. To this 
place St. Paul was brought 
in his way to the governor 
of Judea at Cass-a-re'a, Acts 
xxiii, 31. 

APE. We now distin- 
guish this tribe of creatures 
into, 1. Monkeys, those with 
long tails ; 2. Apes, thoso 
with short tails. 3. Baboons, 
those without tails. The an 
cient Egyptians are said to 
have worshipped apes ; it is 
certain that they are still 
adored in many places in In- 

people sent by the kings of 
As-syr'i-a to inhabit the coun- 
try of Sa-mar'i-a, in the room 
of those Israelites who had 
been removed beyond the 
Eu-phra'teSjEzraVjG. They, 
with the other Sa-mar'i-tans, 
opposed the rebuilding of the 
walls of Jerusalem, Ezra iv, 9. 

A-POC'RY-PHA, books 
not admitted into the sacred 
canon, being either spurious, 
or at least not acknowledged 
to be Divine. 

They possess no authority 
whatever, either external or 
internal, to procure their ad- 
mission into the sacred canon. 
None of them are extant in 
Hebrew ; all of them are in 
the Greek language, except 




the fourth book of Es'dras, 
which is only extant in Latin. 
They were written for the 
most part by Al-ex-an'dri-an 
Jews, subsequently to the 
cessation of the prophetic 
spirit, though before the pro- 
mulgation of the Gospel. Not 
one of the writers in direct 
terms advances a claim to in- 
spiration ; nor were they ever 
receivedinto the sacred canon 
by the Jewish Church, and 
therefore they were not sanc= 
tioned by our Saviour. No 
part of the apocryphais quot- 
ed or even alluded to bynim, 
or by any of Ms apostles ; and 1 
both Phi'lo and Jose'phus,who 
flourished in the first century 
of the Christian era, are to- 
tally silent concerning them. 
A-POL'LOS was a Jew of 
Al-ex-an'dri-a, who came to 
Ephesus in the -year of our 
Lord 54, during the absence 
of St. Paul, who had gone' to 
Jerusalem, Actsxviii,.24. He 
was an eloquent man, and 
mighty in the Scriptures ; but 
he knew only the baptism of 
John, and was not fully in- 
formed of the higher branches 
of Gospel doctrine. However, 
lie acknowledged that Jesus 
Christ was the Messiah, and 
declared himself openly as 
his disciple. At Ephesus, 
therefore, he began to speak 
boldly in the synagogue, and 
demonstrated by the Scrip- 
tures that Jesus was the 
Christ. Aq'ui-laandPriseilla, 
having heard him there, took 
him with them, and instruct- 
ed him more fully in the ways 
of God. Some time after, he 

was inclined to go into 
A-cha'i-a, and the brethren 
wrote to the disciples there, 
desiring them to receive him. 
He was very useful at Co- 
rinth, where he watered what 
St.. Paul had planted, 1 Cor. 
iii, 6. 

A-POL'LYON, (A-poV- 
yon.) See ABAD'DON. 

A-POS'TLE, (a-pos'-sl,) 
a messenger of Christ, one oi 
the twelve disciples commis- 
sioned by him to preach his 
Gospel, and propagate it to 
all parts of the earth. They 
were limited to the number 
twelve, in allusion to the 
twelve tribes of Israel. See 
Matt, xix, 28 ; Luke xxii, 30 ; 
Rev. xxi, 12-14; and com- 
pare Exod. xxiy, 4 ; Deut. i, 
23; and Josh, iv, 2, 3. Ac- 
cordingly care was taken, on 
the death of Judas, to choose 
another, to make up the num- 
ber, Acts i, 21, 22, 26. Of the 
first selection and commis- 
sion of the twelve apostles, 
we have an account, Luke vi, 
13, &c. ; Matt, x, 1, &c. Ot 
these, Simon, Andrew, James 
the Greater, and John, were 
fishermen ; Matthew, and 
James the son of Alphe'us, 
were publicans; and the other 
six were probably fishermen, 
though their occupation is 
not distinctly specified. 'The. 
place of Judas the traitor was 
supplied by Matthias; and 
about the year 37, Saul, a fu- 
rious opposerof Christianity, 
was converted, and numbered 
among the apostles. 

St. Paul is frequently call, 
ed the apostle, by way of emi* 




as the stag, the roebuck, and 
in general all that have cloven 
feet, and that chew the cud, 
Lev. xi, 2, 3, &c. All that 
have not cloven hoofs, and 
do not chew- the cud, were 
esteemed impure, and could 
neither be offered nor eaten. 
The fat of all sorts of animals 
sacrificed was forbidden to 
be eaten. The blood of all 
kinds of animals, and in all 
cases, was prohibited on pain, 
of death, Lev. iii,-17 ; vii, 23- 
27. Neither did the Israel- 
ites eat animals which had 
been taken and touched by a 
devouring or impure beast, as 
a dog, a wolf, a boar, &c., 
Exod. xxii, 3 ; nor of any 
animal that died of itself. 
Whoever touched its carcass 
was impure until the even- 
ing; and till that time, and 
before he had washed his 
clothes, he did not return to 
the company of other Jews, 
Lev. xi, 39, 40 ; xvii, 15 ; xxii, 
8. Fish that had neither fins 
nor scales were unclean, 
Lev. xi, 20. Birds which 
walk on the ground with 
four feet, as bats, and flies 
that have many feet, were 
impure. The law, however, 
excepts locusts, which have 
their hind feet higher than 
those before, and rather leap 
than walk. These were clean, 
and might be eaten, Lev. xi, 
21, 22, as they still are in 

VAN'ISE, an annual plant, 
w\Jl known, the seeds of 
which have an aromatic 
smell, a pleasant warm taste, 
and a carminative qualit}'. 

AN'NA, the dau|hter of 
Pha : nu'el, a prophetess and 
widow, of the tribe of Asher, 
Luke ii, 36, 37. She was 
married early, and had lived 
only seven years with her 
husband. Being then disen- 
gaged from the ties of mar- 
riage, she thought only of 
pleasing the Lord ; and con- 
tinued without ceasing in the 
temple, serving God night and 
day, with fasting and prayer, 
as the evangelist expresses 
it; which "is to be under- 
stood no otherwise than that 
she constantly attended the 
morning and evening sacrifice 
at the temple ; and then with 
great devotion offered up her 
prayers to God ; the time of 
morning and evening sacrifice 
being the most solemn time 
of prayer among the Jews, 
and the temple the most so- 
lemn place for this devotion." 

AN'NAS was the son of 
Seth, and high priest of the 
3ews. He succeeded Jo-a'- 
zar, the son of Simon, en- 
joyed the high priesthood 
eleven years, and was suc- 
ceeded by Ishmael, the son 
of Pha'bi. After he was de- 
posed, he still preserved the 
title of high priest, and had a 
great share in the manage- 
ment of public affairs. He is 
called high priest in conjunc- 
tion with Cai'a-phas, when 
John the Baptist entered upon 
the exercise of his mission. 

A-NOINT', to pour oil up- 
on, Gen. xxviii, 18 ; xxxi, 13. 

Under the law persons and 
things set apart for sacred 
purposes were anointed with 




fche holy oil ; -which appears 
to have been a typical repre- 
sentation of the communica- 
tion of the Holy Ghost to 
Christ and to -his Church. 
See Exod. xxviii, xxix. 
Hence the Holy Spirit is 
called an unction or anointing, 
1 John ii, 20, 27; and our 
Lord is called the "-Mes-si'- 
ah," or ',' Anointed One," to 
denote his being called to the 
offices of mediator, prophet, 
priest, and king, to all of 
which he was consecrated-'by 
the anointing of the Holy 
Ghost, Matt, iii, 16, 17. 

ANON, a -word in use 
when our translation of the 
Bible was made, and signi- 
fies quickly, immediately. 

ANSWER, (an'ser.) Be- 
side the common usage of this 
word in the sense of a reply, 
it has other significations. 
Moses, having composed a 
thanksgiving, after the pas- 
sage of the Red Sea, Mir'i- 
am, it is said, answered, " Sing 
ye to the- Lord," &c., mean- 
ing that Moses, with the men 
on one side, and Mir'i-am, 
with the women, on the other 
side, sung the same song, as 
it were, in two chorusses, or 
divisions ; of which one an- 
swered the other, Num. xxi, 
17,- "Then Israel sung this 
song, Spring up, O well, an- 
swer unto it;" that is, sing 
responsively, one side (or 
choir) singing first, and then 
the other. Exod. 15, 21. 

To ansioer is also used in 
Scripture for the commence- 
ment of a discourse, when no 
reply to any question or ob- 

jection is intended. This 
mode of 'speaking is often 
used by the evangelists, 
."And Jesus answered and 
said." It is a Hebrew idiom. 

ANT, a little insect, fa- 
mous from all antiquity for 
its social habits, its economy, 
unwearied industry, and pru- 
dent foresight. It has afford- 
ed a pattern of commendable 
frugality to the profuse, and 
of unceasing diligence to the 
slothful. Solomon calls the 
ants " exceeding wise ; for 
though a race not strong, yet 
they prepare their meat in 
the summer." He therefore 
sends the sluggard to these 
little creatures to learn wis- 
dom, foresight, care, and dili- 

pounded ofAnti, against, and 
Christ, may either signify one 
who assumes the place and 
office of Christ, or one who 
maintains a direct enmity 
and opposition to him. The 
anti-christ mentioned by the 
Apostle John, 1st epistle ii, 
18, and more particularly de- 
scribed in the book of Reve- 
lation, seems evidently to be 
the same with the man of sin, 
&c., characterized by St. 
Paul, Thess. ii ; and the 
whole .description literally 
applies to the papal power. . 

AN'TI-OCH, 1, a city of 
Upper Syria, on the river 
Orontes, about twenty miles 
from the place where it dis- 
charges itself into the Medi- 
terranean. It "was built by 
Se-leu'cus Ni-ca'nor, about 
three hundred years before 




Christ ; and became the seat 
of empire of the Syrian kings 
of the Mac-e-do'ni-an race 
and afterward of the Roman 
governors of the eastern pro 
vinces ; being very centrally 
and eommodiously situated 
midway between Constanti- 
nople and Al-ex-an'dri-a, 
about seven hundred miles 
from each, in 37 IT north 
latitude, and 36 45' east lon- 
gitude. No city, perhaps, 
Jerusalem excepted, has ex- 
perienced more frequent re- 
volutions, or suffered more 
numerous and dire calami- 
ties, than An'ti-och ; as, be- 
side the common plagues of 
eastern cities, pestilence, fa- 
mine, fire, and sword, it has 
several times been entirely 
overthrown by earthquakes. 

Antioch was the birthplace 
of St. Luke and The-oph'i- 
lus, and the see of the mar- 
tyr Ig-na'ti-us. In this city 
the followers of Christ had 
first the name of Christians 
given them. 

2. Beside the Syrian capi- 
tal, there was another Anti- 
och, visited by St. Paul when 
in Asia, and called, for the 
sake of distinction, Antioch 
of Pi-si' di-a, as belonging to 
that province, of~ which it 
was the capital. Here Paul 
and Barnabas preached ; but 
the Jews, jealous, as usual, 
of the reception of the Gos- 
pel by the Gentiles, raised a 
sedition against them, and 
obliged them to leave the city, 
Acts xiii, 14, to the end. 

AN'TI-PAS, the faithful 
martyr or witness mentioned 

in the book of Revelation? ii, 

AN-TIFA-TRIS, atown 
in Palestine, situated in a 
pleasant valley, near the 
mountains, in the way from 
Jerusalem to Cses-a-re'a. Jo- 
se'phus places it at about 
the distance -of seventeen 
miles from Jop'pa. To this 
place St. Paul was brought 
in his way to the governor 
' of Judea at Cges-a-re'a, Acts 
xxiii, 31. 

APE. We now distin- 
guish this tribe of creatures 
into, 1. Monkeys, those with 
long tails; 2. Apes, thosf* 
with short tails. 3. Baboons, 
those without tails. The an 
cient Egyptians are said to 
have worshipped apes ; it is 
certain that they are still 
adored in many places in In- 

people sent by the kings of 
As-syrf-a to inhabit the coun- 
try of Sa-mart-a, in the room 
of those Israelites who had 
been removed beyond the 
Eu-phra'tes,Ezrav, 6. They, 
with the other Sa-mar'i-tans, 
opposed the rebuilding of the 
walls of Jerusalem, Ezra iv, 9. 

A-POC'RY-PHA, books 
not admitted into the sacred 
canon, being either spurious, 
or at least not acknowledged 
to be Divine. 

They possess no authority 
whatever, either external or 
internal, to procure their ad- 
mission into the sacred canon. 
None of them are extant in 
Hebrew ; all of them are in 
the Greek language, except 




the fourth book of Es'dras, 
which is only extant in Latin. 
They were written for the 
most part by Al-ex-an'dri-an 
Jews, subsequently to the 
cessation of the prophetic 
spirit, though before the pro- 
mulgation of the Gospel. Not 
one of the writers in direct 
terms advances a claim to in- 
spiration ; nor were they ever 
receivedinto thesacred canon 
by the Jewish Church, and 
therefore they were not sanc= 
tioned by our Saviour. No 
part of the apocryphais quot- 
ed or even alluded to by him, 
or by any of his apostles ; and 1 
both Phi'lo and Jose'phus,who 
flourished in the first century 
of the Christian era, are to- 
tally silent concerning them. 
A-POL'LOS was a Jew of 
Al-ex-an'dri-a, who came to 
Ephesus in the -year of our 
Lord 54, during the absence 
of St. Paul, who had gone" to 
Jerusalem, Acts xviii, 24. He 
was an eloquent man, and 
mighty in the Scriptures ; but 
he knew only the baptism of 
John, and was not fully in- 
formed of the higher branches 
of Gospel doctrine. However, 
he acknowledged that Jesus 
Christ was the Messiah, and 
declared himself openly as 
his disciple. At Ephesus, 
therefore, he began to speak 
boldly in the synagogue, and 
demonstrated by the Scrip- 
tures that Jesus was the 
Christ. Aq'ui-laandPriscilla, 
having heard him there, took 
him with them, and instruct- 
ed him more fully in the ways 
of God. Some time after, he 

was inclined to go into 
A-cha'i-a, and the brethren 
wrote to the disciples there, 
desiring them to receive him. 
He was very useful at Co- 
rinth, where he watered what 
St.. Paul had planted, 1 Cor. 
iii, 6. 

A-POL'LYON, (A-poV- 
yon.) See ABAD'DON. 

A-POS'TLE,- (a-pos'-sl,) 
a messenger of Christ, one of 
the twelve disciples commis- 
sioned by him to preach his 
Gospel, and propagate it to 
all parts of the earth. They 
were limited to the number 
twelve, in allusion to the 
twelve tribes of Israel. See 
Matt, xix, 28 ; Luke xxii, 30 ; 
Rev. xxi, 12-14; and com- 
pare Exod. xxiv, 4 ; Deut. i, 
23; and Josh, iv, 2, 3. Ac- 
cordingly care was taken, on 
the death of Judas, to choose 
another, to make up the num- 
ber, Acts i, 21, 22, 26. Of the 
first selection and commis- 
sion of the twelve apostles, 
we have an account, Luke vi, 
13, &c. ; Matt, x, 1, &c. Ot 
these, Simon, Andrew, James 
th& Greater, and John, were 
fishermen ; Matthew, and 
James the son of Alphe'us, 
were publicans; and the other 
six were probably fishermen, 
though their occupation is 
not distinctly specified. The 
place of Judas the traitor was 
supplied by Matthias; and 
about the year 37, Saul, a fu- 
rious opposer of Christianity, 
was converted, and numbered 
among the apostles. 

St. Paul is frequently call, 
ed the apostle, by way of emi- 




nence ; and the apostle of th 
Gentiles, because his ministry 
was chiefly employed for the 
conversion of the Gentiles, as 
that of St. Peter was for the 
Jews, who is therefore styled 
the apostle of the circumcision. 

The apostles having con 
tinned at Jerusalem twelve 
years after the ascension of 
Christ, as tradition reports, 
according to his command, 
determined to disperse them- 
selves in different parts of the 

It appears that all of the 
apostles did not die by mar- 
tyrdom. Heraclion, cited by 
ons among the apostles who 
did not suffer 'martyrdom, 
Matthew, Thomas, Philip, 
and Levi, probably meaning 

To the apostles belonged 
the peculiar and exclusive 
prerogative of writing doc- 
trinal and preceptive books 
of authority in the Christian 
Church ; and it sufficiently 
appears that no epistles or 
other doctrinal writings of 
any person who was of a rank 
below that of an apostle, were 
received by Christians as a 
part of their rule of faith. 
With respect to the writings 
of Mark and Luke, they are 
reckoned historical, not doc- 
trinal or dogmatical ; and Au- 
gustine says that Mark and 
Luke wrote at a time when 
their writings might be ap- 
proved, not only by the 
Church, but by apostles still 


about fifty miles from Rome 
near the modern town of Pi 
perno, on the road to Naples 
It probably had its name iron 
the statue of Ap'pi-us Clau- 
dius, a Roman consul, whc 
paved the famous way from 
Rome to Cap'u-a, and whose 
statue was set up here. Tc 
this place some Christians 
from Rome came to meet St. 
Paul, Acts xxviii, 15. 

APPLE-TREE. Although 
apple trees are not very com- 
mon in Palestine, and theii 
comparative rarity would 
naturally give them some 
value ; Mr. Parkhurst saj r s it 
most probably means the cit- 
ron tree, a species of lemon, 
known to the Jews several 
generations before our Sa- 

AQ'UI-LA. This person 
was a native of Pontus in 
Asia Minor, and was con- 
verted by St. Paul, together 
with/his-wife Priscilla, to the 
Christian religion. As Aquila 
was by trade a tentmaker, 
Acts xviii, 2, 3, as St. Paul 
was, the apostle lodged and 
wrought With him at Corinth. 

AR, the capital jcity of the 
Moabites, situated in the hills 
on the south of the river Ar- 

AR-A'BI-A, a vast coun- 
try of Asia, extending 1500 
miles from north to south, 
and 1200 from east to west ; 
containing a surface equal to 
bur times that of France. 
This is one of the most inte- 
resting countries on the face 
of the earth. It has, in agree- 
ment with prophecy, never 




been subdued ; and its inha- 
bitants, at once pastoral, com- 
mercial, and warlike, are the 
same wild, wandering people 
as the immediate descendants 
.of their great ancestor Ish- 
mael are represented to have 

Arabia, it is well known, is 
divided by geographers into 
three separate regions, called 
Arabia Pe-trae'a, Arabia De- 
serta, and Arabia Felix. 

The first, or Arabia Petraea, 
is the north western division, 
and is bounded on the north 
by Palestine and the Dead 
Sea, on the east by Arabia 
Deserta, on the south by Ara- 
bia Felix, and on the west by 
the western branch of the Red 
Sea and the Isthmus of Suez. 
The greater part of this divi- 
sion was more exclusively 
the possession of the Mi- 
dianites, or land of Midian. 

The second region, or Ara- 
bia Deserta, is bounded on 
the north- and north-east by 
- the Euphrates, on the east by 
a ridge of mountains which 
separates it from Chaldea,.pn 
the south by Arabia Felix, 
and on the west by Syria, Ju- 
dea, and Arabia Petrfea. This 
was more particularly the 
country, first of the Cushites, 
and afterward of the Ishmael- 
ites; as it is still of their 
descendants, the modern Be- 
douins, who -maintain the 
same predatory and wander- 
ing habits. It consists almost 
entirely of one vast and lone- 
some wilderness, a boundless 
level of sand, whose dry and 
burning surface denies exist- 

ence to all but the Arab and 
his camel. 

The third region, or Arabia 
Felix, so denominated from 
the happier condition of its 
soil and climate, occupies the 
southern part of the Arabian 
peninsula. It is bounded on 
the north by the two other di- 
visions of the country ; on the 
south and south-east by the 
Indian Ocean ; on the east by 
part of the same ocean and 
the Persian Gulf; and on the 
west by the Red Sea. 

St. Paul first preached the 
Gospel in Arabia, Gal. i, 17 ; 
the northern part of Arabia 
Deserta, no doubt, which lay 
near Damascus. Christian 
Churches were subsequently 
founded, and many of their 
tribes embraced Christianity 
prior to the fifth century ; 
most of which appear to have 
been tinctured with the Nes- 
torian heresy. 

A'RAM, the fifth son of 
Shem, Gen. x, 22. He was 
the father of the Syrians, who 
from him were called Aram- 
se'ans, or Aramites. 

AR'A-RAT. This name 
occurs but twice in the Bible, 
Gen. viii, 4 ; Jer. li, 27, and 
in both places signifies a re- 
gion of country which is 
situated nearly in the centre 
of Armenia. The tradition 
that the ark of Noah, after 
the deluge, lodged on a 
mountain in this region, 
which is still called "Mount 
Ararat," is confirmed by the 
most weighty testimony of 
antiquity, and is one of the 
oldest that has come down to 



our time. This mountain, 
consisting of two peaks, rises 
in the midst of a vast plain 
not far from Erivan, the capi- 
tal of Armenia, and elevates 
its highest, covered with per- 
petual snow and ice, 16,000 
feet above the level of the 

This place had never been 
trodden by the foot of man, 
since the day of Noah, till the 
27th of September, 1829,Pro- 
fessor Parrot, by dint of the 
most determined perseve- 
rance reached the spot. 

ARCH-AN'GEL, (ark- 
a'ngel,) according to some, 
means an angel occupying 
the highest rank in the celes- 
tial order or hierarchy; but 
others reckon it a title only 
applicable to pur Saviour; 
Jude 9 ; Dan. xii, I ; 1 Thess. 
iv, 16. 

Afl-CHE-LA'US, son of 
Herod the Great, and Mal- 
tace, his fifth wife. Herod 
having put to death his sons 
Alexander, Ar-is-to-bu'lus, 
and An-tip'a-ter, and expung- 
ed out of his will Herod An- 
tipas, whom he had declared 
king, he substituted Arche- 
laus, and gave Antipas the 
title of tetrarch only. After 
the death of Herod, Archelaus 
ordered that king's will to be 
read, wherein he, Archelaus, 
was declared king, on condi- 
tion that Augustus consented. 
Hereupon the assembly cried 
" Long live King Archelaus !" 
He then gave a splendid en- 
tertainment to the people, 
went to the temple, harangued 
the multitude, promised them 

food treatment, and declared 
e would not assume the title 
of king till the emperor had 
confirmed it, A. M. 4001 ; B. 
C. 3. After this he embarked 
at Csesarea for Rome, to pro- 
cure from Augustus the con- 
firmation .of Herod's will. 
Antipas, his brother, went to 
Rome likewise, to dispute his 
title, pretending that Herod's 
first will should be preferred 
to his last, which he alleged 
to have been made by him 
when his understanding was 
not sound. 

The two brothers, Arche- 
laus and Antipas, procured 
able orators to display their 
pretensions before the empe- 
ror ; and when they had done 
speaking, Archelaus threw 
himself at Augustus's feet. 
Augustus gently raised him, 
said he would do nothing con- 
trary to Herod's intention or 
his interest, but he refused to 
decide the affair at that time. 
Sometime afterward, he sent 
for Archela'us, gave him the 
title not of king, but of eth- 
narch,- promising him" the 
crown likewise, if his good 
conduct deserved it ; but he 
governed Judea with so much 
violence, that, after seven 
years, the chiefs of the Sama- 
ritans and Jews accused him 
before Augustus, who ordered 
Archelaus to Rome, to give 
an account of his conduct. 
On his arrival at Rome, the 
emperor called for his accu- 
sers, and permitted him to de- 
fend himself; which he did 
so insufficiently, that Augus- 
tus banished him to Vicnne, 




in Gaul, -where he continued 
in exile to the end of his life. 

ARC-TU'RUS, suppos- 
ed to be the constellation 
called the great bear, which is 
inear the north pole. The 
I" sons of Arctums" may 
mean the neighbouring stars. 
Job xxxviii, 32, 

court at Athens, famed for 
the justice of its decisions ; 
and so called, because it sat 
on a hill of the same name, or 
in the suburbs of the city, 
dedicated to Mars, the god of 
war, as the city was to Mi- 
nerva, his sister. St. Paul, 
Acts xvii, 19, &c., having 
preached at Athens, was car- 
ried before theA-re-op'a-gites, 
as " a setter-forth of strange 
gods." On this occasion he 
delivered that fine sermon 
which is in substance record 
ed in Acts xvii. Di-o-nys'i-us, 
one of the judges, was con- 
verted ; and the apostle was 
dismissed without any farther 

A-RE'TAS. the proper 
name of several kings of 
Arabia Pe-trse'a. In A. D. 
39, one of these kings seems 
to have got possession of 
Damascus, and, at the insti- 
gation of the Jews, attempted 
to put Paul in prison. 2 Cor. 
xi. 32, 33. 

AR'GOB, a canton, lying 
beyond Jordan, in the half 
tribe of Manasseh, and in the 
country of Bashan, one of the 
most fruitful on the other side 
of Jordan, Deut. iii, 4-14 ; 1 
Kings iv, 13. But Argob was 
more peculiarly the name of 

the capital city of the region 
of Argob, which Eu-se'bi-us 
says was fifteen miles west 
of Gerara. 

A-RFEL. This word sig- 
nifies a lion of God, that is, a 
strong lion, a hero. It is ap- 
plied to Jerusalem as a heroic 
or invincible city. 

AR-I-MA-THE'A, or RA'- 
MAH, a pleasant town, beau- 
tifully situated on the borders 
of a fertile and extensive 
plain, abounding in gardens , 
vineyards, olive and date 
trees. It stands about thirty 
miles north-west of Jerusa- 
lem, on the high road to Jaffa. 
At this Ramah, which was 
likewise called Ra-math-a'im 
Zophim, as lying in the dis- 
trict of Zuph, or Zoph, Sa- 
muel was born, 1 Sam. i. 
This was likewise the native 
place of Joseph, called Joseph 
of Arimathea, who begged and 
obtained the body of Jesus 
from Pilate, Matt, xxvi, 57. 
There was another Ramah, 
about six miles north of Jeru- 
salem. This is the Ramar., 
supposed to be alluded to in 
the lamentation of Rachel for 
her children. 

cedonian, and a native of 

ARK, denotes a kind of 
floating vessel built by Noah, 
for the preservation of himself 
and family, with several spe- 
cies of animals, during the 
deluge. Although the ark an- 
swered, in some respects, tie 
purpose of a ship, it is not so 
certain that it was of the same 
form and shape. It appea: 8 




to have had neither helrn, nor 
mast, nor oars ; but was mere- 
ly a bulky capacious vessel, 
light enough tube raised aloft 
with all its contents by the 
gradual rise of the deluge. 
Its shape, therefore, was of 
little importance ; more espe- 
cially as it seems to have been 
the purpose of Providence, in 
this whole transaction, to sig- 
nify to those who were saved, 
as well as to their latest pos- 
terity, that their preservation 
was not in any degree effect- 
ed by human contrivance. 
The ark in which Moses was 
exposedbears the same name ; 
and some have thought that 
both were of the same mate- 

Dr. Hales proves the ark to 
have been of the burden of 
forty-two thousand four hun- 
dred and thirteen tons ; and 
asks, " Can we doubt of its 
being sufficient to contain 
eight persons, and about two 
hundred or two hundred and 
fifty pair of four-footed ani- 
mals, (a number to which, 
according to M. Buffon, all 
the various distinct species 
may be reduced,) together 
with all the subsistence ne- 
cessary for a twelvemonth, 
with the fowls of the air, and 
such reptiles and insects as 
cannot live under water?" 
All these various animals 
were controlled by the power 
of God, whose special agency 
is supposed in the whole 
transaction, and "the lion 
was made to lie down with 
the kid." 


NANT, a small chest or cof- 
fer, three feet nine inches in 
length, two feet three inches 
in breadth, and two feet three 
inches in height; in which 
were contained the golden pot 
that had manna, Aaron's rod, 
and the tables of the cove- 
nant, Num. xvii, 10 ; Heb. ix, 
4. This coffer was made of 
shittim wood, and was cover- 
ed with alid, called the mercy 
seat, Exod. xxv, 17-22, &c., 
which was of solid gold, at the 
two ends whereof were two 
figures called ckerubim, look- 
ing toward each other, with 
expanded wings, which, em- 
bracing the whole circumfer- 
ence of the mercy seat, met 
in the middle. Over this it 
was that "the Shechi'nah, or 
visible display of the Divine 
presence in a luminous cloud 
rested, both in the tabernacle 
and in the temple, Lev. xvi, 2 ; 
and from hence the Divine 
oracles were given forth by an 
audible voice, as often as God 
was consulted in behalf of his 
people. On the two sides of 
the ark there were four rings 
of gold, two on each side, 
through which staves, over- 
laid with gold, were put, ~by 
means whereof they carried 
it as they marched through the 
wilderness, &c., on the shoul- 
ders of the Levites, Exod. 
xxv, 13, 14; xxvii, 5. After 
the passage of the Jordan, the 
ark continued for some time 
at Gilgal, from whence it was 
removed to Shilph. From this 
place the Israelites'carried it 
to their camp, where, in an 
engagement with the Philis- 




tines, it fell into their hands. 
The Philistines carried it in 
triumph to one of their princi- 
pal cities, named Ashdod, and 
placed it in the temple of 
Dagon, whose image fell to 
the ground and was broken. 
They afterward returned the 
ark with various presents ; 
and it was lodged at Kirjath- 
Jearim, and afterward at Nob. 
David conveyed it to the 
house of Obededom, and from 
thence to his palace at Zion ; 
and lastly, Solomon brought 
it into the temple which he 
had built at Jerusalem. It re- 
mained in the temple till the 
times of the last kings of Ju- 
dah, who gave themselves up 
to idolatry. The priests, be- 
ing unable to bear this pro- 
fanation, took the ark and car- 
ried it from place to place, to 
preserve it from the hands of 
those impious princes. Jo- 
siah commanded them to 
bring it back to the sanctua- 
ry, and" it was accordingly re- 
placed, 2 Chron. xxxv, 3. 
What became of the ark at 
the destruction of the temple 
by Nebuchadnezzar, is a dis- 
pute among the rabbins : it is 
probable that it was destroyed 
with the temple. 

The ark was called the ark 
of the covenant, because it was 
a symbol of the covenant be- 
tween God and his people. 
It was also named the ark of 
the testimony, because the two 
tables which were deposited 
in. it were witnesses against 
every transgression. 

ARM. As it is by this 
member of the body that we 

chiefly exert our strength, it 
is therefore used in Scripture 
for an emblem of power, 
Deut. v, 15 ; 1 Sam. ii, 31. 

place spoken of, Revelation 
xvi, 16, which literally signi- 
fies "the mountain of Maged- 
don," or " Megiddo," a city 
situated in the great plain at 
the foot of Mount Carmel, 
Rev. xvi, 13, 14 ; where the 
word Armageddon, according 
to Mr. Pool, does not signify 
any particular place, but is 
used in allusion to Megiddo, 
mentioned Judges v, 19, 
where Barak overcame Sise- 
ra with his great army, and 
where Josiah was slain, 2 
Kings xxiii, 30. If so, the 
term must have been a pro- 
verbial one for a place of de- 
struction and mourning. 

AR-ME'NIA, a considera- 
ble province of Asia, north of 
Mesopotamia. Care must be 
taken to distinguish it from 
AramaB'a, which is Syria. 

ARMOUR. The Hebrews 
do not appear to have any pe- 
culiar military habit. They 
used the same arms as the 
neighbouring nations, and 
these were made either of iron 
or of copper, principally of the 
latter metal. Of the defens- 
ive arms of the Hebrews, the 
following were the most re-' 
markable ; namely, 

1. The helmet, for cover- 
ing and defending the head. 

2. The breastplate was 
.another piece of defensive ar- 
mour. Goliath, and the sol- 
diers of Antiochus, 1 Sam. 
xvii, 5 ; 1 Mac. vi, 35, were 




accoutred with this defence ; 
which in our authorized 
translation, is variously ren- 
dered habergeon, coat of mail, 
and brigandine, 1 Sam. xvii, 
38; 2 Chron. xxvi, 14; Isa. 
lix, 17 ; Jer. xlvi, 4. Between 
the joints of this harness, as it 
is termed in i Kings xxii, 4, 
the profligate Ahab was mor- 
tally wounded by an arrow, 
shot at a venture. 

3. The shield defended the 
whole body during the battle. 
It was of various forms, and 
made of wood covered with 
tough hides, or of brass, and 
sometimes was overlaid with 
gold, I Kings x. 16, 17 ; xiv, 
26, 27. 

The loss of the shield in 
fight was excessively resent- 
ed by the Jewish warriors, as 
well as lamented by them; 
for it was a signal aggravation 
of the public mourning that 
" the shield of the mighty was 
vilely cast away," 2 Sam. i, 21. 

4. Another defensive provi- 
sion in war was the military 
gi rdle, which was for a double 
purpose : first, in order to hold 
the sword, which hung, as it 
does this day, at the soldier's 
girdle or belt, 1 Sam. xvii, 39 ; 
secondly, it was necessary to 
gird the clothes and the ar- 
mour together. To gird and to 
arm are synonymous words in 
Scripture ; and hence comes 
the expression of "girding to 
the battle," 1 Kings xx, 11; 
2 Samuel xxii, 40 ; 1 Samuel 
xviii, 4. 

5. Boots or greaves were 
part of the ancient defensive 

The offensive weapons were 
of two sorts ; namely, such 
as were employed when they 
came to a close engagement, 
and those with which they 
annoyed the enemy at a dis- 
tance. Of the former de- 
scription were the sword and 
the battle axe. 

1. The sword is the most 
ancient weapon of offence 
mentioned in the Bible. It 
was worn on the thigh, Psalm 
xlv, 4 ; Exod. xxxii, 27. 

2. Of the battle axe we 
have no description in the 
sacred volume. 

3. The spear and javelin 
were of different kinds, ac- 
cording to their length 01 
make. Some of them might 
be thrown or darted, 1 Sam. 
xviii, 11; others were a kind 
of long swords, Num. xxv, 8 ; 
and it appears from 2 Sam. ii, 
23, that some of them were 
pointed at both ends. When 
armies were encamped, the 
spear of the general or corn- 
mander-in-chief was stuck 
into the ground at his head. 

4. Slings are enumerated 
among the military stores 
collected by Uzziah, 2 Chron. 
xxvi, 14. In the use of the 
sling David eminently ex- 
celled, and he slew Goliath 
with a stone from one. The 
Benjamites were celebrated 
in battle because they had 
attained to great skill and 
accuracy in handling this 
weapon ; " they could sling 
stones lo a hair's breadth, and 
not miss," Judges xx, 16. 

5. Bows and arrows are of 
great antiquity, Gen. xxi, 22. 

Covers Die. 


p. 3 

ART 41 

This weapon was thought so 
necessary in war, that it is 
there called, "the bow of 
war," or the " battle bow," 
Zech. ix, 10 ; x, 4. 

Before battle the various 
kinds of arms were put into 
the best order; the shields 
were anointed, and the sol- 
diers refreshed themselves by 
taking food, lest they should 
become weary and faint under 
the pressure of their labours, 
Jer. xlvi, 3, 4 ; Isa. xxi, 5. 

AR'NON, a river or brook. 
Its spring head is in the 
mountains of Gilead, or of 
the Moabites, and it dis- 
charges itself into the Dead 

AR'ROW, a sharp, slender, 
barbed weapon, shot from a 
bow, 1 Sam. xx, 36. The word 
is often taken figuratively for 
lightning and other meteors. 
In Psalm xci, 5, it is used, no 
doubt, for danger in general ; 
terror by night and arrows by 
day include all species of ca- 
lamity the arrows of God's 

AR-TA-XERX'ES, a name 
or title, common to several 
kings of Persia, Ezra iv, 7. 

A-NUS was the son of Xerx'- 
es, and grandson of Darius 
Hystas'pes, and reigned in 
Persia from the year 469 to 
421 B.C. He permitted Ezra, 
with all those inclined to fol- 
low him, to return into Judea, 
in the year B. C. 463, Ezra 
vii, viii. - Afterward Nehe- 
miah also obtained leave to 
return, and to build the 
walls and gates of Jerusa- 
lem, in the year B. C. 450, 


From this year chrpnolo- 
gers reckon the beginning 
of Daniel's seventy weeks, 
Daniel xi, 29. These are 
weeks of years, and make 
four hundred and ninety 
years. Dr. Prideaux, * who 
discourses with great learn- 
ing on this prophecy, main- 
tains that the decree men- 
tioned in it for the rebuilding 
of Jerusalem cannot be un- 
derstood of that granted to 
Nehemiah, but of that grant- 
ed to Ezra. From that time 
to the death of Christ are 
exactly four hundred and 
ninety years, to a month : for 
in the month of Nisan the de - 
cree was 'granted to Ezra; 
and in the middle of the same 
month Nisan, Christ suffered, 
just four hundred and ninety 
years afterward. 

AR'TE-MAS, St. Paul's 
disciple, who was sent by that 
apostle into Crete, in the 
room of Titus, chap, iii, 12, 
while he continued with St. 
Paul at Ni-cop'o-lis, where 
he passed the winter. 

ARTS. "Curious arts" 
are magical arts, which were 
so famous in Ephesus that 
their books bore a great 

A'SA, the son and succes- 
sor of Abijam, king of Judah, 
began to reign in the year be- 
fore Christ 955. 

The Scripture reproaches 
Asa with not destroying the 
high places, which, perhaps, 
he thought it politic to tole- 
rate, to avoid the greater evil 
of idolatry. 

AS'A-HEL, the son of Ze- 
ruiah, and Brother of Joalx 

ASC 42 

A'SAPH, a celebrated mu- 
sician in the time of David, 
was the son of Bar-a-chi'as, 
of the tribe of Levi. Asaph, 
and also his descendants, pre- 
sided over the musical band 
in the service of the temple. of the psalms have 
the name of Asaph prefixed ; 
but it is not certain whether 
the words or the music were 
composed by him. With re- 
gard to some of them, which 
were written during the Ba- 
bylonish captivity, they can- 
not in any respect be ascribed 
to him. Perhaps they were 
written or set to music by his 
descendants, who bore his 
name, or by some of that class 
of musicians of which the fa 
mily of Asaph was the head, 
1 Chron. vi, 39 ; 2 Chron. xxix, 
30; xxxv, 15; Neh. xii, 46. 

his visible elevation to hea- 
ven. The evidences of this 
fact were numerous. The 
disciples saw him ascend, 
Acts i, 9, 10. Two angels 
testified that he did ascend, 
Acts i, 11 Stephen, Paul, 
and John saw him in his 
ascended state, Acts vii, 55, 
56 ; ix ; Rev. i. The ascen- 
sion was demonstrated by the 
descent of the Holy Ghost, 
John xvi, 7, 14 ; Acts ii, 33 ; 
and the terrible overthrow 
and dispersion of the Jewish 
nation is still a standing proof 
of it, John viii, 21 ; Matt, 
xxvi, 64. The time of Christ's 
ascension was forty days after 
his resurrection. As to the 
manner of his. ascension, it 
was from Mount Olivet to 


heaven, not in appearance 
only, but in reality, and tha 
visibly and locally. 

ASH'DOD, or Azotus, ; 
city which was assigned b; 
Joshua to the tribe of Judah 
but was possessed a long tinn 
by the Philistines, and ren 
dered famous for the tempi 
of their god Dagon, Joshua XT 
"47. It lies upon the Meditei 
ranean Sea, about nine or tei 
miles north of Gaza. Hen 
the ark of Jehovah triumphe* 
over the Philistine idol Da 
gon, 1 Sam. v, 2. 

ASH'ER, tribe of. Thi 
province allotted to this tribi 
was a maritime one, stretch 
ing along the coast from Sidoj 
on the north to Mount Carme 
on the south. Asher was thi 
most northerly of the tribes 
and had that of Naphtali 01 
the west, and Zebulun on thi 

ASHES. Several religiou; 
ceremonies, and some sym 
bolical ones, anciently de 
pendedupon the use of ashes 
To repent, in sackcloth an< 
ashes, or, as an external sig] 
of self-affliction for sin, or o 
suffering under some misfor 
tune, to sit in ashes are ex 
pressions common in Scrip 

ASH'KE-NAZ, one of th< 
sons of Gomer, and grandsoi 
of Japheth, who gave hi: 
name to the country first peo 
pled by him in the north an( 
north-western part of Asi; 
Mi'nor, answering to Bithy 

TAP/TE, a goddess of the Zi 




donians : she was ; goddess of 
woods, and groves were her 
temples. In groves conse- 
crated to her such lascivious- 
ness was committed as ren- 
dered her worship infamous. 
She was also called the queen 
of heaven; and sometimes 
her worship is said to be that 
of " the host of heaven." 

Solomon, seduced by his 
foreign wives, introduced the 
worship of Ashtaroth into Is- 
rael ; but Jezebel, daughter 
of the king of Tyre, and wife 
to Ahab, principally esta- 
blished her worship. She 
caused altars to be erected to 
this idol in every part of Is- 
rael ; and .at one time four 
hundred priests attended the 
worship of Ashtaroth, 1 Kings 
xviii, 19. 

ASH' [JR, the son of Shem, 
who gave his name to As- 
sy r'i-a. 

A'SI-A, one of the four 
grand divisions of the earth. 
ft is also used in a more re- 
stricted sense for Asia Minor, 
Anatolia, or Nato'lia. In the 
New Testament it always 
signifies the Roman Procon- 
sular Asia, i. e., the whole 
western coast, of which Ephe- 
sus was the capital, and in 
which the seven churches 
were situated. 

AS'KE-LON, a city in the 
land of the Philistines, situ- 
atedbetween Azoth and Gaza, 
upon the coast of the Medi- 
terranean Sea, about sixty- 
five miles from Jerusalem. 

AS-N AP'PER, the king of 
Assyria, who sent the Cu- 
theans into the .country be- 

longing to the ten tribes, 
Ezra iv, 10. 

ASP. A small poisonous 
serpent of Egypt and Libya, 
whose bite occasions inevi- 
table death, but without pain. 
To tread upon the asp is at- 
tended with extreme danger ; 
therefore, to express in the- 
strongest manner the safety 
which the godly man enjoys 
under the protection of his 
heavenly Father, it is promis- 
ed, that he shall tread with 
impunity upon these venom- 
ous creatures. No person, of 
his own accord, approaches 
the hole of these deadly rep- 
tiles ; for he who gives them 
the smallest disturbance is in 
extreme danger of paying the 
forfeit of his rashness with 
his life. 

ASS. The prevailing co- 
lour of this animal in the east 
is reddish. In his natural 
state he is fleet, fierce, formi- 
dable, and intractable ; but 
when domesticated, the most 
gentle of all animals, and as- 
sumes a patience and sub- 
mission even more humble 
than his situation. Le Clerc 
observes, that the Israelites, 
not being allowed to keep 
horses, the ass was not only 
made a beast of burden, but 
used on journeys ; nd that 
even the most honourable of 
the nation were wont to be 
mounted on asses, which in 
the eastern countries were 
much larger aad more beau- 
tiful than they are with us. 

The wild ass is taller and a 
much more dignified animal 
than the common or domestic 




ass ; its legs are more ele- 
gantly shaped ; and it bears 
its head higher. It is peculiar- 
ly distinguished by a dusky 
woolly mane, long erect ears, 
and a forehead highly arched. 
The colour of the hair, in 
general, is of a silvery white. 
These animals associate in 
herds, under a leader, and are 
very shy. They inhabit the 
mountainous regions and de- 
sert parts of Tartary, Persia, 
&c. Anciently they were 
likewise found in Lycaonia, 
Phrygia, Mesopotamia, and 
Arabia Deserta. They are 
remarkably wild; and Job, 
xxxix, 5-8, describes the li- 
berty they enjoy, the place "of 
their retreat, their manners, 
and wild, impetuous, and un- 
tamable spirit. 

AS-SUR'ANCE is the firm 
persuasion we have of the 
certainty of a thing; "the 
full assurance of understand- 
Col. ii, 2, is a well 


grounded knowledge of Di- 
vine things. "The full assu- 
rance of faith," Heb. x, 22, is 
a full persuasion that God 
will accept of us for the sake 
of his Son. And " the full as- 
surance of hope," Heb. vi, 11, 
is a firm expectation that God 
will grant us the complete en- 
joyment of what lie has pro- 

We must certainly conclude 
that such an assurance is at- 
tainable,andwhat every Chris- 
tian ought to aim at. This, 
however, does not exclude 
occasional doubt and weak- 
ness of faith from the earlier 
stages of his experience. 

AS-SYR'I-A, the most an 
cient empire of Asia, found- 
ed by Nimrod. In Gen. x, 
11, the passage , should be 
read as it is in the margin of 
our English Bibles, " Out of 
that land he went forth into 
Ashur, and built Nineveh," 
that is, Nimrod went forth. 

Great obscurity rests on 
this portion of ancient his- 

The word is employed in. 
the Old Testament in three 
different significations. 

1. The ancient kingdom of 
Assyria, which lay east of 
the Tigris, between Arme- 
nia, Susiana, and Media. 

It is the region which 
mostly comprises the modern 
Kurdistan and the pashalik 
of Mosul. 

2. The ancient kingdom, in- 
cluding Babylonia and Me- 

3. After the overthrow of 
the Assyrian state the name 
continued to be applied to 
those countries which had 
been formerly under its do- 

1. To Babylonia, where 
Nebuchadnezzar is called 
king of Assyria. 

2. To Persia, where Da- 
rius is so called. 

Of the government, laws, 
religion, learning, customs, 
&c. of the ancient Assyrians, 
nothing absolutely certain is 
recorded. Their kingdom was 
at first small, and subsisted 
for several ages under he- 
reditary chiefs ; and their go- 
vernment was simple. After- 
ward, when they rose to the 

ATH " 



sublimity of empire, their 
government seems to have 
been despotic, and the empire 
hereditary. Their laws were 
probably few, and depended 
upon the mere will of the 
prince. The Assyrians have 
been competitors with the 
Egyptians for the honour of 
haying invented alphabetic 
writing. "It appears from the 
few remains now extant of 
the writing of these ancient 
nations, that their letters had 
a great affinity with each 
other. They much resembled 
one another in shape, and 
they ranged them in the same 
manner, from right to left. 

who foretells future events, 
from the aspects, positions, 
and influences of the heavenly 
bodies. This art, which owed 
its origin to the practice of 
knavery on credulity, is now 
universally exploded by the 
intelligent part of mankind : 
it denies God and his provi- 
dence, and is therefore con- 
demned in the Scriptures, 
and ranked with practices the 
most offensive and provoking 
to the Divine Majesty. 

A-SUP'PIM signifies gath- 
erings, and is the name of the 
treasury of the temple of Je- 
rusalem, 1 Chron. xxvi, 15. 

ATH-A-LI'AH, daughter 
of Ahab, king of Israel, and 
granddaughter of Omri, and 
wife of Joram, king of Judah. 
She was extremely wicked 
herself, and seduced her hus- 
band and son to follow the 
idolatrous courses of her fa- 
ther, 2 Kings viii, 18-26. 

ATH'ENS, a celebrated 
city and commonwealth of 
Greece, distinguished by the 
military talents, learning, elo- 
quence, and politeness of its 
inhabitants ; where Socrates, 
Plato, Pytha'goras, and the 
most illustrious philosophers 
of antiquity lived and taught. 

When Paul visited this 
place in A. D. 52, he found it 
plunged in idolatry ; occupied 
inhearingand reportingnews; 
curious to know every thing ; 
and divided in opinion con- 
cerning religion and happi- 

A-TONE'MENT, the sa- 
tisfaction offered to Divine 
justice by the death of Christ 
for the sins of mankind, by 
virtue of which all true peni- 
tents who believe in Christ 
are personally reconciled to 
God, are freed from the pe- 
nalty of their sins, and en- 
titled to eternal life. The 
atonement for sin made by 
the death of Christ is repre- 
sented in the Christian sys- 
tem as the means by which 
mankind may be delivered 
from the awful catastrophe of 
eternal death; from judicial 
inflictions of the displeasure 
of a Governor whose autho- 
rity has been contemned, and 
whose will has been resisted, 
which shall know no miti 
gation in their degree, nor 
bound to their duration. This 
end it professes to accomplish 
by means which, with respect 
to the Supreme Governor 
himself, preserve his charac- 
ter from mistake, and main- 
tain the authority of his go- 


vernment; and with respfect 
to man, give Mm the strong- 
est possible reason for hope, 
and render more favourable 
the condition of his earthly 

How sin may be forgiven 
without leading to such mis- 
conceptions of the Divine 
character as would encourage 
disobedience, and thereby 
weaken the influence of the 
Divine government, must be 
considered as a problem of 
very difficult solution. _ The 
only answer is found in the 
Holy Scriptures. They alone 
show, and, indeed, they alone 
profess to show, how God 
may be "just," and yet the 
"justifier" of the ungodly. 
Other schemes show how he 
may be merciful ; but the dif- 
ficulty does not lie there. The 
Gospel meets it, by declaring 
" the righteousness of God," 
at the same time that it pro- 
claims his mercy. The vo- 
luntary sufferings of the Di- 
vine Son of God "for us," 
that is, in our room and stead, 
magnify the justice of God ; 
display his hatred to sin ; pro- 
claim " the exceeding sinful- 
ness" of transgression, by the 
deep and painful manner in 
which they were inflicted 
upon the Substitute ; warn 
the persevering offender of 
the terribleness as well as the 
certainty of his punishment ; 
and open the gates of salva- 
tion to every penitent. It is 
apart of the same Divine plan 
also to engage the influence 
of the Holy Spirit to awaken 
penitence in man, nnd to lead 

46 ATO 

the wanderer back to himself; 
to renew our fallen nature in 
righteousness at the moment 
we are justified through faith, 
and to place us in circum- 
stances in which we may 
henceforth "walk not after 
the flesh, but after the Spirit." 
All the ends of government 
are here answered no li- 
cense is given to offence, 
the moral law is unrepealed, 
a day of judgment is still 
appointed, future and eter- 
nal punishments still display 
their awful sanctions, anew 
and singular display of the 
awful purity of the Divine 
character is afforded, yet 
pardon is offered to all who 
seek it ; and the whole world 
may be saved. 

The passages that follow 
plainly and distinctly declare 
the atoning efficacy of Christ's 
death : " Now once in the 
end of the world hath he ap- 
peared to put away sin by the 
sacrifice of himself." " Christ 
was once offered to bear the 
sins of many ; and unto them 
that look for him shall he ap- 
pear the second time without 
sin unto salvation," Heb. ix, 
26, 28. " This man, after he 
had offered one sacrifice for 
sin, for ever sat down on the 
ri":ht hand of God ; for by one 
offering he hath perfected for 
ever them that are sanctified," 
Heb. x, 12. It is observable 
that nothing similar is said of 
the death of any other person, 
and that no such efficacy is 
imputed to any other martyr- 
dom. " While we were yet 
sinners Christ died for us ; 


much more then, being now 
j ustified by his blood, we shall 
be saved from wrath through 
him : for if, when we were 
enemies, we were reconciled 
to God by the death of his 
Son, much more, being re- 
conciled, we shall be saved 
by his life," Rom. v, 8-10. 
The words, "reconciled to 
God by the death of his Son," 
show that his death had an 
efficacy iu pur reconciliation ; 
but reconciliation is only pre- 
paratory to salvation. "He 
has reconciled us to his Fa- 
ther in his cross, and in the 
body of his flesh through 
death," Col. i, 20, 22. _What 
is said of reconciliation in 
these texts, is in. some others 
spoken of sanctification 
which is also preparatory to 
salvation. " We are sanctifi- 
ed" how? " By the offering 
of the body of Christ once for 
all," Heb. x. 10. In the same 
epistle the blood of Jesus is 
called " the blood of the co- 
venant by which we are sanc- 
tified." In these and many 
other passages that occur in 
different parts of the New 
Testament, it is therefore as- 
serted that the death of Christ 
had an efficacy in the pro- 
curing of human salvation. 
Such expressions are used 
concerning no other person, 
and the death of no other 
person ; and it is therefore 
evident, that Christ's death 
included something more than 
a confirmation of his preach- 
ing; something more than a 
pattern of a holy and patient 
martyrdom; something more 

47 AXE 

than a necessary antecedent 
to his resurrection, by which 
he gave a grand and clear 
proof of .our resurrection froro- 
the dead. Christ's death was 
all these, but it was something 
more. It was an atonement 
for the sins of mankind ; and 
in this way only it became 
the accomplishment of our 
eternal redemption. 

AU-GUS'TUS, emperor of 
Rome, and successor of Ju- 
lius Csesar. The battle of Ac- 
tram, which he fought with 
Mark Antony, and which 
made him master of the em- 
pire, happened fifteen years 
before the birth of Christ. 
This is the emperor who ap- 
pointed the enrolment men- 
tioned Luke ii, 1 . He had the 
honour also to shut the temple 
of Janus, in token of univer- 
sal peace, at the time when 
thePrince of peace was born ; 
this was remarkable, as the 
temple was shut but few times. 
He died A. D. 14 ; the name, 
which signifies august; vene- 
rable, was also retained by his 

A'VEN, a city of Egypt. 
He who prosecuted the man- 
slayer under the law was call- 
ed the avenger of blood, and 
had a right to slay the person, 
if he found him without a city 
of refuge. 

A'VIM, a people de- 
scended from Hevus, the son 
of Canaan. They dwelt at 
first in the country which was 
afterward possessed by the 
Caphtorims, or Philistines. 
AXE, a well known instru- 


48 BAA 

ment of iron, used for cutting ; 
and often metaphorically em- 
ployed in Scripture, for a 
jperson or power, who, as a 
cutting instrument in the hand 
of God, is employed to lop off 
branches and boughs, and 
sometimes to cut down the 
tree itself. "The axe is laid to 
the root of the trees," Mat;t, 
iii, 10; irresistible punish- 
ment, destruction is near. 
We risk little in referring this 
(ultimately) to the Roman 
power and armies ; which, as 
an axe, most vehemently cut 
away the very existence of 
the Jewish polity and 

AZO'TUS. This is the 
Greek name of the city which 
in Hebrew is called Ashdod. 
It was taken by Joshua, and 
being surrounded with a wall 
of great strength, it became a 
place of great importance, 
and one of the five govern- 
ments of the Philistines. See 

denoting lord,s. divinity among 
several ancient nations ; as 
the Canaanites, Phce-nic'i- 
ans, Si-do'nians, Carthagi- 
nians, Babylonians, Chalde'- 
ans, and As-syrlans ; and 
thus were introduced a va- 
riety of divinities, called 
Baalim, or Baal, with some 
epithet annexed to it, as Baal 
Be'rith, Baal Gad, Baal Mo'- 
loch, Baal Peor, Baal Zebub, 

The temples and altars of 
Baal were generally placed 
on eminences :. they were 

places inclosed by walls,with- 
in which was maintained a 
perpetual fire ; and some of 
them had statues or images. 
Baal had his prophets and his 
priests in great numbers ; ac- 
cordingly, we read of four 
hundred and fifty of them that 
were fed at the table of Jeze- 
bel only ; and they conducted 
the worship of this deity, by 
offering sacrifices, by dancing 
around his altar with violent 
gesticulations and exclama- 
tions, by cutting their bodies 
with knives and lancets, and 
by raving and pretending to 
prophesy, as if they were 
possessed by some invisible 

The Hebrews often imita- 
ted the idolatry of the Ca- 
naanites in adoring Baal. 
They offeredhuman sacrifices 
to him in groves, upon high 
places, and upon the terraces 
of houses. All sorts of infa- 
mous and immodest actions 
were committed in the festi- 
vals of Baal and As-tar'te. 
See Jer. xxxii, 35 ; 2 Kings 
xvii, 16. This false deity 
is frequently mentioned in 
Scripture in the plural num- 
ber, Baalim, which may inti- 
mate that the name Baal was 
given to several different dei- 

BA'AL BE'RITH, the god 
of the Shechemites, Judges 
viii, 33 ; ix, 4, 46. 

BA'AL PE'OR was pro- 
bably the temple of the idol 
Baal, belonging to the Moab- 
ites, on Mount Ab'a-rim, 
which the Israelites worship- 
ped when encamped at Shit- 




tim. Baal was in an eminent 
degree the god of impurity. 
Hosea, speaking of the wor- 
ship of this idolj emphati- 
cally calls it "that shame," 
Hos. ix, 10. Yet in the rites 
of this deity the Moabite and 
Midianite women seduced the 
Israelites to join. 

BA'AL ZE'BUB, the 
same as BE-EL'ZE-BB, or 

BA'AL ZE'PHON, or the 
god of the watch tower, was 
probably the temple of some 
idol. It was situated on a 
cape or promontory on the 
eastern side of the western or 
Heroopolitan branch of the 
Red Sea, near its northern 
extremity, over against Pi-ha- 
hi'roth, or the opening in the 
mountains which led from the 
desert, on the side of Egypt, 
to the Red Sea. 

BA'A-SHA, the son of Ahi- 
jah, commander-in-chief of 
the armies belonging to Na- 
dab, the son of Je'robo'am, 
king of Israel. 

BAB'BLER;an idle talker. 

BA'BEL, the tower and 
city founded by the descend- 
ants of Noah in the plain of 
Shi'nar. The different tribes 
descended from Noah were 
here collected, and from this 
point were dispersed, through 
the confusion of their lan- 

All the descendants of Noah 
remained in Armenia during 
the lifetime of the four royal 
patriarchs, or till about the 
beginning of the sixth century 
after the flood ; when, gradu- 
ally falling off from the pure 

worship of God, seduced by 
the schemes of the ambitious 
Nimrod, and actuated by a 
desire for a more fertile coun- 
try, they migrated in a body 
southward, till they reached 
the plains of Shi'nar, probably 
about sixty years after the 
death of Shem. Here, under 
the command of their new 
leader, and with the express 
view to counteract the de- 
signs of the Almighty in their 
dispersion into different coun- 
tries, they began to build the 
city and tower, and set up a 
banner which should serve as 
a mark of national union, and 
concentrate them in one em- 
pire, when they were defeated 
and dispersed by the miracu- 
lous confusion of tongues. 
The tower of Belus in Baby- 
lon was probably either the 
original tower of Babel re- 
paired, or it was constructed 
upon its.massive foundations. 
The remains of this towerare 
still to be seen. 

B AB'Y-LON, 2 Kings xxiv 
1. The capital of Chal-de'a, 
built by Nimrod, Gen. x, 10. 
(See Assyria.) It was under 
Nebuchadnezzar that Baby- 
lon is supposed to have ac 
quired that extent and maghi 
neence, and that those stu- 
pendous works were com- 
pleted, which rendered it the 
wonder of the world; and 
accordingly this prince arro- 
gated to himself the whole 
glory of its erection ; and in 
the prid&of his heart exclaim- 
ed, " Is not this great Babylon 
that I have built?" The city 
at this period stood on both 




sides of the river, -which in- 
tersected it in the middle. It 
was, according to the least 
computation, that of Di-o-do'- 
rus Sic'u-lus, forty-five miles 
in circumference ; and ac- 
cording to He-rod'o-tus, sixty 
miles. Its shape was that of 
a square, traversed each 
way by twenty -five principal 
streets ; which of course in- 
tersected each other, dividing 
the city into six hundred and 
twenty-six squares. These 
streets were terminated at 
each end by gates of brass, 
of prodigious size and 
strength, with a smaller one 
opening toward the river. 
The walls, from the most mo- 
derate accounts, were seven- 
ty-five feet in height, and 
thirty-two in breadth ; while 
Herod'otus makes them three 
hundred in height and seven- 
ty-five in breadth : which last 
measurement, incredible as it 
may seem, is worthy of cre- 
dit, as Herod'otus is much the 
oldest author who describes 
them, and who gives their ori- 
ginal height; whereas those 
who follow him in their ac- 
counts of these stupendous 
walls describe them as they, 
were after they had been ta- 
ken down to the less eleva- 
tion by Darius Hys-tas'pes. 
They were built of brick ce- 
mented with bitumen instead 
of mortar ; and were encom- 
passed by a broad and deep 
ditch, lined with the same 
materials, as were also the 
banks of the river in its 
course through the city ; the 
inhabitants descending to the 

water by steps through the 
smaller brazen gates before 
mentioned. The houses were 
three or four stories high, se- 
parated from each other -by 
small courts or gardens, with, 
open spaces or even fields in- 
terspersed over the immense 
area enclosed within the 
walls. Over the river was a 
bridge, connecting the two 
halves of the city, the river 
running nearly north and 
south. The bridge was five 
furlongs in length, and thirty 
feet in breadth, and had a 
palace at each end, with, it is 
said, a subterraneous passage 
beneath the river, from one to 
the other ; the work of Semi- 
ramis. Within the city was 
the temple of Belus, or Jupi- 
ter, which Herod'otus de- 
scribes as a square of two. 
stadia, or a quarter of a mile ; 
in the midst of which arose 
the celebrated tower, to an 
elevation of one stadium, or 
six hundred and sixty feet ; 
and the same measure at its 
base ; the whole being divid- 
ed into eight separate tow- 
ers, one above another, of de- 
creasing dimensions to the 
summit j where stood a cha- 
pel, containing a couch, table, 
and other things, of gold. 
Here the principal devotions 
were performed; and over 
this, on the highest platform 
of all, was the observatory, 
by the help of which the Ba- 
bylonians arrived to such per- 
fection in astronomy, that 
Cal-is'the-nes the philoso- 
pher, who accompanied Al- 
exander to Babylon, found 


astronomical observations, 
which reach as high as the 
115th year after the flood. On 
each side of the river, accord- 
ing to Diodorus, adjoining to 
the bridge, was a palace; that 
on the western bank being by 
much the larger. This palace 
was eight miles in circumfer- 
ence, and strongly fortified 
with three walls, one within 
another. Within it were the 
celebrated hanging gardens, 
enclosed in a square of four 
hundred feet. These gardens 
were raised on ten-aces, sup- 
ported by arches, or rather by 
piers, laid over with broad flat 
stones ; the arch appearing to 
be unknown to the Babylo- 
nians : which courses of piers 
rose one above another till 
they reached the level of the 
top of the city walls. On 
each terrace or platform, a 
deep layer of mould was laid, 
in which flowers, shrubs, and 
trees were planted, some of 
which are said to have reach- 
ed the height of fifty feet. On 
the highest level was a reser- 
voir, with an engine to draw 
water up from the river, by 
which the whole was watered. 
This novel and astonishing _ 
structure, the work of a mo- j 
narch who knew not how to 
create food for his own pam- 
pered fancy, or labour for his 
debased subjects or unhappy 
captives, was undertaken to 
please his wife Amyitis ; that 
she might see an imitation of 
the hills and woods of her na- 
tive country, Media. 

Yet, while in the plenitude 
of her power, and, according 

51 BAG 

to the most accurate chrono- 
logers, one hundred and sixty 
years before the foot of an 
enemy had entered it, the 
voice of prophecy pronounced 
the doom of the unconquered 
Babylon. A succession of 
ages brought it gradually to 
the dust; and the gradation, 
of its fall is marked till it- 
sinks at last into utter deso- 
lation. At a time when no- 
thing but magnificence was 
around this city, emphatically 
called the great, fallen Baby- 
lon was delineated by the 
pencil of inspiration exactly 
as every traveller now de 
scribes its ruins. . 

BA'CA, tears or weeping. 
"The valley 'of Baca," Psa. 
Ixxxiv, 6, is a rough, barren, 
desolate valley, such as could 
not be passed without labour 
and tears. This valley is 
here taken figuratively, refer- 
ring to those who are travel- 
ling in the ways mentioned, 
ver. 5, i. e., the ways which 
lead to Jerusalem, where the 
temple is, and where the 
pleasure of worship can be 
-enjoyed. Such is the object 
of their journey, and of their 
hopes, that no misfortune by 
the way, no passing through 
the valley of Baca, will ren- 
der them unhappy ; be their 
troubles and wants ever so 
many, God will relieve the 
one and provide for the other. 
They shall find this dry, un- 
fruitful valley full of springs, 
and clothed with verdure by 
timely rains. This is a de- 
lightful image of the kind- 
ness vouchsafed to those "in 




whose hearts the' ways of 
Zion are." 

BACK-BITE, to speak 
evil of an absent person. 
Paul classes this sin with 
several others of a heinous 
nature, Rom. i, 30. 

BACK-SLID'ING, a fall- 
ing off, or defection in matters 
of religion ; an apostacy. This 
may be either partial or com- 
plete : partial, when it is in 
the heart, as Prov. xiv, 14; 
complete, as that described 
in Heb. vi, 4, &c. ; x, 6, &c. 
It is important in interpreting 
these passages to keep it 
steadfastly in mind that the 
apostacy they speak of is not 
only moral but doctrinal. 

BADG'ER is a small in- 
offensive animal, of the bear 
genus, an inhabitant of cold 
countries, and remains torpid 
during the winter. It is there- 
fore not found in Arabia ; nor 
is there any thing in its skin 
peculiarly proper either for 
covering the tabernacle or 
making shoes. Bochart thinks 
that not an animal, but a co- 
lour, was intended, Exodus 
xxv, 5 ; so that the covering 
of the tabernacle was to be 
azure, or sky-blue. 

BA'LAAM, (Baflam,) a 
prophet of the city of Pethor, 
or Bosor, upon the Eu-phra'- 
tes, whose intercourse with 
Ba'lak, king of the Moabites, 
who sent for him to curse the 
Israelites, is recorded at large 
by Moses, Num. xxii-xxiv. 
It cannot be denied that the 
Scripture expressly calls him 
a prophet, 2 Pet. ii, 15 ; and 
therefore those are probably 

right who think that he had 
once been a good man and a 
true prophet, till, loving the 
wages of unrighteousness, 
and prostituting the honour of 
his office to covetousness, he 
apostatized from God, and, 
betaking himself to idolatrous 
practices, fell under the delu- 
sion of the devil, of whom he 
learned all' his magical en- 
chantments ; though at this 
juncture, when the preserva- 
tion of his people was con- 
cerned, it might be consistent 
with God's wisdom to appear 
to him and overrule his mind 
by the impulse of real reve- 

BAL-ANCE, in Scripture . 
an instrument much of the 
same nature probably as the 
Roman steelyard, where the 
weight is hung at one end of 
the beam, and the article to 
be weighed at the other end. 
Balances, in the plural, gene- 
ralty appear to mean scales 
a pair of scales. 

BALD'NESS is a natural 
effect of old age, in which pe- 
riod of life the hair of the 
head, wanting nourishment, 
falls off, and leaves the head 
naked. Artificial baldness 
was used as a token of mourn- 
ing: it is threatened to the 
voluptuous daughters of Is- 
rael, instead of well set hair, 
Isa. iii, 24. See Mic. i, 16 ; 
and instances of it occur, Isa. 
xv, 2 ; Jer. xlvii, 5. See 
Ezek. vii, 18 ; Amosviii, 10. 

BALM, or balsam, is a 
common name for many of 
those oily resinous substan- 
ces which flow spontaneously 

BAP 53 

or by incision, from certain 
trees or plants, and are of 
considerable use in medicine 
and surgery. 

The ''balm of Gilead," 
mentioned in the Scriptures, 
is the juice of the balsam 
tree, which is an evergreen, 
growing spontaneously, about 
fourteen feet high, in Azab, 
its native country, in Gilead, 
and on the coast of Babel- 
mandel. After the tree blos- 
soms it yields a yellow, fine 
scented" seed, enclosed in a 
reddish-black, pulpy nut, 
which contains a yellowish 
liquor, like honey : they are 
bitter, and a little tart upon 
the tongue, of the same shape 
and size of the fruit of the 
turpentine tree. 

The great value set upon 
this drug in the east, is traced 
to the earliest ages. Arabian 
merchants, trafficking with 
the commodities of their own 
country into Egypt, brought 
with them balm as a part of 
their cargo, Gen. xxxvii, 25. 

The best was that which 
flowed spontaneously, or "by 
means of incision, from the 
trunk or branches of the tree, 
in summer. 

BAN'NER, an ensign, or 
standard, used by armies or 
caravans on their journeys in 
the eastern countries. 

BAN'QUET, a splendid 
feast, or a rich entertainment 
of meat and drink. 

BAP'TISM, from the 
Greek word baptizo, is a rite 
or ceremony by which persons 
are initiated into the profes- 
sion of the Christian religion ; 


or by which a person assumes 
the profession of Christianity. 
It was by this mode that those 
who believed the Gospel were 
to be separated -from unbe- 
lievers, and joined to the vi- 
sible Christian Church. The 
rite was probably intended to 
represent the washing away, 
or renouncing, the impurities 
of some former state, viz. the 
sins that had been committed, 
and the vicious habits that 
had been contracted ; and to 
this purpose it may be ob- 
served, that the profession of 
repentance always accompa- 
nied, or was xmderstood to 
accompany, the profession of 
faith in Christ. That our 
Lord instituted such an ordi- 
nance as baptism is plain 
from the commission given to 
the apostles after his resur- 
rection, and recorded in Matt, 
xxviii, 19, 20. To this rite 
there is also an allusion in 
Mark xvi, 16; John iii, 5; 
Acts ii, 41 ; viii, 12, 36-38 ; 
xxii, 16. The design of this 
institution, which was to ex- 
press faith in Christ on the 
part of those who were bap- 
tized, and to declare their re- 
solution of openly professing 
his religion, and cultivating 
real and universal holiness, 
appears from Rom. vi, 3, 4 ; 
1 Pet. iii, 21 ; Ephes. v, 26 ; 
and Titus iii, 5. We find no 
account of baptism as a dis- 
tinct religious rite before the 
mission of John, the forerun- 
ner of Christ, who was called 
the " Baptist, " on account of 
his being commanded by God 
to baptize with water all who 


should hearken to his invita- 
tion to repent. Washing, 
however, accompanied many 
of the Jewish rites, and, in- 
deed, was required after con- 
tracting any kind of unclean- 
ness. Also, soon after the 
time of our Saviour, we find 
it to have been the custom of 
the Jews solemnly to baptize, 
as well as to circumcise, all 
their proselytes. As their 
writers treat largely of the 
reasons for this rite, and give 
no hint of its being a novel 
institution, it is probable that 
this had always been the cus- 
tom antecedent to the time of 
Moses, whose account of the 
rite of circumcision, and of 
the manner of performing it, 
is by no means circumstantial. 
Or, baptism, after circumci- 
sion, might have come into 
use gradually from the natural 
propriety of the tiling, and its 
easy conformity to other Jew- 
ish customs. For if no Jew 
could approach the tabernacle 
or temple, after the most tri- 
fling uncleanness, without 
washing, much less would it 
be thought proper to admit a 
proselyte from a state so iin- 
pui-e and unclean as heathen- 
ism was conceived to be, 
without the .same mode of pu- 
rification. There is also a 
strong intimation, even in the 
Gospel itself, of suchaknowc 
practice among the Jews in 
the time of John the Baptist, 
John i, 25. 

2. The word baptism is 
frequently taken for suffer- 
ings, Mark x, 38 ; Luke xii, 
50 ; Matt, xx, 22, 23, 

54 BAP 

3. As to the subjects of 
baptism, the Psedobaptists be- 
lieve that qualified adults, 
who have not been baptized 
before, are certainly proper 
subjects ; but then they think, 
also, that infants ought not to 
be .excluded. They believe 
that, as the Abrahamic and 
Christian covenants are the 
same, Gen. xvii, 7 ; Heb. viii, 
12 ; that as children were ad- 
mitted under the former ; and 
that as baptism is now a sign, 
seal, or confirmation of this 
covenant, infants have as 
great a right to it as the. chil 
dren of the Israelites had to 
the seal of circumcision under 
the laws, Acts ii, 39 ; Rom. iv, 
11. Farther, if children are 
not to be baptized because 
there is no positive command 
for it, for. the same reason 
they say that women should 
not come to the Lord's Sup- 
per ; nor ought we to" keep 
holy the first day of the week; 
neither of these being express- 
ly commanded. If baptizing 
infants had been a human in- 
vention, they also ask, how 
such a practice could have 
been so universal in the first 
three hundred years of the 
Church, and yet no record 
have remained when it was 
introduced, nor any dispute 
or controversy about it have 
taken place? Some reduce 
the matter to a narrower com- 
pass ; urging, (1.) That God 
constituted in his Church the 
membership of infants, and 
admitted tHem to that privi- 
lege by a r-eligious ordinance, 
Gen. xvii ; Gal. iii, 14, 17. 




(2.) That this right of infants 
to Church membership was 
never taken away: and this 
being the case, they argue 
that infants must be received, 
because God has appointed it ; 
and, since they must be re- 
ceived, it must be either with 
baptism or without it ; but 
none must be received with- 
out baptism ; therefore in- 
fants must of necessity be 
baptized. Hence it is clear 
that under the Gospel, in- 
fants are still continued ex- 
actly in the same relation to 
God and his Church in which 
they were originally placed 
under former dispensations. 
That infants are to be re- 
ceived into the Church, and 
as sucli baptized, is also in- 
ferred from the following pas- 
sages of Scripture : Gen. 
xvii; Isa. xliv, 3 ; Matt, xix, 
13 ; Luke ix, 47, 48 ; Acts ii, 
38, 39 ; Rom. xi, 17, 21 ; 1 
Cor. vii, 14. 

Finally, it is generally ac- 
knowledged that if infants 
die, (and a great part of the 
human race 'die in their infan- 
cy,) they are saved. If this 
be the case, then why refuse 
them the sign of union with 
Christ, if they be capable of 
enjoying the thing signified ? 

4> As to the mode, the Pse- 
dobaptists deny that the term 
baptize is invariably used in 
the New- Testament to ex- 
press plunging. It is denied 
that dipping is its only mean- 
ing; that Christ absolutely 
enjoined immersion; and that 
it is his positive will that no 
other mode should be used, 

As the word baptizo is used 
to express the various ablu- 
tions among the Jews, such 
as sprinkling, pouring, &c., 
Heb. ix, 10, for the custom of 
washing before meals, and the 
washing of household furni- 
ture, pots, &c,, it is evident 
from hence that it does not 
express the manner of doing 
a thing, whether by immer- 
sion or effusion, but only the 
thing done ; that is, washing ; 
or the application of water in 
some form or other. It no- 
where signifies to dip, but in 
denoting, a mode of, and in 
order to, washing or cleans- 
ing; and the mode or use is 
only the ceremonial part of a 
positive institute ; just as in 
the Lord's Supper, the time 
of day, the number and pos- 
ture of the communicants, the 
quantity and quality of bread 
and wine, are circumstances 
not accounted essential by 
any part of Christians. If in 
baptism there be an express- 
ive emblem of the descend- 
ing influence of the Spirit, 
pouring must be the mode of 
administration ; for that is the 
scriptural term most com- 
monly and properly used for 
the communication "of Divine 
influences, Matt, iii, 11 ; 
Mark i, 8, 10 ; Luke iii, 16- 
22 ; John i, 33 ; Acts i, 5 ; ii, 
38, 39 ; viii, 12, 17 ; xi, 15, 
16. The term sprinkling, also, 
is made use of in reference 
to the act of purification, Isa. 
Iii, 15 ; Ezek. xxxvi, 25 ; Heb. 
ix, 13,14; and therefore can- 
not be inapplicable to bap- 
tismal purification, 




Jesus, it is said, came up , 
cut of the water ; but this is 
no proof that he was immers- 
ed, as the Greek term opo, 
often signifies from: for in- 
stance, " Who hath warned 
you to flee from" not out of, 
"the wrath to come?" with 
many others that might be 
mentioned. Again: it is urged 
that Philip and the eunuch 
went down both into the wa- 
ter. To this it is answered, 
that here also is no proof of 
immersion : for, if the expres- 
sion of their going down into 
the water necessarilyincludes 
dipping, then Philip was dip- 
ped, as well as the eunuch. 
The preposition eztJjtraiislated 
into, often signifies no more 
than to, or unto : see Matt, xv, 
24 ; Rom. x. 10 ; Acts xxviii, 
14; Matt, iii, 11; xvii, 27: 
so that from none of these cir- 
cumstances can it be proved 
that there was one person of 
all the baptized, who went 
into the water ankle deep. As 
to the apostle's expression, 
"buried with him in bap- 
tism," that has no force in the 
argument for immersion,since 
it does not allude. to a custom 
of dipping, any more than our 
baptismal crucifixion and 
death has any such reference. 
It is not the sign, but the 
thing signified, that is here 
alluded to. As Christ was 
buried, and rose again to a 
heavenly life, so we by bap- 
tism signify that we are se- 
parated from sin, that we 
may live a new life of faith 
and love. 

To conclude : it is urged 

against the mode-of immer- 
sion, that, as it carries with it 
too much of the appearance 
of a burthensome rite for the 
Gospel dispensation ; as it is 
too indecent for so solemn an 
ordinance ; as it has a ten- 
dency to agitate the spirits, 
often rendering the subject 
unfit for the exercise of pro- 
per thoughts and affections, 
and indeed utterly incapable 
of them: as in "many cases 
the immersion of the body 
would in all probability be in- 
stant. death ; as in other situ- 
ations it would be impracti- 
cable, for want of water ; it 
cannot be considered as ne- 
cessary to the ordinance of 
baptism; and there is the 
strongest improbability that 
it was ever practised in the 
times of the New Testament, 
or in the earliest periods of 
the Christian Church. 

BAR signifies son: Barjo- 
na, i. e. son of Jonah ; a name 
by which our Saviour some- 
times calls Peter. 

BAR-A-CHI'AS, the fa- 
ther of Zachari'as, mentioned 
Matt, xxiii, 35, as slain be- 
tween the temple and the 
altar. See ZACHAEIAH. 

BA'RAK, son of Abinoam, 
chosen by God to deliver the 
Hebrews from that bondage., 
under which they were held 
by Ja'bin, king of the Canaan- 
ites, Judges iv, 4, 5, dec. 

BAR-BA'RI-AN signifies 
a stranger or foreigner ; one 
who does not speak our na- 
tive language, or one in a rude 
and uncivilized state. 

BAR-JE'SUS was a Jew- 




ish magician in the island of 
Crete, Acts xiii, 6. St. Luke 
calls him El'y-mas. 

BAR'LEY, a well known 
kind of grain. Pliny, on the 
testimony of Me-nan'der,says 
that barley was the most an- 
cient aliment of mankind. In 
Palestine the barley was sown 
about October, and reaped in 
the end of March, just after 
the passover. In Egypt the 
barley harvest was later ; for 
when the hail fell there, Exo- 
dus ix, 81, a few days before 
the passover, the flax and 
barley were bruised and de- 
stntyed. The Hebrews fre- 
quently used barley bread, as " 
AVC find by several passages 
of Scripture. 

BAR'NA-BAS, a disciple 
of Jesus Christ, and compa- 
nion of St. Paul in his la- 
bours. He was a Levite, 
born in -the isle of Cyprus. 
His proper name was Joses, 
to which the apostles added 
Barnabas, signifying the son 
of consolation. He is gene- 
rally considered one of the 
seventy disciples chosen by 
our Saviour. He was brought 
up, with Paul, at the feet of 
Gamaliel. When that .apos- 
tle came to Jerusalem, three 
years after his conversion, 
Barnabas introduced him to 
the other apostles, Acts ix, 
26, 27, about A. D. 37. 

BAR'S A.-BAS. Joseph Bar- 
sabas, surnamed Justus, was 
one of the first disciples of 
Jesus Christ, and probably 
one of the seventy, Acts i, 
21.'Bar'sa-bas wasnominated 
along with Matthias ; but the 

lot fell on Matthias, who was 
therefore numbered with the 
eleven apostles. 

2. BAR SABA s was also the 
surname of Judas, one of the 
principal disciples, mention- 
ed, Acts xv, 22, &c. 

of the twelve apostles, Matt, 
x, 3, is supposed to be the 
same person who is called 
Nathanael, one of the first of 
Christ's disciples. 

B A'RUCH, the son of Ne- 
riah, and grandson of Maa- 
seiah, was of illustrious birth, 
and of the tribe of Judah. He 
had a brother of the name of 
Seraiah, who occupied an im- 
portant station in the court of 
King Zed-e-ki'ah; but he 
himself adhered to the person 
of the prophet Jeremiah, and 
was his most steady friend, 
though his attachment to him 
drew on himself several per- 
secutions and much ill treat- 
ment. He appears to have 
acted as his secretary during 
a great part of his life, and 
never left him till they were 
parted by death. 

BA'SHAN, called by the 
Greeks Batan&'a, one of the 
most fertile districts of Ca- 
naan, which was bounded on 
the north by the land of Gesh- 
ur, on the east by the moun- 
tains of Gilead, on the south 
by the brook Jabbok, and on 
the west by the river Jordan. 
The whole kingdom took its 
name from the hill of Ba'shan, 
which is situated in the mid- 
dle of it. It had no less than 
sixty walled towns in it, be- 
side villages. It afforded an 




excellent breed of cattle, and 
stately oaks, and was,in short, 
a plentiful and populous 

BAS'TARD, one born out 
of wedlock. A bastard among 
the Greeks was despised, and 
exposed to public scorn, on 
account of his spurious origin. 
The Jewish father bestowed 
as little attention on the edu- 
cation of such children as the 
Greek : he seems to have re- 
signed them, in a great mea- 
sure, "to their own inclina- 
tions; he neither checked 
their passions, nor corrected 
their faults, nor stored their 
minds with .useful knowledge. 
This is evidently implied in 
Heb. xii, 7, 8. 

BAT, an unclean animal, 
having the body of a mouse, 
and wings not covered with 
feathers, but of a leathery 
membrane, expansible, for the 
purpose of flying. They 
bring forth their young alive, 
in the tops of houses, and 
suckle them like four-footed 
beasts. Some of the bats of 
Africa have long tails, like 
mice, which extend beyond 
their wings. They never be- 
come tame, but feed on flies, 
insects, and fat things, such 
as candles : they fly about at 
night when the weather is 
fine and warm. Extremely 
well described in Deut. xiv, 
19. It has feet or claws grow- 
ing out of its pinions, and con- 
tradicts the general order of 
nature, by creeping with the 
instruments of its flight. 

BATH, a measure of capa- 
city for things liquid, being 

the same with the ephah, 
Ezek. xlv, 11, and containing 
ten homers, or seven gallons 
and four pints. 

BAT'TLE-MENT, a wall 
round the top of flat-roofed 
houses ; as were those of the 
Jews, and other eastern peo- 
ple. (See Houses.) 

BAY-TREE, the com- 
mon laurel, mentioned only in 
Psalm xxxvii, 35, 36 : some 
say that the original means 
only a. native tree, a tree 
growing in its native soil, not 
having suffered by transplan- 
tation. Such a tree spreads 
itself luxuriantly. 

BDELLIUM, (del'yum,') a 
gum used as incense for burn- 
ing, and of an aromatic smell. 

BEAM,, the cylindrical 
piece of wood belonging to a 
weaver's loom, on which the 
web is gradually rolled as it is 
woven ; also, gross, palpable 

BEAR,. Bears were com- 
mon in Palestine. Their 
strength, rapacity, and fierce- 
ness, furnishmany expressive 
metaphors to the Hebrew 
poets. David had to defend 
his flock against bears as well 
as lions, 1 Sam. xvii, 34. 

BEARD. Nothing has 
been more fluctuating in the 
different ages of the world 
and countries, than the fa- 
shion of wearing the beard. 
Some have cultivated one 
part and some another ; some 
have endeavoured to extirpate 
it entirely, while others have 
almost idolized it ; the revo- 
lutions of countries have 

BED 59 

scarcely been more famous 
than the revolutions of beards. 
It is a great mark of infamy 
among the Arabs to cut off 
the beard. Many people 
would prefer death to this 
kind of treatment : hence we 
may easily learn the magni- 
tude of the offence of the 
Am'mon-ites, in their treat- 
ment of David's ambassadors, 
2 Sam. x, 4, 5. 1 Chron. xix, 
5, and also the force of the 
emblem used, Ezek. v, 1-5. 

BEASTS. When this word 
is used in opposition to man, 
as Psalm xxxvi, 5, any brute 
creature is signified; when to 
creeping things, as Lev. xi, 2, 
7, xxix, 30, four-footed ani- 
mals, from the size of the hare 
and upward, are intended ; 
and when to wild creatures, 
as Gen. i, .25, cattle, or tame 
animals, are spoken of. St. 
Paul, 1 Cor. xv, 32, speaks of 
fighting with beasts, &c : by 
which he means that he had 
to contend at Ephesus with 
the fierce uproar of Demetrius 
and his associates. Wild 
beasts are used in Scripture 
as emblems of tyrannical' and 
persecuting powers. The 
most illustrious conquerors of 
antiquity also have not a 
more honourable emblem. 

BED. Mattresses, or thick 
cotton quilts folded, were 
used for sleeping upon. These 
were laid upon the divan, a 
part of the room elevated 
above the restj covered with 
a carpet in winter,' and a fine 
mat in summer. The people 
of the East, do not keep 
their beds made; the mat- 


tresses are rolled up,- carried 
away, and placed in a cup- 
board till they are wanted at 
night. And hence 'the pro- 
priety of our Lord's address 
to the paralytic, " Arise, take 
up thy bed," or mattress, 
" and walk," Matt, ix, 6. 

BE-EL'ZE-BUB, Matt, x, 
25, (Fly-god.) The country of 
the Philistines being greatly 
infested, during the rainy 
season, with flies, gnats, &c. 
they paid their devotions to 
the god of fiies, in order that 
he might protect them from 
this evil. "The temple and 
worship of this false god ap- 
pear to have been in great re- 
pute at the time of Elijah. 
The designation of this chief 
idol of the heathen world, as 
the " the prince of the devils," 
was very natural, since the 
Jews were taught in their 
own Scriptures to consider 
all idols of the heathens "de- 

BE-ER'SHE-BA, the 
well of the oath; so named 
from a well which Abraham 
dug in this place, and the co- 
venant which he here made 
with A-bim'e-lech, king of 
Gerar, Gen. xx, 31. It was 
situated twenty miles south 
of Hebron, in the extreme 
south of the land of Israel, as 
Dan was on the north. The 
two places are frequently 
thus mentioned in Scripture, 
as " from Dan to Beersheba," 
to denote the whole length of 
the country, about one hun- 
dred and fifty miles. 

BEE, a well known, small, 
industrious insect ; whose 




form, propagation, economy, 
and singular instinct and in- 
genuity, have attracted the 
attention of the most inqui- 
sitive and laborious inquirers 
into nature. Bees were very 
numerous in the east. Ca- 
naan was celebrated as " a 
land flowing with milk and 
honey." The wild bees form- 
ed their comb in the crevices 
of the rocks, and in the hol- 
lows of decayed trees. 

BEE'TLE. It occurs only 
Lev. xi, 22. A species of lo- 
cust is thought to be there 
spoken of. See LOCUST. 

BE'HE-MOTH. This ani- 
mal is now generally suppo- 
sed to be the hippopot'a-mus, 
or river horse, an animal al- 
together uncouth in its ap- 
pearance, its body being ex- 
tremely large, and the head 
enormously large in propor- 
tion; and the legs as dis- 
proportionately short. The 
length of the male has been 
known to be seventeen feet ; 
height seven feet, and the cir- 
cumference fifteen. The ge- 
neral colour of the animal is 
brownish, and the jarmament 
of teeth in its mouth is truly 
formidable. It is found in the 
lakes and rivers of Africa, 
feeds chiefly on vegetables, 
and is never offensive unless 
provoked or wounded. 

BEL, or BE'LUS, a name 
by which many heathens, and 
particularly the Babylonians, 
called their chief idol. Bel 
had a temple erected to him 
in the city of Babylon, on 
the very uppermost range of 
the famous tower of Babel, 

wherein were many statues 
of this 'pretended deity ; and 
one, among the rest, of massy 
gold, forty feet . high. See 

BE'LI-AL, strictly means 
worthlessness, wickedness. A. 
man or son of Belial is a 
wicked, worthless man. It was 
given to the inhabitants of 
Gibeah, who abused the Le- 
vite's wife, Judges xix, 22; 
and to Hophni and Phin'e- 
has, the wicked and profane 
sons of Eli, 1 Sam. ii, 12. 
In later times the name de- 
noted Satan. " What con- 
cord hath Christ with Be- 
lial ?" 2 Cor. vi, 15 ; for Satan 
is the author of evil, and 
eminently, " the Evil One." 

BE'LIEVE means to credit 
the truths of the Gospel, and 
trust in the merit of Christ 
for pardon and acceptance. 
(See Faith.) 

BELLS. Moses ordered 
that the lower part of the blue 
robe, which the high priest 
wore in religious ceremonies, 
should be adorned with pome- 
granates and bells, intermixed 
alternately, at equal distan- 
ces. The pomegranates were 
of wool, and in colour blue, 
purple, and crimson ; the 
bells were of gold. Moses 
adds, " And it shall be upon 
Aaron to minister ; -and his 
sound shall be heard when he 
goeth in unto the holy place 
before the Lord, and when he 
cometh out ; that he die not." 
Their sound intimated when 
he was about to enter the 
sanctuary, and served to keep 
up the attention of the people. 


A reverential respect for the 
Divine Inhabitant was also 
indicated. Bells were a part 
of the martial furniture of 
horses employed in war. 
- BELLY is used in Scrip- 
ture for gluttony, Titus i, 12 ; 
Philip, iii, 16 5 Rom. xvi, 18. 
For the heart, or the secrets 
of the mind, Prov. xx, 27, 30 ; 
xxii, 18. " The bellyof hell" 
signifies the grave, or some 
imminent danger,- or deep dis- 
tress, Jonah ii, 2 ; Ecclus. 
ii, 5. 

BEL-SHAZ'ZAR, the last 
king of Babylon, and, accord- 
ing to Hales and others, the 
grandson of Neb-u-chad-nez'- 
zar, Dan. v, 18. The only cir- 
cumstances of his reign re- 
corded, are the visions of the 
Prophet Daniel, and his sa- 
crilegious feast and violent 
death, Dan. v, 1-30. See 

BEN'JA-MIN, the young- 
est son of Jacob and Rachel, 
who was born, A. M. 2272, 
not far from Bethlehem, 
whom, with her last breath, 
his mother named Be-no'ni, 
that is, " the son of my sor- 
row ;" but soon afterward 
Jacob changed his name, and 
called him Benjamin, that is, 
" the son of my right hand." 

BE-RE'A, a city of Mace- 

BER-NI'CE, the daughter 
of Agrippa, surnamed the 
Great, king of the Jews, and 
sister to young Agrippa, also 
king of the Jews. This lady 
was first betrothed to Mark, 
the son of Alexander Ly- 
sym'a chus, Al'ba-rach, of 

61 BET 

Al-ex-an'dria ; afterward she 
married Herod, king of Chal- 
cis, her own uncle by the fa- 
ther's side. After the death 
of Herdd, which happened 
A. D. 48, she was married to 
Pol'e-mon, king of Pontus, 
but did not long continue 
with him. She returned to 
her brother A-grip'pa, and 
with him heard the discourse 
which Paul delivered before 
Festus, Acts xxv. 

BER'YL, a pellucid gem. 
of a bluish green colour, 
found in the East Indies, Pe- 
ru, Sibe'ria, and Tartaiy. It 
has a brilliant appearance, 
and is generally transparent. 
The tenth stone belonging 
to the high priest's breast- 
plate. See Precious Stones. ' 

BETH, in Hebrew, signi- 
fies house ; and is prefixed to 
veiy many proper names and 
other words, thus forming 
with them the name of aplace; 
as Beth-el, " house of God ;" 
Beth-lehem, " house of bread," 

BETH-AB'A-RA, signifies 
in the Hebrew a place of pas- 
sage, because of its ford over 
the river Jordan, on the east 
bank of which river it stood 
over against Jericho, Joshua 
ii, 7 ; iii, 15, 16. 

BETH'A-NY, a consider- 
able place, situated on the as- 
cent of the mount of Olives, 
about two miles east from Je- 

BETH-A'VEN, a city of 
the tribe of Benjamin, east- 
ward of Bethgl. There, was 
also a desert of the same 




BETH'EL, a city which 
lay to the west of Ai, about 
twelve miles to the north of 
Jerusalem, in the confines of 
the tribe of Ephraim and 
Benjamin. Here Jacobslept 
and had his vision. The name 
of this city had formerly been 
Luz, which signifies an al- 
mond, and was probably so 
called from the number of al- 
mond trees which grew in 
those parts. BETHEL was 
also called Beth-a'ven, by 
the prophets, -which signifies 
" house of vanity "in derision 
of the worship of the golden 
calves established there. 

BETH-ES'DA. This word 
signifies the house of mercy, 
and was the name of a pool, 
or public bath at Jerusalem, 
which had five porticoes, piaz- 
zas, or covered walks around 
it. This bath was called Beth- 
csda, from the great goodness 
of God manifested to his peo- 
ple, in bestowing healing vir- 
tues upon its waters, John v, 
2-4. There appears a mercy 
and a wisdom in this miracle 
which must strike every one 
who attentively considers the 
account, unless he be a deter- 
mined unbeliever in miracu- 
lous interposition. For, 1. 
The miracle occurred from 
time to time, that is, occa- 
sionally, perhaps, frequently. 
2. Though but one at a time 
was healed, yet, as this might 
often occur, a singularly gra- 
cious provision was made for 
the relief of Jthe sick inhabit- 
ants of Jerusalem in despe- 
rate cases. 3. The angel pro- 
bably acted invisibly, but the 

commotion in the waters was 
so strong and peculiar as to 
mark a supernatural .agent, 
4. There is great probability 
in what Doddridge, following 
Tertullian, supposes, that the 
waters obtained their healing 
property not long before the 
ministry of Christ, and lost il 
after his rejection and cruci- 
fixion by the Jews. In this 
case a connection was esta 
blished between the healing 
virtue of the pool and the pre- 
sence of Christ on. earth, in- 
dicating HIM to be the source 
of this benefit, and the true 
agent in conferring it ; anc 
thus it became, afterward at 
least, a confirmation of his 

BETH-HO'RON stood or 
the confines of Ephraim and 
Benjamin, which is supposed 
to be Bethoor, an Arab vil 
lage about twelve miles fron: 

BETH'LE-HEM, a city ir 
the tribe of Judah, about sh 
miles south from Jerusalem; 
Judges xvii, 7; and likewise 
called Eph'rath, Gen. xlviii 
7; or Eph'ra-tah, Micah v, 
2 ; and the inhabitants of ii 
Eph'rath-ites, Ruth i, 2 ; ] 
Sam. xvii, 12. Here David 
was born, and spent his earlj 
years as a shepherd. And 
here also the scene of the 
beautiful narrative of Ruth is 
supposed to be laid. But ite 
highest honour is, that here 
our Divine Lord condescend- 
ed to be born of woman. 

BETH'PHA-GE, (Beth'- 
fa-je,) so called from its pro- 
ducing figs, a small village 




situated in Mount Olivet,and, 
as it seems, somewhat nearer 
Jerusalem than Beth'a-ny. 
The distance between Beth'- 
phage and Jerusalem is about 
fifteen furlongs. 

BETH'SA'I-DA, (or Beth- 
sai'da,') a city whose name in 
Hebrew imports a place of 
fishing or of hunting, and for 
both of these exercises it was 
well situated. As it belonged 
to the tribe of Naph'ta-li, it 
was in a country remarkable 
for plenty of deer; and as 
it lay on the north end of the 
lake Gen-nes'a-reth, just 
where the river Jordan runs 
into it, became the residence 
of fishermen. Three of the 
apostles, Philip, Andrew, and 
Peter, were born in this city. 
It is not mentioned in the Old" 
Testament, though it fre- 
quently occurs in the New ; 
the reason is, that it was but 
a village, as Josephus tells us, 
till Philip the tetrarch en- 
larged it, making it a magnifi- 
cent city, and gave it the 
name of Ju'li-us, out of re- 
spect to Ju'li-a, the daughter 
of Au-gus'tus Caesar. 

BETH'SHAN, a city be- 
longing to the half tribe of 
Ma-nas'seh, on the west of 
Jordan, and not far from the 
river. It is said to be seventy- 
five miles from Jerusalem, 2 
Mace, xii, 29. 

BE-THU'EL, the son of 
Nahor and Milcah. He was 
Abraham's nephew, and fa- 
ther to Laban and Re-bek'ah, 
the wife of Isaac, Gen. xxii, 
20 -23. 

BE-TROTH', to contract 

any one in order to a future 
marriage. The word imports 
as much as giving one's troth ; 
that is, true faith or promise. 
Among the ancient Jews, the 
betrothing was performed ei- 
ther by a writing, or by a piece 
of silver given to the bride. 
After the marriage was con- 
tracted, the 3 r oung people had 
the liberty of seeing' each 
other, which was not allowed 
them before. If, after the be- 
trothment, the bride should 
trespass against that fidelity 
she owed to her bridegroom, 
she was treated as an adul- 
teress. See MARRIAGE. 

BE-WRAY', an old word, 
signifying to betray, to show 
or make visible. 

BE'ZER, or Boz'ra, or 
Bos'tra, a city beyond Jordan, 
given by Moses to Reuben : 
this town was designed by 
Joshua to be a city of refuge ; 
it was given to the Levites 
of Ger'shom's family, Deut. 
iv, 43. When Scripture men- 
tions Bezer, it adds, " in the 
wilderness," because it lay 
in Arabia Deserta, and the 
eastern part of Edom, encom- 
passed with deserts. 

BIER, the funeral couch 
in which the dead, without 
coffins, were carried forth. 

BIL'DAD, the Shuliite, 
one of Job's friends, thought 
by some to have descended 
from Shu'ah, the son of Abra- 
ham by Ke-tu'rah, Job ii, 11. 

BIND and Loose, a usual 
phrase for declaring whatwas 
lawful or unlawful ; that 
which was binding upon 
men's conscience, and that 




from the obligation of whicfh 
they were loosed or freed. 

Under these terms our 
Lord gave his disciples au- 
thority, through the guidance 
of his own teaching, and the 
inspiration of the Holy Spirit, 
to declare the laws of the 
Gospel dispensation. And he 
promises that these laws shall 
be confirmed in heaven, as 
his own law, and the rule 
of moral government. They 
were thus made the infallible 
teachers of the whole truth 
of his religion. 

No man, therefore, or body 
of men, can have power to 
bind or loose in the Church, 
but he who is inspired to 
know what the laws of the 
Divine government are ; for 
nothing which is declared on 
earth can hold good in hea- 
ven, as determining what is 
pleasing or displeasing to 
God, but what is in fact a re- 
velation of God's own will, 
whicji is the law of his crea- 

The apostles only had that 
revelation, and they only, 
therefore, had the power to 
declare what was lawful or 
the contrary, " to bind and to 
loose." See Keys. 

BIRD, a common name for 
all birds, but is sometimes 
used for the sparrow in par- 

Birds are distinguished by 
the Jewish legislator into 
clean and unclean. Such as 
fed upon grain and seeds 
were allowed for food, and 
such as devoured flesh and 
carrion were prohibited. 

Moses, to, inspire the Is- 
raelites with sentiments ol 
tenderness toward the brute 
creation, commands them, ii 
they find a bird's nest, not tc 
take the dam with the young, 
but to suffer the old one tc 
fly away, and to take the 
young only, Deut. xxii, 6. 
This is one of those merciful 
institutions in the law ql 
Moses which respect the ani- 
mal creation, and tended to 
humanize the heart of thai 
people, to excite in them a 
sense of the Divine provi- 
dence extending itself to all 
creatures, "and to teach them 
to exercise their dominion 
over them with gentleness, 
Besides, the young nevej 
knew the sweets of liberty : 
the dam did : they might be 
taken and used for any lawful 
purpose ; but the dam must 
not be brought into a state oi 

BIRTH'RIGHT, the righl 
of the first-bom son. The 
birthright had many privileges 
annexed to it. The first borr 
was consecrated to the Lord 
Exod. xxii, 29 ; had a double 
portion of the estate allottee 
him, Deut. xxi, 17; had i. 
dignity and authority over his 
brethren, Gen. xlix, 3; sue 
ceeded in the government o; 
the family or kingdom, < 
Chron. xxi, 3 ; and, as some 
with good reason suppose, ii 
ancient times to the priest 
hood or chief government ii 
ecclesiastical matters. 

BISHOP signified an over- 
seer, or one who has the in : 
spection and direction of anj 




thing. The most common 
; acceptation of the word bishop 
is that in Acts xx, 28, and in 
St. Paul's Epistles, Philip, i, 
1, where it signifies the pastor 
of a Church. The word, as 
used by the apostolic writers, 
when Deferring to the pastors 
of Christian Churches, is evi- 
dently of the same import as 
presbyter or elder; for the 
terms, as they occur in the 
New Testament, appear to be 
synonymous, ^ and., are used 
indifferently. In Titus i, 5, 
it is said, " For this cause 
left 1 thee in Crete, that 
thou shouldest set in order 
the things that are wanting, 
and ordain elders in every 
city;" and then it follows in 
verse 7, " For a bishop must ' 
be blameless." 

BI-THYN'I-A, aeountry of 
Asia Mi'nor, stretching along 
the shore of the Black Sea, 
from Mys'i-a to Paph-la-go'-' 
ni-a ; having /Phryg'i-a and 
Gala'tia on the south. St. 
Peter addressed his first 
Epistle to the Hebrew Chris- 
tians who were scattered 
through this and the neigh- 
bouring countries. 

BITTER, denoting vexa- 
tion, anger, fury. Sometimes 
.bitterness of soul signifies 
^only grief, 1 Sam. i, 10 ; 2 
Kings iv, 27. " Bitter envy- 
ing," James iii, 14, denotes 
mortal and permanent hatred. 
King Hezekiah in his hymn 
says, Isaiah xxxviii, 17, that 
'.' in the midst of his peace, 
he was attacked with. great 
bitterness," i. e., a very dan- 
gerous disease. 

BITTERN, a fowl about 
the size of the heron, and of 
the same species. 

BLACK denotes great dis- 
tress and consternation, Joel 
ii, 6; men in fear turn pale, 
but in despair the whiteness 
of a sudden fright turns into 

BL AS'PHE-MY properly 
denotes calumny,, detraction, 
reproachful or abusive lan- 
guage, against whomsoever it 
be vented. To blaspheme 
God is to revile him, by de- 
nying or ridiculing his per- 
fections, word, or ordinances, 
and by ascribing to him any 
thing base or sinful, 2 Sam. 
xii, 14 ; Tit. ii, 5 ; Revela- 
tion xiii, 6. 

" Blasphemy against the 
Holy Spirit," Matt, xii, 31, 
32 ; Mark iii, 28, 29 ; Luke 
xii, 10, is imputing the mi- 
racles wrought by the power 
of the Holy Ghost to the 
power of the devil. The Pha- 
risees were the persons 
charged with the crime : the 
sin itself manifestly consist- 
ed in ascribing what was 
done by the finger of God to 
the agency of the devil ; and 
the reason, therefore, why our 
Lord pronounced it unpar- 
donable, is plain ; because, 
by withstanding the evidence 
of miracles, they resisted the 
strongest means of convic- 
tion, and that wilfully and 
malignantly ; and, giving way 
to their passions, opprobrious- 
_ly treated that Holy Spirit 
whom they ought to have 
adored. From all which it 
will probably follow that no 




person can now be guilty of 
the blasphemy against the 
Holy Ghost, in the sense in 
which our Saviour originally 
intended it; but there may 
be sins which bear a very 
near resemblance to it. This 
appears from the case of the 
apostates mentioned in the 
Epistle to the Hebrews. It 
may be laid down as certain, 
for the relief of those who 
maybe tempted to think that 
they .have committed the un- 
pardonable sin, that their hor- 
ror of it, and the trouble 
which the very apprehension 
causes them, are the sure 
proofs that they are mis- 

BLEMISH, whatever ren- 
ders a person or thing imper- 
fect or uncomely. The Jewish 
law required the priests to be 
free from blemishes of person, 
Lev. xxi, 17-23 ; xxii, 20-24. 
Scandalous professors are 
blemishes to the Church of 
God, 2 Peter ii, 13 ; Jude 12, 
and therefore ought to be put 
away from it, in the exercise 
of a godlv discipline. 

There are three points of 
view in which the acts of 
blessing may be considered. 
The first is, when men are 
said to bless God, as in Psalm 
ciii, 1 , 2, they only ascribe to 
himthatpraisejand dominion, 
and honour, and glory, and. 
blessing, which it is equally 
the duty and joy of his crea- 
tures to render. But when 
God is said to bless his peo- 
ple, Gen. i, 22 ; Eph. i, 3 ; the 
meaning is, that he confers 

benefits upon them, either 
temporal or spiritual, anoTso 
communicates to them some 
portion of that blessedness 
which, in infinite fulness, 
dwells in himself, James i, 
17 ; Psalm civ, 24, 28 ; Luke 
xi, 9-13. In the third place 
men are said to bless their 
fellow creatures. From the 
time that God entered into 
covenant with Abraham, and 
promised extraordinary bless- 
ings to his posterity, it ap- 
pears to have been customary 
for the father of each family, 
in the direct line, or line of 
promise,previous to his death, 
to call his children around 
him, and to inform them, ac- 
cording to . the knowledge 
which it please'd God then to 
give him, how, and in what 
manner the Divine blessing 
conferred upon Abraham was 
to descend among them. 
Upon these occasions the pa- 
triarchs enjoyed a Divine il- 
lumination ; and under its in- 
fluence their benediction was 
deemed a prophetic oracle, 
foretelling events with the 
utmost certainty, and extend- 
ing to the remotest period of 
time. Thus Jacob blessed 
his sons, Gen. xlix ; and Mo- 
ses instructed Aaron, and his 
descendants, to bless the con- 
gregation, " In thiswise shall 
ye bless the children of Is- 
rael, saying unto them, The 
Lord bless thee, and keep 
thee ; the Lord make his face 
to shine upon thee ; the Lord 
lift up his countenance upon 
thee, and give thee peace," 
Num. iv, 23. ' 




BLINDNESS is often 
used in Scripture to express 
ignorance or want of discern- 
ment in divine things, as well 
as the being destitute of na- 
tural sight. See Isa. xlii, 18, 
19; vi, 10; Matt., xv, 14. 
" Blindness of heart" is the 
want of understanding arising 
from the influence of vicious 
passions. ~ . 

BLOOD is used, 1, for the 
fluid which circulates in the 
veins of men, and other ani- 
mals. 2. Bloodshed, murder, 
blood" guiltiness, cruelty. 3. 
For any thing which appears 
like blood, as the juice of the 
grape. " The moon shall be 
changed into blood," appear 
red like blood, as it does, in 
some degree, during a total 
eclipse. 4. For the sacri- 
ficial death of Christ. ' ' We 
are justified by his blood," 
&c. ; " We have redemption 
through his blood," dec. The 
eating of blood was for- 
bidden to Noah and his de- 
scendants, and the Israelites ; 
the restraint was also en- 
joined, under the new cove- 
nant, upon believing Gentiles, 
as " a burden, which it seem- 
ed necessary to the Holy 
Spirit to impose upon them." 
This emphatic prohibition 
was made, no doubt, for two 
reasons : 

1. To prevent cruelty and 
murder. This is plainly in- 
timated, Gen. ix, 4-6. 

2. To be a constant me- 
morial to men, that their 
lives were forfeited to Di- 
vine justice, and that without 
shedding the blood of the great 

Sacrifice there was no remls 
sion. See Lev. xvii, 10-14. 

our Saviour named the sons 
of Zebedee Boanerges, ha 
perhaps had an eye to that 
prophecy of Haggai, "Yet 
once, and I will shake the 
heavens and the earth," ii, 6 ; 
which is by the apostle to the 
Hebrews, xii, 26, applied to 
the great alteration made in 
the economy of the Jews by 
the publication of the Gospel. 
The name Boanerges, there- 
fore, given to James and John, 
imports that they should be 
eminent instruments in ac- 
complishing the wondrous 
change, and should, like an 
earthquake or thunder, might- 
ily bear down all opposition, 
by their inspired preaching 
and miraculous powers. That 
it does not -relate to their 
mode of preaching is certain ; 
for that clearly appears to 
have been calmly argumenta- 
tive, and sweetly persuasive 
the very reverse of what is 
usually called a thundering 

BOAR. The wild boar is 
considered as the parent stock 
of our domestic hog. He is 
smaller, but at the same time 
stronger and more undaunted 
than the hog. In his own de- 
fence, he will turn on men or 
dogs ; and scarcely shuns any 
denizen of the forest, in the 
haunts where he ranges. His 
colour is always an iron gray, 
inclining to black. His snout 
is longer than that of the com- 
mon breed, and his ears are 
comparatively short. His 




tusks are very formidable, 
and>all Ms habits are fierce 
and savage. The destructive 
ravages of these animals are 
mentioned in Psalm Ixxx, 14. 
Dr. Pococke observed very 
large herds of wild boars' on 
the side of Jordan, where it 
flows out of the sea of Tibe- 
rias ; and saw several of them 
on the other side lying among 
the reeds by the sea. 

BOCHIM, the place of 
weepings, where the He- 
brews celebrated their so- 
lemn feasts. Here the angel 
of the covenant appeared to 
them, and denounced the sin- 
fulness of their idolatry, which 
caused bitter weeping among 
the people ; whence the place 
had its name, Judg. ii, 5. 

BODY, the animal frame 
of man, as distinguished from 
his spiritual nature. The body 
of any thing, in the style of 
the Hebrews, is the very re- 
ality of the thing. The " body 
of day," " the body of purity," 
"the body of death," "the 
body of sin," signify broad 
day, innocence itself, &c. 
" The body of death" signi- 
fies either our mortal body, 
or the body which violently 
engages us in sin by concu- 
piscence, and which domi- 
neers in our members. An 
assembly or community is 
called a body, 1 Cor. x, 17. 

B ON DS were of two kinds, 
public and private ; the for- 
mer were employed to secure 
a prisoner in the public jail,' 
after confession or convic- 
tion ; the latter when he was 
delivered to a magistrate, or 

even to private persons, to be 
kept at their houses till lie 
should be tried. The Apostle 
Paul was subjected to pri- 
vate bonds by Felix, the Ro- 
man governor, who " com- 
manded a centurion to keep 
him, and to let him have 
liberty, and that he should 
forbid none of his acquaint- 
ance to minister, or come 
unto him," Acts xxiv, 23. 
And after he was carried pri- 
soner to Rome, he "dwelt 
two whole years in his own 
hired house, and received all 
that came in unto him," 
xxviii, 30. 

BONNET was a covering 
for the head, worn by the 
Jewish priests. 

BOOK, a writing com- 
posed on some point of know- 
ledge by a person -intelligent 
therein, for the instruction or 
amusement of the reader. 

2. Several sorts of mate- 
rials were formerly used in 
making books : stone and 
wood were the first materials 
employed to engrave such 
things upon as men were de- 
sirous of having transmitted 
to posterity. The laws of Je- 
hovah were written on tables 
of stone, and those of Solon 
on wooden planks. Tables 
of wood and ivory were comr 
mon among the ancients : 
those of wood were very fre- 
quently covered with wax, 
that persons might write on 
them with more ease, or blot 
out what they had written. 
And the instrument used to 
write with was a piece of 
iron called a style; and hence 




the word " style" came to be 
taken for the composition of 
the writing. The leaves of 
the palm tree were after- 
ward used instead of wooden 
planks, and the finest and 
thinnest part of the bark of 
such trees as the lime, ash, 
maple, and elm; and espe- 
cially the Egyptian papyrus. 
Hence came the word liber, 
(a book,) which signifies the" 
inner bark of the trees. And 
as these barks were rolled up 
in order to be removed with 
greater ease, each roll was 
called volumen, a volume ; a 
name afterward given to the 
like rolls of paper or parch- 
ment. From the Egyptian 
papyrus the word paper is de- 
rived. After this, leather was 
introduced, especially the 
skins of goats and sheep. For 
the king of Per'ga-mus, in 
collecting his library, was led 
to the invention of parchment 
made of those skins. The 
ancients likewise wrote upon 

-3. If the ancient books were 
large, they were formed of a 
number of skins, of a number 
of pieces of linen and cotton 
cloth, or of pa-py'rus, or parch- 
ment, connected together. 
The leaves were rarely writ- 
ten over on both sides, Ezek. 
ii, 9 ; Zech. v, 1. Books, 
when written upon very flexi- 
ble materials, were rolled 
around a stick ; and if they 
were very long, around two, 
from the two extremities. 
The reader unrolled the book 
to the place which he wanted, 
and rolled it up again when 

he had read it, Luke iv, 17- 
20 ; whence the name a vo- 
lume, or thing rolled up. The 
leaves thus rolled around the 
stick, which has been men- 
tioned, and bound with a 
string, could be easily sealed, 
Isa. xxix, 11 ; Dan. xii, 4 ; 
Rev. v, 1 ; vi, 7. Those books 
which were inscribed on ta- 
blets of wood, lead, brass, or 
ivory, were connected to- 
gether by rings at the back, 
through which a rod was 
passed to carry them by. 

BOOKS, Writers of. The 
ancients seldom wrote their 
treatises with their own hand, 
but dictated them to their 
freedmen and slaves. A great 
part of the books of the New 
Testament was dictated after 
this custom. St. Paul noted 
it as a particular circum- 
stance in the Epistle to the 
Galatians, that he had writ- 
ten it with his own hand, 
Gal. vi, 11. But he affixed 
the salutation with his own 
hand, 2 Thess. iii, 17 ; 1 Cor. 
xvi, 21 ; Col. iv, 18. The 
a-man-u-en'sis who wrote the 
Epistle to the Romans, has 
mentioned himself near the 
conclusion, Rom. xvi, 22. 

THE LORD, Psa. Ixix, 28. 
Some have thought it very 
probable that these descrip- 
tive phrases, which are fre- 
quent in Scripture, are taken 
from the custom, observed 
generally in the courts of 
princes, of keeping a list of 
persons who are in their 
service, of the provinces 

BpO 70 

which they govern, of the 
officers of their armies, of the 
number of their troops, and 
sometimes even of the names 
of their soldiers. Thus, when 
it is said that any one is 
written in the book of life, 
it means that he particularly 
belongs to God, and is en- 
rolled among the number of 
his friends and servants : and 
to be " blotted out of the book" 
of life," is to be erased from 
- the list of God's friends and 
servants, as those who are 
guilty of treachery are -struck 
off the roll of officers belong- 
ing to a prince. The most 
satisfactoiy explanation of 
these phrases is, however, 
that which refers them to the 
genealogical lists of the Jews, 
or to the registers kept of the 
living, from which the names 
of all the dead were blotted 

niel, speaking of God's judg- 
ment, says, "The judgment 
was set, and the books were 
opened," Dan. vii, 10. This 
is an allusion to what was 
practised when aprince called 
his servants to account. The 
accounts are produced and 
examined. It is possible he 
might allude, also, to a cus- 
tom of the Persians, among 
whom it was a constant prac- 
tice every day to write down 
the services rendered to the 
king, and the rewards given 
to those who had performed 
them. Of this we see an in- 
stance in the history of A-has- 
u-e'rus and Mor'de-cai, Esth. 
iv, 12, 34. When, therefore, 


the king sits judgment, the 
books are opened : he obliges 
all his servants to reckon with 
him : he punishes those who 
have failed in their duty : he 
compels those to pay who are 
indebted to him ; and he re- 
wards those who have done 
him services. A similar pro- 
ceeding will take place 'at 
the day of God's final judg- 

SEALED BOOK, mentioned 
Isa. xxix, 11, and the book 
sealed with seven seals, in 
Revelation v, 1-3, are the 
prophecies of Isaiah and of 
John, which were written in 
a book, or roll, after the man- 
ner of the ancients, and'were 
sealed, which figure truly sig- 
nifies that they were myste- 
rious : they had respect to 
times remote, and to future 
events; so that a complete 
knowledge of their meaning 
could not be obtained till after 
what was foretold should hap- 
pen, and the seals, as it were, 
taken off. 

BOOTH, a tent made of 
poles, and used as a tem- 
porary residence. 

BOOTY, spoils. taken in 
war, Num. xxxi, 27-32. 

BOSOM, the front of the 
upper part of the body ; the 
breast. The orientals gene- 
rally wore long, wide, and 
loose garments; and when 
about to carry any thing away 
that their hands would not 
contain, they used for the pur- 
pose a fold in the bosom of 
their robe. To this custom 
our Lord alludes; "Good 
.measure shall men give into 

BOT 71 


your bosoms," Luke vi, 38. 
Favourites commonly lay in 
the " bosom of their friends ;" 
that is, they were placed next 
below them, John xiii, 23, 
Hence, to have one in "our 
bosom" implies kindness, se- 
crecy, intimacy, Gen. xvi, 5 ; 
2 Sam.xii, 8. Christ is in the 
bosom of the Father; that is, 
possesses the closest inti- 

macy, and most perfect know- 
ledge of the Father, John i, 
18. Our Saviour is said to 
carry his lambs in his bosom, 
which beautifully represents 
his tender care and watch- 
fulness over them, Isa. xi, 11. 

BOS'SES, the thickest 
and strongest parts of a buck 
ler, Job xv, 20. 


BOT'TLE. The eastern 
bottle is made of a goat or kid 
skin, stripped off without 
opening the belly : the aper- 
tures, made by cutting off the 
tail and legs, are sewed up, 
and when filled, it is tied 
about the neck. On receiving 
the liquor poured into it, a 
skin bottle must -be greatly 
swelled and distended ;. and 
it must be swelled still far- 
ther by the fermentation of 
the liquor within it, as that 

advances to ripeness. In this__ 
state, if no vent be given to" 
the liquor, it may overpower 
the strength of the bottle, or 
it may penetrate by some se- 
cret crevice or weaker part.. 
Hence arises the propriety of 
putting new wine into new 
bottles, which, being strong, 
may resist the expansion, the 
internal pressure of their con 
tents, and preserve the wine 
in due maturity ; while old 
bottles may, without danger, 




contain old wine, whose fer- 
mentation is already past, 
Matt, ix, 17 ; Luke v, 38, Such 
bottles or vessels of skin are 
almost universally employed 
at the present day in travel- 
ling in the east. 

BOUNDS, limits. "Thou 
hast appointed his bounds," 
Job, xiv, 5. We are not to 
understand the bounds apply- 
ing to individuals, but to the 
race in general. The general 
term of human life is fixed 
by God himself: in vain are 
all attempts to prolong it be- 
yond this term ; yet man may 
so live as never to reach 
them ; for folly and wicked- 
ness abridge the term of hu- 
man life, Psa. Iv, 23. 

BOW. The expression "to 
break the bow," so frequent 
in Scripture, signifies to de- 
stroy the power of a people, 
because the principal offen- 
sive weapon of armies was 
anciently the bow. " A de- 
ceitful bow" is one that, from 
some defect, either in bend- 
ing or the string, carries the 
arrow wide of the mark, how- 
ever well aimed. In 2 Sam. 
_i, 18, we read, "Also he (Da- 
vid) bade them teach the 
children of Judah the use of 
THE BOW." Here the words 
"the use of," are not in the 
Hebrew. It should be "teach 
them the bow," i. e. the song 
of THE BOW, the lamentation 
over Saul and Jonathan which 
follows ; and which is called, 
by way. of distinction, THE 
BOW, from the mention of this 
weapon in verse 22. See 

BOWELS. Accordingto 
the Jews,the bowels are the 
seat of mercy, tenderness^ 
and compassion. Joseph's 
bowels were moved at the 
sight of his brother Benja- 
min ; that is, he felt himself 
softened and affected. 

BOX TREE, a species of 
tree, an evergreen. 

BRACE'LET, an orna- 
mental chain or clasp, made 
of various metals, to wear 
about one's wrist or leg, com- 
monly worn by the oriental 
princes, as a badge of power 
and authority. This was 
probably the reason that the 
Amajekite^brought the brace- 
let which he found on Saul's 
aim, along with his crown, to 
David, 2 Sam. i t 10. It was a 
royal ornament, and belonged 
to the regalia of the kingdom. 
The bracelet was worn both 
by men and women of differ 
ent ranks. 

BRAMBLE, the raspberry 
or blackberry bush, or any 
other prickly shrub. In the 
Old Testament, the buckthorn. 

BRANCH, a title of Mes 
siah, Isa. xi, 1. Christ is re- 
presented as a slender twig, 
shooting out 'from the trunk 
of an old tree lopped to the 
very root and decayed, and 
becoming itself a mighty tree : 
reference is made, 1. To 
the kingly dignity of Christ, 
springing up from the de- 
cayed house of David. 2. To 
the exaltation which was to 
succeed his humbled condi- 
tion on earth, and to the glory 
and vigour of his mediatorial 






BRASS. The word brass 
occurs very often in the Bible; 
but that is a mixed metal, an 
alloy of copper and zinc, for 
the making of -which we are 
indebted to the Germans of 
the thirteenth century. That 
the ancients knew not the art 
of making it, is almost cer- 
tain. None of their writings 
even hint at the process. 
There can be no doubt that 
copper is intended. This is 
spoken of as known prior to 
the flood. 

BREAD, a term which in 
Scripture is used, as by us, 
frequently for food in general ; 
but is also often found in its 
proper sense. Sparing in the 
use of flesh, like all the na- 
tions of the east, the chosen 
people usually satisfied their 
hunger with bread, and 
quenched their thirst in the 
running stream. Their bread 
was generally made of wheat 
or barley, or lentiles and 
beans. Bread of wheat flour, 
as being the most excellent, 
was preferred ; barley bread 
was used only in times "of 
scarcity and distress. 

2. SHEW BREAD was bread 
offered every Sabbath day 
upon the golden table in the 
holy place, Exod. xxv, 30. 
The Hebrews aflirm that 
these loaves were square, and 
had four sides, and were 
covered with leaves of gold. 
They were twelve in number, 
according to the number of 
the twelve tribes, in whose 
names - they were offered. 
Every loaf was composed of 
two assarons of flour, which 

make about five pints and one 
tenth. These loaves were 
unleavened. They were pre- 
sented hot every Sabbath 
day, the old ones being taken 
away and eaten by the priests 
only. This offering was ac- 
companied with salt and 
frankincense. The twelve 
loaves, because they stood 
before the Lord, were called 
the bread of faces, or of the 
presence ; and are therefore 
denominated in our English 
translation the sheiu bread. 

Since part of the frankin- 
cense put upon the bread was 
to be burned on the altar fora 
memorial, even an offering 
made by fire unto the Lord ; 
and since Aaron and his sons 
were to eat it in the holy 
place, Lev. xxiv, 5-9, it is 
probable that this bread typi- 
fied Christ, first presented as 
a sacrifice to. Jehovah, and 
then becoming spiritual food 
to such as in and through 
him are spiritual priests to 
God, even his Father, Rev. i, 
6 ; v, 10 ; xx, 6 ; 1 Peter ii, 
5. It appears from some 
places in Scripture, (see 
Exodus xxix, 32, and Num- 
bers vi, 15,) that there was 
always near the altar a bas- 
ket full of bread, in order to 
be offered together with the 
ordinary sacrifices. 

part of the priestly vestments, 
belonging to the Jewish high 
priests. It was about ten 
inches square, Exod. xxviii, 
13-31 ; and consisted of a 
folded piece of the same rich 
embroidered stuff of which 




theephodwas made. It was 
worn on the breast of the 
high priest, and was set with 
twelve precious stones, on 
each of which was engraven 
the name of one of the tribes. 
They were set in four rows, 
three in each row, and were 
divided from each other by 
the little golden squares or 
partitions in which they were 

This breastplate was fast- 
ened at the four comers, those 
on the top to each shoulder, 
by a golden hook or ring at 
the end of a wreathen chain ; 
and those below to the girdle 
of the ephod, by two strings 
or ribands, which had like- 
wise two rings or hooks. 
This ornament was never to 
be separated from the priest- 
ly garment ; and it was called 
the memorial, because it was a 
sign whereby the children of 
Israel might know that they 
were presented to God, and 
that they were had in remem- 
brance by him. It was also 
called the breastplate of judg- 
ment, because it contained 
the divine oracle. See URIJI 

2. BREASTPLATE, a piece 
of defensive armour to pro- 
tect the heart. Righteous- 
ness, like a breastplate, ren- 
ders the whole conduct unas- 
sailable to any accusation, 
Eph. vi, 14. 

BRIDE, a new married fe- 
male. The new married wo- 
man was considered among 
the Jews to be a bride for 30 
days. It signifies spiritually 
the Church of Christ, Rev. 

xxi, 9, while the faithful are 
in this mortal state. 

It was the custom among 
the ancient Greeks, and the 
nations around them, to con- 
duct the new married couple 
with torches and lamps to 
their dwelling. A Jewish 
marriage seems to have been 
conducted in much the same 
way. See Psalm xlv, 12, &c. 
In the parable of the ten vir- 
gins, the same circumstances 
are introduced. " While the 
bridegroom tarried," leading 
the procession through the 
streets of the city, the wo- 
men and domestics that were 
appointed to await his arrival 
at home, " all slumbered and 
slept. And at midnight there 
was a cry made, Behold, the 
bridegroom cometh ! Go ye 
out to meet him. Then all 
those virgins arose and trim- 
med their lamps. And the 
foolish said unto the wise, 
Give us of your oil ; for our 
lamps are gone out," Matt, 
xxv, 6! 

Those that were invited to 
the marriage were expected 
to appear in their best and 
gayest attire. If the bride- 
groom was in circumstances 
to afford it, wedding garments 
were prepared for all the 
guests, which were hung up 
in the antechamber for them 
to put on over the rest of their 
clothes as they entered the 
apartments where the mar- 
riage feast was prepared. To 
refuse, or even to neglect, 
putting on the wedding gar- 
ment, was reckoned an insult 
to the bridegroom ; aggrava- 




ted by the circumstance that 
it was provided by himself 
for the very purpose of being 
worn on that occasion, and 
was hung up in the way to 
the inner apartment. This 
accounts for the severity of 
the sentence- pronounced by 
the king who came in to see 
the guests, and found among 
them orie who had neglected 
to put it on : " And he said 
unto him, Friend, how earnest 
thou in hither, not having a 
wedding garment? And he 
was speechless," Mail;, xxii, 
11, "because it was provided 
at the expense of the enter- 
tainer, and placed full in his 
view. " Then said the king 
to the servants, Bind him 
hand and foot, and take him 
away, and cast him into outer 
darkness; there shall be weep- 
ing and gnashing of teeth." 


cient kind of mail, or steel 
net work, worn in battle to 
secure soldiers from sword 

BRIMSTONE* Gen. xix, 
24, a well known substance, 
extremely inflammable. Fire 
and brimstone are repre- 
sented in many passages of 
Scripture as the elements by 
which God punishes: the 
wicked ; both in this life* and 
another. There is in this a 
manifest allusion to the over- 
throw of: the cities of the 
plain by showers of ignited 
sulphur, to which the physical 
appearances -of the country 
bear witness to this day. 
The soil is bituminous, and 

might be raised by eruptions 
into the air, and then in- 
flamed and return in horrid 
showers of overwhelming fire . 
This awful catastrophe, there- 
fore, stands as a type of the 
final and eternal punishment 
of the wicked in another 

BROOK is distinguished 
from a river by its flowing 
only at particular times ; for 
example, after great rains, or 
the melting of the snow; 
whereas a river flows con- 
stantly at all seasons. How- 
ever, this distinction is not 
always observed in the Scrip- 
ture ; and one is not unfre- 
quently taken for the other 
the great rivers, such as the 
Euphrates, the Nile, the Jor- 
dan, and others, being called 
brooks. Thus the Euphrates, 
Isaiah xv, 7, is called the 
brook of willows. To deal 
deceitfully " as a brook," and 
to " pass away as the stream 
thereof," is to deceive our 
friend when he most needs 
and expects our help and 
comfort, Job vi, 15 ; because 
brooks, being temporary 
streams, are dried up in the 
heats of summer, when the 
traveller most needs a supply 
of water on his journey. 

BROTHER. 1. A brother 
by the same mother, Matt, iv, 
21; xx, 20. 2. A brother, 
though not by the same mo- 
ther, Matt, i, 2. 3. A near 
kinsman,^ cousin, Matt, xiii, 
55; Mark vi, 3. Observe, 
that in Matt, xiii, 55, James, 
and Joses, and Judas, are 
called the brethren of Christ, 




the ephod was made. It was 
worn on the breast of the 
high priest, and was set with 
twelve precious stones, on 
each of which was engraven 
the name of one of the tribes. 
They were set in four rows, 
three in each row, and were 
divided from each other by 
the little golden squares or 
partitions in which they were 

This breastplate was fast- 
ened at the four corners, those 
on the top to each shoulder, 
by a golden hook or ring at 
the end of a wreathen chain ; 
and those below to the girdle 
of the ephod, by two strings 
or ribands, which had like- 
wise two rings or hooks. 
This ornament was never to 
be separated from the priest- 
ly garment ; and it was called 
the memorial, because it was a 
sign whereby the children of 
Israel might know that they 
were presented to God, and 
that they were had in remem- 
brance by him. It was also 
called the breastplate of judg- 
ment, because it contained 
the divine oracle. See URIJI 

2. BREASTPLATE, a piece 
of defensive armour to pro- 
tect the heart. Righteous- 
ness, like a breastplate, ren- 
ders the whole conduct unas- 
sailable to any accusation, 
Eph. vi, 14. 

BRIDE, a new married fe- 
male. The new married wo- 
man was considered among 
the Jews to be a bride for 30 
days. It signifies spiritually 
the Church of Christ, Rev. 

xxi, 9, while the faithful are 
in this mortal state. 

It was the custom among 
the ancient Greeks, and the 
nations around them, to con- 
duct the new married couple 
with torches and lamps to 
their dwelling. A Jewish 
marriage seems to have been 
conducted in much the same 
way. See Psalm xlv, 12, &c. 
In the parable of the ten vir- 
gins, the same circumstances 
are introduced. " While the 
bridegroom tarried," leading 
the procession through the 
streets of the city, the wo- 
men and domestics that were 
appointed to await his arrival 
at home, " all slumbered and 
slept. And at midnight there 
was a cry made, Behold, the 
bridegroom cometh ! Go ye 
out to meet him. Then all 
those virgins arose and trim- 
med their lamps. And the 
foolish said unto the wise, 
Give us of your oil ; for our 
lamps are gone out," Matt, 
xxv, 6. 

Those that were invited to 
the marriage were expected 
to appear in their best and 
gayest attire. If the bride- 
groom was in circumstances 
to afford it, wedding garments 
were prepared for all the 
guests, which were hung up 
in the antechamber for them 
to put on over the rest of their 
clothes as they entered the 
apartments where the mar- 
riage feast was prepared. To 
refuse, or even to neglect, 
putting on the wedding gar- 
ment, was reckoned an insult 
to the bridegroom ; aggrava- 

BRI 77 

ted by the circumstance that 
it was provided by himself 
for the very purpose of being 
worn on that occasion, and 
was hung up in the way to 
the inner apartment. This 
accounts for the severity of 
the sentence pronounced by 
the king who came in to see 
the guests, and found among 
them orie who had neglected 
to put it on : " And he said 
unto him, Friend, how earnest 
thou in hither, not having a 
wedding garment? And he 
was speechless," Mat't. xxii, 
11, "because it was provided 
at the expense of the enter- 
tainer, and placed full in his 
view. " Then said the king 
to the servants, Bind him 
hand and foot, and take him 
away, and cast him into outer 
darkness ; there shall be weep- 
ing and gnashing of teeth." 


cient kind of mail, or steel 
net work, worn in battle to 
secure soldiers from sword 

BRIMSTONE?- Gen.-xix, 
24, a well known substance, 
extremely inflammable. Fire 
and brimstone are repre- 
sented in many passages of 
Scripture as the elements by 
which God punishes : the 
wicked ; both in this life" and 
another. There is in this a 
manifest allusion to the over- 
throw of the cities of the 
plain by showers of ignited 
sulphur, to which the physical 
appearances of the country 
bear witness to this day. 
The soil is bituminous, and 


inight be raised by eruptions 
into the air, and then in- 
flamed and return in horrid 
showers of overwhelming fire. 
This awful catastrophe, there- 
fore, stands as a type of the 
final and eternal punishment 
of the wicked in another 

BROOK is distinguished 
from a river by its flowing 
only at particular times ; for 
example, after great rains, or 
the melting of the snow ; 
whereas a river flows con- 
stantly at all seasons. How- 
ever, this distinction is not 
always observed in the Scrip- 
ture ; and one is not unfre- 
quently taken for the other 
the great rivers, such as the 
Euphrates, the Nile, the Jor- 
dan, and others, being called 
brooks. Thus the Euphrates, 
Isaiah xv, 7, is called the 
brook of willows. To deal 
deceitfully " as a brook," and 
to "pass away as the stream 
thereof," is to deceive our 
friend when he most needs 
and expects our help and 
comfort, Job vi, 15 ; because 
brooks, being temporary 
streams, are dried up in the 
heats of summer, when the 
traveller most needs a supply 
of water on his journey. 

BROTHER. 1. A brother 
by the same mother, Matt, iv, 
21 ; xx, 20. 2. A brother, 
though not by the same mo- 
ther, Matt, i, 2. 3. A near 
kinsman,. a cousin, Matt, xiii, 
55; Mark vi, 3. Observe, 
that in Matt, xiii, 55, James, 
and Joses, and Judas, are 
called the brethren of Christ, 


but were most probably only 
his cousins by his mother's 
side ; for James and Joses 
were the sons of Mary, Matt. 
xxvii, 56 ; and James and 
Judas, the sons of Alpheus, 
Luke yi, 15, 16; which Al- 
pheus is therefore probably 
the same with Cleopas, the 
husband of Mary, sister to our 
Lord's mother, John xix, 25. 

BUCK'LER. A defensive 
piece of armour, of the nature 
of a shield ; and is spoken 
figuratively of God, and of 
his truth. 

BUILD. Beside the pro- 
per and literal signification of 
this word, it is used with re- 
ference to children and a nu- 
merous posterity, Job xxii, 23. 
Building up families, cities, 
and nations, denotes increas- 
ing their number, honour, and 
power, 1 Chron. xvii, 10. 

BUL, the eighth month of 
the ecclesiastical year of the 
Jews, and the second month 
of the civil 3 r ear. It answers 
to October, and consists of 
twenty-nine 'days. We find 
the name of this month men- 
tioned in Scripture but once, 
J Kings vi, 38. 

BULL, the male of the 
beeve kind ; and it is to be 
recollected that the Hebrews 
never castrated animals. This 
animal was reputed by the 
Hebrews to be clean, and 
was generally made use of 
by them for sacrifices. The 
Egyptians had a particular 
veneration for it, and paid 
divine honors to it ; and the 
Jews imitated them in the 
worship of the golden calves 

78 BUL 

or bulls, in the wilderness, 
and in the kingdom of Israel. 
The wild bull is found in the 
Syrian and Arabian deserts. 
Bulls, in a figurative and alle- 
gorical sense, are taken for 
powerful, fierce, and insolent 
enemies, Psalms xxii, 12; 
Ixviii, 30. 

BULRUSH. Aplantgrow- 
ing on the banks of the Nile, 
and in marshy grounds. The 
stalk rises to the height of six 
or seven cubits, besides two 
under water. This stalk is 
triangular, and terminates in 
a crown of small filaments 
resembling hair. This reed, 
the Cyperus pa-py'nis of Lin- 
nseus, commonly called " the 
Egyptian reed," was of the 
greatest use to the inhabitants 
of the country where it grew ; 
the pith contained in the 
stock served them for food, 
and the woody part for build- 
ing vessels. For this purpose 
they made it up, like rushes, 
into bundles ; and, by tying 
these bundles together, gave 
their vessels the necessary 
shape and solidity. " The 
vessels of bulrushes," or pa- 
py'rus, " that are mentioned 
in sacred and profane his- 
tory," says Dr. Shaw, " were 
no other than large fabrics of 
the same kind with that of 
Moses, Exod. ii, 3 ; which, 
from the late introduction of 
plank and stronger materials, 
are now laid aside." These 
vegetables require much wa- 
ter for their growth; when, 
therefore, the river on whose 
banks they grew was reduced, 
they perished sooner than 




other plants. This explains 
Jobviii, 11. See RUSH. 

BURDEN, a heavy load. 
The word is commonly used 
in the prophets for a disas- 
trous prophecy. "Burden of 
the day," Matt, xx, 12, ex- 

Sresses the labour and toil, 
uring many hours, especial- 
ly the meridian heat. 

BUR'I-AL, the interment 
of a deceased person ; an of- 
fice held so sacred, that they 
who neglected it have in all 
nations been held in abhor- 
rence. As soon as the last 
breath had fled, the nearest 
relation, or the dearest friend, 
gave the lifeless body the 
parting kiss, the last farewell 
and sign of affection to the 
departed relative. This was 
a custom of immemorial anti- 
quity ; for the patriarch Jacob 
had no sooner yielded up his 
spirit, than his beloved Jo- 
seph, claiming for once the 
right of the first-born, " fell 
upon his face andkissedhim." 
The parting kiss being given,, 
the company rent their 
clothes, which was a custom 
of great antiquity, and the 
highest expression of grief 
in the primitive ages. After 
closing . the eyes, the next 
care was to bind up the face, 
which it was no more lawful 
to behold. The next care of 
surviving friends was to wash 
the body, probably, that the 
ointments and perfumes with 
which it was to be wrapped 
up, might enter more easily 
into the pores when opened 
by warm water. Thus the 
body of Dorcas was washed, 

and laid in an upper room. 
After the body was washed, 
it was shrouded, and swathed 
with a linen cloth ; jind the 
head was bound abouTwith a 
napkin. Such were the napkin 
and grave clothes in which 
the Saviour was buried. 

2. The body was sometimes 
embalmed. They wrapped 
up the body with sweet spices 
and odours, without extract- 
ing the brain, or removing the 
bowels. This is the way in 
which it was proposed to em- 
balm the lifeless body of our 
Saviour ; which was prevent- 
ed by his resurrection. The 
meaner sort of people seem 
to have been interred in their 
grave clothes without a coffin. 
In this manner was the sacred 
body of our Lord committed 
to the tomb. The body was 
sometimes placed upon a bier, 
which bore some resemblance 
to a coffin or bed, in order to 
be carried out to burial. 
Upon one of these was car- 
ried forth the widow's son of 
Nain, whom our compassion- 
ate Lord raised to life, and 
restored to his mother. 

3. The Israelites commit- 
ted the dead to their native 
dust ; and from the Egyptians, 
probably, borrowed the prac- 
tice of burning many spices 
at their funerals. "They 
buried Asa in his own sepul- 
chres, which he made for him- 
self in the city of David, and 
laid him in the bed which was 
filled with sweet odours, and 
divers kinds of spices, pre- 
pared by the apothecaries' 
art ; and they made a very 


great burning for him," 2 
Chron. xvi, 14. Thus the Old 
Testament historian entirely 
justifies the account which 
the evangelist gives of the 
quantity of spices with which 
the sacred body of Christ 
was swathed. Why then 
should it be reckoned incred- 
ible, that Nicodemus brought 
of myrrh and aloes about a 
hundred pounds' weight, to 
embalm the body of Jesus ? 

4. The funeral procession 
was attended by professional 
mourners, eminently skilled 
in the art of lamentation^ 
whom the friends and rela- 
tions of the deceased hired, 
to assist them in expressing 
their sorrow. The children 
in the streets through which 
they passed often suspended 
their sports to imitate the 
sounds, and joined with equal 
sincerity in the lamentations, 
Matt, xi, 17. Music was af- 
terward introduced,to aid the 
voices of the mourners : the 
trumpet was used at the fu- 
nerals of the great, and the 
small pipe or flute for those 
of meaner condition. Such 
were the minstrels whom our 
Lord found in the house of 
Jairus, making so great a 
noise round the bed on which 
the dead body of his daughter 
lay. The noise and tumult 
of these retained mourners, 
and the other attendants, ap- 
pear to have begun immedi- 
ately after the person expired. 
It is evident that this sort of 
mourning and lamentation 
was a land of art among the 
Jews : " Wailing shall be in 

80 BUT 

the streets ; and they shall 
call such as are skilful of la- 
mentation to wail," Amos v, 
16. To the dreadful noise 
and tumult of the hired mourn- 
ers, the following passage oi 
Jeremiah indisputably refers, 
and shows the custom to be 
derived from a very remote 
antiquity : " Call for the 
mourning women, that they 
may come ; and send for cun- 
ning women, that they may 
come, and let them make 
haste, and take up a wailing 
for us, that our eyes may run 
down with tears, and our eye- 
lids gush out with waters," 
Jer. ix, 17. See Sepulchres. 

BUSHEL is used in our 
English version to express a 
measure of capacity among 
tha Jews, containing about a 
peck, Matt, v, 15. 

BUTTER is taken in 
Scripture, as it has been al- 
most perpetually in the east, 
for cream or liquid butter. 
" He asked water, and she 
gave him milk; she brought 
forth butter in a lordly dish," 
Judges iv, 19 ; v, 25. The 
word which our translators 
rendered butter, properly sig- 
nifies cream; which is un- 
doubtedly the meaning of it in 
this passage : for Sisera com- 
plained of thirst, and asked a 
little water to quench it ; a 
purpose to which butter is but 
little adapted. Yet it is plain 
from Prov. xxx, 33, that churn- 
ing butter was not unknown 
in Judea. Whether the milk 
was agitated in a skin, as is 
the custom at present among 
the Moors and Arabs, or 

otherwise, we know not. To 
wash one's steps with, butter is 
to enjoy great and delightful 
prosperity, Job xxix, 6. In 
Isaiah vii, 15, butter and ho- 
ney are mentioned as food 
which, in Egypt and other 
places in the East, is in use 
to this day. The butter and 
honey are mixed, and the 
bread is then dipped in it. 

CAB, a^Hebrew measure, 
containing three pints and 

CA'BUL, the name which 
Hiram, king of Tyre, gave to 
the twenty cities in the land 
of Galilee, of which Solomon 
made him a present, in ac- 
knowledgment for his great 
services in building the tem- 
ple, 1 Kings ix, 13. 

C^E'-S A R, a title borne by 
all the Roman emperors. In 
Scripture, the reigning empe- 
ror is generally mentioned by 
the name of Cassar, without 
expressing any other distinc- 
tion. The Ccesars mention- 
ed in the New Testament, 
are, Augustus, (Luke ii, 1 ;) 
Tiberius, ( Luke iii, 1 ;) Cluu- 
dius, (Acts xi, 28 ;) Nero, 
(Acts xx?, 8 ;) but Ca-lig'u-la, 
who succeeded Tiberius, is 
not mentioned. 

C^S-A-RE'A, a city and 
port of Palestine, 62 miles 
northwest of Jerusalem, built 
by Herod the Great, and thus 
called in honour of Augustus 
Czesar. It was on the site of 
the tower of Strata. This city 
is often mentioned in the New 
Testament. When Judea 
was reduced to the state of a 

81 CAI 

Roman province, Casarea 
became the stated residence 
of the proconsul, which ac- 
counts for the circumstance 
of Paul being carried thither 
from Jerusalem, to defend 
himself. It is now deserted 
and desolate. 

IP'PI was first called Laish 
or Le'shem, Judges xviii, 7. 
After it was subdued by the 
Danites, it received the name 
of Dan. Philip, the youngest 
son of Herod the Great, made 
it the capital of histetrarehy, 
enlarged and embellished it, 
and gave it the name of Ca;- 
sare'a Philippi. It was situ- 
ated at the foot of Mount 
Hermon, near the head of the 
Jordan ; and was about fifty 
miles from Damascus, and 
thirty from Tyre. Our Sa- 
viour visited and taught in this 
place, and healed one who 
was possessed of an evil spi- 
rit : here also he gave the 
memorable rebuke to Peter. 
Mark viii. 

CAFA-PHA8, fCa-e'<t- 
phas,) high priest oftne Jews, 
succeeded Simon, son of Ca- 
mith; and after possessing 
this dignity nine years, from 
A. D. 25 to 34, he was suc- 
ceeded by Jonathan, son of 
Ananas, or Annas. He mar- 
ried a daughter of Annas, 
who also is called high priest 
in the gospel, because he had 
long enjoyed that dignity. 
When the priests deliberated 
on the seizure and death of 
Jesus Christ, Caiaphas de- 
clared that there was no room 
for debate on that matter, 

CAL 8 

John xi, 49, 50. When Judas 
had, betrayed Jesus, he was 
first taken before Annas, who 
sent him to his son-in-law, 
Caiaphas, who possibly lived 
in the same house, John 
xviii, 24. 

Two years after this, Vitel- 
lus, governor of Syria, coming 
to Jerusalem at the passover, 
deposed the high priest Caia- 
phas. From this it appears 
that Caiaphas had fallen un- 
der popular odium, for his de- 
position was to gratify the 

CAIN, the eldest son of 
Adam and Eve. He was the 
first man who had been a 
child, and the first man born 
of woman. The face of the 
earth from which Cain was 
driven, means, probably, from 
his own native district, and 
from the presence of his kin- 

CAKE, a composition of 
flour, butter, or other ingre- 
dients, baited in a small mass ; 
and among the ancients under 
the ashes. 

CALAMUS, an aromatic 
reed, growing in most places 
in Egypt, in Judea near lake 
Ge-nes'a-reth, and in several 
parts of Syria. It grows to 
about two feet in height; 
bearing from the root a knot- 
ted stalk, quite round, con- 
taining in its cavity a soft 
white pith. The whole is of 
an agreeable aromatic smell ; 
and the plant is said to scent 
the air with a fragrance even 
while growing. When cut 
down, dried, and powdered, 
it makes an ingredient in the 

! CAL 

richest perfumes. It was 
used for this purpose by the 

CALF, the young of the 
ox kind. There is frequent 
mention in Scripture of 
calves, because they were 
made use .of commonly in 
sacrifices. The "fatted calf 
was stall-fed, with specfal 
reference to a particular fes- 
tival or extraordinary sacri- 
fice. The " calves of th 
lips," Hpsea xiv, 2, signify 
the sacrifices of praise which 
the captives of Babylon ad- 
dressed to God. The "gold- 
en calf" was an idol set up 
and worshipped by the Israel- 
ites at the foot of Mount- Si- 
nai, in their passage through 
the wilderness to the land of 
Canaan. The image is sup- 
posed to have been like the 
Egyptian deity, Apis, which 
was an ox, an animal used in 
agriculture, and so a symbol 
of the god who presided over 
their fields, or of the produc- 
tive power of the Deity. It 
is plain, from Aaron's pro- 
claiming a fast to Jehovah, 
Exod. xxxii, 4, and from the 
worship of Jeroboam's calves 
being so expressly distin- 
guished from that of Baal, 
2 Kings x, 28-31, that both 
Aaron and Jeroboam meant 
the calves they formed and 
set up for worship to be em- 
blems of Jehovah. 

CALL, to name a person 
or thing, Acts xi, 26; Rom. 
yii, 3. To be called, accord- 
ing to the Hebrew manner of 
speaking, means that the per- 
sdh spoken of shall really be 


what he is called, and actu- 
ally fulfil that title. Thus, 
Isa. ix, 6, He shall be truly 
the Wonderful, the mighty 
God, &c., Luke i, 35. To call 
any thing by its name is an 
act of authority : the father 
names his son : " God calleth 
the stars by their names," 
Psa. cxlvii, 4. 2. To cry to 
another for help; and hence, 
to pray : Gen. iv, 26, " Then 
began men to call on the 
name of the Lord ;" the mean- 
ing of which seems to be, that 
they then first began to wor- 
ship him in public assemblies. 
In both the Old and New 
Testament, to call upon the 
name of the Lord, imports in- 
voking the true God in prayer. 
In this view the phrase is 
applied to the worship of 

3. "To call" signifies to 
invite to the blessings of the 
Gospel, to offer salvation 
through Christ, either by God 
himself, or, under his appoint- 
ment, by his servants. "Call- 
ing" has reference to those 
parables of our Lord in which 
the Gospel is 'represented 
under the figure of a royal 
feast, to which numerous 
guests are invited. Those 
who accept the invitation, and 
are received by the master of 
the feast, are denominated 
THE CALLED, or invited, by 
way of eminence, and thus, 
rather than from military 
levies, or any other custom, 
was the term brought into the 
common theological language 
of the early Church. The great 
invitation to the free partici- 

83 CAL 

pation of evangelical blessings 
was, under the authority andin 
the name of Christ, made by 
the apostles and first preach- 
ers to all nations, without 
distinction ; and those who 
embraced it were eminent- 
ly the called of Christ Jesus. 

" Whom he did predesti- 
nate, them he also called ; and 
whom he called, them he also 
justified ; and whom he justi- 
fied, them he also glorified," 
Rom. viii, 30. The context 
declares that those who are 
foreknown and predestinated 
to eternal glory are true be- 
lievers, those who "love 
God," as stated in a subse- 
quent verse ; for of such only 
the apostle speaks ; and when 
he adds, " Moreover, whom 
he did predestinate, them he 
also called; and whom he 
called, them he also justified ; 
and whom he justified, them 
he also glorified ;" he shows 
in particular how the Divine 
purpose to glorify believers is 
carried into effect through all 
its stages. The great .instru- 
ment of bringing men to " love 
God" is the Gospel ; they are, 
therefore, catted, invited by it, 
to this state and benefit ; the 
calling being obeyed, they are 
justified ; and being justified, 
and continuing in that state 
of grace, they are glorified. 
Nothing, however, is here 
said to favour the conclusion, 
that many others who were 
called by the Gospel, but re 
fused, might not have been 
justified and glorified as well 
as they; nothing to distin- 
guish this calling into com- 


mon and effectual: and the 
very guilt which those are 
everywhere represented as 
contracting who despised the 
Gospel calling, shows that 
they reject a grace which is 
sufficient, and sincerely in- 
tended, to save them. 

CAL'NEH, a city in the 
land of Shi'nar, built by Nim- 
rod, Gen. x, 1 0. It is believed 
to be the same with Calno, 
Isa. x, 9. 

CALVARY, or, as it is call- 
ed in Hebrew, Golgotha, " a 
skull," or " place of skulls," 
supposed to be thus denomi- 
nated from the similitude it 
bore to the figure of a skull 
or man's head, or from its 
being a place of burial. It 
was a small eminence or hill 
to the northwest of Jerusa- 
lem, upon which our Lord 
was crucified. The ancient 
summit of Calvary has been 
much altered, by reducing its 
level in some parts, and rais- 
ing it in others, in order to 
bring it within the area of a 
large and irregular building, 
called " The Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre," which now 
occupies its site. 

CAMEL. This animal is 
very common in Arabia, Ju- 
dea, and the neighbouring 
countries ; and is often men- 
tioned in Scripture, and reck- 
oned among the most valua- 
ble property, 1 Chron. v, 21 ; 
Jobi, 3, &c. " No creature," 
says Vblney, "seems so pe- 
culiarly fitted to the climate 
in which he exists as the ca- 
mel. Designing this animal 
to dwell in a country where 


he can find little nourishment, 
nature has been sparing of 
her materials in the whole of 
his formation. So great is 
the importance of the camel 
to the desert, that, were it de- 
prived of that useful animal, 
it must infallibly lose every 
inhabitant." The chief use 
of the camel has always been 
as a beast of burden, and for 
performing journeys across 
the deserts. They have some- 
times been used in war, to 
carry the baggage of an prien- 
tial army, and mingle in the 
tumult of the battle, 1 Sam. 
xxx, 17. Malt, xix, 24 con- 
tains a proverb which, among 
the Jews, signified a thing 

CA-MF/LE-ON a kind of 
lizard usually of a greenish- 
yellow colour; capable of 
making a number of varia- 
tions in its appearance. 

CAMEL'S HAIR, an ar- 
ticle of clothing. There is a 
coarse cloth made of camel's 
hair in the east, which is 
used for manufacturing the 
coats of shepherds and camel 
drivers, and also for the co- 
vering of tents. It was doubt- 
less this coarse kind which 
was used by John. 

CAMP, the disposition of 
an army for the purpose of 
rest, 1 Sam. iv, 7. Nothing 
could be more exactly regu- 
lated than the camp of the 
Hebrews in the desert. The 
tents were so arranged as to 
enclose the tabernacle in the 
form of a square, and each 
under one general standard. 
There were forty-one en- 



campments, from their first in 
the month of March, at Ram'e- 
scs, in the land of Goshen, 
in Egypt, and in the wilder- 
ness, until they reached the 
land of Canaan. They are 
enumerated in Num. xxxiii. 

In the second year after 
their exodus from Egypt they 
were numbered, and, upon an 
exact poll, the number of their 
males amounted to 603,550, 
from twenty years old ancTup- 
ward, Num. i, ii. This vast 
mass.of people, encamped in 
beautiful order, nmst have 
presented a most imposing 

CAM'PHIRE, or gum 
camphor, a substance, used 
as a medicine, obtained from 
a tree of the laurel -species 
growing in Japan. But the 
camphire mentioned Cant, i, 
14, and iv, 13, is an odorife- 
rous shrub, common in the 
fsie of Cyprus, where it is 
called Henna. This is one 
of the plants which is most 
grateful to the eye and the 
smell. The deep colour of 
its bark, the light green of its 
foliage, the softened mixture 
of white and yellow with 
which the flowers, collected 
into long clusters like the 
lilac, are coloured; the red 
tint of the ramifications which 
support them, form an agree- 
able combination. The flow- 
ers,- whose shades are so 
delicate, diffuse around the 
sweetest odours, and embalm 
the gardens and apartments 
which they embellish. The. 
women take pleasure in deck- 
ing themselves with them. 

CA'NA, a town of Galilee, 
in the tribe of Zebulun, not 
far from Nazareth. 

CA'NA AN, (Ca'nan,) the 
son of Ham. The Hebrews 
believe that Canaan, having 
fi rst discovered Noah's naked- 
ness, told his father Ham ; 
and that Noah, when he 
awoke, having understood 
what had passed, cursed Ca- 
naan, the first author of the 
offence. Others are of opi- 
nion that Ham was punished 
in his son Canaan, Gen. ix, 

The posterity of Canaan 
was numerous. His eldest 
son, Si'don, founded the city 
of Sidon, and was father of 
the Sidonians and Pheni- 
cians. Canaan had ten other 
sons^ who were fathers of as 
many tribes, dwelling in Pa 
lestine and Syria: namely, 
the Hittites, the Jebusites, 
the Amorites, the Gir'gasites, 
the Hivites, the Arkites, the 
Sinites, the Arvadites, the 
Zemarites, and the Hemath- 
ites. It is believed that 
Canaan lived and died in Pa- 
lestine, which from him was 
called the land of Canaan. 

map it presents the appear- 
ance of a narrow slip of 
country, extending along the 
eastern coast of the Mediter- 
ranean ; from which, to the 
river Jordan, the utmost 
width does not exceed fifty 
miles. This river was the 
eastern boundary of the land 
of Canaan, or Palestine, pro- 
perly so called, which derived 
its name from the Philistines 

CAN 86 

or Palestines originally in- 
habiting the coast. To three 
of the twelve tribes, however, 
Reuben, Gad, and Ma-nas'- 
seh, portions of territoiy were 
assigned on the eastern side 
of the river, which were af- 
terward extended by the sub- 
jugation of the neighbouring 
nations. The territory of 
Tyre and Sidon was its an- 
cient border on the north- 
west ; the range of the Liba- 
nus and Antilibanus forms a 
natural boundary on the north 
and northeast; while in the 
south it is pressed upon by 
the Syrt-an and Arabian de- 
serts. Within this circum- 
scribed district, such were 
the physical advantages of the 
soil and climate, there exist- 
ed, in the happiest periods of 
the Jewish nation, an im- 
mense population. The king- 
dom of David and Solomon, 
however, extended far be- 
yond these narrow limits. 

Damascus revolted during 
the reign of Solomon, and 
shook off the Jewish yoke. 
At his death ten of the tribes 
revolted under Jeroboam, and 
the country became divided 
into the two rival kingdoms 
of Judah and Israel, having 
for their capitals Jerusalem 
and Samaria. 

2. At the time of the Chris- 
tian era, Palestine was di- 
vided into five provinces : 
Jude'a, Sa-mar'ia, Galilee, 
Pere'a, and Id-u-me'a. On 
the death of Herod, Arche- 
la'us, his eldest son, succeed- 
ed to the government of Ju- 
dea, Samaria, and Idumea, 


with the title of tetrarch; 
Galilee being assigned to 
Herod Antipas, and Perea, 
or the country beyond Jordan, 
to the third brother, Philip. 
But in less than ten years 
the dominions of Archelaus 
became annexed, on his dis- 
grace, to the Roman pro- 
vince of Syria : and Judea 
was thenceforth governed by 
Roman procurators. 

3. A few additional re 
marks upon the topography 
and climate^ will tend to elu- 
cidate the force of many of 
those parts of Scripture 
which contain allusions to 
these topics. The hills of 
Judea frequently rise into 
mountains, the most con- 
siderable of which are those 
of Lebanon and Hermon, on 
the north ; those which sur- 
round the Sea of Galilee, and 
the Dead Sea, also retain a 
respectable elevation. The 
other mountains of note are 
Carmel, Tabor, E'bal, and 
Ger'i-zinv, and the mountains 
of Gilboa, Gilead, and Ab'a- 
rim ; with the summits of 
the latter, Nebo and Pisgah : 
a description of which will 
be found under their re- 
spective heads. Many of 
the" hills and rocks abound 
in caverns, the refuge of the 
distressed or the resorts of 

4. From the paucity of rain 
which falls in Judea, and the 
heat and dryness of the at- 
mosphere for the greater part 
of the year, it possesses but 
few rivers ; and as these have 
all their rise within ; ts boun- 




dari'es, their course is short, 
and their size inconsiderable- : 
the principal is the Jordan, 
which runs about a hundred 
and thirty miles. The other 
remarkable streams are the 
Arnon, the Jabbok, the Ki'- 
shon,the Ke'dron, the Be'sor, 
the So'rek, and the stream 
called the River of Egypt. 
These, also, will be found 
described under their respec- 
tive heads. This coun- 
try was once adorned with 
woods and forests; as we 
read of the forest of cedars in 
Lebanon, the forest of oaks 
in Bashan, the forest or wood 
of Ephraim, and the forest of 
Ha'reth in the tribe of Judah. 
Of these, the woods of Ba- 
shan alone remain ; the rest 
have been swept away by the 
ravages of time and of ar- 
mies, and by the gradual con- 
sumption of the inhabitants, 
whose indolence and igno- 
rance have prevented their 
planting others. 

5. The climate of Judea, 
from the southern latitude of 
the country, is necessarily 
warm. The cold of winter 
is, indeed, sometimes greater 
than in- European climates 
situated some degrees farther 
to the north ; but it is of short 
duration, and the general 
Character of the climate is 
that of heat. Both heat and 
cold, are, however, tempered 
by the nature of the surface ; 
the winter being scarcely felt 
in the valleys, while -in the 
summer the heat is almost in- 
supportable ; and, on the con- 
trary, in the more elevated 

parts, during the winter 
months, or .rather weeks, 
frosts frequently occur, and 
snow sometimes falls, while 
the air in summer is compara- 
tively cool and refreshing. 
Many winters pass without 
either snow or frost ; and in 
the coldest weather which 
ever occurs, the sun in the 
middle of the day is generally 
warm, and often hot ; so that 
the pain of cold is in reality 
but little felt. 

6. Rain only falls during 
the autumn, winter, and 
spring, when it sometimes 
descends with great violence : 
the greatest quantity, and that 
which properly constitutes 
the rainy season, happening 
between the autumnal equi- 
nox, or somewhat later, and 
the beginning of December; 
during which period heavy 
clouds often obscure the sky, 
and several days of violent 
rain sometimes succeed each 
other with winds. This is 
what in Scripture is termed 
the early or the former rain. 
Showers continue to fall at 
uncertain intervals with some 
cloudy but more fair weather, 
till toward the vernal equi- 
nox, when they become again 
more frequent and copious 
till the middle of April. 
These are the latter rains, 
Joel ii, 23. 

Hail frequently falls in the 
winter and spring in very 
heavy storms, and with hail- 
stones of an enormous size. 
Dr; Russel says that he has 
seen some at Aleppo which 
measured two inches in dia 




meter ; but sometimes they 
are found to consist of irre- 
gularly shaped pieces, weigh- 
ing near three ounces. The 
copious dew forms another 
peculiarity of this climate, 
frequently alluded to in 
Scripture: so copious, in- 
deed, is it sometimes, as to 
resemble small rain, and to 
supply the wants of superfi- 
cial vegetation. Mr. Maun- 
drell, when travelling near 
Mount Hermon, says, " We 
were instructed by experi- 
ence what the psalmist 
means by ' the dew of Her- 
mon,' Psa. cxxxiii, 3 ; cur 
tents being as wet with it as 
if it had rained all night." 

C I A'-N AAN-ITES, the pos- 
terity of Canaan by his eleven 
..sons, who are suppposed to 
have settled in the land of 
Canaan, soon after the dis- 
persion of Babel. Five of 
these are known to have 
dwelt in the land of Canaan ; 
viz., Heth, Je'bus, He'mor or 
A'mor, Gir'ga-shi, and Hevi 
or Hivi ; and these, together 
with their father Canaan, 
became. the heads of so many 

When the measure of the 
idolatries and abominations 
of the Canaanites was filled 
iip, God delivered their coun- 
try into the hands of the Is- 
raelites, who conquered it 
under Joshua. However, 
they resisted with obstinate 
valour, and kept Joshua em- 
ployed six years from the 
time of his passing the river 
Jordan, and entering Canaan, 
in the year B. C. 1451, to the 

year B. C. 1445, the sabbati- 
cal , year beginning-from- the 
autumnal equinox; when he 
made a division of the land 
among the tribes of Israel, 
and rested from his con- 

The Canaanites were de- 
stroyed for their wickedness. 
This is plain from Lev. xviii, 
24, &c. Now the facts dis- 
closed in this passage suffi- 
ciently testify that the Ca- 
naanites were a wicked peo- 
ple ; that detestable practices 
were general among them, 
and even habitual; that it 
was for these enormities the 
nations of Canaan were de- 
stroyed. It was not, as some 
have imagined, to make way 
for the Israelites ; nor was it 
simply to make away with 
their idolatry; but it was 
because of the abominable 
crimes which usually accom- 
panied the latter. 

Another reason which 
made this destruction both 
more necessary, and more 
general, than it would have 
otherwise been, was the con- 
sideration, that if any of the 
old inhabitants were left, 
they would prove a snare to 
those who succeeded them 
in the country ; would draw 
and seduce them by degrees 
into the vices and corruptions 
which prevailed among them- 
selves. Vices of all kinds, 
but vices more particularly 
of the licentious kind, are 
astonishingly infectious. A 
little leaven leaveneth the 
whole lump. A small num- 
ber of persons addicted to 


them, and allowed to practise 
them with impunity or en- 
couragement, will spread 
them throughout the whole 
mass. This reason is for- 
mally and expressly assigned, 
not simply for the punish- 
ment, but for the extent to 
which it was carried ; name- 
ly, extermination : " Thou 
shalt utterly destroy them, 
that they teach you not to 
do after all their abomina-. 
tions, which they have done 
unto their gods." 

CANDACE, the name of 
an Ethiopian queen. Can- 
dace was the common name 
of the queens of that country. 

worm destructive to trees or 
plants The insect signified 
by the Hebrew is not known ; 
perhaps a species of beetle. 

CA-PERN'A-UM stood 
on the coast of the Sea of 
Galilee, in the borders of 
Zebulun and Naph'talim, 
Matt, iv, 15, and consequent- 
ly toward the upper part of it. 
As it was a convenient port 
from Galilee to any place on 
the other side of the sea, this 
might be our Lord's induce- 
ment to make it the place of 
his most constant residence. 

CAP-PA-DO'CI-A, a re- 
gion of Asia south of Pontus. 

CAPTIVITY, the abridg- 
ment of one's liberty by the 
rights of war. God generally 
punished the sins of the J ews 
by captivities ; the most re- 
markable are the As-syr'i-an 
and Babylonish captivities. 
In the year B C. 717, Shal- 
man-e'ser took and destroyed 

89 CAP 

Samaria, after a siege of three 
years, and transplanted the 
tribes that had been 'spared 
by Tiglath-pileser, to pro- 
vinces beyond the Euphrates- 
2 Kings xviii, 10, 11. It is 
generally believed there was 
no return of the ten tribes 
from this captivity. Bui 
when we examine carefully 
the writings of the prophets, 
we find a return of at least a 
great part of Israel from the 
captivity clearly pointed out, 
Amos ix, 14 ; Obad. x, 18, 19 ; 
Isa. xi, 12, 13. 

The captivities of Judah 
are generally reckoned four : 
the first, B. C. 602, undei 
King Jehoiakinv when Da- 
niel and others were carried 
to Babylon ; and the last in 
the year B. C. 584, under 
Zedekiah, from which period 
begins the captivity of se- 
venty years, foretold by the 
Prophet Jeremiah. Dr. Hales 
computes that the first of 
these captivities, which he 
thinks formed the commence- 
ment of the Babylonish cap- 
tivity, took place in the year 
before Christ 605. The Jews 
were removed to Babylon by 
Nebuchadnezzar. Cyrus, in 
the year B. C. 543, and in the 
first year of his reign at Ba- 
bylon, permitted the Jews to 
return to their own country, 
Ezra i, 1. However, they 
did not obtain leave to rebuild 
the temple ; and the comple- 
tion of those prophecies 
which foretold the termina- 
tion of their captivity, after 
seventy years, was not till 
the year B. C. 5M. 

CAR 90 

CARBUNCLE, the name 
of a precious stone of a deep 
red colour : but the stone sig- 
nified by the Hebrew is not 
known. See Precious Stones. 

CARMEL, a celebrated 
range of hills running north- 
west from the plain of Es- 
draelon,and ending in the pro- 
montory which forms the Bay 
of Acre. The foot of the 
northern part approaches the 
water, so that seen from the 
hills northeast from Acre, 
Carmel appears as if "dip- 
ping his feet in the western 

This mountain, according 
to travellers, well deserves 
its Hebrew name, which sig- 
nifies " an orchard or garden 
of trees. " 

The most beautiful moun- 
tain in Palestine, of great 
length, and in many parts 
covered with wild odorife- 
rous plants and flowers. Isa- 
iah speaks of the " excellen- 
cy of Carmel." 

From the graceful form 
and verdant beauty of its 
summit, the head of the 
bride (Song vii, 5) is com- 
pared to Carmel. It is said 
that this mountain contains 
more than a thousand caves ; 
that many, fleeing from pun- 
ishment, might " hide them- 
selves in the top of Carmel," 
Amps ix, 3. These, in very 
ancient times, were the resort 
and dwelling of prophets, and 
other religious persons : 
hence Elijah and Elisha of- 
ten resorted thither. This is 
also the name of a city of 
Juclah, ten miles east of He- 


bron, on a mountain of the 
same name. 

CARNAL, fleshly, sensual 
Wicked or unconverted men 
are represented as under 
the domination of a "car- 
nal mind, which is enmity 
against God," and which 
must issue in death, Rom. 
viii, 6, 7. Worldly enjoy- 
ments are carnal, because 
they only minister to the 
wants and desires of the ani- 
mal part of man, Romans xv, 
27; 1 Cor. ix, 11. The cere- 
monial parts of the Mosaic' 
dispensation were carnal ; 
they related immediately to 
the bodies of men and beasts, 
Heb. vii, 16; ix, 10. The 
weapons of a Christian's war- 
fare are not carnal ; they arc 
not of human origin, nor are 
they directed by human wis- 
dom, 2 Cor. x, 4. 

CART, a machine used in 
Palestine to force the corn 
out of the ear, and bruise the 
straw, Isaiah xxviii, 27, 28. 
The wheels of these carts 
were low, broad, and shod 
with iron, and were drawn 
over the sheaves spread on 
the floor, by means of oxen. 

CASSIA, (cash'ia,) a spe- 
cies of launus, the bark of 
which usually passes under 
the name of Cinnamon. 

It is said that the vessel 
which carried Paul to Rome 
had the sign of Castor and 
Pollux, Acts xxviii, 11. Cas- 
tor and Pollux were sea gods, 
and invoked by sailors. It 
is to be observed that St. 
Luke does not mention the 

CED 91 

name, but the sign, of the 
ship. By the word sign, 
the sacred writer meant the 
image of the deity to whom 
the vessel was in some sort 
consecrated, carried upon its 
bow, which served to distin- 
guish it from all others. 

CATH'O-LIC denotes 
what is general or universal. 

Epistles are called catholic 
because directed to Christian 
converts generally, and not 
to any particular Church. 

CAUSEWAY, a way rais- 
ed above the natural level, 
serving as a dry passage over 
wet ground. 

The country of Judea, being 
mountainous and rocky, is in 
many parts full of caverns, to 
which allusions frequently 
occur in the Old Testament. 
At Engedi, in particular, 
there was a cave so large 
that David, with six hundred 
men, hid themselves in the 
sides of it, and Saul entered 
the mouth of the cave without 
perceiving that any one was 
there, 1 Sam. xxiv. 

CE'DAR, a large and 
noble evergreen tree. Its 
lofty height, and its far ex- 
tended branches, afford a 
spacious shade, Ezek. xxxi, 
3, 6, 8. The wood is very 
valuable ; of a reddish colour, 
of an aromatic smell, and re- 
puted incorruptible. This is 
owing to its bitter taste, 
which the worms cannot en- 
dure, and to its resin, which 
preserves it from the injuries 
of the weather. The ark of 
the covenant, and much of 


the Temple of Solomon, and 
that of Di-a'na at Ephesus, 
were built of 'cedar. The 
tree is much celebrated in 
Scripture. It is called, " the 
glory of Lebanon," Isa. Ix, 13. 
On that mountain it must in 
former times have flourished 
in great 'abundance,. There 
are some cedars still growing 
there. The American mis- 
sionaries, Fisk and King, 
state, that the handsomest 
and tallest are those of two 
or three feet in diameter, the 
body straight, the branches 
almost horizontal, forming a 
beautiful cone, and about 
ninety feet in height. The 
tree bears a small cone like 
that of the pine. 

CEN-CHRE'A, (Sen- 
kre'a,) a port of Corinth, 
whence Paul sailed for Ephe- 
sus, Acts xviii, 18. It was 
situated on the eastern side 
of the isthmus, about nine 
miles from' the city. The 
other port, on the western 
side of the isthmus, was Let 

CEN'SER, a fire pan in 
which fire and incense were 
carried in certain parts of the 
Hebrew worship. 

CEN-TU'RI-ON, an. offi- 
cer in the Roman army, who, 
as the term indicates, had the 
command of a hundred men, 
usually stationed in the towns" 
of the Roman provinces to 
preserve order. 

CE'PHAS, a rock. See 

CHAFF, the refuse of 
winnowed corn . The ungod 


ly are represented as the 
chaff, a simile most -forcible 
and appropriate. Whatever 
defence they may afford to 
the saints, who are the wheat, 
they are in themselves worth- 
less and inconsistent, easily 
driven about with false doc- 
trines, and will ultimately be 
driven away by the blast of 
God's wrath, Psalm i, 4; 
Matt, iii, 12, &c., False 
doctrines are called chaff; 
they are unproductive, and 
cannot abide the trial of the 
word and Spirit of God, Jer. 
xxiii, 28. 

CHAl/CE-DO-NY, a pre- 
cious stone, in colour like a 

CHAL-DE'A, or Babylo- 
nia, the country lying on both 
sides of the Euphrates, of 
which Babylon was the capi- 
tal ; and extending southward 
to the Persian Gulf, and 
northward into Mes-o-po-ta'- 
mi-a, at least as far as Ur, 
which is called Ur of the 
Chaldees. This country had 
also the name of Shi'nar. 

word is taken, 1. For the 
people of Chal-de'a and the 
subjects of that empire gen- 
erally. 2. For philosophers, 
naturalists, or soothsayers, 
whose principal employment 
was the study of mathematics 
and astrology ; by which they 
pretended to foreknow the 
destiny of men born under 
certain constellations. 



. CHA 

ard or treasurer, one that man- 
ages the affairs of another. 

CHAMOIS, (Shamme,) 
an animal of the goat kind. 

CHANT, to repeat words 
in a kind of singing tone of 
voice, Amos vi, 6. To sing 
in concert. 

CHARGER, a large dish, 
a salver or waiter. 

CHAPITER, an ornamen 
tal finish to the too of a pillar. 

CHARIOTS of war. The 
Scripture speaks of two sorts 
of these chariots, one for 
princes and generals to ride 
in, the other used to break 
the enemies' battalions, by 
letting them loose armed with 
iron, which made dreadful 
havoc among the troops. The 
most ancient chariots of which 
we have any notice are Pha- 
raoh's, which were over- 
whelmed in the Red Sea, 
Exodus xiv, 7. As Judea 
was a very mountainous 
country, chariots could be of 
no great use there, except in 
the plains ; and the Hebrews 
often evaded them by fighting 
on the mountains . The kings 
of the Hebrews, when they 
went to war were themselves 
generally mounted in chari- 
ots, from which they fought 
and issued their orders ; and 
there was always a second 
chariot empty, which followed 
each of them, that if the first 
was broken he might ascend 
the other, 2 Chron, xxxv, 24. 

CHARITY, considered as 
a Christian grace, ought in 
our translation, in order to 
avoid mistake, to have been 
translated lave, It is the love 


of God; and the love of our 
neighbour flowing from the 
love of God ; and is described 
with wonderful copiousness; 
felicity, and even grandeur, 
by St. Paul, 1 Cor. xiii ; a 
portion of Scripture which, 
as it shows the habitual tem- 
per of a true Christian, can- 
not be too frequently referred 
to for self-examination, and 
ought to be constantly present 
to us as our rule. 2. In the 
popular sense,charity is alms- 
giving ; a duty of practical 
Christianity which is solemn- 
ly enjoined, and to which spe- 
cial promises are annexed. 

CHARMER, one who, 
by incantation, subdues and 
controls some opposing ene- 
my or influence. 

CHE'BAR, a river of 
Chaldea, which runs through 
Mesopota'mia, to the south- 
west, and falls into the Eu- 

king of the Elamites, who 
were either Persians, or peo- 
ple bordering upon the Per- 
sians, Gen. xiv. 

CHEM'A-RIM. By this 
word the best commentators 
understand the priests of false 
gods, and in particular the 
worshippers of fire. 

CHE'MOSH, an idol of 
the Moabites, Num. xxi, 29. 

CHER'ETH-IM.or Cher'- 
eth-ites, are denominations 
for the Philistines. It may 
be inferred that guards were 
called Cherethites, because 
they went with David into 
Philistia, where they contin- 
ued with him all the time he 

93 CHE 

was under the protection of 
A'chish. It is not uncommon 
for soldiers to derive their 
names, not from the place of 
their nativity, but of their re- 

CHER'UB, plural cheru- 
bim. It appears from Gen. 
iii, 24, that this is a name giv- 
en to angels ; but whether it 
is the name of a distinct class 
of celestials, or designates the 
same order as the seraphim, 
we have no means of deter- 
mining. But the term cheru- 
bim generally signifies those 
figures which Moses wasx;om- 
manded to make and place at 
each end of the mercy seat, 
and which covered the ark 
with expanded wings in the 
most holy place of the Jewish 
tabernacle and temple. See 
Exodus xxv, 18,19. The ori- 
ginal meaning of the term, and 
the shape orform of these, any 
farther than that they were 
" winged creatures," is not 
certainly known. The opi- 
nion of most critics, taken, it 
seems, from Ezek. i, 9, 10, is, 
that they were figures com- 
posed of parts of various 'crea- 
tui'es ; as a man, a lion, an 
ox, ' an eagle. But certainly 
we have no decided proof that 
the figures placed in the holy 
of holies, in the tabernacle, 
were of the same 'form with 
those described by Ezekiel. 

The cherubim of the sanc- 
tuary were two in number ; 
one at each end of the mercy 
seat; which, with the ark, 
was placed exactly in the mid- 
dle, between the north and 
south sides of the tabernacle 


It was here that atonement 
was made, Lev. xvi, 14 ; the 
glory of God appeared, and 
from hence he gave forth his 
oracles ; whence the whole 
holy place was called the ora- 
cle. These cherubim, it must 
be observed, had feetwhereon 
they stood, 2 Chron. iii, 13 ; 
and their feet were joined, in 
one continued beaten work, 
to the ends of the mercy seat, 
so that they were wholly over 
or above it. Those in the ta- 
bernacle were of beaten gold, 
being but of small dimensions, 
Exod. xxv, 18 ; but those in 
the temple of Solomon were 
made of the wood of the olive 
tree, overlaid with gold ; for 
they were very large, extend- 
ing their wings to the whole 
breadth of the oracle, which 
was twenty cubits, 1 Kings 
vi, 23-28 ; 2 Chron. iii, 10-13. 
They are called " cherubim of 
glory," because they had the 
glory of God, or the glorious 
symbol of his presence, " the 
Shechinah," resting between 
them. As this glory abode in 
the inward tabernacle, and as 
the figures of the cherubim 
represented the angels who 
surround the manifestation of 
the Divine presence in the 
world above, that tabernacle 
was rendered a fit image of 
the court of heaven, in which 
light it is considered every- 
where in the Epistle to the 
Hebrews. See chapters iv, 
14; viii, 1; ix, 8, 9, 23,24; 
xii, 22, 23. 

man officer, and. commander 
of a thousand men ; a colonel. 

94 CHR 


CHIOS,no\v called Scio,an 
island of Greece, famous for 
the massacre of a great num- 
ber of its inhabitants in the 
late revolution, by the Turks. 

CHIS'LEU, the third 
month of the Jewish civil 
year, and the ninth of their 
sacred, answering to our No- 
vember and December, Neh. 
i, 1. It contains thirty days, 

CHITTIM, is the island of 
Cyprus, so called from the 
Phenician colony Citium, in 
the southern part of this isl- 
and ; but the name Chittim was 
at a later period employed also 
in a wider sense, to designate 
other islands and countries ad- 
jacent to the coasts of the 

CHIUN,.(&3Am,) the name 
of a god worshipped by the 
Israelites in the desert. Some 
suppose it to be Sa'turn. 

CHO-RA'ZIN, a town in 
Galilee,nearto Cap-er'na-um, 
not far distant from Beth-sai'- 
da, and consequently on the 
western shore of the Sea of 

CHRIST, an appellation 
synonymous with Messiah, 
which signifies anointed. The 
names of Messiah and Christ 
were originally derived from 
the ceremony of anointing, 
by which the kings and the 
high priests of God's people, 
and sometimes the prophets, 
1 Kings xix, 16, were conse- 
crated and admitted to the 
exercise of their functions ; 
for all these functions were 
accounted holy among the 
Israelites. But the most emi- 




nent application of the wordis 
to that illustrious personage, 
typified and predicted from 
the beginning, who is describ- 
ed by the prophets under the 
character of God's Anointed, 
the Messiah, or the Christ. 

CHRISTIAN, a follower 
of the religion of Christ. It is 
probable that the name of 
Christian, like that of Naza- 
renes and Galileans, was 
given to the disciples of onr 
Lord in reproach or contempt. 
Some have indeed thought 
that this name was given by 
the disciples to themselves ; 
others, that it was imposed on 
them by Divine authority ; in 
either of which cases surely 
we should have met with it in 
the subsequent history of the 
Acts, and in the apostolic 
epistles, all of which were 
written some years after; 
whereas it is found but in two 
more places in the New Tes- 
tament, Acts xxvi, 28, where 
a Jew is the speaker, and in 
1 Pet. iv-^16, where reference 
appears to be made to the 
name as imposed. upon them 
by their enemies. They were 
denominated Christians, A. 
D. 42 or 43 ; and though the 
name was first given re- 
proachfully, they gloried in it, 
as expressing their adherence 
to Christ, and they soon gene- 
rally assumed it. 

CHRONICLES,Boofcs of. 
This name is given to two 
historical books of Scripture, 
They were compiled, and 
probably by Ezra, from the 
ancient chronicles of the 
kings of Jadah and Israel, 

and they may be considered 
as a kind of supplement to 
the preceding books of Scrip- 
ture . The first bpok of Chro- 
nicles contains a great va- 
riety of genealogical tables, 
the death of Saul, and a his- 
tory of the reign of David. 
The second book of Chroni- 
cles contains a brief sketch 
of the Jewish history, from 
the accession of Solomon to 
the return from the Babylo- 
nian captivity, being a period 
of four hundred and eighty 
years ; and in both these 
books we find many particu- 
lars not noticed in the other 
historical books of Scripture. 

CHRYS'O-LITE, a pre- 
cious stone of a golden colour, 
with a mixture of green, 
which displays a fine lustre. 
It is transparent, and sup- 
posed to be a species of the 

precious stone. Its colour 
was green, inclining to gold, 
as its name imports. 

CHUB probably signifies 
the Cubians. 

CHURCH, the collective 
body of Christians, or all 
those over the face of the 
earth who profess to believe 
in Christ, and acknowledge 
him to be the Saviour of man- 
kind ; this is called the visi- 
ble Church. But by the word 
Church, we are more strictly 
to understand the whole body 
of God's true people, in every 
period of time : this is the in- 
visible or spiritual Church. 
The people of God on earth 
are called the' church rniU- 

CHU 96 

tant, and those in heaven the 
Church triumphant. It is 
common with divines to speak 
of the Jewish and the Chris- 
tian Churches, as though they 
were two distinct and totally 
different things. The Chris- 
tian Church is not another 
Church, but the very same 
that was before the coming 
of Christ, having the same 
faith with it, and interested 
in the same covenant. Great 
alterations indeed were made 
in the outward state and con- 
dition of the Church, by the 
coming of the Messiah. The 
ordinances of worship suited 
to that state c*f things then 
expired, and came to an end. 
New ordinances of worship 
were appointed, suitable to 
the new light and grace which 
were then bestowed upon the 
Church. The Gentiles came 
into the faith of Abraham 
along with the Jews, being 
made_ joint partakers with 
them in his blessing. But 
none of these things, nor the 
whole collectively, did make 
such an alteration in the 
Church, but that it was still 
one and the same. The olive 
tree was still the same, only 
some branches were broken 
off, and others grafted into it. 
The Jews fell, and the Gen- 
tiles came in their room. 

2. By the Church we some- 
times understand an assem- 
bly of Christians united toge- 
ther, and meeting in one 
place, for the solemn worship 
of God. 

3. Church members are 
those who compose or belong 


to the visible Church. As to ~ 
the real Church, the true 
members of it are such as 
come out from the world, 2 
Cor. vi, 17; who- are born" 
again, 1 Peter i, 23 ; or made 
new creatures, 2 Cor. v, 17 ; 
whose faith works by love to 
God and all mankind, Gal. r, 
6 ; James ii, 14, 26 ; who walk 
in all the ordinances of the 
Lord blameless. None but 
such are members of the true 

4. Church fellowship is the 
communion that the members 
enjoy one with another. The 
ends of Church fellowship 
are the maintenance of a sys- 
tem of sound doctrine ; the 
support of the ordinances of 
worship in their purity ; the 
impartial exercise of Church 
government ; the promotion 
of holiness in all manner of 
conversation. The more par- 
ticular duties are earnest 
study to keep peace and 
unity ; bearing of one ano- 
ther's burdens, Gal. vi, 1, 2 ; 
earnest endeavours to pre- 
vent each other's stumbling, 
1 Cor. x, 23-33 ; Heb. x, 24- 
27 ; Rom. xiv, 13 ; steadfast 
continuance in the faith and 
worship of the Gospel, Acts 
ii, 42 ; praying for and sym- 
pathizing with each other, 1 
Sam. xii, 23 ; . Eph. vi, 18. 
The advantages are peculiar 
incitement to holiness ; the 
right to some promises appli- 
cable to none but those who 
attend the ordinances of God, 
and hold communion with' the 
saints, Psalm xcii, 13 ; cxxxii, 
13, 16 j xxxvi, 8 ; Jer. xxxi, 




12; the being placed under 
the watchful -eye of pastors, 
Heb: xiii, 7 ; that they may 
restore each other if they fall, 
Gal. vi,- 1 ; and the more ef- 
fectually promote the cause 
of true religion. 

CIL-IG I-A, (SU-ish'e-aJ a 
country in the southeast of 
Asia Mi 'nor, and lying on the 
northern coast, at the east 
end of the Mediterranean Sea. 
The capital city thereof was 
Tarsus, the native city of St. 
Paul, Acts xxi, 39. 

CINNAMON, a well 
known bark, of a dark red 
colour, of a poignant taste, 
aromatic, and very agreeable. 
The finest comes from a tree 
growing in Ceylon. It is 
mentioned among the mate- 
rials in the composition of the 
holy anointing oil. 

NER-ETH, a city on the 
northwest side of the sea of 
Galilee ; which, from it, is fre- 
quently called hi the Old Tes- 
tament the sea of Cinneroth- 
Latin term, signifying to 
cut round," because the Jews, 
in circumcising their child- 
ren, cut off, after this man- 
ner, the skin which forms the 
prepuce. God enjoined Abra- 
ham to use circumcision, as 
a sign of his covenant, Gen. 
xvii, 10, and repeated the 
precept to Moses. The Jews 
have always been very exact 
in observing this ceremony, 
and it appears that they did 
not neglect it when in Egypt. 
By the term St. Paul fre- 
quently means the Jews. 

of. That the covenant with 
Abraham, of which circum- 
cision was made the sign and 
seal, Gen. xvii, 7-14, was the 
general covenant of grace, 
and not wholly, or even chief- 
ly, a political and national 
covenant, may be satisfacto- 
rily established. And as this 
rite was enjoined upon Abra- 
ham's posterity, so that every 
" uncircumcised man-child 
whose flesh of his foreskin 
was not circumcised on the 
eighth day," was to be "cut 
off from his people," by the 
special judgment of God, and 
that because " he had broken 
God's covenant" Gen. xvii, 
14 ; it therefore follows that 
this rite was a constant pub- 
lication of God's covenant 
of grace among the descend- 
ants of Abraham, and its re 
petition a continual confirm- 
ation of that covenant, on 
the part of God, to all prac- 
tising it in that faith of which 
it was the ostensible expres- 

tious, seriously attentive" to 
every part of the revealed will 
of God, and very careful not 
to cast stumbling blocks in the 
way of others, Exod. xxiii, 13 ; 
Eph. v, 15. 

CIS'LEU, the ninth month 
of the ecclesiastical, and the 
third of the civil year, among 
the Hebrews. It answers 
nearly to our November. 

.CISTERN, a reservoir, 
chiefly for rain water. Num- 
bers _of these are still to be 
seen in Palestine, some of 




which are one hundred and 
fifty paces long, and sixty 
broad. The reason of their 
being so large was, that their 
cities were many of them 
built in elevated situations ; 
and the rain falling only twice 
in the year, namely, spring 
and autumn, it became neces- 
sary for them to collect a 
quantity of water, as well for 
the cattle as for the people. A 
broken cistern would, of 
course, be a great calamity to 
a family, or in some cases 
even to a town; and with 
reference to this we may see 
the force of the reproof, Jer. 
ii, 13. 

CITIES. By referring to 
some' peculiarities in the 
building, fortifying, &c., of 
eastern cities, we shall the 
better understand several al- 
lusions and expressions of 
the Old Testament. It is 
evident that the walls of for- 
tified cities were sometimes 
Eartly constructed of com- 
ustible materials. One me- 
thod of securing the gates of 
fortified places, among the 
ancients, was to cover them 
with thick plates of iron ; a 
Custom which is still used in 
the east ; and seems to be of 
great antiquity, Acts xii, 10. 
Some of their gates are plated 
over with brass, Psa. cvii, 1 6 ; 
Isa. xlv, 2. But, conscious 
that all these precautions 
were insufficient for their se- 
curity, the orientals employ- 
ed watchmen to patrol the 
city during the night, to sup- 
press any disorders in the 
streets, or to guard the walls 

against the attempts of a 
foreign enemy, Song v, ?, 
This custom may be traced 
to a. very remote antiquity, 
Ezek. xxxiii, 2. " They were 
also charged, as with us, to 
announce the progress of the 
night to the slumbering city, 
Isa. xxi, 11. 


CLATPDA, a small island 
toward the southwest of 

CLAU'DI-US, a Roman 
emperor ; he succeeded Ca'i- 
us Ca-lig'u-la, A. D. 41, and 
reigned thirteen years, eight 
months, and nineteen days, 
dying A. D. 54. King Agrip- 
pawas the principal means of 
persuading Claudius to ac- 
cept the empire, which was 
tendered him by the soldiers. 
As an acknowledgment for 
this service, he gave Agrippa 
all Judea, and the kingdom 
of Chalcis to his brother He- 
rod. King Agrippa dying A. 
D. 44, the emperor again re- 
duced Judea into a province, 
and sent Cuspius Fadus to 
be governor. About the same 
time . the famine happened 
which is mentioned Acts' xi, 
28-30, and was foretold by 
the Prophet Ag'a-bus. Clau- 
dius, in the ninth year of his 
reign, published an edict for 
expelling all Jews out of 
Rome, Acts xviii, 2. It is 
very probable that the Chris- 
tians, who were at that time 
confounded with the Jews, 
were banished likewise. 

cessor of Cumanus in the 

CLA 5 

government of Judea. Felix 
found means to solicit and 
engage Brasilia, sister of 
Agrippa the Younger, to leave 
her husband Azizus, king .of 
the Emessenians, and to mar- 
ry him, A. D. 53. St. Paul, 
being brought to Ces-a--re'a, 
where Felix usually resided, 
was well treated by this go- 
vernor, who permitted his 
friends to see him, and ren- 
der him services, hoping the 
apostle would procure his re- 
demption by a sum of money. 
He, however, neither con- 
demned Paul, nor set him at 
liberty, when the Jews ac- 
cused him ; but adjourned the 
determination of this affair 
till the arrival of Lys'i-as, 
who commanded the troops 
at Jerusalem, where he had 
taken Paul into custody, and 
who was expected at Cesarea, 
Acts, xxiii, 26, 27, &c. ; xxiv, 
1-3, &c. 

While the apostle was thus 
detained, Felix, with his wife 
DrusilTa^who was a Jewess, 
sent for him, and desired him 
to explain the religion of Je- 
sus Christ. The apostle spoke 
with his usual boldness, and 
discoursed to them on justice, 
temperance, and the last judg- 
ment. Felix trembled before 
this powerful exhibition of 
truths so arousing to his con- 
science ; but he remanded St. 
Paul to his confinement. He 
farther detained him two 
years at Cesarea, in compli- 
ance with the wishes of the 
Jews, and in order to do 
something to propitiate them, 
because tney were extremely 

> OLE 

dissatisfied with his govern- 
ment. He was recalled to 
Rome, A. D. 60, and was 
succeeded in the government 
of Judea by Por'tius Festus. 

CLEMENT, mentioned 
in Phil, iv, 3 ; supposed to 
be the same with Clemens 
Romamts, famous in church 
history as the chief uninspir- 
ed writer of the first century. 

CLE'O-PAS, according to 
Eu-se'bi-us and Ep-ijpha'ni- 
us, was brother of Joseph, 
both being sons of Jacob. He 
was the father of Simeon, of 
James the Less, of Jude, and 
Joseph or Joses. Cleopas 
married Mary, sister to the 
blessed virgin. He was, 
therefore, uncle to Jesus 
Christ, and his sons were 
first cousins to him. Cleopas, 
his wife, and sons were dis- 
ciples of Christ. Having be- 
held our Saviour expire upon 
the cross, he, like the other 
disciples, appears to have 
lost all hopes of seeing the 
kingdom of God established 
by him on earth. The third 
day after our Saviour's death, 
on the day of his resurrection, 
Cleopas, with another disci- 
ple, departed from Jerusalem 
to Em-ma'us ; and in the way 
discoursed on what had lately 
happened. Our Saviour join- 
ed them, appearing as a tra- 
veller ; and, taking up their 
discourse, he reasoned with 
them, convincing them out 
of the Scriptures that it was 
necessary the Messiah should 
suffer death, previously to 
his being glorified. ; No other 
actions of Cleopas are known. 




CLOSET, a chamber, or 
any place of privacy or retire- 

CLOUD, a collection of. 
vapours suspended in the at- 
mosphere. When the Israel- 
ites had left Egypt, God gave 
them a pillar of cloud to di- 
rect their march, as the gene- 
rality of commentators are 
of opinion, to the passage of 
Jordan, Ex. xiii, 21, 22. It 
was clear and bright during 
night, in order to afford them 
light ; bat in the day it was 
thick and gloomy, to defend 
them from the excessive heats 
of the deserts. "The angel 
of "God which went before 
the camp of Israel, removed 
and went behind them ; and 
the pillar of the cloud went 
from before their face, and 
stood behind them," Exod. 
xiv, 19. Here we may ob- 
serve that the angel and the 
cloud made the same motion, 
as it would seem, in compa- 
ny. The cloud by. its mo- 
tions gave the signal to the 
Israelites to encamp or to de- 
camp. Where, therefore, it 
stayed, the people stayed till 
it rose again ; then they broke 
up their camp, and followed 
it till it stopped. It was called 
a pillar, by reason of its form, 
which was high and elevated. 
It is common in Scripture, 
when mentioning God's ap- 
pearing, to represent him as 
encompassed with clouds, 
which serve as a chariot, and 
contribute to veil his dreadful 
majesty, Job xxii, 14 ; Matt. 
xvii, 5 ; Psa. xviii, 11, 12. 

CNIDUS, (Ny'dus,) a city 

standing on a promontory of 
the sam'e name, in that part 
of the province of Ca'ri-a 
which was~ called Doris, a 
little northwest from Rhodes. 

COCK. This well known 
bird generally crowa three 
times in the night: at mid- 
night, two hours before day, 
and at daybreak. The se- 
cond, being more noticeable 
than the first, was often so 
called by way of eminence. 
St. Mark refers to this as 
the second crowing of the 
cock, and therefore says, 
" Before the cock crow 
twice." The other evange- 
lists, referring only to that 
which was popularly observ- 
ed and spoken of as the cock- 
crowing, take no notice of 
the former period, and speak 
as if > the latter were the only 
time of cockcrow; and thus 
the apparent discrepancy is 

COCK'A-TRICE, a ve- 
nomous serpent, but of what 
particular species is un- 
known. It seems to have 
been one of the most poi- 
sonous kind, which lurked in 
holes of the earth, and whose 
eggs were rank poison. 

CO-LOS'SE, a city of 
Phryg'i-a, which stood on the 
river Ly-ce'us, at an egual 
distance between Laodicea 
andHi-e-rap'o-lis. Dr. Lard- 
ner says, " It appears to me 
very probable that the church 
at Colosse had been planted 
by the Apostle Paul, and that 
the Christians there were his 
friends, disciples, and con- 
verts." The Epistle to the 




Colossians, which was writ- 
ten about A. D. 62, greatly 
resembles that to the Ephe- 
sians, both in sentiment and 

COI/OURS. White was 
esteemed the most appropri- 
ate colour for cotton, cloth, 
and purple for others. Kings 
and princes were clothed with 
purple, .Luke xvi, 19. Scar- 
let, first mentioned in Gen. 
xxxviii, 28, and frequently 
afterward, was very much 
admired. The dark blue 
(Ezek. xxiii, 6) was highly 
esteemed among the Assy- 
rians. The black is said to 
have been used on occasions 
of mourning, and sometimes 
for common wear. See RAI- 

COMFORTER, one of 
the titles by which the Holy 
Spirit is designated in the 
New Testament, John xiv, 
16, 26 ; xv, 26. The name 
has,, novdoubt, a reference to 
his peculiar office in the eco- 
nomy of redemption ; namely, 
that of imparting consolation 
to the hearts of Christ's dis- 
ciples, which he effects by 
" taking of the things that 
are Christ's," and explaining 
them ; or, hi other words, by 
illuminating their minds as 
to the meaning of the Scrip- 
tures, assuring them of the 
Saviour's love, bringing to 
their recollection his conso- 
latory sayings, and filling 
their souls with peace and 
joy in believing them. 

COMMON, profane, cere- 
monially unclean, 
i COMMUNION, . fellow- 

ship, concord, agreement, 1 
Cor. x, 16; 2 Cor. yi, 14 ; 1 
-John i, 3. 

COM'PASS. The expres- 
sion "fetched a compass," 
signifies, coasted around the 
island. To compass sea and 
land is a proverbial expres- 
sion,' used to denote the most 
strenuous exertions to ac- 
complish an object. 

CONCISION, the cutting. 
Circumcisionbeingnow ceas- 
ed, the apostle will not call 
the Jews the circumcision, but 
coins a term on purpose, taken 
from a Greek word which 
signifies a cut, and alludes to 
such cutting as God had for- 
bidden, Lev- xxi, 5. 

term, in western authors, 
commonly signifies a woman, 
who, without being married 
to a man, yet lives with him 
as his wife ; but, in the sa- 
cred writers, the word con- 
cubine is understood in ano- 
ther sense ; meaning a lawful 
wife, but one not wedded 
with all the ceremonies and 
solemnities of matrimony ; a 
wife of the second rank, in- 
ferior to the first wife, or mis- 
tress of the house. Children 
of concubines did not inherit 
their father's fortune ; but he 
might provide for, and make 
presents to them. Since the 
abrogation of polygamy by Je- 
sus Christ, and the restora- 
tion of marriage to its primi- 
tive institution, concubinage 
is ranked with adultery or for- 

taken for unlawful or sinful 




desire ; particularly for car- 
nal inclinations. Bad de- 
sires, as well as bad actions, 
are forbidden ; and the first 
care of such as would please 
God, is to restrain them. 

act of passing sentence 
against a person, by which 
he is doomed to punishment. 
The punishment itself. 

CO'NEY, called in He- 
brew Shaphan. It is an un- 
clean animal; described as 
chewing the cud, Lev. xi, 5 ; 
as inhabiting mountains and 
rocks, Psa. civ, 18 ; and as 
gregarious and sagacious, 
Prov. xxx, 26 ; hence it is 
not the coney, an old name 
for the rabbit, which burrows 
most generally in the sand. 
But Mr. Bruce proves that the 
ashkoko is intended, a harm- 
less animal,of nearly the same 
size and quality as the rabbit, 
but of abrowner colour, small- 
er eyes, and a more pointed 
head. Its feet are round and 
very fleshy, notwithstanding 
which, however, it builds its 
house in the rocks. _ "He is 
above all other animals so 
much attached to the rocks, 
that I never once," says Mr. . 
Bruce, " saw him on the 
ground, or from among large 
stones in the mouth of caves, 
where is his constant resi- 
dence. He lives in families 
or flocks. He is in Judea, 
Palestine, and Arabia; and, 
consequently, must have been 
familiar to Solomon." 

CONFESS. To confess is 
to acknowledge our sins to 
God,who can pardon or punish 

us, or-to our neighbour whom 
we have wronged, or to some 
pious friend who can give 
us instruction and comfort, 
Jas. v, 16 ; Psa. xxxii, 5. 
" To confess Christ," is open- 
ly to acknowledge our faith 
in him, and publicly to ob- 
serve the rules of his reli- 
gion. The original word sig- 
nifies, if to use the same 
language, or words, as an 
other;" hence, by implica 
tion, to profess the same 
things as another, to admit' 
what another professes. He, 
therefore, who publicly con- 
fesses Jesus to be what he 
professes to be, that is, the 
Christ, and acts suitably to 
that' belief, him will Christ 
publicly confess to be what 
he himself professes to be 
that is, a true disciple of 

faculty within us, which de- 
cides on the merit or demerit 
of our own actions. A con- 
science well informed, and 
possessed of sensibility, is the 
best security for virtue, and 
the "most awful avenger of 
wicked deeds ; an ill-inform- 
ed conscience is the most 
powerful instrument of mis- 
chief. ' 

The rule of conscience is 
the will of God, so far as it is 
made known to us, either by 
the light of nature, or by that 
of revelation. With respect 
to the* knowledge of this rale, 
conscience is said to be right- 
ly informed, or mistaken ; 
firm, or wavering, or scru- 
pulous, &c. With respect 




to the conformity of our ac- 
tions to this rule when known, 
conscience is said to be good 
or evil. In a moral view, it 
is of the greatest importance 
that the understanding be 
well informed, in order to 
render the judgment or ver- 
dict of conscience a,, safe 
directory of conduct, and a 
proper source of satisfaction. 

cluster of stars. About 3,000 
visible stars are classed in- 
to fifty-nine constellations, 
twelve of which are in the 
Zodiac, or middle region of 
the firmament, twenty-three 
in the north part, and twenty- 
four in the south. 

CONTEMN, to despise, to 
neglect as unworthy of regard. 
English word conversation 
has now a more restricted 
sense than formerly ; and it is 
to be noted that in several 
passages of our translation of 
the Bible it is used to com- 
prehend our whole conduct. 

CONVERT, to change 
from one state or character to 
another. Conversion, consi- 
dered theologically, consists 
in a renovation of the heart 
and life, or a being turned 
from sin and the power of Sa- 
tan unto God, Acts xxvi, 18 ; 
and is produced by the influ- 
ence of Divine grace upon the 
soul. But this is not the only 
Scriptural import of the term ; 
for the first turning of the 
whole heart to God in peni- 
tence and prayer is generally 
termed conversion. 

sembly met for the solemn 
worship of God. 

COOS, a small island in 
the Mediterranean Sea, near 
the southwest point of Asia 
Minor, now called Stahcore. 

COPPER, one of the most 
ductile and malleable of me- 
tals, except gold, silver, and 
platina. Anciently, copper 
was employed for all the pur- 
poses for which we now use 
iron. Arms, and tools for 
husbandry and the mechanic 
arts, were all of this metal 
for many ages. 

COR, a Hebrew measure, 
which holds about six bush- 
els, some say more. 

COR'AL, a hard, creta 
ceous, marine production, re- 
sembling in figure the stem 
of a plant, divided into branch 
es. It is of different colours, 
black, white, and red. The 
latter is the sort emphatically 
called coral, as being the most 
valuable, and usually made 
into ornaments. 

COR'BAN. It denotes a 
gift, a present made to God, 
or to his temple. The Jews 
sometimes swore by corban, 
or by gifts offered to God, 
Matt, xxiii, 18. Jesus Christ 
reproaches the Jews with cru- 
elty toward their parents, in 
making a coi-ban of what 
should have been appropri- 
ated to their use . For when a 
child was asked to relieve the 
wants of his father or mother, 
he would often say, " It is a 
gift" corban, " by whatsoever 
thou mightest be profited by 
me ;" that is, I have devoted 
that to God which you ask of 




me ; and it is no longer mine 
to give, Mark vii, 11. Thu 
they violated a precept of the 
moral law, through a super- 
stitious devotion to Pharisaic 

CO-RI-AN'DER, a strong- 
ly aromatic plant. It bears a 
small round seed, of a very 
agreeable smell and taste. 
The manna might be compar- 
ed to the coriander seed in re- 
spect to its form or shape, as it 
was to bdellium in its colour. 
COR'INTH, a. celebrated 
city, the capital of A-cha'i-a, 
situated on the isthmus which 
separates the Pel-o-pon-ne'- 
sus from Attica. This city 
was one of the best peopled 
and most wealthy of Greece. 
Its situation between two 
seas drew thither the trade 
of both the east and west. 
Its riches produced pride, 
ostentation, effeminacy, and 
all vices, the consequences 
of abundance. For its inso- 
lence to the Roman legates, 
it was destroyed by L. Mum'- 
mi-us. In the burning of it,- 
so many statues -of different 
metals were melted together, 
that they produced the famous 
Corinthian brass. It was af- 
terward restored to its former 
splendour by Julius Ca?sar. 

Christianity was first plant- 
ed at Corinth by St. Paul,who 
resided here eighteen months, 
between the years 51 and 53 ; 
during which time he enjoyed 
the friendship of Aquila and 
his wife Priscilla^two Jewish 
Christians, who had been ex- 
pelled from Itily, with other 
Jews, by an edict of Claudius. 

The Church consisted both 
of Jews aiid of Gentiles. 

tles to. St. Paul wrote his 
First .Epistle to the Corinth- 
ians from Ephesus, in the be- 
ginning of A. D. 56. In this 
epistle he reproves some who 
disturbed the peace of the 
Church, complains of some 
disorders in their assemblies, 
of law suits among them, and 
of a Christian who had com- 
mitted incest with his mo- 
ther-in-law, the wife of his 
father, and had not been se- 
parated from the Church. 
This letter produced in? the 
Corinthians great grief, vigi- 
lance against the vices re- 
proved, and a very beneficial 
dread of God's anger. They 
repaired the scandal, and ex- 
pressed abundant zeal against 
the crime committed, 2 Cor. 
vii, 9-11. 

Paul, having understood 
the good effects of his first 
letter among the Corinthians, 
wrote a second to them, A. D. 
57, from Macedonia, and pro- 
bably from Philippi. He ex- 
presses his satisfaction- at 
their conduct, justifies him- 
self, and comforts them. He 
glories in his suffering, and 
exhorts them to liberality. 

COR'MO-RANT, a large 
sea bird. It has a most vo- 
racious appetite, and lives 
chiefly upon fish, which it 
devours with unceasing glut- 
tony. It darts down very 
rapidly upon its prey. 

CORN, the generic name 
for grain in the Old Testa- 
ment writings. It is evident 




from Ruth ii, 14 ; 2 Sam., xvii, 
28, 29, &c., that parched 
corn [i. e., grain] constituted 
part of the ordinary food of 
the Israelites, as it still does 
of the Arabs resident in Sy- 

centurion, belonging to the 
legion surnamed Italian. 

CORNER. Amps iii, 12. 
Sitting in the comer is a 
stately attitude. The place 
of honour is the corner of the 
room, and there the master 
of the house sits and receives 
his visitants . Corner is taken 
likewise for the side or ex- 
tremity of any thing, Prov. 
xxi, 9 ; Lev. xix, 27. Zecha- 
riah, speaking of Judah after 
the return from captivity, 
says, " Out of him came forth 
the corner" x, 4 ; i. e., the 
corner stone, the ornament 
and completion of the build- 
ing. This tribe shall afford 
corners, ie., chiefs, or heads. 

Lord is compared in the New 
Testament to a corner stone, 
in three different points of 
view. 1. As this stone lies 
at the foundation, and serves 
to give support and strength 
to the : building. 2. As the 
corner stone occupies an 
important and conspicuous 
place, Jesus is compared to 
it, 1 Peter ii, 6 ; because God 
has made him distinguished, 
and has advanced him to a 
dignity arid conspicuousness 
above all others. 3. Since 
men often stumble against 
a projecting comer stone, 
Christ is therefore so called, 

because his Gospel will be 
the cause of aggravated con- 
demnation to those who re- 
ject it. 

COTTAGE, a mean hut 
or house for shepherds or 
poor people, Zeph. ii, 6. 

COUCH, a mean bed, or 
small mattress, capable of 
holding one person. 

COUNCIL is occasionally 
taken for any kind of assem- 
bly ; sometimes for that of 
the sanhedrim, the supreme 
council of the Jewish nation, 
in which were despatched all 
the great affairs both of reli- 
gion and policy. It consisted 
of chief priests, elders, and 
scribes, amounting to seven- 
ty-two. Whatever might have 
been the origin of the sanhe- 
drim, it subsisted in the time 
of our Saviour, since it is 
spoken of in the Gospel, Matt, 
v, 21 ; Mark xiii, 9 ; xiv, 55 ; 
xv, 1 ; Matt, xxvii, 1 ; and 
since Jesus Christ himself 
was arraigned and condemn 
ed by it. 

COUNSEL, beside the 
common signification as de- 
noting the consultations of 
men, it is used in Scripture 
for the purpose of God, the 
orders of his providence, and 
his gracious designs, Luke 
vii, 30. 

COURT, an enclosed 
space near a house. That 
which was around the taber- 
nacle was formed of pillars, 
and veils hung by cords. 
The method of building 
houses in the form of a hol- 
low square made the covirt 
on the inside. 




COV'E-NANT. A cove- 
nant implies two parties, 
and mutual stipulations. The 
new covenant must derive its 
name from something in the 
nature of the stipulations be- 
tween the parties different 
from that which existed be- 
fore ; so that \ve cannot un- 
derstand the propriety of the 
name, new, without looking 
back to what is called the 
old, or first. On examining 
the passages in Gal. iii, in 
2 Cor. iii, and in Heb. viii-x, 
where the old and the new 
covenant are contrasted, it 
will be found that the old 
covenant means the dispen- 
sation given by Moses to the 
children of Israel; and the 
new covenant the dispensation 
of the Gospel published by Je- 
sus Christ; and that the ob- 
ject of the apostle is to illus- 
trate the superior excellence 
of the latter dispensation. 

No sooner had Adam bro- 
ken the covenant of works, 
than a promise of a final de- 
liverance from the evils in- 
curred by the breach of it 
was given. This promise was 
the foundation of that trans- 
action which almighty &od, 
in treating with Abraham, 
condescends to call " my co- 
venant with thee," and which, 
upon this authority, has re- 
ceived in theology the name 
of the Abrahamic covenant. 
Upon the one part, Abraham, 
whose faith was counted to 
him for righteousness, re- 
ceived this charge from God, 
"Walk before me, and be 
thou perfect;" upon the other 

part, the God whom he be- 
lieved, and whose voice he 
obeyed, besides promising 
.other blessings to him and 
his seed, uttered these signi- 
ficant words, " In thy seed 
shall all the families of the 
earth be blessed." In this 
transaction, then, there was 
the essence of a covenant; 
for there were mutual stipu- 
lations between two parties ; 
and there was superseded, as 
a seal of the covenant, the rite 
of circumcision, which, being 
prescribed by God, was a 
confirmation of his promise 
to all who complied with it ; 
and being submitted- to by 
Abraham, was, on his part, 
an acceptance of the cove- 

There are only two cove- 
nants, essentially different, 
and opposite to one another : 
the covenant of works, made 
with the first man, having for 
its terms, "Do this and live ;" 
and the covenant of grace, 
which was the substance of 
the Abrahamic covenant, and 
which entered into the con- 
stitution of the Sinaitic co- 
venant, but which is more 
clearly revealed, and more 
extensively published in the 
Gospel. This last covenant, 
which the Scriptures call new, 
has received, in the language 
of theology, the name of the 
covenant of grace, for the two 
following obvious reasons : 
because, after man had bro- 
ken" the covenant of works, it 
was pure grace or favour in 
the Almighty to enter into 
a new covenant with him: 




and because, by the covenant, 
there is conveyed that grace 
which enables man to comply 
with the terms : of it. It 
could not be a covenant un- 
less there were .terms, 
something required, as well 
as something promised or 
given, duties to be perform- 
ed, as well as blessings to be 
received, Heb. viii,.10. But 
although there are mutual 
stipulations, the covenant re- 
tains its character of a cove- 
nant of grace, and must be 
regarded as having its source 
purely in the grace of God. 
For the very circumstances 
which rendered the new co- 
venant necessary take away 
the possibility of there being 
any merit upon our part: 
the faith by which the cove- 
nant is accepted is the gift 
of God; and all the good 
works by which Christians 
continue to keep the cove- 
nant originate in that change 
of character which is the 
fruit of the operation of his 
Spirit. -> 

Covenants were anciently 
confirmed by eating and 
drinking together ; and chief- 
ly by feasting on a sacrifice. 
In this manner Abimelech, 
the Philistine, confirmed the 
covenant with Isaac, and Ja- 
cob with his father Laban, 
Gen. xxvi, 26-31 ; xxxi, 44- 
46, 54. Sometimes they di- 
vided the parts of the victim, 
and passed between them, by 
which act the parties signified 
their resolution of fulfilling 
all the terms of the engage- 
ment, on pain of being divid- 

ed or cut asunder as the sa- 
crifice had been, if they 
should violate the covenant, 
Gen. xv, &, 10, 17, 18 ; Jer. 
xxxiv, 18, When the law of 
Moses was established, the 
people feasted in their peace- 
offerings on a part of the sa- 
crifice, in token of their re- 
conciliation with God, Deut. 
xii, 6, 7. See CIRCUMCI- 

COVER, a figurative ex- 
pression, applied to the re- 
mission of sins. To cover, 
or conceal, is to remove from 
sight or notice ; and sins 
which are left out of sight 
and out of notice, of course, 
are sins which are not pun- 
ished, and, therefore, par- 
doned. Compare the expres- 
sions in Isa. xxxviii, 17 ; 
Mic. vii, 19 ; Job xiv, 17. 

COVET. This word is- 
sometimes used in a good 
sense, as, " To covet the best 
gift," I Cor. xii, 31 ; but ge- 
nerally in a bad -sense, to 
denote an inordinate desire 
of earthly things, especially 
of that which belongs to ano- 
ther. Covetousness is de- 
clared by the apostle to be 
idolatry, Col. iii, 5. ~ 

CRANE, a tall and long 
necked fowl, which, accord- 
ing to Isidore, takes its name 
from its voice, which we imi- 
tate in mentioning it. The 
Prophet Jeremiah mentions 
this bird knowing the seasons 
by an instinctive and invari- 
able observation of their ap- 
pointed times, as a circum- 
stance of reproach to the 
chosen people of God, who, 




although taught by reason and 
religion, " know not the judg- 
ment of the Lord," Jer. viii, 7. 
CREATION signifies the 
bringing into being something 
which did not exist before. 
The term is, therefore, most 
generally applied to the origi- 
nal production of the materi- 
als whereof the visible world 
is composed. It is also used 
in a secondary or subordinate 
sense, to denote those subse- 
quent operations of the Deity 
upon the matter so produced, 
by which the whole system of 
nature, and all the primitive 
genera of things, received their 
forms, qualities, and laws. 
First of all, the materials of 
which the future universe 
was to be. composed were 
created. These were jum- 
bled together in one indigest- 
ed mass, which the ancients 
called chaos, and which they 
conceived to be eternal ; but 
which Moses affirms to have 
been created by the power of 
God. The materials of the 
chaos were either held in so- 
lution by the waters, or float- 
ed in them, or were sunk 
under them : and they were 
reduced into form by the Spi- 
rit of God moving upon the 
face of the waters. Light 
was the first distinct object 
of creation ; fishes were the 
first living things ; man was 
last in the order of creation. 

The account given by Mo- 
ses is distinguished by its 

CRETE, a large island, 
now called Candia, in the 
Mediterranean. The Cretans 

affected the utmost antiquity 
as a nation ; and, being sur- 
rounded by the sea, were ex- 
cellent sailors, and their ves- 
sels visited all coasts. Their 
glory was MINOS, the legis- 
lator, the first, it is said, who 
reduced a. wild people to re- 
gularity of life. ' But their 
character for lying had passed 
into a common proverb, hence 
that detestable description 
which Paul has given of them, 
(Tit. i, 12,) that they were 
" always liars." 

CROSS, an ancient in- 
strument of capital punish- 
ment. Death by the cross 
was the punishment inflict- 
ed by the Romans on ser- 
vants who had perpetrated 
crimes, on robbers, assassins, 
and rebels ; among which 
last Jesus was reckoned, 
on the ground of his mak- 
ing himself king or Mes- 
siah, Luke xxiii, 1-5, 13-15. 
The cross consisted of a 
piece of wood erected per- 
pendicularly, which rarely 
exceeded ten feet in height, 
and intersected by another 
at right -angles near the top, 
so as to resemble the letter T. 
Our Saviour says that ivho- 
soever will be his disciple must 
take up his cross and follow 
him, Matt, xvi, 24 ; by which 
is meant, that his disciples 
must patiently submit to every 
kind of suffering, and even to 
die an ignominious and cruel 
death, like Christ himself, 
when called to it. The cross 
stands for death, in its most 
frightful forms, but oompre 
hends all other sufferings to 




be endured for the truth. ; 
but it is ridiculous to apply 
this phrase, as is often done, 
to express submission to some 
little mortification of our, will, 
or to some duty not quite 
agreeable to our views and 
feelings. The cross is also 
often put for the whole of 
Christ's sufferings, Eph. ii, 
16 ; Heb. xii, 2 ; and for the 
doctrine of his atonement, 
Gal. vi, 14. 

CROWN is a term pro- 
perly taken for a cap of state, 
worn on the heads of sove- 
reign princes, as a mark of 
regal dignity. In Scripture 
there is frequent mention 
made of crowns ; and the use 
of them seems to have been 
very common among; the He- 
brews. The high priest wore 
a crown, which was girt about 
his mitre, or the lower part of 
his bonnet, and was tied about 
his head, Exod.. xxviii, 36; 
xxix, 6.* New-married per- 
sons of both sexes wore 
crowns upon their wedding 
day, Cant, iii, 1L; and, allud- 
ing to this custom, it is said 
that when God entered into 
covenant with the Jewish na- 
tion he put a beautiful crown 
upon their head, Ezek.xvi, 12. 

The crown of a king was 
generally a white fillet bound 
about his forehead, the extre- 
mities whereof, being tied 
behind the head, fell back on 
the neck. Sometimes they 
were made of gold tissue, 
adorned with jewels. That 
of the Jewish high priest, 
which is the most ancient of 
which we have any descrip- 

tion, was a fillet of gold placed 
upon his forehead, and tied 
with a riband, of a hyacinth 
colour, or azure blue. Crowns 
were bestowed upon kings 
and princes, as the principal 
marks of their dignity. Da- 
vid took the crown of the 
king of the Ammonites from 
off his head. The crown 
weighed a talent of gold, and 
was moreover enriched with 
jewels, 2 Sam. xii, 30 ; 1 
Chron. xx, 2. The elders, in 
Rev. iv, 10, are said to " cast 
their crowns before the 
throne." The allusion is 
here to the tributary kings 
dependent upon the Roman 

Pilate's guard platted a 
crown of thorns, and placed 
it on the head of Jesus Christ, 
Matt, xxvii, 29, with an in- 
tention to insult him, tinder 
the character of the king of 
the Jews. In a figurative 
sense, a crown signifies ho- 
nour, splendour, or dignity, 
Lam. v, 16 ; Phil, iv, 1 ; and 
is also used for reward, be- 
cause conquerors in the Gre- 
cian games were crowned, 1 
Cor. ix, 25. 

of punishment among the Ro- 
mans. The person who was 
crucified was deprived of all 
his" clothes, excepting some- 
thing around the loins. In 
this state he was sometimes 
beaten with rods, but more 
generally with whips ; and to 
such a degree of severity 
that numbers died under it. 
He was then obliged to carry 
the cross himself to the place 




of punishment, which -was 
commonly a hill, near the 
public way, and out of the 
city. The common way of 
crucifying was by fastening 
the criminal with nails, one 
at each hand, and one at 
each foot, or one at both his 
feet. Sometimes they were 
bound with cords, which, 
though it seems gentler, be- 
cause it occasions less pain, 
was really more cruel, be- 
cause the sufferer was here- 
by made to languish longer. 
Sometimes they used both \ 
nails and cords for fastenings; 
and when this was the case, 
there was no difficulty in 
lifting up the person, toge- 
ther with the cross, he being 
sufficiently supported by the 
cords. Those who were fas- 
tened to the cross lived in 
that condition from three to 
nine days ; during that time 
they were watched by a 
guard. Hence Pilate was 
astonished at our Saviour's 
dying so soon, because, na- 
turally, he must have lived 
longer, Mark xv, 44. The 
corpse was not buried, ex- 
cept by express permission, 
which was granted only to a 
few. An exception, however, 
to this general practice, was 
made by the Romans in fa- 
vour of the Jews, on account 
of their law, (Deut. xxi, 22; 
23, V which forbade the bodies 
to hang after sunset. Arid, 
to hasten the extinction of 
life, their bones were broken 
upon the cross with a mallet. 
The Jews, under the juris- 
diction of the Romans, were 

accustomed to give the <Jri 
minal, before the commence- 
ment of his suffering, a me- 
dicated drink of wine and 
myrrh, Prov. xxxi, 6. The 
object was to produce intox- 
ication, and thereby render 
the pains of the crucifixion 
less sensible to the sufferer. 
This was refused by the Sa- 
viour, for the obvious reason 
that he chose to die with the 
faculties of the mind undis- 
turbed and unclouded, Matt, 
xxvii, 34 ; Mark xv, 23. This 
sort of drink, which was 
probably offered out of kind- 
ness, was different from the 
vinegar which was subse- 
quently offered by the Ro- 
man soldiers. The latter, 
mixed with water, was a 
common drink for the soldiers 
in the Roman army. See 
John xix, 29. An inscrip- 
tion, representing the cause 
of the punishment, was ordi- 
narily written on a piece at 
the top of the cross. 

CRUSE, a small v vessel 
for holding water and other 
liquids, 1 Sam. xxvi, 11. 

CRYS'TAL. This term 
primarily denotes zee, and it 
is given to a perfectly trans- 
parent gem, like glass, from, 
its resemblance to ice. 

CU'BIT, a measure used 
among the ancients . A cubit 
originally was the distance 
from the elbow;to the extre- 
mity, of the middle finger: 
this is the fourth part of a 
well proportioned man's sta- 
ture. The common cubit is 
eighteen inches. The opi- 
nion, however, is very pro 




bable, that the cubit varied in 
different 'districts and cities, 
and at different times, &c. 

CU'CUM-BER, the fruit 
of a plant very common in our 
gardens. They are very plen- 
tiful in the east, especially in 
Egypt, and much superior to 
ours ; more agreeable to the 
taste, and easier of digestion. 

CUD, that portion of 
food which ruminating ani- 
mals bring from the first sto- 
mach and chew at one time. 

CUM'MIN. .This is an 
umbelliferous plant, in ap- 
pearance resembling fennel, 
but smaller. Its seeds have 
a warm and bitter taste, ac- 
companied with an aromatic 
flavour, not of the most agree- 
able kind. An essential oil is 
obtained from them by distil- 
lation. The Jews sowed it 
in their fields, and when ripe 
threshed out the seed with a 
rod, Isaiah xxviii, 25, 27. 

CUP. - This word is taken 
in a twofold sense ; proper 
and figurative. In a proper 
sense, it signifies a vessel, 
such as people drink out of at 
meals, Gen. si, 13. It was 
.anciently the custom, at great 
entertainments, for the go- 
vernor of the feast to appoint 
to each of his guests the kind 
and proportion of wine which 
, they were to drink, and what 
he had thus appointed them it 
was deemed a. breach of good 
manners either to refuse or 
not to drink up ; hence a man's 
cup, both in sacred and pro- 
fane authors, came to signify 
the portion, whether of good 
or evil, which happens to him 

in this world. Thus, to drink 
" the cup of trembling," or of 
" the fury of the Lord" is to 
be afflicted with sore and ter- 
rible judgments, Isaiah li, 17 ; 
Jer. xxv, 15-29 ; Psa. Ixxv, 8. 
x, 16, is that which was bless- 
ed in entertainments of cere- 
mony, or solemn services ; or, 
rather, a cup over which God 
was blessed for having fur- 
nished its contents ; that is, 
for giving to men the fruit of 
the vine. Our Saviour, in the 
last supper, blessed the cup, 
and gave it to each of his apos- 
tles to drink, Luke xxii, 20. 

cxvi, 13, a phrase of nearly 
the same import as the former, 
a cup of thanksgiving, of bless- 
ing the Lord for his saving 

CURSE. To curse signi- 
fies to imprecate, to call for 
mischief upon, or wish evil to 
any one. The curses men- 
tioned Gen. ix, 25, and else- 
where, w^re ordained by God 
himself, and pronounced by 
men under the influence of 
his Spirit ; or they were pre- 
dictions of certain evils which 
would happen to individuals, 
or to a people, uttered in the 
form of imprecations. They 
were not the effects of pas- 
sion, impatience, or revenge ; 
and, therefore, were not 
things condemned by God in 
his law, like the cursing men- 
tioned Exod. xxi, 17. 

Ethiopia, the countries peo- 
pled by the descendants 
of Cush, the eldest son of 


' 112 


Ham, whose first plantations 
were on the gulf of Persia, 
and from whence they spread 
over India and great part of 
Arabia; particularly on the 
coast of the Red Sea ; invad- 
ed Egypt, under the name of 
shepherd kings ; and thence 
passed into Central Africa, 
and first peopled the countries 
to the south of Egypt. See 

CUTTINGS in the flesh. 
It may be taken as an instance 
of earnest entreaty, of conju- 
ration, by the most powerful 
marks of affection ; q. d., 
" Dost thou not see, O Baal ! 
with what passion we. adore 
thee 1 How we give most de- 
cisive tokens of our affection? 
We shrink at no pain, we de- 
cline no disfigurement, to de- 
monstrate our love for thee ; 
and yet thou answerest not ! 
By every token of our regard, 
answer us ! By the freely 
flowing blood we shed for 
the'e, answer us !" &c. They 
certainly demonstrated their 
attachment to Baal ; but Baal 
did not testify his reciprocal 
attachment to them, in proof 
of his divinity ; which was 
the point in dispute between 
them and Elijah. 

CYMBAL, a musical in- 
strument, consisting of two 
broad plates of brass, of a 
convex form, which, being 
struck together, produce a 
snrill,_piercing sound. 

CYPRESS, a large ever- 
green tree. The wood is fra- 
grant, compact, heavy, land 
almost incorruptible. The 
chests which contain the 

Egyptian mummies are of 
cypress. The gates of St. 
Peter's church at Rome, 
which had lasted from the 
time of Constantine to that of 
Pope Eugene IV., 1100 years, 
were of cypress, and had at 
that time suffered no decay. 

CYPRUS, a large island 
in the '. Mediterranean, situ- 
ated between Ci-lic'i-a and 
Syria. Its inhabitants were 
plunged in all manner of lux- 
ury and debauchery. Their 
principal deity was Yenus. 
The apostles, Paul and Bar- 
nabas, landed in -the island 
A. D. 44, Acts xiii, 4. 

' CY-RE'NE was a city of 
Lyb'i-a in Africa. This city 
was once so powerful as to 
contend with Cartilage for 
pre-eminence. It is men 
tioned as the birthplace of 
Simon, whom the Jews com- 
pelled to bear our Saviour's 
cross, Luke xxiii, 26. At 
Gyrene resided many Jews, a 
great part of whom embraced 
the Christian religion ; but 
others opposed it with much 
obstinacy. Among the most 
inveterate enemies of Chris 
tianity, Luke reckons those 
of this province, who had a 
synagogue at Jerusalem, and 
excited the people against St. 
Stephen, Acts xi, 20. 

CY-RE'NI-US, .governor 
ofSyria, Luke ii, 1, 2. ' 
- CY'RUS, son of Cam-by, 
ses, the Persian, and of Man- 
dane, daughter of As-ty'a-ges, 
king of the Medes. At the 
age of thirty, Cyrus was made 
general of the Persian troops, 
and sent, at the head of thirty 




thousand men, to assist his 
uncle, Cy-ax'a-res, whom the 
Babylonians were preparing 
to attack. Cyaxares and Cy- 
rus gave them battle and dis- 
persed them. After this, Cy- 
rus carried the war into the 
countries beyond the river 
Ha'lys ; subdued Cappadp- 
cia ; marched against Croe- 
sus, king of Lydia, defeated 
him, and took Sardis, his ca- 
pital. Having reduced almost 
.all Asia, Oyr,us repassed the 
Euphrates, and turned his 
arms against the Assyrians : 
having defeated them, he laid 
siege to Babylon, which he 
took, on a festival day, after 
having diverted the course of 
the river which ran through it. 
On his return to Persia, he 
married his cousin, the daugh- 
ter and heiress of Cyaxares ; 
after which he engaged in se- 
veral wars, and subdued all 
the nations, between Syria 
and the Red Sea. He died 
at the age of seventy, after a 
reign of .thirty years. Au- 
thors differ much concerning 
the manner of his death. 

2. We learn, few particu- 
lars respecting Cyrus from 
Scripture ; but they are more 
certain than those derived 
from other sources. Daniel, 
in the remarkable vision in 
which God showed him the 
ruin of several great empires 
.which preceded the birth- of 
the Messiah, represents Cy- 
rus as " a ram which had 
two horns, both high, but 
one rose higher than the 
other, and the higher came 
up 'last. This ram pushed 

westward, and northward, 
and southward, so that no 
beasts might stand before 
him, neither was there any 
that could deliver out of his 
hand ; but he did according 
to his will, and became 
great," Dan. viii, 3, -4, 20. 
The two horns signify the 
two empires which Cyru's 
united in his person, that of 
the Medes and that of the 
Persians. In another place, 
Daniel compares Cyrus to a 
bear witli three ribs in its 
mouth, to which it was said, 
"Arise, devour much flesh." 
Cyrus succeeded Cambyscs 
in the kingdom, of Pe rsia, and 
Da-ri'us the Mede also in the 
kingdom of the Medes, and 
the empire of Babylon. He 
was monarch, as he speaks, 
" of all the earth," Ezra i, 1, 
2 ; 2 Chron. xxxvi, 22, 23 ; 
when he permitted the Jews 
to return to their own coun- 
try, B. C. 538. He had al 
ways a particular regard for 
Daniel, and continued him in 
his great employments. 

3. The prophets foretold 
the exploits of Cyrus. ., Isaiah 
xliv, 28, particularly declares 
his name, above a century 
before he was bom. The 
peculiar designation by name 
which Cyrus received, must 
be regarded as one of the most 
remarkable circumstances in 
the prophetic writings. 

4. Pliny notices the tomb 
of Cyrus at Passagardae, in 
Persia. Alexander the Great 
opened the tomb, and found, 
notj;he treasures he expect- 
ed, but a. rotten shield, two 




Scythian bows, and a Persian 
chneter. Cyrus, in his last 
instructions to his children, 
desired that "his body, when 
he died, might not be deposit- 
ed in gold or silver, nor in any 
other sumptuous monument, 
but committed, as soon as 
possible, to the ground." 

DAGON,' a god of the" Phi- 
listines. The name is derived 
from the Hebrew, dag, Jink, 
and signifies a large fish. 
Scripture shows clearly that 
the statue of Dagon was hu- 
man, at least the upper part 
of it, 1 Sam. v, 4, 5. 

DAILY BREAD signifies 
that which is sufficient, or just 
enough for the. day. The pe- 
tition accords with various 
passages. Solomon prays, 
(Prov. xxx, 8,) " Feed me with 
food convenient for me." 
James has the expression, 
" Things ivhich are needful to 
the body" James ii, 16. 

viii, 10,-but St. Matthew calls 
it Magdala, Matt, xv, 39. It 
seems that Dalmanutha was 
near to Magdala, on the west- 
ern side of the lake. 

DAL-MA'TIA, (Dal-ma f - 
she-a,) a part of old Illyria, 
lying along the gulf of Venice. 
Titus preached here, 2 Tim. 
iv, 10. 

DA-MAS'CUS, a celebrat- 
ed city of Asia, and anciently 
the capital of Syria, may be 
accounted one of the most 
venerable places in the world 
for its antiquity. It is known 
to have existed in the time 
of Abraham, Gen. xv, 2, It 

was the residence of the Sy 
.rian kings, during the space 
of three centuries ; and ex 
perienced a number of v.ieis 
situdes in every period of it 
history. Its sovereign, Ha- 
dad, whom Josephus calls the " 
first of its kings, was con- 
quered by David, king of Is 
rael. In the reign of Ahaz, 
it was taken by Tig'lath Pil- 
e'ser, who slew its last king, 
Rezin, and added its pro- 
vinces to the Assyrian em- 
pire. It was taken and plun- 
dered, also, by Sen-nach'e- 
rib, Neb-u-chad-nez-zar, the 
generals of Alexander the 
Great, Judas Mac-ca-be'us, 
and at length by the Romans 
in the war conducted by Ponv 
pey against Ti-gra'nes, in the 
year before Christ 65. Dur- 
ing the time of the emperors, 
it was one of their principal 
arsenals in Asia, and is cele- 
brated by the Emperor Julian 
as, even in his day, "the eye 
of the whole east." About 
the year 634, it was taken by 
the Saracen princes, who 
made it the place of their re- 
sidence, till Bagdad was pre- 
pared for their reception; 
arid, after suffering a variety 
of revolutions, it was taken 
and destroyed by Tamerlane, 
A. D. 1400. - 

TION, are words synony- 
mous with condemn and cor.' 
damnation, 'Matt, xxiii, 14. 
Generally speaking, these 
words are taken to denote the 
final and eternal punishment 
of the ungodly. These terms, 
however, sometimes occur in 




the New Testament in what 
may be termed a less strict, 
or secondary sense. Thus, 
" He that doubteth," namely, 
the lawfulness of what he is 
doing, " is damned if he eat," 
Rom. xiv,. 23 ; the meaning 
is, he is worthy of condemna- 

DAN, the fifth son of Ja- 
cob. The city of Dan was 
situated at the northern ex- 
tremity of the land of Israel : 
hence the~phrase " from Dan 
to Be-er'-she-ba," denoting 
the whole length of the land 
of Canaan, *2 Sam. xxiv, 7, 
a hundred and fifty miles. 

DANCING. It is still the 
custom in the east to testify 
their respect for persons of 
distinction by music and dan- 
cing. In the oriental dances, 
in which the women engage 
by themselves, the lady of 
highest rank in the company 
takes the lead, and is follow- 
ed by her companions, who 
imitate her steps, ~and if she 
sings, make up the chorus. 
This statement may enable 
us to form a correct idea of 
the dance which the women 
of Israel performed under the 
direction of Miriam, on the 
banks of the Red Sea. 

DANIEL was a descend- 
ant of the kings of Judah, and 
is said to have been born at 
Upper Beth-o'ron, in the ter- 
ritory of Ephraim. He was 
carried away captive to Ba- 
bylon - when he was about 
eighteen or twenty years of 
age, in the year 606 before 
the Christian era. He was 
placed in the court of Neb-u- 

chad-nez'zar, and was after- 
ward raised to situations of 
great rank and power, both 
in the empire of Babylon and 
of Persia. He lived to the 
end of the captivity, but being 
then nearly ninety years, old, 
it is most probable that he did 
not return to Judea. It is 
generally believed that he 
died at Susa, soon after his 
last vision, which is dated in 
the third year of the reign of 
Cyrus. Daniel seems to have 
been the only prophet who 
enjoy ed a great share of world-; 
ly prosperity; but amid the 
corruptions of a licentious 
court he preserved his virtue 
and integrity inviolate, and 
no danger or temptation could 
divert him from the worship 
of the. true God. The book 
of Daniel is a mixture of his- 
tory and of prophecy : part of 
it is written in the Chaldaic 
language, namely, from the 
fourth verse of the second 
chapter to the end of the 
seventh chapter ; these chap- 
ters relate chiefly to the af- 
fairs of Babylon, and it is pro- 
bable that some passages were 
taken from the public regis- 
ters. This book abounds with 
the most exalted sentiments 
of piety and devout gratitude ; 
its style is clear, simple, and 
concise ; and many of its pro- 
phecies are delivered in terms 
so plain and circumstantial, 
that some unbelievers have 
asserted, in opposition to the 
strongest evidence, that they 
were written after the events 
which they describe had taken 




DA-RI'US was the name 
of several princes in history. 

DARIUS the Mede, spoken 
of in Daniel ix, 1 ; xi, 1, &c., 
who succeeded Bel-shaz'zar, 
B, C. 551, Dan. v, 31, is sup- 
posed to be the same as Cy- 
axares, the son of As-ty'a-ges, 
king of the Medes, and bro- 
ther to Mandane, the mother 
of Cyrus. See MEDE. 

DARKNESS, the absence 
of light. " Darkness was up- 
on the face of the deep," Gen. 
i, 2 ; that is, the chaos was 
immersed in thick darkness, 
because light, was withheld 
from it. The most terrible 
darkness was that brought on 
Egypt as a plague ; it was so 
thick as to be, as it were, pal- 
pable ; so horrible, that no 
one durst stir out of his place; 
and so lasting that it endured 
three days and three nights, 
Exodus x, 21 , 22. The dark- 
ness at our Saviour's death 
began at the sixth hour, or 
noon, and ended at the ninth 
hour, or three o'clock in the 
afternoon. Thus it lasted 
almost the whole time he was 
on the cross ; compare Matt, 
xxvii, 45, with John xix, 14, 
and Mark xv, 25. Orl-gen 
says it was caused by a thick 
mist, which precluded the 
sight of the sun. That it was 
preternatural is certain, for, 
the moon being, at full, a na- 
tural eclipse of the sun was 
impossible. Darkness is 
sometimes used metaphori- 
cally for death. " The land 
of darkness" is the grave, 
Job x, 22; Psalm cvii, 10. 
It is also used to denote mis- 

fortunes arid calamities. " A 
day of darkness" is a day of 
affliction, Esther xi, 8. " Let 
that day be darkness ; " let 
darkness stain it," let it be 
reckoned among the unfortu- 
nate days, Job iii, 4,5. The 
expressions, "I will cover 
the heavens with darkness ;" 
"The sun shall be turned 
into darkness, and the moon 
into blood," &c., signify very 
great political calamities 
involving the overthrow of 
kings, princes, and nobles, 
represented by the luminaries 
of heaven. In amoral sense, 
darkness denotes ignorance 
and vice*; hence " the chil- 
dren of light," in opposition 
to " the children of darkness," 
are the righteous distinguish- 
ed from the wicked. 

DATE, the fruit of the 
palm tree, of a sweet and 
agreeable taste. 

DAUGHTER. The state 
of daughters, that is, young 
women, in the east, their 
employments, duties, &c., 
may be gathered from various 
parts of Scripture ; and seem 
to have borne but little resem- 
blance to the state of young 
women of respectable parent- 
age among ourselves. Re- 
bekah drew and fetched wa- 
ter; Rachel kept sheep, as 
did the daughters of Jethro, 
though they superintended 
and performed domestic ser- 
vices for the family ; Tamar, 
though a king's daughter, 
baked bread; and the same 
of others. . 

DA'VID, the celebrated 
king of Israel, was the young- 




est son of Jesse, of the tribe 
of Judah, and was born 1085 
years before Christ. 

When David is called " the 
man after God's own heart," 
his general character, and not 
every particular of it, is to be 
understood as approved by 
God ; and especially his faith- 
ful andundeviatingadherence 
to the true religion, from 
which he never deviated into 
any act of idolatry. His in- 
spired Psalms not only place 
him among the most eminent 
prophets ; but have rendered 
him the leader of the devo- 
tions of good men, in all ages. 
The hymns of David excel no 
less in sublimity and tender- 
ness of expression than in 
loftiness and purity of reli- 
gious sentiment. In compa- 
rison with them the sacred 
poetry of all other nations 
sinks into mediocrity. The 
songs which cheered the soli- 
tude-of the desert caves of 
Engedi.have been repeated 
for ages in almost every part 
' of the habitable world, in the 
remotest islands of the ocean, 
among the forests of America, 
or the sands of Africa. 

DAY. The Hebrews, in 
conformity with the Mosaic 
law, reckoned the day from 
evening to evening, Lev. xxiii, 
32. The natural day, that is, 
the portion of time from sun- 
rise to sunset, was divided by 
the Hebrews, as it is now by 
the Arabians, into six unequal 
parts. These divisions were 
as follows : 1. the break of 
day, Mark xvi, 2 ; John xx, 1. 
2. The morning or sunrise. 

3. The heat of the day. This 
began about nine o'clock, 
Gen. xviii, 1 ; 1 Sam. xi, 11. 

4. Midday. 5. The cool of 
the day ; literally, the- wind 
of the day. This expression 
is grounded on the fact that 
a wind commences blowing 
regularly a few hours before 
sunset, and continues till 
evening, Gen. iii, 8. 6. The 

There is another day, 
which may be termed prophe- 
tic, where a day is put for a 
year, (See Ezek. iv, 5, 6,) of 
which there is an example in 
the explanation given of Da- 
niel's seventy weeks, a week 
is seven years. To-day sig- 
nifies any definite time, as we 
say, " The people of the pre- 
sent day." 

DAY-SPRING, the dawn, 
first appearance of the light, 
the springing of the day. 

DEACON denotes a ser- 
vant who attends his master, 
waits on him at table, and is 
always near his person to 
obey his orders. But a dea- 
con, in the primitive Church, 
means one who collects and 
distributes alms to the 'poor. 
Their office consisted in a 
general inquiry into the situ- 
ation and wants of the poor, 
in taking care of the sick, and 
in administering all proper 
relief. The appointment of 
deacons is distinctly record- 
ed, Acts vi, 1-16. 

The qualifications of. dea- 
cons are stated by the Apostle 
Paul, 1 Tim. iii, 8-12. There 
were also in the "primitive 
Churches females invested 




with this office, who were 
termed deacon esses. Of this 
number was Phoebe, a mem- 
ber of the" Church of Cen- 
chrea, mentioned by St. Paul, 
Rom. xvi, 1. " They served 
the Church," says Calmet, 
" in those offices which the 
deacons could not themselves 
exercise, visiting those of 
their own sex in sickness, or 
when imprisoned for the faith. 
They were persons of advan- 
ced age, when chosen; and 
appointed to the office by im- 
position of hands." It is pro- 
bably of these deaconesses 
that the apostle speaks, where 
he describes the ministering 
widows, 1 Tim. v, 5-10. 

DEAD. 1 . Destitute of na- 
tural life, Matt, xxii, 32 ; Job 
xxvi, 5 : " For this cause was 
the Gospel preached to them 
that are dead" 1 Peter iv, 6 ; 
\. e. formerly preached to 
them that are now dead ; see 
Ruth i, 8. 2. Without spi- 
ritual life, dead in sin, Matt, 
viii, 22. Let the dead in sin 
bury those who are naturally 
dead ; see Rev. iii, 1 ; Eph. 
ii, 1 ; 1 Tim. v, 6. 3. Mortal, 
devoted, or exposed to death, 
Rom. viii, 10 ; Gen. xx, 3. 7. 

Dead faith, James ii, 17, is 
a mere assent to truth, which 
does not produce good works. 
Dead works, Heb. ix, 14, are 
works which spring from spi- 
ritual death in the soul. Dead 
to the law, Gal. ii, 19, is hav- 
ing no hope of justification 
from it. Saints are dead to 
sin, Rom. vi, 2, when they 
have nothing to do with it. 

DEATH is taken in Scrip- 

ture, (1.) for the separation 
of body and sou], the first 
death, Gen. xxv, 11, (2.) For 
alienation from God and ex- 
posure to his wrath, 1 John 
iii, 14, &c. (3.) For the se- 
cond death, that of eternal 
damnation. (4.) For any great 
calamity, danger, or imminent 
risk of death, as persecution, 
2 Cor. i, 10. 

DE'BO-RAH, a prophet- 
ess, wife of Lap'i-doth, judged 
the Israelites, and dwelt un- 
der a palni tree between Ra- 
mah and Bethel, Judges iv, 

DEBTOR, DEBT, an 06- 
ligation which must be dis- 
charged by the party bound 
to do so. This may be either 
special or general: special 
obligations or debts are where 
the party has contracted to 
do something in return for a 
service received ; general 
obligations are those to which 
a man Is bound by his rela- 
tive situation : " Whosoever 
shall swear by the gold of the 
temple by the gift on the 
altar is a debtor," Matt, 
xxiii, 16, is bound by his 
oath ; is obliged to fulfil his 
vow. "I am debtor to the 
Greeks and the barbarians," 
Rom. i, 14, under obligations 
to persons of all nations and 
characters. Gal. v, 3, "a 
debtor" is bound " to do the 
whole law." Debts signify 
sins, Matt, yi, 12, a manner 
of speaking common among 
the x Jews. In this view a 
debtor is one who has failed 
in duty to us, or one who has 
injured us. 




DE-CAP'O-LIS, a part of 
Syria lying on the east of the ; 
Sea of Galilee, and so named 
from its ten cities. 

DEDAN, the name of a 
people andcountry in Arabia. ; 

DEDICATION, a reli- 
gious ceremony by which 
any thing is declared to be 
consecrated to the worship 
of God. 

" The feast of dedication," 
John x, 22, was instituted by 
Judas Maccabeus, 1 Mac. iv, 
59, when he purged and dedi- 
cated the altar and the tem- 
ple after they had been pol- 

DEEP. (1.) Hell, the place 
of punishment, the bottomless 
pit, which the devils evident- 
ly dreaded, Luke viii, 31. (2.) 
The common receptacle of 
:the dead ; the grave, the deep 
earth, under which the body 
being deposited, the state of 
the soul corresponding there- 
to ; Still more vinseen, still 
deeper,' still farther distant 
from human inspection, is that 
remote country, that " bourne 
from whence no traveller re- 
turns," Rom. x, 7. (3.) The 
deepest parts of the sea, Psa. 
cvii, 26. (4.) The chaos, 
which, in the beginning of the 
world, was unformed and va- 
cant, Gen. i, 2. 

DE GREES', a name giv- 
en to fifteen psalms, from the 
cxx ; the reason for it is un- 

DENY signifies to re- 
nounce and disregard. For. the 
disciple to " deny himself," is 
to disregard all personal con- 
siderations of ease, honour, 

liberty, and life when they 
come in competition with his 
allegiance to Christ. 

DEPUTY, one who acts 
for another, a governor of a 
Roman province. 

DESERT means an un- 
cultivated place, particularly 
if mountahious. Some de- 
serts were entirely dry and 
barren ; others were beauti- 
ful, and had good pastures. 
Scripture speaks of the beau- 
ties of the desert, Psalm Ixv, 
12, 13. Scripture names se- 
veral deserts in the Holy 
Land ; and there was scarcely 
a town without one belonging 
to it, i, e., uncultivated places 
for woods and pasture. The 
desert, through which the 
Israelites passed before they 
came to Moab, lies between 
the Jordan, or the mountains 
of Gilead, and the river Eu- 
phrates, Exod . xxiii, 31. God 
promised the children of Is- 
rael all the land between the 
desert and the .river ; that is. 
all the country from the moun 
tains of Gilead to the Euphra- 
tes. The wilderness, where 
John the Baptist preached, 
began near Jericho, and ex- 
tended to the mountains of 
Edom, Matt, iii, 1. 

DEVIL, a fallen angel and 
chief of those who were ex- 
pelled from heaven for rebel- 
lion against God. The word 
signifies " a false accuser or a 
slanderer" because he slan- 
dered God in paradise, as 
averse to man's knowledge 
and happiness, and still he 
slanders him by false sug- 
gestions. "He is the accuser 




of our brethren which accused 
them before our God day and 
night," Rev. xii, 10. 

The word in the plural, 
devils, is an improper trans- 
lation ; it should nave been 
demons or evil angels. 

There is a numerous band 
of these fallen spirits, Mark 
v, 9, and the devil appears to 
have them under his control. 
They are all " reserved unto 
the judgment of the great day" 
and for the "fire prepared for 
the devil and his angels." 

second law ; thp last book of 
the Pentateuch or five books 
of Moses. As its name im- 
ports, it contains a repetition 
of the civil and moral law, 
which was a second time de- 
livered by Moses, with some 
additions and explanations, 
as well to impress it more 
forcibly upon the Israelites 
in general, as in particular 
for the benefit of those who, 
being bom in the wilderness, 
were not present at the first 
promulgation of the law. It 
contains also a recapitulation 
of the several events which 
had befallen the Israelites 
since their departure from 
Egypt, with severe reproach- 
es for their past misconduct, 
and earnest exhortations to 
future obedience. The Mes - 
siah is explicitly foretold in 
this book. The book of Deu- 
teronomy finishes with an ac- 
count of the death of Moses, 
which is supposed to have 
been added by his successor, 

DEW. Dews in Palestine 

are very plentiful, like a 
small shower of rain every 
morning. In those warm 
countries where it seldom 
rains, the night dews supply 
the want of showers. Isaiah 
speaks of rain as if it were a 
dew, Isa, xviii, 4. Some of 
the most beautiful and illus- 
trative of the images of the 
Hebrew poets are taken from 
the dews of their country. 
The reviving influence of the 
gospel, the copiousness of its 
blessings, and the multitude 
of its converts, are thus set 
forth. - 


DIAL, an instrument for 
the measuring of time by the 
shadow of the sun. Dials 
are not mentioned before the 
days of Ahaz, nor hours till 
the time of Daniel's captivity 
in Babylon. Dan. iv, 19. 

Dl'A-MOND, a precious 
. stone, remarkable for its hard- 
ness, as it scratches all other 
minerals ; considered, from 
remote - antiquity, the most 
valuable, orproperly, the most 
costly substance in nature ; 
because of .its rarity, hard- 
ness, and brilliancy. When 
pure it is clear and transpa- 
rent, but sometimes it is co- 
loured. See Precious Stones. 

DI-A'NA, a celebrated 
goddess of the heathens, who ; 
was honoured principally at 
Ephesus, Acts xix, where 
she had a famous temple 
adorned with one hundred 
and twenty-seven columns of 
Parian marble, each of a sin- 
gle shaft, and sixty feet high, 
and which formed one of the 




seven wonders of the world. 
This temple could hold twen- 
ty thousand people, and was 
seven times set on fire. One 
of the principal . conflagra- 
tions happened "on the very 
day that Socrates was poi- 
soned, (four hundred years 
before Christ,) the other on 
the same night in which Alex- 
ander was born. 

A person by the name of 
Erostratiis set it on fire, ae- 
eprding to his own confes- 
sion, that his name might go 
down to posterity. The re- 
mains of this temple are still 
to be seen. 

DID'Y-MUS.aftDm. This 
is the signification of the He- 
brew or Syriac word-Thomas. 

DI-O-NYS'l-US, (Dy-o- 
nish'e-us,) the A-re-op'a-gite, 
a convert of St. Paul, Acts 
xvii, 34. Chrys'os-tom de- 
clares Di-o-nys'i-us to have 
been a citizen of Athens; 
which is credible, because 
the judges of the Areopagus 
generally were so. 

DIS-CI'PLrE. The proper 
signification of this word is a 
learner ; but it signifies in the 
New Testament, a believer, 
a Christian, a follower of 
Jesus Christ. Disciple is 
often used instead of apostle 
in the Gospels ; but subse- 
quently apostles were distin- 
guished from disciples. 

ardship or commission to dis- 
pense the gospel, 1 Cor. ix, 
17; Eph. iii,2. 

DIV-I-NA'TION, a con- 
jecture formed concerning 
future events from things 

which are supposed to pre- 
sage them. The eastern peo- 
ple were always fond of di. 
vination, magic, the curious 
art of interpreting dreams, 
and of obtaining a knowledge 
of future events. When Mo- 
ses published the law, this 
disposition had long been 
common in Egypt and the 
neighbouring countries. To 
prevent the Israelites from 
consulting diviners, fortune 
tellers,interpreters of dreams, 
fec., he enacted very severe 
penalties. Deut. xviii, 10. 
The writings of the prophets 
are full of invectives against 
the Israelites who consulted 
diviners ; and against false 
prophets who by such means 
seduced the people. 

DI-VORCE'. A dissolu- 
tion of the bonds of matrimo- 
ny. Moses did not encourage 
divorces, nor did he prohibit 
them strictly within the rule 
of the original law, because of 
the hardness of their hearts ; 
meaning probably in compas- 
sion to the oppressed condi- 
tion of the women themselves, 
put under the tyranny of a 
rigid race of men. In all such 
cases he commanded that a 
bill of divorce should be giv- 
en, Deut. xxiv, 1-4, in order 
that there might be time for 
reflection, and that the sepa- 
ration should not be made on 
the impulse of passion. Our 
Lord allows the bill of di- 
vorce, but restrains it abso- 
lutely to cases which directly 
and essentially violate the 
marriage covenant. This co- 
venant no. man is at liberty 




to break, and no legislature 
or state has the power to 
modify or alter. The bond 
is absolutely indissoluble in 
every case, except in the sin- 
gle ease of adultery, which 
the great Lawgiver himself 
has excepted. 

ERS, of the law, a class of 
men in great repute among 
the Jews . They had studied 
the law of Moses in its va- 
rious branches, and the nu- 
merous interpretations which 
had been grafted upon it in 
later times ; and, on various 
occasions, they gave their 
opinion on cases referred to 
them for advice. Doctors of 
the law were chiefly of the 
sect of the Pharisees ; but 
they are sometimes distin- 
guished from that sect, Luke 
v, 17. 

DOCTRINE. Whateveris 
taught as true by an instruct- 
er, knowledge, the truths of 
the gospel in general, divine 
injunctions. " Teaching for 
doctrines the commandments of 
men." Matt, xv, 0. 

DOG, a well known animal. 
By the law of Moses, the dog 
was declared unclean, and 
was held in great contempt 
among the Jews, 1 Sam, xvii, 
43 ; xxiv, 14 ; 2 Sam. ix, 8 ; 
2 Kings viii, 13. Yet they 
had them in considerable 
numbers in their cities. They 
were not, however, shut up 
in their houses or courts, 
but forced to seek their 
food where they could find it. 
The psalmist compares vio- 
lent men to dogs, who go 

about the city in the night, 
prowl about for their food, 
and growl, and become cla- 
morous if they be not satis- 
fied, Psa. lix, 6, 14, 15.^ The 
irritable disposition of the 
dog is the foundation of that 
saying, " He that, 
and meddleth with strife be- 
longing not to him, is like 
one that taketh a dog by the 
ears," Prov. xxvi, 17 ; that is, 
he wantonly exposes himself 
to danger. 

In ftfatt. vii,- 6, 4 we have 
this direction of our Saviour : 
" Give not that which is holy 
unto the dogs, neither cast 
ye your pearls before swine, 
lest they," the swine, "tram- 
ple them under their feet, 
and," the dogs, " turn again 
and tear you." It was cus- 
tomary with the people of 
that age to denote certain 
classes of men by animals 
supposed to resemble them 
among the brutes. Our Sa- 
viour was naturally led to 
adopt the same concise and 
energetic method. -By dogs, 
which were held in great de- 
testation by the Jews, he in- 
tends men of odious character 
and violent temper ; by swine, 
the usual emblem of moral 
filth, he means the sensual 
and profligate ; and the pur- 
port, of his admonition is, that 
as it is a maxim with the 
priests not to give any part 
of the sacrifices to dogs, so it 
should be a maxim with you 
not to impart the holy instruc- 
tion with which you are fa* 
voured, to those who are like- 
ly to blaspheme and to be 




only excited by it to rage and 
persecution. Jt is, however, 
a maxim of prudence, not of 
cowardice; and is to betaken 
along with other precepts of 
our Lord, which enjoin the 
publication of truth, at the 
expense of ease and even 

DOORS. 1. To be at the 
doors, is a proverbial- expres- 
sion for being near at hand, 
Matt, xxiv, 33 ; James v, 9 ; 
2. It is applied figuratively to 
Christ, who is the door, by 
which we must enter into his 
Church, and into eternal life, 
John x, 9 ; to an opportunity 
of receiving the Gospel, or of 
preaching it, Rev. iii, 8. 

DOTHAN, a town about 
twelve miles north of Sama'- 

DOUBLE has many signi- 
fications in Scripture. " A 
double garment" may mean a 
lined habit, such as the high 
priest's pectoral. Double heart, 
double tongue, double mind, 
are opposed to a simple, ho- 
nest, sincere heart, .tongue, 
mind, &c. For the right 
understanding of Isaiah xl, 2, 
" She hath received of the 
Lord's hand double for all her 
sins," read, that which is ade- 
quate, all things considered, 
as a dispensation of punish- 
ment. This passage does 
not mean twice 'as much as 
had been deserved, double 
what was just, but the fair, 
commensurate, adequate retri- 

DOVE, a beautiful bird, 
very numerous in the east. 
In its wild state it is called a ! 

Sigeon, and builds its nest in 
oles and clefts of rocks, or 
excavated trees. 

Doves easily become fami- 
liar, with men, and build -in 
structures erected for their 
accommodation, called "dove 
cotes." They are classed by 
Moses among the clean birds, 
and were always held in the 
highest estimation among the 
eastern nations. In the Scrip- 
ture, the dove is mentioned 
as the symbol of simplicity, 
innocence, gentleness, and 
fidelity, Matt, x, 16. Noah 
probably sent a dove out of 
the ark because it was a tame 
bird, and averse to carrion. 

DOWRY, the portion of 
money or goods which is giv- 
en with a wife. But, in the 
Scriptures, it is that sum of 
money or goods which a bride- 
groom offers to the father, as 
a token of honour, to engage 
his favourable interest, be- 
fore he can expect to receive 
his daughter in marriage. 

DRACHM, a Persian coin ; 
probably a golden dari c, worth 
about twenty shillings. 

DRAGON, a large kind 
of venomous serpent, un- 
known to modern naturalists. 
But some suppose it to be 
the o-ocodile, or some sea mon- 
ster ; others, some species of 
enormous land serpent, per- 
haps the boa constrictor, the 
largest known. It is often 
used for the devil, who is 
called the "old serpent," Rev. 
xx, 2. 

DREAMS, the thoughts 
of a person in sleep, which, 
not being under the command 




of reason, are wild and irre- 
gular. The prophetic dreams 
of the Scripture were . not, 
however, common dreams, 
but impressions made on the 
mind by Divine agency, and 
probably accompanied with 
an internal evidence which 
distinguished them from the 
ordinary rovings of the mind 
in sleep, and afforded suffi- 
cient conviction of their . su- 
pernatural character. This 
powerful means of worldng 
on the mind of man, though, 
by abuse, it has become, 
and still continues, a fruitful 
source of superstition, may, 
nevertheless, occasionally be 
employed to warn the wick- 
ed and direct the good. 

DROMEDARY, a species 
of camel, called also the 
Arabian camel, which differs 
from the Bractrian only by 
its being somewhat less, with 
one bunch on its back, while 
the other has two. It is re- 
markable for its prodigious 
swiftness, going as far in one 
day as that will in three ; 
for this reason it is used to 
carry messengers where haste 
is required. It also endures 
the heat better, crossing im- 
mense deserts, where no wa- 
ter is found, and not even 
moistened by the dew of hea- 
ven. It is endued with the 
wonderful power, at one wa- 
tering place, to lay in a store, 
which supplies him for many 
days to come. 

DRUNK, overpowered by 
spirituous liquor. Drenched 
with some moisture. ' ' I will 
make my arrows drunk with 

blood," Deut. xxxii, 42. Per- 
sons under the influence of 
superstition and idolatry, in 
which they make -no use of 
their natural reason, are said 
to be drunk. " To add drunk- 
enness to thirst," Deut. xxix, 
19, is to add one sin to ano- 
ther, i. e. not only to pine in 
secret after idol worship, but 
openly practise it. 

DULCIMER, an instru- 
ment of music, of a triangu- 
lar form, strung, with about 
fifty wires, and struck with 
an iron key, while laying on 
a table before the performer. 

DUMAH, a tribe and 
country of the Ishmaelites, 
situated on the confines of 
the Arabian and Syrian de- 
serts, with a fortress, Isa. 
xxi, 11. 

DUNG. The prophet was 
commanded to bake his bread 
by a fire made of this mate- 
rial. This wag designed to 
show the extreme degree of 
wretchedness to which they 
should be exposed, and want 
of fuel, during the siege of 
Jerusalem, Ezek. iv. 

DURA, a great plain, near 

DUST, fine dry particles 
of earth, unorganized earthly 
matter. "Dust thou art." 
The grave, Job vii, 21. A 
low condition. " God raiseth 
the poor out of the dust," 1 
Sam. ii, 8. A 'great multi- 
tude. " Who can count the 
dust of Jacob," Num. xxiii, 
10. In affliction, the He 
brews put dust on their 
heads, or sat down in it. 
The Jews thought the dust 




of heathen lands polluted, 
and were careful to free 
themselves from it ; hence 
our Saviour commanded his 
apostles to " shake off the 
dust of their feet," that by this 
significant act they might de- 
clare the house or city which 
rejected them, as worthy 
only to be ranked with the 
polluted city gf the heathen. 

EAGLE-XThe eagle has 
always been^considered as 
the king of birds, on account 
of its great, strength, rapidity, 
and elevation of flight, natu- 
ral ferocity, and the terror it 
inspires into its fellows of 
the air. Its voracity is so 
great, that a large extent of 
territory is requisite for the 
supply of proper sustenance ; 
and Providence has there- 
fore constituted it a solitary 
animal . Two pairs of eagles 
are never found in the same 
neighbourhood, though the 
genus is. dispersed through 
every quarter of the world. 
Its sight is quick, strong, and 
piercing to a proverb, Job 
xxxix, 27. 

The flight of this bird is as 
sublime as it is rapid and 
impetuous. None of the fea- 
thered race soar so high. In 
his daring excursions he is 
said to leave the clouds of 
heaven, and regions of thun- 
der, and lightning, and tem- 
pest, far beneath him, and to 
approach the very limits of 
ether. There is an allusion 
to this lofty soaring in Jer. 
xlix, 16. The eagle lives and 
retains its vigour to a great 
ge ; and, after shedding its 

feathers, renews its vigour 
so surprisingly, as to be said, 
hyperbolicafly, to become 
young again, Psa. ciii, 5, and 
Isa. xl, 31. 

EAR, the organ of hearing ; 
it denotes, also, the ear of 
the mind. That faculty of 
the mind by which we consi- 
der and distinguish, of which ' 
the bodily ear is a very pro- 
per and instructive emblem. 
People who have " heavy 
ears" are those viho disregard 
the admonitions of the pro- 
phets, who, are said in the 
Scripture " to. do" what they 
onlyforetel, Isa. vi, 10. 

EARING, an old English 
word for ploughing. " Earing 
time," Ex. xxxiv, 21, means 
the time of ploughing or 
planting. We ought to make 
great allowances for changes 
in our language since the 
time of our translators, and 
not, blame them for the use 
of words now become obso- 
lete ; but which, in their day, 
well expressed their mean- 

EARNEST, first fruits, 
that which gives promise of 
something to come, but used 
in the New Testament in a 
figurative sense, and spoken 
of the Holy Spirit which 
God hath given to believers 
in this present life, to assure 
them of their future and eteal 
nal inheritance, 2 Cor. i, 22. 

EARTH. Beside the usual 
senses in which the word is 
taken, it often means the 
land of Canaan, which was 
promised to the Jews, and 
which represented to the mind 




of spiritual Israel the great 
inheritance of heaven, Psa. 
xxxvii, 11. " The meek shall 
inherit the earth" which, ta- 
ken figuratively, denotes hea- 

EARTHQUAKE, a terri- 
ble shaking of the earth . The 
agents concerned in the pro- 
duction of earthquakes and 
volcanoes, are immense quan- 
tities of gas and steam, gene- 
rated by the decomposition of 
substances in the bowels of 
the earth. The position of vol- 
canoes, always near the sea, 
the agitation of the sea during 
an eruption, the large quan- 
tities of boiling water fre- 
quently ejected, and the sa- 
line matter in the ejected sub- 
stances, render it veiy clear 
that the sea supplies the wa- 
ter by subterranean communi- 
cation. The Scripture speaks 
of several earthquakes, Amos 
i, 1 ; Zech. xiv, 5. A very 
memorable earthquake is that 
which happened at our_ Sa- 
viour's death, Matt, xxvh, 51. 
It must have been terrible, 
since the centurion and those 
with him were so affected by 
it, as to acknowledge the in- 
nocence of our Saviour, Luke 
xxiii, 47. The effects of God's 
power, wrath, and vengeance, 
are compared to earthquakes, 
Psa. xviii, 7. An earthquake 
signifies also, in prophetic 
language, the dissolution of 
governments and the over- 
throw of states. 

EAST, one of the four car- 
dinal points of the world ; 
namely, that particular point 
oi the horizon in which the 

sun is seen to rise. The 
Hebrews express the east, 
west, north, and south, by 
words which signify before, 
behind, left, and right, accord- 
ing to the situation of a man 
who has his face turned to- 
ward the east. By the east, 
they frequently describe, not 
only Arabia Deserta, and the 
lands of Moab and Aramon, 
which lay to the east of Pa- 
lestine, but also Assyria, Me- 
sopotamia, Babylonia, and 
Chaldea, though they are si- 
tuated rather to the north 
than to the east of Judea. 

EASTER (Ee's-terJ the 
day on which the Christian 
Church commemorates pur 
Saviour's resurrection. Jn 
Acts xii, 4, the word should 
be rendered passover, which 
is. a feast of the Jews well 

EATING. The ancient 
Hebrews did not eat indiffer- 
ently with all persons. In 
Joseph's day they neither ate 
with the Egyptians, nor the 
Egyptians with them, Gen. 
xliii, 32 ; nor, in our Saviour's 
time, with the Samaritans, 
John iv, 9. The Jews were 
provoked at Christ's eating 
with publicans and sinners. 
Matt, ix, Jl. As there were 
several sorts of meats, the 
use of which was prohibited, 
they could not conveniently 
eat with those who partook 
of them, fearing to receive 
pollution by touching such 
food, or if by accident any 
particle of it should fall on 
them. The ancient Hebrews, 
at their meals, had each his 




separate table, Gen. xliii, 32, 
&c. Elkanah, Samuel's fa- 
ther, who had two wives, dis- 
tributed their portions to them 
separately, 1 Sara, i, 4, 5. 

The custom of reclining at 
tables was introduced from 
the nations of the east, and 
particularly from Persia, 
where it seems to have been 
adopted at a very remote 

Sjriod. The Old Testament 
criptures allude to both cus- 
toms ; but they furnish unde- 
niable proofs of the antiquity 
of sitting. It was not till 
after the lapse of many ages, 
and when degenerate man 
had lost much of the firmness 
of his primitive character, 
that he began to recline. 

The tables were construct- 
ed of three different parts or 
separate tables, making but 
one in the whole. One was 
placed at" the upper end cross- 
ways, and the two others 
joined to its ends, one on each 
side, so as to leave an open 
space between, by which the 
attendants could readily wait 
at all the three. Around these 
tables were placed beds or 
couches, one to each table. 
At the end of each was a 
footstool, for the convenience 
of mounting up to it. These 
beds were formed of mattress- 
es, and supported on frames 
of wood, often highly orna- 
mented ; the mattresses were 
covered with cloth or tapestry, 
according to the quality of the 
entertainer. The guests lay 
on these couches, each hav- 
ing a pillow at his left side, 
on which he supported his 

elbow ; a knife and fork was 
not then in use, the food was 
conveyed to the mouth by the 
right hand ; and he that sat 
next him, on the right side, 
was said to lie in his bosom. 
Accordingly, the expression 
of Lazarus lying in Abra- 
ham's bosom, implies, that 
he was in the highest place 
of honour and happiness. 

Partaking of the benefits of 
Christ's passion by faith is 
called eating, because' this is 
the support of our spiritual 
life, John vi, 53, 56. Hosea 
reproaches the priests of his 
time with eating the sins of 
the people, Hosea iv, 8 ; that 
is, feasting on their sin offer- 
ings, rather than reforming 
their manners. John the Bap- 
tist is said to have come 
"neither eating nor drinking," 
that is, as other men did ; 
for he lived in the wilderness, 
on locusts,, wild honey, and 
water, Matt, iii, 4. This is 
expressed in Luke vii, 33, by 
his neither eating "bread," 
nor drinking " wine." On the 
other hand, the Son of man is 
said, in Matt, xi, 19, to have 
come " eating and drinking;" 
that is, as others did; and 
that too with all sorts of per- 
sons, Pharisees, publicans, 
and sinners. 

E'B AL, a celebrated moun- 
tain, or rock, in the tribe 
of Ephraim, near Shechem, 
over against Mount Gerizim. 
These two mountains are 
separated by a deep valley, 
about two hundred paces 
wide, in which stood the town 
of Shechem. Thetwomoun- 




tains are much alike in mag- 
nitude and form, being of a 
semicircular figure, about a 
mile and a half in length, not 
exceeding eight hundred feet 
in altitude, and, on the sides 
nearest Shechem, nearly per- 
pendicular. One of them is 
barren ; the other, covered 
with a beautiful verdure. 

EB-EN-E'ZER, the stone 
of help : a witness stone 
erected by Samuel,! Sam.vii. 
Perhaps a pillar is meant by 
the word stone. 

EBONY, a species of hard, 
heavy, and durable wood, 
said to be brought from Ma- 
dagascar, which admits of a 
fine polish. The best is a 
jet black ; some is red and 
some is green. 

canonical book of the Old 
Testament, of which Solo- 
mon was the author, as ap- 
pears from the first sentence. 
The design of this book is to 
show the vanity of all' sublu- 
nary things ; and, from a re- 
view of the whole, the author 
draws this pertinent conclu- 
sion, " Fear God, and keep 
his commandments, for this 
is the whole of man ;" his 
whole wisdom, interest, and 
happiness, as well as his 
whole duty. 

EDEN, delight, pleasure, a 
pleasant region in Asia, the 
situation of which is describ- 
ed Gen. ii, 10-14 ; and in 
which was placed the garden 
of pur first parents during 
their state of innocence. The 
name has been given to seve- 
ral other places which, from 

their situation, were pleasant 
or delightful, Joel ii, 3. 

EDOM, the posterity of 
Esau, and likewise their 
country, Idumea; This coun- 
try was the mountainous 
tract between the Dead Sea 
and the Elanitic or eastern 
gulf of the Red Sea, and 
called also Mount Seir. 

EDIFY, to build; hence 
we call a building an edifice. 
In a spiritual sense, it signi- 
fies to instruct, improve, and 
comfort the mind ; and a 
Christian is edified when he 
is encouraged and animated 
in the ways and works of the 

The means to promote our 
own edification are, prayer, 
self-examination, reading the 
Scriptures, hearing the Gos- 
pel, and attendance on all 
appointed ordinances. 

EGYPT. A celebrated 
country of Africa, bounded on 
the east by Arabia, on the 
south by Nubia, on the west 
by the deserts of Africa, and 
on the north by the Mediter- 
ranean Sea. 

Through a valley formed 
by ranges of mountains on 
the east and west, the river 
Nile pours its waters. Al 
the place where this valley 
terminates, eight miles below 
Cairo, and about forty or fifty 
miles from the sea coast, the 
river divides itself into seve- 
ral streams, forming a trian- 
gle, the base of which is 
the seacoast, resembling the 
Greek letter A. Hence this 
part of Egypt received and 
still retains the name of the 




Delta. Every 3 r ear, in the 
months of August and Sep- 
tember, it overflows its banks, 
inundates the adjacent coun- 
try, fertilizes it by a deposi- 
tion of black mud, and emp- 
ties at last into the Mediter- 
ranean. Egypt is then, from 
one end of the country to the 
other, nothing but a beautiful 

farden, a verdant meadow, a 
eld sown with flowers, or a 
waving ocean of grain in the 
ear. This fertility, as is well 
known, depends upon the an- 
nual and regular inundation 
of the Nile. The height to 
which the Nile rises at these 
times is from eighteen to 
twenty-four feet. 

The sky is constantly a 
pure unclouded arch, of a 
colour and light more white 
than azure. The atmosphere 
has 'a splendour which the 
eye can scarcely bear; and 
a burning sun, whose glow is 
tempefed b.y no shade, scorch- 
es through the whole day 
these vast and unprotected 
plains. It is almost a pecu- 
liar trait in the Egyptian land- 
scape, that although not with- 
out trees, it is yet almost 
without shade. The only tree 
is the date tree, which is fre- 
quent ; but with its tall, slen- 
der stem, and bunch of foliage 
on the top, this tree does ve- 
ry little to keep off the light, 
and casts upon the earth only 
a pale and uncertain shade. 
Egypt, accordingly, has a ve- 
ry hot climate. The early 
history of ancient Egypt is 
involved in great obscurity. 
From ancient histories and 

from modern discoveries in 
the hieroglyphics, writers 
have been led to divide the 
history of the Egyptian em- 
pire into five periods. 

1. The first begins with the 
establishment of their govern- 
ment, and comprehends the 
time during which all reli- 
gious and political authority 
was in the hands of the priest- 
hood, who laid the first foun- 
dation of the future power of 
Egypt. It continued to Menes, 
B. C. about 1700. 

2. The second period be- 
gins at the abolition of this 
primitive government, and 
the first establishment of the 
monarchical government of 
Menes. From this time com- 
mences what is generally 
called the " Pharaonic age," 
and ends at the irruption of 
Cambyses, B. C. about 525. 

This is the most brilliant 
period of Egyptian history ; 
during which Egypt was co- 
vered with those magnificent 
' works which still command 
our admiration and excite our 
astonishment; andby the wis- 
dom of its institutions and 
laws, and by the learning of 
its priests, was rendered the 
most rich, populous, and en- 
lightened country in the 

3. The third epoch includes 
the period of the Persian do- 
minion, about two Imndred 

4. The fourth covers the 
reigns of the -Ptolemies. 

5. The fifth begins when 
Egypt became a Roman pro- 
vince, B. C. 30. and continues 




to the middle of the fourth 

The religion of Egypt con- 
sisted in the worship of the 
heavenly bodies and the pow- 
ers of nature ; the priests 
cultivated at the same time 
astronomy and astrology, and 
to these belong probably the 
wise men, sorcerers, and ma- 
gicians, mentioned, Ex. vii, 

But the Egyptian religion 
had this peculiarity, that it 
adopted living animals as 
symbols of the real objects 
of worship. 

The Egyptians not only es- 
teemed many species of ani- 
mals as sacred, which might 
not be killed without punish- 
ment of death, but individual 
animals were kept in temples 
and worshipped with sacri- 
fices, as gods. It was in con- 
sequence of this, that the de- 
struction of the first-bom in 
Egypt was made to extend 
also to the beasts. 

The ancient Egyptians 
spoke the Coptic language, 
which differed from that of 
the Hebrews, Gen. xlii, 23. 

This is now abundantly 
confirmed by inscriptions 
found in Egypt on monuments 
of various kinds, some of 
which are coeval with the 
Pharaohs and even antece- 
dent to the time of Joseph. 

The most extraordinary 
monuments of their power 
and industry were the pyra- 
mids, which still subsist, to 
excite the wonder and admi- 
ration of the world. The 
largest is 'near Cairo. It is 

five hundred feet high, and 
covers more than eleven acres 
of ground. When, by ivhom, 
and for what purpose, erected, 
is entirely unknown. 

ELAM, a province of Per- 
sia, in which was the capital 
Susa, Dan. viii, 2; in the 
earlier writers it includes, 
perhaps, the whole of Persia. 
See Gen. x, 22, where the 
origin of the Elamites is de- 
duced from Shem. 

city at the northern extremity 
of the eastern branch of the 
Red Sea, called by Josephus 
Elana, whence the name of 
the JElanitic Ghdf. 1 Kings 

ix, 26. 

ELDER, aperson advanced 
in life, and who, on account 
of his age, experience, and 
wisdom, is selected for of 
fice. Thus the heads of the 
tribes of Israel, who had a go- 
vernment and authority over 
their own families and the 
people, were called elders. 
Thus also the ordinary pas- 
tors and teachers of the Chris- 
tian Church are called elders 
or presbyters, and are the 
same as bishops or overseers. 
Tit. i, 5, 6, 7 ; Acts xx, 17r-28. 

E-LE-A'ZAR, the third 
son of Aaron, and his suc- 
cessor in the dignity of high 
priest, Exod. vi, 23. He en- 
tered into the land of Canaan 
with Joshua, and is supposed 
to have lived there upward 
of twenty years. The high 
priesthood continued in his 
family till the time of Eli. 
He was buried in .a hill 
that belonged to the son of 




Phinehas, Josh. xxiv. There 
are several others of this 
name in Scripture. 

E-LECTION. Of a Di- 
vine election, a choosing and 
separating from others, we 
have three kinds mentioned 
in the Scriptures. The first 
is the election of individuals 
to perform some particular 
and special service. Cyrus 
was " elected" to rebuild the 
temple ; the twelve apostles 
were "chosen," elected, to 
their office by Christ; St. 
Paul was a "chosen," or 
elected "vessel," to be the 
apostle of the Gentiles. The 
second kind of election which 
we find in Scripture is the 
election of nations, or bodies 
of people, to eminent religious 
privileges, and in order to 
accomplish, by their superior 
illumination, the merciful 
purposes of God, in benefit- 
ing other nations or bodies 
of people. Thus the descend- 
ants of Abraham, the Jews, 
were chosen to receive special 
revelations of truth; and to 
be " the people of God," that 
is, his visible Church, public- 
ly to observe and uphold his 
worship, " The Lord' thy God 
hath chosen thee, to be a pe- 
culiar people unto himself, 
above all people that are upon 
the face of the earth." " The 
Lord had a delight in thy fa- 
thers to love them,, and he 
chose their seed after them, 
even you, above all people." 
It was especially on account 
of the application of the terms 
elect, chosen, and peculiar, to 
the Jewish peor>le, that they 

were so familiarly used by 
the apostles in their epistles 
addressed to the believing 
Jews and Gentiles, then con- 
stituting the Church of Christ 
in various places. 

The third kind of election 
is personal election; or the 
election of individuals to be 
the children of God, and the 
heirs of eternal life. This is 
not a choosing to particular 
offices and service, which is 
the first kind of election we 
have mentioned ; nor is it 
that collective election to re- 
ligious privileges and a visi- 
ble Church state, of which 
we have spoken. The indi- 
viduals properly called " the 
elect," are they who have 
been made partakers of the 
grace and saving efficacy of 
the Gospel. " Many," says 
our Lord, " are called, but few 
chosen." What true personal 
election is, we shall find ex- 
plained in two clear passages 
of S cripture. It is explained 
by our Lord, where he saj'S 
to his disciples, "Ihave cho- 
sen you out of the world :" 
and by St. Peter, when he 
addresses his First Epistle to 
the " elect according to the 
foreknowledge of God the 
Father, through sanctifi cation 
of the Spirit, unto obedience 
and sprinkling of the blood of 
Jesus." To be elected, there- 
fore, is to be separated from 
" the world," and to be sanc- 
tified by the Spirit, and by 
the blood, of Christ. It fol- 
lows, then, not only that 
election is an act of God done 
in time, but also that it is 




subsequent to the administra- 
tion, of the means of salvation. 
The "calling" goes before 
the " election ;" the publica- 
tion of the doctrhie of " the 
Spirit," and the atonement, 
called by Peter "the sprink- 
ling of the blood of Christ," 
before the " sanctification" 
through which they become 
"the elect" of God. In a 
word, " the elect" are the 
body of true believers ; and 
personal election into the fa- 
mily of God is through per- 
sonal faith. All who truly 
believe are elected ; and all 
to whom the Gospel is sent 
have, through the grace that 
accompanies it, the power to 
believe placed within their 
reach ; and all such might, 
therefore, attain to the grace 
of personal election. 

ELEMENTS are the first 
principles of any thing. St. 
Paul calls the ceremonial or- 
dinances of the Mosaic law 
"worldly elements" Gal. iv, 
3 ; " weak and beggarly ele- 
ments," ver. 9. Elements, as 
containing the rudiments of 
the knowledge of Christ, to 
which knowledge the law, as 
a pedagogue, Gal. iii, 24, was 
intended, by means of those 
ordinances, to bring the Jews ; 
worldly, as consisting in out- 
ward worldly institutions, 
Heb. ix, 1 ; weak and beggar- 
ly, when considered in them- 
selves, and set up in opposi- 
tion to the great realities to 
which they were designed to 
lead. But, in Col. ii, 8, the 
elements or rudiments of the 
world are so closely connect- 

ed with philosophy and vain 
deceit, or an empty and de- 
ceitful philosophy, that they 
must be understood there to 
include the dogmas of pagan 
ihilosophy; to which, no 
loubt, many of the Colossians^ 
were in their unconverted 
state attached, and of which 
the Judaizing teachers, who 
also were probably them- 
selves infected with them, 
took advantage to withdraw 
the Colpssian converts from 
the purity of the Gospel, and 
from Christ their living head. 

E'LI, a high priest of the 
Hebrews, of the race of Ith'a- 
mar, who succeeded Abdon, 
and governed the Hebrews, 
both as priest and judge, dur- 
ing forty years. Eli appears 
to have been a pious, but in- 
dolent man, blinded by pater- 
nal affection, who suffered his 
sons to gain the ascendency 
over him ; and for want ei- 
ther of personal courage, or 
zeal for the glory of God suf- 
ficient to restrain their licen- 
tious conduct, he permitted 
them to go on to their own 
and his ruin. A striking les- 
son to parents ! God admo- 
nished him by Samuel, then 
a child; and Eli received 
those awful admonitions with 
a mind fully resigned to the 
Divine will. " It is the Lord," 
said he, "let him do what 
seemeth him good ." God de- 
ferred the execution of his 
vengeance many years. 1 
Sam. iv, 12-18. 


EL-I-E'ZER, a native of 
Damascus, and the steward 




of Abraham's house . It seems 
that Abraham, before the birth 
of Isaac, intended to make 
him his heir : " One born 111 
my house," a domestic slave, 
" is mine heir," Gen. xv, 1-3. 
He was afterward sent into 
Mes-o-po-ta'mi-a, to procure a 
wife for Isaac, Gen. xxiv, 2, 
3, &c. ; which business he 
accomplished with- fidelity 
and expedition. 

ELI'HU, one of Job's 
friends, a descendant of Na- 
hor. See JOB. 

ELI'JAH, or ELI'AS, a 
celebrated prophet, the leader 
of the prophets in the king- 
dom of Israel during the reign 
of Aha'b ;' distinguished, by 
many miracles, and by being 
received up into heaven, 2 
Kings ii, 11. He was raised 
up by God? to be set like a 
wall of brass, in opposition 
to idolatry, and particularly 
to .the worship of Baal, which 
Jezebel and Ahab supported 
in Israel. 

Elijah was one of the most 
eminent of that illustrious 
and singular race of men, the 
Jewish prophets. Every part 
of his character is marked by 
a moral grandeur, which is 
heightened by the obscurity 
thrown around his connec- 
tions and his private history. 
He often wears the air of a 
supernatural messenger sud- 
denly issuing from another 
world, to declare the com- 
mands of Heaven, and to awe 
the proudest mortals by the 
menace of fearful judgments. 
His boldness in reproof; "his 
lofty zeal for the honour of 

God ; his superiority to soft- 
ness, ease, and suffering, are 
the characters of a man filled 
with the Holy Spirit ; and he 
was admitted to great inti- 
macy with God, and enabled 
to work miracles of a very 
extraordinary and unequivo- 
cal character. In the stern- 
ness and power of his reproofs 
he was a striking type of John 
the Baptist, and the latter is 
therefore prophesied of under 
his name, Malachi iv, 5, 6. 
Our Saviour also declares 
that Elijah had already come 
in spirit, in the personof John 
the Baptist. At the transfigu- 
ration of our Saviour, Elijah 
and Moses both appeared and 
conversed with him respect- 
ing his future passion, Matt, 
xvii, 3, 4. 

ELIM, the six encamp 
ments ' of the Israelites, on 
the northern skirts of the de 
sert of Sin ; supposed to be 
the valley of Ghirondel, about 
six miles from Tor, where 
only nine wells, mentioned 
by Moses, Exod. xv, 37, are 
found, the other three being 
filled up by drifts of sand. 

ELISEUS, (El-e-seius,) 
the same as ELISHA, in the 
English translation of the 
New Testament. 

ELI'SHA, a celebrated 
prophet, the disciple as well 
as the companion and suc- 
cessor of Elijah, and distin- 
guished by many miracles. 
He nourished in the kingdom 
of the ten tribes, B. C. 892, 
1 Kings xix, 16, &c. 

E'LUL, the sixth month 
of the Hebrew ecclesiastical 




year, and the twelfth of the 
civil year, answering to our 
August and part of Septem- 
ber, containing 29 days. 


preserving dead bodies from 
putrefaction. It was much 
practised by the Egyptians 
of ancient times, and from 
them seems to have been bor- 
rowed by the Hebrews. It 
consisted in opening the body, 
taking out the intestines, and 
filling the place with odori- 
ferous drugs and spices of 
a desiccative quality. The 
Scripture mentions the em- 
balming of Joseph, King Asa, 
and oui' Saviour. See BU- 

EM'E-RALD is one of the 
most beautiful of all the gems, 
and is of a bright green colour, 
without the admixture of any 
other. Besides, these stones 
seem larger at a distance, by 
tinging the circumambient air. 
Their lustre is not changed by 
the sun, by the shade, nor by 
the light of lamps ; but they 
have always a sensible mode- 
rate brillianc}'. The true ori- 
ental emerald is very scarce, 
and is only found at present 
in the kingdom of Cambay. 

EM'E-RODS, the dis- 
ease of the Philistines ; sup- 
posed to be painful swellings 
in the hemorrhoidal vessels, 
the piles. 

E'MIMS, ancient inhabit- 
ants of the land of Canaan, 
beyond Jordan, who were 
defeated by Che'dor-la-p'mer 
and his allies, Gen, xiv, 5. j 

The Emims were a warlike 
people, of a gigantic stature. 
EMMANUEL, God with 
us, a Hebrew phrase, from 
Isaiah vii, 14, similar to other 
expressions in the New Tes- 
tament. The word was God 
way made flesh God was 
manifested in the flesh. So 
we are to understand, God 
with us is God incarnated 
God in human nature, 

EM-MA'CJS, a village 
about eight miles northwest 
of Jerusalem, celebrated for 
our Lord's conversation with 
two disciples who went thi- 
ther on the day of his resur- 
rection, Luke xxiv, 13. 

EMUL ATION^ generous 
ardour, kindled by the praise- 
worthy example of others, 
which impels us to imitate, 
to rival, and, if possible, to 
excel them. This passion 
involves in it esteem of the 
person whom we emulate, 
and a desire of resemblance, 
together with a joy springing 
from hope of success. . 

EN-EG-LA1M, a place at 
the head of the Dead Sea, 
where the Jordan enters it. 

EN'DOR,a city in the tribe 
of Manasseh, where the witch 
resided whom Saul consulted 
a little before the battle of 
Silboa, 1 Sam. xxviii, 13. 
That the real Samuel appear- 
ed is plain, both from the 
affright of the woman herself, 
and .from the fulfilment of his 
jrophecy. It was an instance 
of God's overruling the wiek- 
idness of men, to manifest his 
own supremacy and justice. 

EN'GE-DI abounded with 




Cyprus vines, and trees that 
produced balm. Solomon 
speaks of the "vineyards of 
Engedi,""Cant. i, 14. This 
city, according to Josephus, 
stood near the lake of Sodom, 
about thirty-seven miles from 
Jerusalem, not far from the 
mouth of the river Jordan. It 
was in the cave of Engedi 
that David had it in his power 
to kill Saul. 

ENOCH, the father of Me- 
thuselah, translated to hea- 
ven on account of his piety, 
Gen. v, 18-24. 

He was born A. M. 622. 
The encomium of Enoch is, 
that he " walked with God." 
While mankind were living in 
open rebellion against Hea- 
ven, and provoking the Divine 
vengeance daily by their un- 
godly deeds, he obtained the 
exalted testimony, " that he 
pleased God." This he did, 
not "only by the exemplary 
tenor of his life, and by the 
attention which he paid to the 
outward duties of religion, 
but by the soundness of his 
faith, and the purity of his 
heart and life, "Heb. xi, 5, 6. 
Enoch is said^ by another 
evangelical writer, to have 
spoken of the coming of Christ 
to judgment unto the antedi- 
luvian sinners, Jude xiv, 15. 
This prophecy is a clear, and 
it is also an awful description 
of the day of judgment. In 
the departure of Enoch from 
this world of sin and sorrow, 
the Almighty altered the or- 
dinary course of things, and 
gave him a dismissal as glo- 
rious to liimsrlf as it was 

instructive to mankind. To 
convince them how accept- 
able holiness is to him, and 
to show that he had prepared 
for those that love him a hea- 
venly inheritance, he caused 
Enoch to be taken from the 
earth without passing through 

EN ON, a place eight miles 
south of Scythop'olis, be- 
tween Salim and Jordan. 
And because there were 
" many waters" (the words in 
the original are plural,) John 
went there to baptize, that 
the wants of the multitudes 
who attended to his preach- 
ing might be supplied. 

ENSIGN, a military token 
or signal to be followed a 
standard. The ancient Jew- 
ish ensign was a long pole, at 
the end of which was a kind 
of chafing dish, made of iron 
bars, which held fire, the 
light, shape, &c., of which, 
denoted the party to which it 
belonged. Christ is called 
an ensign, Isa. xi, 10, because 
he will draw all men to him, 
as men follow an ensign. 

ENVY, a malignant dispo- 
sition, or state of mind, which 
grudges at the welfare of 
others, and would willingly 
deprive them of their advan- 

EP'A-PHRAS. It is not 
improbable that Epaphras is 
the same person with E-paph- 
ro-di'tus, the former name 
being merely contracted from 
the latter. 

who was sent by the Philip- 
pians to carry money to Paul, 




then in bonds, A. D. 61, and 
to do him service ; who exe- 
cuted his mission with much 
zeal, and brought upon him- 
self a dangerous illness. 

E'PHAH, a region and 
tribe of the Midianites, Gen. 
xxv, 4 ; on the eastern shore 
of the Dead Sea. 2. A dry 
measure, containing a little 
more than a bushel English, 
and of the same capacity with 
the bath in liquids, Zech.v, 6. 

EPH'E-SUS, a much ce- 
lebrated city of Ionia, in Asia 
Minor,situated upon the river 
Ca-ys'ter, and on the side of a 
hill. It was the metropolis of 
Asia Minor, and formerly in 
great renown among the hea- 
then authors on account of 
its famous temple of Diana. 

2. The Apostle Paul first 
visited this city A. D. 54 ; 
but being then on his way to 
Jerusalem, he abode there 
only a few weeks, Acts xviii, 
19-21 : but he promised to 
return, which he did a few 
months afterward, and conti- 
nued there three years, Acts 
xix, 10; xx, 31. While the 
apostle abode in Ephesus and 
its neighbourhood, he gather- 
ed a numerous Christian 
Church, to which, at a sub- 
sequent period, he wrote that 
epistle which forms so im- 
portant a part of the apostolic 
writings. He was then a 
prisoner at Rome, and the 
year in which he wrote it 
must have been 60 or 61 of 
the Christian era. It appears 
to have been transmitted to 
them by the hands of Tychi- 
sus, one of his companions in 

travel, Eph. vi, 21. The cri- 
tics have remarked, that the 
style of the Epistle lo the 
Ephesians is exceedingly ele- 
vated; and that it corres- 
ponds to the state of the apos- 
tle's mind at the time of writ- 
ing it. The epistle, says Mac- 
knight, is written as it were 
in a rapture. Grotius remarks 
that it expresses the sublime 
matters contained in it, in 
terms more sublime than are 
to be found in any human lan- 
guage ; to which Macknight 
subjoins this singular but 
striking observation, that no 
real Christian can read the 
doctrinal part of the Epistle to 
the Ephesians, without being 
impressed and roused by it, as 
by the sound of a trumpet. 

3. Ephesus was one of the 
seven Churches to which spe 
cial messages were addressed 
in the. book of Revelation, 
Rev. ii, 5. The contrast 
which its present state pre- 
sents to its former glory, is a 
striking fulfilment of this pro- 
phecy. A few heaps of ruins, 
and some miserable mud cot- 
tages, occasionally tenanted 
by Turks, without one Chris- 
tian residing there, are all 
the remains of ancient Ephe- 
sus. St. John passed the lat- 
ter part of his life in Asia 
Mi'nor, and principally at 
Eph'e-sus, where he died. 

EPH'OD, an ornamental 
part of the dress of the Jew- 
ish priests.; a kind of short 
cloak without sleeves, worn 
above the tunic and robe, and 
open below the arms on each 
side, consisting of two parts, 




one of which was suspended 
over the back, and the other 
over the fore part of the body ; 
both pieces being united by 
a clasp on the shoulder. 

There were two kinds of 
ephod : one was made plain ; 
and that which was intended 
for the high priest was em- 
broidered, and is described in 
Ex. xxviii, 6-14. On that 
part of the ephod which 
covered the shoulders were 
two large precious stones, on 
which were engraven the 
names of the twelve tribes 
of Israel six on each stone. 
These stones were different 
from those on the breastplate. 
The breastplate was confined 
to the ephod by means of 
ribands of dark blue. - To the 
ephod belonged a curious gir- 
dle of the same rich fabric ; 
that is, woven with the ephod. 

E'PHRA-IM, the youngest 
son of Joseph, and founder 
of the'tribe of Ephraim, the 
territory of which lay almost 
in the middle of the Holy 
Land, Josh, xvi, 5i In this 
tract was Mount Ephraim. 
The forest of Ephraim is to 
be sought beyond the Jordan, 
(compare 2 'Sam. xvii, 24, 
with chap, xviii, 6,) probably 
so called from the slaughter, 
of the Ephraimites, Jud. xii. 
The kingdom of the ten 
tribes, or Samaria, was call- 
ed Ephraim, because that 
tribe was the most important", 
and also because the family 
of Jeroboam, the first king, 
was of that tribe, 1 Kings 
xi, 26. There was also a 

city in this tribe, near the 
river Jordan, by the name of 
Ephraim, John xi, liv. 

EPH'RATA, the same as 

EP-I-CU'RE-ANS, a sect 
of philosophers, in Greece 
and Rome, the disciples of 
Epicurus, who flourished 
about 300 years B. C. They 
believed that the world was 
formed, not by God, nor with 
design, but by the fortuitous 
concourse of atoms. They 
denied that God governs the 
world, or in the least conde- 
scends to interfere with crea- 
tures below. They held that 
sensual pleasure was man's 
chief good, and that the soul 
died with the body. 

EPISTLES, letters writ 
ten by the apostles, or first 
preachers of Christianity, to 
particular Churches or per- 
sons, on particular occasions 
or subjects. The Apostle 
Paul, who was more accus- 
tomed to dictate his epistles 
than to write them himself, 
was the author of fourteen ; 
James and Jude each of one ; 
Peter of two ; John of three. 

E'S AR-HAD'DON, a king 
of'Assyria, the son and suc- 
cessor of Sen-nach'e-rib, 2 
Kings xix, 37. Before his 
father's death, he had been 
made viceroy over the pro- 
vince of Babylonia, with regal 
honours. He died B. C. 664. 

E'SAU, son of Isaac, and 
twin brother of Jacob. Born 
B. C. 1836. The time of his 
death is not mentioned ; but 
Bishop Cumberland thinks it 
probable that he died about 




the same time with his bro- 
ther Jacob, at the age of about 
one hundred and forty-seven 

The conduct of Esau in 
selling his birthright was both 
wanton and profane. It was 
wanton, because he, though 
faint, could be in no danger 
of not obtaining a supply of 
food in his father's house ; 
and was therefore wholly in- 
fluenced by his appetite, ex- 
cited by the delicacy of Ja- 
cob's pottage. It was pro- 
fane, because the blessings 
of the birthright were spi- 
ritual as well as civil. The 
Church of God was to be es- 
tablished in the line of the 
first-born ; and in that line 
the Messiah was to appear. 
These high privileges were 
despised by Esau, who is 
therefore made by St. Paul 
a type of all apostates from 
Christ, who, like him, pro- 
fanely despise their birthright 
as the sons of God. See 

ESH'COL,ayalley abound- 
ing in vines, in the south part 
of Palestine. Num. xiii, 23. 

ESPOUSE, to promise or 
engage in marriage by con- 
tract in writing or by some 
pledge. And this contract 
was made in presence of wit- 
nesses, between the father 
and brothers of the bride, and 
the father of the bridegroom. 

Espousals in the east are 
frequently made years before 
the parties are married, and 
sometimes .also in very early 

ESTHER, a Jewish vir- 

gin, remarkable for her ac^ 
complishments, formerly call- 
ed Hadassa, Esth. ii, 7, who 
became the wife of Xerxes 
and queen of Persia. There 
is a good degree of probabili- 
ty that Ahasuerus was no 
other than Xerxes of profane 
history, who succeeded his 
father, Darius, B. C. about 
485, and is chiefly known by 
the vast preparations which 
he made for the invasion of 
Greece, against which he 
marched at the head of an ar- 
my, some say, of five millions 
of men. 

The book of Esther has al- 
ways been esteemed canoni- 
cal both by Jews and Chris- 
tians, and the author is sup- 
posed to be Mordecai. Esth. 
ix,20-32, favours this'opinion. 

ETHAM, the second sta- 
tion of the Israelites coming 
out of Egypt. Mr. Stuart 
thinks it the same encamp- 
ing place which is now call- 
ed Adjerout, northwest from 
Suez- about twelve miles, 
where fresh water is found, 
and the only watering place 
in this quarter. 

E'THAJN, the Ezrahite, 
son of one of the wisest men 
of Ms time, Solomon except- 
ed, 1 Kings iv, 31. He was 
a principal master of the tem- 
ple music, 1 Chron. xv, 17. 

E-THAN'IM, one of the 
Hebrew months. After the 
Jews returned from the cap- 
tivity, the month was called 
Tisri, which answers to our 

E-THI-O'PIA, the region 
on both sides of the Red Seai 




inhabited by people of colour. 
That is, the Ethiopia in Af- 
rica which lies south of 
Egypt on ,the Nile ; and the 
southern part of Arabia, con- 
nected with the former place 
as the language shows. 
Moses married one of the 
natives of this place, during 
the march of the Israelites 
through the Arabian desert. 
Num. xii, 1. It also includes 
all the country east of the 
Tigris, from the Caspian Sea 
down to .the Persian Gulf. 
This is the country referred 
to by Moses, Gen. ii, 13. See 

EU'NICE, the mother of 
Timothy, a Jewess by birth, 
but married to a Greek, Ti- 
mothy's father, 2 Tim. i, 5. 
When Paul came to Lystra, 
he^ found there Eunice and 
Timothy j already far advan- 
ced in grace and virtue. 

EtPNUCH. The word sig- 
nifies a keeper of the bed. In 
the courts of eastern kings, 
the care of the beds and apart- 
ments is generally committed 
to eunuchs ;" they have the 
charge chiefly of the prin- 
cesses, who live secluded.. 
But in Scripture this word 
often denotes an officer be- 
longing to a prince, attending 
his court, and employed in 
the interior of his palace, as 
a name of office and dignity. 
Our Saviour speaks of men 
who " made themselves eunuchs 
for the kingdom of heaven's 
sake," Matt, xix, 12; that is, 
who in times of great perse- 
cution and danger chose to 
remain unmarried, in order 

to give up themselves un- 
interruptedly to establish 
and extend the Gospel. 

EU-PHRA'TES, a river 
of Asiatic Turkey, which 
rises from the mountains of 
Armenia ; and, chiefly pursu- 
ing a southwest direction to 
Semisat, it would there fall 
into the Mediterranean, if not 
prevented by a high range of 
mountains. At Semisat, the 
ancient Samosata, this noble 
river assumes a southerly di- 
rection, then runs an exten- 
sive course to the southeast, 
' and after receiving the Tigris, 
fairs by two or three mouths 
into the gulf of Persia, about 
fifty miles southeast of Bas- 
sora ; north latitude 29 5CK ; 
east longitude 66 55'. The 
comparative course of the 
Eupnrates may be estimated 
at about one thousand four 
hundred miles. This river 
is navigable for a considera- 
ble distance from the sea. 
The Euphrates and Tigris, 
the most considerable as well 
as the most renowned rivers 
of western Asia, are remark- 
able for their rising within a 
few miles of each other, run- 
ning the same course, never 
being more than one hundred 
and fifty miles asunder,, and, 
sometimes, before their final 
junction, approaching within 
fifteen miles of each other, 
as in the latitude of Bagdad. 
The space included between, 
the two is the ancient coun- 
try of Mes-o-po-ta'mi-a. The 
Scripture calls it " the great 
river," and assigns it for the 
eastern boundary of that land 




which God promised to the 
Israelites, Deut. i, 7 ; Joshua 

Greek name for the northeast 
wind, very dangerous in the 
eastern part of the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, of the nature of 
the whirlwind, which falls of 
a sudden xipon ships, Acts 
xxvii, 14. The same wind is 
now called a Levanter. 

sengers of good tidings, preach- 
ers of the Gospel, not located 
in any place, but travelling 
as missionaries to preach the 
Gospel, and found churches. 
2 Tim. iv, 5. They were as- 
sistants to the apostles ; or, 
as they might be termed, vice 
apostles, who acted under 
their authority and direction. 
As they were directed to or- 
dain pastors or bishops in the 
churches, but had no au- 
thority to ordain successors 
in their particular office, they 
must be considered as but 
temporary officers, like the 
apostles and prophets. The 
term evangelist is at present 
confined to the winters of the 
four gospels. 

EYE, the first woman. She 
was called Eve, Gen. iii, 20, 
a word that signifies life, be- 
cause she was to be the mo- 
ther of all that live. Our 
translators, therefore, might 
have called her Life. See 

EVENING, the ending 
of the day, when it begins to 
grow dark, or at least when 
the sun is considerably de- 
clined, Neh. xiii, 19. 

- EVEN-TIDE, the time 
of evening. A word nearly 
obsolete. . . 

or enduring for ever. The 
word occurs as an attribute 
of God, Gen. xxi, 33, and 
therefore can mean no limited 
time, because nothing of this 
kind can be attributed to 
God. It is the same word 
which is translated eternal. 

It is that duration which is 
always existing ; still running 
ON, but never running OUT ; 
an interminable and immea- 
surable duration. 

EVIL is distinguished into 
natural and moral. Natural 
evil is whatever destroys or 
any way disturbs the perfec- 
tion of natural beings, such 
as blindness, diseases, death, 
&c. Moral evil is the disa- 
greement between the actions 
of a moral agent, and the rule 
of those actions, whatever it 
be. Applied to choice, or 
acting contrary to the moral 
or revealed laws of the Deity, 
it is termed wickedness, or 
sin. Applied to an act con- 
trary to a mere rule of fitness, 
it is called a fault. 

EXODUS, (a departure,) 
the name of the second book 
of Moses, and -is so called in 
the Greek version because it 
relates to the departure of 
the Israelites out of Egypt. 
It comprehends the history 
of about 145 years ; and the 
principal events contained in 
it are, the bondage of -the Is- 
raelites in Egypt, and their 
miraculous deliverance by 
the hand -of Moses ; their 




entrance into the wilderness 
of Sinai ; the promulgation 
of. the law, and the building 
of the tabernacle. 
' EX'ORCISTS.thosewho, 
by certain arts or charms, 
supposed to be derived from 
Solomon, pretended to cast 
out devils. 

EYE, the organ of sight. 
Between the eyes is upon the 
forehead, the front part of the 
head, Deut. vi, 8. .To set the 
f.yes upon any one is mostly 
in the sense of kindness, to 
look with favour ; on the con- 
trary, to set the face, every- 
where implies unkindness : 
love is seen in the eyes, anger 
in the whole face. " The 
Lord's eyes are over the right- 
eous," I Pet. iii, 12. Since 
many affections of the mind, 
as envy, pride, pity, desire, are 
manifested through the eyes, 
so Hebrew writers often at- 
tribute those things to the 
eyes which strictly belong to 
the persons themselves, e. g., 
" Thine eye is evil against thy 
poor brother," Beut. xv, 9, 
i. e., to envy him, Deut. vii, 
16; Ezek. v, 11, the ideas 
of pity and sparing are attri- 
buted to the eyes rather than 
to the . person himself. So 
weakness and strength are at- 
tributed to the hands. See 
Isa. xxxv, 3. 

Eyes are often taken for the 
understanding, or eyes of the 
mind, Gen.iii,7; DeuE.xvi,19. 

Eye service is service ren- 
dered only while under in- 
spection, Eph. vi," 6. 

"If thine eye be single" 
Matt, vi, 22, i. e., sound, vi- 

sion perfect. " But if thins 
eye be evil," i. e., diseased, 
overgrown with a film or 

Deprivation of sight was a 
very common punishment in 
the east. The objects of this 
barbarity were usually per- 
sons who aspired to the 
throne, or who were consi- 
dered likely to make such an 
attempt. It was also inflict- 
ed on chieftains, whom it was 
desirable to deprive of pow- 
er without putting them to 
death, Jer. Iii, 11. Females, 
in conformity to a custom 
which prevailed in the ear- 
liest ages, used to paint their 
eyes, Ezek. xxiii, 40. 

E-ZE'KI-EL,like his con- 
temporary Jeremiah, was of 
the sacerdotal race. He was 
carried away captive to Ba- 
bylon with Je-hoi'a-chim,king 
of Judah, 598 B. C., and was 
placed with many others of 
his countrymen upon the river 
Chebar, in Mes-o-po-ta'mi-a, 
where he was favoured with 
the Divine revelations con- 
tained in his book. He be- 
gan to prophesy in the fifth 
year of his captivity, and is 
supposed to have prophesied 
about twenty years. The 
boldness with which he cen- 
sured the idolatry and wick- 
edness of his countrymen, is 
said to have cost him his life ; 
but his memory was. greatly 
revered, not only by the Jews, 
but also by the Medes and 
Persians. The style of this 

:ophet is characterized by 
ishop Lowth as bold, V-ehe- 
ment, and tragical ; as often 




worked up to a kind of tre- 
mendous dignity. He is high- 
ly parabolical, arid abounds 
in figures and metaphorical 
expressions. He displays a 
rough but majestic dignity ; 
an unpolished though noble 
^simplicity ; inferior perhaps 
in originality and elegance to 
others of the prophets, but 
unequalled in that force and 
grandeur for which he is par- 
ticularly celebrated. 

EZION-GE'BER, a sea- 
port of Arabia on the Elanitic, 
i. e., the eastern gulf of the. 
Red Sea, and close by the 
city of Elath, Deut. ii, 8, 
from whence the fleet of So- 
lomon sailed to Ophir. 

EZRA, a famous Jewish 
high priest and scribe, who, in 
the seventh year of Artaxerx- 
es Longimanus, 458 B. C., 
led up a colony of .Jews from 
Babylon to Jerusalem. He 
succeeded Zerub'babel in the 
government of Judea; was 
also a great reformer, and 
the author of the book which 
bears his name. This book 
begins with the repetition of 
die last two verses of the se- 
cond book of Chronicles, and 
carries the Jewish history 
through a period of seventy- 
nine years, commencing from 
the edict of Cyrus. The first 
six chapters contain an ac- 
count of the return of the 
Jews under Zerubbabel, af- 
ter the captivity of seventy 
years ; of their re-establish- 
ment in Judea; and of the 
building and dedication of 
the temple at Jerusalem. In. 
the last four chapters, Ezra 

relates his own appointment 
to the government of Judea* 
byArtaxerxes Lon-gim'a-nus, 
his journey thither from Ba- 
bylon, the disobedience of 
the Jews, and the reform 
which he immediately effect- 
ed among them. Till the ar- 
rival of Nehemiah, Ezra had 
the principal authority in 

Ezra was the restorer and 
publisher of the Holy Scrip- 
tures, after the return of the 
Jews from the Babylonian 
captivity. 1. He corrected 
the errors which had crept 
into the existing copies of 
the sacred writings by the 
negligence or mistake of 
transcribers. 2. He collect- 
ed all the books of which the 
Holy Scriptures then consist- 
ed, disposed them in their 
proper order, and settled the 
canon of Scripture for his 
time. 3. He added through- 
out the books of his edition 
what appeared necessary for 
illustrating, connecting, or 
completing them ; and of this 
we have an instance in the 
account of the death and 
burial of Moses, in the last 
chapter of Deuteronomy. In 
this work he was assisted by 
the same Spirit by which they 
were at first written. 4. He 
changed the ancient names 
of several places become ob- 
solete, and substituted for 
them new names, by which 
they were at that time called. 
5. He wrote out the whole 
in the Chaldee character; 
that language having grown 
into use after the Babylonish 




captivity. The Jews have 
an extraordinary esteem for 
Ezra, and say that if the law 
had not been given by Mo- 
ses, Ezra deserved to have 
been the legislator of the He- 
brews. -..' 

FABLE, a story destitute of 
truth. S t. Paul exhorts Timo- 
thy and Titus to shun profane 
and Jewish fables, 1 Tim. iv, 
7; Tit. i, 14; as having a 
tendency to seduce men from 
the truth. The most of mo- 
dern commentators interpret 
them of the vain traditions 
of the Jews ; especially con- 
cerning meats, and other 
things, to be abstained from 
as unclean, which our Lord 
also styles'" the doctrines of 
men," Matt, xv, 9. In ano- 
ther sense, the word is taken 
to signify an instructive tale, 
^intended to convey truth un- 
der the concealment of fic- 
tion; as Jotham's fable of the 
treesy Judg. ix, 7-15, no doubt 
by far the oldest fable extant. 

FACE. Moses b.egs of 
.G.od -to show him his face, 
Ex. xxxiii ; he replies, " / 
will make all my goodness pass 
before thee," and I -will pro- 
claim my name ; " but myface 
thou canst not see ; for there 
shall no man see it and live /" 
And the persuasion was very- 
prevalent in the world, that 
no man could support the 
sight of Deity ; yet we read 
that God, talked with the He- 
brews "face to face <mt of the 
midst of the fire," Deut. v, 4. 
These places are to be un- 
derstood simply, that God so 
. 10 

manifested himself to the Is- 
raelites, that he made them 
hear his voice as distinctly 
as if he had appeared to them 
face to face; but not that 
they actually saw more than 
the cloud of glory which mark 
ed his presence. The ./ace of 
God denotes sometimes his 
anger " The face of the Lord 
is against them that do evil," 
Psalm xxxiv, 16. 

FAIR-HAVEN,- probably 
an open kind of harbour, not 
so much a port as a bay, on 
the southeast part of Crete. 
FAITH, in Scripture, is 
presented to us under two 
leading views ; the first is 
that of assent or persuasion ; 
the second, that of confidence 
or reliance. The former may 
be separated from the latter, 
but the latter cannot exist 
without the former. Faith, 
in the sense of an intellectual 
assent to truth, . is, by St. 
James, allowed to devils. A 
dead, inoperative faith is also 
supposed, or declared, to be 
possessed by .wicked men, 
professing Christianity ; for 
our Lord represents persons 
coming to him at the last day, 
saying, "Lord, have we not 
prophesied in thy name?" 
( &c., to whom he, will say, 
' " Depart from me, I never 
knew you." And yet the 
charge in this place does not 
lie against the sincerity of 
their belief, but against their 
conduct as " workers of ini- 
quity." As this distinction 
is taught in Scripture, so it 
is also observed in expe- 
rience : assent to the truths 




of revealed religion may re- 
sult from examination and 
conviction, while yet the spi- 
rit and conduct may remain 
unrenewed and sinful. 

2. The faith which is re- 
quired of us as a condition 
of salvation always includes 
confidence or reliance, as well 
as assent or persuasion. That 
faith by which "the elders 
obtained a good report" was 
of this character; it united 
assent to the truth of God's 
revelations with a noble con- 
fidence in his promise. "Our 
fathers trusted in thee, and 
were not confounded." 

3. That faith in Christ 
which in the New Testament 
is connected with salvation, 
is clearly of this nature ; that 
is, it combines assent with 
reliance, belief with trust. 
" Whatsoever ye ask the Fa- 
ther in my name," that is, in 
dependance upon my interest 
and merits, "he shall give it 
you." Christ was preached 
both to Jews and Gentiles as 
the object of their trust, be- 
cause he was preached as the 
only true sacrifice for sin; 
and they were required to 
renounce their dependance 
upon their own accustomed 
sacrifices, and to transfer 
that dependance to his death 
and mediation, and " in his 
name shall the Gentiles trust." 

4. To the most unlettered 
Christian, this then will be 
very obvious, that true and 
saving faith in Christ consists 
both of assent and trust ; but 
this is not a blind and super- 
stitious trust in the sacrifice 

of Christ, like that of the 
heathen in their sacrifices ; 
nor the presumptuous trust 
of wicked and impenitent 
men, who depend on Christ 
to save them in their sins ; 
but such a trust as is exer- 
cised according to the autho- 
rity and direction of the word 
of God ; so that to know the 
Gospel in its leading princi- 
ples, and to have a cordial 
belief in it, is necessary to 
that more specific act of faith 
which is called reliance, or in 
systematic language, fiducial 
assent. The Gospel, as the 
scheme of man's salvation, 
declares that he is under the 
law; that this law of God has 
been violated by all ; and that 
every man is under sentence 
of death. Serious considera- 
tion of our ways, confession 
of the fact, and sorrowful 
conviction of the evil and 
danger of sin, will, under the 
influence of Divine grace, 
follow the cordial belief of 
the testimony of God ; and 
we shalLthen turn to God 
with contrite hearts, and ear- 
nest prayers and supplica- 
tions for his mercy. This ia 
called ^'/repentance toward 
God ;" and repentance being 
the first subject of evangeli- 
cal preaching, and then the 
injunction to believe the Gos- 
pel, it is plain that Christ 
only is immediately held out, 
in this Divine plan of our 
redemption, as the object of 
trust in order to forgiveness 
to persons in this state of 
penitence, and under this 
sense of danger. The degree 




of sorrow for sin, and alarm 
upon this discovery of our 
'danger as sinners, is nowhere 
fixed to a precise standard 
'in Scripture ; only it is sup- 
posed everywhere, that it_is 
such as to lead men to in- 
quire earnestly, " What shall 
1 do to be saved ?" and with 
earnest seriousness to use all 
the appointed means of grace, 
as those who feel that their 
salvation is at issue, that they 
are in a lost condition, and 
must be pardoned or perish. 
To all such persons, Christ, 
as the only atonement for sin, 
is exhibited as the object of 
their trust, with the promise 
of God, " that whosoever be- 
lieveth in him shall not pe- 
rish, but have everlasting 
life." Nothing is required 
of such but. this actual trust 
in, and personal apprehen- 
sion or taking hold of, the 
merits of Christ's death as a 
sacrifice for sin; and upon 
their thus believing they are 
justified, their "faith is count- 
ed for righteousness," or, in 
other words.they are forgiven. 
5. "This is that qualifying 
condition to which the pro- 
mise of God annexes justifi- 
cation ; that without which 
justification would not take 
place ; and in this sense it is 
that we are justified by faith ; 
not by the merit of faith, but 
byfaithinstrumentallyas this 
condition : for its connection 
with the benefit a_rises from 
the merits of Christ and the 
promise of God ; so that the 
indissoluble connection of 
faith and justification is from 

God's institution, whereby he 
hath bound himself to give 
the benefit upon performance 
of the condition. It acknow- 
ledges on earth, as it will be 
perpetually acknowledged in 
heaven, that the whole salva- 
tion of sinful man, from the 
beginning to the last degree, 
whereof there shall be no 
end, is from God's freest love, 
Christ's merit and interces 
sipn, his own gracious pro- 
mise, and the power of his 
own Holy Spirit. . 

6. Faith,in Seripture,some- 
times is taken for the truth 
and faithfulness of God, Rom. 
iii, 3 ; and it is also taken for 
the persuasion of the mind as 
to the lawfulness of things 
indifferent, Rom. xiv, 22, 23 ; 
and it is likewise put for the 
doctrine of the Gospel, which 
is the object of faich, Acts 
xxiv, 24 ; Phil, i, 27 ; Jude 
3 ; for the belief and profes- 
sion of tfie Gospel, Rom. i, 
8, and for fidelity in the per- 
formance of promises. 

spirit of divination, pretend- 
ing to reveal sacred things 
and foretel future events. 

FAN, .a winnowing shovel 
with which grain is thrown 
up against the wind in order 
to separate it from the chaff. 
This word is figuratively ap- 
plied to the word and power 
of Christ, with which he will 
purge the Jewish Church, se- 
parating the wicked from the 
righteous, Matt, iii, 12. 

FASTING, abstinencefrom 
food ; this has been practised 
in all ages, and by all nations. 




of revealed religion may re- 
sult from examination and 
conviction, while yet the spi- 
rit and conduct may remain 
unrenewed and sinful. 

2. The faith which is re- 
quired of us as a condition 
of salvation always includes 
confidence or reliance, as well 
as assent or persuasion . That 
faith by which "the elders 
obtained a good report" was 
of this character; it united 
assent to the truth of God's 
revelations with a- noble con- 
fidence in his promise. " Our 
fathers trusted in thee, and 
were not confounded." 

3. That faith in Christ 
which in the New Testament 
is connected with salvation, 
is clearly of this nature ; that 
is, it combines assent with 
reliance, belief with trust. 
" Whatsoever ye ask the Fa- 
ther in my name," that is, in 
dependance upon my interest 
and merits, "he shall give it 
you." Christ was preached 
both to Jews and Gentiles as 
the object of their trust, be- 
cause he was preached as the 
only true sacrifice for sin ; 
and they were required to 
renounce their dependance 
upon their own accustomed 
sacrifices, and to transfer 
that dependance to his death 
and mediation, and " in his 
name shall the Gentiles trust." 

4. To the most unlettered 
Christian this then will be 
very obvious, that true and 
saving faith in Christ consists 
both of assent and trust ; but 
this is not a blind and super- 
etitious trust in the sacrifice 

of Christ, like that of the 
heathen in their sacrifices ; 
nor the presumptuous trust 
of wicked and impenitent 
men, who depend on Christ 
to save them in their sins ; 
but such a trust as is exer- 
cised according to the autho- 
rity and direction of the word 
of God ; so that to know the 
Gospel in its leading princi- 
ples, and to have a cordial 
belief in it, is necessary to 
that more specific act of faith 
which is called reliance, or in 
systematic language, fiducial 
assent. The Gospel, as the 
scheme of man's salvation, 
declares that he is under the 
law ; that this law of God has 
been violated by all ; and that 
eveiy man is under'sentence 
of death. Serious considera- 
tion of our ways, confession 
of the fact, and sorrowful 
conviction of the evil and 
danger of sin, will, under the 
influence of Divine grace, 
follow the cordial belief of 
the testimony of God ; and 
we shalLthen turn to God 
with contrite hearts, and ear- 
nest prayers and supplica- 
tions for his mercy. This is 
called "-repentance toward 
God ;" and repentance being 
the first subject of evangeli- 
cal preaching, and then the 
injunction to believe the Gos- 
pel, it is plain that Christ 
only is immediately held out, 
in this Divine plan of our 
redemption, as the object of 
trust in order to forgiveness 
to persons in this state of 
I penitence, and under this 
1 sense of danger. The degree 




of sorrow for sin, and alarm 
upon this discovery of our 
'danger as sinners, is nowhere 
fixed to a precise standard 
in Scripture ; only it is sup- 
posed everywhere, that it is 
such as to lead men to in- 
quire earnestly, " What shall 
J do to be saved 7" and with 
earnest seriousness to use all 
the appointed means of grace, 
as those who feel that their 
salvation is at issue, that they 
are in a lost condition, and 
must be pardoned or perish. 
To all such persons, Christ, 
as the only atonement for sin, 
is exhibited as the object of 
their trust, with the promise 
of God, " that whosoever be- 
lieveth in him shall not pe- 
rish, but have everlasting 
life." Nothing is required 
of such but. this actual trust 
in, and personal apprehen- 
sion or taking hold of, the 
merits of Christ's death as a 
sacrifice for sin; and upon 
their thus believing they are 
justified, their " faith is count- 
ed for righteousness," or, in 
other words.they are forgiven. 
5. "This is that qualifying 
condition to which the pro- 
mise of God annexes justifi- 
cation ; that without which 
justification would not take 
place ; and in this sense it is 
that we are justified by faith ; 
not by the merit of faith, but 
byfaithinstrumentallyas this 
condition : for its connection 
with the benefit arises from 
the merits of Christ and the 
promise of God ; so that the 
indissoluble connection of 
faith and justification is from 

God's institution, whereby he 
hath bound himself to give 
the benefit upon performance 
of the condition. It acknow- 
ledges on earth, as it will be 
perpetually acknowledged in 
heaven, that the whole salva- 
tion of sinful man, from the 
beginning to the last degree, 
whereof there shall be no 
end, is from God's freest love, 
Christ's merit and interces 
sipn, his own gracious pro- 
mise, and the power of his 
own Holy Spirit. 

6. Faith,in Scripture,some- 
times is taken for the truth 
and faithfulness of God, Rom. 
iii, 3 ; and it is also taken for 
the persuasion of the mind as 
to the lawfulness of things 
indifferent, Rom. xiv, 22, 23 ; 
and it is likewise put for the 
doctrine of the Gospel, which 
is the object of faith, Acts 
xxiv, 24 ; Phil, i, 27 ; Jude 
3 ; for the belief and profes- 
sion of the Gospel, Rom. i, 
8, and for fidelity in the per- 
formance of promises. 

spirit of divination, pretend- 
ing to reveal sacred things 
and foretel future events. 

FAN, .a winnowing shovel 
with which grain is thrown 
up against the wind in order 
to separate it from the chaff. 
This word is figuratively ap- 
plied to the word and power 
of Christ, with which he will 
purge the Jewish Church, se- 
parating the wicked from the 
righteous, Matt, iii, 12. 

FASTING, abstinencefrom 
food ; this has been practised 
in all ages, and by nil nations, 




in times of mourning, sorrow, 
and affliction. We see no ex- 
ample of fasting, properly so 
called, before Moses. Since 
the time of Moses, examples - 
of fasting have been very 
common among the Jews. 
The Jews, in times of public 
calamity, appointed extraor- 
dinary fasts, and made even 
the children at the breast fast, 
Joel ii, 1 6. Moses fasted for- 
ty days upon Mount Horeb, 
Ex. xxiv, 18. Elijah passed 
as many days without eating, 
1 Kings xix, 8. Our Saviour 
fasted forty days and forty 
nights in the wilderness,Matt. 
iv, 2. These fasts were mi- 
raculous, and out of the com- 
mon rules of nature. Acts 
xxvii, 9, refers to the great 
annualpublic fast of the Jews, 
the great day of the atone- 
ment, which occurred in the 
month Tisri, corresponding 
to the new moon of October, 
and thus served to indicate 
the season of the year after 
which the navigation of the 
Mediterranean became dan- 

As to the fasts observed by 
Christians, it does not appear 
by his own practice, or by his 
commands to his disciples, 
that our Lord instituted any 
particular fast. Fasting is 
recommended by our Saviour 
in his sermon on the mount ; 
not as a stated, but as an oc- 
casional duty of Christians, 
for the purpose of humbling 
their minds under the afflict- 
ing hand of God; and he 
requires that this duty be 
performed in sincerity, and 

not for the sake of ostenta- 
tion,, 16. 

FAT, the best, the richest 
part of any thing, as the "fat 
of the land" Gen. xlv, 18 ; 
its best fruits, richest pro- 
ductions. The "fat," or " kid- 
ney fat of wheat," i. e., the 
finest wheat, the finest flour, 
Deut. xxxii, 14. 

Abounding in spiritual grace 
and comfort, Psa. xcii, 14; 
also, an abundance of good 
things. " A fat heart," i. e., 
a heart covered with fat, and 
therefore torgid, dull, unfeel- 
ing, Psa. xvii, 10. 

FATHER. Besides the 
common acceptation of the 
word, it often has a wider 
sense. It signifies, 1. A foie- 
father, ancestor, 2 Kings xiv, 
3. 2. A founder, author, i.e., 
the first ancestor of a tribe or 
nation. " The father of all 
such as handle the harp and 
organ," Gen. iv, 21, i. e., .the 
founder of the family of mu- 
sicians, the master, .or in- 
ventor, of the science of mu- 
sic. 3. The maker of any 
thing, a creator. " Hath the 
rain a father ?" Job xxxviii, 
28 ; in this sense, God is the 
father of men. Christians, 
by reason of adoption, have 
a new right to call God a 
father. See SON. 

The above senses come 
from the notion of source^ 
origin; others are drawn from 
the idea of paternal love and 
care, the honour due to a 

4. A nursing father, bene- 
factor, as doing good, and 
providing for others in the 




"manner of a father. " I was 
a, father to the poor" Job xxix, 
16. By the same metaphor, 
God is called the father of 
kings and others, 2 Sam. 
vii, 14. 

5. A master, teacher, from 
the idea of paternal instruc- 
tion, 1 Sam. x, 12; hence 
priests and prophets, as being 
teachers sent with Divine 
authority, are saluted with 
the title of father, out of re- 
spect and favour, even by 
kings, Judges xvii, 10. Thus 
the Pharisees designated 
themselves as eminent in- 
structors, wishing the people 
to have that implicit faith in 
them, in religious matters, 
which young children are apt 
to have in their parents, Matt, 
xxiii, 9 ; in this sense call 
no man father. 

6. In a similar sense, Jo- 
seph is called " a father to 
Pharaoh," i. e., his chief ad- 
viser and prime minister, 
Gen. xlv, 8. 

7. A spiritual father: one 
who converts another to the 
Christian faith, and is thus 
the instrument of his spiritual 
birth, or of his becoming a 
child of God, 1 Cor. iv, 15. 

8. A person respected for 
his age and dignity, Acts vii, 2. 

9. It expresses intimate re- 
lationship, close alliance. " I 
have said to corruption, Thou 
art my father," Job xvii, 14. 

FEAR, apainful apprehen- 
sion of danger. It is some- 
times used for the object of 
fear; as, " the fear of Isaac," 
that is, the God whom Isaac 
feared, Gen. xxxi, 42. God 

says that he will send his fear 
before his people, -to terrify 
and destroy the inhabitants 
of Canaan. Fear is used, 
also, for reverence : " God is 
greatly to be feared in the 
assembly of his saints." This 
kind of fear, being compati- 
ble with confidence and love, 
is sometimes called filial fear. 

The filial fear of God is a 
holy affection, or gracious 
habit, wrought in the s^oul by 
God, Jer. xxxii, 40, whereby 
it is inclined and enabled 
to obey all God's command- 
ments, even the most difficult, 
Gen. xxii, 12 ; Eccl. xii. 13 ; 
and to hate and' avoid evil, 
Nehem. v, 15 ; Prov. viii, 13. 
Slavish fear is the conse- 
quence of guilt; an alarm 
within that disturbs the rest 
of the sinner. Fear is put 
for the whole worship of God : 
" I will teach you the fear of 
the Lord," Psa. xxxiv, 11; i. e. 
I will teach you the true way 
of worshipping and serving 

FEASTS. God appointed 
several festivals among the 
Jews. 1. To perpetuate the 
memory of great events. 2. 
To keep them under the influ- 
ence of religion, and to con- 
vey spiritual instruction, and 
to keep alive the expectation 
of the Messiah, and his more 
perfect dispensation. 3. To 
secure to them certain times 
of rest and rejoicings. 4. To 
render them familiar with the 
law; for, in their religious 
assemblies, the law of God 
was read and explained. 5. 
To renew the acquaintance, 




correspondence, and friend- 
ship of their tribes and fami- 
lies, coming from the several 
towns in the country, and 
meeting three times a year in 
the holy city. 

The first and most ancient 
festival, the sabbath, com- 
memorated the creation, Gen. 
ii, 3. The passover, the de- 
parture out of Egypt, and the 
favour which God showed 
his people in sparing their 
first-born, Ex. xii, 14, &c. 
The feast . of pentecost was 
celebrated on the fiftieth day 
after the passover. The feast 
of trumpets was celebrated 
on the first day of the civil 
year. The feast of atonement 
was celebrated on the tenth 
day of Tisri, which was the 
first month of the civil year. 
It was instituted for a gene- 
ral expiation of sins, irreve- 
rences, and pollutions of all 
the Israelites, from the high 
priest to the lowest of the 
people, committed by them 
throughout the year, Lev. 
xxiii, 27, 28 ; Num. xxix, 7. 
The feast of tents, or taber- 
nacles, was kept on the fif- 
teenth of Tisri. The three 
great feasts of the year, the 
passover, pentecost, and that 
of the tabernacles, were de- 
signed to commemorate the 
wonderful kindness of God. 
The first continued only for 
one day, the second seven, 
and the last eight; but the 
first and last days only were 
properly considered festival' 
days, in which no employ- 
ment farther than was neces- 
sary to prepare food, was per- 

mitted. And all the males 
of the nation were obliged to 
visit .the temple at these 
three feasts. But the law did 
not require them to continue 
there during the whole time, 
except in the feast of taber- 
nacles, when it seems they 
were obliged to be present for 
the whole eight days. 

Beside these feasts, we find 
the feast of lots, or pwrim. 
The feast of the dedication of 
the temple, or rather of the 
restoration of the temple, 
which had been profanea by 
Antiochus Epiphanes, 1 Mac. 
iv, 52, &c., was celebrated in 
winter, and is supposed to be 
the feast of dedication men 
tioned in John x, 22. 

In the Christian Church, 
no festival appears to have 
been expressly instituted by 
Jesus Christ, or his apostles. 
Yet Christians have always 
celebrated the memory of his 
resurrection, and observe this 
feast on every Sunday, which 
was commonly called the 
Lord's day, Rev. i, 10. By in- 
ference we may conclude this 
festival to have been insti- 
tuted by apostolic authority". 
ver. 12 ; feasts which were 
kept by primitive Christians, 
in each particular church, at 
the time of celebrating the 
Lord's Supper. These feasts 
were furnished by the com- 
mon oblations of the faithful. 
Rich and poor were to par- 
take of them with decency 
and sobriety. It would seem 
at Corinth, in the apostles" 
days, they were held before 

Covers Die., p, 152, 





the Lord's Supper ; for when 
the Corinthians are blamed 
for an unworthy receiving of 
that ordinance, it is partly 
charged upon this, that some 
of them had indulged to ex- 
cess at the preceding love 
ieast, 1 Cor. xi, 21. 

FEET. 'By this word the 
Hebrews modestlyjexpressed 
what decency forbade them 
to name, Isa. vii, 20. At the 
feet of any one is to be in his 
steps, or following after him, 
Jud. iv, 10 ; or on his track, 
Hab. iii, 5. "To water by 
the foot" Deut. xi, 10, i. e., 
to irrigate land by machines 
with a tread wheel for rais- 
ing water, such as are still 
used in Egypt for watering 
gardens. Sitting at ilie feet, 
Luke vii, 35, is an allusion 
to the position of disciples, 
who were accustomed to sit 
before their master or teacher. 
Thus Paul was brought up at 
the feet of Gamaliel as his 
scholar, Acts xxii, 3. 

Toputunder one's feet, Rom. 
xvi, 20 ; 1 Cor. xv, 25 ; is 
to make subject to any one, 
in allusion to the ancient 
manner of treading the. foot 
upon the necks of vanquished 
enemies, Josn. x, 24. 

The orientals used to wash 
the feet of strangers, because 
they commonly walked with 
their legs bare, and their feet 
defended only by sandals. 
So Abraham washed the feet 
of the three angels, Gen. xviii, 
4 ; and our Saviour gave his 
last lesson of humility by 
washing his disciples' feet, 
John xiii, 5. 

To the feet, as the instru- 
ment of walking, is some- 
times ascribed that which 
strictly belongs to the person 
who walks, i. e., a part of the 
person is taken for the whole, 
Rom. x, 15 ; Acts v, 9. 

FELIX, the eleventh Ro- 
man procurator of Judea, 
about A. D. 51-58. He was 
a freed man of the Emperor 
Claudius, and hence is called 
Claudius. He first married 
Drusilla, a granddaughter of 
Anthony, and afterward an- 
other Drusilla, the daughter 
of Herod Agrippa, by whom 
he had a son, who perished 
in an eruption of Mount Ve- 
suvius. He was a man of 
the most infamous character, 
and a plague to all the pro- 
vinces over which he presid- 
ed. See CLAUDIUS. 

FELLER, one that hews 
or cuts down. 

5 FERRET, an animal of 
the weasel kind ; but the ori- 
ginal word is supposed by 
Gesenius to be a species of 

FES'TUS. Portius Fes- 
tus succeeded Felix in the 
government of Judea, A. D. 
60, Acts xxiv, 27. 

FIG TREE. This is not 
a shrub, as in our gardens, 
but a tree, riot altogether 
erect, but tall and leafy. The 
leaves are hand-shaped, like 
those of the mulberry. It 
flourishes in warm climates, 
and a sandy soil ; and was 
very common in Palestine. 
The fruit which, it bears is 

ErbduceAfrom the trunk and 
irge branches, and not from 




small shoots, as in most other 
trees. These trees do not 
properly blossom : they send 
out their fruit, like so many 
little buttons, with their flow- 
ers, small, and imperfect as 
they are, enclosed within 
them. (See the engraving.) 
" To sit under the vine and 
jig tree" is to live" a quiet 
and happy life, 1 Kings iv, 
25 ; Zech. iii, 10. 

The account of our Sa- 
viour's denunciation against 
the barren fig tree, Mark xi, 
13, has occasioned some of 
the boldest cavils of infidelity. 
The whole difficulty arises 
from his disappointment in 
not finding fruit on the tree, 
when it is expressly said that 
" the time of figs was not yet." 
But the expression does not 
signify the time of the coining 
forth of figs, but the time of 
the gathering in of ripe figs, 
as is plain from the parallel 
expressions. Thus " the time 
of the fruit," Matt, xxi, 34, 
mostplainl}' signifies the time 
of gathering in ripe fruits, 
since the servants were sent 
to receive those fruits for 
their master's use. St. Mark 
and St. Luke express the 
same by the word time, or sea- 
son : " At the season he sent 
a servant," &c., that is, at 
the season or time of gather- 
ing in ripe fruit, Markxii, 2 ; 
Luke xx, 10. Certainly fruit 
might be expected on a tree 
whose leaves were distin- 
guished afar off, whose fruit, 
if it bore any, appeared before 
the leaves, and the time of 
the gathering of whose fruit 

was not yet. St. Matthew 
informs us that the tree was 
" in the way" that is, in the 
common road, and therefore, 
probably, no particular per- 
son's property ; but if it was, 
being barren,the timber might 
be as serviceable to the owner 
as before. In the blasting of 
this barren fig tree, the dis- 
tant appearance of which was 
so fair and promising, he de- 
livered one more awful lesson 
to a degenerate nation, of 
whose hypocritical exterior, 
and flattering but delusive 
pretensions, it was a just and 
striking emblem. 

FIGURE, a type, an em- 
blem of something to come ; 
thus Moses was commanded 
to " make the tabernacle ac- 
cording to the fashion" or type, 
"that he had seen," Acts vii. 
44. Some distinguish figures 
or types into real and per- 
sonal, by the former intend- 
ing the tabernacle, temple, 
and religious institutions ; 
and under the latter what arc 
called providential and per- 
sonal types. But we should 
be careful not to regard every 
thing mentioned in the Old 
Testament as typical. That 
any person or thing under the 
Old Testament dispensation, 
was designed to prefigure 
something under the New, 
can be known to us only by 
Divine revelation ; and what 
is not designated by that au- 
thority, must not be regarded 
as typical. 

FINGER. The finger of 
God signifies his power, his 
operation, Luke xi, 20. To 




Eut forth one's fiuger, is a 
antering, insulting gesture, 
Isaiah Iviii, 9. 

FIRE is often made use 
of as a symbol of the Deity : 
"The Lord thy God is a 
consuming fire/' Deut. iv,24. 
The Holy Ghost is compared 
to that purifying element : 
" He shall baptize you with 
the Holy Ghost and with fire." 
Matt, iii, 11. To verify this 
prediction, he sent the Holy 
Ghost, which descended upon 
his disciples, in the form of 
tongues, or like flames of fire, 
Acts ii, 3. It is the work of 
the Holy Spirit to enlighten, 
purify, and sanctify the soul ; 
and x to inflame it with love to 
God, and zeal for his glory. 
The torments of hell are 
described by fire. Our Sa- 
viour makes use of this simi- 
litude to represent the pun- 
ishment of the damned, Mark 
ix, 44. He likewise speaks 
frequently of the eternal fire 
prepared for the devil, his 
angels, and reprobates, Matt. 
xxv, 41. The sting and re- 
morse of conscience is the 
worm that will never die ; 
and the wrath of God upon 
their souls and bodies, the 
fire that shall never go out 
a clear indication of the per- 
petuity of future punishment. 
The word of God is com- 
pared to fire : " Is not my word 
like afire ?" Jer. xxiii, 29. It 
is full of life and efficacy ; 
like a fire it warms, melts, 
and heats ; and is powerful 
to consume the dross, and 
bum up the chaff and stub- 
ble. Fire is likewise taken 

for persecution, dissension, and 
division. " / am come to send 
fire on earth" Luke xii, 49 ; 
as if it was said, Upon my 
coming and publishing the 
Gospel, there will follow, 
through the devil's malice and 
corruption of men, much per- 
secution to the professors 
thereof, and manifold divi- 
sions in the world, whereby 
men will be tried, whether 
they will be faithful or not ; 
hence the tongue, as kindling 
strife 'and discord, is a fire, 
Jas. iii, 6. 

FIRKIN, a measure of ca- 
pacity, being the fourth part 
of a barrel ; the size of the 
measure in the Greek is sup- 
posed to be 81 gallons. 

FIRMAMENT, the ex- 
panse of the heavens, which 
is spread, out, expanded, and 
appears like an immense arch 
above the earth, splendid and 
transparent as sapphire, Ex. 
xxiv, 10. Daniel speaks of 
the brightness of the firma- 
ment, Dan. xii, 3. In this 
the stars are said to be fixed ; 
and above this the Hebrews 
supposed a celestial ocean to 
exist, Gen. i, 7 ; Psa. cxlviii, 
4. But this expansion is pro- 
perly the atmosphere, which 
encompasses the globe on all 

FIRST. This word has 
two significations : first in 
point or order of time, and 
first in degree, i. e., the most 
eminent or most important 
thing in the writer's inten- 
tion. " 1 delivered unto you 
first of all," i. e., the princi- 
pal thing, 1 Cor. xv, 3. The 




following contains both signi- 
fications : " Seek ye first the 
kingdom of God," Matt, vi, 
33. 1. Give it the first place 
in your desires and pursuits ; 
and, 2. Give it the preference 
to all other things. Seek it 
with all the diligence that its 
importance demands. 
' FIRST-BORN, the eldest 
son on the father's side. The 
first-born was the object of 
special affection to his pa- 
rents, and inherited peculiar 
rights and privileges. 1. He 
received a double portion of 
the estate. Jacob, in the case 
of Reuben, his first-born, be- 
stowed his additional portion 
upon Joseph, by adopting his 
two sons, Gen. xlviii, 5-8; 
Deut. xxi, 17. This was 
done as a reprimand, -and a 
punishment of his incestuous 
conduct, Gen. xxxv, 22 : but 
enrolled as the first-born in 
the genealogical registers, 1 
Chron. v, 1. 2. He was the 
priest of the whole family. 
The honour of exercising the 
priesthood' was transferred, 
by the command of God, com- 
municated through Moses, 
from the tribe of Reuben, to 
whom it belonged by right of 
primogeniture,to that of Levi, 
Num. iii, 12, 13. 3. He en- 
joyed an authority over those 
who were younger, similar 
to that possessed by a father. 
It is very easy to see, in view 
of these facts, how the word 
"first-born" came to express 
sometimes a great, and some- 
times the highest dignity. 
2. The first, the chief of 

its kind, whatever is most 
distinguished. The first-born 
of death. Job xviii, 13, is the 
chief among deadly diseases-, 
the most terrible disease. By 
the common Hebrew idiom, 
disease is aptly termed the 
son of death, as being its pre- 
cursor and attendant ; and 
the most fatal and terrible 
disease is here figuratively 
described as the first-born 
among many. The first-born, 
of the poor, Isa. xiv, 30 ; the 
yerypoorest, the most wretch 
ed, the chief among the son? 
of the poor. 

3. God ordained that all th< 
Jewish first-born, both o'. 
men and beasts, for service 
should be consecrated to hinr? 
The male children only were 
subject to this law. If a wo 
man's first child were a girl, 
the father was not obliged to 
offer any thing for her, or for 
the children after her. though 
they were males. 

which is first of its kind, or that 
which is first in order of time. 

FIRST FKUITS were pre- 
sents made to God of part 
of the fruits of the harvest, to 
express the submission, de- 
pendance, and thankfulness 
of the offerers. They were 
offered at the temple, before 
the crop was touched ; and 
when the harvest was over, 
before any private ^persons 
used their corn. The first 
of these first fruits, offered in 
the name of the nation, was 
a sheaf of barley, gathered on 
the fifteenth of Ni'san, in ths 
evening, and threshed in a 




court of the temple. After it 
was well cleaned, about three 
pints of it were roasted and 
pounded in a mortar. Over 
this was thrown a portion of 
oil, and a handful of incense. 
Then the priest took this 
offering, waved it before the 
Lord toward the four parts 
of the world, threw a hand- 
ful of it into the fire upon the 
altar, and kept the rest. After 
this, every one was at liberty 
to get in his harvest. Be- 
side these first-fruits, every 
Erivate person was obliged to 
ring his first-fruits to the 
temple. St. Paul says, Chris- 
tians have the first-fruits of 
the Spirit, Rom. viii,23 ; that 
is, the first gift of the Spirit, 
the earnest, the pledge of 
future and still higher bless- 
ings. Christ is called the 
first-fruits of them that slept ; 
for as- the first-fruits were 
earnests to the Jews of the 
succeeding harvest, so Christ 
is the first-fruits or the earnest 
of the general resurrection. 

FIR TREE. The fir tree 
is an evergreen of beautiful 
appearance, whose dense fo- 
liage, and lofty height, afford 
a spacious shelter and shade. 
The trunk of the tree is very 
straight. The wood was an- 
ciently used for spears, mu- 
sical instruments, furniture 
for houses, rafters in build- 
ing, and for ships. 

FISH. This appears to 
be the general name in Scrip- 
ture of aquatic animals. We 
have few names in Scripture, 
if any, for particular kinds of 
fish. Moses says, Lev. xi, 

9, all sorts of fish may be 
eaten, if they have scales and 
fins ; all others are unclean. 
Some interpreters believe 
that the fish which swallow- 
ed Jonah was a whale, but 
others with more probability, 
suppose that it was a shark. 

FITCHES, a kind of tare. 

FLAG, a species of plant. 
It probably denotes the sedge, 
or long grass, which grows in 
the meadows of the Nile, and 
which is very grateful to cattle. 

FLAGON, an earthen ves- 
sel, with a narrow mouth, 
used for holding and convey- 
ing liquor. Gesenius says 
the original word signifies 
cakes, such as were prepared 
from dried grapes or raisins. 
They are mentioned as deli- 
cacies with which the weary 
and languid are refreshed, 2 
Sam. vi, 19 ; and were also 
offered to idols in sacrifice, 
Hos. iii, 1. 

FLAX, a plant very com 
mon, and too well known to 
need a description. It is a 
vegetable upon which the in 
dustry of mankind has been 
exercised with the greatest 
success and utility. From 
time immemorial Egypt was 
celebrated for the produc- 
tion or manufacture of flax. 
Wrought into garments, it 
constituted the principal 
dress of the inhabitants, and 
the priests, never put on any 
other kind of clothing. The 
fine linen of Egypt is cele- 
brated in all ancient authors, 
and its superior excellence 
mentioned in the sacred 
Scriptures. " The smoking 




flax," Matt, xii, 20, signifies 
the wick of a lamp, after the 
flame is extinct, and is still 
smoking. This expresses the 
almost expiring state of the 
light of truth in the minds of 
the Jewish people, calling for 
immediate attention to excite 
the flickering, dying flame. 

FLE A.. David likens him- 
self to this insect ; importing 
that, while it would cost Saul 
much pains to catch him, he 
would obtain but very little 
advantage from it. 

'FLESH. This term sig- 
nifies, 1. The body, i. e., the 
matter of which the body is 
formed. There is one flesh of 
men, 1 Cor. xv, 39. 2. By an 
easy figure of speech, it is 
applied to denote human na- 
ture, or mankind universally. 
" The end of all flesh is come 
before me," Gen. vi, 1 3. 

3. Relatives, kinsmen by 
natural descent, Rom. xi, 14. 

4. Because the fleshy part 
of our nature is perceived by 
the eye, it is sometimes used 
to denote that in religion 
which is merely outivard and 
ceremonial, Gal. iii, 3. 

5. On account of the deep 
and universal corruption of 
human nature , which displays 
itself in a peculiar manner, 
producing an addictedness 
to the indulgence of bodily 
or fleshy appetites, the term 
flesh is frequently used to de- 
note moral corruption, or hu- 
man nature considered as cor- 
rupt, Gal. v, 19-24. Flesh and 
blood is a Hebrew term for 
mara,Matt.xvi,17. See BLOOD. 

FLIES. The kinds of flies 

are exceedingly numerous; 
some "with two and some, with 
four wings. They abound in 
warm and moist regions, as 
in Egypt, Chaldea, Palestine, 
and in the middle regions of 
Africa ; and during the rainy 
seasons are very troublesome. 

M. Sonnini, speaking of 
-Egypt, says, " Of insects 
there the -most troublesome 
are the flies. Both man and 
beast are cruelly tormented 
with them." 'Hence different 
people had deities whose of- 
fice it was to defend them 
against flies. Among these 
may be reckoned Baalzebub, 
the fly god of Ekron. 3,, 

The engraving is a very 
accurate design given by Mr. 
Bruce of the Ethiopian fly, 
called Zimb. It is very little 
larger than a bee, of a thicker 
proportion, and its wings, 
which are pure gauze, without 
colour or spot upon them, are 
placed separate like those of 
a fly. As soon as this plague 
appears, and their buzzing is 
heard, all the cattle forsake 
their food, and run wildly 
about the plain till they die, 
worn out with fatigue, fright 
and hunger. When they are 
orice attacked, the body, head 
and legs break out into swell- 
ings which break and putrify, 
to the certain destruction of 
the creature. No remedy ie- 
mains but to leave the black 
earth, where they live, and 
hasten to the sands, whither 
this cruel enemy never dares 
to pursue them. 

Isaiah has given an account 
of this insect, and its opera 



(From the Pietoral Bible.) 




tions, Isa. vii, 18, 19, which 
implies that the fly shall cut 
off from the cattle their usual 
retreat to the desert. Solo- 
mon speaks of dead flies, 
Eccl. x, 1, meaning-deadly ve- 
nomous flies ; any such would 
spoil a pot of ointment ; so a 
foolish act ruins the character 
of him who has the' reputation 
of being wise and good. 


FLOOD, any great inun- 
dation; but more particularly 
that universal inundation by 
which all the inhabitants of 
the globe were destroyed, ex- 
cept Noah and his family. 
This remarkable event hap- 
pened A. M. 1 656 ; B . C. 2348. 
Its magnitude and singularity 
could scarcely fail to make 
an indelible impression on 
the minds of the survivers, 
which would be communi- 
cated from them to their chil- 
dren, and would not be easily 
effaced from the traditions 
even of their latest posterity. 
What we might reasonably 
expect, has, accordingly, been 
actually and completely real- 
ized. The evidence which 
has been brought from almost 
eveiy quarter of the world to 
bear upon the reality of this 
event is of the most conclu- 
sive and irresistible kind; 
and every investigation which 
has been made concerning 
heathen rites and traditions 
has constantly added to its 
force, no less than to its ex- 
tent; and the globe itself 
now exhibits striking proofs 
that an event like the one in 
question has happened. 

FLOOR, for threshing, a 
circular space, thirty or forty 
paces in diameter, in an ele- 
vated part of a field, exposed 
to the wind, destitute of 
walls and covering, where 
the ground was levelled down 
for threshing grain : hence 
we read of the " chaff driven 
with the ichirlwind out of the 
floor," Hos. xiii, 3. 


FOOL, one dull, stupid; 
one void of discernment, Psa 
xlix, 1J ; Pro. xviii, 13 ; also 
an impious, ungodly man. The 
fool hath said in his heart, 
There is no God, Psa. xiv, 1 . 
See the language of Tamar 
to her brother, 2 Sam. xiii, 
12, 1 VOrce of the fools of Is- 
.rael, i. e., a very wicked per- 
son, one guilty of a shameful 
deed,' a crime. Whosoever, 
with a malicious intent, shall 
say to his brother, Thou fool, 
shall be in danger of eternal 
destruction, Matt, v, 22. 

The foolishness of God, 1 
Cor. i, 25, is the Gospel which 
men count foolish . '> 

an attribute of God. On this 
subject some suppose that 
though the knowledge of God 
be infinite as his power is in- 
finite, there is no more reason 
to conclude that his know- 
ledge should be alwaj-s exert- 
ed to the full extent of its 
capacity than that 'his power 
should be employed to the 
extent of his omnipotence ; 
and that if we suppose him to 
choose not to know some con- 
tingencies, the infiniteness of 
his knowledge is not thereby 




impugned. To this it may i 
be answered, that the infinite 
power of God is in Scripture 
represented, as. in the nature 
of things it must be, as an 
infinite capacity, and not as 
infinite in act ; but that the 
knowledge of God is on the 
contrary never represented 
there to us as a capacity to 
acquire knowledge, but as 
actually comprehending all 
things that are, and all things 
that can be. 2. That the 
notion of God's choosing to 
know some things, and not to 
know others, supposes a rea- 
son why he refuses to know 
any class of things or events ; 
which reason, it would seem, 
can only arise out of their na- 
ture and circumstances, and 
therefore supposes at least a 
partial knowledge of them, 
from which the reason for his 
not choosing to know them 
arises. The doctrine is there- 
fore somewhat contradictory. 
But, 3. It is fatal to this 
opinion that it does not at all 
meet the difficulty arising out 
of the question of the consis- 
tency of divine prescience, 
and the free actions of men ; 
since some contingent ac- 
tions, for which men have 
been made accountable, we 
are sure have been fore- 
known by God, because by 
Ids Spirit in the prophets they 
were foretold; and if the 
freedom of man can- in these 
cases be reconciled to the 
prescience of God, there is 
no greater difficulty in any 
other case which can possi- 
bly occur. 

The great fallacy in the 
argument, that the certain, 
prescience of a moral action 
destroys its contingent na- 
ture, lies in supposing that 
contingency and certainty 
are the opposites of each 
other. If, however, the term 
contingent has any definite 
meaning at all, as applied to 
the moral actions of men, it 
must mean their freedom, and 
stands opposed, not to cer- 
tainty, but to necessity. A 
free action is a voluntary one ; 
and an action which results 
from the choice of the agent 
is distinguished from a neces- 
sary one in this, that it might 
not have been, or have been 
otherwise, according to the 
self-determining power of the 
agent. Simple knowledge is, 
in no sense, a cause of ac- 
tion, nor can it be conceived 
to be causal, unconnected 
with exerted power : for mere 
knowledge, therefore, an ac- 
tion remains free or neces- 
sitated as the case may be. 
Free actions foreknown will 
not, therefore, cease to be 
contingent. But how stands 
the case as to their certain- 
ty ? Precisely on the same 
ground. The certainty of a 
necessary action foreknown 
does not result from the 
knowledge of the action, but 
from the operation of the ne- 
cessitating cause ; and, in 
like manner, the certainty of 
a free action does not result 
from the knowledge of it, 
which is no cause at all, but 
from the voluntary cause ; 
that is, the determination of 




the will. It alters not the 
case in the least, to say that 
the voluntary action might 
have been otherwise. Had 
it been otherwise, the know- 
ledge of it would have been 
otherwise; but as the will, 
which gives birth to the acr 
tion, is not dependant upon 
the previous knowledge of 
God, but the knowledge of 
the action upon foresight of 
the choice of the will, neither 
the will nor the act is con- 
trolled by the knowledge ; 
and the action, though fore- 
seen, is still free or contin- 
gent. The foreknowledge of 
God has then no influence 
upon either the freedom or 
the certainty of actions, for 
this plain reason, that it is 
knowledge, and not influ- 
ence; and actions may be 
certainly foreknown without 
their being rendered neces- 
sary by that foreknowledge. 
But is said, " If an ac- 
tion be certainly foreknown, 
it cannot happen otherwise." 
This is not the true inference. 
It will not happen otherwise. 
The objection is, that it is 
not possible that the action 
should otherwise happen. 
But why not? What de- 
prives it of that power ? If 
a necessary action were in 
question, it could not other- 
wise happen than as the ne- 
cessitating cause shall com- 
Eel ; but then that would arise 
com the necessitating cause 
solely, and not from the pre- 
science of the action, which 
is not causal. But if the ac- 
tion be free, and. it enter into 

the very nature of a voluntary 
action to-be unconstrained, 
then it might have happened 
in a thousand other ways, or 
not have happened at all ; the 
foreknowledge of it no more 
affects its nature in this case 
than- in the other. 

FORESKIN. This was 
held as something unclean and 
profane, Deut. x, 16. Circum* 
cise the foreskin of your hearts, 
i. e., put away impurity from 
your hearts . Circumcise your- 
selves to the Lord, Jer. iv, 4. 
Put away impurity and con- 
secrate yourselves to God. 

dom, or the act of inconti- 
nency between single per- 
sons ; for if either of the 
parties be married, the sin is 
adultery. But sometimes 
adultery and fornication are 
confounded, Matt, v, 32; 1 
Cor. v, 1, 11. Used also for 
idolatry, and for all kinds of 
infidelity toward God. 

FORNICATOR, one who in- 
dulges in gross and sensual 
pleasures, or who is of an. 
abandoned character, Heb. 
xii, 16. So our Saviour often 
speaks of the Jews as a wick- 
ed and adulterous generation ; 
not literally adulterous, but 
so in a figurative sense of the 
word, viz., sensual, vicious, 
abandoned, profligate. 

to swear falsely, to act or 
omit any thing contrary to a 
promissory oath, Matt, v, 33, 
for our Saviour speaks of 
such oaths as are to be per 




FOUNTAIN, the source 
or spring-head of running wa- 
ters. There were several 
celebrated fountains in Ju- 
dea, such as that of En-rogel, 
of Gihon, of Siloam, of Naza- 
reth, &c. ; and allusior.s to 
them are often to be met with 
in both the Old and New Tes- 
taments. As fountains of 
water were so extremely 
valuable to the inhabitants of 
the eastern countries, it is 
easy to understand why the 
inspired writers so frequently 
allude to them, and thence 
deduce some of their most 
beautiful and striking simili- 
tudes, when they would set 
ferth the choicest spiritual 
blessings. Thus Jeremiah 
calls the blessed God "the 
fountain of living waters" Jer. 
ii, 13. As those springs or 
fountains of water are the 
most valuable and highly 
prized which never intermit 
or cease to flow, but are 
always sending forth their 
streams ; such is Jehovah to 
his people : he is a perennial 
source of felicity. Zechariah, 
pointing in his days to the 
atonement which was to be 
made in the fulness of time, 
by the shedding of the blood 
of Christ, describes it as a 
fountain that was to be open- 
ed, in which the inhabitants 
of Jerusalem might wash 
away all their impurities. 

FOX, called in the Bible 
the little fox, Sol. Song ii, 
.15. This well known ani- 
mal is the most sagacious 
and crafty of all the beasts 
of prey. It is a native of al- 

most every part of the globe, 
and has been the destroyer 
of grapes from the earliest 
records. Some suppose that 
the Hebrews under the term 
included also the jackal, the 
wild dog, an animal resem- 
bling a dog and a fox. Thus 
jackals seem to be meant in 
Judges xv, 4, where it is said 
that " Samsoncaught three hun- 
dred foxes," since the fox is 
a solitary animal, and is with 
great difficulty taken alive, 
whereas jackals are grega- 
rious and found in great num 
bers about Gaza. Jackals 
seem to be meant also in 
Psa. Ixiii, 10, " They ~ shall 
fall by the sivord, they shall 
be a portion for foxes, inas- 
much as foxes do not gene- 
rally feed on dead bodies ; but 
a dead body is a favourite re- 
past for the jackal. Jesus 
calls Herod, the tetrarch of 
.Galilee, a fox, Luke xiii, 32, 
thereby signifying his craft 
and the refinements of his 

transparent and fragrant gum 
which distils from incisions 
in a tree growing in Arabia 
and around Mount Lebanon, 
and was used by the ancients 
as incense, Ex. xxx, 34. 

In modern times it is class 
ed among drugs, and is some 
times called olibanum, Matt 
ii, 11. 

FRIEND is taken for one 
whom we love and esteem 
above others, to whom we im- 
part our minds more familiar- 
jy than to others, and that 
from a confidence of his in- 




tegrity and good will toward 
us : thus Jonathan and David 
were mutually friends. The 
title " the friend of God," is 
principally given to Abraham. 
This title was given him be- 
cause God frequently appear- 
ed to him, conversed fami- 
liarly with him, and revealed 
his secrets to him, Gen. xviii, 
17 ; also because he entered 
into a covenant of perpetual 
friendship both with him and 
his seed. Our Saviour calls 
his apostles '^friends :" "But 
I have called you friends ;" 
and he adds the reason of 
it, John xv, 15. As men 
communicate their counsels 
and their whole mind to their 
friends, especially in things 
which are of any concern, or 
may be of any advantage for 
them to know and under- 
stand, so I have revealed to 
you whatever is necessary 
for your instruction, office, 
comfort, and salvation. And 
this title is not peculiar to 
the apostles, but is also 
common with all true be- 
lievers. The friend of the 
bridegroom is the brideman ; 
he who does the honours of 
the wedding, and leads his 
friend's spouse to the nuptial 
chamber. John the Baptist, 
wil.h respect to Christ and his 
Church, was the friend of the 
bridegroom ; by his preaching 
he prepared the people of the 
Jews for Christ, John iii, 29. 
Friend is a word of ordinary 
salutation, whether to a friend 
or foe : he is called friend 
who had not on a wedding 
garment, Matt, xxii, 12. And 

our Saviour-calls Judas the 
traitor, friend. - 

times means columns or pil- 
lars on which a building rests ; 
and, metaphorically, princes, 
nobles, i. e., pillars of a state, 
Psa. xi, 3. When the foun- 
dation, L e., the pillars, are 
overthrown; when the nobles, 
the firm supporters of what is 
right and good, have perished. 
&c. Foundations also sig- 
nify the ruins of buildings 
destroyed to the foundations, 
so that those alone remain, 
Isa. Iviii, 12. 

FROG, a well known, 
harmless animal, that lives 
partly in the water and partly 
on the land. It exists in 
every part of the world, and 
is very tenacious of life. 
Reckoned unclean by the 

FRONT'LETS, bands or 
fillets worn on the forehead, 
especially the prayer fillets or 
phylacteries of the Jews ; i. e., 
strips of parchment on which 
were written various senten- 
ces from the Mosaic law, and 
which the Jews were accus- 
tomed to bind around the 
forehead and the left wrist 
while they were at prayer. 

FRUIT, produce both of 
trees and plants, and of the 
earth; often used figuratively 
for" the result, consequences 
of an action or endeavour ; 
the figure being often pre- 
served. Isa. iii, 10 : " They 
shall eat the fruit of their do 
ings," experience the conse- 
quences. " Earth is satisfied 
with the fruit of thy works," 


108 GAB 

i. e., is watered with rain, 
which is the produce of the 
sky or clouds, Psa, civ, 13. 
" Fruit of the lips" signifies 
what the lips utter, as in the 
sacrifice of praise or thanks- 
giving, Heb. xiii, 15. " Fruit 
of the hands," Prov. xxxi, 16, 
gain, profits. " Fruit of the 
stout heart," Isa. x, 12, is 
boasting. " Fruit meet," i. e., 
works suitable or correspond- 
ing to repentance, Matt, iii, 8. 

FUEL, Isa. ix, 19. The 
scarcity of fuel in some parts 
of the east obliges the in- 
habitants to collect for this 
purpose every kind of com- 
bustible matter that can be 
found, such as thorns, Psa. 
Iviii, 9 ; the withered stalks 
of herbs and flowers ; the ten- 
drils of the vine ; and even 
turf made of dung of the 
camel or the cow. See Ezek. 
iv, 15. 

FULNESS. ' 1. The con- 
tents, that with which any 
thing is filled. _" The fulness 
of the earth" is all that it con- 
tains, Psa. xxiv, 1. 

2. Full measure, abundance, 
John i, 16. " The fulness of 
the Godhead," Col. ii, 9, is 
the plenitude of the divine 
perfections, or that perfection 
and government which are 
essential to the Godhead. 

3. The full number, com- 
plement, multitude ; so all the 
multitude of the Gentiles, 
Rom. xi, 25. So also the 
church in called the fulness 
of Christ, Eph. i, 23 ; because 
without the church, which is 
his body, Christ would not 
be complete. 

4. The full period, the com- 
pletion of time j. the time 
foretold by the prophets, ap- 
pointed by God, expected, 
and longed for by all the 

FURLONG, a measure of 
distance, containing 660 feet, 
the eighth part of a mile. 
But stadias, translated fur- 
long, is equivalent only to 
about 604 feet, or201 yards 

FURNACE, a fire-place 
for smelting metals. " The 
fining pot is for silver, the 
furnace for gold," Prov. xvii, 
3. It signifies also a place 
of cruel bondage and oppres- 
sion ; such as Egypt was to 
the Israelites, who there met 
with much hardship, vigour, 
and severity, to try and purge 
them, Deut. iv, 20.- The sharp 
and grievous afflictions and 
judgments wherewith God 
tries his people; Ezek. xxii, 
18-22 ; also a place of tor- 
ment, as the furnace of Ne- 
buchadnezzar and hell, the 
place where the wicked shall 
be punished, Matt, xiii, 42. 


GAB'BA/riTA, i. e., an 
elevated place, probably a tri- 
bunal. See John xix, 13,where 
it is called a pavement, pro- 
perly a tesselated marble 
pavement, formed in little 
squares, common among the 
wealthy Romans at that time. 
This was the place whence 
Pilate pronounced sentence 
of death upon Jesus Christ. 

GABRIEL, man of God; 




one of the principal-angels of 
heaven, an archangel, Dan. 
ix, 21 ; Luke i, 19. 

GAD'A-RA, a city east of 
the Jordan, which gave name 
to the" country of the Gada- 
renes ; situated on a steep 
rocky hill on the river Hie- 
romax, or Yermuck, about 
five miles from its junction 
with the Jordan. The vici- 
nity was likewise called the 
cotfhtry of the Gergesenes. 
Thus the miracle of our Lord 
performed here is represented 
by St. Mark to have been 
done in the country of the 
Gadarenes, Mark v, 1 ; and 
by St. Matthew in that of the 
Gergesenes, Matt, viii, 28. 

GAL-A'TIA, a province 
of Asia. Minor, on the Black 
Sea. The Gauls, after the 
death of Alexander the Great, 
having conquered this coun- 
try, called it Galatia, the an- 
cient Greek name for France. 
St. Paul preached several 
times in these regions : first 
in A. D. 51, and established 
churches. It appears from 
the epistle which he subse- 
quently wrote to them, that 
they received the Gospel 
with great joy, Gal. iv, 15. 
But some Judaizing teach- 
ers, {teachers conforming to 
the doctrines and rites of the 
Jews,) getting among them 
soon after, corrupted their 
minds from the simplicity 
of the Gospel; and; though 
mostly Gentiles, they were 
induced to mingle Jewish 
observances with their faith 
in Christ, to render it more 
available to their salvation, 

This occasioned Paul's writ- 
ing to them ; and his object, 
throughout nearly the whole 
of his epistle, was to coun- 
teract the influence of their 
doctrine, especially as it re- 
spects the article of justifica- 
tion. The epistle was pro- 
bably written about A. D. 51 
or 52. 

GAL'BA-NUM, agum pro- 
cured from a Syrian plant, of 
a strong, fragrant' smell, and 
an acrid and bitterish, taste. 
It was an ingredient in the 
holy incense of the Jews. 

GALILEANS, natives or 
inhabitants of Galilee. They 
were brave and industrious ; 
though the other Jews regard- 
ed them as stupid, unpolished, 
and seditious ; and therefore 
proper objects of contempt, 
John i, 46, and vii, 52, They 
had a peculiar dialect, by 
which they were easily dis- 
tinguished from the Jews of 
Jerusalem, Mark xiv, 70. 

GALILEE, an extensive 
region of Palestine, which in 
the time of Christ included 
all the northern part of it, 
lying between the Jordan and 
the Mediterranean, and be- 
tween Samaria and Phenicia. 
Before the exile, the name 
seems to have been applied 
only to a small tract border- 
ing on the northern limits, 
2 Kings xv,. 29 ; and because 
many foreigners from the 
neighbouring countries were 
mixed with the population, it 
was called Galilee of the Gen~ 
tiles, Matt, iv, 15. 

In the time of Christ Gali- 
lee was divided into Upper 




and Lower ; the former lying 
north of the territory of Ze- 
bulon,and abounding in moun- 
tains ; the latter being more 
level, and fertile, and very 
populous. Lower Galilee is 
said to have contained four 
hundred and four towns and 
villages, of which Capernaum 
and Nazareth are the most- 
frequently mentioned. This 
district was of all others most 
honoured by our Saviour's 
presence. The disciples, from 
being natives of this place, 
were called men of Galilee, 
Acts i, 11. J 

GALILEE, sea of, called 
also Sea of Tiberias, from a 
city on its western shore, 
John xxi, 1. It is about six- 
teen miles long and five broad, 
and is still celebrated for the 
purity and salubrity of its 
waters, and the abundance 
of its fish. Embosomed in 
lofty mountains, the scenery 
around it is the most romantic 
and picturesque in Palestine. 
It is subject to sudden, though 
not long-continued tempests. 
A strong current marks the 
passage of the Jordan through 
the middle of this lake. 

GALL, something exces- 
sively bitter, and supposed to 
be poisonous, Sam. iii, 19. 
It is joined with wormwood ; 
and, in the margin of our 
Bibles, explained to be " a 
very poisonous herb." " The 
gall of bitterness," Acts viii, 
23, signifies excessive wicked- 
ness, as difficult to be cor- 
rected as to change gall into 

GAL'LI-O, the brother of 

Seneca the philosopher, and 
proconsul of A-cha'-ia. He 
was of a mild and agreeable 
temper ; and, like his brother, 
he was put to death by order 
of Nero. The Jews were 
enraged at St. Paul foi con- 
verting many Gentiles, and 
dragged him to the tribunal 
of Gallio, who, as proconsul, 
generally resided at Cor'inth, 
Acts xviii, 12, 13. They ac- 
cused him of teaching '? men 
to worship God contrary to 
the law." St. Paul being 
about to speak, Gallio told 
the Jews that if the matter 
in question were a breach of 
justice, or an action of a cri- 
minal nature, he should think 
himself obliged to hear them ; 
but, as the dispute was only 
concerningtheirlaWjhe would 
not determine such differ- 
ences, nor judge them. Sos'- 
the-nes, the chief ruler of 
the synagogue, was beaten 
by the Greeks before Gallio's 
seat of justice ; but this go- 
vernor did not concern himself 
about it. His abstaining from 
interfering in a religious con- 
troversy did credit to his 
prudence ; nevertheless, his 
name has oddly passed into 
a reproachful proverb ; and a 
man regardless of all piety is 
called a " Gallio," and is said, 
' ' Gallio-like, to care for none of - 
these things." Little, did this 
Roman suppose that his name 
would be so immortalized. 

GAMALIEL, a celebrated 
Pharisee and doctor of the 
Jewish law, under whose 
tuition Paul was educated, 
Acts xxii, 3, distinguished 




for piety and Jewish learn- 
ing; and for a long time pre- 
sident of the Sanhedrim. He 
gave the counsel contained 
in Acts v, 35-39. The as- 
sembly saw the wisdom of 
his counsel, and very pru- 
dently changed the sentence, 
upon which they were ori- 
ginally bent, against the apos- 
tles' fives, into that of cor- 
poreal punishment. 

GAMMADIM. This word 
is not to be understood as 
the name of a people, but 
rather as brave soldiers or 
warriors, Ezek. xxvii, 11 . 

GARDENS, a place sur- 
rounded and protected by a 
fence or wall, where plants 
and trees were cultivated 
with greater care than in the 
open field. The gardens of 
primitive nations were com- 
monly devoted to religious 
purposes. In these shady 
retreats were celebrated, for 
a long-succession of ages, the 
rites of Pagan superstition, 
Isa. Ixv, 3. 

GARLAND, an- ornament 
of flowers, fruits, and leaves 
intermixed. " Oxen and gar- 
lands," Acts xiv, 13, are vic- 
tims adorned with fillets and 
garlands, as was customary 
in heathen sacrifices. 

GARMENTS. This word 
includes the outward and in- 
ner garment, the mantle and 
the tunic. The mantle, or 
outward garment, seems to 
have been a large piece of 
woollen cloth, nearly square ; 
and consequently loose and 
flowing, which was wrapped 
around the body, or fastened 

about the shoulders, and was 
used as a wrapper at night. 
This was often laid aside, 
Acts xxii, 20 ; Matt, xxi, 8. 
It does not appear that the 
Hebrews ever changed the 
fashion of their garments ; 
but they dressed after the 
fashion of the country in 
which they dwelt. The prac 
tice of strewing the way with 
garments, branches, and flow- 
ers, to do honour to great 
men, and especially to prin- 
ces, was common among many 
ancient nations. Plutarch 
mentions it as a circumstance 
of respect shown by the sol- 
diers to Cato the younger, 
that they laid down their gar- 
ments for him to tread upon. 
Herodian mentions the strew- 
ing of garlands and flowers 
when Commodus was joyful- 
ly received by the Romans. 
" A wedding garment" Matt, 
xxii, 11, 12, was a garment 
presented to guests in token 
of honour, according to ori- 
ental customs. (SeeGen.xlv, 
22.y As this garment consti 
tuted the meetness of a man 
tote received as a guest at 
a wedding feast, so the wed- 
ding garment in the parable, 
must represent all those qua- 
lities which constitute our 
meetness for heaven, which 
are comprised in that "holi- 
ness without which no man 
shall see theLord." " Sheeps' 
clothing," Matt, vii, 15, signi- 
fies to be clothed externally 
with the meekness and gen- 
tleness of sheep, in contrast 
to the spirit of wolves. Sec 




GATES, used for an en- 
trance into a camp, temple, or 
city ; hence for a city itself, 
Deut. xvii, 2 ; as the " king's 
gate" Dan. ii, 49, i. e., of 
the royal palace, is put for the 
palace itself. Hence also the 
passes into a country, where 
the enemy can have entrance, 
are called "gates of a land," 
Jer. XT, 7. At the gates of 
cities, i. e., a broad open place 
at the gates, public trials 
were held, Prov. xxxi, 23, 
and things exposed for sale. 
There the inhabitants came 
together either for business or 
to sit and converse together, 
Gen. xix, 1. Hence " in the 
gate" means in judgment, 
before the tribunal, Job v, 4 ; 
Prov. xxii, 22. " Those who 
sit in the gate" Psa. Ixix, 12, 
are idlers. 

" The gates of hell," Matt, 
xvi, 18, may mean hell itself, 
the powers of hell, Satan and 
his hosts, or simply death. 
The church shall be replen- 
ished from generation to ge- 
neration by living members ; 
so that death shall never an- 
nihilate it. 

" Gates of righteousness," 
Psa. cxviii, 19, 20, are those 
of the temple, where the 
righteous pay their vows and 
praises to God ; where none 
enter but purified Israelites 
a nation of righteous men. 

GATH, the fifth of the Phi- 
listine cities. It appears to 
have been the extreme bound- 
ary of the Philistine territory 
in one direction, as Ekron 
was on the other. Hence 
the expression, " from Ekron 

even unto Gatk," 1 Sam. vii. 

GAZA, one of the five 
cities of the Philistines, a 
royal city, Zech. ix, 5, situ- 
ated on a hill near the Medi- 
terranean, and southern bor- 
der of Palestine, Gen. x, 19. 
It was assigned by Joshua to 
the tribe of Judah, who sub- 
dued it; but the possession 
of it was' retained or soon 
recovered by the Philistines, 
Josh, xv, 47 ; Judg. i, 18. After 
having destroyed Tyre, Alex- 
ander the Great laid siege to 
Gaza also, which was then 
held by a Persian garrison, 
and took it after a siege of 
a year, and destroyed it. It 
was afterward rebuilt, and 
bestowed on Herod the Great, 
after whose death it was an- 
nexed to Syria. 

GEBAL, mountain, a Phe- 
nician city, situated on a hill, 
and inhabited by seamen and 
builders, Ezek.-xxvii, 9. Al- 
so the mountainous track, 
thirty or forty miles long, in- 
habited by the Edomites, ex 
tending from the Dead Sea 
southward to the wide val- 
ley, El Goheyr, which de 
scends toward the west into 
the El Ghor, Psa. Ixxxiii, 8. 

GEN-E-AL'OGY signi 
fies a list of a ^person's ances 
tors. The common Hebrew 
expression for it is, " the 
book of generations." No na 
tion was ever more carefu 
to preserve their genealogies 
than the Jews. The sacred 
writings contain genealogies 
extended 3,500 years back 
ward. The genealogy of oui 




Saviour is given by the evan- 
gelists from Adam to Joseph 
and Mary, through a space 
of 4,000 years and upward. 
Matthew gives it through 
Joseph his father, while Luke 
exhibits that of his mother 
Mary. The Jewish priests 
were obliged to produce an 
exact genealogy of their fa- 
milies before they'were ad- 
mitted to exercise their func- 
tion. Wherever placed, the 
Jews were particularly care- 
ful not to marry below them- 
selves ; and to prevent this, 
they kept tables of genealogy 
in their several families, the 
originals of which were lodged 
at Jerusalem, to be occasion- 
ally consulted. These au- 
thentic monuments, during 
all their wars and persecu- 
tions, were taken great care 
of, and from time to time re- 
newed. But since the last 
destruction of their city, and 
. the dispersion of the people, 
their ancient genealogies are 

the common acceptation of 
the word, as signifying fami- 
lies, race, descent, lineage, it is 
used for the'history and gene- 
alogy of a person, Gen. v, 1. 
So Gen. ii, 4, the history of 
the creation. " The present 
generation" comprises all those 
who are now alive, Matt, 
xxiv, 34. Some now living 
shall witness the event now 
foretold, . Isa. liii, 8, "Who 
shall declare his generation ?" 
enumerate his posterity ? He 
was cut off by an untimely 
death, yet his posterity, his 

followers, shall be innumer* 
able. It signifies also a pe- 
riod of time from one descent 
to another, i. e., the average 
duration of human life, reck- 
oned apparently by the an- 
cient Hebrews at 100 years, 
by the Greeks, at three ge- 
nerations for eveiy 100 years, 
i. e., 33 years each. Hence, 
in the New Testament, sig- 
nifies a less definite period 
for an age, time, or period. 

GENESIS, the first book 
of Moses, so called from a 
Greek word which signifies 
generation, from its contain- 
ing the history of the crea- 
tion. It is the most ancient 
book in the world ; and on 
account of the variety of its 
details, one of the most in- 
teresting. It comprises a 
period of about 2,369 years. 

GENTILE. The word 
signifies nations, i. e., foreign 
nations, those who are not 
Israelites, and are ignorant 
of the true God. Since the 
promulgation of the Gospel, 
the true religion has been 
extended to all nations ; God, 
who had promised by his 
prophets to call the Gentiles 
to the faith, having fulfilled 
his promise ; so that the 
Christian church is composed 
principally of Gentile con- 
verts ; the Jews being too 
proud of their privileges to 
acknowledge Jesus Christ 
as their Messiah and Re- 

xiv, 34, a small region of Ga- 
lilee on the western shore of 
the lake, described by Jose 




phus as about four miles in 
length, and three in. breadth, 
and as distinguished for its 
fertility and beauty. It was 
so called from an ancient 
city, Josh, xix, 35, which also 
gave name to the adjacent 
lake, Num. xxxiv, 11. 

GE'RAR, a royal city of 
the Philistines, situate not far 
from the angle where the south 
and west sides of Palestine 

ge-seens,) one of the ancient 
tribes of Canaan, destroyed 
by Joshua, who settled east 
of the" sea of Galilee. See 

GER-I-ZIM, one of the 
mountains of Ephraim, situ- 
ated over against Mount Ebal, 
between which lay the city 
of Shechem, Judges ix, 7. 
After the exile, a temple was 
built by the Samaritans on 
Mount Gerizim, as the seat 
of their national worship. 

oil press, a small place or 
field, just out of Jerusalem, 
over the brook Cedron, and 
at the foot of the Mount of 
Olives. It is an even flat of 
ground, according to Maun- 
drell, about fifty-seven yards 
square. To a garden be- 
longing to this place our Sa- 
viour sometimes retired,Matt. 
xxvi, 36. 

Fisk and King, American 
missionaries, were there in 
1823. They tell us that the 
garden is about a stone's cast 
from the brook Cedron ; that 
it now contains eight large 
and venerable looking olives, 

whose trunks show their great 
antiquity ; the spot is sandy 
and. barren, and appears like 
a forsaken place. A low 
broken wall surrounds it. 
Mr. King sat down beneath 
one of the trees, and read 
Isa. liii, and also the Gospel 
history of our Redeemer's 
sorrow during that memorable 
night in which he was be- 
trayed; and the interest of 
the association was height- 
ened by the passing through 
the place of a party of Be- 
douins, armed with spears 
and swords. 

GHOST, a word signify- 
ing spirit, the Holy Ghost, the 
third person in the adorable 

GIANT, a chief who beats 
and bears down other men. 
Scripture speaks of giants 
before the flood : " mighty 
men who were of old, men of 
renown" Gen. vi, 4. The 
Anakim, or the sons of Anak, 
were the most famous giants 
of Palestine. They dwelt at 
Hebron and thereabouts. 

As to ( the existence of 
giants, several writers, both 
ancient and modern, have 
thought that the giants of 
Scripture were men famous 
for violence and crime, rather 
than for strength or stature. 
We may reasonably under- 
stand that the gigantic nations 
of Canaan were above the 
average size of other people, 
with instances among them 
of several families of gigan- 
tic stature. This is all 
that is necessary to sup- 
pose, in order to explain the 




account of Moses. See RA- 


GIBEAH, a. city of Benja- 
min, the birthplace of Saul, 
noted for the atrocious crime 
committed by its inhabitants, 
Judges xix. Like- Bethel, it 
seems to have been reckoned 
among the ancient sanctuaries 
of Palestine. 

GIBBON, a large city of 
the Hivites, Josh, x, 2, after- 
ward belonging to Benja- 
min. The inhabitants of this 
place took advantage of the 
oaths" of Joshua, and of the 
elders of Israel, procured by 
an artful representation of 
their belonging to a very re- 
mote country, Josh. ix. Jo- 
shua and the elders had -not 
the precaution to consult God 
on this affair, but inconsider- 
ately made a league with 
these people. They soon dis- 
covered their mistake, and, 
without revoking their pro- 
mise^ of saving their lives, 
they condemned them to la- 
bour in carrying wood and 
water for the tabernacle ; and 
to other works, 'as slaves 
and captives ; in which state 
of servitude they remained 
till the entire dispersion of 
the Jewish nation, 1451 B. C. 
GIDEON, a celebrated 
warrior and judge of Israel, 
who delivered the nation from 
the bondage of Midian, 1241 
B. C., and continued his 
government nine years. (See 
Judg. vi, vii.) 

.Gl'ER EAGLE, i. e., the 
eagle vulture; gier being the 
German name for a vulture. 
It is a small species of vul- 

ture, known in Arabia and 
Egypt, and sometimes called 
an eagle, it being of a doubt- 
ful kind between an eagle 
"and a vulture. It is a white 
bird, feeding on dead bodies, 
with a naked face and black 
winged feathers, edged with 
gray ; and is still known by 
the same Hebrew name. 
These birds were anciently 
held in great veneration in 
Egypt, where many flocks of 
them are observed at the pre- 
sent day in all the principal 
towns, Deut. xiv, 17. 

ability given to the apostles 
and others, of readily and in- 
telligibly speaking a variety 
of languages which they had 
never learned. This was a 
glorious and decisive attesta- 
tion to the Gospel, as well 
as a suitable, and, indeed, in 
their circumstances, a neces- 
sary qualification for the mis- 
sion for which the apostles 
and their coadjutors were 

GIFTS. The practice of 
making presents is very com- 
mon in oriental countries. 
The custom probably had its 
origin among those men who 
first sustained the office of 
kings or rulers, and who, from 
the novelty, and perhaps the 
weakness attached to their 
situation, chose, rather than 
make the hazardous attempt 
of exacting taxes, to content 
themselves with receiving 
those presents which might 
be freely offered, 1 Sam. x, 
27. Hence it passed into 
a custom, that whoever ap 




preached the king, should 
come with a gift. The cus- 
tom of presenting gifts was 
subsequently extended to 
other great men ; to men who 
were inferior to the king, but 
who were, nevertheless, men 
of influence and rank ; it was 
also extended to those who 
were equals, when they were 
visited, Prov. xviii, 16. Gifts 
of this kind are not to be con- 
founded with those which are 
called bribes, and which were 
presented to judges, not as a 
mark of esteem and honour, 
but for purposes of bribery 
and corruption. The former 
was considered an honour to 
the giver, but a gift of the 
latter kind has been justly re- 
probated in every age, Deut. 
xvi, 19 ; Psa. xxvi, 10 ; Isa. 
xxxiii, IS. 

GI'HON, the name of one 
of the four rivers the source 
of which, was in paradise, 
Gen. iii, 13. Reland, Cal- 
met, &c., think that Gihon is 
the Araxes, which has its 
source, as well as the Tigris 
and Euphrates, in the moun- 
tains of Armenia, and, run- 
ning with almost incredible 
rapidity, falls into the Cas- 
pian Sea. Gihon was also 
the name of a fountain to the 
west of Jerusalem, at which 
Solomon was anointed king 
by the high priest Zadok, and 
the prophet Nathan, 1 Kings 

GIL'BO-A, a mountain or 
mountainous track in the tribe 
of Issachar, where Saul was 
defeated and slain by the 
Philistines, 1 Sam. xxxi, 1. 

This mountain is north of 
Bethshean, or Bethsan, which 
is about twenty-four miles 
south of Tiberias, between 
the valley of the Jordan and 
the great plain of Jez-re'el. 
It is said to be extremely 
dry and barren. 

GILEAD,- a district of 
Palestine, east of the Jordan, 
strictly comprehending the 
mountainous region south of 
the river Jabbok, extending 
to N. lat. 311, Gen. xxxi, 
21-48, with a city of like 
name, Hos. vi, 8, apparently 
the same with Ramoth Gilead. 
The name Gilead was also 
employed in a wider sense, 
so as to include the whole 
mountainous track east of 
the Jordan, inhabited by the 
tribes of Gad, Reuben, and 
Manasseh, Num. xxxii, 26, 
29, 39 ; Deut. iii, 12. Hence 
put for the territory of the 
tribes of Gad and Reuben, 
Psa. Ix, 9 ; for the tribe of 
Gad, Judg. v, 16, 17. And 
it comprehends also Bashan, 
which extends from the Jab- 
bok to Mount Hermon, the 
northern extremity of Pales 
tine, Deut. xxxvi, 1, where 
it is said that God show- 
ed Moses from Mount Nebo 
" all the land of Gilead unto 

Balm of Gilead is a balsam 
distilled from a tree or shrub 
growing in Gilead, and which 
was used for healing wounds ; 
the exact species of the tree 
has never been fully ascertain- 
ed. See BALM. 

GIL'GAL, rotting down or 
away, a celebrated place, 




situated between the Jordan 
and Jericho, where the Israel- 
ites encamped after the pass- 
age of that river, Josh, v, 9. 
In this place Samuel and 
Saul offered sacrifices. It 
was a station of justice ; for 
Samuel in his circuit went 
yearly to Gilgal, 1 Sam. vii, 
16 ; and consequently a place 
much resorted to by the Is- 

GIRDLE, a sash or belt, 
common among the people 
of oriental countries ; andj 
from the length and looseness 
of their garments, an indis- 
pensable 'article ; but espe- 
cially when engaged in run- 
ning or fighting, or applying 
themselves to any kind of 
business. They -were often 
made of precious stuffs, fa- 
bricated of linen, and of 
worsted^ artfully woven into 
a variety of figures, and made 
to fold several times about 
the body." Scribes or writers 
suspended in them ink-horns, 
a custom as old as the Pro- 
phet Ezekiel, Ezek. ' ix, 2. 
Prophets and persons se- 
cluded from the world wore 
girdles of skin or leather, 
2 Kings i, 8; Matt, iii, 4; 
and, in times of mourning, 
they used girdles .of sack- 
cloth, as marks 'of humilia- 
tion, Isa. xxii, 12. 

To gird up the loins, is to 
bring the flowing, robe with- 
in the girdle. The binding 
fast of the muscles, and gird- 
ing the loins, increase one's 
strength and activity ; hence 
girding is applied to warlike 
strength and fortitude, Psa. 

xviii, 32-39. Hence also,. 
" Girding up the loins of the 
mind," 1 Pet. i, 13, is to hold 
the mind in a state of con- 
stant preparation and acti- 

The military girdle r or belt 
of the Hebrews, did not come 
over the shoulder as among 
us, .but was worn upon the 
loins ; whence the expression, 
The sword girded upon the 
loins. ' 

GITTITH, an instrument 
of music ; so called, either 
as being common among the 
Gittites, 2 Sam. xv, 18, or 
from GATH, a wine press, as 
if belonging to the wine press, 
and used to accompany the 
songs of the vintage. It oc- 
curs ih the titles of some of 

GLASS, an artificial sub- 
stance, formed by melting 
silica or sand with potash. 
Doubtless its origin is un- 
known ; but there is some 
reason to believe it was made 
by the Phenicians from the 
sand of the Belus, near Acre. 
About the commencement of 
the Christian era, drinking 
vessels were commonly made 
of glass and glass bottles 
for holding wine and flowers 
were in common use. Glass 
sometimes means a mirror, 
and mirrors anciently were 
plates of polished mettle, 
" We see through a glass 
darkly," 1 Cor. xiii, 12, i. e., 
only a reflected image, ob- 
scurely, and not face to face, 
as we shall see hereafter. 
There seems to be no refer- 
ence to glass in the original 




of the Old Testament, as the 
art of making it was not then 

GLORIFY, to ascribe 
glory or honour to any one, 
to celebiate with praises ; 
" That they may see your 

f>od works, and glorify your 
ather," Matt, v, 16. 

2. To exalt in dignity, to 
render glorious. God is glo- 
rified when the divine cha- 
racter and attributes are ren- 
dered conspicuous and glo- 
rious, John xii, 28. 

Christ and his followers 
are glorified when advanced 
to that state pf bliss and glory 
which is the portion of those 
who dwell with God in hea- 
ven, John vii, 39 ; Rom.viii,30. 

GLORY. This word sig- 
nifies, 1. That honour which 
is due to one, or which is 
rendered to one, i. e., praise, 
applause. "Nor of men sought 
we glory," 1 Thess. ii, 6. 

2. That which excites ad- 
miration ; to -which honour, 
praise, or applause is given, as 
the regal splendour and ma- 
jesty of kings, compare Mark 
x, 37, with Matt, xx, 21 ; " So- 
lomon in all his glory, 1 ' Matt, 
vi, 9 ; that is, his splendid ap- 
parel, and all the accompani- 
ments of his royalty. So also 
that which reflects or exhibits 
this dignity is called glory. 
See 1 Cor. xi, 7, where St. 
Paul says, " That the man is 
the glory of God, and woman 
the glory of man." 

3. The external appear- 
ance ; as lustre, brightness, 
dazzling light ; as of the sun, 
and of the face of Moses. 

TJie glory of God is that 
bright cloud which surround* 
ed the deity, and which de- 
clared his presence ; and also 
the celestial splendour in 
which he sits enthroned, 
which constitutes the locality 
of the heavenly world. See 
1 Tim. vi, 16. 

4. Hence a glorified state, 
the exalted sta^e .of perfec- 
tion and supreme happiness " 
hereafter, Luke xxiv, 26. 

5. The internal character 
which excites admiration ; as 
glorious moral attributes, ex- 
cellent perfection, the infinite 
majesty and holiness of God, 
Rom. i, 23. 

GNAT, a small winged or 
flying insect, as found hi acid 
wine. "-Strain at a gnat, and 
swallow a camel," Matt, xxiii, 
24. To strata at does not 
mean to make a violent effort 
to swallow, but to filter or 
strain out ; and is spoken of- 
those who are formal and 
diligent in the observance of 
lesser duties, but negligent 
of higher ones. 

GOAT, a well-known ani- 
mal, which was 'used under 
the law both for food and 
sacrifice. The kind most 
common in .Palestine is not 
very unlike those in the 
United States. The colour 
is generally black. There is 
another species of goat called 
the ibex, the wild or moun- 
tain goat, Psa. civ, 18, larger 
than the tame, but resembling 
it much in the outer form. 
The horns are large, of an 
extraordinary size, weighing 
sometimes 16 or 18 pounds ; 

Cove?s Die. 


p. 179. 


181 . 


and being of so singular a 
form, the animal is shown in 
the annexed engraving. Like 
other goats, it is peculiarly 
adapted for climbing, and de- 
lights in the most rugged and 
elevated mountains. It is 
indigenous to Arabia, and of 
amazing strength and agility. 
There is no crag so high or 
so steep, if it have protuber- 
ances enough to receive its 
feet, but this animal will, 1 .Sain, xxiv, 2. 
Mr. Burckhardt says, that 
the flesh is excellent, and 
has nearly the same flavour 
as that of deer. The Be- 
douins make water-bags, call- 
ed in the Scriptures bottles, 
of their skins?- and rings of 
their horns, which -they wear 
on their thumbs. When they 
are found among the rocks, 
they usually elude the pur- 
suit of the hunter, sometimes 
leaping twenty feet; but in the 
plains they are often taken. 

GOATS' HAlfe. Some spe- 
cies of goat have under a 
coat of long hair another of 
short wool, equal in fineness 
to the Cashmire. J The shep- 
herds carefully and frequent- 
ly wash these goats in rivers ; 
and in some parts of western 
Asia, the hair is manufac- 
tured into garments. See 
Exod. xxv, 4. 

GOD. The one living and 
true God ; the supreme Lord 
and Father of all ; an unori- 
ginated, eternal, immutable, 
and infinitely perfect being. 
By immutable is meant one 
who never changes the prin- 
ciples of his government. 

1. The unity of the divine 
Being is a sublime and glo- 
rious truth, the corner-stone 
and basis of the ancient 
church ; and the Gospel has 
revealed nothing to shake or 
remove this foundation. To 
us still there is but one God. 
But in the unity of this God- 
head there are three persons 
of one substance, power, and 
eternity : " The Father, the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost," 
Matt, xxviii, 19. This dis- 
tinction in the Godhead was 

Erior to all time, and abso- 
itely eternal. The formula 
of baptism is a standing tes- 
timony to this doctrine, and 
to the offices of each person 
in the economy of redemp- 
tion. The name is one, not 
names. The persons THREE, 
all of whom are manifestly re- 
presented as equal ; because 
they are the common objects 
of trust, obedience, and wor- 
ship ; and they are the source 
of all blessing, 2 Cor. xiii, 14. 

2. To God is said in Scrip- 
ture to belong whatever is 
excellent, distinguished, pre- 
eminent in its kind, or which 
bears an august or divine 
appearance ; since this was 
regarded by the ancients as 
especially proceeding from 
God, or created by him. Thus 
we read of the hill of God, 
Psa. Ixviii, 15 ; river of God, 
Psa. Ixv, 9; the terror of 
God, i. e., terror suddenly 
inspired by him, Gen. xxxv, 
5. Lightning is the fire of 
God; the loftiest and most 
beautiful cedars are trees of 
the Lord, Psa. civ, 16. 




3. The god of any one, is 
the god whom one makes the 
object of his worship, his pro- 
tector. " They cried every 
one unto his god," Jonah i, 
5. See Gops. 

4. The practice of using 
the name of God on slight 
and trivial occasions, is not 
only in direct opposition to 
the third commandment, and 
to a variety of other passages 
which identify the character 
of God with his name, Isa. 
xxix, 23 ; Matt, vi, 9 ; but 
it is an infallible indication 
of irreverence toward the 
supreme Being. To connect 
the idea of God with what, 
is most frivolous and ridicu- 
lous, is to treat him with con- 
tempt. With respect to the 
profane oafrhs and execra- 
tions which most of those 
who use the name of God in 
vain frequently utter, when 
they are transported with 
emotions of anger, their cri- 
minality is still greater as 
they approach the confines of 

GODHEAD. The divine 
nature and perfection, divine 
greatness, power, and excel- 
lence. That which marks 
him as the supreme and eter- 
nal One. 

GODLINESS, piety, re- 
sulting from the knowledge 
and love of God,'and denoting 
the spontaneous feeling of 
the heart. In 1 Tim. iii, 16, 
it signifies religion, the Gos- 
pel scheme. 

GODS. 1. Imaginary dei- 
ties, as the "gods of the 
Egyptians," Exod. xii, 12 ; 

"strange or foreign .gods, 
Gen. xxxv, 2. 

2. The expression is put 
for a godlike shape, appari- 
tion, spirit, "I saw gods as- 
cending out of the earth," 
1 Sam xxviii, 13. 

3. An idol god, an image, 
make us gods, i. e., an idol, 
either a carved or a molten 
image. Moses says that the 
Israelites worshipped "gods 
whom they knew . not, and 
whom he had not given unto 
them," Deut. xxix, 26, to 
whom they did not belong, 
which increased -the ingrati- 
tude and crime of their re- 
bellion. When judges and 
magistrates are called gods, 
Psa. Ixxxii, 6,- " I have said, 
Ye are gods," something is 
added which excludes them 
from a true divinity : as, that 
" ye shall die like men, or that 
they are the rulers of the peo- 
ple," Exod. xxii, 28. Moses 
was called god only in re- 
gard to Aaron and Pharaoh, 
to whom he was to speak 
God's message. The first 
idols, or false gods, that are 
said to have been adored 
are, the stars, sun, moon, dec. 
on account of the light, heat, 
and other benefits which we 
derive from them. (See IDO- 
LATRY.) Afterward the earth 
came to be deified, for fur- 
nishing fruits necessary for 
the subsistence of men and 
animals : then fire and wa- 
ter became objects of divine 
worship, for their usefulness 
to human life. In process of 
time, and by degrees, gods 
became multiplied to infinity ; 




and there was scarce any 
thing but the weakness or 
caprice of some devotee or 
other elevated into the rank 
of deity : things useless, or 
even destructive, not ^ex- 

GOG. This name is ap- 
plied in the Old Testament, 
Ezek. xxxviii, 39, to the king 
of a people called Magog, in- 
habiting regions far remote 
from Palestine. By Magog, 
the ancients would seem to 
have intended the northern 
nations of Europe and Asia 
generally, which they also 
called Scythians. In the New 
Testament, the name Gog is 
also apparently spoken of a 
similar remote people who 
will war against the Messiah, 
Rev. xx, 8. See MAGOG. 

GOLD, a precious metal 
of a bright yellow colour, the 
most ductile and malleable 
of all, and the heaviest ex- 
cept pla-ti'na. It appears to 
have been known to the ear- 
liest races of men, and to 
have been esteemed as much 
by them as by the moderns. 
It is not Tound in the ore, but 
in-the metallic state ; either 
pure, 'or combined with other 
metals. It is sometimes 
found in mountains, but more 
frequently among sand in the 
beds of rivers. - The princi- 
pal supply is from South 
America, from the gold mines 
of Hungary, and from, the 
Uralian mountains of .Si- 
beria, where separate masses 
in sand have been found, 
weighing 18 or 20 pounds. 
When pure, it is exceeding- 

ly soft and flexible, and may 
be exposed for ages to air 
and moisture, or kept in a 
state of .fusion in open, ves- 
sels without change. (See 
Dr.'Turner's Chym.) It was 
supposed to be imperishable 
in its nature, until recent ex- 
periments in chymistry dis- 
covered that when intensely 
ignited by means of electrici- 
ty or the oxy-hydrogen blow- 
pipe, it burns with a green- 
ish blue flame, and forms an 
oxide, which is dissipated in 
the form of a purplish powder. 
Gold coins contain about one- 
twelfth of copper, whichgives 
to them a reddish tint. Gold 
is applied to any thing splen- 
did or most valuable. Golden 
oil, Zech. iv, 12, means oil 
pure and bright as gold. Fi- 
guratively, it means those 
graces and blessings which 
constitute one rich toward . 
God, Rev. iii, 18. ; 

GOL-GO-THA, a skull, a 
small hill on the northwest 
of Jerusalem; so called either 
from its resembling a human 
skull, or because many skulls 
of those who had suffered 
crucifixion and other capital 
punishments were scattered 

GOLIATH, a Philistine 
giant, slain by David in single 
combat ; according to Cal- 
met, he was' ten feet and 
seven inches in height, 1 Sam. 
xvii, 4. 

GOMER, a, northern peo- 
ple sprung from Japheth, from. 
- whom the Armenians are said 
to have descended. They 
peopled a considerable part 




cf Asia Minor, particularly 
the region of Phrygia ; from 
these parts the descendants 
of Gomer emigrated till Ger- 
many, France, and Britain 
were peopled by them. They 
still continue marked, if not 
distinct, in the ancient Bri- 
tons in Wales. - 

GO-MOR'RAH, one of the 
cities -which formerly stood 
on the plain of Siddim, now 
covered: by ^ the Dead Sea. 
See Gen. xiii, 10 j and chap. 

GO'PHER WOOD, pitch 
trees, resinous and durable 
wood ; such as the pine, fir, 
cypress* cedar, andothertrees 
of like kind, which are used 
in ship-building: 

GOSHEN, a region where 
the Hebrews dwelt, 430 years 
from the time of Jacob until 
Moses, which in a good de- 
gree is now ascertained to be 
that part of Lower Egypt, 
whose western boundary was 
not far east from the Nile, 
and extending along its banks 
about eighty or ninety miles, 
and was about the same 
width, extending to Arabia. 
This was a wide range for 

Easturage ; and although it 
as large tracts in it which 
are strictly desert, yet there 
are many parts of it, especi- 
ally the valleys, which afford 
low bushes and sand-grass, 
such as the wandering tribes 
of the desert seek for the 
support of their flocks and 
herds ; besides others which, 
being watered by the Nile, 
were exceeding fertile. It is 
now well ascertained that 

nearly all parts of- the Isth 
mus of Suez abound in wa- 
dies, i. e., moderate ravines, 
or a kind of intervals of land 
in .which water is easily ob- 
tained, and where, of course, 
vegetation may be made to 
abound in a manner that 
would astonish an inhabitant 
of a northern clime. 

GOSPEL, a history of the 
life, actions, death, resurrec- 
tion, ascension, and doctrine 
of Jesus Christ. The word 
is Saxon, and of the same 
import with the -Greek evan- 
gelion, which signifies " glad 
tidings," or " good news ;" 
the history of our Saviour 
being the best history ever 
published to mankind. This 
history is contained in the 
writings of Matthew, Mark, 
Luke, and John, who from 
thence are called evangelists, 
But we must remember that 
no one of them undertook 
to give an account of all 
the miracles which Christ 
performed, or of all the in- 
structions which he delivered. 
They are written with differ- 
ent degrees of conciseness ; 
but every one of them is suf- 
ficiently full to prove that 
Jesus was the promised'.Mes- 
sidh, the Saviour of the world, 
who had been predicted by a 
long succession of prophets, 
and whose advent was ex- 
pected at the time of his ap- 
pearance, both by Jews and 

2. That all the books which 
convey to us the history of 
events under the New Testa- 
ment were written and imme- 




diately published by persons 
cotemporary with the events, 
is" most fully proved by the 
testimony of an unbroken 
series of authors, reaching 
from the days of the evange- 
lists to the present times 5 by 
the concurrent belief of Chris- 
tians of all denominations ; 
and by - the unreserved con- 
fession of avowed enemies to 
the Gospel. 

3. The term Gospel is often . 
used in Scripture to signify 
the whole Christian doctrine : 
hence, "preaching the Gos- 
pel" is declaring all the truths, 
precepts, promises, axid-threat- 
enings of Christianity.' This 
is termed " the Gospel of. the 
grace ,of God," because it 
flows from God's free love 
and goodness} Acts xx^ 24; 
and when truly and faithful- 
ly preached, is accompanied 
with the influences of the 
divine Spirit. It is called 
" the Gospel of the kingdom" 
because it treats of the king- 
dom of grace, and shows the 
way to the kingdom of glory. 
It is styled "the Gospel of 
Christ," ' because he is the 
author and great subject of it, 
Rom. i, 16 ; and " the Gospel 
of peace and salvation," be- 
cause it publishes peace with 
God to the" penitent and be- 
lieving, gives to such peace 
of conscience and tranquillity 
of mind, and is the means of 
their salvation, present and 
eternal. As it displays the 
glory of God and of Christ, 
and insures to his true fol- 
lowers eternal glory, it is en- 
titled " the lorious Gospel" 

and " the everlasting Gospel," 
because it commenced from 
the fall of man, is permanent 
throughout all time, and pro- 
duces effects which are ever- 

GOURD, Jonah iv, 6-10. 
Modern writers almost all 
agree that this plant is the 
Palma Christi or the Rici'nus, 
from which castor oil is ex- 
tracted ; a tall biennial plant 
still cultivated in gardens, 
which attains in the east the 
character of a tree of an ele- 
gant appearance and rapid 
growth, with a soft and juicy 
stalk or trunk ; a slight in- 
jury of which causes the plant 
to wither and die. " The his- 
tory in Jonah expressly says-, 
the Lord prepared this plant : 
no doubt we may conceive of 
it as an extrardinary one of 
its kind, remarkably rapid in 
its growth, remarkably hard in 
its stem, remarkably vigorous 
in its branches, ~and remark- 
able for the extensive spread 
of its leaves and the deep 
gloom of their shadow ; and, 
after a certain duration, re- 
markable for a sudden wither- 
ing, and a total uselessness to 
.the impatient prophet." 

GOURD, WILD, wild cucum- 
bers, a plant which creeps 
on^ the earth, and produces 
leaves and branches similar 
to garden cucumbers. Its 
fruit is of the size and figure 
of au orange, of a light white 
substance, beneath the rind 
extremely bitter, and proba- 
bly poisonous, 2 Kings iv, 39 ; 
it furnished a model for some 
of the carved work in Solo- 




mon's temple, 1 Kings vi, 18. 
The translation is knops. 

GRACE. 1. The favour 
or good will of God and Christ, 
as exercised toward any of 
the human race. 

2. The blessings which flow 
from God's favour, as mani- 
fested in -the benefits of the 
Gospel, the pardon of sin, and 
admission into his kingdom. 

3. The Christian religion, a 
gracious dispensation, a sys- 
tem of which grace is the 
prominent feature, Rom. vi, 

4. The favour or gift of the 
apostleship, Rom. i, 5 j Eph. 
iii, 8. 

5. It is taken for beauty or 
gracefulness of person and 
agreeableness of words, Prov. 
i, 19. Paul says, Col. iv, 6, 
"Let your speech be always 
with grace." 

6. Liberality, " the grace of 
God bestowed on the churches 
of Macedonia," 2 Cor. viii, 1, 
means the charitable contri- 
bution given in the churches, 
excited by God's grace to 

7. It is frequently used to 
signify the favour and kind- 
ness of man as well as of 
God. The phrase grace unto 
you, I take to include every 
Christian grace and virtue 
which the Spirit of God im- 
parts to the followers of 

GRAPE, the fruit of the 
vine, and among the valuable 
productions of Palestine. It 
would be easy to produce tes- 
timony that grapes in those 
regions grew to a prodigious 

size, Num. xiii, 23. One tra- 
veller says, "The grapes are 
as large as plumbs, and the 
bunches are surprising." The 
spies carrying the bunch of 
grapes on a staff between two 
men, was probably not ren- 
dered necessary by the size 
of the bunch or cluster, but 
to preserve it from, being 
bruised, that the Israelites 
might have a fair specimen 
of the fruit. The grapes of 
Palestine are mostly red or 
black, whence originated the 
phrase blood of the grape, and 
were generally gathered in 
August ; but grapes when not 
gathered, were sometimes 
found on vines until Novem 
ber or December. The He 
brews were required to leave 
gleanings for the poor, Lev. 
xix. The grapes were ga- 
thered and carried to the 
wine-press with great joy, 
Judg. ix, 27; Isa. xvi^ 10. 
Sometimes the grapes were 
dried in the sun and pre- 
served in masses, called rai- 
sins, 1 Sam; xxv, 18 ; from 
these dried grapes, when soak- 
ed in wine and pressed a 
second time, was manufac- 
tured sweet wine, which is 
also called new wine, Acts 
if, 13. 

Wild grapes, Isa. v, 2-4, 
are . bad grapes, sour and 

GRASS, a well known 
vegetable. Its feeble frame 
and transitory duration are 
mentioned in Scripture as 
emblematic of the frail con- 
dition and fleeting existence 
of man. See Psalm xc, 6, 


187 . 


and particularly Isaiah xl, 


common grasshopper, but a 
voracious insect belonging to 
that genus ; a species of lo- 
cust, and a great scourge in 
oriental countries. The most 
particular description of this 
insect and of its destructive 
career mentioned in the Bible, 
is to be found in Joel ii, 2-10. 
This perhaps. is one of the 
most striking and animated 
descriptions of- any kind to be 
met with in the : whole com- 
pass of prophecy. Solomon, 
describing the infelicities of 
old age, Eccl. xii, 5, says, 
" The grasshopper shall be a 
burden ;" the lightest pressure 
shall be uncomfortable to the 
aged, as not being able to bear 
any weight. 

GREAT SEA. That great 
mass of waters between Eu- 
rope and Africa, which re- 
ceives -its name Mediterra- 
nean, Midland, from its posi- 
tion, and has its only com- 
munication with the . ocean 
by the Straits of Gibraltar; 
it is about 2,000 miles long, 
and between 400 and 500 
broad. It is called the ut- 
most sea, Joel ii, 20 ; the 
hinder sea, Zech. xiv, 8 ; and 
was the western boundary of 
the promised land. - 

GREAVES, armour for 
the legs, a plate of brass or 
copper which covered the 
front of the leg from the knee 
to the instep, and buckled 
with a strap behind, 1 Sam.' 
xvii, 6. 


country in' the south-eastern 
part of Europe, ^surrounded 
by sea, except on the north, 
extending from the Adriatic 
on the west to Asia Minor 
on the east ; and from Mace- 
donia, which formed its north- 
ern boundary to the Mediter- 

GREEK, the original lan- 
guage of all the books of the 
New Testament, with the 
exception of Matthew, which 
is reported to have been writ- 
ten in Hebrew, and a trans- 
lation into Greek made by 
the apostle himself, or in his 
lifetime. They are not writ- 
ten, however, in the culti- 
vated and polished style of 
learned and elegant authors, 
but rather in that which pre- 
vailed in daily use, and in 
the intercourse of common 
life. This may be observed 
by inspecting the received 
translation, which is pro- 
nounced by the best judges 
to be, though not unexcep- 
tionable, yet a faithful and 
truly excellent translation. 
The Greek language was 
used because it was best un- 
derstood, being spoken and 
written, read and understood, 
throughout the Roman em- 
pire, and especially in Pales- 

GREEKS, inhabitants of 
Greece ; but, in the widest 
sense, Greeks were all those 
who used the Greek lan- 
guage and customs, whether 
living in Greece or in other 
countries ; and as this was 
then the prevailing language, 
the name Greek was often 




used to designate the Gentiles, 
i. e., all who were not Jews, 
Rom. i, 16 ; we read of Greeks 
going up to worship, and of 
devout Greeks. These were 
converts to Judaism, Greek 

GRECIANS. This word 
in the New Testament signi- 
fies those who were Jews by 
birth or by religion, whether 
converted to Christianity or 
not, who in all places spoke 
the Greek as their vernacular 
tongue, Acts vi, 1 ; ix, 29. 

GRIND. To grind the 
faces of the poor," Isa. iii, 
15, is to oppress them with 
exactions, and by cruelty and 
oppression to make the poor 
look more thin and meagre 
than .they did before. See 

GRINDERS, in Solomon's 
allegory of old age, is sup- 
posed to signify the double 
teeth; so called from their 
grinding or masticating the 
food. " The sound of the 
grinding is low," Eccl. xii, 
4; little noise is now made 
in eating, because the teeth 
have decayed. 

GRIZZLED, gray ; of a 
mixed colour, white and black ; 
in the Bible it signifies spot- 
ted, sprinkled with spots, 
Gen. xxxi, 10. 

GROSS, the same as fat. 

HAE'l-K-kUK, one of the 
minor prophets, concerning 
whom we have no certain in- 
formation: he exercised the 
prophetic office, most, proba- 
bly, in the reign of Jehoiakim, 
and consequently was co- 

temporary with Jeremiah. 
It is generally believed that 
he died in Judea about 612 
B. C. The third chapter of 
his book is one of the most 
splendid portions of the pro- 
phetic writings. , 
.HABER'GEON, (ha-ber 1 - 
je-onj) a, Neh. iv, 
16; an ancient piece of de- 
fensive armour, in the form 
of a coat, descending from 
the neck to the middle; and 
formed of small iron'rings or 
meshes.linked into each other. 

HA'DAD, king of Edom, 
and a name common to the 
kings of Syria. 

HAGAR, flight, the hand- 
maid of Sarah, of Egyptian 
birth, the mother of Ishmael ; 
so called, as having fled from 
her mistress, Gen. xxv, 12 ; 
and xxi, 14. In Gal. iv, 24, 
25, Paul applies this name, 
by an allegorical interpreta- 
tion, to the inferior condition 
of the Jews under the law, as 
compared with that of Chris- 
tians under the Gospel. 

HAGARENES, the same 
as Hagarites ; an Arabian peo- 
ple with which the tribes liv- 
ing beyond Jordan carried on 
war, Psa. Ixxxiii, 6. 

HAGGAI, the tenth in 
order of the minor prophets, 
but the first of the three who 
were commissioned to make 
known the divine will after 
the return from captivity. 
Nothing; is certainly known 
concerning his tribe or birth- 
place. The Jews having for 
fourteen years discontinued 
the rebuilding of the temple, 
he was commissioned to en- 




courage them in their work," 
about the year 520 B. C. 

HAIL ! a salutation, im- 
porting a wish for the wel- 
fare of the person addressed. 

HAILSTONES are con- 
gealed drops of rain, formed 
into ice by the power of .cold 
in. the upper regions of the 
atmosphere. ' 

HAIR. Our Maker has 
given a larger proportion of 
hair to the head of women 
than to that of men. The 
hair of the male rarely grows 
like that of the female unless 
art is used ; and even then it 
Bears but a small proportion 
to the former. Hence nature 
teaches that it is a shame to 
a man and the glory of a wo- 
man to have long hair, 1 Cor. 
xi, 14, 15. Black hair was 
thought to be the most beau- 
tiful, Song v. 11. 
' HAL-LE-LU'-JAH, (the 
last syllable pronounced yah,) 
a Hebrew word, signifying 
praise the Lord. This ex- 
pression of joy and praise 
was transferred from the sy- 
nagogue to the church, and is 
still occasionally used in de- 
votion. See ALLELUIA. 

To HAL'LOW. The Eng- 
lish word is from the Saxon, 
and is properly to make holy. 
The naine of God is hallow- 
ed, when it is regarded and 
venerated as holy. 

HAM, warm, hot, a son of 
Noah, whose posterity "are 
described as occupying the 
southern regions of the known 
earth. It is believed that 
Ham had Africa for his in- 
heritance, that he peopled it 

and dwelt in Egypt. Africa 
is called the " land of Ham,?' 
Gen. x. 

HAMAN, a Persian nqble- 
m'an, celebrated for his plots 
against the Jews, Esth. lii, 1. 
HA^MATH, a large and 
important city of Syria, situ- 
ated on the O-ron'-tes, near 
the northern boundary of the 
Holy Land. 

HAND, metaphorically, 
power, strength, might; the 
hand being regarded as the 
seat of strength: hence hu- 
man or divine help. And 
since the divine Spirit was 
communicated by the laying 
on of hands, it often signifies 
the Spirit of God, Jer. xv, 17. 
" I sit alone because of thy 
hand" i. e., because of the 
divine Spirit which rests upon 
me, by which I am moved. 
Hands which hang down, en- 
feebled, hanging down from 
weariness and despondency, 
Heb. xii, 12, implying dis- 
couragement and faint-heart- 
edness, compare 2 Sam. xvii, 
2 ; so likewise one that hath 
a short hand is one without 
strength or power. A high 
hand is one lifted up, which 
indicates force and energy. 
The right hand signifies the 
south, since the Hebrew in 
speaking of the points of She 
compass^always regarded him- 
self as looking toward the east. 
Isaiah speaks of the Philis- 
tines behind, Isa. ix, 12, i. e., 
in the west. The ancients 
in taking an oath lifted up 
the hand, Deut. xxxii, 40: 
hence it signifies to swear; 
and this was done by the 


right hand. " They gave us 
the right hand of fellowship," 
Gal. iif9, in confirmation of 
a promise, agreement. To 
sit or stand on the right hand 
of Christ or God is to be next 
in rank or power ; to have 
the highest seat of honour and 
distinction ; to be at one's 
right hand, i. e., to be one's 
helper, protector, Acts ii, 25. 

nuscript, something written 
by hand, as the Mosaic law, 
the letter in opposition to the 
spirit, Col. ii, 14, the literal 
or verbal meaning. 

HANNAH,/az>0Mr, the mo- 
ther of Samuel ; her history 
is recorded in I Sam. i. 

HARAN, a city in the 
northern part of Mesopota- 
mia, where Abraham for a 
time sojourned, and after- 
ward celebrated for the de- 
feat and death of Crassus, the 
Roman general. 

To HARDEN, in a moral 
sense, to make obstinate, per- 
verse. They are said to harden 
their hearts who, by sensual 
practices and irreligious prin- 
ciples, bring themselves into 
such a state of insensibility 
that neither the commands 
nor the threatenings of God 
make any impression on them. 

And it is said also that God 
hardened Pharaoh's heart ; not 
by an immediate and superna- 
tural influence, because that 
would make God the author 
of men's sins ; a blasphemy 
which the apostle James was 
at great pains to confute, 
James i, 13. But God hard- 
ened him indirectly ; i. e., he 

190 HAR 

withdrew his Spirit from him. 
and "gave him up to a repro- 
bate mind, for his unparal- 
leled cruelty to Israel, Exod. 
i, 10-22 ;,vii, 13. This is the 
sense in which God may 
harden all that imitate such 
obstinate unbelief: or he hard- 
ened him by his providence, 
which brought abo'ut events 
in view of which he hardened 
his own heart. By his long- 
suffering and delay of punish- 
ment, removing the plagues 
from Egypt, one after ano- 
ther$ God hardened him, i. e., 
Pharaoh took an occasion 
from that respite to harden 
his heart ; he made up his 
mind to persevere in his 
opposition to the departure 
of the Israelites. Hence by 
the permission of God in his 
providence, or his indirect 
agency, the stars' are said in 
Deut. iv, 19, to be distributed 
among the nations as objects 
of their worship ; while God 
has selected the people of 
Israel for his own. Compare 
2 Sam. xxiv, 1, with 1 Chron. 
xxi, 1. "Whom he will he 
hardeneth," Rom. ix, 18. Some 
understand this passage to 
mean to deal hardly with, to 
treat harshly, and refer to Job 
xxxix, 16, where the seventy 
use the same word -which 
occurs in the Greek of this 
passage, and most evidently 
in the same sense. 

HARE, Lev. xi, 6.- This 
animal resembles the rabbit, 
but is larger, an<l somewhat 
longer in proportion to its 

HARLOT. This tern, 




though generally applied to 
an abandoned woman, is used 
figuratively, Isa,. i, 21, the re- 
lation existing between God 
and the Israelitish people, be- 
ing everywhere set forth by 
the prophets under the em- 
blem of the conjugal union. 
SeeHos. i, 2; Ezek.otyi, 22. 
The people in worshipping 
other gods are compared to a 
harlot or an adulteress. 

HAR'O-SHETH, Judges 
iv, 2 ; a city supposed to be 
.situated near Hazor, in the 
northern parts of Canaan, 
called Upper, Galilee, or Ga- 
lilee of the Gentiles. 

HARP, a stringed instru- 
ment of music of great anti- 
'quity, whose tones are pro- 
duced by the action of the 
thumb and fingers of both 
hands like the Theban harp. 
(See our engraving, musical 
instruments.) The form of the 
ancient harp is . unknown. 
Gesenius supposes that it 
resembled the modern guitar. 
David danced when he used 
it, and playedwith the fingers, 
1 Sam. xvi, 23. It was used 
as an accompaniment to the 
voice on joyful occasions, 
such as jubilees and festivals. 
Hence the sorrowing Jews 
during their captivity hung 
their harps upon the willows 
as useless. 

HART, the -stag, or male 
deer. Mr. Good observes that 
the hind and roe, the hart and 
the antelope, were held, and 
still continue to be, in the 
highest estimation in all the 
eastern countries, fqr the 
.beauty of their eyes, the deli- 

cate elegance of their form, 
or their graceful agility of 
action. The names of these 
animals were perpetually ep- 
plied, therefore, to persons, 
whether male or female, who 
were supposed to be possess- 
ed of any of their respective 
qualities. See HIND. 

HARVEST is gathered in 
the southern parts of Pales- 
tine and in the plains about 
the middle of April ; but ia 
the northern and mountainous 
parts the first of May or later. 
The first handful 6f ripe bar- 
ley was carried to the altar, 
and then the harvest com- 
menced ; the barley first, and 
then wheat and other grain. 
The time of harvest was a 

The reapers in Palestine 
and Syria make use of the 
sickle in cutting down their 
crops ; and, according to the 
present custom in this coun- 
try, " fill their .hand" with the 
grain, and those who bind up 
the sheaves, "their bosom," 
_Psa. cxxix, 7. 

It appears from the beau- 
tiful history of Ruth, that, in 
Palestine, the women lent 
their assistance in cutting 
down and gathering in the 
harvest ; for Boaz commands 
her. to keep fast by his maid- 
ens. The women in -Syria 
shared also in the labours of 
the harvest. 

HATE. When the He- 
brews compared a stronger 
affection with a weaker one, 
they called the first love, and 
the other haired. Hence hate 
signifies to love less, to slight. 




" He who spares the rod hates 
his son," i. e., has an impro- 
per affection toward him. 
See Luke xiv, 26. " Jacob 
have I loved, ami Esau have 
I hated" Rom. ix, 3, i. e., on 
Jacob have I bestowed privi- 
leges and blessings such as 
are the "proofs of affection. I 
have treated him as one treats 
a friend whom he loves ; but 
from Esau have I withheld 
these privileges and bless- 
ings, and therefore treated 
him as one is wont to treat 
those whom he dislikes ; com- 
pare Mai. i, 2, 3, from which 
the quotation here is made, 
and where the prophet adds 
to the last clause the following 
words : " And laid his moun- 
tain and his heritage waste." 
That the whole refers to the 
bestowment of secular bless- 
ings, and the withholding of 
them, is clear, not only from 
this passage, but from com- 
paring Gen. xxv, 23 ; xxvii, 
27-29, 37740. Stuart. 

HAURAN, a region be- 
yond Jordan, eastward of 
Gaulanites and Bashan, and 
westward of Trachoni'tis, ex-, 
tending from the Jabbok to 
the territory of Damascus, 
Ezek. xlvii, 16-18. 

HAVILAH, probably Col- 
chis ; which was rich in gold,- 
e. g., Jason went thither after 
the golden fleece, i. e., gold 
caught in fleeces, gold sepa- 
rated from the waters of the 
Phasis by means of them. 
Colchis, no doubt, like all the 
early countries of nomades 
and predatory hordes," was 
not a definitely bounded coun- 

try. It lies at the east end 
of the Black Sea. Stuart. 

HAWK. As this is a bird 
of prey, cruel in its temper 
and gross in its manners, it 
was forbidden as food, and 
all others of its kind, in the 
Mosaic ritual. Most of the 
species of hawk, we are told, 
are birds of passage. The 
hawk is produced, in" Job 
xxxix, 26, as a specimen of 
that wonderful instinct which 
teaches birds of passage to 
know their tunes and sea- 
sons, when to migrate out 
of one country into another 
for the benefit of food, or 
a warmer 'climate, or both. 
Her migration is not con- 
ducted by the wisdom and 
prudence of man, but by the 
superintending and uphold- 
ing providence of the only 
wise God. 

HAY, mature grass cut and 
dried. In the two places 
where this word occurs, Prov. 
xxvii, 25, and Isa. xv, 16, our 
translators have very impra- 
perly rendered it hay. It 
should be grass ; for in those 
countries they made no hay ; 
and, if they did, it appears 
from inspection that hay could 
hardly be the meaning of the 
word in either of those texts. 

HAZAEL, one of the prin- 
cipal officers of Benhadad, 
who afterward was king of 

HEAD is taken for the 
highest or chief of any thing, 
to which other things are sub- 
ordinate, as the chief of a 
people or city or family; the 
the top of a mountain. It is 




used for what is first, fore- 
most, i. e., the beginning, the 
first part, as four heads or 
beginning of streams, Gen. ii, 
10, the four smaller streams 
into which a larger one di- 
vides itself. Head of the way, 
where ways branch off, cross- 
way, Ezek. xvi, 25. Head 
is put emphatically for the 
whole person. " Your Wood 
be upon your own head" 
Acts xviii, 6. The guilt of 
your destruction resteth upon 
yourselves. To heap coals 
on the head, is to overwhelm 
him with shame and remorse 
for his enmity toward thee. 
See Rom. xii, 20. "The 
stone which the builders re- 
jected was made the head of 
the corner," Psa. cxviii, 22, 
it was the first in the angle, 
whether it were disposed at 
the top of that angle to. adorn 
and crown it, or at the bottom 
10 support it. This, in the 
New Testament, is.'applied 
to Christ, Who is the strength 
and beauty of the church, and 
unites the several parts of it, 
namely, both Jews and Gen- 
tiles, together. 

word is used in several senses 
in Scripture. In its literal 
acceptation, it denotes the 
exercise of that bodily sense 
of which the ear is the organ ; 
and as" hearing is a sense by 
which the mind is excited 
to attention and obedience, 
so the ideas of attention and 
obedience are conveyed by 
the expression, God is said, 
speaking after the manner of 
men, to hear prayer, that is, 

to attend to it, and comply 
with the requests it contains, 
Psa. cxvi, 1. On the contrary, 
God is said not to hear, that 
is, not to comply with, the re- 
quests of sinners, John ix, 31. 
Men are said to hear when 
they comply with the request 
of each other, or when they 
obey the commands of God ; 
" He who is of God heareth," 
obeyeth, "God's words," John 
viii, 47. 

HEART. By the heart,, 
the Scriptures generally in- 
tend the. innermost and- the 
noblest powers of the mind, 
in opposition to.external ac- 
tions of the body. It denotes 
deliberate choice, understand- 
ing, and feeling, as distin- 
guished from the semblance 
of devotion, consisting in a 
compliance with its visible 
forms and regulations. As 
the heart has usually (whe- 
ther justly or not, it is not 
necessary to inquire) been 
looked upon as the seat of 
feeling, in like manner as 
the brain has been supposed to 
be the chief organ of thought, 
it has been by an easy meta- 
phor employed to denote that 
faculty of the soul by which 
we perceive what appears 
desirable, and cleave to what 
affords us satisfaction, and 
taste the delight which cer- 
tain objects are adapted to 
afford. Hall. Hence with' 
out heart, is without under- 
standing or prudence, Hosea 
vii, 11. A gross or fat heart, 
i. e., one covered with fat, 
is put for dulness of under- 
standing, Isa. vi, 10. A heart 




of stone is a hard, obdurate 
heart, or one of firm undaunted 
courage, Job xii, 24. Heart 
is used for the middle, midst, 
or inner part of a thing, Matt, 
xii, 40, " So shall the Son 
of man be in the heart of the 
earth." "The caul of the 
heart" Hosea xiii, 8, the 
pericardium, i. e., the part 
which surrounds and encloses 
the heart. " The prophets 
prophesy out of their own 
heart," Ezek. xiii, 2 ; that is, 
according j;o their own ima- 
gination, without any warrant 
from God. 

The heart of man is na- 
turally depraved and inclined 
to evil, Jer. xvii, 9. A divine 
power is requisite for its reno- 
vation, John iii, 1-11. When 
thus renewed, the effects will 
be seen in the temper, con- 
versation, and conduct at 
large. Hardness of heart is 
obstinacy, perverseness. 

HEATH, a shrub that 
grows in marshes. It is the 
opinion of Clarke, Parkhurst, 
and others, that the heath 
mentioned Jer. xvii, 6, and 
xlviii, 6, is a blasted tree, 
quite naked, or stripped of 
its foliage. If it be any par- 
ticular tree, the tamarisk is 
as likely as any. " Like the 
. heath in the desert ;" i. e., 
like a blasted tree, without 
moisture, parched and wi- 

HEATHEN. The Gentile 
nations. Applied to all who 
are not Israelites, who are 
ignorant of the true God, and 

HEAVEN, 1. Properly 

the expanse of the sky, the 
firmament, the apparent con 
cave hemisphere,which seems 
spread out like an arch above 
the earth ; which was regard- 
ed by the Hebrews as solid, 
Gen. i, 8, 14 ; and poetically, 
as resting on columns, 2 Sam. 
xxii, 8 ; Job xxvi, 11. In this 
is represented as fixed, the 
sun, moon, and stars, called 
the hosts of heaven. 

2. The lower heavens or 
regions below the firmament, 
as the air, atmosphere, where 
clouds and tempests are ga- 
thered, and lightning breaks 
forth ; where the birds fly, 
hence called the birds of 
heaven, clouds of heaven, 
Matt, xxvi, 64. 

3. The upper heaven be 
yond the visible firmament, 
the abode of God and his 
glory, Psa. ii, 4 ; of the Mes 
siah, the angels, the glorified 
bodies of Enoch and Elijab 
the spirits of the just after 
death, and generally of every 
thing which is said to be with - 
God. " The third heaven," 
mentioned by St. Paul, 2 Cor. 
xii, 2, probably is an allusion 
to the three heavens as above 
specified. " The highest hea 
ven" the abode of God, the 
spiritual paradise, Eph. iv, 
10 ; Heb. iv, 14, and into 
which Christ ascended after 
his resurrection. " Heaven, 
and the heaven of heavens," 
Deut. x, 14, i. e., all the ex- 
tent and regions of heaven, 
however vast and infinite. 
Heaven, as being the abode 
of God, is often put for God 
himself; as, " I nave sinned 




against Heaven" &c., Luke 
xx, 18. 

HEAVY, grievous, bur- 
densome, as crime or sin, 
Psa. xxxviii, 4, difficult, ardu- 
ous ; Exod. xviii, 18, used of 
things not easily moved, as 
the eyes oppressed with sleep, 
also of the mind, or heart, 
to be dull, stupid, hardened. 
"Heavy burdens," Matt, xxiii, 
4, burdensome precepts, op- 
pressive, hard to be borne. 

HEBREW, passer-over; 
an appellation first applied 
to Abraham, Gen. xiv, J3, by 
the Canaanites, and after- 
ward to all his descendants ; 
because he was a stranger 
from beyond the Euphrates ; 
he was born in Mesopotamia, 
which he left to wander 
through the land of Canaan. 
This name, therefore, was 
current among foreign tribes 
and nations. They were also 
called Israelites, a name de- 
rived'from the founder of the 
nation, and was in use among 
themselves. In the -New 
Testament, Hebrews signi- 
fies the Jews of Palestine, who 
use the Hebrew language ; 
and to whom the language 
and country of their fathers 
peculiarly belong; the true 
seed of Abraham, in opposi- 
tion to the Grecians, i. e., 
Jews born out of Palestine, 
and using chiefly the Greek 
language, Acts vi, 1. 

Hebrew of the Hebrews, by 
way of emphasis, as king of 
kings ; a Hebrew of the most 
honourable kind, a puie He- 
brew by descent and by lan- 
guage, 2 Cor. xi, 22. Such 

were reckoned more honour- 
able than the Jews who spoke 
the Greek tongue. See GBE- 

HEBREW, the language 
spoken by the Hebrews, in. 
which the books of the Old 
Testament were written, and 
which bears marks of being 
the most ancient. It flourish- 
ed in Palestine among the Phe- 
nicians and Hebrews until the 
Babylonish" exile, soon after 
which it declined; for the Jews 
of Palestine lost, with their 
political independence, the 
independence also of their 
language ; and the Old Testa- 
ment is the only specimen of 
the ancient language which 
now remains. The kindred 
languages are the Syriac, 
Chaldee, and Arabic ; the first 
twa constitute what is some- 
times called the Aramaean. 

HEBREWS, Epistle to the, 
supposed to be written from 
Rome about the year 63. 

There has been some little 
doubt concerning the persons 
to whom this epistle was ad- 
dressed ; but by far the most 
general and most probable 
opinion is, that it was written 
to the Hebrews of Palestine 
who had been converted to 
the Gospel from Judaism. 
That it was written, notwith- 
standing its general title, to 
the Christians of one certain, 
place or country, is evident 
from the following passages : 
"I beseech you the rather 
to do this, that I may be re- 
stored to you the sooner," 
Heb. xiii, 19. " Know ye that 
our brother Timothy is set at 




liberty, with whom, if he come 
shortly, I will see you," Heb. 
xiii, 23. And it appears from 
the following passage in the 
Acts, " When the number of 
the disciples was multiplied, 
there arose a murmuring of 
the Grecians against the He- 
brews," Acts vi, 1, that cer- 
tain persons were at this time 
known, at Jerusalem by the 
name of Hebrews. They seem 
to have been native Jews, in- 
habitants of Judea, the lan- 
guage of which country was 
Hebrew, and therefore they 
were called Hebrews, in con- 
tradistinction to those Jews 
who, residing commonly in 
other countries, although they 
occasionally came' to Jerusa- 
lem, used the Greek language, 
and were therefore called 

The general design of this 
epistle was to confirm the 
Jewish Christians in the faith 
and practice of the Gospel, 
which they might be in danger 
of deserting, either through 
the persuasion or persecu- 
tion, of the unbelieving Jews, 
who were very numerous and 
powerful in Judea. 

HEBRON, an ancient city 
of the tribe of Judah, and 
which for a time was the 
royal residence of David, 
2 Sam. ii, 1 ; v, 5 ; it was about 
twenty-seven miles south of 
Jerusalem, and was the birth- 
place of John the Baptist; . 

HEDGE, a fence, as en- 
closing any thing, e. g., a 
thorn hedge around a vine- 
yard, besides which there was 
often a wall, Mark xii, 1. 

" Highways and hedges," 
Luke xiv, 23, i. e., the nar- 
row ways among the vine- 
yards or hedges, designating 
sometimes that which en- 
closes, and sometimes the 
space enclosed by hedges. 

HELL. The word is from 
the Saxon, and answers ex- 
actly to the Greek word Hades, 
a concealed or unseen place. It 
designates, 1. The abode or 
place of the dead, the common 
receptacle of separate spirits, 
whether good or bad, without 
regard to their happiness or 
misery. See Matt, xvi, 18 ; 
Acts ii, 27 ; Rev. i, 18, and 
xx, 13, 14. , 2. The place 
where the wicked are tor 
mented a hopeless separa- 
tion from God and eternal 
happiness, Psa. ix, 17, 18 ; 
Luke xvi, 23 ; Matt, xxiii, 33. 
We have decisive evidence 
from Scripture that this pu- 
nishment will be eternal, 
Mark iii, 29, and ix, 44 ; Rev. 
xiv, 11 ; Matt. xxv,41. Hell 
is represented as a place of 
dismal darkness, not where 
sinners are purified, but where 
sinners are punished ; where 
there is nothing but grief, de- 
spair, and gnashing of teeth. 
Those who fall into this pit 
shall never escape,, but the 
" smoke of their torment as- 
cendeth lip for ever and ever." 
The same word expresses 
the duration of both .the hap- 
piness of the righteous and 
the misery of the wicked, 
Matt, xxv, 46. 
' HELL, Gates of. See GATES. 

HELMET, a kind of lea- 
ther or metal cap for protect 




ing the head of a warrior, and 
used figuratively for defence 
and protection, Eph. vi, 17. 
It was surmounted for orna- 
ment with a horsetail and a 
flume. See cut of Ancient 

HEM signifies the fringe 
or tassel which was worn by 
the Israelites on the corners 
of their garments, Num. xv, 
38, 39, probably to distinguish 
them from other nations . Our 
Lord conformed to the cus- 
tom of his country in this 
respect. The Pharisees, for 
a show of piety, enlarged these 
borders or fringes, Matt xxiii,5. 

HEMLOCK, the cicuta, 
which grows on the borders 
of pools arid streams, and 
whose leaves and root are 
poisonous, proving fatal to 
most animals which feeH up- 
on it, Hos. x, 4. 

HEN, Matt, xxiii, 37 ; 
Luke^xiii, 34. In these two 
passages the metaphor used is 
a very beautiful one. When 
the hen sees a bird of prey 
coming, she makes-a noise to 
assemble her chickens, that 
she. may cover them with her 
wings from the danger. The 
Roman eagle was about to 
fall upon the Jewish state ; 
our Lord invited them to him- 
self, in order to guard them 
from threatened calamities : 
they disregarded his invita- 
tions and warnings, and fell 
a prey to their adversaries. 
The affection of the hen to 
her brood is so strong as to 
aave become proverbial. 

HERESY. Among the 
ancients, the word heresy 

appears to have had nothing 
of that .odious signification 
which has been attached to it 
by ecclesiastical writers in 
later times. It simply means, 
wherever it occurs in the 
Scripture, divisions or parties 
in a religious community. 
" After the way wliich they 
call heresy," Acts xxiv, 14, a 
sect or party ; for so the word 
signifies. Schism and heresy 
are nearly allied, 1 Cor. xi, 
18, 19. An undue attach- 
ment to one part, and a "con- 
sequent alienation of affec- 
tion from another part of 
the Christian Church, comes 
under the denomination of 
schism. When this disposi- 
tion has proceeded so far as 
to produce an actual party 
or faction among them, this 
effect is termed heresy. Paul 
enumerates among the works 
of the flesh " heresies" Gal. v, 
20 ; such divisions in a reli- 
gious community as alienate 
affection, and infuse animo 
sity. " Damnable heresies,'" 
2 Pet. ii, 1, are destructive 

HERETIC, in the Scrip- 
tures, signifies a man that 
obstinately persists in con- 
tending about foolish ques- 
tions, and thereby occasions 
strifes and parties in the 
Church. His punishment is 
fixed, Tit. iii, 10 ; reject him, 
avoid him ; leave him to him- 

HERMON, a celebrated 
mountain in the Holy Land. 
It was in the northern bound- 
ary of the country lying 
around the sources of the 




Jordan, and consisting of 
several summits or ridges. 
The dew forms on this moun- 
tain in the greatest abund- 
ance, Psa. cxxxiii, 3. 

HEROD, name of four per- 
sons in the New Testament, 
Idumeans by descent, who 
were successively invested, 
by the Romans with author- 
ity over the Jewish nation, in 
whole or in part. Their his- 
tory is related chiefly by 

1. Herod, surnamed the 
Great. He was the son of 
Antipater, an Idumean, in 
high favour with Julius Ce- 
sar ; at the age of fifteen was 
made procurator of Galilee, 
in which he was confirmed 
by Antony, with the title of 
tetrarch, about 41 B. C. Be- 
ing driven out by the opposite 
faction, he fled to Rome ; 
where, by the influence of 
Antony, he was declared king 
of Judea. He now collected 
an army, recovered Jerusa- 
lem, and extirpated the Mac- 
cabean family, 37 B. C. Af- 
ter the battle of Actium, he 
joined the party of ( Octavius, 
who confirmed him in his 
possessions. He now rebuilt 
and decorated the temple of 
Jerusalem, built and enlarged 
many cities, especially Cesa- 
rea, and erected theatres and 
gymnasia in both these places. 
He was notorious for his jea- 
lousy and cruelty, having put 
to death his own wife Mari- 
amne, and her two sons Alex- 
ander and Aristobulus. He 
died A. D. 2, aged seventy 
years, after a reign of about 

forty years as king. It was 
near the close of his life that 
Jesus was born, and the mas- 
sacre of infants took place 
in Bethlehem. At Herod's 
death half his kingdom, viz., 
Idumea, Judea, and Samaria, 
was given by Augustus to his 
son Archelaus, with the title 
of ethnarch ; the remaining 
half being divided between 
two of his other sons, Herod 
Antipas and Philip, with the 
title of tetrarchs ; the former 
having Galilee and Perea, 
and the latter Batanea, Tra- 
chonitis, and Auranitas, (now 
Haouran,) Luke iii, 1. 

2. Herod Antipas, often call- 
ed Herod the tetrarch, the son 
of Herod the Great by Mal- 
thace, and own brother to 
Archelaus. After his father's 
death, Augustus gave him 
Galilee and Perea, with the 
title of tetrarch, Luke iii, 1 ; 
whence also he is called by 
the very general title of king, 
JMatt. xiv, 9. He first mar- 
ried a daughter of Aretas, 
whom he dismissed on be- 
coming enamoured of Hero- 
dias. This latter, his own 
niece, and the wife of his 
brother, Philip Herod, he in- 
duced to leave her husband 
and live with him ; and it was 
for his bold remonstrance on 
this occasion that John the 
Baptist was put to death 
through the arts of Herodias, 
Mark vi, 17-19. Herod went 
to Rome at the instigation of 
Herodias, to ask for the title 
and rank of king ; but was 
there accused before Cali- 
gula, at the instance of Herod 




Agrippa, her own brother, and 
banished with her to Lugdu- 
num ( Lyons) in Gaul, about 
A. D. 41, while his territo- 
ries were givea to Herod 

3. Herod Agrippa, the elder, 
was the grandson of Herod 
the .Great and Mariamne, 
and son of Aristobulus. See 

4. Herod Agrippa, the 
younger, called in the New 
Testament only Agrippa ; he 
was the son of the elder 
Agrippa. See AGRIPPA. 

HERODIANS, a Jewish 
sect, probably partisans of 
Herod, (Antipas,) and there- 
fore entertaining a partiality 
toward the Roman emperor, 
which the Pharisees did not. 

It is generally supposed 
that the great body of the 
Jews held that the law of 
Moses, Deut. xvii, 15, forbade 
their subjection to a foreign 
power ; while Herod and his 
party (the Herodians) regard- 
ed that law as forbidding a 
voluntary subjection ; but if 
they were reduced to subjec- 
tion by force of arms, they 
considered it lawful to avow 
their allegiance and pay tri- 
bute ; and they not only paid 
it themselves, but urged others 
to pay it, and to submit cheer- 
fully to Rome. Hence the 
difficulty of the question pro- 
posed to Christ, Matt, xxii, 
17. The Herodians also held 
that it was on the same prin- 
ciple lawful to comply with 
the customs," and adopt the 
rites, of the conquering na- 
tion. This is probably the 

leaven, of Herod. They were 
probably, in general, of the 
sect of the Sadducees ; com- 
pare Markviii, 15 with Matt. 
rvi, 6. 

HERODIAS, daughter of 
Aristobulus and Berenice,and 
granddaughter of Herod the 
Great.. Her first husband was 
her uncle Philip ; but he fall- 
ing into disgrace, she left 
him, and married his brother 
Herod Antipas, tetrarch of 
Galilee, See PHILIP. For 
his boldness in censuring this 
incestuous marriage, John the 
Baptist lost his head. 

HER'ON, a species of 
crane, of an irritable disposi- 

HESH'BON was the an- 
cient royal residence of the 
Amorites, Num. xxi, 26, ce- 
lebrated for its fish ponds. 
Songs vii, 5. It was about 
fourteen miles east of Jordan, 
within the bounds of Reuben, 
and Gad, Josh, xiii, 17, 

HETH, the father of the 
Hittites, was the eldest son 
of Canaan, Gen. x, 15, and 
dwelt southward of the pro- 
mised land, probably about 
Hebron. : 

HEZ-E-KI'AH, king of 
Judah, was born 728 B. C. 

HIERAPOHS, a city of 
Phrygia, celebrated for its 
warm baths, now called Sam.' 
buk Kulase, Col. iv, 13. It 
was situated near the junc- 
tion of the rivers Clydus and 
Mander, not far from Colosse 
and Laodicea. 

HIG-GA'ION (Hig-ga'yon) 
signifies meditation ; perhaps 
meaning that we should me 




dilate on what has been said, 
Psa. ix, 16. 

HIDDEKEL, the river 
Tigris, Gen. ii, 14; Dan. x, 
4 ; a noble river, rising in the 
mountains of Armenia, and 
falling into the Persian Gulf. 

HIGH PLACE, a general 
word, comprehending moun- 
tains and hills ; hence a strong 
hold, fortress, situated on a 
height, Psa. xviii, 33. " He 
setteth me upon my high 
places," i. e., he made me 
secure against my enemy. 
"Whoever possess the strong 
holds of a country, i. e., its 
heights, has also secure pos- 
session of the whole land ; 
hence the poetical phrase, 
"To tread upon the high 
places," Deut. xxxiii, 29 ; 
sometimes spoken of God as 
Lord and governor of the 
world, Amos iv, 13. The 
Hebrews, like most other an- 
cient nations, supposed that 
sacred rites performed on ele- 
vated places were peculiar- 
ly acceptable to the Deity ; 
hence they were accustomed 
to offer sacrifices upon moun- 
tains and hills, both to idols 
and -to God himself, 1 Kings 
iii, 4 ; and also to build cha- 
pels there, 2 Kings xvii, 29. 
And so tenacious of this an- 
cient custom were the Jews, 
that even after the building 
of Solomon's temple, notwith- 
standing the express law in 
Deut. xii, they continued to 
erect such chapels on the 
mountains around Jerusalem, 
and to offer sacrifices in them. 
And those kings who in other 
respects strictly observed the 

law of Moses until Josiah, 
did not abolish these unlaw- 
ful sacrifices among the peo- 
ple, nor themselves desist 
from them. Even. Solomon 
himself sacrificed in chapels 
of this sort, 1 Kings iii, 3. 

House of the high place 
means a chapel erected to 
God, or to idols upon a moun- 
tain or hill. Transferred .also 
to any chapel, Jer. vii, 31. 

HIGH PRIEST enjoyed 
peculiar dignities and influ- 
ence. He only had the pri- 
vilege of entering the holy of 
holies on the day of solemn 
expiation. The supreme ad- 
ministration of sacred things 
was confided to him ; he was 
the final arbiter of all contro- 
versies : in later times, he 
presided over the sanhedrim, 
and held the next rank to the 
sovereign or prince. His au 
thprity, therefore, was very 
great at all times, especially 
when he united the dignities 
of priest and king in his own 
person. According to the law, 
the oifice was or ought to have 
been held for life, and retain- 
ed in the family of Aaron, 
Exod. xxix, 9. But in the 
time of the .Romans, especi- 
ally in the time of our Savi- 
our, election and the right of 
succession were totally dis- 
regarded. The office was not 
unfrequently sold to the high- 
est bidder, to persons who 
had neither age, learning, nor 
rank to recommend them ; 
nay, even to individuals who 
were not of the sacerdotal 
race ; and sometimes the of- 
fice was made annual. The 




knowledge of this fact will 
explain' the circumstance of 
several high priests being in 
existence at the same time, or 
rather of there being several 
pontifical men, (Annas and 
Caiaphas for instance,) who 
having once held the office 
for a short time, seem to have 
retained the dignity originally 
attached to the name. 

The high priest, who was 
the chief man in Israel, and 
appeared before God in he- 
half of the people in their 
sacred services, and who was 
appointed for sacrifice, for 
blessing, and for intercession, 
was a type of Jesus Christ, 
that great high priest, who 
offered himself a sacrifice for 
sin, who blesseth his people, 
and who evermore liveth to 
make intercession for them. 

HIGHWAY, a raised way 
for public use, used meta- 
phorically for a walk or man- 
ner of life, Isa. xxxv, 8. 

HIN, a liquid measure, as 
of oil, or of wine, containing 
one gallon and two pints. 

HIND, the female of the 
red deer. It is a lovely crea- 
ture, and of an elegant shape. 
It is noted for its swiftness 
and the sureness of its step 
as it jumps among the rocks. 
David jand Hab'akkuk both 
allude to this character of the 
hind. "The Lord maketh 
my feet like hinds' feet, and 
causeth ,me to stand on the 
high places," Ps'a. xviii, 3 ; 
Hab. iii, 19. 

- HINNOM, the valley of 
Hinnom, Josh; xv, 8 ; the nar- 
row valley skirting Jerusalem 

on the south," running west- 
ward from the valley of Je 
hoshaphat under Mount Zion, 
noted for the human sacrifices 
here offered to Moloch, Jer. 
vii, 31 ; this worship was 
broken up, and the place 
desecrated by Josiah, 2 Kings 
xxiii, 10-14; after which, it 
seems to have become the 
receptacle for all the filth of 
the city, as also for the car- 
casses of animals and the dead 
bodies of malefactors left un- 
buried; to consume which, 
fires appear to have been 
from time to time kept up. It 
was also called Tophet, Jer. 
vii, 31. 

HI'RAM, <king of Tyre, 
mentioned by profane authors 
as distinguished for his mag- 
nificence^ and for adorning 
the city of Tyre. Some- 
times called Hurom, 2 Chron. 
ii, 2, also a Tyrian artificer, 
2 Chron. iv, 11. ' 

HIRELING, one hired, a 
hired labourer. " The days or 
years of a hireling," Job xiv, 
6, .appear to signify an exact 
year or day7 just as the hired 
servant does not continue his 
work beyond the stated hour. 

HITTITES, the descend- 
ants of Heth, who dwelt in 
the vicinity of Hebron, Gen. 
xxiii, 7. - 

HIVITES, a people of 
Canaan, dwelling at the foot 
of Mount Hermon and Leba- 
non, but scattered also in 
other places, as at Shechem 
and Gibeon, Josh, xi, 3-19. 

HOAR FROST, i. e., ivfiite 
frost; as the vapour in the 
atmosphere coming in contact 




with cold bodies, as a pitcher 
of water, the grass, or the cold 
earth, forms dew ; so when 
this dew freezes as it forms, 
it constitutes the hoar frost, 
Job xxxviii, 29. The deposi- 
tion of dew and of hoar frost 
is always most abundant un- 
der a clear, unclouded sky; 
because a covering of clouds 
serves as a mantle to the 
earth, and prevents the free 
escape of caloric. Hence the 
advantage of snow and artifi- 
cial coverings in protecting 

HOLINE S S, freedom from 
the defilement of guilt and 
sin ; it comprehends also all 
those pious and virtuous dis- 
positions which constitute a 
religious character. God is 
holy, for he abhors every 
kind of impurity. He is the 
avenger of right and justice, 
and the object of fear and 
reverence to men. The apos- 
tle exhorts us to be at great 
pains in attaining holiness for 
this most important of all 
considerations, that without 
it we cannot be admitted into 
heaven, Heb. xii, 14. 

Places and days conse- 
crated to God's service are 
called holy. 

HOLLOW of the thigh, 
socket of the hip, by which 
the thigh is connected with 
the pelvis ; the hip joint, Gen. 
xxxii, 25. Gesenius. 

HONOUR, a proper tri- 
bute of respect, esteem, a mark 
or token of honour, Acts xxviii, 
10. " If any man serve me, 
him will my Father honour," 
John xii, 26 ; bestow on him 

special marks of honour and 
favour. The favour of God, 
and the distinctions which it 
may confer are honour, Rom. 
ii, 7. " Honour thy father and 
mother," Matt, xv, 4, i. e., 
not only show them respect, 
and cheerfully obey all their 
lawful commands, but also 
honour them with thy sub- 
stance ; if it be necessary, 
feed and clothe them; and 
supply all their wants with 
liberality and tender affection. 
The word is used in the same 
sense in Prov. iii, 9, "-Honour 
the Lord with thy substance." 
The Hebrews used the word 
double, to express plenty of 
any thing. Double honour is 
a liberal maintenance, 1 Tim. 
v 17. 

'HONEY. It is uncertain 
whether honey is merely col- 
lected by the bee from the 
nectaries of flowers, and then 
deposited in the hive un- 
changed, or whether the sac- 
charine matter of the flower 
does not undergo some change 
in the body of the insect. Be- 
sides sugar, it contains muci- 
laginous, colouring, and odo- 
riferous matter, and probably 
a vegetable acid. 

Honey comb is the cells, in 
which the honey is contained, 
and from which the purest 
honey distils. - There is a 
sweet substance-called honey 
or honey dew, which in Arabia 
and other regions of Asia is 
found upon the leaves of cer- 
tain species of trees, becomes 
hard, and is then easily 'ga- 
thered. "Honey out of the 
rock," is honey from wild bees, 




Psa. Ixxxi, 16, which abounds 
.in Palestine. 

HOPE, a confident expecta- 
tion of future good. "Jesus 
Christ is all our hope," 1 Tim. 
i, 1. Our hope in this life, 
and the next, arises from his 
merits, his promises, and his 
Spirit. We are said to be 
" saved by hope," by the hope, 
the expectation and desire of 
unseen things. And we read 
of the "full assurance of hope," 
which may be taken synony- 
mously with cheerful and ear- 
nest expectation. " The hope 
of Israel" was the end of the 
Babylonish captivity, the"com- 
ing of the Messiah, and the 
happiness of heaven. " The 
prisoners of hope," Zech. ix, 
12, are t he Israelites who were 
in captivity, but cherishing a 
hope of deliverance. 

HOR, Mount Hor, the bu- 
rial place of Aaron, situated 
in the vicinity of Petra, on 
the east" side of the Ghor, 
(see JORDAN,) at some dis- 
tance up the Wady Mousa, 
and therefore in Mount Seir, 
nearly half way from Akaba 
to the Dead Sea. Even now 
it rears its bare and rugged 
summit above the lonely vale 
of Wady Mousa, and visible 
in every direction from a great 
distance around. 

HOREB, desert or waste, 
the same as Sinai, perhaps 
a peak of the same mountain. 
This name was probably given 
to this mountain because it 
was a lofty eminence desti- 
tute of vegetation around its 

HORITES," dwellers in 

caves ; a people more ancient 
than the Edomites, Deut. ii, 
12. This name is obviously 
taken from the habits of the 
people. The whole of the 
south part of Idumea, and 
especially Petra, the capital 
city is in a great measure 
composed of caves ; so that 
in fact the inhabitants were 
dwellers in caves. 

HORN. Besides its ordi- 
nary meaning, as the horn of 
an animal, it signifies a vessel 
or flask, either made of horn, 
or a horn itself thus used, 1 
Sam. xvi, 1-13. Metaphori 
cally, horn is put as the symbol 
of strength, might, power ; the 
image being drawn from ani- 
mals which push with their 
horns. Thus, " the horn of 
Moab is broken," Jer. xlviii, 
25 ;" hence used for kings and 
kingdoms, Dan. vii, 20-24. 
For God to exalt the horn of 
any one is to strengthen him, 
to increase his power., and 
dignity, Psa. xcii, 11. '**' To 
lift up one's own horn," Psa. 
Ixxv, 45, is to be proud; 
spoken of those who place 
too much confidence in their 
own strength, and thus be- 
come overbearing. David 
calls God, Psa. xviii, 2, " the 
horn of salvation," i. e., the 
instrument, means of deli- 
verance,' a strong deliverer. 
"Horns of ivory," Ezek. xxvii, 
15, i. e., elephants' teeth, so 
called because the ancients 
supposed them to be horns ; 
the word horns is used poeti- 
cally for rays of light or splen- 
dour, Hab. iii, 4. So the 
Arabic poets compare the 




first rays of the rising sun to 

HORNET, aninsectmuch 
larger and stronger than the 
wasp, whose sting gives se- 
vere pain, and in hot eastern 
countries is very venomous, 
and even deadly, Deut. vii, 
20, How distressing and de- 
structive_a multitude of these 
fierce and severely stinging 
insects might be, any per- 
son may conjecture. No 
armour, no weapons could 
avail against them. A few 
thousands of them would be 
sufficient to overthrow the 
best-disciplined army, and put 
it into confusion and rout. 
From Joshua xxiv, 12, we find 
that two kings of the Amorites 
were actually driven out of 
the land by these hornets, so 
that the Israelites were not 
obliged to use either sword 
or bow in the conquest. 

HORSE. Horses were 
very rare among the Hebrews 
in the early ages. The patri- 
archs had none ; and after the 
departure of the Israelites 
from Egypt, God expressly 
forbade their ruler to procure 
them, Deut. xvii, 16, In the 
time of the Judges we find 
horses and war chariots among 
the Canaanites, but still the 
. Israeliteshadnone; andhence 
they were generally too ti- 
mid to venture down into the 
plains, confining their con- 
quests to the mountainous 
parts of the country. Solo- 
mon was the first who esta- 
blished a cavalry force. Hav- 
ing married a daughter of 
Pharaoh, he procured a breed 

of horses from Egypt ; and so 
greatly did he multiply them, 
that he had four hundred 
stables, forty thousand stalls, 
and twelve thousand horse- 
men, I Kings iv, 26. It seems 
that the Egyptian-horses were 
in high repute, and were 
much used in war. When the 
Israelites were disposed to 
place too implicit confidence 
in the assistance of cavalry, 
the prophet remonstrated in 
these terms : " The Egyp- 
tians are men, and not God ; 
and their horses are flesh, not 
spirit," Isa. xxxi, 3. 

sucker, Prov. xxx, 15. A sort 
of worm that lives in water, 
of a black or brown colour, 
which fastens upon the flesh, 
and does not quit it till it is 
entirely full of blood. Solo- 
mon says, "The horse-leech 
hath, two daughters, Give, 
give." This is so apt an em- 
blem of an insatiable rapacity 
and avarice, that it has been 
generally used by different 
writers to express it. As the 
horse-leech had two daugh- 
ters, cruelty and thirst of 
blood, which cannot be satis- 
fied, so the oppressor of the 
poor has two dispositions, 
rapacity and avarice, which 
never say they have enough, 
but continually demand addi- 
tional gratifications. 

HO-SAN'NA, "Save, I 
beseech thee," or, " Give sal- 
vation ;" a word of joyful ac- 
clamation, Matt, xxi, 9-15. 

HO-SE'A, son of Been, 
the first of the minor prophets. 
He is generally considered as 




a native and inhabitant of the 
kingdom of Israel, and is sup- 
posed- to have -begun to pro- 
phesy about 800 B. C. He 
exercised his office sixty 
years ; but it is not known 
at what periods his different 
prophecies now remaining 
were delivered. The style 
of Hosea is peculiarly ob- 
scure ; it is sententious, con- 
cise, and abrupt ; the transi- 
tions of, persons are sudden ; 
and the connexive and adver- 
sative particles are frequently 
omitted ; but we shall see 
abundant reason to admire 
the force and energy with 
which this prophet writes, 
and the boldness of the figures 
and similitudes which he 

2. HOSEA, or HOSHEA, son 
of Elah, was the last king of 
Israel. Sal-man-e'ser, king of 
Assyria, being informed that 
Hoshea meditated a revolt, 
and had concerted measures 
with So, king of Egypt, to 
shake. off the Assyrian yoke, 
marched against him,- and 
besieged Samaria. After a 
siege of three years, in the 
ninth year of Hoshea's reign, 
the city was taken, and was 
reduced to a heap of ruins, 
717 B. C. The king of As- 
syria removed the Israelites 
of the ten tribes to countries 
beyond the Euphrates, and 
thus terminated the kingdom 
of the ten tribes. 

HOST, an army, as going 
forth to war. The angels 
which stand around the throne 
of God. Frequently the sun, 
moon, and stars 

The Lord of hosts, i. e., of 
the celestial armies ; a very 
usual appellation for the most 
high God in the prophetical 
books, but does not occur in 
the pentateuch, nor in the 
book of Judges. The apostle 
speaks of his host, Rom. xvi, 
23, i. e., an entertainer, one 
who had received him into 
his house, and had showed 
him hospitality. 

To HOUGH,(fco&,) to ham- 
string, i. e., to cut the sinews 
of the hind legs, by which the 
animal is rendered wholly 
useless and unable to stand ; 
this was often, and is still 
done in war by the victors, 
when unable to carry off with 
them the horses captured, 
Josh, xi, 69. 

HOUR, one of the twelve 
equal parts into which the 
natural day and also the night 
.were divided. Hours were 
of course of different lengths 
at different seasons of the 
year. The mention of the 
hour first occurs in Dan. iii, 
6. The hours of the day were 
counted from sunrise, and 
those of the night from sun- 
set ; hence the sixth hour was 
the middle of the day, and the 
eleventh was the hour before 
sunset. The hours of note, 
in the course of the day, were 
the third, sixth, and ninth, 
which were the hours of 
prayer, Dan. vi, 10 ; Acts iii, 
1 ; x, 9. It is used figura- 
tively for a short time, a brief 
interval, Dan. iv, 19 j Rev. 
xvii, 12 ; sometimes it signi- 
fies in the same moment, in- 
stantly, Dan. v, 5. 




HOUSE, a place of resi- 
dence, often built in the form 
of a hollow square, which is 
called the court. The house 
of God is the tabernacle or 
temple, where the presence 
of God was manifested, and 
where God was said to dwell, 
because there the symbol of 
the divine presence resided ; 
but under the Gospel dis- 
pensation this appellation is 
given to the church, 1 Tim- 
iii, 15. By metonomy, a 
household family, those who 
live together in a house,, as 
wife and children. It also 
signifies posterity, those who 
are descended from one head 
or ancestor, -as the house of 
David, Luke i, 27 ; a sepul- 
chre, the house of the dead, 
especially one costly, sump- 
tuous, Isa. xiv, 18 ; called also 
the long home, Eccles. xii, 5. 

Houses of clay, Job iv, 19, 
is a lively image of the -frail 
and perishable nature of hu- 
man bodies. 

House top, Matt, xxiv, 17 ; 
the .roofs of oriental houses 
are flat, covered with a com- 
position of gravel, earth, &c., 
reduced to a solid substance 
by the application of blows, 
and surrounded by a wall or 
railing, breast-high, to prevent 
persons from falling, Deut. 
xxii, 8. Upon this surface 
grass and weeds frequently 
grew, Psa. cxxix, 6 ; and there 
the inhabitants spent much of 
their time to enjoy the open 
air, and often slept there. 
The walls of houses of the 
poorer classes are often built 
of clay or bricks burned in the 

sun, and of great thickness, 
which accounts for the ex- 
pression of Job xxiv, 16. 

HUMILITY, lowliness,mo. 
desty of mind and deportment, 
" not to think of himself more 
highly than he ought to think, 
but to think soberly," Rom. xii, 
3, i. e., to think modestly, 
prudently, in a rational way 
of himself, not being puffed 
up with his own attainment* 
and gifts, having a knowled 
of his unworthiness, and de- 
pendance upon God for every 
thing. It is the virtue of 
Christ and Christians, and 
stands opposed to pride and 
arrogance. It is a settled and 
permanent disposition of the 
mind, which shows itself in 
external actions, 1 Pet. v, 5. 

To humble signifies often 
to afflict, to subdue, Isa. x, 
33. To humble a virgin or 
woman, taken in war, signi- 
fies to pollute her honour, 
Deut. xxii, 24. 

HUNTING. The earliest 
inhabitants of the world were 
compelled to hunt, in order 
to secure themselves from the 
attacks of wild beasts; and 
a great hunter'was accounted 
a benefactor of mankind. 

" A mighty hunter before 
the Lord," Gen. x, 9, is one 
who is impetuous and sue 
cessful ; one whom God fa 
vours. Hunting required both 
speed and braveiy. The im 
plements employed were usu 
ally the same as those of war 
Death is represented as a 
hunter armed with imple 
ments of destruction, Psa. 
xviii, 5 ; xci, 3 ; 1 Cor. xv, 55. 




primitive ages of the world, 
agriculture, as well as the 
keeping of flocks, was a prin- 
cipal employment among men, 
Gen. ii, 15; iii, 17-19; iv, 2. 
It is an art which has ever 
been a prominent source, both 
qf the necessaries and the 
conveniences of life. Those 
states and nations, especially 
Babylon and Egypt, which 
made the cultivation of the 
soil their chief business, 
arose in a short period to 
wealth and power. To these 
communities just mentioned, 
which excelled in this parti- 
cular all the others of anti- 
quity, may be added that of 
the Hebrews, who learned the 
value of the art while remain- 
ing in Egypt, and ever after 
that time were famous for 
their, industry in the culti- 
vation of the earth. Moses, 
following the example of the 
Egyptians, made agriculture 
the basis of the state. He 
accordingly apportioned to 
every citizen a certain quan- 
tity of land, and gave him 
the right of tilling it himself, 
and of transmitting it to his 

HUSKS, the external co- 
vering of the fruits of r certain 
plants, as of corn or beans. 
The lost son, oppressed by 
want, and pinched by hunger, 
desired to feed on the husks 
given to the swine, Luke xv, 
16. The original word signi- 
fies carob beans, i. e., the fruit 
of the carob tree. "This 
tree is common in Syria and 
in the southern parts of Eu- 

rope. It produces long slen 
der pods, shaped like a horn 
or sickle, containing a sweet- 
ish pulp, and several brown 
shining seeds, like beans. 
These pods are sometimes 
used as food by the lower 
classes in the east, and swine 
are commonly fed with them." 

HYMN, a song, or ode, 
composed in honour of God. 
The Jewish hymns were ac- 
companied with instruments 
of music, to assist the voices 
of the Levites and people. 
The word is used as synony- 
mous with song, or psalm, 
which the Hebrews scarcely 
distinguish, having no parti- 
cular term for a hymn, as dis- 
tinct from a psalm. St. Paul 
requires Christians to edify 
one another with " psalms, 
and hymns, and spiritual 
songs." St. Matthew says, 
that Christ, having supped, 
sung a hymn, and went out 
He recited the hymns or 
psalms which the Jews were 
used to sing after the pass- 
over ; that, is, the Hallelujah 

HYPOCEITE, a word 
from the Greek, which sig- 
nifies one who feigns to be 
what he is not ; who puts 
on a mask or character, like 
actors in tragedies and come- 
dies. It is generally applied 
to those who assume appear- 
ances of a virtue, without 
possessing it in reality. Our 
Saviour accused the Phari- 
sees of hypocrisy. In the 
Old Testament, the Hebrew- 
word which is rendered " hy- 




pocrite," " counterfeit," sig- 
nifies also a profane wicked 
man, a man polluted, cor- 
rupted, a man of impiety, a 

HYS'SOP, a low plant or. 
shrub, of a bitter taste, which 
grows out of the walls or 
rocks ; and therefore a striking 
contrast to the tall and ma- 
jestic cedar, 1 Kings iv, 33 ; 
found in great abundance 
around Mount Sinai ; much 
used in the ritual purifica- 
tions and sprinklings of the 
Hebrews^; and, under this 
name, they appear to have 
comprised not only the com- 
mon hyssop of the shops, but 
also other aromatic plants, 
especially mint, wild marjo- 
ram, and lavender. 

ICONIUM, a large and 
populous city of Asia Minor, 
now called Konieli. 

IDDO, a prophet of the 
kingdom of Judah, who wrote 
the history of Rehoboam and 
Abijah, 2 Chron. xii, 15. 

IDLE, not labouring, un- 
employed, inactive idle words, 
empty and vain words, i. e., 
void of truth, and to which 
the event does not corre- 
spond ; the false, insincere 
language of a man who says 
one thing and means an- 

IDOL, an image ; it signi- 
fies an idol god, i. e., a hea- 
then deity, or an image, a 
representation of one, any 
thing worshipped in room of 
the true God, 1 Cor. viii, 4. 

An idol is nothing, i. e., 
has no existence as a God ; 

no share in the government 
of -the world. 

The pollutions of idols, Acts 
xv, 20, spoken of meat sacri- 
ficed to idols ; see verse 29. 
The apostle here refers to the 
customs' of heathen nations ; 
among whom, after a sacri- 
fice had been-completed, and 
a portion of the victim given 
to the priest, the remaining 
part was either exposed by 
the owner for sale in the mar- 
ket, or became the occasion 
of a banquet, either in the 
temple or at his own house ; 
and thus he became polluted. 

IDOLATRY, idol worship; 
the worship and adoration of 
false gods, or the giving those 
honours to creatures or the 
works of man's hands which 
are only due to God. It is 
either external or internal. 
External is the payinghomage 
to outward objects, either na- 
tural or artificial; and this is 
the common sense of the term. 
Internal is an inordinate love 
of the creatures, riches, ho- 
nours, and the pleasures of 
this life Col. iii, 5 ; Phil, iii, 
19. Soon after the flood, men 
fell into idolatry. A large 
portion of our race have ever 
practised this sin dreadfully 
indicative of the corruption 
and degradation of human 
nature. Not only have the 
heavenly bodies and eminent 
benefactors of mankind been 
worshipped, but animals, 
plants, reptiles, and figures 
made by human hands. To 
these were paid not only 
reverence and devotion, but 
the most horrid rites. The 




most gross indecencies, the 
murder of children, suicide, 
torture, drunkenness, and 
every abomination have been 
considered proper acts of 
worship. In some countries, 
idolatry still retains these 
shocking characteristics. 

The veneration which the 
Papists pay to the .Virgin 
Mary, and other saints and 
angels, and to the bread in the 
sacrament, the cross, relics, 
and images, affords ground 
for the Protestants to charge 
them with being idolaters, 
though they deny^that they 
are so. It is evident that 
they worship these persons 
and things, and that they jus- 
tify the worship, but deny the 
idolatry of it, by distinguish- 
ing subordinate from supreme 
worship. This distinction is 
j-astly thought by Protestants 
to be futile and nugatory, and 
certainly- has no support from 
Holy Writ. 

Under the government of 
Samuelj Saul, and David, 
there was little or no idolatry 
in Israel. Solomon was the 
first Hebrew king who built 
temples and offered incense 
to strange gods. Jeroboam, 
who succeeded him in the 
greater part of his dominions, 
ret up golden calves at Dan 
and Bethel. Under the reign 
of Ahab, this disorder was at 
its height, occasioned by Je- 
zebel, the wife of Ahab, who 
did all she could to destroy 
the worship of the true God, 
by driving away and perse- 
cuting his prophets. God, 
therefore, incensed at the sins 

and idolatry of the ten trioes, 
abandoned those tribes to the 
kings of Assyria and Chal- 
dea, who transplanted them 
beyond the Euphrates, from 
whence they never returned. 
The people of Judah were no 
less corrupted. The prophets 
give an awful description of 
their idolatrous practices. 
They were punished after the 
same manner, though not so 
severely, as the ten tribes ; 
being led into captivity seve- 
ral times, from which at last 
they returned, and were set- 
tled in the land of Judea, af- 
ter which we hear no more 
of their idolatry. They have 
been, indeed, ever since that 
period, distinguished for their 
zeal against it. 

ID-U-ME'-A, the land of 
Edom, it being the softened 
Greek pronunciation for Edom. 
This country lay to the south- 
east of Palestine, along the 
great valley which extends 
from the -'Dead Sea to the 
Elanitic or Eastern Gulf of 
the Red Sea, called toward 
the nortlT El Gkor, and to- 
ward the south ElAraba, and 
chiefly on its eastern side, 
which is rough and moun- 
tainous. This valley is 110 
miles long; and from eight to 
twelve broad. Here dwelt 
the descendants of Esau, who 
were conquered by David, 
2 Sam. viii, 14 ; but were 
first completely subdued by 
John Hyr-ca'nus, about 125 
B. C. During the Jewish 
exile, they had taken, pos- 
session of Palestine as far 
north as Hebron. So in the 




New Testament it includes 
this region also, Mark iii, 8. 
See SEIR. 

ILLYRICUM, a country 
of Europe, on the eastern 
shore of the Adriatic Gulf, or 
Gulf of Venice, north of Epi- 
rus, and west of Macedonia. 
Dalmatia formed a part of it, 
Rom. xv, 19. 

IMAGE, the representa- 
tion or figure of any thing, as 
the head of a prince on a 
coin, Matt, xxii, 20 ; a like- 
ness to any one, resemblance, 
similitude, as Christ is the 
image of the invisible God, he 
is a bright representation of 
all the perfections of the 
Deity, Col. i, 15, " Man was 
niade in the image of God," 
possessing a spiritual and an 
immortal soul, endowed with 
knowledge and liberty, and 
also resembling God in his 
moral image, righteousness, 
and true holiness. See IDOL- 

IMMORTAL. Thatwhich 
will endure to all eternity, as 
having in itself no principle 
of alteration or corruption. 
God is absolutely immortal, 
he cannot die. Angels are 
immortal ; but God, who made 
them, can terminate their be- 
ing. Man is immortal in part, 
that is, in his spirit ; but his 
body dies. Inferior creatures 
are not immortal ; they die 
wholly. Thus the principle 
of immortality is differently 
communicated, according to 
the will of Him who can ren- 
der any creature immortal by 
prolonging its life ; who can 
confer immortality on the 

body of man, together with 
his soul ; and will do so at 
the resurrection. God only is 
absolutely perfect, and there- 
fore absolutely immortal. 

IMPUTE. We often mean 
by the word, to reckon to one 
what does not properly belong 
to him, or that which is not 
personally his own. But this 
is not the sense in which it 
is used in Scripture. It sig- 
nifies to reckon to one what 
actually does belong to Mm, i. e, r 
to treat him as actually pos- 
sessing the thing or quality 
reckoned to him. " Abra- 
ham's faith was imputed to 
him for righteousness." He 
was treated on account of it 
as if he were righteous ; God 
reckoned his faith as a right- 
eous act. " Counting for 
righteousness" means to ac- 
cept and treat as righteous- 
" To impute one's own ini- 
quity to "him," 2 Cor. v, 19, .is 
to hold him accountable for it 
in respect to the demands of 
justice. " Happy the man to 
whom the Lord imputeth -not 
iniquity," i. e., one who ob- 
tains forgiveness of his sins, 
and is accepted and treated 
as if he were righteous. 

INCENSE, the odours of 
spices and gums burned in re- 
ligious rites, or as an offering 
to some deity. That which 
is ordinarily so called is a 
precious and fragrant gum, 
issuing from the frankincense 
tree. The " sweet incense," 
mentioned-Exod. xxx, 7, and 
elsewhere, was a compound 
of several^- drugs, agreeably 
to the direction in the 34th 




verse. To offer incense was 
an office peculiar to the 
priests. They went twice 
a day into the holy place; 
namely, morning and even- 
ing, to burn incense there. 
Upon the- great day of expia- 
tion, the high priest took in- 
cense, or perfume, pounded 
and ready for being put into 
the censer, and threw it upon 
the fire the moment he went 
into the sanctuary. One rea- 
son of this was, that so the 
smoke which rose from the 
censer might prevent his look- 
ing with too much curiosity 
on the ark and mercy-seat. 
G6d threatened him with 
death upon failing to perform 
this ceremony, Lev. xvi, 13. 
Generally, incense is to be 
considered as an emblem of 
the prayers of the saints, and is 
so used by the sacred writers. 
law of God condemns inchant- 
ments and inchanters. It was 
common for magicians, sor- 
cerers, and inchanters, to 
speak in a low,-to whis- 
per. They affected secrecy 
and mysterious ways, to con- 
ceal the vanity, folly, or in- 
famy of their pernicious art. 
Their pretended magic -often 
consisted in cunning tricks 
orly, in sleight of hand, or 
some natural secrets, un- 
known to the ignorant. They 
affected obscurity and night, 
or would show their skill only 
before the uninformed,or mean 
persons, and feared nothing 
so much as serious examina- 
tions, byroad day-light, and the 
inspection of the intelligent. 

Respecting the inchantments 
practised by Pharaoh's magi- 
cians, (see Exod. viii, 18, 19,) 
in order to imitate the mira- 
cles which were wrought by 
Moses, they, were mere illu- 
sions, whereby they imposed 
on the spectators. 

INDIA, Esther i, 1, is 
thought to be the modenr 
Hindostan, or that vast region 
of Asia which lies about the 
river Indus, from which it is 
supposed to have derived its 
n ame. This country was pro- 
bably settled by the immedi- 
ate descendants of Ham. 
The aboriginal inhabitants 
have lost very little of their 
primitive character, having 
but little resemblance either 
in their figure or manners to 
any of the surrounding na 

many, an estate derived from 
an ancestor ; a portion, pos- 
session; the territory assigned 
to each tribe in the promised 
land, and sometimes taken 
for the whole of Palestine. 
Hence figuratively it signifies 
admission to the kingdom of 
God and its attendant privi- 
leges, Acts xxvi, 32. " To 
inherit the earth," Matt, v, 3 ; 
to possess the. land, i. e., pri- 
marily the land of Canaan, 
spoken of the quiet occupancy 
and abode of the Israelites in 
Palestine promised of old to" 
Abraham, but understood in 
a spiritual sense of the high- 
est prosperity and happiness 
of me, Psa. xxv, 13 ; xxxvii, 
11-22, perhaps the Messiah's 




INK. The ink of the an- 
cients was not so fluid as 
ours. The most simple me- 
thod of preparation, and con- 
sequently the most ancient, 
was a mixture of charcoal, 
or soot and water, with the 
addition of a little gum. The 
custom of placing the ink- 
horn, a small portable case 
for pens and ink, by the side 
continues in the east to this 
day. Dr. Shaw informs us, 
1 that, among the Moors in Bar- 
bary, " the writers or secre- 
taries suspend their inkhorns 
in their girdles ; a custom as 
old as the Prophet Ezekiel, 
ix, 2." 

INN, a lodging place, either 
in the open air or under a 
roof ; a place where one puts 
up. The eastern inns gene- 
rally are large square build- 
ings near a fountain or well, 
in the centre of which is an 
era or open court, Jer. ix, 2. 
Most of the eastern cities 
contain -one, at least, for the 
reception of strangers. Near 
them is generally a well, and 
a cistern for the cattle ; a 
brahmin, or fakeer, often re- 
sides there to furnish the pil- 
grim with food, and the few 
necessaries he may stand in 
need of. In the deserts of 
Persia and Arabia, these 
buildings are invaluable ; in 
those pathless plains, for 
"many miles together, not a 
tree, a bush, nor even a blade 
of grass is to be seen ; all is 
one undulating mass of sand, 
like waves on the trackless 
ocean. In these ruthless 
wastes, where no rural vil- 

lage or cheerful hamlet, no 
inn or house of refreshment 
is to be found, how noble is 
the charity that rears the 
hospitable roof, that plants 
the shady grove, and conducts 
the refreshing moisture into 
reservoirs ! 

parting of such a degree of 
divine influence, as enabled 
the authors of the several 
books of Scripture to com- 
municate religious knowledge 
to others without error or 
mistake. On this subject 
there are , two opinions : 1 . 
That every thought and ivord 
were suggested to them by 
the Spirit of God ; that they 
did nothing but write as the 
Spirit dictated. 2. That the 
Spirit of God inspired the 
whole matter; but that they 
were left to express them- 
selves in their own words 
and phrases, in which they 
give a faithful account of 
what the Spirit dictated to 
them, 2 Pet. i, 21. The sub- 
lime doctrines and precepts 
which the Scriptures con- 
tain ; the harmony and con- 
nection subsisting between 
their various parts ; their ten- 
dency to promote the happi- 
ness of mankind, as evinced 
by the blessed effects which 
are invariably produced by a 
cordial belief of the doc- 
trines ; the miracles which 
they record, and the prophe- 
cies which have been fulfill-? 
ed, and are daily fulfilling, 
show them to be divinely in- 
spired, 2 Tim. iii, 16. 




dress or application, to one 
person in behalf of another. 
To intercede,, conveys the 
general sense of aiding, as- 
sisting, managing one's con- 
cerns for his advantage. 
There is one Mediator, who 
is appointed by God to make 
an atonement for the sins of 
men by his death, and who 
in consequence of that atone- 
ment is authorized to inter- 
cede with God in behalf of sin- 
ners, and empowered to con- 
vey all his blessings to them. 
In this sense, there is but one 
" Mediator between God and 
man," and he is equally re- 
lated to all. "Wherefore," 
says Macknight, " Christ's 
intercession for us is quite 
different from our interces- 
sion for one another. He in- 
tercedes, as having merited 
what he asks for us. Where- 
as we intercede for our bre- 
thren, .merely as expressing 
our good will toward them. 
And because exercises of this 
kind have a great influence 
in cherishing benevolent dis- 
positions in us, they are so 
acceptable to God, that, to 
encourage us to pray for one 
another, he hath promised to 
hear our prayers for others, 
when it is for his glory and 
their good." 

IRON, a well known and 
very serviceable metal. The 
knowledge of working it is 
very ancient, as appears from 
Genesis iv, 22, where the' 
word first occurs. We do not, 
however, find that Moses 
made use of iron in the fabric 
of the tabernacle in the wil- 

derness, or Solomon in any 
part of the temple at Jerusa- 
lem. Yet, from the manner 
in which the Jewish legisla- 
tor speaks of iron, the metal, 
it appears, must have been in 
use in Egypt before his time, 
Deut. xxviii, 23-48 ; viii, 9 ; 
iv, 20. 

ISAAC, the patriarch, son 
of Abraham and Sarah, born 
A. M. 2108. In Amos vii, 
9-16, used poetically for the 
whole nation of Israel. 

ISAIAH, the celebrated 
Hebrew prophet, who lived 
and had great influence under 
the reigns of TJzziah, Jotham, 
Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings 
of Judah, who successively 
flourished between 806 and 
694 B. C. He was contem- 
porary with the prophets, 
Amos, Hosea, Joel, and Mi- 
cah. Concerning the time 
or manner of his death no- 
thing certain is known. Of 
all the prophets, none have so 
clearly predicted the circum- 
stances relative to the advent, 
sufferings, atoning death, and 
resurrection of the Messiah, 
as Isaiah ; who has from this 
circumstance been styled the 
evangelical proph et. His pre- 
dictions yet unfulfilled of the 
ultimate triumph and exten- 
sion of the Redeemer's king- 
dom, are unrivalled for the 
splendour of their imagery, 
and the beauty and sublimity 
of their language. 

Bishop Lowth has selected 
the thirty-fourth and thirty- 
fifth chapters of this prophet, 
as a specimen of the poetic 
style in which Isaiah delivers 




his predictions, and has illus- 
trated at some length the 
various beauties which emi- 
nently distinguish the simple, 
regular, and perfect poem 
contained in those chapters. 
But the grandest specimen of 
his poetry is presented in the 
fourteenth chapter, which is 
one of the most sublime odes 
occurring in the Bible, and 
contains the noblest personi- 
fication to be found in the 
records of poetry. There is 
not a single instance in the 
whole compass of Greek and 
Roman poetry which, in every 
excellence of composition, 
can be said to equal or even 
to approach it. 

IS-C AR'I-OT, the surname 
of that disciple who betrayed 
our Saviour, Matt, x, 4. 

ISH'BOSHETH, the son 
of Saul, who for two years 
after the death of his father 
and brothers reigned over 
eleven tribes in opposition to 
David, 2 Sam. ii, 4. 

descended from Ishmael, the 
son of Abraham and Hagar, 
and living a wandering life 
as nomades at the eastward 
of Judea and of Egypt, as far 
as the Persian Gulf and As- 
syria, i. e., Babylonia, Gen. 
xxv, 18, which same limits 
are elsewhere assigned to the . 

Hebrew word which is more 
commonly translated isle, 
means strictly dry land, habit r 
able country, in opposition to 
water, or to seas and rivers, 
Gen. x, 5 ; Isa. xlii, 15, " I 

will make the rivers dry land" 
not islands, which would make 
no sense. Hence, as opposed 
to water in general, it means 
lands adjacent to water, either 
washed or surrounded by it ; 
i. e., maritime country, coast, 
island. The plural of this 
word, usually translated isl- 
ands, was employed by the 
Hebrews to denote distant 
regions beyond the sea, whether 
coasts or islands, and espe- 
cially the islands and mari- 
time countries of the west, 
Isa. xxiv, 15. 

ISRAEL, a wrestler with 
God ; a name given to Jacob 
after wrestling with the angel, 
Gen. xxxii, 24 ; but more fre- 
quently to his posterity, the 
people of Israel. , Sometimes 
it is used emphatically for the 
true Israelites ; an Israelite 
indeed, John i, 48, one who 
Is distinguished for piety and 
virtue and worthy of the name, 
Isa. xlix, 3 ; Psa. Ixxiii, 1. 
In the Old Testament, the 
kingdom of the ten tribes is 
called Israel, in opposition to 
that of Judah ; hence the 
descendants of David who 
reigned over Judah and Ben- 
jamin are called the kings of 
Judah, and those who -reigned 
over the ten tribes the kings 
of Israel ; other names for the 
ten tribes were Ephraim, as 
the name of the most power- 
ful tribe ; and Samaria, from 
the capital city, Hos. viii, 
5, 6. But, in the New Tes- 
tament, it is applied to all the 
descendants of Israel then 
remaining,, and synonymous 
after the exile with Jews, 




Matt, viii, 10, although, chief- 
ly consisting of the remains 
of Judah and Benjamin. 
Hence iu the Chronicles, the 
name Israel is sometimes 
spoken of the kingdom of 
Judah, 2 Chron. xii, 1, and 
xv 17. 

IS'SA-CHAR, the fifth son 
of Jacob and Leah, Gen. xxx, 
14-18. The tribe of Issachar 
nad its portion in one of the 
best parts of the land of Ca- 
naan, along the great plain or 
valley of Jezreel. 

ITALY, a noted country, 
shaped like a boot, in the 
south of Europe. 

ITURE'A, a region whose 
exact situation is doubtful, 
lying beyond Jordan, near the 
foot .of Mount Hermon, and 
on the eastern shore of the 
sea of Galilee, Luke 1 iii, 1. 
The Itureans were celebrated 
as skilful archers and daring 
robbers. Philip, one of the 
sons of Herod the Great, was 
tetrarch or governor of this 
country when John the Bap- 
tist commenced his ministry. 

IVORY, the substance of 
the tusk of the elephant. It 
is esteemed for its beautiful 
cream colour, the fineness of 
its grain, and the high polish 
it is capable of receiving. 
The use of ivory was well 
known in very early ages. 
We find it employed for arms, 
sceptres, and various other 
purposes ; cabinets and ward- 
robes were ornamented with 
ivory,- and it was therefore 
an article of commerce. It 
seems that Solomon had a 
throne decorated with ivory. 

" Ivory houses," Amos iii, 15, 
were palaces with walls in- 
laid, or covered with ivory. 

JAB'BOKV a small stream 
east of the Jordan, which 
takes its rise in the moun- 
tains of Gilead, and falls into 
the Jordan below -the sea of 
Tiberias, Deut. ii, 37. Near 
this brook the angel wrestled 
with Jacob. 

GII/E-AD, the name of a city 
in the half tribe of Manasseh, 
east of Jordan, at the foot of 
Mount Gilead. 

a flower of a deep purple, 
or reddish blue; in the New 
Testament, a gem of like 
colour, related to the Zircon 
of mineralogists. See PKE- 
cious STONES. 

JACOB, the youngest of 
the twin sons of Isaac, called 
also Israel; the founder of 
the Israelitish nation. " Put 
for the land of Jacob" Gen. 
xlix, 7 ; also the posterity of 
Jacob, the Jewish people, 
Rom. xi, 26 ; rarely used for 
the kingdom of Ephraim or 
the ten tribes, Micah i, .5. 

Jacob was of a meek and 
peaceable temper, and loved 
a quiet pastoral life ; where- 
as Esau was of a fierce and 
turbulent nature, and was 
fond of hunting. Isaac had a 
particular fondness for Esau ; 
but Rebekah was more attach- 
ed to Jacob. As to the pur- 
chase of the birth-right, see 

* Jacob appears to have been 
innocent so far as any guile 




on his part or real necessity 
from hunger on the part of 
Esau is involved in the ques- 
tion ; but his obtaining the 
ratification of this by the 
blessing of Isaac, though 
agreeable, indeed, to the pur- 
pose of God, that the elder 
should serve the younger, 
was blameable as to the means 

According to Dr, Hales, all 
the parties were more or less 
culpable ; Isaac, for endea- 
vouring to set aside the oracle 
which had been pronounced 
in favour of his younger son ; 
but of which he might have 
an obscure conception ; Esau, 
for wishing to deprive his bro- 
ther of the blessing which 
he had himself relinquish- 
ed ; and Rebekah and Jacob, 
for securing it by fraudulent 
means, not trusting wholly in 
the Lord. But though the in- 
tention of Rebekah and Jacob 
might have been free from 
worldly or mercenary mo- 
tives, they ought not to have 
done evil that good might 
come. And they were both 
severely punished in this life 
for their fraud, which destroy- 
ed the peace of the family, and 
planted a mortal enmity in the 
Abreast of Esau against his 
brother. " Is he not rightly 
named Jacob ?" a heel-catcher, 
a supplanter ; " for he hath 
supplanted me these two 
times : he took away my birth- 
right, and lo, now he hath 
taken away my blessing. The 
days of mourning for my fa- 
ther are at hand ; then will I 
slay my brother Jacob," Gen. 

xxvii, 36-41. Rebekah, also", 
was deprived of the society 
of her darling son, whom " she 
sent away for oae year," as 
she fondly imagined, "until 
his brother's fury should turn 
away," Gen. xxvii, 42-44 ; 
but whom she saw no more ; 
for she died during his long 
exile of twenty years, though 
Isaac survived, Gen. xxxv, 
27. Thus was "she pierced 
through with many sorrows." 
Jacob, also, had abundant rea- 
son to say, " Few and evil 
have been the days of the 
years of my pilgrimage," Gen. 
xlvii, 9. 

JAD-DU'A, a high priest 
of the Jews, who went in his 
pontifical roBes, accompanied 
by his brethren, to meet Alex- 
ander the Great, whe& he was- 
advancing toward Jerusalem 
intending to destroy it. Alex- 
ander was so struck with 
the appearance of the priest, 
that he forbore all hostilities 
against Jerusalem, prostrated 
himself before Jaddua, and 
granted many privileges to 
the Jews, about 341 B. C. 

JAH, one of the names of 
God, contracted from Jeho- 
vah, which we meet with in 
the composition of many He- 
brew words. 

JAM'BRES, a magician, 
who opposed Moses in Egypt., 

JA.MES. Two persons by 
this name are mentioned in 
the list of the apostles ; the 
first was the son of Zebedee, 
and own brother of John, 
Mark iii, 17. He was pre- 
sent at the transfiguration of 
our Lord, and was put to death 



JAP ' 

by Herod Agrippa the elder, 
about A. D. 44, Acts xii, 2. 

The other James was the 
son of Alpheus, and called 
James the Less, Mark xv, 40, 
to distinguish him from the 
other ; perhaps he was lower 
in stature. His mother was 
sister to the Virgin Mary. 
He was consequently cousin 
german to Christ, and is there- 
fore termed his brother, Gal. 
i, 19, i.e., his kinsman, or near 
relation. On account of his 
distinguished piety _ he was 
called the Just. He was 
honoured by an interview 
with Christ soon after his 
resurrection, 1 Cor. xv, 7. 
He appears to have presided 
at the council of the apostles 
which was convened in Jeru- 
salem, A. D. 49. He is said 
to have been stoned to death 
by the Jews, A. D. 62 ; and 
mot learned men agree in 
placing his epistle in the year 
61. The persons to whom 
this epistle was addressed 
were the Hebrew Christians, 
who were in danger of falling 
into the sins which abounded 
among the of that time, 

James the less was a 
person of great prudence and 
discretion, and was highly 
esteemed by the apostles and 
other Christians. Such, in- 
deed, was his general reputa- 
tion for piety and virtue, that, 
as we learn from Origen, Eu- 
sebius, and Jerome, Josephus 
declared it to be the common 
opinion, thaf the sufferings of 
the Jews, and the destruction 
of their city and temple, were 
owing to the anger of God, 

excited by the murder of 

two magicians, who resisted 
Moses in Egypt, 2 Tim. iii, 
8. As these names are not 
found in the Old Testament, 
the apostle probably derived 
them from tradition. They 
are often mentioned by Jew- 
ish writers. 

JAPHETH, the first son 
of Noah, Gen. x, 21, whose 
posterity are described occu- 
pying chiefly the western and 
northern regions, Gen.x, 2-5; 
this accords well with the 
etymology of the name, which 
signifiesiuzdeZi/ spreading; and 
how wonderfully did Provi- 
dence enlarge the boundaries 
of Japheth ! His posterity 
diverged eastward and west- 
ward ; from the original set- 
tlement in Armenia, through 
the whole extent of Asia, north 
of the great range of Taurus, 
distinguished by the general 
names of Tartaryand Siberia, 
as far as the Eastern Ocean : 
and in process of time, by an 
easy passage across Behring's 
Straits, the entire continent 
of America ; and they spread 
in ihe opposite direction, 
throughout the whole of Eu- 
rope, to the Atlantic Ocean ; 
thus literally encompassing 
the earth, within the pre- 
cincts of the northern tem- 
perate zone ; while the en- 
terprising and warlike genius 
of this hardy hunter race fre- 
quently led them to encroach 
on the settlements, and to 
dwell in " the tents of Shem," 
whose pastoral occupations 




rendered them more inactive, 
peaceable, and unwarlike. 

JASHER, upright, " book 
of Jasher" Josh, x, 3, i. e., 
the annals of the Jewish na- 
tion ; a book of national songs 
or narratives, so called, as 
containing narratives respect- 
ing men of an upright cha- 
racter. That this was a poeti- 
cal book, is apparent, both 
-from the poetical character 
of the passage here quoted, in 
which the parallelism of num- 
bers cannot be mistaken ; and 
also from the fact, that in 
2 Sam. i, 18, this same book 
is referred to, as containing 
the elegy of David over Saul 
and Jonathan. In all proba- 
bility, it was a collection 
formed by degrees of poems 
in praise of theocratic heroes ; 
for the same in the original is 
elsewhere employed to desig- 
nate the true supporters of 
the theocracy. 

JASPER, a precious stone 
of various colours, as brown, 
red, blue, green, which oc- 
curs abundantly in the deserts 
of Egypt ; the colour is pretty 
deep, but the lustre is incon- 
siderable ; and when stripes 
of green, yellow, and red oc- 
cur on the same gem, it is 
called striked jasper ; mostly 
employed in the formation of 
seals, and when well polish- 
ed is a very beautiful stone. 

JA'VAN, was the fourth 
son of Japheth, and the father 
of all those nations which 
were included", under the 
name of Grecians, or lonians, 
as they were invariably called 

in the east. Javan is the 
name used in the Old Testa- 
ment for Greece and the 

JAVELIN, a kind of long 
dart, or.light spear, thrown as 
a missile weapon at the enemy. 

JEALOUSY, suspicions 
of infidelity, especially as 
applied to the marriage state. 
God's jealousy signifies his 
concern for his own character 
and government, with a holy 
indignation against those who 
violate his laws and offend 
against his majesty. "Whose 
name is jealous," Exod.xxxiv, 
14 ; he is impatient of a rival, 
and the severe avenger of 
defection from himself. And 
the word is frequently used 
to express the vindictive acts- 
of dishonoured love, Psa. 
Ixxix, 5, " To provoke to jea- 
lousy or emulation," Rom. xi, 
11-14, i. e., cause one to set 
a right value upon his privi- 
leges, by bestowing like pri- 
vileges on others ; also, to 
provoke God to jealousy or 
anger, by rendering to idols 
the homage due to him alone, 
1 Cor. x, 22. 

, JEBUS, the ancient name 
of Jerusalem among the Ca 
naanites, Judg. xix, 10. 

JEBUSITES, a Canaan 
itish tribe, who inhabited Je- 
rusalem and the neighbouring 
mountains ; they were sub- 
dued by -David, but still ex- 
isted in the time of Ezra, 
Ezra ix, 1; put for the city 
itself, Josh, xv, 8 ;, also poeti 
cally in later times for the in 
habitants of Jerusalem, 2ech. 
ix, 7. 




JED'U-THUN, a Lewte 
of Merari's family, and ; one 
of the four great masters of 
music belonging to the temple. 
The name is also put for his 
descendants, the Jeduthanites, 
who also were musicians, and 
is found in the title of several 
psalms, 2 .Chron. xxxv, 15. 

king of Judah, 914-889 B.C., 
son of Asa, 1 Kings xxii, 41 ; 
from him the valley between 
Jerusalem and the Mount of 
Olives received its name, 
Joel iii, 2-12. This valley, 
running from north to south, 
is deep and narrow ; through 
the middle of it flows the 
Kedron, which is dry during 
the greatest part of the year. 

JEHOVAH, the name of 
the Supreme Being among the 
Hebrews ; it is derived from 
a word which signifies to be, 
to exist; and is designed to 
express J.he real existence of 
the one true God, in opposi- 
tion to the false deities ; the 
eternal, immutable, who will 
never be other than the same. 
The later Hebrews, from 
several centuries before the 
Christian era, either misled 
by a false interpretation of 
certain laws, Exod. xx, 7 ; 
Lev. xxiv, 11-16, or follow- 
ing out some ancient super- 
stition, regarded this name 
as too sacred to be uttered, 
as the ineffable name which 
they scrupled even to pro- 

JEHU, a king of Israel, 
who destroyed the family of 
AKab, 884-856 B. C, He 
was hostile to idolatry, but 

of great cruelty, 2 Kings ix, 

rek,) The Lord will provide; 
a name which Abraham gave 
to the place where he had 
been on the point of slaying 
his son, and in allusion to his 
answer of Isaac's question, 
Gen. xxii, 14 ; see verse 8. 

JEPHTHAH, a judge of 
the Israelites, celebrated for 
the rash vow which he made 
respecting his daughter, Judg. 
xi. In verse 31st, it is said, 
" Then it shall be that what- 
soever cometh forth of the 
doors of my house to meet 
me, when I return in peace 
from the children of Ammon, 
shall surely be the Lord's; 
and I will oiFer it up for a 
burnt-offering." Dr. Clark 
says this passage may be 
translated according .to the 
most accurate Hebrew scho- 
lars thus : / will consecrate it 
to the Lord, or I will offer it 
for a burnt-offering, i. e., if it 
be a thing fit for a burnt-offer- 
ing, it shall be made one ; if 
fit for the service of God, it 
shall be consecrated to him; 
That conditions of this kind 
must have been implied in 
the vow is evident enough ; 
to have been made without 
them, it must have been the 
vow of a heathen or a mad 
man. If a dog had met him, 
this could not have been made 
a burnt-offering ; and if his 
neighbour or friend's wife, 
son, or daughter, had been 
returning from a visit to "his 
family, his vow gave him no 
right over them. From verse 




39th, it appears evident that 
Jephtha's daughter was not 
sacrificed to God, but conse- 
crated to him in a state of per- 
petual virginity ; for the text 
says she knew no man, for this 
was a statute in Israel ; viz. 
that persons Jhus dedicated, 
or consecrated to God, should 
live in a state of unchangea- 
ble celibacy. On this point, 
the remarks of Dr. Hales are 
of great weight. 

That Jephthah could not 
possibly have sacrificed his 
daughter, according to the 
vulgar opinion, founded on 
incorrect translation, may ap- 
pear from the following con- 
siderations : 1. The sacrifice 
of children to Moloch was an 
abomination to the Lord, of 
which in numberless passa- 
ges, he expresses his detesta- 
tion ; and it was prohibited 
by an express law, under pain 
of death, as " a defilement of 
God's sanctuary, and a pro- 
fanation of his holy name," 
Lev. xx, 2, 3. Such a sacri- 
fice, therefore, unto the Lord 
himself, must be a still higher 
abomination. And there is 
no precedent of any such un- 
der the law in the Old Testa- 
ment. 2. The case of Isaac, 
before the law, is irrelevant ; 
for Isaac was not sacrificed ; 
and it was only proposed for 
a trial of Abraham's faith. 
3. No father, merely by his 
own authority, could put an 
offending, much less an inno- 
cent child to death, upon any 
account, without the sentence 
of the magistrates, Deut. xxi, 
18-21, and the consent of the 

people, as in Jonathan's case 
4. The Mishna, or tradition- 
al law of the Jews, is point- 
edly against it : " If a Jew 
should devote his son or 
daughter, . his man or maid 
servant, who are Hebrews, 
the devotement would be 
void ; because no man can 
devote -what is not his own, 
or of whose life he has not 
the absolute disposal." 

These arguments appear to 
be decisive against the sacri- 
fice ; and that Jephthah could 
not even have devoted his 
daughter to celibacy against 
her will, is evident from the 
history, and from the high 
estimation in which she was 
always held by the daughters 
of Israel, for her filial duty, 
and her hapless fate, which 
they celebrated by a regular 
anniversary commemoration 
four days in the year, Judges 
xi, 40. We may, however, 
remark, that, if it could be 
more clearly established that 
Jephthah actually immolated 
his daughter, there is not the 
least evidence that his con- 
duct was sanctioned by God. 
Jephthah was manifestly a 
superstitious and ill-instruct- 
ed man ; and, like Samson, 
an instrument of God's power, 
rather than an example of his 

JEREMI'AH, a celebra- 
ted prophet, of the sacerdotal 
race, being one of the priests 
that dwelt at Anathoth, about 
three miles north of Jerusa- 
lem. Jeremiah appears to 
have been very young when 
he was called to i-he exercise 




of the prophetical office, from 
which he modestly endea- 
voured to excuse himself by 
pleading his youth and inca- 
pacity ; but being overruled 
by the Divine authority, he 
set himself to discharge the 
duties of his function with 
unremitted diligence and fi- 
delity, during a period of at 
least forty-two years, reckon- 
ed from the thirteenth year 
of Josiah's reign. He was a 
man of unblemished piety 
and conscientious integrity ; 
a warm lover of his country, 
whose misery he pathetically 
deplores ; and so affection- 
ately attached to his country- 
men, notwithstanding their 
injurious treatment of him, 
that he chose rather to abide 
with ithem, arid undergo all 
hardships in their company, 
than separately to enjoy a 
state of ease and plenty, 
which the favour of the . king 
of Babylon would have se- 
cured to him. 

The idolatrous apostacy, 
and other criminal enormities 
of the people of Judah, and 
the severe judgments which 
God was prepared to , inflict 
upon them, but not without a 
distant prospect of future re- 
storation and deliverance, are 
the principal subject matters 
of the prophecies of Jeremiah; 
excepting only the forty-fifth 
chapter, which relates per- 
sonally to Ba'ruch, and the six 
succeeding chapters, which 
respect the fortunes of Some 
particular heathen nations. 

As to the style of Jeremiah, 
says Bishop Lowth, this pro- 

phet is by no means wanting 
either in elegance or sublim- 
ity, although, generally speak- 
ing, inferior to Isaiah in both. 

Jeremiah survived to be- 
hold the sad accomplishment 
of his darkest predictions. 
He witnessed all the horrors 
of the famine, and, when that 
had done its work, the triumph 
of the enemy. He saw the 
strong holds of the city cast 
down, the palace of Solomon, 
the temple of God, with all its 
courts, its roofs of cedar and 
of gold, levelled to the earth, 
or committed to the flames ; 
the sacred vessels, the ark of 
the covenant itself, with the 
cherubim, pillaged by profane 
hands. 'XVhat were the feel- 
ings of a patriotic and reli- 
gious Jew at this tremendous 
crisis, he has left on record 
in his unrivalled elegies. See 
Lamentations. He followed 
the remnant of the Jews on 
their retiring into Egypt, 
where he is said to have 
been put to death by his pro- 
fligate countrymen, 583 B. C. 

JERICHO, -a celebrated 
city in the tribe of Benjamin, 
about twenty miles E. N. E. 
fronrJerusalem, and five from 
the Jordan, situated at the 
foot of the mountains which 
border the valley of the Jor- 
dan and the Dead Sea. It 
was destroyed by Joshua, 
Josh, vi, 26 ; but was after- 
ward rebuilt, 1 Kings xvi, 34, 
and became the seat of the 
schools of the prophets. The 
land around Jericho Was ex- 
ceedingly fertile, abounding 
in palm trees and roses; 




hence called the city of palm 
trees, Deut. xxxiv, 3. Its site 
is now occupied by an incon- 
siderable village called jRtc/ia, 
consisting of fifty or sixty 
miserable Arab houses. The 
road from this place to Jeru- 
salem is through a series of 
rocky defiles, and the sur- 
rounding scenery is of the 
most gloomy and forbidding 
aspect. The whole road being 
infested with robbers, is held 
to be the most dangerous in 
Palestine ; this circumstance 
marks the admirable propriety 
with which our Lord made 
it the scene of his beautiful 
parable of the good Samari- 
tan, Luke x, 30, 31. 

JER-O-BO'A'M, the son 
of Ne'bat and Ze-ru'ah, was 
born at Ze^e-da, in the tribe 
of Ephraim, 1 Kings xi, 26. 
He. is the subject of frequent 
mention in Scripture, as hav- 
ing been the cause of the ten 
tribes revolting from the do- 
minion of Re-ho-bo'am, and 
also of his having " made 
Israel to sin," by instituting 
the idolatrous worship of the 
golden calves at Dan and 
Bethel, 1 Kings xii, 26-33. 
He seems to have been a 
bold, unprincipled, and enter- 
prising man, with much of the 
address of a deep politician 
about him. He reigned 975- 
954 B. C. 

2. JEROBOAM, the second 
of that name, was the son of 
Jehoash, king of Israel. He 
succeeded to his father's royal 
dignity, 825 B. C., and reign- 
ed forty-one years. Though 
much addicted to the idola- 

trous practices of the son of 
Ne'bat,. yet the Lord was 
pleased so far to prosper his 
reign, that by his means, ac- 
cording to the predictions of 
the Prophet Jonah, the king- 
dom of the ten tribes was 
restored from a state of great 
decay, into which it had fallen, 
and was even raised to a pitch 
of extraordinary splendour. 
The Prophets Amos and 
Hosea, as well as Jonah, 
lived during this reign. 

JERUSALEM, dwelling 
of peace. This celebrated 
city, the capital of Palestine, 
was the seat of true religion 
under the Jewish theocracy, 
and also the chief scene of 
our Saviour's ministry, and 
the central point from which 
his Gospel was promulgated. 
Hence it is often called the 
Holy City ; and even among 
the Arabs of the present day, 
its current name is El Kods, 
The Holy. It is situ ated near 
the middle of Palestine.among 
the mountains, nearly forty 
miles distant from the Medi- 
terranean, and some twenty- 
five from the Jordan and Dead 
Sea, (in lat. 31 50' N.) It 
lay on the confines of Judah 
and Benjamin, mostly within 
the limits of the latter; but 
was reckoned to tie former. 
Its most ancient name was 
Salem, Gen. xiv, 18 ; Psa. 
Ixxiii, 3 ; then Jebus, as be- 
longing to the Jebusites. 
David first reduced it, 2 Sam. 
v, 6-9, and made it the capi- 
tal of his kingdom; whence 
it is also called the city of 
David. It was destroyed by 




the Chaldeans, 2 Kings xxiv, 
25, but rebuilt by the Jews 
on their retuin from exile ; 
and at a later period Herod 
the Great expended large 
sums in its embellishment. 

The city was built chiefly 
on three hills : Sion on the 
south, which was the highest, 
and contained the citadel, the 
palace, and the upper city, 
called by Josephus the upper 
marketplace; Moriah, on which 
the temple stood, a lower hill 
on the north-east quarter of 
Sion, and separated from it 
by a ravine ; Acra, lying north 
of Sion, and covered by the 
lower town ; the most consi- 
derable portion of the whole 
city. Jerusalem was bounded 
on three sides by valleys, the 
valley of Jehoshaphat on the 
east, Hinnom on the - south, 
and the Gihon or Raphaim 
on the west. Those on the 
east and south are very deep ; 
on the north side there was a 
steep declivity. 

After the destruction of 
Jerusalem by the Romans, 
about A. D. 70, they endea- 
voured to -root out its very 
name and nature as a sacred 
place, from the hearts and 
memories of the Jewish na- 
tion. In A. D. 136, the Em- 
peror Adrian caused all the 
remaining buildings to be de- 
molished, and erected a new 
city, which he called Aelia 
Capitolina ; and it was only 
in the beginning of the fourth 
century,after Cpnstantine had 
embraced Christianity, that 
the name Jerusalem was again 
restored. This city once had 

the population of a million . 
but it does not now. exceed 
fifteen thousand. It occupies 
an irregular square, of about 
two miles and a half in cir- 
cumference. In the time of 
Christ, about four miles and 
an eighth. It may be roughly 
stated to be about a mile in 
length and a half a mile in 
breadth. The plan of Jeru- 
salem, which we have placed 
opposite, is that given by Dr. 
Jowett, who published Re- 
searches in the Holy Land, 
in 1823-4, and who had an 
ample opportunity for testing 
its correctness. The neigh- 
bouring country is destitute of 
attraction, and desolate, be- 
ing girded all round by naked 
blue rocks and cliffs, without 
water, without level ground, 
without any of the common 
recommendations of a coun- 
try. The name is used me- 
taphorically for the Jewish 
Church, i. e., the former or 
Mosaic dispensation, Gal. iv, 
25 ; also the latter or Chris- 
tian dispensation; the Re- 
deemer's kingdom, of which 
the spiritual or New Jerusa- 
lem is the seat, Gal. iv, 26. 

JESH-U'RUN, a poetical 
name given to the collective 
body of Israelites, apparently 
expressive of affection and 

JESSE, the father of King 
David, who was a shepherd 
of Bethlehem, and of humble*- 
birth ; hence David was often 
called by his enemies in con- 
tempt 5071 of Jesse, 1 Sam. 
xx, 27. Stem of Jesse is put 
poetically for the family of 




David ; and root of Jesse, 
i. e., a sprout or shoot from 
the root, for the Messiah, Isa. 
xi, 1-10. 

JESUS, the same with the 
Hebrew ( word Joshua, which 
signifies Jehovah his help ; or, 
according to Gesenius, whose 
help is Jehovah. The name 
of three persons in the New 

1. Christ, the Saviour of the 
world. See below. 

2. Joshua, the successor of 
Moses, and leader of Israel, 
Acts vii, 45 ; Heb. iv, 8. 

3. Jesus, sumamed Justus, 
a fellow-labourer with St. 
Paul, Col. iv, 11. 

On our Lord's character as 
a teacher, many striking and 
just remarks have been made 
by different writers, not ex- 
cepting infidels, who have 
been carried into admiration 
by the overwhelming force of 

" When our Lord is con- 
sidered as a teacher, we find 
him delivering the most sub- 
lime truths with respect to 
the Divine nature, the duties 
of mankind, and a future state 
of existence ; agreeable in 
every particular to the wisest 
maxims, showing that he lived 
and died for the most import- 
ant purposes conceivable. 
He makes no display of the 
high truths which he utters ; 
but speaks of them with a 
wonderful simplicity and ma- 
jesty. He revives the moral 
law, carries it to perfection, 
and enforces it by peculiar 
motives. All his precepts, 
when rightly explained, are 

reasonable in themselves'and 
useful in their tendency. 

" If from the matter of his 
instructions we pass on to the 
manner in which they were 
delivered, we find our Lord 
usually speaking as an autho- 
ritative teacher. He is often 
sublime ; and the beauties in- 
terspersed throughout his dis- 
. courses are equally natural 
and striking. He is remark- 
able for an easy manner. of 
introducing the best lessons 
from incidental objects and 
occasions. Difficult situa- 
tions, and sudden questions 
of the most artful kind, serve 
only to display his superior 
wisdom, and to confound his 
adversaries. Instead of show- 
ing his boundless knowledge 
on every occasion, he re- 
strains it, and prefers utility 
to the glare of ostentation. 

" He sets an example of the 
most perfect piety to God, 
and of the most extensive 
benevolence and the most 
tender compassion to men. 
His fortitude is exemplar}', in 
enduring the most formidable 
evils and sufferings : his- pa- 
tience is invincible ; his re- 
signation entire. Truth and 
sincerity shine throughout his 
whole conduct. He shows 
obedience to his parents ; he 
respects authority, religious 
and civil ; and he evidences 
his regard for his country. 
Never was a character at the 
same time so commanding, 
resplendent, pleasing, and 
venerable. There is a pecu- 
liar contrast in it between an 
awful greatness, and the most 




conciiiatingloveliness. There 
is something so extraordinary, 
so perfect, and so godlike in 
it, that it could not have been 
thus supported throughout by 
the utmost stretch of human 
art, much less by men con- 
fessedly unlearned " and ob- 
scure." We may add, that 
such a character must .also 
have been divine. His vir- 
tues are human in their class 
and kind, so that he was our 
" example ;" but they were 
sustained and heightened by 
that divinity which was im- 
personated in him, and from 
which they derived their in- 
tense and full perfection. 

A great deal has been 
written concerning the form, 
beauty, and stature of Jesus 
Christ. Some have asserted, 
that he was in person the 
noblest of all the sons of men. 
The truth probably is, that all 
which was majestic and at- 
tractive in the person of our 
Lord, was in the expression. 
of the countenance, the full 
influenceP^B^rhich Was dis- 
played chiefly in his confi- 
dential intercourse with his 
disciples': while his general 
appearance presented no 
striking peculiarity to the 
common observer. 

JEWEL. This word does 
not in Scripture mean a pre- 
cious stone; but a peculiar 
property or treasure, or what- 
ever may be stored up, in conr 
sequence of its superior esti- 

JEWS,' a name originally 
to the descendants of 

fudah, which soon included 

under it the Benjamites. Af- 
ter the Babylonish captivity, 
the term Jews was extended 
to all the descendants of Is- 
rael who retained the Jewish 
religion, whether they belong- 
ed to the two or to the ten 
tribes, whether they returned 
into Judea or not. The his- 
tory of this singular people is 
recorded in the sacred books 
of the Old Testament; it will 
therefore be more useful to 
fill up the chasm between the 
close of the historical books 
there contained and the com- 
ing of our Lord by the fol- 
lowing history. v 
When the kingdom of Ju- 
dah had been seventy years 
in captivity, and the period 
of their affliction was com- 
pleted, Gyms (536 B. C.) 
issued a decree, permitting all 
the Jews to return to their 
own land, and to rebuild their 
temple at Jerusalem. Though 
the decree issued by Cyrus 
was general, a part only of 
the nation took advantage of 
it. The number of persons 
who returned at this time 
was forty-two thousand three 
hundred and sixty, and seven 
thousand three hundred and 
thirty-seven servants. They 
were conducted by Ze-rub'ba- 
bel and Joshua. Darius, the 
successor of Cyrus, confirmed 
this decree, and favoured the 
re-establishment of the peo- 
ple. But it was in the reign 
of Artaxerxes that Ezra ob- 
tained his commission, and 
was made governor of the 
Jews in their own land, which 
government he held thirteen 




years : then Nehemiah -was 
appointed with fresh powers, 
probably through the interest 
of Queen Esther; and Ezra 
applied himself solely to cor- 
recting the canon of the Scrip- 
tures, and restoring and pro- 
viding for the continuance of 
the worship of God in its ori- 
ginal purity. The first care 
of the Jews, after their arri- 
val in Judea, was to build an 
altar for burnt-offerings to 
God ; they then collected 
materials for rebuilding the 
temple ; and in the beginning 
of the second year after their 
return,, they began to build it 
upon the old foundations. 
The Samaritans did all in 
their power to- impede the 
work. The temple, after a 
variety of obstructions and 
delays, was finished and de- 
dicated, in the seventh year 
of King Darius, 515 B. C., 
and twenty years after it was 
begun. Though this second 
temple, or, as it is sometimes 
called, the temple of Zerub- 
babel, who was at that time 
governor of the Jews, was of 
the same size and dimensions 
as the first, or Solomon's 
temple, yet it was very in- 
ferior to it in splendour and 
magnificence ; and the. ark of 
the covenant, the shechinah, 
the holy fire upon the altar,, 
the urim and tnummim, and 
the spirit of prophecy, were 
all wanting. At the feast of 
the dedication, offerings were 
made for the twelve tribes of 
Israel, which seems to indi- 
cate that some of all the tribes 
returned from captivity : but 

by far the greater number 
were of the tribe of Judah, 
and therefore from this period 
the Israelites were generally 
called Jews, and their coun- 
try Judea. 

The Scriptural history ends 
at this perid, 430 B. C., and 
we must have recourse to un- 
inspired writings, principally 
to the books of the Macca- 
bees, and to Josephus, for the 
remaining particulars of the 
Jewish history, to the de- 
struction of Jerusalem by the 
Romans. Judea continued 
subject to the kings of Persia 
about two hundred years ; but 
it does not,appear that it had 
a separate governor after Ne- 
hemiah. From this time it 
was included in the jurisdic- 
tion of the governor of Syria, 
and under him the high priest 
had the chief authority . Alex- 
ander entered Palestine 328 
B. C., showed respect to the 
Jewish high priest, Jaddu'a, 
and granted the Jews an ex- 
emption from tribute every 
sabbatioal year-g$& JADDUA. 

After the death of Alex- 
ander, 323 B. C., Ptol'e-my 
So'ter, son of Lagus, king of 
Egypt, made himself master 
of Judea by a stratagem. : he 
entered Jerusalem on a Sab- 
bath day, under pretence of 
offering sacrifice, and took 
possession of the city with,- 
out resistance from the Jews, 
who did not on this occasion 
dare to transgress their law 
by fighting on a Sabbath day. 

After the Jewish nation had 
been tributary to the kings 
of. Egypt for about a hundred 




years, it became subject to 
the kings of Syria. They 
divided the land, which now 
began to be called Palestine, 
into five provinces, three of 
which were on the west side 
of the Jordan, namely, Gali- 
lee, Samaria, and Judea, and 
two on the east side, namely, 
Trach-o-ni'tis and Pe-rae'a ; 
but they suffered them to be 
governed by their own laws, 
under the high priest and 
council of the nation. In 
the series of wars which took 
place between the kings of 
Syria and Egypt, Judea, be- 
ing situated between those 
two countries, was, in a 
greater or less degree, affect- 
ed by all the revolutions which 
they experienced, and was 
frequently the scene of bloody 
and destructive battles. The 
evils to which the Jews were 
exposed from these foreign 
powers, were considerably 
aggravated by the corruption 
and misconduct of their own 
high priests, and other per- 
sons of distinction among 
them. To this corruption 
and misconduct, and to the 
increasing wickedness of the 
people, their sufferings ought 
indeed to be attributed, ac- 
cording to the express decla- 
rations of God by the mouth 
of his prophets. An-ti'o-chus 
E-piph'a-nes took the city, 
170 B. C., plundered the 
temple, and slew or enslaved 
great numbers of the inhabit- 
ants, with every circumstance 
of profanation and of cruelty 
which can be conceived. For 
three years and a half, the 

time predicted by Daniel, the 
daily sacrifice was taken 
away, the temple defiled and 
partly destroyed, the observ- 
ance of the law prohibited 
under the most severe penal- 
ties, every copy burned which 
the agents of the tyrant could 
procure, and the people re- 
quired to sacrifice to idols, 
under pain of the most ago- 
nizing death. At length the 
moment .of deliverance ar- 
rived. Matt athias, a priest, 
167 B. C., eminent for his 
piety and resolution, and the 
father of five sons, equally 
zealous for their- religion, en- 
couraged the people by his 
example and exhortations, 
" to stand up for the law ;" 
but being very old when lie 
engaged in this important "and 
arduous work, he did not live 
to see its completion. At his 
death, his son, Judas Macca 
basus, succeeded to the com- 
mand of the army ; and hay- 
ing defeated the Syrians in 
several engagements, he drove 
them out of Judea, and esta- 
blished his own authority in 
the country ; and from that 
time the Maccabsean princes 
continued to be high priests. 
Aristobulus was the first of 
the Maccabees who assumed 
the name of king. About forty- 
two years after, a contest 
arising between the two bro- 
thers, Hyr-ca'nus and Aristo- 
bulus, the sons of Alexander 
Jaddasus, relative to the suc- 
cession of the crown, both 
parties applied to the Romans 
for their support, 63 B. C. 
Pompey considered this as 




a favourable opportunity for 
reducing Palestine under the 
power of the Romans ; and 
therefore, without deciding 
the points in dispute, marched 
his arrny into Judea, and be- 
sieged and took possession 
of Jerusalem. He appointed 
Hyrcanus high priest, but 
would not allow him to take 
the title of king. Several 
years after, An-tig'o-nus, the 
son of Aristobulus, with the 
assistance of the Partisans, 
while the empire of Rome 
was in an unsettled state, 
deposed his uncle Hyrcanus, 
41 B. C., seized the govern- 
ment, and assumed the title 
of king. 

Herod, by birth,an Id-u-me'- 
an, but of the Jewish religion, 
immediately set out for Rome, 
and prevailed upon the se- 
nate to appoint him king of 
Judea. Armed with this au- 
thority, he returned, and be- 
gan hostilities against Anti- 
gonus. About three years 
after, he took Jerusalem, and 
put an end to the government 
of the Maccabees or Asmo- 
nseans, after it had lasted 
nearty a hundred and thirty 
years. Herod considerably 
enlarged the kingdom of Ju- 
dea, though it continued tri- 
butary to the Romans. He 
repaired the temple of Jeru- 
salem at a vast expense, and 
added greatly to its magni- 

At this time there was a 
confident expectation of the 
Messiah among' the Jews ; 
and indeed, a general idea 
prevailed among the heathen, 

also, that some extraordinary 
conqueror or deliverer would 
soon appear in Judea. In the 
thirty-sixth year of the reign, 
of Herod, while Augustus was 
emperor of Rome, the Saviour 
of mankind was born, accord- 
ing to the word of prophecy. 
Herod, misled by the opinion, 
which was then common 
among the Jews, that the 
Messiah was to appear as a 
temporal prince, and judging 
from the inquiries of the wise 
men of the east; that the child 
was actually born, sent to 
Bethlehem, and ordered that 
all the children of two years 
old and under should be put' 
to death, with the hope of 
destroying one whom he con- 
sidered as the rival of him- 
self, or at least of his family. 
He was soon after smitten 
with a most loathsome and 
tormenting disease, and died, 
a signal example of divine 
justice, about a year and a 
quarter after the birth of our 
Saviour, and in the thirty- 
seventh year of his reign, 
computing from the time he 
was declared king by the 
Romans. See HEROD. 

After the banishment of 
Archelaus, Augustus sent 
Publius Sulpitius Qui-ri'nus, 
who, according to the Greek 
way of writing that name, is 
by St. Luke called Cyrenius, 
president of Syria, to reduce 
the countries over which Ar- 
chelaus had reigned, to the 
form of a Roman province. 
The power of life and death 
was now taken out of the 
hands of the Jews, and taxes 




were from this time paid im- 
mediately to the Roman em- 
peror. Justice was adminis- 
tered in the name and by the 
laws of Ilome : and it may 
be remarked that, at this very 
period of time, our Saviour, 
who was now in the twelfth 
year of his age, being at Jeru- 
salem with Joseph and Mary 
upon occasion of thepassover, 
appeared first in the temple 
in his prophetic office, and in 
the business of his Father, 
on which he was sent, sitting 
among the doctors of the tem- 
ple, and declaring the truth of 
God to them. After Co-po'ni- 
us, Ambivius, Annius Rufus, 
Valerius Gratus, and Pontius 
Pilate, were successively pro- 
curators ; and this was the 
species of government to 
which Judea and Samaria 
were subject during the mi- 
nistry of our Saviour. Herod 
Antipas was still tetrarch of 
Galilee, and it was he to 
whom our Saviour was sent 
by Pontius Pilate. 

Several of the Roman go- 
vernors severely oppressed 
and persecuted the Jews ; and 
at length, in the reign of Ne- 
ro, and in the government of 
Florus, who had treated them 
with greater cruelty than any 
of his predecessors, they open- 
ly revolted from the Romans. 
Then began the Jewish war, 
which was terminated, after 
an obstinate defence, and un- 
paralleled sufferings on the 
part of the Jews, by the total 
destruction of the city and 
temple of Jerusalem, by the 
overthrow of their civil and 

religious polity, and the re- 
duction of the people to a 
state of the most abject sla- 
very. Since that time the 
Jews have nowhere subsisted 
as a nation. 

JEWS, Calamities of the. 
All history cannot furnish us 
with a parallel to the calami- 
ties and miseries of the Jews : 
rapine and murder, famine 
and pestilence, within ; fire 
and sword, and all the terrors 
of war, without. Our Saviour 
wept at the foresight of these 
calamities ; and it is almost 
impossible for persons of an3 - 
humanity to read the account 
without being^ affected. The 
predictions concerning them 
were remarkable, and the ca- 
lamities that came upon them 
were the greatest the world 
ever saw. . See Deut. xxviii, 
xxix ; Matt, xxiv." Now, what 
heinous sin was it that could 
be the cause of such heavy 
judgments? Can any other 
be assigned than that which 
the Scripture assigns, "They 
both killed the Lord Jesus 
and their own prophets, and 
persecuted the apostles," 
1 Thess. ii, 15 ; and so filled 
up their sins, and wrath came 
upon them to the utmost? It 
is hardly possible to consider 
the nature and extent of their 
sufferings, and not conclude 
their own imprecation to be 
singularly fulfilled upon them : 
" His blood be on us, and on 
our children," Matt, xxvii, 25. 
The "Romans, under Ves-pa'- 
si-an, invaded the country, 
and took the cities of Galilee, 
Cho-ra'zin, Beth-sai'da, Ca- 




Eer'na-um, &c., where Christ 
ad been especially rejected, 
and murdered numbers of the 
inhabitants. At Jerusalem 
the scene was most wretched 
of all. At the passover, when 
there might have been two or 
three millions of people in the 
city, the Romans surrounded 
it with troops, trenches, and 
walls, that none might escape. 
The three different factions 
within murdered one another. 
Titus did all in his power to 
persuade them to an advan- 
tageous surrender, but they 
scorned every proposal. The 
multitudes of unburied car- 
casses corrupted the air, and 
produced a pestilence. The 
people fed on one another ; 
and even ladies, it is said, 
boiled their suckling infants, 
and ate them. After a siege 
of six months, the city was 
taken. They murdered al- 
most every Jew they met 
with. Titus was bent to save 
the temple, but could not : six 
thousand Jews who had taken 
/ shelter in it were all burned 
or murdered. The outcries 
of the Jews, when they saw 
it, were most dreadful : the 
whole city, except three tow- 
ers, and a small part of the 
wall , was razed to the ground, 
and the foundations of the 
temple and other places were 
ploughed up. At Jerusalem 
alone, it is said, one million 
one hundred thousand perish- 
ed by sword, famine, and pes- 

The long protracted exist- 
ence of the Jews as a separate 
people, is not only a standing 

evidence of the truth of the 
Bible, but is of that kind 
which defies hesitation, imi- 
tation, or parallel. Were;this 
people totally extinct, some 
might affect to say, that they 
never had existed ; or, that if 
they had existed, they never 
practised such rites as were 
imputed to them ; or, that they 
were not a numerous people, 
but merely a small tribe of 
ignorant and unsettled Arabs. 
The care with which the Jews 
preserve their sacred books, 
and the conformity of those 
preserved in the east with 
those of the west, as lately 
attested, is a satisfactory ar- 
gument in favour of the genu- 
ineness of both ; and farther, 
the dispersion of the nation 
has proved the security of 
these documents; as it has 
not been in the power of any 
one enemy, however potent, 
to destroy the entire series, 
or to consign the whole to 
oblivion. Watson. 

JEZEBEL, the modern 
Isabella; the impious and 
idolatrous queen of Ahab 
king of Israel, infamous for 
her cruel persecution of the 
prophets, 1 Kings xviii, 4 ; 
put in the New Testament 
as an emblem of false and 
idolatrous teachers, Rev. ii, 

JEZREEL, a city in the 
tribe of Issachar ; the royal 
residence of Ahab and his suc- 
cessors. Whence the blood 
of Jezreel, Hos. i, 4, is the 
blood shed there by the sons 
of Ahab and Jehu. Near. the 
city was the great valley or 




plain of Jezreel, afterward 
called, according to the Greek 

f enunciation of the word, 
sdrelon. This plain ex- 
pands itself between the Jor- 
dan and Mount Carmel, com- 
puted by Dr. Jpwett to be 
about fifteen miles square, 
making allowances for irre- 
gularities, and for its running 
out on the west toward Mount 
Carmel, and on the east to- 
ward the Jordan. Although 
it bears the name of plain, 
yet it abounds with hills, 
which in viewing it from the 
adjacent mountains sink in- 
to nothing; there are also 
many springs in this plain, and 
also brooks, which flow down 
into the Kishpn from the 
mountains. It is now almost 
desolate ; although exceed- 
ingly fertile, and capable of 
supporting many thousands 
of inhabitants ; a place well 
adapted to battles, and has 
been the scene of many con- 
flicts, and is still a favourite 
field among the Arabs in their 
frays. - Here Barak, descend- 
ing with his ten thousand 
men from Mount Tabor, de- 
feated Sisera, with his " nine 
hundred chariots of iron," 
Judges iv. Here Jpsiah, king 
of Judah, fell, fighting against 
Necho,king of Egypt, 2 Kings 
xxiii, 29. And here the Mi- 
dianites and the Amalekites, 
who were " like grasshop- 
pers for multitude, and their 
camels without number as 
the sand of the sea," encamp- 
ed, when they were defeated 
by Gideon, Judges vi. The 
river Kishon flows through it. 

JOAB, David's chief mili- 
tary officer, and son of his 
sister Zerui'ah ; one of the 
greatest and most valiant gen- 
erals of his time, but also 
the most cruel, revengeful, 
and imperious of men. See 
1 Kings ii, 28-34. 

JOASH, the king of Israel, 
who went to visit Elisha on 
his death-bed, and wept over 
the dying prophet, saying, 
" O my father, my father, 
the chariot of Israel, and the 
horsemen thereof," 2 Kings 
xiii, 14 ; i. e., thou art to Is- 
rael better than all its horses 
and chariots for defence and 
protection; a sentiment which 
conveys the highest idea of 
his respect and estimation of 
Elisha. ' 

JO-AN'NA, the wife of 
Chuza, Herod's steward, was 
one of those women who, 
having been cured by our 
Saviour, followed him as dis- 
ciples, and ministered to his 
necessities, Luke viii, 3. 

JOB, ill treated, an Arabian 
chief of Uz, or Ausitis, dis- 
tinguished for wealth, and 
also for piety and virtue ; but 
tried of God with the heaviest 
calamities. That Job was a 
real, and not a fictitious cha- 
racter, may be inferred from 
the manner in which he is 
mentioned in the Scriptures, 
Ezek. xiv, 14. Now since 
Noah and Daniel were un- 
questionably real characters, 
we must conclude the same 
of Job. See also James v, 
11. It is scarcely to be be- 
lieved that a divinely inspired 
apostle would refer to an 




imaginary character as an 
example of patience, or in 
proof of the mercy of God. 
But, besidesthe authority of 
the inspired writers, we have 
the strongest internal evi- 
dence from the book itself, 
that Job was a real person ; 
for it expressly specifies the 
names of persons, places, 
facts, and other circumstances 
usually related in true histo- 

The next "point is the age 
in which Job lived. One thing 
is generally admitted with 
respect to the .age of the book 
of Job, namely, its remote an- 
tiquity. Grotius thinks the 
events of the history are such 
as cannot be placed later than 
the sojourning of the Israelites 
in the wilderness. Bishop 
Warburton, in like manner, 
admits them to bear the marks 
of high antiquity. As to the 
country in which he . lived, 
see Uz. 

His disease was probably 
a species of black leprosy, 
endemic (peculiar) in Egypt, 
called, by physicians elipfyan- 
ti'asis, from the dark scales 
with which the skin is cover- 
ed, and the swelling of the 
legs like an elephant. The 
different parts of the book of 
Job are so closely connected 
together, that they cannot be 
detached from each other. 
The exordium prepares the 
reader for what follows, sup- 
plies us with the necessary 
notices concerning Job and 
his friends, unfolds the scope, 
and places the calamities full 
in our view as an object of 

attention. The conclusion, 
again, has reference to the 
exordium, and relates the 
happy termination of Job's 
trials ; the dialogues which 
intervene flow in regular 

Archbishop Magee sup- 
poses it to have been, ori- 
ginally written by Job, and 
subsequently transcribed by 
Moses ; who having- applied 
it to the use of the Jews, and 
given it the sanction of his 
authority, it thenceforth be- 
came enrolled among the 
sacred writings. It has been 
quoted, by almost every He- 
brew writer, from the age of 
Moses to that of Malachi. In 
its form, this poem approxi- 
mates to the Mekama, or 
philosophical discourses of 
the Arabian poets. Without 
the exordium the reader would 
be utterly ignorant who Job 
was, who were his friends, 
and the cause of his being so 
grievously afflicted. Without 
the discourse of Elihu, Job 
xxxii-xxxvii, there would be 
a sudden and abrupt transi- 
tion from the last words of 
Job to the address of God, for 
which Elihu's discourse pre- 
pares the reader. And with- 
out the conclusion, we should 
remain in ignorance of the 
subsequent condition of Job. 
Hence it is evident that the 
poem is the composition of a 
single author. 

JO'EL, the second of the 
twelve lesser prophets. It is 
impossible to ascertain the 
age in which he lived ; but it 
seems most probable that he 




was .contemporary with Ho- 
sea. No particulars of his 
life or death are certainly 
known. His prophecies are 
confined to the kingdom of . 
Judah. The style of Joel is 
perspicuous and elegant, and 
his descriptions are reniark- 
ably animated and poetical. 

JOHN the Baptist, the son 
of Zachariah, and the fore- 
runner of Christ. This pro- 
phet was distinguished in 
some sense above all others. 
He was called to a yery_ 
singular work; his ministry 
formed an epoch in the his- 
tory of the church, the con- 
necting link between the two 
dispensations ; it finished the 
legal and brought in the evan- 
gelical. The most extraor- 
dinary events began with his 
baptism, and continued till 
Christ was taken up into hea- 
ven. His peculiar office was 
to announce the Saviour of 
the world as then present in 
it. His character and course 
were extraordinary and dif- 
ferent from all others. He 
was indifferent alike to the 
charms of pleasure, the al- 
lurements of pomp, the smiles 
of power, and the frowns of 
greatness. The forms and 
fashions of the world made 
no impression on his mind, 
and left no traces. He was 
austere in his manner, abste- 
mious in his food, and rustic 
in his apparel, Matt, iii, 4. 
By the authentic historian 
Josephus, he is spoken of in 
terms of the highest enco- 
mium. It is remarkable that 
he was the only prophet who 

was himself the subject of 
prophecy, Isa. iv, 3. 

As his course was short, so 
was his end violent and tra- 
gical. He fell a martyr to 
his fidelity, and the artifices 
of an intriguing woman. Hav- 
ing rebuked Herod on account 
of his incestuous intercourse 
with his brother's wife, he 
was sacrificed to her resent- 
ment, Matt, xiv, 3-12. Herod 
Antipas ordered him into 
custody in the castle of Ma- 
cherus, where he remained a 
long time. He was put to 
death about the end of A. D. 
31, or early in 32. 

JOHN the Apostl^, called 
also the divine, that is, the 
theologian, as maintaining the 
divine nature and attributes 
of Christ in the beginning of 
his gospel, son of Zebedee 
and Salo'me, a fisherman. ; 
he had a boat and nets and 
hired servants, Mark i, 20, 
and followed his occupation 
on the sea of Galilee ; a bro- 
ther to James the Greater. 
It is believed that St. John 
was the youngest of the apos- 
tles. Our Saviour had a par- 
ticular friendship for him ; 
and he describes himself by 
the name of that disciple whom 
Jesus loved. Peter, James, 
and John, were chosen to 
accompany pur Saviour on 
several occasions, when the 
other apostles were not per- 
mitted to be present, Luke 
viii, 51 ; Matt, xvii, 1, 2 ; 
xxvi, 36, 37. That he was 
treated by Christ with -greater 
familiarity than the other 
apostles, is evident from St. 




Peter desiring him to ask 
Christ who should betray 
him, when he himself did not 
dare to propose the question, 
John xiii, 24. He seems to 
have been the only apostle 
present at the crucifixion, and 
to him Jesus, just as he was 
expiring upon the cross, gave 
the strongest proof of his con- 
fidence and regard by con- 
signing to him the care of his 
;jnother, John xix, 26, 27. St. 
John continued to preach the 
Gospel for some time at Je- 
rusalem : he was imprisoned 
by the Sanhedrim, first with 
Peter only, Acts iv, 1, &c., 
and afterward with the other 
apostles, Acts v, 17, 18. 

The time of his leaving 
Judea is unknown. Dr. Mac- 
knight thinks he remained 
till he saw Jerusalem encom- 
passed with armies, and show- 
ed other signs of approaching 
destruction. He then fled in- 
to Asia, and coming at length 
to Ephesus, he fixed his ordi- 
nary abode in that city. In 
the reign of Domitian, who 
persecuted the Church, John, 
it is said, was carried to 
Rome about the year 95, 
where he was plunged into 
boiling oil, without being hurt, 
and afterward exiled to Pat- 
mos, a small, sterile island 
in the archipelago, where he 
remained some time instruct- 
ing the inhabitants in the 
faith of Christ, and where he 
wrote his Revelations. Domi- 
tian being killed A. D. 96, his 
successor Nerva recalled all 
who had been banished ; and 
John returned to Ephesus 

A. D. 97, being about ninety 
years of age ; at this place 
he wrote his Gospel, to con- 
firm the divinity of the Son 
in opposition to heretics, who 
had endeavoured to corrupt 
the Christian doctrine, some 
sixty-four years after our Sa- 
viour's death. He wrote also 
three epistles time when, 
and place where, are uncer 
tain, and died a natural death, 
in the third year of the Em 
peror Trajan, answering to 
A. D. 100 ; and, if Lampe's 
opinion is well founded, that 
John was born in the same 
year with his Master, he must 
have been a hundred years old 
when he died. 

JOHN, surnamed Mark, the 
companion of Paul and Bar- 
nabas, and writer of the gos- 
pel which bears his name. 

JO'NAH, son of A-mit'tai, 
born at Gath-hepher, in Gali- 
lee. He is generally consi- 
dered as the most ancient of 
the prophets, and is supposed 
to have lived 840 B. C. The 
book of Jonah is chiefly nar- 
rative, the style is simple and 
perspicuous ; and his prayer, 
in the second chapter, is 
strongly descriptive of the 
feelings of a pious mind un- 
der a severe trial of faith, 
Matt, xii, 41. 

JONATH, found in the 
title of 56th Psalm, Jonath- 
elem-rechokim, i. e., the silent 
dove among strangers, mean- 
ing perhaps the people of 
Israel in exile. See Psa. 
Ixxiv, 19. Probably the in- 
scription of a song or poem, 
to the tune or measure of 




which this psalm was to be 


JONATHAN, the son of 
Saul, a prince of an excellent 
disposition, and in all varie- 
ties of fortune a sincere and 
steady friend to David. The 
death of Jonathan was la- 
mented by David, in one of 
the noblest and most pathetic 
odes ever uttered by genius 
consecrated "by -pious friend- 
ship, 2 Sam. i, 19-27. 

JOPPA, now called Jaffa, 
a celebrated and very ancient 
city and seaport of Pales- 
tine, on the Mediterranean, 
about forty-five miles W.N.W. 
of Jerusalem, and thirty south 
of Cesare-'a. .The present 
town is situated on a pro- 
montory, jutting out into the 
sea, about 150 feet above its 
level, having on all sides pic- 
turesque and varied prospects. 
On the north are the flowery 
meads of Sharon ; on the east 
the hills of Ephraim and 
Judah raise their towering 
heads ; on the south spreads 
out a fertile plain, reaching 
as far as Gaza ; and on the 
west is the open sea. A few 
years ago it contained, ac- 
cording to an American tra- 
veller, from 10,000 to 15,000 
inhabitants; but since that 
time it has been destroyed by 
an earthquake, and nearly all 
buried in the ruins. 

JORDAN, now called El 
Sheriat, i. e., the ford, the 
largest and most celebrated 
river of Palestine. It rises 
under the eastern ridge of 
Mount Lebanon, called Anti- 
libanus, and flows in a direc- 

tion almost constantly south. 
After a course of about fifteen 
miles, it passes through the 
lake or marsh of Merom ; and 
after flowing about the same 
distance farther, falls into the 
Lake of Tiberias. Leaving 
this lake, it flows through a 
fertile valley of considerable 
width into the Dead Sea, re- 
ceiving in its course some 
minor streams. Its whole 
length is about 130 or 140 
miles. Between these two 
seas, the average breadth of 
Jordan is from sixty to eighty 
feet, and its depth about ten 
or twelve, yet fordable in 
many places during the sum- 
mer months ; in one place 
Mr. Stevens saw an Arab 
wading across it. It has 
double banks, i. e., those of 
its usual channel, and others 
at the distance of forty or fifty 
rods on each side. The low 
ground within the higher 
banks is overgrown with 
reeds and trees, affording a 
covert for numerous wild 
beasts. The stream of the 
Jordan is rapid, and its waters 
muddy. It is subject to floods, 
which sometimes, though not 
often, rise above its usual 
channel, and overflow the 
space within its higher banks, 
Josh, iii, 15. This happens 
in March, 1 Chron. xii, 15. 

It will be recollected that 
the Jordan runs everywhere 
through a iralley, in most 
places narrow, and shut in by 
parallel ranges of mountains. 
These mountains in two 
places expand so as to form 
circular, or rather elliptical 




basins of considerable ex- 
tent ; of which the northern 
is occupied by the Lake of 
Tiberias, and the southern 
by the Dead Sea, in which 
the Jordan now terminates. 
South of the Dead Sea, how- 
ever, the same ranges of 
mountains again approach, 
and continue parallel to each 
other, enclosing bet ween them 
a deep and broad valley of 
sand, called toward the north 
El Ghor, an Arab word for 
any marshy ground, and to- 
ward the south El Araba, 
which extends in a direction 
nearly S.S.W. to the eastern 
or Elanitic Gulf of the Red 
Sea, at Akaba. This valley 
is obviously a continuation of 
the valley of Jordan ; through 
which, in all probability, in 
very ancient times, before the 
Dead Sea was formed on the 
plains of Jordan, that river 
discharged its waters into the 
Elanitic Gulf. The length 
of this valley between the 
two seas is about 110 English 
miles in a direct line. It was 
by this valley that the trea- 
sures of Ophir were probably 
transported to the warehouses 
of Solomon. 

The pride of Jordan, Zech. 
xi, 3 ; in the translation of 
Jer. xlix, 19, it is the swelling 
of Jordan. This is a poetical 
expression for its green and 
shady banks, clothed with 
willows, tamarisks, and cane, 
in which lions make their 

The phrase beyond Jordan, 
in the books of Moses and in 
Joshua, sometimes means the 

west ; but after the Hebrews 
had taken possession of the 
country, the term signified 
the country on the east of the 

JOSEPH, lie will add, a 
son of Jacob, the youngest 
except Benjamin, sold by his 
brothers into Egypt, and after- 
ward advanced to the highest 
honours. It is sometimes 
used for the ten tribes, the 
kingdom of Ephraim, and 
sometimes for the whole na- 
tion of Israel, Zech. x, 6 ; 
Anios vi, 6, tribe of Joseph, 
Rev. vii, 8, compare verse 6, 
is the half tribe of Ephraim. 
The history of Joseph seems 
to have been left for its moral 
uses, and that it should afford, 
by its inimitable simplicity 
and truth to nature, a point 
of irresistible internal evi- 
dence of the truth of the 
Mosaic narrative. 

2. JOSEPH, the husband of 
Mary, the mother of our Lord. 
His age and other circum- 
stances of his life, excepting 
what are related in the gos- 
pels, are uncertain. It is 
thought that he died before 
Jesus entered upon his pub 
lie ministry. 

3. JOSEPH of Arirnathea, a 
member of the Jewish San- 
hedrim, a disciple of Jesus, 
who .assisted at his burial, 
Luke xxiii, 50, 51 ; John xix, 

JOSHUA, the minister 
and armour-bearer of Moses, 
afterward his successor, and 
the leader of the Israelites, 
the son of Nun. He was 
born A. M. 2460, and was 




about eighty-four years of 
age when he received the 
command to pass over Jor- 
dan. His piety, courage and 
disinterested integrity are 
conspicuous throughout his 
whole history. 

The book of Joshua was 
probably written by himself, 
and is probably a continua- 
tion of Deuteronomy. It be- 
tins where that ends, imme- 
iately after the death of 
Moses, and concludes with 
Joshua's death, at the age of 
110 years, 1443 before the 
Christian era. The last five 
verses giving an account of 
his death, were added by one 
of his successors. 

JOSIAH, king of Judah 
642-611 B. C. The restorer 
of the Mosaic law. He was 
slain at Megiddo in battle with 
Necho, king of Egypt, 2 Chron . 
xxxiv,-33. The mourning of 
the people on the death of this 
prince passed into a proverb, 
Zech, xii, 11. 

JOT refers to the smallest 
letter in the Hebrew alpha- 
bet, and tittle to the apex or 
point at the angle of some, 
which distinguished them from 
others of similar form. In 
Matt, v, 19, our Lord means, 
that the smallest part of the 
law shall not be abolished. 

JOTHAM, Gideon's young- 
est son, distinguished for hav- 
ing spoken the oldest, and per- 
haps the best fable extant, 
Judges ix, 7. The fable is 
beautiful for the simplicity of 
its language and structure, for 
the eloquence and severity 
of the appeal which it makes 

to the Shechemites, and the 
boldness of the man who dared 
thus' to address the murderers 
of all his father's house. 

JOURNEY, a march from 
one place to another ; a day's 
journey was sometimes great- 
er and sometimes less, vary- 
ing from twenty to thirty 
miles. The eastern method 
of reckoning by hours is very 
uncertain. As a general rule, 
an hour's distance may be 
assumed to be the space which 
a horse or mule will walk over 
in that time, i. e., from three 
to three and a half miles. " A 
Sabbath day's journey" Acts 
i, 12, according to the rab- 
binic limitation, is 1,000 paces, 
equal to about seven and a half 
furlongs, nearly one mile. 
This measure is a sort of 
Jewish invention, founded on 
Exod. xvi, 39. There were 
two" principal routes from Pa- 
lestine into Egypt; the one 
was along the shores of the 
Mediterranean from Gaza to 
Pelusium, and the other by 
the way of the Elanitic Gulf 
and Mount Sinai. The ori- 
ental merchants travelled in 
company, as is common in the 
east at the present day. " The 
troops of Tema looked, the 
companies of Sheba waited for 
them," Job vi, 9, i. e., the 
caravans. A travelling com- 
pany of this kind is now call- 
ed a caravan, which is an 
Arabic word, meaning a com- 
pany of men travelling together. 

JUBAL, a son of La'mech, 
the inventor ofmusical instru 
ments, Gen/iv, 21. 




JUBILEE, supposed to 
mean when a triumph is sound- 
ed ; a joyful occasion which 
occurred every fiftieth year, 
so called from t he sounding of 
trumpets on the tenth day of 
the seventh month (Tizri, and 
about the autumnal equinox) 
by which it was announced to 
the people. According to the 
Mosaic law, in this year all 
lands which had been sold 
returned to their first pos- 
sessor, and all slaves were to 
be set free. It is called the 
year of release, Deut. xv, 9, 
because all debts were to be 
remitted. This law was mer- 
cifully designed to prevent 
the rich from oppressing the 
poor, and reducing them to 
perpetual slavery. Moses in- 
tended, as much as possible, 
to preserve the liberty ofper- 
sons, a due proportion of for- 
tune, and the order of fami- 
lies ; as well as that the peo- 
ple should be bound to their 
country, their lands and in- 
heritances, and cherish an 
affection for them; jubilees 
were not regarded after the 

JUDAH, the fourth son of 
Jacob ; also the tribe descend- 
ed from him, the bounds of 
which are described, Josh. xv. 

After the secession of the 
ten tribes, the name of Judah 
was given to one of the two 
subsequent kingdoms, com- 
prising the tribes of Judah 
and Benjamin ; and also a 
portion of Simeon and Dan, 
having Jerusalem for its me- 
The other kingdom was 

called Israel, and sometimes 
Ephraim, Hosea vi, 4. After 
the carrying away of the ten 
tribes, and after the exile, 
the name Judah, Judea, was 
applied to the whole coun- 
try of the Israelites, Hag. i, 


JUDAS, surnamed Isca- 
riot,.i. e., the man of Kerioth, 
an apostle, and the traitor 
who betrayed our Lord. He 
seems previously to have been 
dishonest, John xii, 6, though 
he enjoyed the confidence of 
the other apostles. There are 
some difficulties concerning 
the manner in which Judas 
died. We are informed in 
Matt, xxvii, 5, that he hung 
himself; we are farther in- 
formed in Acts i, 18 "that 
he fell headlong, burst asun- 
der in the. midst, and all his 
bowels gushed out." These 
two statements exhibit the 
appearance of being not alto- 
gether harmonious. The most 
easy and natural reconcilia- 
tion of them, however, is this : 
having hanged himself, and 
remainingtill putrescence had 
taken place, and the cord per- 
haps breaking, or being cut 
off by those who found him, 
he fell with such violence as 
to dash out his bowels. 

JUDE, or JUDAS, an apos- 
tle, called also Thaddeus and 
Lebbeus, brother of James the 
Less, and brother, i. e., kins- 
man or cousin of our Lord, 
Gal. i, 19. The only account 
we have of him in particular, 
is that which occurs, John 
xiv, 21-23. 

Dr. Lardner supposes that 




his epistle was written about 
the year 66. 

JUDEA, strictly the terri- 
tory of the tribe of Judah, ex- 
tending from the Dead Sea 
to the Mediterranean, and 
abounding in lime-stone hills, 
but usually employed in a 
wider sense. In the time of 
David, it denoted that portion 
of the country which belong- 
ed to the tribes of Judah and 
Benjamin, 2 Sam. v, 5. So 
after the secession of the ten 
tribes, it was applied to the 
dominions of the kingdom of 
Judah, including the tracts 
belonging to Judah and Ben- 
jamin, and also part of that 
which appertained to the 
tribes of Dan and Simeon. 
Hence it became at length a 
general name for the southern 
part of Palestine ; while the 
northern part was called Ga- 
lilee, and the middle Samaria. 
After the captivity, as most 
of the" exiles who returned 
were of the kingdom of Judah, 
the name Judea (Judah) was 
given generally to the whole 
of .Palestine west of Jordan, 
Hag. ii, 2. Under the Ro- 
mans, in the time of Christ, 
Palestine was divided into 
Galilee, Samaria, and Ju- 
dea, John iv, 45 ; which last 
included the whole southern 
part west of the Jordan, and 
constituted a portion of the 
kingdom of Herod the Great. 
It then belonged to Arche- 
laus, but was afterward made 
a Rpman province dependant 
upon Syria and governed by 
To JUDGE, 1. To form 

and give an opinion after 
separating, and considering 
he particulars of a case. 

2. To govern, to rule, as 
connected with the power of 
judging, since to dispense 
justice was the part of kings 
and chief magistrates. The 
ideas of ruling and judging 
are closely allied in oriental 
L anguage ; hence to punish, 
i. e., also to protect the cause 
of any one, to defend his 
right, to see that he obtains 
justice. " He judged the 
cause of the poor and needy," 
Jer. xxii, 16. 

To vindicate, to avenge, by 
punishing one's enemy. "The 
Lord shall judge his people," 
Heb. x, 30. " Know ye not 
the saints shall judge," i. e., 
rule the world? It is sup- 
posed that Paul had in hia 
mind the promise of our Lord 
to the apostles of their " sit- 
ting on thrones, and judging 
the twelve tribes of Israel," 
Matt, xix, 28, i. e.j the saints 
shall be intrusted with the 
government and regulation of 
the whole world. 

JUDGES, leaders and 
chief magistrates of the Is-- 
raelites from Joshua to Sa- 
muel, who led out the people 
to war against their enemies, 
and after having delivered 
them from the oppression of 
the neighbouring nations, ex- 
ercised during the peace the 
office of ruler and judge, 
Judg. ii, 16-18. Othniel was 
the first, Deborah and Barak, 
Gideon, Jephthah, Samson, 
and Samuel, were the most 
remarkable. "^The Apostle 




Paul says, that the period 
during which Israel was go- 
verned by judges, was about 
450 years, Acts xiii, 20. 
These judges might appro- 
priately enough be called the 
supreme executive, exercis- 
ing all the rights of sove- 
reignty, with the exception 
of enacting laws and imposing 
taxes. " They were honour- 
ed," says Dr. Jahn, " but they 
bore no external badges of 
distinction ; they were dis- 
tinguished, but they enjoyed 
no special privileges them- 
selves, and communicated 
none to their posterity ; they 
subserved the public good 
without emolument, that the 
state might be prosperous, 
that religion might be pre- 

It ought to be observed, how- 
ever, that not all the judges 
ruled the whole nation. Some 
of them presided only over a 
few separate tribes. 

tains the history of the per- 
sons mentioned-in the pre- 
ceding article. " That the 
greater part of the book of 
Judges," says Rosenmuller, 
" is the production of one 
writer, is proved in chap, ii, 
8-23, which appears to be the 
sum of the first part, i. e., 
to chap. xvii. It is supposed 
to have been written by the 
Prophet Samuel. The latter 
part, from chap, xvii, contains 
an account of the introduc- 
tion of idolatry among the 
Israelites, and the conse- 
quent corruption of religion 

and manners among them ; 
for which God gave them up 
into the hands of their ene- 

JUDGMENT. 1. The de- 
cision of a judge, 1 Kings iji, 
28. 2. Justice, Matt, xxiii, 
23 ; Luke xi, 42. 3. A legal 
decision, "to execute judg- 
ment," John v, 27; Jude 15. 
To sentence to punishment ; 
hence it denotes afflictions 
and chastisements, 1 Pet. iv, 
17. 4. The divine law, the 
religion of Jehovah as -deve- 
loped in the Gospel, Exod. 
xxi, 1 ; Psa. xiv, 7, 20 ; see 
Matt.xii,18. The laws which 
the Messiah was to publish. 
5. An opinion, 1 Cor. vii, 40 ; 
" Joined in the same judg- 
ment," touching all the grand 
truths of the Gospel, 1 Cor. i, 
10. 6. Controversy, 1 Cor. 
vi, 4. The term -is used in 
Matt, v, 21, 22 for a court of 
justice, a tribunal, judges, 
i. e., the smaller tribunals 
established in the cities of 
Palestine, subordinate to the 
Sanhedrim, compare Deut. 
xvi, 18 ; 2 Chron. xix, 5. Ac- 
cording to the rabbins, they 
consisted of twenty-three 
judges ; but Josephus ex- 
pressly says the number was 

JUDGMENT DAY, is that 
important period which shall 
terminate the present dispen- 
sation of grace toward the 
fallen race of Adam, put an 
end to time, and introduce 
the eternal destinies of men 
and angels, Acts xvii, 31; 
Matt, xxv, 31-46. 

But " it is appointed unto 




men once to die, and after 
death the judgment." These 
two events are ' inseparably 
linked together in the Divine 
decree, and they reciprocally 
reflect importance on each 
other. Death is, indeed, the 
terror of our nature. Men 
may contrive to keep it from 
their thoughts, but they can- 
not think of it without fearful 
apprehensions of its conse- 
quences. It was justly to be 
dreaded by man in his state 
of innocence ; and to the un- 
renewed man it ever was, 
and ever will be, a just object 
of abhorrence. .The Gospel 
of Jesus Christ, which has 
brought life and immortality 
to light, is the only sovereign 
antidote against this univer- 
sal evil. To the believer in 
Christ, its rough aspect is 
smoothed, and its terrors cease 
to be alarming. 

Were death all that we 
have toM read, death might be 
braved. But after death there 
is a judgment ; a judgment 
attended with circumstances 
so tremendous as to shake the 
hearts of the boldest of the 
sons of nature. Nothing of 
terror or magnificence hither- 
to beheld, no glory of the 
rising sun after a night of 
darkness and of storm, no 
convulsions of the earth, no 
wide irruption of waters, 
no flaming comet dragging its 
burning train over half the 
heaven, can convey to us an 
adequate conception of that 
day of terrible brightness 
and irresistible devastation. 
Creation then shall be un- 

created. " The heavens shall 
pass away with a great noise, 
and the elements shall melt 
with fervent heat ; the earth 
also, and the worfcs that are 
therein, shall be burnt up," 
2 Peter iii, 10. " The Lord 
shall be revealed from heaven 
in flaming fire," 2Thess.i, 7, 
8, arrayed in all the glory of 
his Godhead, and attended by 
his mighty angels, Matt, xvi, 
27. " All that are in the grave 
shall hear his voice, and shall 
come forth," John v, 28, 29. 
Earth and" sea shall give up 
the dead which are in them* 
All that ever lived shall ap- 
pear before him, Rev. xx, 12, 
13. The judgment shall sit ; 
and the books shall be open- 
ed, Dan. vii, 10. The eye 
of Omniscience detects every 
concealment by \vhich they 
would screen from observa- 
tion themselves, or their ini- 
quity. The last reluctant 
sinner is finally separated 
from the congregation of the 
righteous, Psa. i, 5 ; and in- 
flexible justice, so often dis- 
regarded, derided, and defied, 
gives forth their eternal doom ! 
But to the saints this shall be 
a day of glory and honour. 
They shall be publicly ac- 
knowledged by God as his 
people ; publicly justified from 
the slanders of the world ; in- 
vested with immortal bodies ; 
presented by Christ to the 
Father ; and admitted into 
the highest felicity in the im- 
mediate presence of God for 





JUNIPER, a well known 
shrub, of the cedar family, 
bearing berries of a bluish 
colour, and of a warm pun- 
gent taste. But the Hebrew 
word probably means the 
genista, .or Spanish broom, 
as it is called ; a shrub grow- 
ing in Spain, Palestine, and 
Arabia, with yellowish flow- 
ers, and a bitter root, which 
-is .sometimes eaten by the 
poor, Job xxx, 4, in times of 
scarcity and famine. The 
psalmist seems to mention 
the coals of this wood as 
affording the fiercest fire of 
any matter that he found in 
the desert, Psa. cxx, 4. 

JUPITER, the supreme 
god of the heathen mythology, 
who had power over all the 
rest. They supposed that 
Jupiter- and Mercury most 
frequently assumed the hu- 
man form. " Jupiter which 
was before their city," Acts 
xiv, 13, i. e., whose temple 
was in front of the city. 

JUSTICE, the virtue 
which consists in giving to 
every one what is his due ; 
practical conformity to the 
laws and principles of recti- 
tude in the dealing of men 
with each other. Justice is 
distributive or communicative. 
Distributive justice belongs to 
magistrates or rulers, and 
consists in distributing to 
every man that right or equity 
which the laws and principles 
of equity require. Communi- 
cative justice consists in fail- 
dealing in trade and mutual 
intercourse between man and 

act of justifying, or showing 
to be just or conformable to 

2. Remission of sin, and 
absolution from guilt and .pu. 
nishment. St. Paul clearly 
uses justification and forgive- 
ness as synonymous terms, 
Rom. iv, 5-8. Here the jus- 
tification of the ungodly, the 
imputation of righteousness, 
the forgiveness of iniquity, 
and the covering and non-im 
putation of sin, are phrases 
which express the very same 
blessing under different vi ews . 

On the ground of works, 
i. e., of perfect obedience, and 
therefore of merit, none can 
be justified because all are 
sinners. If any then are justi- 
fied at all, it must be of grace; 
but this grace, although freely 
bestowed, and without any 
just claims on the part of the 
sinner, is still not uncondi- 
tionally bestowed. Faith in 
Him who died to save sin- 
ners is requisite to prepare 
one for the reception of par- 
don ; and he who is justified 
in this way as a consequence 
of his faith, is ""still justified 
in a manner altogether gra- 
tuitous. But (1.) the justifi- 
cation of a sinner does not in 
the least degree alter or di- 
minish the evil nature and 
desert of sin. For we know 
?'it is God," the holy God, 
" that justifieth" And he can 
never regard sin, on any con- 
sideration, or under any cir- 
cumstances, with less than 
perfect hatred. The penalty 
is remitted, and the obliga- 




tion to suffer that penalty j 
is dissolved ; but it is still 
naturally due, though gra- 
ciously remitted. Hence ap- 
pear the- propriety and duty 
of continuing to confess and 
lament evenpardonedsin with 
a lowly and contrite heart. 
(2.) The account which has 
been given of justification 
sufficiently points out the 
error of many of the Roman 
Catholic divines, and of some 
mystic theologians, who seem 
to suppose that x to be justi- 
fied is to be, not reckoned 
righteous, but actually made 
righteous, by the infusion of a 
sanctifying influence, produc- 
ing a positive and inherent 
conformity to the moral image 
of God. This -notion con- 
founds the two distinct though 
kindred blessings of justifica- 
tion and regeneration. The 
former, in its Scriptural 
sense, is an act of God, not 
in or upon man, but for htm, 
and in his favour. (3.) The 
justification extends to all 
past sins ; that is, to' all guilt 
contracted previously to that 
time at which the act of jus- 
tification takes place. In 
respect of this, it is, while it 
remains 'in force, a most full, 
perfect, and entire absolution 
from wrath. " All manner of 
sin" is then forgiven. The 
pardon which is granted is a 
"justification," not merely 
from some things, from many 
things, from most things, but 
" from all things," Acts xiii, 
39. God does not justify us, 
or pardon our innumerable 
offences, by degrees, but at 

once. (4.) Another remark, 
which it may not be unneces- 
sary to make, is, that justifi- 
cation, however effectual to 
our release from past guilt, 
does not terminate our state 
of probation. It is not irre- 
versible, any more than eter- 
nal. As he who is now Justi- 
fied was once condemned, so 
he may in future, come again 
into condemnation, by relaps- 
ing into sin and unbelief, al- 
though at present " accepted 
in the. Beloved." That justi- 
fication may for our sin be 
reversed, appears from our 
Lord's parable of the two 
debtors, in which one who 
had obtained the blessing of 
forgiveness is represented as 
-incurring the forfeiture of it 
by the indulgence of an unfor- 
giving spirit toward his fellow- 
servant, Matt, xviii, 23-35. 
Let us therefore " watch and 
pray, that we enter not into 

2^ The immediate results 
of justification are (1.) The 
restoration of amity and inter- 
.cpurse between the pardoned 
sinner and the pardoning God . 
For, " being justified by faith, 
we have peace with God,' 
and, consequently, unforbid 
den access to him. (2.) Adop- 
tion of the persons justified 
into the family of God, and 
their consequent right to eter- 
nal life of body and soul, Rom. 
viii, 17. (3.) With these is 
inseparably connected ano- 
ther, of the utmost value and 
importance ; namely, the ha- 
bitual indwelling of the Holy 

Spirit, Of tlus indwelling the 




immediate effects are, tran- 
quillity of conscience, Rom. 
viii, 15, 16 : power over sin ; 
a prevailing desire and ability 
to walk before God in holy 
obedience : and a joyous hope 
of heaven. 

3. To have a complete 
view of the method by which 
justification and all its conse- 
quent blessings are attained, 
we must consider (1.) The 
originating cause is the grace, 
the free, undeserved, and 
spontaneous love of God to- 
ward fallen man. But God is 
wise, and holy, and just, as 
well as merciful and gracious. 
And his wisdom determined, 
that, in order to reconcile the 
designs of his mercy toward 
sinners with the claims of his 
purity and justice, those de- 
signs should be accomplished 
only through the intervention 
of a Divine Redeemer, Rom. 
i, 5. (2.) Our Lord Jesus 
Christ is the sole meritorious 
cause of our justification. All 
he did and all he suffered in 
his mediatorial character may 
be said to have contributed to 
this great purpose. For what 
he did, in obedience to. the 
precepts of the law, and what 
he suffered, in satisfaction 
of its penalty, taken together, 
constitute that mediatorial 
righteousness, for the sake of 
which the Father is ever well 
pleased in him. Now, in this 
mediatorial righteousness all 
who are justified have a sav- 
ing interest. It is not meant 
that it is personally imputed 
to them* in its formal nature or 
distinct acts ; for against any 

such imputation there lie in 
separable objections both from 
reason and from Scripture. 
But the collective merit and 
moral effects of all which the 
Mediator did and suffered are 
so reckoned to our account 
when we are justified, that, 
for the sake of Christ and in 
consideration of his obedience 
unto death, we are released 
from guilt, and accepted of 
God. (3.) As to the instru- 
mental cause of justification, 
the merit of the blood of Jesus 
does not operate necessarily 
so as to produce our pardon 
as an immediate and unavoid- 
able effect, but through the 
instrumentality of faith. The 
faith by which we are justi- 
fied is present faith, faith ac- 
tually existing and exercised. 
We are not justified by to- 
morrow's faith foreseen ; for 
that would lead to the Anti- 
nomian notion of justification 
from eternity, a notion which 
to mention is to confute. We 
are not justified by yester- 
day 's faith recorded or remem- 
bered ; for that would imply 
the opinion that justification 
is irreversible. The justifi- 
cation offered in the Scrip- 
tures is a justification upon 
believing, in which we are 
never savingly interested un- 
til we believe, and which con- 
tinues in force only so long 
as we continue to believe. 
On the whole, it may be said 
that the faith to which the 
privilege of justification is 
annexed, is such a belief of 
the Gospel, by the power of 
the Spirit of God, as leads us 




to come to Christ, to receive 
Christ, to trust in Christ, and 
to commit the keeping'of our 
souls into his hands, in hum- 
ble confidence of his ability 
and his willingness to save 
us. See FAITH. 

To JUSTIFY, is, 1. To 
show or prove to be just, or 
conformable to law or duty^ 

2. To pardon and clear 
from guilt, to accept' as right- 
eous on account of the merits 
of the Saviour. 

3. To cause another to ap- 
pear comparatively innocent 
or less guilty than one's self, 
Ezek. xvi, 15. 

4. To do justice to one's 
character, by acknowledging 
and declaring him to be free 
from all imputation of blame. 
God was justified in or by the 
Spirit, 1 Tim. iii, 16. Wis- 
dom is justified, Luke vii, 35, 
acknowledged and honoured 
by her real followers. 

Those who act alike to all, 
who practise even-handed jus- 
tice, impartial ; spoken- of 
judges or kings who dispense 
justice and defend the right- 

2. The upright, virtuous, 
also good in a general sense ; 
including the idea of inno- 
cent, Matt, xxvii, 19-24; in- 
cluding also the idea of mild, 
clement, kind. " Joseph, being 
a. just man," Matt, i, 19. 

3. It is spoken especially 
of those whose hearts are 
right with God, pious, godly, 
Matt, xiii, 49. l 

KADESH, or more fully, 

Kadesh-barnea ; barnea signi- 
fies field, or plain of wander' 
ing ; like the Arabic El Ty ; 
a city in the desert south of 
the Dead Sea, supposed to 
be in the great valley of El 
Ghor. This city was of suf- 
ficient importance to give its 
name to the tract of desert 
country which lay around it, 
Psa. xxix, 8. There is a deep 
valley of sand from five to 
eight miles wide, running be- 
tween two parallel ridges of 
mountains, from the south 
part of the Dead Sea to the 
eastern gulf of the Red Sea. 
The only place where this 
valley is interrupted is about 
eight or ten miles distant from 
the Dead Sea, where a sand 
cliff from sixty to eighty feet 
high traverses the valley like 
a wall. The north part of the 
valley is called El Ghor, and 
is supposed by Burkhardt 
to be the Kadesh-barnea of 
Scripture, whence the Israel- 
ites sent forth their spies, 
Num. xiii, 26; and the south 
part is called El Araba. 

naanitish tribe on the east 
of the Jordan, about Mount 

KED AR, dark skin ; a son. 
of Ishmael, Gen. xxv, 13 ; 
also an Arabian tribe descend- 
ed from him. These people 
live in tents. It is not pos- 
sible to show the place of 
their habitation, because they 
often change it, Song i, 5. 

KEDRON, a small brook 
which, rising near Jerusalem, 
runs through the valley on 
the east of the city, between 




it and the Mount of Olives. 
This brook is stated by Po- 
cocke to have its rise a little 
way farther to the north, but 
its source does not appear to 
have been ascertained. Like 
the Ilissus, it is dry at least 
nine months in the year ; its 
bed is narrow and deep, which 
indicates that it must, former- 
ly have been the channel for 
waters that have found some 
other and probably subterra- 
nean course. The course of 
the brook is along the valley 
of Jehoshaphat, to the south- 
west corner of the city, and 
then winding between rugged 
and desolate hills, it runs to 
the Dead Sea. 

KENITES, a people who 
dwelt west of the Dead Sea 
in mountains and rocks al- 
most inaccessible. See Ba- 
laam's address to them, Num. 
xxiv, 21 : " Strong is thy 
dwelling-place, and thou put- 
test thy nest in a rock." 
They extended themselves 
into Arabia, for Jethro was a 
Kenite, and out of regard to 
him all his tribe who sub- 
mitted to the Hebrews were 
suffered to live in their own 
country ; the rest in all pro- 
bability fled to the Amale- 
kites, 1 Sain, xv, 6. 

KERCHIEF, ahead-dress, 
a cloth to cover the head ; the 
Hebrew word has more lati- 
tude, signifying quilts, cover- 
lets, Ezek. xiii, 18. 

KE-TU'RAH, the wife 
whom Abraham took after 
the death of Sarah, whose 
sons Abraham settled east in 
Arabia Deserta. 

KEY, an instrument for 
locking and unlocking, used 
in a figurative sense as a 
symbol of power or authority. 
Keys were anciently crooked, 
and from their weight and 
inconvenient form carried on 
the shoulders, Isa. xxii, 22, 
as we see our reapers carry- 
ing their sickles. "Keys of 
the kingdom," Matt, xvi, 29, 
is the power of opening or 
shutting, of admitting to or 
excluding from the kingdom 
of God. Peter, as an inspired 
apostle, was appointed to 
open the new dispensation, 
by preaching salvation to all 
who should repent and be- 
lieve, and to declare infallibly 
the laws of the Gospel ; and 
this he did both to the Jews 
and to the Gentiles, by mak- 
ing the first converts among 
them, Acts ix. But that the 
power was not conferred on 
Peter exclusively of the rest 
of the apostles, is clear from 
Christ's own words, Luke 
xxii, 24-26. " The power of 
remitting and retaining sins," 
which was promised to* all 
the apostles, may be inter- 
preted of their being enabled, 
by inspiration, to declare 
whose sins, according to the 
tenor of the Gospel, are to 
be forgiven, and whose sins 
are not to be forgiven. . 

The key of knowledge, Luke 
xi, 52, is the means of attain- 
ing to true knowledge in 
respect to the kingdom of 

The key of death and hell, 
is the power to bring to the 
grave, or to deliver from it 




to appoint to life or to death, 
Rev. i, 18. 

KICK, to strike with the 
heel, used in the proverbial 
expression, to kick against the 
goads, Acts ix, 5. The goad 
is a rod or staff, with an iron 
point, for urging on horses, 
oxen, &c. To kick against 
such an instrument, is to offer 
vain and ra'sh resistance. 

KID, the young of the goat. 
Among the Hebrews, the kid 
was reckoned a great deli- 
cacy ; and appears to have 
been served for food in pre- 
ference to the lamb. 

KIDNEY'S, situated in the 
lower part of the back, enve- 
loped in a coat of the purest 
fat ; and therefore supposed 
to be the best part in the 
body of the animal. Hence 
used to point out the finest, the most excellent 
species both for seed and 
bread, Deut. xxxiv, 14. 


KINTE, the old plural of 
cow, kine of Bashan, are by a 
metaphor .put for the volup- 
tuous females of -Samaria, 
Amosiv,!. Sometimes trans- 
lated heifer ; and occurs fre- 
quently as an emblem of a 
state, Hosea x, 11. 

KING, one who exercises 
royal authority and sove- 
reignty. In a more 'general 
and lower sense, it is used 
as a title of distinguished 
honour for a viceroy, prince, 
leader, chief, &c. Thus He- 
rod the Great and his suc- 
cessors had the title of king, 
but were dependant for the 
name and power on the 
Romans. Herod- Antipas, 
though he is called king, 
Matt, xiv, 9, was in fact only 
a tetrarch, verse 1. Besides, 
we find in Joshua, that al- 
most every town in Canaan 
had its king, xii, 9-24 ; and 
we know that the territories 
of these towns must have 
been very inconsiderable. 
Moses was called king in Je- 
shurun, Deut. xxxiii, 5 : he 
was the chief and guide of 
his people, fulfilling the duties 
of a king, though not such 
in the same sense as David 
or Solomon. Tropically, the 
word is applied to Christians 
as about to reign with Christ 
over the nations, Rev. v, 10. 

The following catalogue of 
the Jewish kings may be re- 
garded as approximating to a 
correct chronology. 

Of the ivhole Nation. 

Began to reign B. U. 

Saul 1091 

David 1051 

Solomon ... 1010 

Rehoboam 971 

Years Reigned. 








Of Judah alone. 

Of Israel alone. 

Began to reign Years 
B. G. Reigiietl. 

Began to reign Year* 
B. C. Reigned. 

Rehoboam . . 


16 Jeroboam . . 



Abijam .... 


3 Nadab . 




41 Baasha . . . 



Jehoshaphat . . 


25 Elah .... 



Jehoram . . . 


4 Zimri . . . 



Ahaziah . . . 


1 Omri .... 



Interval . . . 


6 Ahab .... 



Joash .... 


40 Ahaziah . . . 



Amaziah . . . 


29 Jehoram . . . 



Uzziah, or Azariah 


32 Jehu "... 



Jotham . . . . 


16 Jehoahaz . . 



Ahaz .... 


16 Joash, or Jehoash 



Hezekiah . . . 


29 Jeroboam II. 



Manasseh . . . 


55 Zachariah . . 



Amon .... 


2 Shallum . . . 




Josiah .... 


31 Menahem . . 



Jehoahaz . . 


i Pekaiah . . . 



Jehoiakim . . 


11 Pekah . . . 



Jehoiakin . . 


k Inten'al . . . 



Zedekiah . . . 


11 Hoshe.i . . . 



Captivity . . . 


Captivity . . 


KINGDOM. l.Reign,le., 
the exercise of kingly power, 
Matt, vi, 13 ; Heb. i, 8. 

2. Dominions of a king, a 
realm, i. e., a people and ter- 
ritory under kingly rule, Matt. 
iv, 8. 

3. All the expressions, king- 
dom of God, Christ, heaven, 
and David, as the ancestor 
and type of the Messiah, 
Mark xi, 10, are synonymous, 
and signify the divine spi- 
ritual kingdom, the glorious 
reign of the Messiah, or the 
community of those who, 
united by his Spirit under 
him as their head, rejoice in 
the truth, and live a holy life 
in love and in communion 

with him. This spiritual 
kingdom has both an internal 
and external form. As in- 
ternal, it already exists and 
rules in the hearts of all 
Christians, and is therefore 
present. "The kingdom of 
God is within you," Luke xvii, 
21, i. e., its seat is in your 
hearts and affections, not ex- 
ternal ; see also Rom. xiv, 
17. As external, it is either 
embodied in the visible church 
of Christ, and in so far is pre- 
sent and progressive; or it 
is to be perfected, in the 
coming of the Messiah to 
judgment, and . his subse- 
quent spiritual reign in bliss 
and glory, Matt, xiii, 43, in 




which view it is future. But 
these different aspects are 
not always distinguished ; the 
expression often embracing 
both the internal and external 
sense, and referring -both to 
its commencement in this 
world and its completion in 
the world to come, Matt, v, 
3-10; Col. i, 13. The idea 
of this kingdom has its basis 
in the prophecies of the Old 
Testament, where the reign 
of the Messiah is described 
as a golden age, when the 
true religion, and with it the 
Jewish theocracy, should be 
re-established in more than 
pristine purity, and universal 

Sjace and happiness prevail, 
an. ii, 44 ; vii, 14. All this 
was doubtless to be under- 
stood in a spiritual sense ; 
and so the devout Jews of 
our Saviour's time appear to 
have received it ; as Zacha- 
rias, Luke i, 67 ; Simeon, ii, 
25 ; Anna, ii, 36 ; Joseph, 
Luke xxiii, 50, 51. But the 
Jews at large gave to these 
prophecies a temporal mean- 
ing, and expected a Messiah 
who should come in the 
clouds of heaven, and, as a 
king of the Jewish nation, 
restore the ancient religion 
and worship, reform the cor- 
rupt morals of the people, 
make expiation for their sins, 
free them from the yoke of 
foreign dominion,and at length 
reign over the whole earth in 
peace and glory. " Children 
of the kingdom" Matt, viii, 
12, are the Jews, who thought 
the Messiah's reign was des- 
tined only for them. But in 

another place, Matt, xiii, 38, 
they are the true citizens of 
the kingdom of God. " The 
kingdom of God cometh not 
with observation," Luke xvii, 
20, i. e., not so that its pro- 
gress may be watched with 
the eyes. 

KINGS, Book of. The first 
book commences with the 
death of David, 1014 B. C., 
and comprises the history of 
126 years to the death of 
Jehoshaphat king of Judah. 
The second book continues 
the history of the kings of 
Israel and Judah, through a 
period of 300 years, fo the 
destruction of the city and 
temple of Jerusalem by Ne- 
buchadnezzar. These two 
books are compiled out of 
public and private records 
made. by the various kings, 
scribes, and prophets men- 
tioned in them ; and there is 
strong reason to believe that 
Ezra, a learned and very in- 
quisitive scribe, who lived 
during the captivity and after 
it, was the author of these 

KINGS' WAY, Num. xx, 17, 
supposed to be the large rocky 
uneven valley El Ghoeyr, 
which is twelve miles wide 
at the eastern extremity, and 
descends toward the west 
into the El Ghor, where it 
is narrower. This valley is 
famous ifor the excellent pas- 
turage produced by its nu- 
merous springs ; and it has 
in consequence become a 
favourite place of encamp- 
ment for all the Bedouins of 
the adjacent mountains. This 




was perhaps the " kings' way," 
by which Moses, aware of 
the difficulty of forcing a 
passage, requested permis- 
sion of the Edomites to pass, 
on Condition of leaving the 
fields and vineyards untouch- 
ed, and of purchasing pro- 
visions and water from the 
inhabitants. But Edom re- 
fused, and " came out against 
him with much people and a 
strong hand." 

KIR, wall, or fortress, Isa. 
xv, 1 ; a fortified city in the 
territory of Moab, now called 
Kerek, or Karak, which also 
signifies a fortress, situated 
on a -steep lime-stone hill, 
some thirty-six miles north 
of due east from the southern 
extremity of the Dead Sea. 
From this, hill the prospect 
extends even to Jerusalem, 
and overlooks the whole sur- 
rounding country. The name 
is also applied to the whole 
district. The same is called 
in Jer. xlviii, 31, Kir-heres, 
the brick fortress. 

KISHON, Judges v, 21, a 
stream which takes its rise 
from a spring near the foot 
of Mount Tabor on the east. 
Its course is at first southerly ; 
and after passing through the 
great plain, (Jezreel,} and be- 
ing increased by the acces- 
sion of many small streams, 
it reaches the foot of Carmel 
at She south-west corner of 
the plain, then flows to the 
north-west into the Bay of 
Ptolema'is, a short distance 
south of A ere. 

KISS, a love token, as given 
in salutation j which has been 

practised among all nations. 
The ancient oriental, and 
especially the Persian mode 
of salutation was, between 
persons of equal rank to kiss 
each other on the lips ; when 
the difference of rank was 
slight, they kissed each other 
on the cheek ; when one was 
much inferior, he fell on his 
knees, and touched his fore- 
head to the ground, or pros- 
trated himself, kissing at the 
same time his hand toward 
the superior. See Job xxxi, 
27 ; hence kissing the feet, 
hands, and lips of idols, was 
to perform the rites of wor- 
ship in the most submissive 
manner, 1 Kings xix, 18. The 
Jews considered the kiss to 
be an expression of friend- 
ship, 2 Sam. xx, 9. Our Lord 
says to Simon, Luke vii, 45, 
' ' Thou hast given me no fa'ss," 
meaning that he had not ex- 
pressed such affection to him 
as the woman had done who 
kissed his feet. This man- 
ner of expressing friendship 
to each other, the disciples 
of Christ adopted and prac- 
tised in their religious assem- 
blies, Rom. xvi, 16. This the 
apostle calls the kiss of cha- 
rity, 1 Pet. v, 14, to distin- 
guish it from, the treacherous 
kiss of Joab and Judas ; be- 
ing given as an expression, 
of that sincere, chaste, spi- 
ritual love which Christians 
owe to one another. " Right 
eousness and peace kiss each 
other," Psa. Ixxxv, 10, (in the 
other member of the sentence, 
are tnet together,) i. e., are 
mutually connected, happi- 




ness follows upon righteous- 
ness. . . 

KITE> a rapacious bird of 
the hawk kind, -whose forked 
tail distinguishes it from all 
other birds of prey. Hence 
unclean, Lev. xi, 14. 

KO'HATH, the second 
son of Levi, and father of 
Amram. Kohath's family was 
appointed to carry the ark and 
sacred vessels of the taber- 
nacle, while the Israelites 
marched through the wilder- 
ness, Num. iv, &c. 

KORAH, a Levite, who 
conspired against Mo'ses, 
Num. xvi, 1, and offered 
strange fire, i. e., fire not 
consecrated, fire not taken 
from the altar. In verses 9, 
10, which follow, is a com- 
mand to Aaron and his sons 
that they should drink neither 
wine nor strong drink when 
they go into the tabernacle 
of the congregation, lest they 
should, die there. The con- 
nection of the whole would 
seem to show that these of- 
fenders were under the influ- 
ence of intoxicating liquors, 
when they offered strange 
fire before the Lord. 

The sons ofKorah,Korahites, 
a family of Levites, and sing- 
ers in the time of David, in 
all probability the descend- 
ants of Korah, and to whom 
ten of the Psalms are attri- 
buted. In style they differ 
very sensibly from the Psalms 
of David ; and they are some 
of the most exquisite of 
all the lyric compositions 
which the book of Psalm 

LAMA/ aT~ Hebrew word 
which signifies why, where' 

LAMECH, a son of Me- 
thusael, a descendant of Cain, 
and the first to misuse the 
arms invented by his son 
Tubal Cain, who was the 
first smith on record, and 
who taught how to make war- 
like instruments and domes- 
tic utensils out of brass and 
iron. His address to his 
wives is probably the oldest 
piece of poetry in the world. 
The following would seem to 
be a more appropriate trans- 
lation of a part of ( it : "I have 
slain a man wKo wounded 
me ; a young man who ,smote 
me." It is not to be under- 
stood that Lamech had slain 
two persons ; it is merely the 
repetition of poetic parallel- 
ism, Gen. iv, 19-24. 

remiah, were intended as a 
pathetic description of the 
desolation of Judah and Jeru- 
salem during the Babylonian 
captivity, Lam. iv, 22. The 
Lamentations are written in 
metre, and consist of a num- 
ber of plaintive effusions, 
composed after the manner 
of funeral dirges. Tender- 
ness and sorrow form the 
general character of these 
elegies ; . and an attentive 
reader will find great beauty 
in many of the images, and 
great energy in some of the 

LAMP, a vessel for the 
burning of oil by means of a 
wick. The houses in the 
east were, from the remotest 




antiquity, lighted with lamps ; 
and hence it is so common 
in Scripture to call every 
thing which enlightens the 
body or mind, which guides 
or refreshes, by the name of 
a lamp. To extinguish the 
light in an apartment, is a 
convertible phrase for total 
destruction ; and nothing can 
more properly and emphati- 
cally represent the total de- 
struction of a city than the 
extinction of the lights, Job 
xxi, 17 ; xviii, 5, 6. A burn- 
ing lamp is, on the other hand, 
the chosen symbol of prospe- 
rity ; a beautiful instance of 
which occurs 'in the complaint 
of Job, xxix, 2, 3. 

A lamp despised, Job xii, 5, 
is one thrown aside because 
it ceases to give light ; the 
emblem of a man once in 
high consideration, but now- 
vile and contemned. 

LANGUAGE is the ex- 
pression of thought, either by 
articulate sounds, or by sym- 
bols ; and this is one of the 
noblest traits of man, as dis- 
tinguished from all other ter- 
restrial beings. Language is 
undoubtedly the gift of God, 
as the most authentic history 
of our race, the book of Ge- 
nesis, shows us that man 
possessed the power of em- 
ploying language, and actual- 
ly used that power, from the 
earliest period after his for- 

Many learned men are of 
the opinion that the Hebrew 
was the original language, 
which continued the language 
of the whole earth for nearly 

2000 years, or until about a 
century after the flood. It 
was then that the tower of 
Babel was erected ; and, for 
the purpose of confounding 
that presumptuous enterprise, 
God caused a confusion of 
languages, so that the various 
tribes should be incapable of 
understanding each other, and 
of course incapable of prose 
cuting their plans. 

LANTERN. The word 
occurs, John xviii, 3. They 
came thus furnished to appre- 
hend our Lord, lest he should 
escape through the darkness 
of the night. 

LATTICE, any work of 
wood or iron made by cross- 
ing laths, rods, or bars, and 
forming open squares like net 
work. Hence the net wotk 
windows, windows of narrow 
lights, 1 Kings vi, 4, which 
are still usual in the cham- 
bers of eastern houses, Judges 
v, 28. These lattices or bars 
being let into the walls or 
; beams, couldnot be opened and 
shut at pleasure. Also Ba- 
lustrade, lattice work, which 
surrounds the roofs, 2 Kings 
i, 2. 

LA-0-DI-CE'A, the chief 
city of Phrygia, in Asia Minor, 
situated on the river Lycus, 
not far to the south of Colosse 
and Hierapolis, with w r hich it 
was destroyed by an earth- 
quake about A. D. 65 ; but 
was rebuilt by Marcus Aure- 
lius. Its three theatres, and 
the immense circus, which 
was capable of containing 
upward of thirty thousand 
spectators, the spacious re- 




mains of which (with other 
ruins buried under ruins) are 
yet to be seen, give proof 
of its ancient wealth and 
population ; and indicate too 
strongly, that in that city 
where Christians were re- 
buked, without exception, for 
their lukewarmness, there 
were multitudes who were 
lovers of pleasure more than 
lovers of God. Its own tra- 
gedy may be briefly told. It 
was lukewarm, and neither 
cold nor hot ; and therefore it 
was loathsome in the sight of 
God. And it has been blotted 
from the world. It is now 
as desolate as its inhabitants 
were destitute of the fear and 
love of God. 

LAPWING, a species of 
snipe, about the size of a 
pigeon, found in Europe in 
large flocks ; but according to 
the Septuagint and Vulgate, 
the hoopoe is intended a 
beautiful crested bird> which 
is solitary and migratory, and 
sometimes called the marsh 

LAVER, a wash basin, 
made of brazen ornaments, 
and placed in the tabernacle 
for the use of the priests, 
Exod. xxx, 18. Solomon had 
one made of vast size, sup- 
ported by twelve brazen oxen, 
and placed near the entrance 
of the temple, which was 
called the molten sea, 1 Kings 
vii, 22. It was nearly fifteen 
feet in diameter and eight 
deep, and had cocks for the 
convenience of drawing off 
the water into basins. 

LAW signifies a rule by 

which actions are to be de- 
termined, and is either na- 
tural "or positive ; the former 
is founded on the unchange- 
able nature of things, and is 
therefore immutable ; the lat- 
ter is founded on the circum- 
stances in which rational 
creatures may happen to be 
placed, and is therefore 
changeable. The former is 
called moral, .the latter ritual. 

1. The term law is some- 
times taken in general, with- 
out reference to a particular 
people or state, Rom. iv, 15. 

2. It is sometimes applied 
to the whole Mosaic code or 
body of laws. 

3. To the particular laws, 
statutes, or ordinances, given 
by Moses, whether moral, 
ceremonial, or political. The 
moral law relates to the heart 
and conduct of men, Rom. 
vii, 7 ; the ceremonial to 
external religious rites, as 
purification and sacrifice, 
John vii, 23 ; and political to 
civil rights and duties, John 
vii, 51. 

4. Law frequently signifies 
divine revelation in general. 
Thus the oracles of God, 
with which the Jews were 
intrusted, have the name of 
law often given to them, Psa. 
xix, 7: John x, 34, with a 
particular reference to the 
preceptive part. But when 
the Jewish Scriptures are 
distinguished into parts, as 
Luke xxiv, 44 ; the laiv in that 
division denotes the Penta- 
teuch, or five books of Moses : 
farther, because the covenant 
with Abraham is one of the 




greatest of the ancient oracles 
of God, and is in substance 
the Gospel . covenant ; it is 
called in some passages the 
law, as Rom. ii, 25, 26. In 
like manner, the Gospel is 
sometimes called the law. It 
is called the perfect law, to 
distinguish it from the law of 
Moses, which made no man 
perfect either in respect of 
holiness or pardon, Heb. vii, 
19; whereas the Gospel makes 
men perfect in both. It is 
also called the law of liberty, 

1. Because it delivers men 
from the slavery of their lusts, 
and restores the dominion of 
reason and conscience in their 
minds, which is true liberty. 

2. Because it has freed the 
Jews from the law of Moses, 
which was a yoke of bondage 
they were not able to bear. 

3. Because it delivers all true 
believers from the punish- 
ment of sin. 4. Because it 
assures us that in the eye of 
God all men are on a level, 
and equally entitled to the 
privileges of the Gospel. 
5. Because it forbids the ac- 
ceptance of persons in judg- 
ment, James ii, 12. Law also 
signifies the law of nature, 
Rom. iii, 20, which being 
written on men's hearts, they 
are said on that account to be 
a law unto themselves. 

Lastly, law is used in a 
metaphorical sense for any 
thing which hath the force and 
strength of a law, " as the law 
of sin," "the law of death ;" 
works of the law are the works 
which the law requires. 

LAWYER, a person learn- 

ed in the law of Moses, par- 
ticularly the oral or tradition- 
ary law ; one devoted to the 
study and explanation of the 
Scriptures. The lawyers be- 
longed to the sect of the Pha- 
risees. See SCEIBE. 

LEAD, a heavy metal, and 
one of the six well known to 
the ancients, Num. xxxi, 22. 
It is soft and inelastic, and 
has a bluish grey colour ; and 
when recently cut, a strong 
metallic lustre. We are in- 
formed that writing with an 
iron style or pen on rolls of 
lead was of high" antiquity, 
and came into practice next 
after writing on the bark and 
leaves of trees, and was used 
in recording public transac- 
tions, Job xix, 24. 

LEAF. The bright fresh 
colour of the leaf of a tree, or 
plant, shows that it is richly 
nourished by a good soil. 
Hence it is emblematical of 
prosperity. On the contrary, 
a faded leaf becomes a fit 
emblem of adversit}' and de- 
cay, Jer. xvii, 8 ; Isa. Ixiv, 6. 

LEASING, falsehood, lies, 
Psa. iv, 2. 

LEAST, superlative of 
less, least in magnitude, in 
number, and quantity, Luke 
xvi, 10 ; in rank or dignity, 
Matt, ii, 6 ; and in weight or 
importance, Matt, v, 19. 

LEAVEN, fermented or 
sour dough. Hence as leaven 
causes to ferment and turn 
sour, it is spoken proverbial- 
ly, 1 Cor. v, 6 ; a little leaven 
leavens ihe whole mass, i. e., 
a few bad men corrupt a mul- 
titude ; taken also for corrupt' 




- ness, pervsrseness of life, doc- 
trine, and heart. The word 
is applied by Christ, Luke 
xii, 1, to the hypocrisy of the 
Pharisees ; a vice which se- 
cretly puffed up their minds, 
and- strangely spread itself 
through their hearts and ac- 
tions, so as to taint and spoil 
the very best of their duties. 
The Jews were commanded 
to put away all leaven, both 
old and new, before they ate 
the passover, as being an em- 
blem of wickedness, which 
sours and corrupts the mind, 
as. leaven does the lump into 
which it is put, if it remain 
long unbaked. Old leaven 
signifies wicked persons^, and 
wicked practices. The inces- 
tuous Corinthian is called 
the old leaven, 1 Cor. v, 7, 
because he was not a new 
offender, but had continued 
long in the bad practice for 
which he was to be cast out ; 
or, as, his crime was whore- 
dom, it is called old leaven, 
because the Corinthians in 
their heathen state had been 
much addicted to that vice. 

LEBANON, white. The 
celebrated lime-stone moun- 
tains on the confines of Syria 
and Palestine, consisting of 
two lofty parallel ridges, of 
which the western one is 
called by way of excellence 
Lebanon ; while the eastern 
ridge, which is higher, and 
in part covered with eternal 
snows, Jer. xviii, 14, bears 
the name of Anti-libanus ; and 
in its southern part that of 
Hermon. But the Hebrews 
do not make this distinction 

of names, denominating both 
summits by the name of Le- 
banon. These mountains are 
particularly striking to the 
traveller approaching both 
from the Mediterranean on 
the west, and the desert on 
the east. On either side, he 
first discovers, at a great dis- 
tance, a clouded ridge, stretch- 
ing from north to south, ^s far 
as the eye can see ; the cen- 
tral summits of which are 
capped with clouds, or tipped 
with snow. This is Lebanon, 
which is often referred to in 
Holy Writ for its streams, its 
timber, and its wines ; and at 
the present day the seat of 
the only portion of freedom 
of which Syria can boast. 

Mr. Fisk describes these 
mountains in the following 
manner : " You would per- 
haps like to know how Mount 
Lebanon looks. It is not, as 
I used to suppose, one moun- 
tain, but a multitude of moun- 
tains thrown together, and 
separated by very deep nar- 
row valleys, which seem to 
have been made merely for 
the sake of dividing the- hills. 
There are more trees on 
Mount Lebanon than on the 
hills of Judea ; yet there is 
nothing which the Americans 
would call a forest. Most of 
the trees where I have been 
are either pines or fruit trees. 
I have not yet seen the cedars. 
The roads are bad, worse, and 
worst ; steep and rocky, I pre- 
sume, beyond any thing you 
ever saw in Vermont or any 
where else. I generally ride 
a mule or an ass : and it is 




often literally riding up and 
down stairs for a considera- 
ble distance together. These 
mountains present a variety 
of the most rude, sublime, 
and romantic scenery." An- 
ciently on these mountains 
grew cedars, of which there 
remain (1824) about 300, and 
some of them of great size 
and antiquity. Every thing 
about this tree has a strong 
balsamic odour ; and hence the 
whole - grove is so pleasant 
and fragrant, that it is delight- 
ful to walk in it. This is 
probably the smell of Lebanon 
spoken of in Song iv, 11; 
Hos. xiv, 6. In the summer, 
snow is often brought down 
into the neighbouring cities 
and mingled with the drink 
of the inhabitants, in order 
to render it more cool and 
refreshing, Prov. xxv, 13. 

The cedar of Lebanon has, 
in all ages, been reckoned as 
an object of unrivalled gran- 
deur and beauty in the vege- 
table kingdom. It is, accord- 
ingly, one of the natural ima- 
ges which frequently occur in 
the poetical style of the He- 
brew prophets ; and is ap- 
propriated to denote kings, 
princes, and potentates of the 
highest rank. 

The stupendous size, the 
extensive range, and great 
elevation of Libanus ; its 
towering summits capped with 
perpetual snow, or crowned 
with fragrant cedars ; its olive 
plantations ; its vineyards, 
producing the most delicious 
wines ; its clear fountains, 
and cold-flowing brooks ; its 

fertile vales, and odoriferous 
shrubberies combine to form 
in Scripture language, " the 
glory of Lebanon," Isaiah 
xxxv, 2. 

LEEK, a bulbous, well 
known vegetable, like the 
onion. It has been culti- 
vated in Egypt from a very 
early period-. 

LEES, dregs, or sediment 
of wine, which remains at 
the bottom of the vessel. By 
keeping wine standing on the 
lees its strength and colour 
are preserved. " Wines on 
the lees" Isa. xxv, 6, i. e., 
good old wine purified by the 
lees settling to the bottom. 
" To rest upon one's lees" 
Zeph. i, 12, is to be hardened 
in sin, to live a life of indif- 

"fj? i*f*n f* (* 

LEGION, the largest di- 
vision of troops in the Roman 
army, consisting of thirty 
bands or six thousand men, 
though varying greatly in 
numbers at different periods. 
It is taken for an indefinitely 
great number, e. g., of angels, 
Matt, xxvi, 53, of demons, 
Mark v, 9. 

LEMUEL, a king, men- 
tioned Prov. xxxi, 1-4, other- 
wise unknown, probably not 
an Israelite, perhaps an Ara- 
bian, to v whom the moral 
maxims from verse 2-9 are 

LENTIL, a kind of pulse, 
resembling small beans, and 
crooked in the same manner, 
used chiefly by the poor. This 
formed a reddish or chocolate 
coloured dish, which is called 
red pottage, Gen. xxv, 29, 30. 




LEOPARD, a fierce ani- 
mal, of the cat kind, found 
chiefly in Senegal, remark- 
able for its spotted skin, by 
which only it is sensibly dis- 
tinguished from the panther, 
so for its cruelty, insi- 


diousness, and activity, Jer. 
v, 6 ; Hos. xiii, 7 ; Hab. i, 8. 
It is said to be extremely 
cruel to man all which pro- 
perties seem to be alluded to 
in the emblematic beast men- 
tioned, Rev. xiii, 1, 2. 

LEP'ER, a person afflicted 
with the leprosy. The law 
excluded such from society ; 
banished them into the coun- 
try, and to places uninhabited, 
Lev. xiii, 45, 46; and even 
kings under the disease were 
expelled their palaces, and 
deprived of their government, 
2 Chron. xxvi, 20. 

LEPROSY, a contagious 
disease, which exhibits itself 
on the skin, Lev. xiii, 42-45, 
appearing in dry, white, thin 
scales, or scabs, either on 
the whole body or on some 
part of it, and usually attend- 
ed with violent itching, and 
other pains. The eastern 
leprosy was a most filthy and 
loathsome distemper, highly 
contagious, so as to infect 
and seize even garments and 
houses, and by human means 
incurable, at least so deemed 
by the Jews, 2 Kings v, 7. 
This disease formerly exist- 
ed in warm climates, but is 
not now very common. It is, 
however, among the Arabs, 
and generally over the east. 
At Stiio,- l Howard found a 
hospital for ^patients labour- 

ing under this malady. It 
contained 120 persons lodged 
in separate rooms. The lep- 
rosy has ever been consider- 
ed as a lively emblem of the 
moral taint or corruption of 
the nature of every man, as 
the sacrifices which were to 
be offered by the healed lener 
prefigured the Lamb of (rod 
that taketh away the sin of the 

LET is frequently used to 
signify to hinder, retard, to in- 
terpose obstructions. 

LETTERS, marks for the 
purpose of expressing sounds 
used in writing. Few sub- 
jects have given rise to more 
discussion than the origin of 
alphabetic characters. But 
the author and the era of this 
discovery are both lost in the 
darkness of remote antiquity. 
Even the nation to which the 
invention is due cannot now 
be ascertained. 

Writing and reading were 
familiar to Moses and the 
Israelites when the law was 
given, and must have long 
previously existed among 
them, and, probably, among 
the Egyptians of the same 
age too ; which is much ear- 
lier than any of those monu- 
ments bearing hieroglyphical 
characters reach. We have 
given sufficient reason to con- 
clude that Job lived at an ear- 
lier period still, and as he ex- 
presses a wish that his words 
should be written in a book, 
and engraven on the rock, the 
knowledge of reading as well 
as writing must" have been 
pretty general in his country, 




or the book and the inscrip- 
tion could not have been a 
.testimony of his faith and 
.hope to his countrymen, as 
he passionately desired it to 
be. Here, too, it is to be 
observed, that in the early 
Mosaic history we have not 
the least intimation of writing 
by pictures or symbols, nor 
any that the art of writing had 
been revealed from heaven in 
the days of Moses, prepara- 
tory to the giving of a written 
law, and the introduction of 
inspired books for the reli- 
gious instruction of the peo- 
ple. We must trace it up 
higher ; though whether of 
Divine revelation, or human 
.invention, cannot certainly 
be determined. Its import- 
ance was assuredly worthy 
of the former; and if this was 
not done by particular revela- 
tion, doubtless we may rea- 
sonably and piously ascribe 
it to a Divine suggestion. 

2. Sacred literature, or a 
knowledge of the Scriptures, 
John vii, 15. 

3. Paul uses the term let- 
ter to signify the literal sense 
and external ceremonies of 
the law, Rom. ii, 29. " The 
oldness of the letter" Rom. 
vii, 6, means the outward ser- 
vice of God. Paul places the 
letter in opposition to the Spi- 
rit, and by distinguishing be- 
tween the Spirit and the let- 
ter of the law of Moses, he 
intimates that the rites en- 
joined in that law were typi- 
cal, and had a spiritual or 
moral meaning, as Moses also 

declared to the 

Jews, Deut. xxx, G ; Lev. xxvi, 
41. The Prophet Jeremiah 
likewise represents circum- 
cision as emblematical, chap, 
iv, 4 ; consequently all the 
other rites of the law were so 

LE-VI'A-THAN, the cro- 
codile, an amphibious animal 
of the lizard genus of the 
largest kind, Job xli, 1. The 
description of leviathan suits 
no animal but the crocodile. 
The crocodile is a natural 
inhabitant of the Nile, and 
other Asiatic and African 
rivers ; of enormous voracity 
and strength, as well as fleet- 
ness in swimming ; attacks 
mankind and the largest ani- 
mals with most daring impe- 
tuosity ; when taken by means 
of a powerful net, will often 
overturn the boats that sur- 
round it ; has, proportionally, 
the largest mouth of all mon- 
sters whatever; moves both 
its jaws equally, the upper of 
which has not less than forty, 
and the lower than thirty- 
eight sharp, but strong and 
massy teeth ; and is furnish- 
ed with a coat of mail, so 
scaly and callous as to resist 
the force of a musket ball in 
every part except under the 
belly. Indeed, to this animal 
the general character of the 
leviathan seems so well to 
apply, that it is unnecessary 
to seek farther. 

LEVITE, one of the pos- 
terity of Levi, son of Jacob, 
spoken in the Old Testament 
of the descendants of the 
three great families into which 
this tribe was divided ; the 




heads of which were Ger- 
shom, Kohath, and Merari, 
Num. iii, 17. They were 
appointed by the Mosaic law 
to be the ministers and ser- 
vants of the priests, and to 
perform the menial offices of 
the temple ; they studied the 
law, and were the ordinary 
judges of the country, but 
subordinate to- the priests, 
Num. viii, 5-7. 

LE-VIT'I-CUS, the third 
book of the Pentateuch ; so 
called because it treats prin- 
cipally of the Levites. It 
also gives an account of the 
priests, and seems to contain 
little more than the history 
of what passed during the 
eight days employed in con- 
secrating Aaron and his sons 
to the priesthood, which took 
plabe 1490 B. C. > 

LIBERTINE, afreedman. 
The Libertines are mentioned 
in Acts vi, 9 ; these were pro- 
bably Jews, who having been 
carried as captives to Rome, 
and then freed by their mas- 
ters, had settled down as 
residents in that city, i. e., as 
Roman freedmen. Philo ex- 
pressly affirms that a large 
section of the city beyond the 
Tiber was occupied by Jews 
of this character. Tacitus, 
a celebrated Latin historian, 
also relates that, under Ti- 
berius, 4,000 freedmen were 
at once transported to Sar- 
dinia. Robinson. 

LIBERTY, as opposed to 
servitude and slavery, denotes 
the condition of a man who 
may act independently of the 
will of another. Spiritual 

liberty consists in freedom 
from the curse of the moral 
law ; from the servitude of the 
ritual ; from the love, power, 
and guilt of sin ; from the 
dominion of Satan ; from the 
corruptions of the world , 
from the fear of death, and 
the wrath to come. 

-LIBYA, a region of Africa 
west of Egypt, along the coast 
of the Mediterranean, and 
extending -back indefinitely 
into the desert. Cyrene was 
its chief city, in which, and 
in other cities of this province, 
dwelt. many Jews, -Acts ii, 

LIE, a lie is that which is 
spoken with an intention to 
deceive. Any thing decep- 
five,- fallacious, which -deludes 
with false hopes, as idoZ.s,Psa. 
xl, 4 ; - Amos -it, 4 ; a false 
oracle, Ezek. xiii, 6-8. The 
apostle speaks of " changing 
the truth of God into a lie" 
Idols are fitly called " a lie" 
being false representations 
of the Deity. They are also 
called " lying vanities," Psa. 
xxxi, 6 ; and every image of 
an idol is termed a teacher of 
lies, Hab. ii, 18. " We have 
made lies our refuge," Isa. 
xxviii, 15, i. e., we have 
placed our confidence in the 
delusive promises of false 
prophets, or in the assistance 
of idols which cannot save 
their deluded votaries. By 
implication, a lie is falsehood 
toward God, i. e., wickedness, 
ungodliness ; so to make a lie, 
is to practise wickedness, or 
perhaps idolatry. 




vemors or viceroys of large 
provinces among the ancient 
Persians, possessing both 
civil and military power, and 
being in the provinces the 
representatives of the sove- 
reign, whose state and splen- 
dour they also rivalled. But 
parts or subdivisions of these 
provinces were under depu- 
ties, sometimes called "go- 
vernors over every province," 
Esth. Hi, 12; he, 3. 

LIFE, the vital principle, 
also the season or time which 
one lives, 1 Cor. xv, 19. The 
Hebrews regarded life as a 
journey, a pilgrimage on the 
face of the earth, Psa. xxxix, 
12. The traveller, as they 
supposed, when he arrived at 
the end of his journey, which 
happened when lie died, \vas 
received into the company of 
his ancestors who had gone 
before him, Gen. xxv, 8 ; Heb. 
xi, 13-15. Reception into 
the presence of God at death 
is asserted only in two pas- 
sages of the Old Testament, 
Hag. ii, 23 ; Eccl. xii, 7. 
Spiritual life consists in union 
with God, influenced by a 
principle of grace, which leads 
to activity in .his service. 
Eternal life is not barely the 
perpetuity of being ; but that 
bliss and glory which springs 
from the presence of God, 
and the fulfilment of his pre- 
cious promises. Life is put 
absolutely for the source of 
all life, John i, 4. It also 
signifies manner of life, con- 
duct, in a moral respect, Rom. 
vi, 4 ; life of God, i. e., which 
God requires? a godly life, 

Eph. iv, 18. " A man's life 
consisteth not in the abund* 
ance of the things which he 
possesseth," Luke xii, 5. By 
life, our Lord obviously means 
man's true interest, and.that, 
he teaches us, consists not in 
worldly abundance, but be- 
ing rich toward God, i. e., 
endowed with those things 
which form the treasure of 
the soul, and will remain its 
treasure after death. 

LIGHT. The nature of 
light is yet unknown ; accord- 
ing to some, it is an emana- 
tion from luminous bodies, 
and consists of inconceivably 
minute particles, which are 
too subtle to exhibit the com- 
mon properties of matter, 
travel in straight lines with 
immense velocity, and pro- 
duce the sensation of light, 
by passing into the eye, .and 
striking against the expanded 
nerve of vision, the retina. 
Others ascribe its effects to 
the vibration or undulations 
of a subtle, ethereal medium, 
universally present in nature, 
the pulses of which, in some 
way excited by luminous ob- 
jects, pass through space and 
transparent bodies, and give 
rise to vision by impressing 
the retina in the same \vay 
as pulsations of air impress 
the nerve of hearing, and 
produce the sensation of 
sound. Its motion is ex- 
tremely quick, and is said to 
move about ten millions of 
miles in a minute. The term 
light is much used in Scrip- 
ture : 1. For artificial light, 
a luminous body, as a lamp 




or torch, Acts xvi, 29. 2. Na- 
tural light, as the sun, moon, 
and stars. 3. For the mind, 
conscience, 'The light that is 
in thee," Matt, vi, 23. Light 
is used as the emblem of 
welfare, prosperity, happiness. 
The Lord is called uxTlight 
of Israel, as the author and 
source of prosperity and hap- 
piness to them, Isa. Ix, 1-3. 
The light of the countenance 
signifies the cheerful, agree- 
able look of persons who are 
pleased, in opposition to the 
gloomy, forbidding mien of 
those who are displeased. 
" Light being the purest of 
all materialsubstances," says 
Macknight, " and that which, 
by means of the eye, conveys 
to the mind pleasures more 
grateful and more various 
than those communicated by 
the other senses ; it is fitly 
used metaphorically to de- 
note knowledge and virtue. 
Wherefore, when we are told 
that God is light, it signifies 
not only that he is infinite in 
knowledge, and possessed of 
all moral perfection, without 
the least mixture of evil ; but 
that the contemplation of his 
nature and perfections is^ as 
pleasant to the minds of his 
rational creatures as light is 
to the eye." By metonomy, 
it is used for the author and 
dispenser of moral and spi- 
ritual light ; a moral teacher, 
but especially Jesus the great 
teacher and Saviour of the 
world, who brought life and 
immortality to light in his 
Gospel. " Armour of light," 
Rom. xiii, 12 ; the Christian 

virtues, which for their ex- 
cellence and beauty may be 
compared to a robe of light, 
or such dress as is fit for the 
children of light to wear. 
Armour being used for any 
equipage of the body, may 
signify clothes,- dress, &c. 
" The light of his cloud is 
lightning,-" Job xxxvii, 15. 

LIGHTNING, Job xxviii, 
26, a flash of electricity pass- 
ing from one cloud to an- 
other, or from the clouds to 
the earth. Sometimes the 
earth and atmosphere appear 
to make a mutual exchange 
of their surplus electricity. 
When this subtle fluid is 
equally diffused, it remains 
in a state of quiescence ; but 
when this equilibrium is de- 
stroyed by some cause not 
perhaps fully understood, then 
the bodies which have it in a 
degree less than others at- 
tract it, and it moves with 
such astonishing rapidity as 
to rend the stoutest oaks, and 
tear in pieces the strongest 
buildings. Dr. Franklin was 
the first man who was bold 
enough to make an experi- 
ment on the clouds, and to 
draw down the lightning from 
the sky. He supposed that 
lightning and electricity were 
identically the same, and 
determined to ascertain by 
direct experiment the truth 
of his bold conjecture. Hav- 
ing constructed a kite, by 
stretching a large silk hand- 
kerchief over two sticks in. 
the form of a cross, on the 
first appearance of an ap- 
proaching storm, in June 1752, 




he went, into a field, accom- 
panied by his son, to whom 
alone he had imparted his 
design. Having raised his 
kite, and attached a key to 
the lower end of the hempen 
string, he insulated it, by 
fastening it to a post by means 
of silk, and waited with in- 
tense anxiety for the result. 
When Franklin was about to 
despair of success, his atten- 
tion was caught by the brist- 
ling up of some loose fibres on 
the hempen cord : he imme- 
diately presented his knuckle 
to the key, and received an 
electric spark ! The rain now 
fell in torrents, and wetting 
the string, rendered it con- 
ducting in its whole length, 
so that electric sparks were 
now collected from it in great 
abundance. But, in 1753, 
Professor Richman, of St. 
Petersburg!*, was killed while 
making a similar attempt. 

LIGN ALOES. The same 
as ALOES, which see. 

LIG'URE, a precious stone 
of a deep red colour, with a 
considerable tinge of yellow. 

LILY, a well known and 
beautiful flower, of a great 
variety of species, the most 
beautiful of which are found 
in eastern countries, and are 
often mentioned by travellers. 
It furnished Solomon with a 
variety of images in his Song, 
and with graceful ornaments 
in the fabric and. furniture of 
the temple, see Matt, vi, 28. 

LIME, the protoxide of cal- 
cium, a well known white, 
brittle, earthy substance, 

which is obtained by expos- 
ing carbonate of lime, i. e., 
Iceland spar, marble, or shells- 
to a strong red heat, so as to 
expel the carbonic acid. It 
has a powerful affinity for 
water, and the combination 
forms a white bulky hydrate, 
,which is composed of twenty- 
eight parts by weight of lime, 
and nine of water. The pro- 
cess of slaking lime consists 
in forming this hydrate, and 
the hydrate itself is the com- 
mon slaked lime ; during this 
process, a large quantity of 
heat is disengaged, and, if 
done in the dark, light will be 
seen. The heat is caused by 
the condensation of the water, 
which enters into a chemical 
combination with the lime, 
forming the hydrate above 
mentioned. Lime is dissolv- 
ed very sparingly by water ; 
and it is a singular fact, that 
it is more soluble in cold than 
in hot water. Thus on heat- 
ing water which contains 
lime in solution, a deposition, 
ensues on the sides of the 
vessel. The prophet speaks 
of " burning human bones 
into lime" Amos ii, 1. Bones 
are composed of the phosphate 
and carbonate of lime and ani- 
mal matter, and when heated 
to redness in an open vessel, 
a white substance remains, 
mostly the phosphate of lime. 
LINE, a cord used for 
measuring land, as land is 
measured with us by a chain, 
Ezek, xl, 3 ; Amos vii, 17 ; 
Psa. Ixxviii, 55. The word 
is accordingly used, by a 
figure of speech, for the 




tlon measured out and assign- 
ed to any one ; the lot or 
heritage itself, Psa. xvi, 6. 
Hence used metaphorically 
for law, rule. "Line upon 
line," Isa. xxviii, 10. It seems 
to be used also for the cord 
or string of a musical instru- 
ment ; and hence sound, Psa. 
xix, 4. 

LINEN, the cloth made 
from flax, a well known plant. 
A most precious stuff was 
made from this plant, distin- 
guished for its fineness and 
beauty, and worn by kings, 

Eriests, and other persons of 
igh rank and honour, Esth. 
i, 6, and viii, 15. Flax was 
cultivated very extensively 
in Egypt, both for the oil 
which was expressed from 
its seeds, and for the manu- 
facture of linen. It is men- 
tioned in Exod. ix, 31, as one 
of the large and important 
crops smitten down by the 
plague of hail. It was also 
an article of foreign com- 
merce. Solomon made large 
and regular importations of 
it, 1 Kings x, 28 ; so Prov. 
vii, 16, "Fine linen of Egypt." 
The manufacture of this arti- 
cle was of a very early date, 
and the wearing of it a matter 
of courtly use and luxury in 
the days of Joseph, Gen. xli, 
42. Also a cloth manufac- 
tured from the produce of the 
cotton tree. The pods of this 
shrub, which grow as large 
as pigeons' eggs, turn black 
when ripe, and divide at the 
top into three parts ; the cot- 
ton is as white as snow, and 
with the heat of the sun, 

swells to the size of a hen's 
egg. The Scriptures speak 
of cotton sometimes where 
the English version has fine 
linen, e.g.,Exod.xxv,4. This 
cloth, which is still found 
wrapped around mummies, 
appears to .have been about 
of the texture and quality of 
the modern cotton sheeting ; 
certainly not finer. Garments 
of cotton, varied in colour 
according to the tint of the 
material ; white are mention- 
oned, Rev. xix, 8 ; and they 
were sometimes dyed of a 
purple or crimson colour, 
Luke xvi, 19. See PtiRPLE. 

LINTEL, the upper part 
of a door way, Exod. xii, 
7, 22. 

LION, a large beast of 
prey, for his courage and 
strength called the king of 
beasts. This animal is pro- 
duced in Africa, and the hot- 
test parts of Asia. It is found 
in the greatest numbers in 
the scorched and desolate re- 
gions of the torrid zone, in 
the deserts of Zahara and 
Billdulgerid, and in all the 
interior parts of the vast con- 
tinent of Africa. In these 
desert regions, from whence 
mankind are driven by the 
rigorous heat of the climate, 
this animal reigns sole mas- 
ter. His disposition seems 
to partake of "the ardour of 
his native clime. Inflamed 
by the influence of a burning 
sun, his rage is tremendous, 
and his courage undaunted. 
Happily, indeed, the species 
is not numerous, and is Said 
to be greatly diminished. 




The length of the largest lion 
is between eight and nine 
feet, the tail about four, and 
its height about four feet and 
a half. The female is about 
one-fourth less, and without 
a mane. As the lion ad- 
vances in years, his mane 
grows longer and thicker. 
The hair on the rest of the 
body is short and smooth, of 
a tawny colour, but whlsish 
on the belly. Its roaring is 
loud. When heard in the 
night it resembles distant 
thunder, and is one of the 
most terrible sounds in na- 
ture ; but it becomes still 
more dreadful when it is 
known to be a sure prelude 
of destruction to whatever 
living creature comes in his 
way ; for the lion does not 
usually set up his horrid roar 
till he beholds his prey, and 
is just going to seize it. This 
. fact is referred to in the Bible, 
Amos iii, 4 ; Isa. v, 29 ; Judg. 
xiv, 5. Its cry of anger is 
much louder and shorter. 
The attachment of a lioness 
to her young is remarkably 
strong. For their support 
she is more ferocious than 
the lion himself; makes her 
incursions with greater bold- 
ness ; destroys, without dis- 
tinction, every animal that 
falls in her way, and carries 
it reeking to her cubs. When 
much disturbed or alarmed, 
she will sometimes transport 
her young, which are usually 
three or four in number, from 
one place to another in her 
mouth ; and, if obstructed in 
her couzse, will defend them 

to the last extremity. The 
habits of the lion and the 
lioness afford many spirited 
and often sublime metaphor* 
to the sacred writers. 

The word is also used for 
a cruel adversary t a persecutor, 
2 Tim. iv, 17, where some 
understand Nero, others So. 
tan, and others again, as. 
denoting an escape from the 
greatest dangers ; in which 
sense it is used in Psa. xxii,. 
21. Some suppose that the 
apostle wouid not give so dis- 
respectful an appellation to- 
Nero. " The Lion of the tribe 
of Judah," Rev. v, 5, is a pow- 
erful deliverer ; compare Jer. 
xlix, 19 ; the lit essiah, in al- 
lusion to Jacob's prophecy, 
Gen. xlix, 9. 

LIP. Because the lip is 
one of the chief instruments, 
of speaking, it signifies lan- 
guage ; it is also used for 
talk, words, discourse. 

Lying lips, Prov. x, 18, i. e., 
a man of falsehood and de- 

Burning lips, Prov. xxvi, 
23, are words expressing 
ardent affection. 

Calves of the lips, Hos. xiv, 
2. The apostle translates this 
phrase, Heb. xiii, 15, "The 
fruit of pur lips." Praise and 
thanksgiving to God uttered 
by the lips. 

LITTER, a vehicle form- 
ed of shafts supporting a bed 
between them, in which a 
person may be borne by men 
or by a horse, Isa. Ixvi, 20. 

LIVER is called in He- 
brew Heavy, as being the 
heaviest of the viscera ; just 

el's Die. p. 266. 





as the lungs, which are the 
lightest, are in our language 
called the lights. This im- 
portant organ is situated in 
the side below the right breast. 
" My liver is poured out upon 
the earth," Lam. ii, 11 ; an 
expression for the severest 
mental suffering. The in- 
spection of the liver was a 
method of divination much 
practised by the Chaldeans 
and other heathen nations, 
Ezek. xxi, 21. 

LIVING, spoken of natural 
life and existence as opposed 
to death or non-existence, and 
implying always some dura- 
tion, as the living God, in 
opposition to idols which are 
dead. " Living sacrifice," 
Rom. xii, 1 ; the constant, in 
opposition to the interrupted 
sacrifice of slaughtered vic- 
tims. " The living stone," 
1 Pet. ii, 4, is Christ as the 
corner stone of the Church ; 
not inactive" and dead, but 
living and efficient. This 
temple, of which he is the 
foundation, is built of living 
men. (See verse 5.) Living 
water, i. e., the water of run- 
ning streams and fountains, 
opposed to that of stagnant 
cisterns, pools, marshes, &c., 
John iv, 10, 11. 

LOCUST. The above is 
an accurate engraving of the 
African , locust, which was 
brought from Africa by Mr. 
Seys, the American mission- 
ary, and about one-third less 
than the original. Its body 
and legs are yellow, and the 
wings of a dirty white. Lo- 
custs are one of the most 

terrific scourges of oriental 
countries, Exod. x, 12. See 
one of the mosf striking de- 
scriptions of the ravages of 
thisinsect, Joelii,l-ll. They 
form themselves into large 
and numerous swarms, and 
fly in the air like a succes- 
sion of clouds, forming many 
compact bodies, of several 
hundred yards square . Burck- 
hardt, who had long resided 
in Arabia, says, when for the 
first time he saw a swarm of 
locusts, they so completely 
covered the surface of the 
ground that his horse killed 
numbers of them at every 
step, while he had the great- 
est difficulty in keeping from 
his face those that rose up 
and flew about. In the year 
1813 they devoured the whole 
harvest from Berber to Shendy 
in the black countries ; and in 
the spring of that same year, 
he saw whole flights of them 
in Upper Egypt, where they- 
are particularly injurious to 
the palm trees. These they 
strip of every leaf and green 
particle ; the trees remain- 
ing like skeletons with bare 

In Arabia, the locusts are 
known to come invariably 
from the East ; and the Arabs 
accordingly say, that .they are 
produced by the waters of the 
Persian Gulf. The province 
of Nedjd is particularly ex- 
posed to their ravages ; they 
overwhelm it sometimes to 
such a degree, that having 
destroyed the harvest, they 
penetrate by thousands into 
the private dwellings, and 




devour whatever they can 
find, even the leather of the 
water vessels. It has been 
observed that those locusts 
that come from the East are 
not considered so formidable, 
because they only fix upon 
trees, and do not destroy the 
seed ; but they soon give birth 
to a new brood, and it is the 
young locusts before they are 
sufficiently grown to fly away 
that consume the crops. Ac- 
cording to general report, the 
locusts breed as often as 
three times in the year. The 
Bed'ouins who occupy the 
peninsula of Sinai, are fre- 
quently driven to despair by 
the multitudes of locusts, 
which constitute a land plague 
and a most serious grievance. 
These animals arrive by way 
of Akaba (therefore from the 
East) toward the end of May, 
when the Pleiades are set- 
ting, according to observations 
made by the Arabs, who be- 
lieve that the locusts enter- 
tain a considerable dread of 
that constellation. They re- 
main there generally during 
a space of forty or fifty days, 
and then disappear for the 
rest of the year. 

Some few are seen in the 
course of every year, but 

treat flights every fourth or 
fth year ; such is the general 
course of their unwelcome 
visits. Since the year 1811, 
however, they have invaded 
the peninsula every succes- 
sive season for five years in 
considerable numbers. 

All the Bedouins of Arabia, 
and the inhabitants of the 

towns in Nedjd and Hedjar, 
are accustomed to eat the 
locusts. " I have seen," says 
our traveller, "at Medinah 
and Tayf locust 'shops, where 
these animals were sold by 
measure. In Egypt and Nu- 
bia they are only eaten by 
the poorest beggars. The 
Arabs, in preparing locusts 
as an article of food, throw 
them alive into boiling water, 
with which a good deal of 
salt has been mixed ; after a 
few minutes, they are taken 
out and dried in the sun ; the 
head, feet, and wings are 
then torn off, the bodies are 
cleansed from the salt and 
perfectly dried ; after which 
process, whole sacks are fill- 
ed with them by the Bedouins. 
They are sometimes eaten 
broiled in butter ; and they 
often contribute materials for 
a breakfast, when spread over 
unleavened bread with but- 
ter. It may here seem worthy 
of remark, that among all the 
Bedouins with whom he was 
acquainted in Arabia, those 
of Sinai alone do not use 
the locust as an article of 

LODGE, a hut or shed, 
also a hanging bed, hammock, 
suspended from trees, in 
which travellers sleep, and 
also the keepers of gardens 
and vineyards, for fear of 
wild beasts while watching 
the fruits of those places ; 
such as cucumbers, melons, 
and grapes, Isa. i, 8. 

LOG, a Hebrew measure 
for things liquid, containing 
five-sixths of a pint. 




LOINS, the lumbar region, 
the lower region of the back, 
around which the girdle is 
bound, and on which burdens 
are sustained, Gen. xxxvii, 
34. The orientals, in order 
to run or labour with more 
ease, were accustomed to gird 
their long flowing garments 
close about them. Hence to 
have the loins girded, is to be 
in readiness, prepared for any 
action, Luke xii, 35. " The 
loins of the mind girded," 
1 Pet. i, 13, is a bold but most 
expressive metaphor, to sig- 
nify the faculties, of the mind- 
prepared for exerting them- 
selves properly. Our minds 
must not be overcharged at 
any time with surfeiting and 
drunkenness ; our affections 
must be placed on proper 
objects, and in a just degree ; 
and our passions must all be 
under the- government of our 
reason, Eph. vi, 14. 

mirror, plate glass, composed 
of sand and alkali in their 
purest state, and the com- 
position on the back side is 
made of quicksilver and tin ; 
but as glass was unknown to 
the ancients, (see GLASS,) 
tablets or plates of polished 
metal were used by the He- 
brew women as mirrors, Exod. 
xxxviii, 8; Job^xxvii, 18; 
and were carried about by 
them in the manner of other 
nations, being mostly of a 
round form, and furnished 
with a handle, Isa. iii, 23. 


slowness to anger or to 

punish, forbearance, patient 

LORD. 1. Means the 
owner of any thing, and one 
who has a person or thing 
under his control, and subject 
to his disposal ; as a vineyard, 
Matt, xx, 8 ; a family, Mark 
xiii, 35 ; Gen. xviii, 12 ; a 
servant. It is also used of 
God, as the owner and go- 
vernor of the world, " the 
Lord of the whole earth," 
Josh, iii, 13 ; and of Christ, 
as the supreme "Head over 
all things to the Church," 
Eph. i, 22. When the word 
Lord occurs in the Old Tes- 
tament, printed in small capi- 
tals, it always stands for the 
Hebrew word Jehovah. 

2. An honorary title of ad- 
dress to nobles and others to 
whom honour and reverence 
are due. It was addressed 
to Abraham by the children 
of Heth, Gen. xxxiii, 11 ; used 
by the woman of Samaria to 
our Saviour, John iv, 11 ; and 
by the man full of leprosy, 
Luke v, 12. 

In respectfully addressing 
a person, the Hebrews, in- 
stead of the second personal 
pronoun thou, were accustom- 
ed to say, My Lord ; and in- 
stead of the first person, thy 
servant, thy handmaid, " My 
lord asked his servants," i. e., 
thou didst ask us. In a style 
of still stronger adulation, this 
mode of speaking is also used 
in the case of an absent per-- 
son, Gen. xxxii, 4. 

LORD'S DAY. The first 
day of-the week, observed as 
the Christian Sabbath instead 




of the seventh, because on it 
Jesus Christ rose from the 
dead, and made repeated vi- 
sits to his disciples. It was 
on this day that the Holy 
Ghost descended on the apos- 
tles and first Chf istians. We 
find St. Paul preaching at 
Troas on this day when the 
disciples came to break bread, 
Acts xx, 7-i- The directions 
which he gave the Corinthians 
plainly allude to their reli- 
gious assemblies on the first 
day of the week, 1 Cor. xvi, 2< 
And this day ever since has 
been kept as a Sabbath all 
over the Christian world. 

LORD'S SUPPER, an ordi- 
nance instituted by our Sa- 
viour in place of the passover, 
and immediately after cele- 
brating that rite for the last 
time with his disciples. At 
that feast, the Jews com- 
memorated the deliverance 
of their own nation from the 
bondage of Egypt ; this was 
designed to commemorate the 
infinitely more important de- 
liverance of all mankind from 
the bondage of sin. Jesus 
took the bread, the bread which 
the master of the family used 
to divide among them after 
they had eaten the passover. 
He said, this bread is, i. e,, 
signifies, or represents my 
body ; according to the style 
of the sacred writers, thus, 
Genesis xl, 12, " the three 
branches are three days ;" 
thus, Gal. iv, 24, St. Paul 
speaking of Sarah and Hagar, 
says, " These are the two 
covenants." Thus, in the 
grand type of our Lord, Exod. 

xii, il, God says of the pas 
chal lamb, " This the Lord's 
passover." Now Christ, sub- 
stituting the holy communion 
for the passover, follows the 
style of the Old Testament, 
and uses the same expres- 
sions the Jews were wont to 
use in celebrating the pass- 
over. " To eat this bread un- 
worthily," 1 Cor. xi, 27, is to 
eat it as those Corinthians 
did, in an irreverent manner, 
without regarding either him 
that appointed it, or the de 
sign of its appointment. Sucb 
shall be guilty of profaning 
that which represents the 
body and blood of the Lord, 
" Let a man examine him 
self." 1. Whether he cornea 
to this service to keep up the 
memory of Christ. 2. Whe 
ther he is moved to do so by 
a grateful sense of Christ's 
love in dying for men. 3. Whe- 
ther he comes with a firm pur- 
pose of doing honour to Christ, 
by living in all respects con- 
formably to his precepts and 

LO-RU-HA'MAH, not ob- 
taining mercy, a symbolical 
name given by Hosea to his 
daughter, Hos. i, 6. 

LOT, the son of Abraham's 
brother, the ancestor of the 
Ammonites and Moabites, 
who are therefore called the 
children of Lot, Deut. ii, 9. 
Respecting his wife, whether 
grieving for the loss of her 
property, or inwardly censur- 
ing the severity of the Divine 
dispensation, or whether mov- 
ed by unbelief or curiosity, 
cannot now be known ; but, 




looking back, she became a 
pillar of salt, Gen. xix, 26. 
Our Lord warns his disciples 
to remember Lot's wife in 
their flight from Jerusalem, 
and not to imitate her tardi- 
ness, Luke xvii, 32. 

LOT, any thing used in 
determining chances, Prov. 
xviii, 18. The-.ancient man- 
ner of casting lots, was either 
.in some person's lap, i. e., 
the fold or bosom of a gar- 
ment, or into an urn, or some 
.other vessel in which they 
might be shaken before they 
were cast or drawn. Hence 
it signifies that which- falls to 
one by lot ; a portion, inherit- 
ance, Judges i, 3. Metaphor- 
ically, destiny, as assigned to 
men from God, Psa. xvi, 5. , 

LOVE, to breathe after, to 
long for, to desire. 1. To re- 
gard with strong and distin- 
guished affection, and when 
referred to superiors, includes 
the idea of duty, respect, 
veneration : to love and serve 
with fidelity, Matt, vi, 24; 
xxii, 37. 

2. To regard with favour, 
good will, benevolence, Luke 
vii, 5 ; John x, 17 ; some- 
times the effects of benevo- 
lence are expressed, as, thou 
shall love thy neighbour. 

3. Spoken of things, to de- 
light in, Luke xi, 43. 

The love of God or Christ, 
signifies the love which God 
or Christ exercises toward 
Christians ; and also that love 
of which God or Christ is the 
object in the hearts of phris- 

Love of the tritth-, means 

true love, i. e., the true and 
real benefits conferred by 
God through Christ, 2 Thes. 
ii, 10. " The love of God is 
shed abroad in the heart," 
Rom. v, 5, i. e., the Divine 
conviction of God's love to 
us, and that love to God, 
which is both the earnest and 
the beginning of heaven. 

earth are, 1. Valleys, which 
are lower than the hills, Isa. 
xliv, 23. 2. The grave, which 
is sometimes called the deep, 
Psa. ixiii, 9; Eph. iy, 9. 
3. Poetically, any hidden, 
place, Psa. cxxxix, 15. 

LUCIFER, Light giver. 
This is the Latin name of 
the planet Venus ; so called 
from its splendour, when it ap- 
pears in the morning before 
sunrise and ushers in the day. 
It is therefore expressly called 
Son ofthe-morning. The only 
place where the word occurs 
in the Bible is Isa. xiv, 12 ; 
and is there most evidently 
applied to the king of Baby- 
lon perhaps assumed by 
him. A brilliant star, and 
especially the morning star, 
is often put as the emblem 
of an illustrious prince, Num. 
xxiv, 17 ; and this meaning is 
in some measure confirmed 
by verse 13 : " P w ; ill exalt 
my throne above the stars of 
God." Some have under- 
stood the passage as referring 
to Satan ; and, from this cir- 
cumstance, the name Lucifer 
has been since applied to 

LUD, the son of Misraim, 
whose residence was in Af 




rica ; but in what particular 
part of that continent is not 

LUKE, a physician, Col. 
iv, 14 ; the author of the gos- 
pel which bears his name, 
and of the Acts of the Apos- 
tles. He had more learning, 
it seems, than fell to the lot 
of the other evangelists ; his 
language is more varied, co- 
pious, and pure. His gospel 
most probably was written in 
Greece, about the year 63 or 
64, and the Acts of the Apos- 
tles soon after. Luke was 
deservedly beloved of the 
Apostle Paul. He was not 
only an intelligent and sin- 
cere disciple of Christ, but 
the apostle's affectionate and 
faithful friend, as appears from 
his attending him in several 
of his journeys through the 
Lesser Asia and Greece. He 
likewise accompanied him 
when he carried the collec- 
tions to the saints in Judea, 
where, during the apostle's 
two years' imprisonment at 
Jerusalem and Cesarea he 
abode, and no doubt was pre- 
sent at his trials before Fes- 
tus and Felix, and heard the 
speeches which he hath re- 
corded in his history of the 
Acts. And when the apostle 
was sent a prisoner to Italy, 
Luke accompanied him in the 
voyage, and remained with 
him in Rome until he was 
released. Last of all, this 
excellent person was with 
the apostle during his second 
imprisonment in the same 
city; on which occasion, 
when his other assistants 

deserted him through fear, 
Luke abode with him and 
ministered unto him, 2 Tim. 
iv, 11. It is supposed that 
he died a natural death ; but 
at what time or in what place 
is not known. 

LUNATIC, moon struck; 
one afflicted with the epilepsy, 
the symptom's of which were 
supposed to become more 
aggravated with the increas- 
ing moon. This disease, in 
the New Testament and else- 
where, is ascribed to the influ- 
ence of demons, Matt, xvii, 15, 

LUST consists in impure 
desires inwardly cherished ; 
leiudness, Rom. i, 24 ; but 
the word has also a more 
general signification in the 
Bible, viz., unlawful or sinful 
desires in general ; desires 
which ai - e fixed on sensual 
objects, as pleasures, profits, 
honours, &c. It also means 
the object of impure desire, 
that which is lusted after, 
John viii, 44. 

LYC-A-0'NI-A, a region 
in the interior of Asia Minor, 
on the south of Galatia. It 
was adapted to pasturage ; 
and its cities, Iconium, Derbe, 
and Lystra, are mentioned in 
the travels of St. Paul, Acts 
xiv, 6. The Lycaonians spoke 
a peculiar dialect, which some 
regard as corrupted from the 

LYC1A, (Lish'e-a,) a pro- 
vince on the south-west coast 
of Asia Minor. Of its cities, 
only Patera and Myra are 
mentioned in the New Tes- 




LYDDA, a large village, 
about twelve or fourteen miles 
from Joppa, toward Jerusa- 
lem, Acts ix, 32. 

LYSTRA, a city in the 
southern part of Lycaonia, in 
Asia Minor, now called La- 
tik. The apostle speaks of 
his persecutions in this city 
as known to Timothy, who 
was a native of the place, 
2 Tim. iii, 10/11; he might 
have been present on that 
occasion, and one of those - 
who stood round about him 
when he revived, Acts xiv, 

20. HN 

MA'ACHA, Wled some- 
times Bet h Ma'acha, a city 
and region at the foot of Mount 
Hermon, north-east of the 
sources of the Jordan, not far 
from Geshur, a district of 
Syria, 2 Sam. x, 6-8. 

MACEDONIA, Acts xvi, 
9, a country lying north of 
Greece proper; bounded on 
the north by ; Moesia ; on the 
east by Thrace and the Egean 
Sea ; on the south by Thes- 
saly and Epirus ; and on the 
west by the Adriatic and 11- 
lyria. It was the original 
kingdom of Philip, and Alex- 
ander the Great, and was 
afterward subdued by the Ro- 
mans, who divided the coun- 
try into four districts, (see 
THESSALONICA ;) and after- 
ward they divided the whole 
of Greece into' two great 
provinces, Macedonia and 
Achaia. Macedonia conti- 
nued a Roman province for 
nearly' 600 years, when it 
was conquered by the Turks, 
and is still subject to them. 

Among its chief cities were 
Philippi and Thessalonica. 

MADIAN, the same as 

MAD, to be furious, raging ; 
this epithet is applied, 1. To 
those who are insane or de- 
prived o reason, Acts xxvi, 
24. 2. To persons who so 
speak and act, as to seem 
to others to be out of their 
senses, John x, 20 ; Acts xii, 
15. 3. To those whose rea- 
son is depraved and overruled 
by angry passions, Acts xxvi, 

Sinners are mad, because 
they are not under the influ- 
ence of reason and con- 
science. " They madly trust 
in idols," Jer. 1, 38 ; David's 
madness, 1 Sam. xxi, 13, 14, 
is, by many, supposed not to 
have been feigned, but real 
epilepsy, or falling sickness. 
It is urged in support of this 
opinion, that the troubles 
which David underwent, 
might very naturally weaken 
his constitutional strength ; 
and that the force he suffer- 
ed in being obliged to seek 
shelter in a foreign court, 
would disturb his imagination 
in the highest degree. 

MAG, Magus, pi. Magi; 
the name for priests and wise 
men among the Medes, Per- 
sians, and Babylonians, Rab~ 
mag, Jer. xxxix, 3 ; Prince 
Magus, chief of the magi. 
. MAG'DALA, a place on 
the western shore of the Lake 
of Gennesaret, south of Ca- 
pernaum, and a few miles 
north of Tiberias, near Dal- 




manutha. Burckhardt found 
here a miserable village, still 
calledEZ Madjdel,Matt.xv, 39. 

MAGICIAN, one skilled in 
the-science of magic, and who 
uses sorcery, enchantment, 
and the secret operations of 
natural causes ; and pretends, 
in consequence of them, to 
exert supernatural powers. 
As early as the time of Joseph, 
there appeared in Egypt per- 
sons of this description ; a 
class of Egyptian priests, 
skilled in the sacred writing, 
or hieroglyphics. We find 
that these persons were held 
in much honour as interpre- 
ters of dreams, Gen. xli, 8 ; 
and, in the history of Moses, 
we find them malting attempts 
at miracles, Exod. vii, 11-18. 
Two of these workers of 
miracles the Jews agree in 
calling Jannes and Jambres, 
2 Tim. iii, 8. 

MAGOG, a son of Japheth, 
Gen. x, 2 ; also the name of 
a region, and of a great and 
powerful people ; perhaps an 
assembly of nations, dwell- 
ing in the extreme recesses 
of the north, who are to in- 
vade the Holy Land at a 
future time, Ezek. xxxviii, 
39. Nearly the same people 
seem to be intended as were 
comprehended by the Greeks 
under the name of Scythians. 
Their king is called Gog. 

.MAHALATH, supposed 
by some to be the name of a 
wind instrument of music, 
similar to the flute. Gesenius' 
says, a stringed instrument. 
Occurs iii the title of the 
Psalms liii and Ixxxviii. ' 

MA-HA-NA'IM, hosts; 
(according to Gen. xxxii, 2, 
camps, or hosts of angels ;) a 
town beyond Jordan, on the 
confines of the tribes of Gad 
and Manasseh, near the brook 
Jabbok, afterward assigned to 
the Levites, 2 Sam. ii, 29. 

MAKER, a word which 
occurs in the name given to 
one of the sons of the Pro- 
phet Isaiah, by way of pre- 
diction, Isa. viii, 3. MAHER- 

the spoil, quick to the prey. 
The prophet observes, that 
his children were for signs 
and wonders, and that this 
name was evidence of the 

MAIMED, implies the loss 
of a limb or member crippled^ 
especially in the hands, Matt, 
xviii, 8. 

MALACHI, the last pro- 
phet of the Old Testament, 
who prophesied about 400 
years before Christ, while 
Nehemiah was governor of 
Judea, after his second com- 
ing from the Persian court. 
He was also contemporary 
with Socrates, the most cele- 
brated philosopher of anti- 

MALICE, ill-will in the 
mind, a wicked desire or in 
tention of doing harm to others 
in a fraudulent and deceitful 

MALLOWS, a plant very 
useful in medicine, from its 
emollient qualities. The plant 
referred to in Job xxx, 4, is 
supposed to be or'ach, or sea 
purslain ; a marine plant, the 
leaves of which were eaten 




by the poor, both raw and 
boiled, as a substitute for 

MAMMON, a Chaldee 
.word, signifying : riches, wealth, 
property ; that in which one 
trusts, called " Mammon of 
unrighteousness," Luke xvi, 
9, i. e., worldly riches-, be- 
cause they are often the in- 
struments of sin, and are ac- 
quired too often by unright- 
eous means. By riches, we 
may make ourselves instru- 
mental in blessing and sav- 
ing sinners, and thereby se- 
cure their friendship, Luke 
xvi, 9. 

MAMRE, an Amorite,who 
made a league with Abraham, 
Gen xiv, 3 ; also the name of 
a grove of oaks near Hebron, 
Gen. xxiii, 19. 

MAN, the human race ; 
sometimes only a person, an 
individual of the human race. 

To speak after the manner 
of men, is to speak in accord- 
ance with human views, to 
illustrate by human examples 
or institutions, to use a popu- 
lar mode of speaking, Rom. 
iii, 5. 

" The inward man" Rom. 
vii, 22, is the mind ; the ra- 
tional man, called the hidden 
man of the heart, to which is 
opposed the external visible 

The old man, the former un- 
renewed disposition of heart ; 
and the new man is the dispo- 
sition which is created and 
cherished by the religion of 
Jesus, Eph. iv, 22-24. " Put 
on the new mare." The dis- 
positions of the mind are in 

Scripture compared to clothes, 
for two reasons : 1. Because 
they render persons beautiful 
or ugly, according to their 
nature. 2. Because they may 
be put oif or on at pleasure. 

Man of God, is a minister 
or messenger of God"; one 
devoted to his service. 

" The man of sin," 2 Thess. 
ii, 3. Although in the singu- 
lar number, and with the 
article prefixed, it may, ac- 
cording to the Scripture idiom, 
denote a multitude, and even, 
a succession of persons aris- 
ing one after another. The 
character of this man of sin 
is given in verse 4 ; the mean- 
ing of which is, that the wick- 
ed teachers of whom the apos- 
tle s.peaks, will first oppose 
Christ, by corrupting the doc- 
trine of the Gospel concern- 
ing him ; and, after that, they 
will make void the govern- 
ment of God and of Christ in 
the Christian Church, and the 
government of the civil ma- 
gistrate in the state, by arro- 
gating to themselves the whole 
spiritual authority which be- 
longs to Christ, and all the 
temporal authority belonging 
to princes and magistrates. 

MANAS'SEH, who causes 
to forget. See Gen. xli, 51. 

1. The son of Joseph adopt-- 
ed by Jacob, Gen. xlviii, 1, 
born 1714 B. C. For the ter- 
ritories of the- tribe of Ma- 
nasseh, which were partly 
beyond and partly on this 
side the Jordan, see Josh, xiii, 

2. The fifteenth king of 
Judah, who reigned 699-644 




years B. C., son of Hezekiah, 
and notorious for his idolatry, 
superstition, and cruelty to- 
ward the pious, 2 Kings xxi, 

I MANDRAKE, a plant 
similar to the Belladonna, or 
deadly night-shade, with a 
root like a beet, which an- 
ciently was supposed to pos- 
sess magical virtues ; white 
and reddish blossoms, and 
with yellow fragrant apples, 
Song vii, 13', which ripen from 
May to July, Gen. xxx, 14 ; 
and which are called poma 
amatoria, or love apples. To 
these'apples, the orientals to 
this day ascribe the power of 
exciting to love. 

MANNA, the miraculous 
food of the Israelites in the 
desert. See Exod. xvi,'12- 
36. Josephus relates, that in 
his day, manna was still found 
around Mount Sinai ; and the 
same fact has also been 
abundantly ascertained by 
modern travellers. The mo- 
dern manna, manna Arabica, 
differing some from common 
manna, is a sweet resin, simi- 
lar to honey, consisting wholly 
of mucilaginous sugar, which 
in the desert of Sinai, and 
some other oriental regions, 
exudes in summer before sun- 
rise, chiefly from the leaves 
of the tamarisk, or tarfa. This 
the Arabs collect, and regard 
it as the greatest dainty which 
their country affords. But 
the quantity is very trifling, 
not amounting, according to 
Burckhardt, to more than five 
or six hundred pounds each 
year. It has been ascertain- 

ed, within the last ten or 
twelve years, first by English 
na'turalists, and more fully by 
Ehrenberg, that the manna 
flows out from the leaf in 
consequence of the puncture 
of an insect nearly allied to 
the Cimex genus. That this 
vegetable manna, however, 
could not have been the manna 
of the Israelites, is sufficient- 
ly obvious ; unless we regard 
it as having been miraculous- 
ly increased a supposition 
which involves as great an 
exertion -of miraculous power 
as the direct bestowment of 
a different substance. See 
Num. xi, 8. It is very likely 
that nothing of the kind had 
ever been seen before, Deut. 
viii, 3, 16 ; and by a pot of it 
being laid up in the ark, no- 
thing of the kind ever ap- 
peared after the miraculous 
supply had -ceased. It was 
called "bread of heaven," and 
" food of angels," perhaps as 
intimating its superior qua- 
lity, Psa. Ixxxviii, 24, 25. 

" The hidden manna" Rev. 
ii, 17, is the full enjoyment 
of the kingdom of heaven. 
Some suppose this alludes to 
the pot of manna, which was 
laid up in the ark of the co- 
venant in the holy of holies ; 
others, to the Jewish tradition, 
that the ark with the pot of 
manna was hidden by order 
of King Josiah, and will again 
be brought to light in the 
reign of the Messiah. 

MAN-SLAYER, one that 
has taken away the life of a 
human being, either acci- 
dentally or wilfully. 

Covers Vic., p. 277. 





MAN-STEALER, a kid- 1 
napper ; one who steals men ! 
to make them slaves, or to 
sell them into slavery, Deut. 
xxiv,7. They who make war 
for the inhuman purpose of 
selling the vanquished as 
slaves, as is the practice of 
the African princes, are real- 
ly man-steaiers* And they 
who, like the African traders, 
encourage that unchristian 
traffic, by purchasing the 
slaves whom they know to 
be thus unjustly acquired, are 
partakers in their crime. 

MAON, a town in the tribe 
of Judah near the south Car- 
mel, west of the Dead Sea, 

1 Sam. xxiii,24,25 ; andxxv, 
2. But in Judges x, 12, men- 
tion is made of an Arabian 
tribe, called Maonites. In 

2 Chron. , xxvi, 7, they are 
again mentioned as the Ma- 
hunims, joined with the Ara- 
bians properly so called. As 
a trace of ibis ancient people, 
we may probably regard the 
city of Maon, situated east- 
ward from Wady Mousa, and 
not far from Mount HOT, on 
the great route of the Syrian 

MARAH, bitterness ; a bit- 
ter or brackish fountain or 
well, in the peninsula of 
Sinai, Exod. xv,22,23. Most 
probably, as Burckhardt sup- 
poses, the same which is now 
called Bir Howara, on the 
western gulf of the Red Sea, 
about fifty-six miles south- 
east of Suez. The water of 
this Bir or well, is so bitter, 
(perhaps containing Epsom 
salts, the sulphate of mag- 

nesia,) that men cannot drink 
it ; and even camels, if not 
very thirsty, refuse to taste 
it. There is no other road of 
three days' march in the way 
from Suez to Sinai, nor is 
there any other well abso- 
lutely bitter on the whole of 
this, coast. In moving with 
a whole nation, the march 
may well be supposed to have 
occupied three days. 

M ARANATHA, Aramaan, 
the Lordwill come, viz. to judg- 
ment ; a form of threatening, 
cursing, or anathematizing 
among the Jews. " May the 
Lord come quickly to take 
vengeance of thy crimes," 
1 Cor. xvi, 22. See AC- 

MARBLE, carbonate of 
lime ; a valuable kind of lime- 
stone, of a texture so hard 
and compact, and of a grain 
so fine, as readily to take a 
beautiful polish. It is dug out 
of quarries in large masses, 
and is much used in build- 
ings. Marble is of different 
colours, black, white, &c. ; 
and is sometimes elegantly 
clouded and variegated. 

MARK, whose Hebrew 
name was John ; the wri- 
ter of one of the four gos- 
pels, the son of a certain 
Mary, at whose house the 
apostles and first Christians 
often assembled; Acts xii, 12 ; 
the-nephew of Barnabas, Col. 
iv, 10; the companion of Paul 
and Barnabas on their first 
journey, and of Barnabas on, 
his second, in opposition to 
Paul, Acts xv, 39. At a later 
period, however, we find "him- 




again in Paul's company, 
2 Tim. iv, 11. According to 
the fathers, he was also for a 
considerable time closely con- 
nected with Peter, and was 
interpreter to him when he 
preached among the Greeks. 
Though not an apostle, he 
did not write without apos- 
tolic authority. On the con- 
trary, he was under the direc- 
tion of the Apostle Peter, who 
affectionately called him his 
son, 1 Pet. v, 13. This is 
stated by the entire series of 
church fathers, during the 
second and third centuries, 
with perfect unanimity in the 
main ; and the statement is 
corroborated by the case of 
Luke, which was exactly si- 
milar. On this account, the 
gospel of Mark was con- 
sidered as originating with 
Peter ; and such individuals 
as were particularly attached 
to this apostle, used Mark in 
preference to all others. He 
wrote his gospel, according 
to Home, between the years 
60 and 63, at the city of 
Rome, which was then the 
capital of the known world. 
Quotations from the ancient 
prophets, and allusions to 
Jewish customs, are as much 
as possible avoided ; and such 
explanations are added as 
might be necessary for Gen- 
tile readers at Rome ; thus, 
when Jordan is first mention- 
ed in this gospel, the word 
river is prefixed, Mark i, 5 ; 
the oriental word corban is 
said to mean a gift, Mark vii, 
11 ; the preparation is said to 
be the day before the Sab- 

bath, Mark xv, 42; and defiled 
hands are said to mean un- 
washed hands, Mark vii, 2 ; 
and the superstition of the 
Jews upon that subject is 
stated more at large than it 
would have been by a person 
writing at Jerusalem. 

MARK, a brand, as pricked 
or burned in upon the body. 
The slaves were branded 
with a hot iron, not only as 
a punishment for their of- 
fences, but to distinguish 
them in case they should run 
away. Soldiers were brand- 
ed in the hand, but slaves in 
the forehead. In the same 
manner, it was customary to 
mark the votaries of some of 
the gods. Hence the beast, 
Rev. xiii, 1, had upon its 
head the name of blasphemy ; 
and the worshippers of the 
beast, yerse 16, had a " mark 
on their right hand," or " on 
their foreheads," whereby 
they were known to be their 
worshippers. In like man- 
ner, the servants of God have 
" his name on their fore- 
heads," Rev. xxii, 4. The 
apostle, in allusion to these 
customs, calls the scars of the 
wounds which he received 
when stoned and left as dead 
on the street of Lystra, " the 
marks of the Lord Jesus in his 
body," Gal. vi, 17. 

MARKET, a public place, 
or broad street in a city or 
town, where provisions and 
other things were exposed for 
sale. Among the ancients, 
markets were places of pub- 
lic resort, where assemblies 
and public trials were held, 

. MAR 

The labourers who wanted 
employment were found in 
the market-place, Matt, xx, 3. 
See Acts xvi, 19 ; and xvii, 


MARRIAGE. This was 
regarded by the Jews as a 
sacred obligation, and celi- 
bacy was accounted a great 
reproach. No formalities ap- 
pear to have been used by the 
Jews, at least. none were en- 
joined upon them by Moses. 
In joining man and wife toge- 
ther, mutual consent followed 
by consummation was deemed 
sufficient. The manner in 
which a daughter was demand- 
ed in marriage is described 
in the case, of Shechem, who 
asked Dinah, the daughter of 
Jacob, in marriage, Gen. xxiv, 
6^12. There was indeed a 
previous espousal or betroth- 
ing, which was a solemn pro- 
mise of marriage made by the 
man and woman each to the 
other, at such a distance of 
time as they agreed upon, 
Deut. xx, 7. Among the Jews, 
and generally throughout the 
East, marriage was consider- 
ed a sort of purchase, which 
the man made of the woman 
he desired to marry. The 
nuptial solemnity continued 
seven days, Judges xiv, 12, 
and was celebrated with great 
festivity and splendour. The 
parable of the ten virgins in 
Matt, xxv, gives a good idea 
of the customs practised on 
these occasions. The happi- 
ness of the Messiah's king- 
dom is represented under the 
figure of a nuptial feast, Rev. 
xix, 7. 

381 MAR 

The public use of marriage 
institutions consists, accord- 
ing to Archdeacon Paley, in 
their promoting the following 
beneficial effects : 1. The 
private comfort, of individu- 
als. 2. The production of the 
greatest number of healthy 
children, their better educa- 
tion, and the making of due 
provision for their settlement 
in life. 3. The peace of hu- 
man society, in cutting off a 
principal source of contenr 
tion, by assigning one or more 
women to one man, and pro- 
tecting his exclusive right by 
sanctions of morality and law. 

4. The better government of 
society, by distributing the 
community into separate fa- 
milies, an'd appointing over 
each the authority of a mas- 
ter of a family, which has 
more actual influence than all 
civil authority put together. 

5. The additional security 
which the state receives for 
the good behaviour of its citi 
zens, from the solicitude they 
feel for the welfare of their 
children, and from their being 
confined to permanent habita- 
tions. 6. The encouragement 
of industry. See DIVORCE 
and. BRIDE. 

MARROW, an oily in 
flammable substance, which, 
during life, is a fluid of a 
whitish or yellowish colour, 
filling the cavity of the bones, 
to moisten and render them 
less liable to break, Job xxi, 
24 ; and figuratively put for 
the richest and best part of a 
thing, Isa. xxv, 6. 

MAR'S HILL, or Hill of 




Mars, a hill in Athens, with 
an open place, where sat the 
court of the Areopagus, the 
supreme tribunal of justice, 
instituted by Solon, one of 
the seven wise men of Greece, 
who died 558 B. C. So call- 
ed, because justice was said 
to have been pronounced there 
against Mars, the fabulous god 
of war. Our translators have" 
entirely spoiled the narrative 
of the historian in Acts xvii, 
19, 22, as Mar's Hill is A-re- 
op'a-gus translated ; and as 
both signify the same place, 
the same rendering ought to 
have been preserved in both 
verses. See A-RE-or'A-etrs. 

MART, a place of sale or 

MARTYR, witness, one 
who by his death bears wit- 
ness to the truth, Acts xxii, 

MARY, the name of se- 
veral females mentioned in 
Scripture. 1. The mother 
of Jesus. 2. Of Magdala, 
Luke viii, 2. The general 
impression that she was an 
unchaste woman, is entirely 
without foundation. She was 
probably in good circumstan- 
ces, and of unblemished cha- 
racter. 3. The mother of 
James the Less and Joses, 
sister to our Lord's mother, 
and wife of Alpheus or Cleo- 
phas, John xix, 25. 4. A sis- 
ter of Lazarus and Martha. 
5. Mother of John, surnamed 
Mark, Acts xii, 12. 6. And 
a Christian female at Rome, 
Rom. xvi, 6, 

MASCHIL, '(Mas-Mi,) a 
participle in Hebrew, signify- 

ing he that instructs, occurs 
as the title of thirteen Psalms, 
where it means a song, poem. 
The origin of this use of the 
word is uncertain ; the most 
probable opinion is, that the 
word means an instructive 
song ; but this does not ac- 
cord with the character of .all 
the Psalms which are thus 
designated. It is therefore 
supposed that this specific 
word came afterward to be 
applied to other and different 
kinds of song than those 
which are instructive. Ge- 
senius says, that in Arabic, 
instruction is used for poetry 
in general. 

MASON, a man whose 
occupation is to lay bricks 
and stones. From the his- 
tory of the temple, and the 
ruins of Tadmor and Per- 
sep'olis and other places, it 
appears that the art was in 
as great perfection in ancient 
days as at present. The most 
noted were the masons of 
Tyre, 2 Sam. v, 11. 

MATTHEW, the author 
of the gospel;. he bore also 
the name of Levi, Matt, ix, 9 ; 
Mark ii, 14 ; the- son of a cer- 
tain Alpheus, of whom we 
know nothing farther. Of the 
history of Matthew very little 
is known in addition to the 
accounts in the New Testa- 
ment. After our Saviour call- 
ed him from his station as 
receiver of customs, he fol- 
lowed him with fidelity, and 
was one of the twelve whom 
Jesus sent forth. His labours 
as an apostle, however, seem 
to have been wholly confined 




to Palestine. The time when 
his gospel, was written is 
quite uncertain. The most 
probable opinion is, that it 
was written in Judea for the 
benefit of the Hebrew Chris- 
tians, about A. D. 37. 

MAZ'ZA-ROTH denotes 
the twelve signs of the zodiac, 
a broad circle in the heavens, 
comprehending all such stars 
as lie in the path of the sun 
and moon. 

MEAS'URE, thatby which 
any thing is measured, or ad- 
justed, or proportioned, Prov. 
xx, 10; Micah vi, 10. Tables 
of Scripture measures of 
length and capacity are found 
at the end of this volume. 

MEAT does not mean flesh 
only, which is the usual ac- 
ceptation of the word, but 
food in general, or whatever 
is eaten for nourishment. 
Solid food of flesh or vege- 
tables, 1 Cor. iii, 2. Meat- 
offering is always a vegetable 
and never an animal offering. 
It might now be rendered 
meal-offering. The burnt and 
peace-offerings which were 
made of animals fit for food, 
and on which the offerers 
feasted in the court of the ta- 
bernacle, is called meat, Heb. 
xiii, 9. So likewise when the 
heathen offered sacrifices of 
such animals as were fit for 
food, a part of the carcass 
was burnt on the altar, a part 
was given to the priest, and 
on the remainder the offerers 
feasted with their friends, 
either in the idol's temple or 
.at home. Sometimes, also, a 
part was sent as a present to 

such as they wished to oblige ; 
and if the sacrifice, was large, 
a. part of it was sold in the 
public market. To these 
idolatrous feasts the heathens 
often invited the Christians 
of their acquaintances in Co- 
rinth ; and some of the bre- 
thren there, desirous of pre- 
serving the friendship of their 
neighbours, accepted these 
invitations. They knew an 
idol was nothing ip. the world ; 
and therefore their partaking 
of the sacrifice, even in the 
idol's temple, could not .be 
reckoned a worship of the 
idol. See 1 Cor. viii, 8-13. 

The word meat is used 
metaphorically for sustenance, 
nourishment. My meat, John 
iy, 34, i. e., that by which I 
live, in which I delight. The 
spiritual meat, 1 Cor. x, 3, is 
the manna as an emblem of 
spiritual nourishment or in- 
struction, and given in a mi- 
raculous manner. 

MEDE, an inhabitant of 
Media. " Darius the Median" 
Dan. v, 31. This was Cy 
axares II., the son and suc- 
cessor of Ast} r ages, and uncle 
of Cyrus, who held the em- 
pire of Media between Asty- 
ages and Cyrus 569-536JB.C., 
yet so, that Cyrus was his 
colleague and viceroy, and with 
whom he was associated in 
the taking of Babylon. 

MEDIA, a country east of 
Assyria, lying between the 
Caspian Sea on the north, 
and Persia on the south, ex- 
tending on the north and west 
to Armenia. ' It was incorpo- 
rated with the kingdom of 




Persia ; hence the annals of 
the-Medes and Persians are 
mentioned together, Esther 
x, 2, and comprised the fol- 
lowing provinces of modern 
Persia, Shirvan, Adserbijan, 
Ghilan, Masanderan, and Irak 
Adjami. It covered a terri- 
tory larger than that of Spain, 
lying between 30 and 40 de- 
grees of north latitude, and 
was one of the most fertile 
and earliest cultivated among 
the kingdoms of Asia. Among 
the magi, the priests of their 
religion, is reckoned Zoroas- 
ter, as a reformer, or rather 
as the restorer of the ancient 
religion of light, who rendered 
himself famous by his deep 
and acute researches in phi- 
losophy, and whose disciples 
have maintained themselves 
in Persia and Judea even to 
the present day. The an- 
cient metropolis of Media 
was Ee-bat'ana, Ezra vi, 2 ; 
the summer residence of the 
Persian kings, situated on the 
spot afterward and now oc- 
cupied by Hamedan, the chief 
city of the Parthians. Into 
this country the ten tribes, 
who composed the kingdom 
of Israel, were transplanted 
in the captivity. 

MEDIATOR, one who in- 
tervenes between two parties. 
1. As an interpreter, a mere 
medium of communication, 
as, e. g., Moses, Gal. iii, 19, 
20. 2. As a reconciler, inter- 
cessor. This Mediator is the 
man Christ Jesus, 1 Tim. ii, 
5, who is appointed by God 
to make atonement for the 
sins of men by his death, and 

who, in consequence of thai 
atonement, is authorized to 
intercede with God in behalf 
of sinners, and empowered 
to convey all his blessings to 
them. In this sense, there 
is but one mediator between 
God and man, and he is equal- 
ly related to all. He is call- 
ed, Heb. ix, 15, " the mediator 
of the new testament or co- 
venant," i. e., the Gospel dis- 
pensation ; the Divine pro- 
mises conditioned on obedi 
ence. 1. " Because," says 
Macknight, "he procured this 
new covenant for mankind, in 
which the pardon of sin is 
promised ; for, as the apostle 
tells us, his death, as the 
sacrifice for sin, is the consi- 
deration on account of which 
the pardon of the transgres 
sions of the first covenant is 
granted. 2. Because of the 
new covenant having been 
ratified or confirmed, Heb. vi, 
17, as well as procured, by the 
death of Christ, he is fitly 
called the mediator of that co- 
venant. 3. Jesus, who died 
to procure the new covenant, 
being appointed by God the 
high priest thereof, to dis- 
pense its blessings, he is on 
that account also called, Heb. 
viii, 6, ' the mediator of that 
better covenant.' " 

" The inspired writers," 
says Mr. Watson, " declare 
that there was an efficacy in 
what he did and suffered for 
us beyond mere instruction 
and example. This they de- 
clare with great variety of 
expression : that ' he suffered 
for sins, the just for the un- 




just;' 1 Pet, iii, 18 ; that 'he 
gave his life a ransom' Matt. 
xx, 28 ; Mark x, 45 ; 1 Tim. 
ii, 6 ; that ' we were bought 
with a price,' 2 Pet. ii, 1 ; 
Rev. xiv, 4 ; 1 Cor. vi, 20 ; 
that 'he redeemed us with 
his blood,' ' redeemed us from 
the curse of the law, being 
made a curse for us,' 1 Pet. 
i, 19 ; "Rev. v, 9 ; Gal. iii, 13 ; 
that 'he is our advocate, in- 
tercessor, and propitiation,' 
Heb. vii, 25 ; 1 John ii, 1, 2 ; 
that ' he was made perfect 
through sufferings ; and being 
thus made perfect, he became 
the author of salvation,' Heb. 
ii, 10 ; y, 9 ; that ' God was 
in Christ, reconciling the 
world to himself, not im- 
puting their trespasses unto 
them,' 2 Cor. v, 19 ; Rom. v, 
10; Eph. ii, 16; and that 
' through death he destroyed 
him that had the power of 
death,' Heb. ii, 14. Christ, 
then, having ' thus humbled 
himself, and become obedient 
to death, even the death of 
the cross ; God, also, hath 
highly exalted him, and given 
him a name which is above 
every name ;' hath command- 
ed us to pray in his name ; 
constituted him man's advo- 
cate and intercessor ; distri- 
butes his grace only through 
him, and in honour of his 
death ; hath given all things 
into his hands ; and hath 
committed all judgment un- 
to him; 'that at the name 
of Jesus every knee should 
bow,' and ' that all men 
should honour the Son even 
as they honoui the Father,' 

Phil, ii, 8-10 ; John iii, 35 ; 
v 22 23 " 

'MEDITATE, to think 

closely and seriously on any 
thing, Psa. i, 2. 

MEEKNESS, a calm, 
serene temper of mind, not 
easily ruffled or provoked ; a 
disposition that suffers in- 
juries without desire of re- 
venge ; implies the absence 
of all irascible and malig- 
nant passions, and is the 
fruit of regenerating grace. 
"Meekness of wisdom," James 
iii, 3 ; a beautiful expression, 
insinuating that true wisdom 
is always accompanied with 
meekness or the government 
of the passions. " The meek- 
ness of wisdom," and the 
" beauty of holiness," are ex- 
pressions of the same kind, 
formed to represent the ex- 
cellency of these qualities. 

MEGIDDO, a fortified city 
of Manasseh, situated within 
the borders of the tribe of 
Issachar, pretty well ascer- 
tained to be in the western, 
or south-western part of the 
great plain of Esdralon, and 
formerly a royal city of the 
Canaanites. Here a famous 
battle was fought between 
Nech'o and King Josiah, in 
which the latter was defeated 
and mortally wounded. See 
2 Kings xxiii, 39. " The wa- 
ters of Megiddo," Judges v, 
19, is the brook of Kishon. 

eous king ; a king of Salem, 
which is the ancient name of 
Jerusalem, Psa. Ixxvi, 2 ; and 
a patriarchal priest of the 
true God, cotemporary with - 




Abraham, Gen. xiv, 18-20. 
It was common among the 
ancients for the king to be 
priest also; thus uniting the 
two highest honours among 
men in his own person. The 
Jewish kings did not do thus 
so long as the- race of David 
was upon the throne, because 
the priesthood was confined 
to the tribe of Leyi. But the 
Maccabees did it. Among 
foreign nations this was very 
common. In reference to this 
double honour, Peter calls 
Christians a royal priesthood, 
1 Pet. ii, 9 ; and John in Rev. 
i, 6, says, that Christ has 
made his followers kings and 
priests, i. e., he has prepared 
for them a kingdom, and con- 
stituted them priests unto God. 
It is said, Heb. vii, 6, that 
" MelcTiizedek's descent is not 
counted ;" because, being a 
Canaanite, and not standing 
in the public genealogical 
registers, as belonging to the 
family of Aaron, he was a 
priest, not by right of sacer- 
dotal descent, but by the 
grace of God. In the same 
sense, he was said to be with- 
out father and mother, i. e., 
recorded in the sacred gene- 
alogies ; or, perhaps, whose 
father and mother were not 
of the kingly or priestly rank. 
His priesthood, therefore, is 
of a higher and more ancient 
order than that of Aaron. 
Having neither beginning of 
days nor end of life, i. e., 
whose time of birth or death 
is not related, or rather who, 
as high priest, has no limited 
time assigned for the com- 

mencement and expiration of 
his office. 

ME-LI'TA, now called 
Mal'ta, an island in the Me- 
diterranean, between Africa 
and Sicily, twenty miles in 
length and twelve in breadth, 
formerly reckoned a part of 
Africa, but now belonging to 

There was another small 
island of the same name in 
the Asiatic Gulf, on the coast 
of Illyricum, now called Mi- 
leda, which some have thought 
to be the place of St. Paul's 
shipwreck ; but its position 
does not accord with the ac- 
count of the subsequent voy- 
age to Puteoli ; nor can we 
well suppose a vessel bound 
from Alexandria to Puteoli to 
have wintered in this island, 
Acts xxviii, 11. 

MELODY, a succession 
of sounds so regulated and 
modulated as to please the 
ear. Melody differs from har- 
mony, as it consists in the 
agreeable succession and mo- 
dulation of sounds by a single 
voice ; whereas harmony con- 
sists in the accordance of 
different voices or sounds. 
To make melody in the heart, 
is to praise God with a thank- 
ful and joyful disposition, as- 
cribing to him the honour due 
to his name, Eph. v, 19. See 
Amos v, 23. 

MELON, Num. xi, 5, sup- 
posed tp be the water melon, 
which is cultivated on the 
banks of the Nile. This fruit 
is eaten in abundance during 
the season, even by the richer 
sort of people ; but the com- 

Covers Die. 


p. 288. 

Caravan is an Arabic word meaning a company of men 
travelling together either as merchants or pilgrims. It is also 
used in Persia with the same sense, and applies more parti- 
cularly to journeys made in Arabia, Nubia, Syria, and Persia. 
The proportion of horses and other animals observed in the 
large caravans is as follows : when there are five hundred 
elephants, they add one thousand dromedaries, and two 
thousand horses : and the escort is composed of four thou- 
sand men on horseback. The Syrian caravan, as it is called, 
has been the most numerous and the best regulated: accord- 
ing to Burckhardt, who saw it at Mecca in 1814, it consisted 
of more than fifteen thousand camels. They generally travel 
well armed, to defend themselves from the attacks of the 
wandering Arabs, and other robbers. 




mon people, on whom Pro r 
vidence has bestowed nothing 
but poverty and patience, 
scarcely eat any thing else, 
and account this season the 
best time in the year. The 
juice of the fruit serving them 
for drink, they have therefore 
less occasion for water. This 
explains the Israelites regret- 
ting the want of the melon in 
the barren parched wilder- 

MEM'PHIS, a city of 
Egypt, Hos. ixj 6 ; elsewhere 
called Noph, Isa. xix, 13, 
whose ruins, though of small 
extent, are found on the west 
bank of the Nile, about fifteen 
miles south of old Cairo, near 
which are the celebrated py- 

MENE, numbered. At a 
feast which Belshazzar gave 
to his courtiers, where he 
profaned the sacred vessels 
of the Lord's house, there 
appeared on the wall a form 
like a hand writing these 
words : " Mene, mene, tekel, 
upharsin, Dan. v. 25, all pas- 
sive participles in the Chal- 
dean language ; u in the last 
word is the copulative con- 
junction and, and in the plu- 
ral termination. The sen- 
tence signifies numbered, 
weighed, and divided, and is 
supposed to have been written 
in the old Hebrew character, 
which we now call the Sa- 
maritan, and which the Chal- 
deans could not read, verse 8. 
But had they possessed the 
power to read these words, 
they wauld not have been 
able to' ascertain their pro- 

phetic import. But Daniel 
explained this ill-boding in- 
scription to the king. 

MERCHANT, a trader; 
one who trades to foreign 
countries by sea or land on 
a large, scale ; a wholesale 
dealer. Merchants in the 
East transported their goods 
upon camels, animals which 
are patient of thirst and fa- 
tigue, and easily supported 
in the deserts. As all the 
great spaces between towns 
in the eastern countries are 
infested with Arabs or .ban- 
ditti, who frequently commit 
robbery and murder, mer- 
chants are accustomed to as- 
sociate together in companies, 
more or less numerous, ac- 
cording to the nature of the 
case, sometimes to the num- 
ber of 2,000, for the purpose 
of mutual convenience and 
protection. A company of 
this kind is called a caravan. 
The troops of Tema, Job vi; 
19, are travelling merchants 
or caravans ; so also was the 
company of Ishmaelites which 
came from Gilead, going down 
into Egypt, Gen. xxxvii, 25. 
Our Saviour went with such 
a company to Jerusalem, 
Luke ii, 44. Every caravan 
had a leader to conduct it 
through the desert, who was 
acquainted with the direction 
of the route, and with the 
cisterns and fountains. (See 
the engraving.) These he 
was able to ascertain, some- 
times from heaps of stones, 
Jer. xxxi, 21 ; sometimes by 
the character of the soil ; andj 
when other helps failed him, 




by the stars, Num. x, 29-32. 
A cloud in. the form of a pil- 
lar answered all these pur- 
poses for the Israelites when 
wandering in the wilderness. 

MERCURIUS, a false god 
in heathen mythology ; the 
son of Jupiter and Maia ; the 
messenger of the gods ; the 
patron of eloquence, learning, 
and traffic, Acts xiv, 12. 

MERCY, active pity, as 
referring to the afflicted, or 
to a person in unhappy cir- 
cumstances. It implies not 
merely a feeling of the evils 
of others, which we call sym- 
pathy, but also an active de- 
sire of removing them. The 
mercy of God includes bless- 
ings of every kind. To re- 
member mercy is to give a new 
proof of mercy and favour to 
Israel, in allusion to God's 
ancient mercies to that peo- 
ple, Psa. xxv, 6. The ex- 
pression, " I will have mercy 
and not sacrifice," Matt, xi, 
13, signifies, as its connec- 
tion indicates, that God is 
pleased with the exercise of 
mercy rather than with the 
offering of sacrifices : though 
sin has made the latter ne- 

MERCY SEAT. The lid 
or cover of the ark, which 
was pure gold, Exod. xxv, 
17, 21. It had two cherubs 
of gold placed at each end, 
stretching their wings toward 
each other. The high priest 
was accustomed once a year 
to sprinkle upon this the 
blood of an expiatory victim. 
It was over this that the Di- 
vine glory was .seen, i. e., a 

supernatural excessive bright- 
ness ; and hence God was 
supposed to be seated on it 
as his throne, and from it 
to dispense his mercy when 
atonement was made for the 
sins of the people by sprink- 
ling it with blood. 

MERIBAH, strife. This 
was a fountain flowing from 
the rock in the desert of Sin, 
on the western gulf of the 
Red Sea, Exod. xvii, 7. Dr. 
Shaw feels confident that he 
has discovered this extraor- 
dinary rock west of Sinai, in 
Rephidim, a block of granite 
marble, about six yards square, 
lying tottering, as it were, and 
loose in the middle of the 
valley, and seems to have 
formerly belonged to Mount 
Sinai, which hangs in a va- 
riety of precipices all over 
this plain. Moses- smote the 
rock, and the water came 
forth in such abundance as 
to form a brook ; and this is 
said to have been like a river, 
Psa. Ixxviii, 16 ; cv, 41. Ac- 
cordingly the river from the 
rock followed them, 1 Cor. 
x, 4. As Horeb was a high 
mountain, there may ^have 
been a descent to the sea ; and 
the Israelites during the thirty- 
seven years of their journey- 
ing from Mount Sinai, may 
have gone by those tracts of 
country in which the waters 
from Horeb could folloiv them, 
till in the thirty-ninth year of 
the exodus they carae to Ezion 
Geber, Num. xxxiii, 36 ; but 
in the fortieth year of the 
exodus, leaving that place to 
go into Canaan, by .the east. 




border of Edom ; they no 
sooner entered the desert, 
which is Kadesh, than they 
were distressed a second 
time ; water was brought from 
a rock in the wilderness of 
Zin, which was their thirty- 
third station. See Num. xx, 
1-13. This was also called 

MEREDOCK, an idol of 
the Babylonians, probably the 
planet Mars, to which, as the 
god of blood and slaughter, 
as well as to Saturn, the an- 
cient Semitic nations offered 
human sacrifices. 

ME ROM, Josh, xi, 5, a 
lake or marsh at the foot of 
Mount Lebanon, in a high 
region of country, through 
which the Jordan flows. In 
summer, this lake for the 
most part is dry, and covered 
with shrubs and grass ; but 
in the spring, when the water 
is highest, it is about seven 
miles long, and three and a 
half broad. 

MEROZ. Of the. history 
or site of this city there is 
no trace whatever; we may 
suppose it to have lain in the 
territories of Issachar, or Nap- 
thali, in the neighbourhood of 
the Kishon ; and its inhabit- 
ants were cursed for after 
having an opportunity to de- 
stroy the flying Caananites, 
they neglected to improve it, 
Judges v, 23. 

MESHECK, i.e.,theJfos- 
chi, a barbarous people in- 
habiting the Moschian moun- 
tains between Iberia, Arme- 
nia, and Colchis, Psa. cxx, 
5, usually coupled with the 

neighbouring Tubal, Ezek. 
xxxviii, 2, 3 ; xxxix, 1. 

MESH A is supposed to 
be the region around Bas- 
sora, between Selucia and 
the Persian Gulf, Gen. x, 30. 
The opposite coast is pro- 
bably the western part of 
Yemen, along the Eastern 
Gulf of the Red Sea. The 
range of high and mountain- 
ous country between these 
borders, Moses calls a mount 
of the east, or eastern moun- 
tains, in reference either to 
Palestine or to Yemen, i. e., 

MES-O-PO-TA'MI-A, be- 
tween the rivers. The fertile 
tract.of country lying between 
the rivers Euphrates and Ti- 
gris, from near their sources 
to the vicinity of Babylon, 
Acts vii, 2, and celebrated in 
Scripture as the first dwell- 
ing of men after the deluge. 
The Hebrew name was Pa- 
dan-aran, Gen. xxviii, 2 ; it 
now belongs to the Turkish 
dominion, comprised in the 
modern Persia under the 
name of El Djezirat, i. e., 
the peninsula. 

MESSIAH, the Anointed ; 
a Hebrew word of the same 
signification as the Greek 
word Christ; spoken of the 
Jewish high priest, Lev. iv, 
16. The Lord's anointed, (in 
the Hebrew Messiah,) a name 
of honour given to the Jewish 
kings, as being consecrated 
by anointing, and therefore 
most holy. But the word 
most eminently denotes THE 
CHRIST, the Saviour of man- 
kind, Dan. ix, 25, 26 ; that 




border of Edom ; they no 
sooner entered the desert, 
which is Kadesh, than they 
were distressed a second 
time ; water was brought from 
a rock in the wilderness of 
Zin, which was their thirty- 
third station. See Num. xx, 
1-13." This was also called 

MEREDOCK, an idol of 
the Babylonians, probably the 
planet Mars, to which, as the 
god of blood and slaughter, 
as well as to Saturn, the an- 
cient Semitic nations offered 
human sacrifices. 

MEROM, Josh, xi, 5, a 
lake or marsh at the foot of 
Mount Lebanon, in a high 
region of country, through 
which the Jordan flows. In 
summer, this lake for the 
most part is dry, and covered 
with shrubs and grass ; but 
in the spring, when the water 
is highest, it is about seven 
miles long, and three and a 
half broad. 

MEROZ. Of the. history 
or site of this 'city there is 
no trace whatever ; we may' 
suppose it to have lain in the 
territories of Issachar, or Nap- 
thali, in the neighbourhood of 
the Kishon ; and its inhabit- 
ants were cursed for after 
having an -opportunity to de- 
stroy the flying Caananites, 
they neglected to improve it, 
Judges v, 23. 

MESHEGK, i.e.,the.Mbs- 
chi, a barbarous people in- 
habiting the Moschian moun- 
tains between Iberia, Arme- 
nia, and Colchis, Psa. cxx, 
5, usually coupled with the 

neighbouring Tubal, Ezek. 
xxxviii, 2, 3 ; xxxix, 1. 

MESH A is supposed to 
be the region around Bas- 
sora, between Selucia and 
the Persian Gulf, Gen. x, 30. 
The opposite coast is pro- 
bably the western part of 
Yemen, along the Eastern 
Gulf of the Red Sea. The 
range of high and mountain- 
ous country between these 
borders, Moses calls a mount 
of the east, or eastern moun- 
tains, in reference either to 
Palestine or to Yemen, i. e., 

MES-O-PO-TA'MI-A, be- 
tween the rivers. The fertile 
tract, of country lying between 
the rivers Euphrates and Ti- 
gris, from near their sources 
to the vicinity of Babylon, 
Acts vii, 2, and celebrated in 
Scripture as the first dwell- 
ing of men after the deluge. 
The Hebrew name was Pa- 
dan-aran, Gen. xxviii, 2 ; it 
now belongs to the Turkish 
dominion, comprised in the 
modern Persia under the 
name of El Djezirat, i. e., 
the peninsula. 

MESSIAH, the Anointed; 
a Hebrew word of the same 
signification as the Greek 
word Christ ; spoken of the 
Jewish high priest, Lev. iv, 
16. The .Lord's anointed, (in 
the Hebrew Messiah,) a name 
of honour given to the Jewish 
kings, as being consecrated 
by anointing, and therefore 
most holy. But the word 
most eminently denotes THE 
CHRIST, the Saviour of man- 
kind, Dan. ix, 25, 26; that 




prince who was anointed, not 
with material, but with mys- 
tical oil ; the graces and in- 
fluences of the Holy Spirit, 
which were poured out with- 
out measure upon him, John 
iii, 34, i. e., was not mea- 
sured and occasional like that 
of prophets and apostles, but 
ever abundant and constant. 
The Jews expected the Mes- 
siah would be their deliverer 
from civil bondage, and raise 
them as a nation to great 
power. Hence they rejected 
the meek and lowly Jesus, 
and put him to shame and 
death. They were disap- 
pointed and offended, because 
fris kingdom was not of this 
world, and promised no pri- 
vileges to them in distinction 
from the Gentiles. The whole 
Scriptures abound with evi- 
dence that they were and are 
under a gross delusion ; and 
the Christian church is look- 
ing with deep interest for the 
time when the veil shall be 
taken from their eyes ; when 
they shall look on Him whom 
they have pierced, and mourn ; 
and when they shall receive 
him as the long-promised and 
long-expected Messiah. 

ME-THU'SE-LAH, a pa- 
triarch before the flood, and 
grandfather of Noah, Gen. v, 
21. He was born A. M. 687, 
and died A. M. 1656, being 
the very year of the deluge, 
at the age of 969, the greatest 
age to which any mortal man 
ever attained. 

MICAH, the sixth among 
the twelve- minor prophets, 
and who is supposed to have 

lived about 750 B. C. He was 
commissioned to denounce 
the judgments of God against 
both the kingdoms of Judah 
and Israel for their idolatry 
and wickedness. The style 
of Micah is nervous, concise, 
and elegant, often elevated 
and poetical, but sometimes 
obscure from sudden transi 
tions of subject. 

The prophecy contained in 
the fifth chapter, is, perhaps, 
the most important single pro- 
phecy in all the Old Testa- 
ment, and the most compre- 
hensive respecting the per 
spnal character of the Mes 
siah, and his successive ma 
nifestations to the world. It 
carefully distinguishes his 
human nativity from his Di- 
vine nature and eternal exist 
ence ; foretells the casting 
off the Israelites and Jewa 
for a season ; their ultimate 
restoration ; and the universal 
peace which should prevail i? 
the kingdom and under the 
government of the Messiah. 

MICHAEL, who as God I 
There are said to be seven 
archangels, i. e., chief angels 
Rev. viii, 2, who stand imme 
diately before the throne of 
God, Luke i, 19, and who 
have authority over other 
angels, Rev. xii, 7. Michael 
is one of the number, and the 
patron of the Jewish nation 
before God, Dan. x, 13 ; xii, 1. 
"By the body of Moses," 
Jude 9, about which the devil 
disputed with Michael, we 
may understand his dead body, 
which he contended should be 
buried publicly on pretence 




of doing honour to Moses ; 
but his intention was to give 
the Israelites an opportunity 
of raising his body and wor- 
shipping it. But Michael, 
knowing his intention, rebuk- 
ed the devil in the words 
mentioned by Jude ; and to 
prevent the Israelites from 
committing idolatry, buried 
Moses' body so privately that 
none of the Israelites ever 
knew where his sepulchre 

MIGHT AM occurs in the 
title of several psalms. The 
most probable sense of the 
word is inscription : perhaps 
what might be inscribed a 
triumphal song. But whether 
it is intended to designate the 
music or the subject of it no 
one can tell with certainty ; 
yet from the fact that all the 

Esalms, six in number, which 
ear this title, (Psa. vi, Ivi- 
lx,) are, in one form or an- 
other, psalms -of victory, or 
triumphal songs, we may re- 
gard it as designed to show 
that such is the subject mat- 
ter of the psalms. 

MIDDLE WALL, spoken 
in a figure of the Mosaic law, 
as separating the Jews and 
Gentiles, and making the 
Jews exclusively the people 
of God, Eph. ii, 14, probably 
in allusion to the wall be- 
tween the inner and outer 
courts of the temple, Rev. xi, 
1 , 2. The apostle observes, 
that God has broken down 
the wall ; hath abolished the 
law which could be perform- 
ed nowhere but in the temple 
of Jerusalem, and that by 

prescribing under the Gos- 
pel a spiritual form of wor- 
ship, which may be performed 
everywhere, he hath joined 
Jews and Gentiles in one 
Church, and made them all 
one people of God. Now this 
happy union could not have 
taken place if the law of 
Moses had been continued. 
For the most important acts 
of the worship of God being 
limited to the temple at Jeru- 
salem, the greatest part of 
the Gentiles could not come 
thither to worship with the 

MIDIAN, an Arabian tribe 
descended from Abraham, 
Gen. xxv, 2, whose territories 
seem to have extended from 
the eastern shore of the Ela- 
nitic Gulf, where Josephus 
and the Arabian geographers 
place the town Midyan, to the 
region of Moab and to the 
vicinity of Mount Sinai, Exod. 
iii, 1 ; xviii, 5. Sometimes 
the Midianites appear to be 
reckoned among the Ishmael- 
ites, Gen. xxxvii, 25, 36 ; but 
elsewhere they are distin 
guished from them. " The 
day of Midian" Isa, ix, 4, is 
the victory gained over Mi- 
dian ; see Judges vii. " The 
curtains of Midian," Hab. iii, 
7. Curtains means the cur- 
tains of a tent, and some- 
times used for the tent itself, 
Jer. xlix, 29 ; Song i, 5 ; and, 
figuratively, for the inhabit- 
ants of a place. 

MIGDOL, tower; a place 
near the Red Sea, Exod. xiv, 
2, which Stuart thinks is Bir 
Sitez, (Beer S.uez,) i. e., the 




well of Suez, about three miles 
west from the city. There is 
here a copious spring, strong- 
ly fortified in modern times, 
in order to secure the privi- 
lege of water for Suez. The 
water is brackish, but serves 
for drinking ; if now we may 
suppose that this was a water- 
ing place 3400 years ago, and 
even then perhaps defended 
by a tower, it would corres- 
pond entirely to Migdol, be- 
tween which and the sea the 
Israelites encamped. It is 
so assumed by Niebuhr, and 
he is followed by most cri- 
tics ; although it must be of 
course a matter of conjecture. 

MILDEW, spots on cloth 
or paper, which are known to 
be plants similar to moss, 
whose seed and mode of pro- 
pagation are not well ascer- 
tained. In the Bible, it sig- 
nifies that disease in grain 
which causes it to turn yel- 
low and wither away, Amos 
iv, 9 ; mildew is united with 
blasting. When grain has 
reached about a cubit in 
height, it is frequently so in- 
jured by cold winds and frost 
that it does not ear. This 
effect thus produced upon the 
grain is called blasting, Gen. 
xli, 6. 

MILE, a thousand. The 
Roman millaire, or mile, con- 
tained 1000 paces, whence 
its name. It is usually esti- 
mated at 1611 yards, while 
the English mile contains 

MILETUS, a maritime 
city in the southern part of 
Ionia, on the confines of 

Caria, a few miles south of 
the Meander, in Asia Minor. 
It was celebrated for a temple 
of Apollo, and as the birth- 
place of Thales, one of the 
seven wise men "of Greece. 
A few ruins now mark its 
probable site near a village 
called Palat, Acts xx, 15, 17; 
2 Tim. iv, 20. ' 

MILK, a well known nou- 
rishing food, drawn principal- 
ly from cows. It consists of 
three distinct parts, the cream, 
curd, and whey, into which, by 
repose, it spontaneously se- 
parates. Cream collects upon 
its surface, and by agitation, 
as in churning, the butter, 
which is an animal oil, is 
separated and brought into a 
solid form. During the pro- 
cess an acid is generated, 
which gives the buttermilk 
a sour taste. After the cream 
has separated, the milk soon 
becomes sour, and gradually 
forms into a solid curd, and 
a limpid fluid which is ivhey, 
This coagulation may be pro- 
duced at pleasure, either by 
adding acid, or by means of 
rennet. Sutler in the trans- 
lation of Judges v, 25, as well 
as in most of the instances 
where the word occurs, is 
thought to be improper. The 
parallelism obviously requires 
that it should designate some- 
thing liquid ; perhaps curdled 
milk, as Gesenius has it, or 
cream. We know that sour 
or thick milk is a common or 
favourite beverage of the 
Arabs ; and Niebuhr also in- 
forms us that they make use 
of cream, which they call chei~ 






tnak. There is, therefore, no 
strong objection to adopting 
either of these -words in this 
place. To suck _ the milk of 
nations is a poetical expres- 
sion, the same as to make 
their riches one's own, to get 

Eossession of their wealth, 
33. l.v, 16. < Milk is put as 
the ejmblem of pure spiritual 
nourishment, or of Christian 
instruction in general, 1 Pet. 
ii, 2 ; and for the first elements 
of Christian instruction, Heb. 
v, 12, 13. "A land flowing 
with milk and honey," Josh, 
v, 6, means a country of ex- 
traordinary fertility, affording 
every thing which is needed 
for the support and comfort 
of life. The phrase wine and 
milk, Isa. Iv, 1, denotes all 
spiritual blessings and privi- 

MILLS. The mills used 
by the Hebrews are still com- 
mon in the East. They were 
composed of .. two circular 
stones, two feet in diameter, 
and half a foot thick, of which 
the lower was fixed, and the 
upperwas turned around upon 
it, having a hole in the mid- 
dle for receiving the grain. 
The grinding was mostly done 
by hand, by female slaves, 
Exod. xi, 5 ; and though ex- 
ceedingly laborious, was usu- 
ally accompanied by song. 
This illustrates the prophetic 
observation of our Saviour, 
" Two women shall be grind- 
ing at the mill," Matt, xxiv, 
41. " When the sound of the 
grinding is low," Eccl. xii, 4. 
This expression alludes to 
the noise by the hand mills 

in which the eastern nations 
daily grind their grain. See 
Jer. xxv, 10; Rev. xviii, 22. 
Job says, "Let my wife grind 
for another," Job xxxi, 10, 
i. e., be his mill-wench, his 
abject slave and concubine. 
See Isa. xlvii, 2. The neces- 
sity of baking bread every 
day in the warm climate of 
the East makes it necessary 
to grind daily at the mills; 
hence no man was allowed 
by the law to take the mill- 
stone as a pledge, Deut. xxiv, 
6 ; for without his mill, there 
being no public ones, he 
would have been in a bad 
situation. Grain was fre- 
quently pounded also in a 
mortar, to which Solomon 
alludes, Prov. xxvii, 22. 

MILLET, a thousand; a 
species of grain, of which 
several kinds are cultivated 
in Italy, Syria, and Egypt. 
It is used partly as green 
fodder and partly for the grain, 
which is of a dark tawny 
colour, and is employed for 
bread, pottage, &c. It is call- 
ed millet, as if one stalk bore 
a thousand seeds, Ezek. iv, 
9. Niebuhr informs us that 
there is a kind of millet used 
in the East, called durra, 
which, made into bread with 
camels' milk, butter, or grease, 
is almost the only food eaten 
by the common people in 
Arabia ; but he says he found 
it so unpalatable that he would 
have preferred plain barley 
bread, which furnishes the 
reason of its being appointed 
as a part of the hard fare of 




MIL'LO, rampart; a part 
or suburb of Jerusalem ; sap- 
posed to have been a deep 
valley which was filled up, 
and on which was a royal 
palace, built by Solomon, 
2 Sam. v, 9 ; 2 Kings xii, 20. 

MINISTER, an attendant, 
who serves under the direc- 
tion of any one, as Joshua, 
Exod. xxiv, 13 ; John Mark, 
Acts xiii, 5. The minister 
of the synagogue was ap- 
pointed to keep the book of 
the law, to observe that those 
who read it, read it correct- 
ly, &c., Luke iv, 20. Minis- 
ters were servants, not menial, 
but honourable ; those who 
explain the word, and con- 
duct the service of God, 1 Cor. 
iv, 1. The holy angels who, 
in obedience to the Divine 
commands, protect, and bene- 
fit the godly, are all ministers, 
beneficial ministers, to those 
who are under their charge, 
Psa. civ, 4. 

MINNITH, a place east 
of Jordan, in the territory of 
the Ammonites, Judges xi, 
33. From hence wheat was 
brought to the Tyrian market, 
Ezek. xxvii, 17. 

MINSTREL, one who 
sings and plays on a musical 
instrument, 2 Kings iii, 15. 
The Hebrews hired women 
to weep and mourn, and also 
persons to play on instru- 
ments at their funerals. Per- 
sons in years, it is said, were 
carried to their graves by 
sound of trumpet, and younger 
people by the sound of flutes. 
in Matt, ix, 23, we observe a 
company of players on the 

flute at the funeral of a girl 
twelve years of age. 

MINT, a well-known herb. 

MIRACLE, a wonder, pro- 
digy ; an event or effect con- 
trary to the established con- 
stitution or course of things, 
or a deviation from the known 
laws of nature, i. e., a super- 
natural event. Miracles can 
be wrought only by Almighty 
power, as when Christ healed 
lepers, saying, "I will; bethou 
clean." No miracles are re- 
lated in the Scripture to have 
been wrought, says Mr. Home, 
in confirmation of falsehood ; 
the magicians of Egypt did 
not perform any miracle. All 
they did, as the narrative of 
Moses expressly states, was 
to busy themselves in their en- 
chantments ; by which every 
man knows miracles cannot 
be accomplished. The witch 
of Endor neither wrought nor 
expected to work any miracle, 
being herself terrified at the 
appearance of Samuel, who 
was sent by God himself. 
The proper effect of miracles 
is to mark clearly the Divine 
interpositions ; and the Scrip- 
ture intimates this to be their 
design ; for both Moses and 
the prophets, Christ and his 
apostles, appealed to them in 
proof of their Divine mission. 
The variety and number of 
Christ's miracles were very 
great. About forty are nar- 
rated at length ; and ons of 
the historians informs us that 
a much greater number were 
wrought, John xxi, 25, and 
their design was important 
and worthy of their author. 

MIR 299 MIR 

The following classification of our Saviour's miracles 
may be found convenient and useful : 

I. Those which relate to human sustenance. 


Water turned into wine, . Cana, . . John n, 5-11. 

Sea of Gab- ( Luke v, 1-11. 
Two draughts of fishes, . i ee> . . \ John xxi, 1-14. 

Five thousand fed, . . . Decapolis, . .Matt, xiv, 15-21. 
Four thousand fed, ... Do. . . Matt, xv, 32-39 

2. Those which relate to his curing diseases. 
The nobleman's son, . . Cana, . . John iy, 46-54. 
Peter's wife's mother, . . Capernaum, Mark i, 30, 31. 
A centurion's servant, . . * Do. . . Matt, viii, 5-13. 
Diseased cripple atBethesda, Jerusalem, John, v, lr-9. 
Canaanite's daughter, . . Near Tyre, Matt, xv, 22-28. 
The pathetic expostulation of this woman has not its equal 
in the Gospel history. 

3. Those which relate to cures performed on demoniacs. 
An unclean spirit, ... . Capernaum, Mark i, 23-26. 
The two from the tombs, . Gadara, . Matt, yiii, 28-34. 
The dumb demoniac, . . Capernaum, Matt, ix, 32. 
The blind and dumb, . . Do. . Matt, xii, 22. 

The boy cured, . . . . Tabor, . . Matt, xvii, 18. 

4. Those which relate to the removal of various infirmities. 
Sight restored to two men, Capernaum, Matt, ix, 29. 
A withered hand cured, . Judea, . . Matt, xii, 10. 
Man deaf and dumb cured, Decapolis, . Mark vii, 31. 
Blind man cured, . . . Bethsaida, . Mark viii, 22. 
Man born blind cured, . Jerusalem,. John ix. 
Two restored to sight, . . Jericho, . . Matt, xx, 30. 
The ear of Malchus healed, Gethsemane, Luke xxii, 50. 
Man sick of the palsy cured, Capernaum, Matt, ix, 1-8. 
Leper healed, . . . . . Do. . Mark i, 40-45. 

Ten lepers cleansed, . . Samaria, . Luke xvii, 11-19. 

5. Miracles upon inanimate subjects. 

Tempest calmed, . . . Seaof Galilee, Matt, viii, 23-27 
Money found in fishes mouth, Do. Matt, xvii, 27. 
Walking on the sea, . . Do. Matt, xiv, 25. 

Blasting of the fig tree, . Olivet, . . Matt, xxi, 18. 

6. Those which exhibit his power to raise the dead. 
Widow's son,- ..... Nain, . . Luke vii, 11-17. 
Jairus's daughter, . . . Capernaum, Matt, ix, 18-25. 
Zazarus, ...... Bethany, . John xi. 




How long miracles were 
continued in the Church, has 
been a matter of dispute. It 
is plain, that it may have been 
exercised in different coun- 
tries, and may have remained, 
without any new communica- 
tion of it, throughout the first, 
and a considerable part of the 
second century. Of the time 
at which several of the apos- 
tles died, we have no certain 
knowledge. St. Peter and 
St. Paul suffered at Kome 
about A. D. 66, or 67 ; and it 
is fully established that the 
life of John was much longer 
protracted, he having died a 
natural death, A. D. 100, or 
101. Supposing that the two 
former of these apostles im- 
parted spiritual gifts till the 
time of their suffering martyr- 
dom, the persons to whom 
they were imparted might, in 
the course of nature, have 
lived through the earlier part 
of the second century ; and 
if John did the same till the 
end of his life, such gifts as 
were derived from him might 
have remained till more than 
the half of that centuiy had 

MIRIAM, the sister of 
Moses, a prophetess ; she 
might have been some ten or 
twelve years of age when she 
watched Moses exposed on 
the banks of the Nile. 

MITE, a Jewish coin of 
small value, and equal to 
about two mills, or the fifth 
part of one cent, Luke xii, 59. 

MITRE, an ornament for 
the head ; anciently it was a 

turban, which consisted of a 
cap, and of a sash of fine 
linen or silk wound round 
the bottom of the cap. This 
is the usual head-dress 'of 
Turks and Arabs, and other 
eastern nations to this day. 
It is used for the turban of 
the high priest, Exod. xxviii. 4. 

MITYLE'NE, the cele- 
brated capital of Lesbos, 
which is one of the largest 
islands in the Archipela'go, 
Acts xx, 14. It was the birth- 
place of Alceus, the lyric 
poet, and Pittacus, one of 
the seven wise men of Greece. 
watch tower, lofty place ; the 
name of several towers and 
cities-in elevated situations. 

MOAB, water of a father, 
i. e., his seed or progeny. 
See Gen. six, 30-38 ; a peo- 
ple, Jer. xlviii, 11-13 ; and a 
region, verse 4. Now called 
Karrak, from its chief city. 
The Moabites were a tribe 
related to the Hebrews. Pre- 
vious to the exodus, after 
expelling the original inha- 
bitants, called Emims, Gen. 
xiv, 5 ; Deut. ii, 11, they pos- 
sessed themselves of the 
region on the east of the 
Dead Sea and the Jordan, as 
far north as the river Jabbok. 
But the northern, and indeed 
the finest and best portion of 
the territory, viz. that extend 
ing from the Jabbok to the 
Arnon, which now goes under 
the name ofBelka, had passed 
into the hands of the Amorites, 
a Canaanitish tribe, who set 
up there one of their king- 
doms, with Heshbon for its 




capital, Num. xxi, 26. Hence 
at the time of the exodus, the 
valley and the river Arnon 
constituted the northern bound- 
ary of Moab, Judges xi, 18. 
The valley and stream El 
Ahsa, which flows into the 
southern extremity of the 
Dead Sea, is supposed to be 
the south border between 
Moab and Edom. As the 
Hebrews advanced in order 
to take possession of Canaan, 
they did not enter the proper 
territory of the Moabites, 
Judges xi, 18, but conquered 
the kingdom of the Amorites, 
which now bears the name 
of Belka, and which had for- 
merly belonged to Moab ; 
whence the western part ly- 
ing along the Jordan opposite 
Jericho, frequently occurs un- 
der the name of the "Plains, 
or land of Moab," Deut, i, 5 ; 
xxxiv, 1, 8.. 

MOCK,, to deride any one 
by imitating * his voice or 
mode of speaking ; to laugh 
at in scorn or contempt. Ish- 
mael's mocking Isaac consist- 
ed probably in some species 
of ridicule which he used at 
the feast of his weaning, Gen. 
xxi, 9. The children mocked, 
Elisha on his way from Jeri- 
cho to Bethel, by saying, " Go 
up thou bald head," 2 Kings 
ii, 23 ; that there was some- 
thing in being bald, which 
was made a subject of ridi- 
cule and reproach on this 
occasion and at this place, is 
sufficiently plain. The con- 
tempt here expressed was in 
all probability connected with 
the hatred which the idol- 

atrous parents of that period, 
and their children, with them, 
bore toward the prophets of 
the true God ; in particular 
toward Elijah, and Elisha his 
bosom friend. Such derision 
as the victims of persecution 
experienced, Heb. xi, 36, is 
called cruel mocking. 

The word is used in the 
sense of to delude, deceive, 
Matt, ii, 16 ; hence spoken 
of impostors and false pro- 
phets. Jude 18. 

meekness under provocation, 
readiness to forgive injuries, 
equity in. the management of 
business, candour in judging 
of the character and actions 
of others, sweetness of dis- 
position, and the entire go- 
vernment of the passions, 
Phil, iv, 5. 

king ; an idol of the Ammon- 
ites, to which the Hebrews 
also at various times sacri- 
ficed human victims during 
their wanderings in the de- 
sert, and afterward in the 
valley of Hinnom. T.he same 
idol is also called MELCHOM, 
their king, Zeph. i, 5. The 
Rabbies describe the statue 
of Moloch as of brass, in the 
form of .the human body, but 
with the head of an ox. It 
was hollow within, was heat- 
ed from below, and the chil- 
dren to be immolated were 
placed in its arms. Similar 
to this was also the statue of 
Saturn among the Carthagi- 
nians,^ a nation living on the 
shore of the Mediterranean, 
in Africa. Hence both Mo- 




loch and the Carthaginian 
Saturn probably represent the 
planet Saturn, to which the 
Semitic nations sacrificed 
human victims. This same 
idol is also called Milcom, 
1 Kings xi, 5. 

MONEY. This anciently 
consisted of bars or pieces 
of silver, weighed out and not 
coined. They only consider- 
ed the purity of the metal, and 
not the stamp. The weight 
was sometimes ascertained 
by means of an instrument, 
answering to the modern steel- 
yards. Merchants were ac- 
cordingly in the habit of car- 
rying about with them ba- 
lances and weights in a sort 
of pouch or bag, Prov. xvi, 
11 ; and fraudulent ones car- 
ried false weights, called the 
balance of deceit, Hos. xii, 7. 
Till the captivity, then, the 
Jews had no coins ; the she- 
kel being properly a weight, 
and all the money being reck- 
oned by weight, and not by 
tale. In the time of the 
Maccabees silver coins were 
first struck, 1 Maccabees, 
xv, 6, with the inscription 
shekel of Israel, which was 
worth sixty-two cents. See 

Gerah, a bean, used as the 
smallest weight and" coin of 
the Hebrews, equivalent to 
the twentieth part of a she- 
-kel, Exod. xxx, 13. Most 
probably the Hebrews, like 
the Greeks and Romans, 
made use of the seeds or 
beans of the carob tree for 
this purpose, as the moderns 
sometimes do of barleycorns ; 

whence the term grain for the 
smallest weight. 

The tribute money, Matt, 
xvii, 24, was a silver coin, 
equal to the Jewish half she- 
kel. This makes it equiva- 
lent to about twenty-eight 
cents ; a yearly tribute to the 
temple paid by every Jew, 
Exod. xxx, 13. 

The most ancient coin of 
which we have a knowledge 
is the daric ; a Persian coin of 
pure gold, called in our trans- 
lation dram. It was common 
also among the Jews while 
they were under the Persian 
dominion, 1 Chron. . xxix, 7 ; 
Ezra ii, 69. The dram was 
equal in value to about $3 25. 
The stater, a coin in circula- 
tion among the Greeks, and, 
in our translation, called a 
piece of money, Matt, xvii, 
27, was equal to about sixty- 
six two-third cents ; but was 
Jrobably current* among the 
ews as equivalent to the 

The assanon was a brass 
coin, equal to one-tenth of the 
denarius, i. e., to nearly one 
cent and a half, used in the 
New Testament to denote 
the most trifling value, like 
our mite or farthing, Matt, x, 
29. It ought to be remarked, 
that silver and gold anciently 
were more scarce than at 
present, and consequently of 
greater value about as ten to 
one. In Acts xix, 19, it was 
a matter of question whether 
the pieces of silver mean the 
Jewish sKekel, which could 
make the sum about 28,000, 
or whether it stands for the 



dram or denarius, which 
would reduce the sum to 
about $7,000. In either case, 
we must take into account 
the very high price of ancient 
books in general ; and espe- 
cially of those prepared by 
the magicians. 

A HONEY-CHANGER is a bro- 
ker, an exchanger, who deals 
injnoney or exchanges. The 
annual tribute of each Jew 
to the temple was a half 
shekel, and this the money- 
changers, sitting in the outer 
court of the temple, furnish- 
ed to the people as they came 
up, in exchange for Greek 
and Roman coins. They also 
received money on deposite 
at interest, in order to loan 
it out to others at a higher 
rate, Matt, xxv, 27. 

MONTH, i. e.,. a lunar 
month ; it was customary 
among the Hebrews to reckon 
by moons. The lunar changes, 
without doubf, were first em- 

ployed in the measurement 
of time. After their depart- 
ure from Egypt, there exist- 
ed among them two modes 
of reckoning the months of 
the year ; the one civil, and 
the other sacred. The begin- 
ning of the civil year was 
Tisri, from the new moon of 
October to that of November ; 
the sacred year commenced 
with Nisan, the new moon 
of April. Months anciently 
had no separate names, ex- 
cept Ni'san, which was call- 
ed A'bib, i. e., green ears, so 
called because grain at that 
time was in the ear. The 
return of the new moon was 
ascertained by observation, 
and announced by the sound- 
ing of the silver trumpets, 
Num. x, 10. After the Ba- 
bylonish captivity, the He- 
brews continued the names 
of the months as they found 
them among the Chaldeans 
and Persians. 

Civil. Sacred. 









Names of the Hebrew Months. 

Ni'san, from the new moon of April, Neh. ii, 1. 

r~7*r r~z' " -urn- i TT-* 

Zif, or Zin, May, 1 Kings vi, 1. 

Si'van, June, Esth. viii, 9. 

Tarn'muz, . . . ,, . . July. 

Ab, August. 

6 E'lul, Sept., Neh. vi, 15. 

7 Tis'ri, or E-than'im, . . Oct., 1 Kings viii, 2. 

8 Bui, (to rhyme with dull) Nov., 1 Kings vi, 38. 

9 Chisleu (kis'lu,) . . . Dec., Neh. i, 1. 

10 Te'beth, ..:... Jan., Esth. ii, 16. 

11 Se'bat, . . . Feb., Zech. i, 7. 

6 . 12 A'dar, March, Esth. iii, 7. 

Nisan was formerly called Abib, . Exod. xiii, 4. 




MOON, the lesser light, 
Gen. i, 16, revolving around 
the earth at the distance of 
240,000 miles, and reflecting 
the light of the sun. Hence 
the Jewish dispensation is 
compared to the moon, Rev. 
xii, 1. It was the bright 
moonlight night of the world, 
and possessed a portion of 
the glorious light of the Gos- 
pel. Among the orientals in 
general, and the Hebrews in 
particular, the worship of the 
moon was more extensive, 
and more famous than that 
of the sun, Deut. iv, 19 ; xvii, 
3. The Greeks worshipped 
the moon under the name of 

MOREH, teacher, a Ca- 
naanite, like Mamre ; whence 
the " plain," and " oaks of 
Moreh," not far from She- 
chem, so called from their 
owner, Deut. xi, 30. " The 
hill of Moreh," teachers' hill, 
in the valley of Jezreel, Judg. 
vii, 1. 

MORNING, the dawn, day- 
break, from the breaking forth 
of the light, used for early, 
soon, speedily, Psa. v, 4 ; also 
metaphorically, for the dawn 
of prosperity and happiness, 
Job xi, 17 ; poetically, there 
are ascribed to the morning 
wings, Psa. cxxxix, 9, ex- 
pressive of the swiftness with 
which the dawn moves on- 
ward. Son of the morning is 
Lucifer, the morning star, Isa. 
xiv, 12. 

MOR'DECAI, a Jew of 
the tribe of Benjamin, living 
in the metropolis of Persia, 
the foster-father of Esther, 

and afterward chief minister 
of state, Esth. ii, 5. Probably 
he was very young when 
taken into captivitv. 

MORIAH, one of the hills 
of Jerusalem, on which So- 
lomon built the temple. Land 
ofMoriah is the region around 
the mount, its vicinity, Gen. 
xxii, 2. According to Ge- 
senius, the word signifies 
chosen of Jehovah, an appro- 
priate name for a place of 
sacrifice, or a sanctuary. 

MOSERA, Dem. x, 6, is 
supposed to lie near the foot 
of Mount Hor, perhaps on 
the elevated open plain from 
which the mountain rises. 
All writers agree in placing 
the sepulchre of Aaron upon 
the summit of Mount Hor, 
where it is still preserved 
and venerated by the Arabs. 

MOSES, draivn out, i. e., 
from the water. See Exod. 
ii, 10 ; the great leader, legis- 
lator, and prophet of the Is- 
raelites ; the son of Amram, 
1 Chron. vi, 3, of the tribe of 
Levi. He is the author of 
the Pentateuch, or first five 
books of the Bible, which has 
been regarded by almost all 
nations as the most ancient 
history and code of laws 
which have come down to 
our times. The narrative of 
his life and actions occupies 
the last four books of his 

Moses was educated at the 
court of Egypt, as the son 
of Pharaoh's daughter, and 
brought up in all the learning 
and wisdom of the Egyptians. 
Here he appears to have stay- 




ed nearly forty years, till one 
day, having killed one of the 
oppressors of his Hebrew 
brethren, he was obliged to 
flee for his life to the land of 
Midian, in the peninsula of 
Sinai, where, entering into 
the service of the priest or 
prince of that country, he 
married his daughter, and 
guarded the flocks of his fa- 
ther-in-law for forty years. 
At the conclusion of this 
time, God gave him a com- 
mission to conduct the Israel- 
ites from Egypt to Canaan ; 
and he faithfully discharged 
the trust reposed in him. He 
forgot himself and his own 
secular interest, with that 
also of his family, and labour- 
ed incessantly to promote 
God's honour and the people's 
welfare, which on many occa- 
'sions he showed were dearer 
to him than his own life. 
Moses was in, every respect 
a great man ; for every virtue 
which constitutes greatness 
was concentrated in his mind, 
and fully displayed in his 
conduct. He always con- 
ducted himself as conscious 
of his own integrity, and of 
the guidance and protection 
of God, under whose$orders 
he constantly acted. He left 
Egypt, having an eye to the 
recompense of reward in an- 
other world : he never lost 
sight of this great object, and 
was therefore neither dis-' 
coufaged by difficulties, nor 
elated by prosperity. Though 
his confidence in God was 
never shaken, yet his life was 
a life of trial and distress, 

occasioned by the obstinacy 
and baseness of the people 
over whom he presided ; and 
he died in their service, leav- 
ing no other property but his 
tent behind him. Of the spoils 
taken in war, we never" read 
of the portion of Moses. He 
had none he wanted none 
his treasure was in heaven, 
and his heart was there also. 
His moral character is almost 
immaculate ; that he offend- 
ed Jehovah at the waters of 
Meribah, there can be no 
"doubt. By Num. xx, 12, it 
appears that Moses, as well 
as Aaron and others, indulged 
a spirit of unbelief. Hence 
" he spoke unadvisedly with 
his lips," Psa. cvi, 33, and 
" did not sanctify the Lord in 
the midst of the children of 
Israel," Deut. xxxii, 49-52. 
It was for this that he was 
excluded from the promised 

The following remarks up- 
on the veracity of Moses, as 
a writer, have the merit of 
compressing much argument 
into few words : " 1-. There 
is a minuteness in the details 
of the Mosaic writings which 
bespeaks their truth ; for it 
often bespeaks the eye-wit- 
ness, as in the adventures 
of the wilderness ; and often 
seems ^intended to supply 
directions to the artificer, as 
in the construction of the 
tabernacle. 2. There are 
touches of nature in the narra- 
tive which bespeak its truth, 
for it is not easy to regard 
them otherwise than as strokes 
from the life ; as where ' the 




mixed multitude,' -whether i 
half-castes or Egyptians, are 
the first to sigh for the cucum- 
bers and melons of Egypt, and 
to spread discontent through 
the camp, Num. xi, 4 ; as the 
miserable exculpation of him- 
self, which Aaron attempts, 
with all the cowardice of con- 
scious guilt, ' I cast into the 
fire, and there came out this 
calf:' the fire, to be sure, be- 
ing in the fault, Exod. xxxii, 
24. 3. There is a simplicity 
in the manner of Moses, when 
telling his tale, which be- 
speaks its truth : no parade 
of language, no pomp of cir- 
cumstance even in his mira- 
cles a modesty and dignity 
throughout all. 4. There is 
a candour in the treatment of 
his subject by Moses, which 
bespeaks his truth ; as when 
he tells of his own want of 
eloquence, which unfitted him 
for a leader, Exod. iv, 10 ; his 
own want of faith, which pre- 
vented him from entering the 
promised land, Num. xx, 12 ; 
the idolatry of Aaron his bro- 
ther, Exodus xxxii, 21"; the 
profaneness of Nadab and 
Abihu, his nephews, Lev. x ; 
the disaffection and punish- 
ment of Miriam, his sister, 
Num. xii, 1. 5. There is a 
disinterestedness in his con- 
duct which bespeaks him to 
be a man of truth ; fd*r though 
he had sons, he apparently 
takes no measures during his 
life to give them offices of 
trust or profit ; and at his 
death he appoints, as his suc- 
cessor, one who had no claims 
upon him, either of alliance, 

of clanship, or of blood. 6. 
There are certain prophetical 
passages in the writings of 
Moses which bespeak their 
truth ; as, several respecting 
the' future Messiah, and the 
very sublime and literal one 
respecting the final fall of 
Jerusalem, Deut. xxviii." 

MOTE, something dry ; any 
small dry particle, as of chaff 
or wood, used as the emblem 
of lesser faults, or small in- 
firmities, opposed to a beam, 
Luke vi, 41, which is used 
figuratively for a great fault 
or vice ; a Jewish proverb 
applied by our Saviour. 

MOTH, the cloth worm, of 
a shining silver colour ; an 
insect which flies by night, 
and of which there are many 
kinds. It is first enclosed in 
an egg among cloth, whence 
it issues a worm, and feeds 
upon its habitation. After a 
time, it quits this worm state, 
to assume that of the com- 
plete insect, or moth. 

" Crushed before the moth," 
Job iv, 19, is a vivid image of 
the frailty of men, that the 
moth,' insignificant and harm- 
less as it appears to be, has 
power to crush them. 

MOTHER, used for .a step- 
mother, Gen. xxxvii, 10 ; has 
often also a wider sense, a 
grandmother, or any female 
ancestor. It expresses inti- 
mate relationship, close alli- 
ance, Job, xvii, 14. A nation 
or people, as opposed to the 
children, i. e., individual^ 
born of it, Hos. iv,"5. 

It also signifies a mother 
city, metropolis, i. e., any 




large and important city, al- 
though not the capital, 2 Sam. 
xx, 19. Tropically a city, as 
the parent or source of wick- 
edness and abominations, 
Rev. xvii, 5. Deborah calls 
herself a mother in Israel, 
Judges v, 7, in the sense of 
benefactress ; just as distin- 
guished men are termed 
fathers in general, or fathers 
of their country, Job xxix, 

MOUNTAIN occurs very 
frequently ; often as a moun- 
tainous tract or region, Gen. 
*iv, 10, the mountainous part 
of Judah, Josh, xv, 48. Mount 
Ephraim lay almost in the 
middle of the Holy Land, east 
of Joppa, in the territory of 
that tribe. Palestine, being 
mountainous, is called a holy 
mountain, Isa. Ivii, 13. The 
Hebrews frequently gave to 
mountains the epithet eter- 
nal, because they are ever 
the same fronTthe creation. 

The mountains of Pales- 
tine were anciently places 
of refuge to the inhabitants 
when defeated in war, Gen. 
xiv, 10 ; and modern travel- 
lers assure us that they are 
still resorted to for the pur- 
pose of shelter. The rocky 
summits found on many of 
them, appear to have b'een 
not unfrequently employed as 
altars, on which sacrifices 
were offered to Jehovah, Judg. 
xiii, 19. Mount Olivet ; is 
called Mount of Corruption, 
2 Kings xxiii, 13, on account 
of the idols there worshipped. 
Proverbially, to remove moun- 
tains, is to accomplish great 

and difficult things, 1 Cor. 
xiii, 2. 

MOURNING, the grief of 
the orientals formerly, on an 
occasion of death, was, as it 
is to this day in the East, 
very extreme. As soon as a 
person dies, the females in 
the family, with a loud voice," 
set up a sorrowful cry. They 
continue it as long as they 
can, without taking breath ; 
and the first shriek of wail- 
ing dies away in a low sob. 
After a short space of time, 
they repeat the same cry, and 
continue it- for eight days. 
Every day, however, it be- 
comes the less frequent and 
less audible. The Hebrews 
hired women to weep and 
rnoan, and also persons to play 
on instruments of music at 
their funerals. Persons in 
years were carried to their 
graves by the sound of trum- 
pets, as Servius says, and 
younger people by the sound 
of flutes. In Matt, ix, 23, 
we observe a company of 
players on the flute at the 
funeral of a girl of twelve 
years of age. All that met a 
funeral procession, or a com,- 
pany of mourners, out of civi- 
lity were to join them, and 
to mingle their tears with 
those who wept. Paul alludes 
to this custom, Rom. xii, 15 ; 
and our Saviour, Luke vii, 32. 

The shaving of the head is 
a familiar custom in mourn- 
ing for the dead, Jer. xvi, 6, 
as well as in general calami- 
ties of the country, Amos viii, 
10 ; the orientals thereby de- 
prived themselves of the fines^. 




ornament of the body ; and 
taking off ornaments, lies at 
the bottom in all mourning 
visages. A bald head is a 
special dishonour, 2 Ki. ii, 23. 
- MUFFLER, a female or- 
nament to cover the face, 
Isa. iii, 19. 

' MULE, the offspring of 
the horse and ass. There is 
no probability that the Jews 
bred mules, because it was 
forbidden to couple animals 
of different species together, 
Lev. xix, 19. But they were 
not forbidden to use them, 
2 Sam. xiii, 29. The animal 
is remarkably hardy, patient, 
and sure-footed, living ordi- 
narily twice as long as a 
horse. Mules are much used 
in Spain and South America 
for transporting goods across 
the mountains. So also in 
the Alps they are used by 
travellers among the moun- 
tains, where a horse would 
hardly be able to pass with 
safety. Even the kings and 
most distinguished nobles of 
the Jews were accustomed to 
ride upon mules, 2 Sam. xiii, 
29. Of one passage where 
the word, mule occurs, Gen. 
xxxvi, 24, Gesenius says, by 
a groundless conjecture from 
the context, some of the rab- 
bins and modern versions 
render it mules ; but it should 
be rendered warm springs, 
such being actually found in 
the region in question on the 
eastern shore of the Dead 
Sea. . 

MUNITION, materials 
used in war for defence, or 
for annoying an enemy. In 

the Bible, it means a strong- 
hold, a fortified city, Nan. 
ii, 1 j compare 2 Chron. xi, 

MURDER, the deliberate 
killing of a human being ; a 
vice which is said to have 
been exceedingly frequent at 
Rome. But the Jews regard 
ed this as one of the most 
abominable crimes. In case 
of the inadvertent killing of 
another, provision was made 
for the protection of the of- 
fender by cities of refuge ; 
but for this crime there was 
no pardon : the city of re- 
fuge, and even the altar, fur- 
nished no asylum, nor might 
money -be taken in satisfac- 
tion. See Exod. xxi, 14; 
xxviii, 29 ; Num. xxxv, 30- 
34. Murder was always 
punished with death ; and 
the kinsman of the murdered 
person might kill the mur- 
derer with impunity. 

MURMURING, uttering 
complaints in a low voice 
privately ; the expression of 
complaint, or sullen discon- 
tent ; without murmuring, i. e., 
cheerfully, Phil. ii. 14. ' 

MURRAIN, a deadly and 
infectious disease among cat- 
tle, Exod. ix, 3. 

MUSIC is probably nearly 
coeval with our race, or, at 
least, with the first attempts 
to preserve the memory of 
transactions. The first men- 
tion of stringed instruments 
precedes the deluge. About 
550 years after the deluge, or 
1800 B. C., according to the 
common chronology, both vp 
cal and instrumental music 




Vi at 




3~> o 


1-3 10 






' ^ 






are sppken of as things in 
general use, Gen. xxxi, 26, 27. 
- The Hebrews insisted on 
having music at marriages, on 
anniversary birthdays, on the 
days which reminded them 
of victories over their ene- 
mies, at the inauguration of 
their kings, in their public 
xvorship, and when they were 
coming from afar to attend the 
great festivals of their nation, 
Isa. xxx, 29. In the taber- 
nacle and the temple the Le- 
vites were the lawful musi- 
cians ; but on other occasions 
any one might use musical 
instruments who chose. It 
should be remarked, however, 
that neither music nor poetry 
attained to the same excel- 
lence after the captivity as 
before that period. There 
were women singers as well 
as men in the temple choir. 

MENTS of the Hebrews were 
divided intd three classes : 
the stringed, wind, and percus- 
sion. 1. The neginoth, which 
occurs in the title of some of 
the psalms, signifies those in- 
struments which are furnish- 
ed with strings. The use of 
the stringed instruments of 
music is very ancient ; but 
their names, and sometimes 
even their forms, have been 
very much changed. From 
ait examination of the draw- 
ings, made of the ruins of 
ancient Egypt, we find that 
its inhabitants had three dif- 
ferent kinds : those of the 
harp, those of the lyre, and 
of the guitar. The harp dif- 
fers from the lyre, by being 

open on one side, as the The- 
ban harp. 

Of what the strings con- 
sisted cannot perhaps be as- 
certained to complete cer- 
tainty. Probably they were 
made of the inner bark of 
trees, of the sinews of animals, 
and, in more modern times, 
of metal. 2. The nehiloth oc- 
curs in the title to the fifth 
Psalm, and signifies wind in- 
struments ; as different kinds 
of trumpets and flutes, which 
are nearly the modern instru- 
ments of those names. Flutes 
and pipes are found among 
all nations, even the most 
uncivilized ; the cornet was 
an instrument of this kind, 
resembling a horn, now but 
little known, 3. And instru- 
ments of percussion, which 
are made to give forth their 
sounds by being struck either 
with the hand, or a stick, such 
as drums and bells. The 
cymbals were instruments for 
accompanying music, and not 
unlike those now used in the 
band. Bells were anciently 
worn by horses trained for 
war, to accustom them to 
noise, Zech. xiv, 20. 

MUSTARD, perhaps the 
common mustard which often 
grows in the fertile soil of 
Palestine to a very consider- 
able size. Dr. Clarke says, 
that some soils, being more 
luxuriant than others, and 
the- climate much wanner, 
raise the same plants to a 
size and perfection far be- 
yond what a poorer soil and a 
colder climate canpossibly do. 
Some suppose it another r spe- 




cies of plant ; but whatever 
might have been the species, 
it is clear from our Lord's 
custom of taking his illustra- 
tion from familiar objects, 
that he spoke of a plant which 
was remarkable, among his 
hearers, for the smallness of 
its seeds, and of such a size 
-as to afford shelter for the- 
birds of the air. The ex- 
pression, " a grain of mustard 
seed," Matt, xvii, 20, is a 
proverbial phrase for the least, 
the smallest particle. 

MYRA, one of the six prin- 
cipal cities of Lycia, on the 
south-west coast of Asia Mi- 
nor, Acts xxvii, 5. 

MYRRH, a bitter aromatic 
gum, procured from a tree 
growing in Arabia, and espe- 
cially in Abyssinia. This 
tree, which has not been cer- 
tainly known till very recent- 
ly, is small and thorny, about 
eight feet high, covered with 
a whitish gray bark, and leaf 
like an olive. The gum dis- 
tils in tears spontaneously, 
or by incisions made twice a 
year; was highly prized by 
the ancients, and used in 
incense and perfumes. The 
sweet-smelling and pure myrrh, 
or stacte, Song v, 5 ; Expd. 
xxx, 23, is the myrrh which 
distils of itself from the tree, 
and therefore the more highly 

MYRTLE, a beautiful 
evergreen tree, growing wild 
throughout the southern parts 
of Europe, north of Africa, 
and the temperate parts of 
Asia ; furnished with leaves 
like those of the box, but much 

less, and more pointed : they 
are soft to the touch, shining, 
smooth, of a beautiful green, 
and have a sweet smell. The 
flowers grow among the leaves, 
and consist of five white pe- 
tals, disposed in the form of 
a rose : they have an agree- 
able perfume, and ornamental 
appearance. The myrtle is 
mentioned in Scripture among 
lofty trees, not as comparing 
with them in size, but as con- 
tributing with them to the 
beauty and richness of the 
scenery, Isa. xli, 19. 

MYSIA, the north-west 
province of Asia Minor, and 
at this day a beautiful and 
fertile country. The Mysian 
cities, Assos, Pergamos, and 
Troas, are mentioned in the 
New Testament, Acts xvi, 7. 

MYSTERY, a profound 
secret ; something kept cau- 
tiously concealed, and into 
which one must be instructed 
before it can be known ; some- 
thing of itself not obvious, and 
above -human insight. In the 
New Testament,' spoken of 
facts, doctrines, principles, &c., 
not fully revealed ; but only 
obscurely or symbolically set 
forth. To the apostles it was 
given to know the mysteries of 
the kingdom of heaven, i. e., in 
a deeper and more perfect 
manner than they were made 
known to others, Matt, xiii, 
11. Mystery often conveys 
the idea of something import- 
ant or awfull^ sublime. 
*" i " 

NA'A-MANs general of the 
army of Ben'ha-dad, king of 
Syria, mentioned 2 Kings v, 




He appears to have been a 
Gentile idolater ; but being 
miraculously cured of his 
leprosy by the power of the 
God of Israel, and the direc- 
tion of his Prophet Elisha, he 
renounced his idolatry, and 
acknowledged this God to be 
the only true God, 2 Kings v, 
15, and promised, for the time 
to come, that he would wor- 
ship none other but Jehovah, 
verse 17. He also requested 
the prophet that he might 
have two mules' load of earth 
to carry -home with him from 
the land of Israel, most pro- 
bably intending to build an 
altar with it in his own coun- 
try ; which seems, indeed, to 
be implied in the reason with 
which he enforces his request, 
verses 17, 18. He consulted 
the prophet, whether it was 
lawful for him, having re- 
nounced idolatry, and public- 
ly professed the worship of 
the true God, still, in virtue 
of his office, to attend his 
master in the temple of Kim- 
mon, in order that he might 
lean upon him, either out of 
state, or perhaps out of bodily 
weakness ; because, if he 
attended him, as he had for- 
merly done, he could not 
avoid bowing down when he 
did. To this the prophet re- 
turns no direct answer ; mak- 
ing no other reply than, " Go 
in peace ;" putting it, proba- 
bly, upon his conscience to 
act as that should dictate, 
and not being willing to re- 
lieve him from this trial of 
his recent faith. 
NA'DAB, son of Aaron, 

and brother to A-bi'hu. He 
offered incense to the Lord 
with strange, that is, common 
fire, and not with that which 
had been miraculously lighted 
upon the altar of burnt-offer- 
ings. The connection of the 
whole would seem to show 
pretty plainly that these of- 
fenders were under the influ- 
ence of intoxicating liquor, 
Lev. x ; see especially verses 
8, 9, 10. 

NA'HUM is supposed to 
have been a native of a vil- 
lage in Galilee, and to have 
been of the tribe of Simeon. 
It is generally allowed that 
he delivered his predictions 
between the Assyrian and Ba- 
bylonian captivities, and pro- 
bably about 715 B. C. They 
relate solely to the destruc- 
tiantif Nineveh by the Baby- 
lonians and Medes, and are 
introduced by an animated 
display of the attributes of 
God. Of all the minor pro- 
phets, none seems to equal 
Nahuni in sublimity, ardour, 
and boldness. His prophecy 
forms an entire and regular 

NAIL. The nail of Jael's 
tent, with which she killed 
Sisera, was formed for pene- 
trating earth, or hard sub- 
stances, when driven by suf- 
ficient force, as with a ham- 
mer. A nail of this sort is the 
large pin of iron or wood with 
which they fastened to the 
ground the cords of their 
tents. It also includes the 
spikes or nails fixed in the 
walls of the house, upon which 
were hung the moveables and 




utensils in common use, Ezek. 
xv, 3. The care with which 
they fixed the nails may be 
inferred from the promise of 
the Lord to Eliakim, Isa. xxii, 
23. He shall be strong enough 
to support whatever is sus- 
pended on him. This illus- 
trates an allusion of the Pro- 
phet Zechariah, chap, x, 4. 
The house of Judah, which 
is timid, like a flock of sheep, 
the Lord hath made as mar- 
tial as a horse trained to bat- 
tle ; and out of him shall 
come the strong nail, or pike- 
nead, i. e., a prince, on whom 
the care and welfare of the 
state depends. The same 
person is also called the cor- 
ner, i. e., corner stone, on whom 
the state is founded. 

NAIN, a town of Galilee, 
situated, according to Euse- 
bius, about two miles south 
of Mount Tabor, near Endor, 
Luke vii, 11. 

NAKEDNESS, without 
clothing ; spoken also of one 
who has no outer garment, 
and is clad only in the tunic, 
which fitted close to the body, 
John xxi, 7. It signifies, as 
in English, half naked, i. e., 
poorly clad, destitute as to 
clothing; implying penury and 
want, Matt, xxv, 36. Figu- 
ratively spoken of the soul as 
disencumbered of the body in 
which it had been clothed, 
2 Cor. v, 3. Metaphorically, 
any thing uncovered, open, 
manifest, Heb. iv, 13. " The 
nakedness of the land," Gen. 
xlii, 9-12, is the exposed part, 
where it is unfortified, easy 
of access. 

NAME. 1. The proper 
appellation of a person. 2. It 
implies authority, or the power 
of his name, Acts iii, 1 6. To 
come or do any thing in 
one's name, i. e., using his 
name ; as his messenger or 
representative, by his autho- 
rity or sanction. 3. It im- 
plies character, dignity, e. g., 
name and dignity, honourable 
appellation, title. " He who 
receives a prophet in the 
name" i. e., character of a pro- 
phet, as a prophet, Matt, x, 41. 
4. Name is used emphatical- 
ly, as the name of God or 
Christ ; a periphrase for God 
or Christ himself, in all his 
being, attributes, and rela- 
tions. 5. Name often signifies 
fame or renown ; a good name 
is a good reputation, Eecl. vii, 

1 ; name after death, memory, 
as in the phrase blot out one's 
name, i. e., utterly to destroy 
a people or city, so that their 
name andmemory shall perish, 
Deut. ix, 14. In the follow- 
ing passages it seems to be 
used for a monument, in me- 
mory of any person or event, 

2 Sam. viii, 13 ; Isa. Iv, 13. 
The name of the Lord is the 
renown, or good fame of God ; 
his estimation among man- 
kind, in the phrase for his 
name's sake, i. e., as vindicat- 
ing his good name, in accord- 
ance with his name and cha- 
racter, that his glory and ho- 
nour might not be obscured. 
The inhabitants of the East 
very frequently change their 
names, and sometimes do it 
for very slight reasons. This 
accounts for the fact of so 




mahy persons' having two 
names in Scripture, Judges 
vi, 30-33 ; vii, 1 ; 2 Sam. 
xxiii, 8. Kings and princes 
very often changed the names 
of those who held offices un- 
der them, particularly when 
they were elevated to some 
new . station, and crowned 
with additional honours. Gen. 
xli, 45 ; xvii, 5 ; xxxii, 28 ; 
2 Kings xxiii, 34 ; xxiv, -17 ; 
Dan. i, 6, 7 ; John i, 42. Hence 
a name, a new name, occurs 
tropically, as a token or proof 
of distinction and honour in 
the following among other 
passages, Rev. ii, 17. 

NAPHTALI, myivrest- 
ling, see Gen. xxx, 8 ; a son 
of Jacob by Bilhah, and pa- 
triarch of the tribe of that 
name, the limits of which are 
described, Josh, xix, 32-39. 
" Naphtali is a hind let loose, 
he giveth goodly words," Gen. 
xlix, 21. Instead of let loose, 
Gesenius translates stretched 
out, and explains them as slen- 
der ingrowth; Robinson trans- 
lates shot up, and gives a si- 
milar explanation, i. e., grown 
up in a slender and graceful 
form. 'A fine woman is com- 
pared to the roe or hind, Prov. 
v, 19 ; and also "swift-footed 
heroes, 2 Sam. ii, 18. Such 
are to be the descendants of 
Naphtali ; they are also to 
give goodly words, i. e., the 
tribe is to be distinguished 
for its orators, prophets, 
poets ; and perhaps also for 
its singers. 

NAPKIN, in common 
usage, a towel ; a cloth used 
for wiping the hands. In the 

Bible, a. sweat cloth, a hand* 
kerchief, John xi, 44. 

NARCISSUS, a flower; 
the name of a man who is 
supposed to have been the 
freedman and favourite of the 
Emperor Claudius, Rom. xvi, 

NATHAN AEL, given of 
God, of the same signification 
as Theodore, a disciple of 
Christ; supposed to be the 
same with the Apostle Bar- 
tholomew, John ij 46, &c., 
where he was seen under the 
fig tree, probably for the pur- 
pose of devotional retirement. 
NATURAL, i; That which 
pertains to nature, or is pro- 
duced by it. " The natural 
body," 1 Cor. xv, 44, having 
breath and animal life opposed 
to the spiritual body, which 
has the nature of a spirit. 
2. When spoken of the soul, 
it signifies animal, i. e., per- 
taining to the animal or na- 
tural mind and affections, 
swayed by the affections and 
passions of human nature, 
not under the influences of 
the Holy Spirit. The natural 
man is one who makes the 
faculties of his animal na- 
ture, his senses, passions, 
and his natural reason dark- 
ened by prejudices, the mea- 
sure of truth and the rule of 
his conduct, without paying 
any regard to the discoveries 
of revelation. 

NATURE, natural source, 
or origin, birth, descent, Gal. 
ii, 15 ; the natural constitu- 
tion of any person ; the innate 
disposition, qualities, &c. ; in 
a moral sense, the native 




mode of thinking, feeling, act- 
ing, as unenlightened by the 
influence of Divine truth, 
Eph. ii, 3. It is used by 
analogy, once of the Divine 
moral nature, 2 Pet. i, 4, 
" Partakers A the Divine na- 


i. e., 

regenerated in 

heart and disposition. 

It signifies a natural feel- 
ing of decorum, a native sense 
of propriety, e. g., in respect 
to national customs, in which 
one is born and brought up, 
1 Cor. xi, 14 ; " doth not your 
own natural feeling teach 
you," &c. See HAIR. It was 
the national custom among 
both Hebrews and Greeks for 
men to wear the hair short, 
and the women long. 

The word also signifies the 
order and constitution of na- 
ture. Hence, according to 
nature, natural ; contrary to 
nature, unnatural; Rom. xi, 

NAZARENE, an inhabit- 
ant or native of Nazareth ; 
but also implying reproach, 
from the contempt in which 
that city was held, Malt, ii, 
23 ; once used of Christians 
as the followers of Jesus, 
Acts xxiv, 5. 

NAZARETH, a small city 
in Lower Galilee, just north 
of the great plain of Esdrae- 
lon, and about midway be- 
tween the lake of Tiberias 
and the Mediterranean. Jt 
lies at the foot of a hill and on 
the side facing the east and 
south-east, along a small val- 
ley or basin, entirely shut in 
by hills, except a , narrow 
rocky gullet toward the south 

leading to the great plaifl. 
Here is now shown the sup- 
posed place where the men 
of the city were about to cast 
Jesus down from the- preci- 
pice, Luke iv, 29. 

NAZARITE, consecrated; 
a species of ascetics among 
the Hebrews, who bound 
themselves by a vow to ab- 
stain from certain things. See 
the law, Num. vi, 12 ; com- 
pare Amos ii, 12 ; once it sig- 
nified a prince as consecrated 
to God, Lam. iv, 7. 

Perpetual Nazarites, as 
Samson and John the Bap- 
tist, were consecrated to their 
Nazariteship by their parents, 
and continued all their lives 
in this state, without drinking 
wine or cutting their hair. 
The institution is involved in 
much mystery ; and no satis- 
factory reason has ever been 
given of it. This is certain, 
that it had the approbation of 
God, and may be considered 
as affording a good example 
of self-denial in order to be 
given up to the study of the 
law, and the practice of exact 

NEAPOLIS, a city and 
port of Macedonia, on the 
Egean coast, a few miles 
E.S.E. of Philippi, now call- 
ed Napoli, Acts xvi, 11. 

NEBO, a mouritain in the 
confines of Moab, not far from 
the northern extremity of the 
Dead Sea; On a summit of 
a ridge of this mountain call- 
ed Pisgah, which commands 
a view of the whole of Ca- 
naan, Moses surveyed the 
promised land, and "was 




gathered to Ms people," Deut. 
xxxiv, 1. The name seems 
to have been borrowed from 
the god Nebo, Isaiah xlvi, 1, 
who probably was worshipped 
there. And this idol is sup- 
posed to represent the planet 
Mercury, which the Chaldeans 
and ancient Arabs worshipped 
as the celestial scribe, who 
records the succession of 

son and successor of Nabopo- 
lassar, who succeeded to .the 
kingdom of Chaldea 605 B. C. 
Some time previously to this 
his brother had made him 
associate in the kingdom, and 
sent him to recover Carcfye- 
mish, which had been taken 
from him four years before 
by Necho, king of Egypt. Ne- 
buchadnezzar,, having been 
successful, marched against 
the governor of Phen-ic'i-a, 
and Jehoi'a-kim, king, of Ju- 
dah, who was * tributary to 
Neeho. He took Jehoiakim, 
and put him in chains in 
order to carry him captive to- 
Babylon ; but afterward left 
him in Judea, on condi- 
tion of paying a large tribute. 
He took .away several per-" 
sons from Jerusalem ; among 
others Daniel, Han-a-ni'ah, 
Mish'a-el, and Az-a-ri'ah, all 
of the royal family, whom the 
king of Babylon caused to 
be carefully instructed in the 
language and in the learning 
of the Chaldeans, that they 
might be employed at court, 
Dan. i. 

In the mean time, Nebu- 
chadnezzar, being at Baby- 

lon in the second year of his 
reign, had a mysterious dream, 
in which he saw a statue com- 
posed of several metals, the 
interpretation of which was 
given by Daniel, and procured 
his elevation to the highest 
post in the kingdom. In the 
same year, as Dr. Hales 
thinks, in which he had this 
dream, he erected a golden 
statue in the plains of Dura. 

Jehoiachin having revolt- 
ed, Nebuchadnezzar besieged 
him in Jerusalem, forced him 
to surrender, and took him, 
with his chief officers, cap- 
tive to Babylon, with his 
mother, his wives, and the 
best workmen of Jerusalem, 
to the number of 10,000 men. 
Among the captives were Mor- 
decai, the uncle of Esther, 
and Ezekiel the prophet. He 
took also all the vessels of 
gold which Solomon made for 
the temple and the king's 
treasury, and he set up Mat- 
tani'ah, Je-hoi'a-chim's uncle 
by his father's side, whom 
he named Zed-e : ki'ah. This 
prince continued faithful to 
Nebuchadnezzar nine years : 
being then weary of subjec- 
tion, he revolted, and confe- 
derated with the neighbouring 
princes. But in the eleventh 
year of Zedekiah, 588 B. p., 
the city was taken. The king 
of Babylon condemned him to 
die, caused his children to be 
put to death in his presence, 
and then bored out his eyes, 
loaded him with chains, and 
sent -him to Babylon, 2 Kings 
xxv, 5-7. 

Three years after the Jew- 




ish war Nebuchadnezzar be- 
sieged the city of Tyre, which 
siege held thirteen years. The 
city of Tyre was taken in the 
year 752 B. C. The Lord 
gave up to them Egypt and 
its spoils. Nebuchadnezzar 
made an easy conquest of it, 
enriched himself with booty, 
and returned in triumph to 
Babylon, with a great num- 
ber of captives. Being now 
at peace, he applied himself 
to the adorning of Babylon 
with magnificent buildings. 

About~this time Nebuchad- 
nezzar had a dream of a great 
tree, loaded with fruit. A 
year after, as he was walking 
on his palace at Babylon, he 
says, " Is not this great Baby- 
lon, which I have built for the 
house of the kingdom, by the 
might of my power, and for the 
honour of my majesty ?" And 
scarcely had he pronounced 
these words, when he became 
insane, which so altered his 
imagination, that he fled into 
the fields and assumed the 
manners of an ox. After hav- 
ing been seven years in this 
state, God opened his eyes, 
his understanding was re- 
stored to him, and he recover- 
ed his royal dignity. Nebu- 
chadnezzar died 562 B. C., 
after having reigned forty- 
three years. 

general of Nebuchadnezzar's 
army, and the chief oflicer of 
his household, 2 Kings xxv, 

NECH'O, king of Egypt, 
son and successor of Psam- 
meticus. He carried his 

arms to the Euphrates, where 
he conquered the city of Car- 
chemish. Josiah, king of 
Judah, being tributary to the 
king of Babylon, opposed 
Nech'o, and gave him battle 
at Megiddo, where he receiv- 
ed the wound, of which he 
died ; and Necho passed for- 
ward, without making stay in 
Judea. On his return, he 
halted at Riblah, in Syria ; 
and sending for Jehoahaz, 
king of the Jews, he deposed 
him, loaded him with- chains, 
and sent him into Egypt. 
Then coming to Jerusalem, 
he set up Eliakim or Jehoa- 
kim in his place, and exacted 
the payment of one hundred 
talents of silver and one talent 
of gold ; but he did not re- 
tain his conquests above four 
years. The king of Babylon, 
pursuing his victory, brought 
under his dominion the whole 
country between the river 
Euphrates and Egypt, except 
Judea. Thus Necho was 
again reduced within the li- 
mits of his own country. 

NECK, "laying down their 
necks" Rom. xvi, 4 ; a pro- 
verbial expression, which de- 
notes the undergoing of the 
greatest perils, in allusion to 
the custom of placing on 
blocks the necks of crimi- 
nals whose heads are to be 
cut off. The passage in Job 
xv, 26, will admit of a better 
translation . ' ' He runneth up 
on him with his neck," i. e., 
erect, proudly, stiff-necked, a 
well-known gesture of pride, 
with the thick bosses of his 
bucklers. The boss of a shield 




or buckler is the exterior con- 
vex part. The passage is a 
metaphor drawn from soldiers 
who join their shields toge- 
ther, and so rush forward up- 
on the enemy. 

who divines by the dead; a 
sorcerer, or conjurer, who 
pretends to call up the dead 
by means of incantations and 
magic formulas, in order that 
they may give response as 
to doubtful or future things. 
And hence we find that they 
are coupled in the same pass- 
age, Deut. xviii, 11, with en- 
chanters. They themselves 
uttered the communications 
which they pretended to re- 
ceive from the dead. They 
doled them out syllable by 
syllable, sometimes mutter- 
ing in a low tone, and some- 
times peeping like a chicken. 
See Isa. viii, 19;. xxix, 4. 
Among the ancients, -this 
power of ventriloquism was 
often misused for this pur- 
pose ; pretending also by such 
means to procure the assist- 
ance of the prince of the 
power of the air. But as all 
such pretensions, whether 
. true or false, were not only a 
forsaking of God, but a setting 
up of his creatures against 
him, they were expressly for- 
bidden to his people, and that 
under pain of death : for those 
who attributed to the dead a 
knowledge of future events, 
which belongs to God alone, 
virtually disclaimed his alle- 
giance, Lev. xx, 26, 27. But 
besides these highly criminal 
incantations, it appears from 

Psa. Iviii, 5, and other pass- 
ages, that they had a method, 
as some of the Easterns still 
have, of charming serpents 
by sounds, so as to render 
them tractable and harmless. 
See ADDER. ' 

NEES1NGS, an old word 
for sneezing, Job xli, 18. 

NEGINOTH, a word which 
occurs in the titles of some 
of the psalms, and signifies 
stringed instruments of music, 
such as are played on by the 
fingers. See Psa. iv, once 
Psa. Ixi. Neginah, the con- 
struct form of the Hebrew 
noun instead of the absolute. 

NE-HE-MI'AH professes 
himself the author of the book 
which bears his name, in the 
very beginning of it, and he 
uniformly writes in the first 
person. He was of the tribe 
of Judah, and was probably 
born at Babylon during the 
captivity. He was so dis- 
tinguished for his family and 
attainments as to be selected 
for the office of cup-bearer to 
the king of Persia, a situa- 
tion of great honour and emo- 
lument. He was made gover- 
nor of Judea, upon his own 
application, by Artaxerxes 
Lon-gim'a-nus ; and his book, 
which anciently was joined 
to that of Ezra, gives an 
account of his appointment 
and administration through a 
space of about thirty-six years, 
to 420 B. C., at which time 
the Scripture history closes. 

NEHILOTH, a word de- 
signating wind instruments 
of music, such as pipes or 
flutes, Psa. v,. the title. 





superstitious people having 
made an idol of the. serpent 
\vhich Moses set up in the 
wilderness, Hezekiah caused 
it to be burned, and in deri- 
sion gave it the above name ; 
meaning, perhaps, a little bra- 
zen thing, 2 Kings xviii, 4. 

NEIGHBOUR, one who 
lives near to us, generally a 
fellow-man ; any other mem- 
ber of the human family, 
Matt, xxii, 39 ; a fellow-coun- 
tryman, one of the same peo- 
ple or country, Acts vii, 27 : 
compare ver. 24, 26 ; and one 
of the same faith, a fellow- 
Christian, Rom. xv, 2. By 
the beautiful parable of the 
good Samaritan, Luke x, 29, 
our Lord has taught us to 
comprehend in the term every 
man, so that our enemies are 
not excepted. 

NERGAL, an idol of the 
Cuthites, 2 Kings xvii, 30 ; 
probably the planet Mars, 
which was ever the emblem 
of bloodshed, as the light of 
the planet is reddish. 

NERO, a Roman emperor, 
mentioned only in the spurious 
subscription, 2 Tim. iv, 23. 

NETH'IN-IMS, the given, 
the devoted ; the name of the 
Hebrew servants of the tem- 
ple, or temple slaves, who 
were, under the Levites, in 
the ministry of the temple, to 

Eerform the meanest and most 
iborious services therein, in 
sup'plying wood and water. 
At first the Gibeonites were 
appointed to this service. 
Josh, ix, 27. 
NEW MOON, the first 

day of the lunar month, which 
was a festival to the Hebrews, 
1 Sam. xx, 5. This was not 
ascertained by astronomical 
calculation, but by the moon's 
first appearance ; for Moses 
regulated his chronology by 
the aspect of the earth, i. e., 
the situation of the earth and 
moon, and -the return of the 

NICODEMUS, a Phari- 
see, and one of the members 
of the Jewish Sanhedrim, 
who came to Jesus -by night, 
probably as a serious, though 
timid inquirer, John iii, 1. 
He afterward avowed him- 
self a disciple of Christ, John 
xix, 39. 

NICOLAITANS, the fol- 
lowers of Nicolas, Rev. ii, 6, 
15. Many suppose this to be 
an heretical sect, sprung from 
some leader of that name. 
Dr. Robinson thinks a more 
probable supposition is, that 
the appellation is not here 
derived from a proper name, 
but is used symbolically, and 
refers to the same persons 
who are said, in Rev. ii, 14, 
to hold the doctrine of Balaam, 
since the Greek word Nicho- 
las corresponds to'the Hebrew 
Balaam, and signifies to over- 
come, seduce a people. The 
allusion then would be to 
false and seducing teachers 
like Balaam ; and refers more 
particularly, perhaps, to those 
who opposed the decree of 
the apostles in Acts xv, 29. 

NICOP'OLIS, a city -of 
Thrace, now Ifickopi, on the 
river Nessus, which was here 
the boundary between Thrace 




and Macedonia; and hence 
the city is sometimes reckon- 
ed to the latter, Tit. iii, 12. 
There were other cities of 
this name. 

NIGHT. The ancient He- 
brews began their artificial 
day in the evening, and ended 
it the next evening; so that 
the night preceded the day, 
whence it is said, " evening 
and morning" They allowed 
twelve hours-to the night, and 
twelve to the day. Meta- 
phorically used for a time of 
moral and spiritual darkness, 
the opposite of Gospel light 
and day, Rom. xiii, 12. Hence 
children of the night are those 
who walk in the darkness of 
ignorance, and perform only 
works of darkness, 1 Thess. 
v, .5. Night is put for the 
time of affliction, adversity, 
calamity, Psa. xvii, 3 ; Isa. 
xxi, 11, 12. In the last pas- 
sage, some suppose, the word 
teaching being" implied, it is 
asked by the prophet, What 
of the night hast thou to teach ? 
or what of the night still re- 
mains ? It is also put for the 
time of death. " One night 
remains for all," John ix, 4. 
In or by the night is sometimes 
employed to express sudden, 
unexpected destruction, Job 
xxvii, 20 ; xxxiv, 25 ; " as a 
thief in the night," 2 Pet. iii, 
10. " Because thieves com- 
monly break into houses in 
the night time," says Mac- 
knight, " and occasion great 
fear to those who are with- 
in. Any sudden, unexpected 
event, especially such as oc- 
casioned terror, was corn- 

pared by the Hebrews to the 
coming of a thief in the night. 
The suddenness, therefore, 
and unexpectedness of the 
coming of the, day of the Lord, 
and the terror which it occa- 
sions to the wicked, are the 
circumstances in which it 
will resemble the coming 
of a thief, and not that it 
will happen in the night 

NIGHT-HAWK, a bird 
resembling the whippoorwill, 
and generally supposed to be 
the same. They are, how- 
ever, different birds. The 
night-hawk is often seen on 
summer evenings, with his 
long wings flying high in the 
air, uttering a frequent plain- 
tive cry, andfrequently sweep- 
ing downward with a rapid, 
and almost perpendicular de- 
scent to catch the flies and 
gnats on which it lives, Lev. 
xi, 16. 

NIMROD, rebel, son of 
Gush, founder of the kingdom 
of Babylon, Gen. x, 8, 9 ; 
hence land of Nimrod is Ba- 
bylonia, Micah v, 5. " He 
was a mighty one in the earth," 
Gen. x, 8, 9, i. e., he was the 
first who, excelling in bodily 
strength, exercised authority 
among men. Others render 
the sentence, he was the first 
tyrant in the earth ; the first 
who robbed men of their free- 
dom. A mighty hunter, doubt- 
less the leader of a band, 
who, in hunting wild beasts, 
_and other similar exercises 
prepared themselves for war. 
Before the Lord, i. e., very 
powerful. To. Nimrod is im 




puted the invention of idol- ! 
atrous worship paid to men. 

NINEVEH, dwelling of 
Ninits ; the ancient capital 
of the Assyrian empire. It 
was situated on the eastern 
bank of theTigris, opposite the 
modern Mosul, where there 
still exists a village called 
Nunia. The city is supposed 
to have been built by Nimrod. 
See ASSVRIA. It is styled in 
the book of Jonah " a great 
city" i, 2 ; and " an exceeding 
great city, of three days 1 jour- 
ney, iii, 3 ; three days' journey 
has reference to the circuit 
of the city, rather than to its 
length. Diod'orus mentions 
that the circuit of Nineveh 
was 480 stadia, which make 
somewhat more than fifty-four 
miles ; allowing the stadium 
to be, according to Robinson, 
604 feet. He describes the 
walls as 100 feet high, suffi- 
ciently broad to admit of 
three chariots being driven 
abreast. On the walls were 
1,500 towers, each 200 feet 
high, regarded as impregna- 
ble. Nahum ii, 8, says, that 
" Nineveh was of old like a 
pool of water," signifying by 
this expression the vast mul- 
titudes that flowed into her 
gates. It is asserted in Jonah 
iv, 11, that in Nineveh, " there 
were more than sixscore 
thousand persons who could 
not discern between their 
right hand and their left hand," 
i. e., who had not come to the 
exercise of their reasoning 
powers ; see Deut. i, 39 ; 
reckoning such a fifth part, 
would give 600,000 for fhe 

whole population ; the same 
number which Pliny attri- 
butes to Seleucia near Baby 
Ion. This population shows 
that a great part of the city 
must have been left open and 

The threatened overthrow 
of Nineveh withifTthree days 
was, by the general repent- 
ance and humiliation of the 
inhabitants, from the highest 
to the lowest, suspended for 
near two hundred years, until 
" their iniquity came to the 
full ;" and then the prophecy 
was literally accomplished, in. 
the third year of the siege 
of the city, by the combined 
Medes and Babylonians, about 
606 B. C. 

The utter and perpetual 
destruction and desolation of 
Nineveh were foretold : "The 
Lord will make an utter end 
of the place thereof. Afflic- 
tion shall not rise up the 
second time. She is empty, 
void, and waste," Nahum i, 8, 
9; ii, 10; iii, 17-19. "The 
Lord will stretch out his hand 
against the north, and destroy 
Assyria, and will makeJVine- 
veh a desolation, and dry like 
a wilderness. How is she 
become a desolation, a place 
for beasts to lie down in," 
Zeph. ii, 13-15. 

Such an utter ruin in every 
view has been made of it ; 
and such is the truth of the 
Divine predictions ! 

NI'SAN, the first month 
of the Hebrews, beginning 
with the new moon of April, 
called in the Pentateuch Abib. 
See MONTH. The name 




Ni'san was introduced on- 
ly since the time of Ezra, 
and the return from the 

NI SHOCK, an idol of the 
Ninevites. According to ety- 
mology, the name would sig- 
nify eagle, or great eagle. 
Among the ancient Arabs, 
also, the eagle .occurs as an 
idol, 2 Kings xix, 37. 

NITRE. This -is not the 
common nitre or saltpetre, 
which has no effect when 
combined with an acid, but 
the native impure carbonate 
of soda ; a mineral alkali, 
which abounds in many parts 
of Asia, and is procured from 
certain lakes in Egypt, west 
of the Delta of the Nile, call- 
ed the Lakes of Natron. 
Hence this substance is de- 
nominated by the Germans 
na'tron, or Egyptian nitre, 
which, combined with oil, is 
still used as soap, Jer. ii, 22. 
When vinegar is poured upon 
this article, an effervesance 
or violent commotion takes 
place, which will illustrate 
Prov. xxv, 20. 

NO, or NO-AHMOX, the 
Egyptian Thebes, or Diospo- 
lis ; the ancient and splendid 
metropolis of Upper Egypt, 
founded by Cadmus, who in- 
vented sixteen letters of the 
Greek alphabet, 1432 B. C. 
It was sixteen miles in cir- 
cuit, situated on both banks 
of the Nile, near 300 miles 
south of Cairo, and celebrated 
for the multitude and splen- 
dour of its temples, obelisks, 
and statues. In the time of 
the Prophet Nahum, sec chap. 

iii, 8, it was already destioy- 
ed, before Nineveh, probably 
by the Assyrians. The name 
signifies dwelling of Amman, 
because it was the chief seat 
of the worship of Jupiter Am- 
man, the supreme god of the 
Egyptians, and held by the 
Greeks and Romans to be the 
same with their Jupiter. On 
Egyptian monuments he is 
usually depicted with a hu- 
man body, and the head of a 
ram. He was worshipped in 
temples of the utmost splen- 
dour at Meroe, and in an 
oasis of the Lybian desert, 
whither Alexander the Great 
made an expedition ; but the 
chief seat of his worship was 
at Thebes. The god himself 
is only once referred to in 
the Bible , Jer. xlvi, 25. The 
English translators have here 
incorrectly translated the ori- 
ginal word Ammon by a mul- 

NOAH, celebrated for hav- 
ing been preserved from the 
deluge, which occurred 1656 
years from the creation of 
man, or 2348 B. C. Noah 
lived after the deluge 350 
years ; and, according to com- 
mon opinion, he divided the 
earth among his three sons. 
To Shem he gave Asia, to 
Ham Africa, and to Japheth, 

NOB, a city within sight 
of Jerusalem, on the north. 

NOBLE, well born, of high 
rank. Noblemen are men of 
rank and power, Luke xix, 
12 ; used also metaphorically, 
noble minded, generous; which, 
in the mind of an oriental, is 




closely connected with liber- 
ality in giving. 

NOD, flight, wandering; 
hence the proper name of the 
region to which Cain fled, 
Gen. iv, 16. 

NOPH, generally believed 
to be the same with Mem- 

P NUMBERS. This fourth 
book of Moses is so called, 
because the first three chapters 
contain the numbering of the 
Hebrews and Levites, which 
was performed separately, 
after the erection and conse- 
cration of the tabernacle. It 
includes also the history of 
the Israelites during their 
journey in the wilderness ; 
though most of the transac- 
tions here rec0rded took place 
in the second and thirty-eighth 
years. It, appears from chap, 
xxxvi, 13, to have been writ- 
ten by Moses in the plains of 

NUTS, walnuts and al- 
monds are common in Pales- 
tine. There is also a very 
rich species of nuts called pis- 
tacianuts, resembling almonds 
in appearance and taste ; but 
they are of a much better 
flavour, and more valued by 
the orientals. They grow in 
clusters on a tree which re- 
sembles the terebinth, or tur- 
pentine tree ; a small tree 
with heavy crooked limbs, 
somewhat resembling the wal- 
nut in foliage, indigenous to 
Syria and the neighbouring 
parts of Asia. These nuts 
become ripe in October, and 
form a considerable article 
of commerce, Gen. xliii, 11. 

OAK, a well-known, strong 
durable tree: groves of this 
tree were esteemed proper 

E laces for religious services ; 
ence the tree was sacred 
to Jupiter. It was common 
among the Hebrews to sit 
under oaks, Judges vi, 11 ; 
1 Kings xiii, 14. The famous 
oracle of Dodona in modern 
Greece stood among oaks. 

OATH. This is a solemn 
appeal to God for the truth 
of our assertions and the sin- 
cerity of our promises ; and 
he who swears either ex- 
pressly or,.by implication, in- 
vokes upon himself the judg- 
ments of God, if he speak 
falsely. .The form of swear- 
ing has in all ages been va- 
rious ; .consisting, however, 
for the most part, of some 
bodily action. Among the 
Jews, the custom was to hold 
up the right hand toward hea- 
ven, Psa. cxliv, 8 ; Rev. x, 5. 
This form is sometimes used 
in this country. Among the 
Jews, also, an oath of fidelity 
was taken by the servant's 
putting his hand under the 
thigh of his master, Gen. xxiv, 
2. As the oath was an ap- 
peal to God, Deut. vi, 13, the 
taking of a false oath was 
deemed a heinous crime ; and 
perjury, accordingly, is for- 
bidden in the decalogue, Exod. 
xx, 7. IStuart translates the 
passage thus : " Thou shalt 
not utter the name of Jehovah, 
in respect to a falsehood," i. e., 
thou shalt not take a false 
oath, thou shalt not call God 
as a witness to that which is 
not true. Says Mr. Way 

Covd', Die., jffft p 325> 





mnd, " Oaths are frequently 
forbidden in the New Testa- 
ment, and we are command- 
ed to use yes for our affirma- 
tive, and no for our negative ; 
for the reason, that ' whatso- 
ever is more than these cometh 
of evil, or of the evil one, 1 " 
Matt, v, 34-37 ; and yet it is 
thought, from an observation 
made by Paul, Heb. vi, 16, 
that both promissory oaths 
concerning things lawful and 
in our power, and oaths for 
the confirmation of things 
doubtful, when required by 
proper authority, and taken 
religiously, are allowable un- 
der the Gospel. 

O-BA-DI'AH. The age in 
which this prophet lived is 
very uncertain. Some think 
that he delivered his prophecy 
abdut 585 B. C., soon after 
the destruction of Jerusalem 
by Neb-u.-chad-nez'zar. His 
book, which consists of a 
single chapter, is written with 
great beauty and elegance, 
and contains predictions of 
the utter destruction of the 
Edomites, and of the future 
restoration and prosperity of 
the Jews. 

OFFEND, to vex, displease ; 
to cause dislike or anger. To 
be offended in or at any one, 
is to be so displeased at his 
character, words, conduct, as 
to desert and reject him, 
Matt, vi, 11. 

The word has another sig- 
nification, to cause to offend, 
to lead astray, to lead into sin, 
j. e., to be a stumbling block, 
or the occasion of one's sin- 
ning, Matt, v, 29.- One is so 

offended who is led astray, or 
into sin, and so falls away 
from the truth, Matt, xiii, 21. 

OFFERINGS, oblations; 
those things which are pre- 
sented in Divine worship. 

Burnt-offerings, or sacrifices 
in which the victims were 
wholly consumed, were ex- 
piatory, and more ancient 
than any others, and were, 
for that reason, held in spe- 
cial honour : and we accord- 
ingly find that they were 
offered sometimes for the 
whole people ; as the morn- 
ing and the evening sacri- 
fices ; and sometimes by an 
individual for himself alone, 
either from the free impulse 
of his feelings, or in fulfil- 
ment of a vow, Psa. li, 19 ; 
Ixvi, 13, 14. The victims 
were bullocks of three years 
old, goats and lambs of a year 
old, turtle doves, and young 
pigeons. A libation of wine 
was poured out upon the 

Drink-offerings, consisting 
of wine, flour, and oil. 

Meat-offerings. These, like 
the drink-offerings, were ap 
pendages to the sacrifices. 
They were of thin cakes or 
wafers. In some instances 
they were offered alone. 

Heave-offerings. So called 
from the sacrifice being lifted 
up toward heaven, in token 
of its being devoted to Jeho- 

Peace-offerings. Bullocks, 
heifers, goats, rams, and 
sheep, were the only anynals 
sacrificed on these occa- 
sions, Lev. iii, 1-17 ; vii, 23- 




27. These sacrifices, which 
were offered as an indication 
of gratitude, were accompa- 
nied with unleavened cakes, 
covered with oil, by pouring it 
upon them; with thin cakes 
or wafers, likewise unlea- 
vened, and besmeared with 
oil ; also with another kind 
of cakes, made of fine meal, 
and kneaded with oil. The 
priest, who sprinkled the 
blood, presented one of each 
of these kinds of cakes as 
an offering, Lev. vii, 11-14, 
28-35. The remainder of 
the animal substance and of 
the cakes was converted by 
the person who made the offer- 
ing into an entertainment, to 
which widows, orphans, the 
poor, slaves, and Levites, 
were invited. 

Sin-offerings were for ex- 
piation of particular sins, or 
legal imperfections, called 
therefore sin-offerings : the 
first sort were for sins of igno- 
rance or surprise. The other 
sort of sin-offerings were for 
voluntary sins ; but as to the 
more capital violations of the 
moral law, as murder, adul- 
tery, or the worship of idols, 
no expiatory sacrifice was 

Trespass-offerings were not 
required of the people as a 
body. They were to be of- 
fered by individuals, who, 
through ignorance, mistake, 
or want of reflection, had 
neglected some of the cere- 
monial precepts of Moses, or 
some of those natural laws, 
which had been introduced 
into his code, and sanctioned 

with the penalty of death ; 
and who were subsequently 
conscious of their error. 

Wave-offering. It was so 
called, because it was waved 
up and down, and toward the 
east, west, north, and south, 
to signify, that he to whom it 
was offered was Lord of the 
universe, the God who fills all 
space, and to whom all things 
of right belong. See SACRI- 

OG, supposed to mean long 
necked, king of Bashan, famous 
for his gigantic stature, Num. 
xxi, 33. 

OIL, i. e., olive oil, com- 
monly called <sweet oil ; a 
nutritious substance, of a pale 
or greenish yellow colour, 
with scarcely any smell, and a 
bland slightly sweetish taste. 
This oil is the product of the 
olive, and obtained by first 
bruising the olives, and then 
submitting them to pressure. 
Sometimes the oil was ex- 

Sessed by treading them, 
ic. vi, 5. Oil was anciently 
used for lamps, Matt, xxv, 8 ; 
for wounds, and anointing the 
sick ; and mixed with spices 
for anointing in token of ho- 
nour, Luke vii, 46. The Jews 
were accustomed not only to 
anoint the head at their feasts, 
in token of joy, but also both 
the head and feet of those 
whom they wished to dis- 
tinguish by peculiar honour. 
In case of sick persons, and 
also of the dead, they anoint- 
ed the whole body, Psa. ciy, 
15 ; Mark vi, 13. Beaten oz7, 
Exodus xxvii, 20, is said to 
be such as flowed from the 

Ccvel't Die. P- 33 





olives when merely pounded 
in a mortar, and not put into 
a press ; hence the purest and 

finest oil. 

OH of gladness, Psa. xlv, 7, 
means perfumed, or odoriferous 
oil, which was exhibited and 
used on occasions when there 
was much festivity and glad- 
ness ; and here used as an 
emblem of the highest honour. 
A joyful occasion would be 
the coronation season of King 
Messiah, when the most pre- 
cious and costly oil would be 
used to anoint him for his 
office. " Oil out of the flinty 
rock," Deut. xxxii, 13, i. e., 
from olives growing among 

OINTMENT, spiced oil, 
described Exod. xxx, 34 ; see 
Psa. cxxxiii, 2. The holy 
anointing oil. 

OLIVE TREE. This va- 
luable tree is usually from 
fifteen to twenty feet in height, 
and grows at present in all 
the countries bordering on the 
Mediterranean. It has a solid 
erect stem, with numerous 
straight branches, covered 
with a grayish bark. The 
leaves, which stand opposite 
to each other on short foot- 
stalks, about three inches 
in length, resemble those of 
the willow, of a dull green 
colour on their upper surface, 
whitish and almost silvery 
beneath. The tree has a 
beautiful appearance, remain- 
ing green in winter. The 
. flowers are disposed in clus- 
ters, the fruit of the tree, the 
olive; which is pleasant to the 
palate, has a pericarp, con- 

taining a very hard nut of si- 
milar shape. See Engraving. 

It flourishes about two hun- 
dred years, and even while it 
is living, young olives spring 
up around it, which occupy its 
place when dead ; the young 
sprouts are called plants, Psa. 
cxxviii, 3. The olive branch, 
from the most ancient time, 
was used as the signal of 
peace, The oleaster, or wild 
olive tree, bears no fruit, and 
is therefore contrasted by Paul 
with the cultivated or good 
olive, Rom. xi, 17, 24. 

high lime-stone ridge, lying 
about two-thirds of a mile 
east of Jerusalem, parallel to 
the city, and separated from 
it by the valley of the Ce- 
dron ; it was formerly planted 
with olive trees, of which few 
remain. Perhaps not more 
than fifty can be found upon 
it. Although the hill is not 
high, there is a splendid view 
on its summit toward the 
east ; in the distance are 
seen the Dead Sea and the 
course of the Jordan, which 
falls into it, and the ruins of 
Jericho on the left ; and so 
commanding is the view of 
Jerusalem afforded in this 
situation, that the eye roams 
over all the streets and around 
the walls, as if in the survey 
of the plan or model of the 
city. This mount has three 
summits, ranging from north 
to south, and about a mile in 
length ; from the middle of 
which our Saviour ascended 
into heaven. See PLAN op 




" It is truly a curious and 
interesting fact," adds a learn- 
ed traveller, " that, during a 
period of little more than two 
thousand years, Hebrews, 
Assyrians, Romans, Mos- 
lems, and Christians, have 
been successively in posses- 
sion of the rocky mountains 
of Palestine ; yet the olive 
still vindicates its paternal 
soil, and is found, at this day, 
upon the same spot which 
was called by the Hebrew 
writers Mount Olivet, ' and 
the Mount of Olives, eleven 
centuries before the Christian 
era," 2 Sam. xv, 30. ' 

OMEGA, the last letter 
of the Greek alphabet, used 
poetically for the last, as the 
writer himself explains it, 
Rev. xxii, 13. First and last, 
some understand in the same 
sense as eternal ; others, the 
source and sum of all things. 

OMER, a Hebrew mea- 
sure for things dry ; a little 
more than jive pints. 

ON, in Ezek. xxx, 17, writ- 
ten Aven, called also by the 
Hebrews, probably as a trans- 
lation of the Egyptian name, 
Beth-shemesh, i. e., house of 
the sun, Jer. xliii, 13 ; by the 
Greeks Heliop'olis, city of 
the sun ; an ancient Egyptian 
city, which stood on the east- 
ern bank of the Nile, a few 
miles north of Memphis ; and 
was celebrated for the wor- 
ship and temple of the sun, 
and for its obelisks, some of 
which remain to the present 

ONES'IMTJS, a slave of 
Phil-e'mon, converted under 

St. Paul's preaching at Rome, 
and sent back by him to Phi- 
lemon with an epistle, Col. 
iv, 9 ; Philem. 10. 

Christian at Ephesus, 2 Tim. 
i, 16. 

ONION, a well-known gar- 
den plant, with a bulbous root. 
Onions and garlics were high- 
ly esteemed in Egypt; and 
not without reason, this coun- 
try being admirably adapted 
to their culture. " Whoever 
has tasted onions in Egypt," 
says Hasselquist, " must al- 
low that none can be had bet- 
ter in any part of the world ; 
here they are sweet, in other 
countries they are nauseous 
and strong." 

ONYCHA, Exod. xxx, 34. 
The Blatta Byzantina ; the 
turbinated or spiral shell of 
a species of muscle, which, 
when burned, emits a musky 
odour, and whose fish yields 
a purple die. The name 
blatta, cockroach, seems to 
be given to this shell from 
the colour, as being of a dark 
hair colour, like that of the 
common cockroach. It is 
found in the lakes of India, 
where the nard grows, (see 
SPIKENARD,) which is the 
food of this fish, and makes 
its shell so aromatic. The 
best is said to be white, and 
found in the Red" Sea. But 
the present name, Byzantina, 
is taken from those which are 
found about Constantinople. 

ONYX, the nail, or banded 
agate ; a gem exhibiting two 
or more colours, disposed in 
parallel bands or zones. It 




was obviously of .high value, | 
from thV>uses made of it, be- 
ing placed in the breastplate, 
and from its being named 
with other highly valuable 
substances, Job xxviii, 16. 

OPHEL, hill, a mound or 
height, on the eastern part ( 
of Mount Sion, surrounded 
and fortified by a separate 
wall, 2 Chron. xxxiii, 14; 
Neh. xi, 21. , 

OPHIR, a celebrated 
region, abounding in sold, 
which the seamen of Solo- 
mon, in company with the 
Phenicians, were accustom- 
ed to visit, taking their de- 
parture from the ports of the 
Elanitic Gulf, and bringing 
:back every three years gold, 
precious stones, and algum 
trees, i. e., sandal wood, 
2Chron.viii, 18; ix, 10; espe- 
cially, 1 Kings x, 22, where 
Ophir is to be understood, al- 
though not expressly men- 
tioned. The gold of Ophir is 
frequently mentioned in the 
Old Testament. As to the 
geographical situation of this 
place, there is the greatest 
diversity of opinion among 
interpreters. "Yet, among mo- 
dern writers, the best seem 
to hesitate only between two 
regions, viz., India and some 
part of Arabia. From the 
articles imported, the port 
from which the ships .sailed 
engaged in the trade, and the 
time required for the per- 
formance of the voyage, it 
seems far more probable that 
this place was situated some- 
where in the East Indies ; 

but the precise spot cannot 
now be ascertained. 

ORACLE, the inner sanc- 
tuary of Solomon's temple, 
also called holy of holies; 
whence Jehovah spake and 
gave forth his orders and di? 
rections. Oracles also mean 
any kind of Divine response 
or communication. " The 
oracles of God," Heb. v, 12, 
are the ancient revelations 
contained in the writings of 
Moses and the prophets. 

Among the heathen, the 
term oracle is usually taken 
to signify an answer? gene- 
rally couched in very dark 
and ambiguous terms, sup- 
posed to be given by demons 
of old, either by the mouths 
of their idols, or by those of 
their priests, to the people, 
who consulted them on things 
to come ; probably invented 
in imitation of the responses 
given by Jehovah to the priests 
of ancient days. Oracle is 
also used for the demon who 
gave the answer, and the 
place where it was given. 

ORCHARD, a place plant- 
ed with fruit trees. The word 
so translated came to the He- 
brews from the language of 
Eastern Asia, where it was 
applied to the pleasure gar- 
dens and parks, with wild 
animals around the residence 
of the Persian monarchs, Song 
iv, 13. 

ORDAIN signifies to ap- 
point, set, constitute, Rom.xiii, 
1. In Acts xiii, 48, the ori- 
ginal word signifies to order, 
arrange, appoint, dispose, de- 
termine : " As many as were 




ordained to eternal life be- 
lieved ;" i. e., as many as were 
fixed, or resolved, or determin- 
ed upon eternal life : or, as 
Mr. Henry says, " As many as 
were disposed to eternal life, 
as many as had a concern 
about their eternal state, and 
aimed to make sure of eternal 
life, believed in Christ." The 
original word is not once used 
in Scripture to express des- 
tiny or predestination of any 
kind. The writer does not 
say foreordained. He is not 
speaking of what was done 
from eternity, but of what was 
then done through the preach- 
ing of the Gospel. 

xviii, 20, as used by the sacred 
writers, the term signifies 
prescribed laws, rules, or ap- 
pointments of God's govern- 

ORGAN, a wind instru- 
ment of music, invented by 
Jubal, Gen. iv, 21. It may be 
called the ancient shepherds' 

Eipe, corresponding most near- 
/ to the pipe of Pan among 
the Greeks, the origin of 
which is lost in the remote 
ages of antiquity. It consist- 
ed at first of only one or two, 
but afterward of about seven 
pipes made of reeds, and dif- 
fering from each other in 
length. See cut, MUSICAL 

O-RI'ON, one of the bright- 
est constellations or clusters 
of stars of the southern hemi- 
sphere. The orientals appear 
to have conceived of this con- 
stellation under the figure of 
an impious giant, bound upon 

the sky ; whence Job xxxviii, 
31. " Canst thou loose the 
bands of orion?" or, as the 
constellation appears about 
the middle of November, some 
suppose that the ancients as- 
sociated with it frost, figura- 
tively represented as bands, 
which no human power can 

brews, like the Babylonians, 
carried a staff merely for 
ornament,, and not for any 
positive benefit, Exod. xii, 
11. The dress of the ladies 
in the East was always ex- 
pensive, Num. xxxi, 50 ; and 
how apt they were to indulge 
themselves in finery, we learn 
from the prophet's description 
of the dress of the Jewish 
ladies in' his time. See Isa. 
iii, 16-24. 

They had ornaments for 
the head, veils which hung 
down from the eyes over the 
face, called in the English 
version mufflers, Isa. iii, 19. 

They also wore cauls, or 
nettings, i. e., caps of net- 
work, ver. 18 ; and also amu- 
lets, or superstitious orna- 
ments suspended from the 
neck or the ears, called ear- 
rings ; these earrings were of 
ten gems and precious stones, 
or plates of gold or silver, on 
which certain magic formulas 
were inscribed. Likewise 
from costly necklaces were 
often hung bottles of perfumes, 
called in the translation, Isa. 
iii, 20, tablets, filled with am- 
ber and musk. Also crescents, 
or little moons of silver and 
gold, were suspended in this 

Covel's Die. " =^ 

p. 336. 




way, translated, ver. 18, round 
tires like the moon. The Jew- 
ish women wore rings upon 
their fingers, and also rings 
or bands of gold and other 
materials around the ankles, 
and short chains attached to 
them, so as to compel them 
to take short and mincing 
steps ; compare ver. 20 with 
16. Moreover, the Hebrew 
women painted their eyes with 
a paint called by the ancients 
stibium, which was the ore, 
i. e., the sulphuret of anti- 
mony ; they also used a pow- 
der commonly prepared from 
lead ore and 'zinc, which 
they mixed with water, and 
spread upon the eyelids in 
such a way that the white of 
the eye might appear more 
white by being surrounded 
with a black margin. See 
Ezek. xxiii, 40. 

OSEE, same as HOSEA. 

OSPREiT, a species of 

OS'SI-FRAGE, bone- 
breaker ; a name given to a 
kind of eagle, from its habit 
of breaking the bones of its 
prey, after it has eaten the 

OSTRICH. This is the 
largest of birds ; the height 
is usually seven feet, but the 
back is only four, and the 
neck and head are about three 
feet long. Their eggs are 
very large, some of them 
measuring above five inches 
in diameter, and weighing 
twelve or fifteen pounds. The 
plumage, which is unlike that 
of other birds, is generally 
white and black, though some 

of them are said to be gray. 
The ostrich is rendered in- 
capable of flying, not only by 
the peculiar structure of her 
wings, but by her enormous 
size. It is a native only of 
the torrid regions of Africa 
and Arabia, and aptly called 
by the ancients, a lover of the 
deserts ; shy and timorous in 
no common degree, she re- 
tires from the cultivated field 
into the deepest recesses of 
the Sahara. When the ostrich 
is provoked, she sometimes 
makes a fierce, angry, and 
hissing noise, with her throat 
inflated and her mouth open ; 
when she meets with a timo- 
rous adversary that opposes 
but a faint resistance to her 
assault, she cackles like a 
hen. But in the silent hours 
of the night she assumes 
a quite different tone, and 
makes a very doleful noise, 
and groans as if she were in 
agony. " On the least noise," 
says Dr. Shaw, " or trivial 
occasion, she forsakes her 
eggs, or her young ones ; to 
which, perhaps, she never 
returns. The Arabs often 
meet with a few of the little 
ones no bigger than well- 
grown pullets, half starved, 
straggling and moaning about 
like so many distressed or- 
phans for their mother. In 
this manner the ostrich .may 
be said to be hardened against 
her young ones, as though 
they were not hers ; her la- 
bour in hatching and attend- 
ing them so far being in vain, 
without fear or the least con- 
cern of what becomes of them 




afterward. This want of af- 
fection is also recorded, Lam. 
iv, 3, ' The daughter of my 
people is become cruel, like 
ostriches in the wilderness ;' 
that is, by apparently desert- 
ing their own, and receiving 
others in return." 

Notwithstanding the stupi- 
dity of this animal, its Crea- 
tor hath amply provided for 
its safety, by endowing it with 
extraordinary swiftness, and 
a surprising apparatus for es- 
caping from its enemy. They, 
when they raise themselves 
up for flight, " laugh at the 
horse and his rider." They 
afford him an opportunity only 
of admiring at a distance the 
extraordinary agility and the 
stateliness likewise of their 
motions, the richness of their 
plumage, and the great pro- 
priety there was in ascribing 
to them an expanded, quiver- 
ing wing. 

OUCHES, bezels, or sockets 
in which gems are set. 

OUTER, Matt.- viii, 12, 
" Outer darkness," i. e., far 
remote from the light and 
splendour of the feast within. 
See verse 11, put for the in- 
fernal regions, or Tartarus ; 
the farthest dark prison, as 
the image of the place of 
punishment, Matt, xxv, 30. 

OVEN, a place for baking 
food. Perhaps the most com- 
mon form of the oven was a 
large round pot of earthen or 
other materials, two or three 
feet high, narrowing toward 
the top ; this being first heat- 
ed by a fire made within, the 
dough or paste was spread 

upon the outside to bake, thas 
forming thin cakes. Another 
form was an excavation in 
the earth, about three feet in 
diameter, and five or six feet 
deep, as we may suppose from 
those which still exist in Per- 
sia. The bottom is paved 
with stones ; when the oven 
is sufficiently hot, the fire is 
taken away ; the cakes are 
placed upon the stones, and 
the mouth-of the oven is shut. 
Sometimes a whole sheep is 
thus baked or roasted in them. 
The inhabitants of the East 
to this day, fuel being scarce, 
make use of dry straw, wither- 
ed herbs, and stubble, to heat 
their ovens, Matt, vi, 30. 

OWL. There are several 
varieties of this species, a)l 
too well known to need a par- 
ticular description. They are 
nocturnal birds of prey, and 
have their eyes better adapt- 
ed for discerning objects in 
the evening or twilight than 
in the glare of day. 

OX. This animal is smaller 
in oriental countries than 
among us, and has a certain 
protuberance on the back 
directly over the fore feet. 
They were chiefly useful in 
agriculture, and were employ- 
ed, two yoked together, in 
drawing carts and ploughs. 
See Num. vii, 7, 8 ; 1 Kings 
xix, 19 ; but the Nomades, 
i. e., those who lead a wan- 
dering life, frequently make 
use of them to transport goods 
on their backs, as they do on 
camels. The bull or ox is 
used figuratively for power- 
ful, fierce, insolent enemies, 


p. 340. 




Psa. xxii, 12. The Egyptians 
had a particular veneration 
of this animal ; they paid di- 
vine honours to it ; and the 
Jews are supposed to have 
imitated them in their wor- 
ship of the golden calves. 
The wild ox, mentioned Deut. 
xiv, 5, is supposed by.Gese- 
nius to be a species of deer, 
of a reddish colour, as the 
root signifies, with; serrated 
horns, which are cast every 
year; probably the fallow deer. 

PAC ATIANA, the western 
part of Phrygia, as divided by 
the Romans ; occurs only in 
the spurious subscription, 
1 Tim. vi, 22. 

PA'DAN-A'RAM, a com- 
pound word, which signifies 
plain of Syria, i. e., Mesopo- 
tamia, with the desert on the 
west .of the Euphrates ; a 
level region, opposed to the 
mountainous tract along the 
Mediterranean, Gen. xxxii 18. 

TINE, taken in a limited 
sense, denotes the country 
of the Philistines, Exod. xv, 
14 ; a tract of country on the 
south-west coast of Syria, 
west and south-west of Ca- 
naan : but taken in a more 
general sense, it signifies the 
whole land of Canaan, as 
well beyond as on this side 
of Jordan, though frequently 
it is restrained to the country 
on this side that river : so 
that in latter times the words 
Judea and Palestine were sy- 

PALM TREE, called by 

Linnaeus one of the princes 
of the vegetable kingdom. 
The palm is a lofty tree, 
sometimes rising to the height 
of 100 feet, consisting of a 
straight scaly trunk, whose 
centre is not solid, like other 
trees, but filled with pith, 
around which is a tough bark; 
and as the tree grows old, 
this bark hardens and- ; ^be- 
comes ligneous. It is deisti- 
tute of limbs, but crowned 
with a spreading evergreen, 
tuft of elongated leaves. The 
leaves, when the tree has 
grown to a size for bearing 
fruit, are six or eight feet 
long, are very broad when 
spread out, and are used for 
covering the tops of houses ; 
also for making baskets, bags, 
mats, and brushes. The fruit, 
which is called date, grows 
below the leaves in large 
clusters, and is a great article 
of food in oriental countries. 
They grow on small stems 
at the angles formed by the 
stock of the tree and the 
branches, and become ripe 
in August, September, and 
October. The tree, as Dr. 
Shaw was informed, is in its 
greatest vigour about thirty 
years after it is planted, and 
continues in full strength 
seventy years longer; bear- 
ing all this while, every year, 
about three or four hundred 
pounds' weight of dates. 
Hence from its long and use-, 
ful life, it is made the em- 
blem of the righteous man, 
Psa. xcii, 12-14. The tree 
is regarded by the orientals 
above all others as the most 




excellent andnoble. The palm 
was anciently very abundant 
in Palestine, particularly all 
around Jericho, which was 
thence called the city of Palms, 
Deut. xxxiv, 3. Hence on 
Jewish and Roman coins, the 
palm sometimes appears as 
the emblem of Palestine. The 
boughs, called also palms, 
were borne in the hands, or 
strewed in the way on sea- 
sons of rejoicing, Rev. vii, 9. 

i, 4 ; a palmer is a pilgrim, a 
palmer worm, i. e., a pilgrim 
worm, o called from its not 
being confined to any one 
species of plant ; but the He- 
brew word is supposed to 
refer to a destructive species 
of insect, of the locust tribe ; 
the creeping locust without 

PALSY, a nervous dis- 
ease, known by the loss or 
diminution of the power of 
voluntary motion, and some- 
times of sensation, in one or 
several parts of the body. 
One species of this disease 
in oriental countries is a 
fearful malady, and by no 
means unfrequent, and very 
powerful. See Matt, viii, 6. 

PAMPHYLIA, a district 
of Asia Minor, bounded north 
by Pisidia, east by Cilicia, 
south by a part of the Medi- 
terranean, here called the Sea 
of Pamphylia; of its cities 
jonly Perga is mentioned in 
"the New Testament, Acts 
xiii, 13. 

PANNAG, Ezek.xxvii, 17. 
Gesenius says, a kind of pas- 
try, or sweet cake. 

PAPER, first invented in 
the time of Alexander the 
Great, and then made of the 
inner rind of the papyrus ; a 
species of rush, which the 
ancients procured exclusive- 
ly on the banks of the Nile. 
For the description of this 
plant, see RUSH. 

Paper was first made of 
cotton about the year A. D. 
1000, and of linen about A. D. 
1300. Gesenius says, the 
paper reeds, mentioned Isa. 
xix, 7, should be translated 
naked places, i. e., without 
trees ; spoken here of the 
meadows or grassy places on 
the banks of the Nile. 

PAPHOS, a maritime city 
of Cyprus, near the western 
extremity ; the station of a 
Roman proconsul or governor, 
Acts xiii, 6, 13. Near seven 
miles from the city was a 
celebrated temple of Venus ; 
hence called the Paphian 

PARABLE signifies some- 
times a figurative or dark say- 
ing ; one which is obscure, 
and full of hidden meaning. 
Matt, xiii, 35 ; but generally 
a short discourse, usually a 
narrative, under which some- 
thing else is figured, or in 
which the fictitious is em- 
ployed to represent and illus- 
trate the real. Or it may be 
regarded exactly in the light 
of what -we call putting a case, 
when a case is supposed with 
a design to teackand enforce 
something else. r Such are 
the 1 parables of our Saviour; 
they are ingenious compari- 
sons, taken from the ordinary . 




affairs of men, and used to 
illustrate the things of God. 
This was a favourite mode 
of teaching among all Eastern 
nations, especially the people 
of Palestine. It was the lan- 
guage of their sages and learn- 
ed men ; hence Solomon con- 
siders nothing is more insup- 
portable than to hear a fool 
speaking parables, Proverbs 
xxvi, 7. 

Some parables in the New 
Testament are supposed to 
be true histories, as the " rich 
man and Lazarus," the "good 
Samaritan," and the "profli- 
gate son." In reading the 
parables no attempt should 
be made to explain every term ; 
for many parts belong to the 
ornament, to the filling up of 
the story, and are often intro- 
duced to complete the nar- 
rative. The scope, is to be 
chiefly regarded, the leading 
circumstances which the au- 
thor introduces to illustrate 
his subject, and not the words 
taken severally. 

PARADISE, a word which 
seems to have had its origin 
in the languages of Eastern 
Asia, signifying a land elevated 
and cultivated : applied to the 
pleasure gardens and parks, 
with wild animals around the 
country residences of the Per- 
sian monarchs and princes 
planted with grass, herbs, 
trees, for use and ornament. 
Hence the name has been 
given, by way of eminence, 
to the garden of Eden, where 
our first parents were placed ; 
also to the place where the 
spirits of the just after death 

reside in felicity till the re- 
surrection, as appears from 
our Lord's words to the peni- 
tent thief, Luke xxiii, 43; 
the same place is called Acts 
ii, 27, Hades, or the invisible- 
world, or world of the dead ; 
yet. Rev. ii, 7, heaven seems 
to be called the paradise of 

PARAN signifies, accord- 
ing to Gesenius, a region 
abounding in caverns; a desert 
region, lying between Pales- 
tine and the peninsula of 
Sinai on the south, and be- 
tween the valley El Ghor on 
the east, and the desert of , 
Egypt on the west. It in- 
cludes the present desert 
called El Ty, which, Burck- 
hardt says, is the most barren 
and horrid tract of country he 
had ever seen ; black flints 
covered a chalky or sandy 
ground, and in most places 
without any vegetation. The 
tree which produces the gum- 
arabic grows in some spots, 
and the tamarisk is met with 
here and there ; but the scar- 
city of water forbids much 
extent of vegetation ; and the 
hungry camels are obliged to 
go in the evening for whole 
hours out of the road, in order 
to find some withered shrubs 
upon which to feed. During 
ten days' forced marches, 
[from the El Ghor to Cairo,] 
he passed only four springs 
or wells, of which one only, 
at about eight hours east of 
Suez, was of sweet water. 
The others were brackish and 

MOUNT PAEAN, Hab. iii, 3, 




was perhaps the chain on the 
west of the El- Ghor, as Seir 
was on the east, or perhaps 
the mountains on the southern 
border of the desert toward 
the peninsula. 

PARCHED occurs in Isa. 
xxxv, 7 ; the parched ground, 
"which Gesenius translates, 
the mirage shall become a lake. 
The mirage is a phenomenon 
frequent in the deserts of 
Arabia and Egypt, and also 
occasionally seen in the 
southern parts of Russia and 
France. It consists in this : 
the flat surface of the desert 
presents the appearance of 
water, so that the most expe- 
rienced travellers are some- 
times deceived ; and while 
he is all anxiety to arrive at 
it, it recedes as anew horizon 
discovers itself. The optical 
deception is so strong, that 
the shadow of any object on 
the horizon is apparently re- 
flected as in water. Hence 
light is thrown upon the above 
words ; the desert which pre- 
sents the appearance of a 
lake shall be changed into a 
real lake. 

word means books written on 
parchment, as the art of print- 
ing was not discovered till 
A. D. 1430. See BOOK. 

Paul says to Timothy, 
2 Tim. iv, 13, " Bring with 
thee the books, but especially 
the parchments." By books, 
it is understood books made 
of the papyrus. See RUSH. 
Perhaps the apostle hadnotes, 
memoranda, and first draughts 
of writings executed on papy- 

rus sheets, and some which 
were more carefully revis- 
ed and finished on parch- 

PARTHIAN, Acts ii, 9, 
spoken, of Jews bom or living 
in Parthia, Parthia Proper 
was a large region of Persia, 
described as bounded north 
or north-west by Hyrcania ; 
east by Asia ; south by Car- 
mania Deserta ; and west 
by Media, and wholly sur- 
rounded by mountains. In 
the later period of the Roman 
republic, .the Parthians ex- 
tended their conquests, and 
became masters of a large em- 
pire. They were esteemed 
the most expert horsemen and 
archers in the world ; and the 
custom of discharging their 
arrows while in full flight is 
peculiarly celebrated by the 
Roman poets. 

PARTITION, " The mid- 
dle wall of partition," Eph. ii, 
14; referring to the Mosaic 
law as separating the Jews 
and Gentiles ; probably in 
allusion to the wall between 
the inner and outer courts of 
the temple. 

PARTRIDGE, Jer. xvii, 
11. The partridge often fails 
in her attempts to bring forth 
her young. To such disap- 
pointments she is greatly ex- 
posed from the position of her 
nest on the ground, where her 
eggs are often spoiled by the 
wet, or crushed by the foot. 
So he that broods over his ill- 
gotten gains will often find 
them unproductive ; or, if he 
leaves them, as a bird occa- 
sionally driven from her nest. 




may be despoiled of their pos- , 
session. . 

PASSION. It signifies, 
1. Suffering, Acts i, 3. 2. In- 
famous passion or lusts, Rom. 
), 26, to which those are given 
up whom God abandons to 
their own desires. 

PASSOVER, a passing 
over, sparing, immunity from 
punishment and calamity. 
This great sacrifice and fes- 
tival was instituted in com- 
memoration of God's sparing 
the Hebrews, when he, de- 
stroyed the first-born of the 
Egyptians ; it was celebrated 
on the 14th day of the month 
Ni'san, which began with the 
new moon of April at sunset, 
i. e., at the moment when the 
new or 14th day began ; for 
the institution and particular 
laws of this festival, see Exod. 
xii ; Lev. xxiii ; and Num. ix. 
The later Jews made some 
additions ; in particular, they 
drank at intervals during the 
paschal supper four cups of 
wine, the third of which was 
called the cup of benediction. 
See 1 Cor. x, 16 ; and Matt, 
xxvi, 27. In the New Tes- 
tament, passover is spoken, 

1. Of the paschal lamb, i.e., 
a lamb or kid of a year old, 
slain as a sacrifice. Accord- 
ing to Josephus, the number 
of lambs provided at Jerusa- 
lem in his time was 256,500 ; 
which were slain between the 
ninth and eleventh hour, i. e., 
from three to five o'clock in 
the afternoon, before the even- 
ing or commencement of the 
14th day of Ni'san. 

2. The paschal supper, the 

festival of the passover, on the 
eve of the 14th of Ni'san, 
which 'was also the com- 
mencement of the seven days' 
festival of unleavened bread. 
The word sometimes means 
the paschal supper alone, and 
sometimes in a wider sense 
it includes also the seven days 
of unleavened bread, i. e., the 
days in which they were to 
eat unleavened bread ; hence 
the feast is so called, Matt, 
xxvi, 17. 

The paschal lamb was an 
illustrious type of Christ, who 
became a sacrifice for the re- 
demption of a lost world from 
sin and misery. Hence Christ 
is called "our passover;" and 
the "Lamb of God," without 
" spot," by the " sprinkling 
of whose blood" we are deli- 
vered from guilt and punish- 
ment ; and faith in him is 
represented to us as " eating 
the flesh of Christ," with evi- 
dent allusion to the eating of 
the paschal sacrifice. 

PATARA, a maritime city 
of Lycia, Acts xxi, 1. 

PATH, metaphorically the 
manner of life and conduct in 
which one walks ; so a false 
way is false and deceitful 
conduct, Psa. cxix, 104; the 
way of the Lord is the way of 
life pleasing to God. Wicked 
people are said to have paths 
full of snares. 

When a man walks from 
place to "place in the dark, he 
may be glad of a light lo assist 
in directing his steps ; so the 
word of God is a light to guide 
those in their course of piety 
and duty who otherwise might 




wander, or be at a loss for 

PATHROS, the domestic 
proper name for Upper Egypt, 
distinguished from Egypt, 
which denotes, in its more 
limited sense, Lower Egypt. 
See Ezek. xxix, 14, where 
Pathros is called the native 
land of the Egyptians. 

PATIENCE. This virtue 
consists in bearing all kinds 
of afflictions meekly and quiet- 
ly, in the hope, whether of 
reward or deliverance. It 
differs from courage in this, 
that it is exerted under the 
actual suffering of evil; where- 
as courage is exerted in en- 
countering e vil , with a view to 
avert it. Afflictions are essen- 
tial to the cultivation of pa- 
tience, Rom. v, 3 ; they afford 
to the afflicted an opportunity 
of exercising patience, and 
they suggest considerations 
which naturally lead the mind 
to that virtue. 

PAT'MOS, a small rocky 
island in the j^Egean Sea, 
about eighteen miles in cir- 
cumference ; which, on ac- 
count of its dreary and deso- 
late character, was used by 
the Roman emperors as a 
place of confinement for cri- 
minals. To this island St. 
John was banished by the 
Emperor Domitian ; and here 
he had his revelation, record- 
ed in the Apocalypse. 

PATRIARCH, the father 
and founder of a family of tribe, 
as Abraham, Heb. vii, 4 ; the 
sons of Jacob as heads of the 
twelve tribes, so of David as 
the head of a family, Acts ii, 29. 

PATTERN. 1. The form 
or model after which any thing 
is made. Thus the visionary 
tabernacle shown to Moses in 
the mount is called the type, 
or pattern, because he was to 
make the material tabernacle 
exactly like it, Heb. viii, 5. 

2. Spoken of a person as a 
type, bearing the form and 
figure, i. e., as having a cer- 
tain resemblance in relations 
and circumstances. Thus, 
Rom. v, 14, Adam is called 
the type ( figure) of Chris t, who 
on that account is called the 
second Adam. See FIGURE. 

PAUL, the apostle of the 
Gentiles, originally called 
Saul. He was of the tribe 
of Benjamin, and of purely 
Hebrew descent, Phil, iii, 5 ; 
but born at Tarsus in Cilicia, 
Acts xxi, 39, where his father 
enjoyed the rights of Roman 
citizenship, of which privi 
lege Paul several times avail- 
ed himself, e. g., Acts xvi, 37, 
xxii, 27. At Tarsus, which 
was a celebrated seat of learn- 
ing, he probably gained that 
general acquaintance with 
Greek litei-ature, which ap- 
pears in his writings, and 
which was so important to 
him as a teacher of the Gen- 
tiles, or nations of Greek 
origin. His Jewish educa- 
tion was completed at Jeru- 
salem, where he devoted him- 
self to the severest discipline 
of the Pharisaic school, un- 
der the instruction of Gama- 
liel, Acts xxii, 3 ; compare 
v, 34. According to the cus- 
tom of learned Jews, he ap- 
pears also to have learned a 




trade, viz., that of a tent- 
maker, by which he after- 
ward often supported himself, 
Acts xviii, 3 ; xx, 34. 

Paul, in the fierceness of 
his Jewish zeal, was at first 
a bitter adversary of the 
Christians ; but after his mi- 
raculous conversion, he de- 
voted all the powers of his 
ardent and energetic mind to 
the propagation of the Gospel 
of Christ, more particularly 
among the Gentiles. His 
views of the pure and lofty 
spirit of Christianity, in its 
worship and in its practical 
influence, appear to have 
been peculiarly deep and fer- 
vent ; and the opposition 
which lie was thus led to 
make to the mere rites and 
ceremonies of the Jewish 
worship, exposed him to the 
hatred and malice of his 
countrymen. On their ac- 
cusation, he was put in con- 
finement by the Roman offi- 
cers ; and after being detain- 
ed for two years or more at 
Cesare'a, he was sent to Rome 
for trial, having himself ap- 
pealed to the emperor. Here 
he remained in partial im- 
prisonment two whole years, 
Acts xxviii, 30. Later ac- 
counts, mostly traditionary, 
relate that he was soon after 
set at liberty ; and that after 
new journeys and efforts in 
the cause of Christ, he was 
again imprisoned, and at 
last put to death by order of 

The following chronologi- 
cal table of the principal 
events in his life, may be of 

use in directing and assisting 
inquiries into this most inte- 
resting portion of history. 


Paul's conversion-, . . 36 

Escapes from Damascus, 39 

Sent with Barnabas to 
Jerusalem to carry 
alms, ...... 45 

First missionary journey, 
Acts xiii, 14, com- 
mencing .... 45 

Sent to consult the apos- 
tles, Acts xv, 1, . .53 

Second missionary jour- 
ney, in which he finds 
Aquila at Corinth, Acts 
xviii, 2, 54 

After being brought be- 
fore Gallio, he departs 
for Jerusalem the 
fourth time, Acts xviii, 
21, . . . ... 56 

Winters at ; T?icopolis, 
and then goes to 
Ephesus, ~f . . . 57 

After a residence of two 
years or more at Ephe- 
sus, departs for Mace- 
donia, ..... 59 

Goes the fifth time to 
Jerusalem, where he 
is imprisoned, Acts 
xx, 21, 60 

Arrives at Rome, after 
wintering in Malta, . 63 

The history in Acts con- 
cludes, and Paul is 
supposed to have been 
set at liberty, ... 65 

Probable martyrdom of 
Paul and Peter, . . 65 

The chronology of Hug is 
adopted, which is highly pro- 
bable, yet entire certainty is 
not to be expected. 




The following is Hug's 
arrangement of His epistles, 

with the places where they 
were written, and the date : 

Epistles. Places. Date. 

1 Thessalonians, . . Corinth, . 54 

2 Thessalonians, . . do. 55 

Titus, , Ephesus, 56 

Galatians, do 57 

1 Corinthians, . . . do. 59 

2 Corinthians, . . . Macedonia, 59 

1 Timothy, .... do 

Romans, Corinth, ....... 

2 Timothy, 
Philemon, . 

Hebrews., . 



....... 61 


....... 61 


i end of 61 or begin- 
; ning of ... 62 
beginning of . . 62 

PAVEMENT. The tes- 
selated pavement of Mosaic 
work, i. e., floors most curi- 
ously inlaid, with variously 
coloured stones, or square 
tiles, disposed in a great va- 
riety of ornamental forms. 
Many of these remain in dif- 
ferent countries to the pre- 
sent day. The Romans were 
particularly fond of them. 
Suetonius relates that Julius 
Caesar, in his military expe- 
ditions, took with him pieces 
of marble ready fitted, in or- 
der that whenever he encamp- 
ed, they might be laid down in 
his praetorium or tent. 
. PAVILION, (Pa-viVyun,} 
a tent, designed chiefly for a 
general, or king. 

PEACE is a word gene- 
rally used for quiet and tran- 
quillity, public or private ; but 
often for prosperity tind hap- 
piness of life. The Hebrew 
word shfdom, usually trans- 

lated peace, means, properly, 
health, prosperity, welfare. It 
is the same as the salam of 
the modern Arabs, and is, in 
like manner, used in saluta- 

PEACOCK, a bird-distin- 
guished by the length of its 
tail, and the brilliant spots 
with which it is adorned ; 
which displays all that dazzles 
in the sparklinglustre of gems, 
and all that astonishes in the 
rainbow. The peacock is a 
bird originally of India; thence 
brought into Persia and Me- 
dia. From Persia it was gra- 
dually dispersed into Judea, 
Egypt, Greece, and Europe, 
1 Kings x, 22. 

PEARL. This substance 
is the production of a shell 
fish of the ,oyster kind, found 
mostly in the East Indies neat 
Ceylon, an island in the In- 
dian Ocean. They are of a 
brilliant sparkling white, and 

CoveV$ Die- p. 350. 





in general perfectly round, 
formed of the same material 
as the inner shell, viz., the 
carbonate of lime, and consist 
of coats, similar to an onion. 
The largest are of the size of 
a small walnut ; but these are 
very rare. The worth of the 
pearl is in proportion to its 
magnitude, roundness, fine 
polish, and clear lustre. Dr. 
Clarke saw one that formed 
the body of a Hindoo idol, 
more than an inch in length, 
and valued at more than 
$1500. The formation of 
these beautiful gems is one 
of the wonders of nature. 
The pearl oysters are found 
in clusters on rocks, at the 
depth of seventy feet on an 
average. They are obtained 
by diving, and this is done 
by a class of persons trained 
to the business. See Job 
xxviii, 18. 

PELICAN, Lev. xi, 18, a 
very remarkable water bird. 
The one which I saw in the 
Zoological Institute, New- 
York, I judged to be four or 
five times larger than a goose. 
Its colour is a grayish white, 
except the upper part of its 
breast, which is ajight yellow, 
and the middle of the back fea- 
thers are blackish. From the 
point of the bill, which was a 
little hooked, to the opening 
of the mouth, it measured 
seventeen inches. The bill 
was two and a half inches 
wide, and had under it a lax 
membrane, forming a sort of 
bag or pouch, which it could 
draw up at pleasure ; and, at 
a little distance, resembled 

buckskin, both in its colour 
and texture, and capable of 
holding, I should say, five 
quarts of water. When 
empty, this pouch is not seen ; 
but when filled, its great bulk 
and singular appearance may 
easily be conceived. Its voice 
resembles that of the goose, 
only much coarser. The peli- 
can is slow of flight ; and 
when it rises to fly, performs 
it with difficulty and labour. 
When they have raised them- 
selves about thirty or forty 
feet above the surface of the 
sea, they turn their head with 
one eye downward, and con- 
tinue to fly* in that posture. 
As soon as they perceive a 
fish sufficiently near the sur- 
face, they dart down upon 
it with the swiftness of an 
arrow, seize it with unerring 
certainty, and store it up in 
their pouch. They then rise 
again and fish as before. 

In feeding its young, the 
pelican squeezes the food 
deposited in its bag into their 
mouths, by strongly compress- 
ing it upon its breast with the 
bill ; an action, says Shaw, 
which might well give occa- 
sion to the received tradition 
and report, that the pelican, 
in feeding her young, pierced 
her own breast, and nourished 
them with her blood. The 
annexed engraving will give 
you a good idea of a pelican 
when it is about to take its 

PEN, from penna, a quill ; 
because this well-known in 
strument for writing is usual- 
ly made of the quill of a large 




bird. But reeds were ancient- 
ly employed for this purpose, 
split and shaped to a point 
lute our quills ; and when it 
was necessary to write upon 
hard materials, as tables of 
wood or stone, the pen was 
made of iron, and sometimes 
tipped with diamond, Jer. xvii, 
1, properly a style. 

PENI'EL, face of God ; a 
place beyond Jordan, near the 
ford on the brook Jabbok. 
See the origin of the name, 
Gen. xxxii, 32. 

PENNY is put in the Eng- 
lish translation for the Greek 
drachma, and the Roman de- 
narius, both of which were 
equal in value to about four- 
teen cents. As this was a 
single coin, perhaps we should 
do well, in translating, to ex- 
press it by one of our own, 
as near to it in value as pos- 
sible; say, for instance, a 
shilling. Something like this 
is absolutely necessary, in 
Rev. vi, 6. As the passage 
now stands, it indicates great 
plenty ; whereas it was in- 
tended to express a most dis- 
tressing scarcity ; a measure, 
i. e., a pint of wheat for a 

PENTECOST, fiftieth, 
one of the three great Jewish 
festivals, in which all the 
males were required to appear 
before God; so called, be- 
cause celebrated on the fiftieth 
day, counting from the second 
day of the festival of unlea- 
vened bread, or passover, i. e., 
seven weeks after the 16th 
day of Ni'san, Deut. xvi, 9 ; 
hence called the feast of weeks, 

verse 10. It was a festival 
of thanks for the harvest, 
which began directly after 
the passover ; and hence call- 
ed the day of the first fruits, 
Num. xxviii, 26 ; and also for 
the law given from Mount 
Sinai, the fiftieth day after 
the exodus from Egypt. Jo- 
sephus relates that, in his 
day, great numbers of Jews 
resorted from every quarter 
to Jerusalem to keep this fes- 
tival. It was on the feast of 
pentecost that the Holy Ghost 
descended in the miraculous 
manner related Acts ii. 

PEOR, a mountain in 
Moab, probably one of the 
summits of -the Pisgah ridge, 
Num. xxiii, 28. Beth-pear is 
the temple of Peor; where 
the worship of Baal-peor was 
conducted, Deut. xxxiv, 6. 

PERDITION, utter ruin ; 
spoken of the second death, 
i. e., eternal exclusion from 
the Messiah's kingdom, and 
subjection to eternal punish 
ment for sin. Son of perdi 
tion is .a Hebrew form of 
expression, signifying one de- 
voted or exposed to perdition, 
2 Thess. ii, 3. 

PERFECTION, properly 
what has reached its end; 
hence complete, full,_ wanting 
in nothing. Thus fruit grown 
to maturity is in its perfec- 
tion. The young man in the 
Gospel said, What LACK / 
yet ? Jesus said unto him, If 
thou wilt be perfect, i, e., if 
thou wilt be complete, so that 
nothing shall be wanting, or 
no lack in thee, renounce the 




world, and become a spiritual 
man, Matt, six, 20, 21. 

Christian perfection is ma- 
turity in the Christian graces, 
the attainment of full age ; 
see Eph. iv, 13: it is that 
participation of the Divine 
nature, which excludes sin 
from the heart, and fills it 
with love to God and man. 

There is no such perfection 
in this life as implies freedom 
from ignorance, or mistake, or 

Adamic perfection extends 
to the whole man ; but Chris- 
tianperfection extends chiefly 
to the will, or bent of the.mind, 
leaving the understanding ig- 
norant often thousand things, 
and the " body dead because 
of sin." But, whatever, mis- 
takes, or errors, or faults ; 
whatever improprieties of 
speech or behaviour, may ex- 
ist in Christians, so long as 
the whole oent of the mind, the 
affections and desires, is turn- 
ea. toward God, to "do the 
things that are pleasing in 
his sight," they do not sin, 
according to the Gospel. See 
Gen. xvii, 1 ; Deut. xviii, 13 ; 
Rom. xii, 2 ; 2 Cor. vii, 1 ; 
James i, 4 ; John xvii, 23 ; 
Col. iv, 12. It is certain that 
no unclean thing shall ever 
"_ enter the New Jerusalem :" 
we must, then, be saved from 
our sins in this life, or in 
death, or after death ; but not 
after death, for if we die in 
our sins, where Christ is we 
can never come : nor in death, 
for as death cannot separate 
us from the love of God, so 
neither can it bring this love 

into our hearts. It is the 
blood of Christ alone, applied 
by the eternal Spirit, that can 
cleanse us from sin, and bring 
us into the glorious liberty of 
the sons of God. . 

PERGA, the metropolis of 
Pamphylia, situated on the 
river Cestus^ nearly seven 
miles from its mouth, and 
celebrated for a splendid tern 
pie of Diana, Acts xiii, 14. 

PERGAMUS, now called 
Bergamo, a celebrated city of 
Mysia. It was situated neat 
the river Caicus, about sixty 
miles north of Smyrna, and 
was the metropolis of the 
powerful kingdom of Perga- 
mus, which was so famous 
under several of its kings, 
called Attal-us. The kings 
of this race collected here a 
noble library of 200,000 vo- 
lumes, which was afterward 
given by Mark Antony to 
Cleopatra, and added to the 
library at Alexandria. Here 
also parchment was first per- 
fected ; hence called in Latin 
Pergamena, At Pergamus 
was also a celebrated and 
frequented temple of Escu- 
lapius, who was the god of 
medicine, usually represent- 
ed-under the image of a ser- 
pent ; whence probably the 
allusion in Rev. ii, 13. The 
celebrated physician Galea 
was a native of this place.- 

PERISH signifies to die, 
and also to be lost for ever. 
The destruction by which 
God will punish the wicked 
is not extinction of being. 
Their bodies will not be an- 
nihilated, for they will " rise 




to the resurrection of damna- 
tion," Dan. -xii, 2 ; and their 
souls shall eternally exist, 
" where their worm dieth not, 
and the fire is not quenched," 
Mark ix, 43-50. 

PER'IZ-ZITES, inhabit- 
ants of the plain ; a Canaan- 
itish tribe expelled by the 
Israelites, dwelling in the 
mountains of Judah, Joshua 
xvii, 15. This fact need not 
militate against the etymology 
ahove proposed, since their 
former seat may have been 
in the plains, Gen. xiii, 7. 

sufferings of Christians on 
account of their religion. The 
establishment of Christianity 
was opposed by the powers 
of the world, and occasioned 
several severe persecutions 
against Christians, during the 
reigns of several Roman em- 
perors. The steady and uni- 
form opposition made by the 
Christians to heathen super- 
stition could not long pass 
unnoticed. Their open at- 
tacks upon Paganism made 
them extremely obnoxious to 
the populace, by whom they 
were represented as a so- 
ciety of atheists, who, by at- 
tacking 'the religious consti- 
tution of the empire, merited 
the severest animadversion 
of the civil magistrate. 

PERSIA, (Per'she-a,) an 
ancient kingdom of Asia, 
bounded on the north by 
Media, on the east by Car- 
ma'ni-a, on the south by the 
Persian Gulf, and on the west 
by Su-si-a'na, The Persians 
became very famous from the 

time of Cyrus, the founder of 
the Persian monarchy. Their 
ancient name was Elamites ; 
and in the time of the Roman 
emperors they went -by the 
name of Parthians : but now 
Persians. See CYRUS. 

PESTILENCE, or plague, 
generally is used by the He- 
brews for all epidemic or con- 
tagious diseases. The pro- 
phets usually connect toge- 
ther sword, pestilence, and 
famine, being three of the 
most grievons inflictions of 
the Almighty upon a guilty 

PETER, a rock, stone; the 
later Hebrew CEPHAS, a rock ; 
the surname of Simon, one of 
the apostles, son of Jonas, and 
brother of Andrew, a fisher- 
man of Bethsaida, Matt, xvi, 
18. He afterward lived, at 
Capernaum, and was married, 
Mark i, 30 ; compare ver. 21. 
This name was given him by 
Jesus at their first interview, 
John i, 43, probably on ac- 
count of the boldness and 
usual firmness of his charac- 
ter. He was of an ardent but 
unequal temperament ; at one 
time expressing unbounded 
devotedness to Jesus, and 
then denying him, Matt, xxvi, 
33, 70. Although the first to 
preach the Gospel directly 
to the Gentiles, Acts xv, 7, 
14, yet he wavered in respect 
to the introduction of Jewish 
observances among them, for 
which he was openly reprov- 
ed by Paul, Gal. ii, 11. In 
later years, he is said to have 
gone abroad, and to have 
preached the Gospel in tha 




Parthian empire, whence pro- 
bably his first epistle was 
written ; the'time is unknown. 
A still later legendary account 
makes him to have been the 
first bishop of Rome, and to 
have suffered martyrdom in 
that city along with Paul, (67 

The honours and powers 
granted to' St. Peter by name 
were conferred equally on 
all the disciples. For no 
one will say that Christ's 
Church was built upon St. 
Peter singly : it was built on 
the foundation of all the apos- 
tles and prophets, Jesus Christ 
himself being the chief corner 
stone. As little can any one 
say that the power of binding 
and loosing was confined to 
St. Peter, seeing it was de- 
clared afterward to belong to 
all the apostles, Matt, xviii, 
18 ; John xx, 23. To these 
things add this, that as St. 
Peter made his confession in 
answer to a question which 
Jesus put to all the apostles, 
that confession was certainly 
made in -the name of the 
whole ; and, therefore, what 
Jesus said to him in reply 
was designed for the whole 
without distinction ; except- 
ing this, which was peculiar 
to him, that he was to be the 
first who, after the descent 
of the Holy Ghost, should 
preach the Gospel to the 
Jews, and then to the Gen- 
tilesan honour which was 
conferred on St. Peter in the 
expression, "I will give thee 
the keys\" &c. 
PE'THOR, a city of Meso- 

Sjtamia, of which the Prophet 
alaam was a native, Num. 
xxii, 5. 

PHARAOH, the king, as 
the word signifies in the 
Egyptian language, OTJRO, 
meaning king ; and P or PH 
being the article, the com-; 
mon- title of the ancient 
Egyptian kings down to the 
time of the Persian invasion, 
about 525 B. C-, as Ptolemy 
was after that time. It often 
stands simply like a proper 
name, Acts vii, 10. 

PHARISEE, the separate, 
one of the sect of the' Phari- 
sees. This was a powerful 
sect of the Jews, in general 
opposed to the Sadducees, 
first mentioned by Josephus 
as existing under Hyrcanus, 
about 130 B. C., and already 
in high repute. They were 
rigid interpreters of the Mo- 
saic law, and exceeding strict 
in its ceremonial observan- 
ces ; but often violated the 
spirit of it by their traditions 
and strained expositions, Matt, 
xxiii, 13. They also attribut- 
ed equal authority to the tra 
ditional law or unwritten pre 
cepts, relating chiefly to ex- 
ternal rites, as ablutions, fast- 
ings, prayers, alms, and the 
avoiding of intercourse with 
Gentiles, publicans, &c. Matt, 
ix, 11 ; xxiii, 2 ; Mark ~ii, 3 ; 
Luke xviii, 11. Their pro- 
fessed sanctity and adherence 
to the external ascetic forms 
of piety, gave them great fa- 
vour and influence with the 
people. They believed with 
the Stoics, that all events are 
controlled by fate ; but yet did 


not wholly exclude the liberty 
of the human will. They held 
to the separate existence of 
spirits and of the soul, and 
believed in the resurrection 
of the body ; both of which 
the Saddueees denied, Acts 
xxiii, 8. They are said to 
have admitted the transmi- 
gration of souls ; but this was 
only partially the case, since 
they merely held that the 
souls of the just pass into 
other human bodies. Our 
Saviour is often represented 
as denouncing the great body 
of the Pharisees for their hy- 
pocrisy and profligacy, Luke 
xvi, 14 ; yet there were doubt- 
less exceptions, and indivi- 
duals among them appear to 
have been men of probity and 
even of genuine piety, e. g., 
Gamaliel, Acts v, 34 ; Simeon, 
Luke ii, 25 ; Joseph of Ari- 
mathea, Luke xxiii, 51 ; and 
Nicodemus, John vii, 50 ; 
six, 39. 


PHEBE, an almoner in the 
church at Cenchrea. St. Paul 
had a particular esteem for 
this holy woman. It is thought 
she carried the epistle to 
Rome, which, he wrote to the 
church of that city, in which 
she is so highly commended, 
Rom. xvi, 1, 2. 

PHENICIA, a narrow 
tract of country on the east 
of the Mediterranean, about 
eighty miles long and twelve 
broad, between Palestine and 
Syria; according to Greek 
and Roman writers, terminat- 
ing on the north at the river 
E-leu'the-rus, opposite the 

350 PHI 

little island Aradns ; and ex 
tending on the south as far 
as to Dora, or even to Pelu- 
sium ; though, according to 
the Scriptures, all the coun- 
try south of Tyre belonged to 
the Hebrew j urisdiction. The 
chief cities were Tyre and 
Sidon. Phenicia may be 
considered as the birthplace 
of commerce, if not also of 
letters and the arts. It was 
a Phenician who introduced 
into Greece the knowledge 
and the use of letters. Phe- 
nician workmen built the 
temple of Solomon ; Pheni- 
cian sailors navigated his 
ships ; Phenician pilots di- 
rected them ; and before other 
nations had ventured .to lose 
sight of their own shores, 
colonies of Phenicians were 
established'in the most distant 
parts of Europe, Asia, and 
Africa ; but the most famous 
of all their colonies was that 
of Carthage. 

ed from its founder Phila~ 
delphus, king of Pergamus, a 
city of Lydia, in Asia Minor, 
about ^twenty - seven miles 
south-east of Sardis, and 
seventy,, in nearly the same 
direction, from Smyrna. It 
has, however, retained a bet- 
ter fate than most of its neigh- 
bours. Philadelphia is still 
erect, a column in a scene of 
ruins. It has about a thou- 
sand Christian inhabitants, 
chiefly Greeks, who have 
five churches, with a resident 
bishop, and inferior clergy. 

PHIL-E'MON was an in- 
habitant of Colosse ; and from 




the manner in which he is 
addressed by St. Paul in his 
epistle to him, it is probable 
that he was a person of some 
consideration in that city. 
St. Paul seems to have been 
the means of converting him 
to the belief of the Gospel, 
Philemon 19. We learn from 
this epistle itself, that it was 
written when St. Paul was 
a prisoner, and when he had 
hope of soon recovering his 
liberty, Philemon 1, 22; and 
thence we conclude that it 
was written toward the end 
of his first confinement at 
Rome, A. D. 62. This epistle 
has always been deservedly 
admired for the delicacy and 
address with which it is writ- 
ten ; and it places St. Paul's 
character in a very amiable 
point of view. 

PHILIP, the name of four 
persons mentioned in the 
New Testament. 

1. One of the twelve apos- 
tles, a native of Bethsaida, 
John i, 44. 

2. The evangelist, one of 
the seven primitive deacons 
at Jerusalem, but residing 
afterward at Cesare'a, Acts 
xxi, 8. After the death "of 
Stephen, he preached the 
Gospel at Samaria, Acts viii, 
5. It was he also who bap- 
tized the Ethiopian treasurer. 
Acts viii, 38. 

3. The tetrarch of. Batanea. 
See Luke iii, 1. He was son 
of Herod the Great, by his 
wife Cleopatra, and own bro- 
ther of Herod Antipas ; at his 
death, his tetrarchy was an- 
nexed to Syria. From him 

;he city Cesar ea Philippi took 
its name. 

4.. The first husband of He 
rodias, also a son of Herod 
the Great, by Mariamne, the 
daughter of Simon, the high 
priest. He led a private-life, 
laving been disinherited by 
lis father, Matt, xiv, 3. 

PHIL-IP'PI, one of the 
chief cities of Mac-e-do'ni-a, 
lying on the north-west of 
Ne-ap'o-lis, and taking its 
name from Philip, the cele- 
brated king of Macedon, by 
whom it was repaired and 
beautified. In process of 
time it became a Roman co- 
lony, and was celebrated for 
the defeat of Brutus and Cas- 
sius. It was the first place 
at which St. Paul preached 
the Gospel upon the continent 
of Europe, A. D. 51. As the 
apostle tells the Philippians 
that he hoped to see them 
shortly, Phil, ii, 24, and there 
are plain intimations in his 
epistle of his having been 
some time at Rome, Phil, i, 
12 ; ii, 26, it is probable that 
it was written 'A. D. 62, to- 
ward the end of his confine- 

PHILISTINES, the peo- 
ple who inhabited the plain 
of the Mediterranean, west 
and south-west of Canaan, 
and between Jaffa and Gaza, 
about forty miles long and 
fifteen broad. Gesenius says 
the conjecture is not impro- 
bable that the Philistines 
sprang from the Island of 
Crete, called in Scripture 
Caphtor, Jer. xlvii, 4 ; Amos 
ix, 7, which was inhabited by 




a colony of the Egyptians. 
The time of their coming to 
Palestine is unknown ; but 
they were a powerful people 
in that place even in Abra- 
ham's time, (A. M. 2083.) 
They are not enumerated 
among the nations devoted 
to extermination. Joshua, 
however, did not hesitate to 
give their land to the He- 
brews, and to attach them by 
command from the Lord, be- 
cause they possessed various 
districts promised to Israel. 
But these conquests must 
have been ill maintained, 
since under the judges, at 
the time of Saul, and at the 
beginning of the reign of 
David, the Philistines had 
their kings and their lords. 
Their country to the north 
of Gaza is very fertile ; and, 
long after the Christian era, 
it possessed a very numerous 
population and strongly for- 
tified cities. 

It now partakes of the 
general desolation common 
to it with Judea and other 
neighbouring states. While 
ruins are to be found in all 
Syria, they are particularly 
abundant along the sea coast, 
and the land of the Philis- 

PHILOSOPHY, literally, 
the love of wisdom ; but, in 
modern acceptation, philoso- 
phy is a general term, denot- 
ing an explanation of the rea- 
sons of things ; or an investi- 
gation of the causes of all 
phenomena, both of mind and 
of matter. When applied to 
any particular department of 

knowledge, it denotes'the col- 
lection of general laws or 
principles under which all the 
subordinate phenomena, or 
facts relating to that subject, 
are comprehended. Thus that 
branch of philosophy which 
treats of God is called the- 
ology ; that which treats of 
nature is called physics, or 
natural philosophy ; that which 
treats of man is called logic, 
and ethics or moral philosophy ; 
that which treats of the mind 
is called intellectual, or mental 
philosophy, or metaphysics. 

A knowledge of the animal, 
vegetable, and mineral king- 
doms, or the science of na- 
tural history, was always an 
object of interest. We are in- 
formed that Solomon himself 
had given a description of the 
animal and vegetable king- 
doms, 1 Kings iv, 33. Traces 
of philosophy, strictly so call- 
ed, that is, the system of pre- 
vailing moral opinions, may 
be found in the book of Job, 
in the. thirty-seventh, thirty- 
ninth, and the seventy-third 
Psalms ; also in the books of 
Proverbs and Ecclesiastes, 
but chiefly in the apocryphal 
book of Wisdom and the writ 
ings of the son of Sirach. 

But, in the New Testa- 
ment, philosophy signifies the 
Jewish theology, or theologi- 
cal learning pertaining to the 
interpretation of the law and 
other scriptures, and to the 
traditional law of ceremonial 
observances, Col. ii, 8; com- 
pare verse 16, and 1 Tim. 
vi, 20. 

A PHILOSOPHER is an in- 




quirer afterknowledge natural 
and moral, in things human 
and Divine ; spoken in the 
New Testament of Greek phi- 
losophers,' Epicureans, and 
Stoics, who spent their time 
in inquiries and disputations 
respectingmoral science, Acts 
xvii, 18. 

PHRYGIA, an inland pro- 
vince of Asia Minor, bounded 
north by Bithynia and Gala- 
tia ; east by Cappadocia and 
Lycaonia; south by Lycia, 
&c. In early times Phrygia 
seems to have included the 
greater part of Asia Minor. 
The cities of this province 
mentioned in the New Tes- 
tament are Laodicea, Hiera- 
polis, and Colosse. Antioch 
of Pisidia was also within its 
limits, Acts ii, 10. 

PHUT, an African peo- 
ple, the same as Maurita'nia, 
which forms the modern king- 
dom of Fez and Morocco, in 
which country Pliny also men- 
tions a river Phut, Ezekiel 
xxvii, 10. 

little scrolls of parchment, in 
which are written certain sen- 
tences of the law, enclosed 
in leather cases, and bound 
with straps of leather on the 
forehead and on the left arm. 
The making and wearing of 
these phylacteries, as the 
Jews still do in their private 
devotions, is owing to a mis- 
interpretation of those texts 
on which they ground the 
practice, namely, God's com- 
manding them " to bind .the 
law for a sign on their hands, 
and to let it be as frontlets be- 

tween their eyes," &c., Deut. 
vi, 8. The command ought 
to be understood metaphori- 
cally, as a charge to remem- 
ber it, and to meditate upon 
it ; as when Solomon says, 
" Bind them about thy neck, 
write them upon the table of 
thy heart," Prov. iii, 1, 3 ; 
vi, 21. It seems the Phari- 
sees used to make broad their 
phylacteries; which we may 
suppose they did from pride 
and hypocrisy, as pretending 
thereby an extraordinary re- 
gard for the precepts of the 
law. See FKONTLETS. 

PHYSICIANS are men- 
tioned first in Gen. 1, 2. The 
Egyptians carried their sick 
into the temples of Serapis ; 
the Greeks into those ofEscu- 
lapius. In both of these temples 
there were preserved written 
recipes of the means by which 
various cures had been effect- 
ed. With the aid of these 
recorded remedies, the art of, 
healing assumed, in the pro- 
gress of time, the aspect of a 
science. There is ample evi- 
dence that the Israelites had 
some acquaintance with the 
internal structure of the hu- 
.man system, although it does 
not appear that dissections of 
the human body for medical 
purposes were made till as 
late as the time of Ptolemy. 
The probable reason of King 
Asa's not seeking help from 
God, but from the physicians, 
,as mentioned 2 Chron. xvi, 
12, was, that they had not at 
that period recourse to the 
simple medicines which na- 
ture offered, but to certain 




superstitious rites and incan- 
tations ; and this, no doubt, 
was" the ground of the reflec- 
tion which was cast upon 

PI-HA-HI'ROTH, doubt- 
less an Egyptian name, the 
place of green grass or sedge 
perhaps the modern Suez. 
The situation of this place is 
described as between Migdol 
(Bir-Suez) and the ReoLSea, 
Exod. xiv, 2, i. e., Suez, or 
near to that place. In Num. 
xxxiii, 7, the Hebrews are 
said to have encamped before 
this and Migdol. Of course 
both towns, must have been 
within the view of their en- 
campment ; and Baal-Zephon 
lay before or toward the east, 
i.e., north-east of Pihahi'roth, 
where the ruins of Colsum 
now are situated. 

PILATE, i. e;, Pontius 
Pilate ; the fifth Roman pro- 
curator, or governor of Judea; 
the fourth was Valerius Gra- 
tus, who was succeeded by 
Pilate about A. D. 26. He 
is represented, both by Philo 
and Jo-se'phus, as a man of 
an impetuous and obstinate 
temper, and, as, a judge, one 
who used to sell justice, and, 
for money, to pronounce any 
sentence that was desired. 
The same authors make men- 
tion of his rapines, his in- 
juries, his murders, the tor- 
ments that he inflicted upon 
the innocent, and the persons 
he put to death without any 
form of process. Philo, in 
particular, describes him as 
a man that exercised an ex- 
cessive cruelty during the 

whole time of his govern- 
ment ; who disturbed the re- 
pose of Judea, and was the 
occasion of the troubles and 
revolt that followed. Pilate 
continued in office about ten 
years ; and being hated both 
by Jews and Samaritans for 
the caprice and cruelty of his 
administration, he was ac- 
cused by them before Vitellius, 
then president of Syria, and 
sent by him to Rome to an- 
swer to these complaints ; be- 
fore the emperor. Tiberius 
was dead before the arrival 
of Pilate ; and the latter is 
said to have been banished 
by Caligula to Vienna, in 
Gaul, and there to have died 
by his own hand, about A. D. 
41.^' The extreme reluctance 
of Pilate to condemn Christ, 
Matt, xxvii, 17-25, consider- 
ing his merciless character, 
is signally remarkable, and 
still more his repeated pro- 
testations of the innocence 
of his prisoner ; although, on 
occasions of massacre,, he 
made no scruple of confound- 
ing the innocent with the 
guilty. But he was unques 
tionably influenced by the 
overruling providence of God 
to make the righteousness of 
his Son appear as clear as 
the noonday-, even when con- 
demned and, executed as a 

PILGRIM, properly one 
-who is going forward to visit 
a holy place, with design to 
pay his solemn devotions ; but, in Scripture, it 
means a sojourner, a tempo- 
rary resident among any peo- 




pie ; one who lives in another 
country without the rights of 
a citizen,- Heb. xi, 13. 

PILLAR, a column raised 
to support a building. The 
pillars of heaven are the lofty 
mountains, upon which hea- 
ven, spread out like an arch 
above the earth, seems to 
rest, Job xxvi, 11. TJie earth 
also is represented as founded 
upon a similar basis, Job ix, 
6 ; a pillar of cloud, Exod. 
xiii, 21 ; a cloud, the form of 
which resembled. a pillar, not 
like other clouds spread put 
horizontally, but extending 
from the earth upward like a 
pillar. See Judges xx, 40. 
That this was the same as 
the pillar of fire, or fiery pil- 
lar, is rendered quite probable 
by Exod. xiv, 20, where the 
same cloud affords light to 
the Hebrews by night, and 
darkness to the Egyptians, 
i. e., that part of this cloudy 
pillar which was toward the 
camp of the Israelites was 
luminous ; while it only in- 
creased the darkness to those 
who were in an opposite di- 
rection. By day the same 
cloud appears to have afforded 
a shade to shelter from the 
burning rays of the sun ; and 
also to have guided the way 
of the caravan. 

St. Paul represents the 
Christian Church as the pil- 
lar and basis of the truth, 
1 Tim. iii, 15, and the sum 
and substance of the Gospel, 
as an inscription engraven 
on that pillar, for the purpose 
of luminous exhibition to the 
world, see verse 16. 

Pillar is used figuratively, 
for any firm support ; e. g., for 
ersons of authority and in- 
.uence in the Church, Gal. 

iii 9. 


PILLED, Gen. xxx, 37; 
the same with peeled. 

PILLOW, a cushion for 
the head or arm. The prophet 
speaks of " sewing pillows to 
arm holes." There is here, 
probably, an allusion to the 
easy indulgence of the great, 
Ezekiel xiii, 18 ; see Amos 

PINE TREE, a well- 
known tree of the nature of 
the fir. 

PINNACLE, a part of a 
building elevated above the 
main building. "The pin- 
nacle of the temple," Luke 
iv, 9, was probably the apex 
or siimmit of Solomon's porch, 
which Josephus describes as 
being exterior to the temple 
on the east side, and built up 
to the giddy height of 600 or 
700 feet, from the foundation 
in the valley of the Cedron 

PIPE, 1 Cor. xiv, 7; a 
wind instrument of music, 
consisting of a long perforated 
tube of wood or metal. Pipes 
and flutes are found among 
all nations, even the most 
uncivilized. The New Zea- 
landers, and the inhabitants 
of the South Sea Islands, had 
them when first discovered. 
The pipe, probably, had an- 
-ciently a general resemblance 
to the flageolet. 

PISGAH, a mountain 




ridge, in Moab, over against 
Jericho ; probably a part of 
Mount Nebo, and not far from 
the northern part of the Dead 
Sea, Deut. xxxiv, 1, and at 
whose base are several fine 
springs of water, Deut. iv, 49. 

PISIDIA, a district of Asia 
Minor, lying mostly on Mount 
Taurus, between Pamphylia, 
Phrygia, and Lycapnia. Its 
chief city was Antioch, Acts 
xiii, 14. 

PISON, a river issuing 
from the garden of Eden, and 
flowing around the land of 
Havilah, i. e., Colchis, Gal. 
ii, 11. This is supposed by 
Stuart and others to be the 
Phasis, a river of Colchis, 
which runs into the east end 
of the Black Sea. 

PIT, a cistern or reser- 
voir; cisterns were sometimes 
hewn in stone, prepared in 
those regions where they have 
few springs, for the purpose 
of preserving rain water for 
travellers and cattle ; and 
when without water, they 
were often used as prisons, 
Zech. rx, 11. Into such a pit 
Joseph was cast, Gen. xxxvii, 

The word also means a 
deep hole in the earth, cover- 
ed very slightly with boughs" 
or shrubs, upon which bait 
is placed for the purpose of 
entrapping wild beasts, Ezek. 
xix, 8. It also signifies a 
sepulchre, the grave, where 
the dead are described as 
11 those who go down to the 
pit," Psa. xxviii, 1 ; and " to 
the stones of the pit" Isa. 
xiv, 19, i. e., who are laid in 

costlier sepulchres, hewn in 
the rock. " The sides of the 
pit," Isa. xiv, 15, are the re- 
cesses of the sepulchre. 

The bottomless pit is the 
prison of demons and the 
souls of wicked men, Rev. 
ix, 1. See SEPULCHRE. 

PITCH, a tenacious oily 
substance, drawn chiefly from 
pines and firs. In' the Bible, 
It is supposed to be a mineral 
production. See SLIME. 

PITHOM, a city of Lower 
Egypt, on the eastern bank 
of the Nile, Exod. i, 11. 

PLAGUE, spoken chiefly 
of pestilential and fatal dis- 
eases, Num. xiv, 37, and of 
the judgments sent from God. 

PLAINS, a low, level 
country, as opposed to moun- 
tains, e. g., that in which 
Babylon was situated. There 
was also a plain lying at the 
foot of Hermon around the 
sources of the Jordan, called 
the valley of Lebanon, Josh, 
xii, 7. The plain of Jordan, 
or region round about, Matt, 
iii, 5, includes the shore of 
both sides of the Jordan, from 
the Lake Genesareth to the 
Dead Sea. Its breadth from 
west to east is thirteen miles ; 
and, modern travellers make 
the- length about fifty-six, 
This plain or valley is called 
El Ghor, and comprehends 
the Dead Sea ; hence called 
" sea of the plain," Deut. ir, 
49, extending south to the 
Elanitic Gulf. See JORDAN. 

PLANETS, wanderers, so 
called from changing their 
places in the heavens, being 
sometimes stationary and 




sometimes retrograde. They 
shine by reflecting the light 
of the sun around which they 
revolve. Five of 'them, viz., 
Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupi- 
ter, and Sa'turn, were disco- 
vered long before the inven- 
tion of the telescope, (A. D. 
1 590.) They appear brighter 
and larger than the fixed 
stars ; the other five are 
scarcely visible to the naked 
eye. The word occurs but 
once in the Bible, 2 Kings 
xxiii, 5, where Gesenius trans- 
lates it lodgings, and under- 
stands by it the twelve signs 
of the Zodiac, which the He- 
brews regarded as the lodgings 
of the sun during the twelve 
successive months, and offer- 
ed them idolatrous worship. 

PLEIADES, (Ple'yadz,) a 
cluster of stars, consisting of 
seven large ones, commonly 
called the seven stars, closely 
conglomerated with others, 
which are smaller, Job ix, 9. 
They appear" about the middle 
of April ; and hence are as- 
sociated with the return of 
spring, the season of sweet 

POETS. The Hebrew 
poets were men inspired of 
God ; and among them we 
find kings, lawgivers, and 
prophets. Paul gives a pagan 
poet, whose name was Epi- 
men'ides, the title of prophet, 
Tit. i, 12, because, among the 
heathen, poets were thought 
to be inspired by Apollo. 
The apostle quotes the poet 
Ara'tus, a native of his own 
city, Cilicia, Acts xvii, 28 ; 
see Col. vii, 54. 

POISON is any substance-, 
which, when taken into the 
stomach in small quantities, 
or otherwise introduced into 
the system, produces changes 
in the body deleterious to the 
health, and even destructive 
to life, by means not mecha- 
nical. Many poisons operate 
chemically, corroding the or- 
ganized fibre, destroying the 
form and connection of the 
parts, causing inflammation 
and mortification. To this 
class belong most of the poi- 
sons of the mineral kingdom, 
as arsenic and corrosive sub- 
limate. Others operate more, 
by a powerful action upon the 
nerves, and a rapid destruc- 
tion of their energy. To this 
class belong prussic acid, 
opium, hemlock, belladonna, 
&c. David speaks of ani- 
mal poison, Psalm Iviii, 5. 
The poison of serpents; and 
the prophet of vegetable poison, 
Hosea x, 4 ; the gall of asps, 
Job xx, 14, is put for their 
poison, which the ancients 
falsely supposed to lie in the 
gall. It appears that the art 
of poisoning arrows was very 
ancient in Arabia ; see Job 
vi, 4. And we are told that 
the Africans were obliged to 
poison their arrows, in order 
to defend themselves from the 
wild beasts with which their 
country was infested. This 
poison, Pliny tells us, was 
incurable. The Indians of 
South America, it is said, 
apply also a very powerful 
poison, called the wourali poi- 
son, to the heads of their 
arrows, with which they shoot 




their game. It destroys life 
very quickly, without cor- 
rupting or imparting any bad 
quality to the flesh. 

POLL, Num. iii, 47. When 
used as a noun, pott means a 
head ; and, when used as a 
verb, it means to cut the hair 
from the head, 2 Sam. xiv, 26. 

POI/LUX, a protecting 
deity of mariners in ancient 
times, Acts xxviii, 11, whose 
image was placed either at 
the prow or stern of the ship. 

the granate apple. This tree 
grows wild in Syria, Pales- 
tine, and Egypt, It is low, 
with a straight trunk, and at 
a little distance from the 
ground ; shoots out into a 
multitude of branches ; the 
flowers are large, and of a 
brilliant red ; the fruit it bears 
is about the size of a large 
apple, of a tawny brown, beau- 
tiful to the eye, and pleasant 
t9lhe palate ; and is encircled 
at the upper part with some- 
thing resembling, a crown. It 
is covered with a thick astrin- 
gent coat,. containing abund- 
ance of seeds, each enveloped 
in a distinct rind, like those 
of the orange, Deut. viii, 8 ; 
Song iv, 13. Artificial pome- 
granates made to resemble 
natural ones were used as 
ornaments, Exod. xxviii, 33 ; 
1 Kings vii, 18. 

POMMEL, a knob or ball ; 
in the Bible a globe, or bowl, 
as an ornament on the tops 
or capitals of columns, 2 Cnr. 
iv, 12 ; 1 Kings vii, 41. 

PONTUS, the north-east- 
ern province of Asia Minor, 

bounded north by the Black 
Sea, east by .Colchis, south 
by Cappadpcia, and west by 
Paphlagonia, Acts ii, 9. The 
kingdom of Pontus became 
celebrated under Mithridates 
the Great, who waged a long 
war with the Romans, in 
which he was at last defeat- 
ed by Pompey, and his king 
dom made a Roman province. 
Aquila, Paul's companion, 
was of this province, Acts 
xviii, 2. 

POSTS signifies in the 
Bible runners, couriers, refer- 
ring to the mounted couriers 
of the Persians, who carried 
the royal -edicts to the pro- 
vinces, Esth. iii, 13. Cyrus, 
or according A6. He-rod-o'tus, 
Xerxes was,. the first to esta- 
blish relays.; of. horses and 
couriers, ascertain distances, 
on all the grestt. roads, in order 
that the royal.letters and mes 
sages might be, transmitted 
with the greatest possible 
speed. The public couriers 
had authority to press into 
their service men, horses, 
ships, or any thing which 
came in their way, and which 
might serve to hasten their 
journey. Hence the word 
posts is said to be derived 
from the LatinposzVs(placed,) 
because horses were placed at 
certain distances to transport 
letters or travellers. This is 
the origin of one of the most 
effective instruments of civil- 

POTSHERD, a broken 
fragment, or a piece of an 
earthen vessel. 

POTTAGE, broth, or any 

Covel's Die. 





dish of food made by boil- 


POTTER, a maker of 
earthen vessels, Jer. xviii, 3. 

POTTER'S FIELD, the land 
that was bought with the 
money for which Judas sold 
our Saviour, Matt, xxvii, 7, 10, 
and which he returned. See 

POUND. In the New 
Testament a silver coin, equal 
to $1 6i. It varied, however, 
in different countries. 

Sometimes the word pound 
signifies a weight,. which wa& 
equal to about twelve ounces 
avoirdupois, John xii, 3. 

PRAISE. In the ordinary 
Scripture use of the term, it 
denotes an act of worship, 
and is often used synony- 
mously with thanksgiving. It 
is called forth by the contem- 
plation of the character and 
attributes of God, however 
they are displayed ; and it 
implies a grateful sense and 
acknowledgment of past mer- 
cies. Expressions of praise 
abound in the Psalms of Da- 
vid in almost every variety 
of form and beauty ; and the 
nature of the duty, as well as 
the proper manner of its per- 
formance, may be best ascer- 
tained by a, diligent study of 
his language and spirit, Psa. 
xxxiii, 1. Union Die. 

PRAYER has been well 
defined, the offering up of our 
desires unto God, Phil, iv, 6. 

1. Prayer is in itself a be- 
coming acknowledgment of 
the all-sufficiency of God, and 
of our dependarice upon him. 
It is his appointed means for 

the obtaining of both temporal 
and spiritual blessings. He 
could bless his creatures in 
another way : but he will be 
inquired of, to do for them 
those things of which they 
stand in need, Ezek. xxxvi, 
37. It is the act of an indi 
gent creature, seeking relief 
from the fountain of mercy. 

2. All acceptable prayer 
must be offered in faith, or a 
believing frame of mind. "If 
any man lack wisdom, let him 
ask of God, who giveth to all 
men liberally, and upbraideth/ 
not, and it shall be given him. 
But let him ask in faith, no- 
thing wavering for let not 
the wavering man think that 
he shall/receive any thing of 
the Lord," James i, 5V7. "He 
that cometh unto God must 
believe that he is, and that he 
is a rewarder of them that 
diligently seek him," Heb. xi, 
6. It must be offered in the 
name of Christ, believing in 
him as revealed in the word 
of God, placing in him all our 
hope of acceptance, and exer- 
cising unfeigned confidence 
in his atoning sacrifice and 
prevalent intercession. 

3. Prayer is to be offered for 
" things agreeable to the will 
of God." So the apostle says : 
" This is the confidence that 
we have in him, that, if we 
ask any thing according to 
his will, he heareth us ; and 
if we know that he hear us, 
whatsoever we ask, we know 
that we have the petitions that 
we desired of him," 1 John v, 
14, B. 

4. All this must be accom- 




panied with confession of our 
sins, and thankful acknow- 
ledgment of God's mercies. 
These are two necessary in- 
gredients in acceptable prayer. 
" I prayed," says the Prophet 
Daniel, " and made confes- 
sions." Sin is a burden of 
which confession unloads the 
soul. Thanksgiving is also 
as necessary as confession ; 
by the one, we take shame' to 
ourselves ; by the other, we 
give glory to God. By the 
one, we abase the creature ; 
by the other, we exalt the 
Creator. In petitioning fa- 
vours from God, we act like 
dependant creatures ; in con- 
fession, like sinners ; but in 
thanksgiving, like angels. 

The reason on .which this 
great and efficacious duty 
rests seems to be, the preser- 
vation in the minds of men 
of a solemn and impressive 
sense of God's agency in the 
world, and the dependance 
of all creatures upon him. 
Perfectly pure and glorified 
beings,' no longer in a state 
of probation, and therefore 
exposed to no temptation, 
may not need this institu- 
tion ; but men in their fallen 
state are constantly prone to 
forget God ; to rest in the 
agency of second causes, and 
to build upon a sufficiency in 
themselves. It is then equal- 
ly in mercy to us, as in re- 
Tspect to his own honour and 
acknowledgment, that the 
Divine Being has suspended 
so many of his blessings, and 
those of the highest necessity 
to us, upon the exercise of 

prayer. And those who bow 
to the authority of the Scrip- 
tures will -see, 'that the" duty 
of praying for others rests up- 
on the same Divine appoint- 
ment ; for there is the same 
reason to conclude that our 
prayers may benefit "others, 
as any other effort we may 
use. It can only be by Di- 
vine appointment that one 
creature is made dependant 
upon another for any advan- 
tage, since" it was doubtless 
in the power of the Creator to 
have rendered each independ- 
ent of all but himself. What- 
ever reason, therefore, might 
lead him to connect and in- 
terweave the interests of one 
man with the benevolence of 
another, will be the leading 
reason for that kind of mutual 
dependance which is implied 
in the benefit of mutual prayer. 
He who believes the Scrip- 
tures, will, however, be en- 
couraged by the declaration, 
that " the effectual fervent 

Irayer of a righteous man," for 
is fellow-creatures, " ayail- 
eth much." It is a part of the 
Divine plan, as revealed in 
his word, to give many bless 
ings to man independent of 
his own prayers, leaving the 
subsequent improvement of 
them to himself. They are 
given in honour of the inter- 
cession of Christ, man's great 
" advocate ;" and they are 
given, subordinately, in ac- 
ceptance o the prayers of 
Christ's Church, and of right- 
eous individuals. Watson. 

PREACHER, one who 
addresses a public assembly. 




and imparts instruction re- 
specting the Divine will. 
From the earliest associa- 
tions for the worship of God, 
religious truth has been im- 
parted to mankind through the 
instrumentality of preachers. 
Noah " was a preacher of 
righteousness," 2 Pet. ii, 5. 

Moses was a most eminent 
prophet and preacher, raised 
up by the authority of God, 
and by whom, it was said, 
came the law, John i, 17. 
This great man had much at 
heart the promulgation of his 
doctrine ; Re directed it to 
be inscribed on pillars, to be 
transcribed in books, and to 
be taught both in public and 

Sivate by word of mouth, 
eut. iv, 9;-yi, 9; xvii, 18; 
xxvii, 8 ; xxxi, 19. He him- 
self set the example of each ; 
and how he and Aaron preach- 
ed, we may see by several 
parts of his writings. The 
first discourse was heard with, 
profound reverence and at- 
tention ; the last was both 
uttered and received with 
raptures, Exod. iv, 31 ; Deut. 
xxxiii, 7, 8, &c. 

Moses had not appropriated 
preaching to any order of 
men : persons, places, times, 
and manners, were all left 
open and discretional. Many 
of the discourses were preach- 
ed in camps and courts, in 
streets, schools, cities, vil- 
lages ; sometimes with great 
composure and coolness ; at 
other times with vehement 
action and rapturous energy ; 
sometimes, in a plain, bkint 
style ; at other times, in all 

the magnificent pomp of east 
ern allegory. These men 
were highly esteemed by the 
pious part of the nation.; and 
princes thought proper to keep 
seers and others who were 
scribes, who read and ex- 
pounded the law, 2 Chron. 
xxxiv, 29, 30 ; xxxv, 15. 

When the Jews were car- 
ried captive into Babylon, the 
prophets who were with them 
inculcated the principles of 
religion, and endeavoured to 
possess their minds with an 
aversion to idolatry ; and, to 
the success of preaching, we 
may attribute the reconver- 
sion of the Jews to the belief 
and worship of one God ; a 
conversion that remains to 
this day. The Jews had al- 
most lost, in the seventy 
years' captivity, their original 
language. , Formerly, preach- 
ers had only explained sub- 
jects : now they were obli- 
ged to explain words ; words 
which, in the sacred code, 
were become obsolete, equi- 
vocal, or dead. Houses were 
now opened, not for sacrific- 
ing, for this was confined to 
the temple ; but for moral 
and religious instruction, as 
praying, preaching, reading 
the law, Divine worship, and 
social duties. These houses 
were called synagogues : the 
people repaired thither for 
morning and evening prayer ; 
and on Sabbaths and festi- 
vals, the law was read and 
expounded to them. We have 
a short but beautiful descrip. 
tion of the manner of Ezra's 
firsfrpreaching, Nehemiahviii. 




From this period to that of the 
appearance of Jesus Christ, 
public preaching was univer- 
sal ; synagogues were multi- 
plied, vast numbers attended, 
and elders and rulers were 
appointed for the purpose of 
order and instruction. 

The most eminent preacher 
that arose before the appear- 
ance of Jesus Christ was 
John the Baptist. Let the 
reader charrn and solace him- 
self in the study and contem- 
plation of the character, ex- 
cellency, and dignity of this 
Divine teacher, as he will 
find them delineated in the 

The apostles copied their 
Divine Master. They formed 
multitudes of religious socie- 
ties, and were abundantly 
successful in their labours. 
They confined their attention 
to religion, and left the schools 
to dispute, and politicians to 
intrigue. The doctrines they 
preached they supported en- 
tirely by evidence ; and nei- 
ther had nor required such 
assistance as human laws or 
worldly policy, the eloquence 
of schools, or the terror of 
arms, could afford them. 

or gems ; these are crystalized 
mineral substances, frequent- 
ly referred to in the Bible, and 
remarkable for their hardness, 
brilliancy, scarcity, and colour. 
It is this last property, height- 
ened by the lustre of the stone, 
which principally strikes the 
beholder. By lustre is meant 
the quantity of light which the 
mineral is capable of reflect- 

ing. The ancients, deceived 
by the external appearance, 
classified the stones accord- 
ing to their colours ; but mo- 
dem mineralogy rejects this 
false classification and esta- 
blishes one upon the chemi- 
cal properties of the stone. 
Thus quartz, for example, 
constitutes one of the most 
abundant of minerals. It often 
occurs in the state of silex, 6r 
common sand ; and very fre- 
quently in the form of regular 
crystals. Any mineral sub- 
stance is a crystal whose 
component particles are so 
arranged as to give the mi 
neral a particular shape, hav 
ing flat sides and regular 
angles, and appearing as 
though it had been formed 
by art. The most common 
form of quartz is a six-sided 
prism," terminated, by. six 
sided pyramids. When this 
crystal is of uniform density 
perfectly transparent, i. e., 
objects are distinctly seen 
through it, and colourless, it 
occupies a distinguished place 
in the collections of amateurs, 
under the name of rock crystal, 
(see Rev. iv, 6,) which the 
ancients believed was water 
congealed to that hardness by 
intense and long continued 
cold. Hence the word crystal, 
which signifies ice. <. But this 
mineral is often coloured by 
the oxide of iron, mangenese, 
nichel, &c., forming a class 
of gems called "oxidental 

When coloured violet, it is 
called amethyst ; when red, it 
is called rose quartz; when 



yellow, it is called the Indian \ 
topaz. This gem the ancients 
seem to have distinguished 
by the name of chrysolite. 
The colouring matter of the 
amethyst is the oxide of man- 
ganese. Jasper also is a spe- 
cies of quartz, distinguished 
by its opacity and by the dark- 
ness of its colours.- It is found 
in Egypt; and, Thomson says, 
seems to consist of silica, 
united to a small quantity of 
the peroxide of. iron. Chalce- 
dony, when pure, consists of 
silex, with a small quantity 
of water, which enters into 
the composition of all crys- 
taiirie bodies, differing from 
quartz merely IH the way in 
which the particles have been 
united together. The lustre 
is dull, or only glimmering ; 
the hardness, of course, is 
the same as that of quartz ; 
alternate layers of brown and 
opaque white chalcedony con- 
stitute the onyx ; when the 
colour is a deep brownish 
red, or by transmitted light, 
blood-red, the stone is term- 
ed sardine, more commonly 
known by the name of cor- 
nelian. Alternate layers of 
sardine, or cornelian and 
milk-white chalcedony con- 
stitute sardonyx. 

Agate is a compound mi- 
neral, consisting of alternate 
layers of chalcedony and 
quartz, and the lowest in 
value of all the precious 

Ckrysoprasus, or chryso- 
prase, is from two Greek 
words, which signify gold anc 
leek. It resembles in all re- 

spects the chalcedony, except 
in colour, in ' which it re- 
sembles the juice of the leek, 
but with somewhat of a golden 
tinge.; and hence its name. 
Its colouring matter is the 
oxide of nickel. 

The ligure is supposed to 
be the modern opal, which is 
a beautiful white gem, of the 
silicious family. 

Alumina, alumine, or pure 
clay enters into the composi- 
tion of a class of gems called 
" oriental gems." Alumina is 
one of the most abundant 
productions of nature ; it is 
found in every part of the 
globe, and occasionally crys- 
talized. This is the sapphire, 
and one of the most beau- 
tiful gems with which we 
are acquainted. The pure 
colourless' sapphire is com- 
posed of alumina, nearly 
pure. This name, however, 
is appropriated to the blue 
variety of this mineral ; when 
red, it is called ruby; when 
yellow, topaz; when green, 
emerald ; and, when violet, 
amethyst. These genera are 
harder than any other mi- 
nerals except the diamond, 
and more commonly found 
in primary rocks as granite, 
or in loose sands. The finest 
crystals come from the Ura- 
lian mountains, Kamschatka, 
and South America. The 
blue sapphire is brought from 
Ceylon, and has been found 
six inches in length, valued at 
3000 sterling, over $13,000. 
It is cut by means of diamond 
dust, and admits of the high- 
est degree of lustre. A sap- 




phire of ten carats' weight is 
worth fifty guineas. Among 
the crown jewels of France 
is a sapphire weighing 166 

The ruby, a beautiful red 
sapphire, is coloured by the 
chromic acid, and is more 
highly esteemed than any 
other variety of the sapphire. 
A crystal weighing four carats 
(one carat is four grains) has 
been valued at half the price 
of the diamond of the same 
size. It seldom exceeds half 
an inch in length ; but two 
splendid crystals of this .gem 
are said to be in the posses- 
sion of the king of Arracan, 
with a diameter of about an 
inch. The finest specimens 
occur in the Copeland moun- 
tains, in the kingdom of Ava. 

Topaz, so called from an 
island in the Red Sea, in 
which the gem was anciently 
found. It is of a golden or 
orange colour ; and besides 
alumina, it contains silicia 
and fluoric acid. 

Under the word emerald, 
the ancients appear to have 
comprehended all gems of a 
Jine green colour. The green 
sapphire called emerald is ex- 
tremely rare, found in the 
kingdom of Cambay. 

Qwc'emerald contains a sub- 
stance called glucina; a white 
powdered earth, which has 
neither taste nor smell ; and 
when combined with an acid, 
form a salt of a sweetish 
taste. Hence the name glu- 
cina, which signifies 'sweet. 
This substance is found only 
in three rare minerals ; the 

beryl, emerald, and another 
mineral lately found in Peru, 
South America. 

The emerald and beryl are 
varieties of the same species, 
and are distinguished merely 
by their colour. The bright 
green variety is called eme- 
rald, while all the pale varie- 
ties are denominated beryl. 
These gems consist of alu- 
mina silica and glucina, above 
described. The colouring 
principle in the emerald is 
the oxide of chrome, and in 
the beryl a small quantity of 
iron. The ancients procured 
their emeralds chiefly from 
Upper Egypt, about twenty 
miles from the Red Sea, in 
Mount Zalara. A splendid 
specimen of the emerald, in 
the possession of Mr. Hope, 
of London, weighing but six 
ounces, cost ,500 sterling, 
over $2,200. 

Chrysolite consists of silex, 
magnesia, and a small quan- 
tity of the protoxide of iron ; 
the colour is green, of various 
shades. Perfectly crystalized 
specimens are brought from 
Constantinople ; but as the 
name signifies golden stone, 
which the ancients applied to 
any yellow gem, their chryso- 
lite is supposed to be the 
modern hyacinth, or jacinth, 
which is of a deep golden, or 
amber colour. This gem is 
composed of silex, and zir- 
con, coloured by the oxide 
of iron. Sometimes found in 
the sands of rivers ; it is thus 
found in Ceylon. None of 
these gems are bright, except 
some of the red tints. 




Garnet. The precious gar- 
net consists of silex, alumina, 
lime, iron, and sometimes 
manganese ; the colour is al- 
ways red. It occurs in the 
greatest perfection in Ceylon 
and Greenland. The large 
proportion of iron contained 
in it does not impair its trans- 
parency. It is the carbuncle 
of the ancients, though some 
suppose it to be what they 
termed the hyacinth. 

Lapis lazuli, a splendid 
mineral of a rich azure blue 
colour ; the ancient sapphire. 
It contains particles of iron 
pyrites, which have been mis- 
taken for gold. Hence it is 
described by Theophrastus as 
sprinkled with gold. About 
one half of this gem is silex ; 
it contains alumina, lime, 
potash, and soda, and also a 
small portion of magnesia, 
oxide of iron-, and sulphuric 
acid, brought from China ; has 
been seen regularly crystal- 
ized only in a few instances. 

The diamond is pure crys- 
talized carbon ; heated to red- 
ness in the open air, it is 
entirely consumed. When 
exposed to the direct rays of 
the sun, or to candlelight, 
especially when cut, it exhi- 
bits a most beautiful play of 
colours ; the lustre is splen- 
did, and of a peculiar kind. 
Though harder than any other 
substance in nature, it is not 
difficult to break it by a blow. 
A diamond of one carat is 
said to be worth 8 sterling, 
and to increase in value ac- 
cording to the square of the 
weight. The largest diamond 

tnown to exist was in the 
possession of the great mo- 
jul. It is about the size and 
form of half of a hen's egg. 

The one purchased by the 
Empress Catharine II., of 
Russia, is without flaw or 
fault of any kind, and resem- 
bles a pigeon's egg flattened. 
The engraving and setting of 
precious stones was an" art 
quite familiar to the Egyp- 
tians. See Exodus xxviii, 
1 1-21 . And because no tool 
can be found to engrave the 
hardest substance in nature, 
it is supposed that the dia- 
mond was unknown in the 
days of Moses. 

word occurs four times in the 
Scriptures, and signifies to 
determine, appoint, or decree 
any thing beforehand. In 
Eph. i, 5, it refers to God's 
predetermination to bestow 
on the Gentiles the blessings 
mentioned in that place. Dr. 
Macknight says, the Jews 
were sons, because they 
sprang from Isaac, who was 
called God's son, on account 
of his supernatural birth. 
They had this appellation 
likewise, because they were 
God's visible Church and peo- 
ple. Hence the adoption is 
mentioned as one of their 
national privileges, Rom. ix, 
4 ; wherefore the adoption of 
sons, to which believers are 
predestinated through Christ, 
is their being delivered from 
the power of Satan, and made 
members of the Church of 
God by faith, and their being 
raised at the end of the world 




to live with God, their Father, 
in heaven for ever. Because 
the Jews denied that the pri- 
vilege of election and adoption 
belonged to the Gentiles, the 
apostle in this chapter stren- 
uously maintained their title 
to these privileges in common 
with the Jews. 

The subjects of predesti- 
nation mentioned in Romans 
viii, 29, are those who believe. 
As God justifies or pardons 
those who believe, and admits 
persevering believers to final 
glory, so all such are the 
subjects of his predetermina- 
tion. .God does not prede- 
termine that certain persons 
shall believe and obey ; but 
he predetermines that those 
who believe and obey shall 
enjoy the pardon of sin and 
final glory. 

word in the New Testament 
is used in the Jewish sense, 
for the da}' or hours which 
precede the Sabbath ; the eve 
of the Sabbath, or any other 
festival, when preparation 
was made for the celebration, 
Matt, xxvii, 62. " Feet shod 
with preparation" Eph. vi, 15. 
Robinson translates, shod as 
to your feet with readiness, 
alacrity, in behalf of the Gos- 
pel, i. e., let your feet be ever 
ready to go forth to preach the 

ship ; the body of officers in 
the primitive church, to whom 
were committed the direction 
and government of individual 
churches, 1 Tim. iv, 4. 

PRESENCE. The pre- 

sence of the Lord is that 
luminous cloud with which 
the Lord-will be surrounded 
when he comes to judge the 
world. But, in the Old Tes- 
tament, it is termed the face 
of God. See 2 Thess. i, 9. 
This glory, or fiery shining 
cloud, appeared to the patri- 
archs, when the Deity was 
pleased to make them sen- 
sible of his presence. In par- 
ticular, this glory appeared 
to Moses in the bush, and 
on Mount Sinai at the giving 
of the law. Hence he is said 
to have conversed with God 
face to face, Exod. xxxiii, 11. 
It accompanied -the Jews in 
their journeyings from Egypt, 
and through the wilderness, 
in the form of a pillar of fire. 
On these occasions its bright- 
ness was softened by the cloud 
which attended it. When it 
appeared, to Saul on the road 
to Damascus, it shone with 
a brightness above that of the 
sun . B ut in its greatest splen- 
dour it cannot be looked on 
with mortal eyes. Hence it 
is called, 1 Tim. vi, 16, the 
light which no man can ap- 

xv, 16, a place or court where 
causes were heard by the 
pretor, or any other chief 
magistrate. This place might 
be termed in English the court 

PREVENT, to hinder; 
this is now its only significa- 
tion ; but when our transla- 
tion was made, it had-a mean- 
ing which it now has in every 
part of the Bible, i. e., to anti- 





cipate ; to get before another 
in a race or journey So 
1 Thess. iv, J5. 

PRIDE, thinking hi 
of ourselves, and looking with 
disdain upon others. This 
word is often connected with 
the accessory notion of, im- 
piety, ungodliness ; as else- 
where gentleness^ and humi- 
lity include also the idea of 
piety, Jer. xlviii, 29. 

PRIEST, a general name 
for the minister of religion. 
The priest under the law was, 
among the Hebrews, a person 
consecrated and ordained of 
God to offer up sacrifices for 
his own sins and those of the 
people, Lev. iv, 5, 6. The 
priesthood was not annexed 
to a certain family till after 
the promulgation of the law 
of Moses. Before that time 
the first-born of every family, 
the fathers, the princes, the 
kings were priests. But af- 
ter the 'Lord had chosen the 
tribe of Levi to serve him in 
his tabernacle, and the priest- 
hood was annexed to the fa- 
mily of Aaron, then the right 
of offering sacrifices to God 
was reserved to the priests 
alone of this family God 
having reserved to himself 
the first-born of all Israel, be- 
cause he had preserved them 
from the hand, of the destroy- 
ing angel in Egypt, by way 
of exchange or compensation 
accepted of the tribe of Levi 
for the service of the taber- 
nacle, Num. iii, 41. Of the 
three sons of Levi, Gershon, 
Kohath, aud-Merari, the Lord 
chose the family of Kohath, 

and out of this the house of 
Aaron, to exercise the func- 
tions of the priesthood. All 
the rest of the family of Ko- 
hath, even the children of 
Moses and their descend- 
ants, remained of the order 
of mere Levites. See LE- 

The posterity of the sons 
of Aaron, namely, El-e-a'zar, 
and Ith'a-mar, Lev. x, 1-5; 
1 Chrbn. xxiv, 1, 2, had so in- 
creased in number in the time 
of David that they were divid- 
ed into twenty-four classes, 
which officiated a week at 
a time, alternately. Sixteen 
classes were of the family 
of Eleazar, and eight of the 
family of Ithamar. Each class 
obeyed its own ruler. The 
class Jojarib was the first 
in order, and the class A-bi'a 
was the eighth, Luke i, 5; 

1 Ghron. xxiv, 3-19. This 
division of the priesthood was 
continued as a permanent ar- 
rangement after the time of 
David, 2 Chron. viii, 14 ; xxxi, 

2 ; xxxv, 4, 5. Indeed; al- 
though only four classes re- 
turned from the captivity, 
the distinction between them, 
and also the ancient- names, 
were still retained, Ezra ii, 

Aaron, the_high priest, was 
set apart to his office by the 
same ceremonies with which 
his sons the priests' were, 
with this exception, that the 
former was clothed in his 
robes, and the sacred oil was 
poured upon his head, Exod. 
xxix, 5-9. 

It was not customary for 




the priests to wear the sacer- 
dotal dress, except when per- 
forming their official duties, 
Exod. xxviii, 4, 43 ; Ezekiel 
xlii, 14 ; xliv, 19. 

The ordinary priests served 
immediately at the altar, of- 
fered sacrifices, killed and 
flayed them, and poured the 
blood at the foot of the altar, 
2 Chron. xxix, 34 ; xxxv, 11. 
They kept a perpetual fire 
burning upon the altar of 
burnt sacrifices, and in the 
lamps of the golden candle- 
stick that was in the sanctu- 
ary ; they prepared the loaves 
of show-bread, baked them, 
and changed them every Sab- 
bath-day. Every day, night, 
and morning, a priest, appoint- 
ed by casting lots at the be- 
ginning of the week, brought 
into the sanctuary a smoking 
censer, and set it upon the 
golden table, otherwise called 
the altar of perfumes, Luke 
i, 9. 

The term priest is most 
properly given to Christ, of 
whom the high priests under 
the law were types and fi- 
gures, he being the high priest 
especially ordained of God, 
wno, by the sacrifice of him- 
self, and by his intercession, 
opens the way to reconcilia- 
tion with God, Heb. viii, 17 ; 
ix, 1 1-25. The word is also 
applied to every true believer 
who is' enabled to offer up 
himself " a spiritual sacrifice 
acceptable to God through 
Christ," 1 Pet. ii, 5 ; Rev. i, 
6. But it is likewise impro- 
perly applied to Christian 
ministers, who "have no sacri- 

fices to offer ; unless, indeed, 
when it is considered as con- 
tracted from presbyter, which 
signifies an elder, and is the 
name given in the New Tes- 
tament to those who were ap- 
pointed to the office of teach- 
ing and ruling in the Church 
of God. 

PRISON. To prisons is 
compared whatever tends to 
restrict liberty, and to render 
one disgraced and wretched. 
It also denotes kell, the bot- 
tomless pit, as the prison of 
demons, and the souls of 
wicked men, Rev. xx, 7. 

-Christ went and preached 
by the ministry of Noah, and 
by the influence of the Holy 
Spirit, to the spirits that are 
now in prison, though not in 
prison when Christ preached 
to them, 1 Pet. iii, 19. 

PRIS-CIL'LA, a Chris- 
tian woman, well known in 
the Acts, and in St. Paul's 

PRIZE, that reward which 
was bestowed on victors in 
the public diversion of the 
Greeks ; such as a wreath, 
chaplet, garland, 1 Cor. ix, 24. 
Metaphorically, it is spoken 
of the rewards of virtue in a 
future life, Phil, iii, 14. The 
crowns for which the Greeks 
contended in the games were, 
for the most part, made of the 
leaves of trees, which, though 
evergreens, soon withered. 
Some of the crowns were of 
the wild olive, some of lawel, 
some of pines, and some of 
smallage, or parsley. The ho- 
nours, likewise, of which these 
crowns were the pledges, by 




length of time lost their agree- 
ableness, and at last perished, 
being all confined to the pre- 
sent life: but the crown of 
life is infinitely better it 
never fails, 1 Cor. ix, 25.. 
Hence running is a compari- 
son drawn from the public 
races and applied to Chris- 
tians, as expressing strenuous 
effort in the Christian life and 

PROFANE, applied an- 
ciently to persons not conse- 
crated, or to the uninitiated 
among the heathen, who were 
not allowed to be present at 
the sacred services. Profane 
things are common, unholy, 
unsanctified things, 1 Tim. 
iv, 7 ; " a profane 'person," 
Heb. xii, 16, is one who treats 
sacred things, with contempt, 
who despises spiritual bless- 
ings, and who, in the whole 
of has behaviour, shows that 
he has no sense of God nor 
of religion ; and therefore is 
ranked among the most atro- 
cious sinners. To profane a 
thing is to degrade it from a 
sacred to a common use. 
"The priests profane the Sab- 
bath," Matt, xii, 5, i. e., put 
it to what might be called a 
common use, by slaying and 
offering up sacrifices, and by 
doing the service of the tem- 
ple as on. common days. See 
Num. xxviii, 9. 

PROMISES. The apos- 
tles called the promises of 
the Gospel great, 2 Pet. i, 4, 
because the things promised 
are the grandest that can be 
conceivedby the human mind ; 
such as the pardon of sin, the 

favour of God, the return of 
Christ, the resurrection of 
the dead, the judgment, &c. 
He likewise calls them pre- 
cious, because of their effi- 
cacy to make us partakers 
of the Divine nature ; a pos- 
session more precious than 
all the riches in the universe. 
Sometimes promises signify 
the things which are promised; 
see Heb. xi, 13, 39, where the 
persons mentioned by the 
apostle lived in expectation 
of some future good, of some 
promised blessing. They ha 
bitually, by faith, looked for- 
ward to something which they 
did not attain in the present, 

PROPHECY, a foretell- 
ing of future events, predic- 
tion ; but including also from 
the Hebrew the idea of pro- 
phetic revelations, declara- 
tions, exhortations, and warn- 
ings, uttered by the prophets 
while acting under Divine 
influence, as ambassadors of 
God, and interpreters of his 
mind and will. In 1 Tim. i, 18, 
and iv, 14, prophecy seems to 
refer to the prophetic revela- 
tions or directions of the Holy 
Spirit, by which persons were 
designated as officers and 
teachers in the primitive 
church. See Robinson, Acts 
xiii, 2 ; comp. 1 -Cor. xiv, 24, 
31, with verse 30. 

The word also signifies that 
prophetic spiritual gift which 
was imparted to the primitive 
teachers of the Church, 1 Cor. 
xii, 10. 

Prophesying is the exercise 
of the prophetic office, the 




acting as an ambassador of 
God, and the interpreter of 
his mind and will, Rev. xi, 6. 

In the Old Testament, in 
several instances, it signifies 
to shout, to sing sacred songs, 
to praise God, while under a 
Divine influence. This is 
spoken of Saul, and of the 
sons of the prophets. See 
Gesenius, and compare 1 Chr. 
xxv, I, 2, 3, with 1 Sam. xix, 

The distinction between the 
prophecies of Scripture and 
the oracles of heathenism is 
marked and essential. In- the 
heathen oracles we cannot 
discern any clear and unequi- 
vocal tokens of genuine pro- 
phecy. Far from attempting 
to form any chain of prophe- 
cies, respecting 1 things far 
distant. as to time or place, 
or matters contrary to human 
probability, and requiring su- 
pernatural agency to effect 
them, the heathen priests and 
soothsayers did not even pre- 
tend to a systematic and con- 
nected plan. They hardly 
dared, indeed, to assume the 
prophetic character in its full 
force, but stood trembling, as 
it were, on the brink of futu- 
rity, conscious of their in- 
ability to venture beyond the 
depths of human conjecture. 
See ORACLES. The Scrip- 
ture prophecies, on the other 
hand, constitute a series of 
Divine predictions, relating 
principally to one grand ob- 
ject of universal importance, 
the work of man's redemp- 
tion, and carried on in regular 
progression through the patri- 

archal, Jewish, and Christian 
dispensations, with a bar 
mony and uniformity of de 
sign, clearly indicating one 
and the same Divine Author. 
They speak of the agents to 
be employed in it, and espe- 
cially of the great agent, the 
Redeemer himself; and of 
those mighty and awful pro- 
ceedings of Providence as to 
the nations of the earth, by 
which judgment and mercy 
are exercised with reference 
both to the ordinary princi- 
ples of moral government, and 
especially to this restoring 
economy, to its struggles, its 
oppositions, and its triumphs. 
They all meet in Christ, as in 
their proper centre. 

The advantage of this spe- 
cies, of evidence belongs then 
exclusively to our revelation. 
Heathenism never made any 
clear and well-founded pre- 
tensions to it. Mohammed- 
anism, though it stands itself 
as a- proof of the truth of - 
Scripture prophecy, is unsup 
ported by a single prediction 
of its own. 

The objection which has 
been raised to Scripture pro- 
phecy, from its supposed ob- 
scurity, has no solid founda- 
tion. There is, it- is true, a 
prophetic language of symbol 
and emblem,; but it is a lan- 
guage which is definite and 
not equivocal in its meaning, 
and as easily mastered as the 
language of poetry, by. atten- 
tive persons. This, however, 
is not always used. The style 
of the prophecies of Scripture 
very often differs in nothing 




from the ordinary style of the 
Hebrew poets ; and, in, not a 
few oases, and those too on 
which the Christian builds 
most in the argument, it sinks 
into the plainness of histori- 
cal narrative. 

The two great ends of pro- 
phecy are, to excite expecta- 
tion before the event, and 
then to confirm the truth by a 
striking and unequivocal ful- 
filment ; and it is a sufficient 
answer to the allegation of 
the obscurity of 'the prophe- 
cies of Scripture, that they 
have abundantly accomplish- 
ed" those objects among the 
most intelligent and investi- 
gating, as well as among the 
simple and unlearned, in all 
ages. It cannot be denied, 
for instance, leaving out par- 
ticular cases which might be 
given, that by means of these 
predictions the expectation of 
the incarnation and appear- 
ance of a Divine Restorer 
was kept up among the peo- 
ple to whom they were given, 
and spread even to the neigh- 
bouring nations ; that as these 
prophecies multiplied, the 
. nope became more intense ; 
and that at the time of our 
Lord's coming, the expecta- 
tion of the birth of a very ex- 
traordinary p.erson prevailed, 
not only among the, Jews, bul 
among other nations. This 
purpose was then sufficiently 
answered, and an answer is 
given to the objection. The 
second end of prophecy is to 
confirm the truth by the sub 
sequent event. See those 
which are exclusively appli 

able to our Saviour and were 
accomplished in him, Gen. 
xlix, 10 ; Isa. lii, v liii ; Dan. 
vii, 13, 14 ; Micah v, 2 ; Zech. 
ix, 9 ; Mai. Hi, 1. 

PROPHET, one who 
speaks from a Divine influ- 
ence, under inspiration, whe-~ 
ther as foretelling future 
events, or as exhorting, re- 
proving, threatening indivi- 
duals or nations, i. e., as the 
ambassador of God and the 
interpreter of his will to men. 
See 1 Cor. xiv, 3. With the 
Jewish use of the word pro- 
phet, there was also neces- 
sarily connected the idea that 
he spoke not his own thoughts, 
but what he received from 
God ; retaining, however, his 
own consciousness. This is 
evident from Exod. vii, 1 : 
" I have made thee a god to 
Pharaoh : and Aaron thy bro- 
ther shall be thy prophet" \. e., 
in your intercourse with Pha- 
raoh, thou, as the wiser, shall 
act, as it were, the part of 
God, and suggest to thy bro- 
ther what to say ; while thy 
brother, as more fluent of 
speech, shall be to thee as a 
prophet, and utter what he 
receives from thee ; compare 
chap, iv, 16. The idea of 
prophet .is also frequently 
taken in a wider sense, so as 
to -include any friend of God 
to whom God makes known 
his will ; as Abraham, Gen. 
xx, 7 ; and the patriarchs, Psa. 
cv, -15. There was a class 
of instructors or preachers in 
the primitive Church, called 
prophets, who were next in 
rank to the apostles, and be- 




fore the teachers, 1 Cor. xii, 
28. It would seem that pro- 
phet indicated one who taught 
by inspiration, and only so far 
as inspiration prompted and 
enabled him to teach. In the 
strict sense of the word, it 
was an office created and 
sustained by miraculous gifts. 
But teacher appears to have 
been an ordinary stated 
teacher; one who was so by 
official station, and who taught 
according to the degree of 
religious knowledge which he 
possessed. There were also 
frequently among the Israel- 
ites- false prophets, who pre- 
tended to have inspiration 
from God, flattered the ears 
of the people with bland pro- 
mises, and were therefore 
severely rebuked by the true 
prophets. See, for example, 
Jer. xiv, 13, 14. The word 
prophet is used for a poet, 
minstrel, spoken of the Greek 
poet Epimenides, Tit. i, 12. 
Poets were held to be in- 
spired of the muses. The 
above poet may well be call- 
ed prophet, the interpreter of 
the gods, one who explains 
obscure oracles, since he was 
reckoned among the seven 
wise men of Greece, and was 
sent for by Solon to aid in 
the preparation of his laws. 

Sons of the prophets were 
those who were educated for 
the prophetic office, and were 
disciples or pupils of the pro- 
phets, and were thereby qua- 
lified to be public teachers, 
which seems to have been 
part of the business of the 
prophets on the Sabbath days 

and festivals, 2 Kings iv, 23 , 
somewhat like ministers of 
the present day. Isaiah, Je- 
remiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel 
are called the greater pro- 
phets, from the size of their 
books, and the extent and 
importance of their prophe- 
cies. The others are called 
the minor or lesser prophets. 
The following is the order 
and time in which the prophe- 
cies were written, according 
to Mr. Home, which probably 
is nearly correct : 

Jonah, . . 
Amos, . . 
Hosea, . . 
Isaiah, . . 
Joel, . . 
Micah, . . 
Jeremiah, . 
Daniel, . . 



The classification of the 
prophets by Mr. Home assigns 
the first eight to the period 
before the Babylonian capti- 
vity ; the five next to a period 
near to and during the capti- 
vity ; and the last three after 
the return of the Jews from 

PROPHETESS. 1. Used for 
an ambassadress from God; 
one who speaks and acts from 
Divine influence, Judges iv, 
4 ; compare Rev, ii, 20 




2. Spoken of a female friend 
of God ; one who lives in com- 
munion with him, to whom 
God reveals himself by his 
Spirit, Luke ii, 26. Just as 
Abraham is called a prophet, 
Gen. xx, 7. 

3. A poetess, female min- 
strel, Exod. xv, 20. 

propitiate is to appease, to 
atone, to turn away the wrath 
of an offended person. In 
the case before us, the wrath 
turned away is the wrath of 
God ; the person making the 
propitiation is Christ ; the 
propitiation offering or sacri- 
fice is his blood. All this 
is expressed in most explicit 
terms in the following pas- 
sages : "And he is the pro- 
pitiation for our sins," 1 John 
ii, 2. "Herein is love, not 
that we loved God, but that 
he loved us, and sent his Son 
to be the propitiation for our 
sins," 1 John iv, 10. "Whom 
God hath set forth to be a 
propitiation through faith in 
his blood," Rom. iii, 25. 

This is in strict accordance 
with Eph. i, 7, " We have 
redemption through his blood, 
the remission of sins." It is 
only by his blood that Christ 
reconciles us to God. 

. It sufficiently proves that 
there is not only no implaca- 
bility in God, but a most ten- 
der and placable affection to- 
ward the sinning human, race 
itself, and that the Son of 
God, by whom the propitia- 
tion was made, was the free 
gift of the Father to us. This 

is the most eminent proof of 

liis love, that, for our sakes, 
and that mercy might be ex- 
tended to us, " he spared not 
his own Son ; but delivered 
him up freely for us all." 
Thus he is the fountain and 
first moving cause of that 
scheme of recoveiy and sal- 
vation which the incarnation 
and death of our Lord brought 
into full and efficient opera- 
tion. The true questions are, 
indeed, not whether God is 
love, or whether he is of a 
placable nature ; but whether 
God is'holy and just ; whe- 
ther we, his creatures, are 
under law or not; whether 
this law has any penalty, and 
whether God, in his rectoral 
character, is bound to execiite 
and uphold that law. As the 
justice of God is punitive, 
(and if it is not punitive, his 
laws are a dead letter,) then 
is there wrath in God ; then is 
God angry with the wicked ; 
then is man, as a sinner, ob- 
noxious to this anger ; and so 
a propitiation becomes neces- 
sary to turn it away from him. 
Nor are these terms unscrip- 
tural ; they are used in the 
New Testament as emphati- 
cally as in the Old; though 
the former is, in a special 
sense, a revelation of the 
mercy of God to man. John 
declares that, if any man be- 
lie veth not on the Son of 
-God, " the wrath of God abid- 
eth upon him ;" and St. Paul 
affirms, that " the wrath of 
God is revealed from heaven 
against all ungodliness and 
unrighteousness of men." 
The day of judgment is, with 




reference to the ungodly, said 
to be " the . day of wrath ;" 
God is called " a consuming 
fire ;" and, as such, -is the ob- 
ject of " reverence and godly 

Let men talk ever so much 
or eloquently of the pure bene- 
volence of God, they cannot 
abolish the facts recorded in 
the history of human suffering 
in this world as the effects of 
transgression ; nor can they 
discharge these fearful corn- 
minations from the pages of 
the book of God. These can- 
not be criticised away ; and 
if it is " Jesus who saves us 
from this wrath to come," 
that is, from those effects of 
the wrath of God which are 
to come, then, but for him, 
we should have been liable 
to them. That principle in 
God from which such effects 
follow, the Scriptures call 
wrath ; and they who deny 
the existence of wrath in God 
deny, therefore, the Scrip- 

It by no means follows, 
however, that this wrath is a 
passion in God ; " because we 
make the design of punish- 
ment not to be the satisfac- 
tion of anger as a desire of 
revenge, but to be the vin- 
dication of the honour and 
rights of the offended person 
by such a way as he himself 
shall judge satisfactory to 
the ends of his government." 
See Watson and ATONEME NT. 

PROSELYTE, properly 
" one who comes to another 
country or people ;" a stranger, 
sojourner ; in the New Testa- 

ment, a convert from Pagan 
ism to Judaism, Matt, xxiii, 
15. The same are called the 
devout, and men fearing God, 
A.cts xiii, 16, 50. 

The rabbins distinguish 
two kinds of proselytes, viz., 
proselytes of right, i. e., com- 
plete, perfect proselytes, who 
embraced the Jewish religion 
in its full extent, and enjoyed 
all the rights and privileges 
of Jewish citizenship. See 
Exod. xii, 48. 

And also proselytes of so- 
journing, called also prose- 
lytes of the gate, i. e., foreign 
ers dwelling among the Jews, 
who, without being circum- 
cised, conformed to certain 
Jewish laws and customs, 
especially those which the 
rabbins call the " seven pre- 
cepts of Noah," viz., to avoid 
blasphemy against God, idol- 
atry, homicide, incest, rob- 
bery, resistance to magis- 
trates, and the eating of 
blood or - things strangled. 
They frequented the syna- 
gogues with the Jews, and 
although they were at liberty 
to offer sacrifices to God in 
any place, they preferred vi- 
siting the temple of Jerusa- 
lem, and offered sacrifices 
through the priests. 

PROVENDER, fodder, 
meslin, for camels or asses, 
made up of various kinds of 
grain, as wheat, barley, vet- 
ches, and the like, all mixed 
together, and thus sown or 
given to cattle, Job vi, 5 ; 
perhaps chopped straw.barley, 
and beans, such as they still 
use for fodder in the East. 




PROVERBS, short aphor- 
isms, and sententious, moral, 
and prudential maxims, usu- 
ally expressed in numbers, 
or antithesis, as being more 
easily remembered, and of 
more use than abstruse and 
methodical discourses. 

The Proverbs of Solomon, 
on account of their intrinsic 
merit, as well as of the rank 
and renown of their author, 
were collected into one vo- 
lume, and constitute the book 
in- the sacred canon entitled, 
" The Proverbs of Solomon, 
the son of David, king of 
Israel." One portion of the 
book, from the twenty-fifth 
chapter to the end of the 
twenty-ninth, was compiled 
by the men of Hezekiah, as 
appears from the title prefixed 
to it. They were persons, 
however, as we may reason- 
ably suppo'se, well qualified 
for the undertaking, who col- 
lected what were known to 
be the genuine proverbs of 
Solomon, from the various 
writings in which they were 
dispersed, and arranged them 
in their present order. Whe- 
ther the preceding twenty- 
four chapters, whie~h, doubt- 
less, existed in a combined 
form previous to the addi- 
tional collection, were com- 
piled 'by the author, or some 
other person, is quite uncer- 

PSALM. A psalm is pro- 
perly a song sung to the music 
of the lyre, a lyric poem. The 
Psalms deserve the name of 
lyric on- account of their cha- 
racter as works of taste. The 

essence of lyric poetry is the 
mmediate expression of feei- 
ng ; and feeling is the sphere 
;o which most of the Psalms 
)elong. Pain, sorrow, fear, 
lope, joy, confidence, grati- 
;ude, submission to God ; 
every thing that moves and 
elevates the soul is expressed 
.n these hymns. Most of 
;hem are the warm outpour- 
ng of the excited, suscffptible 
leart; the fresh offering of 
inspiration and elevation of 
thought, while only a few ' 
seem like the colder produc- 
tions of artificial imitation, 
and a few others are simply 
forms of prayer, temple hymns, 
and collections of proverbs. 
Among all the books of the 
Bible, there is, perhaps, no 
one so rich in piety as the 
Psalms. It is the great foun- 
tain and source of religious 
experience ; and on this ac- 
count worthy of very special 
attention in all inquiries into 
the history of religion. They 
are the productions of dif- 
ferent persons, but are ge- 
nerally called the Psalms of 
David, because a great part of 
them were composed by him, 
and David himself is distin- 
guished by the name of the 
Psalmist. We cannot now 
ascertain all the Psalms writ- 
ten by David, but their num- 
ber probably exceeds seventy ; 
and much less are we able to 
discover the authors of the 
other Psalms, or the occa- 
sions upon which they were 
composed. A few of them 
were written after the return 
from the Babylonian captivity. 




It is supposed they were col- 
lected into one book by Ezra, 
without any regard to chro- 
nological order. 

Dr. Robinson, says, that 
many of the inscriptions can- 
not well be genuine ; and 
therefore the others become 
suspicious. We "cannot rely 
upon any one when it does 
not accord with the contents 
of th Psalm ; perhaps mostly 
out of the exile, or not long 
after it. Some have classi- 
fied the Psalms according to 
their contents, viz., 1. Hymns 
in praise of Jehovah. These 
express thoughts of the high- 
est sublimity in respect to 
God, e. g., Psa. civ. 2. Tem- 
ple hymns ; sung at the con- 
secration of the temple, the 
entrance of the ark, or in- 
tended for the temple service ; 
so also pilgrim songs, sung by 
those who came up to worship 
in the temple, e. g., the so 
called songs of degrees, Psa. 
cxxii. 3. Religious and moral 
songs of a general character, 
containing the poetical ex- 
pression of emotions and feel- 
ings, Psa. xvi. 4. Elegiac 
Psalms, i. e., lamentations, 
Psalms of complaint; gene- 
rally united with prayer for 
help, e. g., Psa. lii. 5. Odes 
to kings, patriotic hymns, e. g., 
Psa. xlv, and Ixii. 6. Histo- 
rical Psalms, in which the 
ancient history of the Israel^ 
ites is repeated in a hortatory 
manner, e. g,, Psa. Ixxviii. 

PSALTERY, an instru- 
ment of music used by the 
Hebrews, supposed to be that 
species of lyre which is fre- 

quently found on ancient mo- 
numents, and in connection 
with the .statues of Apollo, 
called the harp of Apollo; the 
form of which is represented 
by Fig. 1. and 2. See Musi- 

PTOLEMAIS, a maritime 
city of Palestine belonging to 
Galilee, on the bay north of 
Mount Carmel, Acts xxi, 7 ; 
same as Accho. 

PUBLICAN, a. toll-ga- 
therer, a collector of customs. 
The office of collector among 
the Greeks and Romans was 
usually sold out ; and among 
the Romans, the purchasers 
were chiefly of the equestrian 
order, or at least persons of 
wealth and rank, like Zac- 
cheus, one of the principal 
receivers, since he is call- 
ed chief among the publicans, 
Luke xix, 2. But these had 
sub-contractors, or employed 
agents, who collected the 
taxes and customs -at the 
gates of cities, in seaports, 
onjmblic ways, bridges, &c. 
These,, too, were called pub- 
licans ; and in countries sub- 
ject to the Roman yoke they 
were objects of hatred and 
detestation ; so that none but 
persons of the lowest rani 
and worthless character were 
likely to be found in this em- 
ployment. And, besides, the 
Jews looked upon them as 
the instruments of their sub- 
jection to the Romans, to 
whom they generally held it 
sinful for them to submit. 
They considered it as incom- 
patible with their liberty to 
pay tribute to any foreign 




power, Luke xx, 22 ; and 
those of their, own nation that 
engaged: in this employment 
they regarded as heathens, 
Matt. xviii.i 17. It is even 
said, that they would not al- 
low them to enter into their 
temple or synagogues, nor to 
join in prayers, nor even al- 
low their evidence in a court 
of justice ; nor would they 
accept of their offerings in 
the temple. . 

It appears by the Gospel 
that there were many publi- 
cans in Judea at the time of 
our Saviour. 

PUBLIUS, a wealthy in- 
habitant of Malta, Acts xxviii, 
7, 8. 

PUL, (rhymes with dull,') 
king of Assyria, about 774- 
759 B. C., 2 Kings xv, 19. 
He was the first monarch of 
that nation who invaded Is- 
rael, and began their trans- 
portation out of their own 

PULSE, a term applied to 
those grains or seeds which 
grow in pods, as beans, peas, 
and vetches. 

ral punishment among the 
Hebrews may be limited to 
one kind, viz., the infliction 
of blows with a rod, or scourg- 
ing, Deut. xxv, 23 ; the dig- 
nity or high standing of the 
person who had rendered him- 
self liable to this punishment, 
could not excuse him from 
its being inflicted. It is prac- 
tised at the present day in 
the East;, with this differ- 
ence, however, that the stripes 
were formerly inflicted on the 

back, but now on the soles of 
the feet. ; 

The more recent Jews, 
from their great fear, lest, 
from any circumstance, the 
stripes might exceed the .num- 
ber prescribed, fixed it at 
thirty-nine instead of forty, 
which were inflicted in their 
synagogues, Matt, x, 17. Cri- 
minals who had committed 
homicide were punished, as 
we may learn, as far back as 
Gen. ix, 6, with death. But 
the mode in which the punish- 
ment was inflicted is not there 
stated. . The execution de- 
volved on the brother or other 
nearest relation of the person 
whose life had been taken 
away. In case he did not 
slay the guilty person, he was 
considered infamous. Ston- 
ing was a mode of effecting 
the punishment of death, au- 
thorized by the laws of Moses. 
Stoning was practised like- 
wise among many other, an- 
cient nations, Josh, vii, 25 ; 
John viii, 7. The process 
was commenced by the wit- 
nesses themselves, whose 
example was followed, and 
the punishment rendered com- 
plete by the people, Deut. 

P UNON, a city of Idumea, 
between Petra. and Zoan. ce- 
lebrated for its mines, Num. 
xxxiii, 42. 

PUR, a Persian word, 
which signifies lot, a die ; ex- 
plained Esther iii, 7. The 
festival of Pitrim was cele- 
brated by the Jews in memory 
of the events recorded in :the 
book of Esther, on the four 




teenth and fifteenth days of 
the, month Adar. 


PURIFY, to render pure ; 
in a moral sense, to reform, 
James iv, 8. " To purify 
one's self," John xi, 55, is to 
prepare one's self by purifica- 
tion for the sacred festivals ; 
which was done among the 
Jews by visiting the temple, 
offering up prayers, abstain- 
ing from certain kinds of 
food, washing the clothes, 
bathing, shaving the head, &c. 
It also signifies to live like one 
under a vow of abstinence, i. e,, 
like a Nazarite, Acts xxi, 
24, 26 ; xxiv, 18. The Jews 
were accustomed, when un- 
der a vow of this kind, to 
abstain for a certain time 
from' the better sorts of food, 
to let theii hair grow, to keep 
themselves from all pollution, 
&c. And when this time had 
expired, they were freed from 
the obligation of their vow by 
a particular sacrifice. 

PURPLE, a precious co- 
lour obtained from a species 
of shell-fish or muscles, found 
on the coasts of the Mediter- 
ranean, which yields a red- 
dish purple die, much prized 
by the ancients. 

Purple is also any thing 
died with purple, as purple 
clothes or robes, worn by per- 
sons of rank and wealth, Luke 
xvi, 19. The purple roj>e put 
on pur Saviour, John xix, 2, 
5, is explained by a Roman 
custom, the dressing of a per- 
son in the robes of state, as 
the investiture of office. In 

Acts xvi, 14, Lydia is said to 
be " a seller of purple." Mr. 
Harmer styles purple the most 
sublime of all earthly colours, 
having the gaudiness of red, 
of which it retains a shade, 
softened with the gravity of 

PUT, Nahum iii, 9, was 
an African tribe, probably 
dwelling near Carthage. 

PATE'O-LI, now called 
Puzzuoli, a maritime town of 
Italy, on the northern shore 
of the Bay of Naples, not far 
distant from the latter city. 
It was a favourite place of 
resort for the Romans, on ac- 
count of the adjacent mineral 
waters and hot baths ; and its 
harbour was defended by a 
celebrated mole, the remains 
of which are still to be seen. 
Here Paul landed on his way 
to Rome, Acts xxviii, 13. 

PYGARG. This is pro- 
perly the name of a species 
of eagle, but is applied in 
Deut. xiv, 5, to a quadruped, 
apparently a species of gazelle 
or antelope, 

QUAIL. , This beautiful 
bird is nearly allied to the 
partridge, differing only in 
being smaller, and having a 
more delicate beak, shorter 
tail, and no spur on the legs. 
Its note is very similar to the 
words " Sob White," accom- 
panied with a whistling sound. 
Scarcely any of the feathered 
tribe appear to have so strong 
local attachments as the Ame- 
rican quail ; but the quail of 
Europe and Asia is a bird of 
passage. It is spread overthe 




whole of the old world, and 
they are found in immense 
flocks on the coast of the Me- 
diterranean and Red Seas. 

When God by a miracle 
Brought such vast quantities 
to the camp of the Israelites, 
it is said they were "two 
cubits high upon the face^of 
the earth," Num. xi, 31. We 
may consider the quails as 
flying within two cubits of 
the ground; so that the Is- 
raelites could easily take as 
many of them as they wished 
while flying within the reach 
of their hands or- their clubs ; 
and it is in this that the mi- 
racle consists,, that they were 
Drought so seasonably to this 

Elace, and in so great a nutn- 
er, as to furnish food for 
above a million of persons for 
more than a month. 

QUATERNION, four to- 
gether, a detachment of four 
men, the usual number of a 
Roman night-watch, relieved 
every three hours, Acts xii, 4. 
Peter was therefore, guarded 
by four men at a time, two 
within the prison and two 
before the doors, making in 
all sixteen men. 

QUEEN, the king's wife, 
2 Kings x, 13, also the king's 
mother. This sets in its pro- 
per light the interference of 
the " queen," in the story of 
Belshazzar, Dan. v, 10, who, 
by her reference to former 
events, appears not to have 
been any of the wives of the 
king ; neither indeed could 
any of his wives have come 
to that banquet. See Esther 
iv, 16. As the sun was call- 

ed the king, so the moon was 
called the QUEEN op HEA 
TEN, found only in Jer. vii, 
18'; and xliv r 17-25. This . 
goddess, which the Israelitish 
women worshipped," is either 
the moon, or Astarte, i. e., the 
planet Venus. The worship 
of this deity was common in 
Palestine before its occupa- 
tion by Moses. Hence the 
command to cut down the 
groves, Exod. xxxiv, 13, which 
were consecrated to her. 

QUENCH, to put out, ex- 
tinguish a fire, in 2 Samuel 
xiv, 7, " Quench my coal which 
is left ;" a coal, as being kept 
in order to preserve fire, is 
put for the last hope or scion, 
of a race or family ; and to 
quench the coal, destroy the 
family from among the peo- 
ple ; so likewise David was 
regarded as the light of the 
nation, by which all Israel 
was guided, 2 Sam. xxi, 17. 

Quench is also taken figu- 
ratively, and signifies to damp, 
to hinder, to repress ; to pre- 
vent any thing from exerting 
its full influence, 1 Thess. 
v, 19. 

QUICK, a word which we 
have retained from the Saxon, 
our ancient mother tongue, 
and signifies living. By the 
quick and the dead, Acts x, 
42, we are to understand 
all that shall be found alive 
at the day of judgment, and 
all that shall have died pre- 

xxvii, 17 ; sand banks drawn, 
together by currents of the 
sea, dangerous io navigation. 




Two gulfs with quicksands 
on the northern coast of Af- 
rica were particularly famous 
among the ancients ; one was 
between Gyrene and Leptis, 
and the other near Carthage. 

QUIT, to be free from an 
obligation or oath, Josh, ii, 20. 
It is used in another sense, 
when Christians are com- 
manded to " quit themselves 
like men," 1 Cor. xvi, 13. 
They were not to act like 
children tossed about with 
eveiy wind of doctrine, but 
like good soldiers to act the 
firm and manly part. 

QUIVER, a box or case 
for arrows, which was slung 
over the shoulder in such a 
position that the marksman 
could draw out the arrows 
when wanted ; the small part 
of the quiver being down ward, 
Gen. xxvii, 3. 

RAAMSES, fie same as 

RABBI, a Hebrew word, the 
same as doctor, teacher, mas- 
ter, a title of honour in the 
Jewish schools, continued 
also in modern times. This 
was introduced as a title into 
the Jewish schools 'under a 
threefold form, viz., Rab, as 
the lowest degree of honour ; 
Rabbi, i. e., my master, of 
higher dignity ; and Rabboni, 
q. d., my great master, the 
most honourable of all ; which 
was publicly given to only 
seven persons, all of the school 
of Hillel, and of great 'emi- 
nence. It was on this ac- 
count, it should seem, that 
the blind man gave this title 

to Christ, Mark-x, 51 ; being 
convinced that he was pos- 
sessed of Divine power, and 
worthy of the most honour- 
able distinctions. And Mary 
Mag-da-le'ne, when she saw 
Christ after his resurrection, 
" said unto him, Rabboni," 
John xx, 16, that is, my rab- 
ban, like my lord in English ; 
for rabbon is the same with 
rabban, only pronounced ac- 
cording to the Syriac dialect; 

RAB BAH, great city, the 
capital of the Ammonites, si- 
tuated beyond Jordan, near 
the source of the Arnon, Deut. 
iii, 11 ; where the brave 
Uriah lost his life by a secret 
order of his prince, 2 Sam. 
xi, 17. It is now called Am- 
mpn, and is about fifteen 
miles south-east of Szalt, a 
strong town of Syria, where 
extensive ruins are found. 

RABSHAKEH, a military 
chief under Sennacherib, 2 
Kings xviii, 17. 

RAC A, a Syriac word, 
which properly signifies emp- 
ty, vain, beggarly, foolish, and 
which includes, in it a strong 
idea of contempt. Our Sa- 
viour pronounces a censure 
on every person using this 
term to his neighbour, Matt, 
v, 22. Lightfoot assures us 
that, in the writings of the 
Jews, the word raca is a term 
of the utmost contempt, and 
that it was usual to pronounce 
it with marked signs of indig- 

RACHAB, Matt. i,5,most 
probably the same with Ra- 
hab, of Jericho ; for Naasson, 
the father of Salmon, was the 




leader of the tribe of Judah at ! 
the breaking up from Mount 
Sinai, (Num. x, 14; compare 
verse 11, and on,) and there- 
fore Salmon, his son, the hus- 
band of Rachab, would be 
cotemporary with the fall of 
Jericho, about forty years 

RACHEL, ewe-lamb, the 
younger wife of Jacob, and 
mother of Joseph and Benja- 
min. The Prophet Jeremiah 
(xxxi, 15) introduces Rachel, 
whose 'sepulchre seems to 
have been not far from Ra- 
mah, (Gen. xxxv, 19; 1 Sam. 
x, .2,) as bewailing the cap- 
tivity of her descendants, i. e., 
of Ephraim, as the represent- 
ative of the -ten tribes. A 
similar use is made -of her 
name by the Evangelist Mat- 
thew, (ii, 18,) where she is 
supposed to rene w her lament- 
ations at the slaughter of so 
many of her descendants as 
fell under the barbarous edict 
of Herod. 

RAHAB. 1. A poetical 
name for Egypt, Isa. li, 9. 
2. The harlot, so called on 
account of her former way of 
life. But after she believed 
in the true God, it is reasona- 
ble to think she amended her 
manners, as well as repented 
of the lie by which she de- 
ceived the king of Jericho's 
messengers. For that faith 
in the true God which made 
her hazard, her life in receiv- 
ing and concealing the spies, 
must, when she attained to 
more knowledge.have wrought 
in her a thorough reformation. 
See James ii 25. 

RAIMENT. The dress 
of oriental nations, to which 
the inspired writers often al- 
lude, has undergone almost 
no change from the earliest 
times. Their stuffs were fa- 
bricated of various materials ; 
but wool was generally used 
in their finer fabrics ; and the 
.hair of goats, camels, and 
even of horses, was manufac- 
tured for coarser purposes, 
especially for sackcloth,which 
they wore in time of mourn- 
ing and distress. Sackcloth 
of black goats' hair was ma- 
nufactured for mournings ; the 
colour and the coarseness of 
which being reckoned more 
suitable to the circumstances 
of the wearer than the finer 
and more valuable texture 
which the hair of white goats 
supplied. This is the reason 
why a clouded sky is repre- 
sented, in the bold figurative 
language of Scripture, as 
covered with sackcloth and 
blackness, the colour and 
dress of persons in affliction. 
The beauty of their clothes 
consisted in the fineness and 
colour of the stuffs ; and it 
seems the colour most in use 
among the Israelites, as well 
as among the Greeks and 
Romans, was white, not im- 
parted and improved by the 
dier's art, but the native co- 
lour of the wool, Eccles. ix, 
8. See COLOUR. Blue was a 
colour in great esteem among 
the Jews, and other oriental 

The Jewish nobles and 
courtiers, upon great and so- 
lemn occasions, appeared in 




scarlet robes, died, not as at 
present with madder, with 
cochineal, or with any modern 
tincture, but with a shrub, 
whose red berries give an 
orient tinge to the cloth ; 
sometimes they wore purple, 
the most sublime of all earthly 
colours, says Mr. Harmer, 
having the gaudiness of red, 
of which it retains a shade, 
softened with the gravity of 
blue. The children of wealthy 
and noble families were dress- 
ed in vestments of different 
colours. This mark of dis- 
tinction may be traced to the 
patriarchal age ; for Joseph 
was arrayed, by his indulgent 
and imprudent father, in a 
coat of many colours. A robe 
of divers colours was ancient- 
ly reserved for the king's 
daughters who were virgins ; 
and in one of these was Ta- 
mar, the virgin daughter of 
David, arrayed, when she was 
met by her brother. 

In the east, where the peo- 
ple are by no means given to 
change, the form of their gar- 
ments continues nearly the 
same from one age to another. 
The greater part of their 
clothes are long and flowing, 
loosely cast about the body, 
consisting only of a large 
piece of cloth, in the cutting 
and sewing of which very 
little art or industry is em- 
ployed. They have more dig- 
nity and - gracefulness than 
.ours, and are better adapted 
to the burning climates of 
Asia. From the simplicity 
of their form, and their loose 
adaptation to the body, the 

same clothes might be worn, 
with equal ease and conve- 
nience, by many different 
persons. The clothes -of 
those Philistines whom Sam- 
son slew at Askelon required 
no altering to fit his compa- 
nions ; nor the robe of Jona- 
than, to answer his friend. 
The arts of weaving and full- 
ing seem to have^been dis- 
tinct occupations in Israel, 
from a very remote period, in 
consequence of the various - 
and skilful operations wjhich. 
were necessary to bring their 
stuffs to a suitable degree of 
perfection ; but when the 
weaver and the fuller had 
finished their part, the labour 
was nearly at an end : no 
distinct artisan was necessary 
to make them into clothes . 
every family seems to have 
made their own. Sometimes, 
however, this part of the work 
was performed in the loom ; 
for they had the art of weav- 
ing robes with sleeves all of 
one piece : of this kind was 
the coat which our Saviour 
wore during his abode with 
men. The loose dresses of 
these countries, when the arm 
is lifted up, expose its whole 
length : to this circumstance 
the Prophet Isaiah refers : 
" To whom is the arm of the 
Lord revealed?" that is, un- 
covered : who observes that 
he is about to exert the arm 
of his power? 

The ancient Jews very sel- 
dom wore any covering upon 
the head, except when they 
were in mourning, or worship- 
ping in the temple, or in the 




synagogue. To pray with the 
head covered was, m their 
estimation, a higher mark of 
respect for the majesty of 
Heaven, as it indicated the 
conscious unworthiness of 
the suppliant to lift up his 
eyes in the Divine presence. 
Their legs were generally 
bare ; and they never wore 
any thing upon the feet but 
soles fastened in different 
ways, according to the taste 
or fancy of the wearer. It 
may be observed, that to make 
presents of changes of rai- 
ment, Gen. xlv, 22, has al- 
ways been common among all 
ranks of orientals. The per- 
fuming of raiment with sweet- 
scented spices or extracts is 
also still a custom, which ex- 
plains the smell of Jacob's 
raiment. A coat or robe of. 
many colours, such as Jacob 
gave to Joseph, is also a mark 
of distinction. 

RAIN. The descent of 
water in drops from the clouds, 
or the water thus falling. 
When it falls in very small 
particles, we call it mist, and 
fog is- composed of particles 
so, fine as to be not only in- 
distinguishable, but to float 
or be suspended in the air. 
We read in James v, 7, of the 
early and latter rain, the for- 
mer in the climate of Pales- 
tine, where rains come in 
regular course, falling in the 
first, and the latter in the last 
part of the year. The early 
rain falls from the middle of 
October until the middle of 
December, and prepares the 
ground for receiving the seed. 

The latter rain falls in the 
months ,of March and April, 
before the harvest, Deut. xi, 

14. - . 

From the middle of April, 
which is the time of harvest, 
to the middle of September, 
there is neither rain nor thun- 
der, Prov. xxvi, 1 ; 1 Sam. 
xii, 17. Sometimes in the 
latter half of April, i. e., the 
beginning of the harvest, a 
cloud is perceived in the 
morning, which, as the sun 
rises, gradually disappears, 
Hosea vi, 4. But in the 
month of May, June, July, 
and August, not a cloud is 
seen, and the earth is not wet, 
except by the dew, which is, 
therefore, everywhere used 
as the symbol of the Divine 
benevolence, Job xxix, 19; 
Mic. v, 7. If at this season 
of the year fire get among Jhe 
dry herbs and grass, a wide 
conflagration ensues, Psalm 
Ixxxiii, 14 ; Jer. xxi, 14. See 

RAINBOW, Gen, ix, 13, 
a bow or an arch of a circle, 
consisting of all the colours 
formed by the refraction and 
reflection of rays of light from 
drops of rain or vapour, ap- 
pearing in the part of the he- 
misphere opposite to the sun. 
When the sun is at the hori 
zon,.the rainbow is a semi- 

RAM, a battering ram, 
Ezek. iv, 2. This was a 
warlike machine, used for 
making a breach in the walls 
of . cities, constructed of a 
long beam of strong wood, 
usually oak, armed with a 




mass of heavy metal, in the 
shape of a ram's head, and 
suspended by ropes, in equi- 
librium, so that a compara- 
tively small force would im- 
pel it with vast effect against 
a fortification. 


RAMESES, an Egyptian 
city, probably the chief city 
of the land of Goshen, built, 
or at least fortified, by the la- 
bour of the Israelites, the 
same as Hero-op' oils, which is 
about forty miles from Suez, 
and near the canal connecting 
that city with the Nile. The 
word appears also to be given 
to the whole province, where 
the Israelites dwelt ; Rame- 
ses is the Egyptian name, 
while Goshen would seem to 
be the Hebrew appellation. 
See Gen. xlvii, 11. 

RAMOTH, a famous city 
in the mountains of Gilead. 
Jt is often called Ramoth-Gi- 
lead. The city belonged to 
the tribe of Gad. It was as- 
signed for a dwelling of the 
Levites, and was .one of the 
cities of refuge beyond Jor- 
dan, Josh, xx, 8 ; xxi, 38. 
RANSOM, the fine or price 
which is paid for the setting 
free of a captive or slave. 
" Christ gave his soul a ran- 
soin for many," Mark x, 45, 
i. e., as a ransom for the de- 
liverance of many, especially 
from the consequences of sin 
and guilt. See REDEMPTION. 

RAVEN, a sagacious and 
beautiful bird, often domesti- 
cated,' and capable of being 
taught, distinguished from the 

common crow fay being some- 
what larger, and the bill a 
little curved. The blackness 
of the raven is proverbial, 
Song v, II. It feeds on car- 
rion, and is therefore un- 

REBEKAH, the sister of 
Laban, and wife of Isaac. 
The circumstances of her 
marriage constitute one of the 
most simple and beautiful 
passages of sacred history. 
See Gen. xxiv. She died 
before Isaac, and was buried 
in Abraham's tomb, Gen. xlix, 
31. See JACOB. 

RECEIPT (reseat) oc- 
curs in the passage, at the re- 
ceipt of custo-m, Matt. r ix, 9. 
The toll or custom-house, the 
collector's office, built in the 
most public places, where 
taxes were received which 
were paid for the maintenance 
and expenses of the state. 

RECHABITES, the de- 
scendants of Rechab, 2 Kings 
x, 15, 23, who were bound by 
a vow ever to follow the no- 
madic life, i. e., shepherds of 
the desert, wandering about 
without any fixed habitation. 
These people are to be reckon- 
ed with the proselytes to the 
Jewish nation. They enter- 
ed the promised land with the 
Hebrews, dwelt in the tribe 
of Judah about the Dead Sea, 
and were distinguished from 
the Israelites by their retired 
life, and by their dislike of 
cities and houses. 

Rechab, their founder, es- 
tablished a rule for his poste- 
rity, that they should possess 




neither land nor houses, but 
should live in tents ; and 
should drink no wine nor 
strong drink. In obedience 
to this rule, the Rechabites 
continued a separate but 
peaceable people, living in 
tents, and removing from 
place to place, as circum- 
stances required. When Ju- 
dea was invaded by Nebu- 
chadnezzar, they fled to Je- 
rusalem for safety, where it 
pleased God, by the Prophet 
Jeremiah, to exhibit them to 
the wicked inhabitants of Je- 
rusalem, as an example of 
constancy in their obedience 
to the mandates of an earthly 
father, Jer. xxxv, 2-19. They 
still exist in the mountainous 
tropical country of the north- 
east of Medina, in Arabia, 
distinct, free, and practising 
exactly the institutions of the 
man whose name they bear, 
and of whose institutions they 
boast. This is a remarkable 
instance of the exact fulfil- 
ment of a minute and isolated 

nifies, 1, restoration to the 
Divine favour. The state of 
mankind by nature is that of 
enmity, dissatisfaction, and 
disobedience ; but by the 
sufferings and merit of Christ 
they are reconciled to Godj 
i. e., brought into that state 
in which pardon is offered to 
them, and they have it in 
their power to render them- 
selves capable of that pardon, 
viz., by laying down their en- 
mity. Signifies, 2, the means 
by which sinners are recon- 

ciled and brought into favour 
with God, viz., the atonement, 
expiation, Dan. ix, 34 ; Heb. 
ii, 17. 

"If the casting away of them 
be the reconciling of the 
world," Rom. xi, 15, i. e., be 
the means, occasion of recon- 
ciling the world to God. Gro- 
tius observes that, in heathen 
authors, men's being recon- 
ciled to their gods is always 
understood to signify appeas- 
ing the anger of their gods. 
Condemned rebels may be 
said to be reconciled to their 
sovereign, when he, on one 
consideration or another, par- 
dons them; though perhaps 
they still remain rebels in 
their, hearts against him. And 
when our Lord ordered the 
offender to go .and be recon- 
ciled to his offended brother, 
Matthew v, 23, 24, the plain 
meaning is, that he should go 
and try to appease his anger, 
obtain his forgiveness, and 
regain his favour and friend- 
ship, by humbling himself to 
him, asking his pardon, and 
satisfying Him for any injury 
that he might have done him. 
In like jnanner God's recon- 
ciling us to himself by the 
cross of Christ is a reconci- 
liation that results from God's 
graciously providing and ac- 
cepting an atonement for us, 
that he might not inflict the 
punishment upon us which 
we deserve, and the law con- 
demned us to ; but might be 
at peace with us, and receive 
us into favour on Christ's 
RECORDER, i. e., a his- 




toriographer, the king's an- 
nalist, one of the high officers 
of the Hebrew kings, whose 
duty it' was to record the 
events of the king's reign, and 
especially what took place 
near his person. The same 
officer is mentioned as exist- 
ing in the Persian court, both 
ancient and modern, 1 Kings 
iv, 3. 

REDEEMER, one who 
redeems, or ransoms, who, in 
the Old Testament, was the 
next of kin, nearest kinsman, 
translated sometimes reven- 
ger, Numbers xxxv, 19-21, 
who, by the" Mosaic law, 
had a right to redeem an in- 
heritance ; and who was also 
permitted to vindicate or 
avenge the death of his rela- 
tion, by killing the slayer, if 
he found him out of the cities 
of refuge. He was a type of 
Him who was to redeem man 
from death and the grave, to 
recover for him the eternal 
inheritance, and to avenge 
him on Satan, his spiritual 
enemy and murderer. Spoken 
of God, who redeems and de- 
livers men, Isa. xlix, 7. " I 
know that my Redeemer liv- 
eth," i. e., God himself, who 
will deliver me from these 

REDEMPTION signifies, 
1, deliverance, on account of 
a ransom paid ; spoken of the 
deliverance from the power 
and consequence of sin which 
Christ procured for man by 
laying down his life as a ran- 
som. " The redemption that 
is in Christ Jesus," Rom. iii, 
/ 24. This passage designates 

the Author of our deliverance, 
viz., him who paid the ran- 
som and procured our free- 
dom ; when we were the 
slaves and captives of sin and 
Satan, and exposed to -the 
wrath of God, Rom. i, 18. 

Throughout the whole of 
this glorious doctrine of our 
redemption there is in the 
New Testament a constant 
reference to the redemption 
price, which is declared to be 
the death of Christ. "The 
Son of man came to give his 
life a ransom for many," Matt, 
xx, 28. " Who gave himself 
a ransom for all," 1 Tim.ii, 6. 
" In whom we have redemp- 
tion through his blood," Eph. 
i, 7. " Ye were not redeemed 
with corruptible things, as sil- 
ver and gold, but with the 
precious blood of Christ," 
1 Peter i, 18, 19. That deli- 
verance which constitutes our 
redemption by Christ is not, 
therefore, a gratuitous deli- 
verance, granted without a 
consideration, as an act of 
mere prerogative ; the ransom, 
the redemption price, was ex- 
acted and paid ; one thing 
was given for another, the 
precious blood of Christ for 
captive and condemned men. 

2. Simply deliverance, the 
idea of a ransom being drop- 
ped. The redemption of our 
body, Rom. viii, 23, i. e., its 
redemption from a state of 
frailty, disease, and death ; 
so of the soul from the body 
as its prison, Eph. iv, 30. 

RED SEA, an extensive 
gulf of the Indian Ocean, di- 
viding Arabia from the oppo- 




site coast of Africa. This 
sea is connected with the 
ocean by the Straits of Bab- 
el-mandel, an Arabic word, 
which signifies the gate of 
tears, derived from the danger 
which was supposed to attend 
the passage. The sea extends 
in a north-west direction to 
the Isthmus of Suez, where 
it approaches within sixty 
miles of the Mediterranean. 
Its length is about 1400 miles ; 
breadth, where greatest, about 
200. The northern extremity 
of the Red Sea is divided into 
two gulfs, which enclose the 
Peninsula of Mount Sinai; the 
western is called sometimes 
the Gulf of Suez, and the 
eastern the Gulf of Akaba, 
(See SINAI.) The northern 
end of this gulf is connected 
with the southern extremity 
of the Dead Sea by the great 
valley, called toward the 
north, El Ghor, and toward 
the south, El Araba. 

The western gulf is remark- 
able for the passage of the Is- 
raelites in their journey from 
Egypt to Canaan. Dr. Ro- 
binson, Stuart, and other 
learned writers, contend that 
this took place at, or in the 
vicinity of, the modern city 
of Suez. Here this arm is 
now almost three quarters of 
a mile broad, although the 
gulf has evidently retired from 
its ancient limits, perhaps by 
its being filled up with sand. 

The circumstances, then, 
of the miraculous passage 
were these : Hemmed in, as 
they were, on all sides, the 
Israelites began to despair of 

escape, and to murmur against 
Moses, Exod. xiv, 11, 12. 
Jehovah now directed Moses 
to stretch out his rod over the 
sea; "and the Lord caused 
the sea to flow by a strong 
east wind all that night, and 
made the sea dry, and the 
waters were divided. And 
the children of Israel went 
into the midst of the sea upon 
the dry (ground;) and the 
waters were a wall unto them 
on their right hand and on 
their left," Exod. xiv, 21, 22. 
It -would follow that the Is- 
raelites, who were probably 
all night upon the alert, en- 
tered on the passage toward 
morning. "The Egyptians 
pursued and went in after 
them," and ft in the morning 
watch " the Lord " troubled 
the host of the Egyptians j" 
and Moses stretched out his 
hand over the sea, and the 
sea returned to his strength, 
when the morning appeared, 
and the Egyptians fled against 
it, and the waters.retumed, 
and covered all the host of 
Pharaoh," &e., xiv, 23-28. 
Some suppose that the Israel- 
ites set off from the vicinity 
of the Nile, at or near Basse- 
tin, a little above Cairo ; and 
passed to thesouth ward of the 
Mokattam Mountain, through 
a wady, or series of wadys, 
called Wady Tia, which ter- 
minates at the Red Sea, in the 
JWady Bedea, or Touarek. 
But there are insuperable ob- 
jections to xthis hypothesis, 
growing out of what has been 
already adduced. First, the 
distance from the Nile, as 




above hinted, which cannot 
be less than from eighty to 
one hundred miles. Second- 
ly, the breadth of the sea, 
which is here from fifteen to 
twenty miles across, and 
which, therefore, such a mul^ 
titude could not have tra- 
versed in a small part of a 
night, as we have seen, was 
probably the case with the 
Israelites. Thirdly, as the 
Lord effected the division of 
the waters by means of a 
strong east or northeast wind, 
acting probably with the ebb 
of .the tide, the passage could 
have taken place at no point 
where such a wind would not 
naturally have produced this 
effect. At Suezj we- have 
seen, this would have been 
the case; but at Bedea, or 
the point in question,, no such 
effect could have been pro- 
duced by it. 

It is singular, that previous 
to the time of Niebuhr, al- 
most' all commentators, both 
ancient and modern, had uni- 
ted in fixing upon Bedea, or 
some point still lower down, 
as the place of passage ; 
chiefly, it would seem, on the 
ground, that the broader the 
sea, the greater the miracle. 
Niebuhr supposed for a time 
that he was the first to regard 
Suez as the point of passage, 
until he found that Le Clerc 
had in general terms made 
the supposition ; and that 
Eusebius also had affirmed 
that the Israelites passed 
through the sea at Ctysma. 
It is no less singular, that 
since the time of .Niebuhr all 

travellers and scientific men 
who have visited the spot, 
have united, in general, in the 
same opinion as to the place 
of passage. 

REED, a plant with a 
jointed hollow stalk, growing 
in wet or marshy grounds. 
(See Job xl, 21.) The flag, 
the common cane, and bam- 
boo are species of the reed. 
Fishing poles, canes, and 
rods are formed of it, Matt, 
xxvii, 48, used as an emblem 
of frailty. A. bruised reed, 
Matt, xii, 20, is a reed broken 
together so as to have flaws 
or cracks,. but not entirely 
broken off, used as the repre- 
sentation of the bodily or men- 
tal infirmities and afflictions 
of men, quoted from Isa. iv, 

'REFUGE. 1. Shelter or 
protection from danger or dis- 
tress, Isa. xxvii, 15. 2. That 
which shelters, or protects 
from danger, distress, or ca- 
lamity ; a strong hold which 
protects by its strength, or a 
sanctuary which secures safe- 
ty by its sacredness ; any 
place inaccessible to an ene 
my, Psa. ix, ; civ, 18. 

the Israelites, certain cities 
appointed to secure the safety 
of such persons as might un- 
designedly spill the blood of a 
fellow-cieature. A law which 
authorizes a blood-avenger, i. 
e., required a brother, or other 
nearest relation of the slain, 
to kill .the guilty person, or 
be_considered infamous, may 
indeed be necessary where 
there is no other tribunal of 




justice ; but as soon as there 
is such a one, it ought to 
cease* To, change a law, 
however, or practice of long 
standing, is a matter of rio 
little difficulty. Moses, there- 
fore, left it as he found it, but 
lie endeavoured, neverthe- 
less, to prevent its abuses. 
To this end he appointed 
cities of refuge, three on each 
side of Jordan. He took 
care also that roads reaching 
to them in straight lines should 
be laid out in every direction, 
which were to be distinguish- 
ed in some way from other 

Any one who had been the 
cause of death to another 
might flee into one of these 
cities, and, on examination, 
if he were found guilty, he 
was delivered up to the aven- 

fer of blood* But otherwise 
e was not to depart from the 
city into which he had fled 
till the death of the high 
priest ; . after which the right 
of revenge could not be le- 
gally exercised, Num. xxxv, 
6-15. This custom still ex- 
ists in full force among the 
modern Bedouins. 

new birth ; that work of the 
Holy Spirit by which we ex- 
perience a change of heart. It 
is expressed in Scripture by 
being born again, John iii, 7 ; 
born from above ; being quick- 
ened, Eph. ii, 1 ; by Christ 
beingformed in the heart, Gal. 
iv, 19 ; by our partaking of the 
Divine nature, 2 Peter i, 4. 
The efficient cause of regene- 
ration is the Divine Spirit. 

That man is not the author 
of it, is evident from John i. 
12, 13 ; iii, 4 ; Eph. ii, 8, 10. 
The instrumental cause is the 
word of God, James i, 18 ; 1 
Pet. i, 23 ; 1 Cor. iv, 15. The 
change in regeneration con- 
sists in the recovery of the 
moral image of God upon the 
heart ; that is to say, so as to 
love him supremely, and serve 
him ultimately as our highest 
end, and to delight in him su- 
perlatively as our chief good. 
In a word, it is faith working 
by love that constitutes the 
new creature, the regenerate 
man, Gal. v, 6; 1 John- i, 1-5. 
Regeneration is to be distin- 
guished from our justifica- 
tion, although it is connected 
with it. Every one who is 
justified is also regenerated ; 
but the one places us in a 
new relation, and the other in 
a new moral state. 2. Rege- 
neration signifies the complete 
external manifestation of the 
Messiah's kingdom ; when all 
things are to be delivered 
from their present corruption, 
and restored to spiritual pu- 
rity and splendour, Matt, xix, 
28. Dr. Campbell translates 
the passage thus: "At the 
renovation, when the Son. 
of man shall be seated on 
the glorious throne, ye, my 
followers, sitting also upon 
twelve thrones, shall judge." 
We are accustomed, says he, 
to apply the term solely to the 
conversion of individuals ; 
whereas, its relation here is 
to the general state of things. 
The principal completion will 
be at the general resurrection, 




when there will be, in the 
most important sense, a reno- 
vation or regeneration of hea- 
ven andarth, when all things 
shall become new. 

REHOBOAM, the son and 
successor of Solomon, who 
reigned in Juda, 975-958 
years before Christ. The in- 
discretion of this prince caus- 
ed ten of the tribes to revolt, 
and thus occasioned the found- 
ing of the kingdom of Israel, 
1 Kings xii, 1 ; xiv, 21. 

REIGN signifies to pos- 
sess, and to exercise domi- 
nion ; spoken of God as vin- 
dicating to himself his regal 
power, Rev. xi, 17. Figura- 
tively, to be exalted to an ele- 
vated and glorious condition, 
spoken of Christians who are 
to reign with Christ, i. e., 
enjoy the high privileges, ho- 
nours, and felicity of the 
Messiah's kingdom, Rom. v, 
17. So of Christians on 
earth, to enjoy the honour 
and prosperity of kings, 1 
Cor. iv, 8. Also, to have 
dominion, to prevail, to be 

g-edominant, as, e. g., death, 
om.v, 14, 17; sin and grace, 
verse 21. 

REINS, the kidneys or loins, 
from their retired situation in 
the body, and their being hid 
in fat, they are often used 
figuratively for the inmost 
mind, the seat of the desires 
and passions, Rev. ii, 23 ; Jer. 
xi, 20. 

RELIGION, piety, the 
worship of God, with the 
practice of all. moral duties, 
James i, 27. By a usual 
figure, a part of religion is 

put for the whole. It is sup. 
posed that' the apostle likens 
religion to a gem, whose per- 
fection consists in its being 
clear, i. e., without flaw or 

curs in the titles of Psalms 
xxxviii and Ixx. 

To bring to remembrance, 
especially before God. An 
expression commonly under- 
stood to refer to those sor- 
rows in memory of which 
David composed the Psalms 
designated by it, or as im- 
plying that Jehovah would 
remember David, and help 

REMPHAN, Acts vii, 43, 
the same as chiun, a name for 
the planet Saturn. Remphan 
is the Egyptian or Coptic 
name for the same planet, 
quoted from Amos v, 26. Here 
this prophet calls this god 
both a star and a king; as in 
fact Saturn was both a planet 
and the king or idol deity, 
who was otherwise called 
Moloch, (which see,) and wor- 
shipped by the offering up of 
human sacrifices to him. The 
Egyptians consecrated to Sa- 
turn' the seventh day of the 
week ; hence our word Sa- 
turday, i. e., Saturn's day. 

change of mind or purpose. 
" He found no place of repent' 
ance," Heb. xii, 17, i. e.-, change 
of mind in his father Isaac, 
who had given the blessing 
to Jacob. The writer evi- 
dently does not mean to say, 
that Esau found no place of 
repentance in himself; com 




pare Gen. xxvii, 34, 37. 2. In 
a religious sense, penitence, 
implying pious sorrow for un- 
belief and sin, and a turning 
from them unto God and the 
Gospel of Christ, Matt, iii, 8. 
This is called "repentance 
toward Godj" as therein we 
turn from sin to him-; and 
"repentance unto life," as it 
leads to spiritual life, and is 
the first step to eternal life, 
Acts iii, 19 ; xi, 18 ; xx, 12. 
3. God is said to repent, Gen. 
vi, 6 K because ihe ancients 
used the same language in 
respect to God, which they 
employed when speaking of 
one another ; and there is 
some 'point of analogy, when 
God is said to repent; the 
meaning is, that he acts in a 
manner analogous to that in 
which men act when they 
repent, i. e., he changes the 
course which he was pursu- 

REPETITION, vain repe- 
titions, Matt, vi, 7, were par- 
ticular expressions in prayer, 
which the Jews were accus- 
tomed ,to repeat a certain 
number of times. But all 
repetitions in prayer are not 
vain ; for our Saviour himself 
prayed thrice, saying the same 
words ; and St. Paul, through 
his earnestness, was led to 
pray thrice that " his thorn in 
the flesh might depart from 
him ;" and if he used not ex- 
actly the same words, the im- 
port of his prayer must have 
been each time the same. 
But vain repetition is the use 
of empty words, and repeating 
the same over and over, think- 

ing that they shall be heard 
for their much speaking. 

REPHAIM. The sons of 
Repkah, a giant, 1 Chron. viii, 
37 ; an ancient Canaanitish 
tribe beyond the Jordan, cele- 
brated for their gigantic sta- 
ture, Gen. xiv, 5. 

The valley ofRaphaim, or 
the giants, was south-west of 
Jerusalem, toward the coun- 
try of the Philistines, Joshua 
xv, 8. 

REPHIDIM. This station 
of the Israelites is, by uni- 
versal consent, placed south- 
west of Sinai. It could not 
be far from this place, be- 
cause God ordered Moses to 
go from thence to the rock of 
Horeb, to give the people wa- 
ter, Exod. xvii, 6. And this 
same water seems - to have 
served the Israelites, not only 
in this encampment, and in 
that of Mount Sinai, but also 
in other encampments. This 
miracle happened in the se- 
cond month after the depart- 
ure from Egypt. See ME- 

REPROBATE, in the lan- 
guage of modern times, is one 
who is excluded from the pos- 
sibility of salvation by an 
absolute decree of God ; one 
who is delivered over to per- 
dition ; but nowhere in Scrip- 
ture is the word used in that 
sense, but signifies, 1. Not en- 
during proof or trial, properly 
spoken of metals not of stand- 
ard purity or fineness ; disal- 
lowed, rejected, Jer. vi, 30. 
2. Figuratively, worthy of 
condemnation or execration, 
Rom. i, 28 ; 2 Cor. xiii, 5, 6, 7. 




3. Worthless, good fornothing, 
abandoned in sin, and lost to 
virtue, Tit. i, 16. 

REST, a resting, place of 
rest, fixed abode, dwelling, 
see Psalm xxxii, 14, where 
- God is' represented as search- 
ing through the earth t and 
selecting Zion as his dwell- 
ing place. It also signifies 
the fixed and quiet abode of 
the Israelites in the promised 
land after their wanderings, 
Heb. iii, 11. " My rest," i. e., 
the rest which I have promis- 
ed,. quoted from Psa. xcv, 11. 
Hence used figuratively for 
the quiet abode of those who 
shall dwell with God in hea- 
ven, in allusion to the rest 
)f the Sabbath, which shows 
the nature of the rest, Heb. 
iv, 9. It will resemble the 
rest of the Sabbath, both in 
its employments and enjoy- 
ments. For therein the saints 
shall rest from their work of 
trial, and from all the evils 
they are subject to in the pre- 
sent life, and shall recollect 
the 'labours they have under- 
gone, the dangers they have 
escaped, and the temptation 
they have overcome : and by 
reflecting on these things, and 
on the method of their salva- 
tion, they shall be unspeaka- 
bly happy. 

Matrimony is called rest, 
Ruth iii, 1. The word is used 
of those who quietly wait for 
any thing, as the martyrs, 
who rest a little season, Rev. 
d, 11, i. e., take rest, enjoy 
Depose ; the idea of previous 
exertion, anxiety, or suffering 
being included. 

act of returning to a person 
some right or thing of which 
he has been unjustly deprived, 
Exod. xxii, 1-6. 2. Restora- 
tion to a former state, Acts iii, 
21., "The time of the resti- 
tution of all things," i. e., the 
Messiah's future kingdom ;~ 
the same as the time of refor- 
mation, Heb. ix, 10, i. e., the 
time of a new and better dis- 
pensation under the Messiah ; 
compare Isa. Ixvi, 22