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Full text of "The American Baptist Missionary Union and its missions [microform]"

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BY REV. EDMUND F. MERRIAM 



Editorial Secretary 




BOSTON 

AMERICAN BAPTIST MISSIONARY UNION 

1897 




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FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

* it appeared in 1814, w//jw the General Missionary Convention was organized \ 

~~ \ 
(The house was then situated in Lagrange Place, just ofE Second Street. It was built i 

in 1731 of brick and cost 2,200, and was enlarged in iSoS.) 






977770 



PREFACE 



Soon after beginning his labors with the American Baptist 
Missionary Union in 1880 the writer became deeply interested 
in the fascinating and thrilling story of its missions. In 
editorial work on the Baptist Missionary Magazine consid- 
erable material for a history of the wonderful workings of 
the Lord by his people was gradually accumulated, but the 
increasing pressure of other responsibilities prevented the 
preparation of that full story of the missions for which there 
was an evident demand. When the late Honorary Secretary 
and the long-time Corresponding Secretary of the Union, 
Dr. J. N. Murdock, was most appropriately asked to write a 
history of the Society and its work, the material which had 
been gathered was cheerfully placed at his disposal. 

Previous to this, however, a series of outline historical 
sketches of the missions was begun for the purpose of supply- 
ing the frequent calls for information regarding the past of our 
Baptist missions. These sketches have been widely circulated 
in separate form, and since the lamented death of Dr. Murdock 
leaves the Union still without a history of its work, they have 
been bound together with the approval of the Executive Com- 
mittee pending the completion of a full and detailed history 
of the missions. 

While, in accordance with the purpose for which they were 
prepared, these sketches do not mention every one of the 
worthy men and women who have been used of God to make 
the glorious record of Baptist missions, and are also lacking in 
those incidents and detailed references which add so much to 
the interest of a history, they yet will be found to give a fairly 
complete and accurate account of the Union and its missions 
in Asia, Africa, and Europe, and will enable the reader to 
follow the marvellous story of - the present progress of the 
missions with an intelligent and sympathetic interest. A few 
instances will be found in which the same information is given 

(3) 





FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 
As U appeared in 1814, "when tlie General Missionary Convention was organized 

(The house was then situated in Lagrange Place, just off Second Street. It was built 
in 1731 of brick and cost .2,200, and was enlarged in iSoS.) 



977770 



PREFACE 



Soon after beginning his labors with the American Baptist 
Missionary Union in 1880 the writer became deeply interested 
in the fascinating and thrilling story of its missions. In 
editorial work on the Baptist Missionary Magazine consid- 
erable material for a history of the wonderful workings of 
the Lord by his people was gradually accumulated, but the 
increasing pressure of other responsibilities prevented the 
preparation of that full story of the missions for which there 
was an evident demand. When the late Honorary Secretary 
and the long-time Corresponding Secretary of the Union, 
Dr. J. N. Murdock, was most appropriately asked to write a 
history of the Society and its work, the material which had 
been gathered was cheerfully placed at his disposal. 

Previous to this, however, a series of outline historical 
sketches of the missions was begun for the purpose of supply- 
ing the frequent calls for information regarding the past of our 
Baptist missions. These sketches have been widely circulated 
in separate form, and since the lamented death of Dr. Murdock 
leaves the Union still without a history of its work, they have 
been bound together with the approval of the Executive Com- 
mittee pending the completion of a full and detailed history 
of the missions. * 

While, in accordance with the purpose for which they were 
prepared, these sketches do not mention every one of the 
worthy men and women who have been used of God to make 
the glorious record of Baptist missions, and are also lacking in 
those incidents and detailed references which add so much to 
the interest of a history, they yet will be found to give a fairly 
complete and accurate account of the Union and its missions 
in Asia, Africa, and Europe, and will enable the reader to 
follow the marvellous story of the present progress of the 
missions with an intelligent and sympathetic interest. A few 
instances will be found in which the same information is given 

(3) 



in different places, but it will be understood that this was 
done in order that each pamphlet should be complete in 
itself. May this account of the chief features of the wonderful 
history of American Baptist missions inspire the reader with 
an ardent desire to learn more fully the inspiring story. To 
assist such as may wish to follow the history in detail a list of 
books is added at the end of the volume. 

E, F. M. 




CONTENTS 



PA.GB 

THE AMERICAN BAPTIST MISSIONARY UNION .... 9 

Organization; Founders and Officers; Influence on the 
Denomination; Growth of Income; Present Management; 
Woman's Societies; Financial Condition; Spiritual Results. 

THE BURMAN MISSION 33 

Burma and the Burmans; The Mission. 

THE KAREN MISSION 56 

Burma and the Karens; The Mission. 

MINOR MISSIONS IN BURMA 81 

The Shan Mission; the Chin Mission; the Kachin Mis- 
sion; Other Races. 

BAPTIST MISSIONS IN ASSAM 99 

Country and People; Religions; the Mission. 
THE TELUGU MISSION, INDIA . . . . . . . 115 

Country and People; Origin and Growth; the Lone Star; 
the Great Revival. 
BAPTIST MISSIONS IN CHINA . . . . . . . 139 

Country and People ; Religions; the Mission in Siam; the 
South China Mission; the Hakka Mission; the East China 
Mission; the West China Mission; the Central China Mis- 
sion; Southern and English Baptist Missions. 

THE MISSION IN JAPAN 165 

Country and People; Religions; the Mission. 

THE CONGO MISSION 183 

Country and People; Livingstone Inland Mission ; Ameri- 
can Baptist Mission. 

BAPTIST MISSIONS IN EUROPE 201 

The French Mission; the Mission in Spain; the Mission 
in Greece; the German Mission; the Mission in Denmark; 
the Mission in Sweden; the Mission in Norway; the Mission 
in Finland; the Mission in Russia. 
CONCLUSION 229 

(5) 



in different places, but it will be understood that this was 
done in order that each pamphlet should be complete in 
itself. May this account of the chief features of the wonderful 
history of American Baptist missions inspire the reader with 
an ardent desire to learn more fully the inspiring story. To 
assist such as may wish to follow the history in detail a list of 
books is added at the end of the volume. 

E. F. M. 




CONTENTS 



PAGE 

THE AMERICAN BAPTIST MISSIONARY UNION .... 9 

Organization; Founders and Officers; Influence on the 
Denomination; Growth of Income; Present Management; 
Woman's Societies; Financial Condition; Spiritual Results. 

THE BURMAN MISSION 33 

Burma and the Burmans; The Mission. 

THE KAREN MISSION 56 

Burma and the Karens; The Mission. 

MINOR MISSIONS IN BURMA 81 

The Shan Mission; the Chin Mission; the Kachin Mis- 
sion; Other Races. 

BAPTIST MISSIONS IN ASSAM 99 

Country and People; Religions; the Mission. 
THE TELUGU MISSION, INDIA . . . . . . . 115 

Country and People; Origin and Growth; the Lone Star; 
the Great Revival. 

BAPTIST MISSIONS IN CHINA 139 

Country and People ; Religions; the Mission in Siam; the 
South China Mission; the Hakka Mission; the East China 
Mission; the West China Mission; the Central China Mis- 
sion; Southern and English Baptist Missions. 

THE MISSION IN JAPAN 165 

Country and People; Religions; the Mission. 

THE CONGO MISSION 183 

Country and People; Livingstone Inland Mission; Ameri- 
can Baptist Mission. 

BAPTIST MISSIONS IN EUROPE 201 

The French Mission; the Mission in Spain; the Mission 
in Greece; the German Mission; the Mission in Denmark; 
the Mission in Sweden; the Mission in Norway: the Mission 
in Finland; the Mission in Russia. 
CONCLUSION 229 

(5) 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

First Baptist Church, Philadelphia, in 1814 .'.... 2 

Rev. William Staughton, D. D 1 1 

Rev. JohnN. Murdock, D.D., LL.D 16 

Baptist Theological Seminary, Ramapatam, India .... 19 

Tremont Temple, Boston, Mass 24 

Baptist Theological Seminary, Insein, Burma .... 28 

A Jungle Cnapel in Burma . 31 

Early Map of Burma 32 

Platform of Shwedagon Pagoda, Rangoon, Burma ... 34 

A Burman Zayat 37 

Pagoda at Moulmein 41 

Preaching to a Jungle Congregation 43 

A Burman Cart 47 

A Mission School-house 51 

Christian Karen School Girls 56 

Rice Cultivation in Burma ........ 57 

A Red Karen Village 59 

Christian Karens 65 

Ko Thah Byu Memorial Hall, Bassein 75 

Karen Armed Police, Burma 79 

Later Map of Burma 80 

Shan Mission House, Toungoo ........ 82 

Rev. Josiah N. Gushing, D. D 85 

Shan Girl 86 

Kachins 90 

A Street in Bhamo 92 

Paloung Woman 95 

Burman Buddhist Priest 96 

View from the Fort, Toungoo 97 

Map of Assam 98 

ANaga 99 

A Naga Sorcerer 100 

Mission House, Nowgong 102 

Rev. Miles Bronson, D. D 103 

Mission House, Sibsagor 104 

Assamese Preachers 106 

Rev. Edward W. Clark 107 

Rev. Marcus C. Mason 108 

Mission Compound, Tura 109 

Mission House, Molung no 

Missionaries of Upper Assam . in 

(6) 



PAGE 

Thangkan, a Gar o Evangelist 113 

Map of the Telugu Country 114 

Baptist Mission Compound, Nursaravapetta. India . . . 116 

Rev. Lyman Jewett, D. D 119 

Prayer-Meeting Hill, Ongole . . . . . 121 

Scene of the Baptism of 2,222 / 125 

Missionaries at Ongole, 1895 I2 ^ 

American Baptist Mission College, Ongole 130 

Baptist Mission Hospital for Women and Children, Nellore, India, 132 

Mission Bungalow, Vinukonda, India 135 

Map of China 136 

Suspension Bridge in West China, on the Route from Bhamo, 

Burma, to Yunnanfu, China 138 

Chinese Mandarins > 140 

Street Scene in China . 143 

Dr. Ashmore's House . ........ 146 

Bible Women at Swatow 147 

A Confucian Temple 149 

In the Swatow Compound 150 

Hospital at Swatow 151 

Bridge at Kongkeo, near Ningpo 153 

Men of Western China 157 

Yangtze River at Hanyang 159 

Shimonoseki, Japan ........ 161 

Map of Japan . 162 

Rev. Nathan Brown, D D. . . ' 164 

Little Japanese Girl 166 

Girls' School, Chofu, Japan 169 

First Baptist House of Worship, Yokohama 175 

An Aged Ainu . 177 

Sarah Curtis Home, Girls' School, Tokyo 1 79 

Baptist Theological Seminary, Yokohama 181 

Map of the Congo Free State 182 

Mission Steamer, " Henry Reed " 187 

Mission Chapel at Leopoldville 191 

Lord's Supper in the Open Air, Banza Manteke . . . . 194 

Mission Chapel at Lukunga . 195 

Rev. Charles G. Hartsock . 197 

Rev. Adoniram Judson Gordon, D. D: 198 

Rev. Ruben Saillens 204 

Rev. Alexandre Dez 206 

Baptist Laborers in Spain 209 

Rev. Manuel C. Marin and wife 210 

Rev. Johann G. Oncken 214 

Baptist Theological Seminary, Hamburg 217 

Rev. Julius Koebner 219 

Bethel Seminary, Stockholm 222 

Baptist Leaders in Sweden 223 

Baptist Chapel at Norkoping, Sweden 224 



ORGANIZATION OF THE CONVENTION 



{Extract from Spencer's "Early Baptists of Philadelphia."} 



Delegates from local missionary societies and other religious bodies 
convened on the i8th of May, 1814, in the meeting-house on Second 
Street, "to organize a plan for eliciting, combining, and directing the 
energies of the whole denomination in one sacred effort for sending the 
glad tidings of salvation to the heathen, and to nations destitute of pure 
gospel light." The site of this meeting was already a consecrated spot. 
Here the First Baptist Association of America had been organized. Here 
Hopewell Academy and Brown University, our first educational institutions 
in this country, had been projected. Here the oldest Baptist Association 
in the country had "met at sunrise," when the news of the surrender of 
the British arms at Yorktown, in 1 782, was received, fitting place for 
the assembling of the men who were to organize for our foreign mission 
work. There were twenty-six clergymen and seven laymen from eleven 
different States and the District of Columbia. Their names are on the 
records in the following order : 

Revs. Thomas Baldwin, D. D., Lucius Bolles, A. M., Massachusetts; 
Rev. John Gano, A. M., Rhode Island; Rev. John Williams, Mr. Thomas 
Hewitt, Mr. Edward Probyn, Mr. Nathaniel Smith, New York; Revs. 
Burgiss Allison, D. D., Richard Proudfoot, Josiah Stratton, William Bos- 
well, Henry Smalley, A. M., Mr. Matthew Randall, Mr. John Sisty, Mr. 
Stephen Ustick, New Jersey; Revs. William Rogers, D. D., Henry Hoi- 
combe, D. D., William Staughton, D. D., William White, A. M., John P. 
Peckworth, Horatio G. Jones, Silas Hough, Joseph Matthias, Pennsylvania; 
Rev. Daniel Dodge, Delaware; Revs. Lewis Richards, Thomas Brooke, 
Maryland; Rev. Luther Rice, A. M., Dist. of Columbia; Revs. Robert B. 
Semple, Jacob Grigg, Virginia; Rev. James A. Ronaldson, North Carolina; 
Rev. Richard Furman, D. D., Hon. Matthias B. Talmadge, South Carolina; 
Rev. W. B. Johnson, Georgia. 

' (8) 



The American Baptist Missionary Union. 



The foreign missionary activity of any church marks the 
standard of its spiritual vitality. Other and more limited 
forms of Christian activity properly engage the love and zeal 
of Christian hearts, but are more strongly set forth and more 
fully developed under the inspiration of the broad and magni- 
ficent enterprise of winning the world for Christ. Foreign 
missions, from their very nature, come closer than any special 
forms of work to the mission of Christ, who gave himself for 
the salvation of the whole world. It is not in any sense 
depreciating church or missionary work of other sorts to say 
that the work of foreign missions includes them all, since it is 
only as the labors of Christians are put forth in perfect obedi- 
ence to the Great Commission that they realize the full 
measure of the Christian obligation and receive the fulness of 
the Christian inspiration and blessedness. 

This peculiar relation of foreign missions to every other 
form of Christian activity is illustrated in the organizations 
which have naturally arisen for carrying them on. For special 
lines of Christian work we have methods appropriate for their 
most useful and effective propagation. It has been found in 
experience that publication work requires a special plant for 
its greatest success. City missions, although really a part of 
home mission work, are best carried on by special and local 
organizations separate from the great work of home missions 
considered in the broadest sense. There are also educational 
societies, missionary conventions, charitable societies of various 
sorts, and a great variety of methods for carrying on the 
multiplied lines of Christian activity in this country, and all 
in addition to the great and general enterprise of home 
missions, and y.\\ of this again is outside of the work of the 
local churches in general management. 

(9) 



IO 



In the work of foreign missions, however, there is but one 
organization for all these varied and separate, yet closely 
related, lines of Christian activity. The American Baptists of 
the Northern States have but one society for their work abroad. 
Their missionary societies, educational societies, Bible societies, 
charitable societies for the aid of aged ministers and their 
families, and, in short, every organization of the many which 
we have at home for all the various lines of Christian work, 
are represented in the work of foreign missions solely by the 
American Baptist Missionary Union, and that not for one 
country alone, but for all the countries of the world outside of 
North America. In fourteen of the great nations of the world 
the Missionary Union is preaching the gospel, printing the 
Bible, supporting theological seminaries for the training of 
preachers and institutions for the education of the children 
of Christians, publishing Christian literature in more than 
twenty different languages and dialects, establishing and main- 
taining Sunday schools, sending forth cqlporters and Bible- 
women, and, in a word, carrying on the work of spreading the 
gospel among all these people by all the varied lines of activity 
which are found useful in our own land. As the broad scope 
of the work of the Union affords an outlet for the devotion of 
Christian hearts in such a multiplied variety of directions, it 
has during all its history engrossed in a peculiar way the 
affection of the Baptists of this country. There is no Christian 
who has a love for any special line of work for Christ but he 
may find under the wide range of the work of the Missionary 
Union some field which offers him an outlet for his special 
desires. Its history shows how largely it has expressed, in the 
broadest and most complete manner, the growth and the life 
of the Baptist denomination in this country. 

ORGANIZATION 

In 1812, the Baptists of America were a feeble folk. They 
numbered only about 70,000 in those States which are now 
considered the constituency of the Missionary Union, and 
were scattered throughout all the Atlantic Coast States, with 
no common bond of union, very little intercourse, and no 
mutual interests. The principal centres of Baptist influence 




REV. WILLIAM STAUGHTON, D.D. 

FIRST CORRESPONDING SECRETARY OF THE BAPTIST GENERAL 
MISSIONARY CONVENTION 



10 

In the work of foreign missions, however, there is but one 
organization for all these varied and separate, yet closely 
related, lines of Christian activity. The American Baptists of 
the Northern States have but one society for their work abroad. 
Their missionary societies, educational societies, Bible societies, 
charitable societies for the aid of aged ministers and their 
families, and, in short, every organization of the many which 
we have at home for all the various lines of Christian work, 
are represented in the work of foreign missions solely by the 
American Baptist Missionary Union, and that not for one 
country alone, but for all the countries of the world outside of 
North America. In fourteen of the great nations of the world 
the Missionary Union is preaching the gospel, printing the 
Bible, supporting theological seminaries for the training of 
preachers and institutions for the education of the children 
of Christians, publishing Christian literature in more than 
twenty different languages and dialects, establishing and main- 
taining Sunday schools, sending forth colporters and Bible- 
women, and, in a word, carrying on the work of spreading the 
gospel among all these people by all the varied lines of activity 
which are found useful in our own land. As the broad scope 
of the work of the Union affords an outlet for the devotion of 
Christian hearts in such a multiplied variety of directions, it 
has during all its history engrossed in a peculiar way the 
affection of the Baptists of this country. There is no Christian 
who has a love for any special line of work for Christ but he 
may find under the wide range of the work of the Missionary 
Union some field which offers him an outlet for his special 
desires. Its history shows how largely it has expressed, in the 
broadest and most complete manner, the growth and the life 
of the Baptist denomination in this country. 

ORGANIZATION 

In 1812, the Baptists of America were a feeble folk. They 
numbered only about 70,000 in those States which are now 
considered the constituency of the Missionary Union, and 
were scattered throughout all the Atlantic Coast States, with 
no common bond of union, very little intercourse, and no 
mutual interests. The principal centres of Baptist influence 




REV. WILLIAM STAUGHTON, D.D. 

FIRST CORRESPONDING SECRETARY OF THE BAPTIST GENERAL 
MISSIONARY CONVENTION 



12 



were in Rhode Island and Eastern Massachusetts, in the 
vicinity of Philadelphia and in Virginia. Occasional com- 
munications were had between the associations formed about 
these centres by means of ministers whose fondness for travel 
led them to visit the different sections of the country, but 
these visits were entirely unofficial and personal. The de- 
nomination was weak. The Baptist churches were commonly 
regarded with some contempt, both on the part of the Con- 
gregationalists in New England, the. Episcopalians of Virginia, 
and perhaps to a less degree by the Friends in Pennsylvania. 
Separated as they. were in their interests, their efforts for 
denominational progress were hampered by a sense of inferi- 
ority, and they had no sufficient knowledge of each other to 
give them the strength which comes by union of thought and 
effort. 

To this weak body of Christians came, during this year of 
1812, the call which was to rouse them to united activity, and 
which was to issue in the era of rapid growth and that increase 
of denominational strength which has now placed them the 
second denomination in numbers in our country. The call 
came from India. Early in 1812, Adoniram Judson and his 
wife, Ann Hasseltine, and Rev. Luther Rice had sailed from 
America for India under the auspices of the newly formed 
Congregationalist foreign missionary society, the American 
Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions. Aware that 
they would come in contact, on their arrival, with the English 
Baptist missionaries at Serampore, they gave themselves to 
the study of the New Testament with reference to the subject 
of baptism, for the purpose of strengthening themselves in 
their denominational position, but became converted to 
Baptist views and were baptized after their arrival in Calcutta. 
This change of views cut them off from the support of the 
society which had sent them abroad, and they decided to 
apply to the Baptists of America for maintenance in the 
prosecution of their missionary work in India. For this pur- 
pose Mr. Rice returned to America, preceded, however, by 
letters to brethren in Boston, announcing their change of 
views. Before the arrival of Mr. Rice, a missionary society 
was formed in Boston, which at once assumed the support of 
Mr. and Mrs. Judson. Previous to this time, the Baptists of 



America had made contributions to foreign missions, but they 
had been sent to the English Baptist Missionary Society in 
London. In one year these contributions amounted to as 
much as $6,000. Now, however, an American society was 
formed, and this society in Boston is the pioneer Baptist 
Foreign Missionary Society of America. Similar societies were 
also rapidly formed in New York and Philadelphia and other 
places, to assist in the support of the missionaries who had 
been so providentially thrown upon the hearts of the Baptists 
of this country. After a short trial, the leaders became con- 
vinced that these separate societies were inadequate to the 
great task before them. A joint convention was called, which 
met in the city of Philadelphia, May 18, 1814, when there 
was formed "The General Convention of the Baptist De- 
nomination in the United States of America for Foreign 
Missions." In 1821, this body was re-incorporated, and the 
words, "and other important objects relating to the Re- 
deemer's kingdom," were added to the title. In 1845, owing 
to the decision of the Board that slaveholders would not be 
appointed as missionaries, the Southern Baptists withdrew, 
and in 1846 the name of the General Convention was 
changed to the present title, " The American Baptist Mission- 
ary Union." 

Thus providentially and unwittingly were the Baptists of this 
country led to the organization of their first National Baptist 
Missionary Society, from which can be traced a large part of 
their future development. 

FOUNDERS AND OFFICERS 

From the very beginning, the Missionary Union has engaged 
the warmest love and effort of the principal men in the denom- 
ination. Its organization in May, 1814, called together thirty- 
three delegates from all the different States of this country in 
which Baptists were then found in any considerable numbers, 
some of whom drove more than three hundred miles in their 
own carriages to attend this meeting. Among these were 
found many of the leading men in the different States. The 
first president of the society was Rev. Richard Furman, D. D., 
for twenty-eight years pastor of the First Baptist Church of 



Charleston, S. C., a man of high intellectual ability, deep 
piety, and great personal courage and devotion. Rev. Thomas 
Baldwin, D. D., who was the sole editor of the " Baptist Mis- 
sionary Magazine " from its establishment in 1803 to 1817, was 
the first president of the Board of Managers. The first cor- 
responding secretary was Rev. William Staughton, D. D., of 
Philadelphia. He was present on the memorable occasion 
when Carey preached his noted sermon, " Expect great things 
from God, attempt great things for God," and subscribed half 
a guinea to the contribution for foreign missions decided upon 
as the result of that sermon. Dr. Staughton was justly re- 
garded as one of the most eminent and remarkable preachers 
of his day. In Philadelphia his church was crowded with the 
most distinguished and intelligent of the citizens, and after he 
became the first president of Columbian College, in Washing- 
ton, he was appointed Chaplain to Congress, and his services 
met with the highest appreciation from the eminent men who 
then were found among the legislators of our country. It 
is said that a distinguished Senator asserted that he would 
walk six miles on foot any time to hear Dr. Staughton preach. 
Among other eminent men present at the meeting of the con- 
vention when this society was founded were Rev. Robert B. 
Semple, D. D., of Virginia ; Rev. Horatio Gates Jones, D. D., 
of Pennsylvania; Rev. Henry Holcombe, D. D., pastor of the 
First Baptist Church in Philadelphia, in whose house of wor- 
ship the meetings of the convention were held ; Rev. Stephen 
Gano, M. D., of Rhode Island, and Rev. Lucius Bolles, D. D., of 
Massachusetts, who succeeded Dr. Staughton as corresponding 
secretary on his retirement in 1826. Other men who were 
connected officially with the society in its early days were Rev. 
Spencer H. Cone, D. D., of New York, the brilliant and elegant 
pulpit orator ; Rev. Francis Wayland, D. D., of Rhode Island, 
whose high standing among the educators of America is ad- 
vancing year by year; Rev. Barnas Sears, D. D., president of 
Newton Theological Institution and of Brown University, as 
well as of the Managing Board of the society ; and others who 
were eminent and useful in their day in the cause of Christ, 
and in the interests of the Baptist denomination. 

The chief direction of the work of the Union has always 
naturally and inevitably fallen upon the corresponding secre- 



taries, and the able and highly honored men who have filled 
that office from the beginning have more than any others di- 
rected its policy, and been responsible for the success of its 
work. As we stand to-day, and look at the wide and magnifi- 
cent sweep of the missions of the Union, we should accord all 
honor to those men who have stood at the helm, and in con- 
sultation with their brethren, having guided the course of the 
society and achieved the success for which now our hearts are 
full of gratitude to the Lord who has led in such wonderful 
ways. Dr. Staughton, who has been mentioned, served from 
1814 until the headquarters were removed to Boston, in 1826. 
Rev. Lucius Bolles, D. D., then pastor of the church in Salem, 
was chosen an assistant to Dr. Staughton in 1824, and from 
1826, gave his whole time to the service of the missions, until 
1843. I n ^38, Rev. Solomon Peck, D.D., was chosen secre- 
tary, and after the retirement of Dr. Bolles, served alone, or in 
association with others, for eighteen years, retiring in 1856. 
Rev. Robert E. Pattison, D. D., widely known in New Eng- 
land and in New York, in other connections, was correspond- 
ing secretary from 1841 to 1845. In 1846, Rev. Edward 
Bright, D..D., most widely known as the long-time editor 
of The Examiner, was chosen corresponding secretary for 
the home department. His administration was marked with 
many reforms and an aggressive activity. During his term 
of service the home work of the Union received an impetus 
from his strong hand which is felt even to the present day. 
Elected at the first meeting after the withdrawal of the 
Southern Baptists, he had many and difficult questions to 
meet in the management of the foreign missionary work in 
its relation to the home churches ; but all were adjusted with 
eminent ability. In 1855, the beloved Jonah G. Warren 
entered upon his service, which was only terminated by his 
enforced retirement by the failure of his health in 1873. 
Rev. John N. Murdock, D. D., was elected to the secretary's 
office in 1863, and had the longest term of service of any 
of the secretaries of the Union, retiring in 1892, after nearly 
thirty years of continuous and conspicuously able service. 
He was then chosen honorary corresponding secretary. Rev. 
George W. Gardner, D. D., was chosen corresponding sec- 
retary for the home department in 1873, and served until 1876. 




RKV. JOHN N. MURDOCK, D. D., LL. D. 
CORRESPONDING SECRETARY, 1863-1892 



Rev. Albert G. Lawson, D. D., elected home secretary in 
1884, resigned after less than two years of service. The 
eminent missionary to the Chinese, Rev. William Ashmore, 
D. D., was chosen secretary for the home department in 
1887, but resigned in 1889, in order to give himself again to 
his life-long work for the Chinese. In 1890, Rev. Henry C. 
Mabie, D. D., was elected home secretary, and still continues 
in office. Rev. Samuel W. Duncan, D. D., is the present 
corresponding secretary for the foreign department, having 
been chosen to the office in 1892 ; Rev. Edmund F. Mer- 
riam, beginning his services with the Union in 1880, as sec- 
retary's assistant and editor of the " Baptist Missionary Mag- 
azine," was chosen corresponding secretary in 1892, and be- 
came editorial secretary in 1893. The treasurers of the 
society have been John Cauldwell, who served from 1814 to 
1823; Thomas Stokes, from 1823 to 1824; Hon. Heman 
Lincoln, from 1824 to 1846; Richard E. Eddy, from 1847 to 
1855; Hon. Nehemiah Boynton, from 1855 to 1864, under 
whose administration many important and beneficial changes 
were adopted; Freeman A. Smith, from 1864 to 1882; and. 
Elisha P. Coleman, from that time to the present. 

INFLUENCE ON THE DENOMINATION 

Through all its history the society, whether under the name 
of the General Convention or of the Missionary Union, has 
been most closely connected with the growth and prosperity 
of the Baptist denomination in these United States. By the 
constitution adopted at the organization in 1814, and because 
of the great difficulties of communication and travel, the 
society was to meet only once in three years ; hence arose the 
familiar title, in the earlier years of the society, of the " Tri- 
ennial Convention." At the very first meeting after the 
organization, which was commonly called the second Triennial 
Convention, held in the city of Philadelphia in 1817, this 
society, formed in the first instance for foreign missionary 
operations, authorized the Board to use a portion of its funds 
in maintaining missions in the most needy portions of this 
country, and also voted to authorize the founding of a semi- 
nary for the training, of young men for the gospel ministry. 




RKV. JOHN N. MURDOCK, D. D., LL. D. 
CORRESPONDING SECRETARY, 1863-1892 



Rev. Albert G. Lawson, D. D., elected home secretary in 
1884, resigned after less than two years of service. The 
eminent missionary to the Chinese, Rev. William Ashmore, 
D. D., was chosen secretary for the home department in 
1887, but resigned in 1889, in order to give himself again to 
his life-long work for the Chinese. In 1890, Rev. Henry C. 
Mabie, D. D., was elected home secretary, and still continues 
in office. Rev. Samuel W. Duncan, D. D., is the present 
corresponding secretary for the foreign department, having 
been chosen to the office in 1892 ; Rev. Edmund F. Mer- 
riam, beginning his services with the Union in 1 880, as sec- 
retary's assistant and editor of the " Baptist Missionary Mag- 
azine," was chosen corresponding secretary in 1892, and be- 
came editorial secretary in 1893. The treasurers of the 
society have been John Cauldwell, who served from 1814 to 
1823; Thomas Stokes, from 1823 to 1824; Hon. Heman 
Lincoln, from 1824 to 1846 ; Richard E. Eddy, from 1847 to 
18555 Hon. Nehemiah Boynton, from 1855 to 1864, under 
whose administration many important and beneficial changes 
were adopted; Freeman A. Smith, from 1864 to 1882; and. 
Elisha P. Coleman, from that time to the present. 

INFLUENCE ON THE DENOMINATION 

Through all its history the society, whether under the name 
of the General Convention or of the Missionary Union, has 
been most closely connected with the growth and prosperity 
of the Baptist denomination in these United States. By the 
constitution adopted at the organization in 1814, and because 
of the great difficulties of communication and travel, the 
society was to meet only once in three years ; hence arose the 
familiar title, in the earlier years of the society, of the "Tri- 
ennial Convention." At the very first meeting after the 
organization, which was commonly called the second Triennial 
Convention, held in the city of Philadelphia in 1817, this 
society, formed in the first instance for foreign missionary 
operations, authorized the Board to use a portion of its funds 
in maintaining missions in the most needy portions of this 
country, and also voted to authorize the founding of a semi- 
nary for the training, of young men for the gospel ministry. 



i8 

Dr. Staughton, the corresponding secretary, was the first head 
of the seminary, which was located in Philadelphia, and with 
him was associated Prof. Irah Chase, afterward for many years 
professor in Newton Theological Institution. The third Tri- 
ennial Convention, in 1820, arranged for the founding of Co- 
lumbian University in the city of Washington, and so began a 
movement for the establishment of a large national Baptist 
University in the capital of the nation, which still awaits its 
perfect realization. The fifth meeting of the Triennial Con- 
vention was a most important occasion. It was held in the 
city of New York and lasted for twelve days. At this meeting 
all connection with the Columbian University, except a merely 
nominal one, was dissolved, as it was deemed important that 
the energies of the convention should be addressed solely to 
missionary work. Just previous to this meeting, what is now 
the Publication Society had been formed, located at Philadel- 
phia ; so that from this meeting there can be seen the begin- 
ning of that separation of organization to take up special 
lines of work which has gone on from that time in our home 
operations, until we now have societies covering every possible 
line of Christian activity in our own country, while the Mis- 
sionary Union still remains the sole representative of all these 
different interests for all the rest of the world. At this cele- 
brated meeting in 1826, the finances of the society being in a 
low state, and some being discouraged, the New England 
brethren offered to become responsible for the maintenance 
of the missions, and it was voted to remove the headquarters 
of the society to Boston, where they have since remained. 

As may be inferred from what has gone before, the meetings 
of the Triennial Convention and the Missionary Union have 
been important events in the growth of the Baptist denomi- 
nation in this country, and many of them have marked epochs 
in its history. The meetings of the Convention continued to 
be the national Baptist anniversaries until 1846, when the 
separation of the missionary interests of the Northern and 
Southern Baptists occurred. At that time, the Publication 
Society and the Home Mission Society arranged their meetings 
to occur in connection with those of the Missionary Union, 
but for many years the meetings of the Union were placed 
first, as those of the oldest, largest and most honored of the 



Dr. Staughton, the corresponding secretary, was the first head 
of the seminary, which was located in Philadelphia, and with 
him was associated Prof. Irah Chase, afterward for many years 
professor in Newton Theological Institution. The third Tri- 
ennial Convention, in 1820, arranged for the founding of Co- 
lumbian University in the city of Washington, and so began a 
movement for the establishment of a large national Baptist 
University in the capital of the nation, which still awaits its 
perfect realization. The fifth meeting of the Triennial Con- 
vention was a most important occasion. It was held in the 
city of New York and lasted for twelve days. At this meeting 
all connection with the Columbian University, except a merely 
nominal one, was dissolved, as it was deemed important that 
the energies of the convention should be addressed solely to 
missionary work. Just previous to this meeting, what is now 
the Publication Society had been formed, located at Philadel- 
phia ; so that from this meeting there can be seen the begin- 
ning of that separation of organization to take up special 
lines of work which has gone on from that time in our home 
operations, until we now have societies covering every possible 
line of Christian activity in our own country, while the Mis- 
sionary Union still remains the sole representative of all these 
different interests for all the rest of the world. At this cele- 
brated meeting in 1826, the finances of the society being in a 
low state, and some being discouraged, the New England 
brethren offered to become responsible for the maintenance 
of the missions, and it was voted to remove the headquarters 
of the society to Boston, where they have since remained. 

As may be inferred from what has gone before, the meetings 
of the Triennial Convention and the Missionary Union have 
been important events in the growth of the Baptist denomi- 
nation in this country, and many of them have marked epochs 
in its history. The meetings of the Convention continued to 
be the national Baptist anniversaries until 1846, when the 
separation of the missionary interests of the Northern and 
Southern Baptists occurred. At that time, the Publication 
Society and the Home Mission Society arranged their meetings 
to occur in connection with those of the Missionary Union, 
but for many years the meetings of the Union were placed 
first, as those of the oldest, largest and most honored of the 



' 

r ^-^ : 




2O 



societies. Afterwards the present arrangement was decided 
upon by the three principal organizations of the Baptists of 
the North, holding their meetings together, each successively 
taking the precedence in time. 

The profound and lasting effect upon our denominational 
growth in this country of the separation of the Southern and 
Northern Baptists in their missionary interests has never been 
adequately treated. It roused the people of both sections to 
new effort and aggressiveness. Instead of separation working 
disaster, in the hands of the Lord it proved to be the means 
of awakening new interest and activity in the denomination 
throughout the entire country. The General Convention, 
taking the name of the " Missionary Union," instead of suffering 
in any material degree from the withdrawal of the Southern 
Baptists, received a new impulse. With fresh life and enthu- 
siasm, its interests were taken up by the Baptists of the North, 
and it has gone on steadily and without serious interruption 
to its present proud position among the first of the missionary 
societies of the world. The other interests of the Northern 
Baptists have also kept pace, and even overtaken in some 
respects the mother of them all, while the Southern Baptists 
have, with characteristic warmth and enthusiasm, developed 
their own missionary work on lines which have not conflicted 
with those of the older society. The only field in which the 
missionaries of the Union and of the Southern Board are working 
in close relations is in Japan, where both are laboring side by 
side in the utmost sympathy and harmony. The division of 
1846, which at first brought dismay to many hearts, who feared 
injury to the kingdom of God, has proved to be one of those 
separations of interests which have provoked one another, not 
to strife and anger, but to love and good works. For its 
fiftieth -anniversary in 1864, the Missionary Union went back 
to the old First Baptist Church in Philadelphia, where the 
society was organized, and it was an occasion of deep interest 
and of great inspiration, calling forth many able addresses 
from the foremost men in the denomination. Another 
important occasion was the seventy-fifth anniversary of 
the Union, which it was properly decided to hold in 
Tremont Temple in the city of Boston, the headquarters of the 
management of the society. These waymarks in the progress 



21 



of the society, with their proper celebration, served to mark 
the immense increase of the denomination. 



GROWTH OF INCOME 

A study of the growth of the income of the Missionary 
Union is very interesting, and is a very accurate index of the 
interest in the foreign mission work among our people in this 
country, as well as of the growth of the denomination at home 
and of the missionary work abroad. At the first meeting of 
the Triennial Convention in 1814, $2,099.25 had been paid into 
the treasury of the society. As the meetings of the society 
were held only once in three years, the treasurer's report was 
made up for that period. Therefore, we have reported, in 
1817, receipts of $26,052.01, or an average of $8,684 per year. 
The receipts for the next three years averaged $15,643, and 
continued to be in excess of this until the headquarters were 
removed to Boston in 1826. At that time the annual receipts 
dropped to $11,463.38 and continued small for two years ; but 
in 1830 they rose to $29,204.84. Apparently, the first enthu- 
siasm of the foreign missionary movement experienced con- 
siderable reaction, but it subsequently recovered, which shows 
that it was a movement which had taken its roots deep in 
the hearts of the Baptists of this country. From 1831, the 
receipts continued to make a steady advance. In 1839, they 
amounted to $109,135.21, but the average continued to be in 
the neighborhood of $75,000 a year, and the figures in 1839 
were not reached again until 1851, when they amounted to 
$118,726,35. It is curious to notice that the severe financial 
depression in 1847 seems to have had no very marked effect 
in decreasing the contributions to the society, as during the 
years immediately following they made a fair and healthy 
growth. The hard times of 1857, however, had a more 
serious effect, for in 1858 only $97,808.77 were reported, and 
the receipts of the society continued to be less on the whole 
than in previous years, until near the close of the War of the 
Rebellion, when they recovered the ground on which they 
stood previous to 1857. Since that time the advance has been 
steady and rapid. In 1864, the receipts were $135,012.61, a 
very high mark of advance, and in 1874, the amount received 



22 

was $261,580.91. The effort in raising the great debt at 
Providence, R. I., in 1877, conjointly with the interest aroused 
by the great Telugu revival, marked another advance, and the 
growth since that time has been steady, increasing step by step, 
year by year, until the normal income of the Missionary Union 
has reached an average of more than half a million dollars 
annually. The special effort in the Centenary year, 1893, 
brought in an income for current expenses of $766,782.95, 
which was applicable to the general purposes of the society ; 
the whole income for that year amounting to more than one 
million dollars. 

PRESENT MANAGEMENT 

According to the constitution of the Missionary Union, it is 
organized into three distinct bodies, the society itself, the 
Board of Managers, and the Executive Committee. The 
Missionary Union meets annually, at a time in the latter part 
of May, according as the date may be fixed by arrangement 
with the other denominational societies. The membership 
of the Missionary Union is made up as follows : First, any 
church which has made a contribution of any amount during 
the year may appoint one annual member. Second, churches 
which contribute more than $100 may appoint an additional 
annual member for every $ i oo contributed above the first $100. 
Third, any Baptist church, local association, or individual 
which supports a missionary may send one annual member 
for every $100 contributed through the Union. Fourth, all 
missionaries of the Union are members during their term of 
service. Fifth, any person may become an honorary life 
member by the payment of $100 during one financial year, 
but no life member has a vote in the Union unless he is an 
annual contributor to the society and a member in good 
standing of a regular Baptist church. The Board of Man- 
agers consists of seventy-five persons, one third of whom are 
elected at each annual meeting to serve for three years, the 
general officers of the society, and the presidents of the four 
Women's Societies ex officio, and three members of the Exec- 
utive Committee. The Board holds its annual meeting dur- 
ing the meeting of the Missionary Union, and usually this is 



23 

the only meeting of the year, but it may be called together 
if necessary during the year for the transaction of important 
business The Executive Committee was increased from nine 
to fifteen members in 1895, and to it is committed, according 
to the constitution, the management of all the details of the 
work of the Missionary Union, except such as are provided for 
by the Union itself or by the Board of Managers. The great 
burden of the interests of the society, therefore, falls upon the 
Executive Committee. Rev. Henry F. Colby, D. D., of Ohio, 
was chosen president in 1895, an ^ Henry S. Burrage, D. D., 
of Portland, Me., is and has been for many years the careful 
and efficient recording secretary, discharging the duties of 
his important office in a manner which, apparently, insures 
his annual re-election for life. The chairman of the Board of 
Managers for the present year is Hon. James L. Howard, of 
Hartford, Conn.; and Rev. Moses H. Bixby, D. D., of Provi- 
dence, pastor of the largest church in Rhode Island, and 
formerly a missionary in Burma, has for a number of years 
been recording secretary of the Board. 

The headquarters of the Missionary Union have been, for 
many years, located in Tremont Temple, in Boston, Mass., 
but on the destruction of that building by fire in March, 1893, 
they were removed to 2 A Beacon Street. The society reoccu- 
pied its quarters in the new and elegant and fire-proof Temple 
in the spring of 1896. The great interest of the home work of 
the Union, of course, centres about the headquarters. The 
late A. J. Gordon, D. D., was for seven years chairman of the 
Executive Committee and has been succeeded by Rev. Henry 
M. King, D. D., pastor of the historic First Baptist Church, of 
Providence, R. I. Rev. Samuel W. Duncan, D. D., receives 
and has charge of all the correspondence with the missiona- 
ries in foreign fields. Rev. Henry C Mabie, D. D , is cor- 
responding secretary for the home department, having the 
oversight and management of all the work of the Union 
on the home field. Elisha P. Coleman, Esq., is the faithful 
and long-time treasurer, and Rev. Edmund F. Merriam is 
the editorial secretary. The important work of auditing the 
accounts of the Union is committed to Daniel C. Linscott, 
Esq., and Sidney A. U'ilbur, Esq. 

In addition to the executive officers at the rooms, the home 




TREMONT TEMPLE, BOSTON. MASS. 
( The American Baptist Missionary Union occupies the third floor from the top.) 



25 

work of the Union calls for the services of ten district 
secretaries, serving tinder the general direction of the home 
secretary, and who in their several districts come into close 
contact with the churches, and to whom is committed the 
important task of arousing and increasing the missionary 
interest of the churches and the general work of the collec-. 
tion of the funds needed to carry on the great missionary 
work of the society. These important and responsible posts 
are held at the present time by Rev. W. E. Witter, M. D., 
secretary for the New England district; (a vacancy in), 
New York Southern district ; Rev. O. O. Fletcher, D. D , 
New York Central district ; Rev. Frank S. Dobbins, Southern 
district ; Rev. T. G. Field, Middle district ; Rev. J. S. Boyden, 
Lake district; Rev. C. F. Tolman, D. D., Western district; 
Rev. F. Peterson, Northwestern district; Rev I. N. Clark, 
D. D., Southwestern district; Rev. J Sunderland, Pacific 
Coast district. The home organization of the Missionary 
Union extends beyond these, and the district secretaries are 
aided by a large number of associational secretaries who 
serve voluntarily, whose labors are highly appreciated, and who 
are of great assistance as connecting links between the local 
churches and the great central missionary organization, which 
is simply the agent of the churches in carrying on their 
foreign missionary work among the heathen. An important 
agent in the home work of the Union is the " Baptist Missionary 
Magazine," the oldest Baptist periodical in America, established 
in September, 1803, which is the official periodical of the 
Union, and also " The Kingdom," a little illustrated four-page 
paper, which has the largest circulation of any of our mis- 
sionary periodicals, and is furnished at the low cost of five 
cents a year in clubs of twenty or more. 

The General Convention, organized in Philadelphia, Pa., 
May 1 8, 1814, was a few years after incorporated by the Legis- 
lature of Pennsylvania, and, in 1821, an amended act of in- 
corporation was granted. When the name of the society was 
changed to the " American Baptist Missionary Union," this was 
authorized by an act of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 
which was approved by the governor on March 13, 1846, and at 
the same time an act of incorporation in the State of Massa- 




TREMONT TEMPLK, BOSTON. MASS. 
American Baptist Missionary Union occupies the third floor from the top.) 



25 

work of the Union calls for the services of ten district 
secretaries, serving under the general direction of the home 
secretary, and who in their several districts come into close 
contact with the churches, and to whom is committed the 
important task of arousing and increasing the missionary 
interest of the churches and the general work of the collec-. 
tion of the funds needed to carry on the great missionary 
work of the society. These important and responsible posts 
are held at the present time by Rev. W. E. Witter, M. D., 
secretary for the New England district; (a vacancy in), 
New York Southern district ; Rev. O. O. Fletcher, D. D , 
New York Central district ; Rev. Frank S. Dobbins, Southern 
district ; Rev. T. G. Field, Middle district ; Rev. J. S. Boyden, 
Lake district; Rev. C. F. Tolman, D. D., Western district; 
Rev. F. Peterson, Northwestern district; Rev I. N. Clark, 
D. D., Southwestern district; Rev. J Sunderland, Pacific 
Coast district. The home organization of the Missionary 
Union extends beyond these, and the district secretaries are 
aided by a large number of associational secretaries who 
serve voluntarily, whose labors are highly appreciated, and who 
are of great assistance as connecting links between the local 
churches and the great central missionary organization, which 
is simply the agent of the churches in carrying on their 
foreign missionary work among the heathen. An important 
agent in the home work of the Union is the " Baptist Missionary 
Magazine," the oldest Baptist periodical in America, established 
in September, 1803, which is the official periodical of the 
Union, and also " The Kingdom," a little illustrated four-page 
paper, which has the largest circulation of any of our mis- 
sionary periodicals, and is furnished at the low cost of five 
cents a year in clubs of twenty or more. 

The General Convention, organized in Philadelphia, Pa., 
May 1 8, 1814, was a few years after incorporated by the Legis- 
lature of Pennsylvania, and, in 1821, an amended act of in- 
corporation was granted. When the name of the society was 
changed to the " American Baptist Missionary Union," this was 
authorized by an act of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, 
which was approved by the governor on March 13, 1846, and at 
the same time an act of incorporation in the State of Massa- 



26 

chusetts was passed, which was approved March 25, 1846. 
Under these two acts, the Missionary Union maintained its 
legal standing for many years ; but in 1894 a full act of in- 
corporation was obtained from the Legislature of the State of 
New York, which became a law May 10, 1894, superseding 
an ennabling act obtained in 1870. By an act of the Massa- 
chusetts Legislature passed in 1894, the Missionary Union is 
permitted to receive by gift, purchase or devise, and to hold 
in fee simple, real estate not exceeding in value $1,000,000, 
and personal property to an amount not exceeding $2,000,000. 

WOMEN'S SOCIETIES 

During all the history of the Missionary Union, the love and 
labors of the women of our churches have been an impor- 
tant element contributing to its success. Previous to 1871, it 
began to be felt by many of the leaders among the women 
that, while the general missionary work should be carried on 
with full power, there was a field for special work for women 
among their ignorant and oppressed sisters in heathen lands, 
and that year witnessed the formation of the first two Woman's 
Baptist Missionary Societies, one with its headquarters at 
Boston, and the Society of the West, with its headquarters at 
Chicago. Since that time two other societies, operating di- 
rectly as auxiliaries to the Missionary Union, have been formed, 
one the Woman's Baptist Foreign Missionary Society of Cali- 
fornia, and the other of Oregon. There are also other 
women's organizations for special efficiency in the conduct of 
the work in the various States, but all the other societies are 
connected with one or another of the above-mentioned or- 
ganizations. The officers of the Woman's Baptist Foreign 
Missionary Society, which has its headquarters at Boston, are : 
Miss Sarah C. Durfee, of Providence, R. I., president ; Mrs 
H. G. Safford, corresponding secretary for the foreign depart- 
ment, and Mrs. N. M. Waterbury, for the home department. 
The treasurer is Miss Alice E. Stedman. Of the Woman's 
Foreign Missionary Society of the West, the president is Mrs. 
L. Everingham, Chicago; Mrs. A. M. Bacon is the foreign 
secretary ; Mrs. E. H. Griffith, the home Secretary ; Miss A. 



27 

L. Stevens, secretary for .publications ; and Miss Mary W. 
Ranney, treasurer. Mrs. Bunyan Spencer is president of the 
California society ; Mrs. M. E. Bridges, corresponding secre- 
tary ; and Mrs. J. J. Warner, treasurer. Of the Oregon society, 
Mrs. M. L. Driggs is president ; Mrs. E. S. Latourette, corre- 
sponding secretary ; and Miss Marion Cole, treasurer. 

FINANCIAL CONDITION 

Among the great societies of the world, the Missionary- 
Union stands the eighth in the amount of its annual income 
and expenditure, and fourth among American foreign mission- 
ary societies. Its annual expenditures now amount to about 
half a million dollars, and its receipts from all the various 
sources should, of course, be made to equal this amount. Of 
the annual receipts, three fifths only is made up by donations 
from the churcnes and individuals directly to the treasury of 
the Missionary Union ; the balance is from legacies and from 
the women's societies, from the income of funds, and from 
various other sources which are always mentioned in the 
treasurer's accounts published in the annual reports of the 
society. The permanent funds of the society now amount to 
more than half a million dollars, the income from which, with 
legacies, is sufficient to pay all the running expenses of the 
society, so that, in this sense, the donations from the churches 
and from individuals may be said to be applied directly to 
missionary work, with something added. In addition to these 
funds, there are about $200,000 which have been paid into the 
Union by persons who receive an annuity during their lives ;. 
^at their death the funds will be used in the missionary work of 
me society. Occasionally there have arisen persons who have 
argued that missionary societies were an expensive necessity ; 
but this simple statement in regard to the funds of the Union 
shows that the society, by its very existence, which makes 
possible the accumulation of funds, more than pays for itself, 
and enables the gifts of the churches to be sent without 
charge directly to the work for which they were given. 

Another important reason for the existence of a society is 
the great advantage which is gained in the transmission of 
funds. On account of the financial standing of the Missiouarjr 




s 

(A 
03 



W 



I 



U 

3 

s 

o 
w 

33 
H 

W 



2 9 

Union in all the commercial centres of the world, its credit 
stands as high as that of any banking or commercial house in 
existence. The bills and drafts of the Union pass unques- 
tioned in the exchanges of Europe, Asia, or Africa. Not one 
of the obligations of the Union has ever been defaulted or 
suspended for a moment, and the paper of the Union is 
bought readily in any of the fields in which we are carrying: 
on missionary operations, for making commercial exchange 
in any part of the world, and brings the very highest price 
which can be obtained for any exchange bills. In this way- 
thousands of dollars are saved every year over the cost of. 
transmission of funds by private individuals, and this works 
directly to the advantage and economy of the conduct of the 
missionary work. Many Christians every year are providing 
in their wills for additions to the permanent funds of the 
Union as well as gifts directly for carrying on missionary work. 
This is an object which no Christian of wealth should omit to. 
remember. Within the last few years, however, owing to the: 
great number of difficulties which have arisen in the courts 
over the settlement of states, and to the efforts which have 
been made to defeat the wishes of testators in their bequests, 
large numbers of persons are giving their funds directly into 
the hands of the society, and receiving its bond for the pay- 
ment of interest during their lives. These bonds are an 
unquestioned security. They will never be defaulted as long, 
as the Baptist denomination exists. There is no safer form of 
investment in the world. If the United States Government 
is destroyed, and the bonds of the United States become 
worthless, still the Baptist denomination will go on, and the- 
obligations of the great missionary society will stand secure, 
and every bond be paid to the last cent of obligation. This 
method of investment offers to those who wish their money 
to go ultimately to the missionary work the best possible form 
of securing an income from their property during their lives, 
and saves them all care and trouble of re-investment, and all 
fears regarding the settlement of their estates. 



29 

Union in all the commercial centres of the world, its credit 
stands as high as that of any banking or commercial house in 
existence. The bills and drafts of the Union pass unques- 
tioned in the exchanges of Europe, Asia, or Africa. Not one 
of the obligations of the Union has ever been defaulted or 
suspended for a moment, and the paper of the Union is 
bought readily in any of the fields in which we are carrying, 
on missionary operations, for making commercial exchange 
in any part of the world, and brings the very highest price 
which can be obtained for any exchange bills. In this way- 
thousands of dollars are saved every year over the cost o 
transmission of funds by private individuals, and this works 
directly to the advantage and economy of the conduct of the 
missionary work. Many Christians every year are providing, 
in their wills for additions to the permanent funds of the 
Union as well as gifts directly for carrying on missionary work. 
This is an object which no Christian of wealth should omit to. 
remember. Within the last few years, however, owing to the 
great number of difficulties which have arisen in the courts- 
over the settlement of states, and to the efforts which have 
been made to defeat the wishes of testators in their bequests, 
large numbers of persons are giving their funds directly into 
the hands of the society, and receiving its bond for the pay- 
ment of interest during their lives. These bonds are an- 
unquestioned security. They will never be defaulted as long, 
as the Baptist denomination exists. There is no safer form of 
investment in the world. If the United States Government 
is destroyed, and the bonds of the United States become 
worthless, still the Baptist denomination will go on, and the 
obligations of the great missionary society will stand secure, 
and every bond be paid to the last cent of obligation. This 
method of investment offers to those who wish their money 
to go ultimately to the missionary work the best possible form 
of securing an income from their property during their lives, 
and saves them all care and trouble of re-investment, and all 
fears regarding the settlement of their estates. 



SPIRITUAL RESULTS. 

Although the Missionary Union stands the eighth among 
the larger missionary societies in annual expenditure, yet, by 
the blessing of God, it. stands first of all in the number of 
converts in its mission churches. Leaving out the members 
of Baptist churches in the Protestant countries of Europe, 
which are not counted by all missionary societies, and there- 
fore must be omitted for the sake of a fair comparison, we 
find that the converts in the mission churches connected with 
the Missionary Union in heathen, Mohammedan, Roman 
Catholic, and Greek Catholic countries, in 1894, numbered 
101,469. The great and prosperous London Missionary 
Society, which has done such a magnificent work in the Pacific 
Islands and in Madagascar, reports 92,400 converts ; and next 
stand the American Methodists, with their prosperous work in 
all the world, and especially the great successes of the past 
few years in Northern India, who report 68,891 converts. 
After these three leading societies come three or four of the 
other large societies, each reporting about 50,000 converts. 
This great success of our American Baptist missionary work is 
not a matter of pride, but should be a cause of great thanks- 
giving and gratitude to God, who has done such wonderful 
things for us. It is also a proof of the wise, the economical, 
and the effective management of our missionary work, which 
the results show are not exceeded by that of any other mis- 
sionary body in the world. The magnificent results which 
have been gained, and the care and economy which have been 
exercised in the management, may well arouse the Baptists of 
these Northern States of America to new enthusiasm toward 
this great and widely extended and splendidly successful 
American Baptist Missionary Union, and to larger and more 
generous giving for the support of this divinely prospered 
enterprise. 



SPIRITUAL RESULTS. 

Although the Missionary Union stands the eighth among 
the larger missionary societies in annual expenditure, yet, by 
the blessing of God, it stands first of all in the number of 
converts in its mission churches. Leaving out the members 
of Baptist churches in the Protestant countries of Europe, 
which are not counted by all missionary societies, and there- 
fore must be omitted for the sake of a fair comparison, we 
find that the converts in the mission churches connected with 
the Missionary Union in heathen, Mohammedan, Roman 
Catholic, and Greek Catholic countries, in 1894, numbered 
101,469. The great and prosperous London Missionary 
Society, which has done such a magnificent work in the Pacific 
Islands and in Madagascar, reports 92,400 converts ; and next 
stand the American Methodists, with their prosperous work in 
all the world, and especially the great successes of the past 
few years in Northern India, who report 68,891 converts. 
After these three leading societies come three or four of the 
other large societies, each reporting about 50,000 converts. 
This great success of our American Baptist missionary work is 
not a matter of pride, but should be a cause of great thanks- 
giving and gratitude to God, who has done such wonderful 
things for us. It is also a proof of the wise, the economical, 
and the effective management of our missionary work, which 
the results show are not exceeded by that of any other mis- 
sionary body in the world. The magnificent results which 
have been gained, and the care and economy which have been 
exercised in the management, may well arouse the Baptists of 
these Northern States of America to new enthusiasm toward 
this great and widely extended and splendidly successful 
American Baptist Missionary Union, and to larger and more 
generous giving for the support of this divinely prospered 
enterprise. 



> 

3 



- 

o 

I 



a 

c 




BURMA AND THE BURMANS 



BURMA is the most prosperous province of India, and has a 
population of about 8,000,000. Its territory is diversified, 
generally fertile, and well watered. The internal commerce is 
extensive and the foreign trade is large and profitable. The 
principal exports are rice and teak timber. The prevailing 
religion is Buddhism, and the people are free from the iron 
fetters of caste which bind their neighbors across the Bay of 
Bengal. Social life in Burma is therefore freer and more 
comfortable than in India, education is more general, and 
wages are more than three times as high. 

At the beginning of authentic Burman history the lower 
part of Burma was held by the Takings or Peguans. These 
were conquered nearly two hundred years ago by the Burmans, 
who ruled the whole country until 1824, since which time it 
has been gradually brought under British power. Within the 
limits of Burma there are said to be as many as forty-seven 
different races, which are scattered over the country, often 
mingling closely together in both town and country. 

The BURMAN is the ruling race of Burma, and by far the 
most numerous, numbering more than 6,000,000 out of the 
whole population. They dwell in the valleys and plains 
of the country, and form the chief element in the permanent 
population of the cities and towns. The Burman language 
is used by all of this race, with some dialectic variations in 
different parts of the country. It is the language of the courts, 
literature, and commerce, and efforts are being made to have 
it adopted by the people generally. The Burmans are of a 
Mongolian type, but without the sleepy eyes of the Chinese. 

(33) 



34 

Their faces have an open, wide-awake expression, and they 
are generally enterprising, and polite in their manners. The 
women are independent to an unusual degree, both in social 
life and in trade, and usually hold the family purse. The 
Burmans are very strict Buddhists, and hold strongly to their 



,rd\v/v\, - 1 , -*-i b 




PLATFORM OF SHWF.YDA.GON PAGODA, RANGOON 

inherited religion. Although pursued for more than seventy 
years, mission work has not gained many converts among 
them compared to its success among the Karens and other 
peoples. Within the last few years, however, greater interest 
has been shown in Christianity by the Burmans, and the pros- 
pects for the future seem more encouraging than ever before. 



THE BURMAN MISSION 



IN 1812, the Baptists in America had already shown some- 
thing of a missionary spirit, and had afforded substantial as- 
sistance to the English Baptist Mission at Serampore, India. 
Many of the missionaries had been obliged to go out by way of 
America, because passage from England direct to India was 
denied them in the vessels of the East India Company , and 
their presence and addresses while in this country awaiting 
passage had aroused much enthusiasm. But as yet, no organ- 
ized effort to promote foreign missions had been formed among 
American Baptists. Feb. 18, 1812, Mr. and Mrs. Nott, with 
Messrs. Hall and Luther Rice, sailed from Philadelphia for 
India, and were followed on the igth by Adoniram Judson and 
Samuel Newell, with their wives, sailing from Salem, Mass., all 
representing the newly formed American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions, sustained principally by the Con- 
gregationalist denomination. In consequence of their careful 
study of the Bible on the passage to India, Mr. and Mrs. 
Judson, and also Luther Rice, became Baptists and were bap- 
tized at Calcutta. It was therefore resolved that Mr. and 
Mrs. Judson should remain and establish a mission wherever 
Providence might indicate, while Mr. Rice should return to 
America, in the hope of inducing the Baptists in this country 
to undertake their support. Their expectations were not dis- 
appointed. The conversion of these missionaries to Baptist 
views in such a remarkable manner was regarded as a provi- 
dential indication of the will of God, and the work of collect- 
ing funds to support the work thrown upon their hands was 

(35) 



34 

Their faces have an open, wide-awake expression, and they 
are generally enterprising, and polite in their manners. The 
women are independent to an unusual degree, both in social 
life and in trade, and usually hold the family purse. The 
Burmans are very strict Buddhists, and hold strongly to their 




PLATFORM OF SHWEYDAGON PAGODA, RANGOON 

inherited religion. Although pursued for more than seventy 
years, mission work has not gained many converts among 
them compared to its success among the Karens and other 
peoples. Within the last few years, however, greater interest 
has been shown in Christianity by the Burmans, and the pros- 
pects for the future seem more encouraging than ever before. 



THE BURMAN MISSION 



IN 1812, the Baptists in America had already shown some- 
thing of a missionary spirit, and had afforded substantial as- 
sistance to the English Baptist Mission at Serampore, India. 
Many of the missionaries had been obliged to go out by way of 
America, because passage from England direct to India was 
denied them in the vessels of the East India Company , and 
their presence and addresses while in this country awaiting 
passage had aroused much enthusiasm. But as yet, no organ- 
ized effort to promote foreign missions had been formed among 
American Baptists. Feb. 18, 1812, Mr. and Mrs. Nott, with 
Messrs. Hall and Luther Rice, sailed from Philadelphia for 
India, and were followed on the igth by Adoniram Judson and 
Samuel Newell, with their wives, sailingfrom Salem, Mass., all 
representing the newly formed American Board of Commis- 
sioners for Foreign Missions, sustained principally by the Con- 
gregationalist denomination. In consequence of their careful 
study of the Bible on the passage to India, Mr. and Mrs. 
Judson, and also Luther Rice, became Baptists and were bap- 
tized at Calcutta. It was therefore resolved that Mr. and 
Mrs. Judson should remain and establish a mission wherever 
Providence might indicate, while Mr. Rice should return to 
America, in the hope of inducing the Baptists in this country 
to undertake their support. Their expectations were not dis- 
appointed. The conversion of these missionaries to Baptist 
views in such a remarkable manner was regarded as a provi- 
dential indication of the will of God, and the work of collect- 
ing funds to support the work thrown upon their hands was 

(35) 



36 

entered upon with enthusiasm. A meeting of delegates, rep- 
resenting all sections of the country, was called to meet at 
Philadelphia; and there, on May 18, 1814, was formed the 
" General Convention of the Baptist Denomination in the 
United States of America for Foreign Missions." This body 
was incorporated June 15, 1821, when the words " and other 
important objects relating to the Redeemer's Kingdom " 
were added to the title. In May, 1846, the name was changed 
to " The American Baptist Missionary Union," in which form 
it still stands. 

In the mean time, Mr. and Mrs. Judson, having been driven 
from India by the East India Company, had sailed to the 
Isle of France, or Mauritius. There they resolved to attempt 
the establishment of a mission in the Penang Straits, and- 
sailed for the Prince of Wales Island by way of Madras. 
Here they were unable to find a ship bound for Penang, but 
fearing that the East India Company would send them back 
to England, they hastily took passage in a vessel bound for 
Burma, and after a stormy and perilous passage they arrived 
in Rangoon, July 13, 1813. By this series of remarkable 
providences was founded the Baptist mission in Burma, 
whose subsequent history has proved that it was truly a vine 
planted of the Lord. 

In Rangoon, the Judsons found vacant a house formerly occu- 
pied by Felix Carey, a son of Dr. William Carey and another 
representative of the Serampore Mission, who had opened mis- 
sionary work in Rangoon in 1807 ; this they occupied, and at 
once began the study of the Burman language and missionary 
work. In 1816, Rev. George H. Hough and wife came to 
their assistance, bringing a printing press given by the Seram- 
pore Mission. In 1817, Dr. Judson was absent from Rangoon 
six months, in an attempt to procure a native assistant from 
Arakan, during which time no word was received from him, 
and he was given up for lost. Mr. Hough left during his ab- 



37 

sence, and Mrs. Judson, heroically refusing to leave Rangoon, 
was alone amid a savage and cruel people ; but Mr. Judson soon 
arrived, and the work of the mission was resumed. June 27, 
1819, nearly six years after his arrival in Rangoon, Mr. Judson 
had the joy of baptizing the first Burman convert, a man named 




A BURMAN ZAYAT 

Moung Nau. Others soon followed, and were gathered into 
a church. James Colman and Edward Wheelock, with their 
wives, had arrived in Rangoon in September, 1818, and soon 
after the baptism of the first converts, persecution from the 
local authorities began to afflict the little flock, and drove 
away all the hearers who had been accustomed to frequent the 
Zayatto listen to the Gospel. In this crisis, Mr. Judson 



36 

entered upon with enthusiasm. A meeting of delegates, rep- 
resenting all sections of the country, was called to meet at 
Philadelphia; and there, on May 18, 1814, was formed the 
"General Convention of the Baptist Denomination in the 
United States of America for Foreign Missions." This body 
was incorporated June 15, 1821, when the words " and other 
important objects relating to the Redeemer's Kingdom " 
were added to the title. In May, 1846, the name was changed 
to " The American Baptist Missionary Union," in which form 
it still stands. 

In the mean time, Mr. and Mrs. Judson, having been driven 
from India by the East India Company, had sailed to the 
Isle of France, or Mauritius. There they resolved to attempt 
the establishment of a mission in the Penang Straits, and 
sailed for the Prince of Wales Island by way of Madras. 
Here they were unable to find a ship bound for Penang, but 
fearing that the East India Company would send them back 
to England, they hastily took passage in a vessel bound for 
Burma, and after a stormy and perilous passage they arrived 
in Rangoon, July 13, 1813. By this series of remarkable 
providences was founded the Baptist mission in Burma, 
whose subsequent history has proved that it was truly a vine 
planted of the Lord. 

In Rangoon, the Judsons found vacant a house formerly occu- 
pied by Felix Carey, a son of Dr. William Carey and another 
representative of the Serampore Mission, who had opened mis- 
sionary work in Rangoon in 1807 ; this they occupied, and at 
once began the study of the Burman language and missionary 
work. In 1816, Rev. George H. Hough and wife came to 
their assistance, bringing a printing press given by the Seram- 
pore Mission. In 1817, Dr. Judson was absent from Rangoon 
six months, in an attempt to procure a native assistant from 
Arakan, during which time no word was received from him, 
and he was given up for lost. Mr. Hough left during his ab- 



37 

sence, and Mrs. Judson, heroically refusing to leave Rangoon, 
was alone amid a savage and cruel people ; but Mr. Judson soon 
arrived, and the work of the mission was resumed. June 27, 
1819, nearly six years after his arrival in Rangoon, Mr. Judson 
had the joy of baptizing the first Burman convert, a man named 




A BURMAN ZAYAT 

Moung Nau. Others soon followed, and were gathered into 
a church. James Colman and Edward Wheelock, with their 
wives, had arrived in Rangoon in September, 1818, and soon 
after the baptism of the first converts, persecution from the 
local authorities began to afflict the little flock, and drove 
away all the hearers who had been accustomed to frequent the 
Zayatto listen to the Gospel. In this crisis, Mr. Judson 



38 

determined to appeal to the royal court at Amarapura. The 
suit was unsuccessful, and the gilded Bible which was taken 
as a present to the king was rejected. The native Burman 
government usually opposed missionary work. Discouraged 
by their failure and the certain prospect of severe persecu- 
tion which awaited any Burman subjects who dared embrace 
the foreign religion, the missionaries decided to remove the 
mission to Arakan which was already under British control. 
But the three Christians in Rangoon conducted themselves 
with so much firmness under the trying circumstances, and 
plead so earnestly that they should not be forsaken, that Mr. 
and Mrs. Judson decided to remain in Rangoon, while Mr. 
and Mrs. Colman went to found a new mission in Chittagong. 
After their departure, the mission in Rangoon was continued 
by Mr. and Mrs. Judson with increasing success until in 
August, 1822, Mrs. Judson was compelled to return to 
America for the recovery of her health, leaving her husband 
to carry on the work with the help of Dr. and Mrs. J. D. 
Price, who had reached Rangoon only three months before, 
and Mr. and Mrs. Hough, who had returned from Serampore, 
bringing back the printing press, the loss of which had been 
an occasion of much inconvenience. 

Mrs. Judson's visit to the United States was the means of 
arousing renewed interest in the Burman Mission, and on her 
return to Burma, in 1823, she was accompanied by Mr. and 
Mrs. Jonathan Wade. During her absence, Mr. Judson had 
made a second visit to the capital, which had been removed 
to Ava, to which the missionaries had been summoned on ac- 
count of the medical skill of Dr. Price. Land was loaned 
for the mission purposes, and several months were spent in 
mission work, Dr. Price enjoying much favor from the king 
as a physician. When Mr. Judson returned to Rangoon in 
February, 1823, however, he found the little church there 
scattered by official persecution, and nearly all the visible 



39 

results of the mission in that city swept away. On the arrival 
of Mrs. Judson with the Wades in December of that year, it 
was decided that Mr. and Mrs. Wade, with Mr. and Mrs. 
Hough, should continue the mission at Rangoon, while Mr. 
and Mrs. Judson proceeded to Ava, where Dr. Price had re- 
mained, to found a station there. 

On the zoth of May, 1824, the arrival of English vessels 
of war at Rangoon began the first Burmese war, which prac- 
tically suspended missionary operations for nearly two years. 
The missionaries at Rangoon were exposed to the greatest 
danger, and after the capture of the city by the English they 
retired to Calcutta, where they remained until the conclusion 
of the war. Concerning the fate of the missionaries at Ava, 
great anxiety was felt, but nothing definite was learned until 
after peace between Burma and England was concluded, 
Feb. 24, 1826. Intelligence of the capture of Rangoon 
by the English was received at Ava, May 23, 1824, and Mr. 
Judson and Dr. Price were arrested and thrown into prison 
on the 8th of June. From this .time, for more than a year 
and a half, the prisoners suffered as words cannot describe, 
from the cruelty of their jailers, from dreadful disease, and 
from want which often approached the verge of starvation. 
They were at first confined at Ava, then removed for a short 
time to Amarapura, and their captivity culminated in the 
often-described horrors of Oung-pen-la, from which they were 
released in January 1826, as the king needed Mr. Judson's 
services as interpreter in the negotiations for peace with the 
British commander. That the missionaries survived the un- 
told suffering and privation of this long imprisonment is 
entirely due to the heroism of Mrs. Judson, who, often in 
sickness and personal danger, ministered to their necessi- 
ties and with unflagging persistency sought their release. 
During her visit to America she had been advised by physi- 
cians not to return to Burma, and devoted friends sought 



40 

earnestly to prolong her stay in this country ; but it is undoubt- 
edly clue to her devotion in returning to Burma as she did, 
even at the risk of health and life, that the life and matured 
labors of Dr. Judson were preserved to Burma and the world. 
The manuscript of the Burman Bible as far as translated 
was preserved by being sewn up in a pillow which was saved 
by one of Mrs. Judson's native servants. Feb. 21, 1826, Mr. 
Judson was released, and, with his wife and little daughter, 
sailed joyfully down the Irrawaddy to the British camp. But 
the strain was too much for the strength of Mrs. Judson, and 
she died at Amherst, Oct. 24, 1826, during the absence of 
her husband as interpreter for the British embassy at Ava. 
A few weeks after her little Maria was laid by her side be- 
neath the Hopia tree, and the suffering and sorrowing pioneer 
of the Burman Mission was left alone. 

On the return of the missionaries to Rangoon, at the close 
of the war, it was found that the Rangoon Christians had be- 
come so scattered that few could be traced. It was therefore 
resolved to continue the mission at Amherst, selected as the 
capital of the Tenasserim provinces which had been ceded to 
England, rather than at Rangoon, which was still to remain 
under the control of the Burman king. Dr. Price accepted 
a position under the king at Ava, where he died in February, 
1828, cutting short a life of promising usefulness. Early in 
1827, George Dana Boardman and wife joined the band at 
Amherst ; but the British headquarters were soon removed to 
Moulmein, and to this place the Boardmans removed, while 
Mr. and Mrs. Wade remained at Amherst for a time. Mr. 
Judson gave himself chiefly to the work of translation, residing 
principally at Moulmein. In April, 1828, Mr. and Mrs. Board- 
man removed to Tavoy, and thus, in the providence of God, 
became the founders of the Karen Mission, with which their 
names Avill be forever associated, rather than the Burman work 
to which they were appointed. 



The mission in Moulmein enjoyed much prosperity in the 
following years, and in 1829 received an important accession 
in Mr. Cephas Bennett, a printer, who arrived, bringing a press 
and font of types, which were greatly needed. The little 




PAGODA AT MOULMEIN 



church in Rangoon had been kept alive through the efforts 
of a Burman convert named Ko Thah-a, and in this year he 
was ordained as pastor of the church, thus being the first 



40 

earnestly to prolong her stay in this country ; but it is undoubt- 
edly due to her devotion in returning to Burma as she did, 
even at the risk of health and life, that the life and matured 
labors of Dr. Judson were preserved to Burma and the world. 
The manuscript of the Burman Bible as far as translated 
was preserved by being sewn up in a pillow which was saved 
by one of Mrs. Judson's native servants. Feb. 21, 1826, Mr. 
Judson was released, and, with his wife and little daughter, 
sailed joyfully down the Irrawaddy to the British camp. But 
the strain was too much for the strength of Mrs. Judson, and 
she died at Amherst, Oct. 24, 1826, during the absence of 
her husband as interpreter for the British embassy at Ava. 
A few weeks after her little Maria was laid by her side be- 
neath the Hopia tree, and the suffering and sorrowing pioneer 
of the Burman Mission was left alone. 

On the return of the missionaries to Rangoon, at the close 
of the war, it was found that the Rangoon Christians had be- 
come so scattered that few could be traced. It was therefore 
resolved to continue the mission at Amherst, selected as the 
capital of the Tenasserim provinces which had been ceded to 
England, rather than at Rangoon, which was still to remain 
under the control of the Burman king. Dr. Price accepted 
a position under the king at Ava, where he died in February, 
1828, cutting short a life of promising usefulness. Early in 
1827, George Dana Boardman and wife joined the band at 
Amherst ; but the British headquarters were soon removed to 
Moulmein, and to this place the Boardmans removed, while 
Mr. and Mrs. Wade remained at Amherst for a time. Mr. 
Judson gave himself chiefly to the work of translation, residing 
principally at Moulmein. In April, 1828, Mr. and Mrs. Board- 
man removed to Tavoy, and thus, in the providence of God, 
became the founders of the Karen Mission, with which their 
names will be forever associated, rather than the Burman work 
to which they were appointed, 



The mission in Moulmein enjoyed much prosperity in the 
following years, and in 1829 received an important accession 
in Mr. Cephas Bennett, a printer, who arrived, bringing a press 
and font of types, which were greatly needed. The little 




PAGODA AT MOULMEIN 



church in Rangoon had been kept alive through the efforts 
of a Burman convert named Ko Thah-a, and in this year he 
was ordained as pastor of the church, thus being the first 



42 

native of Burma ordained to the gospel ministry. Moung 
Ing was also ordained a short time after, and sent to assist 
Ko Thah-a at Rangoon. Affairs becoming more settled in 
that city, Mr. and Mrs. Wade removed to Rangoon early in 
1830, and Mr. Judson the year following. Tracts and portions 
of Scripture were printed by Mr. Bennett, and scattered in 
large numbers among the people, who seemed anxious to re- 
ceive them. The gospel was also widely spread by a visit of 
some months made by Mr. Judson to Prome. The mission in 
Moulmein had been considerably re-enforced, and had received 
large accessions, so that in 1832 it became necessary to form 
new churches in the outlying districts, that the converts might 
have the worship and ordinances of God easily accessible. 
This important movement, and also a visit of Mr. Kincaid to 
Upper Burma, resulted in a wider spreading of the gospel 
among the heathen. For a short time a printing press was 
established at Ava by Mr. O. T. Cutter, by means of which 
many Christian tracts were put in circulation ; but through the 
ignorant opposition of the Burman government, the mission- 
aries were driven away. At the end of 1833, one hundred 
and forty-seven Burmans had been baptized, of which seventy- 
eight were in connection with the Moulmein Mission. Mr. 
Judson had devoted his attention chiefly to the work of transla- 
tion, and Jan. 3 r, 1834, he had the pleasure of presenting to his 
God, who had preserved and sustained him, the completed 
translation of the Bible into the Burman language. 

In December, 1834, the missions in Burma received a re-en- 
forcement of fifteen missionaries, and in 1835 wer e visited by 
Dr. Howard Malcom, as a deputation from the American Bap- 
tists. Early in this year another severe persecution broke 
out against the church in Rangoon, in which one of the promi- 
nent native preachers, a man of excellent ability, was arrested, 
scourged, and deprived of his property. He died shortly after 
his release ; nearly all the Christians were fined or imprisoned* 



43 

and the work of the Rangoon Mission was again suspended by 
the fires of persecution. But as soon as the officials relaxed 



I 

s 
i 

3 



G 
2 

n 



515 

<n 

93 

I 

t-H 






their vigilance the mission work was resumed, and the Chris- 
tians gathered to hear the Gospel as bafore. In 1836, how- 
ever, through the breaking out of a civil war, the missionaries 



42 

native of Burma ordained to the gospel ministry. Moung 
Ing was also ordained a short time after, and sent to assist 
Ko Thah-a at Rangoon. Affairs becoming more settled in 
that city, Mr. and Mrs. Wade removed to Rangoon early in 
1830, and Mr. Judson the year following. Tracts and portions 
of Scripture were printed by Mr. Bennett, and scattered in 
large numbers among the people, who seemed anxious to re- 
ceive them. The gospel was also widely spread by a visit of 
some months made by Mr. Judson to Prome. The mission in 
Moulmein had been considerably re-enforced, and had received 
large accessions, so that in 1832 it became necessary to form 
new churches in the outlying districts, that the converts might 
have the worship and ordinances of God easily accessible. 
This important movement, and also a visit of Mr. Kincaid to 
Upper Burma, resulted in a wider spreading of the gospel 
among the heathen. For a short time a printing press was 
established at Ava by Mr. O. T. Cutter, by means of which 
many Christian tracts were put in circulation ; but through the 
ignorant opposition of the Burman government, the mission- 
aries were driven away. At the end of 1833, one hundred 
and forty-seven Burmans had been baptized, of which seventy- 
eight were in connection with the Moulmein Mission. Mr. 
Judson had devoted his attention chiefly to the work of transla- 
tion, and Jan. 31, 1834, he had the pleasure of presenting to his 
God, who had preserved and sustained him, the completed 
translation of the Bible into the Burman language. 

In December, 1834, the missions in Burma received a re-en- 
forcement of fifteen missionaries, and in 1835 were visited by 
Dr. Howard Malcom, as a deputation from the American Bap- 
tists. Early in this year another severe persecution broke 
out against the church in Rangoon, in which one of the promi- 
nent native preachers, a man of excellent ability, was arrested, 
scourged, and deprived of his property. He died shortly after 
his release ; nearly all the Christians were fined or imprisoned, 



43 

and the work of the Rangoon Mission was again suspended by 
the fires of persecution. But as soon as the officials relaxed 



M 

3 



a 



z 
a 

8 

5? 

n 

50 
PI 
O 




their vigilance the mission work was resumed, and the Chris- 
tians gathered to hear the Gospel as bafore. In 1836, how- 
ever, through the breaking out of a civil war, the missionaries 



44 

were compelled to retire from Ava and Rangoon to Moul- 
mein, and direct mission work in the Burman dominions 
ceased for several years. 

From the time the Burman Bible was completed, Dr. Jud- 
son had devoted his attention principally to a careful revision, 
which cost him more time and labor than the first translation ; 
but in 1840, the revision was given to the press. It has been 
remarked that Dr. Judson's Bible is to the Burmans what 
Luther's is to the Germans, and the translation of 1 6 1 1 to 
readers of the English language ; and so well was the task 
accomplished of giving the Bible to the Burmans in a popular 
and idiomatic form, that the work will never need to be re- 
peated. This is the more remarkable when it is considered 
that Dr. Judson began with no helps whatever, and created 
his own grammars and dictionaries as he went along. It-is 
however, true, that his varied and trying experiences in the 
early history of the mission gave him exceptional opportuni- 
ties for acquiring a knowledge of the Burman language in all 
its uses, and doubtless his suffering at Ava and Oung-pen-la 
contributed in no small degree to his success in rendering the 
Word of God into the every-day tongue of the Burman people. 
In 1838, a Burman Theological School was started in 
Moulmein, by Rev. Edward A. Stevens on his arrival in 
Burma. It was suspended from 1841 to 1844, during which 
time Mr. Stevens devoted himself to editing a monthly 
Christian journal for the Burmans, The Religious Hetald. 
The Theological School was transferred to Rangoon in 
1862, and to Insein in 1893, where all the work of training 
preachers for Burma is united in one Seminary. Dr. Judson 
started for America in 1845, in company with wfrs. (Sarah 
Boardman) Judson; but she found her last resting-place 
on the island of St. Helena. Dr. Judson's return to his native 
land, after an absence of thirty-three years, awakened the 
liveliest emotions among American Baptists, who had so long 



45 

regarded htm as their representative in Burma, but had never 
seen his face. He was everywhere received with enthusiasm, 
although unable to address large assemblies on account of the 
loss of his voice, and on his return to Burma in 1846 was ac- 
companied by a goodly re-enforcement for the missions. 

No missionary had been able to reside in the Burman 
dominions since 1836 ; but on his arrival Dr. Judson visited 
Rangoon, and afterward resided there for some months with 
Mrs. (Emily C.) Judson. But he was obliged to give up the at- 
tempt to renew the mission there, and returned to Moulmein in 
September, 1847, where he devoted himself to the preparation 
of his Burman and English Dictionary, in connection with his 
usual missionary labors. Large editions of the Burman Bible 
were printed, and the church in Moulmein grew in numbers 
and in Christian graces ; regular contributions were taken by 
the church for benevolent purposes. The Burman Theologi- 
cal School, under Rev. "E. A. Stevens, had eight students in 
1846, several of whom had escaped from Burma Proper at the 
risk of their lives, in order to prepare themselves to preach 
the Gospel to their countrymen; 26,182 copies of various 
books and tracts were printed at the Moulmein press in 1847, 
containing 6,566,450 pages. The year 1847 ' IS the first for 
which complete statistics of the Burman Mission are given 
separately from the Karen. At the end of that year there are 
given under the head of Moulmein, which included Rangoon, 
7 missionaries to the Bunnans ; 7 female assistant missiona- 
ries; 1 6 native preachers and assistants; 4 churches; n bap- 
tized during the year, and (about) 200 church members; 3 
schools, and 160 pupils. There were also in Arakan one mis- 
sionary to the .Burmans in that country; 10 native assistants^ 
2 churches, and 55 members, 15 having been baptized during 
the year ; 2 schools and 42 pupils. 

The active centre of the Burman Mission continued at 
Moulmein, Dr. Judson devoting his principal attention to 



translation and the Burman-English Dictionary. Rev. E. A. 
Stevens was in charge of the Theological School, Rev. L. 
Stilson of the boarding school, while the great work of preach- 
ing the Gospel in widely extended districts was carried on by 
Rev. Jonathan Wade, Rev. T. Simons, Rev. H. Howard, and 
Rev. J. M. Haswell. Mr. Haswell also gave attention to the 
Takings, formerly the ruling race of Burma, who were settled 
in the vicinity of Moulmein in considerable numbers. The 
printing press, in care of Mr. T. S. Ranney, sent forth every 
year large quantities of Christian literature, of school books 
and of Scriptures in Burman and Karen, as fast as they could 
be translated. 

Rev. Adoniram Judson, D. D., the senior missionary of the 
American Baptist Missionary Union, and the pioneer of 
the Burman Mission, died at sea, April 12, 1850, when 
scarcely three days from Burma on a voyage to the Isle of 
Bourbon, for the benefit of his health. He was buried in the 
sea in latitude thirteen degrees north, and longitude ninety 
degrees east of Greenwich. At the death of Dr. Judson, the 
completion of the Burman-English Dictionary was intrusted to 
Mr. Stevens, and published in 1852, the English-Burman part 
having been completed by Dr. Judson, and published in 
January, 1850. For sixteen years, from 1836 to 1852, no 
missionary was able to reside permanently at Rangoon, 
where the Burman Mission was founded. Every attempt at 
the public preaching of the Gospel had been suppressed by 
the Burman authorities, and the natives who openly favored 
the missionaries were punished with fines, imprisonment, and 
death. 

Attempts to re-establish mission work in Rangoon, by 
Dr. Judson, in 1847, and Rev. Eugenic Kincaid and J. Daw- 
son, M. D., in 1851, were received with great favor by the 
people, but sternly repressed by the Burman authorities. 
Feb. 15, 1851, began the Second Burman War with England. 



46 

translation and the Burman-English Dictionary. Rev. E. A. 
Stevens was in charge of the Theological School, Rev. L. 
Stilson of the boarding school, while the great work of preach- 
ing the Gospel in widely extended districts was carried on by 
Rev. Jonathan Wade, Rev. T. Simons, Rev. H. Howard, and 
Rev. J. M. Haswell. Mr. Haswell also gave attention to the 
Takings, formerly the ruling race of Burma, who were settled 
in the vicinity of Moulmein in considerable numbers. The 
printing press, in care of Mr. T. S. Ranney, sent forth every 
year large quantities of Christian literature, of school books 
and of Scriptures in Burman and Karen, as fast as they could 
be translated. 

Rev. Adoniram Judson, D. D., the senior missionary of the 
American Baptist Missionary Union, and the pioneer of 
the Burman Mission, died at sea, April 12, 1850, when 
scarcely three days from Burma on a voyage to the Isle of 
Bourbon, for the benefit of his health. He was buried in the 
sea in latitude thirteen degrees north, and longitude ninety 
degrees east of Greenwich. At the death of Dr. Judson, the 
completion of the Burman-English Dictionary was intrusted to 
Mr. Stevens, and published in 1852, the English-Burman .part 
having been completed by Dr. Judson, and published in 
January, 1850. For sixteen years, from 1836 to 1852, no 
missionary was able to reside permanently at Rangoon, 
where the Burman Mission was founded. Every attempt at 
the public preaching of the Gospel had been suppressed by 
the Burman authorities, and the natives who openly favored 
the missionaries were punished with fines, imprisonment, and 
death. 

Attempts to re-establish mission work in Rangoon, by 
Dr. Judson, in 1847, and Rev. Eugenio Kincaid and J. Daw- 
son, M. D., in 1851, were received with great favor by the 
people, but sternly repressed by the Burman authorities. 
Feb. 15, 1851, began the Second Burman War with England. 



48 

Dec. 20, 1852, the Governor-General of India, by proclama- 
tion issued at Rangoon, declared " the Province of Pegu is 
now and shall be henceforth a portion of the British territories 
in the East." The boundaries of British Burma were thus 
settled as they continued until 1885, and a large additional terri- 
tory was thrown open to the free access of the Burman 
Mission. This important event made necessary the imme- 
diate enlargement of the missions in Burma, and $15,000 in 
addition to the usual sum were appropriated for enlarged 
operations and reorganization the first year. A deputation 
consisting of Rev. Solomon Peck, D. D., secretary of the 
Union, and Rev. James N. Granger, D. D., of Providence, R. I., 
left America in October, 1852, in anticipation of the impor- 
tant changes which must soon take place in the missions in 
Burma. Messrs. Kincaid and Dawson returned to Rangoon 
in the spring of 1852, soon after the capture of the city by the 
English, and resumed missionary labors. They found a small 
church of fifteen members which had survived the sixteen 
years of continuous persecution. Public services were held 
Sunday, June 20, and a hospital was fitted up by Dr. Dawson. 
The missionaries were well received by the people ; books 
and tracts were in great demand, and opportunities for labor 
multiplied beyond their ability to fulfil. 

A general Convention of all the missipnaries in Burma met 
in Moulmein, April 4, 1853, and continued its sessions for 
six weeks, imtil May 17, at which the Executive Committee of 
the Missionary Union was represented by the deputation 
above mentioned. The present and prospective conditions 
of missionary labor in" Burma were fully considered, and 
measures adopted which have had a decisive influence upon 
the missions in that country. The convention decided 
that Burman missions should be at once permanently es- 
tablished in Rangoon, Bassein, Henzada, Prome, Toungoo, 
and Shwegyin, constituted a publication committee for the 



49 

control of the Mission Press, consolidated the Tavoy Press 
with that at Moulmein, recommended increased attention to 
the oral preaching of the Gospel to the heathen in their own 
tongues, the ordination of a larger number of native pastors, 
and that schools should be strictly under missionary supervis- 
ion, and used rather as a " means for Christian instruction, 
than of imparting a secular education." The establishment 
of Normal schools in the principal stations for training 
teachers and preachers was approved ; the founding of other 
boarding schools, and the teaching of English in the mission 
schools, was discouraged. Some of the decisions of the Con- 
vention have been modified on subsequent experience, but it 
must always be regarded as one of the most important events 
in the history of missions in Burma, and its influence on the 
whole was beneficial. By its discussions and conclusions a 
great advance in the missions was made possible within a few 
years, which must otherwise have come about very slowly. 

As missionaries were still excluded from the dominions of 
the king of Burma, Rev. Eugenio Kincaid began work-in 
the city of Prome. The first three converts were baptized 
Feb. 22, 1854, and seventy within the year. The work has 
since expanded into one of the most successful of the Burman 
missions. The mission to Ava was not abandoned, but sus- 
pended. Early in 1856, Rev. Eugenio Kincaid and J. Daw- 
son, M. D., visited Ava, where they were well received by 
the king, who sent a message to the government of the 
United States by Mr. Kincaid, which the latter came to this 
country to deliver. On his return, Messrs. Kincaid and 
Dawson visited Mandalay, and the king gave them land for 
a mission compound and offered to erect a house for them ; 
but the obstacles to missionary labors in the Burman domin- 
ions reappeared, and no missionary ever established a per- 
manent mission in the dominions of the native king of 
Burma. 



50 

The fine brick chapel at Rangoon which had been seven 
years in building, and cost J?s. 10,000, was dedicated Oct. 30, 
1859, and was almost entirely paid for by the residents of 
the city. This encouraging indication of progress was fol- 
lowed in 1860 by the baptism of forty converts, and the for- 
mation of the Rangoon Burman Missionary Society. The 
first Burman Association met the same year at Thongze, to 
which place Mrs. M. B. Ingalls had begun to devote special 
attention, and where she removed in 1861. An unusual in- 
terest in Christianity among the Burmans was reported from 
Rangoon, Bassein, .Henzada, and Prome. 

Early in 1862, the mission press, which had seen a long and 
useful service in Moulmein, was removed to Rangoon, as 
that city had become the most central and accessible point 
of the mission work in Burma. Rev. Cephas Bennett, the 
superintendent, continued his oversight of the printing for all 
the missions in Burma, assisted by Mrs. Bennett, to whose 
assiduity and accurate linguistic acquirements in several lan- 
guages the literary work of the missions is not a little in- 
debted. Owing to the depreciation of United States currency 
during the Civil War, a financial stringency was experienced 
in the Burman as in other missions. Enlargement on an ex- 
tended scale was not possible ; but the work was carried on at 
all the old stations, and was specially prospered at Prome and 
Thongze. In accordance with recommendations from the 
Executive Committee, Oct. 15, 1865, the Burma Baptist Mis- 
sionary Convention, composed of Baptist Christians of all 
races, was formed at Rangoon, and has since been an active 
and efficient agent in promoting the evangelization of Burma, 
and also of the Karens of Northern Siam. At its second an- 
niversary, held in Moulmein, beginning Nov. 3, 1867, ninety- 
one members were present, of whom fifteen were American 
missionaries, twenty native ordained preachers, thirty-eight 
unordained preachers, and eighteen laymen; $496.26 were 



collected and expended, and a visit to Siamese Karens was 
made by several. native preachers. The same year witnessed 



8 



1 
3 

B 




the appointment of Miss Susie E. Haswell to teach in a school 
proposed and established by her father, the Rev. J. M. Has- 



The fine brick chapel at Rangoon which had been seven 
years in building, and cost J?s. 10,000, was dedicated Oct. 30, 
1859, and was almost entirely paid for by the residents of 
the city. This encouraging indication of progress was fol- 
lowed in 1860 by the baptism of forty converts, and the for- 
mation of the Rangoon Burman Missionary Society. The 
first Burman Association met the same year at Thongze, to 
which place Mrs. M. B. Ingalls had begun to devote special 
attention, and where she removed in 1861. An unusual in- 
terest in Christianity among the Burmans was reported from 
Rangoon, Bassein, .Henzada, and Prome. 

Early in 1862, the mission press, which had seen a long and 
useful service in Moulmein, was removed to Rangoon, as 
that city had become the most central and accessible point 
of the mission work in Burma. Rev. Cephas Bennett, the 
superintendent, continued his oversight of the printing for all 
the missions in Burma, assisted by Mrs. Bennett, to whose 
assiduity and accurate linguistic acquirements in several lan- 
guages the literary work of the missions is not a little in- 
debted. Owing to the depreciation of United States currency 
during the Civil War, a financial stringency was experienced 
in the Burman as in other missions. Enlargement on an ex- 
tended scale was not possible ; but the work was carried on at 
all the old stations, and was specially prospered at Prome and 
Thongze. In accordance with recommendations from the 
Executive Committee, Oct. 15, 1865, the Burma Baptist Mis- 
sionary Convention, composed of Baptist Christians of all 
races, was formed at Rangoon, and has since been an active 
and efficient agent in promoting the evangelization of Burma, 
and also of the Karens of Northern Siam. At its second an- 
niversary, held in Moulmein, beginning Nov. 3, 1867, ninety- 
one members were present, of whom fifteen were American 
missionaries, twenty native ordained preachers, thirty-eight 
unordained preachers, and eighteen laymen; $496.26 were 



collected and expended, and a visit to Siamese Karens was 
made by several. native preachers. The same year witnessed 




the appointment of Miss Susie E. Haswell to teach in a school 
proposed and established by her father, the Rev. J. M. Has- 



well, v.-ho thus became a pioneer in the enlarged mission school 
work now under the special patronage of the Woman's Mis- 
sionary Societies. An extended tour into Burma Proper was 
made by Rev. A. T. Rose, of the Burman Mission, and Rev. 
J. N. Gushing of the Shan Mission. They penetrated far into 
the country northeast of Mandalay, and were everywhere 
received with favor. 

In the annual report of the Missionary Union for 1868 is 
found the first systematic attempt to collect the statistics of 
the missions in Burma which had been made for many years. 
The following statistics of the Burman Mission in 1867 will 
Avell illustrate the progress which has been made from the 
first feeble beginning : 



Stations. 


Missionaries. 


Ordained native 
Preachers. 


Unordained na- 
tive Preachers. 


Churches. 


Baptized in 1867. 


Members. 




i 

w 

.5 

ul 

'3, 


Contributions in 
Rupees (=450.) 




c 


I 


IO 


I 


14 


206 


61 


478 




c 


I 


7 


2 


1-3 


138 


246 




Bassein 


2 




5 


3 


6 


74. 




* 


Henthada ....... 


2 






J 

3 


4. 




/i /i 


* 


Prome 


fi 


6 


A 


O 

3. 


T e 






CJ./1 










I 


* j 




60 




Thongzai 




I 


2 


2 




86 




* 




















Total 


24 


Q 


26 






780 


658 




















.754 



* Not reported. 



53 

In 1869, fifty years from the baptism of the first Burman 
convert, the number of members in Burman Baptist churches 
was nine hundred and eighty- five. 

For many years Rev. E. A. Stevens had maintained, in con- 
nection with other duties, a class for the instruction of Burman 
preachers, first at Moulmein, and then at Rangoon. The 
need of more systematic arrangements for the theological 
training of Burmans had long been felt, and on representations 
from the missionaries, the Executive Committee authorized 
the establishment of a Burman Literary and Biblical School at 
Moulmein; but the plan was never carried into effect, and 
Dr. Stevens continued his personal labors in this direction. 
In this work he was followed by Rev. A. T. Rose, D. D., at 
Rangoon, and later by Rev. W. F. Thomas. With the growth 
of the Burman Mission this work has become increasingly 
important, and has now been united with the same work for 
all races in Burma at the Seminary at Insein. 

After a service of more than fifty years as superintendent of 
the Mission Press in Tavoy, Moulmein, and Rangoon, Rev. 
Cephas Bennett retired from this position in i88r. In the last 
year of his labors in this connection, there were printed 18,000 
copies of Scriptures, books, and tracts, containing 3,236,000 
pages. The good done through the Press while under his 
care will only be known in the great day when all things shall 
be known. He was succeeded by Mr. Frank D. Phinney. 

In December, 1885, occurred the third and final war 
between the English and the native power of Burma. It was 
short and decisive. Mandalay, the capital of the Burman \ 
Empire, was captured. Thibaw, the last representative of the 
Burman dynasty, was made a prisoner and exiled to Madras, 
and the whole of Upper Burma was added to the British 
Empire of India, making the English conquest of the country 
complete. This opened the way for a large and rapid increase 
of the missionary work, and threw the .responsibility upon the 



54 

Baptists of America to enter the doors which were thus thrown 
open before them. Missionary work, begun in Bhamo in 
1877, had been carried on with frequent interruptions and 
little success, and about a year before the war the missionaries 
had been wholly driven from Bhamo by an invasion of 
Chinese, Shans, and Kachins, who captured the city. Immedi- 
ately after the capture of Mandalay, missionary work was 
( opened in that city and has been firmly established and con- 
tinued with success. A fine church has been erected as a 
memorial to Adoniram Judson, who suffered so greatly at 
various spots within sight of its tall and graceful spire. The 
work at Bhamo was also resumed and has been carried on 
with efficiency and success under the leadership of Rev. W. H. 
Roberts, the efforts there being chiefly directed towards the 
Kachins and the Shans. Stations in Upper Burma have also 
been opened at Myingyan, at Sagaing opposite the ancient 
site of the old Burman capital of Ava, and at Meiktila, the 
sanitary headquarters of the military forces of Upper Burma. 
The conquest of Upper Burma by the British not only 
prepared the way for enlarged work of missions among the 
Burmans, but has thrown open the country of various subordi- 
nate tribes and peoples. The whole of the Shan country is 
under British power and influence. Opportunity is afforded 
for mission work among the Kachins and Chins, and the way 
opened to realize the early dream of the missionaries that the 
time would come when the missions in Burma and those in 
Assam would be united. This is now being accomplished by 
the establishment of a mission station in Ukrul in Manipur, 
and the missionaries in Burma and Assam, in their farthest 
missionary travels, are rapidly approaching each other. 

Since the dethronement of Thibaw, who was regarded as 
the head of Buddhism, the priesthood of that religion has 
become demoralized in Burma, and Christianity has made 
more rapid progress among the Burman people than ever 



55 

before. The Burman converts in the Baptist churches in 
Burma now number nearly three thousand and work is carried 
on among this people in sixteen different stations. The 
history of the mission to the Burmans has been lighted by 
heroic endurance and steadfast perseverance, and, until 
recently, shadowed by violent opposition, persecution, and 
superstitious bigotry. The temporal power of the Burman 
Empire is forever eclipsed, the confidence of the Buddhist 
priesthood in the supremacy of their faith is overthrown, and 
their influence over the people is shattered. The mountains 
of difficulty which have so long hindered the progress of the 
Burman Mission are being levelled and the valleys of sorrow 
filled up, and a way is prepared for the progress of the King 
of Glory among the proud, superstitious, and bigoted Burmans, 
along which his chariot is even now coursing with increasing 
rapidity. The light of Asia is becoming dim before the 
dazzling splendor of the Light of the World, and with the 
increasing commercial prosperity in Burma and its enlarged 
political importance as a fully accredited province of the 
British Indian Empire the gates are open for the full entrance 
into Burma the earliest mission ground of American Bap- 
tists and the scene of its most heroic services and sufferings 
. of the King of kings and Lord of lords. 




BURMA AND THE KARENS 



THE population of Burma is about 8,000,000, made up of 
of various races. It is the most prosperous province 
of India. Its territory is diversified, generally fertile, and well 
watered. The internal 
commerce is extensive 
and the foreign trade is 
large and profitable. 
The principal exports are 
rice and teak timber. 
The prevailing religion 
is Buddhism, and the 
people are free from the 
iron fetters of caste 
which bind their neigh- 
bors across the Bay of 
Bengal. Social life in 
Burma is therefore freer 
and more comfortable 
than in India, education 
is more general, and 
wages are more than 
three times as high. 

At the beginning of 
authentic Burman his- 
tory the lower part of 

Burma was held by the Talaings or Peguans. These were 
conquered by the Burmans, about two hundred years ago, 
who held all Burma until it was taken from them by England. 
Within the limits of Burma there are said to be as many 
as forty-seven different races, which are scattered over the 
country, often mingling closely together in both town and 
country. 

The KARENS are divided into several tribes, using as many 
different dialects. Some of these resemble each other so 
much that communication between them is not difficult, 

(56) 




CHRISTIAN KAREN SCHOOL GIRLS 



57 

and in mission work the same books may be used ; while oth- 
ers are so dissimilar that it requires close scientific observa- 
tion to detect the resemblances. In general, the Karens are 
small of stature, but well proportioned, and of a quiet and 
peaceful disposition. It is supposed that they originally occu- 
pied the hills of Burma, but as many are now found upon 
the plains as the mountains. They usually depend upon 
agriculture for their subsistence. The Karens say that they 




RICE CULTIVATION IN BURMA 

came originally from the north, " across the river of running 
sand," which is held by some to be a name given to the desert 
between China and Tartary; but others think the meaning 
uncertain. They have traditions which correspond in a re- 
markable manner with the Old Testament account of the 
Creation, Temptation, and Fall of Man, and also of the 
Flood. They claim to have had religious books formerly, 
which were lost by their ancestors. From these traditions, 
many have argued that the Karens are descended from the 



BURMA AND THE KARENS 



THE population of Burma is about 8,000,000, made up of 

of various races. It is the most prosperous province 

of India. Its territory is diversified, generally fertile, and well 

watered. The internal 

commerce is extensive 

and the foreign trade is 

large and profitable. 

The principal exports are 

rice and teak timber. 

The prevailing religion 

is Buddhism, and the 

people are free from the 

iron fetters of caste 

which bind their neigh- 
bors across the Bay of 

Bengal. Social life in 

Burma is therefore freer 

and more comfortable 

than in India, education 

is more general, and 
wages are more than 
three times as high. 
At the beginning of 
authentic Burman his- 
tory the lower part of 

Burma was held by the Talaings or Peguans. These were 
conquered by the Burmans, about two hundred years ago, 
who held all Burma until it was taken from them by England. 
Within the limits of Burma there are said to be as many 
as forty- seven different races, which are scattered over the 
country, often mingling closely together in both town and 
country. 

The KARENS are divided into several tribes, using as many 
different dialects. Some of these resemble each other so 
much that communication between them is not difficult, 

(56) 




CHRISTIAN KAREN SCHOOL GIRLS 



57 

and in mission work the same books may be used ; while oth- 
ers are so dissimilar that it requires close scientific observa- 
tion to detect the resemblances. In general, the Karens are 
small of stature, but well proportioned, and of a quiet and 
peaceful disposition. It is supposed that they originally occu- 
pied the hills of Burma, but as many are now found upon 
the plains as the mountains. They usually depend upon 
agriculture for their subsistence. The Karens say that they 




RICE CULTIVATION IN BURMA 

came originally from the north, " across the river of running 
sand," which is held by some to be a name given to the desert 
between China and Tartary; but others think the meaning 
uncertain. They have traditions which correspond in a re- 
markable manner with the Old Testament account of the 
Creation, Temptation, and Fall of Man, and also of the 
Flood. They claim to have had religious books formerly, 
which were lost by their ancestors. From these traditions, 
many have argued that the Karens are descended from the 



58 

lost tribes of Israel ; but this has never been fully established, 
and probably never can be. The terms White, Red, and 
Black Karens, which are frequently met with, come from 
variations in the color of the dress of different tribes. The 
Karens number 663,657 in Burma, and are numerous in the 
Shan States. They also extend over into Northern Siam. 
Many are of the opinion that all the hill tribes of Burma, 
Assam, Western China, and Southern Tibet are more or less 
1 closely related, and are branches of one original stock. In 
religion, they are generally spirit or demon worshippers, and 
are very superstitious ; but they do not seem to be so firmly 
attached to their religion as the Burmans. Buddhism, as 
well as Christianity, is gaining many converts from their, 
ranks. 

The Sgaw Karens are perhaps the most numerous of the 
Karen tribes. They live chiefly in the southern part of 
Lower Burma, but are found as far north as Prome and 
Toungoo, and even over in Northern Siam to the east of 
Zimmai. The Pakus are found in the southern portion 
of the Toungoo district. The Maunephghas are east of 
Shwegyin. 

The Pwos are found in the extreme southern part of Lower 
Burma, occupying substantially the same territory as the 
Sgaws, with whom they constantly intermingle. They are a 
little more muscular, and of more settled habits than the 
Sgaw Karens, and more Burmanized. The Bghais inhabit the 
country northeast of Toungoo. They are wilder and more 
fierce in their habits than other Karen tribes, and the country 
in which they live is very mountainous. The construction 
of their dwellings is peculiar, each village consisting of a 
single house, built like a bazaar, with rooms on each side of a 
walk which runs the whole length of the building. The Red 
Karens are supposed to number more than two hundred thou- 
sand, and occupy a distinct country northeast of Toungoo 
and running into the Shan States. The Burman king made 
many efforts to conquer them ; but they still maintain their 
independence under native chiefs, who rule the two or three 
districts into which their country is divided. They are the 
most fierce and warlike of the Karen tribes, and seem to 
have held to the Karen religion in its purity. All the Karens 



59 



believe in one God, who is good, but who has little to do with 
the world at present. They also believe in spirits, good and 
bad, and in a personal devil, who is the author of all the evil 
and suffering of life. This devil and evil spirits are the prin- 
cipal objects of their worship, as they think thus to appease 
them, and so avoid the harm they might inflict. God and 




A RED KAREN VILLAGE 

good spirits they neither fear nor worship. The Red Karens 
are said to believe in seven worlds, three above and three 
below, and all worse than this ; so that, in dying, they expect 
to go inevitably to a worse place than they leave. They also 
have a system of meritorious works ; but it does not involve 
much sacrifice, as it is so arranged that those things they wish 
to do are meritorious, and only those they do not care for are 
sinful. 



58 

lost tribes of Israel ; but this has never been fully established, 
and probably never can be. The terms White, Red, and 
Black Karens, which are frequently met with, come from 
variations in the color of the dress of different tribes. The 
Karens number 663,657 in Burma, and are numerous in the 
Shan States. They also extend over into Northern Siam. 
Many are of the opinion that all the hill tribes of Burma, 
Assam, Western China, and Southern Tibet are more or less 
closely related, and are branches of one original stock. In 
religion, they are generally spirit or demon worshippers, and 
are very superstitious ; but they do not seem to be so firmly 
attached to their religion as the Burmans. Buddhism, as 
well as Christianity, is gaining many converts from their, 
ranks. 

The Sgaw Karens are perhaps the most numerous of the 
Karen tribes. They live chiefly in the southern part, of 
Lower Burma, but are found as far north as Prome and 
Toungoo, and even over in Northern Siam to the east of 
Zimmai. The Pakus are found in the southern portion 
of the Toungoo district. The Maunephghas are east of 
Shwegyin. 

The Pwos are found in the extreme southern part of Lower 
Burma, occupying substantially the same territory as the 
Sgaws, with whom they constantly intermingle. They are a 
little more muscular, and of more settled habits than the 
Sgaw Karens, and more Burmanized. The Bghais inhabit the 
country northeast of Toungoo. They are wilder and more 
fierce in their habits than other Karen tribes, and the country 
in which they live is very mountainous. The construction 
of their dwellings is peculiar, each village consisting of a 
single house, built like a bazaar, with rooms on each side of a 
walk which runs the whole length of the building. The Red 
Karens are supposed to number more than two hundred thou- 
sand, and occupy a distinct country northeast of Toungoo 
and running into the Shan States. The Burman king made 
many efforts to conquer them ; but they still maintain their 
independence under native chiefs, who rule the two or three 
districts into which their country is divided. They are the 
most fierce and warlike of the Karen tribes, and seem to 
have held to the Karen religion in its purity. All the Karens 



59 



believe in one God, who is good, but who has little to do with 
the world at present. They also believe in spirits, good and 
bad, and in a personal devil, who is the author of all the evil 
and suffering of life. This devil and evil spirits are the prin- 
cipal objects of their worship, as they think thus to appease 
them, and so avoid the harm they might inflict. God and 




A RED KAREN VILLAGE 

good spirits they neither fear nor worship. The Red Karens 
are said to believe in seven worlds, three above and three 
below, and all worse than this ; so that, in dying, they expect 
to go inevitably to a worse place than they leave. They also 
have a system of meritorious works ; but it does not involve 
much sacrifice, as it is so arranged that those things they wish 
to do are meritorious, and only those they do not care for are 
sinful. 



THE KAREN MISSION. 



GEORGE DANA BOARDMAN was sent out as a missionary to 
the Burmans, and reached Amherst early in 1827 ; but after 
a short residence there and at Moulmein, he removed to Tavoy 
with Mrs. Boardman, in April, 1828. At that time there was 
living in his family a convert, who had formerly been a slave, 
but whose freedom had been purchased by the missionaries. 
He was a Karen, and his name was Ko Thah-byu, afterward 
known as the " Karen apostle." He was baptized at Tavoy, 
May 16, 1828. Many of his people were brought to Mr. 
Boardman by Ko Thah-byu, and showed unusual suscepti- 
bility to religious impressions. In a journey into the in- 
terior, large numbers were found who received the Gospel 
with gladness, and applied for baptism, but Mr. Boardman 
thought it wise to defer the ordinance until another visit. He 
passed two years in Tavoy and vicinity, preaching the Gospel 
to the Karens, interrupted only by one short absence in 
Moulmein, occasioned by a quickly suppressed rebellion 
among the Burmans of Tavoy, and another on account of 
the state of his own health, in the spring of 1830. On 
Dec. 20 of that year, eighteen Karens were baptized, which 
increased the membership of the church to thirty-seven. Mr. 
Boardman's health was now rapidly failing, but he decided to 
make a trip into the interior with Rev. Francis Mason, who 
had come to assist in the Karen work. Feb. 9, 1831, he wit- 
nessed the baptism of thirty-four Karens by Mr. Mason. 
The party then started on their return to Tavoy, but Mr. 

(60) 



6i 



Boardman died in the arms of his wife, Feb. n, 1831, before 
they reached their home. 

Through the labors of Mr. Mason and others, the Gospel 
was widely spread among the Karens in the Tenasserim 
provinces, and many converts were baptized ; but many obsta- 
cles to the perfecting of the converts in Christian life pre- 
sented themselves through their intimate association with the 
heathen. In 1832, it was, therefore, resolved to attempt the 
gathering of the converts into Christian villages ; this was made 
possible by the somewhat nomadic habits of the Karens, and 
the plan then adopted has been pursued to a considerable 
extent in the Karen Missions since that time. In this same 
year, Mr. Wade reduced the Karen language to written form, 
and the first Karen books were printed, being a spelling-book 
and a Karen poem which had been preserved in the oral 
traditions of the people, which was found to contain a story of 
the Creation, agreeing in many particulars with the Mosaic 
record. Being free from the superstitions of Buddhism, and 
having traditions which taught them to believe that a new 
religion would be brought to them by a white foreigner from 
over the sea, which they should receive, the Karens proved 
much more accessible to the truths of the Gospel than the 
Burmans. At the end of 1833, two hundred and ninety-two 
Karens had been baptized, of whom one hundred and eighty- 
seven were in the Tavoy district, and the number of Karen 
converts rapidly multiplied, many being pupils in the schools 
which were established in connection with each mission. 
At the establishment of the Theological School in Tavoy, of 
the seventeen students, twelve were Karens. 

An important event in the Karen Mission was the arrival 
of Mr. and Mrs. Vinton in Rangoon, in October, 1836, they 
having reached Moulmein from America the year before. 
As yet, little work had been done among the Karens in Pegu. 
Ko Thah-byu had travelled through the country preaching the 



62 

Gospel to his people, and on the first visit of the missionaries, 
one hundred and seventy-three converts won through his 
preaching were baptized. All through the district the Gospel 
was received by the Karens with eagerness. The cessation of 
mission work among the Burmans in the Rangoon and the 
Pegu district, caused by the civil war in 1837, did not affect the 
Karen work. Rev. E. L. Abbott, who had reached Burma in 
1836, visited the districts of Maubee and Pantanau, and also 
Bassein, where he was received with gladness, and gained a - 
number of converts, one of whom was a young chief of unusual 
intelligence and earnestness. Although the missionaries 
were compelled to abandon the dominions of the king on ac- 
count of the prospect of war between Burma and England, 
multitudes of Karens heard the Gospel from the lips of 'this 
young chief, and in 1839 it was reported that one thousand 
persons were waiting to be baptized. Being unable to reside 
in the territory of the king of Burma, Mr. Abbott proceeded 
to Sandoway, Arakan, where he arrived March 17, 1840. 
As soon as word of his location at that place reached the 
Karens, they flocked across the mountains in multitudes to 
hear the Gospel and be baptized. The passes were jeal- 
ously guarded by the Burmans, but so many of the four thou- 
sand professing Christians in the Burman dominions escaped 
into Arakan, that the Burman governor ordered that they 
should be allowed to worship " their God," in order to prevent 
the persecuted Karens from emigrating in a body to Arakan. 
In five years, more than three thousand were baptized by Mr. 
Abbott or the native preachers under his direction, many of 
whom were in Burma Proper. The Karens endured the 
persecutions to which they were subjected with fortitude, and 
refused to give up their faith. Those who went to Arakan 
were ravaged by cholera, and the condition of this people, 
oppressed and decimated by cruelty and disease, was pitiable 
in the extreme. 



63 

In the Moulmein and Tavoy Missions the work among the 
Karens had also been carried on with great success. Around 
Moulmein there were seven Karen sub-stations, and of the 
four hundred and fifty-four church members in this mission in 
1840, the great majority were Karens, while in the Tavoy district 
there were four hundred and seventy-three church members, 
only a few of whom were Burmans. At Mergui were also 
eight out-stations, six churches, and one hundred and thirty- 
one members, nearly, if not all, Karens. In 1843 the New 
Testament was printed in Karen, and the Karen journal, 
the Morning Star, was begun in Tavoy. It was afterward 
removed to Rangoon with the mission press, where it is still 
continued. The management of the East India Company, 
which had driven Mr. and Mrs. Judson from their territories 
on their first arrival in India, had now become favorable to 
missionary operations, and since their entrance into Burma on 
the British conquest, had promoted in many ways the work 
of the missions, especially in assisting the mission schools 
among the Karens, which were justly regarded as an efficient 
means of civilizing as well as Christianizing this wild and 
timid people. 

The churches among the Karens had now become so 
numerous, that a well-established seminary had become a 
necessity, in which pastors could be trained for these rapidly 
increasing churches, and also evangelists to carry the Gospel 
to the Karens, who seemed everywhere waiting but to hear 
the Gospel in order to receive it. Rev. J. G. Binney, pastor 
of the Baptist Church at Savannah, Ga., was accordingly 
invited to go out to take charge of this important work. He 
began the school In Moulmein, in 1846. It was afterward 
removed to Rangoon, and later to Insein, where it is now under 
the care of Rev. D. A. W. Smith, D. D. Mr. Abbott visited 
the United States in 1845, wn ere his accounts of the mar- 
vellous work at Sandoway, in Arakan, and in the southwestern 



64 

districts of Burma, aroused the greatest interest. He re- 
turned in 1847, to find that the two ordained Karens had 
baptized eleven hundred and fifty converts during his 
absence, and the thirty-six native preachers reported twelve 
hundred converts as awaiting baptism. 

The Karen Theological Seminary, begun by Rev. J. G. 
Binney, at Moulmein, in the spring of 1846, at the end of that 
year had grown to a school of thirty-six pupils, most of whom 
were from the Burman dominions, and came to Moulmein 
through many difficulties ; a school for native preachers was 
also opened by Mr. Cross, at Tavoy. More than one thou- 
sand Karens were baptized in the district about Rangoon in 
the last half of 1846, all by native preachers. At the close 
of 1847, we have the first statistics of the Karen Mission, 
separate from the Burman, as follows. The field of the 
Sandoway Karen Mission was almost entirely in the Bassein 
district of Burma Proper. 











w 



















. 


a 


"2 


4) tn 
















en 


w 


(d 
















ations. 


(S 
tn 


ionarie 


1 

en 


(v'S 
M tn 


ui 

IU 

1 


1 

B, 


S2 

1 


in 

"o 
o 

JS 


=| 




w 


.J, 

o 


in 
tn 

S 


' 


o ^j 

73 x 


(J 





O 

S 


u 

w 


(5 










(U 






















ft. 


' 












Moulmein .... 


I 


21 


5 


6 


30 


io(?) 


1 06 


1,800 (?) 


2 


65 




2 


I" ( ? ) 


A 


i 


18 ( ? ) 


II 


J7 






SA 






O w 


T- 


T- 


VI 




61 


// 




4 


Sandoway .... 


I 


c 


2 


I 


31 


^0 (?) 


( ? ) 


- ., 






J 




J 






O 


*J \ / 










Total 







II 


II 








6 00*3 

















79 




43 


u ' u yo 




149 



Although much less missionary labor had been devoted to 
the Karens than to the Burmans, there were 6,093 church 



65 

members among the former, and only about two hundred 
among the latter. Dr. Francis Mason said, " I presume I have 
preached the Gospel to more Burmans than Karens ; and look- 
ing at the results, I find I have baptized about one Burman 
to fifty Karens. The reason of the great difference in these 




CHRISTIAN KARENS 

results is the difference in the preparation of the two nations 
for the reception of the Gospel. The Burmans are our 
Pharisees and Sadducees ; the Karens, our publicans and sin- 
ners." The same disparity has been noted elsewhere between 
missions among adherents of organized religious systems, and 
those in what may be called a natural religious condition. 
The high-caste Hindus have yielded but seldom to the 



6 4 

districts of Burma, aroused the greatest interest. He re- 
turned in 1847, to find that the two ordained Karens had 
baptized eleven hundred and fifty converts during his 
absence, and the thirty-six native preachers reported twelve 
hundred converts as awaiting baptism. 

The Karen Theological Seminary, begun by Rev. J. G. 
Binney, at Moulmein, in the spring of 1846, at the end of that 
year had grown to a school of thirty-six pupils, most of whom 
were from the Burman dominions, and came to Moulmein 
through many difficulties ; a school for native preachers was 
also opened by Mr. Cross, at Tavoy. More than one thou- 
sand Karens were baptized in the district about Rangoon in 
the last half of 1846, all by native preachers. At the close 
of 1847, we have the first statistics of the Karen Mission, 
separate from the Burman, as follows. The field of the 
Sandoway Karen Mission was almost entirely in the Bassein 
district of Burma Proper. 











en 


S2 
















. 


. 





O (ft 














m 


c 


tft 


rt 


S c 


. 




. 








CO 





*c 


"tn 


a 


tfi 

QJ 


T3 


12 


(A 


k 




c 


**3 


rt 


'5i 






2i 


o 


"o 


*-2 




~* 


d 


c 


^ 


cu *^ 


^ 


"3 




o 


a 




3 

OT 


"01 

3 

o 


"55 
tn 

i 


"a 


^T3 
rt 


3 

G 


1 


O 


"o 
w 













OJ 

fc. 


5* 












Moulmein .... 


I 


21 


5 


6 


30 


io(?) 


1 06 


1,800 (?) 


2 


65 


Tavoy 


2 


I"? ( ? ) 






1 8 (?) 


ii 


37 


770 




Sj. 






A O V' / 


4 








o7 


77 




4 


Sandoway .... 


I 


c 


2 


i 


-I 


70(') 


/M 


_ _,, 






J 




J 



















Total 


4 




II 


ii 


7Q 






6OQ"5 








T- 








iy 










149 



Although much less missionary labor had been devoted to 
the Karens than to the Burmans, there were 6,093 church 



65 

members among the former, and only about two hundred 
among the latter. Dr. Francis Mason said, " I presume I have 
preached the Gospel to more Burmans than Karens ; and look- 
ing at the results, I find I have baptized about one Burnian 
to fifty Karens. The reason of the great difference in these 




CHRISTIAN KARENS 

results is the difference in the preparation of the two nations 
for the reception of the Gospel. The Burmans are our 
Pharisees and Sadducees ; the Karens, our publicans and sin- 
ners." The same disparity has been noted elsewhere between 
missions among adherents of organized religious systems, and 
those in what may be called a natural religious condition. 
The high-caste Hindus have yielded but seldom to the 



66 

Gospel, while the out-castes, upon whom Hinduism has but 
little hold, have been converted in large numbers. With all 
the labors among Mohammedans, there are less than ten 
thousand converts to Christianity, but the people of many of 
the South Sea Islands have become Christians in a body. 

The Karen converts, from the first, showed a rare spirit of 
liberality. Rev. Cephas Bennett, writing from Tavoy, in 1848, 
estimates that the Karen Christians of that district were 
giving more than twice as much in proportion to their ability 
as the Baptists in America. The Karen churches connected 
with the Sandoway Karen Mission, which were chiefly located 
in the Bassein district of what was then Burma Proper, were 
reported as having nearly all built themselves houses of 
worship. Some churches already entirely supported their 
own pastors, and in 1848, forty native assistants were sup- 
ported at a cost of only six hundred rupees to the mission 
funds. The report of 1850 says, " This system of self-sup- 
port is working well ; and did the Burman government and 
their own mode of life permit the Karens to congregate to- 
gether in villages of moderate size, they would soon, it is 
believed, not only support their own pastors, but aid in send- 
ing the Gospel to the heathen around them." This they 
began to do a few years later, under the encouragement of 
more prosperous circumstances, and have ever since con- 
tinued. At their meeting in 1848, the Karen pastors of the 
Bassein district resolved that they would relinquish all assist- 
ance from mission funds, and depend wholly upon their 
churches ; a rule which has been adhered to in that mission 
to the present time. 

The second edition of the Sgaw Karen New Testament, 
carefully revised by Rev. J. H. Vinton, and corrected by Dr. 
Francis Mason, with the help of suggestions from Rev. Jona- 
than Wade and Rev. E. L. Abbott, was printed in July, 1850, 
at Moulmein, and was a great improvement on the first 



6 7 

edition. The printing of the Sgaw Karen Old Testament and 
Pwo Karen New Testament was undertaken at the Tavoy 
printing press, in charge of Rev. Cephas Bennett. The 
Sgaw Karen Scriptures were completed in 1853. Much 
other Christian literature was also printed for the Karens. 

The first meeting of the Tavoy Association was held at 
Pyeekhya, early in 1850, and an adjourned meeting met at 
Mata, Dec. 30, and continued until Jan 8, at which all the 
churches of the Tavoy and Mergui provinces were repre- 
sented by delegate or letter, except one. The business was 
largely conducted by the native brethren, and great advan- 
tage was gained from the discussions. Two evangelists were 
appointed to labor among the heathen permanently, and six 
during the dry season. At the annual meeting of the Sando- 
way Karen preachers, from Dec. u to 16, 1850, beside other 
business of importance, a " Karen Home Mission Society " 
was formed, to be entirely under the direction of the Karens. 
Three missionaries were appointed to be supported by the 
society ; and the determination was expressed to pursue the 
work until "every Karen family shall have seen the light of 
God." 

From 1836, no missionary had been permitted to reside in 
the Burman dominions, and the work among the Karens of 
the Rangoon district had been carried on chiefly by means of 
native preachers, with occasional visits from missionaries, as 
opportunity offered. Great numbers were converted and 
baptized, even under these unfavorable circumstances, and the 
persecutions which were suffered were endured with great 
fortitude and constancy. In 1851, encouraged by temporary 
favor shown Messrs. Kincaid and Dawson by the government 
at Ava, Rev. J. H. Vinton removed from Moulmein to Ran- 
goon, and was received by the Karens with joyful demonstra- 
tions. The period of the second Burmese war in 1852 
brought great suffering upon the Christian Karens, but its 



68 

conclusion at the close of that year ended their sorrows, and 
the Rangoon Karen Mission came forth from its early trials 
to a career of abundant 'prosperity, which has continued to the 
present time. 

The severity of the Burmans against the Christian Ka- 
rens of the Bassein district drove them to Arakan in such 
large numbers, that a great loss in revenue resulted; and 
the government, while allowing no missionaries among them, 
found it necessary to order that persecutions should cease, 
and sought to win back to their homes those who had 
emigrated. This comparatively favorable condition of af- 
fairs lasted till the second war between the English and 
Burmans was declared, Feb. 15, 1852. The Karens were cor- 
rectly suspected of sympathizing with the English, and during 
the continuance of the war suffered beyond expression from 
the horrible cruelties of the Burmans. On the conquest of 
the district, the English recognized the claims of the Karens 
to protection, appointed the " young chief," already referred 
to, as their chief magistrate, and took measures to promote 
their comfort and security. . Rev. E. L. Abbott and Rev. H. 
L. Van Meter arrived in Bassein, July 12, 1852, and that city 
soon became the centre of the Karen Mission, which had be- 
fore had its headquarters at Sandoway in Arakan. 

At the meeting of the General Convention of all the mis- 
sionaries in Burma, held at Moulmein,from April 4 to May 17, 
1853, a deputation from America was present, consisting of 
Rev. Solomon Peck, D. D., foreign secretary of the Mission- 
ary Union, and Rev. James N. Granger, D. D., of Providence, 
R. I. The decisions of this Convention were of the greatest 
importance, and have exercised a positive influence upon 
the missions in Burma to the present time. The immedi- 
ate establishment of new and permanent Karen stations at 
Rangoon, Bassein, Henzada, Toungoo, and Shwegyin was 
authorized, at all of which large results have since' been real- 



6 9 

ized. Mergui was abandoned as a principal station, the work 
of that district to be under the missionaries at Tavoy. The 
Karen press at Tavoy was removed to Moulmein,and consoli- 
dated with the press there, under a publication committee, so 
making one mission press for all Burma, an arrangement 
which has since been continued with advantage. The ordina- 
tion of a larger number of native preachers among the Karens, 
and greater attention to oral preaching of the Gospel to the 
heathen, as the divinely appointed method of evangelization, 
were recommended. Primary schools were to be as far as 
possible self-supporting, and under missionary supervision; 
normal schools were to be established at the principal stations, 
for training teachers and preachers. Other boarding schools, 
and the teaching of English in mission schools, were discour- 
aged, and the continuance of a general Karen Theological 
School at Moulmein, for all Burma, was approved. Radical 
changes were thus introduced into the conduct of missions in 
Burma, some of which it has been necessary to modify on 
experience, but the Convention, as a whole, was the means of 
a great advance in the missions, and gave an impetus to the 
work which is still operating beneficially, 

The opening of each of the five new Karen stations in 
1853 was attended with signal blessings. In the Rangoon 
district, the work of God spread in all directions among the 
Karens. Twenty churches were formed, and more than one 
thousand baptized the first year. At the annual meeting of 
the Bassein Karen Mission, six hundred and forty-four bap- 
tisms were reported, and it was decided that " For preach- 
ers, pastors, and ordained ministers, we shall expend no more 
of ,the money of our American brethren." Five hundred 
and seventy-seven were baptized the first year in the Shwe- 
gyin Mission, nearly all by one Karen preacher, Sau Doomoo, 
and six churches were formed. Around Henzada, Rev. B. 
C. Thomas found a large Karen population, from whom he 



TO 

received a cordial reception; one hundred and fifty were 
baptized the first year of work, and from Toungoo an im- 
mense number of Karens were found to be accessible. Dr. 
Francis Mason was able only to open the work under favorable 
circumstances, when he was compelled to return to America 
on account of his health. He left the infant mission to the 
efficient care of Sau Quala, who baptized the first two con- 
verts in January, 1854, and more than two thousand the first 
two years. The Karen Theological Seminary continued at 
Moulmein until 1859, under the care of Rev. Jonathan Wade, 
D. D., increasing in importance and usefulness with the rapid 
growth of the Karen missions ; and in 1858, the principles of 
self-help had made considerable progress among the Tavoy, 
Toungoo, Shwegyin, and Henzada Karens, while in the 
Moulmein Karen Mission the Christians seemed to desire 
help from the missionaries in temporal as well as religious 
affairs. 

In 1850, Rev. J. G. Binney, D. D., resumed the care of the 
Karen Theological Seminary, which was then removed to 
Rangoon, and Dr. Wade began to devote his whole attention 
to preparing commentaries and theological works in the Karen 
language, of which there was felt to be a pressing need, owing 
to the rapid growth of the Karen churches, and the conse- 
quent increase of native preachers. In the Toungoo Mission 
alone, one thousand ninety-six Karens were baptized in that 
year, and the limits of the work were extended to the borders 
and even into the country of the Red Karens. The first 
printed book in the Red Karen dialect was a tract issued 
from the press in Moutmein in 1860. Owing to the diminished 
receipts of the Missionary Union during the years of the 
Civil War, the mission work in Burma could not be extended 
as fast as the growing interest demanded. Native preachers 
could not be supplied to fill the numerous requests, and 
partly owing to unusual sickness among the missionaries, the 



stations of Tavoy and Shwegyin were left without resident 
missionaries for several years; the injurious effects of this 
deprivation are felt in these fields to the present day. 

Although the results of the Convention held at Moulmein in 
1853 were generally beneficial, the principles regarding the 
conduct of mission schools, adopted by the Executive Commit- 
tee, on recommendation of the deputation from America, were 
not acceptable to a number of the missionaries, nearly all of 
whom were laboring in the Karen work. The rules adopted,, 
with other complications, resulted in the resignation of several 
missionaries, and the separation of the Rangoon and Bassein 
Sgaw Karen Missions from the Missionary Union, for seven- 
teen years in the former case, and thirteen in the latter. 
After a trial of thirteen years, experience showed that the 
principles adopted on the conduct of mission schools were 
too stringent in some directions, and, while still placing the 
chief stress on oral preaching of the Gospel as the principal 
work of a missionary, greater latitude was permitted in estab- 
lishing and maintaining schools, as the best judgment might 
show to be most beneficial in the various stations. In 1867,. 
two ladies were appointed specially for the work of teaching : 
one of whom was Miss Isabella Watson to the Sgaw Karen 
school at Bassein, one of the two pioneers in the enlarged 
school work in the missions, now under the special patronage 
of the Woman's Missionary Societies. In 1867, the statistics 
of the Karen Missions stood as follows : 




70 

received a cordial reception; one hundred and fifty were 
baptized the first year of work, and from Toungoo an im- 
mense number of Karens were found to be accessible. Dr. 
Francis Mason was able only to open the work under favorable 
circumstances, when he was compelled to return to America 
on account of his health. He left the infant mission to the 
efficient care of Sau Quala, who baptized the first two con- 
verts in January, 1854, and more than two thousand the first 
two years. The Karen Theological Seminary continued at 
Moulmein until 1859, under the care of Rev. Jonathan Wade, 
D. D., increasing in importance and usefulness with the rapid 
growth of the Karen missions ; and in 1858, the principles of 
self-help had made considerable progress among the Tavoy, 
Toungoo, Shwegyin, and Henzada Karens, while in the 
Moulmein Karen Mission the Christians seemed to desire 
help from the missionaries in temporal as well as religious 
affairs. 

In 1850, Rev. J. G. Binney, D. D., resumed the care of the 
Karen Theological Seminary, which was then removed to 
Rangoon, and Dr. Wade began to devote his whole attention 
to preparing commentaries and theological works in the Karen 
language, of which there was felt to be a pressing need, owing 
to the rapid growth of the Karen churches, and the conse- 
quent increase of native preachers. In the Toungoo Mission 
alone, one thousand ninety-six Karens were baptized in that 
year, and the limits of the work were extended to the borders 
and even into the country of the Red Karens. The first 
printed book in the Red Karen dialect was a tract issued 
from the press in Moulmein in 1860. Owing to the diminished 
receipts of the Missionary Union during the years of the 
Civil War, the mission work in Burma could not be extended 
as fast as the growing interest demanded. Native preachers 
could not be supplied to fill the numerous requests, and 
partly owing to unusual sickness among the missionaries, the 



stations of Tavoy and Shwegyin were left without resident 
missionaries for several years; the injurious effects of this 
depnvntion are felt in these fields to the present day. 

Although the results of the Convention held at Moulnaein in 
1853 were generally beneficial, the principles regarding the 
conduct of mission schools, adopted by the Executive Commit- 
tee, on recommendation of the deputation from America, were 
not acceptable to a number of the missionaries, nearly all of 
whom were laboring in the Karen work. The rules adopted,, 
with other complications, resulted in the resignation of several 
missionaries, and the separation of the Rangoon and Bassein 
Sgaw Karen Missions from the Missionary Union, for seven- 
teen years in the former case, and thirteen in the latter. 
After a trial of thirteen years, experience showed that the 
principles adopted on the conduct of mission schools were 
too stringent in some directions, and, while still placing the 
chief stress on oral preaching of the Gospel as the principal 
work of a missionary, greater latitude was permitted in estab- 
lishing and maintaining schools, as the best judgment might 
show to be most beneficial in the various stations. In 1867, 
two ladies were appointed specially for the work of teaching : 
one of whom was Miss Isabella Watson to the Sgaw Karen 
school at Bassein, one of the two pioneers in the enlarged 
school work in the missions, now under the special patronage 
of the Woman's Missionary Societies. In 1867, the statistics 
of the Karen Missions stood as follows : 




72 



Stations. 


rt 

"in 



Ordained native 
Preachers. 


JH i-i 
- <y 

J 1 


Churches. 


Baptized in 1867. 


Members. 


en 
"o 
O 

5 

en 

"S. 



Contributions in 
Rupees (= 450.) 


Rangoon 


2 


7 




46 


"9 


2,8 1 2 


1,267 




Bassein 


C 


rS 




71 


202 


6,174 


1OCK 


I4.QII 


Henthada 


2 


q 


61 


6? 


165 


I . ^o*? 




2,677 






8 


18 




28 




287 




'Toungoo 


A 


7 




1 08 




4,0 c8 


^"j 


1.760 




2 




ii 


1C. 




86-? 


14.2 


'j u y 
* 


Tavoy 




J 

c 


17 


* 
18 


60 


'-"-'j 


I7Q 


602 




















Total 


17 






- 8 


1,006 


18,21:4. 


3,8 CO 



















o^jy 


' 



* Not reported. 



The Bassein Sgaw Karen Normal and Industrial Institute 
was established in 1858, by Rev. J. S. Beecher, then laboring 
Tinder the auspices of the Free Mission Society. The 
Karens paid for the school buildings, costing about two thou- 
sand dollars, and the government granted ten acres of land 
at the top of "-White Book Hill" (Sahbyugon), to be free 
from taxes " so long as it shall be used for bona fide mission 
purposes." In the spring of 1866, Mr. Beecher, on account 
of failing health, was compelled to leave Burma, never to 
return. And at the urgent request of the Sgaw Karen pastors 
of Bassein, Rev. B. C. Thomas was transferred to the care 
of that mission. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas had accomplished a 
great work among the Karens of Henzada, and conducted 



73 

the affairs of the important work in Bassein with wisdom and 
devotion, until their departure for America, in 1867, on 
account of the health of Mr. Thomas. Worn out by his long 
and arduous labors, he died the day after reaching New York. 
The question of a proper provision for the Bassein Sgaw 
Karen Mission was a difficult and pressing one, but after full 
correspondence, the Executive Committee arrived at a decis- 
ion at a special meeting, Oct. 26, 1867, and made the first 
use of the Atlantic cable to announce the result to the mis- 
sionaries in Burma, " Carpenter transferred to Bassein, and 
Smith to Rangoon." The dispatch was delivered to the con- 
vention assembled at Bassein in three days after leaving 
Boston, and brought relief to anxious deliberations. Rev. 
D. A. W. Smith, who had been at Henzada, and was thus 
transferred to the Karen Theological Seminary, soon returned 
to his mission field at Henzada. Rev. C. H. Carpenter was 
taken from the Seminary to the Sgaw Karen Mission at 
Bassein ; fitted by both temperament and ability, he success- 
fully continued the work in the lines of Abbott and Beecher. 
The year 1871 was signalized by three events of high im- 
port to the interest of the Karen Mission : The reunion of 
the Rangoon Sgaw Karen work with the Missionary Union, 
and the appointment of Rev. J. B. Vinton as a missionary; 
the reconciliation of nearly all the alienated Karen churches 
of the Toungoo district, and the reappointment of Rev. 
Francis Mason, D. D. ; and the formation of the Woman's 
Baptist Foreign Missionary Societies, having headquarters at 
Boston and Chicago, as auxiliary to the Missionary Union. 
While the latter event is related to all the fields of the Union, 
it has special significance for the Karen Missions, since it is 
among this people that the school work, the support of which 
has been chiefly assumed by the Woman's Societies, has 
been most extended. The Rangoon Baptist College, the 
establishment of which had been authorized in 1871, was 



74 

finally opened May 28, 1872, under the care of Rev. J. G= 
Binney, D. D., and Rev. John Packer. Dr. Binney also con- 
tinued as president of the Karen Theological Seminary, the 
two institutions being near each other. The following year. 
Rev. C. H. Carpenter,. just returned from a visit to America, 
was appointed president of the college, where he continued 
until March, 1875, when he returned to his old field at Bas- 
sein, and Rev. John Packer was appointed president of the 
college. On the return of Dr. Binney to America, in 1876, 
Rev. D. A. W. Smith assumed charge of the Theological 
Seminary at Rangoon. This appointment continues un- 
changed. 

In 1878, fifty years from the baptism of the first Karen 
convert, Ko Thah-byu, the number of members in the Karen 
Baptist churches in Burma was 20,007. This jubilee of the 
Karen Mission was celebrated at Bassein, May 16 (the fiftieth 
anniversary of Ko Thah-byu's baptism), by the dedication of 
the Ko Thah-byu Memorial Hall, for the use of the Bassein 
Sgaw Karen Normal and Industrial Institute, and accommo- 
dating three hundred boarding pupils. This, with other aux- 
iliary buildings, was built entirely at the cost of the Bassein 
Karens, and on the day of dedication, the building fund had 
reached the sum of fis. 42,342-3 or about $22,000, and all debts 
were paid. During that year the contributions of the Bassein 
Sgaw Karens, for all religious and educational purposes, 
amounted to more than J?s. 50,000. In addition to their usual 
annual contributions, they have since raised an endowment 
fund for the Institute, which is invested in the United States, 
and in 1893 amounted to $13,669.50. The total contributions 
to their building fund made by this people was $30,479.78. 

From the time of the formation of the Burma Baptist Con- 
vention in 1865, repeated attempts had been made toward 
the evangelization of the Karens in Siam, by American and 
native missionaries, but nothing of a permanent character 



74 

finally opened May 28, 1872, under the care of Rev. J. G= 
Binney, D. D., and Rev. John Packer. Dr. Binney also con- 
tinued as president of the Karen Theological Seminary, the 
two institutions being near each other. The following year, 
Rev. C. H. Carpenter, .just returned from a visit to America, 
was appointed president of the college, where he continued 
until March, 1875, when he returned to his old field at Bas- 
sein, and Rev. John Packer was appointed president of the 
college. On the return of Dr. Binney to America, in 1876, 
Rev. D. A. W. Smith assumed charge of the Theological 
Seminary at Rangoon. This appointment continues un- 
changed. 

In 1878, fifty years from the baptism of the first Karen 
convert, Ko Thah-byu, the number of members in the Karen 
Baptist churches in Burma was 20,007. This jubilee of the 
Karen Mission was celebrated at Bassein, May 16 (the fiftieth 
anniversary of Ko Thah-byu's baptism), by the dedication of 
the Ko Thah-byu Memorial Hall, for the use of the Bassein 
Sgaw Karen Normal and Industrial Institute, and accommo- 
dating three hundred boarding pupils. This, with other aux- 
iliary buildings, was built entirely at the cost of the Bassein 
Karens, and on the day of dedication, the building fund had 
reached the sum of Rs. 42,342-3 or about $22,000, and all debts 
were paid. During that year the contributions of the Bassein 
Sgaw Karens, for all religious and educational purposes, 
amounted to more than J?s. 50,000. In addition to their usual 
annual contributions, they have since raised an endowment 
fund for the Institute, which is invested in the United States, 
and in 1893 amounted to $13,669.50. The total contributions 
to their building fund made by this people was $30,479.78. 

From the time of the formation of the Burma Baptist Con- 
vention in 1865, repeated attempts had been made toward 
the evangelization of the Karens in Siam, by American and 
native missionaries, but nothing of a permanent character 



7 6 

was effected until 1881, when an expedition under Rev. 
David Webster and Rev. Walter Bushell, with several native 
preachers, penetrated into the Laos country of Northern 
Siam, beyond Chiengmai (Zimmai), and found considerable 
communities of Karens in the Lakon district, ready to re- 
ceive the Gospel. They baptized seventy and formed three 
churches. The missionaries soon returned to Burma, leaving 
several native preachers to carry on the work, several of whom 
had their families with them ; but within a year or more, all 
the preachers except one returned to Burma, and the work 
among the Karens of Northern Siam has been discontinued. 
Their numbers are so small and so widely scattered that 
mission work among them is very difficult. In 1883 the com- 
pleted translation of the Bible into Pvvo Karen, the work of 
Rev. D. L. Brayton, assisted by his daughter, Mrs. A. T. Rose, 
was issued from the mission press at Rangoon, and put into 
general circulation, thus giving the entire Word of God to all 
the Karens in Burma. The scope of the Karen Theological 
Seminary was enlarged in 1894, so as to admit representatives 
of all races in Burma, and Rev. W. F. Thomas was added to 
the faculty. In 1895 Rev. F. H. Eveleth was called from 
Sandoway to have charge of the Burman department in the 
seminary, Mr. Thomas proposing to open an English depart- 
ment after visiting America. 

The American Baptist mission to the Karens of Burma is 
justly regarded as one of the most illustrious of the miracles 
of modern missions. In the readiness with which the gospel 
has been received, in the large number of converts gathered, 
.and in the development of self-supporting, self-directing, and 
self-propagating churches, the mission stands conspicuous 
.among all missionary efforts in the world. At the present 
time there are more than five hundred Baptist churches 
among the Karens, of which about four hundred are entirely 
maintained by the Karens themselves, and the converts num- 



77 

ber nearly thirty-three thousand, with a large and orderly 
Christian community numbering nearly a quarter of a million. 
From a timid, scattered, wild, and oppressed people, the 
Karens have advanced, by the influence of Christian mis- 
sionary work, to a condition of prosperity, self-reliance, and 
independence. These splendid results have been realized not 
only in the Christian community itself, but in a degree among 
the whole Karen people of Burma. After the conquest of 
Upper Burma by the British, and the scattering of the native 
Burman army, large numbers of these disbanded soldiers 
formed themselves into organized companies of robbers or 
dacoits, which carried murder and destruction throughout the 
country. Against these wild and rapidly moving bands the 
trained British soldiers were almost useless. In this emer- 
gency the government called upon the Karens, and these 
people, formerly timid and retiring, led and encouraged largely 
by Christians, pursued the wild bands of dacoits to their 
retreats in the mountains and forests, dispersed- them, and 
restored the country to comparative order. The order of the 
British authorities that no natives should be allowed to carry 
arms was rescinded in favor of the Karens, and their loyalty 
and efficiency as police so highly commended itself to the 
government that a large part of the police duty of Burma is 
now in the hands of the Karens. 

The Christian Karens are raised above their heathen neigh- 
bors in industry and order, and their villages have gained the 
distinct and repeated approval of the government officials, 
who recognize that it is Christianity which has been the means 
of placing the Karen people where they now stand. The 
Administrator's report for Burma says, " The Karen race and 
British government owe a great deal to the American mission- 
aries, who have, under Providence, wrought this change among 
the Karens of Burma." 

The prospect of the Karen mission for the future is no less 



78 

pleasing and inspiring than its history for the past. The mis- 
sion, prosperous from the first, goes on with increasing power 
and influence, enjoying the favor of God, and gaining the 
approval of man. It is a distinct proof of the power of the 
religion of Jesus Christ to raise a degraded, ignorant, and 
superstitious people to a position of respectability, honor, 
and influence, and illustrates more than almost any other 
movement in the history of the Christian church the wisdom 
of the Saviour when he said, "The poor have the gospel 
preached to them," and the profound and far-reaching divine 
philosophy which plants the gospel among the lowest of the 
people that its influence may fulfil their heaven-born aspira- 
tions, and rise from the poor and ignorant up through every 
class of society until the leaven permeates the whole mass of 
the social and political organism. Blessed with the favor 
of God, and having been made a blessing to all the peoples 
of Burma, the Karen mission has the brightest prospects for 
a grand and triumphant spiritual development in the future. 




78 

pleasing and inspiring than its history for the past. The mis- 
sion, prosperous from the first, goes on with increasing power 
and influence, enjoying the favor of God, and gaining the 
approval of man. It is a distinct proof of the power of the 
religion of Jesus Christ to raise a degraded, ignorant, and 
superstitious people to a position of respectability, honor, 
and influence, and illustrates more than almost any other 
movement in the history of the Christian church the wisdom 
of the Saviour when he said, "The poor have the gospel 
preached to them," and the profound and far-reaching divine 
philosophy which plants the gospel among the lowest of the 
people that its influence may fulfil their heaven-born aspira- 
tions, and rise from the poor and ignorant up through every 
class of society until the leaven permeates the whole mass of 
the social and political organism. Blessed with the favor 
of God, and having been made a blessing to all the peoples 
of Burma, the Karen mission has the brightest prospects for 
a grand and triumphant spiritual development in the future. 




98 Greenwich 98 




MINOR MISSIONS IN BURMA 



ALTHOUGH the principal efforts of Baptist missions in Burma 
have been exerted among the Burmans and the Karens, mission- 
ary operations have been gradually enlarged so as to reach nearly 
all the numerous races in that country, which are said to num- 
ber as many as forty-seven. Separate missions are maintained 
among all of the principal races which are important enough 
to be mentioned by name in the census report of 1891, with 
the exception of the Chinese. The numerous minor divisions 
of the people of Burma are allied to one or another of these 
principal races among whom missions are maintained, and so 
are in some degree reached by the gospel of Christ. 

THE SHAN MISSION 

The Shans are in number the third race in Burma. In the 
census of 1891, the whole population of the province is given 
as 8,057,558, of whom 6,129,182 were Burmans and Takings, 
and 663,657 were Karens. The Shans numbered 582,655, of 
whom 94,302 were in Lower Burma, 112,492 in Upper Burma, 
and 375,961 in the tributary Shan states. They are the Bur- 
man branch of that great race, perhaps the most numerous in 
southeastern Asia, called by the general name of Tai, and 
speaking dialects of the same language wherever found, so that 
persons who have learned the Shan language in Burma can 
easily travel and converse with the people in Siam, in the 
Yunnan province of China, or among the Khamtis of Assam. 
In Burma the Shans are the travelling traders of the country, 
and every year large numbers come down from the Shan states 
bringing herds of ponies and large quantities of the products 
of Shanland for sale. They have no independent government 
of their own, but are divided into principalities governed by 
chiefs called sawbwas, and they are again subject to the 
authority of the lands where they live, whether in Burma, 

(81; 



82 

Siam, or China. They are an active, intelligent, and enterpris- 
ing people, occupying many positions of trust and responsi- 
bility in Burma, and the British government continues to govern 
the Shan states through their sawbwas, to whom much inde- 
pendent action is allowed. In religion the Shans are Buddh- 
ists, and those in Burma are excessively bigoted and hard to 
evangelize, but it is stated that Buddhism has a less firm hold 
upon the Shans in the territory where they are most numerous. 




SHAN MISSION HOUSE, TOUNGOO 

The Shans had attracted some attention from earlier mis- 
sionaries, but the first to be appointed to labor specially 
among them was Rev. Moses H. Bixby, who, with his wife, 
left America in December, 1860, and settled in Toungoo, 
where there were a large number of Shans who had recently 
been driven out of their own territory by the civil war raging 
in Upper Burma. Toungoo remained the principal centre of 
the Shan mission for thirty years. From there Dr. Bixby 



83 

made many journeys among the Shans, and did much to 
attract attention to that people, but on account of the un- 
settled state of the country he was not able to open mission 
work in Shanland itself. A small church of Shans and Bur- 
mans was formed in Toungoo and schools established for the 
people. The most important single addition which the Shan 
mission ever received reached Burma in March, 1867, con- 
sisting of Rev. J. N. Gushing and Mrs. Gushing and Miss 
A. R. Gage. Miss Gage gave herself to the study of the 
Burman language, as this was more important for work in 
the schools, but Mr. and Mrs. Gushing applied themselves to 
the study of the language of the Shan people. They had no 
books to help them, but they made such progress that after a 
time they were able to converse with the people, and imme- 
diately began the preparation of tracts and other literature in 
the Shan language. Mr. Gushing, with Rev. A. T. Rose, 
visited the western part of Shanland in 1868, and he has made 
many extended and hazardous journeys throughout the length 
and breadth of the Shan states, including those under the 
control of Siam, becoming thoroughly acquainted with the 
country and with the people. The knowledge gained in these 
journeys has been of immense assistance to the British Gov- 
ernment and in the development of the Shan mission, which 
has now found its true and principal home in the Shan coun- 
try itself. In 1869 Mrs. Gushing accompanied her husband 
on an extended and perilous tour through the Shan country, 
as far as the Mekong River, which has now become the 
boundary between the French and British territory. They 
travelled over ten mountain ranges, some of which rise to a 
height of more than six thousand feet above the sea. On 
this journey they were seized, not by the Shans but by Burman 
soldiers ; their books were burned and they were sent out of 
the country with threats. Having spent a short time in Ran- 
goon in 1869, in November, 1870, they made their home at 
Toungoo and strengthened the little church which had been 
gathered there. In 1871 the Gospel of Matthew and a gram- 
mar of the Shan language, the first Christian books to appear 
in that tongue, were published. 

The progress of the Shan mission in Burma has been marked 
by a singular fatality among the promising and able workers 



82 

Siam, or China. They are an active, intelligent, and enterpris- 
ing people, occupying many positions of trust and responsi- 
bility in Burma, and the British government continues to govern 
the Shan states through their sawbwas, to whom much inde- 
pendent action is allowed. In religion the Shans are Buddh- 
ists, and those in Burma are excessively bigoted and hard to 
evangelize, but it is stated that Buddhism has a less firm hold 
upon the Shans in the territory where they are most numerous. 




SHAN MISSION HOUSE, TOUNGOO 

The Shans had attracted some attention from earlier mis- 
sionaries, but the first to be appointed to labor specially 
among them was Rev. Moses H. Bixby, who, with his wife, 
left America in December, 1860, and settled in Toungoo, 
where there were a large number of Shans who had recently 
been driven out of their own territory by the civil war raging 
in Upper Burma. Toungoo remained the principal centre of 
the Shan mission for thirty years. From there Dr. Bixby 



83 

made many journeys among the Shans, and did much to 
attract attention to that people, but on account of the un- 
settled state of the country he was not able to open mission 
work in Shanland itself. A small church of Shans and Bur- 
mans was formed in Toungoo and schools established for the 
people. The most important single addition which the Shan 
mission ever received reached Burma in March, 1867, con- 
sisting of Rev. J. N. Gushing and Mrs. Gushing and Miss 
A. R. Gage. Miss Gage gave herself to the study of the 
Burman language, as this was more important for work in 
the schools, but Mr. and Mrs. Gushing applied themselves to 
the study of the language of the Shan people. They had no 
books to help them, but they made such progress that after a 
time they were able to converse with the people, and imme- 
diately began the preparation of tracts and other literature in 
the Shan language. Mr. Gushing, with Rev. A. T. Rose, 
visited the western part of Shanland in 1868, and he has made 
many extended and hazardous journeys throughout the length 
and breadth of the Shan states, including those under the 
control of Siam, becoming thoroughly acquainted with the 
country and with the people. The knowledge gained in these 
journeys has been of immense assistance to the British Gov- 
ernment and in the development of the Shan mission, which 
has now found its true and principal home in the Shan coun- 
try itself. In 1869 Mrs. Gushing accompanied her husband 
on an extended and perilous tour through the Shan country, 
as far as the Mekong River, which has now become the 
boundary between the French and British territory. They 
travelled over ten mountain ranges, some of which rise to a 
height of more than six thousand feet above the sea. On 
this journey they were seized, not by the Shans but by Burman 
soldiers ; their books were burned and they were sent out of 
the country with threats. Having spent a short time in Ran- 
goon in 1869, in November, 1870, they made their home at 
Toungoo and strengthened the little church which had been 
gathered there. In 1871 the Gospel of Matthew and a gram- 
mar of the Shan language, the first Christian books to appear 
in that tongue, were published. 

The progress of the Shan mission in Burma has been marked 
by a singular fatality among the promising and able workers 



8 4 

who have been sent out. Rev. J. B. Kelley arrived in Burma 
in 1872, and was drowned Jan. i, 1873, while on a journey in 
Shanland with Mr. Gushing. In 1879 Rev. B. J. Mix and wife 
joined the mission, but both were soon obliged to leave the 
country by the failure of their health. Miss Mary A. Rockwood, 
of Massachusetts, reached Toungoo in 1880 and showed the 
most promising qualifications and abilities for an able and suc- 
cessful missionary, but after less than two years of labor passed 
away from an attack of typhoid fever, a disease at that time 
almost unknown in Burma. Rev. A. J. Lyon arrived in 
Rangoon with his wife in December, 1877, but died within 
three months. The loss of able leaders greatly retarded the 
progress of the mission, but those who remained in the work 
continued to labor with great faithfulness. Mr. and Mrs. 
Gushing being compelled to return to America in 1874, again 
reached the field in October, 1876, and proceeding up the 
Irrawaddy River eight hundred miles opened a station for a 
Shan mission at Bhamo. They were delayed three weeks at 
Mandalay before an order could be obtained from the king of 
Burma, permitting their residence in Bhamo. As the little 
mission in Toungoo demanded attention and care, Mrs. Gush- 
ing went to take charge of the work there in 1877, while Mr. 
Gushing continued to labor at Bhamo. By these divided labors 
husband and wife preserved alive the bereaved mission to the 
Shans, and Mr. Gushing was able to introduce to the work at 
Bhamo Rev. W. H. Roberts, and also Rev. J. A. Freiday, the 
latter, however, returning to America after a few years of labor. 

The work of preparing religious literature in the Shan lan- 
guage pressed more and more upon Dr. and Mrs. Gushing, 
and in January, 1880, they removed to Rangoon in order to be 
near the printing press. The failure of Mrs. Cushing's health, 
however, soon compelled her to return to America. In 1881 
Dr. Gushing saw the first Shan and English Dictionary through 
the press, and the first edition of the Shan New Testament was 
published in the following year. In January, 1885, the transla- 
tion of the Old Testament into the Shan language was com- 
pleted, and the whole Bible was printed in 1891. 

Previous to this time a movement had begun toward which 
all labor for the Shan people had been directed. After the 
deposition of King Thibawby the English in December, 1885, 



85 

and the capture of Upper Burma, Shanland itself became open 
to the residence of missionaries. A station was open at Thibaw, 




REV. JOSIAH N. GUSHING, D. D. 



in the northern Shan states, in 1890, and at Mone' in 1892, 
Rev. M. B. Kirkpatrick, M. D., being the principal agent in 



34 

who have been sent out. Rev. J. B. Kelley arrived in Burma 
in 1872, and was drowned Jan. i, 1873, while on a journey in 
Shanland with Mr. Gushing. In 1879 Rev. B. J. Mix and wife 
joined the mission, but both were soon obliged to leave the 
country by the failure of their health. Miss Mary A. Rockwood, 
of Massachusetts, reached Toungoo in 1880 and showed the 
most promising qualifications and abilities for an able and suc- 
cessful missionary, but after less than two years of labor passed 
away from an attack of typhoid fever, a disease at that time 
almost unknown in Burma. Rev. A. J. Lyon arrived in 
Rangoon with his wife in December, 1877, but died within 
three months. The loss of able leaders greatly retarded the 
progress of the mission, but those who remained in the work 
continued to labor with great faithfulness. Mr. and Mrs. 
Gushing being compelled to return to America in 1874, again 
reached the field in October, 1876, and proceeding up the 
Irrawaddy River eight hundred miles opened a station for a 
Shan mission at Bhamo. They were delayed three weeks at 
Mandalay before an order could be obtained from the king of 
Burma, permitting their residence in Bhamo. As the little 
mission in Toungoo demanded attention and care, Mrs. Gush- 
ing went to take charge of the work there in 1877, while Mr. 
Gushing continued to labor at Bhamo. By these divided labors 
husband and wife preserved alive the bereaved mission to the 
Shans, and Mr. Gushing was able to introduce to the work at 
Bhamo Rev. W. H. Roberts, and also Rev. J. A. Freiday, the 
latter, however, returning to America after a few years of labor. 
The work of preparing religious literature in the Shan lan- 
guage pressed more and more upon Dr. and Mrs. Gushing, 
and in January, 1880, they removed to Rangoon in order to be 
near the printing press. The failure of Mrs. Cushing's health, 
however, soon compelled her to return to America. In 1881 
Dr. Gushing saw the first Shan and English Dictionary through 
the press, and the first edition of the Shan New Testament was 
published in the following year. In January, 1885, the transla- 
tion of the Old Testament into the Shan language was com- 
pleted, and the whole Bible was printed in 1891. 

Previous to this time a movement had begun toward which 
all labor for the Shan people had been directed. After the 
deposition of King Thibawby the English in December, 1885, 



85 

and the capture of Upper Burma, Shanland itself became open 
to the residence of missionaries. A station was open at Thibaw, 




REV. JOSIAH N. GUSHING, D. D. 



in the northern Shan states, in 1890, and at Mone in 1892, 
Rev. M. B. Kirkpatrick, M. D., being the principal agent in 



86 



the first advance, introduced to his field by Dr. Gushing, 
whose intimate knowledge of the country has been of great as- 
sistance to the later missionaries. The work at Mone, opened 
in 1892, is now under the charge of A. H. Henderson, M. D. 
In both stations medical work has occupied an important 




SHAN GIRL 



place. Dr. Gushing having seen his great literary works 
completed in the publication of the Shan Dictionary and in 
the translation and printing of the whole Bible in the Shan 
language, was called upon in 1893 to assume the care of 
the Baptist College in Rangoon which is for the benefit of all 
races in Burma. 

The Shan Mission in Bhamo has always been conducted in 



87 

connection with work for the Burmans, but both have been 
outstripped" by the Kachin Mission which has shown such 
vitality and promise in that part of Upper Burma as to attract 
the chief attention of the missionaries. In 1893, however, a 
new station was opened by Rev. W. W. Cochrane, at Namkham, 
in the centre of a large Shan population. This place is just 
across the river from the Chinese border, situated in a fertile 
and beautiful valley, and, apparently, is a most promising 
opening for direct and aggressive work among the Shans. W. 
C. Griggs, M. D., first at Mone, and later at Bhamo, has made 
his medical work an efficient ally of the direct evangelistic 
mission. Since the removal of the chief centres of the work 
to the Shan country, the Shan Mission in Toungoo has been 
consolidated with the Burman, and the 1895 statistics of the 
Mission, so far as it is separate from others, were : 12 mission- 
aries, 9 native preachers, 2 churches with 33 members. There 
are, however, many Shans in Burman churches in Toungoo, 
Thaton, and other places. 



THE CHIN MISSION 

By the 1891 census of India, 95,571 Chins were reported, 
of whom 67,667 were in Lower Burma, and 27,904 in Upper 
Burma. It is probable, however, that the enumeration in 
Upper Burma is very imperfect and that the number is largely 
in excess of that given in the census. The Chins are found 
on both sides of the western Yoma range of mountains, which 
stretches from Arakan to the Naga hills of Assam. Those to 
the south are more easily reached and more civilized, and are 
divided into four tribes using different dialects. The Chins of 
the north are wilder, fiercer, and less known. The language 
lias been reduced to writing. It is a peculiarity of this people 
that in the Chin settlements near the Burman towns the women 
are tattooed on their faces, but farther in the interior, where 
they are in no danger of capture by the ruling race, this prac- 
tice is omitted and they are of fine appearance. The Chins 
are allied to the Karens and are nominally Buddhists, but 
have not abandoned their ancient superstitions which are 
similar to those of the Karens. They believe in a Spirit, the 



86 



the first advance, introduced to his field by Dr. Gushing, 
whose intimate knowledge of the country has been of great as- 
sistance to the later missionaries. The work at Mone, opened 
in 1892, is now under the charge of A. H. Henderson, M. D. 
In both stations medical work has occupied an important 




SHAN GIRL 



place. Dr. Gushing having seen his great literary works 
completed in the publication of the Shan Dictionary and in 
the translation and printing of the whole Bible in the Shan 
language, was called upon in 1893 to assume the care of 
the Baptist College in Rangoon which is for the benefit of all 
races in Burma. - 

The Shan Mission in Bhamo has always been conducted in 



87 

connection with work for the Burmans, but both have been 
outstripped' by the Kachin Mission which has shown such 
vitality and promise in that part of Upper Burma as to attract 
the chief attention of the missionaries. In 1893, however, a 
new station was opened by Rev. W. W. Cochrane, at Namkham, 
in the centre of a large Shan population. This place is just 
across the river from the Chinese border, situated in a fertile 
and beautiful valley, and, apparently, is a most promising 
opening for direct and aggressive work among the Shans. W. 
C. Griggs, M. D., first at Mone', and later at Bhamo, has made 
his medical work an efficient ally of the direct evangelistic 
mission. Since the removal of the chief centres of the work 
to the Shan country, the Shan Mission in Toungoo has been 
consolidated with the Burman, and the 1895 statistics of the 
Mission, so far as it is separate from others, were : 12 mission- 
aries, 9 native preachers, 2 churches with 33 members. There 
are, however, many Shans in Burman churches in Toungoo, 
Thaton, and other places. 



THE CHIN MISSION 

By the 1891 census of India, 95,571 Chins were reported, 
of whom 67,667 were in Lower Burma and 27,904 in Upper 
Burma. It is probable, however, that the enumeration in 
Upper Burma is very imperfect and that the number is largely 
in excess of that given in the census. The Chins are found 
on both sides of the western Yoma range of mountains, which 
stretches from Arakan to the Naga hills of Assam. Those to 
the south are more easily reached and more civilized, and are 
divided into four tribes using different dialects. The Chins of 
the north are wilder, fiercer, and less known. The language 
lias been reduced to writing. It is a peculiarity of this people 
that in the Chin settlements near the Burman towns the women 
are tattooed on their faces, but farther in the interior, where 
they are in no danger of capture by the ruling race, this prac- 
tice is omitted and they are of fine appearance. The Chins 
are allied to the Karens and are nominally Buddhists, but 
have not abandoned their ancient superstitions which are 
similar to those of the Karens. They believe in a Spirit, the 



88 

Creator and the Supreme Ruler of the universe, but they say 
that he is so good no one need fear anything from him, and 
they worship evil spirits to which they sacrifice fowls and 
swine. 

The first convert from the Chins was baptized by Dr. Francis 
Mason, at Tavoy, Feb. i, 1837. On removing from Tavoy 
to Henzada, Mrs. C. B. Thomas found Chins in the jungle 
near Henzada in 1854, and in that same year a number of 
Chins were baptized at Prome by Eugenio Kincaid. The 
first Chin assistant to be employed in the mission was at 
Prome, in 1863, and Rev. E. O. Stevens, for many years 
missionary to the Burmans at Prome, took much interest in 
the Chins, and baptized eight at the Henzada Karen Associa- 
tion in 1882. The Chin language was reduced to writing in 
1865, by a Karen from Bassein, and much interest was awak- 
ened. In 1880 Mrs. Thomas had two Chins in her school a t 
Henzada, and" becoming deeply interested in the people, she 
travelled in the Chin country, reaching as far as Sandoway, in 
Arakan, in 1882. Rev. W. F. Thomas went to Burma in 1880, 
joining his mother at Henzada, and became deeply interested 
in the Chin people. Feeling called to work among them 
rather than the Karens, in 1884 he travelled extensively 
through the Chin country on both sides of the Yoma moun- 
tains, and baptized twenty-nine Chins at Gyatedau in Arakan, 
at which place the first Chin Association was formed. 

The most promising work among the Chins thus far was in 
southern Arakan. Mr. Thomas having visited Sandoway sev- 
eral times in journeys from Henzada, removed to that place 
and opened a station in 1888. Thus Sandoway, famous in 
Baptist missions in Burma in the early days of the Karen Mis- 
sion the headquarters of which were afterwards removed to 
Bassein, came again into the line of mission stations in Burma. 
The work among the Chins from the first was very prosperous, 
and there were 163 Chin Christians in 1889, and in were 
baptized in 1890. 

Rev. A. E. Carson, appointed to labor among the Chins, 
made a tour in the Chin country east of the Yoma Mountains, 
accompanied by Rev. W. F. Thomas, and opened a station at 
Thayetmyo in 1887. From this point he made many exten-- 
sive journeys into the Chin country to the northwest, up the 



8 9 

valley of the Chindwin River. The Chins are very numerous 
all through this territory, which offers a most favorable field 
for the further extension. of the missionary work. 

In March, 1892, Mr. Thomas was transferred from Sando- 
way to the charge of the Burman Biblical Institute in Rangoon, 
which has now become the Burman Department of the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Insein. ' He was succeeded in the Chin 
work at Sandoway by Rev. Ernest Grigg, who made extensive 
journeys in the Chin country, especially to the north, and 
opened up much territory for missionary work which had been 
closed since the early days of the mission in Arakan. In 1895, 
the Mission reported at Sandoway and Thayetmyo, 8 mission- 
aries, 25 native preachers, 17 churches, 547 members, and 16 
schools with 235 pupils. The future development of the Chin 
Mission must evidently be to the northward, along both the 
eastern and western sides of the Yoma Mountains, and will be 
greatly aided by the railway which the British government 
proposes to build up the Chindwin Valley, through the Chin 
country and Manipur to Assam. The prospects for aggressive 
work in this direction among the Chins are among the most 
favorable which are offered for advance mission work in 
Burma. 

THE KACHIN MISSION 

The Kachins being a wild hill people are not separately 
enumerated in the census of Burma for 1891, but are estimated 
to number several millions. They are found on the hills of 
northeastern Burma, extending over into China and Assam and 
north to Tibet, in the southeastern part of which they are said 
to be numerous. One tribe of this people call themselves the 
Chingpaus, and are the same as the Singphos of the south- 
eastern hills of Assam. Another of the principal tribes is 
known as the Kowrie tribe, and is numerous in the vicinity of 
Bhamo. They are gradually crowding southward into Burma, 
and, as they go, displace the Shans and other people. They 
are related in race to the Karens, having some of the same 
songs, customs, and traditions, but the language, though similar, 
has so many dialectic differences that there can be no com- 
munication between the Karens and the Kachins without learn- 



9 

ing the language anew. The Kachins are a wild and savage 
people. Robbery and murder are among their principal occu- 
pations, yet they practise in a rude way some of the arts of 
civilization. Their religion is very similar to that of the 
Karens, and, like the Karens, also, they have a tradition of a 
former revelation, which was lost. Now they worship evil 
spirits, to which they sacrifice fowls, cattle, dogs, and swine. 




KACHINS 



The first opening of missionary work among the Kachins was 
by Rev. J. N. Gushing, who in 1877 visited the mountains east 
of Bhamo, and placed several Karen teachers from Bassein in 
the Kachin mountain villages. Mr. Gushing had arrived at 
Bhamo, Dec. 22, 1876, with a view to the extension of the 
Shan mission, but he also did much for the beginning of the 
Kachin work, an interesting feature of which has been the fact 
that during all the years since 1877 there have been from two 



to five Karen foreign missionaries laboring among this people, 
wholly supported by the Karens in Bassein. Dr. Gushing 
introduced to the Kachin work Rev. W. H. Roberts, who 
arrived at Bhamo in January, 1879, and then returned to lower 
Burma to resume his own work for the Shans. The Kachin 
Dictionary or Vocabulary, begun by Dr. Gushing, was com- 
pleted by Mr. Roberts, who 'continued to be the leader in the 
mission among the Kachins. 

From the first the missionaries were well received and great 
interest was shown in the gospel by the Kachius. We are 
frequently reminded of the readiness of the Karens to receive 
the gospel, by the disposition shown by the wild and savage 
Kachins. Several were baptized each year, and the first 
Kachin church was formed in 1882 in the mountain "village of 
Poombwa, where Rev. Speh had labored for five years. Eight 
were baptized in another village the same year and a Kachin 
spelling-book was prepared in 1883. 

The year 1884 was a dark time for the mission. Wild 
Kachins and Chinese freebooters captured Mogaung and 
threatened Bhamo during all the summer of that year, and 
finally captured the city in December. All Europeans, in- 
cluding the missionaries, were obliged to flee to Lower Burma. 
But in less than a year Mandalay, the capital of Upper Burma, 
had been captured by the British, King Thibaw sent into 
exile, and all Upper Burma was open to the safe prosecution 
of the missionary work. Bhamo was reoccupied, and at the 
close of 1885 the mission numbered four Kachin preachers 
and twenty-three church members. Rev. Ola Hanson, sent 
out for the special purpose of reducing the Kachin language 
to writing, reached Bhamo in 1890. Twenty-three Kachins 
were baptized in 1891, and in 1892 such progress had been 
made in the language that twelve Kachins could read and 
write in their own language, the first among this numer- 
ous people to acquire that accomplishment. The Gospel of 
St. John had been translated, and also a catechism and 
hymn-book, which were printed by Mr. Hanson at his own 
cost. 

In 1894 Rev. George J Geis joined the mission, and after 
residing at Bhamo for a time, opened a new station at Myit- 
kyina. In the same year the work of reducing the Kachin 



90 

ing the language anew. The Kachins are a wild and savage 
people. Robbery and murder are among their principal occu- 
pations, yet they practise in a rude way some of the arts oi 
civilization. Their religion is very similar to that of the 
Karens, and, like the Karens, also, they have a tradition of a 
former revelation, which was lost. Now they worship evil 
spirits, to which they sacrifice fowls, cattle, dogs, and swine. 




KACHINS 



The first opening of missionary work among the Kachins was 
by Rev. J. N. Gushing, who in 1877 visited the mountains east 
of Bhamo, and placed several Karen teachers from Bassein in 
the Kachin mountain villages. Mr. Gushing had arrived at 
Bhamo, Dec. 22, 1876, with a view to the extension of the 
Shan mission, but he also did much for the beginning of the 
Kachin work, an interesting feature of which has been the fact 
that during all the years since 1877 there have been from two 



to five Karen foreign missionaries laboring among this people, 
wholly supported by the Karens in Bassein. Dr. Gushing 
introduced to the Kachin work Rev. W. H. Roberts, who 
arrived at Bhamo in January, 1879, an( l tnen returned to lower 
Burma to resume his own work for the Shans. The Kachin 
Dictionary or Vocabulary, begun by Dr. Gushing, was com- 
pleted by Mr. Roberts, who 'continued to be the leader in the 
mission among the Kachins. 

From the first the missionaries were well received and great 
interest was shown in the gospel by the Kachins. We are 
frequently reminded of the readiness of the Karens to receive 
the gospel, by the disposition shown by the wild and savage 
Kachins. Several were baptized each year, and the first 
Kachin church was formed in 1882 in the mountain village of 
Poombwa, where Rev. Speh had labored for five years. Eight 
were baptized in another village the same year and a Kachin 
spelling-book was prepared in 1883. 

The year 1884 was a dark time for the mission. Wild 
Kachins and Chinese freebooters captured Mogaung and 
threatened Bhamo during all the summer of that year, and 
finally captured the city in December. All Europeans, in- 
cluding the missionaries, were obliged to flee to Lower Burma. 
But in less than a year Mandalay, the capital of Upper Burma, 
had been captured by the British, King Thibaw sent into 
exile, and all Upper Burma was open to the safe prosecution 
of the missionary work. Bhamo was reoccupied, and at the 
close of 1885 the mission numbered four Kachin preachers 
and twenty-three church members. Rev. Ola Hanson, sent 
out for the special purpose of reducing the Kachin language 
to writing, reached Bhamo in 1890. Twenty-three Kachins 
were baptized in 1891, and in 1892 such progress had been 
made in the language that twelve Kachins could read and 
write in their own language, the first among this numer- 
ous people to acquire that accomplishment. The Gospel of 
St. John had been translated, and also a catechism and 
hymn-book, which were printed by Mr. Hanson at his own 
cost. 

In 1894 Rev. George J Geis joined the mission, and after 
residing at Bhamo for a time, opened a new station at Myit- 
kyina. In the same year the work of reducing the Kachin 



9 2 

language to writing was practically completed, and a system 
of printing the Kachin in Roman letters which had been pre- 
pared by the missionaries, was accepted by the government of 
India another illustration of the aid which missions afford to 
civilization. The translations which had already been made 
were revised in the Roman characters and were placed in the 




A STREET IN BHAMO 



hands of the printers. In 1895 there were five missionaries 
laboring among the Kachins, with several Karen missionaries 
from Bassein, four native preachers, one church at Bhamo, 
with one hundred and twelve members, and a thriving school 
with seventy-three pupils. For the use of the mission a good 
chapel was built at Bhamo, and called the " Lyon Memorial," 
in memory of Rev. Albert J. Lyon, whose early and lamented 
death was such a blow to the mission work at Bhamo. 



93 



OTHER RACES 

Among the smaller of the numerous races into which the 
people of Burma are divided, one of the most interesting is 
the Taungthus. They are supposed to be earlier inhabitants 
of Lower Burma than either the Burmans or Takings, and are 
most nearly related to the Pwo Karens in language and char- 
acter. They are widely scattered over Burma and the Shan 
states, and in Lower Burma number 35,220, settled princi- 
pally around their old city of Thaton. The census gives 
5,895 in Upper Burma. The Taungthus are a simple, timid 
people and Buddhists in religion. They have a written lan- 
guage and are gradually becoming assimilated to the Burmans, 
the latest census showing a slight decrease in ten years in 
Lower Burma. 

The first Taungthu convert was baptized by Dr. Judson 
about 1835, but no missionary has ever devoted his attention 
wholly to this people. A number of converts ^ave been 
gathered' especially in connection with the mission work in 
Thaton, where Mrs. J. B. Kelley labored among them, but 
no Christian literature had ever been issued in their language 
until 1895, when Rev. Edward O. Stevens of Moulmein caused 
Mrs. Judson's Catechism to be translated into Taungthu to be 
used as a tract. I n the autumn of 1 895 a preacher, U Aung-Bwe, 
won to the gospel several Taungthus in the Moulmein district 
near the Siamese frontier and hoped to be able to form a 
church. No separate church organization had previously 
been formed among them, although the Taungthu Christians 
are more numerous at Thaton than any other place. 

The Talaings were formerly the ruling race of Lower Burma. 
They are sometimes known as Peguans, and from them the 
former province of Pegu was named. Their kingdom at one 
time embraced a large part of Lower Burma. Their language 
is entirely distinct, but the Talaings are gradually becoming 
assimilated to the Burmans in language and dress, so much 
so that they are identified with the Burmans in the census 
of 1891. The Talaings who now are known by that name 
are found chiefly in the vicinity of Moulmein and number 
about 223,000. Considerable missionary work has been done 



9 2 

language to writing was practically completed, and a system 
of printing the Kachin in Roman letters which had been pre- 
pared by the missionaries, was accepted by the government of 
India, another illustration of the aid which missions afford to 
civilization. The translations which had already been made 
were revised in the Roman characters and were placed in the 




A STREET IN BHAMO 



hands of the printers. In 1895 there were five missionaries 
laboring among the Kachins, with several Karen missionaries 
from Bassem, four native preachers, one church at Bhamo 
with one hundred and twelve members, and a thriving school 
with seventy-three pupils. For the use of the mission a good 
chapel was built at Bhamo, and called the Lyon Memorial " 
in memory of Rev Albert J. Lyon, whose early and lamented 
death was such a blow to the mission work at Bhamo 



93 



OTHER RACES 

Among the smaller of the numerous races into which the 
people of Burma are divided, one of the most interesting is 
the Taungthus. They are supposed to be earlier inhabitants 
of Lower Burma than either the Burmans or Talaings, and are 
most nearly related to the Pwo Karens in language and char- 
acter. They are widely scattered over Burma and the Shan 
states, and in Lower Burma number 35,220, settled princi- 
pally around their old city of Thaton. The census gives 
5,895 in Upper Burma. The Taungthus are a simple, timid 
people and Buddhists in religion. They have a written lan- 
guage and are gradually becoming assimilated to the Burmans, 
the latest census showing a slight decrease in ten years in 
Lower Burma. 

The first Taungthu convert was baptized by Dr. Judson 
about 1835, but no missionary has ever devoted his attention 
wholly to this people. A number of converts have been 
gathered" especially in connection with the mission work in 
Thaton, where Mrs. J. B. Kelley labored among them, but 
no Christian literature had ever been issued in their language 
until 1895, when Rev. Edward O. Stevens of Moulmein caused 
Mrs. Judson's Catechism to be translated into Taungthu to be 
used as a tract. In the autumn of 1 895 a preacher, U Aung-Bwe, 
won to the gospel several Taungthus in the Moulmein district 
near the Siamese frontier and hoped to be able to form a 
church. No separate church organization had previously 
been formed among them, although the Taungthu Christians 
are more numerous at Thaton than any other place. 

The Talaings were formerly the ruling race of Lower Burma. 
They are sometimes known as Peguans, and from them the 
former province of Pegu was named. Their kingdom at one 
time embraced a large part of Lower Burma. Their language 
is entirely distinct, but the Talaings are gradually becoming 
assimilated to the Burmans in language and dress, so much 
so that they are identified with the Burmans in the census 
of 1891. The Talaings who now are known by that name 
are found chiefly in the vicinity of Moulmein and number 
about 223,000. Considerable missionary work has been done 



94 

among this people in various districts by the missionaries to 
the Burmans, and Rev. James M. Haswell,- D. D., prepared a 
vocabulary of the Talaing language, which has long been out 
of print. In 1895 the Talaing spelling-book was carried 
through the press by Rev. Edward O. Stevens of Moulmein, 
and a vocabulary in 1896. Perhaps more missionary work 
has been done among the Takings by Moung Reuben of 
the Moulmein district than by any other one. He has a 
good knowledge of the language and has preached much 
among them and baptized many who are now in the churches 
of Amherst district. 

There are more than half a million natives of India proper 
in Burma, chiefly Telugus and Tamils, and among these much 
missionary work is being done, especially at Rangoon where 
there is a prosperous and self-supporting Telugu and Tamil 
church. Also in Mandalay, Moulmein, Toungoo, and other 
places attention has been devoted to these people by mission- 
aries who were sent to labor among the Burmans or Karens. 
The Telugus and Tamils are the laboring and among the most 
enterprising people of the country. They are getting into their 
hands some of the activities of the principal cities of Burma, 
and they will well repay a larger amount of attention from 
Christian people. In 1894, Rev. W. F. Armstrong and his wife 
were appointed as special missionaries to this people, to labor 
as best they might among the large number scattered through- 
out the various cities of Burma. Mr. Armstrong was formerly 
a missionary to the Telugus in India under the Canadian Bap- 
tist Board, but entered English work at Moulmein in 1884, and 
having already command of the Telugu language, has become 
much interested in the people and is able to accomplish much 
good. But the field and opportunity among this enterprising 
people are vastly too large for the labors of any one missionary. 

All the numerous smaller races of Burma, like the Paloungs, 
the Padoungs, the Brecs and others, are reached in some 
degree, by the labors of missionaries to the Shans and Karens. 
Among the Brecs, who very much resemble the Karens in 
their general characteristics, an exceedingly interesting work 
has sprung up under the care of Rev. Alonzo Bunker, D. D., 
of Toungoo. The Paloungs are a most interesting people, 
occupying the high land west of Namkham in Upper Burma, 



95 

and will be reached by the Shan missionaries from that station. 
They are said to have some resemblance to both the Shans 
and the Karens. 

Aside from all the work which the Baptist missionaries in 
Burma carry on among the natives, English services are main- 
tained in a number of the larger cities. There is an English 
Baptist church in Rangoon - which is independent and self- 




PALOUNG WOMAN. 



supporting, and also a church in Moulmein of which Rev. 
F. D. Crawley, son of Rev. Arthur Crawley, formerly mission- 
ary to the Burmans, became pastor in 1895. Services are also 
maintained at Mandalay among a large and increasing English- 
speaking population in that city, and English preaching is 
held in other cities. 

From the days of Judson, Burma has always been recognized 
as peculiarly mission ground of American Baptists. No other 



94 

among this people in various districts by the missionaries to 
the Burmans, and Rev. James M. Has well,- D. D., prepared a 
vocabulary of the Talaing language, which has long been out 
of print. In 1895 the Talaing spelling-book was carried 
through the press by Rev. Edward O. Stevens of Moulmein, 
and a vocabulary in 1896. Perhaps more missionary work 
has been done among the Takings by Moung Reuben of 
the Moulmein district than by any other one. He has a 
good knowledge of the language and has preached much 
among them and baptized many who are now in the churches 
of Amherst district. 

There are more than half a million natives of India proper 
in Burma, chiefly Telugus and Tamils, and among these much 
missionary work is being done, especially at Rangoon where 
there is a prosperous and self-supporting Telugu and Tamil 
church. Also in Mandalay, Moulmein, Toungoo, and other 
places attention has been devoted to these people by mission- 
aries who were sent to labor among the Burmans or Karens. 
The Telugus and Tamils are the laboring and among the most 
enterprising people of the country. They are getting into their 
hands some of the activities of the principal cities of Burma, 
and they will well repay a larger amount of attention from 
Christian people. In 1894, Rev. W. F. Armstrong and his wife 
were appointed as special missionaries to this people, to labor 
as best they might among the large number scattered through- 
out the various cities of Burma. Mr. Armstrong was formerly 
a missionary to the Telugus in India under the Canadian Bap- 
tist Board, but entered English work at Moulmein in 1884. and 
having already command of the Telugu language, has become 
much interested in the people and is able to accomplish much 
good. But the field and opportunity among this enterprising 
people are vastly too large for the labors of any one missionary. 

All the numerous smaller races of Burma, like the Paloungs, 
the Padoungs, the Brecs and others, are reached in some 
degree, by the labors of missionaries to the Shans and Karens. 
Among the Brecs, who very much resemble the Karens in 
their general characteristics, an exceedingly interesting work 
has sprung up under the care of Rev. Alonzo Bunker, D. D., 
of Toungoo. The Paloungs are a most interesting people, 
occupying the high land west of Namkham in Upper Burma, 



95 

and will be reached by the Shan missionaries from that station. 
They are said to have some resemblance to both the Shans 
and the Karens. 

Aside from all the work which the Baptist missionaries in 
Burma carry on among the natives, English services are main- 
tained in a number of the larger cities. There is an English 
Baptist church in Rangoon - which is independent and self- 




PALOUNG WOMAN. 



supporting, and also a church in Moulmein of which Rev. 
F. D. Crawley, son of Rev. Arthur Crawley, formerly mission- 
ary to the Burmans, became pastor in 1895. Services are also 
maintained at Mandalay among a large and increasing English- 
speaking population in that city, and English preaching is 
held in other cities. 

From the days of Judson, Burma has always been recognized 
as peculiarly mission ground of American Baptists. No other 



9 6 

bodies have undertaken Christian work in the country ex- 
cept the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, repre- 
senting the High Church element in the Church of England, 
and the Methodists, who have a few missionaries in Rangoon 
and Mandalay. So efficiently have the Baptists cultivated this, 
their earliest mission field, that Burma is more abundantly 
supplied with missionaries in proportion to population than 
any other heathen land. The effort that American Baptists 
have thrown into their work in this peculiarly interesting coun- 
try has been largely blessed, and the missions in Burma are 
recognized as among the "Miracles of Missions." There yet 
remains in Burma vast regions unevangelized, and the needs 
of the field as well as the prosperity already achieved bring 
heavy responsibilities upon the Baptists of America to whom 
this field in the providence of God has been so specially 
given. 




BUKMAN BUDDHIST PRIEST 




H 



O 

o 

C3 
2 

I 

s" 
g 



E- 







I 



9 6 

bodies have undertaken Christian work in the country ex- 
cept the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel, repre- 
senting the High Church element in the Church of England, 
and the Methodists, who have a few missionaries in Rangoon 
and Mandalay. So efficiently have the Baptists cultivated this, 
their earliest mission field, that Burma is more abundantly 
supplied with missionaries in proportion to population than 
any other heathen land. The effort that American Baptists 
have thrown into their work in this peculiarly interesting coun- 
try has been largely blessed, and the missions in Burma are 
recognized as among the " Miracles of Missions." There yet 
remains in Burma vast regions unevangelized, and the needs 
of the field as well as the prosperity already achieved bring 
heavy responsibilities upon the Baptists of America to whom 
this field in the providence of God has been so specially 
given. 




BUKMAN BUDDHIST PRIEST 




O 

o 
a 
z 





i 

W 

h* 

H 



1 
S 



BAPTIST MISSIONS IN ASSAM 



COUNTRY AND PEOPLE 

ASSAM is the most northeastern province of British India, 
extending along both sides of the Brahmaputra River, having 
an area of 49,004 square miles and containing a population of 
5,476,833, as far as British census has 
extended. The contour of the country 
is like a vast and lengthened amphi- 
theatre. On each side of the river the 
country is low and flat, stretching away 
to the hills in swamps which are often 
flooded at the times of high water. At 
the north, the lofty ranges of the Him- 
malayas form the boundary between 
Assam and the hermit country, Tibet. 
To the south, ranges of high hills or 
mountains separate Assam from Burma, 
the oldest Baptist mission field, while 
to the east the same hills continue, 
dividing Assam from Western China. 
Through these southern and eastern 
hills are many passes which, in time to 
come, will doubtless furnish highways 
for intercourse, and along which the 
gospel messengers may find access to 
the numerous tribes which inhabit the 
hills. The valley of Assam is fertile 
and clothed with luxuriant vegetation, 
but the climate is hot and unhealthful, 
the air being full of malaria in many 
places. On the hills the climate is 
more temperate and healthful, and in many places furnishes 
places of residence to the missionaries, not altogether dis- 
similar to the hills of New England. 

The people of Assam are divided into tribes and races almost 

(99) 




A NAGA 



100 



as numerous as those which characterize the neighboring coun- 
try and mission field of Burma. The valley of the Brahmaputra 
is occupied chiefly by the Assamese, a race of people the same 
as the Hindus of Bengal, but in Upper Assam somewhat 
corrupted by an inter-mixture of the blood of the aboriginal 
people, the Ahoms, from whom the name of the country is 
derived. In the parts of the valley back from the river and 
all over the hills to the north and to the south, are found 
numerous and separate tribes of people. The Assamese are 
the remnants of the Aryan invasion from the west, while all the 
inhabitants of the hills are the survivors of successive inva- 
sions of the Mongolian people from the east and north. 
Beginning at the southwest, the first and most ancient invasion 
of the Mongolian race is represented by the Garos. Next, to 
the northeast we find the Khasias and Kacharis, then the Nagas 

of various tribes, covering a long 
range of hills between Assam and 
Burma. 

Farther on, we come upon the 
Singphos, the same as the Kachins 
of Upper Burma, and the Khamtis 
who are allied to the Shan races of 
Burma and Siam. These two peo- 
ples extend around on the hills at 
the eastern end of Assam. At the 
north, among the foothills of the 
Himalayas, we find the Mishmis, 
the MiriSj the Daphlas, the Akhas, 
and the Abors ; while on the plains 
at the foot of the southern hills, 
beginning at the west, are the 
Rabhas, the Mikirs, and remnants 
of other tribes. In Assam is also 
practically included the country and 
people of Manipur and the Lushai hill tribes on the western 
border of Burma. 

RELIGIONS. 

The religion of the Assamese, or people of the Brahma- 
putra valley, is Hinduism, of the same form and with all the 




NAGA SORCERER 



IOI 

corruptions which we find in India proper. Caste, with its 
divisive and deadening power, exists among them, but Hindu- 
ism does not appear to have gained a hold on the hill tribes to 
any considerable extent. These have a religion allied to that of 
the Karens in Burma, and are almost entirely spirit worshippers, 
or, according to a new term which has arisen in comparative 
religion, they are " animistic " tribes. They believe in spirits, 
good and bad, and that these are actively interested and in- 
fluential in their lives ; but, since the good spirits can be de- 
pended on to do them no harm, they pay very little attention 
to them, but worship and offer sacrifices only to the evil spirits, 
in order to gain their good-will and prevent them from exer- 
cising a harmful influence upon them. The sacrifices consist 
principally of fowls, and various forms of fetichism which 
usually characterize demon worship in all parts of the world. 
The Garos appear to believe only in evil spirits or demons. 
All the hill tribes are without caste, and, as has been proved by 
the labors of missionaries, they are, in a very especial manner, 
like the Karens of Burma, open to the influence of the gospel ; 
while, although many years of labor have been expended in 
carrying the gospel to the Assamese, they almost universally 
refuse to leave the corruptions and vices of Hinduism for the 
pure gospel of Christ. Mohammedans form twenty-seven per 
cent of the population of Assam, but are confined mostly to 
Sylhet and the southern valley. 

A considerable part of the valley of the Brahmaputra is de- 
voted to the cultivation of tea. This industry is carried on 
with great success, and the teas of Assam stand among the 
most valuable of the world v The tea plantations are usually 
owned by Englishmen or other natives of Europe, but the 
laborers in these tea gardens are largely made up of natives 
of Central India who are brought in for the purpose. This 
people coming from India have usually been more or less 
familiar with the labors of missionaries, and furnish one of the 
most fertile fields for missionary effort in Assam. They pass 
in general under the name of the Kols, coming from Chota 
Nagpur in one of the states of Central India ; but in reality 
several different tribes are represented among them. They 
are also " animistic " or spirit worshippers, and similar in relig- 
ion to the hill tribes. Among all these numerous tribes and 



IO2 



peoples of Assam is found the field of our Baptist mission, 
which occupies the country almost alone, the only other mis- 
sionary laborers being representatives of the Welsh Calvinistic 
Methodists, who are carrying on a mission in a limited terri- 
tory in Southern Assam. 

THE BAPTIST MISSION 

The beginning erf 
Baptist work in Assam 
is distinguished from 
that of any other of 
our missions in that 
the initial movement 
came from the civil 
government. In 1836, 
Major Jenkins, the 
commissioner of As- 
sam, with a few other 
friends, asked the Cal- 
cutta Baptists to start 
a mission in North- 
eastern Assam for the 
Shan or Khamti tribes. 
Not feeling able to 
enter upon the project 
they sent the message 
on to the American 
Baptist missionaries 
in Burma, since it was 
known that the Kham- 
tis were found on both 
sides of the boundary 
between Burma and 
Assam, and it was 
thought the missions 
would soon be con- 
nected as one field. 
Rev. Nathan Brown 
was the first missionary, and went with Mr. O. T. Cutter, a 
printer, taking a printing-press with them, and opened a mis- 




io 3 



sion at Sadiya in the extreme northeast of Assam. Another 
reason for beginning missions in this country was that it was 
thought at that time that Assam would open a way into West- 
ern China. Although neither of the expectations with which 
our missions were started in Assam have yet been realized, 
the missions have been continued for the benefit of the people 
of the country itself. After a time, the British force withdrew 
from Sadiya, which was, in 1839, abandoned as a mission 
station, and the principal mission was transferred first to Jaipur 
and afterward established at Sibsagor in 1841. 

The most venerated name in connection with Baptist mis- 
sions in Assam is that of Rev. Miles Bronson, D. D., who 
arrived in India in 
1837. While journey- 
ing up the Brahma- 
putra in canoes, his 
companion, Rev. Ja- 
cob Thomas, was killed 
by the falling of a tree 
from the bank of the 
river. Mr. Bronson 
first opened work for 
the Singphos, at Jai- 
pur, where he baptized 
Nidhi Levi, the first 
convert of the mis- 
sion, in 1841. Dr. 
Bronson' s principal 
field of labor was at 
Nowgong, to which 
place he removed in 
October, 1841. Here 
the most of his long 
missionary service of 
nearly forty years was passed; here he opened, in 1842, the 
Nowgong Orphan Institution, from which, although afterwards 
closed by the Deputation, in 1854, nearly all the most valuable 
helpers in the Assamese mission have come, and here he 
prepared, aside from other missionary and literary work, the 
Assamese-English Dictionary, an imperishable monument to 




REV. MILES BRONSON, D. D. 



IO2 



peoples of Assam is found the field of our Baptist mission, 
which occupies the country almost alone, the only other mis- 
sionary laborers being representatives of the Welsh Calvinistic 
Methodists, who are carrying on a mission in a limited terri- 
tory in Southern Assam. 

THE BAPTIST MISSION 

The beginning cl 
Baptist work in Assam 
is distinguished from 
that of any other of 
our missions in that 
the initial movement 
came from the civil 
government. In 1836, 
Major Jenkins, the 
commissioner of As- 
sam, with a few other 
friends, asked the Cal- 
cutta Baptists to start 
a mission in North- 
eastern Assam for the 
Shan or Khamti tribes. 
Not feeling able to 
enter upon the project 
they sent the message 
on to the American 
Baptist missionaries 
in Burma, since it was 
known that the Kham- 
tis were found on both 
sides of the boundary 
between Burma and 
Assam, and it was 
thought the missions 
would soon be con- 
nected as one field. 
Rev. Nathan Brown 
was the first missionary, and went with Mr. O. T. Cutter, a 
printer, taking a printing-press with them, and opened a mis- 




io 3 



sion at Sadiya in the extreme northeast of Assam. Another 
reason for beginning missions in this country was that it was 
thought at that time that Assam would open a way into West- 
ern China. Although neither of the expectations with which 
our missions were started in Assam have yet been realized, 
the missions have been continued for the benefit of the people 
of the country itself. After a time, the British force withdrew 
from Sadiya, which was, in 1839, abandoned as a mission 
station, and the principal mission was transferred first to Jaipur 
and afterward established at Sibsagor in 1841. 

The most venerated name in connection with Baptist mis- 
sions in Assam is that of Rev. Miles Bronson, D. D., who 
arrived in India in 
1837. While journey- 
ing up the Brahma- 
putra in canoes, his 
companion, Rev. Ja- 
cob Thomas, was killed 
by the falling of a tree 
from the bank of the 
river. Mr. Bronson 
first opened work for 
the Singphos, at Jai- 
pur, where he baptized 
Nidhi Levi, the first 
convert of the mis- 
sion, in 1841. Dr. 
Bronson' s principal 
field of labor was at 
Nowgong, to which 
place he removed in 
October, 1841. Here 
the most of his long 
missionary service of 
nearly forty years was passed; here he opened, in 1842, the 
Nowgong Orphan Institution, from which, although afterwards 
closed by the Deputation, in 1854, nearly all the most valuable 
helpers in the Assamese mission have come, and here he 
prepared, aside from other missionary and literary work, the 
Assamese-English Dictionary, an imperishable monument to 




REV. MILES BRONSON, D. D. 



104 



his memory. The closing years of Dr. Bronson's missionary 
service were at Gauhati, where he baptized the first two Garos 
in 1863, and inaugurated the work which has now become the 
brightest ornament of the missions in Assam. 

It is a striking fact that the purpose for which the mission- 
aries first went to Assam was to preach the gospel to the hill 




MISSION HOUSE, S1BSAGOK 

tribes, an object to which, after long years of unfruitful labor 
for the Assamese, the chief strength of the mission is again 
being devoted with most encouraging results. What would 
have been the condition of the missions in Assam to-day if the 
first purpose of the mission had been adhered to, it is impos- 
sible to say ; but it appears most probable that if the gospel 
had been perseveringly preached from the beginning to the 



animistic tribes, the glorious triumphs of Christianity among 
the Karens in Burma might have been duplicated in Assam. 
It was owing to warlike outbreaks among the Khamtis and 
Singphos that the missionaries were driven from Sadiya and 
Jaipur, and entered upon their work for the Assamese, whose 
indifference, fickleness and vice caused them to reject the 
loving, faithful efforts on their behalf, and condemned the mis- . 
sion in Assam to those long years of sterility and discourage- 
ment from which it only emerged in later years, with the 
revival of labor for the wild and savage but teachable tribes 
of the southern hills. 

The whole course of Baptist work in Assam has been marked 
by much and excellent literary work on the part of the mis- 
sionaries. Aside from the dictionary of Dr. Bronson, the New 
Testament was early translated into Assamese by Rev. Nathan 
Brown, the founder of the mission, who afterward did the same 
service for the Japanese, making his name illustrious by being 
the first to give the whole New Testament to two widely sepa- 
rated and linguistically diverse peoples. Dr. Brown was also 
the author of many hymns in Assamese, and was a tower of 
strength to the mission in its early days. Several books of the 
Old Testament were put into Assamese by various missionaries, 
and this work has been crowned by the recent completion of 
the whole Bible in Assamese, by Rev. A. K. Gurney. As early 
as 1846, a religious paper called " Orunodoi " was begun, 
which was continued for a number of years. Portions of the 
Bible, tracts, school-books, religious books, and other literary 
matter, have also been prepared and published in Garo by Rev. 
M. C. Mason and Rev. E. G. Phillips, in Naga by Rev. E. 
W. Clark and Rev. S. W. Rivenburg, and in Assamese by Rev. 
P. H. Moore and others. 

The years from 1841 to 1855 witnessed nearly all the prog- 
ress which has been had in the mission to the Assamese. In 
1843, Gauhati was opened as a station by Rev. Cyrus Barker. 
In 1848, Rev. I. J. Stoddard and wife arrived for labor in the 
Nowgong Orphan Institution. In 1851, there was a church of 
seventeen members at Sibsagor, and Rev. S. M. Whiting 
reached that station and baptized the first convert from the 
Naga tribes. Converts had also been baptized at Nowgong 
and at Gauhati. But the year 1854 witnessed the practical 



IO4 



his memory. The closing years of Dr. Bronson's missionary 
service were at Gauhati, where he baptized the first two Garos 
in 1863, and inaugurated the work which has now become the 
brightest ornament of the missions in Assam. 

It is a striking fact that the purpose for which the mission- 
aries first went to Assam was to preach the gospel to the hill 




MISSION HOUSE, SIBSAGOK 

tribes, an object to which, after long years of unfruitful labor 
for the Assamese, the chief strength of the mission is again 
being devoted with most encouraging results. What would 
have been the condition of the missions in Assam to-day if the 
first purpose of the mission had been adhered to, it is impos- 
sible to say ; but it appears most probable that if the gospel 
had been perseveringly preached from the beginning to the 



animistic tribes, the glorious triumphs of Christianity among 
the Karens in Burma might have been duplicated in Assam. 
It was owing to warlike outbreaks among the Khamtis and 
Singphos that the missionaries were driven from Sadiya and 
Jaipur, and entered upon their work for the Assamese, whose 
indifference, fickleness and vice caused them to reject the 
loving, faithful efforts on their behalf, and condemned the mis- 
sion in Assam to those long years of sterility and discourage- 
ment from which it only emerged in later years, with the 
revival of labor for the wild and savage but teachable tribes 
of the southern hills. 

The whole course of Baptist work in Assam has been marked 
by much and excellent literary work on the part of the mis- 
sionaries. Aside from the dictionary of Dr. Bronson, the New 
Testament was early translated into Assamese by Rev. Nathan 
Brown, the founder of the mission, who afterward did the same 
service for the Japanese, making his name illustrious by being 
the first to give the whole New Testament to two widely sepa- 
rated and linguistically diverse peoples. Dr. Brown was also 
the author of many hymns in Assamese, and was a tower of 
strength to the mission in its early days. Several books of the 
Old Testament were put into Assamese by various missionaries, 
and this work has been crowned by the recent completion of 
the whole Bible in Assamese, by Rev. A. K. Gurney. As early 
as 1846, a religious paper called "Orunodoi" was begun, 
which was continued for a number of years. Portions of the 
Bible, tracts, school-books, religious books, and other literary 
matter, have also been prepared and published in Garo by Rev. 
M. C. Mason and Rev. E. G. Phillips, in Naga by Rev. E. 
W. Clark and Rev. S. W. Rivenburg, and in Assamese by Rev. 
P. H. Moore and others. 

The years from 1841 to 1855 witnessed nearly all the prog- 
ress which has been had in the mission to the Assamese. In 
1843, Gauhati was opened as a station by Rev. Cyrus Barker. 
In 1848, Rev. I. J. Stoddard and wife arrived for labor in the 
Nowgong Orphan Institution. In 1851, there was a church of 
seventeen members at Sibsagor, and Rev. S. M. Whiting 
reached that station and baptized the first convert from the 
Naga tribes. Converts had also been baptized at Nowgong 
and at Gauhati. But the year 1854 witnessed the practical 



io6 

^suspension of the Nowgong Orphan Institution, against the 
unanimous judgment of the missionaries in Assam, thus cutting 
off the source of supply of native helpers and bringing much 
discouragement to the missionaries. In 1855, the mission 
suffered a great loss : Rev. Nathan Brown and Rev. I. J. 
Stoddard and their wives, and also Mrs. Bauble, returned to 
America; and in 1857 the Sepoy Rebellion in India made life 




ASSAMESE PREACHERS 



and property insecure and missionary work very difficult in 
Assam. The fortunes of the mission were at a low ebb. 

From this crisis, the policy of the mission began to change. 
By the logic of events, the attention of the missionaries was 
turned more and more from the unresponsive Assamese Hin- 
dus to the more impressible animistic tribes. Although com- 
pelled to assume charge of the Nowgong station on his arrival 
in 1859, Rev. C. F. Tolman spent a large part of his short 
stay in Assam among the Mikirs. The first t\vo Garo converts 
.having been baptized by Dr. Bronson at Gauhati in 1863, they 



soon began to teach the new religion to their people, and with 
such success that on the very first visit of Dr. Bronson to the 
Garo country, in 1867, thirty-seven were baptized and a church 
of forty members formed at Rajasimla. In 1863, the first 
Mikir convert was baptized at Nowgong, and Rev. E. P. Scott 
and wife arrived to devote their labors to this people. Mr. 
Scott died in 1868, of fever contracted in the Mikir country. 
Mrs. Scott remained in Assam until 1871, when she returned 
to America; but in 1889 went out to Swatow, China, as a 
missionary physician. October, 1867, Goalpara was occupied 
by Rev. I. J. Stoddard as a favorable point from which to reach 
theGaros. In 1868, he 
visited Tura, the newly 
opened government sta- 
tion on the Garo hills ; 
but this was not occu- 
pied as the mission 
station until 1876, when 
the headquarters of the 
Garo mission were re- 
moved from Goalpara 
to Tura, by Rev. E. G. 
Phillips and Rev. M. C. 
Mason, who had reached 
Assam in 1874. Rev. 
R. E. Neighbor reached 
Nowgong in 1871, for 
work among the Mikirs. 
In the same year, the 
attention of Rev. E. W. 
Clark was specially 
drawn to the Nagas, and 
he persuaded Godhula, 
an Assamese preacher, to study the Naga tongue. The next 
year, Godhula went to live in the Naga country, and many 
were baptized within a few years. In 1871 also, four Kols, 
called by Mr. Clark "Chota Nagpur people," were baptized, 
coming to Sibsagor, seventy miles from the tea garden where 
they were laboring. Many others soon followed in their foot- 
steps. 




REV. EDWARD W. CLARK 



io6 

^suspension of the Nowgong Orphan Institution, against the 
unanimous judgment of the missionaries in Assam, thus cutting 
off the source of supply of native helpers and bringing much 
discouragement to the missionaries. In 1855, the mission 
suffered a great loss : Rev. Nathan Brown and Rev. I. J. 
Stoddard and their wives, and also Mrs. Bauble, returned to 
America; and in 1857 the Sepoy Rebellion in India made life 




ASSAMESE PREACHERS 

and property insecure and missionary work very difficult in 
Assam. The fortunes of the mission were at a low ebb. 

From this crisis, the policy of the mission began to change. 
By the logic of events, the attention of the missionaries was 
turned more and more from the unresponsive Assamese Hin- 
dus to the more impressible animistic tribes. Although com- 
pelled to assume charge of the Nowgong station on his arrival 
in 1859, Rev. C. F. Tolman spent a large part of his short 
stay in Assam among the Mikirs. The first two Garo converts 
.having been baptized by Dr. Bronson at Gauhati in 1863, they 



soon began to teach the new religion to their people, and with 
such success that on the very first visit of Dr. Bronson to the 
Garo country, in 1867, thirty-seven were baptized and a church 
of forty members formed at Rajasimla. In 1863, the first 
Mikir convert was baptized at Nowgong, and Rev. E. P. Scott 
and wife arrived to devote their labors to this people. Mr. 
Scott died in 1868, of fever contracted in the Mikir country. 
Mrs. Scott remained in Assam until 1871, when she returned 
to America; but in 1889 went out to Swatow, China, as a 
missionary physician. October, 1867, Goalpara was occupied 
by Rev. I. J. Stoddard as a favorable point from which to reach 
the Garos. In 1868, he 
visited Tura, the newly 
opened government sta- 
tion on the Garo hills ; 
but this was not occu- 
pied as the mission 
station until 1876, when 
the headquarters of the 
Garo mission were re- 
moved from Goalpara 
to Tura, by Rev. E. G. 
Phillips and Rev. M. C. 
Mason, who had reached 
Assam in 1874. Rev. 
R. E. Neighbor reached 
Nowgong in 1871, for 
work among the Mikirs. 
In the same year, the 
attention of Rev. E. W. 
Clark was specially 
drawn to the Nagas, and 
he persuaded Godhula, 
an Assamese preacher, to study the Naga tongue. The next 
year, Godhula went to live in the Naga country, and many 
were baptized within a few years. In 1871 also, four Kols, 
called by Mr. Clark "Chota Nagpur people," were baptized, 
coming to Sibsagor, seventy miles from the tea garden where 
they were laboring. Many others soon followed in their foot- 
steps. 




REV. EDWARD W. CLARK 



io8 



While these stirring and promising events were following in 
rapid succession in the work among the tribes, labor for the 
Assamese was continued in the older stations of Sibsagor, 
Nowgong, and Gauhati. Rev. William Ward and wife reached 
Assam in 1851, and labored with much faithfulness and ability 
until the death of Dr. Ward in 1873. Rev. E. W. Clark 
left the Assamese work in 1876, and thenceforward devoted 
himself wholly to the Nagas. In the same year Rev. A. 
K. Gurney arrived at Sibsagor, being assigned to the 
work of completing the 
translation of the Bible 
into Assamese. This 
was done by 1892. In 
1877 occurred the first 
ordination of natives, 
when Kandura of Gau- 
hati and Sonarum of 
Nowgong were solemnly 
inducted into the Chris- 
tian ministry. The 
largest success among 
the Assamese ha been 
at Nowgong, where in 
1885 the church became 
strong enough to as- 
sume the support of its 
own pastor. But the 
mission work among the 
Assamese Hindus of the 
Brahmaputra valley has 
shown so little prosper- 
ity after years of labor and large expense that if the mission 
in Assam were to base its claims upon its success among this 
people it would have been abandoned long ago. 

The work among the Garos has proved the most successful 
and encouraging of the missions in Assam. In 1892, more 
than seven hundred of this tribe were baptized into the 
churches, arid the number of converts at the end of 1893 was 
2,283. The chief headquarters of this mission are at Tura, 
but by far the larger part of the work on the Gauhati field is 




REV. MARCUS C. MASON 



log 



among the Garos, Rev. 
C. E. Burdette, first 
at Tura, removing to 
Gauhati in 1 885 . In- 
dependence and self- 
support are strong 
characteristics of the 
Garo churches. They 
are divided into asso- 
ciations, as are Amer- 
ican Baptist churches, 
elect their own pre- 
siding officers, and 
conduct their meet- 
ings with much wis- 
dom and Christian 
spirit. Aside from the 
support of their pas- 
tors, every Christian 
village has its school 
for the education of 
the children, and 
about half of the 
churches also main- 
tain from one to four 
evangelists, whose 
whole time is devoted 
to preaching the gos- 
pel to the heathen. 
The mission head- 
quarters at Tura is a 
model of what an effi- 
cient central mission 
station should be, with 
its schools of various 
grades, from primary 
to high, including an 
industrial department, 
and the admirably or- 
ganized system for the 




io8 



While these stirring and promising events were following in 
rapid succession in the work among the tribes, labor for the 
Assamese was continued in the older stations of Sibsagor, 
Nowgong, and Gauhati. Rev. William Ward and wife reached 
Assam in 1851, and labored with much faithfulness and ability 
until the death of Dr. Ward in 1873. Rev. E. W. Clark 
left the Assamese work in 1876, and thenceforward devoted 
himself wholly to the Nagas. In the same year Rev. A. 
K. Gurney arrived at Sibsagor, being assigned to the 
work of completing the 
translation of the Bible 
into Assamese. This 
was done by 1892. In 
1877 occurred the first 
ordination of natives, 
when Kandura of Gau- 
hati and Sonarum of 
Nowgong were solemnly 
inducted into the Chris- 
tian ministry. The 
largest success among 
the Assamese ha been 
at Nowgong, where in 
1885 the church became 
strong enough to as- 
sume the support of its 
own pastor. But the 
mission work among the 
Assamese Hindus of the 
Brahmaputra valley has 
shown so little prosper- 
ity after years of labor and large expense that if the mission 
in Assam were to base its claims upon its success among this 
people it would have been abandoned long ago. 

The work among the Garos has proved the most successful 
and encouraging of the missions in Assam. In 1892, more 
than seven hundred of this tribe were baptized into the 
churches, arid the number of converts at the end of 1893 was 
2,283. The chief headquarters of this mission are at Tura, 
but by far the larger part of the work on the Gauhati field is 




REV. MARCUS C. MASON 



iog 



among the Garos, Rev. 
C. E. Burdette, first 
at Tura, removing to 
Gauhatiin 1885. In- 
dependence and self- 
support are strong 
characteristics of the 
Garo churches. They 
are divided into asso- 
ciations, as are Amer- 
ican Baptist churches, 
elect their own pre- 
siding officers, and 
conduct their meet- 
ings with much wis- 
dom and Christian 
spirit. Aside from the 
support of their pas- 
tors, every Christian 
village has its school 
for the education of 
the children, and 
about half of the 
churches also main- 
tain from one to four 
evangelists, whose 
whole time is devoted 
to preaching the gos- 
pel to the heathen. 
The mission head- 
quarters at Tura is a 
model of what an effi- 
cient central mission 
station should be, with 
its schools of various 
grades, from primary 
to high, including an 
industrial department, 
and the admirably or- 
ganized system for the 




no 



superintendence and advancement of the whole mission. 
Although in a savage condition, the Garos have shown remark- 
able susceptibility to the gospel in both its saving and 
elevating power, and under its influence have developed 




unlooked-for elements of manly strength and intelligence. 
The prospects of the mission are exceedingly bright and 
encouraging. 

Next in success after the mission to the Garos is that to the 



Ill 



Kols, laborers in the tea gardens centering about Sibsagor., 
These people have retained much of their primitive character, 
and have received the gospel with great readiness. Rev. C. 
E. Petrick was the first missionary to devote his whole atten- 




tion to them, and has baptized large numbers. In 1881, Rev. 
C. D. King opened a station at Kohima, among the Angami 
Nagas, now occupied by Rev. S. W. Rivenburg, M. D., while 
Mr. and Mrs. King are at Gauhati. Rev. W. E. Witter began 



no 



superintendence and advancement of the whole mission. 
Although in a savage condition, the Garos have shown remark- 
able susceptibility to the gospel in both its saving and 
elevating power, and under its influence have developed 




unlooked-for elements of manly strength and intelligence. 
The prospects of the mission are exceedingly bright and 
encouraging. 

Next in success after the mission to the Garos is that to the 



n i 



Kols, laborers in the tea gardens centering about Sibsagor., 
These people have retained much of their primitive character, 
and have received the gospel with great readiness. Rev. C. 
E. Petrick was the first missionary to devote his whole atten- 




tion to them, and has baptized large numbers. In 1881, Rev. 
C. D. King opened a station at Kohima, among the Angami 
Nagas, now occupied by Rev. S. W. Rivenburg, M. D., while 

Rev. W. E. Witter began 



Mr. and Mrs. King are at Gauhati. 



112 



work among the Lhota Nagas at Wokha, but was compelled 
soon to return to America. The Ao Naga mission, begun by 
Rev. E. W. Clark, with headquarters at Molung, is most inter- 
esting and has been well reinforced. A new station has lately 
been opened at Impur. The most recent field to be opened 
is at North Lakimpur, in Northern Assam, at the very foot 
of the Himalaya Mountains. The mission there has been 
started under the most encouraging auspices. More than 
half the missionaries in Assam are now laboring for the ani- 
mistic people. Their religion is similar to that of the Karens 
of Burma, and the encouraging prospect is that the great 
progress which marked the early days of the Karen mission 
will be repeated among these similar tribes in Assam. Since 
the mission to the Assamese, though carried on for many 
years, has been largely without results, it is probable that 
future missionary efforts, in Assam will be directed chiefly to 
these simple, receptive tribes who reside on the hills to the 
north and south of the valley. 

The Christian work among the Nagas will probably be ex- 
tended to. the Khamtis, or the Shans, as they are known in 
Burma, and the establishment of new mission stations in the 
north of Burma points to an early realization of one of the ideas 
which led to the opening of missions in Assam the union of 
our missions in Burma and Assam. The rapid progress in 
opening up the country will also soon bring Assam, into direct 
communication with Western China. 

In 1893, the summary of the mission work in Assam shows 
40 missionaries, 31 native preachers, 32 churches, 3,469 church 
members, of whom 553 were baptized in 1893, and 90 schools 
with 1,744 pupils. While it is true that missionary labors in 
Assam have not been fruitful until the last few years, the more 
recent developments offer the greatest encouragement for 
energetic and increased labors for the numerous tribes which 
border the Brahmaputra valley. 




THANGKAN, A GARO EVANGELIST 



112 



work among the Lhota Nagas at Wokha, but was compelled 
soon to return to America. The Ao Naga mission, begun by 
Rev. E. W. Clark, with headquarters at Molung, is most inter- 
esting and has been well reinforced. A new station has lately 
been opened at Impur. The most recent field to be opened 
is at North Lakimpur, in Northern Assam, at the very foot 
of the Himalaya Mountains. The mission there has been 
started under the most encouraging auspices. More than 
half the missionaries in Assam are now laboring for the ani- 
mistic people. Their religion is similar to that of the Karens 
of Burma, and the encouraging prospect is that the great 
progress which marked the early days of the Karen mission 
will be repeated among these similar tribes in Assam. Since 
the mission to the Assamese, though carried on for many 
years, has been largely without results, it is probable that 
future missionary efforts in Assam will be directed chiefly to 
these simple, receptive tribes who reside on the hills to the 
north and south of the valley. 

The Christian work among the Nagas will probably be ex- 
tended to. the Khamtis, or the Shans, as they are known in 
Burma, and the establishment of new mission stations in the 
north of Burma points to an early realization of one of the ideas 
which led to the opening of missions in Assam the union of 
our missions in Burma and Assam. The rapid progress in 
opening up the country will also soon bring Assam, into direct 
communication with Western China. 

In 1893, the summary of the mission work in Assam shows 
40 missionaries, 3 1 native preachers, 32 churches, 3,469 church 
members, of whom 553 were baptized in 1893, and 90 schools 
with 1,744 pupils. While it is true that missionary labors in 
Assam have not been fruitful until the last few years, the more 
recent developments offer the greatest encouragement for 
energetic and increased labors for the numerous tribes which 
border the Brahmaputra valley. 




THANGKAN, A GARO EVANGELIST 



18 



17 



Mallingar 

Hanam 



THE 
TELUGTJ CO 



Stations of the A. B. M. V. in 
Toe Canadian Baptist Mission! 
C. Church Missionary Society. 
L. London Missionary Society. 
B. English Baptist. 



( rlmintr 
Kolmr -v \ 



79 Longitude 




fron; 



THE TELUGU MISSION, INDIA 



THE Telugu territory is in the southeastern portion of India, 
lying along the shores of the Bay of Bengal, from Madras to 
Chicacole, and is about as large as New England and the 
Middle States. It is partly in the Madras Presidency, which 
is under the English government, and partly in the dominions 
of the native Nizam who has his capital at Hyderabad but is 
really under the control of an English Resident or minister 
who decides all important matters of the kingdom. The 
Telugus are estimated to number about eighteen millions, and 
belong to the Dravidian branch of the human race, which 
peopled South India from pre-historic times. The religion of 
the Telugus is Hinduism, with its superstitions and rigid caste 
lines, but among them are found a large number of outcastes, 
upon whom the religion has a slighter hold than upon the 
higher classes. The most of the converts have come from 
these lower classes. 

Though a distinct people, yet, like the Jews, the Telugus: 
are a nation without a government, having no country which 
they can call their own. Besides the densely peopled regions- 
where they chiefly dwell, they are found in considerable num- 
bers in all the towns and cities of Southern India, and many 
make their way to other lands where work is more abundant 
and wages are higher. From one sixth to one third of the 
people of Madras are said to be Telugus. Several hundred 
thousand are found in Burma, and some of them have 
embraced the gospel in Rangoon. Their language, though 
difficult of acquisition, is wonderfully smooth and sweet, so 
that it is often called the Italian of India. 

C"5) 




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Rev. Amos Sutton, a missionary of the English Genera) 
Baptists in Orissa, married an American lady, a native of 
Boston, the widow of Rev. James Colman, formerly a mission- 
ary in Burma. Mr. Sutton had been the means of interesting 
the Free Baptists of this country in Orissa and of the organiza- 
tion of their missionary society. While on a visit to the 
United States, in the year 1835, he visited the Annual Meet- 
ing of the General Missionary Convention, at Richmond, Va., 
and urged the Baptists of this country to establish a mission 
among the Telugus. The Treasurer's report of that year 
showed a surplus of funds, and the Convention passed the 
following resolution : 

"Resolved, That this Convention, feeling deeply the duty of 
the American Baptists to engage in far more enlarged and 
vigorous efforts for the conversion of the whole world, instruct 
the Board to establish new missions in every unoccupied 
place where there may be a reasonable prospect of success ; 
and to employ, in some part of the great field, every properly 
qualified missionary, whose services the Board may be able to 
obtain." 

The proposal of Mr. Sutton received a favorable response. 
In September of that year Rev. Samuel S. Day, with his wife, 
and Rev. E. L. Abbott, sailed from Boston to Calcutta, with 
instructions to open a mission among the Telugus. A large 
number of other missionaries designated to the East, under 
the auspices of the Board of Foreign Missions, sailed with 
Messrs. Day and Abbott, accompanied by Rev. Howard 
Malcolm. On the arrival of the company at Calcutta, in 
February, 1836, it was decided that Mr. Abbott should join 
the Karen Mission in British Burma, leaving Mr. Day to open 
the Telugu Mission. Mr. Day immediately proceeded to 
Vizagapatam, one of the principal cities of the Telugu 
country, then to Chicacole, and soon established his residence 
in one of the quarters of Madras. 




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Rev. Amos Sutton, a missionary of the English General 
Baptists in Orissa, married an American lady, a native of 
Boston, the widow of Rev. James Colman, formerly a mission- 
ary in Burma. Mr. Sutton had been the means of interesting 
the Free Baptists of this country in Orissa and of the organiza- 
tion of their missionary society. While on a visit to the 
United States, in the year 1835, he visited the Annual Meet- 
ing of the General Missionary Convention, at Richmond, Va., 
and urged the Baptists of this country to establish a mission 
among the Telugus. The Treasurer's report of that year 
showed a surplus of funds, and the Convention passed the 
following resolution : 

"Resolved, That this Convention, feeling deeply the duty of 
the American Baptists to engage in far more enlarged and 
vigorous efforts for the conversion of the whole world, instruct 
the Board to establish new missions in every unoccupied 
place where there may be a reasonable prospect of success ; 
and to employ, in some part of the great, field, every properly 
qualified missionary, whose services the Board may be able to 
obtain." 

The proposal of Mr. Sutton received a favorable response. 
In September of that year Rev. Samuel S. Day, with his wife, 
and Rev. E. L. Abbott, sailed from Boston to Calcutta, with 
instructions to open a mission among the Telugus. A large 
number of other missionaries designated to the East, under 
the auspices of the Board of Foreign Missions, sailed with 
Messrs. Day and Abbott, accompanied by Rev. Howard 
Malcolm. On the arrival of the company at Calcutta, in 
February, 1836, it was decided that Mr. Abbott should join 
the Karen Mission in British Burma, leaving Mr. Day to open 
the Telugu Mission. Mr. Day immediately proceeded to 
Vizagapatam, one of the principal cities of the Telugu 
country, then to Chicacole, and soon established his residence 
in one of the quarters of Madras. 



n8 

In February, 1840, Mr Day removed to Nellore, whick 
continued for twenty-six years the only station of the Telugu 
Mission. Venkappah, the first Telugu convert, was baptized 
at that place Sept. 27 of the next year, and a church was 
formed Oct. 12, 1844 But the early growth of the mission 
was so slow that the idea of abandoning the field was raised at 
the meeting of the Union in 1848. Again at the annual 
meeting held in Albany, N. Y., in 1853, the question was 
earnestly discussed, "Shall the Telugu Mission be relinquished 
or reinforced ? " At an evening session, eloquent pleas were 
made by some for removing the mission to Burma, and by 
others for reinforcement. One of the speakers, perhaps Dr. 
Edward Bright, then Home Secretary of the Missionary 
Union, pointing to Nellore on the map suspended over the 
platform, said, " There are many to care for the brilliant con- 
stellation in Burma, but who will care for the Lone Star?" 
The words fell on the ears of one present with peculiar force. 
That night, before sleeping, Dr. S. F. Smith, the author of 
" My Country, 't is of Thee," and of " Yes, my Native Land, I 
Love Thee," and "The Morning Light is Breaking," wrote 
"The Lone Star," and read it in the meeting of the next 
morning. 

Shine on, " Lone Star ! " Thy radiance bright 
Shall spread o'er all the eastern sky; 

Morn breaks apace from gloom and night : 
Shine on, and bless the pilgrim's eye. 

Shine on, " Lone Star ! " I would not dim 

The light that gleams with dubious ray; 
The lonely star of Bethlehem 

Led on a bright and glorious day. 

Shine on, " Lone Star ! " in grief and tears 

And sad reverses oft baptized; 
Shine on amid thy sister spheres : 

Lone stars in heaven are not despised. 




REV. LYMAN JEWETT, D. D. 



n8 

In February, 1840, Mr Day removed to Nellore, whick 
continued for twenty-six years the only station of the Telugu 
Mission. Venkappah, the first Telugu convert, was baptized 
at that place Sept. 27 of the next year, and a church was 
formed Oct. 12, 1844 But the early growth of the mission 
was so slow that the idea of abandoning the field was raised at 
the meeting of the Union in 1848. Again at the annual 
meeting held in Albany, N. Y., in 1853, the question was 
earnestly discussed, " Shall the Telugu Mission be relinquished 
or reinforced ? " At an evening session, eloquent pleas were 
made by some for removing the mission to Burma, and by 
others for reinforcement. One of the speakers, perhaps Dr. 
Edward Bright, then Home Secretary of the Missionary 
Union, pointing to Nellore on the map suspended over the 
platform, said, " There are many to care for the brilliant con- 
stellation in Burma, but who will care for the Lone Star?" 
The words fell on the ears of one present with peculiar force. 
That night, before sleeping, Dr. S. F. Smith, the author of 
" My Country, 'tis of Thee," and of " Yes, my Native Land, I 
Love Thee," and " The Morning Light is Breaking," wrote 
" The Lone Star," and read it in the meeting of the next 
morning. 

Shine on, " Lone Star ! " Thy radiance bright 
Shall spread o'er all the eastern sky; 

Morn breaks apace from gloom and night : 
Shine on, and bless the pilgrim's eye. 

Shine on, " Lone Star ! " I would not dim 

The light that gleams with dubious ray; 
The lonely star of Bethlehem 

Led on a bright and glorious day. 

Shine on, " Lone Star ! " in grief and tears 

And sad reverses oft baptized; 
Shine on amid thy sister spheres : 

Lone stars in heaven are not despised. 




REV. LYMAN JEWETT, D. D. 



I2O 

Shine on, " Lone Star ! " Who lifts his hand 

To dash to earth so bright a gem, 
A new " lost pleiad " from the band 

That sparkles in night's diadem? 

Shine on, " Lone Star ! " The day draws near 
When none shall shine more fair than thou; 

Thou, born and nursed in doubt and fear, 
Wilt glitter on Immanuel's brow. 

Shine on, " Lone Star ! " till earth redeemed 

In dust shall bid its idols fall; 
And thousands, where thy radiance beamed, 

Shall " crown the Saviour Lord of all." 

It was voted to reinforce the mission. 

In 1862, at the anniversary in Providence, R. I., relinquish- 
ment of the Telugu Mission was again discussed ; but before 
deciding the question it was resolved to await the arrival of 
Dr. Jewett, who was on his way to this country. Dr. Jewett 
said that he would never abandon the Telugus, but begged to 
be allowed to go back to India and die there. Dr. Warren, 
the Secretary of the Union, said to him, "Well, brother, if 
you are resolved to return, we must send somebody with you 
to bury you. You certainly ought to have a Christian burial 
in that heathen land." So the Telugu Mission, destined to 
become one of the brightest gems in the coronet of Christian 
missions, was saved, first by the genius of Samuel Francis 
Smith, and again by the heroism of Lyman Jewett. 

In 1854 was held that remarkable prayer meeting on a hill, 
now known as "Prayer-Meeting Hill," overlooking Ongole. 
New Year's morning five believing souls ascended that hill. 
Looking down upon the idolatrous temples of the place, they 
felt a peculiar inclination to ask God for a missionary to be 
sent to Ongole. In that prayer meeting, composed of Dr. 
Jewett, Mrs Jewett, Christian Nursu, a native preacher, and 



I2O 

Shine on, " Lone Star ! " Who lifts his hand 

To dash to earth so bright a gem, 
A new " lost pleiad " from the band 

That sparkles in night's diadem? 

Shine on, " Lone Star ! " The day draws near 
When none shall shine more fair than thou; 

Thou, born and nursed in doubt and fear, 
Wilt glitter on Immanuers brow. 

Shine on, " Lone Star ! " till earth redeemed 

In dust shall bid its idols fall; 
And thousands, where thy radiance beamed, 

Shall " crown the Saviour Lord of all." 

It was voted to reinforce the mission. 

In 1862, at the anniversary in Providence, R. I,, relinquish- 
ment of the Telugu Mission was again discussed ; but before 
deciding the question it was resolved to await the arrival of 
Dr. Jewett, who was on his way to this country. Dr. Jewett 
said that he would never abandon the Telugus, but begged to 
be allowed to go back to India and die there. Dr. Warren, 
the Secretary of the Union, said to him, "Well, brother, if 
you are resolved to return, we must send somebody with you 
to bury you. You certainly ought to have a Christian burial 
in that heathen land." So the Telugu Mission, destined to 
become one of the brightest gems in the coronet of Christian 
missions, was saved, first by the genius of Samuel Francis 
Smith, and again by the heroism of Lyman Jewett. 

In 1854 was held that remarkable prayer meeting on a hill, 
now known as "Prayer-Meeting Hill," overlooking Ongole. 
New Year's morning five believing souls ascended that hill. 
Looking down upon the idolatrous temples of the place, they 
felt a peculiar inclination to ask God for a missionary to be 
sent to Ongole. In that prayer meeting, composed of Dr. 
Jewett, Mrs Jewett, Christian Nursu, a native preacher, and 



P) 

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122 

two Bible women, Julia and Ruth, there was given to them a 
strong assurance of being heard in the special prayer there 
offered. The answer came after the lapse of twelve years. 
Rev. John E. Clough, the " missionary for Ongole," arrived 
at Nellore in company with Dr. Jewett, and opened the station 
at Ongole in 1866, having his house on the very spot fixed on 
by Dr. Jewett twelve years before, and bought by him for the 
mission in 1861. The day after his arrival at Nellore Mr. 
Clough learned to say in Telugu John iii. 1 6 : " God so loved 
the world that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever 
l>elieveth in him might not perish, but have everlasting life." 
This "little gospel" he proclaimed through the streets of 
Nellore, learning more of the Bible daily, until he had quite a 
sermon to give to the people before he had learned to read 
Telugu. 

At first much interest was shown by the caste people at 
Ongole, who visited the mission house to hear the gospel. 
Some of the outcaste people also heard the gospel and at 
once received it. When this became known to the high-caste 
people they said to Mr. Clough, "If this people are to be 
received, then we must go away." Not wishing to offend the 
caste people, and at the same time feeling they must not 
reject even the poorest who were coming to Christ, in this 
quandary the missionaries went to God for wisdom. As Mr. 
Clough was passing by a pile of New Testaments he picked 
up one, which opened of its own accord to i Corinthians i. 
2629: "For ye see your calling, brethren, how that not 
many wise men after the flesh, not many mighty, not many 
noble are called. But God hath chosen the foolish things of 
the world to confound the wise ; and God hath chosen the 
weak things of the world to confound the things which are 
mighty ; and base things of the world, and things which are 
despised, hath God chosen, yea, and things which are not, to 
bring to naught things that are ; that no flesh should glory in 



I2 3 

his presence." Meeting Mrs. Clough, he found that her mind 
had been turned to the same passage of Scripture, and they 
highly resolved to receive all true converts at whatever cost, 
whether they came from the higher or the lower classes. The 
poor outcastes were admitted and the haughty Brahmans 
withdrew, and few of them have ever received the gospel unto 
salvation ; but the number of converts, chiefly from the out- 
castes, has grown in thirty years from thirty-eight to fifty-five 
thousand. 

Every department of missionary labor was now carried for- 
ward with vigor. New out stations were opened, and the 
people from villages near and far came and begged for 
teachers. A chapel was erected at Ongole, built of stone 
laid in lime, at a cost of eleven hundred and seventy dollars, 
the whole, except one hundred and twenty-five dollars, being 
collected in the country. Oral preaching of the gospel was 
the policy of the mission. Mr. Clough wrote that in less than 
a year the people in more than eight hundred villages, within 
a circuit of forty miles around Ongole, had heard the gospel, 
had the Scriptures offered them, and had been entreated to 
repent, believe, and be saved. The word of God had free 
course, and converts were multiplied. Jan. i, 1867, a church 
was formed at Ongole with eight members. In a thousand 
villages Christ was preached, and converts, more and more, 
were added to the Lord. The whole number baptized in the 
Telugu Mission to Dec. 31, 1876, was 4,394, of whom 3,407 
were in the church at Ongole. 

The famine of 1877-78 was one of the most severe ever felt 
in India. Like others it resulted not so much from want of 
food, which was plentiful in some parts of India, but from 
lack of means of communication, and also from the rigid 
prejudices of the people which led them to cling to their 
homes and starve rather than remove to strange places and 
eat grain instead of rice. Many thousands perished in spite 



124 

of all efforts to save them. Missionary work, in some of its 
departments, was suspended, and the efforts of the brethren 
were turned as far as possible to the saving of life. They 
were made the almoners of the government, and in superin- 
tending public works undertaken to give employment to the 
starving people, they gained new access to many hundreds of 
minds, and influence over them. It was thought best for a 
time to use the greatest caution in giving encouragement 
under such circumstances to those who professed conversion 
and requested baptism, lest they should seek to be recognized 
among the disciples for mercenary motives. Hence for 
eighteen months none were received to the church, although 
hundreds applied for baptism. At last, when the dreadful 
days of famine were past, the doors of the church of Christ 
were opened. No longer could baptism be refused to the 
multitudes pressing into the kingdom. Then were almost 
literally fulfilled the words of Scripture, " The kingdom of 
heaven suffereth violence and the violent take it by force." 
(Matt. xi. 12.) Although thousands were rejected or advised 
to wait for further instruction, in two months between June 15 
and Sept. 17, 1878, 9,147 received Christian baptism, 2,222 
of them in one day, July 3, 1878. This baptism of the 
2,222 in one day is one of the most important events in the 
history of the Christian church, and brings emotions of fervent 
joy and gratitude to every true Christian heart. It has its 
only parallel in the great Day of Pentecost, when three 
thousand souls were added to the church in J erusalem. The 
following description of this remarkable event is from the 
account of Dr. Clough himself, given in a personal conversa- 
tion with the writer. 

After the famine was nearly over, since small pox was raging 
in the villages, Dr. Clough wrote to the preachers to meet him 
at Velumpelly on the Gundlacumma River, ten miles north of 
Ongole, in order that the disease should not be brought to the 



124 

of all efforts to save them. Missionary work, in some of its 
departments, was suspended, and the efforts of the brethren 
were turned as far as possible to the saving of life. They 
were made the almoners of the government, and in superin- 
tending public works undertaken to give employment to the 
starving people, they gained new access to many hundreds of 
minds, and influence over them. It was thought best for a 
time to use the greatest caution in giving encouragement 
under such circumstances to those who professed conversion 
and requested baptism, lest they should seek to be recognized 
among the disciples for mercenary motives. Hence for 
eighteen months none were received to the church, although 
hundreds applied for baptism. At last, when the dreadful 
days of famine were past, the doors of the church of Christ 
were opened. No longer could baptism be refused to the 
multitudes pressing into the kingdom. Then were almost 
literally fulfilled the words of Scripture, " The kingdom of 
heaven suffereth violence and the violent take it by force." 
(Matt. xi. 12.) Although thousands were rejected or advised 
to wait for further instruction, in two months between June 15 
and Sept. 17, 1878, 9,147 received Christian baptism, 2,222 
of them in one day, July 3, 1878. This baptism of the 
2,222 in one day is one of the most important events in the 
history of the Christian church, and brings emotions of fervent 
joy and gratitude to every true Christian heart. It has its 
only parallel in the great Day of Pentecost, when three 
thousand souls were added to the church in Jerusalem. The 
following description of this remarkable event is from the 
account of Dr. Clough himself, given in a personal conversa- 
tion with the writer. 

After the famine was nearly over, since small pox was raging 
in the villages, Dr. Clough wrote to the preachers to meet him 
at Velumpelly on the Guiidlacumma River, ten miles north of 
Ongole, in order that the disease should not be brought to the 



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126 

town. He wrote also not to allow the converts to come with 
them at this time. But it was useless to forbid them. They 
gathered to the number of about six thousand. Dr. Clough 
endeavored to persuade them to go back to their homes, but 
they replied, " We do not want money ; we will not ask you 
for any." Only a few had received aid, except as they were 
given work on the canal. They said, " As we have lived thus 
far by our work, so will we continue to live, or if we die, we 
shall die ; but we want you to baptize us." It was impossible 
to refuse. Forty preachers were stationed under forty trees 
and the examination of converts began. Only those were 
received who had proved their Christian faith by several 
months of consistent living. Dr. Clough himself went from 
place to place, superintending the whole examination. After 
all were examined, it was found that 2,222 had been received 
and their names placed upon the list. 

At that point the government road crosses the river by a 
ford. The banks of the river are high, and an inclined way 
for the road had been made, beginning quite a distance back 
from the bank, and descending gradually to the bed of the 
river. At this particular time the water in the river was high, 
and while the current rushed by outside, there was a calm 
eddy of water which flowed up over the road to a considerable 
distance, making a natural baptistery. Two clerks were 
stationed, one on each side of the bank above the road, with 
the list of the accepted candidates. 

Then two native preachers descended into the water to a 
sufficient depth, a name was called out by each clerk, and the 
person whose name was called went down into the water to 
the preachers. The formula of baptism was repeated in each 
case and the two were baptized. Then they returned from 
the water and two others were called and baptized in the same 
manner. So the administration of the ordinance went on, 
from an early hour in the morning of July 3, 1878, until about 



127 

nine or ten o'clock. When the two preachers became tired, 
two others were sent in their places. The administration or 
baptism was suspended during the heated hours in the middle 
of the day. About three or four o'clock it was resumed in the: 
same manner, and continued until the 2,222 were baptized, 
concluding about seven in the evening. The whole time 
occupied in the baptism was about nine hours, and only two 
native preachers officiated at a time. There were six in all, 
relieving each other, as those who were acting became weary. 
Dr. Clough baptized none himself. So this great event was 
concluded, the largest number baptized on profession of their 
faith in Christ on one day since the Day of Pentecost. All 
was done decently and in order, and the manner in which this 
large number was baptized proves that not only could three 
thousand, but even twice three thousand, be baptized in a day 
with perfect order and propriety, if the Lord should ever give 
such a blessing to his people. An affecting and impressive 
sequel to this great event occurred April 16, 1880, when 
twenty-four native preachers were ordained at Ongole at one 
service. This wonderful and gracious work of the Holy Spirit: 
gave an impulse to the missionary work for the Telugus which 
is felt to the present time. Thousands were baptized every 
year. On Sunday, Dec. 28, 1890, 1,671 persons were baptized 
in the baptistery at Ongole. This event, second in importance 
only to that of July 3, 1878, occupied for its orderly adminis- 
tration, about four hours and twenty-five minutes, with two 
ministers baptizing at the same time, and again nearly ten 
thousand were baptized on the various fields of the Telugu 
Mission within five months. 

An account of the Telugu Mission would hardly be complete 
without a brief sketch of the man who has been so greatly 
used of the Lord in this modern miracle of missions. 

John Everett Clough was born near Frewsburg, Chautauqua 
County, N. Y., July 16, 1836. When he was eight years old. 



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the family removed to Illinois, and from there they went, in 
1850, to Clayton County, Iowa, settling near the present town 
of Strawberry Point. Dr. dough's early educational advan- 
tages were small, but were improved to the utmost. For four 
years he was a surveyor in Minnesota, and studied four years 
at Burlington College, Iowa. He began the study of law, but 
all his plans in life were changed by his conversion. He was 
baptized by E.ev. G. J. Johnson, D. D., then pastor of the 
First Baptist Church of Burlington, and became at once an 
active worker for Christ. In 1862 he was graduated from the 
Upper Iowa University of Fayette. After teaching a year and 
serving one year as colportor of the American Baptist Publi- 
cation Society, he was appointed to the Telugu Mission by 
the American .Baptist Missionary Union, Aug. 2, 1864. He 
went to Ongole in 1866. During the famine of 1877 his 
knowledge of surveying was of great assistance, as he took the 
contract for three miles of the Buckingham Canal, giving 
employment to thousands of the natives, and saving many lives. 
The visits of Dr^ Clough to America have been largely used 
by him in the service of the mission. In 1872 he raised a 
fund of more than thirty thousand dollars for the endow- 
ment of the Theological Seminary at Ramapatam. Again in 
1891-92 he secured twenty-five thousand dollars for an endow- 
ment for the American Baptist College at Ongole, and twenty- 
five thousand dollars for the reinforcement and enlargement 
of the mission. By the aid of this fund thirty-two missionaries 
were added to the staff of laborers among the Telugus within 
two years. The ingathering of the Telugu Mission has never 
been equalled, during the same time, by any mission on the 
face of the earth. Its long years of little fruit have been suc- 
ceeded by days of the most remarkable prosperity. The 
number of converts is now about fifty-five thousand, and the 
additions continue by hundreds and thousands every year. 
The "Lone Star" has now multiplied to more than twenty 



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129 

the family removed to Illinois, and from there they went, in 
1850, to Clayton County, Iowa, settling near the present town 
of Strawberry Point. Dr. dough's early educational advan- 
tages were small, but were improved to the utmost. For four 
years he was a surveyor in Minnesota, and studied four years 
at Burlington College, Iowa. He began the study of law, but 
all his plans in life were changed by his conversion. He was 
baptized by Rev. G. J. Johnson, D. D., then pastor of the 
First Baptist Church of Burlington, and became at once an 
active worker for Christ. In 1862 he was graduated from the 
Upper Iowa University of Fayette. After teaching a year and 
serving one year as colportor of the American Baptist Publi- 
cation Society, he was appointed to the Telugu Mission by 
the American .Baptist Missionary Union, Aug. 2, 1864. He 
went to Ongole in 1866. During the famine of 1877 his 
knowledge of surveying was of great assistance, as he took the 
contract for three miles of the Buckingham Canal, giving 
employment to thousands of the natives, and saving many lives. 
The visits of Dr. Clough to America have been largely used 
by him in the service of the mission. In 1872 he raised a 
fund of more than thirty thousand dollars for the endow- 
ment of the Theological Seminary at Kamapatam. Again in 
1891-92 he secured twenty-five thousand dollars for an endow- 
ment for the American Baptist College at Ongole, and twenty- 
five thousand dollars for the reinforcement and enlargement 
of the mission. By the aid of this fund thirty-two missionaries 
were added to the staff of laborers among the Telugus within 
two years. The ingathering of the Telugu Mission has never 
been equalled, during the same time, by any mission on the 
face of the earth. Its long years of little fruit have been suc- 
ceeded by days of the most remarkable prosperity. The 
number of converts is now about fifty-five thousand, and the 
additions continue by hundreds and thousands every year. 
The "Lone Star" has now multiplied to more than twenty 



130 

stations, and the few missionaries of the early days to nearly 
one hundred. The history of the American Baptist Telugu 
Mission has become one of the brightest spots in the history 
of Christian missions throughout the world. The converts 
have remained remarkably steadfast, and are growing in edu- 
cation, intelligence, and self-dependence. The Ongole field, 
which witnessed such wonderful displays of divine grace, has 
been divided into eleven, each with its central station and 




missionary family. The success of the mission has made it a 
model for Christian evangelistic missions throughout India, 
from which other bodies are more and more forming their 
policy for missionary work, and the prospect for the future is 
one of the brightest promise. 

The rapid growth of the mission in the ingathering of con- 
verts has been so great that there has been little opportunity 
for Christian development. The pace of the missionary growth 
has always been in advance of the increase of missionaries. 



The ingathering of converts will doubtless go on in the future, 
but the great need of the Telugu Mission is that it should be 
strengthened and developed in all Christian graces. The 
disciples have been won; now they need to be taught the 
" all things " which the Lord has commanded. Education for 
the people, and training for the ministry and the leaders of 
the churches are urgently demanded, and with the continued 
large ingathering of converts must be combined the develop- 
ment of the mission in all ways into a strong and vigorous 
self-supporting, self-directing, and self-propagating Christian 
community. 

All the conspicuous successes of missionary work have been 
among people not bound to any .highly organized system of 
false religion. The great ingathering in the Telugu Mission 
is no exception to this rule. Nearly all this large number of 
converts are from the outcastes. This people, although nomi- 
nally Hindus, yet have themselves or their ancestors been cast 
out from the special rites and privileges of the Hindu religion^ 
They are not included in any of the four great Hindu castes r 
but are regarded as utterly unworthy of notice, and are- 
despised by the orthodox Hindus. While this people have 
adopted some of the ideas of Hinduism and take part im 
Hindu festivals, their real religion is a form of nature worship,, 
like that which exists among the Karens of Burma or the 
people of the Pacific islands. Aside from the religious benefit 
which Christianity has brought to this despised and oppressed 
people it has been of conspicuous helpfulness to them in 
social lines. Before conversion they were practically slaves 
to their high caste Hindu masters. Christianity has made 
them independent, has released them from many of the 
degrading and oppressive requirements imposed upon them 
by the Brahmans, and has brought to them light and knowl- 
edge. As the children of Christian converts have been edu- 
cated in Christian schools they have become elevated in the 



130 

stations, and the few missionaries of the early days to nearly 
one hundred. The history of the American Baptist Telugu 
Mission has become one of the brightest spots in the history 
of Christian missions throughout the world. The converts 
have remained remarkably steadfast, and are growing in edu- 
cation, intelligence, and self-dependence. The Ongole field, 
which witnessed such wonderful displays of divine grace, has 
been divided into eleven, each with its central station and 







missionary family. The success of the mission has made it a 
model for Christian evangelistic missions throughout India, 
from which other bodies are more and more forming their 
policy for missionary work, and the prospect for the future is 
one of the brightest promise. 

The rapid growth of the mission in the ingathering of con- 
verts has been so great that there has been little opportunity 
for Christian development. The pace of the missionary growth 
has always been in advance of the increase of missionaries. 



13* 

The ingathering of converts will doubtless go on in the future, 
but the great need of the Telugu Mission is that it should be 
strengthened and developed in all Christian graces. The 
disciples have been won; now they need to be taught the 
" all things " which the Lord has commanded. Education for 
the people, and training for the ministry and the leaders of 
the churches are urgently demanded, and with the continued 
large ingathering of converts must be combined the develop- 
ment of the mission in all ways into a strong and vigorous 
self-supporting, self-directing, and self-propagating Christian 
community. 

All the conspicuous successes of missionary work have been 
among people not bound to any highly organized system of 
false religion. The great ingathering in the Telugu Mission 
is no exception to this rule. Nearly all this large number of 
converts are from the outcastes. This people, although nomi- 
nally Hindus, yet have themselves or their ancestors been cast 
out from the special rites and privileges of the Hindu religion- 
They are not included in any of the four great Hindu castes r 
but are regarded as utterly unworthy of notice, and are- 
despised by the orthodox Hindus. While this people have 
adopted some of the ideas of Hinduism and take part in 
Hindu festivals, their real religion is a form of nature worship, 
like that which exists among the Karens of Burma or the 
people of the Pacific islands. Aside from the religious benefit 
which Christianity has brought to this despised and oppressed 
people it has been of conspicuous helpfulness to them in 
social lines. Before conversion they were practically slaves 
to their high caste Hindu masters. Christianity has made 
them independent, has released them from many of the 
degrading and oppressive requirements imposed upon them 
by the Brahmans, and has brought to them light and knowl- 
edge. As the children of Christian converts have been edu- 
cated in Christian schools they have become elevated in the 




2 



3 



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cs 

2 

s 

o 



Ed 

1 

Oi 












133 

social scale. Under the Hindu regime only the upper castes 
receive education. A pariah or outcaste is thought unworthy 
to be taught. All offices, both native and in the civil service 
of the British Government of India, were in the hands of the 
high .castes. Education has brought the outcastes within the 
possibility of official position in the civil service examinations. 
The Brahman now frequently finds himself seated side by side 
with the despised outcaste, and very often is compelled to 
yield the coveted place to the competitor whom he regarded 
as only worthy of contempt. The education which the mis- 
sion schools has diffused among Christian converts is doing 
much to elevate Christianity in the eyes of the Hindu popu- 
lation of India. 

Aside from mission schools of all grades there is an increas- 
ingly favorable movement toward industrial education for the 
Christian converts. In their heathen condition they were 
simply serfs, and unacquainted with any except the most 
menial forms of labor. In an enlightened and civilized com- 
munity diversity of occupation and employment is needed, and 
there is almost no opportunity for the outcaste Christian con- 
vert to become acquainted with these except by means of 
industrial schools conducted under mission auspices. A good 
beginning has been made at Nellore, where the Bucknell 
Institute, .organized by the generosity of the late William. 
Bucknell of Philadelphia, is training girls in weaving, sewing, 
and other industries prepared for them to learn. A move- 
ment has also just been started for the establishment of a 
fully organized technical school at Ongole, towards which Dr. 
Clough has contributed the first five thousand rupees. The 
spiritual effect of missionary work is, of course, the most 
important, but to the eye of the general observer elevation in 
social life and capacities, and in standing in the community is 
something more plainly evident. The Telugu Mission will' 
be largely helped by every movement in this direction, and 




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3 

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133 

social scale. Under the Hindu regime only the upper castes 
receive education. A pariah or outcaste is thought unworthy 
to be taught. All offices, both native and in the civil service 
of the British Government of India, were in the hands of the 
high castes. Education has brought the outcastes within the 
possibility of official position in the civil service examinations. 
The Brahman now frequently finds himself seated side by side 
with the despised outcaste, and very often is compelled to 
yield the coveted place to the competitor whom he regarded 
as only worthy of contempt. The education which the mis- 
sion schools has diffused among Christian converts is doing 
much to elevate Christianity in the eyes of the Hindu popu- 
lation of India. 

Aside from mission schools of all grades there is an increas- 
ingly favorable movement toward industrial education for the 
Christian converts. In their heathen condition they were 
simply serfs, and unacquainted with any except the most 
menial forms of labor. In an enlightened and civilized com- 
munity diversity of occupation and employment is needed, and 
there is almost no opportunity for the outcaste Christian con- 
vert to become acquainted with these except by means of 
industrial schools conducted under mission auspices. A good 
beginning has been made at Nellore, where the Bucknell 
Institute, .organized by the generosity of the late William 
Bucknell of Philadelphia, is training girls in weaving, sewing, 
and other industries prepared for them to learn. A move- 
ment has also just been started for the establishment of a 
fully organized technical school at Ongole, towards which Dr. 
Clough has contributed the first five thousand rupees. The 
spiritual effect of missionary work is, of course, the most 
important, but to the eye of the general observer elevation in 
social life and capacities, and in standing in the community is 
something more plainly evident. The Telugu Mission wilL 
be largely helped by every movement in this direction, and 



134 

much work will be necessary in these lines until the large num- 
ber of converts have grown into a fully developed Christian 
community. 

If all the missionary efforts of American Baptists had 
resulted in nothing else than the wondrous, inspiring, and 
enkindling story of the Telugu Mission there would yet be 
abundant reason for praise and thanksgiving to the God of all 
the earth for the marvellous blessings bestowed upon their 
labors. Within itself the Telugu Mission furnishes most 
remarkable instances of heroic faith rewarded with triumphant 
victory, and of simple devotion to the truth crowned with 
abundant blessings. Since the Telugu Pentecost of July 3, 
1878, the question of the possibility of the immersion of three 
thousand on the primitive Pentecost has been forever settled, 
and an immense impulse given to the progress^ of Scriptural 
Baptism. Oral preaching of the gospel as the true and best 
method of winning the heathen to the gospel of Christ has 
been so successfully and strikingly vindicated that missions 
which have relied largely upon other methods are now reorgan- 
izing on the model of the work at Ongole. To have set forth 
and impressed upon the Christian world these fundamental 
principles of the gospel of Christ, and at the same time to 
have won such great multitudes from the darkness of heathen- 
ism to the glorious light of the gospel mark the American 
Baptist Telugu .Mission as one of the great movements of 
Christian History. 



5 

55 

tt 

55 

O 



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134 



much work will be necessary in these lines until the large num- 
ber of converts have grown into a fully developed Christian 
community. 

If all the missionary efforts of American Baptists had 
resulted in nothing else than the wondrous, inspiring, and 
enkindling story of the Telugu Mission there would yet be 
abundant reason for praise and thanksgiving to the God of all 
the earth for the marvellous blessings bestowed upon their 
labors. Within itself the Telugu Mission furnishes most 
remarkable instances of heroic faith rewarded with triumphant 
victory, and of simple devotion to the truth crowned with 
abundant blessings. Since the Telugu Pentecost of July 3, 
1878, the question of the possibility of the immersion of three 
thousand on the primitive Pentecost has been forever settled, 
and an immense impulse given to the progress of Scriptural 
Baptism. Oral preaching of the gospel as the true and best 
method of winning the heathen to the gospel of Christ has 
been so successfully and strikingly vindicated that missions 
which have relied largely upon other methods are now reorgan- 
izing on the model of the work at Ongole. To have set forth 
and impressed upon the Christian world these fundamental 
principles of the gospel of Christ, and at the same time to 
have won such great multitudes from the darkness of heathen- 
ism to the glorious light of the gospel mark the American 
Baptist Telugu .Mission as one of the great movements of 
Christian History. 



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BAPTIST MISSIONS IN CHINA 



COUNTRY AND PEOPLE 

THE immense country included within the Chinese empire 
comprises one third of the most habitable part of the globe. 
In population it is the largest empire which the world ever 
knew. The name China is not used by the people for their 
own country. One of the names they give it denotes " the 
world," another means "The Middle Kingdom," as the 
Chinese believe that their country is the centre of the earth, 
and all other nations are less important territories on the out- 
side. Another name sometimes given to China by the 
Chinese is " Heaven," from which the people are sometimes 
called " Celestials." The empire is divided into three princi- 
pal parts, of which that commonly known to other nations as 
China is called the Eighteen Provinces. It is the only part 
entirely settled by the Chinese. Its scenery is beautiful, its 
soil fertile, its climate salubrious, its rivers magnificent and 
navigable, and its productions various and abundant. The 
Chinese are largely engaged in agriculture, and although they 
are ignorant of many of the operations of fertilizing and have 
few and simple implements, they make up for these disad- 
vantages by their indefatigable industry. This and the favor- 
able conditions of soil, climate, and irrigation have rendered' 
the country so productive that it has always supplied all the 
wants of its people and been quite independent of foreign 
nations. 

The Chinese are conservative and proud of their country 
and customs. They claim the oldest authentic and continuous 
history of any people on earth, running back to 2,852 years be- 
fore Christ, or only 363 years after the Deluge. The popula- 
tion of the empire is generally estimated at 400,000,000, all of 
whom read the same language ; but the spoken dialects are 



BAPTIST MISSIONS IN CHINA 



COUNTRY AND PEOPLE 

THE immense country included within the Chinese empire 
comprises one third of the most habitable part of the globe. 
In population it is the largest empire which the world ever 
Itnew. The name China is not used by the people for their 
own country. One of the names they give it denotes " the 
world," another means "The Middle Kingdom," as the 
Chinese believe that their country is the centre of the earth, 
and all other nations are less important territories on the out- 
side. Another name sometimes given to China by the 
Chinese is " Heaven," from which the people are sometimes 
called " Celestials." The empire is divided into three princi- 
pal parts, of which that commonly known to other nations as 
China is called the Eighteen Provinces. It is the only part 
entirely settled by the Chinese. Its scenery is beautiful, its 
soil fertile, its climate salubrious, its rivers magnificent and 
navigable, and its productions various and abundant. The 
Chinese are largely engaged in agriculture, and although they 
are ignorant of many of the operations of fertilizing and have 
few and simple implements, they make up for these disad- 
vantages by their indefatigable industry. This and the favor- 
able conditions of soil, climate, and irrigation have rendered 
the country so productive that it has always supplied all the 
wants of its people and been quite independent of foreign 
nations. 

The Chinese are conservative and proud of their country 
and customs. They claim the oldest authentic and continuous 
history of any people on earth, running back to 2,852 years be- 
fore Christ, or only 363 years after the Deluge. The popula- 
tion of the empire is generally estimated at 400,000,000, all of 
whom read the same language ; but the spoken dialects are 

(i39) 



140 

very numerous, especially in the south. The Chinese have 
more virtues than most pagan nations. They have never 
offered human sacrifices, nor deified vice. The govern- 
ment of China is the most purely patriarchal of those now 
existing on the earth. All the land belongs nominally to the 
emperor, and he is the father of the people. Every officer is 
strictly responsible for the good order and welfare of the terri- 




CHINESE MANDARINS 

tory committed to his care, as every father is held responsible 
for the good conduct of every other member of the family. 
This principle secures a system of accountability so perfect 
that it is difficult for a criminal to escape detection and pun- 
ishment, and disorder in any part of the empire is impossible 
except by the connivance of both officials and people. 

There is no caste in China. There is a system of slavery, 
but it is not so degrading as in other countries. It is not 
allowable to separate married slaves, nor to sell their children 



I4T 

when very young. Girls are more readily sold than boys. The 
Chinese have a great admiration for learning ; and education 
of a certain kind is very general. The offices of government 
are open only to those who have passed literary examinations, 
and the literary class is the most influential in the country, 
It is from this class that the chief opposition to Christianity 
comes, in accordance with the words of Christ, " Not many 
wise, not many noble, are called." As far as all human stand- 
ards can measure, the Chinese are so far above any other 
heathen nation in importance that their conversion is beyond 
all comparison the greatest work before the Church of Christ. 
When China is converted one half of the heathen world -will 
have been conquered for Christianity. 

In China, as in all heathen eountries, woman occupies an 
inferior position, yet literary attainments are considered cred- 
itable to a woman. Neither Confucius nor Buddha assigns to 
the wife a position of honor. According to the latter she is 
in all respects inferior to her husband, and can only wish that 
on her re-entry into life, in the next state of- existence, she 
may be born as a man. According to Confucius, she has 
duties, but no rights. The three great duties which, in accord- 
ance with the principles of the Chinese philosopher, were im- 
pressed on every woman, from her youth up, were, obedience 
to her parents, her husband, and to her oldest son. The hus- 
band has full rights over the person and property of his wife. 
The sorrows of married life in China are so great that girls 
often commit suicide just before the wedding. These sorrows 
result not from the character of the people, but from the 
superstitions and practices of heathenism, and can be removed 
alone by the light of the gospel. There is little intermingling 
of men and women in social life, therefore the labors of 
female missionaries are likely to be the principal means of 
reaching their sex for a long time to come. 

RELIGIONS 

There is no generic term for religion in the Chinese lan- 
guage, but there are three nominal religions in the country, 
Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. These three forms do 
not interfere with each other, as a Confucianist may worship 



140 

very numerous, especially in the south. The Chinese have 
more virtues than most pagan nations. They have never 
offered human sacrifices, nor deified vice. The govern- 
ment of China is the most purely patriarchal of those now 
existing on the earth. All the land belongs nominally to the 
emperor, and he is the father of the people. Every officer is 
strictly responsible for the good order and welfare of the terri- 




CHINESE MANDARINS 

tory committed to his care, as every father is held responsible 
for the good conduct of every other member of the family. 
This principle secures a system of accountability so perfect 
that it is difficult for a criminal to escape detection and pun- 
ishment, and disorder in any part of the empire is impossible 
except by the connivance of both officials and people. 

There is no caste in China. There is a system of slavery, 
but it is not so degrading as in other countries. It is not 
allowable to separate married slaves, nor to sell their children 



I4T 

when very young. Girls are more readily sold than boys. The 
Chinese have a great admiration for learning ; and education 
of a certain kind is very general. The offices of government 
are open only to those who have passed literary examinations, 
and the literary class is the most influential in the country. 
It is from this class that the chief opposition to Christianity 
comes, in accordance with the words of Christ, " Not many 
wise, not many noble, are called." As far as all human stand- 
ards can measure, the Chinese are so far above any other 
heathen nation in importance that their conversion is beyond 
all comparison the greatest work before the Church of Christ. 
When China is converted one half of the heathen world -will 
have been conquered for Christianity. 

In China, as in all heathen eountries, woman occupies an 
inferior position, yet literary attainments are considered cred- 
itable to a woman. Neither Confucius nor Buddha assigns to 
the wife a position of honor. According to the latter she is 
in all respects inferior to her husband, and can only wish that 
on her re-entry into life, in the next state of- existence, she 
may be born as a man. According to Confucius, she has 
duties, but -no rights. The three great duties which, in accord- 
ance with the principles of the Chinese philosopher, were im- 
pressed on every woman, from her youth up, were, obedience 
to her parents, her husband, and to her oldest son. The hus- 
band has full rights over the person and property of his wife. 
The sorrows of married life in China are so great that girls 
often commit suicide just before the wedding. These sorrows 
result not from the character of the people, but from the 
superstitions and practices of heathenism, and can be removed 
alone by the light of the gospel. There is little intermingling 
of men and women in social life, therefore the labors of 
female missionaries are likely to be the principal means of 
reaching their sex for a long time to come. 

RELIGIONS 

There is no generic term for religion in the Chinese lan- 
guage, but there are three nominal religions in the country, 
Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism. These three forms do 
not interfere with each other, as a Confucianist may worship 



142 

in a Buddhist temple and hold Taoist beliefs, without any im- 
peachment of his sincerity, and no one cares enough for his 
peculiar views to fight for them. In a certain sense it may be 
said that China has no religion, as Confucianism is a moral 
philosophy, Buddhism is atheism, and Taoism is agnosticism. 
That which has the strongest hold on the hearts of the people 
is the worship of ancestors and of the spirits of earth, air,, and 
water. This is universal. 

Nestorians visited China in 505, and formed churches in 
several cities. The Roman Catholics began work there in 
1288, and had considerable success. The arrogance of the 
priesthood and their interference with the politics of the 
country led to an edict of expulsion against Christians in 
1767, and it continued until' 1858, when toleration was pro- 
claimed. The first Protestant missionary to China was Robert 
Morrison, who arrived in Canton in September, 1807, and be- 
came official translator to the East India Company, under 
whose auspices he prepared his dictionary,, and translated the 
Bible into Chinese. 

BAPTIST MISSIONS 

The work of the American Baptist Missionary Union among 
the Chinese is divided into six departments : the Mission in 
Siarn, the South China Mission, the Hakka Mission, the East 
China Mission, the West China Mission, and the Central 
China Mission. 

THE MISSION IN SIAM 

The beginning of American Baptist missions to the Chinese 
was in Bangkok, Siam. In 1831 Rev. John Taylor Jones ar- 
rived in Burma for missionary work, but after consultation with 
the brethren it was decided that he should open a mission in 
Siam. He arrived in Bangkok March 25, 1833, and at once 
began labors for the Siamese. Dr. Jones was a man of great 
earnestness and linguistic ability. He translated the New 
Testament into the Siamese language and created a large 
Christian literature. He also acquired great influence with 
the higher officials, and even with the Emperor of Siam, and 



142 

in a Buddhist temple and hold Taoist beliefs, without any im- 
peachment of his sincerity, and no one cares enough for his 
peculiar views to fight for them. In a certain sense it may be 
said that China has no religion, as Confucianism is a moral 
philosophy, Buddhism is atheism, and Taoism is agnosticism. 
That which has the strongest hold on the hearts of the people 
is the worship of ancestors and of the spirits of earth, air,, and 
water. This is universal. 

Nestorians visited China in 505, and formed churches in 
several cities. The Roman Catholics began work there in 
1288, and had considerable success. The arrogance of the 
priesthood and their interference with the politics of the 
country led to an edict of expulsion against Christians in 
1767, and it continued until" 1858, when toleration was pro- 
claimed. The first Protestant missionary to China was Robert 
Morrison, who arrived in Canton in September, 1807, and be- 
came official translator to the East India Company, under 
whose auspices he prepared his dictionary, and translated the 
Bible into Chinese. 

BAPTIST MISSIONS 

The work of the American Baptist Missionary Union among 
the Chinese is divided into six departments : the Mission in 
Siam, the South China Mission, the Hakka Mission, the East 
China Mission, the West China Mission, and the Central 
China Mission. 

THE MISSION IN SIAM 

The beginning of American Baptist missions to the Chinese 
was in Bangkok, Siam. In 1831 Rev. John Taylor Jones ar- 
rived in Burma for missionary work, but after consultation with 
the brethren it was decided that he should open a mission in 
Siam. He arrived in Bangkok March 25, 1833, and at once 
began labors for the Siamese. Dr. Jones was a man of great 
earnestness and linguistic ability. He translated the New 
Testament into the Siamese language and created a large 
Christian literature. He also acquired great influence with 
the higher officials, and even with the Emperor of Siam, and 



73 

W 



en 
O 

w 
z 



o 




144 

was greatly respected by all. Although his labors were in the 
Siamese language, the first converts to be baptized were three 
Chinese, who received the ordinance Dec. 8, 1833. From the 
first the work among the Chinese in Siam was more prom- 
ising than that for the Siamese, and special work for the latter 
was suspended in 1869. The work among the Chinese con- 
tinued to prosper. In 1851 a great disaster befell the mission 
in the destruction of all the missionary buildings by fire, in- 
volving a loss of nearly fifteen thousand dollars ; but they 
were soon rebuilt, and the property of the Missionary Union 
in Bangkok has greatly increased in value. In 1869 forty-five 
were baptized, a larger number than was received in all the 
years previous. In 1874 the baptisms amounted to one hun- 
dred and forty, and the work went on until at one time as 
many as five hundred converts were reported in the mission. 
Missionary work among the Chinese in Siam has, however, 
always been of an uncertain character. The Chinese are in 
that country for the purposes of trade and gain, and although 
many converts were received into the churches, a large number 
of them returned to their homes in China. At the present 
time the visible results of the work are small. Siam has always 
been open to missionary work; the missionaries have been 
entirely unrestricted in their labors since 1851 ; the Chinese 
are numerous, but owing to the shifting character of the people 
the success has not been in proportion to the labor expended, 
and the question of removing the mission bodily to China 
proper has often been agitated. 

Three names are closely linked with the earliest history of 
American Baptist missions to the Chinese, William Dean, 
Josiah Goddard, and William Ashmore. All began their labors 
in Bangkok, and. each became in a very special manner the 
founder of departments of Chinese mission work as they exist 
to-day. Rev. William Dean reached Bangkok in 1835, and 
removed to Hongkong in 1842. He resided for a time in 
Macao in 1846, returned to Bangkok in 1855, and until within 
a few years has been the chief factor in carrying on mission 
work in Siam. Rev. Josiah Goddard reached Bangkok in 
1840, but removed to Ningpo, China, in March, 1848, and 
became the founder of the evangelistic work in the East China 
Mission. Rev. William Ashmore, going to Siam in 1849, re- 



145 

moved to Hongkong in 1857. In January, 1864, he purchased 
and occupied the present headquarters of the mission at Kak- 
chieh, opposite the city of Swatow, and thus established the 
South China Mission in its present location. The relations 
between the Chinese mission in Siam and the South China 
Mission have always been intimate, and there have been inter- 
changes of missionaries and ' frequent removals of native con- 
verts and laborers from one field to the other. Miss Adele 
M. Fielde, reaching Bangkok in 1866, after five years of labor 
there and a stay in America, became the organizer of the 
woman's work for woman of the South China Mission. Rev. 
Sylvester B. Partridge and wife, arriving in Bangkok in 1869, 
removed to Swatow in 1872. Thus the Chinese mission in 
Siam, while not largely successful in itself, has been a field of 
preparation for the work in China proper, and has contributed 
much to the early foundations of Baptist missions in the great 
Chinese empire. 

THE SOUTH CHINA MISSION 

The war of 1841 between the British and the Chinese is 
commonly known as the Opium War. It resulted in forcing 
British opium on the reluctant Chinese, but this evil was in 
part counterbalanced by the opening of the Chinese empire 
to Christian missionary work. By the treaty of August, 1842, 
Hongkong was ceded to the British, and five ports, Canton, 
Amoy, Fuchau, Ningpo, and Shanghai, were opened to British 
trade. Rev. William Dean hastened to take advantage of this 
opportunity, and before the close of that year had begun mis- 
sionary work in Hongkong. In 1846 he resided for a time in 
Macao. In 1847 Rev. J. W. Johnson reached Hongkong. 
The missionary work was carried on with considerable success 
in that city for some years. Swatow was opened as a port for 
foreign commerce in 1857, the same year that Rev. William 
Ashmore and wife reached Hongkong. After laboring in that 
city Mr. Ashmore visited America, but returned to China in 
1863 in a vessel by way of the Cape of Good Hope. The 
voyage was one full of alarms, there being constant fear of 
capture by Confederate cruisers ; but Mr. and Mrs. Ashmore 
safely reached Double Island at the mouth of Swatow Harbor, 



146 

in July, 1863, to which place he had been preceded by Mr. 
and Mrs. Johnson, who arrived in June, 1860. The city of 
Swatow is situated on the mainland. The site is low and flat 
and not healthful; for this reason the headquarters of the 
mission were established at Kakchieh on the southern shore 
of the bay, a mile across the water from Swatow. In January, 
1864, Mr. Ashmore bought property at Kakchieh for $800. 
The site was at that time rocky, rough, and sterile, but with 




DR. ASHMORE'S HOUSE 

care and cultivation it has become undoubtedly the most 
beautiful and convenient headquarters to be found in our 
missions, and the value has advanced from the small price 
paid for it in 1864 to many thousands of dollars. 

After the establishment of the mission at Swatow work 
went on with encouraging success. The first Baptist con- 
vert in China had been baptized at the Portuguese city of 
Macao on Jan. 31, 1837, by Rev. J. L Shuck, who had reached 
that place the previous year, thus founding the first Baptist 
mission in the Chinese empire. Quite a church had been 



147 

gathered in Hongkong, but after the opening of the head- 
quarters at Swatow that place was abandoned as a residence 
for missionaries and was considered to be an out-station of the 
Swatow mission. In November, 1865, sixty- two communi- 
cants were reported in the church at Swatow, and in 1867 two 
of the converts were ordained to the gospel ministry. Thirty- 
five were baptized in 1870. In 1872 Rev. S. B. Partridge and 




BIBLE WOMEN AT SWATOW 

wife removed from Bangkok to Swatow and continued to 
labor in association with Dr. Ashmore, the field being divided 
between them, Dr. Ashmore taking the country districts more 
to the southwest, and Dr. Partridge, those to the north, where 
he has at times resided large portions of the year. Miss Adele 
M. Fielde, after a sojourn in America, reached Swatow in 1873 
and organized the work for the women in a manner which has 
become the admiration of those interested in woman's mission- 
ary work for woman in heathen lands. Dr. Ashmore's son, 



146 

in July, 1863, to which place he had been preceded by Mr. 
and Mrs. Johnson, who arrived in June, 1860. The city of 
Swatow is situated on the mainland. The site is low and flat 
and not healthful; for this reason the headquarters of the 
mission were established at Kakchieh on the southern shore 
of the bay, a mile across the water from Swatow. In January. 
1864, Mr. Ashmore bought property at Kakchieh for $800. 
The site was at that time rocky, rough, and sterile, but with 




DR. ASHMORE'S HOUSE 

care and cultivation it has become undoubtedly the most 
beautiful and convenient headquarters to be found in our 
missions, and the value has advanced from the small price 
paid for it in 1864 to many thousands of dollars. 

After the establishment of the mission at Swatow work 
went on with encouraging success. The first Baptist con- 
vert in China had been baptized at the Portuguese city of 
Macao on Jan. 31, 1837, by Rev. J. L Shuck, who had reached 
that place the previous year, thus founding the first Baptist 
mission in the Chinese empire. Quite a church had been 



147 

gathered in Hongkong, but after the opening of the head- 
quarters at Swatow that place was abandoned as a residence 
for missionaries and was considered to be an out-station of the 
Swatow mission. In November, 1865, sixty- two communi- 
cants were reported in the church at Swatow, and in 1867 two 
of the converts were ordained to the gospel ministry. Thirty- 
five were baptized in 1870. In 1872 Rev. S. B. Partridge and 




BIBLE WOMEN AT SWATOW 

wife removed from Bangkok to Swatow and continued to 
labor in association with Dr. Ashmore, the field being divided 
between them, Dr. Ashmore taking the country districts more 
to the southwest, and Dr. Partridge, those to the north, where 
he has at times resided large portions of the year. Miss Adele 
M. Fielde, after a sojourn in America, reached Swatow in 1873 
and organized the work for the women in a manner which has 
become the admiration of those interested in woman's mission- 
ary work for woman in heathen lands. Dr. Ashmore's son, 



148 

Hev. William Ashmore, Jr., joined the mission in 1880 and has 
done excellent work in preparing scripture versions in the 
colloquial dialect and in evangelistic labor. In 1882 Rev. 
J. W. Carlin, D. D., opened a new station at Ungkung in the 
northern part of the Swatow field. Medical work carried on 
by ladies has formed an important feature in the mission. 

The' mission at Swatovv has been acknowledged by many to 
be the best organized mission in China. It has been con- 
ducted from the first on the fundamental principles of the New 
Testament. Self-support and self-dependence in the native 
Christians have been carefully studied. The accounts of the 
work among the native churches frequently remind one of the 
narrative in the Acts of the Apostles. In all the little branch 
churches elders are appointed who keep up the services in the 
absence of a missionary or of the native preacher. Every little 
group of Christians is taught self-help and self-reliance. 
Their services, their worship and their work go on without the 
constant presence and stimulus of the missionary. From the 
first they have been subjected to frequent persecution, but 
have been taught to rely not upon the political power and 
influence of the missionaries, but to depend upon the Lord 
and seek to obtain justice from their own officials. A class 
for Bible study has been regularly maintained at Swatow, the 
headquarters of the mission, not only for students preparing 
for the ministry or for Christian work, but leading members of 
the native churches have been encouraged to come to Swatow 
as they might be able for short periods of Bible study. In 
this way the Christians have been trained in efficiency in work 
and stability in faith. In recent years a system of Bible study 
at central points throughout the country districts has been in- 
augurated by Rev. John M. Foster, in order to reach and teach 
members of the churches who are not able to leave their homes 
for a period of study at Swatow. A larger number of converts 
has been gained in the Swatow mission than in other fields 
in China and the work from the first has been of a singularly 
stable and gratifying character. The ground which has been 
gained has been held, and as would appear from the thor- 
oughly scriptural methods which have obtained in the mission, 
there is every reason to believe that the foundations have been 
laid for a large, aggressive, and substantial progress for the 



1 

^ 
c 



3 

>T3 

B 




148 

Hev. William Ashmore, Jr., joined the mission in 1880 and has 
done excellent work in preparing scripture versions in the 
colloquial dialect and in evangelistic labor. In 1882 Rev. 
J. W. Carlin, D. D., opened a new station at Ungkung in the 
northern part of the Swatow field. Medical work carried on 
by ladies has formed an important feature in the mission. 

The' mission at Swatow has been acknowledged by many to 
be the best organized mission in China. It has been con- 
ducted from the first on the fundamental principles of the New 
Testament. Self-support and self-dependence in the native 
Christians have been carefully studied. The accounts of the 
work among the native churches frequently remind one of the 
narrative in the Acts of the Apostles. In all the little branch 
churches elders are appointed who keep up the services in the 
absence of a missionary or of the native preacher. Every little 
group of Christians is taught self-help and self-reliance. 
Their services, their worship and their work go on without the 
constant presence and stimulus of the missionary. From the 
first they have been subjected to frequent persecution, but 
have been taught to rely not upon the political power and 
influence of the missionaries, but to depend upon the Lord 
and seek to obtain justice from their own officials. A class 
for Bible study has been regularly maintained at Swatow, the 
headquarters of the mission, not only for students preparing 
for the ministry or for Christian work, but leading members of 
the native churches have been encouraged to come to Swatow 
as they might be able for short periods of Bible study. In 
this way the Christians have been trained in efficiency in work 
and stability in faith. In recent years a system of Bible study 
at central points throughout the country districts has been in- 
augurated by Rev. John M. Foster, in order to reach and teach 
members of the churches who are not able to leave their homes 
for a period of study at Swatow. A larger number of converts 
has been gained in the Swatow mission than in other fields 
in China and the work from the first has been of a singularly 
stable and gratifying character. The ground which has been 
gained has been held, and as would appear from the thor- 
oughly scriptural methods which have obtained in the mission, 
there is every reason to believe that the foundations have been 
laid for a large, aggressive, and substantial progress for the 



1 

*J 
a 
n 





IN THE SWATOW COMPOUND 



future. In December, 1891, the total number baptized since 
the beginning of the mission was 1,578. The total number of 

converts now reported is upwards of 
1,000. Considering the number 
of deaths which have occurred 
.i'* ., this shows that the number of 
those who have fallen away 
after professing faith in 
Christ has been remark- 
ably small. Considera- 
ble work has been done 
by various members 
of the mission 
in translating 
portions of the 
Scripture into 
the colloquial 
Swatow dialect, 
of which Miss 

Fielde has published a dictionary. The mission is thoroughly 
furnished with facilities for future work, and its progress may 
be expected to be stable, steady, and satisfactory in the future 
as in the past. 

THE HAKKA MISSION 

This is an offshoot from the Swatow Mission, and is more 
properly considered in immediate connection with it. In 
1875, Rev. W. K. McKibben arrived at Swatow for work in the 
mission, but soon became interested in attempts to reach out 
toward the people farther in the interior. In 1879 he at- 
tempted to purchase property in Hu city, of which the proper 
name is Chau-Chau-fu, but the people rose to expel the for- 
eign invasion, and drove him out of the city at the peril of his 
life. In the extension of work from Swatow among the low- 
land people, or Tiechiu, by which name the population of that 
district is known, some converts had been gained from among 
the Hakkas, or highland people, who spoke a different dialect, 
but many of whom living on the borders between the two dia- 
lects, understand both. In 1881, Mr. McKibben decided to 
devote himself wholly to work among the Hakka people, and 





t/3 



, 

I 





future. In December, 1891, the total number baptized since 
the beginning of the mission was 1,578. The total number of 

converts now reported is upwards of 
i ,000. Considering the number 
of deaths which have occurred 
/> i: this shows that the number of 
those who have fallen away 
after professing faith in 
Christ has been remark- 
ably small. Considera- 
ble work has been done 
by various members 
of the mission 
in translating 
portions of the 
Scripture into 
the colloquial 
Swatow dialect, 

IN THE SWATOW COMPOUND Qf ^.^ j^ 

Fielde has published a dictionary. The mission is thoroughly 
furnished with facilities for future work, and its progress may 
be expected to be stable, steady, and satisfactory in the future 
as in the past. 

THE HAKKA MISSION 

This is an offshoot from the Swatow Mission, and is more 
properly considered in immediate connection with it. In 
1875, Rev. W. K. McKibben arrived at Swatow for work in the 
mission, but soon became interested in attempts to reach out 
toward the people farther in the interior. In 1879 he at- 
tempted to purchase property in Hu city, of which the proper 
name is Chau-Chau-fu, but the people rose to expel the for- 
eign invasion, and drove him out of the city at the peril of his 
life. In the extension of work from Swatow among the low- 
land people, or Tiechiu, by which name the population of that 
district is known, some converts had been gained from among 
the Hakkas, or highland people, who spoke a different dialect, 
but many of whom living on the borders between the two dia- 
lects, understand both. In 1881, Mr. McKibben decided to 
devote himself wholly to work among the Hakka people, and 



o 

en 

>-3 

P 
F 



1-5 

in 







152 

in 1883 an out-station of the Swatow Mission, which had been 
opened at Munkeuliang among the Hakkas, was turned over to 
him as a headquarters for the extension of work for the Hakkas. 
After a few years of labor Mr. McKibben was compelled to 
return to America, but in 1887 Rev. George Campbell was 
sent out specially for work among this people. He travelled 
extensively in the interior among the people on the borders of 
three provinces. Great difficulty was found in obtaining a 
location. Attempts were made to rent or purchase houses in 
various cities, but were repeatedly frustrated by the hostility 
of the people, and the timidity of the landlords. At last 
property was secured in the important city of Kayin, which is 
now the chief- headquarters for work among the Hakka people. 
Mr. Campbell was joined, in 1890, by his sister, Miss Elia 
Campbell, and later by Rev. George E. Whitman and wife, 
Miss M. L. Ostrom, an I Edward Bailey, M. D., and wife. Dr. 
Bailey resigned a position as surgeon in the United States . 
Army to become a medical missionary. Mr. McKibben has 
now resumed his labors in the Swatow Mission, and the Hakka 
Mission is carried on chiefly by Messrs. Campbell and Whit- 
man. The Hakkas are among the most intelligent people of 
China, having a large proportion of scholars, and their con- 
version to Christianity is an inviting sphere of labor. 

THE EAST CHINA MISSION 

Baptist Mission work at Ningpo, China, was begun by D. J 
Macgowan, M. D. A hospital was open for three months in 
1843, but was closed and not re-opened until April, 1845. 
Dr. Macgowan visited Calcutta in 1844, and with funds con- 
tributed there he established a hospital in Ningpo. The first 
year he prescribed for more than two thousand patients. The 
evangelistic work in Eastern China was opened by the removal 
of Rev. Josiah Goddard from Bangkok to Ningpo, where he 
arrived in March, 1848. Mr. Goddard was a man of intense 
earnestness and industry, and of great intellectual ability. He 
completed the translation of the New Testament into Chinese, 
in 1853, in a version which is still in use. In his missionary 
work he enjoyed the association and assistance of other able 
laborers. Rev. E, C. Lord, having sailed for Ningpo, in 1847, 



a 

2 
S 
o 



o 
z 

2 

i 

z 


& 



a 

i 




152 

in 1883 an out-station of the Swatow Mission, which had been 
opened at Munkeuliang among the Hakkas, was turned over to 
him as a headquarters for the extension of work for the Hakkas. 
After a few years of labor Mr. McKibben was compelled to 
return to America, but in 1887 Rev. George Campbell was 
sent out specially for work among this people. He travelled 
extensively in the interior among the people on the borders of 
three provinces. Great difficulty was found in obtaining a 
location. Attempts were made to rent or purchase houses in 
various cities, but were repeatedly frustrated by the hostility 
of the people, and the timidity of the landlords. At last 
property was secured in the important city of Kayin, which is 
now the chief headquarters for work among the Hakka people. 
Mr. Campbell was joined, in 1890, by his sister, Miss Elia 
Campbell, and later by Rev. George E. Whitman and wife, 
Miss M. L. Ostrom, an I Edward Bailey, M. D., and wife. Dr. 
Bailey resigned a position as surgeon in the United States : 
Army to become a medical missionary. Mr. McKibben has 
now resumed his labors in the Swatow Mission, and the Hakka 
Mission is carried on chiefly by Messrs. Campbell and Whit- 
man. The Hakkas are among the most intelligent people of 
China, having a large proportion of scholars, and their con- 
version to Christianity is an inviting sphere of labor. 

THE EAST CHINA MISSION 

Baptist Mission work at Ningpo, China, was begun by D. J. 
Macgowan, M. D. A hospital was open for three months in 
1843, DUt was closed and not re-opened until April, 1845. 
Dr. Macgowan visited Calcutta in 1844, and with funds con- 
tributed there he established a hospital in Ningpo. The first 
year he prescribed for more than two thousand patients. The 
evangelistic work in Eastern China was opened by the removal 
of Rev. Josiah Goddard from Bangkok to Ningpo, where he 
arrived in March, 1848. Mr. Goddard was a man of intense 
earnestness and industry, and of great intellectual ability. He 
completed the translation of the New Testament into Chinese, 
in 1853, in a version which is still in use. In his missionary 
work he enjoyed the association and assistance of other able 
laborers. Rev. E, C. Lord, having sailed for Ningpo, in 1847, 



a 

2 

5 
o 



55 

B 




'54 

was engaged for many years in the missionary work. During 
a long period he served as United States Consul, but still 
continued his labors as a missionary while not receiving a 
salary from the Society. The first convert in Ningpo was bap- 
tized in May, 1849, and the work continued with encouraging 
results. 

The East China mission has been specially distinguished by 
the variety of the efforts which have been made to reach the 
people. Medical work, which has already been referred to, 
while interrupted for a few years, has been continued at 
Ningpo, Dr. S. P. Barchet succeeding Dr. Macgowan, and 
carrying on the hospital from 1875. He was joined in this 
work by Dr. J.'S. Grant in 1889. Schools were also established 
in Ningpo which have been carried on continuously and effi- 
ciently. The villages and towns in the populous districts 
around Ningpo have been reached by persistent gospel work. 
A Biblical class for the training of native preachers was con- 
ducted, for years by Dr. Lord, and was finally established at 
Shaohing. It is now under the care of Rev. Horace Jenkins, 
who joined the mission in March, 1859. An eminent laborer 
in the East China Mission was Rev. M. J. Knowlton, D. D., 
who arrived at Ningpo in June, 1 854. Dr. Knowlton presented 
an unusual combination of evangelistic earnestness and schol- 
arly ability. He was humble and gentle in his intercourse 
with the people and gained their love by his treatment of 
them and by his eminent abilities. He was called the " West- 
ern Confucius," a high compliment both to his moral and 
intellectual qualities. In 1868 the mission was reinforced by 
Rev. J. R. Goddard, the son of Josiah Goddard the founder 
of evangelistic work in the mission. Mr. Goddard has been a 
pillar of strength in the mission at Ningpo, which many times 
has rested with almost its entire weight upon his single efforts. 
The mission has extended over a wide territory. An out- 
station was opened at Kinhwa in 1861, which was afterward 
removed to Shaohing. This was opened as a station in 1869, 
but the work at Kinhwa was resumed and a station was estab- 
lished there in 1883. For many years attempts had been 
made by missionaries of various societies to effect an entrance 
in the great and populous city of Huchau, but all had been 
defeated by the hostility of the people. The literary class in 



Huchau is very strong and rules the city. Their opposition 
succeeded in defeating every effort to establish missionary 
work in the city until in 1886, Rev. George L. Mason, leaving 
his family at Shaohing, and assuming the Chinese dress, with 
one native helper quietly effected an entrance into the hostile 
city and established a station there. The work was carried on 
so quietly that for a time it escaped the enmity of the people, 
but in 1893 a mob was raised and an effort made to dislodge 
the missionaries. The purpose of the mob was defeated in 
answer to prayer, and the work in this great and prosperous 
city continues. 

The people in eastern China have been apparently less im- 
pressible than those of the South. Not so large a number of 
converts are reported, but the outlook is constantly brighten- 
ing. Foundations have been laid for future work with a good 
promise of success. 



THE WEST CHINA MISSION 

Rev. William M. Upcraft had labored in China for several 
years as an agent of the Bible Society, and had travelled ex- 
tensively through central China with the Word of God. Here 
he encountered many dangers, and on one occasion had been 
stoned and left without the city for dead, as was the apostle 
Paul at Lystra ; but like the apostle he was raised up and went 
on his way. His health, however, suffered so severely that he 
was compelled to take a furlough and visited the United 
States. The young people of the State of Minnesota became 
especially interested in him, and organized themselves to sup- 
port Mr. George Warner and himself in establishing a new 
mission in western China, under the auspices of the American 
Baptist Missionary Union. Messrs. Upcraft and Warner sailed 
in 1889, and after a long and tedious journey up the Yangtze 
River a station was opened at Suichaufu, commonly known 
among its own people by the abbreviated name of Suifu. This 
city is situated in the immense and flourishing province of 
Szchuan, on the western tier of the provinces of China Proper. 
The people are independent, intelligent, and enterprising, and 
are less affected by the corruptions which come from contact 



156 

with foreign commerce than in the cities of the coast. They 
have shown much readiness to listen to the gospel. The West 
China Mission has been largely reinforced. Medical work was 
opened by Rev. C. H. Finch, M. D., who went out in 1891. 
New stations have been opened at Kiating, and at Yachau. 
Broad foundations have been laid for the establishment of an 
extensive work in China, reaching over toward the borders of 
Tibet. A small church has been gathered at Suichaufu. The 
remote character of the field and its great need of Christian 
missionary labors lend a romantic and unusual interest to the 
work of the West China Mission, especially since this is the 
nearest approach of American Baptists to reaching the people 
of that hitherto unevangelized country, Tibet. By the riots 
of 1895 all missionaries were expelled from the Province of 
Szchuan, but they have now returned, and the result of the 
riots has made larger openings for the gospel. 

THE CENTRAL CHINA MISSION 

In 1893 a station was opened at Hankow, at the head of 
ocean navigation on the Yangtze River. The object of the 
establishment of this mission is twofold. First, to furnish a 
link in the chain of communication between the missions on 
the coast and the missionaries in West China ; and, second, 
to have some share in responding to the. immense needs of 
the great and populous provinces of Hupeh and Hunan in 
Central China. The missionaries who began this work were 
Rev. Joseph S. Adams and wife, who have for several years 
labored usefully at Kinhwa, and Rev. W. F. Gray and wife, of 
Iowa, and in 1897 they still continue as the only represen- 
tatives of American Baptists in Central China. The three 
adjoining cities of Hankow, Hanyang, and Wuchang form 
the greatest centre of population in China, having together 
between one and two million people. The permanent station 
of the mission has been established at Hanyang, a city on 
the north bank of the river, where less missionary work has 
been done than at the other places, and which offers an 
equally favorable access to the people of the interior. This 
infant enterprise of American Baptists in the very centre of 
China will deeply engage our interest and our prayers. 



w 
o 

K 

I 

55 
n 




156 

with foreign commerce than in the cities of the coast. They 
have shown much readiness to listen to the gospel. The West 
China Mission has been largely reinforced. Medical work was 
opened by Rev. C. H. Finch, M. D., who went out in 1891. 
New stations have been opened at Kiating, and at Yachau. 
Broad foundations have been laid for the establishment of an 
extensive work in China, reaching over toward the borders of 
Tibet. A small church has been gathered at Suichaufu. The 
remote character of the field and its great need of Christian 
missionary labors lend a romantic and unusual interest to the 
work of the West China Mission, especially since this is the 
nearest approach of American Baptists to reaching the people 
of that hitherto unevangelized country, Tibet. By the riots 
of 1895 all missionaries were expelled from the Province of 
Szchuan, but they have now returned, and the result of the 
riots has made larger openings for the gospel. 

THE CENTRAL CHINA MISSION 

In 1893 a station was opened at Hankow, at the head of 
ocean navigation on the Yangtze River. The object of the 
establishment of this mission is twofold. First, to furnish a 
link in the chain of communication between the missions on 
the coast and the missionaries in West China ; and, second, 
to have some share in responding to the. immense needs of 
the great and populous provinces of Hupeh and Hunan in 
Central China. The missionaries who began this work were 
Rev. Joseph S. Adams and wife, who have for several years 
labored usefully at Kinhwa, and Rev. W. F. Gray and wife, of 
Iowa, and in 1897 they still continue as the only represen- 
tatives of American Baptists in Central China. The three 
adjoining cities of Hankow, Hanyang, and Wuchang form 
the greatest centre of population in China, having together 
between one and two million people. The permanent station 
of the mission has been established at Hanyang, a city on 
the north bank of the river, where less missionary work has 
been done than at the other places, and which offers an 
equally favorable access to the people of the interior. This 
infant enterprise of American Baptists in the very centre of 
China will deeply engage our interest and our prayers. 



25 

O 



en 
H 

O 




SOUTHERN BAPTIST MISSIONS. 

Rev. J. L. Shuck and wife, who reached Bangkok, July i, 
1836, and removed to Macao, which was held by the Portu- 
guese, in September of the same year, were settled at Hong- 
kong in 1842. April 3, 1844, he removed to Canton, and 
began work in that great city, and afterwards associated with 
him Rev. I. J. Roberts, who had joined the Mission in 1841. 
After the withdrawal of the Southern Baptists from the General 
Convention in 1845, the Canton Mission was carried on un- 
der the auspices of the Southern Baptist Convention, and the 
work has been one of prosperity and blessing. The Missions 
of the Southern Baptists have been extended, and are now 
carried on not only in Canton and vicinity, but in Shanghai 
and other cities in that part of China, and also in North 
China at several stations in the vicinity of Chifu. 



ENGLISH BAPTIST MISSIONS. 

The English Baptists were early interested in the mission 
at Ningpo, but their later and principal efforts have been in 
the provinces of Shantung and Shansi, where the work has 
been carried on with great success. In Shantung there are 
fourteen stations and a large number of churches and converts. 
The mission in Shansi has been established amid great diffi- 
culties, yet five stations have been opened. The people are 
independent and vigorous and have been noted for their hos- 
tility to foreigners, but the mission is advancing with much 
blessing. 

CONCLUSION. 

The progress of missions among the Chinese can hardly be 
marked by statistics, since the peculiar clannish character of 
the Chinese prevents them from detaching themselves per- 
sonally from their family and social life. The real progress 
of Christian work among them rather consists of the impres- 
sion which Christianity is making upon 'the Chinese people as 
a whole. They are one immense family, with all the advan- 
tages as well as the obstacles implied in that closely-knit but 



SOUTHERN BAPTIST MISSIONS. 

Rev. J. L. Shuck and wife, who reached Bangkok, July i, 
1836, and removed to Macao, which was held by the Portu- 
guese, in September of the same year, were settled at Hong- 
kong in 1842. April 3, 1844, he removed to Canton, and 
began work in that great city, and afterwards associated with 
him Rev. I. J. Roberts, who had joined the Mission in 1841. 
After the withdrawal of the Southern Baptists from the General 
Convention in 1845, the Canton Mission was carried on un- 
der the auspices of the Southern Baptist Convention, and the 
work has been one of prosperity and blessing. The Missions 
of the Southern Baptists have been extended, and are now 
carried on not only in Canton and vicinity, but in Shanghai 
and other cities in that part of China, and also in North 
China at several stations in the vicinity of Chifu. 

ENGLISH BAPTIST MISSIONS. 

The English Baptists were early interested in the mission 
at Ningpo, but their later and principal efforts have been in 
the provinces of Shantung and Shansi, where the work has 
been carried on with great success. In Shantung there are 
fourteen stations and a large number of churches and converts. 
The mission in Shansi has been established amid great diffi- 
culties, yet five stations have been opened. The people are 
independent and vigorous and have been noted for their hos- 
tility to foreigners, but the mission is advancing with much 
blessing. 

CONCLUSION. 

The progress of missions among the Chinese can hardly be 
marked by statistics, since the peculiar clannish character of 
the Chinese prevents them from detaching themselves per- 
sonally from their family and social life. The real progress 
of Christian work among them rather consists of the impres- 
sion which Christianity is making upon 'the Chinese people as 
a whole. They are one immense family, with all the advan- 
tages as well as the obstacles implied in that closely-knit but 



i6o 

divinely-ordained relation. The gathering of converts from 
among the Chinese is made difficult by their family and 
national pride, by their local bonds, and by the clan relations 
into which every Chinese is drawn. Secret societies flourish 
among them to an extent hardly paralleled even in America. 
The missionary of the Cross contends against a complicated 
network of ties when he attempts to win a Chinese to the fel- 
lowship of the Gospel, and the progress of the missions has not 
been as rapid as in many other lands. On the other hand, the 
stability of the Chinese convert is assured by the persecution 
which he must brave on becoming a Christian, and his courage 
is peculiarly strengthened by the progress of the work. 
Every convert adds to the number of chains which are drawing 
the Chinese nation toward Christ. Every external impulse, 
political, military, social, or religious, which operates upon 
China, opens the country to the Gospel in a way impossible in 
other lands, and all the influences are helping to bring the 
day when China with its multitudinous and closely cemented 
mass of people shall move in a body toward the Savior of the 
world, and the words of prophecy shall be fulfilled, "A 
nation shall be born in a day." 



CA 

t-H 

o 
z 

g 




Stations of the A. B. M. IT. in this type, Yokohama 
(Congregational,). 



A. American Board 

M. Methodist Episcopal. 

P. Presbyterian. 

R. Reformed Dutch of America. 

E. Protestant Episcopal. 

C. Church Missionary Society (London). 

L. London Missionary Society. 

B. S. Southern Baptist. 



JAPAN 



COMPARATIV 
AREA 



QMATSU SHIMA 

J A 



* 




TCAKUSHIMAV 3 " 



tof***b&tya 




THE MISSION IN JAPAN 



COUNTRY AND PEOPLE 

JAPAN consists of four large islands and thirty-eight hun- 
dred small ones. It is nineteen times the size of Massachu- 
setts, or about as large as Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa together, 
having an area of 147,000 square miles, and a population of 
40,000,000. The surface is very mountainous, only about 
one-eighth being level, and it abounds in lakes and rivers. 
There are eighteen active volcanoes ; hot springs are more 
numerous than in any other country in the world, and earth- 
quakes are common, but the most violent ones occur only 
about once in twenty years. The name Japan is said to be 
derived from the Chinese word, "Zi-pan-gu," meaning the 
Kingdom of the Rising Sun, and the Japanese love to call 
their country the " Sunrise Kingdom." The scenery in Japan 
is greatly varied, and in many parts very beautiful. Ranges of 
mountains run the entire length of the principal islands, while 
the lands on each side and extending to the sea are usually 
flat. It is stated that only about one third of the area of 
Japan is capable of cultivation. The climate is usually mild, 
but rains are frequent and abundant. From its situation it 
would be supposed that Japan would be an extremely healthy 
country, but it is found that the climate lacks the invigorating 
qualities necessary for the long continued residence of Euro- 
peans or Americans. 

The Japanese are smaller in stature than Americans, but are 
well built, quick, easy and graceful in movement, polite in 
their manners, and, for Asiatics, energetic and industrious. 
They have been called the Yankees of the East, but their 
character and temperament seems more nearly allied to the 
French. They are intelligent, but are in many respects a 
race of children, careless, confiding, gay, easily interested in 

(165) 



THE MISSION IN JAPAN 



COUNTRY AND PEOPLE 

JAPAN consists of four large islands and thirty-eight hun- 
dred small ones. It is nineteen times the size of Massachu- 
setts, or about as large as Indiana, Illinois, and Iowa together, 
having an area of 147,000 square miles, and a population of 
40,000,000. The surface is very mountainous, only about 
one-eighth being level, and it abounds in lakes and rivers. 
There are eighteen active volcanoes ; hot springs are more 
numerous than in any other country in the world, and earth- 
quakes are common, but the most violent ones occur only 
about once in twenty years. The name Japan is said to be 
derived from the Chinese word, "Zi-pan-gu," meaning the 
Kingdom of the Rising Sun, and the Japanese love to call 
their country the " Sunrise Kingdom." The scenery in Japan 
is greatly varied, and in many parts very beautiful. Ranges of 
mountains run the entire length of the principal islands, while 
the lands on each side and extending to the sea are usually 
flat. It is stated that only about one third of the area of 
Japan is capable of cultivation. The climate is usually mild, 
but rains are frequent and abundant. From its situation it 
would be supposed that Japan would be an extremely healthy 
country, but it is found that the climate lacks the invigorating 
qualities necessary for the long continued residence of Euro- 
peans or Americans. 

The Japanese are smaller in stature than Americans, but are 
well built, quick, easy and graceful in movement, polite in 
their manners, and, for Asiatics, energetic and industrious. 
They have been called the Yankees of the East, but their 
character and temperament seems more nearly allied to the 
French. They are intelligent, but are in many respects a 
race of children, careless, confiding, gay, easily interested in 

(165) 



i66 



anything new, but when only half acquainted with it, speedily 
becoming weary of it. It is only by keeping the character of 
the people in mind that the wonderful transformation which 
has come over Japan during the last twenty-five years can 
be understood. 

The marvellous story of Japan may be traced in their own 
history back to the year 660 before Christ, to the founding ot 




LITTLE JAPANESE GIRL. 



the present dynasty, which is the oldest in the world, the 
Mikado, who is now on the throne, being the one hundred and 
twenty-first of his line. Before the first foreign treaty was 
made with the United States, in 1854, Japan was the most 
exclusive nation in the world. It was death for a foreigner 
to land upon its shores. It was death for a native to visit a 
foreign country and return. Even Japanese sailors who were 
shipwrecked on other shores, and managed to get back to 
their native land, were put to death. It was death to become. 



a Christian. The Mikado was shut in from the gaze of the 
people. Now all is changed. There has been a peaceful but 
perfect revolution in Japan. From being the most conserva- 
tive, it has become the most enlightened and progressive 
nation of Asia. The Mikado has come out from his seclusion 
and resumed his kingly power. The first constitutional gov- 
ernment in Asia has been established. Foreigners are wel- 
comed to the country. The Japanese freely visit other na- 
tions, and their young men are found in the schools of Europe 
and America. Even in 1868 a government edict was issued 
saying that " the wicked sect called Christian is strictly pro- 
hibited." Now Christian missionaries are in all the chief 
cities of the empire, there are nearly forty thousand converts, 
the old heathen religions are disestablished, and all religions 
are on the same level in the State. 

In Japan, as in all heathen lands, woman is inferior to man. 
Marriage is only a civil contract, and divorce is accomplished 
at the pleasure of the husband by a single declaration. But 
although divorce is so easy in Japan, it is seldom used when 
there are children. Training and public opinion then require 
that the wife should be treated with kindness and respect. 
Hence woman in Japan is, among all the women of the Asiatic 
peoples, the freest and most respected, and even plays an 
important part in the national history. Japan is a paradise 
for children. They are regarded with affection, cared for with 
solicitude, never scolded, never punished, trained with loving 
care, amused with ingenious toys and sports, and made the 
constant companions of their parents as far as circumstances 
will allow. In the poorer families they are compelled to work 
when quite young. Girls are regarded as of less importance 
than boys, but their lot is not an unhappy one. 

RELIGIONS 

Shintoism was the ancient national religion of Japan. It is 
simply a form of nature worship, upon which was grafted the 
doctrine of the divinity of the Mikado or Emperor, and the 
worship paid to national heroes. Even now it is regarded as 
disloyalty to refuse to bow before the picture of the Emperor. 
Some Christians have lost their places in government employ 



i66 



anything new, but when only half acquainted with it, speedily 
becoming weary of it. It is only by keeping the character of 
the people in mind that the wonderful transformation which 
has come over Japan during the last twenty-five years can 
be understood. 

The marvellous story of Japan may be traced in their own 
history back to the year 660 before Christ, to the founding ot 




LITTLE JAPANESE GIRL. 



the present dynasty, which is the oldest in the world, the 
Mikado, who is now on the throne, being the one hundred and 
twenty-first of his line. Before the first foreign treaty was 
made with the United States, in 1854, Japan was the most 
exclusive nation in the world. It was death for a foreigner 
to land upon its shores. It was death for a native to visit a 
foreign country and return. Even Japanese sailors who were 
shipwrecked on other shores, and managed to get back to 
their native land, were put to death. It was death to become 



167 

a Christian. The Mikado was shut in from the gaze of the 
people. Now all is changed. There has been a peaceful but 
perfect revolution in Japan. From being the most conserva- 
tive, it has become the most enlightened and progressive 
nation of Asia. The Mikado has come out from his seclusion 
and resumed his kingly power. The first constitutional gov- 
ernment in Asia has been established. Foreigners are wel- 
comed to the country. The Japanese freely visit other na- 
tions, and their young men are found in the schools of Europe 
and America. Even in 1868 a government edict was issued 
saying that " the wicked sect called Christian is strictly pro- 
hibited." Now Christian missionaries are in all the chief 
cities of the empire, there are nearly forty thousand converts, 
the old heathen religions are disestablished, and all religions 
are on the same level in the State. 

In Japan, as in all heathen lands, woman is inferior to man. 
Marriage is only a civil contract, and divorce is accomplished 
at the pleasure of the husband by a single declaration. But 
although divorce is so easy in Japan, it is seldom used when 
there are children. Training and public opinion then require 
that the wife should be treated with kindness and respect. 
Hence woman in Japan is, among all the women of the Asiatic 
peoples, the freest and most respected, and even plays an 
important part in the national history. Japan is a paradise 
for children. They are regarded with affection, cared for with 
solicitude, never scolded, never punished, trained with loving 
care, amused with ingenious toys and sports, and made the 
constant companions of their parents as far as circumstances 
will allow. In the poorer families they are compelled to work 
when quite young. Girls are regarded as of less importance 
than boys, but their lot is not an unhappy one. 

RELIGIONS 

Shintoism was the ancient national religion of Japan. It is 
simply a form of nature worship, upon which was grafted the 
doctrine of the divinity of the Mikado or Emperor, and the 
worship paid to national heroes. Even now it is regarded as 
disloyalty to refuse to bow before the picture of the Emperor. 
Some Christians have lost their places in government employ 



r68 

because their consciences would not allow them to conform to 
this custom, which they considered an element of heathen 
worship; but it is not usually so regarded. 

Buddhism was introduced into Japan in the sixth century, 
and as it accommodated itself to the life of the people, and 
even took up the old Shinto gods into its system, it spread 
very rapidly, and became the popular religion to which the 
Japanese still adhere. Socially, Buddhism teaches the depre- 
ciation of caste and of property. Dogmatically, it is a system 
of atheism, which deifies man and moral ideas. Morally, it 
is the doctrine of the vanity and instability of all earthly 
good, of the transmigration of souls, and of final absorp- 
tion in the supreme nothingness. According to Buddhism, 
man must work out his own salvation. After death he appears 
to the ruler of Hades, who sends him back to earth to a higher 
estate or as an animal, according to his good or ill desert. < 

The Roman Catholic faith was introduced into Japan by 
Francis Xavier in the sixteenth century, and spread with 
amazing rapidity, so that in 1581 there were said to be as 
many as one hundred and fifty thousand Roman Christians 
in . Japan. On account of the assumptions of the Jesuits, a 
severe persecution arose, and the Christians were well nigh 
exterminated, thirty thousand being massacred at one time. 
Prof. Rein accounts for the rapid spread of Romanism in 
Japan by " the relationship of the Catholic rites and ceremo- 
nials to the Buddhist ; for we find in Buddhism, though it may 
be with a different meaning, nearly everything that is charac- 
teristic of the Catholic cultus ; the adoration of images, in- 
cense and the mass, parti-colored vestments and rosaries, the 
veneration of relics, monasteries and convents, celibacy, 
priestly hierarchy, pompous processions, pilgrimages and much 
besides. Accordingly the new convert could make use of his 
old rosary, his bells and lights, his incense and other acces- 
sories of his former faith, to join in the new worship. As 
previously he had been wont to bend the knee before the 
Buddhist idols in the temples and along the roads, he now did 
the same, at the instruction of the new teachers, before 
images of Christ, of Mary and the saints." 



i68 

because their consciences would not allow them to conform to 
this custom, which they considered an element of heathen 
worship; but it is not usually so regarded. 

Buddhism was introduced into Japan in the sixth century, 
and as it accommodated itself to the life of the people, and 
even took up the old Shinto gods into its system, it spread 
very rapidly, and became the popular religion to which the 
Japanese still adhere. Socially, Buddhism teaches the depre- 
ciation of caste and of property. Dogmatically, it is a system 
of atheism, which deifies man and moral ideas. Morally, it 
is the doctrine of the vanity and instability of all earthly 
good, of the transmigration of souls, and of final absorp- 
tion in the supreme nothingness. According to Buddhism, 
man must work out his own salvation. After death he appears 
to the ruler of Hades, who sends him back to earth to a higher 
estate or as an animal, according to his good or ill desert. 

The Roman Catholic faith was introduced into Japan by 
Francis Xavier in the sixteenth century, and spread with 
amazing rapidity, so that in 1581 there were said to be as 
many as one hundred and fifty thousand Roman Christians 
in . Japan. On account of the assumptions of the Jesuits, a 
severe persecution arose, and the Christians were well nigh 
exterminated, thirty thousand being massacred at one time. 
Prof. Rein accounts for the rapid spread of Romanism in 
Japan by " the relationship of the Catholic rites and ceremo- 
nials to the Buddhist ; for we find in Buddhism, though it may 
be with a different meaning, nearly everything that is charac- 
teristic of the Catholic cultus ; the adoration of images, in- 
cense and the mass, parti-colored vestments and rosaries, the 
veneration of relics, monasteries and convents, celibacy, 
priestly hierarchy, pompous processions, pilgrimages and much 
besides. Accordingly the new convert could make use of his 
old rosary, his bells and lights, his incense and other acces- 
sories of his former faith, to join in the new worship. As 
previously he had been wont to bend the knee before the 
Buddhist idols in the temples and along the roads, he now did 
the same, at the instruction of the new teachers, before 
images of Christ, of Mary and the saints." 



THE BAPTIST MISSION 

As in Burma, so also in Japan, there was a Baptist mission- 
ary before the thoughts of the managers of the Missionary 
Union were turned in that direction. Jonathan Goble first 
went to Japan as a seaman in Commodore Perry's expedition, 
in 1854, and was sent out by the American Baptist Free Mis- 
sion Society in 1860. The Missionary Union lost the support 
of the Southern Baptists because the management declined to 
appoint slave holders as missionaries, but the Free Mission 
Society went a step further and declined to receive contribu- 
tions from those who held slaves. After the abolition of 
slavery it did not seem necessary to continue this distinction, 
and in 1872 the Missionary Union accepted Mr. Goble, who 
had been largely supported by his own labors, as its mission- 
ary, welcomed the Free Mission Society to its membership, 
and appointed Rev. Nathan Brown, formerly engaged in work 
in Burma and Assam, as the first missionary of the Union to 
Japan. Mr. Goble had translated and published the four 
Gospels, the Acts and Ephesians, and taught a large number 
6f pupils, besides preaching. His connection with the Union 
ceased in 1873, but Dr. Brown was reinforced by others and 
continued his labors for many years To him the Japan 
mission largely owes its early development. Dr. Nathan 
Brown enjoys the unique distinction of having translated the 
New Testament into two entirely distinct languages, the 
Assamese and the Japanese. He was also the author of many 
hymns still in use in our missions in Burma, Assam and Japan, 
and the religious literature of those countries will bear the 
impress of his eminent abilities as long as Christian work 
exists. Soon after the arrival of Dr. Brown, in February, 
1873, the edict which had excluded Christianity from the 
Japanese people for hundreds of years was abolished, the 
calendar changed to modern style, 'old holidays set aside, 
Sunday made a legal holiday, and the country was thrown 
open to the labors of missionaries. 

The first Baptist church in Japan was organized at Yoko- 
hama, in 1873, with eight members, three of whom were 
natives. Rev. J. T. Doyen, who had been laboring in con- 



nection with the Episcopal Mission, having united with the 
Baptist Church, was associated with Dr. Brown in missionary 
labors, and in this same year the mission was reinforced by 
Rev. J. H^Arthur and wife, who opened a station at Tokyo, 
the capital, in 1874, under exceedingly encouraging circum- 
stances. Rev. Henry H. Rhees and wife were added to the 
mission in 1878. Dr. Rhees located in Tokyo and built the 
first Baptist mission house, which is still in use, but afterwards, 
in 1881, established a new station at Kobe. In 1879 tne 
mission was greatly strengthened by the addition of Rev. 
Thomas P. Poate, who had been a teacher in the Imperial 
University at Tokyo, and whose knowledge of the language 
and people was a great assistance to the mission. In the same 
year Rev. Albert A. Bennett and wife were sent out from this 
country and located at Yokohama. In more recent years the 
mission has received large reinforcements, and many new 
stations have been opened. 

Sendai is the chief city of Northern Japan on the eastern 
coast and the military headquarters. The station, opened here 
in 1882, has been under the care of Rev. E. H. Jones since 
1884, who was joined by Rev. S. W. Hamblen in 1889. The 
field cultivated by these brethren is very extended, and includes 
practically the whole north of Japan. A station was opened 
at Morioka by Rev. T. P. Poate and wife, who purchased prop- 
erty and established themselves there ; but on their return to> 
America, Morioka became an out-station of the Sendai field, 
and no missionary has resided there since that time. Northern 
Japan, apparently, has not felt the transforming effects of the 
new regime to the same extent as the central and southern por- 
tions of the Empire, yet the people are by no means conserva- 
tive or unwilling to listen to the gospel. The great tidal wave 
of 1896 carried devastation and destruction along the eastern 
shore of Japan, from the neighborhood of Sendai, nearly to 
the northern point of the island. This territory is included 
in our Baptist mission field ; but by the good providence of 
God the lives of the Christians were spared, and the mission- 
aries were enabled to render great service in bringing relief 
to the people. Mr. Bennett, of Yokohama, was a most active 
member of a committee through which considerable sums were 
expended in providing boats and nets, houses and other things 



172 

needed by the people to re-establish themselves in their social 
lives. Mr. Jones visited the territory several times, carrying 
comfort and relief ; and Miss Lavinia Mead, of Sendai, gave 
herself wholly to work in the hospitals and among .the injured 
ior many months. It is hoped that this affliction, as well as 
other disasters which have visited various portions of Japan, 
may serve to make the minds of the people more accessible 
to the gospel and ready to receive the knowledge of the true 
and living God, who alone can bring comfort in the midst of 
the direst afflictions. 

The work at Kobe, begun by Dr. Rhees, has been very pros- 
perous, and here is found one of the strongest Baptist churches 
in Japan, which wholly supports its own pastor and services. 
Kobe has advanced rapidly in population and commercial 
prosperity, and the missionary work which centres there is 
one of the most interesting and prosperous in Japan. 

In 1886 a further step was made in the extension of Baptist 
mission work in Southern Japan, by the opening of a mission 
station at Shimonoseki, on the Straits by which entrance is 
had to the Inland Sea from Chinese waters. This place has 
become of international importance as the scene of the nego- 
tiation of the treaty of peace between the Japanese authori-. 
ties and Li Hung Chang, representing the Chinese Empire. 
The mission work in this city has, however, now been wholly 
removed to the adjoining city of Chofu, where are situated 
beautiful and commodious quarters for the mission. Here 
was opened by Miss Harriet M. Browne the first home for 
orphans connected with our Baptist missions in Japan. 

The latest station to be opened in Baptist missions in Japan is 
at Osaka, where Rev. J. H. Scott and wife began work in 1892, 
and were joined by Rev. William Wynd. The city of Osaka 
has now become the chief manufacturing city of Japan. Large 
cotton factories have been erected in the city and in adjoining 
territories. The growth of the city has been rapid, and the 
character of the population and its social life are undergoing 
radical changes. Efforts have been made by the missionaries 
to reach the working people in the factories, of which there are 
many thousands, and as a mission field Osaka, formerly noted 
only for its temples and religious atmosphere, now is similar in 
.many respects to the larger manufacturing cities of America. 



The opening of a Baptist Mission at Mito, sixty miles north 
of Tokyo, on the railroad, is decided upon. Missionary work 
was begun here by Rev. C. H. D. Fisher, who has long been 
one of the chief agents in the work at Tokyo, the capital city. 
Mito, as a large educational centre, is a strategic point for the 
future of Japan. Here are more than six hundred students. 
Mr. Fisher continued the work until the arrival of Prof. E. W. 
Clement as teacher in the public schools. He conducted the 
work in Mito as a labor of love until his return to America. 
It was then placed in the hands of Rev. J. L. Bearing, of 
Yokohama, who visits the field occasionally. There has been, 
the most urgent- need for a missionary at Mito, and it is hoped 
that this most important field will soon be occupied by a 
Baptist missionary. No other denominations are at work in 
the city. 

Owing to the peculiar relations of Christianity to the people 
in Japan, Christian education has occupied a peculiarly large 
place in mission work in that country. In nearly all mission 
lands the gospel has been received first by the people of the 
lowest class. When Japan was opened to the residence of 
foreigners, the military power was in the ascendancy; the 
Samurai, or military class, were the ones who welcomed the 
foreigners, and these almost exclusively have received the 
doctrines of Christianity. The gospel has made but slight 
progress, either among the nobility or the farming and laboring 
classes. Education has, therefore, been at once demanded 
by this intelligent Samurai class, and the missionaries have 
been forced to provide from the first for a high grade of 
Christian education for their converts and for the training 
of their native preachers. Mr. Bennett began the training 
of Baptist preachers in Yokohama in 1884, and the work has 
developed into a fully organized Theological Seminary. It 
was carried on for ten years with Mr. Bennett as principal,, 
assisted by other missionaries in various departments ; but the 
importance of the work having demanded a thorough reorgan- 
ization and enlargement, in 1894 Rev. John L. Bearing was 
chosen president of the seminary, at the request of. the body 
of missionaries in Japan, and with him are associated Mr- 
Bennett and other teachers. A new and commodious building 
for the seminary has been completed, and plans laid for a 



174 

thorough training of Baptist preachers for the future work of 
our missions in Japan. By the opinion, of all the missionaries, 
a preparatory schqol for the training of boys who are to enter 
the Theological Seminary is urgently demanded. A small 
boys' school has been opened by the missionaries in Osaka, it 
having been necessary for them to teach for certain hours of 
the da}-, in order to maintain their right to residence in that 
city outside the foreign concession. In 1894, Prof. Ernest W. 
Clement, who was formerly a teacher in the Government High 
School in Mito, Japan, was appointed as principal of a boys' 
school which has been opened at Tokyo as a Baptist Academy, 
with the special purpose of fitting young men for the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Yokohama. 

The first ladies were sent to Japan by the Woman's Society 
in 1875. Miss Clara A. Sands devoted herself to evangelistic 
work, and is now laboring in Tokyo with her husband, Rev. 
J. C. Brand. Miss Anna H. Kidder established a school for 
girls in Tokyo, in 1875, which has received great favor from 
the higher classes, and has been a power for good in the mis- 
sion and to the women of Japan. The school now occupies 
a fine building called the '' Sarah Curtis Home." Similar 
schools have been opened at other stations. That at Yoko- 
hama, begun in 1886, has a commodious home named the 
" Mary L. Colby Home," in honor of the first president of the 
Woman's Baptist Missionary Society (East). The girls' school 
at Chofu, a suburb of Shimonoseki, opened in 1891, is known 
as the " Henrich Memorial Home," and that at Chofu bears 
the name of " Ella O. Patrick." 

Rev. Chapin H, Carpenter, who had for many years usefully 
conducted the important Sgaw Karen Mission in Bassein, 
Burma, returned to America for the recovery of his health. 
It having been decided that he would not be able to reside in 
a tropical climate, but still desiring to engage in missionary 
work, he and his devoted wife resolved to open a mission, to 
be sustained by their own resources, at Nemuro, on the island 
of Yezo, the most northern of the large islands of Japan. It 
was Mr. Carpenter's first intention to work among the Ainus, 
who were considered to be the aboriginal people of Japan, 
but who are now found only on this northern island. It was, 
however, found impossible to reach these people until some 



u 



c 

U) 

ts 



K 



C 




174 

thorough training of Baptist preachers for the future work of 
our missions in Japan. By the opinion, of all the missionaries, 
a preparatory schopl for the training of boys who are to enter 
the Theological Seminary is urgently demanded. A small 
boys' school has been opened by the missionaries in Osaka, it 
having been necessary for them to teach for certain hours of 
the da}% in order to maintain their right to residence in that 
city outside the foreign concession. In 1894, Prof. Ernest W. 
Clement, who was formerly a teacher in the Government High 
School in Mito, Japan, was appointed as principal of a boys' 
school which has been opened at Tokyo as a Baptist Academy, 
with the special purpose of fitting young men for the Theo- 
logical Seminary at Yokohama. 

The first ladies were sent to Japan by the Woman's Society 
in 1875. Miss Clara A. Sands devoted herself to evangelistic 
work, and is now laboring in Tokyo with her husband, Rev. 
J. C. Brand. Miss Anna H. Kidder established a school for 
girls in Tokyo, in 1875, which has received great favor from 
the higher classes, and has been a power for good in the mis- 
sion and to the women of Japan. The school now occupies 
a fine building called the '' Sarah Curtis Home." Similar 
schools have been opened at other stations. That at Yoko- 
hama, begun in 1886, has a commodious home named the 
" Mary L. Colby Home," in honor of the first president of the 
Woman's Baptist Missionary Society (East). The girls' school 
at Chofu, a suburb of Shimonoseki, opened in 1891, is known 
as the " Henrich Memorial Home," and that at Chofu bears 
the name of " Ella O. Patrick." 

Rev. Chapin H. Carpenter, who had for many years usefully 
conducted the important Sgaw Karen Mission in Bassein, 
Burma, returned to America for the recovery of his health. 
It having been decided that he would not be able to reside in 
a tropical climate, but still desiring to engage in missionary 
work, he and his devoted wife resolved to open a mission, to 
be sustained by their own resources, at Nemuro, on the island 
of Yezo, the most northern of the large islands of Japan. It 
was Mr. Carpenter's first intention to work among the Ainus, 
who were considered to be the aboriginal people of Japan, 
but who are now found only on this northern island. It was, 
however, found impossible to reach these people until some 



c 

G 

K 
C 



C 


en 



g 



x> 

> 
2 




176 

work had been established among the Japanese. Mr. Carpen- 
ter died Feb. 2, 1887, but the mission was continued by Mrs. 
Carpenter and others whom she associated with her, laboring 
in hearty co-operation with the mission of the Union. A 
church of about thirty members has been gathered. 

While on a visit to Japan, Mrs. Allan, of the family which 
operates the Allan Steamship Line, became interested in the 
work of Rev. R. A. Thomson in Kobe, and particularly in 'his 
desire to open work among the people of the Liu Chiu islands, 
the most southerly portion of the Japanese Empire. She 
contributed a sum of money sufficient to sustain work on the 
islands for several years. Mr. Thomson sent helpers to the 
islands in 1891. About 1865 a German missionary, Dr. 
Bettleheim, located there and was supported by a few English 
naval officers. He remained, however, only a few years, and 
of the work which he did no trace is now left. The work of 
our Baptist mission helpers on these islands is therefore prac- 
tically opening a new territory. There are on the islands 
about three hundred and seventy-five thousand people, of 
whom thirty thousand are found in the city of Napha, the 
headquarters of our mission. Although Mrs. Allan, the de- 
voted friend of the mission, has been called to her eternal 
home, her son, Mr. Robert S. Allan, continues the interest of 
the family and has offered to the Union a steamer fully 
equipped for work among the islands of the beautiful inland 
Sea of Japan. The offer of Mr. Allan has been accepted by 
the Executive Committee, and as soon as men specially quali- 
fied can be found, work among the neglected people of these 
islands will be begun. 

The progress of the Baptist Mission in Japan has from the 
first been steady and substantial. Not so large a number of 
converts have been gathered into the churches as are reported 
by some other missions, but in the times of trial through which 
Christian missions in Japan have been passing during the 
years 1892-1894, the caution of our missionaries in receiving 
converts has been vindicated. There have been rimes when 
it has not been so difficult to induce Japanese to unite with a 
Christian church as to decide who of those applying for mem- 
bership were worthy to be received. The baptizing of large 
numbers has been easy, but in times of crises those who were 



177 

received without due care have been a source of anxiety and 
danger. 

The Japanese are, above all, ambitious and supremely loyal. 




AN AGED AINU 



They have adopted, not only without hesitation but, with the 
greatest facility, much that is good in the civilization of 
Europe and America. The government has been remodelled ; 



176 

work had been established among the Japanese. Mr. Carpen- 
ter died Feb. 2, 1887, but the mission was continued by Mrs. 
Carpenter and others whom she associated with her, laboring 
in hearty co-operation with the mission of the Union. A 
church of about thirty members has been gathered. 

While on a visit to Japan, Mrs. Allan, of the family which 
operates the Allan Steamship Line, became Interested in the 
work of Rev. R. A. Thomson in Kobe, and particularly in his 
desire to open work among the people of the Liu Chiu islands, 
the most southerly portion of the Japanese Empire. She 
contributed a sum of money sufficient to sustain work on the 
islands for several years. Mr. Thomson sent helpers to the 
islands in 1891. About 1865 a German missionary, Dr. 
Bettleheim, located there and was supported by a few English 
naval officers. He remained, however, only a few years, and 
of the work which he did no trace is now left. The work of 
our Baptist mission helpers on these islands is therefore prac- 
tically opening a new territory. There are on the islands 
about three hundred and seventy-five thousand people, of 
whom thirty thousand are found in the city of Napha, the 
headquarters of our mission. Although Mrs. Allan, the de- 
voted friend of the mission, has been called to her eternal 
home, her son, Mr. Robert S. Allan, continues the interest of 
the family and has offered to the Union a steamer fully 
equipped for work among the islands of the beautiful inland 
Sea of Japan. The offer of Mr. Allan has been accepted by 
the Executive Committee, and as soon as men specially quali- 
fied can be found, work among the neglected people of these 
islands will be begun. 

The progress of the Baptist Mission in Japan has from the 
first been steady and substantial. Not so large a number of 
converts have been gathered into the churches as are reported 
by some other missions, but in the times of trial through which 
Christian missions in Japan have been passing during the 
years 1892-1894, the caution of our missionaries in receiving 
converts has been vindicated. There have been times when 
it has not been so difficult to induce Japanese to unite with a 
Christian church as to decide who of those applying for rhem- 
bership were worthy to be received. The baptizing of large 
numbers has been easy, but in times of crises those who were 



177 

received without due care have been a source of anxiety and 
danger. 

The Japanese are, above all, ambitious and supremely loyal. 




AN AGED AINU 



They have adopted, not only without hesitation but, with the 
greatest facility, much that is good in the civilization of 
Europe and America. The government has been remodelled ; 



a public school system, among the best in the world, mod- 
elled after the American, has been established ; an army and 
navy have been created, on the plans of Germany and Eng- 
land; every civilized and scientific device found useful in 
Western countries has been adopted. Yet with all this the 
Japanese are jealous for the honor of their own country, and 
while adopting Western ideas they desire to make them their 
own. This fundamental thought in their development has 
affected the growth of Christianity. The Japanese have no 
hesitation in listening to the missionaries or in receiving the 
Bible, the morals of which they soon saw to be superior to 
those taught in their own religions. The leading minds 
among the people are ready to receive Christianity, but as in 
other matters, they wish to have a Japanese Christianity. 

The progress of Christian missions in Japan has been one 
of marvellous rapidity ; yet, just as the popular cry in Japan 
is, "Japan for the Japanese," so that versatile people want a 
Christianity for themselves. In this movement lies a great 
danger, and yet if rightly directed this spirit may result in a 
type of Christianity purer in many respects than that found 
in the Western Christian nations. The Japanese are disposed 
to go directly to the Bible for their authority, and to reject 
everything like ecclesiasticism, and doctrines and practices 
which come to them merely from church authority. In this 
tendency of Japanese thought, Baptists find their great oppor- 
tunity and the most encouraging feature of their work. If 
the efforts of missionaries are successful in leading the Jap- 
anese to adopt the Bible as their simple standard of faith and 
practice, and also lead them to a true interpretation of the 
Bible, this will be all that is needed for the development of a 
pure, primitive Christianity in Japan. The missionary prob- 
lem there is not to induce the people to accept Christianity, 
but to lead them to a pure Christianity. 

An interesting feature of the missions of the Union in 
Japan is that our missionaries there are laboring in close 
touch and in perfect harmony with the missionaries of the 
Southern Board. They are united in sympathy and love, and 
the development of the Baptist Church in Japan, whether 
under the care of the missionaries of the Northern or the 
Southern societies, will undoubtedly be of mutual harmony 



179 

and helpfulness. The Japanese themselves decline to recog- 
nize distinctions imported from abroad. The churches in 
Japan, organized under all the various Presbyterian missions, 
Northern and Southern, the Established and the Free Church 
of Scotland, the Reformed Church, and every sort of Presby- 
terian body, have been united in one church organization ; 
so also the various Congregational churches, and the Episco- 
pal churches, whether American Episcopalian or Church of 




SARAH CURTIS HOME, GIRLS' SCHOOL, TOKYO 

England. The future progress of missions in Japan will be 
watched with eager interest, and in many aspects it presents 
the greatest encouragement, not only for a most phenomenal 
growth, but for the development of a model Christian church. 
The last few years have been years of transformation in 
Japan. The rapid and favorable adoption of features of West- 
ern civilization has been somewhat checked by a conservative 
reaction among the people. The Japanese are divided, some 



178 

a public school system, among the best in the world, mod- 
elled after the American, has been established ; an army and 
navy have been created, on the plans of Germany and Eng- 
land; every civilized and scientific device found useful in 
Western countries has been adopted. Yet with all this the 
Japanese are jealous for the honor of their own country, and 
while adopting Western ideas they desire to make them their 
own. This fundamental thought in their development has 
affected the growth of Christianity. The Japanese have no 
hesitation in listening to the missionaries or in receiving the 
Bible, the morals of which they soon saw to be superior to 
those taught in their own religions. The leading minds 
among the people are ready to receive Christianity, but as in 
other matters, they wish to have a Japanese Christianity. 

The progress of Christian missions in Japan has been one 
of marvellous rapidity ; yet, just as the popular cry in Japan 
is, "Japan for the Japanese," so that versatile people want a 
Christianity for themselves. In this movement lies a great 
danger, and yet if rightly directed this spirit may result in a 
type of Christianity purer in many respects than that found 
in the Western Christian nations. The Japanese are disposed 
to go directly to the Bible for their authority, and to reject 
everything like ecclesiasticism, and doctrines and practices 
which come to them merely from church authority. In this 
tendency of Japanese thought, Baptists find their great oppor- 
tunity and the most encouraging feature of their work. If 
the efforts of missionaries are successful in leading the Jap- 
anese to adopt the Bible as their simple standard of faith and 
practice, and also lead them to a true interpretation of the 
Bible, this will be all that is needed for the development of a 
pure, primitive Christianity in Japan. The missionary prob- 
lem there is not to induce the people to accept Christianity, 
but to lead them to a pure Christianity. 

An interesting feature of the missions of the Union in 
Japan is that our missionaries there are laboring in close 
touch and in perfect harmony with the missionaries of the 
Southern Board. They are united in sympathy and love, and 
the development of the Baptist Church in Japan, whether 
under the care of the missionaries of the Northern or the 
Southern societies, will undoubtedly be of mutual harmony 



and helpfulness. The Japanese themselves decline to recog- 
nize distinctions imported from abroad. The churches in 
Japan, organized under all the various Presbyterian missions, 
Northern and Southern, the Established and the Free Church 
of Scotland, the Reformed Church, and every sort of Presby- 
terian body, have been united in one church organization ; 
so also the various Congregational churches, and the Episco- 
pal churches, whether American Episcopalian or Church of 




SARAH CURTIS HOME, GIRLS' SCHOOL, TOKYO 

England. The future progress of missions in Japan will be 
watched with eager interest, and in many aspects it presents 
the greatest encouragement, not only for a most phenomenal 
growth, but for the development of a model Christian church. 
The last few years have been years of transformation in 
Japan. The rapid and favorable adoption of features of West- 
ern civilization has been somewhat checked by a conservative 
reaction among the people. The Japanese are divided, some 



i8o 

desiring to go on with still greater rapidity in conforming the 
nation to Western ideas, others striving for a reactionary policy 
or repressive measures towards the foreigners, somewhat in the 
spirit of the old exclusive Japan. Treaties, however, have 
now been negotiated with nearly all the most important West- 
ern nations, which, when they go into effect in 1899, will 
largely affect the relations of foreigners and Japanese and the 
conditions of Christian missionary work. Changes are so 
rapid in Japan, that it is difficult to predict in regard to the 
future; but the prospect is tht, at no distant day, Japan, 
which has taken a place among Western nations in the adop- 
tion of the chief features of civilization and in the develop- 
ment of military and naval power, will also become, at least 
nominally, a Christian nation, with free and unlimited oppor- 
tunities for the progress of the gospel of Christ in the hearts 
and lives of the people. 




i 



. 
5? 

B 




i8o 

desiring to go on with still greater rapidity in conforming the 
nation to Western ideas, others striving for a reactionary policy 
or repressive measures towards the foreigners, somewhat in the 
spirit of the old exclusive Japan. Treaties, however, have 
now been negotiated with nearly all the most important West- 
ern nations, which, when they go into effect in 1899, will 
largely affect the relations of foreigners and Japanese and the 
conditions of Christian missionary work. Changes are so 
rapid in Japan, that it is difficult to predict in regard to the 
future; but the prospect is th^t, at no distant day, Japan, 
which has taken a place among Western nations in the adop- 
tion of the chief features of civilization and in the develop- 
ment of military and naval power, will also become, at least 
nominally, a Christian nation, with free and unlimited oppor- 
tunities for the progress of the gospel of Christ in the hearts 
and lives of the people. 




~ 



g 



I 

a 




THE CONGO MISSION 



THE COUNTRY AND PEOPLE 

CENTRAL AFRICA has been compared to an inverted saucer. 
It is a high plateau of from two to four thousand feet elevation, 
surrounded by an elevated ridge, from which the land slopes 
rapidly away to the north and south, and on the east and west 
to the sea. The edge of this plateau at the north is between 
four and eight degrees north latitude ; on the south it reaches 
nearly to Cape Colony ; while on the east and west it is seldom 
more than one or two hundred miles from the sea. In conse- 
quence of this peculiar formation of the country, the navigation 
of all the rivers draining Central Africa is interrupted by 
cataracts in their lower courses. Says Mr. Keith Johnston, " It 
is owing mainly to this physicial cause that the African conti- 
nent has remained for so many centuries a sealed book to the 
civilized world. On the other hand, it must be observed, that, 
when these outer barriers have been passed, the great interior 
of the land in its most productive regions possesses a network 
of vast rivers and lakes, unsurpassed in extent by those of any 
country in the world, by means of which the resources of 
Central Africa may in future be thoroughly developed." 

The Congo Valley far exceeds any other portion of Central 
Africa in the extent of country which may be reached by its 
navigable streams and in the variety and abundance of its 
products. It includes practically the whole country from five 
degrees north latitude to twelve degrees south of the equator, 
and from the west coast to about thirty- two degrees east 
longitude, or two thirds the way across the continent. The 
Congo basin is estimated at 1,300,000 square miles, or one 
tenth of Africa. The river is navigable for vessels of five 
thousand tons to Matadi, one hundred and ten miles from its 
mouth. Then come the Livingstone Falls, thirty-two in num- 

(183) 



1 84 

ber, and one hundred and eighty-five miles in length. A 
railroad past these falls will be completed in 1898. From 
Stanley Pool, at the head of these falls, the Congo is navigable 
for vessels of light draught to Stanley Falls, one thousand miles ; 
and it is estimated that branches of the river furnish a nav- 
igable way of six thousand miles more. The products of the 
Congo Valley, owing to the fertility of the land, the location 
in the tropics, and the elevation above the sea, are exceedingly 
rich and varied. Much of the country is now covered with a 
dense forest, which will furnish the world with an indefinite 
supply of ornamental and useful woods. The extent of the 
mineral wealth of the country is wholly unknown at present, 
but the herds of elephants roaming its forests must be the 
chief supply of the ivory trade in the future. The trade of 
the Congo Valley will have a vast and rapid increase as soon 
as better facilities of communciation are provided. As the 
Congo Valley is nowhere less than twelve hundred feet above 
the sea, after passing the Livingstone Falls, the climate is more 
moderate even under the equator than in many parts of the 
coast of Africa to the north or south. Mr. H. H. Johnston 
calls the Lower Congo not unhealthful for a tropical coast, 
and says, " Beyond Stanley Pool I can only call the temper- 
ature delightful." The loss of so many missionaries on the 
Congo has been due chiefly to exposure and over- exertion. 
As the conditions of living in the Congo country are becom- 
ing better understood, there is no doubt the security to life 
and health will be greater. 

Stanford gives a list of six hundred and eighty-three tribes 
in Africa, speaking different dialects ; but many of these tribes 
are of the same race. In the north the chief race is the Berber ; 
in the Soudan, the Foulahs ; in the south are found the Kafirs 
and the Hottentots ; while the vast regions of Central Africa, 
from six degrees north of the equator to Cape Colony, and 
from the Indian to the Atlantic Ocean, are peopled by varia- 
tions of the great Bantu race. All the people of equatorial 
Africa, therefore, speak cognate dialects of what is really one 
great language, or family of languages, of which Mr. R. N. Cust 
reckons one hundred and sixty-eight dialects. The language of 
the Lower Congo is becoming known far into the interior as a 
medium of commercial intercourse. The character of the 



people in the Congo Valley varies much with different tribes 
and locations ; some are warlike, some are peaceful ; a few are 
cannibals ; and some tribes are agricultural and have attained 
a degree of civilization of their own kind. In religion they are 
pagans, pure and simple, and offer the most favorable field for 
the introduction of Christianity. The population of the Congo 
Valley is estimated at thirty-nine millions, or nearly that of the 
United States east of the Mississippi. Who can predict what 
these swarming millions, in their fertile and beautiful country, 
may become when brought into the blessed light of the gospel 
of Christ? 

The Free State extends along the south bank of the Congo 
to the navigable waters of the lower river, and also includes a 
territory on the north bank of the river from Manyanga to the 
sea, which affords ample communication to the Atlantic Ocean. 
The railway past the Livingstone Falls will be on the south 
side of the river. The River Congo has a course of twenty- 
nine hundred miles from the Chibals range, south-east of Lake 
Tanganyika, to the Atlantic ; and the Free State occupies more 
than three fourths of its basin from the water-shed of the 
Zambesi on the south, to that of the Share and Bhar-el-Ghazal 
on the north. The greatest length of this Free State, from 
southeast to northwest, is fourteen hundred miles, and its 
width twelve hundred miles. 

THE LIVINGSTONE INLAND MISSION 

Henry M. Stanley reached Boma, near the mouth of the 
Congo, Aug. 7, 1877, nine hundred and ninety-nine days after 
leaving Zanzibar, on the east coast. In a few months after the 
tidings of his long and perilous journey "through the Dark 
Continent" reached England, the Lord stirred the hearts of a 
few of his servants to attempt the evangelization of the im- 
mense regions now for the first time opened to the knowledge 
of the civilized world. Rev. A. Tilly of Cardiff was the first 
secretary of the mission. These friends banded together, and 
acted as the council of the mission until Oct. 8, 1880, when 
the responsible management was given into the hands of Mr. 
and Mrs. H. Grattan Guinness of London, the others contin- 
uing to act as council of conference. 



1 86 

The first two missionaries of the Livingstone Inland Mission 
sailed from Liverpool for the Congo in January, 1878. In 
June two more followed ; and " Cardiff Station," named for the 
place where the enterprise had its origin, was established a 
few miles below the Yellala Falls. Palabala, on the south 
side of the river, was soon afterward selected as the second 
station ; and here Mr. James Telford died, and was buried in 
the first Christian grave on the Congo. In 1879 three male 
missionaries were sent out, one accompanied by his wife, 
and also the wife of one already on the field. A third station 
was established at Banza Manteke. In 1880 five missionaries, 
with the wives of two, went to the Congo ; and a fourth station 
was founded at Matadi, opposite Vivi, and the fifth, forty or 
fifty miles from Baiiza Manteke, at Bemba near Manyanga. In 
1 88 1 seven missionaries were sent to the Congo ; and two died, 
Mr. Adam McCall, the leader of the mission, and Mrs. Mary 
Richards, wife of Rev. Henry Richards, of Banza Manteke. 
She reached Africa in April, 1880, and died at Banza Manteke, 
Nov. 13, 1 88 1. 

In this year an iron house, a special gift to the mission, was 
sent out to be erected at Banana, at the mouth of the river ; 
and also the steam-launch " Livingstone," intended for the 
navigation of the Lower Congo. The expenses of the mission 
this year were nearly twenty thousand dollars. In December, 
1881, and January, 1882, three missionaries made a journey 
to Stanley Pool from Bwemba Station on the north of the river. 
A station was established in March, 1882, at Mukimbungu, on 
the south side of the river, nearly opposite the old station at 
Bemba, which was abandoned, as it was decided to be more 
advantageous to establish the route from the coast to Stanley 
Pool by the south side of the river. In August another 
station was planted, at Lukunga; and July 31 the first two 
converts of the mission were baptized by Mr. Guinness in 
London, where the young men had been taken to assist in 
reducing the language to a written form. The third station 
founded in this busy year was at Mukimvika, on the south 
side of the mouth of the Congo, which was done for the pur- 
pose of reaching the coast tribes of that region. Banana was 
abandoned for health reasons. In February, 1883, a site for 
a station was secured at Leopoldville, Stanley Pool, and thus 



i8 7 

the chain of stations, six in number, completed from the coast 
to the head of Livingstone Falls. May 29 the stern paddle- 
wheel steamer " Henry Reed," intended for the navigation of 
the Upper Congo, was launched in London, and shipped via 
Rotterdam in November. The vessel was so constructed as 
to be taken in pieces, and packed in five hundred small man- 
loads, for transportation from the coast to the Pool. She is 




MISSION STEAMER "HENRY REED," ON THE UPPER CONGO. 

seventy-one feet long, ten feet beam, and three feet deep, 
with light draught. The whole of the hull of the "Henry 
Reed " had reached Stanley Pool early in April, 1884 ; and it 
was launched Nov. 24 on the Pool, from which there is open 
to it a stretch of navigable water six thousand miles in length, 
in one of the most fertile countries on the globe, and inhabited 
by nearly forty millions of human beings. 

To this time fifty missionary agents, male and female, had 
been sent to the Congo, of whom twelve had died, and others 



r88 



left the service. The staff then consisted of twenty-six mis- 
sionaries, of whom three were in England. The Congo 
language had been reduced to writing, a grammar and diction- 
ary published, several hopeful converts gained, and seven 
stations established, extending more than seven hundred 
miles into the interior. The whole expense of the mission to 
this time had been about a hundred and fifty thousand dollars. 
This work was offered to the American Baptist Missionary 
Union in May, 1883 ; was accepted by the Society and Board 
of Managers at the Annual Meetings in Detroit, Mich., May 
23 and 24, 1884, and by the Executive Committee, after a 
lull conference with Mr. and Mrs. Guinness, Sept. 9, 1884. 

THE AMERICAN BAPTIST MISSION. 

The remarkable providence by which the mission on the 
Congo came to American Baptists should never be forgotten. 
Previous to 1880, yearly resolutions were passed by the Mis- 
sionary Union to reopen missions in Africa. Noticing this, 
the writer made a study of the coast line of Africa with 
reference to opening of new mission work. At that time it 
came to his knowledge that Rev. George Pearse, who had 
opened a mission among the Kabyles in Algeria, had 
expressed an intention of offering his mission to the Mis- 
sionary Union. Accordingly, a letter was addressed to Mr. 
Pearse, care of the Orphans' Mission Press, Leominster, 
inquiring whether he still entertained the idea of placing his 
work in the hands of American Baptists. Since Mr. Pearse 
was in Algeria, the letter was forwarded to Mr. and Mrs. 
Guinness, who were acting as Mr. Pearse's advisers. 

We must now go back for twenty years previous to this 
time in order to take up another link in the chain of providen- 
tial circumstances which placed the Congo Mission in the 
hands of American Baptists. In 1860 Rev. J. N. Murdock, 
D.D., now the Honorary Secretary of the Missionary Union, 
was pastor of the Bowdoin Square Baptist church in Boston. 
Dr. Kirk, of the Mt. Vernon Congregational church, had 
invited Mr. Guinness, then a young and rising evangelist in 
England, to America, to hold revival meetings in his house 
of worship. Just before leaving for America, Mr. Guin- 



189 

ness was immersed, and, upon arriving in this country,, 
it was found that a knowledge of this fact had preceded him, 
and on that account he was excluded from the Mt. Vernon 
church. Greatly distressed at this turn of circumstances, Dr. 
Kirk asked Dr. Murdock if he would admit the young English 
evangelist to his church in Bowdoin Square. The consent was 
cordially given, and so Mr. and Mrs. Guinness began their 
evangelistic labors in America in the Bowdoin Square church 
under the auspices of Dr. Murdock, afterward the Secretary of 
the Missionary Union. When the letter to Mr. Pearse was 
placed in their hands, they saw on the printed heading the 
name of Dr. Murdock, whose kindness they had always 
remembered. By this time the Congo Mission had so much 
developed that it was becoming too large to be conducted as 
a personal mission, and the Guinnesses had been feeling that: 
for its proper development it should come under the manage- 
ment of some large society. Their hearts turned warmly and 
cordially towards their old friend and the society of which he 
was the head, and they wrote at once to Dr. Murdock, offer- 
ing to the Missionary Union the Livingstone Inland Mission, 
on the Congo. After several months of negotiation and 
careful deliberation, the mission was accepted. The chain of 
events by which the baptism of Dr. and Mrs. Guinness and 
the kindness of Dr. Murdock was linked to the investigation 
which brought the Congo Mission to the Missionary Union 
was manifestly wrought by the hand of God. 

At the time of the adoption of the Livingstone Inland r 
Mission by the American Baptist Missionary Union, the seven 
stations occupied and the staff of the Mission was as fol- 
lows : 

1. Mukimvika. At the mouth of the Congo on the south - 

side, established in 1882. Rev. C. B. Banks. 

2. Palabala. One hundred and twelve miles from the 

sea and twelve miles south of the river ; opened in 
1878. Rev. Joseph Clark and wife, Miss J. A. Skakle. 

3. Banza, Manteke. Forty miles beyond Palabala, opened 

in 1879, and occupied by Rev. Henry Richards, 
Miss Mary E. Cole, and Miss EmilyHarris. 

4. Mukimbungu. Occupied by Rev. Charles H. Harvey.. 



190 

5. Lukunga, sixty-nine miles beyond Banza Manteke, 

1882. Rev. P. Frederickson, Mr. N. Westlind. 

6. Leopoldville, at the head of Livingston Falls, on Stan- 

ley Pool, opened in 1883. Mr. John McKittrick. 

7. Equator Station, where the Congo crosses the Equator, 

1884. Mr. K. J. Petterson, Mr. J. B. Eddie. 
On the steamer " Henry Reed" Rev. A. Billington, Rev; 

C. B. Glenesk. 
To open a station at Stanley Falls. A. Sims, M. D., and 

Rev. Theodore H. Hoste. 
In England. Mr. Stephen J. White and wife, Mrs. Henry 

Craven, Miss Martha A. Spearing. 

Of these stations, Mukimbungu was turned over to a new 
Swedish Mission formed under the leadership of Mr. West- 
lind \ Messrs. Petterson and Eddie soon left the mission, 
Mr. White died in 1886, and Mr. McKittrick resigned in 
1888 to become the leader of the Congo Balolo Mission, then 
opened under the auspices of the Guinness family. Miss 
Martha A. Spearing joined the English Baptist Mission, and 
Mrs. Craven returned to England", her husband having died 
about the time of the transfer of the mission. It is a remark- 
able fact that the remaining nine men, who then came over 
to the American Baptist Missionary Union, have been pre- 
served in their labors for the people on the Congo, and con- 
tinue in 1896 to be the backbone and strength of the Congo 
Mission. American Baptists owe to these men a great debt 
of gratitude and appreciation. Without them the Congo 
mission could not have been maintained in efficiency, and to 
them has been given all the real success which has been 
achieved in winning the people to the Kingdom of Christ. 

It should always be remembered also, that the pathway to 
the Upper Congo Valley was opened by the pioneers of our 
mission. Mr. Stanley's route and road past Livingstone Falls 
was on the north bank of the river. Henry Richards, Joseph 
Clark, and Charles E. Ingham of the Livingstone Inland Mis- 
sion, travelling by the same route, were among the first mission- 
aries to reach Stanley Pool, which they did in December, 1881. 
But the next year A. Sims, M. D., Joseph Clark, f and K. J. 
Petterson established a mission station at Leopoldville on the 



igo 

5. Lukunga, sixty-nine miles beyond Banza Manteke, 

1882. Rev. P. Frederickson, Mr. N. Westlind. 

6. Leopoldville, at the head of Livingston Falls, on Stan- 

ley Pool, opened in 1883. Mr. John McKittrick. 

7. Equator Station, where the Congo crosses the Equator, 

1884. Mr. K. J. Petterson, Mr. J. B. Eddie. 
On the steamer " Henry Reed" Rev. A. Billington, Rev. 

C. B. Glenesk. 
To open a station at Stanley Falls. A. Sims, M. D., and 

Rev. Theodore H. Hoste. 
/;/ England. Mr. Stephen J. White and wife, Mrs. Henry 

Craven, Miss Martha A. Spearing. 

Of these stations, Mukimbungu was turned over to a new 
Swedish Mission formed under the leadership of Mr. West- 
lind; Messrs. Petterson and Eddie soon left the mission, 
Mr. White died in 1886, and Mr. McKittrick resigned in 
1888 to become the leader of the Congo Balolo Mission, then 
opened under the auspices of the Guinness family. Miss 
Martha A. Spearing joined the English Baptist Mission, and 
Mrs. Craven returned to England, her husband having died 
about the time of the transfer of the mission. It is a remark- 
able fact that the remaining nine men, who then came over 
to the American Baptist Missionary Union, have been pre- 
served in their labors for the people on the Congo, and con- 
tinue in 1896 to be the backbone and strength of the Congo 
Mission. American Baptists owe to these men a great debt 
of gratitude and appreciation. Without them the Congo 
mission could not have been maintained in efficiency, and to 
them has been given all the real success which has been 
achieved in winning the people to the Kingdom of Christ. 

It should always be remembered also, that the pathway to 
the Upper Congo Valley was opened by the pioneers of our 
mission. Mr. Stanley's route and road past Livingstone Falls 
was on the north bank of the river. Henry Richards, Joseph 
Clark, and Charles E. Ingham of the Livingstone Inland Mis- 
sion, travelling by the same route, were among the first mission- 
aries to reach Stanley Pool, which they did in December, 1881. 
But the next year A. Sims, M. D., Joseph Clark, ^and K. J. 
Petterson established a mission station at Leopoldville on the 



192 

Pool, reaching it by the south side. All trade and travel soon 
adopted their route, and now the railway between the navi- 
gable waters of the lower and the upper Congo is following 
substantially the line of their explorations. 

Mr. Herbert Probert was the first missionary from America 
sent to the Congo, and in 1886 and 1887, a considerable rein- 
forcement was added to the mission, including Mr. Charles E. 
Ingham, who first went to the Congo in 1881 as a member 
of the Livingstone Inland Mission, but retired upon its trans- 
fer to the American Society. In 1887, he was reappointed, 
and for six years rendered valuable service in the mission, 
especially in the difficult work of transport, until his death, 
Nov. 28, 1893, near Lukunga, from an attack of a wild ele- 
phant. 

The adoption of the Congo Mission by the Missionary 
Union was the result of careful investigation, and the action 
was taken with general approval, but not without some mis- 
giving and opposition in influential quarters. As the peculiar 
difficulties of carrying on missions on the Congo became 
known through experience, and the Union came face to face 
with the vast problem of evangelizing the interior of the Dark 
Continent, these misgivings received added strength, and the 
number of those increased who, discouraged by the difficulties 
and dangers of the work, advocated giving up the mission or 
returning it to the hands of those from whom it had been re- 
ceived. At this crisis, Rev. A. Sims, M. D., reached America. 
He was the first of the Congo Missionaries to visit the United 
States, and his conferences with the Executive Committee 
cleared away many of the difficulties in the practical conduct 
of the mission. In company with Dr. A. J. Gordon, he 
visited New York, Philadelphia, and other leading cities, ad- 
dressing conferences of influential Baptists. Confidence in 
the mission was fully restored. 

It is an interesting fact that the same man who had been 
largely instrumental in saving the Telugu Mission should now 
speak the decisive word for the mission on the Congo. In 
1853, when at the annual meeting of the Union in Albany, 
the destiny of the mission to the Telugus hung wavering in the 
scale, it was Dr. Edward Bright, then Home Secretary of the 
Union who pleaded most strongly for the reinforcement of 



the mission. He declared he would not write the letter giving 
up the work, and by a happy inspiration as he pointed to the 
single station, coined the phrase " The Lone Star " which 
fired the poetic genius of Dr. Samuel F. Smith to write the 
poem of that name, the reading of which led to the resolution 
to reinforce and continue the Telugu Mission. 

In 1886, Dr. Bright, as the editor of the Examiner, at- 
tended a conference in New York held by Dr. Gordon and 
Dr. Sims. The difficulties and prospects of the Congo Mis- 
sion were thoroughly discussed and the state of the work ex- 
plained by Dr. Sims. In the next issue of the Examiner, Dr. 
Bright published an editorial, strongly favoring the mission on 
the Congo, and clearly setting forth its advantages and the 
grandeur of its possibilities. Opposition disappeared, public 
confidence was confirmed, and at the annual meeting of the 
Union held soon after at Asbury Park, after full discussion, it 
was resolved to vigorously prosecute and reinforce the mis- 
sion on the Congo. Far sooner than in the case of the 
Telugu Mission came the joyful news of salvation 'as a seal to 
this act of courage and of faith. 

In August, 1886, began that remarkable revival at Banza 
Manteke, known as "the Pentecost on the Congo," which 
was the beginning of great spiritual blessings in the mission, 
and which has been the inspiration to broad and aggressive 
work for the salvation of the Congo people. For seven years 
Rev. Henry Richards had been laboring at Banza Manteke, 
with little apparent result. He preached the power and good- 
ness of God and the terrible effects of sin, which the people 
could see illustrated vividly in their daily lives, but there were 
110 converts. At last, after a severe season of self-exami- 
nation and humiliation before God, he determined to preach 
the simple gospel alone. He began translating the gospel of 
Luke and expounding it daily to the people as fast as trans- 
lated. He lived the gospel before the people, even to the 
extent of literally conforming to the command, "Give to every 
man that asketh of thee, and of him that taketh away thy 
goods ask them not again." (Luke vi. 30.) This combined 
preaching and consistent living had an immediate and power- 
ful influence on the people. They listened ; they were inter- 
ested ; they believed. Soon they began to come to the Lord, 



194 

and in the course of a few weeks 1,062 came to Mr. Richards, 
threw away their idols, and declared themselves the followers 
of Jesus. 

The first Christian church on the Congo was formed at 
Banza Manteke, Nov. 21, 1886, with forty- two members, and 
the movement spread into the country about and to other 
stations, so that Mr. Richards could write : " The glorious fact 
is this, that Banza Manteke is no longer a heathen country., 




THE LORD'S SUPPER IN THE OPEN AIR, BANZA MANTEKE 



but more Christian than any I am acquainted with. . . . Yes, 
all praise and glory to God our Father. The ' Nkimba,' the 
* Nkises,' the poison-giving, the throat-cutting, the demoniacal 
yells, the diabolical dance and witchcraft, are things of the 
past here. ' Old things have passed away, and, behold, all 
things have become new.' Now this part of Ethiopia stretches 
out its hands to God, and sends out its heart to -him in thanks- 
giving and praise." The church at Banza Manteke grew so 
large that all its services were held in the open air, but at a 
missionary meeting in Clarendon Street Church, Boston, 



'95 

twenty-five hundred dollars were raised for a chapel, the ma- 
terials for which were sent out from England, nearly all of 
which was transported from the vessel to Banza Manteke by 
the native Christians ; men, women, and even children freely 
giving themselves to this service for their newly found Savior. 
There is a training school for native evangelists at Banza 
Manteke. 




MISSION CHAPEL AT I.UKUNGA 



The readiness of the converts to engage In Christian 
service has been a marked feature of the Congo Mission. 
The political life of the people trains them in the discussion 
of public affairs, as all important questions are decided in 
" Palavas " or public gatherings, where each man usually 
pleads his own cause. In receiving Christianity this social 
custom is at once applied to the new faith. In public 
and in private the Congo Christians are ready to speak of 
their new joy and to try to lead others to receive the gospel. 



194 

and in the course of a few weeks 1,062 came to Mr. Richards, 
threw away their idols, and declared themselves the followers 
of Jesus. 

The first Christian church on the Congo was formed at 
Banza Manteke, Nov. 21, 1886, with forty- two members, and 
the movement spread into the country about and to other 
stations, so that Mr. Richards could write : " The glorious fact 
is this, that Banza Manteke is no longer a heathen country., 




THE LORD'S SUPPER IN THE OPEN AIR, 13ANZA MANTEKE 



but more Christian than any I am acquainted with. . . . Yes, 
all praise and glory to God our Father. The ' Nkimba,' the 
' Nkises,' the poison-giving, the throat-cutting, the demoniacal 
yells, the diabolical dance and witchcraft, are things of the 
past here. ' Old things have passed away, and, behold, all 
things have become new.' Now this part of Ethiopia stretches 
out its hands to God, and sends out its heart to -him in thanks- 
giving and praise." The church at Banza Manteke grew so 
large that all its services were held in the open air, but at a 
missionary meeting in Clarendon Street Church, Boston, 



'95 

twenty-five hundred dollars were raised for a chapel, the ma- 
terials for which were sent out from England, nearly all of 
which was transported from the vessel to Banza Manteke by 
the native Christians ; men, women, and even children freely 
giving themselves to this service for their newly found Savior. 
There is a training school for native evangelists at Banza 
Manteke. 




MISSION CHAPEL AT I.UKUNGA 



The readiness of the converts to engage in Christian 
service has been a marked feature of the Congo Mission. 
The political life of the people trains them in the discussion 
of public affairs, as all important questions are decided in 
" Palavas " or public gatherings, where each man usually 
pleads his own cause. In receiving Christianity this social 
custom is at once applied to the new faith. In public 
and in private the Congo Christians are ready to speak of 
their new joy and to try to lead others to receive the gospel. 



Treachers for the new churches and teachers for schools are 
easily found, though they may not have been long in the Chris- 
tian fold themselves. Beside speaking to those in their own 
villages, the converts, without solicitation from the missiona- 
ries, form parties to go on preaching tours to spread the gospel. 
Travellers from the interior have told of finding evidences of 
the work of these volunteer bands of preachers far in the in- 
terior, where no missionary had ever been nor may for years 
be able to penetrate. 

At every station of the Congo Mission there have been 
converts and baptisms, and the great success of the work at 
Banza Manteke has been duplicated at Lukunga, the next 
station beyond, although in a different way. Here the growth 
was slower at first, but has proved quite as substantial. The 
special feature of the Lukunga mission is the degree of self- 
support and self-direction attained by the churches, which 
is not excelled on any field in any of the missions of the 
Union. 

Rev. T. H. Hoste, who has remained continuously in Africa 
for nearly twelve years, has thrown the chief responsibility 
of the churches on the Christians and they responded in a 
remarkable manner. A "Missionary Society of Lukunga" 
was formed in 1895 which raised three hundred dollars, sup- 
ported two missionaries, and assisted two small churches in 
supporting their pastors. The five hundred and forty-one 
Christians supported the mission school, paid for their own 
medicines, and had a Total Abstinence Society of one hun- 
dred and sixty members. In 1896, Mr. Hoste was compelled 
to leave Africa for England, and leave the work at Lukunga 
to other hands. It is to be hoped that the success and self- 
dependence of the native church will survive the loss of the 
leader, and develop more and more. 

Although nearly all the men who came with the Mission in 
its transfer to American hands have been preserved in a very 
remarkable way to be the strength and leaders of the work, 
the workers on the Congo have not wholly escaped the well- 
known fatality of the African climate. The names of Rev. 
Charles E. Ingham, the friend of Henry M. Stanley, and the 
accomplished and energetic leader of the transport service, of 
Mrs. Ingham, of Rev. J. E. Broholm, Mr. Richard D. Jones, 



197 



Rev. Charles G. Hartsock, Rev. F. C. Gleichman, Mr. James 
A. Finch, as well as of Miss Lenore Hamilton, Mrs. Richards, 
Mrs. Harvey, Mrs. Billington, and Mrs. Bain, represent an in- 
vestment of sorrow and tears in Africa, which bind our hearts 
to the ".Dark Continent," and will surely bear fruit in later 
years. "The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church." 
The spirit of these who have thus given their lives for Africa's 
redemption breathes in 
the last report sent to 
America by Mr. Hart- 
sock, an able and be- 
loved graduate of Brown 
University, in whom cen- 
tred much hope for the 
future of the mission. 

"9.15 P. M. IREBU, 
Aug. 15, 1891. 

" Again the anniver- 
sary of my birth is here. 
Days, months, and years 
fly by as on the wings of 
the \\ ind. I presume that 
my race in life is more 
than half done, and per- 
haps I am swiftly nearing 
my grave. Be it so ; the 
question with me now is 
not 'how long, 1 but 'how 
well ' can I live. If the latter I can do right, the former I 
will leave with God. If I could but know that I have done 
my duty, that I had in all things striven to glorify my God,, 
that my days and strength had been spent to advance my 
Redeemer's kingdom, it seems to me that I could go to my 
grave as calmly and as peacefully as to a night's rest after a 
day of toil." 

His words are a classic of consecration to Christian service. 

Nor can this list be complete without mention of Rev. A. J, 
Gordon, D. D., and George S. Harwood, Esq., who as mem- 
bers of the Executive Committee of the Missionary Union 




196 

Preachers for the new churches and teachers for schools are 
easily found, though they may not have been long in the Chris- 
tian fold themselves. Beside speaking to those in their own 
villages, the converts, without solicitation from the missiona- 
ries, form parties to go on preaching tours to spread the gospel. 
Travellers from the interior have told of finding evidences of 
the work of these volunteer bands of preachers far in the in- 
terior, where no missionary had ever been nor may for years 
be able to penetrate. 

At every station of the Congo Mission there have been 
converts and baptisms, and the great success of the work at 
Banza Manteke has been duplicated at Lukunga, the next 
station beyond, although in a different way. Here the growth 
was slower at first, but has proved quite as substantial. The 
special feature of the Lukunga mission is the degree of self- 
support and self-direction attained by the churches, which 
is not excelled on any field in any of the missions of the 
Union. 

Rev. T. H. Hoste, who has remained continuously in Africa 
for nearly twelve years, has thrown the chief responsibility 
of the churches on the Christians and they responded in a 
remarkable manner. A "Missionary Society of Lukunga" 
was formed in 1895 which raised three hundred dollars, sup- 
ported two missionaries, and assisted two small churches in 
supporting their pastors. The five hundred and forty-one 
Christians supported the mission school, paid for their own 
medicines, and had a Total Abstinence Society of one hun- 
dred and sixty members. In 1896, Mr. Hoste was compelled 
to leave Africa for England, and leave the work at Lukunga 
to other hands. It is to be hoped that the success and self- 
dependence of the native church will survive the loss of the 
leader, and develop more and more. 

Although nearly all the men who came with the Mission in 
its transfer to American hands have been preserved in a very 
remarkable way to be the strength and leaders of the work, 
the workers on the Congo have not wholly escaped the well- 
known fatality of the African climate. The names of Rev. 
Charles E. Ingham, the friend of Henry M. Stanley, and the 
accomplished and energetic leader of the transport service, of 
Mrs. Ingham, of Rev. J. E. Broholm, Mr. Richard D. Jones, 



i 9 7 



Rev. Charles G. Hartsock, Rev. F. C. Gleichman, Mr. James 
A. Finch, as well as of Miss Lenore Hamilton, Mrs. Richards, 
Mrs. Harvey, Mrs. Billington, and Mrs. Bain, represent an in- 
vestment of sorrow and tears in Africa, which bind our hearts 
to the ".Dark Continent," and will surely bear fruit in later 
years. " The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the church." 
The spirit of these who have thus given their lives for Africa's 
redemption breathes in 
the last report sent to 
America by Mr. Hart- 
sock, an able and be- 
loved graduate of Brown 
University, in whom cen- 
tred much hope for the 
future of the mission. 

"9.15 P. M. IREBU, 
Aug. 15, 1891. 

" Again the anniver- 
sary of my birth is here. 
Days, months, and years 
fly by as on the wings of 
the \\ ind. I presume that 
my race in life is more 
than half done, and per- 
haps I am swiftly nearing 
my grave. Be it so ; the 
question with me now is 
not 'how long, 1 but 'how 
well ' can I live. If the latter I can do right, the former I 
will leave with God. If I could but know that I have done 
my duty, that I had in all things striven to glorify my God, 
that my days and strength had been spent to advance my 
Redeemer's kingdom, it seems to me that I could go to my 
grave as calmly and as peacefully as to a night's rest after a 
day of toil." 

His words are a classic of consecration to Christian service. 

Nor can this list be complete without mention of Rev. A. J. 
Gordon, D. D., and George S. Harwood, Esq., who as mem- 
bers of the Executive Committee of the Missionary Union 





REV. AUONIRAM JUDSON GORDON. D.D. 



199 

freely poured into the work of the Congo Mission unstinted 
prayers and efforts. The former by his public appeals, and 
the latter by his able and untiring attention to its business 
affairs were largely instrumental in carrying the mission through 
many difficulties, doubts, and misunderstandings in the earlier 
years, after its adoption by the Union. It is beautifully sig- 
nificant that Dr. Gordon died with the cry of "Victory" on 
his lips, and the closing days of Mr. Harwood's life were passed 
in Cairo, in the Continent for which he had devoted so much 
earnest care and toil. 

Aside from the stations existing in 1884, new work has been 
opened at Bwemba and Irebu on the Upper Congo, at Ikoko 
on Lake Mautumba, and at Kifwa near the line of the railway 
from the lower Congo to Stanley Pool. The statistics of the 
mission for 1895 were 47 missionaries, 29 native preachers, 
1,289 church members, 36 schools, and 1,211 scholars. A 
summary of the opportunities and prospects of the mission are 
given in the following extracts from the Report of the 
Missionary Union for 1893 : 

" The continent of Africa still commands the attention of 
the Christian world as the great field for the missionary ad- 
vance of the future. Although much has been done for the 
coast peoples in several localities, the heart of the continent 
is practically untouched with the gospel ; and the unrelieved 
blackness of heathen superstition, which still shrouds nearly 
all of the Dark Continent, cries aloud to the children of God 
for the light which they alone can give. This cry of need 
appeals to every heart which has the spirit of Christ. Africa, 
sunken in ignorance, scourged with internal strifes, ravaged by 
the slave trade, cursed by the floods of rum from civilized 
countries, without the knowledge of the true God Africa, 
' the open sore of the world,' holds out its helpless hands to 
God for deliverance from the multitude of evils which afflict it. 

" Thank God, the appeal is not unheeded. From Christian 
lands have gone forth the messengers of salvation. They are 
now urging their way, against many obstacles and by many 
paths, into the interior. The difficulties of the wild country, 
the danger of disease, even death itself, are not able to daunt 
them. They strain their eyes toward the dark forests of Cen- 
tral Africa as though it were the loveliest spot of earth, and 



I 




REV. A1JONTRAM JUDSON GORDON. D. D. 



freely poured into the work of the Congo Mission unstinted 
prayers and efforts. The former by his public appeals, and 
the latter by his able and untiring attention to its business 
affairs were largely instrumental in carrying the mission through 
many difficulties, doubts, and misunderstandings in the earlier 
years, after its adoption by the Union. It is beautifully sig- 
nificant that Dr. Gordon died with the cry of "Victory" on 
his lips, and the closing days of Mr. Harwood's life were passed 
in Cairo, in the Continent for which he had devoted so much 
earnest care and toil. 

Aside from the stations existing in 1884, new work has been 
opened at Bwemba and Irebu on the Upper Congo, at Ikoko 
on Lake Mautumba, and at Kifwa near the line of the railway 
from the lower Congo to Stanley Pool. The statistics of the 
mission for 1895 were 47 missionaries, 29 native preachers, 
1,289 church members, 36 schools, and 1,211 scholars. A 
summary of the opportunities and prospects of the mission are 
given in the following extracts from the Report of the 
Missionary Union for 1 893 : 

" The continent of Africa still commands the attention of 
the Christian world as the great field for the missionary ad- 
vance of the future. Although much has been done for the 
coast peoples in several localities, the heart of the continent 
is practically untouched with the gospel ; and the unrelieved 
blackness of heathen superstition, which still shrouds nearly 
all of the Dark Continent, cries aloud to the children of God 
for the light which they alone can give. This cry of need 
appeals to every heart which has the spirit of Christ. Africa, 
sunken in ignorance, scourged with internal strifes, ravaged by 
the slave trade, cursed by the floods of rum from civilized 
countries, without the knowledge of the true God Africa, 
' the open sore of the world,' holds out its helpless hands to 
God for deliverance from the multitude of evils which afflict it. 

" Thank God, the appeal is not unheeded. From Christian 
lands have gone forth the messengers of salvation. They are 
now urging their way, against many obstacles and by many 
paths, into the interior. The difficulties of the wild country, 
the danger of disease, even death itself, are not able to daunt 
them. They strain their eyes toward the dark forests of Cen- 
tral Africa as though it were the loveliest spot of earth, and 



20O 

made desirable by every device of skilful man. As fast as 
one falls, others are ready to take the vacant place in the line 
of heroes who are working for Africa's redemption. The soil 
of Central Africa is already sacred with the blood of martyrs for 
Christ and the graves of men and women of God who have 
not counted their lives dear that they might preach to its 
dying millions the unsearchable riches of Christ. How their 
names gleam in the galaxy of the Christian heavens : Living- 
stone, Hannington, MacKay of Uganda, Wilmot Brooke, Rob- 
inson, Scarnell, Hartsock, and many others, of whom the 
world was not worthy, but who laid down their lives with joy 
and holy devotion for that land which above all others is the 
afflicted of the earth. 

"The part which has fallen to American Baptists in this 
magnificent enterprise of salvation lies in the valley of the 
great Congo River. Although the work is yet carried on 
against many difficulties, the Congo undoubtedly furnishes the 
easiest access to the largest and most fertile portion of Central 
Africa. At present the absence of a currency, of banks, and 
stores of supply makes it necessary to provide almost every- 
thing required for the mission from England or America, and 
all the goods for the interior must be sent by carriers from the 
lower river. This adds immensely to the cost and difficulty of 
the mission. But a few years will change this. The railroad 
to Stanley Pool is making good progress, considering the diffi- 
culties of construction. Commerce is increasing every year, 
and with it the facilities for trade. The completion of the 
railroad to Stanley Pool will witness the advent of many of the 
appliances of civilized life, and make the conduct of mission- 
ary work in the Congo Valley an enterprise of no special 
difficulty. To that we must be looking forward, and for that 
grand opening for missionary work we must be preparing." 




BAPTIST MISSIONS IN EUROPE 



THE position of Baptists in Europe is unique. Their pe- 
culiar faith and practice presents the strongest protest against 
the formalism of the Protestant State churches, as well as the 
most effective opposition to the superstitions of the Roman 
Catholic hierarchy. This distinctive position has a two-fold 
influence, as it brings upon the Baptists the greatest hatred 
and most active persecution of the priesthood on the one 
hand, and, on the other, commends them to the sympathy and 
aid of the most pious and devoted members who are found in 
the established churches. While often compelled to endure 
great persecution and distress from the authorities, who are 
usually under the control of the priests of the State churches, 
they receive much encouragement and assistance from those 
pure and noble spirits who love the truth, and who are found 
in every communion and under every name. Amid the fires 
of persecution the Baptists have thrived. From the feeble, 
obscure body of a few years ago, Baptists have now come in 
all the countries of Continental Europe to occupy a position 
which is respectable, if not every way influential. Baptists 
from America who are visiting Europe may now find churches 
of their own denomination in nearly all the large cities of the 
Continent ; and these Baptists, who are often holding up the 
standard of Gospel truth under circumstances of great diffi- 
culty, are always much cheered and encouraged by visits from 
those who come to them, representing the great Baptist body 
of America. Nearly all these Continental Baptist churches 
are aided by the American Baptist Missionary Union, except 
those in Italy which are under the Southern Baptist Conven- 
tion; and the work which they are carrying on is varied in 
conditions, methods, and success, but of deep interest to the 
lovers of a pure gospel, and of vast importance to the prog- 
ress of the truth in all European countries. 

(201) 



202 



THE FRENCH MISSION 

THE Baptist Mission in France is a European counterpart 
of the American Baptist Telugu Mission in India. Its early 
history is one of trials and persecution and slovv growth, while 
its later years have witnessed more abundant harvests and 
more rapid progress. Both in direct and indirect lines there 
is a prophecy of greater and brighter things in the future. 

As early as 1832, the minds of American Baptists were 
turned towards France as a field for missionary labor, and 
Prof. Irah Chase, of Newton Theological Institution, visited 
France for preliminary investigations. With him was a native 
of France, Mr. J. C. Rostan. A small place of worship was 
opened in Paris and services were continued by Mr. Rostan 
after the return of Prof. Chase to America. Inspired by the 
favorable report of Prof. Chase, Rev. Isaac Willmarth was -des- 
ignated by the Baptist Board to begin a mission in France, 
and he reached Paris in June, 1834. May 10, 1835, the first 
Baptist church in Paris was organized with six members. 
Several Christian churches were found in the northeastern por- 
tion of France which by the study of the New Testament had 
come into sympathy with Baptist views. They received with 
great rejoicing the tidings Mr. Willmarth brought them, of a 
larger and stronger body of Christians of like faith with them- 
selves, and gladly entered into relations with them. In 1835, 
Rev. Erastus Willard and Rev. David N. Sheldon joined the 
mission and work was continued in Paris and in the northeast, 
Mr. Sheldon opening a school for theological students at Douai. 
Mr. Rostan had died early in the history of the mission ; Mr. 
Willmarth was compelled to return to the United States by 
the failure of his health, and Mr. Sheldon also soon left the 
mission. In 1839 there were seven Baptist churches in 
France, with one hundred and forty-two members, and Mr. 
Willard was the only American missionary left upon the field ; 
but the work made satisfactory progress by the aid of several 
French brethren who had now entered the ministry. 

But the work was not to continue without the opposition of 
evil forces. Persecutions arose against the Baptists. The 
prosperity of the work and baptisms in various places aroused 



203 



the hostility of the Roman Catholic priests, and a law was 
made prohibiting the meeting together of an association of 
more than twenty persons at one time. Any person opening 
his house for public worship was made liable to a fine. At 
Genlis, a chap el built by the Baptists, because of the opposition 
of the Roman Catholics, was closed, and for eleven years the 
Baptists were unable to occupy it. The columns of the " Bap- 
tist Missionary Magazine " were searched for accounts of the 
work in France, and those who were named were followed by 
persecution and fines, so that it became necessary to print the 
news from the French mission with blanks for places and' 
names that they might not supply information for the use of 
the Roman Catholic priests and the French police. 

In 1848 the French Revolution brought nominal religious 
freedom for all. Worship was made free in law, but owing to 
the ascendancy of the Roman Catholic faith, means were still 
found to visit the Baptists with much persecution. Two of the 
Baptist preachers, Mr. Lepoids, pastor of the First Church in 
Paris for twenty years, and Mr. Foulon were arrested and 
thrown into prison and afterwards fined. By the Revolution 
the chapel at Genlis was thrown open after eleven years of 
seclusion. Dr. T. T. Devan, formerly a missionary to China, 
joined the French mission in 1848, and several other French 
brethren had now entered the ministry, including Rev. J. B. 
Cretin, one of the most useful of those who have been con- 
nected with the mission. Dr. Devan withdrew from the 
mission in 1853 and Mr. Willard in 1856, and since that 
time the work has been carried forward almost wholly by the 
French brethren, with only financial assistance from America. 
Yet the number of churches multiplied and extended into 
different portions of France, and the membership increased 
from 281 in 1856 to 599 in 1877. 

During the Franco-Prussian war nearly all the men in the 
churches entered the army, but the Lord preserved them and 
their families, so that the Baptist cause cannot be said to 
have suffered greatly as the result of the war. The Baptist 
chapel in Rue de Lille, Paris, was completed in 1873, and has 
since been continuously occupied by the First Baptist Church. 
On the whole, the progress of the mission in France for the 
first half century of its existence cannot be said to have 



204 



been rapid, but much excellent and permanent work had 
been done by faithful and devoted men, and a foundation 
laid for the more rapid progress of later years. 

In 1887 a new era began to dawn for the Baptist mission 




REV. RUBEN SAILLENS 



in France. The labors of the McAll mission had resulted 
in a general revival of the evangelical and evangelistic spirit 
among the churches. Rev. Ruben Saillens, the chief helper 
of Rev. R. W. McAll in his mission, was a Baptist, and aside 



205 

from his regular service in connection with that mission, 
was able to devote some attention to our denominational 
work In 1888 he became pastor of the Baptist church in 
Rue de Lille, still retaining his connection with the McAll 
mission, and a more encouraging spirit began to pervade the 
churches throughout the country. In 1889 the McAll mis- 
sion, although undenominational in all its movements, seeing 
the necessity of churches to care for the converts in the 
mission halls, favored the organization of churches of different 
denominations among the converts of the mission. The 
Baptists were the first to take advantage of this movement 
and Mr. Saiilens organized the second Baptist church in 
Paris and began preaching in a hall in Rue St. Denis. On 
the retirement of Mr. Saiilens, Rev. Philemon Vincent was 
called from St. Etienne to be pastor of the First Church, 
worshipping in the chapel in Rue de Lille. Mission 
halls, similar to those occupied by the McAll mission, were 
also opened at two places, so that there were four places of 
Baptist worship in the French capital. A new spirit of 
evangelism and progress began to be manifested in the Bap- 
tist work throughout France, and there were revivals in several 
of the ten churches connected with the Missionary Union. 
The work was reorganized in many places and placed on a 
new and more aggressive basis. The increasing prosperity 
and permanence of Baptist work in France brought to light 
the fact that a large number of the most pious and evangelical 
of the pastors of the glise Libre, or Free Church, really held 
Baptist views, although they had never identified themselves 
with the Baptist movement, and some of these pastors 
united fully with the Baptist churches in France and greatly 
strengthened the working force of the mission, several of them 
being employed by the Missionary Union in various places in 
France. 

The year 1891 may be said to mark an epoch in the Baptist 
work in France. Mr. Saiilens had now withdrawn wholly 
from the McAll mission in order to devote himself entirely 
to Baptist work, and had become general Secretary of the 
French Baptist missionary committee. The Baptist mission 
in France, which had made slow progress for so many years, 
now entered upon an era of blessing for which there is great 



2O4 



been rapid, but much excellent and permanent work had 
been done by faithful and devoted men, and a foundation 
laid for the more rapid progress of later years. 

In 1887 a new era began to dawn for the Baptist mission 




REV. RUBEN SAILLENS 



in France. The labors of the McAll mission had resulted 
in a general revival of the evangelical and evangelistic spirit 
among the churches. Rev. Ruben Saillens, the chief helper 
of Rev. R. W. McAll in his mission, was a Baptist, and aside 



205 

from his regular service in connection with that mission, 
was able to devote some attention to our denominational 
work In 1888 he became pastor of the Baptist church in 
Rue de Lille, still retaining his connection with the McAll 
mission, and a more encouraging spirit began to pervade the 
churches throughout the country. In 1889 the McAll mis- 
sion, although undenominational in all its movements, seeing 
the necessity of churches to care for the converts in the 
mission halls, favored the organization of churches of different 
denominations among the converts of the mission. The 
Baptists were the first to take advantage of this movement 
and Mr. Saiilens organized the second Baptist church in 
Paris and began preaching in a hall in Rue St. Denis. On 
the retirement of Mr. Saiilens, Rev. Philemon Vincent was 
called from St. Etienne to be pastor of the First Church, 
worshipping in the chapel in Rue de Lille. Mission 
halls, similar to those occupied by the McAll mission, were 
also opened at two places, so that there were four places of 
Baptist worship in the French capital. A new spirit of 
evangelism and progress began to be manifested in the Bap- 
tist work throughout France, and there were revivals in several 
of the ten churches connected with the Missionary Union. 
The work was reorganized in many places and placed on a 
new and more aggressive basis. The increasing prosperity 
and permanence of Baptist work in France brought to light 
the fact that a large number of the most pious and evangelical 
of the pastors of the glise Libre, or Free Church, really held 
Baptist views, although they had never identified themselves 
with the Baptist movement, and some of these pastors 
united fully with the Baptist churches in France and greatly 
strengthened the working force of the mission, several of them 
being employed by the Missionary Union in various places in 
France. 

The year 1891 may be said to mark an epoch in the Baptist 
work in France. Mr. Saiilens had now withdrawn wholly 
from the McAll mission in order to devote himself entirely 
to Baptist work, and had become general Secretary of the 
French Baptist missionary committee. The Baptist mission 
in France, which had made slow progress for so many years, 
now entered upon an era of blessing for which there is great 



2O6 



reason to praise God. The revival, begun in 1888, was in- 
creasing continually. This revival may be said to have 
resulted largely from the numerous Baptist publications put 
forth by Rev. J. B. Cretin, who with immense industry and 
perseverance continued to prepare and distribute Baptist 
tracts and publications, many of them being published and 
circulated at his own expense. He was also the means of 
bringing into the Baptist ranks nearly all of the other French 




REV. ALEXANDRE DtZ 
TREASURER OF THE FRENCH MISSION 

Baptfst pastors who had been so useful in the work in its 
earlier years. Rev. J. Vincent, Rev. Henri Andru, Rev. Aimc 
Cadot, and others, born Roman Catholics and won to God 
and Baptist views through the efforts of this devoted man. 
Another cause of the revival was the fact that some from other 
churches had been led by their study of the Scriptures to 
come out boldly upon pure scriptural ground in regard to the 
administration of the ordinances and other ecclesiastical 



2O7 

questions. The pure evangelical spirit of the Baptists also 
led many Christians in other churches to favor the movement, 
even when they did not identify themselves fully with the 
Baptist churches. In fifteen months the two churches in Paris 
nearly doubled. The First Church had four mission halls and 
the Second Church two, where meetings were carried on, 
aside from the constant daily meetings in the principal place 
of worship in Rue St. Denis. Work had extended to other 
places, and all the churches in the country were strengthened 
and encouraged. The church at Montbelliard, near Switzer- 
land, had extended over the border; anew church was formed 
at Valentigney, and the Baptist movement in French Switzer- 
land received its impulse from these churches and is making 
encouraging progress. A church was opened at Tramelan, 
and a whole church in Neuchatel, which had been conducted 
several years on . evangelical lines, came over bodily and 
united with the Baptist Association. 

The movement in the northeast of France also extended 
into Belgium and a Baptist church has been organized at 
Ougree. In four years the number of churches in French- 
speaking Europe increased from nine to nineteen. A large 
number of laborers joined the mission from other bodies, 
calling for a large increase of appropriations from the Mission- 
ary Union. While the work in Paris has shown special 
fruitfulness, yet the work in other places has realized scarcely 
less of blessing. The church in Tramelan, Switzerland, 
reached two hundred members, and the Baptist sentiment is 
steadily gaining ground. The Baptist churches in the north- 
east of France, where the mission received its first encourage- 
ment, have continually increased in membership; but the 
Baptists in this part of France are almost entirely working 
people and miners, and they are subject to many embarrass- 
ments on account of their relations to their Roman Catholic 
employers, yet they have made wonderful progress. The 
great difficulty is to obtain money to erect halls for the ac- 
commodation of those who wish to hear the Gospel. At the 
last reports the statistics of the French Mission gave 30 
preachers, 19 churches, and 1,900 members. 

France is in a state of intellectual and spiritual ferment, and 
it is the general conviction that it is on the eve of great 



206 



reason to praise God. The revival, begun in 1888, was in- 
creasing continually. This revival may be said to have 
resulted largely from the numerous Baptist publications put 
forth by Rev. J. B. Cretin, who with immense industry and 
perseverance continued to prepare and distribute Baptist 
tracts and publications, many of them being published and 
circulated at his own expense. He was also the means of 
bringing into the Baptist ranks nearly all of the other French 




REV. ALEXANDRE DtZ 
TREASURER OF THE FRENCH MISSION 

Baptfst pastors who had been so useful in the work in its 
earlier years. Rev. J. Vincent, Rev. Henri Andru, Rev. Aime 
Cadot, and others, born Roman Catholics and won to God 
and Baptist views through the efforts of this devoted man. 
Another cause of the revival was the fact that some from other 
churches had been led by their study of the Scriptures to 
come out boldly upon pure scriptural ground in regard to the 
administration of the ordinances and other ecclesiastical 



2O7 

questions. The pure evangelical spirit of the Baptists also 
led many Christians in other churches to favor the movement, 
even when they did not identify themselves fully with the 
Baptist churches. In fifteen months the two churches in Paris 
nearly doubled. The First Church had four mission halls and 
the Second Church two, where meetings were carried on, 
aside from the constant daily meetings in the principal place 
of worship in Rue St. Denis. Work had extended to other 
places, and all the churches in the country were strengthened 
and encouraged. The church at Montbelliard, near Switzer- 
land, had extended over the border ; a new church was formed 
at Valentigney, and the Baptist movement in French Switzer- 
land received its impulse from these churches and is making 
encouraging progress. A church was opened at Tramelan, 
and a whole church in Neuchatel, which had been conducted 
several years on . evangelical lines, came over bodily and 
united with the Baptist Association. 

The movement in the northeast of France also extended 
into Belgium and a Baptist church has been organized at 
Ougree. In four years the number of churches in French- 
speaking Europe increased from nine to nineteen. A large 
number of laborers joined the mission from other bodies, 
calling for a large increase of appropriations from the Mission- 
ary Union. While the work in Paris has shown special 
fruitfulness, yet the work in other places has realized scarcely 
less of blessing. The church in Tramelan, Switzerland, 
reached two hundred members, and the Baptist sentiment is 
steadily gaining ground. The Baptist churches in the north- 
east of France, where the mission received its first encourage- 
ment, have continually increased in membership; but the 
Baptists in this part of France are almost entirely working 
people and miners, and they are subject to many embarrass- 
ments on account of their relations to their Roman Catholic 
employers, yet they have made wonderful progress. The 
great difficulty is to obtain money to erect halls for the ac- 
commodation of those who wish to hear the Gospel. At the 
last reports the statistics of the French Mission gave 30 
preachers, 19 churches, and 1,900 members. 

France is in a state of intellectual and spiritual ferment, and 
it is the general conviction that it is on the eve of great 



208 

religious changes. The present seems to be the time for 
fruitful and aggressive Baptist labor in France. Faithful, 
earnest, effective preaching of the pure Gospel of the Lord 
Jesus Christ will not be without its fruit. The French people 
are hesitating between the reaction of Roman Catholicism and 
the barrenness of infidelity, and the conditions for their re- 
ceiving the pure and holy truths of the Gospel are most 
favorable. There is the loudest call for the continuance of 
the most earnest and aggressive work for Christ in France. 

THE MISSION IN SPAIN 

PROF. WILLIAM I. KNAPP was the founder of Baptist mission 
work in Spain. He studied at Hamilton Theological Institu- 
tion, and established himself in independent missionary work 
in Madrid in 1869. He afterwards applied to the Missionary 
Union for assistance, which was granted. In 1870 Rev. John 
W. Terry was appointed a missionary, but remained in the 
country only a few months; yet the mission received great 
encouragement in its earlier years. Eighteen were baptized 
in 1870, and Aug. 10 of that year the first Baptist church in 
Madrid was organized with thirty-three members. Several 
Spanish evangelists were raised up, among them Rev. G. S. 
Benoliel, who for several years was pastor of the Baptist church 
in Madrid and whose preaching attracted great attention. 
A church was formed in Valencia in 1871. Some work was 
also done in Portugal and a number of converts were baptized 
in that country. Forty-one were baptized in Linares, but the 
promising work in that field was broken up by persecution. 
There were also a number received in Alicante. In 1874 there 
were four churches with four native pastors and evangelists 
and a total number in membership of two hundred and forty- 
four. Mr. Knapp returned to the United States in 1876 and 
the work was then continued by native laborers. Rev. R. P. 
Cifre, who had studied in Newton, labored for a few years in 
connection with the mission, but owing to the defection of 
the native laborers and other discouragements, the work which 
at one time had seemed so promising gradually dwindled away, 
and the young and growing churches in the places mentioned 
above practically disappeared. 



209 

In 1885 the Union had but one missionary laboring in 
Spain, Rev. Eric Lund, of Sweden, who had begun work in Bar- 
celona, in the northeast. Since that time this has been the 

SR. FRANCISCO BARDOLET SR. RTCARDO AKGLADA MR. OLOF DUREN 




Rav. ERIC LUND SR. GABRIEL ANGLADA 

BAPTIST LABOREKS IN SPAIN 



208 

religious changes. The present seems to be the time for 
fruitful and aggressive Baptist labor in France. Faithful, 
earnest, effective preaching of the pure Gospel of the Lord 
Jesus Christ will not be without its fruit. The French people 
are hesitating between the reaction of Roman Catholicism and 
the barrenness of infidelity, and the conditions for their re- 
ceiving the pure and holy truths of the Gospel are most 
favorable. There is the loudest call for the continuance of 
the most earnest and aggressive work for Christ in France. 

THE MISSION IN SPAIN 

PROF. WILLIAM I. KNAPP was the founder of Baptist mission 
work in Spain. He studied at Hamilton Theological Institu- 
tion, and established himself in independent missionary work 
in Madrid in 1869. He afterwards applied to the Missionary 
Union for assistance, which was granted. In 1870 Rev. John 
W. Terry was appointed a missionary, but remained in the 
country only a few months; yet the mission received great 
encouragement in its earlier years. Eighteen were baptized 
in 1870, and Aug. 10 of that year the first Baptist church in 
Madrid was organized with thirty-three members. Several 
Spanish evangelists were raised up, among them Rev. G. S. 
Benoliel, who for several years was pastor of the Baptist church 
in Madrid and whose preaching attracted great attention. 
A church was formed in Valencia in 1871. Some work was 
also done in Portugal and a number of converts were baptized 
in that country. Forty-one were baptized in Linares, but the 
promising work in that field was broken up by persecution. 
There were also a number received in Alicante. In 1874 there 
were four churches with four native pastors and evangelists 
and a total number in membership of two hundred and forty- 
four. Mr. Knapp returned to the United States in 1876 and 
the work was then continued by native laborers. Rev. R. P. 
Cifre, who had studied in Newton, labored for a few years in 
connection with the mission, but owing to the defection of 
the native laborers and other discouragements, the work which 
at one time had seemed so promising gradually dwindled away, 
and the young and growing churches in the places mentioned 
above practically disappeared. 



209 



In 1885 the Union had but one missionary laboring in 
Spain, Rev. Eric Lund, of Sweden, who had begun work in Bar- 
celona, in the northeast. Since that time this has been the 



SB. FRANCISCO BARDOLBT 



SR. RICARDO AKGLADA 



MR. OLOF DUREN 




REV. ERIC LUND 



BAPTIST LABORERS IN SPAIN 



SR. GABRILL ANGLADA 



2IO 



headquarters of our Baptist Mission in Spain, and it has 
(extended from this point in various directions. Much work 
was done in publishing tracts and distributing portions of 
Scripture, and a few converts were gathered. In 1886 Mr. 




MRS. MARIN 
(An American lady.) 



REV. MANUEL C. MAKIN 



A SPANISH LADY 



Lund was joined by Rev. Manuel C. Marin, a native of Spain, 
and a graduate of Colby University and Newton Theological 
Institution. Within recent years these brethren have adopted 
new features of evangelistic work, by which series of meetings 
are held in different villages, and the few converts gathered 
are organized into small, independent churches, and one of 



211 



the members in each placed over them as a leader. The aim 
of Mr. Lund is to follow the Pauline methods, in preaching the 
Gospel where Christ is not already named. These simple 
methods have been largely successful. Great crowds are 
gathered to the meetings, and in almost every place where 
they are held a few converts are received. These small, 
detached bodies of Christians have shown remarkable vitality 
and stability in a small way. A little paper is published by 
the mission, called the Eco, and at the last reports there were 
in Spain, besides Rev. Eric Lund and Rev. M. C. Marin, six 
native preachers supported by the Missionary Union, and ten 
other brethren who preach occasionally. Eighteen were 
baptized in 1893, and there are now six small churches with 
from five to twenty members, the total number being nearly 
ninety. 

Protestant missionary work in Spain has to encounter many 
and great obstacles in the bigotry of the priests and the 
ignorance and indifference of the people j but with the new 
development of work on evangelistic lines there appears to be 
encouragement to continue to labor for this people, the work 
of the last few years having given continually growing encour- 
agement. The mission is now wholly confined to the north- 
eastern part of Spain, in the general vicinity of Barcelona. , 

THE MISSION IN GREECE 

THE American Baptist Mission in Greece sprang from the 
same impulse as that which led to the establishment of the 
Telugu mission in India. In 1835, the Triennial Convention, 
finding itself with a surplus in the treasury, at the meeting in 
Richmond authorized the Board to establish missions in all 
fields presenting a favorable opening. A mission was accord- 
ingly begun in Greece. Rev. Horace T. Love and Cephas 
Pasco were ordained in Providence Sept. 8, 1836, and arrived 
at Patras Dec. 9, 1836. The government granted them per- 
mission to circulate the Bible and to preach the Gospel, and 
they were soon able to open a day school and a Sunday school. 
In 1839 Mr. Pasco was obliged to leave the mission and Miss 
Harriet E. Dickson was appointed. This year also witnessed 
the beginning of Sunday services in Greek, conducted by Mr. 



2IO 



headquarters of our Baptist Mission in Spain, and it has 
'extended from this point in various directions. Much work 
was done in publishing tracts and distributing portions of 
Scripture, and a few converts were gathered. In 1886 Mr. 




MRS. MARIN 
(Aft A merican lady.) 



REV. MANUEL C. MAKIN 



A SPANISH LAUY 



Lund was joined by Rev. Manuel C. Marin, a native of Spain, 
and a graduate of Colby University and Newton Theological 
Institution. Within recent years these brethren have adopted 
new features of evangelistic work, by which series of meetings 
are held in different villages, and the few converts gathered 
are organized into small, independent churches, and one of 



211 

the members in each placed over them as a leader. The aim 
of Mr. Lund is to follow the Pauline methods, in preaching the 
Gospel where Christ is not already named. These simple 
methods have been largely successful. Great crowds are 
gathered to the meetings, and in almost every place where 
they are held a few converts are received. These small, 
detached bodies of Christians have shown remarkable vitality 
and stability in a small way. A little paper is published by 
the mission, called the Eco, and at the last reports there were 
in Spain, besides Rev. Eric Lund and Rev. M. C. Marin, six 
native preachers supported by the Missionary Union, and ten 
other brethren who preach occasionally. Eighteen were 
baptized in 1893, and there are now six small churches with 
from five to twenty members, the total number being nearly 
ninety. 

Protestant missionary work in Spain has to encounter many 
and great obstacles in the bigotry of the priests and the 
ignorance and indifference of the people ; but with the new 
development of work on evangelistic lines there appears to be 
encouragement to continue to labor for this people, the work 
of the last few years having given continually growing encour- 
agement. The mission is now wholly confined to the north- 
eastern part of Spain, in the general vicinity of Barcelona. - 

THE MISSION IN GREECE 

THE American Baptist Mission in Greece sprang from the 
same impulse as that which led to the establishment of the 
Telugu mission in India. In 1835, the Triennial Convention, 
finding itself with a surplus in the treasury, at the meeting in 
Richmond authorized the Board to establish missions in all 
fields presenting a favorable opening. A mission was accord- 
ingly begun in Greece. Rev. Horace T. Love and Cephas 
Pasco were ordained in Providence Sept. 8, 1836, and arrived 
at Patras Dec. 9, 1836. The government granted them per- 
mission to circulate the Bible and to preach the Gospel, and 
they were soon able to open a day school and a Sunday school. 
In 1839 Mr - Pasco was obliged to leave the mission and Miss 
Harriet E. Dickson was appointed. This year also witnessed 
the beginning of Sunday services in Greek, conducted by Mr. 



212 



Love. In 1840 the mission was removed to Corfu, and August 
12, of that year, the first convert, who very appropriately bore 
the name of " Apostolos," was baptized by Mr. Love and em- 
ployed to assist him in the missionary work. Rev. R. F. Buel 
and wife joined the mission in 1841, and in 1842 Mr. Love 
was compelled to return to the United States. Before his de- 
parture two more were baptized. In February, 1844, the mis- 
sion received a strong reinforcement by the arrival of Rev. 
Albert N. Arnold and his wife and Miss S. E. Waldo at Corfu. 
Mr. Buel removed to Piraeus, but the mission at that place 
was brought to an end in 1847 by the arrest of Mr. Buel and his 
imprisonment. There were only five church members con- 
nected with the mission at that time, and after fourteen years 
of labor so little fruit had been the result that it was a question 
whether it would be wise to continue it. Yet the work was 
still maintained in the face of much opposition by the Greeks, 
one native assistant being compelled to leave his native land 
to escape the fury of his enemies. In 1852 the church had 
increased to fifteen members, but both Mr. Arnold and Mr. 
Buel returned to the United States in 1855. Mr. Demetrius 
Z. Sakellarios, the only assistant in the mission, continued his 
labors until April i, 1856, when the work in Greece was sus- 
pended for fifteen years. 

In 1871 Rev. George W. Gardner, D. D., and Rev. D. W. 
Faunce, D. D., visited Athens and recommended resuming mis- 
sionary work in Greece Mr. Sakellarios, who during the in- 
terval had visited America and engaged in study at the Newton 
Theological Institution, was appointed a missionary by the 
Executive Committee of the Missionary Union. He had 
married a Miss Edmands, of Charlestown, Mass., and they es- 
tablished themselves in Athens. In the succeeding years con- 
siderable interest was shown in the preaching of the Gospel and 
encouragement was received from intelligent residents of the 
city. The professors and students in the University in Athens 
frequently attended the services, but few left the state church 
in order to identify themselves with the Baptist Mission. 
There were some conversions, and a small church was gathered 
in Athens by Mr. Sakellarios whose support was continued by 
the Missionary Union. But the definite results of his labors 
seemed to be so small that, while having high esteem for his 



213 

faithful and laborious services, it seemed wise to the Executive 
Committee, in 1886, to recommend a discontinuance of the 
mission in Greece. Mr. Sakellarios continued his residence in 
Athens, and maintains services in his own house, but there 
appears to be nothing in the condition of the people or the 
mission to encourage an expectation that the Greeks are pre- 
pared to leave their national faith for a more evangelical body 
and belief. The Greeks are, many of them, of high intelligence 
and devoted to learning, but pure spiritual religion apparently 
has but little attraction for them. 



THE GERMAN MISSION 

GERMANY has always been a fountain-head of religious 
reform. Even through the dark ages there were men in small 
communities, in various parts of the German states of Central 
Europe, who stood far above the surrounding ignorance, and 
who maintained a general adherence to the truth. The 
ideality and independence of the German character have always 
supplied sources of light from which have streamed out the 
rays which brightened the darkness of the surrounding igno- 
rance and superstition. The Reformation served to bring to 
light scattered religious communities, which naturally were in 
great sympathy with the new movement begun by Luther. 
But they surpassed him in the freedom of their thought and 
in their advancement toward the pure and simple doctrines of 
the Scriptures. From that time the modern history of the 
Baptists in Germany might be said to begin ; and yet these 
Baptists of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, while doing 
much to prepare the minds of the people, are not really the 
lineal ancestors of the German Baptist churches of to-day. 
The Baptist churches of all Central, Eastern, and Northern 
Europe, at the present time, may be traced back more or less 
directly to a little band of seven, who were baptized at Ham- 
burg in the night, by Kev. Barnas Sears, D. D., of Boston, 
April 12, 1834. The leader of this little band was Johann G. 
Oncken, who became the apostle of the modern Baptist move- 
ment in Germany ; and by his labors and those of others who 
joined him, this movement has extended throughout the whole 



2I 4 



of the German Empire, as well as to all parts of Central Europe 
where German people are found. 

In 1836 fourteen were baptized, one of whom was Rev. 
Julius Kobner, a native of Denmark, a man of education and 




REV. JOHANN G. ONCKEN 



high ability who became the founder of Baptist work in Den- 
mark, and was for many years pastor of the church in Copen- 
hagen. In the spring of 1837, Mr. Oncken visited Berlin, 
and several were baptized, among whom was Rev. Georg W. 



2I 5 

Lehmann, who afterwards was pastor of the First Baptist 
Church in Berlin for more than forty years. The success of 
the Baptist movement early attracted the attention of the 
authorities of the Lutheran church and the public officials, and 
persecutions began. Mr. Oncken was imprisoned, and suffered 
the loss of his worldly goods. Remonstrances were made by 
the President of the United States and others, and legal per- 
secution ceased. But the same spirit continued among many 
of the clergy of the state church, and numerous petty persecu- 
tions have been visited on the Baptists of Germany even to 
the present time. 

The first meeting of the German Baptist Conference was 
held in Hamburg in January, 1849, representing about thirty- 
churches and 2,800 members. Within a few years the Baptist 
movement had extended to Russia, Denmark, Switzerland, 
Lithuania, Silesia, and Poland, and the work had become so 
strong that the question was raised whether American Baptists 
might not now withdraw their contributions, and leave the 
Baptists of Central Europe to self-support. But it was resolved 
rather to continue the work with greater force. Mr. Lehmann 
collected five thousand dollars in England, which, with the 
local collections, built twenty-one chapels where they were 
greatly needed. Twelve young men who had been instructed 
at Hamburg for seven months were ordained on one day, 
Sept. 12, 1859. I Q I ^^5 a colony of German Baptists was 
sent out to South Africa, which now has about 800 members 
in eleven churches ; and the same year Baptists exiled from. 
Russia settled in Turkey. Baptist work extended to Bulgaria. 
in 1866, and to Holland in 1869. In 1875, the government 
of Prussia recognized the existence of Baptist churches, and 
passed an act for their incorporation, and the Baptist move- 
ment has extended throughout all the countries of Central 
Europe, and is becoming year by year more important, influen- 
tial, and successful. 

The headquarters of the movement have continued to be at 
Hamburg, where is the publishing house, now under the charge 
of Dr. Phillip Bickel, where there is also a theological seminary 
in which pastors are trained for all parts of this vast field, 
.under the care of Rev. Joseph Lehmann and Rev. J. G. Fetzer. 
There are large churches in Berlin, and in many other of the 



214 



of the German Empire, as well as to all parts of Central Europe 
where German people are found. 

In 1836 fourteen were baptized, one of whom was Rev. 
Julius Kobner, a native of Denmark, a man of education and 



- 




REV. JOHANN G. ONCKEN 



high ability who became the founder of Baptist work in Den- 
mark, and was for many years pastor of the church in Copen- 
hagen. In the spring of 1837, Mr. Oncken visited Berlin, 
and several were baptized, among whom was Rev. Georg W. 



215 

Lehmann, who afterwards was pastor of the First Baptist 
Church in Berlin for more than forty years. The success of 
the Baptist movement early attracted the attention of the 
authorities of the Lutheran church and the public officials, and 
persecutions began. Mr. Oncken was imprisoned, and suffered 
the loss of his worldly goods. Remonstrances were made by 
the President of the United States and others, and legal per- 
secution ceased. But the same spirit continued among many 
of the clergy of the state church, and numerous petty persecu- 
tions have been visited on the Baptists of Germany even to 
the present time. 

The first meeting of the German Baptist Conference was 
held in Hamburg in January, 1849, representing about thirty 
churches and 2,800 members. Within a few years the Baptist 
movement had extended to Russia, Denmark, Switzerland, 
Lithuania, Silesia, and Poland, and the work had become so 
strong that the question was raised whether American Baptists 
might not now withdraw their contributions, and leave the 
Baptists of Central Europe to self-support. But it was resolved 
rather to continue the work with greater force. Mr. Lehmann 
collected five thousand dollars in England, which, with the 
local collections, built twenty-one chapels where they were 
greatly needed. Twelve young men who had been instructed 
at Hamburg for seven months were ordained on one day, 
Sept. 12, 1859. In 1865 a colony of German Baptists was 
sent out to South Africa, which now has about 800 members 
in eleven churches ; and the same year Baptists exiled from 
Russia settled in Turkey. Baptist work extended to Bulgaria, 
in 1866, and to Holland in 1869. In 1875, the government 
of Prussia recognized the existence of Baptist churches, and 
passed an act for their incorporation, and the Baptist move- 
ment has extended throughout all the countries of Central 
Europe, and is becoming year by year more important, influen- 
tial, and successful. 

The headquarters of the movement have continued to be at 
Hamburg, where is the publishing house, now under the charge 
of Dr. Phillip Bickel, where there is also a theological seminary 
in which pastors are trained for all parts of this vast field, 
.under the care of Rev. Joseph Lehmann and Rev. J. G. Fetzer. 
There are large churches in Berlin, and in many other of the 



2l6 

leading cities of the German states. In the German Empire, 
the work is now carried on with great freedom, and also in 
Hungary, Bulgaria, Switzerland, and Holland ; but in Austria 
there are still great obstacles in the way. As the law permits 
no large religious assemblies (aside from the congregations of 
the established churches), the only religious worship which is 
possible to the Baptists in Austria is as they may assemble in 
family worship, inviting a few friends; yet in spite of this 
obstacle, the work has largely extended and is growing. Like 
all the Baptist churches of the Continent of Europe, the 
German Baptist churches suffer severely by the emigration of 
the brightest and strongest of their young men to the United 
States, yet they show a large increase from year to year. The 
members cf these churches are almost entirely from the poorer 
classes of the people, but there is prevalent among them a 
great spirit of missionary activity. Their members are organ- 
ized for mission work to a much larger extent than prevails in 
the churches of this country. They have Young Men's and 
Young Women's Associations, which are formed, not simply for 
the purpose of social and religious life, but to carry on active 
work in the communities in which they live. These young 
men and women are trained to be active in tract distribution, 
and in Bible colportage. Seamen's Bethels and rest-houses 
are opened in many places, and the lay members of the 
churches do a great amount of personal work and house-to- 
house visitation. Sunday schools are also maintained in all 
churches, and more than twenty thousand scholars are found 
in the Sunday schools of the larger Union. 

As the membership of the German Baptist churches is 
largely from the poor, they are not able to do all that should 
be done in maintaining their feebler churches, and in extend- 
ing the movement to other needy portions of the German 
states. Some help is afforded to them from England through 
a committee, of which William Sears Oncken, a son of the 
founder of the mission, is a leading member. The chief out- 
side assistance which the German Baptists receive, however, 
comes from the American Baptist Missionary Union, which 
appropriates nearly ten thousand dollars a year to assist them 
in their work. This is placed in the hands of a committee 
which has its headquarters at Hamburg, and by this committee 



2lS 

is distributed in the wisest and most economical way to pro- 
mote the efficiency of the work. In all parts of Central 
Europe, the churches generally support their pastors, and the 
funds are used for the support of the evangelists and in Bible 
distribution, and also in assisting in the support of pastors and 
helpers in some of the more needy territories. A visit to any 
German Baptist church in the United States would readily 
illustrate the efficiency of the missionary work carried on 
among the Baptists in Germany. Not only the German 
Empire and all of Central Europe is benefited by this work, 
but in this country we are receiving much blessing by the 
presence of so many strong and helpful members in our 
German Baptist chuiohes who have been converted in the 
mother country, and have come here and identified themselves 
with our denominational interests. This is a work in which a 
small amount of money produces large results, and it com- 
mends itself on every side to the support of the Baptists of 
America, 

The statistics of the German Baptists in 1894 were, 149 
churches, with 29,422 members, 300 preachers, and 21,524 
scholars in Sunday schools. 

THE MISSION IN DENMARK 

BAPTIST mission work in Denmark is an outgrowth of that 
which began at Hamburg, in Germany, and was for many years 
identified with the German mission. One of the earliest 
converts of the German mission was Rev. Julius Kobner, a 
native of Copenhagen. After his baptism he visited Denmark 
and Holstein, and labored and preached the Gospel among 
the people with such success that a Baptist church was 
organized in Copenhagen in 1839. From this place the work 
spread into other towns and cities of Denmark. Much per- 
secution was encountered, but in 1842 there were 179 Baptists 
in Denmark, of whom 119 were in Copenhagen, the capital. 
The work continued with increasing prosperity, but was still 
identified, in all the reports of the Union, with the work in" 
Germany, until 1888, when at the request of the brethren in 
that country, the appropriations of the Union were separated 
from those of the German mission, and since that time the 



2 19 

mission in Denmark has been continued under the direction 
of a committee of Baptist brethren in that country. There 
were at that time about 2,300 Baptists in Denmark. The 
work has gone on with increasing success. In 1888 the 
number of baptisms amounted to more than ten per cent of 
the membership. 1889 was the best year of the mission, 249 
being baptized. The years since have been fruitful, and the 




REV. JULIUS KOEBNER 

church in Copenhagen has between six and seven hundred 
members. In 1894 there were reported in Denmark 70 
preachers, 25 churches, 3,165 members, of whom 239 were 
baptized in 1893. There were also 3,880 scholars in the 
Sunday schools, and the contributions of the Baptists in Den- 
mark amounted to $11,847.50. The Denmark mission is 
enjoying continually increasing prosperity, and the Danish 
Baptists are among the most aggressive, intelligent, and earnest 
of those of the same faith on the continent of Europe. 



2lS 

is distributed in the wisest and most economical way to pro- 
mote the efficiency of the work. In all parts of Central 
Europe, the churches generally support their pastors, and the 
funds are used for the support of the evangelists and in Bible 
distribution, and also in assisting in the support of pastors and 
helpers in some of the more needy territories. A visit to any 
German Baptist church in the United States would readily 
illustrate the efficiency of the missionary work carried on 
among the Baptists in Germany. Not only the German 
Empire and all of Central Europe is benefited by this work, 
but in this country we are receiving much blessing by the 
presence of so many strong and helpful members in our 
German Baptist chinches who have been converted in the 
mother country, and have come here and identified themselves 
with our denominational interests. This is a work in which a 
small amount of money produces large results, and it com- 
mends itself on every side to the support of the Baptists of 
America. 

The statistics of the German Baptists in 1894 were, 149 
churches, with 29,422 members, 300 preachers, and 21,524 
scholars in Sunday schools. 

THE MISSION IN DENMARK 

BAPTIST mission work in Denmark is an outgrowth of that 
which began at Hamburg, in Germany, and was for many years 
identified with the German mission. One of the earliest 
converts of the German mission was Rev. Julius Kobner, a 
native of Copenhagen. After his baptism he visited Denmark 
and Holstein, and labored and preached the Gospel among 
the people with such success that a Baptist church was 
organized in Copenhagen in 1839. From this place the work 
spread into other towns and cities of Denmark. Much per- 
secution was encountered, but in 1842 there were 179 Baptists 
in Denmark, of whom 119 were in Copenhagen, the capital. 
The work continued with increasing prosperity, but was still^ 
identified, in all the reports of the Union, with the work in 
Germany, until 1888, when at the request of the brethren in 
that country, the appropriations of the Uiion were separated 
from those of the German mission, and since that time the 



2IQ 

mission in Denmark has been continued under the direction 
of a committee of Baptist brethren in that country. There 
were at that time about 2,300 Baptists in Denmark. The 
work has gone on with increasing success. In 1888 the 
number of baptisms amounted to more than ten per cent of 
the membership. 1889 was the best year of the mission, 249 
being baptized. The years since have been fruitful, and the 




REV. JULIUS KOEBNER 

church in Copenhagen has between six and seven hundred 
members. In 1894 there were reported in Denmark 70 
preachers, 25 churches, 3,165 members, of whom 239 Avere 
baptized in 1893. There were also 3,880 scholars in the 
Sunday schools, and the contributions of the Baptists in Den- 
mark amounted to $11,847.50. The Denmark mission is 
enjoying continually increasing prosperity, and the Danish 
Baptists are among the most aggressive, intelligent, and earnest 
of those of the same faith on the continent of Europe. 



22O 



THE MISSION IN SWEDEN 

THE history of Protestantism in Sweden is a glorious record. 
The Swedes have always devoted themselves to their religion 
with the same ardor and impetuosity which has characterized 
them in war and in civil affairs, and the type of religion which 
has been developed in that country has partaken of the noble, 
free, and manly traits which are such prominent features of the 
Scandinavian character. When Christianity was introduced 
into Sweden, the people gave themselves to the new religion 
with the large and generous freedom that they had shown in ' 
the worship of Thor and Odin and the other deities of their 
ancient Valhalla. The same magnanimity of spirit has char- 
acterized the Swedes in all their relations to religion. In 
1593, the Lutheran church became the established church of 
Sweden, and thus early did the Swedes as a nation em oil 
themselves on the side of a free people and a pure gospel. 
The fact that the latter years -of the Lutheran church have 
been marked by formalism and sometimes by persecution 
does not detract from the grandeur of the devotion which was 
shown by the Swedish nation in giving itself so unreservedly 
to the new and rising cause of Protestantism. 

The same freedom and largeness of nature which was shown 
in the espousal of the Protestant cause can be traced in the 
rise of the dissenting movement in Sweden. It came in as a 
protest against the coldness and formalism of the established 
church ; and to the credit of the Swedish people, be it said, 
that the dissenters have never been subjected to those severe 
persecutions which have followed the seekers after truth in the 
more southern nations of Europe. Owing to the peculiar 
character of the laws regarding religion in Sweden, the dis- 
senters of all classes are still nominally members of the estab- 
lished church ; and while they have suffered many vexatious 
minor persecutions in different localities, yet, as a whole, at the 
present time they are allowed to carry on their worship and 
work without serious obstruction on the part of the state 
officials or the authorities of the state church. The dissenters, 
in Sweden, are chiefly divided among three bodies, the 
Baptist, the Free Church, and the Methodist. Of these, the 



221 



Baptists are by far the most numerous, and probably outnum- 
ber all the rest of the dissenting people in Sweden together. 

Baptist work in Sweden is the offspring of the Baptist 
movement in Germany, which was started by the honored 
J. G. Oncken in Hamburg. The chief agent in the founding of 
the Baptist mission in Sweden was Rev. Andreas Wiberg who 
was brought to Baptist views by the influence of Mr. Oncken 
and his companion, Mr. Kobner ; but the real origin of the 
Baptist mission in Sweden was at the Mariners' Church in New 
York City, where a young Swedish sailor, Mr. G. W. Shroeder, 
was converted. With a Mr. F. O. Nilsson, another Swedish 
sailor, also converted in New York and baptized by Mr. Oncken 
in Hamburg, in 1847, he began Baptist work in Sweden. The 
appearance of Mr. Shroeder on the platform, at the annual 
meeting of the Baptist Missionary Union at Philadelphia, in 
1892, was a most interesting feature. The First Baptist Church 
in Sweden was organized Sept. 21, 1848. The early Bap- 
tist laborers suffered considerable persecution ; Mr. Nilsson, 
having been ordained in Hamburg in 1849, was banished from 
Sweden in 1851 and came to the United States; but in 1851 
there was a church of fifty-eight members in Sweden, and in 
1852 that one church had become four. 

The prosperous beginning of the Baptist Mission was a 
promise and pledge of the great success with which it has been 
carried forward until the present time. Large annual acces- 
sions have marked its history, and a steady and rapid growth 
in all branches. In common with the other Baptist churches 
in various countries on the continent of Europe, the churches 
in Sweden have suffered much from the loss of many of their 
best and most valued members by emigration ; but the places 
made vacant have been continually replaced by others, and 
the mission has gone forward in a career of uninterrupted 
prosperity. In 1855, Mr. Wiberg was appointed to labor in 
Sweden by the American Baptist Publication Society, and the 
work was continued in the name of that society until 1865, 
when it was transferred to the American Baptist Missionary 
Union. 

One of the most influential factors in the strong and vigor- 
ous work of Baptists in Sweden has been the Bethel Theolog- 
ical Seminary at Stockholm, opened Oct. i, 1866, from which 



222 

have gone forth young preachers who have carried the pure 
gospel of the New Testament to all parts of the kingdom. 
Rev. Knut O. Broady has been president from the first. The 
seminary has always been characterized by a spirit of most 
ardent and active evangelism and has been the pride and joy 
of the Swedish Baptist churches. A building has been pro- 
vided, and through the efforts of a generous Swedish Baptist 




BETHEL SEMINARY, STOCKHOLM 

in Chicago, supplemented by the noble and self-sacrificing 
Baptists in Sweden, it will soon have a substantial and neces- 
sary endowment which will enable it to carry forward its grand 
work yet more effectively for the gospel of Christ. 

Baptist work in Sweden has received much aid from religious 
literature. At a time when public preaching was prohibited, 
Baptist tracts and papers could be circulated freely throughout 
the kingdom. The early connection of the mission with the 



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222 

have gone forth young preachers who have carried the pure 
gospel of the New Testament to all parts of the kingdom. 
Rev. Knut O. Broady has been president from the first. The 
seminary has always been characterized by a spirit of most 
ardent and active evangelism and has been the pride and joy 
of the Swedish Baptist churches. A building has been pro- 
vided, and through the efforts of a generous Swedish Baptist 




BETHEL SEMINARY, STOCKHOLM 

in Chicago, supplemented by the noble and self-sacrificing 
Baptists in Sweden, it will soon have a substantial and neces- 
sary endowment which will enable it to carry forward its grand 
work yet more effectively for the gospel of Christ. 

Baptist work in Sweden has received much aid from religious 
literature. At a time when public preaching was prohibited, 
Baptist tracts and papers could be circulated freely throughout 
the kingdom. The early connection of the mission with the 



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224 



Publication Society fostered this form of work. Mr. Wiberg 
started a paper called the Evangelist, in 1856. . In this 
same year also the Missionary Union of the Baptists in Swe- 
den was formed. It carries on both home and foreign mis- 
sions. The rapid progress of the work in Sweden has largely 
been under the direction of this Union, and missionaries are 
supported by it in China and on the Congo in Africa. 




BAPTIST CHAPEL. AT NORKOPINO, SWEDEN 

The Baptists in America have greatly profited from the 
mission in Sweden by. the 'reception of large numbers of 
active and. useful laborers who have come to our shores. 
These are found not only in the strong and vigorous Baptist 
churches scattered all over our country, but in the large num- 
ber of faithful and devoted members who have united with 
Baptist churches in multitudes of places where separate 



225 

churches for Swedish people do not exist. The connection 
between the Swedish Baptists in America and in Sweden is 
very close and tender. Those in this country contribute 
largely and generously for the support of Baptist missions in 
Sweden as well as all missionary work in our Baptist body. 
The same noble spirit which led Gustavus Adolphus and his 
army to give themselves for the salvation of Protestantism in 
Europe is still strong in the Swedes, for the progress of truth 
and for the advancement of the 'Kingdom of Christ throughout 
the world. Although they have grown to a large body, yet 
the Baptists in Sweden still need the aid of their brethren in 
this country in order to carry on their work in the most 
effective manner. The losses through emigration keep them 
from acquiring the strength which would be the natural reward 
of their earnest labors. The American Baptist Missionary 
Union contributes about $8,500 annually to assist the Baptist 
Mission in Sweden, and the claim of this mission upon the 
Scandinavian Baptists of this country, as well as upon Baptists 
as a whole, is strong, and the small amount of money which is 
invested produces large results for the glory of God and the 
triumph of His Kingdom. 



THE MISSION IN NORWAY 

BAPTIST work in Norway is also an offshoot of the German 
Baptists, who had a colporter laboring in that country in 1842. 
It was afterward for some time carried on with the assistance 
of the English Baptist Missionary Society, but owing to the 
pressure of their work among the heathen, the English 
Baptists withdrew from Norway several years ago. In 1868 
there were two hundred members in the few Baptist churches, 
one of which was at Tromsoe north of the Arctic Circle. 
Little outside assistance was received by the Baptists in Nor- 
way after the withdrawal of English Baptist funds, until in 
1890, when an application was made for assistance to the 
American Baptist Missionary Union. The request of the 
Baptist brethren in Norway was received with favor and a 
committee was organized, consisting of Baptists in Norway and 
in this country, to assist the Norwegians in carrying on work 



224 



Publication Society fostered this form of work. Mr. Wiberg 
started a paper called the Evangelist, in 1856. In this 
same year also the Missionary Union of the Baptists in Swe- 
den was formed. It carries on both home and foreign mis- 
sions. The rapid progress of the work in Sweden has largely 
been under the direction of this Union, and missionaries are 
supported by it in China and on the Congo in Africa. 



:* ~,S-fV - ,. - ' ^ 
&?!; tM^si -j .- * - V ' 

"-%^-?^" 'l^J'-fc* '" 

i-.f^SS^'V "' 
i r? . * 4 ^. ''5r3*>'"~' x i 



5. < 




BAPTIST CHAPEL. AT NORKOPINO, SWEDEN 

The Baptists in America have greatly profited from the 
mission in Sweden by the reception of large numbers of 
active and iiseful laborers who have come to our shores. 
These are found not only in the strong and vigorous Baptist 
churches scattered all over our country, but in the large num- 
ber of faithful and devoted members who have united with 
Baptist churches in multitudes of places where separate 



225 

churches for Swedish people do not exist. The connection 
between the Swedish Baptists in America and in Sweden is 
very close and tender. Those in this country contribute 
largely and generously for the support of Baptist missions in 
Sweden as well as all missionary work in our Baptist body. 
The same noble spirit which led Gustavus Adolphus and his 
army to give themselves for the salvation of Protestantism in 
Europe is still strong in the Swedes, for the progress of truth 
and for the advancement of the 'Kingdom of Christ throughout 
the world. Although they have grown to a large body, yet 
the Baptists in Sweden still need the aid of their brethren in 
this country in order to carry on their work in the most 
effective manner. The losses through emigration keep them 
from acquiring the strength which would be the natural reward 
of their earnest labors. The American Baptist Missionary 
Union contributes about $8,500 annually to assist the Baptist 
Mission in Sweden, and the claim of this mission upon the 
Scandinavian Baptists of this country, as well as upon Baptists 
as a whole, is strong, and the small amount of money which is 
invested produces large results for the glory of God and the 
triumph of His Kingdom. 



THE MISSION IN NORWAY 

BAPTIST work in Norway is also an offshoot of the German 
Baptists, who had a colporter laboring in that country in 1842. 
It was afterward for some time carried on with the assistance 
of the English Baptist Missionary Society, but owing to the 
pressure of their work among the heathen, the English 
Baptists withdrew from Norway several years ago. In 1868 
there were two hundred members in the few Baptist churches, 
one of which was at Tromsoe north of the Arctic Circle. 
Little outside assistance was received by the Baptists in Nor- 
way after the withdrawal of English Baptist funds, until in 
1890, when an application was made for assistance to the 
American Baptist Missionary Union. The request of the 
Baptist brethren in Norway was received with favor and a 
committee was organized, consisting of Baptists in Norway and 
in this country, to assist the Norwegians in carrying on work 



22(5 

in their country. The appropriations are not large, but the 
small assistance which is afforded enables the committee to 
maintain a considerable number of Baptist laborers among the 
weak churches in Norway. The work in Christiania under 
Rev. E. S. Sundt has been especially promising, and active 
labors are maintained all through Norway from the north to 
the south. In 1894 the statistics of the Baptist work were 16 
preachers and pastors, 27 churches, with 1,961 members, of 
whom 280 were baptized in 1893. 

THE MISSION IN FINLAND 

BAPTIST work in Finland was a direct offshoot of that in 
Sweden, Rev. Eric Jansson, the founder of Baptist work in 
Finland, having first labored in connection with the Swedish 
Baptist mission. The first to be baptized in Finland were a 
brother and sister named Heikel, whose father was professor 
in the University of Abo. They received the ordinance July 1 4, 
1868, on the shores of the Baltic Sea. The mission was for 
several years reported in connection with the Swedish mission, 
but with its growing importance it has been given a separate 
place in the reports and appropriations of the Union. The 
work in this extreme northern border appears to be one of 
much promise. In 1892 the Baptists of Finland obtained 
lawful rights to exist as a Protestant community. This has 
greatly encouraged them and enabled them to extend their 
work. A school for the training of preachers has been started, 
a paper is published, and the Finnish Baptists are greatly 
in earnest in their work. The population of Finland num- 
bers 2,412,135, and the people have many admirable traits. 
The reports of the mission for 1893 give 10 preachers, 21 
churches, and 1,329 members, of whom 152 were baptized 
during that year. 

THE MISSION IN RUSSIA 

BAPTIST work in Russia, like that in Sweden and Denmark, 
and all the countries of Central Europe, is an outgrowth of 
the Baptist movement, which began with the baptism of J. G. 
Oncken and six others at Hamburg, April 22, 1834. In 1851, 



227 

some efforts by German Baptists were made on behalf of their 
fellow countrymen who had settled in the south of Russia, 
but such were the difficulties of the work, that the first Baptist 
house of worship in Russia was not built until 1872. The 
work, however, was entirely identified with the German mission 
in the reports to the Union, until 1888, when, owing to the 
regulations of the Russian government, forbidding religious 
work to be carried on in that country in the name of foreign 
organizations, the Baptists in Russia withdrew from the Ger- 
man Baptist Union, and formed a " Bund " of their own, and 
the appropriations of the Union for mission work in Russia, 
have since been separated from those of the German mission. 
At that time, there were in Russia 34 churches, with 44 pas- 
tors and evangelists, 12,371 church members, and 82 Sunday 
schools; 850 were baptized in 1887. 

One of the most painful features, in connection with Bap- 
tist work in Russia, has been the severe persecutions which 
the people of that name have been compelled to endure 
in common with all dissenters from the Greek Catholic 
church. These persecutions proceed chiefly from the priests 
of the Greek church, who, since that is the established or 
national church, make use of the officers of the government 
to carry out their bigoted and cruel plans for the suppression 
of all religious worship and opinions not in accordance with 
the views of their church. Exile and imprisonment are fre- 
quently resorted to. One of the first Baptists to suffer from 
this persecution was Rev. Mr. Pawloff, who was banished from 
his home in Wladikawkas to Orenburg in Siberia. During the 
last few years, many others have been banished. Whole 
churches have been arrested, clad in prison garments, and 
amid great suffering compelled to travel as prisoners with 
loathsome and evil companions into the Transcaucasian country 
or into Siberia. Many Baptists are now found in this sterile 
and desolate land. Some have even been driven to its far 
borders ; and a few of the brethren of our own faith are at 
this very time dragging out a miserable existence amid the 
degraded and ignorant savages of northern Siberia. In one 
instance, an entire Baptist church in the Baltic provinces 
decided to emigrate to South America. All sold their property 
and closed up their business affairs, and the richer helping the 



228 

poorer, they left their dearly loved homes to find a place in a 
more hospitable land where they could worship God according 
to the dictates of their own consciences. The scenes of their 
departure from their home were exceedingly affecting, and as 
they sailed away they sang hymns to God, while the tears 
were streaming down their faces. They are now in South 
America and have formed two churches, which have received 
much countenance and help from the missionaries of the 
Southern Baptist Board in Brazil. 

One of the severest trials which the Baptists of Russia are 
compelled to suffer is the separation from their children. By 
a law made a few years ago the officials and priests are per- 
mitted to take from their parents children of dissenting families 
who refuse to have them baptized into the state church. The 
children thus torn away from their parents are placed with 
Greek Catholic families or in nunneries, to be brought up in 
that faith. No words can express the grief and suffering which 
have thus been entailed upon the Baptists of Russia. Multi- 
tudes of families have been rent asunder and entirely broken 
up, the children placed in the care of those committed to the 
national church, and oftentimes the parents exiled to Siberia 
or banished to the central states of Europe. The condition of 
the Baptists in Russia calls for the deepest sympathy of all who 
are interested in the pure truths of the Gospel of Christ. 

Notwithstanding these severe persecutions the work has con- 
tinued to advance with a large prosperity. While the church 
in St. Petersburg, founded in 1875, has not grown to any very 
great degree, yet in the Baltic provinces and in the south of 
Russia the work has gone on, even amid famine and persecu- 
tion, and in 1894 there were reported in connection with the 
Baptist churches in Russia 90 preachers, 67 churches, 17,041 
members, of whom 1,067 were baptized in 1893, and out of their 
poverty they contributed $[7,690.20, or about one dollar each 
for the support of the Gospel. All the outside aid which the 
Russian Baptists receive comes from the American Baptist 
Missionary Union, which appropriates less than $3,000. This 
money, however, goes very far to assist them in carrying on 
their work amid their great trials and persecutions. 



22Q 



CONCLUSION 

THERE are two features which especially distinguish the work 
of the American Baptist Missionary Union. First, its high 
and holy work, in imitation of the mission of Christ, preach- 
ing the gospel to those who cannot hear the way of salvation 
except as missionaries are sent to them ; second, the uniting 
under one society all the various forms of Christian work 
abroad, which are carried on in America by many different 
organizations. In the vast and manifold work of the Union, 
every form of Christian activity is represented, and it calls for 
the sympathies and support of all classes, from the oldest 
Christian to the youngest child. The missionaries of the 
Union are laboring in twenty countries among people speak- 
ing more than thirty different languages, and representing 
about 1,000,000,000 of people, or two thirds the population of 
the earth. In this immense work there are engaged about 
500 missionaries from America, and 2,000 native missionaries, 
evangelists, pastors, teachers, colporters, and Bible women. 
There are more than 1,600 churches in the missions, with 
nearly 200,000 members, or one quarter as many as in all the 
Baptist churches of the Northern States. There are 100,000 
scholars in the mission Sunday schools, and the baptisms 
average from 10,000 to 12,000 every year. To support this 
vast and manifold work, at least $700,000 are needed yearly, 
and the amount should be increased to provide for the rapidly 
growing work. The future of the missions is of magnificent 
promise. 

Among the five great missionary movements, which have 
been termed miracles of missions and which have blessed the 
missionary operations of the Christian world, two are found 
among the missions of this one society ; that is, the Karen 
Mission, in Burma, and the Telugu Mission, in India. There 
is occasion for great thanksgiving and rejoicing, but none for 
pride or exaltation, since it is not because of the amount of 
money expended nor the laborers sent forth that this success 
has been achieved, but it is purely a blessing sent to us from 
the Lord. American Baptists, above all people on earth, have 
great reason, both because of the establishment and the sue- 



cess of their missions, to rejoice in the Lord, and to press 
forward with greater zeal" and devotion in the work which has 
brought them so much blessing and honor. 

The reasons for the remarkable prosperity which has at- 
tended American Baptist missions have often been sought 
after, and this review of the work of the American Baptist 
Missionary Union may be fitly closed with a few suggestions 
as to the reasons for its great success. 

An easily apparent reason why Baptist preaching should be 
received by Oriental people is because of the relation in which 
Baptists stand to the Bible. It must always be remembered 
that the Bible is an Asiatic book. Christianity started in Asia, 
and the language of the Scriptures in its phraseology and in 
its figures is Oriental ; consequently, that which is based most 
simply and purely upon the Bible will come into closest touch 
with Oriental peoples. This is the Baptist position. The 
Bible is the sole standard of faith and practice. In present- 
ing the religion of Jesus Christ to the people of the East, the 
Baptist missionaries simply bring to them the Bible and say, 
"This is our book; what this teaches, do." They have noth- 
ing to explain away, and a multitude of illustrations which 
could be drawn from all our missions in Burma and India, in 
China and Japan, show that this gives the Baptist missionary 
a vast advantage, and constitutes a considerable element in 
the rapid acceptance which Christianity, as presented by our 
missionaries, has received by so many thousands of the people 
of the East. 

Another clear reason for the great prosperity of our Baptist 
missions to the heathen is the methods which have marked 
the policy of the society from the first. The sagacity and 
piety of our fathers, guided by divine wisdom, from the begin- 
ning decreed that the missions of the Union should be first 
and chiefly evangelistic. The " preaching of the Gospel " is 
declared to be the great business of the missionary. The 
Union has not despised nor neglected educational, medical, 
and other missionary methods in their proper sphere, but has 
always held them to be strictly subordinate to the preaching 
of the Word. 

Joined with this was another policy, enforced not only by 
the judgment of the founders of the society, but by the lack 



231 

of funds to send out a large number of missionaries, namely, 
the development of the native element in the mission work. 
Where other societies have placed two missionaries, with but 
few native helpers, the Missionary Union has had but one, but 
has surrounded him with as many efficient native assistants as 
could be obtained and usefully employed. The missionaries 
have largely been directors of the mission work of others. 
A missionary from home can seldom become a fluent and 
eminently successful preacher of the Gospel in an Eastern 
tongue, but as a teacher and a director of native preachers he 
can multiply himself many times over, and by directing and 
inspiring these in their labors, he can not only reach a much 
larger number of people, but reach them in a very much more 
effective manner than if he confined his own labors to preach- 
ing to such people as he is able to reach in such a manner as 
he could present the truth. A. comparison of the statistics of 
the Missionary Union with those of other societies in former 
years will illustrate the importance of this statement. The 
Missionary Union uniformly reported a number of native help- 
ers, including all classes, ordained and unordained, from four 
to eight times larger than the number of missionaries sent 
out from this country ; while in the records of other societies, 
the number of native helpers was often found to be below that 
of the number of missionaries sent from home. This is still 
the case with a few societies but the influence of the great 
success of the missions of the Union is seen in the fact that all 
the larger missionary societies of the world have now greatly 
increased their force of native helpers in proportion to the 
number of missionaries sent abroad. In a few instances the 
proportion has more than quadrupled within the last five 
years. 

But the special thought suggested by this review of Baptist 
missions of the Union is the most remarkable and inspir- 
ing providential leading which has characterized the mis- 
sionary work of the society. It is plain that this also may 
be taken into the account as one of the elements which has 
led to the great success of our missionary work. It is a re- 
markable fact that in no single instance in the selection of 
the missionary fields has the original impulse proceeded from 
the management of the society at home. Every field has been 



2.32. 

presented to the Union by influences from abroad of one sort 
or another, which in the hand of the Lord have commended 
the different fields to the choice of the home management. 
Is not this a reason for believing that God has specially hon- 
ored and blessed the work which has been carried on in such 
trustful obedience to the indications of his divine leading? 
It is not wrong in itself for a people to plan and send forth 
missionaries to any field which they may choose to select, but 
it has been the peculiar happiness of American Baptists, work- 
ing through the Missionary Union, always to follow the guiding 
hand of the Lord in the selection of their missionary fields. 

They were led to Burma by the conversion of Adoniram 
Judson and his wife to Baptist views. They entered Assam 
by the invitation of the Chief Commissioner of the Province. 
The Telugu Mission was established through the visit of an 
English missionary to the home of his American wife. Mis- 
sions to the "Chinese were begun by the noble act of the mis- 
sionaries in Burma, in voluntarily sending one of their own 
number to open Christian work among this great people. 
The founding of Baptist missions in Japan was the work of a 
sailor, who first landed on the shores of that secluded country 
with Commodore Perry, on his first expedition. The Congo 
Mission came to American Baptists by kindness shown to two 
young English evangelists by one who was afterward the sec- 
retary of . our foreign missions ; while all the great and pros- 
perous missions of Europe can be traced to the midnight 
baptism of Mr. Oncken and his companions in the river Elbe, 
near Hamburg. In every instance God has gone before, like 
a pillar of cloud by day and a pillar of fire by night, to indi- 
cate the place where the missionary feet of American Baptists 
should rest ; and he has wondrously blessed them in the fields 
which he has selected for their labors. To him be all the 
glory ! " Not unto us, O Lord, not unto us, but unto thy name 
give glory, for thy mercy and for thy truth's sake." 



233 



PRESIDENTS OF THE GENERAL CONVENTION AND 
MISSIONARY UNION 

1814-20. Rev. RICHARD FURMAN, D. D., South Carolina. 

1820-31. Rev. ROBERT B. SEMPLF, D.D., Virginia. 

1832-41. Rev. SPENCER H. CONE, D.D., New York. 

1841-44. Rev. WILLIAM B. JOHNSON, D.D., South Carolina. 

1844-46. Rev. FRANCIS WAYLAND, D.D., Rhode Island. 

1846-47. Rev. DANIEL SHARP, D. D., Massachusetts. 

1847-61. Hon. GEORGE N. BRIGGS, LL.D., Massachusetts. 

1862-67. Hon - IR A HARRIS, LL. D., New York. 

1867-69. Rev. ALEXIS CASWELL, D.D., LL.D., Rhode Island. 

1869-72. MARTIN B. ANDERSON, LL.D., New York. 

1872-74. Rev. HENRY G. WESTON, D.D., Pennsylvania. 

1874-77. Rev. BARNAS SEARS, D.D., Virginia. 

1877-80. Rev. E. G. ROBINSON, D. D., Rhode Island. 

1880-84. Rev. GEORGE DANA BOARDMAN, D. D., Pennsylvania. 

1884-85. Hon. J. WARREN MERRILL, Massachusetts. 

1885-87. Rev. EDWARD- JUDSON, D. D., New York. 

1887-89. Hon. GEORGE A. PILLSBURY, Minnesota. 

1889-92. Rev. GEORGE W. NORTHRUP, D. D., LL. D., Illinois. 

1892-95. Rev. AUGUSTUS H. STRONG, D. D., LL. D., New York. 

1895- . Rev. HENRY F. COLBY, D. D., Ohio. 

HONORARY SECRETARY OF THE MISSIONARY UNION 

1891-97. Rev. JOHN N. MURDOCH, D. D., LL. D. 

RECORDING SECRETARIES OF THE CONVENTION 

AND UNION 

1814-17. Rev. THOMAS BALDWIN, D. D., Massachusetts. 

1817-23. Rev. DANIEL SHARP, D. D., Massachusetts. 

1823-26. ENOCH REYNOLDS, Esq., District of Columbia. 

1826-41. Rev. HOWARD MALCOM, D.D., Massachusetts. 

1841-44. Rev. RUFUS BABCOCK, D.D., New York. 

1844-47. Rev. JAMES B. TAYLOR, Virginia. 

1847-60. Rev. WILLIAM H. SHAILER, D.D., Massachusetts. 

1860-65. Rev. O. S. STEARNS, D. D., Massachusetts. 

1865-76. Rev. GEORGE W. BOSWORTH, D.D., Massachusetts. 

1876- . Rev. HENRY S. BURRAGE, D. D., Maine. 



234 



CORRESPONDING SECRETARIES OF THE CONVENTION 
AND THE UNION 

1814-26. Rev. WILLIAM STAUGHTON, D. D. 

1826-43. Rev. Lucius BOLLES, D. D. 

.1838-56. Rev. SOLOMON PECK, D. D. 

1841-45. Rev. ROBERT E. PATTISON, D.D. 

1846-55. Rev. EDWARD BRIGHT, D. D. 

1855-73. Rev. JONAH G. WARREN, D. D. 

1866-91. Rev. JOHN N. MURDOCH, D. D., LL. D. 

1873-76. Rev. GEORGE W. GARDNER, D.D. 

1884-86. Rev. ALBERT G. LAWSON, D.D. 

1887-90. Rev. WILLIAM ASHMORE, D. D. 

1890- . Rev. HENRY C. MABIE, D. D. 

1892- . Rev. SAMUEL W. DUNCAN, D. D. 

1892-93. Rev. EDMUND F. MERRIAM. 

ASSISTANT CORRESPONDING SECRETARIES - 

1824-26. Rev. Lucius BOLLES, D. D. 

1836-38. Rev. SOLOMON PECK, D. D. 

1838-40. Rev. HOWARD MALCOM, D. D. 

1863-66. Rev. JOHN N. MURDOCK, D. D. 

TREASURERS OF THE CONVENTION AND THE 

UNION 

1814-23. JOHN CAULDWELL, Esq, 

1823-24. THOMAS STOKES, Esq. 

1824-46. Hon. HEMAN LINCOLN. 

1847-55. RICHARD E EDDY, Esq. 

1855-64. Hon. NEHEMIAH BOYNTON. 

1864-83. FREEMAN A. SMITH, Esq. 

1883- . E. P. COLEMAN, Esq. 

ASSISTANT TREASURERS 

1835-41. LEVI FARWELL, Esq. 
1846-47. RICHARD E. EDDY, Esq. 
1855-64. FREEMAN A. SMITH, Esq. 



235 



LIST OF BOOKS ON AMERICAN BAPTIST MISSIONS 

History of American Baptist Missions (to 1849). Gammell. (Out of 
print.) 

Missionary Sketches. Smith. American Baptist Missionary Union, Boston. 

$1.25. 

The Story of Baptist Missions. Hervey. Barrs, St. Louis. $3.00. 
Our Gold Mine. Chaplin. American Baptist Missionary Union. Boston. 

$1.25. 
The Telugu Mission. Downie. American Baptist Publication Society, 

Philadelphia. $1.00. 
Self-Su -port. The Bassein-Karen Mission. Carpenter. American Baptist 

Publication Society, Philadelphia. $1.50. 
The Karen Mission in Bassein. Brockett. $1.00. 
Foreign Missions of the Southern Baptist Convention. Tupper. Baptist 

Mission Board, Richmond. $3.50. 
A Century of Baptist Foreign Missions. Titterington. American Baptist 

Publication Society. 31.25. 
Travels in Southeastern Asia. Malcom. American Baptist Publication 

Society. $1.50. 
Ocean Sketches of Life in Burma. Ingalls. American Baptist Publication 

Society. 85 cents. 

In Brightest Asia. Mabie. American Baptist Missionary Union. $1.25. 
Adoniram Judson. Judson. Randolph, New York. $2.00. 
Ann Hasseltine Judson. Knowles. American Baptist Publication Society. 

$1.00. 

The Three Mrs. Judsons. Stuart. Lee and Shepard. $1.25. 
A Good Fight. Life of George Dana Boardman. King. Lothrop. $1.25. 
Twenty-six Years in Burma. Life of Joseph G. Binney. Binney. Ameri- 
can Baptist Publication Society. $1.25. 
The Vintons and the Karens. Luther. American Baptist Publication 

Society. $1.00. 

Sarah D. Comstock. American Baptist Publication Society. 65 cents. 
Theodosia Dean. American Baptist Publication Society. $1.00. 
Cephas Bennett. Ranney. Silver. Burdett & Co., Boston. $1.00. 
Nathan Brown. Hubbard Brothers. Philadelphia. (Out of print.) 
A Half Century in Burma. Sketcn of Rev. Edward A. Stevens, D. D. 

Stevens. American Baptist Publication Society. 
A Consecrated Life. (Edwin D. Kelley.) Kelley. Lothrop. 
The Story of a Working Man's Life. (Autobiography of Francis Mason.) 

(Out of print.) 
Missionary Memorials. W. N. Wyeth, Philadelphia. 75 cents each. 



INDEX. 



Abbott, E. L., 62, 06, 117. 

Adams, Joseph S., 150. 

Allan, Mrs., 176. 

American Baptist Missionary Union, 

Constitution, 22, 25. 
Amherst, 40. 

Anniversaries, Baptist National, IS. 
Armstrong, W. F., !)4. 
Arthur, J. H., 171. 
Ashmore, William, 17, 144, 14r>. 
Ashmore, William, Jr., 148. 
Ava, 39. 

Baldwin, Thomas, 14. 
Baptist Missionaiy Magazine, -2"). 
Barchet, S. P., 154. 
Barker, Cyrus, 105. 
Bennett, A. A., 171, 173. 
Bennett, Cephas, 41, 50, 53, 60. 
Binney, Joseph G., 63, 70, 74. 
Bixby, Moses H., 82. 
Boardman, George Dana, 40, (id. 
Bolles, Lucius, 14, 15. 
Boynton, Nehemiah, 17. 
Brand, J. C., 174. 
Brayton, D. L., 76. 
Bright, Edward, 15, US, 192. 
Broholm, J. E., 19G. 
Bronson, Miles, 103, 106. 
Brown, Nathan, 102, 105, 10(i, 170. 
Browne, Miss H. M., 172. 
Bunker, Alonzo, 94. 
Burdette, C. E., 109. 
Bushell, Walter, 76. 

Campbell, George, 152. 
Carlin, J. W., 148. 
Carpenter, C. H., 73, 74, 174, 
Carson, A. E., 88. 
Cauldwell, John, 17. 
Chase, Iran, 202. 
Clark, E. W., 105, 107, 108. 
Clark, Joseph, 190. 
Clement. E. W., 174. 
Clough, John E., 122, 127. 
Cochrane, W. W., 87. 
Coleman, ElishaP.,17. 
Column, James, 37. 
Congo Pentecost, The, 193. 
Cravrley, P. D., 95. 
Cretin, "J. B., 203. 
Cross, E. B.,64. 
dishing, Josiah N.. 52, 83, !)0. 
Gushing, Mrs., 83, 84. 
Cutter, O. T., 42, 102. 



Dauhle, Mrs., 106. 
Dawson, J., 40, 49. 
Day, Samuel S., 117. 
Dean, William, 144. 
Hearing, J. L., 173. 
Deputation, The, 48, 68. 
Devan, T. T., 203. 
Doyen, J. T., 170. 
Duncan, Samuel W., 17. 

Eddy, Richard E., 17. 

English Baptist Missionary Society, 13. 

Eveleth, F. H., 76. 

Fielde, Miss A. M., 145, 147. 
Financial Condition, 27. 
Finch, C. H., 156. 
Finch, J. A., 197. 
Fisher, C- H. D., 173. 
Foster, John M., 148. 
Freiday, J. A., 84. 

Gage, Miss A. R., 83. 

Gardner, George W., "Ji. 

Geis, G. J., 91. 

General Missionary Convention, S, 10, 

25. 

Gleichman, F. C., 197. 
Goble, Jonathan, 170. 
Goddard, Josiah, 144, 152. 
Goddard, J. R., 154. 
Gordon, A. J., 192, 197. 
Granger, James N., 48, (i8. 
Grant, J. S., 154. 
Gray, W. F., 156. 
Grigg, Ernest, 89. 
Griggs, W. C., 87. 
Guinness, H. Grattnn, 185, 188. 
Gurney, A. K., 105, 108. 

ITamblen, S. W., 171. 
Hanson, Ola, 91. 
Hartsock, C. G., 197. 
Harwood, G. S., 197. 
Haswell, James M., 40, 94. 
Haswell, Miss S. E., 51. . 
Henderson, A. II., 86. 
" llenry Reed," Steamer, 187. 
Hoste, T. H., 196. 
Hough, George II., 36. 
Howard, H., 46. 

Income, Growth of, 2i. 
Ingalls, Mrs. M. B., 50. 
Ingham, C. E., 190, 196. 



(237) 



Jenkins, H., 154. 

Jewett, Lyman, 120. 

Johnson, J. W., 145. 

Jones, E. H., 171. 

Jones, John Taylor, 14-2. 

Jones, R. D., 196. 

Judson, A do niram, 12, 35, 40, 9:5. 

Judson, Ann Hasseltine, 1-2, 35. 

Judson, Emily C., 45. 

Judson, Sarah B., 44. 

Karen Jubilee at Bassein, 74. 
Kelley, J. B., 84. 
Kelley, Mrs. J. B., 93. 
Kidder, Miss A. H., 174. 
Kiucaid, Eugenio. 4-2, 40, 49, ft?. 
King, C. D., 111. 
" Kingdom, The," 25. 
Kirkpatrick, M. B., 85. 
Knapp, W. I., 208. 
Kiiowlton, M. J., 154. 

Lawson, Albert G., 17. 
Lepoids, Mr., 203. 
Lincoln. Heman, 17. 
" Lone Star, The," 118. 
Lord, E. C., 152. 
Lund, K., 209. 
Lyon, A. J., 84, 92. 

Mabie, Henry C., 17. 

MacGowan, D. J., 152. 

Malcolm, Howard, 42, 117. 

Marin, M. C., 210. 

Mason, Francis, 60, 05, 00, 70, 73, 88. 

Mason, M. C., 105, 107. 

McCall, Adam, 18(i. 

McKibben, W. K., 150. 

Mead, Miss L., 172. 

Merriam, Edmund F., 17. 

Mix, B. J., 84. 

Moore, P. H., 105. 

Murdock, John N., 15, 188. 

Neighbor, R. E., 107. 

Oncken, J. G., 213. 
Oungpenla, 39. 

Packer, John, 74. 
Partridge, S. B., 145, 147. 
Pattison, Robert E., 15. 
Peck, Solomon, 15, 48, 08. 
Petrick, C. E., 111. 
Phillips, E. G., 105, 107. 
Phinney, Frank D., 53. 
Poate, T. P., 171. 
Prayer-Meeting Hill, 120. 
Price, Dr. J. D., 38. 
Probert, Herbert, 192. 

Rannev, T. S., 40. 
Rhees.'H. H., 171, 172. 



Rice, Luther, 12, 35. 
Richards, Henry, ISO, 190, 193. 
Riveiiburg, S. W., 105. 
Roberts, I. J., 158. 
Roberts, W. H., 54, 84, 91. ~ 
Rockwood, Miss M. A ., 84. 
Rose, A. T., 52, 82. 
Rostan, J. C., 202. 

Saillens, Ruben, 204. 

Sakellarios, D. K., -212. 

Sands, Miss Clara A., 174. 

Scott, E. P., 107. 

Scott, Mrs. A. K., 107. 

Scott, J. H., 172. 

Sears, Barnas, 213. 

Sheldon, D. N., 202. 

Shuck, J..L., 140, 158. 

Simons, Thomas, 40. 

Sims, A., 190, 192. 

Smith, D. A. W., 03, 73, 74. 

Smith; Freeman A., 17. 

Smith, Samuel F., 118. 

Southern Baptist Convention, 20. 

Spiritual Results, 30. 

Staughton, William, 14, 15. 

Stevens, Edward A., 44, 40. 

Stevens, E. O., 88, &3, 94. 

Stilson, L., 40. 

Stoddard, I. J., 105, 100, 107. 

Stokes, Thomas, 17. 

Sutton, Amos, 117. 

Telford, James, 180. . 
Telugu Pentecost, The, 124. 
Thomas, B. C., 09, 73. 
Thomas, Mrs. C. B., 88. 
Thomas, W. F., 53, 70, 88. 
Thomson, R. A., 170. 
Tolman, C. F., 106. 
Tremont Temple, Boston, 23. 
Triennial Meetings, 17. 

Upcraft, W. M., 155. 

Van Meter, H. L., 68. 
Vincent, Philemon, 205. 
Vinton, J. B., 73. 
Vinton, J. H., 01, 06, 07. 

Wade, Jonathan, 39, 46, 61, 06, 70. 
Ward, William, 108. 
Warner, George, 155. 
Warren, Jonah G., 15, 120. 
Watson, Miss Isabella, 71. 
Webster, David, 76. 
Wheelock, Edward, 37. 
Whiting, S. M., 105. 
Whitman, G. E., 15-2. 
Willard, Erastus, 202. 
Willmarth, Isaac, 202. 
Witter, W. E., 111. 
Woman's Societies, 20. 
Wynd, William, 172. - 






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THE UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO